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Full text of "The Australian race : its origin, languages, customs, place of landing in Australia and the routes by which it spread itself over the continent"

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THE AFSTEALIAN EACE: 

ITS ORIGIN, LANGUAGES, 

CUSTOMS, 
PLACE OF LANDING IN AUSTRALIA, 

AND 

THE ROUTES BY WHICH IT SPREAD ITSELF OVER 
THAT CONTINENT. 



ED^VARD M. OURR, 

Author of "Pure Saddle Horses" and " BecoUections of Squatting im Victoria." 



IN POUR VOLUMES. 



VOLUME III. 



MELBOUENE : JOHN EEBRES, GOVERNMENT PKINTEK. 
LONDON : TEiJBNEE AND CO., LUDQATE HILL. 

X&&7. 









'^l&f- 







CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. 



BOOK THE TENTH. 



So. 

Prefatory Remarks - 

136. From Port Denison to Cape Glou- 

cester - - 

137. Tower Hill and Cornish Creeks 

138. Upper Thomson .... 

139. Head of Diamantina 

140. Diamantina River, Middleton Creek 

141. Western River . - . - 

142. Main Range between Belyando and 

Cape Rivers . - . - 

143. Belyando - - - - 

144. Logan Creek, Lower Suttor, and 

Lower Mistake Creek 

145. Fort Cooper - - - - - 

146. Scrubby Creek . - - . 

147. PortMackay 

148. Broad Sound, Yaamba, Mary- 

borough, St. Lawrence 

149. Rockhampton and Gracemere - 

150. Eastern Slopes of Expedition Range, 

Lower Dawson, Upper Fitzroy, 
Mackenzie, and Isaacs 

151. Peak and Logan Downs - 



B. 8km - 
P. L. Dalhunty 
B. Ohristison 
M. Curr 
E. Ourr 
J. Haines 

J. MacGlashan 
jj. Muirhead 1 

I Charles Lowe > 



W. O. Hodghmson 

E. Curr 

\G. F. Bridgeman \ 
^H. Bucas ' 



F. Mulhr 
T. Archer 
[ P. Mcintosh 
' W. D. Coohe 



C. O. Ba/rthtlemy I 
f 8. Wilson ) 



152. 
153. 

154. Blackall, Barcoo 



155. 



T. Murray 
Alice River - - - - - J. Ahern 
Barcoo, 40 miles west of Blackall - J. Ahem 

L. Dudley 
8. Williams 
T. H. Hyde 
Barcoo, Tambo, Mount Enniskillen, ) H. L. Bell 
and Ravensbourne Creek - -^F.L. Dalhunty 

Cromhie 



iJ.. 

It. 

CT. 

•r- 
■r- 



PAGE 

3 

4 
8 
10 
12 
14 
16 

18 
26 

36 
40 
42 

44 

52 

54 

58 



64 

70 

72 

76 



78 



IV CONTENTS. 

BOOK THE TENTH— contimied. 

No. PAOE 

156. Nogoa fT.Middleton ) . 

I E. Irving Noble > 

157. Head of the Comet - - - T. Josephson - - - 96 

158. Brown River F. J. Murray - - 100 



90 



159. Dawson and Burnett Rivers - - K" <''Co«™»' I . 102 

1 E. Ounningham > 

160. Keppel Bay, Calliope, Curtis Island Anonymous - ■ - 114 



BOOK THE ELEVENTH. 

Prefatory Remarks 119 

iOommmissioner of i 
D /• D • J, f " 121 

Fohce, Bruoane ) 

162. Bustard Bay, Rbdd's Bay, Many j Commissioner of \ 

Peak Range - - - - ( Police, Brisbane ] 

163. Bafle Creek Anonymous - - - 128 

/ W. Ridley \ 

164. North side of Moreton Bay, Mary- \ y^^ j^^.^^^. / 

borough, between Brisbane and K^^^p;^^^^^^ ( _ ^g^ 
Gympie, Great Sandy or Fraser's ^ Westaway 

>• W. Landsborough ' 

165. Upper Burnett, Mount Debateable, r R. C. Riley i 

Gayndah \m. Curr ) 

166. Mary River and Bunya Bunva ( ^ ,, , ) 

' ^ ■' ' \j.Mathew } ■ 152 

Country ---..( ) 

167. Upper Brisbane River - - . i^' Landsborough t _ ^iq 

I M. Curr ) 

168. Brisbane River . - . . jf . Ridley - - - 212 



169. Condamine and Charley's Creek - i Commissioner of i 

( Police, Brisbane I 



170. Stradbroke and Moreton Islands 



\&. Watldn 

I J. E. Hamilton 
T. de M. M. Prior \ 
W. O. White { 



BOOK THE TWELFTH. 
Prefatory Remarks - 219 



220 
} - 222 



171. Between Albert and Tweed Rivera < m t it. if ' ' ^^^ 

^ W. Landsborough I 

[J. O'Connor I 

172. Nerang Creek F. Fowler - ■ - 240 

173. Tweed River and Point Dangar - J. Bray - - - 242 



No. 



CONTENTS. 
BOOK THE THIRTEEENTH. 



( G. B. Lowe ) 

guillan - - - - ( 



180. QueenbuUa, Ashford, and Quining- ^District Bench oj 1 



251 

258 



PAGE 

Prefatory Remarks ... ..... 251 

174. Part of Maranoa - - - (S- Sheridan and 

\F. B. Bay 

175. Balonne, Baleandoon, Nerran, Weir, j H. Hammond 

and Moonie Rivers - - ■ ' J'. 0^ Byrne 

{D. Turhayne ] 
/. Lawlor I - 264 

Q. Myles ] 

iW. H. Looker 
W. R. Conn 
L. M. Flayfair 
J. HolUngsworth 
1C. Edwards J 

E. Boss K - 286 

Z>. Hogan J 

{Anonymous, also ) 
179. Tenterfield, Glen Innes - - ■ \ a n T.n-no 1 " ^^^ 

298 



270 



BOOK THE FOURTEENTH. 

Prefatory Remarks 303 

iW. Ridley ] 

T M 1 I 

F. BuehZll, and \ ^°* 

Benches of Magistrates] 



BOOK THE FIFTEENTH. 

Prefatory Remarks 

182. Culgoa 

183. Brewarrina and Barwan - 

184. Clarence - . . - - 

185. Lower Maoleay 

186. Port Maoquarie 

187. Manning River 

188. Hunter River - 

189. Hawkesbury and Broken Bay 





327 


/. W.Foott - 


328 


Bench of Magistrates - 


330 


A. Bruce 


332 


0. Spencer 


334 


J. Branch 


338 


■ Bench of Magis- 
trates, Wingham 


350 


R. Miller 


352 


J. Tuckerman 


358 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



BOOK THE SIXTEENTH. 



No. 



Prefatory Remarks 

190/ Castlereagh River - - - -J. Ghmther 

Warren C Rouse 

Dubbo Bench Oj 



Wellington 

Hill End - 

Bathurst 

Bogan . - . - 

Sources of Bogan, Carcoar 

Forbes and Levels - 

Candoblin 

Waljeers 



Yanko, Urana, Billebong, Jerril- 

derie ..---- 

Deniliquin . . - - . 

Howlong 

Albury ------ 



H. Keightly 

Bench oj Magistrates 

F. Fohy 

J. Balfe 

Bench of Magistrates 

J. Gameron 

W. H. Suitor 

J. E. Pearce 

H. 



L. MacLean 
O. A. Gordon 
G. Byrne 
G. R. H. Stuchey 



PAOB 

363 



368 



BOOK THE SEVENTEENTH. 

Prefatory Remarks . . - . . - . . 405 

(/. Hunter I .„„ 

191. Port Jackson \- GoUins \ ' *°^ 

192. Botany Bay W. Ridley - - - 413 

193. WoUongong, lUawarra, and Shoal- 

haven - - - - - W. Ridley - - - 417 

194. Jervia Bay, Mount Dromedary - R. Dawsey - - - 420 

195. Queanbeyan Police Magistrate - - 424 

196. Yass Bench of Magistrates - 426 

( G. du V4 1 

197. Moneroo - - - - ■ \j_ ^^^^^^ \ - 429 

198. Twofold Bay W.Ridley - - - 434 

BOOK THE EIGHTEENTH. 

Prefatory Remarks 437 

199. Swan Hill and Tyntynder - - /. Beveridge - - 439 

200. Fifty miles south of Swan Hill - The Writer - - - 446 

201. Piangil ------ T. Macredie; the Writer 448 



CONTENTS. VU 
BOOK THE EIGHTEENTH— coM«MiMed 

No. piQE 

202. Bumbang - - - - . F. Comey - - . 452 

203. Kulkyne - - - - -The Writer ... 454 

204. Tatiarra W. Haynes; the Writer 456 

205. Mount Gambier - - - - i>. Stewart - - ■ 460 

BOOK THE NINETEENTH. 

Prefatory Remarks - 469 

206. Moreton Plains .... The Writer - - - 472 
207a. Lake Hindmarsh, Lower Wim- 

mera TTie Writer - . - 474 

207b. Lake Wallace .... The Writer - - - 476 

207c. Upper Glenelg and Wannon - - The Writer ... 478 

207d. Glenelg, above Woodford - ■ The Writer - . - 480 

207b. Woodford The Writer - . - 482 

207f. Dartmoor The Writer - - - 484 

207a. Hamilton The Writer - - - 486 

207h. Mount Rouse ... - The Writer - . - 488 

207i. Portland, Condah, Eumeralla - The Writer . - - 490 

207 J. Hopkins River - - . . The Writer - - - 492 

207k. Hopkins River . . . . W. Goodall - - - 494 

BOOK THE TWENTIETH. 

Prefatory Remarks ■ . - - 499 

208a. Moulmein - - . - - Bench of Magistrates - 500 

208b. Lake Boga L. Fawcett - - - 502 

208o. Lower Loddon .... The Writer - - ■ 504 

208d. Gonn Station - - - ■ J. McCarthy - . . 506 

208b. Gunbower - - - - . Mickie and Sandy - - 508 

208p. Mount Hope . - - - The Writer - - - 510 

2080. Kerang The Writer - - - 512 

208h. Natti-yallook - - - -The Writer . - - 514 

2081. Mount Emu S. Wilson - - - 516 

208j. Moorabool The Writer - - - 518 

BOOK THE TWENTY-FIRST. 

Prefatory Remarks - - - . . - . . 523 

209a. Goulbum, near Seymour - - The Writer - - - 528 

209b. Upper Yarra - - - -The Writer - - - 530 

209c. Lower Yarra - - - - D. Bunce - - - 532 

209d. Morediyallook ... - T!ie Writer - - - 534 



VlU CONTENTS. 

BOOK THE TWENTY-SECOND. 

No. P-*"^ 

Prefatory Remarks ^39 

{J. Bulmer, the Writer, j 

F. A. Hagenauer, A. W.K 543 
Howitt - - -) 

211. Omeo J- Bulmer - ■ - 558 

212. Snowy River J. Bulmer . - - 560 

213. Upper Murray - - - - _ Mitchell - - - 562 

BOOK THE TWENTY-THIRD. 

Prefatory Remarks ... .... - 567 

214a. Junction of Murray and Goul- 

burn Rivers - - . - The Writer - - - 582 

214b. Tooumwall The Writer - - - 584 

214c. Ulupna (or Yoolupna) - - - The Writer - - - 586 

214d. Yiilima The Writer - - - 588 



APPENDICES. 

Appendix A. 

The Tasmanians - - . . The Writer - - - 593 

Peron's Vocabulary 604 

Scott's Vocabulary 606 

Roberts' Vocabulary ---..... 606 

Comparison of Vocabularies of 

Roberts and Milligan 608 

Dr. Lhotsky's Vocabulary 609 

Norman's Vocabulary ..... - - - 611 

Words which agree in the Vocabu- 
laries of Norman and Milligan 616 

Names of Natives given in Nor- 
man's Vocabulary - 617 

Jorgenson's Vocabulary 618 

Words of Jorgenson's and Milli- 

gan's which agree 633 

Milligan's^Vocabulary 634 

Short Sentences in the Language 

of Tasmania . 669 

Aboriginal Names of Places in 

Tasmania . . 672 



CONTENTS. IX 

Appendix B. 
The Ovens, Oaves, Paintings, and 
Sculptures of our Blacks, and 
also the question of whether the 
present race were the first in- 
habitants of Australia - - The Writer ■ - - 675 

Appendix C. 
Yule Island Vocabulary - - A. Onslow - - - 682 

Appendix D. 
Vocabulary of Warrior Island, 

Torres Strait - - - -A. Onslow - - - 684 

Appendix E. 
Vocabulary of a New Guinea Lan- 
guage, Kataw River - - D'Albertis - - 686 

Appendix F. 

Vocabulary of Port Dorei, New 
Guinea, from Le Voyage de 
r Astrolabe -688 

Appendix 6. 
Vocabulary of Loyalty Isles - - /. Fitzgerald, Junr. - 690 

Appendix H. 

Vocabulary of York Island, New 

Britain O. Brown ■ ■ - 694 

Appendix I. 
Vocabulary of Malay - - -J. Crawford - - - 696 

Appendix J. 
Yoruba Vocabulary, Africa - - T. J. Brown - ■ - 698 



ERRATA. 

Vol. I., page 75, the statement " That the terrible rite exists near the 
Leichhardt Range " is an error. 

Vol. I., pagel51,/oj- "Bemel" read "Bemal." 

Vol. I., page 194, for "occupation became complete" read "deticend- 
ants again came into contact." 

Vol. I., page 261, /or "Irvine " read "Irwin" River. 

Vol. I., page 296, /or "Markand" read "Maitland"; also/or " Camden" 
read "Hampton." 

Vol. I., page 318, /or " Leschenault Bay " read "Cape Lesohenault." 

Vol. I., page 370, /or " Camden Harbour " read "Hampton Harbour." 

Vol. I., page 371, for "Camden" read "Hampton." 

Vol. II., page 285, instead of the heading of No. 88 read "From the 
Junction of the Lachlau and Murrumbidgee to the Mallee Cliffs Station." 

Vol. II., page 296, for " eastward " read " westward " of the Nicholson 
River." 

Vol. III., page 26, for "Bower" read "Bowen." 

Vol. III., pages 470 and 482, for "Woodford " read " Sandford." 

Vol. III., page 499, line 13, for "by adverb wAere" read "by the adverb 
where." 

Vol. III., page 510, for "No. 208e" read No. 208f." 

Vol. III., page 523, for "Bradford" read "Broadford." 

Vol. III., page 583, /or "biit-ya=fire" read "biit-ya." 

Vol. in., page 583, see Bain, and /or "koo-kor-a" read "korkora." 

Vol. III., page 583, /or " lil-di-ma " read "liilima." 



BOOK THE TENTH. 



Wxz ^uBixnimn ^aa. 



BOOK THE TENTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

It is amongst the tribes treated of in this book that we first 
meet with some which have the curious custom of calling 
themselves, their languages, or both, by words sprung from 
their negative adverbs. Whether this custom exists further 
to the north, I am unable to say; but from the Dawson 
Eiver and Expedition Eange to nearly as far as Wentworth, 
at the junction of the Darling and Murray, a distance of 
seven hundred and fifty miles as the crow flies, we find it 
pretty generally prevalent. In many of the tribes described 
in this book, in which this custom does not obtain, we find 
the tribal name ending in hurra. It is also observable that 
in the portion of the continent under notice, the opossum-rug 
is in use in some of the tribes, and also the word Murri, the 
equivalent of Blackfellow, which the Revd. Mr. Ridley seems 
to have thought pretty general throughout Australia. In 
this locality also the small-pox, originally introduced at 
Sydney, terminated its ravages. Finally, in this book will 
be found the account of a tribe, taken from replies to my 
Questions, sent to me by an aboriginal Black, who had 
learnt to read and write. 

A 2 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 136.— FROM PORT DENISON TO CAPE 
GLOUCESTER. 

By Sekoeant B. Shea. 

The country of the Bumbarra tribe extends from about 
Port Denison to Cape Grloucester, and inland as far as the 
head of the Proserpine River, or nearly so. In this tribe 
opossum cloaks are in use; but -whether throughout the 
t-wenty7four hours, or only at night, my informant, Sergeant 
Shea, does not state. Objects made of the skin of the 
kangaroo, pieces of shell attached to the hair by means of 
beeswax, and necklaces made of stems of grass cut into 
short lengths and threaded, are worn as ornaments. The 
weapons of the tribe are a good deal carved, and amongst 
them are wooden swords five feet in length, spears and clubs 
of course, boomerangs of both sorts, but not the wommera, 
which, however, is used by neighbouring tribes, and the 
Bumbarra ■ have a name for. In fact, whatever the reason 
may be for the neglect of this instrument by some tribes, 
I do not think that in any case it can be attributed to their 
not being acquainted with it. 

The Bumbarra do not object to teU their names, and my 
contributor gives Karilla and Whychaka as those of men, and 
Denterbargo and Helmerago as those of women. Girls 
become wives at about twelve years of age; marriages be- 
tween relatives are prohibited, and women rear (ox used to 
rear) three children each on an average. The canoes of the 
Bumbarra are made of pieces of bark stripped from the 
ironbark-tree and sewn together, and rendered watertight 



FEOM PORT DENISON TO CAPE GLOUCESTEE. 5 

by smearing with the gum of the pine-tree.. The male 
youths are admitted to the rights of men by means of secret 
ceremonies. Message-sticks are in use. 

Turning to the vocabulary, _/?re and wood are expressed by 
almost the same word. Good and sweet, as frequently 
happens, are also expressed by one word. Food and eat are 
expressed by one term, and thirst and water by another, 
probably the result of a misunderstanding in these two 
cases. 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 136.— PORT DENISON TO CAPE GLOUCESTER. 



By Sbegeant B. Shea. 



Kangaroo - 


rooa. 


Opossum 


koolachu; 


Tame dog - 


kria. 


Wild dog - 


ulaire. 


Emu - 


goondooloo. 


Black duck 


kooroola. 


Wood duck 




Pelican 


yangatia. 


Laughing jackass 


kourkura. 


Native companion 




White cockatoo - 


dingari. 


Crow - 


worigan. 


Swan - 




Egg - - - 


goinorro. 


Track of a foot - 


dina. 


Fish - 


wina. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


pigina. 


Fly - 


kroopulla. 


Snake - 


waroora. 


The Blacks 


kabuUa. 


A Blaokf ellow - 


mari. 


A Black woman - 


worniwoma 


Nose - 


woroo. 



Hand - 


• mala. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 


- ■ 


One - 


- warpa. 


Two - 


- kotoo.* 


•Three - 


- mundula. 


Pour - 


- kutpoora. 


Father 


- yaboo. 


Mother 


- yamga. 


Sister-Elder 


- kotha. 


,, Younger 


- nappona kotha 


Brother-Elder 


- 


,, Younger 


A young man 


- koloona. 


An old man 


- kutha. 


An old woman 


- kununi. 


A baby 


- 


A White man 


. 


Children - 


- patchilla. 


Head 


- korea. 


Eye - 


- dim. . 


Ear - 


- woUoo. 



FROM PORT DENISON TO CAPE GLOUCESTER. 



No. 136.- 


-Poet Denison to Cape Gloucester- 


-continued. 


Mouth 


elginba. 


Boomerang - 


- wangalla. 


Teeth - 


era. 


Hill - 


bia. 


Hair of the head 


korea (same as 


Wood - 


baree. 




head). 


Stone - 


- paree. 


Beard - 
Thunder - 


- nunga. 
-thegaroo. 


Camp - 


yamba. 


Grass - 


- goothu. 


Yes - 


yay. 


Tongue 


- talong. 


No - 


- oolago. 


Stomach 


- buloo. 


I 




Breasts 


- ngommona. 


You - 




Thigh - 


- tumbarra. 


Bark - 


- bigo. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Good - 


- bungunna. 


Bone - 


- bippo. 


Bad - 


- gooioo. 


Blood - 


- gulga. 


Sweet - 


- bungunna. 


Skin - 


-. LQgarra. 


Food - 


- nikkana. 


Fat - . - 


- thome. 


Hungry 


- kangoola. 


Bowels 


- yapoo. 


Thirsty 


- kamo. 


Excrement - . 


- doongalla. . 


Bat - 


- nikkana. 


War-spear - 


- githa. 






Reed-spear - 


- wolliburra. 


Sleep - 


- ooka. 


Wommera or 


wangalli (not in 


Drink - 


- barana. 


throwing-stick 


use). 


Walk - 


- yanina. 


Shield - 


- goolmarri. 


See - 


- nugana. 


Tomahawk - 


- balgoo. 


Sit - 


- etomme. 


Canoe - 


- vinda. 


Yesterday - 


- nuinda. 


Sun - 


- kari. 


To-day 


- nilla. 


Moon - 


- karka. 


To-morrow - 


- burganda. 


Star - • - 


- nooroo. 


Where are the 




Light - 


- baringa. 


Blacks? 




Dark - 


. 






Cold - 


- kedoa. 


I don't know 


- koota. 


Heat - 


- mongoola. 


Plenty 


- munda. 


Day - 


- koondawiuda. 


Big - 


- oomba. 


Night - 


- woroo. 


Little - 


- 


Fire - 


- buree. 


Dead - 


- mudaya. 


Water 


- kamo. 


By-and-by - 


- dago. 


Smoke 


- pothana. 


Come on 


- kowa. 


Ground 




Milk - 


- nammoona 


Wind - 
Rain - 


- kuana. 

- uganna. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - • - 


- matcha. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts - . 


- 


Wife - 


- bergo. 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 137.— TOWER HILL AND CORNISH CREEKS— TATEBURRA 

TRIBE. ■ 

By F. L. Daihtjnty, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- tehera. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


- k'odera. 


2 Blacks - 


- nema booleroo 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Blaqk duck 
Wood duck' 
Pelican 


- oora. 

- koolbury. 

- bungari. 

- kootaburra. 

- deroora, 


■ 3 Blacks - 

One - 
Two - 
Three - 


- nema wolbin- 

thum. 

- wongeroo. 

- booleroo. 

- wolbinthum. 


Laughing jackass kargooburra. 


Pour - 


- wolbunya. 


Native companion beelV)a,rigera. 


Father 


- muriaa. 


White cockatoo 


- tikeri. 


Mother 


- younginna. 


Crow - 


- worder. 


Sister-Elder 


- nungmeralla. 


Swan - 


- 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


- gobin. 


Brother-Elder 


- moorkina. 


Track of a foot 
Fish - 
Lobster 


- murrengunna. 

- munga. 


,, Younger 
A young man - kowoola. 


Crayfish 


- boogal. 


An old man 


- yalgenoomoo. 


Mosquito - 


- boonye. 


An old woman 


- muugeroo. 


Fly - 


• nimunoo. 


A baby 


_ 


Snake - 
The Blacks- 


- koobooloo. 

- nemawulberdun- 

moo. 


A White man 
Children - 


- yarabi. 

- wobinyella. 


A Blaokfellow 


- nema. 


Head - 


- yalli. 


A Black woman 


- wormegoona. 


Eye - 


- dilli. 


Nose - 


- oongye. 


Ear - 


■ munga. 



TOWER HILL AKD CORNISH CREEKS. 



No. 137. — TowBE Hill and Cornish Cebeks — Tateburba Tribb- 

continued. 



Mouth 


- tower. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- nulguUa. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heao 


- wooroo. 


Wood 


- toola. 


Beard 


- nunga. 


Stone - 


- paduUa. 


Thunder - 


- kooroo. 


Camp - 


- yumber. 


Grass - 


- yaroo. 


Yes - 


- ya-oo. 


Tongue 


- tarding.* 


No - 


- nowa. 


Stomach 


- yabboo. 


I 


- yoondo. 


Breasts 


- koolumbi. 






Thigh - 


- dakyr. 


You - 


- yondo. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Bark - 


- yonoona. 


Bone - 


- narkoo. 


Good - - 


- thureburra. 


Blood - 


- koonger. 


Bad - 


- wygoo. 


Skin - 


- markoora. 


Sweet - 


- karba. 


Fat - 


- thami. 


Food - 


- euga. 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- karwooroongua. 


Excrement - 


- koonner. 


Thirsty 


- nower. 


War-spear - 


- iftoooha. 


Eat - - - 


- euga. 


Reed-spear - 


- woUerburra. 


Sleep - 


- woga. 


Wommera or 


goonbeina. 


Drink - 


- kamo uga = 


throwing-stick 






water eat. 


Shield 


- tumbooroo. 


Walk - 


- aber. 


Tomahawk - 


- goocha. 


See - 


- dileenma (see 
Eye). 


Canoe - 


- (none). ■ 




Sun - 


- karee. 


Sit - 


- yiuda,. 


Moon - 


- kokkera. 


Yesterday - 


- woogobedo. 


Star - 


- boodtha. 


To-day 


- karLnga(seeSun) 






To-morrow - 


- wonaeroo. 


Light - 


- buronga. 






Dark - 


- goonda. 


Where are the nema wye 1 
Blacks? 


Cold - 


- medurra. 


I don't know 


- yonnower. 


Heat - 


- tingun. 


Plenty 


- wolbunya. 


Day - 


- buronga. 


Big - - 


- wolbunya. 


Night 


- goonda. 


Little - 


- worbinya. 


Fire - 


- boodee. 


Dead - 


- woolooma. 


Water 


- kamo. 


By-and-by - 


- mooingpo-apper. 


Smoke 


- togar.. 


Come on 


- kower, kowai. 


Ground 


- nundee. 






Wind- 


- barega. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kamo. 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - 


„ 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


-- 


Wife - 


- 



10 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 138.— UPPER THOMSON {Lat. 22", Long. 144°, or thereabouts). 

By Robert Christison, Esq. 

Unfortunately, Mr. Christison's manuscript is uidistinot, so that some of 
the words cannot be relied on. 



Kangaroo - 


- teggera. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- kuttera. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 


- kobburra. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 


- 






Emu 


- goolberri. 


One - 


wongura. 


Black duck - 


- kutteburra. 


Two - 


- boolere. 


Wood duck- 


- now-now. 


'Three - 


- koorberri. 


Pelican . - 


- taura. 


Four - - ■ 


- ngagiberri. 


Laughing jackass kakaburri. 


Father ' - 


- murre. 


Native companion billbungera. 
White cockatoo - teggeri. 


Mother 


- yangena. 


Crow - 


- wotha. 


Sister-Elder 


- uumuUa. 


Swan ■ 




,, Younger 


- 


Egg - 


- tando. 


Brother-Elder 


- mooohi. 


Track of a foot 


- timaro. 


Younger 


Fish - 


- nemerreburri. 


A young man 


- tamboona (?) 


Lobster 


- karkoora. 






Crayfish 


- munya. 


An old man 
An old woman 


- mugena. 

- koombena. 


Mosquito - 


- gongonoo. 






Ply - - 


- nilgana. 


A baby 


- pamboona(?; 


Snake - 


- monda. 


A White man 


- koeburro. 


The Blacks - 


- wolbandamo. 


Children . 


- woorua. 


A Blackfellow 


- 


Head - 


- yalle. 


A Black woman 


- warringo. 


Eye - 


- teemurra. 


Nose - 


- goonyna. 


Ear - 


- munga. 



UPPER THOMSON. 



11 





No. 138.— Uppee Thomson— coreiOTMefl 




Mouth 


towa. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


nalkuUa. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


wooroo. 


Wood - 


- doola. 


Beard - 


nunka. 


Stone - 


- paduUa. 


Thunder 


borai. 


Camp - 


- wongo. 


G-raaa - 


yakko. 


Yes - 


- yea-yea. 


Tongue 


kookunya. 


No - 


- nowa. 


Stomach 


- pangooloo. 






Breasts 


namoona. 


I 


- neijoo. 


Thigh - 


■ tara. 


You - 


- yoondoo. 


Foot - 


dinna. 


Bark - 


- wonna. 


Bone - 


- goongoon. 


Good ■ 


- tarrilli. 


Blood - 


- yerkoora. 


Bad - 


- wyeo. 


Skin - 


- meoora. 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- doota. 


Food - 


- mena. 


Bowels 




Hungry 


- kurnwooli. 


Excrement - 


- koonua. 


Thirsty 


- poomulgooa. 


War-spear - 


- moorcha. 


Eat ■ 


- pangelna. 


Reed-spear - 


- bulta. 


Sleep - 


- wilgetha. 


Wommera or 


mirroo. 






throwing-stick 




Drink 


- uka. 


Shield - 


■ koormurre. 


Walk - 


- noorai. 


Tomahawk - 


- mingana. 


See - 


- tellimuUa. 


Canoe - 


- (none). 


Sit - 


- yindaka. 


Sun - 


- kurri. 


Yesterday - 


- nakumo. 


Moon - 


- kakkoora. 


To-day 


- naka. 


Star . - 


- teegalgoona. 


To-morrow - 


- waanga. 


Tight - 


- waanduramo. 


Where are the 


wanni bobamuna 


Dark - 


- now-now. 


Blacks ? 


walbandamo ? 


Cold - 




I don't know 


- nowa tilginannia. 


Heat - 
Day - 

Night 


- towwurri. 


Plenty 


- wolbunga. 


- qurkumago. 


Big - 


- poorka. 






Little - 


- wabootoha. 


Fire - 


- poori. 






Water 


- kummo. 


Dead - 


- woolama. 


Smoke 


- tonoonga. 


By-and-by - 


- koolpeto. 


Ground 


- kundi. 


Come on 


- woori. 


Wind - 


- parritoha. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- paggurri. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- kobbiberri.yerbi. 


Wife - 


- 



12 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 139.— HEAD OF DIAMANTINA. 

By Montagtt Cukb, Esq. 

This vocabulary has much in common with those of the Upper Flinders 
and Porter's Range. 



Kangaroo - 


wungunnia. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum ■ - 


dthangaroo. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck 
Pelican 


kooba, 

mungara. 
ooandgo. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 

Three - 


- wonga. 

- poolaroo, 

phiddee. 

- koorburra. 


Laughing jackass 
Native companior 
White cockatoo - 


I bilbungata. 


Four - 
Father 
Mother 


- yanga. 


Crow - 


wa-cun-na. 


Sister-Elder 


- kurromee. 


Swan - 




,, Younger 


- 


Egg - - - 
Track of a foot - 




Brother-Elder - yabba. 
,, Younger 


Fish - 
Lobster • - 
Crayfish - 
Mosquito - ■ ■ 
Fly - - - 
Snake - - - 


ngimunna. 


A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 


- kubbena. 

- mooburree 

- wit-thoo. 


The Blacks - 




Children 


- 


A Blackfellow ■ 


kandoo. 


Head - 


- wooma. 


A Black woman - 


bunya. 


Eye - 


- dthiUee. 


Nose - - 


ngingo. 


Ear - 


- munga. 



HEAD OF DIAMANTINA. 



13 



No. 139.— Head of 


Mouth 


- dthawa. 


Teeth - 


- eerra. 


Hair of the head 


- cudthaa. 


Beard - 


- unga. 


Thunder 


- yamberri. 


Grass - 


- yagoo. 


Tongue 


- dthalango. 


Stomach 


- purra. 


Breasts 


- dthamboo. 


Thigh 


- walalla. 


Foot - 


- d'theena. 


Bone - 


- mogo. 


Blood - 


- koo-ur-roo. 


Skin - 


- binna. 


Fat - 


- tammee. 


Bowels 


- 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


War-spear - 


- moorja. 


Reed-spear 


- kundwurra. 


Wommera or 


woorra. 


throwing-stiok 




Shield 


- koonburra. 


Tomahawk - 


- parumburra. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sun - 


- dthooroo. 


Moon - 


- yoongee, eungee 


Star - 


- yoogu. 


Light - 


- kunba. 


Dark - 


- windtha. 


Cold - 


- wiUinga. 


Heat- 


- 


Day - 


- 


Night - 


- 


Fire - 


- oola. 


Water 


- kamoo. 


Smoke 


- yumaroo. 


Ground 


- kinburra. 


Wind- 


- muUoonoo. 


E.ain -. 


- kamoo. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


■, 



-continued. 



Boomerang - 
Hill - 
Wood - 
Stone - - 
Camp - -. - 
Yes - 
No - - 
I - - - 
You - 
Bark - 
Good - 

Bad - - - 
Sweet - - - 
Food - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 

Sleep - - - 
Drink - - - 
Walk ■• 
See - 

Sit - - - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To morrow - 
Where are the 
Blacks? 
I don't know 
Plenty 

Big - - ■ 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk 
Wild turkey 
Wife - 



oola, 

koongoo. ■ 
yamba, 
ngia, 
kurra. 



koolgooburra. 



wmgurra. 



pungoo. 



yunna. 



14 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. UO.-DIAMANTINA RIVER, MIDDLETON CREEK.- 
THE GOA TRIBE. 

By Edwabd CtTEB, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


maikumba. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


tannaroo. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 




3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 


mikamo. 


One - 


- koorbno. 


Emu - 


kolperi. 






Black duck - 


yallamurra. 


Two - 


- orra. 


Wood duck - 


yammoroo. 


Three - 


- koorborra. 


PeUcan 


wolkiperri. 


Pour - 


- nadera. 


Laughing jackass 


(none). 


Father 


- kobba. 


Native companion kooltoroo. 


Mother 


- yanga 


White cockatoo - 


poonmenberri. 


Sister-Elder 


- kammi. 


Crow - 


wawkana. 


,, Younger 


. 


Swan - 








Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


kotto. 


Brother-Elder 


- yabba. 




„ Young( 


sr 


Fish - 


- palpi. 


A young man 


- mabnngoroo 


Lobster 


- pirrinoo. 


An old man 


- kaera. 


Crayfish - 




An old woman 


- pandoro. 


Mosquito - 


- poonginyoo. 


A baby 


- kampala. 


Fly - - 




A White man 


- witto. 


Snake 


- mungoo. 


Children - 




The Blacks - 


- kanto. 


Head - 


- katta. 


A Blackfellow 








A Black woman 


- nogommora 


Eye - 


- telli. 


Nose - 


- nitigoo. 


Ear - 


- munga. 



DIAMANTINA RIVER, MIDDLETON CREEK. 



15 



No. 140. — DiAMASTINA RiVEE,. MiDDLETON CeEEK. — ThE GoA TrIBE- 





continued. 




Mouth 


towa. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


irra. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


katta. 


Wood - 


oroo. 


Beard - 


nanga. 


Stone - 


parri. 


Thunder - 


womdi. 


Camp - 


yamba (see 


Grass - . 


■ yakko. 




Ground). 


Tongue 
Stomach 


- ftiachi. 


Yes - 
No - 


- nia. 
kuAa. 


Breasts 


- manginna. 


I 




Thigh - 
Foot - 


- tarra. 

- tinna. 


You : 
Bark - 


- koolkobar. 


Bone - 


• toa. 


Good - 


- manyo. 


Blood - 


- morki. 


Bad - 


- wittimo. 


Skin - 


- pinganya. 


Sweet - 




Fat 


- toota, tammi 


Food - 




Bowels 


- munda-munda. 


Hungry 


- kannoola. 


Excrement - 


- konna. 


Thirsty 




War-spear - 


- murcha. 


Eat - 


- minna. 


Reed-spear - 


- kandoora. 


Sleep - 


- wonoga. 


Throwing-stiok 


- 


Drink - 


- orrtanga. 


Shield- 


- yamboro. 


Walk - 


- yananga. 


Tomahawk - 


- willara. 


See - 


- nakala. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- wonta. 


Sun - 


- toroo. 


Yesterday - 




Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 
Heat - 
Day - 
Night - 
Fire 


- rangi. 

- yookoo. 

- karra. 

- winta. 

- milinyoo. 

- renkana. 

- toorongaro. 

- winta. 

- olla. 


To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are the 

Blacks? 
I don't know 
Plenty 
Big - 
Little - 


■ paringoo. 

- karra. 

- toona, 

- piala. 

- nowola. 


Water 


- kammo. 


Dead - 


- poyoonaring 


Smoke 


- maiyoo. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- yamba. 


Come on 


- kowi. 


Wind - 


- malboomo, 


Milk - - 


- 


Rain ■ 


- kammo. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 





16 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 141.— WESTERN RIVER. 



By Mk. John Haines (at the request of Sir Samuel Wilson). 



Kangaroo - 


- mutumba. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- mungera. 


2 Blacks - 


- oro gundo. 


Tame dog - 


- mikum. 


3 Blacks - 


- goolpurra gundo 


Wild dog - 


. . 






Emu - 


- goolburra. 


One - 


- goorinyer. 


Black duck - 


- tibia. 


Two - 


- oro. 


Wood duck - 


- goonumbi. 


Three - 


■ goolpurra. 


Pelican 


- wulkurberri. 


Pour - 


toongar. 


Laughing jackass (none). 


Father 


goopa. 


Native companion gootumba. 
White cockatoo - kurrumboola. 


Mother 


yunga. 


Crow - 


wokkerna. 


Sister-Elder 


karmi. 


Swan - 




„ Younger ■ 




Egg ■ 


- gootoo. 


Brother- Elder 


yuppa. 


Track of a foot 


teena. 


„■ Youngei 




Fish - 
Lobster 


dugera. 
mundi. 


A young man 


bookeruma. 


Crayfish - 




An old man ' - 


kyerra. 


Mosquito ■ - 


boogena. 


An old woman - 


pundoora. 


Fly - - 


nimunna. 


A baby 


milla-milla. 


Snake - 


goonderra. 


A White man 




The Blacks - 


gundo-too"nga 
(see Plenty). 


Children - 


bungonia. 


A Blackf ellow 


gundo. 


Head - 


kutta. 


A Black woman 


bunya. 


Eye - -■ - 


tilU 


Nose - 


ningdi 


Ear ■■ - 


munger. 



WESTERN RIVER. 



17 





No. 141.— Western RiveBt— coniiTOted 




Mouth 


bewi. 


Boomerang 




Teeth - . - 


irra. 


Hill - 




Hair of the heac 


tounya. 


Wood- 


toola (see Bone). 


Beard 


nartinya. 


Stone - 


gungoa. 


Thunder - 


wondi. 


Camp- 


yamba (see 


Grass 


yakko. 




Ground). 


Tongue 


talinya. 


Yes - 


kay. 


Stomach - 


- mitcha. 


No - 


kurra. 


Breasts 


tumbo. 


I 


- wito. 


Thigh 


- turra. 


You - 


- yena. 


Foot - 


tinna. 


Bark - 


goolkurberra. 


Bone - 


toola. 


Good - 


manu. 


Blood - 


- wurki. 


Bad - 


workutindyer. 


Skin - 


- killena. 


Sweet 




Fat - 


- tommi. 


Pood - 




Bowels 


- muttura. 


Hungry - 


kamolingya. 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Thirsty 


goongindunga. 


War-spear - 


- morretoha. 


Bat - 


ooltunga. 


Reed-apear 




Sleep - 


oonunga. 


Wommera or 


gundaworra. 


Drink- 


tarkeinga. 


thro wing-stick 




Walk - 


yaninga. 


Shield 


- goonburra. 


See - 


bimbururra. 


Tomahawk - 


■ wheelera. 


Sit - 


wongunga. 


Canoe 




Yesterday - 


winappolo. 


Sun - 


- tooroo. 


To-day 


kyeemba. 


Moon - 


- rungi. 


To-morrow- 
Where are the 


karrunga. 


Star - 


- yooko. 


Blacks ? 




Light - 


■ 


I don't know 


kurra wungun- 


Dark - 


- rautchaberri. 




gala. 


Cold - 


- mooerra. 


Plenty 


- toonga. 


Heat - 


- nulkooriuna. 


Big - 


- goolkundurra. 


Day - 


- 


Little 


■ nowillyer. 


Night 


- dilli-nirringa. 


Dead - 


- tillingerringa. 


Fire - 


- oola. 


By-and-by - 


- kyemba, kan- 


Water 


- kamoo. 




daga. 


Smoke 


- yunkerga. 


Come on - 


- ookuUya yanan- 


Ground 


- yumba. 




yer. 


Wind 


- mulboona. 


Milk - - - 




Rain - 


- kamoo. 


Eaglehawk 




God - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 




VOL. III. 


J 


5 





18 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 142.— MAIN RANGE BETWEEN THE BELYANDO 
AND CAPE RIVERS WATERS. 

Bt James MacGlashan, Esq. 

Foe the following vocabulary and account of tlie Koom- 
bokkaburra tribe I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
James MacGrlashan, who has been, off and on, for ten years a 
resident in their country. The vocabulary, it will be seen, 
differs but little from that of the Belyando as given by Mr. 
Muirhead. 

The country of the tribe is the Main Dividing Range 
between the Cape and Belyando Rivers. It was first occu- 
pied by the Whites in 1862, the tribe at that time being 
estimated at about four hundred souls. It has since been 
reduced to one-half of that number, and Mr. MacGlashan 
attributes the falling off to abandonment of the old style of 
living, and to the use of salt beef and tobacco. Alcoholic 
drinks of every sort are held in abhorrence by the tribe, who 
dislike the smell and decline to taste them. 

Infanticide, my informant says, is not practised, as far as 
he knows, but that since the coming of the Whites a great 
many young children die of cold and low fever. 



BETWEEN BELYANDO AND CAPE RIVERS. 19 

Mr. MacGlashan thinks tliat the women of the tribe live 
occasionally to a greater age than the men. Several, he 
says, have hair perfectly white, and even fifteen years ago 
were of the most venerable appearance, and that altogether 
the duration of life amongst the tribe is not different from 
amongst ourselves. During the day the men go naked, but 
most of them have a few skins of the opossum, sewn together 
with string made of the smaller intestines of the animal, in 
which they sleep at night, huddled up between several small 
fires. One of their greatest miseries is what they suffer from 
mosquitos. This they endeavour to mitigate by the smokes 
of several small fires. Occasionally too they squirt water 
upwards from the mouth, so that it descends in a light 
vapour and frees them from these tormentors for a time. 
The young women wear in front an apron of spun opossum 
fur about eight inches long and five deep. It is generally 
given up after the birth of the first or second child. Such 
as can obtain clothes from the Whites wear them. By way 
of ornament, the skin is often rubbed with a mixture of 
grease and red ochre ; bracelets and necklaces are also made of 
strong grass-stems, cut into lengthTand strung on threads. 
Another ornament is a mussel-shell, polished to resemble 
mother-of-pearl, which is suspended by a lock of the hair, 
and hangs down on the forehead as low as the eyebrows. 
They also adorn themselves with the feathers of the emu, 
cockatoo, and other birds. Of nets, and baskets, and girdles 
they have several sorts, some made from a tough grass, and 
others from the fibre of the kurrajong-tree. With their nets 
they catch fish, and also marsupials of several sorts. Those 
used for the last purpose are sometimes several hundred 
yards long. Their knives and tomahawks are of bluestone, 
ground down by rubbing on rough sandstone. Their weapons 
are the boomerang which returns when thrown, and is 
neatly carved, the shield, the usual varieties of clubs, and 
spears which are thrown by hand. Mr. MacG-lashan remarks 
that he has seen the wommera or throwing-stick amongst 

B 2 



20 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

them, but it is not in use, and is foreign to the tribe. Their 
weapons are usually smeared with red ochre, set off with a 
smudge of pipe-clay here and there. The implements used in 
the manufacture of such articles are the bone knife and the 
tooth of the kangaroo. For food, besides the usual animals 
and birds, which they sometimes cook in ovens of a temporary 
character, the Koombokkaburra have a sort of yam, which 
grows in loose soil and scrubs, is white in color, and in taste 
not unlike a turnip. They also prepare some portion of the 
zamia, (palm), shelling the edible portion (which my in- 
formant does not particularize) into a basket, and steeping it 
in water for three or four days. It is then ground between 
two stones, wrapped in a covering of ti-tree bark, and so 
baked. They have also the sweet potato, which, being un- 
cultivated, is small. The young men and women are for- 
bidden to eat certain sorts of food, such as the emu, swan, 
scrub and plain turkeys, and the eggs of these birds. The 
eel, the black-headed snake, and other animals are also on 
the schedule of forbidden foods. The reason assigned by the 
old folks for these restrictions is, that the richness of these 
foods would kill the young, and so persuaded are the young 
of the truth of this assertion, that Mr. MacGlashan is con- 
vinced they would rather die of hunger than infringe their 
law. They call this law knagana, which va&^ns forbidden. 

Concerning cannibalism Mr. MacGlashan gives the 
following particulars: — " I never had ocular proof of it, but 
the Blacks have told us it does occur. They made the state- 
ment themselves unasked, and could have no object in 
deceiving us. I will mention the two cases on which I 
ground my belief. Some years ago when the Blacks were 
first let on to the station, one of them, a fine vigorous young 
fellow, used to help at lambing and other light work about 
the place. He left to go to a meeting of one of the neigh- 
bouring tribes, which unfortunately was on a cattle-run, 
which, coming to the ears of the owner, a dispersal was 
ordered, and the unfortunate young fellow got a bullet 



BETWEEN BELYANDO AND CAPE RIVERS. 21 

througli him, of which he died next day, the body being 
eaten and the bones conveyed to his friends for interment. 
The other case, which happened two months ago (September, 
1880), was that of a girl of fifteen years of age, who with 
several others were dispersed for unwittingly allowing the 
grass to take fire on the bank of a river, on which they were 
fishing. This was on the territory of the tribe. She was 
brought here, and died the day after she received the shot, 
and the body was eaten, and the bones carried by her relations 
to the place of her nativity. It is only on such rare occasions 
as these, when individuals in health come to a sudden end, 
that cannibalism occurs in this tribe." To an observer of 
languages, it is interesting to note the new signification of 
the verb to disperse : that when a Black girl of fifteen is shot 
down she is said to be dispersed. 

The Koombokkaburra do not object to tell their names. 
Usually they marry in the tribe, but sometimes get wives 
from adjoining tribes. Girls are promised in infancy, and 
become wives at about fourteen. Males are made young 
men after the beard is somewhat grown, after which they are 
at liberty to get a wife if they can. A few of the old men 
have two or three wives. A widow is the property of a 
brother of the deceased husband, and if young is taken by 
the heir, no matter how many wives he may already have. 
Sometimes, however, she is given away. If she be old, she 
is allowed to do pretty much as she likes. The mortality 
amongst children is great, and is ascribed to cold (probably 
at night) and low fever combined. The women rear about 
two each, which my informant says belong to the tribe (no 
doubt the class) of the mother. Men and women scar the 
skin and pierce the septum of the nose. Circumcision is not 
practised. In mourning they cut the thighs and the head 
until blood flows ; the men also blacken their bodies with a 
compound of burnt bark and grease. The women plaster the 
head with clay and ashes till not a particle of hair is visible, 
which gives them the appearance of having on an earthen 
skull-cap. These Blacks, says my informant, have a 



22 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

religious belief of some sort, and a strong dislike to liear the 
dead mentioned. They have no canoes. Kangaroo are 
captured principally with nets. Emu are speared in dry 
weather when water remains in but few holes. Having found 
by the tracks those commonly frequented, the Black, provided 
with a spear, ascends some tree near at hand, from which he 
suspends a bunch of emu feathers with a string. When the 
birds come to water, he imitates their cry, and they, with the 
curiosity, so characteristic of them, proceed to examine the 
bunch of feathers, when the Black hid amongst the boughs 
overhead spears one of them. Fish is taken with nets. 
Speaking of the women, Mr. MacGlashan says their hair is 
thick, soft, and wavy, and if dressed and allowed to grow 
long would be considered beautiful. Its color is dark- 
brown in the young, with a strong tinge of auburn. I have 
noticed the same amongst the Goulburn tribes. Originally 
there were a good many deformed persons in the tribe. 
Their deformities, sometimes in the face or hands, were 
generally in the lower portion of the person. Of their dead 
they dispose in several ways. Old women are burnt out of 
hand and their ashes buried ; indeed they are sometimes 
buried right off, without ceremony. When an old man dies, 
a stage of bark is erected, four or five feet high from the 
ground, on as many poles, on which the body remains whilst 
the crying continues, which is usually two or three days. 
The corpse is then wrapped in ti-tree bark and buried in a 
sitting posture, the grave being covered with logs, until 
decay has been pretty well completed. The bones are then 
exhumed, collected into a bundle, and carried about by the 
relatives of the deceased for a certain time, when they are 
dropped into a tree which is hollow in the centre but sound 
without. My informant has known trees to contain several 
such lots of bones. 

Fights occur in the tribe, which usually originate in 
jealousies about wives. The adjoining tribes are the Wokkel- 
burra, Oncooburra, PeguUoburra, and Muttaburra. Cuts are 
treated with plasters of clay, and sores are wrapped in the 



BETWEEN BBLYANDO AND CAPE RIVERS. 23 

heated leaves of the wild pomegranate. In this vocabulary 
we have the word inda = yoM, which prevails with little 
change almost to the southern extremity of the continent. 



Additional Words. 

Pishing net mookooroo. 

Basket ------- wingen. 

Hunting net myrren. 

Stone knife makkarra. 

Bark stage for the dead - - - - bardey. 



24 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 142.— MAIN RANGE BETWEEN THE BBLYANDO AND CAPE 
RIVERS WATERS. 

By James MacGlashan, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- woorra. 


Hand - 


- malla. 


Opossum - 


- tangoor. 


2 Blacks - 


- meean buUaroo. 


Tame dog - 


- wandi. 


3 Blacks - 


- meean bullaroo 


Wild dog - 


- knurra. 




wychen. 


Emu ■• 


- kundooloo. 


One - 


- whychen or 


Black duok 


- kooberdi. 




witohen. 


Wood duck 


- knaw-knaw. 


Two - 


- bullaroo. 


Pelican 


- balloon. 


Three - 


- bullaroo-wychen. 


Laughing jackass akkaburra. 


Four - 


- buUaroo-bullaroo 


Native companion koorur. 


Father 


• waddey, yabboo 


White cockatoo 


- dyrun. 


Mother 


- yanga. 


Crow - 


- wattan. 


Sister-Elder 


- ootheu. 


Swan - 


- boombilburra. 


,, Younger 


- waboun. 


Egg - 


- anoo. 


Brother-Elder 


- attanna. 


Track of a foot 


- jinna burrun. 


,, Younger wabboo. 


Fish - 


- ayeu, kooioo. 


A young man 


- kowla. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- bulknaw. 


Crayfish 


- andar. 


An old woman 


- bulknaw, bulk- 


Mosquito - 


- boothen. 




nangin. 


Ply . 


■• niukna. 


A baby 


- wongoor. 


Snake - 


- mundaa. 


A White man 


- meearew. 


The Blacks - 


- meean. 


Children - 


- nangarawalla. 


A Blackfellow 


- meean. 


Head - 


- katta. 


A Black woman 


- buUmanyoo. 


Eye - 


- dilley. 


Nose - 


- noondoor. 


Ear • 


- wolloo. 



BETWEEN BELYANDO AND CAPE RIVERS. 



25 



No. 


142. — Belyando ani 


) Cape Rivees- 


-contimied. 


Mouth - 


- beea. 


Boomerang - 


- wongal. 


Teeth - 


- knalla. 


Hill - 


- byree. 


Hair of the head 


- booeliu. 


Wood - 


- dulla. 


Beard - 


- knanga. 


Stone - 


- byree. 


Thunder 


- moonkne. 






Grass - 


- bookan. 


Camp - 


- Jamba. 


Tongue. 


- dallyn. 


Yes - 


- yablenyin. 


Stomach 


- banni. 


No - 


- karra. 


Breasts 


- ngammoon. 


I 


- knichoo. 


Thigh - 


- knakkoo. 


You - 


- inda. 


Foot - 


- jenna. 


Bark - 


- okaa. 


Bone - 


- balban. 


Good - 


- marball. 


Blood - 
Skin - 


- kooma. 
■ beati. 


Bad - 

Sweet - 


- wypa. 
■ anga. 


Pat - 


- noonda. 


Pood - 




Bowels 


- alkyue. 


Hungry 


- angul. 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Thirsty 


- yookinja. 


War-spear - 


- kanda-woon- 


Eat - 


- banjal. 


Reed-spear - 


garoo. 
- kanda woUa- 


Sleep - 


- wookman, hun- 




burra. 




gar. 


Wommera or 


yoolman. 


Drink 


- yooka. 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- dooa. 


Shield - 


- yoolmerri. 


See - 


- nakalla. 


Tomahawk - 


- balko. 


Sit - 


- barribinda. 


Canoe - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- ejabia. 


Sun - 


- kiey. 


To-day 


- irebutue. 


Moon - 


- akkera. 


To-morrow - 


- wirran, widdoor. 


Star - 


- boothue. 










Where are 


}he meean knandoor ? 


Light - 
Dark - 


- goona, yoona. 

- kuooroo. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- mixrra. 


I don't know 


- arra nakkalla. 


Heat - 


- kninjanka. 


Plenty 


- talgai. 


Day - 


- weeroo. 


Big - 


- talgibella. 


Night - 


- knoorungoo. 


Little - 


- batchingeri. 


Fire - 


- burri, banying. 


Dead - 


- woolinya. 


Water - 


- ammoo. 


By-and-by - 


- takoo wongieh. 


Smoke 


- toocha. 


Come on 


- danya wonga. 


Ground 


- nanni. 


Milk - 


- knammoon, am- 


Wind - 


- yarka. 




moo. 


Rain - 


- ungalla. 


Eaglehawk - 


■ ooreytella. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- barkum. 


Ghosts 


- meekellew. 


Wife - 


- peykoo. 



26 THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



No. 143.— BELYANDO RIVER. 

By James Mtjirhead, Esq., and Chables Lowe, Esq. 

Of the annexed vocabularies of the Belyando tribes, the first 
(largely supplemented with notes) was kindly sent to me by 
Mr. James Muirhead, the second was obtained by Mr. Charles 
Lowe from Mr. Edward Mayne. 

Mr. Muirhead informs me that the language of which his 
vocabulary is a specimen is spoken (no doubt with certain 
differences) by the following bwra^ or tribes : — 

The Owanburra, or Kowanburra, whose country is the 

Upper Belyando. 
The Wokkelburra, who inhabit the Lower Belyando to 

its junction with the Suttor. 
The Babbinburra, who dwell between Mistake Creek 

and Clermont. 
The Terraburra, who live near the Alice River. 
The MunguUaburra, whose country is near Fort Cooper. 
The Koombokkaburra, who inhabit Bower Downs Run. 
The Muthoburra, whose country is Elgin Downs. 
The Durroburra, who own some of the Burdekin and 

Suttor country. 
Some of these tribes, continues Mr. Muirhead, are divided 
into four classes, which bear the following appellations: — 

Men. Women. 

Banbey, Banbeyan, 

Wongoo, Woongooan, 

Oboo, Obooken, 

Kargilla. Kargillahan. 



BELYANDO EIVBR. 27 

The individuals of these classes marry as follows: — 

Male. Female. 

Banbey with Wongooan; offspring being - Oboo, or Obooken. 
Oboo with Kargillahan; offspring being - Banbey, or Banbeyan. 
Wongoo with Banbeyan; offspring being - Kargilla, or Kargillahan. 
Kargilla with Obooken; offspring being - Wongoo, or Wongooan. 

The system of class-marriage, Mr. Muirhead informs me, 
obtains amongst two or three of the neighbouring tribes, and, 
in one of them, the nomenclature of the classes is the same 
as that given above, but in the others different. I also 
learn the game is divided into two sorts, called Mallera and 
Woothera respectively, as is also food generally, and that 
certain classes are only allowed to eat certain sorts of food. 
Thus, the Banbey are restricted to opossum, kangaroo, dog, 
honey of small bee, &c. 

To the Wongoo is allotted emu, bandicoot, black duck, 
black snake, brown snake, &c. 

The Oboo rejoice in carpet snakes, honey of the stinging 
bee, &c., &c. 

The Kargilla live on porcupine, plain turkey, &c., &c., 
and to them it appears belong water, rain, fire, and thunder, 
and that they enjoy the reputation of being able to make 
rain at pleasure. 

Of course there are innumerable articles of food, fish, 
flesh, and fowl, into the distribution of which Mr. Muirhead 
does not enter. Tribes, remarks my informant, receive their 
names generally from some peculiarity in their district or its 
products. The food eaten by the Banbey and Kargilla is 
termed Mallera, and that of the Wongoo, Oboo or Woothera. 
Should a Wongoo Black, camped out by himself, dream 
that he has killed a porcupine, he would believe that he 
would see a Kargilla Black next day. 

As is the case in Australia generally, these Blacks believe 
that no strong man ever dies except as the consequence of 
witchcraft ; that the old alone die from natural causes ; 
that should A and B, two strong Blacks of the same tribe, 
who were quite friendly, go out hunting together, and A, on 



28 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

returning to the camp, be taken suddenly ill and die, the 
tribe would believe that B had killed him by means of witch- 
craft, and demand his life accordingly ; and that B, in dread 
of the consequence, on the first sign of serious indisposition, 
would take to flight and seek the protection of some other 
tribe. The result of this unusual custom is that one or two 
strange Blacks are found domiciled with nearly every tribe 
in this neighbourhood. On the evening of A's death, his 
friends, painted for war, theirweapons inhand, wouldassemble 
and proclaim that he owed his death to B ; B's friends, on 
the other hand, loudly maintaining that such was not the fact. 
If, after arguing the matter, A's friends adhered to their first 
opinion, they would wrap up the body of the deceased in 
bark, and having made a stage with a fire by it, would beat 
the ground about it into dust, making it smooth and level, 
and leave the corpse for that day. On the return next day of 
some of the warriors, the ground which had been smoothed 
would be carefully examined, and if any animal, bird, or 
reptile had passed over it, its track would be easily seen, 
and the murder be assigned to some member of the tribe 
in whose dietary scale the animal, bird, or reptile is included. 
If a brown or black snake had been there, some Wongoo would 
be declared to be the culprit ; if a carpet snake, an Obad ; if 
a dog, a Banbey, and so on. Then would come the considera- 
tion, to what particular Wongoo or Obad suspicion should 
attach. If no animal had left his tracks on the prepared 
ground, the friends of the deceased would try to frighten the 
ghost out of the bark shroud. Failing in this, they would 
again smooth down the dust, returning to the spot morning 
and evening until they succeeded in catching the ghost, from 
which incorporal essence they would learn to whom its release 
from the body was due. This accomplished, the corpse 
would be temporarily deposited in a grave, covered only with 
bark, and be there allowed to remain for two months. A 
half-circle would then be dug round one side of the grave, 
the body be chopped up, put into fresh bark in as small a 
space as could be conveniently managed, and be given to the 



BELYANDO RIVER. 29 

mother or sister of the deceased to carry to all meetings of 
the tribe, or until the death were avenged. Eemains are 
sometimes carried in this way for two years. When tired of 
carrying them about, they are dropped down the pipe of a 
hollow tree and left there, and a ring of bark is stripped off 
that and the neighbouring trees to mark the spot. Should 
they fail to obtain tidings of a murder in any way, a suspicion 
is apt to grow up that possibly the death came of natural 
causes. "When a man dies, the women cry and cut themselves 
with sharp stones. "When a woman dies, or is killed, her 
remains are burnt immediately. "When bad humour pervades 
the camp, they often kill a woman and think nothing of it. 

The Blacks, continues Mr. Muirhead, have a great dread 
of falling stars; sometimes they pretend to have seen one 
enter the ground and to have dug it up. Falling stars thus 
obtained are kept in their bags with mysterious secrecy and 
used for incantation. My informant got them to show him 
one of the stars alleged to have been dug up, and found it to 
be a piece of thick glass which its owner had picked up 
somewhere. My informant also writes that the Babing- 
burra tribe is called after the bottle-tree; the Owenburra 
tribe after the emu ; the Muthoburra after a variety of the 
brigalow-tree. Children are never called after their parents 
(as such names could not be used after the death of either of 
the parties), but after animals, reptiles, personal peculiarities, 
deformities, &c. Besides names of this sort, the first born 
male child is styled Tayling, or thumb; the second Bangan- 
burra, after the first finger; the third Youlgo, after the 
middle finger; the fourth Boorhy, after the third finger; and 
the fifth Nallumbrew, after the little finger. Like other 
tribes, they never name the dead. They recover from wounds 
which would be certain death to "White men. 

Concerning the superstitions of the tribe, Mr. Muirhead 
says that there is in that part of the continent a non- 
venemous snake with a black head, called Uthagoa, or 
Kuthagoa, the body of which is marked like a carpet. Con- 
cerning this reptile, the Blacks say that ages ago he was 



30 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACB : 



most venemous, and used to Mil many Blacks; that the 
moon became angry and burnt his head as he slept at night 
in the grass, which made his head black and his bite harm- 
less. They also relate of a snake called Ollerj/, or Gollery, 
which has long fangs, and is very venemous, that in past 
ages he had only small and harmless teeth; but meeting a 
venemous snake in the grass he said to him, "What fine 
long teeth you have; let me have yours and you mine ?" and 
so the exchange was made, and Ollery became most venemous 
and his friend innocuous. 

The above reminds me that years ago the Bangerang 
used to relate many wonderful tales in which the moon was 
constantly a principal performer. 

The following Additional Words were forwarded by Mr. 
Muirhead: — 

Additionai, Words. 



Native tobacco 


- mickerry. 


Young woman 


- mungine. 


Gum - 


- mokine. 


Girl - 


- umbal. 


Bat - 


- tibbingburra. 


Boy - 


- walbra. 


Thumb 


- telling or tay- 


Eagle - 


- korrithuUa. 




liae. 


Scrub turkey 


- wandora, 


Index finger 


- bangangburra. 




cocobean. 


Middle finger 


- youlgo. 


Plain turkey 


- burkum. 


Third finger 


boorly. 


A plain 


- burgulla. 


Little finger 


nuUumbrew. 


Squatter pigeon 


■ mothoo-mothoo 


Clouds 


youngalla. 


Bronzewing 


bapa. 


Lightning - 


mathaknurra. 


pigeon 




Short - 


thaan. 


Heart - 


bundine. 


Water rat - 


ohnool. 


Elbow - 


mungo. 


Ashes - 


boonga. 


Loins - 


barrew. 


Indignation meet 


boa. 


Wallaby - 


doomba. 


ing 




Walleroo - 


achool. 


Funeral oration - 


warrgul. 


Wild cat - 


nalgonna. 


Cry - 


unclewla. 


White 


onyoo. 


Ruddle 


boing. 


Red - 


dega. 


Band round head milman. 1 


Black - 


to", 
arroburra. 


Meat - 


euri. 


HeavynuUa-nulla 


baloor. 


Corroboree - 


mombo. 


Crooked ditto 


bow-bow. 


Woman with child 


ungine. 


Boomerang - 


wangal. 



BELYANDO RIVER. 



31 



Stone chisel 
Chisel for making 

weapons 
Knife - 
Gum-tree about 

rivers 
Mussel 
Seal - 
Young of any 

animal 
Letter 
Hail-stone - 
Sugar - 
Maggots 
Squirrel 
Sand-fly 



AdditionaIi Words — continued. 

Wombat - - warroo. 

Spittle - - numba. 

Rainbow - - bangor. 

Reeds - - bandera. 

Devil - - - megoola. 

Bee - - - wooooon. 

Black bee - - abba. 

Stinging bee obuUa. 

Small bee - - wathal. 

Eel - - - wakel, oggella. 

Male of any bamby. 

animal 

Female of any younga. 

animal 

Stop - - - naoo. 



tungroo. 
tabbingburra, 

angil. 
thandwalla. 

arring. 

talomby. 

wongoa. 

wappegilla. 

muokerry. 

bathero. 

ooroo. 

mungeroo. 

mongy. 



Bongerma - 
Mathadilla - 



Wongobungey 

Arrungull - 
Orragillgill - 
Bilkurra 



Names of Black Men, with their Significations. 

Doolooa 
Yandowongala 
Alundorra - 



- venemous. 

- nearly caught an 

eel. 

- after the action 

of a swallow. 

- black cockatoo. 

- mutton bird. 

- narrow-leafed 

box-tree. 



Yangera-yanger 
Almoola 
Moornoora - 



stick. 

come back, 
sand plover, 
passion fruit, 
native cotton, 
a prickly burr 
found in giddya 



32 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 143.— BELYANDO RIVER. 



By James MumHEAD, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- wo-e-a. 


Hand - 


- malla. 


Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


- dungoo. 
• wantie. 

- goondooloo. 


2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 

One - 
Two - 
Three - 


- murray buUeroo. 

- murray buUeroo 

wogin. 


Black duck - 
Wood duck 
Pelican 


■ coberri. 
knak-knak. 
boloon. 


- wogin. 

- booleroo. 

- booleroo wogin. 


Laughing jackass 


kakaburra. 


Pour 


- booleroo boo- 


Native companion orrowra. 




leroo. 


White cockatoo ■ 


dickeri. 


Father 


- auntie, woddie. 


Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - - 
Track of a foot - 
Fish - 
Lobster 


waathan. 

anjoo or anoo. 

deena. 

ohyoo. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,, Younger 
Brother-Elder 

Younger 


- yunga. 
■ wahboo. 


Crayfish 


ander. 


A young man 


cowla or owla. 


Mosquito - 


mundoo w 


An old man 


minda. 


Fly - - - 


botheen. 
ninknum. 


An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 
Children - 


bulgnau. 


Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 


moonda. 
murray. 




A Black woman - 


bungangy, 


Head - 


auther. 




youngeroo. 


Eye - 


diUi. 


Nose - 


nunder. 


Ear - 


wollo. 



BELYANDO RIVER. 



33 





No. 143.— Bblyand 


D RivEK — continued. 


Mouth 


- tunga. 


Boomerang - 


- wongal. 


Teeth - 


- eak or ea. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- 


Wood- 


- 


Beard - 


- anga or nunga. 


Stone - 


- byo. 


Thunder - 


- moongoo. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


- walkoo, boken. 


Yes - 


- yo. 


Tongue 


- talline. 


No - 


- kurra, curra- 


Stomach 


- knambooma. 




berry. 


Breasts 


- nanmioon. 




Thigh 


. 


I 


- ia. 


Foot - 


- deenna. 


You - 


- indu. 


Bone - 


- balboon. 


Bark - 


- ooca, ocoow. 


Blood - 


- koomma, koom- 


Good - 


- marbel. 




maw. 


Bad - 


- 


Skin - 


- 


Sweet - 


- 


Pat - 


- tommi, nunda. 


Food - 


- munda. 


Bowels 


- alkine. 


Hungry 


_ 


Excrement - 


- oornia. 


Thirsty 


. 


War-spear - 


- anda. 


Eat - 




Reed-spear - 


- walloburra. 






Wommera or 


toomuUa. 


Sleep - 


- wongoruronana 


throwing-stick 




Drink 


- 


Shield 


- goolmerri. 


Walk - 


- 


Tomahawk - 


•• balgo. 


See - 


- naggalla. 


Canoe - 


- warella. 


Sit - 


- 


Sun - 


- kie, williby. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- kackera. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


- woorra, butho. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 


- 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- moora. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- talgi. 


Day - 


" 


Big - 


- burca, talgi. 


Night - 


- knakoon. 


Little - 


- bagerejnurre. 


Fire - 


- burry. 


Dead - 


- wallalie. 


Water 


- ammoo, kammoo 






Smoke 


- tocker. 


By-and-by - 


■• 


Ground 


- nannie. 


Come on 


- weingally. 


Wind- 


- yerka. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kammoo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- korrithuUa, 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 


VOL. 111. 




D 





34 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 143.— BELYANDO RIVER. 



By Chaeles Lowe, Esq. 



Kangaroo ■ 
Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 

White cockatoo - 

Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - 

Track of a foot - 

Pish - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito - 

Ely - - . 

Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 
A Black woman 
Nose - 



murghoo. 
thangool. 
moorra. 

oondooloo. 

oolberri. 

boonga-boonga. 



arkooburra. 

ooroon. 

tequrri. 

wathoo. 

arrungharrau. 

anoo. 

deena. 

weena. 

ngobbera. 
boodthim. 
ninya. 

boonalgarra. 
murree. 

nundooroo. 



Hand - 


- malla. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- wirburra. 


Two - 


- buUarbu. 


Three - 


- argooroo. 


Four - 


- 


Father 


- yaboo. 


Mother 


- yungha. 


Sister-Elder 


- 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- 


Young 


er 


A young man 


- munga. 


An old man 


- boonqua. 


An old woman 


- boongunna. 


A baby 


- mabala. 


A White man 


- murgooloo. 


Children 


- tundoo. 


Head - 


- adtha. 


Eye - 


- dille. 


Ear - 


- walloo w wolloo 



BBLYANDO RIVER. 



35 





No. 143. — Bblyando Rivek — continued 




Mouth 


- moonoo. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- guanga. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- woodtha. 


Wood - 


bail. 


Beard - 


- yarrain. 


Stone - 




Thunder - 


- moongnoo. 






Grass - 


- wahoo. 


Camp - 


woongarra. 


Tongue 


- thallain. 


Yea - 


yo- 


Stomach 


- wirra. 


No - ■ - 


ardda. 


Breasts 


- ngamoon. 


I - - 


ngaia. 


Thigh - 


- thurra. 


You - 


yunda. 


Foot - 


- deena. 


Bark - 


ooga. 


Bone - 


- baban. 


Good - 


bunbea. 


Blood - 


- oona. 


Bad - 




Skin - 


- nourmal. 


Sweet - 


wargoo. 


Pat - 


- tonuni. 


Food - 




Bowels 


- bamboo. 


Hungry 


obberru. 


Excrement - 
War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 


- goonna. 

- anda. 

- wallaburra. 


Thirsty 

Eat - 


obybia. 
bunga. 


Wommera or 




Sleep - 


woongar. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- engowa. 


Shield - 


- boorgoo. 


Walk - 


- yuanil. 


Tomahawk - 


- 


See - 


- ngangoo. 


Canoe - 


- balgoo. 


Sit - 


- yambabundi 


Sun - 


- aie. 


Yesterday, - 




Moon - 


- oggera. 


To-day 




Star - 


- boodthoo. 


To-morrow - 




Light - 


- elaroo. 


Where are the 




Dark - 


- ngoorgun. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- moora. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- thalgui. 






Day - 

Night - 


- elaroo. 


Plenty 


- thalgui. 


- ngoorgun. 


Big - - 


- thalguberri, 


rire - 


- boorroo. 


Little - 


- bargalberri. 


Water- 


- armoo. 


Dead - 


- marbar. 


Smoke 


- thugumi. 


By-and-by - 


- boongnoo. 


Ground 


- nundee. 


Come on 


- thangun. 


Wind - 


- yarga, 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


■ 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 


- 



02 



36 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 144.— LOGAN CREEK, PART OP LOWER SUTTOR, 
AND OF LOWER MISTAKE GREEK. 

NARBOO MURRB TRIBE. 
Anonymous. 

A EESiDENT on Avon Downs Station, witli wliose name I am 
not acquainted, lias kindly forwarded me tlie attached 
vocabulary. From Ms statements I gather that there are 
several associated tribes speaking dialects of a common 
language, who inhabit Logan Greek, part of the Lower 
Suttor, and of Lower Mistake Greek. One of these tribes, 
from an individual of which the vocabulary was obtained, is 
called Narboo Murre, whose country, or a portion of it, 
which was occupied by the Whites in 1863, is now known as 
Avon Downs Station. The original number of the Narboo 
Murre my informant set down at five hundred, and their 
present number at one hundred souls. 

The ornaments of this tribe are mussel-shells, which 
hang on the forehead suspended from the hair, and necklaces 
made of coarse grass, cut into short lengths and threaded. 
Cannibalism occurs occasionally amongst them, it is said, 
even at the present day (1880). Polygamy prevails to some 
extent, and five or six of the old men have two wives each. 

The back, shoulders, chest, legs, and arms of this people 
are ornamented with scars, and an upper tooth used to be 
knocked out, but this custom and many others are falling 
into disuse under the pressure of our colonization. The 



LOGAN CREEK, ETC. 37 

hair of tlie Narboo Murre is straight and coarse, with a little 
curl when long. A message is sent to a neighbouring tribe 
by a man who carries a stick carved for the occasion; but my 
informant believes that without the messenger to interpret, 
the signs on the carved stick could not be understood. 

Two Additional Words are given, viz. : — mountain = 
barree; hive of wild bees = kabba. 



38 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 144.— LOGAN CREEK AND PART OF SUTTOR AND 
MISTAKE CREEK. 





Anonymous. 




Kangaroo - 


woora. 


Hand - 


■ mulla. 


Opossum 


tungoo . 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 




3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 


ngoora. 


One - 


warbur. 


Emu - ■ - 


koondoloo. 


Two - 


boolooroo. 


Black duck - 


gooboori. 


Three - 


boolooroo- war- 


Wood duck 






bur. 


Pelican 


booloo. 


Pour - 


boolooroo-boo- 


Laughing jackass 


- karcoburra. 




looroo. 


Native companion 




Father 


yaboo. 


White cockatoo 


deckari, deroou. 


Mother 


yunga. 


Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - 

Track of a foot - 

Fish - 

Lobster 


wadan. 

moongabuUa. 

kungoo. 

deena. 

weena. 


Sister-Elder 
„ Younger 

Brother-Elder 
,, Younger 

A young man 


boolgaypo. 

wahboo. 

kodunna. 

wahboo. 

cowla. 


Crayfish 




An old man 


pringaroo. 


Mosquito - 
Fly - - - 
Snake - 


moonda. 

ninga. 

cabool. 


An old woman 

A baby 

A White man 


boongan, 
camboo. 


The Blacks - 


murri. 


Children 


cambool-wahba 


A^laokfellow - 


murri. 


Head - 


kada. 


A Black woman - 


kieyoo. 


Bye - 


dillie. 


Nose - 


iiunda. 


Ear - 


woUoo. 



LOGAN CREEK, ETC. 



39 



No. 144. — LooAK Cbeek and Past of Suttok and Mistake Greek — 





contimied. 




Mouth 


- tunga. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- eangallaburoo. 


Hill - 


- mungoo. 


Hair of the head 


- boona. 


Wood - 


- toolab. 


Beard - 


- unga. 


Stone - 


- pa-ee. 


Thunder - 

Grass - 


- moongoo. 

- wagoo. 


Camp - 


- 


Tongue 


- tailing. 


Yes - 


- yea. 


Stomach 


- narmboo. 


No - 


- kurra. 


Breasts 


- 


I 


- nginye. 


Thigh - 


- toomoo. 


You - 


- iuda. 


Foot - 


- dinua. 


Bark - 


- 


Bone - 


- balbin. 


Good - 


- bembie. 


Blood - 


- gooma. 


Bad - 


- coitba. 


Skin - 


- beedie. 


Sweet - 


- cunga. 


Fat - 


- tammie. 


Food - 


- yooga. 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- cabinoo. 


Excrement - 


- 






War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 


- kuuda. 


Thirsty 
Eat - 


- 


Wommera or 




Sleep - 


- 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- 


Shield 


- koolmurri. 


Walk - 


- 


Tomahawk ■ 


- balgoo. 


See - 


- 


Canoe - 


- (none exist). 


Sit - 


- 


Sun - 


- ki-ee. 


Yesterday - 


- birgow. 


Moon - 


- karkurra. 


To-day 


- eja. 


Star - 


- bootoo. 


To-morrow ■ 


- kiebadoo. 


Light - 


- 


Where are the 




Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- 


Day - 


- ki-ee. 


Big - - 


- dulgai. 


Night - 


- wogoon. 


Little 


- bridgelberrie 


Fire - 


- boorie. 


Dead 


- woolellie. 


Water 


- kamoo. 


By-and-by - 


- dagoo. 


Smoke 


- dooga. 








_ 


Come on 


- woujow. 


Ground 


- nanie. 










Milk - 


- nammoon. 


Wind - - 
Rain - 


- yerga. 

- kamo. 


Baglehawk - 


- corridella. 


God - 


_ 


Wild turkey 


- wurga. 


Ghosts 


- meederra. 


Wife - 


- burgoo. 



40 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 145.— FORT COOPER.— AMINUNGO TRIBE. 



By W. O. Hodgkinson, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- woora. 


Hand - 


- mulla. 


Opossum 


- kooliga. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


- wondi. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 


- moura. 


One - 


- wurba. 


Emu - 


- koondooloo. 


Two - 


plurro. 


Black duck - 


- barran. 


Three - 


koodburra. 


Wood duck- 

Pelican - - kroora. 
Laughing jackass kowkurra. 
Native companion pargammo. 
White cockatoo - dingerri. 


Four - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- Congo. 

- yabbo. 

- yungan 

- boungoon 


Crow - 


- wartagan. 


,, Younger 


- manrogunna, 


Swan - 


goordedilla. 




megana. 


Egg - 


- kooki. 


Brother-Elder 


- balloona. 


Track of a foot 


tinna. 


„ Younger karmina, 


Fish - 


winna. 




kurdona. 


Lobster 


quarra. 


A young man 


- maura. 


Crajrfish 




An old man 


- broonega. 


Mosquito - 


coongerra. 


An old woman 


■ broongewana 


Fly - 


nungun. 


A baby 


- yallo. 


Snake ■ 


moonda. 


A White man 


- megolo. 


The Blacks - 


murri. 


Children 


- kondo. 


A Blaokfellow 


murri. 


Head - . - 


- koori. 


A Black woman 


warngo. 


Eye - 


- tille. 


Nose - 


nindi. 


Ear - 


- woUo. 





FORT COOPER. 


4 


No. 145 


—Fort Coopbe.— Aminunoo Trib-e— continued. 


Mouth 


tunga (lips). 


Boomerang - 


- wongul. 


Teeth - 


era. 


Hill - 


- boorganna. 


Hair of the head 


■ kata. 


Wood - 


- darla. 


Beard ■ 


- unga. 


Stone - 


- barri. 


Thunder 


- tigaroo. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


kindyerra. 


Yes - 


- karra. 


Tongue 


tuUia. 


No - 


- kadgimbinga, 


Stomach 


punna. 




kunea. 


Breasts 


ammooa. 


I 


- madyeu. 


Thigh - 


- turra. 


You - 


- yinda. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Bark - 


- petuUa. 


Bone - 


bulban. 


Good - 


- poongonna. 


Blood - 


- koonga. 


Bad - 


- 


Skin - 


■ tungera. 


Sweet - 


- kantagoonda. 


Pat - 


tommy. 


Pood - 


- nilbo. 


Bowels 


koonna. 


Hungry 


- kabinno. 


Excrement - 


tuUi. 


Thirsty . - 


- kanga bungana 


War-spear - 


■ coombo. 


Eat - 


- yugonga. 


Reed-spear - 


kundura. 


Sleep ■ 


- woongarra. 


Wommera or 


coombi yabunga. 


Drink - 


- kamo yugonga. 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- yanninga. 


Shield 


koobnarri. 


See - 


- nuckunga. 


Tomahawk - 


piramo. 


Sit - 


- tunnunga. 


Canoe 


winda. 






Sun - 


karri. 


Yesterday - 


- koorgoo. 


Moon - 


kuggera. 


To-day 


- yegilga. 


Star - 


wiregi. 


To-morrow - 


- pootka. 


Light - 


karri. 


Where are the 


kow-warri. 


Dark - 


• koonda. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


putarri. 


I don't know 


- kurrananga. 


Heat - 


karrimella. 


Plenty 


- paamburra. 


Day - 


moogonoo. 


Big - 


- kongoobarri. 


Night - 


koonda. 


Little - 


- pijarri. 


Fire - 


boori. 


Dead - 


- boonda. 


Water 


kamo. 










By-and-by - 


- tako. 


Smoke 


tooka. 






Ground 


nunni. 


Come on 


- cooranga. 


Wind - 


kidjara. 


Milk - 


- nammona. 


Rain - 


kamo bungera. 


Eaglehawk 


- purpunda. 


God - 




wad turkey 


- koogia. 


Ghosts 




Wife - 


- warngo. 



42 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 146.— SCRUBBY CREEK. 



By Edward Cube, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


woorra. 


Hand - 


unna. 


Opossum 


kulaju. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


mudda. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One - 


warba. 


Emu - 


kundooloo. 










Two - 


kurgoo. 


Black duck - 


barana. 










Three - 


kurborra. 


Wood duck - 


- elganna. 






Pelican 


kuddaboo. 


Four 


kangoo. 


Laughing jackass nurbungal. 


Father 


yabboon. 


Native companior 


I kooroora. 


Mother 


yanganna. 


White cockatoo 


tingari. 


Siater-Elder 


kudna. 


Crow - 


wadagan. 


„ Younger 




Swan - 












Brother-Elder 


kadana. 


Egg - 


kummara. 






Track of a foot 




,, Younger 




Fish - 


winna. 


A young man 


- kaoola. 


Lobster 




An old man 


• broonga. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


■ undagana 


Mosquito - 


kannieroo. 


A baby 


- wabooroo. 


Fly - 




A White man 


- migolo. 


Snake - 


tugiri, warrura. 






The Blacks - 


kurrunbay. 


Children 




A Blackfellow ■ 




Head - 


manoo. 


A Black woman 


warnoo. 


Eye - 


- diUi. 


Nose - 


ooroo. 


Ear - 


woUoo. 



SCRUBBY CREEK. 



43 





No. 146. — SCBUBBY Creek — continued. 


Mouth 


■ tha. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- irra. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head 


- kurri. 


Wood - 


- tuUa. 


Beard - 


- nanga. 


Stone - 


- parri. 


Thunder - 


- moorinoo. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


- widira. 










Yes - 


_ 


Tongue 
Stomach 


- buUo. 


No - - 


- 


Breasts 


- ammoona. 


I 


- 


Thigh - 


- tarra. 


You - 


- 


Foot - 


- thinna. 


Bark - 


- kooga. 


Bone - 


- balban. 


Good - 


- bungoona. 


Blood - 


- koonga. 


Bad - 


- urga. 


Skin - 


- koondo. 


Sweet - 




Fat - 


- tammi. 


Food - 


- taloaralla. 


Bowels 


- kurrui. 


Hungry 


- kabbiri. 


Excrement - 


- koonana. 


Thirsty 


_ 


War-spear - 


- burrunara. 










Eat - 


- ugangoopooroo. 


Reed-spear - 


- kirmba. 






Wommera or 




Sleep - 


- ooga. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- bitangoo. 


Shield - 


- 


Walk - 


- 


Tomahawk - 


- balgoo. 


See - 


- 


Canoe - 


- winda. 


Sit - - 


- tanangoo. 


Sun - 


- karri. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


■ kagara. 


To-day 


- nilla. 


Star - 


- kangalbi. 


To-morrow - 


- kalgingen. 


Light - 


- talngana. 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- munnoo. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- butaringa. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- burnga. 


Plenty 


- 


Day - 


- karri. 


Big - 


- marga. 


Night - 


- munnoo. 


Little - 


- wabugooroo. 


Fire - 


- tunburri. 










Dead - 


- bunda. 


Water 


- kammoo. 






Smoke 


- tuga. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- nanni. 


Come on 


- tawaii,poorianni 


Wind - 


- kaiba. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- yoogana. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



44 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 147.— PORT MACKAY AND ITS 
NEIGHBOUEHOOD. 

By Geoboe F. Bridgeman, Esq., and the Revd. H. Bucas. 

For tlie following information relative to tlie Port Mackay 
tribes I am indebted to the gentlemen named above, and 
also to a resident in tbe locality, who has forwarded his con- 
tribution anonymously. The vocabularies famished by 
these three gentlemen agree so well, that I have thought it 
unnecessary to give more than one of them. Other than as 
regards language, the information I have received respecting 
these tribes is to the following effect: — 

Within a radius of fifty miles or so of Port Mackay dwell 
four tribes which differ but little in speech. Their names 
are the Yuipera, in whose territory is the town; the Kungal- 
burra, whose country is between Port Mackay and Broad 
Sound; Toolginburra, resident just to the west of the territory 
of the last-named tribe ; and the Googaburra, or Island Blacks. 
The occupation by the "Whites of the country of these tribes 
began, I learn, in 1860, or thereabouts. During the eight or 
ten years which followed, about one-half of the aboriginal 
population was either shot down by the Native Mounted 
Police and their officers, or perished from introduced loath- 
some diseases before unknown. The Black troopers, however, 
are said to have been the chief destroyers. What the actual 
numbers of the tribes were when the Whites came amongst 
them is not known, but my anonymous correspondent gives 



PORT MACK AY AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 45 

tlie number of the Toolginburra tribe at the present time 
(1880) as one hnndred, made up of 40 men, 40 women, and 
20 children, and mentions that large numbers were carried 
off by measles in 1876. 

As regards clothing, these tribes used opossum-rugs at 
night, but went naked during the day, with the exception of 
the women, who wore a belt round the waist, which supported 
a fringe, which hung down in front nearly as low as the 
thigh. Fringes of this sort are common throughout 
Australia, and are made of vegetable fibre, or of the fur of 
the opossum twisted into strings, or of the skins of animals 
greased and cut into strips. Not a few of these people 
reached, it is thought, the age of seventy years, and there are 
still some alive whose hair is quite white. Both sexes wear 
ornaments made from the shell of the Karreela, or nautilus. 
In times of rejoicing they paint themselves red, and when in 
mourning, white. 

Except that boomerangs of both sorts are in use, and 
that the wommera is not, there is nothing to record in 
connection with the weapons and implements of these tribes, 
as they differ in nothing from what has been already so 
often described. Cannibalism used to be practised, but on 
rare occasions only; polygamy was in vogue, and infanticide 
existed. 

Mr. Bridgeman informs me that all things, animate and 
inanimate, are divided by these tribes into two classes, named 
Yungaroo and Wootaroo. In conformity with this idea, each 
of the tribes under consideration is divided into Yungaroo 
and Wootaroo. These are again each divided into two sub- 
classes, with a view to the regulation of marriage and pre- 
vention of the union of persons nearly related by blood. The 
first into Gurgela and Gurgelan, masculine and feminine, 
and Bunbai and Bunbaian. The second into Koobaroo and 
Koobarooan, masculine and feminine, and Woongo and 
Woongoan. Every member of the tribe belongs to one of 
these classes, and the arrangement works in the manner 
shown by the following table: — 



46 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 





fl 


d 














o o 
o o 


o o 


^1 




o o 


<5 '? 


S Pl 


OO 


^i4 


MM 


OO 



ra 12 






)3 


^ 




<Y 


1 


•S 


^ 


g 


^ 


W 


M 


!« 


^ 


T 




a 


6 


;; 










d 


a 






.J3 
Q 






^ 



S 



^^ 



FQPq 



c8 tS 

pqpq 



o 



^ 



I 






o 



M 



o 


? 


s 


1 

o 


o 






g 




,c 




o 


o 




^ 


M 


s 


'S 


tj 


c3 


a 


a 


ce 












&o 


M 






3 


3 


ii 


O 



g 
6 



I 



a 

g 



^ 



O 



C3 

o 



o o 
botio 

o o 
o o 






O 






^ 



I 



f 



^ 



^ 



I 



PORT MACKAY AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



47 



The reader will thus understand that a Gurgela can only 
marry with a Koobarooan, and that she must not be nearly 
related to him; and so of the others. For him to cohabit 
with a Koobarooan, not his wife, is looked on as an offence 
against her husband only; but to cohabit with a woman of 
any other class is esteemed shameful and unnatural. Every 
Gurgela calls every other Gurgela brother, and every Koo- 
barooan wife, and every Woongo son, unless they be of the 
preceding generation, when he calls them father, &c. 
Woongo calls every Koobaroo kulnagu, which probably means 
uncle, and so on. 



Phbases by Mr. Beidqeman. 



Where are the Blacks ? 

I don't know - 

Where are all the women ? 

Fishing - 

One woman is in the camp 

Where is Tommy 1 

I have not seen him to-day 

I am hungry - 
A hungry Black 

Give me some animal food 
Here it is 
.Come and fish - 

No, let us hunt opossum 

By-and-by I wiU eat opossum - 

Opossum (is) no good - 

Emu is best 

Come and swim 

Beoflf - 

I will go ■ - • 

Are you tired ! - 



- anja murry ? 

- curra ngia knuokelly, or Not I seen. 

- anja kaiyeu tappo ? 

- winna manera, or Fish taking. 

- kaiheu wurbur yambunga woonera, 

or Woman one camp remains. 

- anja Tommy ? 

- currenga kurra knuckelly ngea, or 

Sun this not seen I. 

- gobbeno ngia, or Hungry I. 

- murry gobdenberry, or Black hun- 

ger with. 

- nowra yapamo, Meat give. 

- ngi woonera, or There remains. 

- wiima manera ngally, or Fish take 

we. 

- kurra, colijo yanera. No, opossum 

let us go. 

- tacko colijo ukera ngia. 

- quea colijo, Bad opossum. 

- goondoloo binbee, or Emu good. 

- goodgimo (imperative). 

- yarromo. 

- ngally yanera. 

- dinnabingera indu ? or Tired you ? 



48 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Phbases by Mr. Bridoeman — continued. 



I am Very tired 

Well ! go to sleep 
By-and-by I will sleep - 
Where is my husband ? 
You will see him by-and-by 
I see two women 
Where is my spear ? 

1 have not seen your spear 

Give me one spear 
Come and see my canoe 

Don't talk 



- dinnabingera ngia woorwaya, Tired 

I much. 

- woonomo, or Sleep. 

- tacko woonera ngia. 

- anja bulgin ? Where husband ? 

- tacko knuckanow indu. 

- kaiyeu boolera knuckana ngia. ' 

- anja coombo ngio, Where spear 

mine? 

- coombo curra knuckelby, or Spear 

not seen. 

- coombo wurbur ngombomo. 

- yaudoolia(oj' winda)ngioknuckomo, 

or Canoe mine see. 

- kurra yamala. 



Phrases, etc., by the Rbvd. H. Btjcas. 

Prepositions, says Mr. Buoas, are an important feature in this language, 
and are always affixed to substantives or pronouns, of which instances will 
be see in what follows: — 



The Blacks are coming 

What are they bringing ? 

A kangaroo 

Where from ? - 

Prom a long way 

Why have you taken my meat ? 



I have not taken it 

I have thrown it away stinking 



- mum woorpera. 

- angabirri ? or What with ? 

- woorabirri, or Kangaroo with. 

- anjatum? 

- cow-warri-tum. 

- angirri nowra ngigo murrulba ? or 
What for meat mine taken ? 

- kurra ngia murrulba. 

- wandala ngia kaiga; wandomo, 

throw away (imperative); wan- 
dulba, thrown away. 
Why do you speak nonsense ; you angirri cuttee yamala woono bunda 
were always greedy ? indoo murri; literally. Why non- 

sense speak, always greedy you 
man? 
When I finish (digging) this ground, nanni curmbulba anny-go wininow 
what will the White man give me ? megolo ? Earth finished, what will 

give White man? 
Who = andalo; what = anni; where = anga or andalgo; words of this 
sort always begin with the syllable an. 



PORT MACKAY AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD, 



49 



Verbs. 
Tenses do not alter in person. Many verbs seem to be irregular. 



Present. 


Past. 


Future. 


Imperative. 


Kemarks. 


I see or know 


seen 


I shall see 


see 


I have not seen the 
Blacks 


Knuokana 


knuckilba 


knuckanow 


knuckomo 


kurra ngia murri 
knuckalba * 


I do or make 


done 


I shall make 


do it 


this verb resembles 


Burumbula 


burumbulba 


barumbano 


barumbomo 


the Latin verb 


I bring 


I brought 


I shall bring 


bring 


Facio 


Gorinna 


woprilba 


gormow 


goromo 




I tie or fasten 


fastened 


I shall fasten 


fasten 


rope strongly fasten 


Yuckanna 


yackaba 


yuckanow 


yuckomo 


gubbera winberri 


lout 


out 


I shall cut 


cut 


yuckomo. 


Goolma 


goomulba 


— 


goolmono 





VOL. III. 



50 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 147.— PORT MACKAY AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

By Geokge F. Bridgbman, Esq. 

In this vocabulary will be noticed head and hair expressed by one word, 
and hill and stone by another, White man and ghosts by another. To drink 
is rendered eat water. 



Kangaroo - 


woora. 


Hand - 


muUa. 


Opossum - 


kolijo. 


2 Blacks - 


murry boolera. 


Tame dog - 


wandy, mirree. 


3 Blacks ■ 


murry boolera 


Wild dog - 


moura. 




warpur. 


Emu - 


goondooloo. 


One - 


warpur or wat- 


Black duck - ■ 


- barran. 




chiu. 


Wood duck 


goobirry. 


Two - 


boolera. 


Pelican 


gootaburra. 


Three - 


boolera warpur. 


Laughing jackasi 


i kowur, cowur- 


Four - 






burra 


Father 


yaboo. 


Native companion kooroora. 


Mother 


younga. 


White cockatoo 


tingeri. 


Sister-Elder 


meekana, wango- 
baya. 
the same. 


Crow - 


wotigana. 


,, Younger 


Swan - 


booroobirry. 


Brother-Elder 


- kuttia, cutta- 


Egg - - 


kato. 




nurra. 


Track of a foot 


yalka. 


, , Younger 


wobbun or wob- 


Fish - 


winna. 




bunurra. 


Lobster 




A young man 


mindera. 


Crayfish 


nguohul. 


An old man 


- bingabirry (with 


Mosquito - 


goongera,bakina. 




grey hairs). 


Fly - - - 


uungina. 


An old woman 


- buUngana. 


Snake 

The Blacks - 


(nogeneralterm). 
murry. 


A baby 

A White man 

Children 


- yalo. 
meegolo. 
yalobaga. 

- kutta. 


A Blackfellow ■ 


bomma. 


Head 


A Black woman - 


kaiyew or kaioo. 


Eye - 


tilly or dilly. 


Nose - 


bootan, 


Ear - 


walloo, 



PORT MACKAY AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



51 



ITS Neichboukiiood— coreiwwed. 



ivioum 
Teeth - 


- erar. 


Hair of the head- kutta, kowno. 


Beard 


- ngunga. 


Thunder - 


- tickeroo. 


Grass - 


- kaigera.wockera. 


Tongue 


- tallia. 


Stomach 


- bunna. 


Breasts 


- ugomone. 


Thigh 


- toomo. 


Foot - 


- dinna, 


Bone - 


- bulbun. 


Blood - 


- gooma. 


Skin - - 


- bitty. 


Pat - 


- tammee, nurpy. 


Bowels 


- ngalko. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


War-spear - 


- koombo. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Wommera or 


meero. 


throwing-stick 




Shield - 


- goolmurry. 


Tomahawk - 


- beeramo. 


Canoe - 


- winda. 


Sun - 


- kurree. 


Moon - 


- kockurra. 


Star - 


- wirrigee. 


Light - 


- curree-birry 




(with sun). 


Dark - 


- meta. 


Cold - 


- bootarry. 


Heat - 


- bumgabirry 




(with sweat). 


Day - 


- kurreebirry. 


Night - 


- goouda. 


Fire - 


- boree. 


Water 


- kommo. 


Smoke 


- tooka. 


Ground 


- nanny. 


Wind- 


- kaipa. 


Rain - 


- kommo. 


God - 


. 


Ghosts 


- meegolo. 



Boomerang - 


- wougala. 


Hill - 


- toolkoon, paree. 


Wood - 


- bunga, duUo. 


Stone - 


- paree. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Yes - 


- yo, yoi. 


No - 


- kurra. 


I 


- ngia. 


You - 


■ - indu. 


Bark - 


- bitty, gooka. 


Good - 


- boongana, binbe. 


Bad - 


- guea. 


Sweet - 


- (no term). 


Food ■ 


- munda (vege- 




table), ury (ani- 




mal). 


Hungry 


- gobbin. 


Thirsty 


- comma miena 




(sicA[for]water). 


Eat - 


- euchera. 


Sleep - 


- woomba. 


Drink - 


- kommo euchera. 


Walk - 


- toera. 


See - 


- knukela or tilly- 




knuckela. 


Sit - 


- womera. 


Yesterday - 


- goorcanga. 


To-day 


- ageba(now),cur- 




ree ageba (this 




sun). 


To-morrow - 


- beerkou. 


Where are the auga murry ? 


Blacks? 




I don't know 


- kurra ngia uogela 




(not I see). 


Plenty 


- lumburra. 


Big - - 


- woorwaya, tul- 




kurry. 


Little - 


- batchary. 


Dead - 


- miebo. 


By-and-by - 


- taiko. 


Come on 


- 


Milk - 


- ngomone. 


Eaglehawk - 


- coreeduUa. 


Wild turkey 


- berkum. 


Wife - 


- kaiyewngijo 




(woman mine). 



52 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 148.— BROAD SOUND, YAAMBA, MARY- 
BOROUGH, AND ST. LAWRENCE. 
By Fbedekic Muller, Esq. 

In this vocabulary of Broad Sound, Yaamba (camp), Mary- 
borougli, and St. Lawrence, wMcli was forwarded to me by 
Mr. Frederic MuUer, many words will be noticed very 
similar to those which occur at Port Mackay, whilst others 
agree with those of Rockhampton, the Upper Barcoo, and 
the Diamantina. The word Bina = ear is occasionally met 
with as far south as Queanbeyan. 



No. 148.— BROAD SOUND, YAAMBA, MARYBOROUGH, AND ST. 

LAWRENCE. 
By Frederic Mttlleh, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- woora. 


Opossum - 


- naring. 


Tame dog - 


- merri. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


- koondaloo. 


Black duck 


- bauon. 


Wood duck 




Pelican 


- kooyabula 


Laughing jackass kocaburra 


Native companion goowar. 


White cockatoo 


- willoo. 


Crow 


- wathan. 


Swan - 


- guron. 


Egg - - 


- koolpoor. 


Track of a foot 


- womma. 


Fish - 


- gooyar. 


Lobster 


- goowarra. 


Crayfish 


- elin. 


Mosquito - 


- moowyn. 


Fly - - 


- kooroo. 


Snake - 


- 


The Blacks - 


- kattar. 


A Blackf ellow 


- kattar. 


A Black woman 


- kingil. 


Nose - 


- wooroo. 



Hand - 


- nelli. 


2 Blacks - 


- kattar blaue. 


3 Blacks - 


- kattar kango. 


One - 


- onegan. 


Two - 


- blaue. 


Three - 


- kango. 


Four - 


- blaue warpar. 


Father 


- pena. 


Mother 


- nararoo. 


Sister-Elder 


- maroo. 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- mairang. 


„ Young 


er 


A young man 


- kaola. 


An old man 


- barparoo. 


An old woman 


- bapawan. 


A baby 


- wooer. 


A White man 


- taboon. 


Children 


- wooroo. 


Head 


- naue. 


Eye - 


- meel. 


Ear - 


- bina. 



BEOAD SOUND, YAAMBA, ETC. 



5^ 



No. 148.— Broad Sound, Yaamba, Mabtboeough, ane 


St. Lawkencb- 




contimied. 




Mouth 


danga. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


neera. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


manam. 


Wood - 


buUa. 


Beard - 


- anga. 


Stone - 


baue or balle. 


Thunder - 


- tekoroo. 






Grass - 


- kalla. 


Camp - 


yaampa. 


Tongue 


- tallang. 


Yes - 


eh-eh. 


Stomach 


- booloo. 


No - - - 


yamma. 


Breasts 


- ampa. 


I 


matta. 


Thigh - 


- darra. 


You - 


inda. 


Foot ■ 


- dinna. 


Bark - 


koka. 


Bone - 


- billoo; 


Good - 


garabalki. 


Blood - 


- gawoon. 


Bad - 


walko. 


Skin - 


- winnooer. 


Sweet - 


kattam. 


Pat - 


- balge. 


Food - 


narrai. 


Bowels 


- koonan. 






Excrement - 


- koonan. 


Hungry 


bapool. 


War-spear - 


- kanai. 


Thirsty 


- tookul. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Eat - 


- dangain. 


Wommera or 


woomeea. 


Sleep - 


- konin. 


throwiug-stick 




Drink - 


- dalla. 


Shield 


- koolmare. 


Walk - 


- yanna. 


Tomahawk - 


- wagar. 


See - 


- waara. 


Canoe - 


- wynda. 


Sit 


- teeka. 


Sun - 
Moon - 

Star - 


- kaue or karre. 

- nillan. 

- kandalle. 


Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 


- monda. 

- talla. 


Light - 


- 


Where are the 


kattar wyndar 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- puttail. 


I don't know 


- kamanangi. 


Heat - ■ • 


- karremal. 






Day - 

Night - 


- katte. 

- bandaman. 


Plenty 
Big ■ 
Little - 


- nooraing. 

- kooraing. 


Fire - 


- oui or wee 


Dead - 


- wattoo. 


Water 


- kalle. 






Smoke 


- tooka. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 


- kappa. 


Come on 
Milk - 




Wind- 


- kaipa. 




Rain - 


- yammal. 


Baglehawk - 




God - 


. 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 





54 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 149.— BOOKHAMPTON AND GEACEMERE. 



By Thomas Aecheb, Esq., C.M.G. 



The following vocabulary and very interesting letter were 
kindly forwarded to me by Mr. Thomas Archer: — 

" Dear Sir, — I have filled in the vocabulary sent herewith 
as nearly as any combination of English letters can be made 
to convey the sounds and accents of a native language. 
The letter r should as a rule be sounded liquid, except when 
it is the final, letter of a word, and even then it is often 
slurred so as to be nearly inaudible. In words of more than 
one syllable the accent should almost always be on the 
first. On looking over the list I find that the following 
words are identical with or closely resemble those of the 
Wirraddury language, which is (or rather was) spoken 
throughout a very large extent of country, commencing a short 
distance west of Mudgee and continuing on down the Castle- 
reagh River towards the Barwon, and from the Lower 
Macquarie to the Wallambungle mountains. With this 
language I was pretty familiar five-and-twenty years ago, 
but many of the words have now escaped my memory. The 
words I allude to are: — 



English. 


Rockhampton. 


Wirraddury. 


Dog - 


mirri - 


mirri (?) 


Laughing jackass 


kookooburra 


the same. 


Crow - - - . 


wagan 


the same. 


Two - - - 


bullari 


bulla. 


Foot - ■ - 


dinna - 


dinnang. 


Excrement - 


koonnang - 


the same. 


Fire - 


wee - 


wien. 


Water 


kalU - 


kallin. 


You - 


inda - 


indo. 


I . . . 


atta - 


addo. 


To see 


nam - 


nagi. 



ROCKHAMPTON AND GRACEMERE. 55 

" The language of the natives in the Brisbane, Wide Bay, 
Port Curtis, and Eockhampton districts is so broken into 
dialects spoken every twenty or thirty miles that I have 
known a dozen boys playing together who would have given 
a different name for the same object, even such familiar ones 
as wood, water, fire, &c. It is therefore difficult for a White 
to pick up the languages used by the Blacks inhabiting 
these districts, unless he makes them his business and 
studies them. In the western districts of New South Wales 
(and I doubt not the same holds good in Victoria) one lan- 
guage would be spoken throughout a large extent of country 
(as, for instance, the Wirraddury), and the names of these 
languages were generally made up, more or less, of the 
negative of the language ; as, for instance, Wirraddury, nega- 
tive Wirrai ; Kamilaroi, negative Kamil ; Wailwun, negative 
Wail, and so on. 

" I am, &c., 

"Thomas Aechee." 



56 



THE AUSTRAlilAN RACE: 



No. 149— EOCKHAMP.TON AND GRACEMERE. 



By Thomas Archer, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


boorro. 


Hand - 


■ illy. 


Opossum 


naring. 


2 Blanks - 


- bullari kattar. 


Tame dog - 


mirri. 


3 Blacks - 


- bulliariwerpa 


Wild dog - 






kattar. 


Emu - 


koondooloo. 


One - 








- Tjrerpa. 


Black duck - 


barran. 










Two - 


- bullari. 


Wood duck - 


mah. 






Pelican 


boolan. 


Three - 


- bulliariwerpa 


Laughing jackass 


kook'ooburra. 


Four - 


- kangoondie. 


Native companion koorur. 


Father 


- bina. 


White cockatoo 


kaiagoor. 


Mother 


- ngeia. 


Crow - 


wagan. 


Sister-Elder 


- maram. 


Swan - 


kootool. 


,, Younger 


- 


Egg - 


- koolpoor. 


Brother-Elder 


- maram. 


Track of a foot 


barin. 


,, Younger 


Fish - 


kooya. 


A young man 


- wooroo. 


Lobster 


•wambein. 










An old man 


- yantarrie. 


Crayfish 


ella. 


An old woman 


- yantarrian. 


Mosquito - 


mingur. 






Fly ' - - 


kooroo. 


A baby 


- koolmoo. 


Snake - 


tookkirri. 


A White man 


- taboom. 


The Blacks - 


kattar mattan. 


Children 


- mattan. 


A Blackfellow - 


kattar. 


Head - 


- ngarrie. 


A Black woman - 


kinkil. 


Eye - 


- null. 


Nose - 


wooroo. 


Ear - 


- pinna. 



ROCKHAMPTON AND GRACEMERE. 



57 



No. 149.— RoCKHAMPTON AND GeACEMEBE- 


-continued. 


MoTith 


- munno. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth ■ 


- kirra 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- mannan. 


Wood - 


- dutuUa. 


Beard - 


- anka. 


Stone - 


- barri. 


Thunder 


- booroongai. 


Camp - 


- yampa. 


Grass - 


- karra. 






Tongue 


- talain. 


Yes - 


- yowie. 


Stomach 


- boUoo. 


No - 


- tamma. 


Breasts 


- ammou. 


I 


- atta. 


Thigh- - 


- ka-al. 


You - 


- inda. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Bark - 


- kokka. 


Bone - 


- tilloo. 


Good - - 


- balki. 


Blood - 


- kawoon. 


Bad - 


- wailim. 


Skin - 


- nooman. 


Sweet - 


- balki. 


Fat - 


- talki. 


Food - 


- mattantalti. 


Bowels 


- tuidil. 






Excrement - 


- koonnang. 


Hungry 


- kramman. 


War-spear - 


- wooyoola. 


Thirsty 


- woolain. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Eat - 


- talta. 


Wommera or 




Sleep - 


- konimbo. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- 


Shield - 


- 


Walk - 


- belin. 


Tomahawk - 


- bandara. 


See - 


- nain. 


Canoe - 


- andool. 










Sit - 


- teein. 


Sun - - 


- kain. 






Moon - 


- ngillan. 


Yesterday - 


- ooinda. 


Star - 


- kaiupil. 


To-day 


■ yarrura. 


Light - 


-. kain. 


To-morrow - 


- mallago. 


Dark - - 


- kooroo. 


Where are the woondaida 


Cold - - 


- kirroo. 


Blacks ? 


katta ? 


Heat - 


- palpalla. 


I don't know 


- tainmanangi 


Day - 


- woondayan. 


Plenty 


- woorrain. 


Night - 


- koorrio. 


Big - - 


- woorrain. 


Fire - 


- wee. 


Little - 


- kangoolkor. 


Water 


- kalli. 


Dead - 


- wattoo. 


Smoke 


- taitookka. 


By-and-by - 


- keago. 


Ground 


- kappa. 


Come on 


- malkalli. 


Wind- - 


- kanam. 


Milk - 


- 


Kain - 


- ka-al. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



58 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 150.— EASTERN SLOPES OF EXPEDITION 
RANGE, LOWER DAWSON, UPPER FITZROY, 
MACKENZIE, AND ISAACS RIVERS, AND 
MANY OF THEIR TRIBUTARIES. 

By Petbk McIntosh, Esq., W. D. Cooke, Esq., C. G. Bakthelemy, Esq. 

The following vocabulary of one of tlie dialects spoken on 
the waters named above was, with the exception of a few 
words, forwarded to me by Mr. Peter Mcintosh. His 
spelling I have altered for convenience' sake to that adopted 
in the vocabularies taken down by myself, as set out in 
Chapter I. I think it probable that the first a in Wadihan 
= crow, Wangoora = bah/, and in several other words, is 
meant to convey the sound of o. Besides a vocabulary, 
Mr. Mcintosh also forwarded me a very interesting letter, 
from which the following are extracts: — 

" I have filled up the accompanying vocabulary as far as 
my memory serves me in the Kaangooloo Thaa, in which 
I could converse indifferently some thirteen years since. I 
regret to find how much I have forgotten. I have thought 
it best, however, to fill up as far as I can, as you may be able 
to supply the deficiency from other sources. The Kaangoo- 
loo are a tribe, or rather a confederation of several tribes — 
the Karranbal, the Maudalgo, the Mulkali, and others 
inhabiting the country on the eastern slopes of Expedition 
Range, the Lower Dawson, the Upper Fitzroy, and the 
Mackenzie Rivers, and their tributaries— all speaking the 
same Thaa or tongue. In common with many other tribes, 



EASTERN SLOPES OF EXPEDITION RANGE, ETC. 59 

their negative Kaangoo also expresses the generic name of 
their tribe, Kaangooloo. 

" The name of every individual in this tribe ends with the 
syllable ow, as Manoonmaow, Yakkoolabow', Mulkaidow, 
Doorenmadow, Koongooranbow, Maiaroonmow, Bearioonow, 
Bai-in-moor-ow, Manboonbadthnow, Tarrathagow, Moor- 
koonbathow, Inganbow, &c. All the sons of a family bear 
the same name, and are given, or take for distinction, the 
name of some animal; as Mulkaidow Kooroodilea = the 
eaffle ; Mulkaidow Kokohin = the scrub turkey; Mulkaidow • 
Koondooloo = the emu. Nicknames are also made use of, as 
Mdllawaramha — left-armed; Dhilli maieba = blind-eyed. 
Some of the names have fanciful derivations, as Yakkoola- 
bow, from Yakkool, the water-lily; Koongoorabow, from 
Koon-goo-oOf hoar-frost. The names of places seem to have 
been given in view of local peculiarities, as Nanni nai, or 
brown earth; Yakoolabarri, a place of water-lilies; Toogoon- 
barri, tomahawk place, or place whence the stone of which 
tomahawks are made is obtained; Kakoolabarri, wallaby 
place, &c. The terminations angi, dangi, and bindangi mean 
nearly the same thing as barri, viz., home or dwelling-place, 
as Kakoolbindangi, or home of the wallaby; Dthirabindangi, 
oxhome of the lizzards. Either of these terminals tacked 
on to the name of an animal, tree, or flower changes it into 
the name of a place, and a place where the animal, tree, or 
plant indicated may be understood to exist in greater 
abundance than elsewhere. Many words are differently 
pronounced by different branches of the same tribe. Lagoon 
is variously called Tatying, Kaakan, Ngiakan, and Ngarkan. 

Nganni or Ngandtha is a general 

mitxiog^'as&,z&Ngandthangar? = Where? Ngandtharroo? 
= Why?" 

Then follows these phrases: — 

Nganni-mooroo mawa Bamma inda wanthaba ? 

How many strange Blacks you see? 

Ungoor ungoor. 

Many many. 



60 THE AUSTRALIAJSr RACE: 

Ngandthangoo nthoola yamba ? 
Where they camp ? 

Piari pippoora. 
Near river. 

. Nganni yaroongali pippoora? 

Interrogative, other side river ? 

Kaaugoo, uloomali. 
No, this side. 

Nganthanoo inda wanthaba ? 
When you saw ? • 

Piari karri oodara. 
Near sun slept. 

Nganni inda umbarra ntHoola kambirranoo ? 

Interrogative, you think they will fight ? 

Yoe, yarroo ngia umbarra. 
Yes, that way I think. 

Ngautheroo inda yaroo umbarra ? 
Why you that way think ? 

Kaangof) kaiye ngalli, kaangoo walburra, kangoo, wangoora, ungoor 
No women there, no boys, no children, all 

wallali, mindi bindarra mulka, kandai, wangal, miro. 

strong (men), with many shields, spears, boomerangs, wommeras. 

"Another form of qnestioning," continues Mr. Mcintosh, 
" is alia. Alia ooleo Bama is equivalent to Andthangoo Bama, ? 
i.e., Where are the Blacks ? Yakari ! is an expression of 
joyful surprise ; if I were to try to render it literally, joyful 
heart is as near as I could come. Yeera hatha ! is an 
expression of condolence about equivalent to dear me ! I met 
an old man of the Kaangooloo tribe lately, who, on address- 
ing me in his own tongue, and finding I did not understand 
it so well as formerly, exclaimed — ' Yeera hatha! andtharoo 
inda waloo pierd ngatue thaa?' — i.e., teeth (of my) heart! — 
' Tr% your ear lost my tongue ! ' (or why have you forgotten 
my language?). Mangarea means failure in anything. 
Mangarea yapaba ngia, I threw and failed to hit the mark 
Mangarea yangaba, I failed to find. 



EASTERN SLOPES OF EXPEDITION RANGE, ETC. 



61 





Additional Words. 




Comrade 


- waminda. 


To break - 


padthenoo. 


White - 


- mooli. 


Broken 


padtheba. 


Red - 


- wopool. 


Rotten 


moothang. 


Black - 


- koora. 


A path 


bial. 


Brown 


- naie-naie. 


A ridge 


- thoom. 


Far - 


- kowari. 


A plain 


- birkalla. 


Near - 


- peari. 


A scrub 


- moongaa. 


Straight 


- thoon. 


Bream 


kamooroo. 


Right - 


- boolimba. 


Garfish 


- beanooroo. 


Left - 


- warramba. 


Five - 


- karkoone. 


There - 


- inai. 


Six - 


- karkoone waiba. 


Laugh - 


- yatyerra. 


A bright planet 


- ooyalgan. 


Weep -. ' - 


- pungera. 


Orion - 


- maakaraan. 


Whistle 


- koopiel. 


Southern Cross 


- koodyoorinadyal. 


Cooee - 


- kaugal. 


One night - 


- waiba oongar, i.e., 


Speak - 


- dthooni. 




one sleep. 


Spoke ■ 


- dthooniba. 


Running water 


■ dilkoon. 


Cut - 


- goonmanoo. 


River - 


- pipoora. 


Stab - 


- paupanoo. 


Creek - 


- tarra, i.e., leg. 


Strike - 


- kondanoo. 


Mine - 


- ngatue. 


Struck 


- koondaba. 


Yours - 


- unoo. 


KiU ■ 


- noonpanoo. 


I walk- 


- wakarra or yan- 


Killing 


nooparra. 




negarra. 


KUled- 


- noopaba. 


I walked 


- wakareba or 


Swnn • 


- oongainoo. 




yanneba. 


Walk - 


- wakera. 


Sleeping 


- oongarra. 


Run - 


- yaperakera. 


Slept - 


- oongaba. 


Be quick 


- yapera ma. 


I see - 


- wantharra. 


To fly - 

Jump - 
Strong- 
Tall or long 


- mallawakera 

(walk with 
wings). 

- bulkanoo. 

- wallalli. 

- goorgan. 


I saw - - - wanthaba. 
I sit - - - ulongarra. 
I sat - - - ulongaba. 
Posteriors - - moola. 
Go on or walk gonda yaune. 


Short - 
Tired - 


- koolkooroo. 

- nthuUa. 


away 
Sick with hunger koopira mai-era. 


Sick - 


- mai-era. 


Tree - 


- banga. 


Sore - 


- nimoo. 


Honey 


- kappa. 



• Besides the information given by Mr. Mcintosh, I have 
also received a few words of the Common Vocabulary from 



62 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



W. D. Cooke, Esq., taken on the Isaacs River, which agree 
in the main with those of Mr. Mcintosh, and from which I 
have filled up a few vacancies left by the latter gentleman. 
I have also used in the same way a few words kindly for- 
warded to me by C. G. Barthelemy, Esq. 



No. 150.— EASTERN SLOPES OP EXPEDITION RANGE, LOWER 
DAWSON, UPPER FITZROY, MACKENZIE, AND ISAACS 
RIVERS, AND MANY OF THEIR TRIBUTARIES. 

By Petek McIntosh, Esq. 

The reader may compare White man and ghosts, also stone and hill. 



Kangaroo - 


oora. 


Hand - 


- maa, malla. 


Opossum 




2 Blacks - 


- boolaroo bama. 


Tame dog - 


ngooda. 


3 Blacks - 


- boolaroo waiba 


Wild dog - 






bama. 


Emu: - 


koondooloo. 


One - 


- waiba. 


Black duck 


barran. 


Two - 


- boolaroo. 


Wood duck 




Three - 


- boolaroo waiba. 


Pelican 








Laughing jackass 




Four - 


■ boolaroo-bool^- 


Native companion 






roo. 


White cockatoo - 


gair-gair. 


Father 


- yapoonye. 


Crow - 


wadthaan. 


Mother 


- yanginde. 


Swan - 




Sister-Elder 


- 


Egg - - ■ 




„ Younger 


- 


Track of a foot - 


dthinna. 


Brother-Elder 


wapoorinyi. 


Fish - 


wjnna. 


,, Younger kathanye. 


Lobster 




A young man 


- kaoola. 


Crayfish 




An old man 


- wadtharaan. 


Mosquito - 
Fly - - - 


bootyill. 


An old woman 


- wadthoogaan. 


Snake 


kooli, kabool. 


A baby 


- wangoora. 


The Blacks - 


bama. 


A White man 


- mikkooloo. 


A Blaokfellow - 


bama. 


Children 


- wangoora. 


A Black woman - 


kaiye. 


Head - 


- kattha. 


Nose - 


wootra (also to 


Eye - 


- dthilli. 




smell). 


Ear - 


- waloo. 



EASTERN SLOPES OF EXPEDITION RANGE, ETC. 



63 



No. 150. — Easteen Slopes or Expedition Range, 


ETC. — continued. 


Mouth 


- 


Boomerang - 


- wangal. 


Teeth 


- yiirra. 


Hill - 


- parri. 


Hair of the head 


- kalla. 


Wood - 


- punk (also tree). 


Beard - 


- 


Stone - 


- parri. 


Thvmder - 


- mukkurra. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


- woodthoon. 


Yes - 


- yoe. 


Tongue 


- thaa. 


No 


- kaangoo. 


Stomach 


- nalkoon. 


I 


- ngia. 


Breasts 


- ngammoon. 


You - 


- inda or iinda. 


Thigh - 


- tarra. 


Bark - 


- pelthal, unboon. 


Foot - 


- dthinna. 


Good - 


- binbi. 


Bone - 


- palpana. 


Bad - - 


- waikoo. 


Blood - 


- yirkoon. 


Sweet - 


- kupa barri, i.e., 


Skin - 


- nookal. 




honey-like. 


Fat - 


- thammi. 


Food - 


- mandtha. 


Bowels 


, 


Hungry 


- koopira. 


Excrement - 


- goona. 


Thirsty 


- kamootchi. 


War-spear - 


- kandai. 


Eat - 


- ukanoo. 


Reed-spear - 


_ 


Sleep - 


- oongar. 


Throwing-stick 


- meeroo. 


Drink - 
Walk - 


- wakararroo. 


Shield • - 


- mulka. 


See - 


- wanthanoo. 


Tomahawk - 


- toogoon. 


Sit - 


- ulongoo. 


Canoe - 


- tandool. 


Yesterday - 


- karri wadtha. 


Sun - 


- karri. 




i.e., the other sun. 


Moon - 


- kaaka. 


To-day 


- errai karri, i.e.. 


Star - 


- boodthoo. 




this sun. 


Light - 


_ 


To-morrow - 


- bogan-bogan, 


Dark - 


- koora. 




bogango. 


Cold - 


- ithawa. 


Where are the andangoo bama ? 






Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- 


I don't know 


- kangoo umbarra 


Day - 


- 




ngia. 


Night - - 


- yamba koora, i.e., 


Plenty 


- mulea. 




camp dark. 


Big - 


■ oogal. 


Fire - 


- booyia. 


Little - 


- pit. 


Water 


- kamoo. 


Dead - 


- mai-i-ba. 


Smoke 


- toonbool. 


By-and-by - 


- ittakko.itakoora. 


Ground 


- nanni. 


Come on 


- oko yanna, i.e., 


Wind - 


. 




this way walk. 






Milk - 


- ngammoon. 


Rain - 


- dyroom. 


Eaglehawk - 


- kooroodilea. 


God ■• 


- 


WUd turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- mikkooloo. 


Wife - 


- 



64 THE AUSTRALLAJSr RACE: 



No. 151.— PEAK DOWNS DISTEICT, LOGAN 
DOWNS STATION. 

By Sik Samuel Wilson and T. Mueeay, Sbnior-constablb. 

The name of the tribe which inhabits Logan Downs Station 
is Yambeena. In connection with its language, two copies 
of my Common Vocabularies have been filled up and sent to 
me ; one by Sir Samuel Wilson and the other by Senior- 
constable T. Murray; but as they are almost identical, only 
one of them is inserted. The Senior-constable has also 
forwarded replies to some of my questions, of which the 
following is the substance. 

The Yambeena tribe numbers about 100 persons, several 
of whom have reached an advanced age. Before the coming 
of the Whites some few of the people had opossum-rugs, 
which they only made use of at night ; the rest went naked 
day and night. At present those who can obtain clothes 
from the Whites wear them. For the purpose of ornamenta- 
tion, a mussel-shell is worn on the forehead, suspended from 
the hair, and the skin is smeared with a mixture of grease 
and charcoal. Spears are thrown by hand without the 
assistance of the wommera. Boomerangs of both sorts are 
used, and many of their weapons are colored with red ochre 
and carved with flints. Kestrictions as to the use of certain 
sorts of food are in vogue. The Yambeena do not object to 
tell their names. Of their laws of marriage the following 
particulars are given. 



PEAK DOWNS DISTRICT. 65 

The tribe is divided into two primary classes, called 
Youngaroo and Wootharoo, wliicli are subdivided as follow : 
Youngaroo into males, Koorchella ; females, Koorchel- 
lagan; Bunbyoo, males, and Bunhyoogan, females; Wootharoo 
into Koobooroo, males, and Koobooragan, females ; and 
Woongooga, males, and Woongoogan, females. 

The law is that the men of each of these four classes are 
restricted in marrying to the females of a particular class, 
and that their children bear a specific class-name, in this 
way: — 

Males. Females. MaJes. Females. 

Koorchella marries Koobooragan ; offspring Woongooga, Woongoogan. 
Koobooroo ,, Koorchellagan ; „ Bunbyoo, Bunbyoogan. 

Bunbyoo ',, Woongoogan; „ Koobooroo, Koobooragan. 

Woongooga ,, Bunbyoogan; ,, Koorchella, Koorchellagan. 

The marriage laws were very strictly observed. Women 
were stolen occasionally from other tribes. A widow 
generally carried about for some months the bones of her 
deceased husband wrapped in bark, and became the wife of 
a brother of the deceased. In this tribe the skin is scarred 
and the septum of the nose pierced. 

The language of the Tambeena bears a considerable 
resemblance to the Kaangooloo Thaa. In the former, as my 
correspondent observes, there is but one word to express eat 
and drink. Some terms of relationship, such as aunt, uncle, 
&c., which will be found amongst the Additional Words, are 
interesting. 



66 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 





Additional Words. 




Husband 


- bul-gin. 


High - 


- koor-kan. 


Wife - 


- bir-kod-nerrah. 


Short - 


- kootoo-kootoo. 


Son - 


- wool-bur-rah. 


Long - 


- koor-kun. 


Daughter - 


- wool-bur-rah- 


Deep - 


- koom-bah. 




nah. 


Wet - 


- oom-bum. 


Bees' nest - 


- kub-bah. 


Dry - 


- boor-gill. 


Honey 


- kur-moo-nah. 


Heavy. 


- in-gur-rah. 


Uncle - 


- culgn-nah. 


Light (not heavy) boorm-been. 


Aunt - 


- bippy. 


Which 


- and-jen-nah. 


Nephew 


- too-au-nee. 


That - 


- oon-nah. 


Niece - 


- boor-koo-nerrah. 


Oh! - 


- yaok-ky ! 


Butcher's knife 


- kun-kurree. 


A bag - 


- woppie. 


Pocket knife 


- burran. 


Lightning - 


- ker-min-noo. 


Shirt - 


- yoon-goo-jane. 


To sing 


- bunda. 


Trousers 


- thar-rah-jane. 


To pull 


- boor-ree-mah. 


Hat - 


- kutha-jane; 


To dance 


- wurrah. 


Head-band - 


- mill -maun. 


To jump 


- bulkah. 


Butterfly - 


- booroo booroo. 


To listen 


- imbah. 


Wool 


- knittee. 


To creep 


- murrung. 


Raddle 


- ban-nee. 


To catch 


■- murrah. 


Pipe-clay - 


- tha-koo-lah. 


To sew 


- bunbah. 


Wallaby - 


- wyah. 


To cry 


- parree. 


Kangaroo-rat 


- birrah-moo. 


To kill 


- mung-gah. 


Wallaroo - 


- kau-kool. 


To embrace - 


- oom-bung-goo. 


Mountain - 


- ning-oo-lah. 


To wrap 


- wool-oor. 


Carpet snake 


- coo-leree. 


To fall down 


- woor-rum-an- . 


Black snake 


- kur-moo-nah. 




now. 


Tree snake ■ 


- koom-buU-ah. 


To dream - 


bidg-gerree. 


A maiden ■ 


- kum-bul. 


To tie - 


- ky-goom-bel-lah 


A boy - 


- kon-doo. 


To dig 


- buck-kah. 


A flea - 


- bindee bindee. 


To wash 


- koo-jennah. 


Flesh - 


- tyne-gee-rah. 


To follow - 


- goo-run-dah 


Whirlwind - 


- bool-boo-roo-roo. 


To turn 


- will-ar-rah. 


Sweat - 
Finger-nail - 


- kul-jer-rah 

- mitchin. 


To chop 
To cut 


- kool-mul-lah. 

- bum-boo. 


Lip 

Forehead - 
Bronzewing 


- bee. 

- gna-moo. 
mumill. 


To be angry 
To fly - 
To run 


r kool-lee.- 

- boo-rah-rah. 

- wauk-kur-rah. 


pigeon 
Strong 
Weak - 


- wah-lel-lee. 

- boor-oom-bin. 


To talk 

To laugh - 

To stay 


- wur-tah. 

- yath-tee. 

- than-errah. 



PEAK DOWNS DISTRICT. 



67 



Additional Words — continued. 



To climb - 


- yackah. 


To hurry - 


- bur-bur-yen-nee. 


To swim 


- woo-gar-rah. 


To go slow - 


- ung-ah-yen-nee. 


To fight - 


- goon-der-rah. 


To be afraid 


- bung-gyne. 


To throw - 


- yabbah. 


To steal 


- goon-dine-jellah. 


To want 


- bah-ra-rah. 


A plain 


- burk-kullah. 


To give 


- win-yee. 


A bog - 


- boom-gnah. 


To take 


- cunthee. 


A scrub 


- moon-gurah. 


To carry- 


- cund-^rTrah. 


To sneeze - 


- din-doo-rah. 


To lift 


- yack-ah-rim-bah. 


Iguana 


- thuck-ine. 


To rise 


- yack-kung-ah. 


Native bear 


- wol-mul. 


To lie down 


- woo-nah. 


Widow 


- thnlk-kan. 


To call 


- knnk-kul. 


Widower - 


- koog-goo-nerrah. 



68 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 151.— PEAK DOWNS DISTRICT, LOGAN DOWNS STATION. 



By Sir Samuel Wilson. 



Kangaroo 


- woora. 


Hand - 


muUa. 


Opossum 


koolijo. 


2 Blacks - 


pama boolaroo. 


Tame dog - 


wanday. 


3 Blacks - 


pama kurqnia. 


Wild dog - 


marrara, mowara 


One - 


woorba. 


Emu - 


goondooloo. 


Two - 


boolaroo. 


Black duck - 


- barran, cooberry 


Three - 


kurquin. 


Wood duck 


ngootoo-ngootoo. 


Four - 


koongoo. 


Pelican 


kamoonberril. 


Father 


yabboo. 


Laughing jackass 


kakooburra. 


Mother 


younganerra, 


Native companior 


I karroola. 




younga. ' 


White cockatoo 


tingarry. 


Sister-Elder 


woongoobaya. 


Crow - 


wathagan. 


„ Younger 


meeoumma. 


Swan - 




Brother-Elder ■ 


kathanerra, 


Egg - - 


koomurra. 


". 


wichamulli. 


Track of a foot - 


yelka. 


„ Younger 


wooboonerra, 


Fish - 


weena. 




murkurra. 


Lobster 




A young man 


nunga. 


Crayfish - 




An old man 


boonwa. 


Mosquito - 


kooaroo. 


An old woman 


boonwan. 


Fly ■ 


ngulgnaum. 


A baby 


yalloo. 


Snake - 


euree. 


A White man 


- meekooloo. 


The Blacks - 


ungul. 


Children - 


• koondoonburra 


A Blaokfellow - 


murri, pama. 


Head - 


- kutha. 


A Black woman - 


kiyoo. 


Eye - 


dilly. 


Nose - 


wootha. 


Ear - 


walloo, 



PEAK DOWNS DISTRICT. 



69 



No. 151.— Peak Downs Distbict, 


LoaAN Downs Station — continued. 


Mouth 


- tunga. 


Boomerang - 


- waunguUa. 


Teeth - 


- guUa, yeera. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- yayle. 


Wood - 


- 


Beard - 


- unga. 


Stone - 


. 


Thunder - 


- mookkurree. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass 


- 


Yes - 


- yaow, yo-yo. 


Tongue 


- talline. 


No - 


- kurra. 


Stomach 


- ngalkoo, ba-na. 


I 


- ngia. 


Breasts 


- ngamoora. 


You - 


- nginda. 


Thigh - 


- thurra. 


Bark - 


- kooka. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Good - 


- binbee, boon- 


Bone - 


- bulbuna. 




goona. 


Blood - 


- gooma. 


Bad - - 


- queeya. 


Skin - 


- uoorakul. 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- taumee. 


Food (vegetable) - mundtha. 


Bowels 


- baunboo. 


,, (animal) 


- yuree. 


Excrement - 
War-spear - 


- goona. 

- kunda. 


Hungry 

Thirsty 


- kobinoo. 

- boorbunjerra, 

boogie. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Eat - 


- youkunna. 


Wommera or 












Sleep - 


- woongara. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- youkunna. 


Shield • - 


- koolmurri. 










Walk - 


- tooa, unga ennie 


Tomahawk - 


- bulgoo. 


See - 


•• nukkuUa. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- kamboora. 


Sun - 


- karrie. 


Yesterday - 


- karrie bootho. 


Moon - 


- kuckurra. 


To-day 


- yedgeela. 


Star - 


- butthoo. 


To-morrow - 


- birggow. 


Light - 


- bundurra. 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- meetta. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


• boodtherrie. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- wungerra, aree. 


Plenty 


. 


Day - 


- karrie-yamba. 


Big - - 


- tulkiyoo. 


Night - 


- oogoona. 


Little - 


- budjerry. 


Fire - 


- boorie. 


Dead - 


- myeaba. 


Water 


- kamoo. 


By-and-by - 


- neewooUa. 


Smoke 


- tooka. 


Come on 


- kauwoo. 


Ground 


- wahkoo. 


Milk - 


- ngammoon. 


Wind- 


- towera. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kamoo. 


Wild turkey 


- wurka. 


God - 


- 


Wife - 


cowan-nerra, 


Ghosts 


_ 




birkoo-nerra. 



70 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 152.— ALICE RIVER. 



By John Aheen, 



This vocabulary is akin to those of the Upper Thomson, Upper 
Diamantina, &c. 



Kangaroo - 


majumba. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum 


tangoor. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


moora. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One •- 


wougara. 


Emu - 


koolburra. 


Two - 


booladie. 


Black duck - 


yalla murra. 


Three - 


koorbaddie, oour 


Wood duck- 


malla boonga. 




baladie. 


Pelican 


tarra. 


Four - 


bopladie-boo- 


Laughing jackass 






ladie. 


Native companion toogoonoo. 


Father 


■ yaboo. 


White cockatoo - 


teekaree. 


Mother 


yuna 


Crow - 


worgan. 


Sister-Elder 


■ kommie. 


Swan - 




, , Younger 




Egg - - . 


tandoo. 


Brother-Elder 


taagunya. 


Track of a foot - 




„ Younge 


r 


Fish - - ■ 


narbunnee. 










A young man 


■ cowalaa. 


Lobster 


boligar. 






Crayfish 




An old man 


■ mogaree. 


Mosquito - 


boonyee. 


An old woman 


■ mogaree. 


Fly . 




A baby 


- cand09. 


Snake - 


cabbool. 


A White man 


■ coyn. 


The Blacks - 


cubbee-cubbee. 


Children 




A Blackfellow - 




Head - 


- ulkey. 


A Black woman - 


kumbee. 


Eye - 


- tillee. 


Nose - 


ningo. 


Ear - 


- munger. 





ALICE 


RIVER, 






No. 152. — Alice River — continued. 




Mouth 


- towa. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- pirra. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- kuttar. 


Wood - 


. toola. 


Beard - 


- unga. 


Stone - 


- banko. 


Thunder 


- baringa. 


Camp - 


- yamber. 


Grass - 


- yaako. 


Yes - 


- wathee. 


Tongue 


- 


No - 


- kurra. 


Stomach 
Breasts 


- goonar. 

- poorqua. 


I 

You - 


- ngia. 

- Inda. 


Thigh - 


- pular. 


Bark - 




Foot - 


- teena. 










Good - 


- mickan. 


Bone - 


- yaroona. 






Blood - 


- kooma. 


Bad - 


- angaburre 


Skin - 


- yangoona. 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- tommee. 


Food - 


- cuppar. 


Bowels 


- goona. 


Hungry 


- cubbar. 


Excrement - 


- goona. 


Thirsty 




War-spear - 


- koolyar. 


Eat - 


- yooree. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- ookar. 


Wonunera or 


wonala. 


^ 








Drink - 


- youkalgo. 


thro wing-stick 












Walk - 


- waagilgo. 


Shield 


- toombooroo. 




Tomahawk - 


- ballune. 


See - 


- nukalgo. 


Canoe - 




Sit - 


- buhdelgo. 


Sun - 


- tooru. 


Yesterday - 




Moon - 


- kakara. 


To-day 


- nilyar. 


Star - 


- bootoo. 


To-morrow - 


- burran. 


Light - 


- 


Where are the 




Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- mittara. 


I don't know 


_ 


Heat - 


- yakal. • 


Plenty 


- mooraa. 


Day - 


- buttal. 


Big - - 


- bunya. 


Night - 


- ngoa. 


Little - 


- kio. 


Fire - 


- kourree. 










Dead - 


- goondilla 


Water 


- kummoo. 






Smoke 


- hatchoo. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- yamber. 


Come on 


- oakoo. 


Wind - 


- yerga. 


MUk - 




Rain - 


- moogabaa. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



71 



72 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE i 



No. 153.— THE BAECOO EIVER, FORTY MILES 
WEST OF BLAOKALL. 

By John Aherjt, Esq. 

The following account of the Yangeeberra tribe and vocab- 
ulary of their language were forwarded to me by Mr. John 
Ahern. 

The country of this tribe is on the western border of the 
Eastern Division. Circumcision and the terrible rite — 
characteristics of the Central Division — are not practised in 
it. Several words, as the termination of the tribal name, 
tami = fat, dgurdid = cockatoo, younga = mother, 
inda = you, show that this tribe belongs to the Eastern 
Division. On the Diamantina River (No. 140) we find 
orra = 2, and oro on the Western River, and in the language 
of the Yangeeberra our 3. The occurrence of this word 
is proof enough that this trib« came from the North, as 
would naturally be expected from an examination of the map 
and a consideration of the watercourses in the locality, for 
language shows that throughout Australia migration was 
governed by the rivers and natural water supply. 

In Mr. Ahern's account of this tribe no novelty presents 
itself. Their country was occupied by squatters in 1861, 
and the original number of the Yangeeberra, which is thought 
to have been about 170, is now (1883) reduced to 50 all 
told. Many boys have been taken away from the tribe by 



THE BAECOO RIVER. 73 

stock-owners living in distant places, and been brought np to 
look after stock. The Yangeeberra scar themselves on the 
breasts, loin, and shoulders; pierce the septum of the nose; 
have message-sticks, tomahawks of bluestone, and the usual 
arms and utensils. 



74 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 153— THE BARCOO RIVER, 40 MILES WEST OP BLACKALL 
Bt John Ahebn, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


baoord. 


Opossum 


tangoord. 


Tame dog - 


oochapeni. 


Wild dog - 


ombemia. 


Emu - 


umbaile. 


Black duck - 


obendia. 


Wood duck 


geeweela. 


Pelican 


tarda. 


Laughing jackass 


oolbarra. 


Native companion krteertha. 


White cockatoo - 


dgurdid. 


Crow - 


wogana. 


Swan - 


dundurra. 


Egg - 


darndu. 


Track of a foot - 


pooboola. 


Fish - 


burtabuUoo. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 


oovarroo. 


Mosquito - 


bunyeal. 


Fly - 


nioora. 


Snake - - 


mimda. 


The Blacks - 


murri. 


A Blackf ellow - 


leowla. 


A Black woman - 


ambe. 


Nose - - - 


nuttoo. 



Hand - 




- murra. 


2 Blacks 


- 


- murri muta 


3 Blacks 


- 


- 


One - 


- 


- wongara. 


Two - 


- 


- muta. 


Three - 


- 


- our. 


Four - 


- . 


- adava. 


Father 


- 


- ie(ai-i?). 


Mother 


- 


- younga. 


Sister-Elder 


- wongi. 


„ Younger 


- our-wonna. 


Brother-Elder 


: mudji. 


* 
it 


Younger ougunna. 


A young 


man 


- 


An old man 


- mooi. 


An old woman 


- utherteria. 


A baby 


- 


- muorcoom. 


A White 


man 


- 


Children 


- 


- onund. 


Head - 


- 


- thungo. 


Eye - 


- . 


- dim. 


Ear - 


- 


- ammga. 



THE BARCOO RIVER. 



75 



No. 153.— The Babcoo Rivbk, 40 

Mouth - - thooer. 

Teeth - - - dier. 
Hair of the head - minga. 

Beard . - - unga. 

Thunder - - amobareelud. 

Grass - - - undoo. 

Tongue - - taUna. 

Stomach - - oodooa. 

Breasts_ - - goorgoo. 

Thigh- - - thira. 

Foot - - - dinna. 

Bone - - - yaroonoo. 

Blood - - - oma. 

Skin - - - noluUo. 

Fat . - - tami. 

Bowels - - munda. 

Excrement - - thaline. 

War-spear - - bara. 

Reed-spear - - bar. 
Throwing-stick - aramend. 

Shield- - - tumberoo. 

Tomahawk - - baroo. 

Canoe - - - wogara. 

Sun - - - thurroo. 

Moon - - - aurgunda. 

Star - - - bootoo. 

Light - - - 

Dark - - - wa, mongeend. 

Cold - - - moorara. 

Heat - - - 

Day . . - ouchoorpeni. 

Night - - - bonoo. 

Fire - - - booree. 

Water - - awo. 

Smoke . - - thugar. 

Ground - - yamba. 

Wind - - - yarraka, 

Rain - - - amo bundango. 
God - 

Ghosts - - wonboa. 



Miles West of Blackall — continued. 
Boomerang - - wongela. 



Hill - - 


- birree. 


Wood - 


- boodi. 


Stone - 


- byar. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Yes - 


- ee. 


No - 


- arda. 


I 


- ngia. 


You - 


• inda. 


Bark - 


- mookool. 


Good - - 


- weem. 


Bad - 


- banya. 


Sweet - 


- weem. 


Food - 


- udi. 


Hungry 


- wongulla. 


Thirsty 


- amo. 


Eat - 


- wono. 


Sleep - 


- woodnano. 


Drink - 


- wono. 


Walk - - ■ 


- yarrano. 


See - 


- yabona. 


Sit - 


- bendano. 


Yesterday - 


- matidga. 


To-day 


- aimba. 


To-morrow - 


- yeelokkur 



Where are the murribuUa 
Blacks? wondi? 

I don't know - nuirda. 

Plenty - - mooral. 

Big - - - badbreda. 

Little - - - baythana. 

Dead - - - undilla. 

By-and-by - - parri-perrin. 

Come on - - wooa. 

Milk - - - namunoo. 

Eaglehawk - - urella. 

Wild turkey - bungoonya. 

Wife - - - womoo. 



76 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 154.— BLACKALL— BARCOO RIVER. 

By Joseph L. Dudley, Esq., and T. S. Williams, Esq. 

The following vocabulary is made up of two imperfect ones, which 
agree in many particulars, forwarded to me from the locality and by the 
gentlemen named above : — 



Kangaroo - 


bowra. 


Hand - • - 


murra. 


Opossum - 


dungroo. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


moora. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One - 


wongoroo. 


Emu - 


oolbury. 


Two - 


wootah. 


Black duck - 
Wood duck- 


hooire. 


Three - 


hoodperry. 






Four - 


mathari. 


Pelican 


mungaran. 






Laughing jackass 


nookoo. 


Father 


ana. 


Native companion oordatto. 


Mother 


youngernanoo 


White cockatoo 


dioordi. 


Sister-Elder 


■ miarar. 


Crow - 


- wogana. 


, , Younger 




Swan - 




Brother-Elder 


mutchernoo. 


Egg - 


tandoo. 


,, Younger 


wooveri. 


Track of a foot 


deenung. 


A young man 




Fiah - 


biarbarri. 


An old man 


oteeri. 


Lobster 




An old woman 


oobangi. 


Crayfish 


aoheroo. 


A baby 


guomanoo.^ 


Mosquito - 


boonyi. 










A White man 


weetho. 


Fly .- 


uugaroo. 






Snake - 


moondah. 


Children - 


annia. 


The Blacks ■ 


murri. 


Head - 


dungoo or 


A Blackfellow - 


yanja. 




yoongoo. 


A Black woman - 


wongo, annoo. 


Eye - 


diUi. 


Nose - 


noota. 


Ear - 


mungar. 



BLACKALL.— BAECOO RIVEK. 



77 



No. 154. — Blackall — Bakcoo ^iy^b,— continued. 



liloutli 


- towah. 


Boomerang - 


- wunguUa. 


Teeth - 


- teera. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- woolo. 


Wood - 


- doola. 


Beard - 


- unga. 


Stone - 


- barrie. 


Thunder 


- barringa. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


- woothanoo. 


Yes ■ 


- yea. 


Tongue 


- dallanger. 


No - 


- urra. 


Stomach 


- burte. 


I 




Breasts 


- amina, boorkoo. 








You - 


_ 


Thigh- •- 


- toia. 






Foot - 


- denna. 


Bark - 


- biya. 


Bone - 


- yarron, balla. 


Good - 


- weemo. 


Blood - 


- coma. 


Bad - 


- undinga. 


Skin - 


- noomauna. 


Sweet - 


- abba. 


Fat - 


- tammi. 


Pood - 


- unga. 


Bowels - 


- moorigimda. 


Hungry 


- abberri. 


Excrement - 


- oonna. 


Thirsty 


- boogidung. 


War-spear - 


- bakar. 


Eat .- 


- bunginunga. 


Reed-spear - 


- 






Wommera or 




Sleep - 


- ooa. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- ungunga. 


Shield 


- doombooroo. 


Walk - 


- yabbanoo. 


Tomahawk - 


- barroo. 


See - 


- nurrunga. 


Canoe - 


- doombatung. 


Sit - 


- bindunga. 


Sun - 


- dooroo. 


Yesterday - 


- vatucha. 


Moon - 


- howra. 


To-day 


- jimba. 


Star - 


- boothoo. 


To-morrow - 


- munga. 


Light - 


- dokkungo. 


Where are the inichamurri? 


Dark - 


- mungari. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- weedurrah. 










I don't know 


- urra. 


Heat - 


- werequong. 






Day - 


_ 


Plenty 


- 


Night - - 


- howha. 


Big - - 


- buchana. 


Fire - 


- boree. 


Little - 


- aranoo. 


Water 


- ammoo. 


Dead - 


- oondilla. 


Smoke 


_ 


By-and-by - 


- batacher. 


Ground 


- yamba. 


Come on 


- yobbanoo. 


Wind - 


- hurrioa. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- ammoo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts . - 


. 


Wife - - 


- 



78 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 155.— BARCOO RIVER— TAMBO, MOUNT 
ENNISKILLEN, AND RAVENSBOURNE CREEK. 

By T. H. Hyde, Esq., H. L. Bell, Esq., James White Powell, Esq., 
L. P. Dalhunty, Esq., and James Cbombib, Esq. 

The following vocabularies are specimens of the nearly- 
connected dialects of several tribes which dwell on' the 
Ravensbonrne Creek, and ou the part of the Barcoo indicated 
above, the aboriginal name of w;hich river in this portion of 
its course is Mokkardi. 

The vocabulary forwarded by Mr Hyde, I am informed 
in a letter, was drawn up by an aboriginal trooper of the 
Native Mounted Police, born in the locality, who can write 
tolerably well. I have also written replies to my list of 
questions from the same person. 

The handwriting of this Blackfellow is irregular, but, 
though only a pencil has been used, for the most part easily 
read. The spelling is very faulty, and when an aboriginal 
word occurs twice it is not always spelt in the same way. 
C when it occurs I have altered to k. The terminal sound 
usually rendered by a is written er by the trooper, and the 
Italian i, ie. It is noticeable that for eat and drink there is 
but one word, and another for spear and wood, both of 
which characteristics appear in other parts, 

Mr. Hyde says that a great many of the Blacks in his 
neighbourhood are employed on the stations in looking after 
stock, and work well. Mr. Powell makes the same remark. 
Mr. Hyde adds that the Black trooper spends his time 



BARCOO RIVER, ETC. 79 

reading novels and newspapers, has built himself a little 
honse and detached kitchen, has a bed set on posts, and has 
become so civiUzed that he has lost the faculty of tracking 
and other accomplishments of aboriginal life. Of what this 
degenerate savage says, in reply to my questions on manners, 
I extract only a small part, as his contribution contains 
nothing which has not been already often told. 

The name of his tribe is Torraburri, which in 1862 or 
thereabouts, when the Whites first settled in the neighbour- 
hood, numbered, it is thought, some 700 persons, but is now 
reduced to 60 men, 50 women, 14 boys, and 12 girls, or 136 
persons. A few of his tribe, the trooper thinks, lived to be 
ninety, and one of that age still survives. After giving the 
usual information connected with weapons, utensils, and 
ornaments, my informant goes on to say that small-pox, 
called Weeteen* existed in his tribe before he was born, and 
that four or five persons, all about fifty years of age, bear 
the marks of it at the present time. Polygamy prevails in 
the tribe. Marriage is both exogamous and endogamons, 
and from what my informant says (who evidently does not 
comprehend some of my questions, seeming to understand 
by tribes what I mean by classes) I gather that class- 
marriage prevails. Neither circumcision nor the terrible 
rite are known to the Torraburri tribe, who, however, scar 
the back and shoulders, and pierce the septum of the nose. 
No marriage ceremonies exist. The dead (males) are buried 
for a time, then disinterred and their bones carried about in 
bark coffins for six months, and then finally reburied. As 
regards message-sticks, my informant replies to my question 
in these words, " Cut a stick and tell him (the bearer) what 
he got to say to another." Many of the men of _ this tribe 
are six feet high and upwards. The trooper calls the tribes 
which adjoin his own — Koparburri, Peepinburri, and Onderle- 
burri. Freemasonry is unknown. 

* It will be noticed that there is no likeness between the various equiva- 
lents of small-pox, which supports the hypothesis that Australia was fully 
peopled prior to its introduction, and that this was of late date. 



80 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 155.— BARCOO RI7ER. 



Bt T. H. Hyde, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


narka. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


tangoor. 


2 Blacks - 


- murrie boolaroo. 


Tame dog - 


karirer wangal. 


3 Blacks - 


- murrie boolaroo 


Wild dog - 


karirer kabin. 




wangier. 


Emu - 


kolbey. 


One - 


- wangier. 


Black duck - 


kobery marer. 


Two - 


- boolaroo. 


Wood duck- 


manaan. 










Three - 


- boolaroo wangier 


Pelican 


winner youerilly. 










Four - 


- boolaroo boolaroo 


Laughing jackass 


kakoburry. 






Native companion 


none. 


Father 


- yarboo. 


White cockatoo - 


teaerburry. 


Mother 


- younger. 


Crow - 


woterkan. 


Sister-Elder 


- buya tiller. 


Swan - - - 


yourie. 


,, Younger 


- waboogan. 


Egg - - ■ 


kubaon. 


Brother-Elder 


- turgoon tiller. 


Track of a foot - 


teener. 


,, Younger waboo. 


Fish - - - 


winner. 


A young man 


- kourla. 


Lobster 


bookUl. 


An old man 


- watering. 


Crayfish 


koarow. 


An old woman 


- poodgan. 


Mosquito - 


ellpin. 


A baby 


- kantoo. 


Fly - 

Snake - - - 


nemara. 






monda. 


A White man 


- weeto. 


The Blacks - 


murrie. 


Children - 


- kantoonoo. 


A Blaokfellow - 


murrie. 


Head - 


- togoo. 


A Black woman 


kumbi. 


Eye - 


- teeley. 


Nose - 


kao. 


Ear - - 


- manger. 



BARCOO RIVER, ETC. 



81 





No. 155.— Babcoo Riveb— cowiOTMeti 




Mouth 


- tarr. 


Boomerang - 


wongnell. 


Teeth - 


- teer. 


HUl - 




Hair of the head 


- woorow. 


Wood - 


biggar. 


Beard - 


- yarong. 


Stone - 


pageao. 


Thunder - 


- teegroo. 


Camp - 


■ yamber. 


Grass ■ 


- wakoo. 


Yes - 


yoo. 


Tongue 


- tarlang. 


No - 


- kurri. 


Stomach 


- youillkoo. 


I 


- ier. 


Breasts 


- wanker. 


You - 


- ender. 


Thigh - 


- pillar. 


Bark - 


kooker. 


Foot - 


- tinner. 


Good - 


megin. 


Bone - 


- yarrowoon. 


Bad - - 


- begar. 


Blood - 


- koomer. 


Sweet - 


- tarbooy. 


Skin - 


- nomen. 


Food - 


woran. 


Fat - - • 


- -tammy. 


Hungry 


- guper. 


Bowels 


- booltang. 


Thirsty 


- kogeener. 


Excrement - 


- yoonner. 


Eat - 


yookoUoo. 


War-spear - 


- baggar. 


Sleep - 


wangerkoo. 


Reed-spear - 


- weleyburry. 


Drink - 


yookoUoo. 


Throwing-stick 


- kottkoo, betoo. 


Walk - 


wotkillkoo. 


Shield - 
Tomahawk - 


- boorkoo. 

- purow. 


See - 
Sit- - 


nugiby. 
binder. 


Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 


- weeter. 

- tarow. 

- kagerer. 

- dundoo. 

- elierow. 

■ kangder. 

- magder. 


Yesterday - 
To-day '- 
To-morrow - 
Where are the 

Blacks? 
I don't know 


kaboorow. 
gadrow. 
begdigoo. 
murri nuntder ? 

kurri ebelU. 


Heat - 


garrymully. 


Plenty 


talkay. 


Day - 


- gadrow. 


Big - - 


muUer muUer. 


Night - - 


- balkeron. 


Little - 


errow. 


Fire - 
Water 
Smoke . 

ft-rnnnH 


- burri. 
kammoo. 

- toker. 


Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 


odelow. 

y aukko munderly 


KXL U LLllU 

Wind - 
Rain ■ 
God - 


- yerker. 

kammoo warber. 
■ bogu. 


Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
. Wild turkey 


kammoon. 

kotelow. 

baanguke. 


Ghosts 


weta. 


Wife - - 


■ koererow. 


VOL. III. 




P 





82 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 155.-BARCOO RIVER. 



By H. L. Bell, Esq. 



In this vocabulary the reader will notice the harmonious manner ia which 
the equivalents of 1 and 2 are compounded to mean 3. His attention is 
also drawn to the sound araoo in the equivalents of breasts, drink, and water. 
In these districts, the White man's principal anxiety is to find grass for his 
stock, and the reader may compare the equivalents of White man and grass. 



kangaroo - 


naragoo. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


tungooroo. 


2 Blacks - 


- murri, booUaroo 


Tame dog - 


mora. 


3 Blacks - 


- murri booUaron 


Wild dog - 


koombinea. 




gera. 


Emu - 


koolbi. 


.One - 


- wongera. 


Black duck - 


koobaree. 


Two - 


- booUaroo. 


Wood duck - 


munan. 


Three - 


- booUarongera. 


Pelican 


kararoo. 


Pour - 


- boolaroo-booUa- 


Laughing jackass- 


kakaburra. 




roo. 


Native companion 


Father 


- yabbo. 


White cockatoo 


dikkarri. 


Mother 


- younga, young- 


Crow - 


woddon. 




arnoo. 


Swan - 




Siater-Elder 


- beanoo. 


Egg - 


karboin. 


,, Younger 


- 


Track of a foot - 


dinna. 


Brother-Elder 


- tarkanoo. 


Pish - 


biabree, wiarer. 


,, Younger 


Lobster 




A young man 


- nungar. 


Crayfish 


boogalli. 


An old man 


- kiara. 


Mosquito - 


boodoin. 


An old woman 


- kooderi. 


Ply - 


- negeroo. 


A baby ■ - 


- kundoo. 


Snake 


moonda. 


A White man 


- widdoo. 


The Blacks - 


murrenooyo. 


Children 


- kundanoo. 


A Blaokfellow - 


murri. 


Head - 


- tungoo. 


A Black woman 


kumbi. 


Eye - 


- dilli. 


Nose - 


nunderoo. 


Ear - 


- munger. 



BABCOO RIVER, ETC. 



83 



No. 155. — Babcoo 'River— continued. 



Mouth 


- da. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- teea. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head- wooroo. 


Wood- 


- toolgarra. 


Beard - 


- yarrine. 


Stoue - 


- bungo. 


Thunder - 


- 


Camp - 


. 


Grass - 


- widdoon. 


Yes - 


- yoo. 


Tongue 


- tuUini. 


No - 


- kartoo. 


Stomach 


- munda. 


I 


- yooloo. 


Breasts 


- amoo. 


You - 


. 


Thigh - 


- pillar. 


Bark r 


- beear. 


Foot - 


- deena. 










Good - 


- mikkane. 


Bone - 


- yarroon. 


Bad - 


- iudabooia. 


Blood - 


- kooma. 






Skin - . - 


- nooman. 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- tommi. 


Food - 


- ngulgo. 


Bowels 


- bundoo. 


Hungry 


- kobarree. 


Excrement - 


- gooma. 


Thirsty 


- ikomeobla. 


War-spear - 


- bukka. 


Eat - 


- yoordoo. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- oongaue. 


Wommera or 


meeroo. 


Drink - 


- kamogallo. 


throwing-stlck 




Walk - 


- wongaridga. 


Shield - 


- burrayoo. 


See - 


- ianaguUa. 


Tomahawk - 


- burroo. 










Sit - 


- binda. 


Canoe - 


- tangin. 






Sun - 


- taro. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- kogera. 


To-day 


- wyohal. 


Star - 


- boodoo. 


To-morrow - 


- bedgi. 


Light - 


- yambatiUi. 


Where are the murri indeea ! 


Dark - 


- koonda. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- medaree. 


I don't know 


- inde adee. 


Heat - 


- quinqueean. 


Plenty 


- mulquarlo. 


Day - 


- goondagoon. 


Big - - 


- wigga. 


Night - - 


- kanalgo. 


Little - 


- kioo. 


Fire - 


- booree. 










Dead - 


- koondilla. 


Water 


- kammoo. 






Smoke 


- togaf. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- nundee. 


Come on 


- koUe. 


Wind- - 


- yarraya. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kumbundelong. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 





F 2 



84 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 155,— RAVENSBOURNE CREEK— MOKABURRA TRIBE— 
TARAWALLA DIALECT. 



By James White Powell, Esq. 

In this vocabulary the reader may compare spear and wood, tat and 
drink, sun and day. 



Kangaroo - 


- narko. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- tangool. 


2 Blacks - 


, 


Tame dog - 


- mora. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 


- 






Emu - 


- koolberra. 


One - 


- wongera. 


Black duck - 


- 


Two - 


- boolaroo, 


Wood duck- 


- 


Three - 


- boolaunga 


Pelican 


- miarwa. 


Four - 


- nalira. 


Laughing jackass kargooburra. 


Father 


- yarboon. 


Native companion kooroora. 
White cockatoo - diggari. 


Mother 


- yungara. 


Crow 


- wawder. 


Sister-Elder 


- pina. 


Swan 


- 


,, Younger 


- 


Egg 


- kobboo. 


Brother-Elder 


- targanoo. 


Track of a foot 


- tina. 


,, Younger 


Pish -_ - 


- piaberri. 






Lobster 




A young man 


- nangoo. 


Crayfish 


- boogarli, quar- 


An old man 


- anger. 




roo. 


An old woman 


- gycher. 


Mosquito - 


- boothun. 


A baby 


- kandoo. 


Fly - 


- nimmoon. 


A White man 


- withoo. 


Snake - 


- kobbool. 


Children 


- kandoo. 


The Blacks - 


- malkalloo. 






A Blackfellow 




Head - 


- tungoo. 


A Black woman 


- kampe. 


Eye - 


- dilli. 


Nose - 


- ko. 


Ear - 


- mungar. 



RAVENSBOURNE CREEK. 



85 



No. 


155. — RAVENSBOURNE Cbeek — Confirmed. 


Mouth - 


moonoo. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


teer. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


wooroon. 


Wood - 


- barga. 


Beard - 


nangur. 


Stone - 


- woothun (?). 


Thunder 


dindoo. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


woothun. 


Yes - 


- indindi. 


Tongue 


tallyne. 


No 


- kurra. 


Stomach 








Breasts 


■ nammoon. 


I 


- iya. 






You - 


- inda. 


Thigh - 


- bulla (?). 






Foot - 


- tina. 


Bark - 


- beer. 


Bone - 


- yarroon. 


Good - 


- mekinni. 


Blood - 


- kooma. 


Bad - - 


- banya. 


Skin - 


- numen. 


Sweet - 


- jaer. 


Fat - 


- tamme. 


Pood - 


- inde. 


Bowels 


- goonna. 


Hungry 


- kobbarde. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Thirsty 


- monargallelen. 


War-spear - 


- barga. 


Eat - 


- ukalgo. 


Reed-apear - 




Sleep - 


- onga. 


Throwing-stick 


- mora. 


Drink - 


- ukalgo. 


Shield - 


- bulgoo. 






Tomahawk - 


- baroo. 


Walk - 


- wyjalgo. 


Canoe - 




See - 


nekalgo. 


Sun - 


- toro. 


Sit , - 


- bindalgo. 


Moon - 


- koggera. 


Yesterday - 


- iMoleroo. 


■ Star - 


- boothoo, tandoo. 


To-day 


- naler. 


Light - 




To-morrow - 


- kunderoo. 


Dark - 


- karrangalla. 


Where are the 


indu bendang 


Cold - 


- yakkal. 


Blacks ? 


malkalloo ? 


Heat - 


- boine. 


I don't know 


- kurra nidula. 


Day - 


- toro. 


Plenty 


- mulkerloo. 


Night - 




Big - 


- muUa-muUa. 


Fire - 


- boree. 


Little - 


- kooger. 


Water - 


- kamo. 


Dead - 


- kongella. 


Smoke - 


- toongin. 


By-and-by - 


- kygarroo. 


Ground 


- nante. 


Come on 


- wooger, wyger 


Wind - 


- yorka. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- kamo. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife 





86 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACK : 



No. 155.— TAMBO. 



Bt L. r. Dalhuntt, 



Kangaroo - 


nargoo. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


dongeroo. 


2 Blacks - 


murri bulleroo 


Tame dog - 




3 Blacks - 


- mulli bulleroo 


Wild dog - 


goombina. 




wongera. 


Emu - 


koolby. 


One ■ - 


■ wongera. 


Black duck - 




Two - 


- bulleroo. 


Wood duck- 
Pelican 


murraboon. 
derrarooroo. 


Three - 


- bulleroo won- 

gera. 

- karkooroo. 


Laughing jackass 


kargooburra. 


Four - ■ - 


Native companion kooro. 


Father 


- yakkoeela. 

- youngereela. 

- murrangeela. 


White cockatoo 
Crow - 
Swan - 


tikkarri. 
wardergun. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 


Egg - 


kobin. 


„ Younger 




Track of a foot 


dennerboola. 


Brother-Elder 


- targoougeela. 


Fish - 


weena. 


„ Younger 


Lobster 




A young man 


- nunger. 


Crayfish 


kandera. 


An old man 


- kooba. 


Mosquito - 


hooding. 


An old woman 


- boonargun. 


Fly - 


neemeroo. 


A baby 


- kamdoo. 


Snake - 


kokoolo. 


A White man 


- womboo. 


The Blacks - 


murrimulgoo. 


Children - 


- karndonoo. 


A Blackfellow 


murri.. 


Head - 


- doongoo. 


A Black woman 


kumby. 


Eye - 


- dim. 


Nose - 


noondooroo. 


Ear - 


- munga. 





TAMBO. 


8 




No. 155. — Tambo — continued. 




Mouth 


- moonoo. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- deeya. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head wooroo. 


Wood (or tree) 


- warker, pagger 


Beard - 


- yaring. 


Stone - 


- bungoo. 


Thunder - 


- moongoo. 


Camp - 


- yamber. 


Grass - 


- woodthon. 


Yes - 


- wi. 


Tongue 


- tarding. 


No - 


- karra. 


Stomach 


- pontoo. 


I 


- iya. 


Breasts 


- nammoona. 


You - 


- inda.. 


Thigh 


- daria. 


Bark - - 


- beya. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Good - 


- meginee. 


Bone - 


- yarroon. 


Bad - - 


- bunya. 


Blood - 


- kooma. 


Sweet - 


- garber. 


Skin - 


- noomun. 


Food -■ - 


- euri. 


Fat - 


- tommi. 


Hungry 


- karberri. 


Bowels 
Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Thirsty 
Eat - 


- boongerroo. 

- euri. 


War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Wommera - 
Shield 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe 
Sun - 


- pugger. 

- (none). 

- (none). 

- boorgoo. 

- baroo. 

- yooroo. 


Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 
See - 
Sit ■• - 
Yesterday - 


- woga. 

- komo, ngulgo. 

- woodgealgo. 

- nugalgo. 

- binda. 

- konberroo. 


Moon - 


- kokkera. 


To-day 


- kargega. 


Star - 


- boodtha. 


To-morrow - 


- bidgigo 


Light - 


- bombi. 


Where are the murri indea 1 


Dark - 
Cold - - 
Heat - 
Day - - 
Night 
Fire - 
Water 
Smoke 


- gonda.' 

- medurra. 

- dingun. 

- bombi. 

- gonda. 

- boori. 

- komo. 

- dooger. 


Blacks? 
I don't know 
Plenty 
Big - - 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by 


- dongodi. 

- telgi. 

- kya. 

- goondella. 

- kurando. 


Ground 


- nundee. 


Come on - 


- koole, ow-wo. 


Wind - 
Rain - 


- yarega. 

- komo. 


Milk - 
Eaglehawk 


_ 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



88 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 155.— MOUNT ENNISKILLEN. 

By James Cbombie, Esq. 

In this vocabulary we find the termination hurri in the equivalents of 
three and hig. Also amoqnoo and amoo, signifying breasts, water, rain, 
and drinJc. 



Kangaroo - 


naralkoo. 


Opossum 
Tame dog - 


oongeroo. 
moora. 


Wild dog - 


oombina. 


Emu - 


oorai. 


Black duck 


oora. 


Wood duck 


oobuddi. 


Pelican 


durra. 


Laughing jackass 

Native companion moorooella. 

White cockatoo - diggari. 


Crow - 
Swan - 


waugan. 


Egg - 

Track of a foot - 


parroo. 


Pish - 


akroo. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - 
Snake - 


bothing. 

newra. 

moonda. 


The Blacks - 


murri. 


A Blackfellow 


murri. 


A Black woman 




Nose - 


woota. 



Hand - 


murra. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 




One - 


wonga. 


Two - 


woodtha. 


Three - 


woodburri. 


Four - 


ngithera. 


Father 


jena. 


Mother 


yunga. 


Sister-Elder 


yuggoo. 


,, Younger 




Brother-Elder 


yuggoon. 


,, Youngei 




A young man 


- koola. 


An old man 


oo-oo-gin-a. 


An old woman 


- mungini oorilli 


A baby 




A White man 


widtha. 


Children - 




Head - 


- yelli. 


Eye - 


■ dilli. 


Ear ■ 


- muuga. 



MOUNT BNNISKILLBN. 



N 


0. 155.— Mount Enniskillen— co»«inM«(i. 


Mouth 


bakka. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


thea. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


wooroo. 


Wood - 


- doola, baa. 


Beard • 


yarrang. 


Stone - 


- unga. 


Thunder 


moongo. 


Camp - 


- titheringalli. 


Grass - 


oonoo. 






Tongue 




Yes - 
No 


• yea. 
- alia. 


Stomach 


- oorina. 






Breasts 


• amoonoo. 


I 




Thigh - 


■ boomurra. 


You - 




Foot - 


- deeua. 


Bark - 


- beia. 


Bone - 


- yamoon. 


Good - 


- boodi. 


Blood - 


- ooma. 


Bad - 


- indawannia (?) 


Skin - 


- binda. 


Sweet - 




Fat - 


- tommi. 


Food - 


- nanoo. 


Bowels 




Hungry 


- awirrindilla. 


Excrement - 




Thirsty 




War-spear - 


- bugra. 


Eat - 


- daka. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- ooa. 


Wommera or 


metoo. 






throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- amoo. 


Shield - 


- toombarroo. 


Walk - 




Tomahawk - 


- baoo. 


See - 


- nangannoo. 


Canoe - 


- oorun. 


Sit - 


- bindanna. 


Sun - 


- doonoo. 


Yesterday - 




Moon - 


- aurra. 


To-day 


- jambuginni. 


Star - 


- boodthoo. 


To-morrow - 


- yellukka. 


Light - 




Where are the 




Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- moori. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 
Day - 


- dinganna. 

- oonoola. 


Plenty 


- ungilla. 


Night - 


- ooa. 


Big - 


- padberra. 


Fire - 


- boori. 


Little - 


- adyeri. 


Water - 


- amoo. 


Dead - 


- audinga. 


Smoke 


- dooau. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- yamba. 


Come on 


- awae. 


Wind - 


- yarga. , 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- amoo. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - - . 





90 THE AUSTEALIAN RACE: 



No. 156.— NOGOA RIVER. " 

By Thomas Middleton, Esq., and E. Ikvino Noble, Esq. 

I HAVE received vocabularies of the dialects of two tribes 
which dwell on the Nogoa River. The first is from Mr. T. 
Middleton, and is accompanied by an account of the tribe 
which use the language, and the second from Mr. E. I. 
Noble, who does not state the particular part of the river 
from which he obtained his words. It is clear, however, that 
the two languages are nearly related. 

The name of the tribe concerning which Mr. Middleton 
writes is Bimurraburra. Their country lies twenty-five miles 
north of Springsure, and was first occupied as a station in 
1861. The people of this tribe wear a fringe, which hangs 
from a girdle round the waist, and some of them have- 
opossum-rugs, which they use at night. For ornaments, 
they have necklaces of shells and. others of eagles' claws ; 
also a canoe-shaped shell brought from the coast, which is 
worn suspended- from the hair above the forehead, or from 
the neck. The wommera is not used by this tribe, otherwise 
their weapous and belongings are those commonly met with. 
They have the boomerang, but are not very skilful in its use. 
Amongst their articles of food are the bulbs of the lily and 
the seeds of a grass called jaboola, which are reduced to 
flour by pounding between two stones, and afterwards kneaded 
with water and baked on the ashes in the same way as a 
damper. They also use the common ground oven in cooking, 
but no large accumulations of ashes are found in their 
country as in the South, where the Blacks very constantly 



NOGOA RIVER. 91 

camp and cook at fixed places. Certain restrictions respecting 
the use of food exist. Old people, for instance, are the only- 
persons allowed to eat the flesh of the emu. Other articles 
of food are forbidden to a man whose brother has recently- 
died, but this custom does not extend to sisters. A father, 
on the death of a child, male or female, abstains from eating 
iguanas, opossums, and snakes, of the male sex, but nothing 
. of the kind occurs on the death of a wife. This prohibition 
of animals of a particular sex as food is widely prevalent in 
Australia. 

Nothing is kno-wn by this tribe of small-pox. They do 
not object to tell their names, of which the folio-wing speci- 
mens are given: — Males: Bangoonbingi, Nandooringi, Tana- 
rilla. Females: Yandao, Marleo, Moomoyo, Jarranbilli, and 
Moolabullungo. Class-marriage exists in the tribe under the 
same arrangement as at Port Mackay, as follows : — 

Males. Females. ' Children. 

■Wungo marriea Bambi - - Korgilla. 

Bambi „ Wungoon - - Koboror. 

Korgilla „ Koboron - - -Wungo. 

Korborou ,, Korgilla - - Bambi. 

Mr-. Middleton also mentions a second set of class-names, 
which, I presume, belong to some neighbouring tribe, as 
follows : — Nullum, Yoolgo, Bungumburra, and Teilling. 
This tribe scar the shoulders, chest, and back. Circum- 
cision and the terrible rite are unknown. They say that 
the dead go, after some time, to the Milky Way. When 
burying a man his big toes are tied together, and also his 
knees. My informant remarks that this tribe have as 
totems the opossum, scrub turkey, dog, emu, kangaroo, 
eaglehawk, and native bee, but does not state to what they 
have reference. He further remarks that the following signs 
are used. Puffing out the cheeks indicates the absence of 
water; placing the fist on the forehead, the presence of. a 
wallaroo ; stroking the face with open fingers, a kangaroo ; 
and the arm held up and hand bent down, an emu. 



92 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Mr. Noble forwards the fol 


owing Additio 


nal Words : — 


Ant - 


- nimi. 


Husband - 


- ungaila. 


Angry 


- baubobi. 


Hut - 


- oka. 


Ashes - 


- ongoit. 


Knee - 


- moko. 


Bird - 


- mangoola. 


Leaf - 


- ptala. 


Cheek - 


- dtgala. 


Neck - 


- urga. 


Chin - 


- augong. 


Club - 


- miru. 


To weep 


- badewailong. 


Nostril 


- nongol. 


Creek - 


- bulbur. 


Navel - 


- yepi- 


Child-birth - 


- andorillong. 


Opossum-rug 


- ori. 


Clouda 


- tyun. 


Shoulder - 


- wongola. 


Eyebrow 


- dtenbin. 


Sand - 


- nandgki 


Eyelash 


- angola. 


Saliva - 


- numba. 


Feather 


- pbagomundella. 


Swim - 


- wa-i-ong. 


Finger 


- mardu. 


Sky - 


- ianduru. 


Gum - 


- uda. 


Bring some water ammoo, yardi. 


Honey 


- aba. 


The fire is out 


- burdi maila. 




No. 156.— NOGOA RIVER. 






By Thomas M 


[DDLETON, Esq. 




Kangaroo - 


- nurkoo. 


Hand - 


- marra. 


Opossum - 


- tangoor. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


- ngoora. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Wild dog • 


- goombeno. 


One - 


- wungara. 


Emu - 


- gondaloo. 


Two - 


- boolaroo. 


Black duek - 


- maraboon. 


Three - 


- boolaroo- 


Wood duck 


- boorgoon. 




wungara. 


Pelican 


- kongoo-gurn. 


Four - 


- boolaroo-boolaroo 


Laughing jackass kakooburra. 


Father 


- yabboo. 


Native companion koar-roor. 


Mother 


- younga. 


White cockatoo 


- tikardi. 


Sister-Elder 


- wijim-byee. 


Crow - 


- wodthun. 


,, Younger 


- warbimmera, 


Swan - 


• yalbatboroo. 




kargeem. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


- goomera. 

- deena. 


Brother-Elder - weger-tarquin. 
,, Younger karoo-murgurra. 


Fish - 


- weena. 


A young man 


- kowoola. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- wodduring, 


Crayfish - 


•■ komdar. 


An old woman 


boongner. 
- wodduring, 


Mosquito - 


- boothing. 




boongau. 


Fly - 


- nemarroo. 


A baby 


- kandoo. 


Snake (brown) 


- moouda. 


A White man 


- mikkaloo. 


The Blacks - 


- malgarloo. 


Children 


- kandooring. 


A Blackfellow 


- mardi. 


Head - 


- kartha. 


A Black woman 


- mia-a-ara. 


Eye - 


- dim. 


Nose - 


- woodtha. 


Ear - 


- manga. 



NOGOA RIVER. 



93 





No. 156.— NoGOA RTVEn—contimied. 




Mouth 


- moonoo. 


Boomerang - 


wongul. 


Teeth - 


- e-eer-a. 


HUl - - - 


pango. 


Hair of the head 


- wooroo. 


Wood - 


barka. 


Beard - 


- yarring. 


Stone - 


pardi, pomgo. 


Thunder - 


- moongwer. 


Camp - 


yambago. 


Grass - 


- waggoo. 


Yes - 


yoe. 


Tongue 


- tateing. 


No - 


kara. 


Stomach - 


- panho. 


I 


ia. 


Breasts 


- ngammoon. 


You - - 


Lnda, 


Thigh - 


- tara. 


Bark - 


koka. 


Foot - 


- deena. 


Good - 


binbi. 


Bone - 


- ■yarroon. 


Bad - 


bineyer. 


Blood - 


- gooma. 


Sweet - 


- kauga. 


Skin - 


- niewman. 


Food - 


- aming. 


Fat - 


- tarmi. 


Hungry 


- karjeno. 


Bowels 


- kalkine. 


Thirsty 


- boomul. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Eat - 


- yoo-gomna. 


War-spear - 


- nerimo. 


Sleep - 


- wunger. 


Reed-spear - 


- meeraing. 


Drink - 


- yoo-gulga. 


Throwing-stick 


- (none). 


Walk- .- 


- yeningga. 


Shield- 


- borkoo. 


See - 


• nakkuUa. 


Tomahawk - 


- paru. 


■ Sit - 


- binda. 


Canoe - 


- weanda. 






Sun - 


- duroo. 


Yesterday - 


gumboiniger. 


Moon - 


- karkadda. 


To-day 


- yongarunga. 






To-morrow - 


- bierkow. 


Star - 


- boodthoo. 






Light - 


- meedtha. 


Where are the 


mardi unthalgo ? 


Dark - 


- ngorkoon. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- boodthari. 


I don't know 


- ia kara nakkuUa 


Heat - 


- kooran. 


Plenty 


- yangier. 


Day - 


- doorunga. 


Big - 


- talgai. 


Night - 


- ngorkoon. 


Little - 


- badgeeree. 


Fure - 


- bore. 


Dead - 


- myeela. 


Water 


- kamoo. 


By-and-by - 


- boogaroo. 


Smoke 


- chuga. 


Come on 


- tanja-e-nee. 


Ground 


- nanee. 


Milk - 


- ngammoon. 


Wind- 
Rain - 


- gowera. 

- kamoo. 


Baglehawk - 


- koradella. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- wirka. 


Ghosts 


- woobin. 


Wife - 


- biergoonera. 



94 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No, 156.— NOGOA RIVER. 



By E. Irving Noble, Esq. 



It will be noticed that hill and stone are expressed by one word in this 

vocabulary. 



Kangaroo - 


argoo. 


Hand - 




Opossum 


taugni. 


2 Blao'ks - 




Tame dog - 


urra. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck 


umbayno. 
ulbai. 


One - 
Two - 
Three - 


wongara. 

bularu, 

omu. 


Pelican 




Four - 


nga,TiiTion 


Laughing jackass 




Father 




Native coinpanioE 




Mother 




White cockatoo 




Siater-Elder 




Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - 
Track of a foot ■ 


abul. 


■ „ Younger - 

Brother-Elder - 

„ Younger 




Fish - 


yedi. 


A young man 




Lobster 




An old man 




Crayfish 




An old woman - 




Mosquito - 


yeri-gheri. 


A baby 




Ply - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 


nimula. 
abul, bumba. 


A White man 
Children 




A Blackf ellow - 




Head - 




A Black woman ■ 


amln. 


Eye - 


dili. 


Nose - 


nundurra. 


Ear - 


manga. 



NOGOA RIVER. 



95 





No. 156.— NoGOA 


River — continued 




Mouth 


- numu or munu(?) 


Boomerang - 


- waugul. 


■Teeth - 


- drir. 


Hill « 


- bangu. 


Hair of the head 


- whir. 


Wood - 


- baka. 


Beard - 
Thunder - 


- 


Stone - 


- bangu. 


Grass - 


- waku. 


Camp - 


- yamboyna. 


Tongue 


- dtalai. 


Yes 


- 


Stomach 


- banbu. 


No- - 


- 


Breasts 


- amun. 


I 


- 


Thigh - 




You - 


- 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Bark - 


- oka. 


Bone - 


- yaru. 


Good - - . 


- mai. 


Blood - 


- uma. 


Bad - 


- tambalai. 


Skin - 


- numana. 


Sweet - 




Fat - 


. 










Food - 


_ 


Bowels 








Excrement - 


_ 


Hungry 


- 


War-spear - 


- parulau. 


Thirsty 


- 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Eat - 


- bibi. 


Wonunera or 




Sleep 


- ongounong 


thro wing-stick 




Drink 


- along. 


Shield- - 


. 


Walk 


- munaoion. 


Tomahawk - 


- paru. 


See - 


- 


Canoe - 




Sit - 


_ 


Sun - 


dura. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- 


To-day 


_ 


Star - 


- duru. 










To-morrow - 




Light - 


_ 






Dark - 




Where are the 






Blacks' 




Cold - 


- midiirra. 


JL^A.l^\/A^.tJ m 




Heat - 


- waru. 


I don't know 


- 


Day - 




Plenty 


- 


Night - - 


- tindarilla. 


Big - 


- djalma. 


Fire - 


- burdi. 


Little - 


- maigaru. 


Water 


- amu. 


Dead - 


- mailong. 


.Smoke 


- burdibirlook. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- yamba. 


Come on 


- 


Wind- 




Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- amarina. 


Eaglehawk - 


-• 


'God - 




WUd turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 





THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 157.— HEAD OF THE COMET EIVEE. 

By Thomas Josephson, Esq. 

The following vocabulary and account of the Kanoloo tribe 
were kindly forwarded to me by Mr. Thomas Josephson. 

The territory of this tribe is on the head of the Comet 
Eiver, and was occupied by the Whites, my informant thinks, 
in about 1860. At that date it is believed the tribe num- 
bered about five hundred persons ; that in 1869, when Mr. 
Josephson first resided in their country, it had been reduced 
to three hundred, and in April, 1879, the date of that 
gentleman's communication to me, to two hundred souls. 
The causes of the decrease are stated to have been the 
results of venereal introduced by the Whites, consumption, 
and a general resort to the practice of infanticide. Opos- 
sum-rugs are worn by this tribe, who smear themselves 
from head to foot with grease and red ochre on occasions' 
of corroboree ; the face is daubed with pipe-clay and the 
body with charcoal when in mourning. They have buckets 
made from the kurrajong-tree ; baskets, nets, and belts made 
of grass-fibre ; and, originally, tomahawks of porphyry 



HEAD OF THE COMET RIVER. 97 

and trap rock, ground to an edge with sandstone. They 
have also toy and war boomerangs, shields which are carved 
and colored red, and spears which are thrown by hand. 
The members of this tribe decline to eat pork, as I have 
known the Bangerang tribes to do in the neighbourhood of 
Echuca. This is very curious in tribes so far apart, which 
hardly reject anything edible. I never learnt the reason 
of it. Of course pigs were unknown in Australia until we 
brought them here. 

Men only are allowed to eat the flesh and eggs of the 
emu, and on certain hunting expeditions only a particular 
sort of food is allowed. In the territory of this tribe there 
is a*cave fall of the bones of Blacks, who are said by 
Mr. Josephson's informant, Kamungela, to have died about 
forty years back of some disease of the nose. Some of the 
tribe, however, have a few marks which it is thought might 
be the result of small-pox.* Cannibalism seems to have 
prevailed to some extent. These people have no objection 
to tell their names, of which Mr. Josephson gives the 
following: — Males: Kamungela, Embalateloo. Females: 
Tinumburra and Wooloomungunya. Children: Wagooroo 
and Koolaroo. Marriages take place both within and 
without the tribe. Polygamy prevails, and girls have 
husbands at twelve, and become mothers at thirteen years 
of age, or thereabouts. Ornamental scars are made on the 
shoulders and thighs. Circumcision and the terrible rite 
are unknown. Teeth are knocked out, and the septum of the 
nose is pierced. Fish are taken with nets and spears. On 
the day of a corroboree the performers retire to arrange the 
performance in secret. The male youths of eighteen have 
the rights of men conferred on them by means of secret 
ceremonies. " Messages," says Mr. Josephson, " are sent 
orally, but the messenger is accredited by a notched stick." 

* In vocabulary No. 28 the Cheangwa tribe will be found calling small- 
pox moolya errillya-rill-ya, or stone (in the) nose; one instance out of many 
in which we notice tribes thousands of miles apart taking similar views of 
strange things. 

VOL. III. Or 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 157— HEAD OF THE COMET RIVER. 

By T. Josbphson, Esq. 

In this vocabulary we find the verb to drinh rendered eat water ; that 
. breasts, water, rain, and milk are expressed by words derived from the 
root amoo ; that there is but one word for wife and woman, and another for 
liead and Mil. 



Kangaroo - 


- bogoldi. 


Opossum 


- tangor. 


Tame dog - 


- wondi. 


Wild dog - 


- kagargi. 


Emu - 


■• meun. 


Black duck 


- manam. 


Wood duck 


- wya-wya. 


Pelican 


- boloin. 


Laughing jackass kokargar. 


Native companion gooroor. 


White cockatoo 


- tegarri. 


Crow • 


r wyakun. 


Swan - 


- yallaboroo. 


Egg - - 


- kaboiu. 


Track of a foot 


- tennar. 


Fish - 


- weena. 


Lobster 


- yegari. 


Crayfish 


- myngiil. 


Mosquito - 


- boordooin. 


Fly - - 


- nemun. 


Snake (carpet) 


- kabool. 


The Blacks - 


- maree. 


A Blackfellow 


- maree. 


A. Black woman 


- woa. 


Nose - 


- koo. 



Hand - 


- mara. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- wonga. 


Two - 


- boolaree. 


Three - 


- boolare wonga. 


Four - 


- boolaree boola 




ree. 


Father 


- yaboo. 


Mother 


- kika. 


Sister-Elder 


- pyengela. 


„ Younger 


,- mungagela. 


Brother-Elder 


- taqungela. 


,, Younger babooregela. 


A young man 


- nanga. 


An old man 


- wotoori. 


An old woman 


- munke. 


A baby 


- nabooloo. 


A White man 


- koin. 


ChUdreu - 


- nabooloo. 


Head - 


- toongoo. 


Eye - 


- telee. 


Ear - 


- munsa. 



HEAD OF THE COMET RIVER. 



99 



No. 


157. — Head of the 


Comet 'RTvmt^contini(ed. 


Mouth 


- taa. 


Boomerang - 


- wongal. 


Teeth 


- eaa. 


Hill - 


- toongoo. 


Hair of the head- toorooin. 


Wood - 


- pagaa. 


Beard - 


- yarrein. 


Stone - 


- pyu. 


Thunder - 


- boowoindi. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


- kaijul. 


Yes - 


- yo. 


Tongue 


- talai. 


No - 


- kara. 


Stolnaoh 


- goona. 


I 


- ya. 


Breasts 


- amon. 


You - 


- enda. 


Thigh 


- koongal. 


Bark - 


- kooga. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Good - 


- megeun (?). 


Bone - 


- magoo. 


Bad - 


- waeen. 


Blood - 


- gooma. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- moomul. 


Food - 


- gambool. 


Fat - 


- weetha. 


Hungry 


- boonga. 


Bowels 


- beinjul. 


Thirsty 


- boomal. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Eat - 


- thala. 


War-spear - 


- ngooroo. • 


Sleep - 


- ooga. 


Reed-spear - 


- kargun. 


Drink - 


- kama-thalgo. 


Throwing-stick 


- baga. 


Walk - 


- munda. 


Shield - 


- boorgoo. 


See - 


- nagalgo. 


Tomahawk - 


- koobar. 


Sit - 


.- poinda. 


Canoe - 


- kooga. 


Yesterday - 


- mothangana 


Sun - 


- thorod. 










To-day 


- neela. 


Moon - 


- kargara. 






Star - 


- boothoo. 


To-morrow - 


- oongai. 






Where are the maree inda t 


Light - 


- ngaa. 






Dark - 


- koonda. 


Blacks ? 


dena? 


Cold - - 


- metha. 


I don't know 


- kara ranagala 


Heat - 


- poonbul. 


Plenty 


- mulga. 


Day - 


- thooroo. 


Big - - 


- mulgalo. 


Night - 


- koonda. 


Little - 


- kagara. 


Fire - 


- booree. 


Dead - 


- WDolunga. 


Water 


- kamoo. 


By-and-by - 


- babanathe. 


Smoke 


- tooga. 


Come on - 


- woo-ou. 


Ground 


- nanee. 










Milk - 


- namoon. 


Wind- 
Rain - 


- ewa. 

- kamoo. 


Baglehawk - 


- goothalla. 


God - 


- koroo-kooroo. 


Wild turkey 


- warka. 


Ghosts 


- kagage. 


Wife - 


- wooa or woa. 



G2 



100 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 158.— BROWN RIVER. 



By p. J. MuERAY, Esq, Inspectok oe Mounted Police. 



The correctness of some of the words of this vocabulary is doubtful. 
drink is expressed eat water. 



To 



Kangaroo - 


woora. 


Hand - 


- maa. 


Opossum 


goolan. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


ngooda. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck- 


undoola. 

weena. 

gnoolia. 


One - 
Two - 

Three - 


- waybee. 

- boolarra. 

- boolarra waybee. 


Pelican 


boolin. 


Four - 


- boolarra boolarra 


Laughing jackass 


kamminmalli. 


Father 


- yaboona. 


Native companion kooroor. 


Mother 


- yarrunan. 


White cockatoo 
Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - 
Track of a foot 


gahr. 

wadirrin. 

yalbooboora. 

kooma. 

ginna. 


Sister-Elder - goonanagoo (?). 

„ Younger - 
Brother-Elder - goonanagoo (?). 
„ Younger 


Fish - 


dooloora. 


A young man 


- nanga. 


Lobster 


Walloon. 


An old man 


- wadoora. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- wadawan. 


Mosquito - 


- meenyer. 


A baby 


- yanaan. 


J'ly 

Snake ■ 
The Blacks - 


- mein. 

- boongai. 

- yalaari. 


A White man 
Children - 


- widoo. 

- undoo. 


A Blackfellow 


- goolboora. 


Head 


- kuddo. 


A Black woman 




Eye - 


- dilMe. 


Nose - 


- wooda. 


Ear - 


- walloo. 



BRDWN RIVER. 



101 





No. 158.— Bbown River— con«mtte(? 




Mouth 


- yeera(?). 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- yeera. 


Hill - 


_ 


Hair of the head 


- ail. 


Wood - 


- dooli. 


Beard - 


- unga. 


Stone - 


- barree. 


Thunder' ■■ 


- balbai. 










Camp - 


- yaamba. 


Grass - 


- woodoor. 






Tongue 


- dalli. 


Yes - 


- youi. 


Stomach - 


- booldi. 


No - 


- kaugoo. 


Breasts 


- kamoo. 


I 


- waga. 


Thigh 


- darra. 


You - 


- deeba. 


Foot - 


- ginna. 


Bark - 


- cooka. 


Bone - 


- bulban. 


Good - 


- goonegool. 


Blood - 


- eregoon. 


Bad - - 


- waboo. 


Skin - 


- ngoogul. 


Sweet - 


- attoo. 


Fat - 


- dama. 


Food - 


- toomoo. 


Bowels 


- ngalgo. 


Hungry 


- cabeera. 


Excrement - 


- goona. 


Thirsty 


- kamoo waggara 


Warrspear - 


- unda. 










Eat - 


- yoowanna. 


Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 


medoo. 


Sleep - 


- wongara. 


throwing-stiok 




Drink - 


- yoowanna 


Shield 


- goonmerri. 




kamoo. 


Tomahawk - 


- dooban. 


Walk - 


- yanino. 


Canoe - 


- kooka. 


See - 


- wunna. 


Sun - 


- karre. 


Sit - 


- beendau. 


Moon - 


• kiaka. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Star - 


- boodoo. 


To-day 


- edgiga. 


Light - 


- 


To-morrow - 


- boogangio. 


Dark - 


- 


Where are the baamanda? 


Cold - 


- dowa. 


Blacks? 




Heat - 


- karrimul. 


I don't know 


- aknoonilla. 


Day - 


- 


Plenty 


- yenga. 


Night - 


- 


Big - 


- weeirr. 


Fire - 


- booree. 


Little - 


- kurrgom. 


Water 


- kamoo. 


Dead - 


- miebba. 


Smoke 


- tooka. 


By-and-by - 


- taacoo. 


Ground 


- nanee. 


Come on 


- wookooanni. 


Wind- - 


- youoora. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kamoo. 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



102 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 159.— DAWSON RIVEE. 



By John O'Connok, Esq., and E. Cunningham, Esq. 

I HAVE received three vocabularies called after their negative 
adverbs— the Wokka, Wogga, or Woga dialects — two from 
Mr. John O'Connor and the other from Mr. E. Canningham. 
The two first are said to belong to the Dawson B.iver Blacks ; 
the third Mr. O'Connor locates on the Burnett. Internal 
evidence, however, leads me to believe that though the 
Blacks from whom the vocabulary in question was obtained 
were met with on the Burnett, and said that they belonged 
to that river, as they probably do now, the language really 
belongs to the Dawson Eiver country. 

The following Additional Words and tenses of the verb to 
go were kindly kindly forwarded by Mr. O'Connor with the 
first of his two vocabularies: — 



Left-handed 


waw-roon. 


Box-tree 


quip-pe. 


Tall - 


to-k6-ra. 


Scrub-box - 


tit-ch^-meii. 


To laugh - 


mun-jure. 


Scrub - 


bow-ar. 


Where is it ? 


in-ja ? 


Bees' nest - 


kow-wair. 


Come here - 


&-]k. 


A large bees' nest 


coo-jd. 


Tree iguana 


beer-bering-ga. 


Trog - - - 


poor-bung. 


Grass iguana 


na-ran. 


Angry 


baa. 


Kangaroo-rat 


bar-roon-ga. 


Just look that way ya-roon-nea. 


Bandicoot - 


bin-noor. 


A iine day - 


ka-am.ba boo-ar 


Native bear 


june-doon-noo. 


A wet day - 


jure-bai. 


Creek - 


tone-gay. 


Sick - 


ke-wor. 


Give me 


nar-ai wo-ga. 


Very sick - 


ke-wor dun-de. 


Whose is it ? 


nan-ger-e-gow? 


To travel - 


y-i-wa. 


Deaf adder - 


mun-oom. 


To run 


giu-UTTig-your. 


Quart-pot - 


newm-newm. 


To hunt 


me-a-w-a. 


Pint-pot 


coo-tohii. 


Male wallaby 


won-goon. 


Gum-tree - 


yar-i-ba. 


Female wallaby - 


y-a. 


Broad-leafed iron 


goom-bi. 


Father's brother 


boo-ra. 


bark-tree 




Father's sister - 


cum-e. 


Narrow-leafed 


pe-ga. 


Mother's brother 


mum-A. 


ironbarktree 




Mother's sister 


we-young. 


Bottle-tree - 


- pay-ung-a. 


Cousin 


goom-bo. 



DAWSON RIVER. 



103 



Additional Wokds — continued. 



Paternal grand- 


mai. 


New moon - 


mi-an-gower. 


father 




Daybreak - 


yaiberLuge. 


Maternal grand- 


nutchi. 


Firelight - 


goouai. 


father 




I go away - 


nzea chema. 


Paternal grand- 


y-e-u. 


Lightning • 


djunebun. 


mother 




Hailstorm - 


moar. 


Maternal grand- 


boo-e-a. 


To talk 


ya. 


mother 




To strike - 


boomba. 


Female kangaroo- 


grande. 


NuUa-nulla (club 


moreru. 


Female opossum - 


goobe. 


Be gone 


waka kowan. 


Black cockatoo - 


neyong. 


A young woman 


nerroom. 


Carpet snake 


booye. 


Very tired - 


boobokarwine. 


Brown snake 


bogweer. 


I want to see 


nutchu nean. 


Black snake 


mingo. 


To stop or cease 


wooer. 


The leg, from knee boon. 


To wait 


woggokow. 


downwards 




Cloudy 


coomban. 


Arm - 


gineen. 


A clear sky - 


year. 


Finger-nail - 


bingun. 


To kill 


boombayour. 




Conjugation of ti 


se Verb "To Go. 


> 




PRESEN' 


C TENSE. 




Igo - 


mia mundal. 


We go 


- nunna mulgul-e. 


Thou goest - 


yinda munda. 


You go 


youa mulgul-e. 


He goes 


noo-la munda. 


They go 


nia muldalgo. 




PERFECT 


C TENSE. 




I went 


mia mundal. 


We went - 


numia mulguUe 
mundella. 


Thou wentest 


yinda mundella. 


You went - 


yona mundella. 






They went - 


nia mu-tan-gay 


He went 


noo-la mundella. 




mundella. 




future 


TENSE. 




I will go 


mia pa-boo mun- 


We will go - 


pa-boo-ra lung- 




dalgo (by-and- 




ga. 




by). 


You will go- 


- boo-algo mul- 


Thou will go 


yinda wongA 


gulle. 




mundalgo. 




He will go - 


noo-la cur-a mun- 


They will go 


tan-a mur-a cur-a 




dalgo. 




ginda. 




IMPERATI 


YE MOOD. 




Let me go - 


in-chay poor-ba. 


Let them go 


- tago mulgulle 


Let him go - 


poor-ba in-chay 
tago mundalgo. 




poor-ba-loo. 


Let us go - 


coon-du munda. 


Go - 


■ munda, 



The negative sense is given by using the word ka-ra' between the pro- 
noun and the verb. 



104 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 159.— DAWSON RIVER. 



Br John O'Connok, Esq. 
The equivalent of drink is compounded of water eat. 



Kangaroo • 


- kroman. 


Hand - • - 


- na. 


Opossum 


- grownda. 


2 Blacks - 


- booa mean. 


Tame dog - 


- bugin. 


3 Blacks - 


- kuram mean 


Wild dog - 


- kerum. 


One - 


- kumbe. 


Emu 


- wheey, murree. 


Two - 


- booa. 


Black duck 


_ 






Wood duck 


- junmeer. 


Three - - 


- kuram. 


Pelican 


- kowangooran. 


Pour (and all 


bogo. 


Laughing jackass eurgaga. 


numbers above) 


Native companion krargong. 


Pather 


- boora. 


White cockatoo 


- gear. 


Mother 


- weyoung. 


Crow - 


- waaguu. 


Sister-Elder 


- tehet-ge. 


Swan - 


- gooan. 


„ Younger 


- gundan. 


Egg - - 


- heua, meua. 


Brother-Elder 


- tehet-ia. 


Track of a foot 


- dumba. 


,, Younger gunda. 


Fish' - 


_ 






Lobster 




A young man 


- nunga. 


Crayfish - 


- nenewn. 


An old man 


- mogun. 


Mosquito - 


- nine. 


An old woman 


- mogwine. 


Ply . . 


- ding. 


A baby 


- uaba. 


Snake - 


_ 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks 


- mean. 


Children 


- dunde naba. 


A Blackfellow 


- mean. 


Head - 


- mawwa. 


A Black woman 


- newroom. 


Eye - 


- meay. 


Nose - 


- boodgeju. 


Ear - 


- bina. 



DAWSON RIVER. 



105 





No. 159.— Dawson ^ivstl— continued. 


Mouth 


- yeaun. 


Boomerang - 


- warren. 


Teeth 


- deyong. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- bogwin. 


Wood- 


- tatdu. 


Beard 


- eka. 


Stone - 


- yie. 


Thunder 


- merwa. 


Camp - 


- uunda. 


Grass 


- • bunen. 


Yes - 


- ya. 


Tongue 


- dan. 


No - 


- wogga. 


Stomach 


- djura. 


I 


- nye, also natchu 


Breasts 


- nammo. 


You - 


- nin. 


Thigh 


- jingar. 


Bark - 


- goondu. 


Foot - 


- bogar. 


Good - 


- kamba. 


Bone - 


- dear. 










Bad - 


- bunda. 


Blood - - 

Skin - 


- googa. 

- booeum. 


Sweet - 


- boonya. 


Fat - 


- meem. 


Food - 


- kamambadjou. 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- djura. 


Excrement - 


- 


Thirsty 


- OQonjum. 


War-spear - 


- duroon. 


Eat - 


- djou. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- innoar. 


Wommera or 




Drink - 


- koondjou. 


throwing-stiok 




Walk - - 


- yangoa. 


Shield- - 


- goonmurray. 


See - 


- neaua. 


Tomahawk - 


- birdung. 


Sit - 


- gundower. . 


Canoe - 


- boonde. 


Yesterday - 


- oonoonga. 


Sun - 


- booar. 


To-day 


- miing. 


Moon - 


- jeine. 


To-morrow - 


- horerama. 


Star - 


- goonda. 


Where are the nungwa mean 


Light - 


- 


Blacks ? 


budjega? 


Dark - 


- wunuue. 


I don't know 


- wogga nutchu 


Cold - - 


- beke. 




binga. 


Heat - 


- brooka. 






Day - 


- bunba. 


Plenty 


- bogo. 






Big - 


•■ dunde. 


Night - 


- wunune. 






Little - 


- nimbair. 


Fire - 


- kookum. 










Dead - 


- tai-kai-ying-e. 


Water 


- coon. 






Smoke 


• djum. 


By-and-by - 


- cooyea. 


Ground 


- karbong. 


Come on 


- eja. 


Wind - 


- booran. 


Milk - - 


- 


Rain - - 


- biinga. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- eu-ber. 


Wife - 


- 



106 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACB : 



No. 159.— DAWSON RIVER. 



By E. Cunningham, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


kooramin. 


Opossum , - 


kooby. 


Tame dog - 


boogikue. 


Wild dog - 




Emu — 


moie. 


Black duck - 


mannang. 


Wood duck - 




Pelican 




Laughing jackass 


woorkarkar 


Native companion 


kooralbung. 


White cockatoo 


keyarr. 


Crow - 


waugun. 


Swan - 




Egg - 


ngoa. 


Track of a foot 


dinnong. 


Fish ■ 


winnall. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 


ninyouen. 


Mosquito - 


- neenee. 


Fly - - 


- ding. 


Snake 


- Onega. 


The Blacks - 


- meean. 


A Blackfellow 


- meean. 


A Black woman 


- kinbum. 


Nose - 


- budjong. 



Hand - 

2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Four - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,, Younger - 
Brother-Elder 

„ Younger 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman - 
A baby 

A White man . - 
Children 
Head - 
Eye - 
Ear 



na. 

bulla meean. 

kooram meean. 

wonga. 

bulla. 

kooram. 

yaboo. 

too. 

thudgee. 



- dutha. 

kuar. 

wadyourine. 

moogoUan. 

bobo. 

obeir. 

aba-ano. 

kaum. 

mill. 

binnung. 



DAWSON RIVER. 



107 





No. 159.— Dawsok Riter — continued. 


Mouth 


- kam. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- deeong. 


Hill - 


". 


Hair of the heac 


- boogwin. 


Wood 


- tatoo. 


Beard 
Thunder - 

Grass - 
Tongue 


- narran. 

- dthinbooin. 

- bunan. 

- duUtne. 


Stone - 
Camp - 
Yes - 
No - 


- taye. 

- gooyong. 

- ha-ha. 

- woga. 


Stomach 
Breasts 
Thigh 
Foot - 
Bone - 
Blood - 
Skin - 


- koomurr. 

- dundar. 

- booyoo. 

- ditinong. 

- deea. 

- googa. 

- buUim. 


I 

You - 
Bark - 
Good - 
Bad - 
Sweet - 


- pdjyo. 

- nindoo. 

- gundoa. 

- kollumba. 

- wahin. 

- booinja. 


Pat - 


- meim. 


Food - 


- ja. 


Bowels 


■ boondo. 


Hungry 


- dura. 


Excrement - 


-• goonung. 


Thirsty 


- goongjum. 


War-spear - 


- dooruin. 


Eat - 


- gowwa. 


Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 
throwing-stick 
Shield 

Tomahawk - 
Canoe 
Sun - 


murroo 

- gooinmurry 

- narrung. 

- gundoa; 

- chewtoo. 


Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk- 
See - - 
Sit - - 
Yesterday - 


- bowinnjnna. 

- goongowa. 

- nango. 

- nyah. 

- nionah. 

- oonoonga. 


Moon - 


- goolangerra. 


To-day 


- mying. 


Star - 


- goondare. 


To-morrow - 


- oorama. 


Light - 


- goonay. 


Where are 


bhe newnga meean ? 


Dark - 


- oungyou. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- 


I don't know 


- woga odjyo ny- 


Heat - 


- booraga. 




angee. 


Day - 


- chewtoo. 


Plenty 


- waway. 


Night - 


- oungyou. 


Big - - 


- bim. 


Fii-e - 


- gooyong. 


Little - 


- wandirmurra. 


Water 


- goong. 


Dead - 


- deya. ■ 


Smoke 


- jome. 


By-and-by - 


- gwyeea. 


Ground 


- kobbong. 


Come oh - 


- cow-way. 


Wind - 


- burran. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


-, booba. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 


- 



108 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 159.— A WOKKA DIALECT TAKEN ON THE BURNETT. 



By John O'Connor, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


kroman. 


Hand - 


.- na. 


Opossum 


growndda. 


2 Blacks - 


- wombura jarl. 


Tame dog - 


bwgin. 


3 Blacks - 


- chrommuda jarl 


Wild dog - 


watcha. 


One - 


- karboon. 


Emu - 


wheey or muree. 


Two - 


- wombura. 


Black duok- 


monaro. 










Three - 


- chrommuda 


Wood duok- 








Pelloan 




Four - 


- chrommuda 


maij-gwinge. 






Laughing jackass 


gongarga. 




karboon. 


Native companion 


Father 


- baboon. 


White cockatoo - 


kara. 


Mother 


- memay. 


Crow - 


waa-waa. 


Sister-Elder 


- djonn (?). 


Swan - 


may-gwin. 


„• Younger 


- 


■Egg - - - 


heua, meaa. 


Brother-Elder ' 


- tchetja (?). 


Track of a foot - 


dumba. 






Fish - 




„ Young 


er 


Lobster 




A young man 


- gepara. 


Crayfish 


newn-newn. 


An old man 


- keringa. 


Mosquito - 


bree-bree. 


An old woman 


- renignn. 


Fly - 


ding. 


A baby 


- barbay. 


Snake - - - 




A White man 


- mi. 


The Blacks - 


jarl. 


Children 


- uewne. 


A Blackfellow - 


jarl. 


Head - 


moun <yr mour. 


A Black woman - 




Eye - 


- may. 


Nose - . - 


me. 


Ear - 


- benanor. 



ON THE BURNETT. 



109 



Mouth 


- yambool. 


Boomerang - 


- gran. 


Teeth - 


- deyoing. 


Hill - 


_ 


Hair of the head 


- kum. 


Wood - 


- tatdu. 


Beard - 


- eka. 






Thunder - 


- merai. 


Stone - 


- tie. 


Grass - 


- bun. 


Camp - 


- muraun. 


Tongue 


- tchunome. 


Yes - 


- yo or yoi. 


Stomach 


- djaw. 


No - 


- wokka. 


Breasts 


- dundara. 


I 


- ngea or nutchu. 


Thigh 


- 


You - 


- nin. 


Foot - 


- tchenong. 


Bark - 


- goondu. 


Bone - 


- dear. 






Blood - 


- dere. 


Good - - 


- galang. 






Bad - 


- wealn. 


Skin - 


- tome. 






Fat •- 


- mem. 


Sweet - 


- galang. 


Bowels 


- moonay. 


Food - 


- galang djou. 


Excrement - 


- gownong. 


Hungry 


- djure. 


War-spear ■• 


- juay. 


Thirsty 


- goonge. 


Reed-spear - 


- (not used). 


Eat - 


- djou. 


Wommera or 


(not used). 


Sleep - 


- boanda 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- djou. 


Shield 


- poonmurray. 


Walk - 


- yango. 


Tomahawk - 


- mouyum. 


See - 


- neau 


Canoe - 


- goondu. 


Sit - 


- neena. 


Sun - 


- tchenun. 


Yesterday - 


- annai. 


Moon - 


- goola, nermoon, 










To-day 


- taroo. 




gileen. 










To-morrow - 


- woonna woonna 


Star - 
Light - 


- googe, 


Where are 
Blacks? 


the wanya jarl ? 


Dark - 


- wunune. 






Cold - 


- woUi. 


I don't know 


- wokka nutchu 


Heat - 


- yarang. 




banga. 


Day - 


- geurlo. 


Plenty 


- mian. 


Night - - 


- wunune. 


Big - 


- dande. 


Fire - 


~ ooo-eu-ine. 


Little - 


- bure-bure. 


Water 


- coon. 


Dead - 


- bonge. 


Smoke 


- djum. 


By-and-by - 


- gouay. 


Ground 


- djar. 


Come on 


- eja. 


Wind- 


- bran. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- gouong. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



110 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 159.— ADDITIONAL WORDS. 

By John O'Connor, Esq. 

The correctness of the accents inserted in this vocabulary is very 
doubtful. 



Lightning - 


- mur-i. 


Quart-pot - 


newm-newm. 


Hailstorm - 


- mo-ir. ■ 


Pint-pot 


jung-ga jung-ga. 


Carpet snake 


boo-ye. 


Gum-tree - 


mun-bur-in. 


Black snake 


- goorMe. 


Broad-leafed iron 


- keg-gair. 


Native bear 


- goo-la. 


bark -tree 




Bandicoot - 


■ bin-noor. 


Narrow-leafed 


bi-e. 


Deaf adder - 


- mun-oom. 


ironbark-tree 




Frog - 


- go-bung. 


Bottle-tree - 


bung-air. 


Hawk - 


- coo-rea. 


Box-tree 


too-too-re. 


Bee - 


■ too-mul. 


Scrub-box - 


born-nan, • 


Bees' nest - 


- ki-a. 


Scrub - 


kow-k 


Large bees' nest 


- coo-jk. 


Angry - 


ba-al. 


Male wallaby 


won-goon. 


White- 


chil-ing. 


Female wallaby 


- y-a. 


Black - 


woor-ru-we-a. 


Meat - 


jum. 


Red - 


que& que^n. 


Iguana 


djune-ban. 


Yellow 


coo-na coo-na. 


Large lizard.called ma-roon. 


Green or blue (no 




grass iguana 




expression for) 




Cloudy 


kow-6ng. 


To walk 


yan-go. 


A clear sky - 


woon-ir. 


We make a start 


ya-an-da. 


A fine day - 


gal-kng tchen- 


now 






nun. 


Go away, or be- 


wa-ca-go-an. 


A wet day - 


mun-^ki. 


gone 




Moonlight - 


goo-la-ra. 


I am going now - 


nye-a yan-an-da. 


Club . - 


tchab-beer. 


Go quickly - 


yan-an-da boor- 


A young woman 


ginbum. 




re boor -re ma. 


Left-handed; 
Tall - 
Kangaroo-rat 
Creek - - - 


waw-dAn-ga. 


He goes very 
slowly 


jal-lai yan-go. 


gwen-ge. 

bar-roon-gi. 

gerale. 


I will not go 
I wiU go to- 


woo-ka nye-a 
yan-an-da. 
woon-a woon-a 


Tobacco-pipe 


po-mal. 


morrow 


yan-an-da. 


Dry - 

Sick - 


djar. 
tchan-go. 


I went yesterday 


nye-a yan-an-da 
onn-nai. 


Very sick - 


dan-de tchan-go. 


You went yester- 


nin yan-yai onn- 


Tired - 


co-au-jum. 


day 


ai. 


Very tired and oul 
of breath 


new-rone-bong-e. 


We went yester- 
day 


na-am yan-yai 
6nn-al. 



ON THE BURNETT. 



Ill 



No. 159, — Additional Words— continued. 

He will go by moonlight - goo-ai yan-an-da gun goo-la-ra. 

by-and-by will go that fellow moonlight. 



To talk - - ya. 
To strike - - boom-mk. 
I want to see - natohu neau. 
To stop or cease - ne-ro. 
To wait oi delay- ya-ko. 



To kill 
To laugh - 
Where is it ? 
Come here - 
Whose is it ? 

I hear thunder 



- boom-djan. 

- mun-jur. 

- won-ya? 

- ^ja. 

- nan-ger-e-gun? 



I want to sit down, as I am tired 
Get ration bags 



Just look that way ya-boo-na. 

To travel - '- waa-lu. 

To run - - mai-ring-new. 

To hunt - - mai-du. 

I run an old-man natohii mai-du 
kangaroo by my- krb-man kar- 
self boon dja. 

An exclamation of gun-ben-an ! 
surprise ! 

nut-chu be-ing-a me-rai. 
I hear thunder. 



- nye-a neen-na 
I want to sit 



Give me - - nar-ai wa. 
Give it to him or in-do wa. 
to her 

Don't give it - woc-ka wa. 
I will give you an nut chii wug-goo 
opossum djan-^. 

Give me a pipe - nar-ai po-mal or 
nar-ai wa po- 
mal. 



co-an-jum. 
tired. 



poon-be ma-na plau-ro. 

get flour. . . 

I will give it by- goo-ai nutchu 

and-by wug-goo. 

I gave it to you nutchu woong-e 
yesterday onn-ai. 

I will not give it nutchu woo-ka 
to you wug-goo. 



Conjugation of the Verb "To Go." 

PEBSENT TENSE. 

You and I go - naam neen 
yango. 

Georgy and I go - Georgy naam 

yananda. 
Georgy and Billy yo-am yananda 
go Georgy Billy. 



Igo - 


- nea yango. 


Thou goest - 


- neen yanna. 


He goes 


- kunnambe yan- 




anda. 


We go 


- ne yango. 


You go 


- neu yanda. 


They go - 


- kunnambe 




yanna. 



112 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



Conjugation of the Verb "To Go"— continued. 



I went 
Thou wentest 

He went 

We went 
You went - 

I will go 

Thou wilt go 
He will go - 
We will go - 
You will go 



nea yanye. 

- arringya neen 

yanye. 

- kunnambe 

yanye. 

- ne yanye. 

- neen yanye. 



PEETEKITE TENSE. 

They went - - kunnambe 
yanye. 

You and I went - naam neen 

yanye. 
Georgy and I Georgy naam 

went yanye. 

Georgy and Billy Georgy Billy 

went yoam yanye. 



FUTURE TENSE. 



- nea yananda or 

nea gere yango. 

- neen gere yana. 
kunambe yango. 

- ne gere yango. 

- neu gere yana. 



They will go 



- kunambe yan- 
anda. 



You and I will go naam gere yango. 
Georgy and I will Georgy gere 
go. naam yananda. 

Georgy and Billy yananda yaan 



will go 



Let me go - - yaboo nea yango. 
Go thou - - neen yanna. 
Let him go - - yaboo yanga. 
Let us go ' = - yaboo neam 

yango. 
Let Billy and me yaboo Billy naam 
go yango. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Go you two 



Let them go 



Georgy Billy. 

- mooam yaboo 
yanna, or neu 
yaboo yanna. 
yaboo mooam 
yango, o?- yaboo 
neu yanga. 



I see - 
Thou seest - 
He sees 
We see 
You see 
They see 

I will see 

Thou wilt see 

He will see 

We will see - 
You will see 



Conjugation oip the Verb "To See.' 

PRESENT TENSE. 

- nutchu nanee. 

- neendu nanee. 

- kunambe nanee. 

- ne nanee. 



- neu nanee. 

- kunambe nanee. 



You and I see 
Georgy and I see ■ 



Georgy and Billy 
see 



naamboo neendu 

nanee. 
Georgy naam 

nanee. 
Billy yoamboo 

nanee Georgy. 



future tense. 



nutchu gere 
nean. 

neendv gere 
nean. 

■ kunambe gere 

nean, 

ne gere nean. 

■ neu gere nean.. 



They will see - kunambe nanee, 

You and I will 

see 

Georgy and I will 



naamboo gere 
neendu. 



Georgy and Billy 
will see 



Georgy naam- 
boo nean. 

Georgy Billy 
na-ang-ge. 



ON THE BURNETT. 



113 



Conjugation of the Verb "To Se^"— continued. 

IMPERATIVE. 



Let me see 

See thou 
Let him see 
Let us see - 

I do not see 
I did not see 



- nutchu nean, or 

nutohu yaboo 
nean. 

- neendu nean. 

- kai nean. 

- neemgeu nean, 

or neemgeu 
yaboo nean. 

- woka nutchu 

nean. 

- woka eubura 

nutchu nean. 



Let you two see - neendu nean. 
Let them see - kai nean. 
Let Georgy and naamboo Georgy 
me see nean. 

Let Georgy and yoambo Georgy 
Billy see Billy nean. 

They won't see woka ginda 
his tracks jinang nean. 



I run - 

Thou runnest 
He runs 

We run 

I ran - 

Thou rannest 
He ran 



I will run - 
Thou wilt run 
He will run - 

Let me run - 

Run - 

Let him run 

VOL. III. 



Conjugation or the Verb "To Run.' 

PRESENT TENSE. 



- nea mai-ring-e. You run 

- neen mai-ring-e. They run 

- kun-nam-be mai- 

ring-e. 

- ne mai-ring-nu. 

PERFECT TENSE, 

- nea mai-ring-e. 

- neen mai-ring-e 



kun-nam-be mai- 
ring-e. 



We ran 
You ran 
They ran 



FUTURE TENSE. 



nea ger-e mair- 

ging-e. 
neen ger-e 

mair-ge. 
hun-nam-be 

gere-e mair-gu. 



We will run- 
You will run 
They will run 



yan-be-mung 
mai-ring-nu. 

nulla mai-ring-e. 

kun-nam-be 
mai-riag-nu. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Let ua run 



- neen mai-rmg-e. 

- gun-a-ai mai- 

ring-nu, or gun- 
a-ra mair-gin- 



ne mai-rmg-nu. 

neen mai-ring-e. 

mai-ring-nu 
jan-e, or kun-^ 
mai-ring-nu. 



- ne mio mai-rmg- 

uu. 

- neen ger-e mair- 

ge. 

- kun-iigere mair- 

ging-e. 



- yanga-ma nea 
mai-ring-nu. 
Run (2nd person nulla mai-ring-e. 
plural) 
Let them run - kun-d-gi-na mai- 
ring nur-y. 



114 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 160.— KEPPEL BAY, CALLIOPE EIVER, AND 
CURTIS ISLAND. 

Anonymous. 
The country of the Byellee tribe stretches from Keppel Bay 
to the Calliope River, and includes Curtis Island. It was 
occupied by the Whites in 1855. The tribe at that time 
numbered about 300 persons, and is now (1882) reduced to 
32. My informant, who was amongst the first White men 
who resided in the country of the Byellee, remembers that a 
few of them were marked with the small-pox; that the tribe 
described it as having visited them about the beginning of 
the century, and carried off large numbers. It is called 
manboy. Opossum-rugs are used by this tribe. Besides 
these facts, nothing new has reached me concerning the 



No. 160.— KEPPEL BAY, CALLIOPE RIVER, 


AND CURTIS 




1ST, AND. 






Anonymous. 




Kangaroo - 


my. 


Hand - 


- mooloom. 


Opossum - 


koommonka. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 




3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 

Emu - 


meeree. 
nurin. 


One - 


- webben. 


Black duck 


goonanga. 


Two - 


■ booli. 


Wood duck 


goochang. 


Three 


- koorel. 


Pelican 


parangool. 


Four - 




Laughing jackass toonee. 
Native companion goolongan. 


Father 


- meegan. 


White cockatoo ■ 


keegoom. 


Mother 


■ yaya. 


Crow - 


toonwell. 


Sister-Elder 


- darwar. 


Swan - 




„ Younger 


- koondoolan. 


Egg - ■ - 


booroom. 


Brother-Elder 


- marm. 


Track of a foot 


eli. 


„ Younger weegool. 


Fish - 


goodna. 


A young man 


- wondool. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- darl. 


Crayfish 


didbee. 


An old woman 


- barbooran. 


Mosquito - 


boowan. 






Ely - 


moolum. 


A baby 


- wondoo. 


Snake 


darm. 


A White man 


- koowin. 


The Blacks 


booma. 


Children - 


- 


A Blackf ellow 


kingkel. 


Head - 


- karun. 


A Black woman 


wooroo. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Nose - 


piree. 


Ear - 


- bidna. 



KBPPEL BAY, CALLIOPE RIVER, CURTIS ISLAND, 115 



No. 160. — Kbppel Bat, Calliope 



Mouth 


tonka. 


Teeth 


puta. 


Hair of the head 




Beard 


yan. 


Thunder - 


broomgi. 


Grasa - 


bowan. 


Tongue 


dalmin. 


Stomach - 




Breasts 


doolgool. 


Thigh 


■ karl. 


Foot - 


- didna. 


Bone - 




Blood - 


- koomi. 


Skin - 


- korral. 


Fat - 


- koolkin. 


Bowels 




Excrement- 


- koodna. 


War-spear - 


- kiam. 


Reed-spear- 




Wommera or 




thro wing-stick 




Shield 


- koomar. 


Tomahawk- 


- mareway 


Canoe 


- 


Sun - 


- kine. 


Moon - 


- elam. 


Star - 


- 


Light - 


- 


Dark - 


- 


Cold - 


- 


Heat - 


- 


Day ■ 


- 


Night 


- 


Fke - 


- boowi. 


Water 


- koongo. 


Smoke 




Ground 


- 


Wind 


- beeyan. 


Rain - 


- bonoo. 


God . 


. 


Ghosts 


, 



VEE, AND CuKTis IsLAKD—cmtinued 


Boomerang - 


- darga. 


Hill - 


- biapa. 


Wood- 


- boowi. 


Stone - 


- dargin. 


Camp- 


- koonim. 


Yes - 


- kooal. 


No - - 


- wondo. 


I 


- 


You - 


- 


Bark - 


- kooka. 


Good - 


- 


Bad - 


- 


Sweet- 


- 


Food - 




Hungry 


- tooloorin. 


Thirsty 


- 


Eat - 


- 


Sleep - 


- yeengan. 


Drink- 


- 


Walk - 


- 


See - 


- 


Sit - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- 


To-day 


- 


To-morrow 


- 


Where are 


the 


Blacks 1 




I don't know 


- 


Plenty 




Big - ■ 


- 


Little - 


- 


Dead - 


- 


By-and-by - 


- 


Come on - 


- 


Milk - 


- 


Eaglehawk- 




Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - 


- 


B2 





BOOK THE ELEVENTH. 



BOOK THE ELEVENTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

This book relates to several tribes now much rednced in 
numbers, whicli dwell on a tract of country in the neigbbonr- 
hood of Moreton Bay, which has been long in our occupation. 
As might be anticipated, their original customs have fallen 
into partial disuse, and the remnants of the tribes now use 
in common the old tribal lands of which their ancestors 
were so jealous, the boundaries of which are now but imper- 
fectly known. In the several languages of these tribes, we 
have, as equivalents of the Blacks, the words Ban, Tan, 
Thun, and other varieties of some original term. Kabi, or 
some similar word, is also the negative adverb in two or three 
of them, and it is curious to notice that Murree, which is the 
equivalent for the Blacks in districts situated both to the 
north and south of the country occupied by these tribes, 
bears in four of the vocabularies contained in this book the 
signification of kangaroo, a matter dwelt on in Vol. I., pp. 27 
and 28. Also, in two instances, we find head and hair 
expressed by the same term. In some of the tribes the 
custom is, or lately was, in vogue of amputating one or 
two joints of one of the little fingers of the female children. 
The same practice we know obtained in the now long extinct 
Sydney tribe. 



120 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

The principal feature, however, of this book is the long 
account of the language and customs of the Kabi tribe 
given by Mr. John Mathew. From that gentleman I learn 
that some years back he spent a short time in the country 
of the Kabi, and I attribute the fulness of his description 
of the tribe rather to his love of ethnological studies, which 
has led him to observe and remember what came under his 
notice, than to that ripe knowledge which results from long 
experience. 

Neither must it be overlooked that when Mr. Mathew 
knew the Kabi their customs had been much broken down 
by the advent of the Whites, and the sharp edge of 
aboriginal manners had worn off. An instance of change 
of custom I take to be contained in Mr. Mathew's state- 
ment that, when he knew the Kabi, a widow used to leave 
the tribe of her late husband, and, taking her children with 
her, return to the one in which she was born. This cannot 
be accepted as a primitive custom, as it runs counter to all 
that we know of the marriage laws and the constitutions of 
tribes throughout the continent, which we are also aware 
extended to this particular neighbourhood. 

Notwithstanding one or two statements which refer to 
modern and not to ancient and original customs, the reader 
will find Mr. Mathew's contribution an able and interesting 
one. 

I may remark that in 1856 I passed a few months in the 
Bunya Bunya country, on a station called Gobongo, at that 
time my property. Whilst there, the season of the Bunya 
nuts was at its height, and, of course, I saw something of 
the Kabi. From them I learnt that the majority of the 
Blacks then in the Bunya scrubs were strangers, whom they 
had invited to their country to feast on the plentiful harvest 
of nuts, which occurs every third year, but that they were 
forbidden to help themselves to any fish, fiesh, or fowl within 
the territory. After some weeks of an unbroken vegetable 
diet, an intense craving for animal food, it seems, came on. 
One day a few of the visitors, amongst whom was a young 



PEEFATORY REMARKS. 121 

woman, amved at my head-station, and, the evening after, 
the rest of their party, one of which should have heen the 
mother of the yonng woman just mentioned. Almost im- 
mediately a sound of screams and wailings was raised hy the 
women who had reached the station the day before, and, on 
inquiry, I learnt that, as soon as the young woman and her 
friends had left the camp in the Bunya forest, the men who 
remained behind had killed her mother, and satiated their 
meat-hunger by eating her. Shortly after I heard of a 
little girl being killed and eaten. 

I found at Gobongo that the Kabi had a curious mode of 
fighting out the quarrels which, arose within the tribe. It 
was this. The combatants, who probably claimed the same 
woman as wife, each put his left arm round his adversary's 
neck, and passed his right hand, which grasped a sharp flint, 
behind the back of his opponent. This position being fairly 
taken up, and the naked combatants being locked tightly 
breast to breast, at a signal given by a bystander, proceeded, 
each with fierce energy, to rip, hack, and tear with the sharp 
rugged flint he held in his right hand the back of his 
antagonist, from as high as he could reach to as low as the 
waist, until one crying "hold enough," the matter was 
decided, and the combatants, dripping with gore, retired to 
their respective fires. 



No. 161.— BOYNE EIVEE. 

FOKWAKDED BY THE COMMISSIONER OF POLICE, BWSBANE. 

The following particulars concerning the Toolooa or Dan- 
dan tribe were forwarded to me by the Commissioner of 
Police at Brisbane. By whom they were compiled I am not 
aware, as the original notes are unsigned. My anonymous 
informant, however, points out that he had visited the 



122 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

territory of the tribe prior to its being occupied for squatting 
purposes, and then proceeds to give the following informa- 
tion. 

The country of the Toolooa tribe was the watershed of the 
Boyne Kiver. It was occupied as squatting runs in 1854, at 
which period the tribe which inhabited it is estimated to have 
numbered 700 persons, many of whom appeared to be sixty 
years of age, and not a few seventy or eighty years and 
upwards. The presence of men and women of such ages, it 
may be remarked, is reported by many of my correspondents, 
though I have not always recorded the fact, because we 
know that it was the rule to find aged persons in every tribe 
with which the Whites came in contact. The number of 
the Toolooa tribe is now (1882) reduced to 43 persons. It 
is mentioned by my informant that dropsy was one of the 
diseases which helped to carry them off. 

Opossum-rugs are worn by the people of this tribe, who 
adorn themselves with necklaces made of reeds, cut into short 
lengths, and threaded, and also with netted bands round the 
head, each with a pearl shell attached to it. Feathers are 
also worn in the hair as ornaments. Their bags and nets are 
made of the bark of the grass-tree ; their tomahawks are 
wedge-shaped stones ground smooth. They have boomerangs 
of both sorts ; spears are thrown by hand ; and some of 
their weapons are carved, and colored with red ochre. 
Animals are cut open with a pointed stick, hardened in the 
fire. 

Many of the members of the tribe who are over forty years 
of age bear the marks of small-pox. On this subject the 
tradition of the Toolooa people is, that about the year 1835 
they were visited by the Burnett tribes, who brought the 
disease and gave it to them. Such great numbers died of 
it that the survivors were unable to bury them. The Toolooa 
name for small-pox is deeum. 

Polygamy prevailed, and marriages within the tribe are 
said to have been rare, the men exchanging their daughters 
and sisters for Byellee and Maroonee girls. Infanticide, 



BOYNE EIVBR, 123 

which always existed, is now the rule. The usual ornamental 
scars are made, and the septum of the nose is pierced. Cir- 
cumcision and the terrible rite are unknown in this tribe, 
who bury their deceased males in the ground, and place the 
remains of females in the trunks of hollow trees. 



124 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 161.— BOYNE RIVER. 

In this vocabulary, which I received in a hand hardly legible, the 
presence of the sound wi in the equivalent of the words sun, heat, day, 
and Jire ia noticeable. As in many other of our languages, there is but 
one word for good and sweet. 



Kangaroo - 


booroo. 


Hand - 


- peri. 


Opossum - 


kooree. 


2 Blacks - 


- boodla dan. 


Tame dog - 


karrang. 


3 Blacks 


• inkanna dan 


Wild dog - 


mirree. 








One - 


- karroon. 


Emu - 


nurra. 






Black duck - 


mering. 


Two - 


- boodla. 


Wood duck- 


penang. 


Three - 


- numma (?). 


Pelicau 


parung. 


Four - 


- (no word). 


Laughing jackass 


doonwill. 


Father 


- beya. 


Native companion 




Mother 


- uabba. 


White cockatoo - 


keegoom. 


Sister-Elder 


- yaoona. 


Crow - 


toowell. 


,, Younger 


- kontalgan. 


Swan - 


koonkool. 


Brother-Elder 


- kargo. 


Egg - - 


umma. 


,, Younger kontalim. 


Track of a foot 


ditna. 






Fish - 


pam. 


A young man 


- karraa. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- konkon. 


Crayfish 


wunmeen. 


An old woman 


- konnooan. 


Mosquito - 


- nimkin. 


A baby 


- butoham. 


Fly - 


■ moowin. 


A White man 


- barram. 


Snake - 


wonki. 


Children 




The Blacks - 


kungun dan. 






A Blackfellow 


- dan. 


Head - 


- karm. 


A Black woman ■ 


wanmoo. 


Eye - 


■ meil. 


Nose - 


- mootoo. 


Ear - 


- pidna. 



BOYNE RIVER. 



125 





No. 161.— BoYNE B^iVEti— continued. 




Mouth 


■ talli. 


Boomerang - 


- bukkan. 


Teeth - 


toota. 


Hill - 


- wondo-wondo. 


Hair of the head 


moonoon. 


Wood - 


too. 


Beard - 


■ yara. 


Stone - 


wolba. 


Thunder - 


- boomga. 


Camp - 


darr. 


Grass - 


- boogargan. 


Yes - 


yooi. 


Tongue 


- doonnan. 


No - 


karbi. 


Stomach 


- budloo. 


I- 


nin. 


Breasts 


- ummore. 


You - 


innoo. 


Thigh - 


- beyoo. 


Bark - 


durra. 


Foot - 


- didna. 


Good - 


balka. 


Bone - 


- pigul- 


Bad - 


woote. 


Blood - 


■ dee. 


Sweet - 


balka. 


Skin - 


- kooba. 


Food - 


dalko. 


Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stick 
Shield- - 
Tomahawk - 


- balkee. 

- wogooway. 

- koodna. 
■ kanna. 

- koodmary. 

- moogan. 


Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 
See - 


wyeena. 
ebumboo. 
dagga. 
koonim. 

yenna. 
natha. 


Canoe - 
Sun - 


- kooga. 

- witpar. 


Sit - 
Yesterday - 


- ena-ena. 

- woolko-woolko 


Moon - 


- nelan. 


To-day 


- woongee. 


Star - 


- kootingal. 


To-morrow - 


- wootoowa. 


Light - 


- koogal. 


Where are the 


wontha dan? 


Dark - 


- kooroom. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 
Heat - 
Day - 


• nethar. 
■ whyoom. 
- witeabery. 


I don't know 
Plenty 
Big - 
Little - 


- darginbal. 


Night ■ 
Fire - 
Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind - 


- kooroomkannum. 


- karkoogarkool. 


- wi. 

- koonkool. 

- doomoo. 

- parr. 

- booran. 


Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - - 


■ kunman. 

- karra-karra. 

- kowi. 

- kokkill. 


Rain - 


- dookoo. 


Eaglehawk • 


- nunkar. 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- wargoon. 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- woonmoolan. 



126 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 162.— THE COAST FROM BUSTAED BAY TO 
RODD'S BAY AND BACK TO MANY PEAK 
RANGE. 

FOKWABDED BY THE COMMISSIONER OT PoLICEj BeISBANE. 

The account of the Meerooni tribe differs so little from the 
one which precedes it, that it is unnecessary to dwell on it. 
Tingal is the name by which small-pox is known in the 
tribe. They decline to eat pork. As the reader wiU notice, 
only a portion of the Common Vocabulary has been trans- 
lated. 





No. 162.— BUSTARD BAY, ETC. 




Forwarded by the Commissioner of Police, 


Brisbane. 


Kangaroo - 


goorooman. 


Hand- 


■ gillee. 


Opossum - 


googina. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 

Emu • 
Black duck 


meeree. 
karoom. 
nooree. 
nurra. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 


karlim. 
booUa. 


Wood duck 


mering. 


Three - 


goodthina. 


Pelican 


parwon. 


Four - 


booUa-booUa. 


Laughing jackass 


doowal. 


Father 


■ paboon. 


Native companion 


Mother 


■ nabong. 


White cockatoo 

Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - - ■ 

Track of a foot - 


belim, 

whakoon, 

konkekool, 

wang. 

dinnong. 


Sister-Elder - yaroon. 

,, Younger - narbungan, 
Brother-Elder - nooan. 
,, Younger guntal. 


Fish - 


gooral. 


A young man 


- nogoin. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- goorki, girkil 


Crayfish - 




An old woman 


- goorgina. 


•Mosquito - 


tibing. 


A baby 


- karkar. 


Fly - 
Snake 
The Blacks- 
A Blackfellow 


wooni. 
daan. 


A White man 
Children - 
Head - 


- moothar, 

- karm. 


A Black woman 


keen. 


Eye - 


- meel. 


Nose' - 


mooroo. 


Ear - 


- bidna. 



BUSTARD BAY, ETC. 



127 



No. 162. — Bttstabd Bay, etc. — continued 


Month 


karlee. 


Boomerang 


Teeth - 


teeta. 


Hill - 


Hair of the head 


monion. 


Wood- 


Beard- 


yaree. 


Stone - 


Thunder - 


baroongi. 


Camp - 


Grass - 


boogalgan. 


Yes - 


Tongue 




No - - - 


Stomach 




I - - 


Breasts 




You - 


Thigh 




Bark - 


Foot - 




Good - 


Bone - 




Bad - 


Blood - 


. 


Sweet - 


Skin - 


. 


Food - 


Fat - 




Hungry 


Bowels 


- 


Thirsty 
Eat - 


Excrement - 


- 




War-spear - 


. 


Sleep - 


B^ed-spear - 


- 


Drink- 


Throwing-stick 


- 


Walk - 


Shield 


- 


See - 


Tomahawk - 


- 


Sit - 


Canoe 


- 


Yesterday - 


Sun - 




To-day 


Moon - 




To-morrow - 


Star - 




Where are the 


Light - 


- 




Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 


Cold - 




I don't know 


Heat - 




Plenty 


Day - 


- 


Big - - - 


Night - 




Little - 


Fire - 




Dead - 


Water 






Smoke 




By-and-by - 


Ground 


- 


Come on - 


Wind 


- 


Milk - 


Rain - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 



128 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 163.— BAFFLE CREEK. 



Anonymous, 



My informant notices that all numbers over four are expressed by the 
word yingaiho. To drink is rendered water eat. 



Kangaroo - 

Opossum 

Tame dog - 

Wild dog - 

Emu - 

Black duck - 

Wood duck 

Pelican 

Laughing jackass 

Native companion 

White cockatoo - 

Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - 

Track of a foot - 

Fish - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito - 

Fly - - 

Snake 

The Blacks - 

A Blackfellow 

A Black woman - 

Nose - 



booroo. 

nugai. 

mirri. 

garrome. 

moi. 

ngurra. 

nguloarr. 

boolumbuUum. 

karroogul. 

koolooragun. 

garre-garre. 

wong. 

goloin. 

dail. 

moola. 

daam. 



biuam. 
wongain. 

dan. 
dan. 

mouee (?). 
mooroo. 



Hand - 

2 Blacks 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Four - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

„ Younger - 
Brother-Elder - 

„ Younger 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman - 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 
Head - 
Eye - 
Ear - 



birroo. 

boola dan. 

dan boola neula. 

neula, 

boola. 

boola-neula. 

bomboin. 

babon. 

ya. 

wuthim. 

undalgun, 

thet-thow. 

goonmee. 

gadekoorrr. 

wooroobalrin. 

mootram. 



goomnee. 
warrole. 
meel. 
binnea. 



BAFFLE CREEK. 



129 





No. 163.— Baffle Crisek.— continued. 


Mouth 


- kairm. 


Boomerang - 


- buggun. 


Teeth - 


- deera. 


Hill - 


- windundo. 


Hair oiE the head- moningil. 


Wood - 


- doo. 


Beard - 




Stone - 


- wellae. ' 


Thunder • 


- booroomga. 


Camp - 


- wibai. 


Graas - 


- ban. 


Yes - 


- yo-i. 


Tongue 


- djienome. 


No - - 


- gooraong. 


Stomach 


- boolod. 


I - 


- age. 


Breasts 


- maam, ngamoo. 


You - 


- ngun. 


Thigh 


- bu. 


Bark - 


- toora. 


Foot - 


- djinna. , 


Good - 


- 


Bone - 


- 


Bad - 


- warang. 


Blood - 


- dee, du. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- yulaine. 


Food - 


- tcheugarlar. 


Fat - 


- bultree. 


Hungry 




Bowels 


- maapo. 


Thirsty 


- guamboolgun. 


Excrement - 


- goona. 


Eat - 


- thaltroe. 


War-spear - 


- gunna. 


Sleep - 


- yoonmag. 


Reed-spear - 


- (none). 


Drink - 


- koongo thaltroe 


Wommera - 


- (none). 


Walk - 


- thaggo. 


Shield 


- goonmurray. 


See - 


- naggim. 


Tomahawk - 


- booroogoo. 




Canoe - 


- kundole. 


Sit - 


- yinnago. 


Sun - 


- giumine. 


Yesterday - 


- woorowang. 


Moon - 


- ngaloolum. 


To-day 


- woonnee. 


Star - 


- doojoongul. 


To-morrow - 


- butchungo. 


Light - 


- girree'. 


Where are the woodtha dan ? 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- ngrrtoon. 


I don't know 


- woodthala gam. 


Heat - 


- ngeugame. 


Plenty 


- yingatho. 


Day - 


- 


Big - 


- 


Night - - 


- ngooloo. 


Little - 


- gooninni. 


Fire - 
Water 
Smoke 


- ngoon. 

- koongo. 

- boolun. 


Dead - 
By-and-by - 


- boonthegim. 

- kurra. 


Ground 


- dou. 


Come on 


- kowai. 


Wind 


_ 


Milk - - 


- maam. 


Rain- 


- boonoo. 


Eaglehawk r 


- gooUae. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- waggone. 


Ghosts 


- ngoothoong. 


Wife - 


- ginbellum. 


VOL. in. 




[ 





130 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 164. 
1.— NOETH SIDE OF MORETON BAY. 

By the Revd. William Ridley, M.A. 

2.— MARYBOROUGH. 

By the Writee. 

3.— MARYBOROUGH. 

By James MacPherson. 

4.— PORTION OF THE COUNTRY BETWEEN 
BRISBANE AND GYMPIE. 

By Richard Westaway, Esq. 

5.— PORTION OF THE COUNTRY BETWEEN 
BRISBANE AND GYMPIE. 

By W. Landsborouoh, Esq. 

6.— ERASER'S ISLAND. 
From Chief Commissioner of Police, Brisbane. 

Sbvbeal vocabularies have reached me of languages spoken 
by tribes the remnants of wliicb dwell between Moreton and 
Hervey Bays and the adjacent country for about fifty miles 
inland. These tribes and their languages have become so 
intermixed as the result of our intrusion that the precise 
localities occupied by each tribe are no longer known to any 
one. Under these circumstances, I have inserted under the 
present heading (No. 164) several of the vocabularies and 



NORTH SIDE OF MORETON BAY, ETC. 131 

descriptions of tribes which have reached me from the area 
of country in question, without any attempt to locate them 
more precisely. 

The first of the following vocabularies was sent to me by 
the late Revd. William Ridley, author of the well-known 
work entitled Kamilaroi and other Australian Languages. 
The name Mr. Ridley gives to this language is Dippil, and 
the area over which it is described as prevailing is "Wide 
Bay, north and south as far as the Burnett, over a large 
tract of country." Comparing the Dippil vocabulary in Mr. 
Ridley's work with the translation of the Common Vocabu- 
lary sent me by that gentleman, some differences will be 
found. 



Additional Words, extbacted from Mk. Ridley's Wobk. 

Scars on the chest- - - - mooZfow (in some parts = sWeW). 

Married woman - - - - yirum. 

Uncle ------ immo. 

Aunt ------ maroon, 

Male cousin yimudheme. 

Female cousin .... kumedheme. 
Kangaroo (full-grown male) - - kroman. 

„ (young male) - - durween. 

„ (female) - - . yimmer. 

,, (young one in pouch) - woolbai. 

Bee (small) dibbin. 

,, (large) . . - . turbain. 

Honey of small bee • - - kobbai. 

„ large „ - - . giUa. 
Morning star . - . - (Jirai yirki.* 
Milky Way muin. 



* On the other side of the continent we have yircla = morning stor.— See Vol. I., 
page 400. 



I z 



132 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 164.— NORTH SIDE OP MORETON BAY. 

By the Revd. William Ridley. 

Compare canoe and barJe. A canoe is made of a sheet of bark. 



Kangaroo - 


- kroman. 


Hand - 


- duruin or duk 


Opossum - 


- 'harambi. 




kur. 


Tame dog - 


- wutta. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Wild dog - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Emu - 


- nguruin. 


One - 


- kalim. 


Duck - 


- nar. 


Two - 


- bular. 


Wood dufk 


. 










Three - 


- kurabunta. 


Pelican 


- nirrinea. 






Laughing jackass kaggoo. 


Four - 


- bular gira bular. 


Native companion 


Father 


- bobbin. 


White cockatoo 


- kiggoom. 


Mother 


- ngavang. 


Grow - 


- 


Sister-Elder 


- yaoboon. 


Swan - 


- nirring. 


,, Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


- bam. 


Brother-Elder 


- noon. 


Track of a foot 


- jinun daoSr = to 


„ Younge 


r woodhoong. 


- 


foot ground. 


A young man 


- kippa. 


Fish - 


- billa. 






Lobster 




An old man 


- winyagun. 


Crayfish 


. 


An old woman 


- yirkun. 


Mosquito - 


- boomba. 


A baby 


- methindoom. 


Ely - 


- tibing. 


A White man 


- makoron or mud 


Snake (black) 


- moolloo. 




here. 


The Blacks - 


- dan or tjan. 


Children - 


- 


A Blackf ellow 


- tjan. 


Head - 


- kam. 


A Black woman 


- yirum. 


Eye - 


- mi. 


Nose - 


- muru. 


Ear - 


- binung. . 



NORTH SIDE OF MOBBTON BAY. 



133 



No. 


164. — North Side of 


MoEETON Bay- 


-continued. 


Mouth 


- tunka. 


Boomerang - 


- berkan. 


Teeth - 


- 


Hill - 


- waikerdummai. 


Hair of the head- dhella. 


Wood - 




Beard 


- yeran. 


Stone - 


- kitta, muUa, 


Thunder - 


- moomba. 






Grass 






koonkum. 


Tongue 


- doonoom, 


Camp - 




Stomach 


- gunnung, doon- 


Yes - 


- yoai. 




guu. 


No - 


- kabbi. 


Breasts 


- amoong. 


I - - 


- unna, ngai. 


Thigh 


- puiyu. 


You - 


- ngin, inta, indu 


Foot - 


- jinnung. 


Bark - ■ - 


- kumba. 


Bone - 




Good - 


- gilanggoor. 


Blood - 


- kukki* 


Bad - 

Sweet - 




Skin - 
Fat - 


- brabra. 


- WTirang. 


Bowels 


. 


Food - 


: 


Excrement - 


. 


Hungry 


- kandoo. 


War- spear - 


- biUar. 


Thirsty 




Keed-spear - 


- kunnai. 


Eat - 


- 


Wommera oi 


kootha 


Sleep - 


■ mibon. 


throwing-stick 


Drink - 


- 


Shield 


- yao-run, good- 


Walk- 


- yenna. 


Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 


murri. 

- yemar-yemar. 

- kumba. 


See - 

Sit - - 


- nunyin. 

- ninnai. 


Sun - 




Yesterday - 


- nambura. 


Moon - 




To-day 


- 


Morning star 


- dirai yirke. 


To-morrow 


- bunyirke. 


Light - 




Where are the winyo dan ? 


Dark - 




Blacks ? 




Cold - 




I don't know 




Heat - 




Plenty 


- murrin. 


Day - - 




Big - 


- winwoor. 


Night- . 


, 


Little - 


- dummai. 


Fire - 
Water 


- gira. 

- koong. 


Dead - 


- bong. 


Smoke 


- woolni. 


By-and-by - 




Ciround 


- daoer. 


Come on 


- 


Wind- 


- 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- yoorong. 


Eaglehawk - 


- woorama. 


God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 


. 



134 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 164— MARYBOROUaH. 



■ By the Writer. 



Kangaroo - 


- marri. 


Opossum 


- koorooi. 


Tame dog - 


- waitoha. 


Wild dog - 


- 


Emu - 


- noroin. 


Black duck 


- ngara. 


Wood duck 


- wyoon. 


Pelican 


- 


Laughing jackass kargoon. 


Native companion koonoorang. 


White cockatoo 


- kigong. 


Crow - 


- wawha. 


Swan - 


- 


Egg - - 


- paam. 


Track of a foot 


- ohinong. 


Fish - - 


- andaia. 


Lobster 


- 


Crayfish 


- naloro. 


Mosquito - 


- poonbaa. 


Fly - 


- dibing. 


Snake - 


- norang. 


The Blacks - 


- dchaana. 


A Blackfellow 


- dchaam. 


A Black womar 


I - yircan. 


Nose • 


- mooroo. 



JU-ana - 


- Diri, 


2 Blacks 




3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- kaalim. 


Two - 


- poolla. 


Three - 


- koorbanda. 


Four - 


- papooro. 


Father 


- paboon. 


Mother 


- naban. 


Sister-Elder 


- yabooin. 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- nyoon. 


„ Younger 


A young man 


- gibara. 


An old man 


- winyer. 


An old woman 


- winyercan 


A baby 


- berwan. 


A White man 


- madar. 


Children 


- nogoin. 


Head - 


- kaam. 


Eye - 


- mi. 


Ear - 


- penang. 



MARYBOROUGH. 



135 



No. 164. — Mabybokough — contimied. 



Mouth 


- tamboor. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - - 


- tanga. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- talla. 


Wood- 


- choo. 


Beard - 


- yarrain. 


Stone - 


- takhe. 


Thund-er - 


- poromgoin. 


Camp - 


- taa. 


Grass - 


- baan. 










Yes - 


- ngi. 


Tongue 


~ choonoong. 






Stomach 


- toonoong. 


No 


- waa. 


Breasts 


- namoong. 


I 


- ngin. 


Thigh - 


- booioo. 


You - 


- ngaia. 


Foot - 


- chinong. 


Bark - 


- bibin. 


Bone - 


- moondoo. 


Good - 


- kalangoro. 


Blood - 


- kaki. 


Bad - 


- warang. 


Skin - - 


- kobara. 


Sweet - 


- kigar. 


Fat - 


- marom. 


Food - - 


- 


Bowels 


- poorownba. 


Hungry 


- kakainjo. 


Excrement - 


- koonong. 


Thirsty 


- ngaiabolong. 


War-spear - 


- bilara. 


•Eat - 


- chagooba. 


Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 


(none). 


Sleep - 


- yinnian, boogan- 

doo. 

- chagoba. 


throwing-stick 
Shield 


- koonmarine. 


Drink - 


Tomahawk - 


- moguim. 


Walk - 


- yanman. 


Canoe - 


- kolaro. 


See - 


- nyagoba. 


Sun - 


- chiroom. 


Sit - - 


- nyinan. 


Moon - 


- baboin. 


Yesterday - 


■ nyaamba. 


Star - 


- dirrai. 


To-day 


- kalibolanoronda. 


Light - 


- unda. 


To-morrow - 


- yiriga. 


Dark - 


- mooloo. ■ 


Where are 


the wandja dchaan? 


Cold - 


- wallado. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- waggoo. 


I don't know 


- wanjamba. 


Day - 


- narron. 


Plenty 


- pagodar. 


Night - 


- woin. 


Big - 


- pagodarju. 


Fire - 


- girrar. 


Little - 


- tamarramai. 


Water 


- kong. 


Dead - 


- paloin. 


Smoke 


- wooloiwondain. 


By-and-by - 


- punna. 


Ground 


■ tchaa. 


Come on 


- yiinbugga. 


Wind- - 


- boorran. 


Milk -, - 




Rain - 


■■ yooroong. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 


- 



136 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 164.— MAEYBOROUGH. 

By James MacPhekson. 

The following remarks concerning the Maryborough. Blacks 
were forwarded to me by Mr. Henry' P. Somerset, who got 
them drawn up by James MacPherson, formerly a bushranger, 
and known by the name of the Wild Scotchman. 

MacPherson says that the Maryborough or "Wide Bay 
Blacks, whom he had a good opportunity of knowing, cer- 
tainly believe in God, whom they call Birral,- and who lives 
in the clouds beyond the sea; also in an Evil Spirit they call 
Moontoon, who enters into the bodies of birds and other 
creatures, and frightens them by night. 

It is a custom of this tribe to strip the bodies of deceased 
males of their skins, dry them, and carry them about for a 
time. After the death of a man, the old men and women 
commence singing a dirge some hours before daylight, asking 
the deceased why he left them. The first sound they hear 
whilst thus engaged, whether it be the rustling of a bough 
or the cry of a bird or animal, they receive as his last fare- 
well, and believe that his spirit, which till then had hovered 
about them, has taken its departure. If the deceased has 
been a bad character, he'is compelled to wander over rocky 
mountains until all his earthly friends are dead, and that 
with the last of them he is allowed to enter the spirit land. 



MARYBOROUGH. 



•137 



When a male of good character dies, he is allowed to enter 
the happy hunting-grounds at once, being first ferried over 
the wide river which bounds it by two young women in 
a bark canoe, one of whom subsequently becomes his 
wife. The following are some of the words forwarded by 
MacPherson : — 



Breasts 




nulla. 


Brain - 


na. 


Back - 




poondoor. 


Tree - 


to, 


Backside 
Stomach 
Knee - 
Heel - 




moomoo. 
tangoor. 
pone. 

tinangmoomoOj 
i.e., foot back- 


Scrub - 
Plain - 
Forest - 
VaUey 


toorg. 
piro.. 
pompay. 
nookoo. 






side. 


Hole - 


nulla. 


Stone or 
Creek or 
Water - 
Uncle - 


^nife 
thigh 


takky. 

- tarang. 

- koong. 

- koomey. 


Good - 
Bad - 

A strong man 


kallangor. 
wurrang. 
kivir poota. 


Relations 
father's 


on the 
side 


parang. 


An. armed man 
A sick man - 


kungngoon, 
tookongoor. 


Relations 


on the 


palkoong. 


A poet or maker o 


yowarnoova 


mother' 


3 side 




corroborees 





138' THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 164.— A PORTION OF THE COUNTRY BETWEEN 
BRISBANE AND GYMPIE. 

By Richakd Westaway, Esq. 

Of the Mooloola tribe, who inhabit some portion of the 
country which lies between Brisbane and Gympie, I have, 
received a very full account from Mr. Richard Westaway. 
As, however, most of the statements made by my informant 
refer to customs already often described in this work, I 
shall merely insert a few extracts from Mr. Westaway's 
paper. 

In 1863, when the country of this tribe was first occupied 
by the Whites, the Mooloola are thought to have numbered 
300 persons; they are now reduced to 40 individuals. Mr. 
Westaway is of opinion that one of the members of the tribe 
who died lately must have been about ninety years of age 
and his son seventy. This tribe color themselves red when 
in mourning, white on occasions of corroboree, and red and 
white when about to fight. Amongst their arms, which are 
of the usual sorts, are the wommera and boomerang. For 
carrying water they make bags of the leaf of a certain 
sort of palm-tree which grows in their country. Men, when 
in mourning, fast from all food except fish. One woman is 
still alive strongly marked with small-pox, a disease which 
we know ravaged the whole of the country in this neigh- 
bourhood during the early days of our colonization. My 
informant, who knows the tribe well, remarks that he has 
often seen them skin dead men, eat of their flesh, and 
deposit their bones, tied in a bundle, in a tree. As usual, 



BETWEEN BRISBANE AND GYMPIE. 139 

the girls become wives early. Mr. Westaway says, " I 
knew Omian fifteen years ago; she was then a baby, and 
now (1883) has a child nearly two years of age." Marriage 
is exogamous, and wives are obtained in exchange for 
sisters and daughters. The usual avoidance of mother-in- 
law and son-in-law exists. The names of the dead are never 
mentioned. Mothers used to bind round, at the second joint, 
the little fingers of the left hands of their daughters when 
about ten years old with the coarse spiders' webs of their 
country, so as to stop circulation and cause the two joints to 
drop off. 

The whole of .Mr. Westaway's statements have reference 
to the days when the Whites first knew the Mooloola tribe. 
At present (1883) there is but little left amongst them of 
original tribal customs. 



140 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 164.— BETWEEN BRISBANE AND GYMPIE. 

Bt Richaed Westaway, Esq. 

It is noticeable that murree, which in many languages means a Black or 
the Blacks, means kangaroo in this instance. The reader may compare 
father and mocm, canoe and hark, sun and heat. 



Kangaroo - 


murree. 


Hand - 


- 


Opossum 


narambay, koroy. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duok- 


wata. 

wata karoom. 

orong. 

nar. 


3 Blacks ■ 
One - 
Two - 


- qualem. 

- budlow. 


Wood duck- 




Three - 


- kurwunda. 


Pelican - . - 


bowallam. 


Pour - 


- budlow-budlow 


Laughing jackass 




Pather 


- baboon. 


Native companion . 
White cockatoo - qeeum. 
Crow - - - wow-wa. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- abon. 

- yabon. 


Swan - 


nering. 


,, Younger 


- nighbor. 


Egg - - - 


bom. 


Brother-Elder 


• 


Track of a foot - 
Pish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 


dinang. 
murang. 


„ Younger 
A young man - budi. 
An old man - winyear. 


Mosquito - 


boomba. 


An old woman 


- maroon. 


Fly - - ■ 


dibing. 


A baby 


- wone. 


Snake - 


wangeye 


A White man 


- mathar. 


The Blacks - 

A Blaokf ellow • 

A Black woman 


than, 
than, 
earang. 


Children 
Head - 


- kom. 


(young) 




Eye - 


- me. 


Nose - 


- morrow. 


Ear - 


■ binang. 



BETWEEN BRISBANE AND GYMPIE. 



141 



No. 164.— Between Brisbane and Gympie- 


—continued. 


Mouth or hole 


- nudlar. 


Boomerang - 


- buranne. 


Teeth 


- tunga. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head - tudlow. 


Wood- 


_ 


Beard - 
Thunder - 
Grass 
Tongue 


- earanne. 

- mumba. 

- bon. 

- donomme. 


Stone 
Camp - 
Yes - 
No - . - 
I 


- dokki. 

- turra. 

- gabie. 

- attoo. 


Stomach 
Breasts 


- dunong. 

- among. 


Thigh 
Foot - 


- turang. 

- dinang. 


You - 
Bark - 


• in. 

- kumbar. 


Bone - 


- em. 


Good - 


- kulangoor. 


Blood - 


- kokki. 


Bad - 


- warong. 


Skin - 


- 


Sweet - 


- kulangoor. 


Fat - 
Bowela 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stick 
Shield- - 


- marom. 

- dunong. 

- gunang. 

- kry. 

- goodar. 

- koontanne. 


Food - 

Hungry 

Thirsty 

Eat - 

Sleep 

Drink 


- kaudoo. 

- ialo. 

- tathin. 

- bondoo. 

- thow. 


Tomahawk - 


- mooyam. 


Walk- - 


- yango. 


Canoe - 


- keembar. 


See - 


- nunya,Tine. 


Sun - 


- orone. 


Sit - 


- ninaman. 


Moon - 


- baboon. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Star - 


- deari. 


To-day 


- 


Light - 


- unda. 


To-morrow - 


- nungo. 


Dark - 


- 


Where are the wiiriTiea than ? 


Cold - 


- wolli. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- orone. 


I don't know 


- 


Day - 


- 


Plenty 


- 


Night - 


- 


Big - 


- weelnor. 


Fire - 


- geara. 


Little - - 


- tirna. 


Water 


- kong. 


Dead - 


- balonne. 


Smoke 


- wooloy. 


By-and-by - 


- bonawoppa. 


Ground 


- tha. 


Come on 


- 


Wind- 


- burra. 


Milk - 


- amung. 


Rain - 


- urung. 


Baglehawk - 


- unga. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- w-y-wong. 


Ghosts 


- mundur, 


Wife - 


. 



142 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 164.— MOOLOOLA TRIBE. 



Br W. Landsbokough, Esq. 



Mr. Landaborough's account of the Mooloola tribe is so similar to Mr. 
Westaway's that its insertion is unnecessary. In the vocabularies rendered 
by these two gentlemen, however, some differences occur. 



Kangaroo - 


- murree. 


Opossum - 


- karooey. 


Tame dog - 


- kallaugoor (see 




Good). 


Wild dog - 


- wotta korong. 


Emu - 


- orroon. 


Black duck- 


- 


Wood duck- 


- nar. 


Pelican 


- boolooworm. 


Laughing jackass kowonga. 


Native companion koondarang. 


White cockatoo 


- gayome. 


Crow - 


- woowa. 


Swan - 


- naerir. 


Egg - 


- baam. 


Track of a foot 


- dinang. 


Fish - 


- murung. 


Lobster 


• elli. 


Crayfish 


- 


Mosquito - 


- boonba. 


Fly - - 


- dabin. 


Snake - 


- wongi. 


The Blacks - 


- thun. 


A Blackfellow 


- thun. 


A Black woman 


- earang. 


Nose - 


- murroo. 



Hand - 


-■ berree. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 




One - 


kallim. 


Two - 


- boodla. 


Three - 


- kurrwunda. 


Four - 


- bungul. 


Father 


- baaboon. 


Mother 


- abung. 


Sister-Elder 


- winneer yaboon. 


,, Younger 


- mybeer yaboon. 


Brother-Elder 


- nunun. 


,, Younger yarung. 


A young man 


- butheye. 


An old man 


- winney. 


An old woman 


- marroon. 


A baby 


- ooing. 


A White man 


- 


Children 


- wallum bun- 




ganne. 


Head - 


- kam. 


Eye - 


- me. 


Ear - 


- binnang, 



BETWEEN BRISBANE AND 6YMPIE. 



143 





No. 164. — MooLOOLA Tribe — continmd 




Mouth 


- nudla. 


Boomerang - 


baranne. 


Teeth - 


- tunga. 


Hill - 


tunebar. 


Hair of the hea( 


- thudler. 


Wood - 


doo. 


Beard - 


- erang. 


Stone - 


kukki. 


Thunder - 


- moonba. 


Camp - 


turra. 


Grass - 


- ban. 










Yes - 


area. 


Tongue 
Stomach 


- tanum. 

- doon. 


No - - 


abay. 


Breasts 


- amoo. 


I - ■ - 




Thigh - 


- taran. 


You - 




Foot - 


- dinang. 


Bark - 


kumbar. 


Bone - 


- aime. 


Good - 


koolangoor. 


Blood - 


- kokey. 


Bad - 


warang. 


Skin - 


- gooure. 


Sweet - 


koolangoor. 


Fat - 


- marong. 


Food - 


wingoor. 


Bowels 


- dungan. 


Hungry 


kandoo. 


Excrement - 


- gunnang. 


Thirsty 


alloe. 


War-spear - 


- keeree. 


Eat - 


binadow. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


bando. 


Wommera or 


goothar. 


Drink - 


thoo. 


throwing-stick 








Shield - 


- goodmurrim. 


Walk - 


yango. 


Tomahawk 


- mooem. 


See - 


- moginee.. 


Canoe - 


- kumbur. 


Sit - 


- ninaman. 


Sun - 


- oron. 


Yesterday - 


- namba. 


Moon - 


- baboon. 


To-day 


- kuyungaiga. ■ 


Star - 


- dirri. 


To-morrow - 


- numingo. 


Light - 


- unda. 


Where are the 


wunya thun ? 


Dark - 


- woon. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- worri. 


I don't know 


- kabeegay. 


Heat - 


- worringan. 


Plenty 


- binda, winure 


Day - 


- 


Big - 


- winure. 


Night - 


- woon. 










Little - 


- timari. 


Fire - 


- gera. 










Dead - 


- boolmotha. 


Water 


- kung. 






Smoke 


- oolooey. 


By-aud-by - 


- bunaywobba. 


Ground 


- da. 


Come on 


- ottaba. 


Wiud - 


- buranne. 


Milk - 


- omo. 


Rain - 


- yarung. 


Eaglehawk - 


- unga. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


wawung. 


Ghosts 


- mundure. 


Wife - 


- malanmin. 



144- THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 164.— GREAT SANDY OR ERASER'S ISLAND. 

Received ekom Chief Commissionek of Police, Brisbane. 

The following are the principal points in the description of 
the Great Sandy Island tribes, forwarded to me by the Chief 
Commissioner of Police at Brisbane. 

This island, the aboriginal name of which is Thoorgine, 
was first occupied by the Whites in 1849. At that time the 
population, which was split into nineteen tribes, amounted 
to about 2,000 souls, of whom 300 or 400 still (in 1879) 
remain. This reduction in numbers is attributed by the 
Chief Commissioner's informant to drink, venereal, and the 
slaughter made by the Black Police. 

Originally these people were quite naked. Their imple- 
ments and ornaments differ in nothing from those so often 
enumerated. Small-pox seems never to have reached them. 
Cannibalism was practised, and still prevails to some extent, 
the Karhi (or No tribe) having been frequently seen eating 
human flesh. Polygamy prevails ; girls become wives at 
about twelve years of age-, and mothers at thirteen. Infanti- 
cide is common. The operation of scarring the skin they 
call moolgarr. Circumcision is not known. Females have 
amputated in youth the first joint of the little finger of 
the right hand. The septum of the nose is pierced. As 
usual, these tribes have doctors, who claim to make rain and 
perform the other usual feats of conjurors. Their canoes-are 
• sheets of bark, stripped from the ironbark-trees, and tied at 
the ends. Their corroborees present no new features. Males 



GREAT SANDY OR ERASER'S ISLAND. 145 

of sixteen or eighteen years of age are admitted to the rank of 
young men by means of certain secret ceremonies. The dead 
are buried in the ground in the usual way. Message-sticks 
are in use. In connection with these tribes I have received 
four other communications, which it is not necessary to insert. 
All of them give murree as the equivalent of hangaroo, and 
distinct names for small-pox. The following remarks are 
extracted from The. Town and Country newspaper of 5th 
October, 1872 :— 

" A private letter from the Eevd. B. Fuller, the devoted 
Missionary at Eraser's Island, to a friend in Ipswich, has 
been placed at the disposal of the Brisbane Courier. Mr. 
Fuller gives an interesting account of the work of the 
Mission, and gives an account of some of their prejudices and 
superstitious notions. The mother-in-law must not look 
upon her son-in-law at any time ; they believe that if she did 
he would go mad, and would go and live in the bush like a 
wild man. Consequently, when they all come together to 
sing at school-time, after being taught in the classes, there 
is great covering of heads by the women who happen to 
have their sons-in-law there, and you will see them ' back- 
ing ' into their places in a most laughable manner. The 
son-in-law, at the same time, will roU himself up in his 
blanket, or otherwise hide himself from his mother's gaze. 
The young man will not sit down on the same stool or box, 
or-, in fact, anywhere where a young woman has. been sitting 
at any time. They imagine that the young man would 
sicken and die. So that we have to have one form or stool 
for the ladies and another for the gentlemen. The shadow 
of young women, must not pass over the sleeping-places of 
young men. If a schooner is passing the Mission about sun- 
set, the natives will sometimes throw sand up into the air, 
and blow with their mouths towards the sun, in order to 
make the sun go under quickly, and thus compel the 
schooner to come to an anchor for the night in the channel, 
near the Mission, and enable them to get on board tobacco, 
biscuits, &c., which the captains generally supply them with. 

vol, ni. K 



146 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

A man cannot marry a woman belonging to his own tribe^ 
and the children are supposed to belong to the ' mother's 
tribe.' As a rule, the natives will not eat pork, but I cannot 
get any of them to give a definite reason why they will not 
eat it. It seems custom, handed down to them by their 
forefathers, and, like nearly all their customs and supersti- 
tious notions, they can merely say it is so, or such is the 
case, &c. They are firm believers in ghosts ; and they assured 
me that there are plenty in this island, and that they can be 
seen at certain times. As a rule, they are frightened to go 
down to the creek at night-time. They believe that there is 
a devil {mellong), but they have no idea of a God. To give 
you an idea how the natives have decreased in numbers, 
since they have come in contact with Europeans, I may just 
say — that on this island, which is about eighty-five miles 
long by twelve broad, there are, I think, not more than 300 
Blacks, and yet there are no less than nineteen distinct tribes. 
But strong drink and disease, introduced among them by 
ungodly White people, have made such havoc among them 
that the tribal bond, in many instances, is almost obliterated, 
and, like a few sheep left from many flocks, they amalga- 
mate as a last resource. And, as regards chiefs, that title 
has almost died out, the strongest man, or the greatest bully, 
' takes upon himself ' to be No. 1. Although the aborigines 
were not in the habit of smoking before the arrival of the 
White man, yet now, since tobacco has been introduced 
among them, they are great smokers — men, women, and 
children. A little girl or boy about two or three years old 
may be seen with a pipe in its mouth smoking tobacco; yet 
they assure me that sometimes the mother will even take the 
breast out of the child's mouth and put the pipe in. We do 
not supply them with tobacco, but they manage to get it at 
the townships and from the vessels passing. The pipe is 
scarce ever out of their mouths when they are awake. And, 
again, the Europeans not only supply them with packs of 
cards, but also take the trouble to teach them how to play; 
so that we not only have to preach Jesus to them, but also 



GREAT SANDY OR ERASER'S ISLAND. 147 

to preach against card playing, for they get so engrossed in 
playing them that they will not leave their game to come to 
school, and sometimes neglect their food. There are parts 
and portions of the land which they lookupon as individually 
theirs; on the death of the father it descends to the sons. 
They are cannibals; they eat the young men when they die, 
and the young women if they are fat. But cannibalism is 
not so prevalent among them now as it was before the White 
man came. When a person dies, they skin him (old men 
and women excepted) ; the skin is dried, and carried about by 
one of the relatives as a sort of charm. The bones and 
other parts of the body are divided among the kinsfolk. 
Sometimes they burn the body and carry the ashes about. 
They believe that the spirits of the dead Blacks come up and 
sometimes kill their enemies. They generally shift their 
camp when one has died among them. We have a native 
doctor here, who, they positively assert, has extracted rope, 
stones, pieces of glass, &c., from natives that were sick; they 
also affirm that he can fly up like a bird, and that he can go 
in the earth here and come out again at some considerable 
distance oif ; and they also say that they cannot kiQ him, and 
that he will never die." 



148 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 164.— FRASER'S ISLAND. 

■ From the Chief Commissioneb of Police, Brisbane. 

I should doubt the correctness of the translations of the words from elder 
sister to old woman, inclusive. 



Kangaroo - 


koorooman. 


Hand - 


- birre. 


Opossum 


kooroy. 


2 Blacks - 


- tharn booUa. 


Tame dog - 




3 Blacks - 


- tharn boppoor. 


Wild dog - 


watcher karome. 


One - 


- kalim. 


Emu - 


ngoorin. 


Two - 


- booUa. 


Black duck - 


ngarr. 


Three - 


- boppoor. 


Wood duck- 








Felican 




Four - 


- koorbuntar. 


Laughing jackass- 


greggoom. 


Father 


- baboon. 


Native companion 


koontoorgun. 


Mother 


- ubong. 


White cockatoo - 


giggoom. 


Sister-Elder 


- yaboon tummi. 


Crow - - - 


wahba. 


Younger 


- yaboon winye- 


Swap - 






year. 


Egg - 


paam. 


Brother-Elder 


- 


Track of a foot - 




„ Younger 


Fish - 


untire. 


A young man 


- tharn wa nunye 


Lobster 




An old man 


- nunye tharn. 


Crayfish _ - 
Mosquito - 


teebing. 


An old woman 
A baby 


- nunye yeargun. 


Fly - - - 


oro-oro. 


- woorgoo. 


Snake - - - 


wongi. 


A White man 


- muthare. 


The Blacks - 


gibere or tharn. 


Children - 


- ogoyue. 


A Blackf ellow - 


tharnabo. 


Head -. - 


- karm. 


A Black woman - 


yeargun, 


Eye - 


- me. 


Nose - 


moorol. 


Ear - 


- binnung. 



GBEAT SANDY OR FRASER'S ISLAND. 



149 





No. 164.— Feaser'e 


IsLAUD — continued. 


Mouth - - tungare. 
Teeth - - illing. 
Hair of the head - booroompore. 
Beard - - - yaring. 
Thunder - - booroonkine. 
Grass - - - 


Boomerang - 
Hill - 
Wood - 
Stone - 
Camp - 


- burrgum. 

- yare. 

- thorr. 

- duoko or mooloo. 

- tharrmo. 


Tongue 
Stomach 


- thoneoom. 


Yes - 
No - 


- wy. 

- karbi. 


Breasts 
Thigh 


- umoong. 

- thurrer. 


I 

You - 


- atchu. 

- eando. 


Foot - 


- thinna. 


Bark - 


- pibing. 


Bone 


- moondoo. 


Good - - 


- guUungore. 


Blood - 


- gucke. 


Bad - 


- wurrung. 


Skin - 


- 


Sweet - 


- kellarore. 


Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stick 


- murroom. 

- tookoo., 

- koonnung. 

- guni. 

- belar-guni. 


Food - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 


- thumunr. 

• - karnohoo. 

- yeppeguia. 

- thirtkan. 

- boowon. 


Shield 


- koonmerri. 


Drink - 


- 


Tomahawk - 


- moorgeam. 


Walk - 


- tharga'na. 


Canoe - 


- kooloro. 


See - 


- nioyen. 


Sun - 


- thirroom. 


Sit - 


- yeanmom. 


Moon - 


- babbooyin. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Star - 


- deri. 


To-day 


- oorooner. 


Light - 


- ooroonter. 


To-morrow - 


- barunker. 


Dark - 


- wooinbum. 


Where are 


ihe tharn woncher ? 


Cold - 


- wolli. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- murrgee. 


I don't know 


- wungumba. 


Day - 


- ooroonter. 


Plenty 


- wingore. 


Night - 


- wooinbum. 


Big - - 


- wingore. 


Fire - 


- kirrar. 


Little - 


- tumurrermy. 


Water 


- koong. 


Dead - 


- barloyin. 


Smoke 


- 


By-and-by - 


- bunna-bunna. 


Ground 


- tharr. 


Come on 


- barga. 


Wind - 


- booran. 


Milk - 


- ummoo. 


Rain - 


- wroom. 


Eaglehawk - 


- biggoo. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- yam or woggoon 


Ghosts 


-. 


Wife - 


- melelbir. 



150 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 165.— UPPER BURNETT RIVER, MOUNT 
DEBATEABLE, AND GAYNDAH. 

By Robert C. Riley, Esq., and Montagu Cube, Esq. 

Of the language spoken at the places mentioned above, I 
have received four specimens — one from R. 0. Riley, Esq., 
a second from my brother, Montagu Curr, Esq., and two 
others from gentlemen who have not sent me their names. 
All of these agree so well that it is only necessary to insert 
one of them. It will be noticed in this vocabulary that there 
is but one word to express head and hair. I don't know is 
rendered no I; also wife and woman are expressed by the 
same word. 



No. 165.— UPPER BURNETT RIVER, MOUNT DEBATEABLE, 
AND GAYNDAH. 



By RoBi 


3RT 0. Riley, Esq. 


AND MONTAOU CuRB, ESQ. 


Kangaroo - 


booroo. 


Hand - 


- peeroo, birroo. 


Opossum 


dthelul. 


2 Blacks - 


- dthan booUa. 


Tame dog. - 


mirri or merri. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 


karoom. 

moa, moabang. . 

naap. 


One - 

Two - 


- noola, noolang. 

- booUa. 


Wood duck - 




Three - 


- boolangoola or 


Pelican 
Laughing" jackass 


wongi. 
karkungoon. 


Four - 


noolangbooUa. 


Native companion 


daroo. 


Father 


- papa, papilum. 


White cockatoo . 


gair-gair. 


Mother 


- yoo, ya 


Crow - 


wong. 


Sister-Elder 


- watchim. 


Swan - - - 


goloin. 


„ Younger 


- kakure. 


Egg - 


dile. 


Brother-Elder 


- dtchar. 


Track of a foot 


dthumpool. 


,, Younger tapil. 


Pish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 


goorole. 
kakiue. 


A young man 
An old man- 


- gippar. 

- goorawel. 






An old woman 


- mookine. 


Mosquito - 


moongoroo. 






Fly - 


dthippin. 


A baby 


- dappil. 


Snake - 


tuppoo. 


A White man 


- woo. 


The Blacks - 


dthan, marree. 


Children - 


- dappilwarra. 


A Blackfellow 


dthan. 


Head - 


- warrole. 


A Black woman - 


raooni. 


Eye - 


- meel. 


Nose - 


mooroo. 


Ear - 


- binna. 



UPPER BURNETT RIVER, ETC. 



151 



No. 165. — Upper Buenett Rivek, Mount Dbbateablb, and 
Gayndah — continued. 



Mouth 


kaam. 


Boomerang - 


bookan. 


Teeth - 


- deera. 


Hill - 


wontoo. 


Hair of the head 


warrole. 


Wood - 


dalline. 


Beard - 


- yerrbi, unbay. 


Stone - 


tukkeel. 


Thunder - 


- boowoomga. 


Camp - 


waibay. 


Grass - 


- baan. 


Yes - - 


yo-i. 


Tongue 


- dthunome. 


No - 


korang, goorang. 


Stomach 


- mappoo. 


I 


atchoOj yeen. 


Breasts 


- maam, mam. 


You - 


ngini, kuga. 


Thigh 


- darra, bee. 


Bark - 


doora. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Good - 


kuUungul. 


Bone - 


- digarl. 


Bad - 


worrang. 


Blood - 


- dee. 


Sweet ■ 


toorn. 


Skin - 


- uline. ■ 


Food - 


- daingole, jalm. 


Fat - 


- bulgi. 


■ Hungry 


- dookalli. 


Bowels 


- koona tenta. 






Excrement - 


- koona, kun, 


Thirsty • - 


- iditalgo, nango. 


War-spear - 


- kunni. 


Eat - 


- jalm-dalgo ? 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep - 


koonim. 


Throwing-stiok 


- mokko, makkoo. 


Drink - 


- goong-dalgo. 


Shield - - 


- goodmarri, kole- 


Walk - 


- bego. 




marri. 


See - 




Tomahawk - 


- boorgoo. 


Sit - 


- giname. 


Canoe - 


- kundool. 


Yesterday - 


- wurrung. 


Sun - 


- kinmine. 


To-day 


- kalooroo. 


Moon - , 


- alloolum. 


To-morrow - 


- karngo. 


Star - 


- tookoongul. 


Where are the 


winthalla dthan 


Light - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Dark - 


- mean. 






Cold ■ 


- yittoon. 


I don't know 


- goorang atchu. 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- Walloon. 


Day - 


- allara, tookim. 


Big - 


- yingarra 


Night - 


- mean. 


Little - 


- goonine. 


Fire - 


- moon, oone. 


Dead - 


- boontin. 


Water 


- goong. 


By-and-by - 


- gurra. 


Smoke 


- boolim. 


Come on 


- beye, yunua. 


Ground 


- dthow, jaow. 


Milk - 


- mam. 


Wiad - 
Rain - 


- ban. 

- boonoo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- guUia. 


God - 


_ 


Wild turkey 


- wakoon. 


Ghosts 


- barriumne. 


Wife - 


- ■ mooni. 



152 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 166.— MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA 
COUNTRY. 

By John Mathew, Esq., M.A. 

The watershed of tlie Mary River would serve as a rough 
boundary to enclose the territory occupied by the aborigines 
who call themselves and their language Kabz, this word 
being their commonest negative. The people throughout 
this area cannot, however, be regarded as of one compact 
tribe. They are split up into several sections or small tribes, 
speaking dialects which exhibit marked differences, but do 
not vary to the extent of making the speech of one section 
unintelligible to a native of another. 

In this treatise the name Kabe is restricted to one of 
these small tribes and its dialect ; to that, namely, which 
possessed a tract in the heart of the Bunya country. 

■ Its territory embraced the Manumbar Run in the south- 
west corner of the Burnett District, the country watered by 
the Amamoor and Koondangoor Creeks, tributaries of the 
Mary River, and the Imbil Station. While this was the 
peculiar inheritance of the tribe, it had access to the land all 
round, and was very closely allied to the natives on the . 
north, south, and east especially. 

Murudhalin, the leading man in the district here called 
Kabe, declared to me that the Kab? country proper reached 
to the coast, and as far south as Mooloolah and Durundur. 



MARY RIVER AND BUNyA BUNYA COUNTRY. 153 

Since. 1865, the tribe has been rapidly dwindling away. 
In 1881 it did not comprise a score of individuals, and 
the few survivors rarely visited their old haunts, but 
hung about the neighbouring diggings. There T^ere, in 
1865, three or four people who appeared to be of great 
age, notably one woman who required to be carried about, 
and was tenderly cared for ; now there is none very old. 
The mortality among children has been quite as great 
as among adults. Lung dis'eases were prevalent thirty 
years ago, before the influence of White men had been much 
felt. A slow consumption, rheumatism, and indigestion 
may fairly be considered as inherent in the tribe. Since 
contact with White people, the effects of these complaints 
have been greatly aggravated ; strong drink and prostitution 
have undermined constitutions naturally robust, and made 
them an easy prey to concomitant diseases. On the opening 
of diggings in the neighbourhood, the demoralization of 
the Kabi natives increased terribly, and mortality with it. 

In the stature of both sexes there is great variation. 
The height of the men is from five feet to six feet, and 
of the women from four feet six inches to five feet six 
inches. The average height of the men is about five feet 
six "inches, and of the women five feet. 

■ Both sexes are well proportioned, wiry, with good muscle, 
but rarely show superfiuous fiesh. 

The hair, with few exceptions, is jet black, generally 
lank, occasionally wavy or curly, and there were one or two 
cases of woolly hair. Children's hair was often brown; one 
boy had yellow hair which gradually became brown. The 
color of the infant's skin is a light copper, but the lapse of 
years and frequent coatings of grease and charcoal gradually 
make it a dark-brown. In the native opinion, the blacker 
the skin the more beautiful. The men grow bushy curly 
whiskers and a strong moustache. On the breast and limbs 
there is not much hair. The cast of features is considerably 
varied. Generally the forehead is low and narrow, the nose 



154 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

big and flat, the mouth large, the lips thick, cheek-bones 
pretty high, the face oval, the chin small and retreating. 
The eyes are always black and- generally large. 

In most cases the eyebrows are shaggy and prominent. 
Sometimes the eyes are deeply sunk, but sometimes rather 
prominent. In several cases the forehead was high and 
smooth, but narrow; the nose, although coarse, was straight 
and not flat, and the mouth of moderate size. In all cases 
the teeth are large, white, and regular ; toothache, notwith- 
standing, is prevalent. The bones are small, the wrists and 
ankles particularly fine. Both sexes are exceedingly agile, 
and very strong in proportion to their weight. There were 
no Albinos in the tribe. There were two near-sighted men, 
and one totally deaf and dumb. There were at least two 
cases of deformity at birth, both males. One of these had 
only four toes on one foot. It is worth noting that this youth 
was Kab? only on the mother's side. He lived with the Kab? 
people, but called himself Waka Waka after the tribe to which 
his father had belonged. The other case of deformity was 
very remarkable. This boy had the left arm perfect, but in 
the place of the right arm there was a fleshy and cartilagin- 
ous member, about six' inches in length, proportioned like 
an infant's arm (from the elbow to the wrist) and terminat- 
ing in what resembled a foreflnger and a thumb, each having 
a small nail. The whole limb was plump and healthy, and, 
although it appeared to be destitute of perfect joints, the 
boy could grasp with the finger and thumb. This lad, named 
Walare'an, was one of twins ; the other twin was a girl, and 
was said to have been kiUed by her mother, the curiosity 
being kept in preference. Doubtless, his sex saved him. 
The mother, be it remarked, was a little woman, and had lost 
the first joint of one of her little fingers, which had probably 
been cut off purposely. 

In the Kabe character there were many elements which, 
developed and trained, would have made the possessors very 
respectable ; but there was a lamentable lack of mill, and 



MARY RIVER AOT) BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 155 

this backbone wanting, all the other parts of the moral 
character got deranged and fell to pieces under very slight 
pressure. They thus made fair children, but very poor men. 
Some of them were very honest, truthful, and trustworthy, 
excepting under strong temptation. All were sympathetic 
and affectionate. Parents were fondly attached to their off- 
spring ; that is, after the mother had determined to rear the 
child ; and they were indulgent to an extraordinary degree. 
Children were rarely chastised at all, and never severely. 
They fully reciprocated their parents', affection. Infanticide 
was common enough, and male children were probably pre- 
served in preference to females. Both sexes in childhood 
were treated with equal attention and tenderness. As illus- 
trating fiUal affection, I may mention the case of a boy who 
had travelled to a distance manifesting his regard for his 
parents by sending them a pound note by post. 

The Kab? people exhibit considerable courage, but of so 
flashy a nature that it might more fitly be termed bounce. 
They are light-hearted, good-humoured, and do not long 
harbor resentment. They are, however, subject to violent 
bursts of passion, during which they often inflict serious 
injury upon one another. In judgment they are very de- 
ficient, and their minds seem unfitted for sustained exertion. 
They are all keen observers, and have a propensity for 
mimicry, but little talent for mechanical imitation. They 
are vain and fond of approbation. Two or three appeared to 
be weak in intellect. 

Rugs were made generally of 'possum skins, sewn together 
with sinews taken from the kangaroo's tail. When procur- 
able, the soft bark of the ti-tree was also used as a covering. 
In warm weather the natives went perfectly nude. Their 
skin rugs were rudely ornamented on the under side. By 
scratching with stones curved lines were made, and also poor 
representations of emus' feet. 

These lines were colored with red clay, and two were 
generally made on one 'possum skin. The chief ornament 



156 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

they seem to have worn was a piece of sea-shell of elliptical 
shape. A hole being pierced in one end, a string was passed 
through, and the shell hung from the neck. I have seen 
narrow bands, whitened with pipe-clay, worn like chaplets on 
the head, but am not sure whether the practice was followed 
before contact with White people. I have also seen short 
bits of reeds strung like beads, and worn. Males had their 
bodies scarred for ornamentation. No particular time of life 
seemed fixed for this practice. It was done little by little, 
and, apparently, at the option of the person to be cicatrized. 
I saw the operation being performed on a youth about eight- 
een or twenty years of age by his mother. Only three or 
four incisions were made on that occasion. These incisions 
were deepest on the back. On the trunk they are niade 
horizontal; on the arms they are perpendicular, and are 
made only above the elbow. The scars are called mwlar; 
they are from one to three inches in length, and arranged in 
rows. The women also scar their bodies; but, apparently, 
only to express deep sorrow on the occasion of a death. In 
the males the septum of the nose is sometimes pierced, but 
no ornament is worn in the hole. 

They frequently anoint themselves with grease and 
charcoal; and at man-making, corroborees, and fights, the 
body js smeared with thick lines of red and white clay. 

Fur from the tail of the flying squirrel was twisted 
into thread, with which they netted bags, making the 
meshes large or small according to the purpose for which 
the bags were required. They also made small bags by 
' platting thin narrow strips of cabbage-tree, tough grass, 
or the inner bark of the currajong-tree. Such bags were 
usually carried by a string passing over one shoulder, like a 
school-boy's satchel, and were depositories of their valuables, 
such as bits of string, shells, sharp stones, and relics of the 
dead. 

The tomahawks which were in use were made of a bluish 
stone, like serpentine. Their length was five or six inches, 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 157 

their breadth about three inches, their greatest thickness 
about an inch and a half; in shape they resembled an 
imperfect ellipse. They were sharpened at one end only. A 
piece of wood, slit at the end, formed the handle. The stone 
head was made fast in the slit by means of cords and the 
resin of the grass-tree. For knives they had sharp stones. 
They had pieces of freestone for rubbing skins and dressing 
their weapons. For the latter purpose they also employed 
the shells of a large species of slug. The women kept a 
supply of sticks for the purpose of digging yams. These 
yam-sticks were about five feet long, one and a half inches 
thick, and sharp at both ends. They were also the weapons 
used in feminine combats, on which occasions the sticks were 
grasped and used like single-sticks. Another most important 
implement was a vine, to assist in climbing trees. It was 
procured in the scrubs. The bark of it was rough, and nodes 
of very small size showed at intervals of two or three feet. 
The length of a vine in use would be ten or twelve feet, the 
thickness about three-quarters of an inch. At one end a 
loop was made, by first making a loose single knot and 
then twining the end a couple of times through the loop. 
When an ascent was to be made, the loop was held in the 
left hand; the other end, having been slipped round the 
tree, was generally allowed to pass behind the climber, 
who, with his right hand, grasped the vine at such a 
distance from the loop held in his left as when he leant 
back would allow his body to form with the tree an angle of 
about 45°. Simultaneously, with every step the climber took, 
the vine was moved up the tree. In this manner an expert 
could ascend a tree at a brisk walk, and take paces as long as 
if walking on the ground. Where a large tree forked, the 
practice was difficult and perilous ; the vine being liable to 
slip, it became necessary in such situations for the native to 
pass the hanging end of the vine into his left hand, thus 
forming a hoop, upon which his back could rest while the 
right hand was free to cut notches for the feet with the 



158 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

tomaliawk. In this manner, at any height along the stem, 
the climber could support himself and use his tomahawk. In 
an emergency, I have seen a light ironbark sapling supply 
the place of a vine. 

The spears were generally of ironbark, and in length 
varying from seven to nine feet. Commonly, they were just 
the simple piece of wood, with no throwing-stick, but 
occasionally had one barb. These were not carved. The 
clubs, or kuthar, were about two and a half feet long. The 
end held in the hand was about an inch thick, and jagged to 
prevent slipping. From this end it thickened for a distance 
of two feet, where it would be two or three inches through, 
thence it tapered to a sharp point. At the thickest part it 
was frequently carved into rings of prominences, each about 
half an inch square. With the plain ones the youths played 
a game, in which the object was to throw the weapon so as 
to make it bound off the ground for a few yards, and then on 
alighting slide along the grass head foremost in a straight 
line. The kuthar was the chief hunting weapon, and was 
also the principal weapon in hand-to-hand combats. 

Of boomerangs they had two kinds ; one returned when 
thrown, the other did not. Whether the weapon would 
return or not seemed the effect of chance, and not design, in 
the construction, for, without a trial, they seemed unable to 
tell which kind the weapon was, and the end to be held was 
indicated by a few scratches at the very extremity. In 
Kabe the boomerang is called boran, a word closely resem- 
bling bwran, the mind. Another weapon, much like a 
boomerang, but in shape almost rectangular, was used for 
close fighting. It does not seem to have been thrown. 

They had shields called helemon, and also from the tree of 
which they were made k^nmarim. This tree was a species of 
currajong, and its wood very soft when green, but becoming 
harder and tougher when dry. The shields were of elliptical 
shape, about two feet long by fourteen inches broad, and 
about four inches through at the thickest part. In the 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 159 

centre of tlie back a hole was scooped, sufficiently large to 
allow the hand to pass under a longitudinal bar, which was 
left uncut, and formed the handle. The exterior was 
smeared with clay of various colors, and sometimes had a 
mark of ownership carved on it. On old shields, many dints 
of spears and waddies could be seen. Indeed, in single 
combat, the thuds on the shield were loud and frequent, and 
j'^et they seemed to break but rarely. Not only did the 
warrior protect the upper part of his body, but when his feet 
were threatened he leaped up and covered them with the 
shield at the same time. 

There was hardly any animal, from a human being to a 
giant fly, that was not considered wholesome and lawful 
food to the elder men of the tribe. To minors, certain 
animals were proscribed as mundha. In certain seasons, 
and on certain occasions, the women had to abstain from 
some kinds of food, which were also said to be mundha. 
In the bunya season of 1875-76, bunyas were mundha 
to the females. The food prohibited to minors is porcu- 
pine, snakes, eels, fresh-water fish, kangaroo injured in 
the chase, the eggs of the emu and, scrub turkey, and the 
flying fox. Indulgence in forbidden food is supposed to be 
punished with sickness and cancerous sores. A practice 
called Narm is incumbent upon bereaved persons. This is 
mourning by fasting. The women will frequently beg for 
meat from White people, on the plea that they are compelled 
to fast from the. flesh of the native animals. That the Kab? 
people were cannibals is certain. Individuals, ashamed to 
confess themselves anthropophagi, are ready enough to tell you 
that somebody else relished human fl'esh. The victims who 
fell in war seem to have been invariably eaten. If there was 
any flesh on the bones of those who died from natural causes 
it did not go to waste; and I have heard even of a child who, 
having fattened, was devoured. The dingo contributed his 
share to the Kabz feast. A very delicate morsel was a grub 
called bu'ruga, from three to six inches long and half an 



160 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

incli thick, cut out of young gum-trees. The writer can 
recommend this as excellent eating when roasted; raw, it 
is rather insipid and watery. It was not a very pleasant 
sight to see a Black woman divest of wings and legs the 
gigantic fly (the cicala), and then gobble it up alive. 

Mesh was not objected to raw, but if time permitted it 
was invariably roasted on the embers. The family did not 
wait until the joint was cooked to the centre. When the heat 
had penetrated an inch or so, paterfamilias took up the joint 
and had a few bites. It was then handed round until the 
half-roasted part was finished, when the remainder was 
exposed to the fire for a few minutes and thereafter passed 
round again. They do not appear to have used ovens. 

Honey, the product of the native bees, was a favorite 
article of diet. There were two varieties, giYla. and ka'wai. 
The former was the more common, and the latter the more 
esteemed. In the appearance of the bees there is very little 
difference. Both sorts are much Like a house-fly in color, 
but about half as large. They make a buzz just audible. 
The envelope containing the honey is like a cluster of small 
bags, of irregular size and shape. Gd'la is often very thin, 
and both sorts, I believe, have a sourish fermented taste if 
the hive be exposed to the sim. Ka'wai more resembles the 
honey of our domestic bee, but is not equal to it in flavor. 
The aboriginal method of eating honey, although to European 
taste somewhat repulsive, is at least frugal and ingenious, 
and was, no doubt, the best they could adopt, when they 
possessed no vessels in which they could carry the semi- 
liquid nectar. The inner bark of a tree having much bast 
tissue was procured. " A piece of this, about two feet square, 
having. been rubbed and softened, was smeared with the 
honey, which it partly absorbed. The treat was to suck and 
chew this honeyed bark, and, like the joint already spoken of, 
it was eagerly clutched at by all the company in turn, passed 
from one mouth to another, and when sucked dry was dipped 
in the honey for farther sucking and chewing. 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 161 

For vegetable food they used the roots of ferns, a kind of 
yam, the budding leaves of a species of palm-tree, the root of 
a plant common about the creeks, and the seeds found in the 
scales of the cones of the bunya-tree. The plant found about 
the margins of watercourses resembled, in the shape of its 
leaf, the lily of the Nile, and was probably a lily. The root 
had to be pounded before use, as the juice was extremely 
pungent. 

But by far the most important and most valued vegetable 
product was the bunya. The bunya-tree, or Araucaria Bid- 
willii, is a very conspicuous ornament of the scrubs in the 
Kabz country, and, by its dome-shaped crown, can be dis- 
tinguished from the surrounding trees at a great distance. 
The cones, when full-grown, are fourteen to sixteen inches in 
length, and at the thickest part about nine inches through. 
The edible portions, the seeds, or ovules rather, are an inch or 
an inch and a half long, and about half an inch thick. Their 
tissue much resembles that of a potato. They are of conical 
shape, covered with a tough envelope, and are found one on 
each scale. When the cone is young, the edible portions are 
juicy and sweet, and are eaten entire and raw. As the seed 
matures, and the embryo assumes a definite form, the sur- 
rounding tissue becomes drier and less palatable ; the embryo 
is then rejected. When matured, the natives prefer to roast 
the nut-like seed. Before being roasted, each seed is partially 
bruised with a stone, and when it has been in the fire for a 
minute or two it gives a crack, the signal that it is cooked. 
These kernels are also pounded into a kind of meal, called 
maNM, and eaten in that form. In laying up a store of 
bunyas, the Blacks exhibited an unusual foresight. While 
the fruit was in season, they filled netted bags with the seeds, 
and buried them generally about the beds of creeks, to be 
ready for use. when the season was long past. Bunyas that 
had lain for months underground had, when taken up, a 
most offensive smell, which they imparted to all that came 
in contact with them. Nevertheless, the Blacks ate them 

VOL III, L 



162 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

with great relish. In some seasons, the yield was very scant. 
At the prospect of an abundant yield, tribes would come the 
distance of a hundred miles to feast upon the bunya, and to 
finish up the feasting with fighting. 

The Ksbhi tribe had no recognized chief. Courage, intelli- 
gence, and seniority gave a preponderating influence to their 
possessors. 

There were two or three men in the tribe, about equal in 
power, who directed the movements of the whole, controlled 
the relations with neighbouring tribes, took care that estab- 
lished customs should not be infringed, and exercised a 
fatherly interest in domestic matters. They were men of 
acknowledged courage, whose influence and prowess seemed 
both hereditary. One of them would, as a rule, espouse the 
cause of a weaker brother who was being maltreated. Pro- 
perty such as they possfesssd was respected. If a man found 
a bees' nest, and did not wish to rob it for some time, he 
would. mark the tree by pulling up the grass around the base, 
placing sticks against it, and so forth. It was a crime to 
rob a nest thus indicated. Quarrels were settled mostly by 
the arbitrament of the kuthar or club. 

For the regulation of marriages, each person in the tribe 
bore one of the -four names— BaraN, Balkun, DhErwEu, 
Bonda. There was also a name, Bandhur, which was, how- 
ever, rarely used. The practice with reference to these names 
seemed to be that the names of children depended directly 
on the mother's name in &^a^ marriages ; that a BaraN ought 
not to marry a Balkun, nor a DhErwEn a Bonda, but a BaraN 
or a Balkun could marry either a DhErwEn or a Bonda. 
Then, if a man, a BaraN, married a Bonda, the children were 
DhErwEn; if he married a DhErwEn, the children were 
Bonda. Like results followed when a Balkun married a 
Bonda or DhErwEn. In the case of a man, being a DhErwEn, 
he married either a BaraN, and the children were Balkun, or 
a Balkun, and the children were BaraN. Like results fol- 
lowed on a Bonda marrying a BaraN or a Balkun. Bandhur 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 163 

seemed to be a synonyme for DhErwEn. A table will more 
clearly indicate the relations of tbese names : — 



Males. 


Females. 


Children. 


BaraN marries - 


C Bonda 
-j or 
(DhErwEn 


- DhErwEn, 

- Bonda. 


Balkun marries 


C DhErwEn 
- < or 
C Bonda 


- Bonda. 

- DhErwEn. 


DhErwEn marries - 


f BaraN 
- •< or 
i Balkun - 


- Balkun. 

- BaraN. 


Bonda marries 


f Balkun - 
- i or 
(BaraN 


- BaraN. 

- Balkun. 



These restrictions have been more exactly stated to me 
thus by the best Kabe authority: — 

BaraN marries DhErwEn, the child is Bonda. 
Balkun marries Bonda, the child is DhsrwEn. 
DhErwEn marries Balkun, the child is BaraN. 
Bonda marries BaraN, the child is Balkun. 

It was a favorite practice to address one another by matri- 
monial instead of proper names. The regulations indicated 
above were frequently disregarded. 

If, contrary to the rules, both parents were of one name, 
the children took the same name; and if BaraN and Balkun 
or Bonda and DhErwfin intermarried, the children received 
the name they would have got had the father married legiti- 
mately. These names were, with slight variations, common 
to the surrounding tribes. Marriages generally took place 
with members of adjacent and closely allied tribes. Betroth- 
als at a very early age are customary. Youths would 
exchange sisters when they could, but the elders generally 
appropriated the young women. It was criminal for a son- 
in-law and mother-in-law to look at one another. If they 
happened to ■ meet by chance, they turned away their faces.. 
Elopements were common, and, under whatever circum- 
stances, always entailed a combat between the husband, or 
guardian, and the lover. ' If the latter proved himself a 
doughty combatant, the woman became his wife. Bigamy 

L 2 



164 • THE AUSTRALIA]!^ RACE : 

was common. In cases of bigamy, the two women seemed 
to agree well and shared the domestic duties. In quarrels, 
husbands occasionally beat their wives cruelly from head to 
foot. I have known a wife to receive a fracture of the skull 
in a quarrel with her husband, and to become reconciled to 
him a day or two. after. The females were married at a 
tender age, probably at about fourteen years. Owing to the 
practice of infanticide, it would be difficult to say what 
number of children a woman bore, but the average was pro- 
bably five. In one instance there must have been an interval 
of about sixteen years between the births of an oldest and 
youngest child. Infants seem to have been put out of the 
way by mothers, to escape the trouble of rearing them. 
Some women lightly confessed to having killed several 
children. The practice was doubtless an ancient one. 
Ordinarily, children belonged to the father's tribe, but when 
the father died before the children had passed the age of ten 
or twelve, the mother returned to her own tribe, taking 
her children along with her, and the inference is that the 
children became attached to it. 

Widows, after a period of mourning, received another 
husband. . 

The inherent diseases have already been mentioned, 
viz.: — Rheumatism, indigestion, and pulmonary complaints. 
The first two were rarely chronic. Lung disease aj)peared 
in severe colds and coughs, terminating in emaciation and 
death. I saw one case of dropsy and asthma combined, two 
men bore marks of small-pox, and syphilis had left unmis- 
takable traces on the face of one. They had no idea of the 
causes of internal complaints, but attributed all sickness to 
the malevolence of another aborigine. A pain was supposed 
to be the result of a blow with a pebble thrown by an enemy. 
A manNMr, or doctor, would suck the aching part and profess 
to extract the pebble, or otherwise would pretend to take 
blood from it in the following manner:— The manKwr is 
provided with a long cord made of fur, and a vessel contain- 
ing some water. One end of the cord is fastened round the 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 165 

body of the sick person immediately over the seat of pain, 
the other end lies in the water. The manNwr, who is seated 
between the patient and the water-vessel, holds the cord 
about th-e middle with both hands, and rubs it backwards 
and forwards across his gums, causing them to bleed. As 
the saliva and blood accumulate, the mixture is spit into 
the vessel. This process is gone through in a slow, deliberate 
fashion, until the water in the vessel is quite discolored. 
The blood in the frothy liquid is supposed to have been 
drawn from the patient, who drinks the contents of the 
vessel and expresses himself relieved by the operation and the 
potion. However incredible the above description may seem, 
it is quite true ; the writer has seen the bleeding in process. 

Wounds were often plastered with clay, but sometimes 
Nature wag left to do all the healing herself. In cases of 
bruises, sores, or boils on the limbs, a ligature was fastened 
two or three inches above the part affected to check circula- 
tion. Mange, evidently caught from the dogs, was not 
uncommon. They had a peculiar and disgusting method of 
dealing with it. One person, using a short pointed stick, 
would very patiently prick the pustules all over the body of 
the sufferer. The counter irritation must have afforded 
temporary relief. For headache, a band was generally fas- 
tened tightly round the temples. Fractured bones knitted 
with wonderful rapidity. In one instance, a boy got his 
collar-bone broken, and in three days it neither impeded his 
movements, nor did it seem to trouble him at all. 

On the occurrence of a death, the wailing was horrible to 
listen to. The general cry was " Nadha Nadha m^min 
mimin wuthwN NanuNgai balomathz gindi " ; then followed 
unearthly inarticulate wails. 

The meaning of the first four words seems to have been 
unknown; the last four mean my brother (in some cases 
father, &c.) is dead I "Women cut themselves from head to 
foot. The incisions were about an inch in length, and suffi- 
ciently deep to cause a copious flow of blood, which was 
allowed to dry on the skin, and was not washed off. 



166 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

The whole camp joined in the lamentation, the sincerity 
of which was gauged by its length and loudness. Every one 
who cried was considered to pay a great compliment to the 
bereaved friends. The latter were considered base and 
ungrateful if they should afterwards injure any one who had 
joined vehemently in the wailing. Q-enerally relics of the 
dead were preserved, such as the knee-caps, the bones of the 
toes, the whole skin, or a part of it. Fleshy parts of the 
body were eaten. Logs were placed on the surface of the 
ground at one side or other of the grave. I have been told 
that these indicated the number of brothers surviving the 
deceased, the position of the logs relatively to the grave 
pointing out the direction in which the surviving brothers 
lived. Near female relatives of the departed tied small tufts 
of emu feathers to the locks of their hair all over the head. 
These were the signs of mourning, and were allowed to 
remain on the head until they gradually dropped off. Rela- 
tives fasted for several weeks. Crying was kept up every 
night for a few weeks, and thereafter on occasional nights 
for a month or two. Names of dead persons were never 
uttered. To utter them was to bring about great evil, pro- 
bably to both the dead and the living. Deaths were ascribed 
to the influence of a member of some neighbouring tribe, and 
were often avenged by fights. 

Two names — dhur, a ring, and kzvar ysNga, or man- 
making — appear to have applied to one and the same cere- 
mony. The young men of the present generation have not 
been subjected to the ordeal, and they have only a very vague 
idea of what it is like. About some of their practices, of 
which the man-making is one, the Blacks seem disinclined 
to give much information, or the information given is not 
very reliable. The proceedings at the kzvar yBNga have been 
described to me to be as follows : — The young men and women 
are reddened with ochre and excluded from the camp. Elders, 
called kamaran {head-men), are appointed to direct the cere- 
mony. The young people of both sexes are allowed to camp 
near each other, but no intercourse is permitted. They are 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 167 

closely watched, and the slightest levity is punished. By 
all accounts the restraint placed upon them is very severe. 
The young people call out, "Nudha Nudha Nudha Nudha 
mma mma ka." My informant did not know the meaning of 
these words, hence they are probably corrupted. As they 
are repeated very frequently during the ceremony, they seem 
to be regarded as a charm. Mma is very likely an interro- 
gative. 

On the first day there is a great corroboree among the 
elders. At night the mundha, or prohibited food, is handed 
round for inspection among the young people who are fasting. 
On the second day the young people are washed. The hair 
is shaved off all parts of the body but the head. The youths 
join hands and march about a fire, the maidens doing the 
same at another fire. On successive nights various devices 
are resorted to for the purpose of terrifying the young people. 
One of these was making a hole in the ground into which 
one of the old men went, and, by grim personations of 
animals, made himself as hideous as possible. Sham-fighting 
also took place. 

At last, on the sixth day, there is the wamaran, or gather- 
ing of all the Blacks, young and old, around three fires. A 
kind of roll-call is then gone through, each young person 
calling " kai Nai," — " here am I," in response to their names. 
The young men are asked in turn if they would like to have 
a wife, and reply in the affirmative. At night the married 
women take charge of the young men, the married men 
camping by themselves, and the ceremony is over. Circum- 
cision was not practised, nor any mutilation. 

The corroborees, or " yauar," as the Kabz people call 
them, fall naturally into two classes, the dramatic and the 
lyric. When a grand or dramatic corroboree had been com- 
posed, the poet trained the members of his own tribe to 
produce it. The intelligence that a new corroboree had been 
composed was received with pleasurable excitement by the 
surrounding tribes, and in due course gatherings were 
convened, at which it was performed. The poet having 



168 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

introduced his work to the neighbouring tribes, these in turn 
invited their allies to witness it and aid in the performance. 
In this manner a corroboree travelled, and was sung with 
great enthusiasm where not a word of it was intelligible. The 
dramatic part in these performances was sometimes very 
considerable. The story of the drama appears to have been 
exceedingly short and simple, and occasionally full of excite- 
ment. The representations were rarely free from obscenity, 
and on some occasions indecent gestures were the main parts 
of the action. I have seen a structure formed of huge forked 
sticks placed upright in the ground, the forks upwards, with 
saplings reaching from fork to fork, and boughs laid over 
all. This building was part of the machinery for a cor- 
roboree, at a certain stage of which the males, who were 
located on the roof, rushed down among the females, who 
were underneath, and handled them licentiously. One cor- 
roboree I saw performed as follows: — The females sat in the 
foreground near a number of fires. There were about a 
hundred and fifty performers, all males, disposed in several 
bands. They formed in rows in the background, and advanced 
very slowly towards the fires. The composer led the front 
rank, and was conspicuous by the loudness of his voice and 
the animation of his gestures. The bodies of all were 
smeared with red and white clay, and as nearly as possible 
after the same fashion. Bach held a kuthar (club) in the 
right hand. There was an amazing simultaneousness of 
action, and excellent time was beaten with the feet. During 
the whole representation the women beat time. ' Each sat 
with her thighs close together, and beat upon the hollow 
thus formed with both her hands open, the fingers of the 
one passing obliquely over those of the other. Every one 
seemed intensely delighted. Near the close the performers 
placed the left hand on the side of their head, and bending 
to the left as one man, leant as near the ground as possible, 
remaining for a couple of seconds in this attitude, which re- 
presented sleep. Shortly after, having given three great 
yells in close succession, they retired to the background. 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 169 

The same movements were repeated, but other ranks took the 
front. 

The corroboree music is much like a chant. A string 
of words often runs to the one note. All the parts are 
variations of one tune, sung in different kinds of time, and 
at various rates of speed. There is a peculiar tendency to 
slide in semitones from one key into another, and the effectof 
the music is almost invariably minor. A favorite practice is 
to raise the pitch suddenly an octave, and in order to effect 
this it is sometimes necessary to allow it to slide to a low 
pitch in the manner spoken of above. Instead of intimat- 
ing the conclusion of one part of the piece by two or three 
yells, a more musical practice is often followed of trilling the 
sound of r at a high pitch. 

In the corroboree marked No. I. there is an example of 
the dramatic kind. Only a portion is given, but sufficient 
to indicate the character of the whole. The words are not 
Kahi. This is easily apparent from the feet being Iambic 
if from nothing else, as there is hardly an Iambic foot in 
Kabe. The lyrics are short simple ditties, comprising at 
most two parts. The subject is some exploit or custom of 
the composer, or perhaps the charms of his sweetheart. 
Such songs are only known to a few individuals, and are 
sung in private. In both examples that I give there seems 
to be an attempt at rhyme. I am pretty sure the effect is 
not accidental. If we take the words of the second example, 
which seem to be of the lyric kind, and is written in Kabe, 
we find a rhyme recurring containing the vowel a. That 
this is intentional is evident from the fact that the word 
kalaifa in the song is always in conversation pronounced 
kalaNwr, that the word kariNga has not in conversation the' 
hard- ^ sound, and that a meaningless a is affixed to the 
word Nuyum. The words- of the second part of No. II. are 
not intelligible to me. In the aboriginal voice there is a 
great deal of timbre, a quality which is greatly affected in 
private singing. Falsetto and tremulo are often used, and the 
force and expression are much varied. 



170 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



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MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 171 



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172 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE': 



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MARY RIVER AOT) BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 



173 



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174 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

The causes of hostilities between tribes do not seem to 
have been very definite. As deaths were generally attributed 
to the malevolence of enemies in another tribe, the desire of 
vengeance sometimes led to a battle. Owing to the Kab? 
country being identical with the central part of the habitat 
of the bunya, remote tribes converged upon it when bunyas 
were plentiful, and hence it was a thorough battlefield. The 
Kabz tribe, alHed with their neighbours, made war on those 
from a distance about the end of the bunya season. The 
opposing parties camped near each other, and, after indulging 
in mutual accusations, threats, and challenges for a few 
nights, the fighting commenced, and was conducted without 
any arrangement. The results appear to have been very 
indecisive — a man or two killed on either side, and two or 
three wounded. There was no retreating, no pursuing and 
subsequent slaughtering, owing doubtless to there being 
nothing to win or lose. Wailing and cannibal feasts ended 
the proceedings. 

The tribe used frequently to hunt in bands. They 
would form a line, and scour the country. On the sight of 
kangaroos, the hunters, by hallooing, confused them so much 
that, instead of evading the pursuers, they rushed towards 
them. When the grass was dry enough to burn, one party 
having been distributed along the margin of a scrub, another 
party set fire to the grass some distance off; the game, 
obliged to seek shelter in the scrub, became easy marks 
for the persons posted at its edge. The kwthar, or club, 
was the most effective hunting weapon. The spoil of the 
chase was shared unselfishly, even when obtained by private 
exertion. 

The dwellings were of the very simplest description. 
Generally a sapling, ten to twelve feet long and about two 
inches thick, was procured and partially broken in the 
middle. The ends were fixed lightly in the ground, about 
six feet apart. The halves, still adhering, formed at once 
the doorposts and two rafters of the dwelling. The apex, or 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 175 

broken part, rested in a fork, terminating the upper end of 
another stick, about six feet long, the lower end of which was 
stuck in the ground: thus the framework was formed. One 
of the spaces between the rafters formed a door, the other 
two were filled up with bushes, or covered over with sheets of 
bark. A dwelling of this kind could be shifted as the wind 
changed. The fire was made in front, and when the cover- 
ing was bark, although the fire was usually small, a great 
deal of heat was reflected .from the bark, and the inmates 
were very snug. Such a dwelling was intended for only 
two or three occupants. Larger structures were occasionally 
made after the same fashion by procuring two or three 
forked sticks. 

The camps were often shifted. When travelling, families 
took different routes, hunting or searching for sugar-hag 
(honey) on their way, and towards sundown converging at 
an appointed rendezvous. Unless on urgent occasions, they 
would content themselves with loitering over about five 
miles a day. Each individual had a peculiar cooee by 
which he could be distinguished as far as heard. It was 
customary for one of the tribe, if unexpectedly approaching 
a camp, to cooee; on coming up he at once engaged in 
conversation, and embraced friends, if he had been long 
separated from them. A stranger on approaching a camp 
had to sit down at some distance, with his back towards 
it, and, after remaining silent in this situation for a 
quarter or half an hour, he would draw a little nearer, and 
might then, in a very cold and formal manner, exchange 
salutations. The first salutation is Weno dhan? — "Where 
are the Blacks ?" As an adieu, the Kabe native says, " Kai 
Nai yEndin " — " Here I go," or " I'm just off." 

Each family possessed several dogs, and when on the 
move the wife generally kept up a kind of chant calling 
upon the dogs. The call was e, aie, ise, ai, ai, ai, aie, ise. 
I am not aware that these sounds had any meaning apart 
from the dog-call, and let me remark that in the ise occurs 
the only pure sibilant I heard in the language. 



176 THE AUSTRALIAN RAGE: 

As I have already observed, friends meeting after long 
separation embrace. On such occasions they seem much 
affected, rub faces and caress one another very fondly. They 
have no masonic signs. 

Messages were sent by a dhomka or messenger, and 
were occasionally expressed by nqtches cut on a piece of 
stick. The notches generally referred to numbers, but not 
invariably. 

Their love-letters were peculiar. When the writer was 
once travelling with a Black boy the latter produced from 
the lining of his hat a bit of a twig about an inch long, and 
having three notches, cut on it. The Black boy explained 
that he was a dhomka, that the central notch represented 
himself, and the other notches, one the youth sending the 
message, the other the girl for whom it was intended. It 
meant in the words of Dickens, " Barkis is willing." The 
dhomka sewed up the love-symbol in the lining of his hat, 
carried it thus for months without divulging his secret to his 
sable friends, and finally delivered it safely. This practice 
appeared to be well known, and was probably common. 

There were two or more kinds of pebbles in great 
estimation. By the description I got of them they were 
doubtless semi-transparent quartz of various tints, and 
were generally found in watercourses. One kind was called 
minkom; it was flat and circular. Another kind, of 
globular shape, was called indifferently Nanpai or kundzr. 
In these pebbles were the means of life and death. The 
opinion was that they were carried internally about the 
region of the stomach, and a Kabe person's vitality and 
influence was proportionate to the number of them he was 
possessed of Kund2r was the sort generally spoken of,, and 
to be "kundzr boNgan" (many-pebbled) was to possess a 
charmed life, and to be able to inflict grievous harm upon 
enemies. When a person was taken suddenly ill it was 
supposed that a pebble had been launched at him. 

A young fellow named Waruindh positively assured me 
that he had been hit in the side by one of these pebbles, 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 177 

g,nd that he knew the thrower of the missile, who he said, 
although unseen, had been concealed behind a tree. He was 
troubled, apparently, with a stitch in the side. On such 
occasions the manNwr or magician, whose qualities I shall 
hereafter explain, was had recourse to. The manNMr 
mumbled about the aching part with his mouth, and 
affected to extract the pebble. 

To the Kahi mind, the rainbow, which was called dhakkan, 
was the greatest source of power. It was personified, and, 
when visible, was imagined to be in course of transit from 
one abode to another. Its haunts were small waterholes on 
elevated places. Many of these were of considerable depth, 
and, being unfathomable to the Blacks, were considered 
bottomless. The dhakkan was accused of emerging from his 
watery residence, and, like the fairies, substituting one child 
for another, which it took to its stronghold, about the 
margin of which it occasionally aired him. Thus it was 
first thought that half-castes were changelings, left by 
dhakkan in the place of Black children stolen by it. (See 
stories following vocabulary.) But dhakkan was as jpowerful 
for good as for harm; it had a never failing supply of 
bukkwr or juttu, that is, rope. 

It exchanged bukkwr for kundzr with men who possessed 
the latter, the transfer being effected in the following 
manner. A Blackfellow possessing kundz'r would camp on 
the margin of a waterhole known to be a dhakkan residence. 
While asleep there, a tingling sensation would commence at 
his toes, and pass all over his body. This tingling was the 
evidence of the operation of dhakkan,. which had meanwhile 
drawn the sleeper under water, and, having taken from him 
kundzr in exchange for bukkwr, had replaced him on his 
couch a manNwr. The tingling sensation was evidently 
mere numbness resulting from cold. 

A mauNOT possessed a charmed life, could kill and cure, 
command the elements, and, in short, perform any feat that 
imagination could suggest. Persons who had experienced 
hairbreadth escapes were reckoned either kundzr boNgan or 
mauNOT. When a man was the former, it was patent to 

VOL. in. M 



178 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

everybody; but he had to be a very clever, assuming 
impostor to be recognized as a manNwr. Consequently, 
manNMrs were few. A feat of one of them is worth relating. 
A boy named Turandiu told me that when he was a child 
the camp was one morning surprised by the Native Police. 
A Blackfellow, a manNwr, lifted the boy and, having tossed 
him a mile or two into the scrub, vanished underground 
himself, reappearing on the surface about where he had 
thrown the child. It was current that a manN^r could draw 
from his stomach wonderful things, even ropes of tobacco. 
ManNMr means fuU-of-life. The rainbow is said to be 
manNMrNMr, that is life-possessing, life-giving, because it 
has the power of imparting vitality to men. 

A manNMr, magician or life-man, is sometimes called 
murw-murM, that is, full-of-life. The pebbles that I have 
already spoken of are sometimes called dhakke, the general 
word for stones. It seems that a person, in order that they 
may pass into his stomach, must also be lying at the margin- 
of a waterhole. 

One who is kundzr boNgan, or better still, a mauNwr, 
will generally possess a Nuam manNwrNwr, or, as the Blacks 
render it in English, a "saucy dillie-bag." Although its 
appearance does not differ from the ordinary dillie-bags, it is 
supposed to be of an origin beyond human. It is found in 
waterholes. Its contents are known only to its owner, 
but to the crowd they are supposed to comprise relics of the 
dead, pebbles, and hair and excrement of enemies. The 
owner will ostentatiously hang it up on a tree in the eyes of 
the whole camp, none daring to touch it for fear of being 
overtaken by speedy death. I once saw one hanging thus, 
and as I was carelessly walking up to have a look at it, the 
Blacks, apprehensive of my danger, called out to me in 
accents of fear to keep back.. After I had examined the 
exterior, and they had seen that I was unharmed, they 
accounted for my immunity by saying that I was a White- 
fellow. 

I have said that the Nuam contains the hair or excrement 
of its owner's enemies. The Kab? people believe that if you 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 179 

can procure either of these, while they decay in your posses- 
sion, your enemy's life will be waning to a corresponding 
extent. Consequently, they are extremely fearful of their 
hair or faeces falling into an enemy's hands. 

They had a strange dread of passing under a leaning 
tree or even under the rails of a fence. Their reason for this, 
as explained to me, was, that a female might have been upon 
the tree or fence, and that some blood from her might have 
fallen on it and might fall from it on them. Analogous to 
this fear was that of a person . stepping over their body 
while they were lying down. When camping out with a 
Black boy I have unthinkingly stepped over him, and have 
known him involuntarily to cry out with fear and to denounce 
the ignorance and stupidity of White people. These fears 
seem to me to point to some former laws relating to 
pollutions. 

They had a very vague belief in water-spirits, the ap- 
pearance, qualities, and habits of which I could not discover. 
They had a belief in, or more accurately an apprehension of, 
ghosts; NMthurM, the word for shadow, was also the word 
for ghost. A ghost was generally to be seen at night 
peering through branches or from behind trees. They did 
not seem to believe that the personality of the deceased was 
continued in the ghost, but thought that death annihilated 
personality. 

They knew nothing of a Supreme Being, and performed 
no acts of invocation or propitiation. I never discovered 
any traditions about the Creation, the Deluge, or the origin 
of the native race. 

Language. 

The word Kabi is a negative, and used as such by those 
who speak the dialect called by the Eevd. W. Ridley, Dippil, 
as well as by the tribe to which the name Kab? is specially 
applied in this treatise. The people who speak both these 
dialects probably formed originally but one tribe, and were 
designated Kab2, from that negative being peculiarly theirs. 
The Kab? and Dippil dialects differ from each other but very 

M 2 



180 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

slightly. One conspicuous difference is the introduction of ^ 
hard in many words in Dippil, where it does not occur or is 
elided in Kab?, such as wurgu, Touru, a girl, bugaman, baman, 
to come, NugMn, Nwin, a boy, and so on. In consequence of 
the meagreness of the Kabz vocabulary, many words possess 
a wide range of meaning. Kalaxi^r, good, may express 
almost any quality that produces pleasure ; muUw, black, 
means any dark color whatever, excepting red; thus green, 
blue, brown, black of all shades are mullw. It is to be 
expected that an aboriginal dialect should be deficient in 
abstract words, and especially in words expressing nice moral 
distinctions or delicate sensations. Kabz realizes this 
expectation; it does not even take cognizance of the -air we 
breathe, having no name for it. The dearth of words renders 
freqiient circumlocution necessary, and much of the sense has 
to be gleaned from the context, the tone, and gesticulation. 
The orthography in which the Kabz words are written in 
these notes is based upon Professor M. Miiller's Missionary 
Alphabet, to which I have added e, and the English conso- 
nantal y. The characters, about the sound of which there 
might be any doubt, are: — 



a - 


■ a - 


am, psalm. 


th - thin. 


i - 
u ■ 

e ■ 
- 


- i 

- u - 

- e - 

- - 


knit, neat, 
full, fool, 
debt, date, 
not, note. 


dh - the (nearly). 
N (ng) English. 

y - you. 

ai - ire. 


E - 

n(i 


■ - 
ly) Esp£ 


her, but. 
ina, new. 


au - proud, 
oi - voice. 



ou - bought. 
The Kab? people carefully distinguish two sounds of r, which 
of themselves will determine the different meanings of two 
words in other respects exactly aUke. I have not indicated 
these, and to a strange ear they would scarcely be dis- 
tinguishable. The less frequent resembles the subdued trUl 
in the English word pur, if prolonged. 

Another characteristic sound is that of I, pronounced as 
if coalescing with a following y. There is also a remarkable 
sound of n. It is produced by protruding the tongue as if 



MAEY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 181 

about to pronounce the word the immediately after the letter 
n. This sound might be called a dentated n. I have indi- 
cated it by ndh. 

Very often mutes are so indefinitely articulated as to 
render it doubtful whether they are surd or sonant. Thus to 
the ears of some Whites the word for grass is pan, to others 
ban. Not only so, but' there is a great tendency to soften 
the labials of p and b, and the labial-liquid m to zo, as in 
WMrubandh or wMruwsndh, old; muin or wuin, niffkt. I 
have failed to recognize any pure sibilant or palatal ck in 
Kabz, excepting the s in the word ise, used as a dog- 
call. There are near approaches to such sounds, but such 
combinations as ty, dhi, or tdh fully express the extent of 
the hiss, as in batyin, found. The aspirate h does not occur 
except in one word helemon, a shield. From the fact of this 
word being the single exception, and as there is another 
word for shield, viz., kunmarim, the name of the tree from 
which shields are made, I take the word helemon to be 
foreign. 

The nasal n seems to be used very often, either to obviate 
the necessity of an initial vowel, which is not grateful to 
Kabz ears, or to separate two following vowels. Thus we 
have adhw or Nadhw, I; aim or Nairn, we; and so on. 
Gemination is excessively prevalent, hence where letters are 
doubled both have to be pronounced. Only such consonants 
as combine easily occur in juxtaposition. Sometimes such 
combinations as pr, kr, and so on, appear to be used, but the 
consonants will be found, upon careful listening, to be 
separated by a short vowel. The aversion to such sounds as 
br, and also the liking for dissyllabic words, are well exempli- 
fied in naturalized English words — thus bread becomes 
BOKEA ; grog, garon. 

The Kab«' th is exactly like the English in thing, dh 
indicates a sound having more of the t sound than th in the. 

Kab? has no words beginning with r or I. Its final 
letters are limited to I, m, n,r, n, ndk, and vowels. 

There is no article in Kabe. The substantive shows no 
distinction of number; this is true of the verb also. Thus 



182 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

tlie word dh^ may mean wood, a tree, the tree, trees. To 
express many trees the words dhw BONgan or dhw gurwinda 
(lit. tree many) must be used. There is no distinction of sex, 
excepting by words quite different. There are some suffixes 
indicating case, but they are used very indefinitely. The 
suffixes -10 and -no frequently express possession, but they 
sometimes occur with subjects, often with datives, and 
frequently give the sense of at. "We find a termination -m 
signifying o/, and at, and in. I have heard a termination 
-kere signifying on account of, and -mo signifying up or at. 
The subject has a termination annexed more frequently than 
has the object. I have not been able to discover any regular 
definiteness in the meaning of the separable endings, and 
cannot, therefore, give any declensions, if such exist. The 
syllable -go is very often annexed to any or all the parts of 
speech, and usually expresses motion, as Nairn dhmvgo, 
yango bonzgo — we to-the-scrub will-go for-bunyas. Some- 
times the termination -barom is attached to nouns or pro- 
nouns to express appreciation, especially to proper names. 
The addition of the syllable -Na is very common; it does not 
appear to affect the sense at all, but simply to make th5 
rhythm more musical. Substantives are mostly of one or 
two syllables, and, if the latter, the accent is almost invari- 
ably on the first syllable. There are instances of verbal 
nouns being formed by adding -ba or -na to the infinitive or 
perfect indicative of the verb, as yBlmba {with)-shouting; 
beyElh'manna, cooeeing. 

The adjectives are subject to no changes of form, and in 
general are not distinguishable by termination or otherwise 
from substantives. Comparison in the ordinary grammatical 
sense cannot be said to exist. Supposing that the length of 
several spears is being compared, to express this is the longest 
in Kabz they would simply say karzNa goran, i.e., this long. 
They use the word karva as an exact equivalent to our very, 
and I believe the sense is sometimes intensified by repetition. 
That repetition does not always intensify the meaning is 
certain. Nambur is Kab? for ti-tree. There was a place to 
which the Blacks gave the name nambur nambur, because a 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 183 

single ti-tree liad been planted there. Some unmistakable 
adjectival terminations can be pointed out, the most note- 
worthy of which is -Nwr. This termination signifies possess- 
ing, having, like, and so on. Thus we have wulwz, smoke; 
wulwmwr, smoky; bokka, a projection; bokkaNwr, horned; 
dhih'l, noise; dhilelNMr, noisy. I find some adjectives with 
this termination attached to a stem, which does not appear 
to exist now separately as a substantive; such is the very 
common word kalaNwr, good. Another adjectival termina- 
tion is -dau or -do, e.g., wuin, night; wuindau, dark; buran, 
wind; burando, stormy, windy. Walathau, cold, may be 
classed with these. Another ending is -ban, wandh, or 
wendh, as dhal?, at present (an adv.); dhalebandh, new. 
There are also great numbers of infinitives used adjectively. 
Adjectives formed by the combination of distinct separable 
words will be noticed further on. 

By referring to the vocabulary it will be noted that the 
personal pronoun is inflected to a considerable extent, and 
with some regularity. The initial nasal is often omitted. 
In addition to the terminations indicated in the vocabulary 
there are two others, -dai and -blin, sometimes suffixed to 
nominatives. They have merely a definitive force. The pro- 
noun when a subject is almost invariably expressed. Bilin 
or -blin is most commonly used with pronouns, as Ninbilin, 
thou indeed. 

The verb is neither infiected for person nor number. Tense 
and mood are indicated by infiection, very indefinitely and in 
a very small degree. The simplest part is the imperative, 
which commonly consists of one syllable, and very rarely 
exceeds two. 

The form which serves as infinitive is used also as pre- 
sent, imperfect, and future indicative, and imperfect parti- 
ciple. It is generally produced by adding to the imperative 
the terminations -man, -math?, -thin, a connecting vowel 
being sometimes interposed. These may be regarded as the 
regular and by far the most frequent infinitive terminations, 
but there are a few others, the most noteworthy of which 
are -aio, -aiyw, and -Im. Many verbs take both -man and 



184 THE AUSTRALIAN EACB : 

-mafhi, as the verb baman, to come. Some even have the 
three forms in -man, -mathi, and -thin. There is a part 
which serves as a perfect tense, perfect participle, and, with- 
out the addition of a copula, as a passive voice. It seems to 
be formed either by contracting the infinitive in -man or by- 
adding -n to the imperative, probably in the latter manner, 
e.g., ban, come, from baman, to come, or ba (imper.), com£. 
Very often the adverbs, wuru, long ago; Sh&li, now; and 
Bonna-woppa, after a little, are employed to indicate the 
time of the action. Besides the terminations already cited, 
there are several others the effect of which is too in- 
appreciable to warrant their acceptance as expressing 
changes of mood or tense. 

On one or two occasions I have heard what appeared to 
be optative or subjunctive forms. The passive, spoken . of 
above, is very seldom used, and is occasionally a single- 
worded proposition, as kaNun, he was cut; dhiNgan, he is (or 
was) thrown. The distinction between active and passive is 
but faintly maintained. A prohibition, direct or indirect, is 
indicated by introducing the negative bar; in all cases of 
negation, besides, other negatives, such as wa, kabe, Ac, are 
used. 

In the vocabulary four examples occur of reciprocal verbs 

having the distinctive termination -ulaiyw or -yulafyw, viz. : — 

(1.) Yathulaiyw, to converse, from yaman or yathin 

(imper. ya), to speak. 
(2.) Baiyulaiyw, to fight, that is, to strike one another, 
from baiye'man (imper. baiyz), to kit, to heat, to 
kill. 
(3.) Kauwathulaiyw, to cut, from kauwa, to cut, e.g., 
dhakker<9 kauwathulaiyu, to cut (presumably one 
another) with a knife or tomahawk. 
(4.) W2yulaiyM, to divide, to share, to deal out; i.e., to 
give one another, from womNan, to give (imper. wa 
or WM, perf. part, winin or wiyin). The word ya 
may be reckoned as a verbal particle, being 
equivalent to ■ the English come, when used not 
as a verb of motion, but to arouse to action. 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 



185 

























d 




li 


1 


i' 


1 




1 




1 


i 

■B 


1 






. 














^- 




■a 










s 




^ 








ii 
fl 


1 


S 


1 








3 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 








g. 


1 


1 




m 










^ 




s 








to 












" 




1 






> . 
















.S 






1 


I 


1 




I 




I 




t 




a> o 


I 


1 


1 




1 




1 


w 


1 




■gf^ 
















■h 






KH 
















!>H 






Perfect 
Participle 

and 

! Passive 

Voice of 

1 Transitive 

Verbs. 


1 


>l 


O 
1^ 




1 


.g 
t 


.g 
>> 

'ci 


1 


1 




is 


O . :pS 




















oa 


^ s a 


1 


1 




I 




I 


1 


1 




aa 


PQ rO 


















c» 






O 














rt 










ao 


















@ 




q5 


:a^ 














S 




> 




1 


S 1 ° 


.g 
1 


1 




p3 




•1 


■1 

•go* 


1 


§ 






d .c J 








^ 




1 






M 






















H 








.a 
















■< 








., -o 
















g 

i 




1 


Baman, 
bamathi 
ban 


Yaman, 
yamathi 
yamaran 
yaan 


1 




1 




I 


1 


1 














a" 


_, 


, 












|| 


ii 


g 


1 

1 


g 
i 


1 

1 


1- 


g 
1 


1 








M "^ 


>: ^ 


^ 


d 




'3 

pq 




^ 




^ 










S 


•(SI 


, 








III 


|1 


if 

>5 ^ 


1? 

iz; 


1 


g 
1 


1 

o 


•1 
1 


g 


1 






' 


• 






o 




3 


' 


' 








S3 


S:! 




s 




e 


■*? 






y 






O 




o 




^ 


s 






'a 




^ 


•^ 




^ 






1 


-§= 








o 


-S 








<i 




S 




A 




1 






s" 




Z 


t^ 


e 






1 


i 


i 






.1 


i 


g 


1 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



u 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 


Reciprocal 
Form. 


i 
1 ■ 1 1 1 1. 1 1 1 ii 


4) 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 


Perfect 

Participle 

and 

Passive 

Voice of 

Transitive 

Verbs. 


1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 i 

^ ^ g (^ M 


is 

■Si 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 


> 
1 


1 


1 1 1 |.|i 1 1 1 |s 
'0 ^ f^ 


1 


\ \ 1 1 1 1 1 II 


1 


' :s 1 « 1 -3 g 1 

a" 1 1 1 i ^ 1 a H d 

1 i i' 1 ' 1 1 11' 


■s . 

Ill 






1 

a 


YEna, go - 

Wonai, wonamorai, 
leave, leave off 

VroNai, hear, listen, 
understand 

DhiNga, throw - 

Bubai, stand, remain 

NyEnai, be 

Kauwa, cut 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 187 

There are many defective verbs, some of them having 
only one form, as kai, I have it, I am here, it is here, or 
simply here* 

Many adverbs of place terminate in -m. Another adverbial 
termination is -Nur, but words in-Nur probably were adjectives. 
A number of interrogative adverbs, closely resembling the 
pronouns, are peculiar in form. The initial syllables of the 
following deserve attention — weno, where or when; wenobolla, 
when; wenominz, where; wandhnrathin, why; wenamba, 
whether or no; minam, minalo, why; minaNgo, how. Adjec- 
tives are used adverbially. A few words that might be 
classed as conjunctions or prepositions appear in the 
vocabulary among the adverbs. The word ka is simply a 
connective, and frequently seems scarcely to be articulated. 
Bona or weno introduce hypothetical sentences, and are then 
equivalent to if; used adverbially they signify when, at the 
time, at that time. The relations of subordinate clauses to 
the principal clauses, or to one another,- have to be inferred 
in almost every instance from the context. There appear to 
be no words belonging properly to the preposition class. 
Their place is supplied by the sufl&xes spoken of when 
treating of the noun and pronoun, and by adverbs. 

In considering the structure and derivation of words very 
little can be said about nouns. Very few of them are 
traceable to roots. A small number are significant, such as 
muru-goran, nose (or beak) long, the ibis; dhu-narambz, ^ree- 
possum, the bat ; ye'lai-bo-dhoman, crayfish-eating, the crane. 
Some are onomatopoeic, as kawuN, laughing jackass; wowa, 
crow. There is a noteworthy resemblance between the 
words bwran (the wind) and boran a boomerang. That they 
may have originally been identical, the difference in pro- 
nunciation does not render improbable, for we find the word 
gwran {long') sometimes pronounced goran. The adjectival 
terminations -bandh, -bathin, -boman, and -wendh or -wan 
are probably derived from the verb baman, to come. The 

* In this passage I think Mr. Mathew has fallen into a mistake. Kail is 
an exclamation common throughout Australia, and is used as such in the 
senses noticed by Mr. Mathew, and in many others. — E. M. C. 



188 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

termination -not has already been mentioned as distinctive 
of adjectives. Curiously enough, we find it doubled in at 
least one instance, the word mauNwrNOT, capable of impart- ■ 
ing life. The stem of this word seems to he man, which is 
not now extant in its simple state. ManNOT is a noun or an 
adjective; as the former its meaning has been explained, as 
the latter it means charmed and life-giving. With another 
-NOT suffixed the application is solely adjectival, and the 
meaning is perhaps intensified. 

Very frequently two words are required to express an 
attribute. This is sometimes due to the want of positives, 
e.g.^ wa widhzman, brave; wa kawun n-Enaman, unwilling. A 
noun followed by a verb generally expresses adjectively 
sensations which are described by and referred to their 
physical phenomena. 

The verb affords by far the greatest scope for distin- 
guishing roots and tracing them. Ya is the imperative of 
yaman, to speak. From that root are doubtless derived 
yathulaiyw, to converse; yamNoman, to rage, to scold; 
yBh'man, to call; yElEUman, to speak quickly; bzyEb'man, to 
cooee. The following are groups of related words: — 

(1.) YaNgoman, to make; yaNgalmoman, to allow; 

(baiy?) yaNgale'thin, to cure. 
(2.) Warran, to buck; warmaman, to chase; yauwara, 
to jump. From the same root is probably derived 
wirra, a stream. 
(3.) Wombalithin, to carry; wombathin, to put up; 

wombah'man, to fall upon. 
(4.) Dhathin, to drink; bedhalmda, to cause to drink. 
(5.) DuNzman, to cry ; dumnuraman, to cause to cry. 
(6.) Dhomathin, to hold; dhommomfln, to marry. 
(7.) NomNathz, to see; Nomba, to show; naiy«lathin, 

to look. 
(8.) Marm, to burn; man'man (adjective) to be hot; 
mare, a camp, and probably originally afire. 
A good many adverbs are transformed to verbs by 
suffixing (1) a verb or (2) a verbal termination. The fol- 
lowing are instances of the former class :^Wuru-boman, to 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 189 

come out; bzya-boman, to come back; wuru-ywaritliine, to 
put out; bzyavindw, to take back. The following are of the 
latter class : — Kare-thin, to enter; kare-naman, to put in; 
kar?-ndime, to admit; ■wnru-watliin, to let out; budha-wathin, 
to strengthen; budha means strong. Sometimes nouns and 
verbs are compounded to form a verb, as kakke-baman, to 
bleed; NuyMm-boman, to sweat. 

There is a striking resemblance between the words 
yzraman, to spring up, and ysraman, a horse, as. also in 
these words — dhuruman, to grow, to swell; dhunuNan, a 
tumour; dhw, a tree; dhur?, the scrub; dhura, a house 
(dhura in Kamilaroi means bark of a tree) ; dhun, a tail; 
tunum, the tongue. 

In conversation, the infinitive termination -mathz is often 
contracted to -m.i, as bamz for bamathe. 

The ending -moral appears in some imperatives given in 
the table of conjugations. As we also find an infinitive 
termination -moraman, it seems to me that, -mor was the 
stem of a verb, now obsolete, which was almost equivalent to 
the verb do, and it now exists merely as an intensifying 
ending. In verbs where -iu is given as an infinitive ending, 
-eman generally is used as well, as malra or mah'man, kurm 
or kurman. It is clear that the letters m, b, and w are 
often interchanged, and particularly the last two. We note 
also that by far the most frequent and therefore regular 
infinitive terminations are -mathin, -man, -math?, -vni, 
-bathin, -wathin, -athin?, -ithine. It seems probable that 
-man, -mathi, and -mi are contractions of -mathinj -mi 
certainly is of -math?, and -math? and -man are often inter- 
changeable. This hypothesis does not exclude the possibility 
of -man occurring as a primitive unabridged verbal ending. 
Again, -bathin is often contracted to -ban, or -bandh, and 
-wathin to -wan or -wandh. Hence, -mathin, -bathin, and 
-wathin may be essentially the same termination. Dha is 
the imperative of dhoman, to eat, but the word dhathin 
means to drink. From these and other examples it might 
be inferred that there had been two distinct verbal suffixes, 
or three, if we regard -ma and -ba as radically distinct. If 



190 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

three, they would be — (1) -man or -ma; (2) -ba or -wa; 
(3) -thin. In the majority of instances, -thin seems 
combined with one or other of the first two. 

As a rule, verbs in -thin have the most active significa- 
tion, and before the sufiis -li or -la is sometimes interposed, 
the exact effect of which is not apparent, e.g,, wombathin, 
to lift; womba^ethin, to carry. The words kai and nsnaman, 
which, in a general sense, respectively express having and 
being, are not exactly equivalent to have and he in Aryan 
languages. They are never auxiliaries of tense or mood. 
Kai rather means / have it, or it is here ; and nEnaman 
means to exist, to remain, to live, though in the imperative 
it- fairly represents he, as in yul nBnai, he quiet. 

Kai has a demonstrative force, and perhaps it is the ter- 
mination in the possessives NanyuNgai,. my ; NinoNgai, thy; 
and in the interrogatives Nangai, NanyuNgai, mmaNgai. 
The frequency of the phrase kai NanyuNgai kai, here is 
mine, or I have mine; and the fact that NanyuN and NinoN 
occur without the termination -gai lends color to this sup- 
position. 

Other indefinite verbal forms are mmda, to he here, to be 
there; and Nindi, or gindz, to he within. The phrase kai 
mmda occurs, and is equivalent to it is here. Kai seems to 
be the demonstrative and mmda the verbal element. 

In the adjectival termination -NMr, -nur, or -uv, the 
essential part is -ur, and the nasal seems thrown in to 
separate two vowels ; -NMr is the commonest form, but we 
have -uv in bamwr. Sometimes this suffix is contracted to 
-NM, so, -u, or 0. 

To express the genitive, nouns have most commonly one 
or other of these corrupted forms affixed. But in the first 
pers. pron., plu., poss. case, the termination -Nwr occurs 
thus— nom. Nalen, poss. NalmNwr, affording one clear proof 
that the termination of the genitive of a substantive is the 
same as that which forms an adjective from a substantive. 

Verbal and adjectival signs are affixed, whereas adverbs 
in forming compounds are prefixed. 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 191 

Mi means tke eye or eyes; bubai to stand still; from these, 
I think, we have me bwwan, sleepy. From bwwan a gerundive 
is formed — buwando, sleeping — as in buwando yunmaman, to 
lie sleeping, to sleep. 

The phrase noUa baNwondamoraman, to get into a rage, 
is an example of composition by syncope, being compounded 
of noUa the stomach ; baNkw, angry, sulky; wonda, to raise 
or rise; moraman, a verbal termination. The syllable kw is 
omitted by syncope. 

Generally the order of words in a sentence is subject, 
indirect object, object, adverb, verb — the adjective in almost 
every instance immediately following the word which it 
qualifies. There is, however, much diversity in the form of 
sentences. 

Very frequently a subject and adjective constitute a pro- 
position, a copula being rarely used. 

Some idioms are very remarkable, such, for instance, as 
those attributing the passions to the state of the stomach. 
Such are nolla kalaNwr, lit., stomach good, cheerful; noUa 
dhandarban or dhandarbathin, lit., stomach smooth or slippery, 
pleased; noUa bauwan, lit., stomach cutting, means to relish; 
noUa warabin, lit., stomach jumping, fearful; noUa kaiyaman, 
lit., stomach biting, sorry. Other phrases similar to these 
will be found in the vocabulary. Deafness is confounded 
with madness, thus, pmaN gulum, lit., ears dull, means either 
deaf or mad. Many feelings are named from their physical 
phenomena, such are mi kurm, lit., eyes turning, giddy; mi 
kambz'man, lit., eyes hiding, jealous; mi wuruwoman, lit., 
eyes standing om^, amazed; mnru wombaKman, lit., nose 
uplifted, frowning; pinaN baluman, lit., ears dead, means to 
forget; mi kakkeman, lit., eyes bleeding, bright. 

The verb yaNgoman is often used with an adjective to 
express action for which no single word exists, as kakkal 
yaNgah'thin, to make clean. The verb nEuaman, to be, to 
exist, is used in a manner somewhat similar, as kaiwun 
uEnaman, lit., desire possessing, willing. 



192 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE ; 



The following stories, dialogues, and phrases are intro- 
duced mainly with a view to their being of philological 
value : — 

Stories. 



Dhak'kan. 
Phak'kan wa'raN Nun'da ko'raman 
Nu'in dhi'kuj, kar'vana wnm'Nan 
mul'lM. Nun'daro kom'Nan Nu'ina 
tuu'baNonol'lano karm'dimi. Nol'- 
lani Nu'iu nE'naman; Nu'ritni wu'ru- 
boman. 

Dhak'kan man'NurNur. 

Niii bon'na bai'ymar yEn'na yun'- 
mathin kuNM kara'no. Nin bai'yi 
yaNga'lithin. 

Dhan dhak'kanno Nan'pai wtrm'Nan, 
dhak'kan dhan'no bu'kar wu. 



Dhak'ke kunda'swr. 

Dhan Nam dhak'keni nol'lani uEna- 
man. 
Piri, NJm, bu'y«, kam, gillin. 

Nin ka'runda yin'maio Nin'baNO 

dhu'Nun kar'ithin. 
Nin wa bai'yiro yun'maman, Nin 

man'Nwrbathin. 

Bai'yi yaNga'lithin. 
Nai w(i"D.o bai'yJNMr mu' vu mu' vu 
Nan'na bun'bjthin dhak'ke Nan'na 
bun'mathin. 

Nan'pai bat'ytoian. 
Nin yun'mai dhu mo tar'vano. 
Nin'dje kui'bi vro'Na Nan'pai 
Nin'bola nin'dathin. 

Nun'da dhilil'baNMr nin'daman. 
Nin raan'Nwr nE'naman waba'luman. 



(The) -Rainbow. 
(The) -rainbow (is) wicked, he stole 
(a) -boy half-caste, another gave 
Black. He took (the) -boy (to a)- 
mountain (a -water)-hole (he) put- 
(him)-in. ' (In the) -hole (the) -boy 
is; (during the) -day (he) -comes- 
out. 

(The) -Rainbow capable-of -imparting 

vitality. 
Thou when sick go lie-down (at the)- 

water'a edge. Thou (wilt) be 

cured. 
(The) -Blackfellow (to the) -rainbow 

(Nanpai) pebble gives, (the) -rain'-' 

bow (to the) -Blackfellow (a) -rope 

gives. 

(The) -Stones or Pebbles (of) Koon- 

dangoor. 
(To the) -Blackfellow always pebbles 

(in his) -inside are. 
(In the) hands, bones, calves, head, 

nails. 
Thou floating (?) remain (to) -thee 

(in the) -stomach (they) -enter. 
Thou (wilt) not aching lie, thou (wilt) 

beoome-fuU-of- vitality. 

Curing. 
I if sick (the man) fuU-of-life me 
(will) -suck (the) -pebble (from) -me 
take-out. 

Pebble-finding. 
Thou lie-down (a) -tree under. 
Thou (a) -whistling (wilt) -hear(the)- 

Nanpai (pebble) (to) thee (shall)- 

go-in. 
It noisily (shall)-go-in. 
Thou fuU-of-vitality (wilt) -be, not 

(wilt) -die. 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 

Stories — continued. 



193 



Dh«r. 



Dhwr wiN'wMr yEN'ga, m'rimba 
ki'rabaria'na. Ear yBN'ga wa'thi ; 
kun'namara pa'bunno, kom'miNa 
bai'yira. Kkar'va yEn'na kar'va 
nEnai bun'dumo wa'thinba vrON'- 
athin. 

Nuin dhu'mo won'da ya'bun yj'ki 
■won'da. Yil'la na'ruthin Nuin'na. 

BTuin bu'dhawathin tEraN wa dha'ba 
dhiNgathln. 

Gil'la. 
Gil'la Nad'hadharr'ga won'nan; kan 
tam'burwan. Gril'lago dhaN'gago 
bon'na-yjr'ki yan'go. Weno Nia 
kala'Nar a'dhu Nin'na gil'la w«. 



(The) -Ring. 
This story probably refers to man- 



(A) -ring, large (they) -make, in -the- 
middle (they) -light-a-fire. (Must)- 
not cause laughing; wring-the- 
neck -(will the) -fathers, (the)- 
uncles (will) -beat. Some go-away, 
others remain at-the-backs (if there 
be) -laughing to -know. 

(The) -boys (the) -trees climb, (the)- 
sisters also climb. On-the-hocks 
(they) -kick (the) -boys. 

(The) -boys fast-hold (their) -legs not 
(to the) -ground (they) -throw- 
(them). 

Honey, 
(Of the) -honey I half left ; (the) -can 
was-fuU-to-the-lip. For -(the)- 
honey (the) -half -(of) to-morrow 
(I shall) -go. If thou -(art) good I 
thee honey (will) -give. 



DlALOaUES. 

YEr'amin; bula. Horses; bullocks. 

Na'rau ! yE'ramin nin'dtt baN'goran Halloo ! (a) -horse, (canst) thou wild 

kaN'kithin? ride? 

Wa ! yE'ramini Nai wit'dhlman - No 1 of -horses I (am) afraid. 

Nin minan'm wit'dhiman? - - Thou why afraid? 

YE'ramindo dhbf'gara, mm kom- (The) -horse (might) -throw -(me), 

Na'thinj. " (my) bones (might) -break. 

Ya Nin, wo'Nali, wE'namba wa'raio. Try thou, mount, (to see) whether 

(he will) -buck. 

Nin'dai ye'ramingo, Na'lin yun'ma- Thou-indeed for-the-horses-go, we 

man dhu'rjthin. (shall) -lie in-the-scrub, i.e., camp 

out. 

Boh'na-wop'pa yango, Ka'rau* dha In-a-little-while (we shall) -go, (the) 

kam'Na kai. ground (is) damp at-present. 



VOL. III. 



' Na'rau, interjection, equivalent to I say. 

N 



194 



THE AUSTRALIAN RAGE: 



DlALOGUBS- 

Nam yEn'din? . . - - 

Nam'ba i'la yEn'diii 

Wa'ra wa'ra dhiN'ga kal wu'ruwa- 

thin. 
Wa'ra wa'ra dhj'kir, kabi bomka'- 

numan. 
Kal Na'lmdo tal'K buwan'diman 
We'no kaNgo?- .... 
Mu'kirgo - - - . . 

Kal Nin'du yEr'ri ku'riua 
Nin'du ka'lu-vro'nai biyel'Kmanna, 

Nui bar pi'naN-gtt'lum nE'nai. 
Nai yi'pi ba'lun yE'linba arau' ! 

Wa Na'dhu Nin'na vro'namathi 
We'Sobola biya'vindiw? - 
Bo'na ti'rum ninda'monda 
Mi'nama mm'da? .... 
Wa kai gurwin'da - . - - 
Nin bar baN'ku fiB'nai 3nil nE'nai - 
A'dhu Nin'na Nuin yi'rtoa wa nom- 
na'thi. 

tta/li yathu'laiyM - - - - 
Nali kam'Nur ku'riit - - - 
Me'naNgai yEl/ga? - - - - 
Dhn'ri bam'pj . _ - . 
Na'ljn dhu'rjgo yan'go bofiigo 

Nai bam'pira yanma'thJNa; 
wit'dharo Nan'na bar kai'ya, a'dhu 
ka'lu bun'ban ku'tharo, Nun'da 
yi'la ka'lu balun; bu'tharw 
dhoma'thi HTin'da. 
Ba'rjya Nan'na kai'yaman, a'dhu 
Nun'da kj'raba-mor'ba. 
Ki'ra won'dj, wala'thau ba'luman - 
Wuin gu'ran - - - - - 
Ni'noNgai mm'da mu'yim ? - 
Adhu ka'rlNa womba'limaraio 



■'Continued. 

(Are you) ready to-go? 

(I am) ready indeed to-go, 

(The) -rails throw-down (the) -cattle 
to-let-out. 

(The) -rails (are too) heavy, (I can) 
not throw -(them) -down. 

(The) -cattle we to-day shall-herd. 

Where (shall we) take (them)? 

Far-away. 

(The) -cattle thou this-way turn. 

Th'ou quickly -hear {i.e., obey) (my) 
calling, thou (do) -not deaf be. 

I (am) throat exhausted (with) -call- 
ing ! (arau interjection). 

Not I thee heard. 

When (shall we) take- (them) -back? 

As (the) -sun is-sinking. 

How-many are-there ? 

Not are-here many. 

Thou (do)-not angry be quiet be. 

I thee a-boy like never saw. 

We (shall) -converse. 

We by-the-head (shall)-go round. 

What (are-you)-donig? 

(The) -scrub, (the) -bush. 

We (to the) -scjrub (shall) -go for- 

bunyas. 
I to-the-bush (shall) -go; a -dog me 

(must) -not -bite, I quick (shall) -hit 

(him) with-a-stick, he indeed soon 
. (shall be) dead ; (the) -eaglehawk 

(will)-eat him. 
(A) -jumper-ant me bit, I him (shall)- 

roast. 

Fire get, with cold (I)-am-dyiQg. 
(The) -night (is) long. 
Thine is- there (a) -tomahawk ? 
I this shall-carry. 



MAEY RIVER AKD BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 



195 



DiAlOGDES AND PhEASBS, 

Minam'ba Nin'dj ki'rami dhan ? 



Dhan mina'lo du'NJman ?- 
Dhan naN'gaimini bai'yiNtir? • 
Nan'do ka'riNa kaN'kiman womba'- 

Im? 

Nan'do Nin'na bauVan ? 
Mina'mano Nin wuin'dM yin'maio ? - 
N in we'fiobola ban ? - - 

Ti'rum ka'rin 

Tirum won'dan . - . - 
A'dhu_ Nun'dabola muyjm -wi'nm; 

Nun'daro Nai'bola dhak'ke wi'nin. 
Na'li tina'bubola ku'rui wi'nin; 

Na'lingo tina'buro yul'lM wi'fiin. 
Man'do ya'marandh ? - - - 
Nun'da yaan . . - . . 
Nin minaN'go pi'naN-bama'thi ! 

Bo'na ba'raN bin'damathi bon'da 
Tfol'bai won'daman dhBr'wEn. 
Ya'koi a'dhu Ninna ya'thin 
Nin naN'gai wil ? - - - 



How-many are-there at-the-camp 
Blacks ? 

(The) -Blacks why crying 1 
Blackf ellow which (is) sick 1 
Who this-one riding (are)-oarrying ? 

Who thee speared? 

How-many thou nights wilt-stop ? 

Thou when didst-start ? 

Sun going-in. 

Sim rising. 

I to -him (a)-tomahawk gave ; 

he to-me (a) -knife gave. 
We to-them 'possums gave ; 

to-us they eels gave. 
Who said-(so) ! 
He said-(so). 
Thou how (the) -ears- come (i.e., 

dost recollect) ! 
When (a) -Barangmarries (a) -Bunda 

(the) -children arise Tirwin. 
Come-here, I to-thee want-to-speak. 
Thou what (thy) -name? 



Nin we'no ba'man ? 
Nai ba'man - 
Kai Nai yEn'din 



Salutations. 

Thou whence dost-come ! 
I am-come. 
Here I go. 



NZ 



196 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 166.— VOCABULARY. 

The reader will compare motJier,. breasts, and milh, in which are seen 
preserved the term so common in our languages. If there be an equivalent 
for leg in this language, it is exceptional. The rule is a separate term for 
each portion of the leg ; but if the whole leg be insistently asked for by a 
White man, the equivalent of thigh is given. — E. M. C. 



Kangaroo 


ma'ra. 


Hand - 


pi'ri. 


Opossum 


- ku'ruj or Na- 


2 Blacks - 


dhan bul'la. 


Tame dog - 


ram'bi. 
wi'yidha or 
wi'dha. 


3 Blacks - 


dhan bul'la 
. ka'lim. 


Wild dog ■ 


wi'dha ka'rum. 


One - 


ka'lim. 


Emu - 
Duck - 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 


Nu'ruindh. 
nar. 

ka'wuN. 

■ 


Two - 
Three - 
Pour - 
Father 


bul'la. 

bul'la ka'lim. 
bul'la bul'la; 
pa'bun. 


White cockatoo 


gi'gum. 


Mother 


a'voNorNa'vON 


Crow - 


wo'wa. 


Sister 


ya'bun. 


Swan - 

Egg - - - 

Track of a foot - 


ku'lMn 

bam. 

kuan. 


Brother-Elder - 
„ Younger 


nuin. 
wuthaN. 


Fish - 


ba'la. 


A young man 


kj'var. 


Lobster 




An old man 


win'yir. 


Crayfish - 


il'lai. 


An old woman - 


ma'run. 


Mosquito - 
Fly - 
Snake - 
The Blacks 


buu'ba. 
dhip'pi. 

mu'raNorwo'Nai. 
dhan. 


A baby 

A White man - 

Children 


wol'bai. 
mothar or dhi. 
wol'bai. 


A Blackfellow - 


dhan. 


Head 


kam. 


A Black woman - 


yi'ran. 


Eye - 


mi. 


Nose - 


roa'vu. 


Ear - - - 


pi'naN, 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COXJNTBY. 



197 



No. 166. ^Vocabulary — continwd. 



Mouth 


- dhaN'ka. 


Boomerang - 


- bo'rau. 


Teeth - 


- dhaN'ka. 


Hill ■ 


- k«n'da or 


Hair of the head 


■ dhil'la. 




tan'ba. 


Beard - 


- ys'ran. 


Wood - 


- Ahu. 


Thunder - 


- mum'ba. 


Stone - 


- dhak'ke. 


Grass - 


- ban. 


Camp - 


- ki'ra or ki'rami. 


ToMgue 


- tu'nam. 


Yes - 


- yau'ai. 


Stomach 


- du'NMn. 


No - 


- wa or ka'bj. 


Breasts 


■ .a'mON. 


Me - 


- Nan'na. 


Leg - 


- tE'raN. 


You - 
Bark - 


- Nin or jjin'du. 

- kom'bar. 


Foot - 


- dhi'naN, 










Good - 


- kala'Nwr. 


Bone - 


- mm. 










Bad - 


- wa'raN. 


Blood - 


- kak'ke. 






Skin - 


- kw'bar. 


Sweet - 


- ge'yar. 






Food - 


- bin'dha. 


Fat - 


- ma'rom. 






Bowels 


- ga'naN. 

- gM'naN. 


Hungry 


- gan'dho. 


Excrement - 


Thirsty 


- Naial'lo. 




Eat - 


- dho'man ordhaii. 


War-spear - 


- kon'ni. 






Reed-spear - 




Sleep - 
Drink - 


- Buan'do. 

- dha'thin 


Thro wing-stick 
Shield 


- ku'thar. 

- kun'marim or 


Walk - 


- yul yan'man. 




he'lemon. 


See - 


- nomKa'thi. 


Tomahawk - 


- mu'ywm. 


Sit 


- fiB'naman. 


Canoe 


- kom'bar (lit. 
bark). 


Yesterday - 
To-day 


- Nam'ba. 

- dha'liorgi'lumba. 




To-morrow - 


- yjr'ki. 


Sun - 


- Nu'raindh or 


Where are the 


we'no dhan. 




tirum. 


Blacks? 




Moon - 


- ba'puu. 


I don't know 


- a'dhu wa vro'- 


Star - 


- kal'bar. 




Naman. 


Light - 


- Nu'raindh(noun). 


Plenty 


- boN'gan. 


Dark - 


- wuin'dhau. 


Big - 


- wiN'war. 


Cold - 


- walai. 


Little - 


- dho'marami, 


Heat - 


- ma'riman'. 




dha'ramj, or 


Day - 


- Nu'rwindhau. 




dhom'me. 


Night - 
Fire - 


- wuin'dhau. 

- ki'ra. 


Dead - 


- ba'lun or ba'- 
luman. 


Water 


- kuN. 


By-and-by - 


- bon'na-wop'pa. 


Smoke 


- wu'lui. 


Come on 


- ya'koi; come thou, 


Ground 


- dha. 




ba Nin. 


Wind- 


- ba'ran. 


Milk - 


- a'mON. 


Rain - 


- yu'ruN. 


Eaglehawk - 


- ba'thar. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- kalar'ka. 


Ghosts 


- na'thurw. 


Wife - 


- ma'limgan. 



198 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABULARY OF THE KAB/ DLALECT. 

Native words spelt in the alphabet known as Max Miiller's Missionary 
Alphabet. 

Notes. — The dh lett-er has more of the t sound In Kabi than in English. 
Ndh represents n followed by and coalescing with a subdued dental or 
sound produced by protruding the tongue as if about to articulate the word 
the immediately after the sound of n. 



Nouns. 



Ant (pismire) 


kirr, mon'dhur. 


Blood - 


- kak'ke. 


„ (jumper) 


ba'riya. 


Boy - 


- Nuin. 


„ (small black 


ba'rom. 


Breast 


- dhandar. 


„ (white) 


Na'ri. 


The breasts 


- a'mon. 


„ (soldier) 


mum'ba. 


Branch 


- kandir. 


Arm - 


- kinirr. 


Brother (elder) 


- huin. 


Aunt - 


yurun. 


„ (younger) wuthttN'. 


Baby - - • 


wol'bai. 


Brow - 


- flun'gal. 


Back - 


bun'dh«r. 


Breath 


- Naiya. 


Bag - 


bun'pi. 


Bronjsewing pigeon mam. 


Bank 


kun'na. 


Bunya meal 


- naNW. 


Bark - 


kombar. 


Bush (the) - 


- bam'pi. 


Base - 


yauwan'ni. 


Australianbustardkalar'ka. 


Bat - 


dhM'naram'bi, 


Butterfly - 


- balumbir. 




Naleyam. 


Bottom 


- dhai'rvi. 


Bee (native) 


kil'la, kawai. 


Beauty 


- mun'daimun- 


Beard - 


yE'ran. 




daiua. 


Belly - 


dhiiNan. 


Calf (of the leg) 


- bu'y«. 


Black man - 


dhan. 


Camp - 


- ki'ra or kirami 


, , woman 


yi'ran. 


Canoe - 


- kom'bar. 


Bandicoot - 


dhun'kal. 


Cat (native) 


- yu'ruthun. 


Bed . 


nan'pj. 


Catfish 


- ba'la. 


Bear (native) 


kul'la. 


Child - - • 


- wol'bai. 


Boil (a tumor) 


dhu'nuNan. 


» (my) - 


- gum'ma. 


Bone - 


mm. 


Cheek - 


- waN'gwm. 


Bird - 


dhjp'pi 


Chin -• 


- yik'kal. 


Black cockatoo 


(1) wjyal, 


Circle - 


- dh«r. 




(2) geyam'biau, 


Claw : 


- dhi'naN. 




(3) dha'rukal. 


Collar-bone - 


- ku'ra. 


Black swan- 


kulwn. 


Coast-blaoks 


- bi'dhala. 


Boomerang - 


bo'ran. 


Cloud - 


- mon'dam. 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 



199 





Nouns — continued. 




Country 


dha. 


Falcon 


- min min. 


Creek - 


wir'ra. 


Fat - 


- ma'rom. 


Cousin 


ynrn'raM. 


Father 


- pabun. 


Crossing-place ■ 


waN'gauwan'gau- 


Feather 


- wun'kal. 




ba'rirra. 


Fern - 


- yim'bun. 


Crane - 


yilaibodhoman. 


Few - 


- dhai'yajOrbor'ra, 


Crow - 


wowa. 




or dhwr. 


Centipede - 


- ki'rai. 


Finger 


- mol'la. 


Crayfish 


illai. 


Fence - 


- wa'ra wa'ra. 


Cut - - 


- dhjm or kaNun. 


Fire - 


- ki'ra. 


Codfish 


tu'ktt. 


Flat - .- 


- b*r'r«. 


Daughter - 


do'ranaNan. 


Flood - 


- Num'ma. 


Daughter-in-law 


- ne'nanba. 


Ely - - 


- dhip'pi. 


Day - 


Nu'raindhau. 


Flying fox - 


- gi'raman. 


Daylight - 


(1) dhuluru, 


Flying squirrel 


- baN'kis. 




(2) bar'biman. 


Food forbidden to mun'dha. 


Darkness 


- muin. 


minors 




Dead tree -. 


- dau'wa. 


Foot - 


- dhJnaN. 


Dillie-bag - 


Nuam. 


Food - 


- bin'dha. 


Dog (domestic) 


wi'yidha or 


Fool - 


- nun'dal or bor'- 




widha. 




raman. 


„ (native) 


- wid'ha karum or 


Frog - 


-. wor'ba. 




wi'yidha karum. 


Frost - 


- pi'riwga. 


Doctor (also per 


man'Nur. 


Froth - 


- wor'ka. 


son with charmed 


Fur - 


- munan'. 


Ufe) 




Girl - 


- wu'rw or wur'kw. 


Duck - 


nar. 


Grandfather 


Na'thaN. 


Dung - 


- gunaN. 


(paternal) 




Duck (diver) 


- dhubttn. 


Grandfather 


nun'dai. 


Eaglehawk - 


- bu'thar. 


(maternal) 








Grandmother 


ko'maram. 


Ear - 


pi'naN. 






Earth - 


dha. 


(paternal) 




Edge - 


kara'ni or kul'lj. 


Grandmother 


yBnan. 


Eel - 


yaVlu. 
bam. 


(maternal) 




Egg - 


Grass - 


- b^n. 






Gully 


- dhB'raN. 


Elbow 


kun'di. 








Grub - 


- bu'rwga. 


Bye - - 


mi. 


Ghost - 


- Nu'thurM. 


Eyebrows - 


tm'guT. 


Guana 


- wa'ruj. 


Eyelash 


dhi'piudyin. 


Half - 


- (1) bor'ra. 


Emu • - 


Nu'ruindh. 




(2) dh«r, 


Face - 


su. ' 




(3) dhaN'ga. 



200 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



NOUNS- 

Half-oaste - - dhJkui'. 
Hawk (large til'gonda. 
brown) 

Hair - - - dhil'la. 

Hat - - • - piN'ga. 

Head - - - kam. 

Headman - - ka'maran. 

Hand - - - pi'rt. 

Heart - - - tuk'kw. 

Hooka - -. yil'la. 

Honey - ■ - gil'la, ka'wai. 

Hornet (large) - kau'war. 

,, (small) - yau'wa. 

Horse - - - yB'raman. 

House- - - dhu'ra. 

Hole - - - nol'la. 

Horn - - - bok'ka. 

Husband - - dhan'dor. 

Ibis - - - mu'r« gu'ran. 

Inland Blacks - wa'pa. 

Inside - - nol'lani. 
Kangaroo (oldman) ku'rwman. 

,, (buck) - mar'rj. 

„ (doe) - yj'mar. 

„ -rat - pai or owar'Nur. 

Knee - - - dhi'm*. 

Knife - - - dhak'ke. 

Lad - - - bo'thai. 
Laughing jackass ka'wuN. 

Language - - bon'dha. 

Leader - - ka'maran. 

Light - - - Sfu'run. 

Lightning - - bol'la. 

(A) little - - nara'NJ. 

Liver - - - ko'naN. 

Lip - - - dham'bur. 

Lie (falsehood) - gut'dhal, 
dha'kun. 

Liar - - - yabo'liman. 

Leaves - - wu'ruN". 

Leg, limb - - tE'raK. 



ii(yiit%nued. 
Loins - 


Nammam. 


Log - 


dau'wa. 


Lungs 


waN. 


Lizard (Jew) 


pi'naN go'ran. 


„ (sleepy) - 


wun'dum. 


„ (water) - 


wa'ram. 


Man (adult) 


ki'var. 


„ (old) - 


winyir. 


. „ (White) ■ 


mothar or dhi. 


Many - 


boN'gan. 


Magpie (plover) - 


ku'rumbul. 


Meat - 


ba'Nun w mu'- 




raN. 


Milk - 


a'mON. 


Mother 


a'voN (yr Na'voN. 


Mother-in-law 


nu'loNgan. 


Mountain . - 


tun'ba or kun'da. 


Moon - 


- ba'pun. 


Messenger - 


dhom'ka. 


Middle - 


- nirim or Naran'm. 


Mouth 


- dhaN'ka. 


Mionow-like fish 


- bu'rum. 


Mosquito - 


- bun'ba. 


Moss - 


- wubttN. 


Mourning by fast 


- Na'rin. 


ing 




Mud - 


- dhi'laN. 


Mullet 


- ondai'ya. 


„ (small) 


- dhu'ra. 


Murderer - 


- mo'tharbiu. 


Name 


- wil. 


Nail (of the finger) gil'len or mol'la. 


Neck - 


- kum'ma. 


Nephew and niece kon'm or boran'- 




yin. 


Names regulating (1) ba'raN, 


marriages 


(2) bal'kuindh, 




(3) dhErwEn, 




(4) bon'da. 


News - 


- bon'dha. ' 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 



201 





Nouns — ccmtinued. 




Night - 


wuindhau. 


Sarsaparilla plant 


bo'raboran'bin. 


Noise - 


dhi'lil. 


(as popularly 




Nose - 


mu'rw. 


known) 




Nulla nulla (club) 


ku'thar. 


Seed - 


dhu'lar. 


Opossum 


Naram'bi or 


Shadow 


Nu'thurw. 




kuru'i. 


Shepherd's com- 


dhiN'k'a dhuf'ka. 


Outside 


bun'dura, nara'- 


panion 






m. 


Shield - 


(1) he'lemon, 


Owl - 


iN'ka. 




(2) kun'marim. 


Pebbles (charmed 




Shoulder - 


Nil'ki. 


„ (globular) 


Nan'pai orkundtr . 


Sinew 


khu'kin. 


,, (flat and 


miTi'kom. 


Sister and female 


ya'bun. 


circular) 




cousin 




Penis* 


dhun. 


Sky - ,- - 


Nu'rwindh. 


Paddimellon 


bwal. 


Smoke 


wu'lwi. 


Phlegm 


bun'yM. 


Skin - - 


ka'bar. 


Pigeon (wouga) - 


woNga'laman. 


Smell - 


ka. 


Place - 


dha. 


Snake (generally) 


mu'raN and wo'- 


Platypus - 


dhur'kw. 




Nai. 


Posterior (the) - 


mu'mM. 


„ (black) - 


mul'l«. 


Porcupine - 


kak'kar. 


„ (brown) - 


mu'rugjrai. 


Punk - 


pa'bunbare. 


,, (carpet) - 


wo'Nai. 


Quartz 


kuN'kam. 


„ (deaf -adder 


mun'dulum. 


Rain - . - 


yuruN. 


„ (diamond) - 


kjp'pa. 


Rainbow - 


dhakkan. 


,, (grey) 


yil'lam. 


Ridge - - ■ 


kun'dM. 


„ (short) - 


gu'lum. 


Rib - - 


k«. 


„ (spotted 


dhjwan'ti. 


Redbill (porphy 


wa'thom. 


scrub) 




rio) 




„ (whip) 


yl'yura. or Nun'- 


Redhead (smal 


dhu'runkalim. 




dar. 


bird) 




„ (yellow) - 


mu'rai. 


Redbreast (small dhn'runkaljm. 


Song - 


yau'war. 


bird) 




Spear - 


kon'nj. 


Road or track 


kuan. 


Son - 


nu'kivar. 


Rope - 


buk'kwr or yur'- 


Son-in-law - 


ku'tharum. 




rw. 


Spider- 


mothar. 


Root - 


tE'raN. 


Spittle 


nuin. 


Sap - 


kak'ke. 


Stink - 


bu'ga or bua. 


Scrub - 


dhu'ri. 


Stone - 


dhak'ke. 


,, turkey 


wa'wwn. 


Stump 


kam'gila. 


Scorpion 


yi'lai. 


Star - 


kal'bar. 



* See Blaohfellow, which is translated dhcm.—E. M. C. 



202 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Nouns — contimued. 



Squirrel 
Summit 
Sun - 

Sundown . - 

Sunrise 

Sweat - 

Scar (ornamental 

Taste - 

Tail ■- 


mubjr. 
ba'riNa. 
Nu'rwindh or 
tj'rum. 
ti'rumka'rin. 
ti'rum won'dan. 
Nu'yMm. 
mu'lar. 
bon'dha. 
dh«n. 


Tree honeysuckle- bo'tharom. 
„ ironbark - dhu'bMn. 
„ „ (broad bul'lel. 

leafed) 
„ ironwood - nan'garin. 
„ MoretonBay ku'rand«r. 

ash 
„ oak (silky) yul'lo. 

(Grevillea 

robuata). 
„ oak (swamp)- bil'lai. 


Tear -. 


Ni'yul. 


„ pine - 


kw'nam. 


Thigh- - - 


tE'raNordhE'raN. 


,, red-gum 


dhom'ba. 


Throat 
Thunder - 


yip'pi. 
mum'ba. 


„ stinging 

,, stringybark- 


gim'pi. 
dhu'wai. 


Tin vessel - 


kak'kar. 


„ ti 


nam'bwr. 


To-day 


gi'lumba or ta'li. 


„ wattle (black) dhil'gar. 


To-morrow - 


■ nuin'go or yir'ki. 


„ „ (green 


bu'pin. 


Tomahawk - 


mu'yam. 


Turkey (scrub) - 


wawttn. 


Tongue ' 
Tooth - 


- tu'num. 

- dhaN'ka. 


Uncle . - - 

Urine - 


kom'mi. 
ka'bur. 


Top - 


barai'yir or ba'- 


Vein - - - 


kak'ke. 




ritha. 


Vine - 


yur'r«. 


Twilight - 


(1) buin mul'lw, 


Wallaby - 


wol'lan. 




(2) mul'lMbon. 


Water 


kuN. 


Track - 


- kuan. 


Water rail - 


dha'ran and 


Tree - 


- dhu. 




dhim. 


„ apple - 


■ bu'pM. 


Watershed - 


nuk'kM. 


„ bastard box 


- dhin'kar. 


While, a little - 


tal'liya. 


,, blackbutt 


- dhu'lar. 


White cockatoo - 


gi'gam. - 


„ bloodwood 


- btt'nar. 


White-hooded 


kaN'ka. 


,, blue-gum 


- yir'ra. 


eagle 




,, bottle - 


- bi'rimgan. 


.Whiskers - 


ys'ran. 


,, .box 


- min'ka. 


Wind - 


bu'ran. 


,, bunya - 


- bon'yi. 


Wing - 


kun'di. 


„ cabbage 


- ka'wa. 


Woman (old) 


ma'run. 


„ cabbage-palm pi'bjn. 


„ (White) 


■ dha'ran. 


„ cedar - 


- wut'dha. 


„ (generally 


yi'ran. 


„ cherry 


- bir'ra bir'ra. 


Wife - 


• ma'limgan. 


,, currajong 


- ka'yan, kwn'ma- 


Wood - 


- dhu. 




rim. 


Woodpecker 


■ yin'dirin. 


,, dogwood 


- mam'bw. 


Worm 


- ku'laren. 


,, grass - 


- dhak'ka. 


Yesterday - 


- Nam'ba. 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 



203 



Active 


pj'ritkithum. 


XI V HiS. 

Dote - 


- wur'ra. 


Alive - 


(1) man'Nwr, (2) 


Dry - 


- buthttN. 




mur'r«mur'rM. 


Dull (in spirits) 


- yin'na. 


Amazed 


mi wu'ruwoman. 


Early - 


- dhu'lura. 


Angry- 


(1) nol'la baN'- 


Easy (pace) 


- Ni'ta. 




wonda mora- 


Empty 


- nol'la. 




man, or 


Eternal 


- Nam. 




(2) baN'ku, or 


Every - 


- kom'kalim. 




(3) yam'Nan. 


Fat - 


- (l)brak'ke, 


Bad - 


waraN. 




(2) ma'rom. 


Bald - 


nil'kan. 


Fearful (in dread) nol'la wa'rabin. 


Black - 


mul'lM. 


Few - 


- nara'NJ. 


Big - 


- yns'-9tux. 


First - 


- wu'rM. 


Blind - 


- mi gu'l«m, 


Flat - 


- ba'lan. 


Blunt - 


- gu'lwm. 


Fly-blown - 


- diNan'ga. 


Brave - 


- wa wi'dhiman. 


False - 


- dha'kan. 


Bright 


- mj kakTsiman. 


Full ■ 


- gum'ka and, wul'- 


Brimful 


tam'bwrwan. 




buN. 


Broad - 


- pi'ba. 


Foolish 


- nun'dal. 


Bushy 


- mot'yi 


Free (gratis) 


- yul. 


Charmed - 


man'NMr. 


Fresh 


- dhu'lwr. 


Cheerful 


- nol'la kala'NMr. 


Frightened - 


- wi'dhiman. 


Clear - 


• ku'laNMr. • 


Giddy 


- mi ku'rin or kam 


Clean - 


- kak'kal. 




ku'riman. 


Clever - 


- bun'ba. 


Glad - 


- nol'la yaNga'lin. 


Cold - 


- walai or wala'- 


Good - 


- kala'NMr. 




thau. 


Grey (of the hair) gi'lan. 


Cooked 


- ka'pi. 


jj ■ 


- dha'wudha'wul. 


Cool - 


- ya'gal. 


Greedy (selfish) 


- yaN'gan gi'vir. 


Cowardly - 


- wi'dhi. 


Haughty ■ 


- Nir'boman. 


Costive 


- dhu'Niin 


Heavy 


- dhi'kir. 




dhu'pon. 


Happy 


mun'dhar. 


Crooked 


- war'kun. 


Hard - 


- but'dha. 


Cruel - 


-' duma'riman. 


High - 


- Na'kan. 


Curious (strange) 


kar'va. 


Hot - 


- ma'riman. 


Damp - 


kam'Na. 


Hungry 


- gan'dho. 


Dark - 


wuin'dhau. 


Humble 


- mo'rombaluman. 


Dead - 


ba'luman. 


Hunched 


- bul'tyin. 


Deaf - 


(Ijpj'naNgu'lMm, 


Ill-natured - 


- ku'wai go'ran. 




or (2) Nu'rum. 


Impudent - 


- dha'bar. 


Dirty - 


mul'lw. 


Inquisitive - 


- bi'yan. 



204 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 





Adjectives- 


—contmued. 




Invincible - 


wup'pin. 


Pretty - 


- mun'dai. 


Itching 


bi'dhaman. 


Quick - 


- (1) wai'yallo. 


Jealous 


mi kam'biman. 




(2) ka'la, and 


Kind - 


ko'nanboman. 




(3) dhal'U. 


Lank - 


dhu'NMn 


Quiet - 


- (1) dhi'ljtm, 




gan'dhbo. 




(2) dhikwl, or 


Large - 


wiu'wur. 




(3) konan. 


La2y - 


ka'wun ka'bi. 


Ready 


- Nam. 


Lean - 


ba'Nundom or 


Red - 


- bothar or ku'thi- 




dau'wan. 




N«r. 


Left-handed 


wi'dhONgar. 


Reconciled 


- bu'rimoraman. 


Life-possessing, 


man'NMrNMr. 


Restless 


- Nud'hulM. 


life-giving 




Right (not 


wrong) yam'ba. 


Light (in weight) 


nan'dimathi 


Ripe - 


- ma'rimathi. 


,> (not dark) 


Nu'ruindhau. 


Rotten 


- bu'thi. 


Lively 


kak'ka. 


Scowling, sneering xwx'xu womba'li- 


Longing - . 


nol'la gu'lumbo 




man. 




man. 


Shady - 


■ bur'pM. 


Loud - 


wop'paro or 


Sharp - 


- mun'dw go'ran. 




pm'arw. 


Short - 


- dhal'bwr. 


Like (in appear- 


(1) yj'kjman, 


Sick - 


- bai'yiNwr. 


ance) 


(2) yi'rina. 


Slippery, smooth dhan'dar. 


Lustful. 


war'raio. 


Skinned 


- dhim. ■ 


Mad - 


pj'naN gu'lwm. 


Sleepy- 


- mi buwan. 


Many - 


boN'gan or gur- 


Slow - 


- yul. 




win'dha. 


Soft - 


- dhulu'la. 


More - 


yan'ga. 


Sour - 


- taN'kam. 


Narrow 


dhal'bMr, 


Sorry - 


- nol'la kai'yaman. 


Near-sighted 


mi mu'piman. 


SmaU - 


- (1) dho'toarami 


New - 


dha'libandh. 




or (2) dha'rami 


Noisy - 


dhilil'NMr. 




or (3) dhom'mc 


None - 


■ ka'bi. 


Spotted 


- ku'nubar. 


Old - 


W»'rubandh or 


Stinking 


- (1) bu'ga, or 




WM'ruwEndh. 




(2) bua, or 


One - 


■ ka'lim or 




(3) buga'nwr. 




kwa'lim. 


Still - 


- dhi'kMl. 


Other - 


- kar'va or dha'ra. 


Straight 


- dhu'ran. 


Overmuch - 


- bam'guna. 


Strong 


- (1) but'dha. 


Painful 


- kig'yar. 




(2) bau'thar or 


Pleased 


- nol'la dhan'dar- 




bau'guthar. 




ban. 


Stupid 


- nun'dal. 



MAKY RIVER AND BUNYA BTJNYA COUNTRY. 



205 



Adjectives — con tirvmd. 



Surprised - 


- nol'la wu'laihan. 


True - 


- gi'vir. 


Sulky - 


- baN'kM. 


Ugly - - 


- ta'Nunba or 


Sunny - 


- nui'yim. 




mot'yi. 


Sweet - 


- ge'yar. 


Unwilling - 


- wa ka'wun fi'Ena- 


Swollen 


- dhu'rumi or 




man. 




wul'bu. 


Wall-eyed • 


- mi wu'lwiNwr. 


Tall - 


- guran or goran. 


Wanting 


- gu'lum. 


Tame - 


- ko'nan. 


Well (in health) 


- man'Nwrbathin. 


Thick - 


- wiN'wttr. 


Wet - 


- di'Nan. 


That - 


- mo'raNa. 


Weak - 


- ua'man mokkan. 


Thin - 


- ua'ran. 


White- - . 


- ka'kal. 


Thirsty 


- Naiyal'lo. 


Wild - 


- (1) ka'rum, cr 


This - 


- ka'riNa, 




(2) baN'goran. 


Ticklish 


- wi'riman. 


Willing - 


- ka'wun nBna- 


Tired - 


- Nai'ya ba'lun. 




man. 


Tight - - 


- but'dha and 


Windy 


- bu'rando. 




pi'nanj. 


Withered - 


- bu'thwN. 


Two - 


■ bul'la. 

Pbon 


Wicked, wrong 

OTTNS. 


■ wa'raN. 


I 


- Nai, a'dhw, or 
Na'dhw. 


We - 


- Na'lin. 


My or mine 


- Nan'yuNgai. 


You and I - 


- Na'linNin. 






Our or ours - 


- Na'lino or 
n&\vasvx. 


Me - 


- Nan'na, a'dhu, or 
Na'dhw. 


Us - 


- Na'lin. 


Thou - 


- Nin'dM or Nin. 


You - - 


- Nu'lam. 


Thy or thine 


- Ni'noNgai. 


Your or yours 


- Nu'lamo. 


Thee - 


- Nin'na, Nin'bola. 


You - 


- Nu'lambola. 


He, she, or it 


- Nun'daormon'da. 


They - - 


- dhi'nabit. 


His, hers, its 


- Nun'dano. 


Their, theirs 


- dhina'bano. 


Him, &c. - 


- Nun'dabola. 


Them - 


- dhina'lmbola. 


Another and I 


- No'lom. 


Anyone, everyone, kar'vandhilum. 


You two 


- bu'la. 


everybody 




YouaU - 
Own - 
Self - 
This one 


- Nu'pM. 

- NU'ka. 

- mit'dhi. 

- ka'riNa. 


Another's - 
Alone - 
Other - 


- dhomkai'yir. 

- mit'dhino. 

- kar'va or dhar'ra. 


That one - 


- ko'radhM. 


Some . . others kar'.va . . kar'va 



206 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Pronouns — Intebbogativb. 



Who - 


- Nan'do Nan'gai. 


What - 


- Nan'do or mJ'naN- 


Whose 


- Nan'yuNgai. 


How many - 


gai. 
- mifia'ma or mifi- 


Whom and which Nan'gaimini. 




am'ba. 




Veebs. 




Ache - 


- bai'y*- 


Come - 


- ba'man. 


AUow - 


- yaNgali'noman. 


„ in - 


- ka'ri. 


Answer 


- yj'kj ya'man. 


„ out - 


- wu'rwboman. 


Awake 


- kin'ma. 


,, back - 


- biya'boman. 


Bathe - 


- ku'NM wil'li. 


Cooee - 


- biysl'li 


Be - - 


- flE'naman. 


Cover - 


- (l)kam'biman, or 


Be there - • 


- min'dior mjn'da. 




(2) banj'raman. 


Believe 


- gi'viv wun'- 


Cross - 


- waN'goma,n. 




bomba. 


Cry - 


- du'NJman. 


Bite - 


- kai'yathin. 


Cut - 


- (1) kau'wan, or 


Boil - 


- ma'ringa. 




(2) wu'lathin. 


Bleed (intrans.) 


- kak'ke ba'man. 


Cure - 


- bai'yi yaNga'li- 


Be born 


- (1) dak'aman, 




thin. 




(2) won'doman. 


Divide (or deal 


wiyu'laiyM. 


.Break - 


- (l)kom'Naii, or 


out) 






(2) bu'riman. 


Delay - 


- wON'gali. 


Be quiet 


- yul nE'naman. 


Desist - 


- wonai. 


Bring - 


- ba'reman. 


Die - 


- ba'luman. 


Buck ■ 


- war'ran. 


Dislike 


- wonai. 


Burn (trans.) 


- wa'raba. 


Dismount - 


- flEndaio. 


,, (intrans.) 


- ma'rin. 


To be done - 


- ka'bjroman. 


Burst - 


- bu'lunirra. 


Draft - 


- bun'gaman. 


Call - 


- yB'ljman. 


Dream 


- ba'riwundaman. 


Catch - 


- dhom'ma. 


Drink - 


- dha'thin.. 


,-, flsh - 


- kau'wamathi. 


Drive away 


- mi'bamma. 


Care ■ 


- ka'wun. 


Drown (pass.) 


- (1) ka'ruman, or 


Carry - 


- womba'ljthin. 




(2) ka'ron. 


Converse - 


- yathu'laiyw. 


Dry - 


- dha'lman. 


Change 


- ka'riisra ma'lia. 


Eat - 


- (1) dhau, or 


Chase - 


- {!) Ahi'Tiihhi,and 




(2) dho'man. 




(2) warj'naman. 


Enter - 


- ka'rithin. 


Chew - 


- dhin'piman. 


Fall - 


- bumba'lin. 


Chop - 


- ka'NJthin, 


,, upon - 


- womba'liman. 


Climb - 


- (l)bon'yindan,o»' 


Peel - 


- bon'dhoman. 




(2) won'dan. 


Fetch - 


- ba'rjman. 


Cause to drink 


- bidha'Unda. 


Fight - 


- baiyu'laiyWi 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 



207 





Vbbbs — continued. 




Find - 


- bat'yiman. 


Lift - 


- bun'ma. 


Fly (as birds) 


- dhu'rapian. 


Lie (speak falsely) (1) dha'kun ya, 


Forget 


- (1) pi'naN ba'lu- 




(2) yabo'liman. 




man,' or 


„ (r«cline) 


- yun'maman. 




(2) Nara'loman. 


Like - 


- ka'wun. 


Forgive 


- bon'na konan 


Look - 


- nai'yilathin. 




wo'nimba. 


Lose - 


- Nara'loman. 


Gape - 


- wul'lai. 


Love - 


- balu'raman. 


Give - 


- wum'Nan. 


Make- 


- yaN'goman. 


Gnaw - 


- dhan'dhoman. 


Make cry - 


duNinu'raman. 


Go - - 


- yan'man. 


Mark - 


- bandh'NMr. 


Go home 


yan'mare. 


Marry 


- (1) bin'dhamathi, 


Grasp - 


- kol'bathiTi. 




or (2) dhom'mo- 


Grow - 


- dhu'ruman. 




man. 


Haste - 


- Nam (impera- 


Mend - 


- (1) yi'lvana, or 




tive). 




(2) bau'waman. 


Hate - 


- wa ka'wun. 


Mount 


- wo'Nali. 


Have - 


- (1) kai, or 


Obey - 


- ka'lu vro'Naman. 




(2) min'da. 


Play - - 


- biwa'thin. 


Hold - 


- dho'mathin. 


Perambulate 


- wak'karin yan'- 


Help - 


- Nu'ponathia. 




dirm. 


Hit - 


- bun'baman. 


Prepare 


- nau'wapira. 


Issue - 


- bi'raman. 


Pull - 


- yu'ri. • 


Joke - 


- dha'rithin. 


Put - 


- yivari. 


Jump - 


- (l)yauwara, and 


„ away - 


- mivari 




(2) war'rai. 


„ in- 


- (l)kari'naman, or 


Kick - 


■ na'ruman. 




(2) mo'aman. 


Kill ■ 


- bai'yiman. 


„ out 


- wuruyiva'rjthiuj. 


Know - 
Kisa - 


- vro'Naman. 

- dham'bwr bun'bi- 


,, up 
Relish 


- womba'thin. 

- nol'la bau'wan. 


Laugh 
Leave - 


thin. 

- wa'thiman. 

- wo'naimathj 


Remember - 


- (1) wa pi'naNba'- 
luman, or (2) 
pj'naN bamai'thj. 


„ (abandon) 
Lend - 
Let (allow) - 


yiva'rj. 
won'damathi. 

- timba'rowa. 

- wum'Nan. 


Resemble - 
Return 


- yi'kiman. 

- (1) bjyam'gaiyo, 

or (2) bom'ko- 
man,0?'(3)bjya'- 


>. go 


- bin'dha. 




boman. 


„ out 


- wu'ruwathin. 


Revolve 


- ku'rjman. 


Light (kindle) 


■ ba'raiyo. 


Ride - 


- kaN'kithin. 


„ (iutrans.) 


- Nan'daboman. 


Rise - 


- won'doman. 



208 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 





Vbebs— 


continued. 




Roast - 


- ki'raba mor'ba. 


Stop (remain) 


- nEnai. 


Roll - 


- dhinda'Kman. 


„ (arrest) 


- kakka'rJM. 


Run - 


- bidha'ljthin. 


Stand - 


- b«'bai or bMwan. 


Scold - 


- yam'Numan. 


Strengthen, hold bu'dha,wathin. 


Scratch 


- dhtt'ma. 


fast 




Search 


• (1) wor'raman, or 


Suck - 


- bun'bjthin. 




(2) wa'karraio, 


Sweat - 


- NM'yamboman. 




or (3) kauwa'liM- 


Swell - 


- dhu'rumi. 


See - 


- nomNa'thj.' 


Swim - 


- yuNga'thin. 


Seek - 


- nar'riM. 


Take - 


- (1) kaN'go, or ' 


Send - 


- bin'dha. 




(2) kom'Nan, or 


Separate 


- ban'yau. 




(3) bumna'li. 


Sing - 


- dop'pathin. 


,, back - 


- biya'viiadiu. 


Shake - 


- dhu'wa. 


,, in (admit) 


- karm'dimi. ' 


Shell - 


- rai'bira. 


Taste - 


- yavan'dha. 


Shoot - 


- bun'bara. 


Teach - 


- Nutana'lia. 


Show - 


- KOm'ba. 


Think - 


- vro'NTiman or 


Sink - 


- fiin'daman. 




vroNaman. 


Sit ■ 


- nE'naman. 


Throng • - 


- kaka'riman. 


Skin - 


- Nol'la wul'la, 


Try - - 


- Natam. 


Sleep - 


- buan'do yun'ma- 


Turn (trans.) 


- kuri'naman. 




man. 


Tire - 


- Nai'ya ba'luna. 


Smell- . - 


- ba'liman. 


Throw 


- tiNga'thin. 


Smoke (a pipe) 


- kaiya'thin. 


,, down 


- bomka'numan. 


Smash or strike 


- bon'dhira. 


Wait - 


- won'miman. 


Speak - 


- ya'man. 


Walk - 


- yul yan'man. 


„ quickly 


- yBlB'Hman. 


Want (require) 


- wandha'roman. 


Spear - 


- bau'wa. 


Warm- 


- wa'kobora. 


Spring up - 


- yj'raman. 


Wash - 


- kak'kal yiva'ri. 


Split - 


- wul'la. 


Watch 


- ninan'diman. 


Squeeze 


- (1) uau'waman, 


Whisper 


- wop'pa yEl'li. 




(2)buluni'raman, 


Whistle - 


- kMi'bi. 




(3)wo'rabu'dha- 


Wipe - 


- kak'kal gira'sili- 




man, (4) Nu'mra. 




thin. 


Steal - 


- kor'raman. 


Work - 


- yuaN'biniliii. 


Sting - ■ - 


- bau'waman. 

Adv] 


Wring the neck 

BEBS. 


- ku'namara. 


Above - 


- ba'ritha. 


Almost 


- bar. 


After or behind 


- bjya'ui. 


Also - 


- yjki. 


Afterwards - 


- bona gj'ra. 


Always 


- Nam. 


Alone - 


- ka'lim. 


Back - 


- bi'ya. 



MARY RIVER AND BUNYA BUNYA COUNTRY. 



209 



Adveebs — contimied. 



Before - 


- wu'r«m. 


Nowhere 


ka'bi. 


By-and-by - 


■ bon'na wop'pa. 


Often - 


(1) kir'wa, and 


Close - 


- Nol'la. 




(2) Nam. 


Directly 


- dhali. 


On horseback 


nan'Nur. 


Early - 


- (1) dhalj, or 


On foot 


dhi'naNgo. 




(2) dhu'lura. 


Other side - 


gun'mani. 


Eternally - 


- Nam. 


Out - 


wu'rii. 


Everywhere 


- (l)ko'laNako'la, 


Slowly 


wop'pa or yul. 




or (2) we'fio Na 


There - 


kola or mola. 




we'no. 


That side - 


(1) non'da fion- 


Far - 


- mukir. 




da'ni, or (2) 


Farther 


- kila'thunda. 




ko'la dhu'rMni. 


Fast - 


- ka'lM. 


This side 


(1) ba'riNa, or (2) 


Firmly 


- (l)but'dha, or 
(2) pi'narw. 




ka'ri dhu'rwni. 


First - 


- wu'ra. 


Thus - 


(1) yi'ri, or 


For - 


- ka'ri 




(2) yi'rin. 


Gently 
Headwards, 


- wop'pa. 
by kam'Nwr. 


Top - 


(1) ba'riNa, or 
(2) ba'ritha. 


the head 


Under - 


tar'vano. 


Here - 


- (1) ka'rj, (2) kai, 


Vainly, in vain, f oi 


yul. 




(3) ka'dhj, (4) 


nothing 






muh. 


Very, very much- 


kar'va. 


If - - 


- (1) we'fio, or 


Well, rightly 


yam'bo. 




(2) bo'na. 


When (interrog.)- 


we'noboUa. 


How - 


- mi'naNgo. 


When (at that 


(1) we'fio, or 


Just now - 


- kai. 


time) 


(2) bona. 


Late - 


- Nam. 


Whether or not - 


we'flamba. 


More - 


- yaN'ga. 


Where 


(1) we'fio, or 


Near - 


- pjra'm. 




(2) we'nomini. 


Never - 


- wa. 


Whither - 


Nan'gaibola. 


No - 


- (1) wa, (2)wa'ka, 


While - 


bo'na. 


Noisily 


(3) ka'bi. 
- dhilil'baNttr. 


Why - 


(1) mina'ni, (2) 
wan'dhurathin, 


Not - 


- (1) wa, (2) ka'bi, 
(3) bar (gene- 




(3) mina'lo. 




rally with im- 


Yes - 


(1) yau'ai, or 




perative). 

Intbej 


ECTIONS. 


(2) yaau. 


All right - 


- yau'aiyauai. 


Well done - 


(1) kala'N«r, or 


By no means 


- wa wa. 


Signifying— 


(2) kaburau. 


Halloo 


- arau. 


Credence - 


im'ba. 


Indeed 


- i'Na. 


Pleasure - 


a'rirom. 


Just so so - 


- (1) e'yila, or 


Regret 


e. 




(2)ila, or 


Surprise - 


(1) gin'di, or 
(2) Nrrrr. 




(3) yau'aimba. 


Self-satisfaction 


moun. 


vor., ra. 


( 


) 





210 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 167.— UPPER BRISBANE RIVER. 

By W. Landsboeottoh, Esq., and Montagi; Cukk, Esq. 
Two vocabularies of the language of the Upper Brisbane 
River, forwarded by the gentlemen named above, differ so 
little that only one of them is inserted. The reader may 
compare the translations of Blackfellow and kangaroo. 

The following Additional Words were supplied by Mr. 
Landsborongh : — 



Husband 


- nuim. 


Opossum-cloak 


- kobinga. 


Wife - 


- numgang. 


Lightning - 


- mira. 


Uncle - 


- numa. 


To fall 


- bowman. 


Girl - 


- una. 


To swim 


- kauyoo. 


Ornamental scars- bimdara. 


When- 


- wungang. 


Chin - 


- yakka. 


Here - 


- kunma. 


Ribs - 


- koongara. 


White 


- chilling. 


Neck - 


- bimbay. 


Black - 


- meer. 


Frog - 


- iuba. 


Pine-tree - 


- koonin. 




No. 167.— UPPER BRISBANE RIVER. 


By W. 


Landsbokotjgh Esq. 


, AND MONTAaU CUKK, ESQ. 


Kangaroo - 


- dgiu. 


Hand 


- bay or bee. 


Opossum 


- dthooan, koom- 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 


bay. 
- boo-gin. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 


- karro. 


Emu - 


- moee. 


Two - 


- booyoo, yerio. 


Black duck - 


- nyem. 


Three - 


- 


Wood duck - 


- 


Four - 


., 


Pelican 


- blooguUum. 


Father 


- boba. 


Laughing jackass koaka. 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - gaira. 


Mother 
Sister -Elder 


- mwang, kame. 

- thadje. 


Crow - 


- wawa. 


,, Younger 


- 


Swan - 


- meweean 


Brother-Elder 


- dooda. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 
Fish - 
Lobster 


- maa or moa. 

- unda. 

- eel. 


,, Younger 
A young man - gibbar, keeburi 
An old man - yanyar. 


Crayfish 


- 


An old woman 


- yanyarin. 


Mosquito - 


- munyagurrun. 


A baby 


- barree. 


Fly - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 


- din. 

- booyee. 

- dthun. 


A White man 
Children - 


- moee, mybay. 

- yunam. 


A Blackfellow 


- dthun. 


Head - 


- ma. 


A Black woman 


- booberim. 


Eye - 


- mia. 


Nose - 


- mi-i. 


Ear ■ 


- pinnung. 



UPPER BRISBANE RIVER. 



211 



No 


167.— Upper Brisbane Rmn— continued. 


Mouth 


■ tamboor. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- ding, taynang. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- ma. 


Wood - 


- dnattoo. 


Beard - 


- eka, mulingin. 


Stone - 


- doee, teya. 


Thunder 
Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach 
Breasts 
Thigh - 
Foot - 

Bone - 
Blood - 


- meera. 

- bun. 

- bokoor, 

- moo. 

- dundur, amoo. 

- dthungur. 

- dinnung, ohin- 

nang, 

- geera. 

- deel. 


Camp - 
Yes - 
No - 
I 

You - 
Bark - 
Good - 
Bad - 
Sweet - 


- kauime. 

- yow. 

- woka or yaka. 

- goin, boon. 

- nga. 

- koondoo. 

- kallang. 

- yeng, weeang. 


Skin - 


- bim. 


Food - 


- gooyoor. 


Fat - 


- mem. 


Hungry 


- dthurrii. 


Bowels 


- na. 


Thirsty 


- goonbero. 


Excrement - 


- goonang. 


Eat - 


- dthowo. 


War-spear - 


- nyam, gooranga, 


Sleep - 


- wondo. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


- dthow, goon- 


Throwing-stick 


- daddoo. 




barro. 


Shield 


- koomarri. 


Walk - 


- yango. 


Tomahawk - 


- mooyim. 


See - 


- ka, nga. 


Canoe - 


- koondoo. 


Sit - 


- yinne. 


Sun - 


- weeim. 


Yesterday - 


- moona. 


Moon - 


- ka kurra. 


To-day 


- ming. 


Star - 


- murriugum. 


To-morrow - 


- tomo, gango. 


Light - 


- koonee. 


Where are 


the wundja dthun 


Dark - 


- nwore. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- nyaar. 


I don't know 


- waka natchi 


Heat - 


- murra, gimow. 




benga. 


Day - 


- kitter, maybing. 


Plenty 


- yoorun. 


Night - 


- djoo. 


Big - 


- mooanina. 


Fire - 


- kooyoom. 


Little - 


- nunana. 


Water - 


- goong. 


Dead - 


- bootir, bonja. 


Smoke 


- thoom. 


By-and-by - 


- quay. 


Ground 


- dtha. 


Come on 


- eaba, kow-wy. 


Wind - 


- boorun. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife . 


- numgang. 



02 



212 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE i 



No. 168.— BRISBANE RIYER. 
TURRUBUL LANGUAGE. 



By the late Revd. William Ridley. 

The translation of my Common Vocabulary which follows 
was kindly made for me by the late Revd. William Ridley. 
In the Kamilaroi of that gentleman, Turrubul is one of the 
languages treated of, and from it I make the following 
extracts : — 

NOTINS. 

du- (suffix) signifies agency, and distinguishes the nomi- 
native which has a verb from the simple name. 





Example. 




1st nominative: - 


- duggai 


- a man. 


2nd nominative - 


- duggaidu 


- a man (followed by a verb), 


Genitive 


- duggainubba 


- of a man. 


Dative 


- dugganu 


- for or to a man. 


Accusative - 


- duggana 


- a man. 


Ablative 


- duggaibuddi - 


- with a man. 


>> " ■ 


- duggaiti 


- at a man. 


J) 


- duggaida 


- from a man. 


Plural- 


- duggatin 


- men, people. 



Gendbk. 

Difference of gender is expressed sometimes by using 
different words, as kruman, a male kangaroo (largest spe- 
cies); yimma, female kangaroo. 

Sometimes the suffix -gun or -un gives a feminine signi- 
fication, as in the proper family names, e.g., derwain, 
derwaingun; bundar, bundargun; bandur, bandurun; also 
nurring (son), nurringgun (daughter). 



BRISBANE RIVER. 213 

Verbs. 

The most remarkable feature in tlie grammar of the 
Australian languages is the very extensive inflection of the 
verbs. The voices, active, reciprocal, causative, permissive, 
&c., are numerous; and the tenses are adapted to express 
various slight modifications of past and future. 



214 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 168.— BRISBANE RIVER-TURRUBUL LANGUAGE. 
By the late Rbvd. Willam Ridley. 



Kangaroo - 


kurooman,murri. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


kubbi. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


meye, mirri. 


3 Blacks 




Wild dog - 


ngulgul. 






Emu - 


nguyi. 


One - 


- kunnar. 


Black duck - 


nar. 


Two - 


- boodela. 


Wood duck 


ngulgul (?). 


Three - 


- muddan. 


Pelican 


bulualum. 


Pour - 


- boodela-boodela. 


Laughing jackass 


kakoowan. 


Father 


- bing, booba. 


Native companion 






White cockatoo 


kaiyar. 


Mother 


- poojang. 


Crow - 


wowul, wowa. 


Sister-Elder 


- mungungkul. 


Swan - 




„ Younger 


- dadi. 


Egg - - 




Brother-Elder 


- ngubbunga. 


Track of a foot ■ 




,, Younger duangal. 


Msh - 


kuiyur. 






Lobster 




A young man 


- kippa. 


Crayfish 




An old man- 


- 


Mosquito - 


tibing. 


An old woman 


- 


Ply - 


doodunburra. 


A baby 


- mooalam. 


Snake - 


yuun, kabul. 


A White man 


- magui, makoran 


The Blacks - 


tyan or dum- 










Children 


- mammul. 




boing. 






A Blaokf ellow - 


dan- tyan. 


Head - 


- magool, kom. 


A Black woman - 


yeran, ingaran. 


Eye - 


- mia, mil. 


Nose - 


mooro. 


Ear - 


- pidua. 



BRISBANE RIVER. 



215 



No. 168. — Beisbane River — Tubeubul Language — amtirmed. 



Mouth 


- tamburu. 


Boomerang - 


- barrakadan. 


Teeth - 


- tier. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head kabui. 






Beard - 


- yeren. 


Wood 


- bagur. 


Thunder 


- moombal. 


Stone ■ 


- nullungirra. 


Grass - 


- bungil. 


Camp - 


- 


Tongue 


- 


Yes - 


- yoai. 


Stomach 


- tiggeri. 


No - 


- yugar, wookka 


Breasts 


- tundera. 






Thigh - 


- durra. 


I 


- ngutta, atta. 


Foot - 


- tidna. 


You - 


- nginta, inda. 


Bone - 


- tjirben. 


Bark - 


- 


Blood - 


• kaoun, giwoor. 


Good - 


- murroomba. 


Skin - 


- 


Bad - 


. 


Pat - 


_ 






Bowels 


. 


Sweet - 




Excrement - 


- kudena, bandiko, 


Food - 


- 




dual (dog's); 


Hungry 


- waiara. 




gunang (ox's). 


Thirsty 




War-spear - 


- bila.n. 


Eat - 




Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 


■ 


Sleep - 


- boogan. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- 


Shield - 


- kuntan. 


Walk - 




Tomahawk - 


- 


See - 


nauni. 


Canoe 


- koondu. 


Sit - 


- nginnen. 


Sun - 
Moon - 


- bigi, kuiyar. 

- killen, baboon. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Star - 


- mirregia. 


To-day 


- 


Light - 


- kittibilla. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Dark - 


- koorunkoorun. 


Where are 


the 


Cold - 


- igil. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


_ 










I don't know 


_ 


Day - 


- bigi, kuiyar. 






Night - 


- ngoonnoo. 


Plenty 


- 


Fire - 


- kuddum or kui- 


Big - 


- kuroomba. 




yum. 


Little - 


- 


Water 


- tabbU. 


Dead - 




Smoke 


- duun. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 


- yarun 


Come on 


. 


Wind - 


- 










Milk - 


. 


Rain - 


. 






God - 


- moombal, mirir, 


Eaglehawk - 


- dibbil. 




burrai. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- magui, makorou. 


Wife - 


- mirru. 



BOOK THE TWELFTH. 



BOOK THE TWELFTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

Of the tribes dealt with in this book, those which inhabit 
the shores of the mainland show in their languages a close 
relationship, and remind us of the fact that every tribe 
prefers the neighbour whose customs, food-supply, and mode 
of life resembles its own. 



220 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 169.— CONDAMINE AND CHARLEY'S CREEK— MURRUM- 
NINGAMA TRIBE. 

FOBWAEDED BY THE COMMISSIONER OP POLICE, BRISBANE. 



appears as 



Kangaroo - 


groomon 


Opossum 


groona. 


Tame dog - 


buggin. 


Wild dog - 


wage. 


Emu - 


mooe. 


Black duck - 


moonrm. 


Wood duck - 




Pelican 


giteum. 


Laughing jackass kakkage 


Native companion mendra. 


White cockatoo 


gera. 


Crow - 


wa. 


Swan - 




Egg - - 


mor. 


Track of a foot 


tumba. 


Pish - 


marea. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


ding. 


Fly ■ 




Snake - 


• booe. 


The Blacks - 


booa. 


A Blackfellow 


garoon. 


A Black woman 


geran. 


Nose - 


mia. 



y be compared. 


Kungi = thirsty. 


n the Barcoo. 




Hand - 


■ ma. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 




One - 




Two - 


grogna. 


Three - 


grunda. 


Four - 




Father 


■ babo. 


Mother 


- moang. 


Sister-Elder 


- morun. 


„ Younger 




Brother-Elder 


- towin. 


„ Younger 


A young man 


- kipper. 


An old man 


- gringa. 


An old woman 


- bubram. 


A baby 


- gugroo. 


A White man 


- krabe. 


Children - 




Head - 


- mow. 


Eye ■ 


- maye. 


Ear - 


- binang. 



CONDAMINB AND CHARLEY'S CREEK. 



221 



No. 169. — CONDAMINE AND ChARLEY'S CrEEK — MTIBRTrMNINGAMA 





Tribe — continued. 




Mouth 


kam. 


Boomerang - 


buramna. 


Teeth - 


deang. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


kamee. 


Wood - 


doodoo. 


Beard - 


- eka. 


Stone - 


die. 


Thunder - 


- meera. 


Camp - 


murrun. 


Grass - 


- bunn. 


Yes - 




Tongue 


- punnan. 


No - 




Stomach 


- kumde. 


I 




Breasts 


- dundara. 


You - 




Thigh - 


- genar. 


Bark - 


tundo. 


Foot - 


- ginang. 


Good - 


kulang. 


Bone - 


- dea. 


Bad - 




Blood - 


- dunde. 




Skin - 




Sweet - 


kambora 


Fat - 




Pood - 


doeo. 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


tiroy. 


Excrement - 


- 


Thirsty 


kungi. 


War-spear - 


- ngea. 


Eat - 




Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 




Throwing-stick 


- 


Drink - 




Shield - 


- gumurry. 


Walk - 




Tomahawk - 


- nyam. 


See - 




Canoe - 


- kundung. 


Sit - 




Sun - 


- genan. 


Yesterday - 




Moon - 
Star - 


- gooea. 

- koge. 


To-day 




Light - 


- koomi. 


To-morrow - 




Dark - 


- mulkan. 


Where are the 




Cold - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- agga. 


I don't know 




Day - 


- daroo. 


Plenty 




Night - 


- mulkan. 


Big - - 




Fire - 


- kooinim. 


Little - 




Water- 


- koom. 


Dead - 


- bonang. 


Smoke 


- dumda. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 


- jaw. 


Come on 




Wind- 


- buran. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- merria. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wilk turkey 


woun. 


Ghosts 


- mooeimng. 


Wife - 


numgun. 



322 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 170.— STKADBROKE AND MOEETON ISLANDS. 

GOENPUL, WOGEE, AND NOONUKUL TRIBES. 
By Geokge Watkin, Esq., and J. E. Hamilton, Esq. 

The following information relative to the three tribes named 
above was forwarded to me by Mr. George Watkin ; a second 
vocabulary also of the Jandai language, which it has not 
been thought necessary to insert, was kindly sent to me 
by Mr. J. E. Hamilton. An incomplete vocabulary of the 
Moondjan language, which much resembles Jandai, which 
Mr. Watkin forwarded, is also omitted. 

The Goenpul tribe occupies the central and southern 
portion of Stradbroke Island, and its language is called 
Jandai. The Noonukul tribe owns the northern portion of 
that island, and its language is called Moondjan. The 
Wogee tribe occupies Moreton Island, and its language is 
called Goowar or Gooar. The name of the language, in 
each of these cases, is the equivalent of no, as the reader will 
see in two instances by turning to the attached vocabularies. 



STRADBROKE AND MORETON ISLANDS. 223 

The following particulars apply to tlie remnants of the 
three tribes who now live pretty much together. Their 
number amounts to about 65 persons. Many of them are 
half-castes, others quadroons, and females largely predomi- 
nate. Since the year 1868, Mr. Watkin remarks that their 
numbers have fallen off at least one-half. Eeading over that 
gentleman's replies to my questions, little information is to be 
gathered which has not been already laid before the reader in 
connection with other tribes. It may be remarked, however, 
that ornaments are worn made of the nautilus shell ; that 
spears are thrown by hand, and boomerangs of both sorts are 
in use. Water is carried in the sheaths of the Seaforthia 
palm. Fish, honey, and snakes are amongst the principal 
articles of food, as well as the fern-root (JmngwaV), which is 
(or was) beaten into a pulp between two stones, and then 
baked like a damper in the ashes, or cooked on the coals. 
Particular sorts of food were forbidden to the males at certain 
ages, others to the women in general, and others to women 
whilst pregnant. Many years ago small-pox is reported to 
have ravaged these islands; our occupation of which took 
place in 1824 or 1825, at which period a branch penal settle- 
ment was formed on Stradbroke. Class-marriage still prevails, 
and in the Goenpul tribes the names of the classes, male 
and female, are Bandoor, Bandoorookuu; Bunta, Buntagun; 
Barang, Barangun; Darawan, Darawangun. Marriages take 
place both within and without the tribe. Children, of course, 
belong to the tribe of the father. Males are scarred for 
ornament on the chest, back, and arms; females on the arms 
and legs. The last joint of the little finger of one hand used 
to be taken off. Preparatory to burial, the corpse is made 
into the shape of a ball. In these tribes, as in all others of 
which accounts have reached me, consumption is the general 
cause of deaths. A messenger sent to another tribe carries 
a notched stick with him, the size of one's finger. The custom 
prevails of an old man in times of illness sucking the part in 
pain, and pretending to extract by his lips or teeth a piece of 
wood, which he spits out. The people of these tribes have no 



224 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



objection to tell their names, as 
The following is a list of them, 



we know many others have, 
male and female: — 



Namea of Men. 


Names of Women. 


Kunjo. 


Nuraneum. 


Peeamareeba 


Kuranpin. 


Tikukka. 


Gmirradju. 


Ween. 


Boonbinpin. 


Nuggin. 
Toompanee. 


Gootenoo. 


Quelbeean. 


Weedjumpare- 


Djurpoorbudjur. 


Kmgalmoon- 
jipimba. 


gun. 
Kooroo. 


Doodaree. 


Curreewurryba. 


Kindara. 


Nundgily. 


Nookembar. 


Gnoonoopi. 


Atta-oarrara 


Gnoonappee. 


Pubbal. 


Mudloomba. 


Puddlin. 


Ngamingba. 


Wunnycunny. 


Pirrinpirrinba. 


Cununou. 
Buddla. 


Mumbyeeba. 
Djaroowan- 


Nunko. 


Boodlumberr. 


Biteeri. 


cowan. 


Geera. 


Boodjoombirree- 


Wilcoonareeba. Dimbal. 


Eeree. 


bar. 


Timbin. 


Djilmorr. 


Pimbeean. 


Doomallee. 


Treppen. 


Djaium. 


Ki'tita. 


Kunaroombar. 


Yaggojay. 


Weeneeba. 


Tchilper. 


Ngoomgarroo. 


Goobee. 
Beemee. 


Millingirr. 
Billoonga. 


Gindareeba. 


Killil-kiim. 


Oonto. 


Djoonabin. 


Goombilleba, 


Timgil. 


Kooloom. 


Wapumareeba. 


Boodjarpin. 


Waggun. 


Wyan. 


Tudloalbun. 


Kuttageeri. 


Toharoheedun- 


Boondooba. 


Coora. 


Yillaroon. 


areeba. 


Djurrgeerun 


■ 




Additional Won 


,DS AND Phkases. 


Wallaby - 


- boogal. 


Brother-in-law - kabakerie. 


Bandicoot - 


- yagooi. 


Aunt - 


- maran. 


Rat - 


- kooril. 


Uncle - 


- kame. 


Plying fox - 


- kieraman. 


Husband 


- noogoonping. 


Dugong 


- yimgan. 


Wife - 


- noogoonpingun. 


Mullet 


- andekal. 


North wind 


- tinbin. 


Schnapper - 


- pimba. 


South wind 


- booran. 


Stingaree - 


- bangko. 


East wind • 


- winohia. 


Oyster 


- kinyingarra. 


West wind 


■ tchoongie. 


Pearl oyster 


- koanpe. 


Creek - 


- warril. 


Crab - 


- yeerin. 


Clouds 


- kalen. 


Black snake 


- doomgoor. 


Native flax 


- imboon. 


Whip snake 


- deerooyn. 


Leaves 


- kajal. 


Carpet snake 


- kabool. 


J^ViV V \./w 


Deaf adder - 


- mooloomkul. 


Woman's ba 


g - goolay. 


Elbow 


- goontie. 


Yam-stick 


- kalgooro.* 


Want - 


- wangie-wangie. 


Red (blood) 


- kowan. 


Forehead - 


- yelim. 


Stringybark 


-tree goondool. 


Widower - 


- boorgoon. 


To strike 


- bomar. 



* In other dialects we have kaalk, meaning wood and also spear, 



STRADBROKE AKD MORBTON ISLANDS. 



225 



Additional Words 
You go, I will Gobana inter, 

come by-and-by utcha baro 

balgalpin. 
I dreamed about Utcha ine bibooii' 

you mare. 

Who told you? ■ Ando ine yare? 
Sit (down) - - Yinila. 
Get up - - Balka. 
What (are) you Minango inter 

laughing at? giadan? 

Where (are) you Wunya inter 

going? yeranya? 



AND Phkasbs — contirmed. 



I will cut you 

Who cut you? 

Cut it - 

Have you eaten? - 

Tell your father - 

You lie 

How many did 

you get? 
Let go - 

Are you awake ? - 
I laughed (till I) 

died and stunk 



Utcha ine kabale- 

wa. 
Andoo ine kabal? 
Kapa. 

Tchare inter ? 
Bing inter yalwa. 
Nyalangken inter 
Minyambo inter 

maan? 
Wia. 

Meal-panye inter ? 
Gindan utcha 

kangere booghor. 



226 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 170.— STRADBROKE AND MORETON ISLANDS— GOENPDL 
TRIBE, JANDAI LANGUAGE. 

By Geoeoe Watkin, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


maree. 


Hand- 


- murra. 


Opossum 


goopee. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


mee. 


3 Blacks - 


_ 


Wild dog - 


ungal. 


One - 


- kunara. 


Emu - 


moorun. 


Two - 


- boodla. 


Black duck - 


ngou. 


Three - 


- boodla kunara. 


Wood duck 








Pelican 


tchoongarra. 


Four - 


- boodla boodla. 


Laughing jackass 


kakoom. 


Father 


- bing. 


Native compa.nion tchoongee. 


Mother 


- budjong. 


White cockatoo - 


keara. 


Sister-Elder 


- djuddin. 


Crow - 


wokkun. 


„ Younger 


- mungakul. 


Swan - 


maroochie. 


Brother-Elder 


- nabong. 


Egg - - 


kongkong. 






Track of a foot - 




,, Younger goangul. 


Fish - 


joon. 


A young man 


- goominguin. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- budjaar. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- wolh'ngar. 


Mosquito - 


dibbing. 


A baby 


- urumkun. 


Fly - 

Snake - - - 


poolooloom. 
kabool. 


A White man 


- degga. 


The Blacks - 


malar. 


Children 


- numil-numil, 


A Blaokfellow - 


malar. 




kin-kin. 


A Black woman - 


tchundal. 


Head - 


- magool. 




jundab. 


Eye - 


- mel. 


Nose . - - 


mooroo. 


Ear - 


- pidna. 



STRADBROKB AND MORBTON ISLANDS. 



227 



No. 170.- 


Stkadbroke and Moreton Islands- 
Jandai Language— cowiirewoZ. 


-GoENPUL Tribe, 


Mouth 


- wungaw. 


Boomerang - 


- barengun. 


Teeth - 


- deea. 


Hill - 


- beppo. 


Hair of the head - magool. 


Wood - 


- bummal. 


Beard - 


- yerren. 


Stone - 


- mudlo. 


Thunder - 


- moo-gara. 


Camp - 


- oompi. 


Grass - 


- bingil. 


Yes - 


- yawoi. 


Tongue 


- djurgoom. 


No - 


- jandai. 


Stomach 


- diggori. 


I 


- naree, utoha. 


Breasts 


- ummoo. 


You - 


- inta, iue. 


Thigh- - 


- booyoo. 


Bark - 


- woodgooroo. 


Foot - 


- tchidna. 


Good - 


- maroomba. 


Bone - 


- tcheerben. 


Bad - 


- wadley. 


Blood - 


- kowan 


Sweet - 


- kubba. 


Skin - - 


- moyen. 


Food - 


- tchindgen. 


Fat - 


- dingal. 


Hungry 


- waara. 


Bowels 


- 


Thirsty 


- kudna. 


Excrement - 


- koodna. 


Eat - 


- tudleba. 


War-spear - 


- kuni. 


Sleep - - 


- boogun. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


- tudleba. 


Throwing-sticli 
Shield- - 


- koontaw. 


Walk - 


- yieba. 


Tomahawk - 


- waggar. 


See - 


- neemgeeba. 


Canoe - 


- koondool. 


Sit - 


- ninila. 


Sun - 


- biggee. 


Yesterday - 


- nooboogooboo. 


Moon - 


- killen. 


To-day 


- booren. 


Star - - 


- mirreegen. 


To-morrow - 


- koodgoondaboo. 


Light - 


- dudlen. 


Where are 


the wuimia malar ? 


Dark - 


- koodgoom. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- tantan. 


I don't know 


- atcha djookoora 


Heat - 


- nunka. 


Plenty 


- munyal. 


Day - 


- biggee. 


Big - - 


- kroomba. 


Night - 


- koodgoom. 


Little - 


- beerpa. 


Fire - 


- djarlo. 

- tobbil. 






Water 


Dead - 


- kungera. 


Smoke 


- tohummoo. 


By-and-by - 


- baro. 


Ground 


- djara. 


Come on 


- bulka. 


Wind - 


- kubbee-kubbee. 


Milk - 


- ummoobin. 


Rain - 


. 


Baglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


WUd turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- noogoopingun. 



P2 



228 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 170.— MORETON ISLAND— WOGEE TRIBE, GOOWAR 
LANGUAGE. 

By Geoege Watkin, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- maree. 


Hand - 


- kining. 


Opossum - 


- goopee. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


- ngaagum. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 


- 


One - 


- kurraboo. 


Emu - 


- 


Two - 


- boodla. 


Blaok duck - 


- ngou. 


Three - 


- mudjen. 


Wood duck- 


_ 










Pour - 


- boodla boodla 


Pelican 


- tchoongara. 






Laughing jackass kakoogun. 


Father 


- be-en. 


Native companion killilkillil. 


Mother 


- ngabbon. 


White cockatoo 


- gaya. 


Sister-Elder 


- butanga. 


Crow - 


- warbaen. 


„ Younger 


- wuppoonga. 


Swan - 


- kingoyung. 


Brother-Elder 


- kouren. 


Egg - 


- kubooee. 






Track of a foot 


- tohinda. 


,, Younger punnaba. 


Pish -- 


- djaloom. 


A young man 


- goomingan. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- meendoora. 


Crayfish 


- 


An old woman 


. 


Mosquito - 


- woondoondoo. 


A baby 


- whyen. 


riy - 

Snake - 


- djoomgoo. 


A White man 


- kurrapee. 


The Blacks - 


- mugee. 


Children - 


- 


A Blackfellow 


- mugee. 


Head - 


- kumbee. 


A Black woman djalan. 


Eye - 


- mee. 


Nose - 


- baar. 


Ear - 


- pinnung. 



MORETON ISLAND. 



229 



No. 170.— MoEETON Island— WooEE Tribe, Goowar Lanquagb— 





continued. 




Mouth 


- ynllin. 


Boomerang - 


- ngarrenga. 


Teeth - 


- deerun. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- kumbee. 


Wood - 


- bummal. 


Beard - 


- yurren. 


Stone - 


- gooeean. 


Thunder - 


- moogara. 


Camp - 


- dinum. 


Grass - 


- weedjun. 


Yes ■ 


- yooi. 


Tongue 


- djurgoom. 


No - 


- gooar or goowar 


Stomach 


- nunemboo. 


I - - 


- nga. 


Breasts 


- umbooun. 


You - 


- ngin, ine. 


Thigh - 


- booyoo. 


Bark - 


. 


Foot - 


- djinung. 


Good - 


- kooemba. 


Bone - 


- tchiggil. 


Bad - 


- worrang. 


Blood - 


- goora. 


Sweet - 


- kooemba. 


Skin - 


- mooren 


Pood - 


- tchindjen. 


Fat - 
Bowels 


- dinga. 


Hungry 


- kubeeri. 


Excrement - 


. 


Thirsty 


- boonyun. 


War-spear - 


- tchingoor 


Eat - 


- tudlaar. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- yoonmaar. 


Throwing-stick 


- 


Drink - 


- towaar. 


Shield 


- bringabunga. 


Walk - 


- yudni. 


Tomahawk - 


- meerangun. 


See - 


- ngaigga. 


Canoe - 


- oobum. 


Sit - 


- ylnnaar. 


Sun - 


- boodlooar. 


Yesterday - 


- woaraboo. 


Moon - 


- killen. 


To-day 


- woondjer. 


Star - 


- meenun. 


To-morrow - 


- koondjakaboo. 


Light - 


- boodjoora. 


Where are the 




Dark - 


- kuppee. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- wareng. 


I don't know 


- gooar natchoo 


Heat - 


- oolbillee. 




kunee bumba. 


Day - - 


- boodloongun. 


Plenty 


- munyal. 


Night - - 


- kuppee. 


Big - - 


- gooraba 


Fire - 


- dargee. 


Little - 


- ngumbaar. 


Water 


- kuppeng. 


Dead - 


- kuTiTieer. 


Smoke 


- djoonbar. 


By-and-by - 


- moota. 


Ground 


- boobeerun. 


Come on 


- buggaar. 


Wind - 


- 


Milk - 


- umboonbin. 


Rain - 


- punna. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- oopar. 



230 THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 

In this language, the Goowar, we find maree= kangaroo 
and mugee=^ Blackfelloni, both words probably corruptions 
of murri; also ngahhon (ngaboon ?') =^mother one of the 
many variations we meet of the word amoo or ammoo, cir- 
cumstances to which attention has already been directed 
more than once. For head and hair there is likewise but 
one equivalent, another common Australian feature. The 
negative adverb in this case is the name of the language 
and not of the tribe. 



BETWEEN THE ALBERT AND TWEED RIVERS. 231 



No. 171.— BETWEEN THE ALBERT AND TWEED 

EIVERS. 

By T. de M. M. Pbiok, Esq., W. Landsbobough, Esq., W. G. White, 
Esq., and J. O'Connoe, Esq. 

The vocabularies attached are from the closely-related dia- 
lects spoken by the tribes whose country extends from the 
Albert River nearly to the Tweed. From the replies to my 
questions given by Mr. Landsborough I learn that small-pox 
kiUed off a large portion of these tribes, both prior to the 
appearance of the Whites in this part of the continent and 
subsequently. Children, as in all other cases which have 
come to my knowledge, belong to the tribe of the father. 
Girls have the little finger of the left hand cut off in infancy. 
The equivalent of the Blacks, meebin, means Eaglehawk. 
To drink is rendered eat mater. 



232 



THE AUSTRALLIN RACE: 



No. 17L-BBTWEBN THE ALBERT AND TWEED RIVERS. 

By T. de M. M. Pkioe, Esq. 

In this vocabulary, fire,, wood, and camp are all rendered, and I have no 
doubt correctly, by the word wyba/ra. 



Kangaroo - 


munni. 


Hand - 


tungan. 


Opossum 


noun. 


2 Blacks - 


bulabe mibiu. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


moggum. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 


yabaro mibin 


Black duck - 


mar. 


Two - 


bulabe. 


Wood duck 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 


combawir. 

tangara. 

gagou. 


Three - 
Pour - 
Father 


yabaro. 
biol. 


White cockatoo 


gara. 


Mother 


wardon, 


Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - - 


columbrun and 

colgrow. 
morgoutche, 

pigaraqin. 
unga, cobin. 


Sister-Elder 
, , Younger 

Brother-Elder - 
,, Younger 


manou. 
cagou. 


Track of a foot - 


goulgan. 


A young man 


- gibara. 


Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


mondura. 


An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 


- gidou. 
merougan. 
yourangan. 


Fly ■ 


tumbara. 


A White man 


- carabie. 


Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 


woralba. 
mibin, bigall. 
mibin. 


Children 
Head - 


- didum. 

- borow. 


A Black woman - 


dugalgan. 


Eye - 


- me. 


Nose - 


raoran. 


Ear - 


- binum. 



BETWEEN THE ALBERT AND TWEED RIVERS. 



233 



No. 171. — Between the AriHERi 


AND Tweed 'Rivbus— continued. 


Mouth 


- jarbe. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- gidun. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- oondur. 


Wood - 


- wybara. 


Beard - 


- yaran. 


Stone - 


- dao. 


Thunder - 
Grass 


- inigobal, dugal. 

- yethung. 


Camp - 


- wybara. 


Tongue 


- doroum. 


Yes - 


- ewewy. 


Stomach 


- moun. 


No - 


- wona. 


Breasts 


- ama. 


I 




Thigh ■ 


- doroo. 


You - 


- walo. 


Foot - 


- chinang. 


Bark - 


- barou. 


Bone - 


- 


Good - 




Blood - 


- goonar. 


Bad - - 




Skin - 


- youra. 


Sweet - 


- bagal. 


Fat - 


- codgaro. 


Food - 


- tala. 


Bowels 
Excrement - 


- gidgura. 

- toroo. 


Hungry 


- cobry. 


War-spear - 


- duan. 


Thirsty 


- boricout. 


Reed-spear - 


- (not used). 


Eat - 


- tala. 


Womjnera or 


(not used). 


Sleep - 


- moram. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- 


Shield 


- buga. 


Walk - 


- yamba. 


Tomahawk - 


- bundan. 


See - 


■ uani. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- yangalla. 


Sun - 


- yalgan. 


Yesterday - 


- moko. 


Moon - 


- gibou. 


To-day 


- baiad 


Star - 


- ombrun. 


To-morrow - 


- mobo. 


Light - 


- burrabil. 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- alo. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 
Heat - 


• waring. 
- bou. 


I don't know 


- yagam canaba 


Day - 


- manga. 


Plenty 


- caral. 


Night - - 


- youan. 


Big - - 


- 


Fire - 


- wybara. 


Little - 


- bigaut. 


Water 


- yong. 


Dead - 


- 


Smoke 


- doum. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- dagom. 


Come on 


- guai. 


Wind- 


- borugin. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- gwom. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


, 



234 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE ; 



No. 17L— BETWEEN THE ALBERT AND TWEED RIVERS. 



FOEWABDED BY W. LaNDSBOEOTJGH, EsQ. 

CONJOINTLY. 



AND W. G. White, 



Kangaroo - 


munni. 


Hand - 


- tongan. 


Opossum 


quini. 


2 Blacks - 


- budla meebin. 


Tame dog - 


nogum. 


3 Blacks - 


- budla yabberoo 


Wild dog - 


urugin. 




meebin. 


Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 


mara. 


One - 
Two - 
Three - 


- yabberoo. 

- budla. 

- budla yabberoo. 


Laughing jackass kaagoon. 
Native companion murlrule. 
White cockatoo - kirra. 


Four - 
Father 
Mother 


- peeung. 

- wadjung. 


Crow - 


waughan. 


Sister-Elder 


- nanang. 


Swan - 


duUa. 


,, Yoimger 


- yeragoong. 


Egg ■ - - 


kongan. 


Brother-Elder 


- kogung. 


Track of a foot 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - - - 


chirrada. 
challoom. 

mendura. 
toonburri. 


,, Younger bunang. 
A young man - keeburra. 
An old man - keejom. 
An old woman - marungan. 
A baby - - jargum. 


Snake - 


derin. 


A White man 


- daggie. 


The Blacks - 


ohinaba. 


Children - 


- mooyum. 


A Blackfellow - 


meebin. 


Head - 


- boweroo. 


A Black woman - 


chalgun. 


Eye - 


- mee. 


Nose - 


murru. 


Ear - 


- binnang. 



BETWEEN THE ALBERT AND TWEED RIVERS. 



235 



No. 171. — Between the Albert and Tweed Rtvees — continued. 



Mouth 


- chang. 


Boomerang ■ 


■ burragan. 


Teeth - 


- titang. 


Hill - 


- toolagal. 


Hair of the heac 


- buraugh. 


Wood - 


- challe. 


Beard - 


- yireen. 


Stone - 


- bunding. 


Thunder - 


- moogarra. 


Camp - 


- teemun. 


Grass - 
Tongue 


- yeechang. 

- tirrajong. 


Yes - 


- yo. 


Stomach 


- moo. 


No 


- ugum. 


Breasts 


- namma. 


I 


- nunyee. 


Thigh - 


- cherang. 


You - 


- wallo. 


Foot - 


- chiimang. 


Bark - 


- koonjool. 


Bone - 


- durrigan. 


Good - - 


- bunyarra. 


Blood - 


- koomera. 


Bad - 


- chang. 


Skin - - 


- nullm. 


Sweet - 


- bunyarra. 


Fat - 


- kadjeroo. 


Food .- 


_ 


Bowels 


- giddirra. 


Hungry 


- koobberi. 


Excrement - 


- goonang. 


Thirsty 


- naywin. 


War-spear - 


- toowan. 


Eat - 


- challalla. 


Reed-spear - 


- (none used). 






Throwing- stick 


- jabberee. 


Sleep - 


- woorwan. 


Shield 


- kootan. 


Drink 


- challalla koong. 


Tomahawk - 


- pondan. 


Walk - 


- yingalla. 


Canoe - 


- koondool. 


See - 


- ni-in. 


Sun - 


- yangay. 


Sit - 


- 


Moon - 


- keebom. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Star - 


- qweeunggung. 


To-day 


- byein. 


Light - 


- qangay. 


To-morrow 


- nooboo. 


Dark - 


- nandiddi. 


Where are 


the yellameebin? 


Cold - 


- warring. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- noong. 


I don't know 


- yoogum niga. 


Day - 


- yungai. 


Plenty 


- kurrul. 


Night - 


- nandiddi. 


Big - - 


- kum. 


Fire - 


- wyebra. 


Little - 


- peechangguUan 


Water 


- koong. 


Dead - 


- koorooboo. 


Smoke 


- choim. 


By-and-by • 


- yoojang. 


Ground 


- chagoon. 


Come on 


- quowee. 


Wind- 


- yirragay. 


Milk - 


- 


Raln - 


- quang. 


Eaglehawk - 


- meebun. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- waagoon. 


Ghosts 


- maugooi. 


Wife - 


- neebungan. 



236 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 171.— BETWEEN THE ALBERT AND TWEED RIVERS. 



By J. O'Connor, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


money. 


Hand - 


- kungal. 


Opossum 


newung. 


2 Blacks - 


- boolaroo bigul. 


Tame dog - 


nugem. 


3 Blacks - 


- boolaroo yaburu 


Wild dog - 


yeroging. 




bigul. 


Emu - 


wooring. 


One - 


- yaburu. 


Black duck - 


mara. 










Two - 


- boolaroo. 


Wood duck- 


cumbabin. 






Pelican 


juugara. 


Three - 


- boolaroo yaburu 


Laughing jackass 


kagorim. 


Four or more 


- gurul. 


Native companion dumbel. 


Father 


- beung. 


White cockatoo 


kaira. 


Mother 


- weathung. 


Crow - 


waagun. 


Sister-Elder 


- nanang. 


Swan - 


- dute. 


,, Younger 


- yeargong. 


Egg - - 


- kabun. 


Brother-Elder 


- kagoon. 


Track of a foot 


- goolgun. 


„ Younger bunam. 


Fish - 


■ (no general term). 






Lobster 


- (not known). 


A young man 


- jebur. 


Crayfish 


- galoom. 


An old man 


- kedjum. 


Mosquito - 


- munjur. 


An old woman 


- merroongun. 


Ply - - 


- djunburra. 


A baby 


- tchadum. 


Snake - 


- dunnara. 


A White man 


- tugi. 


The Blacks - 


- mebing. 


Children 


- tchadum. 


A Blackfellow 


- bigul. 


Head - 


- bowro. 


A Black woman 




Eye - 


- me. 


Nose - 


- murro. 


Ear - 


- benung. 



BETWEEN THE ALBERT AND TWEED RIVERS. 



237 



No. 171.— B 


ETWEEN THE AlBEBI 


AND Tweed Rtvsbs— continued. 


Mouth 


- jaim. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- derung. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- goendiim. 


Wood - 


- taUe. 


Beard - 


- yarund. 


Stone - 


- yeron. 


Thunder - 


- maigwel. 


Camp - 


- y-bur-a (lit. = 


Grass - 


- eedung. 




fire). 


Tongue 


- djergung. 


Yes - 


- yo. 


Stomach 


- djulba. 


No - 


- yaoum. 


Breasts 


- dumerogun. 


I 


- nio. 


Thigh - 


- taryung. 


You - 


- waaloo. 


Foot - 


- tchemmg. 


Bark - 


- burwool. 


Bone - 


- taregun. 


Good - 


- bowgal. 


Blood - - 


- goomera. 


Bad - 


- tohung. 


Skin - 


- ulun. 


Sweet - 


- bowgul. 


Fat - 


- kudgera. 


Food - 


- nungun. 


Bowels 


- bulen. 


Hungry 


- cobbere. 


Excrement - 


- goonung. 


Thirsty 


- coonge. 


War-spear - 


- joan. 


Eat - 


- tchabbe. 


Reed-spear - 


■ (not known). 






Wommera or 




Sleep - 


- nora,Tn. 


throwing-stiok 




Drink - 


- coontchabbe. 


Shield 


- buga. 


Walk - 


- yanbe. 


Tomahawk - 


- bundan. 


See - 


- narbe. 


Canoe - 


- gundool. 


Sit - 


- yaanbe. 


Sun - 


- yalgun. 


Yesterday - 


- wooboo. 


Moon - 


- gireum. 


To-day 


- burang. 


Star - 


- kuroomgun. 


To-morrow - 


- wooboo. 


Light of day 
„ fire 


- burbil. 

- tchalgi. 


Where are the 
Blacks ' 


yillim mebing ? 


Dark - 


- nuUu. 


•AJi^A/X^J^ty • 




Cold - - 


- waring. 


I don't know 


- yeleyou. 


Heat - 


- numgul. 


Plenty 


- gurul. 


Day - 


- numagera. 


Big - 


- cuml. 


Night - 


- woolaroon. 


Little - 


- bitcha-gul-ung. 


Fire - 


- y-bur-a. 


Dead - 


- gilvmgwend. 


Water 


- coon. 


By-and-by - 


- uyou. 


Smoke 


- djum. 


Come on 


- gooway. 


Ground 


- igoon. 


Milk - 




Wind- 
Raiu - 


- yarga. 

- goo-ong. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - - 


. 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 





238 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



In addition to his vocabulary, Mr. O'Connor sends me 
the following tenses of verbs, from the language of the 
Ipswich tribe, which I do not think are perfectly correct : — 





To Run. 






PRESENT INDICATIVE. 




I run - 


- nio gowralla. 


We run 


- nule gowrea. 


Thou ruTinest 


- 


You run 


- waaloo gowrai. 


He runs 


- gille gowrin. 


They run - 


- kaam gowxio. 




PERFECT TENSE. 




I ran - 


- nio gowrin. 


We ran 


- nule gowrin. 


Thou rannest 




You ran 


- waaloo gowriu. 


He ran 


- gille gowrin. 


They ran - 


- kaam gowriu. 




FUTURE TENSE. 




I will run - 


- gowraila nio. 


We will run 


- nuleboo gowrea. 


Thou wilt run 




You will run 


- waaloo nure gow- 
rai. 


He will run 


- gille nure gow- 


They will run 


- kaam nure gow- 




rai. ' 


rai. 




IMPERATIVE MOOD. 




Run - 


- gowrai. 


Let us run - 


- nuline gowraima. 


Let him run 


- gilane gowraima. 


Let them run 


- kaam gowraima 





To Go. 






PEBSENl 


' TENSE. 




Igo - 


- galong nio yan- 


They go - 


kaam jangooroo 




gala. 




yangala. 




You and I go 


nule waaboo 


Thou goest - 


- 




yanbe 


He goes 


- gille wangoor 


Georgy and I go 


nule boolung 




yanna. 




Georgi yangalla. 






Georgy and Billy boolagum jan- 


We go 


- nule yango. 


go 


gooroo yangalla 


You go 


- neremum yanna, 




Georgi Billi, 



BETWEEN THE ALBERT AND TWEED RIVERS. 



239 



To Go — continued. 



PEEFECT TENSE. 



I went 
Thou wentest 

He went 

We went ■ 
You went - 

I will go 

Thou wilt go 

He will go ■ 
We will go ■ 
You will go 

Let me go - 

Go thou 
Let him go 
Let us go - 



mo yaane. 

gala waaboo yea- 
nee. 

gille wangoor 
yaane. 

nule yaane. 

waaloo yaane. 

FUTURE 

nio warnwe yan- 

galla. 
waaboo mire 

yaane. 
gUle yanbe. 
nula nure yanbe. 
■ guremung yanbe 



They went - - kaam wangoor 

yaane. 
You and I went - nule waaboo 

yaane. 
Georgy and I went nule boolung 

yeanee Georgi. 

Georgy and Billy boolagum jan- 
went gooroo yeamee 

Georgi Billi. 

TENSE. 

They will go -kaam jungooroo 

yangin. 
You and I will go nule waaboo nure 

yanbe. 

Georgy and I will nuleboolungnure 

go Georgi yangaba. 

Georgy and Billy gille jangooroo 

will go yangala booba- 

jun Georgi BUli. 



IMPERATIYB. 



guUum nio yan- 
gen. 

waaloo yaana. 

gulum yangen. 

gulum nule boo- 
lung yangen. 



Let Georgy and gulum nule boo- 



me go 
Go you two 
Let them go 



lung Georgi yan- 
gen. 

- boolagum gulum 

yaana. 

- gulum kaam yan- 

beenma. 



I see - 
Thou seest 
He sees 
We see 
You see 



I will see - 
Thou wilt see 
He will see 
We will see 
You will see 



nio nanee. 
waaloo nanee. 
gille nanee, 
nule nanee. 
nuremung gundu 
nanee. 



To See. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

They see - - kaamboo nanee. 
You and I see - nule waaboo 

nanee. 
Georgy and I see- nule Georgi 

nanee. 
Georgy and Billy Billi boolagundoo 
see nanee Georgi 



PUTUEB. 



nio woolong nabe. 
waaboo nabe. 
gille nabe. 
nule nabe. 
naremung gandu 
nurewa. 



They will see - gala yonngwe 

nanee. 
You and I will nule waaboo nure 

see woolong nabe, 

Georgy and I will Georgi nule nabe, 

see 
Georgy and Billy Georgi Billi boo- 

will see lagundoo nanee. 



240 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 172.— NERANG CREEK. 
By F. Fowler, Esq. 

Feom this neighbourhood a second vocabulary, which I have 
not thought it necessary to insert, was kindly forwarded to 
me by F. Nixon, Esq. Mr. Fowler gives the following 
Additional "Words. The words canoe and bark may be com- 
pared. The canoe is a sheet of bark, shaped in a particular 
way: — 



Fresh-water 


tcherun. 


Iguana 


- yowgerer. 


Salt-water - 


yeengeree. 


Wood grub - 


- tabbun. 


Mud - 


tuUung. 


Oysters 


- moongul. 


Corroboree - 


arri. 


Mussel 


- piggara. 


Long - 


yerribil. 


River - 


- boUun. 


Swimming - 


wy-woni. 


Creek - 


- kuraby. 


Honey 


kudja. 


Flood tide - 


- yangi. 


Fishing net - 


irribun. 


Ebb tide - 


- koongajurar. 




No. 172.— NEI 


lANG CREEK. 






By F. Fo-v 


rLEE, Esq. 




Kangaroo - 


groman. 


Hand - 


- tungun. 


Opossum 


gueyan. 


2 Blacks - 


- boolara mibbin. 


Tame dog - 


nogum. 


3 Blacks - 


- boolraybara mib 


Wild dog - 


uragin. 




bin. 


Emu - 


ooroon. 


One - 


- yabroo. 


Black duck - 


marra. 


Two - 


- boolara. 


Wood duok- 








Pelican 


• tchungarry. 


Three - 


- boolrayabra. 


Laughing jackass 
Native companion 


- kagoon. 
moorlmum. 


Four - 
Father 


- boola-boola. 

- beeyung. 


White cockatoo 


kaara. 


Mother 


- wyung. 


Crow - 


waguu. 


Sister-Elder 


- nunong. 


Swan - 


kimgroo. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


cobyoon. 


Brother-Elder 


- punnam. 


Track of a foot 


churria. 


„ Younger 


Fish - - 


tulum. 


A young man 


- murrowgwun. 


Lobster 


mooban. 


An old man 


- kidgum. 


Crayfish 


moolan. 


An old woman 


- mirrigwun. 


Mosquito - 
Fly - 
Snake - 


moongero. 
wogan. 


A baby 

A White man 


- charchum. 

- duokering. 


The Blacks - 


mibbin. 


Children - 


- charchum. 


A Blackf ellow - 


bagal. 


Head - 


- kungrer. 


A Black woman ■ 


chalgan. 


Eye - 


- mee. 


Nose 


mooroo. 


Ear - 


- binnung. 



NERANG CREEK. 



241 



No. 172.— Nerang Cr^^k— continued. 



Mouth 


- tumbroo. 


Teeth - 


- dirrung. 


Hair of the head 


- poweroo. 


Beard - 


- yerrin. 


Thunder - 


- moogerer. 


Grass - 


- ejung. 


Tongue 


- yebbin. 


Stomach 


- moong. 


Breasts 


- umma. 


Thigh - 


- murrung. 


Foot - 


- tchinnong. 


Bone - 


- terragun. 


Blood - 


- pudgel. 


Skin - 


- ulan. 


Fat - 


- wadgery. 


Bowels 


- muggi. 


Excrement - 


- goonnong. 


War-spear - 


- pelarra. 


Reed-spear - 




Wommera or 


purragun. 


throwing-stick 




Shield 


- bugga. 


Tomahawk - 


- bundan. 


Canoe ■ 


- condool. 


Sun - 


- nunga. 


Moon - 


- kebum. 


Star - 


- koomungun 


Light - 


- taham. 


Dark - 


- underra. 


Cold - 


- warring. 


Heat - 


- hoon. 


Day - 


- uunga. 


Night - 


- underra. 


Fire - 


- wyburry. 


Water 


- coong. 


Smoke 


■ tuUo. 


Groimd 


- chuokoon. 


Wind- 


- burrigin. 


Rain - 


- quong. 


God . . 


. 


Ghosts 


- 


VOL. III. 





Boomerang - 


- 


Hill - 




Wood - 


- tchally. 


Stone - 


- pundan. 


Camp - 


- dimmun. 


Yes - 


- yoe. 


No - 


- guoum. 


I 


- io. 


You - 


- warlo. 


Bark - 


- condool. 


Good - 


- punyarra. 


Bad - 


- chung. 


Sweet - 


- puragun. 


Food - 


- chungool. 


Hungry 


- cobery. 


Thirsty 


- neragin. 


Eat - 


- tehar. 


Sleep - 


. woorum. 


Drink - 


- tchienda. 


Walk - 


- yunbela. 


See - 


- nyenda. 


Sit - 


- yanna. 


Yesterday - 


- obo. 


To-day 


- baan. 


To-morrow - 


- obo. 


Where are the 


illy mibbiu ? 


Blacks ? 




I don't know 


- cunitchum. 


Plenty 


- commijung. 


Big - - 


- comi. 


Little - 


- bijungalung 


Dead - 


- tarbillyan. 


By-and-by - 


- goobangnng. 


Come on 


- woomgunna. 


Milk - - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - 





242 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



No. 173.— TWEED RIVEE AND POINT DANGAR. 

By Joshua Brat, Esq. 

Me. Bray, from whom I received my information concerning 
the language of the Tweed River tribe (which differs but 
little in its vocabulary from No. 1 72), points out that there 
is but one word to denote the children of a man's brother 
and those of his sister. He also remarks that there is but 
one word — roohho — to express to-morrow, the day after to- 
morrow, and yesterday ; and also but one word — chung — to 
express had, old, and thin; neither of which statements 
have I any difficulty in believing. He also notices that if 
you say to a Black — ille mebin =: where are the Blacks ? 
his reply, if he does not know, will not be Ingha = I don't 
know, but ille ? = where ? laying the accent on the last 
letter instead of the first. 



No. 173.- 

How many? 
A great many 

A few - 
What? 
Where ? 
There - 
Here - 
I don't know 
Take care ! - 
Exclamation of 

surprise 
I am going now 
Let US go home 
Pretty 

The other one 
You scoundrel 



■Additionai, Words and Phrases, by Mb. Bkay. 
To strike - - boomar. 
To give a beating boomarnee. 
Early in the mom- woodgeraboo. 
ing 

To arrive - - worrigin. 
Anumberof Blacks karalboo mebbin 



minyungboo ? 
kurralboo or 
kommiboo. 
pidjung boo 
minyung ? 
ille? 
kille. 
kulle. 



- wa ! 
kraigh! 

- yauba-la-la. 

- yan-ba-lan-je. 

- pa-na-ra-gun. 

- kibey. 

- yuncum midgeu. 



are coming 
Get up (from 

sleeping) 
Crooked 
Straight 
A long way - 
,, road 
Deep water - 



worngm. 



- kur-rone. 

- bombi. 

- kiole. 

- kiole kooligun. 
-"kiol4 kooflg. 



Stick for propel-' tubulgun' 
ling canoe 



TWEED RIVER AND POINT DANGAR. 



243 



No. 173.— Additional Wokds and Phrases— coniinwec^. 



Forest - 


bubbera. 


Moustache - 


- yerrin. 


Scrub vines - 


woggi. 


Arm - 


- kUngill. 


Daylight ■ 


woodgera. 


Elbow 


- koorin. 


Getupat daylight boogagee wood- 


Finger 


- tungan. 


to-morrow 


geraboo woebbo. 


Rib - 


- tunnera. 


A clear sky oi 


• billubera. 


Heart - 


- toolgo. 


fine day 




Knee - 


- kindil. 


In front 


ullong. 


Kidney 


- moongora. 


Look out ahead ! 


- nione ullong! 


Chest - 


- toomooragan. 


A dead woman 


- tarragan. 


Leg - 


- (no word for the 


,, man 


- tukki. 




whole limb). 


Directly 


- wooloongmi. 


Face - 


- noogal. 


Hip - 


- wen. 


Whisker 


- (the same as beard 


Thigh - 


- terrung. 




and moustache). 


Knee - 


- kindili. 


A plain 


- coonoongi. 


Ankle - 


- wooloo. 


Tree - 


- tally. 


Heel - 


- toSnum. 


Leaf - 


- woorang. 


Toes - 


- bribin. 


Yam - 


- turn. 


My son 


- myone. 


Mud - 


- tuUugara. 


Handsome woman ptSnaragun. 


Flower 


- budgerabin. 


,, man 


- barloogan. 


Pine-tree - 


- pimbul. 


Break of day 


- deelby. 


Sandhill - 


- kooigum. 


Bkd - 


- noongunbel. 


Lagoon 


- kowung. 


BiU - - 


- chaung. 


Ashes - 


- boolare. 


Wing - 


- kunggil. 


Gum - 


- neeum. 


Feather 


- biom-biom. 


Waterhole - 


- kiawang. 


Hill - - 


- biole. 


Eaglehawk - 


- meebun. 


Sky - - 


- billubera. 


Parrot 


- billen-billen. 


Sand - 


- yerrung. 


Pigeon 


- woo-loo-loo-in. 


Cloud - 


- toongoon. 


Nest - 


- chindee. 


Lightning 


- chungun. 


To tell 


- kaar. 


Grave - 


- toanee chock- 


,. give 


- woolangee. 




nnda. 


„ speak - 


- mo-ai. 


Tired - 


- carulen. 


„ hear 


- cunnarangee. 


Long - 


- coorara. 


,, steal 


- weora. 


Short - 


- mul-gul-long. 


„ fight - 


- boomalengee. 


Alive - 


- mun-me-ra-boo. 


„ kill - 


- toolang. 


Husband - 


- newbung. 


„ die 


- tuck-ki-an. 


Wife - 


- newbungun. 


.. sing 


- yerrabil. 


Body - 


- mooung. 


„ bum 


- quebuUen. 


Back - 


- mooborough. 


„ break 


- cowin. 



Q2 



244 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 173. — Additional Words and Phrases — continued. 



Who is that Black ? - 

I don't know - - - 

I cannot see his face - 

Do you see that one (woman) ? - 

I saw (her) yesterday 

She (has a) pretty (face) - 

(That) old woman (is) ugly 

By-aud-by plenty Blacks will come 

I see them now 

Where? 

A good way off - 

(On the) plain - - - - 

A great many - - - - 

Do you see that one ? - - 

Long ago he speared me in the back 

I will kill him to-morrow - 

I see a kangaroo 

There (he is) - 

(Be) quiet - - . - - 

Don't speak 

I'll spear him by-and-by - 
He's coming to water 
He's going to eat 
I believe he is fat - 
No (I believe) thin 
Now I'll spear him - 
All right ; now he's dead - 

He's fat 

Come on, make a fire 

(There is) no wood - 

Well ! carry him to the trees - 

I'm hungry .... 

Let us eat him .... 

I'll eat him directly - 

Where (are the) Blacks ? - 

I don't know - - . . 

Nonsense ; why do you tell a lie ? 

How many (are there) ? 

Plenty 

Which Blacks ? - - - - 



- killingang ? (mibbin understood). 

- ang kille (lit. = " Who there?") 

- hebro narbidgum. 

- warlo nionee killarney. 

- nio nionee wobbo. 

- kille punnarregan. 

- merrung chung-chung. 

- wooloongmi womgin mebbinkommi. 

- kille nione nio (lit. = There see I). 

- iUe? 

- kiole. 

- coonoongi. 

- karalboo. 

- warlo nionee killarney ? 

- wiaraboo moobera pow-wun-nee. 

- nio pumgarlo wobbo. 

- nione nio kroman. 

- kille. 

- kingle. 

- kingle moimuUium. 

- nio puggarlo kooba. 

- koongga nulla walarla. 

- tabbigo. 

- kille wudgera (lit. = There fat). 

- ucoum chung. 

- how nio powgun. 

- koorooboo ; bungen. 

- wudgerago. 

- qui wibrama. 

- ucumboo wibra. 

- warra wibra chumbar. 

- nio kobberen. 

- nubbe tubbela. 

- wooloongmi talala. 

- ille mebbin ? 

- ill6? (lit. = Where?) 

- warlo andrangeen minarago? or 

warlo andra muUen ? 

- minyungboo ? 

- karalboo. 

- ang kille mebbin ? 



TWEED EIVER AND POINT DANGAR. 245 

No. 173. — Additional Woeds and Phrases — continued. 

What (do) they eat ? - - - - minyung kille talala ? 

What woman is that ? - - - ang kille chulgun (which that 

woman) ? 
Has Tommy a wife now ? - - - ehulgun noroe Tommy ? 

Yes ! yoe ! 

Who gave her to him ? - - - amdo woolane ? 

Is she a young woman ? - - - kille woolbung ? 

No! old woman! . . - - uocum ! murrungin ! 

When will the Blacks come here ? - wingeegun mibbin worngun ? 

In three days .*---- bulla yabra nunga. 

Where is your wife ? - - - - lUe biargun chulgun ? 

Coming to-morrow . . - - womgin woebo. 

Have you seen my wife? - - - warlo nionee chulgun unyar ? 

Yes !-.----- yoe ! 

Where? - - - - - - ille? 

On the plain - - - . - kUle coo-noong-gi (lit. = There plain). 
What's she doing? - - - - minyung elala ? 

I believe getting yams - - - whear wunye nuUawalala. 
Come, make the camp . - - kowar quinmar demmon. 
It wUl rain by-and-by - - - quong wooloongmi. 
Where are all the women ? - - ille boo chulgun. 
Fishing ------ tallum bar. 

One woman is at camp - - - tabra-ba chul-gun dem-mon da. 

Two women are at my house - - bulla kar-gan chu-ar. 

Where is Tommy ? . - - - ille Tommy. 

I have not seen him to-day - - ucum nio-nio-nee biarn. 

I am hungry ----- kobbi-dy en nio 

Give me some food - - - - nio-nung-en mug-gar. 

Here it is - - - - - - kuUen-ya. 

Come and fish ----- kowar tallum narl-lee. 

No, let us hunt opossum - - - ucum tallum-quam narUee. 
By-and-by I will eat opossum - - wooloongmi nio chien quam. 
Opossum is no good - - - - quam chung. 

Fish is the best ----- tallum nuUe pun-ya-ra. ■ 

Come and swim - - - - kowar kia jun. 

Go away — ^be off - - - - yunga. 

Where are you going ? - - - winge-go warlo ? 

I will go too ----- nio nur-ra yan-ba-la-la. 

Are you tired ? - - - - - warlo kur-rool ? 

Yes, I am very tired - - - - yoe-pun-ya pun-ya-ra kur-rool. 

Well ! go to sleep - . - - nubbe unera. 



246 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No, 173. — Additional 

By-and-by I'll sleep - 

Where is my husband ? 

You will see him by-and-by 

I see two women 

Where is my spear? - 

I have not seen your spear 

Give me one spear 

Give me two spears - 

Come and see my canoe - 

Don't talk . . . . 

I do not know - - - ■ 



WoEDS AND Pheases — continued. 

- koobanio una-ran-gee. 

- ille un-ya new-bung ? 

- warlo kooba nam kooba. 

- nio nionee bul-la chulgun. 

- ille unyar chu-un? 

- ucum nio nar-bid-jum. 

- ni-ai yabra chu-un. 

- niai bulla chu-un. 

- ko-ga-na unyar kun-dole. 

- kingle moi-mul-li-um. 

- ing-he. 



No. 173.— TWEED RIVER AND POINT DANGAR, 



Kangaroo - 


kroman. 


Hand - 


tungun. 


Opossum 


quam. 


2 Blacks 


bulla mibbin. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duok- 
Pelican 


noggxrn. 

marra. 
chungera. 


3 Blacks 

One - 
Two - 
Three - 


bulla yabhrumib 
bin. 
yabbru. 
- bulla, 
bulla yabbru. 


Laughing jackass 


kargoon. 


Four - 


■ bulla buUa. 


Native companion 


woorgilie. 


Pather 


- beung. 


White cockatoo - 


karra. 


Mother 


- wudjung. 


Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - - - 
Track of a foot • 
Pish - 


wargun. 

tooley. 

kubbin. 

kulligau^. 

tallum. 


Sister-Elder 
,, Younger 

Brother-Elder 
,, Younger 


nunung. 
- punnam. 


Lobster 




A young man 


- kabera. 


Orayflsh 


ninge-ninge. 


An old man- 


- kudjune. 


Mosquito • 


munjura. 


An old woman 


- murrungin. 


Ply - - ■ 


chun, borough. 


A baby 


- yargarie. 


Snake - 
The Blacks 
A Blackfellow 


dirrin. 
mibbln. 
yabbru mibbin. 


A White man 
Children 


- tuckki. 

- ohargum. 


A Black woman 


woolbung, chul- 


Head - 


- knngera. 




gun. 


Eye - 


- me. 


Nose - 


morro. 


Ear - 


- pinnuno;. 



TWEED RIVER AND POINT DANGAR. 



247 



No. 173. 


— Tweed River and Point Dangae— 


-continued. 


Mouth 


- jemg. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- tirrung 


Hill - 


- biola. 


Hair of the head 


- bowra. 


Wood - 


- talley, wibra. 


Beard - 


- yarran. 


Stone - 


boodin. 


Thunder - 

Graas - 


- muggera. 

- ejung. 


Camp - 


- demmon. 


Tongue 


- tellin. 


Yes - 


- yo, earn. 


Stomach 


- moong. 


No - 


- ukum. 


Breasts 


- umma. 


I 


- ngio. 


Thigh - 


- jucung oj-terrung 


You - 


- warlo. 


Foot - 


- chinnung. 


Bark - 


- yoolLn (lit. skin) 


Bone - 


- turragun. 


Good - 


- punyara. 


Blood ■ 


- budjul. 


Bad - 


- chung. 


Skin - 


- yooliu. 


Sweet - 


- burrakun. 


Fat - 


- wudgeree. 


Food - 


- polora. 


Bowels 


- mokki. 


Hungry 


- kobbity. 


Excrement - 


- koouung. 


Thirsty 


- nirigin. 


War-spear - 


- jume. 


Eat - 


- talala. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- woram. 


Wommera or 


murumbin. 


Drink - 


- tchoar. 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- yanbar. 


Shield 


- buggar. 


See 


- narlala. 


Tomahawk - 


- bundau. 






Canoe 


- cundool. 


Sit - 


- yanna. 


Sun - 


- nunga. 


Yesterday - 


- wobbo (?). 


Moon - 


- gibbun. 


To-day 


- bam. 


Star - 


- kiomegun. 


To-morrow - 


- wobbo (?). 


Light - 


- darm. 


Where are the 


ille mibbin ? 


Dark - 


- untidy. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- wurring. 


I don't know 


- ille (?). 


Heat - 


- nunggalgary. 


Plenty 


- karalboo. 


Day - 


- nunga. 


Big - 


- kommi. 


Night - 


- untidy. 


Little - 


- pidjung. 


Fire - 


- wibra. 






Water 


- koong. 


Dead - 


- boo-ong. 


Smoke 


- daUo. 


By-and-by - 


- wooloongmi. 


Ground 


- chockun. 


Come on 


- qui. 


Wind - 


- buroogin. 


Milk - 


- umarbil. 


Rain - 


- quong or koong. 


Eaglehawk - 


- meebun. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- muggi. 


Wife - 


- newbuugun. 



BOOK THE THIRTEENTH. 



BOOK THE THIRTEENTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

In connection with this book, the points which seem most 

worthy of remark are, that in the Additional Words No. 178 

we meet with distinct terms for right hand and left hand, 

which may or may not exist in the other languages. In No. 

177, also, we find war-spear and tree reported by two of my 

correspondents as being translated by one term. As tree is 

not in the Common Yocabulary, but only met with here and 

there in the Additional Words, there is no means of deciding 

whether this is a common characteristic or not. In Mr. 

Myles' vocabulary, No. 176, we find the equivalents oi spear, 

mood, and stone bear some resemblance. Looking at the 

languages of Australia as a whole, there is reason to believe 

that formerly there was but one word to express stone, hone, 

wood, spear, tree, wAfire. Head and hair, it will be noticed, 

are several times expressed by one word, and yesterday and 

to-morrow by another. 



No. 174.— PART OF THE MARANOA RIVER, AND 
COUNTRY ROUND ROMA. 

By Robert Sheridan, Esq., and F. B. Bay, Esq. 

Of the languages of the Maranoa, about Roma, two specimens 
are given, which agree pretty well, but, no doubt, belong to 
different tribes. Two others were forwarded by Mr. Montagu 
Curr and Mr. J. T. Little, which I have not thought it neces- 
sary to insert. Mr. Sheridan remarks that a Black child 
having died on his run several months before the date of his 



252 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

letter, the corpse was rolled up in a blanket, and was still 
being carried from camp to camp by the parents. 

From Mr. Bay I learn that the Maranoa Blacks frequently 
live to be sixty or seventy years of age. They use opossum- 
rugs at night, and occasionally in the day time. The women 
wear as ornaments reed-necklaces and mussel-shells, which 
hang in front of the breasts. This tribe smear the person 
with a mixture of grease and red ochre on occasions of cor- 
roboree ; make bags of the fibre of the currajong ; and toma- 
hawks of a heavy green stone, which they grind to an edge on 
sandstone. They have also boomerangs, occasionally carved 
on one side, some of which return when thrown. The boom- 
erang used in battle is made so as not to return. Their spears 
are projected by hand. Animals are roasted in the ashes 
with the skin on, and what are called ovens in the South do 
not exist. Males between the ages of ten and twenty, or 
thereabouts, are forbidden to eat emu, kangaroo, and carpet 
snakes, and possibly other articles. Mr. Bay remembers to 
have seen, some eight years back, two Blacks pitted with 
small-pox, but whether they belonged to the tribes in question 
he does not say. He is of opinion that the Maranoa tribes 
were never cannibals. They marry in their own tribe ; some 
men have as many as four wives. Infanticide is not 
practised. In numerous instances, he says, " I have seen a 
middle-aged Black, with or without a wife, bring up a young 
girl, who became his wife when old enough." In what Mr. 
Bay says in connection with cannibalism and infanticide I am 
unable to concur. 

Pulmonary diseases are those which are most prevalent. 
The tribe scar the back, breast, and arms by way of orna- 
ment, and pierce the septum of the nose, but do not knock out 
any teeth. Kangaroo are surrounded and killed with clubs, 
and emu hunted with spears. Fish are taken with nets seven 
feet long and five deep, each end of which is supported by a 
Blackfellow swimming. Males are made into young men at 
about twenty years of age, with secret ceremonies, which no 
"White man has been allowed to witness. Mr. Bay says, in 



MARANOA RIVER, NEAR ROMA. 



253 



reply to my question as to wlietlier message-sticks are used 
by the tribe, that be has in his possession a reed-necMace 
attached to a piece of flat wood about five inches long ; that 
on the wood are carved straight and curved lines, and that 
this piece of wood was sent by one portion of the tribe to 
another by a messenger, the two parties being about 60 miles 
apart. The interpretation of the carving was, " My wife has 
been stolen; we shall have to fight — bring your spears and 
boomerangs." The straight lines, it was explained, meant 
spears, and the curved ones boomerangs ; but the stealing of 
the wife seems to have been left to the messenger to tell. 



No. 174 


—Additional Words, by R. Sheeidan, Esq. 


Box-tree 


malar. 


White 


oba. 


Gum-tree - 


dangon. 


Red - - - 


hotegothy. 


Pine-tree - 


bandle. 


To fight with 


oneymealgo. 


Currajong-tree 


nonga. 


clubs 




Bottle-tree - 


mindarle. 


To fight with 


bapeymealgo. 


Brigalow 


okoro. 


spears 




Old man kangaroo miibragulla. 


To keep 


yongobnongo. 


Kangaroo-rat 


bardy. 


„ give away 


ombalgo. 


WaUaby - 


wya. 


„ exchange 


ombimea. 


Bandicoot - 


weealla. 


,, run 


wakandie. 


Wombat - 


toyne. 


River - 


barroo. 


Red kangaroo 


- bowra. 


Sand ridge - 


urdera. 


Carpet snake 


- abol. 


Leaf - 


dalla. 


Curlew 


- oelbine. 


Cloud - 


youkine. 


Hawk - 


- oomon. 


Where are you 


intea inda mur 


Swallow 


boondoongean. 


going? 


dal? 


QuaU - 


boonjolgey. 


Where did you 


intea inda on 


Black - 


ooborogoobra. 


camp last night' 


dungo yamba ! 



254 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 


174.— MARANOA RIVER, NEAR ROMA. 


Kangaroo - 


- narracoo. 


Hand - 


- miirda 


Opossum 


- tangaroo, also 


2 Blacks - 


- buUardoo murdi. 




outher. 


3 Blacks - 


- bullardoo wongra 


Tame dog - 


- noora. 




murdi. 


"Wild dog - 


- wantie. 










One - 


- wongra. 


Emu - 


- moorine. 






Black duck - 


- beberoo. 


Two - 


- bullardoo. 


Wood duck 


- muneroo 


Three - 


- bullardoo 


Pelican 


- burunth. 




wongra. 


Laughing jackass akoongur. 


Pour - 


- bullardoo bullar- 


Native companion booroor. 




doo. 


White cockatoo 


thickery. 


Father 


- yaboda. 


Crow - 


- watha. 










Mother 


- yangi. 


Swan - 


- owerooreoan 








(long neck). 


Sister-Elder 


- baringUla. 


Egg - 


- aboyne. 


„ Younger 


- 


Track of a foot 


- bandil, teen- 


Brother-Elder 


- takongilla. 




doone. 


„ Younger 


Fish - 


- 00. 


A young man 


- owoola. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- jara. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


- boothan. 


An old woman 


- yangi jara. 


Fly - 


- ngemun. 


A baby 


- naryloo. 


Snake 


- munda. 


A White man 


- withoo. 


The Blacks - 


- murdindoo. 


Children - 


- andoono. 


A Blackfellow 


- murdi. 


Head - 


- dongo. 


A Black woman 


- amby. 


Eye - 


- diUy. 


Nose - 


- oh. 


Ear - 


- muna. 



MARANOA RIVER, NEAR ROMA. 



255 



No. 174.— Maranoa Rivee 


, NEAB Roma— 


-cmXmmd. 


Mouth 


da. 


Boomerang - 


- wungal. 


Teeth - 


yera. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


atha. 


Wood- 


- weraki. 


Beard - 


munga. 


Stone - 


- bangoo. 


Thunder - 


dingaroo. 


Camp - 


- yambakoo. 


Grass - 


- wuthon. 










Yes - 


- yo-i. 


Tongue 


- dallin. 


No 


- hurda. 


Stomach 


- bunduru or 








bungaroo. 


I 


- ngaia. 


Breasts 


- namon. 


You - 


- inda. 


Thigh - 


- moko. 


Bark - 


- beya. 


Foot - 


- dina. 


Good - - 


- makine. 


Bone - 


- nagoo. 


Bad - 


- ungarra. 


Blood - - 


- ouma,. 


Sweet - 


- erybachan. 


Skin - 


- beery. 


Food - 


- munda. 


Fat - - 


- ungoo, wamoo. 


Hungry 


- boongari. 


Bowels 


- una. 






Excrement - 


- una. 


Thirsty 


- boongar. 


War-spear - 


- bogga. 


Eat - 


- yukalgo. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- wookawoonal. 


Wommera or 




Drink 


- amoo yukalgo. 


throwing-stick 




Walk 


- mundul. 


Shield 


- booragoo. 


See - 


- nukuUa. 


Tomahawk - 


- baloyne. 


Sit - 


- bendul. 


Canoe - 
Sun - 


- durdu. 


Yesterday - 


- durdungo. 


Moon - 


- dilgan, obera, 


To-day 


- neyla. 


Star - - 


- dandura. 


To-morrow - 


- mukarro. 


Light - 


- durdoonga. 


Where are the - ingia murdi? 


Dark - 


- oundangoo. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- yakol. 


I don't know 


- hurdania berool 


Heat - 


- obundunga. 


Plenty 


- bunyarie. 


Day - 


- yambiathana. 


Big - 


- mulgiga. 


Night- 


• oundangoo. 


Little - 


- jmnberri. 


Fire - 


- boorde. 


Dead - 


- woolaca. 


Water 
Smoke 


- amoo. 

- tooka. 


By-and-by - 


- aboouthy. 


Ground 


- dundi. 


Come on 


- okourabal. 


Wind- 


- yarakoo. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


• amoowerrel. 


Eaglehawk - 


- othalla. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- bongan. 


Ghosts 


_ 


Wife - 





256 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 174.— MARANOA RIVER. 



By p. B. Bat, Esq 



Kangaroo - 


- narragoo. 


Hand - 


- murtha. 


Opossum 


- tangul. 


2 Blacks - 


■ boolardoo murri 


Tame dog - 


moora. 


3 Blacks - 


- boolardoo won- 


Wild dog - 


wandte. 




gara murri. 


Emu - 


- ngoorin 


One - 


- wongara. 


Black duck - 


- maneroo 


Two - 


boolardoo. 


Wood duck - 


- warracnbba. 


Three - 


- boolardoo won- 


Pelican 


booroonda. 




gara. 


Laughing jackass aggul-gaggul. 


Four - 


■ boolardoo boo- 


Native companion orood. 




lardoo. 


White cockatoo 


teecarry. 


Father 


yabboo. 


Crow - 


watta. 


Mother 


■ younga. 


Swan - 




Sister-Elder 


burri. 


Egg - - 


avooin. 


,, Younger 


munqai. 


Track of a foot 


tinner. 


Brother-Elder 


daaqiifn, 


Fish - 


oyoo. 


,, Younger wodwoodie. 


Lobster 




A young man 


boonjar. 


Crayfish 




An old man 


notti. 


Mosquito - 


pootteen. 


An old woman 


ayardqun. 


Fly . . 




A baby 


andoo. 


Snake - 




A White man 


widdoo. 


The Blacks - 


murri. 


Children 


aamburri. 


A Blaokf ellow - 


murri. 


Head - 


doongo. 


A Black woman - 


moorangoo. 


Eye - 


dim. 


Nose - 


oh. 


Bar - 


munga. 



MARANOA RIVER. 



257 





No. 174.— Mabamoa RiYEti^continued. 


Mouth- 


- taa. 


Boomerang - 


- wangal. 


Teeth - 

Hair of the head 


- yerra. 

- atta. 


Hill - 


- bango, waagalgo 


Beard - 


- nunga. 


Wood - 


- boordi. 


Thunder - 


- mooloongooloo. 


Stone - 


- bungoo. 


Grass - 


- oot-toon. 


Camp - 


■ yamba. 


Tongue 


- talle. 


Yes 


- yo. 


Stomach 


- bangoor. 


No - 


- arda. 


Breasts 


- ammoon. 


I 


- dya. 


Thigh - 




You - 


- inda. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 






Bone - 


- naroo. 


Bark - 


- oka. 


Blood - 


- oma. 


Good - 


- megun. 


Skin - 


- wooman. 


Bad - 


- waaiu. 


Fat - 


- widta. 


Sweet - 


- mellamella. 


Bowels 


- ngulle. 


Food - 


- ugalga. 


Excrement - 


- tootarre. 


Hungry 


■ boongarra. 


War-spear - 


- bugga. 


Thirsty 


- doombalgo. 


Reed-spear - 




Eat - 




Wommera or 




Sleep - 


oonalgo. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 




Shield - 


- boorcoo. 


Walk - 


- mundalgo. 


Tomahawk - 


- obar. 






Canoe - 




See - 


- nagalgo. 






Sit - 


bindulu. 


Sun - 


- tooroo. 






Moon - 


-•delgun. 


Yesterday - 




Star - 


- tandooroo. 


To-day 


ngilla. 


Light - 


- dooroo. 


To-morrow - 


moorgarro. 


Dark - 


- ooda. 


Where are the 


beetoo murri ? 


Cold - 


- yaagul. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


■ owanda. 


I don't know 




Day - 


- ilia. 


Plenty 


mulga. 


Night - 


oonalgo. 


Big - 


mulgagu 


Fire - 


booree. 


Little - 




Water- 


ammoo. 


Dead - 


woolala. 


Smoke 


dooya. 


By-and-by - 


aboo. 


Ground 


tunde. 


Come on 




Wind - 




Milk - 


awarra. 


Rain - 




Eaglehawk ■ 


ootalla. 


God - 




Wild turkey 


boonqun. 


Ghosts 


menummoo. 


Wife - 


ambe. 


VOL. III. 


B 







258 THE AUSTRALIA!^ RACE: 



No. 175.— THE BALONNE, BALEANDOON, NOGAEA, 
AND NERRAN RIVERS. 

By H. Hammond, Esq.; 



WEIR AND MOONIE RIVERS. 

By James O'Bybnb, Esq. 

The following vocabularies are specimens of two dialects of 
tlie WoUeroi or Yerraleroi language, in use in the localities 
given above. The name of the language is derived from 
Woll^No. Besides the contributions to the WoUeroi 
dialects received from Mr. Hammond and Mr. O'Byrne, a 
third reached me from Mr. W. H. Looker, which I have not 
thought it necessary to insert. Mr. Hammond says there is 
but one word to express dust and smoke, which reminds me 
that the Bangerang used to speak of there being smoke in 
the Murray when its waters were discolored by a flood. 
There is also but one word for head and hair, and a distinct 
term to express three. On the Balonne River several Blacks 
of one family have been met with without a particle of hair 
on their bodies. Baron Miklouho Maclay visited the locality 
and minutely examined and described a man and woman of 
this family. I am indebted to Mr. Lawrence Byrne, of 
Brisbane, for photographs of this man and woman, who 
certainly have reached the upper stage of human ugliness. 



No. 175.— Additional Words, by Mr. Hammond. 



Blow-fly - 


- koomoo-koomoo. 


Old - 


- yambooli. 


Carpet snake 


- neebee. 


Chest - 


- kuUander 


My mother 


- ngumbathi. 


Daylight 


- keba. 


,, sister - 


- booathi. 


Lightning - 


- murrimi. 


, , brother 


- miarthi. 


Run - 


- bunnaki. 



BALONNE, BALEANDOON, ETC., RIVERS. 



259 



No. 


175. — ^Additional Wobds, by Mr. 


O'Btene. 


Ashea - 


- kerin. 


Grave 


- tanmor. 


Ants (small) 


- ketar. 


Green 


- illoowedi. 


„ (large) 


- boornying. 


Gun - 


- mergin. 


Boots - 


- nangino. 


ELnee - 


- tinbirr. 


Bread • 


- dwir. 


Lame - 


- danggoor. 


Beef - 


- teh. 


Medicine - 


- booda. 


Blind man - 


- mooko. 


Pig - - 


- piggoon. 


, , woman 


- mookanguno. 


Porcupine - 


- pikeballo. 


Book - 


- boodel. 


Rice - 


- yarrar. 


Black - 


- kawbo. 


Red - 


- qui-qui. 


Bees (native) 


- moone. 


Revolver • 


- beredil. 


Blue - 


- kaw-wur-o-wur. 


Reed - 


- direel. 


Brlgalow 


- purrenbo. 


Six - - 


- kuUibo-kuUibo 


Box-tree 


- rebill. 


Salt - 


- daral. 


Cow - 


- millembri. 


Tree - 


- ginye. 


Cheek 


- tal. 


Turtle 


- wabo. 


Cat - 


- budge-e-gur. 


Wool 


- dooroon. 


To fight - 


- boomaley. 


White 


- balo. 


Fire-stick - 


- muUoo. 


Wild horse - 


- brumbi. 


Feathers - 


- yethar. 


„ horses 


- brumbinur. 


Grog - 


- uramo. 


War-paint - 


- pedi. 



BZ 



260 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 175.— BALONNE, NERRAN, ETC., RIVERS. 
By H. Hammond, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- bowra. 


Hand 


- ma. 


Opossum 


- mooti. 


2 Blacks - 


- boolar thane. 


Tame dog - 


- marthi. 


3 Blacks - 


- koolebar thane 


Wild dog - 


■ 


One - 


- bee-er. 


Emu 


- dthenoon. 










Two - 


- boolar. 


Black duck 


- kumigai. 






Wood duck 


- burga-burga. 


Three - 


- koolebar. 


Pelican 


- karraga. 


Four - 


- boolar-boolar. 


Laughing jackass gookergaka. 


Father 


- yabbo, yooke. 


Native companion bralga 


Mother 


- ngumba. 


White cockatoo 


- mihai. 


Sister-Elder 


- boa. 


Crow - 


- won. 










,, Younger 


- 


Swan - 


- kunnadal. 










Brother-Elder 


- thiar. 


Egg - - 


- kow. 






Track of a foot 


- ghaiee. 


„ Young 


er 


Eish - 


- tukkai. 


A young man 


- kobbora. 


Lobster 


- keerai. 


An old man 


- whymathool. 


Crayfish - 


- einga. 


An old woman 


- moogathool. 


Mosquito - 


- mungin. 


A baby 


- birriU. 


Ply - - 


- bunial. 


A White man 


- wonda. 


Snake 


- yabba. 






The Blacks - 


- thane. 


Children 


- 


A Blackf ellow 


- thane. 


Head - 


- taikal. 


A Black woman 


- inner. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Nose - 


- mooyoo. 


Ear •■ 


- binna. 



BALONNE, NBRRAN, ETC., RIVERS. 



261 



No. 175 


— Balonne, Nerean, etc., BxTEtia— continued. 


Mouth 


ngo. 


Boomera,tig - 


- 


Teeth - 


eea. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


taikal. 


Wood - 


- guinea. 


Beard - 


■ yarri. 


Stone - 


- moorilla. 


Thunder 


■ thuUome. 


Camp - 


- woUai. 


Grass - 


■ boorno. 


Yes - 
No - 
I 


- yo, geero, keer. 

- woU. 

- ngia. 

- inda. 


Tongue 


- pthalli. 


Stomach 


moopal. 


You - 


Breasts 


■ ngummo. 


Bark - 


- dater. 


Thigh 




Good - - 


- binnal, kubba. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Bad - 


- kokle. 


Bone - 


- booyoo. 


Sweet 


- kopba. 


Blood - 


- quay. 


Food - 


- dhoar. 


Skin - 


- yootai. 


Hungry 


- habberandilla. 


Fat - 


- wommo. 










Thirsty 


- ngaigay. 


Bowels 


- goonna. 


Eat - • - 


- tuldtnna. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 










Sleep - 


- tundooee, babee 


War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 


- meerignama. 

- beelar. 


Drink - 


- ngagai. 


Throwing-stiok 


- boondee. 


Walk - 


- yan. 


Shield - 




See - 


- nurruldinna. 


Tomahawk - 


- yowiudoo. 


Sit - 


- woUaia. 


Canoe - 


- boondurra. 


Yesterday - 


- goondoo-goon- 


Sun - 


- tooni, yeeigh. 




doo. 


Moon - 


- barlo. 


To-day 


- gungalunda, 


Star - 


- kowberri. 




eelal. 


Light - 


- dooeyi. 


To-morrow - 


- boolooyo. 


Dark - 


■ boolooe. 


Where are 


the thalla thane ? 


Cold - 


boolea. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- boolaid. 


I don't know 


- wol ngia. 


Day ■ 


burrawurrilla. 


Plenty 


- booral. 


Night - 


- bogoora. 


Big - - 


- booral. 


Fire - 


wi. 


Little - 


- tooohidool. 


Water 


goongon. 


Dead - 


- boologi. 


Smoke 


boowilla. 


By-and-by - 


- ilal, ilaloo. 


Ground 


- tauri. 


Come on 


- boori. 


Wind - 


miera. 


Milk - - 


- 


Rain - 


■ yeo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


wonda. 


Wife - 


- 



262 



THE AITSTEALIAN RACE: 



No. 175.— WEIR AND MOONIE RIVERS. 



By James O'Btkne, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- bundar. 


Opossum - 


moote. 


Tame dog - 


ware. 


Wild dog - 


mianba. 


Kmu - 


dinoyn. 


Black duck - 


korangye. 


Wood duck- 


koonumbi. 


Pelioan 


kuUialli. 


Laughing jackass kooket, koka 


Native companion bralga. 


White cockatoo 


moori. 


Crow - 


- when. 


Swan - 


- beeboo. 


Egg - - 


ko. 


Track of a foot 


dirma. 


Fish - 


naloor. 


Lobster 


nolaka. 


Crayfish 


- yingo. 


Mosctuito - 


mongeen. 


Fly - - 


winigal. 


Snake - 


yindobo. 


The Blacks ■ 


- pootlo. 


A Blackfellow 


- dane. 


A Black woman 




Nose - 


- muroo. 



Hand - 


- ma. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- ber. 


Two - 


- blar. 


Three - 


- kullibo. 


Pour - 


- blar -blar. 


Father 


- beno. 


Mother 


- numbade 


Sister-Elder 


- boade. 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- diade. 


,, Younger 


A young man 


- ookal. 


An old man 


- 


An old woman 


- 


A baby 


- yadeena. 


A White man 




Children - 


- perillegil 


Head - 


- tigul. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Ear - 


- beno. 



WEIR AND MOONIE RIVERS. 



263 



No. 


175. — Weie and Moonie Rivees— 


contintted. 


Mouth 


- mygh. 


Boomerang - 


■ 


Teeth - 


- ero. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- tigul. 


Wood - 


■ wumbion. 


Beard - 


- yarre. 


Stone - 


- maramo. 


Thunder 


- tuUoomey. 


Camp - 


- wooli. 


Grass - 


- kupoa. 


Yes - 


- yo. 


Tongue 


- tali. 


No - 


- woU. 


Stomach 


- kowrill. 


I 


- 


Breasts 


- nammoo. 


You - 


- uinda. 


Thigh - 


- boy-yoo. 


Bark - 


- tarthar. 


Foot - 


- deena. 


Good - 


- mooribo. 


Bone - 
Blood - 
Skin - 
Pat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 


- qui. 

- ule. 

- wommo. 

- dikkar. 


Bad - 
Sweet - 
Pood - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 


- kugeel. 

- wodle. 


War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stiok 


- hilar. 


Bat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 




Shield 


- bureen. 


Walk - 




Tomahawk - 


- indoo. 


See - 




Canoe - 


,- 


Sit - 


. 


Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 
Heat - 
Day - 
Night - 
Fire - 


- doone. 

- poloor. 

- kawburri. 

- dei. 

- boolya. 


Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are 
Blacks ? 
I don't know 
Plenty 


- kikkaling. 

- iUal. 

- kawbokaw 
the 

- bootla. 


- wee. 


Big - 
Little - 


- poodlili. 

- tookidool. 


Water 
Smoke 


- koongin. 

- too. 


Dead - 
By-and-by - 


- baloonye. 


Ground 


- dimmar. 


Come on 


- 


Wind - 


- 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- koongin. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 





264 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACB ; 



No. 176.— DUMARESQUE OR UPPER MAOINTYRE 

RIVER. 

By David Tukbatne, Esq., James Lawlor, Esq., and G. Mtlbs, Esq, 

The following information in connection with two dialects 
spoken on the Dumaresque or Upper Maclntyre River was 
forwarded to me by the gentlemen named above. The 
vocabularies, as far as we can judge, differ but little from 
the Pikumbul language, of which a specimen is found in 
the Kamilaroi of the late Revd. W. Ridley, who notices 
\h&i pika signifies yes: — 





Additional Words, by Mr. James Lawlor. 


Turtle - 


- talbugon. 


Bite - 


- mubbol. 


Porcupiae - 


- bigubilla. 


Sew - 


- munboUy. 


Wallaby - 


- wangun. 


Make - 


- weemuUy. 


Paddimellon 


- bogguUa. 


Back - 


- murcaw. 


Deaf adder - 


- tamby. 


Loins - 


- gumbul. 


To call 


- gongoUy. 


Forehead - 


- wenda. 


„ kill 


- bungey. 


Biiver - 


- wile. 


,, spear 


- togy, tarry. 


Plain - 


- goonigal. 


,, awim 


- gumbec. 


Boy - 


- tingoU. 


,, run 


- yanny. 


Girl - 


- mickay. 


„ talk 


- yally, yall (did 


Husband - 


- nubun. 




talk). 


Wife - 


- nubungan 


„ ask 


- bengoUy, ben- 


Son - 


- bandyale. 




goU (asked). 


Daughter - 


- bandyane. 


Flood - 


- warroo. 


Friend 


- maygon. 


Scrub - 


- birby. 


Stranger 


mailwon. 


Mountaiu - 


- borry-amborry. 


A young woman 


- bamburr. 


Strong 


- borroo. 


Sky - - 


- cawn. 


Weak • 


- coddara. 


High - - 


- cawnba. 


Light (not heavy) cumbun. 


Low - 


■ narmoo. 


Fear - 


- boorabilga, bo- 


Bottom 


- gundoo. 




raby. 


Blossom 


- gurry. 



DUMARESQUE OR UPPER MACINTYRE RIVER. 



265 



Additional Woeds, by Mr 


. James Lawlok- 


-coutinued. 


Carry - 


- caungey. 


To smell ■ 


- bandy. 


Carrying - 


- caunga. 


,, lie - - 


- ngally. 


Carried 


- caunell. 


Liar - 


- ngal-ngal. 


Generous - 


- wutaigul. 


Truth - 


- moorey. 


Stupid 


- bondan. 


Poor thing - 


- connanbrilla 


Far - 


- waanun. 


A cripple - 


- wambun. 


Close - 


- tycan. 


A sand ridge 


- corry. 


Soon - 


- talin. 


A forest 


- wallumboor. 


How many ? 


- monambuU? 


Black cockatoo 


- yerrangoran. 


What? 


- minna? 


To wash 


- bibbiUy. 


To hang 


- wambilly. 


„ cover 


- gundaboUy. 


„ climb 


- wandally. 


,. bury - 


- nomboUy. 


„ pull 


- bunnoUy. 


„ fight 


- bungindilly. 


,, break - 


- commoUy. 


,j finish 


- namboUy. 


A cloud 


- buroungy. 


Bandicoot - 


- inoomaw. 


Summer 


- kylugunda. 


Rat - 


- dirangonny. 


Winter 


- kowlba. 


Native cat - 


- giggwee. 



266 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 176.-DUMARESQUB OR UPPER MACINTYRE RIVER— 
BIGAMBEL LANGUAGE. 

By David Turbatne, Esq., and James Lawloe, Esq. 

In this language the equivalent of to-day seems to be a compound of the 
equivalent of see and day. 



Kangaroo - 


- bamburr. 


Opossum - 


- koobi. 


Tame dog - 


- mirree. 


Wild dog - 


- ngolgol. 


Emu - 


- oorun. 


Black duck 


~ boonaba. 


Wood duck 


- gurrooba. 


Pelican 


- gooleegalee 


Laughing jackass kagunin. 


Native companion gehrr. 


White cockatoo 


- gairabun. 


Crow 


- wawkoo. 


Swan - 


- beeboo. 


Egg - - 


- gingol. 


Track of a foot 


- tamboU. 


Fish - 


- gool. 


Lobster 


- 


Crayfish 


- gurineiu. 


Mosquito - 


- burri. 


Fly - - 


- krelungan. 


Snake • 


- timba. 


The Blacks - 


- mail. 


A Blackfellow 


- namail. 


A Black woman 


- tamma. 


Nose - 


- murroo. 



Hand - 


- mahr. 


2 Blacks - 


- mail boolol. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- biada. 


Two - 


- boolol. 


Three - 


- boolol biada. 


Four - 


- goonimbilla. 


Father 


- booba, wobbill. 


Mother 


- kooroonga, gun 




mill. 


Sister-Elder 


- wondill. 


,, Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- mugon. 


,, Young 


er 


A young man 


- tongoU, tooga- 




billa. 


An old man 


- doora. 


An old woman 


- dooragona. 


A baby 


- karr. 


A White man 


- goon. 


Children 


- karrgirran. 


Head 


- kobbye, kabui. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Ear - 


- binna. 



DUMARESQUE OR UPPER MACINTYRE RIVER. 267 



No. 176.— DUMAKBSQUE OE IJPPER MAcInTTEE 


RrVER — BlOAMBEL 




Language — continued. 




Mouth 


- ngunda. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- dirra. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head - mo. 


Wood - 


- 


Beard - 


- yerran. 


Stone - 


- bori. 


Thunder - 


- boorunggaimee. 


Camp - 


- noora. 


Grass - 


- mura. 


Yes - 


- koUoo. 


Tongue 


- talin. 


No - 


- yaga. 


Stomach 


- dikki. 


I 


- ona. 


Breasts 


- ngumbi. 


You - 


- inda. 


Thigh - 


- booyoo. 


Bark - 


- gilU. 


Foot - 


- tinahr. 


Good - - 


- weimba. 


Bone - 


- guUoo. 


Bad - 


- womboo. 


Blood - 
Skin - 

Fat - 


- gima. 

- irgeer 

- marroo. 


Sweet - 
Food - 


- kobbyba. 

- dallibrenga. 


Bowels 


- dikkiba, goonna. 


Hungry 


- dilgee. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Thirsty 


- koUing. 


War-spear - 


- bolgoo. 


Bat - 


- dalli. 


Reed-spear - 


- boggoo-dorngill. 


Sleep - 


- deba. 


Throwing-stick 


- waneebrenga. 


Drink - 


- beiuga. 


Shield- - 


- bolga. 


Walk- 


- yebbi. 


Tomahawk - 


- weka. 


See - 


- namuUi. 


Canoe - 


- giUee, welbon. 


Sit - 


- inni. 


Sun - 


- killee. 


Yesterday - 


- granall. 


Moon - 


- durroongan. 


To-day 


■ nakilleeda. 


Star - 


- koogee. 


To-morrow - 


- noolinkabooga. 


Light - 


- kiun. 


Where are 


bhe wonda nanduUo 


Dark - 


- uoolinga. 


Blacks ? 


mail? 


Cold - 


- 


I don't know 


- yaga noda woo- 


Heat - 


- moddun. 




inga. 


Day - 


- killeeda. 


Plenty 


- toogulba. 


Night - 


- nooloo. 


Big - - 




Fire - 


- wee. 


Little - 


- koggul. 


Water 


- koUee. 


Dead - 


- moon. 


Smoke 


- tugga. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 


- taree. 


Come on 


- yerri, yebbooga. 


Wind- 


- meen. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- tobbill, koUee. 


Baglehawk - 


- dooey. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


• nubungan. 



268 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 176.— HEAD WATERS OP THE MACINTYEE RIVER— 
PREAGALGH LANGUAGE. 

By G. Mylbs, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


bonboo. 


Hand - 


- ma. 


Opossum 


koopi. 


2 Blacks - 


boolar woorin. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 


meera. 


3 Blacks - 


boolar bather 
woorin. 


Emu - - - moorin. 
Black duck - - goor-mooringa. 
Wood duck - - goor-aba. 
Pelican - - gooralga. 
Laughing jackass karngoongoon. 
Native companion berralga. 


One - 

Two - 
Three - 
Pour - 

Father 


bather, 
boolar. 

boolar bather, 
boolar boolar. 
wobb. 


White cockatoo 


gerbin. 


Mother 


goa. 


Crow - 


- woggin. 


Sister-Elder 


warringun. 


Swan - 


beebo. 


,, Younger 




Egg - - 


- goobun. 


Brother-Elder 


wooremla. 


Track of a foot 




,, Younger 




Msh - 


- gool. 


A young man 


tallinba. 


Lobster 


gannoon. 


An old man 


doora. 


Crayfish - 




An old woman 


doorangan. 


Mosquito - 


- booree. 


A baby 


kagool. 


Fly - - 




A White man 


goon. 


Snake - 


- yalgun. 


Children 




The Blacks - 


■ woorin. 


Head - 


koinbure or kom 


A Blackfellow 


- wooriu. 




burl. 


A Black woman 


- womo. 


Eye - 


mel. 


Nose - 


- mooroo. 


Ear - 


binna. 



HEAD WATEES OP THE MACINTYRE RIVER. 



269 



No. 176.— Head Waters of the 


MacInttre RrvER — Preaoalgh 




Lanquage- 


-continued. 




Mouth 


- nundra. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- deera. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- kaboon. 


Wood 


- bagoora. 


Beard - 


- magun. 


Stone - 


- goora. 


Thunder - 


- booringa. 


Camp - 


- moora. 


Grass - 


- within. 


Yes - 


- yooi. 


Tongue 


. 


No - 


- yakka. 


Stomach 


- diga. 


I 


-nathuna. 


Breasts 


- nammoo. 


You - 


- wonda. 


Thigh - 


- booyoo. 


Bark - 


- gilla. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Good - 


- karmba. 


Bone - 


- goolgoo. 


Bad - 


- wombo. 


Blood - 


- gunera. 


Sweet 


- 


Skin - 


- ueera. 


Pood - 


. 


Pat - 


- marroo. 


Hungry 


- dillgri. 


Bowels 


- kuUin. 


Thirsty 


- 


Excrement - 


- goonna,. 


Eat - 


- taleba. 


War-spear - 


- bogo. 


Sleep - 


- mordeba. 


Reed-spear - 


■ 


Drink 


- kolli beela. 


Throwing-stick 


- (not used). 






Shield - 


- binninbera. 


Walk - 


■ 


Tomahawk - 


- koomee. 


See - 


- niela. 


Canoe - 


- (not used). 


Sit - 


- ninaba. 


Sun - 


■ grali. 


Yesterday - 




Moon - 


- debir. 


To-day 


- tuUun. 


Star - 


- googee. 


To-morrow - 


- thallingurrin. 


Light - 


- gilli. 


Where are the 


wooti woorin? 


Dark - 


- moorla. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- neetha. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- marthol. 


Plenty 


- dooglebilla. 


Day - 


- gillibun. 


Big - 


- mogoonba. 


Night - 


- moorla. 


Little - 


- kagool. 


Pire ■ 


- wee. 


Dead - 


- woomune. 


Water 


- koUi. 


By-and-by - 




Smoke 


- dooga. 






Ground 


- deree. 


Come on 


- arri. 


Wind - 


- padoona. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- koUi-bothi. 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



270 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 177.— PAROO AND WARREGO RIVERS NORTH 
OF LAT. 27" 30', AND MUNGALELLA CREEK. 



By W. H. Lookek, Esq., W. R. Conn, Esq., L. M. Playpaik, Esq., 
and j. hollingsworth, esq. 

From the attaclied vocabularies tlie reader mil find that on 
the above-named streams, and north of Lat. 27° 30' or there- 
abouts, the languages have so much in common that they 
might almost be called one. Indeed, some of my correspond- 
ents speak of them as one ; and if the reader will compare 
the first dozen words in the several vocabularies, he will see 
how similar they are. They are not, however, identical, and 
the differences in their negative adverbs and their equiva- 
lents for the Blacks show that there are several distinct 
tribes in the locality. 

Besides the vocabularies inserted, I have received four 
others from Mr. Cameron, Mr. David Campbell, Mr. Donald 
Mackenzie, and Mr. Vincent Dowling, which offer but few 
points of difference. Two of these gentlemen, however, and 
Mr. Looker, translate the term '■^ the Blacks" by the word 
Murri or Murray which is no doubt incorrect, as we find 
that term is the name of one of the classes into which each 
of these tribes is subdivided. 

In addition to the vocabularies received from Mr. Play- 
fair, Mr. HoUingsworth, Mr. Conn, and Mr. Looker, which I 
have inserted, I have also been favored by these gentlemen 
with replies to my printed Questions, which agree so well 
together that I have compressed the whole into one account, 



PAROO AND WARREGO RIVERS, ETC. 271 

whicli embraces tlie many tribes which occupy the country I 
am dealing with, and which was, I am told, first squatted on 
in from 1860 to 1864. Indeed, as regards some portions of 
the Warrego frontage, I believe they were occupied as cattle 
stations some years earlier. 

The name of the Mungalella Creek tribe, described by 
Mr. HoUingsworth, is Peechera. Their language is called 
Goughi. Many of the members of these tribes lived to be 
grey-headed, and Mr. Playfair notices one as being bald; but 
imported diseases, infanticide, and debauchery are fast ex- 
terminating them. Originally the females wore round the 
waist a fringe of spun opossum fur, but the men went 
entirely naked. Against cold, flies, and mosquitos, the 
usual daubings with grease and mud during the day, and at 
night the usual small fires and smoke, are had recourse to. 
The women plaster themselves with clay during the period of 
menstruation. The tribes have amongst them the common 
nets, weapons, and implements, the boomerang included, but 
the wommera is not used. Their weapons are often colored 
with red ochre, and with the front tooth of the opossum and 
the shell of the mussel ground to an edge are executed (or 
were before we introduced iron) the often elaborate carving 
with which they are decorated. Not unfrequently their meat 
and roots were cooked in ovens, but these were only tem- 
porary constructions, if I may so call them, which never grew 
into mounds, as in the South. 

Mr. Playfair informs me that the tribes with which he is 
acquainted are divided each into four classes, called Murri, 
Combo, Cubbi, and Ippai, with the object of restricting 
marriage in the following way, viz.: — 

Males. Females. Children. 

Any Murri may marry any Combo; offspring Ippai. 

,, Combo ,, „ Murri; ,, Cubbi. 

„ Cubbi „ ,, Ippai; „ Combo. 

„ Ippai ,, ,, Cubbi; ,, Murri. 

Mr. Playfair does not give the feminine names, and I 
give his version as he sent it, but he adds: — They have also 



272 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

the following class-names (no doubt subdivisions) viz., 
opossum, snake, kangaroo, emu, crow, and eaglehawk, but 
he does not enter into any particulars concerning them. 

Mr. Looker's account of the classes into which the tribes 
are divided is as follows. Their names in both sexes are: — 



Males. 


Females. 


Murri - 


- Matha. 


Combo - 


- Botha. 


Wongoo 


- Wongo-gan. 


Umbree 


- Umbreegan. 


Cubbi - 


- Cubbotha. 


Hippi - 


- Hippatha. 


Ogilla - 


- Ogellegun. 



The marriage relations and classification of children, as 
far as he enumerates them, are these: — 

A Murri marries a Botha. Their children are — Males, 

Hippi; females, Hippatha. 
A Cubbi marries a Hippatha. Their children are — 

Males, Combo; females, Botha. 
A Combo marries a Matha. Their children are — 

Males, Cubbee; females, Cubbatha. 
A Hippai marries a Cubbotha. Their children are — 
Males, Murri; females, Matha. 
Marriage in these tribes is generally endogamous, in 
accordance with the above system, but on rare occasions a 
woman is stolen from some other tribe. Polygamy is preva- 
lent, and one man at present has as many as eight wives. 
Females are often betrothed in infancy, become wives at 
seven, and, they say, mothers at ten or eleven years of age, 
but this I think is a mistake. Males are allowed to get 
wives, if they are able, after they have undergone the cere- 
monies by which they are raised to the rank of young men ; 
but if they have no sisters to offer in exchange their case is 
all but hopeless. Infanticide prevails largely. 

The ornaments worn are necklaces made of stout grass- 
stems or reeds, cut into short lengths and strung; also shells 
which hang over the forehead suspended from the hair. These 



PAROO AND WARREGO RIVERS, ETC. 273 

shells are said to come from tribes somewhere to the north or 
north-west, Kestrictions regarding the use of food exist. 
Mr. Playfair notices on this subject that women of the Murree 
class are not allowed to eat golden bream; and that black 
perch are forbidden to Combo women ; that emu, emus' eggs, 
and snakes are reserved for the elders of the tribe; and that 
a young woman will fairly run away from an emu's egg or 
even its shell. Young men and boys are forbidden to eat 
ducks, turkeys, and opossums in some of the tribes. As 
regards cannibalism my informants are not agreed; but, 
judging from what they say, I believe it exists (or did prior 
to the arrival of the Whites) as an occasional practice. Oph- 
thalmia is and was very prevalent. In making young men 
the custom in some of the tribes is to pluck out by the roots 
all the hair on the aspirant's body. Early in youth the skin 
is ornamentally scarred in various parts, and the septum of 
the nose pierced. In some of these tribes, both males and 
females have a front tooth or teeth knocked out; but in others 
this practice is confined to the females. It is a novel feature 
that the Paroo tribes object to White people witnessing their 
corroborees. 

The dead are disposed of in various ways; some are 
burned, with everything belonging to them; others are made 
into mummies, which are carried about for several years, 
and then dropped down the hoUow pipe of a standing tree. 
Not unfrequently the hair is cut off the body of a corpse, and 
its face daubed with wet clay before interment. I learn 
from Mr. HoUingsworth that pitcheree is occasionally 
obtained from the neighbouring tribes to the north-west. 

Eude drawings are made on bark. Message-sticks are in 
use on the Paroo, and Mr. Playfair has at my request taken 
the trouble to make many inquiries concerning them. The 
use of message-sticks, he says, certainly does not amount to 
a system of writing or hieroglyphics, but that occasionally 
two individuals agree upon signs by which notices of such 
things as the occurrence of a death, the existence of plenty 
of food, can be sent. But as the bearer of the stick would 

VOL, III, s 



274 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

be certain to retail the news from tlie camp lie had left, of 
what use is the stick ? 

Wars are carried on by night attacks in the usual way. 
Disputes within the tribes generally originate in jealousies 
about the women, and are settled by single combat, one of 
the warriors being, as a rule, knocked senseless. 

In sickness various treatments are had recourse to. 
Sometimes the sick cover themselves with mud ; at others, 
one end of a string is tied round the affected part, and 
the other an old woman see-saws across her gums till the 
blood comes from them ; she then washes the blood from 
her mouth with water into a vessel which she has at hand, 
and it is believed that the blood is conveyed inside the 
string from the seat of pain to the woman's mouth, and that 
its abstraction will most probably cause a cure. The toy 
known as the " bull-roarer" is in use amongst these tribes 
when making young men, as Mr. HolUngsworth informs me. 
To it are ascribed ■ mysterious qualities, and the women fly 
from the sound. When leaving a camp, it is common to lay 
on the ground a bundle of twigs, pointing in the direction 
in which those departing mean to go, for the information of 
other members of the tribe who may come that way. 

The name of Coorni Paroo, as applied to the Bulloo, Mr. 
Playfair informs me is a misnomer. 

The most interesting fact connected with these tribes is 
that they form a portion of the western outposts of -that 
section of the race which inhabits Eastern Australia. That 
they are related to the eastern, and not to the central section 
of the race, is shown by the names which they use in con- 
nection with their marriage classes, which are simply those 
of the Kamilaroi tribes, whose country is 250 miles away to 
the south-east. Language testifies to the same fact, as the 
reader will see if he compares from the annexed vocabularies 
the words bower a = kangaroo; tangoort = opossum; ko = nose; 
yabboo —father; yoonga — mother; doongo = head; with their 
equivalents in other eastern and north-eastern languages. 



PAROO AND WAREEGO RIVERS, ETC. 275 

The term inga or inca — a small species of crayfish, is also in 
use, as I remember, on the Lachlan River. It is curious to 
find in some of these vocabularies and additional words but 
one word to express spear and tree. 



sz 



276 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 177— MUNGALELLA CREEK. 
By W. H. Looker, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum - 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - - - 
Swan - - - 
Egg - - 
Track of a foot - 
Fish - 
Lobster 

Crayfish (small) - 
Mosquito - 
Fly - 
Snake 
The Blacks 
A Blackf ellow - 
A Black woman - 
Nose - - •■ 



poora. 
koothed. 



ballon, knooing. 

monaroo. 

burga-burga. 

kokan, krue. 
bralga. 
tickaree. 
watha. 

kobwee. 
nulla. 



mga. 

- bootie. 

- neemoon. 



murray. 
murray. 
muggee. 
whoe. 



Hand - - - 

2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three 
Four 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,, Younger - 
Brother-Elder - 

,, Younger 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman - 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 

Head - - - 
Bye - - - 
Ear - - - 



murra. 

boolaree murray 
kokobra murray 
wongra. 
boolaree. 
kokobra. 
boolaree- 
boolaree. 
yabo. 
yoimga. 
mungunee. 

wabuld. 

koola. 

wayama. 

moogken. 

withoe. 

birralee. 

bungoon. 

tilly. 

munga. 



CAjrj£j!K.. 



277 



No. 177.— MuNQALELLA CRV,T,Ti— Continued. 


Mouth 


- ta. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- popa. 


Wood - 


- tuUgarh. 


Beard 
Thunder - 


- nungea. 

- tekol 


Stone - 


- pungoe. 


Grass - 


- bogan. 


Camp - 

Yea - 


- yamba. 

- ma. 


Tongue 


- tuUee. 


No - 


- urda. 


Stomach 
Breasts 


- bungute. 

- Onega. 


I 

You - 


- nya. 

- inda. 


Thigh 


- 


Bark - 


- yumboo. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 










Good - 


- durree. 


Bone - 


- knak-ko. 






Blood - 


- kooma. 


Bad - 


- wyuee. 


Skin - 


- ooman. 


Sweet - 


- bitterra. 


Fat - 


- thomee. 


Food - 


- bunthuTii. 


Bowels 


- kurree-kurree. 


Hungry 




Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Thirsty 


- obundarra. 


War-spear - 


- pugga, merring- 


Eat - 


- thullee. 




ham, 


Sleep - 


- wooga. 


B,eed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


- yoo-gal. 


Wommera or 












Walk - 




throwlng-stick 




See - 




Shield - 


- burrgo. 




Tomahawk - 


- buUoa. 


Sit - 




Canoe - 


- kooka. 


Yesterday - 


- niUa, ninda. 


Sun - 


. durro. 


To-day 




Moon - 


- tillgan. 


To-morrow - 


- burdell. 


Star - 


- tandool. 


Where are the 


wondtha dun 


Light - 


- turban. 


Blacks ? 


derth? 


Dark - 


- noo-ong. 


I don't know 


- wondtha ma. 


Cold - 


- mitha. 


Plenty 


- balla. 


Heat - 
Day 


- opan. 

- dooringha. 


Big - - 
Little - 


- bunga. 

- ky-e-u. 


Night - 


- noo-ong. 






Fire - 


- boodee. 


Dead - 


- whoetan. 


Water 


kommo. 


By-and-by - 


- nilloe. 


Smoke 


- toga. 


Come on 


- ogo gurree, koa- 


Ground 


dunthee. 




koa. 


Wind- 


earka. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


tillaring. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 





278 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 177.— THE UPPER WARREGO AND PAROO RIVERS. 
By William R. Conn, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


bowra. 


Hand- 


- murda. 


Opossum - 


tanurd. 


2 Blacks - 


boolardo murdie. 


Tame dog - 


ngoora. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 


wanti. 


One - 


wongarra. 


Emu - 


goolby. 


Two - 


boolardo. 


Black duck 


munara. 


Three 


boolardo- 


Wood duck 






wongarra. 


Pelican 


boolcoon. 


Four - 


■ boolardo- 


Laughing jackass 


karcoburra. 




boolardo. 


Native companion coordodo. 


Father 


yabbono. 


White cockatoo 


teeourri. 




_ 


Crow - 


watta. 


Mother 


youTigardi. 


Swan - 


bigooro. 


Sister-Elder 


- tagoono nyarra. 


Egg - 


carboon. 


„ Younger 


wabboononyarra 


Track of a foot 


dinna-y-chuUa. 


Brother-Elder 




Pish - 




Younger 


Lobster 




A young man 


■ cowwoola. 


Crayfish 


bowgili. 


An old man 


- kaiara. 


Mosquito - 


boottoia. 


An old woman 


- coble-coble. 


Fly ■ - 


nimmun. 


A baby 


- cando. 


Snake 


munda. 


A White man 


wittee. 


The Blacks 




Children - 


oanelo. 


ABlackfellow - 


murdie. 


Head - 


doougo. 


A Black woman 


kambi. 


Bye - 


- tim. 


Nose - 


• ko. 


Ear - 


- munga. 



UPPER WARREGO AHfD PAROO RIVERS. 



279 



No. 177. — The Upper Wabkego 

Mouth - - tha. 

Teeth- • ■ yearra. 
Hair of the head - monga. 

Beard - - - nunga. 

Thunder - - nullo-nullo. 

Grass - - - woottoon. 

Tongue - - dulline. 

Stomach - - bangurd. 

Breasts - - namoone. 

Thigh - - baUa. 

Foot - - - dinna. 

Bone - - - narco. 

Blood - - - cooma. 

Skin - - - gerring. 
Pat - 
Bowels 

Excrement - - goonna. 

War-spear - - barca. 
Reed-spear - 

Wommera or mooro. 
throwing-stick 

Shield - - - booro-coo. 

Tomahawk - - burroo. 
Canoe - 

Sun - - - doordo. 

Moon - - - kuckardo. 

Star - - - neeworra. 

Light - - - boyn. 

Dark - - - noorundi. 

Cold - - - yakkul. 

Heat - - boeyoo. 

Day - - - neelga. 

Night - - - goobega. 

Fire - - boordi. 

Water- - carmo. 

Smoke- - - dookan. 

Ground - - nanthe. 

Wind - - - yarraca. 

Rain - - - carmo bathing. 
God - 

Ghosts - - binooon. 



AND Paeoo RrvERS — continued. 

Boomerang - - wongal. 

Hill - - - bancurda. 
Wood - 

Stone - - - bangoo. 

Camp - - - yamba. 

Yes - - - yoe. 

No - - . ourda. 

I - - - - ngia. 

You - - - yenda. 

Bark - - - peea. 

Good - - - mickineberri. 

Bad - - - kungardi. 

Sweet - - - yeara. 

Pood - - - urdie. 

Hungry - - cabardi. 
Thirsty 

Eat - - - ookung. 

Sleep - - - wookawonung. 

Drink - - - oarmo-ookung. 

Walk - - - wychung. 

See - - - nuckung. 

Sit - - - beendung. 

Yesterday - - goolieure. 

To-day - - neilga. 

To-morrow - - goondarro. 

Where are the inter murdie ? 
Blacks? 

I don't know - interra angabe. 

Plenty - - mulla-muUa. 

Big - . - bunga. 

Little - - - kioo. 

Dead - - - goonteela. 

By and-by - - kickardo, babo. 

Come on - - wooko-wicka. 

Milk - - - namoone. 

Eaglehawk - - coothalla. 

Wild turkey - bookine. 
Wife - 



280 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 177.— THE UPPER PAROO. 



By L. M. Platpaib, : 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duok - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - 

Track of a foot - 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - - - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackf ellow - 
A Black woman - 
Nose - 



bowra. 

tangort. 

oura. 

wante. 

koolberri. 

mangara. 

kournma. 

tarta. 

kakonbur. 

kountara. 

tigarde. 

wagin, wada. 

kotero. 

kapoin. 

tena. 

ude, munge. 

bogally. 

boithon. 

nemon. 

muuta. 

walla. 

made. 

madda, kambi. 

ko. 



Hand - 

2 Blacks ■ 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Four - 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,, Younger - 
Brother-Elder - 

,, Younger 

A young man 
An old man 
An old woman - 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 
Head - 
Eye - 
Ear - 



madda. 



wongara. 
boolardoo. 
koorbara. 
boolardoo- 
boolardoo. 
yabino. 



maiara. 

bairno. 

takkoin. 

wabardo. 

nauka, kowla. 

kaira. 

kamin. 

barko-de, kando. 

wedo. 

yauga. 

toogo. 

tille. 

manga. 



THE UPPER PAROO. 



281 





No. 177.— The Upper Paboo — continued. 


Mouth 


- be, ta. 


Boomerang - 


- wangal. 


Teeth - 


- yeta. 


HiU - - 


- morella, banko. 


Hair of the heat 


- turoin. 


Wood - 


- baka. 


Beard - 


- nauka. 


Stone - 


- barre, banko. 


Thunder 
Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach 
Breasts 


- barri, 

- woton. 

- talain, 

- parby, baindur. 

- namoon. 


Camp - 

Yes - - 
No - 
I 


- yamba. 

- yoko. 

- yamma. 

- ngai-ia, itu. 


Thigh - 


- tara. 


You - 


- idno, yinda. 


Foot - 


- tena. 


Bark - 


- beya, morgoin. 


Bone - 


- nago, emo. 


Good - 


- murga. 


Blood - 
Skin - 
Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 


- kooma. 

- dunte. 

- wommo, tame. 

- teduro, bamdal. 

- koonna. 


Bad - 
Sweet - 
Food - 
Himgry 


- warwarro, bauya. 

- godja. 

- ukulgo, yude. 

- kabid, kuliatin. 


War-spear - 


- mingoo, baka, 


Thirsty 


- koballa,mariatui. 




babaino. 


Eat - 


- ukal, pautein. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- uga. 


Wommera or 


morro. 


Drink - 


- tappa, wadya. 


throwing-stiok 
Shield 


- bongo, uba. 


Walk - 
See - 


- tala, wegauga. 

- naga, neimie. 


Tomahawk - 


- paloin. 


Sit - 


- blnda, begauge. 


Canoe - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- urindia. 


Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 


- todo. 

- kokkarra. 

- neo-do. 

- boain. 


To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are 
Blacks? 


- iimba, nelya. 

- kundaroo. 
the yinda waga ? 


Cold - 


- yakul. 


I don't know 


- yamme. 


Heat - 


- yattin, poath. 


Plenty 


- waintu. 


Day - 


- thanauga. 


Big - 


- mulla-muUa. 


Night - - 


- pitta. 


Little - 


- kioo, kapoin. 


Fire - 


- boodi, wee. 


Dead - 


- kuutine. 


Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind - 
Rain - 
God - 


- koommoo,kallan, 

- toga, tuka. 

- taka, tante. 

- yerga. 

- tantinga, ukau. 


By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 


- baboo. 

- wadyinko, kuga. 

- pathan. 

- koothalla. 

- bungain. 


Ghosts 


- wanbo. 


Wife - 


- querda. 



282 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 177.— THE WARRBGO AND PAROO RIVERS. 



By Joseph Hollingsworth, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- bowerra. 


Opossum 


- dongoorel. 


Tame dog - 


- ngoora. 


Wild dog - 


- wunthie. 


Emu - 


- goolbae. 


Black duck - 


- munburEa. 


Wood duck - 




Pelican 




Laughing jackass 


Native companion 


White cockatoo 


- teecaddy. 


Crow - 


- wotthar. 


Swan - 


- 


Egg - 


- oarboon. 


Track of a foot 


- thinner. 


Pish - 


- gooioo. 


Lobster 


- 


Crayfish 


- bookillee. 


Mosquito - 


- boothoon. 


Fly - 


- neemun 


Snake - 


- moonta. 


The Blacks - 


- murringo. 


A Blackf ellow 


- mardie. 


A Black woman 


- wyanbirra 


Nose - 


- koar. 



Hand - 


- marda. 


2 Blacks - 


- paulludy mardie 


3 Blacks - 


- paulludy won- 




kera mardie. 


One - 


- onkera or won 




kera. 


Two - 


- paulludy. 


Three - 


- paulludy onkera 


Pour - 


- paulludy paul- 




ludy. 


Father 


- yabboon. 


Mother 


- wobboodoo. 


Sister-Elder 


- 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- 


„ Young 


er 


A young man 


- coul, cowel. 


An old man- 


- kyearroo. 


An old woman 


- yungun-kyear- 




roo. 


A baby 


- camdoo. 


A White man 


- coign. 


Children - 


- carroo. 


Head - 


- thoonggoo. 


Eye - 


- teelee. 


Bar - 


- munser. 



THE WARREGO AND PAROO RIVERS. 



283 



No. 177. — The Wakeeoo aud Paeoo Rivees — continued. 



Mouth- 


■ thar. 


Boomerang - 


- wongel. 


Teeth - 


- yeer. 


Hill - 


- bungo carripooi 


Hair of the head 


- thooroo. 




(stones high). 






Wood - 


- bargar. 


Beard - 


- ngunga. 


Stone - 


- bungo. 


Thunder - 


- noola-noola. 


Camp - 


- yumba, yum- 


Grass - 


- ootthoon. 




borra. 


Tongue 


- thalUng. 


Yes - 


- yowie, ngowa. 


Stomach 


- yandi. 


No - 


- curther, yumma. 


Breasts 


- ngmnoon. 


I- 


- ngia, nginya. 


Thigh - 


- tharra. 


You - 
Bark - 


- inda, yourra. 

- biar. 


Foot - 


- thinna. 


Good - 


- mickanberri, 


Bone - 


- ngarkoo. 




moorioar. 


Blood - 


- coomma. 


Bad - 


- curthee, warrico- 


Skin - 


- beer. 




warrico. 


Pat - 


- thamia, wammo. 


Sweet - 


- moorioar good- 


Bowels 


- 


Food - 


yar. 
- yuddy, muntha. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Hungry 


- cobertabae. 


War-spear or tree barga. 


Thirsty 


- cammoyuckerrer 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Eat - 


- uckerrer, uga. 


Wommera or 


mooroo. 


Sleep - 


- oga. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- uckerrer. 


Shield or back 


- bauioogoo. 


Walk - 


- wygella. 


Tomahawk - 


- ballone. 


See 


- knarkulla. 


Canoe - 


. 


Sit - 


- pinda. 


Sun - 


- thoodoo. 


Yesterday - 


- cooUerie moock- 
erroo. 


Moon - 


- kakada. 


To-day 




Star - 


- nguardoo. 


To-morrow - 


- goonderroo, 


Light - 


- teeleebookooroo. 




mookerroo. 


Dark - 


- gobear. 


Where are 


the inthamdoo 


Cold - 


- yuckuU. 


Blacks ? 


mardie ? 


Heat - 


- booine. 


I don't know 


- curther ngyer 
imbella. 


Day - 


- nulyambo goon- 


Plenty 


- muUa-mulla. 




daroo. 


Big - - 


- gooricanbe. 


Night - 


- gobear. 


Little - 


- kyeu, thippo. 


Fire - 


- booardie. 


Dead - 


- wooUul. 


Water - 


- kammo, ammo. 


By-and-by - 


- bobo, ngeely- 


Smoke 


- thook. 




ambo. 


Ground 


- thundy. 


Come on 


- ookoo cuntha. 


Wind - 


- yarraga. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- cammotyingoora. 


Eaglehawk - 


- kootthuUa. 


God - 


- 


WUd turkey 


■ boongie. 


Ghosts 


- weettho. 


Wife - 


- cooeearter. 



284 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 177. — Additional Wobds, by Mr. J. Hollinoswoeth. 



What - 


annee. 


More - 


- cullar. 


Together or 


eeilpan. 


To do again 


- cullaro. 


sweetheart 




Gidya-tree - 


- cobardoo. 


Fish-hook - 


au. 


Gum-tree - 


- carcoola, carcoo 


Wallaby - 


barapa. 




lin. 


Fresh-water 


beerdee. 


Bloodwood-tree 


- cambool. 


turtle 




Rug, clothes 


- corrie. 


Mussel 


- botherercur. 


A long distance 


- cumburrie. 


To bite 


■ bothilla. 


Tired - 


- coolyarlar. 


„ cut 


- bobeUar. 


A stink 


- cutcha. 


Dew - 


■ bauanee. 


Frightened - 


- cuUuUa. 


Scrub - 


- bardoo. 


Short - 


- coongoon. 


To dig 


barculla. 


Net - 


- coolin. 


» get up - 


boorangee. 


To pretend - 


- cotthingella. 


,, pant 


booeeyar. 


,, cooee 


- coolella. 


Currajong-tree 


bingee. 


Nasty 


- curtee. 


Box-tree - 


barcoora, koola- 


A rainbow - 


- cutchun. 




bar. 


North - 


- carripooi. 


Run - 


bawdinya. 


To throw - 


- ooochamyar. 


Big - 


bunyarty. 


A yam-stick 


- cuntha. 


Directly 


bobbo. 


To spit 


- cunther. 


To carry 


bungil. 


A sLranger - 


- coongai. 


Wild orange 


bumble. 


A kite (blood) 


- coomma. 


Deep - 


■ bootchoo. 


To cook or bum 


- cobella. 


Wild - 


booramby. 


Louse - 


- carra. 


To chop out 


bungel. 


Golden bream 


- cuarree. 


The sky 


bundara. 


Warrego River 


- ourdeela (i.e., 


Birds - 


bee-ee. 




river of sand). 


Girdle 


beera. 


To whistle - 


- coobeel. 


To exchange 


buck-kin. 


Gently 


- ee-ik-carra. 


Red ochre or red 


cootthae. 


To smell 


- eer-ai-bae. 


Husband - 


coongul. 


You and I - 


- ngnlli. 


Throat, to be sick 


cower. 


A little girl 


- gumbee. 


Calabash - 


cookar. 


Plain country 


- goonni. 


White 


coba-ooba. 


Black color 


- goorol. 


Sand - 


curdeer. 


Honey, sweet 


- gootcha. 



THE WARREGO Al^D PAROO RIVERS. 



285 



No. 177. — Additional Words, by 

House - - goondy. 

Belonging to a 

house - ■ goondy-gallo. 

Cattle - - gareril. 

Mine - - ■ ngatchu. 

Name - - - ngy. 

What name? - annee ngy? 

To shoot or kill - goonill. 

Be gone - - goondoo. 

To give - ■ goombul. 

,, steal - - goonthama. 

Tall - - - goorriccan. 

Hard - - gurrikill. 

Broken - - goondilla. 

Bald - - - goorpin. 

South - - - goorarudoo. 

To itch - - gidgeela. 

Sunbeams - - gangara. 

To cover - - gumbun. 

,, swim - - gnoombula. 

,, talk - - goolparra. 

„ perspire - gnumburra. 
Root of water-lily gobbeer. 

Perch - - oo-cooroo-coora. 

Who ? - - - oonthooroo ? 

Bandicoot - - ornee. 

Where? - - intharndoo? 

To hear - - imbella. 

Native well - incurra. 

,, bee - - meemun. 

The bat - - mutohanbirra. 

A club - - mooroo. 

Leeches - - moonquin. 

Blind - - mootchoo. 

Big-toe, thumb - mookillee. 
Magellan clouds - millerrie. 

Hair, feathers - moonchoo. 

Bottle-tree - minderra. 

A shade - - muUo. 

Soft ■ - - mooning. 



Mb. J. HoLLiNGSWOKTH — Continued. 

Tears - - meelyarty. 

Old, worn out - mutcha. 

Take hold - - murrel. 

Stay - - - muttha. 

Hail - - - mookooloo. 

A spring - - moontangurra. 

Frost - - ■ meetharra. 

Gum - - - mookine. 

A friend - - noola. 

East - - - nararparamdoo. 

Flowers - - oba. 

Seed - - - pulpart. 

To dream - - pigeelar. 

Mulga-tree - pindeea. 

Pine-tree - - pyingerra. 

To cry - - parrin. 

West - - parramdoo. 

Listen - qooroo. 

Iguana - - quarrin. 

Blow-fly - - qoodooroo. 
Kangaroo-grass quoilpin. 
seed 

To taste - - thallal. 

Leaves of trees - thallar. 

A watercourse - thuUa. 

Run quick - ty-ty. 

Evening star - tar. 
Quandongs (red) thianburra. 

,, (white) theewau. 

Reeds - - teecull. 

The liver - - thibba. 

The heart - - woolcoo. 

Unwell - - wee-wee. 

Always - - wundoo. 

Long since - wiearra. 

To roast - - wat-thool. 

Yarran-tree - weelbala. 

To laugh - - yat-thin. 

Clouds - - yo-gan. 

Truly - - yangger 



286 



THE AUSTRALIAN BACB ; 



No. 177. — ^Additionai Words, by L. M. Platfaib, 



Native bee 


gudja. 


Uncle 


- kaugemo 


North-east wind 


kauymo. 


Net - 


- kooli. 


Ant - 
March-fly - 
Husband - 
Son - 


nimmein. 

bunge. 
• koungal. 
- tirgi. 


Gum-tree - 
Iguana 
Sand-fly - 


- kacola. 

- bama. 

- bea. 


Daughter - 


toana. 


Tree - 


- pugga.* 



No. 178.— RICHMOND RIVER 



By Chablbs Edwaeds, Esq., E. Ross, Esq., and Daniel 
HoGtAN, Esq., C.P.S. 

The three following vocabularies are from the Richmond 
River, and though they differ but sUghtly, they belong, 
I believe, to distinct tribes. In two of the vocabularies we 
find but one word to express yesterday and to-morrow, on 
which point I have frequently noticed Blacks a little 
puzzled. Mr. Edwards gives the following Additional 
Words:— 



Codfish - - youngaun. 

Turtle - - bingin. 

Eel - - - eroul. 

Perch - - mogim. 

Demon - - gimmong. 

Boys - - goombi ohunga- 
gun. 

Names of three brothers 

Names of two brothers 

Names of women 

Class-names of Ettrick Blacks - 

Class-names of Lismore Blacks 

Male calls his sister's son 

Male calls his brother's son 

A woman calls her brother's son 

Her husband calls the same person 



Girls - - booyoom too- 

pagin. 
Any number over goombi. 

four 
The name of a Tegairi. 

Black 
Name of his son - Ninkinbarn. 

- Orooraban, Beeyan, Guybun. 

- Tulean, Nginkinbaun. 

- Delairy, Yoobi, Tarlum. 

- Wyangari, Widjir, Warloo. 

- Kyogle, Weeya, GoomuUi. 

- boorchum. 

- mooyum. 

- newgoon. 

- brigum. 



* The reader will notice that this rendering of tree does not differ much from that ol 
war-spear. 



RICHMOND RIVER. 



287 



The following words were . 


sent by Mr. Eoss: — 


Black snake 


- moinba. 


Lightning - 


- thunkan. 


Whip snake 


- eringh. 


Walk on - 


- yenna ki. 


Iguana 


- dirrawong. 


On the spot 


- knoki. 


Chin 


- yeinderra. 


Stump 


- kunomb. 


Right hand 


- thuninba. 


Iron - 


- tinkilbill 


Left hand- 


- whooram. 


Sailing vessel 


- murrung( 



From this list we see that the tribe has distinct 
substantive terms for right hand and left hand. 



288 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 178.— RICHMOND RIVER. 



Bt Chaeles Edwaeds, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- groomon or 


Hand - 


- tungun. 




kroomon. 


2 Blacks - 


- booroora baygul 


Opoasum 


- ereking. 


3 Blacks - 


- booroora yabra 


Tame dog - 


- tobury. 




baygul. 


Wild dog - 


- 


One - 


- yabra. 


Emu - 


- coring. 






Blaok duek - 


- mara. 


Two - 


- booroora. 


Wood duck 


- boorabigul. 


Three - 


- booroora yabra. 


Pelican 


- tungera. 


Four - 


- booroora 


Laughing jackass karkoon. 




booroora. 


Native companion kooralkum. 


Father 


marmong. 


White cockatoo 


- karie. 


Mother 


kooning. 


Crow - 


- waugaun. 


Sister-Elder 


nanung. 


Swan - 


- ginabee. 


„ Younger 




Egg - 


- moongaraim. 






Track of a foot 


- koolgun. 


Brother-Elder 


bunum. 


Fish - 


- 


,, Younger 




Lobster 


- 


A young mR,n 


keebra. 


Crayfish - 


- bouragin. 


An old man 


kitohome. 


Mosquito - 


- mundura. 


An old woman - 


waurong. 


Ely - 


- toonburra. 


A baby 


chachum. 


Snake (carpet) 


- yumba. 


A White man 


tucki. 


„ (black) 


- koongai. 






The Blacks - 


- baygul. 


Children 




A Blackfellow 


- baygul. 


Head 


bowra. 


A Blaok woman 


- doobury. 


Eye - 


me. 


No«e - 


- mooro. 


Ear - 


binung. 



RICHMOND RIVER. 



289 





No. 178. — Richmond Rivee — continued. 


Mouth 


• chairng. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- dedung. 


Hill - - 


- 


Hair of the hea( 


- koondun. 


Wood - 


- gallee. 


Beard - 


- yerin. 


Stone - 


- tharo. 


Thunder - 


- mogara. 


Camp - 


- weabra. 


Grass - 


- withirung. 


Yes - 


- yoey. 


Tongue 


- yalling. 


No . 


- ughun. 


Stomach 


- doolgo. 


I 


- ugie. 


Breasts 


- groom. 






Thigh - 
Foot - 


- terung. 

- chinnung. 


You - 
Bark - 


- weaya. 

- bagool. 


Bone - 


- derrigona. 


Good - 


- boogol. 


Blood - 


- koomara, 


Bad - - 


- thung. 


Skin - 


- ulung. 


Sweet - 


- berrygan. 


Fat - 


- bunraragun. 


Food - 


- 


Bowels 


- muckai. 


Hungry - 


- gobberrie. 


Excrement - 


- koonung. 


Thirsty 


- nooai. 


War-spear - 


- taung or tewang. 


Eat - 


- tallala. 


Reed-spear - 


- kiung, birala. 


Sleep - 


- wouram. 


Wommera or 


kunai. 




throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- tokalaila. 


Shield 


- buckar. 


Walk - 


- yangarla. 


Tomahawk - 


- moogin. 


See - 


- narala. 


Canoe - 


• burcool. 


Sit - 


- 


Sun - 


- yalgun. 


Yesterday - 


- nobau. 


Moon - 


- giboom. 


To-day 


- byan. 


Star - 


- cooyumgun. 


To-morrow - 


- nobau. 


Light - 


- bubbin. 


Where are 


bhe chir baygul ? 


Dark - 


- mundery. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- woruug. 


I don't know 


- yoogum. 


Heat - 


- boorogo 


Plenty 


- coombee. 


Day - 


- noomgara. 






Night - 


- tupin. 


Big - - 


- gidyoon. 


Fire - 


- weebra. 


Little - 


- bidung. 


Water 


- koong. 


Dead - 


- youbun. 


Smoke 


- chume. 


By-and-by - 


- yow. 


Ground 


- chuckun. 


Come on 


- gouay. 


Wind - 


- booragin. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- koong. 


Eaglehawk - 




God (Creator) 


- muckoolum. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- yanyangala. 


Wife - 


- 


VOL. in. 


' 


r 





290 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 178.— BALLINA. 
By E. Ross, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


kurruman. 


Hand - 


tonguon. 


Opossum 


quean. 


2 Blacks - 


barroro bygle. 


Tame dog - 


aggum. 


3 Blacks - 


barroro yabbro 


Wild dog - 






bygle. 


Emu - 


wooring. 


One - 


yabbro. 


Black duck - 


marra. 


Two - 


barroro. 


Wood duck 




Three - 


barroro yabbro. 


Pelican 


thungara. 


Pour - 


bulla bulla. 


Laughing jackass 


- kargau. 






Native companion 


chiimon garrara. 


Pather 


mamong. 


White cockatoo 


karra. 


Mother 


nabbung. 


Crow - 


wogan. 


Sister-Elder 


nanigh. 


Swan - 


kinnabee. 


„ Younger 




Egg - 


kobing. 


Brother-Elder 


- bunnuarm. 


Track of a foot 


kulgau. 


„ Youngei 




Fish - 


thallum. 


A young man 


- keebra. 


Lobster 


bumicum, murry . 


An old man 


wiengbuU. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


mundurra. 


An old woman 


- meerong. 


Ply - ■ 


thumburry. 


A baby 


- tharthum. 


Snake (carpet) 


- coble. 


A White man 




The Blacks - 


kununbeen. 


Children 




A Blackfellow ■ 


bygle. 


Head - 


- congarra. 


A Black woman 




Eye - 


- mee. 


Nose - 


- morrow. 


Ear - 


- pinnong. 







BATTINA. 


29 




No. 178.- 


— Ballina — coiUimied. 




Mouth 


- thang. 




Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- diddong. 




Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- bowrra. 




Wood - 


- thalley. 


Beard - 


- yerring. 




Stone - 


- thorrow. 


Thunder 
Grass - 


- mograa. 

- muudroo. 




Camp - 


- himbing. 


Tongue 


- yelling. 




Yes - 


- yoe. 


Stomach 


- moikue. 




No - 


- yucumba. 


Breasts 


- meerang. 




I 


- yabrugin, nye. 


Thigh - 


- kindle. 




You - 


- weear. 


Foot - 


- chiTina.ng. 




Bark - 


- boolomb. 


Bone - 


- dadigun. 




Good - 


- bungarra. 


Blood - 


- kumarra. 




Bad - 


- yell-yell, thung 


Skin - 


- yundra, yooling. 


Sweet - 


- barragan. 


Fat - 


- bunjurakau. 




Food - 




Bowels 


- moiky. 




Hungry 


- cobbiree. 


Excrement - 


- cuimang. 




Thirsty 


- nirrigan. 


War-spear - 


- chuang. 




Eat - 


- theelala. 


Eeed-spear - 


- 








Wommera or 


chunong. 




Sleep - 


- wooram. 


throwing-stick 






Drink - 


- thuguong. 


Shield - 


- healemau. 




Walk - 


- yenna. 


Tomahawk - 


- woggara. 




See - 


- nad. 


Canoe - 


- kindul. 




Sit - 


- yeanna. 


Sun - 


- yelkin. 




Yesterday - 


- wobbo. 


Moon - 


- nguibom. 




To-day 


byang. 


Star - 






To-morrow - 


- wobbo. 


Light - 


- bobbing. 




Where are the 


ille bygle ? 


Dark - 


- narlow. 




Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- warring. 




I don't know 


- yucombe nony- 


Heat - 


- woon. 






gumble. 


Day - 


- numgura. 




Plenty 


- kemieby gong. 


Night - 


- narlow. 




Big - 


- kiguong. 


Fire - 


- wibra. 




Little - 


• biguong. 


Water- 


ouung. 




Dead - 




Smoke 


tallow. 




By-and-by - 


wooboo. 


Ground 


nyle. 




Come on 


que. 


Wind - 


borrigan. 




Milk - 




Eain - 


durrum durrum. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


tunky. 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


kimmong tuoky. j 


Wife - 





T 2 



292 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 178.— LISMORE. 



Bt Daniel Hooan, Esq., C.P.S. 



Kangaroo - 


- kuruman. 


Hand - 


tunkau." 


Opossum 


- koogan. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


- augham. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 


■ 


One - 


yabra. 


Emu - 


- nurun. 


Two - 


bullaa. 


Black duck - 


- mara. 






Wood duck - 




Three - 


bulla yabra. 


Pelican 


- kinnibee. 


Four - 


■ balla bulla. 


Laughing jackass cargaum. 


Father 


mamul. 


Native companion kiogle. 


Mother 


quinuin. 


White cockatoo 


- kayra. 


Sister-Elder 


nunung. 


Crow - 


- waughun. 


,, Younger 




Swan - 


- 


Brother-Elder 


■ bunnam. 


Egg - - 


- cobbin. 


„ Youngei 




Track of a foot 


- tharrana. 






Fish - 


- tuUum. 


A young man 


keebra. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


kidjune. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


murrung. 


Mosquito - 


- munjook. 


A baby 


thaduin. 


Fly - 


- buan. 


A White man 


thagheradge. 


Snake - 


- uanba. 










Children 


thakum, currall 


The Blacks - 


- bygal. 






A Blackfellow 


■ bygal. 


Head - 


pooera. 


A Black woman 


- toobia. 


Eye - 


mil. 


Nose - 


- murrock. 


Ear - 


binnong. 





LISMORE. 


s 




No. 118.— LiSMons— continued. 




Mouth 


- moolang. 


Boomerang - 


. 


Teeth - 


- tretong. 


Hill . - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


I - poora. 


Wood - 


- thalby. 


Beard - 


- yarring. 


Stone - 


- tharoo. 


Thunder - 


- mukkera. 


Camp - 


- timmon. 


Grass - 


- weatchong. 


Yes - 


- yaway. 


Tongue 


- yulban. 


No ■ 


- yukkum. 


Stomach 


- moong, 


I 


- ngi. 


Breasts 


- ngama. 


You - 


- walbo. 


Thigh . 


- tcheriug. 


Bark - 


- bockall. 


Foot - 


- tchinnong. 


Good - 




Bone - 


- dutoheroo. 






Blood - 


- kumerok. 


Bad - 


- chang. 


Skin - 


- yoolin. 


Sweet - 


- bewkin. 


Fat - 


- watcheroo. 


Food - 


- ngagune. 


Bowels 


- muckii. 


Hungry 


- kabbora. 


Excrement ■ 


- kumiuTig. 


Thirsty 


- nirkin. 


War-spear - 


- tchuan. 


Eat - 


- thangeay. 


Reed-spear - 


- commii. 


Sleep - 


- newram (?). 


Wommera or 


thunuung. 


Drmk - 


- ohookyan. 


throwing- stick 




Walk- 


- yonbie. 


Shield - 


- baukkar. 










See 


- niallan. 


Tomahawk - 


- bundan. 






Cauoe - 


- kundool. 


Sit 


- yehia, yundur 


Sun - 


- yalkun. 


Yesterday - 


- uooba. 


Moon - 


• kubboon. 


To-day 


- piiyau. 


Star - 


- quanthou. 


To-morrow - 


- noobathong. 


Light - 


- bobou. 


Where are the 


yubae bygal ? 


Dark - 


- ngubboa. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- wurring. 


I don't know 


■ yubaa ngouy. 


Heat - 


- ngone. 


Plenty 


- karral. 


Day - 


- nungurri. 


Big ■ - 


kukune. 


Night - 




Little - 


beechang. 


Fire - 


■ wibfeera. 






Water 


koonk. 


Dead - 


kuUung. 


Smoke 


thallo. 


By-and-by - 


yookur. 


Ground 


thackoon. 


Come on 


qua, kurr. 


Wind - 


buirgoon. 


Milk - 




Bain - 


koo-ung. 


Baglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


kuba-waaki. 1 


Wife - 





293 



294 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 179.— TENTEEFIELD, NEW ENGLAND. 

. Anonymous. 

GLEN INNES, NEW ENGLAND. 

By C. B. Lowe, Esq. 
The two vocabularies whicli follow are specimens of the 
dialects of New England. The first is called Yucomble. Mr. 
Lowe, who contributes the second, gives the following Addi- 
tional Words : — Uncle = alepoon; aunt = munga; and 
cousin = nungarah. He adds that on addressing an aunt 
the equivalent of mother is often used. The only native 
name of a person with which Mr. Lowe is acquainted is 
Combo. 



No. 179.-TENTERFIELD, NEW ENGLAND. 

Anonymous. 



Kangaroo - 


kooraman. 


Opossum 


koopi. 


Tame dog - 


mir. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


moorin. 


Black duck - 


gooralba. 


Wood duck 


gooraba. 


Pelican 


doorabilla. 


Laughing jackass kargool. 


Native companion goorala. 


White cockatoo 


- garabin. 


Crow - 


waugan. 


Swan - 


bonalbe. 


Egg - ■ 


kamboa. 


Track of a foot 




Fish - 


- goorl. 


Lobster 


ganoon. 


Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


- gurmura. 


Fly - 




Snake - 


- kaka. 


The Blacks ■ 


- gibber. 


A Blackfellow 


gibber. 


A Black woman 


- hekita. 


Nose - 


- nurin. 



Hand - 


- yama. 


2 Blacks - 


- boother gibber. 


3 Blacks - 


- boother duar gib- 




ber. 


One - 


- duar. 


Two - 


- boother. 


Three - 


- boother duar. 


Four - 


- boother boother. 


Father 


- pape. 


Mother 


- mina. 


Sister-Elder 




„ Younger 




Brother-Elder 




, , Younger 


A young man 


- kipper. 


An old man 


- durra. 


An old woman 


- 


A baby 


- ongal, ongura. 


A White man 


- 


Children - 


- 


Head - 


- kopul. 


Eye - 


- mil. 


Ear - 


- ema. 



TBNTBEPIELD, NEW ENGLAND. 



295 



No. 


179.— Tentekfield, New Enqlanb- 


-continued. 


Mouth 


- eyra. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- era. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head - gonyal. 


Wood - . - 


- nunda. 


Beard - 


- nokan. 


Stone - 


- tarro. 


Thunder - 


- boogoon. 


Camp - 


- moora. 


Grass - 


- outhan. 


Yes - - 


- yoor. 


Tongue 


. 


No - 


- yakka. 


Stomach 


- mucha. 


I 


- mina. 






You - 


- inda. 


Breasts 


- nammo. 






Thigh - 


- bongon. 


Bark - 


- goola. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Good - 


- pepan. 


Bone - 


- nimbra. 


Bad - 


• nantha. 


Blood - 


- gooma. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - - 


- ingal. 


Food - 


- talta. 


Fat - 


- komba. 


Hungry 


- tooloominga 


Bowels 


- kuUinga. 


Thirsty 


- 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Eat - 


- yooa. 


War-spear - 


- pathin. 


Sleep - 


- woorn. 


Reed-spear - 


- (not used). 


Drink - 


- korilta. 


Throwing-stick 


- (not used). 


Walk - 


- mannila. 


Shield 


- menge. 






Tomahawk - 


- wakur. 


See - 


- malgu. 


Canoe - 


- (not used). 


Sit - 


- narela. 


Sun - 


- talgai. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- guir. 


To-day 


■ taUn. 


Star - 


- megan. 


To-morrow ■ 


- tagree. 


Light - - 


- magool. 


Where are the 


Dark - 


- mooroo. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- wegar. 






Day - 


- tarar. 


Plenty 


- meliuga. 


Night - 


- noom. 


Big - - 


- magin. 


Fire - 


- wee. 


Little 


- tawoni. 


Water 


■ kookoo. 


Dead 


- watoona. 


Smoke 


- dooral. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- tarri. 


Come on 


- ethemaa. 


Wind - 


- buran. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- yoorin. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



296 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 179.— GLEN INNES, NEW ENGLAND. 



By C. B. Lowe, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- groman. 


Opossum 


koope. 


Tame dog - 


merri. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


ngoorung. 


Black duck - 


gundereba. 


Wood duck - 


goorowburra 


Pelican 


- wugil. 


Laughing jackass gargoon. 


Native companion ngeura. 


White cockatoo 


- geearabel. 


Crow - 


wahgun. 


Swan - 


burabura. 


Egg - - 


kaboa. 


Track of a foot 


gidena. 


Fish - 


goorool. 


Lobster 


- naloan. 


Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


giwin. 


Fly - 


borlo. 


Snake - 


goorara. 


The Blacks - 


goonawl. 


A Blackfellow - 


gibbera. 


A Black woman - 


akitchera. 


Nose - 


moro. 



Hand - 


- yumma. 


2 Blacks 


boola gibbera 


3 Blacks - 


- boola gereara 




gibbera. 


One - 


- gereara. 


Two - 


boola. 


Three - 


boola gereara. 


Four - 




Father 


papiel. 


Mother 


munga. 


Sister-Elder 


wundeal. 


,, Younger 




Brother-Elder 


gubbeal. 


„ Younger 


A young man 




An old man 


booraby. 


An old woman 


gidoonga. 


A baby 


gookarna. 


A White man 


margue. 


Children 


oongarleen. 


Head - 


karpooi. 


Eye - 


meill, 


Ear - 


beidna. 



GLEN INNBS, NEW ENGLAND. 



297 





No. 179. — Glen Innbs — contirmed. 




Mouth 




Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


■ gia. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- heab. 


Wood - 


- gate. 


Beard - 


- nukkim. 


Stone - 


- goodno. 


Thunder 


- boorongi. 


Camp - 


- ngoora. 


Grass - 


- withun. 


Yes - 


- 


Tongue 


- galbain. 


No - 


- ooka. 


Stomach 


- makki. 


I 


- atcha. 


Breasts 


- ngamoo. 


You - 


- inda. 


Thigh - 


- garra. 


Bark - 


- goolo. 


Foot - 


- gidda. 


Good - 


- bepan. 


Bone - 


- nimbe. 


Bad - 


- ngaraga. 


Blood - 


- gungera. 


Sweet - 


■ galer. 


Skin - 


- yungera. 


Food - 


- ewi. 


Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 


- kumba. 

- galleenga. 

- goonna. 


Hungry 
Thirsty 


- boongere. 

- boi. 


War-spear - 


- bithin. 


Eat - 


- eni. 


Reed-spear - 


- wurre. 


Sleep - 


- nooroombiba. 


Throwing-stick 


- duanga gat. 


Drink - 


- gokogulba. 


Shield - 


- gungi. 


Walk - 


- manelba. 


Tomahawk - 


- wakara. 


See - 


- ngarugeba. 


Canoe - 




Sit - 


- gari. 


Sun - 


- galgi. 


Yesterday - 


- ngoroongra. 


Moon - 


- gewarra. 


To-day 


- galan. 


Star - 


- mageen. 


To-morrow - 


- mooraga. 


Light - 


- galgi, guppungi. 


Where are the wonga gibbera ? 


Dark - 


- ngoro. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- wuUi. 


I don't know 


- ooka atcha inan 


Heat - 


- galgarga. 




gange. 


Day - 


- yullooeenga 


Plenty 


- goonootan. 


Night - 


- ngoronga. 


Big - 


- maggim. 


Fire - 


- wi. 


Little - 


- jowar. 


Water 


- goko. 


Dead - 


- battoonye. 


Smoke 


- jaw. 


By-and-by - 


- ballok. 


Ground 


- garra. 


Come on 


- yatte manna. 


Wind- 


boorau. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


yuro. 


Eaglehawk 




God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 


- 



298 



THE AUSTEAIilAN RACE: 



No. 180.— QUBENBULLA, ASHPORD, AND QUININGUILLAN. 
By the Distbict Bench of Magistrates. 



Kangaroo - 


maroni. 


Hand - 


yambia. 


Opossum 


koopi. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


menni. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One - 


tonway. 


Emu - 


gawril. 


Two - 


boobia. 


Black duck 








Wood duck 


- grober. 


Three - 


boobiathi. 


Pelican 


woohoodoo. 


Four - 




Laughing jackass 


gookooya. 


Father 


parpinga. 


Native companion gooriatti. 


Mother 


kuppenea. 


White cockatoo 




Sister-Elder 


wonde. 


Crow - 


- wakan. 


,, Younger 




Swan - 


willar. 


Brother-Elder 


kownonbi. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


gungi. 
winnia. 


„ Youngei 




Fish - 


- garo. 


A young man 


■ towanbuUa 


Lobster 


gonon. 


An old man 


brubbi. 


Crayfish 


gindangia. 


An old woman 


- mooberri. 


Mosquito 


- moneillia. 


A baby 


- gow. 


Fly - 


barloo. 


A White man 


- goone. 


Snake 


thunni. 






The Blacks - 




Children 


- talliwakin. 


A Blaokfellow 


thukkin. 


Head - 


- bookia. 


A Black woman 


kolleria. 


Eye - 


- meine. 


Nose - 


mario. - 


Ear - 


- buUekin. 



QUEENBULLA, ASHPORD, AND QUININGUILLAN. 299 



No. 180. — QUEENBULLA, ASHFOKD, 

Mouth - - yeire. 

Teeth - - - teeria. 
Hair of the head- bookia. 

Beard - - yarri. 

Thunder - - toloomatme. 

Grass - - - woone. 

Tongue - - thathi. 

Stomach - - theethia. 

Breasts - - moonbi. 

Thigh - - beeyo. 

Foot - - - winnier. 

Bone - - - yembi. 

Blood - - - kooninber. 

Skin - - - yooti. 

Fat - - - kumbia. 

Bowels - - neria. 

Excrement - - biritlay. 

War-spear - - karki. 

Reed-spear - - wari. 

ThrowLng-stick - pankin. 

Shield- - - marombi. 

Tomahawk - - bebia. 

Canoe - - - walkia. 

San - - - tooni. 

Moon - - - gethi. 

Star - - - meria. 

Light - - - tooni. 

Dark . - - muther. 

Cold - - - yeither. 

Heat - - - galthra. 

Day - - - thaUau. 

Night - - - muther. 

Fire - - - myee or wyee. 

Water - kooki. 

Smoke - - wothi. 

Ground - - thakoo. 

Wind - - - woUar. 

Rain - - - neilther. 
God - 
Ghosts 



AND QuiNiNGuiLLAN — cwiivmied. 
Boomerang - 
Hill - 

Wood- - - thuudler. 

Stone - • - thrawe. 

Camp - - - woora. 

Yes - - - yoi. 

No - - - koi. 

I - - - ninda. 

You - - - numba. 

Bark - - - gunnoogulki. 

Good - - - munluba. 

Bad - - - yooriwia. 

Sweet- - - munluba. 

Food - - - wekia. 

Hungry - - thwring. 

Thirsty - - gookoowing. 

Bat - - - ginyeadowngi. 

Sleep - - - noriwa. 

Drink- - - numbulla. 

Walk - - - munillia. 

See - - - nilli. 
Sit - - 

Yesterday - - thanlunguUa. 

To-day - - thalUan. 

To-morrow- - baralballurgi. 
Where are the bumbriniuil 

Blacks? yonni ? 
I don't know 

Plenty - - woUigooki. 

Big - - - woUi. 

Little - - - kuthier. 

Dead - - - bartmee. 

By-and-by - - barloi. 

Come on - - kowi. 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 
Wife - 



BOOK THE FOURTEENTH. 



BOOK THE FOURTEENTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

The langnage and marriage customs of the Kamilaroi tribes 
have been treated of by the late Eevd. William Ridley in his 
work entitled Kamilaroi and other Australian Languages, 
which volume in turn has formed the principal groundwork 
of Messrs. Fison and Howitt's volume Kamilaroi and Kurnai. 
As the marriage customs of the Kamilaroi tribes have already 
been considered in Chapter 4 of the present work, they are 
not referred to in what follows. 

Of the Common "Vocabulary eight Kamilaroi translations 
have been given, with a view of enabling the reader to judge 
of how small are the differences of speech which occur within 
the area in which this tongue prevails. It wiU be noticed 
that Murri = Blackfellow, and Kamil — No, are found in each 
of the eight translations. In these dialects affinities will be 
noticed in the equivalents of tongue and eat. 



304 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 181.— THE BARWAN, GWYDER, AND NAMOI 
EIVERS. 

MOREE, NUNDLE, WEB-WAA, BARRABA, BOGABRIE, AND 

MEBKE. 



THE KAMH^AROI LAJfGUAGE. 

By the late Rbvd. William Ridley, M.A., J. Moseley, Esq., 

Pbank Bucknell, Esq.; 

The Bench of Magistbates at Mokeb, Nundle, Wee-waa, Babeaba, 

and bogabeie. 

Kamilaeoi, the name of this language, and of one at least 
of the tribes which speak it, is derived from Kamil or Gumil, 
the negative adverb of the tongue. In the Kamilaroi country 
there still exist the remnants of several independent tribes 
which no doubt used to belong to more than one association. 
Of one of these tribes which dwell on the Gwyder, Mr. Frank 
Bucknell has forwarded me an account, which is to the 
following effect. 

The name of the tribe says Mr. Bucknell is Kamilroi* 
Since he first became acquainted with it, it has greatly 
decreased in numbers, owing to the use of ardent spirits, the 
result being generally lung disease, which is the prevalent 
disorder. Some individuals of the tribe seem to have reached 
the age of eighty years. Besides waist-belts, the Kamilroi 
wear as clothes rugs made of opossum skins and occasionally 
of the skins of young kangaroo. For ornaments they wear 
(or used to do, for at the present time, 1874, they have but 
few of their native customs left) in their hair on festive 
occasions shells and the' yellow crest of the white cockatoo. 
To the same end they also smear the person with red ochre, 

* Mr. Bucknell speaks of this particular tribe as Kamilroi. Describers 
of related tribes generally spell the word Kamilaroi. — E, M. C. 



BARWAN, GWYDER, AND NAMOI RIVERS. 305 

on which lines of pipe-clay are painted. Before we intro- 
duced iron, their implements were the usual tomahawk and 
knife made of stone or flint. They still have bags and nets 
made of tough grass or of the bark of the currajong-tree, 
some of them being prettily and all of them substantially 
manufactured, for the savage, as long as he works for himself, 
never scamps his work. For weapons they have boomerangs 
of both kinds, clubs, spears which are thrown by hand and 
not with the wommera, many of these implements being 
elaborately carved. 

In this tribe the young of both sexes have to submit to 
certain restrictions in connection with food; some being 
forbidden to eat honey and others the opossum. When Mr. 
BuckneU first knew the Kamilroi, in 1853, there were 
amongst them two men and one woman slightly pitted with 
small-pox. This disease seems to have visited the tribe 
about the year 1830, and to have cut off many. Their name 
for it is booert. Grown persons in this tribe had a strong 
objection to being called by the names of their infancy, 
which was sometimes resorted to for the purpose of annoy- 
ance. Kidgella, Mungilla, and Werneya are the names of 
three of the women. 

The subdivision of the Kamilaroi tribes into classes has 
already been mentioned in a former chapter, and I learn from 
my informant that marriages were entirely regulated by these 
classes. Mr. Bucknell also says that each male and female 
is (or was) allowed to marry into one of two classes, but that 
children always belonged to the class of their mother. Girls 
were often betrothed in infancy, and became wives at about 
fourteen years of age. Like other tribes, they scar the body 
for ornamental purposes, and knock out one of the teeth of 
the males at the boora, or secret ceremony by which they are 
admitted to the rank of young men. They also wear a bone 
through the septum of the nose. 

Mr. Bucknell agrees with the late Eevd. William Eidley 
in stating that the Kamilaroi tribes believe in the existence 
of an Almighty Creator. They also believe in spirits, and 

VOL. III. V 



306 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE ! 



are fearfal of going near graves at night. FisMng is carried 
on with nets and spears, and hy means of weirs constructed 
with boughs and stakes, to the opening of which is affixed a 
long bag-net. As a sign of mourning, they plaster the head 
with mud. 

For colds, the Kamilaroi of the present day use, as a 
drink, water in which wild mint has been steeped, and for 
an aperient water in which bark of the wild lavender-tree 
has been steeped. Whether they used remedies of the sort 
before they became acquainted with the Whites seems very 
questionable. I do not think our Blacks had any idea of the 
use of purgatives. With outward applications they undoubt- 
edly had some acquaintance, and Mr. Bucknell notices that 
pains of the stomach are treated with an application of 
heated eucalyptus leaves. For snake-bite, a ligature is tied 
above and below the wound, and the part bled and sucked. 
If a bed of small red ants be at hand, the patient takes his 
stand on it, and endures the sharp bites of the insects for 
about an hour. 



No. 181. — Additional Wokds, by the late Revd. W. Ridley. 



Son - 


- wurume. 


Lungs - 


kaogi. 


Daughter - 


- ngumunga. 


Liver - 


kanna. 


Uncle 


- pamandi. 


Kidneys 


mukar, mogur 


Nephew 


- wurumungadi, 


Knee - 


dinbir. 


Niece - 
Man's breasts 
Cheek - 
Lips - 
Chin - 


kurugandi. 

- ngumungadi. 
birri. 

- wa, kwati. 

- ille, kumai. 

- tal. 


Leg - - - buiyo, poiyu. 
Ankle - - - ngor. 
Heel - - - tanga. 
Verily - - gir. 
Full (after eating) yularai. 


Moustache - 


- buti. 


Wonderful - 


ngipai. 


Throat 


- wuru, dildil. 


Term expressive 


yamma ? 


Neck - 


- nun. 


of interrogation 




Back - 


- guria, baoa. 


placed at the be- 




Arm - 


- bungun. 


ginning of a sen- 




Heart - 


■ ki, gi- 


tence 





BABWAN, GWYDBR, AND NAMOI RIVERS. 



307 



Additional Words, by the late Revd. W. Ridley — continued. 



God verily made man; first man 
Adam. God said: "Not it is good 
for man alone to dwell ; I for man 
woman wUl make." Then God 
woman made ; first woman Eve; 
Eve wife of Adam. 

Adam father of Blaokfellow, father 
of Whitef ellow, father of all. Eve, 
mother of Blaokfellow, mother of 
Whitefellow, mother of all. 



Baiame gir giwir giombi; mal 
giwir Adam. Baiame goe: " Ka- 
mil murruba giwir ngandil ngud- 
delago ; ngaiagiwirgo inar gimbille." 
Ea Baiame inar giombe; mal inar 
Iva; Iva gulir Adamu. 

Adam buba murringu, buba won- 
dangu, bubakanungo. Ivangumba 
murringu, ngumba wondangu, 
ngumba kanungo. 



Additional Woeds fobwarded by the Bench at Wee-waa. 

Aunt - - - booriaili (?). 
Cousin - - boardi (?). 



Names of women Gibilga, Yan- 
goma. 

Family names - Cubbi, Combo, 
Hippi, Murri. 

Uncle - - - carrondi. 



Demon - - wonda. 
Southern Cross - birubi. 



U2 



308 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 181.— NAMOI AND BARWAN RIVERS. 



By the Revd. William Ridley. 



Kangaroo - 


bundar. 


Opossum 


mute. 


Tame dog - 


buruma. 


Wild dog - 


murren or yuggi 


Emu - 


dinoun. 


Black duck - 


kurrongi. 


Wood duck- 


ngunumbi. 


Pelioan 


guleale. 


Laughing jackass 


kukuraka. 


Native companior 


buralga. 


White cockatoo 


biloeta, morai. 


Crow - 


waru. 


Swan ■ 


barianmul. 


Egg - 


ko. 


Track of a foot - 


turabul. 


Fish - 


guia. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


mungin. 


Fly - - - 


burulu. 


Snake (black) 


nurai. 


The Blacks - 


murri. 


A Blackfellow - 




A Black woman - 


tnar or yennar. 


Nose - 


muru. 



Hand - 


murra. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks 




One - 


mal. 


Two - 


bular. 


Three - 


guleba. 


Four 


bularbular. 


Father 


buba. 


Mother 


ngumba. 


Sister-Elder 


boadi. 


„ Younger 


buri. 


Brother-Elder 


daidi. 


,, Younger 


■ gullami. 


A young man 


kubura. 


An old man 


■ diria (grey). 


An old woman 


yambuli. 


A baby 


kaindul. 


A White man 


wunda. 


Children 


kai. 


Head - 


kaoga, gha, ga 


Eye - 


mil. 


Ear - 


binna. 



NAMOI AND BAEWAN RIVERS. 



309 



No. 


181. — Namoi and Barwan Riveks- 


-continued. 


Mouth 


- yari. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- yira. 


Hill - 


• 


Hair of the head - tegul. 


Wood - 


- tulu. 


Beard - 


- yare. 


Stone - 


- yarul. 


Thunder - 


- tulumi. 


Camp - 


- wolai. 


Grass - 


- gera, yindal, 


Yes - 


- yo. 




goaror. 


No - - 


- kamil. 


Tongue 


- tulle. 


I 


- ngaia. 


Stomach 


- mubal. 


You - - 


- inda, nginda. 


Breasts 


- ngummu. 


Bark - 


- tura. 


Thigh - - 


- durra. 


Good - 


- murruba. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Bad - 


- kagil, kuggil. 


Bone - 


- burra. 


Sweet - 


- murruba. 


Blood - - 


- gue. 






Skin - 


- yuli. 


Food - 


- yul. 


Fat - 


- ghori. 


Hungry 


- yulngin. 


Bowels 


Thirsty 


- koUengin. 


Excrement - 


_ 


Eat - - 


- tali. 


War-spear - 


- pilar. 


Sleep - 


- babi. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


- ngarugi. 


Wommera or 




Walk - - 


- yani. 


throwing-stick 




See - 


- ngummi. 


Shield - 


- burin. 


Sit - - 


- nguddela. 


Tomahawk - 


- yundu. 


Yesterday - 


- gimiandi, 


Canoe - 


- kumbilgal. 




ngaribu. 


Sun - 
Moon - 


- yarai. 

- gille. 


To-day 


- yeradtha, ilaunu 


Star - 


- mirri. 


To-morrow - 


- nguruko. 


Light - 


- 


Where are 


the tuUa murri 


Dark - 


. 


Blacks ? 


nguddela ? 


Cold - 


- karil. 


I don't know 


- kamil ngaia 


Heat - 


. 




winungi. 


Day - 


- yeradtha. 


Plenty 


- burrula. 


Night - 


- nguru. 


Big - 


- burul. 


Fire - 


- wi. 


Little - 


- kai. 


Water 


- kolle, woUun. 


Dead - 


- balun. 


Smoke 


- du, dhu. 


By-and-by - 


- yerala. 


Ground 


- taon. 


Come on 


- yanilla. 


Wind- 


- maier. 


MUk - 


- 


Rain - 


- yuro. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- baiame. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



310 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 181.-NAM0I, BARWAN, MEEHE. 
By J. MosELBY, Esq., of Wee-waa. 



Kangaroo - 


boonda. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


moothe. 


2 Blacks - 


■ boola murrie. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 


booroomine. 

theenoon, maree. 
kooraugee. 
goonambee. 
goola, allee. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 

Two - 
Three - 
Four - 


- koolabar murrie, 

- mahl. 
■ boola. 

- koolabar. 
boola-boola. 


Laughing jackass kookooburra, 


Father 


boobar. 




kurra-wurra. 


Mother 


womba, numba. 


Native companion booralga. 


Sister-Elder 


booradie. 


White cockatoo 


eenboona. 


,, Younger 


bugandie. 


Crow - 

Swan - 
Egg - - 
Track of a foot ■ 


waroo. 
booroondal. 
kow. 
deena. 


Brother-Elder ■ koolarmee. 

,, Younger 
A young man - oolkald, biree. 


Fish - 


goo-ya. 


An old man 


■ teeya, dirarl- 


Lobster 


kary. 




dool. 


Crayfish 


kary. 


An old woman 


- oomballee. 


Mosquito - 


moogin. 


A baby 


- kee-.e-i, kindool. 


Fly - - ■ 
Snake (brown) 
The Blacks - 


boorooloo. 

noorai. 

murrie. 


A White man 
Children 


- wonda. 

- booroola,wee-e-i 


A Blackfellow - 


mahl murrie. 


Head - 


gar, kar. 


A Black woman - 


eena, iuna. 


Eye - 


- mil. 


Nose - 


mooroo. 


Ear - 


binna. 



NAMOI, BARWAN, MEEHE. 



311 



No 


181. — Namoi, Barwan, Mebhb — continued. 


Mouth 


■ ungee. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- eera. 


HiU - 


. 


Hair of the head 


- yarraga. 


Wood- 


- thooloo. 


Beard - 


- yarre. 


Stone - 


- yarrel. 


Thtmder - 


- thooloomo. 






Grass - 




Camp - 


- woUi, ngoora. 


Tongue 


- talla. 


Yes - 


- yeo. 


Stomach 


- moorbaal. 


No - 


- kommel. 


Breasts 


- thnamoo. 


I - - 


- ngeia. 


Thigh 


- boo-i-oo. 


You - 


- eenda. 


Foot - 


- deena. 


Bark - 


- toora. 


Bone - 


- boora. 


Good - 


' murooba. 


Blood - 


- gooai. 


Bad - 


- bane. 


Skin - 


- ula. 






Pat - 


- wommo. 


Sweet - 


- kupper. 


Bowels 


- moobaal, kgol- 


Food - 


- tooa. 




leen. 


Hungry 


- yoonquil. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Thirsty 


- wolleenquil. 


War-spear - 


- beelar. 


Eat - 


- tarlee. 


Reed-spear - 


- waree. 


Sleep - 


- barbee. 


Wommera or 


wommora. 


Drink - 


- ngafooki. 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- yanna. 


Shield 
Tomahawk - 


- mungan. 
■ yoondo. 


See - - 


- ngoomilli. 


Canoe - 


- wyardka. 


Sit - 


- ngareel. 


Sun - 


- yeearai. 


Yesterday - 


- ngarra, kagool 


Moon - 


- gillee. 


To-day 


- marl. 


Star - 


- mirrie. 


To-morrow - 


- mooroogko. 


Light - 


- narran. 


Where are 


the allar murri ? 


Dark - 


- nooroo. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- waheel. 


I don't know 


- kommillar. 


Heat - 


- boolarte,taweela. 


Plenty 


- booroola. 


Day - 


- boUa. 


Big - - 


- boorool. 


Night - 


- ngooroo. 


Little - 


- kiudool. 


Fire - 


- wee. 


Dead - 


- bolloo. 


Water 


- wollee. 






Smoke 


- too. 


By-and-by - 


- eerarloo. 


Ground 


- towon. 


Come on 


- tianowa. 


Wind- 


- mathe. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kollee. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



312 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 181.— GWYDER RIVER. 



By Frank Bucknell, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


bund ah. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


mootta. 


2 Blacks - 


- boolar murry. 


Tame dog - 


boorooma. 


3 Blacks ■ 


- cooleebar murry 


Wild dog - - 


murrain. 


One - 


- marl. 


Emu " 


dinown. 


Two - 


- boolar. 


Black duck 


curringa. 


Three - 


- coolebar. 


Wood duck 


guuumba. 


Four - 


- moolamboo and 


Pelican 


coola-arlee. 




boolar boolar. 


Laughing jackass 


coocoocarcar. 


Father 


- pian-dool, boyd 


Native companior 


I boralgar. 




jurt, poopar. 


White cockatoo - 


mowri. 


Mother 


- ngumbar. 


Crow - 


warrow or mine- 


Sister-Elder 


- powarthey. 




gar. 


„ Younger 


- prainarthey. 


Swan - - - 


parrear mel. 


Brother-Elder 


- tyarthey. 


Egg - - - 


CO. 


,, Younger coUyningarthey 


Track of a foot - 


dinner. 


A young man 


- cobbora and 


Fish - 
Lobster 


guir. 


An old man 


ongarl. 
- waim-mar. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - - •• 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow - 


geary. 

noongin. 

boorooloo. 

nourri. 

murry. 

murry. 


An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 
Children - 
Head - 


- yamboolee. 

- kirrakar. 

- wonda. 

- ki-kul-ka. 

- ko-kar. 


A Black woman - 


innurt. 


Eye ■ 


- mill. 


Nose - - - 


mooroo. 


Ear . 


- binnar. 



GWYDER RIVER. 



313 



No. 181. — GwTDEK River — contmued. 



Mouth 


ngeh. 


Boomerang 


bur-rum. 


Teeth 


yeara. 


Hill - 


cub-ba. 


Hair of the head 


cu. 


Wood 


dooloo. 


Beard 


yerra. 


Stone - 


yarral. 


Thunder - 


dooloomra. 


Camp - 


walli. 


Grass 


kean. 


Yes - 


ah-yoo. 


Tongue 


tuUey. 


No - 


commil. 


Stomach - 


moobul. 


I 


niah. 


Breasts 


ngummoo. 


You - 


indur. 


Thigh 
Foot - 


turrar. 
■ dinner. 


Bark - 
Good - 


■ nundar. 
cubber. 


Bone ■ 


- boorar. 


Bad - 


- wun-ghu. 


Blood - 


- guoy. 


Sweet 


■ warril-it. 


Skin - 


- enlie. 


Food - 


- youl. 


Fat - 


- wommo. 


Hungry 


youn-ning. 


Bowels 


- goolo-lar. 


Thirsty 


- coUinguin. 


Excrement - 


- goonar. 


Eating 


■ talden. 


War-spear - 


- belar. 


Sleeping - 


- boonna cowin ya 


Reed-spear 


- (have none). 


Drinking 


- ngarroo giller. 


Wommera or 


moorooler. 


Walking 


- yan-nay-bur. 


throwing-stick 




Seeing 


- omilder. 


Shield 


- booreen. 


Sitting 


- whurrillar. 


Tomahawk 


- yuandoo. 


Yesterday - 


- gimmeanyo. 


Canoe 


- 


To-day 


- nore yarrijur. 


Sun - 


- yarri. 


To-morrow- 


- noo, ro-go. 


Moon - 


- gilla. 


Where are the 


tul-lar -murry ? 


Star - 


- mirree. 


Blacks ? 




T.ight - 


- yirree. 


I don't know 


- tullar mar. 


Dark - 


- nooroo. 


Plenty 


- boorool wealar. 


Cold - 


- kurreel. 


Big - 


- booral. 


Heat - 


- boolate. 


Little 


- kianjole. 


Day - 


- yarrigee. 


Dead - 


- boUonney. 


Night 


- nooroo. 


By-and-by - 


- yerralon. 


Fire - 
Water 
Smoke 


- wee. 

- coUey. 

- dhoo. 


Come on - 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk 


- tyannuga. 

- ngummel. 

- muUion. 


Ground 
Wind 
Rain - 


- maite. 

- coUey par in ya. 


Wild turkey 


- burrowar (plain 
turkey), 
wirraller (scrub 


God - 


- biamma. 




turkey). 


Ghosts 


- ghineet-bee. 


Wife - 


- goolear. 



314 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 181.~M0REE. 
By Bench of Maqistkates. 



Kangaroo - 


- bundar. 


Hand - 


- mora. 


Opossum - 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


- mooty. 

- boolomo 

- thinnoo. 


2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 


- boolar murri. 

- kooliba murri 

- mal. 


Black duck 


- kurrongey. 


Two - 


- boolar. 


Wood duck 


- goomby. 


Three - 


- kooliba. 


Pelican 


- koolyalle. 


Four - 


- 


Laughing jackass kookoborro. 
Native companion booralga. 
White cockatoo - moori. 
Crow - - -. meauga. 
Swan - . - koolamballee. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 
,, Younger 


- boobady. 

- umbady. 

- boady. 


Egg - - 


- kow. 


Brother-Elder 


- theady. 


Track of a foot 


- theena. 


,, Young 


it 


Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - . 

Snake - 


- gooea. 

- keery. 

- moongin. 

- poodeloo. 

- thi. 


A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 


■ kure. 

- theera. 

- theera. 

- kiangle. 

- wonda. 


The Blacks- 


- boolamurri. 


Children - 


- 


A Blackfellow 


- murri. 


Head - 


- yagh. 


A Black woman 


- eenar. 


Eye - 


- mil. 


Nose - 


- moora. 


Ear - 


■ bena. 



MOREE. 



315 





No. 181.— Mon^ti— continued. 




Mouth- - ■ 


- nigh. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- eeara. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- kowga. 


Wood - 


- thooloo. 


Beard ■ 


- yarry. 


Stone - 


- yerrul. 


Thunder - 


- toolomi. 


Camp - 


- walli. 


Grass - 


- yrar. 


Yea - 


- yoe. 


Tongue 


thily. 


No - 


- komil. 


Stomach 
Breasts 


- kea. 


I 

You - 


• ngia. 


Thigh - 
Foot - 
Bone - 
Blood - 
Skin - 
Fat - 


- buyo. 

- thinna. 

- boora. 

- guoy. 

- uly. 

- wammoo. 


Bark - 
Good - 
Bad - 
Sweet - 
Food - 


- tooro. 

- koba. 

- kogU. 


Bowels 




Hungry 


- ungil. 


Excrement - 


- goona. 


Thirsty 


- galligin. 


War-spear - 


- peelar. 


Eat - 


- tally. 


Eeed-spear - 




Sleep - 


- babee. 


Woimnera or 


tholowaly. 


Drink - 


- norriguy. 


throwing-stiok 
Shield - 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 


- yoondo. 

- eri. 


Walk - 
See - 
Sit " - 
Yesterday - 


- yenni. 

- omi. 

- norree. 


Moon - 


- killi. 


To-day 


- ilia. 


Star - 


- meeree. 


To-morrow - 


- morrogo. 


Light - 




Where are the 


thalla murri ? 


Dark ■ 


- muro. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- koreal. 


I don't know 


- komil wingan 


Heat - 


- boolet. 




ella. 


Day - 




Plenty 


boodela. 


Night - 


- muroo. 


Big - - 


- burr. 


Fire - 


- wee. 


Little - 


kirri-murra. 


Water - 


kally. 


Dead - 


balomey. 


Smoke 


■ thoo. 


By-and-by - 


eeralu. 


Ground 


thoun. 


Come on 


tianiuga. 


Wind - 


meed. 


Milk - 




Eain ■ 


koUee bally. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 





316 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 181.— NUNDLE. 



By Bench op Magistrates, Nundlb. 



Kangaroo - 


bundar. 


Hand - 


- ma. 


Opossum - 
Tame dog - 

Wild dog - 
Emu 


gooee. 
myi, mirri, 

wanti. 

mooree. 


2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 


- bla murri. 

- kooliba murri 
marl. 

- bla. 


Black duck - 


koorangee. 


Three - 


- kooliba. 


Wood duck- 




Four - 


_ 


PeUcan 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - 


kookooburra. 
bralga. 
geeray. 
waro. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 
„ Younger 


- gunnyja. 

- bugandi. 


Swan ■ - - 




Brother-Elder 


. 


Egg - - - 
Track of a foot - 
Fish - 
Lobster 


thiuna. 
gooya. 


„ Younger 
A young man 
An old man 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- 


Mosquito - 
Fly . 

Snake - 
The Blacks - 


burrillo. 

nebe. 

murri. 


A baby 

A White man 

Children 


- guy- 

- wunda. 


A Blackfellow - 


murri. 


Head - 


- gunga. 


A Black woman - 


goolear. 


Eye - 


- meel. 


Nose .. - - 


mooroo. 


Ear - 


- binna. 





NUNDLB. 






No 181.— NUNDLE— COMiiMJiCci. 




Mouth 




Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 




Hill - 


, 


Hair of the head 


ga. 


Wood - 


. 


Beard - 
Thunder - 
Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach 


yarri. 
toolooma. 

moobul. 


Stone - 
Camp - 
Yes - 
No - 


- guUa. 

- geyro. 

- kammil. 


Breasts 




I 


- ny-ya. 


Thigh - 

Foot - 


- buyo. 

- thinna. 


You - 
Bark - 


- inda. 


Bone - 




Good - 


- mundaba. 


Blood - 




Bad - 


- 


Skin - 




Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 




Food - 


_ 


Bowels 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 


- moobul. 

- goonna, 

- tooloo. 


Hungry 
Thirsty 

Eat ■ 


- 


Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 
throwing-stick 
Shield - 




Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk- 


- barbee. 


Tomahawk - 


- yundoo. 


See - 


- ngamilu. 


Canoe - 




Sit - 


- 


Sun - 




Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- geelee. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 




To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 
Heat - 
Day - 
Night - 
Fire - 


kreel. 
wee. 


Where are the 

Blacks? 
I don't know 
Plenty 
Big - - 
Little - 


thela murri ? 

- murrowel. 

- ki-indual. 


Water 


kalley. 


Dead - 




Smoke 




By-and-by - 




Ground 


down. 


Come on] - 




Wind - 




Milk - 




Eain - 


woUa. 


Baglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 





317 



318 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 181.— NAMOI. 



By Bench or MAaisTEATES at Wee-waa. 



If the reader will look at the translation of no in this vocabulary and 
also at that of / donH hnow, he will find the first of these terms made into 
a verb. 



Kangaroo - 


boondar. 


Opossum 


moota. 


Tame dog - 


boorooma. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


dinoon. 


Black duck - 


kurange. 


Wood duck 


goonambe. 


Pelican 


goolalli. 


Laughing jackass 


kurrali, warra. 


Native companion boralga. 


White cockatoo - 


emboona. 


Crow - 


wori. 


Swan - 


booroonda. 


Egg - - 


kow. 


Track of a foot - 


diuna. 


Fish - 


kooya. 


Lobster 


karee. 


Crayfish - 


karee. 


Mosquito - 


■ nomqui. 


Fly - 


boorooloo. 


Snake - 


noora. 


The Blacks - 


murri. 


A Blackfellow - 




A Black woman - 


einna. 


Nose - 


mooroo. 



Hand - - - 

2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 

Four - - - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

„ Younger - 
Brother-Elder - 

„ Younger 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman - 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 

Head - - - 
Eye - 
Ear - 



murra, 

boola murri. 

koolaba murri. 

marl. 

boola. 

koolaba. 

boola boola. 

booba. 

nunba. 

warubill. 

booardi. 

booral. 

koolermi, 

oolkald. 

terriga. 

nunbooli. 

kei. 

wonda. 

boorookie. 

kur, gar. 

mil. 

binna. 



NAMOI. 



319 





No. 181.— Namoi— continued. 




Mouth 


- ngni. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- eera. 


Hill - - 


- 


Hair of the head- kar. 


Wood - 


- tooloo. 


Beard - 


- yarra. 


Stone - 


- yarral. 


Thunder - 


- thorooli. 


Camp - 


- wolli. 


Grass - 


- 


Yes - 


- yeo. 


Tongue 


- talla. 


No - 


- thomilorkommil 


Stomach 


- moobal. 


I 


- ngera. 


Breasts 


- namoo. 


You - 


- einda. 


Thigh 


- booro. 


Bark - 


- torral. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Good - 


- moorooba. 


Bone - 


- boora. 










Bad - 


- kokil. 


Blood - 
Skin - 


- gooaye. 

- ula. 


Sweet - 




Fat - 


- wommo. 


Food - 


- 


Bowels 


- koUeen-koUeen. 


Hungry 


- yeonal. 


Excrement - 


- gunna. 


Thirsty 


- boola. 


War-spear - 


- bela. 


Eat - - 


- tallee. 


Eeed-spear 


- warree. 


Sleep - 


- barbee. 


Wommera or 


moondoola. 


Drink - 


- narroke. 


throwing-stick 
Shield 


- brun. 


Walk - 


- yanna. 


Tomahawk - 


- woondoo. 


See - 


- nurinee. 


Canoe - 


- wyardka. 


Sit - 


- naraila. 


Sun - 


- earreye. 


Yesterday - 


- narrakogul. 


Moon - 


- gillee. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


- merree. 


To-morrow - 


- moorooko. 


Light - 


- torree. 


Where are 


the talla murri? 


Dark - 


- mooroo, bela. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- kureel. 


I don't know 


- kommillar. 


Heat - 


- poolati. 


Plenty 


- booroola. 


Day - 




Big - 


- boorol. 


Night - 


- ngooroo. 


Little - 


- kindoo. 


Fire 


- wee. 


Dead - 


- boUo. 


Water 


- koUee. 






Smoke 


- too. 


By-and-by - 


- eerarboo. 


Ground 


- town. 


Come on 


- tianowa. 


Wind- 


- maybe. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kollee. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- goowaa. 


Wife - 


- 



320 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 181.— BARRABA. 



Bt Bench or Magistrates at Bakeaba. 



Kangaroo - 


bundar. 


Ha,iid - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


kooi, mooti. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


boorooma. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Wild dog - 




One - 


- marl. 


Emu - 


dirrawan. 


Two - 


- boola. 


Black duck - 


kurrungi. 


Three - 


- kooleba. 


Wood duck - 
Pelican 


goonumbi. 
eoolamboolin. 


Four - 


- boolar-boolar. 


Laughing jackass ghoor-gha-gha. 


Father 


- booba, poopa. 


Native companion booralga. 


Mother 


- ngumba, ham- 


White cockatoo 


- mori. 




ooth. 


Crow - 


waro. 


Sister-Elder 


- bowadi. 


Swan - 


boorh-boorh. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


kow. 


Brother-Elder 


- tiade, tyar. 


wario. 


„ Younger kuUaminga, kul 


Pish - 


gooyah. 




lami. 


Lobster 


(none here). 


A young man 


- beri. 


Crayfish 


keerie. 


An old man 


- derradool. 


Mosquito - 


moongin. 


An old woman 


- 


Ply . . 


- boorooloo. 


A baby 


- kenegal. 


Snake - 


neebi, neeri. 


A White man 


- wanda. 


The Blacks ■ 


- murri. 


Children 


- ghi, kenegaldool 


A Blackfellow 


- kew-ihr. 


Head - 


- gha. 


A Black woman 


- yinnar. 


Eye - 


- mil. 


Nose - 


- mooroo. 


Ear ■ 


- binna. 





BARRABA. 


•6Zi 




No. 181. — Bakeaba — continued. 




Mouth 


- ngni. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- yeera. 


Hill - - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- kowgha. 


Wood 


- tooloo. 


Beard 


- yari. 


Stone - 


- yarrul. 


Thunder - 
Grass - 


- tooloomi. 

- goora. 


Camp - 


- walli, tuharma. 


Tongue 


- thalli. 


Yes - 


- kert. 


Stomach 


- moohal. 


No - - 


- kummil or gum- 


Breasts 


- ngamoor. 




mil. 


Thigh - 


- purru. 


I - - 


- ngunna. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


You - 


- inda. 


Bone - 


- boora. 


Bark - 


- booroor. 


Blood - 


- gooi. 


Good - - 


- murraba. 


Skin - 


- bowarh. 


Bad - 


- kuggil. 


Fat - 


- wammo. 


Sweet ■ 


- warrool. 


Bowels 


- goon. 


Food - 


- yula. 


Excrement - 


- goona. 


Hungry 


- yulegin. 


War-spear - 


- belar. 


Thirsty 


- koUingin. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Eat - 


- theldiau. 


Wommera or 


boondi, moorolu. 


Sleep - 


- ngooraroo. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- ngarroogi. 


Shield 


- burran. 


Walk - 


- yumbul, tarrowi. 


Tomahawk - 


- yandoo. 


See - 


- ngummile. 


Canoe - 


_ 


Sit - - 


- ngari. 


Sun - 


- yarri. 


Yesterday - 


- gimmandi. 


Moon - 


- gilli. 


To-day 


- yelatho. 


Star - 


- meri. 


To-morrow - 


- noorookou. 


Light - 


- ngurrun. 


Where are 1 


jhe menari murri ? 


Dark - 


- boolooi, ngooroo. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- karil. 


I don't know 


- kummil nghi 


Heat - 


- ingil. 




wirrangillan. 


Day - 


- ngurrun. 


Plenty 


- woorook, booroo- 


Night 


- ngurroo. 




looba. 


Fire - 


- wi, kooyung. 


Big - - 


- boorool. 


Water 


- koUi, wallan. 


Little - 


- kindool. 


Smoke 


- thoo. 


Dead - 


- mooran, ballingi- 


Ground 


- town. 


By-and-by - 


- yeral. 


Wind- 


- myar. 


Come on 


- kiarbar. 


Eain - 


- yooroo, wallan. 


Milk - ■■ 


- 


God - - 


- bhiami. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


Ghosts 


- wanda, ghirrum- 


Wild turkey 


- 




beUa. 


Wife - 


- 


VOIi. III. 


1 


c 





322 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 181.— BOGABRIE. 
By Bench op Maghsteates at Bogabbie. 



Kangaroo - 


boondar. 


Opossum 


mutty. 


Tame dog - 


boorama. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


tinoun. 


Black duok 


turugal. 


Wood duck 


koonambi. 


Pelican 


nurumbin. 


Laughing jackass 


kooyagigo. 


Native companior 


I booralga. 


White cockatoo 


mori. 


Crow - 


meanga. 


Swan - 


booromba. 


Egg - 


■ pooremal. 


Track of a foot 


- dinna. 


Pish - 


- gooya. 


Lobster 


- koorey. 


Criyfish - 




Mosquito - 


- munging. 


Ply . . 


- onegal. 


Snake - 


- nurri. 


The Blacks - 


- murri. 


A Blackfellow 


- 


A Black woman 


- enatt. 


Nose - 


- muru. 



Hand - 


- murra. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 




One - 


- mal. 


Two - 


- poolara. 


Three - 


- koolipa. 


Four - 


- poolera poolera 


Father 


- poopadde. 


Mother 


- umpadde. 


Sister-Elder 


- powadde. 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- thual. 


Younger 


A young man 


- koopera. 


An old man 


■ munber. 


An old woman 


- yambuUe. 


A baby 


- koy. 


A White man 


- wanda 


Children - 


- kially. 


Head - 


- koka. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Ear - 


- binna. 





BOGABRIE. 






No. 181. — BoGABRiE— continued. 




Mouth 


- nigh. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- eela. 


HiU - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- koka. 


Wood - 


- thuUu. 


Beard - 


- yarrie. 


Stone - 


- yattle. 


Thunder - 


- thooroone. 


Camp - 


- walle. 


Grass - 


- gerrett. 


Yes - 


- kurough. 


Tongue 


- thuUe. 


No - 


- kummil. 


Stomach 


- mobil. 


I 


- nunna. 


Breasts 


- berry. 


You - 


- indu. 


Thigh - 




Bark - 


- dunna. 


Foot - 


- thanna. 


Good ■ 


- miappaU. 


Bone - 


- bora. 


Bad - 


- kogil. 


Blood - 
Skin - 


- gooiti. 

- yuli. 


Sweet - 


- miappali. 


Fat - 




Food - 


- thu. 


- wamma. 






Bowels 


- goonna. 


Hungry 


- ungim. 


Excrement - 


- kouna. 


Thirsty 


- kallegan. 


War-spear - 


- billar. 


Eat - 


- thalle. 


Reed-spear ■ 


- 


Sleep - 


- babi. 


Wommera or 


gut-thro. 


Drink - 


- nurrupee. 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- yanni. 


Shield - 


- boorin. 


See - 


- namili. 


Tomahawk - 


- yondo. 


Sit - 


- naree. 


Canoe - 








Sun - 
Moon - 


- yarrai. 

- kille. 


Yesterday - 
To-day 


- murrago. 


Star - 


- mirri. 


To-morrow - 




Light - 


- yarrai. 


Where are the 


talla murri ? 


Dark - 


- ngooroo. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 




I don't know 


- kommil. 


Heat - 




Plenty 


- pootoola. 


Day - 


wooraroo. 


Big - 


- 


Night - 


noora. 


Little - 




Fire - 


wee. 


Dead - 


- ballunke. 


Water 


kalle. 






Smoke 


thoo. 


By-and-by - 


- yeerelda. 


Ground 


thone. 


Come on 


- thuganna. 


Wind - 


mait. 


Milk - - 


- 


Rain - 




Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


wantapal. 


Wife - - 


. 



323 



X 2 



BOOK THE FIFTEENTH. 



BOOK THE FIFTEENTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

In the Culgoa Yocabulary, which, occurs in this book, Meyne 
will he noticed as the equivalent of Blackfellow, and 
Mai-i-in in the Wailwun language; and turning hack the 
reader will find Meanna on the Cape Eiver, some 600 miles 
to the north, and Mean on the Belyando and Dawson in the 
same sense. 

In this book will be found a long and interesting 
vocabulary, which was drawn up more than thirty years 
ago, and forwarded to me by Mr. John Branch. In our 
young Australia, amidst the marvellous changes which are 
always taking place, one looks on a manuscript of thirty 
years with a feeling akin to that with which one regards 
a European document of half-a-dozen centuries. 

In the Hawkesbury Eiver and Brewarrina languages it 
wiU be observed that yesterday and to-morrow are expressed 
by the same term, a not uncommon feature in our 
languages. 



328 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 182.— THE CULGOA RIVER. 



By J. W. FooTT, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


koola. 


Opossum - 


kooki. 


Tame dog - 


goondahl. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


woorin. 


Black duck - 




Wood duck 


hurga. 


Pelican 


yoolira. 


Laughing jackass 




Native companion 


White cockatoo - 




Crow - 


waukin. 


Swan - 




Egg - - - 


kuppin. 


Track of a foot - 


tinna. 


Fish - 


kooya. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 


mamaroo 


Mosquito - 


bothine. 


Fly - - 


mookine. 


Snake - 


kalin. 


The Blacks - 




A Blackf ellow - 


meyne. 


A Black woman 


mookin. 


Nose - 


wooroo. 



Hand - 


■ myra. 


2 Blacks - 


kubbo meyne. 


3 Blacks - 


■ booragoolam 




meyne. 


One - 


- yahumun. 


Two - 


kubbo. 


Three - 


booragoolam. 


Four - 


kubbo-kubbo. 


Father 


■ buthine. 


Mother 


kya. 


Sister-Elder 


- bubba. 


,, Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- moen. 


„ Youngei 




A young man 


- yarragoonya. 


An old man 


- watoon. 


An old woman 


- mookin. 


A baby 


- koothara. 


A White man 


- goen. 


Children - 


- 


Head - 


- bambo. 


Eye - 


- mael. 


Ear - 


- binua. 



THE CULGOA RIVER. 



329 



No. 182. — The Culgoa Rivbb — contimied. 


Mouth 


- tha. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- thirra. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- muUine. 


Wood - 


- wahn. 


Beard - 


- yerine. 


Stone - 


- 


Thunder - 


- woolnoolno. 


Camp - 


- noora. 


Grass - 


- yowy. 


Yes - - 


- kyla. 


Tongue 


- tulline. 


No - - 


- wulla. 


Stomach 


- toogoo. 


I - - 


- nathu. 


Breasts 


- uumma. 


You - 


- yindoo. 


Thigh - 


- thurra. 


Bark - 


- toomgoon. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Good - 


- murringuU. 


Bone - 


- minga. 


Bad ■ 


- yooral. 


Blood - 


- gooine. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 




Food - 


. 


Fat - 


- tundy. 


Hungry 


- kundool. 


Bowels 




Thirsty 


- 


Excrement - 


- 


Eat - 


- thakoo. 


War-spear - 


- millayra. 


Sleep - 


- woonadra. 


Reed-spear - 


- not used. 


Drink - 




Thro wing-stick 
Shield 


- not used. 

- boorgoo. 


Walk - 


- yendra. 


Tomahawk - 


- thowin. 


See - 


- nengera. 


Canoe 


- toongoon. 


Sit - - 


- nee endera. 


Sun - 


- theory. 


Yesterday - 


- kunyagoonda. 


Moon - 


- keean. 


To-day 


- kunya. 


Star - 


- mirrin. 


To-morrow - 


- kunyabuttla. 


Light - 


- beea. 


Where are the 


theaminda 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 


meyne? 


Cold - - 


- munda. 


I don't know 


- wulla nahree. 


Heat - 


- wirm. 


Plenty 


- thoo. 


Day - 


- 


Big - 


- thara. 


Night - 


- 


Little - 


- kidya. 


Fire - 


- wee. 






Water 


- nappa. 


Dead - - 


- booga. 


Smoke 


- thoo-ga. 


By-and-by - 


- burray. 


Ground 


- 


Come on 


- thinala. 


Wind - 


- yerga. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- boordoo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



330 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 183.— BREW ARRINA AND BARWAN RIVER— THE WAILWUN 

LANGUAGE. 

By the Bench of Magisteates at Bkbwabbina. 



It will be noticed that yesterday and to-morrow are expressed by the 
same word. In the vocabulary of the Bogabrie language, No. 181, we had 
murri = the Blacks; in thia language we have murrui = kangaroo. 



Kangaroo - 


- murrui. 


Opossum 


- kooragi. 


Tame dog - 


- mirri. 


Wild dog - 


- 


Emu - 


- ngoori. 


Black duck - 


- buthumba. 


Wood duck - 


- koonambi. 


Pelican 


- wirriga. 


Laughing jackass koogaburra 


Native companion boralga. 


White cockatoo 


- murrai. 


Crow - 


- wargun. 


Swan - 


- burrima. 


Egg - 


- kabbo. 


Track of a foot 


- thinna. 


Pish - 


- 


Lobster 


- winga. 


Crayfish 


- thumal. 


Mosquito - 


- kommogin. 


Fly - 


- boomal. 


Snake 


- dhurgh. 


The Blacks - 


- dhoon. 


A Blackfellow 


- mai-i. 


A Black woman 


- yennega. 


Nose - 


-'mooroo. 



Hand - 


- murra. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- mago. 


Two - 


- boollaga. 


Three - 


- gulliba. 


Four - 


- booUaga-bool- 




laga. 


Father 


- buba or baba. 


Mother 


- goonnee. 


Sister-Elder 


- kadi. 


,, Younger 


- gidurai. 


Brother-Elder 


- kukka. 


„ Young 


er kallumee. 


A young man 


- yamba. 


An old man 


- dhurrayungul 


An old woman 


- mogeemar. 


A baby 


- girrra. 


A White man 


- wunda. 


Children 


- warroogar. 


Head - 


- kuboga. 


Eye - - 


- mil. 


Ear - 


- gurrengara. 



BREWARRINA AND BARWAN RIVER. 



331 



No. 183. — Brewakrina and Barwan Rivek — The Wailwun Languag 




contimied. 




Mouth 


- ngundal. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- wirra. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- walla. 


Wood - 


- mutau. 


Beard - 


- geer. 


Stone - 


- garoon. 


Thunder - 


- baukee. 


Camp - 


- ngura. 


Grass - 


- gurun. 


Yes - 


- minag. 


Tongue 


- duUang. 


No - 


- wail. 


Stomach 


- burru. 


I 








- ngaau. 


Breasts 


- nammo OT ngum- 


You - 


- indoo. 


Thigh - 


moo. 
- darra. 


Bark - 


- ridgi. 


Foot - 


- thinna. 


Good - 


- yadda. 


Bone - 


- uimba. 


Bad - 


- wurri. 


Blood - 


- goa. 


Sweet - 


- yadda. 


Skin - 


- ubay. 


Food - 


- widga. 


Fat- - 


- guthal. 


Hungry 


- yarragin. 


Bowels 


- biboo. 


Thirsty 


- wagunda. 


Excrement - 


gunna. 


Eat 


- duUa. 


War-spear - 


- biUar. 


Sleep - 


. 


Reed-spear - 


- warru. 


Drink 


- narungari. 


Throwing-stick 
Shield- 


- guUoya, muthau. 

- murga. 


Walk - 


- unagri. 


Tomahawk ■ 


- wagar. 


See 


- nagari. 


Canoe - 


- mungar. 


Sit 


- wigirru. 


Sun - 


- thunni. 


Yesterday - 


- kombara. 


Moon - 


- geewa. 


To-day 




Star - 


- girila. 


To-morrow - 


- kombara. 


Light - 


- yowir. 


Where are the 


wan doonama 


Dark - 


- boolool. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 




I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- thunni-wallil. 


Plenty 


- wallu-wall. 


Day - 


- errier. 


Big - - 


. 


Night - 


boolool. 


Little - 


- boothug. 


Fire - 


wi. 


Dead - 


- goomugi. 


Water 


kullee. 






Smoke 


boothoo. 


By-and-by - 


- wonduga. 


Ground 


doogan. 


Come on 


- kowi. 


Wind - 


mur. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


gunda. 


Eaglehawk - 


- mullion. 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 


- nguan. 



332 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 184.— THE CLARENCE RIVER. 



Forwarded by Alexander Bruce, Esq. 
The sound of ch is common in this vocabulary. 



Kangaroo - 


maani. 


Hand - 


- 


Opossum 
Tame dog - 


gwiain, 
wanki. 


2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 


- boolaboo negarr 

- boolaboo chararr 


Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelican 


ngakkum. 

ngoroin. 

maar. 

gilowal. 

yukar. 


One - 
Two ■ 
Three - 

Four - 


negarr. 

- charrar. 

- boolaboo. 

- boolaboQ-chararr 

negarr. 

- boolaboo boola- 


Laughing jackass 


kakoon. 




boo. 


Native companion bowlkum. 


Father 


- chamakooin, 


White cockatoo - 


kaar. 




nilkooin. 


Crow - 


wakaan. 


Mother 


- warrong. 


Swan - 


ginnepi. 


Sister-Elder 


- worojar. 


Egg - 


kaaboin. 


„ Younger 


- nan. 


Track of a foot 




Brother-Elder 


- bonnaang. 


Fish - 


woolooywen. 


,, Younger 


Lobster 




A young man 


- marookan. 


Crayfish 


boorkoom. 


An old man 


- maapaang. 


Mosquito 


dumilowan. 


An old woman 


- meeroong. 


Fly - 


joonbon. 


A baby 


- chaapaan. 


Snake - 




A White man 


- yirrelU. 


The Blacks - 


- negarr. 


Children 


- chaajamgin. 


A Blackf ellow 


- bykool, yeagarr. 


Head 


- baukine. 


A Black woman 


- meroong. 


Eye - 


- djeeon. 


Nose - 


- mow. 


Ear - 


- binnang. 



THE CLARENCE RIVER. 



333 



No. 184. — The Clarence 'RivETtr— continued. 



Mouth 


- jeeang. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- dirrang. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head - kow. 


Wood - 


- challee. 


Beaid - 


- yarrain. 


Stone - 


- charoo. 


Thunder - 


- mookari. 


Camp - 


- ngoia. 


Grass - 


- wopang. 


Yes - 


- ya-oo-i. 


Tongue 


- joonkoong. 


No - 


- yookom. 


Stomach 


- mooudoo. 


I 


- ngi. 


Breasts 


- mirran. 


You - 


- boobla. 


Thigh 


- 


Bark - 


- yakoo. 


Foot - 


- djinnang. 


Good - 


- bowkal. 


Bone - 


- dtarigan. 


Bad - 


- tohang. 


Blood - 


- goomar. 


Sweet - 


- darooi. 


Skin - 


- 


Food - 


- yai-i-go. 


Fat - 


- kombang. 


Hungry 


- moolaroo. 


Bowels 


- choolpa. 


Thirsty 


- yaloinkin. 


Excrement - 


- goonang. 


Eat - 


- yiyiego, 


War-spear ■ 


- juan. 


Sleep - 


- unala. 


Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stick 
Shield 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 


- kommi, 

- bukka. 

- wakkan. 

- bakool, woUoo. 

- yalkan. 

- kibboom. 


Drink - 
Walk- 
See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 


- ngabago. 

- yangalala, 

- nala. 

- yeangala. 

- ngobo. 

- baiyain. 


Star - 


- willeriankin. 


To-morrow - 


- chaloo. 


Light - 


- mikan. 


Where are 


the yillabykoU? 


Dark - 


- ngakkoori. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- warring. 


I don't know 


- yookom ngi 


Heat - 


- witohumeri. 




kaurigala. 


Day - 


- yarraki. 


Plenty 


- 


Night - 


- ngakquon. 


Big - - 


- djirri. 


Fire - 


- wyber, wakki. 


Little - 


- birrang. 


Water 


- koong. 


Dead - 


- balaan. 


Smoke 


- ngarraquoin. 


By-and-by - 


- youe. 


Ground 


- ngiol. 


Come on - 


- yaaki. 


Wind- 


- booriyooein. 


Milk - - 


- 


Rain - 


- bookooi. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


. 



334 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 185.— THE LOWEE MAOLEAY EIVEE. 

By Charles Spencek, Esq. 

The following specimen of the language of the lower part of 
the Macleay (some of the words of which resemble those in 
use on the Macquarie and Manning Eivers) was forwarded to 
me by Mr. Charles Spencer through the Bench of Magistrates 
at the Macleay. Class-marriage exists in this locality. The 
following are names of persons : — Males : Koonal, Bilpil, 
Tirriwil, Karra-karra, Korunni, Wobbra, Dalower = rain- 
bow, Meedure = wall-eyed, Teggi-mookoo = deaf, and DUl- 
murree = eyebrows. Females: Meetur, Weenan, Kalla, 
Ekoro, Barrab, Yellang-bangi, and Gearni. 





Names of 


A Family. 




Wobbra 


- the husband. 


WiUenni - 


- female child 


Oomboogiwenni 


- the wife. 






Meiiniarki - 


- female child. 


Moongrenni 


- male child. 




Anothbb 


Family. 




Korrunni - 


- the husband. 


Merrowi 


- girl. 


Toroogoro - 


- the wife. 






Yemb-arrin 


- girl. 


Karra-karra 


- boy. 




No. 185.— ADD) 


TioNAL Words. 




Whale 


- kallone. 


Mackerel - 


- yalioori. 


Shark 


- wirrewy. 


Flathead - 


- ugai. 


Schnapper - 


- geangeree. 


Blackfish - 


- warrakang. 


Barracoota - 


- kyena. 


Mullet (salt- 


mandara. 


Perch 


- maton. 


water) 




Eel - 


t korrikkan. 


Mullet (fresh- 


kowang. 


Sting-ray - 


- billon. 


water) 




Crab - 


- karra. 


Porpoise 


- badaroo. 


Shrimp 


- dokkin. 


Cockle 


- alii. 


Whiting - 


- dooroowin. 


Bream 


- kooeri. 



THE LOWER MACLEAY RIVER. 



335 





fio. 185. — Additions 


li WoKDS — contimied. 


Jewfish 


- allooin. 


Toes - 


ukoro. 


Fish-spear - 


- kallkarro, kum- 


Knee - 


pingaroo, goo- 




mi-mootikin. 




ton. 


Uncle - 


- kandoo. 


Thigh (outside) 


dirray. 


Aunt - 


- koondi. 


„ (inside) 


biUa. 


Cousin 


- kan. 


Ham - 


- doogay. 


All small birds 


- teebin. 


Brains 


murroo. 


Teal - 


- pikoro-pikoro. 


Elbow 


kooroong. 


Pigeon (bronze 


- barboo. 


Ankle 


kol, welbi-welbi. 


winged) 




Calf of the leg 


ooloo. 


Green pigeon 


- moorooa. 


Eyebrows - 


dilmurree. 


Wonga-wonga 


kammoori. 


Tail of bird 


- doon. 


pigeon 




Evening 


- beemai. 


Flock pigeon 


- buttowong. 


Boat - 


- olpino. 


RedbiU - 


- wilbong. 


Vessel 


- marendoi. 


Brush turkey 


- ooroowin. 


Mast - 


- wingi-wingi. 


Lyrebird - 


- narran. 


Blind - 


- meemookoo. 


Red - 


- gerree-gerree. 


Deaf - 


teggimookoo. 


Black - 


- koorool-koorool. 


Tobacco-pipe 


- bubbolo. 


White 


- burrapine. 


This - 


- ditti. 


Iguana 


- meri. 


TJiat - 


windi. 


Native oat - 


- dooleum. 


Young woman 


- golbon. 


Horse - 


- karr. 


Male orphan 


- nappine. 


Flying fox - 


- ballowri. 


Female orphan 


- bolbi. 


Native bear 


- yarri. 


Hunchback 


- pikilka, pikiloo- 


Prog - 


- yattangun. 




too. 


Black snake 


- mootoo. 


Nonsense ! - 


- goorembatti ! 


Cockchafer - 


- dirrigoon. 


Fishing net 


- werral. 


Neck - 


- yukool. 


Deaf adder - 


- hammi. 


Throat 


- koogooroo. 


He (or she) sleeps nannoonba. 


Lips - 


- wittoo. 


I want to sleep 


- nannoolow. 


Jaws - 


- andar. 


Go to sleep - 


inde nangir. 


Chin - 


- kottin. 


Good-by - 


innittiay. 


Collar-bone - 


- kal. 


Where are you 


warrunga inde ? 


Back - 


- kerri, moonon. 


going? 




Heart - 


- boonoo. 


Come and eat 


kogoi ! damma. 


Fingers 


- yukun. 


I have eaten 


demmenba. 


Forearm 


- tallara. 


I have drunk 


karbyoo goin. 


Arm - 


- koopay. 


Go away - 


yoomenerai inde. 


Shoulder - 


- kowarrin. 


When will yon 


wenoondi 


Leg - 


- ooreroo. 


return ? 


manalli ? 



336 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 185.— THE LOWER MACLEAY RIVER. 



Kangaroo - 


- womboin. 


Hand - 


- yemmi. 


Opossum - 


- witta, wille. 


2 Blacks - 


- keori bolodi. 


Tame dog - 


- mirre. 


3 Blacks - 


- koori arkam- 


Wild dog - 


- kykum. 




barra. 


Emu - 


■• 


One - 


- wardo. 


Black duck 


- maragan. 


Two - 


- bolodi. 


Wood duck 


- gooarli. 


Three - 


- arkambarra. 


Pelican 


- menako. 










Pour - 


. 


Laughing jackass kargooka. 
Native companion kooyerakan. 


Pather 


- papa, miander. 


White cockatoo 


- kerrebi. 


Mother 


- nangoo, narki, 


Crow - 


- wakkan. 




nuki. 


Swan - 


- arbootero. 


Sister-Elder 


- narbooe. 


Egg - 


- karbul. 


,, Younger 


- towera. 


Track of a foot 


- yoppong. 


Brother-Elder 


- bingi. 


Fish - 


- 


„ Younger 


Lobster 


- 


A young man 


- marangal. 


Crayfish 


- kottingeri. 


An old man 


- karakundan. 


Mosquito - 


- mungin. 


An old woman 


- uUarki. 


Ply - - 


- booroolong. 


A baby 


- taU. 


Snake 


- (no general name) 


A White man 


- barnibo. 


The Blacks - 


- koori, molong. 


Children 


- tali. 


A Blackfellow 


- koori. 


Head - 


- bokk, bo. 


A Black woman 


- myangri. 


Eye - 


- mi. 


Nose - 


- ammoro. 


Ear - 


- tegi. 



THE LOWER MACLEAY RIVER. 



337 



No 


. 185.— Lower M 


Mouth 


- 


Teetli - 


- tirri. 


Hair of the heac 


- meggi. 


Beard 


- yaggiri. 


Thunder - 


- mooroongai. 


Grass - 


- borral. 


Tongue 


- dalline. 


Stomach 


- pingil. 


Breasts 


- nobbong. 


Thigh 


- ooreroo. 


Foot - 


- dinde. 


Bone - 


- embing. 


Blood - 


- kangara. 


Skin - 


- yettoina. 


Fat - 


- mebong, noora 




wommo. 


Bowels 


■■ boonong. 


Excrement - 


- koomboiag. 


War -spear - 


- kummi, loo-oi. 


Reed-spear - 


- yooma. 


Wommera or 


ookorowba. 


throwing-stick 




Shield 


- koonmir. 


Tomahawk - 


- bibi, boggo. 


Canoe 


- woi. 


Sun - 


- doorookein. 


Moon - 


- gitten. 


Star - 


- gelleneroo. 


Light - 


- gelein. 


Dark - 


- oongen. 


Cold - 


- dallang. 


Heat - 


- booyoobarra. 


Day - 


- 


Night ■ 


- oongen. 


Fire - 


- gooyel. 


Water 


- koong. 


Smoke 


- doong. 


Ground 


- bargi. 


Wind - 


- booron. 


Rain - 


- kergi. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


VOL. III. 





Hill - 


- 


Wood 


- kereki. 


Stone - 


- targoo. 


Camp - 


- wattoo-garin 


Yes - 


- ya. 


No - 


- kokimbo. 


I 


- maiyai, eaka 


You - 


- inde. 


Bark - 


- wattoon. 


Good - 


- margook. 


Bad - 


- dolo, narko. 


Sweet - 


- kaugarang. 


Food (vegetable) wiggi. 


„ (animal) 


- baggara. 


Hungry 


- gegelligan. 


Thirsty 


- karbyoo. 


Eat - 


- 


Sleep - 


- 


Drink - 


- 


Walk - - 


- 


See ■■ 


- 


Sit - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- oonoon. 


To-day 


- yoorin. 


To-morrow - 


- undarbo. 


Where are the kooriwa? 


Blacks? 




I don't know 


- achitta. 


Plenty 


- delemba. 


Big - 


- yarriki. 


Little - 


- bootte. 


Dead - 


- bookargen. 


By-and-by - 


- koombigi. 


Come on 


- kogoi. 


Milk - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - 


- 



338 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 186.— PORT MACQUAEIE. 

By John Beajtch, Esq. 

The following vocabulary and long list of Additional Words 
were forwarded to me by Mr. Jobn Brancb. Tbe document 
from which I have transcribed them, that gentleman informs 
me, is now more than thirty years old, and, to judge from the 
clearly written text, seems to have been compiled with much 
care. Who the painstaking collector was I am not aware, but 
the words, as Mr. Branch remarks and as the manuscript 
itself makes evident, are taken indiscriminately from several 
neighbouring dialects. The principal portion of them, how- 
ever, belong to the Bripi or Port Macquarie tongue. 

Amongst the Additional Words the ethnologist will meet 
with several which are interesting, and some invented for 
European objects, &c., such as boongenai, to shoot or strike 
with a gun. Then we have hoongor or boongar, to strike, 
and bongalar, tojight, which reminds one of a similar word 
in Western Australia, as well as of the common origin of 
our languages. We find names, too, for the principal 
colors. There are terms also expressive of mental emotions, 
such as fear, joy, sorrow, jealousy, treachery, greediness, and 
so on. We are also led to notice that, though generally 
wealthy in substantives, and more plentifully supplied than 
ourselves with names for animals and plants, the tribes 
which speak this language have words with several mean- 
ings. Thus, tew-win signifies indifi'erently brains, marrow, 



PORT MACQUABIE. 339 

mucus from the nose, matter, fly-hloms, and maggots. The 
designation of these particular objects by a single term I 
have noticed in other Australian languages, and believe it 
to be general. 

The occurrence of the sound of the letter v is very 
common in this language. 



T2 



340 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 186.— PORT MACQUARIB. 



Kangaroo - 


- warperer (fe- 


Hand - 


- mar, yammar. 




male), wom- 
boine. 
- bango, wotto, 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Opossum 


3 Blacks - 


- 




wutting. 


One - 


- warcol, woiyel, 


Tame dog - 


- mokan, kookang. 




wartho. 


Wild dog - 


- merri. 


Two - 


- blarvo, blorable. 


Emu - 


- 










Three - 


- blarvo-warcol. 


Black duck- 


- murrungi. 






Wood duck- 


- 


Four - 


- blarvo-blarvo. 


Pelican 


- 


Father 


- beanger, be-er. 


Laughing jackass kocundy, karko. 


Mother 


- nango, nigegur. 


Native companion 




niyeri. 


White cockatoo 


- carapii. 






Sister-Elder 


- narrendo. 


Crow - 


- warcon. 






Swan - 


- kolewonnia 


„ Younger 


- owaru, arriendo. 


Egg - 


- kappooe. 


Brother-Elder 


- bingarro. 


Track of a foot 


- 


,, Younger 


Fish - 


- 






Lobster 


- 


A young man 


- caywarar, won- 


Crayfish 


■ yingar. 




garar. 


Mosquito - 


- oooperl, non- 


An old man 


- bootoen. 




gorar. 


An old woman 


- durrogan. 


Fly - - 


- barrayler, burro- 

long. 

- dungen. 


A baby 


- cappargo, talli. 


Snake - 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


- 


Children 


- 


A Blackfellow 


- korry, kory. 


Head - 


- borr, wallong. 


A Black woman 


- kalaban, murri- 


Bye - 








- mee. 




kin, murkin. 




Nose - 


- noggera, namro. 


Ear - 


- morkko, pinna- 




nang. 




kon. 



PORT MACQUARIE. 



341 



No. 186. — PoKT Macqttakib — continued. 



Mouth 


- kalerer. 


Boomerang - 


- barragan, barra- 


Teeth - 


- 




can. 


Hair of the head- dirring, murray. 


Hill - - 


- bocal, yoogo. 


Beard - 


- yerang. 


Wood (also iron) carrumun, cam- 


Thunder •• 


- malloo. 




ban, daddro. 


Grass - 


- murrang. 


Stone - 


- buckan. 


Tongue 


- tallan. 


Camp - 


- mooray. 


Stomach 


- bittun, mingee, 




gokeray. 




togul. 


Yes - 


- yor, yeary, 


Breasts 


- birring, nappuk. 


No - - 

I 

You - 


yaven. 


Thigh 
Foot - 


- darry, ooloo. 

- tinner. 


- korang. 

- iya, mee, motto. 

- inder, indo. 


Bone - 


- 


Bark - 


- carrung, watton. 


Blood - 


- kungara, mar- 


Good - 


- marroong. 




rong. 


Bad - - 


- burrowang, 


Skin - 


- kooroo, gorron. 




mooneyang, 


Fat - 


- wammo. 




wombon. 


Bowels 


- konung, pindi- 


Sweet - 


- greekar, gillee. 




vung. 


Food - 


- tammar. 


Excrement - 


■ konung. 


Hungry 


- cobbree, kine, 


War-spear - 


- kumi. 




githelgin. 


Reed-spear - 




Thirsty 
Eat - 


- cappU. 

- tnnneller, tuck- 


Wommera or 
thro wing-stick 




Sleep - 


enay, tammar. 
- brickelar. 


Shield 


- korrail, kun- 


Drink - 


- bittar, umbil. 




mary. 


Walk- 


- munnar. 


Tomahawk - 


- bibi. 


See - 




Ganoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- innaar. 


Sun - 


- eurokar, torneej 


Yesterday - 


- bemarar. 




tocan. 


To-day 


- bungi. 


Moon - 


- killen. 


To-morrow - 


- botongor, 


Star - - 


- merring, wopo. 




cumbergor, 


Light - 


- parvargau. 


Where are 


undarwo. 
bhe 


Dark - 


- buttong, brimi, 


Blacks? 






koombar. 


I don't know 


_ 


Cold - 
Heat - 


- tackrar. 


Plenty 


- delambang, 


- 




marrowang, 


Day - 


- 




marroambo. 


Night - 


- brimi. 


Big - - 


- tuckal, kattan, 


Fire - 


- kouyel, koyel. 




wootow. 


Water 


- batto, bardo. 


Little - 


- mitgey, mittee. 


Smoke 


- doong. 


•Dead - 


- baleler. 


Ground 


- burray. 


By-and-by - 


- 


WLnd- 


- bewal. 


Come on 


- kowie, koggi. 


Eain - 


- kooray, moo- 


Milk - 


- nappung. 




korar. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- goonyoorie. 


Wild turkey 


- murrowan. 


Ghosts 


- goin. 


Wife - - 


- mongundre. 



342 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 186. — Additional Wokds. 



Arropolone - 


- quail. 


Booner 


- sea beach. 


Armong 


■ give. 


Barrumar - 


- to untie, loose. 


Armong wooker 


■ give to me. 


Bookarooraroo 


- yellow. 


AUummar - 


- to feel. 


Boonmar - 


- pull tight. 


AUo-omber - 


- you and I, or be- 


Bocoounar - 


- slack, or let go. 




tween us. 


Bungial 


- new. 


Annomber - 


- mine. 


Boottoen - 


- old. 


Arting 


- thick. 


Bmg - 


- pure solid honey 


Aree muriller 


- go away. 


Burran 


- cords made of 


Bocro carrillay 


take the line and 




hair. 


umaner alti 


catch some 


Bongar 


- to beat. 




perch. 


Boculbe 


- seed of oak-tree. 


Bing - 


pigs. 


Burrowang - 


- a dead log. 


Boongar 


to kill or strike. 


Burrann 


- daylight. 


Boougar dungen 


to kill snakes. 


Bittar - 


- drink. 


Bookar, boyaar 


to stink. 


Boyye - 


- breathe. 


Botou - 


black. 


Bucartuoal - 


- very angry. 


Botongan - 


the day after to- 


Borri - 


■ boy. 




morrow. 


Batto biller 


- river water. 


Bayal bongenaye 


fire the gun. 


Bunbun or bunbul a path. 


Bocayeneller mar 


close the hand. 


Bucar - 


- angry. 


Booton cureyler 


bring the net. 


Bingi - 


- cousin. 


Bowerow 


bald head. 


Bottong 


- dirty. 


Birrar - 


sweat. 


Bobl - 


- to-morrow morn- 


Boy-boy 


tired. 




ing. 


Bittungan - 


a bellyful. 


Bungi - 


- midday. 


Bookar 


sore, sick. 


Bimi - 


- night, dark. 


Bongalar - 


to fight, or to 


Bearlay 


- to speak or talk 




paint before a 




with. 




fight. 


Barry - 


- hut, house. 


Binderoong - 


net made of hair 


Bundarar - 


- wallaby. 




or fur worn 


Bimble 


- a grave. 




round the fore- 


Beammar - 


- to bury. 




head. 


Booton 


- net. 


Booto - 


to smoke. 


Bittar - 


- drink. 


Brenalyer - 


to throw. 


Bubalo 


■ tobacco-pipe. 


Bittar inder 


you drink. 


Bamby 


- eel. 


Barrayler ■ 


gomg away. 


Bocro - 


- fishing net. 


Batto-tucal ■ 


high-water. 


Bumbougar - 


- to kiss. 


Billo - 


sting-ray. 


Burri-ee-ler- 


- to sing. 


Boongenaye 


to shoot. 


Bittrow 


- reeds. 



PORT MACQUARIE. 



343 



Bale 



No. 186. — Additional Words — continued. 

Bararbereler - the crack of a 



Bayter 


- to spit. 




whip. 


Bittrow 


- necklace made of 


Bingy 


- beeswax. 




reeds cut into 


Borti - 


- let it be. 




short lengths 


Boorungryban 


- myrtle-tree. 




and strung. 


Bongan 


- cricket. 


Bongon 


- a beetle. 


Burray-gorarar 


- a long way. 


Bullim-ban - 


' - stripes of skin 


Bongerayler 


- to fight. 




■which depended 


Buckar-arkin 


- very saucy. 




from the girdles 


Batto-atto - 


- very wet. 




of the men both 


Boolooboolo 


- dry. 




before and be- 


Bot-toU-o-reeler 


- report of a gun. 




hind; seldom 


Baleambo, bal- 


not dead, living 




worn, except at 


cambo 






corroborees. 


Biller - 


- river. 


Brigryban - 


- ironbark-tree. 


Briwiualyer 


- to boU or cook. 


Borri-womgar 
Borri mingegar 


j- pregnant. 


Bugee - 
Bunbiergal - 


- jump. 

- sulky. 


Botongaroo - 


- early in the 


Botongan - 


- half-caste. 




morning. 


Burraywill - 


- blanket. 


Bingarro war ? 


- where is my 


Baang- 


- back. 




brother ? 


Battotucal - 


- a flood. 


Bowran, boonan - parrot. 


Bailpandover 


- to come from 


Eeerin 


- bread. 




Bailpan. 


Barng - 


- back. 


Bottaw bootan 


- black snake. 


Bocar - 


- to go inside or 


Balling 


- flying squirrel. 




dive. 


Billambang - 


- swamp-oak. 


Barwar 


- shadow. 


Barpingbang 


- stinging. 


Bockoi 


- short. 


Buckawucker 


- curly hair. 


Berringgar 
Bringar 


- sunset. 


Bnllii - 


- wattle-tree 
grubs. 


Ban - 


- tree. 


Bucker 


- knee. 


Bondalyer - 


- to break. 


Bunyeller - 


- to kill. 


Bindy - 


- deep water. 


Bittuugan - 


- bellyful 


Bootul 


- report of a gun. 


Buckan 


- iron or stone. 


Banbaliung- 


- don't talk. 


Boattee 


- a smell. 


Burrieliung 


- don't sing. 


Booke-booke 


- lazy. 


Bungan 


- grasshopper. 


Bickel 


- backbone. 


Boothoong - 


- soft, easy. 


Bombay 


- a blow. 


Burrowong - 


- nasty, no good. 


Carr - 


- horse. 


Biteler 


- to bite. 


Cowan-nerrar 


- bullock. 



344 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 186.— Additionai, Words — continued. 



Calcrow 

Calliwer 

Carapun 

Cow-winder 

Cappo-gan - 

Cottwoie 

Coram 

Caronemeller 
Coonming, coon- 
uong 
Coorieki 
Carpee 
Cowering - 
Cutoreller - 

Cuttageller - 
Cappogan cun- 
gayler 
Cowie barrego - 

Cungayler, cungar 
Cotto-gang - 
Crackor 
Copalaa 
Coyel mucker 
Cando, oowando - 
Cooler 
Cuborne 
Carambo pata- 
limbo 
Cumbergor - 
Cookambingal 
Caparar 
Cookee 
Oopang 



Carramar 



ohm. 

to climb. 

to make nets. 

the other side. 

corn. 

one with little 

finger ofE. 
finger and toe 

nails, 
to scratch, 
a cough or cold. 

a fern, 
to throw, 
hat. 

to break into / 
bits, 
to fall down, 
to pull corn. 

come into the 
hut. 
to break, 
lame, 
stop. 

make haste, 
cut firewood, 
uncle, 
angry, 
big. 
no food. 

sunrise. 

a stranger. 

boy. 

calabash. 

a tree, the leaves 
of which are 
used to poison 
fish. 

shade of trees. 



Culker 
Carropoim - 
Cappine 
Cangervan - 
Cowerang - 
Cutherwye - 
Cooroo 

CuUar, capo 
Cambar mokiu 
Cungalyer - 

Corrongon - 
Carpeeler carr 

Cottan-bimbing 
Copar - 
Coorroong - 
Carroongy - 
Curreegen - 
Cunggi 
Cayparrerkin 



tail. 

kangaroo-rat. 
honey, 
grapes, 
a comb. 



kangaroo-skin 
rug. 



■ call the dogs. 
• to stop a spear 
with the shield. 

grandmother. 

thrown by a 
horse. 

cabbage-tree. 

arm below elbow. 

wrist. 

jump. 

crack the fingers. 

pillow. 

a period when 
women are for- 
bidden to eat 
kangaroo. 



Cowillevitamber 


Mount Cross. 


Calarar tulcar 


mouth parched. 


Carrumbang •. 




Carnban - i 


firewood. 


Carrumun - ' 




Combo 


ankle. 


Cuttang 


spittle. 


CoUiprer 


net round fore- 




head. 


Carngon 


navel. 


Crarvriu 


go over the hill. 


Curillay, canny - 


bring. 


Culpeeler - 


to roost. 


Corambo nuriam 


I have not heard. 


bo 




Couyel-borler 


a common fire at 




a camp. 



PORT MACQUARIE. 



345 



No. 186.— Additional Words — continued. 



Corrang beringax 


no bread. 


Carkeneller 


nettle. 


Calcrow 


chin. 


Cuttang 


sand. 


Cootray 


angry. 


Conang-worang - 


bashful. 


Conangwerang 


afraid. 


Cowarrar - 


sort of fern-tree. 


Coggi - 


come here. 


Carrindarr - 


light (not heavy). 


Corumbate - 


lies. 


Cumber, cumbay- 


come here. 


Callaban, culvang 


woman. 


ler 




Cuimang - 


make haste. 


Coolongoung 


elbow. 


Ctumang gethel- 


quick ! I am 


Denar* gomarmei 


come to dinner. 


gin 


hungry. 


Dungen 


to shed tears. 


Carumwumbiller 


fast asleep. 


Doong 


smoke. 


Cungarlmayler 


a camp in which 


Delambang - 


a great many. 




all stop together. 


Dowan 


scrub-bird. 


Condivang - 


mahogany-tree. 


Dalcome 


pain. 


Cotemerbang 


box-tree. 


Dungaler - 


to prick. 


Carrumbang 


oak-tree. 


Dalemeri 


eyelids. 


Cocumbang 


fig-tree. 


Diggicon - 


nails of toes and 


Coorar 


turtle. 




hands. 


Carreegaybang 


hardwood. 


Dungal 


cry. 


Corrmnbatting 


pretend, to lie. 


Drower 


- centipede. 


Cmran 


feathers, wings 


Dungarring 


right hand. 




of birds. 


Dongaa 


iguana. 


Cuttageller 


fall down. 


Doorally 


fight. 


Curreepayler 


to sew. 


Dingayler - 


moonlight. 


Cooroo curree- 


to sew skins to- 


Dirring gorarrar 


- long hair. 


payler 


gether. 


Dirring bocoi 


- short hair. 


Cumigo mnnnar 


to get spears. 


Dirring ingalyer 


- curly hair. 


Carr windarr 


the horses on the 


Dirring turrar 


- straight hair. 




wheat. 


Dirring wattem 


- light hair. 


Cooyel moonang 


a bad fire. 


Doorroongan 


- whale. 


Cooroopau - 


mist or fog. 


Dilwirrar - 


- grasshopper. 


Car inda 


you carry. 


Greekar 


- sweet. 


Calevreeler 


to spiU. 


GUlee - 


- light. 


Colangarban 


beech-tree. 


Gillee marner 


- bring a light. 


Callergalling 


drowned. 


Gonalay 


- to evacuate. 


Carry-morong 


to cut till blood 


Gonel-gonel 


- lies. 




comes. 


Goree - 


- face. 


Caypar 


wipe. 


Gootong 


- knee. 


Carm - 


salmon (native). 


Gong - 


- river. 


Coparai 


porpoise. 


Goorarar 


- tall. 



* Denar, aboriginal pronunciation of dvrmer. 



346 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 186. — Additional Words- 



Goonun 


- flash. 


Tydney-garver 


- from Sydney. 


Tydney-go - 


- to Sydney. 


Go-oumbayler 


- to throw spears. 


Gunamb'aleler 


- coward. 


Gorroman - 


- a male, from the 




time he can walk 




until he enters 




the class, or is 




called Caypar- 




rer. 


Greekar 


- sweet. 


Gunamballiug 


- fear. 


Gunambaleung 


don't you be 


inder 


frightened. 


Goropean - 


frog. 


Gamber mokin 


- call the dogs. 


Gorree-go - 


to Gorree. 


Gorry - 


- all. 


Gong or gang 


- very : for in- 




stance — cotto- 




gang, very sick; 




tuoalgong, very 




large; mittey- 




gang, very 




small. 


Inder - 


- you. 


Inder murri- 


(are) you mar- 


kengen ? 


ried? 


Inder marthoom 


- you (I) love; the 




term used by a 




man when ad- 




dressing a wo- 




man. Another 




term is used by 




a woman when 




addressing a 




man. 


Illamor 


to feel. 


Kindr^ 


- a term of endear- 




ment used by a 




female to a 




female. 



Kindi - 


- laugh. 


Kindayler - 


- to laugh. 


Kindeyung - 


- don't laugh. 


Kurtey 


to cut. 


Kurtey diggicon 


- to cut one's nails. 


Kimmarr 


- to cook. 


KaUender - 


- knife. 


Kai-ai - 


- sexual desire. 


Karkeambo - 


- raw, underdone. 


Karkeeler - 


done, cooked 


Kindowen - 


- lies. 


Kindowiambo 


you lie. 


inder 




ICimmung - 


kangaroo-rat. 


Eommarginmar 


to shake. 


Kiudi-tucal 


a hearty laugh. 


Kirri-wong - 


a magpie. 


Kinber kallender 


sharpen the 




knife. 


Killing gam 


moonlight. 


Karkeeler - 


a smart. 


Kain - 


a small sort of 




ant. 


Kindilan 


joyful, merry. 




laughing. 


Kulkayler - 


wrong. 


Kaokeler 


ripe. 


Kackeambo 


unripe. 


Kaylung 


mad, insane. 


Konnoo-ung 


a cough or cold. 


Kreeley 


carry. 


Killang 


armpit. 


Karkeneller 


nettle. 


Korrikon - 


toadfish. 


Mottrow 


forehead. 


Marthoom - 


a good fellow. 


Mickey 


lightning. 


Manny, macomb- 


paddimellon. 


Mii - - - 


face. 


Marner 


bring, take. 


Mingen 


liver. 



PORT MACQUARIE. 



347 



No. 186.— Additiona 


L Words — continu 


'A. 


MoUaroo - 


- long ago. 


Murrikin wom- 


a bad woman. 


Mingegrbori 


- pregnant. 


bonder 




Merring 


- sharp. 


Merri - 


go- 


Munanbang 


-wattle. 


Moilong 


tide coming in. 


Macka 


- quick. 


Mittianniller 


low water. 


Muimo 


- louse. 


Maokoro - 


mullet. 


Moocorar - 


- rain. 


Murrang-wurrang green. 


Mingey 


- sick. 


Minter-minter - 


tie a knot. 


Marroong - 


- beautiful, sound, 


Mee-bottong 


dark eyes. 




not decayed. 


Mii marroong 


a pretty face. 


Marroong murkin a nice little 


Mee wattem 


light eyes. 


mitgay 


woman. 


Mooloong - 


to rub the person 


Mittem 


- tree. 




with charcoal 


Mureeler 


- go. 




when in mourn- 


Mionar ? 


- what do you say? 




ing. 




what is that ? 


Mii wombon 


ugly face. 


Mundal 


- net. 


Mackang - 


lizard. 


Mallerro 


- sorrow. 


Murrikin corang 


not married. 


Minargo ? - 


- where are you 


Murrikingen 


married. 




going? 


Mailcun 


finger and toe 


Movan 


- wild raspberries. 




nails. 


Munner 


- walk. 


Morlcun 


- spider. 


Mullindar - 


- taste. 


Momen 


- blind. 


Mollero 


- shed tears. 


Nevalay 


- blow the nose. 


Mongundre 


- wife. 


Nurriambo - 


- (have) not heard. 


Mong - 

Marrong 

Murroorang 

Mulloman - 

Moroo-womban 

Munder 


- backside. 

- clean. 

- wicked. 

- the sea. 

- deaf. 

■ cheek. 


Notto nurriangau I don't know. 
Niyer! nacker! look! 

narker ! 
Neger-arkin - blind of one eye. 
Nurrangyun - think. 


Mooler 


- to vomit. 


Numar 


- feel. 


Moolay 


- dirty. 


Narowerr - 


- sorrow. 


Moondi 


- ashes. 


Nowerr 


- loins. 


Marmoroam 


- cabbage-tree. 


Narrowen - 


■ kidney. 


Murroi 


- quiet. 


Nurraymayler 


- sick in the 


Morrooee - 


- brains, marrow. 




stomach. 


Myander - 


- in front. 


NuUayer - 


- to vomit. 


Murromedayler 


- to snore. 


Nurrayler - 


- to hear. 


Mary - 


- a hole in the 


Nurrungar - 


- listen. 




ground, a room. 


Nurrungrar 


- drunk. 



348 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 186.— Additional 

Nappunganer * - young woman. 
Nimayler - - to pineh. 
Namdo - - who. 
Nangray, nunger lie down. 



Narray 

Nurrungar ■ 

Naming 

Norang 

Ningree 

Nooang 

Nacker cowie 

Newtar 

Nuayler 

Nunderovo - 

Niungacko - 



Natave 

Nurrungatteler - 
Ninnung 
Norroborarvo 
Nundamg - 
Nundamg-cotto - 
Nerro f 
Nangong - 

Notto murriken- 

gen 
Narree 



nearly, close to. 

listen. 

name. 

small. 

jealous. 

cow, honey-bee. 

come (and) see. 

taste. 

to kick. 

long sinee. 

■ name of the lan- 

guage and coun- 
try round Trial 
Bay. 
you and I. 

■ to forget. 
• oysters. 

■ red. 

■ jaw. 

■ face-ache. 

■ ruddle. 

■ hole through sep- 
tum of nose. 

I (am) married. 



shin. 



Notto weeai Par- I will tell Parker 

kenen 
Notto weeatterri I will not tell 

Cangumia Cangumi. 

Notto Bellowingo I (am) going to 

marray or notto Bellowin. 

marray Below- 

ingo 
Niyee - - rushes. 

Nerromayler - to scold. 
Nowakee - - bellyful. 



WoBDS — continued. 
Nuckumballung - 
Nuckarn mittey - 
Nuckam 
Namevo 

Namevo tourl- 
tourl 
Okellar 



Ooner 

Okear 

Ohi - 

Poneller, ponayler 

Perriwhy - 

Parperlo 

Parperlo woner ? 

Payraypaller 

Pickelworang 



Parpinang - 

Parrumbal - 

Parparakeara 

Ploorcang - 

Pundur 

Pongar 

Pingy 

Parubar 

Parropolone 

Parrung 

Perrar mayler 

Piyerbang - 
Pulkayler - 
Pattoin 
Paperlamay 
Parrimar - 
Poperer 



thumb, 
little finger, 
finger, 
take care, 
take care (of, a) 
slip. 

to buy or ex- 
change, 
elbow, 
give, 
this, 
to kill, 
fish-hook, 
tobacco-pipe, 
where (is my) 
pipe? 

to paint the body 
with pipeclay, 
crooked, 
cockles, 
seaweed, 
mushroom, 
treacherous, 
few. 
cut. 
to kill, 
wax. 
to talk. 

quail (large sort), 
lungs. 

to tremble with 
cold, 
ti-tree. 
to push, 
rat. 

blue pigeon, 
to undress, 
day after to-mor- 
row. 



* Probatly compounded of nappunk = breasts, and gang 
+ The Ngoorailum use noro-noro in the sa,me sense. 



: very or large. 



PORT MACQUARIE. 



349 



No. 186. — ^Additional Wobds — continued. 



Tew-win 


- mucus from nose. 




matter from 




wound, mag- 




gots, fly-blows. 


Turra- 


- thighs. 


Talloo 


- heavy. 


Tooreller - 


- to eat too much. 


Tirray 


- egg-shells. 


Tippo - 


- a sheep. 


Tirrower - 


- ribs. 


Tmnong 


- blunt. 


Tackrar 


- cold. 


Turra cotto 


- tired (thighs 




sore). 


Towibang - 


- honeysuckle- 




tree. 


Tingar 


- grey hairs. 


Tindiabang- 


- grass-tree. 


Terraypin - 


- small quail. 


Talmung 


- strong, hard. 


Turan- 


- shells. 


Tourl-tourl - 


- slippery. 


Tomombang 


- sassafras-tree. 


Trocoie 


- iguana. 


Toonegan - 


- sinews in tail of 




kangaroo. 


Tungelar - 


- to hide. 


Tarroveller 


- drowned. 


Toumben - 


- to steal. 


Tonbar-tickel 


- thief. 


Tongan 


- creek. 


Tovang 


- right hand. 


Talprar 


- arm below elbow. 


Tangeli 


- kill. 


Tupparker - 


- quiet. 


Tirrung 


- pride. 


Tarvomeller 


- to yawn. 


Tarpin 


- scrub. 


Tarpan 


- a lie. 


Tarran 


- frog. 


Turromary - 


- rainbow. 


Tirrumbibang 


- .gum-tree. 



Ticking 


a sore or wound. 


Tappy- 


■ chin. 


Talprar 


arm. 


Dnnong 


give. 


XJUoo - 


forehead. 


Urar - 


clouds. 


UmbU- 


drink. 


Urepayler, urepi 


to steal. 


Ucoll, ucore 


■ heart. 


Wombon - 


- bad, ugly. 


Worotto, worro 


- throat. 


Woner ? 


- where? 


Willing 


- lips. 


WUker 


- shoulder. 


Wigt-wigt - 


- make haste. 


WUlung 


- catfish. 


Wuckumbrer 


- scarring. 


Woombang - 


- kangaroo skin. 


Wang arriendo? 


- where (is my) 




sister ? 


Wang beangar ? 


- where father ? 


Wangi nigegur ? 


- where mother? 


Warring - 


- left hand. 


Wocover, woco- 


a Ue. 


wun 




Wirrar 


- bandicoot. 


Woterbang - 


- cedar-tree. 


Woombin - 


- starved. 


Worimi 


- language and 




country near 




Maitland. 


Weambeang 


- whistle. 


Warr? 


- where? 


Wungayler - 


- to corroboree. 


Wigelmar - 


- make haste. 


Wattem 


- white. 


Woorayayler 


- to talk too much 


Wong-gon-gi-on 


- grandmother. 


Wurrung - 


- crooked. 


Woporer - 


- lagoon. 


Wizonggurer 


- to swim. 


Wurrian,wurrang valley. 



350 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 186. — Additional Words — continued. 



Wunger 


- a corroboree. 


Yoooore, yoocoU 


heart. 


Wackeller - 


- shoulder. 


Yalpun 


- the bark of a dog 


Yetting 


- lightning. 


Yarkeler - 


■ to paint body 


Yawtong 


- journey. 




red. 


Yalliyar 
Yerrating - 
Yungii 
Yetn-yetn - 
Yinderee 


- to dive. 

- shadow. 

- rogue. 

- greedy. 

- eyebrows. 


Yung - 
Yingar 


New England 
country and 
language. 

a crab. 


Yellpayler - 


- to bark (as a 


Yayrung 


waterfall. 




dog). 


Yetting 


greedy. 


Yindayler - 


- to split. 


Yungartilla 


go on before. 


Yaapar 


- to swim. 


YuUoyen - 


■ go behind. 



No. 187.— THE MANNING RIVER. 

By Bench op Magistrates at Wingham. 

Canoes are made of bark, and sometimes shields, and the reader may 
compare the equivalents of baric, shield, and canoe. 

- womboit. 



Opossum 


watoo. 


Tame dog - 


merri. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


mitucit. 


Black duck- 


krangi. 


Wood duck - 




Pelican 




Laughing jackass 


karkoo. 


Native companior 




White cockatoo 


terripi, 


Crow - 


warkut. 


Swan - 


koolwanuk 


Egg - 


koopwai. 


Track of a foot 


yabuk. 


Fish - 


markorow. 


Lobster 


yiuga. 


Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


koopul. 


Fly - - ■ 


boorilook. 


Snake - 


batai. 


The Blacks - 


koori. 


A Blaokfellow 


koori. 


A Black woman - 


marrikait. 


Nose - 


nak. 



Hand - 


- muttra. 


2 Blacks - 


- boolora koori. 


3 Blacks - 




One - 


- wakoolbo. 


Two - 


- boolora, booreit 


Three - 


- boolora wakool. 


Pour - 


- boolorakoo-boo- 




lorakoo. 


Father 


■ bigyai. 


Mother 


■ niga. 


Sister-Elder 


- ngureit. 


,, Younger 




Brother-Elder 


bingai. 


,, Younger woombarra. 


A young man 


boombut. 


An old man 


kooukoon. 


An old woman 


• beti. 


A baby 


marria. 


A White man 


keruinbuUa. 


Children 


boori, kulluk. 


Head - 


waluk. 


Eye - 


- mikue. 


Ear - 


- moko. 



THE MANNING RIVER. 



351 





No. 187. — The Manning Rivkk — continued. 


Mouth 


- kurrika. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- tirra. 


Hill - - 


. 


Hair of the head- boorach. 


Wood - 


- watti. 


Beard - 


- yarrut. 


Stone - 


- bakkut. 


Thunder 
Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach 


- marloo. 

- murruk. 

- tuUut. 

- warra. 


Camp - 

Yes - 
No - 


- moora. 

- ya, ngoe. 

- kooriat. 


Breasts 
Thigh 
Foot - 


- napuk. 

- ngurru. 

- tinya. 


I - - 

You - 
Bark - 


- ngata. 

- beai. 

- koorak. 


Bone - 


- tirruk. 


Good - 


- marook. 


Blood - 


- kungera. 


Bad - 


- yarraki. 


Skin - 


- yoolak. 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- wamyao. 


Food - 


- boowartuk. 


Bowels - - kergo. 
Excrement - - goonnuk, 
War-spear - - kumai. 
Reed-spear - 

Throwing-stick - mooro. 
Shield- - - kooreel. 


Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 


- kappirega. 

- tumbuth. 

- taki. 

- narboolukoo. 

- butooki. 


Tomahawk - 


- bai-bai. 


Walk - 


- yannau. 


Canoe - 


- kooyauk. 


See - 


- narlchi. 


Sun - 


- toonau. 


Sit - 


- yallow-akoo. 


Moon - 


- gewak. 


Yesterday - 


- boomi. 


Star - 


- muriet. 


To-day 


- bungai. 


Light - 


- narrakut. 


To-morrow - 


- koobauki. 


Dark - 


- bootoom, bootuk. 


Where are the 


wunna koori? 


Cold - - 


- yatoo. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- naooit. 


I don't know 


- narrai yoongat 


Day - 


- kaiyak. 




ngata. 


Night- - 


- koonbaka. 


Plenty 


- mondai. 


Fire - 


- kooyal. 


Big - - 


- tookal. 


Water 


- bartoo. 


Little - 


- mittoo. 


Smoke 


- beautoo. 


Dead - 


- toothtoo. 


Ground 


- burrai. 


By-and-by - 


- kookooka, 


Wind- 


- wippai, wooroo- 


Come on - 


- gowai. 




ma. 


Milk - 


. 


Rain - 


- yurra. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 

Ghosts 


: 


Wild turkey 
Wife - - 


- 



352 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 188.— THE HUNTER RIVER. 

THE WONNARUA TRIBE AND LANGUAGE. 

By Robeet Miller, Esq. 

The Wonnarua language is more nearly related to tliat of 
the Hawkesbury than to any other; at the same time it has 
many words found in Wiiratheri, and some which were used 
hy the Sydney tribe. Mr. Miller, from whom I received my 
information concerning the Wonnarua tribe, tells me that 
when he first knew them they occupied the Hunter and all 
its tributaries from within ten miles of Maitland to the 
apex of the Liverpool Ranges, an area which he sets down 
at two thousand square miles. My informant also points 
out that he lived in the Hunter River district for several 
years, having settled there in 1841. At that time, he says 
the tribe numbered about 500 individuals, but it is now 
almost extinct, the result of increased infanticide, de- 
bauchery, diseases introduced by the Whites, exposure to 
rain (which the aborigines avoided in great measure before 
we interfered with their modes of life), bronchitis, and rheu- 
matic fever. Their clothing used to be an opossum-skin 
cloak, and a girdle of spun opossum hair next the skin, and 
their principal ornament a nautilus shell cut into an oval 
shape and suspended from the neck by a string. They also 
anointed the person on gala occasions with a mixture of red 
ochre and fat, and lived in bark mia-miams like those in use 
in all the southern portions of the continent. Their effects 
were the ordinary spears, wommera, shields, and war-boome- 
rangs, and also the boomerang which returns when thrown, 
which was used partly as a toy and was also thrown into 
flights of ducks and other birds with very good results. The 
boomerang used in fights does not return. They had also 



THE HUNTER RIVER. 353 

bags made of platted swamp-grass; koolaman or wooden 
bowls, two or three feet long, for holding water at the camp; 
tomahawks of hard dark-colored stone, which were first 
chipped and then ground to an edge; knives made of flint 
for cuttipg up meat, and also chips of flint with which they 
skinned animals. For food they got the kangaroo and emu, 
which they kUled with spears and captured with nets, 
besides the other animals and reptiles found in their 
country; as also a variety of roots, one of which was that of 
the water-lily. These they roasted in the usual way, or baked 
in the heaps of cinders and stone (or cinders and lumps of 
clay) usually called ovens. The young of both sexes were 
prohibited fi"om eating certain sorts of meat. They had also 
at about sixteen years of age to undergo the ceremonies of 
having a tooth knocked out, the septum of the nose pierced, 
and the painful operation of being scarred on the back, 
shoulders, stomach, and occasionally on the legs. At the 
same age the males were Tuade young men with many secret 
ceremonies. UntU the advent of the Whites, cannibalism 
also prevailed to the extent of eating portions of a slain 
enemy by way of triumph. 

In their marriages they were strictly exogamous ; men 
obtained their wives in exchange for female relatives; females 
becoming wives at twelve and mothers at sixteen years of 
age. Polygamy prevailed, and a large number of the men 
were unable to obtain wives owing partly to the paucity of 
female children reared. Infanticide was practised, and is 
ascribed by Mr. Miller to the impossibility of a woman 
carrying more than one young child in her wanderings. 
Men renowned as warriors frequently attacked their inferiors 
in strength and took their wives from them. Widows got 
another husband in the tribe, and children belonged to the 
tribe of the father. 

The Wonnarua had some idea of a Great Spirit, but 
what the idea was my informant does not know. They had, 
too, a custom of daubing their hands and feet with a com- 
pound of fat and red ochre, and then impressing them on 



354 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



the sides of caves. The canoes were sheets of bark, cut from 
suitable trees in such a manner as to give a little elevation 
to the sides and ends. Fish they caught with nets and 
three-pronged spears. The average height of the men Mr. 
Miller estimates at five feet six inches, though some of them 
were upwards of six feet, and the women at five feet. As a 
rule, their hair was long and lank, one or two being curly and 
one woolly. The dead were interred in a sitting posture, 
the grave being covered with logs to prevent wild dogs 
getting at the corpse. Their wars were the results of tres- 
passes on their lands by neighbouring tribes (generally by 
the Kamilaroi tribes) and the abduction of females. They 
had a salutation on meeting which was " anigunya^'' the 
meaning of which is not stated. 

The old men, as usual, used to talk over the affairs of the 
tribe, and generally persuaded its members to adopt their 
views, which Mr. Miller looks on as a sort of government; 
but no authority existed.* In cases of sickness, certain 
impostors in the tribe used to pretend to extract bits of stick 
or stone from the seat of pain with their mouths; for 
rheumatism the skin was scarified; the gums bled for 
toothache, and hot stones applied to relieve various sorts of 
pains. Wounds were plastered with wet clay, and bleeding 
staunched by the application of a sort of spongy bark. 

Besides his translation of my Common Vocabulary, Mr. 
Miller supplies the following words, amongst which will be 
found the names of the four cardinal points : — 
Additional Woeds. 



Arm - 


- wadtra. 


Calf of the leg 


- woolaoma. 


Forearm 


- murumae. 


Ankle - 


- walngoor. 


Upper arm - 


- kinian. 


Toe - 


- eulo. 


Fingers 


- mutera. 


Toes - 


- beriel. 


Knee - 


- waroo. 


Forehead - 


- mllero. 



* Englishmen generally seem with difficulty to realize the idea of 
a people living entirely without government as our Blacks do, and not 
unfrequently dub some intelligent man of a tribe King Billy or King 
Tommy. 



THE HUNTER RIVEE. 



355 



Additional Words— continiied. 



Eyebrows - 


- yenderra. 


South wind - 


kurrenan. 


Man's breast 


yokoU, 


Hot wind - 


burrumi. 




mooralong. 


Cold wind - 


tukkera. 


Chin - 


- mundoo. 


Whirlwind - 


bolee. 


Hips - 


- karbalong. 


Koolaman or 


koka. 


Dry bark - 


- terrakee. 


wooden water 




Dead tree - 


- kookyal. 


bowl 




Burnt stump 


- wallangan* 


Honey 


kerega. 


Leaf - 


- eele. 


A shadow - 


- gungool. 


Green wattle 


- pattigi. 


A bag - 


- buacul. 


Kangaroo-rat 


- turumbi. 


Raised scars on weerong, 


Bandicoot - 


- koitoun. 


skin 


mooberra. 


Flying squirrel 


- petuong. 


Net - 


- turrila. 


Black snake 


- mutoo-cungoan. 


A hole 


- dingung. 


Brown snake 


- tunibadong. 


Eainbow - 


- turumbol, 


Tortoise 


- kutamong. 




wooralegan. 


Eel - 


- kannung. 


An animal's tail 


- batan. 


Pigeon 


- murramaa. 


Feathers 


- ering. 


Wallaby - 


- barinbellong. 


Wings 


- kilkin. 


Soldier ant - 


- turkol, kerral. 


Bill of bird - 


- karka. 


Red ant 


- teemong- 


Red - 


- kapera. 




watawan. 


Black - 


- tuckdan. 


Iguana 
Magpie 


- guerawa, gerua. 

- goorabul, woing. 


White - 


- barral- 

weerobarral. 


Platypus 


- becan. 


Green - 


- karowara. 


Butcher bird 


- merratta. 


A good many 


- kowal-kowal. 


Curlew 


- booyuong. 


Sick - 


- gerrein-manya. 


Red parrot - 


- wackelara. 


Angry - 


- merral. 


Green parrot 


- peba. 


Ironbark-tree 


- terakii. 


Swallow 


- biUimuhnul. 


Oak-tree 


- goonei. 






Red gum - 


- tarin. 


Jew lizard - 


- wirramin. 


Towards the north kyaubali. 


Woodpecker 


- bing-gol-gol. 


Towards the south bulgargoba. 


Green ant - 


- goonan. 


Towards the east baranbali. 


Wallaroo - 


- wallambang, 


Towards the west wackalaugbali. 




wyanua. 


Bring water 


- kukundia 


Lightning - 


- muUo. 


' 


murra.* 



■ See translation of water in Common Vocabulary. 
Z 2 



356 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 188— THE HUNTER RIVER. 



Kangaroo - 


womboin, bandar. 1 


Hand - 


- mater. 


Opossum - 


Willi. 




2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


merrie. 




3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog ' - 


ukae. 




One • 


- munnaan. 


Emu 


murrin. 




Two - 


- buluarra. 


Black duck 










Wood duck 






Three - 


- wakkool, nulraw. 


Pelican 






Four - 


- tarri, carrowel. 


Laughing jackass 


kookaburra. 




Father 


- beeung. 


Native companioi] 






Mother 


- naae. 


White cockatoo - 


wangolong, 


gar- 


Sister-Elder 


- marrane. 




ribee. 




,, Younger 


- 


Crow - 


wagan. 




Brother-Elder 


- biaghi. 


Swan - - - 






„ Younger 


Egg - - - 


kobaau. 




A young man 


- 


Track of a foot - 






An old man 




Fish - - - 


makroo. 




An old woman 




Lobster 










Crayfish 






A baby 


- wanni, warray. 


Mosquito - 






A White man 


- 


Fly - ■■ 


boorolong. 




Children 


- 


Snake - 


currewa. 




Head - 


- gaberong, gaber 


The Blacks 








undea, geren 


A Blackfellow 


- kurri. 






bandina. 


A Black woman - 


coolberri, apul. 


Eye - 


- mekong. 


Nose - 


nockro. 




Ear - 


- pinna. 



THE HUNTER RIVER. 



357 



No. 188. — Tkb Hitntbe River — c(mtinued. 



Mouth 


- karka. 


Boomerang - 


- barragan, tootoo- 


Teeth 


- undera. 




kera. 


Hair of the head 


- woorann. 


Hill - 


- kooaran. 


Beard 


. 


Wood - 


- terackii. 


Thunder - 


- murrongali. 


Stone - 


- kumbunding, 


Grass 


- tooka, woio. 




tunong. 




woolo. 


Camp - 


- wattaka, watta- 


Tongue 


- myong. 




kabung. 


Stomach 


• warra. 


Yes - - 


- wattalong, nawa 


Breasts 


- abuk. 




day, merri. 


Thigh - - 


- balingora. 


No - 


- yallawebung, 


Foot - 


- tinna. 




kae-one. 


Bone - 


- tabaU. 


I - - 


- indua, nuttua. 


Blood - - 


- gooara. 


You - - 


- natrua, nindrua, 


Skin - 


_ 




aninua. 


Fat - 


- wommo. 


Bark - 


- bekeree, koogera. 


Bowels 


. 


Good - - 


- murrong. 


Excrement - 


- 


Bad - 


- yaracke. 


War-spear - 


- durrane. 


Sweet - 


- 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Food - 


- 


Wommera or 


werrewy. 


Hungry 


- kuberigo. 


throwing-stick 




Thirsty 


- 


Shield- - 


- murribi, kooreil. 


Eat - 


- takiligo. 


Tomahawk - 


- mundabang. 


Sleep - 


- kungongo. 


Canoe - 


- buba. 


Drink - 


- begennan. 


Sun - 


- pannal. 


Walk- - 


- wannin. 


Moon - 


- goonduong. 


See - 


- natan. 


Star - 


- meeka, merri. 


Sit - - 


- woorUla, talla- 


Light - 


- laurae. 




walla. 


Dark - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- 


Cold - 


- karring, dookra. 


To-day 


- 


Heat - 


- werroo, ewereba. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Day - 


- barraiag, burra- 


Where are 


bhe 




galia. 


Blacks ? 




Night - 


- tookoi or dookoi. 


I don't know 


- naiu giando. 


Fire - 


- watta. 


Plenty 


- kawall. 


Water 


- kaUe, kukun. 


Big - 


- 


Smoke 


• butta. 


Little - 


- warrae. 


Ground 


- parri, murrawan. 


Dead - 


- tateba. 


Wind - 


- booromi, burra- 


By-and-by - 


- 




maronga. 


Come on - 


- danaan. 


Rain - 


- mergo, banna, 


Milk - 


- 




wakaden. 


Eaglehawk - 


- kawul. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- borang. 


Wife - 


. 



360 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



No. 189.— THE HAWKESBURY RIVER AND 
BROKEN BAY. 

By J. TUCKEEMAIT, ESQ. 

The following vocabulary was drawn up by Mr. J. Tucker- 
man, and forwarded to me by the Bench of Magistrates at 
Windsor. Some of its words agree with those of the Sydney 
and others with those of the Manning River languages. 
There is but one word for yesterday and to-morrow, and the 
phrase I don't know is rendered not seen, nukka no doubt 
being derived from na. 





Additionai. Words. 




Uncle - 


- kowan. 


Iguana 


- bungera. 


Aunt - 


- murriki. 


Bear - 


- koolewong. 


Cousin 


- nurria. 


Bandicoot - 


- binben. 


Demon 


- kooyar. 


Hailstones - 


- kooribai. 


Clouds 


- yoora. 


Fog - 


- koorebun. 


Honey 


- koodjung. 


Lightning - 


- moomi. 


No. 189.- 


-HAWKESBURY R 


IVER AND BROKEN BAY. 




By J. Ttjck 


BEMAN, Esq. 




Kangaroo - 


- woUombawn. 


Hand - 


- bugeele. 


Opossum 


- irrubel. 


2 Blacks - 


- boolla koori. 


Tame dog - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- burrong koori 


Wild dog - 


- 


One - 


- workul. 


Emu - 


- barebare. 


Two - 


- boolla. 


Black duck - 


- urina. 






Wood duok- 


- nuUaburra. 


Three - 


- burrong. 


Pelican 




Four - 


- 


Laughing jackass kookundi. 


Father 


- bea. 


Native companion 


Mother 


- wyung. 


White cockatoo 


- nooal. 


Sister-Elder 


- nurreen. 


Crow 


- wottigan. 


,, Younger 


- 


Swan 


- mooricone. 


Brother-Elder 


- parpinB. 


Egg 


- kungiri. 


,, Younger 


Track of a foot 


- moori. 






Fish - 


- marra. 


A young man 


- woongara. 


Lobster 


- wirra. 


An old man 


- narraki. 


Crayfish 


- 


An old woman 


- narronyan. 


Mosquito - 


- choopin. 


A baby 


- kootchikou. 


Fly - . 


- yuUa. 


A White man 


- bite-bite. 


Snake - 


- butaeen. 






The Blacks - 


- koori. 


Children - 


- turrongankal. 


A Blackfellow 


- koori. 


Head - 


- kunibeen. 


A Black woman 


- nukal. 


Eye - 


- mekung. 


Nose - 


- nukurra. 


Ear - 


- binna. 



HAWKBSBURY RIVER AND BROKEN BAY. 



369 



No. 189.- 


-Hawkesbuey Rivek and Broken Bay 


—contimied. 


Mouth- 


- kurraka. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- yerra. 


Hill - 




Hair of the heac 


- kewurra. 


Wood - 


wotti. 


Beard - 


- yarring. 


Stone - 


kibbar. 


Thunder - 


- wortool. 


Camp - 


nurra. 


Grass - 


- datter. 










Yes - 


ni. 


Tongue 


- tulling. 






Stomach 


- ukul. 


No 


worripi, worri 


Breasts 


- nopping. 


I 


niya. 


Thigh - 


- durra. 


You - 


ninde. 


Foot - 


- genna. 


Bark - 


toornung. 


Bone - 


- dirrel. 


Good - 




Blood - 


- koomurra. 


Bad - 


kootear. 


Skin ■ 


- bukka. 


Sweet - 


- kooturra. 


Fat - 


- wommo. 


Food - 


- kundoo. 


Bowels 


- guanong. 


Hungry 


duUee. 


Excrement - 


- guanong. 


Thirsty 


- tarrel. 


War-spear - 


- kummi. 


Eat 


- booda. 


Reed-spear - 


- quarang. 






Throwing-stick 


- woora,wommera. 


Sleep - 


- nangri. 


Shield - 


- kooreal. 


Drink - 


woodra. 


Tomahawk - 


- mogo. 


Walk - 


warre. 


Canoe - 


- nooia. 


See - 


- na. 


Sun - 


- bonnal. 


Sit - 


- nullawa. 


Moon - 


- koodang. 


Yesterday - 


- purrapeen. 


Star - 


- koolang. 


To-day 


- yakkunda. 


Light - 


- burrayang. 


To-morrow - 


- purrapeen. 


Dark - 


- minni. 


Where are the 


wirri koori ? 


Cold - 


- tuggera. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- woonul. 


I don't know 


- worri nukka. 


Day - 


- burrea. 








Plenty 


- koora. 


Night - 


- minni. 






Fire - 


- kooyoong. 


Big - 


- kawbawn. 


Water - 


- bardo. 


Little - 


narrang. 


Smoke - 


- kntohel. 


Dead - 


tatta. 


Ground 


- burri. 


By-and-by - 


- nart. 


Wind - 


- wippe. 


Come on 


gooi. 


Rain - 


- woUong, moora- 


Milk - 






koo. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- buttong. 


Wife 





BOOK THE SIXTEENTH. 



BOOK THE SIXTEENTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

The Wiiratheri language, as it was called by the Lachlan 
Blacks, in whose country I resided for some time, or Wiraduri, 
as the Eevd. W. Ridley spells it in his " Kamilaroi," is remark- 
able for the number of tribes by which it is spoken and the 
large area of country throughout which it prevails. Though, 
as the reader will see from this book, there are differences in 
the vocabularies of every tribe, we know that they are not 
so great as to interrupt or even impede conversation, for 
every Black is to some extent a linguist from his infancy, 
and on that account less impatient of small differences of 
speech than the average Englishman or Frenchman. 

The word Wiiratheri is derived from wiirai, the negative 
adverb, and it is worthy of notice that in almost every tribe 
throughout this series the equivalents of no and the Blacks 
are, though differently spelt by my contributors, in reality 
the same, a state of things which rarely exists in connection 
with tribes occupying so large an extent of country. We 
also find in these dialects dagu, duggan, dagga, &c., common 
equivalents for excrement, and related terms such as dagun, 
duggan, and daggoon signifying ground; in fact in two in- 
stances the two objects are expressed by the same word. In a 
vocabulary drawn up by the Right Reverend Dr. Salvado of 
a language of Western Australia, on the other side of the 
continent, daagn is met with signifying anus, and it seems 
probable that there was a time when there was but one word 
to express the objects excrement, ground, and anus. Goonna, 



364 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



goonnong, koonna = excrement, so general in our languages, 
also appear in some of the Wiiratlieri dialects, and it is 
likely tliat the two words dagun and koonna exist in all of 
them. In these dialects it wiU also be found that the 
equivalents of tongue and eat are generally related, and 
occasionally that oifood. 

But what is most noteworthy about the Wiiratheri tribe 
is, that though they were a people who numbered several 
thousand souls, had a common language, and inhabited a 
country 450 miles in length by 300 in breadth, throughout 
which communication was easy, yet with these advantages 
they never get beyoiid tribal life which limits cohesion to , 
persons nearly related by blood, or made a single step in the 
direction of a national existence. Like all other Australians, 
the Wiiratheri tribes had got so far that any one of them 
could by messenger treat collectively with another tribe, but 
had not reached the stage of established authority within 
the tribe. No doubt it is the establishment within the tribe, 
and for home purposes, of some authority other than the 
paternal, which is the first step from tribal to national life, 
and that this perhaps never occurs until agriculture has led 
to stationary settlement. 

Before giving the several translations of my Common 
Vocabulary into Wiiratheri which have have reached me, I 
will proceed with such Additional Words as my correspondents 
have furnished, as follows. In three of these little collections 
we have the equivalents of un^le, aunt, and cousin, an im- 
portant fact which was overlooked when the table found in 
Vol. I., page 141, was drawn up : — 





Bt the Rbvd 


J. GnNTHBB. 




Drink 

Present 

Future 


- widgalli. 

- widyana. 

- widyalgine. 


Walk 

Present 

Future 


- yanney. 

- yannunoo 

- yannagun 




See - 
Present 
Future 


- ngunnai. 

- nguna. 

- nagine. 





PREFATORY REMARKS. 



365 



Mr. C. Rouse 
Gives the following names of places and their aignifloations:- 



Bna-wena - 


- Place where the 


Gillendoon 


- A place of cray 




women stop 




fish. 




when separated 


Billa-buUa - 


- The two rivers. 




from the men in 


Gowong 


- The moon. 




times of bora or 


Minemoorong 


- Blackfellows' 




war. 




camp. 




By the Bench op Magistrates, Dubbo. 


Lightning - 


- michi. 


Aunt - 


- bumal. 


Uncle 


- buggarnine. 


Cousin 


- mooningal. 


By the Revd. J. Balfe, J. P., Booan Rivbb. 


Uncle 


- bugenrung. 


Cousin 


- woonaki. 


Aunt - 


- bunual. 








Bt J. Cameron, Esq., Forbes, etc. 


Boy • 


- boori. 


Forest oak - 


- nying. 


Girl - - 


- migi. 


Swamp oak 


- billar. 


Baby (male) 


- boorinjal. 


Pine-tree - 


- kurra. 


„ (female) 


- migijul. 


A scrub 


- beergoo. 


Kangaroo-rat 


- keemung. 


A plain 


- goonigul. 


Paddimellon 


- weerung. 


A creek 


- beela. 


Water-rat - 


- mooeen. 


Road - 


- mooroo. 


Mouse 


- wuthagong. 


Frost. - 


- maggar. 


Black snake 


- thoorung. 


A fight 


- boomooloona. 


Brown snake 


- wurulung. 


War - 


- koori. 


Iguana 


- ngooreen. 


Fishing-net 


- kooli. 


Teal - 


- throoyong. 


Flesh - 


- jeen. 


Magpie 


- karoo. 


Arms - 


- buggur. 


Crane - 


- bara. 


Stand - 


- wurruna. 


Codfish 


- kooroolong. 


Jump - 


- broobeeja. 


Bream 


- koobeer. 


Lay down •■ 


- wirrija. 


Lightning - 


- meegee. 


Scold - 


- nuburra. 


Cloud 


- urung. 


Shed tears - 


- umbena. 


Box-tree - 


- wooronglong. 


Laugh 


- keentnunna. 


Gum-tree - 


- yarra. 


Never 


- weddaboo. 



The word Boomooloowi —fight, is evidently akin to a 
common word meaning strike. From Sir George Grey's 
Travels in North-west Australia, vol. 2, p. 212, we learn that 
this word is rendered Pooma or Booma on the Swan Eiver, 
Boomgur at King George's Sound, Poomandi in South Aus- 
tralia, and Boonbilliko at Sydney. 



366 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 





By W. H. Suttoe, Esq. 


Crane - 


- burra. 


Box-tree - - bimbil. 


Curlew 


- kooreebun. 


Pine-tree - - kurra. 


Dove — (large) 


- mooragoo. 


Bee (native) - dthurroongarong 


(small) 


- goobadthoo. 


Honey- - - ngaroo. 


Magpie 


- garroo. 


Mirage - - narroowai. 


Pigeon (bronze- 


yamniur. 


A kiss - - - boodthrabulug- 


wing) 




goo. 


Pigeon (squatter) dthood-thoo. 


Coward - - gael-gael. 


Plover - 


- baldurrigeri. 


Brave - - - woUungunmalla. 


Wagtail 


- djirri-djirri. 


Sorry - - - noonidthung- 


Bell-bird 


- banbandarloo. 


ninna. 


Frog - 


- koolanga. 


Glad - - - gudthangthung- 


Shrimp 


- kidjar. 


ninna. 


Porcupine - 


- quandialli. 


Love - - - burrannungar- 


Liver - 


- gooraloong. 


reree. 


Knee - 


boongong. 


Laugh- - - ginthiuthintha. 


Elbow - 


• ngoona. 


Tall - - - barrmir. 


Arm - 


- bargoor. 


Short - - - boomban. 


Shoulder 


- kunnar. 


Deaf - - - moogoodtha. 


Rump - 


- mogwoon. 


Dumb - - - wirriyarra. 


Uncle - 


- buggamgan. 


Blind - - - mogeen. 


Aunt - 


- bommall. 


Angry- - - dthallibinnul. 


Cousin 


- oonaregein. 


Imaginary animal, mirreeuUa. 


Daughter - 


■ ammoori. 


said to live in 


Lightning - 


- mikki. 


deep waterholes 


Feather 


- boobil. 


Go on - - - euyunnundtha. 


Tail - 


- dooudoo. 


What do you say? minnu andeyaeh 


Snow - 


- koonoomal. 


Exclamation of yukkai ! 


A forest 


- birgoo. 


pain 


A plain 


- goonigul. 


Crooked (see Boo- burrgan. 


A river 


- murrung. 


merang) 


River oak-tree 


- bellarwi. 


Straight (see Spear) dthoolooarree. 



Plain turkey or gumbul. 
bustard 



By THE Weitbb. 
Yooaba commonly spelt Udbha on the Lachlan. 
Native companion pooralga. 
Laughing jackass kokoburra. 
Wood, tree - - gi-gul. 
Stone - - - woUong. 
Crayfish (small inka. 

sort of) 
Small burrowing moondo-bil-bi. 

kangaroo 
Darling cockatoo, wi-jug-a-la. 

or Plyctolophus 

Leadbeateri 

Squatter pigeon - too-toot. 
Mallee bird - - yoong-ai. 



Prog - - - ko-lung-a. 

Sow-thistle ■ - tool-ooman. 

A hole in a stone woUong-mil; i.e., 
in which water stone eye. 
collects 

A hole in a tree gigul-mil; i.e., 
in which water wood eye. 
collects, some- 
times to the ex- 
tent perhaps of 
fifty gallons 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 



36^ 



Whilst giving the few words which the author rememhers 
of the Wiiratheri language, he thinks it well to mention the 
following fact connected with natural history. The native 
bee was found on the banks of the Lachlan (and at 
least five-and-twenty miles back from that river) as far as 
the upper portion of the Uabba Run; but if a north and 
south line were drawn through the stockyard of that run, no 
hives existed to the westward of that line ; in fact, the bee 
could not be found nearer than two or three miles to the 
eastward of such line. This was often explained to me by 
the Blacks who resided permanently on the station and kept 
us supplied with honey. Why the bees ceased to be found 
at that point — the country on one side of the north and 
south line being exactly similar to that on the other — 
whether they have since spread to the west, or have been 
exterminated by our bees, are questions of interest. 





By Chaeles Bybne, Esq. 




Sou - 


- ooraman. 


Swim - 


- yawinya. 


Daughter* - 


- amoor. 


Strike 


- bingictanaloo. 


She* - 


- ama. 


Talk - 


- yallaloo. 


Girls - 


- miggi. 


When- 


- wigengoo. 


Husband 


- moban. 










Here - 


- ena. 


Riba - 


- mar. 






Neck - 


- nan. 


Many men - 


- madoo mang. 


Frog - 


- koolunga. 


Many women 


- madoo bulla- 


Opossum-cloak 


- boothong. 




garoo. 


He - 


- myla. 


Come and swim 


- thanganong. 


Fall - - 


- bunding. 


Where ? - 


- taggowa? 




By G. R. H. i 


Stttckey, Esq. 




Girls - 


- mulliwan. 


Strike 


- boomalgaree. 


Husband 


- hobaoQ. 


Talk - 


- yalla. 


Ribs - 
Neck - 


- thaura. 

- wooro. 


Many men - 


- mado main. 


Frog - 


- kolonga. 


Many women 


- mado buUagara. 


Opossum-cloak 


- buthong. 


Come and swim 


- thanuna kooma- 


FaU - 


- bondagee. 




bakee. 


Swim - 


- koombakee. 


Where ? 


- thagwa ? 



• In connection with thia word see the translation of treasts in Mr. Byrne's rendering 
of the Common Vocabulary, a few pages on. 



368 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— CASTLEREAGH RIVER, TALBRAGAR, MUDGEE. 
By the Revd. J. Gunther. 



Kangaroo - 


bundur. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


willei. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 


merri. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck 
Pelican 
Laughing jackass 


gaumarran. 


One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Pour - 
Father 


- ngunbeer. 

- bulla. 

- bulla ngunbeer 

- bulla bulla. 

- babin. 


Native companion 




Mother 


- gunnee, gunni- 


White cockatoo 


guarran. 




bong. 


Crow - 


waggun. 


Sister-Elder 


- mimmi. 


Swan - 


dooudoo. 


,, Younger 


- 


Egg - 


gabbuga. 


Brother-Elder 


. 


Track of a foot 
Pish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish - 
Mosquito - 
Fly - - 


durru. 

dungur, gubbir. 

gidyax. 

inka. 

muggin. 

burremul. 


„ Younger gumbul. 
A young man - ugal. 
An old man - derribung. 
An old woman - ballagun. 
A baby - - balli. 


Snake - 


yabba. 


A White man 


- gun wan. 


The Blacks - 


main. 


Children - 


- burri. 


A Blackfellow - 




Head - 


- ballang. 


A Black woman 


innur. 


Eye - 


- mil. 


Nose - 


wooroo. 


Ear - 


- udda. 



CASTLEREAGH RIVEE, TALBRAGAR, MUDGEE. 369 



No. 190.— Castlereagh Rivbk, 

Mouth - - ngnain, ngan. 

Teeth - - - irrang. 
Hair of the head - uran. 

Beard - - - yarran. 

Thunder - - murruburai. 

Gras3 - - - buguin. 

Tongue - - dallein. 

Stomach - - ngurrui. 

Breasts - - ngumorgang. 

Thigh- - - bugu. 

Foot . - - dinnung. 

Bone - - - tubul. 

Blood - - - gurru. 

Skin - - - yulin. 

Fat - - - duyon. 

Bowels - - ngurrui. 

Excrement - - dagu. 

War-spear - - doolo. 
Reed-spear - 

Throwing-stick - baduwur, bur- 
gun. 

Shield- - - marga. 

Tomahawk - - burguin. 
Canoe - 

Sun - - ■ irrae. 

Moon - - - giwang. 

Star - . - girragulang. 

Light - - - ngalum. 

Dark - - - buddang. 

Cold - - - buUudai. 

Heat - - - munur, ugil. 

Day - - - irrue, irndu. 

Night - - - gurnuwai. 

Fire - - - win. 

Water - - kaUng. 

Smoke - - gaddal. 

Ground - - dagun. 

Wind - - - girar. 

Rain - - - milgi, kaling. 

God (Maker) - bai-a-mai. 

Ghosts - - duUubung. 

VOL. ni. 2 



Talbbagak, Mudgee — continued. 

Boomerang - 

Hill - - - 

Wood - - - maddun. 

Stone - - - wallung. 

Camp - - - ngurang. 

Yes - - - ngawa. 

No - - - wirrai. 

I ... ngunnal. 

You - 

Bark - - - gundai, murdai, 
durang. 

Good - - - murrong. 

Bad - - - murrunubong. 

Sweet- - - ngurru. 

Food - - - wigge. 

Hungry - - girrugul. 

Thirsty 

llat - - - duUi. 

Sleep - - - yurrai, winya. 

Driak - - - widjelli. 

Walk - - - yanney. 

See - - - ngunnai. 

Sit .... winga. 

Yesterday - - gumbui. 

To-day 

To-morrow - 

Where are the dagara main ? 
Blacks? 

I don't know - wirrai winanung- 
unua. 

Plenty - - murrawal. 

Big - - - babbir. 

Little - - - bubbai. 

Dead - - - ballun. 

By-and-by - - guayu. 

Come on - - duiu yunna. 

Milk - 

Eaglehawk - 

Wild turkey 

Wife - 
A 



370 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 190.— WARREN. 

Compiled by C. Rottse, Esq., at the request op T. A. Beownb, Esq., 

Warben. 



Compare harlc and camp in this vocabulary, and note the translations of 
Where are the Blacks and I don't know, and the change in the word tugera. 



Kangaroo - 


womboin, bundar. 


Hand - 


- marra. 


Opossum 


willie. 


2 Blacks - 


- bulla mine. 


Tame dog - 


meerrie. 


3 Blacks - 


- bulla wonboy 


Wild dog - 






mine. 


Emu - 


oorin. 


One - 


- wonboy. 


Black duck 


bunthenbar. 


Two - 


- bulla. 


Wood duck 


gooneroo. 


Three - 


- bulla wonboy. 


Pelican 


beraya. 






Laughing jackass 


kookaburra. 


Four - 


- bungo. 


Native companion brolga. 


Father 


- bubbeen. 


White cockatoo - 


murine. 


Mother 


- gunnie. 


Crow - 


worgan. 


Sister-Elder 


- borie. 


Swan - 


tundoo. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - - 


koobagar. 


Brother- Elder 


- kulmine. 


Track of a foot - 


dramble. 


,, Younger kargon. 


Fish - 


kookabul. 


A young man 


- burri. 


Lobster 




An old man- 


- derribung. 


Crayfish 


inga. 


An old woman 


- bidgah. 


Mosquito - 
Fly - 


moogin. 
borimill. 


A baby 


- nabba. 


Snake - 


durong. 


A White man 


- kubbun, gibrigal 


The Blacks - 


mine. 


ChUdren - 




A Blackf ellow 


mine. 


Head - 


- ballong. 


A Black woman 


ena. 


Bye - 


- mill. 


Nose - 


murroo. 


Ear - 


- outha. 





WARREN. 


3 




No. 190. — "W &.-KBS.TS— continued. 




Mouth 


- milleen. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- erung. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head - gideong. 


Wood - 


- muthen. 


Beard - 


- yarran. 


Stone - 


- woUong. 


Thunder - 


- murraburri. 


Camp - 


- moorong. 


Grass - 


- bugin. 


Yes - 


- yarlo. 


Tongue 


- duUan. 


No - 


- wirri. 


Stomach 


- borbeen. 


I 


- naddo. 


Breasts 


- birrin. 


You - 


- indo. 


Thigh - 


- marowl. 


Bark - 


- moorong. 


Foot - 


- dinnong. 


Good - 


- murrumbung. 


Bone - 


- dubbul. 


Bad - 


- nunni. 


Blood - 


- goin. 


Sweet - 


- murrumbung. 


Skin - 


- uline. 


Food - 


- marrie. 


Pat - 


- wommo. 


Hungry 


- girrigall. 


Bowels 


- boorbeen. 


Thirsty 


- yalgo. 


Excrement - 


- guunong, duggan. 


Eat - 


- dullee. 


War-spear - 


- dilloo. 


Sleep - 


- euree. 


Reed-spear - 


- dureel. 


Drink - 


- werjellie. 


Thro wing-stick 
Shield - 


- wommara(?). 

- mirga. 


Walk - 

See - 


- yannergee. 

- naddoo. 


Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 


- burgoin. 

- murrin, wargin. 


Sit - 


- welya. 


Sun - 


- erie. 


Yesterday - 


- ninnigoori, 


Moon - 


- gowong. 


To-day 


- duUan. 


Star - 


- gerelong. 


To-morrow - 


- noorimgle. 


Light - 


- ear. 


Where are the 


tugera mine ? 


Dark - 


- muroong. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- bolidi. 


I don't know 


nunna tugeraga 


Heat - 


- eribung. 


Plenty 


beerbiing. 


Day - 


- drangbung. 


Big - 


murowe. 


Night - 


- murongbung. 


Little - 


boobi. 


Fire - 


- wein. 






Water 


koUe, kuUeu. 


Dead - 


ballo. 


Smoke 


kuthel. 


By-and-by - 


duUan ereble. 


Ground 


duggan. 


Come on 


kowra. 


Wind - 


gera. 


Milk - - .. 




Eain - - - 


walla. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


wondoue;. 


Wife - 





371 



2 A 2 



372 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— DUBBO. 
By Bench of Magistrates at Dubbo. 



Kangaroo - 


bundar. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


willie. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 


meerie. 

moorooin. 
womboinda. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 


- oonby. 

- bulla. 


Wood duck- 


goonaroo. 


Three - 


- bulla oonby. 


Pelican 


berar. 


Four - 


- buUa bulla. 


Laughing jackass 


kookaburra. 


Father 


- bobbeen. 


Native companion bralgan. 
White cockatoo - mooran. 
Crow - - - waagan. 
Swan - - - thoonthoo. 
Egg - - - koboca. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,, Younger 
Brother-Elder 


- koonee. 

- boree. 

- kulmine. 


Track of a foot 


turumbal. 


„ Younger 


Fish - 


kooyabi. 


A young man 


- walloe. 


Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 

Fly - 

Snake - 
The Blacks - 


ingar. 
moggin. 
burremal. 
durong. 
mine (main?). 


An old man 

An old woman 

A baby 

A White man 

Children 


- walline oogal 

- moogeen. 

- boobi, boori. 

- gooen. 


A Blackfellow 




Head - 


- buUong. 


A Black woman 


ennar. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Nose - 


murrobar. 


Ear - 


- coda. 



DUBBO. 



373 



No. 190. — DuBBo — continwd. 



Mouth 


- kuine. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- eerong. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head- kidjing. 


Wood- 


- muthum. 


Beard - 


- yarrin. 


Stone - 


- woUong. 


Thunder 


- murraburri. 


Camp - 


- oorong. 


Grass - 


- boogoin. 


Yes - 


- owaa. 


Tongue 


- talline. 


No - 


- weeri. 


Stomach 


- birrin. 


I 


- addu. 


Breasts 


- namong. 


You - 


- indo. 


Thigh - 


- boio. 


Bark - 


- thurrunag. 


Foot - 


- dinnong. 


Good - 


- murrembong. 


Bone - 


- thaban. 


Bad - - 


.. 


Blood - 


- goin. 


Sweet - 


- murrumbar. 


Skin - - 


- uline. 


Food - 


- wega, dana. 


Fat - 


- woomo. 


Hungry 


- girrogal. 


Bowels 


- bourbiu. 


Thirsty 


- yalgoerung. 


Excrement - 


- tuggar. 


Eat - 




War-spear - 


- thulo. 






Reed-spear - 


- dreel. 


Sleep - 


- eurie. 


Throwing-stick 


- womar. 


Drink - 


- weejerra. 


Shield- - 


. 


Walk- 


- yannauna. 


Tomahawk - 


- burgoin. 


See - 


- nayanya. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- weeuya. 


Sun - 


- eeri. 


Yesterday - 


- uningwarra. 


Moon - 


- geewong. 


To-day 


- tharra. 


Star - 


- girralong. 


To-morrow - 


- mooroongal. 


Light - 


- mullan. 


Where are the wuna mine ? 


Dark - 


- murroy. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- buUadi, tuggara. 


I don't know 


- wirri gulburra 


Heat - 


- kanambang. 


Plenty 


- maddo. 


Day - 


- eera. 


Big - 


- bamir. 


Night - 
Fire - 


- nurrong. 

- ween. 


Little - 


- boobi. 


Water 


- kalleen. 


Dead - 


- buUo. 


Smoke 


- kuddal. 


By-and-by - 


- tnllan. 


Ground 


- tagoon. 


Come on 


- kow-ai. . 


Wind- - 


- girrar. 


Milk - - 


- 


Rain - 


- kalleen. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- biomar. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- wondong. 


Wife - 


- 



374 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACB : 



No. 190. -WELLINGTON. 



By H. Keightly, Esq., P.M. 



Kangaroo - 


womboyn. 


Hand - 


- mara. 


Opossum 


Willie. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


merrie. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 








Emu - 


ooron. 


One - 


- oonboyie. 


Black duck - 


boothenba. 


Two - 


- boola. 


Wood duck - 


goonaroong. 


Three - 


- boola oonboyie 


Pelican 


wonga wonga. 


Four - 


- muddo. 


Laughing j ackass 


kookoburra. 


Father 


- babee. 


Native companion 


bralgan. 


Mother 


- koonea. 


White cockatoo 


moorie. 


Sister-Elder 


- mingan. 


Crow - 
Swan - 


waugan. 


,, Younger 
Brother-Elder 


- 


Egg - 


kubboga. 






Track of afoot 


dianong 


,, Younger kagong. 


Fish - 


gooeya. 


A young man 


- wallowie. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- jreebung. 


Crayfish 


■ gidda. 


An old woman 


- 


Mosquito - 


- mogen. 


A baby 


- naba. 


Ply - 


- burrimal. 


A White man 


. 


Snake 

The Blacks - 


• durong. 


Children - 


- yenarka. 


A Blackf ellow 


- bowie. 


Head - 


- balong. 


A Black woman 


- yenna. 


Bye - 


- mail. 


Nose - 


- moorotha. 


Bar - 


- woodtha. 





WELLINGTON. 


c 




No. 190. — Wellington — continued 




Mouth 


- yerong. 


Boomerang - 


■ 


Teeth - 


- 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head wooran. 


Wood 


- mathen. 


Beard - 


- yarren. 


Stone - 


- woUong. 


Thunder - 


- moorabrie. 


Camp - 


- moorong. 


Graas - 


- boogen. 


Yes - 


- a-wa. 


Tongue 


- dallan. 


No -■ - 


- wiirai. 


Stomach 


- boorbye. 


I 


- athol. 


Breasts 


- 


You - 


- indoo. 


Thigh- - 


- booeyo. 


Bark - 


- doorong. 


Foot - 


- dinnong. 


Good - - 


- murrumbang. 


Bone - 


- thalbe. 


Bad - 


- eengel. 


Blood - 


- goine. 


Sweet - 


- wari-karbeen 


Skin - 


- uline. 




ging (?)• 


Pat - 


- wanrnio. 


Food - 


- dinnong. 


Bowels 


- goonong. 


Hungry 


- yewarran. 


Excrement - 


- goona. 


Thirsty 


- galling. 


War-spear - 


- doolo. 


Eat - 


- dally. 


Reed-spear - 


- djreel. 


Sleep - 


- urey. 


Thro wing-stick 


- doora, mothen. 


Drink - 


- woodjalli. 


Shield 


- marga. 


Walk - 


- yaunangee. 


Tomahawk - 


- burgowen. 


See - 


_ 


Canoe 


- wargung,manien. 


Sit - 


- whiga. 


Sun - 
Moon - 


- yerly. 

- ghucong. 


Yesterday - 


- wooroongal. 


Star - 


- gerrelong. 


To-day 


- dallung. 


Light - 


- nalgara. 


To-morrow - 


- wooroongal. 


Dark - 


- boothong. 


Where are the 


Cold - - 


- ballathai. 


Blacks? 




Heat - 


- erybong. 


I don't know 


- dagga ga. 


Day - 


- 


Plenty 


- murdo. 


Night - 


- oorong. 


Big - 


- moorowel. 


Fire - 


- wiin. 


Little - 


- boobye. 


Water 


- galling. 


Dead - 


- baalo. 


Smoke 


- kathel. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- dagoon. 


Come on - 


- thane, yenna. 


Wind- 


- geerach. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- gadle. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - - 


- 



375 



376 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 190.— HILL END. 



By Bench of Magistrates, Bathuest. 



Kangaroo - 


- wamboin. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- willee. 


2 Blacks - 


» 


Tame dog - 


- miree. 


3 Blacks - 


_ 


Wild dog ■ 


- 


One - 


- miko. 


Emu - 


- nooree. 


Two - 


- buUagut. 


Black duck - 


- buthanbar. 




Wood duck 


- goonaroo. 


Three - 


- buUagut miko 


Pelican 


- wirria. 


Four - 


- bullagut-bulla 


Laughing jackass kookoopara. 




gut. 


Native companion 


Eather 


- paupee. 


White cockatoo 


- moori. 


Mother 


- koonee. 


Crow - 


- wairoo. 


Sister-Elder 


- kaitee. 


Swan - 


• parama. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


- kapooka. 


Brother-Elder 


_ 


Track of a foot 


- tinna. 


,, Younger kauka. 


Eish - 


- kooia. 






Lobster 




A young man 


- kappara. 






An old man 


- tirreebong. 


Crayfish 


- wangar. 






Mosquito - 


- komogin. 


An old woman 


- mokee. 


Ely - 


- burrumil. 


A baby 


- burri. 


Snake - 


- turroo. 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


- wattaka-allo. 


Children 


- murre-wangar 


A Blaokfellow 


- makkoo. 


Head - 


- pallan. 


A Black woman 


- moopoon. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Nose - 


- mooroo. 


Ear - 


- outher. 





HTT,T, 


END. 


37/ 




No. 190. — Hill End — continued. 




Mouth 


- nundle. 


Boomerang • 




Teeth - 


- eeran. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- ouran. 


Wood - 


- mudlthen. 


Beard - 


- yarrie. 


Stone - 


- karool. 


Thunder 


- mooroopry. 


Camp - 


- nurru. 


Grass - 


- bugwee. 


Yes - 


- awa. 


Tongue 


- thallee. 


No - 


- wirri 


Stomach 


- boorbee. 


I 


■ nantoo. 


Breasts 


- toomoo. 


You - 


- nindoo. 


Thigh - 


- 


Bark - 


- durra. 


Foot - 


- thinna. 


Good - 


- yatama. 


Bone - 


- nimbee. 


Bad - 


wirri wideroo. 


Blood - - 


- koai. 


Sweet - 


- yatamah. 


Skin - 


- uUee. 


Food - 


- orattee, tinoorka. 


Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stick 
Shield- 


- keal. 

- tookar. 

- murra. 

- wairee. 

- nirru. 

- murka. 


Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 


- nattoo, nairrokul. 

- attopoodally. 

- woorigerry. 

- nairooka. 

- yanna. 


Tomahawk - 


- burgoiee. 


See - 


- naikoo, pirroo. 


Canoe - 


- . 


Sit - 


- weeta. 


Sun - 


- eree. 


Yesterday - 


- kumpeera. 


Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 
Heat - 
Day - 


- kua. 

- kirala. 

- nurgan. 

- nou. 

- pallootai. 

- yaukee. 

- dranbar. 


To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are the 
Blacks? 
I don't know 
Plenty 


- tallongo. 

- kullnareta. 
taiga unna mi 

yanna murrani ? 

- wirri. 

- puTigoo. 


Night - 


- tuagra. 


Big - 


■ poimit. 


Fire - 


- wee. 


Little - 


- popaga. 


Water 


- kallee. 


Dead - 


■ pallonee. 


Smoke 


- puttho. 


By-and-by - 


- gumbirra. 


Ground 


- tookar. 


Come on 


dina. 


Wind - 


- girrard. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- uroo. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- wonda. 


Wife - 





378 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— BATHURST. 



By p. Foley, 



Me. Foley relates that class-marriage existed in tlie tribes 
about Bathurst, and that Ippe, Cumbo, Cubbi, and Murri 
were the names of the classes. In this vocabularly may be 
compared the equivalents of tongue, hungry, and eat, also 
ghost and White man. 



Kangaroo - 


murrawai. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


kooragai. 


2 Blacks - 


- booliga mi. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 


yukey. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 


- booliga mugo mi 

- mugo. 


Emu - 
Black duck - 


nguree. 
boothunba. 


Two - 


- booliga. 


Wood duck 


gonaro. 


Three - 


- booliga mugo. 


Pelican 


gurotha. 


Four - 


- booliga booliga. 


Laughing jackass 


kookoburra. 


Father 


■ puppa. 


Native companion bralga. 


Mother 


- goonee. 


White cockatoo - 


mooroy. 


Sister-Elder 


- karta. 


Crow - 

Swan - 
Egg - - 


waugan. 

keeneekin. 

koboka. 


,, Younger 
Brother-Elder 


- kugga. 


Track of a foot 


dinna. 


„ Younger 


Fish - 


gooey a. 


A young man 


- nubingeri. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- derriba. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- werringa. 


Mosquito - 


- tirry. 


A baby 


- warro. 


Fly - 
Snake - 
The Blacks ■ 


- booramul. 

- undaba. 

- mi. 


A White man 
Children - 


- wonda. 

- broy-ga. 


A Blackf ellow 


- mi. 


Head - 


- boUen. 


A Black woman 


- weener. 


Eye - 


- miU. 


Nose - 


- moorootha. 


Bar - 


- woodtha. 





BATHURST. 


37y 




No; 190. — Bathubst — continued. 




Mouth 


■ willee. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- weera. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 




Wood - 


- muthin. 


Beard - 


- geer. 


Stone - 


- kowral. 


Thunder - 

Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach 


- mooroomba. 

- gooroon. 

- thuUe. 

- boorbee. 


Camp - 

Yes - 

No 

I 


- ngooroomba. 

- youi. 

- weeri. 

- thu. 


Breasts 
Thigh - 
Foot - 
Bone - 


- namo. 

- tarra. 

- dinna. 


You - 
Bark - 
Good - 


- indoo. 

- mungur. 

- murrumban. 


Blood - 
Skin - 


- gooee. 

- yuUn. 


Bad ■ 
Sweet - 


- warri. 


Pat - 


- wamo. 


Food - 


- wiggia. 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- thuUerte. 


Excrement - 


- goona. 


Thirsty 


- kuUeete. 


War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stiok 
Shield - 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 


- moora 

- moorabuther. 

- beer. 

- mutha. 

- binjelly. 

- kogee. 

- thunee. 

- guer. 


Eat - - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 

Walk - 
See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 


- thuUe. 

- mooga. 

- uarraga. 

- yannine. 

- nanee. 

- weenga. 

- kumberinyanna.* 


Star - 


- girilla. 


To-day 


- talun. 


Light - 


- wanee. 


To-morrow - 


- kumberin. 


Dark - 


- mugee. 


Where are the 


wontulee mi ? 


Cold - 
Heat - 


- goonundurra. 


Blacks? 
I don't know 


- weeri thu nanee. f 


Day - 


- talung. 


Plenty 


- baongo. 


Night - 
Fire - 


- tarungero. 

- wee. 


Big - ■ 
Little - 


- bupa. 

- boothoo. 


Water - 


- kallee. 


Dead - 


- bookago. 


Smoke 


- bombillee. 


By-and-by - 


- taloongery. 


Ground 


- tagoon. 


Come on 


- yanna. 


Wind - 


- boorooma. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- goonda. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- biam. 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- woolawoonda. 


Wife - 


- 



' Literally to-morrow gone. 



t I/iterally not I seen. 



380 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— BOGAN RIVER. 



By the Revd. J. Balfe, J.P. 



Kangaroo - 


- womboi. 


Opossum 


- Willi. 


Tame dog - 


- meri. 


Wild dog - 


- 


Emu - 


- coring. 


Black duck- 


- buttranda 


Wood duck- 


- goonaroo. 


Pelican 


- 


Laughing jackass kocoburra 


Native companion bralgan. 


White cockatoo 


- moori. 


Crow - 


- waugan. 


Swan - 


- doondoo. 


Egg - - 


- kabuga. 


Track of a foot 


- dina. 


Fish - 


- koiya. 


Lobster 


- inka. 


Crayfish 


- 


Mosquito - 


- mokiu. 


Ply . 


- boremul. 


Snake - 


- touru. 


The Blacks - 


- mien. 


A Blackfellow 


- matu. 


A Black woman 


- 


Nose - 


- mooroo. 



Hand - 


- murra. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- 


Two - 


- buUar. 


Three - 


- buUungabi. 


Four - 


- 


Father 


- babena. 


Mother 


- gunene. 


Sister-Elder 


- pate. 


„ Younger 




Brother-Elder 


- kaka. 


,, Younger 


A young man 


- buguragau. 


An old man 


- karawa (?). 


An old woman 


- karawa (?). 


A baby 


- boobi. 


A White man 


- 


Children - 


- boori. 


Head - 


- bula. 


Eye - - 


- meel. 


Ear - 


- outa. 



BOGAN RIVER. 



381 





No. 190. — BoGAN River — continued 




Mouth 


- mandool. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- errung. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head- pearu. 


Wood - 


- muthung. 


Beard - 


- yarrmg. 


Stone - 


- warlung. 


Thunder - 


- mooroobari. 










Camp - 


- murrung. 


Grass - 


- 


Yes - 


- awa. 


Tongue 


- tuUing. 


No - 


- weeri. 


Stomach 


- burrabung. 


I 


. 


Breasts 


- here. 


You - 


- Indoo. 


Thigh - 


- bouan. 


Bark - 


- toorung. 


Foot - 


- tennar. 










Good - 


- murrumban. 


Bone - 


- tabul. 






Blood - - 


- gafin. 


Bad - 


- yiugil. 


Skin - 


- milkar. 


Sweet - 








Food - 


- weki. 


Fat - 


- warmoo. 






Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- marang 


Excrement - 


- tunga. 


Thirsty 


- kanuna. 


War-spear - 


- tooloo. 


Eat - 


- tale. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- uri. 


Throwing-stick 


- buragau. 


Drink - 


- weejali. 


Shield - 


- mooraka. 


Walk - 


- yanagare. 


Tomahawk - 


- towane. 


See - 


- nakeri. 


Canoe - 


- mure. 


Sit - 


- weekere. 


Sun - - 


- erai. 


Yesterday - 


■ kaluane. 


Moon - 


- kewa. 


To-day 


- kalbeau. 


Star - 


- kerela. 


To-morrow - 




Light - 


- 


Where are the tagua mien 2 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- buUuti. 


I don't know 


- takaka. 


Heat - 


- kuna. 


Plenty 


- mootoo. 


Day - 


- keranba, 


Big - 


- mootoo. 


Night - 


- muring. 


Little - 


- bubi. 


Fire - 


- ween. 










Dead - 


- kalo. 


Water 


- kalle. 






Smoke 


- kathul. 


By-and-by - 


- koin. 


Ground 


" takoon. 


Come on - 


- tiana. 


Wind - 


- kerare. 


MUk - 


- 


Rain - 


■■ murra. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God (Creator) 


- muka. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- wonda. 


Wife - 


- 



382 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— SOURCES OF BOGAN RIVER. 



By Bench of Magistrates, Oblet. 



Kangaroo - 


womboi. 


Opossum 


willie. 


Tame dog - 


murria. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


noodi. 


Black duck- 


boothurd. 


Wood duck- 


goonaroo 


Pelican 


birai. 


Laughing jackass 


go-oo-burra. 


Native companion booralga. 


White cockatoo - 


moorai. 


Crow - 


waagin. 


Swan - 


dundoo. 


Egg - - - 


kabooga. 


Track of a foot - 


dinung. 


Fish - 


gooia. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 


inga. 


Mosquito - 


moogin. 


Fly - - - 


boorimal. 


Snake - - - 


thorung. 


The Blacks - 


maing. 


A Blackfellow - 




A Black woman - 


aneer. 


Nose - - - 


moorooda. 



Hand - 


- murra. 


2 Blacks - 


- bulla maing. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- muggo. 


Two - 


- buUager. 


Three - 


- bulla muggo. 


Four - 


- buUagerbullager 


Father 


- baa-baa. 


Mother 


- gunnee. 


Sister-Elder 


- gaadee. 


,, Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- gaagaa. 


„ Younger 


A young man 


- walwaa. 


An old man 


- dirraba. 


An old woman 


- moogamar. 


A baby 


- geringa. 


A White man 


- 


Children - 


- booridella. 


Head - 


- balling. ^ 


Eye - 


- mil. 


Ear - 


• wooda. 



SOURCES OP BOGAN RIVER, 



383 



No. 


190. — Sources of Bogan Rivbk — continued. 


Mouth 


- gamdal. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- weera. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- wooran. 


Wood- 


- ma-a-dan. 


Beard - 


- yarring. 


Stone - 


- gerroal. 


Thunder - 


- moorabri. 


Camp - 


- mirang. 


Grass 


- gooran. 


Yes - 


- youai. 


Tongue 


- daaling. 


No - - 


- weerai. 


Stomach 


- booridi. 


I 


- imingdoo. 


Breasts 


- ngamo. 


You - 


■ nagdoo. 


Thigh 


- darnung. 


Bark - 


- mingar. 


Foot - 


- deenul. 


Good - 


- murrunbar. 


Bone - 


- nimby. 


Bad - 


- warrdi. 


Blood - 


- goine. 


Sweet - 


- nati. 


Skin - 


• youling. 


Food - 


- dinug. 


Fat - 


- 


Hungry 


- 


Bowels 


- baarm. 


Thirsty 


- bingina. 


Excrement - 


- dagga. 


Eat - 


- dalla. 


War-spear - 


- moora. 


Sleep - 


- mugga-yonda 


Eeed-spear - 


- dethreel. 


Drink - 


- narruga. 


Throwing-stick 
Shield- 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe- 
Sun - 
Moon - 


- bulga. 
• murga. 

- waggar. 

- marrin. 

- dimie. 

- geewa. 


Walk - 
See - 
Sit - - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 


- yanna. 

- naga. 

- weeda. 

- wamgarril. 


Star - 
Light - 


- gerrilla. 

- nallin. 


To-morrow - 
Where are the 


Dark - 


- nou. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- goonundi. 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 
Day - 
Night - 
Fire - 
Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind- - 
Rain - 


- wee-wee. 

- doonagal. 

- boorindal. 

- we-ing. 

- kalling. 

- bodo. 

- dalgan. 

- geerar. 

- nagdora. 


Plenty 
Big - 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 


- bongo. 

- binal. 

- boobi. 

- balloni. 

- dillin. 

- diana. 


God - - 


- baa baa. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- goonidar. 


Wife - 


- 



384 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— CARCOAR. 

By Bench of Magisteates, Bathuest. 

In this vocabulary the reader may compare fire and wood, also harh and 

cam/p. 



Kangaroo - 


womboin. 


Opossum 


Willi. 


.Tame dog - 


mirra. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


orruin. 


Black duck 




Wood duck 


oonaloo. 


Pelican 




Laughing jackass 


koguburra. 


Native companion brolgan. 


White cockatoo - 


mooriou. 


Crow - - . 


wargan. 


Swan - - - 


dundu. 


Egg - - - 


gobooga. 


Track of a foot - 


murru. 


Fish - - 


kooia, gooia 


Lobster 




Crayfish 


inga. 


Mosquito - 


mogan. 


Fly - - - 




Snake - - - 


dooruon. 


The Blacks - 


mane. 


A Blaokfellow - 


mane. 


A Black woman - 


inner. 


Nose . - - 


mooroo. 



Hand - 


- murra. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- ongbee. 


Two - 


- bulla. 


Three - 


- bulla ongbee 


Four - 


- bulla bulla. 


Father 


- bubba. 


Mother 


- goouee. 


Sister-Elder 


- borigan. 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- ngamin. 


Younger 


A young man 


- 


An old man 


- jerribong. 


An old woman 


- moogin. 


A baby 


- 


A White man 


- 


Children - 


- boorion. 


Head - 


- 


Eye - 


- miU. 


Ear - 


- woodtha. 





CARCOAR. 






No, 190.— Carcoar— continued. 




Mouth 


- nnn. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- errian. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head - woorian. 


Wood - 


- ween. 


Beard - 


- 


Stone - 


- wallung. 


Thunder 


- burri-burri. 


Camp - 


- wooran. 


Grass - 


- ugga. 


Yes - 


- yalla. 


Tongue 


- oollan. 


No - 


- wiirai. 


Stomach 


- unbin. 


I 


- uadthu. 


Breasts 


- ammung. 


You - 


- indoo. 


Thigh 


- booia. 


Bark - 


- oorung. 


Toot - 


- giimong. 


Good - 


- murrumba. 


Bone - 


- thuban. 


Bad - 


- ingee. 


Blood - 


- oomung. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- uUung. 


Food - - 


- dungun. 


Fat - 


- wommoo. 


Hungry - 


- urung. 


Bowels 


- 


Thirsty 


- weegelly. 


Excrement - 


- thugga. 


Eat - - ,., 


- dunung. 


War-spear - 


- dooloo. 


Sleep - 


- yooai. 


Eeed-spear - 


- jerril. 


Drink - 


- weegelly. 


Throwing-stick 


- umuthin. 


Walk - 


- unargin. 


Shield 


- murriga. 


See - 


- argie. 


Tomahawk - 


- dowin. 










Sit 


- weegil. 


Canoe - 


- murrin. 






Sun - 


- erin. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- guar. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


- eeilong. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 


- erin. 


Where are th« 


i thugga mane 


Dark - 


- urra. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- undung. 


I don't know 


- weedi. 


Heat - 


- oogil. 


Plenty 


- mardu. 


Day - 


- erin. 


Big - - 


- munung. 


Night r 


- urra. 


Little - 


- bobian. 


Fire - 


- ween. 


Dead - 


- booloo. 


Water 


- kalli. 






Smoke 


- kudthul. 


By-and-by - 


- yoian. 


Ground 


- oogoon. 


Come on 


- burri. 


Wind 


- unadtha. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - ' - 


- ullin. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- geer. 


Wife - - 


- 


VOL. III. 


2 


B 





385 



386 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 190.— FORBES AND THE LEVELS. 



Br J. Cameron, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- wamboine. 


Hand - 




Opossum - 


- Willi. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


- mirrie. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 
Emu - 


- ngooreen. 


One - 




Black duck 


- womboolgul. 


Two - 




Wood duck 


- goonaroong. 


Three - 




Pelican 


- 


Four 




Laughing jackass googoobra. 


Father 




Native companion brallgan. 


Mother 




White cockatoo 


- moorein. 


Sister-Elder 




Crow - 


- wagun. 


„ Younger - 




Swan - 


- thoondoo. 


Brother-Elder - 




Egg - 


- 






Track of a foot 


.. 


„ Younger 




Fish - 


- 


A young man 


walli. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


jeerabung 


Crayfish 


- 


An old woman - 


mooggun. 


Mosquito - 


-■ 


A baby 




Fly - 
Snake - 


~ 


A White man 


gooing. 


The Blacks - 


- miing. 


Children - 




A Blaokfellow 


- moing. 


Head - 


buUung. 


A Black woman 


- muth. 


Eye - 


mill. 


Nose • 


- moorooltha. 


Ear - 





FORBES AND THE LEVELS. 



387 



No. 


190. — Forbes and i 


Mouth 


- ngiing. 


Teeth - 


- eering. 


Hair of the head 


- geeyung. 


Beard - 


- yarreen. 


Thunder - 


- mooroobri. 


Grass - 


- boogeen. 


Tongue 


- 


Stomach 


- boorbin. 


Breasts 


- beergin. 


Thigh - 


- thurung. 


Foot - 


- jeenung. 


Bone - 


- thubbul. 


Blood - - 


- 


Skin - 


- yulung. 


Pat - 


- 


Bowels 


- 


Excrement - 


- 


War-spear - 


- thooloo. 


Reed-spear - . 


- jereel. 


Throwing-stick 


- 


Shield - 


- marga. 


Tomahawk - 


- thowingjdowLng. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sun - 


- yuri. 


Moon - 


- kooiyung. 


Star - 


- girelong. 


Light - 


- 


Dark - 


- 


Cold - 


- boolathoora. 


Heat - 


- 


Day - - 


- yuriboggra. 


Night - 


- ngooroong. 


Fire - 


- wiin. 


Water 


- kullung. 


Smoke 


- 


Ground 


- thugoon. 


Wind- - 


- mooroolburra. 


Rain - 


- uburra. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


- 



THE Levels — cmitimiM. 



Boomerang - 


- burgun. 


Hill - 


- 


Wood - 


- geegul. 


Stone - 


- wallung. 


Camp - 


- ngoorung. 


Yes - 


- ngooa. 


No - 


- widdi or widdai 


I 


- 


You - 


- 


Bark - 




Good - 


- 


Bad - 


- 


Sweet - 




Food - 


- 


Hungry 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


Eat - 


- 


Sleep - 


- wirrinya. 


Drink - 


- 


Walk - 


- yanana. 


See - 


- ngana. 


Sit - - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- 


To-day 


■ 


To-morrow - 


- 


Where are 


the 


Blacks? 




I don't know 


- 


Plenty 


- 


Big - 


- 


Little - 




Dead - 


- 


By-and-by - 


- 


Come on 


- 


Milk - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- maleyan. 


Wild turkey 


- gumbull. 


Wife - 


- mooban. 



2B 2 



388 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— CANDOBLIN. 

By W. H. Suttob, Esq. 

In this vocabulary the reader may compare tongue, food, and eat; also 
breasts and milk. Burgan = hoomerang also signifies crooked, as has been 
seen in the Additional Words given by Mr. Suttor. The equivalents of 
thirsty and water are related terms. Families is this neighbourhood have 
totems or yoolo with which they mark trees around the graves of their 
dead and also their opossum-rugs. One of these is the carpet snake. 



Kangaroo - 


- womboin. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum 


- weelee. 


2 Blacks - 


- bulla mi-een. 


Tame dog - 


- mirree. 


3 Blacks - 


_ 


Wild dog - 


- 


One - 


- unbi. 


Emu - 


- ngurooin. 






Black duck - 


- boorangwong. 


Two 


- bulla. 


Wood duck- 


- goonarrong. 


Three - 


- bulla unbi. 


Pelican 


- birriga. 


Four - 


- bulla bulla. 


Laughing jackass- kookooburra. 


Father 


- bobeen. 


Native companion brolgan. 


Mother 


- goonnee. 


White cockatoo 


- mooreiu. 






Crow - 


- waagan. 


Sister-Elder 


- mingan. 


Swan - 


- dthoouthoo. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


- kooboocaw. 


Brother-Elder 


- kuhnine. 


Track of a foot 


- mooroo. 


,, Younger kargine 


Pish - 


- gooya. 


A young man 


- walwye. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- djirrebong. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 

Fly . . 


- inka. 

- booreema. 


An old woman 
A baby 


- dtharboogong 

- boobi, boori 


Snake - 


- dthoroong. 


A White man 


- kooeen. 


The Blacks - 


- mi-een. 


Children - 


- madoo boori. 


A Blackf ellow 


- unbi mi-een. 


Head - 


- ballong. 


A Black woman 


- eena. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Nose - 


- moorootha. 


Ear - 


- woodtha. 





CANDOBTrTN. 


389 




No. 1%.— Canboblis— continued. 




Mouth 


- willing. 


Boomerang - 


- burrgan. 


Teeth - 


- eerung. 


Hill - 


- djirran. 


Hair of the head- woorung. 


Wood- • - 


- geegul. 


Beard 


- yarrain. 


Stone - 


- 


Thunder - 


- moorooboori. 


Camp - 


- ngooroong. 


Grass 


- boogween. 


Yes - 


- awa. 


Tongue 


- dthallain. 


No - - 


- weeri. 


Stomach 


- boorbeen. 


I 


- nadthoo. 


Breasts 


■ amoo. 


You - 


- indoo. 


Thigh - 


- boyou. 


Bark - 


- dthoorung. 


Foot - 


- djinnung. 


Good - 


• marrumbong. 


Bone - 


- dthabbul. 


Bad - 


• ingeel. 


Blood - 


- quoin. 


Sweet - 


- adthai. 


Skin - 


- yoolin. 


Food - 


- dthallee. 


Fat - 


- wammoo.* 


Hungry 


- ngoorain. 


Bowels 


- birrien. 


Thirsty 


- kalleentha. 


Excrement - 


- dthugga. 


Eat - 


- dthalleentha. 


War-spear - 


- mell, dtholoo. 


Sleep - 


- eurai. 


Reed-spear - 


- djereel. 


Drink - 


- weejallee. 


Throwuig-stick 


- wommera. 


Walk - 


- yannaigu. 


Shield 


- geerin-geerin, 


See - 


- gnaagee. 




murga. 


Sit - 


- boorai. 


Tomahawk - 


- gooroowa, mool- 


Yesterday - 


- dthallung-ingor- 




ooga. 




eiu. 


Canoe - 


- marreen. 


To-day 


- dthallung. 


Sun - 


- eera. 


To-morrow - 


- dthallung ngar- 


Moon - 


- kewong. 




reigiree. 


Star - 


■ gerrulong. 


Where are the 


dthargwa mieen ? 


Light - 


- bundthure. 


Blacks ? 




Dark - 


- ngooroong. 


I don't know 


- weeri adjnng- 


Ck)ld - 


- baludthai. 




nein. 


Heat - 


- oogil. 


Plenty 


- maddoo. 


Day - 


- dthallon. 


Big - 


- biunale. 


Night - 


- ngooroong. 


Little - 


- winnunga. 


Fire - 


- ween. 


Dead - 


- balloongein. 


Water 


- kaleen. 


By-aud-by - 


- dthallung book- 


Smoke 


- kadthong. 




ulbirrie. 


Ground 


- dthargwoon. 


Come on 


- dthanganna. 


Wind- 


- keeraa. 


Milk - 


- amoo. 


Kain - 


- eurong. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- by-um-mee. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- gooindthar. 


Wife - 


- 



* Should be spelt wommoo.—E. M. C. 



390 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— WALJBERS. 



By J. E. Peakcb, Esq., P.M. 



Kangaroo - 


- womboine. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


- willie. 


2 Blacks - 


- bulla mingoo. 


Tame dog ■ 


- mirry. 


3 Blacks - 


- bulla kooinebine 


Wild dog - 


- 




mingoo. 


Emu - 


- knunowne. 


One - 


- kooinebine. 


Black duck - 


- buthenbang. 


Two - 


- bulla. 


Wood duck - 


- kunmoinung. 


Three - 


- bulla kooinebine. 


Pelican 


- peneya. 


Four - 


- bulla bulla. 


Laughing jackass kookooburry. 


Father 


- babine. 


Native companion buralyang. 
White cockatoo - moouine. 


Mother 


- loonea. 


Crow - 


- wargine. 


Sister-Elder 


- boo-ne-gun (?). 


Swan - 


- thunthoo. 


,, Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


- kabogie. 


Brother-Elder 


- kulmine. 


Track of a foot 


- yup-pang. 


,, Younger 


Fish - 


- gooian. 


A young man 


- bog-gone-gune. 


Lobster 


- inkka. 


An old man - 


- gunebang. 


Crayfish 


- 


An old woman 


- billa-gune. 


Mosquito - 


- mogin. 


A baby 


- booie. 


Fly - 


- boorewal. 






Snake - 


- thanogie. 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


- miugoo. 


Children - 


- poopoe. 


A Blackfellow 


- mingoo. 


Head - 


- buUang. 


A Black woman 


- yin-na-na. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Nose - 


- noo-noo. 


Ear - 


- wooda. 





WALJEERS. 


ijyi 




No. 100.— Waljeurs— continued. 




Mouth 


- knine. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- yinna. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


7 woonuna. 


Wood - - 


- thuUo thuUo. 


Beard - 
Thunder - 
Grass - 
Tongue 


- yamgnine. 

- mooroobuny 

- bugone. 

- thalline. 


Stone - 
Camp - 
Yes - - 


- wollong. 

- wurang. 

- knowan. 


Stomach 


- boorbin. 


No 


- wh'y. 


Breasts 
Thigh - 


- knagmong. 

- thanung. 


I 

Yon - 


- knathu. 

- knindu. 


Foot - 


- jinnung. 


Bark - - 


- thurung. 


Bone - 


- thalpang. 


Good - 


- morombang. 


Blood - 


- 


Bad - - 


- noonie. 


Skin - - 


- yuline. 


Sweet - 


_ 


Pat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 
B«ed-spear - 


- womme. 

- buUbene. 

- thug-ga. 

- thul-loo. 

- jereal. 


Food - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Bat - 


- thulgiarri. 

- knirane. 

- thallee. 


Throwing-stick 
Shield 


- wammare. 

- minegar. 


Sleep - 
Drink - 


- weethalle. 


Tomahawk - 


- thawing. ■ 


Walk - 


- yanoogie. 


Canoe - 


- 


See - 


- knagie. 


Sun - 


- yeerie. 


Sit - - 


- weeagie. 


Moon - 


- gawung. 


Yesterday - 


- Tiing-u-nine. 


Star - - 


- kinalung. 


To-day 


- thalyenil. 


Light - 


- knullung. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Dark - 


- knumune. 


Where are the togwannimingoo 


Cold - - 


- booloothie. 


Blacks? 




Heat - 


- willan. 


I don't know 


- werylie knagie. 


Day - 


- kalenike. 


Plenty 


- muttoo. 


Night - 


- kalekoondoo. 


Big - 


- moonoon. 


Fire - 


- ween. 


Little - 


- bobbi. 


Water 


- kallun. 


Dead - 


- boolo. 


Smoke 


- kodthul. 


By-and-by - 


- goo-i-yoo. 


Ground 


- thogun. 


Come on 


- 


Wind - 


- thowurra. 


Milk - - 


- 


Eain - 


- urone. 


Baglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


. 



392 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— WAGGA WAGGA. 

By Henry Bayles, Esq., P.M. 

During five-and-forty years' observation of the native names of places, 
I have noticed a tendency to spell with an a sounds which phonetically 
should have been spelt with an o. In such oases, however, the a used to 
be pronoimced o, and so the proper sound was preserved ; but of late years 
such is no longer the case. When I first heard of the place to which this 
vocabulary belongs it was called Wwwga Wawga; as often pronounced at 
present it would rhyme with quagga. 



Kangaroo - 


womboin. 


Hand - 


- marra. 


Opossum 


willie. 


2 Blacks - 


- boola miin. 


Tame dog - 


merrie 


3 Blacks - 


' boola oonbi miin 


Wild dog - 












One - 


- oonbi. 


Emu - 


oorooin. 






Black duck - 


poothanbang. 


Two - 


- boola. 


Wood duck- 


koonaaroo. 


Three - 


- boola oonbi. 


Pelican 


koolay karlie. 


Four - 


- boola boola. 


Laughing jackass kokoparra. 


Father 


- mama. 


Native oompaniori 


pooralgun. 


Mother 


- koon-nee. 


White cockatoo - 


moorau. 


Sister-Elder 


- boregun. 


Crow - 


wagga. 


„ Younger 


_ 


Swan - 


toondoo. 


Brother-Elder 


- aulbomun. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


■ kapooka, 
- yabbuck. 


,, Younger 


Fish - 


- kooeya. 


A young man 


- nurmi. 


Lobster 


dookami. 


An old man 


- beejel. 


Crayfish 


- yingar. 


An old woman 


- bullargun. 


Mosquito - 


- kummoon. 


A baby 


- boori. 


Fly - - 


- bookga. 


A White man 


- gohone. 


Snake - 








The Blacks - 


- miin. 


Children - 


- matoo boori. 


A Blackfellow 


■ oonbi miin. 


Head - 


- bul-lun. 


A Black woman 


■ yeenan. 


Eye - 


- mil. 


Nose - 


- mooroota. 


Ear - 


- woorum. 



WAGGA WAGGA. 



393 





No. 190.— Wagga WAOoA—contimted. 


Mouth 


- yerang. 


Boomerang 


- 


Teeth - 


- nyun. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


" 


Wood- 


- khegul. 


Beard - 


- yarra. 


Stone - 


- woUa. 


Thunder - 


- mooroo 








mooroolbri. 


Camp ■ 


- oorong. 


Grass - 


- pooarroo. 


Yes - 


- nga. 


Tongue 


- duUi. 


No 


- weeri. 


Stomach 


- poorbin. 


I 


- ahtoo. 


Breasts 


- tarra. 


You - 


- indoo. 


Thigh 


- tarrang. 


Bark - 


- toori. 


Foot - 


- geenung. 


Good - 


- murrumbang 


Bone - 


- tuppul. 


Bad - 


■ y™gi. yingil. 


Blood - 


- quoin. 


Sweet 


- ngattee. 


Skm - 


- ulie. 


Food - 


- tungi, tallee. 


Fat - 
Bowels 


- wommoo. 

- keel. 


Hungry 


- arran. 


Excrement - 


- tallun. 


Thirsty ' 


- weedallee. 


War-spear - 


- toolook. 


Eat - 


- tulli. 


Reed-spear - 


- teereel. 


Sleep - 


- yoori. 


Throwing-stiok 


- wammnr. 


Drink - 


- weetallee. 


Shield 


- goorul-luk. 


Walk - 


- yanni. 


Tomahawk - 


- towie. 


See - 


- nyarga. 


Canoe - 


- murrin. 


Sit - 


- waada. 


Sun - 


- yeri. 


Yesterday 


- yaandoo. 


Moon - 


- kewung. 


To-day 


- tallahnyeri. 


Star - 


- meemar. 


To-morrow 


- orogul. 


Light - 


- nallun. 


Where are 


the tagua miin ? 


Dark - 


- booroonda. 








Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- buUoodi. 






Heat - 


- yeri moonum. 


I don't know - weeri. 


Day - 


- nargun. 


Plenty 


- matool. 


Night - 


- tamboolba. 


Big - 


- moorodi. 


Fire - 


- ween. 


Little - 


- boobi. 


Water 


- karlee, karlin. 


Dead - 


- biloon. 


Smoke 


- kartul. 


By-and-by 


- quioo. 


Ground 


tahgoon. 


Come on 


- tanyinna. 


Wind- 


towra. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


euro. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 





394 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— YANKO, URANA, BILLEBONG, AND JERRILDERIE. 



By Lachlan McLean, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


womboi. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


Willi. 


2 Blacks - 


- bulla boori. 


Tame dog - 


middi. 


3 Blacks - 


- bulla imbi boori 


Wild dog - 












One - 


- moonbi. 


Emu - 


woorin. 






Black duck - 


wumbulgal. 


Two - 


- bulla. 


Wood duck 


goonaroo. 


Three - 


- bulla imbi. 


Pelican 


gooligalli. 


Pour - 


- martoo. 


Laughing jackass 


goo-goo-burra. 


Father 


- mama. 


Native companion 
White cockatoo ■ 


booranga. 
korina. 


Mother 


- gooni. 


Crow - 


wogra. 


Sister-Elder 


- meengan. 


Swan - 


toondoo. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


gubbago. 


Brother-Elder 


- galgal. 


Track of a foot 


mooro. 


„ Younger 


Fish - 


giya. 


A young man 


- eera mooro. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- jerubang. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito ■ 
Fly - 


murrami. 

moogin. 

booriman. 


An old woman 
A baby 


- durroogang. 

- boori. 


Snake 


dooroom. 


A White man 


- gooin. 


The Blacks - 


- mein. 


Children 


• boorityela. 


A Blaokfellow 


boori. 


Head - 


- buUang. 


A Black woman 


bulagero. 


Eye - 


■ mill. 


Nose - 


- moorooda. 


Ear - 


- coda. 



YANKO, URANA, BILLEBONG, JERRILDERIE. 



395 



No. 190. — Yanko, Ueana, Billebong, and Jekrildekie— coreimwec?. 



Mouth 


- mein. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- eeran. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head ooran. 


Wood- 


- geegal. 


Beard 


- yarrang. 


Stone - 


- woUa. 


Thunder - 


- moorobri. 


Camp- 








- woorang. 


Grass 


- boogaroo. 


Yes - 


- wa. 


Tongue 
Stomach - 


- dallang. 

- daddo. 


No - 


- wirri. 


Breasts 


- geen. 


I 


- nadoo. 


Thigh 


- danang. 


You - 


- neendu. 


Foot - 


- jeenang. 


Bark - 


- doorang. 


Bone - 


- dubbal. 


Good - 


- murrumbang. 


Blood - 


- goon. 


Bad - 


- nauni. 


Skin - 


- yulin. 


Sweet 


- wuttu. 


Fat - 


- womo. 


Pood - 


- dungan. 


Bowek 


- koliuga. 


Hungry - 


- narran. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Thirsty - 


- gallinginda. 


War-spear - 


- dooloo. 


Eat - 


- dalli. 


Reed-spear- 


- jeereed. 


Sleep - 




Thro wing-stick 


- wummera. 


Drink- 


- widgelli. 


Shield 


- geerung, geera. 


Walk - 


- yannagi. 


Tomahawk- 


- mobi. 






Canoe 


- murri. 


See - 


- naagi. 


Sun - 


- eery. 


Sit - 


- weegi. 


Moon - 


- gubbata. 


Yesterday - 


- woonoongulgalla 


Star - 


- meema. 


To-day 


- dallan. 


Light - 


- dumboola. 


To-morrow 


- woorongool. 


Dark - 


- ooroong. 


Where are 


the daggan mein ? 


Cold - 


- buUoogi. , 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- oogin. 


I don't know 


- wirra winanga. 


Day - 


- eenba. 


Plenty 


- maddoo. 


Night 


- woorung. 


Big - - 


- mooring. 


Fire - 


- ween. 


Little - 


- borbuttya. 


Water 


-gum. 


Dead - 


- balimgi. 


Smoke 


- gutta. 


By-and-by - 


- goyoo. 


Ground 


- dagoo. 


Come on - 


- dandinya. 


Wind 


- dara. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- yarong. 


Eaglehawk- 




God - - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 





396 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 190— DENILIQUIN. 

By G. A. Gordon, Esq., P.M. 

See hahy and egg in this vocabulary. 



Kangaroo - 


womboin. 


Hand - 


■ murra. 


Opossum 


willee. 


2 Blacks - 


bulla moing. 


Tame dog - 


mirry. 


3 Blacks - 


bulla ongbee 


Wild dog - 






moing. 


Emu - 


ginabun. 


One - 


- ongbee. 


Black duck 


wombulgal. 


Two - 


bul-la. 


Wood duck 


koonaroo. 


Three - 


■ bul-la ongbee 


Pelican 


koolagally. 


Pour - 


bulla bulla. 


Laughing jackass 


kookaburra. 


Father 


babeen. 


Native companion 


booralgon. 


Mother 


- gonee. 


White cockatoo 


mooran. 


Sister-Elder 


mingan. 


Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - - ■ 

Track of a foot 

Pish - 


waagon. 

dhundu. 

kabooga. 

yabong. 

gooya. 


„ Younger 
Brother-Elder 

,, Younger 
A young man 


- kaghan. 

- wal-looee. 


Lobster 


thugamong. 


An old man 


- beedar. 


Crayfish 


moorogonong. 


An old woman 


- tharbogang. 


Mosquito 

Fly - - - 

Snake ■ 

The Blacks - 

A Blaokfellow 


mogin. 

boree-mol. 

duru. 

moing. 

moing. 


A baby 
A White man 
Children 
Head - 


■ kabooga. 

- kaban. 
boori. 

- balong. 


A Black woman - 


yenur. 


Eye - 


- mil. 


Nose - 


moTOoda. 


Ear - 


- woda. 





DENILIQUIN. 






No. 190.— BBmuctvm— continued. 




Mouth 


■ ngang. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- yerong. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head- worun. 


Wood ■ 


- geegal. 


Beard - 


- yarang. 


Stone - 


- wallung. 


Thunder ■ 


- moro-bri. 


Camp - 


- walli. 


Grass - 


- bo-gung. 


Yes - - 


- uga. 


Tongue 


- thalang. 


No - 


- weri. 


Stomach 


- burbin. 


I- 


■ uddu. 


Breasts 


- ang-mung. 


You - 


- gneandoo. 


Thigh - 


- boyoo. 


Bark - 


- duran. 


Foot - 


- tinung. 


Good - 


- marromban. 


Bone - 


- dabul. 


Bad - 


- yeangil. 


Blood - 


- gomurr. 


Sweet - 


- naddee. 


Skin - 


- ulung. 


Food - 


- dhahgang. 


Fat - 


- wamo. 


Hungry 


- ngaran. 


Bowels 


- kalleenga. 


Thirsty 


- kalleenin. 


Excrement - 


- goouung. 


Bat - 


- dallee. 


War-spear ■ 


- dolo. 


Sleep - 


- ure. 


Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stick 


- wamur. 


Drink - 


- weejally. 


Shield - 


- geran {g hard). 


Walk - 


- yanagee. 


Tomahawk - 


- thawin. 


See - 


- ngagee. 


Canoe - 


- koonadan. 


Sit - 


- weeja. 


Sun - 


- yeree. 


Yesterday - 


- neangorang. 


Moon - 


- ka-bo-da. 


To-day 


- dalun. 


Star - . - 


- mimma. 


To-morrow - 


- nooronggal. 


Light - 


- ngalun. 


Where are the 


thaga moing ? 


Dark - 


- burroondang. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- balloody. 


I don't know 


- ne-ag. 


Heat - 


- wogil. 


Plenty 


- madoo. 


Day - 


- eeree. 


. 




Night - 


- burrondang. 


Big - 
Little - 


- monun. 

- bobi. 


Fire - 


- waing. 






Water 


- kaling. 


Dead - 


- baalo. 


Smoke 


- kadul. 


By-and-by - 


- goau. 


Ground 


- dagun. 


Come on 


- thanunya. 


Wind - 


- thawarra. 


Milk - 




Bain - 


- urang. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- buy-a-mee. 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- kab-ba. 


Wife - 





397 



398 



THE AUSTBALIAN RACE; 



No. 190.— HOWLONG. 



By Chakles Byknb, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


wamboyne. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


Willie, 


2 Blacks - 


- bulla gowing 


Tame dog - 


merrie. 


3 Blacks - 


- bulla oonbee 


Wild dog - 






gowing. 


Emu - 


moorung. 


One - 


- oonbee. 


Black duck - 


poothenba. 


Two - 


- buUa. 


Wood duck 


goonaroo. 


Three - 


- bulla oonbee. 


Pelican 


gulegalu. 






Laughing jackass 


googooburra. 


Pour - 


- bulla bulla. 


Native companion 


bralgan. 


Pather 


- mamoo, 


White cockatoo ■ 


warriema. 


Mother 


- gunnee. 


Crow - 


warroo. 


Sister-Elder 


- mingong. 


Swan - 


thundoo. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg ■ - 


kobogong. 


Brother-Elder 


- kaiong, 


Track of a foot 




,, Younger 


Pish - 


gooi-ya. 


A young man 


- wallie. 


Lobster 
Crayfish 


mooragonong. 


An old man 


- jerribong. 


Mosquito - 


mogin. 


An old woman 


- terboga. 


Fly - 




A baby 


- kaboga. 


Snake - 


doorong. 


A White man 


- gooin. 


The Blacks 


main. 


Children 


- 


A Blackf ellow - 


gowing. 


Head - 


■ 


A Black woman - 


baragooroo. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Nose - 


marrooda. 


Ear - - 


- woodtha. 



HOWLONG. 



399 



Mouth 

Teeth - 

Hair of the head - 

Beard - 

Thunder 

Grass - 

Tongue 

Stomach 

Breasts 

Thigh - 

Foot - 

Bone - 

Blood ■ 

Skin - - 

Fat - 

Bowels 

Excrement - 

War-spear - 

Reed-spear - 

Thro wing-stick 

Shield 

Tomahawk - 

Canoe 

Sun - 

Moon - 

Star - 

Light - 

Dark ■ ' - 

Cold - 

Heat - 

Day - 

Night - 

Fire - 

Water 

Smoke 

Ground 

Wind - 

Rain - 

God - 

Ghosts 



No. 190.—: 
nayn. 
yeran. 
urun. 
yaring. 
marroobara. 
bogima. 

boorigin. 

among. 

boogol. . 

ginnong, 

jabul. 

gooma. 

oolang. 

wammoo. 

kolling-gong, 

goonoo. 

oola. 

jereel. 

wama. 

murga. 

towing. 

marring. 

yeara. 

goowong. 

mimma. 

nallan. 

broonong. 

boUudera. 

koninna. 

tallan. 

moorong. 

wiin. 

boodong. 

boombillie. 

thagoon. 

thowarroo. 

urong. 



HowLONG — contimied. 

Boomerang - 
Hill - 
Wood - 
Stone - 
Gamp - 
Yes - 
No - 
I - - 
You 
Bark 
Good 
Bad 
Sweet - 
Food 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 



googal. 

wallong, gibber, 
moorong. 
minawa. 
weerai. 
athu. 
indoo. 
■ thoorong. 
murrambong. 



thalloo. 
arran. 



thalla. 

werrigoo. 

boiling. 

yannagoo. 

nagoo. 



Sit - 


- wegoo. 


Yesterday - 


- 


To-day 


- tallan. 


To-morrow - 


- marungil. 


Where are the 




Blacks? 




I don't know 




Plenty 


- madoo. 


Big - - 


- moonoon. 


Little - 


- boobegal. 


Dead - 


- baloona. 


By-and-by - 




Come on - 


- thanyanagoo 


Milk - 




Eaglehawk - 




Wild turkey 




Wife - 


- ennar. 



400 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 190.— ALBURY. 



By G. R. H. Stuckby, Esq. 



Though this vocabulary has much in common with preceding ones, it 
differs from them in the equivalent of no. 



Kangaroo - 


womboin. 


Hand - 


- marra. 


Opossum - 


wooley. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


miri. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One - 


- wallween. 


Emu - 


moorein. 






Black duck 


boothongbong. 


Two - 


- bulla. 


Wood duck 


goonara. 


Three 


- buUawon. 


Pelican 


goolagerie. 


Four - 


- bulla-bulla. 


Laughing jackass kookaburra. 


Father 


- mama. 


Native companion booralging. 


Mother 


- goone. 


WTiite cockatoo 


waima. 






Crow - 


waggan. 


Sister-Elder 


- mingarn. 


Swan - 


thuudoo. 


„ Younger 


- baraging. 


Egg - 


kobbako. 


Brother-Elder 


- kagong. 


Track of a foot 




„ Younger guUbooman 


Fish - 




A young man 


- naramong. 


Lobster 


thamoga. 


An old man 


- jerebong. 


Crayfish - 




An old woman 


- kaambatha. 


Mosquito - 


moloola. 






Fly - 




A baby 


- boori. 


Snake 


gona. 


A White man 


- koen. 


The Blacks 


main. 


Children - 




A Blackfellow 


iabba. 


Head - 


- balong. 


A Black woman 


buUagera. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Nose - 


moorootha. 


Ear - 


- woodtha. 





ALBURY. 


4 




No. 190.— Ai.T^vuY— continued. 




Mouth 


■ erong. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- erong. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- ourn. 


Wood- 


- geegil. 


Beard 


- yarang. 


Stone - 


- wallan. 


Thunder - 


- moorubari. 


Camp 


- moorong. 


Grass - 


- mugong. 


Yes - 


- yama or yarlo 


Tongue 




No - 


- woodi. 


Stomach 


- gidan. 


I 


. 


Breasts 


- yamong. 


You ■ 


- 


Thigh 


- tharong. 


Bark - 


- thorong. 


Foot - 


- thenong. 


Good - 


- murrabong. 


Bone - 


- thaubal. 


Bad - 


- ingle. 


Blood - 


- gowong. 


Sweet - 




Skin - 


- youlong. 


Food - 


- thunong. 


Pat - 


- wombo. 


Himgry 


- narang. 


Bowels 


- borellin. 


Thirsty 


- 


Excrement - 


- goonong. 


Eat - 


• thulgaru. 


War-spear - 


- thula. 


Sleep - 


- werigee. 


Reed-spear - 


gereel. 


Drink 


- wegalie. 


Throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- yanagee. 


Shield 


- geringarin. 


See - 


- nogaree. 


Tomahawk - 


- thouwing. 


Sit - 


- weegee. 


Canoe 

Sun - 


- marin. 


Yesterday - 




- eric. 


To-day 


- thalan. 


Moon - 


- kewong. 










To-morrow - 


- owantha. 


Star - 


- mema. 






Light ■ 


- nargong. 


Where are the 




Dark ■ 


- ourong. 


Blacks ? 




Gold - 




I don't know 




Heat - 


moononera. 


Plenty 




Day - 


gerambong. 


Big - 




Night - 


ourong. 


Little - 




Fire - 


wein. 






Water 


kullen. 


Dead - 




Smoke 


kuthal. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 


thugong. 


Come oh - 




Wind 


thoura. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


urong. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 


hobanblara. 


VOL. III. 


2( 







401 



BOOK THE SEVENTEENTH. 



2C2 



BOOK THE SEVENTEENTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

For miicli of the information contained in this book I am 
indebted, as will be seen, to the late Eevd. William Eidley, 
who was fortunate in meeting with a half-caste woman, an 
Englishman, and a Blackfellow, whose acquaintance with the 
languages of the south-eastern extremity of the continent 
enabled him to preserve a few scraps of information which 
must ;otherwise have passed away entirely unrecorded. Nor 
have these gleanings been without their use, for, as the reader 
will see further on, they have enabled us to determine the 
point at which the occupation of Australia by its aboriginal 
race became complete. 

If, however, it is unfortunate in some respects that Mr. 
Ridley's records of the languages in this portion of the con- 
tinent are in one or two instances — that of Twofold Bay 
particularly — so scanty, we are happy in obtaining from Mr. 
Bulmer and Mr. du Ve a sufficiently fuU account of the 
Moneroo language. StiU it must not be overlooked, that 
long prior to this work being commenced our civilization 
had brought together, and into familiar intercourse in this 
portion of the continent, tribes which had previously lived in 
a state of chronic hostility, and that their languages have, 
as the result, become very much fused. Hence the time has 
passed when a vocabulary of any of these languages free from 
foreign words could be obtained. 

In the short lists of phrases which follow several of Mr. 
Ridley's vocabularies, a knowledge of some of the root-words 
of our languages has enabled me to see that the translations 
made by that writer are seldom literal, and in some few cases 
to give exact renderings. 



406 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 191.— POET JACKSON, OR SYDNEY HARBOUR. 

From the Works of Captain John Hunter, R,N., and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Collins. 

Aftee Captain Cook's stay at the Endeavour River, the 
next real acquaintance of Europeans with the Blacks of 
Australia took place at Sydney Harbour in 1788. Concern- 
ing the manners and language of the several associated 
tribes which dwelt in that locality, numerous details have 
been recorded by Hunter in 1793, by Collins in 1804, and by 
other early writers. Those named accompanied the expedi- 
tion which planted our first settlement in New Holland, as 
the continent was then called. From their accounts, we 
learn that the tribes in the neighbourhood of Sydney Harbour 
agreed essentially in manners with the other tribes in that 
portion of the continent, of which the reader has already 
seen many descriptions. Thus we find them piercing the 
septum of the nose, amputating a portion of one of the 
fingers of the left hand of the females, scarring the body, 
knocking out teeth, and so on. They wore no clothes, and 
Collins describes the women as blushing at their nakedness 
when in presence of White men. What is most singular is 
that this author should have witnessed the rites which 
accompany the knocking out of teeth; one of the secret 
ceremonies which only one or two White men have succeeded 
in gaining admission to during the eighty years which have 
elapsed since his time. Of these ceremonies Collins' work 
contains many plates. 

Within about fourteen months after the formation of our 
settlement at Sydney, small-pox broke out in the tribes 
which dwelt around the harbour, and nearly exterminated 
them. 



PORT JACKSON, OR SYDNEY HARBOUR. 



407 



The following Additional 
Captain Hunter's Journal : — 



Words are extracted from 



To stay 


- allocy. 


The arm 


gading. 


„ ask for any 


annegar. 


Feathers - 


gwomeil. 


thing 




A hut 


gonyi. 


Distant 


- arrovifan. 


A female child 


gooring. 


Buried 


- bourbillie remul. 


Ornamental scars 


gongara. 


A bellyful - 


- barong-boruoh, 


on the body 






canno. 


Reed necklace 


gweferang. 


A grave 


- bomar. 


To tickle - 


gitte-gittim 


A cloud 


- bourra. 










,, snore - 


gorooda. 


To kiss 
Finger 


- boon-abbiey, 

boonya. 

- berrille. 


„ leap 
A rock 


- ilga. 
kibba. 


Ribs - 


- bibbe. 


To steal - 


karama. 


The heart - 


- boot-boot. 


Sand - 


murong. 


,, cheek - 


- birra. 


Lightning - 


- manga. 


Flood tide - 


- baraaoola. 


An ant 


mong. 


The red kangaroo bangaray. 

To sing - - boraya. 

A louse - - moona. burradoo. 


The navel - 

Tears - 

The bill of a biro 


manaro. 
• megal. 
moono. 






To take hold 


■ maur. 


Woman's apron 


- barin. 






With young 


- binny. 


The liver - 


- naga. 


To singe the beard bunvadil. 


A net - 


- narramee. 


off 




The forehead ' 


- nulla. 


To burn - 


- cannadinga. 


,, elbow - 


- oona. 


„ call 


- cama. 


„ throat - 


- parrangle. 


Broken 


- cot-ban-jow. 


To laugh - 


- pillia. 


A fishing-line 


- carra-duin. 


The shoulder 


- tarong. 


The neck - 


- cadlwar, coUi- 


To weep 


- tonga. 




ang. 


„ sneeze - 


terenang. 


A gut - 


- carramah. 


„ yawn - 


- talanga. 


Black cockatoo 


- oarall. 


„ swim 


- wadby. 


The sea 


- caragarang. 


Where 


- war6, wa. 


To sneeze ■ 


- dere-nignan. 


The lips 


- wilUn. 


Here - 


- die. 


„ chin - 


- wallo. 


To spit 


- dooragya. 


„ eyebrow 


wanaree. 


„ prick - 


- dooralang. 


„ Hps 


weelang. 


A son - 


- dooroow. 


To whistle - 


worgye. 


To sweat 


- erooka. 


Red - 


morjal. 


Small-pox - 


- gall-gall. 


White 


taboa. 


Rotten 


- godieby. 


Black - 


nand. 


The knee - 


- gorrook. 


Green 


boolga. 



408 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 191.— PORT JACKSON, OR A PART OF SYDNEY HARBOUR. 
By Captain John Hunter. 



Kangaroo - 


patagarang. 


Hand 


tamira. 


Opossum - 




2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


tingo. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 


waregal. 


One - 




Emu - 


maraory, mar-ry- 








ang. 


Two - 




Black duck - 




Three - 




Wood duok - 




Four - 




Pelican 












Father 


be-anga. 


Laughing jackass 








Native companion 


Mother 


wy-anga 


White cockatoo ■ 


ga-ra-way. 


Sister Elder 




Crow - 


wagan. 


,, Younger 




Swan - 




Brother-Elder - 




Egg - - - 


ca-ban. 


,, Younger 


Track of a foot ■ 








Fish - 


ma-gra. 


A young man 




Lobster 




An old man 




Crayfish 




,, old woman 




Mosquito - 


doo-ra. 


A baby 




Fly - - - 


my-ang-a. 


A White man 




Snake - 


can. 


Children 




The Blacks - 


eo-ra. 






A Blackfellow - 


muUa. 


Head - 


caberra. 


A Black woman - 


din. 


Eye - 


mi. 


Nose - • , ■ 


nogur. 


Ear - 


gorai. 



PORT JACKSON, OR SYDNEY HARBOUR. 



409 



No. 191. — Port Jackson, oe a Part of Sydney Kambovr— continued. 


Mouth 


■ kalga. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- dara. 


Hill - - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- diwarra. 


Wood 


- 


Beard - 


- 


Stone - 


- 


Thunder ■ 


- morungle. 


Camp - 


_ 


Grass - 


- dooroy. 


Yes - 




Tongue 


- tailing. 


No - 




Stomach 


- barrong. 






Breasts 
Thigh - 


- nabanq. 


I 

You - 


- gnia. 


Foot - 


- menoe. 


Bark - 


- 


Bone - 


- diera. 


Good - 


- beal, bidgeree. 


Blood - 


- ba-na-rang. 


Bad - 


- wfer6. 


Skin - 


- baggy. 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- 


Food - 


- 


Bowels 




Hungry 


- yu-ru-gurra. 


Excrement ■ 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


War-spear - 


- camye, kamai. 


Eat - ■ - 




Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- nan-ga-ra. 


Throwing-stick 


- womar. 


Drink - 


- wee-de. 


Shield - 


- a-ra-goon, e-li- 










Walk - 


- yen. 




mang. 






Tomahawk - 


- mogo. 


See - 




Canoe - 


- nowey. 


Sit - 


- gnal-loa. 


Sun - 


- coing. 


Yesterday - 


- boorana. 


Moon - 


- yannadah. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


- birrang. 


To-morrow - 


- bur-ra-nd, parry 


Light - 


- 




buga. 


Dark - 




Where are 


the 


Cold - 


- ta-ga-ra. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- 


I don't know 


- man-ye-ro. 


Day - 


- camurra. 


Plenty 


- 


Night - 


- gnoowing. 


Big - - 


- 


Fire - 


- gwee-ang. 


Little - 


- narrong. 


Water 


- bado. 


Dead - 


- boe. 


Smoke 


- cud-yal. 


By-and-by - 


_ 


Ground 


- pe-mall. 


Come on 


- cow-ee. 


Wind - 


- gwarra. 


Milk - 


- murtin. 


Rain - 


- panna. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- boye, mawn. 


Wife - 


- 



410 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 191.— PORT JACKSON, OR A PART OP SYDNEY HARBOUR. 
By Lieutenant-Colonel Collins. 



Kangaroo - 




Hand - 


- tam-mir-ra. 


Opossum 




2 Blacks - 


_ 


Tame dog - 


din-go. 


3 Blacks - 


_ 


Wild dog - 


wor-re-gal. 


One - 


- wogul. 


Emu - 


ma-ray-ong. 






Black duck - ' - 


yoo-rong-i. 


Two - 


- yoo-blow-re, boo 


Wood duck 






la. 


Pelican 


car-rang-a-bo- 


Three - 


- brew-y. 




murray. 


Four - 


- 


Laughing jackass 


go-gan-ne-gine. 


Father 


- be-an-na. 


Native companion 


Mother 


- wy-an-na. 


White cockatoo - 


gare-a-way. 


Sister-Elder 


- ma-mun-na. 


Crow - 


wau-gan. 






Swan - 


mnl-go. 


,, Younger 


- 


Egg - 


ca-bahn. 


Brother-Elder 


- ba-bun-na. 


Track of a foot - 




,, Younger 


Fish - 




A young man 


- 


Lobster 




An old man 


_ 


Crayfish 




, , old woman 




Mosquito - 




A baby 


. 


Fly - - 


mi-a-nong. 


A White man 




Snake - 


cahn. 






The Blacks - 


eo-ra. 


Children 


- go-roong. 


A BlackfeUow - 


mul-la. 


Head - 


- ca-ber-ra. 


A Black woman ■ 


din. 


Eye - 


- mi. 


Nose - 


no-gro. 


Ear - 


- go-ray. 



PORT JACKSON, OR SYDNEY HARBOUR. 



411 



No. 191.- 


-PoBT Jackson, or 


A Part of Sydney Harbour. 


Mouth 


- kar-ga. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- dara. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- de-war-ra. 


Wood- 


- 


Beard - 


- yar-rin. 


Stone - 




Thunder - 


- 


Camp - 




Grass - 




Yes - 


- mo rem me. 


Tongue 


- tal-lang. 


No - 


- beall. 


Stomach 


- bar-rong. 






Breasts 


- nabuug. 


I 


- guia. 


Thigh - 




You - 


- guee-ne. 


Foot - 


- ma-no-e. 


Bark - 


■ 


Bone - 


- 


Good - 


- bood-jer-re. 


Blood • 




Bad - 


- wee-re. 


Skin - 


- 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- bog-gay. 


Food - 


- 


Bowels 




Hungry 


- yu-roo. 


Excrement - 




Thirsty 


- 


War-spear - 


- ca-my. 


Eat - 


- patty. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep 


- nanga. 


Throwing-stick 


- womera. 


Drink - 




Shield 


- e-lee-mong, ar- 


Walk - 


- yen. 




ra-gong. 






Tomahawk - 


- mogo. 


See 


- gna. 


Canoe - 


- nowey. 


Sit - 


- 


Sun - 


- ooing. 


Yesterday - 


- barane. 


Moon - 


- yennadah. 


To-day 


- yagoona. 


Star - 


- birrong. 


To-morrow - 


- parry boogoo 


Light - 


- 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- tagora. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- yooroo-ga. 


Plenty 


. 


Day - 


- carmarroo. 


~ 




Night - 


- gnoowing. 


Big - 


- mur-ray. 


Fire - 


- gweyong. 


Little - 


- gnar-rang. 


Water - 


- bado. 


Dead - 


- 


Smoke 


- cadjed. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- permul. 


Come on 


- cow-e. 


Wind - 


- 


Milk - 


- mooroobin. 


Rain - 


- panna, wallan. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- mahn. 


Wife . 


- mau-gohn. 



412 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

The languages and customs of the long extinct tribes of 
Sydney Harbour (originally known as Port Jackson) bear 
several marks of eastern descent. Thus e-lee-mong or 
heliman, the equivalent of shield, is met with far away in 
North-eastern Australia, and the custom of amputating a 
finger of the female's, or a portion of a finger, prevails in 
Southern Queensland as it used to do on the shores of 
Sydney Harbour. 



BOTANY BAY. 



413 



No. 192.— BOTANY BAY. 



By the Revd. William Ridley. 



The following short vocabulary of the Turuwul language is 
taken from Mr. Ridley's Kamilaroi. In his notice prefixed 
to it, Mr. Ridley states that Turuwul was spoken both at 
Botany Bay and Port Jackson. The several vocabularies of 
the Port -Jackson (or Sydney Harbour) tribe, however, make 
it clear that there were two languages, and that Turuwul was 
confined to Botany Bay. From Lieutenant-Colonel Collins' 
Account of New South Wales, published in 1804, we learn 
that the name of the Botany Bay tribe was Gweagal. In 
studying the aboriginal phrases preserved by Mr. Ridley, 
who obtained them from a half-caste of those parts, it is clear 
that their translations are free and not literal. For instance, 
in the rendering oi Ngandagoo booroo = I see a kangaroo, we 
know from a consideration of the other phrases that the 
equivalent of see is not present, whilst we know that the 
indefinite article a does not exist in any Australian tongue. 
There is also reason to believe that bring and take are often 
expressed by variations of the same root-word. The follow- 
ing will exemplify these statements: — 



Ridley. 


Turuwul. 


Literal rendering. 


There he is - 
He killed a snake 
Take the dog away 
Bring it here again 


Ngo, ngo, nga ngnllai - 
Bunma moonda - 
'Nga.indina mirigung - 
Ngaingafangr nga miri- 
gung 


There, there, I see. 
(He) struck snake. 
Take away dog. 
Bring (or take) Jiere I 
dog. 



414 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 192.— BOTANY BAY. 



By the Revd. William Ridley. 



Kangaroo - 


burral, booroo. 


Hand - 


murramul. 


Opossum 


koorooera. 


2 Blacks 




Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


mirigung. 
joogoong. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 




Black duck - 


koondyeri. 


Two - 




Wood duck - 




Three - 




Pelican 




Four - 




Laughing jackass 




Father 


babuiia,babunna 


Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - - - mebitha, war- 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 


ngubung. 
midjun, mitjun. 




nung. 


„ Younger - 




Swan - 




Brother-Elder - 




Egg - - - 
Track of a foot - 
Fish - 
Lobster 




,, Younger 
A young man 
An old man 


bangung. 


Crayfish 




An old woman • 


moolda. 


Mosquito - 




A baby 




Fly - 




A White man ■ 




Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 


moonda. 
tdhuUa. 


Children 
Head - 


chajung. 
kabura. 


A Black woman 




Eye - 


me. 


Nose - 


noogoolbundi. 


Ear 





BOTANY BAY. 



415 



No. 192. — Botany Bat — continued. 
Boomerang - 
HUl - 
Wood - 
Stone - 
Camp (hut) - 
Yes - 

No - - - 
I - - 

You - 
Bark - 
Good - 
Bad - 
Sweet - 
Pood - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 
See - 

Sit - - - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are the 
Blacks? 
I don't know 
Plenty 
Big - - 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 
Wife - 



Mouth 


kommi. 


Teeth - 




Hair of the head 




Beard - 




Thunder - 




Grass - 


bumboor. 


Tongue 


tuUung. 


Stomach 




Breasts 




Thigh - 




Toot - 


- dunna. 


Bone - 




Blood - 




Skin - 




Fat - 




Bowels 




Excrement - 




War-spear - 




Reed-spear - 




Throwing-stick 




Shield - 




Tomahawk - 




Canoe - 


- yemera. 


Sun - 


- wirri. 


Moon - 




Star - 




Light - 




Dark - 




Cold - 




Heat - 




Day - 




Night - 


- purra. 


Fire - 


- we. 


Water 


- batoo. 


Smoke 


- kurung gerij. 


Ground 


- moorung. 


Wind - 


- koomgooma. 


Rain - 


- bunna. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


- 



koonje. 

meira. 
nga. 



kuller. 
wirra. 



dunmingung. 



nguUai. 



kaiun. 
murruwulung. 



416 THE AUSTEALIAN RACE: 

Upon this scanty vocabulary of Botany Bay but few 
remarks can be made. Most of its words differ from those 
of Port Jackson, which is rather surprising, seeing the short 
distance it is between the two places. The reader may 
compare the equivalents of sun ?txAfire. 



WOLLONGONG, ILLAWARRA, AND SHOALHAVEN. 417 



No. 193.— WOLLONGONG, ILLAWAREA, AND 
SHOALHAVEN. 

By the Rbvb. William Ridley. 

The following words are extracted from Eidley's Kamilaroi. 
The name of the language, we learn, is Wodi-wodi, and its 
negative adverb is naiyung ; but it is to be noticed that the 
negative at the Hunter Eiver is morri, at Albury woodi, and 
at Swan Hill wotti, and it is probable that there was a time 
when wodi prevailed in the same sense from Wollongong to 
Jervis Bay. 

The equivalent of God Mr. Eidley derives from mirir = 
sky, which is one of the words in that sense given by the 
same writer in the Turrumbul language, spoken on the 
Brisbane Eiver. The reader may compare the renderings 
camp and lark. A hut was often spoken of as a camp, and 
huts were almost always made of hark in the southern 
portion of the continent, and hence the two objects were 
expressed by one word. In some of our languages a man 
will talk of his tree or his mood, meaning his spear; a form 
of speech which has something of the grand as well as of 
the rude about it. 



2D 



418 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 193.— WOLLONGONG, ILLAWARRA, AND SHOALHAVEN. 



By THE Revd. William Ridley. 



Kangaroo r 


booroo. 


Hand 


- murrurmur. 


Opossum 


kooraora. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 


mirrigung. 


3 Blacks - 


_ 


Wild dog - 




One - 


- mittung. 


Emu 


birribain. 










Two - 


- boolar. 


Black duck 








Wood duck 




Three - 


- wowulli. 


Pelican 


kurungaba. 


Four - 


- boolar boolar. 


Laughing jackass 


kookara. 


Father 


- 


Native companioi 


I gooradawak. 


Mother 


- 


White cockatoo ■ 


yambai-imba. 


Sister-Elder 


_ 


Crow - 




„ Younger 


. 


Swan - 




Brother-Elder 


. 


Egg - '- 
Track of a foot 




Young 


er 


Fis!' - 


dun. 


A young man 


- yoorung, 


Lobster 






banggung. 


Crayfish - 




An old man 


- beunggun. 


Mosquito - 




An old woman 


- 


Fly - - 




A baby 


- murrakainggung 


Snake 




A White man 


- jirunggalung. 


The Blacks - 




Children - 


- kudjagung. 


A Blackfellow 




Head - 


- wollar. 


A Black woman 




Eye - 


- mobura, mer. 


Nose - 


noogoor. 


Ear •■ 


- koori. 



WOLLONGONG, ILLAWARRA, AND SHOALHAVEN. 



419 



No. 193. — WoLLONGONG, Illawakea, and Shoalkavbn — continued. 



Mouth 


- kommi. 


Boomerang - 


- wurangaing. 


Teeth - 


- irra. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- jirra. 


Wood - 


- 


Beard - 


- 


Stone - 




Thunder - 




Camp - 


- kundi, ngurra. 


Grass - 




Yea - 


- nge. 


Tongue 


- tuUun. 


No - 


- naiyuBg. 


Stomach 












1 


- ngaiagung. 


Breasts 


- 


You - 


- ngindigung. 


Thigh 


- turra. 


Bark - 


- kunida. 


Foot - 


- dunna. 






Bone - 




Good - 


- nukkoong. 


Blood - 


. 


Bad - - 


- bullin. 


Skin - 


- 


Sweet 


- 


Fat - 




Food - 


- 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry - 


- 


Excrement - 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


War-spear - 


- maiagung. 


Eat - 


- 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep - 


. 


Throwing-stick 


- 


Drink - 


. 


Shield - 












Walk - 


_ 


Tomahawk - 


_ 






Canoe - 


- yanaoera. 


See - 

Sit - .- 


- 




mudyeri. 


■ 


Sun - 


- bukurung. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- tedjung. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


- jinjinnnrung. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 


- 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


-' maiing. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


■ bukuring. 


Plenty 


- 


Day - 




Big - - 


- kaiyung. 


Night - 


- 


Little - 


- murruwailung 


Fire - ; 


- kanbi. 










Dead - 


- bulyar 


Water 
Smoke 


- ngaityung. 

- kurunggurij. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 


- mumng. 


Come on 


" 


Wind- 


- 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- yewi. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- mirirul. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- gooun. 

21 


Wife - 

)2 


- 



420 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE ; 



No. 194.~PEOM JEEVIS BAY TO MOUNT 
DEOMEDAKY. 



By Me. Kichaed Dawsey. 

Foe this vocabulary I am indebted, through Mr. Stewart 
Caswell, P.M. at Moruya, to Mr. Eichard Dawsey. The 
tribes of whose language a specimen is attached divide 
themselves into two classes, viz., Piindri or tree-cUmiers, 
and Kathoongal or fishermen. It is, I am informed, a 
tradition of theirs that the earth was once destroyed, some 
say by water and others by fire, and was subsequently re- 
peopled from the moon. They humourously call policeman 
tchingar = star-fish, as they say both seize and detain. 
These tribes still retain a few of their old customs, for they 
scar the person and knock out teeth. Every remarkable 
hill, waterhole, and rock, says Mr. Dawsey, has its native 
name. It will be noticed that sun, light, heat, day, and 
to-day are all translated by the word noma, and probably 
correctly so. 





No. 194.- 


-Additional Words. 




Scrub - 


- kubbee, burrar. 


Roast - 


- koonjal. 


River - 


- nadju. 




Go up - 


- kuUowa. 


Bread - 


■ tungi (see Food). 


Come down 


- nirini. 


Hut - 


- koongi. 




Run - 


- woUiar. 


Finger 


- minna. 




Jump - 


- worraga. 


Calf of leg - 


- iabooda. 




Cry - - 


- noongoo. 


My head 


- kabomanga. 




Club - 


- koodgeroo. 


Kill - 


- billyagooin. 




Bandicoot - 


- gooragoor. 


Call - 


- karrooga. 




Mullet 


- worreguUa 


Inquire 


■ yaboo. 




Bream 


- burra. 



FROM JERVIS BAY TO MOUNT DROMEDARY. 



421 



No. 194. — ^Additional Words — ( 



Crab - 


thooril. 


Paddimellon 


- potalemon. 


Crane - 


kaloo. 


Musk duck - 


- nunneloo. 


Black oockatoo 


ngerral. 


Spider 


- marara. 


Ring-tailed opos- 


boogoori. 


Wattle-tree 


- boarr. 


sum 




Porpoise 


- toweri. 


Maggot 


mundooga. 


Seal - 


- eeraguUa. 


Blow-fly 


mooroon. 


Gull - 


- mara. 


A boil 


mundarlo. 


Shark - 


- woolemboora. 


Black snake 


moontha. 


Oyster 


- bithunga. 


Brown „ 


mooroomba. 


Clouds 


- moongooroo. 


Carpet „ 


wagoor. 


Wombat 


- bunkata. 


Bark vessel for 


wondia. 


Boy - 


- kaboogabal. 


carrying water 




Girl - 


- yandabal. 


Wooden vessel for bungalli. 


Sweetheart - 


- tunnamung (eat 


carrying water 






breasts). 


East wind - 


browa. 


I am eating - 


- tunnaga. 


North-east wind 


buUya. 


Grandmother 


- baoonga. 


South wind- 


merringanna. 


Strong 


- matong. 


West „ - 


goorooma. 


Cripple 


- kookiwon. 


Spotted gum-tree 


derani. 


Deaf - 


- nerraguiu. 


Mahogany - 


- muthawan. 


Lyrebird 


- chakola. 


Fern - 


- munga. 


Sea - - 


- burra-burra. 


Fern-tree - 


iumbagun. 


A rough sea 


- kuth-thoo. 


Tiizard 


- bungaoo. 


Platypus 


- yarrenbool. 


Sting-ray 


bubba. 


Red ochre - 


- koobur. 



422 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 194.— FROM JERVIS BAY TO MOUNT DROMEDARY. 



Kangaroo - 


booroo. 


Hand - 


munna. 


Opossum - 


koongera. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Bmu - 
Black duck - 


mirriga. 

murria. 
wombarra. 


3 Blacks ■ 
One - 
Two - 


mittundal. 
moondaoora. 


Wood duck- 


yerrinbool. 


Three - 


dooroogai. 


Pelican 


kurringooba. 


Four - 




Laughing jackass 


kookoo. 


Father 


barbatha, bai- 


Native companion gooerri. 






White cockatoo 
Crow - 
Swan - 


ngowal. 
- wagoora. 
■ koorawarri, 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 


mg. 
meunda, mane 
mamung. 




koonyoo. 


,, Younger - 




Egg - - 


■ koarno. 


Brother-Elder - 


tatha. 


Track of a foot 
Fish - 


moorooda, burd- 
yoo. 
- ma, mena. 


,, Younger 
A young man 


myinga. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man- 


warri. 


Crayfish 


- birrooa. 


An old woman 




Mosquito ■ 


- neelooga. 


A baby 


warran. 


Ply - 
Snake - 
The Blacks • 
A Blackf ellow 


myrmga. 

- kurri. 

- kimbunya. 

- uin. 


A White man 
Children 
Head - 


moomaga. 

warran. 

kabomo. 


A Black woman 


- wangan. 


Eye - 


mubbura. 


Nose - 


- nogooroo. 


Ear - 


- koori. 



FEOM JERVIS BAY TO MOUNT DROMEDARY. 



423 



No. 194. — From Jervis Bay to 

Mouth - - Willi. 

Teeth - - - era, nganayoo. 

Hair of the head- jaour. 

Beard - - - yarran, yarri. 

Thunder - maybi. 

Grass - - - wuddal. 

Tongue - - nimming. 

Stomach ■ - binji. 

Breasts - numminya. 

Thigh - - boonda. 

Foot - - - tinna. 

Bone - - - boyoo. 

Blood - - dgeralli. 

Skin - - - wardoo. 

Fat - ■ - buon. 

Bowels - - koonnoo. 

Excrement - - koonnoo. 

War-spear - - birruya. 

Reed-spear - - birryoola. 

Throwing-stick - wommera. 

Shield- - - bimbia, murka. 

Tomahawk - - mundooba. 

Canoe - - . - kurridja. 

Sun - - - nowa. 

Moon - - - dowera. 

Star - - - tiugee. 

Light - - - nowa. 

Dark - - - i-il-wa. 

Cold - - - goo-yoodoo. 

Heat ■ - - bukkeran, nowa. 

Day - - - nowa. 

Night - - - 1-il-wa. 

Fire - - - kani. 

Water- - - nadju. 

Smoke - - tooroor. 

Ground - - ilurgar, bukkan. 

Wind - - - gooroo-ooma. 

Rain - - - bunna. 
God - 
Ghosts 



Mount Dbomedaky — coMnued. 

Boomerang - - warrangan. 

Hill - - 

Wood - - boombal. 

Stone - ■ - boora, moora. 

Camp - - ■ doogan. 

Yes - - ngi. 

No - - - tukkayil. 

I - - - iaga. 

You ■ - inde, indiga. 

Bark - - - oolaga. 

Good - - - jummaga. 

Bad - - - kannia. 

Sweet - - - jummaga. 

Food (vegetable) - tungi. 

,, (meat) - narroom. 

Hungry - - ithul. 

Thirsty - - oondago. 

Eat - - - thunnal. 

Sleep - - - nomgooga. 

Drink - - - oondaga. 

Walk - - - yannooga. 

See - - - naguni. 

Sit - - - ma-i-ga. 

Yesterday - - boguia. 

To-day - - nowa. 

To-morrow - - braguia. 
Where are the wanaga uin ? 
Blacks ? 

I don't know - nginbaga or 

tukkyil. 

Plenty - - bukkan. 

Big - - - birraga. 

Little - - - koobya. 

Dead - - - worral. 

By-and-by - - kawai. 

Come on - - yowi. 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 
Wife - - 



424 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 195.— QUEANBEYAN. 

By the Police Magistrate at the above Town, 
Who informs me that only one person of this tribe, an old -woman, remains. 



Kangaroo - 


- pundar. 


Hand - 


- munna. 


Opossum - 


- widgen. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - . - 
Black duck 
Wood duck 


- merrigon. 

- arang. 

- boojangbung. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 


- midjemban. 

- boUan. 


Pelican - - graduck. 
Laughing jackass googooburra. 
Native companion 


Four • 
Father 
Mother 


- bobong. 

- ija. 


White cockatoo 


- 


Sister-Elder 


- guUung. 


Crow 
Swan - 
Egg - 

Track of a foot 
Fish - - 


- wagun. 

- gunyuck. 

- gubbong. 

- munjuwa. 

- muUang. 


,, Younger 
Brother-Elder 

„ Young 
A young man 


- gooung. 
sr 

- wurrnmbull. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- jerrabung. 


Crayfish 


- murragolong. 


An old woman 


- buUane. 


Mosquito - 
Fly - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 


- jigegong. 

- murring. 


A baby 
A White man 
Children - 
Head - 


- wunja. 

- gubba. 

- guddagong. 


A Black woman 


- buUong. 


Eye - 


- goondal. 


Nose - 


- 


Ert - 


- binningaring 





QUEANBEYAN. 


4k! 




No. 195. — QuBANBEYAN — contimied. 




Mouth 




Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth ■ 


- weera. 


Hill ■ 


- 


Hair of the head 


- yarang. 


Wood - 


- 


Beard - 


- earing, yaring. 


Stone - 


- wuUung. 


Thunder - 


- mirrabee. 


Camp - 


- wallane. 


Grass - 


- narruck. 


Yes - 


- awang. 


Tongue 


- dalling. 


No - 


- wungung. 


Stomach 


- dowong. 


I- 


- indegee. 


Breasts 


- ummingyang. 


You - 


- imeba. 


Thigh - 


- munjawong. 


Bark - 


- dunarung. 


Foot - 
Bone - 
Blood - 
Skin - 


- goorooba. 


Good - 
Bad - 

Sweet - 


- dunga. 

- nanyngalong. 

- murrumbung. 


Fat - 


- bunun. 


Food - 


- dunnong. 


Bowels 


- goonong. 


Hungry 


- aranda. 


Excrement - 


- goonong. 


Thirsty 


- yungimeba. 


War-spear - 




Eat - 


- abally. 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep - 


- umbaree. 


Throwing-stiok 




Drink - 


- admy. 


Shield 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - - 
Moon - 


- towraug. 

- umbagong. 

- murring. 

- mumite. 


Walk - 
See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 


- yarrabajay. 

- goolang. 

- alagee. 


Star - 


- jingee. 


To-day 


- 


Light - 


- burra. 


To-morrow - 


- urongal. 


Dark - 




Where are the 


wuUo murring? 


Cold - 


- gurrada. 


Blacks? 




Heat - 


- murrumbung. 


I don't know 


- wunnagung. 


Day - 




Plenty 




Night - 


- dia. 


Big - 


- yabung. 


Fire - 


- wudda. 


Little - 


■ gobang. 


Water 
Smoke 


ijong. 


Dead - 
By-and-by - 


- berraging. 


Ground 


- dowra. 


Come on 


gooli. 


Wind- 


goorookma. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


urong. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


mummoogong. 


Wife - 





426 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 196.— YASS. 

By the Bench oe Maqistbates at that Place. 
Also a Pew Wobds fbom George Browne, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- burroo. 


Hand - 


- mooranlang. 


Opossum ■ - 


- Willi. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 


ill i 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Pour - 


- mittong. 

■ boolla. 

■ boolla mittong. 


Laughing jackass kookaburra. 


Father 


- moonmonthur. 


Native companion goorine. 


Mother 


magong. 


White cockatoo 


- wagara. 


Sister-Elder 


thargong. 


Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


- wargan. 

- doondoo. 

- goobagong. 

- yowel. 


,, Younger - 
Brother-Elder - mooroombyn. 
,, Younger ngarrang. 


Pish - 


- guir. 


A young man 


- nannong. 


Lobster 


mangaba. 


An old man 


wybong. 


Crayfish 


mooroonong. 


An old woman 


gangang. 


Mosquito - 
Ply . . 

Snake - 
The Blacks • 
A Blackfellow 


- mudjering. 

- boreman. 
mukka. 

- myning. 

- wurrunbill. 


A baby 

A White man 

Children 

Head - 


goodtha, boobal 

- gubba. 

- guddagong. 


A Black woman 


■ buUong. 


Bye - 


migeleg. 


Nose • 


■ moorangee. 


Bar - 


bungenerra. 



YASS. 



427 



No, 196. — Y ASS— continiied. 



Mouth 
Teeth 

Hair of the head 
Beard - 
Thunder 
Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach 
Breasts 
Thigh - 
Foot - 
Bone - 
Blood - 
Skin - 
Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stick 
Shield - 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 
Heat - 
Day - 
Night - 
Fire - 
Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind ■ 
Bain - 
God - 
Ghosts 



- thamberree. 

- yeera. 

- yarragong. 

- yarrang. . 

- mooroobey. 

- ngalook, 

- thuUong. 

- binjey, ugga. 

- nononug, 

- darra. 

- jennang. 

- jinjey. 

- garring. 

- boorai. 
-. noobee. 

- goonong. 
■ jewing. 

- jereel. 

- minga. 

- thowing. 

- murreng. 

- wynen, weenyoo. 

- gerrong. 

- jenna. 

- narragan. 

- burrabi. 

- kurrett. 

- wynen. 

- booroowal. 

- burrabi. 

- gunbey. 

- narjung. 

- kuddalth. 

- thoora, doorla. 

- bandoo. 

- eurong. 

- buronaga. 



Boomerang - 
Hill - 
Wood - 
Stone - 
Camp - 
Yes - 
No - 
I 

You - - 
Bark - 
Good - 
Bad ■ 
Sweet 
Food - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk ■ 
See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday ■ 
To-day 
To-morrow • 
Where are the 
Blacks ? 
I don't know 
Plenty 
Big - - 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - - 



noola. 

woUung. 

noora. 

nea. 

oonthewa. 

ngoolangi. 

goolanga. 

doorong. 

murrumbong. 

narregalong. 



nurran. 

marjoong. 

ngarau. 

googong. 

narging. 

yarraba. 

naangi. 

nulli. 

barrandi. 

youngoo. 

barrandi. 

ooruna myning ? 

moonalthwa. 

jatnma. 

moonoon. 

boobi. 

kowe. 

koomun. 

goolai. 



Wild turkey 
Wife - 



428 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

I am informed that a few individuals of the Yarr — or, as 
we call it, Yass — tribe, still survive. The reader will notice 
that there is but one word for yesterday and to-morrow. 
Almost the same thing occurs in Nos. 191 and 194. In view 
of the statements made by some writers on the subjects of 
Australian marriages and terms of relationship, the following 
Additional Words are important, viz., goonin = uncle and 
aunt; peringing = cousin. 



MONEROO. 429 



No. 197.— MONEEOO. 

By Chables du Ve, Esq., and John Bulmbb, Esq. 

Of the dialects spoken in the Moneroo or Mantra district, 
several vocabularies have reached me, only two of which I 
have thought it necessary to insert. The one compiled many 
years back by Mr. John Shotsky, of the Botanical Society 
of Bavaria, which has often appeared in print, is before me; 
but it is evidently incorrect in many particulars, and hence 
is not inserted. Those placed before the reader were col- 
lected, the first by Mr. Charles du V6, a gentleman long 
resident in Gippsland, and the other by Mr. John Bulmer, 
manager of one of the Government Aboriginal Stations in 
that country, who has many qualifications for the under- 
taking, and has bestowed great pains on his paper. The 
language, this gentleman informs me, is called Ngarago, 
and it will be seen that it has many words found but little 
altered in the dialects of Queanbeyan, Mornya, and Omeo. 
Whether this was always so, or is the result of the mixture 
of tribes, consequent on our occupation, it is now impossible 
to determine. 



430 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 197.— MONEROO. 



By Chaklbs du Vb, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- bundaar. 


Hand - 


- maraga. 


Opossum 


- watjen. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


- mittagang. 

- biri-biri. 


3 Blacks ■ 
One - 


- mittong. 


Black duck - 


- poodoombarng. 


Two - 


- boolarlar. 


Wood duck - 


- goonarook. 


Three - 


- boolar martung 


Pelican 


- 


Pour - 




Laughing jackass 


Father 


■ bobahn. 


Native companion gooyoor. 
White cockatoo - ngoul. 
Crow - - - waroolin. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- mitchong. 


Swan - 


- 


„ Younger 


- cuUan. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 
Pish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 

Fly - ■ 


- mooritche. 

- moolaan. 

- barrinjook. 

- moolookmar. 


Brother-Elder - jydchong. 

„ Younger 
A young man - munguyung. 
An old man- - jirrybung. 
An old woman - 
A baby 


Snake - 


- jijucung. 


A White man 


- moomoogan. 


The Blacks - 


- 


Children - 


- 


A Blackfellow 


- myang. 


Head - 


- kadagong. 


A Black woman 


- ballaru. 


Eye - 


- mobbara. 


Nose - 


- nor. 


Ear -.' - 


■ binneyarree. 





MONEROO. 


43 




No. 191.— M.ONSROO— continued. 




Mouth 


- dha, moordingee. 


Boomerang - 


- warrungen. 


Teeth - 


- yayra. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- eerong. 


Wood - 


- baar. 


Beard - 


- 


Stone - 


- goorobung. 


Thunder - 


- 


Camp - 


- wallaan. 


Grass - 


- nulhook. 


Yes - 


- 


Tongue 




No - - 


- moko. 


Stomach 


- 


I- 


- ngimba. 


Breasts 


- 


You - 


- yindigee. 


Thigh - 


- tharal. 


Bark - 


- 


Foot - 


- genno. 


Good - - 


- murrembarang 


Bone - 


- 


Bad - 


- moko (?). 


Blood - 


- 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- 


Food - 


- 


Fat - 


- 


Hungry 


- 


Bowels 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


Excrement - 




Eat - 


- 


War-spear - 


- cumma. 


Sleep - 


. 


Reed-spear - 


- gerambardee. 


Drink - 




Tkrowing-stick 
Shield- - 


- armmel. 


Walk- - 


- yarrabye. 


Tomahawk - 


- ngumbercung. 


See - - 


- 


Canoe - 


- marring. 


Sit - 


- 


Sun - 


- monnutche. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- cubartong. 


To-day 




Star - 


- ieenkee. 


To-morrow - 


. 


Light - 


- murdeditch. 


Where are the 


Dark - 


- dthag. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- curret. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- weenya. 






Day - 


- bruyeo. 


Plenty 


• 


Night - 


- 


Big - - 


- yhubung. 


Fire - 


- gannby. 


Little - 


- 


Water 


- ngiijong. 


Dead - 


- 


Smoke 


' dhoomdook. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


• towra. 


Come on 


- 


Wind- 


• goonoockomar. 


Milk - - 


- 


Raiu - 


- yurong. 


Eaglehawk - 


- meerong. 


God - . - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


. 



432 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 197.— MONEROO. 



By John Bulmek, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


■ bandara. 


Hand - 


- marranga. 


Opossum - 


■ wajan. 


2 Blacks - 


- blala marrin 


Tame dog - 


■ merrigang. 


3 Blacks - 


- wajala boor mar 


Wild dog - 


- merail. 




rin. 


Emu - 


- ngooroon. 


One - 


- boor. 


Black duck - 


- boothan-baan. 










Two - 


- wajala, blala. 


Wood duck 


- koonaroo. 










Three - 


- blala boor. 


Pelican 








litaghiug jackass 


Pour - 


- wajala- wajala. 


Native companion kroobanben. 


Pather 


- papang. 


White cockatoo 




Mother 


- najan. 


Crow - 


wagoolan. 


Sister-Elder 


- namang. 


Swan - 


koonyak. 


,, Younger 


- kalian. 


Egg - 


kabango. 


Brother-Elder 


- dejan. 


Track of a foot 


jennum. 


,, Younger kookong. 


Pish - 


manjar. 


A young man 


- warrambal. 


Lobster 


notkun. 


An old man 


- ierrabaane. 


Crayfish 


barranjerk. 


An old woman 


J to" 

- kowandit. 


Mosquito - 


- nilakmun. 










A baby 


- waeu. 


Fly - 


ngago. 






Snake 


- tetohogang. 


A White man 


- mumogang. 


The Blacks - 


marrin. 


Children - 


- waemnerang. 


A Blaokf ellow 


marrin. 


Head 


- kuttegang. 


A Black woman 


ballan. 


Eye - 


- kindthuno. 


Nose - 


noor. 


Ear - 


- jenna-nana. 





MONEROO. 


43a 




No. 191.— MoTSEROO— continued. 




Mouth 


- yerra, nana. 


Boomerang - 


- warranin. 


Teeth - 


• mundtho, nana. 


Hill - 


- boolo. 


Hair of the head 


- yerrang. 


Wood- - 


- ngalu, murru. 


Beard - 


- yerran. 


Stone - 


- koorogang. 


Thunder - 


- merbil. 


Camp - 


- baanja. 


Grass - 


- nallook. 






Tongue 


- thalline. 


Yes - 


- yayoo. 


Stomach 


- yugerin. 


No 


- murro. 


Breasts 


- banannu. 


I 


- ngiamba. 


Thigh - 


- darra. 


You - 


- nindega. 


Foot - 


- yenote. 


Bark - 


- thorrang. 


Bone - 


- kakak. 


Good - 


- mowdang. 


Blood - 


- kooroban. 


Bad - - 


- mado, jamogang 


Skin - 


- watnana. 


Sweet - 


- yellagine. 


Pat - 


- bewan. 


Food - 


- thauang. 


Bowels 


- thowang. 


Hungry 


- merra. 


Excrement - 


- guanang. 


Thirsty 


- chuta. 


War-spear - 


- yarraka 


Eat - 


- thai-i. 


Reed-spear - 


- jerwang. 






Throwing-stiok 


- berrimi, baar. 


Sleep - 


- kappuga. 


Shield 


- ngmal. 


Drink - 


- ngo-ye-a. 


Tomahawk - 


- ngmalagan. 


Walk - 


- yerrabe. 


Canoe - 


- mamat. 


See - - 


- nai. 


Sun - 


- warrangur. 


Sit - - 


- ngalaga. 


Moon - 


- jingai. 


Yesterday - 


- beami boor. 


Star - 


- wagang. 


To-day 


- myaro. 


Light - - 


- thaik. 


To-morrow - 


- ngoongang. 


Dark - 


- katata. 


Where are the ngandoo marrin 


Cold - - 


- thurrun. 


Blacks? 




Heat - 


- booreo. 


I don't know 


- ngandagun. 


Day - 


- thaik. 


Plenty 


- yapang. 


Night - - 


- watha. 


Big - - 


- mineba. 


Fire - 


- ngagung. 


Little - 


- koobeang. 


Water 


- maniak. 


Dead - 


- birragan. 


Smoke 


- thairra. 


By-amd-by - 


- balloot. 


Ground 


- widdin. 


Come on 


- kajoo. 


Wind - 


- yerrung. 


Milk - 


- mimin. 


Rain - 


- karrit. 


Eaglehawk - 


- mirrung. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- karook. 


Ghosts 


- birribang. 


Wife - 


- maan. 


VOL. III. 


2 


E 





434 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE. 



No. 198.— TWOFOLD BAY. 

,By the late Revd. William Ridley. 

The following few words are extracted from Ridley's Kamil- 
aroi, a work of which, the author has many times availed 
himself. As the Twofold Bay country was the locality at 
which the descendants of the Sydney tribes which followed 
the coast to the southward and those which, taking an inland 
course, reached the Yarra, Gippsland, Omeo, and the southern 
confines of the Twofold Bay country met, it is to regretted 
that the vocabulary preserved is so scanty. The only words 
it contains which serve for comparison are the following: — 



I - - - ngaiadha. 

Thou (you) - - indiga. 



Father - - baba. 

Mother - - minga. 



Mamung is given as a proper name for a sister in a 
family, but in the Sydney language we have mamuna, and in 
that spoken from Jervis Bay to Mount Dromedary we have 
the same word mamung meaning sister. Hence I have no 
doubt that Mr. Ridley was in error when he took the 
word down as a proper name. This is strong evidence of the 
tribe being of Sydney descent; otherwise the first three of 
the four words given above are too common in root through- 
out Australia to help us to any conclusion on the subject. 
We know, however, that the Twofold Bay Blacks themselves 
were always in alliance with those about Mount Dromedary 
and to the northward of that point, and at war with the 
Gippsland and Snowy River tribes ; a state of things which 
we always find existing at points at which portions of the 
race long separated have again come into contact. 



BOOK THE EIGHTEENTH. 



2 E 2 



BOOK THE EIGHTEENTH. 



PEEFATORY REMARKS. 



The tribes treated of in tMs book belong almost entirely 
to Victoria. They occupy tlie south-western extremity of 
the Eastern Division of the continent, and their languages 
may easily be traced as far north as the Maclntyre River. 
The close connection of these tongues admits of no doubt, 
as also their difference from the Lower Murray and Lake 
Alexandrina form of speech, with which they come in con- 
tact at Lacepede Bay. The following table will instance 
both of these facts : — 



English. 


Murray Lakes. 


Mount Gambler. 


Tatlarra. 


Swan Hill. 


Kangaroo - 


Wangami - 


Kooraa - 


Mindyun 


Koorengi. 


Emu - 


Pinyali 


Kower - 


Kowir - 


Kurwing. 


Pelican 


Nori - 


Parangal 


Waroopool - 


Purtanal. 


Laughing 


Kukukki - 


Kooartang - 


Kooungal 


Koongo. 


jackass 










Swan - 


Kungari 


Koonowoor - 


Koonooer 


Konawar. 


Father 


Nanghai - 


Marme - 


Maame - 


Mamoo. 


Head - 


Kurle 


Boop - 


Boorp - 


Poibo. 


Eye - 


PiiU - 


Mir 


Mir 


Mirnoo. 


Ear - 


Plombe 


Wrung - 


Wirambool - 


Wirmpoolo. 


Hair - 


Kuri - 


Ngurla boop- 


Ngarapoorp - 


Nguragnoo. 


Beard - 


Menake 


Ngur la ngerne 


Ngainye 


Ngenengroo. 


Fire - 


Kene - 


Wurnap 


Wanyep 


Wurnaway. 


Smoke 


Muldi, kare 


Booloing 


Borring - 


Boorangni. 


Bark - 


Yorle- 


Moondart 


Mitch - 


Mickoo. 


Sleep - 


Muwe 


Kooma - 


Kombian 


Komba. 


Walk - 


Ngoppun - 


Yan - 


Yanna - 


Yanna. 


To-day 


Hikkai 
nungge 


Keto - 


Kaiejung 


KeeU. 


Come on 


Yelellai - 


Kooki - 


Yannag 


Kaki, yanna. 



438 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

For the most part the names of the tribes in this south- 
western extremity of the Eastern Division are the negative 
adverbs of their several languages, and we see that as a fresh 
tribe came by secession into existence it often invented for itself 
a new negative adverb. It also frequently altered its equiv- 
alent for the Blacks. In the Tyntynder, Piangil, Kulkyne, 
and Tatiarra dialects we find kaalk, kulko, or other similar 
words meaning bone or wood, or both of them. We also 
meet with kallak and kalk on the Upper Glenelg as wood, 
and the same word occasionally as far north as the heads of 
the Mitchell and Walsh Rivers signifying war-spear. In a 
general way, however, it is wood and fire that we find 
related. 

The partial differences found in some of the vocabularies 
in this book are in accordance with the fact, which I have 
several times observed myself, that a section of a tribe, 
or even a family, will occasionally develop some variety of 
speech. As an instance, we find the words of the first of 
the two Tatiarra vocabularies ending with great frequency 
with the sound ik or ek, which is almost absent from the 
other. 

The following phrases, belonging to one of the Laichi- 
laichi families, were kindly forwarded to me by Mr. McLeod, 
who I understand speaks the language. The variation in the 
use of the negative adverb will be noticed: — 

Here (is some) - kimma. 
Presently I will tartemnully 

eat opossum tohowa welang. 

Emu good (Emu is karwingi delgi. 

the best) 
Where (are you) winga yangnowa? 

going ? 

I will go (too) - yeta yoowannur. 
(I am very) tired mikkgun. 



Where (are the) winga wortongi? 

Blacks ? 
(I have) not seen lachong 

(them) nurongan. 

Where (are all the) winga 

women ? moroignee ? 

(They are) fishing yoo-ong-illa. 
One woman (is at) gea-abbi neyaw 

Bumbang Bumbang. 

Two women (are boralgi neyaw 

at) Kulkyne Kulkyne. 

(I am) hungry - krenambun. 
Give (me some) wookey burnimo. 

food 



(Well ! go to) sleep koomba ulli. 

you 
Where (is) my winga yaun 

husband ? lieuki ? 



SWAN HILL AND TYNTYNDER. 439 



(You) will see him yenga nuUi 
presently tartem. 

I see two women yetti nyen 

boolagi lieu. 

Where (is my) winga kooyoni ? 
war-spear ? 

(I have) not seen laoha ninon. 
(it) 



Give me one - wakey nung 
kaiup. 

(Do) not talk - laoha yama. 

WhenwillTommy winga winyari- 
come back ? gen Tommy 1 

When go you ? - winga yang 
nooa? 



From this it will be seen that min^a means both where 
and when, a form of speech which is found in the Bangerang 
languages, and probably in others. 



No. 199.— SWAN HILL AND TYNTYNDEE. 

By John Bevekidoe, Esq. 

The following information concerning the language of the 
tribe which dwelt in the neighbourhood of Swan Hill and 
Tyntynder, but few individuals of which now remain, was 
kindly supplied by Mr. John Beveridge, who speaks it with 
some fluency. Few of my correspondents have taken so 
much trouble with the vocabularies they have forwarded to 
me. The name of the tribe is Wotti-wotti* a reduplication 
of the negative adverb of their language. A very good and 
full account of this tribe has been published by the late Mr. 
Peter Beveridge, a brother of my correspondent, who lived 
many years amongst them, in which, however, the careful 
reader will notice a few inaccuracies. The following is one 
of them. At page 53 it is stated that nowie is not the equiv- 
alent of sun in the Wotti-wotti language, whilst at pages 
43, 45, and 56 we find sun translated by that term. The 
same writer in his rendering of aboriginal words uses y, at 
others ie, and at others i to express the sound of the Italian 
i. In other cases I notice y has the sound which it bears in 
the English word mi/; as, for instance, in l^oor = woman, 
which I should write laioor. 

* Mr. Peter Beveridge in his pamphlet spells it Watty-watty. 



440 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 199.— Additional Woeds and Phbasbs. 

Creek - - - loortowie, loorto- 
kal, bemiwur. 

Platypus - - mardi. 

Husband - - lielu. 

Body - - - (no term). 

Back - - - wurtoo. 

Beard - - - ngenintlinu. 

Moustache - - miowooranthnu. 

Rib - - - leningi. 

Heart - - - pertinthnu. 

Kidney - - wertinu. 

Chest - - - thungo. 

Lips - - - woortogno. 

Elbow - - ngonyooro. 

Plain - - - wurky. 

Tree - - - kulky. 

Leaf - - - kerenthu. 

Flower - - beechon-beechon. 

Yam - - - thabor. 

Mud - - - bilby. 

Mussel - - warmurn (large), 
nunkir (small). 

Lagoon ■ - gunbakoor. 

Here - - - kima. 

There - - - ngala. 

My (own) mother yannaio baabai. 

His (own) mother ngookaio baabin. 

Your (own) mother ngineo baabin. 

My (own) father yannaio maamai. 

His (own) father ngookaio maa- 
mai. 

Your (own) father ngineo maamai. 

, What Blackfellow that? 



Walk - , - 


- yana, yarwa. 


Tell - 


- lata, kaya. 


Give - 


- wogna, woga. 




wook, woorda. 


Hear - 


- derbima. 


Steal - 


- bechin, becha. 


Fight - 


- waragnera. 


Burn - 


- puthuma, ngan- 




gia. 


Go away 


- werawia. 


Arrive 


- berna, bemin, 




wata. 


Bird - 


- (nogeneralname). 


Plover 


- mingerai. 


Spurwing plover perrit-perrit. | 


Bronze wing 


tuppy. 


pigeon 




Crested pigeon 


- kolumbilbob. 


Nest (camp) 


- lamoo, lingi. 


Tail - 


- pirko. 


Wing - 


- turtow. 


Bill - 


- woorogno. 


Sky - 


- terrili. 


Cloud - 


- moorngi. 


Sand - 


- kooraki. 


Waterhole - 


- yallum 


Ashes - 


- berrigni. 


Grave - 


- thumboo. 


Gum - 


- lili. 


Tired (lit., sore 


wara pynki. 


flesh) 




Alive - 


- boorinyer. 


Long - 


- tuergini. 


Short - 


- toolentha, too- 




logni. 


Who is 


that Blackfellow; i.e 


Winyerangi woortongi ngata 


I don't know. 


Winta. 




I cannot see him; i.e., Not I 


Wotti 


yetti ngakin. 



SWAN HILL AND TYNTYNDER. 441 

No. 199. — ^Additional Words and Phrases — continued. 

(Do) you see that ■woman ? 
Nginna ngakin ngata laioor ? 

I saw her yesterday; i.e.. Yesterday I saw. 
Karalko yetti ngyn. 

She (is) pretty. 
Noonthi kongin-kongin. 

Ugly is that old woman. 
Ngomloiwil ngata kuloor. 

By-and-by many Blacks will arrive. 
Darti koko woortongi birnin. 

I see them now; i.e., Here I see. 
Kima yetti ngakin. 

Where ? 
Wintala? 

(A) good way off (on the) plain. 
Kilothukkil wurkido. 

(Do) you see that person ? 
Nginma ngakin noonthalla ? 

Long ago he back mine speared. 
Jeleka noonthi wurtoo yanden boin. 

To-morrow I will kill (him). 
Munmunerbo yetti tukkin. 

I see (an) emu, or emus. 
Yette ngyn kurwing. 

(Be) quiet. 
Kapo. 

(He is a) long way off. 
Kilothukkil. 

Silence ! 

Koorgni ! 

By-and-by I (will) spear (him). 

Darti yetti boin. 

He is coming to water; i.e.. Here comes water-drink. 

Kaki yannin kertenarda. 

No, he won't come to water; i.e., Not he come water. 

Wotti ngoonthi yanna kertenarda. 

I believe fat that one. 

Yetti ngurangna pipaloo noonthi. 

No, (all) bones. 

Wotti, kulkali. 



442 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No. 199.— Additional Wokds and 'Pbbas^s— continued. 

Now I'll spear him; i.e., Here I spear. 

Kima yanda boin. 

There (he is) dead. 

Thnala delbin. 

He is fat; i.e., Plenty fat. 

Koko pipaloo. 

Come on ! make (a) fire. 

Goway! puthama wurnaway. 

(There is) no wood. 

Wotti wurnaway.* 

Well ! carry that one, there, trees. 

Yeri toorta noonthi keo kulki. 

Hungry I. 

Berin yetti. 

Hasten, eat. 

Kakkai, jakkla. 

By-and-by I (will) eat. 

Darti yetti jakkla. 

Where (are the) Blacks ? 

Wintala woortongi ? 

I don't know; literally, where. 

Winta. 

Nonsense speak you. 

Ngurgnongnabbe nginma. 

There, I saw (them at) Ulupna. 

Keo, yetti ngyn Ulupna. 

How many ? 

Anaboo ? 

Many. 

Koko. 

What (do they) eat? 

Nalli jackla? 

Emu, fruit, and flour. 

Kurwing, cherenthu ngna, beechon-beechon. 

What women (are) there ? 

Wingeregni laioor keo? 

Many. 

Koko. 

Has Tommy got a wife yet? i.e., How many Tommy got wife? 
Anaboo Tommy magna murtamoo? 

* This word means both;!re Bjad firewood. 



SWAN HILL AND TYNTYNDER. 443 

No. 199. — Additional Words and Phrases — continued. 

Yes! 

Ea! 

Which Blacks gave her to him ? i.e.. Which Blacks gave that one? 

Nalli woortongi woen noonthi? 

Which girl did he get? i.e., Which girl he? 

Nalli moorignoor noonthi? 

He only got an old woman; i.e., No ! old woman. 

Wotti! kuloor. 

When (will the) Blacks here come ? 

Natte woortongi kaki yanna? 

(In) three days. 

Pola ky-up ngeringnerinum. 

Where is your wife ? 

Wintala nginio laioor ? 

To-morrow coming. 

Munmunderbo bernin. 

Have you seen my wife? i.e.. How much you seen my woman? 

Anaboo nginna ngaken yanio laioor ? 

Yes. 

Ea. 

Where? 

Winta? 

There, on the plain. 

Keo wnrkerda. 

What (is) she doing ? 

Nanga noonthi wara ? 

Where you went this day? (I) went (to the) 

Winta or winthanga nginma yaen keeli ngengui? Yaen 

mallee. What (did) you want there? I wanted 

boorongarda. Nalli nginma yukka nua? yanda yukkin 

lowan's eggs. Aye, aye, how many (did) you get ? 

lowan mikko. Nga, nga, anabon nginma ngurmin ? 

Plenty. Not you brought many here, because I 
Koko. Wotti nginma mangna kirtawil kaki, yeri yanda 

threw away many. Why you threw away addled 

winia maranda. Nukka nginma winia wertawil 

eggs? I like that kind. By-and-by I will get 

mikko ? Yetti gera enganabo. Darti yanda ngurmin 

others, and I not throw away addled eggs; I 

yooia, nga yetti wotti winia wertawil mikko; yetti 

will give (them) to you. 
wongna nginma. 



444 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



In addition to the foregoing phrases and short dialogues, 
Mr. Beveridge sent me many others which I have not thought 
it necessary to insert. Though they show well the rude form 
of conversation .prevalent in our tribes, the ethnologist will 
notice, amongst other things, Ihat the verbs as given are 
wanting in the inflexions common to all Australian tongues. 
As an instance, the present, future, and imperative of the 
verb eat are all translated jiaMfo. 



No. 199.— SWAN HILL AND TYNTYNDER. 



By John BBVEKiDeE, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 1 
White cockatoo 
Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - - 
Track of a foot 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
My - - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blaokfellow 
A Black woman 
Nose - 



koorengi. 


Hand - 


- mumagna. 


weeltengi. 


2 Blacks - 


- pola wootcha. 


wirangen. 


3 Blacks - 


- pola kyup 


kijiwing kurwi. 

tolem. 

ngurni. 

purtagnal. 

koongo. 

koortani. 


One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Four - 
Father 


wootoha. 
kyup or yoori. 
pola. 

dola kyup. 
pola-pola. 
mamoo. 


kerenyi. 


Mother 


baboo. 


wongi. 


Sister-Elder 


menoo. 


konawar. 


„ Younger 




mirkoo. 


Brother-Elder 


wawoo. 


toorake. 
mtinchi. 
chipel. 


,, Youngei 
A young man 
An old man 


kolkroon. 
ngurambin. 


yapi. 
moontchi. 
perti. 
kani. 


An old woman 

A baby 

A White man 


kuloor. 

popo. 

ngurtangi. 


wootcha. 


Children - 


pinko. 


woortongi. 


Head - 


poibo. 


leyoor. 


Eye - 


mirnoo. 


leintoo. 


Ear - 


wirmpoolo. 



SWAN HILL AND TYNTYNDER. 



445 



No. 199. — Swan Hill and Tyntyndee — contirmed. 



Mouth 


- worogna. 


Boomerang - 


- woni. 


Teeth- 


■ liannoo. 


Hill or head 


- poibo, poorpo. 


Hair of the head 


- nguragnoo poibo. 




banyole. 


Beard - 


- ngenengroo. 


Wood - 


- kulki, wurnaway 


Thunder . - 


- munder. 


Stone - 


- mukki. 


Grass - 


- woolngi. 


Camp ■ 


- lingi. 


Tongue 


- chellingnoo. 


Yes - 


- ea or oyer. 


Stomach 


- wotohowoo. 


No - - 


- wotti. 


Breasts 


- koimbo. 


I- 


- yetti. 


Thigh - 


■ kero. 


You - 


- nginti. 


Foot - 


- chinangoo. 


Bark - 


- michoo. 


Bone - 


- kulko. 


Good - 


- telko. 


Blood - 


- koorko. 


Bad - 


- waikidoo. 


Skin - 


- michoo. 


Sweet - 


- kooli, lerpi. 


Fat - 


- pipaloo. 


Food - 


- bernimoo. 


Bowels 


- gonangroo. 


Hungry 


- beea. 


Excrement - 


- gonangroo. 


Thirsty 


- konamia. 


War-spear - 


- bamar. 


Eat - 


- jakkla. 


Reed-spear - 


- tharami. 


Sleep - 


- komba. 


Throwing-stick 


- keri. 


Drink - 


- kopla. 


Shield - 


- kerami. 


Walk - 


- yanna. 


Tomahawk - 


- perti. 


See - 


- ngaekla. 


Canoe - 


- uTikooi. 


Sit - 


- ngennga. 


Sun - 


- nowi. 


Yesterday - 


- karalko. 


Moon - 


- mertein, mitian. 


To-day 


- keeli. 


Star - 


- toorti. 


To-morrow - 


- munmunerbo. 


Light - 


- ngaenngi. 


Where are 


the wiuthjegno 


Dark - 


- wooka, boorangi. 


Blacks? 


woortongi. 


Cold - 


- boiUnga, yebra. 


I don't know 


- wotte yetti 


Heat - 


- kurti. 




derbima. 


Day - 


- ngaengi. 


Plenty 


- koko. 


Night - 


- wooka-boorangi. 


Big - 


- karaway. 


Fire 


- wurnaway. 


Little - 


- panoo. 


Water - 


- kerlini. 


Dead - 


- delbin. 


Smoke - 


- boto, boorangni. 


Byand-by - 


- darti. 


Ground 


- thungi. 


Come on 


- kaki! yanna! 


Wind - 


- weelangi. 


Milk - - 


- koombo, koimbo. 


Rain - 


- meerti. 


Baglehawk - 


- werpil. 


God - 


- 


wad turkey 


- - 


Ghosts - 


- ngurtangi. 


Wife - 


- murtamoo. 



446 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 200.— ABOUT FIFTY MILES SOUTHERLY FROM SWAN 

HILL. 

By the Writee. 

This language, which is called Mirdiragoort, is evidently related to the 
Wotti-wotti dialect. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum - 


kora. 
wille. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


werangen 
kowir. 


Black duck 




Wood duck 




Pelican 




Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - kurtuga. 
Crow - - - wa. 


Swan - 




Egg - - 
Track of a foot 




Fish - 




Lobster 




Crayfish - 
Mosquito - 
Fly' - - 
Snake 




The Blacks 


wirtoo. 


A Blackfellow 




A Black woman 


laioor. 


Nose - 


■ kagna. 



Hand - 


mirnung. 


2 Blacks ■ 




3 Blacks - 




One - - 


kaiup. 


Two - 


poolel. 


Three 


poolel kaip. 


Four - 


poolel pe poolel. 


Father 


manak. 


Mother 


baapek. 


Sister-Elder 


- kotooe. 


„ Younger 




Brother-Elder 


- kotek. 


,, Younger 


A young man 




An old man 




An old woman 


- 


A baby 


- popok, baingoor 


A White man 




Children - 


- 


Head - 


- Poolpe 


Eye - 


- mer. 


Ear - 


- wirmboola. 



FIFTY MILES SOUTHERLY FROM SWAN HILL. 



447 



No. 200.— About Fifty Miles Southerly from Swan Hill — cmXwmtA 


Mouth- 


■ garp. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- liya. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- 


Wood - 


- 


Beard - 




Stone - 




Thunder - 


- mundur. 


Camp - 


- 


Grass - 


- boait. 


Yes - 


- 


Tongue 


- 


No - 


- 


Stomach 


- 


r- 


- 


Breasts 


- 


You - 


- 


Thigh - 


- 


Bark - 


- 


Foot - 


- dohinna. 


Good - 


- 


Bone - 




Bad - 


- 


Blood - 


- 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- 


Food - 


- 


Fat - 


- 


Hungry 


- 


Bowels 




Thirsty 




Excrement - 


- koodna. 


Eat -. 


- djekelinga. 


War-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


- gopark. 


Throwing-stiok 


- 


Walk - 




Shield or back 


- 


See - 


. 


Tomahawk - 


- partek, 


Sit - 




Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 


- toord. 


Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are 
Blacks? 


the 


Cold - 


- 


I don't know 




Heat - 


- 


Plenty 




Day - 


- 


Big - 


- 


Night - 


- 


Little - 




Fire - 


- wimup. 


Dead - 


- 


Water - 


- kartin. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Smoke 


- 


Come on 


^ 


Ground 
Wind- 
Rain - 


- tiha. 

- mirtuk. 


Milk - - 
Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 





448 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 201.— PIANGIL. 



By Thomas Macredie, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- korangi. 


Opossum - 


- bendindi. 


Tame dog - 


- kaU. 


Wild dog - 


- 


Emu - 


- barrimali. 


Black duck - 


- tholomi. 


Wood duck 


- mari. 


Pelican 


- neuankari. 


Laughing jackass koori. 


Native companion turkanyi. 


White cockatoo 


- juranyi. 


Crow - 


- willachali. 


Swan - 


- dunabogi. 


Egg - - 


■ maiki. 


Track of a foot 


- yaanyi. 


Fish - 


- wirrumjali 


Lobster 


- chiboli. 


Crayfish 


- yappi. 


Mosquito - 


- mungi. 


Fly - 


- pichi. 


Snake 


- karni. 


The Blacks 


- woonyi. 


A Blackf ellow 


- woonyi. 


A Black woman 


- laioorki. 


Nose - 


■ djaindo. 



Hand - 


•• momanjdng 


2 Blacks - 


- bolaja woonyi 


3 Blacks - 


- bolaja yetua 




woonyi. 


One - 


- yetua. 


Two - 


- bolaja. 


Three - 


- bolaja yetua. 


Four - 


- bolaja bolaja. 


Father 


- marmi. 


Mother 


- kornoo. 


Sister-Elder 


- mekana. 


,, Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- mia. 


,, Younger 


A young man 


- kulkooi. 


An old man 


- bukulki. 


An old woman 


- kallawur. 


A baby 


- baenyi. 


A White man 


- kuthobi. 


Children 


- bobi. 


Head - 


- boebo. 


Eye - 


- maingo. 


Ear - 


- cholarndoo. 





PIANGIL. 


i^ 




No. 201.— ViAsaiij— continued. 




Mouth 


- wooroogoo. 


Boomerang - 


. 


Teeth - 


- narrookoo. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head 


- na boebo. 


Wood- •- 


- knlki, 


Beard 


- nyamygo. 


Stone - 


- matchi. 


Thunder - 


- mundari. 






Grass - 
Tongue 


- wooloogi. 

- talayin. 


Camp - 
Yes - 


- laiinyea. 

- ea. 


Stomach 


- bellanyin. 


No - 


- wattai. 


Breasts 


- tandioo. 


I 


- nulgi. 


Thigh 


- boyarbin. 


You - 


- nundi. 


Foot - 


- jennanyim. 


Bark - 


- toolambi. 


Bone - 


- kalko. 


Good - 


- bai-ai-oo. 


Blood - 


- koorkioo. 


Bad - 


- wykatanyee. 


Skin - 


- loopko. 


Sweet - 


- bango. 


Fat - 


- kalbendioo. 


Food - 


- tarochi. 


Bowels 


- papgoonamyin. 


Hungry 


- dabun. 


Excrement - 


- kooanyin. 






War-spear - 


- kalkarangoyono. 


Thirsty 


- gonamoo. 


Reed-spear - 


- banyoondi. 


Eat - 


- jikanal. 


Throwing-stiok 




Sleep - 


- koomba. 


Shield - 


- murkangi. 


Drink - 


- koopung. 


Tomahawk - 


- taiinya, 


Walk - 


- yangal. 


Canoe - 


- yungobi. 


See - 


- nykan. 


Sun - 


naianyi. 


Sit - 


- naiango. 


Moon - 


- tarongia. 


Yesterday - 


- kalko. 


Star - 


- toorti. 


To-day 


- jalinaika. 


Light - 


- waingi. 


To-morrow - 


- biioo. 


Dark - 


- booroongi. 


Where are the 


wiata-woonyi ? 


Cold - 


- buUoinkurrori. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- piugoon. 


I don't know 


- winda. 


Day - 


- nainye. 


Plenty 


- kopeko. 


Night - 


- boorongi. 


Big - 


- gurraway. 


Fire - 


- woonobi. 


Little - 


- baitan. 


Water 


tainyi. 


Dead - 


- dalbeia. 


Smoke 


- boti. 


By-and-by - 


- bawa. 


Ground 


dunyi. 


Come on 


- kagai. 


Wind - 


woolanyi. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


maitoheri. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 




veil. III. 


2 


F 





450 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 201.— PIANGIL. 





By the Writer. 




Kangaroo - 


korangi. 


Hand - 


- munani. 


Opossum 


paangendi. 


2 Blacks - 


- polaigilla woani. 


Tame dog - 


kalli. 


3 Blacks - 


- polaigilla yaitna 


Wild dog - 






woani. 


Emu - 


buraimalli. 


One - 


- yaitna. 


Black duck - 


tolo'mi. 


Two - 


- polaigilla. 


Wood duck - 


naari. 


Three - 


- polaigilla yaitna. 


Pelican 


nanangore. 


Four - 


- polaigill-poUai- 


Laughing jackass 


kori. 




giU. 


Native companion torkanyi. 


Father 


- maamoo. 


White cockatoo 


kerangi. 


Mother 


- konoo. 


Crow - 


walechin. 


Sister-Elder 


- maina. 


Swan - 
Egg - - 
Track of a foot 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish ' - 
Mosquito 
Fly - 


thanabootoh. 
neki. 

- chinanya. 
baanda. 

yabbechi. 

- mungi. 
beti. 


,, Younger 
Brother-Elder 

Young 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 


- waawoo. 
er 

- paitoo. 

- pokkoni. 

- tillibillechi. 

- pobi. 


Snake - 


kaani. 


A White man 


- kotoli. 


The Blacks - 


woani. 


Children 


- marandobangi. 


A Blaokfellow 


■ woani. 


Head - 


- poibi. 


A Black ■« Oman 


laiorki. 


Eye - 


- maingi. 


Nose - 


changi. 


Ear - 


- toolandi. 





PTAISTGIL. 


4 




No. 201.— PiA> 


'OIL — contimied. 




Mouth 


- woroni. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- ngaroohi. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head - ngua-poihi. 


Wood - 


- baali, kaalki. 


Beard - 


- ninini. 


Stone - 


- kandogi. 


Thunder - 


- mundari. 


Camp - 


- laingi. 


Grass - 


- woolngi. 


Yes - 


- iia. 


Tongue 
Stomach 


- chelengi. 

- beleni. 


No - - 


- waati. 


Breasts 


- koimbi. 


I 


- nitte. 


Thigh - 


- kaingi. 


You - 


• ninte. 


Foot - 


- chinnaan. 


Bark - 


- laikoti. 


Bone - 


- bembo. 


Good - - 


- baioo. 


Blood - - 


- karko. 


Bad - 


- chilka. 


Skin - 


- looko. 


Sweet - 


- baioo. 


Eat - 


- kalbindo. 


Eood - 


- wilberoo. 


Bowels 


- beto. 


Hungry 


- tabun. 


Excrement - 


- koonanga. 


Thirsty 


- konema. 


War-spear - 


- kooiooni. 


Eat - 


- thowun. 


Reed-spear - 


- panondi. 


Sleep - 


- koombian. 


Throwing-stiok 
Shield- 


- chaieki 

- markandgi. 


Drink - 


- kopan. 


Tomahawk - 


- thaieni. 


Walk - 


- yanna. 


Canoe - 


- yangoibi. 


See - 


- natohi. 


Sun - 


- ngaiingi. 


Sit - 


- ngaiingun. 


Moon - 


- tooroongoi. 


Yesterday - 


- kalko. 


Star - - 


- tooti. 


To-day 


- naiki. 


Light - 


- waingo. 


To-morrow - 


- tai-ai-oo. 


Dark - 


- borongi. 


Where are 


the wuntha woani 


Cold - - 


- poloinga. 


Blacks? 




Heat - 


- nunga. 


I don't know 


- winda. 


Day - 


- naiingi. 


Plenty 


- marandoo, 


Night - 


- borongi. 


Big - - 


- karawe. 


Eire - 


- wunabi. 


Little - 


- baiedain. 


Water 


- teeni. 


Dead - 


- telbi. 


Smoke 


- pooti. 


By-and-by - 


- bawa. 


Ground 


- thanni. 


Come on 


- kagai. 


Wind - - 


- willain. 


Milk - - 


- 


Bain - 


- maicheri. 


Eaglehawk- 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


21 


Wife - 
'2 


- 



451 



452 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 202.— BUMBANG, ON THE MURRAY RIVER. 

Bt F. Coenby, Esq. 

The name of the tribe is Laitchi-laitohi. 



Kangaroo - 


goyangi. 


Opossum 


wolangi. 


Tame dog - 


koUi. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


karwingi. 


Black duck - 


toolomi. 


Wood duck 


naline. 


Pelican 


purtangil. 


Laughing jackass 


gongong. 


Native companion gotarni. 


White cockatoo - 


kowa. 


Crow - 


wong. 


Swan - 


goonowong 


Egg - - 


meg. 


Track of a foot - 




Fish - - . 




Lobster 




Crayfish 


ringwong. 


Mosquito - 


moonine. 


Fly - - - 




Snake - - - 


kanni. 


The Blacks - 


woortongi. 


A Blackfellow - 




A Black woman - 


lioo. 


Nose - 


geangi. 



Hand - 


- munnagi. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- geyabi. 


Two - 


- boolagi. 


Three - 


- boolagi geyabi. 


Four - 


- boolagi-boolagi 


Father 


- mamai. 


Mother 


- papai. 


Sister-Elder 


- chage. 


,, Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- moondoondi. 


,, Younger bambi. 


A young man 


- tininur. 


An old man 


- mowmi. 


An old woman 


- bowbi. 


A baby 


- boobop. 


A White man 


- 


Children 


- 


Head - 


- popi. 


Eye - 


- mingi. 


Ear - 


- wirabola. 



BUMBAKG, ON THE MURRAY RIVER. 



453 



No. 202 


.— BUMEANG, ON THE 


MnRBAY River- 


—contimied. 


Mouth 


- menna. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- liang. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head- narapopi. 


Wood - - 


- kulgi. 


Beard - 


- narringee. 


Stone - 


- mukki. 


Thunder - 


- 


Camp - 


- lang 


Grass - 


- boadgi. 


Yes - 


- Tiia. 


Tongue 


_ 










No - 


- laitchi. 


Stomach 


- yami. 






Breasts 


- kutabi. 


I- 


- yatti, yanga. 


Thigh - 


- tandi. 


You - 


- 


Foot - 


- jennagi. 


Bark - 


- mori. 


Bone - 


- bimbi. 


Good - 


- delgi. 


Blood - - 


- gooki. 


Bad - - 


- 


Skm - 


- metcha. 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- pibola. 


Food - 


- jakkalub. 


Bowels 


- kurnangi. 


Hungry 


- krenambun. 


Excrement - 


- galingi. 


Thirsty 


_ 


War-spear - 


- kooiooni. 


Eat - 


- boolagegelup 


Reed-spear - 


- mooli 






Throwing- stick 


- kurigi. 


Sleep - 


- kompaup. 


Shield 


- geyami. 


Drink 


- goobilup. 


Tomahawk - 


-. patigi. 


Walk - - 


- yannow. 


Canoe - 


- longoi. 


See - - 


- yettang. 


Sun - 


- uowingi. 


Sit - 


- nienga. 


Moon - 


- miteyan. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Star - 


- toorti. 


To day 


- dartigima. 


Light - 


- beber. 


To-morrow - 


- mordar. 


Dark - 


- koUi. 










Where are the 


Cold - 


- mangi. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- kute. 


I don't know 


- 


Day - 


- nowingi. 


Plenty 


- 


Night - 


- paungi. 


Big - 


- wittab. 


Fire - 


- woomabbi. 


Little - 


- bamikum. 


Water 


- kartini. 


Dead - 


- waekin. 


Smoke 


- burringi. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- gangi. 


Come on 


- yennaga 


Wind- 


- wilangi. 


Milk - - 


- 


Rain - 


- mangi. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosta 


- 


Wife - 


- 



454 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 203.— KULKYNE. 





By the 


Writer. 




Kangaroo - 


- koaing. 


Hand - 


- mifnongi. 


Opossum - 


- willang. 


2 Blacks - 


- polaidjiwortongi. 


Tame dog - 


- kaali. 


3 Blacks 


■~ polaidji kiap 


Wild dog - 


- 




wortongi. 


Emu - 


- karawingi. 


One - 


- kiap. 


Black duck - 


- tolomi. 










Two - 


- polaidji. 


Wood duck- 


- ngalain. 






Pelican 


- booluneal. 


Three - 


- polaidji kiap. 


Laughing jackass kongo. 


Four - 


- polaidji a polaidji 


Native companion kotorni. 


Father 


- mamai. 


White cockatoo 


- kawa. 


Mother 


- papai. 


Crow - 


- waangi. 


Sister-Elder 


- chache. 


Swan - 


- koo-no-wang. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


- mikke. 


Brother-Elder 


- waawe. 


Track of a foot 


- chinnano. 


„ Young 


sr 


Fish - 


- birndi. 


A young man 


- balarje. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- ngarambin. 


Crayfish 


- wolona. 










An old woman 


- kalao. 


Mosquito - 


- moaing-moaing. 






Fly - - 


- betegi. 


A baby 


- popop. 


Snake - 


- kaanyi. 


A White man 


- ngatang. 


The Blacks - 


- wortongi. 


Children - 


- paimbango. 


A Blaokfellow 


- wortongi. 


Head - 


- popai. 


A Black woman laiyoo. 


Eye - 


- mingi. 


Nose - 


- jenji. 


Bar - 


- wimboli. 



KULKYNE. 



455 





No. 203. — Kttlkyne — continued. 




Mouth 


- gappe. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- liangi. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head- pope. 


Wood - 


- wurnambie, kaalk 


Beard - 


- ngaragi. 


Stone - 


- maaki. 


Thunder - 


- murnda. 






Grass - 


- boaidji. 


Camp - 


- laangi. 


Tongue 


- challinge. 


Yea - 


- ai-ai. 


Stomach 


- wichobi. 


No - 


- laitohe. 


Breasts 


- kombi. 


I 


- yatte. 


Thigh - 


- barabo. 


You - 


- ngiuna. 


Foot - 


- ohinnongi. 


Bark - 


- ngori. 


Bone - 


- kaalk. 


Good - 


- talge. 


Blood - 


- kok. 


Bad - 


- chelegan. 


Skin - 


- mitche. 


Sweet - 


- talge. 


Fat - 


- kaanjo. 


Food - 


- birnimi. 


Bowels 


- warrongi. 


Hungry 


- kanamban. 


Excrement - 


- komongi. 


Thirsty 


- konbunan. . 


War-spear - 


- wirtyulgaione. 


Eat - 


- chekilian. 


Reed-spear - 


- chaame. 






Thro wing-stick 


- kairki. 


Sleep - 


- komban. 


Shield 


- keami. 


Drink - 


- kopelian. 


Tomahawk - 


- battegi. 


Walk - 


- yawan. 


Canoe - 


- longwe. 


See - 


- ngawan. 


Sun - 


- ngwingi. 


Sit - 


- ngewau. 


Moon - 


- mittean. 


Yesterday - 


- chilalog. 


Star - 


- toorti. 


To-day 


- taitigin. 


Light - 


- wai-inge. 


To-morrow - 


- mordur. 


Dark - 


- bondji. 


Where are the 


windje wortongi? 


Cold - 


- mendji. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- kattai, walpam- 
unda. 


I don't know 


- windja. 






Plenty 


- ketawi. 


Day - 


- ngarwingi. 


Big - 


- wirtoor. 


Night - 


- alogobondji. 


Little - 


- barnigam. 


Fire - 


- wirnabi. 










Dead - 


- wegan. 


Water 


- kaatini. 






Smoke 


- poringi. 


By-and-by - 


- kalwa, chilaloga. 


Ground 


- janji. 


Come on 


- yeimaga. 


Wind - 


- willangi.. 


Milk - - 


- 


Kain - 


- naanji. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - - 


- 



456 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



No. 204.— THE TATIAERA COUNTRY. 

By William Haynes, Esq. 

There are still in the Tatiarra country remnants of the 
several associated tribes whose numbers in the aggregate are 
thought to have reached five hundred. In speech they 
differed somewhat, as will be seen by the two vocabularies 
given. It is singular that, in both of them, there is but one 
word for hungry and dead. 



No. 204.— THE TATIAERA COUNTRY. 



Kangaroo - 


- mindyun. 


Hand - 


- manyarek. 


Opossum - 


- willa. 


2 Blacks - 


- polatch woychi- 


Tame dog - 


- kal. 




birik. 


Wild dog - 


- wilkra. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Emu - 


- kowir. 


One - 


■ kyap. 


Black duck - 


- narri. 


Two - 


- polatch. 


Wood duck- 


- tarriwut. 


Three - 


- polatch po kyap. 


Pelican 


- 


Four - 


- polatch po 


Laughing jackass koorungal. 




polatch. 


Native companion koortchin. 


Father 


- miamik. 


White cockatoo 


- chinap. 


Mother 


- piapik. 


Crow - 


- wa. , 


Sister-Elder 


- chiaohek. 


Swan - 


- koonooer. 


,, Younger 


- kotundek. 


Egg - - 


- murrek. 


Brother-Elder 


- wiawek. 


Track of a foot 
Pish - 


- paring. 


,, Younger gotek. 


Lobster 




A young man 


- kolkroon. 


Crayfish 


. 


An old man 


- narrambin. 


Mosquito - 


- kurrek-kurrek. 


An old woman 


- narramgook. 


Ely . 


- bachick. 


A baby 


- windek-windek. 


Snake - 


- koronwil. 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


- woychibirik. 


Children - 


- poopoop. 


A Blackfellow 


- woychibirik. 


Head - 


- poorpek. 


A Black woman 


- lyrook. 


Eye - - 


- murrinyek. 


Nose - 


- kanyik. 


Ear - 


- woormbilek. 



THE TATIARRA COUNTRY. 



457 



Nc 


. 204. — The Tatiabra Covffinr— continued. 


Mouth 


- charpek. 


Boomerang - 


- karum-karum 


Teeth - 


- leor. 


Hill - 


- porpook. 


Hair of the head 


- narranyek. 


Wood - 


- wooling. 


Beard - 


- nanyingek. 


Stone - 


- kotchep. 


Thunder - 


- mumda. 


Camp - 


- laar. 


Grass - 


- powatch. 


Yes ■ 


- nia. 


Tongue 


- challinck. 


No - 


- wawrek. 


Stomach 


- billinyek. 


I - - 


- yerrowik. 


Breasts 


- koornbek. 


You - 


- yerrowin. 


Thigh- .. 


- kairitek. 


Bark - 


- mitch. 


Foot - 


- chiniek. 


Good - 


- daelk. 


Bone- - 


- kalkek. 


Bad - 


- yatchin. 


Blood - 


- korrekek. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 
Fat - 
Bowels 


- miitchek. 

- papool. 

- pochek. 


Food - - 

Hungry 

Thirsty 


- pauyim. 

- wikin. 

- walpen. 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Eat - 


- chekalun. 


War-spear - 


- koioon. 


Sleep - 


- dorran. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


■■ kopan. 


Throwing-stiok 


- karrek. 


Walk - 


- yannuk. 


Shield 


- potwil. 


See - - 


- naiangun. 


Tomahawk - 


- patchek. 


Sit - 


- niowun. 


Canoe - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- chalgar. 


Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 
Heat - 


- neowi. 

- miitchun. 

- trot. 

- waiing. 

- porrung. 

- moortangi. 

- walpen. 


To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are the 
Blacks ? 
I don't know 
Plenty 


- yingmona. 

- paerpaerk. 
windiatch. 

- barwingi. 

- ketchawil. 


Day - - 


- neowi. 


Big - - 


- koerung. 


Night - - 


- porrung-porrung. 


Little - 


- paer. 


Fire - 


- wanyep. 


Dead - 


- wikin. 


Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind - - 
Rain - 


- katchin. 

- porring. 

- jarr. 

- willa. 

- maiung. . 


By-and;by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 


- marlok. 

- yaunaka. 

- koorun. 

- wirepil. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- narrow. 


Ghosts 


- uarkook. 


Wife - 


- matchimek. 



458 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 204.— THE TATIARRA COUNTRY. 
Bt the Writer. 



Kangaroo - 


mindja. 


Hand - 


manya. 


Opossum - 


wille. 


2 Blacks - 


polaitch baang. 


Tame dog - 


kaal. 


3 Blacks - 


polaitch pe kaiup 


Wild dog - 






baang. 


Emu - 


kowir. 


One - 


kaiup. 


Black duck - 


ngare. 


Two - 


polaitch. 


Wood duck 


bea-pe-up. 






Pelican 


waroopool. 


Three - 


polaitch pe kaiup. 


Laughing jackass krong-krong. 


Four - 


polaitch polaitch. 


Native companion 


nawl-ko-ong. 


Father 


maame. 


Wliite cockatoo 


ginyap. 


Mother 


baab. 


Crow - 


war. 


Sister-Elder 


chache. 


Swan - 


koonawar. 


,, Younger 




Egg - 


mirk. 


Brother-Elder - 


waawe. 


Track of a foot 


paring. * 


,, Younger 




Fish - 




A young man 


namborongworo. 


Lobster 




An old man 


ngarambe. 


Crayfish 


■ yapitch. 


An old woman 


ngarambango. 


Mosquito - 


- kraig-kruk. 






Ply - 


batchik. 


A baby 


wiirendetch 


Snake - 


kornmul. 


A White man 


- wainman. 


The Blacks - 


baang. 


Children - 




A Blackfellow 


- baang. 


Head - 


■ boorp. 


A Black woman 


- baiambangoo. 


Eye - 


- mir. 


Nose • 


■ kaar. 


Ear - 


wirambool. 



THE TATIARRA COUNTRY, 



459 



No. 204. — The Tatiabra Country — continued. 



Mouth 


- chalalk. 


Teeth - 


- liia. 


Hair of the heac 


- ngarapoorp. 


Beard - 


- ngainye. 


Thunder - 


- murndar. 


Grass 


- boaitoh. 


Tongue 


- ohalle. 


Stomach 


- charoen. 


Breasts 


- chang. 


Thigh - 


- kra. 


Foot - 


- chinna. 


Bone - 


- kaalk. 


Blood - 


- kork. 


Skin - 


- tallang. 


Fat - 


- perpool. 


Bowels 


- bille. 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


War-spear - 


- koioon. 


Reed-spear - 


- jeran. 


Throwing-stiok 


- kaarik. 


Shield 


- malkar. 


Tomahawk - 


- bai-e-jik 


Canoe - 


- yongoe. 


Sun - 


- irangool. 


Moon - 


- yern. 


Star - 


- toort. 


Light - 


- yaap. 


Dark - 


- boroin. 


Cold - - 


- monmot. 


Heat - 


- kaije. 


Day - 


- yerungoori. 


Night - 


- boroin. 


Fire - 


- wi. 


Water 


- kaiejin. 


Smoke 


- borring. 


Ground 


- ja. 


Wind- - 


- warwort. 


Rain - 


- miring. 


God - - 


- 


Ghosts 


- 



Boomerang - 


- 


Hill - 


- 


Wood - 


- wolling. 


Stone - 


- laa. 


Camp - 


- iray. 


Yes - - 


- nge. 


No - 


- allan'ya. 


I- 


- chormek. 


You - 


- choramin. 


Bark - 


- tokur. 


Good - - 


- tealk 


Bad - - 


- yikam. 


Sweet - 


- tealk. 


Pood - 


- baiuyim, 


Hungry 


- wiikan. 


Thirsty 


- brangunyan. 


Eat - 


- chekellea. 


Sleep - 


- kombian. 


Drink - 


- kopan. 


Walk - 


- yauna. 


See - 


•■ nyawan. 


Sit - - 


- ngeuna. 


Yesterday - 


- chalegi. 


To-day 


- kaiejung. 


To-morrow - 


- beurbe. 


Where are 


the wLnja baang ? 


Blacks? 




I don't know 


- windja baaka 


Plenty 


- kidjowil. 


Big - - 


- korong. 


Little - 


- baan. 


Dead - 


- wiikin. 


By-and-by - 


- kaiejong. 


Come on 


- yannag. 


Milk - 


- 


E^glehawk - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - - 


. 



460 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No. 205.— MOUNT GAMBIER. 

By D. Stewart, Esq. 

The following information concerning the Mount Grambier 
Blacks, and vocabulary of the language of the Booandik 
tribe, were forwarded to me by Mr. D. Stewart. 

The Mount Gambier Blacks, I learn from my informant, 
are divided into several tribes, which, in conversation, were 
readily distinguishable by certain words, phrases, and accents 
peculiar to each. Some, for instance, used the sound of the 
letter I in words from which others omitted it, as kooler, 
kooer --= an egg; and malange, maange = mife. Others used or 
omitted k in certain words, as mookine, wooine^ elbow; and 
wuka, wena=strike. In terms of relationship the suffix -ine 
is equivalent to my, as mar m=' father, marmine=my father; 
ngate=mother, ngatine=my mother. Marmine wan is the 
equivalent of my father'' s brother if he exercises occasionally 
the right of husband over the speaker's mother, but he is 
addressed as waitine if he does not exercise such right. A 
woman addresses her grand-daughter as mootngoon when a 
child, and as ngurpine when grown up. Mr. Stewart, who is 
an excellent authority, is not aware that any distinction in 
terms is made when speaking of or to the children of a man's 
brother and those of his sister. The same terms of relation- 
ship are applied to both. 

As the Mount Gambier Blacks have no expression for 
numbers above 4, except the tevvas paroong and karli=many, 
they fix the date of a future meeting in this way. The 
spokesman places the index finger of his right hand on his 
head, then in succession on his neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, 
thumb,- and fingers of one or both hands if necessary, dis- 
tinguishing each of these portions of the body with a different 
word, each word representing a day, and arranging at which 
of them the meeting shall take place. The same custom I 



MOUNT 6AMBIER. 461 

have noticed in my Recollections of Squatting as in use in 
the Bangerang tribes. 

These Blacks, Mr. Stewart writes, are divided into two 
classes, which, from their disposition to quarrel, he is almost 
disposed to call factions. They are called Kumite and 
Krokee, and when applied to the females Kumitegor and 
Krokeegor respectively. A Kumite can only marry a Kro- 
keegor, and a Krokee a Kumitegor. An infringement of 
this law is held in aborrence as incestuous. Mothers-in-law 
and sons-in-law studiously avoid each other. A father-in- 
law converses with his son-in-law in a low tone of voice, and 
in a phraseology diifering somewhat from the ordinary one. 

The Kumite and Krokee classes are each divided into five 
sub-classes, under which are ranked certain objects which 
they call tooman =^ flesh, or mngo ^friend. AU things in 
nature belong to one or the other of these ten sub-classes. 
For instance, under Kumite we have — 

1st. Boort ma = the crow, to which belong rain, thunder, 

lightning, hail, clouds, &c. 
2nd. Boort moola = the fish-hawk, to which class belong 

smoke, honeysuckle, trees, &c. 
3rd. Boort parpangal = the pelican, to which belong the 

blackwood-tree, fire, frost, dog, &c. 
4th. Boort wilier = the black cockatoo, to which belong 

the stars, moon, &c. 
5th. Boort karato = a non-venemous snake, to which 
belong eels, seals, the stringybark-tree, &c. 
The Krokee classes are — 

1st. Boort wereo = the ti-tree, under which are the 

black duck, wallaby, opossum, crayfish, &c. 
2nd. Boort laa = the turkey, to which belong the iolit 

or small kangaroo, quail, certain edible roots, &c. 
3rd. Boort karual = the white crestless cockatoo, to 
which belong the kangaroo, the sheoak-tree, the 
summer season, &c. 
The particulars of the 4th and 5th Krokee boorts have 
escaped from Mr. Stewart's memory. 



462 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



These boorts have nothing tp do with marriage, so that a 
Kumite may marry a Krokeegor of whatever sub-class she 
may be; but to food they do refer, as it is only when dis- 
tressed by want and hunger that a person will eat any of 
the animals or roots which belong to his boort. When 
hunger compels them to eat of their tooman or Toingo, they 
express their sorrow by touching their breasts as a sign of 
relationship. 

Mr. Taplin relates in his Narrinyeri, p. 47, that two 
of that tribe established themselves at Mount Gambier, but 
language shows that the locality was peopled by offshoots of 
the Eastern tribes. 

Mr. Stewart gives the following Additional Words and 
Phrases : — 



Mullet - - - - 


- kokber. 


Lightning - . . 


- minan-murn. 


Trees - - - - 


- poena. 


Red gum-trees 


- tartpeena. 


Temporary camp 


- nurom. 


Winter camp 


- karodoor. 


My father - . - 


- marmine. 


Your father - 


- marmoon. 


His or her father 


- marmoon. 


The father of us two 


- marmabo. 


The father of you two 


- marmong. 


The father of those two - 


- nungpalerat marmong. 


Our father (plural) - 


- marmano. 


Your father (plural) 


- marmorong. 


Fathers of us two - 


- marrabolalo. 


Fathers of you two ■ 


- marmbolalong. 


Fathers of those two 


- nung calat marmbolong. 


I am going 


- yananga. 


We two are going - 


- yanangal. 


We are going - . - 


- yanange. 


I went - - . . 


- yaana. 


We two went - 


- yaanalo. 


We went 


- yaane. 



MOUNT aAMBIER. 



463 



Additional Words — continued. 



I went a long time ago - 
We two went a long time 
We went a long time ago 

I will go - 

AVe two will go 

We will go - - ■ 

Where are you going ? 

I am going for firewood ■ 

Did you go ? - 

Go (or walk) fast 

My wife - - - • 

Your wife 

Hia wife - - 

My two wives - 
My wives (over two) 



- yapa. 
ago - yapalo. 

- yape. 

- yowyeunga. 

- yowyeallo. 

- yowyeunge. 

- na ngin yan ? 

- wurnapo nga yan. 

- na ngin yaan ? 

- yanba yanka. 

- malangine. 

- malangon. 

- malanoong. 

- malaboline. 

- malangaraine. 



464 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 205.— MOUNT GAMBIER. 



Kangaroo - 

Opossum 

Tame dog - 

Wild dog - 

Emu - 

Black duck - 

Wood duck - 

Pelican 

Laughing jackass 

Native companion 

White cockatoo - 

Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - - - 

Track of a foot - 

Fish - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito 

Ply - - - 

Snake - 

The Blacks - 

A Blackf ellow - 

A Black woman - 

Nose - 



kooraa (male). 

kooramo. 

kal or karl. 

kar ua chum. 

kower. 

durner. 

purner. 

parangal. 

kooartang. 

wondi. 

mar. 

wa. 

koonowoor. 

kooler. - 

tenanoong. 

keler. 

konkro. 

kecho. 

ulul. 

koorang. 

drooal. 

drooal. 

kineule. 

kow. 



Hand - 

2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 

One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Four - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

„ Younger - 
Brother-Elder - 

,, Younger 

A young man 



murna. 
bolite drooal. 
wrow-wong 
drooal. 
wondo. 
bolite. 
wrow-wong. 
kurtor, kurtbano. 
marm. 
ngate. 
date, 
nereer. 
wargale. 
dote, 
babater, wawar- 



An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 
Head - 
Eye - 
Ear - 



- koatparek. 

- wi-at-a-wer. 

- koonam. 

- koomamir. 

- koongapumim. 

- boop. 

- mir. 

- wrung, 



MOUNT GAMBIER. 



465 



No. 205. — Mount Gambiek — continued. 



Mouth 


- lo. 


Boomerang - 


- ketum-ketum. 


Teeth - 


- tunga. 


Hill - 


- boopik. 


Hair of the head - ngur la boop. 


Wood - 


- wurnep. 


Beard - 


- ngur la ngerne. 


Stone - 


- raurl. 


Thunder - 


- murndal. 


Camp - 


- ngoorla nurom. 


Grass - 


- bootho. 


Yes - 


- nga. 


Tongue 


- tale. 


No - 


- ngin. 


Stomach 


- boole. 


I 


- ngatho. 


Breasts 


-pap. 


You - 


- ngooro. 


Thigh- - 


- prura. 


Bark - 


- moondart. 


Foot - 


- tena. 


Good - 


- murtong. 


Bone - 


- baa-aa. 


Bad - 


- wramg. 


Blood - 


- kamar. 


Sweet - 


- ngooit. 


Skin - 


- moor. 


Food (vegetable) 


- booang. 


Fat - 


- mumt. 


„ (flesh) - 


- tooman. 


Bowels 


- koonna. 


Hungry 


- 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Thirsty 


- koornoon. 


War-spear - 


- kooen. 


Eat - 


- dira. 


Eieed-spear - 


- (none). 


Sleep - 


. kooma, wilitch. 


Throwing-stick 


- koombine. 


Drink - 


- tata. 


Shield 


- malgar. 


Walk - 


- yan. 


Tomahawk - 


- peragor. 


See - 


- na-a. 


Canoe - 


- wola. 


Sit - 


-inga. 


Sun - 


- karo. 


Yesterday - 


- woordoomg. 


Moon - 


- toongoom. 


To-day 


- keto. 


Star - 


- boongil. 


To-morrow - 


- kalepa. 


Light - 


- karo. 


Where are the 


na drooal? 


Dark - 


- mola. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- moortona. 


I don't know 


- winana naan (not 


Heat - 
Day - 
Night - 


- woat. 

- karo. 

- mola. 


Plenty 
Big - 
Little - 


seen). 

- parung, karli. 

- woorong. 

- mooroke. 


Fire - 


- wumap. 


Dead - 


- nooana; be-e a = 


Water 


- pare. 




stinking. 


Smoke 


- booloing. 


By-and-by - 


- keto. 


Ground 


- mrade. 


Come on 


- kooki. 


Wind- 


- nerecha. 


Milk - - 


- papumboop. 


Rain - 


- kawine. 


Eaglehawk - 


- ngere. 


God - 


- (no name). 


Wild turkey 


- laa. 


Ghosts 


- woor. 


Wife . 


- mala. 


VOL. III. 


2 


G 





BOOK THE NOETEENTH. 



BOOK THE NINETEENTH. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 



This book contains specimens of the languages of the western 
portion of Victoria. The teaching of its vocabularies is that 
the aborigines of this part of the colony are related to those 
of the Murray River, in the vicinity of Swan Hill. The 
first vocabulary inserted, No. 206, belongs to the tribes which 
dwell, or dwelt, on and about Morton Plains, in connection 
with which I have collected the following few Additional 
Words: — 

Lightning - - ■willebook. 
Opossum-rug - willejookjook. 
Be gone ! - - yannage ! 
Give me a drink - baitu makin. 
Half-grown emu - wartipungmook. 
I see two Blacks - nge noon poolet 
koole. 

The areas of country which are, or were, occupied singly 
by the Victorian tribes are in many cases so small that it is 
impossible to lay them down on the map, hence I have 
grouped a number of vocabularies in No. 207, under the 
designation of The Languages of Western Victoria, in order 
to show their position. The aboriginal population of Victoria, 
a country rich in aboriginal food, was, I am of opinion, greater 
per square mile than was to be found in any other area of the 
continent of equal extent ; not, it is important to notice, that 
a tribe numbered more members, but that there were more 
tribes. Perhaps an average Victorian tribe contained about 
200 persons. I am of opinion that the tribes in Australia, 
when undivided into marriage classes, did not often exceed 
that number. 



Swim - 


yawa. 


The Murray Rivei 


mil-le. 


Blow-fly - 


barperik. 


Codfish - 


bajal. 


Manna 


leurp. 


Plain - 


wark. 


Scrub - 


peenoortigal. 


Sandhill - 


poorpook. 



470 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



The languages of which specimens are given in this book 
the Blacks themselves hold to be distinct, and each of them 
has a separate name, but the reader will notice the differences 
are minor ones — those of dialect. At the same time these 
differences are numerous and sometimes confined to very small 
tribes, if not indeed in some instances to one or two families. 
They often display themselves in terminations, roots remain- 
ing unchanged or nearly so. This may be instanced in the 
two renderings I have received of the Hopkins River lan- 
guages, as follows: — 



Black duck 


- thoorboorung 


- toorpumk. 


Pelican 


- kirkpirap 


- kurtpumk. 


Hand - 


- murrang - 


- murrunk. 


Stomach 


- togong - 


- tookonk. 


Breasts 


- nabung - 


- nguppunk. 


Thunder 


- murndal - 


- mirndunk. 


Sleep - 


- yoo-anan 


- yournunk. 


Head - 


- pimaning 


- peem. 


Bye - - 


- mimarnmg 


- mirunk. 


Ear 


- wirmaming 


- wirrunk. 


Teeth - 


- tinganarning - 


- tungunk. 



Other differences also exist. In the Lake Hindmarsh 
vocabulary, for instance, we find the sound of ch very pre- 
valent, and in that of Lake Wallace ek or ak commonly the 
terminal sound of words expressive of the parts of the human 
body. In the twelve vocabularies which this book contains 
we have five distinct terms for tha Blacks; six for no, whilst 
there are but two reaUy distinct words for yes. 

Proper names seem to be declined in all of our languages. 
I asked the intelligent young Black from whom I obtained 
the vocabulary from the Glenelg, above Woodford, whether 
he knew the Aboriginal Station on the Yarra. His reply was 
" Korrendrook," the name of the station. Then he said laugh- 
ing, Yaanaen Korrendroogo = I will go to Korrendrook. 

I have always thought the Blacks of Victoria somewhat 
in advance of their northern relatives; for though many of 
their customs are the same, they are more decent generally; 
do not go naked, and abstain, as a rule, from giving their 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 471 

daughters in marriage until they approach the age of 
puberty. We see also in this book a few advances in 
language. For instance, we generally have a distinct word 
for 3, and occasionally for 4, in place of the compound 
terms which the reader has so often met with. Also when 
4 is expressed by the equivalent of two two, an equivalent 
for and is found between them, which, if I remember rightly, 
never occurs in the North. These little advances of the 
Victorian Blacks I attribute to the more favorable conditions 
of climate and food amidst which they have long existed. 

In Western Victoria dwelt the tribes of which Mr. James 
Dawson has" left a record in his Australian Aborigines, a 
work in which are found many interesting details of 
manners and language, and a few statements which I have 
called in question in Vol. I., chapter 3. 



472 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 206.— MORTON PLAINS. 



By the Writer. 



The language, of which what follows is a specimen, is called Brapkut. 
It may be compared with Mirdiragoort and Tatiarra. With the latter it 
almost agrees in its negative adverb. 



Kangaroo - 


kore. 


Opossum 


wille. 


Tame dog - 


kal. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - - 


yawir. 


Black duck - 




Wood duck - 




Pelican 




Laughing jackass 




Native companion 




White cockatoo 


karupka 


Crow - 


wa. 


Swan - 




Egg - - - 


mirk. 


Track of a foot - 




Fish - 




Lobster 




Crayfish 




Mosquito - 




Fly - 




Snake 


kornmil. 


The Blacks - 


koole. 


A Blackfellow - 


koole. 


A Black woman - 


paibagoo 


Nose - 


ka. 



Hand - 


- mumoo. 


2 Blacks - 


- poolet koole. 


3 Blacks - 


- poolet pe kaiup 




koole. 


One - 


- kai-up. 


Two - 


- poolet. 


Three - 


- poolet pe kaiup. 


Four - 


- poolet poolet. 


Father 


- maam. 


Mother 


- baap. 


Sister-Elder 


- kotuk. 


„ Younger 




Brother-Elder 




,, Younger 


A young man 


- 


An old man 


- 


An old woman 


- 


A baby 


- po-pop. 


A White man 


- 


Children - 


- 


Head - 


- boorp. 


Eye - - 


- mir. 


Ear - 


- wirbool. 



MORTON PLAINS. 



473 





No. 206.— Morton VhAms— continued. 




Mouth 


- korn. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- lia. 


mu - 


kowa. 


Hair of the head 


- 


Wood - 




Beard - 


- 


Stone - 




Thunder - 


- murndal. 


Camp - 




Graas - 


- boet. 


Yes - 


ngai-e. 


Tongue 


- 


No '- 


ngallanya. 


Stomach 


- 


I - - - 


nge. 


Breasts 


- 


You - 




Thigh - 


- 


Bark - 




Foot - 


- dchinna. 


Good - 




Bone - 


- 


Bad - 




Blood - 


- 


Sweet - 




Skin - 


- 


Food - 




Fat - 


- 


Hungry 




Bowels 


- 


Thirsty 


konmun. 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Eat - - 


cheokalinarchin 


War-spear - 


- koioon. 


Sleep - 


kobe. 


Reed-spear - 


- jark. 


Drink - 


baitchek. 


Throwing-stick 


- 


Walk - 


yaanna. 


Shield 


- malkar. 


See - 


noon. 


Tomahawk - 


- parik. 


Sit 




Canoe - 


- 


Yesterday - 




Sun - 
Moon - 


- ngawi. 

- yen. 


To-day 




Star - - 


- toort. 


To-morrow - 


parpo. 


Light - 


- 


Where are the 




Dark - 


. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- 


I don't know 




Heat - 


- 


Plenty 




Day - 


- maliiiawin. 


Big - 


porin. 


Night - 


- pooroin. 


Little - 


warchipoongup. 


Fire - 


- wi. 


Dead - 


dredaiin. 


Water 


- karlin. 


By-and-by - 




Smoke 


- bort. 


Come on 




Ground 


- dja. 


Milk - 




Wind - 


- 






Rain - 


, 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


. 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - - - 


naoragorook. 



474 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 207a.— LAKE HINDMARSH, UPPER REGIONS STATION, 
AND LOWER WIMMERA. 





By the 


Wbitbe. 




Kangaroo - 


miinjun. 


Hand - 


munya. 


Opossum - 


wille. 


2 Blacks 


poUetch wootcha. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 


kaal. 


3 Blacks 


poUetch pa kaiup 
wootcha. 


Emu - 


kowir. 


One - 


kaiup. 
poUetch. 
poUetchpakaiup. 
polletch pa pol- 
letch. 


Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelican 
Laughing jackass 


ngari. 
waalrung. 
patchinga. 
kroongkroong. 


Two - 
Three - 
Four - 


Native companion 


kotchun. 


Father 
Mother 


White cockatoo - 
Crow - 


chinnup. 
waa. 


maam. 
paab. 


Swan - 


koo-noo-war. 


Sister-Elder 


chach. 


Egg - - 


mirk. 


,, Younger 




Track of a foot 


paring bo chinna 


Brother-Elder 


waa. 


Fish - 


(no general 


,, Younger 




Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito 

Fly - - ■ 

Snake - 


name). 

wolonuk. 
graigkrik. 
pittik. 
kornmil. 


A young man 
An old man- 
An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 


kolkoorn. 
ngarambe. 
kallagallagoork. 
- pobop. 


The Blacks 


wootcha. 


Children - 


wiimditoh. 


A Blackfellow 


wootcha. 


Head - 


boorp. 


A Black woman 


laiarook. 


Eye - 


mir. 


Nose - 


kaa. 


Ear - 


- wirmbool. 



LAKE HINDMAESH, UPPER REGIONS STATION. 475 



No. 207a. — Lake Hindmaksh, Upper Regions Station, and Lower 





Wimmeba- 


—cimtiniKd. 




Mouth 


- charp. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- lia. 


Hill - - 


- 


Hair of the head - ngarampoorp. 


Wood- 


- wunyup, kaalk. 


Beard - 


- nganyi. 


Stone - 


■ - kootchup. 


Thunder - 


- mumdar. 


Camp - 


- ira. 


Grass - 


- boaitch. 


Yes - 


- ng. 


Tongue 


- challe. 


No - 


- worrekaia. 


Stomach 


- biUi. 


I 


- aan. 


Breasts 


- chang. 


You - 


- chormin. 


Thigh - 


- kra. 


Bark - 


- dookoor. 


Foot - 


- chinna. 


Good - - 


- taalk. 


Bone - 


- kaalk. 


Bad - 


- yaatchung. 


Blood - 


- kork. 


Sweet - 


- taalk. 


Skin - 


- mitch. 


Pood - 


- paanyim bai 


Fat - 


- barpool. 




yowir. 


Bowels 


- koonabarong. 


Hungry 


- wiika. 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Thirsty 


- brangoonya. 


War-spear - 


- kooioon. 


Eat - 


- chakkella. 


Reed-spear - 


- chaark. 


Sleep - 


- torra. 


Throwing-stick 


- kaarik. 


Drink 


- kopilla. 


Shield 


- botwel. 


Walk 


- yanga. 


Tomahawk - 


- batchik. 


See - 


- neikella. 


Canoe - 


- yoongooip. 


Sit - 


- ngenga. 


Sun - 


- ngowi. 


Yesterday - 


- challige. 


Moon - 


- mittean. 


To-day 


- ingoorne. 


Star - - 


- toort. 


To-morrow - 


- beruppa. 


Light - 


- yaap. 


Where are the 


- windga wootcha 


Dark - 


- mulparoin. 


Blacks ? 


bai laiarook? 


Cold - - 


- motmot. 


I don't know 


- nge. 


Heat - 


- walpa. 


Plenty 


- kitchowl. 


Day - 


- ngowi. 


Big - - 


- korong.; 


Night- 


- poroin. 


Little - 


- baan. 


Fire - 


- wanyup. 


Dead - 


- wiikin. 


Water 


- kaatyin. 






Smoke 


- boring. 


By-and-by - 


- maloknea. 


Ground 


- ja. 


Come on - 


- yannaga. 


Wind- 


- willa. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- mitchuk. 


Eaglehawk - 


• 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 


. 



4?6 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 207b.— LAKE WALLACE AND NEIGHBOURHOOD. 





By the 


Writer. 




Kangaroo - 


- kore. 


Hand - 


- manyanek. 


Opossum 


- wille. 


2 Blacks - 


- poUaich baang. 


Tame dog - 


- kaal. 


3 Blacks - 


- poUaich pa kaiup 


Wild dog - 


- 




baang. 


Emu 


- kowir. 


One - 


- kaiup. 


Black duck - 


- ngurri. 


Two - 


- pollaich. 


Wood duck- 


- bichangro. 


Three - 


- pollaich pa kaiup 


Pelican 


- doong. 


Four - 


- pollaich pa 


Laughing jackass krong-krong. 




pollaich. 


Native companion koiyoon. 


Father 


- mami. 


White cockatoo 


- kaiyekker. 


Mother 


- papi. 


Crow - 


- waa. 


Sister-Elder 


- chaohi. 


Swan - 


- koonowar. 










,, Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


- mirk. 


Brother-Elder 


- wawi. 


Track of a foot 
Fish - . - 
Lobster 


- chinnayook. 

- yeyook. 


„ Younger 
A young man - jawilli. 


Crayfish 


- yapitch. 


An old man 
An old woman 


- ngammi. 

- wegaregat. 


Mosquito - 


- krekrek. 






Flv - 




A baby 


- popop. 


Snake - 


- kornmil. 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


- baang. 


Children 


- 


A Blackf ellow 


- baang. 


Head - 


- propak. 


A Black woman 


- painbangoork. 


Bye - 


- mirnik. 


Nose - 


- kaangek. 


Bar - 


- wirmboolek. 



LAKE WALLACE AND NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



477 



No. 207b. 


—Lake Wallace and Neiohbotjehood— comimwecZ. 


Mouth 


- kanek. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- liangek. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head- ngamgek. 


Wood - 


- wi. 


Beard - 


- nganiek. 


Stone - 


- la. 


Thimder - 


- mumdar. 


Camp - 


- lerum. 


Grass - 


- boaitch. 


Yes - 


- uge. 


Tongue 


- chalingek. 


No - 


- ngalanya. 


Stomach 


- ballingek. 


I 




Breasts 


- kroombook. 


You - 


- 


Thigh - 


- 


Bark - 


- mitcho'ok. 


Foot - 


- chinnanek. 


Good - 


- 


Bone - 


- kaalk. 


Bad - 


. 


Blood - 


- korkek. 


Sweet - 


_ 


Skin - 


- miohek. 


Food - 


_ 


Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 


- barpoolek. 

- koonna. 


Hungry 
Thirsty 

Eat 


- 


War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Thro wing-stick 
Shield - 


- deer. 

- chirark. 

- kraiik. 

- malkar. 


Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 


- 


Tomahawk - 


- bayik. 


See - 


- 


Canoe - 


- yungooit. 


Sit - 


- 


Sun - 


- yurngai. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- yum. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


- toort. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 
Heat - 
Day - 
Night - 
Fire - 


- wi. 


Where are the 

Blacks? 
I don't know 
Plenty 
Big - 
Little - 


windja baang ? 
- windja. 


Water 


- kayin. 


Dead - 




Smoke 


- pori. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 


- cha. 


Come on 


- watajem. 


Wind - 


- wardwart. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- meren. 


Baglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 





478 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 207c.— UPPER GLENELG AND WANNON. 

By the Wkiter. 

The reader will notice the equivalents of hungry and dead. 



Kangaroo - 


- korain. 


Hand - 


- marrang. 


Opossum 


- kooramook. 


2 Blacks - 


- polaitch koloin 


Tame dog - 


- yoopaitch. 


3 Blacks - 


- palini koloin. 


Wild dog - 


- 


One - 


- kaiap. 


Emu - 


- kapurng. 


Two - 


- polaitch. 


Black duck - 


- krein. 


Three - 


- palini. 


Wood duck- 


- pimeri. 






Pelicau 




Pour - 


- polaitch pa 


Laughing jackass tarakook. 
Native companion korerook. 


Father 


polaitch. 
- pipai. 


White cockatoo 


- korokeitch. 


Mother 


- nerang. 


Crow - 


- waaung. 


Sister-Elder 


- kakak. 


Swan - 


- koonoowara. 


„ Younger 


- koquiara. 


Egg - 


- kole. 


Brother-Elder 


• kokon. 


Track of a foot 


- dinnong. 


,, Younger wardai. 


Fish - 


t kooiyang. 


A young man 


- kokngun. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- polbipollep. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


- maraija. 

- kiitook. 


An old woman 


- polpolnerang. 


Fly - - 


- worol. 


A baby 


- popop. 


Snake 


- kooriang. 


A White man 


■ 


The Blacks - 


- koloin. 


Children 


- tooquai. 


A Blackfellow 


- koloin. 


Head - 


- kolan. 


A Black woman 


- nerangoork. 


Eye - 


- mimg. 


Nose - 


- kapoong. 


Ear - 


- wiirm. 



UPPER GLENELG AND WANNON. 



479 



No. 20 


7o. — Upper Glenelg 


AND WANNON- 


—eontinued. 


Mouth- 


- ngoolang. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- tangang. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- nalang. 


Wood - 


■ wiin. 


Beard - 


- narraing. 


Stone - 


- morrai. 


Thunder - 


- mundal. 


Camp - 


- woom. 


Grass - 


- botong. 


Yes - 


- ko. 


Tongue 


- tallain. 


No - 


- brangat. 


Stomach 


- poU-o-in. 


I 


- naitch. 


Breasts 


- nappan. 


You - 


- paalekmo. 


Thigh - 


- prin. 


Bark - 


- torong. 


Foot - 


- thinnong. 


Good - 


- noetchong. 


Bone - 


- bakkain. 






Blood - 


- kerkoom. 


Bad 


- narmurung. 


Skin - 


- mityonin. 


Sweet - 


- noetchong. 


Fat - 


- bapool. 


Food - 


- baambai. 


Bowels 


- korong-werek. 


Hungry 


- kalpemo. 


Excrement - 


- komong. 


Thirsty 


- koorntnangan 


War-spear - 


- koioon. 


Eat - 


- takk. 


Reed-spear - 


- tarark. 


Sleep - 


- yowatt. 


Throwing-stiok 


- narong. 


Drink - 


- datt. 


Shield - 


- malkara. 


Walk - 


- yannanwon. 


Tomahawk - 


- palpakoort. 


See 


- naako. 


Canoe - 
Sun - 


- torong. 

- terrerng. 


Sit 


- yinyalt. 


Moon - 


- teunget. 


Yesterday - 


- ngokat. 


Star - 


- poongel. 


To-day 


- karoomba. 


Light - 


- kallat. 


To-morrow - 


- toongatta. 


Dark - 


- torioin. 


Where are 


the winda koloin 


Cold - 


- motmot. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- kaloin. 


I don't know 


- winda da ba. 


Day - 


- terremg- 


Plenty 


- mam. 




merring. 


Big - 


- maartong. 


Night - 


- boroin. 


Little - 


- koordoowi. 


Fire - 


- wiin. 


Dead - 


- kalpemera. 


Water-' 
Smoke 


- baretch. 

- to-ong. 


By-and-by - 


- kalo. 






Come on 


- wotte. 


Ground 


- mirring. 






Wind - 


- naretchak. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- kappain. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 





480 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 207d.— THE GLENELG, ABOVE WOODFORD. 
By the Weitek. 



Kangaroo - 


- kori. 


Hand - 


- munya. 


Opossum - 


■ Willi. 


2 Blacks - 


- pooletch kooli. 


Tame dog - 


- kal. 


3 Blacks - 


- pooletch pe kaiap 


Wild dog - 






kooli. 


Emu - 


kowir. 


One - 


kaiap. 


Black duck - 


ngari. 


Two - 


pooletch. 


Wood duck - 


- pirpir. 


Three - ' - 


pooletch pe 


Pelican 


bntyunal. 




kaiap. 


Laughing jackass 


krorkror. 


Pour - 


pooletch pe poo- 


Native companion kortyan. 




letch. 


White cockatoo 


chinyap. 


Father 


marmi. 


Crow - 


waa. 


Mother 


paap. 


Swan 7 


koonoowara. 


Sister-Elder 


chagi. 


Egg - 


mirk. 


„ Younger - 




Track of a foot 


parib. 


Brother- Elder - 


kote. 


Fish - 


(no general name) 


„ Younger 




Lobster 




A young man 


kolkar. 


Crayfish 


kapich. 


An old man 


ngaram-ngaram. 


Mosquito - 


krirkrirk. 


An old woman 


kolkolagok. 


Fly - - 


bitchik. 


A baby 


winwindaitch. 


Snake - 


koomowill. 


A White man 


koomamir. 


The Blacks - 


baang. 


Children - 


gitohwarl. 


A Blackf ellow 


kooli. 


Head - 


proorp. 


A Black woman 


- bainwango. 


Eye - 


mir. 


Nose - 


kaa. 


Bar ■ 


wirmbool. 



THE GLENELG, ABOVE WOODFORD. 



481 



No. 207d. — The Glknelg, 

Mouth - - koom. 

Teeth - - leya. 
Hair of the head ngurra. 

Beard - - iftoonooohir. 

Thunder - - mirdarip. 

Grass - - boait. 

Tongue - - challi. 

Stomach - - kanyangoork. 

Breasts - - chain. 

Thigh - - karri. 

Foot - - - chiuna. 

Bone - - - kaalk. 

Blood- - - koork. 

Skin - - - meech. 

Fat - - - papool. 
Bowels 

Excrement- - koonna. 

War-spear- - deer. 

Reed-spear - djirrak. 
Throwing-stiok - karrik. 

Shield - - malkar. 

Tomahawk - baachik. 

Canoe - - ngnanak. 

Sun - - - ngawik. 

Moon - - - yem. 

Star - - - toort. 
Light - 

Dark - - - tek-tek. 

Cold - - - mot-mot. 

Heat - - - lik. 

Day - - - kadlak. 

Night - - poroin. 

Fire - - - wi. 

Water - - katyin. 

Smoke - - perri, purri. 

Ground - - cha. 

Wind - - ward. 

Rain - - - wolla. 

God - - - ngarambe. 

Ghosts ■ - oonyim. 
VOL. in. 



ABOVE Woodford — continued. 

Boomerang 
Hill - 

Wood - - kaalk. 

Stone- - - la. 

Camp- - - lerra. 

Yes - - - nge. 

No - - - ngalanya. 

I - - - waan. 

You - - - waanyen. 

Bark - - - mitchook. 

Good - - - talka. 

Bad - - - yiatohung. 
Sweet 
Food - 

Hungry - - birkaian. 
Thirsty 

Eat - - - chakol. 

Sleep - - - ngorakol. 

Drink - - kopalal. 

Walk - - yannano. 

See - - - ngawan. 

Sit - - - ngenyak. 

Yesterday - - chalekio. 

To-day ■ - katchong. 

To-morrow- • parbio. 
Where are the windja baang 2 
Blacks J 

I don't know - windja imba. 
Plenty 

Big - - - yawer. 

Little - - baan. 

Dead - - - kiikil. 

By-and-by- - kartchon. 

Come on - - warte. 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk 
Wild turkey 
Wife - 
2H 



482 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 207e.— WOODFORD. 

By the Writer. 



Kangaroo - 


kori. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


kooramoo. 


2 Blacks - 


- boait trooal. 


Tame dog - 


kal. 


3 Blacks - 


- waawong trooal. 


Wild dog - 












One - 


- waando. 


Kmu •■ 


kraba. 






Black duck 


■ burna. 


Two - 


-- booait. 


Wood duck 


pinyangoor. 


Three - 


- waawong. 


Pelican 




Four - 


- booait ba booait. 


Laughing jackass 


koadda. 


Father 


- maam. 


Native companioi] 
White cockatoo - 


poortmadda. 
mra. 


Mother 


- ngaan. 


Crow - - - 


waa. 


Sister-Elder 


- nirriur. 


Swan - - - 


merangurn. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - - 


kooir. 


Brother-Elder 


- wurrakukki. 


Track of a foot - 


tinna. 


„ Younger 


Pish - 


(no general name) 


A young man 


- marangal. 


Lobster 








Crayfish 




An old man 


- ngarum-ngarum. 


murangir. 


An old woman 


- wraambo. 


Mosquito - 


kipa. 






Fly - - . 


torado. 


A baby 


- koaburning. 


Snake - 


koorang. 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


trooal. 


Children - 


- parang. 


A Blackf ellow 


trooal. 


Head - 


- popaing. 


A Black woman - 


puUe-puUe. 


Eye • 


- murngaing. 


Nose - 


kaboo. 


Bar . 


- wra. 





WOODFORD, 


4b 




No. 207e. — WooDFOED — continued. 




Mouth 


- loaing. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- tunax^ain. 


Hill - - 


- 


Hair of the head - ngurla. 


Wood - 


- wumaam. 


Beard - 


- nurlaurning. 


Stone - 


- murde. 


Thunder - 


- mumdal. 


Camp - 


- ngoorla. 


Grass - 


- botho. 


Yes - 


- ngo. 


Tongue 


- thage. 


No - - 


- wiip. 


Stomach - 


- booi. 


I 


- ngaddo. 


Breasts 


- murdain, 


You - 


- ngoro. 


Thigh 


- kaiib. 


Bark - 


- longlong. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Good - 


- ngebo. 


Bone - 


- bi. 


Bad - 


- wraang. 


Blood - - 


- kuminar. 


Sweet - 


- wurlan-wurlan 


Skin - 


- moom. 


Food - 


- boongan. 


Fat - 


- mumbooi. 


Hungry 


- nroanna. 


Bowels 


- balkwirri. 


Thirsty 


- koomoonen. 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Eat - 


- thai-e-wir. 


War-spear - 
Efied-spear 
Throwing-stick 
Shield 

Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - - 


- goaan. 

- kooimban. 

- malgar. 

- pimbagoor. 

- wow-wo. 

- karo. 


Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk •• 
See - 
Sit - - 
Yesterday - 


- loomai. 

- thathia. 

- yawia. 

- ngawiaboorat. 

- ngwia. 

- woowardoo. 


Moon - 


- boortbooi. 


To-day 


- kirdoo. 


Star - 


- taman-taman. 


To-morrow - 


- koogabar. 


Light - 


- yaap. 


Where are the ngatrooal? 


Dark - 


- moul. 


Blacks? 




Cold - - 


- mon-mon. 


I don't know 


- wiip. 


Heat - 
Day - 
Night- - 
Fire - 
Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind- - 
Rain - 


- murtguaal. 

- karo. 

- moor. 

- wumaam, 

- bari. 

- poloign. 

- mrat. 

- neraiga. 

- kabain. 


Plenty 
Big - - 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Baglehawk - 


- kar-lai-i. 

- worong. 

- morogin. 

- nroanar. 

- kerdo. 

- kakai. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


2 ] 


Wife - 

I 2 





484 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 207f.— DARTMOOR. 



Br THE Writer. 



Kangaroo - 


kore. 


Hand - 


muma. 


Opossum 


kooramoo. 


2 Blacks - 


poaitch troo-a-al 


Tame dog - 


kaal. 


3 Blacks 


wrawoon troo-a- 


Wild dog - 


purner. 




al. 


Emu - 


kowwa. 


One - 


waando. 


Black duck - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 
Laughing jackass 


burna. 

kurtperap. 
koaddang. 


Two - 
Three - 
Pour - 


poaitch. 
wrawoon. 
poaitch pa 
poaitch. 
mami. 
ngati. 
tati. 


Native companioii 
White cockatoo 
Crow - 
Swan - 


meran. 

waa. 

koonoowarra. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


Egg - ■ 


koa. 


,, Younger 


nueyur. 


Track of a foot - 


poptina. 


Brother-Elder 


wragi. 


Fish - 


(no general name) 


„ Younger 


nere. 


Lobster 




A young man 


morongal. 


Crayfish 


monagur. 


An old man 


kartpari. 


Mosquito - 




An old woman 


kartpariur. 


Fly - - - 


yooangooal. 


A baby 


- kongaparim. 


Snake - 


krurwang. 


A White man 




The Blacks - 


troo-a-al. 


Children 




A Blackfellow - 


troo-a-al. 


Head - 


pop. 


A Black woman 


kainganyo. 


Bye - 


mir. 


Nose - 


. kow-o. 


Bar - 


waar. 



DARTMOOR. 



485 



Mouth 

Teeth - 

Hair of the head ■ 

Beard - 

Thunder 

Grass - 

Tongue 

Stomach 

Breasts 

Thigh - 

Foot - 

Bone - 

Blood - 

Skin - 

Fat - 

Bowels 

Excrement - 

War-spear - 

Reed-spear - 

Throwing-stick - 

Shield - 

Tomahawk - 

Canoe - 

Sun - 

Moon - 

Star - 

Light - - . 

Dark - 

Cold - 

Heat - 

Day - - 

Night - 

Fire - 

Water 

Smoke 

Ground 

Wind - 

Rain - . - 

God - 

Ghosts 



No. 207f. — Dabtmode — continued. 
lo. 



ngurla. 

ngurlangume. 

mumdal. 

botha. 

thowe. 

pooi. 

poap. 

brani. 

thinna, 

pe-e. 

kammar. 

moom. 

mumbooi. 

koonna. 

kooun. 

pongor. 

kombaiu. 

malkar. 

pirpowerkoort. 

karo. 
thonwoon, poort- 

booi. 
tamman-tanunan. 
karomum. 
mol. 

mot- mot. 
waam. 
karomum. 
mol, 
wumap. 
parri. 
purloin, 
mirat. 
noredja. 
kowain. 



Boomerang - 


- 


Hill - - 


. 


Wood - 


- wumap. 


Stone - 


- marre. 


Camp - 


- ngoorla. 


Yes - 


- ngo. 


No - - 


- winana. 


I - - 


- ngado. 


You - 


- ngoro. 


Bark - 


- moomdart. 


Good - - 


- moitpong. 


Bad - - 


- waang. 


Sweet - 


- warlan-warlan. 


Food - 


- poogang. 


Hungry 


- ngooroonga. 


Thirsty 


- koomemang. 


Eat - 


- trewia. 


Sleep - 


- loomia. 


Drink - 


- thathea. 


Walk - 


- yowea. 


See - 


- ngawia. 


Sit - 


- newia. 


Yesterday - 


- woordoo. 


To-day 


- kerdo. 


To-morrow - 


- keap. 


Where are 


the uaa troo-a-al? 


Blacks ? 




I don't know 


- winana wangon 


Plenty 


- karlaiitch. 


Big - - 


- worong. 


Little - 


- moroki. 


Dead - 


- neron. 


By-and-by - 


- kerdo. 


Come on 


- kakai. 


Milk - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - 


- 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 207e.— HAMILTON. 
By the Weitee. 



Kangaroo - 


kore. 


Opossum - 


wille. 


Tame dog - 


welkar. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


kowi. 


Black duck 


ngare. 


Wood duck 




Pelican 


hatchalang. 


Laughing jackass 


korn-korn. 


Native companior 


I kotchun. 


White cockatoo - 


ngaiook. 


Crow - - - 


wa. 


Swan - 


koonoowar. 


Egg - - 


mirk. 


Track of a foot - 


paring. 


Fish - 


choolem. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 


yappitch. 


Mosquito - 


kirk-kirk. 


Fly - 




Snake - 


koornmil. 


The Blacks - 


koole. 


A Blackfellow 


koole. 


A Black woman 




Nose - 


- kaa. 



Hand - 


- munya. 


2 Blacks - 


- poolaitch koole. 


3 Blacks ■■ 


- kartoro koole.. 


One - 


- kaipamen. 


Two - 


- poUaitch. 


Three - 


- kartoro. 


Four - 


- poUaitcha 




poUaitch. 


Father 


- mami. 


Mother 


- pape. 


Sister-Elder 


- chache. 


„ Younger 


- kotek. 


Brother-Elder 


- wawe. 


,, Younger kotte. 


A young man 


- kolkroon. 


An old man 


- ngaram-ngaram 


An old woman 


- kogowitoh. 


A baby 


- popop. 


A White man 


- ngamaigitoh. 


Children 


- pokalik. 


Head - 


- porp. 


Eye - 


- mer. 


Ear - 


• wirmbool. 





HAMILTON. 


48 




No. 207g. — Hamilton — continued. 




Mouth 


- ngyang. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- lia. 


Hill - - 


. 


Hair of the head - ngara. 


Wood - 


- wi. 


Beard - 


- nganye. 


Stone - 


- la. 


Thunder 


- mumdar. 


Camp - 


- laar. 


Grass - 


- poaitch. 


Yes - 


- ko. 


Tongue 


- challe. 






Stomach 


- wanya. 


No 


- nge-nge. 


Breasts 


- korm. 


I 


- winnak. 


Thigh 


- karip. 


You - 


- winnin. 


Foot - 


- chinna. 


Bark - 


- nganak. 


Bone - 


- kaalk. 


Good - 


- talkok. 


Blood - 


- koork. 


Bad - 


- yatchan. 


Skin - 


- metoh. 


Sweet - 


- piorwetch. 


Fat - 


- papool. 


Food - 


- poongboorgoon. 


Bowels 


- poonart, 


Hungry 


- poonboorgoonin 




poonyart. 


Thirsty 


- kongin. 


Excrement - 


- koonnang. 


Eat - 


- chakkiu. 


War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 


- parmoor. 

- chaark. 


Sleep - 


- koombin. 


Throwing-stick 


- kark. 


Drink - 


- ngoopin. 


Shield 


- malkar. 


Walk - 


- wurwin. 


Tomahawk - 


■ toktagarm. 


See - 


- ngakin. 


Canoe - 


- yaongalo. 


Sit - 


- wunarpin. 


Sun - 


- nowi. 


Yesterday - 


- chalegoo. 


Moon - 


- wartiptaoayo. 


To-day 


- yingornoo. 


Star - - 


- chagenowi. 


To-morrow - 


- barpobark. 


Light - 


- nowicha. 


Where are the windja kooli ? 


Dark - 


- poroin. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- mot-mot. 


I don't know 


- windja jamok. 


Heat - 


- kurtai. 






Day - 


- chanowi. 


Plenty 


- parok. 






Big - 


- murtok. 


Night - 


- poroin. 






Fire - 


- wi. 


Little - 


- wudibok. 


Water 


- koatchen. 


Dead - 


- wikin. 


Smoke 


■ poorin. 


By-and-by - 


- noondjar. 


Ground 


- cha. 


Come on 


- pirnigar. 


Wind- - 


- ngoorndook 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- woUa. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



488 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 207h.— MOUNT ROUSE; NATIVE NAME KOOLOOR. 

By THE Writeb. 

In this language the equivalent of five is kaiap mirnya, literally one 

hand. 



Kangaroo - 


- korai. 


Hand - 


- mirnya. 


Opossum 


- kooramook. 


2 Blacks - 


- poUaich kooli. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 


- kaal. 


3 Blacks - 


- poUaich kaiap 
kooli. 


Emu - 


- kowering. 


One - 


- kaiap. 


Black duck - -ngerri. 
Wood duck - biabiap. 
Pelican - - paiangal. 
Laughing jackass krookroong. 


Two - - . 
Three - 
Four - 


- poUaich. 

- kartoor. 

- poUaicha pol- 

laich. 

- mami. 


Native companion kooioon. 
White cockatoo - chinyap. 


Father 


Crow - 


- waa. 


Mother 


- paapi. 


Swan - 


- koonoowar. 


Sister-Elder 


- chachi. 


Egg - - 


- merk. 


,, Younger 


- kootrook. 


Track of a foot 


- chinanyook. 


Brother-Elder 


- waawe. 


Fish - - 


- (no general 


,, Younger kootte. 




name). 


A young man 


- koolkoon. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- ngaram-ngaram 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


- lirri. 


An old woman 


- ngaram-ngaram 
gook. 


Ply . . 


- piik., 


A baby 


- po-pop. 


Snake - 


- koorwil. 


A White man 


- ngamaiketch. 


The Blacks - 
A Blaokfellow 


- kooli. 


Children - 
Head - 


- popopklUe. 

- poorp. 


A Black woman 


- koolikoork. 


Eye - 


- mir. 


Nose - 


- kaa. 


Ear - 


- wirmbool. 





MOUNT 


ROUSE. 


4 




No. 207h.— Mount Koxjse— continued 




Mouth 


- ngeing. 


Boomera,Tig - 




Teeth - 


- Ua. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- ngarra. 


Wood - 


wi. 


Beard - 


- ngurra. 


Stone - 


laa. 


Thunder 


- moondar. 






Grass ■ 


- karewan. 


Camp - 


- laar. 


Tongue 


- challe. 


Yes - 


ko. 


Stomach 


- biUi. 


No 


nge-nge. 


Breasts 


- koroom. 


I 


- winnin. 


Thigh - 


- karilyooak. 


You - 


winnak. 


Foot - 


- chinna. 


Bark - 


nyunyak. 


Bone - 


- kaalk. 


Good - 


telkok. 


Blood - 


- koork. 


Bad - 


yeyang. 


Skin - 


- miitch. 


Sweet - 


- cheroaitch. 


Fat - 


- pepool. 


Food - 


paronkekoom. 


Bowels 


- wewepookoonna. 


Hungry 


nyeng. 


Excrement - 


- kooima. 


Thirsty 


banyangen. 


War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 


- kooioon. 

- oherark. 


Eat - 


■ ohakkelowang 


Throwing-stiok 


- kertch. 


Sleep - 


koombarnoon. 


Shield - 


- malkar. 


Drink - 


openan. 


Tomahawk - 


- purpooreroop. 


Walk - 


yanyangoo. 


Canoe - 


- yowargalook. 


See - 


ngakin. 


Sun - - 


- ngowl. 


Sit - 


ngangano. 


Moon - 


- waiipturnyoo. 


Yesterday - 


■chalegko. 


Star - 


- 


To-day 


ngarga. 


Light - 


- ngowiitcha. 


To-morrow - 


perpurperk 


Dark - 


- boroin. 


Where are the 


windja kooli ? 


Cold - 


- mot-mot. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- koorkark. 


I don't know 


windja jamok. 


Day - - 


- gaanyanwe. 


Plenty 


parok. 


Night - 


- boroin. 


Big - - 


mirtook. 


Fire - 


- wi. 


Little - 


waiipook. 


Water- 


- kaiyen. 


Dead - 


wikin. 


Smoke 


- pirren. 


By-and-by - 


windjal. 


Ground 


- chaa. 


Come on 


kaka. 


Wind - 


- ngoorndook. 


Milk - 




Eain - 


- woUa. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 





489 



490 



THE AUSTRALUN RACE: 



No. 207i.— PORTLAiJD, LAKE CONDAH, AND EUMERALLA. 
By the Writer. 



Kangaroo - 


korain. 


Hand - 


murrung. 


Opossum - 


kooramook. 


2 Blacks - 


poUaidja marra 


Tame dog - 


kaal. 


3 Blacks - 


poUimia marra. 


Wild dog - 




One - 


kaiappa. 


Emu - 


kappin. 


Two - 


pollaidja. 


Black duck - 


moi. 










Three - 


poUimia. 


Wood duck 


brernel. 




Pelican 


karppirak. 


Four - 


poUaidja-pol- 


Laughing jackass 


- konet. 




laidja. 


Native companior 


korork. 


Father 


pipai. 


White cockatoo 


ngaiook. 


Mother 


nerang. 


Crow - 


waang. 


Sister-Elder 


kakai. 


Swan - 


koonoowara. 


,, Younger 


kokaiar. 


Egg - - 


mik. 


Brother-Elder 


wiirdai. 


Track of a foot 


yo-i-yong. 


„ Younger 


poorpep. 


Fish - 


(no general name) 


A young man 


winwinmarra. 


Lobster 




An old man 


poorbipoorbip. 


Crayfish - 


yarrun. 


An old woman 


poortnerang. 


Mosquito - 


marwengel. 






Ply . 


wooral. 


A baby 


popop. 


Snake 


koorang. 


A White man 


ngamaigitch. 


The Blacks - 


marra. 


Children 


tokoakai. 


A Blackfellow - 


marra. 


Head - 


pirn. 


A Black woman 


tanambool. 


Eye - 


ming. 


Nose - 


kapoong. 


Ear - 


wing. 



PORTLAND, LAKE CONDAH, AND EUMERALLA. 491 



No. 207i. — Portland, Lake 

Mouth - - ngoolang. 

Teeth - - tanang. 

Hair of the head - narat. 

Beard - - - ngarrang. 

Thunder - - murndal. 

Grass - - - botung. 

Tongue - - tallain. 

Stomach - - tokong. 

Breasts - nappang. 

Thigh - - - woonikarrip. 

Foot - - - yook. 

Bone - - - bakkaia. 

Blood - - - kerik. 

Skin - - - mitch. 

Fat - - - bapool. 

Bowels - - tokoonya. 

Excrement - - koonna. 

War-spear - - ko-i-oon. 

Reed-spear - - nyirrin. 

Throwing-stiok - ngaroong. 

Shield - - malkar. 

Tomahawk - - karkin. 

Canoe- - - tholong. 

Sun - - - nunung. 

Moon - - - moorkin. 

Star - . - menkel. 

Light - - - nanaanmering. 

Dark - - - por-o-in. 

Cold - - - ngoomdook. 

Heat - - - kaloin. 

Day - - - ronanung. 

Night - - - poroin. 

Fire - - - wiin. 

Water - ■■ paraitch. 

Smoke - - to-ong. 

Ground - - mirring. 

Wind - - - ngoomdook. 

Rain - - - mai-ang. 
God - 
Ghosts 



CoNDAH, AND EuMEKALLA — Continued. 




Boomera,ng - 


- 




Hill - 


- 




Wood - 


- wiin. 




Stone - 


- murrai. 




Camp - 


- worn. 




Yes - 


- ko. 




No - 


- baangat. 




I 


- nattook. 




You - 


- ootook. 




Bark - 


- moroitch. 




Good - 


- oitchoong. 




Bad - 


- namindjar. 




Sweet - 


- poo-oor-witch. 




Food - 


- gerang. 




Hungry 


- kalpinchook. 




' Thirsty 


- koomanum. 




Eat - 


- takekooia. 




Sleep - 


- yoowoppan. 




Drink - 


- tatookaia. 




Walk - 


- poorpe. 




See - 


- ngakai. 




Sit - 


- kooppe. 




Yesterday - 


- naangat. 




To-day 


- kanalpa. 




To-morrow • 


- toongatti. 


, 


Where are the 


winda marra? 




Blacks ? 






I don't know 


- baangat. 




Plenty 


- portoon. 




Big - 


- leengil. 




Little 


- tookoonanya. 




Dead - 


- kalprinna. 




By-and-by - 


- kallo. 




Come on 


- kowe. 




Milk - 


- 




Eaglehawk - 


- 




Wild turkey 


- 




Wife - 


- 



492 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 207j.— HOPKINS RIVER. 
By the Writek. 



Kangaroo - 


korai. 


Hand - 


murrang. 


Opossum 


koramook. 


2 Blacks 


polija maar. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


kaal. 

kuprunk, barai- 
mal. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 


politimea maar. 

kiappa. 

polija. 


Black duck - 


thoorboorung. 


Three - 


politmea. 


Wood duck - 


ngaook. 


Pour - 


kirtpan. 


Pelican - - kirkpirap. 
Laughing jackass konet. 
Native companion koron. 
White cockatoo - ngaiook. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


pipai. 
nerangai. 
korokai, kakai. 


Crow - 


waak. 


„ Younger 


kokiarra. 


Swan - 


koonoowar. 


Brother-Elder 


wardai, koko. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 
Fish - 
Lobster 


mirk, 
thinnang. 
irija. 
yaram. 


,, Youngei 
A young man 
An old man 


- wardiarra. 

- ngoin marr. 

- naram-naram. 


Crayfish - 


wiija. 


An old woman 


kogoitoh. 


Mosquito - 


kirkirk. 


A baby 


po-p6p. 


Fly - - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 


minik, woorill 

korang. 

maara. 


A White man 
Children - ' 


ngamagitch. 
- choechoe. 


A Blackf ellow 


maar. 


Head - 


- pimaning. 


A Black woman 


thanambooi. 


Eye - 


- mirnaming. 


Nose - 


kabong. 


Ear - 


- wirmaming. 



HOPKINS RIVER. 



493 



No. 207j.— Hopkins RiVEn— continued. 



Mouth 


- woronarning. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- tinganaming. 


Hil] - 


- 


Hair of the head- narrananing. 


Wood- 


- wiin, wumgooit. 


Beard - 


- yarrananing. 


Stone - 


- murrai. 


Thunder - 


- mumdal. 


Camp - 


- worn. 


Grass - 


- karewan. 


Yes - 


- ko. 


Tongue 


- thallang; 


No . 


- ngin-ngin or ngi- 


Stomach 


- togong. 




ngi. 


Breasts 


- nabirng. 


I 


- ngatook. 


Thigh - 


- karip, pirn. 


You - 


- ngindook. 


Foot - 


- thinnang. 


Bark - 


- torong. 


Bone - 


- bagainaning. 


Good - 


- ooitohoong. 


Blood - 


- koreanin. 


Bad - 


- kalprano. 


Skm - - 


- thoramanin. 


Sweet - 


- pirooitch, ooit- 


Fat - 


- pipoolaning. 




ohoong. 


Bowels 


- koonnaniu. 


Food - 


- tooloort. 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Hungry 


- bartoobaring 


War-spear - 


- tooloowam. 




ngoolanga. 


Reed-spear - 


- nerin, tark. 


Thirsty 


- kootnanabaretch 


Thro wing-stick 


- ngarong. 


Eat - 


- thakeanan. 


Shield 


- malk. 


Sleep - 


- yooanan. 


Tomahawk - 


- pirtpirtkoort. 


Drink - 


- tattakooia. 


Canoe - 


- torong. 


Walk- 


- yananan. 


Sun - 


- tirrang. 


See - 


- naawake. 


Moon - 


- konardo. 


Sit - 


- ingake. 


Star - 


- wutchook. 


Yesterday - 


- ngagatto. 






To-day 


- makkadeba. 


Light - 


- yaap. 


To-morrow - 


- mallangeba. 


Dark - 


- koorooalook, pu- 








Where are the winda maara V 




roiu. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- pallapetch. 


I don't know 


- baangato or 


Heat - 


- kalloin.. 




winda. 


Day - 


- ngallokatterin. 


Plenty 


- woornt baneran. 


Night - - 


- puroin. 


Big - - 


- megarong. 


Fbe - 


- wiin. 


Little - 


- koomoominin. 


Water 


- baretch. 


Dead - 


- kalgeran. 


Smoke 


- to-ong. 


By-and-by - 


- kallo. 


Ground 


- mering. 


Come on 


- kakawattake. 


Wind- 


- ngoondook. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- maiyang. 


Baglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 


- 



494 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 207k.— HOPKINS RIVER. 



By W. Goodall, Esq., Manaobb of Abokiginal Station, Fbamlingham. 



Kangaroo - 


kooroo. 


Hand - 


- murrunk. 


Opossum 


kooramook. 


2 Blacks - 


- pulija mar. 


Tame dog - 


karl. 


3 Blacks - 


- pulemeir mar. 


Wild dog - 




One - 


■ kyupa. 


Emu - 


kuprunk. 


Two - 


■ pulija. 


Black duck 


toorpurnk. 


Three - 


pulemir. 


Wood duck 


ngarwook. 




Pelican 


kurtpurnk. 


Pour - 


kurtpun. 


Laughing jackass 


koonet. 


Pather 


peepi. 


Native companion 


kooron. 


Mother 


nurangi. 


White cockatoo 




Sister-Elder 


koki. 


Crow - 


waak. 


,, Younger 




Swan - 


koonoQwam. 


Brother-Elder 


• wurdi. 


Egg - - 


mirk. 


Younger 


Track of a foot 


timmong. 


A young man 


- nguit mar. 


Pish - 


yoori. 


An old man 


nguUong-ngul 


Lobster 


weechong. 




long. 


Crayfish 


youri. 


An old woman 


kookooweitch, 


Mosquito - 


keruk-keruk. 






Fly - 


wooril. 


A baby 


- poopoop. 


Snake 


goorang. 


A White man 


numerdeitoh. 


The Blacks - 


mar. 


Children 


tooki-tooki. 


A Blackf ellow 


mar. 


Head - 


peem. 


A Black woman - 


tunumbuU. 


Eye - 


mirunk* 


Nose - 


karpoong. 


Ear - 


wirrunk. 



HOPKINS RIVER. 



495 





No. 207k.— Hopkins Riv^B.—contintced. 


Mouth 


- nguUong. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- tungunk. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- narutum. 


Wood - 


- wumgooit. 


Beard - 


- ngurrine. 


Stone - 


- murrie. 


Thunder - 


- mimdunk. 


Camp - 


- wormp. 


Grass - 


- puttong. 


Yes - 


- ko. 


Tongue 


- tulline. 


No - 


- ngee-ngee. 


Stomach 


- tookonk. 


I 


- nuttook. 


Breasts 


- nguppunk. 


You - 


- ngootook. 


Thigh - 


- pirm. 


Bark - 


- 


Foot - 


- timmong. 


Good - 


- miohong. 


Bone - 


- puckine. 


Bad - 


- kullin. 


Blood - 


- kerreek. 


Sweet - 


- nuitchong. 


Skin - 


- moom. 


Food - 


- tuUuirt. 


Fat - 


- pulloot. 


Hungry 


- purtook, pungun, 


Bowels 


- puUoin. 




ullonga. 


Excrement - 


- koonong. 


Thirsty 


- purtook pungun 


War-spear - 


- tullom. 




pureitoh. 


Reed-spear - 


- tark. 


Eat - 


- turkuk. 


Throwing-stick 


- ngurroin. 


Sleep - 


- yournunk. 


Shield - 


- marlk. 


Drink - 


- tutturk. 


Tomahawk - 


- purtpurtcut. 


Walk - 


- yaimake. 


Canoe - 


- toorong. 


See - 


- tuteunnook. 


Sun - 


- tirrum. 


Sit - 


- koopunung. 


Moon ■ 


- pirrine yannin. 


Yesterday - 


- ngamkurt. 


Star - 


- wutchook. 


To-day 


- miinkcuttee, 


Light - 


- tirrong. 


To-morrow - 


- muUebar. 


Dark - 


- purroLn. 


Where are 


the wunda mar ? 


Cold - 


- pullup-peitch. 


Blacks? 




Heat - 


- kuUoin. 


I don't know 


- wunda. 


Day - 


- woorome-termg. 


Plenty 


• parronk parronk. 


Night - 


- koorowuUock. 


Big - 


- meharo. 


Fire - 


• weein. 


Little - 


- kumong. 


Water 


- purretch. 


Dead - 


- kalpirran. 


Smoke 


- toong. 


By-and-by - 


- kuloo. 


Ground 


- mirring. 


Come on 


- kaka. 


Wind- 


- ngumdook. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- myyung. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 





BOOK THE TWENTIETH. 



VOL. in. 2 I 



BOOK THE TWENTIETH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

The vocabularies grouped together in this book are specimens 
of the languages in use from the Moolamiin to the Moorabool. 
They are evidently nearly related, as well amongst them- 
selves as to those treated of in the preceding book. 

It may be noticed that the Loddon Eiver where it ap- 
proaches the Murray (Mille, as the Blacks in that neighbour- 
hood caUthe latter) and a portion of country near Merton, 
or perhaps a creek, are both called Woppoon by the Blacks. 

In the Moolamiin language we have cherimhoork = uncle, 
and kowrinuk — aunt; and in the Mount Emu language 
dai-a-ram^dap = uncle, alok = aunt, and wrapeh = cousin* 

The mode of replying to the question. Where are the 
Blacks? by adverb where used interrogatively, when the 
person questioned does not know, so frequently met with 
in the Eastern Division of the continent, occurs several times 
in this book. 

It has constantly been noticed by the writer that any 
remarkable variation of a wide-spread word is rarely confined 
to one locality, but that it is generally to be found in some 
other, perhaps a thousand miles away. As an instance, we 
find the word koonna or goonna = excrement (perhaps the 
most generally prevalent term in our languages) appearing 
as quan in Western Australia and as quank in the Gunbower 
(properly Kanbowro) vocabulary. 

In our languages generally there is but one term to 
express foot and the track of a foot, but in those dealt with 
in this book two distinct words are used. In several of the 
vocabularies, the equivalent of children is evidently a plural 

* Attention is drawn to these words in this and other places because 
practically it has been asserted that none such exist in our languages. On 
the subject see Vol I., page 140, of this work. 

212 



500 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



form of the equivalent of hahy or child, whilst they are 
often met with elsewhere as distinct terms. In the Kerang 
vocabulary we find kaalk standing for bone and wood; in 
other cases we know the same word is used for spear; also 
that kaalk, kalk, or kulka means bone in one language and 
spear in another ; also that wood andj'jre are often expressed 
by the one word, which is not kaalk. Probably, should a 
close examination of these words ever be made, it will be 
found that there are in all of our languages two terms for 
wood, one identical with or closely related to Jire and the 
other to bone and spear. 



No. 208a.— MOULMEIN. 
By the Bench of Magistrates at that Place. 



Kangaroo - 


koura. 


Hand - 


• mauanuk. 


Opossum - 


weala. 


2 Blacks - 


- poolet de bang 


Tame dog - 


werangen. 


3 Blacks - 


_ 


Wild dog - 




One - 


- kaiap. 


Emu - 


kower. 


Two - 


- poolet. , 


Black duck - 


nowera. 






Wood duck 


gunnuk. 


Thi^ee - 


- poolet kai-ap. 


Pelican 


nenungar. 


Four - 


- poolet poolet. 


Laughing jackass kerrong-kerrong. 


Father 


- marmook. 


Native companion kudthoo. 


Mother 


- qungerook. 


White cockatoo 


ginup. 


Sister-Elder 


• chargook. 


Crow - 


wa. 


,, Younger 


- quanthanook. 


Swan - 


■ koonawar. 


Brother-Elder 


- wakook. 


Egg - 


mirkook. 






Track of a foot 


perring. 


,, Young 


3r 


Fish - 


pongill. 


A young man 


- koolkoon. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- jerribung. 


Crayfish 


lip-lip- till. 


An old woman 


- woringoork. 


Mosquito 


lerrigon. 


A baby 


- pobena. 


Fly - 


bedik. 


A White man 


- noother. 


Snake - 


- koormiwill. 






The Blacks - 


bang. 


Children 


- pambango. 


A Blackfellow 


- kooli. 


Head - 


- mooranguk. 


A Black woman 


- layrook. 


Eye - - 


- minook. 


Nose - 


- karmuk. 


Ear - 


- weremboolok. 





MOULMEIN. 


50 




No. 208a. — MouLMEiN — continued. 




Mouth 


- charjook. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


■ lia,nuk. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head- neranuk. 


Wood - 


- bial. 


Beard 


- ngininuk. 


Stone - 


- la. 


Thunder - 


- munder. 


Camp - 


- lurr. 


Grass - 


- boaitch. 


Yes - 


- nowe. 


Tongue 


- challinguk. 


No - - 


- womba. 


Stomach 


- wongebuk. 


I - - 


- niak. 


Breasts 


- chaneguk. 


You - - 


- niam. 


Thigh 


- brajuk. 






Foot - 


- chinanuk. 


Bark - 


- mooachup. 


Bone - 


- kalkook. 


Good - 


- dalkook. 


Blood - 


- koorkook. 


Bad - 


- yatamutohuk. 


Skin - - 


- talankook. 


Sweet - 


- urtoha, witcha. 


Fat - 


- babalook. 


Food - 


- punam. 


Bowels 


- chinginook. 


Hungry 


- wikanda. 


Excrement - 


- koonanook. 


Thirsty - 


- peringonyonda. 


War-spear - 


- koioone. 


Eat - - 


- chukalanda. 


Eeed-spear - 


- charam. 


Sleep - 


- koombanda. 


Throwing-stick 
Shield- - 


- perband. 

- kuUerwel. 


Drink - 


- koopalanda. 


Tomahawk - 


■ teer. 


Walk- 


- yarrawonda. 


Canoe - 


- yungwitch. 


See - 


- nowanda. 


Sun - 


- nowa. 


Sit - 


- naimuk. 


Moon - 


- wongwel. 


Yesterday - 


- kallekellikt. 


Star - 


- toort. 


To-day 


- killewitch. 


Light - 


- wying. 


To-morrow - 


- berbool. 


Dark - - 


- poroong. 


Where are the wingalook bang 


Cold - 


- bonbondolong. 


Blacks? 




Heat - 
bay - 

Night - 
Fire - 
Water 


- wiarnuk. 


I don't know 


- winga? 


- pearp. 


Plenty 


- parook. 


- poroong. 

- wunap. 

- kathun. 


Big - 

Little - - ■ 


■ koorumlbit. 
- murduk. 


Smoke 


- poort. 


Dead - 


- wathinging. 


Ground 


- chak. 


By-and-by - 


- killamin. 


Wind- 


- memig. 


Come on 


- kooraman. 


Kain - 


- mithak. 


Milk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


Ghosts 


- tallewidoobuk, 


Wild turkey 


- 




nuther. 


Wife - 


' 



502 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 208b.— LAKE BOCA. 

By Mounteb-constable Leonaed Fawcett, Local Guardian of the 
Aborigines at Swan Hill. 



Kangaroo - 


kora. 


Hand - 


- mananyook. 


Opossum 


willa. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


werangen. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One - 


- kaiup. 


Emu - 


kowir. 


Two - 


- pooletya. 


Black duck - 
Wood duck - 


nini. 
nunnuk. 


Three - 


- pooletya kaiup. 


Pelican 


ninnankora. 


Four - 


- pooletya-poolet 


Laughing jackass 


quong-quong. 




ya. 


Native companion kooteen. 


Father 


- marnok. 


White cockatoo 


katakur. 


Mother 


■ parbuk. 


Crow - 


owar. 


Sister-Elder 


- tartuk. 


Swan - 


quinowar. 


, , Younger 


- 


Egg - 


■ mi-urk. 


Brother-Elder 


- wa-wi. 


Track of a foot 


parring. 


, ,, Younger 


Fish - 


piangil. 


A young man 


- kulkera. 


Lolttster 




An old man 


- narambin. 


Crayfish - 
Mosquito - 


lippekil. 
- lawi. 


An old woman 


- winyingarrok. 


Fly - 


- pittik. 


A baby 


- puppok. 


Snake - 


- quemmil. 


A White man 


- ni-tung-i. 


The Blacks - 


bang. 


Children - 


- painbago. 


A Blaokfellow 


- kooli. 


Head - 


- porp. 


A Black woman 


- winyin. 


Eye - 


- mir. 


Nose ■ 


- kamook. 


Bar - 


- wirumbool. 





T,AKE 


BOGA. 


503 




No. 208b.— Lake BoQA—cmtinued. 




Mouth 


- itchekarup. 


Boomerang - 


. 


Teeth - 


- Ua. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- naraporp. 


Wood - 


- kaalk. 


Beard - 


- nanyenook. 


Stone - 


- poat. 


Thunder - 


- mumda. 


Camp - 


- larr. 


Grass - 


- poat. 


Yes - 


- yeya. 


Tongue 


- tallinyook. 


No ■ 


- womba. 


Stomach 


- witchibook. 


I 


- woUanyerk. 


Breasts 


■ tangook. 


You - 


- woUaning. 


Thigh - 


- kamook. 


Bark - 


- michuk. 


Foot - 
Bone - 


- chinanyook. 

- kallkook. 


Good - 


- telkook. 


Blood - 


- kurrabook. 


Bad - 


- . yattandook. 


Skin - 


- mitruk. 


Sweet - 


- witta-witta. 


Fat - 


- papalook. 


Pood - 


- yoowirra. 


Bowels 


- porpgunayook. 


Hungry 


wikun. 


Excrement - 


- quinayook. 


Thirsty 


- purnmgunyon. 


War-spear - 


- quira. 


Eat - 


- jakkalong. 


Reed-spear ■ 


- toharrok. 


Sleep - 


• koombang. 


Throwing-stick 


- piurpin. 


Drink - 


- koopon. 


Shield - 


- muUkura. 


Walk - 


- yanner. 


Tomahawk - 


- tirr. 










See 


- nia-Tiia, 


Canoe - 


■ yungoot. 


Sit - 


- ninuk. 


Sun - 


- nowi. 






Moon - 


• miteyan. 


Yesterday - 


- kalUk-kalUk. 


Star - 


- toort. 


To-day 


■ kampaginga. 


Light - 


- win. 


To-morrow - 


■ perrapo. 


Dark - 


- porroin. 


Where are the 


windyallo kooli ? 


Cold - 


- merindooma. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- karti. 


I don't know 


- windy a? 


Day - 


- now-yi. 


Plenty 


- kittowel. 


Night - 


- porroin. 


Big - 


korangandook. 


Fire - 


- wonnup. 


Little - 


wittiyook. 


Water 


- kartin. 










Dead - 


- waikin. 


Smoke 


- port. 






Ground 


- cha. 


By-and-by - 


kamboor. 


Wind- 


- merring. 


Come on 


- kakai. 


Rain i .- 


- mittuk. 


Milk - 




God - 


- mammonggorak. 


Eaglehawk - 




Ghosts 


- narnook, chal- 


Wild turkey 






liwitup. 


Wife - 





504 



THE AUSTRALIAN KACB : 



No. 208c.— THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OP LAKE BOGA, PROBABLY 
MOORERBAT AND THE LOWER LODDON. 





By the Whiter. 




Kangaroo - 


kore. 


Hand - 


munna. 


Opossum 


wille. 


2 Blacks - 


polet kooli. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


werangen. 
kowir. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 


polet kai-up kooli 
- kai-up. 


Black duck - 


ngari. 


Two - 


polet. 


Wood duck - 


ngunuk. 


Three - 


- polet kai-up. 


Pelican 


ninungoor. 


Four - 


- polet polet. 


Laughing jackass 


korn-korn. 


Father 


maamoo. 


Native companioii 
White cockatoo 
Crow - 


kotun. 

chinop. 

wa. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- pabe. 

- chaohe. 


Swan - 


koonoowar. 


, , Younger 


kotode. 


Egg - - 


mirk. 


Brother-Elder 


- waawe. 


Track of a foot 


paring. 


,, Younger koti. 


Fish - 




A young man 


- kolkroon. 


Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito - 

Fly - - 

Snake 

The Blacks - 


yapitch. 
leroo. 
- pit-tik. 
kornmil. 
baang. 


An old man 

An old woman 

A baby 

A White man 

Children 


- ngarambe. 

• wonyinakork. 

- paingoo. 

- painbangoo. 


A Blackf ellow 


kooli. 


Head - 


- pirpook. 


A Black woman 


- leoork. 


Eye - 


- mirnook. 


Nose - 


- kaa. 


Bar 


■ wirmboolook. 



THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OP LAKE BOGA, ETC. 



505 



No. 208c 


— The Neighboubhood or Lake Boga — continued. 


Mouth 


- taarbook. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- lea. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head- ngara. 


Wood- 


- wnnnup. 


Beard - 


- nganui. 


Stone - 


- laa. 


Thunder - 


- murndar. 


Camp - 


- larr. 


Grass - 


- boait. 


Yes - 


- i-ya. 


Tongue 


- challe. 


No - 


- weumba. 


Stomach 


- wudjup. 


I 


- woloonyek. 


Breasts 


- koorm. 


You - 


- woonyin. 


Thigh 


- kar. 


Bark - 


- toolem. 


Foot - 


- chinna. 


Good - 


- talkook. 


Bone - 


- kaalkook. 


Bad - 


- yattang. 


Blood - 


- koork. 


Sweet - 


- wittea. 


Skin - 
Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 
Eeed-spear - 
Thro wing-stick 
Shield - 


- michook. 

- papoolook. 

- toorekoonna. 

- koonna. 

- koo-i-oon. 

- jaraam. 

- karik. 

- malkar. 


Food (flesh) 

,, (vegetable 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 


- yowir. 

- paanim. 

- wika. 

- barungoonya. 

- tukkali. 

- koomba. 

- koopa. 


Tomahawk - 


- tir. 


Walk - 


- yanna. 


Canoe - 


- yoonkooit. 


See - - 


- naikala. 


Sun - 


- nowii-. 


Sit - 


- naianga. 


Moon - 


- mittean. 


Yesterday - 


- chaUik-challik. 


Star - 


- toort. 


To-day 


- kamba. 


Light - 


- waing. 


To-morrow - 


- perrapoo. 


Dark - 


- poroin. 


Where are the 


windjola kooli ? 


Cold - 


- boonboondola. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- woonwoondola. 


I don't know 


- windja? 


Day - 


- nowir. 


Plenty 


- kittowil. 


Night- - 


- poroin. 


Big - 


- korandook. 


Fire - 


- wnnnup. 


Little - 


- wootiook. 


Water 


- kaatin. 


Dead - 


- wegun. 


Smoke 


- poort. 


By-and-by - 


- kambum. 


Ground 


- oha. 


Come on - 


- kakai. 


Wind- 


- merin. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- mittak. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



506 



THE AUSTRALIAN KACE : 



No. 208d.— GONN STATION, MURRAY RIVER. 



By John McCarthy, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- koora. 


Hand - 


- mananook. 


Oposaum 


- willa. 


2 Blacks - 


- pellige kooli. 


Tame dog - 


- werangun. 


3 Blacks - 


- pellige karp 


Wild dog - 






kooli. 


Emu - 


- kowir. 


One - 


- karp. 


Black duck - 


- nerre. 










Two - 


- pellige. 


Wood duck - 


- nonnuk. 




Pelican 


- Tiiinungoor. 


Three - 


- pellige karp. 


Laughing jackasa koorong-koorong. 


Four - ' - 


- pellige-pellige 


Native companion kuthon. 


Father 


- marne. 


White cockatoo 


- jinup. 


Mother 


- quingoni. 


Crow - 


- waga. 


Sister-Elder 


- charche. 


Swan - 


- koonawar. 


,, Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


- merkook. 


Brother-Elder 


- wooi. 


Track of a foot 


- perring. 


Young 


er 


Fish - 


- jowwill. 


A young man 


- kolkoa. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- cherribong. 


Crayfish - 
Mosquito - 


• lip-lip-kill. 
- leroo. 


An old woman 


- winimgoor. 


Fly - - 


- pitchi. 


A baby 


- poban. 


Snake - 


- koniwil. 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


- bang. 


Children 


- pimbango. 


A Blaokf ellow 


- kooli. 


Head - 


- moranoo. 


A Black woman 


- leurook. 


Bye - 


- merrino. 


Nose - 


- karnook. 


Ear - 


- wimbolo. 



GONN STATION, MURRAY RIVER. 



507 



No. 208d. — GoNN Station, 


Murray River — contirmed. 


Mouth 


• worronook. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- liamook. 


Hill - 


_ 


Hau: of the head 


- naranauk. 


Wood - 


- kumbowi. 


Beard - 


- noninook. 


Stone - 


- larr. 


Thunder • 


- mondar. 


Camp - 


- larrer. 


Grass - 
Tongue 


- poowotch. 

- ohallenook. 


Yes - 


- nongi. 


Stomach 


- widjibiabo. 


No - - 


- yambk. 


Breasts 


- chongo. 


I 


- yandong. 


Thigh 


- kamook. 


Yon - 


- ninan. 


Foot - 


- chiuouook. 


Bark - 


- tolang. 


Bone - 


- maderook. 


Good - 


- dalko. 


Blood - 


- kooroko. 


Bad - 


- yathanuntook. 


Skin - 


- witchook. 


Sweet - 


- wotayar. 


Fat - 


- pappolo. 


Food - 


- poonioom. 


Bowels 


- koonooquanwik. 


Hungry 


- wolkunder. 


Excrement - 


- koonni. 










Thirsty 


- punkunnooder. 


War-spear - 


- koo-o-ia. 


Eat - 


- chukelander. 


Reed-spear - 


- charam. 


Sleep - 


- qombander. 


Throwing-stick 


- korrik. 


Drink - 


- kobbalander. 


Shield 


- mulkar. 






Tomahawk - 


- deerr. 


Walk - 


- jarwander. 


Canoe - 


- yoonguch. 


See - 


- narkalander. 


Sun - 


- nowi. 


Sit - 


- narwonter. 


Moon - 


■ wyngwil. 


Yesterday - 


- jellik-jellik. 


Star - 


- toort. 


To-day 


- kilarwit. 


Light - 


- parap. 


To-morrow - 


- berrpoo. 


Dark - 


- parong. 


Where are the wingella kooli ? 


Cold - 


- bonbondabong. 


Blacks? 




Heat - 


- narngar. 


I don't know 


- wingari? 


Day - 


- nowi. 


Plenty 


- barrok. 


Night - 


- pori. 


Big - - 


- quormbirn. 


Fire - 


- wonnup. 


Little - 


- mertook. 


Water 


- kuthin. 


Dead - 


- mertiugin. 


Smoke 


- poarti. 


By-and-by - 


- kaliman. 


Ground 


- jar. 


Come on 


- quam. 


Wind- - 


- merring. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- mittok. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



508 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 208e.— GUNBOWER STATION. 



By Messes. Mickib and Sandy. 



Kangaroo - 


koora. 


Hand - 


maanuk. 


Opossum 


willa. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


werangen. 
kowri. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 


kaapmin. 


Black duck - 


noori. 


Two - 


pledgoo. 


Wood duck , 


kooroonoo. 


Three - 


pledgoo kaap. 


Pelican 
Laughing jackass 


nirunga. 
kooran-kooran . 


Four - 
Father 


pledgoo pledgoo 
mami. 


Native companion kootan. 
White cockatoo - kinnap. 
Crow - - - wa. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 


papi. 
- koota. 


Swan - 


- gunnaworra. 


„ Younger 


tati. 


Egg - 


• murguk. 


Brother-Elder 


waawi. 


Track of a foot 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Ply - - 
Snake - 


paring. 

- wirringil. 

- yampit. 

- liroo. 

- bithuk. 

- koomwil. 


,, Younger 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 


koolquorn. 
wingin. 

- wingingurk. 

- poopan. 


The Blacks - 


- parooquili. 


Children 


- pian-pian-koo. 


A Blackf ellow 


■ kooli. 


Head - 


- mooranuk. 


A Black woman 


- laurk. 


Bye - 


- mirrinik. 


Nose - 


- kaanuk. 


Ear - 


- wirmoolook. 



GUNBOWER STATION. 



509 





No. 208e.— GuNBOWER 


Mouth 


- tharbuk. 


Teeth - 


- lianuk. 


Hair of the head- narranuk. 


Beard 


- narrinuk (?) . 


Thunder - 


- moorandara. 


Grass - 


- yi-ing. 


Tongue 


- tallinuk. 


Stomach 


- beelinuk. 


Breasts 


- koorumbuk. 


Thigh 


- kaarchuk. 


Foot - 


- chinnanuk. 


Bone - 


- maarderuk. 


Blood - 


- korrookuk. 


Skin - 


- mithuk. 


Fat - 


- babulook. 


Bowels 


■ babciuank. 


Excrement - 


- quank. 


War-spear - 


- kigum. 


Reed-spear - 


- garram. 


Throwing-stick 


- karik. 


Shield 


- malga. 


Tomahawk - 


- taree. 


Canoe 


- yungooit. 


Sun - 


- nowee. 


Moon - 


- wiangnil. 


Star - 


- toort. 


Light - 


- wiring. 


Dark - 


- poorooin. 


Cold - 


- poonpoondelang. 


Heat - 


- 


Day ■ , - 


- kaathen bootong. 


Night - 


- kaaralkmin. 


Fire - 


- waanap. 


Water 


- kathin. 


Smoke 


- 


Ground 


- ja. 


Wind - 


- mirrin. 


Rain - 


- midthok. 


God - - 


- 


Ghosts 


- 



Station — continued. 
Boomerang - 
Hill - 

Wood - - beeyal. 

Stone - - - la. 

Camp - - - larrh. 

Yes - - - ungwee. 

No - - - karraba. 

I - - . naaik. 

You - - - neen. 
Bark - 

Good - - - talguk. 

Bad - - - tuilika. 

Sweet- - - talguk. 

Food - - pyonim. 

Hungry - - wigonda. 

Thirsty - - paringoonya. 

Eat - - . kailon. 

Sleep - - - quamba. 

Drink- - - qubillon. 

Walk - - - yanga. 

See .. - - naagundad. 
Sit - - 

Yesterday - - thallik-thallik. 

To-day - - killowit. 

To-morrow - - parragoor. 
Where are the thala parooquili ? 
Blacks? 

I don't ^now - barrabba. 

Plenty - - parook. 

Big . - - kooroombit. 

Little - - - mirdook. 

Dead - - - waathin. 

By-and-by - - killomin. 
Come on - 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 
Wife -, 



510 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 208e.— MOUNT HOPE— PANYOOL DIALECT. 





By the 


Writer. 




Kangaroo - 


- koora. 


Hand - 


. 


Opossum - 


- wille. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


_ 


Wild dog - 


- 


One - 


- kai-ap-men. 


Emu - 


• kowur. 


Two - 


- poUiger. 


Black duck 


_ 






Wood duck 


. 


Three - 


- poUiger kaiap. 


Pelican 


. 


Four - 


- poUiger poUiger. 


Laughing jackass 


Father 


- 


Native companion kut-thoon. 


Mother 


- 


White cockatoo 


- chinap. 


Sister-Elder 


- chachip, 


Crow - 


- wa. 


„ Younger 


- 


Swan - • - 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- wawo. 


Egg - 


- mirgook. 


,, Younger 


Track of a foot 


- 


A young man 


- 


Fish - 


- 


An old man 


- woonwil. 


Lobster 


_ 










An old woman 


. 


Crayfish 


- 






Mosquito - 


- 


A baby 


- pooper. 


Ply . . 


. 


A White man 


- moanyit. 


Snake 


- koorwe. 


Children - 


- papingook. 


The Blacks - 


- peang. 


Head - 


- mooranyool. 


A Blaokfellow 


- 


Eye - 


- mirrenyook, mir 


A Black woman 


- leyoorook. 




nook. 


Nose - 


- kanyook. 


Ear - 


- 





MOUNT 


HOPE. 


OJ 


No. 2081 


.—Mount Hope— Pantool Dialect— con^Mwed. 


Mouth 


champook. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


lianyook. 


Hill - 


■ 


Hair of the head 


■ ngaranyook. 


Wood - 


- 


Beard - 




Stone - 


- 


Thunder - 


• mondarp. 


Camp - 


- 


Grass - 


- ye-in. 


Yes - 


- ngoe. 


Tongue 




No - 


- purrerbook. 


Stomach 




I 


- ngen. 


Breasts 




You - 


- 


Thigh - 




Bark - 


- 


Foot - 


- ohinanyook. 


Good - 


- 


Bone - 




Bad - 


- yettheminook 


Blood - 




Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 




Food - 


- 


Fat - 




Hungry 


- 


Bowels 




Thirsty 


- 


Excrement - 


- popan. 


Eat - 


- 


War-spear •■ 


- ko-i-oon. 


Sleep - 


- 


Eeed-speai - 




Drink - 


- 


Throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- 


Shield 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - - 


- tiir. 

- yoongut. 


See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 


- 


- 


To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are 

Blacks? 
I don't know 


- kelowit. 
the 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- 


Day - 


- 


Big - 


- 


Night - - 


- 


Little - 


- 


Fire - 


- wonap. 


Dead - 


- 


Water 


- 


By-and-by - 


- 


Smoke 
Ground 
Wind- 
Rain - 
God - - 


- mithap. 


Come on - 
Milk - - 
Eaglehawk ■ 
Wild turkey 


- koamit. 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



512 



THE AUSTRALIAN BACB ; 



No. 208o.— KBRANG, LODDON RIVER. 
By the Whiter. 



Kangaroo - 


- waamha. 


Hand - 


- munna. 


Opossum 


- wille. 


2 Blacks - 


- poUaich baang. 


Tame dog - 


- werangun. 


3 Blacks - 


- poUaich kaiup 


Wild dog - 






baang. 


Emu - 


- kowir. 


One - 


- kaiup. 


Black duck / 


- 


Two - 


- pollaich. 


Wood duck 


- ngunuk. 


Three - 


■ pollaich kaiup. 


Pelican 


- nenungoor. 


Four - 


- poUaioh-poUaich 


Laughing jackass korung-korung. 


Father 


- maamin. 


Native companion kotun. 


Mother 


- baabin. 


White cockatoo 


- chinnap. 


Sister-Elder 


- chaoh. 


Crow - 

Swan - 


- waar. 

- koonoowarra. 


„ Younger 
Brother-Elder 


- waawin. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 


- mirk. 

- paring. 

- wainjal. 

- yaapiteh. 


,, Younger kootminyin. 
A young man - kolkoorn. 
An old man - ngoonyim. 
An old woman - ngoonyimgoork. 


Mosquito - 
Fly - - 


- leri. 

- pittik. 


A baby 

A White man 


- pop- 

- mongandi, 


Snake - 


- kornmil. 


Children - 


- embengoo. 


The Blacks - 


- kooli. 


Head - 


- morengin, por- 


A Blackfellow 


- baang. 




pin. 


A Black woman 


- lai-oork. 


Eye - 


- miming. 


Nose - 


- kaa. 


Ear - 


- wirmbool. 



KERANG, LODDON RIVER. 



513 



No. 


208o.— Kebang, Loddon 'Riteb,— continued. 


Mouth 


- kaar. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- lia. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- ngara. 


Wood- 


- kaalk. 


Beard - 


- nganni. 


Stone - 


- laar, kotup. 


Thunder 


- mundar. 


Camp - 


- ngar. 


Grass - 


- boaitch, ying. 


Yes - 


- onge. 


Tongue 


■ challe. 


No - 


- waamba. 


Stomach 


- wiitchoop. 


I 


- ngaitoh. 


Breasts 


- chaang. 


You - 


- ngen. 


Thigh - 




Bark - 


- tolem. 


Foot - 


- chinna. 


Good - 


- talkook. 


Bone - 


- kaalk. 


Bad - 


- yatanandook. 


Blood - 


- koork. 


Sweet - 


- witche-witche. 


Skin - 


- mitch. 




talkook. 


Fat - 


- bapool. 


Food (flesh) 


- yowir. 


Bowels 


- paapkoona. 


, , (vegetable) - paanim. 


Excrement - 


- koonua. 


Hungry 


- wiga. 


War-spear - 


- koo-i-oom. 


Thirsty 


- bangoonya. 


Reed-spear ■ 


- cherram-cheram. 


Eat - 


- chakelang. 


Throwing-stick 


- kaarik. 


Sleep ■ 


- komba. 


Shield 


- malkar, kallawil. 


Drink - 


- koppa. 


Tomahawk - 


- ter. 


Walk - 


- yan-ga. 


Canoe 


- yoongooitoh. 


See - 


- nai-an-ga. 


Sun - 


- nowi. 


Sit 


- nienga. 


Moon - 


- waingmil. 


Yesterday - 


- jelli-jellik. 


Star - 


- toort. 


To-day 


- kelanowik. 


Light - 


- waing. 


To-morrow - 


- barpoo. 


Dark - 


- boroin. 


Where are the 


windjatokooli 


Cold - 


- mirinjuma. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- wonmoondillong. 


I don't know 


- wind] a? 


Day - 


- nowi. 


Plenty 


- baarook. 


Night - 


- boroin. 


Big - 


- korombit. 


Fire - 


- wunnap. 


Little - 


- mirtook. 


Water 


- kattin. 


Dead - 


- wiikin. 


Smoke 


- boort. 


By-and-by - 


- bataga. 


Ground 


- ja. 


Come on 


- nooga yannuk. 


Wind - 


- merring. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- mittuk. 


Baglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 


VOL. III. 


2 


K 





514 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 208h.— NATTI-YALLOOK AND STUART-MILL. 





By the Weitee. 




Kangaroo - 


kora. 


Hand - 


- munya. 


Opossum 


wille. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 


kal. 

yowir. 
ngare. 
piap-piap. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - - 
Four - 


- kiap. 

- poolet. 

- poolet pe kiap 

- poolet poolet. 


Laughing jackass 


koark. 


Father 


- mamook. 


Native companion noorkquang. 


Mother 


- babook. 


White cockatoo - 


chinyap. 


Sister-Elder 


- chaohook. 


Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - - - 

Track of a foot - 

Fish - 


waa. 

koonoowar. 

mirk. 

bakook. 

wiirap. 


,, Younger - 
Brother-Elder - wawook. 

Younger 
A young man - tingatook. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- ngarbe. 


Crayfish 


yapit. 


An old woman 


- winnungoork. 


Mosquito - 

Ply - 

Snake 

The Blacks - 

A Blackfellow - 


■ lirre. 

■ biityik. 
koornmil. 
koole. 
koole. 


A baby 
A White man 
Children 
Head - 


- po-pop. 

- wamakit. 

- poorp. 


A Black woman 


- paibebook. 


Bye - 


- mir. 


Nose - 


■ kaa, 


E^r - 


- wirmbool. 



NATTI-YALLOOK AND STUART-MILL. 


No. 208H. 


— Natti-Yallook and Stitart-Mill- 


-contirmed. 


Mouth 


wooro. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


Ua. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


ngarnook. 


Wood - 


wi. 


Beard - 


ngagne. 


Stone - 


- laa. 


Thunder - 


- mumdar. 


Camp - 


- lar. 


Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach 
Breasts 


boait, 

- tohalle. 

- pilinyook. 

- karbok. 


Yes - 
No - 
I 


- ye-ye. 

- nge-nge. 

- wokok. 


Thigh - 


- kaar. 


You - 


- waan. 


Foot - 


- chinna. 


Bark - 




Bone - 


- kalkok. 


Good ■ 




Blood - 


- korook. 


Bad - 




Skin - 


- mltchook. 


Sweet - 




Fat - 


- papoolok. 


Food - 




Bowels 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 


- koonna. 

- kooioon. 


Hungry 
Thirsty 

Eat - 


- 


Beed-spear - 


- ohark. 


Sleep - 


. 


Throwing-stiok 


- kaarik. 


Drink - 


. 


Shield - 


- malkar. 


Walk - 




Tomahawk - 


- partik. 


See - 


- 


Canoe - 


- yoo-gooip. 


Sit - 


. 


Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 
Heat - 


- ngawe. 

- yel. 

- toort. 

- paarip. 

- boroin. 

- mootelong. 

- woorokal. 


Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are the 
Blacks ? 
I don't know 


windja kooli 
- windja? 


Day - 

Night - 


- paarip. 

- boroin. 


Plenty 

Big - - 


- martook. 


Fire - 


- wi. 


Little - 


- 


Water 


- katchin. 


Dead - 




Smoke 


- boort. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- cha. 


Come on 




Wind - 


- mai-a. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- woUa. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


2 


Wife - 

K2 


" 



515 



516 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 208 1.— MOUNT EMU. 



By Sir Samuel Wilsok. 



Kangaroo - 


koraa. 


Hand - 


- 


Opossum 


wille. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


kaal. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelican 


yowarr. 
maree. 
bearp-bearp. 
- patyangal. 


One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Pour - 


- kyap. 

- boolait. 

- boolait boo kyap 

- boolait boo boo- 


Laughing jackass 


kowark. 




lait. 


Native companion gutun. 


Pather 


- mamay. 


White cockatoo 


katyakar. 


Mother 


- papay. 


Crow - 


waa. 


Sister-Elder 


- tyatgay. 


Swan - 
Elgg . . 
Track of a foot 
Pish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 

Fly . . 

Snake - 


goonoowarra. 
mirk. 
- baray. 


„ Younger - 
Brother-Elder - noway. 
,, Younger 


yaparte. 

- layray. 
mooroo. 

- kurumil. 


A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 


- tringit te koolay 

- mategooly. 

- matebangerago. 

- poopoop. 

- amaikeek. 


The Blacks - 


koolay. 


Children 


- poopoop. 


A Blackfellow 


- koolay. 


Head - 


- poorop. 


A Black woman 


- byang, byango. 


Eye - 


- myrr. 


Nose - 




Ear - 


- wirmbool. 





MOUNI 


EMU. 




No. 2081.— Mown 


Emtt — continvied. 


Mouth 


wooroo. 


Boomerang - 


Teeth - 


leea. 


Hill - 


Hair of the head 


ugarra. 


Wood - 


Beard - 


ngayay. 


Stone - 


Thunder - 




Camp - 


Grass - 




Yes - 


Tongue 




No - 


Stomach 




I 


Breasts 




You - 


Thigh - 




Bark - 


Foot - 




Good - 


Bone - 




Bad - 


Blood - 




Sweet - 


Skin - 




Pood - 


Fat - 




Hungry 


Bowels 




Thirsty 


Excrement - 




Eat - 


War-spear - 




Sleep - 


Reed-spear - 




Drink - 


Throwing-stick 




Walk- 


Shield- 
Tomahawk - 




See - 
Sit 


Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - - 




Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are the 
Blacks? 


Cold - 




I don't know 


Heat - 




Plenty 


Day - 




Big - 


Night - 




Little - 


Fire - 




Dead - 


Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind - 
Rain - 
God - 


boodudyall. 


By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 


Ghosts 


karal. 


Wife - 



517 



518 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 208j.— MOORABOOL— JIBBERIN LANGUAGE. 





By the 


Writbk. 




Kangaroo - 


- koim. 


Hand - 


- mirnuk. 


Opossum 


- woUert. 


2 Blacks - 


- polagi kooli. 


Tame dog - 


- kal. 


3 Blacks - 


polagi koinmet ta 


Wild dog - 


- 




kooli. 


Emu - 


- kowir. 










One - 


koinmet. 


Black duck - 


- tolom. 






Wood duck 




Two - 


polagi. 


Pelican 


- birdungal. 


Three - 


polagi koinmet. 


Laughing jackass 


kowaruk. 


Pour - 


polagi polagi. 


Native companion porenget. 


Father 


bitjung. 


White cockatoo 


- kinnap. 


Mother 


ngardung. 


Crow - 


- wa. 


Sister-Elder 


wooranark. 


Swan - 


- koonoowarra. 


,, Younger 




Egg - - 


kie. 


Brother-Elder 


waartoong. 


Track of a foot 




„ Younger 


waangut. 


Fish - 
Lobster 


koein. 


A young man 


goolgun. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


tchoriong. 
ngaioong. 


An old man 
An old woman 


pidjarongjnedok. 
mudogoork. 


Fly - 


■ chogot. 


A baby 




Snake - 


koornmil. 


A White man 


ngammaigi. 


The Blacks - 


boorogn. 


Children - 




A Blackfellow 


kooli. 


Head - - - 


moork. 


A Black woman 


- baiargook. 


Eye - 


mir. 


Nose - 


kaanatuk. 


Ear - 


wirnaatuk. 





MOORABOOL. 


519 


No. 208j. — MooEABOOL — JiBBEEiN LANGUAGE — Continued. 


Mouth 


- wooro. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- leanatuk. 


Hill - - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- ngarmooretuk. 


Wood 


- wiin. 


Beard 


- 


Stone - 


- laark. 


Thunder - 


- mundara. 


Camp - 


- karong. 


Grass - 


- paraark. 


Yes - 


- e-or-ge. 


Tongue 


- galanatuk. 


No - 


- noolam. 


Stomach 


- gtongatuk. 


I 


- 


Breasts 


- baab. 


You - 


- 


Thigh - 


- karingatuk. 


Bark - 


- moorat. 


Foot - 


- chinnongatuk. 


Good - 


- koonibenyook. 


Bone - 


- 


Bad ~ 


- noolam (?). 


Blood - 


- 


Sweet - 




Skin - 


- mityatuk. 


Food - 


_ 


Fat - 


- maamboolatuk. 


Hungry 


- 


Bowels 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


Excrement - 


- 


Eat - 


- koodjalla. 


War-spear - 


- kaarp. 


Sleep - 


- kombangat. 


Reed-spear - 


- jaark. 


Drink - 


- ngobiith. 


Throwing-stick 


- daar, murreone. 


Walk - 


- yannoik. 


Shield 


- malga. 


See - 


. 


Tomahawk - 


- kalbalerak. 


Sit - 


. 


Canoe - 


- korong, yaoot." 


Yesterday - 


- taleo. 


Sun - 


- mering. 


To-day 


. 


Moon - 


- yert. 


" J 




Star - 


- toortberang. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 


- yeramb. 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- moorgal. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- motoongating. 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- kongat. 


Plenty 


- dedarbil. 


Day - 


- yeramb. 


Big - - 


- 


Night 


- moorgal. 


Little - 


- 


Fire - 


- wiin. 


De3,d - 


- dedangatoo. 


Water 


- ngobik. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Smoke 


- bolt. 


Come on 


- yanna, worrewa 


Ground 


- jaar. 




ko-ko. 


Wind- 


- kutgirt. 


Milk - ■■ 


- 


Rain - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



BOOK THE TWENTY-FIRST. 



BOOK THE TWENTY-FIRST. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

The language of which specimens of four dialects are given 
in this book was spoken by twelve or fourteen tribes. Its 
vocabularies have many words which agree with those in 
the last book. With the Ngooraialum tribe (language 
No. 209a) I was well acquainted when a young man, and 
knew something of their language. Concerning the country 
occupied by the tribes dwelt on in this book, I have received 
the following information from Albert A. 0. Le Souef, Esq., 
who had, in the early days of the colony, excellent oppor- 
tunities of being well informed on the subject. He says : — 

" Starting from the first available country on the Upper 
Goulburn, as far down as the present Yea or Doogalook, and 
taking the Miller's Creek country (where the Plenty River 
tribe came in), the Bootherboolok had their habitations, and 
numbered, I should think, some one hundred souls. Then 
down the river to the Old Crossing Place (now Tabilk) came 
the Natrakboolok Blacks, occupying both banks of the river. 
This tribe would also, I am of opinion, number one hundred 
persons, old and young. All the country from the Dividing 
Range, where Heathcote now is, and Pyalong, belonged to 
the Nerboolok, one of their principal haunts being the curious 
little hUl near Bradford, known as the Sugarloaf. This 
tribe, I think, must have numbered fully two hundred souls. 
From the Old Crossing Place, on the Goulburn, down to 
about the present Toolamba, was owned by the Ngooraialum; 
below Toolamba the strong and numerous Bangerang tribe 
owned the river, as you are aware, to its junction with the 



524 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Murray. The Ngooraialum stood rather in dread of the 
Bangerang, and never, I think, felt very comfortable if 
camped mnch below what is now Murchison. On the north 
of the river they went back to the Seven Creeks and the 
present Violet Town, where they met the Upper Broken 
Eiver and Ovens Blacks. On the south they owned the 
country which at present constitutes Whroo and Eushworth, 
and met the Pimpandoor on the Wongulta and Colbinabbin 
Plains. The Ngooraialum, Bootherboolok, Natrakboolok, 
and Nerboolok were very much mixed up by intermar- 
riages, and often fought together against the Bangerang 
and Pimpandoor. I think the Ngooraialum mustered two 
hundred souls, old and young, and that the total number of 
the four tribes would be six hundred. My information 
about the location of the tribes I obtained from an intelligent 
Natrakboolok, Ned Narrabin by name ; the numbers I have 
given are from my own observation, but I had considerable 
opportunities of judging, and I don't think I am far wrong. 
I may say that I think the estimate of the entire population 
given in Brough Smyth's work very much below the actual 
number. The four tribes I have spoken of formed a sort of 
petty nation; they spoke the same language, and, as I have 
said, fought side by side, though separated into distinct 
tribes, each owning its own territory." 

It is now about thirty-four years since I last heard Ngoo- 
raialum spoken, and the following Additional Words and 
Phrases are all I can call to mind: — 

Stringybark-tree - - . . irip. 

Gum-tree . - - . . beal. 

Box-tree birtpool. 

Yam - mo-i-yool, barum. 

Yam-stick ... - - wolo-ain. 

Mamia - - - - - - laap. 

Ruddle or red ochre - - noro-noro. 

As damper, or bush bread, was baked in the ashes, in the 
same way that the Blacks converted a certain sort of red clay 
in to ruddle, the Ngooraialum called damper noro^ and 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 



525 



inthage noro mitta Cowel (give bread Mr. Curr) was at one 
time a very common sound in my ears. 

Indian com - - - - - narangat. 
Blanket - . . . . yallanebirong- 

Plain waark. 

Blacks outside of those known to bukkeen. 

the tribe 
Creek ------ yellami. 

Names of Greeks in the Countet of the Noooeaiaium. 



Eaglehawk Creek 
Dog Creek 
Opossum Creek 
Crayfish Creek 



yellami Poongil. 
yellami Erangen. 
yellami WoUert. 
yellami Boongangooloom. 
yellami goloro. 



Ring-tailed opossum - - - pigil. 

Lyrebird booUum-boollum. 

A sort of duck - - . . koonabbil. 
Ibis ..--.. paipadjerook. 
Women baadjerboolok. 

Yellam, bark of a tree and also camp, seems to have 
been changed into ilium, to express the people who dwelt in 
any land. Thus we have Waaringulum, to denote the people 
who dwelt lower down on the Goulburn, which the Ngoo- 
raialum called Waaring; Wongatpaiillum, the tribe which 
dwelt at Wongat, a part of the Moira; Tidneillum, men who 
come from Sydney, and probably Ifgooaiillum, people of 
Ngoorai, contracted into Ngooraialum. 

Opossum-rug thathowool. 

Anus moom. 

Talk thomnge. 

Boys ------ kolinoro. 

Girls booboonark. 

Husband . . - - . koliin. 

Give me a fire-stick (or fire) - - inthaje wiin. 

(I have) no fire - . - - aiabuntukka wiin. 

Thin nelamjuk. 

To evacuate ----- konyoobok. 
None ------ ai-i-a. 

Sick jerrarning. 

Look there ----- naangano. 



526 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Let us go - - - - - - yanne. 

Make haate ----- onde. 

Where (is my) wife ? - - : - indakorrin baadjur ? 

(I) don't know indunga. 

Darling, or dear - - . . oonyamnik. 
To-morrow I will go - - - yeramboi pooringdaring. 

Fetch water ----- waamduk baarn. 

(I'm) dry konboothinal. 

Reach (me my) tomahawk - - konak karagik. 
To-morrow I'll fight - - - yeramboi chipcherangan. 
To-morrow I will go to Colbinabbin- yeramboi karnambathin 

Kolbinabbin. 
There are plenty of yams there - woorthoondok poiul chondo. 
To-morrow I hunt emu - - - yeramboi pooringdaring 

baraimal. 
Be off - - - ■ - - tooi ! or towakjanni ! 

Names of Places in the Neighbourhood of Colbinabbin. 

WoUinjo. 

Ariogobarning. 

Toonaiba. 

iniumbubil. 

Boobarndoo (Mount Scobie). 

Nammerong. 

Yibberithoop. 

Koragorag (now called Crag-crag). 

Puramburt (now called Burramboot). 

Paboinboolok (Lake Cooper). 

Goberip. 

Gargarro. 

Kraigin. 

Yallook (The Campaspe). 

Purniwong. 

Beul. 

Woranga. 

Korop. 

Taimuruig (now called Timmering). 

Wongulta (called One-halter Plaia). 

Chirazabel. 

Baangyoobyne. 

Ttirndaim. 

Konela (called Cornelia Creek). 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 527 

Names ov Men. 
Kolopka. 
Wawgroot. 
Berrm-berrin, or spur- winged plover. 

Names of Women. 
Poormaning. 
Karwitha. 
Tapaming. 
Turtool. 
Orgenangarook. 

The dialect of the tribe (now extinct for some forty years) 
on whose country stands the city of Melbourne was early 
collected by the late Daniel Bunce, and in 1856 published 
under the title of Language of the Aborigines of the Colony 
of Victoria. Mr. Bunce, who eventually became manager of 
the public gardens at Greelong, worked about Melbourne in 
the forties, for my father amongst others, as a gardener. 
Though we owe it to his efforts that any record of the Mel- 
bourne language is extant, it is necessary to say that he was 
quite uncultivated as regards languages ; that his vocabulary 
is evidently replete with errors, and can only be depended on 
when the most simple words are concerned. As the title of 
his little work shows, Mr. Bunce was under the impression 
that all the Victorian tribes spoke the same language. 

As regards the river which flows through the country 
which used to be occupied by the tribe under consideration, 
its name was not Yarra-Yarra, but Bay-ray-rung, as I have 
been informed by Blacks resident at Ooranderrk, whose 
fathers dwelt on its banks. The name Yarra-Yarra was re- 
ported by Mr. Wedge, a surveyor, who came upon it with a 
strange Black from Geelong. The latter probably when he 
saw it exclaimed yanna ! yanna ! or it flows ! it flows ! and 
that this exclamation, imperfectly noted, was accepted as the 
name of the river. 

The Melbourne Blacks used to throw the boomerang with 
greater skill than any others I have witnessed. In their 
hands it was a wonderful toy. 



528 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 209a.— SEYMOUR TO MURCHISON, PART OF GOULBURN 
RIVER, WHROO, ETC.— NGOORALALUM LANGUAGE. 





Bt the 


Writer. 




Kangaroo - 


- maram. 


Hand - 


- mirnong. 


Opossum - 


- woUert. 


2 Blacks - 


- polabel koliin- 


Tame dog - 


- yerangen. 




boolok. 


Wild dog - 

Emu - - baraimal. 

Black duck - tolom. 

Wood duck - paokmoom. 

Pelican 

Laughing jackass 

Native companion krork. 


3 Blacks - 

One • 

Two - 
Three - 
Four - 


- polabel koptoon 

koliinboolok. 

- kop, koptun. 

- polabel. 

- polabel kop. 

- polabel-polabel. 


White cockatoo 


- kaan. 


Father 


- manmoornong. 


Crow - 


- wong. 


Mother 


- bawain. 


Swan - 


- koonoowarra. 


Sister-Elder 


- paanbin. 


Egg - - 


- dirandil. 


,, Younger 


- 


Track of a foot 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- bumumbi. 


Fish - 
Lobster 


- boonggangoo- 

loom, 

- kogok. 

- moouoloom. 


„ Youngc 
Young men- 


r 
- yen-yen-boolok. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - • 


An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 


- thaingola. 

- wirkoork. 

- pobop. 


Snake - 


- koloonoon. 


A White man 


- ngamaigi. 


The Blacks 


- koliinboolok. 


Children 


- 


A Blackf ellow 


- koliin. 


Head - 


- kowong. 


A Black woman 


- baadjur. 


Eye - 


- merin. 


Nose - 


- kaag. 


Ear - 


- wim. 



SEYMOUR TO MURCHISON, BTC. 



529 



No. 209a.— Setmoue to Mttechison, Part or Goxjlburn Eivee, Wheoo, 
Etc. — NoooKAiALTJM Language — continued. 



Mouth 


- woorro. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- laan. 


Hill - - 


- pannol. 


Hair of the heac 


- kowung. 


Wood - 


- kaalk. 


Beard 




Stone - 


- moegin, batto- 


Thunder - 


- ngondabil. 




batto. 


Grass , 


- boai. 


Gamp - 


- yellam. 


Tongue 


- tchellang. 


Yes - - 


- ai-e. 


Stomach 


• barbagon. 


No - 


- thago. 


Breasts 


- hiring, brim-brim 


I 


- waan. 


Thigh - - 


- dering. 


You - 


- waar. 


Foot - 


- ohinnong. 


Bark - - 


- yellam. 


Bone - 


- kalgo. 


Good - 


- pondap. 


Blood - 


- kork. 


Bad - 


- mattabe. 


Skin - 


- marok. 


Sweet - 


_ 


Fat - 


- marmbool. 


Food - 


_ 


Bowels 


- koomong. 


Hungry 


- niribrooia. 


Excrement - 


- koomong. 


Thirsty 


- bekoonian. 


War-spear - 


- ko-i-oon. 


Eat - - 


- thange. 


Reed-spear - 


- djerar. 


Sleep - 


- kurnambooman. 


Throwing-stick 


- karek, marewun. 


Drink - 


- ngoban. 


Shield - 


- girab. 


Walk- 


- y-annonan. 


Tomahawk - 


- karagik. 


See - 


- nganoonan. 


Canoe - 


- korom. 


Sit - 


- allambanan. 


Sun - 


- nganmiai. 


Yesterday - 


- yulungoi. 


Moon - 


- miman.l 






Star - 


- toort. 


To-day 


- karemin. 


Light - 


karemin. 


To-morrow - 


- yeramboi. 


Dark - 


- boroiu, moolok- 


Where are 


;he indakoriu koliin 




moolok. 


Blacks ? 


boolok? 


Cold - 


- motoon. 


I don't know 


- Ludiinga. 


Heat - 


uarawing, ngam- 


Plenty 


- woorthoondok. 


Day - 


mai. 
- karemin. 


Big - - 


•■ woortaboo. 


Night - 


- boroin. 


Little - 


- wikork. 


Fire - 


- wiin. 


Dead - 


- wimdabil. 


Water 


- baam, woUoon. 


By-and-by - 


- mallemalto. 


Smoke 


• boort. 


Come on 


- ngonde. 


Ground 


- biik, pik. 


Milk - 




Wind - 


- gorin. 






Rain - 


- yeul. 


Eaglehawk - 


- poongil. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- birrail. 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- baadjur. 


VOL. III. 


2 


L 





530 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 209b.— HEALESVILLE, UPPER YARRA— OOEONGIR 
LANGUAGE. 

By the Weiter. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - - - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow 
Swan 

Egg - - 

Track of a foot - 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Ply - - - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow - 
A Black woman - 
Nose - - 



koim. 

wollert. 

werangun. 

baraimal. 

tolom. 

bebeup. 

waajil. 

tororo. 

krork. 

ngaiook. 

waan. 

koonoowara. 

dirandin. 

baareng. 

boongangooloom. 

kogok. 

kurumburra. 

koornmil. 

koliinboolok. 

kolin. 

baidjarook. 

kaaong. 



Hand - 

2 Blacks 

3 Blacks 



mimong. 



One - 


- kaambo. 


Two - 


- benjero. 


Three - 


- benjero kaambo 


Four - 


- benjero on 




benjero. 


Father 


- maama. 


Mother 


- paapa. 


Sister-Elder 


- laandan. 


,, Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- baangain. 


„ Younger 


A young man 


- jeje. 


An old man 


- wigabbil. 


An old woman 


- moondegork. 


A baby 


- pobop. 


A White man 


- ngammaigi. 


Children 


- 


Head - 


- kowong. 


Eye - 


- mirn. 


Bar - 


- wim, 



HEALESVILLE, UPPER YARRA. 



531 



No. 209b. — Heaiesvillb, 


Uppbk Yabka— 


OORONGIE 




Language- 


-coTiiinued. 




Mouth - 


- woorro. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- leurn. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heae 


- yarre-kowong. 


Wood - 


- kaal. 


Beard - 


- yarre-umdok. 


Stone - 


- laan. 


Thunder 


- ngondabbil. 


Camp - 


- willam. 


Grass - 


- boai. 


Yes - 


- yi-yi. 


Tongue 


- tchillong. 


No 


- yootha. 


Stomach 


- boet. 


I 


- aarambik. 


Breasts 


- birring. 


You - 


- marambina. 


Thigh - 


- djereng. 


Bark - 


- willam. 


Foot - 


- chinnong. 






Bone - 


- nillung. 


Good - 


- pondap. 


Blood - 


- kork. 


Bad - 


- nuUam. 


Skin - 


- paap. 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- marmbool. 


Food - 


- 


Bowels 


- koonna. 


Hungry 


- nerebrooin. 


Excrement ■ 


- goon. 


Thirsty 


- konboonanan. 


War-spear - 


- koioon. 


Eat - 


- thanjip. 


Reed-spear - 


- jerrar. 


Sleep - 


- yimmoonan. 


Throwing-stick 


- kareg. 


Drink - 


- mooean. 


Shield - 


- jiram. 


Walk - 


- yannanan. 


Tomahawk ■ 


- moring. 


See - 


- nganganan. 


Canoe - ' - 


- korom. 


Sit - 


- allambanan. 


Sun - 
Moon - 


- ngiwen. 

- miman. 


Yesterday - 


- yellungoit. 


Star - 


- toort. 


To-day 


- yellunbo. 


Light - 


- yellembo. 


To-morrow - 


- yeramboi. 


Dark - 


- boroin. 


Where are the 


indakoliinbolokl 


Cold - 


- monmoot. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- woloon. 


I don't know 


- indunga. 


Day - 


- yellembo. 


Plenty 


- woorthoonda 


Night - 


- boroin. 


Big - 


- 


Fire - 


- wiin. 


Little - 


- waigo. 


Water - 


- baam. 


Dead - 


- wigai. 


Smoke - 


- boort. 


By-and-by - 


- mollogo. 


Ground 


- buk. 


Come on 


■ warewe. 


Wind - 


- 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- purnmubil, 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


2] 


Wife 

La 


" 



532 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 209c.— LOWER YARRA. 



Feom Daniel Bunch's Vocabtjlart. 



Kanga\:oo - 




Hand - 


- myrongatha. 


Opossum 




2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog • 




3 Blacks 


- 


Wild dog - 




One - 


- carnboo. 


Emu - 




Two - 


- benjeroo. 


Black duck - 


toolome. 


Three - 


- benjeroo vor 


Wood duck - 






carnboo. 


Pelican 




Four - 


- benjeroo vor 


Laughing jackass 






benjeroo. 


Native companion 




Father 


- marmoonth. 


White cockatoo - 


nayook. 


Mother 


- parbine. 


Crow - 


waang. 


Sister-Elder 


- moUokin. 


Swan - 


koonwarra. 


,, Younger 


- 


Egg - - - 


dirundirri. 


Brother-Elder 


- wunthulong. 


Track of a foot - 
Fish - - - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - 


touit. 

tooiyung. 

bir-ma-buck. 


„ Young 
A young man 
An old man- 
An old woman 
A baby 


3r 
- booboop. 


Snake - 


coornmil. 


A White man 


- allambee. 


The Blacks - 


cooleenth. 


Children 


- oothanong. 


A Blackfellow 


cooleenth. 


Head - 


- oowong. 


A Black woman - 


baggarook. 


Eye - 


- myrringatha. 


Nose - 


congatha. 


Ear - 


- kidnougatha. 



LOWER YAREA. 



533 



No. 209c. — Lower Yaeba — continued. 



Mouth 


- worongatha. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- leongatha. 


Hill - 


- morack. 


Hair of the head- yarragong-atha. 


Wood - 


- kalk. 


Beard - 


- yarragondock. 


Stone - 


. 


Thunder 


- drumbuUabuU. 


Camp - 


- mierum, willam 


Grass - 


- poath. 


Yes - 


- um um. 


Tongue 


, 










No 


- nuther. 


Stomach 


- thoronee, bel- 


I 






ling'atha. 


" 


Breasts 


- brimbrimgatha. 


You - 


- mirambeena. 


Thigh - 


- thirrongatha. 


Bark - 


- 


Foot - 


- geenongatha. 


Good - 


- monomeeth. 


Bone - 


- n'yeelang. 


Bad - 


- n'yellan. 


Blood - 


- gooroomul. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- tatbee. 


Food - 


- jinrlaTTiing, 


Fat - 


- mirmbul. 




thangoith. 


Bowels 


- bindirk. 


Hungry 


- nerriburdin. 


Excrement - 


- oonoug. 


Thirsty 


- 


War-spear - 


- neerini. 


Eat - 


- thangarth. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- umlna. 


Throwing-stick 


- 


Drink - 


- noobuck. 


Shield - 


- 


Walk - 


- yannathan. 


Tomahawk - 


- galbiling n'gar- 


See - 


- mirambiak 




rook. 




nangooth. 


Canoe - 


- koroug. 


Sit - 


- allambee. 


Sun - 


- noweenth. 






Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 


- miniyan. 

- tutbyrum. 

- noweenth, dur- 


Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 


" yeUingbo. 

- booyboorooing. 




ran-durran. 


WTiere are 


the 


Dark - 


- booroonth. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- cabbin. 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- bullarto. 


Day - 


- 


Big - 


- bullarto. 


Kight 


- booronthooith. 


Little - 


- wyeeboo. 


Fire - 


- weenth. 


Dead - 


- murmbul(?). 


Water 


- baanth. 


By-and-by - 




Smoke 
Ground 


- beek. 


Come on 


- 


Wind - 


- mornmoot. 


Milk - 


- brim-brim. 


Rain - 


- baanth mellaba. 


Eaglehawk - 


- winjeel. 


God - 


- bullarto mar- 


Wild turkey 


- 




miugatha. 


Wife - 


- coolenyee bag- 


Ghosts 


- 




garook. 



634 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 209d.— MORDIYALLOOK. 





By THE 


Weitee. 




Kangaroo - 


koim. 


Hand - 


murnung. 


Opossum 


willert. 


2 Blacks - 


polabel koliin. 


Tame dog - 


werangun. 


3 Blacks - 


polabel koptoon 


Wild dog - 






koliin. 


Emu - 


baraimal. 


One - 


kop, koptoon. 


Black duck - 


tolom. 






Wood duck 


lekolabel. 


Two - 


polabel. 


Pelican 


waeil. 


Three - 


polabel kop. 


Laughing jackass tharowerag. 


Four - 


polabel-polabel. 


Native companion 


korrok. 


Father 


mamon. 


White cockatoo 


ngaiyok. 


Mother 


paba. 


Crow - 


waang. 


Sister-Elder 


ladtha. 


Swan - 


koonoowar. 


„ Younger 




Egg - . 


-dirandel. 


Brother-Elder 


jaiait. 


Track of afoot 


bareng. 


„ Younger 


Fish - 


wiraap. 


A young man 


yenyin. 


Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


toing. 


An old man 


- wegobel. 


kokak. 


An old woman 


moorndigork. 


Fly - 


kawn, kaaragak. 


A baby 


pobop. 


Snake - 


kaan. 


A White man 


ngamaigi. 


The Blacks 


koliinbolak. 


Children 


pobop. 


A Blackfellow 


koliin. 


Head - 


- kowong. 


A Black woman 


badjer. 


Eye - 


- mern. 


Nose - 


- kaang. 


Ear - 


- wiring. 



MORDIYALLOOK. 



535 





No. 209d. — MoRDiYALLOOK — Continued. 


Mouth 


worong. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth 


liang. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


yare kowong. 


Wood- 


- kaalk. 


Beard 


yare ngunduk. 


Stone - 


- lum. 


Thunder ■ 


- morndabel. 


Camp- 


- woUum. 


Grass - 


- boait. 


Yes - 


- ngai-e. 


Tongue 


- djellan. 


No - 


- thaog, indunga. 


Stomach 


- maarp. 


I 


- boordop. 


Breasts 


- brim-brim. 


You - 


- ngulum. 


Thigh 


■ jaam. 


Bark - 


- willum. 


Foot - 


- chinnong. 


Good - 


- monamiit. 


Bone - 


- ngem. 


Bad - 


- mattabe, pallim. 


Blood - 


- karnmool. 


Sweet 




Skin - 


- daap. 


Food - 




Fat - 


- maarmbool. 


Hungry 


- ngerebrooin. 


Bowels 


- koomong. 


Thirsty ' - 


- konboonoon, 


Excrement - 


- koomong. 




koondebain. 


War-spear - 


- ko-i-oon. 


Eat - 


- thaange. 


E^ed-spear- 


- djerar. 


Sleep - 


- kamambooin. 


Wommera - 


- karek. 










Drink- 


- thamok. 


Shield 


- kiarm. 










Walk - 


- yannag. 


Tomahawk - 


- kalbalenark. 










See - 


- nganak. 


Canoe 


- korong. 


Sit - 


- ngalambe. 


Sun - 


- ngamraai. 






Moon - 


- mernian. 


Yesterday - 


- yeloongoil. 


Star - 


- toortbairn. 


To-day 


- yeloombok. 


Light - 


- iram. 


To-morrow 


- yeramboi. 


Dark - 


- poorpin. 


Where are the 


windakorim ko 


Cold - . 


- taambulk. 


Blacks? 


liinolok ? 


Heat - 


- ngoiin. 


I don't know 


- indunga. 


Day - 




Plenty 


- woortondok. 


Night. 


- pooroin. 


Big - - 


- woortha. 


Fire - 


- wiin. 


Little - 


- wiben. 


Water 


- baarn. 


Dead - 


wiirgai. 


Smoke 


- boort. 


By-and-by - 


- mooloko. 


Ground 


- biik. 


Come on - 


- warrewi. 


Wind 


- mornmot. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- pumabel. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 





BOOK THE TWENTY-SECOND. 



BOOK THE TWENTY-SECOND. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

GiPPSLAND is the south-eastern portion of the colony of 
Victoria. Prior to the coming of the Whites, this district 
was a remarkably isolated one. Small-pox, which overran the 
rest of the colony, never reached its tribes, and, setting aside 
an occasional war-party which made a flying attack on some 
tribe on the Yarra (and, I believe, on the Strathbogie Ranges), 
and then retreated, and pretty frequent meetings on the 
Snowy River with what are called the Bidwell and Moneroo 
Blacks, the Gippsland tribes had no outside relations. Of 
these tribes, Mr. A. W. Howitt, F.G.S., has given a very 
interesting account in a work entitled Kamilaroi and Kurnai, 
which, however, differs in some important particulars from 
what has been communicated to me on the subject by Mr. 
John Bulmer, who has been many years in charge of one of 
the Government Reserves on which a portion of the Gippsland 
Blacks are domiciled. As I think Mr. Bulmer an excellent 
authority, I shall lay before the reader the statements which 
I have received from him. 

Mr. Howitt, in the work just referred to, sets down the 
Gippsland tribes as five in number, but it seems probable 
that there were more, as I have received from Mr. Bulmer 
the vocabulary of a tribe which dwelt at Omeo. This 
vocabulary differs from that of the Brabrolung tribe, whilst 
Omeo has been included by Mr. Howitt in their country. 
The names of the tribes given by Mr. Howitt, which no 
doubt are correct as far as they go, are, commencing from 



540 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

the sonth-west of Gippsland, the Bratanolung, the Braiako- 
lung, the Brahrolung (or Brad-ow-oo-loong, as I have heard 
a Blackfellow pronounce the word), the Tatungolung, and the 
Kroatungolung. Looking at them collectively, it is im- 
portant to notice that three out of their five names commence 
with the word Bra — man — and all terminate in lung (loong?), 
circnmstances which, joined to the affinity of their languages, 
leave no doubt that these tribes, which, as we learn, so often 
fought and so often made friends, were closely related by 
blood, and, in fact, one descended from the other. 

Immediately to the east of the Kroatungolung, itself the 
most easterly of the Gippsland tribes, we have one named 
Birtowall, or scrub people, and Mr. Bulmer remarks that the 
Kroatungolung, in whose country is the Snowy River, fra- 
ternize with the Brahrolung ; and the Birtowall, or as they are 
commonly called Bidwell or Bidwelli Blacks, with the tribes of 
Moneroo, to whose speech their own is akin. Examining into 
this subject I find, in fact, that from the Snowy River west- 
erly to the limits of Gippsland the several languages are 
closely related amongst themselves, and allied to those of 
Central Yictoria, and through them to Wiiratheri and Kamil- 
aroi ; on the other hand, passing over the Birtowall language, 
said to be related to that of Moneroo, but of which I have 
not been able to obtain a specimen, we find the languages 
between Gape Howe and Sydney Cove differing from those of 
Gippsland, and strongly connected amongst themselves, in 
proof of which the following tables are given: — 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 



541 






■e PI 

J o 

-^ el 

■s i 

O -S 

o ^ 

a S 

^ 2 



o § 

i I 

3 is 

a !=i 

S g 

<B o 

'rt a 

■^ s 



n 

e3 

















> 












6 


c5 so 

' II 




1 .. i t-i 

3 g, 2 60 


i! 














g 


^ 


^1 


^ 


O izi P3 M 


3 o 


o 












S" 




1 




■ 1 1 




5 


1 


t .a 

o o rf 


1 


111' ' 


1 1 










a o ,s 




1 




ffl M w 




S M !2; 




w 












1 

s 


1 


i || 


.1 =3 
11 


i 1 1^ 1 


1 
1 1 


1 


1 


^ s 


y ^ 


^^■l 


sS 


1 

a 


1 §1 


1 

a 
i 


■■s o o .g 
§ 1^ iz; M 


1 1 




M 




. 


, 




o 




1 


« 1 § . 


rt 1 




§ 
a 


ill 

w m M 




1 i 1 i 
a ^ M ft 






s 










■g 




.1 i 

S3 " § 
III 


rib 

_e 


g '^ s o 13 
M ^ W ^ ^ 


1 ' 

1 


d 

a 

o 


° 1 1 
1-5 l> Iz; 


i 


1 1 1 1 1 


1 i 














3 
1 
.1 

o 


bo 

1 


■ i 

II' 


.g 


1 bo bo § i 

" g a o g rt 

;3^ wll ^ 


1 I 






' 


a bo 


■ 


1 




1 :S 1 
1 


,i4 

1 


tin 1 


1 




o „ ' 


bo 


■ 1 1 1 1 


' . 




1 


i 


f - 








1 


II t 

,=3 a S 




S i^ 1 1 ■§ 


.g -s 

t| 3 






M O H 


H 


O H H CQ P^ 


A ft 



542 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Table showing affinities between the Brabrolung Language and several 
Wiiratheri Dialects. 



English. 


Gippsland. 


Wiiratheri. 


Place where Dialect is 
spoken. 


Opossum - 


Wodthan - 


Willee 


Upper Castlereagh. 


Dog - - - 


Merrigang 


Merree 


a 


Emu - 


Miowera - 


Ouring 


)) 


Snake 


Toorung - 


Doorung - 


)» 


Stone - 


Wallung - 


Warlung - 


Bogan River. 


Breasts 


Beng 


Bere - 


)5 


Fat - 


Warnewan 


Warnoo - 


>) 


You - 


Nindo 


Indoo 


>) 


Bad - 


Dinden 


Yingil 


J) 


Hungry 


Mreman - 


Marang - 


)) 


Skin - 


Yone 


Yulin 


Macquarie Kiver. 


Tomahawk - 


Gwean 


Berguin - 


3» 


Moon - 


Wane 


Gewang - 


)» 


Dark - 


Bookang - 


Buddong - 


)> 


Rain - 


Willang - 


Kaling 


J» 


Yesterday - 


Warran - 


Uningwarra 


Dubbo. 


Stone - 


Wallung - 


Wallung - 


Bathurst. 



As the result of the facts set out, supported as they are 
by the evidence of language, I arrive at the following conclu- 
sions, viz., That Gippsland began to be peopled at its western 
extremity by Wiiratheri-descended Blacks from the valley of 
the Yarra ; that the first comers into this district continued 
to increase, and spread themselves in every direction, in 
which they were not prevented from so doing by mountains 
or dense scrubs, until they came in contact, in the neighbour- 
hood of Cape Howe, with tribes which had reached that 
locality by following the coast line from Sydney Harbour; 
and finally that, on the meeting of these Yarra and Sydney 
descended tribes, the occupation of this continent by the 
aboriginal race became complete at this point. It is to be 
borne in mind that Gippsland is all but surrounded by 
scrubs and mountains, which are nearly impenetrable, and 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 543 

that it was this circumstance which cut off communication 
between the Blacks of that district and those of the Yarra 
valley, and restricted their outside relations to the Birtowall 
and Moneroo tribes. , What time it took for the first comers 
to spread themselves throughout Gippsland there is nothing 
to show, except that it was sufficiently long to allow of the 
growth of several languages, and of their descendants 
increasing to as many as 1,500 souls. What time has 
elapsed since the occupation of Australia by the Blacks 
became complete is another question, to which no reply can 
be given, except that no fact has come to light which would 
lead to the suspicion that the occurrence has been of recent 
date. Indeed, were it not for the deductions to be drawn 
from the languages and customs of the continent as a whole, 
it would be impossible to predicate that the tribes on the 
north coast have existed from a more ancient date than 
those of Gippsland, and yet there is probably a difference 
of several hundred years between the epochs at which the 
two coasts were first peopled. 

The last of the vocabularies which appears in this book, 
No. 213, has no connection with those of Gippsland. It 
belongs to an isolated tribe on the Upper Murray, of which 
but three members were left when I received it, and is 
inserted here for convenience' sake. A second rendering of 
this vocabulary, which I received from the late G. E. H. 
Stuckey, I have not thought necessary to insert. 



No. 210.— GIPPSLAND. 

A GOOD deal of difficulty has been experienced with the 
vocabularies of Gippsland, for the remnants of the tribes 
which spoke them, having now dwelt together for twenty or 
thirty years, their languages have become much mixed. 
Originally, there were probably six or seven distinct lan- 
guages in this district — of one of these, that -spoken by 



544 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

the Brabrolung or Brad-ow-oo-loong tribe, four renderings 
are given; and of Omeo and the Snowy Eiver, one each. 

The following account of the Brabrolung tribe is com- 
piled from notes kindly forwarded by Mr. John Bulmer, 
who, as already stated, has lived amongst them for many 
years, in charge of the Lake Tyers Aboriginal Eeserve. 

The country of this tribe is between the rivers Mitchell 
and Tambo and the lakes into which they fall. "When the 
Whites first entered Gippsland, in 1841, Mr. Bulmer thinks 
the native population may have amounted to 1,000 souls, 
amongst whom were noticed many men and women who 
seem to have reached the age of seventy or eighty years. 
In 1862, when my informant began his residence in the dis- 
trict, the number had dwindled to 150, of whom 80 are now 
(1882) all that remain. The decrease is attributed to the 
causes so often mentioned in these pages. Like the other 
tribes of Victoria, those of Gippsland were clad in opossum- 
skin rugs. The girls wore a fringe of opossum-fur strings 
round the waist, called kiung; as did also the men, on state 
occasions, one made of strips of the skin of the kangaroo or 
some other animal. Their ornaments were necklaces made 
of small reeds, cut into short lengths; a netted band round 
the forehead; and a bone through the septum of the nose. 
On occasions of rejoicing, they smeared their bodies with a 
compound of red ochre and grease; and, when in mourning, 
with pipe-clay. They manufactured fishing-nets and bags 
out of grass, and also from the fibre of stringybark. Their 
tomahawks were of hard stone, brought to an edge by first 
chipping and afterwards by rubbing with sandstone ; their 
spears were tipped, sometimes with sharp flakes of flint, 
fastened on with the gum of the grass-tree, and at others 
with barbs cut out of the solid wood. They had also several 
kinds of clubs, one called kallak (i.e., wood) ; and two sorts 
of shields, one used in combats with clubs, and the other 
when fighting with spears. They had also Ijoomerangs and 
wommeras. 



GIPPSLAND. 545 

The principal articles of food in Gippsland were kanga- 
roo, wallaby, native-bear, opossum, and fish ; they had also 
yams and several other sorts of vegetables, and it is a 
singular circumstance that ovens are not found in Gipps- 
land. Eestrictions in connection with certain articles of 
food, regulated by age and sex, existed as elsewhere, though 
of course a change of production led to variations in 
detail. Of small-pox, the marks of which were so common 
in the rest of Victoria up to 1845, no traces ever existed in 
Gippsland, as I have been informed by many persons besides 
Mr. Bulmer, who also remarks that the Blacks of that 
district have no name for the disease in their language. 

Cannibalism was avowedly practised by these tribes, to 
the extent of eating portions of the skin and the hands of 
an enemy when slain. Instances of this have been noticed 
more than once by White men. Mr. Bulmer remarks the 
very general characteristic, that the Gippsland Black did not 
consider the person who met him in fair fight as a real 
enemy, but only the individual who practised magic against 
him ; " he," as they said, " would seize me by the throat, 
and lay a net for my feet." Of the remains of such as these 
they would eat. 

The Gippsland Blacks objected strongly to let any one 
outside the tribe know their names, lest their enemies, learn- 
ing them, should make them vehicles of incantation, and so 
charm their lives away. As children were not thought to 
have enemies, they used to speak of a man as " the father, 
uncle, or cousin of so-and-so," naming a child ; but on all 
occasions abstained from mentioning the name of a grown- 
up person. Now-a-days, this superstition has given way, and 
Mr. Bulmer has been able to give me the following names of 
some of the Blacks at Lake Tyers Reserve: — Males: Bungil 
Noorut, wombat hunter ; Dango-willin ; Bungil Tambun, 
fish hunter; Bungil Barlijan, platypus hunter; Karemba- 
kyne; Karloba, crane; Bumberat, the name of a place; 
Wallung, stone; Bundalwaal, stinging-spear; Torrikaat; 

VOL. III. 2 M 



546 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Benguan; Yelmri, shark. Females: Yowali; Boolgen; 
Labit; Turlkang. 

Mr. Bulmer thinks that the Gippsland tribes used to have 
class-names in connection with their marriage system, but 
that since our arrival they have been forgotten. Men used to 
marry women of other tribes, if unable to obtain as wives in 
their own, women unrelated to them. On this subject they were 
very particular, even third cousins being within the prohibited 
degrees of relationship. Polygamy was practised, and aj man 
had a right to the widow of his brother. If he did not care 
to have her, or the deceased had left no brother, his relations 
disposed of her as they thought fit. There is reason to 
believe that custom sanctioned a single man cohabiting 
occasionally with his brother's wife; and also a married man 
with his wife's sister. A man spoke of his sister-in-law as 
puppar-worcat, which means another wife; and when a wife 
died, her sister not unfrequently took her place. Girls were 
often married at thirteen years of age, and their mothers 
preferred their marrying out of the tribe, on account of the 
custom which required mothers-in-law and sons-in-law never 
to speak to each other, or almost be seen by each other, 
which was excessively inconvenient in daily life. Wives 
were generally obtained in exchange for sisters or cousins. 
Occasionally, however, a youth got a girl to elope with him. 
The pair were certain to be overtaken in a day or two at 
latest, when the girl received some wholesome correction, 
and the man a sound thrashing and some wounds. As the 
result of several elopements and several thrashings, it not 
unfrequently happened that the constancy of the youthful 
pair overcame the customs of the tribe, and the marriage was 
ratified. Children belonged to the tribe of the father. The 
tribes of Gippsland are fast dying out, principally from con- 
sumption, diseases of the liver, and other ailments common 
amongst them. 

In these tribes, the septum of the nose is pierced, and 
the skin scarred on the back, shoulders, and stomach, in 



GIPPSLAND. 547 

both sexes; no teetli are knocked out, and circumcision is 
unknown. 

The Gippsland tribes, as far as can be ascertained, had 
no knowledge of God, and certainly no worship or religious 
belief of any kind. As usual, they practised sorcery, with a 
view to taking the lives of their enemies. The mode of pro- 
ceeding was to obtain possession of something which had 
belonged to the person whose death was desired, such as 
some of his hair, or excrement, or food; or to touch him with 
an egg-shaped piece of stone which was called bulk, and was 
thought to be possessed of magic powers. At other times, 
they would charm by means of the makthar (real name of the 
person); or several of them, retiring to some lonely spot, 
and drawing on the ground a rude likeness of the victim, 
would sit around it and devote him to destruction with 
cabalistic ceremonies. Such was their dread of proceedings 
of this sort, that, not unfrequently, men and women who 
learnt that they had been made the subjects of incantations, 
quickly pined away and died of fright. 

The Creator of all that has life on the earth they believe 
to have been a gigantic Blackfellow, who lived in Gippsland 
many centuries ago, and dwells amongst the stars. Indeed 
many of the stars are named after some of their people 
long since dead. Venus, for instance, is called Bungil 
Noorut, or wombat-hunter, and, as we have seen, an indi- 
vidual of the tribe bears the same name at the present 
day. They have also the tradition of a deluge, of which 
Mr. Bulmer gives the following particulars. Ages ago 
there was no water in what are now the lakes, rivers, and 
seas known to the Kurnai (a name which seems to have 
included all the tribes of Gippsland), for an immense frog 
had swallowed up the whole of it. This state of things, it 
appears, was a source of great discomfort to the animals 
generally, and especially to the fishes, so they held a consul- 
tation on the subject, and came to the conclusion that the 
only remedy was to make the frog laugh, and that if this 
could be accomplished there would soon be plenty of water. 

2MZ 



548 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

To give effect to this idea, every animal presented himself 
before the frog in the most ludicrous postures he could 
assume, and went through his funniest antics. For a time, 
however, they were unsuccessful, until the eel stood upon the 
tip of his tail, which so tickled the overgrown frog that he 
literally burst with laughing, and the water poured from him 
in such vast streams that there was presently a deluge, and 
all the Blacks would have been drowned, had not one of 
them. Loon by name, made a large canoe, in which he saved 
a great many. Why at the present day they call White 
men Loon, I cannot say. However, alas ! for the ingratitude 
of human nature, those who^ Loon had saved refused to 
give him a wife, in consequence of which he pipe-clayed 
himself in the orthodox fashion, and commenced hostilities 
forthwith. In this undertaking, however, he seems to have 
been worsted; at all events, all that is positively known is 
that he was transformed into a pelican, and it is owing to 
the pipe-clay that this bird has always been so white about 
the head and breast. Fire, according to the traditions of 
the Gippsland people, was originally obtained ages ago by 
their ancestors from Bimba-mrit (the fire-tailed finch) in a 
very curious way, and I remember having heard from the 
Bangerang people in my youth a host of traditions, of which 
I can no longer recall the particulars, but which were quite 
similar in character (possibly in detail) to those related by 
Mr. Bulmer as existing in Gippsland. 

The Gippsland Blacks had canoes of bark, the smooth side 
of the bark being outside, which, as far as I am aware, is an 
exceptional arrangement. The ends of the canoe were secured 
with string. They obtained kangaroo and emu by surround- 
ing and spearing them. Fish was procured with nets, spears, 
and also with hooks made of bone, an implement which I 
have not noticed in use in any other Victorian tribe. They 
made rough drawings of animals with charcoal on sheets of 
bark, and probably on rocks and in caverns. 

In all Australian tribes we find the corroboree, and those 
of G-ippsland were no exception to the rule. They likewise 



GIPPSLAND. 



549 



made tlieir striplings into young men at from sixteen to 
eighteen years of age, and buried their dead sometimes in 
trunks of trees and at others in the ground, the mourners, 
whilst the interment was in progress, beating their heads 
with their stone tomahawks until the blood flowed. Wars 
were generally undertaken to revenge murders, deaths 
brought about by sorcery, and the abduction of women. 
Fights were carried on in the usual way with spears, boome- 
rangs, and clubs. Disputes within the tribe were often 
settled with the club, and stiU more frequently, as Mr. Bulmer 
remarks, " with much talking and much lying." No form of 
government existed. Message-sticks were not in use. Men 
saluted each other when they met after an absence by placing 
their hands on each others shoulders. 

The Gippsland tribes spoke of the few outside tribes of 
whose existence they knew as Brajerak, from Bra = men, 
SLiad jerra = /ear. 

The four attached renderings of the Brabrolung vocabu- 
lary differ somewhat, owing to the cause already mentioned. 
The following Additional Words were kindly supplied by 
Mr. Bulmer: — 



Son - 


- leeth. 


Leaf - 


- jerrang. 


Daughter - 


- turtbaggan. 


Branch 


- bimdanga kal 


Arm - 


- birndang. 




lak. 


Elbow 


- jellung. 


Pipe-clay - 


- marloo. 


Thumb 


- yakan bret 


String - 


- ngarang. 




(mother of the 


Creek - 


- kaewat. 




hand). 


Plain - 


- bawarau. 


Heart - 


- bappak. 


Sand - 


- wathart. 


Liver - 


- wolowalak. 


Tail of animal 


- wrek. 


Great toe - 


- yakan jaan 


Meat - 


- jaak. 




(mother of the 


Lightning - 


- mlangbit. 




. foot). 


Bald head - 


- barrat poork. 


Toe - 


- kimba yarrak. 


Angry - 


- yarrak. 


Face 


- mree. 


Stupid 


- narangan. 


Knee - 


- bun. 


Die - 


- melkea. 


Heel - 


- blanjaan. 


Fight - 


- paudean. 


Anus - 


- ngrang, darn. 


Give - 


- yooa. 


Urine - 


■ wiraak. 


Spit - 


- thupanwert. 


Feather 


- wirtwirt. 


Fall - 


- plakanwert. 


Cloud - 


- nort. 


Whistle 


- whirtbran. 



550 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



Additional Woeds — continued. 



Make - 


- naratba. 


Plea - 


- nin; said not to 


Run - 


- wLndan. 




have been 
known before 


Excrete 


- gwanangang. 




the arrival of 


Speak - 


- thunathang. 




the Whites. 


Vomit - 


- kramerook. 


Frog - 


- tirtelak. 


Cut - 


- batgea. 


Yam-stick - 


- kanning. 


Laugh 


- krambalwert. 


String 


- ngarang. 


Jump - 


- kirndan. 


Louse - 


- nin. 


Sing - 


- witebalan. 


Red - 


- krookirk (see 


Strike - 


- pandan. 




Blood). 


Swim - 


- wiragwan. 


White - 


- taba-taba. 


Cry - 


- nung. 


Black - 


- nirnba, nimbal. 


Scratch 


- wirta. 


Green - 


- (no word exists). 


Thin - - 


- terangan. 


Blind - 


- toorlo mree. 


Lazy - 


- yardile. 


Deaf - 


- narangan wring. 


When - 


- nara. 


Shadow 


- ngowk. 


Here - 


- dthitha. 


Liar - 


- jatebolak. 


Go away (go you) yan imba. 


Red ochre - 


- nial. 




No. 210..— G] 


[PPSLAND. 






By John B 


gLMEK, Esq. 




Kangaroo - 


jirrah. 


Hand - 


- bret. 


Opossum - 


wadhan. 


2 Blacks - 


- thana wert kani. 


Tame dog - 


baan. 


3 Blacks - 


- kani booloman 


Wild dog - 


ngooran, merri- 




hatha kootook. 




gang. 


One - 


- kootopan. 


Emu - 


miowera. 


Two - 


- booloman. 


Black duck 


wrang. 


Three 


- booloman hatha 


Wood duck 


jellangoong. 




kotook. 


Pelican 


booran. 


Four - 


- booloman hatha 


Laughing jaokas 


s wokook. 




boolung. 


Native companion kooragan. 


Father 


- moongan. 


White cockatoo 


braak. 


Mother 


- yakkan. 


Crow - 


wagara. 


Sister-Elder 


- bowang. 


Swan - 


gidi. 


„ Younger 


- lunduk. 


Egg - - 


booyang. 


Brother-Elder 


- bramun. 


Track of a foot 


wanick. 


,, Younger tunang. 


Fiah - 


kine. 


A young man 


- brawitban. 


Lobster 


waat. 


An old man 


- boordine. 


Crayfish - 


waat. 


An old woman 


. 


Mosquito - 


newan. 


A baby 


- leth. 


Fly - 


naroon. 


A White man 


- lorn or loon. 


Snake 


toorung. 






The Blacks 


kani. 


Children - 


- womba leth. 


A Blackfellow - 


bra kani. 


Head - 


- poork. 


A Black woman 


wooroat. 


Eye - 


- mri. 


Nose - 


koong. 


Ear - 


- wring. 





GIPPSTiAND. 


551 




No. 210.— GiFTSLA^tD— continued. 




Mouth 


- gaat. 


Boomerang - 


- wangin. 


Teeth - 


- nerndack. 


Hill - 


- kragnark. 


Hair of the head- lirt. 


Wood- 


- kallaok. 


Beard 


- yain lirt. 


Stone - 


- wallung. 


Thunder - 


■ quarran. 


Camp - 


- bang. 


Grass 


- ban. 


Yes - 


- nga. 


Tongue 


- jellan. 


No - 


- ngalko. 


Stomach 


- booloon. 


I 


- ngio. 


Breasts 


- beng. 


You - 


- uindo. 


Thigh - 


- jerran. 


Bark - 


- yone da kallack 


Foot - 


- jane. 




(akin of a tree). 


Bone - 


- bring. 


Good - 


- lane. 


Blood - 


- karndobara. 


Bad - 


- din-din. 


Skin - 


- yone. 


Sweet - 


- naroon. 


Fat - 


- wamewan. 


Food - 


- napan. 


Bowels 


- tirlk. 


Hungry 


- rareman. 


Excrement - 


- gwanang. 


Thirsty 


- taraban tooloot. 


War- spear - 


- waal. 


Eat - 


- thana. 


B«ed-spear - 


- kowat. 


Sleep - 


- bairndan. 


Throwing-stick 


- kaning. 


Drink - 


- glookban. 


Shield 


- bamerook. 


Walk - 


- yangan. 


Tomahawk - 


- gwian. 


See - 


- takan. 


Canoe - 


- gre. 


Sit - - 


- neanwert. 


Sun - 


- woorin. 


Yesterday - 


- waran. 


Moon - 


- wane. 


To-day 


- jilU. 


Star - 


- brael. 


To-morrow - 


- broondo. 


Light - 


- yart. 


Where are the 


woonmanda 


Dark - 


- bookang. 


Blacks ? 


kani? 


Cold - 


- merbuck. 


I don't know 


- ngee or ngalla 


Heat - 


- quaragwan. 




ngat bowome. 


Day - 


- broon. 


Plenty 


- ya-il. 


Night - 


- bookang. 


Big - 


- quarrail. 


Fire - 


- towera. 


Little - 


- tarlit. 


Water 


- yarn. 


Dead - 


- tirligan. 


Smoke 


- thoue. 


By-and-by - 


- nowando. 


Ground 


- wrack. 


Come on 


- nowan. 


Wind ■• 


- krowera. 


Milk - 


- baak. 


Rain - 


- willang. 


Eaglehawk - 


- quarnameroo. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- mraat. 


Wife - 


- woorcat. 



552 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 210.— GIPPSLAND. 





By the 


Weiteb. 




Kangaroo - 


girri. 


Hand - 


• bret. 


Opossum 


waitun,koongora, 


2 Blacks - 


tanoward 


Tame dog - 


baain. 




bindagunnai. 


Wild dog - 


mirigang. 


3 Blacks - 


poolanain da 


Emu - 


maioor, gyewi. 




gunnai. 


Black duck - 


wirrung. 


One - 


ngoonabin. 


Wood duck 


naidit. 


Two - 


tanoward. 


Pelican 


boorun. 


Three - 


tanowara ta 


Laughing jackass 


burndigan. 




ngooruk. 


Native companion 


karloo- 


Four - 


- tanoward tan- 




turtkurawun. 




oward. 


White cockatoo 


brack. 


Father 


moongan. 


Crow - 


klard, waageri. 


Mother 


yakkun. 


Swan - 


kooindrook. 


Sister-Elder 


- bowung. 


Egg - - 


booiang. 


,, Younger 


lunduk. 


Track of a foot 


wannik. 


Brother-Elder 


- bramun. 


Pish - 
Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito 

P.y - 

Snake 

The Blacks - 


(no general name) 
dirndung- 
dirnduk. 
the same, 
neuwan. 
bi-an. 
toorong. 
wrukut 


,, Younger 
A young man 
An old man 

An old woman 

A baby 

A White man 


tundung. 
gerai el. 

- boordain, warri 

ganna. 

- ngoondigallok. 

- taloogroong. 

- looun. 




gilgunnai. 


Children 


- groong. 


A Blackfellow 


gtmnai. 


Head - 


- brook, ngenan. 


A Black woman - 


wrukut. 


Eye - 


- mri, meeragoot. 


Nose - 


goong. 


Ear - 


- wring. 



GIPPSLAND. 



553 



No. 210.— GippSLAND — continued. 



Mouth 

Teeth - 

Hair of the head ■ 

Beard - 

Thunder 

Grass - 

Tongue 

Stomach 

Breasts 

Thigh - 

Foot - 

Bone - 

Blood - 

Skin - 

Pat - 

Bowels 

Excrement - 

War-spear - 

Reed-spear - 

Tliro wing-stick 

Shield 

Tomahawk - 

Canoe 

Sun - - ■ 

Moon - 

Star - 

Light - 

Dark - 

Cold - 

Heat - 

Day - 

Night - 

Fire - 

Water 

Smoke 

Ground 

Wind - 

Rain - 

God - 

Ghosts 



kaatch. 

ngurnduk. 

lirt. 

yeen. 

koorang. 

bun. 

gelling. 

buUun. 

baauk. 

gerrang. 

jaen. 

bring. 

nuruk. 

yoo-un. 

goworni. 



dum- 



gwanung. 

boren. 

waal. 

marrewun, 
- bamrook, 

mun. 
• gooiun. 

yuro. 

woorrin. 

nyurrun. 

bi-il. 

daibinturuk. 

lalit. 

mraerpuk. 

quaragwin. 

wurrin. 

buWiceluk. 

dower. 

kaUtung. 

ncepur, naipur. 

wruk. 

grower. 

willung. 

(no word). 

mrait, yootgang. 



Boomerang - 
Hill - 
Wood - 
Stone - 
Camp - 
Yes - 
No - 
I 

You - 
Bark - 
Good - 
Bad - 
Sweet - 
Pood - 
Hungry 

Thirsty 
Eat - 

Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 
See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are the 
Blacks? 
I don't know 

Plenty 
Big - - 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 
Wife - 



■ wangm. 

■ grangurk. 

■ dower. 

■ walloong. 

■ bung, 
ngi. 

■ ngalkoo. 

■ ngaioo. 
uidoo. 

■ nunduk. 

• langmin. 

- tenbin. 

■ nirroong. 
dooit or dwitt. 

■ mremin, ganu- 

kin. 

■ gwan. 
dumbin or tum- 

bin. 

• bemdin. 

• krooitpin. 

- yannin. 

- dein. 

■ bunengin. 
ngendower. 
jillaioo. 
brindoo. 
woodun da gun- 

nai? 
woodai gi or 

ngalkoo. 
yeilmin. 
quarailmin. 
turliklin. 
turdigin. 
nowindja. 
koo-e-a. 

mwaranga-barga. 
kurnugmuroon. 
woorngil. 
main. 



554 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 210.— GIPPSLAND. 

By the Revd. F. A. Haoenauee. 

We have seen that Paroo is the name of a river and the equivalen]t of 
fish , so Tamho in this language means fish and is also the name of one of 
the rivers. 



Kangaroo - 


koorang. 


Hand - 


- manya. 


Opossum - 


karramook. 


2 Blacks - 


■• boolet gamy. 


Tame dog - 


baan. 


3 Blacks - 


- boolet-pEC kiap 


Wild dog - 






gamy. 


Emu - 


myory. 


One - 


- kiap. 


Black duck - 


woorang. 


Two 


- boolet. 


Wood duck- 


woorangy. 


Three - 


- boolet ba kiap. 


Pelican 


boorang. 


Four - 


- boolet ba boolet 


Laughing jackass- 


wookwook. 




ye. 


Native companion 


kooracan. 


Father 


- moongan, ma- 


White cockatoo 


braak. 




men. 


Crow - 


wong. 


Mother 


- yaokau, baben. 


Swan - 




Sister-Elder 


- bowang. 


Egg - - - 


booyoong. 


,, Younger 


- menein. 


Track of a foot 


worn. 


Brother-Elder 


- wawin. 


Fish - 


tambo. 


,, Younger 


Lobster 


kipil. 


A young man 


- brawit. 


Crayfish 


yappy. 


An old man 


- boordnie. 


Mosquito - 


naroon. 


An old woman 


- boordine woor- . 


Fly - - - 


kerramongera. 




cat. 


Snake - 


koran, gooroot- 


A baby 


- boboop. 




mill. 


A White man 


- marndell. 


The Blacks - 


gamy. 


Children 


- wambar-laath. 


A Blaokfellow - 


gamy. 


Head - 


- propoop. 


A Black woman - 


woorcat. 


Eye - 


- toorooming. 


Nose - - - 


kapung. 


Ear - 


- wooring. 





1 

No. 210.— GiPPSLAND— coreimMed. 




Mouth 


- wooloong. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


nerndack. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


■ narat. 


Wood - 


- tower. 


Beard - 


- narangyan. 


Stone - 


- waloon. 


Thunder - 

Grass - 


- willingnoong. 

- ban. 


Camp - 


- bang. 


Tongue 


- gellong. 


Yes - 


- ngai. 


Stomach 


- werriok. 


No - - 


- naatpan. 


Breasts 


- mooi. 


I 


- yetty. 


Thigh - 


- karrip. 


You - 


- yerally. 


Foot - 


- tinang. 


Bark - 


- moorook. 


Bone - 


- yarlaak. 


Good - 


- laen. 


Blood - 


kamdobara. 


Bad - 


• denban. 


Skin - 


- yooen. 


Sweet - 


- laenan. 


Fat - 


- temgatta. 


Food - 


kuwat. 


Bowels 


- noongwanang. 


Hungry 


- wecking. 


Excrement - 


- goouny. 


Thirsty 


- oonanim. 


War-spear - 


- wal. 


Eat - 


- tampaok. 


Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stick 


- toorooknaroong. 
■ naroong. 


Sleep - 


- dora. 


Shield - 


- bammerook. 


Drink - 


- klurkpan. 


Tomahawk - 


- kallaok. 


Walk - 


- yangan. 


Canoe - 


- gree. 


See - 


- tackan. 


Sun - 


- wooreen. 


Sit - 


- kopeck. 


Moon - 


- wane. 


Yesterday - 


- nintower. 


Star - 


- brael. 


To-day 


- ugawan. 


Light - 


- werrook. 


To-morrow - 


roockoo. 


Dark - 


- pooroon, bat- 


Where are the 


winya garny? 




gala. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- merbook. , 


I don't know 


- waga galatiri 


Heat - 


quarra-quarrack. 




nyak. 


Day ■ 


- woorin. 


Plenty 


■ yaail. 


Night - 


- bookan. 


Big - 


quanail. 


Fire - 


towera. 


Little - 


tarlitban. 


Water 


- katung. 


Dead - 


turtigan. 


Smoke 


tong. 


By-and-by - 


nowantook. 


Ground 


woork. 


Come on 


goir. 


Wind - 


kookowert. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


myoong. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 





655 



556 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 210.— GIPPSLAND. 



By Alfred W. Howitt, Esq., P.M., Sale. 



Kangaroo - 


- baoot, djeerah. 


Hand - 


- brett, narrung- 


Opossum - 


- wattungjwirrwy. 




nun. 


Tame dog - 


- bam. 


2 Blacks - 


- buUung kumi. 


Wild dog - 


- merricun. 










3 Blacks - 


- buUumanna kur- 


Emu - 


- myowr, crewee. 






Black duck 


- oowreng, nur- 




nibattagoot-tuk 




durt. 


One - 


- goottup. 


Wood duck 


- nark, jeelung- 


Two - 


- buUum. 




eetie. 


Three - 


buUum-au-batta- 


Pelican 


- poorun, wodjil. 




goot-tuk. 
- bullum-an-batta- 


Laughing jackass coarg. 


Four 


Native companion gooreekun. 




buUum. 


White cockatoo 


- brayak, ngulluk- 






goorung. 


Father 


- munjan. 


Crow - 


- narrookul, eu- 


Mother 


- yackan. 




mummurut. 


Sister-Elder 


- bowung. 


Swan - 


- giddijbabbiyung. 


,, Younger 


- lunduk. 


Egg - - 


- booyung. 


Brother-Elder 


- tundung. 


Track of a foot 


- wannik. 


„ Younger bramung. 


Pish - 


- billy. 


A young man 


- browit. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- boldine. 


Crayfish 


- greeur. 


An old woman 




Mosquito - 


- neerwun. 






Ely . 


- beeung. 


A baby 


- tally-leet. 


Snake - 


- thurung, gale- 


A White man 


- loan, cuUungurk 




lung. 


Children - 


- leet. 


The Blacks - 


- kumi. 


Head - 


- poork. 


A Blackf ellow 


- ku?ni. 


Eye - 


- mree. 


A Black woman 


- woorkut. 


Ear - 


- ooeng, bunnun- 


Nose - 


- ooong. 




gurry. 





GIPPSLAND. 


00 




No. 210 — GiPPSLAND — continued. 




Mouth 


■ gart. 


Boomerang • 


- 


Teeth 


- nunduk. 


Hill - 


_ 


Hair of the heac 
Beard - 


- leet. 

- yane. 


Wood - 


- gallagut. 


Thunder - 


• gwarrun, toom- 


Stone - 


- wallung. 




boyee. 


Camp - 


- bung. 


Grass - 


- bun, neartbun. 


Yes - 


- gna. 


Tongue 


- tellung. 


No - 


- gnart-bun. 


Stomach 


- minduk. 






Breasts 


- bark. 


I 


- gniu. 


Thigh - 


- bum. 


You - 


- gnendu. 


Foot - 


- djeen. 


Bark - 


- ewn. 


Bone - 


- bring. 


Good - 


- laen. 


Blood - 


- grook, kumdoo- 

burra. 

- ewn. 


Bad - 


- dindin, denbun 


Skin - 


Sweet - 


- laen. 


Fat - 


- wurna-woony, 


Food - 


- 




tchewanny. 


Hungry 


- mrammaleg. 


Bowels 


- oraook. 


Thirsty 


_ 


Excrement - 


- gwanung. 


Eat - 




War-spear - 


- booring. turrum- 






butty. 


Sleep - 


- baindu. 


Keed-spear - 


- warl. 


Drink - 


- tarny. 


Throwing-stick 


- murrywun. 


Walk - 


- yangun. 


Shield 


- bammarook, 






birrcumba. 


See - 


- tarkatta. 


Tomahawk - 


- boondooba. 


Sit - 


- neeni. 


Canoe - 


- gree. 


Yesterday - 


- pookung. 


Sun - 


- wooreen. 


To-day 


- djilleye. 


Moon - 


- narrung. 






Star - 


- breel. 


To-morrow - 


- broondoo. 


Light - 


- wooreen. 


Where are the woolka dutta 


Dark - 


- butguUuk. 


Blacks? 


kumi? 


Cold - 


- mabruck. 










I don't know 


- nee. 


Heat - 


- 






Day - 


- wooreen. 


Plenty 


- yale. 


Night - 


- butguUuk, bo- 


Big - 


- gatty. 


Fire - 


kung. 
- towra, goombal- 


Little - 


- tally. 




lung. 


Dead - 


- turdy-gattoo. 


Water 


- yarn, gattung. 


By-and-by - 


- meerindoo. 


Smoke 


- bowndung, toon. 


Come on 


- now-wunty. 


Ground 


- wurk. 


Milk - 


_ 


Wind- 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


, 


Rain - 
God - 


- willung. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



558 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 211.— OMEO. 



By John Btjlmee, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - . - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - 

Track of a foot 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 
A Black woman ■ 
Nose - 



joatba. 

wadthan. 

worregal. 

ngurrun. 

tooloma. 

ngapalanga. 

(none). 

kookunyal. 

koorook. 

gidauo. 

yukumbraek. 

koonyack. 



bial. 

manja. 

thangambooloa, 

baranjak. 

moneya. 

miangan. 

titchogan. 

yune. 

yune. 

kowambo. 



Hand - 


- mana-mana. 


2 Blacks - 


- warkolala yune. 


3 Blacks - 


■ warkolala bore 




yune. 


One - 


- bore. 


Two - 


- warkolala. 


Three - 


- warkolala bore. 


Four - 


- warkolala-war- 




kolala. 


Father 


- papang. 


Mother 


- najan. 


Sister-Elder 


- namang. 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- dejan. 


,, Younger 


A young man 


- warambal. 


An old man 


- jirrabang. 


An old woman 


- kowandil. 


A baby 


- narang. 


A White man 


- moomogung. 


Children - 


- wenyeran. 


Head - 


- kuttagang. 


Eye - 


• kundolo. 


Ear - 


- janya. 



OMEO. 



559 





No. 211.— Omi&o— continued. 




Mouth 


- mundo. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- yera. 


Hill - - 




Hair of the head 


- karung-karung. 


Wood - 


- baar. 


Beard - 
Thunder 


- yerang. 

- merbi. 


Stone - 


■ dinga. 


Grass - 


- boon. 


Camp - 


- baanya. 


Tongue 


- thalan. 


Yes - 


- yayoo. 


Stomach 


, 


No - 


- karanga. 


Breasts 


■ booyaok. 


I - - 


- nadtha. 


Thigh 


- naryalan. 


You - 


- nginda. 


Foot - 


- jiunang. 


Bark - 


- worogang. 


Bone - 


- kakaquo. 


Good - 


- koingowa. 


Blood - 


- kooroba. 


Bad - 


- kiaro. 


Skin - 


- wotquang. 


Sweet 


- yalagang. 


Fat - 


- kamboa. 


Food - 


- thangang. 


Bowels 


- kunanqua. 


Hungry 


- meria. 


Excrement - 
War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 


- nangwa. 

- jerambity. 

- yarka. 


Thirsty 
Eat ■ 


- jutoia. 

- thianang. 


Throwing-stiok 


- kallin. 


Sleep - 


- miamial (?). 


Shield ■ 


- ngamal. 


Drink - 


- yaranang. 


Tomahawk - 


- ngamba. 


Walk - 


- nana. 


Canoe - 


- worbaug. 


See - 


- bakana. 


Sun - 


- noweyo. 


Sit - 


- kako. 


Moon - 


- kabatang. 


Yesterday - 


- kakoura. 


Star - 


- jewang. 


To-day 


- yamathango. 


Light - 


- mamat. 


To-morrow - 


kambejeri. 


Dark - 


- kambijo. 


Where are the 


walo yune ? 


Cold - 


- karritt. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- jilmin. 


I don't know 


- nari-nari miga 


Day - 


yamathango. 


Plenty 


qooranaka. 


Night - 


kambijo. 


Big - 


thorkee. 


Fire - 


watha. 


Little - 


maragalang. 


Water 


miamial. 


Dead - 


toortbamban. 


Smoke 


maniak. 


By-and-by - 


balowa. 


Ground 


thia. 


Come on 


kakow. 


Wind - 


koorokmang. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


japmamau. 


Baglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 





560 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 212.— SNOWY RIVER. 



By John Bulmbb, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- jirra. 


Hand - 


- bret. 


Opossum - 


wachan. 


2 Blacks - 


- boolong kani. 


Tame dog - 


- baan. 


3 Blacks - 


- booloom catha 


Wild dog - 


ngooran. 




kootook kani 


Emu - 


■ miowera. 


One - 


- kootook. 


Black duck 


wreng. 


Two - 


- boolong. 


Wood duck 


nembalagang. 


Three - 


- booloom catha 


Pelican 


booran. 




kootook. 


Laughing jackass 


kookokarrak. 


Four - 


- booloom catha 


Native companion 


balwin. 




booloom. 


White cockatoo 


brak. 


Father 


lang. 


Crow - 


woggara. 


Mother 


- yakkan. 


Swan - 


gidi. 


Sister-Elder 


- bowang. 


Egg - - 


booyang. 


,, Younger 


landack. 


Track of a foot - 


ngooka janda. 


Brother-Elder 


- tandang. 


Fish - 


kine. 


,, Younger 


brammon. 


Lobster 


krangalang. 


A young man 


- brawit. 


Crayfish 




An old man 


- boordine. 


Mosquito - 


tirdick. 


An old woman 




Fly - - - 


ngaroon. 


A baby 


- leeth. 


Snake - 


thoorung. 


A White man 


lorne. 


The Blacks - 


kani, 


Children 


wagut leeth. 


A Blackfellow 


kani. 


Head - 


- kowat. 


A Black woman - 


woorcat. 


Eye - 


mree. 


Nose ■ 


koong. 


Ear - 


wring. 



SNOWY RIVER. 



561 





No. 212.— Snowy Ki-ver— continued 


. 


Mouth 


- kaath. 


Boomerang - 


- wongin. 


Teeth - 


- ngerndak. 


Hill - 


- ngarkandit. 


Hair of the head - lirt poork. 


Wood - 


- kallack. 


Beard - 


- yaan. 


Stone - 


- woUung. 


Thunder ■ 


- quarran. 


Camp - 


- ngoya. 


Grass - 


- ban. 


Yes - 


- nga. 


Tongue 


- jellin. 


No - 


- ngatban. 


Stomach 


- booloon. 


I 


- ngio. 


Breasts 


- beng. 


You - 


- ngindo. 


Thigh 


- jerran. 


Bark - 


- ngoya. 


Foot - 


- Jan. 


Good - 


- laan. 


Bone - 


- bring. 


Bad - 


- dindin. 


Blood - 


- krook. 


Sweet - 


- laan. 


Skin - 


- yone. 


Food - 


- kindoine. 


Pat - 


- warnewan. 


Hungry - 


- mreman. 


Bowels 


- karrickguanang. 


Thirsty 


- kuan. 


Excrement - 


- guanang. 


Eat - 


- bangathang. 


War-spear - 


- waal. 


Sleep - 


- bamding. 


Reed-spear - 


- dhrak. 


Drink - 


- glucknan. 


Throwing-stick 


- kanning. 


Walk - 


- yanning. 


Shield 


- bamorook. 










See - 


- tiarwark. 


Tomahawk - 


- gwian. 






Canoe ■■ 


- gree. 


Sit 


- ning. 


Sun - 


- woorin. 


Yesterday - 


- merrin. 


Moon - 


- wane. 


To-day 


- jilli. 


Star - 


- brael. 


To-morrow - 


- preppa merrin 


Light - 


- yart. 


Where are the 


wulki thatha 


Dark - 


- broin. 


Blacks ? 


kani? 


Cold - 


- merbaak. 


I don't know 


- ngree. 


Heat - 


- quaraquarak. 


Plenty 


- nanwagut. 


Day - 


- woorin. 


Big - - 


- parrewatti. 


Night - 


- lalat. 


Little - 


- tarlit. 


Fire - 


- mrit. 






Water 


- yarn. 


Dead - 


- yurrutkatho. 


Smoke 


- thone. 


By-and-by - 


- tagut. 


Ground 


- wrack. 


Come on 


- narrawert. 


Wind 


- qrowero. 


Milk - - 


- baak. 


Rain - 


- wlUang. 


Eaglehawk - 


- quarnamerong 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- (none). 


Ghosts 


- yutgang. 


Wife - - 


- woorcat. 


VOL. III. 


2 


N 





562 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 213.— UPPER MURRAY. 





By — Mitchell, Esq. 




Kangaroo - 


- buju 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


- burrar. 

- boa. 

- murra. 


2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 


- guddee. 


Black duck 


- tooma. 


Two - 


- polithup. 


Wood duck 


- mullawur. 


Three - 


- poliguddee 


Pelican 


- karwadde. 


Four - 


, 


Laughing jackass unbabua. 
Native companion berranga. 
White cockatoo - keaa. 
Crow - - - berrutha. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- mama. 

- baba. 

- tiga. 


Swan - 


- miewa. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - 


- booa. 


Brother-Elder 


- wugug. 


Track of a foot 
Fish - - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - 
Snake - 


- bunju. 

- kurewa. 

- oarrda. 

- moUula. 

- pemba. 

- j"-u- 


,, Younger 
A young man - ewaru. 
An old man - muddega. 
An old woman - gerriga. 
A baby - - kubeega. 
A White man - waruntha. 


The Blacks - 


- yiera. 


Children 


- murraga. 


A Blackfellow 


- jere. 


Head - 


- bua. 


A Black woman 


- jaire. 


Eye - 


- me. 


Nose ■ 


- nga. 


Ear - 


- murramba. 



UPPER MURRAY. 



563 





No. 213. — Upper Murray — continued 


Mouth 


- diara. 


Boomerang - 


Teeth - 


- unguru. 


Hill - - - 


Hair of the head - kurrowa. 


Wood- 


Beard - 


- yerra. 


Stone - 


Thunder - 


- mundara. 


Camp - 


Grass • 


- kamburru. 


Yes - 


Tongue 


- turra. 


No - - - 


Stomach - 


- ianaru. 


I - - - 


Breasts 


- berree. 


You - 


Thigh - 


- munda. 


Bark - 


Foot - 


- gerra. 


Good - 


Bone - 


- keela. 


Bad ■ 


Blood - 


- kurru. 


Sweet - 


Skin - 


- wadda. 


Food - 


Fat - 


- puttarra. 


Hungry 


Bowels 


- boogu. 


Thirsty 


Excrement - 


- gurra. 


Eat - 


War-spear - 


- wonda. 


Sleep - 
Drink - 


Reed spear - 


- muthiingu. 


Throwing-stick 


- beuga. 


Shield - 


- belgamba. 


Walk - 


Tomahawk - 


- nundee. 


See - 


Canoe - 


- moutha. 


Sit - - - 


Sun - 


- kunda. 


Yesterday - 


Moon - 


- huerra. 


To-day 


Star - 


- teimba. 


To-morrow - 


Light - 


- parlee. 


Where are the 


Dark - 


- kiewarra. 


Blacks? 


Cold - 


- bouwatha. 






I don't know 


Heat - 


- oueba. 




Day - 


- dandigunda. 


Plenty 


Night - 


- tunna. 


Big - 


Fire - 


- kurra. 


Little - 


Water 


- warra. 


Dead - 


Smoke 


- theu. 


By-and-by - 


Ground 


- merie. 


Come on - 


Wind- 


- karrie. 


Milk - 


Rain - 


- neuma. 


Eaglehawk - 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 



tawa. 



maee. 

yeo. 

waananga. 

ninna. 

neibee. 

waaree. 

kieyangee. 

muddinga. 

kieyangee. 

tunna. 

bungowonabee. 

duddumagathee . 

tugathee. 

murrongurra. 

kuneemanabee. 

yannabee. 

nagadee. 

curradabee. 

pamungee. 

yanduga. 

uluthlu. 

wonda jere ? 

wondaya. 

yuimgurru. 

budda. 

umburgunya. 

burrura. 

udarra. 



2N2 



BOOK THE TWENTY-THIRD. 



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'murcmisom 
DWHRoo F^^xl^LUM 

NOORILLIM 



BAULIESTON 



NERfiOOLOK 

P PYALONC 



NATRAKBOOLOK 



CO U t B j^ 



C^ BROAOFOfT 




Tjsed ia ie occupied, iy the 'Bangerang tribes. 
cmdl^/iieof'thcJ/goortUaluTiispeaicingtnbas- Z) 



Scale of Statute Miles, 



BOOK THE TWENTY-THIRD. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

This book treats of the Bangerang tribes, in whose 
country I was a pioneer settler in 1841. Properly there was 
only one tribe of that name, which consisted of two inde- 
pendent sections, the Wongatpan and Towroonban, which 
speaking of themselves collectively always used the term 
Bangerang. Besides these there were eight other tribes in 
the neighbourhood, which sometimes spoke of themselves, 
and were always spoken of by other tribes, as Bangerang. 
The names of these tribes and their numbers, when I first 
knew them in their original strength, were approximately as 
follows : — 

Wongatpan ------ 150 persons. 

Towroonban 50 

Wolllthiga 50 

Kailthiban, sometimes called Waaringulum 50 

Moitheriban 300 

Pikkolatpan 100 

Angootheriban ------ 100 

Ngarrimowro ------ 150 

Toolenyagan - - - - 100 

Boongatpan 150 



1,200 



These tribes all spoke closely-related dialects. The 
territory occupied by each I have set .out roughly in the map 
attached to this book. It will, however, be understood that 
the boundaries of their lands did not run in straight lines 
as there shown, but were very irregular and governed by 
natural features. 

The Bangerang septs, it is important to notice, were 
surrounded by a number of tribes which spoke what may be 
called for the moment a common language which differed 
from theirs. With these tribes (with the exception of the 



568 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Pinpandoor, which had cast in its lot with them) the 
Bangerang lived in a state of chronic feud. 

In the country of the Bangerang proper, that is of the 
Wongatpan and Towroonban, the writer resided from 1841 
to 1851, and having described their manners in a former 
work,* it will be unnecessary to go into the subject here. 
The situation, however, of a congeries of linguistically- 
related tribes surrounded by others whose language, closely 
related amongst themselves, differed from theirs, is both un- 
usual and worthy of notice, and could not fail to have been 
the result of something uncommon in the past history of the 
population of those parts. Another point worthy of obser- 
vation is that the Bangerang tribes proper called the River 
Goulburn Kai^e-la, and one of the tribes of their association 
which dwelt on that river, Kailheban, or people of the Kaiela. 
On the other hand, the Ngooraialum, which dwelt higher up 
that stream, occupied a considerable portion of its bank, and 
formed one of the several tribes which surrounded the 
Bangerang septs, called the Goulburn Waaring and the 
Kdilthiban, and not themselves, Waaringulum, or people of 
the Waaring, as though they had found them located on 
that river when they themselves first reached it. 

It is worthy of a passing notice that the Bangerang lan- 
guage has something in common with that of IMungalella 
Creek, which, with its difference from the Ngooraialum 
tongue, is shown in the following table : — 



English. 


Mungalella Creek. 


Bangerang. 


Ngooraialum. 


Kangaroo 

Mosquito 
Hair - 
Fire - 


Poora - 

Pootie - 
Popa - 
Boodee 


Purra (red 
kangaroo) 
Betha - 

Pokkau 
Biitya - 


Maram. ■ 

Kogok. 

Kowing. 

Wiin. 


Smoke - 

No - - - 


Toga - - - 
Yoorda or urda - 


Thonga 
Yoorta 


Boort. 
Thago. 


I don't know 


Wodthana - 


Wunna 


ludunga. 



* Recollections of Squatting in Victoria : George Robertson, Melbourne, 
Sydney, and Adelaide, 1883. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 569 

From these circumstances and a general knowledge of 
the ways of the race, I am led to conjecture that, as in the 
case of the Darling tribes, the progenitors of the Bangerang 
were a party of young men, who, finding themselves without 
wives, absconded (possibly from Mungalella Creek) with some 
of the young women whom the old men had monopolized. 
That, in order to evade pursuit, the young people travelled 
on over many a mile of unknown country until they reached 
that expansion of the Murray called Moira, where they 
located themselves, and where we found their descendants 
living. That long (perhaps a century or two) after they had 
settled in that locality and spread to the Goulburn, and 
increased and broken up into several tribes, which spoke 
distinct dialects, they were overtaken by the general wave 
of population, which for ages had been evermore rolling 
south across the whole width of the continent; that the 
new comers, as they advanced, occupied the country on every 
side of the Bangerang, hemmed them in, and peopled all the 
lands they found untenanted, and at last completed the 
occupation of the continent. Whilst this was in progress, 
the Ngooraialum, who formed a portion of this wave of 
population, I have no doubt, found, as I have said, already 
located on the Lower Goulburn, which river they named 
Waaring, a strange tribe, which they called Waanngulum, 
or people of the Waaring. 

The Bangerang language has many diminutives, as 
naika = duck, naikidjiga = little duck; ckoonda = bird, 
choondoonga = little bird; pokka = dog, pokkidjiga = little 
dog or pup; inyanook = small, ingarnika = very small. The 
Pikkolatpan used to speak of the Bangerang as the Yoorta or 
No Blacks, but I never heard them use that term themselves. 
A considerable portion of the Bangerang were pitted with 
small-pox, some of them dreadfully so; and in 1843, or 
thereabouts, I saw amongst them a child absolutely suffering 
from that disease. One or two other children also, of not 
more than ten years of age, bore its marks unmistakably. 
Of the Bangerang tribes fifty or sixty persons are now all 



570 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



that remain. The following Additional Bangerang Words 
occur to me: — 



Bird - 


- 


- choonda. 


Little bird - 


T 


- choondoonga. 


Teal 


- 


- naikidjiga. 


The large diver 


- 


- moonilip. 


,, small diver 


- 


■ takoma. 


Parrot - 


- 


- tojinja, dekola. 


Shag - - 


- 


- wongonga. 


Quail - 


- 


- borinyer. 


Spur-winged plover 


- demilborinya. 


Ibis 


- 


- paipadjerook. 


Black cockatoo 


- 


- ngaring. 


Scrub turkey 


■ 


- lowan. 


Pigeon - 


- 


- mongobara. 


Emu feathers 


- 


- korawa. 


Pup 


- 


- pokkldjiga. 


Ring-tailed opossum 


- piinjarama. 


Mouse - 


- 


- naitchoonga. 


Kangaroo-rat 


- 


- barrinuda. 


Bandicoot 




- thalwa. 


Red kangaroo 


- 


- purra. 


Flying squirrel 


- 


- piranga. 


Native cat 




- punmaitpa. 


Water rat 


- 


- wowa. 


Rat 


. 


• bareta. 


Frog - 


- 


- tungoba. 


An imaginary snake of vast toonatpan. 


dimensions 






Very small - 


- 


- ingarnika. 


Fishing-net - 


- 


- baltyire. 


Woman's bag 


- 


- mooka-mooka. 


Yam-stick 




- kunna. 


Sorts of clubs 


- 


- wongoba, paringa. 


Net worn round the forehead maranoolin or marangoolin. 


Emu spear 




- koyir. 


Fishing-spear 


- 


- moola. 


Shield used with clubs - 


- malka. 


»> j> )) 


spears - 


- monda. 


Reed necklace 


- 


- jagoga. 


Wooden spade 


- 


- punbora. 



PREMTORt REMARKS. 



571 



Additional Woeds — cmitinued. 



A hooked twig with which uudema. 


grubs are extracted from 




trees 




Belt and strings worn by 


be-e-lin. 


girls, which , hang before 




and behind 




A twig used in opossum ji-ek-or-a. 


hunting 




Wooden water-trough - 


ko-koma. 


Back shell of tortoise - 




Plate of bark 




Horny substance on emu's 


waichera. 


breast 




Delf plate of the Whites 




String - - - - 


- woothool-woothool. 


Opossum-cloak 


- blganga. 


Blanket 


- yallaneborong, yallanebora 


Leg - - - - 


- moonna. 


Trousers 


- moonnoopna. 


Arm, wing, ana-branch of 


a, borinya. 


river 




Shirt - - - - 


- borinyoopna. 


Tail ... - 


- koogaija. 


Feather - - - - 


- tunno. 


Nest . - - - 


- manga. 


Beak, mouth - 


- woorro. 


Man in general 


- yeyir. 


Woman in general - 


- paiabia. 


A little boy - 


- maldiga. 



A lad whose tooth has been kogomoolga. 

knocked out 
A lad of the same age whose wonga. 

tooth is not to be knocked 

out 
Young woman - - - thathewa. 

Son kooiga. 

Girl yarka. 

Uncle ----- karangoba. 

Aunt baarpo. 

A man's back - - - mookoona. 

Back-bone . - - - panno. 



572 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Additional Words — continued. 



Wrist - 


- 


- kookoora, woonanga. 


Ankle - 




- yaanga. 


Navel - 




- kakaga. 


Eyebrow 




- mimithmgin. 


Eyelash - 


- 


- woongo. 


Finger - 


- 


- kertchera. 


Face 




- maan. 


Moustache 


- 


- mondoorin. 


Whisker 


- 


- yaring. 


Neck - 


- 


- wanora. 


Rib 


- 


- kaangoort. 


Heart - 


- 


- tippa. 


Jaw 


- 


- konga. 


Shoulder 




- katin. 


Knee 


■ - 


- eoringa. 


Liver 


- 


- potha. 


Anus 




- mootcha. 


Lungs - 


- 


- mamille. 


Long hair 


- 


- cherungunan pokkan. 


Short hair 




- thoolookan pokkan. 


Curly hair 


- 


- main-mait-pan pokkan. 


Grey hair 


- 


- taa-o-go-a pokkan. 


Louse - 


- 


- moonna. 


Flea - 




- moonna pokka ; i.e., dog's louse. 
Verbs. 


Dive 




- karoobok. 


Swim 




- yarribok. 


Bathe - 




- marribok. 


Make - 




- maa-maa. 


Give 




- i, ngooohiok. 


Swallow- 




- yaSya. 


Fall 




- taatin. 


Strike - 




- nginyuk. 


Evacuate the bowels 


- konyoobok. 


Scratch - 


- 


- ohlnbok. 


Carry 


- 


- looppa. 


Cut 


- 


- thai-ir-i-ehuk. 


Spit 




- toopan. 


Throw - 




- yunga. 


Dream - 


- 


- nuraite. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 573 

Additional Words — contintied. 
Bum ----- pai-ir. 

Fight nginyelerak. 

Stink tiginmoora. 

Laugh ----- karibok. 
Tie - - - kunne. 

Peel baamoongooda. 

Pinch - - - - pirra. 

Jump r - - - yaarkobuk. 
Blow (a fire) - - - - poornma. 
Whistle lertchooma. 

Miscellaneous Words. 

What? minne? 

Full wooroomaitoh. 

Tall . - - . - ohiroongoona. 

Coward ohi-i-moon-ook. 

Mad kornairmooch. 

Round ngarwidpa. 

Sick itchyoomuch. 

Red baathaiik, mormuch. 

Black thaalunun. 

White baatchaitpa. 

New wortha. 

Old morida, thama. 

Angry kolyinun. 

Wet waaloopka. 

Blind ----- yurimgura. 

Deaf ngamothermarmooch. 

Lazy or tired - - - murralaStyamooch, 

Taste ----- baawa. 
Rainbow - - - - nairanorma. 
Clouds ----- yooratha. 
Tassels worn by the men before ngora. 

and behind, suspended from 

a belt 
Footpath - - . - tana, tabora. 
Moonlight - - - . yoorunguk. 
Morning - . - - barperipna. 

Shadow moolwa. 

Pipe-clay . - - - tariJnga. 
A rogue, bad . - - mattimna. 



574 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Additional Words — continued. 



Alie - 


- aiapka. 


Nonsense ! 


- yathapka! 


Pain 


' - yittya. 


Hail - 


- nginogan. 


A grave - 


- molwan. 


Lagoon - 


- baartha. 


A crab-hole - 


- kaka. 


Waterhole 


- kolpaga. 


A plain - 


- naitya. 


A little plain 


- naityiga. 


The Murray River - 


- tongala. 


,, Goulburn River 


- kaiela. 


Magpie - 


- ko-6rn-gain. 


Codfish - 


- boorinawa. 


Perch - 


- kongoopka. 


Fish like a minnow 


- jaawa. 


Large tortoise 


- baiadthera. 


Small tortoise 


- wadjeroSpna. 


Shrimp - 


- kandow. 


Prawn - 


- koonooga. 


Mussel - 


- rStyo. 


Crayfish 


- borpa. 


Sand, sandhill 


- maloga. 


Land left uncovered after being thoniga. 


flooded 




Lightning 


- tohiringawa. 


To drive away rain by 


means warchuka korkora 


of a song 




Mud 


- moppan. 


Cloud - 


- yooratha. 


Yam 


- maSela. 


Pine-tree 


- ngamara. 


Gum-tree 


- beul. 


Grub of gum-tree - 


- beulaga. 


Box-tree 


- thaunya. 


Manna - 


- kaango. 


Quondong 


- malinyodo. 


Flax - 


- yamen. 


Large fire at which a 


party wooloombara. 


cook together 




Leaf 


- wala. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 575 

Additional Words — continued. 
Branch ----- manooga. 
Native cherry-tree - - bartja. 

Reeds moogoo-ga. 

House-fly - . - - wowiinya. 
Sand-fly - - - - naanyoomaldyooga. 

Blow-fly, maggots, matter - toortooUa. 
Bull-dog ant - - - - ithitha. 
Little black ant - - lelitha. 

Yellow iguana - - - beljimja. 
Black iguana - - - wawaith. 

Long chirungana. 

Short thooloopka. 

Names of Men. 
Yallebla. 
Letupna. 
Moolidgiga. 
Kanipka. 
Barromop. 

Names or Women. 
Narrungaming. 
Undyarning. 
Mardjiga. 

Thore mellapurning. 
Turtool. 
Killbangaroo. 
Wadjibialgrook. 
Mirandola. 
Kongobla. 
Minniga. 
Windyaming. 
Borogoa. 

Names of Boys. 
Konebla. 
Mootugoa. 
Tungoba (frog). 
Mouorumbe. 
Barupna. 
Waw-ra-na-ra-be. 
Momogoa. 
Monabbi. 



576 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 

Additios^al Wokds — continued. 
Names of Plains. 
Kaiooga, 

Tetooga, called Tizziki Plain by the Whites. 
Goolgaila. 
Bunderi. 
Wokkida. 
Thathumnera. 

Wai-oo-na (commonly spelt Wyuna). 
Kotoopna. 

Names op Ceeeks. 
Baala = Broken Creek. 
Dirra = teeth. 
Kokoma = calabash. 
Wolola. 
Ti-i-a. 
Bathlnbina. 
Tongologa. 

Phrases. 

Where (are the) Blacks ? - wunnul enbena ? 

(I have) not seen (them) - yoorta-t-naan. 

(Affirmative) seen (them) - baanga-t-naan. 

(I) don't know - - - wunna. 

One man I seen - - - iawa yeyir ngata naan. 

Give (me) opossum - - i punna or punna i. 

Give (me) little water - - i inyanook wolla or woUa i inya- 

nook. 
Who (is that) person ? - - ngain nellea ? 
(I) don't know - - - wunna. 
(I) cannot see (him) - - katir naan. 
(Do) you see woman that? - ngaarin winyara ? 

* (She has a) pretty face - kalinya maan. 

* Ugly (that) old woman (is) - mattimna kormooka. 
Hungry you ? - - - moolanmook ngimia ? 
Hungry the stomach (and) in- mooanmook ta booli, koonna. 

testines 
My opossum here ; that is, ngi punna ondeyia. 

here is an opossum for you 
Look ! mirra ! 

* There is only one word to express good and pretty, and another to express uffly and bad. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 



577 



Additional Wobds — continued. 



Look here ! - 

Mr. Richard - 

Look here, Mr. Richard 

Bellyful 

Desire water (I arrt thirsty) 

Sick I ! - 

How you sick ? 

Sick the belly 

Big you eat - - - - 

Let us sleep - - - - 

Coine (and) bathe - 

Make haste! (let us) bathe 

(I can) not swim - 

Nonsense ! - . . . 

Shut mouth (hold your tongue) 

Make haste - - - . 

Let us go 

Be off! go! - 

Dear you . . . . 

Come here . . . . 

Where (is) Yallebla? - 

Up there (I) think Moira, or 

I think he's gone to Moira 
What for go Moira, or Why 

did he go to Moira ? 
To fish - - - - 
Horse that one belongs to him, 

or that horse belongs to him 
(Is) Colbinabbin far off ? 
Near (is) Worparilla 
Let us go to Worparilla 
Give (me a) little manna 
Quick ! take (some) 
Kangaroo (is) bad - 
Good or the best (is) emu 
Where is my woman, i.e. , wife ? 
(She is) asleep (in the) camp - 
(She is) sitting (in the) camp 
Make haste! come on, let us 

walk 
There (are) two kangaroos 

VOL. III. 2 



mirramna ! 
Mitta Itchen. 
miramna, Mitta Itchenna. 
powganowmook. 
thanyanuk wolla. 
ityoomuch nga ! 
minne ngan ityoomuch ? 
ityoomuch ta booli. 
tungooja ngia thuna. 
nanyoobok. 
yakorinja marribok. 
kakaiarro ! marribok. 
yoorta yarrowin. 
yathapka ! 
nappa woorroo. 
purri or pir. 
yarrabong. 
proma! promganja! 
thoma ngeni. 
yakkorma, kabai. 
Yallebla wunnul ? 
nelangaia imbat Moira. 

minyanook yanna Moira? 

munyooganyoonook. 
karakatemook nellea nellanya. 

KoUbinabbin boor ? 
kiranjamik Worparilla. 
annubok Worparilla. 
i inyanook kaango. 
purri ! mumma. 
mattimna kai-i-mer. 
kalinya pikkeroomdja. 
wunnul ngeni wiinya? 
nanyoobok maanoo. 
karno maanoo. 
purri ! kakaiarro, anyoobok. 

nelangaia boltubol kaiimer. 
O 



578 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Additional Words — continued. 

Which one will you take or womogin ngiamommon? 

seize? 
Large, that one, I, or I will tungooja tungaia ngata. 

have that large one 
Who speared (them)? - - nganog baatim? 
That (man I) believe speared talkoobaia yimbat baatim. 

(them) 
To-day speared (I) believe - Immilang baatim imbat. 
Yesterday (I) believe (he) irukbiruji imbat baatim, 

speared (them) 
Lend now me reed-spear, I tomak kara ngata kama baatima 

will spear two boltubol. 

Be off ! not I will lend - - proma ! yoortachin ngata tomoon. 
Always I lend (to) you - - moorangoorang ngata tomoon ngoo- 

nook. 
(Do) you know (the) road Port ngia koon tabora Portpillipook ? 

Phillip to? 
Pretty face that woman (has) kalinya maan {or menn) wiinyarin. 
Wiinya = woman. 
Wiinyarin = that woman. 
Sore (is) my hand - - - ityoomuch ngeni beyin. 
He speared my back - - baatin ngeni mookoona. 
You hit (him with a) wongoba ngia natto wongobal. 
I see one emu - - - ngata naan iawa pikkeroomdja. 
Not one, (but) three - - yoorta iawa, boltubol ioong. 
There ! see ! - - - - oonya ! nao ! 
Hush ! - - - - - koquil ! 
Don't speak . - . - yoorta lo-it-pa. 

Shut your mouth - - - nappa wooroo. 

I will spear (him) directly - ngata baathima tinyoowinya. 

I thint he is fat. Literally, kalinya imbat woUikthia. 

Good believe fat 
I believe he is thin or bad. mattabe imbat nel-le-ya. 

Literally, Bad believe that 
one 
I will eat (him) presently - ngata thaitchek tinyoowinya. 
You (hit) that one with (your) ngia nelleya wongobal. 

wongoba 
How fat (he is) ! - - bandola wollikthia ! 

Come on, let us eat - - kakkaiarro thaiohimia. 
Haste, (I) want fire - - pir ! {or onge !) thanuk biitya. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 579 

AdditionaIi Words — continued. 
Stand back, you will break proma ! pullo nelle kama. 

my reed-spear. Ht., Go ! 

break this reed-spear 
Hallo ! (here is a) tomahawk - te ! ana. 
Whose (is it)? - - - ithal? 

Mine ngieni. 

Grass barpan. 

To search for grass - - barpanyanook. 

A minnow - - - - jawa. 

To fish for minnows - - jawanyanook. 

Pood mtindiga. 

To search for food or hunt mundiganyanook. 

or fish for food 

Firewood .... biitchao. 
To look for or get firewood biityanyoonook. 
Opossum .... puima. 
To hunt opossums - - punyanyunook. 

Grub - - . - . bealaga. 
To look for grubs - - - bealanyanook. 
A Black .... enben^. 
To go on the war-path - - enbenanyanook. 

Song. 
Ngoe immilang kai-i-mer, 
Yoorta yanha yooringa, 
Wanama wai panama, 
Yoorta purra woUikthia. 

Translation. 
Yea, to-day (we will have) kangaroo, 
Not go sun (or before sundown). 

Not red kangaroo fat. 

Angey Exclamations. 
Kotoopna molwa ! - - - The graves of Kotoopna ! 
Moneroopna moocha ! - - Thunder in (your) anus ! 
Yakkai ! - - - . An exclamation of pain or sorrow. 
Kai-kai ! - . . . An exclamation of surprise. 

So much for the language'of theBangerang trihes proper. 
Turning to the Pikkolatpan, its vocabulary was obtained 
from one of the tribe. Whilst many of its words are pure 

2 2 



580 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Bangerang, it will be noticed that the equivalents of the 
Blacks, Blackfeltow, Black woman, and no are not amongst 
them. It has been remarked before that when a section of 
a tribe broke off from the parent stem and became indepen- 
dent, an alteration of one or all of the above words generally 
took place. 

The Toolinyagan vocabulary has many Bangerang words. 
The name by which the Murray River is known to this tribe 
is Kaiela, which the reader is aware is applied by several 
Bangerang tribes to the Goulburn, their name for the Murray 
being Tongala. It is noticeable that this vocabulary con- 
tains two instances of words being changed to meet the 
custom of not naming the dead. Thus kangaroo used to be 
kaiimer, as in Bangerang, until a woman of that name died, 
and opossunv-rug used to be pinga, but a man called Pinga 
died, and the word was changed to koonya-miinya. 

The following are a few Additional Toolinyagan "Words: — 

Kangaroo-rat - - - ngarringarra. 

Mouse bartha. 

Water rat . - - . wollithola. 
Woman's net-bag - - - murra. 
Net worn on forehead - - murrungilling. 
Fishing-net - - - - woolwyra. 
Manna ----- kaango. 
Opossum-cloak - - - koonya-wiinya. 
Husband - . _ . yeyir. 
Blow-fly - . - . thongera. 
Big ant ----- kagija. 

Codfish booringawa. 

Perch' markoon, theika. 

Hole in the ground - - mithitha. 
A sore ----- koot-tha. 
Speaking of an elder brother - baanyoobin. 
,', to an elder brother - baanyooba. 
Come swim (in the) water - kabbai marribok wolla. 
Don't talk - - - - yoorta loitpa. 

You lie ngeni andaik. 

Where is my wife ? - - wunul ngieni wiinya ? 
(I have) n6t seen (her) - - yoortat naan. 
(She has) run away - - yammin. 

Arm borinya. 

Mussel yanga. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 581 

In the Ngarrimowro language it is remarkable that the 
substantive Bawo = Blackfellow has a dual, Bawool, and a 
plural, Ba-wal, as a very intelligent Black woman from 
whom I got my vocabulary was at pains to inform me. 
About twenty-five years ago the equivalent of kangaroo was 
Poonminmir, which name a girl also bore. The girl died, 
and wardakow became the term for kangaroo, as the name 
of the dead could not be uttered for many years, in accord- 
ance with a custom which seems to be universal in Australia. 
In like manner the tribe used to say Bakka wirra = tobacco 
give; but a boy called Bakka having died, the phrase was 
altered to thong a wirra = smoke give. The word marrai = 
woman becomes in the plural maani/oomein. Some of the 
neighbouring tribes call the Ngarrimowro the Yabbala = No 
Blacks. This people called the Murray Kaiela, and, though 
they knew of the existence of the Goulburn, had no name 
for it. On pressing my informant on the subject, I learnt 
that, if she had to speak of it, she should call it Kaiela, 
pointing in its direction with her nose, so as to distinguish it 
from the Murray. Men generally point with the beard, 
women with the nose. The following Additional Words are 
Ngarrimowro: — 

A cloud yoorathek. 

Lightning - - - - chiringawik. 
Many women - - - - karoik maanyoomain. 
Codfishi ----- booroonoo. 
Perch ----- boongooma. 

Manna kanog. 

To swim marreohang. 

Gum-tree ... - tuUo. 

Box-tree bulloit. 

Diver (a bird) - - - - dai-e-Iel. 

A boy moolan. 

Arm borein. 

Murray River - - - Kaiyel or Kaiela. 

To-morrow I will go - - burriburri ngai-ir yanne. 
Give me some fish (fish give) - munni wirra. 
I am hungry . - - - moolinmi ngai-ir. 
Hungry you? - - - - moolinmi nginya ? 
Opossum is bad - - - matthir toompool. 



582 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Additional Woilds— continued. 



Emu is good - 
Don't talk 
Hush ! - - - 
Many Black (will) come 
morrow 

When (will) you go? 
To-morrow I (will) go 
Come and fish 
Where are you going? - 
Where is my wife? - 
Not I see (her) 



- kalein godaiami. 

- yabbala loitpa. 

- ko-ka! 

to- karoik barwal yanne purri burri. 

- wamuk nginya yanne? 

- purriburri ngailr yanne. 

- yennera munnika. 

- wunnul yanne? 

- wunnul ngeni marrai? 

- yabbale ngata nakal. 



No. 214a.— NEAR THE JUNCTION OP THE MURRAY AND 
GOULBURN.— THE BANGERANG TRIBES PROPER. 





By the 


Wbiter. 




Kangaroo - 


ka3-i-mer. 


Hand - 


- be-yin. 


Opossum 


pun-na. 


2 Blacks - 


- bol-tu-bol-yeyir. 


Tame dog - 


pok-ka. 


3 Blacks - 


- bol-tu-bol i-oong 


Wild dog - 


w6k-id-da. 




yeyir. 


Emu - - - 


pikk-er-oom-dja. 


One - 


- iawa, loong. 


Black duck - 


nai-ka. 


Two - 


- bol-tu-bol. 


Wood duck- 


ung-a-wa. 


Three - 


- bol-tu-bol i-oong. 


Pelican 


ka-tin. 






Laughing jackass 


wig-il-5p-ka. 


Pour - 


- bol-tu-bol bol-tu- 

bol. 

- ka5-a. 


Native companion koo-noo-goo- 
thoo-la. 


Father 


White cockatoo - 


jar-ing. 


Mother 


- kam-a. 


Crow - 


wok-ka. 


Sister-Elder 


- gid-git-ka. 


Swan - 


maal-ya. 


„ Younger 


- tha-jip. 


Egg - - - 


poo-jang-a. 


Brother-Elder 


- baanyooba. 


Track of a foot - 


moo-goo-jin-na. 


„ Younger tha-ju-ba. 


Fish - - - 


mund-ji. 


A young man 


- pan-noop-ka. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- thow-mung-a. 


Crayfish - 


bi3r-pa. 


An old woman 


- kor-moo-ka. 


Mosquito - 


be-tha. 


A baby 


- ko-toop-ka. 


Fly - 


wo-wlin-ya. 


A White man 


- moo-la-wa. 


Snake - 


go-na. 


Children - 


- yar-ka, yar-kid- 


The Blacks - 


en-ben-na. 




ji-ga. 


A Blackf ellow - 


en-ben-na. 


Head - 


- po-ko. 


A Black woman 


wlin-ya. 


Eye - 


- me-ul. 


Nose - 


kowo. 


Ear -. 


- mar-moo. 



JUNCTION OF THE MURRAY AND GOULBURN. 



583 



No. 



214 a. — Near the Junction of the Murray and Goulburn — 
continv^d. 



Mouth - - woor-roo. 
Teeth - - - dir-ra. 
Hair of the head - pok-kan. 



Beard - 


- yaar-ing. 


Thunder - 


- mon-er-a. 


Grass - 


- bar-pan. 


Tongue 


- thai-ling. 


Stomach 


- bool-i. 


Breasts 


- ba3-ir. 


Thigh - 


- moon-na. 


Foot - 


- chin-na. 


Bone - 


- lil-di-ma. 


Blood - 


- maw-wa. 


Skin - 


- wo-waid-ja. 


Fat - 


- woU-ik-thi-a. 


Bowels 


- koon-na. 


Excrement - 


- koon-na. 


War-spear - 


- jek-kor-a. 


Reed-spear - 


- ka-ma. 


Throwing-stick 


- yool-wa. 


Shield - 


- mal-ka. 


Tomahawk - 


- a-na. 


Canoe - 


- mat-tha. 


Sun - - ' 


- yoor-ing-a. 


Moon - 


- yo6r-e. 


Star - 


- toor-ta. 


Light - 


- moo-la-wa. 


Dark - 


- thal-la, moo-lok- 




moo-lok. 


Cold - 


- ma-tig-i-wik. 


Heat - 


- ti-check. 


Day - 


- kan-an-goor-a. 


Night - 


- thalla, moolok- 




moolok. 


Fire - 


- biit-ya. 


Water 


- wol-la. 


Smoke 


- thong-a 


Ground 


- wok-ka. 


Wind- 


- baang-a. 


Rain - 


- koo-kor-a. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


- pek-ka. 



Boomerang - 


wun-ya. 


Hill - 


yool-la. 


Wood - 


biit-cha-o. 


Stone - 


e-or-ga. 


Camp - 


niaan-oo. 


Yes - 


ngo-e. 


No - 


yoor-ta. 


I 


nge-ni, nga-ta. 


You - 


nga, ngia. 


Bark - 


yal-ma. 


Good - 


kaal-in-ya. 


Bad - 


- mat-tim-na. 


Sweet - 


- kaal-in-ya. 


Food - 


- mun-di-ga. 


Hungry 


- moo-lan-mook. 


Thirsty 


- thaan-ga. 


Eat - 


- thai-chim-i-a. 


Sleep - 


- naan-yoo-bok. 


Drink - 


- tha-goo-na. 


Walk - 


- yan-yoo-bok. 


See - 


- naSt-chook, naan 


Sit 


- kar-choo-bok. 


Yesterday - 


- iruk-biruk. 


To-day 


- immil-ang. 


To-morrow - 


- bar-per-ik. 


Where are the 


wunnul enbena? 


Blacks? 




I don't know 


- wun-ua. 


Plenty 


- otan. 


Big - 


- tuu-goo-ja. 


Little - 


- in-ya-nook. 


Dead - 


- ko-koo-in. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Come on 


- ya-kor-ma, ka-ko 


Milk - 


- ngoonoo-in. 


Eaglehawk - 


- won-mir. 


Wild turkey 


- kor-mi-me-bla. 


Wife - 


- nge-ni wiin-ya. 



584 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 214b.— TOCUMWALL, ON THE MURRAY.— THE 
PIKKOLATPAN TRIBE. 





By the 


Wbitbb. 




Kangaroo - 


wortogoa. 


Hand - 


- bium. 


Opossum - 


baitya. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


pokka. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 




One - 


- iawa. 


Emu - 


pikkeroomdja. 


Two - 


- balabqol. 


Black duck - 








Wood duck 




Three - 


- balabool ia. 


Pelican 




Pour ■ 


- balabool bala 


Laughing jackass 






bool. 


Native companion 


Father 


- bapo. 


White cockatoo - 


jarim. 


Mother 


- napo. 


Crow - 


wokkir. 


Sister-Elder 


- thaigip. 


Swan - 




„ Younger 


- baanyooip. 


Egg - 




Brother-Elder 


- 


Track of a foot - 




„ Younger 


Pish - 


mani. 


A young man 


. 


Lobster 




An old man 


. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 




Mosquito - 








Ply - 




A baby 


- 


Snake - 




A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


beowka. 


Children - 


- 


A Blaokfellow - 


beowkal. 


Head - 


- 


A Black woman - 


momidgiga. 


Bye - 


- ma. 


Nose 


kowo. 


Bar - 


- marmoo. 



TOCUMWALL, ON THE MURRAY. 



585 



No. 214b. — TocuMWALL. — The Pikkolaipak Tribe — continued. 



Mouth 


- woorro. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- dirran. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


Wood 




Beard - 


- 


Stone - 


- eorga. 


Thunder - 


- murnera. 


Camp - 


- 


Grass - 


- barpan. 


Yes - 


- ngoe. 


Tongue 




No - 


- yalliba. 


Stomach 


- botha. 






Breasts 




I 


- nga, my, ngeni. 


Thigh- - 




You - 


- ngena. 


Foot - 


- mogoohinna. 


Bark - 


- yalma. 


Bone - 




Good - - 


- 


Blood - 




Bad - 


- 


Skin - - 


_ 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


_ 


Food - 


- 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- 


Excrement - 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


War-spear - 


- koyir. 


Eat - 


- maichimiak. 


Reed-spear - 


- kama. 


Sleep - 


- nanyoobok. 


Throwiag-stiok 


- 


Drink - 


- bogiak. 


Shield 


- marka. 


Walk - 


- yanyoobok. 


Tomahawk - 


- ngana. 


See - 


- 


Canoe 


- 


Sit •■ 


- 


Sun - 


- yooringa. 


Yesterday - 


- bigauga. 


Moon - 


- yoore. 


To-day 




Star - 


- toorta. 










To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 


- 






Dark - 


- 


Where are 
Blacks? 


the wunul beowka ? 


Cold - 


- 






Heat - 


- 


I don't know 


- 


Day - 


- kanenorga. 


Plenty 


- 


Night - 


.- thalla. 


Big - - 


- 


Fire - 


- biitya. 


Little - 


- 


Water 


- thethowganna. 


Dead - 


- 


Smoke 


- 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- 


Come on - 


- kakaiyarro. 


Wind - 




Milk - 


- 


Rain ■ 


- korkora. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- 


Wife 


- 



586 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 214c.— ULUPNA.— THE TOOLINYAGAN TRIBE, 





By the Wkitee. 




Kangaroo - 


tamjutooopna. 


Hand - 


_ 


Opossum - 


baitya. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


pokka. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Wild dog - 


wokkida. 


One - 


- iawa. 


Emu - 




Two - 


- boltubol. 


Black duck - 




Three - 


- boltubol ioong 


Wood duck- 












Four - 


- boltubol- 


Pelican 






boltubol. 


Laughing jackass 




Father 


- bapo. 


Native companion 






White cockatoo 




Mother 


- napo. 


Crow - 




Sister-Elder 


- thaigip. 


Swan - 




,, Younger 


- poo-gika. 


Egg - 




Brother-Elder 


- baanyooba. 


Track of a foot 




,, Younger banyip. ' 


Fish - 




A young man 




Lobster 


- borpa. 


An old man 


- towmunga. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- kormooka. 


Mosquito - 


- 


A baby 


- kotoopna. 


Fly - 


- wowiinya. 


A White man 




Snake - ■ - 


- takinjoa, gona. 






The Blacks - 


- yenbena. 


Children - 




A BlackfeUow 


- yeyir. 


Head - 


- poko. 


A Black woman 


- paiabia or wiiny a. 


Eye - 


- meul. 


Nose - 


- kowo. 


Ear - 







ULUPNA. 


887 


No. 214c. 


— Ulupna. — The Toolintagan Tribe — continued. 


Mouth 


- wooroo. 


Boomerang - 


- kooronga. 


Teeth - 


- dirran. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair Of the heac 


- 


Wood - 


- biityao. 


Beard - 


_ 






Thunder 


- monera. 


Stone - 


- iorga. 


Grass - 


- barpa. 


Camp - 


- mana. 


Tongue 


- 


Yes - 


- ngoe. 


Stomach 


- booU. 


No - 


- yoorta. 


Breasts 


- bai-ir. 


I 


- ngeni. 


Thigh - 


- towo. 


You - 


- nginna. 


Foot - 


- mogoginna. 


Bark - 


- 


Bone - 


_ 


Good - 


- kaalinya. 


Blood - 


- maw-wa. 


Bad - 


- mattimna. 


Skin - 


_ 


Sweet - 


- thunathaich. 


Fat - 


- wolikthia. 


Food - -1 


- 


Bowels 


- bartoogoona. 


Hungry 


- 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Thirsty 


- 


War-spear - 


- wnnnuga. 


Eat - 


- 


Reed-spear - 


- kama. 


Sleep - 


- nanyoobok. 


Throwing-stick 


- yoolwa. 


Drink - 




Shield - 


- 


Walk - 


- yanyoobok. 


Tomahawk - 


- ngana. 


See - 


- 


Canoe - 


- matta. 


Sit - 


- kartyoobok. 


Sun - 


- yooringa. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- yooruigeja. 


To-day 


- kanangor. 


Star - 


- toorta. 


To-morrow - 


- parparik. 


Light - - 


- 


Where are 


;he wunul yenbena ? 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- 


I don't know 


- ai yoort-at naan. 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- ngotan. 


Day - 


- 


Big - - 


_ 


Night - 


- 


Little - 




Fire - 


- biitya. 


Dead - 


- kokooin. 


Water 


- woUa. 






Smoke 


_ 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


~ wokka. 


Come on . - 


- kabai. 


Wind - 


- 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- korkora. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts , 


- 


Wife - 


- ngieni wiinya. 



588 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 214d.— NEAR YnLIMA, ON BOTH SIDES OP THE RIVER 
MURRAY— THE NGARRIMOWRO TRIBE. 





By the 


Wkitek. 




Kangaroo - 


wardakow. 


Hand - 


pirik. 


Opossum 


toompool, korak. 


2 Blacks - 


platir bawool. 


Tame dog - 


karnow, kamao. 


3 Blacks - 


platir warrangen 


Wild dog - 






bawal. 


Emu - 


godaiami. 


One - - 


warrangen. 


Black duck 


wangirl. 


Two - - - 


platir. 


Wood duck 






Pelican 


garikart. 


Three - 


platir warrangen. 


Laughing jackass 




Pour - 


platir-platir. 


Native companion tarwirri. 


Pather 


bingalam. 


White cockatoo - 


karang. 


Mother 


nga-ga-lam. 


Crow - 


wokka. 


Sister-Elder 


ngaigerem. 


Swan - 


malai. 


,, Younger 


thatham. 


Egg - - - 




Brother-Elder 


wawom, 


Track of a foot - 




,, Younger 




Pish - 


munni. 


A young man 




Lobster 




An old man- 




Crayfish - 




An old woman 




Mosquito - 


burroit. 






Ply - 
Snake - 




A baby 


kothopook. 


komo, littagow. 


A White man 




The Blacks - 


bawal. 


Children - 


ngolwaiohik. 


A Blackfellow 


warrangenbawo. 


Head - 




A Black woman - 


marrai. 


Eye - 


ma, mawo. 


Nose -■ 


kowo. 


Bar - 


maram. 



NEAR YIILIMA, ON BOTH SIDES OP MURRAY. 



589 



No. 214:D. — ^NeAB YlIIilMA, ON BOTH SIDES OF THE RiVEK MUEKAY. — 

The Ngaeeimowbo Tribe — continiied. 



Mouth 


- worro. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- tarrawil, taiTe- 


Hill - - 


- woluntha. 




woli. 


Wood- 


- worogolik, kalo 


Hair of the head 


- 




weik. 


Beard - 
Thunder - 


- moolgoorook, 
binyakum. 


Stone - 
Camp - 


- moppo. 


Grass 


- belart. 


Yes - 


- ngoe. 


Tongue 


- thalla. 


'No - - 


- yabbala. 


Stomaeh 


- botha, pondtho. 


I 


- ngai-in. 


Breasts 


- 


You - 


•■ ngenya. 


Thigh 


- 


Bark - 


- yalam. 


Foot - 


- chinna, mogo- 


Good - 


- kalein. 




chinna. 


Bad - 


- matthir. 


Bone - 


- 


Sweet - 


_ 


Blood - 


- 


Food - 




Skin - 








Fat - 




Hungry 


- moolinmi. 


Bowels 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Eat - 


- thaikia. 


War-spear - 


- marreoo. 


Sleep - 


- pirtilong. 


Reed-spear - 


- thorongal. 


Drink - 


- kongaiang. 


Throwing-stick 
Shield- 


- palart. 


Walk- - 
See 


- nganyera. 

- nakal. 


Tomahawk - 


- nagaiak. 


Sit - 


J-4 U/4J1U/X ■ 


Canoe - 


- bootjo. 


" 


Sun - 


- worgo. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- yoori. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


- toorto 


To-morrow - 


- purriburri. 


Light - 


_ 


Where are the wunul bawal ? 


Dark - 


_ 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


■ poleki. 


I don't know 


- yabbal ngata 


Heat - 


- dikarti, dekki. 




nakal. 


Day - 


- karnawak. 


Plenty 


- karoik. 


Night - 


- yenoit. 


Big - 


- 


Fire - 


- kalao. 


Little - 


- 


Water 


- banna. 


Dead - 


- notharun. 


Smoke 


- thonga. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- wokka. 


Come on 


- kako. 


Wind- 


_ 


Milk - - 


- 


Rain - 


- karokor. 


Eaglehawk - 


- ngarta. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- oherakal. 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- marrai. 



APPENDICES. 



APPENDIX A. 

THE TASMANIANS. 

In the short reference which I am ahont to make to the 
manners and customs of the Tasmanian race, I have taken 
as my authority a little work by the late J. E. Calder, en- 
titled, Some Account of the Wars, Extirpation, Habits, fc, of 
the Native Tribes of Tasmania. To Mr. Calder, whose kind- 
ness in supplying me with information on the subject was 
indefatigable, I am also indebted for a good deal of additional 
matter. Concerning the sources of his knowledge, in a letter 
to Colonel St. Hill, Private Secretary to His Excellency Sir 
Frederic A. Weld, Governor of Tasmania, through whose 
hands the beginning of our correspondence passed, Mr. 
Calder says : — " Some of this intelligence, I beg to say, I 
have collected orally, in the long series of years I have re- 
sided here ; partly from persons who of all others had the 
most to do with the capture and removal of our natives from 
the main land (G. A. Eobinson and Alexander McKay) ; and 
the rest from a very diligent study of the only authentic 
records extant, in which the history of this people, as far as 
it can ever be known to us, is contained ; viz. : — The many 
voluminous manuscript reports that are preserved in the 
office of the Colonial Secretary, of which there are about 
nineteen. This great mass of evidence, I think I may ven- 
ture to affirm, no one has ever gone completely through 
except myself, who have toiled patiently through it thrice, 

to master the subject perfectly. Having at 

all times during the last fifty years taken great interest in 
the race of men whom we have displaced, I have been further 
induced to get together into one massive vocabulary all the 
words (about 1,500) I could trace out of the languages or 
dialects once spoken by the original tribes of this country. 
This vocabulary — the completion of which cost me more 
labor than I care to boast of — I deposited in the Museum 
of the Eoyal Society, where I suppose it still is." 

VOL. III. z p 



594 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

With respect to the languages of Tasmania, of which there 
seem to have been at least six or eight (the many points of 
agreement in which show them to be variations of one original 
tongue), the best authority is, I think, the vocabulary of the 
late Dr. Joseph Milligan, F.L.S., who was for some years 
Medical Superintendent of the Aboriginal Establishments, 
first at Flinders Island, and afterwards at Oyster Cove. This 
gentleman I knew formerly intimately, and think it weU to 
point out that he was unacquainted with any language but 
English, and so not well fitted for his task. Also the reader 
will notice that his ,mode of spelling is a very haphazard 
one. Besides, several incorrectnesses are noticeable in his 
pages. For instance, the translations of the numerals 1, 2, 
3, 4, 5, in his Vocabulary, do not agree with those which 
appear in his "Short sentences in the native languages." 
Nevertheless, Milligan was a, very painstaking man and very 
happily situated for carrying out the work. 

On the other hand, Jorgen Jorgenson, ex-King of Iceland, 
whose vocabulary is also given (and who, by-the-by, I remem- 
ber as an assigned clerk to my father in Hobartown), was a 
man of intellect and a linguist of considerable attainments, 
but lacked the opportunities enjoyed by Milligan. In addi- 
tion to the above, six other vocabularies forwarded to me by 
the late Mr. Oalder, two of which are new to the public, are 
inserted. 

Of the history of the Tasmanian people little is known, 
and it will be enough for my purpose to say that our first 
settlement in their island took place in 1803. Their number 
at that date cannot be given, even approximately. By some 
writers it has been set down at 7,000 and upwards, and by 
Milligan as not exceeding 2,000, which last estimate is 
probably nearer the truth. Whatever were their aggregate 
numbers, however, the natives we know were divided into 
about twenty tribes, which occupied amongst them the whole 
island, most parts of which were occasionally visited. At 
the outset of our colonization, the natives were found to be 
a very friendly people; but owing to the outrages and murders 
of the early settlers, they betook themselves, after a time, 



THE TASMAJSriANS. 595 

to their forests, resolutely declined all farther intercourse 
with the Whites, and commenced a hush war of surprises 
and massacres, which was carried on by both sides with 
unmitigated ferocity. In this struggle, Mr. Calder is of 
opinion that a great many more Whites fell than Blacks. 
In the meantime, the latter, who in their native state, went, 
the men entirely and the women almost naked, had become 
accustomed to the use of blankets, in which they often slept 
when soaked with rain, and at other times discarded alto- 
gether, according to the whim of the moment. The result 
of this was an epidemic of lung diseases, which, within half 
a century, brought about the total extinction of the race. A 
cordon of 3,000 armed men having been drawn across a 
portion of the island, with a view to hemming in and 
capturing the tribes in those parts, and various other 
measures having been had recourse to for their capture or de- 
struction, with equal ill success, the late George Augustus 
Eobinson was authorized by the Governor to go with a small 
party, consisting chiefly of semi-civilized natives, amongst 
the remnants of the tribes, and induce them, if he could, to 
give themselves up. This at length he succeeded in accom- 
plishing, and brought into Hobartown, the capital of the 
island, by instalments, all except four, who remained at large; 
that is about 250* persons, who were taken to Flinders Island, 
where almost all of them died of lung complaints within a 
few years. The last survivor of the race was Trugannini, 
who had been, in Kobinson's hands, the chief instrument in 
the capture of her country people. She died in 1876, having 
reached the age of about sixty-four years. The following 
names of some of the Tasmanian tribes have been handed 
down to us. The Ninnee, who dwelt about Port Davey ; the 
Tackine, whose country was near Sandy Cape ; and on the 
south coast the Mo-le-oke-er-dee, the Nue-no7ir-i-e, the Tur- 
rer-M-gv^ov^ne, the Pan-ger-mo-ig-ke, and the Nee-l-wovr-ne. 
Though several writers have adverted in a passing way 
to the descent of the now extinct native race of Tasmania, 
I am not aware that any one has gone into the details of 
the subject. As the only question in connection with that 



596 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



people wHcli comes witHn tlie scope of this work is, 
whether they were descended from the Australians or vice 
versA, I shall in great measure restrict what I have to say 
concerning them to that point. As usual, the evidence set 
before the reader will be gathered from custom, language, 
and physical characteristics. 

Beginning then, with customs, we find the following 
common to Tasmanians and Australians, viz.: — The manu- 
facture of baskets; making drawings of living objects with 
charcoal on smooth surfaces; smearing the person with 
grease, ochre, and charcoal; placing corpses in hollow trees 
after binding their arms and legs firmly to the body; and 
scarring the skin on arrival at puberty for the purpose of 
ornament. With the Tasmanians, however, this last practice 
was restricted to the males. Further, both races climbed trees 
by means of notches cut in the bark ; abstained from speak- 
ing of the dead; and required the offender against certain 
customs to stand to have spears thrown at him, which 
(shields being unknown in Tasmania) he avoided as best he 
could by contortions of the body, without quitting the spot on 
which he had taken up his position. As in Australia, also, 
feuds were hereditary ; freemasonry was unknown ; Albinos 
were not found; and no government of any sort existed. 

Turning to language (in connection with which Milligan's 
vocabulary is generally referred to when no other is specially 
named), we find the following points of agreement between 
Tasmanian and Australian speech, which I have supplemented 
with corresponding terms from the Negro languages of Africa, 
as a subject of remark, further on : — 



English. 


Tasmanian. 


Australian. 


Atrloan. 


You 


Neena 


. 


Neena - 


Nyn. 


Fire 


Winalea - 


- 


Wiin - 


Wun. 


Bar 


Mungenna 


- 


Muuga - 





Smoke - 


Boorana - 


- 


Booyoo - 


Buruzos. 


Two 


/ Boula (Jorgenaou) 
1 Bura (Lhotsky) 


} 


Boola - 


Buol. 


Tongue - 


TuUana ( Jorgenson) 




Tailing - 


Talam. 


Nose 


Moonar (Norman) - 


■ 


Moolya - 


Mola. 



THE TASMANIAl^S. 597 

Again, in the three sets of languages there is an absence 
of any coilective word for brother, but distinct words for elder 
brother and younger brother. Also in Tasmania and Aus- 
tralia we find night and darkness related ; likewise bowels 
and excrement; but in neither of these cases do the words in 
use in the two countries display any glossarial affinity. 

It has been shown in the first volume that the words 
arm and bibi, both a little varied, prevail in Australia and 
in Africa, signifying, in different languages, woman, mother, 
breasts, milk, water, and rain, and having at the present day 
in some of the languages of both continents two or three of 
the above significations. 

In Tasmania we meet with practically the same pecu- 
liarity, though the root which goes through the variations is 
not either of those found in the two continents, as follows: — 

Young woman - - - loalla puggana. 

Teat ----- pruggana. 

Breasts . . - - parugganna. 

Milk ----- prooganeannah. 

E.ain ----- pogana. 

Such are the points of agreement in customs and lan- 
guage between the Australian and Tasmanian races, so far 
as the evidence on hand goes. It has, however, been shown, 
in the chapter which treats of the origin of the Australian 
race, that most of these customs and the whole of these 
linguistic peculiarities prevail also in Negro Africa at the 
present day; and hence it follows that there is in reality 
nothing in evidence, so far, to affiliate the Tasmanian to the 
Australian rather than to the Negro. For if there be a few 
savage customs common to Australians and Tasmanians 
which do not exist in Africa — such, for instance, as climbing 
trees by means of notches — the circumstance will not carry 
much weight when it is recollected that the Negro has in 
all likelihood, probably as the result of contact with more 
civilized peoples, given up some customs which prevailed at 
the epoch at which the forefathers of the Australians may 
be supposed to have left the shores of the " dark continent." 

There exists, however, on the other hand, a good deal of 
evidence which leads to the conclusion that the Tasmanian 



598 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

must be traced direct to the Negro without the intervention 
of the Australian. For instance, a number of remarkable 
Australian characteristics not found in Africa were all absent 
from Tasmania. Thus the corroboree, the boomerang, the 
wommera certainly, and the message-stick as far as known, 
did not exist there. Again, Calder notices that the Tasma- 
nians never eat scaled fish, which all Australians did ; and 
in Livingstone's Last Journals, vol. 1, p. 308, we find the 
Banyamwesi, on the east side of Tanganyika, practising the 
same abstinence. Though not bearing on this point, it may 
be noticed that many things common to the Australian and 
Negro were not met with in Tasmania, such as piercing the 
septum of the nose, knocking out teeth, barbing spears, the 
use of shields, canoes, fishing nets and hooks, and of the 
tomahawk. Further, the Tasmanian neither skinned nor 
disembowled animals before cooking, but laid them whole on 
the fire. Ovens also were not used by him, neither did he 
carve or paint his weapons ; fire was not made by friction of 
wood, or cannibalism or circumcision practised. If polyg- 
amy existed at all, it was very unusual in the island. 
Finally, the Tasmanian decorated his head with flowers, a 
custom, I believe, unknown in Australia. 

The differences id the languages of the two peoples are 
at least as remarkable as those of custom. Before particu- 
larizing them, it may be repeated that the number of lan- 
guages which existed in Tasmania is not known, but that 
there were several is certain, and also that they were all off- 
shoots of one original tongue. Now, it is to be noticed that 
in Australia we have, as shown in Chapter I., many words 
which extend, with slight variations, to from fifty to ninety 
per cent, of our languages, and from one end of the continent 
to the other. The same feature also appears in Tasmania; 
but the remarkable point is that in no instance does the word 
common in the island agree with the one prevalent in the 
continent when absent from the Negro languages. I will 
give a few instances. In Australia we have thinna, jinna, 
or chinna =foot, in nineteen-twentieths of the languages. In 
the Tasmanian languages we have also in the same sense 



THE TASMANIANS. 599 

words from a common but distinct root, as luggaim, lug, 
langoon, lagarra, langoonar, langana, as the reader will 
see in the several vocabularies which follow. Again, one of 
the most widely-spread words in Australia is koonna, koodna, 
&c., = excrement. In Tasmania, in the same sense, we have 
tiamena, tiannah, tiena, tyaner, and teethaner. Again, in 
Australia, ma, marra, murra = hand, appear in four-fifths 
of the languages; but in Tasmania we have riena, reemutta, 
rabalga, rilia, ragurner, &c. (Roberts) reena =^ fingers, and 
reenatta = thumb. Milligan also mentions the sounds 
lock as used in Scotland and the French u as preva- 
lent in Tasmania, which certainly do not occur in this 
continent. We also know that the peculiar Australian 
system of counting did not prevail in Tasmania. Now, as 
we found the Tasmanians divided into about twenty tribes, 
between which, for the most part, communication was diffi- 
cult and ill kept up, it is to be assumed that those of their 
words which are general or agree in root belong to the lan- 
guage which the first comers to the island brought with them, 
rather than that tongues which for the purpose of conversa- 
tion had become distinct had varied from the parent speech 
with uniformity. 

In view of these facts, the only conclusion to be arrived 
at is, that the language which the Tasmanians brought with 
them to their island was not that which reached Australia. 
Mr. R. H, Davies, referred to by Mr. R. Brough Smyth in 
his Aborigines of Victoria, vol. 1, p. Ixx, has given it as 
his opinion that the Tasmanians originally came from the 
continent, and part of them from Cape' Leeuwin, grounding 
his assertions on their agreement in habits and weapons and 
on the equivalents of the word mater. With habits I have 
already dealt, and, I think, shown that the evidence to be 
derived from them is of a contrary tendency. As regards 
weapons, it would be difficult to say how many kinds exist 
in Australia; but we may enumerate spears, plain and also 
barbed in various ways, some thrown by hand, and others 
with the wommera; clubs of many patterns, some used with 



600 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

one and others witli both hands ; boomerangs, shields of 
two distinct sorts and many patterns ; wooden swords, 
double and single handed; also fishing spears of various 
sorts ; and the tomahawk and the chisel ; many of these 
implements being elaborately carved and painted. On the 
other hand, the Tasmanians had merely a spear and club 
of the simplest description, and the bit of chipped quartz 
with which they manufactured them, ornamentation of 
any kind being unknown to them, so that the arms and 
implements of the two peoples were remarkably unlike. 

Touching the equivalents of the word mater, it is only 
necessary to produce them for their want of likeness to be 
recognized. Thus, in Tasmania, we have, Milligan, lierm, 
liamenee, lileah; Eoberts, leena; Norman, mookener; Jor- 
genson, leni, mogo, moka; Lhotsky, lia, lugana, moga; and 
Scott, mookaria. At and within a hundred miles of Cape 
Leeuwin the terms for water are gaba, gabbee, giap, Map, 
and others closely resembling them. 

Latham, however, in his Elements of Comparative Phi- 
lology, pp. 369 and 370, finds much in common between the 
Tasmanian and Australian languages. The Australian words 
on which he bases this conclusion were obtained from Scott 
Nind's vocabulary of the King George's Sound language, 
published in the Memoirs of the Geographical Society of 
London,, vol. 1, and the Tasmanian terms from the Voyage 
de V Astrolabe, vol. 7, pp. 9, 10. Mr. Latham's first section 
on this subject I have examined carefully, with information 
before me which he did not possess, with the following 
results : — 

Wound. — The equivalents given by Lathani for this word 
are barana at Port Dalrymple, Tasmania; and bareuk at 
King George's Sound, Australia; but as the word is not 
found in my vocabulary of King George's Sound, nor in 
any of the seven Tasmanian vocabularies which appear 
further on, it must be passed over without remark. 

Wood: moumbra, Tasmania, and pourn, Australia, as 
given by Latham. In the Tasmanian vocabularies there are 



THE TASMANIANS. 601 

words from two roots in this sense, of whicli moomara, 
mumanara, and weenar, weenararme, are instances. The 
former of these will be seen to agree fairly well with 
Latham's moumhra. 

Nind's word pourn is incorrect, boon being the term in 
use, as the reader will see by reference to my vocabulary of 
King Greorge's Sound, vol. I., p. 389. The same word and 
booTia and booana also appear in the neighbouring languages. 
In Australia and Africa (Negro) there is frequently but one 
word to express tree and wood, and in this instance the 
Australian word boon seems to be allied to the African 
bono = tree. For firewood we have — Tasmania, weegena; 
Australia, wiin; Africa, wun. 

Hair : hide, Tasmania ; kaat, Australia. In the seven 
Tasmanian vocabularies found in this work, keelana (Jor- 
genson) is the only equivalent of hair which bears any 
resemblance to kide, unless it be Scott's word nukakala. 
Kaat, the Australian word given by Nind, signifies head, 
and not hair, for which chow is the equivalent. Hair of the 
head is chow-kaat. In some of our languages head and hair 
are expressed by the same term, but not in this. 

Thigh: degagla, Tasmania ; tawal, Australia. In none 
of the Tasmanian vocabularies is the first of these words 
found. The Australian word is correct. 

Kangaroo: taramei, Tasmania ; taamour, Australia. In 
Milligan's vocabulary we meet with tarrana, and in Norman's 
terrar, in this sense, which agree very well. With Nind's 
taamour I have not met, the common equivalent for kangaroo 
at King George's Sound and in its neighbourhood being 
younger or yongor. 

Lips: mona, Tasmania; mele, Australia. In the Tas- 
manian vocabularies I find for lips warlerminner and 
mogudelia twice ; mona dCes not occur. Probably tongue 
should take the place of lips, as we find the former translated 
mena, menne, mina, &c., in most of the Tasmanian vocabu- 
laries. In my vocabulary of King George's Sound lips does 
not occur. 



602 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No: poutie, Tasmania; poiuilt or poort, Australia. In 
the Tasmanian vocabularies pootsa and poohyer are tlie only 
words which resemble the above. Mnd's terms are incorrect, 
ooad being the word in use at King George's Sound. 

Egg: komeka, Tasmania ; kierkee, Australia. Milligan's 
and Jorgenson's vocabularies are the only ones which give 
the word egg. In them we find liena punna, pateena, and 
palinrm, which have something in common with each other, 
but bear no resemblance to koneka. In King George's 
Sound noorok and booy are the equivalents of egg, and not 
kierkee. 

Bone: pnale, Tasmania; nouil (bone of a bird used for 
sucking up water), Australia. Mnd's real translation of 
bone, as given in the Voyage de . P Astrolabe, is kouit. In 
three of the Tasmanian vocabularies found in this work we 
have translations of this word, none of which bear the most 
distant resemblance to pnale. Nind's words nouil and kouit 
are equally wide of the mark, queeeh and queeka being the 
terms in use. 

Skin : kidna, Tasmania ; Mao, Australia. In my Tas- 
manian vocabularies the reader will find translations of this 
word given by Milligan, Roberts, and Norman, none of 
which in the least resemble kidnu. Nind's word kiao, which 
is followed by a sign of interrogation, is equally incorrect, 
mop and boak being the terms in use at King George's 
Sound, both of which are supported by words in use in the 
neighbouring' languages. 

Two; kateboueve, Tasmania ; kadjen, Australia. Transla^ 
tions of two are given by Milligan, Jorgenson, Norman, 
and Perron. Jorgenson's calabawa somewhat resembles 
Latham's kateboueve; the rest have no likeness. Nind's 
word kadjen is evidently incorrect, koochal being the term 



* In several works Scott Nind's vocabulary is highly spoken of, and on 
this ground I recommended it to the reader in Chapter IX., though I had 
never seen it. Acquaintance with it has altered my estimate of its value. 



THE TASMANIANS. 603 

From this it will be seen that, whilst the relationship 
between the languages of Tasmania and Australia is not 
questioned (for my contention is that both are descended 
independently from Negro languages), it is certain that the 
data on which Latham based his comparison was much less 
reliable than those now available. Neither, it must be 
remembered, does that eminent philologist aver that the 
Tasmanians were descended from the Australians, but goes 
on to show that the languages of Tasmania have, equally, 
many Papuan affinities. 

A few points of agreement between the Tasmanian and 
African languages which do not, as far as I am aware, extend 
to Australian tongues, are noticeable as follows : — 

Bvjj — Tasmanian, ludawinna, luena ; African, lewi. 

Mouth — Tasmanian, canea, canina, &c. ; African, kana, kanua dekanu. 

Tooth or teeth — Tasmanian, pegui, pegi, beyge, leeaner; African, pinyi, 
bei, lieno, lino, lizo. 

Water — Tasmanian, liena, lia, leena, &c.; African, le, lua. 

But whilst I have thought it desirable to consider the 
descent of the Tasmanians in connection with customs and 
language, the strongest evidence that they were not an off- 
shoot of the Australian race is found in the physical charac- 
teristics of the two peoples, which differed remarkably in 
several particulars. Thus the hair of the Australian from 
Torres Straits to Wilson's Promontory is long, sometimes 
straight, and at others wavy, but never woolly, and his com- 
plexion is black with a tinge of red. In both of these 
particulars the Tasmanian was strikingly different, for his 
hair, though long, was woolly, and his color a sooty black. 
Besides this, all writers on the subject agree that the two 
peoples differed in features in a marked manner. Now if two 
thousand miles of latitude failed to get rid of the roots of 
many words, or to modify the hair, color, and features of 
the continental tribes, what ground is there for assuming 
that a transfer across Bass' Straits brought such changes 
about ? 



604 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Weighing the facts connected with language, customs, 
and physical characteristics, it seems impossible to come 
to any other conclusion than that the Tasmanians were 
of mixed Negro, but not of Australian descent. By what 
route and at what epoch the forefathers of the Tasmanians 
reached their island, and by what race their Negro ancestors 
were crossed, there is, as far as I am aware, no evidence 
to show. 

The following are the vocabularies of the Tasmanian 
languages which I have been able to obtain. The first was 
collected in 1803 by the French navigator, Peron : — 

PERON'S VOCABULARY. 



Afar off 


- 


- renene. 


Die, to 


- mata. 


Ankle- 


- 


- lure. 


Drink, to - 


- laina. 


Arms - 


- 


- guna-lia. 


Ear - 


- ouengi-lia. 


Bark - 




- une bura.* 


Eat, go and 


- matgera. 


Basket 


- 


- terri. 


„ I will - 


- madegeea. 


Beads - 


- 


- perelede. 


Eucalyptus - 


- tara. 


Beard - 


- 


- kongine. 


,, seed of monodadro. 


Beat, to 
Bird - 
Blow - 
Bottle - 
Branch 
Breast - 


- 


- kindrega. 

- muta-muta. 

- bure. 

- luga. 

- porshi. 

- lere. 


,, trunk of pirebe. 
Evacuate, to - tere. 
Bye - - - nubere. 
Eyebrow - - line nubera. 
Eall, to - - midugiya. 


Burn one self, to laguana. 


Family 


- tagari-lia? 


Call, to 


.- 


- toni. 


Fire - 


- une. 


Canoe - 


- 


- nenga. 


Fish (gadus) 


- punerala. 


Casuarina, fruit of lubada. 


Fucus palmatus 


- rugona. 


Charcoal 


- 


- loira. 


Ply . 


- oille. 


Chin - 


- 


- onaba. 


Give me 


- noki. 


Cloak of 


kang 


a- boira. 


Go away (let us 


- tangara. 


roo skins 






Grass - 


- poene. 


Crab - 


- 


- reuorari. 


Grease the hair 


- tane poere. 


Cut, to 




- rogeri, fordi. 


Hair - 


- cililogeni. 


Dance, to 


- 


- ledrae. 


Haliotis 


- caene. 


Dine, to (eat ?) 


- bugure. 


Hand - 


- rilia. 



* See fire, also lightning and thunder 



THE TASMANIANS. 



605 





Pbkon's VocABtri.ART — Continued 




Head . 


- ouegi. 


See, I - 


- rendera. 


Heel - 


- laidoga. 


Sing, to 


- ledrani. 


I- 


- mana. 


Sit down, to 


- medi, medito. 


I don't know 


- nideje. 


Slap, to 


- noeni. 


I don't under- nidejo. 

stand 
Insect, a collective paroe. 


Sleep, to 
Spear, to - 

Starfish 


- makunya. 

- kie. 

- oneri. 


noun which 


pro- 


Stone - 


- loine. 


hably does not 
exist. Possibly 
the name of some 
particular insect 


Strangle, to 
Sun - 
Tattoo- 
Tear ■ 


- lodamerede. 

- panubere.* 

- palere. 

- ure. 


Jump - 
Kick, to • 


- waragra. 

- vare. 


Teeth - 
That - 


- pegi- 
• avere. 


Knees - 


- rangalia. 


That belongs 


to paturana. 


Kneel, to - 
Laugh 
Leaf - 


- guanera. 

- drohi. 

- driu^. 


me 

That kills - 
This way - 


- mata e nigo. 

- lone. 


Lightning - 
Lips - 
Lobster 


- une bura. 

- magudilia 

- nuele. 


Three - 
Throw, to - 
Thunder - 


- aliri. 

- pegara. 

- bura. 


Louse - 


- nure. 


Tie, to 


- nimere. 


Me - 

Moss - 


- pawahi. 

- manura. 


Tongue 
Tree - 


- mene. 

- lupari. 


Nails - 


- touilia. 


Two - 


- bura. 


Navel - 


- line. 


Untie, to - 


- laini. 


Night - 
No - 


- burdunya. 

- nendi. 


Upset, to - 
Warm oneself, 


- moido-guna. 
to gagvui. 


Nose - 


- mugid. 


Water, fresh 


- lia. 


One - 


- marai. 


Weep, to - 


- tara. 


Oyster 
, , shell 


- lonbodia. 

- luba. 


,, on - - le. 
What do you call wanarana? 


Parrakeet - 


- mola. 


that? 




Parrot 
Play, to 
Polish, to - 
Put wood on 


- girgra. 

- pass. 

- rina. 
fire treni. 


What's your name ? wanarana t 
Wife - - - cuani. 
Will you come ? - canglanac. 
Whistle, to - menne. 


Sand - 
Seaweed 


- gune. 

- roeuan. 


Wood - 
Yellow ochre 


- g«i- 

- malane. 


,, dried for rori. 


Yes, good - 


- erre. 


eating 




You - 


- nina. 



* See eye. 



606 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



VOCABULARY OF THE OYSTER BAY TRIBE. 

Dbawn up in 1826 by Thomas Scott, at that time Assistant 

Stieveyor-Generai- of Tasmania. 



Arm - 


- 


- nanimpena. 


Knife or flint 


teeroona, tra- 


Bird - 


- 


- datwalla. 




wootta. 


Blood - 


- 


- balooyuna. 


Man (white) 


ragina, ragi. 


Bread - 




- taoorela. 




rytia. 


Chin - 


- 


- coomegana. 


Marrow of a bone moomelena. 


Dog - 


- 


- booloobenara, 


Moon - 


wee-etta. 






kuayatta 


Mouth- 


moonapena. 


Ear - 


- 


- roogara. 


Neck - 


loobeyera. 


Emu - 


- 


- pandanwoonta. 


Nose - 


meegrooera. 


Byes - 




- nepoogamena. 


Scar (ornamental; 


troobenic. 


Feather 




- kaaoolegebra. 


SheU - 


kaa-ana. 


Fire - 


- 


- nooena. 


Spear - 


preana. 


Foreheac 


L - 


- druana malla. 


Stone - 


peoora. 


Grass - 


_ 


- rawinuina. 


Sun - 


paganubrana. 


Hair - 




- nukakala. 


Toombs Lake, 


moyenteleea. 


Hand - 




- dregena, reege- 


Maoquarie River 








bena. 


Thumb 


manamera 


Head - 


- 


- neeanapeua. 




tagina. 


Kaugaroo(boomer) rena. 


Trees - 


moogootena. 


jj 


(brush) 


- lena. 


Water - 


mookaria. 


»s 


skin 


- bleagana. 


Wood (dead) - 


weegena. 



With regard to the vocabulary which follows, I was in- 
formed by the late Eobert Calder that the late E,. A. Eoberts 
published it in the Hobartown Courier of 3rd May, 1828. 
Mr. Eoberts' widow, who was alive in July, 1879, the time 
of Calder's writing to me, informed that gentleman that it 
comprised, she believed, the whole of her late husband's 
collection. Following the vocabulary, a table is inserted in 
which Milligan's rendering of the Brune Island language is 
contrasted with Eoberts'. 





ROBERTS' VOCABULARY. 




Arm - 


- wornena. 


Belly - - 


- lomodina. 


Back - 


- tabrina. 


Bird - 


- greigena. 


Bad - 


- poamori. 


Birth - 


- aya. 


Basket 


- tareena. 


Bone - 


- toodna. 


Beard - 


- coquina. 


Boy - 


- leuna or luena 



THE TASMANIANS. 



607 



RoBEETs' VocABULABY — Continued. 



Catamaran - 


- nungana. 


Morning 


- nigrarua. 


Cherries 


- poaranna. 


Mouth 


- canina. 


Child - 


- pugyta. 


Nails - 


- reerana. 


Chin 


- congene. 


Night - 


- luena. 


Cloud - 


T- bagota. 


Nose - 


- mudena. 


Cockatoo (white) - ngarana. 


Oyster 


- rauba. 


,, (black)- moingnana. 


Rain - 


- boora. 


Cold - 


- malanii. 


Salt-water - 


- lena. 


Come here - 


- todawadda. 


Sapling 


- prebena. 


Crayfish - 


- nubena. 


Seal - 


- marina. 


Crying 


- taarana. 


Sheoak 


- lube. 


Day - 


- tagama. 


Shell-fish - 


- barana. 


Dead - 


- moingaba. 


Singing 


- tiana. 


Diver - 


- morana. 


Ship - 


- tedeluna. 


Eagle - 


- nairana. 


Skin - 


- tendana. 


Ears - 


- wegge. 


Skull - 


- poiedaranina. 


Emu - 


- ngananna. 


Sleep - 


- loagna. 


Eye - 


■ nubrana. 


Smoke 


- boorana. 


Fingers 


- reena. 


Spittle 


- cackbennina. 


Fighting 


- monganenida. 


Spear - 


- preena. 


Fire - 


- ouane. 


Stars - 


- daledine. 


Fish - 


- breona. 


Stringy bark 


- toilena. 


Flesh - 


- cragana. 


Sun - 


- pannubrae. 


Forehead - 


- rougena. 


Swimming - 


- pugara. 


Foot - 


- lagarra. 


Talk - 


- palquand. 


Friendship - 


- caradi. 


Teeth - 


- beyge. 


Frost - 


- ounadina. 


Thigh - 


- teigna. 


Gannet 


- crupena. 


To-morrow - 


- ligrame. 


Girl - 


- deeberana. 


Tongue 


- mene. 


Go away 


- tagara. 


Tree - 


- weena. 


Good - 


- paegrada. 


Thumb 


- rennitta. 


Gum-tree - 


- greeta. 


Valley 


- logowelae. 


Hand - 


- nuna. 


Waddy - 


- lorina. 


House - 


- lineda. 


Wallaby - 


- tarana. 


Kangaroo - 


- leina. 


Warm 


- lagarudde. 


Kiss - 


- modamogi. 


Water (fresh) 


- leena. 


Laughing - 


- binana. 


White man - 


- reigina begutta 


Leg - 


- leurina. 


,, woman 


- reigina loanina. 


Light - 


- unamenina. 


Wind - 


- ragalanae. 


Little - 


- moboleneda. 


Wombat 


- rogeta. 


Man - 


- nagada. 


Woman (Black) 


- louana. 


Moon - 


- weethae. 


Wood 


- mouna. 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



COMPARISON OP THE VOCABULARIES OF ROBERTS AND 
MILLIGAN. 





Boberta. 


MiUigan. 


Belly - . - . 


Lomodina 


. 


Lomate. 


Back - - - . 


Tabrina 


. 


Talina. 


Thumb - 


Rennitta 


. 


Reanaoonta. 


Fingers 


Reena - 


. 


Rye-na. 


Nails - - . . 


Reerana 


. 


Ryeetony^. 


Wallaby 


Tarana 


. 


Taranna. 


Wombat 


Rogeta 


. 


Rowitta. 


Spear - . - . 


Preena - 


. 


Pena. 


Basket - 


Tareena 


. 


Trenah. 


Swim - - - - 


Pugara 


. 


Pughrah. 


Catamaran (canoe) 


Nungana 


. 


Nunganah. 


Flesh - . - . 


Cragana 


. 


Palammena. 


Skin ..... 


Tendana 


. 


Lurarnnna. 


Nose .... 


Mudena 


. 


Muye, muggena. 


Mouth . . - - 


Canina 


. 


Kaneina. 


Chin .... 


Congene 


. 


Comniena (Oyster Bay). 


Tongue 


Mene - 


. 


Menn^. 


Ears - - . . 


Wegge 


. 


Wayee. 


Skull .... 


Poiedaranina 


Pruggamoogena (Oyster 








Bay). 


Beard .... 


Coguina 


- 


Cowinnd. 


Hand - . . . 


Nuna - 


- 


Reemutta. 


Arm - . . . 


Wornena 


. 


Wtihnna. 


Ship .... 


Tedeluna 


. 


Lune poina makkaba. 


Foot - - . . 


Lagarra 


- 


Lugganah. 


Man (Black) 


Nagada 


. 


Pallawah. 


Woman 


Louana 


. 


Lowaima. 


Child (babe) - 


Pugyta 


. 


Puggata riela. 


Valley. 


Logowelae 


- 


Mara, way-lee. 


Kangaroo 


Leina - 


. 


Lena. 


Bird .... 


Greigena 


. 


Punna. 


Crayfish 


Nubena 


- 


Nub^. 


Eye ... . 


Nubena 


. 


Nubrenah. 


Sun ... . 


Pannubrae 


. 


Pallanubranah. 


Moon .... 


Weethae 


. 


Weetah. 


Star .... 


Dalediue 


. 


Romtenah. 


Rain .... 


Boora . 


. 


Porrah. 


Wind .... 


Ragalanae 


. 


Rallinganunn^. 



THE TASMAJSriANS. 609 

Comparison oi' the Vooabulaeies or Robeets and Milligan — 





Eoberts. 


Milligan. 


Cold - - - 


Malauii 


Mallan^. 


Frost - - - - 


Ouuadina 


Oorattai. 


Fiire - 


Ouane - - - - 


Ngune. 


Water - - - - 


Leena - - - - 


Liawenee (Liena, 
Oyster Bay). 


House - - - - 


Lineda- 


Line. 


Night - - - 


Luena 


Nun6. 


Forehead 


Rougena 


Penghana. 


Emu . - - - 


Ngananna - 


Ngunannah. 


Black cockatoo - 


Moingnana - 


Menuggana. 


White „ 


Ngarana 


Nghara. 


Come here - 


Todawadda - 


Tuttawatta. 


Go away 


Tagara 


Tawkwabee. 


Laugh - - - - 


Binana 


Peninua (Oyster Bay). 


Cry - - - - 


Taarana 


Tarratoone. 


Dead - - - - 


Moingaba 


Moy^. 


Sing - - - - 


Tiana - - - - 


Lyenn^. 


Fight - - - - 


Moingaba 


Moymengana. 


Kiss - - - - 


Modamogi - 


Moee mir6. 


Talk - - - - 


Palquand 


Poieta kannabeh. 


Bad - - - - 


Poamori 


NoUe. 


Sheoak- 


Lube - - . - 


Luhbe. 


Gum-tree 


Greeta - - - - 


Moonah. 



Vocabulary of the language of a Tasmanian tribe, 
obtained in Hobart Town, in 1835, by Dr. John Lhotsky, 
from a Mr. McGeary, who was exceptionally well acquainted 
with the language. Oeographical Journal of Van Diemen^s 
Land, vol. 1, p. 47. 

(W.) and (E.) signify respectively the west and east side of Van 
Diemen's Land. 



All round - - metaira. 


Bandicoot - 


- padana. 


Arms - - - abri (W.). 


Belly - 


- kaviranara (W.) 


Ashamed, to be - vadabur6na. 


Boy - 


- plireni. 


Bad - - - katoa. 


Breast 


- voyena. 


Badger - - napanrena. 


Brother 


- pleaganana, 



2Q 



610 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABTJLABT 


OF THE Language of a Tasmania^ Tkibb — contimied. 


Canoe - 


- lukrapani. 


Grass - 


- rodedana, publi 


Cape Grimm 


- pilni. 


Grass-tree - 


- komtenana. 


Cat (native) 


- lila (E.). 


Ground 


- gonta. 


Chief - 


- bungana. 


Gull - 


- rowenana. 


Chin - 


- kamnina. 


Hair - 


- zitina. 


Circular Head 


- maluta. 


Hand - 


- anamana. 


Clouds 


- limeri. 


Handsome - 


- marakupa. 


Come, to 


- tipera. 


Hawk - 


- ingenana. 


Country 


- walana-lanala. 


„ (black) 


- putuna. 


Crow - 


- kella, katena. 


High - 


- vatina. 


Day - 


- megra. 


I- 


- mena. 


Devil - 


- comtana (E.), 


I will go and hunt mena malaga 




nama (W.)j 




latia. 




rediarapa (S.). 


I tell you - 


- mena lageta. 


Dog (native) 


- leputalla (E.). 


Island - 


- Urevigana. 


Drake - 


- mabena. 


Kangaroo - 


- lelagia (W.). 


Drink, to - 


- lugana. 


Kangaroo's pouch krigenana. 


Dry - 


- katribintana. 


Kangaroo-rat 


- riprinaua. 


Ear - 


- pitserata. 


Knee - 


- minebana. 


Earth - 


- natta. 


Know, to - 


- tunepi. 


Elbow (?) - 


- rowella (W.). 


Leg - 


- latanama. 


Emu - 


- rakana. 


Less - 


- tavengana. 


Evacuate, to 


- legard. 


Little - 


- lavara. 


Eye - 


- lepina. 


Low - 


- lintece. 


Eyebrow - 


- tipla (W.). 


Magpie 


- kenara. 


Face - 


- niperina, 


Man (White) 


- lusivina. 




manarabel (W.). 


„ (Black) 


- vaiba. 


Father 


- mumlamana. 


Mersey River 


- pirinapel. 


Fight - 


- menana. 


Moon - 


- vena. 


Fine day - 


- lutragala. 


Mother 


- tattana (W.). 


Fire - 


- lope. 


Mountain - 


- trawala. 


Flying 


- pinega. 


Mutton-bird 


- yavla. 


Foot - 


- langana. 


Neck - 


- denia (W.), 


Fog - 


- mina. 




lepina. 


Forest 


- lovregana. 


Night - 


- levira. 


Frog - 


- pulbena. 


Nose - 


- minarara. 


Frost - 


- oltana. 


Oak (native) 


- lemena. 


Get, to 


- mengana. 


Old man 


- lalubegana. 


Girl - 


- sudinana. 


One side 


- mabea. 


Go, to 


- kableti. 


Opossum 


- milabaina. 


Goose - 


- robengana. 


Pelican 


- trudena. 



THE TASMANIANS. 



611 



VoOABULABy 


OP THE Language of a Tasmanian Trtb^— continued. 


Porcupine - 


- tremana. 


Stop, to 


- mekropa,ni. 


Port Sorell - 


- panatani. 


Stout - 


- canola. 


Posteriors - 


- wobrata. 


Sultry - 


- ratavenina. 


River - 


- waltomana. 


Sun - 


- piterina. 


Rivulet 


- raontemana. 


Swan - 


- rowendana. 


Rook - 


- megog. 


Teeth - 


- yana. 


Run, to 


- moltena, meUa. 






Seal - 


- kateila. 


Thigh - 


- tula. 


Shout, to - 


- karni. 


Tongue 


- mena. 


Sit down, to 


- mevana. 


Walk, to - 


- tabelti. 


Snake - 


- katal. 


Water (fresh) 


- lugana. 


Snow - 


- oldina. 




moga. 


Star - 


- potena, marama. 


„ (salt) 


- moahakall. 


Stone - 


- nami. 


Wood - 


- mumanara (E.) 



NOEMAN'8 VOOABULAKY. 



The following vocabulary, which has never been in print, 
was forwarded to me by the late J. E. Calder. It was col- 
lected by the late Revd. James Norman, at Port Sorell, Tas- 
mania, at which place he resided for many years as minister. 
In what tribes the words recorded were in use is not known. 
Though they differ very considerably from MilHgan's, it will 
be seen, nevertheless, from the table which follows the 
vocabulary, that there are a certain number which agree. 
It will have been noticed that in some of the Australian 
languages we have wee or ween in the senses of sun, fire, and 
wood. In the Tasmanian languages we have sometimes the 
equivalents of moon, rainbow, word, ashes, and fire from the 
same root : — 



Ant (large) 


- tyanerminngr, 


Bark (s.) - 


moom6r6. 




wayfinennSr. 


Baskets (native) 


■ tringhgrar. 


Ascend (v.) 


- tacoamar, 




poakalar. 




tangaruar. 




meerar, 


Back (s.) - 


- kanntirar. 




parnellar. 




karndurrSnar. 


Be quiet 


carranBr. 


Bark, to 


- t6Iarnt6r. 


Birthplace 


moleddemer 



2Q2 



612 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Norman's Vocabulary — continued. 



Beef r 


- parkallar. 


Big - - 


- jackSromenar. 


Bite, to 


- ISeanngr. 


Black beetle 


- tarrargar, 




noonghenar, 




wollibbem«r. 


Blood 


- myagiirmeenSr, 




w.yatgrmeenSr, 




pentfirwartener 


Blow, to - 


- 16coongh6har, 




loangare. 


Bone 


- trarmenar, 




triannar, 




p6narth6nar. 


Bread 


- tooreeligr. 


Break (see Kill). 




Breasts 


- narrargoonar, 




trarwSrlamSr, 




tSburcarlooner. 


Bring, to - 


- worrar. 


,, water 


- mokgniir. 




woortinar. 


Bush 


- meethSnar, 




pungalannar. 


Calf (of leg) 


- warkellar. 


Caress, to - 


- kayerpangurner. 




karngrminnSr. 


Cat (domestic) 


- wyamingherwu- 




ngherner. 


Catamaran (raft) loocroppSrngr. 


Chief - 


- nSandrarngr. 


Child (Black) 


- poornethenar. 


Climb, to - 


- tarrarnarrar, 




croanghinnSe. 


Clothing 


- tiiernar, 




tiiernarnar. 


Cockatoo - 


- toonanarnee. 


Cold - 


- krarwarlar. 


Come - 


- teeangr. 


Conveyance 


- leearmoorar. 


Convalescent 


- taggttrpeelar, 




niim6n6peetar. 



Copulate - 


- trokSnur. 


Cramp 


- worgoodiack. 


Crow 


- lunySr, mok6r6r. 




teeandfiroodg- 




nar, tritinyiir. 


Cry, to 


- terrar. 


Cuts in skin (orna- potthgnar. 


mental) 




Cut, to 


- tatraanghmgr, 




oongttrtSrpoolgr. 


Dead - 


- blagurdediiir, 




wordiSck. 


Deception - 


- parm6r6uco. 




/ garb6rebob6r6. 


Descend, to 


- mabberkennar, 




congurlunhiner. 


Dig, to 


- martiSlcootSnar, 




nongrmeenar. 


Dirty 


- pleggttrlgrmin- 




ngr, triagtlrbii- 




ghgmg. 


Dive {v.) 


- togurlongurber- 




ner. 


Dog - 


- moograr. 


Drink, to - 


- tgmokeniir. 


Dull— stupid 


- toanngr. 


Ear - 


- teemiirladde- 




nang. 


Earth • 


- triagurbugume, 




plegurlamer. 


Eat - 


- tegiirngr. 


Exclamations 


of allar! nomebeu! 


surprise 




Exclamation 


to nee! nee! 


draw attention 


Evil spirit - 


- lagueroppeme. 


Excrement - 


- tyangr,teethangr 


Expression 


of peulinghenar, 


salutation 


plegagenar. 


Eye - 


■ plegtirlgthar. 




nebbglteethg- 




nar, neurikee- 




nar. 



THE TASMANIANS. 



613 





NoKMAn'a VocABULABY — contmued. 




Pall down - 


- nebbertaltick, 


Gum - 


- marnar, moonar. 




nayendree. 


„ -tree - 


- warterooenar. 


Fiddle 


- lagapack, lagrer- 




planduddenar. 




minner, langa- 


Hair - 


- lagumerbamer. 




mark. 


Hang (execute) 


- troguiligurdick. 


Fire - 


- partroller. 




wartherpoo- 


Fire-tail (a bird 


- pootherenner. 




thertick. 


Fire a gun, scourge linghgnSe. 


Hand - 


- rajurner, nar- 


Flatulent - 


- tickamar, tee- 




neruienner, 




agumauneme. 




partererminner. 






He, she 


- narrar. 


Flea - 


- neunar. 






Fold up 
Food - 


- languennee. 

- gibbly. 


Head - 


- neucougular, 
neugolar, 


Foot - 


- langoonar. 




peecarkerlein- 


Forehead - 


- monur, noon- 




armer. 






Here - 


- lumbe. 




ghiner. 






Frightened - 


- terrewartenar. 


Horse - 


- parcoutenar. 


Frog - 


- rollaner. 


House - 


- leebrSrne, 


Ply . 


- neboolyttnar. 




16p6nam6. 




marnar, mar- 


Hungry (stomach plonerpurtick. 




pooemartenar. 


empty) 




Give away, to 


- parragOnee, 
teaghener. 


Hut - 


- peungumee, 
nartick. 




Iguana 


- martheriddenar. 




rappee. 




leenar, peelen- 


Go, to 


- tagurner, trar- 




nar, meethen- 




wemar. 




nar. 


,, back, to 


- canghgnS. 


It 


- niggur. 


») " " 


- topeltee. 


Jaw (under) 


- camuner. 


,, away - 


- parrarwar. 


„ (upper) 


- naarwinner. 


Goat - 


- martillarghellar. 


Kangaroo - • 


- terrar, woolar. 


Good - 


- narrarcooper. 




illar, pleathe- 


Good-bye - 


- woUighererper- 




nar. 




namer. 


-rat 


- keuperrar. 


Grape 


- ttirrurcurtar. 


,, sinew 


- laerpenner. 




ttirroeurthenar. 


Kill or break 


- craokerpucker, 


Grass - 


- rorertherwar- 




tamur. 




tener. 


Kiss, to 


- mellkener. 


.. (long) 


- troonar, niingur- 




pigurner. 




mlnner. 


Knead, to - 


- trallerpereener. 


Grub, found under naxnar, namar- 




benghemar. 


roots of trees 


nann6. 




narrynar. 



614 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Nobman's VocABUiABY — contmuid. 



Knee - 


namerpenner, 


Nice or palatable 


leekener. 




pleanerpenner. 




troanghener. 


Laugh 


pilleurmolar, 


No - 


nummerwar. 




pickernar, mac- 


„ good - 


nouddiock. 




kererpillarne. 


Nose 


manSwurra,r, 


Lazy - 


warterpoolyar, 




moonar. 




nemeener. 


One - 


marrarwan. 


Leg - 


plegurner, 




borar, parmere. 




lurerener. 


Open - 


leearway, 


Lips - 


wurlerminner. 




leeangwuUfir- 


Look ! - 


- tronecartee! 




aiy. 


Look, to 


labberar. 


Opossum - 


woUmmemer, 


„ at me 


labberar meener. 




tarrarnderrar. 


Magpie 


callecotoghener. 


Peach 


warterooramar. 




trubrarnar. 




beemguoganar. 


Man. (White) 


loderwinner. 


Peppermint- tree 


- meetherbar- 


„ (Black) 


wibar. 




benar, mSIghe- 


Me - 


meener. 




nar. 


Mimosa (prickly) 


pavemlnner, 


Pig - - - 


comecartinguner. 




rapprinner. 




prpbrithener. 


Moon (see Sun). 




Pigeon 


larnar, larrenar. 


More 


weeminer. 


Picture 


- neemerteekener, 


Mouth 


- mokerleebrer. 




loteeberneener- 


Move - 


- lingurninne. 




ner, loteeghe- 


Music 


nayameroocSr- 




nar. 




nee, neberle 


Plenty 


- parmerprar. 




camee. 


Posteriors 


- oatorar, war- 


Mushroom (not 


plennar, neerar, 




bererteener. 


eaten by the neeraik, meero- 


Pregnancy 


- tragardick. 


Blacks) 


rar. 




nomercurtick, 


Musket 


- partroUarne (see 




planewooraok. 




Fire), leunar, 


Presently - 


- parconiack, 




loeenar. 




peemar. 


Mussel 


- poackerler, par-. 


Prick, to - 


- troonghenne. 




uellar, war- 


Pull to (a boat) 


- pargonee. 




keller. 




wayabberner, 


Mosquito - 


- mokerer. 




lucroppemer. 


Mutton 


- martillar. 


Put or place {y.) 


- plangener. 


Nails 


- teiiminer, mar- 


„ OTa.(v.)- 


• toanohinnee, 




thereroomenar. 




mokenurmin- 


Neck 


- pleallergobber- 




ner. 




ner, loorener. 


Rain - 


- toorar. 



THE TASMAOTANS. 



615 



Norman's Vocabulabt — continued. 



Raw (relating to 


pleenduddiack. 


Spit, to 


mamerminner. 


meat) 




mancar. 




petherwartenar. 


Roast, to 


- 


meerorar, 


Stare or track 


larngerner. 






mamgumer. 


Starfish 


- maenkoo. 


Rub, to 


- 


newmertew- 




maarkanner. 






ghenar. 


Stay - 


- ulvugheme. 


Run, to - 




noonghenar. 


Stone - 


- teewartear, lar- 


Salt-water 


or sea 


mokenur, 
trarwerlar. 




nar, peurar, 
noeenar. 


Scorbutic 


com- 


peunerminner, 


Stomach 


- ploner. 


plaint, name of 


leallerminner. 




plaangner. 


Seaweed 


- 


penneagurner. 


Stomachful 


plonerboniack. 






ueoonendenar. 


Strike 


- lugurnarmoonar, 


See - 


- 


neunkenar. 




riagumer. 


Sick - 


- 


loneroner. 


Strong 


noomeanner. 






memunrack. 


Suck - 


marrarwar. 


Sing, to 


- 


camerwelegur- 


Sun and moor 


tooweenyer. 






ner. 


(left undistin 


- larthethelar. 


Sit down 


- 


crackernee. 


guished) 


warkellenner. 


Shake hands - - 


namermeriner. 




larthertegurner 






parlerlermin- 


Swim, to - 


- tringhener. 






ner. 


Take oflF, to 


licanghener. 


Shake, to 


. 


peeng wartenar. 




licoorar. 


Shut - 


- 


pomeway, 
pewterway. 


Thighs 


trungermar- 
teener, kaar- 


Skin - 


. 


neeamurrar. 




wgrrar. 






loantagamar, 


Tiger (native) 


crimererrar. 






moomtenar. 


Toadstool - 


- mayerkeperlar- 


Sky - 




tooreener. 




lee. 


Sleep, to 


- 


logurner. 


Tobacco 


pyagurner. 


Smoke 


- 


noonwartenaT. 


Toe - 


lagurner. 






eularminnfir. 


To-day 


larthertegurner. 


Soldier (a 


corrup 


tooyar. 


Tooth - 


- leeaner. 


tion) 






Tongue - - 


trarwerner, 


Song, sung by wo 


- mazguricker- 




kanewurrar. 


men in a 


stand- 


oamer. 


Touch, to - 


- narnermmner. 


ing posture 




Trinket 


■ derenner. 


Sprat - 


- 


pellogannor. 




ueandrarner. 






ploo-criminnur. 


Three 


wyandirwar. 


Speak, to 




carraee. 


There 


mamder. 


Spear 


- 


arlenar, peear- 
ner, pleeplar. 


Throw, to - 


perrerpenner, 
lugurperneller. 



616 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Norman's Vocabulary — continued. 



Two - 


- pyanerbarwar. 


Wing of bird 


podriinnar, 


Unfinished - 


- permayniertick. 




paranerrar. 


Urine - 


- moonghenar. 


We - 


warrander. 


Vomit, to - 


- neugonar, 
wyangurner, 
penagherer- 
meener. 


Woman, anything teebrarmokenur 
appertaining to 
Wombat - - probriddener. 


Waddy (club) 


- Hilar. 


Wood 


weenar. 


Walk, to - 


- pooplanghenack, 




weenarnarue. 




warkcrooner. 


Wood ashes 


weentiennar. 


Wash, to - 
Water 
Wattle-tree 
Wind 


- legurner. 

- mookenner. 

- moonar. 

- linghenar, 

teeverluttenar, 
langurnerrar. 


Whistle, to 
Whiskers - 


portroltiennar. 

peucannor, 
ploogaminner, 
peunoonghener. 

carmeener. 


Wipe, to - 


- nagunner, 
nabruckertar- 


Yes - 


paruxar, 
parwarlar. 




ner. 


You - 


neener. 



Words in the Vocabularies op Norman and Milligan which 
agree more ok less. 



English. 


Norman. 


MUUgan. 


Nose - - - . 


Noonar 


Mununa. 


To dine 


Togurlongurberner 


Tonelunto. 


„ eat - 


Tegumer - 


Tuggaua. 


Rain - - - . 


Toorar - . - 


Porrar. 


To laugh - 


Pickemar - 


Foenghana. 


,, sleep 


Logumer - 


Lony. 


Stone - - . - 


Lamar 


Loinah. 


Spear - - - - 


Peearner 


Pena. 


Dung or excrement 


Tyaner 


Tiena. 


Bad - - - - 


Nouddiock - 


Noweiaek. 


You - - - - 


Neener 


Neena. 


Me - - - - 


Meener 


Meena. 


Sick - - - - 


Memunrack 


Micrackanyaeh. 


To strike - 


Luguruarmoonar 


Luggana golumpte. 


Flea - - - - 


Neunar 


Non^. 


Gum-tree - 


Moonar 


Moonah. 


One - - - - 


Marrarwan - 


Marrawah. 



THE TASMANIANS. 



617 



Words in the Vocabulabies of Noeman and Milligajt which 
AGREE MORE OB -LESS— -Continued. 



English. 


Norman. 


MilUgan. 


Spit - 


- . - 


Mamerminner - 


Kamena meena. 


Mushroom 


. 


Neerar * - 


Nearana. 


To climb 


. 


Croanghinnee 


Krony6. 


Opossum 


. 


Tarramderrar - 


Tarripnyenua. 


Kangaroo 


. 


Terrar 


Tarra-na. 


My blood 


. 


Wyattermeener - 


Warrgata meena. 


To blow 


. 


Loangare - 


Loinganah. 


Wind - 


. 


Linghenar - - - 


Lewan. 


To kiss 


- 


Melikener - 


MiewaM. 


Frog - 




RoUaner 


Ralla. 


Basket 


. 


Tringherar - - - 


Tughbranah. 


Two - 


. 


Payanerbarwar - 


Piawah, 


Three - 


. 


Wyandirwar 


Lea winnawah. 


Urine - 


. 


Moonghenar 


Mungana, 


Fly - 


. 


Mamar 


Monga. 


Hand - 




Ragumer - 


Riena. 


Foot - 


. 


Langoonar - 


Luggana. 


Wood - 


- 


Weenar - - 


Winna, wiena. 



NAMES OP NATIVES GIVEN IN THE REVD. MR. NORMAN'S 

VOCABULARY. 

Ben Lomond Mob. 

Leemogannar, the Chief. 

Women's Names. 



Teemee. 

MallangarparwarleenSr. 

Pebbfirpooter. 



MaytyennSr. 
Poor6rtennSr. 



Men's Names. 



Prignapannar. 

PeunSroon6roon6r. 

Trallarpeenar. 

Parth6rn6rpenn6nSr. 

CamgrleetSnar. 

FldannSroongr. 



TeethSrwubb61ar. 

Neemgtirannar. 

Meemoolibb6rn6r. 

Teeturt6rar. 

Plan^garrJirtoothSnar. 

May'ennar. 



618 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Ben Lomond Mob.- 
Teeth6rpoon6r. 
TeewSrlfirpoonfir. 
Troon'6th6rpoon6r. 
TerrSrpeen6rlangtirnar. . 
Poorooneenar. 
LeenSrSleangMnSr. 
Larwarlarparwarleenar. 
Penn6rSrparwurlemiar. 
Larklgtinar. 
TewtSrpuiiuar. 
NaggtirpaimSr. 
PuflnSrweeghiinar. 
Treearpaimgr. 
PeniiSroongr. 
LoonSrminnfir. 
Tinghergrperrar. 
WarthSrlookgrtermar. 
PoothgrSrterrar. 
Teew6rl6rpoon6r. 
Plengtirr6rterrar. 
Pring'urtoolSrar. 
Tarth6rtildr6r. 
M6wSrtennar. 
TeethgrmoopSlrar. 
RangitrmannBr. 
TreegtirparmSr. 



-Men's Names — continued. 
Eb'b61rann6r. 
N6and6r6rpoon6r. 
Keet6rpoon6r. 
Teelutt6rar. 
Teugttrgrpanngr. 
M6remiar. 
CuppSrlangiinar. 
Peiiruppgrleenar. 
Py'angtlr6rt6rrar. 
NeenSrcleenfir. 
Wart6rlook6rteimar. 
Ting'lirgrperrar. 
Parl6rtSrw6pittSn6r. 
Carw6rt6rwiim6r. 
Lar'gimnar. 
Teeth6rmobb6rlar. 
Peuneroon6r. 
Ldartennar. 
Peb'bgramar. 
Pling'thootgnar. 
Par'lgrpeupSrtertenar. 
War't6rnamm6rtmn6r. 
Trar'nSreenSr. 
Nam^keramigr. 
Wart6rmeelutt6rween6r. 



Note. — Sexes of the Big River tribe not distinguisbed. 



Big RrvER Mob. 
Mont'grpeelyartSr, the Chief. 



PerrSrparcootSnar. 



I TgreetSe. 



VOCABULAEY BY JORGEN JORGENSON. 

The following vocabulary is extracted from the Tasmanian 
Journal of Natural Science, vol. 1, p. 309 et seq., where the 
following statement occurs: — " The major part of the follow- 
ing list of native words was extracted from documents in the 
Colonial Secretary's Office, by the late Jorgen Jorgenson." 
Those marked with an asterisk were furnished by the Revd. 
Thomas Dove, lately resident in Flinders Island. Those in 
italics are from L'Entrecasteaux, taken in 1792: — 



THE TASMANIANS. 



619 






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pq p; pq pp pq p; pq 



620 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 






3 



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THE TASMANIANS. 



621 



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622 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 






s 
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THE TASMAOTLAlNS. 



623 



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HHHHHHHW 



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624 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



■a 
■e 



^ 



I 






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Mill 



i3 






60 

o 



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C5 C5 



THE TASMANIANS. 625 







3 








^ 1 




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ce 1 


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1 |il4 §-i 1 1^1 ifg il^ ■ 1 

C5 C50C00W W W MnHfilMliltilMfl 
VOL. m. 2 E 



626 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



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n c fli 



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THE TASMANIANS. 627 























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628 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



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THE TASMANIANS. 629 



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630 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



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THE TASMANIANS. 631 



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632 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 







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THE TASMANIANS. 633 

Words in which Jorgenson and Milligan agkeb more or less. 





J. Jorgenson. 


Milligan. 


Arm - - - - 


Houana 


Wihima. 


Basket 


Terri 


TiUe. 


Beard 


Canguin^ - 


Cowinn^. 


Black man 


Palewaredia 


Pahleah. 


Come - - - . 


Tarrabilyie 


Tallya-lea. 


Crow - - - - 


Lina - . - - 


Lietenna. 


Cry - - - - 


Targa 


Tagara toomiack. 


Ear . - - - 


Ouagui 


Wayee. 


To eat 


Tuwie 


Tughlee. 


Egg - - - - 


Palinna 


Pateenah. 


Bye - 


Nuber^ - - - 


Nubr^. 


Fight - 


Memana 


Miamengana. 


Fire . - - ■• 


Unee - - - - 


Nguue. 


FUt - 


Reannemana 


Ree-trierrena. 


Flyblow - 


MouTiga 


Mongana (fly). 


Foot - - - - 


Langana - - - 


Luggana. 


Frost - - - - 


Ulta - - - - 


Oolrah. 


Grass - - - - 


Roonina 


Rouninna. 


Moon - - - - 


Weena 


Weenah leah. 


Mouth 


Canea 


Kaneinah. 


Mutton-bird 


Youla 


YoUa. 


To run 


Reugnie 


Ren^. . 


Snake 


Pouranna - 


Bawaimah. 


Spear - - - - 


Prenna 


Perenna. 


Star - - - - 


Moordunna 


Rhomdunna. 


Stone - - - - 


Lonna ... 


Lonna. 


Strong 


Ralipianna 


RuUa ruUanah. 


Tongue - - - 


Mene - - - - 


Mennfe. 


Two . - - - 


Boula - - . - 


Pooalih. 


Wallaby - 


Tara - - - - 


Taranna. 


Wind 


Leewan 


Lewan. 


You - 


Nana 


Neena. 



634 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABULARY OF DIALECTS OF ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF 
TASMANIA. 

Bt Joseph Mlllioan, F.L.S., etc. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster. 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Eeoherohe Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


Noriih-weBt and 
Western. 


Abscess - 


Lieemena - 


Limetd - - - 


WallamaH. 


Absent 


Malumbo - 


Taggara 


Wakannara. 


Abstain - 


Miengpa - 


Parraw^ 


Wannabea 
tongh. 


Abstract (to 


Nunamara - 


— 


— 


deduct) 








Accompany 


Taw4- 


. 


Tawglea 
mepoilea. 


Acid (taste) 


No-wieack 


Noilee - - - 


'GduUa. 


Acrid (taste) 


Peooniack - 


Mene wuttd or 
men^ ruggara 


— 


Add to or put - 


Prolong - 


Poggoa nee 
wughta 


Poilabea. 


Across (to put or 


Prolon-unyere - 


Wuggara tungald 


Tienenable 


place) 






poingh. 


Adult man ' - 


Puggana min- 
yenna' 


Pallawah 


Pahlea. 


„ woman, - 


Lowall min- 


Nienat6 and 


Noallea. 




yenna 


lowanna 




Afraid 


Tianna coith- 
yack 


TiennawilM - 


Camballet^. 


Afternoon - 


Kaawutto - 


Nunto-n6 


Kaoonyleah. 


Aged (literally, 


Tinna-trioura- 


Naggataboy^ 


'Gnee-muckl^. 


rotten-boned) 


tick 






Agile 


Meuakarowa 


Narra warraggara 


— 


Ah ! - 


Ah! - - - 


Mile-n6 


— 


Air - - - 


Oimunnia - 


Rialannah - 


— 


Altogether 


Nuntyemtick 


Mabbyl^ - 


— 


Aloft - - 


Muyanato - 


Crougana 
wughata 





THE TASMANIANS. 



635 



VOCABTJIiAB,y OF DiALBCTS OF AbORIQINAL TbIBES OF TASMANIA- 

continued. 



English, 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mo\mt 

Eoyai, Brune Island, 

Eeoherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


ATnatory(rakish) 


Einnyowalinya - 


Lingana looa 
renowa 


— 


Anger 


Miengconnene- 
chana 


Poin^ mOonaland - 


— 


Angle (crooked 


Wien-powenya - 


Wiena and 


— 


like the elbow) 




wienenna 




Ankle - - 


Munnaghana 


Munnawana- 


— 


Anoint 


Yennemee - 


Euggara 


— 


Another - 


Tabboucack 


Neggana 


— 


Answer (to) 


Ouneeprap^ 


Oghnemip^ and 


— 


Ant (blue) 


Pugganeiptietta - 


oghnerap^ 


— 


Ant (small black, 


Ouiteitana - 


Moyberry - 


— 


strong smelling) 








Ant (largest 


Tietta 


Tit6 - 


— 


black, venemous) 








Ant (red body. 


Nowateita - 


Lalla and loattera 


— 


with black head 








and tail) 








Ant-eater - 


Mungyenna 


Munny^ 


— 


(Echidna setoBa) 








Apparition 


Wurrawena 
krottomiento- 
neack 


Ria-wurrawa 




Aquiline - 


Muunna pugga- 


MaitinguW - 


— 


(Boman-nosed) 


winya 






Arm - - - 


Wu'hnna - 


Wu'hnna 


— 


Ashamed - 


Leiemtonnyaok - 


Lienut^ 


— 


Aha ! you are 


Annyah ! 


Keetrelbea- 


— 


sulky all of a 


Teborah ! 


noomena, penig- 




sudden 




gomaree ! 




Ashes 


Tontaiyenna 


Toiberry 


Ronghtuly n^. 


Ask - 


Ongheewammeno 


Oghnamile^ - 


OnabeamabbeM. 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABULAKY OP DiALECTS OP ABORIGINAL TRIBES OP TASMANIA — 

continued. 



English. 


Tribea from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribea about Mount 
Royal, Brune Island, 
Recherche Bay, and 


North-west and 
Western. 


Asleep 


Tugganick - 


Longhana - 


Nenarongabea. 


Awake (to open 


Cra,Tinymongthe^ 


— 


— 


the eyes) 








jj " ■ 


Wennymongthe^ 


Nunneoine- 
roidukat^ 


~~' 


Awake him, 


Lientiap^ - 


— 


Uletiap^. 


rouse him 








Ay (yes) - 


Narramuna 


Narrawa 


Narro baro. 


Azure (sky) " - 


Noorbiaok - 


Warra-n^ 


Loarauneleah, 


Awake (rouse ye. 


Lientable, tagga 


Nawatd, pegrate. 


Takkawugh n^. 


get up) 


muna ! 


wergho ! 




Babe 


Cottrulutty^ 


Puggata riela 


Rikent^. 


Bachelor - 


Pugganara mitty^ 


Lowatimy - 


Paponnewatt^. 


Back (the) 


Me-inghana 


Talinah 


Teerannelee- 
leah. 


Backward - 


Lenere 


Talire - 


Kelabatecorah. 


Bad (no good) - 


Noweiack - 


Noile - 


Ee-ayngh-la- 
leah. 


Ba,Tidy-legged - 


Lackaniam- 
paoick 


Rentrouet^ - 


— 


Bandicoot - 


Tieunah 


Tenghanah or 


Lugoileah mun- 






tenna-ne 


goiaah leah. 


Bark (of a tree) 


Poora, poora-nah 


Warra - - - 


Poora leah. 


Barren (woman) 


Kaeeto kekra- 
bonah 


Lowa puggatimy - 


Lopiteneeba. 


)» »» 


Nangemoona 


Loakennamald 


— 


Baskets 


Tughbranah 


Trenah 


TiU^. 


Bat - 


Peounyenna 


L^rynah 


— 


Battle 


Miemyenganah - 


Mialungana - 


Mungymeni leah. 


Beard 


Comena puren- 
nah 


Cowinn^ 


Comen6-waggel^. 


Beardless - 


Comena-ranyah - 


Co-win-timy 


Cominerah leah. 



THE TASMANIANS. 



637 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania— 
continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Beat (to strike) - 


Legganegulump- 


Lugguna 


Menghboibee 




t^ 




rat^. 


Beau (coxcomb) - 


Pugganatereety^ 


Pallowah-tutt^ - 


Papponn^ tughte 
leah. 


Beauty(fine-look- 


Lowannarelap- 


Nire-lowa - 


Noanoughanoatt^ 


iag woman) 


that-y4 






ji >» " 


Lowanna-eleeba- 
naleah 


Loa-minery - 


— 


Bark of tree flap- 


Poorakunnah - 


Lowarinnakimnah 


— 


ping 








Bed (sleeping- 


Oortrackeomee, 


Orragurra wurina, 


— 


place in the 


noonameena 


orragurra nemony 




bush) 








Before 


Mealtetriangule- 
beah 


Prungee 


— - 


Behind 


Mealtitta lerreu- 
titta 


Talina 


— 


Belch (to) - 


Luonna^kunua - 


Loona kanna 


— 


Belly - 


Tree-^rina - 


Lomate 


— 


Big (large) - 


Teeunna - 


Papla - 


— 


Bill (bh-d's) 


Meunna 


Peegra - 


— 


Bird - 


Puggunyenna - 


Punna - 


— 


Bite - 


Ralkwomma 


Rebkarranah 


— 


Bitter 


Laieeriack - 


Poina noily - 


— 


Bkmdfordia no- 


None in the dis- 


Remind 


— 


bilis 


trict 






Black 


Maback or ma- 
ba,TiTia 


Loaparte 


— 


Blood (my) 


Warrgata meena 


Coccah 


— 


Blossom 


Maleety^ - 


Nannee purillabe- 
nannee 


— 


Blow-fly - 


Mongana r 


Monganah - 


— 



638 



THE AUSTEu^IAN EACB ; 



VOCABTJLAIIT OE DIALECTS OF AbOBIGINAL TkIBES OF TASMANIA — 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 
Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 
the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Blow (with the 


Loyun6 


Loinganah - 


— 


mouth forcibly) 








Boil (Furuncvlus) 


Lieemena - 


Lieematah - 


— 


Bosom (woman's) 


Parugganna 


Parugganah - 


— 


„ (man's) - 


Puggamenyera - 


Parrungyenah or 
liatimy 


— 


Boy (small child) 


Melangyenna - 


Puggatah paw-aw^ 


— 


„ (large „ ) 


Cotty-mellity^ - 


Poilahmaneenah - 


— 


Bread 


Pannaboo - 


Pannaboo na 


■ — 


„ (give me 


Tienna miap^ 


Tiengana m.& pan- 


Tunghmbibdtun- 


some) 


pannaboona 


naboo 


garingalea 


Breast (chest) - 


Meryanna - 


Toorinah 


— 


Brook 


Manenge-keetan- 


Wayatinah - 


— 


Broom (a besom) 


Perrutty^ - 


Beroieah 




Brother (little) - 


Nietta mena or 
nietarrana 


Piembucki - 


— 


„ (big) - 


Puggana tuantit- 
tyah 


Peegennah - 


— 


Brow (forehead) - 


Rogoona - 


Roie-runnah 


— 


Brushwood 


Weena-keetyen- 


Looranah 


— 


Bum (hurt by fire) 


Punna meena 


Wuggatah - 


_ 


Bury (to) - 


Parraw4 pean- 
gluntapoo 


Pomanneneluko - 


— 


Buttock 


Liengana - 


Nunnah 


— 


By-and-by 


Piyerd 


Gunnyem waub- 
beraboo 


— 


Buzz (like a fly; 


Mongana - 


Monga,Tia.h - 





also name of fly) 








Come along, I 


Talpyawadyuo 


Tattawattah onga- 


— 


want you 


tuyenacunna- 
mee 


neena 





THE TASMAISriANS. 



639 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania — 
continued. 







Tribes about Mount 




English. 


Tribes from Oyster 


Royal, Brune Island, 


North-west and 


Bay to Pittwater. 


Recherche Bay, and 


Western. 






the South of Tasmania. 




Call - - . - 


Ronnie 


Ronnypalpee 


— ■ 


Canoe (catama- 


Mallanna - 


Nunganah - 


Nunghuna. 


ran) 








Carcase 


Miackbourack - 


Miepoiyenah 


— 


Cat (large native) 


Luyenna - 


Luyenna 


Limna or laboib^. 


„ (small „ ) 


Pringreenyeh - 


Lapuggana - 


Labaggyna or 
naboineen^l^. 


Catarrh 


Teachrymena, 


Manah, 


Teachreena, 




teaknonyak 


tekalieny 


teeakunny. 


„ yn.ih.Dysp- 


Takkaruttye 


Mannah larree 


Poorannacalle. 


rum. 








Caterpillar 


Eianna 


Peenga- 


— 


(small) 








Cavern 


Lielle woUngana 


Poatina 


— 


Caul - 


Roongreena 


Meena or loarinah- 


Mena lowallina 
or kuttamoileh. 


Cease (to) - 


Myeemarah 


Parraw^ 


— 


Charcoal - 


Maweena - 


Loarra 


— 


Chase (to) - 


Rhinyetto - 


Lerypoontabee 


— . 


Chirrup (to) 


Tetyenna - 


Telita - 


— 


Chin - 


Conmienna 


Wahba 


— 


Chine (backbone) 


Myingana-tenena 


Turarunna - 


— 


Cider from Euca- 


Way-a-linah 


Way-a-linah 


— 


lyptus 








Circle 


Lowamachana - 


Riawiinna - 


— 


Claw (talon) 


Kurlugga.ria 


Kulluggana - 


— 


Clay - 


Pannogana ma- 
Utty6 


Pappalye mallee - 




Crazy (cranky) - 


Tagantyenna or 


Tannatea 


Wayepoeele, or 




muggana pug- 




poietanat^, or 




goonyack 




kongatun^, or 
kongatueele. 


Clean - 


Pannyealeebna - 


Mallea - - - 





640 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABtTLAEY OF DiALECTS OF AbOBIGINAI. TBIBES OF TASMANIA — 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

■Royal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


CUmb (to) - - 


Krony^ 


Kroanna 


— . 


Clutch (to) 


Tiackbooraok - 


Tigyola 


— 


Cold - 


Tunack 


Mallan^ 


— 


Come (to) - 


Talpeyawadeno, 
tallya-lea 


Tuttawatta- 


— 


Conflux (crowd) - 


Tirranganna 
menya 


Palabamabbyl^ - 


— 


Conflagration - 


Kawalooohta 


Loiny or una par- 
oina 


— ■ 


Conversation (a 


Rhineowa mun- 


Poyara kunna nUe- 


— 


great talking) 


gonagunea pog- 
ganakarn^ 


mena 




j» 


Karnyalimenya - 


Karnamooualan^ - 


— 


)j 


Karnalirya 


Kamalar^ - 


— 


Cord(asmallrope) 


Metakeetana 


Mit4 - 





Corpse (a dead 


Myack boorrack 


Moyd or mungy^ - 





carcase) 








Correct 


Onnyneealeeby^ - 


Nirabe - - - 





Cough 


Tachareetya 


Mannaladdy 


— 


Coxcomb (a flne- 


Puggana tareetya, 


Pallawah tutty, 


— 


looking fellow) 


puggatimy pena 


pallawahpamary 




Cockatoo (white) 


Weeanoobryna - 


'Nghara 


— 


„ (black) 


Menuggana 


'Nghay rumna, - 





Crevice or fissure 


LiellowuUingana 


Riengeena - 


— 


in rooks 








Creek 


Manenya kee- 
tanna 


Liapota 


— 


Cross - 


OeUupoonia ura- 
poonie 


Poir^ tungaba 


— 


Crow - - - 


Lietenna - 


Taw wereiny 


— 


Cry (weep) 


Naoutagh bou- 


Moi-luggataj 


— 




rack, tagara 


tarra toone 






toomiack 







THE TASMANIANS. 



641 



VOCABITLART OF DiALEOTS OF ABORIGINAL TbIBBS OF TaSMANIA- 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Beoherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Cut (to) - 


Lowgoone - 


Toagarah 





Cape Portland 


Tebrycunna 


— 


— 


(language) 








Creak (from fric- 


Temata kunna 


Eetakunna - 


— 


tion of limbs of 








trees) 








Dance 


Kianna riacunha 


Rialangana - 


— 


Dark - 


Taggremapack - 


Nune meene larra- 
boo 


— 


Daughter - 


Neantym^na 


LoggataW meena - 


— 


Daylight - 


Taggremaranny^ 


LuggaraniaM 


— 


Dead - 


Mientung bour- 
racka»(imerack 
bourrack 


Moy^ - 




Deaf - 


Guallengatick 
guanghata 


Wayeebed^ - 


— 


Deep (water) 


Loa maggalangta 


Kellatie 


— 


Demon 


Mienginya - 


Ria warrawah noiW 


Pawtening-eelyl^. 


Demur (grumble) 


Kokoleeny kon- 
qua 


— ' 


" 


Den (of wild ani- 


Lienwollingena - 


Riengenapoatina - 


.— 


mals) 








Depict (draw a de- 


Macooloona 


Pallapoirena- 


— 


sign in charcoal) 








Deplore (to lament 


Tagrunah kamul- 


Moaluggata kanna- 


— 


as at an Irish 


uggana 


proie 




wake) 








Desire (to) - 


Oonaoragniack - 


Poykokarra - 


— 


Desist (to) - 


Parrawureigu- 
nepa 


Parawuree - 


~ 


Dine (to) - 


Pooloogoorack - 


Tuggara nowe - - 


— 


Dirt (mud of a 


Panogana ma- 


Mannana mally^ - 


— 


whitish color) 


leetya 







VOL. Ill, 



2S 



642 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABULABY OV DiALECTS OF AbOKIOINAL TrIBES OF TASMAOTA- 

contimied. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Dirt (mud dried) 


Pengana rutta - 


Mannana rull6 


— 


jj " 


Pengana - 


Mannana -■ 


— 


Dirty - 


Mawpaok - 


Mawpa 


— 


Displease (to 


Lieneghi mia- 


PoinawalU - 


— 


make angry) 


wero or kukun- 
na poipuggeapa 






Dispute (to) 


Rinnea guanettya 


Kanna moonalan^ 


— 


Distant 


Manlumb^ra 


Kantogganna w^b- 
bery 


~~~ 


Dive (to) - 


Ton6 lunto 


Togana lea-lutah 


— 


Diversion (sport, 


LeenyalM - 


Luggara riaw^ 


— 


play) 








Dizzy 


Mongtantiack - 


Nubretanyt^ 


— 


Dog - 


Kaeeta 


Panoin^] 


— 


Dove (wild 


Mongalonerya - 


Moatah 


— 


pigeon) 








Dravj- (to pull) - 


Ko-ulopu - 


Menghana - 


— 


Dream 


Neaoha puggaroa- 
mee 


Neaggara 


— 


Drink 


Lougholee - 


Nugara 


— 


Drop (water) 


Liemkaneack 


Mikany 


— 


Drown 


Tong bourrak - 


Tong poyer^ 


— 


Drowsy 


Tuggan^m^nui- 
ack 


Nueenddy - 


— 


Dry - 


Rongoiulong 
bourrack, 
roungeack 


Kamaroide - 




Duck (gender not 


Wiekennya 


Woaroir^ 


— 


distinguished) 








Dug - . - 


Paroogualla 


Paruggana - 


— 


Dull (stupid dolt) 


KouUangtaratta 


Poyetannyt^ 


— 


Dumb 


Manemmenfoa - 


Menawdly - 


— 


Dung (excrement; 


Tiamena - 


Tiena - 


— 



THE TASMANIANS. 



643 



VOCABTJIiABY OP DiALECTS OE AbOBIOINAL TkIBES OP TaSMAUIA- 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Recberche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Dusk - 


Kaoota 


Panubratony 


— 


Dust - 


Pughrenna 


— 


— 


Dwarf 


Wughwerra pae- 
etya 


Nuggatapaw^ 




Dysentery or 


Tiaqu^imy^ 


Tiamabbyl^ 


— 


Diarrhoea 








East Bay Neck - 


Lueenalang'ta - 


Lueenalanghta - 


— 


Eaglehawk Neck 


Teeralinnick 


Teralinna 


— 


Eagle - 


Gooalanghta 


Weelaty 


— • 


Eagle's nest 


Lieemunetta 


Lleewughta - 


— 


Ear - 


Mungenna - 


Wayee 


— 


Early (in the 


Tuggamarannye 


Nunawenapoyla - 


— 


morning, at twi- 








Ught) 








Earth (mould) - 


Pengana - 


Mannena 


— 


Earthquake 


Wughyranniack 


Munna potrunne - 


— 


Earthworm 


LoUah 


LoUara- 


— 


Eat heartily 


Telbeteleebea - 


— 


— 


Eat (to) - 


Tughlee,tuggana 


Tughrah, tuggranah 


— 


Echo - 


Kukanna wurra- 
wina 


Kannamydt6 




Eel - - 


L^ngomenya 


Lingowenah- 


— 


Effluvia - 


Membreac - 


Poin4 noU6 - 


— 


Egg - - - 


Liena punna 


Pateenah 


— 


Elbow 


Wieninnah- 


Wayenumah 


— 


Elf or fairy (fond 


Nang-inya - 


Nungheenah or 


— 


of children and 




noilowanah 




dances in the 








hills, after the 








fashion of Scotch 








fairies) 








Eloquent (talka- 


Munkann^ra 


Kannamoonalan^ - 


— ■ 


tive) 


walah 







2 S 2 



644 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABULAET OF DiALECTS OE ABORIGINAL TkIBES OV TASMANU- 

continiied. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 

■ 1 


Ember (red hot) 


Toneetea - 


Weealuttah - 


— 


Embowel (to dis-) 


Parrawd tiak- 
rangana 


Parratibe - 


— 


Embrace (Plato- 


Talwattawa or 


Tallawatta - 


Moilaten^. 


nic) 


rugana wurra- 
naree, 

Ramuna reluga- 
nee 






Emmet (small 


Ouyeteita - 


Lallah - 


— 


ant) 








Emu - 


Punnamoonta - 


'Ngunannah - 


— 


Encampment 


Lena wughta ro- 
taleebana 


Tiine rotali - 


~" 


Enfeeble (to) - 


Miengotick, 
mienkomyack 


MungaweW - 




Enough (suffi- 


Miemer^meM 


Narramoiewa 


— 


cient) 








Entrails - 


Regana tianna 
or tiakrangana 


Poin^ - 


— 


Evening - 


Kaoota 


Kawootah - 


— 


Exchange - 


Tientewatera 


Tay eneb^ or tayene 


— 




nent^ or tiang- 


nyelutera 






tetewemyna 






Excrement 


Tiamena 


Tiannah 


— 


Expectorate 


Teagarea kragan- 
eack 


Manna mdred^ 


— 


Extinguish 


Pariier^ - 


Patingunab^ 


— 


Exudation - 


Wialina, or wal- 
lenah, or walla- 
menula 


Wialina 




Exuvia (skin of a 


Lierkanapoona 


Liergrapoinena - 


— 


snake) 


or lierkapoona 






Eye - 


Mongtdna 


Nubr6 or nubrenah 


— 



THE TASMANIANS. 



645 



Vocabulary of Dialects or Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania- 
contmued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 
Royal, Brune Island, 

Kecherohe Bay, and 
the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Eyebrow ■ 


Lyeninna poor- 
inna 


Leeininn^ 


— 


Eyelash 


Mongtalinna 


Nubrd tongany 


— 


Eyelid 


Moygta genna - 


Nubre wurrine - 


— 


Eyry - 


Malanna meena 


Tiinenah 


— 


Falmoutli and . 


Kunawra Kunna 






George's River 








Face - 


Niengheta - 


Noienenah - 


— 


„ (fine)- - 


Niengheta elap- 
thatea 


Noiena nir^ - 


" 


Facetious - 


Poigneagana 


Pen^ or penamab- 
beW 


" 


Faeces 


Tianana 


Tianah 


— 


Faint- 


Mongtaniack 


Nubretannet6* - 


— 


Fairy - 


Mummibuckan- 
nyaornanginya 


Murrumbukannya 




Falsehood - 


Maneentayana - 


Laninga noiW 





Fang (canine 


Wugherinna ru- 


Payee rotyW or 


■ 


tooth) 


gotoleebana 


coorina 




Far - 


Tongoomela, 


Lomawpa, tomalah 







lewatenoo, or 









nangummora 






Fat - 


Niennameena - 


Pangana wayede^ 





„ man - 


Poonan[iena 
moonta 


Pallawah proina - 




„ woman 


Nienna langhta - 


Lowa proina 


— 


Father 


Noonalmeena - 


Nanghabee or nan- 
ghamee 




Feast - 


Tuggely petta- 
leebea 


Tuggety proibee - 




Feather - 


Fuggerinna 


Lowinn^ 





Feeble 


Tuggemboonah - 


'Ngattai - 





* See the translation of dizzy, also of ej/e.— E. M. C. 



646 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania- 
continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Boyal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Feel (to pinch) - 


Wughanee - 


Winghanee - 


— 


Fern - 


Lawitta-brutea - 


Tughanah - 


— 


Fern-tree - 


Nowarraoommi- 
nea 


Lapoinya 


— 


Fetch (to bring) - 


Knnnywattera - 


Kanna watta 


— 


,, (a spirit) - 


Preolenna - 


— 


— 


Fever 


Miempeooniack - 


Mie luggrata 


— 


Few - 


Luowa 


Potalughy^ - 


— 


Fiend- 


Winnya wainet- 
tea or miengin- 
nya 


Winneluaghabaru 




Fight - 


Miamengana 


Moymengana 


— 


Filth - 


Leuymebry^ 


Lin^ poine noil^ - 


— 


Fin (of a fish) - 


Wunha - 


Purgha lamarina ■ 


— 


Finger 


Ri-ena 


Rye-na 


Reeleah, 


Fire - 


Tonna 


'Ngune' 


Wiimaleah. 


Fire-tail (bird) - 


Lyenapontendiah 


Lyekah 


— 


Fire in the bush 


Kawurrinna 


Lienah 


— 


grass 








Firm (not rotten) 


Weerutta - 


WeerulU - 


— 


Firmament (sky) 


Warratiima 


WarraugaW loruu- 


— 


Fish (a) - 


Mungunua - 


na 
Peeggana 





„ (cray) - 


Niinnya - 


Nub^ - 


Nubjma. 


Fist - 


Ree-trierrena - 


Ree-mutha - 


— 


Five - 


Pugganna - 


Marah - 


— 


Flambeau - 


Poorena maneg- 
gana 


Leewurrfi 


— 


Flank 


Poolominna 


Poolumta and tia- 
wal^ 


— 


Flea - - - 


Lowangerimena - 


None - 


— 


Flay - 


Relbooee traw- 
mea 


Lergara leawarina 


— 



THE TASMANIANS. 



647 



VOCABULABY OF DiALECTS OF AbOEIOINAL TkIBES OF TASMANIA— 

contimied. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Fleet (swift) - 


Wurrangata 
poonalareety^ 


Loongana - 


— 


Flesh (meat) 


Wiaugata - 


Palammena - 


— 


Fling - 


Peaw6 


PAkara 


— 


Flint - 


Trowutta - 


Mungara 


— 


„ (black) - 


. 


Mora trona - 


— 


Float (to) - 


Lia ruoluttea - 


Puggata or ranny- 


— 


Flog - 


Luggana pooga- 
ran6 


ana 
Lunghana - 


— 


Flounder(flatfiRh) 


Lerunna - 


'Ngupota-metee - 


— 


Flow (as water)- 


Lia tarightea 


Lia teruttena 


— 


Fleece (or fur of 


Pooeerinna 


Longwinny - 


— 


animals) 








Fly (like a bird) - 


Koomela - 


Coaggara 


— 


„ (insect) 


Mongana - 


Monga 


— 


Foam (froth) - 


Kukamena-mena 


Lia Uratame 


— 


Fog - 


Mainentayana - 


Warratie 


Pulangal^. 


Foolish (or fool)'- 


Mungana paon- 
yack 


Noilee - 


Louneeat^. 


Foot - 


Luggana - 


Lugganai - 


Lugh. 


„ (right) 


Lugga,na elee- 
bana 


Lugga worina 


Malleear^. 


„ (left)- 


Luggana aoota - 


Lugga oangta 


Oolatyneeal^. 


Pootmark of 


Puggalugganna - 


Pallowa lugganah 


Pah lug. 


Black man 








Footmark of 


Bia luggana 


Reea lugganah - 


Matyena lugh. 


White man 








Ford of a river - 


Teeattakannawa 


Penghana 


— 


Forehead - 


Raoonah or rogo- 
unim Uenya 


Roee roeerunna - 


Biioona. 


Forest ground - 


Teeatta kanna- 
marranah 


Wayraparattee - 


Pallanyneen^. 



648 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Abokiqinal Tribes of Tasmania — 
continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Forget 


Poeenabah - 


Wannabayooerack 


Lyinneragoo. 


Four ■ 


Pagunta - 


Wullyawa - 


— 


Fragrant (smell) - 


Noya leebana - 


Poin^ nire - 


Polimganoanat^. 


Freestone - ' - 


Boatta or potha 
malleety^ 


Potta mallya 


Poningalee. 


Fresh-water 


Liena eleebana* 


hiemxi- 


Li^ nonghat^. 


Friend 


Kaeetagooana- 


Lapoile lu nagree- 


Matetd loguat- 




menah 


nah moolanah 


tame. 


Frigid (cold) 


TiiTinaf.lr - 


Malland 


'Ptunarra. 


Fright 


Tian-cottiack - 


Tianawilly - 


Micumoolaka. 


Frog - 


Rallah 


Tattounepuyna - 


Lora. 


Frost - 


Parattah - 


Oorattai 


Oolrah. 


„ (hoar) 


Parattiana - 


Oorattai 


— 


Fuel - 


Wielurena - 


Ooeena or winna - 


Ooee. 


Full (after a 


Riawaeeack 


Ma teelaty - 


Mapilriagunara. 


meal) 








Full (a vessel 


Rueeleetipla 


Kanna - 


Yeaokanara, 


filled) 








Fun (sport)- 


Riawena - 


Luggara 


Riaw4. 


Fundament 


Leieena 


Loi^ loiuing^ 


— 


Fur of animals - 


Pooarenna - 


Longwiuny - 


Waggel^. 


Fury - 


Leenangunnye or 
koananietya 


Liapooneranh 


Neenubrulatai. 


Gale - 


Ralanghta - 


Rallana proiena - 


Loweeny ruUoi 
leah or loweeny 
loileah. 


Gape - 


Granriacunna - 


Granua canaibee - 


'Ngana kankapea 
oolralabeah oa- 


Ghost- 


Wurrawana 


Riawarawapah - 


pueeleah. 

Teeananga 
winn6. 


Girl - 


Lowana keet- 
anna or kotto- 
malletye 


Longatyl^ - 


Noamoloibee. 



• Literally, water good,—E. M. C. 



THE TASMASriANS. 



649 



VOCABCLAET OE BlALECTS OF ABORIGINAL TbIBES OE TaSMANIA- 

continued. 



Engliah. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Bnine Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Glutton - 


Lemyouterittya 


Pamoonalantutte - 


Tuggattapeeatto. 


Good person 


Kekanna elan- 
goonya 


Nirree - 


Kanna noangat^. 


Go - - - 


Taw4 - 


Tawkwdbee - 


Taw^. 


Good (things) - 


Noona meena 


Ooraimabil^ - 


Noonamoy. 


Goose (wild) 


Weienterootya - 


None - 


None. 


Gosling 


Kaeeta boena 


— 


— 


Grandmother - 


Lowan karei- 


Ooaimena or wye- 


Neenambee. 




mena 


mena 




Grass - 


Rouninna - 


Nemon^ 


Probluah. 


Great-bellied 


Lowallaomnena - 


Paggata lowatta 


Lomalle^. 


(with child) 




lutta 




Green 


Norabeetya 


Nobeetya mallya • 


Mallabeabu. 


Greeting (a) 


Yah ! tahwatty- 
wa ! 


Yah ! nun'oynd - 


Yah! 


Grin (to make 


Monapaooniack 


Moyetungali 


Boabenneetea. 


faces) 


paareetye 






Grinder (back 


Wuggarinna 


Payelughana 


Yennaloigh. 


tooth) 


ryana 






Gristle 


Comyenna - 


W^yal^ 


P&gai. 


Groin - 


Mungalarrina - 


Tramina 


Tarrant. 


Ground 


Pyengana - 


Mannina 


Nattie. 


Grow (as a tree, 


Myallanga bou- 


Mangapoier^ 


Mallacka. 


child) 


rack 






Growl 


Na,nn^aquanhe - 


Nunnaquaima- 


Dyekkanamee- 






peiere 


nera. 


Grub - - 


Menia or mung- 
wenya 


Larraminnia 


Langw^. 


Gull - - - 


Lueeteianna 


Lieppetah - 


Payngh. 


Gulp (to) - 


Tongwamma 


Tongan^ 


Tonnabea. 


Gum(wattle-tree) 


Munganna - 


Eeeatta 


Reeattawee. 


Gum-tree (Euca- 


Lottah 


Moonah 


Loyk^. 


lyptus) 









650 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



VOCABULABY OF DiALECTS OF ABORIGINAL TeIBES OF TASMANIA — 

continued. 



■ English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Gums (of the 


"Ngenna - 


CArena - - - 


Kattamoy. 


mouth) 








Gun (musket) - 


Leryna or le 
langta 


Pawleena - 


RulM. 


Gunpowder 


Lerytiana - 


Pawleenatiana - 


Lughtoy. 


Glow-worm, or 


Puggangalewa or 


Payaleena - 


— 


phosphorescence 


monghtamena 






Hen (native) 


Mienteroonye - 


Riaooon^ 


Reeakallingalle. 


Hold your tongue, 


My-elbeerkam- 


Kanna moonalan^ 


Wannabee or 


be patient, by- 


maor-mealkam- 


mentakuntiby or 


kannebo. 


and-by 


mah 


konnyab 




Hail - 


Pratteratta 


Tur^lai 


— 


Hair - 


Poinglyenna 


Poiet^ longwinne 


— 


,, (matted 


Poinghana - 


Poina - 


— 


with ochre) 








Halo (round the 


Weetaboona 


Panoggata - 


— 


moon) 








Halt (limponleg) 


Ungunniack 


'Nganee 


— 


Ham or hough - 


Pryenna - 


Tabba - 


— 


Hamstring (the)- 


Metta 


Tapmita 


— 


Hand- 


Riena 


Reemutta 


— 


Harlot 


Pugganatingana 
or meneterut- 
tye 


Patingana - 




Hastily (quickly) 


Lemya or tug- , 
gana 


Coth^ - 




Hawk 


Nierrina - 


Pengana 


— 


Head - 


Oolumpta - 


Poiet^ - 


— 


Headache - 


Oongena liaok - 


Poiete merede and 
poingata 


— 


Heal - 


Raick bourrack - 


Nir^ - 


— 


Heap (to make) - 


Prokny nunty 
mente 


Teeat^ - 


— 



THE TASMANIAJTS. 



651 



Vocabulary of Dialects of Abokiginal Teibes of Tasmania- 
continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Kttwater. 


Tribes about Mount 
Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 
the South of Tasmania. 


Nori;h-west and 
Western. 


Hear (to) - 


Toienook boo- 
rack 


WAyee - 


— 


Heart- 


Teeackaaa war- 
rana 


Teggana 


— 


Heat - 


Peooniac - 


Lughrah 


— 


Heave (to pant) - 


Tengoonyack 


Teggalughrata 


— 


Heavy 


Miemooatick 


Moorah 


— 


Heel - 


Tokana or tog- 
gana 


Tokana 


— 


Help - 


Nelumie - 


Lagrah 


— 


Hide (to conceal 


Lyeemena kamei 


Muggrah 





kangaroo) 








Hide one's self - 


Mur kamiah 


Muggrah 


— 


Hill (little one) - 


Poimena - 


Layet^ paawd 


— 


„ (mountain) - 


Poimena tyen- 
kanganarrah 
tienare warrah 


Layet^ proigh 




Hit - 


Menny 


Merrh^ 


— 


Hither and 


Pughawee nya- 


Tackra, tungal^, 


— 


thither 


wee 


tungal^ 




Hoar-frost - 


Tyeebertia crao- 
kana 


Warattai 


" 


Hoarse 


Lonypeack 


Lonnabeead^ 


— 


Hole (like wom- 


Lowa lengana - 


'Ngeanah 


— 


bat burrow) 








Hot - 


Peooniack - 


Lughrata 


— 


House 


Lenna 


Line - 


— 


Howl (in distress, 


Tuggermacama 


Coekata 


— ■ 


like a dog) 


or myluggana 






Humid (wet, 


Malleeack - 


Layekah 


— 


damp) 








Hunger 


Meeoongyueack - 


Teecotte 


— 


Husband - 


Puggan neena - 


Pah-neena - 


~ 



652 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

VoCABUIiABT OF DIALECTS OF AbOEIOINAIi TfilBES OF TASMANIA- 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Hurt (with spear) 


Mayannee raye- 


Roaddah 


, — 


„ (with waddie) 


ree 
Payalee 


Loipun4 


— 


Ice ' - 


Paratta 


RuUai imgaratin^- 


Ralloileah. 


111 (sick) - 


Crackanaeeack - 


M&ddd and mery- 
dyneh 


Managanurrah. 


Imp - 


Winyawaumetya 


Ria warapp^ noiW 


— 


Impatient - 


Telwangatea leah 


Kannamoonalann^ 


— 


Inactive (indo- 


Meallee touerra- 


Rannah moorinah 


— 


lent) 


getta 






Indolent (lazy) - 


Mimooneka nen- 
taoa nepoony 


Rannah moorinah 


"^ 


Infant 


Malangenna 


Puggetta 


— 


„ (female) - 


. 


Lowa luggeta 


— 


„ (newly 


Cotruoluttye 


Puggata riale 


Lapoitale or la- 


born) 






poittendayl^. 


Inform (to tell) - 


Oana - 


Oanganah - 


— 


„ (tell me)- 


Oana mia - 


Ongaua meepa 


— 


Instant (quick) - 


Krottee 


Koatt^ 


— 


Instep 


Lugga poola 
mena 


Lugga umen6 


— • 


Intimidate - 


Tienoooty^ 


Tienweal4 - 


— 


Intersect - 


Unginnapuee 


Poany puer^ 


— 


Intestines - 


Tiacrakena 


Lomatina 


— 


Invigorate - 


Neingtera tero- 
ontee 


— 


— 


Jawbone - 


Yangena ■ 


Wahba and wab- 
ranna 


Ninenna leah. 


Jealous 


Pachabrea - 


Mahrewealai and 


— 




longhe 


poin^wealai 




Jerk - 


Co-uW 


Cokura . - 


— 


Juice of a plant 


Miangatenty^ - 


Miengaleena 


— 


(red) 









THE TASMANIANS. 



653 



VOCABULABT OF DIALECTS OF AbORIGINAI, TeIBES OF TASMANIA — 
continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Reoberohe Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania 


North-west and 
Western. 


Juice of a plant 


Tuggara malee- 


Taramena - 





(white) 


ty6 






Jump - 


Wughallee- 


Warrakara - 


— 


Juvenile - 


Croatta meleety^ 


— 


— 


Keep - 


Tialapu^ - 


Tiagarra 


— 


Kill (deprive of 


Mien^miento 


Lungana 


— 


life) 








Kiss (to) - 


MiewalW - 


Moee mir^ - 


— 


Elnee - 


Mienna 


Ranga - 


Rawinna leah. 


Kneel 


MealW mianaber- 


Leetarangah 


Wannabaya ra- 




r^ 




minnaerybee. 


Knuckle - 


Reekateninna - 


Ria puggana 


Releenula leah. 


Kangaroo (brush) 


Lyenna 


Lena - 


Ku leah. 


(ioie) - 


Tumnanna - 


Rarryna 


Piaclumm^. 


J) " " 


Nawitty^ - 


Tarra na 


Tarr leah. 


Lad - 


Puggannaeree- 
bana 


Pa-ga-taUna- 





Lake (lagoon) - 


Miena, mena 


Lia mena 


— 


Lame - 


Playwarrungana 


Luggamntte or 
raggamuttah 


— 


Lance (wooden 


Perenna - 


Pena - 


— 


spear) 








Large (big) 


Pawpela - 


Proina nughabah - 


— 


Last (to walk last 


Loente wannela - 


Mituggara mura- 


— 


in file) 




wamena 




Laugh 


Poeenyeggana - 


Poenghana - 


Peninna. 


Lax (diarrhoea) - 


Tiacloinnamena - 


Tia noileh - 


— 


Lazy (see Indo- 


Mienoyack 


Ru^td - 


Rudanah, 


lent) 








Leaf - 


Porutty^ - 


Proi^ - 


Parocheboina. 


Leafless 


Poruttye-mayeck 
and paruye- 
noye-maeck 


Paroytimena 


Parochyateemna. 



654 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VoCABtTLABT OF DIALECTS OF ABORiaiNAL TeIBES OF TASMANIA — 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 
EoJ'al, Bnine Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 
the South of Tasbania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Lean 


Tughenapoonyac 


'Ngattai - 


'Ngatta. 


Leap (see Jump) 


Waighalleh 


Wurragara - 


— 


Leech 


Pyenna 


Pangah 


Liawena. 


Left hand - 


Riena-aoota 


'Ngotta 


Oottamutta. 


Leg (left)'- - 


Leoonyana - 


Luggunagoota 


Luggrangootta. 


„ (right)- - 


Leoonyaeleebana 


Warrina nir^ 


Luggra-nird. 


Lick (with the 


Neungulee - 


Nugra mainre 


— 


tongue) 








Light of a fire - 


Tonna kayinna - 


- 


Unamayna. 


Lightning - 


Poimetty^ - 


Poimataleena 


Rayeepoinee. 


Limp (see Tiame) 


Wughmia elee- 


— 


— 


right foot 


bana 






Limp (left foot) - 


Playwughreua - 


Raggamuttah 


— 


Load - 


Mangeluhwa 


Munghe mabbely - 


— 


Lobster (fresh- 


Tayatea 


Tay-a-teh - 


— 


water) 








Log (wood) 


Wyee langhta - 


Weea proingha - 


— 


Long - 


Rogoteleebana - 


RotuU - 


— 


Look (to gaze) - 


Reliquamma 


Lutubrenem^ 


— 


Loud (to speak) - 


Kuggana langhta 


Kann^ proine wag- 
gaba 


— 


Low - 


Lunta 


Pranako 


— . 


Lie (falsehood) 


Manengtyangha 
tyangamoneeny 
rappar^ 


Linughd noili 


" 


Locust (V.D.L.)- 


Ganammeny^ 


Ganemmanga 


Row^ leah. 


Long way - 


Murramajiattya 
ouamarumpto 


Noina muttaina - 


— 


Maria Island 


Tiarramarramo- 
nah 


Tiarerrymeealonah 


— 


Magpie 


Poierrynienna - 


Reninna 


CurraillyM. 


Maim 


Mennanwee 


— 


— 


Man (Black) - 


Pugganua - 


Pallawah 


Pah-leah. 



THE TASMANIANS. 



655 



VOCABTJLABY OF DlAlECTS OF AbOKIGINAL TbIBBS OF TASMANIA — 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 
Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 
;he South of Tasmania, 


North-west and 
Western. 


Marrow 


Moomelinah 


Lebrana 





Me - - - 


Mina - 


Meenah 


— " 


Menstruate 


Teebra wangha- 
tamena 


— 


— 


Midday (or noon) 


Tooggy malangta 


Toina wunnah 


— 


Milk (of aborigi- 


Proogwallah 


Prooga neannah - 


— 


nal woman) 








Milt of fish 


Lowalinnamelah 


Perina - 


— 


Mirth 


LeeneaW - 


Penamoonalane - 


— 


Mischief - 


Puoynoback 


Tannate 


— 


Moon - - - 


Wiggetena - 


Weetah 


Weenah leah. 


Moonlight - 


Wiggetapoona - 


Weetapoona- 


Weenapooleah. 


Moss - 


Lagowunnah 


— 


— 


Mother 


Neingmenna 


Neeminah - 


Neena moygh. 


Moth- 


Commeneana 


— 


— 


Mouse 


Terangat6 mu- 


Pugganarottah - 


Ptoarah leah. 


Mouth 


nuggana 
Kakannina 


Kaneinah 


Kapoughy leah. 


Mud, sediment - 


Kokereakokelee- 
ty6 


Manannywayleh - 


' 


Murmur - 


Mannyaquanee - 


Kanaroiluggata - 


— 


Mushroom - 


Neatyranna 


Neirana 


— 


Mole-cricket 


Nawywemena - 


— 


— 


Mutton-bird 


YoUa - 


YoUa - 


— 


(sooty petrel) 








Mutton-flsh 


Magrannyah 


— 


■ — 


(smooth) 








Mutton-fish 


Yowarrenah 


— 


— 


(rough) 








Mount Eoyal 


- 


Tulun^ 


— 


(country inter- 








vening between 








there and Port 








Cygnet) 









656 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABTJLART OF DiAlBCTS OF ABORIGINAL TeIBES OF TaSMANIA- 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Brune Island, 

Eecherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Nail (finger) 


Tonye 


Ryeetony^ - 


Wante leah. 


., (toe) - - 


Peyerrena - 


Lugga-tonny^ 


Perrarmme. 


Navel 


Mienanuggana - 


Tunoh 


— 


Near ... 


Malumnyella 


R4n^ - 


— 


Nautilus shell 


Wietatenana 


Weettah 


Weena runnah. 


(Argonauf) 








Nettle 


Miatowunna- 
meena 


Miny - 


— 


Nest (bird's) 


Malunna - 


Liai - 


— 


„ (little 


. 


Pund lind 


— 


bird's) 








Never 


Noye myack or 
noeeack 


Tirneh or tuny 


— 


New (not old) - 


Oroatte - 


BoiM - 


— 


Night 


Tagruaunena 


Nun6 - 


Dayna leah. 


Nip (to pinch) - 


Reloy^ tonyer^ - 


Rddeekatah - 


— 


Nipple 


Prugga poyeenta 


Pruggapogenna - 


— 


No - 


Parra garah 


Timeh, or timy, or 
pothyack 


Mallya leah. 


Noise - 


Kukanna walla- 
monyack 


Kanna - 


— 


Nose - 


Mununa - 


Muye or muggenah 


Muanoigh. 


Now (at this 


Croattee - 








time) 








Ochre (red) 


Ballawin^ 


Ballawin^ - 


. 


One-* - 


Marrawah - 


Marrawah - 


_ 


Orphan 


KoUyenna - 


Wah-witteh - 





Outside 


Tuleuteena 


Pratty-toh - 





Owl (large) 


Tryeenna - 


Kokatah 


Tayaleah, 
kokanualeah. 


,, (little one) - 


Laoona 


Wawtronyte 


— 



* It is to be remarked that the translations of 1 and 2 agree very weU in these vocabu- 
laries, but that those of 3, 4, and 6 disagree.— E. M. C. 



THE TASMANIANS. 



657 



VOCABTJLART OE DiALECTS 0^ ABORIGINAL .TrIBBS OF TASMANIA — 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Kttwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Oyster Bay 








— 


High land behind 


Pottry munatta - 


— 


— 


Oyster Bay 








Opossum (black) 


Nualangtamab- 


Tonytah 


Temytahtemyta 




bena 




malughlee. 


(ringtail) 


Tarripnyenna - 


Pawtella 


Pawtellunna 
nuckelah. 


,, (mouse) 


Lowowyeima 


Leena - 


Papnoolearah. 


Ore of iron, iron 


Latta 


Lattawion^ - 


— 


glance (used by 








the aborigines 








as a black paint) 








Pain - 


Crackanyeack - 


Mayrude 


— 


Pahn of the hand 


Rielowolingana - 


Reea-rarra - 


— 


Parrot 


Cruggana - 


Cruddah 


— 


Parrakeet - 


Welleetya 


Wellya 


— 


Paw - 


Luggantereena - 


Togga-n^ - 


— 


Peak (St. Valen- 


. 


- 


Natone. 


tine's) 








Peak (a hill) - 


Poymalangta 


Letteen^ 


— 


Pelican 


Treoontalangta - 


Toyn^ 


— ■ 


Penguin - 


Tomenyenna 


Tong- Wynne - 


— 


Perspire - 


Regleetya - 


Laywurroy - 


— 


Pet (pettish) - 


Lowabereelonga 


Poyneh 


— 


Pigeon 


Mooaloonya 


Mootah 


— 


Place (a) - 


Lenna 


Lin^h 


— 


„ (this) - 


. 


Tiin^ poynena 


— 


Plant 


Mellangbourack 


— 


— 


Play - 


LyaneW 


Luggarrah - 


— 


Point of spear - 


Poyeenta - 


Poyeenna 


— 


Pool or lagoon - 


Mienameena 


Kannah 


— 


Porcupine - 


Mungyenna 


Mungy^ 


Mungynna ka- 
nagale. 



2 T 



658 



THE AUSTRALIAN BACK 



VOCABULABY OF DIALECTS OF ABOKIGINAL TbIBBS OF TASMANIA- 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Porpoise - 


Minga-oinyah - 


Poyrennah - 


— 


Pregnant - 


Lowalloomanye- 
nea 


Lomatilutta - 


- 


Prickly - 


Mona-meenee - 


Moyn^na 


— 


Punk 


WuUugbetye 


Rarra - 


— 


Pebble rolled 


Kughaweenya - 


Tramutta 


— 


quartz 








Piper's River dis- 


Oramakunna 


Oramakanna 


— 


trict 








Port Davey 


. 


Poinduc 


— 


Penis 


Lubra, mattah- 
prenna 


Leena - 





Pubes (mons ve- 


Maga 


Maga,ria 


— 


neris) 








Quaflf (drink) - 


Lowelly - 


Nugarah 


— 


Quail 


Terranguatta - 


T^na terrangutta 


Tena teewarrah. 


Quiet 


— 


— 


— 


Run together 


R^niS nunempt^ - 


Loongana - 


— 


(race) 


. 






Rage - 


Neoongyack 


Leecot^ . 


— 


Rain - 


Pokana or pog- 
ana 


Porrah - 





„ (heavy) - 


Prog^a-langtha - 


Porra - - - 


— 


Rainbow - 


Weeytena - 


Wayatih 


— 


Rascal 


Nowettye-elee- 
bana 


Pawee - - - 


— 


Rat - - - 


Lyinganena 


Tooarrana - 


— 


Ray (stingaree) - 


Leranna - 


Pirem6 


— 


Red - 


Tendyagh or 
tentya 


Koka - 


— 


Repair 


Trulee 


Peruggareh - 


— 


Respire 


Tyackanoyack - 


Taykalyngana 


- 


Retch (to vomit) 


Nutyack - 


Nukatah 


— 



THE TASMANIANS. 



659 



VOCABTTLABY OF DIALECTS OF ABORIGINAL TbIBES OF TASMANIA — 

continiKd. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Rib - 


Tolameena 


Ten6 - 





Rise - 


Takumuna - 


Peggaruggarua - 


— 


Eipe - 


Crang-boorack - 


Pegarah 


— 


Root (tree) 


Remeenyd - 


Monalghaua or 
pughweady 


~~ 


River (little) 


Menace keetan- 
nah 


Lia-pootah - 





Rock (large) 


Lonah or loel- 
anghta 


Loynee broyee 





Rod (small) 


Weenah keetan- 
nah 


Weea pawee - 


. " 


Roll (to) - 


- 


Wangana weepoo- 
tah 





Roe of fish - 


Leena bunna 


— 


— 


Rotten wood 


Tr^oratick - 


Tawnah 


— 


Rough 


Payralyack 


RulM 


— 


Round like a ball 


Mieawiack 


Mattah 


— 


Row (a long one) 


Raondeleeboa - 


Reekara 


— 


Rub (rub in fat) - 


Mimga.TiTiemoee - 


Ruggarra 


— 


Ruddy cheeks - 


Miypooetanyack, 


Koka - 


— 


- 


mientendyack 






Run - 


Ren^ - 


Legara - - - 


— 


Rush - 


. 


Roba - 


— 


Ringlets (cork- 


Pow-ing-aroote- 


Poeena - 


Poenghana. 


screws, with red 


leebana 






ochre) 








Sexual inter- 


Loanga metea or 


— 


— 


course 


poanga metea 






Sea-horse (Hip- 


Lay-an-unea 


Poolta - 


— 


pocampus) 








Salt on the rocks 


Lienowittye, 


— 




by the sea side 


liopackanapoona 






Sand - 


Mungara mena - 


'Nguna- 





THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABULABY OF DiALBCTS OF AbOBIOINAL TRIBES OF TASMANIA— 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 
Koyal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 
the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Sap - 


Miangatentya, 
mianginalleetya 


— 


— 


,, (milk white) 


Poor-wallena 


— 


— 


Scab - 


Loryomcna or 
loiamena 


Lowid^ 




Scales (of fish) - 


Poerinna - 


Lowinna 


Nangeimamoi. 


Soar - 


Trugatepoona - 


Mungerapoona 


Toolengennaleah. 


Scarify 


Lowoon^ - 


Towatt^ 


— 


Scent 


Mebryack - 


PoanoiW 


— 


Scratch 


Larr^ - 


Larr^ - 


— 


Sea (ocean) 


Lienna wuttya 
and lyaleetea 


Panamuna - 


Leah U. 


Seal (Phaca), 


Naweetya 


Wayanna (white 


— 


black, on Sandy 




belly) 




beach) 








Seal (black, on 


Pienrenya - 


— 


— 


rocks, white- 








bellied) 








Seal(3andybeach) 


Prematagomo- 
neetya 


— 





See (to behold) - 


Mongtone - 


Nubraton^ - 


— 


Serious (sad gaze) 


Lelgany-guonga - 


Manatta ruUa 


— 


Serpent 


Loieua or lounabe 


Loina - 


Rau-anah. 


Shallow - 


Waylearack 


Rohet^ 


— 


Shadow 


Wurrawina tietta 


Maydena - . 


Belanyleah. 


Sharp (like a 


Lyetta 


Nenah - 


— 


knife) 








Sheoak-tree 


Luggana-brenna 


Luh-be 


— 


Skin - 


Lurentanena 


Lurarunna - 


— 


Ship - 


Lotomalangta loo- 


Lun6 poina mak- 


Loallyb^. 




mena 


kaba 




Shore - 


Malompto 


Locoota 


— 


,, (sandy beach] 


Koynaratingana - 


— 


— 



THE TASMANIANS. 



661 



VOCABULAET OF DIALECTS OP ABORIGINAL TeIBES OF TASMAKIA — 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 
Royal, Brune Island, 

Kecherche Bay, and 
the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Go ashore 


. 


Taw^ loccoto 





Shoulder - 


Puggarenna 


Parangana - 


— 


Shout (yell) 


Kukanna wurra- 
renna 


Palla-kanna - 





Shower (of rain 


Pokanna kuanna 


Tungatinah - 


— 


Shrub 


Tarra coonee 


Tarrara manniS - 


— 


Sick 


Miorackanyach, 
miycracknata- 
reetya 


Mim&ed^ - 




Side (the) - 


Lietelinna 


Taynna 


— 


Sinew (kangaroo) 


Metah (met-ah) - 


Mitah - 


— 


Sing - 


Lyenny 


Lyenn^ 


— 


Shag (cormorant) 


Moora 


Moora - 


— 


Sing a song 


Lyenny riacunna 


— 


— 


Sink - 


Tomla, tome, 
boorcka 


" 


~ 


Sit down - 


Mealpugha- 


— 


— 


Sister 


Nowantareena - 


— 


— 


Skin - 


Tarra meenya - 


— 


— 


Skull - 


Pruggamoogena - 


— 


— 


Sleep - 


Lony - 


— 


— 


,, (very sound; 


— 


— 


— 


Smile - 


Pughoneoree 


— 


— 


Smoke 


Progoona or proo- 
ana 






Sneeze 


Lonughutta 


— 


— 


Smooth 


Panninya - 


— 


— 


Snail - 


— 


( — 


— 


Snore - 


Teakanarraloneah 


Roggara 


— 


Snake 


Loiena 


Loinah 


Rounna rawan- 
nah, pallawa 
royanah, roal- 
labeah. 



662 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



VOCABULAKY OV DiALECTS OF ABOKIGINAL TkIBES OF TaSMANIA- 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
. Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Bnine Island, 

Becberche pay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Snow - 


Parattianah 


Turrana 





Sole (of foot) - 


Lug-yenna 


Lugga-lunnah 


— 


Song - 


Biaeunnah - 


Lunariabe - 


Riacannah. 


Soon - 


Leemya 


Koth6 - 


— 


Snow - 


Paratta 


— 


— 


Son - 


Malangena - 


Puggatah - 


— 


Sour - 


No-wiyack 


Nolle - - 


— 


Spark 


Tonypeprinna - 


Powitt^ 


Pughweenyna 
weimyale. 


Spawn 


Manunghana 


Manungana - 


— 


Spear (wood) 


Perenna - 


Pe-na - - - 


Pana, pilhah. 


Spew - 


Nuka 


Nukara 


Nugryna. 


Speak 


Pueellakanny 


Poeerakunnabeh - 


Pooraeaimaby. 


Spider 


Tangana - 


Waytanga - 


— 


Spine - 


Myingeena ter- 
rena 


Tuherarunnah 


— 


Spit - 


Tyackaree-meena 


Kamena meena - 


Kaimonamoee. 


Sport (play) 


Riawena - 


Riaw^ - - . 


Riaw^ wayboree. 


Spring (wattle 


Pewenya poeena 


Luggarato paw6 - 


Lughra-pawee. 


blossom season) 








Squall 


Balangta - 


Rallana proee 


Raali poyngnah. 


Stamp (with the 


Taoonteckapd - 


Taoonteckap^ 


— 


foot) 








Stand (stand up) 


Taokamuna 


Cracka-wughata - 


Pegrettywergho. 


Starlight - 


Teahbertyaerack- 


Oarattih 


— 


Shooting star 


na 
Puggareetya 


Pachareah - 





Star - 


Teahbrana - 


Romtenah - 


Rhomdunna or 
miabeemenah 


Steal - 


Maneena langa- 
tick 


Maneena layaw^ - 


— 


Step - 


Luggana marah - 


Luggacanna - 


— 


Stomach - 


Teenah - 


Teena 


Teenah. 



THE TASMANIANS. 



663 



VOCABULAEY OP DiAlECTS OF AjBOEIGINAL TRIBES OF TASMANIA- 

continued. 



■ English. 


Tribea from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 
Royal, Brune Island, 

Eeoherohe Bay, and 
the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Stone 


Loautenuina 


Loinah, lonna 


Loind. 


Stoop 


Puggana narrat- 
yaok 


?uggananarrangab^ 


— 


Stop - 


Poyeer^ 


Kuneeam^ - 


— 


Straight - 


Ungoyeleebana - 


Tunghabd - 


— 


Strike 


Luggana golumpt^ 


Lunghana - 


— 


Strong 


Oyngteratta 


RuUa ruUanah 


RamanarraW. 


Stump of a tree - 


Pomya kunnah - 


Ortawenah - 


Weealynghana. 


Stupid 


Koallangatick - 


Oyelarraboo - 


Wayeelarraboo or 
puggytemoorah. 


Sun - 


Pugganoobra nah 


Pallanubra nah - 


Panubrynah, 




pukkanebrenah 




tonah leah. 


Suck - 


MoW 


MokrA prugh 


— 


SuUen 


Lowattobeolo ka- 
kannete monna 
periuna Iowa 
peree longha 


Poininna 




Summer - 


Wingytellangta - 


Lughoratoh - 





Sunrise 


Puggalena par- 


Panuboine roeela- 







rack boorack 


poerack 




Sunset 


Wiety tongmena - 


Panubra tongoiee- 
rali 




Suspiration (sigh) 


Teangonyack - 


Takon^ 


— 


Survivor - 


Lugga poerannea 


— 





Swallow {a bird) 


Waylelimna 


Papalawe 





„ (act of 


Tony quamma - 


Tonganah 





deglutition) 








Swan 


Kelangunya 


Pagherittah - 





Sweat 


Malleeack reg- 
leetya reglee 
poona 


Leghromina - 




Swell - 


Lienyack - 


Lineh - 




Swim - 


Puggely - 


Pughrah 





664 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABULAET OP DiALECTS OP ABORIGINAL TkIBES OF TaSMANIA- 

ccmlimjied. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Switch 


Tarra koona 


Tarraweenah 





Tail - 


Manna poonee - 


Pugghnah - 


— 


Take - 


Nunn6 


Nunnabeh - 


— 


Talk - 


Pueelcanny 


Poieta kannabeh - 


— 


Tall - 


Takkaro deleea- 
bano righ elee- 
bana 


Rotulih 




Talon - 


Kuluggarua 


Kuhluggana 


— 


Tame - 


Riaputheggana - 


Tiagropoineena - 


— 


Tarantula (large 


Ne-ungalangta - 


Temmatah - 


— 


spider) 








Taste - 


Wughn^ - 


Ween6 


— 


Teal - 


Ryennatiabroo- 

tea 


Weahwanghrutah 


— 


Tear - 


Tagarrena - 


Tarragatt^ - 


— 


Teat - 


- 


Pruggana 


— 


Teeth - 


Wugherrinna - 


— 


— 


Thirsty 


Rukannaroon- 
yack 


Kukannaroite^ - 


— 


Throw 


Myengy - 


Menghana - 


— 


Thumb 


Rianaoonta 


Ryanaootta - 


— 


Thumb-nail 


Tony^ 


Toiena 


— 


Thunder - 


Poimettya - 


Papatongun^ 


— 


Tick - 


Loangaritea 


Prammannah 


— 


Tie (a knot) 


Kukannaboee - 


Pilangootah - 


— 


Tide . - 


Luggatick - 


Lughruttah - 


— 


Tiger (V.D.L.) 


Lagunta - 


Ka-nuTinah - 


— 


{ThyJacinus cy- 








nocephahis) 








Timber (large) - 


Wyelaugta 


Wee a proinah - 


— 


,, (small) - 


Wyena 


We'rapaw^ - 


— 


Tired - 


Pryennemkoot- 
tiack 


Kakara wayalee - 


" 



THE TASMANIANS. 



665 



VOCABULAKT OP DlAlECTS OF AbOKIOINAL TbIBES OF TASMANIA— 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Eecherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Three 


Lea winnawah - 


Talleh 





Toothless - 


Wugherinna nor- 
myak 


Payeatimy - 


— 


Tooth 


Wughrinna 


Pay-ee-a 


— 


Talk (much 


Mealpeal kamma 


Kukanna moona- 




speaking) 


or kukannah 


lane, or kunrare, 






li&eah 


or kunmoonera 




Tongue 


Kayena 


Menn^, or mayna, 
or maynerinah 


— 


Top 


Tulendeeno 


Waghata 


— 


Topaz (crystal) 


Tendeagh - 


Mughra mallee - 


— 


Tor (apeaked hill) 


Poymalyetta 


Layattinnah 


— 


Torch 


Poorena moneg- 
gana 


Lee wurr^ - 





Touch 


Neungpa - 


Wingauah - 


— 


Touch-wood (rot- 


Weitree ouriatta 


Weeawanghratta - 


— 


ten wood) 








Tough 


Lughteeac - 


RulU ^ 


— 


Track (footmark) 


Puggataghana 
and tughana- 
loumeno 


Luggaboin^ - 




Ti-ample (to) - 


Tyentiah - 


Teeantibe - 


_ 


Transfix (to) 


Myenny-pinga- 
ter-reluteo 


Menaoitete - 




Travel 


Tackamoona 


Tackramoonina - 


— 


Tree - 


Loatta 


— 


— 


„ (fall of a) - 


Poengboorack - 


Moona punganse - 


— 


Tremble - 


Mieniutyac 


Tien^w^leh - 


— 


Trickle 


Kukkamena 
meena 


Truggara 




True - 


Gonyneealeebya 


'Nghana kannanir^ 


— 


Try (to) - - 


Wughne^ - 


Ween4 - 


— 


Tug (to, at a rope 


Koy-ule 


Kottub^ 


— 


or string) 









666 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABULAEY OP DIALECTS OP ABOEIOINAL TkIBES OF TaSMANIA- 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania. 


North-west and 
■ Western. 


Tumble 


Mientongka 


Mieparragama 


— 


Turn (to) - 


Wughannamee - 


Miewangana 


— 


Tusk (canine 


Wuggerinnarota- 


Payee, & rotyW - 


— 


tooth) 


leebana 






Twig - - - 


Loatta keetana - 


Weea wunna 


— 


Twins 


Maiynabyeck 


Meinna-na - 


— 


Twilight - 


Teggrymony 
keetana narra 
longboorack 


Nunto ueenah 




Twirl (twist) - 


Wughannemoe 


Oaghra 


— 


Twitch (pluck) - 


KoM - 


Ko-kra 


— 


Two - 


Pia wah - 


Pooalih 


— 


Ugly- -- - 


Mowatty nielee- 
baua 


Noailee nuggabah 


— 


Urine 


Mungana - 


Munghate mungha- 
beh 


— 


Uxorious - 


Lowa puggelan- 


— 




nye 






Vale or valley - 


Ma-ra cominya 


Mara-way-lee 


— 


Vanish 


Poyena potatty- 
ack 


Tlembugh - 




Vassal (serf) 


Pueetoggana 
mena 


Potaigroee narana 


— 


Venomous - 


Ree punner^ 


Nunghboorack 


— 




nunghapa 


nungabah 




Venom 


Maria mena 


Kamona moina - 


— 


Vent - 


Loa lingana 


'Ngeenah 


— 


Vertex 


Toganee 


Togari - 


— 


Warratah (plant 


Kiuntah 


— 


— 


Telopea trun- 








cata) 








Wallaby - 


Lukangana 


TarRnna 


Noguoyleah. 


Warm even to 


Reggooleetya 


Lewurra moina - 


— 


perspiration 









THE TASMAJSTIANS. 



667 



VOCABULABY OP DiALECTS OF ABORIGINAL TulBBS OF TaSMANIA- 

continued. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Royal, Bruiie Island, 

Rfichercbe Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania, 


North-west and 
Western. 


Water (fresh) - 


Liena- 


Liawenee 


Lia winne and 
lileah. 


„ (cold) - 


Lietinna 


Liawenee 


— 


„ (warm) - 


Liena peoonya or 
liena peeonyack 


Lialughrana - 


— 


Wood, firewood - 


Wiena andwuma, 


Muggra web^ and 
mattaweb^ 


— 


WoTna,Ti 


Lowanna - 


Ne-eanta and! low- 
anna 


Nowaleah. 


„ (handsome) 


Loanna eleebana 


Loa-nir6 lyady- 


— 




and loa niry 


waiaok 




„ (young) - 


Krotto meleety^ 


Loalla puggana - 


— 


„ (adult) - 


Puggya malleet- 
ya 


Longatallinah 


' 


„ (aged, old) 


Payanna - 


Nena ta poiena - 


— 


Wombat - 


Raoompta ro- 
woomata 


Rowitta 


~ 


Wake 


Lientiack - 


Weeny 


— 


Wade 


Woimenniae 


Mowerrenah 


— 


Wail (to lament) 


Tegryma kan- 
nunya 


Moeluggrana 




Waist 


Pooalminna 


Pooaryumena 


— 


Wait 


Myelpoyer^ 


Krattab^ - 


— 


Walk 


Tahlyooner^ 


Lawtaboorana 


— 


War - 


Kennamoimenya 


Moimenganmabeli 


— 


„ (skirmish. 


Marana 


Moeemuttd - 


— 


one or two 








kUled) 








War (battle, all 


Moeelughawa - 


MoeemabbyM 


— 


killed but one 








or two) 








Warm 


Peoonyaok 


Lughreto 


— 


Wart 


Cr^man poena - 


Ta winn6 


~ 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

VOCABTOAEY OF DiALBCTS OP ABORIGINAL TkIBES OF TASMANIA — 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Eecherche Bay, and 

the South of Tasmania, 


North-west and 
Western. 


Wash (to) - 


Nonebnoi 


Mannugra - 


— 


Wattle-tree 


'Nghearetta 


Manna 


— 


Wave 


Legleetya men- 
gyna 


Leaturi 





Weak 


Koomyenna 


Mia wayleh - 


— 


Weed 


Pannabon brut- 
ty^ 


Tallaratai - 





Weep 


Tagarramena 


Tarra wayleh 


— 


Well (spring) - 


Loy-ulena 


'Ngyena 


— 


Wet (rainy) 


May-niack 


Lay-ka 


— 


What ? 


Telingha? tebya? 


Pallawaleh?- 


Tarraginna? 


What's that ? - 


Telmgha? - 


— 


— 


When andwhere? 


Namelah naye- 
leh? 


Wabbara ? - 


— 


Wherefore, speak 


— 


— 


— 


low, let nobody 








hear 








Whisper - 


Kukana punye- 


Poeta kantia pa- 


— 




para 


waybah 




Whistle - 


Purra kunna 


Munnakanua 


Plubeah. 


White 


Malleety^ 


Mallee 


Mungyanghgar- 
rah. 


Whiz (like a ball, 


'Ngona kunna - 


Payngunnana or 


Nangoinuleah, 


&o.) 




poyngunna kunna 




Whore, fomi- 


- 


Panubr^ mabbyM 


— 


catrix 








Widow 


Wurrawa no- 
atty^, wurrawa 
lowanna 


Nena tura tena - 


" 


Wife (newly mar- 


Kroatta langu- 


Poyalanun^- 


Waggapoony- 


ried) 


nya 




nurrah. 


Wind 


Rawlinna 


Rallinganunn^ - 


Lewan. 


„ (high) - 


Raalanghta 


Eallinga proiena - 

^ 


Lewanhock. 



THE TASMANIANS. 



Vocabulary op Dialects of Abokiqinal Tribes of Tasmania — 
contirmed. 



English. 


Tribes from Oyster 
Bay to Pittwater. 


Tribes about Mount 

Eoyal, Brune Island, 

Recherche Bay, and 

the South o( Tasmania. 


North-west and 
Western. 


Windpipe - 


Lonna 


Lonna and loar- 
inna 


— 


Wing 


Poilinna 


Maykana pounghra 


— 


Wink 


Mentroiaok 


Nubra rottd - 


— 


Winter - 


Tunna 


Turra 


— 


Wrinkle - 


Niangt^ nepoony 


Pelanypooneh 


— 


Wrong 


Miengana - 


Nuyeko 


— 


Wrist 


Rapoolmena 


Riapoolurapta 


— 


Woe's me, ah me 


Paygra waylea- 
beh kum leah 


Taqueat^ 




Yawn 


Granna kunna - 


Leakanny - 


— 


Yes - 


Murramoona, 


Narra warrah, nar- 


Narro barro. 




narrawallee 


raway narra lua- 
wah 




Yesterday 


Nfetegga men- 
yena 


Neea nunnawa 


— 


You - 


Neena 


Neena or nee 


— 


Young (little) 


Kaeetenna mal- 


Puggata paweena 


— 


boy 


lang yenna 






Young (little) 


Lowanna kaee- 


— 


— 


girl 


tenna 















SHORT SENTENCES IN THE NATIVE LANGUAGE. 



Give me a stone 

Give him a stone 

I give you some water 

I will not give you any water 

You give me food 

You do not give me food - 



- Lona or loina tyennabeah mito. 

- Lonna tyennamibeah. 

- Liaa tyennamibeah. 

- Noia meahteang meena neeto Imah. 

- Tyennabeah tuggen^. 

- Noia meah teang meena neeto 

tuggen^. 



670 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Short Sentences in the Native Language — continued. 

Give me some bread- - - - Tyenna miapd pamiaboona, or teen- 

gananna ma pannaboo, or tunghm- 
bib^ tungaringaleah. 

We will give you a stick - - - Tyennamibeah weena. 

We will not give you a stick - - Noia tyennamibeah weena. 

Give me some bread to eat, I am Teeanymiape tuggand, meeongy- 
hungry neeom^, or teeanymeiape teeaoot- 

tym'na, or teeampiap^ matughala 
mapilrecottai. 

This is my hand . - . - Reena narrawa ! 

Sing a song - - . i - - Lyeimd riakunna or rialinghana. 

Where is your father ? - - - Ungamlea nangdena ? 

My father is here . . - . Nangamea numb^. 

He is my father . . - . Nangamea uumb^. 

He is not my father - - - - Miangunana. 

Tell your father of this - - - Onnabea nangato. 

We go to see the river - - - Nialomiah manaiah. 

I like to drink the water - - - Monna langarrap^. 

I make the boat go fast Parapeitaleebea malanna talea war- 

rangat^. 

The ship goes upon the sea - - Tiretya teeakalummala. 

The waves make the sea rough - - Leea Ibetyah poinummeah. 

You see the sea over the hill - - RoogoomaM linoiyack. 

Go down from the hill - - - Rongtan^ tyungerawa. 

Run over the ground - - . - Ringipyanganaweber^. 

Do not run along the road - - Parraw^ ringap^. 

The man feeds the dog - - - Ty^nnabeah kaeetabeah. 

The woman makes a basket - - Lowanna olM tubbrana. 

The woman is very fair - - - Lowa maleetya. 

The child eats his food . - . Teeana malangeebeah. 

The child is small - - - . Malangeebeah. 

The horse runs on the ground - - Pangooueah r^ne pateleebea. 

The horse kicks the child - - - Pangooneah paraingumenah. 

One ------- Marrawah. 

Two Piawah. 

Three ------ Luwah. 

Four - - - PaguntawuUiawah. 

Five ------- Pugganna marah. 

I shall go to my house - - - Tugganna lunameatah. 

I strike the horse - - - - Pella pangooneah. 

Touch his hand ----- Rientonnabeah. 

Do not touch his hand - - - Tall^ talld parraw^. 



THE TASMANIANS. 



671 



Short Sentences in the Native Language— con^mwed. 



Cut down the tree 
Tell him to go to the house 
Speak to the man - - . 
He is in the house - - . 
They jump over the river - 
They walk through the river 
Run along the side of the river - 
They swim in the river 
They sink in the river 
We drink water . - . 
He cuts his hair with flint 
My brother has a long arm 
My sister is very tall 

He has two children - - - 

Take a stick and beat the dog - 

The dog is beaten with a stick - 

The sun is rising - - - 

The sun is set already 

The moon is risen - - 

The moon is not seen 

The moon is behind the cloud - 

You stand behind the tree 

They climb up the tree 

The swan swims in the water - 

The water is very warm 

The water is not warm 

Salt-water - - - - - 

Fresh-water . - - - 

He is a good man 

He is a bad man 

Come and drink the water 

This water is salt 

That water is fresh - 

Milk comes from the cow - 

Send him to get milk 

I saw the tree yesterday - 

I have cut my finger - 

He limps with one leg 

He sees with one eye 

My face is very black 

Make the horse run fast - 



- Ungana puy^ lot^. 

- Tall^ lenutoo. 

- Oonah beah. 

- Lunaretah. 

- Wuggala menaye. 

- Yang^ menay6. 

- Taw^ rant^ weber^. 

- Puawd menay^. 

- Tong^ menay^. 

- Loa liy^. 

- Tuggana pugheranymee trautta. 

- Nietta mena oon root' elebena. 

- Nienta mena tuggara root' eleebana. 

- Malang-piawah. 

- Tial wee pella kaeeta. 

- Pella kaeetah naootamena. 

- Puggule^na partebara. 

- Puggule^na toomla pawa. 

- Ooeeta poona. 

- Ooeeta mayangti byeack. 

- Ooeeta toggana warratena lunta. 

- Mangana lutena. 

- Orong^ lotta. 

- Kalungunya tagumena liyetitta. 

- Lia pyoonyack 16. 

- Lia tunnack. 

- Lia noattye. 

- Lian eleebana or liana eleebana. 

- Puggana tareety^. - 

- Tagantyaryack. 

- T'all^ le loolaka lia. 

- Lia noattyd 

- Liana eleebana. 

- PrughwuUah packalla. 

- Rang^ prughwullah. 

- Lotta mont^ meena cottd. 

- Ri^ poy^ pueningyaok. 

- Raggamuttah. 

- Taggunnah. 

- Raoonah mawpack. 

- Pangoonya ren^ wurrangatd. 



672 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Short Sentences in the Native Language— conirauerf. 

When the warm weather is come - Nente pyoonta. 
It is now cold weather . - - Tunna. 
They are White men (the men are Riana. Kianowittyd. 
white) 
This woman is very white - - Lowana eleebana.* 

Bring him and put him down here - Nunnalea pooranamby, or kanna 

wattah ponnaw^i or kannawuttah 

ponnapoo. 
Come along, I want to speak to you - Talpyarwadeno tuyena kunnamee, or 

tutta wuttah onganeenah, or tun- 

neka makmma talmatieraleh. 
Aha ! you are sulky all of a sudden - Anyah ! teborah ! keetrelbya uoo- 

mena peniggo