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War of Secession 

From the Original Manuscripts 



Brigadier-General, C. S. A. 

I. Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 
II. Hagood's Brigade 



Columbia, S. C. 


Copyright, 1910 

Butler Hagood 

Dedicated to 
My Wife 


Introduction 25 

Fort Sumter 29 

Orangeburg 36 

Relieved from Duty 45 

Summerville 47 

Posts on Stono 51 

Re-enlistment • ... 62 

Appendix 67 

Martial Law in Charleston 69 

Secessionville Campaign 83 

Second Military District 98 

The Siege of Charleston 114 

Gen. Beauregard's Official Report 123 

Notes to Gen. Beauregard's Report 176 

Results and Specialties of the Siege 190 


Organization 195 

Campaign of '64 — Virginia 217 

Affair at Walthal Junction 219 

Affair at Swift Creek 227 

Battle of Drury's Bluff 231 

Lines of Bermuda Hundreds 249 

Battle of Cold Harbor 253 

Battle of Petersburg 263 

Trenches of Petersburg 270 

Battle of Weldon Road 288 

Rest for the Weary 301 

Richmond Lines 305 

Campaign of '65 — North Carolina, Fort Fisher .... 320 

The Situation, January, '65 329 

Lines Below Wilmington 333 

Operations on Fort Anderson Lines 333 

Engagement at Town Creek 340 

Evacuation of Wilmington 348 

Operations Near Kinston 349 

Battle of Bentonville 356 

The Flaring up of the Candle— The End 364 

Appendix 374 

Editor's Appendix, Company Rolls of the Regiments Com- 
posing Hagood's Brigade 398 

Charge of Hagood's Brigade 473 


















The errors corrected in these Errata were made in transcribing 
the Author's original manuscript and were in the copy furnished 
the printer. — U. K. Bkooks, Editor. 

Read O'Cain for O'Caim. 
" Steamer for stream. 
" 200 pounder Parrotts for 200 Parrotts. 
" Casemates for Casements. 
" Ever for even. 
" O'Cain for O'Caim. 
" "So many" for "80 names." 
Third line, second paragraph read "Further service 
expected from it", instead of "No further service, 
51 Second line from bottom of page read "Destination" 

for "Destruction". 
53 Fourth line from top of page read J. J. Lucas for 

G. J. Lucas. 
57 10th line from bottom of page read "Mere epaul- 
ments" for "Men epaulments". 

61 9th line from top read "This" for "the". 

62 14th line from top of page read "point" for "side". 

63 15th line from bottom read "Going home" for "giv- 
ing honor". 

67 7th line from top of page read "O'Cain" for "O'Caim". 

77 8th line from top of page and 14th line from top of 
page read "Yeadon" for "Gradon". 

79 19th line from top of page read "exclusive" for "exten- 

82 Last line on page read "Warders" for "Wardens". 

87 16th line from bottom of page read "Battery" for 

88 6th line from top of page, 18th line from bottom of 
page, and 16th line from bottom of page read "Bat- 
talion" for "Battery". 








20th line from top of page read "right" for "sight." 
19th line from bottom read "Boyce's" for "Boyer's". 
16th and 17th lines from bottom read "Battalion" for 

95 15th line from bottom read "Sorely" for "slowly". 

96 8th line from bottom of page read "beside" for 

107 Section 4. Eead "drill" for "duties". 

112 9th line from bottom and 3d line from bottom of page 

read "Jordan" for "Gordon." 

113 3rd line from top and 8th line from top of page read 

"Jordan" for "Gordon". 

114 9th line of note read "proudly" for "fondly". 

114 7th line from top of page read "Jordan" for "Gor- 

133 18th line from top of page read "330" for "350". 

142 16th and 17th lines from top of page read "Feu 
d'Enfer" for "free d'enfre". 

142 20th line from top read "quietly" for "quickly". 

144 16th line from top read "30 pounder Parrott" for "80 

pounder Parrott". 

145 10th line from top of page read "three" for "these". 
150 Last line of page read "crenellated" for "cumulative". 
155 14th line from top of page read "reverse" for "severe". 
171 Read "Crenellated" for "crenaillare". 

187 Second line from bottom of page read "General" for 


188 2nd line from top of page read "these" for "three". 
188 6th line from bottom read "28th Georgia" for "25th 


190 16th line from bottom of page read "fall" for "fate". 

192 3rd line from bottom read "traversing" for "trans- 

208 10th line from top of page read "bearer" for "beam". 

210 9th line from top read "Batteries" for "Battalions". 

234 10th line from bottom read "cowering" for "convers- 


235 5th line from bottom read "spun" for "strewn". 
237 15th line from top read "inclined" for "widened". 


Page 237 7th line from bottom read "plain" for "plan." 
" 248 Eead "Lalane" for "Lalam". 

" 251 18th line from top read "straightened" for "strength- 
" 264 19th line from bottom read "this" for "they". 
" 264 14th line from bottom read "South and West" for 

" 277 3rd line from top of page read "appear" for 

" 278 12th line from bottom of page read "erect" for "east". 
" 279 10th line from top of page read "omnivorously" for 

" 283 16th line from bottom read "transferring" for "trans- 
" 285 15th line from bottom read "place" for "places". 
^' 289 12th line from top of page read "learning" for "leav- 
" 298 7th line from bottom of page read "Major. Wilds was 
wounded" not "captured" as printed. 
2nd line from bottom read "Sligh" for "Schley". 
4th line from bottom of page read "plan" for "place". 
Last line on page read "feet" for "degrees". 
Top line of page read "feet" for "degrees". 
15th line from bottom read "fortune" for "forune". 
18th line from bottom of page read "then" for "there". 
14th line from top of page ('*) read "Southern" for 

18th line from top read "prevision" for "provision". 
10th line from bottom of page read "retiring" for 
342 15th line from top of page read "20 mounted men" for 
"20 men". 
2nd line from top of page read "Y" for "G". 
18th line from bottom of page read "K. R. Depot" for 

"P. K. Depot". 
10th line from bottom of page read "new" for "rear". 
8th line from top of page read "our line" for "ours". 
8th line from top of page read "Sogers" for "Segus". 
9th line from bottom of page read "freely" for "fully'. 
12th line from top of page read "but" for "except". 





























Page 375 7th line from top read "64" for "65." 
" 380 6th line from bottom read "O. J." for "O. G.". 
" 382 11th line from bottom of page after Company K, read 


Figure 1. J. Boatwright 3rd May, 62, suspended 

on report of examining board. 
Fig. 2. Vacant. 
" 384 Co. B. No. 4 read "F. J. Cannon" for "T. J. Cannon". 
" 384 Eead "Tarrh" for "Tant". 

" 387 Company B, read "S. J. Burger" for "G. S. Burges". 
" 391 Company F, read "W. W. Wise" for "M. W. Wise". 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 


As has been published, I have undertaken with much pleasure 
the task of editing the Memoirs of the late Johnson Hagood, 
which gives thrilling incidents of the skill of the gallant General 
and of the valor of the brave men who dared to follow where 
he dared to lead. 

Veterans of this grand old brigade, let me say that you are 
the remnant of many a well-fought field. You bring with you 
marks of honor from Secessionville, Battery Wagner, Cold Har- 
bor, Petersburg, and other bloody battlefields. When in your 
youthful days you put everything at hazard in your country's 
cause, good as that cause was, and sanguine as youth is, still 
your fondest hopes were not realized. Venerable men, you have 
come down to us from a former generation. Heaven has bounte- 
ously lengthened out your lives. You are now where you stood 
fifty years ago. Behold, how changed ! You hear now no roar 
of hostile cannon. You see no mixed volumes of smoke and flame 
rising from your burning homes — the ground strewed with the 
dead and dying — the impetuous charge, the steady and successful 
repulse — the loud call to repeated assault, the summoning of all 
that is manly to repeated resistance, thousands of bosoms freely 
and fearlessly bared in an instant to whatever of terror there may 
be in war and death. All these you have witnessed, but you wit- 
ness them no more. But, alas! you are not all here — ^time and 
the sword have thinned your ranks. Comrades who fell in battle, 
our eyes seek for you in vain amid the broken band — ^you are 
gathered to your fathers, and live only to your country in her 
grateful remembrance and your own bright example. 

It is hard to realize how information from good scouts has 
enabled oue generals to win such glorious victories and how 
disastrous information from poor scouts has been in all armies. 
If General A. P. Hill had been well informed by his scouts, 21 
August, 1864, General Hagood would not have made this remark : 
"That wielding a blade of such high temper, no wonder its 
brigadier hated to have to hack it against impossibilities." 

I quote from the historic speech delivered before the New 
England Society in New York City, 12 December, 1886, by 
Henry W. Grady, of Atlanta, Ga. : 

10 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

"You of the North have had drawn for you with a master's 
hand the picture of your returning armies. You have heard 
how they came back to you marching with proud and victorious 
tread, reading their glory in a nation's eyes. 

"Will you bear with me while I tell you of another army that 
sought its home at the close of the late war — an army that 
marched home in defeat and not in victory, in pathos and not 
in splendor, but in glory that equalled yours, and to hearts as 
loving as ever welcomed heroes home ? 

"Let me picture to you the footsore Confederate soldier, as 
buttoning up in his faded gray jacket the parole which was to 
bear testimony to his children of his fidelity and faith, he turned 
his face southward from Appomattox in April, 1865. Think of 
him as ragged, half starved, heavy hearted, enfeebled by want 
and wounds; having fought to exhaustion, he surrenders his 
gun, wrings the hands of his comrades in silence, and, lifting 
his tear-stained and pallid face for the last time to the graves 
that dot the old Virginia hills, pulls his gray cap over his brow 
and begins the slow and painful journey. What does he find — let 
me ask you, who went to your homes eager to find in the welcome 
you had justly earned, full payment for four years' sacrifice — 
what does he (the Confederate soldier) find when, having fol- 
lowed the battle-stained cross against overwhelming odds, dread- 
ing death not half so much as surrender, he reaches the home he 
left so prosperous and beautiful? 

"He finds his home in ruins, his slaves free, his stock killed, his 
bams empty, his trade destroyed, his money worthless, his com- 
rades slain, and the burdens of others heavy on his shoulders. 

"What does he do — this hero in gray with a heart of gold? 
Does he sit down in suUenness and despair? Not for a day. 
Surely God, who has stripped him of his prosperity, inspired 
him in his adversity. As ruin was never before so overwhelming, 
never was restoration swifter. The soldier stepped from the 
trenches into the furrow; horses that charged Federal guns 
marched before the plow, and fields that ran with blood in April 
were green with the harvest in June." 

Every word contained in General Johnson Hagood's Mss. 
Memoirs appear in this book. 

U. E. Brooks, Editor. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 11 

From The State, Columbia, S. C, Wednesday, January 5th, 1898. 

Out of the thinning line falls one more man in gray. The 
death that in his youth he so often sought in conflict has come 
unsummoned to Johnson Hagood in his old age and in the hal- 
lowed peace of his home. But he met it, we may be sure, with 
the same quiet smile of old, the serenity of a strong and fearless 

General and governor, planter and comptroller, banker and 
man of affairs, Johnson Hagood had his full share of honor and 
labor in the State of his birth and his devotion. The story of 
his career is elsewhere told, but we must set down the thoughts 
that come with the memories of long, and, for a time^ intimate 
association. We first knew General Hagood during the political 
campaign of 1880, when he, as the Democratic candidate for gov- 
ernor, and the writer, as a newspaper representative, journeyed" 
together through nearly every county in South Carolina. Six 
weeks of this close companionship gave an insight into his char- 
acter which years of ordinary acquaintance would not have done, 
and the friendship there contracted and since continued prompts 
this contribution to a better understanding of one of the strongest 
and most individual of the sons of the State. 

For General Hagood, although eminently honored by his peo- 
ple, was not known to them as he should have been. He was 
diffident, and was often considered haughty; he was reserved, 
and was thought cold ; he had a wonderfully clear perception and 
the penalty for it was that he was sometimes set down as over- 

Johnson Hagood, we have reason to believe, went into the war 
knowing that the South would fail, knowing that all its sacrifices 
of life and wealth and position would be utterly vain. But he 
believed in the cause of his people, and he led his men into battle 
as if he had the faith and confidence of a fanatic. His mind, as 
we have said, was intensely logical and reflective. He was a 
man who thought hard and reasoned icily; yet he could go 
against his reason when loyalty demanded. 

He had perfect self-poise and was master of his emotions ; for 
he had emotions under that calm and steady demeanor. When 
he was a candidate for governor and had to make his speech in 
each one of the thirty-odd counties his voice would choke and he 

12 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

would tremble as he faced his audiences, so great was his diffi- 
dence ; and he was accustomed to say that he would rather charge 
a battery than go through such an ordeal — ^but go through it he 
did, holding himself sternly in hand. In other things his self- 
command was no less apparent. 

He seemed often to be stern of face and thought, but for those 
he liked he had a smile as sweet as ever lit up a countenance and 
revealed an inner gentleness. Genial he was with his friends and 
a good raconteur, with a quiet humor that had a special charm. 

General Hagood loved his State and his people, and had a sym- 
pathy with the masses in their hardships which he illustrated by 
his concurrence in the free silver movement of 1896. He was a 
banker and a man of means, and he had doubts on the silver 
question ; but, as he said to us in that year, he was willing to take 
the risk in the hope that relief might come to those who needed 
it so sorely.. 

A life-long planter, he was successful in his operations, and was 
one of the best informed men on agricultural affairs that the 
State possessed. He thought much and deeply on farming and 
reached wise conclusions, one of which, as we remember, was that 
the agricultural salvation of the State was to be worked. out 
through the development of certain little-regarded crops indige- 
nous to the soil. 

He had a remarkable capacity for organization, and was 
thorough, methodical and exact in all his undertakings. A man 
of many parts, his strongest characteristic was that he was a real 
and original thinker. There are far fewer such than the world 
assumes. Johnson Hagood did his own thinking, he made his 
own analyses of every question, and he reached his own clear and 
logical conclusions. 

Much more might be said with truth, but we must be content 
to have drawn to the observation of those who did not know him 
well some of the salient points of a strong character. He had 
nearly reached his three-score years and ten, and the time had 
come for him to pass away, but the loss to South Carolina is no 
less real because it is late. History will give Johnson Hagood a 
place among the great men of his State. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 13 

From The News and Courier, Charleston, S. C, Wednesday, 
January Sth, 1898. 

Crowned with nearly seventy years of honorable life, without a 
stain upon his shield, at peace with God and man, General John- 
son Hagood has passed away from these earthly scenes forever. 
His life was an inspiration, his death a benediction. He lived 
uprightly, he died peacefully. Wha,t his hands found to do, he 
did with all his might. He was a great soldier, a master of men. 
The highest word with him was duty. His strongest ally in all 
the storms and conflicts through which he passed was faith — ^the 
faith of a little child. His conscience was his life, his incentive 
in action, his comforter in repose, his rod and staff in the final 
onset when he won his last great victory. 

In every fibre of his soul, in every pulsation of his heart, in 
every aspiration of his life he was devoted to the State which he 
honored by his service in field and forum. He fought in South 
Carolina, in North Carolina and Virginia, and fought with a 
courage and intrepidity that challenged admiration. He was no 
holiday soldier. Stern in discipline, where discipline was neces- 
sary to the development of the best military qualities, he yet 
despised the show and sham of great parade, and measured 
officers and men alike by their devotion to the cause in which 
he was enlisted. At Battery Wagner, at Drury's Bluff, in the 
defence of Charleston, on the James and Chickahominy, he was 
ready for every command, and equal to any service. The story 
of Hagood's Brigade makes one of the most thrilling and glorious 
chapters in the military history of South Carolina. It stood of 
right among the bravest of the brave, and it was what it was 
because of the courage, the devotion, the military spirit of its 
indomitable commander. 

General Hagood's claim to a high place among the immortals 
of South Carolina rests largely, but not wholly, upon his splendid 
services in war. But he was citizen as well as a soldier. In the 
Reconstruction days he remained faithful to his people and to 
himself; and it was due in large measure to his skill in organ- 
ization, his mastery of emergencies, his fearlessness of conse- 
quences, that the rule of the alien was overthrown in South 
Carolina. As Comptroller-General and Governor of the State, he 
proved his fidelity to civic trust and, after his retirement to 

14 Memoirs or THE War or Secession 

private life, to the end he was always the same modest man, 
loyal to his own conscience and unfaltering in his devotion to 
what was best for his people and his State. 

We shall not attempt to tell the story of his life and character 
and achievements here — it will be written doubtless by others 
who are more competent for the service and who will write with- 
out the overwhelming sense of sudden bereavement upon them. 
We simply wish to pay tribute today to the modest gentleman, 
the gallant soldier, the incorruptible citizen, who has crossed the 
river to his waiting comrades on the other shore. 

General Hagood's last public appearance in Charleston was at 
the reunion of the Confederate Veterans in April, 1896. The 
scene in the German Artillery Hall, when he responded to the 
call of his wartime comrades is indelibly photographed on the 
mind and heart of every one who heard his thrilling words. It 
was a soldier's greeting to soldiers, and a soldier's good-bye. 
There were no apologies for the past in what he said, and no 
regrets except for the unreturning dead. "Together we have 
felt," he said, "the mad excitement of the charge, the glorious 
enthusiasm of victory, the sullen anger of defeat. Together we 
have passed through the valley and the shadow of political recon- 
struction. . . . You believed then, and you know now, you 
were right. I am with you today as I have been in the past, body 
and heart and soul. Our service is nearly over. Most of those 
we knew and loved are gone. They are passing now. . . . For 
us there is little more left than to prepare for the final inspection 
and review. Let us humbly trust that we will meet the approval 
of the Great Commander beyond the river." 

"They are passing npw" ; a few months ago it was McGowan ; 
then it was Cothran ; now it is Hagood. 

"The captains and the Kings depart — 
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet, 
Lest we forget — lest we forget !" 

General Hagood in Charleston. 

General Hagood's last public appearance in Charleston was at 
the reunion of the Confederate Veterans, nearly two years ago. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 15 

In its report of the meeting held at the German Artillery Hall 
The News and Courier of April 23rd, 1896, said : 

When it was decided to stop the reading of the report the 
veterans out in the hall wanted a speech, and especially one from 
their beloved Hagood. Some one cried out "Hagood," and that 
settled the matter. There could be nothing more done until the 
gallant Hagood had been seen and heard by the veterans. Gen- 
eral Hagood did not want to talk, and especially not to interfere 
with the proceedings, but the veterans insisted and he was alwiiys 
too willing a man to do his duty not to respond, and so he stepped 
out to the front of the stage, and it must have made his heart 
gladden to see how he was received by his old soldiers as well as 
by those who fought for the same cause under different com- 
manders. But General Hagood is always equal to an emergency, 
and last night he made a short talk to his old soldier friends that 
touched them deeply, and left even a brighter picture of the gal- 
lant soldier. General Hagood. said in brief : 

"I thank you for your kind greeting. It is a long time since 
we have met, since we have looked into each other's eyes and 
grasped each other's hands. In the long ago we together toiled 
in the weary march and looked upon 'battle's magnificently stern 
array.' Together we have felt the mad excitement of the charge, 
the glorious enthusiasm of victory, the sullen anger of defeat. 
And harder, sterner duties have been our lot. Together we have 
passed through the valley and the shadow of political reconstruc- 
tion. We have seen civil rights, sacred from tradition and bap- 
tized in the blood of a patriot ancestry, trampled in the dust. 
We have seen the accumulations of two centuries of thrift and 
industry swept away, and the State plundered as a ship by a 
pirate crew. But 'God fulfills Himself in many ways.' 

"Today our fair Southland, thanks to the indomitable energies 
of her blood, and the abounding resources of her gracious endow- 
ment, with her wounds cicatrized and her' plumage renewed, is 
moving like the eagle's flight, upward and onward. 

"You have met these varied fortunes as they came, and in the 
part you bore, you believed then, and you believe now, you were 

"Old friends, welcome — and perhaps, good-bye. I am with you 
today as I have been in the past, body and heart and soul. Our 

16 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

service is nearly over. Most of those we knew and loved are 
gone. They are passing now. Even while the drums were beat- 
ing the assembly for this reunion the youngest but one of your 
brigadiers answered the last roll call on earth. John Kennedy, 
patriot, soldier, knightly gentleman, is dead. His honored place 
in your midst is vacant. The peace of God is on his brow. 

"Younger men, as they should, are filling the ranks. They, too, 
are ready to live or die, 'for the ashes of their sires and the altars 
of their gods.' For us there is little more left than to prepare 
for the final inspection and review. 

"Let us humbly trust that we will there meet the approval of 
the Great Commander beyond the river." 

General Hagood was quite frequently interrupted by applause, 
and at the conclusion of his brief talk there was another round 
of applause for Hagood. 

A Sketch of His Life. 

General Hagood was one of South Carolina's most distin- 
guished sons. He was born in Barnwell County on February 21, 
1829. His family was one of English extraction and settled orig- 
inally in Virginia, but prior to the Revolutionary war moved to 
this State, located in the Ninety-Six District. Early in the 
present century, Johnson Hagood, the grandfather for whom 
he was named, removed from Charleston, where he was a promi- 
nent lawyer, to Barnwell County, and there his son, Dr. James O. 
Hagood, was, previous to the civil war, a successful planter. 
Dr. Hagood practiced his profession of medicine for more than 
fifty years, and greatly endeared himself to the people among 
whom he lived. He died in January, 1873. 

General Hagood got his early education at the Richmond 
Academy in Augusta, Ga., and at the age of sixteen years he 
entered the Citadel in Charleston, graduating in November, 1847, 
with the highest honors of his class. After his graduation he 
studied law under the Hon. Edmund Bellinger, a distinguished 
lawyer of his day, and was admitted to the bar in 1850. The next 
year Governor John H. Means appointed him deputy adjutant 
general of militia, a portion of his duties consisting of drilling the 
militia at its various encampments over the State. In December, 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 17 

1861, he was elected by the Legislature commissioner in equity for 
the BarnweU District, which important legal position he held 
until hostiliti^ broke out in 1861. Then he resigned to enter the 
Confederate army. During the decade prior to the war he was 
also engaged in conducting his large plantation; 

When South Carolina passed the Ordinance of Secession he 
was brigadier general of militia ; he was at once made colonel of 
the First South Carolina Volunteers and took part in the bom- 
bardment of Fort Sumter under General Beauregard in April, 
1861. He was then transferred from the volunteer corps to the 
Confederate States Army, retaining his rank as colonel. He was 
present at the battle of Bull Eun. Eeturning to South Carolina 
he was engaged in the operations around Charleston, and at the 
battle of Secessionville, June 16, 1862. Immediately after that 
battle he was promoted by President Davis to the rank of brig- 
adier general, and served on the coast of South Carolina until 
May, 1864, being engaged in the defense of Charleston during 
General Gilmore's siege of that city, and in the defense of Fort 
Wagner and the operations on James Island. In May, 1864, he 
was, with his command, withdrawn from Charleston and ordered 
to Petersburg, Va., where he arrived May 7th, and at Walthall 
Junction, a few miles beyond, met the advance forces of General 
B. F. Butler, consisting of five brigades. With 1,500 of his men, 
supported by 1,100 men of Johnson's Tennessee brigade, he 
repulsed them in the open field, many of his most gallant field 
and staff officers being killed and wounded. This gave time for the 
concentration of troops from the southward for the defense of 
Petersburg against Butler's advance. He served under General 
Beauregard at Petersburg and afterwards under the same gen- 
eral in Hoke's Division at Drury's Bluff against Butler and in 
the operations at Bermuda Hundreds. During the latter period 
he was instrumental in the erection of a buttery' at Howlett's 
House on the James Eiver which, sweeping Butler's transports in 
the bend of the river, caused Butler to conceive the idea of cutting- 
the famous Dutch Gap canal to escape, in his further advance 
up the river, the fire of this battery. The first pieces with which 
the battery was mounted were two 20-pound Parrots captured by 
Hagood's Brigade at the battle of Drury's Bluff. After 'General 
Beauregard had succeeded in bottling up Butler in the peninsular 

2— H. 

18 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

of Bermuda Hundreds, General Hagood's Brigade, with its 
division, was ordered to join General Lee. It reached him at Cold 
Harbor just prior to the battle of June 3, 1864, in which it was 
actively engaged. At the siege of Petersburg, which ensued, this 
brigade served in the trenches at one time sixty-seven days with- 
out relief, and in that period was reduced by casualties and 
disease from 2,300 men to 700 present for duty. At another time 
the next officer in rank to the brigadier present for duty was a 
captain, and four of the five regiments were commanded by lieu- 
tenants. At a later period during the month of August in the 
fighting on the Weldon road, General Hagood became the hero 
of "as daring and gallant an exploit as is found in the history of 
the war. His command had been ordered to charge the enemy, 
and when the line of their works was reached some 200 of his 
men^ having gotten into a re-entering angle where they were 
exposed to a severe cross fire, a line was pushed out surrounding 
them, and a mounted officer of the enemy galloping out of a 
sallyport, seized the colors of the Eleventh regiment and called 
upon them to surrender. Several officers and men prepared to 
do so, but had not been carried in when General Hagood, whose 
horse had been previously shot, proceeding towards them, called 
upon his men to shoot the officer. In the confusion they seemed 
bewildered and failed to do so. The general, having now come 
up to' the spot, demanded the colors, telling the officer he was free 
to return to his troops. Instead of so doing he commenced to 
argue about the desperate position of the small band of Confed- 
erates. General Hagood, cutting him short, demanded a direct 
answer, and receiving a decisive negative, shot him from his 
horse. His orderly, Stoney, seized the falling colors, and the 
general, springing into the saddle of his adversary, succeeded in 
withdrawing his men with as little loss as could have been 
expected from the terrific fire to which they were exposed in 

Soine years after the war it was a pleasing incident to General 
Hagood that by furnishing a statement of the facts he was 
enabled to assist in procuring a pension from the United States 
Government for the gallant officer with whom the fortunes of 
war had placed him in conflict and who had survived the wound 
inflicted. General Beauregard, in forwarding the report of this 

Hagqod's 1st 13 Months S, C. .V. 1^ 

affair to General Lee, remarked: "Such an act of gallantry as 
hereiii described and of devotion to his flag reflects the highest 
credit upon the officer who performs it and should be held up to 
the army as worthy of imitation under similar circumstances. 
Brigadier-General Hagood is a brave and meritorious officer who 
has distinguished himself already at Battery Wagner and Drury's 
Bluff apd participated actively in the battle of Ware, Bottom's 
Church, Cold Harbor and Petersburg, June 16 and 17, 1864, and 
I respectfully recommend him for promotion at the earliest 

Shortly before Christmas, 1864, General Hagood was ordered 
to re-enforce the troops in North Carolina, and was engaged in the 
operations around Wilmington and afterwards in General Hoke's 
Division at the battles of Kinston and Bentonville. Retiring 
before overwhelming numbers, General Hagood's command sur- 
rendered with General Johnston at Greensboro, N. C. 

His brigade entered the war 4,500 strong ; at its conclusion only 
499 veterans remained of that gallant band, including himself 
and his staff. At the termination of hostilities, General Hagood 
returned to active supervision of his planting interests. But 
he was not long permitted to devote his entire time and atten- 
tion to his private affairs. In 1871 the burden of taxation under 
a profligate carpetbag rule in South Carolina having become well- 
nigh intolerable. General Hagood became a delegate to the State 
Taxpayers' Convention held -at Columbia and composed of th^ 
most intelligent and responsible men in the State. The Convenr 
tion was called to consider the enormous and increasing State 
debt and to ascertain if possible its actual amount and what por- 
tion of it had been legally contracted. A false statement of the 
State's liabilities was placed before them by Governor E. K. 
Scott and the State officers, and a false set of books were pro- 
duced. The history of the work of this Convention looking to 
the final repudiation of a good proportion of the fraudulent 
public debt is familiar to many. General Hagood was the chair- 
man of the committee that made the investigation, being 
appointed to that position on February 20, 1871. 

In 1876 General Hagood was nominated on the Democratic 
ticket for comptroller-general, and by his patient, prudent and 
courageous course during the exciting campaign that followed, 

20 Memoirs of the Wak or Secession 

contributed largely to secure the great moral triumph of law and 
order and the downfall of the corrupt Eadical rule in the old 
Palmetto State. 

His management as county chairman of the campaign in Barn- 
well was perfect in its organization and such as to gain the confi- 
dence of all moderate Eepublicans as well as Democrats. The 
colored voters flocked in large numbers to the Democratic stand- 
ard and joined the Democratic clubs, and although hitherto 
there had been a Republican majority of 1,800, almost wholly 
colored, the county was carried by a majority of more than 1,100 
for the Democratic ticket. More than 2,000 mounted men in red 
shirts' escorted General Hampton through Barnwell County, 
camping from time to time at various points where he stopped to 
speak, and the enthusiasm of all classes was unexampled. 

During the EUenton riots General Hagood was placed by the 
Republican Judge Wiggins in command of an armed posse to 
repress the disturbance. And during the uncertain and perilous 
time between the election in November, 1876, and the recognition 
of the Hampton government by President Hayes, when any 
moment might have precipitated a collision between the rival 
parties. Governor Hampton called only two of the State officers 
to his assistance — ;General Hagood and Attorney-General James 
Connor. Acting in entire accord with General Hampton they 
were both an advisory council and his executive officers during 
the existence of the dual governments. It was largely through 
the influence of General Hagood that over a thousand of the 
negroes in the county at the time united in the voluntary contribu- 
tion by the citizens of the State of one-tenth of the taxes they 
had paid the previous year to the support of the Hampton gov- 
ernment before it had been formally recognized by President 
Hayes. In May, 1877, he formally took possession of his office in 
the State capitol and at once entered upon the duties thereof. He 
applied himself to the task of thoroughly organizing and system- 
atizing his department, which task he successfully accomplished. 

At the regular election in 1878, his adniirable conduct of the 
office was recognized and rewarded by a re-election and he con- 
tinued in this office another two years, only to be still more hon- 
ored by the people, who, in 1880, elected him governor of the 

Hagoop's 1st 12 MpNTHS S. C. V. 21 

His inaugural address was an able paper ; it was characteristic 
of the man. Brief, practical, suggestive, it discarded generalities 
and dealing with the matter in hand, set forth succinctly the 
present condition of the State, marked the improvements which 
had followed the restoration of honest government in 1876, and 
indicated in what direction, in his opinion, further progress 
could be made. He contrasted the then conditions with those of 
the period of riotous misrule that preceded. In concluding his 
address he said : "But the political equality of all men in South 
Carolina is now as fixed a feature of her policy as is the Blue 
Eidge in her geography. It can neither be suppressed nor 
evaded. The solution of the problem requires the wisest thought, 
the gravest counsel. It seems to me that I see it in firmness, mod- 
eration, justice. . Let these characterize every act of legislation. 
It is my duty as governor to take care that the laws are faithfully 
executed in mercy. I repeat the pledge made before my election 
— that in the discharge of this high trust I shall know neither 
white man nor colored man, but only citizens of South Carolina 
alike amenable to her laws and entitled to their protection." 

Governor Hagood's administration upon these lines was a suc- 
cess. Notwithstanding his expressed desire to retire at the end 
of his term, the disposition of the people of the State was strong 
for his re-election as their chief executive, and it was upon his 
declaration that he would not accept a renomination that they 
began to look elsewhere for his successor. The press of the State, 
upon his retirement, without exception generously voiced the uni- 
versal approval he had earned. 

Since Governor Hagood's retirement at the close of his term he 
has taken but little part in active politics. Without further 
aspiration for ofiice, he took his position in the ranks and simply 
sought to do his duty as a citizen to his party and his country. 
He devoted his attention chiefly to his agricultural pursuits and 
to the development of the local enterprises and industries of his 
county. He was instrumental in the formation of a building and 
improvement association, an oil and fertilizer factory, a bank, a 
graded school and other enterprises. He always took a deep 
interest in agriculture and education. 

In 1869 he was elected the first president since the war of the 
South Carolina Agricultural and Mechanical Society, holding 

22 Memoirs 6f 'rim War of Secession 

that office for four years, when he declined re-election. He was 
alfeo'for two terms chairman of the State Board of Agriculture. 
He was the pioneer in and a strong advocate for the diversifica- 
tibil of the Statte's farming industry, to wliich much of its present 
Success is due; and his contributions to the agricultural press, 
together with his own success in the new departure, notably grass 
culture and stock farming, contributed much to that: end. 

He was always a warm supporter of the common schools and 
the State university. 

Since 1876 he has been chairman of theboard of visitors of the 
South Carolina Military Academy. To the welfare of this school 
— ^his alma mater — his time and his services have been given with- 
out stint. 

Governor Hagood in 1854 married Eloise, daughter of Judge 
A. P. Butler, then United States Senator, and of whom General 
M. C. Butler is a nephew. He has one son, Butler Hagood. 

Epitaph Written by General Hagood Hjmself. 

In Memory of 

Johnson Hagood, 


Brigadier in the service 


The Confederate States. 

Comptroller-General and afterwards Governor 


South Carolina. 

For years Chairman of 

The Board of Visitors in charge 


The State Military Academy. 

Born 21st February, 1829. 

Died 4th January, 1898. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 23 


{By Father Ryan.) 

My feet are wearied, and my hands are tired, 

My soul oppressed — 
And I desire what I have long desired — 

Rest — only rest. 
'Tis hard to toil, when toil is almost vain, 

In barren ways ; 
'Tis hard to sow and never garner grain 

In harvest days. 
The burden of my days is hard to bear, 

But God knows best ; 
And I have prayed, but vain has been my prayer. 

For rest — sweet rest. 
'Tis hard to plant in spring and never reap 

The Autumn yield; 
'Tis hard to till, and 'tis tilled to weep 

O'er fruitless field. 
And so I cry a weak and human cry. 

So heart-oppressed ; 
And so I sigh a weak and human sigh. 

For rest — for rest. 
My way has wound across the desert years. 

And cares infest 
My path, and through the flowing of hot tears 

I pine — for rest. 
'Twas always so ; when but a child I laid 

On mother's breast 
My wearied little head ; e'en then I prayed, 

As now — ^for rest. 
And I am restless still ; 'twill soon be o'er ; 

For down the west 
Life's sun is setting and I see the shore 

Where I shall rest. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S, C. V. 25 


During the period to which these Memoirs relate, I kept 
memoranda and made notes more or less complete of events with 
which I was connected. I was also in most instances, at the time 
and at my request, kindly furnished by my superiors in com- 
mand with copies of their official reports of battles and sieges in 
which I bore a part. The papers of Hagood's Brigade were 
preserved in the general wreck of Confederate military affairs. 
Diaries kept of portions of the war by certain of my comrades 
were also loaned me, and I had had preserved a complete file 
of the Charleston Mercury from the reduction of Sumter by the 
South Carolina forces in 1861 to the evacuation of Charleston in 
1865, besides special numbers of other newspapers of that day. 

From these materials, aided by my recollection, and corrected 
sometimes by general histories of the war and such United State? 
congressional war documents as have been published up to this 
date, the Memoirs have been compiled. 

It will be seen that in their character they are chiefly personal 
to myself and my immediate associates. My rank in the large 
armies in which I served was not sufficiently elevated to give me 
at all times a comprehensive survey of the military horizon while 
the war was going on, and since then I have had neither the time 
nor opportunity to qualify myself for a more general narrative. 
It will be seen also that they are purely military. . My tastes 
and pursuits do not qualify me for entering into a discussion of 
the conflict of political principles having its origin in the con- 
vention which adopted the Federal Constitution itself and 
culminating in the secession of the Southern States, and during 
the war the Confederate Congress did its work on all important 
occasions with closed doors; but partial statements of its action 
reached the newspapers and it was difficult for one in the ranks 
of the army to learn clearly the policy that governed its course. 

It only remains to state the motives that induced me to prepare 
these Memoirs and the object for which it is done. It is known 
that at the close of the war the archives of the Confederate War 
Department fell into the hands of the United States Govern- 

26 Memoirs or' the War or SecesSioIt 

ment, and that Lieber, a renegade Southron, was employed to 
arrange them. Up to this time they have been sedulously kept 
a sealed book to the public. In all hiiman probability, under the 
manipulation to which they have been and will be subjected, 
when the future historians obtain access to them 

"The very mother that them bore, 
If she should be in presence there, 
She will not know her child." 

Again, these records themselves were incomplete. The detailed 
reports of the campaigns of 1864 and 1865 were never made. 
Under these circumstances, I believe it is the duty of every Con- 
federate whose opportunities were such as to enable him to speak 
now with anything like accuracy, to put on record what he knows. 
He owes the duty not only to himself and his associates, but to 
truth.. It was hoped that General Lee would undertake to per- 
petuate the record of his men. Just after the cessation of hos- 
tilities reports of the campaigns of 1864 and 1865 were called 
for through the regular gradations of rank among the survivors 
of the Confederate army, with the avowed purpose of completing 
his data for the work, and they were to some extent furnished. 
Whatever his purpose may have been, his recent death precludes 
that hope. 

These Memoirs are not prepared for the printer, nor will thej', 
or any part of them, while I control them, be made public. I 
bequeath them to my son that he may know what part his father 
and his father's friends bore in the war; and with instructions 
at any time to show them to those whose record they give, or to 
their descendants. The time has not come, and may not come 
for fifty years, when justice can be done to the losing party in a 
bitter civil war. Should, then, this manuscript fall into the hands 
of an historian who approaches his task with the intent "to 
nothing extenuate, or aught set down in malice," he may use 
the limited material it contains for what it is worth. He will 
have the assurance of one, then long passed to his final account, 
of its accuracy as far as his knowledge and belief extends. 

Johnson Hagood. 
21 March, 1871. 

Hago6d's liST 12 Months S. C. V. 27 


I2TH APRIL. 1861 TO 12TH APRIL. 1862 


On the 17th December, 1860, in view of the probable passage of 
the Ordinance of Secession by the State Convention then in 
session, the Legislature of South Carolina passed "An Act to 
Provide an Armed Military Force." This act provided that 
whenever it shall appear that an armed force is about to be 
employed against the State or in opposition to its authority, the 
Governor be authorized to repel the same, and for that purpose 
to call into the service of the State such portion of the militia 
as he shall deem proper and to organize the same on the plan 
therein indicated. Three days afterward, the Convention passed 
the Ordinance of Secession, and the revolution which led to the 
establishment of the Southern Confederacy was inaugurated. 
Immediately after, the Convention provided for the raising of 
one or more corps of regulars, and for the acceptance of a 
regiment of six months' ' volunteers, both to be received into 
immediate service. Towards the last of December the Governor 
issued a call for volunteers under the legislative act, which 
resulted in the raising and organizing of ten regiments. for twelve 
months' service. Under this call the militia regiments of Barn- 
well district (the 11th and 43rd of the old organization) assem- 
bled at Barnwell Village, and furnished, by volunteering, five 
companies. The regiment of Orangeburg District (15th old 
militia) assembled at its rendezvous, and furnished four com- 
panies; while the regiment of Colleton District (13th old militia) 
assembled at Walterboro and furnished two companies; — all on 
the 3rd January, 1861. The Barnwell and Orangeburg com- 
panies and one of the Colleton companies being the first ten 
companies which responded to the call in the State, were 

28 Memoies or the Wak of Secession 

organized by the State War Department into a regiment under 
the name of "The First South Carolina Volunteers," and elections 
for 'field officers ordered. These elections were held on the 27th 
January, 1861, and the organization of the regiment was com- 
plete. It was officered as follows : ' 

Colonel • •• .. •• ..Johnson Hagood 

Lieutenant-Colonel '. Thomas J. Glover 

Major Watson A. O'Caim 

Adjutant P.K.Moloney 

Quartermaster G. B. Lartlgue 

Commissary Subsistence W. B. Legare 

Surgeon Martin Bellinger 

Assistant Surgeon E. H. Dowling 

Chaplain Flynn Dickson 

Sergeant-Major R.B.Wilson 

Quartermaster-Sergeant J. H. O'Caim 

Company A. 

Captain John V. Glover Second Lieutenant. . .James F. Izlar 

First Lieutenant. . . .John H. Felder Third Lieutenant S. N. Kennerly 

Company B. 

Captain Daniel Livingston Second Lieutenant B. F. Pou 

First Lieutenant S.G.Jamison Third Lieutenant G.D.Jones 

Company C. 

Captain S. M. Kemmerlin Second Lieutenant T.' H. Cook 

First Lieutenant. .L. H. Zimmerman Third Lieutenant. .John J. Stroman 

Company D. 

Captain Collier Second Lieutenant. ..E. H. Holman 

First Lieutenant J. W. Sellars Third Lieutenant. .Olin M. Dantzler 

Company B. 

Captain, i T. H. Mangum Second Lieutenant. .G. E. Steadman 

First Lieutenant. . ..James M.Day Third Lieutenant. . ..H. R. Guyton 

Company F. 

Captain Winchester Graham Second Lieutenant. .J. J. Weissinger 

First Lieutenant. .George M. Grimes Third Lieutenant. . . .G. W. Grimes 

Company G. 

Captain E.J.Frederick Second Lieutenant.. ..S. W. Trottl 

First Lieutenant. . . . J. D. Rountree Third Lieutenant. . ..G.R.Dunbar 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S, C. V. 29 

Company H. 

Captain J. Vincent Martin Second Lieutenant. ..W. B. Flowers 

First Lieutenant A. T. Allen Tliird Lieutenant W. A, All 

Company I. 

Captain James Wliite Second Lieutenant. . .G. H. Breeland 

First Lieutenant.. ..A. A. Hudson Tliird Lieutenant.. ..Lewis Kinsey 

Company K. , 

Captain J.J.Brown Second Lieutenant. . .J. A. Bellinger 

First Lieutenant W.D.Burt Third Lieutenant F.M.Green 

As thus organized, the regiment, together with the others raised 
under the act of the legislature of 1860, was directed to hold 
itself in readiness for service, and in the meanwhile to perfect, as 
far as possible, its drill and discipline. The regiment, when 
mustered into State service subsequently, numbered 832 rank 
and file. 

Note — The regiment of six months' men provided for by the Convention assumed 
the name of "First South Carolina Volunteers," and were also known by this title, as 
well as the regiment enlisted for the war, which. In the summeraof 1S61, was raised 
by the field ofllcers of the six months' regiment on the expiration of Its service. Orr's 
Regiment, subsequently raised, was called First South Carolina Rifles. There was a 
regiment of Infantry called First South Carolina Regulars. In consequence of this 
number of first regiments (all Infantry) they were most commonly known by the 
names of their colonels being added to their numerical designation, thus : "1st S. C. 
V. (Gregg's), 1st S. C. V. (Hagood's)," etc. 

Fort Sumter. 
The regulars and six months' volunteers provided for by the 
Convention were rapidly enlisted or accepted, respectively, and 
placed in service in Charleston harbor or on the adjacent islands. 
These, together with the volunteer militia from the city of 
Charleston (volunteers under the old militia organization. A. A., 
1841), were employed in pressing forward the works projected 
for the reduction of Fort Sumter^— still held by the Federal Gov- 
ernment. In April, 1861, the batteries being well advanced and 
negotiations having failed to secure the delivery of the fortress, 
it was determined to take it by force of arms,* and vindicate the 
fact of secession. 

•The immediate occasion of this conclusion was the. sailing of a Federal fleet to 
provision and re-enforce Ft. Sumter. It arrived during the bombardment. 

30 Memoirs of the War oe, Secession 

South Carolina's resumption of her separate sovereignty had 
been followed by the same act on the part of other Southern 
States. Each for herself h ' dissolved her connection with the 
Federal Union, and between themselves had formed a new Con- 
federacy, with its seat of government at Montgomery. The 
operations against Fort Sumter had been carried on by South 
Carolina unaided and were continued from her own resources. 
Upon application of the State authorities to the Government at 
Montgomery, in March, General Beauregard, a distinguished 
officer of the army of the Confederate States, had, however, been 
assigned to their direction. Now it was desired to have a con- 
siderable body of troops in reserve in and near Charleston. A 
large fleet of Federal vessels had sailed for Charleston, and it 
was supposed that Sumter would be reinforced, if possible, or 
that at least operations in the nature of a diversion would be 
undertaken by the Federals. Accordingly, by an order dated 
8th of April, several of the regiments raised under the legislative 
act of 1860 were ordered to rendezvous at Charleston. This 
order was received by the colonel of the First Regiment, at the 
hands of a special aide of Governor Pickens, on the evening of 
the 8th, and couriers immediately dispatched to extend it. The 
First Battalion arrived in the city by railroad at 10 p. m. on 
the 11th, and the Second Battalion just before day next morning. 
Upon their arrival they were marched to the race track, where 
they were at once mustered into the State service, and partially 
equipped, being supplied with arms, ammunition, and an 
inadequate supply of cooking utensils. At 8 a. m. on the 12th, 
the muster rolls were handed in to the State Adjutant-General, 
and the Regiment directed to report to General Beauregard. The 
bombardment had commenced at 4 a. m. and was then in full 
progress. The Regiment received orders to proceed by such 
transportation as should be furnished it to Morris Island, and 
report to the general then commanding. The Second (12 
months') Regiment — Colonel Kershaw's — rand a portion of the 
Sixth — Colonel Rion's — from the greater railroad facilities of 
the country in which they were raised, were enabled to reach 
Charleston a few hours sooner, and had been sent over to the 
same island directly across the harbor, just before the bombard- 
ment commenced. The Fifth Regiment (Jenkins') arrived later, 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V, 31 

and was sent to Sullivan's Island. The Third (Bacon's) and 
the Fourth (Sloan's) arrived still later and were held in reserve 
on Charleston neck. The other battalion of Rion's Eegiment was 
placed on Stono. 

In consequence of the bombardment being in progress, the 
First Eegiment was directed to proceed across Ashley River to 
Dill's Landing, on James Island; thence across James Island 
to Legare Landing upon a creek running into Light House 
Inlet, and thence to Morris Island. The quartermaster, Colonel 
Hatch, was unable to furnish the transportation across Ashley- 
River until 3 p. m. that day. The men had been supplied with 
neither haversacks nor knapsacks, and were without other camp 
equipage than the cooking utensils above referred to. Their 
rations had to be transported in bulk, and their baggage was in 
trunks, valises and carpetbags with which they had left home. 
The movement commenced,, as intended, at 3 p. m., and the 
Second Battalion was crossed over the Ashley without their 
baggage or rations (the boat being unable to carry more than 
the men), when the boat broke some of her machinery and the 
crossing stopped. A cold, driving rain came up, succeeded for 
the balance of the night by a bleak northeast wind. The regi- 
ment bivouacked — one battalion upon the wharf in Charleston, 
and the other at Dill's Landing, without food or shelter. Early 
next morning the remaining battalion was got across the river, 
and by noon the whole had moved across James Island to 
Legare's, where deficiency of transportation again delayed them 
some hours. Embarking before night, Morris Island was 
reached between 10 and 11 o'clock of the night of the 13th. The 
regiment was landed near where Battery Wagner subsequently 
stood, and bivouacked in the sand hills in rear of the Vinegar 
Hill Battery. One company of the Second Battalion (Captain 
Graham's) had, however, crossed James Island on the night 
of the 12th, and, obtaining transportation at Legare's, arrived 
on Morris Island about daylight on the 13th. Much suffering 
attended the whole movement. Ten or twelve men fainted on 
the wharf in Charleston from exposure and want of food. The 
only meal that many of the men obtained from leaving the race 
course to the morning of the 14th was at Legare's Landing. It 
was diiRcult to extricate the barrels, in which their rations were, 

32 Memoirs of the Wak or Secession 

from the piles of luggage on the 'stream, and when extricated the 
stomach revolted froiri the wet and soured mess. The proper 
equipment of the men with knapsacks and haversacks at the 
race course would have greatly mitigated their sufferings. But 
in the inception of a revolutionary movement, and with men and 
oflScers fresh from civil life, these troubles were unavoidable. 
The bombardment, which had commenced at 4 a. m. on the 12th, 
continued until about 1 p. m. on the 13th, when the fort surren- 
dered. During the passage of the Ashley and the march across 
James Island we were in full view of the scene. The tempestuous 
weather of the preceding night had been succeeded by a lovely 
April day. Negroes were busily at work in the fields of James 
Island, the air was vocal with birds, and vegetation was as for- 
ward as it would have been a month later in the middle country 
from which the regiment had come. Contrasting strangely with 
this lovely rural scenery and continued pursuit of peaceful avoca- 
tions, the roar and reverberation of the distant bombardment 
called attention to the doomed fortress in the bay. And, indeed, 
to eyes unused to the grand spectacles of war, it was full of 
sublimity. The bursting of the shells over the fort, marked by 
light puffs of smoke, slowly fading out into fantastic wreaths, 
the lurid flash from the portholes shooting out low down its level 
column of smoke over the water, as the besieged sent back defiance 
to the leaguer, the burning barracks, the consciousness that this 
was war, with its glories, its terrors, its uncertainties — all tended 
to impress vividly the imagination of the beholder. While 
we were at Legare's the flagstaff of the fort was shot away, and 
its fall was greeted with enthusiastic cheers by the. regiment. 
These had scarcely subsided when one generous fellow called out, 
"Hurrah for Anderson, too," and more than one voice responded 
to his call. There was one person, however, a type of her class, 
perhaps, who did not take in fully the magnitude of the occasion. 
A soldier called to an aged negress, patiently delving with others 
in a field by the roadside, "Old woman, what's the matter over 
yonder?" "Eh, eh; you no see the house afire?" 

The formal evacuation of the fort took place on the 14th, the 
garrison withdrawing with the honors of war, and being trans- 
ferred to one of the Federal vessels lying in the offing. A vast 
concourse of people witnessed it from the shores of the harbor, 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 33 

and the waters of the bay were alive with boats and sightseers. 
Thus fell Fort Sumter. In a military point of viewi its defense 
was contemptible — to realize how contemptible one need only 
look to the ruins of the same work held later in the war by Ehett, 
Elliott and Mitchell, without a gun to reply to Gilmore's 200 
Parrotts, or a casement to shelter them, save such as they them- 
selves tunnelled in the debris, working under a merciless fire. 
The tenacity of purpose which could avail itself of passive 
resistance and fight for time had no place in their defense.: A 
formidable fleet lay idly by and witnessed the bombardment and 
surrender without an effort either by force or stratagem to aid 
the garrison. 

The means at the disposal of the Carolinians to reduce .the 
fort, vigorously held, were totally inadequate. Their breaching 
guns, necessarily placed at extreme range, were old-fashioned 
smooth-bores of light caliber, save a rifled 12 dr.,. which for 
such a purpose was a mere toy. From their shells the casements 
of the fort were a perfect protection. It is true their hot shots 
fired the wooden barracks on the terreplein of the fort, and this, 
while burning, -may have, as alleged, endangered the' magazine, 
but the barracks soon burned out. Endangered magazines are 
an incident of every siege, and their explosion within beleaguered 
forts was no uncommon occurrence on both sides later in the war, 
and none were even surrendered in consequence. It is true that 
Anderson's means of damaging his assailants, sheltered behind 
epaulements, were as limited. He had nothing but- smooth-bores, 
firing round shot. But neither his ammunition nor commissariat 
was' exhausted when he surrendered. And photographs of the 
work taken at the time forever forbid the assertion that its tena- 
bility was seriously impaired. The walls were injured nowhere; 
the.projectiles of the nearest batteries had given them the look 
of a bad case of smallpox, no .more, and not a man had been killed 
on either side when Anderson's flag was furled. No wonder that 
European spectators smiled at the bombardment aiid defense. 
It had to veteran eyes, which saw only the patent facts, sam&- 
thing of the characteristics of Chinese war. But the truth is 
the doctrine of State Sovereignty, with its consequent State 
Rights, was not then the exploded heresy which it has since 
become. Taught by the most venerated sages of the early 

3— H. 

34 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

republic, it had constituted the faith of a large majority of the 
people, and shaped the course of the government almost uninter- 
ruptedly from its inception. It was still a mighty, living 
influence, and gave to the Carolinians the benefit of that morale 
which is as potent in armies as is the nervous fluid in the human 
frame. It paralyzed the defense, and gave audacity to the 
assailant. The whole course of the Federal Government toAvard 
the seceded States had been that of one who admits a right but 
seeks to evade its consequences. The Northern press took no 
higher ground ; and some of its most influential exponents openly 
admitted the Southern view of the question. Mr. Lincoln, in the 
face of his life-long advocacy of the principles relied upon by 
the secessionists, could find no higher ground upon which to put 
his continued tenure of Sumter than its character of property — a 
character in which the seceded State was more than willing to 
consider and account for it in an equitable distribution of assets. 
Major Anderson was himself a Democrat of the State's Rights 
school, a Kentuckian by birth and a son-in-law of Duncan L. 
Clinch, who had tendered his commission to the United States 
Government years ago, when its mandates were about to place 
him in antagonism to the sovereignty of Georgia.* On the other 
hand, he was a trained soldier of the regular army, with all of 
a soldier's ideas of honor. Thus situated, with his orders, such 
as they were, emanating from the tricky and shuffling dema- 
gogues who filled the high places at Washington; himself for 
some time cut off from communication with his headquarters, 
and the fleet (which was in direct communication with it, and 
which was there for nothing if not to assist him) lying idly in 
his view, and moving no hand to help him, no wonder that he 
made only such a defense as could by possibility warrant an 
honorable surrender. Insignificant, however, as was the defense 
of Sumter and facile as was its reduction, in its results it was an 
event of tremendous consequence. From that period what little 
statesmanship and reason had so far marked the controversy, 
fled the field, and the baleful passions of civil strife were loosed 
for a four years' carnival of blood and ruthless destruction. 

The First Regiment remained bivouacked in the sand hills 
near "Vinegar Hill for four days. It was then moved farther 

•Memories of Fifty Years, Sparks, p. 134. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 35 

down the Island to Gadberry Hill, extending its left toward 
Vinegar Hill. Here they were again bivouacked. During this 
time the fleet was still lying off the bar, and the men were con- 
stantly disturbed at night by false alarms. No camp equipage 
was received for ten or twelve days; the weather was again 
tempestuous and cold; the exposure, the wretched water dug 
from shallow pits in the sand hills, and the inefficient policing 
of the camps, soon began to tell upon the health of the men. 
Much sickness ensued. We were a week on the island before the 
first drill could be had. The men were employed all the time in 
endeavoring to obtain such shelter as could be improvised, even 
in many instances constructing burrows in the sand hills, and 
in the difficult task of getting their rations cooked. 

In ten or twelve days, however, our supply of tents, etc., began 
to arrive, and the men were enabled to make themselves more 
comfortable. Uniforms — a short grey blouse — ^were distributed, 
drilling was diligently prosecuted, and the regiment began to, 
assume something of discipline and acquaintance with the routine 
of camp duty. Brigadier-General Simons (of the Charleston 
militia), Major-General Bonham, and afterwards Brigadier- 
General Nelson (the two latter of the 12 months' volunteer organ- 
ization) were in command. The Charleston militia was soon 
after the bombardment relieved from duty. Kion's Battalion 
was sent to Stono, and the First and Second 12 months' Regi- 
ments, with a half troop of Charleston Volunteer Dragoons, were 
retained on the island until the batteries bearing on the channel 
were dismantled, and those bearing on Sumter were demolished. 
This work accomplished, they also were withdrawn. 

There was one of these batteries that deserves notice, the 
"Stevens," or "Iron-Clad," Battery. The following diagram, 
drawn from recollection, will give some idea of it. The gun is 
"in battery" and ready for firing: 

36 Memoirs of the "Wak of Secession 

It was ^ structure of triangular section, presenting one of its 
sides at a very obtuse angle to the enemy, and open to the rear. 
The frame-work was of heavy timber and the side exposed to fire 
was plated with common railroad iron, presenting to the hostile 
projectiles a sloping corrugated surface thus : flfljOJl ' When 
the guns were not in battery, the portholes were closed by cur- 
tains similarly plated and worked from the inside by a lever. 
It was a crude affair, but suiScient for Anderson's light, smooth- 
bores. It was struck several times; the only injury it showed 
was a broken hinge to one of the curtains of a porthole, and a 
partial loosening of one of the iron rails. The interest attaching 
to this battery is that it was (the writer believes) the first instance 
of the actual use of iron plating for defensive purposes in war.* 
It was the precursor, if not the germ, of the iron-clad vessels 
which played so important a part later in the contest. An iron- 
clad floating battery had also been attempted by the Carolinians. 
It took some part at long range in the bombardment, but was 
generally considered a failure. Clement C. Stevens, then cashier 
in a bank in Charleston, suggested and executed this work. He 
subsequently raised a regiment, (24th S. C. V.), was promoted 
to a brigade and died in battle in the Western Army. General 
Stevens was a man of high character and intelligence, and 
earned the reputation of a most excellent officer. He was brother- 
in-law of Barnard E. Bee, who knighted Jackson at Manassas, 
dubbing him "Stonewall" a few moments before he himself was 
borne from that field mortally wounded. Stevens, in the same 
battle, was wounded on Bee's staff. 


The First Eegiment received orders on the 22nd of May to 
proceed to, or near to, Orangeburg and there be encamped. 
At 8 o'clock next morning the movement began ; but the quarter- 
master's department was again our evil genius. It was after 
dark when we were landed in the city. We marched through, 
stopping in front of the Charleston Hotel to hear a speech from 
Governor Pickens, and took the cars for Orangeburg, where the 
regiment arrived at daylight. During our stay at Orangeburg the 

•Mistake. See "Iron-clad Ships," Appleton's Cyclopteaia. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 37 

regiment improved rapidly in drill and knowledge of military 
duties. The taking of Confederate service was, however, the chief 
topic of interest in its history while at that camp, and indeed when 
that question was decided the camp was broken up. Just after 
the fall of Sumter, the Governor of Virginia called upon the 
executive of South Carolina for military assistance. Virginia 
had not then become a member of the Southern Confederacy, 
though she had seceded and was threatened with Federal 
invasion. Governor Pickens dispatched an aide to Morris Island 
with a circular note to each of the colonels of regiments there, 
requesting them to call on their respective commands to volunteer 
for the service, and informing them that, in case of a favorable 
response, they would move at ten o'clock that night. The Second 
Regiment (Kershaw's) volunteered something like two hundred 
men, and the six months' men (Gregg's) a like number. Next day 
these bodies of volunteers left the island, each under command 
of its colonel. The balance of these regiments remained on the 
island. The six months' men that remained were disbanded 
a few days afterward, and the part of the Second Regiment that 
remained was subsequently recruited and known as Blanding's 
Regiment, while the fragments of regiments which Gregg and 
Kershaw carried to Virginia were rapidly filled up to full regi- 
ments by independent companies from diflferent parts of South 
Carolina, who went on to join them. 

The First Regiment when called upon responded by Mangum's 
Company volunteering nearly unanimously; the other companies 
volunteered from ten to thirty men each, but coupled with the 
condition in each case that the whole company went. No special 
effort was made by officers to induce the men to volunteer, for 
it was seen that it would disrupt the regiment, and it was 
thought more advisable, with a view to subsequently taking 
Confederate service, to keep it together. A day or so pre- 
viously (16th April) Governor Pickens had sent over copies 
of a resolution by the Convention of the State then in session 
providing that "with their consent" the troops in State 
service should be transferred to the service of the Confederate 
States, and had directed the colonels commanding "to report 
within five days" whether their regiments would consent to be so 
transferred. A few days after the Virginia call, he came out 

38 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

in the newspapers with a proclamation (which he also directed 
to be read at the head of the troops) asserting his right to order 
the twelve months' men to march and serve wherever he deemed 
proper beyond the borders of the State, and declaring his inten- 
tion so to do whenever in his judgment the necessary occasion 
arose. He called upon the Attorney-General for his legal opinion 
of the Governor's powers in the premises under the act of 1860, 
and this opinion sustained the views of the proclamation. The 
troops seemed to consider the proclamation as an attempt to 
coerce them in a matter in which the Convention, the supreme 
power in the land, had required their consent. They saw no 
practical difference, they said, in going abroad to serve the gen- 
eral interests of the Confederacy, though they were called State 
troops, and in going abroad entered into Confederate service. 
They imagined, too, that the proclamation was dictated by irrita- 
tion at the response made to the Governor's call for Virginia 
volunteers. And such indignation was felt with the course of the 
executive that it required an exertion of authority by officers 
in command to prevent its public expression. No report was 
made under the Governor's communication of the 16th April, 
and the question of taking Confederate service remained in this 
condition at the time the regiment left Morris Island. The object 
of selecting Orangeburg was because the locality was deemed 
favorable to the consideration of the question. It was also 
deemed best by the field officers to obtain (which they succeeded 
in doing) a general furlough of ten days for the regiment before 
presenting the subject. The soldier suddenly called from his 
civil pursuits could in this interval make his arrangements for 
that more extended service which the necessities of the country 
required. The morning of the arrival at Orangeburg this 
furlough was announced, and, upon the reassembling of the com- 
mand, the matter was fairly opened. In a communication from 
the Adjutant-General, dated 23rd May, and read too late to com- 
municate to the regiment before going on furlough, was enclosed 
the following order: 

"State of South Carolina, 
"Headquarters, 19 May, 1861. 
"The Secretary of War has made two requisitions for troops on the Gov- 
ernor, amounting to 8,000 men. If the regiments were to be retained by the 
State as volunteer regiments, then they are subject to orders to march 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 39 

whenever and wheresoever directed by the Commander-in-Chief. The reso- 
lution of the Convention seemed as intended to require that the Governor 
should give the honor in the first instance to the volunteer regiments to be 
mustered into the service of the Confederate States, and thus through the 
action of that body their service should be changed. The President of the 
Confederate States, Under a recent Act of Congress, as intimated by the 
Secretary of War, adopted the policy of calling only for companies to be 
mustered in for the war, and then for the President to appoint the field 
officers when such companies were formed into battalions or regiments ; but 
as eight volunteer regiments were already organized in South Carolina, it 
has been determined to give them the honorable opportunity of going into 
service as regiments with their field officers. 

"Under these circumstances it is ordered that the eight regiments of 
volunteers be prepared by their officers to be mustered into service for their 
12-months' enrollment. For this purpose the field officers and company 
officers with the men of each company will be required to sign a roll agree- 
ing distinctly to the terms. It will take sixty-four privates as a minimum 
to make a company to be mustered in, and when a majority of the present 
roll of a company so agree, then that company by this decision will preserve 
its present organization as a basis to be filled upon, and if six or more 
companies in any regiment so agree, then the organization of that regiment 
may be preserved and a system hereafter to be adopted will be ordered to 
make up the companies that may thus have a majority, but not sixty-four 
as the case may be, in that regiment. And then, upon the same system, 
orders will be given to make up the remaining companies after six, always 
reserving the right of the company or regiment to elect officers when they 
(the officers) do not choose to change their service. If ten companies, with 
sixty-four present in each, be found to agree to the terms, then such regi- 
ment is complete. 

"When the eight regiments are made up, a portion of them will be 
retained by order of the Governor to defend the State of South Carolina ; 
and if the regiments decline to be mustered into Confederate service, then 
still a sufficient number of them, under the present organization, will be 
retained for seacoast defense in this State. In any case, however, this 
selection will be made. The mustering officer will be ready as soon as the 
returns are made on this. F. W. Pickens." 

The following form of enlistment was communicated at the 
same time : 

"We, the undersigned officers and privates of Company, 

Regiment of So. Ca. Volunteers, do hereby agree to be mus- 

tered unconditionally into the service of the Confederate States of America, 

to serve for the period of twelve months from the day of 

April last." 

40 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

It will be' observed that no plan of service is guaranteed in 
tKese papers, and the order of the 19th May distinctly sets forth 
that in 'any. event a selection will be made for seacoast service in 
South . Carolina. In his speech to the regiment while passing 
through Charleston, the Governor had told them that the portion 
of the regiment that took Confederate service would go to Vir- 
ginia, and that which refused would be retained for local defense. 
In a speech to Blanding's Regiment, which was made a few days 
later and published in the newspapers (before the question was 
submitted to the First Regiment), he told them the same thing. 
And, in a conversation with the colonel and lieutenant-colonel 
of the First he had expressed the same purpose. It was, more- 
over, known that Hey ward's and Manigault's Regiments (9th 
and. 10th, under Act of 1860), raised from the seacoast district, 
and then being organized, preferred the local service. It may be 
added that the Executive's speeches and statements, it was after- 
wards learned, succeeded in giving to the other regiments the 
same interpretation of the order of the 19th May. An impression 
had, however, got abroad in the First Regiment that those not 
taking Confederate service would be disbanded, though it was 
never doubted that those taking it would go to Virginia. 

For several days after the proposition was submitted but little 
progress was made. But few men could be obtained and these 
were distributed so equally among the companies that no com- 
pany could obtain "a majority according to its present roll." The 
charms of home were too strong for the call of patriotism. The 
enemy had been expelled from South Carolina by South Caro- 
linians unaided and at one effort; let other States do the same 
thing. Virginia has not yet been invaded; let her drive the 
Federal from Norfolk as South Carolina had done from Sum- 
ter, and the Government at Washington, seeing that the 
South was determined upon independence, will not be reckless 
enough to involve the whole continent in war. Thus many of 
the men and even officers reasoned; and not yet broken into 
the requirements of the military code, and sore from its 
unaccustomed restraints, they readily listened to such reason- 
ing. The regiment was encamped in the country from which 
nearly half of it was raised; the friends and relatives of the 
men were daily in camp, and, strange to say, this outside 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 41 

influence was largely exerted against going into Confederate 
service. This, too, in the Third Congressional District, the very- 
hotbed of secession. The people had no conception of the magni- 
tude of the struggle in which they had embarked. Thus matters 
stood. The officers fearing the vacillation of Executive counsels, 
with the disbandment of the portion of Gregg's Eegiment (nearly 
two-thirds) which did not take Confederate service and with the 
terms of the order of the 19th May before them, hesitated to 
take the only step by which it was evident the question could be 
carried. They hesitated to assure the regiment that the question 
was not between disbandment and Confederate service, but 
between Virginia and the seaboard. At length General Jamison, 
Secretary of War for South Carolina, happened unofficially to 
visit the camp, and told them that they might safely take this 
step, for he was apprised of the views of the Executive. The 
assurance was accordingly given and it was found necessary to 
pledge the honor of the officers that the issue was as presented. 

Upon this six skeleton companies were raised, and the organiza- 
tion of the regiment preserved under the terms of the order. 
White's Company had at an earlier date unanimously declined to 
take Confederate service, and arrangements had, with consent of 
all parties, been effected to exchange it for Eice's Company of 
Heyward's Regiment, who desired to go to Virginia. 

A report of the facts was made on the 2nd June, with a request 
for a mustering officer to be sent up to muster in the regiment as 
it stood — to dispatch it at once to Virginia — and to allow the 
necessary recruits to follow. The request was declined in an 
Executive communication dated 3rd June, and the regiment was 
informed that "A skeleton regiment cannot be sent to Virginia ; 
it must be full and complete." On the 4th June Lieutenant- 
Colonel (afterwards General) Barnard E. Bee, having mustered 
in Jenkins' (Fifth) Eegiment, encamped near us, informed the 
colonel commanding the First that he was also instructed to 
muster in the First, if it was completed, and at the same time 
handed him the following: 

"Mustering Officers' Office, 
"Orangeburg, S. C, 4 June, 1861. 
"Under instructions from tlie Governor, Colonel Hagood, commanding 
First Regiment Soutli Carolina Volunteers, will make the necessary arrange- 

42 Memoirs or the Wae of Secession 

ments for transferring that portion of his regiment which has refused to 
enter the Confederate service to the camp at Ridgeville. This portion will 
be under command of Major O'Caim, and will at once be separated on the 
regimental records from that portion which has elected to serve the Con- 

"The camp equipage will be retained for the use of the regiment, conse- 
quently Major O'Caim will make requisition for camp and garrison equip- 
age on Colonel Hatch. 

"Babnakd E. Bee, 
"Lt. Col. C. S. Army, 
"Mustering Officer." 

Previously, in a letter dated 1st June, the colonel commanding 
had been instructed by the Governor: "After mustering into 
Confederate service, the remaining companies and detachments 
of companies not volunteering will be placed, on the departure 
of the regiment, under command of the senior officer remaining, 
who will report for orders to the Adjutant-General's Depart- 

Sufficient progress had not been made for Colonel Bee, under 
his instructions, to muster in the regiment ; but the order extended 
by him was communicated to the command. It was received as 
practical confirmation of the assurance given by the officers, and 
before night two more skeleton companies were made up, being 
eight in all and numbering near 500 men in the aggregate. 
Collier's Company declined, as a company, to take Confederate 
service, but many individuals of it had combined with a portion 
of Kemmerlin's Company. Rice's Company made nine, and 
Steadman, of Lexington, and Edward Cantey, of Camden, had 
each, with full companies, applied for the tenth place. Stead- 
man being the first applicant was notified to bring his company 
into camp. Recruiting officers were sent out to fill up the skeleton 
companies, rolls dispatched to the adjutant-general with the 
request to send up a mustering officer on the Monday following, 
and the major of the regiment (who had declined Confederate 
service) was sent down under Bee's order to make arrangements 
for transferring his portion of the men to the seaboard. 

On Sunday, Steadman marched his company into camp, over 
80 strong, and the recruiting officers returned with recruits enough 
to raise the skeleton companies to the same average, but, at the 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 43 

same time, the major returned with the following communication 
from the Governor: 

"State of South Carolina, 
"Headquarters, 6 June, 1861. 
"Colonel Hagood. 

"Sir: I received yours of the 2nd June in which you reported your regi- 
ment ready for mustering into service. I sent the mustering officer with 
special Instructions to muster in, and, if under the required number, to 
receive as a battalion, and, if under a battalion, to receive as companies. I 
can delay no longer, as I have already delayed longer than I ought. Colonel 
Glover thought if they could go to Orangeburg there would be no difficulty. 
Have them mustered in, and the men who decline to muster into service, I 
desire to have their arms, and those who muster in, I desire to receive imme- 
diately and malse a permanent arrangement for the summer in the manner 
best suited to the public service. The Ave regiments recently mustered in, 
together with the other two already there, are all I can spare out of the 
State, and I must organize the rest to the best advantage for the State and 
the public service as soon as possible. If the companies who muster in fall 
below ten, then I can use them to recruit on and fill up to a regiment, if it 
is thought necessary hereafter. F. W. Pickens." 

Matters were thus entirely reversed. The men whose spirit had 
induced them to volunteer for honorable and active service 
abroad were condemned to an inglorious summer campaign on 
the coast, and those whose want of spirit had induced them to 
prefer the miasma and the mosquitoes of the coast, with the cer- 
tainty of encountering no enemy, were to be rewarded with a 
return to their homes. These last were highly jubilant. The men 
Avho had signed the Confederate rolls were greatly exasperated. 
The officers had solemnly pledged their honor that the issue was a 
different one, and self-respect compelled them, as far as they 
were concerned, to release the men from the obligation of enlist- 
ing under the new Executive programme. The recent recruits 
brought in utterly scouted the idea of entering a regiment con- 
demned to the coast. And when on Monday Captain Dunovant, 
the mustering officer, came, not a man would muster in. 

On this report being made, orders were received to retain the 
whole regiment in service for State defense. A' few days after- 
ward this again was countermanded; and on the 15th June the 
regiment was "relieved from duty until further orders." 

In the interval between the departure of the mustering officer 

44 Memoirs of the "War of Secession 

and the order for the relief of the regiment, the colonel com- 
manding visited Governor Pickens vrith a scheme to raise an 
independent regiment for Virginia service. His Excellency 
seemed utterly dismayed at the result of his communication of 
the 6th June, and evinced every disposition to remedy the evil 
by acquiescence in the scheme. The Confederate Secretary at 
War telegraphed his assent from Eichmond; but the men failed 
utterly to respond. They had lost confidence in the authorities; 
the delights of home loomed up in magnified proportions; the 
last spark of volunteer enthusiasm was extinguished; and they 
seemed bent on disbandment at whatever discredit to themselves 
or consequence to the country. Desiring to disembarrass the 
question of every difficulty, the field officers issued a card to the 
regiment, pledging themselves to resign if one-half of each 
of eighty names as six companies would again sign the roll for 
Confederate service; and not a single name was given in. A 
few spirited company officers then proposed that the officers 
of the regiment ban4 themselves into a company, and, taking the 
beautiful banner with which the ladies of Barnwell had presented 
us when the regiment was supposed to be going to Virginia, carry 
out the purpose of the fair donors.* This, too, failed. It was a 
pitch of self-devotion to which volunteer human nature could 
not attain. 

The issue of Confederate service was presented to the other 
regiments who were already mustered in, in the same way that 
it was to the First. . Similar indisposition to accept was in each 
of them, more or less, encountered. But the .question was pre- 
sented to them ten days earlier in consequence of the furlough 
which its field officers had perhaps unfortunately obtained for 
the First, and consequently they got off for Virginia before their 
own or any other recusants were disbanded. It may be too 
that they were more adroitly managed by the officers in com- 
mand. When the subject of re-enlistment for the war came up, 
twelve months afterwards, the First regiment redeemed itself by 
raising and enlisting eleven companies quietly and without effort 
before the first enlistment of the men had expired. The writer 
is not accurately informed, but believes this was the only one of 

•These gentlemen had probably never heard of "The Island of the Scots," but In 
this connection It will be pleasant to read "Lays of the Scottish Cavalry," p. 94. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 45 

the South Carolina regiments, and he is inclined to think the 
only regiment in the Confederate army, which thus by voluntary 
re-enlistment renewed its service at that time to that extent. The 
pressure of the Confederate Conscription Act* directly or indi- 
rectly gave continued existence to these original organizations. 
Volunteering is by far the best method of raising suddenly large 
armies for a popular war. The enthusiasm of the people is thus 
utilized before it has evanesced; but once enlisted (and that for 
the war) the word should be expunged from the soldier's vocabu- 
lary. It was observed, too, under similar circumstances of so large 
a number of offices to be filled, when an appointing power had not 
the time or ability to make itself acquainted with the merits of 
applicants, that the election of officers by the men in the first 
instance resulted in as good, if not a better, selection than when 
the government appointed. Any subsequent promotions by elec- 
tion after the troops are in service, and men and officers have the 
opportunity of exhibiting their fitness for position, is an unmiti- 
gated evil. It was in the modified form in which it existed in the 
regulations of the Confederate army, the lowest grade only being 
elective, a drawback upon discipline, which none can realize who 
has not experienced a similar state of affairs. Blanding's and 
Rion's (Sixth) Eegiment struggled on manfully after the First 
was relieved from duty, and after a month's longer work were 
mustered into Confederate service. No sooner was this done than 
they were ordered to Virginia; and this, notwithstanding the 
Governor's letter of the 6th June to the First Eegiment. 

Eelibved From Dttty. 

During the time it was relieved from duty the State authorities 
sometimes acted as if the regiment was finally disbanded; at 
other times as if it was only temporarily relieved and no further 
service expected from it. Mangum's Company was armed and 
permitted to go West, where it entered Colonel Martin's First 

♦This Act was passed after the First Regiment had re-enllsted for the war. 

Note. — The Banner Presented ty the Ladles 0} Barnwell. — At Gordonsvllle, in 
the first march into Maryland, the regiment was required to assume the Confederate 
battle flag, and Colonel Glover left this banner in keeping of some gentleman of the 
town. Glover was killed shortly afterward at Second Manassas ; the namle Of the 
gentleman was lost and the banner never recovered. 

46 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Mississippi Eegiment, of which Mangum himself became the 
major. McCreery was encouraged to raise a company from 
individuals of the regiment to join a new regiment Colonel Gregg 
was raising "for the war," the time of the six months' men whom 
he had carried to Virginia having expired.* And though a 
remonstrance was made by Captain Brown, whose company was 
chiefly affected, and the names of his men in McCreery's Com- 
pany furnished the Governor, yet his Excellency, while asserting 
that he had forbidden McCreery to recruit from the First 
Eegiment, upon the filing of his roll in the Adjutant-General's 
office, furnished him with transportation to Virginia. Captain 
Lartigue, quartermaster of the regiment, and others also received 
Executive countenance in efforts to raise independent commands. 
On the other hand, individual members of the regiment were 
required to obtain furloughs before leaving the State, sometimes 
requiring the assent of the regimental commander and sometimes 
not. Many members of the regiment without obtaining leave 
straggled off to Virginia, where they permanently attached them- 
selves to different organizations. From Orangeburg the colonel 
of the regiment went to Charleston and obtained a furlough for 
three months, not supposing the regiment would be again called 
into service, if at all, before the winter campaign in the South 
should open. Thence, after a couple of days in making the 
necessary preparations at home, he went to Virginia equipped as 
a private and prepared to do such service as might offer during 
his leave of absence. He was fortunate enough to be able to 
render some assistance as engineer in charge, under Captain 
Stevens, C. S. A., of the works near Fairfax Court House 
between the Falls Church and Flint Hill Koads, and had the 
honor to carry a rifle in the Palmetto Guard of Kershaw's Eegi- 
ment in the retreat from Fairfax, and in the battle of Bull Eun 
and of Manassas Plains. 

At Bull Eun the participation of Kershaw's Eegiment was 
confined to sustaining a canonade behind the lines and to two 
sorties during the day in support of Kemper's Battery of Field 
Artillery. At Manassas it was more actively engaged. After 

•McCreery, a native of Barnwell and graduate of the Citadel Military School, had 
been a private in the First S. C. V. He subsequently rose to the command of 
Gregg's Regiment and was killed in battle in 1865. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 47 

the arrival of Colonel Hagood in Virginia, the following mem- 
bers of the First came on with similar furloughs: Lieutenant 
John H. Felder, Lieutenant John A. Bellinger, Sergeant E. I. 
Felder, Sergeant Donald Eowe, Privates Meredith, Jaudon, 
Eobinson, Ben Hart, and Sergeant (afterwards Lieutenant) 
Dibble.* They attached themselves as privates to Kershaw's 
Regiment and did duty as such while in Virginia. 

At Manassas Lieutenant Bellinger and Sergeant Felder, 
together with Burwile Barnwell, of Beaufort, S. C, assisted 
Colonel Hagood in working one of the guns of Eickett's captured 
battery against the retreating enemy. 


The regiment assembled at Summerville on the South Carolina 
Eailroad under the following order : 

"State of South Carolina, 
"Headquarters, 13 July, 1861. 
"Special Orders : 
"No. 156. 
"1. The Second (Blanding's) and Sixth Regiments of South Carolina Vol- 
unteers having been ordered to Virginia, and Colpnel R. H. Anderson, com- 
manding provisional forces in South Carolina, having made a requisition 
for troops to replace them in the defense of the State, the First Regiment 
of South Carolina Volunteers is ordered to rendezvous at Summerville on 
the 20th day of July inst. 

"2. Colonel Hagood being absent from the State, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Glover is placed in command of the regiment and will extend this order. 

*Member of Congress from South Carolina In 1881. 

Note. — Lieutenant Felder contracted typhoid fever and died two months after- 
ward. Lieutenant Bellinger, a spirited and meritorious officer, was killed in a duel, 
the result of an unfortunate misunderstanding with a brother officer, later In the 
war. Captain Stevens, Confederate States engineer, was a graduate of West Point 
from New York, and at the breaking out of the war was In the United States Army 
In Texas. He resigned his commission and cast his fortunes with the Confederacy. 
In 1864 he was chief engineer of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia with the rank 
of brigadier general, when the writer had the pleasure of agreeably renewing his 
acquaintance with him. After the war General Stevens, with others, accepted a 
voluntary exile In Mexico, where he died a few years later. The venerable and 
eccentric Edmund Buffin served as a private In the Palmetto Guards, both at Bull 
Run and Manassas. His whole being seemed to be enlisted in the Southern Cause, 
and after the disastrous close of the war, declining, in his own words, "to survive 
the liberties of his country," he put a voluntary period to his existence. 

48 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

"3. Colonel Glover will report for orders to Colonel R. H. Anderson, com- 
manding provisional forces. . . . 

"By order of tiie Governor. 

"Chaeles H. Simonton, 
"Acting Adjutant General." 

Nine companies were represented at the rendezvous, Man- 
gum's company having gone West. None were full and some 
were mere fragments. Colonel Hagood returned from Virginia 
during the first week in August and took command on the 10th. 
The recruiting of the regiment had been commenced; and the 
question of entering military Confederate service was again pre- 
sented under the condition indicated in the following communi- 
cation : 

"State of South Carolina, 
"Headquarters, 14 August, 1861. 
"Colonel Johnson Hagood, Commanding First S. C. V. 

"Sir : In order to prevent any misunderstanding, I beg leave to say that 
the alternative is not presented to your regiment to muster into Confed- 
erate service or to be disbanded. On the contrary, such injustice will not be 
done. ... If any refuse Confederate service they will be kept on duty 
until their time expires. 

"Very respectfully, 

"Chaeles H. Simonton, 
"Acting Adjutant General." 

Under this communication all inducements to refuse Confed- 
erate service was apparently removed. Still the bona fide of the 
communication was doubted by some; and, to anticipate some- 
what, the sequel showed they were well posted upon the vacillat- 
ing counsels which ruled at State headquarters. After keeping 
the recusants in service for some time they were, on the 30th 
September following, disbanded. Brown's and Frederick's Com- 
panies failed to obtain a basis to recruit upon for Confederate 
service, as provided for in the order of 19th May, but many of 
their respective commands entered other companies of the regi- 
ment for that purpose. Two companies from Barnwell, com- 
manded respectively by Captains Duncan and Brabham, and 
one from Williamsburg, commanded by Captain J. G. Pressly 
(late of Gregg's six months' regiment), were received to fill the 
vacant places. And thus at length the regiment was mustered 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 49 

into Confederate service. As soon as this was accomplished, 
attention was at once directed to obtaining orders for Virginia 
service; and, though these efforts were principally made while 
the regiment was stationed elsewhere, the subject will be disposed 
of at once. In linducing the men to take Confederate service, 
and especially in obtaining new companies to fill the vacant 
places, it was impressed upon them that they were to enlist 
"unconditionally," and without a pledge from the Government 
as to the locality of service. The seacoast from the approach of 
winter, when . active operations might be then anticipated, had 
become less unpopular. Still Virginia was in general estimation 
the field of honor. The men composing the new Confederate 
regiments desired to go there, and it was clear all the way through 
that without the chance of the regiment being ordered to the seat 
of war the regiment could not be raised. Governor Pickens had 
made the proposition to Lieutenant-Colonel Glover, command- 
ing, for the regiment "to muster in, upon the same terms as had 
been accorded to the Ninth and Tenth regiments. Those regi- 
ments are now in Confederate service upon the understanding, 
not expressed in writing, that they are to be used in defence of 
South Carolina" (see his letter), and at the same time sending 
him the printed "unconditional" rolls. The Governor's letter 
was suppressed ; it was thought if he wished to limit the written 
contract he was encouraging a regiment, then undoutbedly under 
his control, to make with the Confederate Government it was his 
business to address his communication to that Government, and 
if they were unwilling to accept his modifications (as they were 
known to be) then to have kept the regiment on the State estab- 
lishment, as he had the right to do. . On applying to Anderson 
(now General), commanding in Charleston, for a mustering 
officer, the General, as a matter of form, telegraphed the Governor 
fir his assent and received for reply : "The Governor consents on 
the same terms accorded to Heyward's and Manigault's regi- 
ments." These were respectively the Ninth and Tenth. General 
Anderson sent the mustering officer up, and with him sent the 
telegram. Colonel Hagood did not communicate the telegram to 
the regiment, but, taking advantage of some errors in the muster 
rolls, sent the mustering officer back with the following communi- 
cation : 

4— II 

50 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

"In Camp near Summerville, S. O., 
"21 Aug., 1861. 
"General: Lieutenant Miles (the mustering officer sent me today and 
who will deliver this) desires the muster rolls made out anew in conse- 
quence of some defect of form. He showed while here a telegram from 
Captain Simonton, Acting Adjutant General of South Carolina, to you, 
saying that Governor Pickens desired the First Regiment mustered in on 
the terms accorded to Heyward's and Manigault's regiments. In a conver- 
sation had with you a few days ago, I understood you to say that these 
regiments were mustered into Confederate service unconditionally, and that 
these were the only terms upon which any regiment had been, or would be, 
received. The printed agreement furnished us by the State Adjutant Gen- 
eral Department to be signed preliminary to mustering in is expressly 
unconditional in its terms, and I wish to state that it is upon the expressed 
terms of that agreement and no other that the regiment has consented to, 
and now takes Confederate service. 

"Very respectfully, 

"Johnson Hagood, 
"Colonel First S. C. V." 

General Anderson sent the mustering officer back next day, and 
we took leave of the State service with this protest on file and a 
part of the contract. 

Desiring to remove all obstacles whatever to our Virginia 
scheme, General Jamison was induced to seek an interview with 
the Governor, which resulted in his giving his written consent to 
the regiment being ordered to that State. General Jamison for- 
warded to Colonel Hagood the paper by mail, and it had hardly 
arrived when Governor Pickens addressed a letter to Lieutenant 
Colonel Glover revoking his consent. This letter was not 
addressed to the "Lieutenant Colonel" with any addition indi- 
cating that his Excellency thought Glover was in command, and 
as Colonel Hagood was then in command, and had been since 10th 
August, he took no notice of the revocation but wrote to General 
Bonham in Virginia desiring that he would seek to have us 
attached to his brigade, and commenced also the following cor- 
respondence which shows the result of our aspirations in that 
direction : 

"Headquarters First S. C. V., 

"8th Sept., 1861. 
"Bon. L. P. Walker, Secretary at War, Richmond. 

"Sir: I beg leave respectfully to enclose you a paper from Governor 
Pickens, giving his consent for my regiment to leave for Virginia and to 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 51 

apply for orders. My regiment was of the twelve months volunteers called 
for by the State last winter, the first organized and received into service. 
It has been late to take Confederate service for reasons that it is needless 
to speak of now ; but none of which reflect either upon the spirit of the 
men or their readiness to serve the Confederacy. We have been in service 
since 13th April last, and are as well drilled as any of the Carolina troops 
now In Virginia. I speak from recent observation. We are receiving our 
winter uniforms as fast as they are made, and I feel assured that by the 
20th this month our equipment for the winter will be complete. If in your 
judgment compatible with the interest of the service, it would be agreeable 
to us to be brigaded with the other South Carolina troops in Bonham's 

"I am, sir, very respectfully, 

"Johnson Hagood, 
"Colonel First S. C. V." 

"Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, 
"Richmond, 18 Sept., 1861. 
"Sir : The Secretary at War has decided, and I am instructed to inform 
you, that after considering the endorsement on your letter of the 8th inst. 
by General Ripley, it is deemed inexpedient to order your regiment to Vir- 
ginia at this time. The following is the endorsement by General Ripley 
referred to : 'Colonel Hagood's regiment is eminently qualified to do good 
service in Virginia, or elsewhere, but at present and until the coast defenses 
are in proper condition, its services are indispensable in South Carolina. 
It is now at Stono — a very important post.' 

"Very respectfully, 

"M. Chuttal. A. A. G. 
"Colonel Hagood, First S. C. V." 

Thus terminated our present hopes of Virginia. But the regi- 
ment had taken no local service. It was ready to serve when the 
War Department thought its services were needed, and having 
used all the means in its power to obtain marching orders for the 
seat of war it felt that at length it stood straight upon the record. 
The tide of war soon began to roll southward. Hatteras fell; 
South Carolina was invaded, and the defeat of our Virginia 
project was no longer the subject of serious regret. 

Posts on Stono. 

On the 28th August, the sailing of the Hatteras expedition 
having become known, and its destruction being uncertain, Gen- 
eral Ripley (who had succeeded General Anderson in command 

52 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

in South Carolina), ordered the First Kegiment to Coles Island, 
one of the posts on Stono — the back entrance into Charleston 
harbor. Colonel Hagood was assigned to the command of these 
posts and directed to make his headquarters on Coles Island. 

Here the regiment remained for the rest of its twelve months' 
enlistment. Its equipment was completed in every particular, 
and a regular course of instruction instituted. The officers were 
required to write on the tactics daily to the colonel, using a black- 
board in demonstration ; and at the same time the officers and non- 
commissioned officers were practically instructed in the drill. They 
were together drilled in the school of the "soldier squad" and 
"company," and then in a battalion skeleton drill. In this skele- 
ton drill the privates of the rank were represented by two men 
carrying a light rod the length of a small company and the 
officers and non-commissioned officers occupied their proper rela- 
tive positions. The colonel was throughout personally the 
instructor. Afterwards the course was completed by extending it 
to the regiment at large. Much attention was also given to the 
proper performance of sentry and other camp duty. The bene- 
ficial effects of these efforts were soon seen in the drill and 
cheerful discipline of the command, and in the creation of a 
high esprit du corps. 

Afterwards, although the regiment was to be used only as an 
infantry support, it was thought proper to instruct ten men of 
each company in the use of heavy artillery, and subsequently two 
companies were assigned to batteries and thoroughly instructed 
in this duty. One of these companies (Captain Pressley's) was 
placed in charge of Fort Pickens on Battery Island, and the 
other (Captain Glover's) was put in charge of two batteries on 
Coles Island. 

A large amount of fatigue duty was also done by the regiment 
in the construction of a wagon causeway between Fort Pickens 
and Coles Island, and in the erection of barracks, the building of 
bomb-proof batteries, etc. The island was made a strongly forti- 
fied post with barracks for .1,000 men. Commissary and quarter- 
master buildings, bake houses, hospital and everything else com- 
plete. . A well-supplied commissariat, with a sutler's shop, added 
much to the comfort of the men. A daily mail, beside telegraphic 
communication with the city, was established. And, in short, the 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. Vj 53 

service for the last months of our time had more of the char-- 
aster of garrison life in time of peace than of campaigning. 

In addition to the First South Carolina Volunteers there were 
stationed on Stono 150 Eegulars under Major G. J. Lucas, and 
two companies of Volunteers, under A. A. 1841, from Charleston, 
commanded respectively by Captain J. J. Pope and 'Captain 
S. Y. Tupper. When this class of Volunteers was recalled from 
service, in order to reorganize the military system of the State, 
two companies of Volunteers "for the war" from Charleston, 
under Captains Simonton and Lloyd, were sent in their place. 
These two companies called themselves the Eutaw Battalion and 
carried the colors borne by Colonel William Washington's regi- 
ment in the Eevolutionary battle of that name. It was a piede 
of red damask without device, and looked as if it had once cov- 
ered a piece of furniture. 

The fall of Port Koyal was the only event of interest that 
marked the winter campaign of 1861-62 in South Carolina. It 
was. remarkably calm on both days of the attack, and the can- 
nonade was very distinctly heard at Coles Island. On the first 
day Colonel Hagood telegraphed to the general commanding the 
department asking for his regiment to be ordered to the scene of 
action, but without success. After the reduction of that post of 
defense, our line, which had been heretofore upon the outer beach 
of the island lining the coast, was withdrawn to the main. All 
the seacoast or island positions south of Coles Island were aban- 
doned after being first dismantled. The new line of defense 
from Coles Island southwardly ran along the eastern bank of 
Stono to the main and thence along the main to the Savannah 
River. Occasional patrols visited the abandoned islands, and 
sometimes considerable bodies of troops in the nature of advanced 
guards occupied them. The enemy made an effort early in Jan- 
uary to force his way inland from Port Eoyal with a view to 
cutting the Charleston and Savannah Eailroad, but was repulsed. 
Subsequently his efforts were limited to marauding upon the 
abandoned territory, keeping well under the shelter of his gun- 
boats. His attention seemed directed more to the City of Savan- 
nah and the coast southward and northward of South Carolina. 
A blockading steamer was generally lying off Stono, but some- 
times it would disappear for weeks. During the last of December 

54 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

this steamer running in rather close, several shots were exchanged 
with one of our batteries. The distance, however, was too great, 
and had Colonel Hagood been at the post he would not have per- 
mitted the battery to reply to her fire. The blockade was run 
two or three times from this inlet, and once a small vessel 
attempting it was captured and a large one burned in our view, 
but unfortunately beyond our range. This last was owned and 
commanded by a New York Yankee, who had heard that salt was 
scarce in Secesscia and had hoped to make an honest penny at 
the expense of the "best government the world ever saw." 

The posts on Stono, and their retention or abandonment in its 
relation to the defense of Charleston, was a subject of earnest 
and even angry discussion at the time, and the military critic 
will have to accord to the decision finally enforced a most 
important bearing upon subsequent operations against the city. 
Stono Inlet is a little southwest of, and ten miles from Charles- 
ton. A bar, as in all other Southern Atlantic bays, lies in front 
of it and about two miles out at sea. Directly across its mouth 
and a little in front of it lies Bird Key, a sand bank nearly 
covered at high tide. Coles Island lies at the head of the inlet 
towards the north. It is near two miles long and from one hundred 
and fifty to three hundred and fifty yards wide. FoUey Island is 
the eastern and Kiawah Island the western boundary of the inlet. 
At the head of the inlet Folley Eiver comes in from the east and 
Kiawah Eiver from the west. These two rivers are mere arms of 
the sea, making the inland boundaries of the islands of the same 
name. Stono River comes into Kiawah Eiver at the western 
end of Coles Island. This river is also an arm of the sea, running 
from the point at which it connects with Kiawah in a northerly 
direction till it comes within four miles of Charleston. In this 
part of its course it separates John's and James's Islands. At the 
point nearest Charleston it connects with the waters of Charleston 
Harbor by Wappoo Cut and creek, which last separates James 
Island from the main. From Wappoo Cut the Stono runs first 
northwesterly and then southwesterly until it communicates with 
the North Edisto Inlet ten miles from and south of west from 
Stono Inlet. From the time it leaves Wappoo Cut the Stono Eiver 
separates from the main first John's Island and then Wadmalaw 
Island. In the latter part of its course it is known as Wadmalaw 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 


Map of 

56 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

Eiver. FoUey Kiver communicates by a creek with the waters 
of the harbor at a point between James Island and Morris Island, 
as also with Light House Inlet. The channel across the bar in 
front of Stono Inlet is five feet deep at low, and thirteen feet 
deep at high water. It is deep but narrow after it has crossed 
the bar until it has come round Bird Key and entered the inlet. 
Here it is a mile and three-eighths from the nearest point of Coles 
Island. From that point the channel through the inlet up 
Kiawah to Stono Kiver and up Stono Eiver to Church Flats is 
wide and amply sufficient for vessels of any draft. Church Flats 
is the point, some ten miles beyond Wappoo, where the Stono 
changes its name to Wadmalaw Eiver. Through these flats the 
channel is intricate and shallow, but from thence to North Edisto 
it is again good. Through Wappoo Cut vessels which may at low 
or half tide pass the Stono Bar, can pass to Charleston. Bat- 
tery Island lies up Stono some two and a half miles from Coles 
Island and is, in fact, the southwestern point of James Island. 
The Stono batteries were located by General Beauregard just 
before the attack on Sumter. Their object then was to prevent 
reinforcements being thrown into the fort in small boats ; no more 
serious efforts of the enemy were anticipated from that. direction. 
He, therefore, located one battery on the eastern end of Coles 
Island to control FoUey Eiver and one on Battery Island, where 
the Stono is not over 600 yards wide, to control that river. 
Afterwards it became necessary to consider these posts in view 
of operations against the city. In consequence of the strength of 
its harbor defenses, it was supposed a land attack upon Charles- 
ton must be conducted by first obtaining some harbor above or 
below it on the coast as a base of operations. Bulls Bay lies 
northeast of the city some thirty miles, but the country between 
that point and the city is intricate, and Wando and Cooper 
rivers intervene. It would be necessary to make a detour to head 
the one and cross the other high up, in order to get upon the 
peninsular on which Charleston is built. Port Eoyal to the south 
was too far off for a good base of operations. North Edisto and 
Stono Inlets remained. From either of these, water communica- 
tions could be had to Wappoo Cut, a point as before stated four 
miles from Charleston and the very place for their depot of siege 
material. It was the center of the semi-circumference around 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 57 

which only the city could be attacked. From North Edisto, how- 
ever, the navigation through Church Flats was bad, and that line 
of communication (as well as the line from either Bulls Bay or 
Port Royal) was exposed to the effects of an army operating in 
the field to assist the besieged city. From Stono Inlet the naviga- 
tion, once in, was excellent; and the line of communication was 
entirely in the rear of and completely covered by an advancing 
enemy. For these reasons it became important to strengthen the 
defenses of Stono Inlet. 

The engineer. Major (afterwards General) Trapier, charged 
with the work, forgetting the different object had in view by 
General Beauregard in locating his battery at Coles Island, 
endeavored to strengthen that post by adding guns in the same 
locality, and running a slight infantry trench across the island 
near these guns to resist an enemy landed on the western part 
of the island and assailing in flank. While this effectually closed 
FoUey River, it admitted of a fleet passing up the inlet at least 
seven-eighths of a mile from the nearest gun ; and once in Stono 
River nothing remained but to reduce the slight barbette work at 
Battery Island, which could only be considered as a second line 
of defense, being too far to assist in the defense of Coles Island. 
Again, Green Creek, a navigable stream over a hundred yards 
wide, ran from Stono eastward and not over a half a mile in rear 
of Coles Island, enabling an enemy who had reached that point 
to take these batteries in reverse. From the length of Coles 
Island and its crescent-like shape, the arch being toward the 
inlet, Trapier's batteries could not be brought to bear upon an 
enemy landing upon its western end. A flank land attack and an 
attack in reverse were, therefore, tacitly accepted by this plan 
of defense; and that with sand batteries (men epaulements) not 
closed at the gorge, and with guns half of which could not be 
traversed over 150 degrees. 

Colonel Hagood, on taking command, urged upon General 
Ripley, commanding the department, a rearrangement of the 
defenses, and without success at first. Subsequently the gen- 
eral's consent was obtained, and the following plan was adopted. 
A system of detached batteries with few guns in each was 
extended along the whole shore line of Coles Island from Folley 
to Stono Rivers. At each of these batteries bomb-proof shelters 



Battery Island — 2 24 drs. 
Battery 1 — 1 32 drs. rifled. 
Battery 2 — 2 24 drs. smooth. 
Battery 3 — 2 24 drs. smooth. 
Battery 4 — 2 18 drs. smooth. 


Battery 5 — 2 32 drs. smooth. 

Battery 6 — 1 Columb. 10'. 

Battery 7 — 2 24 drs. smooth ; 2 24 drs. rifled. 

Battery 8 — 3 42 drs. smooth ; 1 Columb. 10'. 

Battery 9 — 2 32 drs, smooth ; 1 Columb. 8"'. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 59 

were constructed for the artillerists and infantry supports, and a 
large bomb-pnoof for the infantry reserve was located in a central 
position. These batteries and bomb-proof shelters were connected 
by covered ways where the natural features of the island did not 
afford sufficient protection for the passage of troops under fire. 
The batteries were still barbette epaulements, but the chances of 
being passed by. a hostile fleet were diminished from the fact 
that along the western part of the island (along the Kiawah) 
the whole river was not more than 600 yards wide and in some 
places the channel was within 200 yards of the batteries. Colonel 
Hagood also recommended the piling or other obstructions of 
FoUey and Kiawah rivers under the fire of the batteries. 
Trapier's infantry trench was leveled in order to give free pass- 
age in rear of the batteries ; half the guns at Battery Island were 
brought to Coles Island ; and some additional guns were obtained. 
General Ripley, however, directed the piling down in Stono Eiver 
under the guns of Battery Island and the placing of infernal 
machines across the channel between Bird Key and FoUey Island. 
By this arrangement Coles Island once passed by the enemy, even 
with one ship, and he had the use of Green Creek ; and the great 
advantage of delaying him under our heaviest fire was given up. 
The infernal machines, or torpedoes, were a failure. A. few days 
after they were put down, a large raft of logs intended for 
building bomb-proofs broke loose from Coles Island and going 
out with the tide floated over them. Froberg, the carpenter in 
charge, took some assistants in a rowboat, went after the raft 
and towed it back over them again without an explosion. The 
Confederates later brought torpedoes to a nearer approach to 
perfection, especially when they were not required to remain too 
long before use. 

Such were the defenses of Stono. When the batteries were as 
first arranged by Trapier, General R. E. Lee, then Commander- 
in-Chief in South Carolina, visited them and advised General 
Ripley to abandon the position. Subsequently, when the changes 
spoken of had been made. General Pemberton, who had suc- 
ceeded General Lee in the chief command, visited Coles Island 
and expressed the opinion that it had been made too strong to 
abandon now, but also expressed dissatisfaction with the selection 
of the island for defense at all. He seemed to think that the 

60 Memoirs or ie War of Secession 

post could withstand a naval attack, but would fall before com- 
bined land and naval operations. The adjacent islands of Kiawah 
and FoUey being conceded to the enemy in the plan of defense; 
he laid much stress upon their ability to establish mortar bat- 
teries on these. General Eipley still seemed bent on maintaining 
the post, and Colonel Hagood suggested that there being no 
adequate line of retreat for the garrison, and the comparatively 
large armament being invaluable to us, of which the removal 
in face of an enemy there was no possibility, the post should be 
further strengthened until it filled the requisition of an isolated 
self-sustaining fortress, capable of sustaining a siege as long as 
the City of Charleston holds out. As such it would do good 
service in depriving an enemy before the city of the use of Stono 
and compelling him to have recourse to the more exposed and 
difficult communication by Church Flats for bringing up his 
supplies and siege material. To this the reply was made that 
we had neither guns nor ammunition available for such a pur- 

On the 25th March, Colonel Hagood received orders, emanating 
from General Pemberton, to evacuate the post. Believing that 
an evacuation once determined upon should be rapidly executed, 
he, in forty-eight hours afterward, had every gun but five, with 
its ammunition, etc., loaded on flats ready to be towed up to 
Charleston, when countermanding orders were received with 
directions to have everything placed in statu quo, but to cease 
completing the works as originally designed. The best explana- 
tion he received of this vacillation of purpose was that the judg- 
ment of General Pemberton dictated the order, and that outside 
pressure from the State authorities induced him to defer its 

Hagood's Eegiment remained in occupation of Coles Island 
until the 13th of April, 1862, when it was relieved by Stevens's 
Twenty-fourth South Carolina Volunteers. Stevens remained a 
short time on the island when the orders above referred to were 
renewed and the troops and material withdrawn. A picket was 
kept on the island with instructions to fire the buildings and 
withdraw before the approach of the enemy. The steamer 
"Planter" was used in withdrawing the material. Shortly after- 
ward the desertion of her crew to the enemy carried information 

Hagood's 1st. 12 Months S. C. V. 61 

of the evacuation. This IcJ to an immediate advance of the 
enemy by way of Stono against Charleston, which terminated 
in their repulse before Secessionville. Coles Island was never 
afterward occupied by the Confederates. The waters of the inlet 
were always held by one or more gunboats of the enemy, and 
Stono was the point d'appui of all subsequent operations against 

General Pemberton was severely criticized by military men for 
the change in the plan of defense of the city, and, in fact, so lost 
the confidence of the people of the State by it as to lead to his 
removal from the command and assignment to duty elsewhere. 

There can be no doubt of the error of the movement in the 
light of the subsequent events of the war. There had been, 
however, from the beginning of the war, exaggerated ideas of the 
power of gunboats as compared with earthworks. Now their 
development into ironclads was a new element to be considered, 
and the success of the Virginia (or Merrimac) in silencing the 
enemy's batteries at Newport News, since Pemberton's visit to 
Coles Island, had produced the impression on the minds of many 
that earthworks would prove no match for these new engines of 
naval war. Accepting these views as correct, there was reason 
to eliminate this formidable agency in which the greater mechan- 
ical facilities of the enemy gave him superiority, by withdrawing 
our lines whenever practicable beyond its reach. General Pem- 
berton, in a conversation with the writer in Virginia in 1864, 
defended his action at length as the best under the circumstances ; 
cited General Lee's opinion when in command here, in confirma- 
tion, and referred confidently to his correspondence with the War 
Department on file in the office at Charleston for his vindi- 
cation. An important point stated as influencing him, perhaps 
the chief consideration, was his supply of artillery. The majority 
of his guns in number and weight of metal, he said, were at 
Stono, and these were absolutely needed to make safe the more 
important harbor approach. The War Department at Richmond 
had positively informed him. of their inability to supply more, 
and he had no other course left. On the other hand, the devel- 
opment of events showed that at this time the enemy was unpre- 
pared for, and did not contemplate, any movement, land or naval, 
against Charleston. The evacuation of Coles Island induced the 

62 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

abortive effort terminating at Secessionville ; and by the time he 
was ready to move again in 1863, the Confederate resources in 
artillery were increased. The test of actual experience, too, 
modified the ideas entertained of ironclads. The enemy in the 
meanwhile, however, were wise enough to hold by their gunboats 
the gate we had left open, and when he came again it was ready 
for his use. 

The writer is satisfied now that Battery Island should have 
been dismantled or reduced in importance to a mere cover for the 
communication with Coles Island, and that a strong enclosed work 
or moderate armament should have been erected on the south side 
of FoUey Island, from which to Bird Key obstructions should 
have been placed. This, with the works on Coles Island as a second 
line of defense, would have effectually closed the water approach 
of the Stono Light House Inlet, then fortified in time, and we 
would never have had such a siege as Gilmore was subsequently 
enabled to inaugurate. A larger force than his would have been 
needed, operating from a more distant base, and measurably 
deprived of direct naval co-operation. 


The First Regiment had acquired drill and discipline and had 
become thoroughly organized; it had got through with all the 
initial diseases of the camp and become inured to the habits of 
the soldier; and now, just as it had become a valuable regiment, 
fit for eflScient service, it was to be re-enlisted, and in the process 
was to be subjected to all the demoralizing influences of the 
hustings. It will be a question for the future historian how 
much of the disaster that attended our arms in the spring of 1862 
was due to the evil of short enlistment, and to the license per- 
mitted in inducing the men to continue their service. 

The attention of the Confederate Congress was directed to the 
subject of retaining the twelve-months men in service early in 
1862, and two Acts were passed. By one of these fifty dollars 
bounty and a furlough not to exceed thirty full days at home 
were offered each twelve-months man who re-enlisted. They 
were also allowed to reorganize themselves into such companies, 
battalions and regiments as they pleased, with a general 
re-election of officers of every grade. By the other Act, provision 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 63 

was made for recruiting upon these organizations. The term 
of re-enlistment of the twelve-months man was to be for two 
years — ^the recruit enlisted for three years. About the same time 
a requisition was made on South Carolina for something over 
twelve thousand men — 7,000 to fill the place of the twelve-months 
men whose term expired in April, and 5,000 in addition to her 
quota, then in the field. 

Hitherto in South Carolina, as well as throughout the Con- 
federacy, volunteering had been relied upon to furnish soldiers 
for the war. There had always been a draft or conscription held 
in terrorism in case volunteers failed, and, indeed, in Charleston, 
as well as some other cities of the South, resort had to a limited 
extent been had to this draft. Now, the Executive Council who 
had recently been constituted in South Carolina and entrusted 
with dictatorial powers, determined to change all this as far as 
that State was concerned. On the 6th March they decreed a new 
military system for the State, abolishing volunteering and substi- 
tuting conscriptions as the only mode of raising troops during 
the present war. They further decreed that all conscriptions 
should be "for and during the war"; and that all officers from 
third lieutenant to colonel should be appointed by the Council. 

Of course the Acts of Congress controlled in the case of the 
First Regiment, but the decree of the Council had the effect of 
destroying a project which to some extent had prevailed of 
giving honor to reorganize. The only way to secure a volunteer 
organization, with its elected officers, etc., was to re-enlist before 
the present term expired, and before, as citizens and no longer 
in Confederate service, the men came under the new military 
system of the State. These various enactments were, as received, 
published on parade, and in addition a copy furnished to each 
company. The men were left to discuss and digest them at their 
leisure, until about the 14th March, when the colonel called the 
regiment together and in an address of some length, after 
discussing and recapitulating the facts as heretofore brought to 
their attention, required the commandants of companies to com- 
mence the work of re-enlistment. 

By the expiration of one term it resulted as follows : Martin's 
company failed to reorganize, but some twenty of its numbers 
joined other compariies. Livingston's company divided and 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 

recruited up to two companies under himself and Knotts respec- 
tively. Duncan's company divided and also recruited up to two 
companies under himself and Sanders. The other companies 
each retained their organization with full numbers. The new 
companies were officered as follows : 

First Company. 

W. H. Sellars, Captain. 
L. A. Harper, First Lieutenant. 
J. G. Evans, Second Lieutenant. 
F. Siiuler, Third Lieutenant. 

Second Company. 

T. K. Legare, Captain. 
W. W. Legare, First Lieutenant. 
B. M. Shuler, Second Lieutenant. 
J. B. Conner, Third Lieutenant. 

Third Company. 

I. S. Bamberg, Captain. 
W. W. Elzry, First Lieutenant. 
L. A. Wright, Second Lieutenant. 
P. C. Allen, Third Lieutenant. 

Fourth Company. 

B. B. Kirkland, Captain. 
J. F. Brabham, First Lieutenant. 
R. S. BarJier, Second Lieutenant. 
R. B. Hogg, Third Lieutenant. 

Fifth Company. G. M. Grimes, Captain. 

G. "W. Grimes, First Lieutenant. 
L. J. Sweat, Second Lieutenant. 
L. B. Kearse, Third Lieutenant. 

Sixth Company. F. Sanders, Captain. 

G. W. Stallings, First Lieutenant. 
R. T. Sanders, Second Lieutenant. 
S. C. L. Bush, Third Lieutenant. 

Seventh Company. 

Eighth Company. 

W. H. Duncan, Captain. 
J. H. Thompson, First Lieutenant. 
P. H. Wood, Second Lieutenant. 
J. R. B. Best, Third Lieutenant. 

D. Livingston, Captain. 

I. Inabinett, First Lieutenant. 

J. C. Wannamaker, Second Lieutenant. 

W. S. L. Rucker, Third Lieutenant. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 65 

Ninth Company. J. E. Knotts, Captain. 

J. Elvin Knotts, First Lieutenant. 
J. H. Ptiillips, Second Lieutenant. 
J. H. Fanning, Tliird Lieutenant. 

Tenth Company. J. G. Pressly, Captain. 

T. I. China, First Lieutenant. 
C. Logan, Second Lieutenant. 
H. Montgomery, Third Lieutenant. 

Eleventh Company. John V. Glover, Captain. 

J. F. Izlar, First Lieutenant. 

S. M. Kennerly, Second Lieutenant. 

Sam'l Dibble, Third Lieutenant. 

The First, Tenth and Eleventh Companies elected to seek 
another regimental organization. The Eutaw Battalion, which, 
with the addition of these companies and some others, became the 
Twenty-fifth South Carolina Volunteers, of which Pressly became 
lieutenant-colonel and Glover major. This regiment served prin- 
cipally afterwards in "Hagood's Brigade." The Second and 
Sixth Companies attached themselves to Lamar's Battalion of 
Artillery, which then grew into the "Second South Carolina 
Artillery" and served principally afterwards in the garrison of 
Charleston. Sanders had been arraigned before a court-martial 
as first lieutenant of Duncan's company in the twelve-months regi- 
ment on charges of "conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentle- 
man," and was in arrest awaiting sentence when the reorganiza- 
tion took place and when he was elected captain of the Sixth 
Company. The sentence of the court was promulgated shortly 
after he reported to Lamar, and he was dismissed the service. 
He went home and in a few weeks afterwards was licensed 
as a Baptist preacher. Stallings commanded the company, 
and did it well, during the remainder of the war. The 
other six companies elected to combine with a view of retaining 
their old regimental organization. They desired to retain the 
name, rank and banner of the First Eegiment and, by filling up 
with four new companies, to preserve its existence. This filling 
up was necessarily a subsequent matter. In order, therefore, to 
preserve their cohesion, meanwhile, and without forfeiting their 
claim to be in this regiment, they went into an election "for an 
officer to command them, his rank and designation to be settled 

5— H 

66 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

by the subsequent action of the proper authority." Colond 
Hagood was elected by acclamation. There never was opposition 
which found expression, to Colonel Hagood in the attempt al 
retaining the re-organized companies in the original regiment ; but 
for each of the other field officers there were numerous aspirants. 
To this cause is attributable — in part — the failure to retain them. 
The Eutaw Battalion and Lamar's Battalion, stationed near the 
regiment and in frequent intercourse with it, afforded opportuni- 
ties to captains taking companies into them, for promotion. In 
developing into regiments they furnished field officers to be filled. 
One of these organizations, too, from its character of heavy 
artillery, promised local garrison service instead of the less com- 
fortable life of a marching regiment. The spirit of change had 
also its effect. And the result of all these various sources of dis- 
organization has been indicated. 

Stevens's Eegiment arrived on the 13th. On the 14th, at 2 
a. m., the regiment marched for Charleston, and the following 
order, received on the 12th of May, was carried out: 

"Headquarters Military District, South Carolina, 

"Charleston, 12 May, 1862. 
Special Order. 

No. -. 


"II. Colonel Stevens' Twenty-fourth South Carolina will move to Coles 
Island and relieve Colonel Hagood's First South Carolina as soon as pos- 

"Colonel Hagood's regiment, upon being relieved, will proceed to the 
vicinity of Binnalier's Camp Ground on South Carolina Railroad, where 
such as have not re-enlisted for the war will be mustered out of service 
by Colonel Hagood. . . . 

"IV. Such companies as have re-enlisted for the war will be granted a 
leave of absence until the 14th day of May ; but it must be understood that 
the men will reassemble upon any call for service that may arise during 
their absence, the authorities at Richmond having consented to the leave 
at this time only upon this condition. 

"V. Upon reassembling, six companies will report to Colonel Hagood as 
a portion of his regiment. Of the remaining companies. Captains Pressly, 
Glover and Sellars will report to Captain Simonton, commanding Eutaw 
Battalion, and Captains Legare and Sanders to Major Lamar, commanding 
battery of artillery. 

"By order of Brigadier-General Ripley. 

"F. G. Ravenel, a. D. C." 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 67 


The First Regiment was at home ten or twelve days upon its 
re-enlistment furlough, when it was recalled into service by a 
special order and rendezvoused at Bamberg upon the South 
Carolina Railroad, whence it was transferred to the City of 
Charleston. Its ranks were here filled by the reception of 
four new companies. Glover was re-elected lieutenant-colonel. 
O'Caim declined to continue in service and Captain Duncan was 
elected to the vacant majority. Of the staff, Captain Lartigue 
declined reappointment and Lieutenant Flowers, of Company H 
of the twelve-months regiment, was appointed quartermaster. 
Legare having gone into the line and out of the regiment, Cap- 
tain J. V. Martin was appointed commissary. Dowling had been 
broken by an examining board, and John S. Stoney was appointed 
assistant surgeon in his stead. Mortimer Glover was sergeant- 
major and Donald Rowe quartermaster-sergeant. 

The four new companies were officered as follows : 

Company D. Company H. 

Captain, R. L. Crawford. Captain, J. O. Winsmitti. 

First Lieutenant, J. H. Kirk. First Lieutenant, W. A. Nesbitt. 

Second Lieutenant, F. L. Welsli. Second Lieutenant, J. N. Moore. 

Third Lieutenant, L. J. Perry. Third Lieutenant, J. B. Vise. 

Company F. Company I. 

Captain, T. D. Gwynn. Captain, J. H. Stafford. 

First Lieutenant, William West. First Lieutenant, J. H. Harlee. 

Second Lieutenant, T. W. Powell. Second Lieutenant, W. L. Manning. 

Third Lieutenant, F. P. Newby. Third Lieutenant, R. Murchison. 

The history of this regiment until July, 1862, when its first 
colonel was promoted to a brigade, is contained in subsequent 
pages of these Memoirs. In a week or ten days afterward the 
regiment was ordered to Virginia, where it was attached to 
Jenkins's (afterwards Bratton's) Brigade in the division then 
commanded by Hood and later by Fields. This division was a 
part of Longstreet's Corps. The history of the regiment, after 
the promotion of its first colonel, was carefully prepared by 
Colonel James R. Hagood, its last commander, whose manuscript 
is now in the possession of the writer. Suffice it to say here that 
its career was creditable and its services arduous and faithful 

68 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

among the troops which composed the distinguished corps to 
which it was attached. 

Colonel Glover fell at the Second Manassas. He was a grad- 
uate of the South Carolina College with its first honor, and a 
lawyer who had already obtained distinction at an early age, 
when the war broke out. In the reorganization at Coles Island 
some temporary unpopularity was manifested toward him, the 
result of a faithful discharge of duty, and sickness deprived him 
of a share in the operations preceding Secessionville. In the 
active operations in Virginia his worth was conspicuous and 
endeared him much to his men. He fell universally lamented, 
and his death was marked by distinguished heroism. 

Duncan succeeded Glover, but saw little service with the regi- 
ment, and resigned. Livingston succeeded Duncan and retained 
the command somewhat longer, when he resigned. Neither of 
these officers distinguished themselves and the regiment suffered 
in discipline and usefulness in their hands. 

Colonel Kilpatrick was now appointed to the command. He 
was a South Carolinian and a graduate of the State Military 
Academy. In another regiment he had won his commission by 
gallant and meritorious service. He soon restored the discipline 
and esprit of the regiment ; and after a career which added to his 
own and the reputation of the regiment, he, too, died upon the 
field of battle. 

Colonel James E. Hagood joined the regiment after the battle 
of SecessionvUle and rose in two years from the ranks through 
the successive grades sergeant-major, adjutant and captain to its 
command. His colonel's commission was dated th^i day after he 
was 19 years old, and like all of his others was "for distinguished 
valor and skill." He got no step by seniority or election, and was 
at the date of his promotion the youngest regimental commander 
in the Confederate Army. Of him our great chieftain. General 
Lee, wrote from the retirement of Lexington in March, 1868: 
"During the whole time of his connection with' the Army of 
Northern Virginia he was conspicuous for his gallantry, good 
conduct and efficiency. By his merit constantly exhibited, he rose 
from^ a private in his regiment to its command, and showed 
by his actions that he was worthy of the position." And Major 
General Fields added : "During our eventful service together, in 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 69 

the bivouac, on the march, or in the shock of battle, Colonel 
Hagood's high-toned, soldierly bearing at all times, his thorough 
handling of his regiment, and his distinguished gallantry in 
action, won my hearty admiration and regard." My brother! 
these immortelles are laid upon thy grave, upon which the grass 
is not yet green. No better soldier wore the grey. No knightlier 
spirit breasted the storm in twenty battles beneath the Eed Cross 
Flag, nor struggled more bravely amid the after difficulties that 
befell the followers of a Lost Cause. 

Colonel Hagood commanded the regiment from the death of 
Kilpatrick, in Longstreet's Tennessee campaign in the winter of 
1863, until the surrender at Appomattox Court House, in the 
spring of 1865. In the terrible retreat which preceded the sur- 
render, when the veteran Army of Northern Virginia was by 
hardship and hunger and fighting reduced from 27,000 to 8,000 
men fit for duty, the First Eegiment, which bore its full part of 
these trials, lost but seven unwounded men to the enemy. This 
fact speaks volumes for the spirit and devotion of the men and of 
the able manner in which they were commanded. 

Martial Law in Charleston. 

The reverses of the Confederate arms in the spring of 1862, 
commencing at Fort Donnelson and culminating at New Orleans, 
had anxiously excited the minds of the people of South Carolina, 
and daily bulletins portraying the sad fate of the Crescent City 
under the iron rule of Butler, "The Beast," gave warning to the 
people of Charleston of what might be expected should their city 
be, as Mr. Lincoln mildly phrased it, "occupied and possessed." 

The abandonment of the Coles Island line of defense was also 
misunderstood, and a painful doubt had arisen in the public 
mind, and was shared to some extent by the State authorities, of 
the intention of the Confederate commander of obstinately 
defending the city in the event of the siege which it was felt must 
sooner or later come. Accordingly, the papers clamored for 
earnast and active preparation. Editors and correspondents alike 
claimed that Charleston would be disgraced unless Saragossa 
should be surpassed. A "Citizen," in one of our daily prints,* 

* Courier, 6tb May. 

70 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

hardly exceeded the tone of other writers and talkers when he 
exclaimed, in contemplation of the fall of the outer forts, "What, 
then, shall the city be given up ? We suppose not. That would 
be indeed a very qualified defense. . . . Let the drill of the 
troops be at once extended to fighting in the streets and from the 
houses. ..." The governor and council warned non-combatants 
to depart and declared martial law in and around Charleston, 
empowering the Confederate Commander to enforce it. A few 
days later a formal resolve was promulgated from the Executive 
Council Chamber," "That the Governor and Council concurred in 
opinion with the people of South Carolina assembled in Conven- 
tion, that the City of Charleston should be defended at any cost 
of life and property ; and that in their deliberate judgment they 
would prefer a repulse of the enemy with the entire city in ruins 
to an evacuation or surrender on any terms whatever." 

General Pemberton never at any moment contemplated any- 
thing but making the best defense of which he was capable, with 
the means at his disposal, and would no doubt, if required, have 
fought it while brick and mortar held together. But he was a 
soldier fer se, and would have taken his inspiration from "orders" 
from Richmond and not from the people and civil authorities 
by whom he was surrounded. These he had not the tact to con- 
ciliate and use, and, for their military opinions, entertained and 
sometimes exhibited a most professional contempt. He, however, 
eagerly embraced the power placed in his hands and on the 5th 
of May issued his General Order No. 11, which, after reciting 
the Governor's proclamation of martial law over Charleston and 
the country within ten miles of its corporate limits, proceeded as 
follows : 

"Now I, John C. Pemberton, ... do sustain the said procla- 
mation and announce the suspension of all civil jurisdiction 
(with the exception of that enabling the Courts to take cognizance 
of the probate of wills, the administration of the estates of 
deceased persons, the qualifications of guardians, to enter decrees 
and orders for the partition and sale of property, to makft orders 
concerning roads and bridges, to assess and collect county taxes) 
and the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in and over" the 
limits embraced in the proclamation. Another paragraph 
announced Colonel Johnson Hagood, First S. C. V., as provost 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 71 

marshal and charged him with the execution of the foregoing 
order and of the proclamation, under the direction of Brigadier 
General Kipley, commanding the military district. The provost 
marshal was further directed forthwith to establish a military 
police and to put a stop to all sales of spirituous liquors. 

An express train had been sent up to the camp of the First 
South Carolina Volunteers at Bamberg on the 4th, with an order 
for Colonel Hagood to return in person upon it and report that 
day in Charleston ; the regiment was directed to follow next day. 
When Colonel Hagood was made acquainted with the provision 
of the order about to be published making him provost marshal, 
he earnestly asked to be excused from the duty, the condition of 
his regiment requiring, in his opinion, all of his attention at that 
time. The General, with something of his usual curtness, per- 
emptorily declined, but promised to relieve him as soon as he had 
organized the system and got it to working, or earlier in the event 
of active operations. To Colonel Hagood's further request for 
detailed instructions as to the duties required of him, the Gen- 
eral answered that he had no further instructions than those 
embodied in the order. This, by the way, was copied from a 
recent promulgation of martial law in and around Richmond, 
but of how it was there construed in practice we had no inform- 
ation in Charleston. General Pemberton added that he expected 
such a system of police that a dog could not enter the town with- 
out the knowledge of the provost marshal and his ability to lay 
hands upon said dog at any moment he was required. With this 
chart of his duty and directions to make requisition for the 
means to discharge it, the new provost departed to ponder upon 
the work before him. 

Martial Law, what was it? Very accurate ideas in relation to 
it have since been acquired by the Southern people — ^but then? 
General Pemberton had evidently no very definite perception of 
what its promulgation effected in detail, — the provost had as 
little. A conference with the State Attorney General, I. W. 
Hayne, Esq., and reference to books brought little further light; 
but, with such as was vouchsafed and with the order before him, 
Colonel Hagood proceeded to digest an organization of martial 
law upon the idea that it was the assumption of the execution of 
such existing law as it was deemed necessary to retain, with the 

72 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

making of such additional law as the military exigency required. 
Eumor soon reached him that the mayor had, in conversation, 
announced himself and his government as deposed; and, desiring 
to retain the already organized police force of the city, Colonel 
Hagood hastened to headquarters and obtained the publication 
of the following : 

"Headquarters Department South Carolina and Georgia, 

"Charleston. 5 May. 1862. 
"His Honor Charles McBeth, Mayor of Charleston, is respectfully invited 
and expected to continue in the exercise of his municipal functions, as far 
as they shall not infringe upon any requirements of martial law. ... It 
is the earnest desire of the major general commanding that the provost 
marshal and the mayor will act in entire unison and render such mutual 
aid as may be necessary to the efficient discharge of their respective duties. 
"By order, etc., . . . 

"J. K. Wadelt, a. a. G." 

The next day, the Justice of the State Court of Common Pleas 
and General Sessions, then sitting, adjourned his court upon 
the ground that the proclamation of martial law had suspended 
his jurisdiction. He was certainly right, under the wording of the 
order, but it could hardly have advanced the defense of Charles- 
ton for the provost marshal to have been hearing civil causes or 
even trying criminal cases already on the docket, so Order No. 13, 
6th May, was obtained and published : 

"It is not intended that General Order No. 11, of the 5th May, from these 
headquarters, shall Interfere with the progress of business in the Court of 
General Sessions and Conunon Pleas now sitting in this city. 

"J. C. Pbmbebton, 
"Major-General Commanding." 

In the meanwhile, however, a proclamation was received from 
the President of the Confederate States declaring martial law 
over the whole region under Pemberton's command, and using the 
words of Pemberton's Order No. 11, "suspending civil jurisdic- 
tion, etc." General Pemberton, therefore, rescinded his orders 
continuing the mayoralty and sessions of the State court, and 
putting his exercise of these prerogatives of martial law under 
the President's and not the Governor's authority. The court 
closed its doors; but the provost marshal never assumed cog- 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 73 

nizance of the cases on its calendar, or to decide any purely civil 
cases. These remained in abeyance. The organization of the 
Common Council was also suspended, but the police force was 
kept on duty under the supervision of the provost marshal. The 
utility of this arrangement was to some extent marred by 
jealousy existing between thp assistant provost marshal in charge 
of the police department and the mayor, having inception in their 
past relations. 

The presence of a large military force in the city was neces- 
sary to carry out General Pemberton's "dog" specification; and 
these troops themselves, newly raised and badly disciplined, 
required the enforcement of the most stringent regulations to 
keep them in order. A number were already in and near the 
city; their officers infested the hotels and barrooms, and an edi- 
torial in The Mercury of the 13th (the day on which it had been 
announced that martial law would at noon go into effect) called 
attention to outrages of a flagrant character already committed 
with impunity by those of lower grade. The hegira of citizens 
also greatly complicated the passport matter. A very stringent 
supervision of passports was required by the provost's instruc- 
tions, and was necessary unless the whole matter was to be a 
farce. The city was known to be infested with spies and the 
enemy in daily receipt of information from it. Unfortunately 
the citizens had already become accustomed to a very loose pass- 
port system which had been inaugurated and put under the 
mayor's charge. Under this system blank passports signed by 
the mayor were filled up at any hour of the day or night by a 
policeman at the guard house of the police force, and these were 
sometimes examined and sometimes not by other policemen at 
some of the more public places of arrival and departure from 
the city. With a full sense of the difficulties surrounding it, 
Colonel Hagood entered on his labor. The following regulations, 
prepared and submitted for approval, on the morning of the 12th, 
were published in all the daily papers with the appointments and 
orders copied below. Headquarters were established in the court 
house, office hours, etc., announced, and the experiment launched. 

74 Memoirs or the War or Secession 

"Undee Maetial Law. 

"Provost Marshal's Office, 
"2nd Military District S. C, 12 May, 1862. 
"1. During the suspension of all civil jurisdiction announced in the Pro- 
clamation of the Major-Generai commanding, with the exceptions therein 
contained, or which may hereafter be announced, a Provost Marshal's 
Court is established, which will take cognizance of the offenses heretofore 
within the jurisdiction of the Court of General Sessions, as well as of all 
offenses against good order or other violations of martial law. 

"2. The Provost Marshal's Court will be presided over by an assistant 
provost marshal, his decisions to be supervised and approved by the provost 
marshal. The provost marshal will also, in his discretion, refer any offense 
to a court-martial, if circumstances make that instrumentality desirable or 

"3. No person will be allowed to leave the city without a written permit 
from the office of the provost marshal. Every person coming into the city 
shall report forthwith to the provost marshal under such regulations as he 
may prescribe. An assistant provost marshal will be assigned to the duties 
of this department. 

"4. The necessary guards for the execution of the above regulations and 
for the maintenance of good order in the city will be established. An 
assistant provost marshal will also be assigned to the charge of this depart- 

"5. Such other regulations will be made and enforced from time to time 
as may become necessary or expedient for the preservation of good order, 
and the enforcement of martial law. 

"6. These regulations will be enforced after 12 m. on Tuesday, the 13th 
™st. Johnson Hagood, 

"Colonel First S. C. V., 

"Provost Marshal." 

"Provost Marshal's Office, 
"Second Military District S. C, 12 May, 1862. 
"1. C. Richardson Miles, Esq., Alex. H. Brown, Esq., and Captain G. B. 
Lartigue are announced as assistant provost marshals. 
"2. Mr. Miles is assigned to the duties of the Provost Marshal's Court. 
"3. Mr. Brown is assigned to the duties of the passport office. 
"4. Captain Lartigue is assigned to the supervision of the necessary 

"Johnson Hagood, 
"Colonel First S. C. V., 
"Provost Marshal." 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 75 

"Provost Marshal's Office, 
"Second Military District S. C, 12 May, 1862. 
"Under the Proclamation of Martial Law it is Ordered : 

"1. That all distillation of spirituous liquors is positively prohibited and 
the distilleries will be closed. 

"2. The sale of spirituous liquors of any kind is positively prohibited and 
establishments for the sale thereof closed subject until further orders to the 
following regulations and modifications : 

"Hotels may obtain from this department licenses to allow the use of 
liquors to boarders at meals at the public ordinary upon terms to be speci- 
fied in the license. 

"Grocers who have obtained licenses from the city authorities may, until 
otherwise ordered, sell liquors in quantities of not less than three gallons 
to any person other than those in military service or employment : Provided, 
That the same be not consumed on the premises. 

"3. All barrooms and liquor saloons and places where liquors are retailed 
shall be immediatley closed. 

"4. No liquor shall be sold in any quantity whatever to any soldier or 
person in military employment without a special license from this office. 

"Johnson Hagood, 
"Colonel First S. C. V., 
"Provost Marshal." 

Captain Molony, A. A. G., also on the same day (12th) pub- 
lished by order of Colonel Hagood in the daily prints for the 
information of parties concerned, as well as the public generally, 
extracts from the "Instructions to the Out Guards" and patrols 
"of the garrison" and of "orders" issued to the troops composing 
it. The following were the most important points : 

A wharf was designated for the arrival and departure of small 
boats. One or more other wharves for the transport steamers of 
the department; wood, rice and provision boats were required to 
anchor at certain points and report by small boat to the adjacent 
officer of the guard where a wharf would be designated by them 
to land at. Persons were only permitted to enter or leave the 
city by land at designated points. Sentinels were ordered to fire 
upon boats or persons attempting to enter or leave despite their 

Officers from camps without the city were required upon enter- 
ing it to exhibit to the lieutenant 'of the guard their commissions 
or written leaves of absence, and immediately thereafter to report 
at provost marshal's office and register their names and leave of 

76 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

absence.* Non-commissioned officers and soldiers from the same 
camp were prohibited from entering the city on any pretext 
whatever, except upon duty, upon furlough, to pass through it, 
or upon furlough to visit their families, when these resided there. 

As to the troops within the city it was directed that they be 
kept strictly within the limits of their respective camp guards. 
Non-commissioned officers and soldiers will not be permitted to 
leave the lines of their respective camps upon any pretext what- 
ever, except upon duty or on furlough to leave the city. 

Commissioned officers when not upon duty will not be per- 
mitted to leave the lines of their camps except upon special 
permission of the superior officer in command of the camp, who 
is required to exercise a sound discretion in limiting the numbers 
at any one time of such permits. There were other orders and 
instructions published, but these already given were sufficient to 
show how far at that time it was deemed necessary by those in 
command to push the stringency of martial law. To the garrison 
the adjutant-general said in general orders: "They were brought 
within the city to maintain good order. The colonel commanding 
trusts they will set the example. Martial law has been pro- 
claimed. Offenses against it, however trival, become aggravated 
when committed by those whose duty it is to enforce it. It is 
earnestly hoped that the necessity for the stern punishments 
which must follow such offenses will not arise." The Mercury 
greeted the foregoing publications as follows: "At a juncture 
like the present, doubtless there are good reasons for placing the 
government of our ancient city in military hands. If the officers 
who have been invested with the control of affairs in our midst 
exercise their functions with wisdom, firmness and impartiality, 
this establishment of martial law will prove to be a welcome — as 
well as beneficial measure." 

The Courier contented itself with the following: "Assistant 
Provost Marshals. By reference to an advertisement in our 
columns this morning, it will be seen that Colonel Johnson 
Hagood, Confederate Provost Marshal, has appointed C. Eich- 
ardson Miles, Esq., Alex. H. Brown, Esq., and Captain Lartigue, 

•CWHans registered all particulars with regard to themselves with the officers of 
the guard at point of arrival and were by him reported with their domicile In the 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 77 

assistant provost marshals . . . The appointments are all good 
and acceptable as conferred upon able, worthy and patriotic men ; 
but that of Colonel Brown especially challenges our approval. 
Everyone remembers what an energetic and efficient captain of 
the city guard or chief of police he made in bygone days, and 
he is now again in his proper element." 

The writer, at a later day, sometimes thought with amusement 
of the editor's (Mr. Gradon's) commendation of Brown. He did 
indeed prove an invaluable assistant and Colonel Hagood was 
greatly indebted to him in the discharge of his duty. Brown was, 
however, naturally an arbitrary and overbearing man, a long 
resident of the city, with very decided affinities and repulsions, 
and when he succeeded Colonel Hagood some were disposed to 
think (Gradon among the number) that his little finger was 
heavier than other folk's hands. Mr. Miles was a lawyer of 
eminence and an estimable gentleman. Captain Lartigue was 
the ex-quartermaster of the First South Carolina Volunteers and 
afterwards, until the close of the war, quartermaster of Hagood's 
Brigade. He was a graduate of the State Military School and 
an old and intimate friend of Colonel Hagood's. 

The enforcement of martial law came none too soon. To show 
how loosely and negligently matters had been managed, the fol- 
lowing incident, added to the account given of the mayor's pass- 
port office, will suffice. The steamer "Planter" had been char- 
tered with her officers and crew, and used as a transport and 
harbor guard boat. She was armed with a 32 dr. and a 24 dr. 
howitzer; her captain, mate and engineer were white; her pilot 
and four or five hands, who were negroes, completed the crew. 
She had taken aboard the evening previous four valuable, heavy 
guns for Morris Island, and laid that night at her usual wharf 
in front of General Eipley's headquarters on the bay. Three 
sentinels were stationed in sight of her, and the bivouac of Kip- 
ley's headquarter guard was near by. Between half -past three 
and four a. m. the "Planter" steamed up and cast loose, the 
sentinels supposing she was going about her business. She passed 
Fort Sumter blowing her whistle and plainly seen. She was 
reported by the corporal of the guard to the officer of the day as 
the guard boat. The fort was only required to recognize author- 
ized boats passing, taking for granted that their officers are on 

78 Memoirs or the Wae of Secession 

board. This was done as usual. The run to Morris Island goes 
a long way past Sumter and turns. The "Planter" kept on to 
the blockading fleet. Her white officers were not on board. They 
had slept, as was their custom, on shore, notwithstanding a stand- 
ing order that the officers and crews of all light draft steamers in 
Government employ remain on board night and day. Upon the 
subsequent trial of these officers it was proven that no step had 
been taken to enforce this order by inspection or otherwise, 
though it was of long standing; and they were acquitted. 

The Mercury gave a lively picture of affairs in the town next 
day. "Martial law," said the editor, "went into force in Charles- 
ton yesterday. Squads of the provost marshal's guard were to be 
seen here and there,, and many a luckless wight in military or 
semi-military costume, who had no leave of absence to show, was 
trotted off to the guard house, where he either did have or at 
some future time will have an opportunity of giving an account 
of himself. In more than one instance, eminently peaceful indi- 
viduals, affecting the jaunty and war-like Beauregard cap, were 
hauled up with that true military sternness which is deaf alike 
to entreaties and remonstrances. The quiet precincts of the city 
hall were suddenly converted into a veritable camp, to the man- 
ifest delight of the urchins who thronged the railings of the 
enclosure gazing admiringly upon the taut canvass walls. There 
was a great rush to the passport office. Owing to the very limited 
time alloted to the issuing of passports, only a small proportion 
of those desiring to leave the city were accommodated with the 
necessary documents. Some arrangement should be made to 
remedy this great inconvenience to the public. ..." 

But The Courier blazed out indignantly at the first pinch in 
the working of the system, characterizing the limited time for 
granting passports daily "as a grievous and intolerable oppres- 
sion — an unreasonable and tyrannical measure." It went on 
to suggest that the power to issue passports be extended to the 
mayor of the city again, as well as to be exercised by the military 

There was much justice in the complaint, though intemperately 
urged by The Courier. In preparing the regulations, Colonel 
Hagood had thought the time too short; but Colonel Brown, his 
assistant, declared he could not spare more time from his other 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 79 

duties in the police department to give to this. The personal 
attention and attendance of the assistant provost marshal was 
deemed necessary in the office while passports were being issued.' 
If the matter was to be entrusted to clerks and deputies, unsuper- 
vised, it would be a failure. These considerations had prevailed ; 
and two hours daily, from 11 a. m. to 1 p. m., had been 
fixed. But the exodus of the non-combatant population which 
was desired, and which had been slowly going on, was not duly 
considered, and the panic with which the people seemed taken 
about getting off as soon as an impediment even of form was in 
the way, was never imagined. Men who crowded and pressed to 
get passports the first day, when they had got them, avowed that 
they had no intention of leaving in several days. The next day 
the force of men in the passport office was increased by appoint- 
ing Messrs. Gourdin, Pressly, Crafts, Dingle, Gantt, and Whiting 
to the duty. These were all prominent gentlemen well acquainted 
with the inhabitants, and were permitted to grant passports only 
to persons personally known to them, or properly vouched for by 
such. Captain W. J. Gayer, A. A. G., was put in extensive charge 
of soldiers' passports. The civilians were continued on duty until 
the pressure on the -office by departing citizens was relieved. 

The Courier in its next issue made the amende honorable: 
"The Passport Matter. It affords us pleasure to state that Colonel 
Johnson Hagood, our provost marshal, on learning the incon- 
venience and distress which the original regulation in relation to 
passports had caused in the community, very promptly so modi- 
fied it by increasing the agents and enlarging the time for issue 
as to completely satisfy the wants of the community. ..." 

The passport office was now at leisure and finally organized by 
establishing two offices in different apartments, one for citizens 
with separate desks of application for males and females (whites), 
and for negroes bond and free; another for the military with a 
separate desk for invalid soldiers from which all other appli- 
cants were excluded. Office hours were made from 8 to 1 and 
from 4 to 7 o'clock. W. E. Dingle, Esq., was placed in charge 
of the citizens' office, and Captain Gayer, A. A. G., continued in 
charge of the military office. Froin each of these an appeal with 
proper restrictions could be had to Colonel Brown, the assistant 
provost marshal. This gave him the time which he really needed 

80 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

as chief of the general police department. In this character he 
held also a daily court in which he investigated and summarily 
disposed of innumerable minor matters of petty police brought 
before him, but investigated and reported to the provost marshal 
on matters of any consequence. These the provost either disposed 
of or sent for trial to Mr. Miles's court. Colonel Brown had at 
his command a corps of detectives and, through the mayor, the 
regular civil police force of the city. Mr. Miles had also a daily 
court where he tried such cases as the regulations of the 12th May 
prescribed, as well as those referred to him specially by the 
provost. Captain Lartigue's duties were exclusively military. 
At night the three assistants met the provost for consultation. 
Colonel Hagood's duties were chiefly supervisory. The system of 
guards adopted was a chain of infantry sentinels completely 
around the city along the margin of the waters making the penin- 
sular and across the neck at the lines in rear. These sentinels 
connected in their walk when the nature of the ground permitted, 
and at other points were within hail and musket shot. Each regi- 
ment furnished a certain number of posts, and the reliefs and 
guard tent were at some central point. The First South Cai'olina 
Regiment furnished the interior infantry guard, with guard tent, 
in City Hall Park and posts in various parts of the city. Major 
Frank Hampton's Battalion of Cavalry (afterwards part of the 
Second South Carolina Cavalry Regiment) furnished a mounted 
interior patrol on duty day and night. And from sunset until 
sunrise a boat guard patrolled the rivers (at a distance of 300 
yards from shore) from a point in Ashley above the lines, around 
White Point Garden to a point in Cooper, again above the lines. 
Each boat had an infantry detachment on board and rowed back- 
ward and forward along its allotted beat. The troops in the city 
filled every available camping ground in the parks and malls-^— 
none occupied houses, and men and officers were rigidly kept 
within their camp lines under the regulations heretofore given. 
A large number of troops were necessary to the discharge of 
provost duty, as indicated. But Charleston was a very good 
place for the reserve troops of General Pemberton's command. 
Large drafts were being made upon him, too, at this time for 
Johnston's Army before Richmond; and when drawn from 
points of his department further South, they all stopped in 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 81 

Charleston for a few days, reporting to Colonel Hagood as town 
commandant, during their stay and doing provost duty. Some- 
times there were as many as six or seven thousand Iroops thus 
reporting. A brigade organization was adopted with Captain 
Moloney, Adjutant First South Carolina, acting as A. A. G., 
and Major Motte Pringle of the general staff as quartermaster. 
Commissary supplies were drawn by regimental commissaries 
direct from the post commissary. Captain R. G. Hay (after- 
wards Major Hay, commissary of Hagood's Brigade,) and some 
other unattached officers were assigned to temporary duty with 
Colonel Hagood. This officer had the satisfaction of receiving 
the approval of General Pemberton (for whom as an earnest 
and educated soldier he had a high respect) and believed he gave 
as much satisfaction to the people as could be given in the exercise 
of such arbitrary power for the first time in a community which 
had no small idea of its importance. 

During this time General Ripley, in consequence of disagree- 
ment with Pemberton, and at his own request, was relieved from 
duty and assigned elsewhere. He was succeeded at Charleston 
by Brigadier-General Mercer, late commanding at Savannah. 

The enemy landed on James Island 2nd June, and all the troops 
which could be spared from the town were hurried thither. The 
large drafts for Virginia had already straitened Pemberton for 
men; and he called on the Governor of the State for additional 
and temporary levies, to relieve the regular troops retained on 
provost duty. On the 6th June, General DeSaussure, State Adju- 
tant General, came down from Columbia with a document from 
Governor Pickens, empowering him (DeSaussure) to back the 
Confederate commander in the defense of the city to the last 
extremity. General DeSaussure published a vigorous proclama- 
tion in accordance with these instructions, ordering a levy en 
masse of all citizens up to 50 years of age, who were not already 
in service, and directing them to report to the provost marshal. 
One man reported ! Colonel Hagood called on the General for a 
roll of those liable to duty, under the order, that he might arrest 
and put them on service. He was told that it could not be fur- 
nished under -fifteen days. Such is the value of unorganized 
patriotism (for certainly prior and subsequent records of Charles- 
ton in this war show no deficiency in that virtue) ; and the 

6— H 

82 Memoirs op the War of Secession 

danger of putting off organized preparation until the conflict is 
at hand. The regiment of Charleston Eeserves were now called 
out and plstced on provost duty, the city being left in their hands, 
and the regular troops, with perhaps the exception of an unat- 
tached company or two, taking the field. 

This regiment had been organized some time before the pro- 
clamation of martial law and owed its purely voluntary existence* 

"Department of the Military, 
"Columbia, S. C, 12 June, 1862. 

"... Before the passage of our resolutions establishing corps of reserves through- 
out the State, the regiment you command had been formed upon voluntary prin- 

"It was accepted as formed and made subject to orders. . . . 

"Your obedient servant, 

"James Chestnut, Jb., 
"Chief Dept. Milty. 
"To K. N. Gourdin, 

"Lieutenant Colonel commanding Charleston Reserves." 

to that emulation of Saragossa alluded to as prevailing at an 
earlier period. 

The field officers were Colonel A. H. Brown (the assistant 
provost marshal). Lieutenant Colonel K. N. Gourdin and Major 
W. A. Wardlaw — the two latter prominent merchants of the city ; 
and in the ranks were such men as ex-Governor Aiken, Hon. 
W. D. Porter (president State Senate), Chancellor Lesesne, Mr. 
Bryan, afterwards judge of the United States Circuit Court, and 
many others of equal position. In fact it embodied all the exempt 
respectability of the city and numbered on a review before the 
enemy landed 1,250 men. When called on for duty, 150 responded 
— ^the balance had left the city with their families, or if present 
succeeded in evading the call. Those who responded did their 
duty with zeal and fidelity. It was at once a pitiable sight and 
one to elicit admiration to see these old grey-haired gentlemen, 
most of them wealthy, and all of them requiring and accustomed 
to ease and comfort, exposed to the inclemency of the weather 
and standing in their citizen's dress with double-barreled shot- 
gims as wardens over the half -burned and deserted city, while the 

•The question was for some purpose made, whether this was a volunteer regi- 
ment, and was settled in the following communication published in The Mercury, 14 
June, 1862 : 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 83 

occasional boom of a gun from James Island furnished the 
explanation of the spectacle. 

Among these devoted men was "William H. Heyward, lately 
colonel of the Eleventh Regiment, assigned afterwards to 
Hagood's Brigade. The writer of these Memoirs had not the 
honor of a pei^onal acquaintance with him. Educated at "West 
Point, and of large wealth, his life had been spent as a bachelor 
in the indulgence of manly and refined pleasures. He had made 
no effort at other than social achievement, but had certainly suc- 
ceeded to an unusual extent in not only attaching to himself a 
circle of ardent friends, but in impressing upon them his ability 
for high performance had circumstances called upon him for 
exertion. Upon the organization of the Eleventh Regiment, he 
had been without opposition made its colonel — ^had discharged 
his office with ability — and had, with many other good officers, 
perished in the elections consequent upon the recent re-enlistment. 
Now, over 60 years of age, and unwell, he served as corporal in 
the Re'serve Regiment and died a few weeks afterwards from the 

When the enemy landed on James Island, Colonel Hagood 
claimed General Pemberton's promise to relieve him, his regiment, 
under Major Duncan, having been dispatched thither; but 
obtained leave to be absent only for the engagement then immi- 
nent. He was accompanied by his assistants, at their earnest 
request, as volunteers. The engagement was but partial and the 
experiences of the provost party were confined to sustaining a 
heavy gunboat shelling and a night of picket duty accompanied 
by heavy rain, and the dropping of an occasional shell on the 

Now, however, the occasion for keeping him on this detached 
duty having passed, he on the 9th June obtained an order reliev- 
ing him, with directions to resume command of his regiment. 

Colonel A. H. Brown, commanding Reserves, was appointed 
provost marshal in his stead. 

Secessionvilj.e Campaign. 

After the fall of Port Royal in 1861, in the general abandon- 
ment of the sea islands in South Carolina, possession of all of 
them, as far north as and including Edisto, was conceded to the 

84 Memoirs of the Wae or Secession 

enemy. When he chose, he took unopposed possession and 
departed with like impunity. The Confederates only visited these 
islands in scouting parties. Johns Island was dismantled of its 
defense on North Edisto Inlet and the population withdrawn, 
but upon it a movable Confederate force in the nature of an 
advanced guard had been so far stationed. The enemy had 
availed themselves of their success at Port Eoyal and were 
holding within their lines all of the territory conceded ; and it is 
said that in May, 1862, the Federal chiefs, Hunter and Dupontj 
were considering a combined land and naval effort to wrest Johns 
Island also from the Confederate occupation. The escape of the 
steamer "Planter" and the information she gave of the abandon- 
ment of the posts on Stono, as well as of the condition of the new 
Jines on James Island, changed their programme to a sudden blow 
at the city itself.* 

The James Island lines, the construction of which as an interior 
line of defense was commenced in the winter of 1860-61, had 
become the main line of defense of the city upon the Stono "front. 
At the date of Hunter's advance, they consisted of a series of 
redans for artillery connected by an infantry breastwork of slight 
profile, running from Mellichamp's house on the eastern shore of 
the island to Royall's house on New Town Creek. In its general 
course here it was parallel to the Stono and two and a half 
miles from the river. Advancing toward Stono along New 
Town Creek, redans without connecting breastworks were placed 
on the northern bank, and constituted the defense at a point 
three-quarters of a mile from the river, the line turning at right 
angles again became parallel to the river, and again consisted of 
redans with connecting breastworks, till at Lawton's house, on 
Wappoo, it reached the northwestern side of the island. On the 
right and left of this line Fort Pemberton and SecessionviUe 
(redoubts) were thrust forward. Fort Pemberton was. a consid- 
erable work on the banks of Stono River below the mouth of 
Wappoo, and was advanced some three-quarters of a mile in 
front of the main line on the right; on the left, SecessionviUe was 
perhaps a mile in front and to the left of Mellichamp's. It was 
at the extremity of a peninsular made by the divergence of a 

•Greely'B American Conflict, 2 Vols., 460. 

Hagood's 1st 12 MoNiiHs S. -C. V. 


7.> SJiumW/////////. 

Map OfJamejIs/Q/ii 
Its Lines In /862 

86 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

creek from FoUey Eiver into two branches, the land approach 
being from the Stono side, and communication with the rear 
established by a bridge. An intrenchment across the narrowest 
part of the peninsular made Secession ville also an enclosed work, 
and it was further strengthened by a small flanking battery 
across the northern creek or marsh, afterwards called Battery 
Reed, in honor of the gallant Captain Sam J. Reed, killed in this 
campaign. From Mellichamp's to Royall's there was a second 
line of defense consisting of detached redoubts, each behind an 
interval in redans of the first line. 

Fort Pemberton was in fighting condition. But four guns were 
mounted at Secessionville ; a bomb-proof shelter, and a powder 
magazine had been there constructed. The parapet was unfinished 
in front of the guns — indeed, its profile was so slight that after 
the battle of the 16th June Colonel Hagood rode his horse into 
the ditch and over the parapet from the exterior approach. As 
to the redans and redoubts of the rest of the defenses, they had 
no guns mounted or platforms laid. 

The whole system was not only incomplete in construction, but 
faulty in. design. The engineer, to avoid the then dreaded gun- 
boat fire, had drawn his line so far back from Stono River as to 
give up full half of the island to the operations of the besiegers ; 
and had accepted for himself full five miles of entrenchments to 
defend, separated into two divisions by New Town Creek, across 
which his communication in rear was circuitous and difficult. 
These evils were perceived early in the campaign, and a new line 
laid out along the eastern division which would have somewhat 
shortened it. But this line was never finished; and in the final 
shape which the defense of James Island took under Beauregard 
in 1863 to 1864, the whole system of defense heretofore indicated 
was abandoned, and, starting from Secessionville, a much shorter 
and better line was taken to Stono below the mouth of New Town 

About the middle of May, the movement of the blockading 
vessels off Stono Inlet — sounding and buoying the channel^ 
indicated the intention to effect an entrance. No hostile troops 
were then nearer than Edisto Island. The following extracts 
from the diary of Captain Carlos Tracy, volunteer aid-de-camp 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 87 

on the staff of General S. E. Gist, commanding on James Island, 
furnish a memorandum record of events up to 9th June : 

"19 May.^Several of the enemy's gunboats attempted to enter Stono 
Inlet ; one ran aground and the rest put back. 

"20 May. — ^Three gunboats crossed the bar and entered Stono River about 
10 a. m. One ran up and anchored below Battery Island so as to command 
the old (river) route, thinking probably to cut off the detachment on 
Cole's Island. Lieutenant-Colonel Capers withdrew his force (two com- 
panies Twenty-fourth South Carolina), by the new (back)* and scarcely 
completed route over Dickson's Island to James Island. Colonel Capers 
fired the buildings before withdrawal and acted under standing orders. 
Capt. Ii. Buist, commanding on Battery Island under similar orders, with- 
drew his force to James Island. On appearance of a gunboat off the mouth 
of Folley River, carronade on 'Marsh' Battery near the river thrown Into 
the marsh by those in charge. Enemy shelled Coles and Battery Islands. 

"21 May. — Six of our pickets (of Captain Jones' company. Twenty-fourth 
Regiment South Carolina,) captured. On the advance up the river of the 
gunboat anchored below, they concealed themselves- in the old magazine, 
apparently expecting the enemy to pass them undiscovered. Thus, instead 
of withdrawing as they should have done, the enemy saw them and landed. 
Legare's, on John's Island side of Stono, shelled this day. 

"25 May. — Gunboats to this time have been running up the river several 
miles each day shelling both sides of the river and returning in the evening 
to Battery Island. Effort today of General Ripley to draw them within 
effective range of Fort Pemberton failed. Gallantry of Capt. Frank Bon- 
neau and of his men on our little floating battery stationed for the day in 
the creek near Dixon's Island remarked. A gunboat which engaged the 
enemy was driven off, the battery was moored to land. Three gunboats 
had been drawn up Stono by General Ripley's movements. On their return 
they had passed by all together when one of them returned apparently to 
learn what was the little dark object- across the marshes and the small 
islands. Captain Bonneau, who was on board, had received orders not to 
fire unless attacked. He had his men ashore under cover. The gunboat 
opened on him. The captain replied, firing one of his guns himself. At the 
sound his men came bounding to their little float, and manning their 
two or three guns, drove the enemy away. 

"31 May. — Gunboats in this time running up the Stono every morning,, 
shelling every one who came in sight, whether on horse or foot or in 
vehicles. Some peaceful citizens crossing New Town Cut Bridge during 
this period in a buggy were startled by the near explosion of a shell sent 
after them and took to flight on foot across the flelds. Today a few shells 
thrown toward Secessionville falling near the camp of the Twenty-fourth 
South Carolina Volunteers. 

•The "old" route was In use In Hagood's time and terminated at Battery Island. 
The "new" was constructed later and terminated near Secessionville. 

S8 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

"1 June. — A gunboat apparently reconnoitering in Folley River. 

"3 June. — ^A gunboat came up Folley on the flood at 9 a. m. today, shelled 
Captain Chichester's Battery at Legare's house, that of Captain Warley 
near Secessionville and Secessionville itself, this place being occupied by the 
Butaw Battalion* (Lieutenant-Colonel Simonton), the Charleston Bat- 
tery (Lieutenant-Colonel Gaillard), and the cavalry companies of Disher 
and McICeown. Our batteries responded vigorously. No damage done 
except to a horse, whose leg was broken by a shell that passed first through 
an outhouse near General Gist's headquarters. After firing about an hour 
the enemy withdrew. No damage anywhere up to this time from the 
enemy's fire except the horses. 

"Evening. — More than twenty vessels in sight. Enemy reported as being 
on extremity of James Island ne'arest Battery Island and as having driven 
in our pickets. Captain Tracy, of Gist's staff, and Lieutenant Winter, Wassa- 
maw Cavalry, fired on while reconnoitering their position. General Gist 
and Captain Tracy repeatedly fired on same evening by enemy's advanced 
pickets. This firing the first news in camp of enemy's landing. 

"3 June. — Last night the pickets lay near together at Legare's. In with- 
drawing Captain Chichester's guns from that point during the night they 
stuck in the mud. Chichester, endeavoring to extricate them, was driven off 
near morning. Lieutenant-Colonel Ellison Capers, Twenty-fourth South 
Carolina, with several companies, sent just after daylight to bring off guns 
and ascertain enemy's position. Sharp skirmishing with enemy at Legare's, 
In which Capers drove back a force far superior to his own for half a mile 
and took twenty-three prisoners. Retired on the advance of heavy rein- 
forcements supported by gunboat fire. The enemy engaged was said to be 
the Twenty-eighth Massachusetts and One Hundredth Pennsylvania. Our 
loss was several wounded and one missing — taken prisoner. Lieutenant 
Walker, Adjutant Charleston Battery, wounded in the leg in the endeavor 
to bring off one of his wounded men. Gallantry and discretion of Colonel 
Capers was marked. Captain Ryan, of Charleston Battery, exhibited dash- 
ing courage. Capt. Ward Hopkins, same corps, wounded. Our companies 
first engaged were reinforced during the action. All fell back across the 
causeway to rivers where lay the main body of our troops. The enemy 
ascertained from a prisoner to be under the command of General 
Stevens and in strong force. Heavy bombardment all day from gunboats 
upon our troops in position to resist enemy's advance from Legare's. A 
section of Preston's Light Battery, under Captain Preston (W. C), and 
Lieutenant Julius Rhett, was carried with great promptness and dash into 
position and worked with fierce energy under a cross fire from gunboats 
In the two rivers and direct fire from Legare's in front. The fire from 
the guns and from the more distant stationary batteries of Captain Warley 
and Colonel T. G. Lamar, at Secessionville, rendered the enemy's advance 
from Legare's across the causeway, though repeatedly threatened, too 
perilous to attempt. Brigadier-General Mercer in person arrived in the 
afternoon from the city. Colonel Johnson Hagood, First South Carolina 

•Made Twenty-flfth Regiment a few days afterward. 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 89 

Volunteers, previously detained in the city by his duties as provost marshal, 
joined his regiment during the day. Casualties light. Brigadier General 
Gist and aides covered with sand from the explosion of a shell. The 
screeching of the rifle shells and the heavy explosions of the 11th and 13th 
Inch subsided a little after dark Into the discharge of a single one at inter- 
vals of a half hour during the night. Our men — wet, weary and hungry — 
slept on their arms. The night tempestuous. 

"4 June. — Main body of our troops withdrawn within the lines, advance 
parties only in front. Design of enemy to occupy evident. 

"6 June. — Brigadier-General W. D. Smith arrived on the island and 
assumed command. Picliet under command of Colonel Stevens, Twenty- 
fourth South Carolina, skirmished with enemy at Presbyterian Church. 
Enemy left one dead on the ground; indications of further loss. No loss 
on our side. A prisoner brought into camp. 

"9 June. — ^Alarm troops to front — no flght. Enemy evidently in force at 
Grimball's on Stono." 

On the 9th of June Colonel Hagood was definitely relieved of 
provost duty in Charleston, and reported in command of his regi- 
ment, which had been on the island since the 3rd under Major 
Duncan. The colonel had served one day with it, as noted in 
previous journal. 

The troops on the island were sufficient for its defense, biit 
without exception had never before seen actual service ; and most 
of them being newly raispd corps, officers and men were alike 
ignorant of field duty. In consequence of these facts, four of the 
best regiments were organized into a temporary brigade, under 
the name of the "Advanced Forces," and these were charged with 
the whole picket duty along the extended front of the southern 
division of the lines, except of that portion immediately in front 
of Secessionville, which remained in charge of the commander 
and was furnished by the garrison of that post until after the 
battle of the 16th June. General Smith did Colonel Hagood the 
honor to place him in command of this special brigade. It con- 
sisted of Hagood's own regiment. First South Carolina ; Stevens' 
Twenty-fourth South Carolina, Simonton's Twenty-fifth South 
Carolina, and McEnnery's Seventh Louisiana Battalion. A bat- 
tery of field artillery reported daily for duty with the Advanced 
Forces, and ten or twelve cavalry for courier duty. Captain 
Moloney, Adjutant First South Carolina, acted as assistant adju- 
tant general. Orderly Ben Martin as aid-de-camp, and Captains 
Hay and Lartigue were volunteer aides. The regiments drew 

90 Memoirs of the Wak or Secession 

their commissary, quartermaster and ordnance supplies through 
regimental channels direct from the officers of the post staff in 

Two regiments of the Advanced Forces on duty one day fur- 
nished the pickets and alternated with the other two regiments in 

The arrangement of the picket system was as follows (see Map, 
p. 200.) : 

Two grand guards; one at Artillery Cross Eoads and one at 
Frier's Cross Eoads. Three outposts; one at Episcopal Church, 
one at Presbyterian Church, and one on Battery Island Eoad. 
The outposts furnished the chain of videttes, running from 
where the Battery Island Eoad crosses the northern Secessionville 
Marsh (near Hill's house), to which point the Secessionville 
picket came, through fields and woods to the bridge over New 
Town Cut near Stono Eiver. 

A section of the Light Battery on duty each day was placed 
Avith the' Grand Guard at Frier's, and the other sections with the 
Grand Guard at Artillery Cross Eoads. 

■The regiments of the Advanced Forces not on picket wfere 
allowed to go into bivouac at convenient points near reserve. 

Skirmishing along the lines was frequent, and the firing of the 
videttes almost incessant — ^the usual custom, however, of green 
troops. The Yankees were as nervous as we were, sometimes iu' 
the night following up a fusillade that would break out without, 
occasion from their videttes with volleys from their grand guards, 
— at nothing, unless perhaps at their videttes running ini It 
rained almost incessantly during the whole period of active, 
operations and there was something of ludicrous pathos in the, 
enquiry which a half-drowned Yankee shouted out one day across- 
the line, "I say, does it ever get dry in this country?" There was- 
no brigade or division organization of the Confederate troops on 
the island except the "Advanced Forces," nor any distribution of. 
general command by localities. There were, three different gen- 
erals commanding in this short campaign, and as each one arrived 
he took charge of everything, holding the others in reserve as 

•It is noteworthy that Beauregard afterwards rearranged the defenses upon this- 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 91 

second and sometimes third in command. The fact is, things 
were pretty generally haphazard. 

On the 10th, General Pemberton directed our lines advanced, 
with a view to establishing a battery of heavy guns on the edge 
of Grimball's clearing within sufficient range to drive the gun- 
boats from that landing and confine the enemy to the use of the 
Battery Island landing* as well as to break up the Yankee camp 
at Grimball's. General Smith took charge of the operation, and 
in the afternoon of the same day sent forward Colonel Hagood 
with the First South Carolina and the Seventh Louisiana Bat- 
talion and two pieces of Preston's Field Battery on the road 
through the Grimball woods, by the Presbyterian Church. 
Colonel Williams, with the Forty-seventh Georgia, was started 
more to the left from the point where these woods touched the 
Battery Island Road. The instructions were to drive in the 
enemy and seize and hold the line of the clearing. Colonel 
Hagood advanced along his road with a part of his forces 
deployed on either side of it, the rest following in supporting 
distance in column. The enemy were driven before him with but 
little resistance, and the sight of the deployed line had already 
reached the clearing when he was recalled in consequence of a 
reverse sustained by Williams. Williams had no road, but 
advanced in line of battle without skirmishers in front, and when 
he struck the clearing encountered the enemy in force behind the 
ditch and bank fence of the plantation and supported by artillery. 
The woods through which he had advanced were almost a jungle; 
his line had become very much disordered; and he- was in action 
before he knew it. But his men rushed gallantly upon the enemy 
in squads as they came up, and, of course, were driven back badly 
cut up. His loss was some sixty or seventy men. Hagood lost 
none, and killed upon the field but two of the enemy from the 
feeble resistance encountered. They were not in force upon his 
front of attack. He was, however, subjected to a rapid fire of 
gunboat shells, which threatened as much damage from the fall- 
ing limbs cut from the trees as from themselves. 

The enemy were engaged at this period in passing troops from 
North Edisto to across Johns Island to Legareville on the Stono 
nearly opposite Battery Island. To do this they had to make a 
flank march of ten miles in front of an equal number of troops 

•It Is noteworthy that Beauregard afterwards rearranged the defenses upon this 

92 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

under General Evans, commanding the Confederate forces on 
Johns Island. Evans had orders to attack, information of which 
was communicated to Hagood with instructions upon hearing the 
sounds of battle in that quarter to begin to press the enemy with 
the Advanced Forces and at once to report the fact. It would be, 
he was told, the occasion of a general offensive movement for 
which the troops on James Island were held in readiness. 

General Evans allowed the enemy to pass, and they were 
straggling along his front for more than two days and nights 
without firing a gun. He was not court-martialed, for then, as 
ever afterwards, it was the bane of Confederate service not to 
hold its commanding officers to rigid account. Evans attempted 
indirectly to clear himself of the slur upon his reputation by 
court-martialing one of his colonels for drunkenness upon this 
occasion, alleging in the charges that this drunkenness had balked 
the attack. It was the unpleasant fortune of Colonel Hagood to 
have been president of the court when it sat at a later period, and 
the facts were thus brought before him. The officer was broken* 
— the fact of his drunkenness was proved; but had Evans been 
before the court he would have found it difficult, upon the evi- 
dence elicited, to have escaped the same fate for the same offense. 
Nor can it be conceived how the intoxication of a single colonel 
of junior commission could have kept a considerable army from 
assuming the offensive for over two days and nights, or, indeed, 
for a longer period than it would have taken to arrest him and 
order his successor to move. Would it be believed that during 
the whole of- the time his troops were watching for the passage 
of the enemy and every preparation made for momentary attack, 
Evans, without a subordinate general officer in his command, 
went back to Adams Eun every night, a distance of eighteen 
miles, to escape the malaria of the island? Yet this fact was 
incidentally proven upon the trial.f The enemy having without 

'Colonel Dunovant, South Carolina Regulars, an excellent officer, save for this 
unfortunate falling. A year afterwards he was restored and, guarding against his 
Infirmity, after a useful career rose to the rank of brigadier and died gallantly In 

tFrom that relating to General Evans above, In connection with the Secession- 
vllle flght, it seems evident that he apprehended no danger. He was a brave, able 
officer. At the first battle of Manassas he showed signal gallantry, saving the day 
to our arms. — Editor. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 93 

molestation effected the passage across Johns Island to James, 
General Evans, too, with a portion of his troops was transferred 
to the same point, and arriving on the 14th took command, Smith 
sinking to second and Gist to third in command. The general 
officers were all quartered at Eoyall's, and there was considerable 
unpleasantness among them, as much perhaps from the anomalous 
relations in command which they held toward each other, as from 
any other «ause. General Evans occupied himself on the llth 
and 15th in riding along the lines and examining into the condi- 
tion of things, requiring Colonel Hagood to accompany him. On 
the afternoon of the 15th he removed his headquarters to a point 
near Lawton's house, on the shores of the harbor opposite 
Charleston and four miles to the rear. On the night of the 15th- 
16th June, the portion of the "Advanced Forces" on picket con- 
sisted of seven companies of Twenty-fourth South Carolina, six 
companies of First South Carolina, and one company of Williams' 
Forty-seventh Georgia, temporarily assigned to Advanced Forces. 
Boyer's Field Battery was on duty with the grand guards; and 
all were under command of Colonel C. H. Stevens. The Twenty - 
fifth South Carolina, the Seventii Louisiana and four companies 
of the First South Carolina were in reserve. Colonel Hagood 
was with these troops. At 4 :30 a. m., on the 16th, he received a 
dispatch from Colonel Stevens that the Secessionville picket, 
which, as before mentioned, until after this date, was furnished 
by that garrison and did not report to Hagood, was driven in, 
and that the enemy were advancing in force upon that position. 
Colonel Hagood immediately ordered under arms the reserve; 
he directed Colonel McEnnery with the Fourth Louisiana Bat- 
talion to proceed by the foot bridge in rear of Secessionville to 
the re-enforcement of the garrison, and Colonel Simonton with 
the Twenty-fifth South Carolina and detachment of the First 
South Carolina, to proceed down the Battery Island road to 
operate on the flank of the enemy's advance. Having delivered 
these orders in person, he galloped on in advance in the same 
direction, ordering forward from Artillery Cross Eoads one of 
the 6 drs. (under Lieutenant Jeter*) of the section of Boyce's 

'President of the Senate, and by virtue of his office Governor of South Carolina I9 
1880 on Simpson's resignation. 

94 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Battery on duty at that point. Arriving at the scene of action, 
the enemy were making their second assault upon the post at 

At 4 p. m. they had advanced upon that work, with, according 
to their own account, two brigades of infantry and three com- 
panies of artillery, numbering in all 3,337 men (2 Am. Conflict, 
462) under command of General J. J. Stevens.f Moving 
swiftly and noiselessly upon the picket, they succeeded in 
capturing some of them and the rest fled without firing a 
gun. The gallant Lamar (as he afterwards himself told 
Colonel Hagood) had been superintending all night the oper- 
ations of a working party, and exhausted had fallen asleep 
upon the parapet. Aroused by the sentinel over the guns, he 
discovered the enemy at the heels of his picket, not fifty yards 
from him. With no time to give an order, he himself pulled the 
lanyard of a columbiad, ready shotted with grape, and as the 
deadly missiles tore their way through the approaching column, 
the bellowing thunder aroused the garrison to the bloody work 
before them. It consisted of two companies of Lamar's own 
regiment — Second South Carolin'a Artillery — ^the Charleston Bat- 
tery (afterwards Twenty-seventh South Carolina), Smith's Bat- 
tery and a portion of Goodlette's South Carolina Regiment. The 
enemy assailed vigorously and with considerable dash; several 
were slain upon the parapet, and one bold fellow, jumping into 
the work and finding himself unsupported, effected his retreat, 
but carried one of Lamar's men with him a prisoner. The enemy 
were, however, in twenty or thirty minutes driven back with 
considerable loss. Stevens reformed his lines and again advanced, 
aided this time by another brigade under General Williams with 
Hamilton's Field Battery of Eegulars attached, these last moving 
on the opposite side from Secessionville of the northern 
marsh forming the Secessionville peninsular. This force num- 
bered 2,663 men and moved by'Hill's house. It was on the flank 
of General Williams that- Colonel Hagood found himself. A 
thicket of felled trees ran parallel with their line of advance and 
about 400 yards from it, on the edge of which, next to the enemy, 
Colonel C. H. Stevens had deployed about 100 men who had been 

tAuthor of "Campaigns of the Rio Grande and Mexico." 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 95 

on picket duty near that point. These men were from the Twenty- 
fourth Regiment and from the companies of Captains Tompkins, 
Pearson (Lieutenant Hamiter commanding), and Gooding (First 
Lieutenant Beckman commanding). The Battery Island Road, 
here so obstructed as to be impassable by artillery or by infantry 
except with difficulty as to individuals, ran between this felled 
thicket and the dense wood stretching towards Grimball's on 
the Stono. Simonton's Twenty-fifth South Carolina, about 220 
strong, coming up, was placed behind this felled thicket in line of 
battle, its right resting near the Battery Island Road. Lieu- 
tenant Jeter's piece was placed in position on Simonton's left 
and directed to open on Williams's advancing column. Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Capers of the Twenty-fourth was personally dis- 
patched to ascertain the cause of the unaccountable silence of 
Battery Eeed and to bring its guns also to bear upon Williams. 
The detachment of the First South Carolina (about 120 men) 
was held in column as a reserve on the Battery Island Road, and 
directed to throw out a strong line of skirmishers on its right 
flank towards the Stono. The first sound of Jeter's piece brought 
all of Hamilton's guns upon our line from its position on the 
right of the Battery Island Road, beyond and in front of the 
felled thicket. Colonel Hagood saw the opportunity of pushing 
the First South Carolina through the woods against Hamilton's 
Battery, and advancing Simonton and Stevens against the rear 
of Williams's men, now enfilading and slowly galling the front 
despite the fire of Jeter's piece and Battery Reed, but appre- 
hending a general advance, and charged especially with picketing 
the front of the southern division, he feared to take the offensive 
with his small force, which constituted the whole picket reserve, 
without re-enforcement or special orders. The disparity in men 
and guns between his force and General Williams's (about 5 to 1) 
was also perfectly apparent. While, therefore, making his dis- 
positions to take, the offensive, he despatched Captain J. V. Marr 
tin, commissary of First South Carolina, who had reported for 
duty as A. D. C, to report the situation and ask for orders and 
re-enforcements to attack. In the meantime Jeter's piece was 
rapidly and effectively worked, the infantry merely supporting; 
Battery Reed had also been opened by Capers and was doing 
good service. In the fort, Colonel Lamar had been wpunded on 

96 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

the first assault and succeeded by Lieutenant Colonel Gaillard; 
Gaillard was now wounded and succeeded in command by Major 
"Wagner. McEnnery arriving at a run with the Fourth Louis- 
iana,* went into action on the right, engaging Williams's flank- 
ing line. The Third Ehode Island Heavy Artillery, acting as 
infantry and which had been held in reserve near Hamilton's Bat- 
tery, advanced to take Jeter's piece, but were handsomely 
repulsed by Colonel C. H. Stevens's skirmishers, except one 
portion, which penetrated to Simonton's line on the left.. One of 
his companies was engaged for a few moments in driving them 
back, exchanging the first volley at twenty paces, so closely had 
they approached without being discovered in the dense abattis 
of the thicket. But the Yankee bolt was shot. They fell back 
sullenly and unpursued, leaving their dead and wounded upon 
the field. Captain Martin arrived with permission for Colonel 
Hagood to attack, and a few minutes afterwards Slaughter's 
Georgia and Gadberry's South Carolina regiments reported as 
re-enforcements for the purpose; but the enemy had regained 
the shelter of his gunboats and the effort against Charleston was 
over for this time. For such was the result of the Battle of Seces- 
sionville — one of the decisive ^engagements of the war. 

The Federals, by their own showing, had 6,000 men engaged 
and 1,500 in reservef (part of this reserve being the Third Ehode 
Island) . Colonel Hagood might have found Hamilton's Battery 
on his flank had he advanced without first sending a force against 
the position first occupied by it.* There were engaged on the 
Confederate side, in the fort and out of it, not exceeding 1,300 
men, of which 450 were with Colonel Hagood. The Federals 
reported their loss at 574 men; the Confederates lost about 150 
killed and wounded, of which 32 casualties were in Hagood's 

•This was undoubtedly, from all the writer could learn, the turning point In the 
defense of the fort. McEnnery was a dashing and valuable officer, and the writer 
regrets he has not the material for giving his subsequent career. He was, after the 
war, a distinguished politician of Louisiana. 

tGreely's American Conflict. 

•General Stevens assailed the fort with 3,500 men and four field guns. General 
Wright commanded reserve of 3,100 men and six guns. Of the last, Williams's Bri- 
gade of 1,500 and Hamilton's Battery were in action. The remainder — 1,600 men 

were held In close support of Hamilton's guns on Battery Island Road. — War of 
Rebellion SeHes, Vol. XIV, p. 52. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 97 

The people of the city and State were justly elated at this 
stroke of good fortune. It was the first exploit upon the war 
path of most of those engaged in it. Newspaper reporters were 
anxious to obtain all the particulars and the parties interested in 
no wise loath to furnish them. It was amusing for weeks after- 
wards to see in Charleston papers the gross mistatements and, in 
some cases, absolutely false representations that were made, the 
writer or his friends always the hero of the tale. But to cap the 
climax of eagerness to catch "all the glory going," General Evans 
appeared in a card in the public papers announcing the fact that 
he was in command on the 16th. In General Evans's official 
report, which Pemberton showed Colonel Hagood before for- 
warding to Richmond, there were almost as many inaccuracies 
as in the newspaper accounts; and it really seemed as if he had 
not read the reports of his subordinates which he forwarded 
accompanying his own. For instance, he stated that he ordered 
McEnnery to re-enforce the garrison, yet took no notice of 
Hagood's or McEnnery's statements in their reports that the 
latter had been sent into Secessionville as heretofore stated in 
these Memoirs. Colonel Hagood received no order from any 
superior until the enemy left the field. How it was in the fort 
he could not say. But it always appeared to him that as far aS' 
generalship went, this battle, decisive as it was on the Confed- 
erate side, can only be characterized as an affair of outposts, in. 
which the subordinate officers and the troops on the spot did the 
best they could upon the emergency; and whatever credit for 
generalship, if any is awarded, should be to General Smith, under 
whose direction the arrangement of the outposts was made. 
There were on the island under Evans at least as many regiments, 
and probably as good ones, as the enemy had, and not one was 
brought into action. Had his headquarters been nearer to the 
lines they might possibly have been used -advantageously to some- 
extent. Williams's column might have been cut off. But the affair 
was over very quickly, and the enemy had but a short distance- 
to retreat before regaining the shelter of their gunboats. 

No further offensive movements were undertaken by the Fed- 
erals after the repulse of the 16th. They lingered upon th& 
island, protected by their steam fleet and by defensive entrench- 
ments, until 7th July, when the last of them embarked 

7— H 

98 Memoirs or the War or Secession 

Many valuable lives were lost, and much individual heroism 
was displayed in this short and decisive campaign. Lamar 
deservedly won much reputation and commenced a career which 
promised much usefulness to the State, but this promise was soon 
cut short. He perished, a victim of malaria, the following summer. 
Gaillard, Wagner, Hopkins and others commenced here a series 
of brilliant services, traced in subsequent pages of these Memoirs. 
The fate of Captains Henry King, of Charleston, and Samuel J. 
Eeed, of Barnwell, was especially deplored. The latter was an 
eleve of the State Military School and a most promising officer. 
There was an incident, too, of brave and faithful conduct in 
humble life, which deserves mention in any record of Secession- 
ville. Vich Jan Vohr's henchman in the dock at Carlisle had not 
in his bosom a more leal and affectionate heart than the humble 

Lieutenant John A. Bellinger, of the artillery, was asleep in 
his quarters some distance from the battery when the roar of 
Lamar's columbiad summoned the garrison to its defense. After 
he had repaired to his post, his negro servant discovered that in 
his haste he had left his pistol, and hastened to carry it to him 
against the remonstrances of his companions, for the approach 
to the battery was now swept by bullets as with the besom of 
destruction. But the faithful servitor could not bear that his 
young master should be in such deadly conflict without his trusty 
weapon; and he fell, mortally wounded, in the attempt to bear 
it to him. Every attention that affection could suggest to Bel- 
linger soothed poor Daniel's last moments during the week that 
he lingered. He said to his master just before he died, "Duncan 
and Normie" — Bellinger's little motherless sons — "Duncan and 
Normie will be sorry when they hear that I am dead." 

Second Military Distkict, Department of South Carolina, 
Georgia and Florida. 

On the 19th July, 1862, Colonel Hagood was, by an order from 
General Pemberton's headquarters, relieved from duty with his 
regiment, then on James Island, and assigned to the command of 
the "Second Military District of the Department of South Caro- 
lina, Georgia and Florida." This was in consequence of a tele- 
graphic dispatch from Richmond that Colonel Hagood was to be 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 



Miz/^/e (fJecess/o/?////e 

•The Federal reports (War Rebellion, Series I, Vol. XIV) place the Federal reserve 
under Gen. Wright nearer Hamilton's Battery than in this sketch. 

100 Memoirs of. the Wae of Secession 

promoted to a brigadiership, and shortly afterwards he received 
his commission, bearing date 21 July. Colonel Hagood was pro- 
moted upon the recommendation of General Pemberton, and it 
was peculiarly gratifying to him, both because it was entirely 
unsolicited, and because it was a decisive mark of approval from 
one whom he esteemed as a thorough soldier. General Pemberton 
made few friends in Charleston, from his unfortunate want of 
tact and brusquerie of manner. He was not to the taste of a 
people at that time particularly disposed to be critical of military 
men, and matters through the Coles Island' business, which was 
undoubtedly the cause of his removal from comrtiand in South 
Carolina, was much misunderstood ; and his misfortune at Vicks- 
burg, Tyhither he was sent, completed the ruin of his reputation 
as a general before the country at large. His conduct afterwards, 
however, marked him both as a devoted patriot and a spirited 

Finding that his usefulness in the high rank he then held of 
lieutenant general was impaired by want of public confidence, 
he resigned that commission and reverted to his original grade of 
lieutenant colonel of artillery in the Regular Army of the Con- 
federate States; in which capacity he served until the end of the 
war. It was General Hagood's pleasant fortune to meet and 
serve with him again, both in Virginia and North Carolina. 

The Second Military District embraced the country south of 
Charleston, from Eantowles to the Ashepoo River, with head- 
quarters at Adams Run, about twenty-five miles from the city. 
Our lines of occupation chiefly followed the coast line of the main 
upon which the enemy had never effected a lodgement — the 
adjoining islands were debatable ground. The troops of the com- 
mand were always mixed, combining all the different arms and 
>Yaried in number from 1,000 to 1,200, or 3,000 to 4,000 from time 
to time. They were constantly shifting, too, regiments coming 
and going as the emergencies of the service required. It was not 
a pleasant command. While no operations of a considerable char- 
acter were to be expected for some time, the country to be 
guarded was extensive and penetrated in every direction by 
water courses, giving facility for the petty marauding incursions 
which were to be expected. In repelling these, little reputation 
was to be made, and from their success much was sure to be lost. 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. G. V. 101 

In addition to this, the whole region was before the war con- 
sidered fatally malarious during the summer months. In the 
winter the climate was delightful. 

General Hagood's attention was given at once to a thorough 
personal reconnoisance of the country committed to his charge, 
and the perfecting of sanitary regulations for the troops consis- 
tent with their indispensable duties. 

His military position was that of a local guard, having refer- 
ence to the Charleston and Savannah Eailroad, and the planting 
interest along the coast, and also an advanced guard to the City 
of Charleston. The result of his reconnoisance was the location 
of batteries armed with siege guns at certain points, with infantry 
entrenchments at these and other points ; and the maturing of a 
general plan of operations in the event of an advance upon 
Charleston by a land force from this direction. Upon General 
Beaureguard's succeeding General Pemberton in this quarter, 
which happened shortly afterwards, he called upon each of his 
district commanders to submit their views of operations in their 
respective localities. The following paper was submitted by Gen- 
eral Hagood for the Second District and returned approved. It 
may be premised that the whole country was a network of swamps 
and water courses, and it will be seen that General Hagood, from 
the topography of the country, dismissed the idea of the enemy 
seeking the main within the limits of his district for an advance 
upon Charleston, except between Pon Pon and Eantowles. 



"I. The first defensive line taken will be south of the Willtown and Ran- 
towles Road — the entrenchment at Kings Creek being the right, those at 
Yongues Island being the center and the Church Flats batteries the left — 
the reserves being held in the vicinity of Adams Run. An attack by a 
single column upon this position will be obstinately resisted. A general 
attack along the whole line in strong force will compel its abandonment 
after holding it merely long enough to ascertain the strength and designs 
of the enemy. The line is too long and too near the enemy's base of oper- 
ations. It is also liable to be turned by an advance from Edisto Island 
across to Dawhoo in the neighborhood of Pinebury. 

"II. The second line taken will be behind the Caw Caw Swamp. This 
swamp, commencing at Rantowles, runs westward for five miles when It 
divides into two main branches, one continuing westward to the Edisto 
River, a further distance of five miles, the other running a little west of 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 


Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 103 

north toward Glvhans Ferry, higher up on same river. The left of this line 

will be the batteries at Rantowles, the center where the new road crosses 

the swamp half a mile east of its bifurcation, and the right will follow the 

north branch. The west branch of the swamp will be held by an advanced 

force of mounted men. The object of taking this line is to delay the 

enemy and gain time for re-enforcements from the Third Military District 

by way of Givhans Ferry. It is objectionable from its length and from the 

fact that the north branch of the swamp is practicable almost anywhere 

to an enterprising enemy. The enemy will attack its left at Rantowles, 

seeking the most direct route to the city, in. which case the cavalry on the 

right will operate offensively on his flank and rear, and the point of attack 

will be obstinately defended with the best means at disposal. In the event 

of the lines being carried at Rantowles, the troops massed there for its 

defense will retire within the lines proper of the city by the most direct 

route, and the troops on the right will retire towards Bacon's Bridge on 

the Ashley. Or, the enemy will attack the right of the line, where it is 

much weaker, and seek a more circuitous but safer route to the city. In 

this case this line can only be held long enough to make him concentrate 

and prepare for carrying it. It is hoped that time sufficient for the junction 

of the troops from the Third District can be thus obtained. When the line 

is thus carried, the troops at Rantowles will, as before, retire by the 

shortest route behind the city lines across the Ashley and proceed up the 

eastern bank of the river to unite their command at Bacon's Bridge. The 

troops on the right will fall back direct to Bacon's and Slann's bridges on 

the Ashley. 

"III. The third line taken will be behind the Ashley to protect the 
South Carolina and North-Eastern Railroads. The troops from the Second 
and Third Districts united will hold the fordable portion of the river, viz. : 
from Shultz's Lake, a mile above Slann's Bridge, down to old Fort Dor- 
chester. The crossings below where pontoon bridges may be thrown across 
will also be looted after by them, but these should be held by troops from 
the garrison of the city. A battle will be fought in defense of this line 
without orders to the contrary. The line of retreat hence will be down the 
peninsular into Charleston, or if this should be impracticable from the 
enemy's effecting a passage of the river near the city, then by way of Sum- 
mervllle and the Twenty-Two Mile House around the head waters of Cooper 
and down its eastern bank to a point near the city, where the troops can be 
thrown into the garrison. 

"A depot of provisions for ten days for 5,000 men and 3,000 horses has 
been ordered to be established at White Church behind the second line of 

"A depot of at least twice the amount should be established at Summer- 
ville behind the third line." 


General Hagood caused the country embraced in his district 

to be thoroughly surveyed and mapped, and made himself per- 


sonally acquainted with all its intricacies. He required his staff 
to do the same, as well as certain trusty and reliable mounted men 
whom "he" kept about, his headquarters as couriers and guides. 
^, The country west of Edisto and to the Ashepoo was watched 
by a cavalry company* encamped near Jacksonboro on the 
■Charleston and Savannah Kailroad, which picketed Bear's Point, 
the junction of the two rivers and a landing on the Ashepoo. 
They were subsequently re-enforced by a field batteryf of artil- 
lery; and were sometimes supported by infantry, when the 
number of the latter arms in the district permitted. This was, 
however, seldom the case. Walpole's company of fifteen or twenty 
men; known as the Stono Scouts, and composed exclusively of late 
planters upon the island, were kept upon Johns Island. The 
Ashepoo and Johns Island pickets reported direct to headquarters. 
The line of pickets from Eantowles to Edisto on the main was 
placed under the charge of a permanent superintendent and 
reported through him. He was furnished with the following 
instructions, which were also promulgated in General Orders : 


"1. Each picket detail from a corps will be inspected by the officer 
appointed to command it, before leaving its camp, who will be held respon- 
sible that each man is properly armed and accoutred and supplied with 
rations (and forage if cavalry) for the tour upon which he is ordered. 

"2. They will remove to their respective stations when relieved in reg- 
ular military order. 

"3. On duty the horses of the cavalry will never be unbridled or 
unsaddled. At feeding time, one-half will be fed or watered at a time, and 
'for the purpose the bits of that half will be taken out of their mouths. 
"TThe men will not be allowed to lay aside their arms; the sabres will be 
continually worn and the guns be in hand or in easy reach. In the day 
time one-half the men may sleep at a time, at night all will be on the alert. 
A sentinel will always be with the horses when the picket is dismounted. 
Fires will not be allowed under any circumstances when there is possibility 
of being seen by the enemy. Concealment as far as consistent with watch- 
fulness will always be aimed at. 

"4. The advanced sentinels or videttes will observe the utmost watch- 
fulness and keep themselves concealed as well as practicable. The horses 

*Thls company was Company B, Sixth South Carolina Cavalry, and picketed 
Bennett's Point on. Bear's Island. — Editor. 

f This battery was Walter's Horse Artillery.— Editor. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 105 

will not be unbltted under any pretense wliile on post, nor will either of 
the two vldettes posted together sleep. 

"5. All movements of the enemy, or clouds of dust, noises, conflagrations, 
etc., which may indicate movement, will be promptly reported to the oflScet- 
commanding the picliet, who will report the facts (in writing if possible) 
to headquarters. 

"0. Should the enemy advance, the picliet will at once report the fact to 
headquarters and fall back slowly, always keeping the enemy in sight and 
availing itself of the advantages of the ground to make such resistance as 

"7. The superintendent of pickets will make a daily report to head- 

Special instructions as to the number, station and conduct of 
each outpost and vidette post was also furnished the superinten- 
dent. The general scheme was a vidette post at each landing on 
the line, or good point of observation, with outposts at proper 
points to sustain them. These were all of cavalry. A strong 
infantry grand guard was stationed at the Church a mile from 
Adams Eun, where the approaches from these landings chiefly 
concentrated. The body of the troops was held at Adams Eun 
as a strategic center and for sanitary reasons. A permanent gar- 
rison of infantry and artillery was, however, kept at Church 
Flats, where siege guns were mounted; and a light battery was 
kept encamped sometimes with, and sometimes without, an 
infantry support at a landing on Wadmalaw Eiver, known as 
Younges Island; and another light battery at Willtown on the 
Pon Pon. General Hagood was fortunate in the selection of his 
superintendent of pickets, Major John Jenkins, of the Third 
Cavalry, and the duty was in general well performed — as well 
as could be got out of corps newly raised and in which most com- 
monly the officers needed instruction in every detail. 

Before passing from this portion of the subject, it may not be 
amiss to say something of the use of cavalry, as developed in 
this war. Its use, as on the plains of the eastern continent and 
with the short range arms of former wars, seemed to have been 
impracticable, for it was never done. They were used generally 
merely as mounted riflemen, who dismounted to fight, leaving 
every fourth man to hold the horses. Of course there were 
exceptional instances. Yet throughout the war, as far as the 
writer's observation extended, the former mode of equipping the 

106 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

cavalrymen was retained. His sabre was slung to his waist and 
when he dismounted to go into action, almost always as siiir- 
misher when the greatest freedom of action was required, it was 
of no earthly use and a most serious hindrance. The sabre came to 
be regarded by most of the cavalry as an ornamental badge of 
their arm of service, was kept as blunt as a frow, and in many 
instances whole corps were without it. The rifle carbine and the 
revolver pistol were relied upon, whether upon horseback or 
afoot. Now, the use of the sabre has by no means passed away. 
In encounters of cavalry with cavalry, and in exceptiona-l cases 
of cavalry against infantry, it still remains a more valuable 
weapon than any firearm discharged from a horse in motion. To 
hang the sabre to the pommel of the saddle on the left side, the 
scabbard passing under the left leg of the rider to hold it steady, 
and balance it on the right with a holster revolver, all to be 
for use only when mounted, and left with the horse when the 
soldier dismounted to fight with his carbine, apparently would 
relieve the difficulty. Now, the sabre, kept sharp, carried in a 
wooden scabbard to preserve its edge, and a repeating carbine 
(without a bayonet), would fit the trooper for the discharge of 
all the duties required of him in the most eflFective manner. He 
should be taught on horseback to rely as of yore on the sabre 
and pistol, and on foot upon the arms and tactics of the light 
infantry. Such are the reflections of one who did not serve in 
the cavalry arm of the service, but who had opportunities of 
observing cavalry fighting and sometimes commanded them in 
the field. 

Dr. J. F. M. Geddings was the chief surgeon of the command 
in the Second Military District, and at his suggestion the fol- 
lowing sanitary regulations were adopted for the sickly season, 
and such portions of them as had general application were con- 
tinued afterward. They were enforced by the daily inspection 
of the doctor himself, who, for the purpose, was relieved from all 
other duty. He was untiring in his effort to give them effect: 


"1. Each camp and Its vicinity will be policed thoroughly once a day, 
the whole command if necessary turning out for the purpose ; and the ofCal 
and trash removed to a distance and thrown into tide water, burned, or 
buried as may be. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 107 

"2. The sinks (oflBcer's and men's being separate) will be constructed 
over tide water when practicable. In other cases they will be dug to lee- 
ward — the prevailing winds being considered — be covered from view by- 
brush or other obstructions, and dirt will be thrown once a day upon 
deposits. Summary and condign punishment will be inflicted upon the use 
of any other than the regular sink. 

"3. The tents will be slit front and rear from the bottom to the ridge 
pole, and the flaps Icept tied back night and day, when the weather permits. 
Blankets and bedding will be exposed daily to the air and sunlight always 
after the day's policing, if the weather permits. When straw is used, it 
will be stirred and aired daily, and removed once a week. Boards, poles 
and other means of raising the beds of the men a few inches off the ground 
will be used. 

"4. Military duties during the hot months will be dispensed with except 
before breakfast and late in the evening. Frequent roll calls will be had 
during the rest of the day to prevent straggling and consequent exposure. 
Shelters of brush or plank will be constructed under which the necessary 
camp sentinels will stand. 

"5. Company oflicers will daily inspect the company kitchens to see that 
the food of the men is properly prepared and especially guard against the 
consumption of unripe fruit or partially decomposed vegetables by the men. 

"6. Every third day a strict inspection of the persons and underclothing 
of the men will be had, at which time the underclothing will be renewed. 
Daily ablutions and the wearing of the hair short will be strictly enforced." 

. In addition to the rigid enforcement of the foregoing regula- 
tions, quinine was at times issued to be taken as a prophylactic 
in daily doses of three grains, and in default of quinine a decoc- 
tion of the bark of the cherry tree and dogwood with whiskey, 
equal parts, was used. The good effect of these precautions was 
soon visible yi the improved health of the troops, which was 
alarmingly bad upon General Hagood's taking command, and 
we tided over the sickly season without the efficiency of the com- 
mand becoming at any time seriously impaired. Most of the 
picket stations were upon rice swamps and some of the camps, 
as at Kantowles, were in localities heretofore considered deadly 
pestilential. The laws of malaria are subtle and but little under- 
stood. Mr. Davis, in discussing the fact of the comparative 
exemption of the troops on both sides from its effects during the 
war, for this exemption seems also to have occurred in other 
malarial sections, is reported to have said:* "That the excite- 

•Craven's "Prison Life of Jeff Davis." 

108 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

merit of war itself was a prophylactic." We had none of the 
excitement and all of the monotony of stationary camps. 

To guard against the propensity of all troops to accumulate 
impedimenta when long in camp, and to endeavor to secure 
mobility to the command, the following was made a stainding 

"1. Surplus stores will not be kept on hand by the regimental quarter- 
masters, commissaries and ordnance ofBcers ; but will be kept in the pos- 
session of the brigade officers of the several departments. 

"2. Officers commanding regiments and detachied corps will prevent the 
accumulation of baggage and keep the same within regulation limits. 

"3. The following regulations are established with regard to transpor- 
tation : 

"(1) Whenever a general movement of the troops is contemplated, upon 
intimation to that effect, a special train will be organized before hand, 
containing all surplus stores, and in general terms, everything for which 
the troops have no immediate necessity, and the ambulances with sick in 
hospital. This train will always move separate from the troops arid for it 
a special escort will be provided. 

"(2) The train proper of wagons, etc., and containing only things needed 
by the troops while in camp, will follow in the offensive and precede in 
retreats the movements of the troops, by at least half a day's march — say 
six or eight miles. In it will be included ammunition and hospital wagons, 
baggage wagons of regiments, baggage wagons of the general staff and 
wagons carrying provisions and forage for immediate use. 

"(3) Each regiment and independent corps will be accompanied by its 
ambulance and ordnance wagon following immediately in its rear. 

"(4) Commanding officers will be held strictly responsible that the 
troops always move with three days' rations in their haversacks, and three 
days' forage properly packed upon the horse, if mounted, and forty rounds 
of ammunition in the cartridge box and sixty rounds in the ordnance 

Schools of instruction by recitation were established in each 
regiment and independent corps, followed by reviews and drills 
in presence of the brigadier general commanding; and boards 
were organized and kept in laborious session for the examination 
of officers under the Act of Congress to relieve the army of 
incompetent incumbents. 

In the discharge of these unobtrusive but important duties, 
General Hagood's service in the Second Military District wore 
away. No event of military interest beyond an occasional colli- 
sion of pickets marked this time. When the enemy advanced upon 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 109 

General Walker in the Third District in October, 1862, General 
Hagood received an urgent dispatch from him calling for 
assistance. Moving the Seventh South Carolina Battalion to the 
railroad. General Hagood stopped and emptied a passing train 
and dispatched the Seventh to Walker's assistance. It reached 
him in time to materially assist in the decisive repulse of the 
enemy at Pocotaligo. General Hagood, by permission of Gen- 
eral Beauregard, followed with other re-enforcements but arrived 
after the battle. 

In April, 1863, after the repulse of the enemy's fleet in the 
attack on Fort Sumter, their ironclads rendezvoused in the North 
Edisto Inlet, where they lay for some time with an infantry force 
of some 2,500 or 3,000 men, encamped close by on Seabrook's 
Island. General Beauregard organized a force to attempt to sink 
the ironclads or driye them to sea, and capture the troops on Sea- 
brook's. He raised General Hagood's force by special re-enforce- 
ments about 3,000 good infantry, with ten or twelve field guns, 
and sent him a naval force of over 100 men with torpedo barges. 
The plan was for the torpedo barges to get amongst the fleet just 
before day, and as soon as they were routed, and upon condition 
that they were, the infantry was to attack. The barges rendez- 
voused safely in a creek not over a mile from the fleet on the 
previous night; and the land forces were brought unsuspected 
within short striking distance. Everything was in readiness for 
the next day's work, when the order was countermanded, and 
the troops directed to return with all speed to Charleston, to 
proceed, most of them, to Pemberton's assistance, then hard 
pressed in Vicksburg. A sailor from the naval force deserted 
that evening to the enemy, betraying the plan of concealment of 
the barges and they with difliculty escaped. Afterwards, while 
in North Edisto, the enemy adopted huge rafts of timber as 
fenders to each ironclad by way of precaution against the 
approach of their diminutive enemies, the torpedo boats. An 
instance of special gallantry occurring at this time deserves to be 

When the troops above referred to landed on Seabrook Island, 
Captain Walpole, commanding the Scouts on Johns Island, dis- 
patched the fact to General Hagood, and received in reply the 
order: "Get me a prisoner." It was between sundown and dark. 


Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

and taking Sergeant Gervais and Evans Fripp with him, Wal- 
pole made his way through the enemy's chain of videttes and 
charging in at full speed upon a regiment which had stacked 
arms and was going into bivouac, discharged their six-shooting 
rifles right and left, shooting down two men and wounding a 
third, whom Walpole, a very active and strong man, jerked up, 
as he ran, to the croup of his horse; and the party made their 
escape, having obeyed the order to "get a prisoner." He was an 
intelligent sergeant and gave all the information wanted before 
he died from his wound, which proved mortal next day. 

Yankee Ironclad In North Bdisto April, 1863 (a monitor). 

A few days after General Hagood was relieved of the command 
of the Second District, an effort was made by the enemy to pass 
up the Pon Pon River in gunboats to Jacksonboro and there 
destroy the Charleston and Savannah railroad bridge. They 
passed Willtown chiefly from the inefficiency with which the field 
battery at that point was worked. The guns were in barbette 
entrenchment upon a commanding bluff with the river obstructed 
by piling under their fire, and should have turned the boats back. 
They passed on, but Captain "Walter, of the Washington Artil- 
lery, stationed, as before mentioned, on the western side of the 
river near Jacksonboro, came up rapidly with a section of his 
battery, and unlimbering in an open old field, went into action 
with the two gunboats just as they had reached within sight of 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. Ill 

the bridge. He turned them back and sunk one of them, which 
the enemy abandoned. 

Black's First Eegiment of First South Carolina Cavalry 
served for a short time after Hagood's taking command, in the 
Second District. They were ordered to Virginia and Aiken's 
Sixth South Carolina Cavalry took their place.f These with two 
companies of the Third (Colcock's) under Major Jenkins com- 
posed Hagood's mounted force for the remainder of the time. 
The Washington Artillery (Walter's) and the Marion Artillery 
(Parker's) were with him all the time. Shultz's Battery was 
with him part of the time. The Seventh South Carolina Bat- 
talion, afterwards of Hagood's Brigade, McCuUough's Sixteenth 
South Carolina, afterwards of Gist's Brigade, and Smith's 
Twenty-sixth South Carolina, afterwards of Elliott's Brigade, 
constituted his infantry force, details from which also acted as 
heavy artillery for the siege guns in position. Other regiments 
were with him for short periods. The Stono Scouts under Wal- 
pole were also with him from first to last. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Del. Kemper commanded the field batteries and the staff was : 

Captain P. K. Moloney — Assistant Adjutant General. 

Major G. B. Lartigue — Quartermaster. 

Major E. G. Hay — Commissary Subsistence. 

Lieutenant Isaac Hayne — Ordnance OiRcer. 

Lieutenant Ben Martin — Aid-de-camp. 

Captain Carlos Tracy — Volunteer Aide. 

Service in the Second District had all the monotony of garrison 
life, with something of its advantages. The families of the 
officers to some extent were enabled to visit them from time to 
time, the ladies finding shelter in the unoccupied summer resi- 
dences of the planters in the little hamlet of Adams Kun. It was 
a fine fish and game country, and, with railroad facilities for 
drawing supplies from home, our tables were fairly furnished for 
Confederate times. The troops were supplied from the resources 

•Captain Walter was supported by Company B, Sixth South Carolina Cavalry, 
which was the only support he had. The Yankee gunboat was sunk the 10th of 
July, 1863. Black's Cavalry Regiment was then in Virginia, and not on the Caro- 
lina coast. — Editor. 

tAlken's Sixth South Carolina Cavalry served for a short time after General 
Hagood assumed command ; and on being ordered to Virginia Black's First South 
Carolina Cavalry took their place. — Editor. 

112 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

of the District, and at first these were ample. Towards the last,, 
however, these supplies became scant. Agricultural operations 
had been greatly interfered with by the propinquity of hostile 
armies, and the supply of beef cattle and sheep, at first large, 
became exhausted. Hogs there were none. But few of the 
planters continued to work the plantations south of the railroad. 
Among these, however, was Hawkins S. King. He continued, 
to the last to carry on his several plantations, and truly his home- 
stead appeared to be a perfect Goshen, whose abundance he dis- 
pensed with a lavish generosity. He obtained with the brigade 
staff the sobriquet of '■'■The King of St. Pauls." 

General Hagood, however, chafed at his life of inactivity — 
while the great game of war was being played so grandly in 
Virginia and in the west, his friends and former comrades being 
actors in the drama, and received in the spring of 1863 a promise 
from General Beauregard to send him into one or the other of 
these fields with the first brigade that left the department. Gist 
claimed his seniority and got the brigade sent to Pemberton in 
June, 1863. Two or three weeks afterward other troops were 
ordered in that direction and General Hagood was placed in 
command of the brigade organized to go. He left Adams Eun 
and had reached Charleston on his way, when a dispatch from 
Eichmond directed Evans's Brigade, lately arrived from North 
Carolina, to be substituted in his place. General Beauregard, 
when remonstrated with by General Hagood, under a misap- 
prehension of the source of this order, said he knew not what 
induced the unusual course of the "War Department in inter- 
fering in this matter. Evans did not desire to go, but was unpop- 
ular with Beauregard's chief of staff, and one of the colonels of 
the brigade made for Hagood, who was very intimate with Gen- 
eral Gordon, preferred just then to remain where he was. The 
conclusion on General Hagood's mind, whether justly or not, was 
that the change had its inspiration in this "power behind the 
throne," which was generally believed by those who served with 
General Beauregard during this period to be sometimes without 
the General's consciousness "stronger than the throne itself." 
This belief and the equally general belief of Gordon's unworthi- 
ness operated injuriously both with the officers and men. In the 
following summer Captain Beauregard, a brother of the General's 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 113 

and aid-de-camp on his staff, resigned his commission, and, calling 
to say good-bye to General Hagood, told him that he had himself 
informed his brother of the common estimate of Gordon's char- 
acter, and of its injurious influence upon the General himself. 
But Beauregard either knew his chief of staff better, or thought 
he could not do without him, for he retained him until he was 
compelled to give him up by subsequent action of the War 
Department. General Gordon immediately after the war sig- 
nalized himself by a very able and heartless attack in the 
Northern papers upon Mr. Davis, with whom he had some per- 
sonal feud; and has since acquired some notoriety as the com- 
mander-in-chief, by contract for a twelvemonth, of the Cuban 

General Hagood had to stomach his disappointment and return 
to Adams Eun, expecting another monotonous summer within its 
precincts. He shortly after applied for a ten days' leave of 
absence to arrange his private affairs, and while at home received 
a dispatch from department headquarters ordering him to report 
at once in Charleston. Gilmore had developed his batteries 
against the south end of Morris Island, and the siege of Charles- 
ton had begun. 

Note. — In the winter of 1863 the ladles of Nelson's country sent him a flag for 
his battalion, with a request that General Hagood should, for them, make the 
formal presentation. This was the last incident of the kind the writer remembers 
to have witnessed In the war. They were frequent at an earlier period ; perhaps 
no one of the earlier regiments marched to the war without some such memorial 
of the dear ones at home to nerve them for the fray. These flags were generally 
beautifully embroidered State flags and were really used in but few engagements. 
The use of a general flag was ordered and as soon as the regiments got Into the 
larger armies they were required to lay these aside for the regular Confederate 
battle flags. 

General Hagood's address to the battalion in presenting the ladles' banner Is 
appended as characteristic of the times. He said : 

"I am commissioned, soldiers of the Seventh Battalion, by the ladles of the section 
of the State In which your corps was raised. In their name to present you with this 

"For two long years our fair Southern land has been drenched In blood ; her plains 
have been torn with the rush of contending hosts ; her hills have echoed and re-echoed 
with the dread voice of battle. The world has beheld with amazement a struggle In 
which a million and a half of armed men have been engaged, with almost a continent 
lor a battlefield. Upon the one side It has seen a gigantic foe, trebling Its 
adversary In numbers and wealth, and with all the appliances of war at Its com- 
mand, again and again, with a pertinacity rarely equaled, advancing to the onset. 
Upon the other it has seen a people cut off from all save the sympathies of the 
brave, standing desperately by their hearthstones and again and again repelling the 
insolent foe. We have met them upon our deserted fields ; we have fought them 
by the light of our blazing homes ; in rags, and with Imperfect weapons, we have 

8— H 

114 Memoirs of the War of Secessiok 

The Siege or Charleston. 

The naval attack on Fort Sumter in April, 1863, was prefatory 
to Gilmore's operations, and General Kipley's report of it is 
given below : 

"Headquarters First Military District, 
"Department S. O.,- Georgia and Fla., 
"Cliarleston, 13 April, 1863. 
"Brigadier-General Thomas Gordon, Chief of Staff, etc. 

"General : Upon the first inst, the increase of the enemy's force in the 
Stone, and information from North Bdisto, gave warning that the long- 
threatened combined movement upon Charleston was about to take place. 
Brigadier-General S. R. Gist, commanding 1st subdivision of this District 

encountered their serried tiosts. In defeat as In victory our hlgli purpose has never 
quailed, and in the darkest hour of this unequal war a murmur of repining at its 
hardships has never passed the lips of a Southern man ; it has never entered Into 
his heart to conceive a termination to his efforts short of absolute and unqualified 
success. It is a spectacle, soldiers, which may well challenge comparison with the 
heroic struggles of classic fame, and upon this grand page of history you, too, have 
written your names. Upon the weary march, in the comfortless bivouac, and upon the 
field of battle, you have borne your part. Beneath the old oalss of Pocotallgo you 
have seen a comrade's glazing eye 'look fondly to heaven from a deathbed of fame,' 
and sadder, far sadder, in tent and hospital, afar from the gentle ministering of 
home, you've seen a comrade's spirit flutter Its way to Gx)d, crushed out by the 
merciless requirements of war. 

"But while the sons of the South have vindicated the blood they have inherited 
from patriot sires, her daughters have Illustrated all that is admirable In the 
attributes of woman. No Joan has arisen from among them to gird on the harness 
of battle, no Charlotte Corday to drive the dagger home to the tyrant's heart. There 
has been no need for them to unsez themselves, nor will there ever be a dearth of 
manhood requiring such a sacrifice while woman remains the true and holy creature 
which God made her. But it is scarce an exaggeration to say that the voluntary 
efforts of our women, themselves laboring under cruel and unaccustomed privations, 
have clothed our armies, and organized all of comfort that exists in our hospitals. No 
high bred Dame of Chivalry ever belted her knight for battle with a more devoted 
spirit than that with which the humblest Southern woman has sent her loved ones 
to this war. She has checked the cry of walling over the slaughtered corpse of her 
husband, to prepare her first born to take his place ; and when disaster has befallen 
our arms and the heel of the oppressor has ground Into the dust the souls of the few 
men who have remained to bear his yoke, the spirit of patriotism has survived In 
the women. Insult and Injury have failed to crush It — until the Indignant utter- 
ances of the civilized world have compelled the oppressor for very shame to desist.* 

"It Is from such women as these, soldiers of the Seventh Battalion, that I present 
you ?\^ith this beautiful banner. Wrought by fair hands, consecrated by the pure 
and tender aspirations of wife, and mother, and sister, which cluster in its folds, It 
16 committed to your keeping. 

"Colonel Nelson, It is narrated in martial story that a general, desiring to hold 
a pass upon which much depended, posted In the defile a battalion whose metal he 
knew, and left them with this stern and simple charge : 'Here,' said he, 'colonel, 
you and your men will die.' And the order was literally obeyed. There they died I 
In a like spirit, and with a like confidence, I say to you : 'In defense of this flag you 
and your men will die.' " 

•New Orleans. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 115 

(James Island and St. Andrew's Parish), took prompt measures for the 
observation and repulse of any attack in that direction. Colonel R. F. 
Graham, commanding 3rd subdivision, occupied the shore of Morris Island 
on Light House Inlet to control the passage from Folley Island, and a strict 
watch has been kept up to the present time on the land movements of the 

"On the 5th, the ironclad fleet of the enemy, consisting of seven (7) 
monitors and one (1) double turreted vessel, hove in sight from Fort Sumter, 
and came to anchor outside in the vicinity of the Ironsides frigate, then a 
part of the blockading squadron. The 6th was apparently spent by the 
enemy in preparation, and by our artillerists in verifying the condition of 
their material. On the morning of the 7th, the enemy was inside the bar 
with all his ironclads, including the frigate, but from his proximity to the 
shoals and the haziness of the atmosphere his position could not be deter- 

"The various works of preparation were progressed with, both upon the 
exterior and interior lines of defense, until about 2 p. m., when the enemy 
steamed directly up the channel, the Weehawken (supposed) with a false 
prow for removing torpedoes attached, leading, followed by three monitors ; 
the Keokuk, double turreted, bringing up the rear. 

"At each fort and battery, officers and men made preparations for imme- 
diate action, while the enemy came slowly and steadily on. At 3 o'clock 
Fort Moultrie opened fire. At 5 minutes past 3, the leading vessel having 
arrived at fourteen hundred yards, Fort Sumter opened upon it with two 
guns. Batteries Bee, Beauregard, Wagner and Gregg opened about this 
time ; and the action became general, the four leading monitors closing upon 
the Weehawken, and taking position from the forts and batteries at an aver- 
age distance of about fifteen hundred yards. In accordance with instructions 
the fire fi'om the different points was concentrated upon the leading vessel ; 
and the effort was soon apparent in the withdrawal of the leading monitor 
from action, her false prow having been detached and otherwise apparently 
injured. The remaining monitors in advance of the flag ship held their 
position, directing their fire principally at Fort Sumter, but giving occa- 
sional shots at Fort Moultrie, of which the flagstaff was shot away. Bat- 
teries Beauregard and Bee. 

"The Ironsides meantime opened fire and drew the attention of Forts 
Moultrie and Sumter and Battery Gregg. A few heavy and concentrated 
discharges caused her to withdraw out of range, where she was followed by 
two other monitors. 

"At 5 minutes past 4 the Keokuk left her consorts, and came to the front, 
approaching to within nine hundred yards of Fort Sumter, twelve hundred 
from Battery Bee, and one thousand from Fort Moultrie. Her advance was 
characterized by more boldness than had yet been exhibited by any of the . 
enemy's fleet, but receiving full attention from the powerful batteries opposed 
to her, the effect was soon apparent. Tlie ten-inch shell and seven-inch rifled 
bolts crashed through her armor, her hull and turrets were riddled and 
stove in, her boats were shot away, and in less than forty minutes she 

116 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

retired with such speed as her disabled condition would permit. 

"The remaining monitors kept their position for a short time, but soon 
one by one dropped down the channel, and came to anchor out of range, 
after an action of two hours and twenty-five minutes at ranges varying 
from nine hundred to nineteen hundred yards. 

"The full effect of our batteries upon the enemy could not be precisely 
ascertained, and, as our strength had not been fully put forth, it was 
believed the action would soon be renewed. The monitor which had led in 
the action proceeded south outside of the bar the same evening. 

"Before the commencement of the affair, I was proceeding in a boat to 
Battery Bee, and watched the progress of the cannonade from that point. 
The guns were worked with as much precision as the range would admit. 
There were no damages or casualties. Visiting Fort Moultrie, the damaged 
flagstaff was being replaced and everything prepared for a renewal of fire 
should the enemy again approach. One man had been mortally wounded 
by the falling of the staff. Crossing the channel to Fort Sumter, the effect 
of the impact of the heavy shot sent by the enemy against the fort they 
are so anxious to repossess, greater in caliber and supposed destructive 
force than any hitherto used in war, was found to have been much less 
than had been anticipated. Five men had been injured by splinters from 
the traverses, one 8-inch columbiad had exploded, one 10-inch carriage had 
its transom shot away and two rified 42 drs. had been temporarily 
disabled from the effect of recoil on defective carriages. 

"The garrison was immediately set to work to repair damages, and, the 
strength of the enemy's projectiles having been ascertained, to guard such 
points as might be exposed to their effect should the attack be renewed. 
Battery Gregg and Battery Wagner were uninjured except from the acci- 
dental explosion of an ammunition chest in Battery Wagner. 

"During the night of the 7th, stoores were replenished ; threatened points 
upon land re-enforced ; working parties from the Forty-sixth Georgia Regi- 
ment brought to Fort Sumter, and the renewal of the struggle in the morn- 
ing awaited with confidence. 

"When day dawned on the morning of the 8th, the enemy's fleet was dis- 
covered in the same position as noticed on the previous evening. About 9 
o'clock the Keokuk, which had been evidently the most damaged in the 
action, went down about three and a half miles from Fort Sumter and 
three-quarters of a mile from Morris Island. The remainder of the fleet 
were repairing damages. Preparations for repulsing a renewed attack 
were progressed with in accordance with the instructions of the command- 
ing general, who visited Fort Sumter on that day. A detachment of sea- 
men, under Flag Officer W. F. Lynch, arrived from Wilmington, and on 
the 9th temporarily relieved the artillerists in charge of Battery Gregg. 
The operations of the enemy's fleet consisted only of supply and repair. 
Towards evening of the 9th, a raft, apparently for removing torpedoes or 
obstructions, was towed inside the bar. Nothing of importance occurred 
during the 10th. During the night of the 10th, Lieutenant-Colonel Dargan, 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 117 

of the Twenty-first South Carolina Regiment, crossed Light House Inlet, 
drove bacli the enemy's picket with' loss, and returned with one prisoner. 

On the nth, there were indications that the attacking fleet were about to 
withdraw ; and on the 12th, at highwater, the Ironsides crossed the bar and 
took up her position with the blockading fleet; and the monitors steamed 
and went toward the southward — leaving only the sunken Keokuk as a 
monument of their attack and discomflture. 

"In this, the first trial of the enemy's' iron fleet against brick fortifica- 
tions and their first attempt to enter the harbor of Charleston, in which 
they were beaten before their adversaries thought action had well com- 
menced, they were opposed by seventy-six pieces in all, including mortars. 
Thirty-seven of these, exclusive of mortars, were above the caliber of 
thirty-two pounders. The guns which the enemy brought to bear were, 
if their own account is to be believed, thirty-six in number, including 
eight-inch rifled, eleven, thirteen and flfteen-inch guns, which would make 
their weight of metal at one discharge nearly, if not quite, equal to that 
thrown by the batteries. 

"During the action Brigadier-General Trapier, commanding 2nd sub- 
division of this District, was present at Fort Moultrie. Brigadier-General 
Gist, commanding 1st subdivision, at Fort Johnson. Colonel R. F. Graham, 
commanding 3rd subdivision, at Morris Island, and Colonel L. M. Keitt, 
commanding Sullivan's Island, at Battery Bee, attending to their duties, 
and awaiting the developments of the attack. 

"The action, however, was purely of artillery ; forts and batteries against 
Ironclad vessels — other means of defense, obstructions and torpedoes not 
having come into play. Fort Sumter was the principal object of the enemy's 
attack and to that garrison, under its gallant commander, Colonel Alfred 
Rhett, ably seconded by Lieutenant-Colonel Yates, and Major Blanding, 
and all the officers and men, special credit is due for sustaining the shock 
and with their powerful armament contributing principally to the repulse. 
The garrison of F6rt Moultrie, under Colonel William Butler, seconded by 
Major Baker and the other officers and soldiers, upheld the historic repu- 
tation of that fort and contributed their full share to the result. The 
powerful batteries of Battery Bee was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
John C. Simkins* and were served with great effect. Battery Wagner, 
under Major Cleland F. Huger; Battery Gregg, Lieutenant Lesene, and 
Battery Beauregard, under Captain Sitgreaves, all did their part according 
to their armament. 

"Indeed, from the reports of commanders, it is hard to make any dis- 
tinction where all did their duty with zeal and devotion. Those cases which 
have been ascertained will be found in the reports of the subordinate com- 
manders. The steady preparation for receiving a renewed attack, and the 
discipline of the troops, especially in the garrison of Fort Sumter, the labor 
being necessarily great, have been quite as creditable as their cond-;<?t 
under Are. 

•Killed at Wagner, 18 July. 

118 Memoirs op the War of Secession 

"While service in immediate action is that which is most conspicuous 
after such a result has been accomplish-ed, the greater credit is due to that 
long, patient and laborious preparation by which our works and material, 
never originally intended to withstand such an attack as this, have been 
so prepared as to enable our gallant and well-instructed officers and men 
to obtain their end with comparatively small loss. In that preparation the 
late Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas M. Wagner contributed much on both sides 
of the channel, and Colonel EJiett and Lieutenant-Colonel Yates, Major 
Blanding and other officers of Fort Sumter have been more or less engaged 
since the fort fell into our hands two years since. Colonel Butler, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Simkins, and other officers of the First South Carolina 
Infantry, have been for more than a year engaged in the work on Sul- 
livan's Island. Besides various officers of engineers and other branches 
of the department staff known to the commanding general have been at 
different times principal contributors in the work, and although in the 
limits of this report it is impossible to mention all to whom credit is due, 
it is well that works like these, without which in such emergencies as the 
present personal gallantry avails nought, should be appreciated. 

"During the seven days while the presence of the enemy's fleet threatened 
action. Captain William F. Nance, principal Assistant Adjutant General on 
the District staff, performed his difficult duties in the administration of a 
command of twenty thousand men in a prompt, judicious and efficient man- 
ner. He was assisted by Lieutenants H. H. Rogers and W. H. Wagner, 
aid-de-camps. Captain F. B. DuBarry, District Ordnance Officei", was 
especially active and energetic in the supply of ammunition and material 
for the batteries. He was assisted by Lieutenant C. 0. Pinckney. 

"Captain B. H. Read, Assistant Adjutant-General, Colonel Edward Mani- 
gault, and Lieutenant-Colonel St. Clair Dearing, volunteers upon the staff, 
were present during the action at Fort Sumter. Captain Seabrook, volun- 
teer aid-de-camp, and Lieutenant Schirmlee, enrolling officer and acting 
aid-de-eamp, were generally with me during the active period and all were 
energetic and prompt In the duties required of them. To Majors Motte A. 
Pringle and Norman W. Smith, post and district quartermasters, and 
Captain McCleneghan, assistant commissary sergeant, many thanks should 
be rendered. The duties of the quartermaster's department were exces- 
sively laborious on account of the limited means of transportation, and it 
is a matter of congratulation that with such means they were so well per- 
formed. Captain John S. Ryan, A. C. S., acted on my immediate staff. 

"The reports of the engineer officers will inform the commanding general 
of the condition of the various works as well as of the action of the 
officers in that branch of the service. 

"I have the honor to transmit herewith a return of the guns engaged, a 
return of the ammunition expended, and a numerical return of casualties, 
together with the reports of the different commanders. 

"I have also to transmit herewith two Federal ensigns obtained from the 
Keokuk as she lies off Morris Island beach, by Lieutenant Glassell, C. S. 
Navy, one of which is evidently the ensign under which she fought and was 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 


worsted. None of the ironclad fleets flew large flags,, the object having 
doubtless been to avoid presenting a mark to our artillerists. 
"I have the honor to be 

"Very respectfully, 

"R. S. KlPLEY, 

"Brigadier-General, Commanding." 


Fort Sumter Wounded 5 

Fort Moultrie Wounded 1 

Battery Wagner Wounded 5 killed 3 (by explosion ammuni- 

— tion chest) 
Total Casualties. . • 14 
























Fort Sumter 
















Fort Moultrie 

Batter V Bee 










Total 76 


Round Shot 1,539 Shot Bolts 233 

Round Shell 98 Friction tubes 2,856 

Shot, Rifle 359 Cannon Powder 21,093 lbs. 

Eesuming operations against Charleston, General Gilmore, on 
the 10th July, assaulted and carried the south end of Morris 
Island. His infantry moved in a flotilla of small boats from the 
north end of FoUey Island under cover of a heavy fire from 
batteries on the latter constructed without attracting serious 
attention from the Confederates. The movement M^as well 
planned and executed with considerable dash. Co-operative with 
it was the attempt to cut the Charleston and Savannah Eailroad 

120 Memoirs or the War op Secession 

at Jacksonboro, the failure of which has already been mentioned 
in speaking o:? events in the Second Military District, and a 
demonstration in force from Stono on James Island. 

Upon reporting on the evening of the 10th July at General 
Beauregard's headquarters in pursuance of the dispatch received 
at Barnwell, General Hagood was sent to James Island to take 
command of that sub-district. All day from Blackville down, 
whenever the cars stopped, the booming of the guns from Morris 
Island could be heard. Captain Moloney, Assistant Adjutant 
General, was with Geperal Hagood, and Mr. William Izard Bull, 
acting as volunteer aide to General Beauregard, was by order of 
the latter directed to report to him for temporary duty. General 
Hagood arrived on the island about 12 o'clock at night, and 
learned from Colonel Simonton, in command, the condition of 
affairs. The enemy were in force on the Stdno shore of the 
island, with gunboats and transports in the river. Our defensive 
works were the same as at the close of the Secessionville cam- 
paign; nothing had been done to them save at Secessionville, 
which had been much strengthened. These works looked only 
to an advance from the Stono front; and the enemy, now 
holding FoUey and the south end of Morris Island with their 
transports in Light House Inlet, were in rear of their left flank 
with an uninterrupted water approach of from one and a half 
to two miles available for light-draft steamers, and the landings 
not even picketed. Had a flotilla of boats with two thousand 
men and a light battery landed that night at Legare's Landing, 
it is probable that Fort Johnson, unentrenched to the rear, would 
have fallen before day ; and, within the limits of possibility, that 
before the following night the whole of James Island except the 
garrison of Secessionville and Fort Pemberton, which would have 
been cut off and isolated, would have been in their possession. A 
vigorous co-operative march of General Terry's force on the 
Stono side of the island, against the center of our line by way 
of Eoyall's house, would have made it almost a certain thing; 
and then the northern shore of James Island held by four thou- 
sand men would have been safe against any force at Beauregard's 
command for several days. Gilmore could have re-enforced 
afterward as fast as Beauregard, had the James instead of the 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 121 

Morris Island route to Charleston been taken. This was at that 
time and for a day or two the promising plan. 

The Confederate force on James Island consisted of the regi- 
ment of Frederick (late Lamar's), the battalions of White and 
Lucas, three companies of Rhett's — all heavy artillery; the siege 
train, consisting of four companies under Major Manigault, some 
cavalry as couriers, and one regiment of infantry, the Twenty- 
fifth South Carolina, under Colonel Simonton. This last was 
the only force available for movement. The heavy artillerists 
M'ere barely enough to garrison the three forts in which they 
were stationed and to man the few guns in position on the lines. 
Major Manigault was with all dispatch moved that night from 
his camp near Wappoo to Legare's Landing, where he arrived 
at daylight and immediately proceeded to erect epaulements for 
his siege guns. This was the beginning of Battery Haskell and 
the series of works on the eastern shore of the island. The enemy 
on the Stono under General Terry remained quiet, advancing 
feheir pickets without opposition some short distance. General 
Beauregard rapidly pushed re-enforcements over to James Island 
as they arrived. Large working parties of negroes were, together 
with the troops, kept steadily at work, and in a few days the 
opportunity of doing anything by surprise or assault on James 
Island had passed away. 

Subsequently General W. B. Taliaferro was assigned to the 
command of James Island, and Generals Hagood and A. H. Col- 
quitt commanded the eastern and western divisions of the lines 
respectively under him. Secessionville was the dividing point in 
these sub-commands. These general officers served with others 
on the detail of commanders on Morris Island during the opera- 
tions in that quarter, and when not on duty there resumed their 
positions on James Island. 

General Hagood's tours of duty on Morris Island were : From 
the 18th to 22nd July, from the 6th to 10th August, from the 21st 
to 25th August; arriving and leaving generally on the nights of 
these respective dates. His next tour of duty would have com- 
menced on the 7th September. The island was evacuated on the 
previous night. Of his staff. Captain Moloney, acting adjutant- 
general, and his aides, Ben Martin and Tracy, with his orderly, 
S. N. Bellinger, always accompanied him. Majors Hay and 

122 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Lartigue and Captain Hayne, commissary quartermaster and 
ordnance officer, were with him on the first tour ; afterwards these 
offices on the island were made post offices and others filled them. 
Lieutenant- Colonel Del. Kemper served the first tour with him 
as chief of artillery. This officer had distinguished himself in 
"Virginia at First Manassas, and subsequently an unclosed wound 
in his shoulder unfitted him for field duty and he was sent to this 
department, where he served the rest of the war. He was in 
person very like General Beauregard, of high mental and social 
culture, and an officer of much dash and merit. General Hagood 
was thrown much with him and formed a warm regard. for him. 
Lieutenant- Colonel Welsman Brown served the second tour as 
chief of artillery, and Major F. F. Warley the third. These 
officers all discharged their duties with credit to themselves and 
to the entire satisfaction of their chief. Captain Moloney 
especially was invaluable, cool, intelligent and indefatigable. He 
relieved the command of half its burthen. 

The period of active operations against Charleston, looking t»' 
its direct capture, was from 10th July to 10th September. 
Afterward the siege was marked only by the bombardment of 
Sumter and the city, with comparatively harmless cannonading 
of each other by the opposing batteries and some slrirmishes. 
This continued until the spring of 1864, when Gilmore and Beau- 
regard were both, with the bulk of their troops, transferred to 
the theatre of war in Virginia, where the conflict was then cul- 
minating, and Charleston was left with a skeleton garrison to 
hold its own against a force adequate to little more than protect 
from assault the long-range guns which continued day and night 
to hurl their crashing and exploding missiles into the ruins of 
the devoted city. For twelve months longer this continued, 
while the contest upon which depended alike the fate of Charles- 
ton and the Confederacy was elsewhere prosecuted to the bitter 
end. At length in the spring of '65, when all that was left of the 
Confederacy was concentrated for the last desperate hazard, the 
garrison of Charleston, her artillerists converted into infantry, 
silently and sadly, and bearing with them their warworn banners, 
marched to strengthen the hands of Johnston in North Carolina. 
There, upon the fields of Averysboro and Bentonville, in two 
field fights, they lost nearly as many men in killed and wounded 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 123 

as in all their service under Gilmore's guns and before his assail- 
ing columns. So much for the art of the engineer. 

In arranging the material of this memoir of the siege, General 
Beauregard's report embracing the time from his assumption 
of command until the evacuation of Morris Island is taken ; then 
General Ripley's report continues the narrative till the 10th of 
September; and from that time till the departure of General 
Hagood for Virginia in May, '64, his recollection is relied upon. 
In notes to these olRcial papers, the writer has embodied such 
comments as appeared to him proper. 

Of events in and around Charleston, subsequent to April, '64, 
in the absence of personal knowledge or official reports, no 
attempt will be made to give an account. 


Department Georgia, South Carolina and Florida. 

General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector General. 

General : I arrived in Charleston on the 13th September, 1862, 
and assumed command on the 24th. In the interval I was 
engaged in ascertEtaning the plans and measures of Major-General 
Pemberton, my predecessor, for the defense, particularly of 
Charleston and Savannah, and in a rapid inspection of the condi- 
tion and defensive resources of the department,., the. results of 
which were communicated to the War Department in two papers, 
dated the one relative to Charleston on the 3rd, and the other 
chiefly concerning Savannah on the 10th of October, 1862. 

At the time the troops in this department as organized con- 
sisted : 

In South Carolina — 

Infantry 6,564 

Artillery in position 1,787 

Artillery in field 1,379 

Cavalry. 2,817 


Note. — See PubUcations by U. S. Government of Official Records of the War of 
the Rebellion, Series I, Vol. XXVIII, Parts ] and 2. 

124 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

In Georgia — 

Infantry 3,834 

Artillery in position .. .. 1,330 

Artillery in field 445 

Cavalry 1,580 


Total of all arms 19,736 

Of this force 1,787 artillery in position, 727 light artillerists, 
4,139 infantry and 410 cavalry were assembled in the First Mili- 
tary District for the defense of Charleston; and 1,330 artillery 
in position, 445 light artillery, 3,834 infantry and 1,580 cavalry 
for the defense of Savannah. My predecessor before being 
relieved furnished me with his estimate of the smallest number 
of troops which he regarded as essential for the defense of 
Charleston and Savannah, to-wit : 
For the defense of Charleston — 

Infantry 15,600 

Artillery in position 2,850 

Cavalry 1,000 


and 9 light batteries. - 

For the defense of E. E. (Charleston & 
Savannah) land approaches — 
Of aU arms 11,000 

For defense of Savannah — 

Infantry 10,000 

Artillery in position 1,200 

Cavalry 2,000 


and 8 light batteries. 

Total exclusive of light battery 43,650 

Hence a total of 25,216 troops of all arms additional to those 
in the department were needed to meet this estimate. 

On the 7th April, 1863, the day of the ironclad attack on Fort 
Sumter, the troops at my disposal in South Carolina and Georgia 
gave an effective total of 30,040, distributed as follows : 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 125 

In the First Military District 11,229 

In the Second Military District 2,849 

In the Third Military District 5,837 

Georgia 10,125 

But the withdrawal of Cook's Brigade to North Carolina, 
immediately after the repulse of the ironclad fleet, of Brigadier- 
General S. E. Gist's and W. H. T. Walker's brigades and light 
batteries about the 4th May, reduced my force materially. The 
Department is aware of the circumstances under which this 
reduction took place, and in tibiis connection I beg to refer to my 
letter to the Honorable Secretary of War of the 10th May and 
to General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector General, of June 
15th and July 20th, 1863. 
The force in the First Military District on the 10th July was : 

Infantry 2,462 

Artillery, heavy and light 2,839 

Cavalry 560 


In Second Military District, of all arms 1,398 

In Third Military District, of all arms 2,517 

In District of Georgia of all arms 5,542 

Grand total* 15,318 

Meanwhile, as in duty bound by numerous telegrams and let- 
ters during the month of April, May, June and July, I kept the 
War Department advised both through yourself and directly of 
the threatening nature of the enemy's preparations upon the 
coast of my department and of my own fears concerning the 
imminence of an attack. On the 25th of April, however, in 
answer to- my telegram of the preceding day asking for heavy 
guns for Morris Island and other points, the Secretary of War 
telegraphs : 

"I regret to be unable to spare the guns even for the object 
mentioned. The claims of Wilmington and of the Mississippi are 
now regarded as paramount." 

•Gllmore, In his "Operations against Charleston," p. 21, states his force at 
17,463, exclusive of his naval strength. — J. H. 

126 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

On the 1st May I was directed to send a full brigade to North 
Carolina to report to General Hill, and in compliance General 
Clingman's Brigade was dispatched. The following day the 
Secretary of War telegraphed, "Advices show the enemy aban- 
doning their attack on the eastern coasts, and concentrating great 
forces on the Mississippi River. Send with the utmost dispatch 
eight or ten thousand men, including those heretofore ordered to 
Tullahoma, to General Pemberton's relief." 

My answer was : "No orders sending troops to Tullahoma have 
been received. Cook's and Clingman's brigades have been 
returned to North Carolina. Have ordered 5,000 infantry and 
two batteries to report forthwith to General Pemberton, leaving 
only 10,000 infantry available for the whole of South Carolina 
and Georgia. Cannot send more without abandoning Charleston 
and Savannah Railroad. Shall await further orders. Enemy 
still occupy in force FoUey and Seabrooks Islands and Port 
Royal. To reduce this command further might become disas- 

On the 4th May I sent the following dispatch to Secretary of 
War : "Enemy's fleet reported at Hilton's Head and Port Royal 
yesterday is four steam frigates, five wooden gunboats, six ships, 
four barges, three brigs, five ocean steamers, six river steamers, 
five tugs, eighty-seven transports and fifty-eight schooners, being 
one hundred and eighty-three in all — a very remarkable increase 
since last report." 

Hon. Mr. Sedden, Secretary of War, telegraphed on 9th May : 
"Foster, with his own and part of Hunter's forces, is believed to 
have returned to North Carolina. More re-enforcements to Gen- 
eral Pemberton are indispensable. If General Evans's brigade 
has returned to you send 5,000 men ; if not, with a number which 
with that will make 5,000 men." On the following day I tele- 
graphed in reply : "To the Secretary of War : The order sending 
additional troops to Pemberton will be executed. Evans's Bri- 
gade included have but 1,000 infantry to support extensive lines 
and batteries at Savannah, but 750 infantry to hold line of rail- 
road to Savannah, virtually yielding up that country and large 
stores of rice to the enemy, as well as opening even Charleston 
and Augusta and Columbia Railroads to attack at Branchville, 
leaving here 1,500 infantry at most, all of which will be known 

Hagood's 1st. 12 Months S. C. V. 127 

to the enemy in a few days. Meantime General W. S. Walker 
reports increased strength of enemy's ■ outposts in his vicinity. 
Hagpod reports 2,500 infantry on Seabrooks Island fortifying, 
five monitors still there. Enemy in force on Folley Island, 
actively erecting batteries there yesterday. Season favorable for 
enemy's operations for quite a month." 

On the 12th, I telegraphed to the Honorable Secretary of War 
as follows : 

"Have ordered to General Pemberton (contrary to my opinion) 
Evans's Brigade and one regiment amounting to 2,700 men, 
leaving only 6,000 infantry available in the whole of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia. The other 1,000 will await further orders of 
Department. General Evans reports two brigades of the enemy 
on Folley Island yesterday. Please answer." A letter to the 
same address on the 11th May exhibited certain conditions and 
explanations, being more fully my views on the subject of an 
attack, with the object of showing to the War Department the 
actual menacing aspect of the enemy on the coast of my depart- 
ment. I transcribe an extract from that letter. . . . 

"A week ago, under your orders, I put in motion for Jackson, 
Miss., two brigades under Generals Gist and W. H. T. Walker, 
the former commanding South Carolina, and the latter Georgia 
troops, — somewhat over 5,000 infantry in all, and two light bat- 
teries of the best class in the department. Your orders have been 
based apparently upon the conviction that the troops of the 
enemy assembled in this department for operations against 
Charleston have been mainly withdrawn and directed to other 
expeditions in North Carolina and the Valley of the Mississippi. 
This conviction I regret I cannot share, as I am satisfied from 
the reports of the district commanders, and from other reasons, 
that there has been really but little reduction of the command 
of Major-General Hunter. General Walker, commanding at 
Pocotaligo, reports that on yesterday the outposts of the enemy 
in his front had been much increased in strength. General 
Hagood reports them to be occupying Seabrooks Island with at 
least 2,500 infantry. They are erecting fortifications at that 
point, as well as on Folley Island, which is likewise still occupied 
in force. Five of the monitors remain in North Edisto with some 
twenty gunboats and transports. With these and the transports 

128 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

still in the waters of Port Eoyal, and the forces which I am 
unable to doubt are still at the disposal of the enemy, he may 
renew the attack by land and water on Charleston at any moment. 
Acting on the offensive and commanding the time of attack, he 
could simultaneously call troops here from North Carolina, and 
sooner than my command could be re-enforced from any quarter 
out of the department. ... A letter to you of the 20th May 
further calls attention to the fact that important changes are 
reported to be on foot in the armament of the monitors and 
urges strenuously that Fort Sumter be armed comformably with 
the original plan, with the heaviest guns, rifled or smooth bore, 
which could be obtained, in anticipation of a renewal of the 
attack of the 7th April. I was informed, however, through your 
letter of lOth June, that Northern papers report the reduction 
of Hunter's force by sending troops to the gulf. If this be true, 
you will with such force as you can properly withdraw from your 
defensive lines proceed to Mobile to resist an attack if one be 
designed at that place, but if the purpose of the enemy be to send 
his forces to the Mississippi, you will go on and co-operate with 
General Johnston in that quarter." 

This I answered by telegram on the 13th of same month as fol- 
lows : "Enemy's ironclads and forces still as heretofore reported 
to department, except a gunboat expedition reported in Altamaha, 
and one preparing for St. John's Eiver, Fla. I will prepare 
as far as practicable for contingencies referred to in Department 
letter of the 10th inst. Please send me any positive information 
relative to movements or intentions of enemy. But in order that 
the War Department should be thoroughly cognizant of the state 
of affairs in my department, I further addressed to you on the 
13th June a letter in which I pointed out how utterly insufficient 
were the forces at my command to resist those of the enemy and 
that on my responsibility I could not further deplete the force in 
the department. I drew your attention in the same letter to the 
danger of an attack by way of Morris Island — indeed, to the verj' 
route which General Gilmore has since operated. I take the fol- 
lowing extracts from that letter : 

"... Thus it will be seen that the force in this department 
is already at the minimum necessary to hold the works around 
Charleston and Savannah constantly menaced by the "proximity 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. Q, Y- 12!9 

of the enemy's ironclads. The garrison of no work in this harbor 
can be withdrawn or diminished, as they are all necessary links 
in the chain of defense. Eeduce the command on James Island, 
and the enemy may readily penetrate by such a coup de main as 
was attempted last year at the weakened point. James Island 
would then fall, and despite our harbor defenses the City of 
Charleston would be thrown open to bombardment. It is not safe 
to have less than a regiment of infantry on Morris Island, which, 
if once carried by the enemy, would expose Fort Sumter to be 
taken in reverse and demolished. . . . Late Northern papers 
say Admiral Du Pont has been relieved of the command of the 
fleet on this coast by Admiral Foot, an officer whose operations 
in the west evinced much activity and enterprising spirit. And 
even were considerable reductions made in the enemy's forces, 
the valuable coast districts would be left a prey to such destruc- 
tive raids as devastated the Combahee a few days ago. Thus far, 
however, I can see no reduction. General Hunter was at Hilton 
Head on the 8th July ; his troops hold the same positions as here- 
tofore and apparently in the ssime force — a brigade on FoUey, one 
on Seabrooks Island and the balance oji the islands about Port 
Eoyal. One of these monitors is at Hilton Head and five in the 
North Edisto. Nor has the number of their gunboats and trans- 
ports diminished or at any time recently been increased, as must 
have been the case had a material removal of troops taken place." 

On the 25th June his Excellency, President Davis, telegraphed 
the following : "From causes into which it is needless- to enter, 
the control of the Mississippi connection between the States east 
and west of it will be lost unless Johnston is strongly and 
promptly re-enforced within the next sixty days. Can you give 
him further aid without the probable loss of Charleston -and 
Savannah? I need not state to you that the issue is vital ^o the 
Confederacy." My answer was : "Telegram received. No more 
troops can be spared from this department without losing rail- 
road and country between here and Savannah. Georgetown Dis- 
trict will also have to be abandoned. See my letter to General 
Cooper of the 15th inst." 

Thus on the 10th July, 1863, I had but 5,861 men in the First 
Military District guarding the fortifications around Charleston 
(or more than one-third the troops in my department) with an 

9— H 


Memoirs of the "War of Secession 

Clwrkstoii and Ifs'IkkncEs 

/863 - 1864- 


Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 131 

enemy whose base of operations threatened Savannah, the line 
of coast, and the important railroad connecting the latter city 
with the former, with such immense transportation resources at 
his command as to enable him to concentrate and strike at will 
at any selected point before I could gather my troops to oppose. 
In attacking Charleston itself five different routes of approach 
present themselves to an enemy. First, by landing a large force 
to the northward, say, at Bulls Bay, marching across the country 
and seizing Mt. Pleasant and the northern shores of the inner 
harbor. Second, by landing a large force to the southward, 
cutting the line of the Charleston and Savannah Kailroad and 
taking Charleston in rear. Neither of these routes did I consider 
practicable or likely to be adopted by the enemy, as his numerical 
force would not. have allowed him to cope with us, unless under 
the shelter of his gunboats and ironclads, a fact which General 
Gilmore has always carefully recognized. Before he adopts the 
overland approaches he will require a large addition to his land 
forces. The third, fourth and fifth approaches by James Island, 
Sullivan's Island and Morris Island, respectively, permitted the 
co-operation of the navy; and I always believed, as experience 
has demonstrated, that of the three immediate routes to Charles- 
ton, that by James Island was the most dangerous to us and the 
one which should be defended at all hazards ; that by Sullivan's 
Island ranking next; and that by Morris Island last in import- 
ance for the following reasons: An enemy, who could gain a 
firm foothold on James Island and overpower its garrison (at 
that time having to defend a long, defective and irregular line 
of works), could have erected batteries commanding the Inner 
Harbor, at once taking in rear our outer line of defenses, and by a 
direct fire on Charleston compel its evacuation in a short period ; 
because in such case it would have become of no value as a strat- 
egic position, and prudence and humanity would alike revolt at 
the sacrifice of life necessary to enable us to retain possession of 
its ruins. The route by Sullivan's Island was also of great 
importance, for the occupation of that island would not only 
have enabled the enemy to reduce Fort Sumter, as an artillery 
fortress, but would also have given entire control of the entrance 
to the inner harbor to his ironclad fleet. At that time, owing to 
the want of labor and of heavy guns, the important works which 

132 Memoirs or the War op Secession 

now line the shores of the inner harbor had not been erected and 
armed, and the enemy's fleet would have been able to shell the city 
comparatively unmolested, and by controlling and cutting off 
our communication with Fort Sumter and Morris Island would 
have soon necessitated their surrender or evacuation. 

The remaining route by Morris Island was certainly the least 
injurious to us; for the occupation of that island by the enemy 
neither involved the evacuation of Fort Sumter, the destruction 
of the city by a direct fire as from James Island, nor the com- 
mand by the ironclad fleet of movements in the inner harbor. 
The James Island route I had long thought the most likely to be 
attempted by the enemy, as its proximity to Folley Island (for 
many months back in their possession) gave them facilities for the 
execution of a coup de main, whilst the neighboring harbor of 
North Edisto gave thfeir fleet a convenient shelter from bad 
weather, which they could not have had on the long island coast 
had their attack been by way of Sullivan's Island. Moreover the 
seizure of the island would have given the Federal Government 
opportunity of making capital with its own people and with 
foreign powers.* 

To counteract these very apparent advantages of the enemy, I 
had several months previously planned and ordered to be erected 
on the south end of Morris Island suitable works. On Black 
Island, which lies between James and Morris Islands and from 
its position enfilades Light House Inlet, between Morris and 
Folley Islands, I had determined to build two batteries for two 
guns each. This island was further to have been connected with 
the mainland by a branch from the bridge, planned to connect 
James and Morris Islands, and nearly completed when the enemy 
made their attack in July.f At Vincent's Creek a battery had 
been commenced and had it been completed would have played 
effectively upon the sand hills on the south end of Morris Island. 
Battery Wagner was substantially strengthened and arranged 
for these guns on the sea face, but owing to the scarcity of labor 

•Note A, 

tThe general Is mistaken here. It should have been completed had his orders 
been carried out, but was In fact barely commenced. In sending General Hagood 
to command at Morris Island the first time, General B. spoke of this bridge as a 
means of communication ; and could scarcely believe General Hagood, who had seen 
It but the day before, when he spoke of Its unfinished state. — J. H. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 133 

and the want of the necessary ordnance to put in the works on 
the south end of Morris Island, they were not, on the 10th July, 
in that condition which would have characterized them had I 
had sufficient labor, transportation and ordnance at my dis- 
posal. Labor and transportation have always been serious draw- 
backs, not only to the defense of Charleston, but of the whole 
department. In reference to the labor question, I may here 
state that no subject relative to the defense of this department 
has engrossed more of my attention. Constant appeals were made 
to the Governors and Legislature of South Carolina and to emi- 
nent citizens since my first arrival, but few seemed to appreciate 
the vital necessity of securing the proper amount of slave labor 
for the fortifications of Charleston, and instead of the State pro- 
viding 2,500 negroes monthly, as desired by me for Charleston, 
I received for the first six months of 1863 the following number 
of negroes from the State authorities, viz. : In January, 196 ; 
in February, 261; March, 864; April, 491; May, 107, and June, 
60, being 1,979 in all, and an average of 350 monthly. Conse- 
quently, I had to detain these hands longer than 30 days, which 
was the original term of service required for each negro. This 
step caused considerable, discontent among the owners of slaves, 
and in the month of July, 1863, the number of negro hands in 
the employ of the engineer department, provided under my call 
on the State, amounted to only 299 hands. In the meanwhile 
the troops of the command, in addition to their regular duties, 
were employed in erecting fortifications, nearly the whole of the 
works on the south end of Morris Island having been thrown up 
by its garrison. The engineer department used every exertion to 
hire labor, but their efforts were not crowned with appreciable 

In the middle of June the batteries on the south end of Morris 
Island were engaged with the enemy on FoUey Island, and 
undoubtedly retarded the progress of their operations, as the 
following extract from the reports of Brigadier-General Eipley 
will show : 

"... June 12th, 1863. — ^The enemy having advanced light guns 
to the extremity .of Folley Island (Little FoUey) yesterday to 
shell the wreck of the steamer 'Kuby' now ashore at Light House 
Inlet, in accordance with directions, Captain Mitchel, command- 

134 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

ing the batteries on south end of Morris Island, opened fire, 
silencing them at the second shot. This morning I gave instruc- 
tions to open fire in case he observed any indications of work 
on Little FoUey on the part of the enemy; and this afternoon, 
about 5 o'clock, seeing parties apparently at work, he commenced 
shelling. About fifty men left Little FoUey for the main island. 
The enemy replied from his batteries on Big FoUey, and from his 
light guns." Again, on the 14th June, the same officer reports: 
"... The enemy having appeared to be at work on Little FoUey, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Yates opened fire upon them, shelling them for 
about three-quarters of an hour, and putting a stop to their oper- 
ations, which appeared to be erecting a shelter or battery near 
the inlet.*" At the time of the attack on Charleston in the begin- 
ning of April the enemy occupied Big FoUeyf and Seabrooks 
Island in force estimated at one or two brigades. This force was 
increased to about four brigades before July 10th, a considerable 
number of troops landing on Coles and James Islands. During 
the latter part of June and up to the first week in July, no extra- 
ordinary activity was manifested by the enemy. On Big FoUey 
Island they were occupied as usual in fortifying the neck, 
strongly picketing Little FoUey and interfering with wrecking- 
parties on the steamer Ruby. On the morning of the 7th July, four 
monitors appeared off the bar, but no other increase of the fleet in 
that direction was observable. On tlie night of the 8th of July, a 
scouting party under Captain Charles Haskell visited Little 
FoUey and discovered the enemy's barges collected in the creeks 
approaching Morris Island. Commencing on the 7th July, and for 
the three succeeding days, working parties of the enemy were seen 
engaged on Little FoUey, supposed to be in erecting light works 
for guns. The wood on the island, but more especially the con- 
figuration of the ground which consists of sand hills, gave the 
enemy every facility for the concealment of his designs. On the 

•"Most of the work on the batteries and all the transportation to them had to be 
done at night and in silence. . . . The fact that 47 pieces of artillery with 
200 rounds of ammunition to each gun provided with parapets, splinter proof shel- 
ters and magazines were secretly placed in the battery within speaking distance of 
the enemy's pickets . . . furnishes by no means the least Interesting incident." 
Gllmore's operations before Charleston, p. 26. 

tThe extreme north end of FoUey Island at very high tides was separated from 
the rest of the island. This gave rise to the distinction of Big Policy and Little 
Folley. The Island was densely wooded. — J. H. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 135 

night of the 8th July, considerable noise from chopping was 
heard, and in the morning some works were discernible, the wood 
and brush having been cleared away from their front. On the 
night of the 9th July, an immediate attack being anticipated, the 
whole of the infantry force on the island was kept under arms at 
the south end. 

At 5 o'clock on the morning of the 10th July, the enemy's 
attack commenced by a heavy fire from a great number of light 
guns, apparently placed during the last forty-eight hours in the 
works lately thrown up on Little FoUey Island. Their monitors 
about the same time crossed the bar and brought their formidable 
armament to bear upon the left flank of our position, while 
several howitzers on barges on Light House Inlet flanked our 
right. For two hour§ the enemy kept up their fire from these 
three different points, our batteries replying vigorously. The 
barges of the enemy having been seen in Light House Inlet in the 
direction of Black Island, and Oyster Point being the most 
accessible point for debarkation for them, it was justly considered 
the one most necessary to protect, and, therefore, the infantry, 
consisting of the Twenty-first South Carolina, about 350 men, 
were stationed by Colonel E. F. Graham, the immediate com- 
mander of the island, on the peninsular leading to that point. In 
this position the infantry were unavoidably exposed to the fire 
of the boat howitzers, but sheltered by the nature of the ground 
from that of the guns on Little FoUey. 

About 7 o'clock the enemy advanced on Oyster Point in a 
flotilla of boats, containing between two and three thousand men, 
a considerable portion of whom endeavored to effect a landing, 
in which they were opposed by the infantry until 8 o'clock, when 
another force of two or three regiments made good a landing in 
front of our batteries on the south end of Morris Island proper. 
These formed a line of battle on the beach and advanced directly 
upon our works, throwing out on east flank numerous skirmishers 
who very soon succeeded in flanking and taking in reverse the 
batteries. After an obstinate resistance, our artillerists had to 
abandon their pieces and fall back, leaving in possession of the 
enemy three 8-inch navy guns (shells), two 8-inch seacoast how- 
itzers, one rifle 24 dr., one 30 dr. Parrott, one 12 dr. Whitworth, 
and three 10-inch seacoast mortars — eleven pieces in all. Two 

136 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

companies of the Seventh South Carolina Battalion, which 
arrived about this time, were ordered to the support of the bat- 
teries, but they could not make head against the overwhelming 
numbers of the enemy. This success of the enemy threatened to 
cut off our infantry engaged at Oyster Point from their line of 
retreat, and, consequently, about 9 o'clock. Colonel Graham gave 
the order to fall back on Battery Wagner, which was accom- 
plished under a severe flanking fire from the monitor. 

The enemy thus gained possession of the south end of Morris 
Island by rapidly throwing across the inlet a large number of 
troops, which it was impossible for the available infantry on the 
spot, about four hundred men, to resist. It was not the erection 
of the works on Little Folley that caused the abandonment of our 
position. It was clearly the want on our side of infantry sup- 
ports, and the enemy's superior number and weight of guns. The 
woods that remained unfelled on Little Folley were of no 
material use to the enemy, for, even had there been labor to 
remove them (which I never had), the formation of the ground 
being a series of ridges of sand hills formed a screen which hid 
the enemy's movements completely from us, and afforded all 
the concealment he could desire. The attack was not a surprise ; 
neither was the erection of works on Little Folley unknown to 
the local commander of these headquarters. The enemy, indeed, 
made little effort to conceal them. With a sufficient infantry 
support on Morris Island, the result of the attack on the 10th 
July, I am confident, would have been different; but, as I have 
already explained, the threatening position of the enemy on 
James Island entirely precluded the withdrawal of a single 
Soldier from its defense 'until the point of attack had been fully 
developed, and the only re-enforcements that could be sent to 
Morris Island (the Seventh South Carolina Battalion, some 300 
men^) arrived too late to be of any material service on the morn- 
ing of the 10th July. The long protracted defense of Battery 
Wagner must not be compared with the evacuation of the south 
end of Morris Island to the discredit of the latter movement. 
The two defenses are not analogous. In the one a large extent 
of exposed ground had to be guarded by an entirely inadequate 
force; in the other a strong earthwork with a narrow line of 
approach could be held successfully by a body of men numer- 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 137 

ically quite insufficient to have opposed the landing of an enemy 
on the south end of Morris Island. 

Whilst the enemy on the 9th July was threatening Morris 
Island, he also made a strong demonstration against James 
Island by the Stono Eiver. At 12 m. on that day, Colonel Simon- 
ton, commanding at Secessionville, telegraphed : "The enemy are 
landing on Battery Island. Their advanced pickets and our's are 
firing. Pickets from Grimballs (on the Stono higher up) 
report the enemy landing at that point." Their gunboats and a 
monitor proceeded up the river as far as the obstructions. On 
the morning of the 10th July, whilst the attack was progressing 
on Morris Island, Colonel Simonton telegraphed that the main 
body of the enemy were moving in force from Battery Island to 
Legare's house. Later in the day, however, he telegraphed that the 
reported advance was premature — "They are in force on Battery 
Island." Though the demonstration of the enemy on Stono and 
on James Island was made to distract our attention from Morris 
Island, yet it was made in such force that at any moment it 
could have been converted into a real attack of the most dis- 
astrous kind to us had the garrison been weakened to support 
Morris Island. 

On the afternoon of the 10th July, detachments of the First, 
Twelfth, Eighteenth and Sixty-third Georgia, under Colonel 
Ormstead, arrived from the District of Georgia, and with the 
Twenty-first South Carolina and Nelson's Seventh South Caro- 
lina Battalion became the garrison of Battery Wagner. At day- 
light on the 11th July the enemy assaulted Battery Wagner and 
were repulsed with much loss, two officers and ninety-five men 
being left dead in front of our works, and six officers and one 
hundred and thirteen rank and file taken prisoners, about forty 
of the latter being wounded. Our loss was one officer and five 
privates wounded. During the day three monitors and three 
wooden gunboats shelled Battery Wagner, and in the evening a 
fifth monitor crossed the bar. From James Island, at 7 a. m., the 
report was no forward movement on that front, two gunboats 
and several transports off Battery Island. At 9 p. m., the enemy 
were reported advancing in force both towards Legare's house 
and Grimball's, our pickets falling back before him. 
On the 12th July, the Marion Artillery, four guns and thirty- 

138 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

nine eflfectives, arrived from the Second Military District and 
was placed on James Island, as well as the Eleventh South Caro- 
lina, from the Third Military District, four hundred effectives, 
but these last soon had to be returned to guard our communica- 
tion with Savannah. A portion of General Clingman's Brigade, 
550 men of the Fifty-first North Carolina, and 50 men of the 
Thirty-first North Carolina, arrived from Wilmington about the 
same time in consequence of my urgent call for re-enforcements. 

The enemy was occupied during the day in erecting works on 
the middle of Morris Island, whilst five monitors and three 
wooden gunboats shelled Battery Wagner. The armament of 
Battery Wagner was increased by four 12 dr. howitzers, two 
32 dr. carronades on siege carriages. 

On the 13th July, the enemy was actively engaged in throwing 
up works on the middle of Morris Island, but was interrupted 
by the fire of Gregg and Sumter. During the day four monitors, 
three gunboats and two mortar vessels shelled Gregg and Wag- 
ner, but with light effect and slight casualty. Four monitors only 
were seen with the fleet, the fifth was observed going to the south 
without a smokestack on the evening of the 12th. Orders were 
issued this day for the construction of a new battery on Shell 
Point (Battery Simkins) in advance of Fort Johnson for one 
10-inch columbiad, one 6.40 Brooke gun and three 10-inch 
mortars. The armament of Fort Moultrie was ordered to be 
increased by guns taken from Sumter. An appeal was made to 
his Excellency Governor Bonham for slave labor to work on the 

The arrival ,of Clingman's Brigade and re-enforcements from 
other quarters having increased to some extent my available 
force, the consideration arose whether or not the expulsion of the 
enemy fyom Morris Island could yet be attempted. The number 
of men required for such an attempt would have been 4,000, the 
surface of Morris Island not permitting the manceuvering of a 
larger force. The only hope of success lay in the possibility of our 
troops carrying the enemy's works before daylight, otherwise the 
advance and attack would necessarily have been made under the 
fire of the enemy's fleet, in which case it must have ended dis- 
astrously for us. After a consultation with my general officers, 
the idea of this, attack was abandoned from the consideration 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 139 

that our means of transportation was so limited as to make it 
impossible to throw sufficient re-enforcements on Morris Island 
in one night and in time to allow the advance of our troops to 
the south end before daylight.* 

Two regiments under Brigadier-General Colquitt arrived on 
the 14th and were sent to James Island. During the day the 
enemy's gunboats and mortar vessels shelled Wagner at long 
ranges, doing but little damage. The enemy worked hard on his 
Morris Island works, making considerable progress, though the 
fire from Fort Sumter and Batteries Gregg and Wagner annoyed 
him much. 

The impossibility of expelling the enemy from Morris Island 
being fully recognized, I was reluctantly compelled to adopt the 
defensive. Orders were issued for closing the gateway in the 
gorge of Fort Sumter and removing a portion of the guns also 
for the construction of a covered way from Fort Moultrie to 
Battery Bee. During the night Brigadier-General Taliaferro, 
commanding at Morris Island, sent out a party of 150 men under 
Major Kion, of the Seventh South Carolina Battalion, who drove 
the enemy's pickets from the rifle pits across the island some 
three-quarters of a mile in front of Battery Wagner. On the 15th 
the enemy on Morris Island appeared to be largely re-enforced, 
and during the night of the 14th the frigate "Ironsides" had 
crossed the bar. 

The enemy was busy on his works, and our men employed in 
repairing damages in Battery Wagner, and answering the fire of 
the monitors and gunboats. The following instructions were 
given the engineer department: To have Shell Point Battery 
constructed for three guns instead of two; the mortar batteries 
at Fort Johnson to be converted into gun batteries for one heavy 
rifled gun, or 10-inch columbiad each; to strengthen the gorge 
wall of Fort Sumter by means of wet cotton bales filled in 
between with sand and kept moist by means of tubes or hose from 
upper turpline. General Kipley was also instructed to reduce 
the force on Morris Island to a command simply competent to 
hold the works against a coup de main, also to furnish the troops 
on that island with several hundred empty rice casks for the con- 

»Note B. 

140 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

struction of "rat holes" in the sand hills in rear of Battery Wag- 
ner.* Instructions were given to the chief of subsistence to keep 
rations on Morris Island. for five thousand men for thirty days 
and on James Island for five thousand men for fifteen days, with 
a reserve supply in the city. On the same day the enemy's pickets 
along the Stono on James Island were observed to be increased 
by negro troops. Brigadier-General Hagood made a reconnoisance 
of the enemy in his front on James Island. At daybreak on the 
morning of the 16th July Brigadier-General Hagood, in accord- 
ance with instructions, attacked the enemy on James Island, 
driving them to Battery Island under shelter of their gunboats. 
The loss was small on both sides; three men killed, twelve 
wounded and three missing on our side. The enemy left forty 
killed on the field and fourteen prisoners (negroes) taken by us 
prisoners. This retreat of the enemy was followed by the 
advance of our troops who have occupied the ground ever since. 
In the engagement the gunboat Pawnee was forced to retire 
down the Stono under fire of our light artillery.* During the 
day the monitors, gunboats and mortar vessels shelled Battery 
Wagner. The enemy worked diligently on their batteries. In 
the evening large bodies of infantry were landed on the south 
end of Morris Island. 

Colonel Harris, chief of engineers, was directed to increase the 
batteries on James Island bearing on Morris Island by at least 
twenty guns on siege carriages, so as to envelope in a circle of 
fire the enemy whenever he should gain possession of the north 
end of Morris Island ; all works to be pushed on night and day. 

On the morning of the 17th the enemy's fleet left the Stono 
River after embarking his forces at Battery Island, and appeared 
to concentrate them on Little FoUey and Morris Islands. Both 
the fleet and land batteries shelled Wagner throughout the day, 
answered vigorously by our guns. The construction by the enemy 
of batteries on Morris Island proceeded rapidly. In a tele- 
graphic dispatch today, I pointed out that the! contest had passed 
into one of engineering skill, where, with sufficient time, labor 
and long-range guns, our success was very probable, owing to the 

•Not used to any extent. — J. H. 
•Note C. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 141 

plan of defense adopted ; otherwise it was doubtful in propor- 
tion to the lack of these elements of success. 

The fire of the enemy's batteries from this date prevented com- 
munication with Cummings Point during daylight, and hence- 
forth it had to be effected at night ; the very limited transporta- 
tion at my command added considerably to the diificulty of 
relieving the garrison at Battery Wagner as often as I could have 
wished. The time of service was at first limited to forty-eight 
hours, but owing to this difficulty it was now extended to three 

On the morning of the 18th July it became evident that the 
enemy were about to attempt serious operations against Wagner. 
The south end of Morris Island was crowded with troops, and in 
their batteries and advanced works great activity was apparent, 
large bodies of men being engaged in pushing them rapidly to 
completion. Troops from FoUey Were being continually landed 
on Morris Island; these advanced and took up position in line 
of battle behind their breastworks. At 8:10 a. m. Battery 
Wagner opened; five minutes afterward Battery Gregg joined. 
At 10 a. m. four of the enemy's vessels were in action. At 11 :30 
Fort Sumter opened on the enemy's rifle pits on Morris Island. 
The guns of Wagner about this time seemed to harass the enemy's 
working parties extremely. At 12 :10 the frigate "Ironsides" and 
one monitor moved up abreast of Wagner, and at 12:30 were 
joined by two other monitors, when they opened fire on the work. 
At 1 p. m. the Ironsides, five monitors, a large wooden frigate, six 
mortar boats (these last could get the range without exposing 
themselves) and the land batteries mounting five guns, concen- 
trated their fire on Battery Wagner and continued it till dark. 
The enemy's fire throughout the day was very rapid, averaging 
fourteen shots per minute, and unparelleled until this epoch 
of the siege in the weight of the projectiles thrown. Brigadier- 
General Taliaferro, commanding at Battery Wagner, estimated 
that there were nine thousand shot and shell thrown in and 
against the battery in the eleven and a half hours that the 
bombardment lasted. During that time our casualties in the 
work were four killed and eleven wounded. During the day the 
garrison replied slowly to the terrific fire to which it was exposed, 
whilst Fort Sumter and Battery Gregg fired rapidly. Circum- 

142 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

stances indicating an attack at dark, Brigadier-General Hagood 
was relieved from the command of James Island, and, with 
Colonel Harrison's Thirty-second Georgia Eegiment, was ordered 
to the re-enforcement of Morris Island. During the passage of 
these troops the assault was made and repulsed ; but they arrived 
in time to dislodge a portion of the enemy who had gained a foot- 
ing in the southeastern salient of Battery Wagner. 

The garrison of Battery "Wagner consisted of the Charleston 
Battalion, the Fifty-first North Carolina and the Thirty-first 
North Carolina, two companies of the Sixty-third Georgia Heavy 
Artillery and two companies of the First South Carolina 
Infantry, acting as heavy artillery. During the bombardment 
the garrison were kept under the shelter of the bomb-proofs, 
with the exception of the Charleston Battalion, which was sta- 
tioned along the parapet of the work, a position which they 
gallantly maintained throughout the day, exposed to a free 
d'enfre. At a quarter past 8 p. m. the assaulting lines of the 
enemy were seen advancing from their works, and the bombard- 
ment from the fleet and land batteries subsided. The garrison 
were quickly called to their allotted positions and with the excep- 
tion of one regiment responded manfully to the summons. The 
Charleston Battalion guarded the right of the work and the 
Fifty-first North Carolina the center. These two regiments drove 
back the enemy opposed to them with frightful slaughter, whilst 
our guns discharging grape and cannister into their shattered 
ranks completed their discomfiture. On the left of the work, 
however, the Thirty-first North Carolina disgracefully abandoned 
their position, and no resistance being offered at that point the 
enemy succeeded in crossing the ditch and gaining a footing upon 
the rampart. The main body of the enemy, after vainly endeav- 
oring to gain a position on the parapet, retreated in disorder 
under a destructive fire from our guns, including those of Fort 
Sumter. The ditch and slope of the southeastern salient was 
then swept with a fire of grape and musketry to prevent the 
enemy lodged there from retiring, and after a brief resistance 
they surrendered.* 

•This fire was very destructive, as the torn and mangled corpses at that point 
showed next morning ; yet the enemy repelled an assaulting party organized by 
Taliaferro from the Charleston Battalion, Captain Ryan commanding. Eyan was 
killed ; the fire was kept up, and the re-enforcements with Hagood arriving, two 
companies were placed in position for another assault, when, upon demand, the 
enemy surrendered — over a hundred. — J. H. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 143 

The assault was terribly destructive to the enemy ; his loss in 
killed and wounded and prisoners must have been three thousand, 
as eight hundred bodies were buried in front of Battery Wagner 
next day. 

The enemy's forces on this occasion consisted of troops from 
Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire and the Fifty- fourth 
Massachusetts (negro) regiments — the whole said to have been 
under command of General Seymour, with Brigadier-General 
Strong and Colonel Putnam commanding brigades. General 
Seymour is said to have been wounded, and Brigadier-General 
Strong and Colonel Putnam killed. General Taliaferro reported 
that his troops, with the exception of the Thirty-first North Caro- 
lina, behaved throughout with the. utmost gallantry. The heroic 
conduct of the Fifty-first North Carolina counterbalanced the 
unworthy behavior of the Thirty-first and retrieved the honor of 
the State. Our loss during the bombardment and assault was 
174 lulled and wounded.f 

At 1 a. m. on the morning of the 19th, during the engagements, 
I telegraphed General Ripley at Fort Sumter that Morris Island 
must be held at all costs for the present, and re-enforcements must 
be thrown there to push any advantage possible before daylight. 
The 19th passed in comparative quiet. The enemy sent in a flag 
of truce to arrange for the burial of the dead. Brigadier-General 
Hagood reported that 600 of the enemy's dead in and around our 
woi-ks were buried by our troops and at least 200 more were by the 

The strengthening of the gorge wall of Sumter by cotton bales 
and sand proceeded rapidly. On the 20th the enemy opened fire 
from two new batteries. Throughout the day the fleet joined 
in the bombardment and were answered by Sumter, Gregg and 
Wagner. .At 3 p. m. information was received that a 10-inch gun 
at Battery Wagner was dismounted. I impressed upon General 

tGUmore says lie sent twelve regiments to the assault, but does not give their 
strength or his loss. — J. H. 

JMy recollection is that there was no flag, but a practical truce was maintained 
for burial purposes all day, the enemy's parties being permitted to come as far as 
our picket at the rifle pits. Prom the number of dead in the confined space before 
the battery,, in its ditch and on its rampart, the carnage impressed me more than 
any witnessed during the war. They absolutely lay in places crossed and piled, and 
horribly mangled by artillery ; in many instances brains here, a leg there ; sometimes 
a head without a body %nd sometimes a body without a head.— J. H. 

144 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Hagood, commanding the work, that I did not consider a 10-inch 
columbiad essential to the defense of the position for which siege 
guns, musketry, stout arms and hearts, and the strength of sand 
parapets must be relied on.* Orders were, however, issued for the 
remounting of the 10-inch gun if practicable. 

The enemy's fleet this morning consisted of four monitors, the 
Ironsides, and seventeen vessels inside the bar; fourteen vessels 
outside; thirty vessels in FoUey Eiver; one gunboat and four 
vessels in North Edisto, and one steam frigate, one sloop of war, 
one gunboat and thirty- four transports at Hilton Head. 

General Eipley was instructed to have the guns for Battery 
Haskell mounted immediately, and to open fire with them as soon 
as practicable. Brigadier-General Mercer was telegraphed to 
send on, if practicable, another 10-inch columbiad from the 
Savannah works. At 2 p. m. a shell struck Fort Sumter, and 
some eight or ten 80 dr. Parrott shot were fired at the fort from 
a distance of 3,500 yards. Five casualties in "Wagner today and 
one in Sumter. 

On the 21st a flag of truce was sent in with a communication 
from General Gilmore requesting an interview between General 
Vogdes and the officer commanding Battery Wagner. The pro- 
posal ,was agreed to and the flag of truce was met by an officer 
from that work. While the conference was proceeding the fleet 
opened a bombardment on Wagner. This gross violation of the 
usages of war was responded to by General Hagood by an abrupt 
termination of the interview. During the day the enemy's gun- 
boats and land batteries shelled Battery Wagner. The enemy 
had apparently mounted eight new guns in their batteries. 
Colonel Rhett reported that from the want of proper appliances 
he had been unable to dismount the guns in Fort Sumter which 
I had ordered to be removed. The bombardment continued 
throughout the day of the 22nd, with an interval, when General 
Vogdes, U. S. A., requested, under a flag of truce, another inter- 
view with Brigadier-General Hagood. This was refused until 
an apology should be made for the breach of truce the day 
before. This having been given and deemed satisfactory. General, 
"Vogdes verbally proposed an exchange of prisoners, mentioning 
that they had but a few of ours, all except those recently cap-- 

•Note D. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 145 

tured having been sent north; that as we had the excess "of 
course we could select whom to exchange." He abstained from 
any reference to negroes, whilst intimating that a mutual parole 
of prisoners without regard to excess would be agreeable.* 

The following instructions were given to Brigadier-General 
Kipley : Not to open from the new James Island batteries until 
their completion ; then to carry on a vigorous fire on the enemy's 
works, sorties to be made at night whenever practicable.f 

In my telegram to you of this date, I mentioned the continued 
re-enforcement of the enemy ; that I had to guard these important 
lines of approach, James, Morris and Sullivan's Islands, and 
requested the balance of Colquitt's Brigade with more troops as 
soon as practicable. 

No gun was fired on either side during the 23rd. Our men 
were engaged in repairing damages and the enemy in erecting 
batteries and throwing up traverses to protect them from th* 
James Island batteries.* 

On the morning of the 24th a heavy bombardment was opened 
on Battery Wagner from five monitors, two gunboats, two mortar 
vessels, the Ironsides and land batteries, which continued till 
9:30 a. m., when the steamer with prisoners on board proceeded 
to the fleet and the exchange was effected as previously agreed 
on. "Upon the arrival of the boat in the neighborhood of the 
place appointed, the fire of the enemy, which for a portion of the 
time had been very heavy, ceased. The 10-inch gun on the sea 
face was dismounted and one of the magazines so much exposed 
as to require the removal of the ammunition. General Taliaferro, 
who had previously relieved General Hagood in command, antici- 
pating a renewal of the bombardment upon the completion of 
the exchange of prisoners, as a matter of prudent precaution 
requested that all necessary arrangements should be made for 
the transfer of the troops from the island in case of necessity. 
The enemy, however, did not renew his attack and the time thus 
allowed was improved in repairing damages. . . . Instructions 
were sent General Taliaferro not to abandon the works without 

•Note E. 

tSee remarks in Note D, preylously cited. 

10— H 

146 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

express orders to that effect."* Colonel Harris, chief engineer, 
having inspected Battery Wagner, reported no material damage 
to the work ; the guns on the sea face unserviceable ; those on the 
land face in good order ; the enemy's stockade within 700 yards of 
the work. Brigadier-General Taliaferro came to the city to confer 
with me personally regarding the condition of his garrison, the 
officers having reported their men as much dispirited. After a 
conference with him, I communicated my views as follows-: 

The position must be held if possible until the guns en route 
from Richmond be received and put in position. No idea of 
evacuation must be entertained if there is a chance at night to 
repair the damages done in the day. Every night preparations 
will be made to remove troops from Morris Island in case of 
need. Battery Wagner must be held and fought to the last 
extremity. The garrison might rest assured that every prepara- 
tion will be made for their withdrawal in case of necessity .f 

My telegram to you of this date was : "The enemy shelled Bat- 
tery Wagner heavily this morning. Our loss one killed and seven 
wounded. Am anxiously waiting for heavy guns promised from 
Eichmond. Hope to repair damages during the night." 

On the 25th the enemy's fleet remained quiet on account of the 
high seas, and his land battery fired but little. Fort Sumter, 
Battery Gregg and the James Island batteries answered. A 
30 dr. Parrott was again- brought to bear on Fort Sumter from 
the same battery as on the 20th. During the day several of my 
new batteries were ready for their armament. The strengthening 
of Fort Sumter proceeded day and night; and in anticipation of 
the damaging effect which the enemy's rifled guns from sta- 
tionary batteries would produce on this work, a partial disarma- 
ment was carried on nightly. 

On Sunday, the 26th, the bombardment of the enemy slack- 
ened. During the night shelling of the enemy's works was car- 

•The last twenty-six lines In quotation marks liave been Interpolated In this 
report as giving a fuller account of the situation. It Is an extract from Ripley's 
Report. — J. H. 

tl am Inclined to think the enemy were nearer driving the garrison from the 
lort today than at any time until the final evacuation. The Intervention of the 
hour agreed upon for the exchange of prisoners and the subsequent delay In assum- 
ing offensive operations were most providential. The danger from what I learned 

was more from demoralization of the garrison than from damage to the works. 

J. H. 

HLagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 147 

ried on from Fort Sumter. Ee-enforcements were seen through- 
out the day debarking from Morris Island. I telegraphed on this 
day: "Have nine positions for heavy guns ready. Not one 
promised from Kichmond has arrived. Cannot their transporta- 
tion be expedited?" 

The weather on the 27th was too windy for the co-operation 
of the fleet, which had been increased by the addition of another 
monitor. During today the bombardment from the land bat- 
teries slackened. Our defenses were pushed on vigorously, whilst 
the strengthening of Fort Sumter and the withdrawal of guns 
from that work proceeded. The enemy showed great activity in 
advancing their works, though harassed by the fire of our bat- 

On the 28th, Battery Wagner had another very severe bom- 
bardment from the enemy's land and naval batteries, but no 
great damage was done. Two men were killed and five wounded. 
My telegraphic dispatch on the evening of the 28th was : "Many 
transports of the enemy are arriving with troops. At least 2,500 
men are required at present for James Island. Cannot they be 
ordered here immediately ? Enemy's land and naval batteries are 
now playing on Wagner, which she answers bravely, assisted by 
Gregg and Sumter." 

On the 29th, Battery Wagner was heavily bombarded through- 
out the day. In a telegram to you of this date notified the 
arrival from Richmond of some of the promised guns: "Have 
received four 10-inch columbiads and four 10-inch mortars. 
Eegret to say that by order of the Secretary of the Navy two 
Brooke guns have been taken from me to be shut up in a new 
gunboat so pierced as only to give a range of a mile and a half 
at most," 

Throughout the 30th Batteries Wagner and Gregg were sub- 
jected to a furious fire from both land batteries and fleet. As an 
example of the rapidity of the enemy's fire, I may mention that 
between the hours of 10 :30 a. m. and 1 p. m. five hundred and 
ninety-nine shots were fired at our different batteries — principally 
Gregg and Wagner. During the same time one hundred and ten 
shots were fired from our works. Our loss was two killed and 
seven wounded in Battery Wagner — no damage of any conse- 
quence to the works. Brigadier-General Eipley was instructed 

148 Memoirs of the War of Secession. 

to transport as early as possible one of the 10-inch columbiads 
recently arrived from Eichmond to Battery Wagner, which "was 
accomplished on the night of the 30th. 

The enemy fired heavily on Wagner throughout the 31st, Our 
loss was seven wounded. Our new works progressed very satis- 
factorily, and the strengthening of Sumter and the removal of its 
guns went on rapidly. 

The enemy's fire on the 1st of August was slack and did but 
little execution, save to the front traverse of the 8-inch shell 
gun at Wagner, which did not, however, disable it. The cas- 
ualties today were only two wounded. The enemy was indus- 
triously engaged in throwing up new batteries and advancing 
his trenches. Every endeavor was made by firing from Sumter, 
Gregg, Wagner and the James Island batteries to annoy and 
delay his approaches. 

Throughout the morning of the 2nd August the enemy did not 
answer our fire, but about 2 o'clock they opened vigorously on 
Wagner. The damage, however, done to the work was compara- 
tively small. In my telegram of that date I mentioned that 
"Transports going south from Stono, filled with troops, • are 
reported, probably intended to operate against Savannah. Can- 
not some of my troops sent to General Johnston be ordered back 
for the defense of that city?" 

Orders were given to the chief quartermaster to have trains in 
waiting sufficient to transport two regiments of infantry to 
Savannah. The difficulties attending the defense of Charleston 
were greatly increased by the celerity with which the enemy could 
remove his operations from one point to another and from the 
paucity of troops in my command. Savannah and the coast line 
were nearly denuded. All these places had to be guarded. 

Instructions were given for increasing the armament of Fort 
Johnson by two 6-40 Brooke guns, turned over by the Navy 
Department, and to place floating torpedoes in certain localities. 
Brigadier-General Mercer was instructed to forward a detach- 
ment of artillerists to relieve that from the Sixty-third Georgia 
which had become reduced by casualties and sickness. The 
ordnance department in Richmond was applied to for Coehorn 

The fire of the enemy on the 3rd was not heavy, but his sharp- 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 149 

shooting annoyed the garrison of Wagner considerably. No 
casualties. Brigadier-General Mercer, at Savannah, was informed 
that transports were moving south from here with troops and 
that two regiments were held in readiness to move at a moment's 
notice. I was informed that Evans's Brigade was ordered 
to Savannah from Mississippi. In a personal visit paid to 
Morris Island that evening I found Battery Wagner in a very 
serviceable condition. The work was more solidly constructed 
than when the attack commenced ; the garrison appeared to be in 
fine spirits and ready to defend the work to the last. At Fort 
Sumter the filling of the officers' quarters and the casemates was 
rapidly approaching completion. An exterior sand-bag revet- 
ment was ordered for the gorge wall, as well as a series of tra- 
verses in barbette on the east, south and northeast faces, and 
many changes and removals in the armament. 

During the 4th August but little firing occurred upon either 
side. Orders were given to rearrange certain guns on the bat- 
teries of James Island. Major Trezvant, commanding Charles- 
ton Arsenal, was requested to collect all of the old iron in the 
burnt district to cast into projectiles. Orders were given to 
General Eipley to arrange with Captain Tucker of the navy an 
attempt to capture the enemy's picket in the marsh battery near 
Vincent's Creek. 

On the 5th, the guns in Battery Wagner were all in fighting 
order. Our sharpshooters, armed with Whitworth rifles, seemed 
to annoy the enemy greatly, who endeavored to silence their fire 
with Coehom mortars. About 9 o'clock that night a picket of 
the enemy, which had taken possession of our unfinished battery 
on Vincent's Creek and, by signalling the arrival of our steamers 
at Cummings Point, interfered materially with our operations, 
was attacked by a party from the Twenty-fifth South Carolina.* 
The result was satisfactory. One captain and ten enlisted men 
were captured. Our loss one man killed. Our defensive works 
at Fort Sumter and elsewhere proceeded satisfactorily. The tele- 
gram of this day was: "Enemy still being largely re-enforced 
from the northward. Cannot General Colquitt's other regiments 
be ordered here at once? Other troops are absolutely needed." 
Throughout the 6th the enemy fired occasional shots from his 

♦Under Captain Sellars. — J. H. 

150 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

land batteries and fleet, without material result. One casualty 
occurred. Our batteries fired at intervals throughout the day. 
Brigadier-General Cobb was ordered by telegraph to send 500 
infantry and one light battery to report to Brigadier-General 
Mercer at Savannah. The enemy on Morris Island worked labor- 
iously on his trenches, whilst strong re- enforcements of troops 
were daily seen arriving. 

On the 7th, I received a telegram from you, informing me that 
the balance of Colquitt's Brigade was ordered to Charleston. 
There was little firing throughout the day and two casualties 
occurred on Morris Island. 

On the 8th, Brigadier-General Evans reported his arrival at 
Savannah. A large increase was visible in the enemy's fleet in 
the Stono. During the day the firing from our batteries was 
carried on at intervals, but the enemy remained quiet until 
evening, when they opened on Battery Wagner and continued the 
fire throughout the night. Instructions were issued to the chief 
engineer to expedite the putting up in Fort Sumter of the sand- 
bag "chemise" to the gorge wall, the interior traverses and 
merlons, and to erect a covered way from Gregg to Battery 

The firing of the enemy during the morning of the 9th was 
heavy and rapid from his land batteries. The officer in command 
of the advanced pickets reported that the enemy worked indus- 
triously in his trenches till 2 a. m. The fire of our sharpshooters 
evidently annoyed the enemy much, as he occasionally fired with 
great spirit but ineffectually to dislodge them.* The effective 
force on Morris Island was 663 infantry, 248 artillery and 11 
cavalry — total 922. During the day I received the following 
telegram from Brigadier-General M. Jenkins, dated Petersburg, 
Va. : "My scouts report shipment of troops, both infantry and 
cavalry, from Norfolk, supposed to be for Charleston; large 
quantities of forage shipped. Cavalry left 6th inst." 

The chief engineer was instructed to lay out and erect a line 
of works on James Island, from Secessionville to Dills's house 
on the Stono, in lieu of the present defensive lines ; to consist of 
lunettes with closed gorges ; disposed at one-half to three-quarters 
of a mile apart and connected by cumulative infantry lines. 

•Note F. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 151 

Captain Tucker, Confederate States Navy, was informed of the 
practice of the enemy of putting out boat pickets at night to 
observe the movement of our transportation to Morris Island; 
and it was suggested to him that steps should be taken by the 
navy to break up these pickets. Upon the approach of our 
steamers signals would be exchanged between the enemy's boats 
and their land batteries, and immediately a heavy fire upon Cum- 
mings' Point rendered our communication extremely dangerous 
and difficult. At times also the enemy illuminated the landing 
with a powerful light, so as to prevent- the approach of steamers 
and forcing us to transport our supplies of men and munitions 
in small boats. 

During the 10th the enemy remained comparatively quiet until 
about 8 p. m., when he opened briskly on Wagner. On ^>ur 
side fire was kept up from Battery Simkins (Shell Point) with 
columbiads from 11 a. m. to 11 p. m., when mortar firing was 
resumed and continued until morning. The enemy was busy 
during the night and his advanced works were now about 600 
yards from Wagner, though no guns were yet in that position. 
My telegram to you of this date was: "Nothing of importance 
has occurred since yesterday. Evans's Brigade is arriving in 
Savannah and Colquitt's Regiment arriving here." 

About 7 o'clock, on the morning of the 11th, the fleet and land 
batteries opened heavily on Wagner and were replied to by 
Sumter, Gregg and Simkins.* One casualty occurred during the 
day, the enemy as 'well as ourselves working persistently in spite 
of the heat which was excessive. Our garrison of Morris Island 
consisted of 1,245 of all arms. 

At 5 :45 a. m. on the 12th, the enemy opened on Fort Sumter 
with an 8-inch Parrott gun, firing from a battery to the north 
and west of Craig's Hill on Morris Island, the distance estimated 
to be at least 4,400 yards. Eleven shots in all were fired at the 

•"About 2 o'clock on the morning of the 11th, Wagner opened a heavy Are which 
with the fire of James Island batteries and Sumter stopped our working parties 
entirely for the first time In the siege." — Enemy's Siege Journal. I had commenced 
this fire when Colonel Harrison arrived to relieve me. — J. H. 

The Journal goes on : 

"This was the most spiteful fire from Wagner since the 18th July. Indeed that 
work has been very quiet since thtit time for fear of drawing fire upon Itself. Our 
reply to fire from whatever direction has been directed upon Wagner." — Operations 
against Charleston, p. 193. 

152 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

fort. Four missed, three struck outside, and four struck, within 
the fort. Again, at 5 :30 p. m., the enemy opened from the same 
battery on Fort Sumter, firing at intervals of ten minutes till 
dark. Eleven 8-inch rifled shot struck the fort. Heavy firing 
was carried on throughout the day against Battery Wagner. 
Fort Sumter and Battery Gregg as well as Simkins directed their 
fire throughout the day against the enemy's working parties on 
the left of his approach and dispersed them, stopping the work 
they were engaged on. At dark. Battery Wagner opened with 
eight guns on the enemy's advanced trenches, and in conjunction 
with Sumter and Simkins prevented any progress on the part 
of the enemy.* His batteries in rear replied to the fire of Wagner 
and interrupted our communications with Cumming's Point. 

On the 13th, the enemy endeavored several times to repair the 
damage done to his advanced works, but well directed shots from 
Wagner as often drove him back. The batteries in rear of the 
fleet then opened on Wagner and Gregg, and were answered by 
Sumter and Simkins. 

At 5 :30 a. m., the enemy opened with 8-inch Parrotts from the 
same battery as the day before, firing two or three hours only. 
At 11 a. m., three or four wooden gunboats approached within 
4,000 and 5,000 yards of Sumter and opened slow fire. They were 
armed with heavy rifled guns. Some fifteen shots were fired at this 
great range; three only struck the fort; one shot passed over at 
great elevation and dropped a mile to the westward. At 5 p. m., 
the enemy opened again on the fort with the 8-inch Parrotts ; no 
great damage was done, the farthest penetration into the brick- 
work was four feet. 

On the 14th, the land batteries opened on Sumter, firing three 
shots; two struck. About 11 a. m. the wooden gunboats shelled 
the fort at long range ; and at 5 :15 p. m. the land batteries again 
opened on the fort. Throughout the day the enemy remained 
quiet, firing occasionally, and were replied to by our batteries. The 
sharpshooters on both sides kept up an incessant fire. During 
the night the fire of Battery Wagner put a stop to the operations 
on its front. The strengthening of Fort Sumter advanced rapidly 

•"August 12 . . . Owing to a heavy Are from Wagner, we did not commence work 
until 11 (at night) and consequently did not accomplish much. . . . The Infantry 
detail . . . broke and became so scattered It was Impossible to collect them again." 
Operations against Charleston, p. 195. — J. H. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 


Bcdkry Wa rner 1863 


1. Fleldplece. 2. 10" Mortar. 3 and 4. Carronades. 5. 32 dr. 6. 8" Navy. 
7. 32 dr. 8. 8" Navy. 9. 32 dr. 10. 8" Howitzer. 12. 32 dr. Rifled. 
13. 10" Columblad. 14. 8" Gun. 15 and 16. 12 dr. Field Howitzers. 

154 Memoirs or the Wak op Secession 

both day and night. Brigadier-General Eipley was instructed 
as to the armament of a certain position of the new lines on James 
Island and of a new battery thrown up near Fort Johnson. 

During the greater part of the 15th the enemy, both on land 
and sea, were unusually quiet, only occasionally firing at Bat- 
tery Wagner. Later in the day they opened with some vigor on 
Battery Gregg. The enemy's fleet consisted this morning of the 
Ironsides, six monitors, eight gunboats, three mortar vessels, with 
thirteen other vessels inside and seven outside the bar. At Hilton 
Head, fifty-two vessels, including gunboats and ironclads. My 
telegram of this date was: "No change worth recording since 
yesterday. . . . Sand bag revetment of gorge wall of Sumter and 
traverses inside of fort progressing as rapidly as means of trans- 
portation will admit." 

On the 16th, the enemy's batteries fired but little on Gregg and 
Wagner, but during the afternoon the two 8-inch Parrots opened 
on Sumter, throwing forty-eight shell. Four passed over, four 
fell short, two struck inside the parade and thirty-two hit in 
various places, exterior and^ interior. At this date, the armament 
of the fort consisted of thirty-eight guns and two mortars; at 
least twenty guns having been withdrawn since the landing of the 
enemy on Morris Island. Orders were given to Brigadier-General 
Ripley to remove to Battery Gregg the two mortars in Sumter as 
soon as it should become impossible to use them to advantage in 
the latter work, and to transport to other points every gun in 
Sumter not actually required for its defence and the new relations 
of that work to the defence of the harbor. The chief engineer 
was instructed to strengthen Castle Pinckney with sand bags; 
Fort Johnson to be arranged for two additional 10-inch guns; 
and positions to be arranged for three 10-inch guns to be placed 
on the James Island shore of the harbor. 

Battery Wagner was bombarded heavily by the enemy about 
daylight on the 17th, their guns were then turned on Sumter and 
a heavy cannonade was directed against that work. About 9 
o'clock the Ironsides and six monitors joined in the action. 
During the engagements Captain Rodgers, commanding the 
Weehawken, was killed in the pilot house of his ship. In the 
twenty-four hours 948 shot were fired against Fort Sumter; 448 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 155 

struck outside, 233 inside, and 270 passed over. The casualties 
in the fort amounted to fourteen. 

On the 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd of August the fierce 
bombardment of Fort Sumter by the enemy continued both from 
his land and naval batteries. From the 17th to the 23rd inclusive 
he fired against the fort a total of 5,643 shot, of which 2,643 
struck inside, 1,699 outside and 1,301 missed. These projectiles 
were fired from 30 dr. and 300 dr. Parrotts and from 15-inch 
smooth bore guns. An average of 150 pounds per shot would 
give a weight of nearly 385 tons discharged against the walls 
of Fort Sumter during this period of seven days. At the end of 
this time nearly all therguns remaining in the fort were unser- 
viceable and the damage to the gorge wall and the northwest face 
by the severe fire great; but the sand that had been placed upon 
the outside of the gorge wall, in conjunction with the filling up 
of the barracks and casemates with cotton bales, and above all 
the crumbling under the enemy's fire of the masonry coaverted 
this portion of Fort Sumter into a mass of debris and rubbish 
on which the enemy's powerful artillery could make but little 
impression. Throughout the siege the unremitting exertions of 
the engineer corps hourly increased the defensive power of the 

The following extract from the journal of the engineer officer 
at Fort Sumter for August 23rd will show the condition of the 
work at that date: "... The northwest front has now five 
arches with ramparts fallen in; northeast barbette battery 
unserviceable; east front scarp much scaled by slant fire, with 
large craters under traverses; principal injury at level of arches 
and terreplein; two-thirds of southern wall east of magazine 
damaged ; stone abutment unhurt and protected by rubbish ; gorge 
not damaged since yesterday. Another shot has penetrated above 
sand filling of second-story rooms, making three since the attack 
began. East barbette parapets much loosened and undermined, 
though not displaced. One 10-inch and one 11-inch gun 
untouched. Brooke gun carriage shattered, but can easily be 
remounted on 10-inch columbiad carriage." 

During the seven days that the enemy so vigorously bom- 
barded Sumter his approaches to Wagner were slowly pushed 
forward under the fire of our guns and sharpshooters. On the 

156 Memoirs of the Wae of Secession 

21st he made an unsuccessful attack on our rifle pits directly in 
front of that battery. The same day General Gilmore sent a 
demand, under flag of truce, for the surrender of Fort Sumter 
and Morris Island, with the threat that in the case of non-com- 
pliance he would open fire on the city ; four hours were allowed 
for a reply. This communication was received at the head- 
quarters of the department at 10 :45 p. m. ; the enemy carried his 
threat into execution by throwing several shells into the city on 
the morning of the 23rd, at about 1 :30 a. m. 

On the 24th, the fire against Fort Sumter lessened considerably ; 
not more than 150 shot were thrown against it in the course of 
the day. 

Every endeavor was made to retard the approach of the enemy 
to Battery "Wagner. His working parties were fired upon by 
the guns of the battery during the night, but during the day 
this had to be discontinued and the embrasures closed to prevent 
our guns from being dismounted. Until 3 o'clock of the 25th, 
enemy's fire was principally directed against Sumter. After that 
time Wagner was fiercely bombarded, as well as the space 
between that work and the rifle pits. At dark the enemy endeav- 
ored to carry these pits but were repulsed. Our loss was five 
killed and nineteen wounded. 

A very large amount of ammunition and ordnance stores were 
removed-from Fort Sumter during the night. 

On the 26th, 630 shot were fired at Sumter; Wagner and Gregg 
received the bulk of the fire. At 5 o'clock in the evening the 
enemy concentrated his fire on the rifle pits in front of Wagner. 
Between 7 and 8 p. m. the rifle pits were carried by an over- 
whelming force and seventy-six out of the eighty-nine men of the 
Sixty-first North Carolina, who formed the picket, were cap- 

The firing on the 27th against Sumter was limited to four 
shots. In front of Wagner the enemy had advanced his trenches 
to within 300 yards of the work, whilst the number of his guns 
and the accuracy of his fire prevented the opening of its 
embrasures except during the night. The Honorable Secretary 
of War informed me by telegraph, in answer to a request that I 
made for the services of some of the sailors stationed in Savannah, 

•Note G. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 157 

that the Secretary of the Navy declined sending sailors from 
Savannah and urged a detail of men. I replied by letter setting 
forth the fact that the army was depleted already by details for 
the navy, and that no more can be spared. The importance of 
keeping our water transportation to Morris Island in an efficient 
condition was represented, and that without an additional force 
of boatmen it could not be preserved. Further, that our iron- 
clads at Savannah were safely sheltered behind obstructions, and 
were a portion of their crews sent to Charleston they could be 
returned in case of an emergency there. 

On the 28th, the enemy were extremely quiet, firing only six 
shots at Sumter; but his approach as to Wagner advanced 
rapidly notwithstanding the fire from Gregg, the James Island 
batteries and the sharpshooters in Wagner. The enemy did not 
fire at Sumter during the 29th, but worked industriously upon 
his approaches to Wagner. His advanced works were shelled 
throughout the day by Wagner, Moultrie and the James Island 
batteries. During the night the enemy's guns were silent in front 
of Wagner, but they renewed the bombardment of Sumter before 

During the day of the 30th they threw 634 shot against Sum- 
ter. The enemy was also busy completing his advanced works, 
though greatly disturbed by the fire from Wagner and the James 
Island batteries, which compelled them to desist from the work 
of advancing a sap to the left of Battery Wagner. In the evening 
the enemy opened a brisk fire on Wagner, both with monitors and 
Parrott guns. No serious damage was done the work, but several 
casualties occurred. During the night Wagner kept up a steady 
and effective fire on the enemy's advanced works. 

Early on the morning of the 31st, as the steamer Sumter was 
returning from Morris Island with troops on board, she was 
imfortunately fired into from the Sullivan's Island batteries and 
sunk. Four men were killed or drowned, and the greater portion 
of the arms lost. Between 11 and 12 m. one of the monitors 
approached Fort Moultrie, and when within range was opened 
upon by that work. The enemy replied with schrapnell, all of 
which fell short ; and after about an hour's engagement the mon- 
itor withdrew. About 2 p. m. the enemy again approached with 
four monitors and engaged the fort for four hours. A steady 

158 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

fire was kept up on them from Fort Moultrie and other Sullivan's 
fire was kept up on them from Fort Moultrie and other Sullivan 
Island batteries. During the engagement the enemy fired sixty 
shot, striking Moultrie fifteen times but doing no damage. The 
fort fired 132 shot. The enemy's fire on Sumter was slack 
throughout the day. 

Captain Leroy Hammond, Twenty-fifth South Carolina Volun- 
teers, reported today that in obedience to instructions he had 
made a reconnoisance of Light House Inlet on the south side of 
Black Island. On the island he saw pickets and bivouac fires, but 
discovered no entrenchments. During' the night the enemy suc- 
ceeded in advancing their sap a short distance towards Wagner, 
notwithstanding the heavy fire that was kept up on them from 
that work. 

At daylight, the 1st September, the enemy opened on Wagner 
with mortars and continued at intervals during the entire day. 
The two 32 dr. howitzers in the salient of the work were disabled. 
From early morning their land batteries kept up a heavy fire on 
Fort Sumter, firing throughout the day 382 shot; 166 struck 
outside, 95 inside and 121 missed. This fire was very destructive, 
disabling the remaining guns en barbette and damaging the fort 
considerably. An extract from the report of the engineer in 
charge gives the following account of its condition: "... 
Towards noon the effect of the fire was to carry away at one fall 
four rampart arches on the northeast front with terreplein plat- 
form and guns, thus leaving on this front only one arch and a 
half which are adjacent to the east spiral stair. Some of the 
lower casemate piers of the same front have been seriously 
damaged, rendering unsafe the service of two guns hitherto 
available in that quarter. On the exterior, the chief injury done 
is to be noticed on the southeast pan coupie and two next upper 
casemates on east front. From these localities the scarp has 
fallen away completely and left the arches exposed, as well as 
the sand filling half down to the fioor of second tier." 

At 11 :40 a. m., on the 2nd September, six monitors opened on 
Sumter at distances of 800 to 1,000 yards. They were joined at 
1 p. m. by the Ironsides, and together fired 185 shot, of which 
116 struck outside, 35 inside and 34 passed over. The projectiles 
used were 8-inch Parrott rifle shell and 11- and 15-inch smooth- 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 159 

bore shot and shell. Fort Sumter was unable to answer, not 
having a gun in working order, but a heavy fire was kept up 
on the fleet by Fort Moultrie with good effect, two of the mon- 
itors being apparently injured and requiring assistance when they 
retired. The effect of this fire on Sumter is thus "described by 
the engineer officer in charge : ". . . The chief external injury 
has been done on the east scarp, which now has lost its integrity 
and hangs upon the arches apparently in blocks and detached 

The remainder of the day was passed in comparative quiet. 
The fleet was occupied in placing sand bags on the decks of the 
monitors. The enemy's land batteries fired but 148 shot, of which 
38 were directed against Sumter. In the same period our bat- 
teries fired 66 times. During the night the enemy was engaged 
in front of Wagner in strengthening his advanced position, 
which was then within 80 to 100 yards of the salient. Owing to 
the difficulty of transporting ammunition to Wagner the fire of 
that work was slack. 

Early on the morning of the 3rd, the enemy opened on Wagner 
with mortars and continued it throughout the day. Fort Sumter 
was not fired at. In that work all hands were busy in repairing 
damages. During the past night, as usual, large quantities of 
ordnance stores and several guns were removed. The condition 
of the fort of this date was as follows : The northeast and north- 
west terrepleins had fallen in, and the western wall had a crack 
entirely through from parapet to beam. The greater portion of 
the southern wall was down, the upper east magazine penetrated, 
and lower east magazine wall cracked. The eastern wall itself 
nearly shot away and large portions down, ramparts gone, and 
nearly every casemate breached. The casemates on the eastern 
face were still filled with sand and gave some protection to the 
garrison from shell. Not a single gun remained en barbette, and 
but a single casemate gun that could be fired — a 32 dr. smooth- 
bore on the west face. 

During the night of the 3rd, Wagner fired steadily and the 
James Island batteries occasionally. Throughout the 4th the 
enemy confined themselves to shelling Wagner and were answered 
by the James Island guns. During the night of the 4th their 
approach was pushed close to Wagner. 

160 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

At 12 m., on the 5th, the Federal flag was abreast of the south 
angle of the work. Throughout the day a very heavy fire was 
concentrated on Wagner from the Ironsides, monitors and land 
batteries, which severely injured the work; our casualties were 
also greatly increased, some forty occurring during the day. 
Large bodies of troops were transferred from FoUey to Morris 
Island, and other indications pointed to an early assault. There 
is good reason to believe that the enemy's plan was to carry Bat- 
tery Gregg by a boat attack on the night of the 5th, or early on 
the morning of the 6th ; that the fleet should prevent the landing 
of re-enforcements at Cummings Point; that Wagner should be 
heavily shelled by ironclads, and on the morning of the 6th, on a 
given signal. Battery Wagner should be assailed. 

This plan was frustrated, however, by the repulse of the attaclc- 
ing party on Battery Gregg. About 1 :30 a. m., on the 6th, they 
were seen approaching in from fifteen to twenty barges from the 
passages leading from Vincent and Schooner Creeks that lie 
between James and Morris Islands. The garrison of Gregg* 
was on the alert and received them with a brisk fire of grape 
and musketry. The enemy was evidently disconcerted and, after 
discharging their boat howitzers, retired. 

On the 4th September, I had convened a meeting of general 
officers and the chief engineer of the department to assist me in 
determining how much longer the Confederate forces should 
attempt to hold Morris Island. The rapid advance of the 
enemy's trenches to Battery Wagner having made it evident that 
before many days that work must become untenable, the follow- 
ing questions were propounded to the council : 

"1. How long do you think Battery Wagner can be held with- 
out regard to the safety of the garrison ? 

"2. How long can it be held with a fair prospect of saving its 
garrison with the means of transportation at our command and 
circumstances relative thereto as heretofore indicated by actual 
experience ? 

"3. How long, after the loss or evacuation of Wagner, could 
Battery Gregg be held? 

"4. Can the heavy guns (two in Wagner and three in Gregg) 

•Captain Lesesne, 1st S. C. Artillery, and Major Gardner, 27th Georgia, were In 
command. — Ripley's Report. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 161 

in those works be removed before the evacuation without endan- 
gering the safety of the works and their garrisons? 

"5. Can we take the offensive suddenly with a fair prospect of 
success by throwing during the night 3,000 men on the north end 
of Morris Island, making in all 4,000 available men, bearing 
in mind that no re-enforcements could be sent them until night, 
and probably for several nights, according to the movements of 
the enemy's ironclads and the fire of his land batteries?" 

These questions were thoroughly discussed, as well as the prob- 
able plan of attack by the enemy, our means of defense, trans- 
portation, and reasons for prolonging our possession of the 
north end of Morris Island. It was agreed that the holding of 
Morris Island as long as possible was most important to the 
safety and free use of Charleston harbor ; and our ability to keep 
up easy communication with the works on Sullivan and James 
Islands, in view of which I deemed it proper to renew application 
to the secretaries of war and of the navy, by telegraph, for some 
200 sailors for oarsmen. 

It was further decided that the five heavy guns at Morris 
Island were necessary morally and physically for the defense, to 
the last extremity, of the position ; and such being the difficulty, 
if not indeed the insurmountable obstacles to their removal at 
this time, that no effort should be made to save them, and conse- 
quently that they should be ultimately destroyed with as much of 
the works as possible when further defense was abandoned. 

The result was my determination to hold Morris Island as long 
as communication with it could be maintained at night by means 
of rowboats, but for which purpose sailors or men able to handle 
oars with efficiency were essential. 

On the 6th inst., Brigadier-General Ripley prepared by my 
order a confidential letter to the officer commanding Battery 
Wagner, pointing out that it might be necessary to evacuate Mor- 
ris Island, and giving full instructions for destroying the maga- 
zines and rendering the guns useless in that event. 

Early on the morning of the 6th, a dispatch was received from 
Colonel L. M. Keitt, commanding Battery Wagner, to the follow- 
ing effect : "... The parapet of the salient is badly breached ; 
the whole fort is much weakened. A repetition of today's fire 
(alluding to the 5th inst.) will make the work almost a ruin. 

11— H 

162 Memoirs or the War or Secession 

The mortar fire is still very heavy and fatal and no important 
work can be done. Is it deemed advisable to sacrifice the gar- 
rison? To continue to hold it is to do so. Captain Lee, the 
engineer, has read this and agrees." The casualties in Wagner on 
the 5th were 100 out of 900. 

Another dispatch, dated 8 :4o a. m., was received from Colonel 
Keitt : "Incessant fire from Yankee mortars and Parrott battery : 
can't work negroes, better look after them promptly. Had thirty 
or forty soldiers wounded in an attempt to work. Will do all I 
can, but fear the garrison will be destroyed without injuring the 
enemy. The fleet is opening, but I hope that we may hold till 
night." Again, at 10 :30 a. m.. Colonel Keitt signalled, "Boats must 
be at Cummings Point without fail." During the day a letter was 
received from the same officer as follows : "... The enemy will 
tonight advance their parallel to the moat of this battery. The 
garrison must be taken away immediately after dark, or it will 
be destroyed or captured. It is idle to deny that the heavy Par- 
rott guns have breached the walls and are knocking away the 
bomb-proofs. Pray have boats at Cummings Point immediately 
after dark to take away the men. I say deliberately that this 
must b,e done or the garrison must be sacrificed. I am sending 
the wounded and sick to Cummings Point now, and will, if pos- 
sible, continue to do so until all are gone. I have a number of 
them now here. I have not in the. garrison 400 effective men, 
excluding artillery. The engineers agree with me in opinion, 
or rather shape my opinion. ..." 

Colonel Keitt's last dispatch was as follows: "The enemy's 
sap . has reached the moat and his bombardment has shattered 
large parts of the parapet. The retention of this post after 
tonight involves the loss of the garrison. If the necessities of 
the service require their sacrifice, the men will cheerfully make 
it, and I will cheerfully lead them. I prefer to assail the enemy 
to awaiting his assault, and I will at 4 o'clock in the morning 
assail his works." 

Things being in this condition, it became evident that an 
attempt to longer retain possession of Batteries Gregg and Wag- 
ner must, of necessity involve the loss of the garrisons. But 
before giving the final order for the evacuation, I directed 
Colonel D. B. Harris, my chief engineer, to proceed to Morris 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 163 

Island and to examine into and report upon the condition of 
affairs. His opinion was as follows : 

". . .1 visited our works on Morris Island today, and in 
consideration of their condition, of our inability to repair dam- 
ages to Wagner as heretofore, of the dispirited state of the 
garrison, and of the progress of the enemy's sap, am constrained 
to recommend an immediate evacuation of both Batteries Gregg 
and Wagner. ... In consequence of the accuracy of the fire 
from the enemy's land batteries which are now in close prox- 
imity (say from 500 to 800 yards) to Wagner, aided by reverse 
fire from his fleet, it is impossible, in the opinion of the officer 
commanding the fort, to keep up a fire either of artillery or small 
arms, and the enemy are thus left free to work in the trenches 
which he is rapidly pushing "forward. The head of the sap is 
within forty yards of the salient, which is so badly damaged by 
a Parrott battery kept constantly playing upon it as to render it 
untenable. ..." 

Under these circumstances, I concluded the period had arrived 
when it would be judicious to evacuate Morris Island, and in the 
following special order detailed the manner in which I desired 
the movement to be accomplished : 

"Battery Wagner, Morris Island, being no longer tenable, with- 
out undue loss of life and the risk of final capture of the entire 
garrison, that position and Battery Gregg will be evacuated as 
soon as practicable, to which end the following arrangements 
will be made by the district commander : 

"I. Two of the Confederate States ironclads should take up 
position near Fort Sumter with their guns bearing on Cummings 
Point and to the eastward of it. At the same time, all our land 
batteries will be held-prepared to sweep the water face of Battery 
Gregg. Transport steamers will take position within the harbor, 
but as near to Cummings Point as practicable, to receive the men 
from the row boats by which the embarkation of the men from 
Morris Island will be effected. As many row boats as are neces- 
sary, or which can be provided with efficient oarsmen, will be kept 
in readiness at once to proceed to and reach Cummings Point or 
that vicinity as soon after dark as may be prudent. Having 
reached Morris Island a courier or relay of footmen will be dis- 
patched by the naval officer in charge with notice of the fact to 

164 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

the officer in command of Battery Wagner, and of the exact 
transport capacity of the boats. A naval officer with proper 
assistants will have exclusive charge of the boats and their move- 

"II. The commanding officer of Wagner having made during 
the day all arrangements for the evacuation and destruction of 
the work and armament, will, when informed of the arrival of 
the boats, direct first the removal and embarkation of all wounded 
men, and thereafter, according to the capacity of the boats at 
hand, will withdraw his command by companies with soldierly 
silence and deliberation. Two companies will remain in any 
event to preserve a show of occupation and repair and to defend 
from assault during the embarkation ; and it is strictly enjoined 
that no more men shall quit the work and go to the landing than 
can be safely embarked. The embarkation will be superintended 
by the field officers or regimental or battalion commanders, who 
will halt and keep their commands about 100 yards from the 
boats, divide them into suitable squads for assignment to the boats 
in exact conformity with the directions of the naval officer in 
charge of the embarkation ; and then superintend the disposition 
of the men accordingly, impressing upon all the vital necessity of 
silence, obedience to orders and coolness. 

"III. The companies left to occupy Wagner will be under 
charge of a firm and intelligent field officer, who will not with- 
draw his command until assured that there is sufficient trans- 
portation for all the remaining garrisons of the island, including 
that of Battery Gregg. 

"IV. The final evacuation will depend for success on the utmost 
coolness and quiet on the part of every man. At least two officers 
previously selected will be left to light the fuses already arranged 
and timed to about fifteen minutes to blow up the magazim^ and 
bomb-proof, and to destroy the armament in the manner already 
indicated in special instructions from district headquarters. But 
the fuses must not be lighted until it is certain there is sufficient 
transportation for the removal of all the garrison, or except the 
enemy become aware of the evacuation and are evidently about to 
storm and enter the work. The men must be embarked with arms 
loaded ready to repel an attack from the boat parties of the 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 165 

"V. The garrison of Battery Gregg will stand staunchly to 
their posts until the last company from Wagner shall be 
embarked. It will then take the boats in silence and with delib- 
eration, provision having been made as at Wagner for the 
destruction of the work and its ordnance. Both explosions will 
be as nearly simultaneous as possible; and the complete success 
of the evacuation will probably be in the hands of those whose 
high duty it will be to apply the match to the fuses at Wagner. 
The garrison of Gregg will be embarked with the same precau- 
tions and regulations as prescribed for that of Wagner. In case 
the enemy should carry Wagner immediately after the garrison 
shall have evacuated it, or in any way the explosion of the maga- 
zine should be prevented, a signal of three (3) rockets in rapid 
succession shall be made from Battery Gregg, when the naval 
vessels in position and our land batteries bearing on Wagner will 
be opened with a steady fire on the site of that work, as will be 
done likewise immediately after an explosion shall have taken 
place, and this fire shall be maintained slowly during the night. 

"VI. Brigadier-General Kipley will give such additional 
orders as will be calculated to secure the successful evacuation of 
Morris Island, or to meet emergencies. He will confer with Flag 
Officer Tucker and procure all necessary assistance. The opera- 
tion is one of the most delicate that can be attempted in war. 
Coolness, resolute courage, judgment and inflexibility on the part 
of officers — obedience to orders and a constant sense of the 
necessity for silence on the part of the men, are essential for 
complete success, and the credit which must attach to those who 
achieve it." 

The evacuation began at 9 p. m. on the night of the 6th Septem- 
ber. According to instructions a guard of 35 men, under Captain 
T. A. Hugenin, had been left to bring up the extreme rear and 
to fire the only magazine which contained powder. The necessary 
arrangements having been completed, and Colonel Keitt having 
been informed that the transportation was ready, the embarkation 
commenced and was continued with the utmost quietness and 
dispatch. The wounded were first embarked and were followed 
by the remnants of the infantry garrison. Captain Kanapaux, 
commanding light artillery, was then ordered to spike his guns 
and embark his command. Captain Lesesne, commanding Gregg, 

166 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

spiked the guns of that battery and followed with his command ; 
and the rear guard from Wagner, coming up at that time in pur- 
suance of orders from Colonel Keitt, the fuses communicating 
with the magazines were lighted, that at Wagner by Captain 
Hugenin, and that at Gregg by Major Holcombe, commissary of 
subsistence, and the remainder of the command was safely and 
expeditiously embarked. Owing to defects in the fuses them- 
selves, they failed to accomplish the purpose designed, though 
their lighting was superintended by careful and reliable officers. 
The magazines were, therefore, not destroyed. The guns in the 
batteries were spiked as far as their condition allowed, and the 
implements and equipments generally destroyed or carried oflF. 
The evacuation was concluded about 1:30 a. m., on the 7th Sep- 
tember. The boats containing the portion of the garrison last 
embarked were fired upon by the -enemy's barges, but without 
effect. Two of our boats containing crews of 19 sailors and 27 
soldiers were captured by the enemy's armed barges between 
Cummings Point and Sumter. 

Thus Morris Island was abandoned to the enemy on the 7th 
September with but little loss on the part of the garrison, either 
in men or material. The total loss in killed and wounded on Mor- 
ris Island, from July 10th to September 7th, was only 641 men; 
and deducting the casualties due to the landing on the 10th July 
and to the assaults of the 11th and 18th July, the killed and 
wounded by the terrible bombardment, which lasted almost unin- 
terruptedly night and day during fifty-eight days, amounted only 
to 296 men, many of whom were only slightly wounded. It is 
still more remarkable that during the same time when the enemy 
fired 6,202 shot at Sumter, varying in weight from 30 to 300 
pounds, only three men were killed and forty-nine wounded in 
that work. 

It is difficult to arrive at the loss of the enemy during these 
operations, but judging from the slaughter made in their ranks 
on the 11th and 18th July, it will be within the mark to say that 
his casualties were in the ratio of ten for our one. 

It may be well to remark that the capture of Morris Island 
resulted in but a barren victory to the enemy, if his only object 
was to gain a position from which to hurl his missiles and Greek 
fire into the City of Charleston. A reference to the map will 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 167 

show that the possession of Cummings Point placed him no 
nearer the city than he was when he held part of James Island, 
from whence he was driven by the Battle of Secessionville in 
June, 1862, and again in July, 1863, when he was driven from 
the same island on the 16th of the same month.* 

In conclusion, I cannot express in too strong terms my admira- 
tion of the bravery, endurance and patriotism displayed by the 
officers and men engaged in these operations, who during so 
many days and nights withstood unflinchingly the extraordinary 
fire from the enemy's land and naval batteries, and repulsed with 
heroic gallantry every effort to surprise or carry the works by 

I have particularly to commend the gallantry, coolness and zeal 
of Brigadier-General W. B. Taliaferro, Brigadier-General John- 
son Hagood, Brigadier-General A. H. Colquitt, Colonel L. M. 
Keitt and Colonel G. P. Harrison, who at different periods had 
immediate command of the defenses of Morris Island. To par- 
ticularize would be invidious ; they one and all on every occasion 
did their duty nobly. 

I have to express my acknowledgment of the valuable services 
rendered by Brigadier-General R. S. Ripley, in command of the 
First Military District, which included the City of Charleston 
and its outworks. He was invariably active, industrious and 
intelligent, and carried out his important duties to my entire 
satisfaction. Although Major- General J. T. Gilmer arrived in 
Charleston a few days before the evacuation of Morris Island, he 
was nevertheless active, zealous and of great assistance to me in 
holding the island to the last moment. 

I also take pleasure in recording the services of Colonel Alfred 
Rhett, who during the siege of Wagner had command of Fort 
Sumter, and with his brave garrison endured a long and terrific 
bombardment. His conduct throughout met my entire approval 
and satisfaction. 

To Colonel D. B. Harris, chief engineer of the department, I 
have to return my most sincere thanks. He was ever cool, gal- 
lant and indefatigable in the performance of his arduous duties 
during the whole period of the operations on Morris Island. 

•Note c. 
•^ote H. 


Always present in the Jiour of need, he exposed himself when 
necessary to the hottest fire and the greatest danger in the most 
reckless manner. 

I am, General, 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) G. T. Beaueeguard, 
General Commanding. 


Continuing Narrative of Siege from 7th September, 1863. 

"... September 7th. The enemy occupied Battery "Wagner 
about daylight, and was opened upon by Batteries Simkins and 
Cheves and Fort Moultrie with the works adjacent. 

"Soon after Admiral Dalgreen, commanding enemy's fleet, sent 
a demand to Major Stephen Elliott, commanding Fort Sumter, 
for a surrender of that post. Major Elliott declined, meantime 
referring the matter to the headquarters of the district. Under 
instructions from headquarters of the department. Admiral Dal- 
green was informed that he could have Fort Sumter when he 
could take and hold it. 

"About 6 p. m., the Ironsides and five monitors came up the 
channel and opened fire on Fort Sumter and the batteries on Sul- 
livan's Island, which was promptly replied to by our guns and 
with some effect until it was too dark to observe the results. The 
enemy kept up his fire until about 9 o'clock, doing but little 
damage to the works. Lieutenant E. A. Ervin, First South Caro- 
lina Infantry, was killed at Battery Beauregard. 

"September 8th. On the morning of the 8th, a monitor, sup- 
posed to be the Weehawken, was observed aground in the channel 

*NoTB. — High as Is the tribute here paid to Colonel Harris, It is not exaggerated. 
He was singularly modest, and the writer has no hesitation in saying the coolest 
man under Are he ever met with ; withal a skillful engineer and, literally, "always 
present In the hour of need." He was chief engineer of the department and not the 
local engineer of Wagner, yet always and whenever the guns of Morris Island rang 
out the alarm of special bombardment or assault, you might with certainty look 
(or him at the fort whatever the dlflSculty or danger of getting there. Colonel H. 
was a Virginian, a graduate of West Point, and afterwards, and until the breaking 
out of this war, a large tobacco planter. His service was chiefly with General Beaure- 
gard from the First Manassas until the fall of 1864. He was then detached from 
Petersburg to again take charge of the engineering around Charleston, and died 
shortly after from yellow fever. — J. H. 

Hagood's 1st 12 MoKTHS S. C. Y. 169 

leading to Cummings Point and the shore of Morris Island. A 
slow fire was opened upon her from a treble-banded Brooke gun 
and a 10-inch columbiad from Sullivan's Island and such guns as 
could be brought to bear from Fort Johnson. The endeavor was 
made to strike her below her armor, which was out of water at 
low tide. She was struck several times below the usual water 
lines, and about 9 o'clock the Ironsides and five monitors came to 
her assistance, engaging the forts and batteries at distances rang- 
ing from 800 to 1,500 yards, keeping up a very heavy cannonade. 
A shell from the Weehawken struck and disabled an 8-inch 
columbiad in Fort Moultrie, and glancing burst near a service 
magazine which was protected by a heavy traverse throwing 
incendiary contents into and exploding the magazine, killing 
sixteen and wounding twelve men of Captain R. Press Smith's 
company, First South Carolina Infantry. This disaster inter- 
rupted the practice but little, for Captain Bennett's company 
relieved Captain Smith's under a heavy cannonade, and an accu- 
rate and deliberate fire was maintained against the enemy from 
all the batteries on the island for about five hours, when the 
enemy withdrew much cut up and disabled. From personal 
observation, I take pleasure in commending the conduct and 
practice of the olRcers and men engaged in Colonel Butler's regi- 
ment. The effect on the ironclads I believe to have been greater 
than on the 7th April, and since the action but one monitor has 
fired a gun, and their number has been decreasing ; four only are 
now in view. Besides the casualties from the explosion, three men 
and two officers were killed — Captain Wardlaw and Lieutenant 
DeSaussure; and fourteen men were wounded at Fort Moultrie. 
"Having met with but little success in the cannonade of the 
Sullivan's Island batteries, the enemy's naval commander next 
made an attempt to take possession of Fort Sumter, and at 1 
o'clock on the morning of the 9th attacked that fort with a 
fleet of from thirty to forty barges. Major Elliott caused his 
fire to be reserved until the enemy was within a few yards of 
the southern and eastern faces upon which the landing was 
attempted. He was then received with a close fire of musketry ; 
hand grenades and fragments of epaulement were thrown over 
on the heads of his men, demoralizing and completely repulsing 
him. The crews near the fort sought refuge in the recesses and 

170 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

breaches of the scarp and those at a distance turned and pulled 
rapidly away. The gunboat 'Chicora,' the Sullivan's Island 
batteries and Fort Johnson opened a fire enfilading the faces of 
Sumter as soon as the signal was made, cutting up the retreating 
barges, of which several were seen floating capsized and disabled. 
Next morning Major Elliott succeeded in securing five boats, five 
stands of colors, twelve officers and one hundred and nine men, 
including two officers and nineteen men wounded. 

"The prisoners reported the attacking force four himdred 
strong. It was probably larger, and the enemy's loss was 
undoubtedly larger than that portion which fell into our hands 
and under our observation. Amongst the captured colors was a 
worn and torn garrison flag, reported by some of the prisoners 
as that which Major -Anderson was permitted to take from the 
fort on the occasion of his being compelled to surrender it in 
April, 1861. This had been brought to hoist and to be made the 
subject of boast had the assault succeeded. Whether it was 
really the flag in question or not, it would doubtless have been 
so asserted. . . . The gallant conduct of Major Steven Elliott, 
commanding Fort Sumter, and of his garrison, the Charleston 
Battalion under Major Blake, in repelling this assault, is to be 
especially commended. ..." 

Thus terminated the direct efforts of the enemy to take Charles- 
ton. With the capture of Morris Island, and the demolition of 
the offensive power of Sumter, General Gilmore, with his land 
forces, had done all he was able to do ; and contended that he had 
done all he had engaged to do ; and that it was enough that the 
gate was now open for the fleet to enter and finish the under- 
taking.* The fleet thought otherwise. From thenceforward, 
until the operations of Sherman in the interior of the State 
compelled the evacuation of the city, the enemy's operations 
before Charleston, as heretofore stated, were confined to a can- 
nonade upon Sumter to prevent its rehabilitation as an artillery 
post, to the exchange of shots with our James Island batteries, 
from which nothing resulted, and to the regular bombardment 
of the city from Cummings Point. The fleet occasionally joined 
in the pounding of Sumter or engaged indecisively the Sullivan's 
Island batteries. 

*See GUmore's "Operations, etc' 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 171 

General Beauregard's efforts were confined principally to com- 
pleting the defenses of Charleston. On James Island, with which 
the writer was most familiar, these became very complete. Pem- 
berton's and Eipley's lines from Secessionville, by way of Royall's 
house to Fort Pemberton, were abandoned. Starting at Seces- 
sionville a line much shorter was carried to Dill's, just above 
Grimball's on the Stono. This was a cremaillere infantry breast- 
work of strong profile, with heavy enclosed redoubts at distances 
of 700 and 800 yards, having defensive relations to each other. 
On the Stono were one or two heavy redoubts securing that flank. 
Fort Pemberton was nearly, if not quite, dismantled. From 
Secessionville to Fort Johnson, along the eastern shore of the 
island looking towards FoUey and Morris Islands, heavy bat- 
teries, opened to the rear with trenches or breastworks for 
infantry supports, were erected, and from Johnson to opposite the 
city heavy batteries for the defense of the inner harbor* Bomb- 
proofs, covered ways, rifle pits and all the appliances of the 
engineer's art were exhausted in strengthening this system of 
works. Magnetic telegraphs were put up from Pemberton, 
Secessionville, Fort Haskell and Johnson, respectively, to head- 
quarters at Royall's house, and a complete system of signals by 
rockets established. The command was divided into two divisions 
— Generals Hagood and Colquitt in charge, and General Talia- 
ferro commanded the island. 

In November, President Davis visited James Island. General 
Taliaferro was absent on leave and General Hagood in command. 
Mr. Davis inspected the works closely, going at a rapid gallop 
with his cortege from battery to battery and stopping long enough 
to receive a salute and ride around the regiments which were 
drawn up along his route, each near its post. He seemed in good 
spirits; the troops betrayed much enthusiasm, but he acknowl- 
edged their cheers for "Our President" by simply raising his 
hat. General Plagood rode with him as commander of the island, 
and necessarily had much conversation with him. Here and on 
the field of battle at Drury's Bluff when General Beauregard was 
pleased to present him again, with a compliment, to the President, 
were the only times he was ever in conversation with this dis- 

• See 90, Ante for Old Lines. See map at p. 352, Ante for New Lines. 

172 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

tinguished man. That night ex-Governor Aiken, with whom Mr. 
Davis was a guest, entertained the party in the city. 

In February, 1864, the enemy inaugurated a campaign in 
Florida, covering the movement of troops from before Charles- 
ton by a demonstration upon Johns Island. Colquitt was 
sent with his brigade to re-enforce our troops in that quarter, and 
the battle of Olustee terminated the campaign. The Eleventh 
South Carolina was sent after Colquitt, but arrived after the 
battle. It was, however, creditably engaged afterwards in an 
affjiir of pickets. 

Olustee, like Secessionville, was one of the decisive battles of 
the war, with comparatively small forces engaged. At the time, 
and so far since, the credit seemed to attach to General Finnigan, 
the district commander. From what General Hagood learned 
of it from those engaged he was inclined to believe the credit 
solely due to Colquitt. He was said to have been on a recon- 
noisance in force under orders from Finnigan, when he unex- 
pectedly encountered the advance of the Yankee Army and 
engaged it without orders. He received no orders or re-enforce- 
ments during the fight until, just as he was preparing for his 
decisive charge, a message from Finnigan, five miles in rear, 
directed him to fall back. The charge was made, and the enemy 
thoroughly routed.* No fresh troops were sent in pursuit. Col- 
quitt ordered forwarded a squadron or two of cavalry which had 
accompanied his reconnoisance and been unengaged in the fight. 
They did not get out of sight of the field of battle before they 
bivouacked for the night. The enemy, it was said, abandoned 
artillery in the road twenty miles from the field of action. 

Taliaferro was now sent to Florida to take command of that 
district; he was in a short time superseded by Major-General 
Patton Anderson and returned to James Island. 

The troops on James Island were generally hutted, and, from 
the facility of getting private supplies from home (they were 
chiefly Georgians and South Carolinians), lived tolerably well. 
The commissariat supply was irregular and bad. Major Guerrin 
in Charleston and Northrop in Richmond were too much for us. 
Under Confederate regulations, the commissary department was 
almost independent of even a general commanding a separate 

•In 2 Beauregard's Military Operations. 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 173 

army; and General Beauregard more than once spoke to the 
writer of his plans being thwarted by the interference of 
Northrop, the chief at Eichmond. Colonel Northrop's qualifi- 
cations for this high position, it was said with sarcastic bitterness, 
were to have been at West Point with President Davis some 
thirty years before and to have lived a misanthrope since without 
active participations in even civil life. It was a popular notion 
among the soldiers that he was a vegetarian and did not think 
meat healthy. Guerrin had been an office clerk for a physician 
in Charleston before the war and had married Northrop's niece. 
The writer knows that the movement and supply of troops is iSie 
most difficult of the problems of war; and he trusts he is not 
disposed to criticise harshly any man or set of men who "wore the 
grey." But he also knows that on James Island, had it not been 
for private sources of supply, the troops would have often been 
on siege rations, and that, too, when there was uninterrupted com- 
munication with the middle and back country of Georgia and 
South Carolina which teemed with provisions. A year later 
Sherman and his men expressed themselves amazed at the abun- 
dance they encountered here. During the winter (of 1863-64) 
the wives of many of the officers came down, and there was quite 
a pleasant society on the island. Ladies on horseback and in car- 
riages were not an uncommon sight, and sometimes during a 
lull in the firing of the batteries a dancing party was had at a 
post liable to be opened upon at any time. Horse racing, coursing 
rabbits with greyhounds, and cock fighting amused the fancies 
of each sport ; and occasionally a whole regiment would be seen 
on a grand battue. Deploying as skirmishers, each man armed 
only with a club, they would sweep over the extensive field, 
whooping and j^elling; and it was astonishing to see what num- 
bers of rabbits, partridges and other small game, too scared to 
escape, they would bring to bag. The health of the troops was 
good, their morale excellent, and many a tatterdemalion who 
followed the Eed Cross flag under Lee and Johnston in '64 and 
'65 looked back upon this portion of his service at the siege of 
Charleston with fond regret. 

Before leaving for Virginia, whither he had been ordered 
in April, 1864, General Hagood went over to Sumter to look at its 
condition. He had last seen it on the night of the 18th July, 1863, 

174 Memoirs of the War of Secessioist 

on his way to Wagner. Then it was an imposing artillery fort- 
ress, armed at all points, equalled for offensive power by perhaps 
few in the world, and triumphant in its recent decisive repulse 
of the ironclad fleet. The first day from Gilmore's huge rifled 
projectiles had demonstrated the inability of its masonry to 
withstand land breaching batteries, and despoiled by friends and 
battered by foes, it now lay in the moonlight a huge misshapen 
mound upon the quiet bosom of the bay. Save the battle flag float- 
ing in the night breeze, there was no sign of life or occupation, 
as we approached, until the quick decisive challenge of the 
warden obscured in the shade of the ruin arrested us. The watch- 
word given, and landing, the visitors dived by a zigzag and 
obstructed entrance into the bowels of the mass of debris and 
came into a securely ceiled and well lighted gallery running the 
whole circle of the ruins, neatly whitewashed, thoroughly venti- 
lated, widening here into a barrack room with bunks in which 
the reserve of the garrison were quietly sleeping ; narrowing there 
into a covered way loopholed to give a musketry fire upon what 
was once the parade; and again developing itself into a hospital 
room, a compact headquarters office and a place of arms for 
defense, with ample and ingeniously defended passages for egress 
to summit of the ruins. Here sentinels in single rifle pits were 
stationed, having for giving the alarm, in addition to their guns, a 
wire by each, upon pulling which a bell was rung at the same time 
in the headquarters office and in each station of the garrison 
within. Boat howitzers, securely sheltered upon the interior 
slope of the debris, were so placed and combined with arrange- 
ments for musketry fire as to sweep every part of the parade. 
Wire entanglements, movable during the day or a bombardment 
upon the exterior slope, added to the difficulties of escalade which, 
the action of the tides already made difficult enough. For at the 
edge of the water, the debris, which from the summit so far had 
a natural slope, was washed away, making here a nearly perpen- 
dicular wall five or six feet high. One or two heavy guns were 
mounted in the northwest angle of the fort which was sheltered 
by its position from Gilmore's land batteries. These had a field 
of fire upon the inner harbor, and would have been serviceable 
upon vessels succeeding in reaching that position in an advance 
of the fleet upon the city. The general appearance of the work 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 175 

now, as viewed from the summit ridge of the ruin and looking 
inward, was that of the crater of an extinct volcano. 

As barrack and bomb-proof and casemate and magazine of the 
original fort had crumbled under the enemy's unparalleled fire, 
until protected alone by what had once been its defenses, no living 
thing could have survived even one day's ordinary bombardment ; 
and the garrison, clinging tenaciously to the site, had burrowed 
into the increasing debris. Working under almost ceaseless fire, 
they had converted this wreck of an artillery fort, without a 
single gun to reply to her long range assailants, into an infantry 
post comparatively safe for its defenders, and with which, after 
one feeble effort, its assailants had neyer the nerve to grapple in 

Elliott, who had held the fort since the fall of Morris Island* 
without relief in the arduous and wearing duty, had just been 
promoted to a regiment and gone to Virginia, where in furthei 
recognition of his services he received the first vacant South 
Carolina brigade. Captain Mitchell was now in command and 
Captain Johnson remained the resident engineer. After the war, 
and not long before his untimely death, the writer was walking 
with Elliott on the streets of desolated Columbia, when they met 
and stopped to speak with Mrs. Pickens. After a few moments 
of conversation, the lady presented her little daughter to him and 
said in an aside to the child, "When you are old enough, my dear, 
to read the story of Fort Sumter, you will know why mamma 
wished to present you to General Elliott." Mitchell found his 
grave amidst its ruins, and Johnson here established a reputation 
for genius in his ' prof ession and for devoted gallantry unsur- 
passed in the war. 

•He relieved Colonel Rhett on the 4th of September. — Ripley's Report. 

176 Memoirs of the War or Secession 



The Different Routes to Charleston. 

Of the five routes of approach mentioned by General Beauregard, the 
two involving operations in rear appear to have been entirely beyond 
Gilmore's power witia the land force at his disposal — ^by his own account 
some 17,000 men. It is worth noting, however, that both times when 
Charleston has fallen (in the Revolution and in the late war), it was from 
operations in this quarter after the direct attack had failed. The route by 
James Island is the only remaining one, the pursuit of which could have 
effected the fall of the city. Success upon this line of approach would 
undoubtedly have effected this object had Gilmore taken it. He would 
not have as efficient co-operation from the navy here as at Morris Island, 
principally from the greater facility with which the defense could have 
protected itself from the enfilading fire of the fleet. The lines on James 
Island, as already mentioned, were at that time exceedingly defective in 
location, incomplete in construction, and requiring a large force, not then 
in position, to man them. By vigorous and rapid operations against their 
center advancing from Grimball's and Dill's on the Stono, and a movement 
upon their flank and rear from Light House Inlet, as indicated in previous 
pages of these Memoirs, they may have been carried by assault. The 
slower these operations the less would have been their chance of success ; 
and against these lines as established by General Beauregard later in the 
siege, from Dill's to Secessionville with heavy works from Secessionville to 
Fort Johnson defending that flank and rear, Gilmore with the means at 
his disposal would certainly have failed. He himself seemed to have had 
a full appreciation of the difficulties of this route. "Upon James Island," 
says he in his official report, "our progress would soon have been stopped 
by the concentration of superior force in our front. Upon Morris Island, 
on account of its narrowness, our force was ample. James Island was too 
wide to operate upon with a fair promise of success with our force." 

Success on the Sullivan's Island route, from the nature of the channel, 
would have completely closed the channel for purposes of blockade run- 
ning, would have furnished as good a point d'appui for the disabling of 
Sumter and given a direct fire upon almost every part of the inner harbor. 
But if it had taken as long to reduce Sullivan's Island as it did Morris 
Island (and it probably would), the same defenses would have sprung up as 
afterwards lined the shores of the inner harbor ; and the navy would have 
had to exhibit more dash than it did at any time during the siege to have 
passed them. Charleston would not necessarily have fallen, had this route 
been taken. Another consideration of weight was this : To attack Sullivan's 

Hagood's 1st .12 Months S. C. V. 177 

Island, a lodgment upon Long Island, then occupied by the Confederate 
pickets, was necessary, when by a coup de main Sullivan's Island was to 
be reached across Breach Inlet. This could not have been done without 
attracting attention and totally depriving the coup of the attribute of 
surprise. Breach Inlet was also defended by works in a better state of 
completion than Light House Inlet was. Of Folley Island the enemy had 
for some time been in quiet possession as well as of the adjoining waters 
of Stono Bay, which gave them the opportunity of preparing measurably 
unobserved for a sudden descent upon Morris Island. And whatever stress 
they may have laid upon it, it was this element of surprise in their descent 
upon the south end of the island that gave them all the success they met 
with. What followed (the lodgment once made) was, with the conditions 
Imposed, but a matter of time. General Beauregard in his report, it will 
be observed, denies the surprise, and attributes the fall of this end of the 
Island to the Inadequate means of preparation and defense at his disposal. 
He undoubtedly, from his report, and, the writer may add, from very 
full conversations with him, appreciated the importance of strongly 
defending this point, and had planned and ordered a system of works 
adequate to the end; but they were not executed in time. Could it have 
been done? Could, under the circumstances of locality, the vigilance 
possibly have detected the massing on Little Folley for attack in time to 
have increased our infantry supports? Was there infantry available for 
this purpose? On these questions turns the whole matter. General 
Beauregard's report ably presents the diflSculties that beset him. Gilmore 
says: "Wise defense would have kept us off of Morris Island entirely." 
And it was a general opinion of the Confederate troops, as well as the 
impression of the public mind, that this was the weak point in the other- 
wise masterly defense of Charleston. General Ripley took the opportunity 
of an investigation of the matter by General Beauregard's inspector- 
general to submit an elaborate defense of himself as district commander 
which he read to the writer, whose information of facts (he up to that time 
serving in another district) is not sufficient to warrant the expression of 
a decisive opinion as to where the fault was. The inclination of his mind 
then was and still is to attribute the laches rather to his subordinates and 
to circumstances, which he could not control, than to any oversight or 
negligence of the general commanding. 

Upon the whole it appears that the route by Morris Island, though, in 
the language of General Beauregard, "the least injurious to us" that 
could have been taken, was the only one with the resources at his disposal 
by which Gilmore could have accomplished anything. 

The narrow front upon which he operated and the difficult communi- 
cation between Morris Island and the Confederate base of supply made 
difficult the concentration of a force in his front superior or even equal to 
that he could with easier communications at all times operate. His flanks 
were rendered unassailable by the ocean on one side and an impassable 
marsh from one and a half to two miles wide on the other. And, above 
all, he had the fullest possible benefit of the enfilade and reserve fire of the 

12 — II 

178 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

fleet, each vessel of which was for this purpose a movable battery. The 
, 'Federal commander flatters himself, when he says in his report, "that it 
would have been entirely practicable to have pushed his approaches to Fort 
Wagner without the co-operating fire of the gunboats." The siege journal 
appended to his report decisively indicates the reverse. Without this fire 
i the role would have been changed and from besieger he would probably 
have become besieged. 


Taking the Offensive. 

When General Hagood reported, on the evening of the 11th July, to Gen- 
eral Beauregard, the latter seemed very solicitous as to James Island front ; 
and, in assigning General Hagood to that command, earnestly sought to 
impress its importance upon him. At the district headquarters immediately 
afterward General Hagood proposed to Ripley that instead of sending him 
to James Island that he be put on Morris Island that night with a suf- 
ficient force to take a vigorous offensive. General Hagood stated that he 
would be satisfied to do so with 2,000 fresh troops, the garrison of the 
island being sufficient to act as a reserve in the attack — ^provided, he could 
be landed with his men on the island by 12 o'clock that night. General 
Ripley thought the suggestion practicable, seemed much pleased with it, 
and they forthwith went together to General Beauregard with the proposi- 
tion. He dismissed it summarily, with the statement that he had not the 
troops at hand, nor was the transportation available to put them there in 
time, if he had. The writer now knows General Beauregard was right. 
General Hagood was not at the council of general officers on the 13th. At 
the council, just before the evacuation of Wagner, he thought it too late to 
assume the offensive, and, indeed, never thought it practicable with our 
means to expel the enemy from Morris Island after the first night. Had 
the enemy's position not then been carried by assault before he had suffi- 
ciently entrenched, it would have grown under a slower approach into the 
dimensions of Wagner. A counter-siege, with the fire of the fleet enfilading 
and taking in reverse our approaches and the ground permitting no enfilade 
batteries for us, was simply out of the question. 


The Affair of the 16th July on James Island. 
Headquarters First Sub-Division, First Military District. 

James Island, July 18, 1863. 
Captain Wm. F. Nance, A. A. G. 

Captain: I have the honor to make the following report of the opera- 
tions of the troops under my command on the 16th instant : 

I had been instructed on the day previous to observe and report the possi- 
bility of offensive operations against the enemy in my front, and had 
reported two plans, the one of which limited to driving in their pickets on 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 179 

the left and making a reeonnaisauce of that part of their Hue with the 
further object of capturing or destroying the part of their force nearest 
Grimball's was the one approved. 

The enemy occupied Battery Island and Legare's plantation principally 
and a part of Grimball's, and their gunboats lay in Folley and Stono 
Rivers, giving in front of their position a cross-fire extending as far as our 
picliet line. 

General Colquitt was ordered with about 1,400 infantry and a field 
battery to cross the marsh dividing Legare's plantation from Grimball's 
at the causeway nearest Secessionville, drive the enemy rapidly as far as 
the lower causeway (nearest Stono), recross the marsh at that point by a 
flank movement, and cut off and capture the force camped near Grimball's 
house. Colonel Way, Fifty-fourth Georgia, with about 800 infantry, was 
directed to follow en echellon on the Grimball side of the marsh, the advance 
of General Colquitt, and co-operate with him. A reserve of one section 
of artillery, supported by a company of infantry and a squadron of cavalry, 
under Lieutenant-Colonel Jeffords, Fifth South Carolina Cavalry, was 
held in hand near Rivers' house. On the extreme right a battery of four 
rifled twelve dr. and one of four Napoleons under Lieutenant-Colonel Del 
Kemper, supported by Colonel RadcllfCe, North Carolina, with about 400 
infantry, was ordered to engage the gunboats lying highest up the Stono. 

The troops moved upon the enemy in the grey of the morning and the 
whole enterprise was carried out as planned. The force at Grimball's was, 
however, smaller than was anticipated, and, by retreating across to Battery 
Island, as soon as Colquitt's firing was heard, managed to save themselves 
before he could get into position to intercept them. Colonel Kemper 
engaged the Pawnee and another gunboat at 250 yards, and after some ten 
rounds drove them down the river beyond his range. The reserve artillery 
was not brought into action. The cavalry did good service in sweeping 
up fugitives over which the advancing infantry had run. The troops were 
under fire one hour and a half and behaved well. This fire was chiefly 
shell from gunboats and shell and cannister from a field battery. The 
enemy's infantry fougbt badly. Those encountered were chiefly colored 
troops, fourteen of whom were captured. These belonged to the Fifty- 
fourth Massachusetts. About thirty of the enemy were killed upon the 

I beg leave to refer to the accompanying reports of subordinate com- 
manders for full details. 

The enemy were supposed to have been not above 2,000 infantry and 
one battery of field artillery. Upon the following night they evacuated 
James Island and Battery Island, leaving behind them arms and stores, 
of which a full return will be made. Our casualties were three killed, 
twelve wounded and three missing. Colonel Bull and Captain Beauregard, 
of the staff of General Beauregard, and Captain B. H. Reed, of General 

180 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Ripley's staff, reported to me for duty on the occasion, and, together with 
my own staff, rendered efficient service. 
I am. Captain, 

Your obedient servant, 

Johnson Hagood, 
Brigadier-General Commanding. 

The foregoing is the official report. Colquitt drove in the pickets and 
the main body of the enemy with only a strong line of skirmishers until 
they reached the narrow neck between James and Battery Islands. Here 
they formed a double line of battle with field artillery on the flank and 
a cross-fire at close range from gunboats in Stono and FoUey Rivers sweep- 
ing their front. A rapid exchange of fire of field artillery took place. The 
force at Grimball's had already escaped, and the instructions of depart- 
ment headquarters not permitting a further advance, which, too, would 
probably have resulted in little good, after a close reconnaissance of the 
position, the troops were recalled. 

Federal newspaper accounts and their subsequent histories state that 
their force on this occasion was General Terry's Division, consisting of 
Montgomery's black brigade (two regiments) and General Stevenson's 
Brigade (white). This would make their force over 3,000* men. The 
prisoners on that day insisted that there were eight regiments. It seems 
they were right. The assistant surgeon of the Pawnee, who had been 
detailed to assist the wounded of the land forces after the assault on 
Wagner of the 18th July, and, wandering into our lines on the field, was 
picked up by our picket, told General Hagood that the Pawnee was struck 
forty-three times, principally in her upper works.. She slipped her cables 
and fled after the tenth round. Kemper galloped up and unlimbered at 
the short range stated in an open field and fought without epaulements. 
The enemy's fire all passed over him, and he had neither man nor horse 

Greely's History (American Conflict) states Terry's loss at 100. This 
is believed to have been the first time the colored troops of the Federal 
army were ever in action. It was certainly the first time that any were 
captured by the Confederates. When it was understood that such troops 
were being organized, by Confederate proclamation it was announced that 
prisoners taken from them would be turned over to the State authorities 
to be tried under the local laws relating to servile insurrection, and that 
white men commanding them would be dealt with as outlaws. It was not 
done in this or any subsequent case. 


The Style of Fighting Wagnee. 
There was but one gun, at the time referred to by General Beauregard, 
on the sea face to reply to the iron-clad fire which greatly annoyed the 
garrison of Wagner — these vessels being enabled to take us both in reverse 

•"About 3,800 men." — Gilmore's Report, p. 29. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 181 

and enfilade. Wlien vigorously worked, this gun (the ten-inch columbiad 
spolien of) kept these vessels at a greater distance, rendered their fire less 
accurate, and the iron-clads seemed to have considerable respect for its 
missiles. On that day a monitor took up position for action within 800 
yards of the fort, but, on being struck once or twice by the columbiad, 
withdrew two or three hundred yards, and the writer never knew them to 
engage the fort at closer range afterward. Besides, the demoralizing 
efiCect upon the garrison of making no reply to this very destructive Are 
was marked. It was in the light of this experience that General Hagood 
telegraphed the dismounting of the gun and asked that steps be taken to 
replace it that night. The gun, by the way, was an old one and was said 
by an artillery officer, who knew its history, to have already been fired 
1,200 times. General Beauregard sent in substance the reply indicated in 
the report, and, with all deference, the writer would say that it foreshad- 
owed the only defect, as it occurred to him, in the immediate defense of 
Wagner. /* was too passive. Its artillery was not used enough to delay the 
approaches of the enemy, and the right kind of artillery was not used. 
Sorties, too, should have been resorted to. There was but one (Rion's, a 
success) during the siege. 'Tis true, no doubt, as stated in General Beaure- 
gard's report, that he ordered them made when practicable, but the 
writer, as a commander of the fort, does not recollect to have had this 
order extended to him — and it certainly should have had obedience to it 
enforced. Until the enemy captured the rifle pits, or ridge, as they called 
it, sorties were entirely practicable, notwithstanding the torpedoes in front 
of the work. The troops could have been moved out in column by the path 
which the pickets used, avoiding the torpedoes, and formed behind the pits 
for the attack. 

With regard to the artillery — when this tour of duty was over — General 
Hagood brought fully to General Beauregard's attention the importance 
and efilciency of columbiads on the sea face, stating that he thought a 
battery of two or three ten-inch guns should be placed there; and further 
called attention to the absence of mortars for curved fire against the 
enemy's approaches, the only one in the fort, a ten-inch seacoast, having 
been disabled on the 10th July by the breaking of one of the trunnions and 
not having been used since. The general spoke of his inability to spare the 
guns and mortars, and laid less stress upon their importance to the defense 
of the fort. The dismounted columbiad, however, was In a few days 
remounted. Later in the siege another was sent dovra, but by this time, 
or shortly after, the first from continuous use had become unserviceable. 
So that in fact one ten-inch columbiad was the only armament opposed 
to the fleet during the siege. A 32 dr. rifled, on the sea face, became 
unserviceable after very few discharges. The landward armament con- 
sisted for offense chiefly of 32 dr. howitzers and eight-inch naval guns; a 
section of field guns on the left flank and one field gun on the right flaiik 
were kept for defense against assault, and this armament, in the 
writer's opinion, was not worked as much as it might have been by the 
successive commanders of the fort upon the enemy's sap.* The plan of 

•Gllmore's operations, etc. 

182 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

defense generally acted upon was a vigorous use of sharpshooters 
and hut a moderate use of artillery from Wagner, while the fire of 
distant batteries was to retard the enemy's approaches, and the garri- 
son of Wagner should be husbanded in bombproofs to repel the assault. 
Upon relieving his predecessor before day, on the 21st August, General 
Hagood found the embrasures on the land face closed with sand- 
bags and learned that for three or four days sharpshooting alone had been 
used from Wagner. He directed Major Warley, accompanying him as chief 
of artillery, to open at once a vigorous fire from his 32 drs. This fire by 
the enemy's siege journal* put a stop to their work until daylight, when it 
ceased. At 9 o'clock we opened again, with the result, as learned from the 
same source, of stopping it for the day, and no further effort was made to 
advance their sap till the 23rd, when Wagner again opened, "completely 
destroying it," says the Journal. By this mode of fighting, Wagner drew a 
very heavy artillery fire, and we were compelled quickly after each dis- 
charge to flu the throats of the embrasures with sand bags to prevent 
dismounting our guns, notwithstanding which, on the evening of the 24th, 
the last one on the land face was temporarily disabled. General Hagood 
now caused Major Warley to try the experiment of wedging up into position 
the disabled mortar and throwing shell with small charges into the head 
of the sap, then some three hundred and flfty yards off. Bight ounces of 
powder was found sufficient, and the practice was beautiful. This was 
the first time curved fire was used from the fort. The enemy's progress 
was stopped. His siege journal says : "This mortar proved to be a great 
annoyance. Its fire was directed on the head of the sap, was very accurate, 
and our sappers had no shelter from it. Six such mortars well served 
would have stopped our work till subdued by superior fire." His battery 
of Parrotts, heretofore breaching Sumter, was now turned upon tlie parapet 
of Wagner to get at the mortar by breaching, but the mortar was not 

Again, on the 25th, the mortar fire greatly retarded their sap, and Major 
Brooks, in their siege journal, records, "This has been the saddest day to me 
of the siege. Less has been done than on any other. No advance has been 
made." And so, throughout the siege, the enemy's record shows that 
whenever the artillery was actively brought to bear upon them the result 
was always to stop or greatly retard their progress. The value of the 
mortar as exhibited at this time caused another to be sent to replace it, 
when the old one became utterly unserviceable, and curved fire was more 
or less used till the end of the siege. 

These comments upon the masterly defense of Wagner by General Beaure- 
gard are made with much hesitation. They are given for what they are 

•Gilmore's Operations. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 183 


The Flag op Tkuce and Exchange of Prisonees. 

On the 21st July, the enemy's fire ceasing and a flag of truce appearing. 
Captain Tracy, A. D. C, was sent to meet it. After a short interview the 
flags separated, and, before either party had reached their lines, the fleet 
opened on the fort. Captain Tracy had to proceed a distance of two 
hundred yards along the exposed beach across which every projectile fired 
at Wagner from the fleet passed at the height of a man, they firing low to 
ricochet. Captain Tracy providentially reached the fort without being 
harmed and delivered a communication from General Gilmore requesting 
a personal interview between the officer commanding Wagner and General 
Vogdes commanding in the trenches. He also said the next afternoon 
had been suggested for the interview. The commander of Wagner, deeming 
the fire of the fleet an accident, and that it would every moment cease, 
did not at first permit his guns to reply. But the enemy's land batteries 
soon took it up ; Wagner responded and the bombardment went on. 

On the 22nd, at the hour suggested, the enemy's flag reappeared, and, 
as stated by General Beauregard, the interview was refused until the 
breach of truce was explained. The excuse as remembered was some mis- 
understanding between the naval and land commanders, and the fire could 
not be immediately stopped on account of General Gilmore's absence on 
FoUey Island, and General A'ogdes had no authority or perhaps means of 
communicating with the fleet. It was a lame excuse for the outrage, as 
far as the navy was concerned, for the whole interview had been on the 
open beach, in sight of the whole fleet, and Tracy was perfectly visible to 
every gunner as he returned with his flag in his hand. The explanation 
was, however, accepted with the profuse apologies tendered and the inter- 
view accorded. 

General Vogdes stated his mission to be to ask for Colonel Putnam's 
body and to return to us Lieutenant Bee's with the sword of the latter. 
He had with him poor Bee's body for delivery. His request was complied 
with, and he then verbally proposed an exchange of prisoners, mentioning 
that they had but few of ours, all except those recently captured having 
been sent North, that "as we had the excess, of course, we could select 
whom to exchange," whilst intimating that a mutural exchange without 
regard to excess would be agreeable. Pending the interview. General 
Hagood received a dispatch from Ripley's headquarters in Charleston, 
where the interview and its objects were known, directing him to agree to 
an exchange of wounded prisoners without regard to excess on our side, 
except the negro prisoners ; not to introduce them into the negotiations, 
but, if introduced by General Vogdes, to refuse, as they would not be given 
up; and that it was desirable on the score of humanity to get rid of the 
numerous white prisoners wounded in our hands, and for whom no 
adequate accommodation existed in our hospitals. The contents of the 
dispatch is given in substance and was not communicated to Vogdes. He 
cnrefully avoided any direct mention of negro prisoners, and his remark 

184: Memoirs of the War of Secession 

quoted above, that having the excess we could choose whom to exchange, 
etc., was in allusion to them, and all that was made. The Confederate 
proclamation outlawing negro troops and white officers commanding them 
was well known to the enemy; and, anxious to effect the exchange, it was 
apparent that the Federal party did not desire to complicate matters. It 
was observed that neither General Vogdes nor either of- the three or four 
officers accompanying him enquired after Shaw, the colonel of the negro 
regiment engaged in the recent assault, although they asked after every- 
body else, and we subsequently learned by their newspapers that they did 
not then know whether he was killed or captured. 

The negotiation was arranged, all in parol, by accepting the basis pro- 
posed by General Vogdes — the line to be the following Friday, at 10 a. m., 
and the place the point in the outer harbor from which the fleet generally 
conducted the attack on Wagner. 

The exchange took place, and General Gilmore afterward accused 
Beauregard of bad faith in not sending the negro prisoners for delivery. 

The foregoing narrative is believed to be perfectly correct. 



Whatever may be said of the artillery of Wagner not having been suf- 
ficiently active at all times, no objection on that score can be taken to her 

At first the infantry of the garrison served In this capacity by detail, 
and used their ordinary weapon — the Enfield rifle. Later, upon a sugges- 
tion which General Hagood had the honor to make, a special detail of men 
from the Twenty-first and Twenty-seventh South Carolina Regiments was 
made under Lieutenant Woodhouse, of the Twenty-first, and armed with 
Whitworth's telescopic rifles, a small lot of which had recently been 
brought through the blockade. The detail was sent to Sullivan's Island 
for a few days to become familiar by target practice with the weapon, 
and were then put on duty in the fort. At night they slept undisturbed in 
the hospital bomb-proof, and were excused from all fatigue duty at any 
time. From dawn until dark they were incessantly at work with their 
rifles, and of the value of their services the siege journal of the enemy 
gives abundant proof. They were even at times "used against the monitors. 
In revolving their turrets, after a discharge, in order to bring the opposite 
gun to bear, a man on each side of the turret would for a moment expose 
himself, and would be complimented with the notice of a sharpshooter. 
The men detailed became greatly interested in the duty and were not 
relieved regularly as the rest of the garrison was. Later still in the siege, 
when the enemy got nearer to the fort, the Whitworths were returned to 
the city, and the Enfield resumed as better adapted to snap shooting at 
close quarters. 

The sharpshooters perched themselves wherever they could best get a 
good view of the enemy from the fort, and sheltered themselves with little 
tandbag epaulements loopholed. 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 185 

The Rqxe Pits. 

About 300 yards in advance of Wagner a flattened ridge ran from the 
sea beacli to tlie marsli, and liere tlie island was narrowed. Behind this 
ridge in pits, two men to each, were stationed until the 26th August an 
infantry force, which served both as a picket and as sharpshooters. It 
served by ordinary detail from the garrison and used the habitual Enfield 
rifles. The sustained efforts of the enemy to shell them out with curved 
fire met with no success ; and against direct artillery fire they seemed to 
be better sheltered than men in the fort who could be enfiladed more or 
less behind the breastheight. The fact of the pits being detached, one 
from the other, seemed to traverse them effectually against the flank fire 
of the fleet. The detail here served twenty-four hours; at dusk, however, 
it was doubled and the re-enforcement withdrawn at dawn of day. 

Their sharpshooting was very annoying to the enemy, and as pickets 
they were invaluable, giving notice of assault in time to get the garrison 
out of the bomb-proofs. When the enemy's sap approached this ridge, 
he made an effort, on the 21st of August, to carry it by assault with the 
One Hundredth New York Volunteers, but failed. Again, on the 25th, a 
more determined effort was made. "Experience," says Major Brooks' 
journal, "had now proved that the sap cannot proceed unless the artillery 
fire of Wagner be subdued, or the enemy driven out of the ridge. ... At 
5:30 p. m., four 8-in. mortars and three Coehorn mortars opened on the 
ridge. At the same time the navy howitzers and Regua Battery fired to 
enfilade the reverse of the ridge. . . . The two Requa Batteries in the 
fourth parallel also took part." 

An Infantey Assault and Repulse Followed. 

Both these efforts were made during General Hagood's last tour of 
duty in Wagner. Upon relieving Colonel Keitt, on the 21st, he discovered 
after daylight that, in accordance with the practice established by the 
colonel on his recent tour, but 19 men were left in the pits for the day, 
instead of the heretofore usual number of seventy-five or eighty. They 
could not be re-enforced until night, and the enemy were greatly nearer 
them for attack than we were for support. To add to the general's anxiety, 
a flag of truce came in during the day, and the bearer was imprudently 
allowed to come near enough to observe the weakness of the force in the 
pits. When, therefore, in the evening a heavy and continuous bombard- 
ment of the pits and the space intervening between them and the fort com- 
menced, it was evident what was coming, and the general drew out four 
companies (about 175 men) from the bomb-proofs and formed them behind 
the breastheight of the land force ready to go out of the right sally port 
by a flank when required. Having fully explained to the senior captain 
his anxieties and anticipations, he took his place, sheltered as best he 
could, to watch from the parapet the time to start this re-enforcement. 

186 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

To start them too soon, before the fading light would obscure them, was 
to send them to butchery under the fire of artillery that could be con- 
centrated on the intervening space; to send them too late was to lose the 
pits, for the enemy, once in them, would be as hard from their construction 
to drive out as the original occupants were. Deeming the time to have 
arrived, the general gave the word, "Now, captain, go." "General, I wish 
you would detail some other man to take this command. I don't feel 
competent to it." 

Fortunately, General Hagood savsf just then Lieutenant-Colonel Dantzler, 
of the Twentieth South Carolina, standing in the door of the bomb-proof 
opening on the parade, and, beckoning to him, he came at double quick 
under the shelling going on. Explaining hastily the situation, the general 
put him in command, and, as he moved off, the assault commenced. Going 
at a run, Dantzler reached the pits after three on the right had been cap- 
tured. The fight continued obstinately till 10 o'clock at night, when, forced 
out of the captured pits, the enemy gave over his efforts. After putting 
out his advanced videttes, who were required to crawl forward and lie on 
their stomachs during the night some twenty paces in front of the pits, 
the enemy's videttes in like position facing them some twenty paces 
beyond, Dantzler was going on his liands and knees down the line, inspect- 
ing them, when he discovered one post vacant. The heart of the occupant 
had failed him and he had slunk back into the pits. Jerking him forward 
into his place, with some harsh words, the attention of the opposite videttes 
was attracted and his flre drawn. The bullet Struck the colonel, as he 
stood upon his hands and knees, in the breast of his coat and passed down 
the length of his body between his clothing and skin and out over his hip 
without other injury than a decided wheal. Poor Dantzler ! Few braver 
men shed their blood in this war. At Wauboteam Church, in Virginia, in 
'64, he threw away his life in the effort, by a deed of "derring do," to make 
something of a worthless regiment to which he had been promoted. And 
the captain so inopportunely modest ! In December, '64, on the lines before 
Richmond, when, in the current slang of the soldiers, chaplains were 
"played out," General Hagood was invited by the commanding officer of 
one of his regiments to attend divine service to be conducted by one of his 
line officers. After listening to an excellent sermon from an officer whom 
he had noticed during the past campaign always at his post and doing 
his duty well, his aide, Ben Martin, asked him if he remembered his first 
interview with the preacher. It was the modest Battery Wagner captain ! 

In the second attack (on the 23th) upon the pits, a full force was in 
them during the day from the Fifty-fourth Georgia, Captain Roberts com- 
manding; and they were re-enforced at dark by Colonel Devorne's Sixty- 
first North Carolina. The fight was gallantly and obstinately maintained, 
the enemy giving over without success about 9 p. m. Captain Roberts was 
mortally wounded before sundown, but could -not be brought into the fort 
before dark. When the fort had been arranged for the night, the com- 
manding officer went into the hospital bomb-proof to enquire after him. 
Having expressed the hope that he was not seriously wounded, he replied 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 187 

that his injuries were mortal. Taking him by the hand his commander 
spoke of his gallant bearing in the fight, when the brave fellow half rose 
from his litter and said, "Thank you, general," and fell back exhausted. He 
asked for a chaplain, but there was none in the fort — no 

"Pious man whom duty brought 
To dubious edge of battle fought 
To shrire the dying, bless the dead." 

A layman, a member of Parker's Light Battery (the Marions), a section 
of which was on duty in the fort, visited him at the request of the com- 
manding officer, and spent the time, until his removal to the city,' in admin- 
istering to him the consolations of religion. 

On the 18th of July, a Catholic clergyman was in the fort and adminis- 
tered the rites of his church in the bomb-proof just before the troops were 
drawn out to meet the assault. The chaplain of Ormstead's Georgia com- 
mand and Mr. Dickson, chaplain of the Twenty-fifth South Carolina, each 
accompanied his regiment on its tour of duty in the fort. The writer heard 
of no others. 

Upon being relieved before day, on the 26th, by Colonel Harrison, General 
Hagood called his attention specially to the critical condition of the rifle 
pits. They were carried by an infantry assault that night. The special 
circumstances the writer never learned. But the trouble was in re-enforc- 
ing them at the right time; for a sufficient force could not with safety be 
kept in them during the day, nor could they be re-enforced while there was 
light, and, as before remarked, the enemy could mass for attack closer 
than we were for support. Ripley's report says : "Just before dark the 
enemy threw forward an overwhelming force on the advanced pickets and 
succeeded in overpowering them before they could be supported." 

Incidents op Service at Wagnek. 

First Sergeant Tines, of Captain John A. Gary's company, Lucas's bat- 
talion, a plain man from one of the mountain districts of South Carolina, 
but a true patriot and good soldier, was mortally wounded at his gun. To 
Gary's expression of sympathy he replied : "I am glad it is I and not you, 
captain ; the country can better spare me." General Beauregard, on being 
informed of this incident, ordered one of the best of his new James Island 
batteries to be called "Battery Tines" in honor of the noble fellow. 

Gary himself was killed a few days afterwards. He was a younger 
brother of Captain M. W. Gary, a generous and spirited officer, and much 
beloved by his comrades.* 

•Captain John H. Gary, stationed at Battery Wagner, a shell from the enemy's 
gun, with a lighted fuse, fell within the fortifications, whereupon he quickly seized It 
and threw It outside the breastworks and It Immediately exploded. Captain Gary 
took an active part In the capture of the Gunboat Isaac P. Smith in Stono Elver, 
a graphic account of which was given In The Courier of Charleston, S. C. — Editor. 

188 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

On the 24tli of- August, Captain Robert Pringle, of the same battalion, 
was commanding a gun replying to the fire of a monitor. Three shells 
fired at a low elevation would richochet twice upon the water, the last time 
close to the beach and then explode just over the parapet of the fort. The 
practice was extremely accurate; and, although bright daylight, the huge 
projectiles coming straight for the spectator could be seen from the time 
they left the gun — presenting the appearance of a rapidly enlarging disk as 
they approached. One of these shells struck a school of mullet at its last 
rebound on the water and knocked one of the fish at least 100 yards into 
the gun chamber. Pringle picked it up and gaily remarked that he "had 
made his dinner." At the next fire from the monitor he was killed. The 
writer had been a good deal thrown with this young oflScer, and had been 
much pleased with his fine social traits and soldierly qualities. He w^as a 
descendant of the Mrs. Motte of Revolutionary fame. 

Extracts from the diary of Lieutenant-Colonel Pressley, Twenty-fifth 
South Carolina : 

"1st September. Ordered to Wagner. . . . Embarked from Fort Johnson 
all of the regiment except Company A, in a light draft steamer. Company 
A went in a rowboat. The steamer stopped near Sumter; harbor very 
rough. I got in the only boat the steamer had for debarking us, with 
about fifty ofiicers and men. When we had got half way from the steamer 
to Cummings Point, a bombardment of Sumter by monitors commenced and 
the steamer returned to Fort Johnson with the balance of the regiment. 
At Cummings Point I found Company A, making with the men I brought, 
eighty or ninety men of my command, and no prospect of getting the others 
till next night. Reported to General Colquitt, in command, and was 
ordered to the sand hills in rear of Wagner. So we spent the balance of 
the night in what the soldiers called "private bomb-proofs" — holes in the 
sand. Not finding these comfortable, I myself spread my blanket between 
two sand hillocks. Fort Wagner and the enemy exchanged shots slowly all 

"2nd September. Went into Wagner at daylight. Found the enemy's 
sap within about 120 yards of the salient; enemy working indus- 
triously. Garrison busy repairing damages and keeping up a slow fire. My 
command detailed as a working party for Battery Gregg. Enemy shelling 
Wagner, Gregg and Sumter all day. Transferred to Wagner at night, and 
by 11 p. m. the balance of my regiment arrived and reported to me. My 
companies, as they arrived, were stationed around the parapet, relieving 
the North Carolina regiment. 

"We occupied from the extreme left along the sea face around the left 
salient and part of the land force ; the Twenty-fifth Georgia the rest. These 
two regiments, with the artillerists, occupied the fort ; another regiment, the 
Twenty-seventh Georgia, was In the sand hills in the rear. Enemy fired 
very little tonight. I was up most of the night posting and visiting my 
men ; towards morning I took a nap in the left salient, resting my head 
against the parapet. 

Hagood's IsT 12 Months S. C. V. 189 

"3rd September. One or two of our guns and one mortar keep up a fire 
against the enemy's approaching sap. 

"My command in high spirits, — a great many building loopholes with 
sand bags for sharpshooting. This has become very dangerous work; as 
soon as a hole is darkened on either side, a shot from the opposite sharp- 
shooter follows, and with frequent success. Not much artillery fire by 
or at Wagner, but the enemy are hard at work and approaching. Our 
James Island batteries are firing briskly on the enemy's trenches. During 
the day from one-third to one-fourth the garrison are kept at the parapet, 
the rest in the bomb-proof — at night all are turned out. The Yankees are 
so near they can hear when we turn out, and quicken their fire. The garri- 
son is heavily worked repairing damages. 

"Colonel Keitt, Twentieth South Carolina, relieved General Colquitt last 
night in command of Morris Island. I was up nearly all night, slept a 
little before day in the same salient as last night. 

"4th September. Quite a lively bombardment from the enemy today, num- 
ber of the sand bag covers for sharpshooters knocked away. Sharpshooting 
still very brisk, however. . . . Batteries on James Island do good shooting, 
particularly Battery Simkins. Major Warley, chief of artillery, wounded; 
Captain Hugenin replaces him. Our parties very hard at work repairing 
damages. A corporal of Company A and several men wounded in my 
regiment. Several killed and a good many w^ounded in the balance of 
garrison. The enemy's fire slacked after dark. They display a calcium 
light tonight upon Vincent's creek. Towards day I tried to get a little 
sleep in my old place in the left salient. The shells from Fort Moultrie 
were passing immediately over it. A fragment from one of our own mortar 
shells came back into the fort and nearly struck me. This has been hap- 
pening for some time, the enemy were so close. . . . 

"5th September. The fleet early this morning opened upon the fort, the 
land batteries also cannonading with great fury — ^200 and 100-pound Par- 
rotts, 8 and 10-inch mortar shells and 15-inch shell from the navy pouring 
into us. The shells are exploding so fast they cannot be counted. All our 
guns are silenced. Working them under such a fire is out of the question. 
The men are being wounded and killed in every direction. I have been 
around amongst my men a good many times and am covered with sand when 
I return. The thf ee-fourths of the garrison are still kept in the bomb-proofs. 
The suffering of these from the heat and want of water is intolerable. 
The supply of water brought from the city is very inadequate; that from 
the shallow wells dug in the sand in and adjacent to the fort is horrible. 
Famishing thirst alone enables the men to drink it. ... I have seen some 
horrible sights — ^men mangled in almost every manner. I saw a sharp- 
shooter knocked from the parapet to the middle of the parade, some forty 
or fifty feet, and going fully twenty feet in the air. This was Rawlinson, 
of Compa'ny G, and the brave fellow clutched his rifle to the last. Of course, 
he lived but a short time. Lieutenant Montgomery, of Company C, was 
killed this morning — his head taken off by a shell. 

"An attack upon Battery Gregg is expected tonight ; a detachment of my 

190 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

regiment, under Captain Sellars, and of the Twenty-eighth Georgia, under 
Captain Hayne, are to be sent to re-enforce it. As they march out Cap- 
tain Hayne enquires of Lieutenant Blum for Captain Sellars; a shell kills 
both. ... It is apparent that pur force manning the parapet tonight must 
be as small as possible. ... In making our arrangements for the night 
there are many casualties in our detachment, commanded by Lieutenant 
Ramsey, Company Twenty-fifth. In a short time after it was posted every 
man but one was killed or wounded. The fleet has withdrawn and the land 
batteries slacked their fire, save the mortars, which are as active as ever. 
I have seen four shells start from the same battery at the same time. . . . 

"There was an alarm of an assault tonight. It was felt to be a relief — 
the prospect of changing this passive endurance of artillery into the hot 
blood of an infantry flght. The enemy's calcium light illuminated the 
whole fort, and the sharpshooters, contrary to custom, were at work all 
night. The enemy attacked Gregg and were repulsed. . . . Wells dug In the 
bomb-proofs give some relief in better water, but not enough. ..." 

Lieutenant-Colonel Pressley served until the evacuation; but the fore- 
going extracts from his diary are suflicient to give a picture of life in 


In the council before undertaking the operations on Morris 
Island, "the principal question," says General Gilmore's Official 
Report, "was to what extent the fall of Fort Sumter or the 
destruction of its offensive power would exert an influence on the 
fate of Charleston, that, of course, being the ultimate object in 
view. A consideration which possessed much weight was the 
great practical advantage of a blockade thorough and complete 
of Charleston harbor. The capture of Morris Island by allowing 
a portion of the blockading fleet to lie inside the bar, even though 
they should fail to finally occupy the inner harbor, would secure 
this end. The naval authorities at the seat of government 
regarded Fort Sumter as the key to the position., That strong- 
hold once destroyed or its offensive power practically destroyed, 
the monitors and other ironclads, they affirmed, could remove 
the channel obstructions, secure the control of the entire harbor 
and reach the city." 

Were these purposes accomplished? 

1. Did Charleston fall before Gilmore's operations? Cer- 
tainly not. Charleston, when it did fall, was evacuated in conse- 
quence of Sherman's march. It had withstood the direct attack 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 101 

until the enemy, wearied out, had abandoned further efforts thus 
to capture the city. 

2. Was a "blockade, in all respects thorough and complete," 
established? No. Moffett Channel, under Sullivan's Island, 
remained available to the Confederates, and though the hazards 
of blockade running were greatly increased it still went on. 

3. Did the disabling of Sumter open the inner harbor to the 
fleet? Sumter was thoroughly destroyed as an artillery post, 
but the channel obstructions and the new batteries that sprung 
up on the shores of the inner harbor kept the fleet lying off Mor- 
ris Island. And here it may as well be remarked that these same 
channel obstructions were far less formidable than imagined, 
the tide destroyed most of them about as fast as they were 

What, then, was accomplished? Narrower limits were set to 
blockade running, and by the bombardment much suffering and 
damage to property was inflicted upon the inhabitants of Charles- 
ton. Was the game "worth the candle" ? It was upon the "attri- 
tion" theory, said General Grant in 1865. "The resources of the 
enemy and his numerical strength were greatly inferior to ours 
... I therefore determined ... to hammer continually against 
him until by attrition, if in no other way, there should be nothing 
left to him but submission." And he succeeded. The "attrition" 
at Charleston contributed its share to the result. 

In engineering the siege taught no new principles. On the 
contrary, its lessons enforced most emphatically the time-honored 
principles of the schools. The masonry of Sumter crumbled like 
an egg shell before the breaching batteries of the enemy; and 
when its debris had been pounded into earth with natural slopes, 
no further impression could be made upon it. On the other 
hand, the parapet of Wagner constructed from the first with 
natural slopes of sand were good to the last. For though Colonel 
Keitt talks of a breach, the writer is persuaded there was no 
breach in the engineering sense, both from Colonel Harris's 
report and from the diagram in Gilmore's report of the effect of 
his fire on the left salient, to which Colonel Keitt alludes. The 
truth was the superior artillery fire of the enemy could at all 
times, when concentrated upon the fort, make it a butcher pen, if 
the whole garrison were at their posts. But few men could be 

192 Memoies of the War of Secession 

kept on the lines of the work during a bombardment — artillery 
enough to man the guns with infantry enough to act as a lookout 
and but little more. The practice always was during the daytime 
to keep a part of the garrison among the sand hillocks in rear of 
the fort ; and during the bombardment to keep out of the Ijomb- 
proofs about 100 men. 

By the 6th of September the sap of the enemy on the crest of 
the glacis put them in position when, deployed along its length, 
they could rush over the parapets of Wagner upon the cessation 
of the bombardment before its garrison could be drawn from 
the bomb-proofs to its defense. The relief of the fort was never 
greater than that of a strong field work, and the ditch was now 
half full by the drifting sand. The fort was, therefore, no longer 

The great development of the merlons between the guns was 
claimed by General Beauregard as an improvement of his own; 
and it certainly is in earthworks, when casemates are impossible, 
a great one. 

The writer became satisfied from his observation of these 
operations that ironclads, such as were opposed to us, could be 
kept out of any harbor when sand batteries could be located 
within 1,000 yards of the channel ; provided^ the batteries did not 
exceed one or two guns to each and were sufficiently detached. 
Where infantry supports were needed they should be bomb- 
proofed at convenient supporting distances and not at the guns. 
This, with the necessary covered ways, would be preferably his 
plan of defense. 

The defenses of Coles Island as arranged during the latter part 
of our occupation were an illustration of this plan. 

In this siege it is presumed more novelties were developed in 
artillery and larger experience gained than in any of modern 
times. The range and accuracy of fire obtained was never before 
equalled. The objections which the enemy's experience found to 
the larger sized Parrotts, their liability to burst, it is not thought 
were found by us to apply to the Brooke gun, which was the 
equal of the Parrott in every other respect. 

An admirable invention of Lieutenant- Colonel Yates for trans- 
ferring guns on columbiad carriages was used with perfect suc- 
cess. It was a wheel and ratchet arrangement by which the 

Hagood's 1st 12 Months S. C. V. 193 

gunner alone could quickly and accurately bring the gun to bear. 
The progress made in the use of torpedoes, both for offense 
and defense, was marked. Much, however, is yet to be attained. 
Where used for defense and required to be put in position for 
any time before hand, they were liable to get out of order and 
fail at the right moment. They were freely used in front of 
Wagner, yet the enemy sapped through them with but eight 
casualties from this source. About half that number occurred 
with us from carelessness with regard to them. 

In the assault on Wagner, on the 18th July, the enemy's official 
report makes no mention of torpedoes ; their newspaper accounts 
spoke of hand grenades used by the defense. This was not so, 
but in the night the impression might have been produced by 

Next day the officer in charge not knowing of the torpedoes, 
the enemy's dead on the glacis were buried among them where 
they were placed and no casualty occurred. The burial party dug 
them up, but as they were ordinary spherical shell with the 
explosive arrangement in the fuse, they were deemed to have been 
fired the previous day without exploding. When used for offense, 
the writer thought more of them, and his impression is that their 
use at the prow of small boats, moving totally or partially sub- 
merged, was very near a success. 

The fleet of "cigar boats" that sprung up in Charleston harbor 
and the "diving boat" were curious things to a landsman's eye; 
and some of the highest heroism of the war was exhibited in 
their use. 

The writer regrets that he has not the data to speak fully of 
their exploits or to record the names of the gallant men who were 
distinguished in this service.* 

The calcium light of the enemy was novel and efficient. 

As a tactical movement the evacuation was an eminent success ; 
and, though admirably executed, the chief credit is due to the 
comprehensive and explicit order in relation to it prepared by 
General Beauregard himself. 

.•IV So. Hist, paper 225 and V ditto 140, are papers on the subject by Beaure- 
gard and by Glassel. 

End of Volume I. 

13— H 

Hagood's Brigade 195 



"Headquarters Dept. S. C, Ga. and Fla. 
"Charleston, Sept. 20, 1863. 
"Special Orders. 
"No. 188. 

"II. Brigadier-General Hagood's Brigade will be organized and consist 
of the following regiments and battalions: Eleventh, Twenty-first and 
Twenty-flfth Regiments, and the First (Charleston) Battalion and the 
Seventh Battalion South Carolina Volunteers. This organization for the 
present, however, will not interfere with any temporary distribution of 
troops by the district commander. . . . 

"By command of General Beauregard. 

"(Signed) Jno. M. Otey, A. A. G." 

"Headquarters Dept. S. C, Ga. and Fla., 
"Charleston, S. C, 30 Sept., 1863. 
"Special Orders. 
"No. 198. 
"I. By authority of the "War Department, the First Battalion South 
Carolina Infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel P. C. Gaillard commanding, and the 
First Battalion South Carolina Sharpshooters, Major Jos. Abney com- 
manding, will be consolidated into a regiment. . . . 
"By command of General Beauregard. 

"(Signed) Jno. M. Otey, A. A. G." 

A subsequent order numbered the regiment "Twenty-seventh 
South Carolina" and arranged the officers as follows : P. C. Gail- 
lard, colonel; J. A. Blake (late captain, Charleston Battalion), 
lieutenant-colonel, and Joseph Abney, major. The regiment now 
had ten full companies. Subsequently, in 1864, the order of the 
secretary of war disbanded one of them (Clarkson's, Co. K,) on 
account of some illegality in its organization, and the regiment 
consisted of nine companies during the rest of its career. The 
Eleventh Regiment also consisted of nine companies, one of its 

196 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

companies having been permitted to organize and equip as a light 
battery. It was known as the Beaufort Artillery, and Steven 
Elliott (now Major Elliott at Fort Sumter) was its first captain. 
At the date of the brigade organization this company was form- 
ally detached from the regiment. 


Johnson Hagood Brigadier-General, Commanding 

P.K.Moloney Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General 

G. B. Lartigue Major and Quartermaster 

R. G. Hay Major and Commissary, Subsistence 

E. H. Frost Captain and Assistant Commissary 

Edmund Mazyck Lieutenant and Ordnance Officer 

W. E. Stoney Captain and Assistant Inspector General 

Ben Martin Lieutenant and Aid-de-Camp 

Carlos Tracey Volunteer Aid-de-Camp 

S. N. Bellinger ] 

Geo. K. Ryan I Mounted Orderlies 

Dwight Stoney ] 

G. B. Hacker ) 

P. S. Dibble Office Clerks 


F. H. Gantt Colonel Commanding 

A. C. Izard Lieutenant-Colonel 


C.F.Davis Adjutant 

R. P. Gantt Assistant Quartermaster 

A. E. Williams Surgeon 

J. B. Black ..Assistant Surgeon 

A. B. Stephens Chaplain 

Company A. 
(The Beaufort Artillery.) 

Company B. 

G. J. Westcoat Captain 

H.W.Bowman First Lieutenant 

W.D.Ellis Second Lieutenant 

John Black Second Lieutenant 

Hagood's Brigade 197 

Company C. 

T. D. Leadbetter Captain 

J. J. Guerrard First Lieutenant 

F. R. M. Sineatli Second l^ieutenant 

T. W. Stales Second Lieutenant 

Company D. 

J.J.Gooding.. .. , Captain 

Mac. D. Gooding. . First Lieutenant 

O.J.Sauls Second Lieutenant 

H. K. Hucks Second Lieutenant 

Company E. 

J. H. Mickler Captain 

W.Smith First Lieutenant 

T. S. Tuten Second Lieutenant 

Thomas Hamilton Second Lieutenant 

Company F. 

B. F. Wyman Captain 

J.S.Morrison First Lieutenant 

J. M. Mixon Second Lieutenant 

E. H. Wyman Second Lieutenant 

Company G. 

W. D. McMillan Captain 

W.M.Wolfe First Lieutenant 

J. H. Brownlee Second Lieutenant 

S. H. Brownlee Second Lieutenant 

Company H. 

T. E. Raysor Captain 

W.D.Wilson First Lieutenant 

J. P. Mims Second Lieutenant 

L. C. Mellard Second Lieutenant 

Company I. 

W.S.Campbell Captain 

E. B. Loyless First Lieutenant 

J. C. Riley Second Lieutenant 

Robert Campbell Second Lieutenant 

Company K. 

J. Boatwright Captain (suspended) 

^ . First Lieutenant 

L. B. Murdaugh Second Lieutenant 

W. Johns Second Lieutenant 

198 Memoirs or the Wak of Secession 


R F.Graham ' Colonel Commanding 

a! T. Dargan Lieutenant Colonel 

G. W. McIverV. V Major 

F. Dozler Adjutant 

A. C. McDuffie Assistant Quartermaster 

c'.Happoldt.. ".'.".' Surgeon 

E. B. Smith Assistant Surgeon 

J. E. Dunlap Chaplain 

Company A. 

J. Harleston Read, Sr Captain 

Thomas Ford First Lieutenant 

J. H. Read, Jr Second Lieutenant 

W.R.Ford Second Lieutenant 

Company B. 

S. H. Wilds Captain 

J.W.King First Lieutenant 

J.L.Hart Second Lieutenant 

Second Lieutenant 

Company D. 

M. G. Tant Captain 

J. H. Villeneuer First Lieutenant 

S. D. Sanders Second Lieutenant 

A. A. Vanderford Second Lieutenant 

Company E. 

B.T.Davis Captain 

A.W.Davis.. First Lieutenant 

J.A.Craig Second Lieutenant 

Alexander Craig Second Lieutenant (in hands of enemy) 

Company F. 

J. A. W. Thomas Captain 

N. A. Easterling First Lieutenant 

R. B. Townsend Second Lieutenant 

W. D. Croolv Second Lieutenant 

Company G. 

R. W. Reddy Captain 

J.M.Woodward First Lieutenant (in hands of enemy) 

N. A. Revile Second Lieutenant 

R.H.Hudson Second Lieutenant 

Hagood's Bbioade 19^ 

Company H. 

(Vacant) Captain 

(Vacant) First Llentenant 

D. G. Dubose Second Lieutenant 

W.H.Carlisle Second Lieutenant 

Company I. 

R.G.Howard Captain (in hands of enemy) 

H.M.Cannon First Lieutenant 

W. J. Altman Second Lieutenant 

(Vacant) Secend Lieutenant 

Company K. 

J.W.Owens Captain 

C. L. Sansberry First Lieutenant 

E. B. Green Second Lieutenant 

H. J. Clifton Second Lieutenant 

Company L. 

H. Legett Captain 

W.B.Baker First Lieutenant 

E. L. Sweet Second Lieutaiant 

W. D. Woodbury Second Lieutenant 

This regiment had originally eleven companies. Company C had been 
transferred to another command. 


C. H. Simonton Colonel Commanding 

John G. Pressley Lieutenant Colonel 

John V. Glover Major 

Geo. H. MofiCett . . . : Adjutant 

James E. Adger Quartermaster 

W. C. Ravenel Surgeon 

A. J. Beale Assistant Surgeon 

A. P. Diclison Chaplai* 

Company A. 

J.M.Carson Captain 

H. B. Olney First Lieutenant 

J. A. Ross Second Lieutenant 

J. S. Hanahan Second Lieutenant 

Company B. 

E.W.Lloyd Captain 

J. S. Burgen First Lieutenant 

R. M. Taft Second Lieutenant 

J. E. Bomar Second Lieutenant 

200 Memoirs of the War of Secession- 

Company C. 

Thomas J. China Captain 

E.Logan.. First Lieutenant 

B. P. Brockington Second Lieutenant 

S. J. Montgomery Second Lieutenant 

Company D. 

W. J. McKerral Captain 

D. G. McKay First Lieutenant 

R. P. Bethea .- Second Lieutenant 

M. L. Smith Second Lieutenant 

Company E. 

W. B. Mazycli Captain 

A. J. Mims First Lieutenant 

' V. Due Second Lieutenant 

G. M. Salam Second Lieutenant 

Company F. 

M. H. Sellars Captain 

L.A.Harper First Lieutenant 

John G. Evans Second Lieutenant 

F. E. Shuler Second Lieutenant 

Company G. 

James F. Izlar Captain 

S. N. Kennerly First Lieutenant 

S. Dibble Second Lieutenant (in hands of enemy) 

G.H.Elliott Second Lieutenant 

Company H. 

L. S. Hammond Captain 

W. H. Seabrook First Lieutenant 

F. G. Hammond Second Lieutenant 

J. F. Ramsey Second Lieutenant 

Company I. 

J. O. Burgess Captain 

J.J.Logan First Lieutenant 

F.B.Brown Second Lieutenant 

R. F. Felder Second Lieutenant 

Company K. 

W.B.Gordon • Captain 

F. J. Lesesne First Lieutenant 

E. R. Lesesne Second Lieutenant 

C. Lesesne Second Lieutenant 

Hagood's Brigade 201 


P. C. Gaillard Colonel Commanding 

J.A.Blake Lieutenant Colonel 

Jospeh Abney Major 

W. M. Smith Adjutant 

R. Press Smith Assistant Quartermaster 

J. L. Pressley Surgeon 

S. P. Caine Assistant Surgeon 


Company A. 

P. F. Miles Captain (resigned shortly after) 

B. W. Palmer First Lieutenant 

J. W. Axson Second Lieutenant 

J. M. Easterby Second Lieutenant 

Company B. 

Thos. G. Simons, Jr Captain 

William Sinkler First Lieutenant 

A. H. Masterman Second Lieutenant 

A. W. Muckenfuss Second Lieutenant 

Company C. 

Samuel Lord Captain (resigned shortly after) 

George Brown First Lieutenant 

J. Campbell Second Lieutenant 

H. W. Hendrix Second Lieutenant 

Company D. 

J. Ward Hopkins '. Captain 

J. A. Cay First Lieutenant 

A. St. John Lance Second Lieutenant 

J. T. Wells Second Lieutenant 

Company E. 

R. Chisholm Captain 

S. R. Proctor First Lieutenant 

T. B. Crooker Second Lieutenant 

S. M. Kemmerlin Second Lieutenant 

Company F. 

Joseph Blythe Allston » Captain 

J. G. Hugenin First Lieutenant 

M. Stuart Second Lieutenant 

(Detached In enrolling office. Never served with Brigade). 
E. P. Cater Second Lieutenant 

202 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Company G. 
Henry Buist Captain 

E. H. Holman First Lieutenant 

C. J. McBetli ' Second Lieutenant 

A. B. White Second Lieutenant 


J. M. Mulraney Captain 

A. A. Allemony First Lieutenant 

J. Burke Second Lieutenant 

R. R. Hogan Second Lieutenant 

Company I. 

W.D.Walter Captain 

T. R. Lyncli First Lieutenant 

J. C. Salters Second Lieutenant 

W. J. Trim Second Lieutenant 

Company K. 

William Clarkson Captain 

.. First Lieutenant 

J. G. Harriss Second Lieutenant 

A. D. Simons Second Lieutenant 


P.H.Nelson Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding 

J. H. Rion Major 

S. W. Nelson Adjutant 

Eli Harrison Assistant Quartermaster 

R. B. Hanahan Surgeon 

■ — — Assistant Surgeon 


Company A. 

B. S. Lucas Captain 

F. McCaskell First Lieutenant 

A. McCaskell Second Lieutenant 

J.W.Gardiner Second Lieutenant 

Company B. 

John R. Harrison Captain 

J.L.Kennedy First Lieutenant 

H. L. I^ell Second Lieutenant 

S.W.Douglass Second Lieutenant 

Hagood's Bkigade 203 

Company C. 

A.W.Pearson Captain 

J. R. Manken First Lieutenant 

■ Second Lieutenant 

• Second Lieutenant 


J.L.Jones Captain 

E. A. Xoung.. First Lieutenant 

R. W. Young Second Lieutenant 

R. J. Cunningham Second Lieutenant 

Company E. 

P. P. Gaillard Captain 

J.M.Ross First Lieutenant 

Second Lieutenant 

Second Lieutenant 

Company F. 

Dove Segars Captain 

William McSween First Lieutenant 

H. D. Tiller Second Lieutenant 

A. W. Raley Second Lieutenant 

Company G. 

William Clyburn Captain 

L. L. Clyburn First Lieutenant 

W. J. Taylor Second Lieutenant 

T. W. Sligh Second Lieutenant 

Company H. 

J. H. Brooks. . .'. Captain 

T. M. McCants First Lieutenant 

William Weston Second Lieutenant 

B. J. Randall Second Lieutenant 

The aggregate strength of the brigade thus formed was four 
thousand, two hundred and forty-six (4,246) present and absent, 
of whom fully five hundred were detailed in the different work- 
shops, offices, etc., in the department. The majority of these 
men never got into the field. Some 'of them were properly 
detailed where they were, and from their mechanical skill or 
other special qualification for the detailed duty were more useful 
to the cause than they would have been in the ranks. But most 

204 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

of them were men whose native repugnance to the field endowed 
them with a facility in dodging, which, when backed up by more 
or less social influence, enabled them to skulk the war through 
as employees in the conscript and other military bureaus, on rail- 
roads, in printing offices, banks, blockade running and other 
employments supposed essential to Confederate existence. 

A short notice of the history and character of the regiments 
now first brought together in brigade organization is necessary. 

Eleventh Regiment. 

Under the Act of the Legislature of South Carolina passed 
December, 1860, to provide "an armed military force," the 
original companies of this regiment were raised for twelve months 
and went into service on the coast. Colonel Wm. C. Heyward* 
commanding. It was then called the Ninth South Carolina Vol- 
unteers, and its organization was irregular, having more than ten 
companies, and one of these a light battery. The regiment trans- 
ferred its service during '61 to the Confederate Government under 
arrangement made between the Convention of the State and the 
Confederate authorities, and was now known as the Eleventh 
South Carolina Volunteers. In May, 1862, it re-enlisted for "two 
years or the war." A more general bouleversment of officers took 
place upon the re-enlistment in this regiment than in any other 
South Carolina command at the re-elections through a most mis- 
taken policy,' permitted by the government. The regiment was 
seriously and permanently injured. 

Its service had been uneventful to this date. Some of its com- 
panies had been engaged at the bombardment of the forts at Port 
Royal in 1861, and at the Battle of Pocotaligo, in '62, a portion 
of it had won reputation, while the remainder of the regiment 
had suffered some loss (its major, Harrison, included), being fired 
into upon a railroad train while en route to the scene of action, 
when it arrived after the repulse of the enemy. At the siege of 
Charleston, the regiment had not borne as prominent a part as 
some others, though here as well as in Florida, whither it had 
been sent in the latter part of the siege, it had done its duty well 
when called upon. 

•See notice of Colonel Heyward, Vol. I, page 193- 

Hagood's Brigade 203 

Its present commander, Colonel Gantt, had been a lieutenant 
in the original regiment and was, on the reorganization, elected 
lieutenant-colonel. He succeeded Ellis on the latter's being com- 
pelled to resign to avoid charges of incompetency. Ellis — a cross- 
road politician — had been elected over Heyward without having 
served a day in this or any other regiment. Colonel Gantt had 
been at the State Military School, and his lieutenant-colonel, 
Tzard, had held a commission in the United States navy. Colonel 
Izard served very little with the regiment after it was brigaded; 
he was most of his ■ time on sick leave. Gooding, the senior 
captain, who succeeded to the majority, was an incubus upon the 
command, without soldierly spirit, and yet with ability enough to 
keep clear of such derelictions of duty as would bring him before 
a court. Finally, however, in the waning days of the Confed- 
eracy, he overstayed a leave under circumstances almost amount- 
ing to desertion and was dropped from the rolls. 

Colonel Gantt was a good drill officer and had his regiment in 
fair discipline and presenting a good military appearance when 
it reported to the brigade. Its subsequent history will show that 
it had much good material in the ranks and among its officers, 
many of whom were worthy of their commissions. 

This regiment was chiefly raised in Beaufort and Colleton Dis- 

The TwENTY-riEST Regiment 

Was organized 12th November, 1861, under a call upon South 
Carolina for additional troops and was mustered into Confed- 
erate service 1st January, 1862, for "three years or the war." It 
was drawn from what is known as the Pee Dee region of the 
State. Colonel Graham, its commander, had been an officer in 
Gregg's six-months regiment. Its lieutenant-colonel, Dargan, 
and its major, Mclver, were excellent officers, and in the subor- 
dinate grades was found the usual melange — some as gallant and 
noble spirits as ever bore a sword or stopped a bullet — many who 
creditably filled their positions, and some of the earthy earthy. 
The regiment had been, from its organization, on the coast of 
South Carolina, and had borne a conspicuous part in the siege of 
Charleston. From its somewhat eventful service here, it was at 
this time more or less disorganized and required attention. 

206 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Twenty-fifth Regiment. 

Companies A and B of this regiment were raised from the 
Washington Light Infantry, a time-honored militia organiza- 
tion of Charleston, which also contributed a company to the 
Hampton Legion. These companies went into State service, 
serving at Coles Island tha winter of '61-'62, and called them- 
selves The Eutaw Battalion, Simonton, senior captain, com- 
manding. Upon the reorganization of the First South Carolina 
(Hagood's) regiment in April, 1862, three of its companies 
(Pressley's, Glover's and Sellars') seceded, as they were per- 
mitted by the law to do, to this battalion, and it grew into a 
regiment by the addition of newly raised companies. On 22nd 
July, 1862, it was mustered into Confederate service for "three 
years or the war." Captain Simonton became its colonel. He 
was a lawyer of prominence in Charleston, both before and after 
the war. His service with his regiment during its connection 
with the brigade was limited, he being most of the time detached 
on post duty. Captains Pressley and Glover became respectively 
lieutenant-colonel and major, and were both most excellent and 
meritorious oiRcers. Among the subordinates were a number of 
first-class officers, and the men were of excellent material. Com- 
panies A and B were raised in Charleston; the other companies 
from the middle country of the State. 

The discipline and esprit of the regiment was good. Its service 
had been principally in and around Charleston. It was credit- 
ably engaged at the Battle of Secessionville, among the troops 
outside of the fort. During the existing siege of the city, it had 
had a comparatively easy time on James Island until the last 
days of Wagner, when for the first time it was part of the gar- 
rison. Under its lieutenant-colonel, Pressley, it had then behaved 
with much steadiness, and met with considerable loss. Under the 
same meritorious officer it was engaged in the affair of the 16th 
July with General Terry's forces on James Island, and it had 
borne its share by detail in the other duties and events of the 

Twenty-seventh Regiment. 

The Charleston Battalion, composing the first six companies of 
this regiment, was originally raised in Charleston and mustered 

Hagood's Brigade 207 

into Confederate service in March, '62. In its subsequent history, 
it received many recruits from the country, but its officers were 
almost without exception Charlestonians, and the city element 
largely predominated in the ranks. The several companies were 
offshoots from the old militia organizations of the city and 
among themselves retained the names of their parent companies. 
Indeed this was common throughout the brigade, and there was 
scarcely a company in any of the regiments which, though known 
officially as Company A or Company B of such a regiment, had 
not some fancy name by which they were fond of calling them- 
selves and by which they were generally loiown at home. P. C. 
Gaillard was the lieutenant-colonel commanding and David 
Ramsay major. Colonel Gaillard had graduated at West Point, 
a contemporary of General Bragg's, had served in the United 
States Army, and subsequently for many years was engaged in 
commercial pursuits in Charleston. He was a man with much, of 
the old Roman type of character about him, had unbounded 
influence over his command, and was every inch a soldier. Not- 
withstanding his age and the loss of an arm at Wagner, he served 
faithfully with his regiment under every hardship of the cam- 
paign of '64 in Virginia, until, toward its close, his health suc- 
cumbed and he was compelled to go upon the retired list and a 
post command. 

Major Ramsay was a lawyer of high culture and fell at Wag- 
ner on the 18th July. 

The battalion of sharpshooters composing the remaining com- 
panies of the regiment was raised in June, 1862, under orders 
from Richmond, partly by compulsory drafts from regiments 
already in service, and partly by voluntary enlistment. The 
officers were appointed, not elected, and the organization was 
rather that of Regulars than Volunteers. 

In passing, it may be remarked that the scheme of the War 
Department of raising a special corps of sharpshooters failed, and 
though in this instance some excellent companies were formed, 
they never did duty other than infantry of the line. Indeed, 
as the war progressed, the whole Confederate Army rapidly 
became light infantry in mobility and appointments, and in a 
wooded country, with the Enfield rifle or its equivalent on both 
sides, it was seldom that anything but the ordinary skirmisher 

208 Memoirs or the War of Seoesbion 

was needed. Under the circumstances, the repeating firearm was 
a greater advantage than any increased length of range or special 
accuracy of fire, the Enfield carrying its missile with deadly force 
and accuracy across most of the open levels encountered. There 
were occasions, however, such as at Wagner, at Petersburg and 
elsewhere in the writer's experience, when a few telescopic rifles, 
such as Whitworths, distributed through a regiment — say one to 
the company — were capable of good service. The possession of 
such a rifle might have been made a mark of honor as well as skill 
in the beam. 

Major Abney, commanding the sharpshooters' battalion, had 
served in Mexico as lieutenant in the Palmetto Eegiment ; had in 
this war been elected to the command of one of the regiments 
raised in the State in the spring of '62, and, upon the inevitable 
reorganization upon entering Confederate service, a few weeks 
afterwards had been ousted by a man who was subsequently 
broken for cowardice. Abney was a brave man, but his habits were 
not good, and his virtues were rather passive than active. Blake, 
the lieutenant-colonel, also was a negative character. Both he and 
Abney had not sufficient elan and failed to command the confi- 
dence of their men. When Gaillard was absent, the regiment 
always did better under one of its many good subordinates. 
Abney's health became bad and he went on the retired list ; and 
Blake was dropped for over-staying a leave in the spring of '65. 
He appealed, however, alleging great injustice done him, and 
was granted a court amid the rapidly culminating misfortunes of 
the Confederacy, the decision of which was never announced. 

The Twenty-seventh was especially claimed by the Charles- 
tonians as their regiment, and in consequence of its local popu- 
larity many of the best young men of the city were in its ranks. 
The average intelligence and social position of the rank and file 
were thus greater than most regiments, and its discipline and 
character were peculiar. It was not equal to some others in dis- 
cipline, but under Gaillard, or any other of its officers who 
possessed its confidence, it would go anywhere and do anything. 
Under Blake or Abney it was far less efficient. There was too 
much intelligence and too little rigidity of discipline in its ranks 
for men without force of character to command it successfully. 
This regiment, like the others, had served only in South Carolina, 

Hagood's Brigade 209 

but had been peculiarly fortunate in its service. It had won 
honor in the fort at Secessionville in '62; had been Talliferro's 
mainstay at Wagner on the 18th July ; a portion of it had been 
Elliott's garrison at Sumter when the boat attack was repulsed; 
and two of its sharpshooter companies had obtained honorable 
mention at Pocotaligo. 

The Seventh Battalion. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson, commanding this battalion, had 
commenced the war as brigadier-general of State troops at the 
reduction of Sumter, and General Hagood, then Colonel of the 
First South Carolina, had been attached to his command. When, 
shortly afterward, the State troops were transferred to Confed- 
erate service, the general officers lost their commissions, Nelson 
returned home and raised this battalion "for the war." He was a 
planter, a gentleman of high culture and fine presence, and an 
excellent officer. Major Rion had commenced the war as colonel 
of the Sixth South Carolina, had lost his commission in the 
re-election consequent upon taking Confederate service; had 
raised a company and joined Nelson. He was a leading lawyer 
of Fairfield District, both before and after the war. The subor- 
dinate officers were, with scarce an exception, good and some 
superior, and the men of excellent material. This battalion came 
nearer to Regulars in discipline and uniform efficiency at ,all 
times and under all circumstances than any volunteer troops the 
writer met with during the war ; and this was largely due to the 
zeal and ability of Major Rion. 

The battalion had served with distinction at Pocotaligo, 
arriving on a railroad train in time by a vigorous assault to 
decide the day. It had also borne honorable part in the existing ' 
siege of Charleston. It was drawn from the central districts of 
the State. 

Such, briefly, was the character of the regiments now organ- 
ized and known afterward as "Hagood's Brigade," as it appeared 
to one who knew them intimately, and who appreciated, as 
one appreciates a well-tried blade, that exalted heroism and 
unflinching devotion which marked their subsequent career as a 
body, but who had no respect for individuals in such a corps who 
fell short of its high standard— men bearing commissions in the 

14— H 

210 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

spirit of a conscript, while there were privates in their commands 
clad in rags, often infested with vermin, who went into action, 
or endured the hardships of the march and the trench, as if they 
bore a marshal's baton. 

The following anecdote will show the estimate in which the 
regiments were held by one of the higher rank, who knew them 
well. On the lines before Bermuda Hundreds in May, '64, Gen- 
eral Bragg, then holding staff position at Kichmond, asked 
General Hagood in presence of General Beauregard what sort 
of a brigade he had. General Beauregard replied by narrating 
the incident mentioned in the Memoirs of the Second Military 
District (Vol. I, page 112) of Hagood's disappointment in going 
with the brigade sent to Vicksburg, and said : "I told him, then, 
that when opportunity, served I would give him a good brigade 
with which to take the field; and I gave him the best troops I 
had, sir." 

At the date of the order organizing the brigade, mo-st of the 
regiments composing it were on James Island, constituting chiefly 
the infantry supports of the battalion of the east lines — a sub- 
division then commanded by General Hagood. The others were 
concentrated under his command- in this position as soon as 
circumstances permitted. Gilmore's active operations had ceased, 
as before narrated, with the boat attack on Sumter, and the siege 
had subsided into a matter of long range fire. This state of 
affairs chiefly occupied the artillery, and afforded opportunity 
of bringing the brigade into a high state of efficiency, which was 
eagerly embraced. 

The following circular was issued, and its directions enforced : 

Headquarters Hagood's Brigade. 
1 December, 1863. 

I. A course of instruction in drill will be instituted by the several com- 
mandants of regiments of the brigade as follows : The six (6) lessons in 
the battalion drill (Hardee's 2 Vol.) will be gone through with on successive 
days ; and then three successive days will be devoted to the skirmish drill 
including the deployment of the battalion.* These duties will be had in 

•I never saw a battalion deployed as skirmishers in actual battle. The Confed- 
erate practice was for each company to furnish men enough to cover its own front 
and one or more officers were detailed from the regiment. A field officer was 
generally detailed for the occasion to command all the skirmishers from the brigade. 
In some brigades these details became more or less permanent. — J. H. 

Hagood's Brigade 211 

the afternoon, and in the forenoon of the same day, each regimental com- 
mander will have caused his oflScers to recite on the lessons of the day — 
blackboards or some substitute being used. 

II. Special attention will be given in this course to the guides, and 
commandants of the regiments are required to reduce to the ranlis any non- 
commissioned oflScer, who, after reasonable instruction, fails to become 
master of his duty. The "advance in line" must be practised until the 
troops are perfect in its execution and its principles thoroughly understood. 
The troops must also be accustomed to manceuver as well by the rear rank 
as by the front, by inversion as by direction. 

The "formation against cavalry," the "instructions for skirmishers," the 
"advance in line" and the "march in column" are of chief importance in 
the drill ; and their relative importance is in the inverse order in which 
they are here enumerated. The points to be looked to in the march of a 
column, whatever the breadth of its front, are (1) that the depth of the 
column never exceeds the width the troops are to occupy in line of battle. 
(2) That meeting an obstacle in the march, the men do not improperly 
break into files to pass it. (3) That no man, upon any pretense whatever, 
falls out of the ranks without the permission first obtained of his captain. 
The first two rules are to prevent fatigue to the men in closing up from 
time to time, and to prevent delay in the march of an army. A single 
battalion may lose but ten minutes on a march in thus improperly breaking 
into file, that will delay a brigade near an hour, and a division five hours, 
in which time a battle may be lost or won. The third rule is to prevent 
the evil of straggling, and all these rules will be enforced in this brigade 
on all marches, however distant from the enemy — ^whether going to or re- 
turning from duty, or upon any other occasion. Discipline is the result of 
habit, and careless habits in this particular must not be formed, or, if 
formed, must be broken. OflBcers must use such means, amounting to sever- 
ity if necessary, as will enforce these rules, and they alone will be held 
responsible for any departure from them. 

III. Commanding oflicers will notify these headquarters of the hours 
in the afternoon each may select for the drills ordered to the end that the 
brigadier-general may when practical be present. 

By command Brigadier-General Hagood. 

W. B. Stoney, a. a. a. G. 

At a later day, when the brigade was in the field, a standing 
order, of which the following is an extract, prescribed minutely 
the details necessary to secure the proper conduct of marches, 
and regimental commandants were held directly responsible to 
the brigade commander for their proper observance : , 

"On all marches the officers second in rank present for duty 
with each regiment, together with the assistant surgeon, or in his 
absence the surgeon, will follow the regiment and be accompanied 

212 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

by a non-commissioned officer and a file of men. This will be the 
regimental rear-guard. The last regiment will, however, have 
instead a company as brigade rear-guard, and will be accom- 
panied by the brigade surgeon and the surgeons who may not be 
immediately in rear of their regiments, filling the places of absent 
assistant surgeons. The ambulances will follow immediately 
thereafter and be succeeded by the ordnance wagons; and then 
the quartermaster's train, when the latter marches with the 
brigade. The commanding officer of the regiment will habitually 
march at its head, but he will frequently stop and let it march 
past him, to see that it marches properly. He will always do this 
upon encountering a rivulet or other obstruction which the men 
may be inclined to break their ranks in passing. This is most 
positively forbidden; all such places must be passed in proper 
order, and the regimental commander will immediately arrest 
and report any captain who fails to bring his company properlj' 
through such places. No discretion is allowed the regimental 
commander in such cases. An officer or man unable from any 
reason to keep up with the march will obtain from his immediate 
commander verbal permission to fall out. The regimental rear- 
guard will examine him, and if properly out of the ranks the 
assistant surgeon will give him written permission to fall to the 
rear, when the brigade surgeon will take such action as the case, 
in his opinion, requires. The brigade surgeon will be careful to 
allow no one to ride in the ambulances except in case of neces- 
sity. The files will be kept closed in marching and dressed, 
though the precision of the drill is not required. File closers will 
be held responsible for this by their company commanders. Cases 
of unauthorized straggling will be made by regimental com- 
manders the subject of severe and summary discipline; it is the 
highest military offense, next to desertion. 

"When in line of battle, the horses of those who do not ride in 
action* will be kept in the neighborhood of the field infirmary. 
The brigade quartermaster will see that they are supplied with 
forage at this point; and he will cause a light forage wagon to 
follow the -brigade when the general quartermaster's train doas 
not march in the column. A mounted quartermaster's man will 

•Regimental ofBcers. 

Hagood's Brigade 213 

have charge of this matter and of the ambulances, and always be 
with the column. 

"Regimental commanders will hold their assistant quarter- 
masters responsible for the regular supply of properly cooked 
food for their men. Any irregularity in this matter is prima 
facie the fault of these officers for which they must account." 

The brigade inspector also habitually marched with the rear- 
guard, which, when he was present, took its orders from him. 
In traveling by rail, other standing orders directed the company 
formation to be retained as far as practicable and company 
oi}i<iers were required to ride with their men. A guard was kept 
in each car. In marches, which he could control, General Hagood 
always ten minutes after the march commenced halted for ten 
minutes to allow the men to adjust their packs and attend to the 
calls of nature. Afterwards he halted ten minutes in every hour. 
He always, too, after one of these halts, gave a preliminary signal 
to prepare to march. The writer has seen much unnecessary 
fatigue to the men and much discreditable lengthening of column 
by the absence of method in conducting a march. The practice 
in the Army of Northern Virginia was to have halts at no regular 
time, and, after a temporary halt, for the head of the column to 
move off without a general signal given, and each regiment arose 
in succession from the roadside where the men were resting and 
followed the march only from seeing the regiment ahead of it 
move. Thus the extra fatigue of hurrying up to close the column 
did away with the ben&fit of the rest. The march of the Con- 
federate armies was habitually in "column of fours." 

But to return to James Island. Subsequently to the course of 
regimental instruction, a school for field officers was opened at 
brigade headquarters with daily recitations and drills in evolu- 
tions of the line. Before this course was completed, each field 
officer was qualified and required to drill the brigade. The 
clothing, transportation and equipment of the brigade was at 
the same time inspected and renewed and completed, through the 
medium of proper requisitions. The ordnance was specially put 
upon an excellent footing. The long Enfield rifle, with accoutre- 
ments complete, was obtained for the whole command, except 
Gantt's regiment, and a small corps of artisans (selected from 
the ranks) was organized with traveling forges, etc., to render 

214 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

the command independent in matters of repair. Gantt's regi- 
ment remained armed with the smooth-bore musket until the 
victory of Drury's Bluff, when it armed itself upon the field with 
Enfields, and thenceforward the brigade was relieved from the 
inconvenience of having two calibres among its arms, and was in 
effectiveness of weapon upon a footing with the troops it 

The following circular organized a Pioneer Corps and com- 
pleted the preparation for the expected field service of the 

ensuing campaign : 

Headquarters Hagood's Brigade. 
James Island, 19 February, 1S64. 

I. A Pioneer Corps will be organized for this brigade, and Major Gooding, 
Eleventh South Carolina, is assigned to its command. 

II. Captains of companies under the supervision of regimental com- 
manders will at once indicate from their respective companies each two 
men, having regard solely to their fitness from previous occupation for this 
purpose. The regimental commanders will each select a lieatenant of 
energetic and practical habits and report his name, rank, etc., together with 
the names of the men selected from their respective commands, to these 

III. The brigade quartermaster will issue, upon the requisition of Major 
Gooding, the necessary axes, spades and picks, together with the necessary 
slings for carrying them. 

IV. The brigade ordnance officer will furnish to the Pioneer Corps the 
short Enfield rifle instead of the long Enfield, which the men now have, 
and see that they are supplied with proper slings for carrying them. 

V. It is intended upon ordinary occasions that the otficers and men of 
this corps shall remain and do duty, as usual, with their respective com- ' 
mands. In all marches, however, of the regiment, its Pioneers will be 
detached under its lieutenant and precede it. When the brigade moves the 
whole corps will precede the column under command of its field officer, the 
packs of the men being carried upon the baggage wagons. Upon marches, 
the corps will be excused from camp guard and picket duty. In action, the 
men and officers will return to. their respective commands. Should this, 
under the circumstances, be Impracticable, the corps will take its place in 
line of battle as a separate battalion. 

VI. Upon all inspections and reviews, the Pioneers will appear united 
under their officers. The men will be held as strictly responsible for the 
condition of their implements as for their arms and accoutrements. Com- 
pany commanders are charged with this and are held responsible that the 
Implements are not used for ordinary camp purposes. The senior officer 
of the corps will inspect it once a month by regiments, and report its condl- 

Hagood's Brigade 215 

tion to these headquarters, commandants of regiments ordering out the 
Pioneers upon the request of this officer. 

VII. Major Gooding will keep rolls and rosters, and take all necessary- 
steps to make his corps efficient in the spirit of this order. 

By command Brigadier-General Hagood. 

P. K. Malony, a. a. G. 

Major Lartigue, the brigade quartermaster, took special interest 
in equipping this corps, and devised very complete slings for 
carrying the implements with ease to the men even at a double 

As thus organized, the corps was continued and did good 
service until the fall of '64, though, after the brigade was assigned 
to Hoke's Division, it was generally (under a lieutenant) a part 
of the Division Pioneer Corps. In October, 1864, General Lee, in 
an effort to increase the fighting strength of his attenuated army, 
ordered all such corps broken up and the men returned to the 
ranks. Instead, he directed one man from each company to be 
selected and known as "Pioneer," who, as such, was exempted 
from guard and picket duty, but in all other respects was consid- 
ered a soldier in the ranks. In like manner commissioned and 
non-commissioned officers were selected who were to be put in 
charge when these pioneers were called together. 

The fact was, that this campaign had been so much one con- 
tinued siege, and the men were by this time so thoroughly 
indoctrinated with notions of the value of breastworks and rifle 
pits, that the entrenching tools with which each company had 
been supplied, or had supplied itself, were carried as its most 
valuable property. Peculations of these cherished implements 
were not uncommon, and on the march it was not an unusual sight 
to see a company officer carrying a cherished spade or pick, after 
it had successively passed through the hands of some half dozen 
wearied soldiers of his command, each of Avhom had borne it in 
addition to his arms. A special corps supplied with such imple- 
ments was, therefore, no longer important. 

In the general organization of the Confederate armies, at first 
there were brigade and regimental commissaries — all comnais- 
sioned. At the date of which we are now writing, the regimental 
commissaries had been discontinued, and their duties assigned to 
the regimental assistant quartermasters, aided by regimental 

216 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

commissary sergeants. At a later day the regimental assistant 
quartermasters were discontinued, and the organization was a 
commissary and a quartermaster to the brigade, each ranking as 
major, and each with an assistant, ranking as captain. There 
remained throughout a commissary sergeant and a quartermaster 
sergeant to each regiment. 

The medical corps consisted, during the whole war, of a sur- 
geon and an assistant surgeon to each regiment, and when 
brigaded, the senior surgeon assumed control and was known as 
the brigade surgeon. 

These various staff officers in the beginning were all nominated 
by the line officer to whose corps they were attached. Afterwards 
they were transferred and assigned from corps to corps by the 
chief of their respective bureaus at Kichmond without consulting 
the line officer commanding, and often to his chagrin and dis- 
gust. The same general remarks as to organization, appointment 
and assignment apply to the adjutants, inspectors and ordnance 
officers. Major-generals, lieutenant-generals and generals had 
each their staff officers of each department for their respective 
commands, and a bureau chief of each department of the staff was 
located at Richmond. 

There were also post quartermasters, and post commissaries, 
whose duties never led them into the field, and who were too often 
corrupt speculators upon the necessities of their suffering country. 
It was the shortcomings of this class that brought the very name 
of commissary and quartermaster into odium and contempt. Of 
those officers of these departments who served with the armies in 
the field, the writer deems it but justice to say that there was as 
much high tone and devotion to the cause among those whom he 
met as among any other class of officers in the service. He 
desires here to record his appreciation of the gentlemen who filled 
these offices in his command. They yielded to no members of his 
staff in patriotism, high honor and personal gallantry. Their 
names will not as often occur in these memoirs as others, for the 
discharge of their necessary duties of tenest kept them in the rear, 
but they were always ready, when these permitted, to come to him 
as volunteers in action — and on these occasions did always well. 

Hagood's Brigade 217 


The winter, with its comparative quiet, had closed; and the 
opposing parties were concentrating and marshalling their forces 
for a more vigorous and decisive campaign than had yet marked 
the history of the war. Virginia and Tennessee were respectively 
in the east and the west, the theaters upon which the opposing 
banners were unfurled, and it was evident that around these two 
centers would be collected in hostile array all of strength that 
■either party possessed. 

Gilmore, with the bulk of his army, had early in April been 
transferred to Virginia. Beauregard had been assigned to the 
command of the "Department of North Carolina and Southern 
Virginia" — a territorial command extending from Wilmington 
to James River in Virginia. 

Wise's and Walker's (formerly Evans's) brigades had followed 
him, and Hagood's and Colquitt's brigades alone remained of the 
infantry lying at Charleston during the winter of '63-'64. These 
soon followed, Hagood's first and Colquitt's a week afterward. 

Hagood's brigade commenced moving by rail on the night of 
the 28th of April for Wilmington, where it was directed to report 
by letter to General Beauregard, whose headquarters were at 
Weldon. The whole brigade, with its transportation, was not 
concentrated at Wilmington till the 4th May. It was encamped 
some two miles east of the city. 

On the 5th May, the brigade received orders to proceed by rail 
to Petersburg, its train to move by highway. Owing to insuffi- 
cient transportation, the brigade moved in fragments. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Dargan was dispatched with seven companies of 
the Twenty-first on the 6th, early in the day, and was followed 
by Colonel Graham with the remaining companies of that regi- 
ment and three companies of the Twenty-fifth. Next day General 
Hagood moved with the Twenty-seventh regiment and the 
remaining companies of the Twenty-fifth. Later in the day, the 
Eleventh regiment and Seventh battalion followed. A few cooking 
utensils were taken along. The horses of all the mounted officers, 
except the general and staff, together with the ambulances, had to 
go by highway with the train. No baggage was carried except 
upon the persons of officers and men. This with the men was 
excessive. They had good knapsacks, and, with the reluctance of 

218 Memoies of the War of Secession 

all troops fresh from stationary quarters to throw away their 
little comforts, had overloaded their packs. So far it was very 
well, but in the active operations, into which they at once entered 
upon their arrival at Petersburg, in the first day's marching and 
fighting, off went the knapsacks, one by one, as its owner became 
excited or jaded; and thus was lost to him his necessaries as well 
as superfluities, while if he had only been burthened with the first 
it would have been borne and retained. Much discomfort and 
suffering resulted to the men from want of cleanliness, consequent 
upon this loss in the beginning of the campaign. 

It had been foreseen by the brigade commander, when he 
observed the men laden like pack horses in moving from Charles- 
ton, and he had warned regimental commanders against per- 
mitting it. He should have interdicted it himself. 

It is not within the scope of these Memoirs to go into the 
general strategy of the Virginia campaign, but some reference to 
it is necessary to understand the part borne by the brigade. 

Grant, made lieutenant-general and commander-in-chief of all 
the armies of the United States a few months before, had made 
his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac, numbering some 
140,000 men and lying behind the Eapidan, sixty miles north of 
the Confederate Capital. It was confronted by the Army of 
Northern Virginia under Lee, numbering about 52,000 of all 
arms.* The City of Richmond was Grant's objective, and he 
proposed to move upon it by the direct overland route, while But- 
ler, moving from Fortress Monroe up the James, was to secure a 
point at its junction with the Appomattox from which to operate 
on the southern communications of Richmond. There was also 
to be made a co-operative move under Hunter from the Valley 
against the western communications of Richmond, which, when 
made, resulted in little but covering the Federal Army with 
infamy for its wanton and merciless destruction of private 
propery.* And in Tennessee and elsewhere in the West, Grant 
had ordered a heavy and continuous aggressive to be taken to 
keep re-enforcements from Lee. To sap the Confederate sources 

*Swiiiton's Army of the Potomac, 413. 

•Hunter boasted that he had reduced the theatre of his incursion to such a condi- 
tion that "a crow flying over it would have to carry its rations." — J. H. Was it not 
Sheridan who said this? — Editor. 

Hagood's Brigade 219 

of material supply, razzias by light movable columns for the pur- 
pose of destroying railroads, mills, provisions, growing crops, 
farm stock and buildings, were to be specially organized. The 
regular Federal columns were to devote as much attention to these 
objects as was consistent with other and less congenial duties. 
And wherever Federal influence extended, persistent efforts were 
to be made in debauching the black agricultural labor of the 
country. These raids and these practices upon the blacks had 
their inception earlier in the war, but in this campaign, and as 
the struggle culminated, the first became more pitiless, and the 
last, in the decreasing area covered by Confederate arms, more 

The move from Fortress Monroe was, however, the most 
important and threatening diversion in the programme of the 
Virginia campaign ; and with thirty to forty thousand men and a 
large naval armament was entrusted to General B. F. Butler, of 
New Orleans notoriety. 

On the 4th May, Grant crossed the Rapidan and commenced 
his overland march. On the same day Butler commenced ascend- 
ing the James. On the night of the 5th, he debarked at Bermuda 
Hundreds, the peninsular made by the confluence of the James 
and the Appomattox, and began to entrench across its narrow 
neck about three miles from the railroad connecting Petersburg 
and Richmond. On the 6th, he threw out a brigade to destroy the 
railroad at Walthal Junction. 

Beauregard's troops were much scattered over his extensive 
territorial command, pending the developments of the enemy's 
designs. The largest portion were Avith General Hoke, who had 
recently been engaged in some successful offensive operations in 
Eastern North Carolina. Very few, if any, troops other than 
local militia of an inferior character were under General Pickett, 
commanding at Petersburg; and it was to meet and delay Butler's 
advance that Hagood's brigade had been pushed forward, while 
Beauregard got the balance of his troops in hand and drew 
re-enforcements from further South. 

ArrAiK AT Walthal Junction. 

Colonel Graham, with the companies he had moved with, 
arrived at Petersburg and was pushed forward by General 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 

5f(ekli CfAParfO fV/ri/inia. 

Hagood's Brigade 221 

Pickett to Walthal Junction, reaching the latter place a little 
before 5 p. m. on the 6th May, and there found Lieutenant-Colonel 
Dargan's detachment which had preceded him about an hour. 
This raised his force to about 600 men, composed of his own regi- 
ment and three companies of the Twenty-fifth under Major 
Glover. As Graham's men jumped off the platform cars upon 
which they were borne, the brigade of the enemy,* before alluded 
to as thrown forward against the railroad, was in view some 
thousand yards off across an open field, advancing in line of 
battle and supported by artillery. Informed by a citizen of the 
topography, Graham rapidly advanced his men to a sunken road, 
running parallel to the railroad and some 300 yards nearer to the 
enemy. In this natural trench he took position across the field, 
his right resting upon a wood, and his left upon a ravine. A 
brisk action ensued. The enemy made two direct attacks, and 
after his second repulse, at nightfall, withdrew, leaving some of 
his dead and wounded upon the field. Graham's loss was two 
killed and thirty-one wounded.f He spoke well of the spirit and 
steadiness of his men. 

At 8 p. m. the same evening, General Hagood arrived at Peters- 
burg with the remaining seven companies of the Twenty-fifth, 
commanded by Lieutenant- Colonel Pressley. After some delay 
in rationing the men, he moved forward to re-enforce Graham. 
Roger A. Pryor, formerly a brigadier of the Confederate Army, 
but now a private trooper acting as guide and courier to General 
Pickett, piloted him to the scene of action. Arrived at the Junc- 
tion, General Hagood found General Bushrod Johnson there, 
who informed him that hearing Graham's firing he had marched 
to his assistance from the direction of Drury's Bluff with a 
brigade of 1,168 Tennesseeans and had arrived during the night. 
GaiUard, with the Twenty-seventh regiment, joined Hagood at 
daybreak and raised his command to an aggregate of 1,500 men. 
General Johnson, having the senior commission, assumed the 
command, and shortly after daylight General D. H. Hill arrived 
upon the field. This officer, in consequence of some difficulty with 
the President and General Bragg, under whom he had recently 


tThe Federals lost 9 killed, 61 wounded. — Letter of Ed. T. Westenby of Hickman's 
Brigade to General Hagood, 1881. 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 

I \^''S6«„6 

/lf?d Mff Cr^ek 

Hagood's Brigade 223 

served in Tennessee, was without a command at this time, but, 
unwilling to be idle at a time when the country had so much need 
of the services of her sons, had attached himself as aide to Gen- 
eral Beauregard's staff. Although General Johnson was in com- 
mand at the Junction, the ensuing operations of the day had their 
inspiration and direction largely from General Hill. 

After daylight on the 7th, it was ascertained that the enemy 
had entirely withdrawn from our immediate front, and scouts 
reported them in the vicinity of Warbottom Church, about three 
miles off and somewhat to our left. About 10 a. m.. General 
Hagood was directed to move across Ashton Creek towards the 
Church to feel and develop their strength and position. General 
Hill accompanied him, and he was told that Johnson would 
follow in support with his brigade. He moved in column of fours 
along the narrow road through the woods, the Twenty-seventh 
leading and skirmishers well advanced. In about a mile the 
skirmishers encountered the enemy's cavalry* advancing, and fired 
upon them, driving them back. The Twenty-seventh was at once 
deployed to the right of the road, and the skirmish line strength- 
ened. A desultory skirmish ensued; and the enemy showing a 
disposition to develop to our left, three companies of the Twenty- 
fifth regiment were deployed on the line of the Twenty-seventh 
and to the left of the road. It soon became evident that under 
cover of this skirmish the enemy was moving masses of infantry 
to our left, with a view of flanking us and striking the railroad, 
and, upon General Hill's returning and reporting the fact to 
Johnson, Hagood was directed to withdraw and take position 
along the railroad at the Junction. This he did in column, using 
the skirmish line deployed and slightly engaged, first as flankers 
and afterward as a rear guard, as the direction of the road inter- 
posed them between himself and the enemy. In the meanwhile 
a force of the enemy had appeared south of Ashton Creek, 
advancing over the ground of Graham's affair of the evening 
before; and Johnson's brigade had not moved in support of 
Hagood. A few discharges from Banker's battery of field pieces 
caused this force to retire. It was evident that an attack in force 
was now about to be made. Our line was formed along the rail- 
road with Hagood's left resting where the turnpike crossed it 

♦Orlderdenk's N. T. Mounted Rifles, N. Y. Berald, 10 May. 

224 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

and Johnson's men prolonging the right toward and beyond 
Craig's house. Hagood had the Twenty-first regiment in reserve 
upon the turnpike. The artillery (six pieces) were placed by 
General Johnson near Craig's house. He had two other pieces 
sent him from Petersburg manned by uninstructed men (con- 
valescents and men on furlough of other arms picked up in the 
city), who, when the action commenced, deserted their guns 
without firing a shot. The enemy reappeared in front of Johnson 
about 2 p. m. in their original force, estimated by him at four 
regiments and a battery of artillery, which failed to engage him 
except with artillery at long range, and was replied to by his 
batteries. This demonstration had, however, the effect of neutral- 
izing Johnson's 1,168 men, who remained quietly watching it 
during the action that ensued, and lost only seven men wounded 
by shells. 

At the same time (about 2 p. m.) the enemy appeared in two 
strong lines of battle with skirmishers thrown out and supported 
by artillery on Hagood's front. He approached from across the 
valley of Ashton Creek, here without swamp or woods, and hit, 
line was oblique to ours and tending to overlap it to the left. 
After a half hour's brisk fighting, he retired his lines somewhat, 
though still engaging us at longer range, and under cover of an 
intermediate wood moved his second line by a flank across the 
railroad, and it soon reappeared approaching upon Hagood's 
left and rear, the left of this force being upon the prolongation 
of our line of battle. The movement was concealed by woods 
until the flanking party was within easy rifle range. 

The Twenty-flrst regiment had been ordered up into line on 
the left in the beginning of the action ; ^and, upon suddenly receiv- 
ing this flank fire, broke. The men went back slowly, but their 
organization was broken, and they were deaf to the expostulations 
of those officers who tried to stop them. General Hagood, per- 
ceiving the critical condition of things, proceeded at full speed 
with his mounted staff to lend assistance in rallying the men. 
The brave Lieutenant- Colonel Dargan was killed with the colors 
in his hands, waving them and calling to his men to rally. 
Graham was shot in the leg, while actively struggling against the 
impending rout, and had to leave the field. The command of the 
regiment then devolved upon Wildsv the senior captain, Major 

Hagood's Brigade 225 

Mclver being absent. Captain Stoney, of the staif, fell from his 
horse with a minnie ball through his lungs, while nobly doing 
his duty. At length, by dint of entreaty, expostulation and 
threats, the retrograde movement was checked. Captain Tracy, 
volunteer aid-de-camp, seized the colors from the sergeant then 
bearing them and planted them in the ground. Lieutenant Chap- 
pell, commanding a company, rallied some dozen of his men upon 
it; and at once the whole current of feeling in the regiment 
seemed changed. The men formed right and left upon the colors, 
under the hot fire of the advancing enemy, with something of the 
precision of the dress parade. As they formed, General Hagood, 
to steady them, made them lie down and return the enemy's fire 
from that position. While this regiment was being rallied the 
two remaining regiments were being bent back to conform to 
the new position ; and the result of the whole was to change our 
position as if he had half changed front to the rear on the right 
company of his right regiment. He now partially confronted 
at once both the force which had first engaged him and that 
approaching on the flank, both heavily pressing with fire, but the 
latter only advancing. As soon as his new line was taken. Gen- 
eral Hagood ordered an advance. The brigade rushed forward 
with enthusiasm, and drove back the flanking line — they not 
again appearing in that direction. This advance regained us the 
railroad, but the right of Hagood's brigade now rested at the 
turnpike crossing, where his left had first been. The enemy 
again massed heavily in Hagood's front and essayed an advance, 
but his men, sheltered in the railroad cut, easily repelled this 
attack with little loss to themselves. 

Between 4 and 5 p. m. the engagements ceased, except the 
firing of sharpshooters and artillery on both sides ; and before dark 
the enemy withdrew from the field unpursued and carrying off 
most of his wounded. Hagood's force, as before stated, was 1,500 
men and his loss during the day was 22 killed, 132 wounded, and 
13 missing. The force of the enemy was five brigades of infantry, 
under General Brooks,* with the usual proportion of artillery 
and a regiment of cavalry. His loss was heavy. General John- 
ston estimated it at 1,000; prisoners put it larger, but it was 
probably not so great. During the action Hagood was assisted 

•Army of the Potomac, p. 464. 
15— H 

226 Memoies of the Wak of Secession 

at different times by two pieces of artillery sent to him from the 
right, but they were of very little service, getting twice out of 
ammunition after very few discharges and going half a mile to 
the rear to replenish it. General Johnson replied to his call for 
assistance, when the Twenty-first broke, that the enemy were too 
threatening on his front to spare it. 

The Eleventh regiment and Seventh battalion arrived upon 
the field after the action. Pickets were thrown out and the sad 
duty of burying the dead and caring for the wounded was per- 
formed without distinction between friend and foe. 

The brunt of this action fell upon Hagood's brigade; and in 
the progress of the narrative it will be seen that it saved Peters- 
burg. By the time the enemy were again ready to advance suffi- 
cient re-enforcements had arrived to hold the place. The citizens 
appreciated the fact, and were enthusiastic in their gratitude. A 
flag was voted the brigade by the ladies; the merchants would 
take no pay from the men for their little purchases, and from at 
least one pulpit thanks were offered for the "timely arrival of the 
1,500 brave South Carolinians." The brigade did acquit itself 
well. It was its first fight upon Virginia soil, and a creditable 
letter of introduction to the battle-scarred veterans of Lee among 
whom it was shortly merged. 

Lieutenant- Colonel Pressley had his arm shattered by a rifle 
bullet in the charge which decided the fortunes of the day, and 
refused assistance, ordering back into the advancing ranks men 
who stopped to aid him. The arm was resected at the shoulder 
joint, and, though afterwards of some service to him, the colonel 
was never again fit for the field. The brigade from this time lost 
the valuable services of that meritorious officer. Glover suc- 
ceeded to the command of the regiment in the absence of Simon- 
ton, who had remained upon detached duty at Charleston. 

Private Vince Bellinger, a cripple from wounds received at 
Secessionville and on light duty with the commissary, quit the 
train when he heard the battle was going against us and came 
upon the field. Picking up the rifle of a fallen man, he joined a 
company and fought well during the balance of the day. Captain 
Sellars, of the Twenty-fifth, was wounded and returned to the 
fight after having the wound dressed. Lieutenants Moffett and 
Due, Sergeant W. V. Izler and Private I. S. Shomaker, of the 

Hagood's Briqade 227 

Twenty-fifth, and Sergeants Pickens Butler "Watts, J. B. Abney 
and J. P. Gibbons, with Corporal J, Booser and Private 
Aemiliers Irving, of the Twenty-seventh, were mentioned for 
gallantry by their regimental commanders. No report of the 
kind was received from the Twenty-first, in consequence of the 
fall of its field officers and the succession of Captain Wilds to the 
command late in the action. There were many instances, how- 
ever, of devotion in its ranks, and General Hagood often spoke 
with admiration of the bearing of Lieutenant Chappell in rally- 
ing the regiment. The services of the staff were invaluable in 
restoring order in the Twenty-first. Moloney, Mazyck and 
Martin did their duty with great intrepidity; and without these 
and Tracy and Stoney it is doubtful if the Twenty-first regiment 
could have been stopped. Tracy received promotion shortly after 
in consequence of his services in this affair, and was assigned to 
duty with General Earley in the Valley of Virginia. Stoney 
lingered a long time between life and death, and nine months 
afterward rejoined the brigade with one lung gone. Faithful 
to the last, he endured the vicissitudes and hardships of the cam- 
paign of '65; and shed bitter tears when the last hope of the 
Cause he loved was buried with Johnston's surrender. The extent 
to which the enemy had availed himself of foreign recruiting 
was exhibited in the fact that among the twenty or thirty pris- 
oners taken by Hagood's brigade, there were men of six different 
nationalities, some of whom could not even imperfectly speak 

Swift Creek. 

The arrival of the Eleventh regiment and Seventh battalion 
of Hagood's brigade at the Junction had raised our force to 
3,500 men. The strength of Butler's force had now, however, 
been ascertained to be ten times that number. The line of rail- 
road afforded no suitable position to await the advance of such 
an army. Without natural protection, the flanks could be turned 
on either side, and our line of retreat either into Richmond or 
Petersburg, instead of being covered by our position, was on the 
prolongation of our line of defense. General Pickett, at Peters- 
burg, seemed too under the impression that an advance against 
the city was threatened on the south side of the Appomattox; and 
no re-enforcements were arriving from the South or information 

228 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

received as to when they could be expected. Accordingly, in a 
dispatch received at 10 p. m., General Pickett directed General 
Johnson to withdraw to the line of Swift Creek, three miles from 
Petersburg. At midnight the movement was commenced and by 
3 a.-m., of the 8th, the troops in position on the south bank of that 
stream and busily engaged in strengthening the entrenchments 
already partially constructed along that line as part of the 
defences of Petersburg. Hagood's brigade covered the turnpike ■ 
and extended to the left as far as Brandee's Bridge and to the 
right as far as the railroad bridge. He also had a regiment with 
a section of artillery advanced by way of outpost to the top of 
the hill on the turnpike just beyond the creek.* The railroad 
bridge was held by Colonel McCauthen with the Fifty-first North 
Carolina regiment, of Clingman's brigade, and Johnson's brigade 
prolonged the right. Some eighteen pieces of artillery, con- 
sisting of Hawkins's, Owens's, Payne's and Martin's batteries, 
were distributed along the line, and Colonel Harris, of Beaure- 
gard's staff, arriving from Weldon, took charge of the engineer- 
ing operations. A detachment of twenty-two men of Johnson's 
brigade was made, to work the heavy guns of Fort Clifton near 
the debouchment of Swift's Creek into the Appomattox, and 
which controlled the navigation of that river. Captain Martin 
commanded the fort. 

The field of battle at the Junction was occupied by our 
advanced forces till 10 a. m., on the 9th, collecting and removing 
arms, accoutrements, etc. Butler unaccountably delayed his 
second advance upon the railroad thus long, and then our smaller 
force fell back before him skirmishing. The same morning, five 
gunboats attacked Fort Clifton, and after three hours' fighting 
retired with the loss of one of their number. By 12 m., Butler 
was in strong force on the north bank of Swift Creek and skir- 
mishing going on between both infantry and artillery. Hagood 
still held the eminence on the pike upon the enemy's side of the 

At 11 a. m.. General Pickett, from Petersburg, had instructed 
Johnson to maintain a defensive, advising him of re-enforcements 
on the way from Weldon. At 1 p. m., he enclosed a dispatch 
from Bragg, at Richmond, and directed him in pursuance of it 

•See Map on page 81. 

Hagood's Brigade 229 

to take the offensive. Hagdod was accordingly ordered to 
advance on his front, and the movement began. Nelson was 
directed Avith the Seventh to cross at Brandee's, and bearing to 
the right attack in flank the force which the rest of the brigade 
would encounter on the pike. Gantt, with his regiment and a 
detachment of the Twenty-fifth, was 150 yards across thei stream 
holding the hill already referred to, his skirmishers thrown for- 
ward in a semi-circle of Some 200 yards radius and the enemy 
slightly pressing. As the remaining regiments filed out of the 
entrenchments and moved in column down the long slope of 
probably 250 yards to the Turnpike Bridge, the movement was 
visible to the enemy on the wooded height beyond and to the 
right of the bridge; and a heaty fire was opened from their 
batteries. While the leading regiment, the Twenty-first, was 
crossing the bridge, Colonel Harris galloped up to General 
Hagood, and informing him that Pickett's plans were again 
changed, directed him to make a reconnoisance with the troops 
already over the creek and ascertain whether the present demon- 
stration by the enemy was a feint or a real movement. Hagood 
told him that of course he would carry out the order, but that it 
was perfectly evident the enemy were in force, and that the 
troops he was directed to take could accomplish nothing. While 
they were speaking, the enemy commenced pressing heavily upon 
Gantt; his skirmishers were driven in, and he was warmly 
engaged. Gantt's line of battle was to the left of the road, beyond 
the crest of the hill. The Twenty-first was hurried over the bridge, 
and deploying to the right of the road, under cover of the hill, 
was directed to advance upon an alignment with Gantt; It did 
not behave with its accustomed spirit, was slow in deploying, 
advanced tardily up the broken acclivity, and was of very little 
assistance in the brief but sanguinary struggle that ensued. 

Gantt maintained himself stoutly under the heavy pressure 
upon him for some minutes, until hearing firing upon his left 
and supposing it to be Nelson coming into action and that the 
whole brigade was behind him, he ordered, under his prfevious 
instructions, an advance. The roar of musketry that followed 
informed Hagood, who was getting the Twenty-first up the hill, 
of the overwhelming force in his front,' and he sent Captain 
Moloney to order Gantt back across the creek, while the balance 

230 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

of the Twenty-fiftli on the south bank was deployed to cover the 
crossing, and the regiments which had not crossed and were 
standing in column in the pike were ordered back to the entrench- 
ments. The troops over the creek came back pell mell over the 
bridge, and were reformed on the south bank. The Twenty-fifth 
checked pursuit; and this most useless and disastrous recon- 
naisance in force was over. Colonel Nelson did not reach the 
scene of action, and the firing Gantt heard was from one of his 
own companies stationed by himself as a flanking outpost. The 
loss of the troops engaged was in the few minutes that the affair 
lasted, 31 killed, 82 wounded, and 24 missing, making an aggre- 
gate of 137 men thrown away because of too many generals, and 
too far away from the field of 'battle. 

Colonel Harris, with his usual indifference to fire, remained 
with General Hagood during the affair, and Lieutenant- Colonel 
Logan, of the Hampton Legion (afterwards General Logan) 
acted upon his staff and was of much service. Colonel Logan had 
been on leave and was on his way back to his command. Captain 
Leroy Hammond and his brother. Lieutenant Hammond, 
together with Lieutenant Seabrook, being all the officers of one 
of the companies engaged from the Twenty-fifth regiment, were 
killed. The Hammonds were grandsons of Colonel Leroy Ham- 
mond of revolutionary fame in South Carolina ; Seabrook was a 
graduate of the State Military Academy. They were brave and 
efficient officers. Lieutenant Wolfe, of the Eleventh, was also 
killed. Captain Carson, commanding the detachment of the 
Twenty-fifth, was severely wounded and incapacitated for service 
for the rest of the campaign. Tracy and Moloney, of the staff, 
both had their horses wounded under them. Among the missing 
were some valuable officers and men. 

On the night of the 9th, there was some heavy skirmishing 
between Johnson's brigade and the enemy, with advantage to us. 
On the 10th, everything was quiet in our front, and General 
Hagood obtained permission to send a flag of truce to enquire 
after his wounded of the day before, and propose an exchange of 
prisoners he had captured at the Junction for those he had lost 
at the Creek. Captain Moloney was sent, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Lightfoot of the artillery accompanied him. On arriving at the 
enemy's outpost, they found them retiring, in consequence of 

Hagood's Brigade 231 

which our flag was forcibly detained for some hours. Butler 
was then an outlaw by proclamation of Confederate authorities 
for his conduct at New Orleans, and Captain Moloney had been 
directed to hold no communication with him, but to seek his ends 
if possible through General Turner, the officer commanding in 
Hagood's front. 

Information was obtained, but the exchange failed; though 
Moloney was informed there would be no difficulty if the proposal 
was made in form to Butler. 


Butler, during the 9th May, incompletely destroyed a part of 
the railroad by upsetting the road structure, the crossties and 
rails remaining attached, and it is said* intended on the 10th to 
cross Swift Creek and make a determined effort at the capture of 
Petersburg ; but deceived by tidings from Washington receired 
the night of the 9th, that Lee was in full retreat before Grant, 
he determined to turn northward and assist in the capture of 
Richmond. Instead, however, of pressing at once upon the latter 
place with its meagre garrison, he withdrew aside into his. 
entrenchments at Bermuda Hundreds, leaving the road open for 
the transfer by the shortest route of the troops which had been 
confronting him at Swift Creek, into the immediate southern 
defenses of the Confederate Capital at Drury's Bluff, and did not 
march on the latter place until two days afterward. 

In the meanwhile. Major- General Hoke arrived at Petersburg 
with the troops (three brigades) which he had had with him in 
Eastern North Carolina, and, assuming command, put all our 
forces in march for Drury's Bluff along the turnpike left open 
by Butler. The movement was a flank march of ten miles along, 
the enemy's front, he being in superior force about three miles to 
the right. The army moved in column of fours, with a field 
battery between each brigade, and the ambulances and ordnance 
wagons following their respective commands. The usual advance 
and rear guards were formed and a strong force of infantry 
flankers marched some three hundred yards on the right in single 
file at deployed intervals. Cavalry moved parallel with the 

•Greeley's American Conflict. 

232 Memoirs or the Wae or Secession 

march, still further towards the side of attack. The movemesnt 
commenced at 1 p. m. on the 11th; Hoke bivouacked eight miles 
from Swift Creek, and on the morning of the 12th marched into 
the lines of Drury's Bluff. He was not molested. It commenced 
raining the night of the 11th and continued two or three days. 
The troops suffered much from cold and wet. 

Soon after we were in position at Drury's, on the 12th, and 
had established our picket line, the enemy appeared. Skirmish- 
ing commenced and was maintained with more or less vigor 
during that day and the next. Toward evening of the 13th, some 
advantage was obtained over the North Carolina troops on our 
right, and Hoke determined to withdraw to the second or interior 
line of defense, which was accordingly done before day, on the 
14th. At daylight on the same morning. General Beauregard 
joined us, having made a circuitous and forced march from 
Petersburg by way of Chesterfield Court House with Colquitt's 
brigade and a regiment of cavalry. 

The lines of Drury's Bluff were in the nature of an entrenched 
camp. Starting at the bluff, they ran in a southwesterly direction 
across the pike and the Petersburg and Richmond railroad, then 
bending back, they returned to the river James, about a mile and 
a half north of the bluff. From Fort Stephens (a bastioned work 
on this line east of the pike) another line of slighter profile 
branched off in a curve still more to the southwest, forming an 
advanced line, with its left running into Fort Stephens and its 
right resting "in air" near the railroad. It was this last line that 
Hoke abandoned on the night of the 13th- 14th May. 

In the new position, Hagood's brigade occupied Fort Stephens 
and extended its right to the turnpike — ^the regiments coming 
from left to right in the following order : Twenty-seventh, Twenty- 
first, Seventh, Eleventh and Twenty-fifth. Johnson's, Clingman's 
and Corse's brigades came in the order named on Hagood's" right. 
These four brigades constituted Hoke's division, as the army was. 
temporarily organized after Beauregard's arrival. Another 
division was also organized with Colquitt commanding, and held 
in reserve. General Robert Ransom's division occupied the space 
from Hagood's left to the river, after it had arrived on the 15th. 

Butler's skirmishing was confined to Hoke's front. Seeming 
inclined to operate on the Confederate right flank, he was content 

Hagood's Brigade 


Preyyry'i 3/aff 

234 Memoies of the War or Secession 

to watch Eansom's division next the river with cavalry. His 
gunboats had also ascended the river. The general direction of 
the river, the Eiver Koad,* the turnpike and the railroad was 

•Or "Old Stage Road." 

north and south of the two hostile lines east and west, each restrog 
on the river. Proctor's Creek ran across these avenues and into 
the river, something over half a mile in front of the Confederate 

Hoke's evacuation of the exterior line had been made with aU 
possible secrecy, and our pickets in front were not informed 
that it was contemplated. At daylight, the enemy advanced in 
strong force, and they quickly came running in. Hagood's picket 
continued on to the interior line, when they found exterior line 
abandoned. The enemy's skirmishers followed closely after them 
and obtained position close on us, within 150 yards, and sheltered 
by cabins which had been constructed between the two lines for 
barracks. Hagood immediately ordered the picket back, and to 
drive these skirmishers (whom he saw would do him infinite 
damage) to a greater distance. His picket commander. Colonel 
Blake, had completely lost his aplomb, and deprecatingly told 
General Hagood it could not be done. He was told to attempt it 
anyhow, and leading out his men from Fort Stephens along the 
prong of the abandoned line, he stopped without deploying his 
men, and conversing with them huddled together, remained a 
target for the sharpshooters from the cabins who rained their 
fire upon him. Major Abney was sent for to relieve Blake, and 
his manner while receiving instructions was not indicative that a 
proper selection had been made. When they were concluded, 
though directed to go promptly in person to take command of 
the picket, he went some ten steps toward the sally port and 
sitting down upon the banquette began vacantly to comb his hair 
with a pocket comb. He, too, from cause was not himself. 
Ordering him back to his regiment and sending Orderly Stoney 
to recall Blake and his men, the latter now thoroughly demor- 
alized, Hagood directed Captain Brooks of the Seventh bat- 
talion to deploy his men behind the line of breastworks occupied 
by our line of battle, and at a signal to leap it and drive the 
skirmishers back. The company numbered about 90 men and 
was well officered. It gallantly performed the duty assigned to it. 

Hagood's Brigade 235 

and succeeded in getting a good position for the brigade skirmish 
line.* Brooks was then relieved by the regular skirmish detail 
for the day composed of detachments from each regiment. 

The enemy soon had artillery in position, the fire of which was 
chiefly directed against Fort Stephens and was very annoying, 
particularly that from a battery of six pieces in position where 
the turnpike crossed our abandoned line. The fire from these 
guns took the left face of Fort Stephens in reverse, and the 
Twenty-seventh regiment stationed there had to be put in the 
outer ditch for protection. The opposing lines were near enough 
for long range sharpshooting, and the intermediate lines of 
skirmishers were constantly engaged in the effort to drive each 
other. The casualties of the brigade on the 13th and 15th, 
inclusive, were 9 killed, 51 wounded, and 12 missing. 

Lieutenant Archy St. John Lance, of the Twenty-seventh, was 
killed in the fort; Lieutenant Seay, of the same regiment, died 
of exhaustion ; Captain Ledbetter, of the Eleventh regiment, was 
killed on the skirmish line, and among others who here gave their 
lives freely for their country was one whose history recalled that 
of Latour D'Avergne, "Le premier grenadier de la France." 
Pinckney Brown, a gentleman of means and literary culture, had 
taken no part in public affairs until 1860, when, an ardent Seces- 
sionist, he had been elected to the Convention and signed the 
Ordinance which we had all fondly hoped was to have been our 
second Declaration of Independence. When war followed this 
act, he enlisted as a private in Miles's company of the Twenty- 
seventh regiment and had since bravely and unflinchingly dis- 
charged every duty of the patriot soldier. Promotion was 
frequently offered .him and invariably declined. Rifle in hand, 
he died "sur le champ du battaile," shot through the head upon 
the skirmish line. 

At one time, on the 15th, the enemy appeared to be massing for 
assault. None followed. The Federal historians say that Butler 
had ordered it, but his troops were so strewn out that a sufficient 
number were not available for the attack, and he directed it post- 
poned till the next day. That evening, Beauregard, passing along 
the lines, asked some of his soldiers if they were not tired of this 
sort of fighting, and said he "would change it for them." 

•Izlar's Company, Twenty-flfth regiment, assisted Brooks In this skirmish. 

236 Memoirs or the "War or Secession 

At 10 o'clock at iiight on the 15th, Hoke's brigade commanders 
■were summoned to his headquarters, informed that the offensive 
would be taken in the morning, and instructed in the plan of 

Beauregard's plan showed the instinct of genius. , They could 
not under the circumstances, notwithstanding the difficulty of 
handling rapidly and effectively an army so recently organized, 
have failed substantially to have annihilated his antagonist, had 
not two of his division commanders failed him. The short- 
comings of General Ransom and General Whiting are indicated 
in the official report. The first failing to carry out his instruc- 
tions with vigor, and making strangely inaccurate reports of the 
condition of things in his part of the field, is pretty severely 
handled by General Beauregard. The last did not move at all, 
notwithstanding reiterated orders, and as far as the record goes 
his inaction is not explained. There is but little doubt that it 
was due to the unfortunate use of narcotics. Brigadier-General 
■ Wise subsequently described Whiting as stupefied from the use 
of these during the time Beauregard's reiterated orders to attack 
were being received. This was in conversation with the writer, 
and he also stated that he had preferred charges against Whiting 
on the ground of his condition, but had withdrawn them upon a 
personal appeal from that officer. He was relieved from this 
command and sent to Wilmington without an official investiga- 
tion. There he resumed an important command, and his name 
will again occur in the Memoirs. After the war, the Federal 
General Ames told General Hagood that during the evening and 
night when Butler's routed and discouraged column was defiling 
within a mile of Whiting's 4,000 men of all arms, but a thin 
skirmish line intervened between them and destruction. The 
following are the official reports, or rather so much of them as 
without repetition continues the narrative : 

"Headquarters in the Field, 
"Swift Creek, Va., lOtli June, 1864. 
"General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector-General : 

"Our army was organized into three divisions, right, left and reserve, 
under Major-Generals Hoke and Ransom, and Brigadier-General Colquitt. 
. . . Our left (Ransom) lay behind the trenches on Kingland Creek, 
which runs an easterly course not far in front of Drury's Bluff. Our right 

Hagood's Brigade 237 

wing (Hoke) occupied the intermediate line of fortifications from Fort 
Stephens, crossing the turnpike to the railroad. ' Colquitt's reserve, in rear 
of Hoke, centered on the turnpike. The cavalry was posted on our flank 
and in reserve, and the artillery distributed among the divisions. A 
column from Petersburg, under Major-General Whiting, had been directed 
to proceed to Swift Creek on the turnpike, over three miles from Peters- 
burg and nine from my lines, and was under orders to. advance at day- 
break to Walthal Junction, three miles nearer. The enemy's forces, under 
Butler, comprised the corps of Gilmore and W. F. Smith (Tenth and 
Eighteenth) and his line was generally parallel to ours. . . . They 
held our own outer lines of works, crossing the turnpike half a mile in our 
front. Their line of breastworks and entrenchments increased In strength 
with Its progress westward. Its right and weakest point was In the edge 
of William Gregory's woods, about half a mile from James River. . . . 
Going westwardly, after crossing the railroad, their line widened to the 

"With the foregoing data, I determined upon the following plan : That our 
left wing, turning and hurled upon Butler's weak right, should with crush- 
ing force double It back on the center, thus interposing an exterior barrier 
between Butler and his base; that our right wing should simultaneously, 
with Its skirmishers and afterwards in force, as soon as the left became 
fully engaged, advance and occupy the enemy to prevent his re-enforcing 
his right and thus form his northern barrier without, however, permanently 
seeking to force him far back before our left could completely outflank him 
and our Petersburg column close up In his rear; and, finally, that the 
Petersburg column, marching to the sound of heaviest firing, should inter- 
pose a southern .barrier to bis retreat. Thus environed by three walls of 
fire, Butler, with his defeated troops, could have no resource against sub- 
stantial capture or destruction, except in an attempt at partial and hazard- 
ous escape westward away from his base trains and supplies. Two difficul- 
ties might impede or defeat the success of this plan; one was a possible 
stubborn and effective resistance of the enemy, in virtue of his superior 
numbers; another (probably a grave one) existed as to the efficient and 
rapid handling of a fragmentary army like ours, so hastily assembled and 
organized — half of the brigades without general officers, some of the troops 
unacquainted with their commanders and neighbors, staff officers unknown 
to each other, etc. The moral force arising from the unity, which springs 
from old association, was entirely wanting; and from these causes, gen- 
erally so productive of confusion, great inconvenience arose. On the other 
hand, I reckoned on the advantage of being ready at daylight, with short 
distances over which to operate, a long day before me to maneuver in, plan 
direct routes and simplicity in the movements to be executed. Accordingly, 
at 10 :45 a. m. on the 15th, preparatory information .and orders were for- 
warded to Major-General Whiting, then at Petersburg twelve miles from 
me, with instructions to move his force to Swift Creek, three miles nearer, 
during the night, and at daylight next morning to proceed to Walthal 
Junction, about three miles still nearer. These instructions were duly 

238 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

received by that officer, and were as follows : 'I shall attack the enemy In 
my front tomorrow at daybreak by River Road, to cut him ofC from his 
Bermuda base. You will take up your position tonight at Swift Creek with 
Wise's, Martin's, Dearing's and two regiments of Colquitt's brigade, with 
about twenty field pieces under Colonel Jones. At daybreak you will 
march to Walthal Junction, and when you hear an engagement in your 
front you will advance boldly and rapidly by the shortest road in the 
direction of the heaviest firing to attack enemy in rear or flank. You will 
protect your advance and flank with Dearing's Cavalry, taking necessary 
precautions to distinguish friend from foe. Please communicate this to 
General Hill. This revokes all former orders of movement. Signed G. T. 
Beaureguard, General Commanding. P. S.— I have just received a tele- 
gram from General Bragg informing me that he has ordered you to join 
me at this place; you need not do so, but follow to the letter the above 
instructions. G. T. B.' In the early afternoon I delivered In person to the 
other division commanders assembled the following circular instructions 
of battle, with additional oral instructions to General Ransom, that while 
driving the enemy he should promptly occupy with a brigade the crossing 
of Proctor's Creek by the River Road, which was Butler's shortest line of 
retreat to Bermuda Hundred's Neck. 

" 'Headquarters, Department North Carolina and South Virginia, 

" 'Drury's Farm, 16th May, 1864. 

" 'General : The following instructions for battle tomorrow are communi- 
cated for your instruction : 

" 'The purpose of the movement is to cut off the enemy from his base at 
Bermuda Hundreds and capture or destroy him in his present position. 
To this end we shall attack and turn by the River Road his right flank, 
now resting on James River, while his center and left flank are kept 
engaged to prevent him from re-enforcing his right. Major-General Ran- 
som's division will tonight take the best position for attack on the enemy's 
right flank to be made by him tomorrow at daylight. His skirmishers will 
drive back vigorously those of the enemy in his front and will be followed 
closely by his line of battle, which will, at the proper time, pivot on Its 
right, so as to take the enemy in flank and rear. He will form in two 
lines of battle and will use his artillery to the best advantage. Colonel 
Dunovant's (South Carolina) regiment of cavalry will move with this 
division under the direction of General Ransom. Major-General Hoke's 
division, now in the trenches on the right of the position herein assigned 
to General Ransom, will at daylight engage the enemy with a heavy Are 
of skirmishers, or as soon as General Ransom's line of battle shall have 
become fairly engaged with the enemy. General Hoke will form in two 
lines of battle four hundred yards apart in front of his trenches at the 
proper time and in such manner as not to delay his forward movement. 
He will use his battalion of artillery to the best advantage. Colonel 

Haoood's Bbigadb 239 

Baker's regiment of cavalry will move In conjunction with Hoke's division, 
so as to protect his right flank. He will receive more definite Instructions 
from Major-General Hoke. Colonel Shingler's regiment of cavalry v^ill 
move with the same division. The division commanded by Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Colquitt will constitute the reserve and will tonight form in column 
by brigades in rear of Hoke's present position, the center of each brigade 
resting on the turnpike. The division will be massed under cover of the 
hill now occupied by Hoke's troops so as to be sheltered at first from the 
enemy's fire in front. During the movement the head of the reserve column 
win be kept about 500 yards from Hoke's second line of battle. As soon 
as practicable, the interval between the brigades of the reserve division 
win be maintained at from two to three hundred yards. The reserve 
artillery, under Generol Colquitt, will follow along the turnpike about 
300 yards In rear of the last brigade. He will use it to the best advantage. 
Simultaneously with these movements, Major-General Whiting will move 
with his division from Petersburg along the Petersburg and Richmond turn- 
pike and attack the enemy in flank and rear. The movement above indi- 
cated will be executed, and must be made with all possible vigor and celerity. 
The generals commanding divisions and Colonels Shingler and Baker, com- 
manding cavalry, will report at these headquarters at 6 p. m. today. In the 
meantime they will give all necessary instructions for providing their 
respective commands with sixty rounds of ammunition issued to each man, 
and at least twenty rounds for each in reserve. They will cause their com- 
mands to be supplied with two days' cooked rations. 

" '(Signed) G. T. Bbatteegabd, 
" 'General Commanding.' 

"Ransom moved at 4 :45 a. m., being somewhat delayed by a dense fog, 
which lasted several hours after dawn and occasioned some embarrass- 
ment. This division consisted of the following brigades in the order men- 
tioned, commencing from the left: Grade's, Kemper's (commanded by 
Colonel Terry), Barton's (under Colonel Fry), and Colonel Lewis's (Hoke's 
old brigade). He was soon engaged, carrying the enemy's breastworks In 
his front at 6 a. m. with some loss. His troops moved splendidly to the 
assault, capturing five stands of colors and some 500 prisoners. The 
brigades most heavily engaged were Grade's and Kemper's, opposed to the 
enemy's right, the former turning his flank. General Ransom then halted 
to form, reported his loss heavy and troops scattered by the fog, his ammu- 
nition short, and asked for a brigade from the reserve. Colquitt's brigade 
was sent him at 6:30 a. m., with orders to return when it ceased to be 
indispensable. Before either ammunition or the reserve brigade had 
arrived, he reported the enemy driving Hoke's left, and sent the right 
regiment of Lewis's brigade forward at double quick towards the supposed 
point of danger. This held the enemy long enough for the reserve brigade 
to arrive, charge and drive him back from the front of our left center, 
where the affair occurred over and along the works to the turnpike.* 

•See Post. 

240 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

"It will be seen from a subsequent part of this report that one of Hagood's 
advanced regiments had unexpectedly come into contact with the enemy 
and been ordered back, it not being contemplated to press at this point 
until Ransom should swing round his left as directed in the battle order. 
This possibly originated Ransom's Impression as to the condition of Hoke's 
left, which in fact had steadily maintained its proper position. At 7:15 
a. m., Colquitt's brigade of the reserve was recalled from Ransom and a 
slight modiflcation of the original movement was made to relieve Hoke, 
in whose front the enemy had been allowed to mass his forces by the 
inaction of the left. Ransom was ordered to flank the enemy's right by 
changing the front of his right brigade, to support it by another in echellon, 
to advance another to Proctor's Creek, and hold a fourth in reserve. This 
modification was intended to be temporary, and the original plan was to be 
fully carried out on the seizure of the River Road and Proctor's Creek 

"In proceeding to execute this order, Ransom found the reserve brigade 
engaged, and his own troops moving by the right flank towards the firing 
at the center. He, therefore, sent Barton's brigade back instead of Col- 
quitt's, and reported a necessity to reform and straighten his lines In the 
old position near the breastworks he had stormed. Here his infantry rested 
during the greater part of the day. Dunovant's cavalry, dismounted, were 
thrown forward as skirmishers towards a small force, which occupied a 
ridge in the edge of George Gregory's woods, north of Proctor's Creek. This 
force with an insignificant body of cavalry, believed to have been negroes, 
and a report of threatening gunboats which came some hours earlier, were 
the only menace to our left, as since ascertained. 

"At 10 a. m., I withheld an order for Ransom to move, until further 
arrangements should be made, for the following reasons: The right was 
heavily engaged ; all the reserve had been detached right and left at 
different times ; a dispatch had been sent to Whiting at 9 a. m., which was 
repeated at 9 :30 a. m., 'to press on and press over everything in your front 
and the day will be complete', and Ransom not only reported a strong force 
in his front, but expressed the opinion that the safety of his command 
would be compromised by an advance. 

"On the right, Hoke early advanced his skirmishers and opened his 
artillery. The fog and other causes temporarily delayed the advance of his 
line of battle. When he finally moved forward, he soon became hotly 
engaged. Hagood and Johnson were' thrown forward with a section of 
Eschellman's artillery (Washington), and found a heavy force of the enemy 
with six or eight pieces of artillery occupying our outer line of works on 
the turnpike and his own defensive lines. Our artillery engaged at very 
short range, disabling some of the enemy's guns and blowing up two 
limbers. Another section of the same battery opened from the right of 
the turnpike. They both held their positions, though with heavy loss, until 
their ammunition was spent, when they were relieved by an equal number 
of pieces from the reserve artillery under Major Owens. 

Hagood's Brigade 241 

"Hagood with great vigor and dash drove the enemy from the outer lines 
in his front, capturing a number of prisoners, and, in conjunction with 
Jolinson, five pieces of artillery — three 20 dr. Parrotts and two fine Napo- 
leons. He then took position in the works, his left regiment being thrown 
forward by Hoke to connect with Ransom's right. In advancing, this regi- 
ment encountered the enemy behind a second line of breastworks In the 
woods with abatis interlaced with wire. Attack at this point not being con- 
templated, it was ordered back to the liBe of battle, but not before its rapid 
advance had caused it considerable loss. This circumstance has been 
referred to before as the occasion of a mistake made by Ransom. 

"Johnson meanwhile had been heavily engaged. The line of the enemy 
bent round his right flank, subjecting his brigade for a time to a fire in 
flank and front. With admirable firmness he repulsed frequent assaults of 
the enemy moving against his right and rear. Leader, officers and men 
alike displayed their fitness to the trial to which they were subjected. 
Among many instances of heroism, I can not forbear to mention that of 
Lieutenant Waggoner, of the Seventeenth Tennessee regiment. He went 
alone through a storm of fire and pulled down a white flag which a small 
isolated body of our men had raised, receiving a wound in the act. The 
brigade holding its ground nobly, lost more than a fourth of its entire 
number. Two regiments of the reserve were sent up to its support, but 
were less effective than they should have been, owing to a mistake of the 
officer posting them. Hoke also sent two regiments from Clingman's to 
protect Johnson's flank. The same mistake was made in posting these. 
They were placed in the woods, where the moral and material effect of their 
presence was lost. 

"I now ordered Hoke to press forward his right for the relief of his right 
center. He advanced Clingman with his remaining two regiments, and 
Corse with his brigade. They drove the enemy with spirit, suflfering some 
loss, but the gap between Clingman and the troops on his left induced him 
to retire his command to prevent being flanked, and reform it in the 
intermediate lines. Thus Corse became isolated, and learning from his 
officers that masses were forming on his right flank, he withdrew some 
distance, not quite as far back as his original position. These two brigades 
were not afterward engaged, though they went to the front. Corse about 
one hour after he fell back, and Clingman about 2:15 p. m. The enemy 
did not reoccupy the ground from which they drove them before their 

"In front of Hagood and Johnson, the fighting was stubborn and pro- 
longed. The enemy slowly retired from Johnson's right and took a strong 
position on the ridge in front of Proctor's Creek, massing near the turn- 
pike and occupying advantageous ground at the house and grove of Charles 
Friend. At length, Johnson having brushed the enemy from his right flank 
in the woods with some assistance from the Washington Artillery, and 
cleared his front, rested his troops in the shelter of the exterior works. 
One of the captured pieces having opened on the enemy's masses, he finally 
fell back behind the wood and ridge at Proctor's Creek, though his skirmish 

16 — H. 

242 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

line continued the engagement some liours longer. Further movement was 
here suspended to wait communication from Whiting, or the sound of his 
approach, and to reorganize the troops which had become more or less 
disorganized. Brief firing, at 1 :45 p. m., gave some hopes of his approach; 
I waited in vain. The firing heard was probably between Dearing* and 
the enemy's rear guard. Dearing had been ordered by Whiting to com- 
municate with me, but unsupported by infantry or artillery he was unable 
to do so except by sending a det-achment by a circuitous route which 
reached me after the work of the day was closed. At 4 p. m., all hope of 
Whiting's approach was gone, and I reluctantly abandoned so much of my 
plan as contemplated more than a vigorous pursuit of Butler and driving 
him bacli to his fortified base. To effect this, I resumed my original posi- 
tion and ordered General Hoke to send two brigades along the Courthouse 
road to take the enemy in flank and establish enfilading batteries in front 
of the heights west of the railroad. 

"The formation of our line was checked by a heavy and prolonged storm 
of rain. Bleanwhile, the enemy opened a severe fire, which was soon 
silenced by our artillery. Before we were ready to advance, darkness 
approached and upon consultation with several of my subordinate oflScers, 
it was deemed imprudent to attack, considering the probability of serious 
obstacles and the proximity of Butler's entrenched camp. I, therefore, put 
the army in position for the night and sent instructions to Whiting to join 
our right at the railroad in the morning. 

"During the night, the enemy retired to the fortified line of his present 
camp, leaving in our hands some fourteen hundred prisoners, five pieces of 
artillery, and five stand of colors. He now rests there, hemmed by our lines 
which have since from time to time been advanced with every skirmish, 
and now completely cover the southern communications of the capital, thus 
securing one of the principal objects of the attack. The more glorious 
results anticipated were lost by the hesitation of the left wing and the pre- 
mature halt of the Petersburg column before obstacles in neither case 
sufficient to have deterred from the execution of the movement prescribed. 

"Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"(Signed) G. T. Beaueegabd, 

"(Signed) John Blaib Hoge, A. A. G." 

On perhaps the day after the battle, General Beauregard in 
relieving General Ransom, that he might return to his local com- 
mand at Eichmond, did it in a highly complimentary order. This 
fact explains the following supplementary report : 


Hagood's Brigade 243. 

''Headquarters Department North Carolina and 
Southern Virginia. 

"June 14th, 1864. 
"General S. Cooper, A. & I. G. 

"General: In forwarding my report of the Battle of Drury's BlufC, 16 
May, 1864, it seems necessary that it should be accompanied by an explan- 
ation of the' apparent inconsistency of its conclusion with my special order 
Number 11, May 14th, 1864, relieving the commander of the left wing, and 
commending in high terms the conduct of his command in the battle. A 
copy of the order is annexed. When it was Issued, I still assumed that he 
had properly felt and estimated the obstacles and hostile force reported by 
him in his immediate front, and that his reports were to be accepted as 
maturely considered and substantially accurate. Subsequent investigation, 
necessarily requiring time, has, I regret to say, brought me to a different 

"Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"(Signed) G. T. Beauregard, 


"(Signed) Jno. Blaie Hoge, A. A. G." 

Extracts from Major-General Hoke's report, comprising what 
related to Hagood's brigade : 

"Headquarters Hoke's Division, 
"25th May, 1864. 
"Captain, . . . owing to the dense fog, I could see nothing of the move- 
ment of Major-General Ransom, and supposing that by this time the right of 
the enemy had been turned, I ordered forward the brigades of Hagood and 
JohnSon with one section of Lieutenant-Colonel Eschelman's artillery and 
found the enemy still occupying our outer line of entrenchments, supported 
by eight pieces of artillery, with a second line of entrenchments along the 
line of the woods in front of our outer line of works. The attack was 
handsomely made and resulted in the capture by Hagood's hrigade of five 
pieces of artillery, besides a number of prisoners and a great many of the 
enemy killed and wounded. The outer line of works was occupied, and 
one regiment of Hagood's brigade extended beyond it in the direction of 
James River. This regiment was ordered forward to connect with the 
right of Ransom's division, but, to my amazement, found the enemy in strong 
force behind entrenchments. It was not intended that this regiment should 
attack the enemy In that position, as the movement was to be made by the 
troops on the left, but it in its eagerness did so, and, I am sorry to say, 
suffered heavily. When it was seen that the enemy still occupied my front, 
this regiment was ordered back to await the further development of the 
flank movement. In the meanwhile, the enemy made two charges upon 
Hagood and Johnson, but were repulsed, and. with the assistance, of the 

244 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

artillery, the pike was cleared of the enemy before the flamMng column 
reached that point. . . . The commanding general will recollect that I 
before stated that the strength of the enemy was in front of these two 
brigades, and they deserve great credit. . . . 

"The loss of these commands was necessarily heavy, owing to their 
making a front attack. ... I cannot refrain from calling the attention 
of the commanding general to the fact that his desire to relieve my com- 
mand of the necessity of a front attack by the flank movement of Ransom's 
division was on no portion of my line accomplished. . . . 
"Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"(Signed) E. F. Hoke, Major-General. 
"To Captain J. M. Otey, A. A. G." 

It is curious to compare the manner in which this battle was 
actually fought with the well-considered plan devised by Beaure- 
gard, and clearly explained beforehand to his subordinates. The 
plan of battle was, briefly, to seize the enemy's line of retreat, 
demonstrate on his front, and carry his position by a turning 
movement on the flank, behind which was his line of communi- 

The actual fight was an almost simultaneous direct attack along 
his whole front, and with a hand upon the enemy's line of retreat, 
Whiting failed to grasp it. Thus the conceptions of genius were 
in the execution reduced to the least skilful of performances, 
and instead of a decisive defeat, Butler was merely pushed back 
upon his fortified base. 

Some remarks are necessary upon the details of the battle as 
described in the foregoing official reports. The movement of the 
"right regiment of Lewis's brigade" and of "the reserve brigade" 
to the relief of "our left center" (Hagood's brigade) mentioned 
by General Beauregard upon information from Ransom's 
division, was a myth. The writer avers most positively that no 
part of Eansom's division ever came to Hagood's assistance, or 
passed in front of him till the enemy had retired from his front. 
General Hoke's report distinctly sustains this averment, and 
General Beauregard's report itself shows that the force from 
Hansom's division could not have performed this feat, although 
if was the duty to which the whole division was assigned. The 
report reads : "... Colquitt's brigade from the reserve was sent 
him (Ransom) at 6 :30 a. m. Before it had arrived, he reported 
the enemy driving Hoke's left and sent the right regiment of 

Hagood's Brigade 245 

Lewis's brigade forward at a double quick towards the point of 
supposed danger. This held the enemy long enough for the 
reserve brigade* to arrive, charge, and drive him back from the 
front of our left center over and along the works to the turnpike." 
Yet, at 7:15, just three-quarters of an hour after Colquitt's 
brigade had moved to Eansom, and about the time it would have 
completed this clearing of Hagood's front, the report states, "A 
slight modification of the original movement was ordered to be 
made to relieve Hoke's front, on which the enemy had been 
allowed to mass his forces by the inaction of the left." This order 
was to Ransom, and, in substance, to resume the offensive. On 
receiving it, he "reported a necessity to straighten and reform his 
line in the old position, near the lines he had stormed. Here he 
rested during the greater part of the day." 

General Beauregard's report also credits Johnson's brigade 
with a share in the capture of the five pieces of artillery on the 
pike. Hoke, commanding both brigades, was present in person 
and gives it exclusively to Hagood's brigade. 

General Beauregard (adopting Hoke's report), speaks of one 
regiment of Hagood's brigade thrown forward to connect with 
Ransom's right. This is scarcely accurate, though there was but 
one regiment that actually struck the enemy's second line of 
breastworks. The circumstances were minutely these: 

Shortly after General Ransom's _ division had engaged the 
enemy and while his advance, visible by the flash of his guns 
through the fog, was still on a line with Hagood's front, the 
brigade skirmishers under Major Rion were ordered forward. 
These quickly drove in the enemy's pickets and carried the 
enemy's first line (our abandoned trench), except that portion 
just on the turnpike, where the artillery was. The Twenty-fifth 
regiment had to be brought up to accomplish that. Hagood's 
brigade was now in position, without any other regiment beside 
the Twenty-fifth having been engaged, behind this outer line; 
but as it bent back on the left to run into the intermediate line at 
Fort Stephens, the left regiment of the brigade (the Twenty- 
seventh) was placed beyond the trench when this curve backward 
commenced, in order to have the line straight and ready for a 
further forward movement. There continued a desultory exchange 

•Colquitt's two regiments. 

■246 Memoirs or the Wak or Secession 

of fire. Hagood was standing near the Twenty-seventh regiment, 

'holding his- horse by the bridle, when Hoke came up to him on 
foot and directed him to swing out to the right and form on the 
turnpike in 07^der to connect with Ransom. The fog had partially 
lifted and a body of troops was in sight in the open, full 800 
yards from Hagood, diagonally from his left front and at least 
three-quarters of a mile from the turnpike, on which his right 

■was resting. This body of troops had half pivoted to the right 
and halted. It was Eansom's whole force (see Beauregard's 
report). Hagood knew that it was Ransom, for, notwithstanding 
the fog, he had, as before noted, been able to trace his course by 
the flash of his guns as well as by their sound. Now they were 
perfectly visible, halted, and not firing, but firing was going on 
ahead of them, and nearer, but still not yet in front of Hagood's 
left, from a line not visible which proved to have been Ransom's 

■skirmishers. When Hagood received Hoke's order, he did not 
bring the position of these halted troops to the latter's attention, 
for he supposed they were only a part of Ransom's division, 
perhaps a reserve, while the line firing, and not visible, was 
Ransom's main line advancing through the woods to. the pike 
with but little opposition. Confirmed in this idea by the positive 

■direction to swing out on the pike, arj^^ connect with Ransom, 
Hagood merely spoke with Hoke of the tactical execution of the 
order and proceeded to obey it. He kept the Twenty-fifth and 
Twenty-first regiments, which were nearest the pike, in position, 
to give a fire down it, and, pivoting on the right company of tlie 
Seventh battalion, moved out the Seventh battalion and the 
Eleventh and Twenty-seventh regiments. This was done in line, 
and each regiment swung round by the movement technically 
known as "change direction," thus advancing in echellon to their 
new position. The distance between our outer line now reoccu- 
pied by us and the enemy's line of breastworks, on the edge of 
the woods, was not over two hundred yards. And it was in this 
space that these three regiments were maneuvering. In the 
changte of direction their left alone would strike these works 
which, it seemed, Hoke thought the enemy had been driven from 
by Ransom's flank movement. Hagood left Hoke after receiving 

■ the order and the movement had hardly ■ begun when a terrific 
fire broke out upon the advancing troops, but was hottest upon 

Hagqod's Brigade 24T 

the Seventh battalion. Hagood galloped in that dicection, having 
his horse killed under him as he reached the Seventh. This 
battalion, having only to wheel on its own ground, had accom- 
plished or nearly so a change of direction at right, angles to its 
former position and parallel to the pike, when its commander, 
halting it, caused his men to sit down and fire from that position 
while they marked the base of the movement. The Eleventh 
regiment, advancing firing, was steadily approaching its position 
on the :new line, and the Twenty-seventh, coming on upon the 
extreme left, struck the breastworks on the edge of the woods and 
drove the enemy from them at the point of impact, notwith- 
standing the rush of its charge was impeded by wire entangle- 
ments just in front of the works. The increased fierceness of the 
enemy's fire brought the movement to a halt, the enemy assaying 
to charge, and failing. The position was obstinately held for a 
short time to permit relief by Ransom's approach, when General 
Hagood, standing behind the Seventh battalion, saw the Twenty- 
seventh regiment coming back, and ordered the Eleventh regi- 
ment and Seventh battalion back behind the outer entrenchments. 
It appeared afterward that the Twenty-seventh came back under 
an order sent direct from General Hoke, who had found out his 
mistake as to Ransom's position, and whose instructions, it will 
be remembered, did not permit him to press at this point at this 

Hagood reformed his lines and remained inactive during the 
rest of the day with the remainder of the army. The enemy, very 
soon after the advance of his three regiments, withdrew from his 
front. Somewhat later in the day, he was hurried to Hoke's right 
to resist a supposed flanking movement, which not taking place, 
he was returned to his first position. Late in the afternoon. Ran- 
som moved down Hoke's line to and beyond the turnpike, after 
the enemy had withdrawn. The Twenty-seventh regiment was 
thrown out to make the right of Ransom's line in this march. 

During the whole battle, the brigade behaved with a steadiness 
and gallantry that was very gratifying. It was a spectacle to 
rejoice the heart of a soldier, the steadiness with which the 
Seventh received the enemy's onset when .its new line was taken. 
Sitting down at the word of command, it gave and received at 
close range for ten minutes a murderous fire, the color bearer 

248 Memoirs of the War op Secessiost 

slowly waving his flag, and not a straggler going to the rear. 
When the line moved, it is no exaggeration to say that the bodies 
of the dead and wounded marked the position it had held. There 
were fifty-seven bullet marks received on its flag in the action, and 
in one of its companies (Brooks's) there were sixty-five casualties, 
of which nineteen were killed outright. The casualties of the 
whole brigade were 433 ; its field return of the previous day was 

Colonels Gaillard and Gantt, Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson, Major 
Glover and Captain Wilds, commanding regiments, discharged 
their duty with marked ability and were gallantly seconded by 
their men. Major Rion and Captain Brooks, of the Seventh, 
behaved with conspicuous gallantry, remaining in command after 
receiving serious wounds, Rion until nightfall, and Brooks until 
he was ordered to the rear by the brigade commander. The staff. 
Captain Moloney, Lieutenant Mazyck and Lieutenant Martin 
exhibited their usual courage and eiSciency. Each one of them 
had his horse killed under him in the discharge of his duties, and 
Captain Moloney had a second one, which he obtained during the 
day, killed. 

Lieutenants Taft, Lalam, Shuler, Bomar and Elliott, and Cap- 
tain China (all of the Twenty-fifth regiment) were killed. Bomar 
was killed in an heroic exposure of himself, rendered necessary by 
the failure of his captain to do his duty. China, Elliott and 
Shuler were all originally of the First South Carolina regiment. 
General Hagood had served with them from the beginning of 
the war, and valued them highly as brave and elficient officers. 

The following officers and men were mentioned for gallant 
conduct by regimental commanders : 

Twenty-seventh Regiment — ^Lieutenant Gelling, Company C, 
acting adjutant; Color Bearer Tupper, Private H. P, Foster of 
the color guard, and First Sergeant Pickens Butler Watts of Com- 
pany E. 

In Seventh Battalion — Sergeant J. H. Outz, color bearer, 

•In the color guard of the Seventh Battalion, Sergeants J. B. Robinson and G. W. 
Kennlngton were successlyely killed with the colors in their hands after Outz fell, 
and the colors were brought out by Sergeant Preston Cooper. 

Hagood's Brigade 249 

In Eleventh Kegiment — ^Lieutenant W, G. Bowman, Company 
B ; Color Bearer Hickman ; Privates J. Jones, Company K ; G. W. 
Hicks, Company K ; A. P. Bulger, Company D, and A. Mixson, 
Company F. 

In Twenty-fifth Eegiment — Sergeant B. P. Izlar, Company G; 
Sergeant H. P. Greer, Company B; Privates J. T. Shumaker, 
Company G, W. A. Dotterer, Company A, and Wise, Com- 
pany F. 

General Hagood also reported for meritorious services, coming 
under his immediate observation, Private J. K. Williams, Com- 
pany — , Twenty-seventh regiment. He was an Irishman and 
deserted to the enemy at Bermuda Hundreds a few days after- 
ward. In the following August, after the fight on the Weldon 
road, one of the brigades captured on the field was carried by a 
battery which had been particularly destructive to us and recog- 
nized in one of the gunners, Hagood's "meritorious" Irishman. 
Williams greeted him cheerfully and asked after "the gineral." 

President Davis was on the field during the latter part of the 
day. The army bivouacked among the unburied corpses of the 
enemy, and feasted that night upon the unwonted luxuries of 
coffee, sardines and canned meats, with which his abandoned 
camps were abundantly supplied. The brigade here obtained a 
good supply of shelter tents (the tent d'abies of the French) ; 
and the Eleventh regiment, as heretofore mentioned, supplied 
itself with Enfield rifles, throwing its old smooth-bore muskets 
upon the ground to be picked up by the ordnance fatigue parties. 


At sunrise on the 17th, Beauregard moved forward in pursuit 
of Butler. The road was filled with the debris of a broken army, 
their dead lay unburied or hurriedly and incompletely buried 
upon the route, and on every side wide-spread and wanton devas- 
tation marked the spirit in which they had advanced, houses and 
fences burned, and stock driven off, or killed and left where they 
were slain. An instance of obedience to the order to destroy the 

NOTB. — In the North American Review, Volume 144, Number 3 (March, 1887,) 
la an article entitled "Drewry's Bluff and Petersburg", which in all the points noted 
In this Memoir sustains its accuracy, and does very full justice to Hagood's brigade. 
It Is over General Beauregard's signature. 

250 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

breeding stock of the country was witnessed, which was ludicrous 
and at the same time had a touch of pathos in it. A hen that 
had evidently seen many summers, lay in front of a farm yard 
with her head wrung off, while her brood still lingered about her, 
and one little chick perched wearily upon her dead body. Poor 
little thing, one fancied, as it gazed unconcernedly upon the 
column tramping by, that it looked as if, after the turmoil and 
trouble of the last few days, there was for it no subject of aston- 
.isliment left. 

About 3 p. m., our advanced guard encountered Butler's pickets 
in front of his entrenched position across Bermuda Hundred 
Neck. Our columns were at once deployed, and skirmishers 
thrown out and engaged. The position at Howlett's House was 
seized after dark ; the two 20-dr. Parrotts captured by Hagood's 
brigade, at Drury's Bluff were here put in position and manned 
by Palmer's company. Twenty-seventh South Carolina, supported 
by infantry from another brigade. The James, running southerly 
from Richmond, at Dutch Gap encounters a considerable ridge, 
which it passes by a detour of perhaps a mile and a half to the 
west, and returning, after making almost a complete loop, resumes 
its general course. Howlett's House was on 9, high bluff on the 
western side of the river at the bend of the loop. Some 300 yards 
below it, the river narrowed greatly, affording a good place for 
obstructions under the guns of a battery at Howlett's, and imme- 
diately spreads out into a wide reach as it progressed again 
towards Dutch Gap. In this reach were congregated a number of 
gunboats and transports, upon which the two Parrotts opened in 
the morning, driving them beyond range. This position in the 
rearrangement of the defenses of Richmond that ensued during 
the campaign became its "Water Gate," a description applied by 
Beauregard to Drury's Bluff in the original plan of the fortifi- 
cation. It was made very strong and the desire to get up the river 
with their gunboats without encountei'ing its guns and obstructions 
inspired Butler's famous canal across the ridge at Dutch Gap.* 
Like most of the enterprises of this military chieftain, it failed of 
success. General Beauregard named the battery in honor of 
Colonel Dantzler, of South Carolina, who was killed in the fight- 
ing a few days afterward near this point. Colonel Dantzler, a 

'See 4tli Battles and Leaders Civil War, p.' 575. 

Hagood's Brigade 251 

•planter of St. Matthews Parish, had commenced the wat as a 
lieutenant in the First South Carolina (Hagood's); had been 
elected in the fall of '61 lieutenant-colonel (of Keitt's Twentieth 
South Carolina), which he had commanded during the greater 
•part of the siege of Charleston with distinguished gallantry 
and skill; and in consequence had been recently appointed to 
the colonelcy of 'a tegiment in Evans's (now Walker's) South 
Carolina brigade; This regiment had been lately commanded by 
Goodlett, who was broken for cowardice, and trained by him was 
decidedly wanting in dash. It was in an effort to inspire his 
new command with something of his own spirit of daring that 
•Dantzler threw his life away. Beauregard's attention was now 
given to establishing the shortest practicable line across the neck 
and entrenching it so as to hold Butler in the cul de sac to which 
he had retreated, with the fewest number of troops. His purpose 
was accomplished in the next few da3's in a series of actions, 
rising almost to the severity of battles. After each he advanced 
and strengthened his lines, until, commencing at Howlett's house 
on the James, they ran in a line more or less direct to "Walthal's 
Mill Pond on Ashton Creek near its junction with the Appo- 
mattox.* The "bottling up" processf was then complete and the 
Confederate commander was at liberty to detach nearly half his 
force to the assistance of Lee. 

The scene of these actions was a wild, thickly wooded country 
with few clearings, and in many places broken up into short but 
steep hills. One day, while a sharp skirmish fight was going on. 
a buck sprang up and ran for some distance between the lines; 
at length one of Hagood's skirmishers brought him down and 
secured the carcass. 

The first position of Hagood's brigade was on Clag's Farm, 
and that night it repelled a body of cavalry which was either 
reconnoitering or attempting to break through our lines. 

The 18th and 19th, its lines were advanced principally by 
skirmish fighting. 

On the 20th, a very heavy action occurred, in which the brigade 
on its right •was hotly engaged. Hagood's part was confined to 

•See Map Battle Drury's Bluff, Ante 114. 

f'HIs (Butler's) army, though in a position of great security, was as completely 
shut off 'from further operations directly against Richmond i had 'ISeen in a 

bottle strongly corked." — Grant's Report. 

252 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

severe skirmishing. In the confusion of this fight, in the woods, 
General Walker rode up to a regiment of, the enemy before he 
discovered his mistake. Turning to escape, he received a volley 
from the whole regiment at short range, killing his horse and 
wounding him in several places.* He was captured and survived, 
but as a painful cripple for life. General Walker had gained 
much reputation at the battle of Pocotaligo in South Carolina, 
and was esteemed a valuable officer. Stephen Elliott, of Fort 
Sumter, now colonel of the Holcomb Legion, received the vacant 

During the afternoon of the 22nd, Hagood's brigade was 
ordered to move further to the right, to relieve Wise's brigade. 
The position occupied by the latter was well entrenched, but its 
pickets in front were advanced in no instance exceeding fifty 
yards, and the enemy's in pits about 250 yards beyond made it 
an act of no little danger to raise one's head above our parapets. 
This disagreeable condition of things had to be endured until 
dark, when General Hagood organized a strong party of skir- 
mishers and succeeded in getting position for his picket line 
beyond where the enemy's had been. By daylight each pair of 
men were securely entrenched in a rifle pit, and matters on the 
main line were more comfortable. In this affair Lieutenant 
Sineath, of the Eleventh regiment, was captured. After our new 
picket line was taken, in attempting to connect it with that of 
the brigade on our left, he blundered into the enemy's line. 

The enemy's main line of entrenchments was here 800 yards in 
front of ours, and a good deal of sharpshooting took place 
between them, besides shelling. In the main, however, our posi- 
tion was comfortable enough ; part of our line was in the woods, 
part in the open; the country was broken, giving comparatively 
secure passage from point to point, and a rivulet behind us gave 
abundant water, a blessing fully appreciated by the men covered 
with the dust and grime of three weeks' marching and fighting. 
Our train, too, here overtook us in its march by highway from 
Wilmington, and the officers enjoyed the luxury of clean clothing. 
It was sad though, as each valise was handed out and the familiar 
names were called, to find so many to which there was no 

•See Prison Life of JeflC Dayls. 

Hagood's Brigade 253 

"They sleep their last sleep, 
They have fought their last battle, 
And not until the archangel's trump 
Shall sound the last reveille 
Will their voices again respond to the roll call." 

The casualties of the brigade on the lines of Bermuda Hun- 
dreds was one officer and one man missing, five men killed, and 
forty-seven wounded, making an aggregate of fifty-three. 

At this time was organized Hoke's division as it continued to 
the end of the war, with the exception of the temporary addition 
to it of a brigade of reserves in North Carolina in the spring of 
1865. It was made to consist of Hagood's, Colquitt's, Clingman's 
and Martin's (afterwards Kirkland's) brigades, the commissions 
of the brigadiers dating in order of seniority in the order in 
which the brigades are named. Colquitt's men were from 
Georgia; the last two brigades from North Carolina. Major- 
General Hoke was from North Carolina — ^had commenced as 
major, and won his way to a brigade command in Lee's Army of 
Northern Virginia, serving principally in Stonewall Jackson's 
corps. He had lately won his major-general's commission at the 
capture of Plymouth in North Carolina. He was not exceeding 
thirty years of age, of good presence and agreeable manner; a 
good administrative officer, of undoubted personal gallantry, and 
possessed of habits of vigilance. His intercourse with his subor- 
dinates was always marked with good feeling on both sides. . 


While Butler's co-operative move was thus being foiled. Grant, 
with Meade's Army of the Potomac, was slowly urging his san- 
guinary way from the northward to the vicinity of Eichmond.* 
Lee had constantly interposed his veterans across his path, and 
as constantly, after ineffectual and murderous assaults. Grant had 
essayed a turning movement by his left, to be again confronted 
by Lee, to again assault, and again be compelled to gain his 
further step towards Eiclimond by a further turning movement 
to his left. Nor did Lee oppose only a passive resistance. While 
standing generally upon the defensive in chosen positions, which 

•See Map of Part of Virginia, p. 75. 

254 Memoirs of the Wak oe Secession 

his possession of the interior line enabled him to take, he seized 
every opportunity the eye of consummate genius could detect to 
assume a quick and sharp offensive. The spade and the mattock 
were brought more largely into requisition on both sides than in 
any war since the days of ancient Rome. "The campaign," says 
Swinton, "indeed resembled less an ordinary campaign than a 
kind of running siege. From the Rapidan to the Chickahominy, 
the face of the country was covered with the entrenched lines, 
within which the armies of the Potomac and of Northern Vir- 
ginia had waged a succession of deadly conflicts." 

Under cover of these entrenchments, after each unsuccessful 
direct attack, Grant's edgewise movements were generally effected 
by withdrawing the troops on his right and' moving them in rear 
of his line to prolong his left. Lee met this with a corresponding 
change, and thus both armies progressed much as the wild pigeons 
feed and fly. 

They were now approaching Richmond, and upon the banks of 
the Chickahominy, already rendered historical as the scene of 
McClellan's defeat in '62, was the safety of the Confederate cap- 
ital again to be submitted to the issue of battle. 

On the night of the 30th-31st May, Beauregard detached 
Hoke's division from the lines at Bermuda Hundreds to re-enforce 
Lee for the impending conflict. Its march was directed upon 
Cold Harbor, a strategic point beyond the Chickahominy towards 
which both armies were edging their way, and, upon its arrival, 
found itself in position upon the right of the Confederate forces. 

Hagood's brigade moved last, leaving the trenches at 6 a. m., 
on the 31st, and marching to Chester Station on the Petersburg 
and Richmond Railroad, whence it was conveyed by rail to the 
capital, arriving at midday. Moving directly through the city 
and out on the Mechanicsville Turnpike, it followed the march 
of the division. The day was excessively hot, the pike entirely 
without shade, and the men suffering for water. General Hagood 
therefore halted at a farm house with a fine grove, where water 
was to be obtained, about two miles from the city, and rested his 
men for two hours. Here the horses of the line officers and the 
brigade train, which had come by highway from Chester Station, 
overtook us. The march was resumed, the road was now filled 
with wagons, artillery, and troops, and the dust and heat were 

Hagood's Brigade 255: 

intolerable. The men suffered greatly and straggling was unavoid- 
able. Crossing the Chickahominy, we reached Mechanicsville 
a little before dark and took the road to the right leading to 
Cold Harbor. Getting beyond Gaines's Mill, we were halted 
at 1 a. m. by an order from General Hoke. The rest of the 
division was in position in front, and we were directed to rest 
where we were, till 3 a. m., when we also were to move forward 
into line. There were two taverns called respectively Old and New 
Cold Harbor. They were upon the same road, about a mile apart, 
and New Cold Harbor was nearest us. A severe cavalry combat 
had been in progress during the greater part of the day of the 
31st for the possession of Old Cold Harbor. It had resulted in 
the partial possession by the enemy of the coveted position, when 
the arrival of Hoke's leading brigades had relieved our cavalry. 
In this action, the Charleston Dragoons, a company which had 
been old comrades of the brigade on the coast of South Carolina, 
had fought with desperate valor and been almost annihilated. In 
falling back before heavy odds, James W. O'Hear, one of its 
lieutenants, had stopped to aid a wounded comrade who had 
appealed to him not to leave him, and, refusing to surrender, was 
slain fighting over his friend. Hoke's advance brigades were 
in position between New and Old Cold Harbor, his right resting 
upon and covering the road between them and his left extending 
to the northwest towards and menacing the road from Bethesda 
Church to Old Cold Harbor, which comes from the northward 
nearly at right angles to the road upon which Hoke's right rested. 
At daylight on the 1st, Hagood's brigade was moved forward 
across a tributary of Gaines's Mill stream and posted in reserve 
behind Hoke's left, but facing to the northward. Grant's 
infantry advance was moving down from the direction of 
Bethesda Church upon Old Cold Harbor, and consisted of the 
Sixth corps. Longstreet's Corps, moving on a parallel line, led 
Lee's column and contemplated attacking the Sixth corps upon 
its march between these points. Kershaw's division was to lead 
the attack, and when Kershaw sent Hoke word that he had 
reached a certain point' (Beulah Church) on the road, Hoke was 
to advance Hagood's brigade, posted as before described, to 
co-operate in the attack. Such was General Hagood's under- 
standing of the situation as conveyed to him by his division com- 


Memoirs or the War of Secession 




\ } 


^ CH uncH 



T i) 


Co /d Harbor 

Hagood's Brigade 257 

mander. During the morning, firing from Kershaw was heard 
on Hagood's left front, and afterwards a courier to General Hoke 
announced that the attack was foregone. In Kershaw's advance, 
Colonel Keitt, commanding the leading brigade, was kUled, and 
the brigade thrown into confusion. This, with perhaps other 
reasons, to the writer unknown, stopped the attack. 

Colonel Keitt had been a member of the United States Congress 
from his native State, and continued for some time to represent 
her in the Confederate Congress. In the second year of the war, 
he had been elected to the colonelcy of a newly raised South 
Carolina regiment, and until within the last month, his service 
had been around Charleston. He was a gentleman of honor and 
fine intellect, but his previous training and the bent of his mind 
qualified him for the political arena rather than a soldier's career. 

Hoke now directed General Hagood to advance a company as 
skirmishers and feel for the enemy. He was developed to 
Hagood's right front, and moving down the general front of the 
division toward Old Cold Harbor. Shortly after, the head of 
Longstreet's column reached Hoke and went into position on his 
left. Skirmishing and artillery fire commenced and continued 
with more or less vigor. 

The enemy now began to extend around Hoke's right beyond 
Old" Cold Harbor, and about 4 p. m., Hagood's and Martin's 
brigades were hurriedly moved in that direction, the first men- 
tioned brigade leading. Marching in column of fours in rear of 
our line by way of New Cold Harbor, after these brigades had 
passed beyond the point held by our right, they were on the field 
on which the battle of Gaines's Mill had been fought in McClel- 
lan's campaign. In several places, human bones were visible 
where they had been imperfectly buried and since uncovered by 
the action of the weather. The cavalry, which were guarding 
this flank, were driven in, as we arrived on the field. Halting 
and facing to the left, the column was in line of battle, but in 
echellon with the general line. Skirmishers were ordered for- 
ward,* and advancing handsomely drove back the enemy's pur- 
suing skirmishers. The line of battle followed under a sharp fire 
of shells, and, prolonging the general line, proceeded rapidly to 
entrench. The point now held by these two brigades was the 

♦Under Captain J. F. Izlar of the Twenty-flfth. 
17— H 

258 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

tactical key of Lee's position. The field was a high plateau, with 
Watt's Hill behind it, and commanded most of the line now being 
taken up by the Confederates for the impending battle. In front, 
the ground fell off abruptly into a lower plateau, and on its right 
and right-rear were the low grounds of the Chickahominy and 
one of its tributaries. Had the position been seized by the enemy 
at this time, it is probable that Lee would have been forced across 
the Chickahominy and into the lines of Kichmond without a 
general engagement. It was a race for it, won by a few minutes. 
The enemy's skirmishers, pursuing the small cavalry force, were 
already upon the field and in full view a dense mass in column 
was seen following in support from Old Cold Harbor. Deceived 
possibly by the vigor of our skirmish advance, and conceiving 
perhaps that this was a movement to turn the left of Grant's 
general line, the enemy halted and commenced to entrench along 
his front, and at right angles to us, keeping up meanwhile a rapid 
fire of artillery. Prisoners stated that this was a part of the 
Sixth corps, General Wright commanding, and that they were 
about to attack. 

With the enemy in view, and under shell fire, it needed no 
urging to induce the men to cover themselves when the order to 
entrench the line we had taken was given. A windrow of rails 
from the adjacent fences was laid; such spades and mattocks as 
they had were wielded by willing hands; and bayonets, tin cups, 
plates, and even the unaided hands lent assistance in digging a 
trench inside the rails and raising a parapet upon them. The 
rapidity with which this was done was laughable, and would have 
been incredible to any one who had not seen soldiers who knew 
the value of earthworks, however slight, work under similar cir- 
cumstances. At McGee's house, our line bent back towards the 
Chickahominy, and was prolonged by brigades subsequently 

The enemy did not attack here this afternoon, but shortly after 
Hoke's two brigades had been sent to the right, the right of the 
Sixth corps, and Smith's corps from Butler's army, which had 
arrived by way of the White House, violently assailed the right 
of Longstreet's corps and the left of Hoke's division at the point 
from which Hagood had been withdrawn. Here Wofford's bri- 
gade, of Longstreet's corps, and Clingman's brigade, of Hoke's 

Hagood's Brigade 259 

division, gave way, but the enemy were finally repulsed with a 
loss, by his own account, of two thousand men. He had gained, 
however, some advantage of position and claimed by the action 
to have secured the possession of Old Cold Harbor.* 

In consequence of this affair, at 1 a. m., on the 2nd of June, 
Hagood received orders to return to his position of the day before. 
Martin remained where he was, and became Hoke's right; Col- 
quitt was the center, and Hagood again became the left of the 
division, Clingman going into reserve to reorganize his command. 

On the 2nd, Hagood, in conjunction with Hunton's brigade of 
Longstreet's corps, succeeded in partially re-establishing our line 
where the break had occurred. We were now, however, on the 
hither side of the tributary of Gaines's Mill Creek, beyond which 
our line had extended on the 1st before bending back in its con- 
tinuation by Longstreet, and consequently our line was retired 
some 200 yards from its position of the day before. . It was stiU, 
however, at this point, a salient of which the face held by Hagood 
was enfiladed both by artillery and infantry fire from the Sixth 
corps, and the fighting to secure the position was necessarily done 
with skirmishers, so close to the main line that the casualties were 
more frequent in the last than the first. 

From Cold Harbor, northwestardly, the enemy's right extended 
to and beyond Beulah Church, and the Confederate lines con- 
fronted them somewhat confused on the extreme left. It wUl be 
perceived that this narrative confines itself chiefly to the vicinity 
of Cold Harbor, with the localities and movements near which 
the writer was most familiar. Old Cold Harbor was Grant's 
headquarters during these operations, and Lee's were in rear of 
New Cold Harbor. 

On the evening of the 2nd, Lee assailed a corps of the enemy in 
motion on his extreme left, and inflicted considerable loss upon it. 
The night of the 2nd was wet and disagreeable, and the fire of 
the skirmishers was kept up without intermission on Hagood's 

The next morning at half-past four (a. m.), Grant executed 
along the whole Confederate front of six miles a general and 

•Swlnton. The author must, howeyer, mean the undisputed possession of the road 
from Bethesda Church to Old Cold Harbor, for the Federals had held Old Cold Har- 
bor from the 31st May. We never held this road, but our position, as before stated, 
menaced It. 

260 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

simultaneous assault. The historian of his army- says : "It took 
hardly ten minutes of the figment men call time to decide this 
battle. There was along the whole line a rush — the spectacle of 
impregnable works— a bloody loss, then a sullen falling back, 
and the action was decided. . . . But rapidly as the result was 
reached, it was decisive. . . . Some hours after the failure of 
the assault, General Meade sent orders to each corps commander 
to renew the assault without reference to the troops on his right 
or left. The order was issued through these officers to their sub- 
ordinate commanders, and from them descended through the 
wonted channels; but no man stirred, and the immobile lines 
pronounced a verdict silent but emphatic against further 
slaughter. The loss on the Union side in this sanguinary action 
was over 13,000, while on the part of the Confederates it is 
doubtful whether it reached as many hundreds."* 

This was the battle of Cold Harbor, and it may sound incred- 
ible, but it is nevertheless strictly true, that the writer of these 
Memoirs, situated near the center of the line along which this 
murderous repulse was given, and awake and vigilant of the 
progress of events, was not aware at the time of any serious 
assault having been given. As before mentioned, the firing of 
skirmishers in front of Hunton and Hagood had not intermitted 
during the night; there was no line of battle assault upon their 
immediate front, simply an increased pressure of skirmishers, 
and the roar of musketry on his right and left was so quickly 
over, and apparently so little commensurate with such slaughter, 
that it is difficult even now for him to realize that it was all done 
in so short a time. The explanation lies in the characteristics of 
a direct assault upon earthworks, defended by men who have 
confidence in themselves, the silent rush of the assailing party, 
and the rapid but deliberate and deadly fire from the assailed. 

There was heavy and general firing from artillery, sharpshooters 
and skirmishers along both army lines during the day of the 3rd 
of June. In Hagood's immediate front, the enemy's skirmishers 
had got into the swamp of the little stream along which his line 
was drawn, and were not fifty yards from his line of battle. They 
held their position pertinaciously, and the attempt to drive them 
out with volleys from the line or a direct advance of skirmishers 

•Army of the Potomac. 

Hagood's Brigade 261 

failed. Colonel Gantt, occupying the left of the brigade, was, 
therefore, ordered to push a body of men across the swamp at the 
ford which he covered, and facing them to the right drive up the 
swamp, in front of the brigade, and clear it of the enemy. He 
sent fifty men from companies B and K of his regiment under 
Captain Westcoat, assisted by Lieutenants Bowman, Mims and 
Cassidy. After a stubborn fight, they advanced the length of the 
brigade, aided by sharpshooters from the lines, and cleared the 
swamp of skirmishers, losing thirteen of their own number, killed 
and wounded, among whom was Captain Westcoat, severely 
wounded in the leg. This enabled General Hagood to get his 
skirmishers beyond the swamp, and relieved him to that extent; 
but his position was so thoroughly enfiladed by the position of 
Wright's corps (the Sixth) that at 4 a. m., on the 4th, he was 
directed by General Hoke to pivot on his left and swing back his 
right until it connected with Colquitt near the road between New 
and Old Cold Harbor. Hunton, who had intervened between 
Hagood and Colquitt, was returned to his own corps, and 
Hagood connecting with Gregg's (Texas) brigade, of Long- 
street's corps, at the stream so often mentioned, extended in a 
straight line some fifty yards beyond the road referred to. The 
salient in our line was now transferred to the point of junction of 
Hagood and Colquitt, but it was more obtuse and not enfiladed 
by any position of the enemy. The brigade was soon entrenched 
in its new position, indeed a trench had been partially prepared 
by fatigue parties before the line was moved. 

The assault of the morning of the 3rd, having failed, at 4 :30 
that afternoon, Grant is said to have ordered each corps com- 
mander to entrench his position. On the 4th, he directed siege 
operations begun. Two subsequent assaults, however, were made 
on the point of junction of Colquitt and Hagood, and repelled 
principally by the fire of Colquitt's brigade with deadly effect. 
It is more likely that these assaults were made with a view to 
obtaining nearer position from which to start the approaches 
than with the lingering hope of breaking through our lines at 
this point. -Here was one of the points at which siege operations 
were inaugurated. 

Sore at his repulse, and loath to acknowledge it. Grant 
refrained until the 6th from asking for a flag of truce to bury 

262 Memoirs of the Wak of Recession 

his dead, and the incessant fire of his sharpshooters prevented; us, 
as often as it was attempted, from bringing off his wounded from 
in front of our lines. Scattered more or less thick along their 
whole extent, where the assault was made vigorously, they almost 
paved the ground. There for three long days the dead, unburied, 
festered in the rays of the hot summer sun, until the stench was 
offensive for six hundred yards in the rear, and among them lay 
the wounded, suffering the tortures of wounds and heat and thirst, 
their moans growing fainter as the days went by. 

It was over such a scene as this that the troops marched to 
the secondary assaults, already referred to, of the point on the 
road between the two Cold Harbors held by Hoke's division, and 
contributed their bloody quota to the mass of butchered humanity 
upon which they trod in their charge. When at length the flag 
was asked and granted, the burial parties were in most instances 
unable to handle the dead, corruption had extended so far, and 
contented themselves with covering as it lay each body with a 
slight mound of earth. 

'From the Eapidan to the close of the battle of Cold Harbor, 
Grant had lost sixty thousand men, seven thousand more than 
Lee had had during the campaign, and one thousand to every 
mile of his progress to Eichmond. Whatever gloss success has 
since thrown over his style of making war, it was not, therefore, 
without some color of provocation that his soldiers about this time 
bestowed upon him the epithet of "the butcher." His severe losses 
and small success had a powerful effect on the Northern mind, 
and it is asserted by Federal historians that at this time the 
war was near a collapse, from which successes elsewhere alone 
saved it. Of Grant's tactical management of the battle of Cold 
Harbor, it has been said that "to criticise it as a military opera- 
tion is like discussing a loaf of bread as a work of art."* It cer- 
tainly can lay no claim to be classed among the efforts of genius; 
On this field closed the overland campaign. Each successive flank 
movement after his various battles had brought him nearer to 
Eichmond;. to continue them now would take him away from his 
goal. I Hp had nothing left but operations agairist the body of 
the plan, either by assault, or the slower operations of siege; 

►"Volunteer" In N. Y. World, September, 1869. 

Hagood's Brigade 263 

The casualties of Hagood's brigade during all the time at Cold 
Harbor were sixteen killed, one hundred and three wounded, and 
nine missing, making an aggregate of one hundred and twenty 
(120). Among these were many valuable oiEcers and men. 

Buist's company of the Twenty-seventh regiment, and Mickler's 
company of the Eleventh regiment, together with many individ- 
uals from other regiments, all of whom had been left behind in 
South Carolina, rejoined the brigade on the ith. Among them 
was Colonel Simonton, of the Twenty-fifth. While he was talk- 
ing with Major Glover in the trench, in the act of taking com- 
mand, Glover was shot in the hand by a sharpshooter. The, 
wound was painful and disabling but apparently not more 
serious. Glover was sent to the hospital, and lingering unac- 
countably, some days afterward the surgeon asked him if there 
was nothing else the matter with him, that he could see nothing 
in the wound in his hand to account for his prostration. Glover 
complained of his leg, and on examination, a wound was there 
discovered which had gangrened. It seemed that in receiving an 
order at Bermuda Hundreds, carried him by Lieutenant Martin 
(A. D. C), Martin's horse, a vicious brute captured at Drury's 
Bluff, had kicked the major upon the leg. Keceiving little atten- 
tion, this wound had been fretted by his boot leg until in the 
general exhaustion of his system by the hard service since, it had 
become what it was, and the life of one of the most gallant and 
efficient officers of the brigade paid the penalty. 

John Glover was a medium-sized, spare man, of neat figure 
and of reserved manner. In civil life he had made but little mark 
and was regarded as habitually indolent. He had a fondness, 
however, for military studies, and had carried a company to the 
bombardment of Fort Sumter in 1861. In his subsequent career, 
with all of which the writer was familiar, he demonstrated that 
he was a born soldier. Alert, vigilant and efficient in the field, 
he secured alike the confidence and affection of his men, and the 
approbation of his superiors. 


Richmond and Petiersburg lie about twenty miles apart, one 
due north of the other. In their original defences, prepared; 
before this campaign, each city was fortified independently, its' 

264 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

fortifications extending around each place, in a circle, more or 
less complete, with a radius — Richmond of about eight miles and 
Petersburg of about three and a half miles. In the subsequent 
shape which these defences assumed, they were connected by a 
line drawn from Drury's Bluff where the southern lines of Eich- 
mond crossed the James down the western bank of the river to 
Howlett's house, whence Beauregard's Bermuda Hundreds lines 
completed the connection with the northern lines of Petersburg. 
Petersburg now became the right flank of the defences of Rich- 
mond, and covering, as it did, the communications of the latter 
place with the rear, was the key to the position. When Grant's 
siege operations here languished before the vigorous defence, 
his efforts to turn this flank caused a gradual extension of the 
Confederate lines for many miles in a southwesterly prong, from 
Petersburg. It was at the extremity of this prong, in the spring 
of 1865, when Lee's army with the sources of its recruitment 
dried up and attenuated by the "attrition" of Grant to little more 
than thirty thousand rifles, with which to confront a constantly 
recruited foe one hundred and fifty thousand strong, that the 
battle of Five Forks was fought which made an immediate neces- 
sity the evacuation of the Confederate Capital. They had 
previously been determined upon in consequence of operations 
elsewhere. Lee's lines were thus eventually, from right to left, 
between thirty-five and forty miles long, and during the whole 
siege of Richmond, his army was dependent for supplies upon his 
still open communications with the southwest. An investment 
would at any time have terminated the siege. 

After pushing languidly his approaches at Cold Harbor for a 
few days. Grant determined to transfer his operations to the 
south side of the Appomattox, against Petersburg, and, accord- 
ingly, commenced the movement of his army to that point. By 
the 13th, he was withdrawn from his entrenchments and in full 
march. Lee followed, still intervening between him and Rich- 
mond on the north side of the James, as it was still open to Grant 
to turn while north of the James and advance up the river 
directly against that city. When the passage of the James by 
Grant at Harrison's Landing had developed his designs, Lee 
hastened to throw himself across the James and the Appomattox 
higher up and again confront him. He had delayed, however, 

Hagood's Bbigade 265 

most too long and Petersburg was very nearly taken by a coup 
de main, as will be developed in the progress of the narrative. 
Hagood's brigade marched with its division from the trenches at 
Cold Harbor at 8 a. m., on the 13th, crossed the Chickahominy 
at Federal Bridge, and proceeded in the direction of Malvern 
Hill, passing in its march over the old field of battle at Seven 
Pines. It bivouacked at night on the Darby Town road three 
miles from Malvern Hill, Hoke's division being held in reserve 
by Lee. During the day an action had occurred between Grant's 
flanking column and our advance at Eidley's Shop. Hoke 
remained quiet till 5 p. m., the 14th, when he was ordered to move 
back some eight miles to the neighborhood of the pontoon bridge 
over the James near Drury's Bluff and await orders. He was 
then in position either to go to Lee or to Beauregard at Peters- 
burg. On the morning of the next day he was ordered to Beaure- 
gard and marched at 11 a. m. Crossing the river, he proceeded 
down the turnpike, but, when opposite Chester Station, he was 
informed that partial transportation awaited him by rail and 
ordered to hurry forward his command. Hagood was at once 
dispatchbi flby rail ; Colquitt followed some time after, and the 
remaining brigades continued their march by the pike. 

At noon on the 15th, Smith's (Eighteenth) corps of Grant's 
army, being his advance, was before the eastern defences of 
Petersburg, manned by Wise's brigade and the local militia com- 
posed of the boys and old men of the city. After consuming the 
evening in making his reconnaisance and preparations. Smith 
assaulted with a cloud of skirmishers and easily carried the works, 
capturing some artillery and prisoners. Just after this success 
Hancock's corps arrived, but the enemy instead of pressing on 
and seizing the town which lay at his mercy, determined to await 
the morning before making his advance. 

Hagood's brigade reached Petersburg at dark, and while the 
men were being got off the cars and formed in the streets, the 
general proceeded to Beauregard's headquarters to report for 
orders. General Beauregard was on the lines, and Colonel Harris 
of his staff was instructing General Hagood to move out on the 
Jerusalem plank road and take position, where it issued from the 
fortifications, when a courier arrived announcing that the enemy 
had carried our works from Battery No. 3 to Battery No. 7, 

266 Memoiks or the War or Secession 

inclusive, and that our troops were in retreat. Hagood was 
instructed to move out immediately upon the City Point Boad 
(the road uncovered by this success of the enemy) and take a 
position to check his advance, and upon which a new defensive 
line might be established. It was a critical moment. The routed 
troops, such as they were, were pouring into the town, spreading 
alarm on every hand, and there was no organized body of troops 
that the writer has ever heard of available at the time to resist 
the advance which the enemy were even then supposed to be 
making, except this brigade and Colonel Tabb's Virginia regi- 
ment, of Wise's brigade, which still held a portion of the lines 
that had not been assailed. It would be daylight before Hoke's 
division could all get up, and the main body of Lee's army was 
miles away. In this emergency, Beauregard directed the with- 
drawal of the troops from the Bermuda Hundreds lines and their 
transfer during the night to the south side of the Appomattox. 
Finding these abandoned, Butler next day took possession of 
them, and even essayed another enterprise against the Richmond 
and Petersburg Eailroad. With the arrival, however, of the 
main body of the Confederate Army,' he was without much 
trouble again "corked up" within his original limits. 

It was after dark ^hen General Hagood received his orders, 
and being entirely ignorant of the localities as well as unable to 
learn much from the confused and contradictory accounts of the 
volunteer guides, who accompanied him, when he reached the 
fork of the City Point and Prince George roads just beyond the 
New Market race course, he halted his column, and leaving it • 
under Colonel Simonton, rode forward, accompanied by Captain 
Moloney and Lieutenant Martin of the staff, to make a personal 
reconnaisance. He encountered the enemy's picket on the latter 
road at the ford where it crosses Harrison's Creek inside of the 
original line of defences. The reconnoitering party had nearly 
ridden into it, when they were warned by a wounded Confederate 
by the road side. They were not fired upon. Turning across the 
field toward the City Point road. General Hagood was oppor^ 
tunely met by a courier from Colonel Harris with a map, who 
had also the foresight to send a bit of tallow candle and matches. 
With the aid of this, Hagood determined on the line of the creek 
he was than oh (Harrison's Creek), and put his men in position. 

Hagood's Brigade 267 

They immediately and rapidly entrenched themselves. This creek 
emptied into the Appomattox in rear of Battery No. 1, which was 
the initial point of the defences and on the bank of the river. 
Its west fork crossed the line of original defences near No. 15. 
The line taken by Hagood was, therefore, a chord of the arc of 
our captured or abandoned works, and ran along the west bank 
of the main creek and its western fork, having very good com- 
mand over the cleared and cultivated valley in its front. The 
old line from 1 to 2 was held by Tabb's regiment and they were 
relieved by the Twenty-seventh South Carolina regiment, 
Hagood's right did not extend to the Prince George road ; his left 
rested on the river. By the time Hagood was fairly in position, 
Colquitt arrived, and took post, extending across the Prince 
George road, having first brushed out with skirmishers the 
enemy's picket at the ford. The next morning, the 16th June, 
was the anniversary of the battle of Secessionville, and the first 
shell fired by the enemy in the gloaming, and when it was yet 
entirely too dark to know more than the general direction in 
which to aim it, killed Captains Hopkins and Palmer and Lieu- 
tenant Gelling, of the Twenty-seventh regiment, who had all 
served with distinction in that battle, and the, first of whom had 
been there severely wounded. The same shell also wounded 
several of the enlisted men of that regiment. General Hagood, 
wearied out, had fallen asleep some half hour before, and this 
shot waked him. Its successors from the same battery showed 
him that the position of the Twenty-seventh was completely 
enfiladed, and the morning light made evident to him, too, a fact 
that had not been appreciated in the nigh1>-^the Twenty-seventh 
was advanced beyond his general line. This regiment was accord- 
ingly at once drawn back to the west side of the creek. Two 
field pieces, abandoned by our troops the day before on the City 
Point road beyond our present lines, were also brought in. They 
were found to be spiked and were, therefore, sent to the rear. 

The enemy shelled Hagood furiously all day, and the skir- 
mishers on his front were constantly engaged. They several times 
ostentatiously formed for battle beyond rifle range> there being 
no artillery on his portion .of the lin^, and about dark assailed his 
center. They were repelled after keeping up the effort for an 
hour, never havipg got nearer than .^seventy-five yards to his 

268 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

entrenchments. On Hagood's right, the enemy's assault at dark 
was better sustained, and they suffered heavily. They met with 
no success. Lieutenant Allemony of the Twenty-seventh was 
killed today. On the 17th, the same heavy shelling and skirmish- 
ing continued on our front. About half-past six in the evening 
the enemy again assaulted heavily the brigade on our right. Col- 
quitt repelled them with considerable slaughter. Their officers 
made a second attempt to get them on, but were unable to do so. 
Still further to the right several assaults were made during the 
day, one of which met with some success, but the Confederates 
rallying drove them back. The loss in the Federal ranks today 
was acknowledged to be four thousand. They claimed to have 
captured four guns, and probably got in addition some two hun- 
dred prisoners. Their long range artillery practice on Hagood's 
front was accurate, as it always was when there was no artillery 
to reply, and the brigade suffered several casualties. 

In the meanwhile, General Beauregard (see Beauregard's Mil- 
itary Operations, II Volume, p. 253,) had determined on taking a 
more compact and shorter line of defence than the one now occu- 
pied, and during these two days' fighting it had been partially 
prepared for occupation. It was this last line which was held 
during the siege that ensued. It was some 800 yards nearer the 
city, and, like the line of the first taken, was the chord to an arc 
of the original defences, still more of which were now abandoned. 

This line was at first a simple trench with the parapet on the 
farther side of it, and though it was afterwards amplified it 
retained the general character of a trench, and was always known 
as "The Trenches," in distinction from the portion of the original 
works held by us. These last were artillery redoubts, connected 
by infantry 'breastworks. 

These "trenches" opposed Grant's front of attack, the remain- 
ing portion of the enciente was not assailed until perhaps the 
closing day of the siege of '65. 

At 1:30 a. m., on the 18th, Hagood's brigade moved back on 
the new line to the position assigned it, which was on the left 
flank some 200 yards west of the house of the Younger Hare. 
His left was on the Appomattox, thence running off southwp.rd, 
nearly at right angles to the river, his line crossed the City Point 
road and extended to the westward end of the eminence known as 

Hagood's Brigade 269 

Hare's Hill, where Colquitt prolonged the general line. The New 
Market race course was in front of the right of the brigade, and 
the approach to its position was generally level. By daylight, 
the Confederates were quietly in position and diligently strength- 
ening their incomplete works. 

Shortly after daylight, the enemy advanced upon our old works, 
and finding them abandoned, came on with vociferous cheers. 
As soon as their skirmishers encountered ours in their new posi- 
tion, their line of battle halted, and heavy skirmishing com- 
menced. This continued until about 2 p. m., the skirmishers 
alternately driving each other. The brigade lost several killed 
and wounded and a few prisoners, but inflicted an equal or greater 
loss upon the enemy and captured between twenty-five and thirty 

At 2 p. m., the enemy formed for assault upon the portion of 
the brigade between the river and the City Point road, and a 
little later moved forward. A regiment was pushed up along the 
bank of the river under cover of the grove and buildings of the 
Younger Hare. It came in column and, as soon as its head was 
uncovered, endeavored to deploy. The rest of their force 
attempted to come forward in line of battle. A rapid fire was 
opened on the column, as soon as it showed itself, and upon those 
in line at about 300 yards. The column never succeeded in 
deploying and the line broke after advancing about fifty yards 
under fire. They were rallied and again brought forward, but 
were repulsed in confusion and. with heavy loss. The voices of 
the Federal officers in command could be plainly heard. The 
Twenty-first, Twenty-seventh and Eleventh regiments repulsed 
this attack. 

South of the City Point road, the Seventh battalion and 
Twenty-fifth regiment were not at this time attacked. Later in 
the afternoon, when the enemy made a general assault upon the 
Confederate lines to the right, the Twenty-fifth fired a few 
volleys obliquely into the assaulting lines moving over Hare's 
Hill upon Colquitt. The skirmishing here, however, in the morn- 
ing was particularly heavy and obstinate. Major Rion com- 
manded the brigade skirmishers and distinguishedhimself by his 
usual gallantry and address. He was wounded in the arm, but 
continued in the field till night. Lieutenant Felder, of the 

270 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Twenty-fifth, was also wounded, and Lieutenant Harvey, of the 
Seventh battalion, was killed. 

These three days' fighting was called the Battle of Petersburg. 
It resulted on the part of the Confederates in taking a line of 
defense which constructed, and from day to day strengthened 
and developed, under fire, grew into formidable siege works 
impregnable to all direct attack. 

On the Federal side the loss of twelve thousand men in the 
three days was proof that even in their present incomplete state, 
held by such men as Lee commanded, they could not be carried 
by assault. Grant, accordingly, sat down regularly before the 
plan, and ordered siege operations begun. 

Compared with the enemy's, the Confederate loss was incon- 
siderable. In Hagood's brigade, the casualties of the three days 
amounted to two hundred and twenty, of which thirty-six were 
killed. The loss in the character of the officers killed was, how- 
ever, severely felt. Ward Hopkins was the senior captain of the 
Twenty-seventh regiment, and, after Colonel Gaillard, com- 
manded the respect and confidence of the men and of his superiors 
more perhaps than any officer in it. His loss was a calamity to 
the regiment. 

Captain Palmer was a graduate of the State Military Academy, 
and an efficient officer. Lieutenants AUemony and Harvey were 
also good officers and their loss was much deplored. AUemony 
was before the war a young lawyer, rapidly rising at the 
Charleston Bar, and a member of the State Legislature. 

Adjutant Gelling was a young Scotch gentleman who had 
emigrated to Charleston a short time before the war. On the 
breaking out of hostilities, he had enlisted in one of the com- 
panies raised in that city, and had been promoted to his present 
position. General Hagood had occasion to notice and specially 
commend his conduct at Cold Harbor. 


On the 21st, Grant extended his line of investment somewhat 
more to his left, gaining no material advantage and losing to Lee 
three thousand men in the operation. His cavalry were at the 
same time dispatched against the railroad communications of 
Petersburg to the south and west, and succeeded in doing some 

Hagood's Brigade 271 

slight damage, when they were encountered by the Confederate 
cavalry at Stoney Creek and completely overwhelmed. A rem- 
nant escaped into the Federal lines before Petersburg, having lost 
their entire artillery and train, and a thousand prisoners. 

And now occurred an episode in the siege that attracted no 
general attention at the time, but was a bitter experience to 
Hagood's brigade which bore the consequences of its miscarriage. 
The very inception of its execution was so completely a failure 
that the design of the Confederate general appeared not to be 
suspected by either army, or by the public, and stillborn, its 
memory will only survive in the limbo of such memoirs as these, 
where individual history is the topic. 

Grant's line had by this time extended a considerable distance 
from the river, and his communication with his base at City 
Point was behind his right flank and along the river. General 
Lee, in conjunction with General Beauregard, determined to 
assume the offensive, drive in Grant's right wing, seize his line of 
retreat, and, forcing him away from his base, inflict such a blow 
as would raise the siege if not put an end to the campaign. The 
plan was entirely feasible. The morale of the Confederate Army 
was at its highest, that of the enemy at probably its lowest during 
the campaign, and the great disparity of losses induced by Grant's 
sledge hammer style of fighting had brought the two armies at 
this time to no insurmountable inequality of numbers, other con- 
ditions being favorable. Accordingly, a powerful battery of 
forty-four (44) field pieces was on the night of the 23rd June 
secretly got into position on the north bank of the Appomattox, 
here quite narrow, to enfilade the enemy's line, and Fields's 
division of Longstreet's corps with other troops were massed 
behind Hagood's position next the river to follow up the attack 
which the latter was to lead. Anderson's brigade headed Fields's 
column, and Benning's brigade (under Colonel DuBose) was 
next. The following official papers narrate the manner in which 
the design was attempted to be executed : 

"Headquarters Hagood's Brigade, 
"Hoke's Division, 26th June, 1864. 
"Captain Otey, A. A. G. 

"Captain : I am required to make a full report of the operations of my 
brigade in front of Petersburg on the morning of the 24th inst. My 

272 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

brigade occupied the left of our line of entrenchments, resting on the 
south bank of the Appomattox — the Twenty-seventh, Twenty-first and 
Eleventh regiments filling the space from the river to the City Point Road, 
and the Twenty-fifth and Seventh battalion extending along the lines 
south of the road. The enemy's entrenchments were at this point parallel 
to ours at a distance of near 400 yards, an open field with a rank growth 
of oats upon it intervening. Each side had slight rifie pits a short dis- 
tance in advance of its entrenchments. Our line of entrenchment was 
single, the enemy appeared to be entrenched in their lines close together, 
and the attack developed the fact that in their first line they had four and 
a half regiments, numbering some 1,600 or 1,700 men. 

"My division commander, Major-General Hoke, had instructed me the 
night before to be ready for movement in the morning, without indicating 
what it would be. About dawn on the 24th he in person informed me that 
a general engagement was contemplated that day, and instructed me in 
detail as to the part my brigade was to take in bringing it on. A heavy 
cannonade was to be opened from the north side of the river upon the 
enemy's position, and five minutes after it had ceased I was to charge 
that portion of their line between the river and the City Point Road with 
the Twenty-seventh, Twenty-first and Eleventh regiments. He informed 
me that I was to be closely supported by Anderson's brigade. When we 
had succeeded in driving them from their first line, Anderson was to 
occupy it till Ms supports arrived, when he was to press on against their 
second and third lines, while pivoting my three regiments on their right 
and bringing up the other two regiments of the brigade, I was to form 
along the City Point Road perpendicular to my first position. Then, taking 
the enemy's first line as a directrix, I was to clear Colquitt's front as far 
as and including Hare's Hill, etc., etc. 

"While General Hoke was still explaining the plan of battle to me, 
Lieutenant Andrews reported to me from General Anderson, stating that 
the latter was in position and had sent him to keep in communication with 
me. In consultation with General Hoke, my plan of attack was settled 
and every preparation made. 

"The artillery opened precisely at 7 a. m. and ceased precisely at 7:30. 
At 7:20 a. m. I sent Lieutenant Andrews to General Anderson to say I 
would move in fifteen minutes. He left me with speed. A delay of seven 
minutes, however, occurred in my movement, and at precisely 7:42 I 
advanced. I am so far thus accurate as to time, because I did not see 
my support, did not know their precise distance in rear, and being governed 
in my instructions by time, noticed the watch closely. 

"My advance was made with 400 picked men and oflicers as skirmishers, 
followed by the balance of the three regiments (about 550 men) In a 
second deployed line at close supporting distance. Lieutenant-Colonel Nel- 
son, Seventh battalion, was selected to command the skirmishers. I took 
direction of the second line. 

"The attack was made. The enemy were driven from their rifle pits 
without resistance of moment ; their first line was gained and a portion of 

Hagood's Brigade 273 

It captured; some thirty prisoners were taken here and sent to the rear; 
and the enemy's whole line was seriously shaken, his men in numbers run- 
ning from the works. Discovering our small force, and the attack not being 
followed up, his first line rallied, re-enforcements were rapidly pushed up 
from his rear, and we were compelled to fall back. This was done slowly, 
and the enemy, endeavoring to charge us, was driven back. My men, 
under orders, laid down in the oats about half-way between the two hostile 
entrenchments to await Anderson's advance and then go with him. Num- 
bers of them, however, got back as far as our rifle pits and were permitted 
to remain there with the same orders as the more advanced line. None of 
them came back to our entrenchment except a few skulkers, whom every 
attack develops, and in this case, I am happy to say, they were very few. 

"How much time was occupied in these movements I am unable to say, 
as I did not look at my watch again. When the vigor of my attack was 
broken and my men had begun to fall back, the left of Benning's brigade, 
moving by a flank and coming from across the City Point Road, reached 
the right of the entrenchments I had left in advancing, and there stopped. 
A discussion between Major-Generals Hoke and Fields ensued, and, after 
some delay, this brigade moved in and was ready to advance. 

"The report of Colonel DuBose, commanding Benning's brigade, will 
show the time of his arrival and the then condition of affairs. General 
Anderson's report will explain the delay in his arrival. Major-General 
Hoke was on the ground during the whole morning, and can speak of his 
personal knowledge. 

"The order of attack being countermanded, I kept out all day as many 
of my men as my rifle pits would hold, withdrawing the rest by squads. 
At night all were withdrawn and the regiments re-organized. My loss was 
about a third of the force engaged, 25 being killed, 73 wounded and 208 
missing, making an aggregate of 306. 

"The gallant Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson is missing ; it is hoped not killed. 
Captain Axson, Twenty-seventh regiment, was killed at the head of his 
company. Lieutenants Huguenin and Trim, of the Twenty-seventh, Lieu- 
tenants Chappell, Ford and Vandiford, of the Twenty-first, and Lieutenant 
Smith, of the Eleventh, were wounded. 

"Captains Mulraney and Buist, of the Twenty-seventh, were captured on 
the enemy's works (the latter after receiving two wounds).* 

"Captain Raysor and Lieutenant Riley, of the Eleventh regiment. Lieu- 
tenant White, of the Twenty-seventh, and Lieutenant Clemants, of the 
Twenty-first, are missing. 

"I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"(Signed) Johnson Hagood, 
"Brigadier-General Commanding.' 

*Mlstake. See post. 

18— H 

274 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

"Headquarters Hoke's Division, July 2, 1864. 

"Captain: In obedience to orders from department headquarters (Beau- 
regard's), I respectfully report that a plan of attack upon the enemy was 
settled upon on 23d June, 1864, to take place on the following morning, 
which plan is fully known to the commanding general. On the night of 
the 23d General Hagood was made familiar with the mode of attack 
sufficiently to make the necessary arrangements. No other officer of my 
command was aware of the intended advance. This precaution was taken, 
fearing that by some means the enemy might learn our intentions and pre- 
pare for us. 

"In accordance with the plan, my arrangements were made which are 
fully and properly given in the enclosed report of Brigadier-General 
Hagood. Dividing my forces on the left of the City Point Road into two 
heavy skirmish lines, one to be supported by the other, and the whole to 
be supported by Brigadier-General Anderson's brigade of Fields's division, 
formed in line of battle behind the hill in rear of the entrenchments then 
occupied by Hagood's left. As was directed, the artillery from the bat- 
teries on the north side of the river opened Are upon the entrenchments of 
the enemy as soon as the morning mists had cleared away, and continued 
its fire with great accuracy but no execution for half an hour. After the 
lapse of five minutes the fire of these guns was directed upon the batteries 
of the enemy, drawing in a great degree their fire from the advancing 
Infantry which, as far as I could see, was the only service rendered by our 
guns. Indeed, I fear we were injured more than we gained by the use of 
our guns, as it notified the enemy of our intended attack. My intention 
was to attack immediately after our guns opened upon the enemy's bat- 
teries, but as General Anderson had not reported, I delayed, and imme- 
diately one of his staff officers appeared by whom General Anderson was 
informed that in fifteen minutes the advance would certainly take place, 
which would give him time to reach the entrenchments then occupied by 
General Hagood. At the appointed time the advance was ordered, and 
Immediately the second line followed. The first line gallantly entered the 
entrenchments of the enemy and did their duty nobly, and (as was wit- 
nessed by General Lee himself) succeeded not only in breaking the enemy, 
but drove them from their works. 

"It was never expected that the entrenchments of the enemy could be 
held by these two lines of skirmishers, but that they should occupy them 
till the line of battle could reach them. I asked Major-General Fields, who 
was on the ground, to order Anderson forward, as a moment's delay would 
be fatal. He Immediately sent the order, which had been previously sent, 
to General Anderson to go forward. It is proper here for me to state that 
this was my third effort to get General Anderson forward after my first 
notice to him that 'in fifteen minutes I would certainly move forward.' 
Some time after General Fields's second order was sent to General Ander- 
son, he received a note from him Saying that the entrenchments were still 
occupied by General Hagood's troops. In this he was greatly mistaken, as 
will be seen by General Hagood's report, and, if necessary to prove this 

Hagood's Brigade 275 

mistake, Colonel DuBose, commanding Bennlng's brigade, will corroborate 
the fact that the entrenchments were then free of troops, except some 
stragglers, of whom I am sure no command Is exempt. Colonel DuBose 
had by this time moved up in line of battle on the right of General Ander- 
son's position, and, after reaching the trenches, moved by a left flank down 
them and occupied the position which Anderson was to have taken. 

"After some time, I suppose an hour. General Fields put another brigade* 
in the trenches on the left of the City Point Road, with a view to attack, 
and seemed anxious to do so, but I advised against it, as the enemy had had 
time and had made all preparation for us, and I felt assured he would 
sustain a heavy loss and accomplish nothing. At this time orders were 
received from General Lee for me to report to him in company with Gen- 
eral Fields, and, on hearing the position of affairs, he directed the attack 

"I was much troubled at the loss of my men, who did their duty truly 
and well, without results which to me appeared certain and surely ought 
to have been reaped. 

"It Is not my desire to place blame or responsibility upon others. I fear 
neither. In making the foregoing statements I merely give facts to the 
best of my knowledge, and the commanding general can draw his own con- 
clusions. I have unofficially heard that both I and my command were 
censured by the commanding general. -My regret Is In attempting this 
attack without full command of all the forces which were to participate. 
Both the plan of battle and of attack were good, but failed in the execu- 
tlon^ The enemy became extremely uneasy along his entire line, when 
the attack was made, and, had we been successful at that point, our results 
would have been such as have not heretofore been equalled. General 
Hagood did everything in his power to give us success, and desired to push 
forward when, in my judgment, it appeared hazardous. 

"Very respectfully, 

"(Signed) R. F. Hoke, 
"To Captain Jno. M. Otey, A. A. G." 


"Respectfully forwarded to General R. B. Lee for his Information. 

"It will be seen by the reports of Generals Hoke and Hagood that they 
are not responsible for the failure of the attack of the 24th ulto., which 
would have undoubtedly been successful had the supports advanced In 
time. General Hoke is mistaken, if he refers to me, when he says 'I have 
heard unofficially that both I and my command have been censured by the 
commanding general.' I stated only that 'the success would have been 
most brilliant had the skirmishers been properly supported.' His report 
and that of General Hagood prove the correctness of my assertion. 

•Anderson's. He had now got up. 

276 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

"General Hoke says, on the second page of his report, 'After a lapse of 
five minutes the fire of the guns (t. e., 44 guns on the north side of the 
Appomattox) was directed upon the batteries of the enemy, drawing in a 
great degree their fire from the advancing infantry, which, as far as I 
could see, was the only service rendered by our guns. Indeed, I fear we 
were injured more than we gained by the use of our guns, as it notified 
the enemy of our intended attack.' 

"The object of opening the fire of the batteries referred to during the 
half hour preceding the infantry attack was to demoralize the enemy's 
troops occupying the defensive lines which were to be attacked, and which 
were enfiladed and taken in reverse by those batteries. It was expected 
also that the heavy artillery fire would throw Into confusion any sup- 
ports the enemy might have concealed in the woods near his line. The 
best proof of the entire success of the plan is the facility with which an 
unsupported line of skirmishers got possession of those lines, with a loss 
of only twenty-five killed and seventy-two wounded. I am decidedly of 
opinion that regard being had to locality and the attending circumstances, 
no better results could have been obtained than the plan adopted, and 
which failed only because not properly supported. 

"Headquarters Department North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 5th 
July, 1864. 

"(Signed) G. T. Beaueeqabd, 

"Official : John A. Cooper, A. A. A. G. General." 

Thus failed a brillant and entirely practical design, which 
might have given a different complexion to the history of this 
famous siege. General Hoke has noticed a fundamental error in 
the plan of attack, the supports not being under the same com- 
mand as the attacking line. General Fields was present at the 
entrenchments during the whole affair, and no blame appears to 
have attached to him. If it was impracticable, as it probably was 
under the circumstances, for the attack to have been made and 
supported by the same division, a common superior should have 
been on the spot to harmonize the action of the two divisions 
partly engaged. Generals Lee and Beauregard were near the 
batteries across the river in close view of the field, but without 
means of direct communication, and therefore unable to take 
tactical direction of the affair. 

So far, the plan of attack was radically wrong, but there is 
another and more palpable cause of failure manifest. Anderson 
was in line of battle (the head of a column by brigades) behind 
a hill about 150 yards in rear of Hagood when the attack was 

Hagood's Brigade 277 

to commence, the "delay of seven minutes" which occurred in 
Hagood's movement was intentional on his part. He was wait- 
ing to see Anderson's approach advancing over the hill before he 
started, and he would have continued to wait, had not an aide 
from General Hoke, with whom General Fields was standing 
some forty yards off across the road, directed him to move at once. 
Instead of moving forward in line over the hill to the support 
of the attack, Anderson, when compelled by repeated orders to 
move, went, it was said, to the rear by file as far as the Iron 
Bridge nearly a quarter of a mile, thence full another quarter of 
a mile up the ravine of Poor Creek till he reached the shelter of 
the entrenchments near Hare's Hill, and then came stumbling 
along them already crowded with men, until he reached the 
part Hagood had left. He was more than one hour getting to a 
position to which he had little more than 150 yards to march 
straight forward, and with nothing in his way but the usual 
hazards of hostile fire. In the meantime, DuBose had got up 
three-quarters of an hour ahead of the brigade that was to lead 
him, but too late to support Hagood's attack, which was made 
at a charging step. 

General Hagood had no personal interview with Anderson 
afterward and never saw his report, if any was made by him, to 
explain his conduct. On the record here given, there is but one 
comment to be made, and that the obvious one — Anderson should 
have been shot.* There was not even a court held, though the 
common sense of that portion of the army that knew anything of 
the affair kept afloat for two or three weeks the daily rumor that 
one had been ordered. 

This day's experience was a peculiarly trying one to the com- 
mander of Hagood's brigade. His men were uselessly sacrificed ; 
and from the secrecy with which the designs of the day had been 
kept, the delay in the arrival of the supports, and the absence 
of action on their part when they had come, there was a mean- 
ingless air thrown over his assault which he was not at liberty 
to explain. He was conscious that to some extent his command 
was demoralized by the result, and that it appeared to both men 
and officers a riddle why a skirmish line unsupported should be 

•After twenty years this looks pretty harsh, and not having full Information, ought 
perhaps to be omitted. 20th June, 1884. 3. H. 

278 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

rushed upon a triple line of breastworks garnished with artillery 
and manned by five fold their number of infantry. At length a 
Charleston editor, froni which city it will be remembered two 
regiments of the brigade came, gave currency to the absurd idea 
that General Hagood had made the attack without orders, and 
with ambitious views on his part. Then, with General Beaure- 
gard's approbation, he sent for publication in the same sheet 
sufficient extracts from the foregoing official papers to partially 
explain his connection with the affair; more he could not do pend- 
ing the campaign, and for some time afterward the injurious 
reputation of recklessness clung to him in consequence of this 
day's work. 

A few days previous to this, in consequence of most of the regi- 
ments of the brigade being without field officers. General Hagood 
had divided his command into wings and given general super- 
intendence of each to the two officers present highest in rank. 
Lieutenant- Colonel Nelson was put in charge of the regiments 
north of the City Point road, and it was thus he happened to be 
engaged when his regiment was not. He was standing by 
Hagood's side on the right of the line, when Hoke's aide brought 
the order to advance. The men, who had been told to follow his 
lead, were intently watching him, and when he was ordered to go, 
without speaking, he drew his handkerchief from his breast and 
raised it aloft. The men sprang over the parapet with a yell 
and rushed upon the enemy across the intervening space, he 
moving upon the right of the line. Wheij they were driven back 
and had laid down in the oats (as they were instructed), to await 
the coming of the supports, he moved east along the whole length 
of his line under the close fire of the enemy and shortly after 
reaching the left, disappeared. The men of his command thought 
he was left by them wounded on the field. Painful rumors 
reached us through prisoners a few days afterward of his having 
been murdered by negro troops while being taken by the enemy 
to the rear. General Hagood brought the rumor to General Lee's 
attention, naming a captured lieutenant from whom he had it, 
and asked that a flag should enquire into the fact. The request 
was not granted. Thus fell a devoted patriot, a gallant soldier, 
a courteous gentleman. 

Captain Axson was a valuable officer. He was mortally 

Hagood's Brigade 279 

wounded early in the charge and lingered painfully for some 
hours, when succor could not be rendered him. Captain Mul- 
raney was captured literally upon the enemy's works, waving his 
cap and cheering on his men. Captain Buist had joined the 
brigade for the first time, after Cold Harbor; he was not 
wounded, though so stated upon misinformation, was exchanged 
shortly afterwards through some special influences and never 
again served on the field. He obtained one of the numerous 
exempt positions which had begun at this period of the war to 
be ominously sought after. 

Lieutenant Trim lost his arm and was put on the retired list. 
Lieutenants Smith, Vandiford and Chappell died of their 
wounds. Chappell was the young officer whose good conduct at 
Walthal Junction so materially aided in rallying the Twenty- 
first regiment. At Drury's Bluff his coolness and efficiency 
attracted the attention of his brigade commander and procured 
him a compliment on the field. At first, he seemed likely to 
recover from his wound, and had procured an invalid leave. 
When pulling on his boot preparatory to leaving the hospital for 
home, he ruptured an artery near which the ball had passed, and 
bled to death. Some days after he Kad been wounded. General 
Hagood had sent him a handsome pistol captured from a Federal 
officer, with a note saying that it was intended as a testimonial 
of his uniform gallantry and good conduct. When the surgeon 
informed him that the blood could not be staunched, and that he 
must die, he called for his pistol and had it laid beside him on 
his cot. The pistol which he so treasured with its history was 
carefully forwarded to his widowed mother as a memorial of her 
noble boy. There was slain, too, upon this field among the non- 
commissioned officers, Pickens Butler Watts, first sergeant of 
AUston's company, Twenty-seventh regiment, the most distin- 
guished soldier of his rank at that time in the brigade. He had 
been mentioned for conspicuous gallantry upon every -field in 
which his regiment had teen engaged in this campaign, and in 
the pursuit of the routed Federal army into its lines at Bermuda 
Hundreds, when, weak from sickness, he had fainted upon the 
march, he declined to use an ambulance, but recovering, pushed 
on and at nightfall was in the ranks of his company, skirmishing 
with the enemy. 

280 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

Eldred Gantt, sergeant-major of the Eleventh regiment, and a 
brother of its colonel, was also wounded in this affair, and died a 
few days later.* 

On the morning of the 18th June, when Beauregard retired 
from the Harrison Creek line to the one now occupied, the latter 
from the banks of the Appomattox to near the Jerusalem Plank 
road, where it ran into the line of the original defences, was in 
some places a trench not over two feet deep, in other places not 
a spade had been put in the ground — ^the line had been merely 
marked out by the engineers. The enemy following up imme- 
diately, this portion of the defences, as previously noticed, was 
constructed in the intervals of battle or under the constant fire 
of sharpshooters, and consequently remained a siege trench, the 
men standing in the ditch from which the earth was taken that 
formed the parapet, and the latter having no exterior ditch and 
but little elevation in place of which to impede an assaulting 
column abattis, chevaux du frize, palisades, breakwater, etc., 
were resorted to. Very little artillery was placed on the line of 
the infantry trench. Generally, the mortars and guns used were 
j)laced in suitable positions in rear. There were few if any guns 
used by the defence of heavier calibre than a Coehorn mortar or 
a field piece. In the progress of the siege, with incessant labor 
night and day, the Confederate works were strengthened in pro- 
file, drained, traversed, and covered approaches made. Bomb- 
proofs were very little, if at all, resorted to, and the men had no 
shelter from the weather save the few trees accidentally upon the 
line, or their blankets hoisted after the fashion of the tent d'abris. 

Grant's lines conform to the general direction of the defence at 
distances varying from two to four hundred yards, and between 
the opposing lines each side had its rifle pits occupied by a picket 
line at night which was withdrawn in the day. At the Jerusalem 
Plank road, the lines ceased their parallelism, and the Federal 
line proceeded southerly towards the Weldon road, where bend- 
ing back it eventually rested upon the Blackwater Swamp thus 
ensconcing the besieging force in a complete entrenched camp. 
Upon the latter portion of their line, collision was only occasional, 
and partook of the nature of field fighting. But from the Jeru- 
salem Plank road back to the Appomattox, the fire of artillery 

•This affair noticed. Alex. Stevens' History TJ. S., 908. 

Hagood's Bkigade 281 

and sharpshooters was incessant, frequently continuing night and 
day, never ceasing from dawn till dark. 

The morning of the 19th opened with heavy firing from sharp- 
shooters which continued all day and ceased at night on Hagood's 
front. For this and several days the casualties were numerous 
from the imperfect protection as yet secured by the men. There 
were two Napoleons on Hagood's line, where it crossed the City 
Point road, and on the 21st he caused one of them to be arranged 
for vertical fire by depressing the train in a pit 'till the gun had 
an angle of 45 degrees elevation, and firing with small charges. 
He had seen it done at the siege of Charleston ; and here as there 
it answered admirably as an expedient. 

On the 23rd, eight Coehorns were placed in position in rear of 
his left; and subsequently another battery of these was estab- 
lished behind his right, where it joined Colquitt. The enemy had 
mortar batteries in our front by the 27th, but the fire from these 
did at no time much damage on this portion of our line. He 
found it difficult to drop his shell upon the thin riband of a ditch 
running parallel; and falling front or rear of it they did no 
harm. When they fell in the ditch, which was seldom, the fre- 
quent traverses limited their destructive effect. The most galling 
artillery fire to which the brigade was subjected was from Hare's 
Hill, whence its line was partially enfiladed. The enemy now also 
erected at some distance in rear of his right a battery of Parrotts 
and commenced shelling the town. The portion of it within range 
was soon abandoned by the inhabitants, though many of the 
poorer class remained, taking refuge in their cellars, when the 
bombardment was heavy. T\Tiat number of casualties occurred 
among the citizens is not known to the writer, though he saw a 
poor woman killed by a shell in the suburb of Blanf ord as he was 
returning upon one occasion to the trenches from his baggage 
wagon whither he had gone to get a change of clothing. 

Our picket line on the left -of the City Point road was not 
advanced as far by many yards as it was on the right of it. The 
enemy's conformed somewhat to ours; and on the night of the 
27th their officer inspecting his picket and coming from toward 
the river, crossed the road in this interval and found himself 
behind our picket line on the right, when he was quietly marched 
to the rear. The trap was kept open and for two more nights 

282 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

the enemy must have been mystified by the disappearance of their 
inspecting officers. The last night three captains walked into it, 
but we got no more. 

An incident occurred with one of these captains that is nar- 
rated, because it seemed to be characteristic of the Puritan. When 
captured they were sent back to General Hagood's pit on the 
main line, and, as they were taken on duty, the general directed 
Lieutenant Moffett of his staff to ascertain if they had any official 
papers or orders about them. They were genteel-looking men, 
close shaved, neatly dressed, and one of them, near middle age, 
having the appearance of a substantial God-fearing and prosper- 
ous family man ere he had become "a boy in blue." The lieutenant, 
apologizing for the necessity, proceeded to discharge his duty, 
and required them to empty their pockets. Gold watches, pocket 
compasses and Eogers's cutlery were produced — the elder also 
pulling out several hundred dollars in greenbacks. These were 
all returned to them, and the lieutenant asked if they had nothing 
else about them. "Nothing," said the oldest officer with quite an 
air, "except my Bible." "Let me see it," and from its leaves as 
it was handed out fell a half dozen card photographs. One was 
of an old lady, a good specimen of matronly respectability, and 
the mother of the prisoner; the others were of naked women in 
lewd postures ! 

The chronicler of a former rebellion, in which the forefathers 
of these people were the rebels, tells of a skirmish of Prince 
Rupert's in which a clergyman, a "principal governor," and a 
"shining light" among the then party of moral ideas, was slain 
after refusing quarter and provoking the soldiers by the most 
odious reviling of the person and honor of the king, and "in 
whose pockets were found several papers of memorials of his 
own obscene and scurrilous behavior with several women in such 
loose expression as modest ears cannot endure."* The stirpicul- 
turist will note with delight how "like begets like," and might be 
tempted to trace the descent through Burns's "Holy Willie." 

After making his own works in our front secure from assault, 
Grant at first appeared to have resorted to regular approaches 
by zigzags and parallels, but these were discontinued after little 
progress had been made; and the impression prevailed on the 

•Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, I Vol., p. 409. 

Hagood's Bbioade 283 

Confederate side that he had resorted to mining. Accordingly, 
counter mines were commenced at the points where the hostile 
lines were nearest. In the construction of these the shafts with 
a cross section of 6' and 4' generally began to be sunk some thirty 
or forty feet behind the infantry trench and descended at an easy 
grade until it reached the water-bearing stratum at the particular 
point, which was seldom over thirty feet beneath the surface. 
Then pushing forward, until some sixty to one hundred feet in 
front of the trench had been gained, the gallery was extended 
laterally right and left for a greater or less distance to cover the 
menaced point. This was the general outline of their construc- 
tion, but some were very elaborately executed, ramifying in every 
direction. All were ceiled with plank and scantling as the work 
advanced and were lighted and ventilated by perpendicular 
shafts. Holes were also bored with earth augurs from the gal- 
leries horizontally towards the enemy to serve as acoustic tubes 
in conveying the sounds of hostile mining. Sentinels were kept 
in the galleries night and day; and their cool, quiet aisles were 
delightful retreats from the heat and turmoil of the trenches. It 
must be confessed, however, that with the ever present death 
above ground there was something in the dank stillness that 
reigned within them suggestive of the grave. 

About the 28th July, the Federal commander was discovered 
transporting troops to the north of the James, and Lee began to 
send over troops to meet this threat against Richmond. 

On the 29th, Grant suddenly brought back his troops, and at 
daylight, on the 30th, sprung a mine under the salient on the 
Baxter road held by Elliott's South Carolina brigade. The 
breach was immediately assailed and occupied, but the enemy was 
unable to get beyond the crater, where he was held at bay until 
the arrival of re-enforcements expelled him and our original lines 
were re-established. This was perhaps the most prominent event 
of the siege, but it is not within the scope of these Memoirs to 
go into its details, Hagood's brigade being in no way connected 
with it. The fighting on the crater was desperate — the Confed- 
erates sustaining 1,200 casualties and inflicting a loss of over six 
thousand upon the enemy, of which 1,100 were prisoners. 

The ordinary details for guard and picket and fatigue duty 
from the troops were very heavy. All the men were required to 

286 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

From the 1st to the 20th of August nothing occurred with us to 
break the monotony of life in the trenches, such as it was. The 
foregoing narrative has given the outline of the military events 
and surroundings— the naked skeleton of the history; but it is 
difficult to convey to one who has never had a similar experience 
an idea of the actual reality of the labors and suffering of the 
men who for these long, hot summer months held without relief 
the trenches of Petersburg. The following extracts from the 
journal (MSS.) of Lieutenant Moffett, adjutant of the Twenty- 
fifth regiment, then acting as inspector on the brigade staff, and 
who gallantly and faithfully discharged his full share of the 
duties performed, depicts vividly but without exaggeration the 
life we led. 

"Seldom," says he, "are men called upon to endure as much 
as was required of the troops who occupied the trenches of Peters- 
burg during the months of June, July and August. It was endur- 
ance without relief; sleeplessness without excitement; inactivity 
without rest; constant apprehension requiring ceaseless watching. 
The nervous system was continually strained 'till the spirits 

became depressed almost beyond endurance Day after day, 

as soon as the mists which overhung the country gave way to 
dawn and until night spread her welcome mantle over the earth, 
the sharpshooting was incessant, the constant rattle of small 
arms, the spiteful hissing of bullets, never ceased, and was only 
drowned by the irregular but daily bombardment from heavier 
metal. Casualties were of daily occurrence, and no place along 
the line could be considered safe. The most sheltered were pene- 
trated by glancing bullets, and many severe wounds were received 
in this way. The trenches themselves were filthy, and though 
policing was rigidly enforced, yet it was almost impossible to 
keep down the constant accumulation. Vermin abounded, and 
diseases of various kinds showed themselves. The digestive 
organs of the men became impaired by the rations issued and the 
manner in which they were prepared. Diarrhea and dysentery 
were universal; the legs and feet of the men swelled until they 
could not wear their shoes; the filth of their persons from the 
scarcity of water was terrible; and they presented the appear- 
ance rather of inmates of a miserably conducted poor house than 
of soldiers of an army. But all of this was endured; and although 

Hagood's Brigade 287 

among the meaner class desertions occurred and even self -mutila- 
tion was resorted to* to escape this horrid nightmare that brooded 
upon spirits not highly enough tempered to endure it, yet the 
great majority of the men stood all their sufferings with unflinch- 
ing endurance, and never yielded 'till disease drove them to the 
field infirmary. Not the least of the evils encountered was the 
unavoidable stench from the latrines. Again, when it rained ever 
so little, the clay of the soil became a soapy and sticky mud ; and 
after a heavy rain (before drainage was looked to) I have seen 
the water waist deep in the bottom of the trench and eighteen 
inches on the banquette, leaving no place for the men to sit or lie 
down upon. Fortunately at night the sharpshooting ceased, and 
the men spread their blankets on the parapet and slept. ..." 

Such was the life of the soldier in the trenches, and the follow- 
ing verses appearing anonymously in the Petersburg paper, 
during the siege, takes up the story and gives what was its fre- 
quent ending: 

"Dirty and haggard, 
Almost a blackguard, 
They bore him away 
From the terrible fray ; 
From the clash and the rattle 
In the front rank of battle 
Almost dead — shot through the head — 
They reached his gory ambulance bed. 

"The ambulance jolts, 
But the driver bolts 
And away he flies, 
Drowning the cries 
Of the poor private : 
Glad to arrive at 

The hospital door — where, to be sure, 
The surgeon he thinks can effect a quick cure. 

*Thl3 practice Incident to all armies in hard service was effectually stopped by 
removing the Inducement. After other means had failed, General Hagood, upon the 
return of the soldiers from the hospital, before signing his papers for discharge, 
required the facts to be examined by a regimental courtmartlal, and If the mutila- 
tion was found to be self-lnfllcted, he retained him In the ranks at such police duty 
as be could perform and made him go Into action under guard unarmed. The first 
example was ■enough. — J. H. 

288 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

"So wan and pale, 
With plaintive wail 
All alone he dies : 
But nobody cries. 
Bear away the clay, 
To the dead-house away! 
Who cares, who ever sheds tears 
Over ragged and dirty soldiers' biers? 

"A box of pine, 
Say three fe_et by nine, 
They placed him in ; 
Away from the din 
Of battle and strife 
Then hurry for life 
Under the stones to bury the bones 
Of the poor soldier whom nobody mourns. 

"In his home far away, 
A letter some day 
Perhaps may tell 
How the poor soldier fell ; 
Then tears, ah, how deep, 
The loved ones will weep, 
When they hear that the bier 
Of him, they so loved, awoke not a tear." 


About the middle of August, Grant threw a large part of his 
force across the James at Deep Bottom and advanced towards 
Richmond. It resulted in his repulse, but drew a large part of 
our force from Petersburg and thus gave him an opportunity 
to strike at the Weldon railroad within three miles of which his 
left then rested. He obtained possession of a considerable portion 
of it from Davis's farm near the city southward — suffering a loss 
of a thousand men. On the 19th, Colquitt's and Clingman's 
brigades, of Hoke's division, were detached to take part with 
other troops in an effort to dislodge him. They failed of success, 
though the operation resulted in inflicting heavy loss upon the 
enemy, including the capture of three thousand prisoners. Gen- 
eral Clingman was wounded and never again rejoined his brigade. 

The fight was to be renewed on the 20th, and on the night of 
the 19th, about 9 o'clock, General Hagood received an order to 

Hagood's Brigade 289 

turn over his brigade in the trenches to the senior officer present, 
and taking with him only his personal aide report to General 
A. P. Hill to command a brigade from Bushrod Johnson's 
division in the expected fight. Bushrod Johnson was holding the 
lines next to Hoke, and he sent no organized brigade, but a regi- 
ment from each brigade of his division. It seemed that his habit 
was to keep one regiment from each of his brigades resting in 
rear of the lines and he sent such as happened to be there at the 
time. The regiments commenced arriving at the rendezvous near 
the lead works when Hagood was to meet them about 11 :30 p. m., 
and by 3 a. m. Hagood had effected a brigade organization with 
them, appointing haphazard an acting staff and leaving their 
names and those of his regimental commanders, for it was too 
dark to see their faces, he reported to General Hill, who was 
asleep in his ambulance near by. When General Hill learned the 
heterogeneous character of the brigade sent him, he, much to 
Hagood's relief, declined to receive it, and directed the regiments 
returned to their division. 

Nothing was done that day. The enemy were left to entrench 
undisturbed across the coveted road. In the afternoon, Hagood's 
own brigade was withdrawn from the trenches and marching 
through Petersburg bivouacked beyond its southern limits to the 
right of Battery 45. 

But 59 officers and 681 men marched out of the trenches. Sixty- 
seven days and nights in them, without relief, had shorn the 
brigade of two-thirds of its numerical strength, and so debil- 
itated were the sickly and enfeebled remainder that they tired 
badly in the short evening march. The brigade was itself only 
in the unconquerable spirit of the remnant which still clung to 
its banner. When General Hagood again in pursuance of his 
directions reported to General Hill, he felt that justice to his 
men required it, and he unhesitatingly asked and received the 
promise that he should not be used in the next day's work, if it 
could be avoided. 

The change from the cramped and noisome trench to the free- 
dom pf the bivouac, and the call upon the men for action, instead 
of endurance, aroused their spirits wonderfully. And although 
it rained all night, the fires of the brushwood crackled merrily, 
and there was once more heard the light laugh, the ready joke, 

19— H 

290 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

and the busy hum of voices, as the men prepared their suppers or 
smoked their pipes stretched at length before the exhilarating 

At 2 a. m. (of the 21st of August) the brigade was aroused, 
and, moving out at half -past three, followed the column destined 
for the day's engagement. It still rained; and after a toilsome 
march through mud and water, first down the Squirrel Level 
road and then across toward the Poplar Spring Church, more or 
less skirmishing going on all the time by the flankers on our left, 
the brigade was directed to halt by the roadside and remain in 
reserve, while the column passed on. It had now ceased raining, 
and shortly afterwards, about a mile in front of us, the fire of 
skirmishers was heard, and a heavy fire of artillery opened. The 
men laid down and rested from the unwonted fatigue of the 
march. The firing became more earnest in front; and in about 
half an hour a courier from General Hill arrived and directed us 
to hasten to the front and report to Major-General Mahone. 

Proceeding by a short cut into the Vaughn road, under the 
guidance of the courier, and up that toward Petersburg until 
within six hundred yards of the Flowers' house, we turned across 
the field to the right and proceeded towards the railroad, in the 
vicinity of the Globe Tavern. A number of pieces were in posi- 
tion in this field, shelling the railroad, and the enemy's batteries 
in that direction, though not visible from woods intervening, were 
replying vigorously. General Hagood moving in columns of 
fours, passed at double quick across this field, suffering some 
casualties from exploding shells; and as he reached its further 
border, a major-general rode up to him announcing himself as 
General Mahone. Then leading the column, he himself placed it 
in position in line of battle along the edge of the wood and facing 
the railroad. "Now," said he to Hagood, "you are upon the flank 
and rear of the enemy. I have five brigades fighting them in 
front and they are driving them. I want you to go in and press 
them all you can." Some fifty yards within the woods the swamp 
of a rivulet (or "branch") was to be seen; beyond nothing was 
visible, and firing both of artillery and infantry was then going 
on. General Mahone added, "when you have crossed the branch 
swamp you will come upon a -clearing in which some 300 yards 
further is the enemy's line, and they are not entrenched." He 
also urged promptness in the attack. 

Hagood's Brigade 291 

General Hagood immediately gave the order to advance, and 
the men moving in line made their way across the swamp. Upon 
arriving on the other side, we found ourselves in the clearing, but 
the enemy stiU not visible. We were under a hiU and they were 
upon the open plateau sufficiently far beyond to prevent the 
view. The advance of the brigade had, however, evidently 
attracted attention from the fire dra,wn in our direction. The 
line had been much broken in crossing the swamp, and Hagood 
immediately pushed skirmishers up the hill for protection and 
ordered one of his staff to accompany them and reconnoiter while 
he gave his personal assistance to Captain Moloney, in getting the 
line of battle rapidly reformed. He assisted the adjutant, instead 
of himself going to recoimoiter, because from the report of a 
courier, who had gone up the hill while the skirmishers were 
forming, he thought there was some danger of being himself 
assailed where he was and his men were so disorganized at the 
moment as to be in no condition to repel an attack. 

In a few minutes the brigade was formed, and the report com- 
ing at the same time from the skirmishers that the enemy was 
but a short distance ahead of them, and only in rifle pits, thus 
confirming General Mahbne's statement. Hagood, cautioning his 
men to move only at a quick step till he himself gave the order 
to charge, moved his brigade forward. He had dismounted, and, 
placing himself in front of the center to steady the men and 
repress excitement, moved backward in front of the line for a 
short distance as if on a drill. Himself halting before reaching 
the crest of the hill, the line passed and he followed with his 
staff behind the right of the Twenty-first regiment. The Twenty- 
fifth was on the left of the Twenty-first, and the other three regi- 
ments on its right. As soon as the brigade became visible, ascend- 
ing the hill, a rapid fire was opened upon it, to which in reply 
not a shot was fired, but moving forward steadily at quick time 
with arms at "right shoulder shift," as we approached the line of 
enemy's pits, they broke from them and fled. With one accord a 
battle yell rang out along our line, and the men, as if by com- 
mand, broke into "double quick" in pursuit. At the same moment, 
General Hagood discovered that the line in front of us had only 
been an entrenched skirmish line, though so heavy as to have 
deceived his skirmishers into the notion that it was a line of 

292 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

battle; and that 250 yards beyond was a strongly entrenched line, 
crowded with men and artillery, extending right and left as far 
as he could see; and the five Confederate attacking brigades 
nowhere visible. It also appeared to him that he was moving 
upon a re-entering angle of the enemy's line. In this, however, 
he was partially mistaken. An examination of the field after the 
war (see diagram at p. 321) showed that the enemy's line crossing 
the railroad from the east, at this time bent immediately south- 
ward, and followed its course in a comparatively straight line at 
some forty yards on its western side. Later in the siege their line 
extended farther west, as shown in the Federal sketch at p. 306. 
Then, recrossing the road at a point below where we struck it, 
their line only bit out a piece sufficient, if he could hold and per- 
manently entrench, to prevent its further use by us. Immediately 
to the right of where we struck their line, a small bastioned work 
for field artillery was thrust forward, and our line of advance was 
oblique to the enemy's general line and toward its junction with 
the flank of this work. Thus, in fact, we were going into a 
reentering made more by the vicious direction of our advance 
than by the actual construction of the enemy's works. The flank 
fire from the bastioned work we could not have avoided, but from 
our oblique attack we had also more or less a flank fire from the 
straight line, which was an infantry parapet of fully five feet 
command with an exterior ditch eight or ten feet wide and 
artillery at intervals. Perceiving at a glance the hopelessness 
of assault under such circumstances, General Hagood stopping 
himself, shouted again and again the command to halt; but the 
crash and rattle of twelve or fifteen pieces of artillery, and prob- 
ably 2,500 rifles, which had now opened upon us at close range, 
drowned his voice and the fury of the battle was upon his men. 
Moving forward Avith the steady tramp of the double quick, and 
dressing upon their colors, these devoted men, intent only on 
carrying the position before them, neither broke their aligiiment 
until it was broken by the irregular impact upon the enemy's 
works, nor stopped to fire their guns until their rush to obtain 
the parapet was repelled. 

When General Hagood saw his men thus rushing upon certain 
destruction and his efforts to stop them unavailing, he felt that 
if they were to perish he should share their fate; and with 

Hagood's Brigade 




BaH-le Of We/don Road 

Sketch taken on the ground in 1868 : 

A. Hagood's Brigade as put In position by Gen. Mahone 

B. Across the swamp — advancing. 

C. C. An enemy's works. 

294 Memoirs oj- the War of Secession 

Moloney and Martin and Orderly Stoney, who were all of his 
staff that were with him (Moffett and Mazyck were further back 
in discharge of their respective duties as inspector and ordnance 
officer), followed the advancing line. In fifty yards Lieutenant 
Martin fell, shot in the knee; a few steps further and Captain 
Moloney fell, shot through the head; and Hagood and Stoney 
alone reached the works — ^the latter shot in the shoulder but not 
disabled. The Twenty-fifth and Twenty-first regiments being on 
the left from the oblique direction of the advance, first struck the 
works; and while they struggled to get in, the other three regi- 
ments swept on. When they reached the ditch, there was from ; 
75 to 100 yards interval between the two divisions into which the ' 
brigade had broken. 

General Hagood was with Major Wilds, commanding the 
Twenty-first, who was cheering on his men to renewed assault 
(success being now their only hope of safety), when looking to 
the right he saw a mounted Federal officer among the men on the 
left portion of the brigade to the right, with a regimental color 
in his hands, and a confusion and parleying immediately around 
him that betokened approaching surrender. The fight was still 
raging to Hagood's right and left; there was no cessation on our 
part except in the squad just around this officer, and none what- 
ever that was perceptible on the part of the enemy. They had 
pushed out from the right and left a line behind us to cut off our 
retreat, and this officer (Captain Daly of General Cutler's staff) 
had galloped out of a sally port, seized a color from the hands of 
its bearer, and demanded a surrender. Some officers and men 
surrendered, but were not carried in; others refused, but just 
around him ceased fighting. General Hagood called to the men to 
shoot him and fall back in retreat. They either did not hear him 
or bewildered by the surrender of part of their number, failed to 
obey. It was a critical moment and demanded instant and 
decided action. In a few minutes the disposition to surrender 
would have spread and the whole brigade have been lost. 
Making his way across the intervening space as speedily as he 
could, exposed to a regular fire by file from the enemy's line, 
scarce thirty yards off, and calling to his men to fall back — ^which 
they did not do — General Hagood approached the officer and 
demanded the colors, and that he should go back within his own 

Hagood's Brigade 295 

lines, telling him he was free to do so. He commenced arguing 
the hopelessness of further struggle, and pointed out the lines in 
our rear. Hagood cut him short, and demanded a categorical 
reply — ^yes, or no. Daly was a man of fine presence and sat with 
loosened rein upon a noble-looking bay that stood with head and 
tail erect and flashing eye and distended nostrils^ quivering in 
every limb with excitement, but not moving in his tracks. In 
reply to his abrupt demand, the rider raised his head proudly 
and decisively answered, "No!" Upon the word General Hagood 
shot him through the body, and, as he reeled from the saddle 
upon one side, sprang into it from the other. Orderly Stoney 
seizing the flag from Daly's falling hands. 

There was no thought of surrender now. The yell from the 
brigade following the act and ringing out above the noise of 
battle told their conmiander that they were once more in hand 
and would go now wherever ordered — ^whether to the front or 

Shouting to them to face about, Hagood led them at a run 
against the line in his rear, Stoney holding aloft in the front the 
recaptured flag which he had torn from its staff. This line 
melted before our charge ; but the fire was terrific after breaking 
through it, until the shelter of the valley of the branch was 
reached. Upon its margin a fragment from a schrapnel shell tore 
open the loin of the horse upon which Hagood rode; and strug- 
gling, as he fell, he kicked Lieutenant William Taylor of the 
Seventh battalion upon the head, rendering him for the time so 
confused that he had to be led from the field by one of his men. 
This gallant young oflGicer had a few days before rejoined his 
command with an unhealed wound received at Drury's Bluff. ■ 

This ended the fighting for the possession of the Weldon Eoad. 
The Confederate losses had been very insignificant, imtil today, 
and now it was confined principally to our brigade. Grant had 
lost 5,000 men, hut he had the road. A few days afterwardsj 
Hancock with 8,000 men was dispatched southward from this 
point to tear up thje track. A, P, Hill and Hampton met and 
defeated him at Ream's Station* with the loss of two field bat- 
teries and between 2,500 and 3,000 men. Grant's men might have 
adopted with some variation the burthen of Hood's "Song of 

•25tli August, '64.— Ed. 

296 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

the Shirt"— "Ah, God ! That roads should be so dear and flesh 
and blood so cheap !" 

A week afterwards, in a conversation in General Lee's presence, 
General A. P. Hill stated to Hagood that on the morning of the 
21st he was informed by his scouts as to the position and condi- 
tion of the enemy's works, believing that the point upon which 
Hagood was sent was the left of their line, and that they had no 
further works down the railroad. He also added that the haziness 
of the morning prevented his ascertaining his error imtil 
Hagood's attack developed it. General Mahone also said to Gen- 
eral Hagood that he shared the same misapprehension, but 
insisted that if the other five brigades had attacked with the same 
vigor that Hagood's did, we would have won. It seemed that 
after driving the enemy's skirmish line from the pits, out of 
which Hagood's men marched them, they stopped ; and the heavy 
fusillade which made Mahone think they were driving the enemy 
was from a stationery line firing at long range.* 

The frankness and freedom with which these two distinguished 
officers took the blame of the blunder upon themselves greatly 
relieved General Hagood, for he feared that this affair, in the mis- 
apprehension to which it would be subjected, would be similar 
to the assault of the 24th June at the City Point Road. It was, 
however, generally correctly understood in the army, and appar- 
ently not misunderstood by the public. Both Generals Lee and 
Beauregard were on the field, and the latter next day sent Hagood 
word through General Hoke that had it been in his power he 
would have promoted him before leaving it. He also, through 
his adjutant, called for a written report of the incident of the 
flag. This was briefly written and forwarded. Some months 
afterward. General Cooper, adjutant-general at Eichmond, very 
kindly sent to General Hagood an official copy of the endorse- 
ments made on the report, then on file in his office. They were 
as follows : 

•Captain Young, In PMlaAelpMa Times, gives a different account of this part of 
the action. He was wltli one of the brigades — Scales. The statement of the text 
was derived from General Mahone. 

Hagood's Brigade 297 

"Headquarters, Dept. North Carolina and Southern Virginia. 

"Near Petersburg, Aug. 23, 1864. 
"Respectfully forwarded through General R. E. Lee to his Excellency, 
President Davis, for his information. Such an act of gallantry, as herein 
described, and of devotion 'to one's flag reflects the highest credit on the 
officer who performs it, and it should be held up to the army as worthy of 
imitation under similar circumstances. Brigadier-General Hagood is a 
brave and meritorious ofilcer, who had distinguished himself already at 
Battery Wagner and Drury's Bluff, and participated actively in the battles 
of Warbottam Church and Petersburg on the 16th and 17th June last. I 
respectfully recommend him for promotion at the earliest opportunity. 
Attention is also called to General Hagood's recommendation of his orderly. 
Private J. D. Stoney, for a commission. I feel assured he is deserving of it. 

"(Signed) G. T. Beaueeqakd, 

"Headquarters A. N. V., 24 August, 1864. 
"Respectfully forwarded. (Signed) R. E. Lee, General." 

"Bureau A. & I. General. 
Apptmt. Office, 1st Sept., 1864. 
"Respectfully submitted to Secretary at War. 
"By order. (Signed) E. A. Palfeet, A. A. G." 

"Respectfully submitted as requested to notice of the President. 

" ( Signed) J. A. Sedden, Secty. at War." 

"There are two modes of recognizing distinguished service — one by pro- 
motion, the other by announcement in orders. See recommendation for the 
private and note for the brigadier, whom I regard worthy of promotion 
when it can be consistently done. 

Jeff. Davis, 7th Nov., 1864." 
"Adj. Gen. : Note the President's endorsement and if opportunity of pro- 
motion occurs submit. 9th. Nov., 1864. 

"(Signed) J. A. Sedden, 
"Secty. at War." 

"A. & I. G. Office. 

"Dec. 9, 1864, 

"(Signed) H. L. Clay, 
"A. A. G." 

Stoney subsequently received from the President the commis- 
sion of second lieutenant in the Twenty-seventh regiment, and 
did his duty as faithfully and gallantly as heretofore 'till the 
close of the war. Captain Daly, though reported dead by the 

298 Memoies of the Wak op Secession 

Yankee newspaper army correspondent, was understood to have 
survived and to have published in the New York Herald many 
months afterward a card, among other things vindicatory of Gen- 
eral Hagood from the charge of murder which the Yankee papers 
freely lavished upon him.* 

General Hagood, valuing highly the approval of his superior 
officers in the field, sought to make no use of the foregoing hand- 
some endorsements beyond leaving them in the war office, where 
they were quietly pigeon-holed. Three months later, he and 
many better men were overslaughed by the assignment to a 
division command in the army of Northern Virginia of an officer 
who had never previously been in battle. This it will be remem- 
bered was at the close of the fourth year of the war ! 

After the repulse of his brigade, on the 21st of August, General 
Hagood kept for some time a line of skirmishers on the field- as 
near as possible to the enemy's works, while the litter bearers 
removed the wounded. Many poor fellows crawled within this 
line and were thus rescued from captivity; one of them. Lieu- 
tenant Harper, Twenty-fifth regiment, dragged himself from 
near the enemy's works with a broken leg. He was never, how- 
ever, able again to resume duty with his company. Of the 69 
officers and 681 men who went into the action in the brigade, only 
18 officers and 274 men came out of it unhurt; being a total of 
448 casualties — or about two-thirds of the force engaged. The 
enemy claimed to have buried 211 dead, of which most were 
Hagood's men. The character of the casualties was probably 120 
killed, 125 wounded in our hand, and 203 captured, of which a 
large part were also wounded. 

In the Twenty-first regiment, Major Wilds, commandingj was 
wounded and captured ; Lieutenant Ford woimded and captured, 
and Lieutenants Bowles, Easterling and Atkinson were captured. 

In the Seventh battalion Lieutenants McKaskell, Kennedy, 
Isbell and Douglass were killed ; Captain Segars and Lieutenants 
Tiller, Ealey, King, Clybum, Taylor, and Weston wounded, and 
Captain Jones with Lieutenants Young, Gardner and Schley were 
captured. Captain Jones commanded the battalion in the action. 

•In 1879 Captain Daly wrote from Council Bluffs, Iowa, to General Hagood for, 
and received an affidavit of the facts of his part In this action. He was applying 
for a pension. 

Hagood's Brigade 299 

In the Eleventh regiment, Lieutenant Minas was wounded, and 
Lieutenants Morrison, Bowman and Tuten were captured. Lieu- 
tenant Morrison commanded the regiment, which had scarcely the 
strength of a company. 

In the Twenty-fifth regiment. Captains Sellars and Gordon, 
with Lieutenants Kennerly, Koss, Bethea and Evans were killed. 
Captain McKerrall and Lieutenant Duke were captured. Sellars 
commanded the regiment — ^mistake, Gordon ranked Sellars. 

In the Twenty-seventh regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Blake and 
Lieutenants Muckenfuss, Hendrix, McBeth and Hogan were cap- 
tured. Cadet Porcher was wounded. Colonel Gaillard com- 
manded his regiment and escaped unhurt. 

Lieutenant Martin's wound in the leg proved more painful than 
serious. In a couple of months he was again at his post as active 
and efficient as ever in the discharge of his duty as aide-de-camp. 
Lieutenant Cassidy, of the Eleventh regiment, was noted for his 
gallantry; and in the ranks Sergeant Brothers, colorbearer of 
the same regiment, deserves especial mention. He was sick in 
hospital when the brigade left the trenches and hearing of the 
probability of its engaging the enemy, applied for his discharge, 
which the surgeon refused, on the ground that he was yet unfit 
for duty. He deserted from the hospital, joined his regiment on 
the march through Petersburg, and was shot down next day 
while heroically doing his duty. He lost his leg and was placed 
on the retired list. Many other noble men in the ranks perished 
or survived that day whose deeds deserve mention; but it is 
impossible to do justice to them all. 

- It was a heartrending sight to look along the line of the 
brigade, as it mustered in the Vaughn road after the action, and 
miss the familiar faces, without which it did not seem the same 
command. It was now shrunk to the proportions of a small 
battalion, yet so game and generous was the spirit of this body 
of men that the -writer believes this poor remnant could have 
again been led into action that day with all the dash and gal- 
lantry that marked their morning's work. And as the news of 
the fiery ordeal, through which the brigade had passed, spread 
through, the hospitals and field iiifirmary, the sick and wounded, 
who had not been present, sought their discharges, and pale and 
weak voluntarily hastened to rejoin their comrades and share 

300 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

their fate. In less than a week three hundred and thirty-nine 
men (339) from the sick list returned to duty, one-half of whom 
could not have stood a five-mile march. No wonder General 
Hagood was sensitive to even a suspicion of recklessly wielding 
a blade so highly tempered and uselessly hacking it against 

There were two men who fell upon this bloody field who had 
done as much, each in his sphere, to give the character to the 
brigade which it had exhibited as perhaps any other two men in 
it — Moloney and Sellars. Captain Sellars had enlisted in the 
First South Carolina Volunteers (Hagood's) in December, I860, 
and was made orderly sergeant of Captain Collier's company. 
At the reorganization of the regiment, in April, 1862, he re-en- 
listed in the same company, was elected its captain, and with it 
joined the Twenty-fifth regiment, then being organized. He was 
young, probably twenty-two, at the period of his untimely death 
—of modest bearing, strict, yet just, as a disciplinarian, and 
beloved by his men. In action he was cool, determined and 
unflinching, and exhibited a capacity for higher command, which 
he would assuredly have reached had a kinder fate spared his 
valuable life. He always did his duty well ; had more than once 
distinguished himself ; and had been recommended for promotion 
to the vacant majority in his regiment. The place of such a man 
could not well be filled. 

Moloney — ^graduating with honor at a Northern college — 
engaged for a year or two in mercantile pursuits at his home in 
South Carolina. Then, having studied law and been admitted to 
its practice, was in the West perfecting his arrangements for 
establishing himself in Louisiana, when South Carolina seceded. 
Returning, he joined the First South Carolina and was made its 
adjutant. The foregoing Memoirs are the record of his services. 
In every action narrated, he was engaged, and if his name is not 
always mentioned, it is because the comment that must needs go 
with it must become monotonous — he always did his duty well 
and completely. His business habits, just mind, and accom- 
plished manner, made him invaluable in the office; and on the 
field he had the quick intelligence and fertility of resource of the 
born soldier. An incident on the 24th June illustrates his cool- 
ness. He had been sent to carry an order, under very heavy fire, 

Hagood's Brigade 301 

and on his return, when some fifteen or twenty feet from the 
officer who sent him, a shell from a Napoleon striking the earth 
between them exploded at his feet, the fragments flying on. As 
he emerged from the smoke which enveloped him, he quietly 
announced, with a military salute, "Your order has been deliv- 
ered." Moloney was rather above the medium height, of slight 
but active frame, and of an intellectual and refined countenance. 
General Hagood was strongly attached to him, and in announc- 
ing his death to his family wrote, "... Words are idle to express 
the sympathy I feel for you in this great affliction. He was 
almost a brother to me ; and to the brigade his loss is irreparable. 
With abilities far beyond his rank, he was assiduous and 
thorough in the discharge of his duty ; and that with a natural 
urbanity which made him an universal favorite. One of the men, 
when he learned his fate, seized my hand and leaning on my 
horse's shoulder, wept uncontrollably. Wounded men, as they 
were borne to the rear, with their bodies torn and their limbs 
mangled, stopped their litter bearers to ask me after him, and 
express their sorrow. Generous, courteous, brave and high- 
toned, pure in thought and speech, ever mindful of the rights and 
feelings of others, jealous of his own when he thought them 
designedly infringed, he came up more fully to my idea of a 
gentleman than any man I ever knew. 

"Poor fellow ! As we marched that morning from our wet and 
comfortless bivouac, he told me that he had been dreaming all 
night of his mother, — may God comfort her in her sorrow." 


After the action on the Weldon Road, the brigade continued for 
some days to report to Major-General Mahone and was stationed 
on the southern lines of Petersburg, where there was no fighting. 
Hagood, had, however, on the 24th, in a communication to Colonel 
Brent (General Beauregard's A. A. G.), called attention to 
the worn and jaded condition of his men, and the fearful reduc- 
tion in their number ; and asked to be permitted to take them to 
some quiet camp where rest and access to water might recruit 
their physical condition. His application was returned approved 
by General Lee, and the neighborhood of the crossing of the 
turnpike over Swift Creek indicated for his camp. Mr. Dunlop 

302 Memoirs op the War of Secession 

very kindly offered his grounds to the brigade inspector sent to 
select the spot, and on the 2nd September we moved to this 
delightful camp. 

Dunlop's park was near the scene of our affair at Swift Creek 
on the 9th May. It had been the property of an old Scotch 
gentleman who had accumulated a large fortune as a merchant in 
Petersburg and had spent years in beautifying and adorning this 
as his country seat. Swift Creek, a bold and handsome stream 
with precipitous banks, pursued its course along two sides of the 
park — ^now brawling in a rapid, now spreading into a deep, dark 
pool. Within the grounds artificial lakelets and mounds imitated 
nature. The native forest had been thinned and pruned into com- 
binations of glade and grove and single trees; straight avenues 
opened upon pleasing vistas, and serpentine roads and walks 
meandered; the grass was the freshest of green and as perfect a 
carpet as any woven in the loom. Wherever a prospect opened, 
or the shade was densest, or the murmer of the water fell gentlest 
upon the ear, a summer house or a rustic seat invited repose ; and 
from various parts of the grounds the mansion was to be seen, 
sometimes a glimpse, sometimes a view more or less full, but 
always picturesque. It was a structure in the Italian villa style, 
and stood upon a gentle eminence near the creek, with the grass 
growing up to its walls and the gravelled carriage drive approach- 
ing it in a graceful sweep. 

There were perhaps not over forty acres in this beautiful park, 
and it appeared much larger from the artistic skill with which 
it was laid off ; and up to this time it had escaped the ravages of 
war, though a cannon ball through one of the gables of the house, 
a straggler on the 9th May, attested the near proximity of con- 
tending armies. The old gentleman, who had delighted to adorn 
this retreat, had died within it while Butler's army had been on 
the opposite side of Swift Creek, and his son reigned in his stead. 
The present proprietor had been a courier for General Hagood at 
that time, and was now on invalid leave. 

Here at last the brigade was at rest. It is difficult to convey 
an idea of the effect upon the spirits of the transfer from the heat 
and the glare and the filth and the turmoil and danger of the 
trenches, endured so long, to the shade and water, and peaceful 
seclusion of these grounds. An Arab entering an oasis from the 

Hagood's' Bbioade 303 

burning sands of the desert might approximate its conception ; a 
Christian arrived "where the weary are at rest and the wicked 
cease from troubling" would realize it. All military observances 
were suspended for several days. A sergeant's guard was suffi- 
cient for purposes of discipline and of restraining the men from 
straggling, or injuring the trees and shrubbery — especially when 
backed by a threat in general orders to send the first offender 
"back to the trenches" to serve with Colquitt's brigade, till his 
command returned to duty. 

From dawn till dark Swift Creek was full of the men patiently 
scrubbing from their persons the accummulated dust of march 
and trench and battle, and its banks lined with others waging 
vigorous war upon the grime and vermin that made their gar- 
ments almost uninhabitable; while the park was ornamented with 
groups who had undergone the cleansing process, indulging in a 
somnolent lethargy as profound as if inspired by hashish. Others 
again stretched and rolled upon the smooth and velvety surface 
of the grass with a kind of sensual delight. 

Opportunity was now taken to refit, as far as practicable, the 
brigade in clothing, shoes and ordnance appointments. Its com- 
missariat was carefully looked to; vegetable diet provided, and 
proper cooking enforced. The men rapidly recovered their con- 
dition and health. The field infirmary was almost emptied into 
the camp, and the patients got well faster here than there. In a 
short time the brigade began to show respectability in the number 
for duty. Then drills were established ; at stated hours the regi- 
mental bands enlivened the air with music; sentinels and the 
ceremonials of camp were resumed ; vacant offices filled by promo- 
tion or election, and in less than a month the brigade was itself 
again — sorely reduced in numbers, but ready once more "to live 
or die for Dixie." 

About the 15th of September, the other brigades of Hoke's 
division were relieved from the trenches and placed in reserve 
on the Petersburg side of the Appomattox. And on the 26th, 
General Lee reviewed the division, which was concentrated for 
the purpose for that evening. This was the only review or other 
military display witnessed by the writer during the campaign of 
'64. It was made a gala occasion by the citizens of the beleaguered 
town, large numbers attending. The ladies were out in full force. 

304 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

and many were on horseback. General A. P. Hill rode on the 
staff of the commanding general upon a very graceful and beau- 
tiful silver grey ; and horse and rider showed gallantly. General 
Lee reviewed the troops rapidly and seemed bored by the cere- 
monial and glad to be through with it. He was in full uniform, 
with a quantity of yellow sash around his waist, and did not look 
like himself. Even his horse looked as if he thought it was all 

After the battle of Cold Harbor and while the opposing armies 
still confronted each other there, the writer going to the rear in 
discharge of some duty was attracted by a large, powerful, well- 
bred horse, held by an orderly in front of the tent of a corps 
commander. He was a grey, perfectly groomed, and his appoint- 
ments, though of the ordinary regulation character, had a neat- 
ness about them unusual during a campaign. Just then General 
Lee came out of the tent and slowly approaching the horse stood 
thoughtfully by his side for a moment. He wore blue military 
pants without suspenders and a short linen sack wij;h no vest, a 
soft felt hat, and buflf gauntlets. He had no insignia of rank 
about him, and carried neither sword, pistol or field glass. 
Recovering from his momentary reverie, he stroked the horse 
kindly upon the face, and with a glance at his accoutrements that 
bespoke the horseman, mounted, adjusted the reins in his bridle 
hand, settled himself in the saddle, and rode quietly away fol- 
lowed by the orderly. This was his usual style. He always was 
mounted on the same horse, and as he passed along his lines or 
through his army, never with more than one attendant, and 
sometimes with. none, he looked more like some planter, with a 
taste for horses riding around his fields, than like the conventional 
military chieftain. 

This absence of "fuss and feathers" in its commander gave the 
cue to the whole Army of Northern Virginia. The ordinary sum- 
mer campaign dress of a general officer was a dark colored flannel 
shirt, without a coat over it, blue pants, top boots and felt hat, 
with a revolver buckled around his waist and a field glass swung 
over his shoulder. There was not a body guard in the army ; and 
headquarter guards were small and for the protection of property, 
not for ceremony and display. Among the regimental officers it 
was difficult to get them to wear the swords which were their 

Hagood's Brigade S05 

badges of rank. This was, however, though contrary to regula- 
tions and orders, a matter of judgment as well as taste with them. 
They preferred to be encumbered simply with the revolver, and in 
this they were right. The long range and repeating firearm had 
made the sword for the infantry officer as antiquated as the 
spontoon. It was not uncommon to see them in action directing 
their men without any weapon at all ; and in the charge upon the 
enemy at the Crater, after the explosion of Grant's Petersburg 
mine, a South Carolina colonel — Smith, of the Twenty-sixth — 
was said to have led his men with a club seized for the occasion. 
He was also said to have been successful with his club in a hand- 
to-hand encounter with one of the Federal bayonets. 

Our period of rest was now rapidly drawing to a close, and on 
the night of the 28th of September the brigade was returned to 
the trenches, relieving Grade's brigade, which was stationed near 
the Baxter rpad. The enemy discovered the transfer of troops 
that was going on, and treated us to a most brilliant pyrotechnic 
display. The mortar fire was the heaviest we had yet seen at 
Petersburg, but the casualties were few. 


At 12 o'clock on the day after the brigade returned to the 
trenches it was hastily withdrawn and dispatched to the north of 
the James, Grade's men resuming their old station. 

On the 28th, Grant had captured Fort Harrison, a strong work 
on the lines of Richmond near the north bank of the river. It 
was feebly held by the local militia, and was easily carried by 
assault. Pressing on, the enemy essayed Fort Gilmer, but this 
was held by a company of regular artillery who had nerve 
enough to withstand an assault, and his career was checked. The 
position gained, however, seriously threatened Richmond. Fort 
Harrison was an important tactical point, and some mile or two 
of the "exterior line" to the north of it had been abandoned. The 
divisions of Fields and Hoke were dispatched from Petersburg 
to the threatened front. 

Hagood followed the other brigades of his division and arrived 
in the vicinity of Fort Harrison at 9 o'clock the next morning. 
General Lee was on the ground, and it was evident an effort was 

20 — H 


Memoirs op the Wae of Secession 

Par/- Of T/^e Richmond Lines 


Hagood's Bkiqaoe 307 

to be made to recover the lost work. Towards midday it was 
made. Two separate storming columns of two brigades each 
(probably 6,000 men in all) were sent forward from different 
directions upon the fort, their assault having been preceded by a 
half-hour's heavy fire from artillery. Each column had a brigade 
front. They did not move in concert and were separately and 
disastrously repulsed. The coliimn from Hoke's division was 
composed of the brigades of Clingman and Colquitt, and its 
casualties were about 800. Fields lost not so many. The First 
South Carolina regiment, now commanded by Colonel J. E. 
Hagood, composed a part of the column of Fields, and greatly 
distinguished itself, but lost many of its best officers and men. 
Our brigade was not engaged. 

The Confederate commander now gave his attention to cutting 
off by a re-trenchment the angle of his lines held by the enemy. 
This was soon done, the work progressing under heavy artillery 
and picket fire, but the enemy not attempting to interrupt it by 
assault. As soon as the work was completed, the troops before 
Fort Harrison were relieved by militia, and General Lee again 
took the offensive. 

The enemy had occupied the abandoned portion of the "exterior 
line" north of Fort Harrison, and his front was thus considerably 
stretched out from the river, his right resting between the 
Charles City and Darby Town roads. Gary's brigade of cavalry 
and the divisions of Fields and Hoke were available. Gary 
moving down the Charles City road was to turn and drive in 
the enemy's right flank, a small brigade of infantry and a strong 
force of field artillery re-enforcing him for the occasion. Fields, 
coming down the Darby Town road, was to take up the fight at 
that point, and, conjointly with Gary, press the enemy upon the 
river. Hoke was to follow as a reserve. 

At daylight, on the 7th of October, the action commenced, Gary 
attacking with vigor. Fields took it up with success, and in a 
short time the enemy were driven across the Darby Town road 
for a mile towards Fort Harrison, doubling up along the line of 
the "exterior" works occupied by them. Fields now, in pur- 
suance of the plan arranged, followed them up, his right resting 
on the line of works and taking that as a directrix, Gary on his 
left, all outside the line of works. At this time Hoke's division 

308 Memoirs of, the War or Secession 

was moved from its position in the Darby Town road, where it 
had rested during the fight, and filing to the right followed in 
column behind the right of the advancing Confederate line, 
moving parallel to the exterior line and about 200 yards inside of 
them. Our advance soon encountered an entrenched line 
strongly manned and being rapidly re-enforced. This line ran 
back at right angles to the line of captured works, and had prob- 
ably been constructed by the enemy to protect their flank, when it 
only extended thus far. It was, it will be perceived, parallel to 
Fields' line of advance. Two courses were now open to the Con- 
federates. First, to make a direct assault, or second, to bring 
Hoke before this line, and, feeling to the left with Gary and 
Fields' commands, turn it. Hoke's relative position was such 
that he could have replaced Fields in thirty minutes. The first 
plan was adopted, the direct attack was made and repulsed with 
some loss. This, terminated the day's proceedings. General 
Gregg, of the Texas brigade, was killed, and General Bratton, of 
South Carolina, was wounded in the last assault. Both were of 
the division of Fields. Colonel Haskell, of Gary's brigade, was 
severely wounded earlier in the day, after having exhibited a per- 
sonal gallantry that attracted much commendation. Nine pieces 
of artillery, 150 horses and two or three hundred prisoners were 
captured. The enemy's loss in killed and wounded are unknown. 
Our casualties of all kinds were about 200. Though the reserve 
was not engaged, its advance attracted artillery fire, and there 
were eleven casualties from shells in Hagood's brigade. The full 
measure of success contemplated was not realized, and at nightfall 
the ground regained was once more abandoned. Why General 
Lee did not put in his reserve is not known. The position in 
which Hoke was held during the fight, it will be perceived, inter- 
posed him between the enemy and Richmond, then open to a 
coup de main. Possibly it was deemed important to maintain 
him in it. More probably the chances of success were not deemed 
sufficient to warrant the shattering of the whole disposable force 
for the defence of this front of Richmond. 

For most of the foregoing details of the place and conduct of 
this action, the writer is indebted to a conversation with General 
Gary, since the war. From his own position with the reserve he 
saw very little of it. An impression prevailed to some' extent 

Hagood's Brigade 309 

among Fields's subordinate officers that Hoke was derelict in not 
joining in the final assault. In Colonel J. R. Hagood's Memoirs 
of the First South Carolina Regiment, these impressions are 
expressied. The writer never talked with Hoke on the subject, 
for he gave no heed to the matter though he heard rumors of it 
at the time. General Lee was, however, present with the reserve 
during most of the day, and just before and during the last 
assault he was with us. This settles the fact that the part borne 
by Hoke was under the immediate direction of the commander-in- 

In the evening, General Lee withdrew from the field and took 
up position behind Cornelius Creek, covering the New Market 
and Darby Town roads. Three days afterwards (10th October), 
he advanced his line without opposition some 400 yards and com- 
menced another re-trenchment, cutting off the portion of the 
"exterior line," now finally abandoned. It ran from Fort Gilmer 
northeasterly in nearly a straight line till it ran into the "exterior 
line" near the Charles City road. 

On the 13th, the enemy advanced, skirmished along the whole 
line, and attacked on the Darby Town road. He was repelled 
with a loss estimated at 1,200; ours inconsiderable. 

Again, on the 27th, he advanced at daylight, skirmished along 
our whole line as before, but this time also making partial 
assaults. About noon he attacked heavily on the Charles City 
road, and was repulsed with a loss of 2,000 men, of whom 500 
were prisoners. In both these actions, our incomplete entrench- 
ments were defended by a single rank deployed at intervals of 
three to six feet, and no reserves. The troops manning the lines 
shifted along them as the movements of the enemy required, now 
closing up to repel an assault, now deploying to fill a gap, and 
sometimes leaving long stretches undefended except by field guns 
in battery. 

On both days, too, the enemy attacked our extreme right below 
Petersburg, meeting with no success. In these affairs our brigade 
suffered some twenty-five or thirty casualties. 

The completion of the re-trenchment was now rapidly pushed. 
The plan was small redans for field guns, 300 yards apart, with 
straight curtains for infantry. The parapet of curtains had a 
uniform base of 20 degrees ; superior slope 12 degrees ; height of 

310 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

interior crest 7 degrees, with a banquette; and the ditch was 
exterior. Where forests occurred, they were cut down for from 
five or six hundred yards in front, and abattis and palisades were 
built all along the main line some sixty yards in front. A picket 
line was entrenched three hundred yards in front, with small 
detached works V-shaped and 36 yards apart. The point of the 
V was toward the enemy; its splay about 6 feet, length of face 
10 feet, height of interior crest 6 feet with banquette — aU above 
ground. A chain of videttes was established 100 yards in front 
of picket line; they were not entrenched. As winter advanced 
fires were allowed on the picket line. They were built a little in 
rear of it* and between the detached works. 

During this period, the hostile videttes were in view of each 
other at distances of from two to three hundred yards. There 
was, however, no picket or artillery fire ; and the progress of our 
work was not interrupted except, as narrated, on the 13th and 
27th of October. 

An ingenious arrangement of the barbette platforms in the 
redans was adopted by Avhich the advantages of this style of plat- 
form was retained and one of its disadvantages (exposure of 
the gunners) avoided. A little ditch two and a half feet wide, 
with recesses (C) for ammunition chests, was allowed around the 
interior slope ; in it the gunners stood, and from it mostly worked 
the piece. The pieces were kept by a hurter from toppling 
into the ditch, when run "into battery," and the platform was 
extended back, as at D. E. to give a fire along the rear of the 
curtain should a lodgment be effected. Pine pole revetments were 
used both here and on the infantry curtains. 

Winter quarters were also constructed. A continuous line of 
comfortable pine pole cabins, with clay chimneys, for the rank 
and file, ran behind the works, leaving a broad street or place of 
arms between it and the entrenchments. 

The regimental officers had their cabins, each in the relative 
place of its occupant in line of battle, and the general officers had 
their's further in rear. 

The fine bracing weather and cheerful labor and strict military 
observances, neglected through the more stirring parts of the 

'See Xenopbon's Anabasis Book VII (Xenopbon's Works, 331), "In front of 


Hagood's Bbioade 


312 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

campaign, had a fine effect upon the health and spirits of the 
men. To this end, the return of the sick and wounded to duty 
and the easy success of the last two encounters contributed. The 
morale of the troops was excellent. 

In Hagood's brigade, Colonel Graham (wounded at Walthal 
Junction) returning from invalided leave, resumed command of 
the Twenty-first. Gantt, absent on sick-leave during our service 
at Petersburg, was now in command of the Eleventh, Colonel 
Gaillard had been invalided. Shortly after the 21st of August, 
one of his field officers was in the hands of the enemy, and the 
other had been absent on wounded leave since Drury's Bluff ; so 
the Twenty-seventh was in charge of one of its line officers. Cap- 
tain Simons. Colonel Kion was at the head of the Seventh, and 
Captain Carson, wounded at Swift Creek, had returned to duty 
and commanded the Twenty-fifth. Colonel Simonton was taken 
sick shortly after joining his regiment at Cold Harbor, and, on 
his recovery, had obtained a detachment for post service in North 
Carolina. Pressly's and Glover's places had not been filled from 
the fact that a captain, senior to Carson, was in the hands of the 

On the staff. Lieutenant Moffett had, in recognition of his valu- 
able services, been promoted brigade aid-de-camp in place of 
Moloney; and Orderly Ryan, returning to duty from a wound, 
received in the trenches at Petersburg, was elected to a vacant 
lieutenancy in the Eleventh regiment. Captain Stoney was still 
absent with his wound, and his duties were, since Moffett's pro- 
motion, discharged by Lieutenant Mazyck in addition to his own 
as ordnance officer. Mazyck had throughout the campaign dis- 
charged his appropriate duties with great fidelity; and had 
repeatedly served in action as aide when circumstances permitted 
his absence from ordnance duties. He was a very gallant and 
meritorious officer. 

The weather continued delightful up to the 1st of November, 
and the vicinity of Richmond and the comparative quiet in our 
front permitted the limited enjoyment of the society of the capital 
to the divisions north of the James. The officers of Hoke's 
division received upon two occasions a large and distinguished 
party of ladies. A farm house, not too near the lines, would be 
obtained and cleared for dancing; the walls tastefully draped 

Hagood's Brigade 313 

with flags and garnished with arms; the Eutaw band, of 
Hagood's brigade (the best at that time in the army), be detailed 
for attendance, and ambulances dispatched for the guests. This 
would be the contribution on the part of the military. At an 
early hour, in the forenoon, the ladies would arrive, bringing 
not only themselves but the edibles of the feast, and immediately 
take charge of the festivities. A ride along the lines, when the 
troops were at dress parade, would complete the day. The ladies 
were not only of the old residents of Richmond, but were also 
from other States of the South — of the families of the civil and 
military officers of the government drawn thither by the war. 
It was a charming circle; refined, intelligent and accomplished, 
and the times had added to it the least dash in the world of the 
freedom of the bivouac. They were admirable specimens of high 
bred Southern women, as the war developed them. Devoted heart 
and soul to the cause, they were ready at any time to cheer their 
champions in battle with brave words, or tend the sick and 
• wounded with gentle ministrations. Anything that wore the grey 
was ennobled in their eyes, and its welfare the subject of their 
prayers. They carried the refinement and delicacy of the lady 
into the self-imposed duties of the sick-nurse, regardless whether 
it was general officer or the humblest soldier Avho was the recipient 
of their kindness; and enduring their own privations bravely — 
banishment from home, the loss of fortune, the death of kindred 
— ^they were the first to brighten in the intervals of good forune, 
and the last to despair under the pressure of adversity. 

During November the weather was good and bad by turns — 
rain, snow, and fair alternated; but the roads remained entirely 
practicable for military purposes. The war, however, flagged 
around Eichmond. The armies of Lee and Grant having 
thoroughly tested each other's strength in the many desperate 
combats of the campaign, stood warily watching each other, until 
events transpiring elsewhere should bring new conditions into 
the next collision between them. The fate of Eichmond was in 
fact being decided on other fields. This campaign had shown 
clearly that it was impregnable to direct attack. There was but 
little hope in renewed assault. Siege operations promised but 
little more, because of the distance of the defenses from the body 
of the plan. With such facility for retrenchment, the task would 

314: Memoihs or the War of Secession 

be endless. But the place had never been invested; and in its 
condition, with regard to supplies, an investment would certainly 
determine its fall. 

Accordingly, after the failure of the Petersburg mine, there 
was no further evidence of regular approaches by the enemy ; but 
all his efforts seemed to be given to effecting a practical invest- 
ment. His success on the Weldon road was in that direction, but 
there he was stopped. The movements and operations, narrated 
north of the James, were secondary to attempts made at the same 
time to extend his left around our right below Petersburg. They 
were demonstrations to cover determined efforts against the 
Tvestern roads into Richmond. Lee had firmly thrust him back, 
and now on investment the relative proportion of Lee's and 
Grant's armies remaining the same, was as clearly a futile hope 
as assault or siege approaches. 

It was at a greater distance from Richmond that its sources of 
supply must be cut. While Grant held Lee at bay, co-operative, 
columns, if at all, must do the work. 

The Valley Army, under General Early, after a varied expe- 
rience of invasion and retreat, victory and disaster, had accom- 
plished its main purpose of keeping the co-operative column 
of the enemy operating from that direction off of these same 
western roads. It was, however, badly shattered in discipline and 
eflSciency, and now a part of it was drawn to the lines before 
Richmond, while its adversary was largely transferred to the 
ranks "of Grant. The seasons precluded further decisive effort 
upon the scene of their summer operations. 

In the southwestern portion of the military horizon, however, 
a cloud was gathering ominous of the fate of Richmond, and of 
the Confederacy. Hood had been dispatched into Tennessee, and 
by carrying the war into Africa was to recall Hannibal from 
Italy, but instead Hannibal had marched for Rome. While Hood 
was going northward to meet at a disadvantage forces equal to 
his own, Sherman cutting loose from his base at Atlanta had 
marched unopposed upon the vitals of the Confederacy. The 
terrible results which were to follow this ill-advised strategy of 
Mr. Davis had not, however, yet developed themselves, and on 
the lines before Richmond to Lee's army, erect and defiant, there 

Hagood's Brigade 315 

appeared, no reason why the war should not last another four 

On the 9th December, it turned very cold and the ground 
remained frozen hard all day; in the afternoon it commenced 
sleeting, and at 9 o'clock at night, while the storm was still in 
progress, we received orders to be ready to move at daylight, in 
light marching order. Accordingly, on the 10th, the divisions of 
Fields and Hoke, under Longstreet, marched upon a recon- 
naisance around the enemy's right flank. We moved around it 
for nearly four miles with a strong line of flankers, between 
whom and the enemy there was some skirmishing. It was very 
cold and the roads abominable with frozen slush. The men, not- 
withstanding, stood it well, and at night we returned to our 
quarters. Longstreet was probably eleven thousand strong, 
including artillery and some cavalry. The object of the recon- 
naisance did not transpire. 

The weather continued bad, and on the 20th at dark we were 
again ordered to prepare to move in heavy marching order and 
with three days' rations. At 3 :30 a. m., on the 21st,. the brigade 
started for Richmond. Kirkland's brigade had preceded it, the 
other brigades of the division followed. The roads were very 
muddy, and it was raining and freezing as it fell. We reached 
Richmond at 7 o'clock, crossed the river, and at 11 a. m. took the 
cars for Danville. 

Profoimd secrecy as to our destination had been observed, even 
brigade commanders had no intimation of it, but when the order 
of preparation had been extended on the 20th, the impression in 
the command became general that we were destined for the South 
to meet Sherman, and every man from the sick list that could 
move returned to duty, many utterly unfit to march or even 
travel. The troops were saturated with the freezing rain on the 
march to Richmond, and they were loaded on freight cars without 
seats or fires — ^the men so crowded as to preclude individual 
motion. The rain began to be accompanied by a high wind, and 
lying motionless in their wet garments, the men were whistled 
along on the train the balance of the day and all night. At day- 
light we arrived at Danville. The suffering was intense. One 
poor fellow, of the Seventh battalion, was found dead from the 
exposure, and a dozen others had to be borne from the cars to 

316 Memoirs or the Wak of Secession 

the wayside hospital. General Hagood had obtained in Eich- 
mond a half -barrel of apple brandy for the brigade and caused 
it to be here issued to the men. It gave the poor fellows about one 
good drink apiece, and helped to thaw their half-frozen frames. 
This was the second spirit ration that had been issued to the 
brigade in Virginia. We had, however, during our whole connec- 
tion with Lee's army, a regular ration of genuine coffee, a luxury 
that we had been strangers to for two years previous. We were 
detained some hours in Danville for want of transportation, and 
it was late in the day, the 22nd, before the brigade began to go 
forward over the Piedmont road. The distance to Greensboro 
was but forty-eight miles, and it was not until the morning of the 
26th that the whole brigade was transported over it, three and a 
half days to go 48 miles by rail ! The road and its rolling stock 
were evidently in bad condition, but the delays were so frivolous, 
and the accidents so numerous that General Hagood suspected 
treachery and finally got on by seizing engines and taking the 
trains in his own charge. It is hard to say whether there was 
design or only criminal mismanagement in the delay. 

The Confederate Congress had adjourned a day or two before, 
and at Danville a party of congressmen, consisting of Senators 
Orr, of South Carolina, Johnson, of Georgia, a senator from 
Mississippi and another (Leach, of North Carolina,) presented 
to General Hagood an order from the Secretary at War addressed 
to any officer using a railroad for troops to give these gentlemen 
transportation homeward. They were welcomed to the "head- 
quarters car," and for three days enjoyed its comforts. It was 
an ordinary freight boxcar, and in it was carried the staff horses, 
the baggage of the staff, the staff themselves, and their guests. 
From their conversation, it was evident that they were not 
entitled to the thanks voted by the Eoman Senate to the Consul 
returning from Cannae, that he "had not despaired of the 
Republic under difficult circumstances." They were, in fact, 
utterly demoralized. This was the first time the writer had ever 
heard any one embarked in the cause, civilian or soldier, express 
doubts of its ultimate success; and prophetic, perhaps patent as 
they were, they now made but little impression upon him, for he 
had long looked upon the Confederate congress for the most part 
in the light of the post quartermaster and commissary officers, 

Hagood's Brigade 317 

bomb-proofs, in which prudent men evaded the hardships and 
dangers of the war. He believes now, when the history of this 
great struggle is fairly written, that the record of our congress 
will be that they were utterly wanting in the discharge of the 
high duties of their position. They had neither the courage to 
control Mr. Davis in his course nor the patriotism and magna- 
nimity when they differed with him to cordially support him in 
his devoted exertions. 

On the evening of the 26th, the larger portion of the brigade 
reached Wilmington and took steamer for the neighborhood of 
Fort Fisher at the mouth of the river. 

A day or two before we left Richmond, a fleet of war vessels, 
with transports, bearing a detachment of Grant's army, under 
Butler, had sailed from Hampton Eoads in Virginia to attempt 
the reduction of this fort which controlled the entrance into the 
Port of Wilmington. It had made its effort a feeble one, and 
failed before our brigade arrived. Kirkland's brigade had got 
up in time to be of some service in the repulse. On the 31st 
December, we were ordered back to Wilmington to lie in reserve, 
and the whole division was there concentrated. 

Here ended the campaign of 1864. The field return of the day 
showed of the brigade : 


Officers 93 

Rifles 1,298 


All others present 201 



Wounded and sick, officers 31 

Wounded and sick, rifles 668 


Missing, officers 23 

Missing, rifles 554 


Without leave, officers 15 

Without leave, rifles 514 


With leave, officers 4 

318 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

With leave, rifles 75 

'■ — 79 

Detached, officers 6 

Detached, rifles 122 


In arrest, rifles '4 


Aggregate, present and absent 3,608 

Aggregate in beginning of campaign, 4,246. 

The battle casualties had been up to and including the 21st of August : 

Killed, officers 19 

Killed, rifles 250 


Wounded, officers 74 

Wounded, rifles 1,067 


Missing, officers 28 

Missing, rifles 649 


Casualties in later affairs 35 


In examining these tables it must be borne in mind that among 
those classed as "missing" were many who filled unknown graves 
upon the numerous fields of the campaign just closed, and in the 
table of battle casualties, the "killed" are only those who died 
upon the field; among the "wounded" in this table are included 
as well as those who recovered in hospital. 

Among those classed as "without leave," were many who were 
only technically so, sick or wounded in hospital or at home; the 
papers of extension had not been received at brigade headquarters 
when their invalid leaves had expired. Still, the number "with- 
out leave" was unduly large and was ominous of that change in 
popular sentiment which now began to connive at a dereliction 
of duty which in the earlier years of the war was deemed by 
that same sentiment as little less shameful than desertion. There 
is another class also which shows too strong — ^the "detached." 
Of course among these were individuals who may have been best 
serving the country where they were. Still, detachment was so 
convenient a cloak for skulking, that among the faithful soldiers 
in the ranks it was considered not much more creditable than 
absence without leave. 

Hagood's Brigade 319 

The summer work in Virginia had been to the mere soldier an 
interesting and desirable experience, and the brigade had much 
of which to be proud. It had borne its share in the most des- 
perate campaign of the war, and had won reputation where the 
standard of soldierly qualities was high. 

But how stood the Cause which had summoned these men from 
the pursuits of civil life ; for these years had claimed and received 
their devoted effort — ^was it approaching success or tottering to 
extinction ? 

Events culminated so rapidly in '65, that upon looking back 
to this period it is difficult to realize that but little of gloomy 
anticipation clouded the close of '64 in the minds of those with 
whom the writer was associated. Conscious of discharging their 
duty, and with unwavering belief in the righteousness of their 
cause, they looked with unreasoning certainty of faith to final 
success. Thus, confident of ultimate triumph in the independence 
of their country, whatever might become of themselves, and from 
the position of the brigade at Wilmington certain that winter 
would bring no intermission in its service in the field, they 
regarded the situation more in its personal than in its general 
aspects. Looking forward to the stem duties before them, each 
hoped that he would continue to do "all that may become a man" ; 
and reverting to the stirring events of the past; recalling the 
maddening excitement of the charge, the sullen anger of defeat — 
the thrilling triumph of victory, there came no feeling of gloom 
or sadness, save in the recollection of the gallant dead. Moloney, 
Dargan, Glover, Hopkins, Sellars, Nelson and others, comrades 
loved and true, who had marched with us on that bright spring 
day from the lines of Charleston, no longer filled our ranks. 
Whatever fate the future might have in store for us, for them 
the battle had been fought : 

"On Fame's eternal camping ground, 
Their silent tents are spread; 
And Glory keeps with solemn round, 
The Bivouac of the Dead." 

320 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 



This work, situated at the month of Cape Fear river, was the 
key to the defenses of the Port of Wilmington. There were other 
works auxiliary to it on both sides of the river, but they were 
secondary in their nature; and with the enemy in possession of 
Fort Fisher, backed by his large naval force,. Wilmington was 
no longer a port of either entry or departure for the Confed- 

The Cape Fear, flowing southeasterly, enters the sea at a very 
acute angle, leaving between itself and the sea but a narrow strip 
of land for several miles before its debouchment; and this slip 
finally narrows to a point. The main channel turns around this 
point on entering the sea and leads northward for two or three 
miles up the ocean front of this peninsular before an outgoing 
vessel can depart from, or one incoming can approach the coast. 
The usual bar lying off the mouth of our river-made Southern 
harbors is the cause. 

About a mile from the extremity of the peninsular, where it 
was quite narrow, was placed Fort Fisher, looking seaward and 
with its back on the river. Its trace was in general terms a redan, 
with one long face and one short face, meeting at a right angle. 
The long face conformed to the ocean front ; and a detached work, 
Battery Buchanan, continued the defensive arrangements south- 
ward toward the point of the peninsular. The short face ran 
back to the river, and looked northward with a view to land 
attack. The line of interior crest of Fort Fisher was over a 
thousand yards — Pollard says 1,780 yards. The sally port on the 
northern or land face was upon the river bank, and was strangely 
weak. As remembered by the writer, it was a simple palisade and 
gate with no ditch in its front, and something like a causeway 
along the river bank leading up to it. The work elsewhere had a 
deep and wide ditch, except just on the seabeach. Along the land 
face and extending to the beach were palisades. Its parapet and 
traverses, which were numerous, Avere of extraordinary strength. 

Hagood's Brigade 


Shekh OfThemaffiOf 
The Cape rear fille r 

21— H 

322 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

It had the greatest profile, and was altogether perhaps the most 
elaborate work built by the Confederates on the coast. On the 
northern front, upon which only a land attack was probable, the 
fort had an armament of nineteen guns. The balance of its arma- 
ment was for naval encounter, and of the best the Confederate 
arsenals could furnish. The defects of the work were its sally 
port and the want of sufficient flanking arrangements for sweep- 
ing the ditch with fire. 

The garrison of heavy artillerists showed well in drill and 
dress ; had lived high and fought little during the war ; and had 
not been benefited by the contact with blockade running specula- 
tions which their position and duties had brought about. 

The Federal expedition in December against this work had 
been under command of General B. F. Butler and Admiral 
Porter. Grant had intended, it appears, another leader. General 
Weitzel, for the land forces, but as the troops for the expedition 
were drawn from Butler's "army of the James," and "Wilmington 
was also in the limits of his department, this enterprising warrior 
had managed to foist himself into it when by virtue of his com- 
mission he assumed command. The effort to take the fort was 
embodied in a heavy bombardment of two days (intermitting at 
night) by the navy, when Admiral Porter pronounced the work 
reduced and desired the land forces previously debarked to go in 
and take possession. Butler declined, and for once was probably 
right, notwithstanding the ridicule that has since been heaped 
upon him in this connection. The bombardment had been heavy 
but diffuse, and the defensive strength of the work was substan- 
tially intact. There had been but seven guns rendered unservice- 
able in the whole fort, two by navy fire and five by their own 
imperfections. Had the garrison made but the most commonplace 
defense, the assault would have been a bloody failure. Butler's 
Federal critics, however, claimed that there would have been little 
or no resistance by the garrison of nine hundred men holding the 
work, that they were demoralized by the bombardment and cower- 
ing in the bomb-proofs. Certain it is that his skirmishers had 
been pushed to within 150 yards of the ditch, not only without 
drawing the fire of the fort, but without developing to view a 
def fender on the walls. Indeed, one individual had even gone into 
the ditch and brought off a garrison flag which had fallen from 

Hagood's Brigade 323 

the rampart, without being molested or apparently observed. Be 
it as it may, as to the morale of the garrison, Butler's refusal to 
assail terminated the expedition. The force composing it retired 
to Beaufort Harbor in North Carolina, where the land troops 
were debarked and appeared to await orders. 

On the 4th January, General Hagood went upon a twenty-day 
leave to his home in South Carolina, leaving his brigade under 
command of Colonel Graham, encamped with the division upon 
the plank road some three miles east of Wilmington, On his 
return, on the 25th January, he found his brigade detached from 
the division and at Fort Anderson, fifteen miles below the town, 
on the right bank of the Cape Fear. During this time Grant had 
relieved Butler and sent General Terry to command the land 
troops of the expeditionary force at Beaufort, giving him the 
addition of a brigade of infantry and a siege train. This raised 
the force to about 8,000 men. An immediate renewal of the 
attempt against Fort Fisher was ordered. 

On the 12th of January, a Mr. McMillan, near Topsail Sound, 
was said to have discovered the approach of the flotilla and 
sought to communicate the fact to General Bragg by telegraph. 
The operator was not in condition to send the dispatch. It had, 
therefore, to be forwarded by courier. In two hours after it was 
received General Hoke with his division was on the march to 
confront the enemy upon his landing. On the next day, the 13th, 
the enemy landed upon the narrow spit between the head of 
Masonboro Sound and the sea, near Battery Gatlin, nine miles 
above Fort Fisher. This he was enabled to do under cover of his 
fleet, which could here lie very close in shore ; an assault upon his 
first position was difficult. Hoke deemed it very injudicious to 
attack and contented himself with taking up a line parallel to 
the beach under cover of the sand hills and scrub forest, with a 
view to giving battle upon any attempt of the enemy to advance. 
A regiment of cavalry prolonged his right flank, and watched 
the space thence to the beach at a point intermediate between the 
landing and Fort Fisher. During the night the enemy passed 
between or around the cavalry, without their observing it, and 
when day broke Hoke discovered them on his right flank securely 
entrenched from the ocean beach to the river and facing Wilming- 
ton. He took position in the lines previously prepared from 

324 Memoiks of the War of Secession 

Sugar Loaf to the head of Masonboro Sound. Bragg now 
ordered Hoke to assail the enemy's newly entrenched line. Hoke 
reconnoitered it in person and, deeming it unadvisable, requested 
Bragg himself to examine the present condition of affairs on his 
front. This General Bragg proceeded to do, and the result was 
to countermand the order of assault and the determination to 
re-enforce the fort, accepting practically the condition that it 
must stand or fall upon its own resources. 

Accordingly, in the afternoon of the same day (the 14th). 
Colonel Graham was directed to move to Gander Hall landing on 
the river with four regiments of Hagood's brigade and to proceed 
that night by steamer to Battery Buchanan, whence they were to 
be thrown into Fort Fisher. Graham marched with the Eleventh, 
Twenty-first and Twenty-fifth regiments, and the Seventh bat- 
talion. The Twenty-seventh regiment remaining, reported tem- 
porarily with Kirkland's brigade. He made a report to General 
Hagood upon the resumption of command by the latter, from 
which the following is extracted: "Shortly after arriving at 
Gander Hall, I received a dispatch from Colonel Anderson 
(Bragg's A. A. G.), directing me to embark my men on the 
'Sampson' and 'Harlee' steamers, which had not as yet arrived at 
Gander Hall. At 7 p. m. I received another dispatch from 
Colonel Anderson, that the 'Sampson' would be at Gander Hall 
at 7 :30, and that I must use her as a lighter to load and unload 
the 'Harlee,' as the latter drew too much water to approach either 
Gander Hall or Battery Buchanan. The 'Sampson' got to Gander 
Hall an hour later (8 :30 p. m.) and was immediately loaded with 
troops, but got aground and did not get off till 9 :30 p. m. She 
proceeded to the 'Harlee' with the Twenty-fifth regiment. 
Another steamer, the 'Pettiway,' now arrived, was loaded, got 
aground, and remained so. Upon the return of the 'Sampson,' I 
transferred part of the troops from the 'Pettiway' to her, and 
both boats proceeded to the 'Harlee' ; found the 'Harlee' aground ; 
tried to pull her off with the other two boats, and failed. I then 
had the troops on the 'Harlee' transferred to the 'Pettiway,' and 
ordered her and the 'Sampson' to proceed at once to Battery 
Buchanan. The 'Sampson' left at once with the Twenty-first 
regiment; but the captain of the 'Pettiway' said he had not wood 
enough to take her there. I directed him to take wood from the 

Hagood's Brigade 325 

'Harlee,' and by the time he got it aboard the 'Pettiway' was also 
aground, and I was informed by her captain that she would not 
float again before eight o'clock next morning. ... At 2:30 
a. m., the 'Sampson' returned from Battery Buchanan, having 
landed the Twenty-first regiment,* and I again dispatched her to 
the same point with the Twenty-fifth regiment under Captain 
Carson. ..." 

Having reported the facts by telegraph, Graham was directed 
to get the remainder of his men to Battery Buchanan as soon 
next day as the tide would float his transports, and land if the 
enemy's fire would permit, if not, to wait till night. He made 
the effort, was driven off, and crossed to Smithville as the nearest 
point from which to start at nightfall. Having notified General 
Bragg of his arrival at Smithville, he was directed to retain his 
command at that point. 

Tliis closed the effort to re-enforce Fort Fisher, but the garri- 
son, with the addition of Hagood's two regiments, about 2,300 
strong, was abundantly large for defense, and further transfer 
of troops was only necessary when those already there would need 
relief from arduous service. The facilities which the locality 
gave for this were probably about the same as those had for 
communication with Morris Island during the siege of Charleston. 

Carson had landed at Battery Buchanan about sunrise on the 
15th with the Twenty-fifth regiment and had to throw his men 
into Fisher under a heavy naval fire. 

The bombardment which liad commenced in the afternoon of 
the 13th, after the landing had been effected, was continuously 
kept up — ^heavily by day, and slower at night. It was somewhat 
heavier than the first bombardment. Admiral Porter, before the 
committee of the Federal Congress on the conduct of the war, 
seems to say, as well as his loose and bombastic statements can 
be reconciled (Fort Fisher Expedition, pp. 100 and 191), that in 
the first bombardment the navy expended 45,000 rounds of 
ammunition, and in the second 50,000 rounds. The naval fire 
(there were no batteries established on land) was directed chiefly 
upon the land face, and Brigadier-General Comstock of Grant's 
staff, who accompanied the expedition, speaking from personal 
inspection, said before the same committee that at the close of 

•Commanded by Captain DuBose. 

326 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

the bombardment, "so far as the earthwork was concerned, it was 
just as efficient as before a shot was fired." And in reference to 
the armament, the same officer stated that six guns and three 
mortars remained serviceable on the land face while "very few 
on the sea face were injured." These results will astonish no one 
who has had experience of the resisting power of earthworks and 
the difficulty of dismantling embrasured and traversed guns by 
long range shell fire. The power of artillery upon earthwork of 
proper slopes is little more than to deface it ; and when the lines 
and angles of its profile are gone, and its guns disabled as they 
may be by concentrated fire at close range, well sustained 
musketry can and should hold it against assault. Whenever 
properly constructed and with a profile approaching permanent 
work, such a fort if taken, save by regular approaches, the fault 
is prima facie and almost certainly with the garrison or com- 
mander. Such has been the teaching of experience since the days 
of Vauban, and the lessons of this war confirm it. The bomb- 
proof is a protection complete for the bulk of the garrison against 
the preliminary bombardment; a sufficient number can find 
shelter on the lines behind parapet and traverse to act as sentries 
and guard against sudden assault ; and with an entrenched picket 
line two hundred yards in front (each pair of men in a detached 
circular pit no larger than will contain them) , to keep the enemy 
from massing for assault too close to the work and to give warn- 
ing of an advance, an assault can never succeed while the garrison 
retain heart of grace. When by regular approaches the besieger 
can mass in safety for assault, in point of time nearer to the crest 
of the parapet than on the besieged in the bomb-proofs, then the 
conditions are changed. 

Admiral Porter, whose dispatches are in the "furioso" vein, 
asserted that he had "reduced the fort to a pulp and every gun 
was so injured or covered with dirt that they would not work." 
This is on a par with his assertion that had the 400 marines 
whom he sent to cover a "boarding party" of sailors in the subse- 
quent assault, by deploying in front of the sea face and opening 
fire, 'performed their duty,' every one of the rebels would have 
been hilled.''''* 

•Fort Fisher Exped., 189. 

Hagood's Brigade 327 

At 3 p. m., on the 15th, the assault was given. The garrison, 
cowering in their bomb-proofs from the naval fire, had permitted 
the enemy to approach the work very nearly. A force of sailors 
and marines, 2,000 strong, were massed close upon the sea face, 
and three brigades of infantry had obtained similar position on 
the land face. Upon the signal given the fleet changed its fire 
to other parts of the work, and the storming columns advanced. 
The garrison hastily and imperfectly manned the parapet. The 
first advance of the infantry was feeble, and apparently they 
recoiled. The sailors rushed on boldly and were bloodily and com- 
pletely repulsed in fifteen minutes from first to last — they taking 
no further part in the fighting. Here the old Confederate shout 
of victory was being lustily given by the two regiments of 
Hagood's brigade* and other troops manning the sea face, when 
a fire in their rear called their attention to the land face. The 
enemy were in the fort. A detachment of the infantry column of 
assault rushing upon the sally port at which four uninjured field 
pieces remained for defense, the portion of the garrison at that 
point commanded by one Captain Brady, of a North Carolina 
regiment, cravenly surrendered without firing gun or musket.f 
The enemy poured in, and thenceforward on the part of the Con- 
federates the fight was against overpowering odds with the 
advantage of their defensive works gone. The majority of the 
garrison did their duty well, and undoubtedly made as stubborn 
a defence as was possible under the circumstances. It was, how- 
ever, more a vindication of personal pluck and character than an 
organized resistance. The enemy slowly won his way from gun 
chamber to gun chamber, the fleet firing ahead of them, and at 
10 o'clock at night, after seven hours of fighting, re-enforcements 
brought from the lines facing Wilmington completed the work 
in the capture of the fort and garrison.^ 

•See Historical Society Papers, Vol. X, page 361. Colonel Lamb seems to Imply 
that these regiments were on land face. See Scrap Book, 1896, page 28, Captain 
Izlar's Refutation of Lamb. 

tThls Is on the authority of a Wilmington newspaper of the day. See also Volume 
XLVI, Series I, Part 1, War of Rebellion, page 436. Lieutenant Latham, of Captain 
Adams' light battery. Is there stated to have commanded these guns. The general 
statement of non-resistance Is verified. 

JSee Cox's March to Sea, page 137. 

328 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

The enemy's loss in killed and wounded exceeded a thousand; 
the Confederate was some 400. 

The advance of the assailing columns was witnessed from 
Sugar Loaf on the Confederate lines. No serious demonstration 
was at any time during the assault made in aid of the fort. 

Such, probably, is a correct account of the fall of Fort Fisher. 
It is made up from such information as could be obtained after 
the event from the Confederates on the spot, from a study of the 
elaborate publications of the Federals on the subject, and from 
information derived since the close of the war from members of 
the Twenty-first and Twenty-fifth regiments engaged. 

The defence is a page in the history of the war that redounds 
but little to our credit. Without the fort, there was inefficiency 
and indecision, and as a result a strong supporting force did 
nothing from first to last commensurate with its strength. Within 
the work, at the most critical point and time, there was a 
dastardly exhibition of cowardice, and there seemed to be but 
little of the careful provision of command. The absence of a 
picket line, in pits, upon the land front, the almost open gateway, 
the insufficiency in the number of men kept out of the bomb- 
proofs and on the lines, look like absolute military fatuity. Crim- 
ination and recrimination was rife among the Confederates after 
the disaster, but it is useless to perpetuate it here. Poor Whiting 
laid down his life in atonement of any errors he may have com- 
mitted in the defence, and it is certain that in the hour of trial 
he personally bore himself with knightly valor. And as for 
Bragg, disaster had already so linked itself with his fortunes, 
that when a few months before Mr. Davis had assigned him to 
the command of this department, a Richmond paper had given 
expression to the feeling of both army and people in the curt 
paragraph, — "Bragg has been sent to Wilmington, good-bye 

Hagood's brigade suffered a loss of thirty-one officers and four 
hundred and forty-four enlisted men in the fort, being all of the 
Twenty-first and Twenty-fifth regiments then present for duty 
with the brigade, and a few individuals from the Eleventh regi- 
ment. But three of its officers were wounded slightly, and none 
killed. It is believed that the casualties among the enlisted men 
were in proportion equally few. 

Hagood's Brigade 329 


With the fall of Fort Fisher, a change occurred in the condi- 
tions of military affairs in this quarter that materially affected 
the relations and objects of all the different armies of the Con- 
federacy, now in depleted numbers concentrating upon the small 
area and upon which the issue was destined to be decided. 

Wilmington, in a military point of view, had had value in 
Confederate eyes, first as a seaport, and second as a point of rail- 
road connection. In its first relation, it had lately become of 
immense consequence, being the best and almost the only point 
of contact left to us with the outer world. With the fall of 
Fisher it was hermetically sealed as a seaport, and its only value 
remaining was as a railroad connection on the seaboard route 
from Richmond to the south and west. Below Petersburg a 
portion of this route was already in possession of the enemy, the 
result of Grant's last summer operations on the Weldon road, and 
a detour had to be made towards the mountains to pass this point. 
The portion remaining to us was threatened by the troops below 
Wilmington and by a force at New Berne. It required a small 
army to guard it, and its possession by the enemy at points suffi- 
cient to deprive us of its use was a foregone conclusion, whenever 
he chose to move against it with a sufficient force. Richmond had 
another communication with the south by rail, running westward 
to Danville, and thence by Charlotte, Columbia and Branchville 
to Augusta, Georgia. Sherman's march through Georgia had cut 
the railroad communications westward of Augusta, and they had 
now to be repaired. This route from Richmond to South Caro- 
lina lay mostly close under the mountains, and it ran through 
the heart of the Confederacy. By transferring to it the rolling 
stock of the seaboard route and taking up so much of the rails as 
was practicable for repairs on the interior route, the communi- 
cations of Richmond would not have been impaired in efficiency 
and would then have been established solely behind our center 
instead of partly on an exposed flank. Bragg's troops would have 
been released for action, and their number was not inconsiderable. 
He had probably at this time 16,000 troops of all arms in his 

About 10,000 men (infantry and artillery), the fragments of 
Hood's army after his disastrous .Tennessee campaign, were being 

330 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

directed upon Augusta, Georgia. About 10,000 men, a large por- 
tion of them unaccustomed to the field but veterans of four years' 
siege service, thoroughly disciplined, well equipped and of high 
morale were lying in and around Charleston. 

Butler's and "Wheeler's cavalry, under General Hampton, 
amounted to 8,000 men, and there were perhaps 6,000 more men 
in North and South Carolina (militia and reserves) available for 
post duty. 

This gave an aggregate of 50,000 men, of whom from 40,000 to 
45,000 could have been massed to meet Sherman, who was now 
lying at Savannah with probably 70,000 men, preparing for an 
advance to a junction with Grant at Petersburg. 

Charleston was in the same category as Wilmington in a mili- 
tary point of view. Its value was solely as a seaport remaining 
partially open though its use was greatly restricted by the fall 
of Morris Island. To abandon its walls, rendered so illustrious 
by its heroic deience, would have been a severe blow to the morale 
of the Confederacy, and even the limited value of its port was 
now of great importance to us. It should, therefore, have been 
retained if possible. To arrest the march of Sherman was, how- 
ever, now the pressing necessity, before which every other consid- 
eration sunk into insignificance. 

Had, therefore, upon the fall of Fort Fisher, Wilmington been 
immediately evacuated and all the troops available in South 
Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia been concentrated in South 
Carolina upon the line of the Combahee and Salkahatchie to 
Barnwell Village and thence to the Savannah river, the position 
would have covered Charleston and the railroad connection from 
Branchville to Augusta. It was a strong one, and the key line to the 
possession of South Carolina. Had it been forced by the enemy, 
then abandoning Charleston and returning before him, here 
a resistance could have been made that would have deflected him 
from important points, limited his devastation in South Carolina, 
harassed and weakened his force, and finally the Confederates 
touching a depot at Fayetteville, in North Carolina, could have 
given decisive battle in front of the Cape Fear as Sherman 
emerged from the semi-desert country between Camden and that 
river, and before he had refitted his troops and received the muni- 
tions which he had been unable to transport on his march from 
the steamers that met him at Fayetteville. 

Hagood's Brigade 331 

Embracing in the view a larger field of strategy, the Confed- 
erates should have been re-enforced for this decisive fight from 
Lee's army, even at the cost of abandoning Richmond. Had the 
fortune of war here pronounced in our favor, Sherman's defeat 
so far from his natural base, the sea, could have been converted 
into a rout; and with his army disposed of, the failing fortimes 
of the Confederacy would have revived. It is true that Grant 
would have been on the heels of Lee, and with his command of 
the sea and rivers, and our wornout railroad transportation, it is 
doub.tful which in point of time would have had the shortest line. 
But in such decisive strategy, as that indicated, now lay our only 
hope of escaping the fate which was fast encircling us. If the 
columns of the enemy converging to a junction could not be 
beaten in detail, there could be but one result in the coming 

The necessity of concentration and the abandonment of all 
secondary points was patent, and among subordinates freely dis- 
cussed at the time, but the paralysis of approaching death seemed 
to be upon the direction of our affairs. 

Bragg, with the independent command of North Carolina, 
remained in Wilmington, as will be subsequently narrated, until 
he was pushed out, frittering away his strength in skirmishes, 
and letting the dry rot of desertion unchecked by vigorous action 
gnaw into his army until in a few weeks he had no troops left 
but Hoke's division and a regiment of cavalry. Hardee, com- 
manding in South Carolina, lay supinely on the coast, not even 
reorganizing and refitting his troops for service (but popularly 
supposed to be giving his attention to ignoble cotton specula- 
tions), until Sherman moved, and then retired before him with 
all the haste and disorder of a flight. With such haste and want 
of judgment was the withdrawal from Charleston effected that 
the troops (men on their first march during the war) were 
hurried twenty-nine miles the first night and they unpursued. 
Leaving the coast with upward of 10,000 men, it was said that 
Hardee reached North Carolina with but 4,000, and not even a 
combat on the way. Straggling and desertion had done the work. 

The cavalry of Hampton offered a skirmishing resistance to 
Sherman's march, and was almost all the opposition he met with 
in South Carolina. Consolidation of command of the troops, that 

332 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

should have been opposing this march, at length was made by 
the appointing of Joe Johnston, after Columbia had fallen and 
when concentration for defence must necessarily take place 
beyond the Cape Fear. In the meanwhile the available Confed- 
erate force had without a battle dwindled to 30,000 men, and the 
already overwhelming Federal strength had received another 
increment. The army which under Thomas in Tennessee had 
confronted Hood had now been largely transferred to North 
Carolina, and was marching to a junction with Sherman in two 
columns moving respectively from Wilmington and New Berne. 

Beauregard was announced by General Johnston on the 16th 
March as second in command. 

The aspect of civil affairs at this time had much of painful 
interest. The increasing estrangement between Mr. Davis and 
the Congress, the enlistment of slaves, the refusal of the Trans- 
Mississippi Army to cross the river for service in the east, were 
all occasional subjects of discussion in camp. The Hampton 
Roads Conference had been held and its results officially 
announced from Richmond to be that there was no peace for us 
save in unconditional submission to the will of the conqueror. 
These matters were all talked of, but not much dwelt upon. Our 
information upon them was not full and we were not sure always 
that it was correct. Besides, four years of service in subordinate 
military grade is apt to give one the habit of confining his 
attention to the matters before him. But one unmistakable 
evidence of our rapidly failing fortunes was constantly forcing 
itself upon commanders of troops in February and March, 1865, 
and that was the intercepted appeals from friends at home to the 
soldiers to desert. Absentees, both officers and men, away upon 
any pretext, were also with difficulty gotten back. During Feb- 
ruary the brigadier commanding had five officers dropped for 
absence without leave from Hagood's brigade. And later two 
colonels of regiments sent to South Carolina to get up absentees, 
failing to return in due time, the brigadier himself was dis- 
patched by the major-general commanding the division on the 
same errand. The people had lost heart and their influence was 
reacting badly upon the soldier wearied by long and lately disas- 
trous service. 

The narrative returns to the brigade and events at Wilmington. 

Hagood's Brigade 333 


Battery Buchanan, on the extremity of Federal Point, was 
captured with its garrison of artillerists the night Fort Fisher 
fell. Hoke continued to hold the entrenched lines above, running 
from Sugar Loaf, a promontory on the Cape Fear river to the 
head of Masonboro Sound. On the right bank of the river, in the 
next few days. Fort Caswell and the other defences were aban- 
doned as high up as Fort Anderson near Orton Point, and the 
Confederates withdrew to the previously entrenched lines at this 
place. Fort Anderson was opposite Sugar Loaf, and the lines 
ran from this work to Orton Pond which stretches out in a south- 
westerly direction seven miles from the river in an air line, and 
nine or ten as the road ran. On the left bank of the river the 
Sugar Loaf lines were enfiladed or taken in reverse at will by 
the enemy's fleet outside, the concealment of the forest alone ren- 
dering them tenable, and they Avere liable to be turned by a land- 
ing from the sea behind them. On the right bank the line was 
short and strong enough against a direct attack. It could be 
turned by the head of Orton Pond. 

The river channel ran close under Fort Anderson and was not 
in all over six or eight hundred yards wide, though the whole 
river was at this point three miles in width. The fort, however, 
had only nine (9) guns, all 32 drs., two of which were rifled but 
not banded. These with their carriages were old and worn, and 
bore across and down the river. No gun could be brought, to bear 
up the river, and consequently if any portion of the fleet should 
have passed the fort we would have had no fire upon it, while it 
would have taken nearly every gun in reverse. Torpedoes in the 
river completed the defensive arrangements. There were obstruc- 
tions in the river eight or nine miles above Fort Anderson, and 
there was no communication between the Sugar Loaf and Fort 
Anderson lines, except through Wilmington, fifteen miles above. 
They were thus practically thirty miles apart, while, with his 
abundant steam transportation in the river, to the enemy they 
were not wider apart than five miles march. 


Up to the 11th February, operations had been confined on the 
left bank to skirmishing and occasional shelling from the sea, 

334 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

and on the right bank there had been occasional engagements at 
long range between Fort Anderson and a monitor and a gunboat 
from the fleet. The fort used generally a 12 dr. Whitworth taken 
from a field battery. Against the monitor it was of little use, 
but against the gunboat it was effective. 

The Confederate fighting strength of all arms was about 4,000 
men on the left bank, and 2,300 on the right bank. Of these 
there was one regiment of cavalry. Colonel Lipscomb's Second 
South Carolina; the infantry was Hoke's division, and part of 
the heavy artillerists of the recently abandoned forts converted 
into infantry. The remaining part of these garrisons manned 
the heavy guns remaining in position, and there were three or 
four very good light batteries. 

The enemy, on the 11th February, had a fleet in the river of 
1 monitor, 15 gunboats, 1 flagship, 1 armed blockade runner, 16 
transports and 5 tugs. The armament of these vessels appeared 
to be 11- and 15-inch shell guns and Parrotts. Outside, the fleet 
was also large. At Smithville our scouts reported 500 infantry, 
and at Battery Lamb some two or three hundred. On the other 
side their force was probably 9,500 land troops (of which a few 
cavalry), with ability to throw on shore two thousand sailors and 
marines. Of the enemy's land troops two thousand or twenty- 
five hundred had recently arrived. 

The enemy were reported massing a large force at New Berne 
to strike at the road from Wilmington towards Petersburg. The 
telegraph reported that Sherman had the South Carolina railroad 
from Branchville to WiUiston, and, while moving on Columbia, 
was demonstrating at once upon Charleston and Augusta. 

Bragg had gone to Richmond temporarily and left Hoke in 
command of the department of North Carolina. 

Brigadier-General Hagood, having, on his return from South 
Carolina, relieved Brigadier- General Hebart, commanded in per- 
son on the Fort Anderson lines. His force was his own brigade, 
about 925 enlisted for duty, and the fragments of the garrisons, 
before alluded to, converted into infantry, and brigaded under 
Colonel Hedrick, Fortieth North Carolina. These numbered 805 
enlisted for duty. In addition, there was Moseley's and Brad- 
ham's light batteries, together 132 enlisted for duty, and 152 
enlisted mounted men of the Second South Carolina cavalry. 

Hagood's Brigade 335 

The total enlisted under his command was, therefore, something 
over 2,000, and his force, including officers, about 2,300. 

On the 15th of February, the enemy made a reconnaisance in 
force from Smithville as far as White Spring Branch, where the 
road from Smithville to Wilmington forks, one going straight on 
up the river by Fort Anderson, the other turning westward and 
leading around Orton Pond. This party was met and skirmished 
with by Hagood's mounted force, and retired at night-fall with- 
out pressing vigorously. 

On the 16th February, the enemy passed over from Battery 
Buchanan to Smithville five large transports with troops, and at 
dark a considerable force were still visible at the wharf at 
Buchanan, apparently waiting transportation. Subsequent events 
showed that these troops were the Twenty-third Army Corps. 
General Scofield commanding,* recently arrived before Wilming- 
ton from Tennessee. It was accompanied by field artillery, a 
small force (probably two hundred) of cavalry, and a brigade 
(Abbott's) of Terry's command. General Hagood had on the 
15th asked for, and on the 18th received, some fifty additional 
mounted men. Colonel Lipscomb was at the same time sent over 
to take command of this arm. This re-enforcement raised the 
Confederate force to 2,350 men, with which to confront fully 

General Hagood now massed all his mounted forces upon right 
flank at the head of Orton Pond, keeping but twenty to act as a 
patrol in his front, and endeavoring to remedy the want of 
mounted men here by doubling his infantry picket and pushing 
them further out, say a mile and a quarter. 

On the 17th, the enemy advanced in force from Smithville and 
halted for the night in front of Hagood's infantry picket. The 
mounted' patrol and the infantry picket skirmished with them, 
and the monitor with seven (7) gunboats engaged the fort at long 
range. The monitor engaged at 1,000 yards, and the gunboats 
out of range of our 32 drs. Firing commenced at 1 :30 p. m. and 
continued till sunset; 170 shell were thrown into the fort; one 
man was wounded, and no damage done to the work. Forty-seven 
(47) shot were thrown by the fort at the monitor, of which 

♦Cox's and Ames' divisions wltli Moon's brigade of Crouch's division, Cox com- 
manding. Seofleld in general command. Cox's March to the Sea, page 149. 

336 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

several struck, doing no apparent damage. The Whitworth 12 
dr. threw a few shot at the gunboats, when its ammujiition 
became exhausted, and it was sent back at night to the Lower 
Town Creek bridge to await a supply of ammunition telegraphed 
for to Wilmington. But thirty rounds could be obtained, and 
these arrived too late for any subsequent operations on the Fort 
Anderson lines. 

Colonel Simonton, Twenty-fifth regiment, was placed in imme- 
diate command of Hagood's brigade for all purposes of military 
movement. This officer had a few days before been returned to 
the brigade, having been detached since June, 1864, and Colonel 
Graham, the senior colonel, was on recruiting service in South 

On the 8th of February, a communication from General Bragg 
had directed that "except in an extreme case, involving the safety 
of the command, the present position should not be abandoned." 
The chief danger apparently apprehended by the departBaeat 
commander, as exhibited in this communication, was the passage 
by the fort of the fleet, and he went on to say, "A point for com- 
munication across the river has been selected from the' mouth of 
Town Creek on the west to the old State Salt Works landing on 
the east. By this route re- enforcements can be sent to and from 
both detachments of the command until the fort is passed. Thus 
any land attack can be met." 

It is well to remark in passing that, th,is route of coirimunication 
was never established. 

On Saturday inorning, the 18th of February, the monitor took 
position within 800 yards of the foirt, and the fleet of wooden 
gunboats ■ anchored just beyond the ascertained range of Our 
smooth bore 32 drs., the rifled 32 drs, could not be brought to bear 
upon the position of the wooden -fleet. At 6:30 a. m., .the bom- 
bardment commenced, and continued till 6 p. m.' Twenty^seven 
hundred and twenty-three shell were thrown at the fort, nearly 
all of which struck the work or exploded within it. The fort 
fired fifty-three shot and shell, twenty of which were fired from 
the rifled guns at the monitor. , Of these, seven struck without 
doing apparent damage. The smooth bores ^ere fired at intervals, 
more in defiance than in the hope of injuring the enemy. The 
land forces of the Federals pressing our advanced skirmish line 

Hagood's Brigade 337 

after daylight, the right was driven back, the left continuing to 
hold its position. General Hagood, about 9 a. m., directed this 
whole line to fall back upon a second line which he had 
entrenched in rifle pits some 250 yards in front of his entrench- 
ments; and sent the Second cavalry, hitherto acting as a patrol 
on their front, to re-enforce the right flank at the head of Orton 
Pond. The enemy now advanced, taking position in the skirt of 
woods some 600 yards in our front, and sharpshooting commenced 
and continued during the day. The two light batteries of Moseley 
and Bradham shelled the woods in our front during the same 
time. The enemy developed no field pieces. 

Colonel Lipscomb reported today with the re-enforcement of 
fifty mounted men, before alluded to, and was sent with them to 
the right and directed to take command. Entrenching tools 
(some 20) had on the previous evening been sent the officer then 
in command, and he had been instructed to strengthen his posi- 
tion by such available means as were practicable. These mounted 
troops were simply mounted infantry ; their arms were the short 
range cavalry carbine intermixed with Enfields. 

Shortly after Colonel Lipscomb arrived at his post, the enemy, 
who had previously appeared on his front, advanced. Sharp 
skirmishing ensued, and by nightfall he was pressed back a mile 
or more. ' Lieutenant Jones, of Bradham 's battery, was sent to his 
assistance and with one howitzer. Lipscomb's position was now 
directly across from Orton Pond to Allen Creek, covering the 
road leading into Fort Anderson and Wilmington road, and about 
four (4) miles from this last, the force in his front being thus 
on the right rear of the Fort Anderson position, and at that dis- 
tance from its sole line of communication. 

The casualties in the fort, which was held by Hedrick's men, 
from the bombardment were slight; one officer (Lieutenant Vans, 
Fortieth North Carolina,) being killed and six men wounded. 
And in this connection it is worthy of mention that not a man of 
the garrison took shelter in the bomb-proof, confirming the pre- 
vious observation of experience that traverses and parapets are 
sufficient protection, when the garrison is not too numerous, 
against anything but the heaviest mortar fire. The damage to the 
earthwork was considerable. The wooden revetment had grad- 
ually given way ; the epaulement was much torn up ; in fact, in 

22— H 

338 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

one place breached nearly to the level of the gun platform; and 
the traverses knocked out of shape. No gun, however, was dis- 
mounted, nor its working injured beyond repair during the night. 

The casualties in the infantry today did not exceed half a 

After 6 p. m. the fire of the fleet on the fort averaged one in 
five minutes, until 11 p. m., when it was reduced to a shot every 
half hour till 2 p. m. For the rest of the night it was increased 
to a shot every ten minutes. Working parties were kept dili- 
gently employed all night repairing damages, and an obstruction 
was made to the saUy port of the fort on the river side in view of 
an infantry assault up the beach. 

About 10 p. m., written dispatches from Colonel Lipscomb and 
the report of Captain Barnes, Fortieth North Carolina, acting as 
scout, together with the examination of prisoners and deserters, 
satisfying General Hagood that the force on his right and rear 
was large and of the three arms, and that Lipscomb's force was 
entirely too few to check it, he became satisfied that an evacuation 
was necessary to save his command. As he was, however, in tele- 
graphic communication with his division commander. General 
Hoke, and the facts as learned had been laid before him, General 
Hagood awaited orders and continued diligently preparing to 
fight the position next day. 

About 1 a. m., on the 19th, after sending over a staff oflScer to 
confer with General Hagood, General Hoke invited the expression 
of General Hagood's opinion upon the propriety of withdrawing 
from the Fort Anderson lines. It was given by telegraph as fol- 

"1. The enemy are on my right and rear, in point of time less 
than three (3) hours' march. Their force is certainly, from data 
heretofore sent you, one-half to two-thirds of my whole strength.* 
It will take me three-quarters of an hour to hear of their advance, 
which reduces the time to two and a quarter hours. It is impos- 
sible for me to strengthen the small force opposed to them. You 
know its strength. 

"2. I have a very much larger force than my own 600 yards in 

•Two brigades wete In front of Port Anderson entrenched, and Ames' division, 
with two additional brigades, had turned Orton Pond. — Cox's March to the Sea, 
p. 149. 

Haqood's Brioade 339 

my front, in full view by daylight, and with the fleet to 
co-operate. Therefore, when the force on my right rear moves, 
I must abandon this position, or sacrifice my conmiand. 

"3. I have two defiles in my rear (the bridges and causeways 
just behind me) to move through, and two and a quarter hours in 
which to extend the order, execute it, and confront the enemy on 
my right rear. Even at night there is a possibility of having to 
do this pursued by the force in my front. In the daytime it is 
certain, and then I can use but one bridge, on account of the fire 
of the fleet. Could I re-enforce my right sufficiently to hold the 
turning force in check, the case presented would be different." 

To this General Hoke replied: "Dispatch received. . . . 
What do you think best?" General Hagood replied: "I think 
this place ought to be evacuated and the movement commenced in 
half an hour." This last dispatch was sent at 2 :05 a. m., and at 
2 :48 a. m. the reply was received from General Hoke ordering the 
evacuation and the taking up of a line behind Town Creek. 

The movement was immediately commenced. The quarter- 
master and commissary train had in the beginning of the fight 
been placed behind Allen Creek. It was ordered to Lower Town 
Creek bridge. The field batteries, ordnance wagons and ambu- 
lances were sent across Orton causeway, and there the infantry 
commenced to withdraw. When the infantry began to move, a 
dispatch was sent Lipscomb directing him to fall back quietly 
towards Anderson till he reached the road leading from Anderson 
to Wilmington via Upper Town Creek bridge, and then taking 
that road act as a flanking column to the main column which 
would move on the road to the Lower bridge. As soon as the 
infantry and heavy artillerists had crossed the Orton canal, 
orders were sent the infantry pickets in the pits ahead of the 
entrenchments to withdraw. It was in the early dawn when this 
last move was commenced, and almost simultaneously with it the 
enemy advanced with a heavy skirmish line at double quick, 
followed closely by a line of battle. The picket retired at a run, 
and fifty or sixty were captured. The enemy most probably had 
prepared for an assault at daybreak, and their advance was in 
pursuance of this preparation. The sluices of Orton Pond were 
cut, and the bridges of the canal burned. This checked pursuit, 
and the fleet kept back till the torpedoes opposite the fort could 

340 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

be raised. Our march to Town Creek was undisturbed. The 
force in front of Lipscomb coming down between Orton Pond 
and Allen Creek struck the lower road upon which the main 
column had retreated an hour after the rear had passed. It 
proved to have been a larger force than Lipscomb thought. It 
was probably two divisions of the Twenty-third Corps, while the 
other division had been in our front. (See pencilled note 469.) 

No effort was made to "blow up the magazine of the fort or to 
destroy its armament, because of the shortness of the time till 
daylight after the order of evacuation was received ; and because 
General Hoke had requested by telegraph that the magazine 
should not be exploded before 6:30 a. m., which was later than 
General Hagood designed to hold the fort. 


Town Creek enters the Cape Fear river from the west about 
six miles above Fort Anderson and on the same side of the river. 
The upper and lower bridges had each been previously slightly 
fortified by General Hagood, his only communication with Wil- 
mington being over them, and were held by bridge guards, the 
upper by eighty infantry and the lower bridge by twenty. The 
Whitworth sent back from Anderson had been directed to stop 
at the lower bridge, and had there received a small supply of 
ammunition. The creek was forty or fifty yards wide, and was 
navigable for craft of four feet draft as far as the upper bridge; 
at its mouth, however, was a hard sand bar only one foot under 
water at low tide. The two bridges were the only regular cross- 
ings, and at both the high ground was on the southern bank. 
From three-quarters of a mile above the lower bridge to the river 
were rice fields ; above that point were rice fields at intervals, but ' 
not on both sides at once. The swamp was generally half a mile 
wide, but there were frequent bluffs where the highland 
approached the stream first on one side and then on the other. 
Between the lower bridge and the mouth there were bluffs on 
the north side with open rice fields and the usual dams to the 
highland opposite. The channel of the Cape Fear lay between 
Big Island and the east bank; but there were boat landings at 
Cowan's and above. It was between nine and ten miles between 
the bridges by the road we were obliged to use — about six (6) 

Hagood's Brigade 


lowN Creek Coanh y / "^^ 



1) ^_-s?=Jv 


342 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

miles from the upper bridge to the cross roads at Marks' Branch, 
about seven (7) miles to the lower bridge to same points, and four 
(4) miles from these cross roads to the pontoon bridge over 
Brunswick river. Mallory Creek was between Marks' Cross 
Eoads and the lower bridge, and two and a quarter miles from 
the last. Cowan's landing by the road was about the same dis- 
tance from the lower bridge. 

At 9 :45 a. m., on the 19th, the main column crossed the lower 
bridge and went into position — ^Taylor's regiment, of Hedrick's 
brigade, in the entrenchments with three (3) pieces of artillery — 
Gantt's Eleventh South Carolina (under Captain Westcoat), 
picketing Cowan's — and the balance of Hagood's brigade, under 
Simonton and Hedrick's own regiment, the Fortieth North Caro- 
lina, with the balance of the artillery in reserve near the church. 
A 'patrol of twenty men were kept to the front down the Fort 
Anderson road. Lipscomb arrived soon after at the upper bridge 
and reported himself in position with the balance of the cavalry, 
eight infantry and one howitzer. 

General Hagood reported by telegraph his arrival to General 
Hoke and asked for orders. He received the following reply: 
"Future operations will depend on circumstances. Will tele- 
graph you in the morning." 

The enemy appeared in front of lower bridge, at 3 :30 p. m., 
and slight skirmishing ensued. At 5:35 p. m., Hagood tele- 
graphed Hoke: "Thirteen (13) gunboats in the riVer above Big. 
Island, and small boats ahead sounding. . . . Town Creek is a 
line can be held whenever occupied. I have examined several 
miles of it today. From my observation it can be crossed almost 
anywhere that sufficient troops are not stationed. Let me know 
your views and intentions." In reply the same evening General 
Hagood received the following : "Hold Town Creek till you hear 
from me." On the next day, the 20th, General Hoke telegraphed, 
"You must move your command as you think best ; at same time 
recollect the importance of your communication with Wilming- 
ton. ... I leave the matter to your judgment." And again 
and finally, on same day, "Dispute their advance at every avail- 
able point." Shortly afterwards an officer from the staff of 
General Bragg, who had returned from Kichmond and resumed 
command, was sent to General Hagood to impress upon him the 

Hagood's Brigade 343 

necessity of delaying the enemy's advance. He stated that a large 
number of Federal prisoners, some ten thousand, had been sent 
to Wilmington, for delivery in exchange under a convention 
entered into between Generals Grant and Lee — that the Federal 
commander had been notified of it under a flag about the time 
he had commenced his advance; that he had declined to receive 
them, alleging some reason — not now remembered — ^that he was 
probably pressing forward in the hope of obtaining possession of 
them by recapture ; and that time was essential to get these pris- 
oners oflf, out of reach, as well as valuable commissary and quar- 
termaster stores — all of which were being transported slowly 
with our imperfect railroad facilities. 

These were the orders and instructions under which General 
Hagood acted. 

When the enemy's skirmishers began to press on the evening 
of the 19th, Lieutenant Jeffords with his mounted patrol were 
brought in ; and the lower bridge thoroughly destroyed. Jeffords' 
command was then used until late next day to patrol the north 
bank of the stream towards Lipscomb, meeting with Lipscomb's 
patrol on that bank. Colonel Lipscomb was also directed to 
scout to his front and left on the enemy's flank and rear, and for 
that purpose to keep his bridge intact until compelled by the 
enemy in large force to destroy it. 

At daylight, on the 20th, the enemy were in large force in front 
of lower bridge; he got a battery of Parrotts into position and 
pushed forward skirmishers. The fire of artillery and rifles was 
at this point brisk throughout the day. He seemed also to be 
feeling right and left for a crossing. No demonstration was made 
on Lipscomb. 

About 11 :30 a. m., the Twenty-first South Carolina was sent to 
relieve the Eleventh South Carolina at Cowan's. Shortly after 
it started a dispatch was received from Captain Westcoat, com- 
manding Eleventh, that the enemy were landing at Cowan's. 
Major Wilds, commanding Twenty-first, was immediately 
directed by courier to retain the Eleventh and engage the enemy. 
At 12 :40 p. m., he reported the enemy in force and driving him. 
Colonel Simonton, commanding Hagood's brigade, was directed 
to take the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-seventh regiments with him 
and, assuming command, take position at the first fork of the road 

344 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

coming from Cowan's and hold it. At 2 :10 p. m., he reported from 
a point on the south road short of this fork, "The enemy are in 
my front and appear to be extending on the north road. From 
my position I cannot guard both roads. No demonstration since 
Major Wilds reported." General Hagood had previously ordered 
two pieces of artillery to Colonel Simonton. He immediately 
went in person and found Colonel Simonton skirmishing sharply 
with the enemy, his reserves and two pieces of artillery on 
south road (at point marked X — see Map at p. 476), and his 
skirmish line not reaching the north road. The enemy were 
endeavoring to overlap him on both flanks. A reconnaisance 
satisfied General Hagood that the enemy had landed in sufficient 
force on this flank to render the position on Town Creek inse- 
cure,* and with the crossing on the bar at the mouth of the creek 
now in his possession and the point covered by the guns of his 
fleet, it was evident he could fling across the bulk of his forces 
whenever he pleased. Considering the overwhelming number 
opposed to him, General Hagood determined at once to withdraw 
from Town Creek. His small force, however, from the necessity 
of his position, had been scatttered over twelve (12) miles, with 
the line of retreat behind the left flank, the one that had been 
turned. It was necessary, therefore, that resistance should be 
obstinately made by Colonel Simonton in order to give time to 

The colonel was accordingly directed to extend his line of 
skirmishers to the left (so as to cover both roads) , to put a reserve 
behind each flank (one on each road) , to keep one piece of artil- 
lery with each reserve (on the south road), and to fall back 
making an obstinate skirmish fight, until his reserves reached the 
telegraph road: then to close his reserves together at the point 
marked Y, where General Hagood promised himself to place the 
other piece and to retire down the road (YZ) — making that his 

Having made these dispositions and given these directions, 
General Hagood returned rapidly to his headquarters at the 
Church, and dispatched Colonel Lipscomb immediately to with- 
draw with his whole force to Marks' Cross Eoads ; called in Lieu- 
tenant Jeffords with his mounted men and sent him to Colonel 

•Three brigades of Cox's division. — Cox's March to the Sea, p. 151. 

Hagood's Brigade 345 

Simonton to keep up the connection between his two reserves; 
sent Lieutenant Moffett, A. A. G., to the point G to bring word 
when Simonton should be driven to within 200 yards of the Tele- 
graph road ; . ordered the trains which had previously been sta- 
tioned at Marks Cross Eoads into Wilmington and sent with 
them his sick and wounded and two of his field pieces that had 
been disabled; and placed the Seventh South Carolina and the 
Fortieth North Carolina, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Rion of the Seventh, in line of battle on the Wilmington road 
(at the points K to Z). Two men were sent to bum the bridges 
at McElhaney's mill and cut the sluices to prevent the enemy's 
use of the telegraph road to intercept the retreat to Wilmington. 
Mr. Young, signal operator, with George Addison, courier at 
brigade headquarters, was sent on this duty. 

Colonel Lipscomb was absent from his command examining 
the creek above his position when the courier reached the upper 
bridge, and the officer next in command most improperly delayed 
to execute the order till Colonel Lipscomb could be found — thus 
losing two hours in his movement. 

Judging from the firing that Simonton was hard pressed. Gen- 
eral Hagood gave the order to Colonel Hedrick, commanding at 
the lower bridge, to commence withdrawing at 3 p. m. He was 
instructed to leave a strong rear guard in the work till he was 
fairly off. Lieutenant Moffett arrived before the order was fully 
executed and reported Simonton near the telegraph road. When 
Hedrick's column was within half a mile approaching Colonel 
Eion's lines (of the point Z), Captain Stoney was dispatched 
with a courier accompanying him at speed (down the road Z Y) 
to order Simonton to fall back rapidly, and to guide him. Stoney 
found on the left (of the road Z Y) a body of skirmishers very 
slightly engaged, and Simonton on the right (of this road and 
in the telegraph road) with one piece of artillery and in a line of 
battle (extending to the left and backward towards the skir- 
mishers — thus making his line oblique to the road Z Y and 
thrown forward towards the enemy on his right). The enemy 
were advanced with a heavy line of battle, and Simonton firing 
rapidly upon them both with his artillery and rifles. Captain 
Stoney delivered his order, and Simonton ordered his piece lim- 
bered up and his line of battle to move to the left towards the 

346 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

skirmishers (and the road Z Y) , but the enemy pressing, him 
again, he revoked the order and sent Stoney to say he was too 
heavily engaged to withdraw. Captain Stoney was immediately 
returned to Colonel Simonton at the full speed of his horse to tell 
him "Ae must come; to throw away his artillery and make a run 
for it; that a line of battle was formed in his rear to protect him." 

Stoney arrived in time to see the overwhelming lines of the 
enemy sweep over Simonton — the artillery firing till the enemy 
got within a few feet of it, and the infantry standing by the gun 
and resisting till overpowered hand to hand. He did not get to 
Simonton, and, his own horse being shot, he became involved in the 
melee. The body of skirmishers, before alluded to, coming out 
and straggling from the right and informing Hagood of the state 
of affairs, he now took position behind Mallory creek, keeping 
out a strong skirmish line (across the road between K and Z) 
and the squad of cavalry under Jeffords patrolling towards the 
Church direct straggling in. 

This position he held till after dark, when stragglers ceasing 
to come in and Colonel Lipscomb reporting with his mounted 
men, his infantry and artillery beiiig in march on the Georgetown 
road approaching Marks's Cross Koads, General Hagood ordered 
a retreat. One-half of Lipscomb's mounted men formed a rear 
guard at the distance of a mile, and the other half was sent for- 
ward to hold the position of McElhaney's mill. The infantry and 
artillery were passed over the pontoon bridge across Brunswick 
river, and by steam ferry over the Cape Fear by 12 o'clock at 
night; and the former marched to report to Hoke who upon the 
left bank had fallen back to near Wilmington. The cavalry, after 
burning the pontoons and the railroad bridge over Brunswick 
river and leaving the picket on Eagle Island, crossed into Wil- 
mington about daylight on the 21st. 

In this engagement the loss was two pieces disabled and 
brought off, two pieces captured by the enemy, and 461 men and 
officers killed, wounded, and missing — all of whom were from 
four regiments of Hagood's brigade. Colonel Simonton carried 
into action six hundred irien and officers. His fault was in allow- 
ing his greatly inferior force to become engaged in a line of battle 
behind obstructions rapidly thrown up, when the occasion required 
him, and he had been directed, to make an obstinate skirmish 

Hagood's Brigade 347 

fight.* Again, when ordered to withdraw, instead of facing the 
rear and withdrawing directly from the approaching enemy at a 
double quick, if necessary, he endeavored to make a flank march 
along the enemy's front, with, it is presumed, a view to getting a 
road down which to retire in column. The countiy was an open 
pine forest. His troops behaved with their accustomed gallantry, 
and to their- obstinate defense of the flank, which had been turned, 
was due the safety of the whole command that day. The thing 
would have been completed had they themselves not been sacri- 
ficed in the discharge of the duty. Colonel Simonton, however, 
was inexperienced in the command of troops in the field and his 
errors certainly leaned to virtue's side. 

Of the missing, mentioned above, Colonel Simonton subse- 
quently reported 330 men and officers, including wounded cap- 
tured by the enemy. Twenty killed upon the field is a very large 
estimate, and this would leave over a hundred men and officers, 
who, coming out of the rout and not finding the brigade that 
night, straggled off to South Carolina, and were no more, with 
very few exceptions, heard of in the war. Captain Stoney him- 
self, included among the missing above reported, with fifty-two 
men and officers came out of the rout and did not find the brigade 
that night. These men, misinformed on reaching the Lumberton 
railroad of affairs in Wilmington, took the cars to Lumberton 
to rejoin the brigade via Fayetteville (this, however, they never 
did). Captain Stoney separated from them and rejoined his 
command at Eockfish creek some days later. 

In all these operations Hagood's command fell back for four 
days before a force of ten to his one, taking this time to go a 
distance of eighteen miles and crossing two rivers. Everything 
that was movable was brought off, and the loss in battle was 
inconsiderable, when the circumstances of fighting to delay so 
superior a force is regarded, and especially the powerful aid the 
enemy derived from his navy. Without this he could not with 
such facility have turned the Town Creek position. The pro- 
priety of making the obstinate stand at Town Creek at all rests 
with the direction of affairs. It delayed the evacuation of Wil- 
mington but little and was a hazardous venture. Had the junc- 
tion been made at Wilmington on the night of the 19th, the 

•For this the country was admirably suited. 

348 Memoibs of the War of Secession 

enemy would have got into position on the 20th near the pontoon 
bridge, and would at most have shelled the town with field artil- 
lery. The nearest point of the town to the Brunswick shore being 
two and a quarter miles, this would have been a mere bagatelle. 
Did humanity forbid exposing non-combatants to this, we would 
have had to evacuate the town only one day sooner. As it was, a 
large number of prisoners could not be got off by railroad, and 
were marched ahead of us to a point on the railroad beyond the 
Northeast river where they were placed on the cars next day for 
further transportation. 


General Hagood, on reporting at Bragg's headquarters on the 
arrival of his column in Wilmington, was directed to send his 
infantry on to Hoke, while he should remain in the town and 
take the command. He was also instructed, with Lipscomb's 
cavalry, to watch the crossings of the Cape Fear as high up as 
Hilton Ferry. Two light batteries and a few infantry under 
Colonel Jackson, the post commander, were also left with him 
for provost duty. 

In the afternoon the enemy's advanced parties drove our picket 
off of Eagle Island and appeared at P. K. depot, opposite the foot 
of Market street. General Hagood ordered a force of dismounted 
cavalry with a howitzer across the ferry, and soon drove the 
enemy back, re-establishing the picket. 

During the day the Federal prisoners before alluded to were 
marched across the Northeast river; and the able-bodied male 
slaves, and the horses of citizens fit for military purposes were 
seized by direction of General Bragg and sent in the same direc- 
tion. Arrangements were made for burning the naval stores and 
cotton stored in the town, as also shipping in the river, some half 
a dozen vessels. Arrangements were also made for distributing 
to the retiring troops as they marched through the town such 
portable quartermaster . stores as shoes, etc., which could not be 
got off by rail. At night, guards were stationed with rigid orders 
to put down all pillage that might be attempted by the most 
summary measures. At daylight, on the 22nd, Hoke had marched 
into and through the town. The cotton, naval stores and vessels 
were in flames, and as the rear guard left in the early dawn a 

Hagood's Brigade 349 

mass of black smoke had settled like a pall over the silent town ; 
in its extent and density suggestive of the day of doom. 

The army marched up the railroad toward Petersburg to its 
crossing of the Northeast river, some eight or nine miles from 
Wilmington, crossed on a pontoon bridge, and encamped. The 
enemy's advance guard came on thus far and slight skirmishing 
ensued. On the 23rd, the army moved on to Rockfish creek 
unpursued, -where it remained till the oth March. It rained, more 
or less, during all this time, and the roads got into bad condition. 
The exchange of Federal prisoners heretofore declined took place 
during this time, we deliverine: at Northeast river and receiving 
on the Eichmond front. 


A reference to the general map of North Carolina is necessary 
to an understanding of the subsequent niovements and events of 
the war in this quarter. 

Sherman was approaching from South Carolina, with Golds- 
boro for his objective ; and had directed co-operative columns to 
move from Wilmington and New Beraie to a junction with him 
at or near this railroad center. With Goldsboro in his possession 
and the roads back to the coast at Wilmington and New Berne, 
he could refit his army and with his united force of nearly one 
hundred thousand men* in hand be ready to co-operate with 
Grant as soon as the advancing spring released the armies in 

Fayetteville was an important Confederate arsenal and depot, 
from which there was steamboat navigation to Wilmington. And 
the Neuse river was also navigable for river steamers up and 
above Kinston. 

On the 5th of March, Hoke's division began to move by rail- 
road for Kinston, General Hagood bringing up the rear. He 
left with his last- regiment on the 7th, and reached Kinston at 
7 a. m., on the 8th. Lipscomb's cavalry was left to watch the 
enemy at Northeast river, which they had shown no disposition 
to cross; the light batteries and their infantry support of some 

•Sherman's Report to Committee on Conduct of the War, p. 366. 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 


Par/- Of Nor/-/) Cqro/ina 

Hagood's Brigade 351 

150 men, which were on the Cape Fear river at White Hall, while 
we lay at Kockfish creek, were ordered to report to General Joe 
Johnston at Fayetteville; and the artillery and train of the 
division moved by highway. On arriving at Kinston it was 
found that the column of the enemy which was to move from New 
Berne, in accordance with Sherman's plans, was before the place. 
Scofleld had transferred from Wilmington enough men to New 
Berne to make, with the troops already there, some 20,000 men* 
and with himself in command.! He had left with Terry some- 
thing over 10,000 men to move at the proper time from that point. 
Major-General D. H. Hill, with some 2,500 effective arms- 
bearing men of Hood's Army of Tennessee and a brigade of 
junior reserves, had come by rail from the direction of Raleigh, 
and with Hoke's division constituted our force (between 7,000 
and 8,000), which was confronting the enemy at Southwest creek 
two miles from the town. The regiment, heretofore spoken of as 
"Hedrick's brigade," had, by order of General Bragg issued at 
Eockfish, been assigned to Hagood's brigade, and this command 
was now organized as follows : 

1. Rion's command, consisting of his own (Seventh) battalion 
and the remnants of the other four South Carolina regiments, 
making a regiment of twelve companies about 500 strong. 

2. Hedrick's (.Fortieth North Carolina) regiment, consisting 
of six companies (the other four captured at Fort Fisher) , about 
375 strong. 

3. Taylor's command, consisting of one company, being frag- 
ments of the Thirty-sixth North Carolina, captured at Fort 
Fisher, and three (3) companies of the First North Carolina 
battalion of heavy artillery converted into infantry. This bat- 
talion was about 275 strong. 

When General Hagood arrived with Rion's regiment at Kin- 
ston, he was ordered forward to report to General Hill, by whom 
he was placed in reserve. Taylor's battalion and Hedrick's 
regiment, that had preceded him, were reporting the one to 
Brigadier-General Baker, of Hill's command, and the other to 
Clingman's brigade, of Hoke's division. 

•Report of Commander In Conduct of the War. — Sherman's Report, p. 366. 
tJohnston's Narrative, p. 79, says "3 divisions under Major-General Cox." See 
also Cox's March, etc., p. 155. 

352 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

The Neuse river runs at this point nearly due east ; and South- 
west creek, coming from a southwesterly direction, empties into 
it two miles below Kinston. Kinston is on the north bank. 
About a mile from the mouth of the creek is a mill, with its pond 
backing water for some distance; and between the mill and the 
river the creek is not fordable though narrow and without swamp 
of any consequence. General Hagood was placed by the staif 
officer who conducted him at the fork of the Dover and Neuse 
road, and riding forward in person found General Hill's troops 
extending from the mill to the river behind slight entrenchments 
on the banks of the creek, skirmishing going on, and the enemy's 
line apparently parallel to our's and overlapping us on our right. 
General Hill informed him that Hoke's division had moved that 
morning by the upper Trent road around the head of the mill 
pond to strike the enemy's left flank; and that he was waiting 
Hoke's attack to himself advance. 

About 11 :30 a. m.. General Hoke's guns were heard ; and at 
12 m., Hill ordered up his reserve to take the place of some 
junior reserves, who had become rather shaky under a moder- 
ately sharp skirmish to which they had been exposed; and 
advanced, driving the enemy easily in his front for a short dis- 
tance, when he received a dispatch from Bragg, commander-in- 
chief, that Hoke had met with considerable success and that Hill 
should move down the Neuse road to intercept the enemy at its 
intersection with the British road, down which he was retreating. 

Hill moved immediately with Eion's regiment at the head of 
his column and arriving at West's house halted to await the 
retreating enemy. He picketed the British road and scouted a 
mile or so towards the enemy without meeting even a straggler. 
At 4:30 p. m.. Hill received another dispatch from Bragg to 
march on the British road towards the enemy and attack him in 
the rear, but not to do so and return, if it was too late to accom- 
plish anything before dark. Hoke's fire still continuing without 
advancing from the position which he apparently held when Hill 
first moved, and then being but one hour and a half before dark, 
with the enemy between three and a half and four miles from 
him, Hill decided to withdraw, and returned behind Southwest 

Hagood's Brigade 


5oufh WedCr^k 

23— H 

354 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

Hoke's success was a thousand prisoners captured and five 
hundred killed and wounded of the enemy who fell into his hands. 
He struck the enemy unentrenched on their flank and rolled them 
up with but little loss to himself, until the disarangement of his 
own advance caused by the tangled underbrush of the forest com- 
pelled him to halt to arrange his lines. By the time he was 
ready again, and had found the enemy in the new position they 
had taken, night arrested further action. 

At the close of the day, the enemy occupied a position oblique 
to his first and in the general direction of the lower Trent road — 
his right not reaching the Neuse road. Hoke took position in 
front of the mill pond on the British road, his left short of the 
railroad. Our general line at nightfall was, therefore, en 
echellon, Hoke being in advance of the creek, and the second 
echellon on the banks of the creek — Hill's position of the moi^i- 
ing. That night the second echellon was occupied by reserves, 
and Hill's forces were sent across the creek and went into line 
with Hoke. Hagood's brigade was got together again. 

On the next day, the 9th, at daylight, Hoke marched with three 
brigades back across the mill, and moved by the Neuse. road 
around the enemy's right with a view to attack ; b]it, finding the 
enemy strongly entrenched, returned without making an attack. 
Hagood's brigade reported to Hill today and occupied hig left. 
It was engaged in heavy skirmishing all day. ,. 

On the 10th, reserves held the bank of the creek as before; Hill 
held the position of the advanced echellon, and Hoke moved with 
his whole division (Hagood's brigade returning to him) at day- 
light down the central road, and making a wide detour marched 
through a low swampy country in the woods all the time, and 
struck the enemy's left in his rear position on the lower Trent 
road. The attack was made en echellon, Kirkland's and Colquitt's 
brigades in advance, and Clingman's and Hagood's in the second 
line, and in position from right to left as named. Kirkland was 
the only one heavily engaged; and the position of the enemy 
being discovered strongly entrenched, with abattis, etc., the troops 
were withdrawn and returned to the position of the night before. 
General Hill engaged the enemy with artillery and a heavy 
skirmish line, when Hoke attacked; but Hoke desisting did not 
press. Kirkland's loss was about 300, and was the chief loss 

Hagood's Brigade 355 

sustained in all these operations, the first day's loss of the Con- 
federates having been very inconsiderable. 

On the night of the 10th, General Hagood was informed that 
we were to withdraw from before Kinston. The movements of 
the enemy in other quarters, and the necessity of concentrating 
in front of Sherman was the cause. There was nothing in the 
local situation that required it.* The Federals had been offered 
battle for three successive days, and had quietly accepted the 
defensive role of ditch digging and waiting to be attacked. 

The retrograde movement commenced next morning and the 
enemy made no effort to molest it. Hill went by rail with his 
troops to Smithfield on the Neuse, some forty miles from Raleigh ; 
and Hoke's division marched leisurely to the same point, our 
brigade remaining for two or three days in Kinston without 
being attacked. Scouts reported that the Federal army com- 
menced a retreat upon New Berne at the same time that Bragg 
withdrew and only halted when they learned the fact of the Con- 
federate retrograde. 

Colonel Hedrick was wounded on the 8th himself, and lost 
three men. On the Sth, Rion lost two wounded and Taylor three. 
These men were all the' losses of Hagood's brigade. 

Hoke's column, after a pleasant riiarch through a fine planting 
country up the valley of the Neuse, arrived at Smithfield on the 
I6th March. Here General Joe Johnston was in command, and 
Sherman's main column before him. He had marched, unop- 
posed through South Carolina, spreading havoc and desolation, 
compelling the evacuation of Charleston and burning Columbia 
and numerous smaller towns, but attenipting to hold no. part of 
the State except Charleston. The head of his column was now 
near Fayetteville. 

Johnston's army consisted of the troops of Bragg, Hardee and 
part of Hood's Tennessee army, with Hampton's cavalry, prob- 
ably 30,000 of ali arms. Shernian's force was 65,000 to 70,000, 
and the appt-oachirig co-operative columns of Scofield and Teirry 
would raise it to a hundred thousand. 

With these odds against them, the Confederates were once more 
to try the forttine of battle. 

•They fell back to Goldsboro by General Bragg's order. — Johnston's Narrative, 
p. 380. 

356 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Army Tennessee 5,000 

Hardee 11,000 

Bragg • • 8,000 

•■ 24,000 

Cavalry — ^Wheeler 3,000 

Cavalry— Butler 1.000 



Sherman's four corps 70,000 

Cavalry ^'000 


Johnston's Narrative, 372, 377 and 378. 


From the vicinity of Kaleigh to Goldsboro, the Neuse has a 
southeasterly course for a distance of fifty miles ; and Smithfield 
is on the north bank half way between the two places. 

To the southward, and twenty mUes off, the Cape Fear runs 
parallel for half this distance; then at a little town called Averys- 
boro diverges to the south. Fayetteville is west of the Cape 
Fear and forty-five or fifty miles southwest of Smithfield. 
Averysboro is half way between the two places. Two roads lead 
out of Fayetteville, cross the Cape Fear ten or fifteen miles below 
Averysboro, and, uniting on the south bank of the Neuse, go into 

From Smithfield is a road down the southern bank of the 
Neuse, and crossing Hannah and Mill creeks it passes by Benton- 
ville and enters the upper road from Fayetteville to Goldsboro. 

On the 16th March, Hoke's division arriving at Smithfield, 
crossed the river at Turner's bridge, two miles below the town, 
and encamped on Black creek. We had been having artillery 
fire all day, and at night learned that it was an engagement 
Hardee had had with the advance of one of Sherman's columns 
at Averysboro, and that he had, at its close, fallen back upon an 
elevation ten miles in our front. Hardee's loss was said to be 600 
casualties of all kinds, and the enemy's supposed to be much 
larger. The Confederates were entrenched, the enemy made two 
direct attacks which were repulsed, and then turned our posi- 
tion, compelling its abandonment. 

Hagood's Brigade 




V/anify Of Benfoni^//k 

358 Memoirs of the Wab of Secession 

Hardee's loss was trivial until his position was turned, when 
Ehett's brigade of South Carolina Eegulars, commanded by 
Colonel William Butler, which was upon the flank, was badly cut 
up. The chief loss was in this brigade. Colonel Rhett had been 
captured a few days before. Sherman now ceased to press toward 
Smithfield and turned upon Goldsboro, moving by both the roads 
leading from Fayetteville to that point. 

On the 18th Johnston moved down the south bank of the 
Neuse — Hoke's division marching thirteen mUes to a point a little 
above Bentonville. On the 19th, the division went into line of 
battle beyond the upper road from Fayetteville to Goldsboro and 
on the prolongation of the western fork of the Bentonville road, 
and formed the left wing of Johnston's line. Hardee took the 
right of the Fayetteville road and was the right wing. In front 
of Hardee the ground. was sopiewhat elevated, with more or less 
clearing. In front of Hoke it was low, wet pinewoods, inter- 
spersed with bay gulls and sluggish drains and having consid- 
erable undergrowth. 

Butler's cavalry were skirmishing heavily with the enemy a 
mile in our front toward Fayetteville as we went into position, 
and were immediately afterward withdrawn. The enemy's skir- 
mishers came on after them and striking the infantry skirmish 
line were checked and began feeling to our left. At this time 
Hagood's brigade was on the left of the division, and Colquitt's 
brigade next to Hagood, — making the first line of battle ; Cling- 
man's and Kirkland's brigades constituted the second line. Gen- 
eral Hoke having been informed by Hagood of the enemy's 
moving to the left brought up Kirkland's from the second line 
and placed him on Hagood's left. Very soon after Kirkland's 
was in position, the enemy assailed, striking half of Hagood's 
front (Rion's regiment on the left) and the whole of Kirkland's. 
He was handsomely repulsed, leaving a good many dead and 
wounded men and abandoned rifles in our front. Our skirmish 
line was immediately re-established, the arms secured and the 
wounded brought in. Our loss was trivial, the men having with 
great rapidity covered themselves with log and earth obstruc- 
tions. Lieutenant E. H. Bell, Company C, Seventh South Caro- 
lina battalion, was, however, killed. He was an excellent officer 
of his grade, and had served with fidelity throughout the war. 

Hagood's Brigade 


I L-Ovi/eR cavbttc viuue roao 

A B — Jolinston's line, 19t]i. 
C E D — Sherman's 'first line, 19th. 
F B D^Sherman's second line, 19th. 
A X G Z — Johnston's line, 20th and 21st. 
K L M — Sherman's ITth Corps, 20th and 21st. 
F E D — Sherman's 14th and 20th Corps, 20th and 21st 

360 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

The staff standing unprotected behind the line, Lieutenant Martin 
had the sole of his shoe taken off by a rifle bullet striking between 
his foot and the earth, and Major Hay, commissary of subsistence, 
acting as aide-de-camp on this occasion, was painfully bruised 
by a ball glancing from a tree. 

Heavy skirmishing continued on our front during the morn- 
ing, the enemy still feeling for our left, which was now prolonged 
by dismounted cavalry. Our's was not engaged, but occupied in 

About ,2 p. m.. General Johnston advanced his right wing and 
forced back the enemy's left until it was at an angle of 45 degrees 
with its original position, the. point of the angle being opposite 
Colquitt's center; his right wing remained parallel to our imme- 
diate front, and by this time was well entrenched. In swinging 
out, Hardee had lost connection with the left wing, and about 
4:30 p. m., Hoke was ordered to move out two brigades and 
regain it. He had thrown out a regiment from the right of Col- 
quitt's brigade, secured the angle of the enemy's entrenched 
position, and was sweeping down to the left to clear the front of 
Colquitt's left, and Hagood's before advancing, when an order 
arrived from Bragg, who had not been on the field and had 
heard of Hoke's movement through some aide or courier, to move 
both brigades straight out and make a direct attack. The order 
was obeyed and the works carried, though with considerable 
loss, over 500 men in the two brigades. General Hood was behind 
his center regiment, Hedrick's, commanded by Major Holland; 
Taylor was on the right of the brigade connecting with Colquitt, 
and Eion was on the left. Colquitt struck the works full, as did 
Taylor's regiment; Holland met with nothing but a line of battle; 
and Rion on the extreme left encountered only a skirmish line. 
After the first works were carried and the line was advancing 
steadily upon a second series of breastworks some 500 yards 
from our original line. General Hagood observed the troops on his 
right beginning to retire, first Colquitt (he could not see beyond 
that brigade) and then Taylor, and ordered his center and left 
back. There was nothing on his front nor on Colquitt's, as he 
subsequently learned from Colonel Zachery, commanding that 
brigade, to prevent a continued advance. The retrograde move- 
ment commenced with Hardee and resulted, it was said, from 

Hagood's Brioade 361 

encountering works which could not be carried without undue 

The loss in Hagood's brigade was chiefly in Holland's and 
Taylor's (North Carolina) regiments, and was from fire upon 
them in retiring; Colquitt's men received little or no fire in their 

The Confederates at night re-occupied their first line of battle, 
but the enemy continued with their left wing bent back in the 
position into which it had been driven. 

We had been fighting all day the Fourteenth and Twentieth 
U. S. Army Corps, as we learned from prisoners. The loss in our 
division at least would have been inconsiderable and our success 
eminent had it not been for Bragg's undertaking to give a tactical 
order upon a field that he had not seen. Hardee had captured a 
number of prisoners and several pieces of artillery, part only of 
which he was enabled to bring off on account of the tangled 
nature of the ground and the battery horses being killed. His 
losses were probably 800. From subsequent information it was 
learned that three Federal divisions were broken. 

During the afternoon and night Sherman marched the Seven- 
teenth corps by the lower Fayet^eville road to its junction with 
the Upper road near the Neuse, succeeded in putting it in position 
on the Upper road in our immediate rear, and General Johnston, 
before it arrived in striking distance, next morning, the 20th, 
retaining the position of his right wing, swung back his left 
behind and nearly parallel with the upper Fayetteville road. 
His extreme left was somewhat refused, and prolonged and pro- 
tected by cavalry. Hagood occupied the left of Hoke's division, 
Kirkland being the right. Harrison's Georgia brigade, of 
Hardee's command, prolpnged and terminated the infantry line 
on the left. The rest of Hardee's command was in reserve behind 
this flank, and the Tennessee troops (of Hood's army) were on 
the right where they had been on the previous day and engaged 
in the operations of the right wing. 

Johnston's line was now across the two branches of the Beiiton- 
Ville road by which after forking it enters the Upper Fayetteville 
road. His wings were each broken back to protect his flanks. 
The Fourteenth and Twentieth corps were on his right flank and 
front, the Seventeenth corps was on his left and front, and 

362 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

between the two divisions of the enemy's army was free com- 
munication along the Upper Fayetteville road. This position 
was scarcely taken when the enemy on the right attacked par- 
tially but heavily, Kirkland's brigade repelling the assault. On 
the left he deployed heavy skirmish lines, and severe skirmishing 
ensued but no assault. Our troops rapidly entrenched their new 
position. No further effort at assault was made, . but the 
respective skirmishers were engaged all day and night along 
the whole line. 

Next day, the 21st, the enemy having massed infantry in force 
on the extreme left, where Wheeler's cavalry extended and pro- 
tected our flank, drove him some 2,000 yards and reached the 
field near the church and within 100 yards of the Bentonville 
road, our only line of communication. Here some 200 men of 
Alfred Cumming's Georgia brigade and the Eighth Texas' cav- 
alry on horseback fell furiously upon the right flank of the 
enemy's advancing line, and threw it into confusion. Wheeler 
rallied and succeeded in forcing them back, regaining his former 
position. At this time Hagood's brigade and Walthal's command 
of 950 men of the Army of Tennessee,* detached for the purpose, 
arriving, took the place of the cavalry, which moved further 
towards Hannah creek for the protection of the flank. 

The enemy made no further demonstration here, but remained 
in line of battle with a heavy line of skirmishers engaged the rest 
of the day and night. 

When Hagood's brigade was detached to re-enforce Wheeler, 
the enpmy perceiving the movement immediately attacked the 
position he had left, but Clingman's brigade extending behind 
the really good entrenchments handsomely repulsed the assault. 
Colonel DeVorn, commanding the brigade, was, however, badly 
wounded, and Lieutenant- Colonel Mallett was killed. The latter 
General Hagood had first met at the defence of Battery Wagner 
in the siege of Charleston. He was a brave man and an excellent 

On the morning of the 22nd, General Johnston commenced 
withdrawing from the field, skirmish lines covering the move- 
ment, and by 7 a. m. had taken position behind Hannah creek 

•This was all that was left of Stewart's Army Corps. 

Hagood's Brigade 363 

three miles to the rear. He was unmolested in withdrawing. The 
enemy felt his new position with cavalry and skirmishers, but 
did not press. In the afternoon, the Confederates marched for 
their former position on Black creek, Hoke's division bringing 
up the rear. 

Sherman moved on to Goldsboro, and the junction with the 
co-operative columns from New Berne and Wilmington took 

Hagood's brigade in this battle lost 249 men killed, wounded 
and, missing, of whom all but 17 were from the North Carolina . 
troops of the command. Among these were some valuable officers 
and men. Colonel Taylor (Thirty-sixth North Carolina) was 
wounded and lost his arm, and Captain E. G. Eankin (First 
North Carolina battalion) attracted General Hagood's attention 
by his heroic bearing. He was wounded and died shortly after. 
Our general casualties were understood to be 2,500,* and the 
enemy's evidently heavier.f 

The affair was indecisive. Johnston had evidently hoped, by 
falling rapidly upon one of Sherman's columns in march, to beat 
him in detail, and prevent his concentration at Goldsboro. While 
inflicting considerable injury upon the enemy, and raising the 
morale of that portion of his army which had been in one 
unvaried retreat since Atlanta, he failed to accomplish his pur- 
pose. With odds against him, it could only have been by that 
chance which so often determines military affairs that he could 
have succeeded. 

Confederate forces present : 

Infantry and artillery 14,100 

Cavalry 4,000 


Federal forces : 

On 19th 35,000 

On 20th and 21st 70,000 

•Killed, 223 ; missing, 653 ; wounded, 1,467 ; total, 2,343. — Johnston's Narrative, 
page 393. 

tJobnston puts It at 4,000. Cox (page 197) at 1,604, 

Johnson's Narrative, page 393. 

364r Memoirs of the War or Secession 


On the 24th of March, the anny crossed the Neuse and went 
into camp on the north bank of the river above the railroad sta- 
tion. The distance of the enemy with cavalry intervening did 
away with the necessity of infantry outpost duty, and vigorous 
efforts were at once inaugurated by General Johnston to put his 
army in effective condition for further service. Drills, reviews, 
and inspections were the order of the day, and what was known 
as the consolidation Act was commenced to be enforced. This 
Act had been passed by the Congress some time before, but its 
provisions, for which there was a great necessity, had not been 
up to this time enforced. The supply of recruits to the Confed- 
erate army had for a year past failed, and indeed the Bureau of 
Conscription did not even efficiently return to their colors the 
men who upon various pretexts, legitimate and illegitimate, were 
at home. From the casualties of war, brigades had become 
regiments, regiments companies, and some organizations had 
almost ceased to exist. This was the condition of the armies in 
the field, while upon the rolls were borne men enough to con- 
stitute an army ample to hold the Federal hordes indefinitely at 
bay. Numbers of these were prisoners of war, and Grant's policy 
of obstructing exchange made their return too uncertain to be 
counted upon. There was but one course left to put the armies 
of the Confederacy upon a footing of efficiency sufficient to con- 
tinue the contest, and that was to consolidate and reorganize the 
good men and true, who stiU clung to their banners, into new 
regiments and brigades of proper strength and rely for recruits 
to supply the waste of war upon returned prisoners of war, and 
such skulkers at home as a more vigorous execution of the powers- 
of the conscription could return to the ranks. 

This consolidation was a matter of much interest to both officers 
and men. In our particular case, a strong feeling was manifested 
to unite the volunteer South Carolina troops, which had come on 
with Hardee, to our old brigade. There were old acquaintances, 
Frederick's regiment of artillery now converted into infantry, 
and others, comrades of ours in the siege of Charleston. 

These on the evacuation of Charleston had been brigaded 
under General Stephen Elliott, and their number had been con- 
siderably reduced by the hasty march from South Carolina, and 

Hagood's Brigade 365 

casualties in the recent actions at Averysboro and Bentonville. 
Their addition, however, would have put the old brigade once 
more upon a respectable footing as to numbers in the field. Gen- 
eral Elliott, who was now compelled to retire from active service 
by a recent wound and the reopening of the wound received at 
the explosion of the mine at Petersburg, felt impelled to return 
home, and his officers and men desired it, and General Hagood 
requested his division commander to seek to have it done. General 
Hoke, for some reason, was laggard in his efforts, enough to call 
for a remonstrance from his subordinate. Nominally there were 
yet men enough on the brigade rolls, present and absent, if 
returned to duty, to restore it to efficiency, and General Hoke 
seemed more inclined to give his efforts to recovering these. After 
conference with General Johnston, but without previous indica- 
tion of his purpose to Hagood, he procured an order detailing 
Hagood himself to go to South Carolina on this duty. This order 
was handed to the brigade commander on the 30th March, and the 
same evening he issued a complimentary farewell order, which 
they had well deserved, to the North Carolinians who had been 
serving with us, and the following address to his own men : 

"Headquarters Hagood's Brigade, 
"Near Smithfield, N. C, 30th March, 1S65. 
"To the Officers and Men of Hagood's Brigade : 

"There are now in South Carolina, absent without proper leave from the 
command, 828 men. There have been captured from the brigade in its long 
and arduous service, 1,505 men and officers, all of whom are, or soon will be, 
in South Carolina on the usual exchange furlough. In the present inter- 
rupted state of communication, both within South Carolina and from thence 
to the army, General Johnston thinks it necessary to adopt some other 
than the usual means to secure the prompt return of these men to their 
standards. With, too, this large number of men or any considerable pro- 
portion of them back in the ranks, the different regiments of the brigade 
will be saved from the action of the consolidation act, and the general 
appreciates the natural desire of his men to finish the war in the same 
organization in which they have heretofore served. 

"Influenced by these considerations, the general commanding has ordered 
me to turn over the command of the brigade temporarily to the ranking 
officer present, and to proceed to South Carolina to secure, by my personal 
exertions, as far as may be, the rapid recruiting of our command. This 
has been done without previous intimation of his views, or without sug- 
gestion from me. When I learned his intention I applied to have the 
remnant of the brigade now here temporarily returned to the State, there 

366 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

to gather up the absentees; but I was informed that, small as their number 
was, they could not be spared from the army here. Our general possesses 
your unbounded confidence. He had been calletl to the command at this 
critical juncture by the uniyersal voice of the army and the country, and 
it becomes us implicitly and cheerfully to carry out his views. 

"I shall be absent forty days, perhaps a short time longer, but so soon 
as the purpose of my absence shall be accomplished you have the guar- 
antee of my past history that I will be back where I have hitherto found 
the post of duty — amid your ranks. 

"In my absence you will not be consolidated, and although the North 
Carolina troops will be taken from the command, the old brigade will be 
kept intact and redeveloped into its old proportions as the returning mem- 
bers arrive. 

"In concluding this frank and full statement of the condition of our com- 
mand, let me urge upon both officers and men to give their hearty co-opera- 
tion in carrying out the views of our general — views dictated not only by 
the interest of the country at large, but by the welfare of our beloved 
brigade. When I return, greet me, comrades, with the announcement that 
in my absence no man has left his standard — that the word deserter has 
been expunged from the vocabulary of Hagood's brigade. 

"Remember your glorious record. Recall the spirit that animated you at 
Walthal when almost single-handed you held the invader at bay until the 
arrival of Beaureguard's avenging army. Think of your triumph at 
Drury's; your services at Cold Harbor, at Bermuda Hundreds, the sixty- 
seven days in the trenches of Petersburg, the bloody but glorious Sunday on 
the Weldon road, the Richmond lines, Fisher, Anderson Town Creek, Kin- 
ston, Bentonville. What men before ever made such a record in eleven 
months? Will you let such a history terminate ingloriously, and the ver- 
dict of posterity be that the men who made the record perished in the 
making, and that the degenerate survivors were unable to sustain the 
weight of glory their more gallant comrades had already won? 

"Officers and men of the Eleventh, Twenty-first and Twenty-fifth and 
Twenty-seventh, to you especially do I appeal to keep your commands 
together. You are the nucleus upon which your regiments must be rebuilt. 
Suppress any rising spirit of discontent at unavoidable unpleasantness In 
your present condition ; lend me your zealous efforts ; and again your regi- 
ments will be in the condition they were when the swords of Lqdbetter and 
Dargan and Glover and Hopkins flashed in your van, and their gallant 
spirits proudly departed to heaven from a death won In your ranks. 

"Johnston Hagooo, Brigadier-General." 

General Hagood was directed to select a detail of officers to 
accompany and assist him; and given transportation for them 
and their horses by rail as far as these roads remain in miming 
order. This was to the edge of Sherman's "swath" through 
South Carolina. Lieutenant-Colonel Eion, Seventh battalion, 

Hagood's Brigade 367 

was left in charge of the brigade, aided by Stoney, Mazyck, 
Lartigue and Hay of the staff. Moffett and Martin of the staff 
and Captain Brooks (Seventh battalion) accompanied General 
Hagood; and next morning they started for South Carolina. 

The brigade now numbered of all grades present 493 men! 
This was the last time General Hagood saw it; or saw the Eed 
Cross flag floating over armed men in the field. Before his mis- 
sion in South Carolina had been accomplished, — ^before the forty 
days had expired — the Confederacy had gone down in blood and 

Captain Stoney kept a memorandum diary of events after 
General Hagood's departure; and the following extracts from it 
conduct the history of the brigade through the few days that 
remained to the bitter end. They at the same time give such 
glimpses of the general course of events, now familiar history, 
as were obtainable at the time by a subordinate and show, too, 
how in the shadow of approaching doom the ignoble traits of 
poor human nature are as perceptible as the heroic. 

"March 31st. — General Hagood having left for South Carolina. Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Rion assumed command of the brigade, being the ranking 
officer present. The North Carolina troops, lately brigaded with us, 
assigned by division orders to Kirkland's and Clingman's North Carolina 
brigades. The division is now attached to Hardee's corps. 

"April 4th. — Hardee's corps reviewed by General Johnston. In the 
absence of Lieutenant-Colonel Rion on courtmartial duty, the brigade 
commanded by Captain Thomas, Twenty-first regiment. 

"April 7th. — Corps again reviewed in honor of Governor Vance, of North 
Carolina. In the afternoon he made a speech to the brigade of junior 
reserves lately attached to Hoke's division, speaking plainly of the critical 
condition of affairs, but impressing upon them that with anything like a 
proper discharge of duty the cause was by no means hopeless. 

"April 9th. — Received orders to have wagons packed by reveille tomor- 
row ; no intimation of what movement is on foot. 

"April 10th. — At 10 a. m. orders to prepare to move. At 11 :30 a. m. 
marched in a heavy rain; passed through Smithfleld and encamped five 
miles beyond on Raleigh road. Colonel Graham, Twenty-first, arrived at 
headquarters just before we marched, but did not assume command, being 
required by division commander, before doing so, to account for his pro- 
longed absence in South Carolina, whither he had been sent on similar 
duty upon which the brigade commander Is now detailed. Colonel Gantt, 
Eleventh, is absent under similar circumstances. Major Cleland K. Huger, 
of the artillery, upon today's march, intimated to me that General Lee 

368 Memoirs of the War of Secess 

had met with a disaster ; a few hours later the army was filled with vague 
rumors upon the subject. 

"April 11th. — Marched fifteen miles and bivouacked five miles from 
Raleigh. Troops out of marching condition from even the short rest at 
Smithfield; straggled badly. 

"April 12th. — ^Passed through Kaleigh at midday. The city was being 
rapidly evacuated and immense quantities of stores destroyed and aban- 
doned. Captdin Segus and his company (Seventh battalion) left behind 
in city as provost guard. Division encamped on Hillsboro road five miles 
beyond Raleigh. Rumors in regard to General Lee assuming an unpleasant 
air of probability. 

"April 13th. — Marched at G:30 a. m. Camped four miles from Chapel 

"April 14th. — Route altered from Hillsboro to Greensboro. Marched 
twenty-two miles ; but little straggling. 

"April 15th. — Division prepared to march at 4 :30 a. m., but for some 
unexplained reason did not move until 6 a. m. under arms in a heavy rain 
during the interval. Our division was the rear of the column; the enemy 
following, but not pressing, and not nearer than Chapel Hill. Early in 
the day encountered the Haw River swollen with a freshet; crossed with 
much difficulty but no loss; a few men were washed away by the current 
but not drowned. Three miles beyond the river the direction of the march 
was changed to Salisbury. On this road a mill stream was encountered, 
about twenty feet wide, but so rapid and deep that the wagons were gotten 
over with difficulty. The Allemance, out of its banks, next crossed our 
path. A few men had succeeded in crossing by chaining their hands or by 
holding on to horses' tails of the mounted men, who half waded, half swam 
over, but the wagons were at a hopeless standstill. General Hardee was 
on the further bank, evidently anxious for rapid movement and nonplussed 
by the obstacle. At length the leading teamster was ordered to attempt 
the passage. With a crack of the whip, and a shout to his mules he is In 
and under, rises, struggles, and is swept away. Everything was again at 
a standstill ; the rain was falling in torrents, the river was rapidly rising, 
something had to be done, and our lieutenant-general determined to try 
to swim another wagon and team across. The order was given, and fol- 
lowed by the same result. Mules, wagon and teamster were swept down 
the stream ; and it was hard to tell which was uppermost in the struggle 
with the flood. The general's resources seemed now exhausted and he 
ordered the destruction of the train. General Hoke suggested that a more 
practicable crossing might be found, and he was permitted to seek it. Fonr 
miles higher up we crossed without difficulty at Holt's mill, and the train 
was saved. Encamped half a mile beyond the river after a most fatiguing 
day's march. Tonight, Colonel Olmstead, of the First Georgia regiment, 
tells me positively that General Lee has surrendered. Great God ! can it be 
true? I have never for a moment doubted the ultimate success of our 
cause. I cannot believe it. 

Hagood's Brigade 369 

"April 16Ui. March resumed at 6:30 a. m. Roads almost impassable. 
To facilitate movement, the division train vfas divided — each train had its 
own wagons in its front with details to assist them along. Marched twenty 
miles and encamped with instructions to move at 4:30 a. m. tomorrow 
without further orders. 

"April 17th. At 12 last night, the order to move this morning was coun- 
termanded, and we remained stationary during the day. Early in the day 
It was reported our army was to be surrendered. This rumor was at first 
disregarded, but presently began to assume shape and force. The wildest 
excitement seized the troops. I rode to division headquarters to learn the 
truth. I saw Majors Cross and Adams of the staff, who informed me that 
beyond a doubt the army would be surrendered tomorrow. In reply to my 
question whether I was at liberty to make this linown. Major Adams 
replied, 'Yes, and you may further say that any one who desires to leave 
can obtain a written permit from division headquarters.' I returned to 
camp and made the announcement. Colonel Rion immediately ordered the 
brigade into line and urged them not to leave. The enemy were now sup- 
posed to be not only in rear, but on both flanks, and it would be difficult to 
escape; that if any considerable number left it might compromise the 
terms given to those that remained. The men seemed at this time ready 
to do anything that their officers advised, to march that night in the effort 
to cut their way out, or to remain and abide the issue where they were. 
All the afternoon the cavalry were passing us saying they 'were going out.' 
The infantry soon become almost frantic, and in every direction were 
rushing to beg, borrow, buy and steal horses. Disorganization was com- 
plete. Horses and mules were everywhere taken without the least regard 
to ownership. Trains were openly carried off after plundering the wagons. 
The division supply train was thoroughly stripped. The flags of the 
brigade were burned by the men in the certainty of surrender. About dark 
an order came from army headquarters to keep the m6n together, but with 
that day the army perished — a mob remained. 

"April 18th. — No further development of events. About dark Major 
Cross, A. A.-G., came to Colonel Rion with directions from General Hoke 
to say to the brigade that there was no truth in the reported surrender. 
Demoralization, however, is utter and complete; there is no spark of fight 
left in the troops. General Johnston expresses, we are told, great dis- 
pleasure at the report. It came to Hoke from corps headquarters, and is 
now there denied to have been warranted by anything that passed. Our 
remaining supplies of commissary and quartermaster stores are fully 
issued, but forage for the animals is failing. 

"April 19th. — ^A strange rumor in camp that Lincoln has been assassi- 
nated. In the afternoon a circular from General Johnston expressing pro- 
found regret at the report of his intended surrender, and positively deny- 
ing its truth. Accompanying the circular was a general order announcing 
to the army 'that a suspension of arms had been agreed upon pending 
negotiations between the two governments. During its continuance the two 
armies are to occupy their present position.' 

24— H 

370 Memoirs of the War or Secession 

"No one who has not seen and mixed with demoralized troops will be 
disposed to credit my statement that this announcement appeared unwel- 
come to many of the men. They regretted to have to remain in camp a 
few days longer, although the difference was between going home as 
prisoners of wat on parole or as freemen under an honorable peace. This 
was undoubtedly the prevailing sentiment with the mass. Others drew 
high hopes from the expression underscored in the official copy, 'the two 
governments.' Recognition of independence was deduced from it, whatever 
minor terms might be agreed upon, and when later in the evening a 
courier from corps headquarters reported the news that Captain Fielden, an 
assistant adjutant-general at army headquarters, had stated that peace 
was declared, and upon most favorable terms, we were in the highest 
spirits. The impression prevails that the United States have become 
embroiled with France in the matter of Mexico, and that our independence 
is recognized on condition of an alliance offensive and defensive between 
the North and South. 

"April 20th. — Nothing definite as to the terms of the impending peace. 
Rumor now has Reconstruction as the basis. The universal sentiment of 
the brigade is opposed to anything Vike submission or reconstruction of the 
accursed Union. The feeling, I noticed the other day, I am sure arose 
from no desire of giving up the Cause, but going home as prisoners of war 
included in their minds the sequence of exchange and renewal of the strug- 

"April 21st. — General Hoke returned from Greensboro with various items 
of news. We are to return to the Union under the status of 1860, the rights 
of property to be respected, and property as defined in each State to be 
recognized. All laws passed since 1860 to be submitted to the Supreme 
Court, negro slavery to be untouched, the troops to be marched to their 
respective State capitals, and there ground their arms; at the capital, too, 
each soldier is to take an oath of allegiance to the United States. 

"April 22d. — There being reason to think that many of the brigade were 
contemplating leaving for home, Colonel Rion issued a circular advising 
them to remain to the end. Immediately the whole command collected at 
head^^rters to hear more fully from him. He addressed them at length. 
He stated the position of affairs, as far as known to him, and urged that 
their departure would be a violation of the truce, compromising their per- 
sonal safety, compromising General Johnston, and finally compromising 
their personal honor. 

"April 23d. — Seven men of the Seventh battalion and fifteen men of the 
Twenty-seventh regiment left for home yesterday and today. The division 
is being rapidly reduced in this way. They are going in large bodies and 
at all hours without an effort being made to stop them. 

"April 24th. — ^Desertion on the increase throughout the army. Thirty 
men and one .ofiicer (Lieutenant Brownlee, Eleventh South Carolina), of 
our brigade, left yesterday. 

"April 25th. — Informed that the truce would terminate at 11 o'clock 
tomorrow. Received orders to be ready to move at that time. iVIen still 

Hagood's Brigade 371 

leaving In crowds. Our brigade lost thirty-nine, ail from Seventli bat- 

"April 26th. — Marched at 11 a. m. May I ever be spared such a sight as 
I witnessed when the order to move was given. Whole regiments remained 
on the ground, refusing to obey. In the last ten days desertion had reduced 
Klrkland's brigade from 1,600 to 300 men ; Clingman's and the brigade of 
junior reserves from the same cause were each no stronger; Hagood's and 
Colquitt's brigades had suffered, but not so much. Now not more than 
forty men in each brigade followed Kirkiand and Clingman from the 
ground. Officers as high as colonels, not only countenanced,- but partici- 
pated in the shameful conduct. Major Holland, of the North Carolina 
troops, formerly attached to our brigade, went off with all his men, and 
officers of higher rank did the same. Hagood's brigade here left forty 
men; Colquitt's about two hundred. These commands being from South 
Carolina and Georgia, are willing to hold together while movement is 
towards their homes. I fear a march in another direction would equally 
reduce their numbers. For all this demoralization I must hold our higher 
officers responsible. All the sensational reports which have so loosened 
the bands of discipline originate at their headquarters, and many of them 
are playing first hands in the shameless appropriation of public property 
that is going on. This last remark applies principally to General Hardee's 
headquarters, and much feeling is elicited among the troops by the appro- 
priation there of supplies intended for and much needed by them. Halted 
on the Trinity College road five and a half miles from Trinity, having 
marched ten miles. 

"April 27th — Remained quietly in camp all day. Rumors rife as usual, 
at length culminating in the sad and solemn truth of surrender. 

" 'Headquarters Army of Tennessee, 
" 'Near Greensboro, N. C, 27th April, 1865. 
" 'General Order No. 18. 

" 'By the terms of a military convention, made on the 26th instant by 
Major-General W. T. Sherman, TJ. S. A., and General J. E. Johnston, C. S. A., 
the officers and men of this army are to bind themselves not to take up 
arms against the United States until properly relieved from that obliga- 
tion, and shall receive guarantees from the United States officers against 
molestation by the United States authorities so long as they observe that 
obligation and the laws in force where they reside. 

" 'For these objects duplicate muster rolls will be made out immediately, 
and after the distribution of the necessary papers, the troops will march 
under their officers to their respective States and there be disbanded. 

" 'The object of this convention is pacification to the extent of the 
authority of the commanders who make it. 

" 'Events in Virginia, which broke every hope of success by war, imposed 
on its general the duty of sparing the blood of this gallant army and of 
saving our country from further devastation and our people from ruin. 

" 'J. E. Johnston, General. 

" 'Official : Aecheb Andebson, Lieutenant-Colonel and A. A.-G.' 

372 Memoirs or the War of Secession 

"April 28th. — The brigade was paid today one dollar and a quarter in 
silver per man, the last, I suppose, of the Confederate treasury. I shall 
have mine made into a medal to keep and value as received from the dying 
hands of my government. It is the greatest earthly satisfaction and my 
only consolation now, that I entered her service on the day of the inaugura- 
tion of this war ; was never absent from my command except by authority 
or from wounds, and continued in the field until the last day. 

"30th April. — Still in camp. Rumor seems to have tired of her occupa- 
tion. The stern reality of accomplished defeat is upon us. Famine begins 
to threaten us. 

"May 1st. — Still here, disorganized, dissatisfied. No right acknowledged 
now except might, no property safe which is not defended with pistol and 
rifle. Regimental and higher commanders ordered to High Point to receive 
paroles. Colonels sign for their regiments, brigadiers for their staff, and 
colonels, major-generals for their brigades, and so on. Paroles are not 
to be issued to individuals until we reach the end of our journeys to our 
respective States. 

"iVIay 2d. — Lancaster courthouse has been indicated as the point in 
South Carolina where our brigade is to disband, and there seems no reason 
now why we should not start for it. General Hardee has quietly slipped 
ofE ; General Hoke is with us still, though his division consists only of the 
remnants of Colquitt's and Hagood's brigades. Our brigade surrendered 
forty oflScers and three hundred and ten men ; Colquitt's about the same. 

"In all these terrible days of desertion but one ofiicer (Lieutenant 
Brownlee, already mentioned) had fallen away from this brigade. Our 
horses have for a week been reduced to one quart of corn per day, while 
the mules get no grain and but a handful of long forage. 

"Expected issues from the Federal authorities have not been received. 
Ten days' rations of bacon are in the brigade commissariat and no meal. 
No orders to leave have been received, but with famine staring us in the 
face. General Hoke consents to our starting. As it might, however, turn 
out a serious step, in the event of our not being able to get food on our 
route, the question of waiting for the Federal issue of supplies, or of start- 
ing now was submitted to the men. Of course, they voted to go. They 
would go with the certainty of starving. Received General Hoke's fare- 
well address to his division. It is full of feeling. 

"May 3d. — This morning at 8 a. m. our brigade started upon its last 
march. The Twenty-seventh led the column with seven men in its ranks ; 
the Twenty-fifth followed next with five; the Seventh battalion, which had 
not suffered so much In battle as the other regiments, had near a hundred 
men in ranks; the Twenty-first not quite so large, and the Eleventh regi- 
ment, numbering sixteen in all told, was the rear guard. We stopped at 
Hoke's headquarters to pay him our respects and say good-bye. He and 
his staff seemed to feel the occasion deeply, and their expressions of regard 
and good will were very grateful to us all. The last link that bound us to 
the army thus severed, we resulned our. weary journey homeward. At 

Hagood's Brigade 373 

sunset we had made eighteen miles. The Washington artillery overtook 
and camped near us. 

"May 4th. — ^The men straggled ofC at daylight and are scattered widely 
on both sides of our route seeking provisions. The wagons are all that 
mark the march during the day, and at night the men reassemble as they 
come up to where headquarters are made. Crossed the Yadkin at Stokes' 
Ferry; marched twenty-eight miles and bivouacked at Colonel Kendall's 
farm. During the day the commissary obtained and had ground into meal 
twenty bushels of corn. This gives bread for the rest of the march to 
South Carolina, but our mules and horses are starving. 

"May 5th. — No incident on the march. Our animals still without forage. 
At night they attack the wagon covers and essay to devour them. There 
is no grass; gnawing rails and trees is their only feed. The country 
through which we are marching is of the poorest description. 

"May 6th. — ^Made a march without incident, passing through Monroe and 
camping eight miles south of it. 

"May 7th. — Arrived at Lancaster courthouse, in South Carolina, about 
11 a. m. Halted in a grove on the edge of the village and proceeded to the 
work of disbandment. 

"We first distributed the transportation of the brigade, as directed by 
General Johnston, ofBcers and men taking an equal chance In the lottery, 
then the paroles were given out to the men and the work was done." 

Thus ended the military history of a body of men who struck 
for what they believed to be inalienable right, and staked their all 
upon the issue. Deo YvnMce. 

Individuals found their way as best they could to the ruins 
and desolation which were now their homes, there in patience to 
abide the event; the brigade, like the Cause in which it had 
enlisted, was dead. 

374 Memoirs or the War of Secession 


In the autumn of 1864, when the brigade then attached to 
Longstreet's corps was serving upon the Eichmond lines, the fol- 
lowing rosters of its different regiments were made out and 
officially forwarded under directions from corps headquarters. 
They are correct from the organization of each regiment up to 
that date ; subsequent changes are not given, nor is the means of 
accuracy in noting them at hand. The most important, however, 
may be gathered from the preceding narrative. 


Organized 22d February, 1862. Mustered into Confederate service 22d 
February, 1862. 


(1) P. H. Nelson, major 22d February, 1862. Promoted lieutenant- 
colonel 10th July, 1862. Killed in battle 24th June, 1864. 

(2) J. H. Rion, captain 22d February, 1862. Major 5th March, 1863. 
Lieutenant-colonel 24th June, 1864. 


(1) L. W. R. Blair, captain 22d February, 1862. Major 10th July, 1862. 
Resigned 3d March, 1863. 

(2) J. H. Rion. (See above.) 

(3) Vacancy not filled. 

R. B. Hanahan, 30th March, 1863. Assistant Surgeon. 

(1) Chas. R. Taber, December, 1861. Promoted. 

(2) Wm. Weston, 2d February, 1865. 


(1), A. P. Irby, 20th June, 1864. Resigned. 
(2) Vacant. 

Assistant Quartermaster. 

(1) Eli Harrison, 6th March, 1862. Transferred. 

(2) Ofiice abolished. 

Hagood's Brigade 375 


(1) S. W. Nelson, 20th March, 1862. Resigned. 
(2 J W. M. Thomas, 12th December, 1864. 


(1) L. W. R. Blair (see field officers). 

(2) B. S. Lucas, first-lieutenant 22d February, 1862. Promoted 10th July, 

1862. Wounded and retired June, 1865. 


(1) B. S. Lucas. See above. 

(2) D. Segars, second-lieutenant 22d February, 1862. First-lieutenant 

27th May, 1862. 

(3) F. M. McCaskell, second-lieutenant 22d February, 1862. First-lieu- 

tenant June, 1864. Killed 21st August, 1864. 

(4) A. M. McCaskell, second-lieutenant Julj^, 1862. First-lieutenant 21st 

August, 1864. 


(1) D. Segars. See above. 

(2) F. M. McCaskell. See above. 

(3) A. M. McCaskell. See above. 

(4) J. W. Gardiner, junior second-lieutenant 14th October, 1862. Pro- 

moted second-lieutenant 21st August, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) J. W. Gardiner. See above. 

(2) Vacant. 


(1) J. H. Rion (see Qeld officers). 

(2) J. R. Harrison, first-lieutenant 22d February, 1862. Captain 5th 

March, 1863. Resigned. 

(3) J. L. Kennedy, second-lieutenant 22d February, 1862. Flrst-Ileuten- 

ant 5th March, 1863. Captain 23d November, 1863. Died of 
wounds 8th August, 1864. 

(4) S. W. Douglass, junior second-lieutenant 2d April, 1863. Second- 

lieutenant August, 1864. First-lieutenant August, 1864. Died of 
vrounds September, 1864. 

(5) J. L. Tidwell, second-lieutenant September, 1864. Flrst-Iieutenant 

13th December, 1864. Captain 18th December, 1864. 


(1) J. R. Harrison. See above. 

(2) J. L. Kennedy. See above. 

376 Memoiks or the Wak or Secession 

(3) H. L. Isbell, junior second-lieutenant 22d February, 1862. Second- 

lieutenant 1st April, 1863. First-lieutenant 23d November, 1863. 
Died of wounds 27th August, 1864. 

(4) S. W. Douglass. See above. 

(5) J. li. Tidwell. See above. 

(6) S. H. Cook, 13th December, 1864. 


(1) J. Ii. Kennedy. See above. 

(2) H. L. Isbell. See above. 

(3) S. W. Douglass. See above. 

(4) J. L. Tidwell. See above. 

(5) S. H. Cook, 8th September, 1864. Promoted. See above 13th Decem- 

ber, 1864. 

(6) J. P. Cason, junior second-lieutenant 8th September, 1864. Second- 

lieutenant 13th December, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) H. L. Isbell. See above. 

(2) S. "W. Douglass. See above. 

(3) R. W. Kennedy, 3d April, 1863. Killed 21st August, 1864. 

(4) S. H. Cook. See above. 

(5) J. P. Cason. See above. 

(6) Vacant. 


(1) W. H. Sligh, 22d February, 1862. Resigned. 

(2) A. W. Pearson, junior second-lieutenant 22d February, 1862. Second- 

lieutenant 11th November, 1862. First-lieutenant 29th June, 
1863. Captain 29th June, 1863. Resigned 25th October, 1864. 

(3) J. R. Mankin, junior second-lieutenant 19th November, 1862. Second- 

lieutenant 29th June, 1863. First-lietuenant same date. Captain 
25th October, 1864. 


(1) M. H. Howell, 22d February, 1862. Resigned 11th November, 1862. 

(2) F. H. Elmore, second-lieutenant 22d February, 1862. First-lieuten- 

ant 11th November, 1862. Resigned 29th June, 1863. 

(3) A. W. Pearson. See above. 

(4) J. R. Mankin. See" above. 

(5) Vacant. 


(1) F. H. Elmore. See atove. 

(2) A. W. Pearson. See above. 

(3) J. R. Mankin. See above. 

(4) W. D. Hill, junior second-lieutenant 7th October, 1863. Promoted 

same day. 

Hagood's Brigade 377 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) A. W. Pearson. See above. 

(2) J. R. Mankin. See above. 

(3) W. D. Hill. See above. 

(4) E. H. Bell, 7th October, 1863. Killed at Bentonville in 1863. 


(1) J. L. Jones, 2d January, 1862. Captured 21st August, 1864. Pris- 
oner until end of war. 


(1) W. Clyburn, promoted to Company G. 

(2) E. A. Toung, second-lieutenant 22d February, 1862. First-lieutenant 

27fli May, 1862. 


(1) E. A. Young. See above. 

(2) R. W. Young, 14th July, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) R. Moseley, 22d February, 1862. Resigned. 

(2) R. I. Cunningham, 19th November, 1862. 


(1) R. E. Boykin, 22d February, 1862. Resigned 25th May, 1863. 

(2) P. P. Gaillard, second lieutenant 22d February, 1862. First-lieuten- 

ant 6th November, 1862. Captain 25th May, 1863. 


(1) A. G. Sanders, 22d February, 1862. Resigned 6th November, 1862. 

(2) P. P. Gaillard. See above. 

(3) James Ross, junior second-lieutenant 22d February, 1S62. Second- 

rteutenant November, 1862. First-lieutenant same date. 


(1) P. P. Gaillard. See above. 

(2) James Ross, f 

(3) F. W. Lenoir, j d-lieutenant 19th November; 1862. Second- 

lieutenant 19th November, 1862. 


(1) Dove Segars, 27th May, 1862. 

378 Memoirs of the War or Secession 


(1) Wm. McSween, 27th May, 1862. Died 1864. 

(2) H. D. Tiller, junior second-lieutenant 27tli May, 1864. Second-lieu- 

tenant 1st November, 1864. First-lieutenant 2d June, 1804. 


(1) J. E. Horton, 27th May, 1862. Died 1st November, 1862. 

(2) H. D. Tiller. See above. 

(3) A. W. Rabey, junior second-lieutenant 19th November, 1862. Pro- 

moted second-lieutenant 2d June, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) H. D. Tiller. See above. 

(2) A. W. Kabey. See above. 

(3) .G. P. King, 13th August, 1864. 


Wm. Clyburn 27th May, 1862. 


L. L. Clyburn 27th May, 1862. 

"Wm. J. Taylor, 27th May, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 
Thomas Sligh, 27th May, 1862. 


(1) J. H. Brooks, 14th July, 1862. 


(1) T. M. McCants, 14th July, 1862. Killed In battle 3d June, 1864. 

(2) Wm. Weston, second-lieutenant 14th July, 1862. Promoted flrst- 

lieutenant 3d June, 1864. Resigned 20th January, 1865. Ap- 
pointed assistant surgeon. 

(3) Vacant. 


(1) Wm. Weston. See above. 

(2) B. J. Randall, junior second-lieutenant 14th July, 1862. Promoted 

3d June, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) B. J. Randall. See above. 

(2) A. P. Irby, 27th October, 1864. 

Hagood's Brigade 379 


The officer commanding this regiment reported an absence of records 
■which forbade an attempt to give a roster until 3d May, 1862, when the 
regiment was reorganized on re-entering the Confederate service. Colonel 
Wm. C. Heyward had commanded It during that period of its service. The 
following roster commences with the 3d May, 1862. 

After the reorganization Company A, commanded by captain, afterwards 
general, Stephen Elliott, had by the Secretary at War been permanently 
detached for service as light artillery. 


(1) D. H. Ellis, 3d May, 1862. Resigned. 

(2) F. H. Gantt, lieutenant-colonel 3d May, 1862. Colonel 22d No- 

vember, 1862. 


(1) F. H. Gantt. See above. 

(2) A. C. Izard, Captain 5th July, 1862. Major 22d October, 1862. Lieu- 

tenant-Colonel 22d November, 1862. 

(1) J. J. Harrison, 3d May, 1862. Killed 22d October, 1862. 

(2) A. O. Izard. See above. 

(3) J. J. Gooding, captain 3d May, 1862. Major 27th November, 1862. 


(1) A. E. Williams, 8th July, 1862. 

Assistant Surgeon. 

(1) J. B. Black, 25th June, 1862. 

Assistant Quartermaster. 

(1) R. P. Gantt, 9th June, 1862. Transferred (office abolished). 


(1) A. B. Stephens. (Never served with regiment after it was brigaded.) 


(1) C. F. Davis, 3d May, 1862. 


Captain Elliott commanding permanently detached. 


(1) J. J. Westcoat, 15th May, 1862. 

380 Memoirs of the "War of Secession 


(1) J. H. Dawson, 3d May, 1862. Kesigned. 

(2) H. "W. Bowman, second-lieutenant 3d May, 1862. First-lieutenant 

1st May, 1863. 


(1) H. W. Bowman. See above. 

(2) W. D. Ellis, junior second-lieutenant 12th May, 1863. Second-lieu- 

tenant same date. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) Ed Chaplain, 3d May, 1862. Cashiered. 

(2) W. D. Ellis. See above. 

(3) John Black, 15th June, 1863. 


(1) T. D. Ledbetter, 3d May, 1862. Killed in battle 14th May, 1864. 


(1) J. J. Guerrard, 3d May, 14th September, 1864. Died of wounds 14th 

September, 1864. 

(2) Vacant. 


(1) F. R. M. Sineath, 3d May, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) Thomas Stall, 3d May, 1862. 


(1) J. J. Gooding. See field officers. 

(2) Vacant. 


(1) McD. Gooding, 3d May, 1862. 


(1) O. G. Sauls, 3d May, 1862. Resigned. 

(2) H. K. Huck, junior second-lieutenant 3d May, 1862. Promoted 


Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) Huck. See above, 

(2) W. L Gooding. 

Haoood's Brigade 381 


(1) J. H. Mlckler, Sd May, 1862. 


(1) Wilson Smith, Sd May, 1862. Died 24th July, 1864. 

(2) Thomas Tuten, second-lieutenant May, 1862. First-lieutenant 24th 

July, 1864. 


(1) Thomas Tuten. (See above.) 

(2) Thomas Hamilton, junior second-lieutenant 3d May, 1862. Second- 

lieutenant 24th July, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) Thomas Hamilton. (See above.) 

(2) B. M. Wells, '25th November, 1864. 


(1) B. F. Wyman, 3d May, 1862. 


(1) J. T. Morrison, 3d May, 1862. 


(1) W. H. Wyman, 3d May, 1862. Resigned. 

(2) J. M. Mixson, junior second-lieutenant 3d May, 1862. Second-lieu- 

tenant 18th May, 1863. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) J. M. Mixson. (See above.) 

(2) E. H. Wyman, 18th April, 1863. 


(1) Capt. W. D. McMillan, 3d May, 1862. 


(1) W. M. Wolfe, 3d May, 1862. Killed in battle 9th May, 1864. 

(2) Vacant. 

Second-Li eutenant. 

(1) J. H. Brownlee, 3d May, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) S. H. Brownlee, 3d May, 1862. 

382 Memoirs of the War or Secession 


T. E. Raysor, M May, 1862. 


W. G. Wilson, 3d May, 1862. 

J. P. Minus, 3d May, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 
L. C. Mellard, 3d May, 1862. 


(1) A. C. Izard. (See field officers.) 

(2) W. S. Campbell, flrst-lieutenant 5th July, 1862. Captain 22d Octo- 

ber, 1862. 


(1) W. S. Campbell. (See above.) 

(2) E. B. Loyless, second-lieutenant 5th July, 1862. First-lieutenant 

October, 1862. 


(1) E. B. Loyless. (See above.) 

(2) J. C. Riley, 22d October, 1862. Dead. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) R. J. Dandridge, 5th July, 1862. Dead. 

(2) J. C. Riley. (See above.) 

(3) Robert Campbell, promoted second-lieutenant. 

(4) George K. Ryan, 25th November, 1864. 



Fi rst-Li eutenant. 

(1) J. H. Murdaugh, 3d May, 1862. Resigned. 

(2) L. B. Murdaugh, second-lieutenant 3d May, 1862. First-lieutenant 

29th September, 1863. 


(1) L. B. Murdaugh. (See above.) 

(2) William Johns. (See below.) 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) William Johns, 3d May, 1862. Promoted 29th September, 1863. 

(2) F. J. Cassidy, 4th January, 1864. 

Hagood's Brigade 383 

Organized 12th November, 1861. Entered Confederate Service 1st Jan., 1862. 

Robert P. Graham, 26th January, 1862. 


(1) Alonzo T. Dargan, 26th January, 1862. Killed in battle 7th May, 1864. 

(2) George W. Mclvor, major 26th January, 1862. Lieutenant-colonel 

May, 1864. 


(1) George W. Mclvor. (See above.) 

(2) J. Harleston Read, Sr., captain 1st January, 1862. Major 7th 

May, 1864. Retired October 8, 1864. 

(3) S. H. Wilds, captain 1st January, 1862. Major 8th October, 1864. 

Surgeon. See above. 

(1) Theodore A. Dargan. Transferred. 

(2) C. Happolt. Resigned. 

(3) Samuel Muller, October, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeon. 

(1) W. A. Player. Resigned October, 1863. 

(2) E. B. Smith. 

Assistant Quartermaster. 

(1) John C. McCIenaghan. Died. 

(2) N. O. McDuffie. 


(1) Thomas E. Stanley. Appointed A. C. S. 

(2) L. F. Dozier. Appointed assistant surgeon. 

(3) D. R. W. Mclvor, 1st February, 1864. 


(1) J'. Harleston Read, Sr., lieutenant. (See field officers.) 

(2) Vacant. 


(1) Paul Fitzsimons. Resigned. 

(2) Thomas Ford, second-lieutenant 1st January, 1862. First-lieutenant 

November, 1862. 

384 Memoiks of the Wak of Secession 


(1) Thomas Ford. (See above.) 

(2) J. H. Read, junior, 1st May, 1862. Junior second-lieutenanf Novem- 

ber, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) O. E. Wiggins, 1st January, 1862. Resigned. 

(2) J. H. Read, Sr. (See above.) 

(3) "W. Reese Ford, December, 1862. 


(1) S. H. Wilds (see field officers). 

(2) Vacant. 


(1) D. C. Milling, 1st January, 1862. Resigned. 

(2) J. W. King, second-lieutenant 1st January, 1862. First-lieutenant 

July, 1863. Resigned December, 1863. 

(3) J. S. Hart, junior second-lieutenant 1st January, 1862. First-lieuten- 

ant December, 1863. Killed 16th May, 1864. 

(4) J. C. Clements, junior second-lieutenant December, 1863. Second- 

lieutenant July, 1863. First-lieutenant 1st June, 1864. 


(1) J. W. King. (See above.) 

(2) J. L. Hart. (See above.) 

(3) J. C. Clements. (See above.) 

(4) T. J. Cannon, October, 1863. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) J. L. Hart. (See abovp.) 

(2) J. C. Clements. (See above.) 

(3) T. J. Cannon. (See above.) 

(4) T. D. Zimmerman, 1st June, 1864. 


Transferred to Twenty-fifth South Carolina Regiment, becoming Co. I 
of that regiment. 


(1) M. G. Tant, 1st January, 1862. 

FI rst-Li eutenant. 

(1) H. P. Lynch, 25th January, 1862. Resigned. 

(2) J. H. Villeneure, 1st May, 1862. Retired. 

(3) J. D. Sanders, 28th April, 1864. 

Hagood's Brigade 386 


(1) J. H. Villeneure. Promoted. 

(2) J. D. Sanders. Promoted. 

(3) A. A. Vanderford. Died 3d July, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) J. D. Sanders. (See above.) 

(2) A. A. Vanderford. (See above.) 


(1) B. T. Davis, 1st January, 1862. Killed 28th May, 1864. 

(2) Vacant. 


(1) A. W. Davis, 1st January, 1862. 


(1) John A. Craig, 1st January, 1862. Killed 15th May, 1864. 

(2) A. P. Craig, 1st May, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) J. L. Freeman, 1st January, 1862. Resigned. 

(2) A. P. Craig. (See above.) 

(3) Thomas Wilkes, 1st January, 1864. Died 1st September, 1864. 

(4) F. Rivers, 25th November, 1864. 


(1) J. A. W. Thomas, 1st January, 1862. 


(1) W. L. Legett, 1st January, 1862. Resigned 1st May, 1862. 

(2) N. A. Easterling, second-lieutenant 1st January, 1862. First-lieuten- 

ant 1st May, 1862. 


(1) N. A. Easterling. (See above.) 

(2) R. E. Townsend, 1st May, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) R. E. Townsend, 1st January, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) W. D. Cook, 1st May, 1862. 


(1) E. C. Stockton, 1st January, 1862. Resigned. 

25— H 

386 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

(2) R. Dickerson, first-lieutenant 1st January, 1862. Captain 1st May 

1862. Resigned December, 1862. 

(3) R. W. Reddy, junior second-lieutenant 1st January, 1862. Second- 

lieutenant 1st May, 1862. First-lieutenant same date. Captain 
December, 1862. Retired August, 1864. 

(4) Vacant. 


(1) R. Dickerson. (See above.) 

(2) R. W. Reddy. (See above.) 

(3) J. M. Woodward, second-lieutenant 1st May, 1862. First-lieutenant 

December, 1862. 


(1) J. C. Dove, 1st January, 1862. Resigned 1st May, 1862. 

(2) R. W. Reddy. (See above.) 

(3) J. M. Woodward. (See above.) 

(4) W. A. Bevel, December, 1862. Killed 16th May, 1864. 

(5) R. A. Hudson, killed June, 1864. 

(6) P. Bowles, June, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) R. W. Reddy. (See above.) 

(2) J. M. Woodward. (See above. 

(3) Samuel Petty, 1st May, 1862. Resigned December, 1862. 

(4) W. A. Bevel. (See above.) 

(5) R. A. Hudson. (See above.) 

(6) A. B. White, 25th November, 1864. 



(1) J. F. A. Elliott, 8th January, 1862. Died December, 1863. 

(2) H. P. Spain. Resigned December, 1863. 

(3) D. G. DuBose, December, 1863. 


(1) C. I. Flynn, 8th January, 1862. Resigned May, 1862. 

(2) H. P. Spain. (See above.) 

(3) D. 6. DuBose. (See above.) 

(4) F. D. Dalrymple. Killed 1st July, 1863. 

(5) W. H. Carlisle, 10th August, 1863. 


(1) H. J. Lee, 8th January, 1862. Resigned 1st May, 1862. 

(2) F. D. Dalrymple. (See above.) 

(3) D. G. BuBose. (See above.) 

(4) W. H. Carlisle. ( See above.) 

(5) H. Wilson, 10th July, 1864. 

Hagood's Beigadh 387 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) W. W. Moore, 8th January, 1862. Resigned 1st May, 1862. 

(2) E. M. Rogers, 1st May, 1862. Resigned 10th January. 1863. 

(3) D. G. DuBose. (See above.) 

(4) W. H. Carlisle. (See above.) 

(5) H. Wilson. (See above.) 

(6) P. W. Atkerson, 10th February, 1864. 


(1) A. M. Woodberry, 1st January, 1862. Resigned 1st February, 1862. 

(2) R. G. Howard, March, 1862. 


(1) H. A. Gasque, 8th January, 1862. Resigned 1st May, 1862. 

(2) A. B. Jordan, 1st May, 1862. Resigned August, 1862. 

(3) H. M. Cannon, 7th December, 1862. Resigned 20th April, 1864. 

(4) H. J. Chappell, 28th April, 1864. Killed 24th June, 1864. 

(5) W. J. Altman, August, 1864. 


(1) H. M. Cannon. (See above.) 

(2) D. Shelly, 7th December, 1862. Resigned December, 1862. 

(3) J. H. Jarrott, died June, 1863. 

(4) H. J. Chappell. (See above".) 

(5) W. J. Altman, June, 1863. (See above.) 

(6) H. M. Cannon (former first-lieutenant re-elected.) 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) O. B. Jordan, 8th January, 1862. Resigned 1st May, 1862. 

(2) D. Shelly. (See above.) 

(3) J. H. Jarrott. (See above.) 

(4) H. J. Chappell. (See above.) 

(5) W. J. Altman. (See above.) 

(6) H. M. Cannon. (See above.) 

(7) Vacant. 


(1) J. W. Owens, 8th June, 1862. Killed. 15th May, 1864. 

(2) E. B. Green, 15th May, 1864. 


(1) C. L. Sandsberry, 8th January, 1862. Killed 16th May, 1864. 

(2) H. J. Clifton, 16th May, 1864. 

388 Memoirs of the War of Secession 


(1) B. B. Green. (See above.) 

(2) Vacant. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) H. J. Clifton. (See above.) 

(2) Vacant. 



(1) N. C. McDuffie, 8th January, 1862. Resigned November, 1862. 

(2) H. Legett, 7th December, 1862. Died 2d July, 1864. 

(3) W. B. Baker, September, 1864. 


(1) H. Legett, 8th January, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) W. B. Baker, 7th December, 1862. (See above.) 

(3) W. D. Woodberry, 20th September, 1864. 


(1) W. B. Baker, 8th January, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) B. L. Sweat, 7th December, 1862. Dropped 7th July, 1864. 

(3) W. D. Woodberry, 7th July, 1864. (See above.) 

(4) Vacant. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) B. L. Sweat. (See above.) 

(2) "W. D. Woodberry. (See above.) 

(3) Vacant. 

Mustered Into Confederate Service 22d July, 1862. 


(1) C. H. Simonton, 22d July, 1862. 


(1) John G. Pressly, 22d July, 1862. Disabled by wounds 7th May, 1864. 


(1) John V. Glover, 22d July, 1862. Died from wounds 19th June, 1864. 

(2) Vacant. 


(1) W. C. Ravenel, 24th May, 1862. 

Hagood's Brigade 389 

Assistant Surgeon. 

(1) J. M. Warren. Transferred. 

(2) A. J. Beale. Transferred. 

(3) A. G. Bradley, 13th July, 1864. 


(1) A. T. Porter. Resigned. 

(2) E. C. Winkler. Transferred. 

(3) A. F. Diclison. Resigned September, 1864. 

(4) Vacant. 

Assistant Quartermaster. 

(1) J. E. Adger. Transferred to brigade staff July, 1864, (office abol- 


(1) George H. Moffet, 30th July, 1862. Transferred to brigade staEE 
July, 1864. 


(1) James N. Carson, 30th July, 1802. 


(1) H. B. Olney, 30th April, 1862. 


(1) W. W. Finley, 30th April, 1862. Resigned July, 1863. 

(2) James A. Ross, 30th April, 1862. Killed 21st August, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) W. W. Finley. (See above.) 

(2) James A. Ross. (See above.) 

(3) J. S. Hannahan. Transferred. 


(1) E. W. Lloyd, 24th February, 1862. Retired 22d August, 1864. 


(1) Robert A. Blum, 24th February, 1862. Killed 5th September, 1863. 

(2) G. S. Burges, second-lieutenant (junior) 24th February, 1862 ; second- 

lieutenant September, 1863. First-lieutenant same date. Retired 
29th November, 1864. 

(3) H. J. Greer, junior second-lieutenant 22d November, 1864. Second- 

lieutenant same day. First-lieutenant 29th November, 1864. 

390 Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 


(1) R. W. Greer, 24th February, 1862. Killed 16th June, 1862. 

(2) J. S. Burges. (See above.) 

(3) R. M. Taft, 20th June, 1862. Killed 16th May, 1864. 

(4) J. S. Hannahan. Transferred 29th November, 1864. 

(5) H. G. Greer. (See above.) 

(6) Vacant. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) S. J. Burges. (See above.) 

(2) Robert M. Taft. ( See above.) 

(3) J. E. Bomar, 15th September, 1863. Killed 16th May, 1864. 

(4) J. S. Hannahan. (See above.) 

(5) H. G. Greer. (See above.) 

(6) Vacant. 


(1) John G. Pressley, 5th September, 1861. Promoted lieutenant-colonel. 

(2) Thomas J. China, 30th April, 1862. Killed 18th May, 1864. 

(3) Calhoun Logan, 18th May, 1864. 


(1) T. J. China, 5th September, 1861. (See above.) 

(2) Calhoun Logan, 30th April, 1862. (See above.) 

(3) S. J. Montgomery, 18th May, 1864. 


(1) Calhoun Logan, 30th April, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) H. Montgomery, Jr., 5th September, 1861. Killed 5th September, 


(3) B. P. Brockington, 1st May, 1862. Resigned June 26, 1864. 

(4) S. J. Montgomery, 19th September, 1863. (See above.) 

(5) J. R. China, 26th June, 1864. (See above.) 

(6) Vacant. 


(1) W. J. McKerrall, 15th April, 1862. 


(1) J. G. Haselton, 15th April, 1862. Resigned 19th September, 1863. 

(2) D. J. McKay, 19th September, 1863. 


(1) D. J. McKay, 15th April* 1862. (See above.) 

(2) P. P. Bethea, 19th September, 1863. Killed 21st August, 1864. 

(3) M. L. Smith, 5th October, 1863. 

Hagood's Brigade 391 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) P. P. Bethea, 15th April, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) M. L. Smith, 5th October, 1863. (See above.) 

(3) N. D. Currie, 27th November, 1864. 


(1) R. D. White, 22d February, 1862. Resigned 3d September, 1862. 

(2) N. B. Mazyck, 3d September, 1862. 


(1) N. B. Mazyclc, 22d February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) A. J. Mims, 3d September, 1862. 


(1) M. W. Bythwood, 22d February, 1862. Resigned 8d September, 1862. 

(2) A. J. Mims, 22d February, 1862. (See above.) 

(3) V. Due, 10th September, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) A. J. Mims. (See above.) 

(2) V. Due. (See above.) 

(3) F. E. Denbee, 13th September, 1862. Resigned 17th February, 1863. 

(4) Geo. M. Lalane, 17th February, 1863. Died May, 1864. 

(5) John E. Prince, 22d November, 1864. 


(1) J. D. Collier, 22d August, 1861. Died October, 1861. 

(2) J. W. Sellers, October, 1861. Resigned 10th April, 1862. 

(3) M. H. Sellers, 11th April, 1862. Killed 21st August, 1864. 

(4) L. A. Harper, 4th August, 1864. 


(1) J. W. Sellers. (See above.) 

(2) L. A. Harper. (See above.) 

(3) E. H. Holman, 21st August, 1864. Transferred. 


(1) E. H. Holman. (See above.) 

(2) O. M. Dantzler, promoted lieutenant-colonel Keitt's regiment. 

(3) M. H. Sellers. (See above.) 

(4) John G. Evans, 11th April, 1862. Killed 21st August, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) O. M. Dantzler. (See above.) 

(2) M. H. Sellers. (See above.) 

(3) L. P. Collier, December, 1861. Resigned 10th April, 1862. 

(4) F. E. Shuler, 10th April, 1862. Killed 16th May, 1864. 

(5) M. W. Wise, 11th November, 1864. 

392 Memoirs of the War oi" Secession 

company g. 


(1) John v. Glover, Tth February, 1861. Promoted major. 
(2). James F. Izlar, 22d July, 1862. 


(1) James F. Izlar, 15th August, 1861. (See above.) 

(2) S. N. Kennerly, 22d July, 1862. Killed 21st August, 1864. 


(1) S. N. Kennerly, 15th August, 1861. (See above.) 

(2) Samuel Dibble, 23d August, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) Samuel Dibble, 23d August, 1861. (See above.) 

(2) Geo. H. Elliott, 26th July, 1862. Killed 16th May, 1864. 

(3) Joseph Graves, 22d November, 1864. 



(1) S. Leroy Hammond, 26th May, 1862. Killed 9th May, 1864. 

(2) W. H. Bartless, 21st May, 1864. 


(1) "W. H. Seabrooli, 26th May, 1862. Killed 21st May, 1864. 


(1) F. G. Hammond, 26th May, 1862. Killed 9th May, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) F. C. Jacobs, 26th May, 1861. Resigned 30th April, 1862. 

(2) J. T. Ramsey, June, 1863. Resigned 19th February, 1864. 

(3) W. H. Bartless, 27th February, 1864. (See above.) 

(4) E. "W. Rush, 18th November, 1864. 



(1) E. N. Plowden, 1st January, 1862. Resigned 1st May, 1862. 

(2) Y. N. Butler, 1st May, 1862. Resigned 1st June, 1863. 

(3) James C. Burgess, 17th June, 1863. Retired 29th August, 1864. 

(4) J. J. Logan, 29th August, 1864. 


(1) Y. N. Butler, 1st January, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) James C. Burgess, 1st May, 1862. (See above.) 

(3) J. J. Logan, 29th August, 1864. (See above.) 

(4) F. B. Brown, 29th August, 1864. 

Hagood's Brigade 393 


(1) James C. Burgess, 1st January, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) J. J. Logan, 1st May, 1862. (See above.) 

(3) F. B. Brovirn, 29th August, 1864. (See above.) 

(4) R. F. Felder. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) B. R. Plowden, 1st January, 1862. Resigned 1st May, 1862. 

(2) F. B. Brovra, 1st May, 1862. (See above.) 

(3) R. F. Felder, 17th January, 1863. (See above.) 


(1) W. B. Gordon, December 29, 1861. Killed 4th August, 1864. 

(2) E. R. Lesesne, 21st August, 1864. 


(1) F. J. Lesesne, 29th December, 1861. Killed 9th May, 1864. 

(2) Charles Lesesne, 21st August, 1864. 


(1) G. N. McDonald, 29th December, 1861. Killed 10th September, 1863. 

(2) E. B. Lesesne, 29th December, 1861. (See above.) 

(3) W. Salters, 22d November, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) E. R. Lesesne. (See above.) 

(2) Charles Lesesne. (See above.) 

(3) Vacant. 


(1) P. C. Gailliard, major Charleston battalion April, 1862. Colonel 27th 
October, 1863. 


(1) J. A. Blake, 2d October, 1863. 

(2) Major Joseph Abney, 2d October, 1863 (previously major First bat- 

talion sharpshooters). 


(1) J. L. Pressly, 2d October, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeon. 

(1) James P. Cain, 2d October, 1863. 

Assistant Quartermaster. 

(1) R. P. Smith, August, 1863. Resigned,' 1864. 

394 Memoirs of the War of Secession 


(1) W. Mason Smith, killed April, 1864. 

(2) A. D. Simons, 1864, (18tli April). 



(1) F. T. Miles, ITth February, 1862. Kesigned 18th April, 1864. 

(2) B. W. Palmer, 18th April, 1864. Killed June, 1864. 

(3) J. W. Axson, 16th June, 1864. Killed 24th June, 1864. 

(4) Vacant. 


(1) B. W. Palmer, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) J. W. Axson, 18th April, 1864. (See above.) 

(3) Vacant. 


(1) J. W. Axson, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) J. M. Easterby, 18th April, 1864. Retired July, 1864. 

(3) Vacant. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) John M. Easterby, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) Vacant. 


(1) Thos. Y. Simons, Jr., 17th February, 1862. 


(1) Wm. Clarkson, 17th February, 1862. 


(1) Wm. Sinkler, 17th February, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) A. H. Masterman, 17th February, 1862. Killed 16th April, 1862. 

(2) A. W. Muckenfuss, 16th April, 1862. 


(1) David Ramsey, 17th February, 1862. Killed 18th August, 1863. 

(2) Samuel Lord, Jr., 18th August, 1863. Resigned 26th January, 1864. 

(3) George Brown, 26th January, 1864. Killed 22d June, 1864. 

(4) Vacant. 


(1) Samuel Lord, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) George Brown, 18th August, 1863. (See above.) 

(3) James Campbell, 26th January, 1864. 

Hagood's Brigade 395 


(1) George Brown, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) Henry Walker, April, 1862. Killed July, 1862. 

(3) James Campbell, July, 1862. (See above.) 

(4) H. W. Hendricks, January,' 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) Henry Walker, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) James Campbell, 16th June, 1862. (See above.) 

(3) H. W. Hendricks, July, 1862. (See above.) 

(4) George B. Gelling, January, 1864. Killed June, 1864. 

(5) Vacant. 


(1) Henry C. King, 17th February, 1862. Killed 16th June, 1862. 

(2) J. Ward Hopkins, 16th June, 1862. Killed 16th June, 1864. 

(3) J. A. Cay, 16th June, 1864. 


(1) J. Ward Hopkins, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) B. J. Barbot, 16th June, 1862. Resigned August, 1862. 

(3) J. A. Cay, August, 1862. (See above.) 

(4) J. T. Wells, June, 1864. Retired November, 1864. 

(5) Vacant. 


(1) J. J. Edwards, 17th February, 1862. ICilled 16th June, 1862 

(2) J. A. Cay, 16th June, 1862. (See above.) 

(3) A. St. John Lance, August, 1862. Killed 15th June, 1864. 

(4) J. T. Wells, 15th June, 1864. (See above.) 

(5) C. M. Hopkins, September, 1864. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) B. J. Barbot. (See above.) 

(2) A. St. John Lance. (See above.) 

(3) J. T. Wells. (See above.) 

(4) Vacant. 



(1) R. Chisholm, October, 1862. 


(1) S- R- Proctor, 1st July, 1862. 


(1) F. J. Dunovant, 3d July, 1862. Resigned October, 1862. 

(2) T. B. Crocker, October, 1862. 

396 Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) J. G. Guignard, 23d June, 1862. Resigned October, 1863. 

(2) S. M. Kemmerlin, October, 1863. 


(1) Joseph Blythe Alston, 1st July, 1862. 


(1) J. G. Hugenin, 2d July, 1862. 


(1) M. Stewart, 3d July, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) E. P. Cater, 3d July, 1862. Dropped 1864. 


(1) Henry Buist, 30th June, 1862. 

Fi rst-Lieutenant. 

(1) E. H. Holman, 1st July, 1862. 


(1) Charles J. McBeth, 2d July, 1862. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 
(1) A. B. White, July, 1862. 



(1) Edward Magrath, 17th February, 1862. Resigned April, 1862. 

(2) W. H. Ryan, April, 1862. Killed 18th July, 1863. 

(3) James M. Mulraney, 18th July, 1863. 


(1) Wm. H. Ryan, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) James M. Mulraney, April, 1862. (See above.) 

(3) A. B. Allemony, 11th July, 1863. Killed 19th June, 1864. 

(4) Vacant. 


(1) James M. Mulraney, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) A. E. Allemony, April, 1862. (See above.) 

(3) John Burke, April, 1863. Retired. 

(4) P. R. Hogan, April, 1864. 

Hagood's Bkigade 397 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) A. E. Allemony, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) John Burke, August, 1863. (See above.) 

(3) P. R. Hogan, August, 1864. (See above.) 

(4) J. F. Preston, November, 1864. 


(1) Julius A. Blake, 17th February, 1862. See field officers. 

(2) W. D. Walters, August, 1863. 


(1) W. D. "Walters, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) F. C. Lynch, August, 1862. Died October, 1863. 

(3) J. C. Salters, October, 1863. 


(1) F. C. Lynch, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) J. C. Salters, August, 1863. (See above.) 

(3) "W. J. Trim, 14th August, 1863. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) J. C. Salters, 17th February, 1862. (See above.) 

(2) W. J. Trim, 14th August, 1863. (See above.) 

(3) R. B. Seay, October, 1863. Died 15th May, 1864. 

(4) A. G. Cudworth, January, 1865. 


(1) W. Clarkson, September, 1863. 


(1) J. B. Gardiner. August, 1863: Killed 9th September, 1863. 

(2) J. G. Harris, 9th September, 1863. 


(1) J. G. Harris, 14th August, 1863. (See above.) 

(2) A. D. Simons, October, 1863. 

Junior Second-Lieutenant. 

(1) A. D. Simons, 14th August, 1863. (See above.) 

(2) R. B. Seay, 14th August, 1863. Died 15th May, 1864. 

This company was organized in 1863 by an order from General Beaure- 
gard's headquarters, and served as such until the summer of 1864. It was 
then by an order of the War Department, disbanded on account of some 
irregularity in its organization. The men were distributed and the officers 
prbvided for. The regiment afterwards had but nine companies. 

Memoirs of the War of Secession 



Read, J. Harleston Captain 

Ford, Thomas Captain 

Fitzsimons, Paul First Lieutenant 

Read, J. Harleston, Jr First Lieutenant 

Ford, William Rees Second Lieutenant 

Wiggins, C Third Lieutenant 

Ford, John First Sergeant 

Powers, John J First Sergeant 

Bath, Thomas Second Sergeant 

Avant, Jerry R Third Sergeant 

(ioude, Francis M Fourth Sergeant 

Goude, Matthew Fourth Sergeant 

Grier, G.Benjamin Fifth Sergeant 

ATant, Samuel Fifth Sergeant 

Cohen, Jacob B Fifth Sergeant 

Cribb, Henry First Corporal 

Vaux, Robert W First Corporal 

Owens, John Second Corporal 

Peal, Daniel Second Corporal 

Owens, Daniel Third Corporal 

Goude, Stevens Third Corporal 

Etheridge, Isaac J Fourth Corporal 

Cumbie, Daniel C .. Fourth Corporal 

Ackerman, James 
Altman, James 
Bone, Benjamin J. 
Bone, David 
Cribb, Alex. F. 
Cribb, A. Jack 
Cribb, John 
Cribb, Benjamin 
Cribb, Italy 
Cribb, John F. 
Cribb, John 
Cribb, Thomas J. 
Cribb, Wesley 


Cribb, William L. 
Cribb, Frank 
Cartwright, Samuel 
Carlisles, F. P. 
Collins, Grier B. 
Currie, W. Thomas 
Cumbie, Elias 
Cumbie, Moses S. 
Carter, George 
Cribb, Emanuel 
Elliott, Washington F. 
Exum, Zack J. 
Fenters, Thomas J. 

Gradeless, David 
Garrett, Wesley 
Goude, John 
Goude, Jos. 
Grier, Samuel J. 
Grier, T. Coke 
Grier, T. B. 
Grier, W. Kennedy 
Grouter, John 
Griggs, Martin 
Hathaway, Sam'l 
Hamlin, Joseph 
Harrelson, Frank 

Editor's Appendix 


Heyward, James Moore, Robert Rawls, James L. 

Hinson, John Moore, Samuel Ehames, Nathaniel 

Holllday, Henry Nealey,' Robert Rogers, James H. 

Howard, Joseph A. Nichols, Frank Rowe, Jerry 

Hunt,' J. Eneas Owens, Leonard Rowe, Steven 

Jacobs, A. Jack Owens, Jesse Roberts, William 

Jacobs, James S. Owens, Elisha Sanders, Ephraim 

Jacobs, N. L. Owens, Sam Sanders, George E. 

King, Simeon Owens, Thomas Skipper, Allen 

Keily, William Owens, William Skipper, Timothy 

Lewis, Daniel M. Owens, William W. Skipper, Sam 

Mace, James C. Palmer, Asa B. Stokes, Ezander 

Miller, E. John Phillips, John Smith, Jordan 

Miller, Clayton Phillips, Nelson Springs, William 

Miller, B. Taylor Powers, Barfleld Turner, Jesse 

Moore, David D. Powers, John H. Tavean, Augustus 

Moore, Ebenezer Powers, James West, John M. 

Moore, John J. Powers, Gaidi Williams, Wilson G. 

Moore, John Powers, Levi Williams, James R. 

Morgan, Isaac Philips, E. Webb, T. T. 

Myers, Nicholas 


Wilds, Samuel H Captain 

Milling, David C First Lieutenant 

Hart, John L First Lieutenant 

Clements, John C First Lieutenant 

King, John W. . , Second Lieutenant 

Cannon, Theo. J .. Second Lieutenant 

Dargan, Zimmerman T Second Lieutenant 

Dargan, Alonzo T .. .... Brevet Lieutenant 

Dargan, George W First Sergeant 

Stuckey, Edmund First Sergeant 

Fountain, Wm. A Second Sergeant 

Morse, Geo. W Sergeant 

McCall, J. Muldrow Sergeant 

King, J. P. Z Sergeant 

Williamson, J. Wilds Sergeant 

Du Bose, Alfred Sergeant 

Frierson, James M Sergeant 

Crawford, H. L Sergeant 

Hepburn, Clem C Sergeant 

Watford, L. E Coriioral 

Fruitt, Pinckney Corporal 

Beck, Caleb Corporal 

Fountain, James C Corporal 

King, T. Preston Corporal 

Kelley, James Corporal 


Memoirs or the War of Secession 

Abraham, I. 
Burch, J. Blackwell 
Byrd, E. J. C. 
Beasley, David 
Barnes, Hubbard 
Bass, Jesse 
Beasely, Ivy 
Best, George 
Beasely, I. M. 
Beck, William 
Backus, John A. 
Bryant, William 
Bryant, W. 
Beasley, J. Wesley 
Bryant, Jesse 
Bryant, Jefferson 
Barnes, William 
Blackman, Wade 
Blaekman, Henry 
Bryant, Gray 
Collins, Joseph E. 
Cohen, Isaac 
Coats, James P. 
Coggeshall, Peter C. 
Cole, Wm. 
Du Bose, Theo. 
Du Bose, Henry K. 
Du Bose, Edward C. 
Dozier, Frank 
Dargan, J. Furman 
Dozier, Peter C. 
Ellis, James 
Ellis, Wesley 
Fountain, William J. 
Fields, James 
Fields, Wesley 
Fields, Bartholomew 
Frazier, John 
Frazier, Wm. B. 
Frazier, Charles 
Flowers, Andrew 
Flowers, Wesley 
Gandy, Epbraim 
Goodson, Joshua 
Galloway, George 


Galloway, James 
Galloway, James E. 
Gee, John 
Garner, Alex 
Galloway, Emory 
Heath, Andrew 
Hagood, Robert 
Harllee, Thomas H. 
Harrell, Joel E. 
Harrell, S. Miller 
Harrell, James 
Isgette, Allison 
Johnson, James T. 
Kelly, Harrison 
Kelly, Ladson 
Kelly, Wesley 
Kelly, Wiley 
King, Scarboro W. 
King, John W. 
Lewis, Zack 
Law, Augustus E. 
Lunn, Thos. E. 
Lide, Hugh R. 
McDonald, Wm. 
Moore, Frank 
Moore, James 
Mowry, Peter R. 
Mcllveen, John 
McOall, J. De Witt 
McCall, G. Walter 
Muldro, Elihu 
McCall, Geo. W. 
McLendon, Kinnon 
Northcutt, Travis 
Northcutt, John W. 
Northcutt, William 
Northcutt, Abraham 
Oats, Jas. P. 
Player, Wm. A. 
Parrott, J. Perry 
Parrott, John 
Parrott, James 
Parrott, Samuel 
Parrott, Frank 
Parrott, Jesse K. 

Parrott, George 
Parnell, Robert 
Parnell, Thomas 
Register, Ira 
Register, James 
Rhodes, J. Burt 
Rhodes, Joseph 
Rhodes, Ashton 
Rugg, R. P. 
Smith, Monroe 
Stewart, Wm. F. 
Stewart, Samuel 
Stuckey, Hardy 
Snipes, John 
Stokes, W. F. 
Stokes, Joseph 
Sanders, H. E. P. 
Sanders, James N. 
Truitt, Amos 
Williamson, Edwin P. 
White, Hugh B. 
White, James A. 
Witherspoon, J. Boyd 
Yarborough, Thos. 
Zimmerman, Dozier P. 
Barnes, Hubbard 
Blackman, James 
Blackwell, Jas. 
Blackwell, Henry 
Galloway, Chap. 
Gregg, Thomas 
Grantham, John J. 
Hill, Eli 
Kelly, Thomas 
Kelly, David 
McKenzie, William 
Nichols, Duncan 
Rhodes, Jno. J. 
Rhodes, Wm. E. 
Teel, James 
Williamson, Frank 
Walker, Jesse 
Warr, J. J. 
Warr, J. R. 

Editor's Appendix 



Tarr, Milford G. . Captain 

Mclver, George W First Lientenant 

Sanders, Samuel D First Lieutenant 

Lynch, Hugh P Second Lieutenant 

Villeneuve, Jos. H Third Lieutenant 

Campbell, J. C First Sergeant 

Wilson, Alexander J Sergeant 

Patrick, J. M Sergeant 

White, Evander F Sergeant 

Vanderford, Alonzo Sergeant 

Graffts, C. N Sergeant 

Wicker, Rufus W Sergeant 

Bryan, William D Sergeant 

Ousley, H. C Sergeant 

Grlmsley, Wesley E Corporal 

Williams, Alex H Corporal 

Chapman, B. F Corporal 

Powe, J. E Corporal 

Eddings, James Corporal 

Campbell, H. B Corporal 

Powell, Willis A Corporal 

Smothers, A Corporal 

Graffts, Charles A Corporal 

White, Ellison S Corporal 

Atkinson, Alexander 
Atkinson, J. 
Atkinson, Jas. S. T. 
Atkinson, William 
Atkinson, R. 
Braddock, Ellerbe 
Braddock, Franklyn 
Braddock, John 
Braddock, Joseph 
Braddock, George 
Braddock, Ralph 
Braddock, Thomas 
Benton, E. 
Brock, Calvin 
Brock, Thomas 
Brown, J. D. 
Chapman, Calvin E. 
Coker, Caleb 
Coker, Thomas L. 


Cross, Thomas 
Crawford, John T. 
Campbell, John 
Cross, Randall 
Curry, John C. 
Croley, Wm. H. 
Campion, B. Franklin 
Dixon, Archibald 
Dixon, Charles 
Dixon, James 
Dixon, Daniel 
Dixon, C. P. 
Dozier, James W. 
Driggers, H. C. 
Driggers, Rilah 
Edwards, Alexander 
Edwards, Alexander 
Edwards, J. V. 
Edwards, Edward 

Edwards, A. H. 
Edwards, Franklin 
Edwards, John 
Edwards, John H. 
Edwards, Joseph C. 
Ellerbe, A. W. 
Freeman, Chapman 
Freeman, Irvine 
Freeman, Hamilton 
Freeman, John 
Freeman, William 
Goodwin, Alexander 
Goodwin, William T. 
Goodwin, Samuel 
Grant, John 
Grant, Rilah 
Grant, William 
Grant, Thomas 
Gulledge, John 

26— H 


Memoies of the Wak of Secession 

Head, Robinson 
Halney, Benjamin 
Hatchell, W. H . 
Huggins, John L. 
Huggins, S. 
Johnson, John W. 
Kirvln, G. W. 
Lide, Robert T. 
Mclver, David R. W. 
McLaughlin, Alex. 
Ousley, J. H. 
Outlaw, Edward 
Patricli, James M. 
Patrick, John C. 
Patricia, Eli 
Parker, Richard 
Parker, Calvin 
Pelletier, L. L. 

Polk, John B. 
Porter, D. J. 
Poison, James H. 
Powe, Bllerbe F. 
Powe, James F. 
Powe, Joseph E. 
Pressley, William 
Richardson, Asa 
Robbins, Henry, 
Roler, William 
Rushing, Elijah 
Rye, W. W. 
Scarboro, William 
Smith, W. A. 
Talbot, Andrew 
Teal, W. 

Terry, Champ. P. 
Thomas, J. T. 

Thomas, J. H. 
Thompson, Samuel D. 
Thompson, W. 
Turnage, William A. 
Turnage, William H. 
Watson, David 
Watson, John 
Wade, W. E. 
Wetherford, John 
Wicker, W. R. 
Wilkes, Joseph 
Williams, A. H. 
Winburn, William 
Wise, Charles J. 
Xarborough, Geo. H. 
Tarborough, Moses C. 
Yarborough, William C. 
Xarborough, L. 


Davis, B.T.. Captain 

Davis, A. W Captain 

Craig, John A , ..Lieutenant 

Freeman, Jesse Lieutenant 

Craig, Alex. P Lieutenant 

Wilkes, Thos. W Lieutenant 

Rivers, Fred Lieutenant 

Knight, Moses E Sergeant 

Wilkes, A. M Sergeant 

Oliver, Wm. P Sergeant 

Boan, Archie A Sergeant 

Wadsworth, Lewis H Corporal 

Douglass, Duncan D Corporal 

Johnson, Nelson Corporal 

Craig, William D Corporal 

Boan, Archie E Corporal 

Allan, Robert A. 
Alexander, Benjamin F. 
Boan, Charles D. 
Boan, Richard J. 
Boan, Matthew 
Boan, James D. 
Boan, John 
Boan, Daniel 


Burr, Alston 
Burr, Jacob 
Burr, Burrell 
Brown, Stephen 
Brown, William 
Brown, Wilson 
Brown, Wilson, Jr. 
Brown, John B. 

Brown, James 
Brown, Valentine T. 
Bachelor, Joel 
Cato, Henry 
Cato, John 
Cassidy, Andrew J. 
Cross, William 
Cross, William F. 

Editob's Appendix 


Cross, Henry 
Crowley, Mally 
Crowley, Andrew J. 
Coley, E. B. 
Davis, John W. 
Davis, EUsha 
Davis, Thomas P. 
Davis, Thomas F. 
Davis, William A. 
Davis, Wm. B., Jr. 
Davis, John F. 
Davis, Wm. R. 
Dickson, John W. 
Dlcl^son, Richard 
Dickson, William 
Dickson, Samuel 
Dickson, Ellas 
Dixon, Henry 
Edwards, B. Frank 
Ellis, Archibald 
Elliott, Franklin 
Freeman, William 
Freeman, Lewis L. 
Freeman, John 
Gardner, John 
Gainey, Green 
Gainey, George 
Gainey, William 
Gandy, Ephralm 
Huggins, John C. 
Hugglns, Nathan 
Huggins, Jacob 

Hugglns, John 
Huggins, Solomon 
Jordan, William 
Jordan, William C. A. 
Jordan, Richard 
Jordan, Thomas M. 
Jordan, John 
Jordan, Allan 
Jordan, J. Henry 
Jordan, Wm. E. 
Jordan, Alex, Sr. 
Jordan, Alex, Jr. 
Johnson, Henry 
Johnson, John R. 
Johnson, Wesley 
Jones, John 
Jones, William 
Keith, Abel 
Kesiah, John H. M. 
Lisenby, Samuel 
Langley, William 
Langley, John B. 
Langley, Robert 
Levi, A. 

McFarland, Archibald 
McFarland, Duncan 
McLean, John J. 
McLean, John P. 
Merriman, Burrell 
Odom, William 
Odom, J. Kelly 
Odom, Morgan C. T. 

Odom, Gillam 
Odom, Elisha 
Oliver, Steven 
Parker, James 
Parker, Badgegood 
Perkins, James F. 
Purvis, James 
Purvis, William 
Purvis, John 
Purvis, Alex. 
Poison, Amos 
Poison, John 
Poison, Robert 
Polk, Robert 
Polk, James 
Perdue, Archibald 
Perdue, Colleton 
Roscoe, Joseph F. 
Rickett, William 
Rivers, Mark 
Tarlton, Andrew J. 
Turnage, Robert B. 
Turnage, James P. 
Teal, William W. 
Teal, T. Benj. 
Teal, David R. 
Teal, William 
Talbert, Archibald 
White, Hosea 
Wilkes, Daniel 
Young, Jeremiah B. 


Thomas, J. Alexander W Captain 

Leggettj William L First Lieutenant 

Easterling, Nelson A First Lieutenant 

Townsend, Robert E First Lieutenant 

Cook, William D Second Lieutenant 

Hamer, Phillip M First Sergeant 

Moore, John R First Sergeant 

Easterling, Andrew B Second Sergeant 

McCaskill, Neal C Second Sergeant 

Adams, William F Second Sergeant 

Easterling, Jesse Third Sergeant 

Odom, William B Third Sergeant 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Lester, Thomas C Fourth Sergeant 

Quick, Herbert T Fourth Sergeant 

Feagan, Edward J Fourth Sergeant 

Mclntyre, John T Sergeant-Ma j or 

Moore, Alfred W First Corporal 

Gibson, James M Second Corporal 

Hamer, Robert H Third Corporal 

Stubbs, D. Derrick Third Corporal 

St. Clair, Duncan M Fourth Corporal 

Easterling, George W Fourth Corporal 

Newton, David D Fourth Corporal 

Adams, Joshua D. 
Adams, John R. 
Adams, William L. 
Anderson, John G. 
Anderson, William T. 
Barrington, Peter 
Barrington, Phillip 
Barrentine, William 
Bennett, Frank 
Bennett, Thomas 
Bowen, Charles 
Bowen, Frank L. 
Bigman, George 
Bristow, David M. 
Bristow, Robert N. 
Bristow, Wiley J. 
Bundy, G. Washington 
Butler, Elijah 
Butler, William, Sr. 
Butler, William, Jr. 
Calder, John D. 
Calder, Stanford 
Cottingham, Twiman 
Covington, Abijah B. 
Covington, Alfred D. 
Creech, David L. 
Clark, Archie 
Clark, John 
Cummings, Elisha 
Coward, John H. 
Currie, Neal R. 
David, William J. 
Dial, Jacob 


Dunn, William 

Dunn, Thomas 

Easterling, A. Jackson 

Easterling, Harris R. 

Easterling, Joel A. 

Easterling, John A. 

Easterling, William L. 

Easterling, William T. 

Easterling, John L. 

Easterling, James J. 

Fields, Silas 

Fletcher, Thomas 

Gay, P. W. 

Gibson, Andrew H. 

Guin, George 

Grice, Ephraim G. 

Hamer, Abner C. 

Hamer, Charles H. 

Hamer, Elijah C. 

Hamer, James C. 

Hamer, Thomas C. 

Haywood, Anderson 

Haywood, Isham 

Haywood, William 

Herndon, Dave 

Hewstiss, George Wash- 

Howard, John 

Hudson, Joshua H. 

Jacobs, Snowden 

Jacobs, B. li. 

Johnson, Wm. D. Chand- 

Leggett, A. J. 
Locklear, Alexander 
Locklear, Sandy 
Manship, Aaron 
McCall, John N. 
McDaniel, Ira W. 
McKenzie, Joseph C. 
Melnague, John R. 
Moore, Benjamin J. 
Nelson, Erwin 
Newton, John C. 
Odom, D. A. 
Odom, S. Durant 
Odom, Henry 
Odom, James E. 
Odom, Samuel E. 
Owens, John 
Pate, Willis 
Pate, Alfred D. 
Peel, Eli T. 
Peel, Thomas 
Poison, William 
Powers, Erwin 
Quick, Angus 
Quick, Henry 
Quick, Jno. B. 
Roscoe, Alexander H. 
Roscoe, William M. 
Scott, Wash. 
Smith, Oholson 
Spears, James A. 
Steen, Allen 
Stephens, James E. 

Editor's Appendix 


Stephens, Reuben 
Stogner, William 
Stogner, Thomas 
Stubbs, David 
Stubbs, Albert A. 
Stubbs, Campbell E. 
Stubbs, John B. 
Stubbs, Samuel F. 
Stubbs, Hasten W. 

Stubbs, Thomas E. 
Stubbs, Thorough- 
good P. 
Tait, William J. 
Terrell, William T. 
Thomas, Joseph 
Turnage, Luke 
Usher, M. 
Walters, Reuben 

Wallace, Thomas G. 
Weathersford, James 
Williams, Henry 
Williams, Samuel 
Willis, Allen 
Wise, William W. 
Woodall, Ransom 
Williams, John 


Stockton, E. C Captain 

Dickenson, Robert Captain 

Reddy, R. W Captain 

Dove, J. Calhoun '.. .. Second Lieutenant 

Woodward, James M Second Lieutenant 

Bevil, W. A Second Lieutenant 

Bowles, Peter.. Second Lieutenant 

Boyle, John Second Lieutenant 

Hudson, R. A Second Lieutenant 

Petty, S. D Second Lieutenant 

Brown, Thomas J Sergeant 

Doten, Thomas J Sergeant 

Mathews, Samuel P. Sergeant 

Wells, EbbyM First Sergeant 

Codey, Moses M Corporal 

Brown, T. B, Corporal 

Rhodes, John B CorporaL 

Howell, T.J. . ., Corporal 


Barfield, Peter Douglass, H. Hunter, John 

Blackman, Wade W. Bllerby, A. Cooper Hall, Daniel 

Belk, James K. Ellerby, Hossack Harrell, S. K. 

Booth, J. D. Ellerby, Z. Hawkins, John 

Byrd, Mathew Parmer, Brantley Hearon, John Z. 

Byrd, W. Galloway, S. P. Howell, E. 

Byrd, John Galloway, Ferdinand Howell, J. D. 

Browder, John Gandy, David R. W. Hutson, W. J. 

Campbell, J. H. Gandy, J. Jenkins, James 

Cannon, L. W. Griggs, W. C. Johns, D. R. 

Coker, R. E. Griggs, Clement Jones, Riley 

Cook, B. D. Gainey, John Knight, Frank 

Dove, A. B. C. Gainey, Thomas W. Kelley, Simon 

Dagan, W. H. Gairey, Evander Kelley, Thomas 

Dyson, Archibald S. Graves, John Landreth, Peter 


Memoebs of the Wak or Secession 

Lundy, Allison 
Marshall, J. R. 
McKissick, Wm. J. 
McClendon, J. M. 
McClendon, L. A. 
Miller, J. H. 
Morrell, E. 
Nettles, W. W. 
O'Nails, James 
Parker, T. F. 

Parnell, A. W. 
Poison, R. H. 
Poison, W. H. 
Poe, James 
Ruggs, E. T. 
Ruggs, Andrew J. 
Sandsbury, Daniel 
Spence, Moses E. 
Spell, Gillam 
Stanley, John T. 

Tiner, Hugh 
Tiner, John 
Teel, James 
Toler, R. E. 
Vann, Jerry E. 
Webb, E. P. 
Winburn, Joseph 
Winn, Colin 
Wells, T. G. F. 


Elliott, John F. A Captain 

Spain, Hartwell , Captain 

Du Bose, D. G Captain 

Flinn, C. J First Lieutenant 

Dalrymple, Thos. H First Lieutenant 

Carlisle, W. H First Lieutenant 

Lee, Henry J Second Lieutenant 

Atkinson, Peter W Second Lieutenant 

Rogers, Elisha M Third Lieutenant 

Wilson, Harvey Third Lieutenant 

Moore, W. W Third Lieutenant 

Odom, Joel First Sergeant 

Lawson, W. R. S.. . First Sergeant 

Elliott, Z. W Sergeant 

DuBose, Wm. H. B Sergeant 

Mixon, W. P Sergeant 

Dalrymple, Peter L Sergeant 

Beasley, Abram Corporal 

DuBose, Henry J Corporal 

Stokes, Henry Y Corporal 

Witherspoon, David W Corporal 

Best, William Corporal 

Andrews, Thomas 

Andrews, Aris 
Boykin, Hiram 
Boykin, Harrison 
Boykin, W. Franklin 
Boykin, Henry 
Bass, Burrell 
Best, James P. 


Best, Nicholas B. 
Best, Robert D. 
Blackman, Henry 
Buffkin, Hugh 
Blackwell, James 
Brown, William 
Beasley, Elijah 
Bruce, George H. 
Crosswell, Wm. H. 

Cody, M. M. 
Campbell, James H. 
DuBose, Robert S. 
DuBose, Andrew 
DuBose, Jeremiah 
Davis, Thomas 
Dean, J. L. 
Elliott, J. Franklin 
Elmore, Wilson W. 

Editor's Appendix 


Elmore, Simpson E. 
Elmore, Ellis 
Galloway, L. C. 
Galloway, Timothy P. 
Galloway, J. Ferdinand 
Galloway, Thomas 
Galloway, Pipkin 
Galloway, Abram M. 
Grantham, Robert W. 
Gardner, John B. 
Grooms, Reese 
Herring, William 
Hearon, Joseph N. 
Hearon, Wm. E. 
Huggins, Alex. G. 
Huggins, John H. 
Huggins, W. Middleton 
Hurst, Henry W. 
Hurst, Samuel F. 
Hurst, Simeon 
Harris, Wiley M. 
Harris, Franklin H. 
Harrison, Madison W. 
Howell, Alex. 
Howell, J. Barry 
Harrell, Nathan 
Harrell, Robert 

Hill, James 
Inkles, Richard 
Jones, Henry 
Joy, Henry M. 
Josey, J. R. 
King, William 
King, Wesley 
Kelly, Thomas 
Lawson, Joseph T. 
Logan, Joseph 
Lee, Judge L. 
McLendon, Robert 
Mixon, M. Townsend 
Marshall, William H. 
Moore, Wesley 
McKenzie, Joseph R. 
McKenzie, Israel G. 
Nicholson, James 
Newsom, Bennett 
Outlaw, Benjamin 
Peebles, Edv^ard S. 
Parnell, Henry E. 
Parnell, T. Joshua 
Plummer, E. B. 
Quick, James D. 
Quick, Jesse E. 
Register, Calvin 

Red, J. F. 
Rogers, Evans 
Rhodes, John B. 
Stuckey, SdWfell C. 
Stuckey, Wiley D. 
Scarborough, George P. 
Smith, Phillip D. 
Stewart, Ira 
Skinner, Simpson 
Skinner, James 
Skinner, Wm. W. 
Skinner, Thomas C. 
Skinner, R. Zimmerman 
Skinner, Franklin 
Shumake, Morgan 
Stokes, Henry T. 
Stokes, W. Elias 
Thomas, Henry B. 
Woodham, H. Middleton 
Woodham, John E. 
Woodham, Jared 
Woodham, Emberry 
Witherspoon, David 
Witherspoon, Jeffer- 
son W. 
Warren, Gilham 
Warren, William 


Woodberry, Evander M Captain 

Howard, Richard G Captain 

Gasque, Henry A First Lieutenant 

Cannon, Henry M First Lieutenant 

Shelly, David Second Lieutenant 

Jordan, A. Bennett Brevet Second Lieutenant 

Jarrett, J. Alston Second Lieutenant 

Altman, Wm. J Second Lieutenant 

Chappell, Henry C Second Lieutenant 

Noble, J. Hardy First Sergeant 

Gasque, C. Marlon Second Sergeant 

McDaniel, John B Third Sergeant 

Jordan, John S Fourth Sergeant 

Cannon, George H Fifth Sergeant 

Hucks, John R. . .. Sergeant 

Dozier, J. Valentine ' First Corporal 

Cannon, Wm. H Second Corporal 

Wright, John W Third Corporal 

Altman, J. Hamilton Fourth Corporal 


Memoirs of the War or Secession 

Avant, Orlando R. 
Altman, Samuel S. 
Altman, J. Benjamin 
Altman, J. Wesley- 
Bone, John 
Bone, Robert G. 
Bailey, G. 

Boatright, Robert S. 
Brown, George W. 
Brown, Henry 
Brown, Jesse C. 
Brown, William J. 
Brown, Bvander 
Bellflowers, Jesse 
Burroughs, Thomas 
Camion, Samuel W. 
Collins, Valentine 
Cook, James Ervin 
Davis, James H. 
Davis, H. Foster 
Dozier, John F. 
Dozler, Tully 
Foxworth, Ervin J. 
Foxworth, Joseph B. 
Gasque, Ervin A. 
Gregg, Thomas C. 
Gregg, Wesley L. 
Gunter, William 


Ham, Charles W. 
Herrin, Allison W. 
Herrin, David F. 
Hewitt, Thomas 
Hewitt, Joseph R. 
James, James V. 
Jarrett, James B. 
Jarrett, Charles Ed. 
Jordan, W. King 
Lowrimore, John 
Lowrimore, Moses 
Lowrimore, Hanson L. 
Marlow, R. William 
Martin, Stephen H. 

McClellan, Daniel B. 
McClellan, Enos 
McDaniel, J. Randall 
Miller, John P. 
Pace, James A. 
Powell, Noah P. 
Parker, Thomas 
Prior, William M. 
Rogers, Thomas G. 
Rogers, J. Benjamin 
Richardson, Pinckney G. 
Richardson, E. Franklin 
Richardson, Thomas 

Richardson, David W. 
Richardson, J. Graves 
Richardson, James H. 
Richardson, Thomas J. 
Rowell, James W. 
Rowell, David A. 
Rowell, Valentine 
Rowell, William P. 
Stanley, John F. 
Sampson, Joseph 
Sampson, Samuel 
Shelley, John C. 
Shelley, Zachariah 
Shackleford, Stephen P. 
Sineath Joseph P. 
Tindal, Emanuel 
Tindal, Solomon 
Tucker, John 
Turbeville, Asa 
Williams, Henry S. B. 
Williams, John C. 
Williams, Jacob H. 
Williams, Jordan 
White, James H. 
Whaley, John H. 
Whaley, William M. 
Wall, Lawson J. 
Wallace, John J. 


J.W.Owens Captain 

Cowen, L. Sandsbury First Lieutenant 

Green, E. B Second Lieutenant 

Henry, J. Clifton : Third Lieutenant 

Bristow, James, T First Sergeant 

Brand, Alvin Second Sergeant 

Brockington, E. S Third Sergeant 

McLeod, Geo. W Fourth Sergeant 

Lockhart, O. Francis First Corporal 

Hodge, William H Second Corporal 

Hilary, Powers . .Third Corporal 

Hall, Isaac Fourth Corporal 

Editor's Appendix 


Ard, Ben 
Ard, E. H. 

Anderson, Stephen H. 
Anderson, Brylie H. 
Anderson, Joel 
Anderson, Wiley H. 
Anderson, S. Pinckney 
Anderson, Silas 
Anderson, Miles K. 
Anderson, Jesse. 
Amerson, Cooper 
Ame^son, Capers 
Brand, William 
Bates, George W. 
Brown, Nelson 
Brown, Samuel 
Brown, George 
Byrd, George 
Blackwell, James H. 
Cade, John L. 
Cooper, Joel J. 
Carter, Ira 
Clifton, M. Webster 
Cotingham, William 
Cook, Ezecal 
Crawford, Henry I. 
Chandler, Daniel S. 
Cole, Cefus F. 
Dority, John 
DuBose, Zimmerman J. 
DuBose, Elias H. 
Davis, Thomas H. 
Davis, George W. 
Dewitt, Samuel 
Daws, A. S. 
Gray, Daniel A. 


Gregg, Eli A. 
Gatlln, John G. 
Grantham, James 
Gowdy, Benjamin 
House, George 
Hicks, John 
Hall, James 
Hooten, John 
Hudson, Thomas 
Hodge, John 0. 
Hayley, James 
Haley, Jesse 
Harper, Ricks 
Hewitt, Thomas 
Jordan, Henry 
Jeffords, S. King- 
Jeffords, Joseph 
Jeffords, John 
Jeffords, Rufus J. 
Johnson, John W. 
Jackson, John 
Jordan, Andrew 
King, James 
Kilpatrick, Reese 
Kilpatrick, William 
Langston, John 
Lawrence, Moses 
Lee, William 
Loyd, Wesley 
McOall, John 
Mims, Jacob 
Mims, Jesse 
Mims, James E. 
Marshall, William 
Muldrow, Andrew 
McKoy, Samuel 

Nettles, Robert 
Oliver, Claton 
Oliver, Sidney 
Oliver, Lazrus 
Purvis, Henry 
Purvis, Thomas 
Powers, Thomas J. 
Pierce, John B. 
Revell, George W. 
Scaff, Samuel 
Scaff, James R. 
ScafiC, Mathew 
Smith, Thomas 
Sandsbury, Burdell 
Stuart, James 
Thornhill, Evander 
Thornhill, John 
Truitt, Pinckney 
Tolar, Street 
Tolar, Robert 
Vaughro, Henry H. 
Wilson, Geo. W. 
Wilson, John W. 
Wilson, John 
Wilson, Archibald S. 
Wilson, William C. 
White, Jarry 
Windham, William J. 
Windham, Samuel 
Wadford, Lazarus 
Wadford, William C. 
Weatherspoon, Jefferson 
Wadford, Nelson 
Wooten, John 
Young, William H. 
Young Thomas 


McDuffie, Neal : Captain 

Le Gette, Hanibal Captain 

Baker, Wm. C Captain 

Woodberry, Wm. D First Lieutenant 

Sweet, Ebenezer L Second Lieutenant 

Gibson, Albert Second Lieutenant 

Williamson, Robert L First Sergeant 


Memoirs or the War of Secession 

GasQue, A. M First Sergeant 

Collins, Wm. T Sergeant 

Huggins, Christopher. . '. Sergeant 

Reaves, Robert H Orderly Sergeant 

Willimson, Leonard Fourth Sergeant 

Coleman, Samson J Corporal 

Baker, William W Corporal 

Lane, Joseph V Corporal 

Sawyer, James A Corporal 

Carmichael, Franklin '. Corporal 

White, Augustus K Corporal 


Ammons, W. Edward 
Ammons, H. Calhoun 
Ayers, William D. 
Ayers, Joseph 
Ayers, Thomas 
Avant, Jordan 
Anderson, James R. 
Bailey, Nias 
Bailey, Wesley 
Bailey, Mathew 
Baker, John E. 
Baker, Benjamin B. 
Bird, Hugh G. 
Bethea, Edwin A. 
Brown, William 
Brown, John O. 
Beaty, Thomas 
Campbell, Mike C. 
Clarke, Robert C. 
Cooper, Ralph 
Criddle, James R. 
CoUins, John W. 
Collins, David C. 
Collins, Joel B. 
Collins, Shadrack 
Collins, Richard 
Carmichael, Archi- 
bald B. 
Carmichael, Evander 
Carmichael, Franklin 
Carmichael, Archie 
Carmichael, Judson D. 
Carmichael, Daniel M. 

Carmichael, J. B. 
Cale, E. 
Cohen, Isaac 
Carter, John 
Deas, Franklin 
Dennis, George W. 
Edwards, Richard W. 
Evans, N. J. 
Flowers, Elly 
Flowers, William 
Fowler, James F. 
Frierson, J. M. . 
Gardner, Daniel 
Gerald, John 
Gasque, J. Martin 
Gasque, Samuel O. 
Gasque, Wesley E. 
Gasque, Wm. B. R. 
Gasque, Henry 
Gibson, Robert W. 
Gibson, Oscar E. 
Gibson, John S. 
Godbold, Huger 
Godbold, Thomas W. 
Hair, James 
Huggins, S. Lewis 
Huggins, Wesley 
Huggins, Wm. D. 
Huggins, William 
Harrelson, John L. 
Harrelson, Timothy 
Harrelson, Benjamin 
Haywood, John W. 

Haywood, James 
Herring, Pinckney L. 
Harrell, Ephraim 
Jones, Frederick D. 
Jones, James A. 
Jordan, William 
James, William P. 
Jacobs, M. 
Le Gette, Henry C. 
Le Gette, Levi 
Lane, Robert L. 
Lambert, Robert 
Martin, Mac F. 
McCall, Barney 
Matthews, Samuel P. 
Miller, Charles W. 
Oliver, Alexander R. 
Powell, William 
Potter, James 
Porter, James 
Porter, S. Goss 
Pitman, David 6. 
Richardson, Stephen 
Richardson, John 
Richardson, Thomas 
Rogers, Jno. W. 
Rogers, Owen M. 
Rogers, Carey 
Rogers, Fred. G. 
Rogers, Bethel 
Rogers, T. 
Rowell, Valentine 
Rowell, William 

Editor's Appendix 


Robertson,, L. D. 
Sawyer, Jobn 
Sawyer, Thomas 
Shelley, Joseph G. 
Snipes, Moses 
Summerford, William 
Shackleford, John B. 
Shaw, Benjamin A. 

Smith, Enoch 
Thompson, James T. 
Tedder, Daniel M. 
Townsend, Francis M. 
Thomas, Samuel B. 
Tyler, Richard • 
Webb, John 
Wise, J. M. 

Williamson, Bright J. 
Williamson, Joseph M. 
Williamson, David R. 
Williamson, Sol. M. 
Williamson, Samuel W. 
Worrell, James 


Glover, Thomas Jamison Captain 

Glover, John Vingard .' Captain 

Felder, John H First Lieutenant 

Izlar, Jas. Ferdinand First Lieutenant 

Kennerly, Samuel N Second Lieutenant 

Dibble, Samuel Second Lieutenant 

Felder, Edmund J Sergeant 

Williams, James A Sergeant 

Elliott, Geo. H , Sergeant 

Legare, Thomas K Sergeant 

Bay, W Sergeant 

Frederick, J. P Sergeant 

Fox, T. S Sergeant 

Zimmerman, Daniel Sergeant 

Izlar, Benj. P Sergeant 

Hook, John H Sergeant 

Bast, J. E Sergeant 

Izlar, William Sergeant 

Culler, L. Hayne Sergeant 

Andrews, Thadeus C Corporal 

Bowe, Daniel Jacob Corporal 

Shuler, B. M Corporal 

Wiles, Robert H. Corporal 

Wannamaker, Francis Marion Corporal 

Panning, W .Corporal 

Kohn, Theodore Corporal 

Robinson, Jude Corporal 

Kennerly, J. R Corporal 

Andrews, E. W. 
Austin, M. L. 
Avant, J. H. 
Antilley, F. M. 
Ashe, John 


Ayers, D. A. 
Ballentine, S. 
Buzzard, J. C. 
Brickie, V. V. 
Brooker, A. F. 

Brooker, James 
Brunson, William 
Buyck, F. G. 
Baxter, J. D. 
Baxter, E. J. 


Memoiks of the War of Secession 

Black, M. G. 
Boyd, M. T. 
Brickie, V. V. 
Brooker, A. F. 
Brooker, James 
Brunson, Wm. 
Buyck, F. J. 
Bozard, J. S. 
Bull, W. A. 
Crawford, W. B. 
Crider, G. B. 
Cannon, James 
Carson, B. A. 
Champy, A. 
Champy, T. 
Church, W. A. 
Collins, A. 
Conner, A. A. 
Conner, F. 
Crider, J. H. 
Culclasure, D. J. 
Curtis, G. H. 
Culler, J. W. 
Dantzler, D. W. 
Dantzler, M. J. D. 
Denaux, E. C. 
Dolen, M. 
Doscher, Eiber 
Doyle, P. 
Ehney, W. L. 
Ehney, E. T. 
Ezekial, E. 
Fanning, John A. 
Felder, Samuel J. 
Felder, B, L. 
Gardner, D. 
Glover, "W. P. 
Glover, C. L. 
Grambling, Martin 

Glover, Mortimer 
Hall, S. P. 
Hook, S. P. 
Hitchcock, L. W. 

Houser, B. M. 
Houser, F. D. 
Houser, J. D. 
Houser, G. M. 
Inabinet, Frank S. 
Inabinet, A. J. 
Inabinet, C. G. 
Irick, L. A. 
Izlar, L. T. 
Izlar, A. M. 
Inabinet, J. M. 
Izlar, B. W. 
Jenkins, L. W. 
Jaudon, P. B. 
Jaudon, S. W. A. 
Kelly, Thomas 
Kemmerlin, T. A. 
King, W. 
Legare, W. W. 
Law, W. P. 
Lucas, A. 

Meredith, W. C, Jr. 
Murphy, B. 
Myers, Esau 
Miller, A. V. 
Moody, W. A. 
Murph, J. C. 
Murrow, O. H. 
Meredith, W. C. 
Norris, T. P. 
Ott, W. F. 
Ott, J. V. 
Pape, F. W. 
Pike, Jno. C. 
Pool, T. C. 
Pooser, B. E. 
Pooser, J. P. 
Pooser, W. H., Jr. 
Pooser, W. H., Sr. 
Pooser, J. H. 
Prickett, J. H. 
Prusner, William 
Pooser, William 
Rawlinson, M. A. 
Rawlinson, A. S. 

Robinson, Murray, 
Ray, John D.' 
Reynolds, F. S. H. 
Reed, J. V. 
Reed, J. N. 
Riley, John W. 
Rickenbacker, M. 
Rowe, A. G. 
Rush, H. M. 
Ruple, Andrew J. 
Rowe, William Sabb. 
Riley, D. A. 
Sanders, B. H. 
Shoemaker, Ira T. 
Shunight, L. 
Sanders, J. D. D. 
Shuler, J. M. 
Shuler, J. W. 
Smoak, B. Z. 
Smoak, H. O. 
Staley, B. S. 
Stroman, D. P. 
Stroman, Michael 

Stroman, P. B. 
Summers, Jacob W. 
Summers, William 
Stroman, J. P. 
Tatum, John S. C. 
Taylor, W. W. 
Tucker, J. R. 
Tyler, H. Alonzo 
Valentine, W. W. 
Van Tassel, James 
Williams, W. E. 
Williams, S. W. 
Wolf, Z. Marion 
Wolf, E. M. 
Wolf, J. J. 
Wright, R. 
Wolf, Andrew J. 
Zeigler, H. H. 
Zeigler, M. C. 
Zeigler, John A. 

Editor's Appendix 



Livingston, Daniel Captain 

Pou, B. F First Lieutenant 

Jones, James D Second Lieutenant 

Knotts, Joseph E Second Lieutenant 

Ehney, W. L First Sergeant 

Geiger, F. J Sergeant 

Menecken, J. A Sergeant 

Phillips, James H Sergeant 

O'Cain, J. A Sergeant 

Fanning, J. H Corporal 

Inabinet, James A Corporal 

Martin, H. O Corporal 

Geiger, E. Baker Corporal 

Axson, J. "W. 
Brown, J. F. 
Brown, E. 
Brown, William 
Brown, L. S. 
Brown, S. W. 
Brown, J. P. 
Bailey, J. 
Bennett, J. F. 
Courtney, P. 
Craft, J. S. 
Craft, T. W. 
Culclusure, A. D. 
Grim, D. G. 
Corbett, M. F. 
Crider, D. H. 
Cook, W. D. 
Davis, T. J. 
Dannelly, G. W. 
Douglass, M. P. 
Fanning, Jos. A. 
Flake, J. R. 
Flake, J. W. 
Flake, J. T. 
Flake, T. B. 
Furtick, J. H. 
Furtick, L. D. 
Hutto, R. S. 
Hutto, James 


Horsey, J. H. W. 
Hughes, W. F. 
Huffman, Jacob 
Huffman, J. H. S. 
Huffman, J. W. 
Hooker, David H. 
Hildebrand, D. L. 
Hooker, F. F. M. 
Inabinet, P. D. P. 
Inabinet, J. V. 
Johnson, P. P. 
Jeffcoat, H. E. 
Jeffcoat, S. W. 
Kaigler, P. G. 
Knotts, T. D. 
Lucas, J. R. 
Lucas, Rufus 
Lorick, P. C. 
Lorick, J. H. 
Martin, A. T. 
Martin, J. J. 
Mack, B. A. 
Mclver, J. J. 
Ott, James P. 
Peeples, Jos. B. 
Plimale, A. 
Quattlebaum, J. J. 
Rucker, G. 
Rucker, A. E. 

Rucker, U. S. L. 
Redmond, Job 
Robinson, Jos. F. 
Richter, J. J. 
Riley, J. W. 
Stevenson, Benjamin 
Stevenson, W. M, 
Stevenson, J. P. 
Smithheart, John 
Smith, J. W. 
Smith, W. D. 
Stricklin, H. S. 
Slagle, W. P. 
Sightler, T. M. 
Sightler, S. B. 
Sightler, W. S. 
Stabler, G. W. 
Schumpert, S. A. 
Ulmer, A. 
Vann, T. J. 
Williams, F. 
Williams, James 
Williams, M. F. 
Wise, A. J. 
Whetstone, J. A. 
Yon, W. P. 
Zeigler, D. W. 
Zeigler, D. A. 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 


Klrkland, B. B Captain 

Brabham, J. F Captain 

Hayes, J. N First Lieutenant 

Barker, R. S Second Lieutenant 

Hogg, R. B Ttiird Lieutenant 

Barker, J. H Tliird Lieutenant 

Brabham, C. F First Sergeant 

Brabham, H. J Second Sergeant 

Williams, J. A Third Sergeant 

Breland, W. E Fourth Sergeant 

Young, G. F Fifth Sergeant 

Hayes, J. A • Fifth Sergeant 

Klrkland, R. C First Corporal 

Burke, W. B Second Corporal 

Wilson, L. J Third Corporal 

Bowers, M. C Fourth Corporal 


Allen, J. M. 

Frohberg, H. C. 

Lott, Joshua 

Barker, Owen W. 

Frohberg, P. A. 

Lucas, C. D. 

Bennett, J. W. 

Garvin, C. H. 

Myers, P. O. 

Bennett, J. A. 

Gray, Joseph 

Mixon, Frank 

Best, L. C. 

Harrod, G. M. 

McMillan, F. M. 

Best, W. W. 

Harrod, Wm. P. 

McMillan, J. E. 

Billing, E. W. 

Harley, John E. 

McMillan, R. H. 

Blackwood, F. A. 

Harrison, R. R. 

Morris, Gideon 

Blackwood, T. W. 

Hartnett, M. 

Myrlck, J. W. 

Bowers, E. 

Hoover, George H. 

Myrick, Eli 

Bowers, M. 

Hoover, J. J. 

Platts, Geo. W. 

Brabham, W. R. 

Hiers, N. T. 

Platts, W. F. 

Brabham, J. Medicus 

Holly, J. Calvin 

Priester, J. B. 

Bonnett, R. W. 

Hagood, James R. 

Smith, C. E. 

Connelly, William 

Jenny, J. Wyman 

Smith, W. E. 

Cope, Mc. 

Jenkins, J. A. 

Smith, Moses 

Cradock, W. P. 

Johnston, C. E. 

Thompson, W. 0. 

Cone, G. P. 

Jones, James 

Williams, J. B. 

Creech, F. H. 

Loadholt, C. U. 

Williams, J. D. 

Creech, J. W. 

Loadholt, J. M. 

Williams, W. W. 

Curtain, Jack 

Lynes, B. F. 

Wood, Allen 

Deer, AndersoD 

Lynes, Geo. W. 


Crawford, Robt. L Captain 

Kirke, James H Captain 

Welsh, Francis M Captain 

Editor's Appendix 


Perry, L. J First Lieutenant 

Witherspoon, John C Lieutenant 

Hilton, Joseph B First Sergeant 

Gregory, Owen Second Seregant 

Langely, Robert Third Sergeant 

Crockett, James E Fifth Sergeant 

Bennett, James K Third Sergeant 

Sings, W. G Fourth Sergeant 

Welsh, T. J Fifth Sergeant 

Sims, Michael J Sergeant 

Latham, I. T Second Corporal 

Adams, J. W Corporal 

Caskey, Jefferson J. 
Hilton, S. J. 
Adams, John 
Arant, James 
Arant, Samuel 
Bailey, E. J. 
Bailey, Wm. G. 
Bradley, Nelson 
Bailey, Jno. H. 
Blackman, John S. 
Blackman, Simson 
Bowers, Samuel J. 
Bush, Beverly 
Caskey, John D. 
Cauthen, William 
Caskey, W. R. 
Caskey, Thomas P. 
Clyburn, Jesse 
Crenshaw, James M. 
Crenshaw, John S. 
Cook, J. Crawford 
Caskey, Eli A. 
Corbett, James J. 
Deas, Sandford 
Doster, W. G. 
Flynn, James 
Flynn, Thomas 
Falle, Emanuel 
Falle, Samuel 


Falle, J. Thomas 
Falle, C. C. 
Gregory, W. H. 
Gregory, D. J. 
Gregory, N. B. 
Ghent, Jackson 
Garris, F. M. 
Gettis, Franklin M. 
Graham, James P. 
Glenn, John D. 
Harrell, T. 
Hilton, William H. 
Hilton, T. F. 
Harris, William 
Horton, Doniver 
Johnson, S. S. Burdett 
Kirk, Robert M. 
Latham, Thomas A. 
Lamaster, James 
Larke, John E. 
Montgomery, Josiah Al 
McAbee, S. 
McQuirt, John 
McManus, Robert H. 
McAteer, J. Porter 
McAteer, Robt. H. 
Mclnnis, D. A. 
McAteer, F. M. 
Nesbit, W. E. 

Patrick, William 
Plyler, General W. 
Plyler, D. H. 
Pitman, Jethro 
Pitman, Bennett 
Perry, Robert D. 
Richardson, W. A. 
Smith, James E. 
Sweat, Edward 
Sweat, John T. 
Sullivan, Robert M. 
Small, Annias 
Sistare, A. J. 
Sutton, Zachariah 
Secrest, John C. 
Seay, John 
Strain, W. W. 
Shute, Elihu 
Taylor, A. J. 
Taylor, Alexander 
Taylor, J. R. 
Ussery, Samuel M. 
Watson, Levin A. 
Wilkerson, Thos O. 
Wallace, Manus 
Wallace, J. F. 
Wallace, H. J. 
Welsh, James V. 


Memoirs or the War of Secession 


(July to April, 1865.) 

Duncan, W. H Captain 

Thompson, J. H First Lieutenant 

Wood, P. H Second Lieutenant 

Stansell, Jack Third Lieutenant 

Best, J. R. B Third Lieutenant 

Bryan, R. A Third Lieutenant 

Hair, J. M Third Lieutenant 

Wood, W. J .. Third Lieutenant 

Hall, D. P Sergeant 

Mixon, G. D Sergeant 

Ogden, D. S Sergeant 

Johnson, S. W Sergeant 

Woodward, W. W Sergeant 

Mixon, F. M Sergeant 

Thomson, Arthur Sergeant 

Patterson, D. P Sergeant 

Manville, A. P Sergeant 

Colding, J. C Sergeant 

Ogden, Isaac Sergeant 

Key, S. M . .Corporal 

Harley, Edward Corporal 

Best, W. T.. Corporal 

Cane, J. B Corporal 

Thomson, Arthur Corporal 

Sprawls, D. P Corporal 

Beck, Noah 
Bellinger, C. W. 
Bellinger, S. N. 
Bryant, William 
Brunson, St. M. 
Burckhalter, Basil 
Cameron, J. J. 
Cameron, Joe 
Cameron, Pink 
Canada, John W. 
Cane, J. Mi Hedge 
Damish, J. Chris. 
Diamond, James 

Dias, W. 


Driggers, John 
Drummond, Augustus 
Drummond, John 
Gass, R. 
Gill, Val. 
Goodwyn, J. B. 
Green, JefE. 
Green, John 
Green, W. Frank 
Hagood, E. Augustus 
Hagood, Wm. A. 
Hagood, Thomas B. 
Hair, J. W. 
Hair, Mathias 
Hale, John 

Hall, Nathan 
Hayne, Job 
Jackson, Isaac 
Joel, Julius 
Johnson, J. F. 
Kapham, M. 
Kapham, Theodore 
Kitchen, W. F. 
Lambert, John 
McLain, Wiley 
Mixon, W. J. 
Morgan, J. A. 
Morgan, L. H. 
Nelson, A. P. 
Nelson, W. P. 

Editor's Appendix 


Owens, John 
Parker, M. P. 
Pender, D. Farrar 
Roundtree, Job 
Scott, C. 

Scott, P. 

Sheppard, Joseph 
Stansell, John M. 
Stewart, C. 
Stlvander, W. F. 

Sweat, George 
Weathersbee, Ben 
Woodward, J. A. 
Woodward, Nick. 


(Originally Company K, from January to June, 1801.) 

Mangum, T. H Captain 

Pressley, Jno. G Captain 

Day, James M First Lieutenant 

China, T. J First Lieutenant 

Steedman, G. E Second Lieutenant 

Logan, C Second Lieutenant 

Guyton, H. R Second Lieutenant 

Montgomery, H Second Lieutenant 

Langley, Samuel Sergeant 

Allen, D. A. 
Ard, J. J. 
Ard, J. 
Ard, R. 
Ard, E. J. 
Brown, H. J. 
Brown, M. A. 
Baker, M. R. 
Baunsean, J. T. 
Bradshaw, J. 
Burgess, J. M. 
Browders, S. W. 
Brickies, J. M. 
Braxton, J. 
Brockington, B. P 
Blockman, W. 
Brown, James 
Bryant, B. A. 
Blalock, J. G. 
Blalock, R. 
Brown, W. P. 
Brown, J. 
China, J. B. 


China, S. 
Cook, M. D. 
Cook, T. J. 
Coker, J. S. 
Coker, P. J. 
Conner, S. S. 
Cameron, H. G. 
Cameron, J. W. 
Cooper, A. B. 
Cullum, W. P. 
Cannady, Wm. 
Cumings, J. E. 
Clark, J. M. 
Cook, J. F. 
Christmas, J. E. 
Cooper, W. N. 
Cooper, J. H. 
Cook, E. R. 
Dukes, W. D. 
Dukes, J. E. 
Dukes, B. F. 
Dennis, E. G. 
Dennis, S. R. 

Dickson, J. S. 
Dickson, B. E. 
Dunn, M. C. 
Epps, J. H. 
Evans, J. J. 
Ellis, E. S. 
Feage, R. E. 
Floyd, G. 
Fleming, L. B. 
Fleming, W. E. 
Footman, J. M. 
Footman, H. E. 
Garner, H. G. 
Guess, A. 
Gist, G. 
Gamble, J. R. 
Gamble, R. K. 
Graham, S. J. 
Guyton, J. C. 
Holly, L. A. 
Haweston, G. 
Hair, H. M. 
Hatcher, J. M. 
Holly, G. W. 

27— H 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Hester, J. L. 
Harris, J. B. 
Holly, C. C. 
Hair, N. G. W. 
Hair, J. W. 
Hall, J. W. 
Hart, H. H. 
Hogg, J. O. 
Hutto, J. 
Hair, J. J. 
Harvey, J. C. 
Heath, A. J. 
James, S. S. 
Jandow, J. J. 
Johnston, E. 
June, S. N. 
Jannegan, W. 
Jordan, A. F. 
Jones, W. B. 
Johnson, J. J. 
Knox, W. J. 
Kelly, J. W. 
Langley, P. G. 
Logan, W. D. 
Lyles, W. R. 
Lee, J. E. 
Lane, J. W. 
Montgomery, E. P. 
McClure, C. W. 
McClary, D. E. 
McClary, J. L. 
McClary, S. A. 
McCormick, P. B. 

McCullough, J. E. 
McConnell, L. A. 
McKensie, S. 
Markey, J. 
Montgomery, S. 
Montgomery, S. C. 
Mltchum, J. S. 
Mitchum, G. K. 
Mitchum, C. S. 
Matthews, J. M. 
Matthews, R. C. 
Matthews, William 
Menet, J. A. 
Mitchell, A. M. 
Moseley, W. H. 
Moseley, W. P. 
Mims, R. H. 
McCreany, C. "W. 
Mims, J. A. 
Merritt, G. A. 
Mitchum, S. S. 
Nolen, J. 
New, M. 
New, J. 
Owens, J. O. 
Owens, B. 
Owens, S. 
Parker, H. G. 
Parsons, A. J. 
Price, J. M. 
Peacock, E. L. 
Player, J. N. 
Parsons, W. H. 
Parsons, F. R. 

Rush, E. W. 
Red, N. R. 
Ramsey, J. 
Sanders, J. C. 
Surney, "W. J. C. 
Shaw, W. D. J. 
Singletery, E. J. 
Slingfield, E. 
Sigler, A. S. 
Spawls, J. F. 
Smith, W. R. 
Scherarty, G. W. 
Schroder, H. 
Thigpen, J. E. 
Thigpen, W. N. 
Tisdale, A. G. 
Tisdale, W. W. 
Tyler, H. 
Teague, G. A. 
Tool, J. L. 
Turner, J. G. 
Taylor, G. "W. 
Waters, R. B. 
Wilson, P. 
Wilson, Jack 
Weeks, W. J. 
Weathersbee, J. E. 
Weaver, O. P. 
Wolf, W. S. 
Walker, Nat. 
Williams, H. L. 
Young, L. E. 
Xoung, W. H. 
Young, J. H. 


Grimes, G.M Captain 

Gwin, T. D Captain 

Weisinger, J. J First Lieutenant 

Southern, J. L First Lieutenant 

Grimes, G. W Second Lieutenant 

Newby, F. P Second Lieutenant 

Jimison, R. R Second Lieutenant 

Baker, T. P Third Lieutenant 

Kearse, J. P First Sergeant 

Peaster, N. A First Sergeant 

Editor's Appendix 


Shockley, W. T Second Sergeant 

Hagood, A Second Sergeant 

Sweat, L. J Third Sergeant 

Hall, S. D Third Sergeant 

Gwln, J. T Fourth Sergeant 

Gwln, R. A Fifth Sergeant 

Odom, D. G Fourth Sergeant 

Patterson, A Fifth Sergeant 

Gosnell, Geo First Corporal 

Flircnet, Henry Second Corporal 

Thompson, J. L Third Corporal 

Hawkins, Joe Fourth Corporal 

Klnard, B. F First Corporal 

Jennings, A. B Second Corporal 

Rush, O. B Third Corporal 

Copeland, J. J Fourth Corporal 

Anderson, Brown 
Brown, Morgan 
Brice, T. K. 
Brookshire, Day 
Burdette, J. W. 
Bridges, A. 
Bridges, W. N. 
Clary, S. F. 
Grain, S. R. 
Collens, E. O. 
Clark, J. H. 
Cely, "W. H. 
Davis, W. R. 
Bmery, J. B. 
Harnby, W. S. 
Hartley, Grabial 
Hartley, Jeremiah 
Hawkles, Hamp. 
Hall, Thomas 
Hunson, G. B. 
Johnson, John 
Johnson, Pleas 
Lafay, P. B. 
Lafay, A. B. 
Lafay, Isaac 
Multy, J. A. 
Moore, James 
Morris, Harry 


Newby, William 
Nelson, Joseph 
Adams, J. J. 
Roy, Joseph 
Southern, W. R. 
Smith, "William 
Trammell, B. F. 
Trammell, P. L. 
Tor, Joseph 
Vermillion, T. 
Thomas, W. Powell 

( Second Lieutenant. ) 
Runnels, Adams 
Johnson, Blias 
McAuly, A. A. 
Bishop, John 
West, William 

(First Lieutenant.) 
Barbers, B. J. 
Basset, J. J. 
Beard, W. T. 
Businger, J. J. 
Businger, J. A. 
Businger, W. C. 
Bennett, J. M. 
Bennett, W. A. 
Bishop, J. M. 
Brealmed, T. J. 

Carter, D. 
Clayton, C. R. 
Choen, D. A. 
Calsen, J. W. 
Copeland, J. C. 
Dyches, B. H. 
Evals, S. W. 
Folk, C. L. 
Ford, E. 
Furman, H. S. 
Gillam, J. J. 
Grimes, J. F. 
Hemingway, F. K. 
Hemingway, W. C. 
Hunter, J. B. 
Jeffcoat, M. M. 
Johms, J. S. 
Kearse, L. B. 
Kush, J. A. 
Kinard, G. J. 
Kinard, M. A. 
Kinard, M. O. 
Kirkland, J. K. 
Lane, W. S. 
Main, J. A. 
Main, J. W. 
Millhouse, C. H. 
Miller, C. D. 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Mitcbell, B. 
Morris, W. 
Morris, T. 
Morris, R. 
Mase, Geo. W. 
McFadden, J. 
McMillan, H. C. 
Patrick, C. M. 
Pellon, E. 
Preston, A. 
Rentz, J. D. 
Rentz, W. A. 
Riley, G. S. 
Risher, H. B. 
Road, J. M. 

Road, R. L. 
Sease, J. D. 
Smith, J. 
Smith, J. M. 
Steedley, A. T. 
Steedley, D. O. 
Steedley, J. E. 
Steedley, R. J. 
Thompson, J. 11. 
Thompson, J. W. 
Zeigler, J. J. 
Zurox, J. W. 
Beard, C. 
Fender, J. M. 

Hughes, A. J. 
Jones, V. 
Loper, S. D. 
Morris, H. W. 
Pellom, H. R. 
Road, W. B. 
Smith, J. J. , 
Steedley, L. B. 
Zoney, S. S. 
Fender, J. S. 
Still, A. 
Hunter, H. R. 
Main, M. M. 
McKenzie, W. 


Frederick, E. J Captain 

Romsire, J. V First Lieutenant 

Trotti, S. W Second Lieutenant 

Dunbar, G. R Third Lieutenant 

Dunbar, S. S First Sergeant 

Asheley, R. C Second Sergeant 

Dunbar, T. S Third Sergeant 

Horey, J. I Fourth Sergeant 

Starling, G. W Fifth Sergeant 

Asheley, L. A First Corporal 

Wood, P. H Second Corporal 

Darlington, J. H Third Corporal 

Romsire, M. A Fourth Corporal 

Barker, "W. E Fifth Corporal 

Garvin, M. H , . . . SixtJ' Corporal 

Anderson, B. I. 
Benson, Alex. 
Benson, Ben 
Bailey, Alex. 
Bewmot, C. F. 
Bush, W. D. 
Bowers, B. F. 
Baxley, W. M. 
Rush, S. C. 
Bates, I. B. 
Bowers, H. C. 


Black, T. ,S. 
Brady, J. M. 
Bunghman, A. T. 
Dunbar, F. 
Dunbar, R. J. 
Darlington, W. R. 
Dicks, A. 
Dicks, Anne 
Dias, W. L. 
Dias, H. 
Dunbar, Samuel 

Dicks, Graney 
Chatman, W. A. 
Frust, F. 
Goss, R. 
Glover, J. W. 
Hawley, E. H. 
Holman, G. W. 
Holland, I. I. 
Hall, Franklin 
Hallam, William 
Hawley, James 

Editor's Appendix 


Killingsworth, I. I. 
Killingsworth, W. L. 
Killingsworth, T. H. 
Key, S. M. 
Key, Darbln 
Layton, F. M. 
Lowe, Ancil 
Moody, Mat 
Meyer, C. C. 
Nelson, But 

Newman, Steph. 
Newman, Geo. 
Nicliolson, Roger 
Owens, Jno. 
Parlier, Jno. 
Pucson, William 
Rottenberry, Wm. 
Romasire, G. F. 
Robinson, I. 
Roundtree, M. 

Rawford, Shade 
Roundtree, C. L. 
Stallings, M. C. 
Smith, W. H. 
Thomas, M. 
Williams, Ed. 
Williams, Wiley 
Witherspoon, M. 
Young, Tom 


Martin, J. V Captain 

Allen, A. T First Lieutenant 

Flowers, W. B Second Lieutenant 

All, W. A Second Lieutenant 

Brwin, E. A Sergeant 

Bryan, R. A Sergeant 

Colding, J. C I . . Sergeant 

Hammond, W. R Sergeant 

Sanders, R. T Sergeant 

Best, W. C Sergeant 

Roberts, R. C Sergeant 

Erwin, S. M Sergeant 

Minors, C. T Sergeant 

Bellinger, J. A. ..... Sergeant 

Martin, Abraham Corporal 

Bonnet, R.W.. Corporal 

Billing, E. N. . .. .. Corporal 

Jenkins, J. A '. Corporal 

Harden, W. M Corporal 

Gray, J. P ' Corporal 

Richardson, J. M. Corporal 

Garvin, J. W Corporal 

Erwin, J Corporal 

All, G. 
All, J. 
Allen, J. M. 
Ashe, T. M. 
Allen, W. W. 
Allen, J. C. 
Barker, J. G. 
Baxley, J. M. 


Bennett, John 
Bennett, James 
Best, W. W. 
Block, G. W. 
Bodiford, H. 
Bowers, E. 
Brown, P. 
Branson, W. M. 

Best, Wilson 
Barker, R. S. 
Barker, J. H. 
Bassett, M. P. 
Bates, J. W. 
Bowers, M. 
Barker, W. J. 
Bennett, J. N. 


Memoirs or the War of Secession 

Billings, E. W. 
Black, J. R. 
Boils, O. S. 
Bradley, D. C. 
Bryan, H. P. 
Burke, Wm. 
Canty, James 
Carroll, H. 
Colding, T. B. 
Cone, G. P. 
Connelley, W. h. 
Connelley, Wm. 
Creech, J. 
Curtain, John 
Canty, S. C. 
Castilon, W. H. 
Cave, D. C. 
Daly, H. 
Daly, Pat 
Edenfield, J. L. 
Fennel), J. W. 
Fowke, G. 
Garvin, C. H. 
Garvin, W. H. 
Garvin, J. W. 
Gray, Joe 
Gibsinger, J. 
Gooding, W. M. 
Gray, J. A. 
Hall, N. 

Hardin, A. 
Hayes, J. 
Hewlitt, A. S. 
Hutto, M. 
Harley, W. M. 
Harley, J. P. 
Hiers, O. 
Hadwin, J. 
Hays, John 
Harvey,'W. J. 
Hiers, G. 
Hoover, D. 
Haphan, T. 
Hayne, B. S. 
Jones, James 
Jenkins, J. A. 
Johns, E. 
Kirkland, C. S. 
Lancaster, J. C. 
Lawton, F. A. 
Lipsey, W. M. 
Lon, A. 
Loadholt, M. 
Martin, Ben 
Moody, J. B. 
Moody, William 
Morris, J. 
Morris, R. W. 
Mims, F. 
Murden, J. J. 

Myrick, E. 
Mallard, J. 
Mixson, R. H. 
Murdaugh, J. 
Myrick, J. 
Owens, L. 
Oliver, James 
Patterson, D. 
Plath, Charles 
Priester, E. 
Platts, J. P. 
Richardson, J. M. 
Rouse, M. D. 
Shuler, W. 
Sightler, W. A. 
Sightler, A. M. 
Sauls, B. 
Smith, J. 
Sanders, J. 
Sanders, W. 
Strange, H. 
Taylor, P. 
Williams, J. D. 
Williams, D. W. 
Wooley, N. 
Williams, R. H. 
Wood, J. A. 
Young, "C. M. 
Young, J. F. 
Youmans, R. 


Stafford, Jas. H Captain 

Harllee, John W First Lieutenant 

Manning, Wm. L Second Lieutenant 

Murchison, Rodericlv Second Lieutenant 

Murphy, Duncan Third Lieutenant 

Butler, Gilbert First Sergeant 

Blue, William First Sergeant 

McKeller, John D First Sergeant 

Mclnnes, Daniel Second Sergeant 

McCall, Nathan Third Sergeant 

Carihichael, Malcolm C Fourth Sergeant 

Campbell, Daniel Fifth Sergeant 

Carmichael, Daniel A Corporal 

McCormack, Jno. H Corporal 

Editoh's Appendix 


Loftin, Jno. H Corporal 

Mclnnis, Murdoch Corporal 

Brlgman, Arthur P Corporal 

Amnions, Phillip 
Ammons, Asa 
Bailey, Christopher 
Bethea, Holden 
Bolton, Britten 
Butler, Eli T. 
Butler, Alfred W. 
Buie, William H. 
Bendy, Jno. A. 
Burnett, John 
Carmichael, Alex. J. 
Campbell, Jno. C. 
Clark, Kenneth 
Cottingham, Stewart 
Crawford, Jas. D. 
Coward, Abner 
Coward, Ansel 
Dillon, William 
Easterling, Henry 
Evans, William T. 
Fitzgerald, Robt. E. 
Fore, Tracey 


Garner, James 
Gaddy, Ithanner J. 
Graham, Dugald 
Gray, Franklin 
Gray, Henry 
Hamilton, Tobias 
Hamilton, Tristram 
Hamilton, Whitton 
Horton, Thomas T. 
Hairgrove, Isaac H. 
Herring, Harmon 
Henry, Edward 
Herring, Daniel M. 
Herring, Samuel 
Hyat, Solomon 
Hyat, Jno. C. D. 
Hyat, James K. 
Hyat, John 
Hyat, Hugh 
Hyat, David 
Hulon, Wylie 
Hamilton, John 

Jackson, Warren A. 
Jackson, Charles T. 
Jackson, James R. 
Jackson, John T. 
Jackson, John C. 
McCall, John C. 
HcDaniel, Amos 
McDaniel, Joseph 
McDaniel, Randall 
McArthur, James 
Owens, Redlin 
Paul, William 
Stackhouse, William K. 
Stackhouse, Tristram F. 
Sherwood, Richard 
Surles, Archibald 
Taylor, Ephraim 
Townsend, Daniel A. 
Turner, John C. 
Turner, Joel 
Walter, Phillip D. 


Brown, J. J Captain 

Burt, W. D First Ijieutenant 

Bellinger, Jno. A Second Lieutenant 

Green, F. M Third liieutenant 

Hart, B. A First Sergeant 

Kitching, J. H Second Sergeant 

Gary, W. H Third Sergeant 

Tyler, M. V Fourth Sergeant 

Johnson, J. li Fifth Sergeant 

Ogden, D. S First Corporal 

Hair, J. M Second Corporal 

Hankinson, J. N Third Corporal 

Blankensie, D Fourth Corporal 

Thompson, A. W Sixth ,Corporal 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Allen, B. B. 
Askew, G. N. 
Balentlne, J. C. 
Bates, E. 
Bellinger, V. W. 
Bellinger, S. W. 
Birt, W. B. 
Bowman, L. 
Brown, P. 
Cain, G. N. 
Clark, J. I. 
Collins, T. 
Damish, J. 
Diamond, Jas. 
Enicks, A. C. 
Giles, W. A. 
Goss, J. A. 
Green, M. V. 
Halford, W. 


Harley, Virgil 
Hext, G. B. 
Holman, J. F. 
Holland, I. 
Howard, D. A. 
Jones, J. A. 
Karney, I. 
Kelly, T. 
Kirkland, P. 
Manvire, A. P. 
Martin, M. H. 
Mims, E. 
Mason, B. F. 
Wilson, I. H. 
Nix, W. W. 
Adam, R. W. 
Mason, W. P. 
Owens, S. S. 
Patterson, A. A. 

Ray, W. T. 
Redd, S. 
Riley, J. P. 
Robinson, W. D. 
Sightler, F. M. (First in 

Co. B, then in K.) 
Stallings, C. A. 
Stiernder, W. L. 
Tyler, I. M. 
Tyler, R. E. 
Twiaal, Z. A. 
Ussery, W. 
Walker, J. N. 
Weathersbee, C. W. 
Weatherston, T. 
Walker, W. D. 
Williamston, W. 
Wooley, A. 
Yon, P. 



Simonton, C. H Colonel 

Pressley, Jno. G Lieutenant-Colonel 

Glover, Jno. V Major 

Moffitt, G. H Adjutant 

Dibble, S. W Adjutant 

Prendergrass, J. M Ensign 

Adger, J. E Quartermaster 

Barr, D. D Commissary 

Ravenel, W. C Surgeon 

Warren, J. M Assistant Surgeon 

Wardin, W. H Assistant Surgeon 

Beall, A. J Assistant Surgeon 

Bradley, A. G Assistant Surgeon 

Dickson, J. F Assistant Surgeon 

McDowall, J. E , . . . Quartermaster Surgeon 

Smyth, J. Adjer Quartermaster Surgeon 

Fersner, W. F Orderly Sergeant 

Hirsch, M. J Commissary Sergeant 

Dantzler, M. J. D Hospital Steward 

Editor's Appendix 



iSimonton, Chas. H Captain 

Carson, Jas. M Captain 

Olney, Hiram B First Lieutenant 

Finley, W. Wasliington Second Lieutenant 

Ross, James A Second Lieutenant 

Hannahan, Jos. S.. Second Lieutenant 

Cotchett, W. Dana, Jr Second Lieutenant 

Owens, Wm. Capers First Sergeant 

Muclienf uss, W. M First Sergeant 

Sheppard, Jno. L ., Second Sergeant 

Jones, D. Henry Third Sergeant 

Edgerton, Jas. E Fourth Sergeant 

Honour, Fred. H Fourth Sergeant 

Ragin, Charlton H Fifth Sergeant 

Stevens, Jas. A Fifth Sergeant 

Olney, Alfred L Fifth Sergeant 

Miller, Frederick W First Corporal 

Black, C. T Second Corporal 

Ellis, Chas. S Second Corporal 

Newcomer, Jno. G Second Corporal 

Dickinson, Jas. H Second Corporal 

Phelps, Jno. B Third Corporal 

Muckenfuss, "W. G Third Corporal 

Dibble, Sam'l W Fourth Corporal 

Kellers, J. Fred Fourth Corporal 

Blackwood, G. Gibbs Fourth Corporal 

Rowand, C. Elliott Fifth Corporal 

Cowperthwait, "Wm. B Fifth Corporal 


Adger, J. Ellison 
Anderson, Sam'l "W. 
Baker, Henry G. 
Baker, E. 
Ballot, F. G. 
Barbot, Julian 
Barton, A. J. 
Berry, Thos. T. E. 
Beesley, E. B. 
Blackwood, .T. C. 
Blanchard, T. S. 
Bodow, H. R. 
Breese, S. Van Vecton 
Burn, Orville J. 

Burrows, Sam'l L. 
Burrows, F. Marion 
Burnham, Edward S. 
Bird, W. Cooper 
Calder, William 
Oalder, James 
Calder, Edward E. 
Carter, Jno. W. 
Chapman, Thos. B. 
Clayton, W. H. 
Cox, E. P. 
Conner, George D. 
Coste, N. E. 
Cross, E. Frank 

Cross, B. H. 
Cudworth, A. 
Dixon, Geo. W. 
Douglass, Campbell 
Dooley, W. 

Dukes, T. Charlton H. 
Dotterer, William A. 
Enslow, J. A., Jr. 
Folker, O. F. 
Forbes, W. H. F. 
Gibson, Walter E. 
Gowan, Peter 
Gallwey, William 
Haas, John 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Harper, F. M. Marsh, David C- Proctor, Henry G. 

HaJl, John Marsh, Jas. G. Proctor, Wm. E. 

Honour, J. Lawrence Martin, J. S. Ramsey, J. T. 

Honour, Theo. A. Masters, A. W. • Reid, George 

Holmes, Wm. E. Mey, Florian C. Robb, James 

Humphries, "Wm. Mellichampe, Jas. M. Riols, A. T. 

Jones, J. Wall^er Mellichampe, Wm. A. Robinson, S. A. 

Jervey, Wm. C. Milnor, Vincent Salvo, James F. 

Jeter, W. L. Miller, Gustavius Seyle, Samuel H. 

Klinck, Jno., Jr. Mintzing,' J. F. Small, Joseph J. 

Kingman, Jno. W. Muckenfuss, Wm. C. Sheppard, Benjamin P. 

King, S. H. McNamee, Jas. V. Shelton, H. S. 

Kingman, Oliver H. McCabe, J. W. Shokes, G. W. 

Kiddell, Charles O'Sullivan, Thos. F. Shackleford, E. H. 

Lambert, W. Ortman, W. I. Smyth, J. Adger 

Lawton, J. Frampton Ortman, Julius F. Smyth, Augustine T. 

Lanneau, Wm. S. Patterson, W. N. Steinmeyer, Wm. H. 

Lee, L. S. Pennall, A. F. Schmidt, J. M. 

Lee, B. M. Pennall, R. E. Warren, W. Dalton 

Locke, P. P. Prevost, Clarence Mortimer, Jack 

Locke, F. Otis Prichard, Wm. (col. cook) 

Lovegreen, Lawrence B. Porcher,- Chas. F. Perrineau, Isaac 

Lucas, Benjamin Petit, J. J. (col. cook) 

Mahoney, D. A. 


Lloyd, Edward W Captain 

Hannahan, Joseph S Captain 

Blum, Robert A First Lieutenant 

Burger, Sam'l J First Lieutenant 

Greer, Henry I First Lieutenant 

Greer, Richard W Second Lieutenant 

Taft, Robert M Second Lieutenant 

Bomar, J. Edward.. Brevet Second Lieutenant 

Lanneau, Fleetwood First Sergeant 

Simons, T. Grange First Sergeant 

Marion, Jno. F Second Sergeant 

Jamison, Wm. H Second Sergeant 

Gyles, Frank E Second Sergeant 

McLeod, Robt. A Third Sergeant 

Oliver, Frederick K Third Sergeant 

Force, Alexander, W Fourth Sergeant 

Whittaker, Wm. M Fifth Sergeant 

Caldwell, J. Shapter Fifth Sergeant 

Gaillard, Jno. P First Corporal 

Hayes, LeRoyW First Corporal 

Laurence, B. De Treville Fourth Corporal 

Gray, Alfred Fourth Corporal 

Editor's Appendix 


Atkinson, Anthony O. 
Adams, Etsell L. 
Baker, Geo. S. 
Beckman, Christian J. 
Bomar, Geo. "W. 
Blakely, R. 
Brown, Samuel N. 
Brown, T. K. 
Butler, H. W. 
Boyce, J. Jeremiah 
Burns, Lawrence T. 
Brown, J. H. 
Cochran, Wm. 
Cantwell, Pat. H. 
Copes, Frederick 
Culler, W. V. 
De Treville, Ed. W. 
Devoe, James H. 
Doucin, P. M. 
Dorre, C. Frederick 
Dibble, Marion W. 
Duff, A. 

Edmondson, George 
Estell, Henry P. 
Flynn, Wm. E. 
Flynn, W. H. 
Force, George H. 
Flyim, Charles H. 
Gadsden, Thomas N. 
Gilliland, Daniel B. 
Gilllland, Edward B. 
Glover, Jno. B. 


Glover, Leslie 
Gibbs, Isaac B. 
Grady, James T. 
Grady, Edward 
Graham, Stephen G. 
Grice, George D. 
Greer, W. Robert 
Happoldt, J. H. 
Houston, Jno. H. 
Hernandez, B. 
Johnston, Chas. H. 
Lanneau, J. Bennett 
Lebby, Thos. D. 
Little, Wm. 
Logan, E. W. 
Mathews, Christopher 
Molloy, Lawrence E. 
Martin, Jno. C. 
Mellard, J. Pettigrew 
Mellard, Joel P. 
Moffitt, Geo. H. 
Moore, Wm. H. 
Murray, D. T>. 
Myers, H. 
McCutchen, R. G. 
McDowell, Robt. H., Jr. 
McMillan, W. F. 
Muller, R. 
Ortman, Louis 
Ortman, Henry 
O'Hara, W. P. 
Oliver, Thos. P. 

Prior, Barney B. 
Riecke, Gerhard 
Renneker, Fred. W. 
Renneker, J. Henry 
Robbins, E. Frank 
Saltus, Samuel 
Schulte, J. Herman 
Shaffer, R. Randolph 
Shaffer, Wm. H. 
Shaffer, C. P. 
Simons, W. Lucas 
Silcox, James 
Silcox, Daniel S. 
Scherer, John 
Shecut, J. Eraser 
Smith, Jno. B. 
Stocker, John D. 
Strong, S. J. 
Taft, A. Walton 
Tavernor,, J. H. 
Tharen, Edward B. 
Trumbo, Augustus S. 
Warren, Benjamin W. 
Westendorff, Chas. H. 
Williamson, Chas. A. 
Williams, Henry H., Jr., 
Wittschew, E. 
Woodberry, Stratford B. 
Wilkie, Octavius 
West, Chas. H., Jr. 
Hunter, T. (col. cook) 
Lawrence, J. (col. cook) 


China, Thos. J Captain 

Logan, Calhoun Captain 

Montgomery, Henry, Jr Second Lieutenant 

Brockington, Burrows P Second Lieutenant 

China, J. Randolph Second Lieutenant 

Montgomery, S. Isaac Second Lieutenant 

Scott, Junius E Second Lieutenant 

Tootman, Jno. M Sergeant 

China, Samuel M Sergeant 


■Memoirs of the Wae of Secession 

McClary, G. Franklin Sergeant 

Mitchum, Sylvester S Sergeant 

Montgomery, Samuel • Corporal 

Epps, J. Henry Corporal 

Baker, Major R. D Corporal 

Jayroe, John W Corporal 

Montgomery, Isaac Corporal 

McKnight, Wm. H Corporal 

Ard, Edward G. 
Ard, S. Reuben 
Ard, James, Jr. 
Ard, Joseph 
Allen, Drue A. 
Adams, D. Elliott 
Brown, Harvey J. 
Brown, Madison A. 
Barrineau, J. Thomas 
Barrineau, R. Henry 
Barrineau, Edwin M. 
Barrineau, Ebbin G. 
Barrineau, Geo. W. 
Browder, S. Warren 
Brabham, J. Augustus 
Brabham, Joliu 
Brown, James M. 
Brockintou, William 
Cook, T. James 
Cook, W. Dorsey 
Cook, Elihu R. 
Cooper, Archie B. 
Dennis, Edward G. 
Dennis, Samuel R. 
Duke, W. David 
Duke, Robert E. 
Duke, Benjamin F. 
Duke, Thomas J. 
Duke, David M. 
Ellis, Ellie S. 
Footman, Henry E. 
Peagin, J. Alfred 

Feagin, Madison S. 
Feagin, Richard 
Gist, George 
Guess, William 
Guess, G. Adolphus 
Guess, Burgess M. 
Gamble, Robert K. 
Gamble, Isaac K. 
Garner, Henry S. 
Graham, Samuel 
Grayson, Harvey L. 
Grayson, John M. 
Johnson, J. Bird 
Johnson, Edward 
Jaudon, Dicky J. 
June, Samuel N. 
James, Wm. E. 
James, Samuel S. 
Jones, J. Ferdinand 
Kelly, John W. 
Kelly, Elbert J. 
Kaler, James E. 
Lee, Isaac E. 
Logan, Washington D. 
Liles, Robert K. 
Lambert, A. Jack 
Mitchum, J. Sessions 
Martin, Ebbin R. 
Martin, J. James 
Montgomery, S. Edgar 
Montgomery, T. Warren 
Montgomery, Edward P. 

Montgomery, J. Alex- 

Montgomery, J. Frank- 

Montgomery, Wm. J. 

Montgomery, James- B. 

McConnell, Thomas A. 

Mathews, James M. 

McCrary, S. Alex. 

McCIary, Lidney B. 

McClary, Wm. D. 

Mouzon, Wm. E. 

Murphy, J. Calvin 

McCants, John E. 

McKnight, Daniel Baker 

Owens, J. Manson 

Parsons, Wm. H. 

Parsons, A. Jack 

Parsons, George 

Pressley, Hugh M. 

Pendergrass, Jno. M. 

Pendergrass, B, Robert 

Rush, Emory W. 

Shaw, H. David 

Smith, Erwin R. 

Smith, David M. 

Tisdale, Wm. W. 

Wilson, Pinckney 

Wilson, John 

Xoung, W. Henry 

Young, James H. 

Young, Levi E. 


McKerrall, Wm. Jasper Captain 

Haselton, James First Lieutenant 

McKay, Daniel J First Lieutenant 

Editor's Appendix 


Bethea, Pickett P Second Lieutenant 

Smith, Marcus L Second Lieutenant 

Alford, Artemus Sergeant 

Richard, Meyer Sergeant 

Mclntyre, Joseph Sergeant 

Barfleld, Jesse Sergeant 

Sweet, David Corporal 

Cox, Lewis J Corporal 

Greenwood, E. B Corporal 

Herring, Jno. C Corporal 

Herring, Marcus C Corporal 

Turbeville, George 
Allen, John 
Atkinson, Tulley 
Barrentine, Wilson 
Berry, Nathan 
Blackman, David 
Barrentine, Nelson 
Bullard, P. D. B. 
Barnett, D. 
Beverly, Douglass 
Coward, Ansel 
Candler, William 
Candler, Noah 
Cook, Hiram 
Coats, Evander 
Cottingham, Wesley 
Coals, James 
Candler, Wm., Sr. 
Coleman, Louis 
Clark, Johnson 
Carter, Henry 
Daniel, Harllee 
Drew, R. 
Daniel, Dargan 
Drew, Turrentine 
Drew, John W. 
Edge, John 
Edge, Hamilton 
Foxworth, John 
Foxworth, W. K. 
Freeman, Robert 
Freeman, Rob. 
Gaddy, J. J. 
Graham, James 


Godbold, James V. 
Graves, W. M. 
Goodbad, Eli 
Graham, E. 
Hoyt, Hugh 
Hoyt, Washington 
Herring, D. M. 
Hamilton, Whitner, Jr. 
Hunt, George 
Hunt, Charles 
Hunt, P. C. 
Hays, W. M. 
Hays, Nicholas W. 
Hays, W. C. 
Hays, H. R. 
Hays, R. H. 
Hays, A. G. 
Hays, Jesse H. 
Hays, E. W. 
Hays, C. 
Hairgrove, Wm. 
Hairgrove, W. H. 
Haselden, James 
Hyatt, Hugh 
Hyatt, John 
Herlong, James 
Ikner, James 
Johnson, J. F. 
Jordan, Jacob 
Jackson, J. R. 
Johnson, George 
Johnson, Barney 
Jones, F. D. 
Keever, David A. 

Kennedy, Evander 
Lane, Ferdinand 
Lane, Franklyn 
Lulidy, John 
Lovell, J. W. 
Lane, Robert 
Lane, S. D. 
Lundy, Wm. 
McCorkle, J. F. 
Mekins, Phillips B. 
Mekins, Oscar 
McKnight, J. E. 
Moore, G. W. 
Norton, Sandy 
Nees, John 
Owens, Hewitt 
Owens, Lott 
Ransom, John 
Rushing, James 
Riley, D. S. 
Rucker, Ruff 
Smith, J. K. 
Redman, Jake 
Turner, Willis, Jr. 
Turner, Martin 
Turner, Joel 
Tart, G. 

Withington, W. fJ. 
Watson, David 
Wilkes, James 
Wilkinson, Jaiiies 
Wood, John 
Yates, Wm. 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 


White, Robert D Captain 

Mazyck, Nat B Captain 

Bythwood, Mat W First Lieutenant 

Mims, Alfred James First Lieutenant 

Due, "Virgil Second Lieutenant 

Durbee, F. Eugene Second Lieutenant 

Lalane, Geo. M Second Lieutenant 

Prince, John E Second Lieutenant 

May, P Sergeant 

Norris, E. J Sergeant 

Dunn, GeOjA Sergeant 

King, John Sergeant 

Sanders, Joseph T Sergeant 

Mahoney, William Sergeant 

Milligan, H. A Corporal 

McEvoy, P Corporal 

McLeish, Jno Corporal 

Manning, John Corporal 

Vocelle, Leon Corporal 

Kettleband, S. D Corporal 

Gory, P Corporal 

Adams, Geo. P. 
Arnum, M. V. 
Arnum, W. D. P. 
Abrams, A. F. W. 
Bilton, John J. 
Bilton, William 
Bilton, George 
Baljer, Fred. G. 
Broolis, J. D. 
Burns, John 
Bain, M. 
Brennan, John 
Boyce, W. 
Burck, E. 
Broughton, J. J. 
Bergen, P. J. 
Campsen, J. H. 
Carey, M. 
Carpenter, W. 
Christophel, M. 
Crosby, James 
Cohen, Julius 


Doughty, E. B. 
Daggett, J. W. 
Dunn, James 
Dallwick, L. 
Due, John E. 
Dufort, J. L. 
Easterby, S. D. 
Englert, John W. 
Flotwell, R. 
Farris, J. E. 
Frank, Joseph 
Foster, C. H. 
Pourcher, V. 
Fannigan, T. 

Gerkin, E. H. 
Gordon, W. C. 
Gordon, J. 
Gaymon, M. 
Gerry, Wm., Jr. 
Haselton, D. B. 
Hall, George 

Husseman, H. H. 
Hirsch, Melvln J. 
Hutson, J. H. 
Hudson, Ellas 
Hutson, Edward R. 
Halverson, J. H. 
Ittner, J. 
Jacobs, F. 
Johnson, Jno. R. 
Jones, J. W. 
Jones, William 
Kressell, Frank 
Kenny, J. 
Lalane, Paul B. 
Laler, M. ^ 
Long, John 
Leitch, Gilbert M. 
Lolly, J. 
Laverne, J. 
Marshburn, E. H. 
Mahoney, D. 
Martin, John 

Editor's Appendix 


Mclntyre, Thomas 
Morris, J. 
Metts, John 
Meyers, John 
Nlckerson, A. J. 
Nickeson, G. W. 
O'Mara, John 
O'Mara, William 
O'Brien, D. 
Petit, George W. 
Phillips, Lemuel M. 
Pundt, A. M. 
Peck, O. M. 

Puckharber F. 
Papham, J. B. 
Preston, Jno. F. 
Ruger, Wm. T. 
Rosis, J. 
Reeves, George 
Rose, A. 
Ryan, J. 

Speissegger, T. W. 
Smith, Thomas 
Smith, P. 
Smith, Joseph 
Sevetus, S. 

Stay, W. P. 
Schroder, John 
Schroder, Glaus 
Seele, Charlie 
Stewart, Richard 
Sanran, H. 
Smith, John S. 
Stafford, H. R. 
Trainer, J. 
Vanderpool, Ij. 
Voyleberg, L. 
Vayler, O. 
Vocelle, A. 


Sellers, M. Henry Captain 

Harper, Leonidas A Captain 

Evans, John G Second Lieutenant 

Shuler, Franklin E Third Lieutenant 

Wise, Wade W Lieutenant 

Carson, Robert J First Sergeant 

Hart, Capers H Sergeant 

Gramling, Mike W Sergeant 

Fralic, W. J Sergeant 

Avinger, A. P Sergeant 

Dantzler, B. M Sergeant 

Dantzler, E. L Corporal 

Prickett, J. W Corporal 

Ulmer, Thomas W Corporal 

Way, D. A Corporal 

Harmon, J. W Corporal 

Avinger, D. J. 
Avinger, Lewis H. 
Barber, G. D. 
Barsh, W. F. 
Braddy, D. 
Braddy, E. W. 
Clayton, D. J. 
Clayton, W. W. 
Clayton, F. R. 
Dantzler, Arthur P. 
Dantzler, Henry F. 
Dantzler, J. N. 


Dantzler, W. H. 
Dantzler, Lewis W. 
Dantzler, George M. 
Dantzler, Fred. W. 
Dantzler, Ervin P. 
Davis, O. S. 
Davis, Thomas 
Davis, Morgan A. 
Douglas, Brince 
Evans, R. M. 
Felder, Carson E. 
Felder, O. J. 

Fertic, Boyd 
Fertlc, Charles 
Fertic, George 
Fertic, John 
Fertic, Joseph 
Fersner, Wm. F. 
Fersner, Frank 
Fersner, Lawrence W. 
Fogle, W. J. 
Golson, J. D. 
Gramling, Martin 


Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

Griffin, A. B. 
Griffin, James 
Griffin, Henry 
Griffin, John 
Griffin, Silas D. 
Grainger, Henry E. 
Haigler, F. M. 
Haigler, F. G. 
Heclile, A. J. 
Heaner, Jno. C. 
Holmes, Sam 
Houck, Daniel D. S. 
Huffman, David J. 
Huffman, W. R. 
Huffman, John 
Jones, James 
Mclver, David A. 
Mclver, Bruner A. 
Murray, D. D. 
Meyers, Fred. 
Meyers, J. W. 
Ott, Samuel 
Ott, J. Frank 

Pailer, O. J. 
Parler, Leonidas 
Prickett, J. H. 
Rast, J. T. 
Rooke, E. C. 
Rucker, John 
Rucker, Henry 
Rickenbacker, Nicho- 
las F. 
Shirar, Henry 
Shuler, Erastus. V. 
Shuler, F. Pinckney H. 
Shuler, George L. V. S. 
Shuler, D. G. B. 
Shuler, Merrick W. 
Snell, W. D. 
Smoak, A. A. 
Smoak, A. E. 
Staley, H. J. 
Stroman, Charles 
Stroman, Emanuel 
Spigener, Edward 
Stone, Adam 

Smith, J. W. 
Smith, R. 
Shurlnight, Lon 
Strock, William 
Strock, E. B. 
Taylor, Middleton E. 
Taylor, Pinckney H. 
Thompson, D. V. 
Ulmer, F. F. 
TJlmer, G. L. 
Vogt, h. 0. 
Walling, Jos. A. 
Walling, R. 
Walling, Jas. 
Wannamaker, Irvin W. 
Way, Wad B. 
Wiles, Henry 
Wiles, William 
Wiles, G. A. 
Wiles, V. P. 
Zeigler, Fred. 
Zimmerman, R. D. 
Zimmerman, W. C. 


Barber, John 
Bookhart, D. B. 
Evans, Lewis W. 
Evans, R. F. 
Godfrey, Pink 


Hungerpeler, J. T. 
Hart, Tom C. 
Jones, L. C. 
Mims, F. 
Powers, George 

Rush, Davie H. 
Shuler, P. C. 
Way, James F. 
Williams, Capers 


Glover, John V Captain 

Izlar, Jas. Ferdinand Captain 

Kennerly, Samuel N First Lieutenant 

Dibble, Samuel First Lieutenant 

Elliott, George H Second Lieutenant 

Graves, Joseph Second Lieutenant 

Izlar, Benjamin Pou Orderly Sergeant 

Hook, J. Hilliard Sergeant 

Rast, Jacob E Sergeant 

Izlar, William Valmore Sergeant 

Culler, L. Hayne Sergeant 

Shoemaker, Ira T Sergeant 

Editor's Appendix 


PauUing, William Corporal 

Kohn, Theodore Corporal 

Robinson, Jude Corporal 

Kennerly, J. Eobert Corporal 

Adger, A. M. 
Austin, Morgan L. 
Arant, James H. 
Antilley, M. Furman 
Ashe, John 
Ayers, D. A. 
Bailey, Henry 
Bailey, Charles 
Benton, J. W. 
Bozard, Jacob C. 
Bozard, John S. 
Bozard, David T. 
Bozard, Steven E. 
Brabham, Lawrence F. 
Bronson, Marion D. 
Brown, Henry 
Brown, David 
Bruce, James P. 
Bull, W. Aiken 
Collins, A. 
Crawford, Wm. B. 
Crider, Geo. B. 
Culcleasure, D. J. 
Culler, W. Wesley 
Culler, J. W. 
Culler, Jacob 
Dantzler, J. M. 
Dantzler, David W. 


Dantzler, Manley J. D. 
Darnold, Esau 
Darnold, S. C. 
Dibble, Frederick S. 
Fairy, Geo. W. B. 
Frieze, Franz J. 
Froberg, H. 
Hall, Sylvanus 
Hall, Samuel R. 
Holman, Jas. M. O. 
Holstein, Joseph A. 
Hook, Samuel P. 
Hook, John. 
Hook, Lawrence L. 
Inabinet, A. Jeff. 
Inabinet, Frank S. 
Inabinet, Charles G. 
Inabinet, E. E. 
Izlar, Lauriston Theo- 
Izlar, Adolphus Madison 
Irick, Laban A. 
Irick, Alex. D. 
Irick, Elliott H. 
Jenkins, Lewis W. 
Meredith, William C. 
Moody, W. A. 
Murphy, Emanuel 

Murphy, David F. 
Myers, Esau 
Myers, Luther 
Myers, Fred. 
O'Cain, Jno. M. 
Ott, Elmore 
Ott, Elias 
Ott, J. David 
Rast, Fred. M. 
Rast, Lewis 
Rawlinson, Moses 
Rawlinson, Abram S. 
Rawlinson, Wm. J. 
Rives, Wm. C. 
Robinson, Murray 
Rush, Lewis F. 
Scott, Junius L. 
Sanders, Ben H. 
Shultnight, Low 
Smoak, Andrew J. 
Stokes, Jefferson 
Syphret, Obadiah J. 
Sanford, Jesse 
Tatum, Jno. S. C. 
Taylor, William W. 
Wolfe, Edward M. 
Wolfe. Peter 


Hammond, Sam'l LeRoy Captain 

Bartless, Wm. H Captain 

Seabrook, Whltmarsh H First Lieutenant 

Hammond, F. G ■'. Second Lieutenant 

Rush, E. W Second Lieutenant 

Jacob, F. Second Lieutenant 

Ramsey, J. T Second Lieutenant 

Prickett, J. H Second Lieutenant 

Toye, R. G First Sergeant 

Horton, R. A First Sergeapt 

28— H 


Memoirs or the War of Secession 

Oliver, F. K Sergeant 

Rochester, W. A Corporal 

Lamb, Robert , Corporal 

Williams, M. R Corporal 

Brown, F. H Corporal 

Fagan, J. H Corporal 

Adams, A. 
Ardas, G. 
Baugh, M. 
Baugh, L. 
Bartley, J. L. 
Bentley, E. B. 
Bergin, R. H. 
Cunningham, W. H. 
Cook, Alexander 
Crawford, Major 
Chastine, W. B. 
Dobbins, T. C. 
Davis, James 
Davenport, J. C. 
Ducine, P. M. 
Doling, John 
Dunn, J. 
DuBose, S. C. 
Dougherty, F. 
Drose, T. C. 
Evans, J. R. 
Esta, J. 
Farrell, H. C. 
Farmer, E. 
Green, P. 
Gray, James 

Gary, J. W. 
Gregorie, . 
Hodgson, P. P. 
Hyman, J. C. 
Hyman, T. 
Hall, G. 
Hyde, J. C. 
Jones, Henry 
Jones, William 
James, H. V. 
Kelly, J. C. 
King, R. W. 
Keenan, P. 
Lynch, E. 
Long, J. 

Matthews, H. W. 
Matthews, W. J. 
McPeely, J. G. 
McAlister E. 
Moore, R. A. 
Metts, W. D. 
Moise, H. C. 
Mezzer, James 
Melton, E. F. 
Murphy, L. D. 
McCalvey, A. C. 
Maul, H. C. 
Mulling, F. 

McCoy, R. 
O'Donnell, E. 
Odom, J. A. 
Odom, James 
Powell, C. 
Powell, D. 
Powell, E. 
Pearson, J. W. 
Popham, G. H. 
Pundt, A. M. 
Peck, C. M. 
Reed, J. R. 
Ronan, P. 
Rivers, C. H. 
Rosis, J. 
Sears, G. P. 
Stephens, James 
Smith, James 
Steadham, G. D. 
Scott, O. H. P. 
Seignous, J. P. 

Thompson, A. 
Wescoat, St. J. D. 
Wallace, Barney 
Williams, A. 


Butler, y. N Captain 

Burgess, J. C .' Captain 

Logan, John J Captain 

Brown, F. B Second Lieutenant 

Felder, R. P Second Lieutenant 

Cockran, Jno. W Sergeant 

Lowder, W. A Sergeant 

Bagnal, J. Moultrie Sergeant 

Editor's Appendix 


Fleming, J. W Sergeant 

Arledge, Thomas W Sergeant 

Ridgway, Reuben P Sergeant 

Haley, H. V Corporal 

Tobias, Thomas E Corporal 

Freeman, Wm. D Corporal 

Plowden, Wm. B Corporal 

Evans, J. L Corporal 

Anderson, A. G. 
Barnes, James 
Burgess, James A. 
Brunson, Joslah C. 
Bell, Jas. M., Jr. 
Bell, Manning A. 
Burgess, D. J. 
Burgess, S. H. 
Burgess, Jno. A. 
Barwick, Geo. W. 
Brewer, J. F. 
Barnes, Francis 
Burgess, Robert B. 
Burgess, J. Calvin 
Brogden, Joseph 
Burgess, W. R. (M. D.) 
Burgess, Andrevr 
Cockran, Allen 
Cutler, James 
DeLoach, Nelson 
Davis, J. Elbert 
Dickson, Geo. W. 
Evans, Peter 
Evans, C. "W. 
Evans, J. H. 
Evans, T. Rush 
Evans, Joseph W. 
Ervin, L. Nelton 
Fleming, B. F. 
Fleming, H. F. 
Fleming, H. L. B. 
Fleming, W. D. 
Fleming, S. W. 
Gamble, Thomas E. 
Gamble, John F. 
Gibbons, Gabriel 
Hodge, A. J. 


Hodge, S. N. 
Hodge, E. S. 
Hodge, W. J. 
Haley, F. W. 
Haley, Isaac A. 
Hill, N. H. 
Hodge, J. N. 
Hodge, Jas. D. 
Hodge,. Samuel 
Herrington, Kinder 
Johnston, F. M. 
Johnson, Daniel 
Johnson, Jno. J. 
Jacobs, Mitchell 
Johnson, Pinckney 
Johnson, Neighbor 
Knowlton, Jno. W. 
Kelly, Jno. M. 
Lowder, C. A. 
Lovcder, J. J. 
Lowder, H. b. 
Lowder, J. O. 
Loyd, Santa 
McCullough, Wm. 
Mcintosh, John F. 
Mixon, A. W. 
Moyd, E. M. 
McDonald, R. D. 
Pelt, John 
Plowden, Jno. M. 
Plowden, J. C. 
Pendergrass, Jno. M. 
Pendergrass, B. R. 
Plowden, Joseph 
Richburg, Canty 
Richburg, Jas. H. 

Richburg, Joseph E. 
Richburg, Jno. A. 
Ridgeway, J. N. 
Raffield, Thomas N. 
Rodgers, William 
Rodgers, John 
Rodgers, Ervin 
Rodgers, J. Ladson 
Reardon, D. E. 
Ridgeway, Jno. M. 
Richburg, B. D. 
Richburg, J. N. 
Setzer, Alfred 
Steadham, G. D. 
Smith, Wm. A. 
Stukes, F. M. 
Tobias, Isaac N. 
Tobias, Wm. M. 
Tobias, F. W. 
Tobias, J. W. 
Tobias, J. Henry 
Tobias, Thomas N. 
Timmons, J. A. 
Timmons, Wm. J. 
Teetz, Martin 
Tlndal, A. J. 
White, Isaac B. 
White, H. Y. 
White, H. T. 
White, Wm. R., Jr. 
Witherspoon, B. J. 
Weston, Geo. W. 
Whitehead, R. W. 
Worsham, Joseph 
Worsham, Peter 
Windham, Flinn 


Memoirs or the War of Secession 


Gordon, W. B Captain 

Lesesne, E. R Captain 

Lesesne, T. J First Lieutenant 

McDonald, S. W First Lieutenant 

Lesesne, C First Lieutenant 

Saltus, William Second Lieutenant 

Davis, T. B ■'. First Sergeant 

Cooper, J. J Sergeant 

Lifrage, T. M Sergeant 

Mims, J. N Corporal 

Hicham, W. E Corporal 

Micham, Sam Corporal 

Matthews, C. M Corporal 

Altman, W. T. 
Ard, John 
Ard, E. 
Ard, B. 

Barfleld, T. E. 
Blakeley, S. S. 
Browder, E. 
Browder, McK. 
Browder, W. 
Browder, G. 
Browder, B. R. 
Browder, J.- 
Byrdick, W. R. 
Byrdick, W. 
Brunson, J. H. 
Baggott, J. A. 
Blakely, T. W. 
Cannon, B. J. 
Cubstead, W. J. 
Cubstead, J. B. 
David, John 
Davis, John 
Davis, T. H. 
Davis, W. 


Dennis, T. J. 
Dennis, A. J. 
Dennis, W. 
Duke, W. D. 
Evans, W. T. 
Flowers, J. J. 
Gamble, J. W. 
Gamble, A. M. 
Hicks, B. 
Hodge, J. C. 
Horn, W. W. 
Hodge, J. H. 
Keels, T. T. 
Kirby, J. H. 
Lamb, J. H. 
Lesesne, P. H. 
Lesesne, W. C. 
Lovell, B. L. 
Lamb, Samuel 
Martin, G. 
McConnell, S. L. 
McConnell, "W. H. 
Mictham, J. S. 
Mlctham, B. 

Mictham, T. 
Player, J. G. 
Player, J. D. 
Player, L. 
Pipkin, J. R. 
Rowell, W. T. 
Smith, W. W. 
Smith, F. N. 
Stukes, W. N. 
Scott, M. 
Scott, J. F. 
Scott, L. V. 
Salters, John 
Terry, G. W. 
Thomas, J. D. 
Thomas, E. 
Tanner, J. B. 
Thomas, H. B. 
Wilder, B. 
Wilder, John 
Wilder, L. 
Wilder, S. 
Windham, John 
Walters, J. P. 


Nelson, Patrick H Lieutenant-Colonel 

Rlon, James H . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel 

Nelson, Patrick H Major 

Editor's Appendix 437 

Blair, L. W. A Major 

Rion, Jas. H Major 

Hannahan, R. B Surgeon 

Tabor, Chas. R Captain and Assistant Surgeon 

Weston, Wm Captain and Assistant Surgeon 

Prof est, Wm. K Acting Assistant Surgeon 

Harrison, Levi Captain and Assistant Quartermaster 

Mosely, R Captain and Assistant Commissary 

Nelson, Warren B First Lieutenant and Adjutant 

Thomas, Wm. M First Lieutenant and Adjutant 

Irby, A. P First Lieutenant and Ensign 

Mayrant, Wm > Color Bearer and First Sergeant 

Outz, J. H. . . . , .• Color Bearer and First Sergeant 

Robertson, Jno. B Color Bearer and First Sergeant 

Cooper, Preston Color Bearer and First Sergeant 

Remington, Geo. W Color Bearer and First Sergeant 

Elmore, Albert R Sergeant-Major 

Fooshee, James W Sergeant-Major 

Gadsden, Christopher Orderly Sergeant 

Pate, Henry Orderly Sergeant 

Smith, Joel A Orderly Sergeant 

Baum, Mannes Commissary Sergeant 

Harrison, Jno. D Commissary Sergeant 

Nunnamaker, Henry. . Quartermaster Sergeant 


Blair, L. W. R Captain 

Lucas, Benj. S Captain 

McCaskell, Finley First Lieutenant 

Segurs, Dove Second Lieutenant 

Gardner, J. W. . Second Lieutenant 

McCask, Allen Second Lieutenant 

Hough, Moses Second Lieutenant 

McSween, Wm Sergeant 

Tiller, H. D Sergeant 

Horton, J. E Sergeant 

Hargraves, J. E ..Sergeant 

Newman, B. S Third Corporal 


Burns, Isaac McLaurin, Dan'l Atkinson, W. H. 

Outlaw, M. J. Pitts, J. C. (Color) 

Outlaw, B. F. Campbell, Jno. Allen, Ellas 

Bethune, Daniel M. Campbell, Chas. Allen, W. A. 

Clyburn, Jno. H. Yarborough, W. A. Allen, W. W. 

Gardner, S. L. McLauren, J. A. Anderson, John 
(Corporal) (Corporal) Atkinson, J. J. 


Memoirs or the War of Secession 

Brannar, Elias 
Brannon, J. E. 
Bateman, W. J. 
Blackwel], T. J. 
Blackwell, M. T. 
Blackwell, U. A. 
Berry, J. W. 
Bone, J. W. 
Bone, J. E. 
Bruce, James 
Barnes, E. E. 
Bethune, N. A. 
Beasley, S. 
Cameron, W. J. 
Cato, James 
Caston, J. W- 
Clyburn, J. Henry 
Clyburn, W. A. 
Copeland, Moses 
Daniels, W. N. 
Douglas, Ed. 
Douglas, James 
Davis, T. H. 
Dunn, T. P. 
DeBrubl, Jesse E. 
Evans, T. P. 
Folsom, S. T. 
Gardner, S. T. 
Gardner, T. D. 
Gardner, W. J. 
Gardner, D. W. 
Gee, W. N. 
Hall, C. L. 
Hall, F. M. 
Hall, J. M. 
Hall, Joseph 
Hall, L. McC. 
Hall, John J. 
Hall, James 
Hall, J. K. 
Hall, J. E. 
Hammerslaugh, S. 
Harris, A. T. 
Hough, Amos 
Hough, Samson 
Hyatt, C. "W. 

Hyott, J. W. 
Horton, Eansom 
Horton, J. S. 
Horton, J. W. 
Herron, J. E. 
Herron, Samuel 
Hopkins, James 
Holland, T. B. 
Johnson, Noel 
Jordan, Colin 
Jones, N. W. 
Jones, Calvin 
King, G. B. 
King, G. P. 
King, George 
King, J. E. 
Kelly, J. E. 
Lucas, S. D. 
Leach, John 
Marshall, A. C. 
Mosely, Isaac 
Mosely, Milberry 
Mosely, Reddick 
McCaskill, J. D. 
McCaskill, J. H. 
McCaskill, C. W. 
McLendon, Wm. 
McGourgan, A. 
McGourgan, Jno. 
McLaurin, Angus 
McPherson, L. B. 
Mixon, J. S. 
Mixon, L. S. 
Daniel, Peter 
Murchison, Columbus 
Newman, Nelson 
Newman, J. H. 
Newman, J. T. 
Newman, B. W. 
Newman, Milberry W. 
Nichols, Isaac 
Norris, George 
Norris, A. C. 
Outlaw, Curtis 
Parker, Michael 
Phillips, S. F. 

Rodgers, W. J. 
Rodgers, S. C. 
Rodgers, J. D. 
Randolph, W. F. 
Randolph, Thomas 
Radcliff, W. C. 
Raley, A. "W. 
Shaw, William 
Shirley, J. E. 
Sinclair, James 
Sinclair, John 
Stein, Henry 
Scarborough, B. A. 
Stokes, E. E. 
Stokes, Simeon 
Stokes, W. J. 
Stokes, Ephraim 
Stokes, E. J. 
Smith, John 
Shumaker, G. N. 
Surles, E. M. 
Tiller, John 
Tiller, J. M. 
Tiller, P. W. C. 
Turner, R. J. 
Turner, B. J. 
Warr, H. L. 
Waters, Thomas 
Watkius, E. M. 
Watkins, J. A. 
Watkins, P. H. 
Watkins, Jesse E. 
Watkins, Jno. E. 
Watkins, J. J. 
Warley, B. M. 
Watson, James 
Webb, Samuel 
West, Joseph 
West, R. E. 
Woodham, Jno. W. 
Williams, A. N. 
Yarborough, Wilson 
Yarborough, J. C. 
Yarborough, E. N. 
Young, Samuel 

Editor's Appendix 



Eion, James H Captain 

Harrison, Jno. R Captain 

Kennedy, Jotin L Captain 

Douglas, S. Wade Captain 

Tidwell, Jno. S Captain 

Isbelle, H. Lawrence First Lieutenant 

Cason, Jas. P First Lieutenant 

Kennedy, R. W Second Lieutenant 

Cook, S. Henry Second Lieutenant 

.Harvey, W. A Lieutenant 

Ptiilllps, R. W First Sergeant 

Duke, S. H Sergeant 

Smith, Joel A Sergeant 

Gerig, Francis Sergeant 

Gadsden, C. E Sergeant 

Rabb, Jas. K CorporaJ 

Dulse, H. Oscar. . , Corporal 

Fraser, Daniel Corporal 

McDonald, Jas. M Corporal 

Abbott, D. 
Abbott, John 
Abbott, J. 
Allen, J. A. 
Anderson, T. 
Bailey, J. A. 
Bagley, W. L. 
Barber, G. 
Barber, N. C. 
Barber, T. J. 
Barker, T. W. 
Baum, M. 
Bell, B. H. 
Black, L. D. 
Blizzard, D. A. 
Blizzard, E. J. 
Blizzard, J. T. 
Brazill, D. L. 
Bookhart, J. A. 
Boyd, John 
Broom, E. T. 
Broom, C. P. 
Boney, Jno. T. 
Brown, J. L. 


Brown, J. W. 
Brown, W. C. 
Carter, D. 
Castles, J. S. 
Cloud, D. G. 
Cloud, J. F. 
Cloud, T. E. 
Cohen, Morris 
Cooper, W. J. 
Cork, John 
Coleman, J. F. 
Cotton, J. 
Crawford, D. 
Christmas, Thos. H. 
Crawford, S. L. 
Crawford, T. 
Crosby, C. N. 
Crosby, R. F. 
Crumpton, Z. A. 
Dawkins, H. 
David, Morris 
Dickey, Chas. A. 
Dunbar, H. A. 
Dunbar, S. B. 

Dunlap, P. W. 
Dye, J. L. 
Easier, Adgena 
Easier, E. 
Easier, John 
Bastler, H. 
Eastler, James 
Estes, E. W. 
Estes, W. 
Evans, W. D. 
Faust, J. J. 
Field, B. W. 
Gladden, James 
Gladden, Silas 
Gibson, D. H. 
Goza, E. A. 
Gray, G. M. 
Grunnell, Jos. S. 
Hammond, H. 
Harrison, Eli 
Harrison, J. Edmunds 
Hayes, C. 
Haynes, E. W. 
Hagood, H. W. 


Memoirs of the War of Secession 

Hagood, Joel 
Hagood, J. A. 
Hagood, G. M. 
Hinnant, A. R. 
Hlnnant, J. S. 
Hobbs, J. A. 
Hogan, M. A. 
HoUls, J. L. 
Hood, H. E. 
Hood, J. J. 
Hood, J. T. 
Howell, Sam'l M. 
Huey, A. M. 
Jamison, A. L. 
Jamison, W. H. 
JefCers, R. L. 
Jeffers, A. McK. 
Johnson, R. Thos. 
Kelly, W. D. 
Kennedy, A. B. 
Kennedy, John 
Kennedy, J. F. 
Kennedy, J. T. 
King, Benjamin 
Land, F. 
Lewis, B. 
Levister, J. 
Lee, J. S. 

McDonald, Leander 
McGrath, H. A. 
McGrath, N.C. 
Mclntyre, John 
McLain, W. 

McCuUy, J. 
Melton, L. 
Mobley, B. L. 
Mundle, J. D. 
Murray, W. B. 
Martin, G. B. 
Neely, J. B. 
Neil, J. H. 
Ooten, Thos. 
Perry, Allen 
Peake, D. 
Perry, Isaac 
Perry, J. J. 
Perry, S. G. 
Perry, S. N. 
Perry, W. F. 
Poteat, Jacob A. 
Powers, James 
Powers, Lawrence 
Propst, H. B. 
Propst, W. K. 
Price, O. P. 
Price, E. 
Rabb, W. 
Rains, J. M. 
Reid, D. J. 
Rimer, A. 
Robinson, J. A. 
Roe, W. P. 
Rose, J. A. 
Rose, W. C. 
Rosbore, J. F. 
Rush, W. 

Scott, J. Y. 
Sexton, J. B. 
Shepard, W. W. 
Smith, W. W. 
Sims, T. 
Simpson, J. D. 
Starnes, J. W. 
Steel, J. A. 
Sterling, J. 
Stevenson, S. H. 
Stevenson, R. 
Stevenson, S. 
Stewart, J. Dallas 
Stewart, J. 
Stewart, W. 
Stone, J. 
Tidwell, C. L. 
Thomas, W. L. 
Trapp, Allen 
Watts, J. A. 
Watts, J. 
Wilson, John 
Wilson, J. 
Wilson, J. W. 
Wilson, D. 
Wilson, J. M. 
Williamson, J. C. 
Wooten, T. 
Wright, J. C. 
Wyrick, J. Z. 
Young, C. B. 


Sligh, Wm, ,H.. .. Captain 

Pearson, A., W.,. Captain 

Mankin, Joel R. , • Captain 

Howell, Malley. . .., First Lieutenant 

Bell, B., H,. , .. ..,, First Lieutenant 

Blmore, Fr^pklin H Second Lieutenant 

Taylor, Wnf. ^H . , ,,,.., Second Lieutenant 

Sligl^, ^,,V.. Third Lieutenant 

Hill, Wb.. .... Third Lieutenant 

Davis, Elili;u..^ ., ,,..,.;., First Sergeant 

Telford, 'V'^pi.,. I ..,, Second Sergeant 

Editor's Appendix 


Johnston, Henry Third Sergeant 

Wilson, W. M Fourth Sergeant 

McGJll, Wm. P Fifth Sergeant 

Hawkins, William Corporal 

Braswell, James Corporal 

Daniels, Starke Corporal 

Neil, R. Y Corporal 

Kelly, Asa C Corporal 

Medlin, Wesley Corporal 

Abbott, Wesley 
Antonio, L. W. 
Arledge, Moses 
Augustine, Sam 
Bayley, James 
Boyer, Moses 
Broughton, Edward 
Broughton, Frank 
Brown, Allen 
Bysander, B. 
Campbell, D. 
Campbell, John 
Campbell, Thos., Sr. 
Campbell, Thos., Jr. 
Cloud, D. G. 
Coleman, A. 
Cook, John 
Cooper, Eben 
Corder, Henry 
Corder, James 
Corley, Jas. D. 
Cotton, N. 
Daniels, Edward 
Daniels, Nathan 
Daniels, Starke 
Davis, David 
Davis, James 
Davis, John 
juavis, R. 
Davis, Thomas 
Davis, W. D. 
Dennis, Gabriel 
Deveaux, S. L. 
Dorritty, Thomas 
Elders, John 
Evans, James 


Faust, John 
Futril, Sam'I 
Garner, James 
Gibson, Nicholas 
Gibson, S. D. 
Goins, Ainsley 
Goins, Henry 
Goins, Ransom 
Goins, Wesley A. 
Haithcock, Hopkins 
Hawkins, Augustus 
Hawkins, Jno. C. 
Hawkins, Peter S. 
Hill, John 
Hill, Lonnie 
Hood, John 
Hornsby, J. 
Hornsby, Wesley 
Horton, Samuel D. 
Hughes, A. F. 
Huggins, Daniel 
Huson, Robert S. 
Hussey, George 
Jacobs, Chris. 
Jones, Wesley 
Justice, Hilliard 
Justice, William 
Kelley, F. 
Kelley, James 
Kelley, Pleasanton 
Lee, James 
Lomas, William 
Lorick, J. A. 
Lovett, Frederick 
Lovett, Robert 
Lovett, Thomas 

Jiarsh, Jonathan 
Martin, Asa 
Martin, D. 
Martin, Joseph 
Martin, Phillip 
Martin, Thomas 
Maxey, John 
Mayrant, James 
Mayrant, John 
McCrady, A. 
McCrady, James 
McLain, Daniel 
McNeill, Henry 
McNeill, James, Jr. 
Medlin, Daniel 
Medlin, E. 
Medlin, Hilliard 
Medlin, Isaac 
Medlin, John 
Medlin, Samuel 
Miles, H. 
Mitchell, D. D. D. 
Morrill, Alexander 
Outen, Daniel 
Powers, James 
Price, Chas. • 
Price, Frederick 
Price, George 
Price, Hugh 
Price, John 
Price, Thomas J. 
Price, Thos. N., Jr.. 
Rials, John 
Rials, Thomas 
Rush, William 
Senn, Jacob 


Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

Shannon, D. Davis 
Sharpe, George 
Sharpe, Samuel 
Shirley, Rich 
Shirley, William 
Sidler, Jesse 
Sightler, H. 
Smith, George 
Smith, Henry, Jr. 
Smith, Henry, Sr. 
Smith, John 
Starke, Wm. Pinckney 

Strange, Henry 
Strickland, John 
Thomas, W. 
Thompson, Sam 
Thornton, John 
Thornton, Peter H. 
Trapp, Levi 
Turnipseed, Edward 
Usher, J. C. 
Watts, William 
Welch, J. J. 
Welch, T. ±£. 

Wells, John 
Wells, William 
Windom, O. K. 
Williams, Daniel 
Williamson, Wade 
Williamson, William 
Wilson, M. F. 
Wilson, McKenzie 
Wilson, Thomas 
Wilson, Wm. M. 
Wooten, Dan 


Jones, J. L Captain 

Clyburn, W First Lieutenant 

Young, E. A.. .. First Lieutenant 

Mosley, R Second Lieutenant 

Cunningham, R. J Second Lieutenant 

Young, R. W Second Lieutenant 

Malone, W. R First Sergeant 

Clyburn, L. L Sergeant 

Goodale, J. R Sergeant 

Wilson, T Sergeant 

Jones, W. J Sergeant 

Cauthen, W. C Sergeant 

Bell, L. C Corporal 

Young, M. J Corporal 

Young, G. W Corporal 

Lewis, R. T Corporal 

Twitty, L. M Corporal 

Young, W. J Corporal 

Sheorn, J. A Corporal 

Cauthen, L. M Corporal 

Adams, W. 
Allen, J. W. 
Atkinson, R. R. 
Ballard, J. F. 
Banks, J. M. 
Bailey, D. 
Barnes, G. W. 
Bell, J. L. 
Boon, S. 
Boon, Z. 


Boon, J. W. 
Brace, J. T. 
Brazil, L. 
Brown, T. W. 
Brown, J. T. 
Billings, C. T. 
Bryant, W. 
Bullock, G. N. 
Capell, H. 
Carroll, J. 

Cauthen, J. M. 
Cauthen, W. C. 
Cauthen, W. B. 
Cauthen, L. M. 
Clyburn, J. C. 
Clyburn, J. N. 
Copeland, D. J. 
Copeland, G. B. 
Carter, J. F. G. 
Coward, J. H. 

Editor's Appendix 


Dabney, J. H. Holland, J. R. Rider, L. F. 

Dabney, J. A. Horton, T. C. Roe, A. 

Davis, A. E. Kelley, H. Rutledge, W. F. 

Dixon, G. L. Kelley, J. J. Rutledge, J. B. 

Denton, W. C. Kirby, F. Ryan, G. R. 

Duren, W. R. Latta, R. Sanders, P. 

Dunlap, R. M. Lewis, W. H. Self, S. 

Elmore, A. Meggs, S. Self, W. F. 

Elmore, D. Mickle, J. Spears, B. F. 

Farmer, J. A. Marshall, J. C. Smith, D. R. 

Farmer, E. J. McNeill, D. Smith, William 

Falconburg, J. A. McNaughton, W. D. N. Smith, W. 

Ferrell, J. R. Moseley, C. L. Smyrl, Thos. I. 

Fitzpatrick, T. Moore, W. Stokes, W. C. J. 

Gardner, R. J. Moseley, J. C. Stuckey, A. 

Gardner, W. R. Munn, D. A. Sutton, T. G. 

Gaskins, J. G. Munn, D. M. Thomas, J. H. 

Gaskins, J. B. Outlaw, R. Thome, J. R. 

Gaskins, R. Payton, B. M. Wall, W. 

Gillrane, M. Peach, D. Warren, J. M. 

Green, J. Pendergrass, J. White, R. J. 

Gray, S. P. Price, D. K. Williams, J. B. 

Griggs, J. Quinlin, G. M. Williams, J. N. 

Henderson, W. M. Randolph, H. Wilson, J. T. 

Henderson, J. Ray, N. Wilson, J. 

Herbert, S. Reaves, D. Young, A. 

Holland, J. C. Reaves, D. R. Vincent, J. 


Boykin, B. E , Captain 

Gaillard, Phillip P .■ .. ..Captain 

Ross, James M First Lieutenant 

Sanders, A Second Lieutenant 

Lenoir, Thos. W Second Lieutenant 

Goodale, Jno. R Second Lieutenant 

Harvey, W. A Second Lieutenant 

Bracey, J. H Sergeant 

Ross, W. A '. Sergeant 

Atkinson, Chas. M Sergeant 

Gayle, J. Robert Sergeant 

Hox, Thomas Sergeant 

Richardson, Thomas Sergeant 

Cater, John J. . . . , Sergeant 

Moody, W. M Corporal 

Sanders, Jas. A Corporal 

Brown, Wm. R Corporal 

Benton, J. W ; Corporal 


Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

Thompson, J. S Corporal 

Berry, Jas. J Corporal 

Frost, Charles E Corporal 


Anderson, W. E. 
Allen, James A. 
Allen, J. P. 
Ammons, Alcien 
Ammons, James 
Belt, S. Lawson 
Belk, Joseph A. 
Bracey, Ransom M. 
Brown, Rich C. 
Brown, Simon 
Branson, B. D. 
Bradley, Herbert 
Cater, James 
Cater, Wm. H. 
Cater, Henry 
Chambers, S. Oliver 
Chewning, Jas. H. 
Cheatham, W. H. 
Crawford, D. 
Cain, James 
Deas, Henry 
Dunbar, Adam H. 
Dunbar, Robert 

Dixon, Benjamin 
DuBose, "William C. 
Basterling, E. M. 
Goza, B. A. 
Gerrald, Wm. C. 
Goodale, Joseph 
Gatlin, John T. 
Gaillard, James E. 
Haley, Jno. B. 
Haley, James B. 
Haley, Ferdinand B. 
Hendricks, James R. 
Hatfield, James W. 
Ives, James M. 
Ives, William T. 
Jolly, John J. 
Jenkins, Lodolphus F. 
Jeffers, A. McKenzle 
Leach, Wm. T. 
Moore, L. A. 
Mcintosh, James 
McDowell, James T. 
McKenzie, Langdon C. 

Mitchell, John M. 
Morris, Henry 
Morris, William 
Moody, Charles E. 
Myers, Thos; S. 
Nunnery, Anderson 
Nunnery, Peter 
Nunnery, Peter P. 
Prescott, Thos. D. 
Phillips, Henry D. 
Shull, Martin A. 
Sanders, John 
Sanders, Garner 
Scott, Abijah 
Scott, Henry 
Scott, Geo. W. 
Scott, James J. 
Stuart, Dallas 
Thompson, Jno. A. 
Willson, Wm. H. 
Willson, S. G. 
Willson, John 
Willson, Wylie 


Segar, Dove Captain 

McSwan, William First Lieutenant 

Horton, Jas. Ervin Second Lieutenant 

Tiller, Henry D ..Lieutenant 

Raley, Andrew W Lieutenant 

King, Gillam P Lieutenant 

Gardner, Stephen L Sergeant 

Kelly, Jas. P Sergeant 

Hough, Sampson Sergeant 

Pate, Henry Sergeant 

Phillips, Steven F Sergeant 

McCaskill, Jas. H Sergeant 

Gardner, Thos. D Sergeant 

Sowell, James E Sergeant, 

Turner, Benjamin J Corporal 

Folsom, Stephen T Corporal 

Editor's Appendix 


Dunn, Thomas P Corporal 

Horton, James S Corporal 

West, Joseph Corporal 

Raley, Reddick Corporal 

Newman, Jno. T Corporal 


Bone, James E. Hopkins, Lucius Pate, Levi, Jr. 

Bone, William W. Hopkins, Malcolm Pate, Chapman 

Bruce, James Hough, Laban C. Raley, Dove 

Barnes, Reddin E. Hough, I. Sheppard Raley, William 

Barnes, William Hollis, Hiram F. Radcliff, Wm. C. 

Bennen, Neill J. Hagood, Jesse M. Robinson, James 

Bell, Robert J. Holleyman, Geo. W. L. Robinson, Hilton 

Blacknell, Geo. P. Hogan, J. L. Rains, Muses B. 

Cato, James Hornsby, Jesse Smith, John 

Cato, Wm. T. Ingram, Moody Searles, Edward M. 

Cato, William Jones, Richard T. Shumake, Geo. N. 

Caston, Jno. W. Jones, John T. Stroud, Lilly T. 

Cantey, Thos. R. Jones, Nathaniel W. Stroud, Jno. M. 

Culpeper, Jno. H. Jones, Samuel N. Stokes, C. Spencer 

Copeland, Thos. R. Jamieson, C. Alex. Scott, Timothy 

Clanton, Lovick King, George Sutton, J. Fred 

Campbell, Benjamin Kennington, George W. Sowell, Wylie 

Campbell, James McCaskill, C. Wesley Sullivan, James 

Davis, Thomas H. McCaskill, Wm. P Shaw, J. Duncan 

Dickson, Jesse McLendon, William Turner, Benj. D. 

Elliott, William McLendon, Ellas Turner, Robert J. 

Folsom, Wm. W. McLendon, Gillis Thompson, Wm. B. 

Folsom, Jno. J. McGougan, Angus Thompson, Henry 

Gardner, D. Whitfield McGougan, John Tiller, Joseph J. 

Gardner, Wm. J. McGougan, Archibald Thorne, Thos. S. 

Gardner, Milus L. Moseley, Reddick West, Joseph 

Gee, Wm. N. Miller, R. Peel Watkins, Jesse E. 

Gibson, Nathan W. Munn, Henry J. Warley, B. M. 

Hall, James McCoy, Benjamin D. Watkins, Jas. J. 

Hall, Wm. E. Newman, John H. Watkins, Jno. E. 

Hall, Jacob R. Newman, B. Wylie Warr, H. L. 

Hall, Joseph Newman, M. W. Ware, Henry L. 

Holland, Thomas R. Newsom, Henry West, Richard E. 

Holland, James Norris, Hubert Woodham, J. Wesley 

Holland, Thomas Outlaw, Curtis Williams, Alex. N. 

Herron, James E. Pace, J. L. Williams, Jas. E. 

Herron, S. Samuel ' Phillip, Robert J. Warren, Wylie L. 

Horton, Bamsour Phillip, Chas. I. Young, Samuel 

Horton, Jas. Wyatt Phillip, Geo. W. Yarborough, Eben N. 

Horton, Thomas R. Phillip, W. Riley Yarborough, ThoS. G. 

Hopkins, James Phillips, S. F. Young, Sam 


Memoirs or the War of Secessio^t 


Olyburn, William Captain 

Clyburn, L. L First Lieutenant 

Taylor, W. J Second Lieutenant 

Sligh, Thos. W Second Lieutenant 

Clyburn, L. C First Sergeant 

Rabb, Jas. K Second Sergeant 

Mayrant, J. G Third Sergeant 

Smyrl, Thos. J Third Sergeant 

Smith, Joel A Fourth Sergeant 

Murray, Wm. B ' Fifth Sergeant 

Cooper, Pres Color Sergeant 

Shears, B. F First Corporal 

Daniels, Edmund Second Corporal 

Cooper, W. J Third Corporal 

Horton, Thos. C Fourth Corporal 

Augustine, S. W. 
Brown, E. T. 
Bagley, W. L. 
Broughton, E. L. 
Bradley, D. T. 
Baskins, W. D. 
Cooper, J. P. 
Corder, Jas. A. 
Clyburn, J. N. 
Dickey, C. A. 
Dean, G. A. 
Drakeford, W. H. 
Fields, R. H. 
Gaskins, J. D. 
Gilliam, Martin 
Gardner, C. L. 
Gardner, W. R. 
Gardner, H. N. 
Gaskins, G. W. 
Gay, C. B. 
Holland, J. R. 
Holland, Jno. C. 
Horton, J. C. 
Hughes, A. F. 
Hornsby, J. D. 
Honey, Henry 
Hall, H. H. 
Henson, Henry 
Hocutt, Richard 

Hays, James 
Hill, J. 

Justice, Hilliard 
Justice, William 
Jones, L. C. 
JefEers, Thomas 
Kirby, T. 
Kirby, John 
King, Benjamin 
I5;ing, Edmund 
Latta, Robert 
Martin, Thomas 
Martin, Phillip 
Mikell, Joseph 
Motley, Samuel 
Morris, J. J. 
Marsh, James 
McMullin, A. L. 
Marshall, J. C. 
McKennon, L. 
Munn, D. D. 
McNeill, Henry 
Medlin, C. 
McDowell, A. J. 
Nelson, Columbus 
Nelson, Francis 
Outlaw, Bentley 
Outlaw, Richard 
Outlaw, Rosier 

Pendergrass, Joseph 
Price, Thos. N. 
Peach, William 
Phillips, B. D. 
Perry, Jno. J. 
Quinlin, G. W. 
Ryder, L. F. 
Roe, J. W. 
Robinson, J. W. 
Rabon, John 
Smith, Henry 
Smith, W. L. 
Sutton, G. 
Sutton, T. G. 
Self, G. W. 
Smyre, J. N. 
Stuckey, Anderson 
Tiller, H. A. 
Thorne, J. R. 
Villipigue, J. 
Ward, Allen 
Williams, J. B. 
Williams, J. N. 
West, Joseph 
Wilkes, William 
Wilson, John 
Wilson, W. M. 
Wilson, James 

Editor's Appendix 



Brooks, J. Hampden Captain 

McCants, Thos. M First Lieutenant 

Randall, B. J First Lieutenant 

Weston, William Second Lieutenant 

Irby, A. P Second Lieutenant 

Fooshe, J. W First Sergeant 

Drennan, W. A First Sergeant 

Walker, E. P Second Sergeant 

Neal, Wm. M Third Sergeant 

Motley, R. L Sergeant 

Outz, J. H Color Sergeant 

Rush, W. H Sergeant 

Gregory, J. J Sergeant 

Robinson, J. S Corporal 

Brooks, S. J Corporal 

Davis, W. S Corporal 

Johnston, J. W. I Corporal 

Braddy, J. G ; Corporal 

Hunsucker, F. Corporal 

Robinson, Jno. B Color Sergeant 


Addison, H. F. 
Addison, Hiram 
Addison, J. J. 
Bagley, W. R. 
Bailey, William 
Bailey, J. D. 
Bell, John 
Bell, Henry 
Boykin, H. 
Bird, Peter 
Cheatham, Alfred 
Cogburn, R. M. 
Cothran, S. N. B. 
Cotton, J. L. 
Cotton, T. W. 
Dougherty, B. 
Douglas, B. C. 
Dunning, Reeves 
Durst, G. E. 
Elkins, W. F. 
Ellenburg, John 
Ellenburg, Martin 

Fox, James 
Franklin, J. M. 
Franklin, W. M. 
Furness, Mathew 
Gates, Robert 
Coleman, Jacob 
Gray, Joel 
Guillebeau, J. C. 
Hammond, Asa 
Harris, J. W. 
Harrison, Robert 
Harvely, James 
Henderson, J. C. 
Hollingworth, B. 
HoUlngworth, J. M. 
Holloway, J. S. 
Holloway, W. C. 
Johnstone, Randall G. 
Jones, D. M. 
Jones, W. H. 
Kennedy, A. D. 
Langley, T. R. 

Lasure, Pell 
Laddingham, J. W. 
Livingston, S. D. 
Livingston, Wm. 
McCants, G. B. 
McGill, A. 
McLaughlin, W. B. 
McManus, G. 
Milford, R. W. 
Martin, J. J. 
Miles, Stephen 
Miller, J. M. 
Miner, J. H. 
Miner, R. S. 
Powell, J. E. 
Prince, Oliver 
Roberts, D. S. 
Roberts, W. C. 
Rogers, Jasper G. 
Rush, H. 
Rush, Jacob 
Rush, J. H. 


Memoiks or THE Wak or Secession 

Rush, J. N. 
Rush, W. A. 
Rambo, "Warren 
bcott, T. A. 
Seay, William 
Shinall, G. W. 
Strickland, Starling 
Sturgeon, Thomas 
Sturgeon, R. D. 
Sturgeon, J. O. 
Shirley, Samuel 
Shinall, J. 
Stalnaker, D. F. 

Stalnaker, R. 
Stalnaker, T. 
Strange, Henry 
Street, R. J. 
Smith, E. P. 
Talbert, M. S. 
Taylor, Wm. 
Thomas, J. S. 
Thomas, Jesse 
Thomas, W. M. 
Tinkler, L. D. 
Tyson, W. C. 
Vandiver, J. B. 

Walton, J. F. 
Walton, J. S. 
Whittaker, N. 
Wyrick, L. V. 
Wideman, E. 
Wideman, F. 
Wideman, S. B. 
Wooten, W. T. 
Wright, B. B. 
Wright, E. C. 
Young, Alex. 
Young, J. M. 


Gaillard, Peter C Colonel 

Blake, Julius A Lieutenant-Colonel 

Ramsay, David Major 

Abney, Joseph Major 

Smith, R. Press Captain, Quartermaster and Commissary 

Smith, W. Mason Adjutant and Lieutenant 

Williams, Winthrop Adjutant and Lieutenant 

Simons, Alfred D Acting Adjutant and Lieutenant 

Pressley, J. L Surgeon and Major 

•Cain, Jos. P Assistant Surgeon and Captain 

Oxlade, Thomas Sergeant-Major 

Howland, W. E Commissary Sergeant 

Notte, J. O Orderly Sergeant 


(Calhoun Guards.) 

Miles, Francis T Captain 

Palmer, Barnwell W Captain 

Axon, J. Waring . .Captain 

Easterly, John M Third Lieutenant 

Webb, Daniel C Orderly Sergeant 

Baker, Henry H Sergeant 

Alexander, Geo. W Sergeant' 

Black, Samuel Sergeant 

Gadsden, Thomas Sergeant 

Smyser, J. William Sergeant 

Calvo, C. A Sergeant 

Brown, Edmonds T Corporal 

Britton, Richard A ' Corpotal 

Editor's Appendix 


Baker, Eugene B Corporal 

Spady, Southey G Corporal 

Brltton, J. Francis Corporal 

Axson, Wm. J. 
Addison, Capers P. 
Brown, C. Pinclcney 
Brown, Josiah S. 
Buist, Chas. B. 
Balier, Barnard E. 
Buclsheister, J. Andrew 
Champlain, Jackson 
Choate, Ebeu 
Choate, TliQmas 
Clayton, David B. 
Champlain, Edward 
Cherry, William 
Caldwell, Wm. A. 
Davis, Calvin T. 
Davis, G. 

Easterly, Washington N. 
Fengas, Hippolyte V. 
Gibbes, J. Perroneau 
Heriott, Wm. B. 


Hall, J. Gadsden 
Hall, F. M. 
Hammett, Ripley 
Horry, Edward S. 
Hughes, Henry M. 
Hughes, Edward 
Holmes, Isaac 
Innis, Chas. H. 
Irving, Dr. Aemelius 
Jervey, Theodore D. 
Jervey, Lewis 
Johnston, William 
Johnston, Pringle 
Jackson, Thomas 
Kingman, Oliver H. 
Kiddell, Theodore 
Martin, T. Ogier 
Melllchampe, Wm. S. 
Miot, Jno. C. 
Millikin, Adam E. 

Parker, Thomas 
Petigru, Dan'l 
Radcliff, Geo. T. . 
Rankin, George F. 
Randall, Edward 
Schnierlie, Vincent 
Smith, James B. 
Smith, Julius 
Smith, Horace 
Shannon, Henry 
Sutton, William 
Swinton, J. Ralphi- 
Tennent, Josiah S. 
Tennent, Gilbert V.. 
Trenholm, Paul C. 
Vincent, William 
Waring, Dr. Jno./B. 
Westendorff, Jas. S. 
Westendorff, Chairles 
Webb, Paul H. 


Simons, Thomas Y Capta'in 

Clarkson, William First Lieutenant 

Sinkler, Wm. W •• Second Lieutenant 

Masterman, Alfred H Second Lieutenant 

Muckenfuss, Allen W Second Lieutenant 

Chamberlain, Henry A First Sergeant 

Wright, J. D Second Setgeant 

McMahon, D Third Sergeant 

Bluitt, A. J Fourth Sergeant 

Gardner, Jas. A Fifth Sergeant 

Summerall, Wm. H First Corporal 

Buckheister, Wm. C Second Corporal 

Crosby, Jno. C Third Corporall 

McSweeny, M Fourth Corporal 

Masterman, Edwin J Lance Corporal 

Walsh, James Lance Corporal 

20— H 


Memoirs or the War oe Secession 


Arnold, John Hellers, William Phosphal, John 

Anderson, Wm. Harris, Jno. C. Perry, John 

Adams, Henry Harris, William Perry, Robert 

Addison, Jno. C. Hynes, James, Sr. Page, William 

Addison, Jos. A. Hynes, James, Jr. Page, Henry 

Betschman, John Horlbeck, Edward Palmer, Lewis M. 

Bates, Henry Hughes, Thomas Phelan, jaichael 

Bowers, Johnson, John l-ool, James M. 

Boyd, Chas. J. Johnson, Capers Pearson, John 

Bee, Norman Johnson, Paul T. Quinn, Bussell 

Burns, Edward Knight, Absolom Seabrook, E. Smyley 

Jalocker, Hamilton W. Kimmey, Francis E. Stutts, Mathew M. 

Barnett, John Kirby, Lee Seay, Henry M. 

Belcher, William Kirby, John M. Sweeney, Michael 

Conlon, Jno. B. Lamb, Wm. J. Steward, Richard 

Christmas, Andrew J. Lucas, George Simon, Alfred D. 

Carey, Thomas Littlejohn, John Symmers, Geo. W. 

Canten, Richard Littlejohn, George Symmers, Jno. H. 

Conroy, Thomas Lotz, Peter Sullivan, Andrew J. 

DuPre, James C. Lake, Edward Sheridan, Thos., Sr. 

DuPre, Joseph Lake, John Sheridan, Thos., Jr. 

Doyle, George W. Linstedt, Henry Stevens, John H. 

Donahoe, John Lindsay, Chas. T. Staley, John 

De Veaux, Maull, Bernard P. Sauls, Benjamin 

Deverin, Murphy, Timothy Smith, James 

Edwards, John Moss, William Smith, John 

Edwards, Jno. W. Mabry, Jno. G. Sutcliffe, Wm. H. 

Friend, Robert McCreery, William Sineath, Joseph A. 

Foucher, J. Victor McAteer, John Tavell, Edward 

Floyd, John MoUoy, John Taylor, William H. 

Gruber, Charles Murray, Thomas Turner, C. C. 

Gibbon, Michael McDowell, Robert Turner, Geo. W. 

Graser, George McCarthy, Lawrence Vaughan, Wm. 

Glbbes, J. Reeves Morrisey, Patrick Van- Wiper, Henry 

Herbert, Chas. W. McManus, Robert B. Wood, Robert 

Hollander, Matthew McLane, Wm. T. Webb, Walter 

Hollander, John Nunan, Cornelius Wheeler, James G. 

Hammett, Jno. C. Neill, Daniel Williams, Jefferson 

Hanahan, Whitridge Nesbitt, Wm. J. Whitlock, Wm. F. 

Halsall, William H. Petch, Emanuel M. 


Lord, Samuel Captain 

Brown, Geo. W Captain 

Campbell, James First Lieutenant 

Hendricks, H. W Second Lieutenant 

Editok's Appendix 


Riley, J First Sergeant 

Connolly, P Second Sergeant 

Ristlg, W Third Sergeant 

Wood, W. O Fourth Sergeant 

Cassldy, J Fifth Sergeant 

Dangerfleld, R First Corporal 

Smith, E. P Corporal 

Jackson, A. M Corporal 

Kirby, H. N Corporal 

Sherer, Jno. M Corporal 

Anderson, J. R. 
Ashe, J. J. 
Brown, J. 
Butt, J. F. 
Berry, W. P. 
Barry, W. L. 
Bomar, W. B. 
Bomar, J. E. 
Biggers, A. J. 
Biter, Alex. 
Beardon, S. S. 
Brown, S. S. 
Blake, Charles 
Bagwell, Jos. B. 
Braner, H. 
Baker, F. 
Boesch, J. J. 
Breene, P. J. 
Brice, A. 
Buchanan, C. 
Cooper, W. 
Caldwell, S. A. 
Caldwell, A. P. 
Chllders, J. 
Chesney, G. "W. 
Cassldy, D. 
Cook, H. 
Davis, P. 
Daly, T. 

Drummond, J. F. 
Duncan, Alexander 
Dugan, R. B. 
Eggerking, F. W. 
Evans, L. K. 
Edwards, J. P. 
Epps, B. W. 

Edwards, P. 
Faulbeer, A. 
Ferris, J. B. 
Falls, E. C. 
Flynn, J. 
Glenn, M. 
Gill, E. H. 
Griffith, J. G. 
Harshaw, H. J. 
Hughes, E. 
Hughes, J. 
Hesch, C. 
Hines, J. 
Hanna, J. C. 
weigh, T. P. 
Hefifner, M. 
Herbert, J. C. 
Hamby, ,A. 
Hudson, H. C. 
Harrington, W. 
Jeffers, B. 
Jackson, W. P. 
Kelly, John 
Lay, C. 
Lindon, I. 
Leive, E. 
Lawton, G. W. 
Lowry, S. 
Lipscomb, W. L. 
McDonald, A. A. 
McDavitt, J. 
McNeill, J. 
McCarley, J. M. 
McCaffrey, J. 
Mlchaelis, J. H. 

Malone, P. 
Maccabee, N. P. 
Maccabee, J. N. 
Miskelly, J. W. 
MuUings, W. 
Nagle, L. 
Patrick, C. 
Pierson, D. W. 
Pringle, J. 
Quinn, J. M. 
Qulnn, R. 
Rhode, D. 
Robinson, A. 
Rees, B. F. 
Riley, J. 
Stanton, A. 
Sobbe, E. 
Seay, J. H. 
Sellers, R. A. 
Shilllnglaw, W. A. 
Schultiess, E. 
Stack, J. 
Schroeder, H. 
Shoefflin, J' 
Seibert, F. 
Smith, E. 
Thomas, S. A. 
Taylor, H. 
Ussery, T. B. 
Weddigan, E. 
Whitehead, B. 
Watson, C. 
Wooten, J. H. 
Williamson, J. 
West, A. J. 


Memoirs of the War op Secession 


King, Henry C Captain 

Hoplsins, J. Ward Captain 

Cay, John A Captain 

Wells,- Joseph T First liieutenant 

Hopkins, Chas M First Lieutenant 

Barbot, Peter J Second Liieutenant 

Lance, A. St. John Second Lieutenant 

Stoney, Isaac D Second liieutenant 

Edwards, Jno. J Junior Second Lieutenant 

Foster, Charles First Sergeant 

Arnold, Thomas Sergeant 

Smith, W. Kirkwood.. .. First Sergeant 

Beckman, Wm. W First Sergeant 

Foster, Henry P Sergeant 

Gilliland, Arthur Sergeant 

Saylor, Henry B Sergeant 

Williams, Wlnthrop Sergeant 

Valentine, Isaac D Corporal 

Neufvllle, H. S Corporal 

Frouche, Augustus F Corporal 

Dingle, G. Wesley Corporal 

Poole, Frank S Corporal 

Starnes, Robert C Corporal 

Stegin, J. H Corporal 


Armstrong, D. A. 
Abrams, T. H. 
Alley, James A. 
Aldrich, C. F. 
Arlington, C. H. 
Austin, Sam'l 
Atkinson, T. W. 
Barbot, A. 
Barbot, A. A. 
Ball, T. J. 
Ball, J. J. 
Bailey, Wm. A. 
Ballentine, G. P. 
Barksdale, J. C. 
Barksdale, Jno. 
Beadle, R. T. 
Beadle, B. A. 
Bee, Sandiford 
Bee, William B. 


Beason, Samuel 
Blanton, L. L. 
Bryson, Thos. J. 
Bryson, John H. 
Bumpers, A. 
Butler, John W. 
BuUington, D. G. 
Burns, W. L. 
Byars, N. 
Brown, J. S. 
Brown, A. J. 
Casey, Thomas 
Cash, M. S. 
Cannon, W. H. 
Colson, Andrew C. 
Cook, James C. 
Check, John 
Chandler, J. W. 
Chandler, J. J. 

Cleary, William 
Cleary, J. E. 
Clopton, G. W. 
Compton, W. B. 
Davis, W. A. 
Dewees, Thos. H. 
Davenport, J. C. 
Edgerton, Sam'l F. 
Ellison, A. E. 
Evans, E. C. 
Foster, Chas. B. 
Pickling, J. H. 
Fisher, Sam'l W., Jr. 
Fowler, Jno. F. 
Fowler, W. W. 
Fowler, James F. 
Fooshe, J. H. 
Fooshe, John 
Floyd, Miles 

Editor's Appendix 


Garland, W. H., Jr. 
Garrett, E. B. 
Garrett, T. B. 
Gibbes, Allen S. 
Graves, W. W. 
Graves, W. B. 
Grant, A. A. 
Griffin, W. H. 
Gyles, "W. Alfred 
Hamilton, Jno. A. 
Harrison, F. M. 
Harrison, J. F. 
Haselton, E. E. 
Helames, J. H. 
Helames, W. H. 
Helames, Y. C. 
Hitch, S. G. 
Rowland, Wm. E. 
Hughes, Thos. S. 
Hyde, Samuel T. 
Johnson, Thomas N. 
Johnson, "Wm. W. 
Joel, John 
Kennedy, M. B. 
King, Wm. L. 
Knight, J. A. 
Lamotte, Henry J. 
Levin, S. M. 
Lindsay, Henry A. 
Lucius, J. R. 
Lockwood, Thos. P. 
Macbeth, Edward W. 
Macbeth, Wm. L. 
Mahoney, Michael 
Madden, Z. L. 
Madden, J. A. 
Madden, Moses 
Martin, H. H. 
Martin, L. D. 

Martin, S. B. 
Martin, L. S. 
Miler, David A. 
Miller, Daniel 
Milford, J. W. 
Milam, William 
Moodie, A. G. 
McPherson, J. M. 
Middleton, Thos., Jr. 
Moses, Edward L. 
Moore, W. B. 
Moore, R. L. 
Moore, J. H. 
McAbee, W. C. 
Martin, S. V. 
McCrady, J. P. 
Motes, A. X. 
Nathans, J. N. 
Nelson, Josiah 
Nelson, W. A. 
Nelson, Thomas 
Owings, M. J. 
Owens, R. 
O'SuIlivan, M. 
Pinsou, Jno. H. 
Pinson, Jabez R. 
Plane, Thomas 
Poole, Andrew B. 
Pitts, James Y. 
Porter, Joseph H. 
Pope, M. T. 
Posnanski, Gustavus 
Roumillat, A. J. A. 
Ray, F. T. 
Reeder, R. S. 
Ried, 0. Henry 
Redden, Henry 
Roberts, Jno. F. 
Rutledge, Jno. E. 

Saxon, J. F. 
Saxon, Jack 
Shaffer, Fred J. 
Stone, M. 

Smith, Whiteford S. 
Saylor, Jacob J. 
Strange, Perry 
Strange, J. A. W. 
Stroble, A. Stuart 
Suran, Henry T. 
Sweeney, J. R. 
Soxby, J. H. 
Switzer, L. O. 
Taylor, E. G. 
Tennant, Edward S. 
Tennant, Wm., Jr. 
Tennant, Chas. J. 
Terry, E. L. 
Theus, S. 
Timms, J. M. 
Toomer, Edward P. 
Tupper, James, Jr. 
Turner, John G. 
Walker, G. W. 
Walker, E. T. 
Walker, John 
Ware, W. A. J. 
Watts, R. S. 
Wells, Clement 
Wells, B. M. 
Watson, J. D. 
Withers, T. R. 
Withers, James 
Wilson, W. A. 
Wilson, A. B. 
Williams, J. C. 
Wheeler, G. R. 
Wharton, John 


Chisolm, R Captain 

Proctor, S. R First Lieutenant 

Crooker, T. B Second Lieutenant 

Remmerlin, S. M Brevet Second Lieutenant 

Cady, W. N Second Sergeant 

Jackson, J. M Fifth Sergeant 


Memoirs of the "Wae of Secession 

Davis, J. R Third Sergeant 

Cady, T. N Fourth Sergeant 

■VPood, F First Corporal 

Castin, W. J Second Corporal 

Watts, W.P Third Corporal 

Abney, J. B. 
Barse, D. J. 
Beck, M. J. 
Bolin, S. E. 
Brown, Josiah 
Brown, Joshua 
Brooker, B. D. 
Carson, J. C. 
Cartin, B. 
Cartin, W. C. 
Chapman, D. N. 
Crabtree, G. 
Coats, D. N. 
Craft, J. 
Cromer, J. R. 
Centerfield, S. 
Cockerell, J. 
Coffee, J. H. 
Dockins, L. 
Duncan, G. W. 
Duncan, T. J. 
Davenport, H. 
Fowler, R. 


Garrick, J. R. 
Gleaton, W. JI. 
Gregory, John T. 
Hammond, H. 
Hallman, J. W. 
Hall, J. C. 
Hendrix, G. S. 
Humphries, M. 
Humphries, W. L. 
Hull, J. M. 
Jackson, J. P. 
Jones, L. M. 
Jones, W. F. 
Jones, J. A. 
Kissick, J. W. 
Kissick, T. R. 
Leach, J. 
Murphy, J. M. 
Madden, L. C. 
McGill, A. 
Xates, J. C. 
Neal, B. 
Neal, R. L. 

Owens, J. L. 
Owens, W. R. 
Owens, J. A. 
Poole, John 
Rice, J. N. 
Ready, J. P. 
Redmore, J. L. 
Rumbly, A. J. 
Shirey, S. W. 
Scott, F. T. 
Smith, E. 
Smith, W. S. 
Slaggs, R. 
Thrift, John 
Ulm, R. M. 
Varnes, W. M. 
Walker, James 
Wood, Jesse 
Whetten, A. M. 
Williams, D. N. 
Willson, J. C. 
Zeigler, D. F. 


Allston, Thos. Blyth Captain 

Huguenin, Julius G Lieutenant 

Stuart, Middleton Lieutenant 

Cater, E. P Lieutenant 

Porcher, Chas. Pettegru Cadet 

Watts, Pickens B First Sergeant 

Floyd, Thos. G First Sergeant 

Gibbons, J. P Second Sergeant 

Staubs, Jacob • Third Sergeant 

Boozer, Jacob Fourth Sergeant 

Stone, W. L First Corporal 

Lemon, W. O Second Corporal 

Attaway, T. G Third Corporal 

Kirby, Evander Fourth Corporal 

Editor's Appendix 


Boatwright, Eli Corporal 

Welch, Joseph Corporal 

Aaron, J. J. 
Arthur, J. T. 
Attaway, J. A. 
Aultman, Thomas 
Barfield, M. 
Barfleld, W. H. 
Bailey, Samuel 
Bladen, T. J. 
Bowman, J. W. D. 
Brodie, M. 
Brown, William 
Bryant, J. T. 
Butler, C. W. 
Birkett, W. H. 
Benenhaley, Jno. 
Benenhaley, Eandall 
Calder, Malcolm 
Calder, W. 
Calder, James 
Chandler, Isaac J. 
Cockerill, Wesley 
Coulter, Alexander 
Deas, Franlilyn 
De Loach, George 
De Loach, Caleb 
De Loach, Allen 
De Loach, Wm. 
De Loach, Milledge 
Dean, John 
Desnoyers, L. 
Dorman, D. 
Earle, T. T. 
Floyd, W. H. 
Pulmer, W. T. 
Galloway, S. P. 


Galloway, W. T. 
Gant, W. H. 
Gibbs, Joseph 
Gibbs, Thos. E. 
Glisson, J. C. 
Graham, G. 
Goodman, J. H. 
Gibbons, J. C. 
Griffith, H. W. 
Hulon, Ervin 
Hunt, Chas. 
Hunt, George 
Healy, P. W. 
Healy, J. B. 
Jones, David 
Keaton, John 
Keels, D. E. 
Long, W. W. 
Long, Jno. M. 
Long, Wm. 
Logan, A. J. 
Logan, F. S. 
Lane, Jas. D. 
Lemmon, W. H. B. 
McDaniel, P. B. ' 
Jloore, J. K. 
Moore, S. R. 
Moyd, E. M. 
Murrell, B. L. 
Newberry, A. McCants 
Plunkett, C. 
Proctor, D. 
Rutland, Ezekial 

Beddy, James 
Reddy, Wm. 
Smith, S. M. 
Smith, James 
Seay, Geo. W. 
Smith, J. R. 
Singletary, Jno. J. 
Tanner, Edward D. 
Thomas, Oliver 
Thomas, Rowan 
Thomas, Huger 
Thomas, James 
Thomas, D. R. 
Thornhill, B. B. 
Tolson, B. G. 
Taylor, Henry 
Tanner, James 
Turner, G. W. 
Traynham, A. J. 
Taylor, J. W. 
Vausse, J. J. 
Vausse, A. E. 
Walden. J. 
Welch, S. W. 
Williams, J. 
Woodward, J. M. 
Walker, Nathaniel 
Woodward, W. 
White, J. W. 
Welch, Samuel 
Weaver, J. P. 
Weaver, Oscar 
Wightman, W. S. 
Wright, James 


(Charleston Sharpshooters or Palmetto Guards.) 

Buist, Henry ..Captain 

Holman, Edward H Lieutenant 

Macbeth, Chas. J Lieutenant 

White, Abbott B Lieutenant 


Memoirs or the War op Secession 

Hart, Thos. C. Sergeant 

Mims, Fletcher Sergeant 

Bookhart, D. B Sergeant 

Shuler, P. C Sergeant 

Way, J. F Sergeant 

Johnson, R. C Corporal 

Gordon, J Corporal 

Huffman, J. H. S Corporal 

Burke, I. J Corporal 

Abies, N. 

Andrews, W. 

Bailey, J. D. A. 

Barber, John 

Baum, C. 

Blakely, J. K. 

Brock, G. 

Bryant, B. 

Bryson, W. 

Bryson, J. 

Burgess, J. 

Burkitt, Wm. 

Burroughs, T. C. 

Campbell, W. J. 
Campbell, J. McD. 
Copeland, H. 
Crossley, B. 

Dodd, Dixon 
• Duckett, J. 
Dunn, E. 
Dunford, A. J. 
Dunford, M. 
Emory, J. 
Evans, L. W. 
Floyd, D. 
Fuller, J. 
Gantt, Z. 
Gartman, S. 
Gilliam, B. B. 
Godfrey, T. P. 
Gossett, W. 
Grice, F. 
Givin, T. D. 
Givin, W. P. 
Givin, J. 


Hames, G. 
Hart, A. R. 
Harvey, Wm. 
Horsey, W. 
Hays, W. 
Hill, B. W. 
Hollingsworth, W. 
Huffman, M. 
Huffman, F. 
Hungerpeeler, Jim 
Irby, S. V. 
James, F. 
James, R. 
Jennings, J. 
Johnson, H. 
Jordan, H. 
Keaton, J. 
Kemerllng, S. 
King, D. A. 
Knight, T. 
Lamb, J. 
Lambreth, R. 
Lartigue, E. J. 
Lamson, J. 
Leaird, D. 
Leaird, J. H. 
Leaird, J. J. 
Leaird, T. L. 
Leaird, I. J. 
Leaird, R. S. 
Lewis, J. R. 
Lewis, G. W. 
Lewis, T. J. 
Livingston, L. M. 
Lovett, W. L. 

Lucas, J. R. 
McMakin, W. G. 
Meadows, J. 
Moore, G. W. 
Moore, B. W. 
Neese, G. 
Neighbours, W. 
Neighbours, J. 
Nelson, T. 
Oshields, J. 
Perkins, T. C. 
Poole, L. 
Powers, G. 
Pyles, M. 
Rainwater, J. P. 
Rice, H. 
Riddle, S. T. 
Riddle, William 
Rodgers, A. M. 
Rodgers, L. P. 
Rourke, A. V. 
Shuler, C. B. 
Smith, William 
Smith, F. J. 
Smith, W. B. 
Smith, J. F. 
Stevens, J. 
Stone, J. 
Stone, W. A. 
Sumeral, J. H. 
Taylor, A. S. 
Teague, L. K. 
Templeton, R. J. 
Thomas, E. 
Tribble, C. B. 

Editor's Appendix 


Vise, J. B. 
Vogt, T. P. 
Waldrup, B. W. 
Ward, J. 
Whitmlre, B. 
Whitten, M. B. 
Whitten, A. 

Wiles, P. E. 
Witkofsliy, J. 
Woofe, R. 
Woodward, T. J. 
Woodward, H. P. 
Wyatt, R. 
Zeilile, A. 

Mieliael, B. 
McKenzie, A. 
Floyd, H. 
Floyd, W. 
Scott, A. 
Jolin, Marco 


Ryan, W. H Captain 

Mulvaney, J. M Captain 

Allemong, A. A First Lieutenant 

Burlse, John Second Lieutenant 

Hogan, P. R First Lieutenant 

Hogan, Tlios. L First Sergeant 

O'Neil, F. L First Sergeant 

Carroll, Patrick Second Sergeant 

Ward, Daniel Third Sergeant 

Lee, Edward Third Sergeant 

Preston, Jno. F Fourth Sergeant 

Madigan, Lawrence Fourth Sergeant 

Lanigan, Edward Fifth Sergeant 

Moran, Michjsel Fifth Sergeant 

Harrington, Wm First Corporal 

Jager, J. Adolphus Second Corporal 

Conroy, John First Corporal 

Culleton, Patrick Third Corporal 

Doherty, Luke Fourth Corporal 

Brooks, Robert 
Bresman, Thomas 
Chandler, W. M. 
Callager, James 
Carmady, J. 
Carroll, Thomas 
Cavanah, Thos. 
Cullinane, M. 
Carey, Thomas 
Cummings, James 
Carroll, James 
Crowley, Richard 
Connelly, Thos. 
Cosgrove, James 
Dodds, George 
Divine, John L. 


Dougherty, James 
Driscoll, Timothy 
Dinan, William 
Dinan, Cornelius 
Dougherty, J. C. 
Dairy, Thomas 
Dunn, J. 
Edwards, James 
Edwards, John 
Egan, Thomas 
Fowler, James 
Fitzgerald, S. 
Flannigan, Patrick 
Flaherty, Thos. 
Fludd, Luke 
Flynn, James 

Gratton, Daniel 
Goodrich, Allan 
Goodrich, Henry 
Goodrich, Thomas 
Gleason, Thomas 
GafCney, R. 
Hartwell, Michael 
Hancock, J. 
Hayden, Thomas 
Hurley, Jerry 
Hanley, Patrick 
Hanley, Edward 

Hogan, Patrick 
Howard, D. 
Hughes, Thos. 


Memoirs of the Wak of Secession 

Anderson, Wm. 
Alley, R. C. 
Bates, G. W. 
Bishop, H. 
Blackwood, O. 
Bridges, G. H. 
Bragg, D. W. 
Brannon, J. J. 
Beardon, G. L. 
Cantrell, E. 
Cantrell, T. B. 
Cantrell, R. H. 
Cannon, T. H. 
Carlton, J. T. 
Carlton, M. S. 
Castleberry, J. H. 
Crosby, J. J. 
Conlin, J. B. 
Cooksey, T. L. 
Chapman, M. B. 
Davidson, H. M. 
De Young, William 
Duberry, D. J. 
Dupre, J. 
Edwards, "W. P. 
Eskew, Y. D. 
Ford, M. D. 
Floyd, J. 
Floyd, M. 
Fowler, H. 
Foster, J. J. 


Gentry, H. 
Griffin, T. B. 
Griffin, N. 
Goforth, J. P. 
Harnes, L. B. 
Harnes, F. 
Harvey, J. 
Hawley, A. M. 
Henderson, M. 
Hendricks, T. M. 
Heller, William 
Hullender, M. 
Humphries, T. 
Horton, W. R. 
Kirby, L. 
Kirby, J. M. 
Kirby, L. C. 
Kay, James 
Lucas, George 
Lewis, Poser 
Lindsay, W. H. 
Lindstedt, H. 
Maul, B. 

Mayfleld, J. M. C. 
■McElrath, D. T. 
McElrath, J. 
McDowell, W. G. 
McCarter, S. 
Page, J. C. C. 
Parris, W. B. 

Perry, A. J., Sr. 
Pearson, J. T. 
Pearson, A. P. 
Pearson, G. L 
Poole, E. V. 
Poole, L. 
Powers, J. A. 
Quinn, A. R. 
Quinn, L. C. 
Ray, W. 
Rodgers, J. D. 
Roberson, J. R. 
Smith, A. 
Smith, J. P. 
Spell, J. D. 
Turner, H. H. 
Turner, Wm. 
Turner, B. O. 
Timmons, A. J. 
Vaughau, W. S. 
Williams, E. 
Wilson, W. 

(col. musician) 

(col. cook) 

(col. cook) 

(col. cook) 



Heyward, W. C Colonel 

Ellis, Dan'l H Colonel 

Gantt, F. Hay Colonel 

Shuler, Wm Lieutenant-Colonel 

Campbell, Robert Lieutenant-Colonel 

Izard, Allen O Lieutenant-Colonel 

Smith, Benj. B Major 

Harrison, Jno. J Major 

Gooding, J. J Major 

Eraser, Edward R Adjutant 

Porter Adjutant 

Bell Adjutant 

Editor's Appendix 


Davis, Charles F Adjutant 

Gantt, Richard P Assistant Quartermaster 

Sams, B. B Commissary 

Williams, A, English Surgeon 

Black, Benjamin Assistant Surgeon 

Gantt, Eldred S Sergeant 

Ervln, Samuel Commissary Sergeant 


Westcoat, J. J Captain 

Bowman, H. W. G First Lieutenant 

Ellis, W. D Second Lieutenant 

Stutts, R. R Second Lieutenant 

Rumph, D. A Third Sergeant 

Piatt, John Fourth Sergeant 

Stutts, Geo Second Corporal 

Wilkinson, W , . . Second Corporal 

Black, John Second Lieutenant 

Farr, Thomas First Sergeant 

Martin, H. P First Corporal 


Ayer, John Groomes, H. Price, W. 

Atkinson, W. Groomes, B. Ritts, John 

Barr, James Hollins, J. Ritts, Thomas 

Benton, H. Hutson, J. Rivers, B. 

Benton, S. Howard, W. Rose, A. W. 

Branton, R. Harris, W. Rudd, J. L. 

Blumingby, D. Hucks, John Rush, S. 

Bishop, M. Infinger, N. Rush, James 

Bowman, W. Johnson, G. A. T. Rictor, N. G. 

Bowman, N. Johnson, John Simmons, J. L. 

Corley, John Lester, James Simmons, J. A. 

Caddin, W. Lacey, Thomas Thompson, James 

Caddin, R. Martin, Ed. Thompson, Thomas 

Cordes, G. Manning, James Varner, M. T. 

Dilk, W. L. Mizzles, Joe Weatherly, J. D. 

Doyle, A. Newton, A. Willis, J. 

Doyle, M. Newton, George Wood, W. 

Driggers, John Pendavis, R. Waldorf, A. 

Floyd, M. Piatt, J. H. 

(Added as Supplementary Roll.) 

Smith, Benj. B Captain 

Meggett, Wm. C Captain 

Westcoat, Julius J Captata 


Memoirs of the War or Secession 

Corbett, D. H First Lieutenant 

Dawson, J. H First Lieutenant 

Bowman, W. H First Lieutenant 

LaRociie, Ricliard Second Lieutenant 

Chaplin, E. D Second Lieutenant 

Ellis, W.D.. , Second Lieutenant 

Simmons, W. C Second Lieutenant 

Black, Jno Second Lieutenant 

Wilkinson, D. J Sergeant 

Freshwater, J. H Sergeant 

Farr, Thos Sergeant 

Stutts, R. R Sergeant 

Wilkinson, J. M Sergeant 

King, A. Sidney Sergeant 

LaRoche, Ed. D Sergeant 

Bunch, Jno Sergeant 

Rumph, D Sergeant 

Simmons, J. S Sergeant 

Simmons, J. T Sergeant 

Piatt, Jno Corporal 

Wilkinson, J. O Corporal 

Piatt, Jno., Jr Corporal 

McMillan, J Corporal 

Martin, H. P .''."'. ..Corporal 

Malloy, Lewis '. . ..Corporal 

Atkinson, W. 
Allen, J. T. 
Albers, James 
Barr, James 
Benton, H. 
Bishop, Hill 
Blumingburg, D. 
Bowman, W. 
Brantley, A. P. 
Benton, S. 
Bowman, W. J. 
Cadden, Wm. 
Cadden, Richard 
Cahill, P. 
Cordes, George 
Cordrey, J. 
Cammer, Lewis 
Davis, J. 
Dilk, W. L. 


Driggers, John 
Doyle, A. 
Doyle, Marion 
Daniels, A. W. 
Floyd, M. 
Gibson, O. 
Grimes, James 
Grooms, R. 
Grooms, H. 
Harris, W. 
Hollis, James 
Howard, W. 
Haynes, Alfred 
Hucks, John 
Hughes, O. 
Hutson, J. 
Hurdman, N. 
Infinger, Nat 
Jenkins, Geo. M. 

Jenkins, Jos. E. 
Johnson, Geo. 
Johnson, James 
Johnson, John 
Lacey, James 
Lester, Thomas 
Manning, Jas. 
Measels, John 
Martin, E. D. 
McGuire, J. J. 
Meagles, J. 
Newton, A. 
Newton, Geo. 
Pendavis, R. 
Prine, Wm. 
Ritts, John 
Kitts, Thomas 
Rector, N. G. 
Rivers, B. 

Editor's Appendix 


Rose, A. W. 
Rush, James 
Rush, J. 
Rush, C. 
Rush, S. 
Rudd, J. J. 
Seaborn, Wm. 
Shaw, William 
Simmons, J. A. 
Smith, "W. 

Smith, "W., Jr. 
Thompson, John 
Thompson, James 
Terry, S. 
Varner, M. T. 
Verrell, L. 
Veree, Wm. 
Waldorf, A. 
Weatherly, J. D. 
Willis, James 

Willis, A. J. 
Wilkinson, T. W. 
Wilkinson, W. 
Wilder, Jno. B. 
Washer, A. E. 
Williams, Benj. 
Whatley, Aleck 
Wood, N. 
Winnougham, N. 
Yeadon, Richard 


Ledbetter, Thos. E Captain 

Guerard, Jacob First Lieutenant 

Sineath, Tecfrick Second Lieutenant 

StuU, Thos. W Third Lieutenant 

Smidd Orderly Sergeant 

Ledbetter, Daniel Second Sergeant 

Limehouse, Thos. R Third Sergeant 

Weatherford, Watson Fourth Sergeant 

Jamison, H. A Commissary Sergeant 

Smith, Broglin First Corporal 

Redmore, Chas Second Corporal 

Smith, Dewey. Third Corporal 


Allen, Thos., Sr. 
Allen, Thos., Jr. 
Adams, Abner 
Altherson, James 
Barber, Frederick 
Barber, Benjamin 
Barber, Edward 
Barber, Joseph 
Barber; William 
Baxter, Delly 
Bunch, Henry 
Bunch, Wm. M. 
Bunch, Wm. 
Brothers, John 
Baxter, Daniel 
Bexley, John 
Burbage, James 
Brothers, James 
Connerley, Charles 
Donnelly, Benj. 

Driggers, Joel 
Driggers, Elisha 
Driggers, Robinson 
Davis, A. 

Dangerfield, Starling 
Davis, Jenkins 
Davis, Hamilton 
Driggers, Andrew 
Driggers, Daniel 
Driggers, Henry 
Driggers, Mack 
Doimelly, John 
Devenport, David 
Edminson, Charles 
Fryer, Edward 
Fryer, James 
Fryer, Robert 
Fryer, Wesley 
Fryer, William 
Grooms, James 

Grooms, Wesley 
Haggard, John 
Huff, Thomas 
Hyatt, Thomas 
Harrison, Benj. 
Howard, Abram 
Howard, James 
Howard, Wade 
Howard, Gabriel 
Mears, John 
Miers, Thomas 
Monroe, George 
Nettles, Richard 
Nettles, Rhett 
Powell, Thomas 
Parker, John 
Perry, William 
Paramore, Allen 
Peyler, John 
Stevenson, Benj. 


Memoirs of the Wak or Secession 

Stoutamier, David Wiggins, Lewis Winningham, Daniel 

Stanby, James Wannamaker, Abner Winningham, Mdward 

Tumblestow, Henry Weatherford, Robert Winn, Thomas 

Turner, David Weatherford, Lemuel Winn, Frank 

Thomerson, J. G. Winter, Eobert Way, Pink 


Harrison, Jno. J Captain 

Gooding, John J Captain 

Hucks, Henry K Captain 

Gooding, McD First Lieutenant 

Gooding, Wm. J Second Lieutenant 

Bowers, J. W Second Lieutenant 

Thomas, Phillip Second Lieutenant 

Sauls, Osborne J Second Lieutenant 

Jenkins, Thomas Second Lieutenant 

Mole, John A First Sergeant 

Hodge, Lewis First Sergeant 

Corbin, Chas " ■. . ..Second Sergeant 

Cook, Constantine Third Sergeant 

Cook, Washington Fourth Sergeant 

Owens, Jno. A Corporal 

Thomas, James Corporal 

Rivers, Joseph T Corporal 

Shipes, Wm. D Corporal 

Mixon, Wm. T Corporal 


Altman, Abram B. Gooding, Jas. W. Rivers, Jacob M. 

Altman, Owen Gooding, Richard Rivers, Robert H. 

Altman, Edward Gray, Jacob W. Rivers, Geo. M. 

Bulger, Henry P. Hall, Edward Roberts, Jno. B. 

Brunson, Thos. D. Hall, Alexander Rentz, Charles 

Branson, Phil. J. Hodges, Jas. P. Sinclair, Peter D. 

Barnes, Wm. B. Hull, Wm. H. Stanley, Jno. J. 

Barnes, Sylvester Joyner, Frederick G. Stanley, George E. 

Bennett, Jas. W. Kearse, Blake W. Stanley, Alexander 

Crews, Wm. L. Kearse, John F. Stanley, Thomas 

Crews, Jerry B. Lewis, Wm. H. Stanley, Benjamin 

Crews, Chas. E. Lewis, John Shipes, John 

Crews, Isham Lucas, Shadrack Shipes, Jas. P. 

Crews, Jno. E. Lightsey, Jno. F. Strickling, Jno. C. 

Crews, John Mason, David A. Thomas, Vincent J. 

Cook, Kinsey Mason, Wm. W. Terry, John M. 

Corbin, Edward Matthews, Robert N. Thames, Frank 

Fennell, Wm. A. Owens, Thomas Tyson, Jno. A. 

Fennell, Geo. M. Page, Robert L. Warren, Thos. R. 

Gooding, Eldred B. Rivers, Frank D. Williams, Sam'l \V. 

Editor's Appendix 



Mickler, Jno. I-I Captain 

Smith, Wilson First Lieutenant 

Tuten, Thos. S Second Lieutenant 

Hamilton, Thomas Second Lieutenant 

Smith, Jesse W First Sergeant 

Fitts, Jno. A Second Sergeant 

Mew, Alex. C Third Sergeant 

Woods, David ; Fourth Sergeant 

Crosby, Alex. W Fifth Sergeant 

Mew, Sam'l K First Corporal 

Fitts, Chas. R Second Corporal 

Smith, Jno. W Third Corporal 

Morgan, A. Greene Fourth Corporal 


Airs, William Fields, Richard Mulligan, George 

Aul, Greene Finley, R. Augustus McFail, John 

Allen, John Farris, Joe McLane, Henry 

Aughley, Jos. J. Farris, James Nix, Henry E. 

Bennett, William Ghelston, Richard F. Nix, Joseph R. 

Bennett, R. D. Ginn, Andrew C. Nix, William 

Bennett, J. L. Ginn, Wm. R. Preacher, John 

Brooker, John Geohagan, David B. Parnell, J. R. 

Brooker, Edward Garvin, Hamilton Reynolds, Robert 

Brown, Edward Godley, Wm. B. House, William 

Cook, Abram Harley, Jos. N. Rivers, F. Tyler 

Cook, Jackson Hortou, R. Frank Rivers, Jno. D. 

Crapes, Jonas Horton, Geo. W. Rushing, Albert 

Crapes, Jefferson Horton, Henry E. Rushing, Hausford 

Crapes, Henry T. Hull, Enoch Ruth, John 

Cone, J. Cooper Hull, Samuel Shuman, W. Samuel 

Cooler, Prank Horton, Solomon Smith, Andrew H. 

Cooler, P. Hammond, Wm. R. Smjth, Ben F. 

Daly, Patrick Hall, Ben Smith, Charles 

Daring, J. Tom Hall, Edward Smith, W. Jasper 

Dean, Andrew Hall, Alexander Smith, Jas. W. 

Dean, Robert Jarrell, James L. Smith, Jas. G. 

DeLoach, Frank Jarrell, Richard Smitb, Thomas H. 

Dobson, Charles Jarrell, Robert Smith, Jno. L. 

Dobson, Jacob Jeffords, Thos. J. Smith, G. Washington 

Dobson, Jno. S. Jones, James P. Steed, W. 

Dobson, Wiley Law, Abner Wells, W. Barton 

Dobson, W. Ferdinand Law, Robert Wiggins, Ben W. 

Ferguson, Geo. Lawton, Ben T. Winn, Barney B. 

Ferguson, Willis Langballe, Fred Winn, Richard C. 

Fitts, Thomas H. Mulligan, Wm. H. Winningham, Geo. W. 

Furse, William Mulligan, Bernard Zehe, John 

Freeman, Albert Mulligan, A. Gideon 

30— H 


Memoirs or the War or Secession 


Elliott, W. W Captain 

Wyman, B. F Captain 

Jenkins, Richard M First Lieutenant 

Morrison, Jno. T • First Iiieutenant 

Fuller, William Second Lieutenant 

Mixon, Jesse N Second Lieutenant 

Wyman, "Wm. H Third Lieutenant 

Wyman, E. H Third Lieutenant 

Jenkins, M Sergeant 

Moore, G. W Sergeant 

Smith, Bryee Sergeant 

Gooding, Thomas Sergeant 

Mixon, James Sergeant 

Mixon, W. B Sergeant 

Miley, Martin Sergeant 

Terry, Wm. M Sergeant 

Griner, Jesse Sergeant 

Cleland, D. B .Corporal 

Smith, Chas. C Corporal 

Crosby, D. W Corporal 

Blocker, A. W Corporal 

Parnell, Frank Corporal 

Anderson, Robert 
Blocker, Thos. 
Brown, Charles 
Boldt, Richard 
Condon, Jerome F. 
Cook, Barney 
Cook, John 
Cook, Steven 
Cook, Berry 
Cook, F. 
Cook, Middleton 
Creech, H.