(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Handbook of the old-northern runic monuments of Scandinavia and England"

I A > 



r''-- 



V , ■■■■- i:«<1 








* 


V' 

f 


■ 3 





••*SiS. '^v. ^ 



'^^^^^ 



-.; ^ 



■■ t.t'^*. 



'•4 'V: 



.r^K 




iS^telK. 



/ '>' 



i ■* 






fyxmll ^nivmii^ Jilrwg 



(^^vman Scmitiarg 



PURCHASED FROM 

UNIVERSITY FUNDS 



T. HS-S^ 



_„ Cornell University Library 

PD 2002 .S83H2 




3 1924 026 355 499 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924026355499 



HANDBOOK 



OF 



THE OLD-NORTHERN 



RUNIC MONUMENTS 



OF 



SCANDINAVIA AND ENGLAND. 



HANDBOOK 



OF 



THE OLD-NORTHERN 



RUNIC MONUMENTS 

OF SCANDINAVIA AND ENGLAND. 

NOW FIRST 
COLLECTED AND DECIPHERED 

BY 

Dr. GEORGE STEPHENS, F. S. A.; 

Knight of the Northern Star (Sweden)^ St. Olaf (Norway) and of the Danebrog (Denmark); Hon. Fellow of the Roy. Hist. Soc, 

London; of the Soc. Ant. Scotland; of the Roy . Hist. ^^ Archceol. Assoc, of Ireland; and of the Ant. Guilds of Cumberland-Westmoreland, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Yorkshire, Helsingfors, Christiania, Tronyem, Goienburg, Stockholm, Upsala, West-Gotland, &^c. i&=c. / Prof, of 

Old-English aitd of the English Language and Literature in the University of Cheapinghaven, Denmark. 



THE 3 FOLIO VOLUMES RE-ARRANGED WITH SHORT TEXTS, BUT KEEPING ALL THE OLD-NORTHERN 

CHEMITYPES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



WILLIAMS AND NORGATE; 

14 Henrietta St., London, 20 S. Frederick St., Edinburgh. 

H. H. J. LYNGE; 

Valkendorfs Str., Cheapinghaven (Kj0Benhavn, Copenhagen). 

printed by thiele. 

1884. 

a 



rtXT-^T^ 



T^55 



f\iitixi 



TO 



OUR GREAT ENGLISH OLDLORIST, 



THE GIFTED AND GENEROUS 



AUGUSTUS WOLLASTON FRANKS 



IN THANKFUj:. MINNE. 



FOREWOED. 



I 



have often been askt to publish in a cheap and handy shape the rune- 
laves in my great folio volumes, which many cannot well buy or have time to read. 
And this I have long wisht to do; but I waited for more finds and a better knowledge 
of this hard science. The day has now come when I can lay this handbook before 
all lovers of our Northern mother-tung, sametimely with my third folio tome, which 
holds more than 70 new pieces bearing Old -Northern staves*. This additional 
gathering and the on-flow of runic studies have, of course, thrown fresh light on the 
monuments already known. I have therefore been able, as I think, here and there 
to amend a former version or an approximate date, and 1 give these ameliorations 
accordingly. Some more of the Bracteates now seem to me barbarized copies, and 
therefore meaningless. But, as before, all I do is only tentative. The engravings^ have 
also been corrected, where any fault has been discovered. 

On the whole, my system of transliteration and translation remains, as far 
as I can see, not only unshaken, but abundantly strengthened and proved by the 
many new finds. We thus clench the conclusion — so probable on the mere ground 
of Comparative Philology — to which I have pointed again and again, that in the 
very early period to which these Scando-Anglic remains chiefly belong (say the first 
700 years after Christ), the Northern dialects here treated were on very much the 
same footing in essentials as all the other olden Scando-Gothic folk-talks. Those 
peculiar features, (especially the Passive or Middle Verb and Post-article), which now 
stamp the Scandinavian branches of the Scando-Gothic tree, are quite simply of later 
local Scandian growth. They were unknown when the first great Northern settlements 



* The whole tale of -these 0. N. rune-bearers is now about 250, of which nearly 1-third is from enslakd aloke, 
Scandinayia's oldest colony. 

^ Chiefly drawn and chemityped by Prof. Magnus Petersen , the woodcuts by Hr. J. F. Rosenstand , whom 1 
thank for all their friendly aid. 



YIIX FOREWORD. 

wrested England from the partly Eomanized Kelts, and they were not yet Jormed 
when the same mother -lands sent out their wiking-swarms in the 9th and 10th 
centuries. Hence they have never been found in Britain. 

Consequently I see no reason to alter any one of my fundamental opinions, 
which I should otherwise have been happy to do, and think it best to reprint here, 
without change, my general conclusions when my second band was printed in 1868. 
See my Vol. 1, Foreword, pp. vii— xix: 

"1. That the rune-values I have laid down are really so, and particularly that 
the Old-Northern stave f was always A, certainly no consonant, still less m as in the 
later Runic Staverow. 

All the oldest and best skinbook luthorcs give to ^ (the provincial English 
substitute for the older Y, but which Y is also lound in England with the same 
power of a) the sound-value A, and to ^ (the common Old-Northern — Scandian 
and English — M, afterwards the provincial -Scandinavian o) the sound-value M. 
But the scholars at the beginning of this century and up to the appearance of my 
First Part who first tried to read the Old-Northern letters, and who were unanimous 
in giving to Y (really a) the power of m, which it has in the later runic system, 
concequently had no a in their new-made alphabet. Yet an A could not be wanting. 
Therefore, taking advantage of the well-known fact that A sometimes tends to an 
^-sound in certain districts, and that M sometimes tends to an A-sound in certain 
districts, as is accordingly shown by a couple of the later futhorcs, they followed 
each other in giving to [^ the universal and standing sound-value A. Thus Y ^'^s 
M, 1^ was A. But as it is now evident, from the futhorcs themselves and from all the 
Old-Northern monuments, that Y is undoubtedly and always A, the simple mistake of 
giving to p the power of a should now be at once laid aside. To perpetuate error 
is foolish, alike highly perplexing and often destructive both of language and of 
grammar. On one single excessively ancient stone for instance (Sigdal, Norway), we 
have in close juxtaposition, within the compass of the first 28 clear and undeniable 
letters, |^ = ^ 4 times and Y = A 6 times. How is it possible to smear them all 
into one uniform A? What common sense can there be in so doing? What is 
gained by it? Surely, even learned zeal should not be carried so far as this. I he 
cause being taken away, the effect ceases. An A (and the real a^ being now identified, 
the M should no longer be compelled to do duty both for je and a. 

I have already referred to and protested against the guess (p. 326) that 
this Y is -R. There are five objections to this theory: 

a. It is plainly contrary to all the monuments. This is surely decisive. 
But also 

b. It is plainly contrary to all the ancient parchment alphabets. 



FOREWORD. IX 

c. It can only have even a momentary and mechanical short-lived plausibility 
with regard to a couple of the inscribed pieces, one in twenty of the whole number, 
in some of which it is so plainly and precisely and glaringly and decisively contradicted 
that the whole supposition becomes simply ridiculous. 

d. It leads us into endless contradictions. Thus if we read nffuwOLfFii: at 
p. 170 (Stentoften) , what shall we do with the if t>U (? H|fU)W0L|F| of the Gommor 
stone (207)? If we read on the Stentoften block H|RiwoL|Fii:, what shall we do with 
the HYRIWUL^F^ of the Istaby pillar? If we read on the Golden Horn (p. 326): 

"EK HLEVA-GASTIR HOLTINGAR HORNA TAVIDO" 

and on the Tanum stone (p. 197): 

"PRAWINGAN HAITINAR WAS" 

(Thrawingan hight (called) he-was) 
(this last as privately proposed to me by a Danish scholar* and since printed in Ny 
Illustrerad Tidning, Stockholm, June 29, 1867, p. 207), what do we get? These 
pieces are undoubtedly among the very oldest in the whole North, as indeed is 
admitted on all sides. And yet we are called upon to believe that in "Gothic" 
times, when the s was still a characteristic, and side by side with WiCh.. archaisms 
as VAS (for VAR) and such extra- archaisms as HORNA (for HORN) and TAVIDO (for 
TAVIDA, tavide), and such extra-extra-archaisms as tRAViNGAN ("nom. sing., a weak 
noun in N, with the N still left" for graving) and haitinar ("past part. n. s. m. 
with the AR still left" for haitin), — we are to a(}cept such comparative modernisms 
as HAITINAR for haitinas and gastir for gastis and holtingar for holtingas! 
So on the' Tune stone (p. 247) we are seriously askt to read DOHTRiiJ (with r) close 
to the word dalidun (3 pi. past, with n still left)! And then we must bow our 
necks to such "nominatives of some sort" as HAiTiNAi? (p. 197) and HOLTiNGAi? (p. 326) 
and VIVA5 (p. 247) and lUMNGAi? (p. 256) and halas (p. 254) and HiLiGAis (p. 258) 
and VARUi? (p. 264) and so on, with some charming examples of RUNA.B, STAiNAis, 
&c. as in "middle Scandinavian". 

e. But the worst is, that in spite of all this self-contradiction and violence 
and caprice — the whole thing breaks down. Scarcely one or two monuments out 
of all the 60 can in this way be even plausibly translated. We are called upon to 
believe that all our oldest written remains are "unreadable", "unintelligible", "nearly 
inexplicable", "only here and there a word to be understood", "gibberish", "some 
outlandish tung", "carved by a foreign slave who had learned the runes", "miscut", 



1 Since then Prof. S. Bugge has proposed nearly the same version. But he makes I-rawingan to be in the 
genitive sing., and wis to mean it became. 



FOREWORD. 



and the like. And all because people will not abandon their school-creed about 
"Icelandic", and their German contempt for the evidence of the monuments themselves ! 
2. That the Runic Alphabet whether the older (or Old-Northern) or its modi- 
fication and simplification the younger (or Scandinavian) — in one word the art of 
WRITING — was apparently altogether unknown to the first outflow of the Scando-Gothic 
tribes, the Germans'; equally so to the second, the Saxons or Lowcountry men or Flemings; 
and was first brought to Scando-Gothic Europe or early learned or developt therein by the 
third (and latest) clan-wave, the northern or Scandinavian, the facts and monuments 
thus absolutely confirming the very oldest Northern and Latin traditions. Let us 
see why for the present, till new facts compel us to form new conclusions, 
we must hold fast this interesting and curious result: 

a. German or Saxon Runes, or Runes in Germany (High-Germany) or in Saxony 
(the real Old Saxony, = Holstein and adjoining cantons in Mecklenburg and Westphaha) 
were never heard of till in modern times, in the lucubrations of modern German 
"annexers" and system -makers. 

b. No hint of or reference to Runic Monuments, direct or indirect has ever 
been found even in the very oldest German or Saxon chroniclers or historians or 
other writers, tho many such mentionings occur in Anglo-Scandic skinbooks. The 
monuments themselves might be destroyed and disappear; but, if they had ever 
existed in German or Saxon lands, they would have left some trace behind them in 
living words or dead parchments. 

c. In English and Scandian Boundaries and Charters runic burial-stones 
are repeatedly spoken of as "marks". In the very oldest similar German and Saxon 
documents, some of which go back to semi-heathen times — no such reference has 
ever been found. Thus if the Northern lands had lost every single Runic Block, we 
could dig them up again out of our ancient bookfells. 

d. No Runic Alphabet has ever been discovered in any original German or Saxon 
manuscript. The few codices found abroad containing Runic staverows were either 
brought from England by English or Irish missionaries, or copied by German or 
Saxon Scribes from EngHsh originals for missionary and epistolary purposes. This 
is frankly admitted by Wilhelm Grimm himself, and some other Germans of the 
better sort. 

e. No Runic Stone or other 'fiasf Runic piece has ever turned up on German 
or Saxon soil. This also is frankly admitted by Wilhelm Grimm himself and some 
other Germans of the better sort. The half-dozen loose pieces (Movables, Jewels) 



1 Some think that the Saxons came first to Europe, and then the Germans. This will nowise affect what i 
here stated. 



FOBEWORD. XI 

found beyond the present borders of Scandinavia and England — out of so many 
thousands of Runic Remains already known and daily turning up in the Anglo-Scandic 
lands — are therefore clearly wanderers, or the Runes upon them were risted by 
Northmen who were abroad. This is also proved by the details in each separate 
instance. It would have been a miracle if no single Runic Jewel or any single 
Rune-writing Northman had ever wandered from a Northern country, and we may yet 
hope to find other such stray 'pieces. 

f. No Runic Coin was ever struck in any German or Saxon shire, tho HUNDREDS 
of different runic types were regularly minted in the Northern kingdoms, till these 
rune-bearers gradually disappeared before Roman-lettered pieces. 

g. Runic and non- Runic Golden Bracteates, all which are heathen Jewels and 
Amulets, have been found by hundreds in the Northern lands, by ones and twoes 
outside the North. Their findstead, their make, their types and patterns, all show 
that they were struck by heathen Northmen or in the heathen North. They could 
not have been made by tribes WHO had no runes. The half-dozen of these pieces 
hitherto found outside the North have therefore been carried over the border, are wanderers. 

h. As old buildings are repaired or taken down and various diggings made 
in the Northern lands, runic stones are continually turning up. Under the like cir- 
cumstances, NOT ONE ever comes to light in any Saxon or German territory. 

In German lands, in woods and fields and out on hills and at crossroads 
and beside sea and stream and in crypts and churches and cellars and mills and 
public and private buildings, lying open or buried out of sight or long since used 
as building-materials — exactly as is the case with our own runic monuments — 
have been found thousands of inscribed remains from the first century downwards, 
and every year new ones are dug up. But what are these pieces? Is one single one 
a runic block? No! They are all Roman Tiles and Altars and Funeral Stones 
and other such. And yet, if ever Germany had runes, it must have been during 
the first 500 winters after Christ! 

i. Rune-clogs (Rune-staves, Runic Calendars), of all sorts of material and of 
every size, have been known in the Anglo-Scandic lands from the early Christian 
times to our own day, those still older having disappeared. Not one such piece has ever 
been heard of in any Saxon or German folkland. 

j. The language on all hitherto discovered Runic laves is one and the 
same — old northern in some one or other of its many dialects, certainly not 
GERMAN or SAXON. 

Each one of these facts is a shock to the "German" theory. Taken all 
together they are a wall of bayonets, and no shadow of doubt can remain. But I 
dare say we shall long continue to hear of these so-called "German Runes" and -— 



^JJ FOREWORD. 

as other such archaeological fictions and cobwebs have already been used for hounding 
on to the Germanization and annexation of North and South Jutland — so also 
this new humbug may become a welcome weapon and holy argument for trying to 
butcher and enslave and "Germanize" and "annex" all the free and noble races yet 
living in our Anglo-Scandic lands. The free and noble "Saxon" peoples have already 
been largely overwhelmed and happily "incorporated", and their far superior language 
annihilated or placed under a High-German ban. 

All Northern folksayings agree in this, that the iron- wielding clans of cavalry 
who swarmed over to Scandinavia from the East, and who obtained supremacy over 
and gave their impress and culture to the runeless bronze-wielding populations they 
found in Scandinavia, brought the Runes ivith them. At what era they came, is not 
known. Grave-finds show that it was at least as early as some time (how long?) 
before Christ. But where and when on their long march from Northern or Central 
India did they learn or invent these letters? Or did they learn and modify or invent 
them after their arrival in the Scandian lands? We can give no answer. Perhaps 
all our appliances on this side the Caucasus will never avail to clear up the difficulty. 
So the band of lore-men must now begin at the other end — in India itself, 
and slowly trace and test the graves northward and westward. A beginning is 
already made. In many parts of India great numbers of grave-mounds from the Iron 
age, with weapons and horse-harness and ornaments similar to those in the barrows 
of the North, and with the like stone-settings raised around them, have been discovered 
and many of them opened. Several Archseological Societies have been formed to 
pursue these and kindred studies, and by degrees they may push their enquiries 
nearer and nearer the Northern lands. Perhaps somewhere on the line runes may 
be met with. But there is here a difficulty. Immense districts on this enormous 
route are endless plains and steppes where there is no stone, consequently, there at least, 
no inscribed stones. Eunes on iron and wood soon wear away, runes on hard metals 
always are mere exceptions. Still fortune may favor us, and perhaps in future years 
some point east and south of Scandinavia may be found with tombs containing our 
olden staves — possibly enough not minutely similar but still evidently the same. 
Then a further link will be added to the chain of this eventful history. 

One thing is certain, that the Northern Runes were no mere direct loan 
or copy or adaptation from the Roman letters. Their order is different. The Roman 
are in ABC, the Runic in FUtORC, Their number is difi'erent, the Runic being far 
more multitudinous than the Roman. Their shape in many cases is so unHke, as 
to show a different (tho common) origin. Many staves are more or less the same in 
both. Some of these belong to the Old-Northern alphabet, and therefore should have 
subsisted (if mere Roman) as the great stream of Roman culture set in. But on the 



FOKEWORD. XIII 

contraiy, as Scandinavia became more and more Romanized these particular staves 
dkd out, and assumed other forms in the later Runic staverow. Properly speaking, 
if they had a Roman source, the Runes should have been more and more "Romanized" 
as Roman influence grew supreme. But just the contrary took place. 

Nor do we know what violent or silent or political or religious revolution 
led to the gradual simplification of the Old-Northern futhorc, and to the sound-power 
of Y being changed from a into m, the older m {^) being altogether laid aside. 
All this, and a thousand questions mo', wait for "new hghts". Some of these "lights" 
may come when least expected. Let us only go on working, and all our work be 
honest and true and thoro. The Father of Lights may then reward us with yet 
other glimpses into the history of the pastl 

3. That — these Runes and this Northern Tung in which they are written 
never having been found outside the North (all Scandinavia from Lapland to the Eider 
and all England from Kent to the Firth of Forth), lohile they are everywhere the ancient 
characteristic within all these Anglo-Scandic lands down to our own day, and the MOTHER- 
TUNG and THE ART OF WRITING being the clearest and most decided of all known 
and accessible proofs of nationality — there is no longer a doubt as to that great 
historical fact (of which we have so many other independent evidences, archseological 
and historical and linguistical and geographical and topographical and ethnographical, 
as well as an endless flow of ancient tradition on either side the North Sea) that 
the old population of Danish South and North Jutland the old outflowing Anglic and 
Jutish and Frisic settlers, mixt with Norse and Swensk adventurers and emigrants, who 
flockt to England in the 3rd and 4th and 5th and following centuries, were chiefly Scan- 
dinavians, Northmen, not Saxons, still less Germans. Of course all this does not affect 
the fact that England had an independent mixt population, native Kelts and incoming 
various-blooded strangeis among its Roman cohorts and its mercantile settlers. 
Every country has more or less a mixt population,, and always has had. Wise men 
only speak in the general. 

4. That this is so much the clearer, as this runic brand, this broad arrow, 
this outstanding mark of a peculiar Culture and Nationality, is not confined to one particular 



* "The extent of the unknown which each discoyery exposes is generally larger than its own revelation" — 
John Hill Burton, The History of Scotland from Agricola's Invasion to the Revolution of 1688. 8to. Vol. 1, Edinburgh 1867, p. 117. 
* Since the above was written, the birth of the Runes has been cleared up. The Rev. Dr. Isaac Taylor has 
shown that these staves were an independent offshoot from the old Greek Alphabet in "Scythia" (from Thrace and the 
Black Sea and the Crimea and Dnieper up towards the Vistula). There numerous and flourishing highly-civilized Greek 
Colonies were in daily warlike and peaceful contact with the Gothic Clans of Scandia and its nearest marches. See 
Dr. Taylor's "Greeks and Goths" 8vo. London 1879, the chapter on the Runes in his "The Alphabet" 2 vols. 8vo. 
London 1883, my Old-N. Run. Mon. Vol.. 3, folio, p. 183, 268, and page 10 of my "Studies on Northern Mythology", 
London 1883, 8vo. The date was some 6 or 7 centuries before Christ. 



X"[y FOKEWORD. 

spot in each Northern land. It was not the special heirloom or invention of one 
single Northern clan, one conquering Northern tribe, and communicated by war or 
peace by force or fraud to the other Northern races nearest to them. The Eunes 
meet us in Sweden from the North to the South, in Norway from the North to 
the South, in Denmark from the North to the South, in England from the North 
to the South. And everywhere from the oldest Northern days and at one common 
period. There is therefore neither time nor place for a certain Eunefolk to carry 
its letters from land to land. All the Northmen had these staves everywhere, and at 
the same time. And so with the gradual modification of the older Runic Futhorc. 
There can be no "conquest", no "carrying"; for everywhere in Scandinavia we see 
the older staverow slowly — and at the same time, from common internal causes — 
passing over from the more copious and complex to the simpler and fewer-lettered. 
The same "development", would, as 1 have said, have taken place in England, and 
did partially so, had not the whole Runic culture there been early stopt by Christianity 
and the Latin alphabet — which eventually took place in all Scandinavia also. But 
this oneness between the English and the Scandinavians is many times directly asserted 
on both sides. The time came when the classical "Germania" (which signified 
"Barbaria", "Non Romania", "Celtic", and what not) caiine to be misunderstood and 
to mislead. But the oldest statements all agree — the English came from the 
North, the Northmen settled in England, and both, spoke one tung. I could add 
many very old and plain Scandinavian testimonies. I will only give two: — 



"Ver erum einnar ttingu, {)d at 
greinzt hafi mjok onnur tveggia eS.a 
nakkvat baSar". 



We are of one tung (we speak the 
same language), tho that the one of the 
two, or in someivhat both of them, be now 
much changed. 



Spoken of the Norse- Icelandic and the Old- English talks before the Norman 
Conquest. — ''Um Stafroft", written about the year 1140 (see note 1, p. 10), Prose 
Edda, Vol 2, Hafnice 1832, 8vo p. 12. 



"Ein var pa ttinga a Einglandi sem 
i Noregi ok i Danmorku; en f)a skiptust 
ttingur i Einglandi er Vilhjalmr BastarSr 
vann Eingland". 



One was tho (then) the tung on (in) 
England [in the time of king Ethelred, 
an. 979 — 1016] sum (as) in Norway eke 
(and) in Denmark; an (but) tho shifted 
(were altered) the-tungs in England as (when) 
William the-Bastard wan England. 

Gunnlaugs Saga Ormstungu, (Islendinga Sogur, Kjobenhavn 1847, 8vo. Vol 2 
p. 221). . . . , 



FOREWORD. XV 

The above . writers do not notice the great fact, that the Scandian talks 
themselves on the one hand, as well as those of Anglia on the other, had — from 
within and from local causes — greatly altered and developt and separated — each 
branching off in its own way — before the Norman Conquest; and they could not 
point out, but we can, that the Anglo-Norman was only a passing fashion among 
the ruling classes, that the speech of the Commons continued to live and thrive, 
and that in a short time (the old South-English Court-dialect having been broken 
up by the shock) the olden English folk-speech returned — tho far more Latinized 
than any of the Scandinavian languages. Which on their side became largely 
Saxonized and Germanized — in the shape of that mighty and noble and thoroly 
Scandinavian [Old Scandinavian) north English . which is now the birth-tung of 
England and her colonies. 

5. That the many lettered Runic Alphabet is the forner, the shorter one the later; 
the former alone being found over the whole North and always on the oldest pieces, the 
latter being provincially Scandinavian and occurring only on younger monuments. Hence 
it is that no objects bearing the multitudinous runes, or Old-Northern staves, have 
ever appeared in any of the later Scandian colonies (Iceland, Greenland, Fseroes, 
the He of Man, &c.) while they abound in England, the oldest Scandian settlement. 
Hence also is it that every purely Old-Northern piece in Scandinavia, and almost 
every overgang runic lave there, is — as being so very old — distinctively and 
decidedly heathen ; while, on the contrary, every such Old-Northern piece found in the 
so rapidly Romanized and Christianized England is (with the exception of the two 
Sandwich Stones and probably of the Thames Sword) as distinctively and decidedly 
christian. 

6. That, the Northern settlements in England being so very old, the oldest 
English dialects give us the best idea of and the best key to what the oldest Scandian 
folk-talks must have been in the 3rd and 4th and next following yearhundreds, and will 
and must be the best help to our understanding the very oldest laves in our Scandinavian 
homeland. Hence it is that I have been able to read (if I have redd) some of these 
pieces. I have mastered the rune-marks and 1 am an Englishman. I have no 
other merit. 

7. That the efforts to translate all the oldest Scandian Runic pieces into ''Icelandic" 
s.re futile, and have everywhere necessarily failed; "Icelandic" being only 07ie Northern 
dialect out of many — tho it afterwards largely became a Mandarin lingua franca 
in Scandinavia and partly in England among the "educated classes", especially as 
to bookwriting — and this one comparatively modern, Iceland itself not having been 
discovered and colonized till the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century, 
by which time the Old-Northern Runes as a system had died out on the Scandian 



XVI FOREWORD. 

main and were followed by the later Runic alphabet. But even this modern 
"Icelandic" of the 10th century has not come down to us. FAR from it. If it had, 
it would be very different from what is now vulgarly so called, which is the greatly 
altered so-called "polisht" and "classical" '^Icelandic" of the 13th— 14th century. 
At the best, "Icelandic" is on the face of it a peculiarly developt and artificial local 
School-tung, largely — even of old — little understonden of the common folk in 
the rest of Scandinavia. Several of its specific characteristics have never been found 
outside its own local sphere. The oldest written "Icelandic" known to us is in a couple 
of pieces said to date from about the year 1200. In one word, to translate the 
oldest runic inscriptions, written in their local floating dialects from 200 to 700 or 
800 years after Christ, into a modern "uniformized" "Icelandic" of the 13th or 14th 
age, is as reasonable as it would be to read Latin monuments from the times of 
the Kings and the Republic as if they answered to the "classical" dialect of Florentine 
Dante ! 

8. That the whole modern doctrine of one uniform classical more or less 
''ICELANDIC" language all over the immense North, from Finland and Halogoland to the 
Eider and the Thames, in the first 1000 winters after Christ, is an impossible absurdity, 
there being then and there, as everywhere else, no unity in government or in race, 
but scores of independent "states" and "kingdoms", and equally so "tungs" manifold 
and running into each other and always changing in the various clans and folklands, 
dialects in various stages of development, tho all were bound together by certain 
common national characteristics. Time and Commerce and the local influence of 
other clans or of the remains of far older tribes and greater or less isolation and 
War and Slavery and a thousand Accidents, not race, explain among cognate peoples 
the presence or absence of particular forms and words and phrases and idioms and 
technical terms, here more or less olden and "hoary", there more or less worn and 
"advanced". 

9. That the Runic and other oldest art remains of our Northern forefathers 
show that these peoples possest not only the Art of Writing, in itself a great proof of 
power and mastership and development, but, generally (in like manner as all the 
other Scando-Gothic races), a very high degree of '^barbaric" (= NOT GREEK OR ROMAN) 
civilization and technical skill, in some things higher than our own even now and 
this for war as for peace, for the home as for out-of-doors, for the family as for 
the commonweal. This explains how it was possible for these dauntless clans so largely to 
remodel and invigorate a considerable part of Europe, so easily to overrun and overturn 
the rich but rotten the mighty but marrowless the disciplined but diseased "Roman 
Empire', that gigantic and heartless and merciless usurpation, that strange conglo- 
meration of hard straightforward materialism and abject overtrow, worldwide grinding 



FOREWORD. 



XVII 



despotism, systematized and relentless Imperial and Proconsular and Fiscal plunder, 
and of depravity deep as hell. 

10. That the thousands of stately Hows — Barrows, Cairns, Gravemounds — 
from the Iron Age, still, found in our Northern lands (altho thousands many mo 
have been destroyed), and the Inscribed and Uninscribed Standing Stones so often 
on or near them, and often the very funeral words employed — speaking of peace 
and REST for the departed , are the best commentary to our own oldest national written 
descriptions of the sanctity and repose of the dead. I might give ten thousand 
extracts. I confine myself to 2 or 3. Let us listen to the solemn injunction in 
the Elder Edda: 



"Pat raea ek l^er it niunda, 
at t>u nam bjargir 

hvars t>u a foldu finnr; 
hvart eru s6ttdau9ir 
e9a ssedauBir, 

e9a 'ro vapudau9ir verar. 
"Haug skal gora 
hveim er liainn er, 

hendr Wa ok hofu9; 
kemba ok t^erra, 
a9r i kistu fari, 

ok bi5ja scelan sofa". 

The Elder Edda. 



Rede ninth rede I thee: — 
rescue the lifeless, 

a-field wherever thou find them; 
whether sank he on sick-bed 
or sea-dead lieth, 

or was hewn by hungry weapon. 
O'er the breathless body 
a Barrow raise thou, 

hands and head clean washen; 
comVd and dried eke 
in his kist fare he, 

and bid him softly slumber. 

Sigrdrifumdl, verses 33, 34, ed. P. A. Munch. 



And again, that fine picture of raising the grave-mound over the folklord, 
as found in our noblest English Epic. After his awsome kamp (battle) with the 
fire-drake — which he slays, but at the cost of his own hfe — the dying W^gmunding's 
last words are: 



Ne mseg ic her leng wesan. 

Hata9 heaao-msere 

hlsew gewyrcean, 

beorhtne aefter bsele, 

set brimes nosan; * 

se seel to ge-myndum 

minum leddum 

heah hlifian 

on Hrones nsesse; 



My life-day's now over. 
Bid my good barons 
to build me A low — 
fair after fire-heap — 
at the flood-dasht Headland. 
A minne shall it stand there 
to my mates and landsmen, 
high looming 
on Hronesness, 



III 



XVIII 



FOREWORD. 



baet hit sa?-li9encl 
syasan hatan 
Bidwulfes biorh, 
a a 9e brentingas 
ofer fldda genipu 
feorran drifaa. 



so that seafarers 
sithance shall call it 

BIOWULF'S BARROW, 

"■ as their beak-carv'd galleys 
out of hazy distance 
float haughtily by. 

Beowulf. Near the end of Fitte 38. 



Accordingly, farther on, after some fragmentary lines describing Beowulf s 
lik-brand (the bm-ning of his body), the lay tells us: 



Ge-worhton aa 
Wedra ledde 
HL^W on liSe, 
se wa38 heah and brad, 
[wi=e]g-liaendum 
wide g(e)-syne, 
and be-timbredon 
on tyn da gum 
beadu-rdfes been; 
bronda lafe 
wealle be-worhton 
swa hyt weoralicost 
fore snotre men 
iindan mihton: 
hi on beorg dydon 
beg and siglu, 
eall swylce hyrsta 
swylce on horde £er 
nis-hedige men 
ge-numen ha^fdon; 
forleton eorla gestredn 
eoraan healdan, 
gold on gredte, 
\>ser hit nu gen lifaa 
eldum swa unnyt 
swa hit [ffirojr waes. 
Da ymbe hlaew riodan 



Gun then to make them — 
those Gothic heroes — 
A LOW on the lithe, 
lofty and broad, 
by the fearless foam-plougher 
seen far and wide, 
till on the tenth day 
towering stood there 
the battle-chief's beacon. 
The brand-scorcht floor 
a mound covered 
mighty and worshipful, 
as found most fitting 
their famousest sages. 

Within THE BARROW, 

laid they heighs and ornaments, 

and such driven drink-cups 

as in the drake-hoard 

the furious warriors 

a-fore had taken. 

The earth be-gem they 

with earl-sprung jewels, 

fling gold on the gravel, 

ivhere a-gain it shall lie 

to all as useless 

as ereivhile it luas. 

Round THE HOW rode then 



FOREWORD. 



XIX 



hildededre, 

8et>elinga beam 

eaira twelfa, 

woldon [ceare] cwiaan, 

kyning msenan, 

wordgyd wrecan 

and ymb [Wgelliealle] sprecan. 



those Hilde-cham,pions, 
all the troop 
of those twelve athehngs, 
their Keen raising, 
their King mourning, 
word-lays chaunting 

« 

and of [Walhall] speaking. 
Beowulf. Near the end. 



And as to the Stone. What says the Edda? 



"Sonr er betri 
\>6ii sd si9 of aUnn 

epth' genginn guma; 
sjaldan bautarsteinar 
standa brautu nger, 

nema reisi ni9r at ni5." 

The Elder Edda. 



Blissful a Son is 
tho born but lately, 

his father already fallen; 
seldom Bauta-stones 
bound the folk-path, 

save raised by kin to kindred! 

Hdvamdl, verse 71. Ed. P. A. Munch. 



The Bauta-stone (Beaten-one's Stone, Standing Stone in memory of one who 
had fallen in battle) was mostly runeless. The word is sometimes employed for a 
Runic Block, or for a Minne-stone in general inscribed or not. 

This has been happily applied by a modern Danish poet: 



"Euster Eder! rask, ei seen, 
Rister mig en Runesteen! 
Runesteen, som reist bestaaer, 
Risen lig, i tusind Aar.' 



Rush to arms with ready tread, 
Raise a Rune-stone der mine head; 
Rune-stone rist, as Ettin strong, 
Ringing my fame time's ivaves along! 

A. G. Oehlenslceger, Harald Hildttand. 



11. That we have undeniable proofs that many of the Inscribed Runic 
Stones were, in the oldest Iron Age, deposited inside the cairn, not outside. This is 
a striking illustration of the same custom in Egyptian and other Oriental tombs, 
which were often carefully hewn and finely decorated tho more or less invisible to 
the passer-by, — and of our own inscribed rich coffins let down into the earth for 
the worms to read. We here see that the grave was a continued House, and that 
the departed lived a mystic life therein, visiting it at pleasure when they chose to 
leave their other-land abode. 

12. That the heathen runic inscriptions, the formula of rest, and even 
the occasional invocation of the Gods themselves, all show that our ancestors held 



III* 



XX FOREWORD. 

fast the belief of a future state, the ever-life of the soul, Personal Deities, and all 
the other comforts and joys of faith in the Godhead. Thus Christianity had only to 
give clearer views and to teach the name of the Great Unknown whom all felt after, 
to gain a wide and rapid acceptance. As we know, only a part of Scandinavia was 
"converted by force", and even this was the act of their own Kings. As much "force" 
was used in carrying out the Eelbrmation in Scandinavia as in introducing Christianity. 

13. That," as far as we can see, the monuments before us yield no single 
instance of anything like a date or fixt chronological era, or of any Time-measure (name 
of a Month or Week or Day or Hour), or of the age of the deceast, as little as they 
have any numerical figures. Consequently we do not know how they reckoned events 
or time, or what, were their ciphers for numeration (if they had any), in our oldest 
North. But all these things are also absent on the great mass of the later Eunic 
monuments deep down into the Christian period, when the Christian era and Numeral 
marks were well known. It is very seldom that any of the Scandinavian-runic stones 
bear a date, still rarer that the "forthfaren's" age is mentioned on them. Among 
these few slabs, perhaps the earliest using Christian chronology are found in the 
ile of Gotland. But no such dated runic grave-stone is older than the 14th century. 
Dated runic Bells go a hundred years farther back. Eunic Coins (with Scandinavian 
runes) appear in Scandinavia at the end of the 10th century, in England (with Old- 
Northern runes) as early as the 7th. Golden Bracteates (0. N. runes) begun in 
the 4th or 5th. 

Place-names are occasionally found both on Old-Northern and on Scandinavian- 
runic pieces, those on the oldest monuments being of course — frOm the enormous 
lapse of time — very hard to identify. On the later monuments the place-names 
are often famihar; our own ENGLAND is common enough; nay, on one block we 
meet with bath, on another London. 

From intermarriage and commerce and travel and military service abroad 
and "a good education", or from contact even while at home with strangers or 
Christians or war -prisoners or slaves, and from various other causes, many of the 
Northmen — even from the earliest times at Rome and Constantinople down to the 
early middle age — kneiv more tungs than their own, sometimes could ivrite them. 
Hence in their foreign settlements and colonies and subjugated "kingdoms" they 
often more or less freely and rapidly adopted the language and (Eoman! letters of 
the Christian country to which they had come. This would particularly be the case 
in and near to England, Old English being merely a dialect of their mothertung. 
We have striking examples of this in Normandy, where the wikings nearly all married 
French women, so that in one generation the home -speech there became largely 
French, and in Ireland, where it would soon become largely English. Hence no 



FOREWORD. XXI 

Runic Stones or Runic Coins have ever been found in Normandy and Ireland, altho 
this latter country had coins struck by Scandian princes earlier than Scandinavia 
itself. All the coins struck by Northern "Earls" and "Kings" out of the North (Scandinavia 
and England) bear only Roman letters. 

14. That, as the Northmen (the Scandinavians and English) more nearly, and 
the Scando-Goths (the Northmen, the Saxons and the Germans) more generally, are all 
of one blood and tung, so they should all hold together, love and help and defend 
each other, avoid every beggarly temptation to hate or plunder or ruin or "annect" 
each other, nobly taking their stand as brothers and fulfilling their mission as one 
great folkship with its own local limits and national duties, in necessary providential 
counterpoise — but in all friendly harmony with — the great Romance and Magyar 
and Greek and Slavic and other race-groups. 

15. That the whole theory of the Runes being in oldest times "mysterious", 
"secret marks', "used only in magic", "the private staves of the priests and kings", 
is utterly unfounded. On the contrary, we find them everywhere, on gravestones, 
rocks, weapons, ornaments, tools, and olten even in the form of the Alphabet, in order 
that the common people might easily see and quickly learn them. It was only in 
proportion as they begun to die out (supplanted by the Roman letters) that, like 
all other "old-fashioned" and "fantastic" characters, they descended to the wizard 
and the juggler. If, when frst introduced, these Runes were more or less "magical" 
and "mysterious" (which may well have been the case), they have left no trace 
thereof on the oldest monuments, and therefore many centuries must then have 
elapst between their original invention or adaptation and their earliest use AS we 

KNOW THEM. 

16. That, whatever else we do, we must not read these monuments by altering 
them at our pleasure. All thp talk about "miscuttings" is so childish and monstrous, 
and is so evidently mixt up with the ignorance and insolence of modern know-every- 
thing-ism, that is of modern sciolism, that we must at once discard it. Should a 
real uncorrected "mis-hewing" ever be found on these pieces, which has yet to be 
proved, we must cheerfully accept it. In any case it will be very -exceptional. But we 
must not cloak our own inability, our own necessary groping among words and 
dialects and times and creeds and institutions of which we know so little, by treating 
the oldest remains of our fore-gangers as so much useless granite or old metal, a 
mere field for everyman's idle and capricious and impudent conjecture. We approach 
these objects, many of them colossal or costly and often cut with great elegance, 
as learners-, not as masters and tyrants. All our monumental history. Oriental and 
Classical and Runic, is full of the terrible mistakes, the humiliating blindnesses, the 
childish blunders, the unheard-of combinations and wild guesses, the endless rash 



XXTI 



FOREWORD. 



changes of letters or words, which have resulted from this unhappy school of half- 
taught "criticism". Let us, now at least, steer clear of the shoals markt by so many 
a disastrous shipwreck. Why should we not now and then be able and willing to 
say — "this I cannot understand"? 

Some of these remarks will be found elsewhere in these pages. But I have 
been careless of a little repetition', partly because in this summing up it could not 
easily be avoided, and partly because certain things cannot apparently be repeated 
too often. 

Such are my conclusions from the facts here before me. But some may be 
astonisht or offended or disappointed that these facts themselves, the Old-Northern 
Runic pieces here collected, are after all so very few. Rather should we be surprised 
that they are so many. As to "loose" articles. Arms and Jewels and Tools &c., of 
course it is and was quite exceptional for an owner to "whittle" his name upon 
them'. And of the few thus inscribed, the majority has been long since melted 
down — or is still lying undiscovered. Usually everything is smasht or used up 
after 2 or 3 generations, or remade in accordance with the new fashion'. All our 
European Museums put together can only show a poor handful of the Tools and Utensils 
and precious Ornaments used from the time of William the Bastard to WiUiam of 
Orange; similar things from the days of Julius Cffisar to those of the Norman 
adventurer — how many are they? — As to "fast" pieces. Memorial Stones &c., 
we must remember that in all times and countries there have been endless and ever- 
varying rites of burial, and that only a small fraction of the population ever had 
or has any decorated grave-minne or other such more or less expensive funeral mark. 
Most people may be thankful if they are burned or buried at all with any decent 
rites. But written grave-stones have always been, and still are an exception. In many 
whole districts, century after century, they are even now almost unknown. In certain 
folklands the inscribed grave-mark was during certain periods popular, and hence 



1 "In the course of this work I have never shunned repetitions of any sort or kind , when I have found 
repetitions needful. Repetitions are not superfluities : nor is it surplussage to reiterate the same thought or fact under 
diverse combinations." — Sir Francis Palgrave, The History of Normandy and of England, 8vo, Vol. 1, London 1851, p. 353. 

^ And even then, this writing may not at first be observed. Many of these articles are so corroded or 
encrusted and obscured by rust and dirt that any inscription has been long since altogether eaten away or can only be 
found after careful handling and patient cleaning. Several of the stave-bearing jeivels in this ivork have been for years 
exhibited in museums, some of them even elegantly engraved in works publisht by distinguisht archaeologists, without a 
suspicion that there were letters upon them. The runes have been discovered quite lately, after more minute examination. 
Other pieces in public or private collections may yet be found to bear writing. But thousands of these objects dug up 
in the last thousand years , even in the last and present century, have been lost or destroyed without being scrutinized 
by competent persons. 

5 The gold and silver plate preserved at Windsor Castle weighs (as we are informed by The Guardian Oct. 2. 
1867, p. 1061) nearly thirty tons, and is roughly estimated at i 3,000,000. But very little of it is otherwise than modern 
and trashy, and most of it was melted down and remodeled by that tasteless ])rince of profligates — George IV. 



FOREWORD, XXIII 

hundreds are still extant; in others the uninscribed Bauta-stone (Menhir, Pillar) was 
preferred, tradition doing the rest; for in olden times the living word was the rule, 
carving the exception. Add to this the endless destruction during 1800 years from 
greed, for building, for flooring or hearth-stones or gate-posts, for re-use as palimpsest- 
stones or as minne-blocks to newly deceased persons after being "nicely painted" or 
"tooled over", from revenge, from religious or sectarian fanaticism, from accident 
and the elements and from road- and bridge-making (especially the modern macad- 
amizing) — and the wonder is that we have one such stone still left!' How many 
grave-stones have we from the days of even Edward the Confessor? Nay, how many 
from the times of Queen Elizabeth or even George the First? All our beautiful 
Sepulchral Brasses, where are they? Not a tithe of them is left to us, altho they 
were fine works of art and preserved in the church, under the special eye as it 
were of God and Man! But what can resist the foul love of filthy lucre? They 
have been broken away and sold as old metal, many scores of them in this "enlightened" 
19th century. And consider: the more sparse the population^ the ihore sparing the 



' A large stone funeral monument sometimes disappears in one g^ieralion: 

"Un jour, j'avais sept ans, on me conduisit, par je ne sais quel hasard, dans le principal cimetiere de Nantes, 
nouvellement .inaugure alors. Le plus remarquable et presque le seul monument qu'il y eut encore, etait une pyramide 
avec un soubassement cubique, portant une epitaphe latine sur une table de martre noir. 

"11 y avait peut-etre un mois que j'apprenais le latin — Voyons, latiniste, me dit un camarade, expliqne-nous cela. 

"Comme je ne trouvai dans I'epitaphe ni Rosa, ni Dominus, ni meme Bonus bona bonum, je n'y reconnus pas 
un mot et me retil'ai confus et raille. 

•'Vingt ans apres, je passais par Nantes, que j'avais quitte tout jeune, et le hasard encore m'ayant conduit 
aux environs du cimitiere, j'y voulus entrer. Cette fois, Tepitaphe allait toute seule, mais le monument etait deja un peu 
degrade, il avait bien vielli. 

"Dans ce recent voyage, visitant le magniflque Jardin des Plantes , voisin du meme cimitiere, j'y suis entre 
encore. Comme il s'etait peuple ! ! Quant a ma pyramide , je I'ai cherchee en vain , elle n'existe plus. Je suis sorti 
pensif et triste J'avais deja vecu plus qu'un monument.'' — A. Carro, Voyage chez les Celtes, ou de Paris an Mont 
Saint- Michel, par Carnao. Svo. Paris 1867, pp. 35, 6. 

Some times such things are given back to us in a way the most unheard-of. 1 wend (translate) from "Post- 
och Inrikes-Tidningar" (the Swedish Official Gazette) for Dec. 13, 1867 : 

"A grave-monument in a strange place. A letter from Vadstena communicates as follows. Among the trees 
cut down lately in the churchyard of our town was an Ash, certainly very old. After the stem had been sawn over, 
the root was taken up , when a Grave-stone was found imbedded within it. Probably when the tree was young , a 
couple of its root-branches shot up so as to clasp the stone. In this way, as the Ash grew the slab was drawn more 
and more up and within the stem, for it was found within the pith of the tree. The block was originally about 4 feet 
long and 2 broad, and yet showed an inscription, but no more could be made out than the words: 

GYNELA JONSDOTTER 1612. 

Where the tree was cut down (which was only a few inches above the place in which the stone was found) were 
counted about .150 year-rings." 

^ As an illustration , I will only refer to one single race-group — the Indians of the United States of North 
America. With regard to them the evidence is thus pithily summed up in the Annual Report for 1861 of the Smithsonian 
Institution (Washington 1862, 8vo, p. 392): — "Various methods of disposing of the dead have obtained in different 
tribes , as burning , burial , deposit in caves , in lodges , beneath piles of stone , and in wooden sepulchres erected above 
ground, placing on scaffolds or in canoes, and attaching to the trunks of trees. In many instances the bones, after a 
season, are collected together and brought into common cemeteries [= ossuaries, bone-pits]." 



XXIV FOREWORD. 

grave-Stones. But if we have so few left from the late and comparatively populous 
ages of which we have spoken, how many were raised in the early thinly-peopled 
times of the Runic North? 

No competent judge of these things will deem otherwise than that the Old- 
Runic Harvest here brought together is in fact very great, far greater than any of 
us dared to dream of or hope for a few years ago." 



After this long extract from my first tome I have only to add, that the 
reader who wishes to follow all the details, proofs and arguments, to read the valuable 
communications of distinguisht fellow- workers , and to see the crowd of additional 
explanatory Chemitypes and other illustrations, besides nearly 100 Runic Alphabets in 
facsimile, all helping us to understand the Old-Northern Monuments — must of course 
in some Public Library consult my 3 folios. To their pages exact reference is made 
under each find. I had no choice here but to make the text as short as possible, 
while still giving everything absolutely necessary. 



The present rage for infallibly fixing everything all at once, is highly to be 
deprecated. Future finds and the progress of Runish studies will doubtless modify 
some things here given. We shall know more a hundred years hence, than we 
do now. 



Cheapinqhaven, Denmark. Feb. 15, 1884. 



GEORGE STEPHENS. 



SWEDEN. 



THANKFULLY INSCRIBED 



TO 



PROF. M. B. RICHERT, 



_ UPSALA, SWEDEN. 



TANUM, BOHUSLAN, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A, D. 100—200. 
Old-Northern Runic Monuments p. 196, 835, 976, XXVIl. 

THE^WJNG'S HIGH-TINE (pillar -stone) AYE WJES (he)! 
(— Grave-blocJc, stand here alway, in memory of Throeiving ! ) 

Som-THRiEWINGS GRAF-PELARE ALLTID STl! 

This enormous monolith is nearly 10 feet long, about 4 feet 10 inches at broadest, 
and 9 inches thick. It is still at Tanum. Is quite perfect. Runes reverst. Are redd from 
right to left. Plate engraved in 1864. Was first found at the beginning of this century. 



KINNEVED. — SKA-ANG. 



KINNEVED, WEST-GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200—300. 
01d.-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 21. 








^— «J 


wriW™ 




1 fj9fl| 




*-. "^j^ 


»'-* 


^m 


■t/*' 


^jftsSsH 


■ 


^^H 


-"< 


^^^sS 






y 


' ffiSTW 




^f£^ 


'^\ 


''*^&M 






f 






^s^ 



Only the dead man's name, 

SIA^LUH. 

Full size. Is of Talcose Slate (Steatite, Soap-stone, Pot-stone). 
Was found in 1843, engraved in 1869. In Skara Museum, West Gotland. 



Reverst runes. 



SKA-ANG, SODERMANLAND, SWEDEN, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200—300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 887. Vol 3, p. 23. 



Is twi-writ. Besides the scoring in the old staves, has been used again for death- 
v?ords in the later runes, maybe in the 11th century. The latter epitaph has long been 
known; the former was discovered by Dr. Hans 0. H. Hildebrand in 1867; we have to thank 
Archivary Utidset for a corrected copy of the runes, whereby I now offer a modification of 
my former reading: 



SWEDEN. 




HIRING ^.GI LEDG^ AI 



Mm-UJERWG OWN (have, hold) his- low (grave-hill, tumulus, death- bed, resting-place) aye (alway)! 

Ma-HiERiNG AGA sin-HOG (hvilo-badcl) A (alltid)I 



SKA-ANG. — SKARKIND. 7 

The later snake-wind inscription says: 

SKANMALS AUK OLAUF tAU LETU KIARA MERKI DAUSI EFTI/J SUAIN, FAtUR SIN. GUt HIALBI SALU HANS. 

SKANMALS (—.SKAM-BALS) EKE (and) Ms-mter- OLAUF THEY LET o ARE (make, raise) MARKS (grave- 
marks) THESE AFTER SUAIN, FATHER SIN (their). May-GOD HELP SOUL HIS! 
SKANMALS OCH hanS-Syster-OLAUF DE LATO GORA MARKEN DESSA EFTER SUAIN, FADER SIN. GUD HJELPE 

SJAL HANS! 

About 5 feet 3 inches high, greatest breadth about 3 feet, average thickness a little 
over 1 foot. — As runish staves are often taken twice, we- may also read hjlrinGjE ^gi. We 
might also divide m gileugj<;. 



SKARKIND, EAST-GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 26. 




8 



SWEDEN. 



Found in the summer of 1876 by Director C. F. Nordenskjold, who kindly forwarded 
a drawing and paper cast. Is of reddish granite, about 5 feet 8 inches high. Was the base 
on which stood an old sandstone Font. 

SCIBiE LEUWiE. 

SKITH'S LOW (grave-moimd). 
skid's geaf-hog. 



VANGA, WEST-GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200—300. 

Old-N. R. Mon. f. 241, 835, and Vol. 3, p. 27. Re-engraved here from the stone itsetf, 

which I visited in Juhi 1873. 




VANGA. — BEEGA. 9 

May be one word; the Dead Man's name, in the nommative. But I prefer the usual 
formula, 2 names, a nom. and a dative: 

HiEUC OtUA. 

HJiUC (? = E^UNC) raised-this-stooie-to-OTHU. 
BM,VG reste-till-OTHU. 
Greatest height about 3 feet o inches, greatest breadth about 2 feet. Turned runes. 
First noticed in 1791. 



BERGA, SODERMANLAND, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 300—400. 
Old-N. B. Man. p. 176, 886, XXVII. Vol. 3, p. 29. 

The only Old-Northern stone known to me which bears two words, cut far apart 
and running in different directions. I would therefore now suggest that the one name is 
carved later than the other. Perhaps the Husband or Wife died first, and shortly after the 
Partner was called away. Thus they most likely lay in the same grave, and were remembered 
on the same block. So I now propose: 

FINO. 

The-lord-FJNO. 

S^LIG^STIA. 

The-lady-s^LiG^s tia. 

Seven feet .2 inches high, 2 feet 4 inches broad above and 3 feet below. First 
engraved in 1830. 

So the Fjellerad stone. North Jutland, Denmark, has a long inscription in the later 
runes to a chief named abi and a lady tufa, and says of them: 

tATJ LTKA BAM I lAUM HAUKI. 

THEY LIE BOTH IN THIS HOW (grave-moiind). 



10 



SWEDEN. 




mOjebro. 



11 



MOJEBRO, UPLAND, SWEDEN, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 300—400. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 178, 900, XXVIIl. Vol 3, p. 30. 




As drawn about the middle of the 17th century and publisht in Goranssons Bautil in 1750. 



For several reasons (among others, the common one of there being here no stops, 
and the consequent doubt how we are to divide the words) this risting is very hard to read. 
Abandoning vaj former attempts with the first line, I am now inclined to look upon it as 
containing only names — perhaps those of the dead Chief and of his 2 Sons and Daughter, 
or 3 of his nearest kin. I therefore, with great diffidence, would offer: 

M^MBM, H^ISLiE, GINIA, FR^WjER^D^A. 

Sir-MNJiH^, Sir-HJEISL^., the-lady- GINIA, raised-this-stone-to-the-lord-FRJiWjER^D. 

2* 



12 



SWEDEN. 



Nearly 8 feet 3 inches high. Reverst staves. I here, once for all, make a remark, 
which will often apply more or less: Out of 14 vowels, no less than 9 are M, an evident 
proof of local dialect. As to the 2nd name, 5 brothers named hoisli are mentioned on the 
Rok stone, 9th century, which see. — The stone is hard red quartz and feldspar. 




As drawn btj Prof. Carl Save, of Upsala, in 1862. 



ETELHEM. 



13 



ETELHEM, GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 

? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400—500. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 182. 





MC (= MIc) MEL^ (= MIRlLiE or MERIL^) WRTJi (= WORTiE), 

ME MIEIL^ WROUGHT (^ Meriloe made me). 

MIG MIRIL^ GJORDE. 

, Engraved full size. Silver-gilt Brooch, found in 1846. On the front, the raised 
rands and upstanding carved ridges have their original white glitter. The zigzags were filled 
with a bluish niello, as were the runes. The rest richly gilt. The square red stone or fluor- 
spar or glass still remains, tho broken. The two triangular stones in the centre, and the 
oblong one lower down, have fallen out. As we see, to save space, the less weighty vowels 
are omitted, as often. There was no room for them. 



14 



SWEDEN. 



KROGSTAD, UPLAND, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400 — 500. 
OU-N. R. Mon. p. 184, 967, XXVII, Vol. 3, p. 3L 





As drawn in middle of 17 cent, andpuhlisht in Bmttil 1750, hut corrected hy Baron J. Nordsnfalk in 1858. 




Runes as they were in 1869. from tracings hy Prof. C. Save and Docent N. Under, 

here Photoxylographt l—6th of the size. 



KROGSTAD. 



KONGHELL. 



15 



But, according to Dr. H. Hildebrand and Prof. Bugge, the u should lean a little at 
the left top, the right leg being also a trifle longer than the left. 

MWSyOUINGI syOjKINiEA. 

MWSyOUlNOl (Musowingi, Mysing) to-SyOjElN (in msmory of Swain). 

MWSyouiNG (skref dessa runor) till-syOiEiN (Sven). 

This grave-stone is upwards of 6 feet high. The dots I take to be conventional for 

ring-mail, and the open band for the belt. As a curiosity, I add the oldest drawing of this 

stone, by j. t. a. sure, made about 1620 — 40, full size: 




KONGHELL, BOHUSLAN, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 500 — 600. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 208, 835. 
Runes as they stand on the Staff: 



)^\i^\/\\ 



HFUKtJUtFUAH 

Runes (of course reverst) engraved from a photograph; 




HAUFBUUKtFH 



16 



SWEDEN. 



F I take to stand for fur and H for hart, and read: 
HADFtuuKtr F(ur) H(ari). 
The jHEADiNGj (Headman, Chief, Leader, Commander) FOR (of) the-H^R (army, 

navy, forces, troops). 
(— This is the General's Baton of Command). 

HOFDINGEN FOR HAREN. 

A Staff or Baton, of Heart of Yew, now very dark in color, 33 Va 
Danish inches long, here engraved l-fourth the size. Found in the ruins of the 
old Konungahella, between Gotenburg and fCongelf, at Kastcllgarden in 1864. 

In my folio text I have many arguments and engravings to show that 
this was a General's Staff, and I think that there can be no doubt of it. I here 
add a drawing of william of normandt encouraging his troops before the battle 
of Hastings, taken from the Bayeux Tapestry: 




bjOrketorp. 



17 



BJORKETORP, BLEKING, SWEDEN 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600 — 700. 
Old.-N. R. Mon, p. 165. Vol. 3, p. 32. 











My plates, August 1864. 



18 



SWEDEN. 



S^At MT B^RUTA UT I JiAWELiE DiEUDE. 

BME.RM MMhM USA GINiE-RUNiEA MRM GEC. 

FJiLJi; HiELH^DA OMG. 

BMIDAR^RVSO^O RO NU. 

UtiER, MBM SBM. 

SJ^ATB AT the- BARRATRY (battle. Campaign) out in ^awel died. 

HERE MELL (tell) of-us the- GIN-RUNES (our power-staves) his- are (fame) yea (truly). 

FELE (many) of -BELTS (heroes) he-woOG (slew). 

BADOR- (that honors) run A (friend) OWES (hath, takes) his-ROO (rest) now. 

UTB^.R and-^D^ the- SPA E (Wise) (—raised these stones and carved these runes). 

SMATB I KAMP UT I ^AWEL DODDE (flog). 

HAR MlLA (fortalja) vAra magt-runor hans-ARA jo. 
MlNGA HJELTAR han-voG (slog han). 
HEDERS-RUNi (van), han-AGER sin-RO NU. 
UtHjER och-^B^ SPl (den kloke) (= reste desse stenar och hogg dessa runor). 
Rune-pillar more than 13 feet high, the two other blocks upwards of 10. Nearby- 
have been found a Stone-kist and a Stone-circle (Doom-ring). First copy is Worm's, in 1636. 
B^R,UTA maybe a place-name, as well as jjawel^. See the Stentofte stone, further on. 





From Worsaae's lithographs, drawn in 1844. 



BJORKETORP. 



19 










-5 

a- 

t 



20 



SWEDEN. 



GOMMOR, BLEKING, SWEDEN, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D, 600 — 700. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 206, 835, XXVIIJ. Vol. 3, p. 32. 




Sent to Cheapinghaven, Denmark, in 1652 or thereabout, and perisht in the great 
fire of 1728. This curious grave-stone was about 2 feet long, 2 feet all round, undrest, of a 
purple color, and inscribed on all the 4 sides. As we see. Worm's woodcut (Dan. Mon. 1643) 
is barbarous, and any reading is only approximative. 

I now take the 1st stave to have been an s, the 4th an N, the 8th an L, the 10th 
an F, and the 1st in the 3rd line an H, and propose: 

ST^NiE BRLjEF (— BORL^f) S^TE HiEtUWOLiEFiE. 

F F F. 

This- STONE THORLJLF SET to-BJSTHUWOLF. 

F. F'S-son FA WED ( Carved). 
Denne-STEN thorl^f satte till-H^THULF. 
F. F's-son SKREF-runorna. 
Apparently the HiEBWOLF of the Stentofte and Istaby stones. BORLiEF may have been 
his son or foster-brother. 



ISTABY. 



21 



ISTABY, BLEKING, SWEDEN 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600 — 700. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 113. Vol. 3, p. 33. 




Mv plate, September 1864. 



22 



SWEDEN. 




My plate, September 1864. 



ISTABY. 



23 



YFJiTA HYRIWUL^FiE, HYTOWULiEFA, 

HYERUWULiEFIA WiERYIT RUNYA iYIYA. 

AFTER (in memory of) HYRIWOLF and-HYTHUWOLF 

the-lady-HYKRuwoLFiA wrote (let-write) runes these. 
EFTER (till minue af) hyrulf ocIi-hythclf 

HYERULFIA SKREF RUNOR DESSA. 

I now take HYERUwuLiEFiA to be a womansname. She was probably the sister of the 
two warriors. — This will then be the family-stone, the public (official) block being at Sten- 
tofte, which see. The Gommor stone seems raised to one of the brothers. 

About 4 feet 6 inches above ground, and 2 feet 6 at broadest. First made public 
in 1748. 





From, Worsaaes lithographs, drawn in 1844. 



24 



SWEDEN. 



LINDHOLM, SKANE, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600—700. 
OU-N. R. Man. Vol. 1, p. 219. Vol. 3, p. 33. 




Nov. 1876. Prof. S. Bugge and Archivarj I. Undset both decide that this piece (which 
I have never seen) has at the break F {m) not h (n). I have corrected the block accordingly. 

Of bone. Full size. Found deep in Lindholm Moss in 1840. Runes reverst, and 
therefore redd from right to left. Very difficult as not divided by word-points, and also 
because we do not know whether the piece was made for an Amulet, or as Witch-gear, or a 
Tool or some Game. Another such, found in 1761 in Flemlose Moss, Fyn, was destroyed 
without being copied! 

The repeated letters were perhaps not magical, but to fill up, making the one line as 
long as the other. If so, we get ^anb, may be = iEANP = iEAMP, nearly the N. I. jape (? janpr, 
jampr), a kind of snake mentioned in the Prose-Edda. The next word, in the same way, 
would be MUT (m6t). ■ — Whether ^la (or ^lla) was a person (the owner), or a Witch or 
Wizard (the user), or a Serpent-chief or House-god (the being invoked), we cannot tell. 

The late discovery (summer of 1877) of the Kragehul Lance-shaft (Denmark) and 
the Fonnas Brooch (Norway), with their remarkable inscriptions, have now suggested to me 
another reading: 

EC, ERILjEA S^ IILjE, G^A H^TEC iE, ^ANB, MUT ^LU. 

/, ERiL^A (= JARL, EARL) SE (the) ILL (foe-crusMng, fierce), — 'GO', hight-i (I command, 

I hid), 'AYE, O-SNAKE, AGAINST ^LA!' 
JAG, ERILiEA, HIN ILLE, 'GA', BJUDER-JAG, 'A (= alltid) 0-ORM, MOT ^La!' 

In this case eril^a was the name of the owner, just as an ERiLiEA owned the 
Kragehul Lance. On these pieces, therefore, the owner speaks (i) to his amulet or weapon, 
while on the Gilton Sword (England) the Sword speaks (i) to his master. — Further finds 
may perhaps help us to amend the above. The actual characters are, as they stand: 

ECERILiEAS^IIL^G^AH^TECjE ■ 

^yE^^J!;^^^aannnbmuttt:^lu = 



STENTOFTE. 



25 



STENTOFTE, BLEKING. SWEDEN, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600—700. 



Old-N. R. Mon. p. 167. Vol. 3, j). 34. 




My plate, September 1864. 



26 



SWEDEN. 




My plate, September 1864. 



The first (bad) drawing was made early in this century. The first publtsht drawing 
is the careful one by Worsaae. As on this stone t is the usual M and % the usual o, PI 
now take to be here transitional for (E. When X altogether died out, this F (in its many 
varieties) became o. It here only occurs once, in the word hceges. I now agree with Bugge, 
that the stave after g^f is more like the variously-modified iNG-mark than the s-mark, and 
therefore read g^fng, = g^fing. 



STENTOFTE. 



27 




From Worsaaes lithographs, drawn in, 1844. 



My present, ameliorated, reading is: 

^lU H^BO EUMA, 
NIU HOEGES TDMA, 
HjEBUWOLJiFA GiEFlNG, 
H^RIWOL^FA MiE, 

HIDEAR-RUNGNO. 
HER^ MiEL^ SiEA ^RiE GEUW. 
MtJCNU HEL^HDDtr^ (w)tIGO. 

^B^ RIUTI 

£ER^ GINO-RONOA. 

AYE shall-they-HAVE rome (lustre, praise), 

in-the-NEW of-their-HOW TOOM (space, chamber, = on the fresh floor of their tumtdus), 

HJSTHUWOLF GJEFiNG (of the Gcef-clan, or, Gasfs-son), 

and-B^RiwoLF MJi (called the Mae), 

HADOR- (those-honor's) regen (lords, = those honor-crowned chiefs). 
HERE MELL (speok) TBESE-Tunes thdr-ARE (fame) yea (truly). 
a-MUCKLE (midtitude) of -belts (braves) they-WOOG (slew). 
^EB^ wrote (catted) 
tbeir GIN -runes (mighty letters). 



28 



SWEDEN. 



ALLTID skola-dc-HAFVA BEROM 

i-den-NYA af-deras-HOG kammaee (= i deras grafhogs nya hvalf), 

HJiTHULF G^FING, 
Och-HJiRlULF M^, 

HEDERNS-HOFDINGAR. 

hAr mala (omtala) DESSA-runor deras-ARA JO. 
en-MYCKENHET (skara) af-HJELTAR de-voGO (dodade). 

JEBM EITADE (inristadc) 

DERAS GIN-RUNOR (kraft-runor). 
About 4V2 feet above ground and 2 feet 4 inches broad. This seems the official 
(public) pillar, the family block being at Istabj. See also Gommor and Bjorketorp. 



UPSALA, UPLAND, SWEDEN, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600 — 700. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 204. Vol. 3, p. 36. 




Mn OLJA tJKISI, 

OWES (owns, possesses) oltea this- axe. 
Ager oltha denna-YXA. 
Engraved full size. Stone Axe, found in the beginning of the last century, olka is 
probably a female name. 



VARNUM. 



29 



VARNUM, VERMLAND, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600—700. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 216. Vol 3, p. 36. 




Found in 1862 by Herr J. W. Alsterlund in the ruins of a grave-low at Jarsberg, 
Varnum Parish, near Christinehamn Unhappily the top is broken away, and we shall therefore 
never be quite sure of the reading. Hence the many different interpretations. I adhere to 



30 



SWEDEN. 



the one I originally gave. I take it to read oxgang-wise, first from the top on the right 
and turning up at the ET, after the 3 dots, — and then concluding with the rune-cutter's 
epigraph (as so often), beginning with the smaller staves (runoa) and bending round; the last 
word, the large-carved name of the artist, ending before the 3 dots. We have many other 
examples of reverst and not reverst runes intermixt, as here, partly depending on their position. 
I now restore to A here, as an 0. N. letter, its usual power of A. Supposing the lost top 
bit — as it may have been longer or shorter — to have borne, as the beginning of the one 
line and the end of the other, something like : 

Stseinse reels- (or Stseinse ^sensi rseis-) 

setae sinse {or setee sinse kujaan), 
my reading was and is : 

[Stseinse (^sensi) rseisJTi jlhecee i LiEA et iha^, B(D)[setse sinse (kuj)an)]. runoa wm^vtm 

UANiEBiEE^H. 
[Stone (this) raisjED MHECER IN L^A AT (to) IRAJ (^ INGe), BOfnde (husband) her (good)]. These 

RUNES WROTE UAN^BJERJEH. 
[Sten (denne) resJxE ^heker i l^ At (till minne af) ihai (= inge), Bo[nde (man) sin (god)j. 

Dessa-RCNOR ritade (hogg) uan^berg. 
Nearly 8 feet long, 5 above ground, wannberg is still a Swedish family-name. 



WEST-THORP, SKONE, SWEDEN, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700 — 800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 222. Vol. 3, p. 36. 




IIT HIUK DNBOJilU. 

iiT HEWED (made this) for- unboa. 

IIT HOGG (skar dette) for-UNBOA. 

Of bone, probably the tooth of the Walrus. Full size. Found in 1823 deep down 

in a moss at West-Thorp in Vemmenhogs Harad. Several Combs inscribed with olden and 

later runes have been found in Scandinavia and England. The name may be that of a female. 



R^FSAL. 



31 



R^FSAL, BOHUSL^N, SWEDEN. 

? DATE ABOUT A. D. 800—900. 
Old-N. R. iMon. Vol 3, p. 38. 




32 



SWEDEN. 



Down to the time of Holmberg (1845), of whose rude woodcut I give a facsimile, the 
stone remained unbroken and the last runes were perfect. They were first- copied in 1746. 



holmbeeg's woodcut, 1845. 




HARIWULFS STAINAK. 

HARIWULFS STONES (grave-marhs). 
(These stones were raised in memory of Hariwulf.) 
As it stands now, this block is about 5 feet 7 inches high. 



ROK, EAST GOTLAND. SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 800 — 900. 
Old-N. R. Man. p. 228, LVIII, Vol 3, p. 41. 



Fresh finds have thrown fresh light on this difficult text. Prof. S. Bugge's labors 
have also cleared up the meaning of several lines. Add to this, that the copy used by me 
was very far from correct. 1 therefore now venture on a new version. 

Greatest height about 13 feet, greatest breadth about 4 feet 8 inches. Bears more 
than 770 runes. Thus stands alone as a Runish Stone-book. First side engraved as early as 
1660. Stone uncovered and the other runes discovered in 1843. Here given from photographs 
and blocks kindly forwarded me by the Royal Swedish Academy of Hist, and Antiquities. The 
stone itself I have never seen. 



ROK. 



33 




FRONT (first SIDE) OF THE BLOCK. 



I now take the runes in the, following order: 
a. Foreside or front, 8 standing lines. 
h. Foreside, 2 flat lines. 

c. Foreside. Edge or narrow, side. 

d. Back. Edge or narrow side. In cipher. 



34 



SWEDEN. 







-<:• 1 






'i 




_ t 










pi-iilf 



-il 



\ 









^v,-^' 







r-\^ 



IJ»M*T»'. 



■i 




SECOND SIDE OF THE BLOCK. 



FOURTH SIDE OF THE. BLOCK. 



e. Back. Top_ cross-line. In cipher; d. and e. first redd by Prof. Bugge. 

/. Back. Second cross-line, to the stop. 

g. Back. Rest of second top line. In cipher. 

h. Back. Third top line, to the stop. 

i. Back. Rest of the line, frame-line below and frame-line to the left, all in chiefly 
OLD-NORTHERN RUNES. These I take to be in cipher or contraction, and to contain some Prayer 
or Grave-formula or Lament. 



ROK. 



35 




THIRD SIDE OF THE BLOCK. 



j. Back. The 9 standing lines. 

k. Back. Top. Tree-runes. Right to left. First redd bj Bugge. 

I. Back. Top; 2 plain staves. 

m. Front. Top; 5 plain staves. 

ft. Front. Top. Tree-rimes. 



36 SWEDEN. 



A. To whom the stone was raised. 

AFT UAMUI> STONTA RUNAfl ^AR. 

After (in memory of) Vamiith stand runes these. 

B, By whom the stone was raised. 

IN UARIN FAPI, FAKiJ, 
AFT FAIKION SDN'U. 

But Uarin fawed (made, raised-this), the-father, 
after his-fey (deceast) son. 

C. What the Father says about his Son. 

SAKUM, UK MINI lAT: 

HUAR I Ai?-UAL 
RAUBAE UA/JIN 
TUA, bar's UA^At 
TDALF SINUM 
UARINUM NA7?T, 
UAL-RAUBR 
BAP, Afl SOMO, 
NOUMIS^SU-MONOM. 
BAT SAKUM ONART: 

HUAiJ FUR NIU ALTUM 
ON^NURM-FIARU MIR; 
HRAIt-KUTUM AUK TUM^ 
Mli? ON UBS AKAR. 
RAIP^tURMUBI 
STILIi? FLUTNA, 
STRONTU HRAIB-MARAR. 
SITIfi NU KARU/e_ 
iJOK^KUTA SINUM, 
SKIALTI UB-FATLABR, 
SKATI MARIKA. 

RU 51 NIMR FLUOl! 
SAKUM, UK MINI^: 

I UAIMSI BURIN^NIDR TROKI? 

UILIN IS lAT. 
OKR UOKNAI AI UN; 

UILIN IS BAT. 

We-saw, and remember-thou that: 
Where in yore-fight 
booty's Warin. (hero, - wamuth) 
two — ivhere he battled on 
with-twelve his 
Warins bravely — 



EOK. 37 



war-spoils 

gained. Thane of Glory, 

from-Nonmis sea-men. 
That saw-we next: 

Where he-swept with-nine war -bands 

on the north- coast with-me; 

to-the-Hraith-Goths added-he fresh-rule, 

that-mighty -one on UVs Afire (■= the Ocean). 

Swayed illustrious, 

he the-daring 

prince of deck-braves, 

the-strand of Hraith-mere. 

Sitteth-he now ready-equipt 

by-war-steed his, 

with-shield tight-belted, 

that-lord of-the-Marings '. 

His-rest, so, taketh-he in-his-Galley ! 
We-saw, and remember-thou : 

In whom born-is an-heir to-that-warrior? 
Wilin is that (^ it is). 

For-us-both inay-he-redden alway the-billow! 

Wilin is that (— his name is Wilin). 

D. What the Father says about himself. 

BAT SAKUM TUALFTA: 

HUAR HIST.R SIKUNAiJ 

IT, " UIT-trOKI ON, 

EUNDKA^. XUAIiJ; , 

TIKIR (= TIKIR) sua BO LIKIA. 
BAT SAKUM BEITAUNTA: 

HU'AEITJ TUAIiJ TIKIfl (=r TIGIR) KUNUKA/J 

SATIST SIULUNT I 

FIAKURA DINTUR, 

AT FIAKURUM NABNUM, 

BURNIR FIAKURUM BRUBRUM: 

UALKAiJ FIM, RABULFS^SUNIiJ; 

HRAIBULFAiJ FIM, RUKULFS^SUNIR ; 

HOISLAie FIM, HAEU(a)BS SUNIiJ; 

KUNMUNTAi? FIM, AIRNAiJ SUNIiJ. 

FTIR (= iftir) fra nuk mo(na u)alui(rk)i ; 
AiNHUAiJ I B(Aiin uik)i (fial). 



* I now translate marika as a Clan-name, of the Marings, not of the Illustrious, and in this I adopt the suggestion 
of Docent Leffler in the Letterstedt Tidskrift, No. 2, Stockholm 1878, p. 165—9. 



38 SWEDEN. 

That saw-we, I-the-twelfth: 

Where the-horse of-Sigim {= the Wolf) 

ate, Uit-wong on, 

kings two; 

tikes so they lie (— like dead dogs lie they)- 
That saw-we, I-the-thirteenth : 

Which two tens (— 20) kings 

were-sitting Sealand in 
four winters, 

at (with) four names, 

horn of -four brothers: 

Ualks five, Rathidf's sons ; 

Hraithulfs five, Riikulf's sons; 

Hoisles five, Haruath's sons ; 

Kunmunts five, Aim's sons. 
Thereafter learned-I tnanifold of-those-men's war-deeds: 
each-one-of-them in that [struggle fell] ! 

E. What the Father said to the stone-cutter. 

RUNI BOtiJ 
BIARI HUHUAN. 

These-runes he-biddeth 
Biar to-hew. 

Let us now take the whole more freely and poetically: 



A. The name of the dead. 

AFTER WAMUTH STAND RUNES THESE. 

B. The raiser of the stone. 

BDT WARIN FAW'd, his- FATHER, 
AFTER his-FEY SON. 

C. The Father sings his dead sons exploits. 
L 

WE SAW, FORGET IT NEVER ! 

WHERE, IN FIRST FIELD 
FRESH SPOILS SEEKING, — 
WITH HIS WARINS TWELVE 
WARRING BRA VEIL Y — 
TWOFOLD VICTORY, 
HARD-EARn'd TRIUMPHS, 
THE STRIPLING GAINED 
o'er SEAMEN OF NOUMI. 



ROK. 39 

II. 



WE SAW THEREAFTER: 

WHERE, NINE SHIPS NEARING 

FAR NORTH-SHORES WITH ME, 

THE MATCHLESS WAVE-RIDER 

GAVE MIGHT TO THE HRAITH-GOTHS. 

FIRM AND FEARLESS, * 

FOLK-LORD, SHIP-LORD, 

the-STRANDS BY HRAITH-MERE 

STRUCK HE WITH AWE. 

BIDES NOW, BELTED, 

BATTLE-STEED HOLDING, 

SHIELD ON HIS SHOULDER, 

THAT SHOOT OF THE MARINGS. 

REST HE SO THERE IN HIS GALLEY ! 

III. 

WE SAW, FORGET IT NEVER ! 

IN WHOM UP-SPRINGETH ANOTHER WAMUTH; 

WILIN IS he! 
LIKE US BOTH, THE BILLOW SHALL HE REDDEN. 

WILIN IS he! 

D. The old king speaks of himself. 
I. 

THAT SAW WE, TWELVE OF US: 

WHERE SIGUN'S HELL-FOAL (= the Wolf) 
SCOUR'd THE WIT-WONG, 

KINGS TWAIN CRUNCHING 

CURS AS THEY WERE ! 

II. 

SAW WE, THIRTEEN OF US: 

WHERE SAT KINGS TWENTY, 
IN CAMP ON SEALAND 
FOUR LONG WINTERS, 
FOUR NAMES BEARING, 

SONS OF FOUR BROTHERS; 
W^ALKS FIVE, RATHULf's SONS; 
HRAITHULFS FIVE, ROGULf'S SONS; 
HOISLS FIVE, HARWATH'S SONS; ^ 
GUNMUNDS FIVE, AIRN'S SONS. 
THEIR WAR-DEEDS MANY AFTERWARD HEARD I. - 

TILL WEAPON-DRUNK sunk they ALL at last! 



40 



SWEDKN. 



E. Whom the King chose as Rune-cutter: 

THESE EUNES BIDS HE 
BIAR TO CHISEL. 

The scald — perhaps king Warin himself — was a great lay-smith. Some of these 
lines might have stood in the Edda itself.' May this monolith long stand at Rok, to tell us 
of the gallant Hraith-Goths and of Olden S.wethland in the later Iron Age! 

Fragments of a heathen grave-slab have lately been found at Ekeby in Gotland 
which, besides Scandian-runic minne- words to the dead, has also borne a formula (now lost) 
in the Old- Northern staves. 

The chiefly 0. N. staves mentioned underjetter .^ .must,be studied on side 3. 



SOLVESBORG, BLEKING, SWEDEN. 



? DATE 7VB0UT A. D..800 — 900. ; 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 192, Vol. 3. p. 64. 




Worsaae's copy in 1844. 



sOlvesborg. 



41 




My copy in Sept. 1864. 



42 SWEDEN. 

^SMUTS ElUSir. 

RUTI WTI (= WEAITl). 

JESMUTS (= ^ESMOND'S) EUSE (stone-heap, harrow, stone-mound). 
RUTI WROTE (these runes). 

iESMUTS (== ASMUNDS) EOSE (steil-hog). 

EUTi EITADE (skref dessa runor). 

Height about 4 feet 6 inches, breadth a little more than 18 inches. First engraved 
(barbarously) in 1748. Whitish granite. 



HOGA, BOHUSLAN, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 900 — 1000. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 65. 

As the stone has suflFered so much, it is very possible that the first ii were originally 
an 0. N. H, and the name was h^uei. But we can only give what now stands: 

II^URI ^A T^EN BONIiE EOAUL. 
ll^URl HEWED (carved) tine (grave-pillar) this tO-ROAUL (— ROAULF, HROTHWVLF 

= our RALPH, ROLF, ROLL, RAF, ^c). 

This graystone tine or "tall token" is about 12 feet high, including the part in the 
ground. The first publisht (very bad) drawing is that by Worm in 1643. 



44 



SWEDEN. 



OSBY, EAST-GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1000—1100. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 68. 




No. 1124 in Liljegren, but barbarous there. Has the old rune for G. More than 6 
feet above ground. The 2 ball-stones at the foot are old grave-memorials. 

HALSTUN RISTI STUN BANSI YUIZJ (or OUIij) FA5R SIN SIGI. 
SALS TUN RAISED STONE THIS OVER (in memory of) FATHER SIN (his) SIGI (=SIGGE). 

Drawn by Director Carl Fr. Nordenskjold in 1876- and 1877. Of granite, about 6 
feet high, nearly 2V2 ^et thick. 



INGELSTAD. 



45 



INGELSTAD, EAST-GOTLAND, SWEDEN, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1200—1300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 837. 




Copy in Liljegrens papers. 




^mmm 

Lector L. Wiedes copy. 



SAMSI KARM SUL DIK, UENA MARIU. 

SAMSI GAEED (made) ihis-siLL (ground-fram.e, earth-timber luorh) for-TEEE, wene (fair) maria. 

Cut on a small rock; now covered over. Has commemorated the building of some 
small house or chapel. Only one 0. N. rune, the D. — The runes first observed about 1840. 
Neither of the above copies seems absolutely correct. The translation may give the meaning. 



46 



SWEDEN, 



MORBYLANGA, OLAND, SWEDEN, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1200 — 1300. 
Old-N. K. Mon. p. 243. 




Facsimile of the woodcut in Goransson's Bautil, 1750, but copied nearly a century earlier. 



KEAESTIN UNU. ENRUK KORtE K . . . . 

KEABSTlN (=KRisriNA) UNA'S-daughter-Ues-here. enruk (=henrik) gared (made) this-iwMBEL 

(grave-mark). 
KEARSTiN (= kerstin) UNAS-dotter-ligger-har. enruk (henrik) gjorde dette-KUMMEL (graf-marke). 

This grave-slab was about 6 feet 11 inches long, by about 4 feet 9 broad. Observe 
the interesting variant of the 0. N. e. — UNU may perhaps be the family-name in the genitive, 
frozen into a compound nominative. 



N EWA Y. 



THANKFULLY INSCRIBED 



TO 



ARCHIVARY INGVALD UNDSET, 



CHRISTIANIA, NORWAY. 



VALSFJORD, FOSEN, NORTH TRONYEM, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1 — 100. 
Old-N. R. Mm. Vol. 3, p. 73. 









Wi^'i 



Sri ».' •*,!• 











H^GUST^LDIA EEWiEA GOD^GiES. 

To-the-EAGUSTALD (Lord, Captain) thewjs god^g.es (=GOODDAY)-wrote-these-rimes. 

The most northerly 0. N. inscription yet found. On a sea-blufF at the Firth of Val, 
about from 16 to 20 feet above the highest water-flow, and some 40 feet from the nearest 
sea. But it could only have been carved from ship-deck. The land has gradually risen in 
this locality to so great an extent. — These death-runes were first remarkt about 1870. — 
See a Chief of the same name {^ewm) under Thorsbjerg Moss, Denmark. 



50 



o-- 






a 



V 



•~\=ir- 




c3 

21 
O 

W 



2! 
O 

g 

N 
H 
O 

o 



W 

f 

o 

Q 




inti-rimwir ""^*!— ^ 




/ 



W.v i:, 



J/ ' 



O 



CI 



1^ 

(—1 
25 

a 

M 
f 

O 

O 

tiJ 

a 

Q 



« 
O 
O 
W 

M 




;. 



o 

•H 

o 

Ed 

>< 
o 

a 



00 

B 

> 
2! 
O 

< 
CO 

O 

H 
S) 

(>► 

o 

»— I 
2! 










<?=:^ 






<a 



'^ 






bO. 



61 



BO, STAVANGER AMT, NORWAY. 

? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 300. 
Old.-N. R. Mon. p. 846. 

















7* 



52 



NORWAY. 



HNiEBMiES (or HN^CBD^S) HLiEIWJE. 

bn^:bm^(W)'S (? hn^.bDjE'S) low (grave-mound, hillock). 
7 feet high above ground, 22 inches broad below, from 4 to 5 inches thick, 
discovered in 1865. 



First 



STENSTAD, THELEMARK, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 254, 839. 




I now read and translate: 

IGINGON H^L^A. 

IGINGA-S LOW (grave-mound, how, tumulus, cairn). 



EINANG. 



63 



Found in 1781 inside a stone-kist in Holden Parish, and sent to Denmark, where it 
now is (at Jsegerspris in Sealand). With it were several curious grave-articles. Is of grayish 
Norse marble. Greatest height about 23 inches. 

Bugge and Wimmer have both suggested that igingon is a tvoma'ns name in the 
genitive, and this is possible but by no means certain. 



EINANG, VALDERS, CHRISTIANS-AMT, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 79. 




54 



NORWAY. 




../h:a,^-n.D^^^^^. 



BUGGE AND LORANGE S FACSIMILE, COPIED HALF SIZE. 






u.ih r.ciihKtiiotw' 





1 1 



/ 



/ 




EINANG. 



55 



D^GM ACiEA RONO FMIEIDO. 

DJEG (=DAY) to-ATBJH these-RUN£s FAWED (carved). 
The first old grave-minne found in Norway yet standing on its ancient funeral mound. 
This barrow is nearly circular, and about 50 feet in diameter. The block is about 5 feet 8 inches 
above ground, upwards of 3 feet broad, from 7 to 9 inches thick. — Stone (lime-stone slate) 
discovered in 1871. 



EINANG, VALDERS, CHRISTIANS-AMT, NORWAY. 



' DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 300. 



Old-N. R. Man. Vol 3, p. 86. 




Apparently a bind, making the mansname 

HAO. 

From 12 to 18 inches all round, lightish gneissose granite. — Found, in a stone-heap 
out on a field, about 70 yards from the large Einang stone. Like many other such memorials, 
had doubtless been placed inside the barrow. Taken up in 1871. 



56 



NORWAY. 



TUNE,SMALENENE, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 300. 
Old-N. R Man. p. 247, 904. 





TUNE. — V^BLUNGSN^S. 



57 



Very slightly modifying my former version, I now propose: 

ECWIW^A ^FTER WODURIDE, WITiEI GiEH^LJLIBJiN, WOR^HTO .B(un£e). 
^RBING^S INGOST, LIA, iERBING^ NOI-mNGOA, DOHTR, lA DJ5LIDUN (sEt)a WODURIDE SMINJ<:. 

ECWIW^A AFTER (in memory of) wodurjd, her- witty (wise, high, mighty, ilhistrious) loaffellow 

(partner, mate, husband), wrought (carved, = let carve) these- R(unes). 

The-EEiRS (sons) INGOST and-LiA, and-the-HEiRESS nothuingoa, his-DAUGHTER, HiA (they) 

DEALED to-SET (shared in setting up) to-woDURW this-STONE. 
ecwiw^a efter wodurid, sin-viSE (raaktige, hogadle) make (husbonde, man) gjorde (skar, 

lat rista) dessa-R(unor). 

HanS-ARFVIN&AR (soner) INGOST Och-LIA. Och-hans-ARFTAGERSKA NOTHUINGOA, hanS-DOTTER, DE delte 

(deltogo i) att-SATTA till-woDURiD denne-STEN. 
This monolith (red granite) rises 6 feet 7 inches, and at its widest part is 2 feet 
4 inches broad. — First publisht by Worm (very incorrectly) in 1636. 



V^BLUNGSNvES, ROMSDAL, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 274. Vol. 3, p. 90. 




MIEIL.fflA WIWILN, 

To-MIRIL^ wiwiL'N-carved-these-runes. 



58 



NORWAY. 



Runes about 1 — 7th of the natural size: 








V 



p p 



K 



A rune-carved Rock or Bluff in the innermost or easterly end of the wide and deep 
and far- stretching sea-like Romdals-firth. Cliff-side almost perpendicular. The letters over 
11 feet above the highest water-mark, and when carved the land must have been much lower, 
here than now. wiwil'n is a formative of wiwiL, the local magnate who probably gave his name 
to what is now pronounced v^EBLUNGs-nses. Schoning first publisht a (bad) copy of this 
inscription, in 1778. 



ELGESEM, LARVIK'S FOGDERI, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 300 — 400. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 95. 




Only the mansname: 



ELGESEM. — FROHAUG. 



MUJ. 



Found in 1870 deep down mside the grave-how. 
9 broad, and from 5 to 6 inches thick. Coarse granite. 



59 



Is 5 feet 7 inches long by 2 feet 



FROHAUG, ROMERIKE, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 300—400. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 230. 





The 4th rune, on the spectator's left, is nearly obliterated by the knife of the finder. 
Prof. Rygh thought it must have been Y (a), but it may have been ^ or i. Perhaps: 

s^g(? a). 

For-SEGE (victory!). 

For-SEGER! 

Full size. Bronze. Probably Amulet or Talisman, intended to be fixt on a Belt. The 

freehold frohaug (Frey-hof) had doubtless once a temple dedicated to the God frey. This 

piece was found in 1865. 



8* 



60 



NORWAY. 



NORWAY; BUT FOUND AT CHARNAY, BURGUNDY, 

FRANCE. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400—500. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 587. Vol. 3, p. 97. 




Q 










J/. Baudot's own facsimile, as corrected by himself. 



foi 



mmmm i 







Re-engraved from Dr. Wimmers Chemitype, by Prof. Magnus Petersen, from fresh facsimile-dratmng 

(1874) by M. Baudot and M. Beauvois. 



NORWAY (cHAENAY). — ORSTAD. 61 

As both these copies by the accomplisht owner differ, I cannot say which is correct. 
But the latter is doubtless superior to the former. Probably we shall never get a facsimile 
more exact. I therefore modify my first attempt accordingly. 

First, along the upper long line, we have the beginning of the 0. N. Runic Alphabet: 

F, U, I, M, R, C, G, W, H, N, I, Y, yO, P, A, S, T, B, E, (m). 

Thereafter, starting from the top of the right side and ending with the top of the 
left and with the 3 runes on the right low down: 

U5 FYtiEI IDD^N CliEGO (or CliENGO) yOI^. 

OTB FA WED (made) for-iDDJS keeng (brooch) this. 

UTH GJORDE for-IDDiE SPANNE DETTA. 

Found in 1857. Of silver, parcel-gilt. Engraved full size. Norwegian. No other than 
the Norse-Icelandic dialects have — or, as far as we know, in any historical time ever had — 
KENG for Fibula. In a nearly allied meaning it is found in Sweden and England. 

The 7th stave on the left has the straight N-shank but the leaning G-stroke, and 
may be a bind for ng; if not, I take it to be g. The plain kr, below the point of the tung, 
are a contraction, of what word or words I do not know. — See Dr. Wimmer, Runeskriftens 
Oprindelse (Aarb. f. N. Oldk. 1874), p. 265 and PI. 3, fig. 2. 



ORSTAD, STAVANGER AMT, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400 — 500. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 258. 

HILIGiEA S^R^-ELU. 

A R^W KM-r(m). 

To-EILIGJE (=HILGE, HELGE) SJER^LV (= SORLl-Carved). 

He- OWES (owns, enjoys) roo (rest) here. 

Till-HiLiGjE S^RULtr-skref-dessa-runor. 

AGER-han RO hAr. 

Light-gray granite. Found inside a grave-kist in 1855. Is 3 feet 9 inches high, 
2 feet 7 broad below, 5 inches at the top and 4'/2 inches thick. Whether from the sour 
earth or accidental damage, the runes have suffered, especially the lowest line. The frequent 
M is here evidently dialectic, as often on these pieces. Now in the Christiania Museum. 



62 



NORWAY. 



^^aiffl^^iS^^ 



Ml ' 



f ■ ■• 
I 






t^«r3^ 















/ ,=^'^s;^ 







■ I 

■d 









REIDSTAD. 



63 



REIDSTAD, LISTER, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400—500. 
Old.-N. R. Mon. p. 256. Vol. 3, p. 99. 




lUMNGJiA ICWJiSUNA UNNBO WR^ITJi. 

To-iUTEiNG JCW^SON (= iNCWJESON) UNNBO WROTE-these-runes. 
Till-IUTHING icw^soN UNNBO SKAR-dessa-runor. 

Found in 1857 in Hiteron. About 2 feet each way. Is now in the University Col- 
lection, Christiania. 



64 



NORWAY. 




SIGDAL, AGGERSHUS SHIRE, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400 — 500. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 271, 841. Vol. 3. p. 100. 



SBi 



ir ■ 
■"'-1 

I ^ iw"* 



■.V .*' ' 

i ■ ^''■- ' 







I 





:\^ 




V ? 






* -\^ ^ 



Iff 
lis 



MIRIL^ AH ROA^, AH ROAE AO, UTE EjETJEA H^LDjEO [oi H^LDO] 

LiEEWE [or LiEIW^l]. 

R M B L. 

O-MiRiLjE, OWE (own, have, take) roo (thy-rest), owe (enjoy) ihy- 
ROO (repose) aye (ever, endless), out-IN (in, within) this of-HELTS low 

(this hero-tomb). 

[? These-Runes Marht th . . l. . .]. 

0-miriLjE, AG (njut) Ro, AG din-RO alltid (evig) dti denne hjelte-hog. 

[? Dessa-Runor Markte (skar) th . . L . . .]. 

First drawn in 1744. Sandstone. Is 5 feet 4 inches high 

on the narrow where the runes are, 3 feet 2 broad on the broad 

side, and about 9 inches thick. Is now in Christiania. 

At p. 841 I translated ah as 3 s. pr. — has, enjoys; I now 
prefer it as 2 s. imperative, = have-thou, enjoy-thou, taking MiRiLiE 
as a vocative. Perhaps the change was needless. 



BELL AND. 



65 



BELLAND, LISTER, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 500—600. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 261. 





About 5 feet long by 3 broad, and from 9 to 10 inches thick. First seen by 
Engineer Kielland about 1850. While lying as above, a spang over a beck which divides the 
farm at Belland, it was drawn by Hr. H. C. Kielland in 1866. The runes are from the paper 
squeeze of Prof. S. Bugge in 1865, i-third the bigness. Bears simply the name of the fprthfaren: 

ACEt^N. 

This chief had thus gotten his name (ake-thane, the Driving or car- thane) from 
chiefly driving, or from being the owner of some exceptionally new or costly vehicle. Stone 
apparently granite. 



66 



NORWAY. 



BRATSBERG, TRONYEM, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 500—600. 
Old-N. R. Man. p. 267, 841. Vol. 3, p. 100. 




The whole slab, engraved 1818, from Kliiwers Norske Mindesmcerker, 1823, p. 44, PL 10, fig. C. 




The runes alone, from rubbing by M. F. Arendt, 1806. 



Thus the womans-name : 



I>iELIA. 



Found in an immense grave-how; now lost or broken. Was about 22 inches square 
and 3 to 4 inches thick. An iron Spear- head was taken from the mound. But of old lived 
many a famous Shield-may (Battle-chieftainess). See p. 290 (Vol. 1) the Old-English silver 

Shield-boss, whose writ distinctly states that it belonged to the War-lady ^DUWEN. Earliest 

copy is Arendt's. 



fonnAs. 



67 



FONNAS, HEDEMARKENS AMT, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 500—600. Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 101. 




/■/ / 




68 



NORWAY. 



This Silver Brooch, the costliest yet met with of this kind in all the North, was 
found in July 1877 in the loose earth, 2 feet below the surface. Strongly gilt, with niello and 



Has belonged to an English lady 
Bears 2 runic legends, probably 



garnets. Here given full size. Old-North-English work, 
who apparently became the wife of a Norwegian chieftain, 
carved at different times and by different persons. 

The first, in the Old-North-English dialect: 

IH BIM ULTyO. 

1 BE (am) ULTlA'S-brooch. 
The second, 3 lines, seemingly in Old-Norse : 

WAS HU INGLSK, LAING, ASPING, E . . . ing, B . . . ing, S . . . ing, E . . . ing, 

WAS HU (she was) English (an Englishwoman), laing (Las-daughter), asping (who was Asps-son), 

R...ing (the son of R...), B...ing (the son of B...), s...ing (the son of S...), E...ing (the son of E...). 

Now in the Christiania Museum, to which it was given by the owner, H. T. Tronnses. 



FORDE, SONDFJORD, N. BERGENHUS, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 500—600. 
Old.-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 106. 






/ • ••■.■■ 




^a 






Either one word, the mansname mlvao, or, as \ prefer, 

^LUA 0. 

^LUA owNs-me. 
Of steatite. Full size. May have been a Dog-collar, or an owner's mark for some- 
thing else. Found in 1874. 



70 



NORWAY. 



iEN W^EUA. 

(.' aceth)^N-carved-these-runes to- WJERU; 
(? aceth)^N-skref-dessa-runor till-WiEBU. 
Found in 1852 in a ruined barrow. Undrest. Length taken at centre about 2 feet 
3 inches, breadth about 1 foot 6 inches. 



NORWAY; BUT FOUND AT FREMAUBERSHEIM, 
RHEIN-H ESSEN, GERMANY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600 — 700. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 109. 





BOSO WR^ET RUN^, lOD (o)5C(u), DiEtyON^ffi GOttU. 

BOSO WROTE these-RUNES, YOUTH (son) of-(0)TECA, of-the-D^THES (= of the Dcethe-dan) 

the-PRIESTESS. 

Found in 1873, with many other valuables and ornaments, in a Lady's grave Silver, 
parcel-gilt; border decoration filled-in with niello. Engraved full size. 



SEUDE. — VATN. 



71 



SEUDE, THELEMARK, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700—800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 273. 

A. worm's Literatura Runica, 4to, 1636, p. 68: 

^PFT1F12FIHIF§ 

B. worm's Literatura Runica, fol., 1651, p. 66: 

PFIIFIZFIMIF^ 

The real staves may possibly have been: 

W^TT^T SJiM^NG 

WlpANT SJEMING ( WITEANT SAM'S-SON). — Or perhaps, 

W^TT^;^yET S^MiENG 

WJETT^ AT (to, in memory of) s^ming. 
Lost. Size of this grave-stone not given by Worm, the first to engrave the runes, in 1636. 



VATN, VERNES PARISH, S. TRONYEM, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 750 — 800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3. p. 115. 




'■t'^-."; -*^i, ^ 






I;. 







72 



NORWAY. 



Bears only the mansname 

rho^l(t)e. 

Of gray slate, which has partly peeled off; 2 feet 7 inches long, 1 foot 2 inches 

broad. Now only about 2 inches thick. Found in 1871 by Archivary I. Undset. 



WEST TANEM, TRONYEM, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700 — 800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. f. 269. 




From Klilwers engraving in 1818 (puhlisht 1823). 




Runes full size, from Prof 0. RygKs paper cast, 1865. 



WEST TANEM. 



GJEVEDAL. 



73 



Thus no doubt of what the inscription was. I divide and translate: 

MjENIS lau. 
M^NS (= MAN'S, MJENi'S) LOW (Grave-heap, Tumulus). 
MiENS (eller mjsnis) graf-hOg. 
Found in 1813 inside a kemp-how. Length about 3 feet. Is now in the Christiania 
Museum, but is deplorably injured. 



GJEVEDAL, OMLID, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1050—1150. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 276. Vol. 3, p. 116. 




^NS^GUI SliE. 

To-JENSJEG u TEESE-memorial-runes. 
Till-^NSiEGU DESSA-minne-runor. 
From a paper cast by M. F. Arendt, dated Aug. 11, 1805. Original — probably 
of wood, unknown whether Christian or Heathen — now lost. Size not stated. The assumed 
date is the lowest possible; the piece may have been centuries older. 



HOLMEN, SIGDAL, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1150—1250. 
Old-N. R. Mm. p. 278. Vol. 3, p. 117. 




'rwmmm-.mwm nmmw-. h\ m-m'-mw. ^mwM \ wu % 



74 



NORWAY. 



t MSSA KLOKO LETO STYOPA ALUER, PRESTR I SIKKTALE. OK BORT BONTE AA AUIK; UK STYOPTE TOUE 

, I'ORR-SON(r). 

f THIS CLOCK (hell) LET STEEP (yote, cast) ALUER, PRIEST IN siKKTAL (Sigdol), and TEORT (Thord) 
SONDE (yeoman) on (at) auik; eke (and) STEEPT (cant it) toue thorr-son. 

t DENNA KLOCKA LATO STOPA ALUER, PREST I SIGDAL, OCH THORD BONDE A AUIK; OCH STOPTE-den 

TOVE THORSON. 
Unhappily this late overgang piece is lost, that is, long since re-cast. Engraved 
from a drawing by Rev. P. Haslef, dated Dec. 1810. Height, exclusive of ears, was 19 inches, 
greatest diameter about 2 feet. 



WEST STENVIK, N. TRONYEM, NORWAY. 

In 1858 an 0. N. rune-stone was found in a how, and cast away by the brutal finder. 



AUDA,.J^DEREN, NORWAY. 

About 1870 was taken out of a grave-chamber an 0. N. monolith with runes and 
ornaments. It was used in a fence and is lost. 



THORGARD, tiller, NORWAY. 

In 1870 a stone with the olden runes was destroyed at Thorgard. 



VOREIM, M^RE, N. TRONYEM, NORWAY. 

A slah with 4 runes in a square cartouche was found inside a barrow some years 
ago, placed in a foundation-wall, and could not be discovered in 1871. 



DENMARK. 



THANKFULLY INSCRIBED 



TO 



JOHANNES O. H. R STEBNSTRUP, 



CHEAPINGHAVEN, DENMARK. 



THORSBJERG MOSS, SOUTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200—250. 



Old-N. R. Mon. p. 285. LIV. Vol. 3, p. 121. 




The runes on the back have been very clearly cut with a sharp fine tool: 

^ISG AH. 

JEISG OWES (owns, possesses me). 
MlSG iGER-mig. 



10* 



78 



DENMARK. 



Full size. Found in 1858. Bronze or Brass Shield-boss, rather thin, of Barbarian 
not Roman make. But it has on its front the well-known circular line betraying the lathe, 
as we can see by the following engraving, half-size: 




THORSBJERG, S.JUTLAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200—250. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 295. Vol 3, p. 121. 





I now adopt the view of Thomsen and Bugge, that owl:du is a lisp for wolbu, 
and propose: 

NIW^NG-M^RIA OWLtU-MW^A. 

NiWJENG-M^RiA-gives-this-sword to-her-friend-owLpU-pEWJE. 

Bronze end-clasp or chape of a Sword- sheath. Blade and Sheath probably a keepsake 
from a lady to her lover or kinsman. Full size. Most of the 45 Sword-chapes found in this 
bog-hoard were of bronze, only a few of silver. Various in form. Some quite round. 

Apparently this lady was MiERiA of the NiWiENGS. There were clans of the NiwfNGAS 
settled in England in 6 different Counties. See Kemble, S. in Engl. 1, p. 470. — Dug up 
in 1860. MW^ is also on the Valsfjord cliff, Norway. 



THORSBJERG. 



BALKEMARK. 



79 



. . (I)L(I)A. 

End of a mansname. — Found in 1874 by the Norwegian Archaeologist Adjunkt 
Bendixen in the Kiel Museum, where these Danish Remains, dug up in 1858 — 60, now are. 
Possibly part of a wooden Bow. Above 7 Danish inches long. — Sept. 1879. Docent 
Dr. Wimmer and Prof. M. Petersen have examined this piece , and think the marks only 
accidental impressions. This may be. I have not seen the bit. 



BALKEMARK, NEX0, BORNHOLM, DENMARK; 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200—300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 122. 




TDNBA. 



Only 18 inches high, about 8 broad and 5 thick, dark heavy stone. Found in 
1866. — This mansname is of excessive antiquity. 



80 



DENMARK. 



DALBY, SOUTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 300. 



Old-N. R. Mon. p. 283. Vol. 3, p. 123. 




LU5R0 (may also be redd LEtRo). 
This name, whether masc. or fern., may, of course, be divided, L. 0, L. OWNS-me. At 
the right corner, still more lightly cut, is what seems to be a double-rune, =j=p. If a letter- 
sign, apparently L and o. — Golden Diadem or Head-wreath. Half-size. Found in 1840. 



HIMLING0IE, SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 250 — 300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 297, 837. 



The name of the buried, probably masculine: 

HJiRISO. 

Parcel-gilt fibula. Full size. Is of mixt metal, a kind of bronze, overlaid with thin 
plates of silver riveted with silver nails. The 3 round beads are of blue fluor-spar, or some 
such material. A central ornament has fallen aM'ay. — Taken from the grave in 1835. 



HIMLING0IE. — NYDAM MOSS. 



81 





NYDAM MOSS, SOUTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 250—300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 299. 



-mis^ 




All doubtless marks of ownership. Are on some of the many wooden Arrows found. 
One has a plain a, another a 'kind of bind-rune, a third a reverst L, a 4th a reverst Ltr^, 
probably, a mansname. There were various other such marks, as well as zigzags, a half-moon, 
and so on. Thus each could at once recognize his own weapon. Engraved full size. The 
moss-finds were dug up in 1859, 1862, 1863. 



82 



DENMARK. 



VI MOSS, ALLES0, FYN, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 300 — 350. 
1. Old-N. R. Mon. f. 301. 




Clasp of a Sword- sheath. Silver ornamented with gold. Rust-film covers a part of 
the staves, which mav only have been idly scratcht. Those visible are meaningless. Full 
size. — Dug up in 1853. 



2. Old-N. R. Mon. p. 305. 





H^RINGtE. 

The owner's name. — Bone Comb. Full size. Some dozens of Combs came to 
light, some of them ornamented, but only this one was a rune-bearer. — Found in 1865. 



3. Old-N. R. Mon. p. 307, LV. 
Of ash-wood. Full size. Oldest Plane existing in the world. Dug up in 1865. 



VI MOSS. 



83 



TOP, 





ROSENENSTiVD.: 



SECTION AT A. 



SECTION AT B. 





SIDE. 




MP. M. 




F.ROSEKSTAllDsc. 



11 



84 



DENMARK. 



The 1st of these workshop scribbles is: 

TILING 0. 
TILING OWNS-me. 
TiELING AGER-mig. 

There are, uow faint, dividing dots between the ng and the o. If, notwithstanding 
this, we make the whole one word, it is a mansname. 

The 2nd, unhappily, wants some letters (probably locer) at the end, which have 
mouldered away: 

GISLIONG-WILI AH LiE-OEB(^) [? locer]. 

GISLI0N6-WILI OWNS this-LEA-STAFF (sithe-shaft) floker — planej. 
GISLIONG-WILI IGER denne-Li-ORF- [hofvel]. 
The 3rd, on the side, I now take to mean: 

TltAS HLEUNG, :DE RIIGU. 

TiTHAS BLEUNG (= HLE-SON), TEEOW (slave or servant) of-the-lady-RiiGA. 

The inscriptions are in 3 diflferent "hands", perhaps many years between each. — 
Cutting-irons gone. The cutting section being concave, this was a Hollow Smooth Plane or 
Fork-staff Plane, to make Sithe-shafts, Lance-poles, &c. 

Another, runeless. Plane was found. Its cutting-iron has perisht. but the section 
shows that this Plane was for making Arrow-shafts, &c. 

In 1877, among the tools of a farmer- carpenter at Ekeby in Gotland, OLE OLS-SON 

by name, were found 2 wooden Planes with date and initials, in the letters he was most 

familiar with, thus: 

1786. 

0. 0. S. (= OLE OLS-SON). 
His son gave one to the Visby Museum, and the other to my collection. 



4. Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 123. 








As it would seem, merely the name of the owner: 

^^D^G^S(LI) L^iiS^UWINGiE. 
= EDGISLl LESSING (= LESSON). 

Brass Buckle, silver ornamented, for a Belt. Full size. Dug up in 1851. 



GALLEHUS. 



85 



GALLEHUS, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 300 — 400. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 321. Vol. 3, p. 128. 



\ A 



% ^\ 



MMwm 



jjjijjjfjnjiiiiHiiriiiiniiiiiiiMffiiiijjh^iiiiii 




V\VVVV»VVVV*VV»»<VVV»VVVVVVVVHVVUt«*<VVVVV\V\\VVV\VVVVVV\\VVl VVVV\V\ VVVt VU VKVVVy V VVVVVVVVl VVVVVyV VV'iVVVVVVvy 




^AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAlV^AA/^A^AAA>v^AAA«SA,^YVv^AAM^'^AlSr^AAA^^M>|/^A^ 




!mVVv5vVVV»yV»VVVVVV»»»VV«VV»VVVVVVYVV»»v<VVVVVVVVV»VV»VVVVVVV« VVVVVWMVVVV^VVVVVVy 
i. - 




\Jb 



AAAAAAAAAAAA/^AAAAAAA.VAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAArSA'AA 



11* 



86 



DENMARK. 




ECHLEW ^GiiSTIA HOLTING^A HOEN^ T^WIDO. 

ECHLEW for-the-AWEST (most-awful, most-dread, supreme, most-mighty) eolt-INGI (Holt-King, 

Wood-pnnce, Woodland-god) this-EORN tawed (made). 

(= To the ever-to-he-feared Forest-God. Echlew offered this Horn!). 

ECHLEW till- den- hogst-FRUKTANSVlRDE SKOG-GUDEN dette-HORN GJOEDE (offrade). 

This Golden Horn was found in 1734, was about 20 inches long and weighed about 

8 English Pounds. With its fellow, found in 1639 and 33 inches long, it wandered to the 

melting-pot, the prey of a rascally thief, in 1802. 

YNGi or YNGVi was the especial epithet of the Danish froe, the Old-English frea, the 
Norse-Icelandic frey, the Woodland- and Harvest-God. To his Temple I believe this offer- 
horn was given by echlew, a name (as ecglaf) in the Old-English Epical legend Beowulf. 
The famous forest farris skow was not far from Gallehus, with a separate "Herred" (Hundred) 
called after froe. All this can scarcely be accidental. 



First copy of the staves on the Runic Golden Horn. 

Photoxylographic transcript, full size, by j. f. eosenstand, of the large facsimile made 
with his own hand by Med. Doct. geoege krysing of Flensborg, in 1734, from the Horn itself, 
a few weeks after it was found at Gallehus : 




mm. 



From the excessively rare double-folio engraving "Cornu Aurei Typus", an impression 
of which is in my own bookhoard; another is in the Danish National Library. Here these 
runes are twice given, in their place at the mouth of the Horn, and separately on a still larger 
scale lower down on the plate. It is this latter line which is here photographt, full size, direct 
on to the wood, and carefully cut in. In both places Krysing gives a plain separating mark 
(<) between the words echlew and ^g^stia. The runes in his copy of the Horn itself begin 
with echlew and end with t^wido. But below, he has "corrected" the order, begins with 



GALLEHDS. 



87 



T^wiDO and ends with HOBNiE. In a unique copy of the same plate however, a kind of second 
edition in the same year, in my collection, from a volume of "Runica" brought together by 
ALARIK VON wiTKEN zu WITTENHEIM in 1734, Dr. Krysing has erased the TiEwiDO at the beginning 
of the long line and placed it at the end, as it had stood in his drawing at the mouth of 
the Horn, preserving the divisional mark between the echlew and the jeg^stia, which he has in 
both places also in his first edition of this large plate. In my facsimile I have restored the 
order. But whether we take TiEWiDO first or last, the meaning is the same. In the old Ms. 
Essay on this Horn by the learned Icelander jon olafson of Grunnavik (Danish National 
Library), the mark between the w and the M is plainly given. But paulli. who says he was 
purposely careless about small things, omits it, and later drawings follow paulli. We thus 
see: — that the Horn bore marks of division between every word, — and that each letter-group 
between these separating stops was one word. 




88 



DENMARK. 




THE RDNELESS GOLDEN HORN, 

here given, was quite complete, with 13 
broad rings. Like the rune-bearer, it was found 
in the earth near Gallehus, somewhat to the 
north, near Mogel-Tonder, about 5 Danish miles 
from the North- Jutland border, an enclave at- 
tacht to the diocese of Ilibe. 



GALLEHDS. 



89 








WV\WVVVWWU VVVVWVVVVVVVVV/VVVVVV VVVVVVVVV> V VVVWVVi 

4> A r- 




^^< 



LAA Hi 



s>o 



aQ 



90 



DENMARK. 



KRAGEHUL MOSS, FYN, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 300—400. 
No. 1. Old-N. R. Mon. p. 317—319. 





N^c (or ^Mv).. 

....tJM^ BER^. 

I do not pretend to translate these fragments. Full size. Of ash-wood. A knife- 
handle or small box or amulet or something such. Uneartht in 1865. 

No. 2. A BONE-SNAKE, bearing O.N. Runes, lost. Found in 1750. See Vol. 1, p. 319. 

No. 3. A WOODEN LID, bearing 0. N. Runes, lost. Found in 1750. See Vol. 1, p. 319. 

'No. 4. Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 133. 



Spear- 
head 

end. 




B V 



IHSiSI:.! " 




br( 
a\ 



Full size. Ashen Lance-shaft. Found in 1877. As I take it, in verse, the Ban on 
casting the war-spear over the enemy's border. See Bracteate No. 57. Permission to copy 
their clichees kindly given by the Roy. Soc. of North. Ant. The Lance-hurler's name was = 

EARL, JARL. 



KRAGEHUL MOSS. — VALL0BY. 



91 



EC, ERILiEA, jES-UGIS 
MLM SMUHiE HiEITE : — 

GiEGIN UGiE; 
HE NIY^ 
B.MGMLM, 
WIYtJ-BIGI (? se 
■wapnbautin).' 

7, ERIL, ANS-UGG'S (= Wodens) 

IRON-STORM PIERCER (= this Lance) 

BID: — 'GO, GO, 

GAINST the-SAVAGK; 

HENCE HURRY 

H^G^L QUICK, 

On-GORY WAR-BED 

gash him thro!' 



VALL0BY, K0GE, EAST OF SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 300—400. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 136. 

Roman Bronze vessel, with many other Roman and barbarian pieces and jewels, 
found in 1872 in a skeleton mans-grave. Here given half size: 




K Jet jAf 'i -^V' 



12 



92 



DENMARK. 



Underneath is the owner's name, 6 runes, on the bottom of the vessel, of which all 
that is left is — half bigness: 




I add the runic part full size: 




Doubtless the common mansname wiis(a), or wiis(^) or wiis(r). 



GLOSTRUP, SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 500 — 600. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 858. 




GLOSTRUP. — VEILE. — VOLDTOFTE. 93 

TD. 

Apparently TU (= Tiu) the Heathen God, the Mars of the Old North, to whom 
TOES-DAY was given. 

Doubtless an Amulet. Full size. Is the spike of an Echinite (fossil). — Found in 1846. 



VEILE, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600 — 700. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 332. 

Stone lost. Copy of the inscription is in P. Syv's Ms. Collec. in P. F. Suhm's 
"Samlinger til den Danske Historie", 4to, Vol. 1, Part 2, Kjobenhavn 1779, p. 117. But we 
cannot depend on such old transcripts. Any restoration is only a guess. I propose, reversing 
the wend-runes: 

^NI ISINGTH^A. 

jENi-carved these-runes to-isiNGTE^w. 

Perhaps the 7th rune was Ky. I cannot help such guesses being unsatisfactory. Why 
did not the old school take paper casts'i 



VOLDTOFTE, FYN, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600 — 700. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 333, LVIl 

Is now at the Palace of Jsegerspris in Sealand. Bears only one word, the name of 
the deceast warrior: 

EUULFASTS. 

About 5 feet 4 inches high, 3 feet broad. — Found about 1840 — 45. Granite. 

12* 



94 



DENMARK. 




VORDINQBORG. 



95 







96 DENMARK. 



VORDINGBORG, SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600—700. 
OU-N. R. Mon. p. 335, 857, LVII. Vol. 3, p. 139. 

JiFT iEWSL, FAtUE, TRtJBU KMUM VIMXJ lEUI. 
AFTER (in memory of) JETBISL, his-FATHER, TRUBV GARED (made) THIS TERUCH (stone-Mst). 

EFTER ^THISL, sin-FADER, TRttBU GJORDE DETTA TRAG (sten-kista). 

Lower down is the bind-rune hw, probably a mansname beginning with h, and w the 

first letter of wrait (or something such); thus H WROTE-the-runes. Still lower, is Ui, 

perhaps short for: May-Thur-wiH (bless )-these-runes! 

Height about 4 feet 5 inches, breadth (both the runic sides) about 3 feet 1 inch. 

During its removal to the Old-Northern Museum, this granite block fell and was 
broken. It has been restored, but is not now so legible as when my engraving was made. — 
Worm's bad engraving, anno 1643, is the earliest known. 



KALLERUP, SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700 — 800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 342. 

HURNBUR^ STJSIN, SUltiKS. 
EURNBURE'S STONE, SWITEING (= SWITEE'S-SON). 

6 feet long, 1 foot 6 broad, 2 feet thick. — Ploughed up in 1828. 



KALLERUP. — SEALAND. 



97 




SEALAND, DENMARK, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700 — 800. Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 140. 





98 DENMARK. 

OT^ICT. 

DISFAVOR (=■- BAD I The Bad Throw!) 
Perhaps the mark on the 2-side means del, vel, (well, favor, the Good Throw). 

4. DlLIGA KASTET, — 2. ? GODA KASTET, 

Of soap-stone (steatite). A "barbaric" Danish runic Die. Full size. — Found in 1865. 



FREDERIKSBERG, SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 750—800. 
Old-N. R. Man. p. 861. Vol. 3, p. 141. 





Amulet; I believe, for finding out a Thief. Such pieces were used with water and a 
small looking-glass, or otherwise, that the Thief's image might appear. 1 take the risting to be: 

prwEyo-FUNti?. 
TEIEF-FIND. (For finding a Thief). 
The end-E, seems written below for symmetry. — This little stone was pickt up in 
1866. Full size. 



HELN^S, FYN, DENMARK, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 750—800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 338. Vol. 3, p. 141. 

KHUDLFi? SATI STAIN, NUBA-KUM. AFT KUJUMUT, BRUtUR-SUNU SIN. TRUKNA5U (? Hanum alir). 

M\}KIR FA5I. 

RHUVLF SET this-STONE, of-the-NUR-men (or, of the nur district) the gutui (Temfle-chief and 
Magistrate), after kuteumvt (=gvdmvnd), broteer-son (nephew) sin (his). drowned (were 
drowned, perisht at sea) (with-him all, = himself and all his men), ^euair fayed (raised this stone 

and carved these nines). 

RHUULF SATTE denne-STEN, af-NUR-manuen (eller, af nur landet) guthi (Tempel-forestandare och 

Domare), efter (till minne af) kuthmut (-tGUDMUNd), broder-son sin. drdnknade (omkomno 

pa hafvet) (med-honom alia, = han sjelf och alia bans man). 



HELN^S. 



99 




Now in the Old-Northern Museum, Cheapinghaven. Height about 6 feet 10 inches, 
greatest thickness about 2 feet. Was much broader before it was so barbarously cloven. 
Found in 1860. — Overgang, only the H, M and M being Old-Northern letters. 



13 



100 



DENMARK. 



FREERSLEV, SEALAND, DENMARK, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 800—850. 
OU-N. R Mon. Vol. 3, p. 142. 




Found in April 1876. Softish sandstone, about 4 feet 6 inches high, 2 feet broad 
and 2 thick... Has several letters understood, to save labor, as often. I divide and translate: 



FREERSLEY. 



JYDERDP. 



101 



iESLAIKITJ RAISTI STAIN, 

IKR (= IKUR), AFAI SIN^R ; 

IN UK UNITR, 

SKWLFS (= SIKWULFS) A(Rfik)l, 

IWKA (= IWIKA)^AFTA 

jER-rnr (= runar) (j&)isi. 

^SLAIK RAISED this-STONE, 
INGA'S, EIS GRANDMOTEER'S; 
IN (but) SET UN ID, 
SON Of-SIGWULF, 
EVER AFTER-her 

ORE-RUNES (honor-words) these. 
Grandfather: sigwulf — inga, Gh-andniother. 



UNID, Son. 



^stAiK, Grandson. 



JYDERUP, SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D.: A, — 800—900; B, — 1200—1300. 
OMrN.R.Mon,p.839. Vol. 3, p, 146. 

Side A. Side B. 





■ ? TYW AL! — 0-TYW, ELE (help)! 
- ? TYW Al! . WXYZ; 

Doubtless an amulet. Full size. Of glimmer sandstone. — Dug up in 1866. 



13* 



102 



DENMARK. 



SNOLDELEV, SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 800—900. 
Old-N. R Mon. p. 345, 857. Vol. 3, f. 146. 




KUNU^LTS^ST^IN, SUNAiJ EUHALTS, 5ULA7J SALHAUKU(m). 

KUNU^LT'S STONE, SON of -RUE ALT, THYLE (Speaker, Priest) ON ihe-SALHOWS. 
The 3 Horns form the mark of Thor. To the right is the mark of Woden, (on) 
SALHAUKUM is the present hamlet of sallow, in the parish of Snoldelev. On the top of the 
stone is a Cup-hole from the Stone Age. — About 4 feet long, 2 feet 3 inches broad, 21 
inches deep. Now in the Old-Northern Museum, Cheapinghaven. — Found at the end of the 
last century. 



BARSE, SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1000—1100. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 862. 



l>ES(?i). 



HW. 



Stone smasht and lost. Only this bit (here given i-fourth) found on the highway, in 1822. 



bArSE. — MAGLEKILDE. 



103 




i 






'1i 







MAGLEKILDE, SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1000—1100. 
OU-N. R. Mon. p. 864. 



104 



DENMARK. 



First side, among other staves, the mansname sidarb. 
Second- ----- OLUFR. 

Bronze. Seems to have hung at the belt, and to have been an amulet. Full size. 
Dug up in a field in 1866. 



SIDING, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1100—1200. 



Old-N. R. Mon. p. 351. 



Filing's drawing, 1797: 



Kruse's drawing, 1857: 





? TK^ R. 
? YKJS (INGE) RISTED (carvcd; or RAISED, hullt). 

2 feet long by 16 inches broad. About 5 feet above ground in the northern outside 
wall of the church at Seeding, Boiling Herred, Ringkjobing Amt. Bears no 0. N. letter and 
therefore goes out, if, as I now think, the whole must be redd as the mansname: 

SK^R. 



THISTED. 



105 



THISTED, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1100—1200. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 355. Vol. 3, p. 147. 




BOK^, TADIS SOL, HUILER HiER^. 
THOR/E, XAD'S (= TAND'S) SOL (sun) WHILES (repOses) HERE. 

(Here rests Thorce, the Sun of Tand). 

THOR^, TAND's sol, HVILER HAR. 

Size of the Slab 4 feet 2 by 1 foot 8. — First copied early in this century. 



106 



DENMARK. 



T0MMERUP, SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D, 1227. 
Old-N. B. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 148. 

Found in Jan. 1876 in digging a grave in the Churchyard of Temmerup, Holbsek Amt. 
Is a Priest's Sacramental Cup, of silver. Engraved full size: 




Has been buried on the breast of the corpse. On the rim of the Chalice is an 
overgang-alphabet of 21 letters, of which only 2 are distinctively later or Scandinavian. The 
19 are Old-Northern or in common to both Futhorks. I add the line of runes and marks in 
facsimile, beneath them the normal shapes of the unworn and uninjured characters, and beneath 
these their usual powers. The marks I take to be the date, MCCo27, or 1227. 



---^rgjrT^u-t.. Ui\-s^uiq^j^.r^. 




F, U,l>, 0, R, K, H,N,I,A,S, T, B, M, L, E, D, VO,NG,^,(E 



ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND 



THANKFULLY INSCRIBED 



TO 



HE REV. WALTER W. SKEAT, M. A, 



CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND. 



ENGLAND; BUT FOUND AT NORDENDORF, 

AUGSBURG, BAVARIA. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400—500. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 374. Vol 3, p. 137. 












Full size. Silver-gilt fibula with niello. Bears 3 runish scribbles. The f,rst, at the 
top of the back, the mansname: 



JCLEUBWINI. 

^leuhwini owns this Brooch. 



14* 



110 



ENGLAND. 



The second, at the opposite corner, the mansname: 

LONjEWORE. 

The third below this, in 2 lines : 

WOD^N WINIWON^WyO. 

woD^N-gives-this to-the-lady- wiNi WON^ W. 
Found, with other treasures, in a lady's grave in 1844. Inscription is in Old North English. 



ENGLAND; BUT FOUND AT NORDENDORF, 

AUGSBURG, BAVARIA. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D, 400 — 500. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 158. 



WW - >1 4 . 

■ 'J. *'■ -'■ " >'''• "J-"":' 





BIRLNIO ELS 

To-the-lady. BiRLiNiA ELS-gave-this. 

^^' ^^^ ^*«^^- F"ll size. Silver, with gilding and niello, &c. Found 

years back in a grave at Nordendorf. The inscription is in Old North English. 



some 



OSTHOFEN. — THAMES. 



Ill 



ENGLAND; BUT FOUND AT OSTHOFEN, RHEINHESSEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400 — 500. 
Old-N. R. iMon. p. 585. Vol 3, p. 159. 





The runes for D and M being distinctly differenced, 1 now read: 

GONE AT FTOE MIC. DAH OH MIC. 
GONRAT (=GUNDRAD, CONRAD) FAYED (made) ME. DAH (= DAY) OWES (owns) ME. 

GONEAT GJORDE MIG. DAH IGER MIG. 

If we take the o in oh twice, in the runish fashion, the name will be daho. — Brooch 
of gilt bronze. Full size. Doubtless English. If not, then Scandinavian. It is therefore I have 
removed this piece from the Wanderers. We know of no German or Saxon talk that said 
ruBE for made and oh for has. — Came to the Mainz Museum in 1864. 



'= V 



^ 



==^ 
^ 



^ 



00 



'^^i 



dL. 



S 






rr 



S^ 






THAMES, LONDON', ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400 — 500. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 361. Vol. 3, p. 159. 

Large Iron Knife or Small Sword (Scramasax), found in the 
Thames in 1857. Present length 2 feet 4V2 inches. Characters 
and ornaments of gold and silver wire twisted together, cut into 
proper lengths, and beaten into incisions in the metal. 

First comes the Futhorc or Alphabet, of 28 letters: 

F, 0, I-, 0, R, C, G, W, H, N, I, T, yO, P, A, S, T, B, E, NG, 
D, L, M, CE, A, M, tr, CA. 

Then ornamentations and the name of the owner (or maker): 

BCAGNOTH. 

Now in the British Museum. 



112 



ENGLAND. 



SANDWICH, KENT, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 428 — 597. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 367. 




Found ab. 1830. Stone; 16 in. high by 4 X 4 at top, 6X6 below. Only the name now legible; 

B,MB.MSUL. 



SANDWICH. 



SANDWICH, KENT, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 458—597. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 363. 



113 




Runes defaced. — Found ab. 1830. Of hard stone. About 17 inches high, by 5 X 5 where broadest. 



114 



ENGLAND. 



CLEOBURY MORTIMER, SHROPSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 500—600. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 160. 

'A If 




>*«^ W) ^ 




»*»' 



\ 



J 




Engraved 2/g of the original size from the woodcuts of the 
Rev. D. H. Haigh in "The Yorkshire Arch. & Top. Journal", Pts. 17, 
18, London 1877, p. 201, foil. Ploughed up in 1816. Of shell sand- 
stone; the one disk of sandstone, the other of limestone. A portable 
Sun-dial, the chief side thus restored (as to its intention) by Mr. Haigh: 

The holes on the other side are as follows: 





and the hole-groups are supposed by Mr. Haigh to have rudely represented the Constellations 
Woden's or Ceorl's Wain and the Ship. The runes on the disk apparently mean, the whole 
being probably a gift: 



CLAiEO IWI 

Let-the-CLAW (pointer) eye (show you)! 



GILTON. — ST. ANDREWS. 



115 



GILTON, KENT, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 500—600. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 370. Vol 3, p. 163. 

Silver Pommel of an Iron Sword, now in the Liverpool Museum. What is left is 
thus given by Mr. Akerman : 



SIDE A. 



TOP. 



siiillfc 




;| *ik''j!'^^f^^ 



@ia<i 



,-.K«^ 




Runes re-engraved, from squeezes by Mr. Haigh : 





With Haigh I suppose the last letter on a to have been F {m), the arms now worn 
away; his dotted (guest) M- on B I would take to have been the bind-rune [V (un). My 
proposal is as follows: 

TCE IK SIGI. MERGE MIK WIS^, D^GMUND ! 

EKE (increase) i siGE (victory), merrily me wiss (show, brandish, bare), o-djegmvnd! 

OKER JAG SEGERN. MtJNTERT MIG VIS, D^GMUND. 

Engraved full size. — Found at the beginning of this century. 



ST. ANDREWS, FIFE, SCOTLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 500 — 600. 
Old-N. R. Mo7i. p. 371. 



fi 







Bronze Finger-ring. Full size. Probably a Signet, for the letters are sunk. As on 
a wax impression, reads ISAH. If taken as they appear to the eye the staves are hasi, in 
either case a common mansname. — Found in 1849. 



15 



116 



ENGLAND. 



TRURO, CORNWALL, ENGLAND, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 500—600. 
OU-N. R. Mon. p. 372, S65. 

Pig of Tin, found in the last century; about 2 feet 11 long, 11 inches broad, and 
3 inches high. The stamp (of the maker), which it bears, is well known in the Old- English 
Runic Futhorc. It has the power of st and is called by the name 

STAN. 




Stamp full size; 




BROUGH, WESTMORELAND, ENGLAND 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 550—600. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 169. 

Apparently the central slab of a grave-cross to a Christian Lady, most likely a 
Christian Martyr. The excessively old Double-Cross above, the Palmbranch on each side — 
the earliest Christian symbol of triumph over death — . and the still half-Scandian dialect in 
12 lines of stave-rime verse, together with the olden runes the how and the cumbel-boo 
announce the overgang from heathendom. Several of the runes rare and peculiar variants. 
Most of the letters are well preserved, but some are worn and damaged and doubtful. They 
were ruhhed-in with some tool. 

IKKALACGC I BUCIAEHOM 
BECKCTO CUOMBIL-BIO 
CIMOKOMS, ALH's COINU, 
OC, TIMID I ECBI, 
ACLIHCG 
AILIC I RAIRA WOLC. 



BROUGH. 



117 




HOUH OSCIL, OSBIOL, 
CCHL. OEKI FAIJ&U. 
LAICIAM ALWIN KRIST 
lUKC EECS IFT BROK, 
OC EC CEARUNGIA WOP 

Aici coec(as Mec more). 



15* 



118 ENGLAND. 

INGALANG JN BVCKenHOME 

BlGGED (built) this-the-cuMBLE-BOO (grave-Mst) 

Of-CIMOKOM, ALE'S QDENE (wife); 
OK (but), TEEMED (bom) JN EC BY, 
ON ACLEIGH 

EOLY INTO (to) RYRE (niin, destruction) she-WALKT (went). 

Her-EOW (grave-mound) osciL, OSBIOL, 

CUEL and-OEKl FAWED (made). 

My. LEGEM (body) the-ALL-WiNE (all-friend, all loving) CHRIST 

YOUNG-again reaches (leads forth, shall renew) after brook (death), 

OK EKE (but indeed, and truly) carjng'S WOOP (care's tear-flow) 

never quetcees (shall move, shall afflict) (me more). 

INGALANG I BOCKEHEM 

BYGGDE detta-KUMBEL-BO (grafkammare), 
cimokom's, alh's qvinna's (hustrus); 

MEN, FOOD I ECBY, 

1 (pa, vid) ACLEIGH 

HELIG I (till) DODEN hoil-GICK. * 

Hennes-graf-HOG osciL, OSBIOL, 

CUHL och-OEKi GJORDE (uppkastade). 

Min-LEKAMEN (kropp) all-vAnnen krist 

UNG-igen RACKER-fram (uppvacker) efter beAk (doden), 

OCH SA INGSLANS TARAR 

aldrig skola-pina (mig mera). 

Engraved 1-third of the size, from Casts generously forwarded by the Cumberland 
and Westmoreland Archseological Society. Found in October 1879 in the foundations of the 
old Church-porch. Carboniferous sandstone. Among other sculptured slabs dug up at the 
same time, was a fragment of a Roman stone beginning imp. c^sar. This is not surprising, 
as Brough was a Roman military station. 



WHITBY, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600—650. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 180. 

(go)D USM.^ us! GOD ALUWALUDO HELIP^ CON(nises USSSBs)! 

May-GOD ON-SMEE (look on, regard, bless) us! May-GOD ALL-f^ALD (Almighty) eelp KIN 

(family, house) our! 
GUD signe oss! gud allsmagtig hjelpe hus vArt. 
Full size. Bone Comb. Found with other old things in 1867, in the kitchen-midden 
belonging to the old monastic family (house) at Whitby. 



WHITBY. — KORTHUMBRIA. 



119 



Front 

and 

Section. 




NORTHUMBRIA, ENGLAND; 

BUT NOW IN THE DUCAL MUSEUM, BRUNSWICK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 620—650. 
Old-N. R. Man. p. 378, 865. 



P?{ i 1 «H'/^*r^<^ l\m M Ml %, 




. '0^ WH^^tt^f^uum 



TJRIT NEMI SIGHVOE ^LI, IN MDNGP^LyO G^LleA. 

WROTE (carved this) nethu for^ihe-siG-EKRRA (victory-lord, most nolle) j:li, in MUNGP^LyO 

(Montpellier) of-GAUL. 
RiTADE (skar detta) nethii for-SEGER-HERREN (den adle) ^li, i montpellier af-GALLiA. 



120 



ENGLAND. 





tUMi tiiiii/M.j»^^.ni, III! ,|j <^im!ii^^^;^J!^/y!l^^li:^ ^ lu ii 4 




NORTHUMBEIA. — COLLINGHAM. 



121 




Inscription carved twice over. Material, thin plates of the ivory of the Walrus with 
settings of yellowish Bronze. Bottom-plate (as given p. 119) also of Walrus- or Morse-ivory, 
fixt in slips of Bronze on which the runes are cut. Chemityped full size. Runes first pointed 
out by our English rune-master J. M. Kemble. — The front, both ends, and back follow. 



COLLINGHAM, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 651. 
Old-N. R. Mon. f. 390. 
All now really left is: 

^FTAR ONSWINI, CU(ning) — — — 



AFTER ONSWINI, KING — 



Upper stones do not belong to the lower. This base is 2 feet 9 inches high. 
Found in 1841. 



122 



ENGLAND, 






e/' ij 



'rx\'" 








KIRKDALE. — BAKEWELL. 



123 



KIRKDALE, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D, 660. 

Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 184. 

A fragment of a grave -slab, bearing 0. English runes, was found some years ago, 
and Mr. flaigh thought he could read the name of cethilwald, king of Deira (Yorkshire), 
651 — (i60. But the letters are now so gone that we are sure of nothing. So I pass this 
piece by. 



BAKEWELL, DERBYSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600 — 700. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 373. 




— — — (m)ingh(o) — — — 

— — — HELG — — 

The first line may have been part of a Place- or a Mans-name, the second -a 
fragment of the word HOLY ("helig"), or of a name. 

Size about 12 inches by 9. — Found about the middle of this century. 



16 



124 



ENGLAND. 



LANCASTER, LANCASHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 600—700. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 315. Vol. 3, p. 184. 





Cross from the drawings of Mr. M. Jones, in Arch. Journal. 




Runes from a Cast hy Dr. Hihbert, in the Danish Museum. 



LANCASTER. — NORTHUMBRIA. 125 

After having myself examined the stone, now in the British Museum, I agree with 
the last suggestion of Mr. Haigh, that at the close the letter was an H, half gone, that next 
came a T, of which there is only a trace, and that the rune for ing is quite broken away. 
This substantially coincides with our great Kemble's idea — - in my eyes an additional 
recommendation. I therefore now divide and translate: 

GI-BIDiE6 FOR^ C0NIBALB CU£BCERE(Hting). 

BID (pray-ye) for cunibalte cuteb(erehting c= cuthbert-son)! 
This sepulchral cross is 3 feet high. It was found in 1807. 



NORTHUMBRIA, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. GOO— 700. 
Old-N. R. iMon. p. 386. 

Nothing known of this Old-English (? Silver) Brooch but the inscription: 

triMRM nnr f^mm 

GUDRD MEC WORH(t)e. ^LCHFRITH MEC a(h). 
GUDBXD me wrought. MLCBFRITH ME OWETE (owns). 
Lost or mislaid. Size and material not given. Last seen by Mr. Kemble, our great 
rune-smith, in 1847. 



CROWLE, LINCOLNSHIRE, ENGLAND 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 650 — 750. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 183. 

Part of a Runic Grave- Cross, made use of as a lintel in the doorway leading from the 
tower to the nave in the Church of S. Oswald at Crowle. 1 here show its original position. 

Sculpture on runic side: the Hermit-saints Antony and Paul meet in the wilderness. — 
Below, probably: the Flight into Egypt. Lower down, what is left of the grave-words: 

"(ap)jE LIC-B.ECUN B(eAFT.ffi)r 

(Set . . .)ap^e this- LiK- BEACON (grave-shaft) after 

The stone is 7 feet long, 18 inches across at the widest, 7 to 8 inches thick. — 
First really made known by the Rev. J. T. Fowler in 1868. 

16* 



126 



ENGLAND. 




i J 






\ 



V 



f 

J"- 




f I 



I 



\i y 






J ' 



MS ■• ' 

ni ' - 



Hit 



7' t 



,V:-' 



Ti ^ 







CROWLE. — HARTLEPOOL. 



127 



Section of wall at East face. 



Section of wall at West face. 




HARTLEPOOL, DURHAM, ENGLAND 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 650—700. 
Old-N. E. Mon. p. 392. 




128 



ENGLAND. 



Besides the common ancient Christian grave-formula (A)lpha and (O)mega 

THE EVERLASTING, THOU ART MINE HELP! ~ has Only the VFOman's-name HILDITHRttH. 

A 
HILDItRtJB. 

Pillow-Stone. From grave of a Nun. Size IIV2 inches. Found in 1833. 



— CHRIST 



HARTLEPOOL, DURHAM, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 650—700. 
Old-N. R Mon. p. 396, S63. 




Bears onlj the woman's -name HiLDDi(G)tJTH. 

Pillow-stone. From grave of a Nun. Size 7^/\ inches by 6V2 



— Found in 1833. 



BEWCASTLE, CUMBERLAND, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 670. 
OM-N. R. Mon. p. 398. 

EAST SIDE (no runes). — west side: 

A. K . . s . . s (Doubtless the Holy Name KRJsrus). 

B. t GESSUS KRISTTUS (t JESUS CHRISTUS). 



j^gQ ENGLAND. 



C. f WS SIG-BECN TON 
SETTON HW^TRED, 
WO^GAR, OLWrWOLl&U, 
AFT ALCFRIDU, 
EAN KtfNING 
EAC OSWIUNG. 
f GEBID HEO-SINNA SOWHULA. 



f THIS SPIRING SIGN-PILLAR 

SET WAS BY BW^.TRED, 

WOTHGAE, OLUFWOLTE, 

AFTER ALCFRITH, 

SOMETIME KING 

AND SON OF OSWI. 

f PRAY FOR HIS SOUL'S GREAT SIN! 



SOUTH side: 
' t FRUMAN GEAR KCNINGES EICES B^ES, ECGFRKTJ. LICE (? he iTl\>es). 

f In-the-FlRST YEAR of-the-KiNG of-Ric (realm) THIS, ECGFRITH - LIE (he = may AUfrith lie, 

in frith, in peace).' 

NORTH side: 

A. KUNNBURUG = The Queen of Alcfrith. 

B. KtNESwroA = Her Sister. 

C. MTRCNA KONG) = Wulfhere, King of the Mercians, son of Penda and brother 

D. WULFHERE ) of Kiinnburug. 

E. t t t GESSUS = JESUS. 

Originally 20 feet high. Now, the Cross-shaft broken away, only I4V2 ^et above 

the pedestal. 

Partly handled in 1607, and often later. Present materials chiefly supplied by the 6' 
late Rev. J. Maughan in 1857 and following years. 



RUTHWELL, NORTHUMBRIA, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 680. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 405, 865. Vol. 3, p. 189. 

EAST side. 

A. Top-stone. Bird (Dove or Eagle). 

B. Arm-piece. Modern. 

C. Lower limb of Cross. Two half-figures. 

D. St. John Baptist with Agnus Dei. Letters, nearly effaced, end with (a)DORAMVS. 

E. The Lord Christ and the miracle of the Swine. Inscription: 

f IHS XPS IVDEX AEQVITATIS. BESTIAE ET DRACONES COGNOUERVNT IN DESERTO SALVATOREM MVNDI. 

F. St. Paul the Hermit and St. Antony break a loaf of bread in the desert. Words : 

scs PAVLVS ET A(ntonius eremitae) FREGEE(vn)T panem IN deserto. 

G. Flight into Egypt. Broken words: f maria et io(sephus ). 

H. Lowest compartment. Defaced. 



''J ' „. ,- 
h •■'■"! 
















■'iVk .... 




.£>^' 



>^ 






* 





'-x: 



+ ATiVLITAlVAr :U1W%P^ 

.,1, '-"MMf 












Vxi IhT 



y mmi^i3mm'>i' "^ 





m 

r' 111 :?v~'% ih\*^ '■•^•l':»3 



|o>flWR}A-ETl,^Mjf[;f; 








\ m 



^■i \^y^ 



L^ AfivirrAiVAf \.?Mm 



^---^^l;^fife;a^p 






HI' 

^ 1 



Oh^^'% 



if 



:/ 










1,1 



















I- I 






s^^. — -=«»- 




5 Mji'/? 




RUTHWELL. 



131 



WEST SIDE. 

A. Top- stone. ? St. John Evangelist and his Eagle. 

B. Arm-piece. Modern. 

C. Bowman taking aim. 

D. The Visitation. St. Mary and St. Elizabeth. Fragmentary Latin letters. 

E. St. Mary Magdalene. Risting: 

t ATTVLIT AL(ab)ASTRVM VNGVENTI &»STANS BETROSECVS PEDES EIVS LACRIMIS COEPIT EIGAEE PEDES EIVS 

ET CAPILLIS CAPITIS SVI TERGEBAT. 

F. Christ heals the man born blind. Legend: 

f ET PRETERIENS viDi(t hominem coecvm) A natibitate et s(anavit eum a)B iNFiRMiTA(te). 

G. The Annunciation. Both heads have the glory. Words: 

f INGRESSVS angelvs (ad eam dixit, Ave gratia plena, Dominvs) TE(cvm) BE(nedicta tv in mvlieribvs). 
H. Crucifixion. Nearly gone. 

NORTH SIDE. 

Christ the Vine; and so, the Vine as the Church. 



SOUTH SIDE. 
Here we have the Runes. All that now can be made out is: 



(On)gERED^ HINiE 
GOD ALMEyOTTIG, 
BA HE WALDE 

on galgu gi-stiga, 

modig fore 

(ale) men. 

(B)trG(A ic Ni dars)te; 



(aHOF) IC RIICN^ CUNINGO, 

heafun^s hlafard; 

HiELDA IC (n)i DARSTiE. 

BISMiER^DU UNGCET MEN BA ^T-GAD(r)E; 
IC (W^S) MI5 BLOD^ BISTEMID, 
bi(g)ot(e)n o(f) 

KRIST WiES ON RODI. 
HWEtR^ lER FUS^ 
FEARRAN KWOMU 
^BKL^ Tl LANDM; 
IC DMT AL BI(h)EAL(d). 
S(aRE) IC wj;s 

Mi(j) sorgu(m) gi-(d)rce(fe)d. 



GIRDED HIM THEN 
GOD ALMIGHTY, 
WHEN HE WOULD 
STEP QN THE GALLOWS, 
FORE ALL MANKIND 
MINDFAST, FEARLESS. 
BOW ME DURST I NOT; 



RICE KING HEAVING, 

TEE LORD OF LIGHT-REALMS; 

LEAN ME I DURST NOT. 

US BOTE THEY BASELY MOGKT AND HANDLED; 

WAS I THERE WITH BLOOD BEDABBLED, 

BE-SPINKLED FROM 

CHRIST WAS ON ROOD-TREE. 
BUT FAST, FROM AFAR, 
EIS FRIENDS HURRIED 
ATHEL (noble) TO THE SUFFERER. 
EVERYTHING I SAW THERE. 
SORELY WAS I 
WITH SORROWS HARROW D; 

17 



132 

h(n)ag (ic) 



ENGLAND. 



Mlt STRELUM GI-WUNDAD. 
A-LEGDUN HI^ HIN^ I.IMWCERIGNE, 
GI-STODDUN HIM (^T) H(iS L)]C^S (h)eAF(DU)m, 

(bi-)hea(l)du(n) m(£) i>e(r) h(eafun) . . . 



STOOPT I 



WITH STREALS (missUes) ALL WOUNDED. 
DOWN LAY TBEY HIM LIMB- WEARY. 
O'ER HIS LIFELESS HEAD THEN STOOD THEY, 
HEAVILY GAZING AT HEAVEN'S 



TOP-STONE (wrongly placed by Dr. Duncan, should have been turned round) bears ou 

its Latin side: 

in prin(cipio erat) verbvm. 

On the Runic side is the costly" carving: 

CADMON M^ FAUCECO. 

CADMON (= CADMON) ME FA WED (made, Composed). 
Was in Pennant's time 20 feet high, besides capital and base. Is now about 17 feet 
6 inches high. First mentioned in 1703. Best later handling that by Mr. Kemble. — The 
illustrious North-English Poet ciEDMON or CADMON fell asleep about the year 680, or shortly after. 



YARM, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



/+ pray FOR trii] mberehct ■^ BiSffOP -i- 

ALLA this-siGN (beacoH, memorial) after 

HIS brother set ■}• 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 684 — 700. 
Old-N. R. 3Ion. Vol. 3, p. 189. 

[•!• orate 
PRO tru] ' 

MBEREHC 

T 4- SAC -J- 
ALLA 4- SIGN 
UMAEFTER 
HISBREODERA 
i'SETAE -I- 

Sandstone, 2 feet 2 inches high, 1 f. 3/^ of an inch wide and 77^ i. thick. Found 
in 1877 doing duty as a weight in an old mangle. Fragment of a large Grave-cross. Both 
the narrow sides having the same pattern, only one is here engraved. Not in runes, but equal 
in value for the dialect and formula — Minne-stone of trumberht. Bishop of Hexham from 
681 to 684, when he was deposed. Date of his death not known. — sac is the usual con- 
traction for sacerdoti, at this time the word for bishop. 



YARM. — LINDISFARNE. 



133 




FRONT. 



SIDES. 



BACK. 



LINDISFARNE, AFTERWARDS DURHAM, NORTHUMBRIA. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 698. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 449. 

CARVINGS ON THE COFFIN OF ST. CUTHBERT. 

After the name and bild of ST. john, we have: 






ST. THOMAS. 



ST. PETRUS. 



17* 



134 



ENGLAND. 





LINDISFAENE. 



135 








ST. ANDREAS. 



= ST. MATHEUS. 



\ 



M 





= ST. MICHAEL. 



= a fragment. 






= ST. LUCAS. 



= a bit of EPiscoPUS. 



AND THE LATIN INSCRIPTION IN RUNES: 



/ 



v\ 



= (IHESUS) SANGTV& 



Of the word which preceded this scs, and which was of 3 letters, only the last was 
clear. It was a similar old-runic s to the above. The second was apparently h, the first 
must have been i. Thus this costly old-Runic and old-Roman s was carved at least thrice on 
the coffin. This is so much the more interesting as we know that this lik-kist cannot date 
later than 698. — Found in 1827. 



136 



ENGLAND. 



FALSTONE, NORTHUMBERLAND, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 466. 




TWAY-STAVED (RUNIC AND ROMAN). 



Roman Staves. 

t EOMAER THE SETTAE 
AEFTAER HROETHBERHT.*, 
BEGUN AEFTAER EOMAE. 
GE-BIDAED DER SAULE. 



Runic Staves. 

t EOM^R t(E SCETTCE 
^FT^R ROETBERHT^, 
BEGUN ^FT.«R EOMJi. 
GEBIDvED DEE SAULE. 



EOM^R THIS SET 
AFTER HROETBERT. 

this-BEACON (mark, memorial) after Ms-eme (uncle). 
BEDE (hid, pray-ye) for-THE (his) soul! 



A graystone fragment, about a foot long and 5*/2 inches broad, broken away from a 
Runic Cross or grave-pillar. — First publisht in 1822. Here engraved from a cast in the 
Danish Museum. 

Similar biliteral (Scandinavian-runish and Roman) grave-stones from olden Christian 
times also exist in Sweden. 



BINGLEY. 



137 



BINGLEY, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 768 — 770. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 486. Vol. 3, p. 194. 






The stone, originally very simply tooled, has suffered fearfully from ill-usage and the 
elements. The runes, which are carved on the front, are almost illegible. What is left of 
them has been variously deciphered. Mr. Haigh's transcript (see my Vol. 3) I believe to be 
highly incorrect. After long and careful examination of a Cast, Rubbings and Photographs, I 
beg — with all deference — to submit my own reading of this doubtful inscription: 

EADBIERHT CUNtNG 

het hieawan d(ep-stan us. 
(g)ibid fOr his SAULE. 
EADBIERBT, KING, 

BOTE (ordered, bade) to-EEW this-DiP-STONE (font) for-us. 
BID (pray-thou) for bis souli 

Should this reading be substantially correct, it can only refer to eadbert, who was 
king of Northumberland from 737 to 757, when he became a priest, giving up his kingdom 
to his son Oswulf. He died as Canon of York in 768, and doubtless ordered several pious 
gifts to Church and Clergy in the usual way for the good of his soul. Among these was also 



138 



ENGLAND. 




this BAPTISMAL FONT, of strong gritstone. It is about 2V'2 feet square by IV4 high and 10 
inches deep. The under-part is quite rough, as if it had never been workt. It has a drain, 
to let out the water. 



THE CARVINGS ON THE BACK. 




THE CARVINGS ON THE RIGHT SIDE. 




BINGLEY. — ^THREDS FINGER-EING. 



139 



THE CARVINGS ON THE LEFT SIDE. 




Long known, and as long neglected. For my materials I am indebted to the Rev. 
J. T. Fowler, F. S. A., in 1869, 70. 



JETHRED'S FINGER-RING, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700—800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 463. 




lai^Baaasfiia 



^DRED MEG AH, EANRED MEG A-GROF. 
JSTHRED HE OWNS. EANRED ME A-GROOF (engraved). 
iETHRED MIG AGER. EANRED MIG GRAVERADE. 

Mixt Roman and Runish letters in gold. Ground a dark niello, 
badly, by Elickes in 1705. 



— First publisht, 



18 



140 



ENGLAND. 



DEWSBURY, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700—800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 464. Vol. 3, p. 200. 




Full size. Fragment of a sandstone memorial Cross, found about 1830. 
runes, but in the same olden dialect. Mr. Haigh's restoration is: 



[ Sis settae- 

aefter EdilsEJEHTAE. 

BEGUN AEFTER BEORNAE. 
GIBIDDAD DAER SAULE. 



/. this set 

after ecHIbjeJrht. 

a-BEACON AFTER the- BERN (prince). 

BiD-ye (p-ay) for-TEE soul! 



Not in 



DOVER, KENT, ENGLAND, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700—800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 465, 865. 

Inscription as corrected from a rubbing by tbe Rev. John Puckle, M. A., Vicar of 
Dover. Given 1 -fifth of the size; only the name of the dead man, 



DOVER, 



141 




N 



^ 




GyOSLHeARD. 




X ' 



Breadth of stone at broadest, 2 feet 1 inch; length, 5 feet 11 inches, 
about 1825. 



— Found 



18* 



142 



ENGLAND. 



IRTON, CUMBERLAND, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700 — 800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 469. Vol. 3, p. 200. 
Defaced Cross. Letters nearly gone. Mr. Halgli proposed: 

But J.R. Allen, Esq., C. E., F. S. A. Sc, who visited the cross in 1879, could find 
no traces of runes left. 



GIBID^J 
FOB.JE . . . 



BiD-i/e (pray) 

FOR . . . • 



NORTHUMBRIA, ENGLAND; 

BUT BOUGHT IN AUZON, BRIONDE, HAUTE-LOIRE, FRANCE. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700—800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 470, LXJX. Vol. 3, p. 200. 

LEFT SIDE. 




n'Jtffff^n'iHT'i'' 



NORTHDMBRIA. 143 

The tale about Romulus and Remus. 

OIL^ UNNE6 ROMWALUS AND REDMWALUS, TW(EGP:n GIBROtiERA; F(EDDE WiM WtLIF IN ROMjEC^STRI. 

Their-OTE£L (home-land, birth-place) un-njge (far away from) were.ROMWALVS (= ROMULUS) AND 
REUMWALUS (= REMUS), TWAIN (two) BROTHERS; FED (nourisht, sucMed) EI (them) a-WYLF (she- 
wolf) JN ROMECASTER (Rome-city). 

Sin-ODEL (hem) icke-nAra voro-ROMULUs OCH remus, tvenke brOder; upprODDE dem en-ULF-hona 

I ROMA-BY. 



Back. The tale of Titus and the Jews. 

HER FEGTAI TITUS END GIUMASU. HIC FUGIANT HIERUSALIM AFITATORES (= HABIT ATORES). 
DOM. GISL. 

EERE FIGHT TITUS AND TEE JEWS. EERE FLY-from JERUSALEM itS-lNHABITANTS. 

DOOM (Court, Judgment of Jewish rebels). gisl (Hostages given to the Romans). 

Partly in Runes, and partly in Romanesque letters. The DOM and gisl may possibly 
be taken as one word, the artist's name, domgisl. — Or, can the DOM compartment be the 
Condemnation of Christ, Pilate washing his hands? 



Front. The tale whence came the Casket. 

HRON^S BAN FISC-FLO'DU 
A-HOF ON FERGEN-BERIG: 
WARI GASRIC GRORN, 
iMR HE ON GREUT GI-SWOM. 

Of-the-Urone (= Whale) the-bones the-fishes -flood (= the Sea) hove (lifted, raised) on Fergen-berq 
(Fergen-hitl, on the coast of Durham) ; worth (became, was- he) gas-rich (playing, gamboling) groren 
(crusht, pasht to pieces, killed) there (there-where, where) he on the-grit (shingles, shore, coast) swam. 

THE WHALE'S BONES THE FISHES' FLOOD 

LIFTED ON FERGEN-EILL: 

EE WAS GASET TO DEATH IN HIS GAMBOLS, 

AS A-GROUND EE SWAM IN THE SHALLOWS. 

HVALENS BEN FISK-FLODEN (hafvet) UPPLYFTADE PA FERGEN-BERG: HAN-BLEF I-SIN-LEK KROSSAD, DER 

HAN IN-pI STRAND-GRDSET SAMM. 

Left front scene. The tale of the weapon-smith Weland. 
Right front scene. The tale of the magi (in runes m^gi) offering to Christ. 



144 



ENGLAND. 




o 
o 

o 

CO 

w 

w 



NORTHUXIBRIA. 



145 



E-i 

W 

M 
02 
<i 
o 

n 

H 

Eli 

o 

O 

Pi 




Right side. 




All the rest 
broken away. 



146 



ENGLAND. 



? Some tale from the W eland-saga. 
DRyGYJ swi(k) .... 
DREETE (svffers, bears; or, does, performs) swili (deceit). 

LIDER (el. GOR) SVEK .... 




o 
o 

w 

a 

!> 

CD 

w 



NORTHUMBRIA. — THAMES FITTING. 



147 



Top. Another tale from the Weland-saga, doubtless about his brother ^gil. His 
name is written in runes, ^gili. He is attackt in his stronghold. But no known ^GIL-Iegend 
can explain to us the details here carved. 

THE FRANKS CASKET, bought in France by Augustus Wollaston Franks, Esq., F. S. A., 
in 1857, and generously given by him to the British Museum. — Full size. Of whalebone. 
One of the oldest and costliest treasures of ancient English art now in existence. The tenons 
were doubtless once covered with corner pieces of metal, perhaps bronze. The lock is torn out. 



THAMES FITTING, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700—800. 
Old-N. R. IJon. Vol. 3. p. 204. 




? (Her Jonas) SBERiEDH Tyo bda i erha d^bs 
? (Here Jonah) speireth (asks) to bo (bide, he cast) in the-ARG (waves, trough) of-the-DEEP. 
Full size. Only a fragment, as 1 suppose of a Shrine or Casket, Of lightish Bronze, 
once gilt. I suppose the Casket to have borne Biblical symbols of the Uprising of Christ, 
among them the story of Jonah in the Whale's Belly, so often used as a type of the 
Resurrection. See Book of Jonah, Ch. 1, v. 12, S.Matthew, Ch. 12, v. 39, 40. Such applica- 
tions abound on old ecclesiastical works of art. I add one example from the Catacombs in 
Rome (Bosio, Roma Sott. Roma 1632, p. 431). Here Jonah is literally asking to be cast 
forth into the sea: 




Dredged out of the Thames, London, in 18fi6. 



19 



148 



ENGLAND. 



THORNHILL, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700—800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol 3, p. 209. 





Found, with other grave-cross fragments, during alterations of the church at the 
close of 1875 and beginning of 1876. Of sandstone. About 1 -fifth. Part of the shaft of a 

funeral pillar. 

ETEELBERHT SET-up-this 



t EtELBERHT SETTjE^ 
^FTER ECELWINI DERING(se). 



AFTER ETBELWmi BERING. 



THORNHILL, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700 — 800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 210. 

Found at same time and place. Sandstone. Scale about 1 — 5th. Shaft of a Grave- 
Cross. A Calvary-cross, followed by the words: 



THORNHILL. — WYCLIFFE. 



149 





EADEED SETE ^FTE EATEyONNE. 
EADRED SET-up-this AFTER the-lady-EATEyA. 



WYCLIFFE, NORTHUMBRIA, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700 — 800. 
OU-N. R. Mon. Vol. 1, p. 476, e. 



BAEDA (? the se)T(t8e) 

AEFTER BERCHTVINI, 
BECV>r AEFTER f(? a|3or8e. 
ge-bidsed der saule). 

Lost. Not in runes. Fragment of a Grave-Cross, found in 1778. 



BAEDA THIS SET 

AFTER BERCHTVINI, 

a-BEACON (grave-mark) after Ms-Father. 

bid-ye (pray) for-the-soul! 



19* 



150 



ENGLAND. 



THORNHILL, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 867. 
OU-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 212. 




Ud^EW 



From Haigh's Thornhill Inscriptions, p. 4. Scale not given. Found at Thornhill with 
the other fragments. Sandstone'. Not in runes, but in the same costly dialect. Only a small 
part of the center remains, apparently to be restored: 

(t ecgbe 

rcht . 5is 

Set)E . AEFT 

(er.) OSBER 

(ch)TAE . BEG 

(un . o)SBER 

(chtaes ge 

biddaS . 6a 

er . saule.) 
Thus 4 lines of stave-rime verse: 

ECGBERCHT BIS SET.fi; ECGBERCBT THIS SET 

AEFT%B, OSBERCMTAE, AFTER OSBERCST, 

BECVS OSBERCnTXES. the- BEACON of-OSBERCHT. 

GEBIDDAD DAER SADLE. BlD-ye for- THE SOUL. 

OSBERCHT fell in the battle at York against the Danes March 21, 867. He was 
succeeded in his Northumbrian kingdom by ecgbercht. 



COQUET ILAND. — ENGLAND; BUT UNKNOWN WHERE. 



151 



COQUET ILAND, NORTHUMBERLAND, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 800—900. 
OU-N. R. Mon. Vol. 1, p. 480. 







>-«■ > 



Ai^ i,,i,iil 



v^i:m^^,n 



r--?Fn? n-r- V^=Tt-¥-?ff •-■" 



t BIS IS SimLFUR(N). 

THIS IS siLVER(N) — of silver. 
Lead — but was once silvered and made to pas^s for silver. Full size. — Found about 1860. 



ENGLAND; BUT UNKNOWN WHERE. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 800—900. 
OU-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 213. 




For the present lost, and material unknown. Bears, in 0. E. runes, the common 

olden mansname 

owi. 

As we know nothing of the original or its setting, date only approximative. 



152 



ENGLAND. 



HODDAM, NORTHUMBRIA, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 800—900. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 1, p. 483. 





Part of a Runic Cross, now lost. No copy was ever made of the runes. This 
fragment measured 2 feet in height, 9 inches in greatest breadth, 6 inches at the sides. — 
Found some time before 1816. 



KIRKDALE, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 800 — 900. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3. p. 214. 

Ruined Cross. Has traces of runes. One only, ^ (ng), is distinct. 



MAESHOVE. — MONK WEARMOUTH. 



153 



MAESHOWE, STENNES, MAINLAND, ORKNEYS, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 800—900. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol 1, p. 485, Vol. 3, p. 214. 




Two scribbles, probably by the same hand. The latter has one Old- Northern 
letter, the o. From the famous rune-rich Picts-house, long a Wiking rendezvous. 

BORNB S^Et. 

THORN (or javelin) soreth. 

H^LHI RJCISTO. 

BjELHI RlSTED (carved-this). 
The stone here engraved 1-third the size of the original. — Found in 1861. 



MONK WEARMOUTH, DURHAM, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 822. 
OM-N. R. Mon. Vol. 1, p. 477. 



154 



ENGLAND. 




Bunes 
full size. 




TIDFIRt. 



This TiDFiRTH or TIDFERTH was the last bishop of Hexham. Stone apparently the base 
of a small grave-cross, the arms and top being lost. It is I2V2 inches high by 8 inches 
where broadest. — Found about 1860. 



LEEDS, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 872. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 1, f. 487. Vol. 3, p. 215. 




LEEDS. — HACKNESS. — CRAMOND. 155 

CUN(unc) I KING. 

ONLAF. I ONLAF. 

According to Mr. Haigh, the anlaf or olaf, son of a Danish king, who with his 

brothers Sitric and Ivar went to Ireland in 853, invaded Britain in 866 — 7, and probably died 

there in 872. — Fragment of a Runic Cross, IIV2 inches by about 10 inches in height. — 
Found in 1837. 



HACKNESS, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 850—950. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 1, p. 467. Vol. 3, p. 213. 

For the Photograph, which cannot be repeated here, see p. 467. The stone has 
suflFered too much to bear sharp engraving. But the runes, which are English-Northern, can 
pretty clearly be made out. They are : 

EMUNDR ON ^SBOA. EMUND OWNS-me ON (at) AS BY. 

(This is the grgive of Emund at Ashy). 

Below this we have 3V2 lines of the rare Twig- or Tree-runes, but so injured as to 
give no clear meaning. The 6th line closes with one word, in early Roman uncials, the verb 
OBA (pray for the soul!). The other side bears the head of a female figure, and above this, 
in Latin letters, bvgga virgo, — Originally this piece has perhaps been the central slab of a 
funeral Cross. It is about 16 inches high and 14 broad. 

As this is a palimpsest stone, is in the Scandinavian- Wiking dialect, and yet is 
Christian, I now think it cannot be earlier than the 9th century, or perhaps the first half of 
the 10th. — Found early in this century. 



CRAMOND, EDINBURGHSHIRE, NORTHUMBRIA. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 900—1000. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 215. 







Full size. Bronze finger-ring. The letters have suffered so much that I cannot read 

them. — Found about 1869. 

20 



156 



ENGLAND. 



ALNMOUTH, NORTHUMBERLAND, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 913. 
Old-N. JR. Mon. p. 461, 865. 




..■^y<mi^fiMm 




. ADVLFES D 

SAV . . 

MYREDAH MEH WO . . 
(HL)VDWYG MEH FEG 



? (JDis is cyning e)ADULrES d(ruh). 
(gebiddad J)8ere) SAU(le). 

MRYEDAH MEH WO(rhte). 
HLUDWYG MEH FEG(de). 

(This is king ejADULPS TH(ruh, - grave-kist). 
Bid-ye (pray) for-the souL- 
MYREDAH ME WROUGHT (made). 

HLUDWYG ME FAYED (inscribed). 
Fragments of a partly-runic funeral Cross. Height of what is now left about 3 feet. 
Given by Haigh to king eadulf of Bamborough, died in 913. — Found in 1790, in the ruins 
of St. Woden's Church. 



AMULET RINGS, ENGLAND. 



157 



AMULET RINGS, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1000—1100. 
Old-N. R. J\Jon. p. 492, Vol 3, f. 216. 

No. 1. 
G'RETMOOR HILL, CUMBERLAND. 




Of gold. Full size. — Found in 1817. 



No. 2. 

i 

ENGLAND. 




Of electrum. Letters on a ground of niello. Full size. Was in Denmark about 
1740 — 50, when it was thus copied by Johan Olafsson: 



No. 3. 
BRAMHAM MOOR, YORKSHIRE. 

4>Ff\4^MnHrT4>^M^l\lt>Pi4>xrF^tf^c;ptP^ 

Of gold. Found in 1733 or 1734. For the present lost or unknown. The runes 
were copied in 1805 by Francis Douce. 

20* 



158 



ENGLAND. 



No. 4. 
WEST OF ENGLAND. 




^^(•Hn^^PM^^.«wfcl^frM^t^'*t^4b^ 



Of pinkish Agate. Was lost. Is found, and now, thanks to Mr. Franks, in the 
British Museum. Full size. 



No. 5. 

NORTH OF ENGLAND. 




mkw I h kKA i> ihk I \>/yiVMA-/>m 



Copper. Full size. About 1869 came into the hands of Robert Ferguson, Esq., of 
Carlisle, who has generously given it to the British Museum. 

Thus all these Rings bear, substantially, the same inscription: 

No. 1. ^RtlRIUFLT tJRIURItON GL^ST^PONTOL. 

,, 2. ^RtfRroFLT ttRITJRIiON GLiEST^PONTOL. 

,, 3. ^RtfRIUFLT tjRIURItON GLJilST^PONTOL. 

,, 4. EROKIUFDOL URIURIIiOL WLESTEPOTENOL. 

,, 5. ^RORIUFLT uriurii>on gl^st^pantol. 

I still regard them all as connected with some secret sect or society, and as 
meaningless — a mere abracadabra; or as a cabbala of mystical origin or for mystical use as 
a Charm against some sickness or an Amulet or Pass. 



ENGLISH (? OR NORWEGIAN) RUNIC CALENDAR. 



159 



ENGLISH (? OR NORWEGIAN) RUNIC CALENDAR. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1000 — 1100. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol 2, p. 866. Vol. 3, p. 219. 




Made of the jawbone of the Porpoise. Engraved full size from Worm's woodcut. 
Bears several Old-Northern and specially provincial English runes. ~ Found early in the 
17th century. 



160 



ENGLAND. 



BRIDEKIRK, CUMBERLAND, ENGLAND, 



-^, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1100 — 1200. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 2, p: 489. Vol. 3, p. 221. 



o 



Pt^ 



iSU 






10° 



^ 




BRIDEKIRK. 



161 



A strange intermixture of Old-Northern and Scandinavian and Old-English staves and 
bind-runes. The dialect is also mixt, Early North-English, with a touch of Early Scandinavian. 
The words are in rimed verse: 



WEST SIDE. 



EAST SIDE. 





ST. JOHN BAPTIZING CHRIST. 




SUBJECT AS YET UNKNOWN. 



162 ENGLAND. 

EIKARTH HE ME IWROKTE 

AND TO THIS MERTHE 5ERNR ME BROKTE. 

RICHARD EE ME I- WROUGHT (made), 

AND TO THIS MIRTH (heauty) YERN (glad) ME BROUGHT. 

RICHARD HAN MIG GJORDE, 

OCH TILL DENNE SKONHET GJERNA MIG BRAGTE. 

Should my idea be correct, that this richard was the well-known Architect ricardus 
who was Master of the Works to, Bishop Pudsey during his improvements at Norham Castle, 
the date of this stone Font will be about 1150 — 1170. — The lowermost panel shows 
RICHARD at work! 

The runic inscription is engraved above separately half size, from a rubbing by the 
Rev. D. H. Haigh. — Otherwise the engravings are copied from those publisht by Mr. H. Howard. 
See his essay, redd in the Soc. of Ant. of London in 1801. 



BEACTEATES, &c. 



THANKFULLY INSCRIBED 



TO 



Dr. OSCAR MONTELIUS, 



STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN. 



Old-N. R. Mon. pp. 503—564, 873—9, LXVIII; Vol. 3, p. 223 foil. 



H. 



Limdreds of these Golden Ornaments — Rank-decorations, Family Medals, Gift- 
pieces, Amulets, or whatever else they may have been — have no letters at all, either runish 
or otherwise. Others bear plain staves, but these are only more or less half-runish Uind 
imitations of the writing on their prototype, Classical monies, and are here omitted. Some, 
here given for the sake of completeness (taking too many rather than too few, as they may 
be instructive) are doubtless chiefly barbarized imitations or copies' copies of semi-classical or 
better runish pieces, and till their sources are found can give no sure meaning. After the 
fresh experience of the last 15 years, I now think that several of my attempts at their 
translation were failures. But I expressly said of all the Bracteates that my readings were 
only feelers in the dark, and that "somebody must begin". The majority however of these 
inscribed golden roundlets are really and seriously intended to be deciphered in the usual way, 
and my translations of these I think likely or certain. But we learn more and more every 
day, and some may have to be modified or rejected. Special difficulties are connected with all 
olden Coin pieces from the words often not being divided (so that we do not know where to 
begin), from helpless cuttings, and from mixt and borrowed shapes and up or down turnings 
of the characters as the object is supposed to be held, — so that the most skilled 
numisniatists are often at fault, even where the pieces are not absolutely "barbarous" and 
unreadable. Just the same thing holds good with many of the Bracteates. Other letters, again, 
are evidently only contractions, a rune or two standing for a whole word. Add hereto the 
additional hindrance of so many Holy Symbols and Ornament-marks, which sometimes may be 
mistaken for letters. So we shall never master many of these beautiful blinks. But of those 
whose meaning we can reasonably reach — how costly is the word-hoard! 

Besides many fresh runeless Bracteates from time to time dug up in Scandinavia, two 
have lately been found in English graves at Faversham in Kent. The one, which turned up 
in 1873, is a plain disk of gold with a raised ring, internally enclosing a garnet or bloodstone. 
The othei", exhumed in 1874, bears circles of beaded lines, and an open cross workt in the center. 

In the Hindostanee Playing-Cards engraved in W. A. Chatto's "Facts and Speculations 
on the Origin and History of Playing-Cards" (8vo, London 1848, Plates 1 and 2), a kind of 
Horn or Ornament (one not two) is borne by the Horses and even by the Elephant. This 
Horn-like decoration is affixt to the head, or perhaps the head-harness, by the narrow end. 

21* 



166 



BRACTEATES, &C. 



One word more. Whatever some linguists may jDai^ally lay down, it is absolutely 
impossible for any one surely to knoiv whether many of the names on these pieces are masc. or fern. 
and in the nom. or gen. or dat. or ahl. The variations in sound and form of old and unknown 
dialects are endless. Many (especially in N. English) had masc. nom. in -u, while by degrees 
there grew up Yegul&v feminines in -a (gen. dat. ac. abl. , especially in Scandinavia, otherwise 
commonly -u or -o). Consequently where a Bracteate bears only one tvord, apparently the 
name of the Owner or Maker or Giver, for instance ^ltj, this may have been a mans-name, 
nominative absolute. But it may have been a woman's-name, gen. ^la'S, or dat. to-jELA, or 
abl. from-JELA. And so with other words and combinations, sometimes where we have 2 words. 
Let us NEVER believe infallible philologists. Let us hold these things in suspense, 

I offer my own readings with this express proviso. We must choose some one reading. 
Now and then some happy fiud may fix some particular formula for us. Otherwise, opinions 
may differ. — In combination with his labors on the Golden Horns, the Chamberlain Worsaae 
thinks (1880) he can now identify the various Holy Symbols on the Bracteates. His im- 
portant work hereon will appear in due time. — The number of these runed pieces is now 
(Feb. 1881) 95, but often several duplicate copies of the same type (and struck from the same 
die) have been found. And where one such bhnk has been saved, hundreds have perisht! 



No. 1. 

BROHOLM, FYN, DENMARK, 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 519. 




suggested : 



Found in 1832. A half-runic meaningless imitation of a Roman epigraph. In 1867 I 



KItUNK HAG TU OIW HUG. 

KITEUNG HEWED (cut-tMs) TO EVER-dunng HOW (memory). 



BEACTEATES, &C. 2—4. 



167 



No. 2. 
MIDT-MJELDE, HAUG PARISH, SOUTH BERGENHUS, NORWAY. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 520. 




Found in 1827. Certainly meaningless. 



No. 3. 

FIND-PLACE UNKNOWN, POSSIBLY BOHEMIA. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 320. 




Runes and Latin Uneials. Not known when found. 

CUN (= CDNUNG or cuning) iasco (or PUSCO). 
KING THASCO (or THUSCO). 



No. 4. 
BOHUSLAN, QVILLE PARISH, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2. p. 521. 




Found in 1817. I now read only the mansname: huthu. 



168 



BRACTEATES, &C. 5 — 7. 



No. 5. 

FIND-STEAD UNKNOWN, PROBABLY SCANDINAVIA. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 321. 




Found in last half of 17th cent. Runes and Uncials. The mansname: ecmu. 



No. 6. 
MAGLEMOSE, VALLERSL0V, SEALAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 522. 




? SEHS-CUN^ ^OAH^E. 

To-the-siGE-KEEN (triumph- daring, victorious) eorsemam. 

Till-den-SEGERSALLE EYTTAREN. 

Most likely refers here not to success in battle but to victory in some great Horse- 
race, perhaps at Constantinople. But ^OAHiE^ may be a mansname. Found in 1852, with 3 
others of same type, and Nos. 39 and 55. 



No. 7. 



NEBENSTEDT, DANNENBERG, HANNOVER. 
O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, f. 523. Vol. 3, p. 227. 




BRACTEATES, &C. 7—9. 



169 



? GAL GLyo^:u-GiAtryou. 
OAL to-the-lady- GLyo^u- 6IA uyOA . 

GLEE-GIFT Or GLEE-GIVERESS is a very fine womans-name. 
with Nos. 8 and 9. 



Found in 1859, together 



No. 8. 

NEBENSTEDT, DANNENBERG, HANNOVER. 

0. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 524. 




Found in 1859, with Nos. 7 and 9. Doubtful or barbarized. Possibly, considering 
this a careless copy of a better original, we may guess: 

TO AULILyO^ PAM TILLE. 
TO AVLlLyO THE TILL (good). 



No. 9. 
NEBENSTEDT, DANNENBERG, HANNOVER. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 524. 




Found in 1859, with Nos. 7 and 8. I would now read the staves from below 
upwards, taking the ta as a clear bind. This gives us the mansname: 

TALL WE. 



170 



BRACTEATES, &C. 10—13. 

No. 10. 

DENMARK, UNKNOWN WHERE. 

0. N. B. M. Vol. 2, p. 523. 




Not known when found. Meaningless. My guess in 1867 was: 

TO GLWK. yOLW HAC, 
TO LUCK! YOLW HEWED (carvcd). 



No. 11. 
RANDLEV, VIBORG SEE, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol 2, p. 525. 




Found about 1820. Meaningless. My guess in 1867 was: 



TU LUCGWN 



TO LUCK! (Luck to you!) 



Nos. 12. 13. 

DENMARK, UNKNOWN WHERE. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 526. 





No. 12, Find-tide unknown. — No. 13, found in the last half of the 17th century. 
Barbarous. My guess in 1867 was: 

TU HIL. 

TO EELE! (To Luck! , Hail to thee!) 



BRACTEATES, &C. 14—17. 



171 



No. 14. 
FAX0, SEALAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 527. 




Found in 1827. I now take this as the mansname: 

FOSL^U. 



Nos. 15, 16. 
15 SLANGERUP, SEALAND. — 16. SLESVIG or HOLSTEIN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 328. 





See No. 18. 
same mansname: 



No. 15 found before 1817. No. 16 before 1852. Both bear the 



^LU. 



No. 17. 

DENMARK, UNKNOWN WHERE. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 529. 




22 



172 BBACTEATES, &C. 17—19. 

Find-tide unknown. Dou-btless barbarous. My guess in 1867 was: 

yOLSURU HUyOC COLLD iEEMLEO ELO^. 

yOLSURU HEWED (striick) this- GOLD-picce for-the-ATBEL (noble) elo. 



No, 18. 

SNYDSTRUP, HADERSLEV. S. JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

0. N. R. M Vol. 2, p. 529. Vol. 3, p. 228. 




See Nos. 15, 16 & 71. Found in 1841. — As remarkt by Prof. Bugge (Aarb. 1871, 
p. 183), the B in ^RU was my woodcutter's error for L (^Lu). Accordingly it is here rectified, 
I also agree with him (p. 199) in taking the 4th rune in 2nd word as a bind, c and je. 
I therefore now read (nom. masc. and dat. masc): 

^LU L^UC^A. 
^LU tO-LJEUC^. 



No. 19. 

SKANE, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol 2, p. 530. 




Found about 1840. Bugge, Om Runeindskr. pa Guldbrak. p. 199, says rightly that 
the 8th rune is a bind, c and m. The 2nd stave in next word has doubtless the same value. 
So I now read (dat. masc. and nom. masc): 

LiEWULOUC^A G^^CALLU. 

To- ov for-L^wvLOUc^E o^^ECALLU {gave or made). 



BRACTEATES, &C. 20—22. 



173 



No. 20. 
LELLINGE, SEALAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 531. 




SiELU S^LU. 

seel! seel! ('= Joy! Joy!, Health and Happiness!) 

LYCKA ! LYCKA ! 

Found in 1845. 



No. 21. 
HADERSLEV, SOUTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 532. 




Found in 1822. — Whether a name, a word, a contraction, we cannot say. Only 
2 (or 3) letters. Probably the mansname: 

L^ (or GL^). 



No. 22. 
VADSTENA, EAST G(3TLAND, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 533. Vol. 3, p. 229. 




22* 



174 BRACTEATES, &C. 22—24. 

LUPiE TUWjE. 

Of-the-LEDES the- TOG. (Of-the-men the-Jetter-row. = The Alphabet of the people). 
Followed by the first 23 letters of the Old-Northern Runic stave-row: 

FUB^RCGW; HNIYyOPAS; TBEMLNGO. 

Found in 1774. 



No. 23. 
OVERHORNBEK, RANDERS, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 537. 




Found in 1848, with Nos. 28 and 30. — Apparently barbarous. My guess in 1867 was: 

USSU, ATLITO^ EMLLO. 
To- us SI, ATHLETE AT EEL (noble). 



No. 24. 

FYN, DENMARK. 

0. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 538. Vol. 3, p. 230. 




Found early in the 17th century. - Bugge, Om Run. pa Guldbr. p. 199, says the 
3rd rune is more like 5 than w, and I agree with him. See the fellow^bracteate No. 55. 
I now propose: 

NJCIUYiENG UYiEYLIIL JLNN HOUiEA. 

The-NjiTHUY^NG UY^YLUL ANN (gwes-this) tO-BOU^. 



BRACTEATES, &C. 25. 175 

No. 25. 

KORKO (or TJOREO), CARLSKRONA, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 338. Vol. 3, p. 230. 




5UR TE RUNOa! — JLNWLL, H^-CURNE HELD^A, CUNlMUDIU. 

TSUR TEE (bless) these-RUNES! — ^JNWLL (=JENWULFJ, ihe-BJGH-CEOSEN of-the-HELTS (the Elect of 
the Heroes, the Chosen Leader of the Army), gives-this-to-the-lady-cuNiMunDiA. 

THUR siGNE dessa-RUNOR! — ^NWLL, HJELTARNES HOGT-DTKORADE (Harens utvalde Hofding), 

gifver-detta-till cUNlMUnDiA. 

Found in 1817, together with No. 33. — The dialect here is pure old Scandinavian. 
The name is unknown - in Germany, and only occurs here in all Scandinavia. But this rare 
ANWtJLF is the name borne by a "Goth" (anaolf) who, in 430, at the head of his troops 
fought against the Roman General Aetius in Gaul, and was by him defeated and taken 
prisoner. — Later, a, family bearing this name, (eanulf and other spellings), are kinglets in 
England in the early times, especially the 9th century, and have their seat and power in 
Somersetshire. 

In my Vol. 3, Bracteate No. 75, I have brought together a mass of arguments which, 
in my opinion, connect this family with the anwulf (iENiwuLu) on the Golden Triens No. 75. 
I there conclude: — "Apparently, in 430 a Swedish-Gothic folk-king called anwulf fights in 
the ranks of the Goths in Gaul, but is defeated and made prisoner. Doubtless ransomed or 
for a time in Roman pay and service, he returns to his country. How long or short his life 
or his sons, we cannot say. People sometimes lived very long then as now. But his son or 
grandson strikes this beautiful golden Bracteate for cunimdndia, and sword in hand among 
bands of other Northmen gains broad lands in England. Here he strikes the golden Triens 
for the commerce of his people. In time his race are no longer kinglets, but become great 
chiefs and barons in the English monarchy. Thereafter they disappear. New times, new men. 
But if this so be, we have here the first tie connecting the Bracteates with acknowledged 
history, and for the first time loose objects bearing the Old-Northern runes are brought in contact 
with our regular annals. I may be so much the more excused in drawing this conclusion, as 
this is the only instance in which I have ventured to give any such loose Old-Northern piece 
a direct historical application." 



176 



BRACTEATES, &C. 26—28. 



No. 26. 

SKANE, SWEDEN. 

0. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 539. 




Found about 1840, with 2 specimens of No. 19. - Perhaps the mansname; 

FUWU (or FUBU). 



No. 27. 

TROLLHATTA, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2. p. 340. 




Found in 1844. — May be taken in many ways, Had we a thousand more such 
monuments, our doubts would be the fewer. I now prefer: 

TiEWON ^tODU. 

T^ WON-made-this for-the-lady-JSTEODA. 



No. 28. 
OVERHORNBEK, RANDERS, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

0. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 540. 




BRACTEATES, &C. 28—30. 



177 



Found in 1848, with Nos. 23 and 30. — Perhaps barbarous and comparatively late 
in date. In 1867 my guess was: 

SIHUIN iEND B^yOUI DUO B^1>E EUWiEiDIT. 
SIEUIN AND BJEyOUI, SLEW-theniBOTH EUWJETEIT. 



No. 29. 

CORLIN (or COSLIN), POMERANIA. 

0. N. R. M. Vol 2, p. 541. 




Found in 1839, with the Corlin (or Coslin) Golden Ring. See the gothic march. 
Bears only the mansname: 

WMIGJE (or iMlGM). 



No. 30. 
OVERHORNBEK, RANDERS, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vd. 2, p. 542. 




Found in 1848, together with Nos. 23 & 28. — Probably as meaningless and com- 
paratively late as No. 28. In 1867 I proposed: 

MGELM BLM, B^SULOE, SYGTRYH. 

For-JEGEL the-BLUE, BASILEUS (king), SYGTRYH (made this). 



178 



BRACTEATES, &C. 31 — 34. 



No. 31. 

FYN, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 343. 




Blind-runes or contractions. Found in the last half of the 17th century. 



No. 32. 
ECKERNFORDE, SOUTH JUTLAND. DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 543. 




Found in the first half of this year-hundred. — I would now prefer; 

TW^D TIWIT^. 
TWJED to-TIWIT. 



Nos. 33, 34. 

33. KORKO (orTJORKO), CARLSKRONA, SWEDEN. 
34. SKANE, SWEDEN. 
O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 544. 





BRACTEATES, &C. 34- 



179 



Both found early in this century; the former in 1817, with No. 25. — Each bears 
the same mansname: 

ot:m. 



Nos. 35—41, b. 

SWEDEN; DENMARK; NORWAY. 

O. N. R. M. Vol 2, p. 544—46. 

All bear the same name or word (? dat. or nom), = to-iNGE (mansname), inga 
(womansname), or possibly youngster, to-BABV. 

No. 35, probably found in Sweden, not known when. 




IC^A. 



No. 36. Found in Fyn, Denmark, about the middle of the 17th century. 




YC^A. 



No. 37. Denmark; found in 1845. 




YIA. 



No. 38. Denmark, unknown when. 




ICHIAY. 



23 



180 



BRACTEATES. &C. 39—41, b. 



No. 39. Maglemose, Vallerslov, Sealand, Denmark. Found in 1852, in conjunction 
with Nos. 6 and 55. 




YCiEA. 



No. 40. Frederiksstad, Smalenenes Amt, Norway. 




UGKHA. 



No. 41. Sweden, found before 1861. 




YKCjEA. 



No. 41, b. Sogndal, Bergen, Norway, in 1861. Barbarized. 




YGQEA. 



See Nos. 83, 84. 



BRACTEATES, &C. 42—46. 



181 



No. 42. 

SKANE, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R M. Vol 2, p. 347. 




Not known when found. — Either an ornament or a bind-rune. If the latter perhaps 
the mansname 



ITO. 



Nos. 43—46. 

CHIEFLY SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 547. Vol. 3, p. 231. 






23* 



182 



BRACTEATES, &C. 46—48. 



The large Blink to the top left, No. 43, found in Sweden but not known when; 
No. 44, the top right, found in Gotland in 1843; and the Swedish No. 45, find-tide unknown, 
all agree in what I now read as the mansname 

ELTIL. 

No. 46 was found long ago in Denmark, date not markt. It reads, a mansname, 

TIL. 

See Nos. 85, 86, 87. 



No. 47. 

SKANE, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 548. 




Not known when found. — Only the mansname 

ELWU. 



No. 48. 

NORWAY. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 549. 




Find-tide not known. - Accidentally mis-redd on p. 549. As the staves are reverst, 
the word must begm from below. The mansname 



BEACTEATES, &C. 49—50. 



183 



Nos. 49, 49 b. 

49. VASBY, SKANE, SWEDEN. 
49, b. ESKATORP, HALLAND, SWEDEN. 

0. N. R. M. Vol 2, p. 549, 875. Vol. 3, p. 231. 





Both these pieces have the small errors common with careless die-cutters, but the 
two texts agree in nearly every particular. The I in riHJiDU is hidden by the triangular 
ornament under the loop. No. 49 is more correct than 49, b. The common text, by 
comparison of both, is : 

HHL^^DU-UIG^ ALTE-UILJiA FIHiEDU. 

HL^DWIG for-ALTE-uiL^ FAWED (made this). 

HL.ffiDU-wiG.ffi means lade-wigg. Pack-horse, Carrying-nag, Sumpter-horse. The design 
in the center is therefore the Goldsmith's Sign or Rebus-play on his own name. No other 
Bracteate, with or without runes, bears the above type. But, as w^ know, these Blinks are 
often excessively barbarous. On some the Helm or Cap, on others the Head, on others the 
Neck, on others the Animal, almost or entirely disappears. We may therefore say that the 
Rebus is "not proven". But this will not alter the reading, which is so simple and plain and 
grammatically correct that it remains unshaken. 

Find-tide of No. 49 not registered. — No. 49, b, was dug up in 1867. 



No. 50. 

DENMARK, FINDSTEAD UNKNOWN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 550. 




The staves apparently give no meaning, are blind or contractions. In 1867 I guest 
at Tuu (the God's name) &c. 



184 



BRACTEATES, &C. 51 — 54. 



Nos. 51, 52. 

51. BOLBRO, FYN, DENMARK. - 52. VEDBY, FYN, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 550. 





No. 51 was found in 1852 with No. 56; No. 52 in 1860. Comparing the two, I 
now propose to read: 

OW^-ALDT EiEtL^DA. 

ow^-ALVT made (or gave) -thh to e^.tel^u. 



No. 53. 

L0GST0R, NORTH JUTLAND. DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 551. 




Perhaps only barbarous or contractions. Found in 1841. My guess in 1867 (taking 
the M, E, to be cut in half at the top), the mansname: etlstn (= ethelstan). 



No. 54. 

FYN, DENMARK. 

0. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 552. 



BRACTEATES, &C. 54—56. 



185 




Found in 1848. Only the mansname: laoku. 



No. 55. 
MAGLEMOSE, VALLERSL0V, SEALAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 552. 




Found in 1852, with Nos. 6 and 39. See my remarks on the fellow- bracteate No, 24. 
I now explain the simplified M and the N with the side-stroke on the right, as caused by the 
extremely narrow space, and propose: 

SIHMtWNT iENN H0(u8e)A. 
SIHMYWNT (— SJGMUJSD) ANN (gives-this) tO-HOU^. 



No. 56. 

BOLBRO, FYN, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 553. 




Found in 1852, with No. 51. Probably barbarous. My guess in 1867 was: 

USCEUNIA KOWT HUC ECETIOeA(STU) HILTU UFFTjEIC. 

USCEUNIA the-GOTS EEWED-this for-the-most-ilhistrious helt (hero) vffti(N)G. 



186 



BRACTEATES, &C. 57 — 58. 
No. 57. 

SEALAND, DENMARK. 
0. N. R. M. Vol. 2. f. 554. Vol. 3. p. 233. 




This costly golden blink was dug up in 1852. Unique type, a War-Chief spear in 
hand. I now agree with Bugge that the 13th rune is c, not L, and read: 

HJ? uiu, 

FiEUiE, UISiE! 

GIB UJiLYJi (TIU)! 

Wage thy-hattle, 

publish thy-war-han, 

0-Fcena our-Wisa (Leader, Captain)! — 

Give weal (success) (O God Tiu)! 

BATTLE STOUTLY, 
BAN THY FOE, 
0-F^UA OUR LEADER! — 
GIVE LUCK (0 TIU)! 
Begynn din kamp, utrop forbannelse ofver fienden, 0-Fseua, var Hofding. — 

Gif framgang (0 Tiu)! 
Should this be so, this is the only Bracteate on which I have found stave-rune 
verse. — We have an echo of such a Northern Battle-cry in the Hervara Saga, Ch. 18, 
Bugge's ed., Sec. 92, 93; and in Eyrbyggja Saga, ed. G. Vigfusson, Leipzig 1864, Ch. 44, 
p. 82. — See the unique example of the Spear-shaft inscribed with the War-ban, to be cast 
over the border, under kragehul, Denmark. 



No. 58. 

HARLINGEN, FRISLAND. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2. p. 554. 




Found before 1846. Bears the mansname: hama. 



BRACTEATES, &C. 59—61. 



187 



No. 59. 

HESSELAGERGARD, FYN, DENMARK. 
O. N. R. 31. Vol. 2, p. 555. Vol. 3, p. 234. 




Not correctly given in Thomsen\s Atlas, from which my engraving vpas made. I there- 
fore re-copy it here from the original, by the kind permission of its owner, the Chambei'lain 
F. Sehested, Broholm, Fyn. The runes may perhaps be divided: 

TE NU kl>M, OD. 

TEE (give) NOW EAD (fortune, happiness) o-OD (=0DIN, WODEN). 
But all this is doubtful. The solitary letters may be contractions, and the whole 
can be variously groupt. — Found in 1856. 



No. 60. 

ULDERUP, SOUTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

0. N. R. 31. Vol. 2, p. 556. 




Found in 1856. May be nikui or nukdi. 



No. 61. 

FINLAND. 

O. N. R. 3J. Vol. 2, p. 557. 




24 



188 BRACTEATES, &C. 61—64. 

Silver bracteate from 11th or 12th age. Found early in this century. 

JULIENI HCUG MMlLm, 

JULiENl (—JULIAN) HEWED (struck this) for-the-lady-JEMiLlA. 



No. 62. 
GARDSBY, OLAND, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 557. 




Find-date not known. Copper blink. Also very late. 

JOHN HO. 

JOHN HEWED (struck this). 



No. 63. 

LEKENDE, SEALAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 558. 




Found in 1864. This fine Golden Blink bears only 2 wend-staves - e^ -, which, 
if not a name or a contraction, may mean aye, for-AYE, ever-yours. 



No. 64. 

SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 558. 



BRACTEATES, &C. 64—66. 



189 




Not known when found. Silver. In Roman letters. If not a contraction (perhaps 
of Latin words), only the mansname: sunedromdh. 



No. 65. 
SKARKIND PARISH, EAST GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 559. 




Found early in this year-hundred. Golden blink. Also Roman staves-, and one in 
Greek. I now read: 

TVTO AIVOMIA VRwITO. 

TUTO for-the-lady. AIVOMI wrought (made this). 



No. 66. 

ILAND OF GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. 31. Vol 2. p. 559. 



24* 



190 



BRACTEATES, &C. 66—68. 




Found in 1837. Middle-age. Silver. Latin staves. Has been mounted on a Chalice or Book &c. 

-|- MAIESTAS: OTI ME FECIT. 

Christ-the- Divine- MAJESTY. OTl me made. 



No. 67. 
SKODBORG MARK, SOUTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 560. 




Found in 1865. Beautiful Golden Blink; nearby lay a golden Brooch of delicate 
workmanship. All the runes reverst. Begins right, above the Holy Symbol, and runs left. 

SEEL (happiness, good luck, success) to-THE youno ^l^win^, the-YOUNG ^l^winje, 

the-YOUNG JEL^WJNJEl 



No. 68. 

0LST, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 561. 




BRACTEATES, &C. 68 — 71. 

This golden Bracteate was found "in 1863. Reverst staves. 

BMG MLV. 

HEWED JELU (= ^lu stnick this piece). 



191 



No. 69. 

DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 562. 




Either a mere mark or a bind- rune. 



When found is not known. 



No. 70. 
WYK, UTRECHT, HOLLAND. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 563. Vol. 3, p. 235. 




Silver Runic Coin, dug up in 1836, the only one ever found in Holland. The last 
date of the other coins lying with it is about 840. J now agree with Mr. Haigh in taking the 
first stave to be an inverted l. not a c. 

LUL ON AUASA (or maybe Adsa). 
LUL ON (of) AUASA or AUSA (struck this piece). 
The ornamental monogram in my opinion gives us the king's name : ecgberht. — 
This suits ECGBERHT titular king of Wessex, but in fact of all England, who died in 836. 



No. 71. 
BORRINGE, VEMMENHOG HARAD, SKANE, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 876. 



192 



BRACTEATES, &C. 71—73. 




See Nos. 15, 16, 18, 19. Found in 1855. — I now agree with Bugge (Om Rune- 
indskr. pa Guldbr. p. 199) in reading the last word as a:mlm,vcma. Runes turned round. 

T^NULU (^ DANE- WOLf) tO-^^LJEUCu^. 



No, 72. 
VISBY KUNGS-LADUGARD, GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 

O. N. B. M. Vol. 2, p. 877. 




Found in 1860. Reverst staves. Bears the mansname: auto. 



No. 73. 
GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 878. 




Wend-runes. Found in 1865, probably at Gurfiles, in Ahla Parish. Bears the mans- 
name : NAI>^.. 



BRACTEATES, &C. 74—75. 



193 



No. 74. 

ENGLAND. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 879, LXVIII. 




Not known when found. Can only be traced back to king George 111, in whose 
Cabinet it was. Barbaric Golden Solidus. The English provincial runes are apparently only 
one word, the mansname: SCANOMODU. 



No. 75. 

ENGLAND. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 236. 




Found at the beginning of this century. Barbarian Golden Triens, in the British 
Museum. Like No. 74, struck in England. Bears in back-runes on obverse: 

iENlWULU KU(nung). 
uSNlWULU (= ANWULP) KING. 
Has also, in Latin letters, C lio, which the other copy shows is a contraction for — 
COENILIO — , doubtless the name of anwulf's Chief Fiscal Officer or Head of the Royal Mint. — 
On reverse we have, in Latin letters, the name of the Moneyer in the genitive (mot under- 
stood) : TENAES. 

The Leyden Museum possesses a later barbarized copy of this piece, also in gold. 
When found not known, but before 1870. The obverse omits the runes, but gives the 
full name : 




CORNILIO. — Reverse, also in Latin staves : tenes m. Thus teN'S (= DANE'S or dans) mot (Mot- 
house or Mint, or Coin, Stamp, Die. — See No. 25. 



194 



BRACTEATES, &C. 76—78. 



No. 76. 

DALUM, N. TRONYEM, NORWAY. 
O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 245. 




Barbarous-runic golden Bracteate. A copy's copy's copy., — Found in 1868. 



No. 77. 
EASTLEACH TURVILLE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 246. 




Found about 1868. English golden Trimessis, of about the 5th century. Bears 
the common mansname: 

BEA(r)tIGO f'= BEARTING, BRIHTING). 



No. 78. 

N^SBJERG, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 247. 




BRACTEATES, &C. 78—80. 



195 



Coarsely cut and difficult to read. Retrograde runes. I venture on the following, 
taking the small mark after g to be divisional: 

TISiECG HU H^RiENGU. 
TIS^CG HEWED (ciit this) for-the-lady-HJERJSNGA. 
Found in 1870, together with 2 copies from the same die of No. 79, and 3 exemplars 
from the same stamp of No. 80, besides several other runeless golden Bracteates and some 
small pieces of golden work, all apparently from the 5th or 6th age. 



No. 79. 

N^SBJERG, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

0. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 248. 




Found in 1870. See No. 78. Right word as usual. Left word, runes reverst. 
Apparently we must read : 

DjEITUHiE LILIA^IWU. 
D^ITUHJE to-the-lady-LILlA^lWA. 



No. 80. 
N^SBJERG, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 248. 




25 



196 



BRACTEATES, &C. 80—82. 



This elegant golden Blenket will always remain doubtful, because the last word 

(staves reverst) — for want of room -- is contracted. The vowels are left out. Usi^ally, in 

this case, it is the simple vowel i, which is supposed to be included on the foregoing stave. 

I therefore venture to look on this as a kind of Burial-Medal in memory of a deceast 

Chieftain, and translate: 

NIUWILiE LM (- LIPIN'). 

NIUWJL^ is-LiTHEN (dead, is no more). 
As LiwN properly means gone, it is possible that it here may signify departed on some 
war-expedition. — A part of the gold-hoard found in 1870. See No. 78. 



No. 81. 

? MECKLENBURG. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 249. 




This golden Bracteate bears only one rune, the a, of course the beginning of some 
word. See nydam moss, Denmark, where one of the Arrows has this letter. — Not known 
when found. 



No. 82. 

KILLERUP, FYN, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 249. 




Unhappily a fragment. The runes are 



UNDA 



but this may be the end of the name, and other words may have followed. The type is rare, 

the classical motive of the Emperor the Csesar and Victory. — Part of a gold-hoard, 

Bracteates and other pieces, found in 1874. Only this one and No. 83 bore runes. It belongs 
to that class of Winks which illustrates the "Barbaric Gems". 



BRACTEATES, &C. 83—87. 



197 



No. 83. 

KILLERUP, FYN, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 253. 




Found with No, 82 in 1874. See No. 84. Same type as Nos. 35 — 41, b, which see, 
and bears substantially the same name (inge, ingwe), namely: inki. 



No. 84. 

eiLLEROD, SEALAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 255. 




Found in 1874. See Nos. 35 — 41, b, and 83. — Also, as far as I can see, same 
name as the last, namely, the womans-name (inga): ^MCk. 



Nos. 85—87. 

GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 2, p. 874. Vol. 3, p. 256. 





25* 



198 BRACTEATES, &C. 87—89. 

See Nos. 43, 44, 45. - No. 85, found at Barge in 1859, my 45, b, p. 874, which 
see. - No. 86 a variation of the above; so nearly identical with No. 45 that it need not be 
engraved; found at Allmungs in 1873. - No. 87 was found at Djupbrunns in 1872. They 
all 3, as far as I can see, bear the mansname: eltil. 



No. 88. 
DJUPBRUNNS, HOGRANS PARISH, GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 256. 




Found with No. 87. Back-runes. Like Nos. 15, 16 bears only the mansname: ^LU. 



No. 89. 
UNKNOWN WHERE. — PROBABLY DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 237. 




Observed early in 1876 by Archivary C. F. Herbst among the barbarous Coins in 
Thomsen's Collection in the Danish Coin-Cabinet. Is a flan of silver, struck only on one 
side, of the usual weight and size of the olden Silver Penny. Museum number 12,186; weight 
1,31 grammes. Has been much cut on both" sides to see that it was pure metal, and is a 
good deal worn. Some of the letter-marks are so slight, that they could not be given by the 
artist. The no are especially difficult, but there is no doubt that the first word was a mans- 
name. I take the runes to have been: 

F^.GANO TMMiM. 

F^GANO FA WED (made, strnch, this piece). 
Apparently a trial-piece by a journeyman or beginner in the 7th century, and as such 
as yet unique. The G (X), a (Y) and (? 0, K) are special 0. N. staves, as well as the (m) V- 



BRACTEATES, &C. 90—92. 199 

No. 90. 
GETTORF, SOUTH JUTLAxND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 258. 




Two golden Bracteates were found by a poor person in the Duchy of Slesvig or 
South Jutland. They past mto the hands of a merchant in Kolding, who sold the one here 
given to the Kiel Museum. It is Runic-Roman-Barbarous, and of course meaningless. 



No. 91. 
GETTORF, SOUTH JUTLAND, DENMARK. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 258. 

This is the second Blink, which the owner has hitherto refused to sell or publish 
or have copied. It is very beautiful, bears a rude Mans-head and the Felefoot, and the 
following runes: 

TjELINGWU. 

To-the-lady- tiling wa. 
Observe the rune for ing, and see Bracteate No. 78 and the Kovel Spear-head. 



No. 92. 

LUND, SKANE, SWEDEN. 

O. N. R. M. Vol 3, p. 258. 




Silver bracteate, found in 1878 in a garden, Lund, Skane, formerly a Danish folkland. 
Curious for the masterly intermixture of the Old-Northern, the Old-Roman and the common 
runic alphabets. Apparently reads: 



200 



BEACTEATES, &C. 92—95. 



lAULIGR I SIMI FYIDI IAU5INI I BIRKOIINDM. 

lAULiG (= jolgeir) IN SIM (^ SEM in N. Jutland) FA WED (struck this) for-iAVpiN 
(=. SAP win) in BlBKWlN (= BERGEN, in West Norway). 
Type of KNUD V, Magnusson, king of Denmark 1147—1154. siM is apparently the 
parish and district now spelt sem or seem near Ribe in North Jutland, Denmark. 



No. 93. 
WAPNO, POSEN, POLAND. 

O. N. R. 31 Vol 3, p. 259. 

All I know about this Bracteate is, that it is spoken of in passing without further 

details by Dr. Wimmer, in his letter on the Kovel runic Spear-head. See "Materialien zur 

Vorgeschichte des Menschen im ostlichen Europa", by Kohn and Mehlis, Vol. 2, 8vo, Jena 

1879, p. 181. Dr. W. gives the inscription as ^^^1^, which will be the mansname: S^b^r. 



No. 94. 
SKIEN, SOLUM PARISH, LOWER THELEMARKEN, S. NORWAY. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 260. 




In the summer of 1879 two copies of this Golden Blink, struck from the same die, 
were found in a Lady's grava Several other objects, including a fine silver Brooch, lay nearby. 
Date apparently the 6th century. Would seem to be, as often, the formula of a nominative 
and a dative. I take ta^e (= tah^) to be the common mansname taa, in England toe, and 
the elWjEO to be a womansname. Thus: 

TA^ ELWiEO. 

TAJE (made-this-for, or, gave-this-to) the-lady-ELWJE. 



No. 95. 
AGEDAL, BJELLAND, LISTER AND MANDALS AMT, NORWAY. 

O. N. R. M. Vol. 3, p. 261. 




Found in 1879 in a Lady's grave, containing many rich remains which had escaped 
the funeral pyre. Date at least as early as No. 94. Inscription apparently barbarous. 



THE GOTHIC MARCH 



THANKFULLY INSCRIBED 



TO 



THE KEV. ISAAC TAYLOR, M. A, LL. D. 



SETTRINGTON, ENGLAND. 



BUZEU, WALLACHIA, ROUMANIA. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 250. 
OU-N. R. Mon. Vol. 2, f. 561. Vol 3, p. ,263. 




26 



204 



THE GOTHIC MARCH. 



Belongs to the so-called Petrossa treasure, a golden hoard found in 1838 in old 
Dacia. Engraved full size. The mound and ruins point out the place as a heathen temple of 
the Goths, to which this gold-ring was given. — I now divide and translate: 

GUTiE NIO Wl H^ILiEG. 

Of-ihe-GOTHS to-the-NEW wiH (temple) holy. = Dedicated to the new-built fane of the Goths. 



KOVEL, VOLHYNIA, RUSSIA. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. '300—400. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 266. 



l^T-,^ 



*: 



-.'•s 



KOVEL. — MttNCHEBERG. 



205 



Iron Lance-head, the figures and letters filled-in with silver inlay. Full size. Ploughed 
up in 1858 near Suszyizno, some miles north-east of the hamlet Kovel; now the property of 
Prof. A. Ssyszkowski, of Warsaw. Bears the owner's name: 

TILiERINGS 

a mansname here found for the first time. — Belongs to the early warlike and mercantile 
wanderings of the Northmen into the Slavic lands, out of which they eventually carved Russia, 
from RUOTSi, ROTSi, the name given by the Wendish Estonians and wild Fins to the nearest 
Swedish coast at ros-lagen. 



MONCHEBERG, MARK-BRANDENBURG, NOW IN GERMANY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 300—400. 
OU-N. R. Mon. Vol. 2, p. 880. 



/111! 



^-^ -'..'' 



\ 



I I 










^ 



->' 



-T - I • 




26* 



206 



THE GOTHIC MARCH. 



Found in 1865, with other weapons &c. in a grave from the cremation period. The 
district was Scando-Gothic till about A. D. 300—400, when it was overrun by Wendish (Slavic) 
tribes. The ornaments and staves inlaid with silver. Full size. — Bears only the mansname: 

R^NINGiE. 



CORLIN, POMERANIA, NOW A PART OF GERMANY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400—500. 
Old-N. R. Mon. p. 600. 




We cannot tell whether the bind-stave above the .^LU be ML or i,M or yo, or some- 
thing other; nor whether it is to be taken separately, or with the following word, the mansname: 

Full size. Golden Fingerring, found in 1839 at Corlin or Coslin together with a 
hoard of other golden pieces, including the Bracteate No. 29 and 5 other such which were runeless. 



? BOHEMIA. 



See the Golden Blink No. 3. 



? MECKLENBURG. 
See the Golden Bracteate No. 81. 



WAP NO, POSEN, POLAND. 

See the Golden Bracteate No. 93. 



WANDEREES. 



THANKFULLY INSCRIBED 



TO 



DR. SOPHUS O. MtJLLER, 



CHEAPINGHAVEN, DENMARK. 



THE BUZEU RING. 
See under the Gothic march. 



2 NORDENDORF BROOCHES. 
See under England. 



. OSTHOFEN BROOCH. 

See under England. 



THE CHAR NAY BROOCH. 
See under 3S[orway. 



THE CORLIN RING. 
See under the gothic march. 



THE BRUNSWICK CASKET. 

Siee under England. 

THE FREI-LAUBERSHEIM BROOCH. 

See under norwat. 



THE FRANKS CASKET. 
See under England. 



210 



WANDERERS. 



EMS, NASSAU, 



? DATE ABOUT A, D. 500 — 600. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 274. 





Fragment of a Silver Brooch, found some years ago. Never properly publisht. 
Dr. M. Rieger thought it had'^still left on one side uwiED^ and on the other mid^bng, the 
above drawing not being correct. — The Pin is doubtless of English origin. 



THE WOED-HOAED. 



_Lhat the reader may the better grasp all the linguistic teachings handed over to us 
in these precious Scando-Anglic runic remains — the oldest we have of our noble Northern 
mother-tung in its wide-spread local talks — , I have thought it best to gather together the 
whole word-stuff in 3 separate groups. For further details see the Word-lists at the end 
of Vols 2 and 3. In the vocables here given some errors may hereafter be found, for I have 
repeatedly said that my work is only tentative. We must modestly creep slowly on. Every 
fresh runic piece helps us to amend, in _ one direction or another. But still, whatever the 
shortcomings, I think and hope that in general my readings will be found substantially correct, 
and consequently that we may use with some confidence at least most of the considerable 
number of words here before us. A few years back, not even an enthusiast could have 
dreamed of getting half so many. 

All this, however, is on one condition, my being right in my main stand, that the 
Old-Northern rune-stave Y is a "vowel, and this vowel A. An opposing school in Scandinavia 
has long ago decided (of course at once, and without appeal, and in the name of what it calls 
"High Science"), that this Y is a consonant and this consonant -R, end-R, the falling -R of a 
word, or of a syllable in a word where it is not a part of the root. — The difference is 
immense, revolutionizes everything. In fact so serious a discrepancy could only arise in the 
infancy of this little-studied Old-Northern Rune-lore, when the material was so comparatively 
slender, and the few monuments gave scarcely any acknowledged formulas. As fresh inscriptions 
continue to come in, we are better and better able to see our way. Within the last score 
years or so the number of these pieces has been neaidy doubled. So I think we ought now 
to be able to decide this cardinal question, one way or the other. Let us then take the 
general outcome of what we this moment have. 

But in so doing let us remember, that the only honest and solid Philology is that 
which is Analagous and Comparative and Comprehensive, everywhere following facts. If this 
be admitted, we must also bear in mind the hundreds of olden overgang Scando- Gothic 
dialects which have left no written trace behind them, but which have in many ways led up 
to those which have; — and the endless changes local speech has undergone even in the 
same landscape; — and the equal right of any and every Runic or Romanlettered piece, stone 
or metal or wood or parchment, to represent wbat was then, and there spoken, as well as the 
later skinbooks in a partly fixt and schooled book-tung. But even these latter, as drawn out 
in Grammars, are largely falsified, scarce older or later forms being usually past over and the 

27* 



214 THE WORD-HOARD. 

paradigms showing only the "vulgar" forms, while the words are often corrupted and "syste- 
matized by the editor" so as to destroy unwelcome peculiarities, sometimes the whole being 
what is called a "normal text", — that is, wastepaper.^ 

The influence of time also, as well as of place, must be considered, for time will bring 
language in one district to the same worn standard as much earlier but very rapid development 
in another. And in general 100 years will largel'i/ alter an "uncultivated" unfixt dialect in its 
grammar and genders and syntax and word-hoard, and in the meanings of those expressions 
which are not driven out by others. How much more will this be the case in the lapse of 
600 or 1000 or 1500 years? Such epochs materially re-create a language. In England, helpt 
by runes, we can follow the course of our mothertung for nearly 1500 winters. Hence we 
can see the enormous developments from Old to Early English, and so to Middle and Later 
and Present English, — more or less in many things 5 speech-systems — , locally modified 
by scores of shire-talks, for convenience crusht into 3, the Southern, the Midland and the 
Northern, the last further influenced by the mighty flood of wiking-settlers in the 9th and 
10th centuries. So far therefore from the watchword of Modern Philology, "Unity and Iron 
Laws", we must largely build on very different truths, — "Variety and endless Caprice", as 
all Nature thro. 

But to return. Assuming Y to be_-R; even in the hands of great linguists the 
system has ended in this: most of these remains are unreadable, or only partly translatable 
with the aid of desperate archaisms or unknown constructions, giving meanings to say the least 
strange and paradoxical; or they are contractions; or else they are written in an unknown tung 
invented by the rune-cutter; or else they are magic. One must have the Gloves of Thunor 
to hold fast and doom a Salmon-Loke school which is helpt by loop-holes like these! -— But 
the doctrine also says that in this olden time — say the first 700 years after Christ — the 
characteristic nominative-ending of Scandinavia was -R. Some of these epigraphs are much 
older than Mseso-Gothic, with its exceptionally frequent and favorite -s, This nom. -S, (also 
common in forn Classical dialects), in Scandinavia as elsewhere eventually passes into -R, and 
then (Iceland excepted) falls away altogether in the Scandian tungs. But it (and not -r) 
holds on here and there in the oldest Northern runics, which show 3 nominatives in -s in 
the sing, and 1 in the plural, and it also survives locally in a score or two pieces bearing 
Scandinavian or later runes, down to the Christian age. The nom. mark was therefore of old 
still often -s, but never -R. How then could the later -R be the old and primitive Old-Northern 
characteristic? As nom. and ac. pi. ending also, this -s is largely vocalized and falls away in 
most of the oldest Scandian runics and parchments; afterwards when this plural consonant 
revives, the later -R for the older -s in plurals becomes organic in Scandinavia, where, Danish 
excepted which has no -R in some classes, the common plural mark becomes usually -R. — 
In the same way, we have in Scandinavia in the oldest runics and vellums such words as 
IS (our IS, 3 s. pr. and our AS, who or which), and was, uas (our was, B s. p.). But they 
also soon get the weaker sound, iR, er, war, var, as in some English shires. But this ancient 
Y must not he and therefore is not a. What then are we to do with the 0. N. runic words 



1 See my remarks hereon in the paper "On the Dialect of the First Book printed in Swedish", in Nova Acta 
Reg. Soc. Sc. Ups. Ser. 3, Vol. 10, part 2, 4to. Upsala 1879. 



THE WORD-HOARD. 215 

actually containing it? Nothing is easier. Where it stands alone, and is therefore an inde- 
pendent word or else the first letter of a word, it is simply ignored. Where it occurs in the' 
heginning or middle of a word (as in ACEi>iEN, ah, asping; fajur, inofasti, laing, lau, tii>as), its 
existence is denied, however plainly it may stand; or else all the letters are pronounced 
contractions; should all this be impossible, then the whole is declared to be magic, a "magical 
fonmda". At the end of a word, as for instance in substantives dat. and ac. sing and nom. 
and ac. pi., it cannot be, for this would clash with "Icelandic Grammar"! Yet we naturally 
expect by. sound "Comparative Philology" -a or some such vowel in the oldest Scandian 
in the like places, for it more or less survived there in all the most antique Scando- 
Gothic moles. 

But this whole -R system was based on the strange theory, that one language only 
was from the Iron Age downwards spoken over all the Scandian lands; — and that this 
"Old-Northern" tung was Icelandic^ (the comparatively modern book-dialect whose oldest 
specimens date from about A. D. 1200 or a little before); — and that therefore the nom. 
-K ending, and the Infinitive in -a or -M or -E, and the Post-article, and the Passive (or 
Middle) Verb, &c. were necessarily "Old-Northern" as being Icelandic. Hence all dialects not 
having these peculiarities were unholy and unworthy, and coidd not belong to the Scandian 
group. Modern Scandinavian doubtless remains such, tho usually it has long since lost the 
nom. -R mark, and in many of its dialects also the end- vowel of the Infinitive, — just as 
we have done in England. Oldest English (by mixt immigration a mixt and worn dialect-cluster) 
never had the nom. -R mark and the Passive. It was therefore a German speech, tho German 
at one time often Jiad the -R mark, and nearly developt a Passive in the same way as the 
later Scandinavians by its use of SIK (sich), which in Scandia became -SE, -s, and tho large 
sweeps of German territory early dropt the end-N in the Infinitive, as was done in Scandinavia 
and North-England. 

But the oldest runics show that strong nouns had -s as .their nom. mark, tho, as 
in all the other Scando-Gothic tungs (and afterward surprisingly in the Early English and the 
later Saxon &c.), there was a great tendency to use weak forms. ^ Later down the stream 



^ I understand that many of the younger and more gifted speechmen in Scandinavia are now abandoning this 
Icelandic- Old -Northern Fetish. But when I began my battle against it, nearly 30 years ago, 1 was simply ostracised, 
execrated and excommunicated. — Nay, Prof. Sophus Bugge, who finds it necessary and useful as an argument to 
assist his new theory about the modern origio of the Scandinavian-English Mythology, now says (Studier over de nordiske 
Gude- og Heltesagns Oprindelse, I, 1, Christiania 1881, p. 3): "Rundt omkring i Norden raadede, saaledes som vi af 
Euneindskrifter maa slutte, den seldste Jaernalder og Mellemjsernalderen igjennem, altsaa vistnok til henimod Aar 800, et 
Sprog, som i Lyd, Former og Ordforraad stod paa et ganske andet Udviklingstrin end de i historisk Tid kjendte nordiske 
Tungemaal, altsaa ogsaa det Sprog, hvori endog de seldste i Ssemunds Edda optagne mythisk-heroiske Digte er affattede." 
We must conclude from the Runic Inscriptions that in the Northern lands, thro the Oldest Iron-age and the Middle Iron-Age, 
in other words apparently down to about the year 800, there prevailed a language luhich in sound and forms and word- 
material was in a quite other stage of development than the Northern tungs known to us in the historical period, and thus 
very different from that mole in which even the very oldest mythical-heroic poems in Smmund's Edda are turitten. 

^ With regard to the multitude of local speech-forms — in such immense territories as all the Scandian and 
Anglic folk- kingdoms during the space of a 1000 years : — of a much less land-group during a much less period a 
German dared to say in 1852: "The contrast between the Ohg. and the M. Goth, and Mhg. is immense. In the latter 
we find simple and transparent relationships in the roots; in the former are crowds of differences. In the one we have 
but one dialect, or rather no dialect at all but a general orthodox written language; in the Ohg. we meet a mixture of 



21Q THE WORD-HOARD. 

turns, and a taste sets in for strong forms (which by that time show the -s weakened 
to -R). - So also in Scandian as in all its sister-dialects, the Infin. must originally have 
ended in -an, tho, as in Old-North-English, this -xX rapidly became nasalized and fell away. 
Old-Scandian runic Infinitives earlier than A. D. 800 are deplorably rare; we have as yet 
only 1, perhaps 2, which already end in -A, -M. But I have found several examples of 
Scandian Infinitives in -AN locally surviving on ancient stones bearing the later runes. - It 
is also now acknowledged that the primitive Scandian as little had the Pos^-Article as the 
Jutland dialects, the Enghsh, and all the other eldest Scando-Gothic. The Scandian. Passive or 
Reflex verb and Post-Article are even more modern than the mighty Wiking outflow to 
England in the 9th and 10th centuries. They brought nothing such over with them, for a 
very good reason; they were not yet developt in their local talks at home. 

On the other hand, the moment we build on Y being A, — these 0. N. runic 
inscriptions can be redd with reasonable satisfaction, if not always with absolute certainty, 
for there are of course difficulties and we know little of the manners and dialects of old. 
Even some of the things cut in the Scandinavian or later runes have not yet been fully 
mastered by the best rune-smiths, particularly where the words are not divided by stops. 
We find indeed in these oldest pieces no "Icelandic", or any other 07ie governmental or 
Chancery "written language" over such immense countries under manifold local chiefs, at a 
period when no "Denmark" or "Norway" or "Sweden" or "England" existed. We see instead, 
here as in every other land all the world over, many nearly allied patois showing the same 
general characteristics amid endless minor differences, some being more laggard and conservative 
others more go-ahead and revolutionary in admitting phonetic and grammatical changes. In a 
word, holding fast A as the value of Y, the Jewels, Weapons, Tools, Grave-stones, bear 
words in the usual natural style, scribbles or names or local funeral formulas exactly as 
elsewhere, and just as we find them continued by the same populations on pieces carved with 
the later runes. 

I add two interesting indirect proofs ' that this Y can really only mean a. The first 
is, the well-known Jluctuation and interchange in our dialects, old and new, between A and M, 
E, the monuments and manuscripts (even in the same line) and the folk-talks swarming there- 
with. Now also these oldest runic pieces (many centuries older than the fornest vellums) 



dialects, as it would seem in perpetual interweavement. And in like manner with the forms of inflexion."' — TVhile as 
to the ahundance of weak forms in the oldest Northern local talks, which mostly afterwards swung over to strong forms, 
till they at last usually fell away, I will appeal only to one authority.^ 

' And here call attention to another, of a technical character. In the later runic alphabet, besides the usual 
^ (r), as in the older futhorc, there is a second or so-called final -r, /k (or, shortened, I). By the rule, the former r 
is used where that letter belongs to the root, the second form only in falling syllables, &c. Accordingly this /k or I is 
the proper mark for the nom. ending in -R. But in fact, the latter r is often, even on very old stones, used for the 
former, sometimes K. and A are used almost indiscriminately for each other. Now should the Old-Northern Y or A have 
really had the power of fc, how has it come to pass that ^ and Y or A have never interchanged, so that — thro the 
whole 0. N. E. period in all the Northern lands — we have not one example of a nom. ending in -R.? 



1 K. A. Hahn. Althoohd. Gram. v. A. Jeitteles. Prag 1866, p. V. — 2 j, Qrimm. Von Vertretung mann- 
licher durch weiblicher Namensformen. 4to. Berlin 1858. 



THE WORD-HOARD. 



217 



decidedly show a prevailing tendency to prefer the Ji-sound, especially in Scandinavia'. Else 
we cannot explain the fact, that in them we have often ^ or E where we otherwise certainly 
expect A, and that some of the ristings show no a at all! [t is chiefly in the dat.s.m. that 
the A suffers little change. Remembering that the usual a (Y) is also stoopt (A), as the 
usual E (M) is also stoopt (u), let us take examples from each Scandinavian province: 



Tanum, Sweden 1 

Skarkind, , , 

Mojebro, 

Bjorketorp, ,, 



2 
2 
7 



Valsfjord, Norway 2 

Tune, ,, 

Torvik, ,, 

Orstad, ,, , 

Thorsbjerg, Denmark 

3 Vi Moss pieces, ,, 

Gallehus, ,, 

Kragehul, ,, 



5 
1 

2 
1 

2 
2 
1 



M. 

5 
6 
9 

24 
5 

15 
4 
6 
1 

14 
5 

14 



4 
1 

4 



2 
2 
4 



M and E together. 

5 

6 

9 
28 

6 
19 

4 

6 

1 
16 

7 
18 



28 108 



17 



125 



Thus 28 A to 108 M, but to 125 ^ and E. — There is not the same large pre- 
dominance of M (and e) in England, in whose provincial slightly-modified futhorc Y is a, 
T eA, yA, and K is 1, A, (while the exceptional Brough stone, which has no Ji, retains the 
Scandian A, \, for a), the F remaining m. 

A,\. 
Thames Knife . . . 
Nethii's Casket . . . 

Ruthwell 

Dover 

3 Thornhill stones . 

Brough — — — 15 

Lancaster 

Northumbrian Brooch 

Bewcastle 

Falstone 

Hackness 

Franks Casket .... 



Y. 


T. 


p. 


1 


1 
1 
6 


1 





24 


— 


1 


— 


— 


2 


3 


— 


— 




— 


— 


11 


— 


— 




— 


— 




— 


— 


10 



A. 


M. 


e. 


iE and E together 


3 


1 


I 


2 


1 


3 


1 


4 


30 

1 
5 


24 


21 


45 


5 


22 


27 


15 


— 


8 


8 


1 


2 


1 


3 


1 


1 


3 


4 


11 


2 


15 


17 


1 


8 


7 


15 


1 


1 


1 


2 


10 


10 


12 


22 



1 11 53 15 



80 



57 



92 



149 



* This floating dialectic m for a in Scandian codices , -which the Old-Northern monuments show goes back to 
the Tery oldest times, is disoust by Rydqrist (St. Spr. Lagar 1, 386 and 4, 16, 158) and by Axel Kock (Sprakhistoriska 



Undersekningar om Svensk Akcent, Svo, Lund 1878, p. 142). 
equally unsatisfactory. 



They gire different explanations, both of them as I think 



218 THE WORD-HOARD. 

The proportion is here only 80 A to 57 ^ (149 M and E together). ~ Old-English 
words are sometimes cut in Roman letters, and we all know what the Roman a is; at all 
events we are sure that it was not -E. And we have also one bi-literal stone (Falstone) in 
England, the English words being carved in Runic staves on the right hand, in Roman on the 
left. The Runic (F) JE is given on this stone by Roman ae, and the Runic K by Roman a; but 
the latter vowel only occurs in one word, SAULE, which is not yet found on any 0. N. runic 
piece in Scandinavia. ^9red's Ring is inscribed with micct Runic and Roman letters, among 
which last is the word ah. Now let us take advantage of all this. — Nothing is less doubtful 
than the common formula of ownership , N. N. OWES (OWNS, possesses, enjoys) ME, &c., where 
we have the 3 s. pr. of the verb agan, to OWN, in its many local sounds, a, ah, ^h, 0, OH, 
18 runic examples. (The ^H, 0, OH — as having no a — I do not use here). Let us now see: 

Scandinavia. England. 

a, Y. Orstad, Norway. ah, PR. Northumbrian Brooch. 

ah, YH. Sigdal, ,, ah. ^E9red's Ring (this word in Boman staves). 

ah, YH. „ ,, The Chatham Brooch (Vol. 2, p. 586) and the 

AH, YH. Thorsbjerg, Denmark. Sutton Shield (Vol. 1, p. 290) all in Roman letters, jclfgiui 

AH, Yi=l. Vi Plane, ,, me ah, jElfgiui me owns, and j^dvwen me ag. 

And let us apply another test, and see how the usual later Scandian a, A. +, answers 
to the 0. N. Y, /k, in those very few words yet found on these monuments which happen to 
coincide, a interchanging with m, P, as usual. Let us compare: — d^g^, Einang, Norway; 
dYh, Osthofen, England; Mansname, nom., now in Scandinavia dag, in England day. — 
r^miDO, Einang, Norway; ymm^m, Bracteate 89; rPucEiio, Ruthwell; Fi+to, Flemlose, 3 s. p.; 
rXitr:, Brough, 3 pi. p. fawed, made, cut, carved. — fTbur, Vordingborg, Denmark, f+br, Osby 
Sweden, ac. s. father. — h^il^g, Buzeu, Wallachia; HiLic, Brough, England, nom. s. f. HOLY. 
— gsen^L^iB^N, Tune, Norway, LOAF-fellow, Husband, dat. s. m.; HLf^FORD, Ruthwell, England 
LOAF-giver, Lord, ac. s. m. — hjsriwol^fa, Stentofte, Sweden, nom., h+riwulfs, Rafsal 
Sweden, gen. Mansname. — wYs, Fonnas, Norway, 3 s. p., w^s, Ruthwell, England, 1 s. p 
was; w^s, Tanum, Sweden, 2 s. imperat. be! — stjein^, Tune, Norway, ac. s. m., st+in, 
Freerslev and Helnses, Denmark, n. s. m. stone. 



Another argument is, taking this vocalic fluctuation in a wider range, and remem- 
bering how undoubtedly A, M, E, o, u, i, &c. pass into each other often in a way no "laws" can 
always explain, let us take two words, which accidentally and happily occur several times, and 
see what they show. The first little handful is the word for runes, nom. and ac. pi. fem. We 
have it 5 times ending in Y, A, = a, ronoa, euna, eunjsa, eunya, runoa. Let us, as commanded, 
write RONOR, runr, runj<:r, rtintr, runor. Well and good. These words can pass, tho not 
strictly "Icelandic and Grammatical", as respectable specimens of Middle-Scandinavian. They 
all have the wisht for -r. But we have two other equally undeniable forms, rung on the 
Norse Einang stone (3rd century), and run^ on the Norse Brooch (6th century). What are 
we to do with these? They are both in the ac. pi., governed by a verb meaning made. 



THE WORIJ -HOARD. 219 

wrote, cut, runo f^ihido and wr^et run^. We see that the system breaks down. If we may 
say RUN^: and runo, we may also say runa '. — Once indeed we really have rnr (carved short 
for RUNAR, to save space); but this is on the invaluable Danish overgang Freerslev stone 2, 
which all admit to be late, not older than the 9th century, thus Middle-Danish in the Wiking 
period. And as to this ending in -a, -m, -0, let us honestly bow to the fact of this vocalic 
ac. pi. ending surviving on at least two score examples of runa, runi, runo in grave-formulas 
in the Scandian or later runes, — in other words not yet having gotten the now incoming 
ac. pi. mark -R. 

The second tiny cluster is the Scandian word for low, grave-mound, barrow, in the 
sing. nom. (? m. or n.), of which I have spoken at length Vol. 2, p. 849 foil. It occurs as 
nom. thrice, always preceded by the name of the deceast in the genitive singular, and the 
inscriptions on the 3 grave-blocks are all perfect, no one letter is broken away. The Norse 
Stenstad stone (3rd century) reads: igingon h^l^ea, iging'S low, with the drawl or vowel- 
richness in HiEL^A of which we have so many examples on these monuments both in Scandinavia 
and England in the oldest days. Now here also we may say h^l^r, tho what the meaning 
of the whole then will be I cannot say. (Prof. S. Bugge writes that we must read halar ~ 
for, having no A, he makes M into a — , and that this is ^ hallar, nom, s. m., a slab, flattish 
stone, tho this particular stone is nearly round, and tho this word-form has never before or since 
been found in 0. N. runic times for a grave-block). Well, let us do so. — But then we 
have on the Norse Bo stone (3rd century): HX^BMiES (or HN^BDiEs) blmiwm,, hn^bmews low, 
for there surely can be no doubt that the word and the formula is the same; and on the 
Swedish Skarkind stone (3rd century) we read: SCUiE LEUWiE, SKlTH'S LOW, also clearly the 
same word and formula. — Now here again if -m and -M are correct, surely the ending in 
-A is equally to be expected. — On the Norse Sigdal stone (5th century) we have again 
LJiEWE (or possibly L^iw^l) in the ac. s. for LOW. 

And generally, with regard to vowel-fluctuations, overgang- forms, dialectic and 
development differences side by side in the same land and often on the same monument or 
in the same manuscript, let us take a very rapid glance at such things. For instance the Infin. 
ending, now, (where not otherwise or fallen away altogether in local dialects),, -a in the book- 
tung of Sweden and Iceland, -E in "that of Denmark -Norway, in only 13 lines of the oldest 
Scandian laws, omitting those of Norway-Iceland, which hold fast -A. The dates are, about: 
West-Gotland, Elder, 1290, -p. 3; Younger, 1350, p. 81; Upland, 1300, p. 1 1 ; Sodermanland, 
1330, p. 25; Skone (and Runic, which agrees), 1325, p. 3; Bjorko, 1345, p. 113; Gotland 
(26 half-lines), 1350, p. 7; Helsingland, 1350, p. 5; East-Gotland, 1350, p. 3; Westmanland, 
1350, p. 4; Smaland, 1350 — 1400, p. 103. Of course the page referred to is that in the 
last and best editions, by Prof. Schlyter. 

^ I believe that the Y ^ -R school now proposes to get out of this difficulty by taking rcno, rdn^ as accus. 
sing. fem. (all the other forms being a.c. pi. f. as usual), they translating rdno, rdn^ by runic inscription. I only answer, 
that this use of the word as a singular has never yet been found on the hundreds of later stones bearing this formula, 
and that when it was wisht to express this meaning on the ScandinaTian-runic blocks the term employed was RnNA-RA[>, 
or, when both staves and ivinds were included, runa-ritar. 

^ This costly Freerslev stone , which see , has several such shortenings of words by omission of vowels , for 
reasons of space. Such contractions are rare. Where there is plenty of room, it is unreasonable to say the words are 
contracted, if they otherwise can give a good meaning. 

28 



220 THE WORD-HOARD. 

A. ^. E. 0. 

West-Gotland, A 2 13 1 

B 21 1 

Upland 1 13 

Sodermanland 3 10 

Skane — 6 1 

Bjorko 2 5 

Gotland 9 

Hclsingland 2 10 — 1 

East- Gotland 18 

Westmanland 10 

Smaland 13 4 (Thus 76 a, 62 m, 2 e and 1 0.) 

The Danish nearly everywhere -m. But there is a particular formula in some of 
these Early Laws, and in Norse from 1250—1350, Icelandic (Gragas), 1250 and 1260, and 
Danish (Jutland, 1290), — the solemn words of Baptism. 

West-Gotl., A. i namn fa|)urs oc sunER oc andJDS helaghA. 

(This codex has also fAJsir, n. s., f^jDur, ac. s.) 
,, ,, B. i nampn fathurs oc sons ok thses heelghA andA. 

Sodermanland. i namn faJDurS oc sons oc Jjes helghi andA. 
Smaland. j namn fathurS oc suns oc thes hselgh^E and^. 

Norse. j nafuE (namfnE, nafni) fAdur (fo9or) oc sunAR oc andA hseilags (andANs 

hfelghA). 
Gragas. I nafnE (nafni) fAu9or (fo9ur) oc souar oc andA heilags. 

Jutland. i fAthsers nafn^ (nafn) oc suns oc hin hselghse (hselegh) and* (and). 

We will add the oldest English, from the Gospels, S. Engl, a, about 1000, S. E. B, 
ab. 1170; North-Engl. c, ab. 950, N. E. d, ab. 1000. 

South-Engl., A. on naman f^der and sunA and |)8es halgAN gastes. 

>> B. on naman f^der (fAder) and sunE (suua) and |)as halgEN gastes. 

North-Engl., C. in noma fAdorES and sunu and halgES gastes. 
'< " D. in noman fieder and suntr and |)8es halgAN gastes. 

The only other very old copy is the Frankic, about 850. 

in namen fAter inti sunES inti thes heilagEN geistes. 
Now we see here that these differences do not mark "nationality", they are too 
intermingled. They are merely the fluctuation of weak and strong forms, the greater or less 
falling away of the nasal, and a word or two assuming a particular meaning in a particular 
province at a particular epoch — which is always happening everywhere. Thus gast has not 
yet been found in Scandinavia in this sense, and in England ond, and, is little known and 
only provincial. 

But the most striking words here are father and son. Let us look at them in gen. 
and ac. s. 

Sanscrit g. s. pitur, ac. pitarAM; g. s. sunos, ac. sunuM. 

M. Goth. „ (?fAdrs, „ ?fAdar); „ sunAUS, „ sunc. 

Icelandic „ foQur, „ foQur; „ souar, „ son. 



THE WORD-HOARD. 



221 



Csedmon (A. D. 680) in his North-English First Song has gen. s. fAdur, but the 
South-E. copies give f^der; while the oldest English has otherwise g. s. f'adores, fasdores, fadEres, 
fadrES, f^der, ac. s. teder, fAder; g. s. sunAS, sunES, sunu, sunA, sunE, and in ac. s. sunA, 
sun^, sunE, snnu, sono. — The 0. Fris. has g. s. ffider, federES, feders, feiders, faders, ac. 
fEilcr. And in the speech-groups called Hig^i-German and Saxon the same diversity prevails. 
Thus Graff gives g. s. fAter, fAtir, faterES, ac. fAter, fAtir, faterAN; g. s. sunES, sums, ac. sunu, 
suno; and M. Heyne for the oldest Saxon g. s. faderA, ac. fAdaer, while Schiller and Liibben 
in their Lexicon give both vader and vaders as gen. from the same document, dated 1303. — 
In the later runes we have simply endless fluctuations in the different cases. As gen. s. famr, 
FOiiOR, and 2 examples of faj&urs; as ac. s. 35 different shapes, among them the valuable 
FAtDRA, faiuri, fai&urO, fauiura, distant echoes of a source whence came the Sanscrit pitai-AM. 

I have mentioned the 0. E. Gospels. These 4 nearly coeval monuments, translations 
of one original but in 4 independent local dialects in one land, are a linguistic treasure no 
other Scando-Gothic kingdom can show. But the mine has never been workt. It awaits more 
than one "digger". I will only give, as specimens, a couple of the nuggets, for they in a 
hundred ways explain and defend my 0. N. Runic A. At the same time I may remark that 
in A the infin. ends in -an, in B in -AN and -en, in C commonly in -A, otherwise -E, now 
and then with an -N, D usually -an. otherwise -A, -M or -E. 





South-E. A. 


South-E. B. 


North-E. C. 


North-E. D. 


A son, n. s. 


sunu, suna 


sunu, suna, sune 


sunu, suna 


sunu,suno,suna,sune 


& 


sunu, sune, suna 


sune, suna, sunas, 
sunes 


sune, sunu, sunes 


sune, suna, sunu 


d. 


suna 


sune 


sunu, sune 


sunu, suno, sunse 


ac. 


sunu, sune 


sune,sun9e,sunu,suna 


sunu, sona 


sono, sunu, suno 


ac. pi. 


suna 


sunes 


suno, suna, sunu 


sunu, sunes 


Brother, g. s. 


bro9or, broSur 


bro9er, bro9or 


broSres 


brojjer 


ac. pi. 


gebro9ru, gebro9ra 


gebroQren, gebro9- 


bro9era, bro9er, 


gebroSer, broeJDre, 






ran,&c. gebro9re,&c. 


bro5ra,bro9ero,&c. 


broQrse, bro]3er,&c. 


Name, ac. s. 


naman 


name 


noma 


noma 


Twain, two. 


twegen 


iwegen 


tuoege 


twegen 


Dove, ac. s. 


culfran 


culfran 


culfre 


(columha) 


Hands, d. pi. 


on handuni 


on hande 


in hondum 


hondum 


Kingdoms, ac. pi. 


ricu 


riche, rice 


ricas, ricu 


rice 


Devil, n. s. 


sceocca 


succa 


wiQerworde 


wiJDerwearde 


Pinnacle, d. s. 


heahnesse 


heahnysse 


horn-scea9e 


heh-storre 


Down, adv. 


nyJDer 


ni9er 


ufa hidune 


nijier 


Betrayed. 


belsewed 


belsewed 


gesald 


afongen 


Shadow, d. s. 


scade 


scede 


scuia 


scade vel scua 


Saw, 3 s. p. 


geseh 


geseah 


gesseh 


sae, gesseh, gessegh 


Shoes, ac. pi. 


gescy 


gescy 


gesceoe 


scoas 


Hand, d. s. 


handa 


hande 


bond 


honda 


Us two, d. 


unc 


unc 


(lis, usig) 


unc 

28* 



22-2 



THE WORD-HOARD. 





South-E. A. 


South-E. B. 


North-E. C. 


North-E. D. 


Fail, n. s. 


fann 


fann 


(ventilabrum) 


windiu-scoful 


Threshing-floor, a.c.s. 


l^yrscel-flore 


Isyrscel-flore 


bere-tun 


bsere-flor 


Grasshoppers, n. pi. 


gserstapan 


gserstapcn 


(locustce) 


grseshoppa 


Adders, g. pi. 


nseddrena 


nseddrena 


getterna 


nedrana 


Prophet, ac. s. 


witegan 


witegan, witega 


witgo, witga, witge 


witgii 


Star, n. s. 


se steorra 


se steorre 


stearra, gen.stearres 


^e steorra 


ac. 


steorran 


steorran, steone 


sterra, stearra 


steorran, steorra 


Child, ac. 


cild 


chyld 


cnseht 


cneht 


Eyes, n. ac. pi. 


eagena, eagan 


eagan, eagen 


egna, egan 


ego 


Tide, time. 


tid, fern. 


fern. 


masc. fern. 


fern. neut. 



Add, n. and ac. pi. n. Seeds, seda; Works, werca; Words, worda; Lands, londo (as 
well as LOND and laiND and ^ceras); gen. pi. Trees, tredna; Wives, wifen; ac. s. f. and n. 
Meed, meden and mede, mearda, mearde, heard, Mseso-Gothic mizdon: d. s. f. Wi/es mother, 
SWEGRAN, M. G. swaihron; Hand, ac. s. f. handa, hand^, Mseso-Gothic handu; and hundreds 
of other such things. 

One valuable feature in these Northern Gospels is the wonderful number of 1 s. pres. 
in -TJM, -OM and (the -M nasalized) -0, &c., as compared with the very few in the S. Engl, 
moles, — one only being left in modern English, — I a-m, am — while in Scandinavia not 
one is left, now that eg em has died out in Iceland, where it lived long side by side with 
EC ER, which last has killed it. The only example of this 1 s. pr. in 0. N. runes is the m 
BIM (i BE, = I am) of the Norse Fonnas Brooch, left in German in ICH bin, in Fris. bin, and 
prov. Fris. san, Saxon bin and sin. As a proof, in this direction as in others, how little 
theory is able a priori to fix the course of facts, I will mention that in the 2nd vol. of 
Th. Wright's valuable "Vocabularies" is, Vol. 2, p. 98 — 124, a glost list from the 8th century, 
taken from No. 144 in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and apparently written in 
Canterbury. In this Latin-English Gloss, — all by the same man with the same pen and ink 
on the same parchment, we have 1 example of verbs in the 1 s. pr. indie, in the oldest ending 
-UM, 7 in -0, 9 in -o, 1 in -a, and 2 in -E. If how only a leaf containing the -dm or the -E 
were left, what would a critic say as to the speech-forms and age of this codex? — In 
Sweden, where the iak mu is extinct, some districts still keep up the olden 2 s. in two 
forms, EST (our art and the Icel. ert) and ES (as in Sanscr. ASi and M. Goth, and still 
English is), and the 1 plur. brum, e'm, the popular ^, e, er, the IRO of the book-dialect, 
are in England. 



No division of words into time-periods is quite satisfactory. For convenience, I have 
groupt those here from the earhest to A. D. 400, from 401 to 800, and from 801 downwards. 
But I have also given the whole results from the beginning to 800, adding tabulated endings 
where needful. England, being a colony, of course comes in after 400. And the Bracteates &c. 
are thrown together in the 401—800 epoch, tho some belong to England, either struck there 



THE WORD-HOARD. 22o 

or by artists using the 0. English futhorc. — I will now hazard a few'very short and cursory 
remarks, merely to open the subject. 

NOONS to 400. Nom. s. masc. ending in -s, of which I have spoken above, 3 examples 
(-AS, -MS, -INGS); in -A and -ma, 4 ex.; in -o and -u, 5; in -e and -i, 3, besides -iNGiE, -ingi, 
-ONG, -UNG. — Nom. s. fem. in -ma and -ia, 2 ex., besides -ingoa and -ing^. — Nom. s. neut. 
in -^A, 1; in -M, 2. — Gen. s. m, in -iES and -IS, 2, but also 3 in weak terminations, -M, 
-INGON and -iNGiEN. — Gen. s. f. in -u, 1. — Dat. s. m. in -a. -ma and -ia, U examples; in 
-E, 1; in -^N, 1. — Dat. s. n. in -I, 1. — Ac. s. m. in -M, 4. — Ac. s. n. in -m, 1. — 
Nom. pi. m. in -^s, 1. — Gen. pi. n. in -m, 1. — Ac. pi. f. in -o, 1. 

Now these facts speak for themselves. They cannot be all "misredd" by myself or 
"miscut" by the writers. And the Tables from 401 to 800 show the same general features. And 
in this latter period, where English pieces come in, the English endings are substantially the 
same as those in the Scandian mother-country. 

ADJECTIVES, 1 to 800. The Gotho- Scandian forms already agree — from the slurring 
of the -N — with the 0. North-English, which here as elsewhere is the key to the rapid 
levehng Scandian development, as compared with the English Midland and especially with the 
Southern English. 

PEONOONS, 1 — 800. Several costly archaic forms, the 0. Scandian and the 0. Engl. 
throwing light on each other. 

VERBS, 1 — 800. I have spoken of the 1 s. pr. indie. — Exceptionally interesting here 
s the 3 s. pres., which unhappily but naturally occurs so very seldom in the oldest runics. 
The usual Scando-Gothic ending is, as we all weet, -5 (-th, -t, -d, &c.), which goes back 
to the earliest known Aryan times. In modern English it is still formally -th, but actually and 
conversationally and commonly and in the book-language this -th is lispt into -s. More than 
1000 years ago this -s bad become the usual N. E. mark of the 3 s. pr., which it still is, 
but in this dialect it had then as now (in North-English) mostly crept-in also as the mark of 
the plural present. In Shakespear's day it was by a very narrow chance that this North- 
country -S in s. and pi. did not gain admittance into the accepted book-dialect. In olden and 
modern Scandinavian the 3 s. pr. ends in -R, not -th. How is this? Again the 0. N. E. helps 
us. We see that as in N. England the -th was lispt into -S, so in Scandinavia with its 
quickly growing distaste for -s it was further softened into -R. In modern Danish this -R 
(like the -S in N. English) has even become the common form also in the plural, and this 
revolution is silently spreading into Sweden and elsewhere. In fact we have examples of it 
as old as the Middle Age both in Iceland and Sweden. Such things begin much earlier than we 
sometimes suspect. 

I have said that we have no very old Scandian 3 s. pr. , none in the Old-Northern 
runes. But there is one comparative exception, tho not very old, for I cannot give it a higher 
date than the 9th century. But as bearing one of the 0. N. runes it is overgang and 
conservative. The famous Picts house at Maeshowe, in the Orkneys, was for some 3 year- 
hundreds the resort of Scandinavian wikings, and its slab-built walls are covered with their 
scribbles, many of them quite short in the regular John Bull style, merely the name, or N. N. 
cut this, N. N. carved these runes, others a little longer and ending N. N. wrote this, &c. One 
of the oldest of these ristings reads : 



224 THE WORD-HOARD. 

tORtsR SMR^. H^LUI RiEISTO. 
Both these short sentences seem risted by the same man, who in the first has used the later 
i and in the latter the older 1( for 0, perhaps merely to show that he was acquainted with 
both. But whether all inscribed by one person or no, the words are so simple that probably 
few will dispute the translation : 

a-TEORN SORETB. EJELHl RISTED (cut this). 
Should we take the first words figuratively, as was common in the warlike wlking age, of 
course the meaning will be: a-war-THORN (= JAVELIN or DART or spear) WOUNDETH. But 
however this may be, the whole is most orthodox middle-Scandinavian. We have the familiar 
nom. R-mark of that time, and the everyday Scandian mansname helge, and the olden 3 s. p. 
-0, that verbal ending so common in the earliest days. — But then we have the 3 s. pr. S^R5, 
ending not in -R as we had expected, nor even in -S, but in the still forner -5, -th. Now 
what is this -i>? Is it English, pickt up in Northumbria, or is it a, fi^st example of the oldest 
Scandinavian 3 s. pr,, brought over from some "slow" backwood dialect far away in the 
Scandian home? Northumbrian, however, in the 9th and 10th century had already long ago 
generally adopted the sibilant -s; while the -R in tORNR and the name h^lhi are not 
Northumbrianisms. The likelihood is therefore nearly a certainty, that the B in smr^ is oldest 
Scandinavian. If so, it is excessively costly. Should the reader say no, no harm is done. 

I have spoken of the 3 s. p. in -o, &c. But as to the 3 plural past. We have 
one most ancient Scandian instance of this 3 pi. p. ending in -UN, the d^elidun of the 
Norwegian Tune block (3rd century). The other oldest 0. N. runic examples are N. English 
(date 680), and are in -UN, -on and -u, the -n early tending to fall away in N. England, which 
it soon did entirely in all the N. English and Scandinavian vernaculars. Now a whole mountain 
has been made out of this molehill, this precious but unfortunate d^lidun. Tho this final -N 
is in common to all the known antique Scando-Gothic tungs, and lived-on in South-England 
("Book-language" England) to the 14th and 15th centuries, and is at this moment the fixt 
form in the usual Frisic and Dutch and Saxon and German — an immense slice of Scando- 
Gothic Europe — . we are called upon to believe by my learned opponents that this end- 
nasal could not possibly, even once, be kept up locally in a venerable dialect like that inscribed 
on the fine Tune monolith, which all its critics agree cannot be much later than the 3rd year- 
hundred after Christ! 

But let us turn the argument round. In England by the 14th century the -N in this 
3 pi. p. was usually gone, only the -E (in the -en) being left. About the same time Scandian 
writings had also come to the same stage, -m, -a, -e, the Swedish still mostly keeping its 
older -0, -u. By the 16th century the -e in England has almost perisht, and has never 
been heard or seen since in .English. This final slur was reacht in Scandinavia a couple of 
centuries later, and at this moment all the living local Scandian talks (Icelandic excepted, 
which has always held fast its -u), as well as the Dansk-Norsk book -language, have entirely 
dropt the vowel. The Swedish book-tung still insists on its useful and expressive -o in strong 
verbs, but numbers of careless and uneducated Swedes have given it up. Thus the 
Scandinavians and English have practically come to the same result in the same way, only 
the Scandians made great haste as to the -N, while they were more backward and slow in 
casting off the remaining vowel. — What, then, should we say, supposing that England had 



THE WORD-HOARD. 225 



no really old parchments to help us, if, on some person modestly and quietly showing that 
he had found this 3 pi. p. in -n on an antique runic piece in England, he was met by the 
"infallible" protest — that such an instance was "absurdly impossible"? 

PREPOSITIONS and adverbs, 1—800. Call for no remark. Again we see how the -n 
is usually nasalized (i for in, o for on) in N. England and Scandia, tho instances occur in 
much later Scandian remains of both in and on, while in Midland and Book-English it 
continues to this day. 



As far as I can see, there is only one conclusion from the whole. With the facts 
staring us in the face, we must admit that manifold dialects were in continual growth and 
change thro the Northern lands, tho in the oldest time all agreed in their bolder features. But 
local developments and fluctuations of population and settlement went on unceasingly (as they 
do still) both on the Scandian main and in the English colony; disparities multiplied, and 
in time the great Scandian and Anglic branches show differences wide indeed. The Scandian 
creation of its Post-article and its Passi-ve was itself a revolution, equaled only by the large 
Romance elements which became so much more interwoven with the English than with the 
Scandinavian. — But in Scandinavia itself, as in England, how greatly do not the "languages" 
and "dialects" diflFer! At this moment the written languages of Scandinavia, however near, 
cannot be generally redd out of the country, and translations from Danish-Norwegian to 
Swedish and the reverse go on dail-i/. The spoken dialects are very many in each Scandian 
land, and folk in the one district can often not understand the natives of another, — just 
as a Londoner is helpless face to face with a poor Cumberland "statesman", books in the 
broad North-English almost unreadable by a common Englishman. But the Scandian talks in 
general (specially the Danish) greatly liken the English (especially the North-English), and a 
farm-laborer (from Jutland for instance) can after a couple of days be hob and nob with the 
peasantry in Northern England and Southern Scotland — the olden North-English march. — 
Now in the Old-Northern Runic age all these folkships could get on well together, while they 
were also very closely allied in speech and blood with the Frisic and Saxon clans (some of 
which took part in the settlement of England), the Old-High-German showing greater 
differences ^ Only one of all these Scando-Gothic offshoots has real organic variations of 
weight, pointing to peculiar development by intermixture &c. — the Mseso-Gothic. This talk 
stands considerably apart from the rest — has become a kind of Gothic "Icelandic" — from 
its excessive sibilation, its peculiar or archaic forms, and its Middle Verb, and it probably 
difi^ered in some of these things from those other Gothic clans whose talks we have lost and 
of which we consequently know nothing. But even as we have it — a regulated schooled 
Chancery book-dialect — Mseso-Gothic, like every other tung, has its curious abnormities and 



' This is now acknowledged by Prof. S. Bugge (in his new work on the Northern Mythology, I, p. 28): "Dets 
nordiske Sserprseg er paa dette Trin saalidet udfoldet. at man med Grund kan betegne Sproget som kun en germansk 
Dialekt.". Its [the Scandinavian tung^s] Northern characteristics are in this stage [cloion to the end of the 8th century] so 
tittle developt, that we may well call the language a Teutonic [= Scando-Gothic] dialect. 



226 THE WORD -HOARD. 

exceptions and absurd contradictions within itself, — and is no more worthy of being made a 
tyrant- fetish than Icelandic or Sanscrit. 

I need not add that the words in these lists which may wear the same general out- 
ward shape may actually mask several independent roots, — that the meanings of some words 
we shall perhaps never know, — that the same ending may be borne by words of different 
genders, — that the date of these runic pieces has only been fixt approximately, and so on. 
We know very little of all such things as yet. How should we? Few and far between are 
the lights which glimmer over the clan-lands of our forefathers 1000 years before and after 
Christ. We may learn a little more in time, if we work hard and theorise less. But 
whatever we can now master as to this Old-Northern language, m'C have learned from the 
MONDMENTS. ^ These therefore we must respect at all hazards, whatever systems may have to 
give way, and even tho the upshot should be that much of our boasted "Modern Philology" — 
with its "iron laws" and "straight lines" and "regular" police-ruled developments — is only 
a House built upon the Sand! 



NOUNS AND NAMES. To A. D. 400. 

SWEDEN. 

MasG. Norn, ^neeha?; Fino; Hseislee; Hsei-tinse; Hgering (but Hoeringoe if we divide Hcerinqce 
gileugce); Hseuc; Siaseluh. — Gen. Scil3a3; Prfewingsen. — Dat. Frse- 
wsereedsea; OfDua. 

Fern. Nom,. Ginia. Sseligsestia. 

Neut. Nom. Leuwse. ^ — Ace. Leugse. 

NORWAY. 

3Iasc. Nom. Mln; Dsegse; Godsegses; Hao; Ingost; Lsemse (? L^dte); Lia; Wiwiln. 

- Gen. Hn^bmses; Igingon (? fem.). — Dat. Af^Eea; gfeHselseib^n ; 

Hsegustseldia; Mirileea; S3eg(a); Dewsea; Weering^a; Woduride^ — Ace. 

Stseinse. — Nom. pi. ^rbingses. 
Fem. Nom. JErbingse; Dohtr; Ecwiwsea; No^uingoa. — Ac. pi. Runo. 
Neut. Nom. Hgelasa; Hlseiwse. 

DENMARK. 

Masc. Nom. ^8eda3g*s(li); ^isg; Echlew; Erileea; Gisliong; HEering^; H^riso; 

Hleung; Lse^seeuwingse; LeJDro (? LuJ^ro); Lu^; Tabling; Tit)as; Tunba; 

De; Will; Wiis(a). _ Gen. ^s-ugis. - Dat. Holting^a; Ow1]du- 

iDcwsea; Wiyu-bigi(? ^). _ Ace. R^g^\s,; Hornse; (or also ac. pi. neut.) 

Smuhse. 
Fem. Nom. Niwseng-mseria. — Gen. Riigu. 
Neut. Ac, pi. Hornse; (or also ac. s. m.). - Gen. pi. m^; L^-orb(£e). 



Chr-st B T" T' TL 'T Z ' r"''" °' " ^' "°^- --■-*'— "^ older than the assumed date 801 after 
fror;hettTlf T.. t^ *-/-'^^' -'"'«' Frederiksberg, .Hn...K, Heln.s ; and hho..™, Vatn, Norway) date 
trom the last half of the 8th century, somewhere about 800. The other wt nU.. ■ ,• r. • , 

„„„„ .„, , ^, ^ ^ . -^""^ oiner, yet older, nommatives have all either no 

consonantal mark or that consonant is -s. 



THE WORD-HOARD. 227 



THE GOTHIC MARCH. 

Masc. Norn, ^lu; Reeniugse; Tileerings. — Gen. pi Gutse. 
Neut. Dat, Wi. 



NOMINAL ENDINGS. 

SWEDEN. 

Masc. Nom. -se^ -ing(?ge); -o; -^ — Gen. -ge; -ingsen. — Dat. -a; -*a. 

Fern. Nom, -ia^ 

Neut. Nom, -se. — Ace. -se. 

NORWAY. 

Masc. Nom. -a; -se^ -ees; -o; -u; -'. — Gen. -ses; -ingon. — Dat. -a (?); -aja^ -sen; 

-e^; -ia. — Ace. -se. — iVbm. pi. -ses. 
i^mi. iVbm. -sea; -ingse; -ingoa; -. — Ac. pi. -o. 
Neut. Nom. -se; -sea. 

DENMARK. 

Masc. Nom. -a (?=*); -se* {V); -sea; -as; -e; -i (?==); -ing; -ingse''; -o^ -ong; -ung; -\ — 

Gen. -is. — Dat. -8ea^ — Ace. -8e^ 
Fern. Nom. -ia. — Gen. -u. 

iVewf. Ac. pi. -se (?) — Gen. pi. -se. 

THE GOTHIC MARCH. 

Masc. Nom. -se; -ings; -u. — (ren. pZ. -se. 
Neut. Dat. -i. 

OLD-NORTHERN. 

ilfasc. Nom. -a (?^); -se^ -sea; -ses; -as; -e; -i (?^); -ing^ -ingse^ -ings; -o*; -ong; -u; 

-ung; -®. — Gen. -se; -ses; -ingsen; -ingon; -is. — Dat. -a(?^); -sea''; -sen; 

-e; -ia. — Ace. -se*. — Nom. pi. -ses. — Gen. pi. -se. 
Fern. Nom. -sea; -ia^; -ingse; -ingoa. — Gen. -u. — Ac. pi. -o. 
Neut. Nom. -se^; -sea. — Dat. -i. — Ace. -se. — Gen. pi. -se. 



ADJECTIVES & PARTICIPLES. To A. D. 400. 

NORWAY. 

Dat. s. m. wiTMi (defin.). 

DENMARK. 

Dat. s. m. ^G^STIA (sup. def.). vgm (defin.). 

THE GOTHIC MARCH. 

Nom. s. f. H^IL^G. — Dat. s. n. Nio (defin.). 

OLD-NORTHERN. 

Nom. s. /. -, — Dat. s. m. def. -se; -sei. — Dat. s. m. sup. def. -sestia. — Dat. s. n. def. -o. 

29 



228 THE WORD-HOARD. 



PRONOUNS. To A. D. 400. 

NORWAY. 
DP^NMARK. 



Nom. pi. neut. la. 

Norn. s. Ec. 

VERBS. To A. D. 400. 

SWEDEN. 

2 s. imperat. Wees! —3 s. pr. sitbj. ^gi. 

NORWAY. 

3 s. p. Fseihido; Worsehto. — 3 pi p. Dselidun. — Inf. (Set)a. 

DENMARK. 

Is.pr. Hseite. — Ss.pr.kh^; 0. — 3 s. p. T^wido. — 2 s. imperat. Gee^ He. — ? Inf. Niyse. 

OLD -NORTHERN. 

t s. pr. -e. — 3 s. pr. -. — 3 s. p. -o\ — 3 pi. p. -un. — 2 s. imperat. -\ — Inf. -a; ee (?). 

PREPOSITIONS. To A. D, 400. 

NORWAY. 

iEfter. 



Gsegin. 



A; Ai; Hser. 



DENMARK. 

ADVERBS. To A. D. 400. 

SWEDEN. 

NOUNS AND NAMES. From 401 to 800. 

SWEDEN. 

Masc. Nom. ^bse^; ^lu; Erilsea; Gsefing; Heeidar-runo; Hseriwolsefa; Hse^uwolsefa; 

Hauf^uiikii; lit; Mmlse; Mwsyouingi; Sseaj); Porlsef; U|)ser; Uansebserseh. 

— Gen. Hoeges. — Dat. ,? ^awelee; Bseruta (? fem.); Hy|)uwul8efa; 

Hyriwulsefse; Lsea; Svoseneea. — Ace. Fselse; Ihaee; Ruma; Stsense. — 

Gen. pi. Hselhseda; Helsehedduse. 

Fem. Nom. JEheker; Hyeruwulsefia ; OlJDa, — Dat. JElu; Unboaeu. — Ace. ^.rse^ 

Miicnu; Ro; Ukisi. — Nom.pl. Ginse-runsea; Runoa. — Ac.pl. Gino-ronoa; 

Runoa; Runya. 
Neut. Nom. ^anb. — Dot. Tuma. — Nom. pi. Hidear-rungno. 



THE WORD-HOARD. 



229 



Masc. Nom. 



Fern. Nom, 
Neut. Nom, 

MasG. Nom. 

Fern. Nom.. 
Masc. Nom. 



Fern. Nom. 



Neut. Nom. 



NORWAY. 

Acela^n; iElwa ; Asping; Boso; Laing; Mirilse; Rhoseltr; ? Seemseng; 

Sserselii; turmuja; Unnbo; U]d; 1 Weettset. — Gen. Msenis. — Dat. 

Hiligsea; Icweesuna; Iddsen; lulDingsea; Weerua. — Gen. pi. DseJDyonse; 

Hseldseo. 

Dselia. — Gen. Goi]Du; (O)t)c(u). — Ace. Cisego; Rsew, Roate, Roae. — 

Ace. pi. Runse. 

lod; Lau. — Ace. Lseewe. 

DENMARK. 

^ni; ^uair; Nura-ku|)i; Rhuulfr; Ruulfasts; Stsein; Triibu; Tu; Piwbyo- 
funl^r. — Gen. Hurnburse; Sui|3zks. — Dat. ? Isinglasea. — Ace. JE]Disl; 
BrujDur-sunu; FaJ^ur; Kujaumut; Stain. 
Ujaseict. — Ace. Prui. 



ENGLAND. 

^Egili; JElcfrith; ^leubwini; Alia; 

Cadmon; Krist^ Cuhl; Cunung; 

Eadbierht; Eadred; Eaured; Els; 

q2 



Alwin; JEbred; Baeda; Beagnojj; 

Kung; Dsegmund; Dah ; Dom; 

Eomser; Eomaer; EJDelberht; Fisc- 



flodu; Gisl; Gyoslheard; God^ Gonrat; Gudrid; Hwsetred; Ikkalacgc; 
Isah; Lonsewore; Oeki; 01wfwol|Du; Osbiol; Oscil; Reehsebul; Reumwalus; 
Romwalus; Wodsen; Wop; WoJDgar; Wulfhere. — Gen. Alhs; Kuninges; 
Ecgfri]3u; Heafanses; Hronses. — Dat. JEli; Breodera; Buciaehom; 
Dering(sB); Ecbi; Eomse; Erha; EJjelwini; Hroethberhtse; Roetberhtse; 
. ...rhtae; Mungpselyo; Olplss; Raira; Sighyor; (tru)mberehct. — Ace. 
AlcfriJ)u; Berchtvini; CilniballD; Kilning; Cilningc; Cu|3boere(hting) ; Doep- 
stan; Fergenberig; Galga; Great; Hlafard; Houh; Laiciam; Onswini; 
Oswiung; Sigi. — Nom. pi. gibro|)8era; Men. — Gen. pi. Myrcna. — 
Dat. pi. Strelum. — Ac. pi. Men. 

Claseo; KiineswijDa; Kunnburug; Hilddi(g)u|) ; Hildi]3ru|3; Igilsuilo; Wiilif. — 
Gen. Cearungia; Cimokoms; Coinii ; Geeliea; Ultyo, — Dat. Berhtsui{)e; 
Birh'nio; Eateyonne; Rodi; Romsecsestri; Sowhula; Saule^; Winiwonseyo. — 
Ace. Aclihck. — Dat. pi Sorgum. 

Gen. Dsebs; Licses; Rices. — Dat. Beornse; Bergi; Blodoe; Gear. — 
Ace. Becun*; Brok; Cuombil-bio; Lic-bsecun; Sig-becn, — Dat. pi. 
Heafdum. — Ac. pi. Ban. 



THE GOTHIC MARCH. 



Masc. Nom. M\n. 



BRACTEATES, &c. A. D. 401—800. 

Masc. Nom. AW; ^niwulu; ^nwll; ^nosense; Auto; Beartigo; Cornilio; Cun(ung) 
Ku(nung); Dasituhse; Ecmu; EltiF; Elwu; Feewse; Foslseu; Fuwu 
Geegecallu; Gal; Glse; Hama; Hhlseaedu-uigee^; Huthu; Ichiay; Inki; Ito 

29* 



230 THE WORD-HOARD. 

Laoku; Lul; NajDse; Nae})uyseng; Niuwilse; Otae^ Oti; Owee-alut; Ssebser; 

Sihmywnt; Sunedromdh; Tase; Tallwe; Tsenulu; Tsewori; Til; Tissecg; 

Tvto; Tweed; Pasco (or Pusco); Pur; Wseigae; Uyseyliil; Uodn. — Gen. 

Tenaes; Tenes. — Dat. ^.aBlseucsea; ^Isewinse^; ^lewin; Alte-uilsea^ 

^ohaeese; A\>; Aulilyose; Esejalseua; Housea; Lseuceea; Lsewuloucsea; 

Tiwitse. — Ace. Uelyse. — Gen. pi. Heldsea. 
Fern. Nom. Voc. Icsea, Yseca, Yc8ea^ Ykceea, Yia, Ygcea, Ugha; Sselsew, Sselu. — 

Dat. Aivomia; ^|)odu; Auasa; Cunimudiu; Elwseo; Glyoseu-giauyou ; 

Hsersengu; Liliaeeiwu. — Ac. pi. Haeiticse; Runoa. 
Neut. Nom. Ace. Uia. 



NOMINAL ENDINGS. 

SWEDEN. 

Masc. -a^; -ee^; -sea; -ing; -ingi; -o; -u; -ii; -*. — Gen. -es. — Dat. -a?; -se^; -eea. — 

Ace. -a; -se^; -ase. — Gen. pi. -a; -use. 
Fern. -a; -ia. — Dat. -seu; -u. — Ace. -se^ -i; -o; -u. — Nom. pi. -sea; -oa. — 

Ac. pi. -ya; -oa^ 
Neiit. -. — Dat. -a. — Nom. pi. -o. 

NORWAY. 

Masc. -a; -se; -seng; -ing; -o; -r; -u; -^ — Gen. -is. — Dat. -a^ -sea; -sen; 

-ingsea; -. — Gen. pi. -seo; -yonse. 
Fem. -ia. — Gen. -ul — Ace. -ase; -ae; -o; -. — Ac. pi. -se. 
Neut. -^. — AcG. -e. 

DENMARK. 

Masc. -i'; -r'; -s; -^ — Gen. -se; -inks. — Dat. -eea? — Ace. -u; -\ 
Fem. -. — Ace. -i. 



BRACTEATES. 

-a; ee-"; -e; -i; -o*; -on; -u'^ -^l — Gen. -aes; -es. — Dat. -a; -ee^; -ee«; 
-sea^ -yoee; -^ — Ace. -yee. — Gen. pi. -sea. 

Iceea, Y^ca, Yceea^ Ykceea, Yia, Ygoea, Ugha; -u; -. — Dat. -a; -seo; -ia; -iu; -u'; 
-you. — Ac. pi. -incee; -oa. 
Neut. Ace. -u. 



Masc. 
Fem. 



SCANDINAVIAN OLD-NORTHERN. 
Alasc. -a*; -se'^ -*a; -e; -i^ -ingi, -ing^ -seng; -o^ -on; -r^ -s; -u"; -ti; -^ - Gen, 

-se; -aes, -es^; -inks; -is. - Dat. -a^ -ee^ -sese; -sea (? 9); -sen; -ing^a; -yoee; 

-I -- Ace. -a; -se^ -ase; -u; -y^; -^ _ Gen pi. -a; -sea; -*o; -u^; -yonfe. 
Fem.. -a; -ia^ Icsea, Yseca, Ycsea^ Ykcsea, Yia, Ygosa, Ugha; -u; -. - Dat. -a; -seo; 

-seu; -ia; -iu; -u (? 5); -you. - Ace. -a^^ -ae; -^; -i; -o^ -u; -. - Nom. pi. 

-eea,; -oa. — Ac. pi. -se; -inc*; -oa^ -ya. 
Neut. -I — Dat. -a. — Ace. -e; -u. — Nom. pi. -o. 



THE WORD-HOARD. 231 

ENGLISH OLD-NORTHERN. 

Masc. -a^; -e^; -i*; -u^ -ung; -g; -us (Lat.); -^'. — Gen. -ses^; -es; -s; -u. — Dat. 

-a'; -se^ -i*; -yo; -*. — Ace. -P; -u^ -ing, -ingc, -ung; -'. — Nom. pi -a; -. — 

Gen. pi. -na. — Dat. pi. -uin. — Ac. pi -. 
Fern. -a; -o; -*. — Gen. -ia; -iea; -s; -u; -yo. -.- Dat. -a; -seyo; -e^; -i ; -io; 

-yonne. — Ace. -. — Dat. pi -um. 
Neut. Gen. -ses; -es; -s. — Dat. -se^; -. — Ace. -*. — Dat. pi -um. — Ac. pi -. 

ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES. A. D. 401—800. 

SWEDEN. 

Nom. s. masc. lilse (defin.); Mse (defin.); Sbse (defin.). — Dat. s. neut. Niu (defin.). 

NORWAY. 

Nom. s. masc. Nom. s. fern. Inglsk, 

ENGLAND. 

Nom. s. masc. Almeyottig; Aluwaldo (def.); Gasric; Grorn; Modig. — Nom. s. fern. 
Ailic; gioroefed; biGoten; bistemid; Tim^; giwundad. — Nom. s. neut. 
Dun. — Dat. s. m.asc. Lanum. — Dat. s. neut. Fruman (defin.). — Ace. 
s. m. lukc; Lim-woerigne; Riicnse. — Ace. s. neut. Al. — r Nom. pi masc. 
iEJ)J)il8e; Fusse; Giu^easu; Twcegen. — Ace. pi masc. Ale. — Ace. pi. 
neut. Ba. 

BRACTEATES. 

Nom. s. masc. Hse-curne (defin.); ? Lif)m. — Dat. s. masc. Sehs-cunse (defin.); Tille 
(defin.); Ungse^ (defin.). 

PRONOUNS. From A. D. 401-800. 

SWEDEN. 

Nom. sing. Ec. — Nom. s. masc. See. — Ace. sing. Mic. — Nom. pi fem. Ssea; Usa. — 
Gen. pi. masc. terse. — Ace. pi. fem. Pyiya. 

NORWAY. 

Nom. s. fem. Hu. — Ace, s. fem. Yoise. — Ace. s. neut. Dsetsea. — Nom. pi neut. Ia. 

DENMARK. 

Ace. s. masc. Sin. — Ace. s. fem. Piseu. 

ENGLAND. 

Nom. sing. Ic\ Ik, Ih. — Nom.. s. masc. Hel — Gen. s. m. Hisl — Gen. s. neut. Psees. — 
Dat. s. masc. Him. — Dat. s. fem. Der^ Daer, Dser. — Ace. sing. Mic^ Mik, 
Mec*, Meh, Mas. — Ace. s. masc. Hinse^ Doe, The. — Ace. s. neut. Pis; Dset. — 
Dual ace. Ungcet. — Nom. pi masc. Hisel — Dat. pi Us. — Ace. pi Us. — 
Ace. pi masc. Hise. 

BRACTEATES, &C. 

Dat. s. masc. Imse; Pam. 



232 THE WORD-HOARD. 

VERBS. From A. D. 401 to 800. 

SWEDEN. 

1 s. pr. Hsete'c. — 3 s. pr. Mh, 0. ~ 3 pi pr. Hsebo; Meeleel — 3 s. p. Dseude; Hiuk: 
Oseg; (r8eis)ti; Ssete; Wseryit, Wseritse, Riuti; Wortse. — 3 pi. p. (I)ugo (or 
(W)ugo). — Imperat. 2 s. Gsea.: 

NORWAY. 

3 s. pr. A, Ah', 0, Oh. — 3 s. p. Fj\)se\; Was; Wrseitse, Wrseet. — Imperat. 2 s. Ah^ 

DENMARK. 

3 s. p. Kserjji; Fajai; Sati. — 3 pi. p. Truknajau. 

ENGLAND. 

1 s. pr. Bim; Yce. — 3 s. pr. Ah^ Oh; Coecas; Drygy}?; Recs; Sbsersedh. — 3 pi. pr. 
Fegta}3. — 1 s. p. Darstse, Darste; bineald; Hnag; anof; Wses. — 3 s. p. 
Beckcto; Foedde; Fauoe}3o, FuJDe; onGeredse; aarof; Het; anof; aRserde; Ysetae, 
Sete, Settse, Settae, Soettoe; giswom; Walde; Warj^; Wees; Wolk; Worhie; 
Urit. — 3 pi. p. Kwomu; Faijju; binealdun; aLegdun; Setton; bismseredii; 
gistoddun. — 2 s. imperat. gefiid ! gisid ! Wisse ! — 2 pi. imperat. giBidseJ), 
gesidaed, gesidsed, gisiddad, geBiddaja, geBiddsejD! — 3 s. pr. subj. Hehpee; Iwi; 
Lice; usmse — Inf. Buga; Hselda; Hiewan; gistiga. 

BRACTEATES, &C. 

3 s. pr. ^nn^. — 3 s. p. Fihsedu; Hseg; flu; Vrwito. — 2 s. imperat. Gib! Hse'! Te'! 



PREPOSITIONS. From A. D. 401 to 800. 

SWEDEN. 

Yfeeta; ^t, Et; I (or Uti); I; Mut; Uti (or I). 

NORWAY. 

? yEt; Ute. 

DENMARK. 

Aft, ^ft. 

ENGLAND. 

Aft, After, ^fte, ^ftar, Mher\ ^ft^er^ Aeftaer^ beAft^r; Ift; ^t. At; Forse, Fore, Fiir; 
In^ P; MilD^ Of-, On^ 0; Ti, Tyo. 

BRACTEATES. 

To. 



ADVERBS. From A. D. 401 to 800. 



SWEDEN. 

j^, ^iu; Geu, Geuw; Hseerse, Herse; Ni; Nu. 

NORWAY. 

Ao; H8er(cB). 



THE WORD-HOARD. 233 

ENGLAND. 

Aici; And, End; Ean; Fearran; ^tGadre; Her; Hwejjrse; Ni^ Eac; Sare; Per^, Peer. 

BRACTEATES. 

Nu. 

NOUNS AND NAMES. From 801 to — . 

SWEDEN. 
Masc. Nam. Enruk; Halstun; liseuri; Inofasti; Ruti; Samsi. — Gen. JEsmuts; Hariwulfs, — 

Dot. Roaul. — Ace. Fa|)r; Sigi; Stun; Sul; Teeen. — Nom. pi. Stainar. 
Fern. Nom. Kearstin. — Gen. Unu. — Dat. Mariu. 
Neut. Nom, Riusii. 

NORWAY. 

3Iasc. Nom. Aluer; Bonte; OJ)inkar; Prestr; Tone; Dormu^; Porrsonr; Port. — Dat. ^nsadgm. 
Fem. Nom. Ossk. — Dat. Sikktale. — Ace. Auik; Kloko. 

DENMARK. 

Masc Nom. A(Rfik)I; ^slaikir: Olufr; Skser; Siuar^; Staein; Tyw; Unitr. — Gen. Kunuselts; 
Ruhalts; Sikwwlfs; Sunar; Tadis; Pular. — Ace. Stain. — Dat. pi. Sal-haukum. 
Fem. Nom. Sol; Porse. — Gen. Afai; \nkur. — Ac. pi. JEr-ruaar. 

ENGLAND. 

Masc. Nom. Emundr; Hselhi; (Hl)vdwyg; Myredah; Onlaf; Rikarth; Tidfirf); Pornr. — 

Gen. Eadvlfes. — Dat. Osberchtae. 
Fem. Nom. Dat. Merthe; Sav(le). 
Neut. Nom. Dat. iEsboa. 

BRACTEATES, &C. 

Masc. Nom. lauligr; lohn; lulieni. — Dat. lau^ini; Simi. 
Fem. Nom. Dat. ^miliu. — Dat. pi. Birkoiinum. 



ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES. From 801 to 

SWEDEN. 

Dat. s. fem. Uena (defin.). 

ENGLAND. 

Masc. s. nom. Jernr; Siuilfurn. 

PRONOUNS. From 801 to — . 

SWEDEN. 
Dat. s. Dik., — Ace. s. m. Sin; Pansi; Ponise. 

NORWAY. 

Aec. s. f. Pissa. — Nom. pi. f. Sise. 



234 



THE WORD-HOARD. 



DENMARK. 



Gen. s. f. Sinser. — Ac. pi. f. Pisi. 



ENGLAND. 

Nom. s. Pis. — Norn. s. m. He. — Dat. s. f. This. — Ace. s. Meh^ Me. 



VERBS. From 800 to — . 

SWEDEN. 



3 s. p. JEa.; Korjje, Kar^i; Risti; Wraiti. 

NORWAY. 

3 s. pr. Oh. — 3 s. p. G (? = GarJ)e); Styopte. — 3 pi. p. Leto. — Inf. Styopa 

DENMARK. 

3 s. pr. Huiler. — 3 s. p. Raisti; Uk. — 2 s. imper. Al! 

ENGLAND. 

3 s. pr. 0; Is; SaerJ). — 3 s. p. Brokte; Feg(de); Rseisto; Seta; IWrokte. 



BRACTEATES. 



3 s. p. Fyidi; Ho, Hfing. 



PREPOSITIONS. From 801 to — . 



SWEDEN. 

Yuir. 



NORWAY. 

I; Aa. 



DENMARK. 

0. 



ENGLAND. 

0, On^ To. 



BRACTEATES. 

I; On. 



NORWAY. 

Ok, Uk. 



ADVERBS. From 801 to 

DENMARK. 
Afta; Hserse; In; Iwika. 



ENGLAND. 

Pser. 



FKE8H FINDS, 



TOO LATE FOR ROOM IN THEIR PROPER PLACE. 



KROGSTAD, UPLAND, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 400—500. 
See page 14 in this volume. Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 452. 




Here repeated, from drawings kihdly forwarded by the Swedish Rune-smith Adjunct 
K. A. Hagson of Linkoping, showing the stone as it now stands. There never have been any 
dots on the figure, and therefore the idea of chain-mail falls away. Adjunct Hagson thinks 
the bild that of a man praying to the Gods. Helpt by this ingenious hint, 1 now suggest 
that the deceast was a Christian, the attitude of prayer reminding us of similar figures 
(ORANTES) in the Catacombs and elsewhere in the oldest West. Isolated Christian families 
were found in the otherwise heathen North hundreds of years before the historical Missions 



30* 



238 



FRESH FINDS. 



VISBY, GOTLAND, SWEDEN. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1250 — 1300. 
Old-N. R. Man. Vol. 3, p. 404. 





Golden Finger-ring, found by workmen digging near Visby in 1880. Is now in the 
Husaby Museum, Smaland, Sweden. Here given full size. More than a dozen such, more or 
less of the same type, and all or nearly all met with in Gotland, are in the National Museum, 
Stockholm. The retrograde runes spell the name of the owner: 

INOFASTI. 



STRAND, RYFYLKE, STAVANGER, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3. p. 453. 

Found as building-stone in the roof of an outhouse, in the autumn of 1882. Had 
been lifted from a grave-mound near the farm-house. Another such rune-stone, with a short 
risting, had stood on another how nearby, but has disappeared. Taken out and sent to 
Christiania in July 1883. Coarse-grained gray granite, about 7 feet 7 above ground, 9 inches 
thick, greatest breadth nearly 21 inches. From the beginning, surface rough and weathered; 
runes not elegantly cut. Part of the tips of the staves in the right line has suffered from 
weathering, and one letter here (the l) is doubtful, as the top is gone. In general, the 
characters can be fairly made out All wend-runes, redd from right to left (from below 
upward). I propose (right line, middle, left): 

HiEDU(L)iEICjEA, ECAI iEGSI ST^DiEA. HiE^IWIDO M^EGUM IN INO. 

To-HJEDV(L)u^ic^, AYE the- AWE of -the- STEADS (coasts, = ever bravely harrying the foemen's harbors). 
BOWED (buried in his grave-mound) with-his-MAUGS (kinsfolk) him mo ( = Ino laid him in his 

barrow, to rest with his kindred). 



FRi:SH FINDS. 



239 




TORVIX, HARDANGER, NORWAY. 



, ? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200-300. 

Old-N. R. iMon. Vol. 3, p. 403. 

Now in the Bergen Museum. Engraved V15 of the size. Granite. Found in the 
spring of 1880 in a ruined grave-mound which contained a stone-kist built up of slabs. One 
of the long side- stones (the only one of granite) had been taken from a far older barrow, 
and had be^n slightly cut that it might fit in. But it bore rune-words in minne of the 



240 



FRESH FINDS. 




dead man on whose grave it had stood, and, when used as building-material and a small part 
cut away, at least the arm of one letter disappeared. As the grave-chamber and its contents 
date from about the 6th century, and a long time must have elapst before the olden tomb 
would be thus desecrated, and as the runes and word-forms point back to very ancient times, 
we cannot well fix it later than about the 3rd yearhundred. This is the first Old-Northern 
heathen stone found as building-gear in a still later heathen tumulus. The angle above the M 
and before the w, I take to be a dividing mark. As we have here the short type which may 
stand for either M (d) or M (m), we are not sure whether the name was lmmm or L^D.*;. 
Should anything more have followed, it was most likely the usual WROTE or WROTE these- 
RUNES. What stands on the block is: 

L^:M^ (or LiED^) WiERING^A. 

L^M^. (or l^dje) to- wiring. 



FRESH FINDS. 



241 



TORVIK, HARDANGER, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 200 — 300. 
Old-N. R. Moil. Vol. 3. f. 457. 





A second stone, clay-slate, belonging to a long side of the same grave-kist in this 
heathen tumulus. Measures 8 feet 10 inches in length by 8 feet 2 in breadth, with a 



242 



FRESH FINDS. 



thickness of from 2V3 inches to SVg- 'l^be runes rubbed-in, lilie those on the Einang block; 
they were first seen in June 1883 by the Norse Oldlorist A. Lorange, Keeper of the Bergen 
Museum, where this slab now is. A very faint beginning-mark (|||, as on the Forsa Ring and 
the Valsfjord Rock) stands before the first letter (b). The inscription is quite complete, the 
name of the sleeper below: 

PIEtROnWENC. 

This is equal to MEMOD/iVG or SON, and is found here for the first time. Several of the staves 
have ornamental feet. 



S.EBO, HOPREKSTAD, SOGNEFJORD, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 750 — 800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3. p 407. 









• ,»«, K r J "■ ''■°° ^'king-swords; found 18S6 in Norway, studied and identified 

'^ill ,\^ ^»™;8;™.-'-W A. Lorange, Keeper of the Bergen Mnseu.. Engraved 

/sth, but the r,^es full s,.e. Many of these blades are dan,asce„ed, and not a few ha« 

■nscnpfons on the one s.de and trade-„arks or ornatnents on the other, the letters or n„rks 

':il r ' T- "' "'" ''" °' "'"^ ™^ ^— ^ ■"• These ristings are 

.n the older staves, or ,n Roman or n,i.t Ro„.„ a„d R„„ie letters. This sword has no onlj 



FRESH FINDS. 



243 



tho Old-Nortliprn runes, but has also the Thor-mark, it, with its phonetic or sotmded value 

THDR, like as -f or y is often used with its phonetic value Christ. — The form of the M 

is a costly variant. The whole lettering, in reverst runes, reads from right to left. The 

words are, quite clearly: 

OH CURMTO. 

OWNS (possesses-me) thurmute. 



ROMES-FELL, S. TRONYEM, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 800-900. 



Old-N. R. Mon. Vol 5, p. 411. 




In 1880 two fine Walrus-teeth were found in a deep rock-cleft. They are now in 
the Tronyem Museum. The one bears, in the usual runes, 

K^TIL A K^TIL OWNS-me. 

The other, here given Vsrd of the size, has the Old-Northern and the archaic K, and is 
therefore transitional. The letters, given separately full bigness, are merely the name of the lady 

OSSK 
whose property it was. The valuable teeth may therefore have belonged to husband and 
wife, or to brother and sister, and are from the time when the Norwegian landholder Ohthere 
told king Alfred of England how he got similar teeth by Walrus-fishing in the Northern seas. 



31 



244 



FBESH FINDS. 



EIDSBERG, SMALENENE, NORWAY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1100—1200. 
Old-N. R. Man. Vol. 3. p. 412. 




In the summer of 1880, during the repairs of Eidsberg Church, a granite slab was 
found bearing the name of the builder, in later runes but also having one Old-Northern 
letter (g). It is here given ^/igth of the original. Four other runish slab.s of brick also 
turned up, connected with later alterations. The name, chiefly used in Denmark in olden 
days, is here seen for the first time in Norway. 

OKNKAR G(arlDi). 
OTBiNKAR G(ared, made, built this). 



SEALAND, DENMARK. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 1200 — 1300. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 458. 



FRESH FINDS. 



245 



Copper. Engraved full size. Found in June 1879 by a man digging, sold by him 
to a dealer, from whom I bought it for a trifle in August 1883. Is now in the Husaby 
Museum, Smaland, Sweden. Has a modern look, but the 0. N. runes are absolutely genuine. 
I give it as I find it, looking upon the piece as a stamp or punch, for striking impressions 
with a hammer on soft lead or wax or terra- sigillata flans or blanks. Such things were 
immensely used all thro the middle ages. Only 2 reverst letters, whose impression would 
give — perhaps the beginning of a name: 

HU. 



CHESSELL DOWN, ILE OF WIGHT, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A D. 500 — 600. 
Old-K R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 459. 




31* 



246 



FRESH FINDS. 



The above drawing is half the bigness. Iron Sword, now in the British Museum. 
Found about the middle of this century in an Old English grave. But the runes were first 
seen in 1882 by Aug. W. Franks, Esq., the Director. Present length of blade from the guard, 
2 feet 6V2 inches; from the guard to the tip of the pommel 6V2 inches. The runes are on 
the inner side of the silver scabbard-mount, and were only seen lately when the piece was 
cleaned. Hence their perfect preservation, tho so slightly cut-in. They have been hidden for 
some 1300 winters! I give them and the mount here full size: 





? ^:co scERi! 
? AWE (terror, death and destruction) to-the-SERE (brynie, armor, weapons, of the foe)! 

In this case the owner had cut this spell, singing therewith some chaunt of super- 
natural power, to overcome the easier his unsuspecting enemy. All such witchcraft and 
amulet-bearing &c. was strictly forbidden. Whatever the staves mean, this is the only such 
secret rune-risting yet found. 



CHESTER-LE-STREET, N. DURHAM, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700—800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 461. 

Found in June 1883, in repairing the Chancel of the once Collegiate Church. 
Closish-grained sandstone, 2 feet 11 high by 8 inches broad below, 7 above. The lowest 
uncarved 5 inches went into the socket of the grave-cross, of which this square pillar is all 
that is left. The back has knot-winds almost identical with those below the horseman on the 
front. All the writing seen here is the dead man's name, 

EADMUND. 

Only the M and N are 0. Northern runes, the other staves being Roman. 



FRESH FINDS. 



247 




FRONT. 




RIGHT SIDE PATTERN, 



Kif 



LEFT SIDE. 



SELSEY, SUSSEX, ENGLAND 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700 — 800. 
Old-N. R. Mov. Vol. 3, p. 463. 

Two bits of a golden finger-ring, now in the British Museum. They were pickt up 
a few years ago, along with 280 small British golden Coins and other objects, down to the 
middle age. Such things are thrown on the coast there from time to time. 

These ring-morsels are so much injured and the runes so faint from long friction, 
that J will not attempt any engraving. But my decipherment of the staves was approved by 
Mr. Franks and by Mr. C. H. Read, of the British Museum. The first fragment seems to 
bear ^R.IM>R.1- (brotrn), the second Pi M h (on el). The u in brotr is not quite perfect. The 
distances between on and e and l are from the shape of the ring, here slightly raised and 
past over. The n is the beginning of a lost mansnanie — let us say niclas. The whole 
will then be: 

BRTOR Niclas ON EL ... 
BROTHER Niclas ON (of) EL 



248 



FRESH FINDS. 



THORNHILL, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700 — 800. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 414. 





FKONT. 



SIDE. 



BACK. 



Found at the close of 1881 in the Tower of Thornhill Church, up in the bell- 
chamber. Now taken out and carefully preserved in the holy house. Is 21 inches long, I2V2 
broad below to 16^/4 above, thickness 7V2 inches at bottom to 7 at top. Part of the tapering 
shaft of a sandstone grave-cross, raised by a Lady to a Lady. The relationship or friendship 
— then known locally to all — is not mentioned. Gives the earliest instance in England of 
AR^RDE, and the only runic example yet found in England of BERG for BARROW, grave-mound. 
Only 3 other such runic instances are known in the Scandinavian mother-land. The womans- 
name igilsuith has never before turned up in England. Observe the bind-runes. — As we 
see, the grave -words are 4 lines of stave- rime verse: 



FRESH FINOS. 



249 



f IGlLSUIlt AR.IiRDK 
jEFTER BERHTSUI^E 
BEGUN AT BERGI. 



geBlDDAI> l>iER SAULE. 



IGILSUITH A-REARED (raised) 

AFTER (in minne of) BERHTSUJTE 

this- BEACON (pillar - stone) at (on, close to) 

the-BARROW (how, tumulus). 
BiD-ye (pray-ye) for -the soul. 



DEARHAM, NEAR MARYPORT, CUMBERLAND, ENGLAND. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 850 — 950. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 420. 447. 




250 



FRESH FINDS. 



Taken out of the Church during its restoration in 1882, and the end-inscriptions 
found, by the Rev. W S. Calverley, whom I have to thank for all details and materials. 
A later personal examination has convinced me of their entire correctness. This sarcophagus, 
of yellowish sandstone, once stood alongside a wall, where the further side and ends would 
not be seen. Length, 4 feet by 3 inches and a quarter; least width 13 inches, greatest 15, 
depth 6. Is the second sarcophagus slab bearing runes known to me in England. Dover 
(p. 140 above) being the first. 

The principal scene, Man fallen and Man redeemed, is clear. It is shown in a 
masterly way, which I have never seen before. What strikes us is, that Adam and Eve are 
draped, a conventional handling. It is not the sin in Paradise; it is the Man- kind, the Human 
Race, for whom Christ died. And so the Serpent, his revenge and punishment, shown on the 
same plane by doubling his form, as so often in olden art, pagan and Christian. — We must 
wait for fresh finds, before we can speak with certainty on the other symbols. 

At the bottom is the name of the deceast, probably an ecclesiastic, in early 
Roman letters . 

ADAM. 

Above, a corner of the stone is broken away. Originally the runes doubtless were: 

(krist s)u(l) gi-ni^ra. 

May-Christ his-soVL n^ere (save, bless)! 

First time this common 0. Engl, and Scando-Gothic word nj!:ra(n) has been found in runes 

in a prayer for the dead. We have otherwise help, lete, see, &c. The -A in gi~NijERA, 

3 s. pr. subj., is an antique ending. The + in the bind for ^R is also a rarity in England 



BRACTEATES, 



Nos. 90, 91. Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 463, 4. — The seller said, in Kiel, these 
pieces were found at geltorf, not gettorf. It is immaterial. Both villages are in the Danish 
province of Slesvig or South Jutland. — No 91 has lately been bought by the Kiel Museum, 
and its learned Keeper, Prof Handelmann, has kindly favored me with an Electrotype, here 
drawn and Chemityped by Prof, magnus Petersen. 




FRESH FINDS. 



251 



SPARLOSA, WEST-GOTLAND, SWEDEN, 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 700—800. 
Old-N. R Mon. Vol. 3, p. 




32 



252 FKESH FINDS. 

From materials kindly furnisht by Adjunkt Karl Torin, Skara, W- Gotland. The 
base of this granite boulder is largely broken away, but it still measures about 5 feet 4 inches 
in height and 2 feet in breadth. It lies flat on its side in the outer wall of SparlSsa Church, 
in Wiste Harad (Hundred). The runes by far the largest yet known, the longest measuring 
nearly 2 feet! They are not divided into words. The stone has been split centuries ago, but 
no great damage has been done. A narrow unwritten border has been used, a couple of centuries 
later, for a fresh inscription. The barbarous head and part-bust of thu(no)r, with the decoration 
of his Holy HAMMER-MARKS, are equal to the rune-formula on some Scandian heathen stones, 
"BUR uiHi", = may-THUR wm (hless-these-runes-and-this-tomh)! 

As I suppose, the oldest risting . clearly says: 

iEGGIULS KJEF UGU, ^IRIKIS SUNCE, KN-F^LIIKI. 
^GGIULS (— SWOrd-EDGE-WOLF, — SWORD-WOLF) GAVE-this-minne tO-UG, MIRIK'S-SON, 

his- GUN- FELLOW (war-mate, hrother-in-arms). 
The later memorial is simply: 

KISLI KARBI IFTIjR KDNAR, BRUIi(r). 
KISLI GARED (wrote this) AFTER EUNAR, his-BROTBER. 
The name jsggiuls is another Old-Northern (overgang) example of the ancient 
nominative- ending in -s, which afterwards became -R and then fell away. 



FRESH FINDS. 



253 



THE GOTHIC MARCH. 



TORCELLO, VENEZIA, ITALY. 



? DATE ABOUT A. D. 300 — 400. 
Old-N. R. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 






32* 



254 FRESH FINDS. 

Found by Dr. ingvald dndset, the Norse Old-lorist, Oct. 1883, in the small local 
Museum at Torcello, an iland in the Lagunes, about 2 hours' row from Venice. The Founder 
and Keeper of this forn-hall, Consul the Cavaliere Nicolo Battaglini, came across it last 
February in a farmer's house, \^here it had been as long as the family remembered; fitted 
with a wooden handle, it had done duty as a Poker! It is of Bronze, I6V2 inches long, the 
incised lines filled with circlets and stars stampt boldly in. To judge from its patina, it has 
been dug from a boggy soil. For the drawings (each side 1 — 3rd, runes apart full size) we 
have to thank the Danish Architectural Designer J. T. Hansen. See the similar Spear-heads 
pp. 204, 206, especially the latter, of which this one is almost a counterpart, only much 
richer and larger. 

This WANDERER, doubtless originally from the gothic march, may have been war-plunder 
or what not, and is another proof how things change hands and may accidentally turn up. 
The small ring is a beginning-mark, as on the Muncheberg piece. Should my transliteration 
be right, the reverst runes give 

TENING^ 

the name of the owner, or of the officer by or before whom it was carried in battle, and 
which means dan's or Dane's son. The reader will please to remark the single-armed t and 
the straight-armed F. The peculiar and elegant workmanship of the runes and symbols has 

• 

not, 1 believe, been seen before. — This precious old-Iave reacht me at the very last moment. 
Just therefore it stands where it does. 



FRESH FINDS. 



255 



BRACTEATE. 



No. 96. 
ASUM, SKiNE, SWED-EN. 
Old-N. R iMon. Vol. 3, p. 464. 




Found by a mangploughing, Nov. 27, 1882. Here given full size. Is the largest 
golden blink yet known. Weighs 100,3 grammes. The loop is broken away. Bears 13 wend- 
runes, not divided into words. Reversing the letters, I, read: 

SNEic ^C^A FiEHi(do Or fsehide). 
SNEJC (= SNEING = SNOWSON) tO- or for-MC^ (:=. AGE, AGE, OVE) FA WED (made this). 

There was no room to finish the verb. The i comes under the animal's snout, and 
is therefore much shorter than usual, and the following -do or -de (or whatever the ending 
was) is therefore understood. This exceptionally splendid 6th century Old- Danish Jewel is 
now in the Stockholm Forn-hall. 



BETTERINGS. 



Page 8. — For Vanga read Vanga. 

P. 27, 1. 9. — Read hel^heddu^. 

P. 156. ALNMOUTH. — Plate 117 of the late Dr. John Stuart's noble "Sculptured 
Stones of Scotland", folio, Vol. 2, which reacht me after the publication of my Vol. 2, gives 
all the 4 sides of these Cross-fragments, tho not quite correctly. We can thus examine also 
the back of the large piece, which shows the Crucifixion. This is carved in the oldest way, 
the Sun and Moon above, the 2 Thieves under the arms of the Rood, and below them the 
Centurion and the reacher up of the sponge with vinegar, with costly interlaced work as the 
base of the Cross. Add hereto the very antique character of the Roman letters. — I therefore 
now think that Mr. Haigh's ^rsi date (about A. D. 705) is undoubtedly the correct one. The 
EADULF here commemorated is thus the king who usurpt the crown at the death of king 
ALDFKID, but was shortly after defeated and slain. .See Vol. 1, p. 462. 

P. 159. — A French savant, Mons. L. L. H. Combertigues-Varennes, a learned 
student of Runic and other Calendars, has just (Jan. 1882) favored me with a valuable Ms. 
treatise on this curious Calendar. We will hope that he will make it public. Meantime he 
has kindly permitted me to say, that his paper closes as follows: "En resume, ce calendrier, 
non termine par son auteur, donne, pour la portion que Worm nous en a conservee (quoique 
avec de grandes fautes d'execution), les Signes des fetes, le Cycle Solaire et le Cycle Lunaire, 
c. a. d. qu'il appartient a la classe que Worm nomme Calendriers parfaits. L'annee y commence 
avec le 14 Octobre et le nombre d'or du 1^' Janvier est 3. II offre, en outre, comme ren- 
seignements complementaires, un Cycle Solaire complet, un Cycle Lunaire defectueux et 
quelques monogrammes on dessins sans importance. — Ce qui constitue I'interet capital oflfert 
par ce calendrier, c'est qu'il est probable que la Serie de son cycle lunaire (correspondant, 
comme toujours, a un alphabet) runique, est tout-a-fait inedite." 

In this memoir the learned author identifies the festivals, among them those of 
S. Edmund (England), S. Thorlak (Iceland) and S. Knut, Duke and Martyr (Denmark), thus 
making the Calendar a century more modern than the date J had assigned to it. 

P. 168. Bracteate No. 6. — I now prefer to take SEHS-CUN^ in the meaning 
SAX-KEEN, sword-bold, falchion-daring. So, if I am right in my rendering of the Tjursaker stone, 
we have SAKSE-TtfNiR = Sax-lord, Sword-Captain, as an epithet of and kenning for (w)oden. 

P. 234. — The reader will please to add and tabulate for himself the grammatical 
forms and endings given in the fresh runic finds. They are of the same general character, 
and abundantly strengthen my argument. 



HAND-LIST 



OP ALL THE OLD-NORTHERN WORDS 

IN THE THREE FOLIO VOLUMES. 



A, M, see under Agan, ^iu, On. 

A, Bracteate 81; Nydam Arrow. Doubtless first letter of a Name beginning with a. 

Aa, under On. — ^a, u. Hiewan. 

^ANB, Lindholm. ? Voc'. ? Neut. s. ? Snake. 

^B^, Bjorketorp; Stentofte. Mansname, nom. See se^ and Word-lists. 

-(^csea, under OEKI. 

ACEBiEN, Belland. Mansname, nom. The broken .... ^N of the Tomstad stone was 
probably a part of the same name. 

Mco, Chessell Down. ? Nom. s. f. ? awe, terror, death. — ^gsi, Strand. ? Dat. s. m. 
The-AWE, fear, fright. — iEGiESTiA, Gallehus. Dat. s. m. def. superl. To-the-AWEST, most 
awful, most dread or venerable. 

ACLIHCK, Brough. ? Place-name. ? dat. s. f. See ecbi. 

TEsedsegsesli, u. AJ)8e. 

ADAM, Dearham, Mansname, nom. (In Roman letters). 

AFAi, Freerslev. Gen. s. f. Grandmother. 

AFT, Bewcastle; Selnces; mft, Vordingborg; afta, Freerslev; ^eftar, CoUingham; jEFT^r, 
Falstone; aeftaer, Falstone; ^fte, Thornhill; ^FTER, Thornhill; Tune; aefter, Dewshury; 
Wycliffe; Yarm; tf^eta, Istaby; ift, Brough; B(eAFT.Er), Crowle. after, be-after, in memory 
of. Prep. gov. dat. and ac, and adverb. 

[agan]. — To OWE, OWN, possess, have, enjoy. — a, Orstad; ah, ^thred's Ring; 
Northumbrian Brooch; Sigdal, (perhaps imperat.), Thorsbjerg; Vi Plane; mm, Upsala; o, Bjorke- 
torp; Forde; Hackness; Vi Plane; oh, Osthofen; Scebo. 3 s. pres. owns. — ah, Sigdal. ? 2 s. 
imper. (perhaps 3 s. pr. ind.), — iEGl, Skd-ang. 3 s. pr. subj. Let-him-keep, may-he-enjoy. 

^geestia, u. Mco. — JEgi, u, Agan. 

^GiLi, Franks Casket. Mansname, nom. — iGiLSUit, Thornhill. Womans-name, nom. 



258 HAND-LIST. 

Agrof, under Grof. — ^gsi, u. ^co. — Ah, ^h, u. Agan. — ^heker, u. Inge. — 
aHof, u. Hof. — Ai, ^i, Aici, u. vEiu. — Ailic,- u. Hseilseg. 

^ISG, Thorsbjerg. Mansname, noin. 

^lU, Stentofte; a, Tanum; M, Lindholm; ai, Skd-dng; AO, Sicfdal; E^, Bracteate 63; ecai. 
Strand, ever, aye, always. — iwka . (= iwika), Freerslev. For ever, for aye. — Aici, Brough. 
Aye-not, never. — iELEUBWim, Nordendorf. Mansname, nom. — eomjer, eomaer, Falstone. 
Mansname, nom. — emundr. Haclcness. Mansname, nom. — aivomia, Bracteate 65. Womans- 
name, dat. 

^iwu, see LiLiA^iwu. 

AL, J-yderuf. ELE-thou, help-thou. 2 s. imper. 

KL = ALL. — AL, Ruthwell. Ac. s. n. — ale, Ruthwell. Ac. pi. m. — ALMEyOTTiG, 
EuthweU. ALMIGHTY. Adj. n. s. m. — aluwaldo, Whitby, all-wald, all-wielding, almighty. 
Nom. s. m. def. — alwin, Brough. all-wine, the friend of all, all-loving. Nom. s. m. 

MLM, Kragehul. Of storms. Gen. pi. n. 

^Isewinse, u. ^lu. 

^LC, ALH. — ALHS, Brough. Mansname, gen. — ^lcfrith, Northumbrian Brooch, 
nom.; alcfeiiu, Bewcastle, ac. Mansname. 

Alhs, under ^Ic. — .^ii, Alia, u. ^lu. 

ALTEtJiL^A, Bracteates 49, 49 b. Mansname, nom. 

^Itr, Alts, u. Wald. — Alu, u. AI. 

^LU, Bracteates 13, 16, 18, 68, 88; Corlin; Elgesem; alla, Yarm. Mansname, nom. — 
iELi, Northumbrian Casket. Mansname, dat. — ^LU, Lindholm. Perhaps dat. of womansname 
^la. — ^LUA, Forde. Mansname, nom. — elw^o, Bracteate 94. Probably womansname in dat. — 
ELWU, Bracteate 47. Mansname, nom. — eltil, Bracteates 43, 44, 45, 85, 86, 87. Mansname, 
dat. — JiL^wiN^, Bracteate 67. Mansname, dat. 

^^LUC^A, Bracteate 71. Mansname, dat. 

alder, Hohnen. Mansname, nom. 

ALtTT, see ow^alut. 

Aluwaldo, Alwin, u. AI. 

^MiLiu, Bracteate 61. Womansname, dat. 

AN. — EAN, Bewcastle. an, once, formerly, late, — ? ^Ni, Veile. Mansname, nom. — 
^NiEH^, Mojebro. Mansname, nom. — ^NOiEN^, Bracteate 48. Mansname, nom. — eanred, 
u^thred's Ring. Mansname, nom. — ^nwll, Bracteate 25; ^niwulu, Bracteate 75. Mans- 
name, nom. 

.... ^N, see under Acejasen. 

AND, Bridekirk; Franks Casket; end, Franks Casket, and, also. 

^ng, u. Inge. — JEniwulu, u. An. — Ann, u. Unna. — ^nosense, u. An. 

ANS. — ^NS^GUi, Gjevedal. Mansname, dat. — osberchtae, Thornhill. Mansname, 
dat. — ^SBOA, Hackness. Placename, dat. s. m., asbo or asbit or asby. — osbiol, Brough. 
Mansname, nom. ~ osciL, Brough. Mansname, nom. — ^slaikir, Freerslev. Mansname, nom. — 
^SMUTS, Solvesborg. Mansname, gen. — ^sugis, Kragehul. ans-dgg's = (w)oden's. Gen. — 
ONSWiNi, Collingham. Mansname, ac. — oswiung, Bewcastle. Mansname, ac. = oswi-soN. 

^nwU, u. An. — Ao, u. ^iu. 



HAND-LIST. 259 

JEOKEMM, Bracteate 6. ? Dat. s. m. ? To the horseman. 

.... (AP)iE, Crowle. Mansname, dat. or ac. 

^R^, BjSrketorp, Stentofte. Ac. s. f. are, ore, lustre, fame, honor. — eriLjEas, Liinl- 
holm. Adj. nom. s. areless, oreless, unfamed, honorless. — j^r-rnr, Freerslev. Ac. pi. f. 
ARE-RUNES, hoDor-staves, respectful epitaph. 

A-rserde, u. Raisa. 

^rbingjES, Time. Nom. pi. m.; jERBing^, lune. Nom. s. f. (arving), heir; heiress. — 
arfiki, Freerslev, Heir, son. Nom. s. 

Arth, u. Heard. 

^RtiRiUFLT, Amulet Rings. See text. 

JEiS,, u. Ans. 

asping, Founds. Mansname, nom. = asp-son. 

^T, Bjorketorp, Ruthwell; (? Seude); at, Thornhill; et, Varnum. at, in, on, near. 
Prep. gov. dat. and ac. See set-GADRE. 

AtiE, Bracteate 59. Ac. s. m. ead, fortune, bliss, treasure. — auto, Bracteate 72; otm, 
Bracteates 33, 34; oti, Bracteate 66. Mansname, nom. — • At^A, Einang. Mansname, dat. — 
05UA, Vdnga. Apparently mansname in dat. See S^At. — eadbierht, Bingley. Mansname, 
nom. — ^^D^GiES(Ll), Vi Moss Buckle. Mansname, nom. — iEBiSL, Vordingborg. Same mans- 
name in ac. — (o)i>c(u), Freilaubersheim. Womansname, dat. — em^lmva, Bracteates 51, 52. 
Mansname, dat. — ^bodu, Bracteate 27. Womansname, dat. — ^dred, ^Ethred's Ring; 
eadred, Thornhill. Mansname, nom. — cadvlfes, Alnmouth. Mansname, gen. — emlberht, 
Thornhill. Mansname, nom. — epelwini, Thornhill. Mansname, dat. — o^lm, Franks Casket. 
Dat. s. m. othal, adal, home, country, patrimony, — MvmLM, Ruthwell. Nom. pi. m. adel- 
ones, oobles. 

. . . ^^u . . . (or . . . N^u . . .), Kragehul. See text. 

^UAIR, Helnces. Mansname, nom. 

AULiLyo^, Bracteate 8. Mansname, dat. 

luASA (or Ausa), Bracteate 70. Placename, dat. or ac. ? m. 

Auto, under A\>ae. 

^aweLjE, Bjorketorp. Probably placename in d. or ac. 

AUIK, Holmen. Steadname in d. or ac. 

ba, Ruthwell. Ac. both. 

BA, see tunba. 

BAEDA, Wycliffe. Mansname, nom. 

balb, see ctiNiBALt. 

BAN, Franks Casket. Ac. pi. n. bones. 

Bserseh, under Berig. 

BiERUTA, Bjorketorp. (If not steadname, then) barrat, barratry, battle. Dat. s. ? m. 

Be, under Bi. 

BeAGNOt, Thames Blade. Mansname, nom. 

Beartigo, u. Berhtse. 

beckcto, Brough. S s. p. bigged, built up, raised. 

33 



260 HAND-LIST. 

BECON, Dewshury; FaUtone; ThornUll; Wycliffe. Ac. s. n. beacon, pillar, gravestone. 

See LIC-BJECUN, SIG-BECN. 

BEOKNAE. Dewshury. Dat. s. n. barn, bairn, child, son. 
BER^, Kragehul. See text. 
Berg, u. Berig. 

BERHT^. See EADBIERHT, ECGBERHT, HROETHBERHTiE , . . . RHTAE, ROETBERHTiE. — 

BEARTiGO, Bracteate 77. Mansname, (barting, brighting), nom. See cmB(ERE(Hting). — 
BERHTsnitE, ThornUll. Womans-name. (? Dat.). — berchtvini, Wyclife. Mansname, ac. 

BERIG (=berg, hill). — See fergen-berig , uan^-b^r^h. — bergi, Thornhill. Dat. 
s. n. The barrow, grave-mound, tumulus. — birkoiinum, Bracteate 92. Dat. pi. bergen, in 
West Norway. 

BI, be. See beArTjE(r), biGOTEN, biHEALD, biHEALDUN, biSM^R^DU, biSTEMID. 

Bi, under Bua. 

geBiD, Bewcastle; giBiD, Bingley. 2 s. imperat. BiD-thou, pray- thou. — geBlDAED, 
Fahtone; geBiD^D, Falstone; giBlDiEP, Lancaster; gesiDDAB, Thornhill; geBiDD^Ei, Irton; giBlDDAD, 
Dewshury. 2 pi. imperat. BiD-ye, BEDE-ye, pray-ye. 

Bierht, u. Berhtse. 

BIGI, see WIHUBIGl(8e). 

BIM, Founds. 1 sing. pres. I be, I am. 

Bio, under Bua. — Biol, u. Bui. 

BiRLNio (= BiRLiNio), Nordendorf. Womansname, dat. 

BLOD^, Ruthwell. BLOOD, dat. s. n. 

Bo, Boa, Boseu, u. Bua. — BcEre(hting), u. Berhtse. — Bonte, u. Bua. 

BOSO, Freilauhersheim. Mansname, nom. 

BRU5R, Selsey. Nom. s. brother, — breodera, Yarm. Dat. s. brother. — ' giBROB^RA, 
Franks Casket. N. pi. brothers. — brd5DR-sunu, Helnces. Ac. s. brother-son, nephew. 

BROK, Brough. Ac. s. n. broke, sorrow, death. 

brokte, Bridekirk. 3 s. p. brought. 

bua, Thames fitting. Inf. To boo, bo, bide, dwell, — See ^sboa, unnbo, unbo^U. — 
bonte, Holmen. Nom. s.; B(uset8e), Varnum. Ac. s. bonde, husband. — See cuombilbio, ecbi. 

BUCIAEHOM, Brough. Placename, ? dat. s. m. 

(b)ug(a), Ruthwell. Inf. To bow, bend. 

BUL, see OSBIOL, RiEHiEBUL. BUR^, see HURNBUR^. — BURG, SSe KtJNNBURUG. 

K , U. CUMBEL. 

CADMON, Ruthwell. Mansname, nom. 

GALLU, see G^iECALLU. -^ KAR, see GAR. 

Kserjai, KarJDi, u. G. 

C^STRI, see ROMiEC^STRI. 

CEARUNGIA, Brough. Gen. s. f. caring's, sorrow's. 

Kearstin, u. Krist. 

KER, see iEHEKER, and gar. 

ci^GO, Charnay. Ac. s. f. (keeng), brooch, fibula. 

OIL, see osciL. 



HAND-LIST. 261 

ciMOKOMS, Brough. Womansname, gen. 

CLA^o, Cleobury.' 1 f. Nom. s. A claw (pointer, sundial-gnomon). 

KLOKo, Holmen. Ac. s. f. clock, bell. 

COECAS, Brough. 3 s. pr. quetches, shall move, shall afflict. 

coiNU, Brough. quene, wife, gen. s. 

KOMS, see CIMOKOMS. 

CORNILIO, Bracteate 75. Mansname, nom. 

Kor|)e, under G. 

KRiST, Brough; Ruthwell; KRISTTDS, Bewcastle. Nom. Christ. — kearstin, Morhylanga. 
Womansname (Christina), nom. 

Ku, under Cilnting. 

CUHL, Brough. Mansname, nom. 

CUMBEL. — K , Morhylanga. Ac. s. or pi. neut. cumbel, gravemark. — cuombil-bio, 

Brough. cumbel-boo, grave-kist. Ac. s. n. 

CUN, see SEHS-CUN^. 

CDN, COT. — cunibal^, Lancaster. Mansname, ac. — COTBCERE(Hting) , Lancaster. 
Mansname, ac. — cuthbertson. — kUnnburug, Bewcastle. Womansname, nom. — cunimudiu, 
Bracteate 25. Womansname, dat. — kotumut, Helnois. Mansname, ac. = gudmund. — gonrat, 
Osthofen; GUDRiD, Northumbrian Brooch. Mansname, nom. — kuneswiba, Bewcastle. Womans- 
name, nom. — KUNUJiLTS, Snoldelev. Mansname, gen. 

cCNtJNG, Bingley; KtNG, Bewcastle; cdn, Bracteate 7<5; nom. — kUninges, Bewcastle, 
gen. — kCning, Bewcastle; cOningc, Ruthwell; cuN(unc), Leeds; cu Collingham, Accus. king. 

CON(niaes), Whitby. Gen. s. n. kin, family. 

Cuombil, u. Cumbel. 

CURNE, see h^curne. 

CuJ)boere(hting), u. Cun. — KuJ)i, u. God. — Kujjumut, u. Cun. 

KWOMU, Ruthwell. 3 pi. p. came. 

D^BS, Thames fitting. Gen. s. n. The deep, sea, ocean. 

Daer, under Pe. 

D^G^, Einang; dah, Osthofen. Mansname, nom. See GODiEG^S. — d^gmund, Gilton 
Sword. Mansname, voc. — d^ituh^, Bracteate 79. Mansname, nom. 

d^liddn, Tune. 3 pi. p. dealed, shared, took part in. 

DjgERlNG(e), Thornhill. Mansname, dat. 

DARST^, DARSTE, Ruthwell. 1 s. p. DURST, dared. 

D^tyONiE, Freilaubersheim. Gen. pi. Of the d^the clan or family. 

D^UDE, Bjorketorp. 3 s. p. died, fell. 

Der, under De. 

DIK, Ingelstad. Dat. s. To-thee. 

dohtr, Tune. Nom. s. daughter. 

DOM, Franks Casket. Nom. s. m. doom, Court, Judgment, domgisl may possibly be the 

artist's name. 

' dcep-STAn, Bingley. Ac. s. m. dip-stone, Font. 
drygyb, Franks Casket. 3 s. pr. dreeth, suffers; or, does, performs. 

33* 



262 HAND-LIST. 

geDR(EFED, Ruthwell. Pp. DROVED, harrowed, grieved. 

DROMDH, see SUNEDROMDH. 

E, Ese, under ^iu. 

EAC, Bewcastle; eg, Brough; ok, Holmen; UK, Hobnen. eke, and. — tce, Gilton Sword. 
1 s. pr. I EKE, EIK, increase, add to. 

EAN, U. AN. 

EATEyONNE, ThornhUl. Womansnarae (? eateja), dat. 

Ese^lseua, u. A^se. 

Ec, u. Eac and Ic. — Ecai, u. ^iu. 

ecbi, Brough. Placename, ? dat. s. m. See aclihck. 

EGG, ECH, EC. — EGGBERHT, Bracteote 10. Mansname, nom. — ecgfrku. Bewcastle. 
Mansname, gen. — echlew, Gallehus. Mansname, nom. — egmd, Bracteote 5. Mansname, 
nom. — egwiWjEA, Tune. Womansname, nom. 

el . . . ., Selsey. 

els, Nordendoyf. Mansname, nom. 

Eltil, Elwu. u. ^lu. — End, u. And. 

ENRUK, Morhyldnga. Mansname, henrik, henry, nom. 

EOMiE, eomae, Falstone. Dat. s. m. eme, uncle. 

Eomser, under ^iu, 

ERHA, Thames fitting. Dat. s. m. arg, wave-rush, trough of the sea. 

ERiLiEA, Kragehul; Lindholm. Mansname, nom. 

Et, under Mt. 

F, Konghell. Probably for fur or FORiE, FOR, over. See roR^. 

FJiHi (no room for more), Bracteote 96; f^ihido, Einang; FiE^i>^, Bracteote 89; faaeo, 
Flemlose; faii, Helnces; fauce:bo, Ruthwell; FEG(de), Alnmouth; riHiEDU, Bracteates 49, 49 h; fyidi, 
Bracteote 92; yy'^mi, Charnay ; fube, Osthofen. 3 s. p. — FAitu, Brough. 3 pi. p. — fawed, fayed, 
made, carved, stampt, wrote, built up, raised. 

F^LiE, Bjorhetorp. Ac. s. m. fele, multitude, much, many. 

FASTS, see RUULFASTS. — FASTI, see INOFASTI. 

Fa|)i, u. Fseihido. 

FAiUR, Vordinghorg ; fair, Oshy. Ac. s. father. 

F^u^, Bracteate 57. Mansname, voc. 

fearran, Ruthwell. Adv. far-from. 

Feg(de), under Fsei'hido. 

fegtab, Franks Casket. 3 pi. pr. fight. 

fergen-berig, Franks Casket. Ac. s. m. Steadname in Northumbria. 

fh, Konghell. Probably = fur hari, for the army. 

Fihsedu, Fyidi, u. Fseihido. 

FINO, Berga. Mansname, nom. 

Firth, under Frith, 

FISG-FLODU, Franks Casket. Nom. s. m. fish-flood, sea, ocean. 

FyjDsei, u. Feeihido. 

FLODU, see FISC-FLODU. 



HAND-LIST. 263 

FCEDDE, Franks Casket. 3 s. p. fed, nourisht. 

FOE^, Irton, Lancaster; fore, Ruthwell; FtR, Bingley. for (dat.); fore, before (ac). See f. 

FOSLiEU, Bracteate 14. Mansname, nom. 

FRiEWiEEiEDiEA, Mdjebro. Mansname, dat. 

FRIl), see iELCFRITH, ALCFRIIiU, ECGFRI5U, TIDFIRB. 

FRUMAN, Bewcastle. Abl. s. n. def. In the frum, first. 

fun:de, see mwejo-fun^r. 

Fiir, under Forse. 

FUS^, Ruthivell N. pi. m. fussy, eager, hurrying. 

Fu^e, under Feeihido. 

Fuwu, Bracteate 26. Mansname, nom. 

G (= GARW), Eidsberg ;. KMRN, Vordingborg; karw, Ingelstad; korpe, Morbyldnga. 3 s. p. 
gared, made, set up, built up, raised (the grave, grave-stone). — ougered^, Ruthwell. 3 s. p. 
A-GAKED, prepared. 

GM, Kragehxd; gjda, Lindholm. 2 s. imperat. go! — gjdgin, Kragehul. Prep, gain, 
AGAIN, against. 

GiE^ffiCALLU, Bracteate 19. Mansname, nora. 

EetGADRE, Ruthwell. AT(-to)GETHER. 

G^FING, Stentofte. Nom. = g^ef's-SON; or = of the Gsef family. 

Gsegin, u. Gee. — Gsehselseibsen, u. Hselseibsen. 

GAL, Bracteate 7. Mansname, nom. 

galgu, Ruthivell. Ac. s. m. gallow(s), rood, cross. 

GMLiek, Northumbrian, Casket. ? Gen. s. f. Of GAUL, in gallia. 

GAR, see ^HEKER, lAULIGR, OMNKAR, WOtGAR. 

Gsesli, under Gisli. 

GASRIC, Franks Casket. Nom. s. m. gas-rich, gambol-rich, playful, tossing. 

G^STIA, see SvELIG^STIA. 

gear, Beivcastle. Abl. s. n. tear. 

Gebid, &c. u. geBlD. — On-geredse, u. G. 

5ERNR, Bridekirk. Nom. s. m. yern, girn, willing, glad. 

GESSUS, Bewcastle. Nom. jesus. 

GEU, Bjorketorp; gevw, Stentofte. Adv. YO, tat, yea, truly, indeed. 

Giauyou, under Gib. 

GIB, Bracteate 57. 2 s. imperat. give, lend, send! — GiAUyou, see GLyo^u-GiAUyou. 

Gibid, u. Bid. — GibroJ)8era, u. BruJ)r. — Gileu, u. Hlseiwse. — Gileugse, u. 
Hlseiwse and Licgan. 

GiN^-RUNJiiA, Bjorketorp. Nom. pi. f.; gino-ronoa, Stentofte. Ac. pi. f. gin- (= begin, 
origin, essence, power) runes. Mighty Letters. 

GINIA, Mdjebro. Womansname, nom. 

Ginieera, u. Nisera. — Gino, u, Ginse. 

GyoSLHcARD, Dover. Mansname, nom. 

GISL, Franks Casket. Nom. s. m. Hostage. See iE^D^G^SLi, iEMSL, dom. — gisliong- 
wiLi, Vi Plane. Mansname, nom. 



264 HAND-LIST. 

GITOEASU, Franks Casket. Nom. pi. The jews. 

GL^, Bracteate 21. Mansname, nom. — GLyOJ<:u-GiAUyOU, Bracteate 7. Womansname, dat. 

GLiESTjEPONTOL, see AmuUt Rings. 

GOD, Ruthwell; Whithy. Nom. The Lord GOD. — KUH, Helnm. Nom. s. m. guthi, 
(hereditary) Priest-and-Judge. — GOffiU, Frdlaubershdm. Gen. s. f. Priestess. See HiLDDlGtt. 

GOD^GiES, Valsfjord. Mansname (goodday), nom. 

Goi]3u, u. God. — Gonrat, u. Kuni. 

biGOTEN, Ruthwell. Pp. n. s. f. be-yoten, besprinkled, bathed. 

greut, Franks Casket. Ac. s. m. grit, gravel, sand, shingles, coast. 

aGROF, JEthred's Ring. 3 s. p. a-groof, a-GRAved, engraved, cut, made. 

GRORN, Franks Casket. Pp. GRUSEN, crusht, dasht in pieces, killed. 

GUT^, Buzeu. Gen. pi. Of the goths. 

GtJt, see HiLDDiGto and god. 

Gudrd, under Kun. 

H, Konghell Probably for HARi, dat. s. m.. the HiER, here, army, fleet. See HJIRISO. 

Hae, under Hao. 

HiEBO, Stentofte. 3 pi. pr. They have, shall have. 

HiEDULiEiCiEA . Strand. Dat. s. Mansname. To-h^dul^ic^. — B.Mt>vyfOhM¥K, Stentofte, 
nom.; HiEFUWOL^F^, Gommor, hybuwul^fa, Istaby, dat. — Mansname. 

Hseere, u. Herse. — Hseg, u. Hieawan. 

HiEG^L^, Kragehul. Probably ac. Mansname. 

h^gust^ldia, Valsfjord, Dat. s. m. To the hagustald, chief, lord, captain. 

Hsei-tinse, under Hao. 

h^idar, masc. (hador), brightness, honor, fame. — h^idar-runo, Bjorketorp. Nom. s. 
(hador-RUNa), that honor's friend. — hidear-rungno, Stentofte. Nom. pi. neut. (hador- REGEN), 
those honor's lords, 

h^il^g, Buzeu. 1 Nom. s. f. ; ailic, Brough. Nom. s. f. ; helg . . ., Bakewell. holy, 
sacred; dedicated. ■ — h^lhi, Maeshowe, nom.; hiliGjEA, Orstad, dat. — Mansname (helgi, helge). 

H^iSLiE, Mojebro. Mansname, nom. 

Hseite, Heeiticse, u. Hsetec. — Heei-tinse, u. Hao. — Hselsea, u. Hlseiwse. — Heeseiwido, 
u, Hoeges. 

gsen^L^iBiEN, Tune. Dat, s. m. LOAF-fellow, com-panion, mate, husband. — hlafard, 
Ruthwell. Ac. s. m. lord. 

Hseldsea. Hseldseo, Hselhseda, u. Heldsea. — Hselhi, u. Hseilseg. 

halstun, Oshy. Mansname, nom. 

HAMA, Bracteate 38. Mansname, nom, 

hao. — B.M, Bracteate 57 ; he, Kragehul. 2 s. imperat. high, lift up, raise, carry 
on, wage, cause, make, let. — hao, Einang. Mansname, nom. — h^-curne, Bracteate 25. 
Nom. s. m. def. The high-chosen. — heo-sinna, Bewcastle. Dat. s. f. The high-sin, or 
high-sinful. — H^i-TiNJi, Tanum. Nom. s. m. high-tine, high token, grave-pillar. — H^uc, 
Vdnga. Mansname. nom. — See hceges. 

Hser, Hseerse, Hserse, under Herse. 



HAND-LIST. 265 

H^RING^, Vi Moss; HIEING, Shd-dng, Mansname, nom. (But h^ring^e, if we divide 
H^RING^ GiLEUGiE). — H^ERiENGU, Bracteote 78. Womansname, dat. 

HiERiso, Himlingoie. (? Mans)-name, nom. — h^riwol^fa, Stentofte, nom.; hariwulfs, 
Rdfsal, gen.; htriwul^f^, Istaby, dat. — Mansname. — See wdlfhere and H. 

H^TEC (= H^TE eg), lAndholm; h^ite, Kragehul; 1 s. pr. I hight, bid, command. — 
HET, Bingley. 3 s. p. hote, ordered, let. — h^itic^, Bracteate 57. Ac. pi. f. hetings, impreca- 
tions, threats, the war-ban. 

Hse{)uwol8efa, &c., under Hseduleeicsea. — Hseuc, u. Hao. — HauflDuukii, u. Heafdum. 

H^DRi, Hoga. Mansname, nom. 

HE, Bridekirk; Franks Casket; Ruthwell. Nom. s. m. he. — his, Ruthwell; Yarm. 
Gen. Of him, HIS. — him, Ruthwell. Dat. To him. — hin^, Ruthwell. Ac. him. — niM, 
Ruthwell. N. pi. m.; hi^, Franks Casket. Ac. pi. m. They; them. — See is. 

He, under Hao. 

heafdum, Ruthwell. Dat. pi. n. head(s), temples, head. — HAUFiDtlKiJ , Konghell. 
Nom. s. m. (As if heading). Headman, Leader, Commander, Chief. 

HEAFUNiES, Ruthwell. Gen. s. m. heaven's. 

biHEALD, Ruthwell. 1 s. p.; biHEALDUN, Ruthwell. 3 pi. p. beheld. 

HeARD, see GyOSLHeARD, RIKARTH. 

held^a, Bracteate 25; h^^lh^da, Bjorketorp; H^LDiEO, Sigdal; hel^hddu^, Stentofte. 
Gen. pi. m. Of helts, kemps, heroes. 

Helg . . ., under Hseilseg. 

HELIP^, Whitby. 3 s. pr. subj. May-HELP. 

Heo-sinna, under Hao. 

HERiE, Stentofte; ylmr, ? Skd-ang; HiER(^), Orstad; Thisted; HER, Franks Casket; 
HiEER^, Bjorketorp. here, in this place. 

Here, u. Hseriso. — Het, u. Hsetec. — Hiee, u. He. — Hidear, u. Hseidar. 

hyeruwul^fia. Istaby. Womansname, nom. 

hiewan, Bingley. Inf. To hew, carve, cut; stamp, strike. — ^A, Hoga; b.mg, 
Bracteate 68; hiuk, West Thorp; ho, Bracteate 62; hu, Bracteate 78; hUdg, Bracteate 61; uk, 
Freerslev. 3 s. p. hewed, made, inscribed. 

HiLDDiGto, Hartlepool. Womansname, nom. — HiLDitRTO, Hartlepool. Womansname, nom. 

Hiligsea, u. Hseilseg. — Him, Hine, u. He. — Hyriwulsefse, u. Hseriso. — His, u. 
He. — HyJ)uwul8efa, u. Hsedulseicsea. — Hiuk, u. Hiewan. 

HHL^^DU-uiG^, Bracteates 49, 49 b. Mansname, nom. 

Hlafard, under Hselseibsen. 

HLMlw^, Bo; H^L^A, Stenstad; lau, West Tanem; LEUWiE, Skdrkind. Nom^. s. m. 
or n. — L^EWE (or L.^iwJi:i), Sigdal. Ac. s. — low (lowe, loe, law), grave-mound, barrow, 
tumulus. The leug^ of the Ska-ang stone is probably the same word; and we might, possibly 
divide: HiERiNG^ giLEUGiE Al, orH^RlNGJS giLEU gseAi. Fresh finds may help us. See Vol. 2, p. 890. 

hleung, Vi Plane. Mansname, nom., = hleson, (leeson, leason). 

HLVDWYG, Alnmouth. Mansname, notn. 

hn^bmjes (or hn^bd^s). Bo. Mansname, gen. 

Hnag, under Niyse. — Ho, u. Hiewan. 



266 HAND-LIST. 

aHOF, Ruthwell, 1 s. p.; Franks Casket, 3 s. p. a-hove, lifted up, raised. 

HCEGES, Stentofte. Gen, s. m.; hodh, Brough. Ac. s. m. how, grave-mound, tumulus. 
See SAL-HAUKDM. — HiEiEiwiDO, Strand. 3 pi. p. HOWED, set in the grave-how, buried. — 
See HAO. 

HOLTiNG^A, Gallehus. Dat. s. m. holt-inge. Wood-god (= frea, froe, frey). 

HOM, see BtJCIAEHOM. 

HORNiE, Gallehus. Ac. pi. neut. These-HORNS. (Perhaps ac. s. masc. This-HORN), — 
HURNBDR^, Kallerup. Mansname, geu. 

HOU^A, Bracteate 24 (? and 55). Mansname, dat. 

Houh, u. Hoeges. — Hroetberhtse, u. Hro|)or. 

HRON^s, Franks Casket. Gen. s. m. Of the hrone (whale). 

HR050R. — hkoetberhTjE, ROETBERHTiS, Falstone. Mansname, dat. — eho^l(t)r, Vatn, 
nom. ; ruhalts, Snoldelev, gen. Mansname, — hrobwald, roald. — rhdulfr, Helnces, nom.; 
ROAUL, Hoga, dat. Mansname, = hrobwulf, rolf. — rudlfasts, Voldtofte, nom. Mansname, 

= HROI>WULF-FASTS. 

HU, Fonnds. (ho), she. — Sealand. Probably the beginning of a Mansname. 

Hu, under Hiewan. — Hurnburse, u. Hornse. — Hilug, u. Hiewan. 

huthu, Bracteate 4. Mansname, nom. 

hw, Bdrse, Vordinghorg. Probablj H . . . (a name beginning with h) and wrait, wrote. 

HW^TRED, Bewcastle. Mansname, nom. 

HWEtRiE, Ruthwell. Adv. whether- or-no, yet, lo! 

HUILER, Thisted. 3 s. pr. whiles, rests, reposes. 

[, under In. — la, u. Is. — Yia. u. Inge. 

lAM, see LAICIAM. 

iauligr, Bracteate 92. Mansname, nom. 

Iau})ini, under A]d. 

ic, Ruthwell; ik, Gilton; m, Fonnds; EC, Kragehul, Lindholm. The pronoun i. — mik, 
Gilton; MIC, Osthofen; MC, Etelhem; mec, ^thred's Ring, Northumbrian Brooch; meh, Alnmouth; 

ME, Bridekirk; mm, Ruthwell, me. — ungcet, Ruthwell. Ace. dual, us-two. us, Binqley, 

dat. pi.; Whitby, ac. pi. us. — USA, Bjorketorp. Nom. pi. fem. OUR. 

Ica3a, Ycsea, Ykcsea, u. Inge. — Yce, u. Eac. — Ichiay, Ikr, Ikkalacgc, Icw^suna, 
u. Inge. 

IDD^N, Charnay. Mansname, dat. 

Yfeeta, Ift, u. aft. — Ygoea, Ihcese, u. Inge. — IgilsuiJD, under ^gili. 

IGINGON, Stenstad. Man's (? Woman's) name, gen. = iging's. 

igleugj?. (if we divide H^RiNGiE igleug^), Skd-dng. Nom. sing, def., the gleg, bright, 
prudent, wise. 

Ih, u. Ic. — Ihae, u. Inge. 

ii^URl, Hoga. Mansname, nom. 

iiL^, Lindholm. Nom. s m. defin. The ill, fierce, destructive to his foes. 
Imse, under Is. 

IN, Franks Casket, NoHhumhrian Casket; i, Bjorketorp, Bracteate 92, Brough, Holmer\, 
Thames Fitting, Varnum. in. 



HAND-LIST. 267 

IN, Freerslev. Adv. (in, en, an), but. 

In, under Is. 

INGE, INGWE, (and WINGS, &c.). — UNGiE, Bracteate 67. Dat. s. m. def. The young. — 
lUKC, Brough. Ac. s.- m. or n. young, renewed. — y^ca, Bracteate 84; iCiEA, Bracteate 35; 
iCMA., Bracteates 36, 39; ykc^ea, Bracteate 41; ygcea, Bracteate 41, I; yia, Bracteate 37; 
Womansnarae, nom. — IKR (= inkur). Freerslev. Womansname, gen. — inki, Bracteate 83; 
ichiay, Bracteate 38, nom.; iha^, Varnum, dat. Mansname. — See ^^l^euc^a, ^ebing^, ^rbing^s, 

ASPING, BEAETIGO, DJi;RING(e), ELiEUINGS, GiEFlNG, GISLIONG, HAUFtUUKt, H^ITIC^, HIRING, H^RING^, 
H^UC, HLEUNG, IGINGON, HOLTINGJiA, ? ISINGSiEA, lUWNGJCA, LAING, L^iES^UWINGiE , L^UC^A, 
L^WULOUCiEA, MWSyOUINGI, N^tUY^NG, ? NIW^NG, NOTOINGOA, OSWIUNG, (o)ic(u), RANINGiE, SiEM^NG, 
SNEIC, SUttiKS, TILING, TIS^CG, MEtRODWENG, tR^WINGiEN, WJiRING^A. — INGOA, fem. See N05UING0A, 

T^LiNGWU. — ^HECER (= ingeker), Varnum. Womansname, nom. — IKKALACGC, Brough. 
Mansname, nom. — ingost. Tune. Mansname, nom. — icw^esuNa, Reidstad. Mansname, dat. 

INGLSK, Founds. Nom. s. fem. English, an Englishwoman. 

INO, Strand, n. Mansname. — inofasti, Visby, nom. Mansname. 

lOD, Freilaubersheim,. Nom. s. neut. A youth, child, son, daughter. 

lOHN, Bracteate 62. Mansname, nom. 

Yoise, u. Is. 

IS. — IMM, Bracteate 67. Dat. s. masc. To the. — in, Strand. Ac. s. m. Him. — 
yOLffi, Charnay. Ac. s. f. The, this. — lA, Tune, (hia), they, nom. pi. — See HE. 

Is, under Wees. 

ISAH, St. Andrews. Mansname, nom. 

Ysetae, u. (Set)a. 

? isiNGi^A, Veile. Mansname, dat. 

Isl, under Gisl. 

IIT, West Thorp; ITO, Bracteate 42. Mansname, nom, 

Ito, u. lit. — lukc, u. Inge. — (I)ugo, u. Oseg. 

lULiENi, Bracteate 61. Mansname, nom. 

TUIR, Osby. OVER, in memory of. Prep. gov. ace. 

lUKNG^A, Reidstad. Mansname, dat. 

iwi, Cleobury. eye, give eye to, show, point out; 3 s. pr. subj. 

Iwka, u. ^iu. — iWrokte, u. Worsehto. 

K, under C. 

L, Nydam Arrow. A contraction, (beginning of a name). 

-LA, -L^, see MIRIL^, NIUWIL^. 

Lse, under Lsewu. 

L^A, Varnum. Dat. or ac. s. Placename. 

l^-orb(^), Vi Plane. Ace. s. or gen. pi. LEA-staff, sithe-shaft. 

LACGC, see IKKALACGC. 

L^:DiE (perhaps l^m^), Torvik Mansname, nom. 

Lseewe, under Hlseiwse. 

l>ef, see olufr, onlaf, irl^f. 

LAIC, see iESLAIKIR, H^DUL^IC^A. 

34 



268 HAND-LIST. 

Laiciam, under Licses. 

LAING, Fonnds. Nom. - LA-ING, := LA's-child. 

L^M^ (perhaps i,mt)M,), Torvik. Mansname, nom. 

LANUM, Ruthwell. Dat. s. m. (lean), worn, death-weary. 

Laoku, under Lseucsea. 

L^^s^uwiNG^, Vi Moss Buckle. Mansname, nom. 

Lau, u. Hleeiwee. — Lseu, u. Lsewu. 

l^uc^a, Bracteate 18. Dat.; laoku, Bracteate 54. Nom. Mansname. See ^iEL^uc^A, 

L^WULOUCiEA. 

Leeuwse, under Hlseiwse. 

L^wu. — L^, Bracteate 21. Mansname, nom. — L^woLouciEA, Bracteate 19. Mans- 
name, dat. — See 'emulmva., echlew, fosl^u. 
aLegdun, under Lice. 

LETO, Holmen. 3 pi. p. let, caused, ordered. 
LE5R0 (perhaps LUtKO), Daily. ? Woman's (? Man's) name, nom. 

LEUBWINI, see ^LEUBWINL 

Leugse, u. Lice. — Leuwse, u. Hlseiwse. — Lew, u. Lsewu. 

LIA, Tune. Mansname, nom. 

Lic^s, Ruthwell. Gen. s. neut. Of a lich, lik, corpse. — lic-b^cun, Crowle. 
Ac. s. n. LiK-BEACON, corpse-piUar , grave-stone. — laiciam, Brough. Ac. s. m. lich-home, 
fleshy-cover, body, soul-robe. 

LICE, Bewcastle. 3 s. pr. subj. Let-him-LiE, sleep, rest. . — aLEGDUN, Ruthwell. 3 pi. p. 
A-LAID, laid down. — leug^, Skd-ang. ? Ac. s. n. let, couch, bed, grave. See u. HLiEiWiE. But 
also see iGLEUGiE. 

LIHCK, see ACLIHCK. 

LiLiA^iwu, Bracteate 79. Womansname, dat. 

LiM-wcERiGNE, Ruthwell. Ac. s. m. limb-weary. 

LIN, see BiRLimo. 

LONiEWORE, Nordendorf. Mansname, nom. 

Loucsea, under Lseuceea. 

LtN, Bracteate 80. Perhaps a contraction of liiin, p. part. nom. s. lithen, gone; deceast. 

LU^, Nydam. Mansname, nom. 

Lufr, under Lsef. 

lul, Bracteate 70. Mansname, nom. 

isu^M, Bracteate 22. Gen. pi. m. ledes, men, people. 

Lujjro, under Le|)ro, 

M (? = markam), Sigdal. 3 s. p. maekt, carved, inscribed. — m (= mot), Bracteate 75. 
N. s. f. (or neut.). MOT, stamp, die, mint, coin, minthouse. 

MiE, see hNjEBM^S, and under Ik, Magan. 

[magan]. — M^, Stentofte. Nom. s. m. mo, great, mighty. — alMEyOTTiG, u. al. — 
MUCNU, Stentofte. Ac. s. f. A muckle, mickle, multitude. 

MiEGi, Franks Casket. Latin. N. pi. m. magi, Wise Men. 

M^GUM, Strand. Dat. pi. With his maugs, kinsfolk. 



HAND-LIST. 269 

UMLM, BjOrketorp, Stentofte. 3 pi. pr. mele, mell, say, tell. 

MiENis, West Tanem. Mansname, gen. 

M^R, see eoMjER. — mj;ria, see niw^ng-MjERIa. 

MARiu, Ingelstad. Womansname (maria, mary), dat. 

Mc, Mec, Meh, u. Ic. — Men, u. Mon. 

MERGE, Gilton. Adv. merrily. — MERTHE, Bridekirk. Dat. s. f. mirth, beauty. 

MIA, see aivomia. — Mic, Mik, u. Ic. 

. . . (m)ingh(o) . ., Bakewell. See text. 

myrcna, Bewcastle. Gen. pi. Of-the-MERCiANS, of Mercia. 

MYREDAH, Alnmouth. Mansname, nom. 

MIRIL^, Sigdal, nom. or voc; mIrIl^, Etelhrni, nom. — miriltEA, Vceblungsnces, dat. 
Mansname. 

Mit, Ruthwell. Prep, (mith), with. 

MODiG, Ruthwell. Nom. s. m. moody, bold. 

MODU, see MUt. 

mon, see CADMON. — MEN, Ruthwell. Ac. pi. men. 

Mrlse, u. Mirilse. — mu, see ecmu. — Mucnu, u. Magan. 
• MUND, mtjndr, see jssmuts, ktoumut, d^gmund, emondr, sihmywnt. — mundia, see cunimudid. 

MUNGPjELyo, Northumbrian Casket. Placename, probably dat. s. Now montpellier. 

MWSyouiNGi, Krogstad. Mansname, nom. 

MUT, Lindholm. Prep. Against. 

Muts, u, Mund. — MUt, see scanomodd, purmdI). 

N Selsey, rest of the word gone. 

'SkVM, Bracteate 73. Mansname, nom. — NjEKTy^ng, Bracteate 24. Mansname, nom. 

. . . NjEU . . . (or . . . JEMV . . .), Kragehul. See text. 

unNEG, Franks Casket. Prep. gov. dat. dn-nigh, far from. 

NEMi, Northumbrian Casket. Mansname, nom. 

Ni, Lindholm, Ruthwell. Adv. (ne), nay, no, not. 

giNi^RA, Dearham. n^re, save, bless, 3 s. pr. subj. 

nit, nip, see dnitr. 

NitJ, Stentofte; nio, Buzeu. Dat. s. n. defin. The-NEw, fresh. — nicwil^, Brac- 
teate 80. Mansname, nom, 

NlY^, Kragehul Prob. inf. To (neeg), bow, bend, fall. — hxag, Ruthwell. 1 s. p. 
I inclined. 

niw^ng-m^ria, Thorsbjerg Sword. Womansname, nom. 

NOP, see BEAGNOt. — NOBUINGOA, Tune. Womansname, nom. 

Nu, Bjorketorp, Bracteate 59. Adv. now. 

NURA, Helnces. Of the NUR clan or land. 

0, under Agan, On. 

o^G, Bjorketorp. 3 s. p.; (i)UGO. or perhaps (w)ugo, Stentofte. 3 pi p. (woog), 
slew, hunted, routed. 

00. Brough. Adv. (ac, oc), but, but indeed. 

Ok, u. Eac. — Od, u. Wod. — ODU, see Mmm. 

34* 



270 HAND-LIST. 

OEKi, Brough. Mansname, nom. — ^c^a, Bracteate 96. Mansname, dat., To-mgm. 

OF, Ruthwell. Prep, or, out of, from. 

Oh, u. Agan. — oiinum, see birkoiindm, and u. wiNl. 

0L5A, Upsala. Name, probably fem., nom. 

Olufr, Olwf, u. Onlaf. 

ON, Bracteate 70; Franks Casket; Hackness; Ruthwell; Selsey; aa, Rolmen; o, Brough; 
Snoldelev. Prep. gov. d. and ac. ON, upon, in, at. See aGROF, aHOF, aLEGDDN, uSM^. 

ONLAF, Leeds, ac. s.; olufr, Maglekilde, n. s. Mansname. — olwfwoli>u, Bewcastle. 
Mansname, nom. 

(On)gerede, u. KEer|)i. — 0ns, u. Ans. 

ORB(^), see LjE-ORB(iE). 

Os, u. Ans. — Otse, Oti, (O)J)c(u), 0J)l8e, Ojjua, u. Aj)8e. 

owi, England. Mansname, nom. — ow^-alut, Bracteates 51, 52. Mansname, nom. 

OwlJDU, under WulJDu. 

PRESTR, Holmen. Nom. s. m. priest. 

PRO, Yarm. Latin. For. 

R, R . . ., under Runee. 

R^D, see ^BEED, EADRED, EANRED, FRiEW^R^D^A, HW^TRED, WE5R0DWENC. 

Rsew, u. Roase. 

RAH^BUL, Sandwich. Mansname, nom. 

RAiRA, Brough. ? Dat. s. m. (hrtee), ruin, death. 

RAiSA. — . . . Ti, Varnum; raistI, Freerslev; risti, Osby. 3 s. p. raised, placed. — 
A-R^RDE, Thornhill. 3 s. p. a-reared, araised, lifted up, set up (the stone). 

Rseisto, u. Rista. 

RANiNGJi, Miincheherg. Mansname, nom. 

recs, Brough. 3 s. pr. reaches, brings again. 

Red, under Rsed. 

REUMWALUS, Franks Casket. Nom. The Roman king remus. 

Rhoseltr, Rhuulfr, u. Hrojaor. 

rices, Bewcastle. Gen. s. n. rike, reek, kingdom. — riicn^, Ruthwell. Ac. s. m. rich, 
mighty, strong. See ^irikis, gasric. — rikarth, Bridekirk. Nom. Richard, mansname. 

ride, see woduride. 

RiiGU, Vi Plane. Womansname, gen. 

rings, see til^rings. 

rista. — r^isto, Maeshowe; 3 s. p. risted, carved, cut (runes). 

Risti, u. Raisa. 

Riusii, Solvesborg. Nom. s. n. (hruse), rasse, raise, cairn, stone-heapt grave. 

Riuti, u. Writaii, — Rur, u. Runse. 

ROA^, roae, Sigdal; RO, Bjorketorp; r^w, Orstad. Ac. s. f. rod, rest, repose. 

Roaul, u. Hro{)or. — Rod, see Rsed. 

RODi (or ROD^), Ruthwell. Dat. s. f. rood, cross. 

Roetberhtse, u. Hro|3or. 

ROM^c^STRi, Franks Casket. Dat. s. f. (rome-caster, Rome -Chester), Rome-city, Rome. 



HAND -LIST. 271 

ROMWALDS, Franks Casket. Nom. The Roman king ROMULns. 
Ronoa, under Runse. 

RUN^, Freilaubersheim; rdnya, Istaby; rung, Einang; runoa, Bracteate 25, Varnum; 
R . . . ., Tune; R, Sigdal. Ac. pi. f. runes, runic letters. See jer-rnr, GiN^-RUNiEA, gino-ronoa. 
RUTi, Sdlvesborg. Mansname, nom. 
Ruhalts, Ruulfasts, u. Hrojjor. 

RUMA, Stentofte. Ac. s. m. (rome, reme), lustre, praise, glory. 
rungno, see hidear-rungno. 
RUNG, Bjorketorp. Nom. s. m. (rdna, rgwner), fellow-talker, comrade, friend. See 

HiEroAR-RUNG. 

s^, Lindholm. Nom. s. m. — SiEA, Stentofte; siM, Gjevedal. Nom. pi. f. (sa), the, 
these, yon. 

SjEAS, Bjorketorp. Mansname, nom. 

Sac = SACERDOTi, Yarm. Latin. Bishop. 

S8eg(a), under Sigi. 

s^LiEW, Bracteate 67; smw, Bracteate 20. Nom. s. f. seel, joy, luck, success. 

SALHAUKUM, SnoldeUv. Dat. pi. m. The sal-hgws, now sallgw, in Snoldelev parish, 
Sealand, Denmark. See hceges. 

SiELiG^STiA, Berga. Womansname, nom. 

Sselu, under Sseleew. 

? s^MJiNG, Seude. Mansname, nom. or ac. 

SAMSi, Ingelstad. Mansname, nom. 

S^RjELD, Orstad. Mansname, nom. 

SMUV, Maeshoive. 3 s. pr. soreth, wounds. — sgrgum, Ruthivell. Dat. pi. f. sorrgws. — 
SARE, Ruthwell. Adv. sore, soi-ely. 

Ssete, Sati, under (Set)a. 

saule, Binqlev; Dewsbury; Falstone; Thornhill; SAU . ., Alnmouth; sgwhdla, Bewcastle. 
Dat. s. f. soul, ond, spirit. 

SB^, Bjorketorp. (^bm sbm). Nom. s. m. defin. The spae, wise, counselor. 

SBER^DH, Thames fitting. 3 s. pr. speireth, asks, requests. 

SCANGMGDU, Bracteate 74. Mansname, nom. 

SKJiR, Seeding. Mansname, nom. 

SCUM, Skarkind. Mansname, gen. Of-SKITH. 

Skwlfs, under Sigi. 

SEHS-CUNiE, Bracteate 6. Dat. s. m. def To the sax-keen, sword-bold. 

(set)a. Tune, infin. ; tsetae, Yarm; smie, Gommor; sati, Helnces; sete, Thornhill; 
SETTAE, Falstone; sette, Thornhill; scETTOi;, Falstone; 3 s. p. — setton, Bewcastle; 3 pi. p. To set, 
set up, raise, place. 

Sise, under See. 

SIA^LUH, Kinneved. Apparently mansname, nom. 

SKKTAle, Holmen. Dat. s. f. Place-name, sigdal in Aggershus, Norway. 

SIGI, Gilton. Ac. s. m. sige, victory. — Osby. Mansname, ace. — S^g(a), Frohaug. 
Mansname, or (dat.) for-siGE, for-victory. — sigbecn, Bewcastle. Ac. s. n. sige-beacgn, victory- 



272 HAND-LIST. 

pillar, funeral cross. See begun. — sihmywnt, Bracteate 55. Mansname, dat. — siGHyOR, 
Northumbrian Casket. Dat. s. m. To the sigora, Lord, Captain. — sikktale, Holmen. Dat. s. f. 
siGDAL, in Aggershus, Norway. — WiKm, Maglekilde. Mansname, nom. — skwlfs (= sikwulfs), 
Freerslev. Mansname, gen. 

signum, Yarm. Latin. Ac. s. n. This sign, pillar, grave-cross. 

siMi, Bracteate 92. Dat. s. ? sem in N. Jutland, near Ribe. 

sin, Helnces, Oshy. Ac. s. m. (sin), his. — sin^r, Freerslev. Gen. s. f. (sinre), his. 

siNNA, see heo-sinna. 

syOiEiNiEA, Krogstad. swain, mansname, dat. 

(si)iic(u), Freilauhersheim. Perhaps to be redd (o)5c(u). which see. 

Siuar|), under Sigi. 

sidilf0r(n). Coquet Hand. Nom. s. silvern, of silver. 

Skwlfs, under Sigi. 

uSM^, Whithy. 3 s. pr. subj. May- he- (on-smee), look on, watch over, bless! 

bisM^R^DU, Ruthwell. 3 pi. p. (be-smeared), mockt insulted. 

SMUHiE, Kragehul. Ac. s. m. (smooger), thro-flier, darter thro, penetrater. 

SNEic, Bracteate 96. Mansname, nom., = sneinc, - sneing, SNOW-SON. 

SOL, Thisted. Nom. s. f. (sol), sun, darling. 

Son(r), u. Sun. — Sorgum, u. Sserjj. 

SCERi, Chessell Down. 1 Dat. s. n. ? To the sere, armor, weapons (of the foe). 

Sowhula, under Saule. 

ST^D^A, Strand. Gen. pi. of-the-STEADS, road-STEADS, harbors, coasts. 

stain, stone, masc. — si AX'S, Freerslev; st^ein, Kallerup, Snoldelev. Nom. s,; stain, 
Helnces; STiEiN.^, Tune; STiE(N)jE, Gommer. Ac. s, — stainar, Reef sal. Nom. pi. — (stan), 
Truro. Absolute, as mansname. — stun, Osly. Mansname, ace. See dcep-stan, halstun. 

STiELDIA, see H^GUSTiELDIA. 

Stan, Stsenee, u. Stain. 

bisTEMiD, Ruthwell. P. p. (be-steamed), bedabbled. 
gisTiGA, Ruthwell. Inf. To (steeg), step, mount. 

sttopa, Holmen. Inf.; — sttOpte, Holmen. 3 s. p. To (steep), yote, cast, found. 
gisTODDUN, Ruthwell. 3 pi. p. stood. 

STRELUM, Ruthwell. Dat. pi. m. With streles, missiles, darts. 
Stun, under Stain. 

SUL, Ingelstad. Ac. s. m. (or pi. n.). sill, ground-frame, timber-frame. 
SUN. — SUNAR, Snoldelev. Gen. s. — SUNce, Sparlosa. Dat. s. SON. See brupursunu, icwiESUNA, 
iiorrson(r). 

SUNEDROMDH, Bracteate 64. Mansname, nom. 

swi(k), Franks Casket. Ac. s. n. (swike), treachery. 

swit, SWIHA, See BERHTSUKE, KUNESWttA, IGILSUIP. — suiDKS, KalUrup. Mansname, 

gen. (SWIP-INGS). = SWITHE-SON. 

giswOM, Franks Casket. 3 s. p. swam. 
TAiE, Bracteate 94. Mansname, nom. 
TADIS, Thisted Mansname, gen. 



HAND -LIST. 273 

Tseen, under Tinse. 

TAL, see SIKKTALE. 

TALLWE, Bracteate 9. Mansname, nom. — TiELiNG, Vi Plane. Mansname, nom. = tell's- 
son. — T^ELINGWU, Gettorf. Womansname, dat. = TELL's-daughter. See til. 

TAN. — TENAES, TENES, Bracteate 75. Mansname, gen. — tjiinulu, Bracteate 71. Mans- 
name, nom. 

t^wido, Gallehus. 3 s. p. (tawed), shaped, made. 

T^woN, Bracteate 27. Mansname, nom. 

te, Bracteates 25, 59. 3 s. pr. subj. May he (tee), give, grant, show, bless, guard. 

Tenaes, Tenes, under Tan. 

Ti, Ruthwell; Tyo, Thames fitting; to, Bracteate 8; Bridekirk. Prep. to. 

. . . . ti, under Raisa. 

TidfirJ), u. TiJ^as. 

TIL, Bracteate 46. Mansname, nom. — tiljerings, Kovel. Mansname, nom. — tille, 
Bracteate 8. Dat. s. m. defin. To the (till), good, excellent. See eltil. — See tallwe. 

TIMS, Brough. P. p. n. s. f. teemed, brought forth, begotten, born. 

tin^. — t^en, Hoga. Ac. s. m. tine, grave-pillar, funeral stone. See H^i-TiNiE. 

Tyo, under Ti and Pewse. — Tissecg, u. Tu. 

TITUS, Franks Casket. Nom. The Roman Emperor. 

TI5AS, Vi Plane. Mansname, nom. — tidfirb, Monk Wearmouth. Mansname, nom. 

Tyw, under Tu. 

TiwiTiE, Bracteate 32. Mansname, dat. 

toue, Holmen. Mansname, nom. 

TBtiTBU, Vordingborg. Mansname, nom. 

TRUKNA5U, Helnces. 3 pi. p- drowned, were drowned. 

(tru)MBEEEHCT, Yarm. Mansname, dat. 

T0, Glostrup; TYW, Jyderup. Apparently the God of TUE'sday. — TiSiECG, Bracteate 78. 
Mansname, nom. 

TDHJC, see D^ITUHiE. 

TUMA, Stentofte. Dat. s. n. (tume, tome, toom), open space or time, chamber, free 
time, leisure, rest. 

TUNBA, Balkemark. Mansname, nom. 

tvto, Bracteate 65. Mansname, nom. 

TOW^, Bracteate 22. Nom. s. ? f. A (tog), row, line, here a series of letters, 
an alphabet. 

TWED, Bracteate 32. Mansname, nom. 

TW(EGEN, Franks Casket. Nom. pi, m. twain, two. 

P (? a name beginning with P), Sigdal. 

PA, Ruthwell. Adv. tho. then, then-when, when. 

Psea, u. Pewee. — Psees, u. Pe. 

BiEiCT, see UB^iCT. 

t^LiA, Bratsberg. Womansname, nom. 

Pam, u. Pe. — :DiEN, see aceb^n. — Pansi, Pser, u. Pe. — Peer, u. Pe. 



274 HAND-LIST. 

BASCO (or tusco), Bracteate 3. Mansname, nom. 

Dset, Pseteea, under I>e. 

BE. — ws, Coquet lland. Nom. s. m. this. — '■ t^ES, Bewcastle. Gen. s. n. Of this. — 
PAM, Bracteate 9. Dat. s. m. To the. — daee, Dewsbury; der, Bridekirk, Falstone; l^R, 
ThornhiU; dat. s. f. For the. — bansi, Oshy; bce, the, Falstone; poNiiE, Hoga. Ac. s. m. — 
w^u, Vordinghorg; mssa, Holmen. Ac. s. f. the, this. — b^t, Ruthwell; t^T^A, Sigdal; MS, 
Bewcastle. Ac. s. n. that, this. — MRiE, Stentofte. Gen. pi. their. — byiya, Istaby; wsi, 
Freerslev. Ac. pi. f. (they, tho), these. — i>^R, Franks Casket; ber, Ruthwell. Adv. there. 

. . . 5Es(? i), Bdrse. Probably this or these, ac. s. or pi. of be. 

bew^. — i>E, Vi Plane. Nom. s. m. A theow, thrall, slave, servant. — MWiEA, 
Valsfjord. Mansname, dat. See ising-b^a, owlbu-beWjEA. As fern, see ULTyO. 

I>iseu, Pyiya, Pisi, Pissa, under Pe. 

biebrodwenc, Torvik. N. s. mansname, equal to beodrading or beodradson. 

wwByo-FUNiR, Frederiksherg. Nom. s. m. thief-find, finding out the thief. 

Ponise, u. Pe. — Porse, Porrson(r), u. Pur. 

lORNR, Maeshowe. Nom. s. m. thorn; (or javelin, dart). 

Porr-son(r), Port, under Pur. 

ER^wiNGiEN, Tanum. Mansname, gen. 

Prlsef, u. Pur. 

BRUi, Vordinghorg; d Alnmouth. Ac. s. f. thruch, throh, stone-kist, stone- 
coffin, grave. 

I'Ul(r), a (thyle). Speaker, Chanter, Priest. — bular, Snoldelev. Gen. sing. 

bur. — WRM, Thisted. Womansname, nom. — brl^f, Gommor. Mansname, nom. — 
burmub, Sceho. Mansname, nom. — tORRSON(R), Holmen. Mansname, nom. — tORT, Holmen. 
Mansname, nom. 

Uk, under Eak, Hiewan. 

tKisi, Upsala. Ac. s. f. axe. 

Ugee, u. Ugis. 

UGis, Kragehul. Gen. s. ugg's (= woden's, odin's). See ^s-ugis. — ugu, Sparlosa. 
Ac. s. Mansname. — UGiE, Kragehul. Ac. s. m. defin. The (oug), fierce. 

ULTyo, Fonnds. Womansname, gen. 

.... UMiE, Kragehul. See text. 

UNNBO, Reidstad. Mansname, nom. — unbo^u. West Thorp. Womansname, dat. 

UNDA, ^r-acfeafe 82. As this piece is broken, we do not know whether more letters 
belonged to this word. 

Ung, Ungse, u. Inge. — Ungcet, u. Ik. 

UNITR, Freerslev. Mansname, nom. 

unna(n). To (UN), give, grant. — j^nn, Bracteates 24, 25. 3 s. pr. (uNS), gives. 
Un-Neg, under Neg. 

UNU, Morhyldnga. Womansname, gen. una's (daughter). 

t5RiURiB0N, Amidet Rings. See text. 

Us, Usa, u. Ik — U-Smse, u. Smse. 

UT (or UTi), Bjorketorp; ute, Sigdal. out, out in. 



HA^'u-LIST. 275 

ui>, Charnay, Mansname, nom. — ui>^,R, Bjorketorp. Mansname, noni, 
utiEiCT, Sealand. Nom. s. f. Unluck, disfavor, a bad throw. 
UlDser, uiulcr Ujj. — ■ UA, see ^elua. 
WuEiGiE, Bracteate 29. Mansname, nom. 

WALD. See ALUWALDO, KUiNU/ELTS, 0LWFW0L5D, RHO^L(t)R. 

WALDE, RnthweU. 3 s. p. wodld. 

UiELY^E, Bracteate 37. Ac. s. m, weal, success, victory. See ^awel^e. 

Uselts, Waludo, under Wald. 

UAN^BiERiEH, Vai-num. Mansname, ace. 

Wseryit, Wseritse, under Writan. 

WARD, Franks Casket. 3 s. p. warth, worth, became, was. — ward, see siuari>. 

WiERUA, Tomstad. Mansname, dat. See alder. — w^ring^ea, Torvik. Mansname, dat. 

W^S. — IS, Coquet Hand. 3 s. pr. is. — w^s, RnthweU; was, Fonnns. 1 and 3 s. p. 
WAS. — w^s, Tanum. 2 s. imperat. Be-thou! Stand-thou! 

? w^TT^T (? WMTTM Ml), Seude. Mansname, nom. 

Wele, u. Uajlyse. 

UENA, Ingelstad. Dat. s. f. (wene), fair. 

WENC, see IN'GE. — Uer, u. VYserua. See Aluer. 

wi, Buzeu. Dat. s. n. (wm), temple, fane. 

UT^YLIIL, Bracteate 24. Mansname, nom. — uiK, see auik. 

UIGJE, see HLVDWYG, HHLiEiEDUiG^. — uiu, Bracteate 57 . Ac. s. n. (wigg), battle, war. — 
wiY0-BiGi(a3), Kragehid. Dat. s. m. In his wig-bing, war-bed, camp. 

wiLi, see gisliongwili. — Win, u. Wini. — Wings, u. Inge. 

wiNi, friend. See MhMwrsM. alwin, ^.leubwini, berchtvini, ejelwini, iaujwni. — 
wiNiwONiEWyo, Nordendorf. Womansname, dat. 

wini, pleasant mead. See biekoiinum. 

wiis(a), Vallohy. Mansname, nom. — msm, Bracteate 57. Nom. s. (wisa), leader, 
captain. — wiSiE, Gilton. 2 s. imperat. (wEiSE, wise, wiss), lead out, show, draw, brandish. 

wiT^, see TiwiT^. 

wiTiEi, Tune. Dat. s. m. defin. The (witty), wise, mighty, illustrious. 

Uiu, Wiyu, u. Uigse. — wiWiEA, see ecwiw^a. 

wiwiLN, VceUungsnces. Mansname. nom. 

WOD. — WOD^N, Nordendorf; OD, Bracteate 59. Mansname, nom., and name of the 
God of WEDENS-day; woden. odin. — oiunkar, Eidsberg; woiiGAR, Bewcastle. Mansname, nom. — 
WODURIDE, Time. Mansname, dat. 

WOLK, Brotigh, 3 s. p. walkt, went. 

Wol|3u, u. Wald. — VOMIA, see aivomia. — woN^wyo, see wmiwoNjEwyo. 

WOP, Brough. Nom. s. m. whoop, cry, weeping, tears. 

woRiEHTO, Time; worh(t)e, Northumbrian Brooch; vrwito, Bracteate 65; iwROKTE. 
Bridekirk; woRTiE, Etelhem; wo Alnmouth. 3 s. p. wrought, workt, made, carved. 

WORE, see LONiEWORE. — WCERIG. See limwcerigne. 

writan. — RiUTi, Stento/te; WiERYiT, Jstahy; w^RiTiE, Varnum; wr^et, Freilavbersheim ; 
WRMUM, Reidstad; urit, Northumbrian Casket; wti (=wraiTi), Solvesborg. 3 s. p. wrote, cut, 

inscribed (the runes). 

35 



276 HAND-LIST. 

iWrokte, Wrtse, Vrwito, u. Worsehto. — Wti, u. Writan. — (W)ugo, u. Oa3g. 

WULF, nom. S. m. See iEGGIULS, ^NIWULU, ^NWLL, eADVLFES, B.MR1W0LMFA, HARIWULFS, 
H^BUWOLiEFA, HYBCWCL^FA, ROAUL, SKWLFS, TiENULU. — WULFIA, liom. S. f. See HYERDWULiiFIA. — 

wtiLiF, Franks Casket. Nom. s. f. (wylf), she-wolf. — wulfheee, Bewcastle. Mansname, nom. 
WUL5U. — owlju-beWjEa, Thorsbjerg Sword. Mansname, dat. 
giwDNDAD, Ruthwell. P. p. wounded. 
Y, see I. 



MARKER. 



A, stave for, 213 foil. 
„ Y and A, 217, 218. 
„ jE, e, &c. interchange of, 217, 219 foil. 

A or AH MIK, 218. 

Adjectives, 0. North. 223, 227, 231. 
^DuwEN, the war-lady, 66. 
Adverbs, O. North. 225, 232. 
Aetins, Roman General, 175. 
Agedal bracteate, 200. 
^gil, tale about, 147. 
Akerman, Mr. 115. 
Alfred, king, 243. 
Allen, J. R. 142. 
Alnmonth Cross, 156, 256. 
Alphabet, runic, 106, 111, 174. 
Alsterlund, J. W. 29. 

A-M, AM, 222. 

Amulet- Rings, 157. 

Amulets, 24, 59, 90, 92, 98, 101, 103. 

AND, OND, 220, 221. 
Andrevsr, St., his Ring, 115. 
Antony & Paul (Sts), 125, 130. 
AKWDLF, king, 175, 193. 
Arendt, M. F. 66, 73. 
Arrows, 81. 
Asum bracteate, 255. 
^thred's Ring, 139, 218. 
Auda stone, 74. 
Axes, 28. 

-Dakewell stone, 123. 
Balkemark stone, 79. 

BARROW, 248. 

Bdrse stone, 102. 
Batons, 15. 
Battaglini, N. 254. 
Baudot, Henri 60. 



Bayeux Tapestry, 16. 

Beauvois, E. 60. 

Belland stone, 65. 

Bells, 73. 

Berga stone, 9. 

Bewcastle Cross, 128, 217. 

Biliteral stones, 136. 

BiM, BIN, I be, 222. 

Bingley font, 137. 

Bjorketorp stone, 17, 217. 

Bo stone, 51, 219. 

? Bohemian bracteate, 167. 

Bolbro bracteates, 184, 5. 

Bone-snake, runish, 90. 

Boringe bractealie, 191. 

Bowls, 91. 

Bows, 79. 

Bracteate No. 6, p. 168, 256. 

Bracteates, 163, 250, 255. 

Bramham-moor Ring, 157. 

Bratsberg stone, 66. 

Bridekirk Font, 160. 

Broholm bracteate, 166. 

Brooches, 13, 61, 67, 70, 80, 109, 110, 111, 125, 210. 

Brough stone, 116, 217, 218. 

Brunswick Casket, 119. 

Buckle, runic, 84. 

Bugge, S. 15, 24, 26, 66, 172, 174, 186, 192, 215, 

219, 225. 
Bure, J. T. A. 15. 
Buzeu Ring, 203, 218. 

(jsedmon, 132, 221. 
Calendar or Clog, 159, 256. 
Calverley, W. S. 250. 
Caskets, 119, 142. 
Ceorl's "Wain, 114. 

35* 



278 



MARKER. 



Chalice, 106. 

Charnay Brooch, 60. 

Chatham Brooch, 218. 

Chatto, W. A. 165. 

Chessel-Down Sword, 245. 

Chester-le-Street stone, 246. 

Cleobury Mortimer Dial, 114. 

Cliff inscriptions, 49, 57. 

Coffins, 133. 

Collingham stone, 121. 

Combertigues-Varennes, L. L. H. 256. 

Combs, 30, 82, 119. 

Coquet-iland King, 151. 

Corlin bracteate, 177. 

Ring, 206. 
Cram on d Ring, 155. 
Crowle Cross, 125. 
Cup-holes, 102. 

-Ualby Diadem, 80. 
Dalum bracteate, 194. 
Dearham stone, 249. 
Dewsbiiry stone, 140. 
Diadems, 80. 
Dialects, 213 foil. 
Dials, 114. 
Dice, 97. 

Djupbrunns bracteate, 198. 
Dover slab, 140, 217. 
Drinking-horns, 85. 
Duncan, Dr. 132. 



E 



, given by M or IaI, 217. 
Eastleach-Turville bracteate, 194. 
Ecgberht, king, 191. 
Echinite, 92. 

Eckernforde bracteate, 178. 
Eidsberg slab, 244. 
Einang stones, 53, 55, 218. 
Ekeby stone, 40. 
Elgesem .stone, 58. 
Ems Fibula, 210. 
English bracteate, 193. 

Rings, 151, 157, 158. 
ERDM, we are, 222. 
Eskatorp bracteate, 183. 
EST, thou art, 222. 
Etelhem Brooch, 13. 

Tall of Man, 250. 
Falstone Cross, 136, 217, 218. 
FAtER, in gen. s. 220. 
Faversham bracteate, 165. 
Faxi'i bracteate, 171. 



Fibula, see Brooch. 
Finland bracteate, 187. 
Fittings, 147. 
Fjellerad stone, 9. 
Flemlose Snake, 24. 
„ stone, 218. 

Fonnas Brooch, 67, 218, 222. 
Fonts, 137, 160. 
Forsa Ring, 242. 
Fowler, J. T. 125, 139. 
Franks, A. W. 246, 7. 

Casket, 142—7, 217. 
FRE.\, FROE, FKEY, the god, 59, 86. 
Frederiksberg amulet, 98. 
Frederikshald bracteate, 180. 
Freerslev stone, 100, 218, 219. 
Frei-Laubersheim Brooch, 70. 
Frohaug amulet, 59. 
fdPe mik. 111. 
Futhorc, see Alphabet. 
Fyn bracteates, 174, 178, 179, 184. 
Fylfoot, see Swastika. 

(jallehus Horns, 85, 217. 

G&rdsby bracteate, 188. 

Gettorf bracteate, 199. 

Gilton Sword-ponimel, 115. 

Gjevedal wooden Pillar, 73. 

Glosfrup amulet, 92. 

Gommor stone, 20. 

Goransson's Baufil, 11, 14, 46. 

Gospels, O. Engl. 221, 2. 

Gotland bracteates, 181, 189, 192, 197, 8. 

Greymoorhill Ring, 157. 

Grimm, J. 216. 

-LLackness stone, 155, 217. 

Haderslev bracteate, 173. 

Hagson, K. A. 237. 

Hahn, K. A. 216. 

Haigh, D. H. 114, 115, 123, 125, 137, 140, 142, 150, 

155, 156, 162, 256. 
Hand-list of the 0. N. words, 257 foil. 
Bfandelmann, H. 250. 
Handle, runic, 90. 
Hansen, J. T. 254. 
Harlingen bracteate, 186. 
Hartlepool stones, 127, 8. 
Haslef, P. 74. 
HelnaBs stone, 98, 216. 
Hesselagergdrd bracteate, 1 87. 
Hexham, bishops of, 132, 154. 
Hibbert, Dr. 124. 
Hickes, G. 139. 
Hildebrand, H. 0. H. 5, 15. 



MARKER. 



279 



Hillerup braeteate, 197. 

Himlingoie Brooch, 80. 

Hindostanee Playing-cards, 165. 

Hoddam Cross, 152. 

Hoga stone, 42. 

Holmberg, A. E. 32. 

Holmen Bell, 73. 

Holy Symbols, 166. 

Horn-ornaraent, 165. 

Horns, 85 — 9. 

Howard, H. 162. 

Hnsaby Museum, 238, 245. 

Icelandic not Old-Northern, 215, 216. 
Infinitive endings, 215, 216. 
Ingelstad stone, 45. 
Irton Cross, 142. 
Istaby stone, 21. 

Jonah's story, 147. 
Jones, M. 124. 
Jyderup amulet, 101. 

-ULallerup stone, 96. 
KEENG, brooch, 61. 
Kemble, J. M. 78, 125, 132. 
Kielland, H. C. 65. 
Killerup braeteate, 196, 7. 
Kinneved stone, 5. 
Kirkdale stones, 123, 152. 
Kluwer, L. D. 66, 72. 
Knife or Sword, 111. 

., handle, 90. 
Kock, A. 217. 
Konghell Baton, 15. 
Korko bracteates, 175, 178. 
Kovel Spear-head, 204. 
Krag'ehul Bone snake, 90. 
Handle, 90. 

„ Lance-shaft, 90. 

„ wooden Lid, 90. 

Krogstad stone, 14, 237. 
Krysing, G. 86. 

JUancaster Cross, 124, 217. 
Lance, see Spear. 
Leeds stone, 154. 
Lekende braeteate, 188. 
Lellinge braeteate, 173. 
Lid, runic, 90. 
Liljegren, J. Gr. 44, 45. 
Linder, N. 14. 
Lindholm snake or fish, 24. 



Lindisfarne Coffin, 133. 
Lflgstor braeteate, 184. 
Lorange, A. 242. 
LOW, grave-mound, 219. 
Lund braeteate, 199. 

M-aeshowe stone, 153, 223. 

Magi offer to Christ, 143. 

Maglekilde amulet, 103. 

Maglomose bracteates, 168, 180, 185. 

Manuscripts, 222. 

Martyr-stone, 116. 

MfBSO-Gothic sibilation, 214, 225. 

Maughan, J. 130. 

Mecklenburg braeteate, 196. 

Midt-Mjelde braeteate, 167. 

Mojebro stone, 11, 217. 

Monk-Wearmouth Cross, 153. 

Montelius, 0. 164. 

Morbylftnga. stone, 46. 

Mtillcr, S. 0. 208. 

jMiincheberg Spear-head, 205, 254. 

JMassbjerg bracteates, 194, 5. 

Nebenstedt bracteates, 168, 9. 

Nethii's Casket, 119, 217. 

NiwiNG clan, 78. 

Nordendorf brooches, 109, 110. 

Nordenfalk, J. 14. 

Nordenskjold, C. F. 8, 44. 

Normal texts — wastepaper, 214. 

Norse braeteate, 182. 

North-English, 216. 

Northumbrian Brooch, 125, 217, 218. 

„ Casket, 119, 142. And see Franks Casket. 

Nouns, 0. Northern, 223, 226, 228. 
Nydam Arrows, 81. 

~U, 3 s. p. eijding, 224. 

or OH MIC, owns me. 111, 218. 

Ohthere, 243. 

Olafson, J. 87, 157. 

Old-North-English, 110, 116, 216, 221. 

Olsson, 0. 84. 

01st braeteate, 190. 

OND, AND, 220, 1. 

ONLAF = OLAF, king, 155. 

OEANTES, 237. 

Orstad stone, 61, 217, 218. 
Osby stone, 44, 218. 
Osthofen Brooch, 111, 218. 
Overhornbek bracteates, 174, 176, 7. 



280 



MARKER. 



-L alirapsest stone, 155. 
Passive verb, 216, 225. 
PauUi, J. R. 87. 
Pennant, Mr. 132. 
Petrossa treasure, 204. 
Philology, 213, 226. 
Picts-house, Orkneys, 153. 
Pig of Tin, 116. 
Planes, runish, 83, 4. 
Post-article, 216, 225. 
Prepositions, O. N. 225, 232. 
Pronouns, O. N. 223, 228, 231. 
Puckle, J. 140. 
Pudsey, bishop, 1 62. 



Qv 



ille bracteate, 167. 



-Ji as nom. mark, 214, 218, 219, 226. 

1^ and A for -r, 216. 

Rsefsal stone, 31, 218. 

Randlev bracteate, 170. 

Read, C. H. 247. 

Reidstad stone, 63. 

Ricardus, architect, 1 62. 

Richert, M. B. 2. 

Rings, 115, 139, 151. 155, 157, 158, 203, 206, 238, 247. 

Ring-mai], 15. 

Rok stone, 32. 

Roman stone, 118. 

Romes-fell Walrus- teeth, 243. 

Roraulns & Remus, 143. 

RONOA, &C. not RONOR, &c. 218. 

RCNA, &C. not RDNR, &C. 218. 

RDNA, runi, runo, aG. pi. in later runes, 219. 

RUNA-RAP, 219. 
„ RITAR, 219. 

Runic Calendar, 159. 
Ruthwell Cross, 130, 217, 218. 
Rydqvist, J. E. 217. 
Rygh, O. 59, 72. 

0-rune, 135. 

„ as old nomin.-mark; to the 3 examples on p. 223 
add the .iEGGIUls of the Sparlosa stone, p. 251. 

„ softened to r, 214. 
Ssbo Sword, 242. 
SACERDos = bishop, 132. 
Sseding stone, 104. 
Sandwich stones, 112, 113. 
s^Rp, 224. 

SAULK, 218. 

Save, C. 12, 14, 32. 

Scandinavian bracteate, 168. 



Scanian bracteates, 172, 176, 178, 181, 182, 255. 
Schoning, G-. 58. 
Sealand bracteate, 186. 
Die, 97. 

„ Stamp, 244. 
Sehested, F. 187. 
Selsey Ring, 247. 
Seude stone, 71. 
Shield-bosses, 66, 77. 
Sigdal .stone, 64, 218, 219. 
siN„I anj, 222. 
Ska-ang .stone, 5. 
Skarkind bracteate, 189. 

stone, 7, 217, 219. 
Skeat, W. W. 108. 
Skien bracteate, 200. 
Skodborg „ , 190. 
Slangerup „ ,171. 
Slesvig „ ,171. 
Snakes, 90. 
Snoldelev stone, 102. 
Snydstrup bracteate, 172. 
Sogndal „ , 180. 

Solvesborg stone, 40. 
Sparlosa stone, 251. 
Spear-casting and War-ban, 90, 186. 

„ heads, 204, 205, 253. 

„ shaft, 90. 
Stamps, 244. 
Steatite, 5, 98. 
Steenstrup, J. C. H. R. 76. 
Stenstad .stone, 52, 219. 
Stentofte stone, 25, 218. 
Stenvik stone, 74. 
Strand stone, 238. 
Strong nouns, 216. 
Stuart, J. 256. 
snN in gen. s. 220. 
Sundial, 114. 
Sutton Shield, 218. 
Swastika or Felefoot, 102. 
Swedish bracteates, 179, 180, 181, 188. 
Sword, 115, 242, 245. 

„ chapes, 78. 

„ pommels, 115. 

„ sheath clasps, 82. 
Syv, P. 93. 

Xanem stone, 72. 

Tanum stone, 3, 217, 218. 

Taylor, I. 202. 

-t, -s, -R, verbal ending, 223. 

Thames fitting, 147. 

knife. 111, 217. 
Thisted stone, 105. 

THOR, see THUNOR. 



MARKER. 



281 



Thorgftrd stone, 74. 

Thornhill stones, 148, 150, 217, 248. 

tORNR, 224. 

Thorsbjei'g Bow, 79. 

Shieldboss, 77, 217, 218. 
„ Swoi-dchape, 78. 

THDNOR, THCR, THOR, 175. 

„ Hammer-mark, 252. 
Mark, 243. 
Tidfirth, bishop, 154. 
Time, as to langviage, 214. 
Titus & the Jews, 143. 
TjOi'ko, see K6rk5. 
Tjurs^ker stone, 256. 
TOniniernp Chalice, 106. 
Torcello Spearhead, 253. 
Torin, K. 252. 
Tomstad stone, 69. 
Torvik stones, 217, 239, 241. 
TroUhatta bracteate, 176. 
Trumberht, bishop, 132. 
Truro Pig of Tin, 116. 
TD, the god, 93. 
Tune stone, 56, 217, 218. 
Twig-runes, 155. 

Ulderup bracteate, 187. 
-DM, -CM, -0, &c. 1 s. pr. ending, 222. 
-ON, -u, -o, verbal ending, 224. 
Undset, I. 5, 24, 48, 72, 254. 
Upsala Axe, 28. 

V aeblungsnaes Cliff, 57. 
Vadstena bracteate, 173. 
Valloby Vessel, 91. 
Walrus ivory, 121, 243. 
Valsfjord Cliff, 50, 217, 242. 
V&nga stone, 8, 256. 



Wapno bracteate, 200. 
Varnum stone, 29. 
Vilsby bracteate, 183. 
Vatn stone, 71. 
Weak noun.s, 215. 
Vedby bracteate, 184. 
Veile stone, 93. 
Weland saga, 147. 
Verbs, 3 s. pr. ending, 223. 
0. N. 223, 228, 232. 
West-Thorp Comb, 30. 
Whale caught in the shallows, 143. 
Whitby Comb, 116. 
Vi-Moss Buckle, 84, 217. 
„ Comb, 82, 217. 

Plane, 83, 218. 

Sword Clasp, 82. 
Wiede, L. 45. 
Vigfusson, G. 186. 
Wimmer, L. P\ A. 60, 61. 
Visby bracteate, 192. 

„ Ring, 238. 
Wittenheim, Al. 87. 
Woden's Wain, 114. 
Voldtofte stone, 93. 
Wooden grave-pillars, 73. 
Word-hoard, 213. 
Vordingborg stone, 96, 218. 
Voreim stone, 74. 

Worm, O. 18, 20, 42, 57, 71, 159. 
Worsaae, J. J. A. 18, 23, 27, 40, 166. 
Vowel-fluctuations, 219. 
Wright, T. 222. 
Wycliffe stone, 149. 
Wyk bracteate, 191. 

jL arm stone, 1 32. 
York, battle at, 150. 



LATELY PUBLISHT, BY THE SAME AUTHOR, AND MAY BE HAD 

OF THE SAME PUBLISHERS: 

Two Leaves of KING- WALDERE'S LAY, a hitherto unknown Old-English Epic of the 8th century, 
belonging to the Saga-cyclus of King Theodric and his Men. Now first publisht from the originals of the 9th 
century. Roy. 8vo. — On fine paper, with 4 photographic facsimiles, 15 shillings. On common paper, without 
facsimiles, 7 sh. and 6 d. 

QDEEN DAGMAR'S CROSS, Facsimile in Gold and Colors of the enameled Jewel in the Old-Northern 
Museum, Denmark, with Introductory Remarks. Roy. 8vo. 2 sh. and 6 d. 

REVENG-E, or WOMAN'S LOVE. A melodrama in Five Acts. 8vo. .3 sh. — SEVENTEEN 
SONGS AND CHANTS to the same. Folio. 8 sh. 

THE RESCUE OF ROBERT BURNS, Feb. 1759. A Centenary Poem. 8vo. 1 sh. 

GHOST- THANKS OR THE GRATEFUL UNBURIED, a Mythic tale in its oldest European form, 
SIR AMADACE, from two texts, with introduction. 8vo. 1/6 d. 

THE OLD-NORTHERN RUNIC MONUMENTS OF SCANDINAVIA AND ENGLAND, now first 
collected and deciphered. Folio. With Runic Alphabets and hundreds of splendid Facsimiles and Illustrations. 
Vol. 1, 1866—7, Vol. 2, 1867—8, Vol. 3, 1884. Fifty Shillings each. 

THE RUNIC HALL in the Danish Old-Northern Museum. Imp. 8vo. With Chemitypes. 1868. 
2 sh. and 6 d. 

RUNEHALLEN i det Danske Oldnordiske Museum. Imp. 8vo. Med Chemitypier. 1868. 2 kroner. 

THE RUTHWELL CROSS, Northumbria, Plates, Translations, &c. Folio. 10 sh. (Pp. 46). 

MACBETH, JARL SIWARD OG DUNDEE. Et bidrag til Skotlands historic fra Skandinaviens 
Kune-fund. Imp. 8vo. Med Chemitypier. 1876. 1 krone. 

MACBETH, EARL SIWARD AND DUNDEE. A contribution to Scottish History from the Rune- 
finds of Scandinavia. Imp. 8vo. With Chemitypes. 1876. 2 sh. 

TORDNEREN THOR. Fremstillet pft en skandinavisk Debefont fra omtrent Ar 1000. Det eneste 
hidindtil fundne Gudebillede efterladt os af vore Skando-Gotiske forfajdre. Med Chemitypier. 3 kr. 50 ere. 

THUNOR THE THUNDERER, Carved on a Scandinavian Font of about the year 1000. 8vo. With 
Chemitypes. 1878. 6 sh. 

PROF. S. BUGGE'S STUDIES ON NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY shortly examined. 8vo. With many 
illustrations. 1883. 8 sh. 5/ 



Mi 












■If^Mfe 



'^^ftSB^l 







■v^-:^.r'-*^'€>^- 






'•■N«:# 









■f*r-^ 



->*,..^ '^Mi'fT 



-i. - V '^^ . 






\M. 



■' ■'; r .