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Olotttell Unideraitg SItbrarg 

Jt^aca, S^etn Qork 






Cornell University Library 
PA 6118.P6S11 1921 

Classical associations of places in Ital 

3 1924 026 484 067 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 








Published by the Author 

Madison, Wis. 




UlllVI--HJ:l'l Y 


Vt\] - J^ 


Copyright, 1921 


Frances E. Sabin 

Printed in the United States of America 





-J. J 3 11 nod 


















1 . Preface 

ir. Places 

[II. Appendix 

I\'. Classical Authors Quoted 

\'. Index 52,1-520 

\'\. Maps and Plans 

A. Italy Before p. 1 

B. Latium Before p. 13 

C. Campania 123 

D. Rome _ Before p. 283 

i;. Imperial Fora 

.Before p. 333 
F. Forum of the Kmpirc. , 


The purpose of this book is to bring together passages 
frorn Latin and Greek authors for the lovers of Italy and 
the classics, whether those who stand in the actual 
presence of landscape and monument, or those who con- 
template them in memory or imagination. Such persons 
will need neither introduction to the pages that follow 
nor instruction in the manner of their use. 

It is not the author's intention either to be exhaustive 
in the matter of citations or to make a critical edition of 
the text. Economy, if not regard for the reader, forbids 
the admission of passages not of principal importance; 
and to reduce to absolute uniformity a text of such extent 
and such variety of authorship and assembled perforce 
from so many different editions, has seemed, in view of 
the purpose of the volume, an unnecessary and an uncalled- 
for labor. For occasional instances where the text is not 
followed accurately by the translation, the author asks 
the reader's indulgence; she has not felt at liberty to make 
changes in versions not her own except as the inter- 
ests of English idiom made them essential. 

The author wishes to express her sincere thanks to the 
authors and publishers listed below for permission to 
quote from the translations indicated: 

Amcriiait Book Company, New York: Selected Orations of Cicero, b\- 

C. D. Yonge. 
Badger (Richard) Boston: TibuUus, by Tlieodore Chickering Williams. 
Bell (George) and Sons, London: 
From the Bohn Library: 

Ammianus Marcellinus, by C. I), ^'()ngc. 

.\thenaeus, by C. D. Yonge. 

Cicero's Orations, by C. D. Yonge. 

Cicero's Letters, by Evelyn Shuckburgh. 

Morus, by J. S. Watson. 

Gellius, by Beloe. 

Horace, Satires and Epistles, by John Conington. 

Juvenal, by William Gifford. 

.Martial (author not given). 

Ovid, Fasti and Tristia, Iw II. T. Kile y. 

I'aterculus, b\- J. S. Watson. 

Pcrsiiis, bv William Gifford. 

4 Classical Assotiatio)is 

I'liny, Natural Hislon , by Bostock and Rile>'. 
Rutilius, by G. F. Savage-Armstrong. 
Sallust, Catiline, by J. S. Watson. 
Strabo, by H. C. Hamilton. 

Tacitus, Histories, by Alfred Church anl William Brodribb. 
Horace, by Charles, Stuart Calverley (in \'erses and Transla- 
Blackwood and Sons, London: Horace, by Sir Theodore Martin. 
Century Publishing Company, .Vcui York: Horace (certain selections), by 

Sir Stephen E. de Vere. 
Clarendon Press. Oxford: 

Cassiodorus, Letters, by Thomas Hodgkin. 
Statius, by D. A. Sl;iter. 
Dullon (E. P.), Xew York: 

Tacitus, .-\nnals and Histories, by Arthur Murphy. 
Tacitus, Annals, by G. G, Ramsay. 

Plutarch, Everyman's Library, Drydcn's Translation as revised bv 
A. H. Clough. 
Harviird University Press, Cambridge, ^[llss.: 

Virgil, Eclogues and Georgics, by Theodore Chickering WiUiams. 
Houghton and MiJIlin, Boston: 

Catullus, Ode xxxi, by Leigh Hunt (in Laing's Masterpieces of 

Latin Literature). 
Homer, Odyssey, by Herbert Palmer. 

Selections from Lucan, Rutilius, and Statius, as given in Long- 
fellow's Poems of Places. 
Virgil, Aeneid, by Theodore Chickering Williams. 
Kegan Pawl, Trench, and Co., London: 

Horace (certain selections), by .Aubrcx- de \'cre. 
Marmillan and Company, New York: 
Dio Cassius, by Herbert B. Foster. 
Homer, Odyssey, by S. H. Butcher and .\ndrew Lang. 
Juvenal, by J. D. Lewis. 
Seneca, Natural Questions, by J. Clarke. 
Tacitus, Annals and Histories, by Church and Brodribb. 
McKay (David), Philadelphia: 

Virgil, Aeneid, by John Conington (revised by J. -V. Symonds). 
Page and Company, Boston: 

Frontinus, by Clemens Herschel. 
Princeton (Jnivcrsity Press, Princeton: 

Jordanes, Gothic History, by C. C. Mierow. 
Putnam's (G. P.) Sons, New York: 

From the Loeb Classical Library Series: 

Appian, Roman History, by Horace White. 
-Augustine's (Saint) Confessions, by W. Walts. 
.\usonius, by H. G. Evelyn- White. 
Caesar, Civil War, by A. G. Peskett. 
Catullus, by F. W. Cornish. 
Cicero, Letters to Atticus, by E. O. Winstedt. 
Dio Cassius, Roman History, by E. Cary. 
Horace, Odes and Epodes, by C. E. Bennett. 
Juvenal, by G. G. Ramsay. 

of Places in Italy 5 

Livy, by H. O. Foster. 

Martial, by W. C. Ker. 

Ovid, Amores, by Grant Showerman. 

Ovid, Metamorphoses, by F. J. Miller. 

Persius, by G. G. Ramsay. 

Petronius, by M. Htiseltine. 

Pliny, Epistles, by \\'illiam Jlelmoth (revised by W. M. L. 

Plutarch, Lives, by Bernadotte Perrin. 

Procopius, History of the Wars, by H. B. Dewing. 

Prooertius, by H. E. Butler. 

Salliist, Citiline, by J. C. Rolfe. 

Seneca, Epistles, by R. M. Gummere. 

Suetonius, by J. C. Rolfe. 

TibuUus, by J. P. Postgate. 

Virgil, .^eneid, by H. R. Fairclough. 
Cassiodorus (as found in Glover's Life and Letters in the Fourth 

Si oil, Forcsman, and Co., Chicago: 

\'irgil, Aeneid, by John Conington (revised by Francis and Anne 


In conclusion, the author wishes to extend her thanks 
to Professor H. C. Nutting of the University of California, 
Professor A. W. Hodgman of Ohio State University, 
Professor Grant Showerman of the, University of Wiscon- 
sin, and Dr. Walter Bryan for assistance in regard to 
certain translations. She is also under great obligations 
to Professor Arthur Van Buren of the American Academy 
at Rome for help in checking up the list of places; to 
Professor M. Rostovtzeff of the University of Wisconsin 
for suggestions regarding the notes; to Miss Marie Mc- 
Clernan of Madison for correcting the proof of the Greek 
text; and to Professor David M. Robinson of Johns 
Hopkins University and Professor Frank Gardner Moore 
of Columbia University for suggestions and a reading of 
the entire proof. 

Fr.-vnces Ellis Sabin 

Madison, Wis. 

Classical Associations 

ITALIA (Italy) 

Sed neque Medorum, silvae ditissima, terra, 
nee pulcher Ganges atque auro turbidus Hermus 
laudibus Italiae certent, non Bactra, neque Indi, 
totaque turiferis Panchaia pinguis harenis. 
haec loca non tauri spirantes naribus ignem 
invertere satis immanis dentibus hydri, 
nee galeis densisque virum seges horruit hastis; 
sed gravidae fruges et Baechi Massicus umor 
implevere; tenent oleae armentaque laeta. 
hinc bellator equus campo sese arduus infert; 
hinc albi, Clitumne, greges et maxima laurus 
victima, saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro, 
Romanes ad templa deum duxere triumphos. 
hie ver adsiduum atque alienis mensibus aeslas; 
bis gravidae peeudes, bis pomis utilis arbos. 
at rabidae tigres absunt et saeva leonum 
semina; nee rhiseros fallunt aconita legentis, 
nee rapit immensos orbis per humum, neque tanto 
squameus in spiram tractu se colligit anguis. 
adde tot egregias urbes operumque laborem, 
tot congesta manu praeruptis oppida saxis, 
fluminaque antiques supter labentia muros. 
an mare, quod supra, memorem, quodque adluit infra? 
anne laeus tantos? te, Lari maxime, teque, 
fluetibus et fremitu adsurgens Benace marine? 
an memorem pertus Luerinoque addita claustra 
atque indignatum magnis stridoribus aequer, 
lulia qua ponto longe senat unda refuse 
Tyrrhenusque fretis immittitur aestus Avcrnis? 

of Places ill Italy 7 

A Poet's Eulogy of Italy 

But neither flowering groves 
Of Media's rich realm, nor Ganges proud, 
Nor Lydian fountains flowing thick with gold, 
Can match their glories with Italia; 
Nor Bactris nor Ind, nor all the wealth 
Of wide Arabia's incense-bearing sands. 
This land by Jason's bulls with breath of flame 
Never was ploughed, nor planted with the teeth 
Of monstrous dragon, nor that harvest grew 
Of helmed warrior-heads and myriad spears. 
But full-eared corn and gOodly Massic wine 
Inhabit here, with olives and fat herds. 
The war-horse here with forehead high in air 
Strides o'er the plain; here roam thy spotless flocks, 
Clitumnus; and for noblest sacrifice. 
The snow-white bull, bathed oft in sacred stream, 
Leads Roman triumphs to the house of Jove. 
Here Spring is endless and the Summer glows 
In months not half her own. Twice in the year 
The herds drop young, and twice the orchard bears 
The labor of its fruit. But tigers fell 
And the fierce lion's brood are absent here. 
No deadly aconite deceives the hand 
That gathers herbs; nor in enormous folds 
Of lengthened twine the scaly snake upcoils. 
Behold the famous cities — what vast toil 
Upreared them! — and the host of strongholds piled 
By hand of man on out-hewn precipice. 
While swift streams under ancient bulwarks flow. 
Why tell of two salt seas that wash her shore 
Above, below; her multitude of lakes, — 
Thee, Larius, chiefest, and Benacus, where 
Are swelling floods and billows like the sea? 
Why name that ha\en where the lofty mok' 
Locks in the Lucrine lake, while with loud rage 
The baftled waters roar, and Julian waves 
Echo from far the sea's retreating tide, 
.\iid through the channels of .\vernus pours 
Th' in\ading Tuscan main? In this rich land 

8 Classical Associations 

haec eadem argenti rivos aerisque metalla 
ostendit venis, atque auro plurima fluxit. 
haec genus acre virum, Marsos, pubemque Sabellam, 
adsuetumque malo Ligurem, Volscosque verutos 
extulit, haec Decios, Marios, magnosque Camillos, 
Scipiadas duros bello, et te, maxime Caesar, 
qui nunc extremis Asiae iam victor in oris 
imbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum. 
salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus, 
magna virum: tibi res antiquae laudis et artis 
ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontis, 
Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen. 

Vir. Georg. ii. 136-176. 

Terra omnium terrarum alumna eadem et parens, 
numine deum electa quae caelum ipsum clarius faceret, 
sparsa congregaret imperia ritusque molliret et tot popu- 
lorum discordes ferasque linguas sermonis commercio 
contraheret ad colloquia et humanitatem homini daret, 
breviterque una cunctarum gentium in tota urbe patria 
fieret. Sed quid agam? tanta nobilitas omnium loco- 
rum (quos quis attigerit?), tanta rerum singularum 
populorumque claritas tenet. Urbs Roma vel sola n eai 
et digna tam iam festa cervice facies quo tandem narrari 
debet opere? Qualiter Campaniae ora per se felixque 
ilia ac beata amoenitas, ut palam sit uno in loco gaudentis 
opus esse naturae? Iam vero tota ea vitalis ac perennis 
salubritas, talis caeli temperies, tam fertiles campi, tam 
aprici colles, tam innoxii saltus, tam opaca nemora, tam 

1 Through the deification of the good emperors. 

of Places in Italy 9 

Deep veins of silver show, and ores for brass, 

With lavish gold. Hence sprang the war-like breed 

Of Marsi, hence the proud Sabellian clans, 

Ligurians to hardship seasoned well. 

And Volscian spearmen; hence the Decii, 

Camilli, Marii, immortal names, 

The Scipios, in war implacable, 

And Caesar, thou, the last, the prince of all, 

Who now victorious on far Asia's end. 

Art holding back from Roman citadels 

The Indian weakling. Hail, Saturn's land, 

Mother of all good fruits and harvests fair; 

Mother of men! I for thy noble sake 

Attempt these old and famous themes and dare 

Unseal an age-long venerated spring 

And uplift Hesiod's song o'er Roman towers. 

T. C. Williams 

The Charms of Italy as Pliny Sees Them 

The land which is at the same time the nursling and 
the mother of all lands, chosen by the counsel of the gods 
to make heaven itself more glorious,' to gather together 
the scattered empires and humanize their customs, to 
draw many peoples of wild and discordant language 
into contact through the medium of speech, to bestow 
civilization upon mankind, and in a word to become 
the one mother-country of all nations throughout the 
world. But what am I to do? Such celebrity of places 
in general (and who could even touch upon them?), 
such distinction in particular facts and peoples, embarrass 
me. Merely to mention in that land the city of Rome 
alone — fit head now for those splendid shoulders, — 
what a book would be required for its description! And 
how describe the coast of Campania itself, that favored, 
blessed land of the picturesque, declaring itself the work 
of Nature in love with a single spot? And then all that 
life-giving, perennial healthfulness, so mild a climate, 
such fertile plains and sunny hills, such wholesome pas- 

10 Classical Associations 

munifica sLIvarum genera, tot montium adilalus, tanta 
frugum vitiumque et olearum fertilitas, tam nobilia pecudi 
vellera, tam opima tauris coUa, tot lacus, tot amnium 
fontiumque ubertas totam earn perfundens, tot maria, 
portus, gremiumque terrarum commercio patens undique 
et tamquam iuvandos ad mortales ipsa avide in. maria 

J>lin. N. H. iii. 3<)-41. 

of Places in Italy 1 1 

lures and shady groves, forests so richly varied, breezes 
from so many, mountains, such fruitfulness in cereals and 
vines and olive-trees, flocks with such famous fleeces, 
bulls with necks so sturdy, so many lakes, so many inex- 
haustible rivers and springs watering the entire length of 
the country, so many seas and harbors, and the land open- 
ing its bosom on every side to trade, and itself eagerly 
jutting out into the sea, as if to aid mortals. 

F. G. Moore 

12 Classical Associations 

ALBA LONGA (Near Castel Gandolfo) 
MONS ALBANUS (Monte Cavo) 
LACUS ALBANUS (Lago di Casteli.o 
OR Lago d'Albano) 

The exact site of the ancient city of Alba Longa is still 
a matter of dispute. Historical tradition indicates that it 
lay along the border of the Alban lake. Livy, in accounting 
for its name, says that the town lay "stretched out upon a 
ridge" (i. 3), but its utter destruction by TuUus Hostilius 
took place so long ago that it is difficult not only to locate 
the spot upon which it stood, but in general to distinguish 
between legend and historical fact in connection with it. 
According to tradition, it was built by the Trojan As- 
canius, the son of Aeneas, and through the transference 
of the kingdom by Romulus to the Seven Hills, became 
the mother city of Rome. Following passages deal with 
these early incidents. 

In the historical period, it was probably the capital at 
one time of the famous Latin League, a powerful federa- 
tion of cities, at first independent of Rome, but later united 
with her for mutual protection against surrounding foes. 
The Alban mountain near by was the scene of impressive 
ceremonies in connection with this League, notably the 
celebration of the Feriae Latinae, a festival in honor of 
Jupiter Latiaris whose temple crowned the height. On 
this occasion all the towns which had a share in this 
alliance took part in the feasting, a custom which con- 
tinued long after the League passed out of existence 
(Cic. pro. Plane. 23). In later times the festival was 
celebrated by the Roman consuls in the presence of the 
magistrates; nor did these officials leave for their prov- 
inces until this sacred duty was performed. Julius Caesar, 
says Dio (xliv. 4), had the privilege conferred upon him 
by the senate of returning to the city on horseback 
after a participation in the ceremonies, and Plutarch re- 
lates that it was while Caesar was "coming down from 
Alba" that his companions hailed him as "king" of Rome. 
The mountain was also the scene of stately triumphal 
processions in honor of victorious generals. Livy (xxvi. 

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oj Places in Italy 


21) describes such an occasion in connection with the ova- 
tion given to Marcellus, the conqueror of Syracuse, who 
afterwards entered Rome amid scenes of great splendor. 
The ancient city of Alba Longa must not be confused 
with Albanum (Albano, a town which grew up in later 
times on the opposite side of the lake), the site of which is 
supposed to be indicated roughly by Castel Gandolfo. 
Because of its healthful situation and its beauty, the re- 
gion became a favorite resort of wealthy Romans and 
many splendid villas were built in its neighborhood, 
among them, in the Republican period, those of Pompey 
(who is said by Plutarch to have been buried here), Clo- 
dius, and Brutus. The emperors, too, were fond of this 
region. Augustus, for example, lived at Albanum; Cali- 
gula went there after the death of his sister Drusilla, as- 
suaging his grief by gambling and other diversions (Sen. 
Dial. xi. 17, 4); and for many years Domitian made it his 
favorite abode, even summoning the senate to his palace 
on occasions and transacting state matters in general from 
this center (Juv. iv. 144-149). 

/'Ii!il,:srijph by Knllitiriue Alien 

Ancient Road on Monte Cavo 

14 Classical Associations 

At puer Ascanius', cui nunc cognomen lulo 
additur — Ilus erat, dum res stetit Ilia regno — 
triginta magnos volvendis mensibus orbis 
imperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini 
transferet, et longam multa vi muniet Albam. 
hie iam ter centum totos regnabitur annos 
gente sub Hectorea, donee regina sacerdos 
Marte gravis geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem. 
inde lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus 
Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet 
moenia Romanesque suo de nomine dicet. 
his ego nee metas rerum nee tempora pono; 
imperium sine fine dedi. 

Vir. Aen. i. 267-279. 

Is igitur, ut natus sit, cum Remo fratre dicitur ab Amu- 
lio, rege Albano, ob labefactandi regni timorem ad Ti- 
berim exponi iussus esse; quo in loco^um esset silvestris 
beluae sustentatus uberibus pastoresque eum sustulis- 
sent et in agresti eultu laboreque aluissent, perhibetur, ut 
adoleverit, et corporibus viribus et animi feroeitate tan- 
tum ceteris praestitisse, ut omnes, qui turn eos agros, ubi 
hodie est haec urbs, incolebant, aequo animo illi libenter- 
que parerent. Quorum copiis eum se ducem praebuisset, 
ut iam a fabulis ad facta veniamus, oppressisse Longam 
Albam, validamurbem etpotentem temporibus illis, Amu- 
liurhque regem interemisse fertur. 

Cic. de Re Pub. ii. 4. 

Candidaque antiquo detinet Alba lare. 

Tibull. i. 7, 58. 

1 Aeneas. 

2 The Trojans build their first city at Lavinium, a town in Latium. 

3 Rhea SiKia, descendant from the Trojan line, who through the agency of a wicked 
uncle was made a vestal thai she might not bear an heir to the throne oE Alba which he 
had usurped. But the birth of twin sons, whose father was reported to be none less than 
the god Mars, thwarted his ambitious schemes. A following passage relates the effort 
mjide by the king to destroy the infants and so make his sovereignty secure. For a full 
account, see Livy i.'4ff. 

of Places in Italy 15 

Jupiter Promises a Glorious Destiny to the Founders 
of Alba Longa 

His^ heir, Ascanius, now lulus called 
(llus it was while Ilium's kingdom stood), 
Full thirty years shall reign, then move the throne 
From the Lavinian citadel,'' and build 
For Alba Longa its well-bastioned wall. 
Here three full centuries shall Hector's race 
Have kingly power; till a priestess queen,' 
By Mars conceiving, her twin offspring bear; 
Then Romulus, wolf-nursed and proudly clad 
In tawny wolf-skin mantle, shall receive 
The sceptre of his race. He shall uprear 
The war-god's citadel and lofty wall. 
And on his Romans his own name bestow. 
To these I give no bounded times or power. 
But empire without end. 

T. C. Williams 

The Story of Romulus and Remus 

It is related, then, that soon after the birth of Romulus 
and his brother Remus, Amulius, king of Alba, fearing 
that they might one day undermine his authority, ordered 
that they should be exposed on the banks of the Tiber; 
and that in this situation, the infant Romulus was suckled 
by a wild beast; that he was afterwards educated by the 
shepherds, and brought up in the rough way of living and 
labours of the countrymen; and that he acquired, when he 
grew up, such superiority over the rest by the vigour of his 
body and the courage of his soul, that all the people who 
at that time inhabited the plains in the midst of which 
Rome now stands, tranquilly and willingly submitted to 
his government. And when he had made himself the 
chief of those bands, to come from fables to facts, he took 
Alba Longa, a powerful and strong city at that time, and 
slew its king, Amulius. 

C. D. YoNT.E 

While Alba's ancient liomesteads. 


16 Classical Associations 

Inter haec iam praemissi Albam erant equites, qui 
multitudinem traducerent Romam. Legiones deinde duc- 
tae ad diruendam urbem. Quae ubi intravere portas, 
non quidem fuit tumultus ille nee pavor, qualis captarum 
esse urbium solet, cum effractis portis stratisve ariete 
muris aut arce vi capta clamor hostilis et cursus per ur- 
bem armatorum omnia ferro flammaque miscet; sed silen- 
tium triste ac tacita maestitia ita defixit omnium animos, 
ut prae metu [obliti], quid relinquerent, quid secum fer- 
rent, deficiente consilio rogitantesque alii alios nunc in 
liminibus starent, nunc errabundi domos suas ultimum 
illud visuri pervagarentur. Ut vero iam equitum clamor 
exire iubentium instabat, iam fragor tectorum, quae diru- 
ebantur, ultimis urbis "partibus audiebatur pulvisque ex 
distantibuslocisortusvelutnube inducta omnia inpleverat, 
raptim quibus quisque poterat elatis cum larem ac penates 
tectaque, in quibus natus quisque educatusque esseSt, re- 
linquentes exirent, iam continens agmen migrantium in- 
pleverat vias, et conspectus aliorum mutua miseratione 
integrabat lacrimas, vocesque etiam miserabiles exaudie- 
bantur mulierum praecipue, cum obsessa ab armatis tem- 
pla augusta praeterirent ac velut captos relinquerent deos. 
Egressis urbe Albanis Romanus passim publica privata- 
que omnia tecta adaequat solo, unaque bora quadringen- 
torum annorum opus, quibus Alba steterat, excidio ac 
minis dedit; templis tamen deum — ita enim edictum ab 
rege fuerat — temperatum est. 

Liv. i. 29, 1-6. 

Et stetit Alba potens, albae suis omine nata, 
hinc ubi Fidenas longa erat isse via. 

Prop. iv. 1, 35-36. 

* An account of the destruction of the city by Tullus Ho5tilius, one of the early kings of 

of Places in Italy 17 

The Destruction of Alba Longa'' 

While this was going on, horsemen had already been 
sent on to Alba to fetch the inhabitants to Rome, and 
afterwards the legions were marched over to demolish the 
city. When they entered the gates, there was not, indeed, 
the tumult and panic which usually follow the capture of 
a city, when its gates have been forced or its walls breached 
with a ram or its stronghold stormed, when the shouts of 
the enemy and the rush of armed men through the streets 
throw the whole town into a wild confusion of blood and 
fire. But at Alba oppressive silence and grief that found 
no words quite; overwhelmed the spirits of all the people; 
too dismayed to think what they should take with them 
and what leave behind, they would ask each other's ad- 
vice again and again, now standing on their thresholds, 
and now roaming aimlessly through the houses they were 
to look upon for the last time. But when at length the 
horsemen began to be urgent, and clamorously commanded 
them to come out ; when they could now hear the crash of 
the buildings which were being pulled down in the outskirts 
of the city; when the dust rising in different quarters had 
overcast the sky like a gathering cloud; then everybody 
made haste to carry out what he could, and forth they 
went, abandoning their lares and penates, and the houses 
in which they had been born and brought up. And now 
the streets were filled with an unbroken procession of 
emigrants, whose mutual pity as they gazed at one an- 
other, caused their tears to start afresh; plaintive cries, 
too, began to be heard, proceeding chiefly from the 
women, when they passed the venerable temples beset by 
armed men, and left in captivity, as it seemed to them, 
their gods. When the Albans had quitted the city, the 
Romans everywhere levelled with the ground all buildings, 
both public and private, and a single hour gave over to 
destruction and desolation the work of the four hundred 
years during which Alba had stood. But the temples of 
the gods were spared, for so the king had decreed. 

B. 0. Foster 

Then Alba, born of the white sow's omen, still stood in 
power, in the days when 'twas a long journey from Rome 
to Fidenae. 

H. E. Butler 


Classical A ssociations 

Quaque iter est Latiis ad summam fascibus Albam, 
excelsa de rupe procul iam conspicit Urbem. 

Luc. iii. 87-88. 

Hie herus: Albanum, Maecenas, sive Falernum 
le magis appositis delectat, habemus utrumque. 

Hor. S. ii. 8, 16-17. 

Est mihi nonum superantis annum 
plenus Albani cadus. 

Hor. C. iv. 11, 1-2. 

. -J *■ *-" 




Courtesy oj Art and Arr./iaeoloiiy 

KriNS OF TIM-: Cl.\I IJIAN AqII.DI i V WITH TMi: Al.H \N IIll.l.S 
IN TilK IiA(K(;i«)lXIJ 

'In the early months of his civil war with Pompey, Caesar finds himself master of 
Rome. As he approaches the city, he pauses for a moment to view it from the Alban 
mountain. For his soliloquy, see Lucan, iii. 91 ff. 

' This mountain is now called Maschio d' Ariano (or .M^'ldo), 

oj Places in Italy 19 

From a lofty rock on Alba's height whither the Latian 
fasces are brought, Caesar looks down from afar upon the 
city of Rome.'' 

Alban Wine is Fit for a Prince 

On this our host, "Maecenas, sir, 
If you to what they've brought prefer 
Falern or Alban, pray command! 
Believe me, we ha\e both at hand." 

Here is a cask of Alban, more 
Than nine years old. 

John Coxington 

John C(inington 

ALGIDIIS MONS (Sei,\'a dell' Aglio) 

The name "Algidus" was of wide application until 
the time of the Empire when it became connected with 
the mountain." In early times it witnessed the constant 
wars between the Romans, Volscians, Aequians, and 
Latins, waged with varying issues. In 446 B. C, it was 
the scene of the insult to the Roman ambassadors who 
came here to complain to the Aequian leader of the break- 
ing of the treaty with Rome. To a huge oak overshadowing 
the general's tent, the Romans were instructed by the 
insolent Aequian general to tell their tale, since he "had 
other business to attend to." Then came the indig- 
nant rush from Rome to relieve the consul who was 
there besieged, the dramatic night attack, and the passing 
of the Aequians beneath the yoke when victory fell to the 
Romans (Liv. iii. 27, 7-8; iii. 28). See, too, Livy iii. 23 
and elsewhere for accounts of other battles on these 
heights. The spot was celebrated for its coolness and for 
this reason was sought in later times as a resort. The wor- 
ship of Diana was long associated with this region (Hor. 
C. S. 69). 

20 Classical Associations 

Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus 
nigrae feraci frondis in Algido, 
per damna, per caedes, ab ipso 
ducit opes animumque ferro. 

Hor. C. iv. 4, 57-60. 

Nam quae nivali pascitur Algido 
devota quercus inter et ilices 


Hor. C. iii. 23, 9-12. 

Amoena .... Algida. 

Sil. Ital. xii. 536-537. 

Dianam tenerae dicite virgines, 
intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium 
Latonamque supremo 
dilectam penitus lovi. 

vos lactam fluviis et nemorum coma, 
quaecumque aut gelido prominet Algido, 
nigris aut Erymanthi 
silvis aut viridis Cragi. 

Hor. C. i. 21, 1-8. 

ALLIA FLUMEN (Fossa della BE-rnNA)' 

Infaustum .... Allia nomen. 

Vir. Aen. vii. 717. 
Ill-omened Allia. 

T. C. Williams 

iThis stream is famous as the scene of a signal defeat inflicted upon the Romans by 
the invading Gauls on July 18, 387 b. c, (the conventional date is 390). This day was 
looked upon as unpropitious ever after and known as"AlJia"in the Roman calendar. 
For a full account of the battle, see Liv. v. 37-39, The Romans later defeated the 
Praenestines near the same river (Liv. vi. 29). 

of Places in Italy 21 

Like oak, by sturdy axes lopp'd 
Of all its boughs, which once the brakes 
Of shaggy Algidus o'ertopp'd. 
Its loss its glory makes. 

And from the very steel fresh strength and spirit takes. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

The victim mark'd for sacrifice, that feeds 
On snow-capp'd Algidus, in leafy lane 
Of oak and ilex. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

Lovely regions of Algidus. 

Praise Dian, ye maidens tender! Praise, ye lads, 
unshorn Apollo, and Latona, fondly loved by Jove su- 
preme ! Praise ye, O maidens, her who delights in streams 
and in the foliage of the groves that stand out on cool 
Algidus or amid the black woods of Erymanthus and 
verdant Cragus! 

C. E. Bennett 


The Alps are interesting chiefly to the classical student 
because of such accounts of their crossing as that given 
below in which Hannibal's passage in 218 B. C. is de- 
scribed. In 207 B. C. his brother Hasdrubal likewise led a 
Carthaginian army over these mountains, and in 77 B. C. 
Pompey took his Roman legions to Spain by this route. 
After the time of Julius Caesar, the passes came to be 
well known and were traversed by high-roads. The 
Gauls of course often crossed these mountains in their 
many invasions of Italy and hordes of barbarians in gen- 
eral poured through the passes on their way to the con- 
quest of Italy. Interesting accounts of the Alps and the 
difficulties of crossing are given by Polybius (iii. 50-55) ; 
Strabo (iv. 6.6); and Ammianus Marcellinus (xv. 10, 4-5). 
The poets refer frequently to these mountains, such ref- 
erences as Lucan's "nubiferam" (cloud-bearing), "gelidas" 
(icy-cold) (iii. 299; i. 183) being characteristic. 

22 Classical Associations 

Cuncta gelu canaque aeternum grandine tecta 
atque aevi glacie cohibent; riget ardua montis 
aetherii fades, surgentique obvia Phoebo 
duratas nescit flammis moUire pruinas. 
quantum Tartareus regni pallentis hiatus 
ad manis imos atque atrae stagna paludis 
a supera tellure patet, tarn longa per auras 
erigitur tellus et caelum intercipit umbra, 
nullum ver usquam nullique aestatis honores. 
sola iugis habitat diris sedesque tuetur 
perpetuas deformis hiems; ilia undique nubes 
hue atras agit et mixtos cum grandine nimbos. 
iam cuncti flatus ventique furentia regna 
Alpina posuere domo. caligat in altis 
obtutus saxis, abeuntque in nubila montes. 

Sil. Ital. iii. 479-493. 

Alpibus .... tremendis. 

Hor. C. iv. 14, 12. 

Saevas .... Alpes. 
Aeriaeque Alpes. 

Juv. X. 166. 

Ov. Met. ii. 226. 

Hannibal ab Dritgntia campeslri maxime itinere ad 
Alpis cum bona pace incolentium ea loca Gallorum per- 
venit. Tum, quamquam fama prius, qua incerta in maius 
vero ferri sclent, praecepta res erat, tamen ex propinquo 
visa montium altitude nivesque caelo prope inmixtae, 
tecta informia inposita rupibus, pecora iumentaque -tor- 

1 At least thirteen well-known passes led across the Alps Hannibal's route is still a 
matter of doubt. 

2 A river known today as the Durance which flows southwest from the Cottian Alps 
reaching the Rhone north-west of Marseilles. These mountains (not indicated on the 
map in this book) are west of Pollentia. 

of Places in Italy 23 

A Poet's Lines About the Alps 

White with eternal frost, with hailstones piled, 
The ice of ages grasps those summits wild. 
Stiffening with snow, the mountain soars in air, 
And fronts the rising sun, unmelted by the glare. 
As the Tartarean gulf, beneath the ground. 
Yawns to the gloomy lake in hell's profound, 
So high earth's heaving mass the air invades. 
And shrouds the heaven with intercepting shades. 
No Spring, no Snmmer strews its glories here, 
Lone Winter dwells upon these summits drear; 
And guards his mansion round the endless year. 
Mustering from far around his grisly form 
Black rains, and hail-stone showers, and clouds of storm. 
Here in their wrathful kingdom whirlwinds roam. 
And the blasts struggle in their Alpine home. 
The upward sight a swimming darkness shrouds, 
And the high crags recede into the clouds. 

C. A. Elton 

On Alps tremendous. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

The savage Alps. 
Heaven-piercing .\lps. 

F. J. Miller 

Hannibal Crosses the Alps on His Way to Italy' 

From the Druentia,^ Hannibal, passing through a 
tract in general level, without any molestation from the 
Gauls inhabiting those regions, arrived at the Alps. And 
now, notwithstanding that the men had already conceived 
notions from the reports, which in cases capable of mis- 
representation generally go beyond the truth, yet the 
present view exhibited such objects as renewed all their 
terrors: the height of the mountains, the snow almost 
touching the sky, the wretched huts standing on cliffs, 
the cattle and beasts shivering with the cold, the natives 

24 Classical Associations 

rida frigore, homines intonsi et inculti, animalia inanima- 
que omnia rigentia gelu, cetera visu quam dictu foediora, 

terrorem renovarunt 

Nono die in iugum Alpium perventum est per invia 
pleraque et errores, quos aut ducentium fraus aut, ubi 
fides iis non asset, temere initae valles a coniectantibus iter 
faciebant. Biduum in iugo stativa habita, fessisque la- 
bore ac pugnando quies data militibus; iumentaque ali- 
quot, quae prolapsa in rupibus erant, sequendo vestigia 
agminis in castra pervenere. Fessis taedio tot malorum 
nivis etiam casus occidente iam sidere Vergiliarum ingen- 
tem terrorem adiecit. Per omnia nive oppleta cum signis 
prima luce motis segniter agmen incederet, pigritiaque et 
desperatio in omnium vultu emineret, praegressus signa 
Hannibal in promunturio quodam, unde longe ac late 
prospectus erat, consistere iussis militibus Italiam osten- 
tat subiectosque Alpinis montibus Circumpadanos cam- 
pos, moeniaque eos turn transcendere non Italiae modo 
sed etiam urbis Romanae; cetera plana, proclivia fore; 
uno aut summum altero proelio arcem et caput Italiae in 
manu ac potestate habituros. 

Procedere inde agmen coepit, iam nihil ne hostibus 
quidem praeter parva furta per occasionem temptantibus. 
Ceterum iter multo, quam in ascensu fuerat, ut pleraque 
Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita adrectiora sunt, diffi- 
cilius fuit. Omnis enim ferme via praeceps, angusta, 
lubrica erat, ut neque sustinere se ab lapsu possent nee, 
qui paulum titubassent, haerere adfixi vestigio suo, alii- 
que super alios et iumenta in homines occiderent. 

oj Places in Italy 25 

squalid and in uncouth dress, all things, in short, animate 
and inanimate, stiffened with frost, besides other circum- 
stances more shocking to the sight than can be represented 

in words 

. . . On tKe ninth day the army completed the as- 
cent to the summit of the Alps, mostly through pathless 
tracts and wrong roads; into which they had been led 
either by the treachery of their guides, or when these were 
not trusted, rashly, on the strength of their own conjec- 
tures, following the courses of the valleys. On the sum- 
mit they remained encamped two days, in order to re- 
fresh the soldiers, who were spent with toil and fighting; 
and in this time several of the beasts which had fallen 
among the rocks, following the tracks of the army, came 
into camp. Tired as the troops were of struggling so 
long with hardships, they found their terrors very much 
increased by a fall of snow, this being the season of the 
setting of the constellation Pleiades. The troops were 
put in motion with the first light; and as they marched 
slowly over ground which was entirely covered with snow, 
dejection and despair being strongly marked in every face, 
Hannibal went forward before the standards, and ordering 
the soldiers to halt on a projecting eminence, from which 
there was a wide extended prospect, made them take a 
view of Italy, and of the plains about the Po, stretching 
along the foot of the mountains; then told them that "they 
were now scaling the walls, not only of Italy, but of the 
city of Rome; that all the rest would be plain and smooth; 
and after one or at most a second battle, they would have 
the bulwark and capital of Italy in their power and dis- 
posal." The army then began to advance, the enemy 
now desisting from any farther attempts on them except 
by trifling parties for pillaging, as opportunity offered. 
But the way was much more difficult than it had been in 
the ascent, the declivity on the Italian side of the Alps 
being in most places shorter, and consequently more per- 
pendicular; while the whole way was narrow and slippery, 
so that the soldiers could not prevent their feet from slid- 
ing, nor, if they made the least false step, could they, on 
falling, stop themselves: and thus men and beasts tumbled 
promiscuously over one another. 

26 Classical Associations 

Ventum deinde ad multo angustiorem rupem atque ita 
rectis saxis, ut aegre expeditus miles temptabundus mani- 
busque retiiiens virgulta ac stirpes circa eminentes de- 
mittere sese posset. Natura locus iam ante praeceps 
recenti lapsu terrae in pedum mille admodum altitudinem 
abruptus erat; Ibi cum velut ad finem viae equites con- 
stitissent, miranli Hannibali, quae res moraretur agmen, 
mintiatur rupem inviam esse. Digressus deinde ipse ad 
locum visendum. Haud dubia res visa, quin per invia 
circa nee trita antea quamvis longo ambitu circumduceret 
agmen. Ea vero via inexsuperabilis fuit. Nam cum 
super veterem nivem intactam nova modicae altitudinis 
esset, moUi nee praealtae facile pedes ingredientium in- 
sistebant; ut vero tot hominum iumentorumque incessu 
dilapsa est, per nudam infra glaciem fluentemque tabem 
liquescentis nivis ingrediebantur. Taetra ibi luctatio 
erat via lubrica (glacie) non recipiente vestigium et in 
prcmo citiiis pedes fallente, ut, seu manibus in adsurgendo 
seu genu se adiuvissent, ipsis adminiculis prolapsis iterum 
corruerent; nee stirpes circa radicesve, ad quas pede aut 
manu quisquam eniti posset, erant;"ita in levi tantum 
glacie tabidaque nive volutabantur. lumenta secabant 
interdum etiam infimam ingredientia nivem et prolapsa 
iactandis gravius in conitendo ungulis penitus perfringe- 
bant, ut pleraque velut pedica- capta haererent in dura et 
alte concreta glacie. 

Tandem nequiquam iumentis atque hominibus fati- 
gatis castra in iugo posita, aegerrime ad id ipsum loco 
purgato: tantum nivis fodiendum atque egerendum fuit. 
Inde ad rupem muniendam, per quam unam via esse po- 

of Places in Italy 27 

Then they came to a ridge much narrower than the 
others, and composed of rock so upright that a light- 
armed soldier, making the trial, could with difficulty by 
laying hold of bushes and roots, which appeared here and 
there, accomplish the descent. In this place the precipice, 
originally great, had by a late falling away of the earth 
been increased to the depth of at least one thousand feet. 
Here the cavalry stopped, as if at the end of their journey, 
and Hannibal, wondering what could be the cause of the 
troops' halting, was told that the cliff was impassable. 
Then going up himself to view the place, it seemed clear to 
him that he must lead his army in a circuit, though ever 
so great, and through tracts never trodden before. The 
way, however, was found to be impracticable. The old 
snow indeed had become hard, and being covered with the 
new of a moderate depth, the men found good footing as 
they walked through it; but when that was dissolved by 
the treading of so many men and beasts, they then trod 
on the naked ice below. Here they were much impeded, 
because the foot could take no hold on the smooth ice, 
and was besides more apt to slip on account of the declivity 
of the grouod; and whenever they attempted to rise, 
cither by aid of the hands or knees, they fell again. Add 
to this that there were neither stumps nor roots within 
reach, on which they could lean for support; so that they 
wallowed in the melted snow on one entire surface of 
slippery ice. This the cattle sometimes penetrated as 
soon as their feet reached the lower bed; and sometimes, 
when ihey lost their footing, by striking more strongly 
with their hoofs in striving to keep themselves up, they 
broke it entirely through; so that the greatest part of 
them, as if caught in traps, stuck fast in the hard, deep ice. 

M length, after men and beasts were heartily fatigued 
to no puirpose, they fixed a camp on the summit, having 
with verv great difficulty cleared even the ground which 
that required, so great was the quantity of snow to be dug 
and carried off. The soldiers were then employed to 
make a way down the steep, through which alone it was 

28 Classical Associations 

terat, milites ducti, cum caedendum esset saxum, arbori- 
bus circa inmanibus deiectis detruncatisque struem in- 
gentem lignorum faciunt eamque, cum et vis venti apta 
faciendo igni coorta esset, succendunt ardentiaque saxa 
infuso aceto putrefaciunt. Ita torridam incendio rupem 
ferro pandunt molliuntque anfractibus modicis clivos, 
ut non iumenta solum sed elephanti etiam deduci possent. 
Quadriduum circa rupem consumptum iumentis prope 
fame absumptis; nuda enim fere cacumina sunt et, si quid 
est pabuli, obruunt nives. Inferiora valles apricosque 
quosdam colles habent rivosque prope silvas et iam hu- 
mano cultu digniora loca. Ibi iumenta in pabulum missa, 
et qufes muniendo fessis hominibus data. Triduo inde 
ad planum descensum iam et locis mollioribus et acco- 
larum ingeniis. 

Hoc maxime modo in Italiam perventum est, quinto 
mense a Carthagine Nova, ut quidam auctores sunt, 
quinto decimo die Alpibus superatis. 

Liv. xxi. 32, 6-7; 35-38. 

ALTINUM (Altino) 

Aemula Baianis Altini litora villis 

et Phaethontei conscia silva rogi, 
quaeque Antenoreo Dryadum pulcherrima Fauno 

nupsit ad Euganeos Sola puella lacus, 
et tu Ledaeo felix Aquileia Timavo, 

hie ubi septenas Cyllarus hausit aquas: 
vos eritis nostrae requies portusque senectae, 

si iuris fuerint otia nostra sui. 

Mart. iv. 25. 

At first a mere fishing village, at the beginning of the Republic Altinum became a 
municipality ot importance. Situated on one of the main roads to the north, Its growth 
as a military and commercial center was rapid (Tac. Hist, iii, 6; Columella vi. 24 et al.). 
Martial (xiv. 155) mentions its sheep and cattle with praise. The mildness of the climate 
made the place a health resort of importance. Destroyed by Attila in 452 A. D., its 
inhabitants fled to the neighboring islands, thus laying the foundations of the future 
Venice. (See Aquileia.) 

^ For the story of Phaethon, sec Padus. 
- A nymph of this region. 
3 Antenor, the mythical founder of Patavium. 
* A lake among the Euganean Hills in this region. 
6 The capital of Venetia. (See Aquileia.) 

6 Castor and Pollux are said to have visited the Timavus, a stream near Aquileia, dur- 
ing the Argonautic expedition. 
' The horse of Castor. 

oj Places in Italy 29 

possible to effect a passage; and as it was necessary to 
break the mass, they felled and lopped a number of huge 
trees which stood near, which they raised into a vast pile, 
and as soon as a smart wind arose to forward the kindling 
of it, set it on fire; and then, when the stone was violently 
heated, made it crumble to pieces by pouring on vinegar. 
When the rock was thus disjointed by the power of heat, 
they opened a way through it with iron instruments, and 
inclined the descents with it in such a manner, that not 
only the beasts of burden, but even the elephants could be 
brought down. Four days were spent about this rock, 
during which the cattle were nearly destroyed with hunger; 
for the summits are for the most part bare, and what- 
ever little pasture there might have been was covered 
with snow. In the lower parts are valleys and some hills, 
which, enjoying the benefit- of the sun, with rivulets at the 
side of the woods, are better suited to become the resi- 
dence of human beings. There the horses were sent out 
to pasture, and the men, fatigued with the labor of the 
road, allowed to rest for three days. They then descended 
into the plains, where the climate, like the character of the 
inhabitants, was of a milder cast. 

In this manner, as nearly as can be ascertained, they 
accomplished their passage into Italy, in the fifth month, 
according to some authors, after leaving New Carthage, 
having spent fifteen days in crossing the Alps. 

George Baker 

A Roman Poet Eulogizes His Favorite Resort 

Altinum's shores that vie with Baiae's villas, and the 
wood that saw the pyre of Phaethon' and the maid Sola,'^ 
fairest of Dryads, who wed with Paduan Faunus' by the 
Euganean meres,^and thou, Aquileia," blest with Timavus" 
honoured by Leda's sons, where Cyllarus' quaffed its 
sevenfold waters — ye shall be the refuge and harbor of 
my old age, if I be free to choose the place of my repose. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

30 Classical Associalions 

ANTIUM (Anzio) 

Latin in origin, the city passed to the Volscians about 
500 B. C. and became their chief city (Liv. vi. 9, 1-2). 
Dionysius, also, speaks of if as "a most splendid Volscian 
city." It was the northern bulwark and almost a rival 
of Rome at one time. Its history is marked by frequent 
wars with Rome (Liv. ii. 33; viii. 13 et al.). During one 
of these, the Romans captured six battleships and adorned 
their .speakers' platform at Rome with the bronze beaks. 
From this incident came the name "rostra" which was 
thereafter applied to this structure (Liv. viii. 1-1). Dur- 
ing the last years of the Republic and in the earlier period 
of the Empire, the place became a favorite resort for 
wea,lthy Romans. Cicero loved it, as the passages below 
testify, and wrote many of his letters from this place. 
Augustus stayed here for weeks at a time, as did Caligula. 
In fact, the latter found the region so attractive that he 
even thought of transferring the government from Rome to 
this place (Suet. Calig. 8). Nero was fond of the town 
and adorned it with a fine port (Suet. Nero 9)., 

Nihil quietius, nihil alsius, nihil amoenius. EI'tj fioi oCros 
<j>i\os oLKos. Postea vero quam Tyrannio mihi libros dis- 
posuit, mens addita videtur meis aedibus. Att. iv. 8, 1-2. 

Quod tibi superioribus litteris promiseram, fore ut opus 
exstaret huius peregrinationis, nihil iam magno opere 
confirmo; sic enim sum complexus otium, ut ab eo divelli 
non queam. Itaque aut libris me delecto, quorum habeo 

' A tutor to Cicero's son. 

of Places in Italy 


:- '5f: 

-J*-? _^-:.4 .->»;., 

Plmlflgraph by Watlon Brooks McDanicl 

Kkmains of Mkro's \'ii.r.A at Antium 

A Scholar Delights in His Books 

Nothing can be quieter, cooler, or prettier; "be this 
mine own dear home." Moreo\er, since Tyrannio' has 
arranged mv books for me, m\' house seems to have had a 
soul added to it. 

E. S. Shi'ckburgh 

Cicero Delights in His Lazy Life at Antium 

I am not so certain about fulfilling the promises I made 
in former letters to produce some work in this tour: for 
I ha\e fallen so in love with idleness, that I can't tear my- 
self from it. So I either enjoy myself with my books, of 

32 Classical Associations 

Antii festivam copiam, aut fluctus numero. Nam ad 
lacertas captandas tempestates non sunt idoneae. A 

scribendo prorsus abhorret animus 

Quin etiam dubitem, an hie Antii considam, et hoc tem- 
pus omne consumam; ubi quidem ego mallem duumvirum, 
quam Romae me fuisse. Tu vero sapientior Buthroti 
domum parasti. Sed, mihi crede, proxima est illi mu- 
nicipio haec Antiatium civitas. Esse locum tam prope 
Romam, ubi multi sint, qui Vatinium numquam viderint? 
ubi nemo sit praeter me, qui quemquam ex viginti viris 
vivum et salvum velit? ubi me interpellet nemo, dili- 
gant omnes? Hie, hie nimirum iroKiTiVTeov. Nam istie 
non solum non lieet, sed etiam taedet. 

Cic. ad Att. ii. 6, 1-2. 

Kal. Mai. de Formiano proficiscemur, ut Antii simus 
a. d. V. Non Mai.; ludi enim Antii futuri sunt a iv. ad 
prid. Non. Mai. Eos Tullia spectare vult. 

Cic. ad Att. ii. 8, 2. 

Spissi litoris Antium. 

Ov. Met. XV. 718. 

E^^s 5' iarlv "Avtiov, kXl/xevos /cat avrii iroXw' Wpvrai. S' 
iirl irirpais, Stexet Se tuiv 'QctLwv wepi SiaKoc'iovi i^-qKOvra 
CTTadiovs. vvvl nh> ovv aveirai toZs rjyefioaLV eh axoXrjv Kal 
avfaiv tS>v ■koKiti.kIiiv, ore Xa/Sotei/ naipov, Kal 6td tovto Kat- 
(fiKoSofiriVTai iroXureXets olKricreLS iv rij ToXei (xuxval irp6s ras 
TOiauTos ein5r]iilas. Kal wporepov Si raOs iKtKTtjVTO Kal 
kaoiviivovv Twv \t[I(tt7ip'uiiv toTs Tvpprivoli, KaLwep ijSri "Pco/zaiois 

Strab. V. 3, 5. 

* A city in Epirus on the western coast-of Greece. 
' A tribune for this year. 

* Cicero's daughter Tullia of whom he was very fond. 

of Places in Italy ' 33 

which I have a jolly good lot at Antium, or else count the 
waves: the rough weather won't allow me to catch shad. 

At writing my soul rebels utterly I am even 

debating settling down at Antium, and spending the 
rest of my life here; and I really wish I had been a ma- 
gistrate here rather than in Rome. You have been 
wiser in your generation and made a home for yourself at 
Buthrotum:^ but you may take my word for it that this 
township of Antium runs your borough very close. To 
think of there being a place so near Rome, where there are 
lots of people who have never seen Vatinius,' where there 
is not a single soul save myself who cares whether any of 
our new commissioners are alive or dead, where no one 
intrudes upon me, though everyone is fond of me. This, 
this is the very place for me to play the politician: for 
there in Rome, besides being shut out of politics, I am 
sick of them. 


A Father Entertains His Daughter 

I shall leave Formiae on the first of May, so as to reach 
Antium on the third. There are games at Antium from 
the fourth to the sixth of May, and TuUia'' wants to see 


Antium with its hard-packed shore. 

F. J. Miller 

A Visitor's Impression of Antium 

Next in order comes Antium, which city is likewise des- 
titute of any port; it is situated on rocks, and about 260 
stadia distant from Ostia. At the present day it is de- 
voted to the leisure and recreation of statesmen from their 
political duties, whenever they can find time, and is in con- 
sequence covered with sumptuous mansions suited to 
such rusticating. The inhabitants of Antium had for- 
merly a marine, and even after they were under subjec- 
tion to the Romans, took part with the Tyrrhenian pirates. 

H. C. Hamilton 

i34 Classical Assorialioiis 

Nero natus est Anti post Villi mensem quam Tiberius 
excessit, XVIII. Kl. Ian. tantum quod exoriente sole, 
paene ut radiis prius quam terra contingeretur. 

Suet. Nero 6. 

Memmio Regulo et Verginio Rufo consulibus natam 
sibi ex Poppaea filiam Nero ultra mortale gaudium ac- 
cepit appellavitque Augustam, dato et Poppaeae eodem 
cognomento. Locus puerperio colonia Antium fuit, ubi 
ipse generatus erat. lam senatus uterum Poppaeae 
commendaverat dis votaque publice susceperat, quae 
multiplicata exsolutaque. Et additae supplicationes tem- 
plumque Fecunditati et certamen ad exemplar Actiacae 
religionis decretum .... Quae fluxa fuere, quar- 
tum intra mensem defuncta infante. Rursusque exortac 
adulationes censentium honorem divae et pulvinar aedem- 
que et sacerdotem. Atque ipse ut laetitiae, ita maeroris 
inmodicus egit. 

Tac. Ann. xv. 23. 

_0 diva, gratum quae regis Anlium. 

Hor. C. i. 35, 1. 

^ A goddess known as Fortuna. ^lany temples weje built in the city to other divinities, 
tob, notably Aesculapius, and their sacred treasures were note worthy. 

oj Places ill Italy 3F 

Nero's Birth-place 

Nero was born at Anliuiti nine months after the death 
of Tiberius, on the eighteenth day before the Kalends ol 
January, just as the sun rose, so that he was touched by 
its rays almost before he could be laid upon the ground. 


Nero, Though Said to Have Been a Monster of Cruelty, 
Was Inconsolable at the Death of His Baby Daughter 

During the consulship of Memmius I?egulus and Ver- 
ginius Rufus (A. D. 63) Poppaea was delivered of a 
daughter. The exultation of Nero was beyond all mortal 
joy. He called the new-born infant Augusta, and gave the 
same title to her mother. The child was brought into 
the world at Antium, where Nero himself was born. The 
senate before the birth had offered vows for the safe 
delivery of Poppaea. They fulfilled their obligations and 
voted additional honors. Days of supplication were ap- 
pointed; a temple was_yoted to the goddess of fecundity; 
athletic games were instituted on the model of the reli- 
gious games practised at Antium; .... But these 
honors were of short duration: the infant died in less 
than four months, and the monuments of human vanity 
faded away. But new modes of flattery were soon dis- 
I played: the child was canonized for a goddess; a temple 
was decreed to her, with an altar, a bed of state, a priest, 
and religious ceremonies. Nero's grief, like his joy at 
the birth, was without bounds or measure. 

Arthur Murphy 

O pleasant Antium's goddess queen." 

Sir Theodore Martin 

36 Classical Associations 


After many contests with Rome, this Volscian town 
was finally colonized in 329 B. C. by the Romans, who 
thus assured their rights in the place. Its situation 
made it a strategic point of importance, the pass near 
by (Ad Lautulas, where a fierce battle was fought in 315 
B. C. by the Romans and Samnites) being an entrance 
from southern to central Italy and the road from here 
being clear to Rome. Its situation, too, on the Appian 
Way, contributed to its importance, for it was evidently 
one of the stopping places for travelers on this road. Hor- 
ace, notably, speaks of it as a break in his journey to Brun- 
disium in 37 B. C, a trip which he made in company with 
Maecenas and several other prominent Romans for the 
purpose of bringing about a reconciliation between Augus- 
tus and Antony who had recently landed in Italy. 

The promontory offered a superb view and from 
200 B. C. the place was much sought by wealthy Romans. 
Cicero speaks of "my lodging place at Tarracina" (ad 
Fam. vii. 23), and Martial's fondness for it is shown in 
the passage quoted below. Both Tiberius and Domitian 
frequented the place, as did Galba also. The town pos- 
sessed a fine forum with a temple of Augustus and a small 
amphitheatre. It had, too, an excellent harbor. Anxur 
was the Volscian name for the place, while the Roman 
one was Tarracina (Plin. N. H. iii. 59). 

Milia turn pransi tria repimus atque subimus 
inpositum saxis late candentibus Anxur. 
hue venturus erat Maecenas optimus atque 
Cocceius, missi magnis de rebus uterque 
legati, aversos soliti conponere amicos. 
hie oculis ego nigra meis collyria lippus 
inlinere; interea Maecenas advenit atque 
Cocceius, Capitoque simul Fonteius, ad unguem 
factus homo, Antoni, non ut magis alter, amicus. 

Hor. S. i. 5, 25-33. 

'See introductory note. 

of Places in Italy 


Photograph by Katharine Allen 

Canal at Terracina 

An Incident in a Famous Journey^ 

We take some food, then creep three miles or so 
To Anxur, built on cliffs that gleam like snow; 
There rest awhile, for there our mates were due, 
Maecenas and Cocceius, good and true, 
Sent on a weighty business, to compose 
A feud, and make them friends who late were foes. 
I seize on the occasion, and apply 
A touch of ointment to an ailing eye. 
Meanwhile Maecenas with Cocceius came. 
And Capito, whose errand was the same, 
A man of men, accomplished and refined, 
Who knew, as few have known, Antonius' mind. 

John Conington 

■?8 Classical Associations 

Quos, Faustine, dies, quales tibi Roma recfssus 

abstulit! o soles, o tunicata quies! 
o nemus, o fontes solidumque madentis harenae 

litus et aequoreis splendidus Anxur aquis, 
et non unius spectator lectulus undae, 

qui videt hinc puppes fluminis, inde maris I 
sed nee Marcelli Pompeianumque, nee illie 

sunt triplices thermae, nee fora iuncta quater, 
nee Capitolini summum penetrale Tonantis, 

quaeque nitent eaelo proxima templa suo. 
dicere te lassum quotiens ego eredo Quirino: 

"quae tua sunt, tibi habe: quae mea, redde mihi." 

Mart. X. 51, 5-16. 

Salutiferis eandidus Anxur aquis. ^ 

Mart. V. 1, 6. 

E^rjs 8' (V tKarov crTaSLoLS tw KipKaLw TappaKiva icri, 
TpaxivTi KoKovp.evrj -rrpoTtpov airo Toii avfi^e^rjKOTOS. wpOKtiTai 
de avTrjs p.kya eXos o TrotoOcrt Svo iroraiioi /caXelrat 5' 6 /jtifwi' 
Oi;0r;s. ivrav&a bt avvawTei rfj jJaXarrj? irpcorov 17 'Ainria 
656s . . . TrXijcrioc 8t rrjs TappaKivris ^adi^ovTL in rfis 

'Pd)yur;s irapa/3e/3Xj;Tat rj oSu rfj 'Airirla diibpv^ kiri ttoXXous 
roiroDS vXr^pov/jLevri roTs iXeiois rt koX rois Troraniois vSaai' 
TrXeirat Si /idXtara ixiv vvk.tu>p, war' ififiavTas d0' iciripa^ 
€K^aiveLv wpiiiias nai ^adl^uv to Xoiwou rfj odii, dXXa Kai fif§ ' 
rjfxipav pujuouX/cet d' fifiLoviov. 

Strab. V. 3, 6. 

Scopulosi vertieis Anxur. 

Sil. Ital. viii. .390. 

.Superbac . . . .\nxuris. 

Stat. Silv. i. 3, 86-87. 

of Places in Italy 3,9 

The Pleasures of Anxur Contrasted with Those of the 
Noisy Capital 

Of what days and of what retreats has Rome deprived 
you, Faustinus! O ye suns! O retired ease in the simple 
lunic! O groves! O fountains! sandy shores moist but 
iirm! O rocky Anxur, towering in splendour above the 
azure surface! and the couch, which commands the view of 
more than one water, beholding on one side the ships of the 
river, on the other those of the sea! But there are no 
theatres of Marcellus or of Pompey, no triple baths, 
no four forums; nor the lofty temple of Capitoline Jove; 
nor other glittering temples that almost reach the heaven 
to which they are consecrated. How often do I imagine 
I hear you, when thoroughly wearied, saying to the 
founder of Rome: "Keep what is yours, and restore me 
what is mine." 

Translation from the Bohn Library 

Gleaming Anxur with its healthful waters. 

\V.\LTER C. A. Ker 

A Traveler's Note on Anxur 

Al 100 stadia from Circaeum is Tarracina, formerly 
named Trachina, on account of its ruggedness; before it 
is a great marsh formed by two rivers, the larger of which 
is called the Ufens. This is the first place where the 
Via Appia approaches the sea. Near to Tarracina, ad- 
vancing in the direction of Rome, a canal runs by the side 
of the Via Appia, which is supplied at intervals with water 
frorn the marshes and rivers. Travelers generally sail up 
it by night, embarking in the evening, and landing in the 
morning to travel the rest of their journey by the road: 
during the day, however, the passage-boat is towed by 

H. C. Hamilton 

.\n.\ur on its rock\- summit. 
Proud An.xur. 

40 Classical Associations 


Quantus Athos, aut quantus Eryx aut ipse coruscis 
cum fremit ilicibus quantus gaudetqye nivali 
vertice se attollens pater Appenninus ad auras. 

Vir. Aen. xii; 701-703. 

Nubifer Appenninus. 

Ov. Met. ii. 226. 

Celsus . . . Appenninus. 

Hor. Epod. xvi. 29. 

Umbrosis mediam qua collibus Appenninus 
erigit Italiam, nulloque a vertice tellus 
altius intumuit propiusque accessit Olympo. 

Luc. ii. 396-398. 

Longior educto qua surgit in aera dorso, 
Gallica rura videt devexasque excipit Alpis. 
tunc Umbris Marsisque ferax domitusque Sabello 
vomere, piniferis amplexus rupibus omnis 
indigenas Latii populos, non deserit ante 
Hesperiam, quam cum Scyllaeis clauditur undis 
extenditque suas in templa Lacinia rupes, 
longior Italia, donee confinia pontus 
solveret incumbens terrasque repelleret aequor. 
at postquam gemino tellus elisa profundo est, 
extremi coUes Siculo cessere Peloro. 

Luc. ii. 428-438, 

1 A mountainous peninsula in -Macedonia. 

2 A rugged mountain in Sicily. 
8 A name for Italy. 

* See Scyllaeum. 

5 A temple near Croton in southern Italy. 

6 The straits of Pelorus were between Italy and Sicily. Tradition says that the two 
countries were once joined and that only through some violent geologic change was the 
latter made an island. 

of Places in Italy 41 


Vast as Athos,' vast as Eryx,^ vast as father Apenniiie 
himself, when he roars with his quivering holms and lifts 
his snowy crest exultingly to the sky. 

John Conington 

Cloud-capped Apennines. 

F. J. Miller 

Lofty Apennines. 

Where the Apennines cause central Italy to rise in 
wooded hills, higher than any peak on earth, and all but 
reaching the sky. 

H. C. Nutting 

The Extent of the Apennines 

Farther north, where it rises toward the heavens in a 
lofty ridge, it commands a view of the Gallic fields and the 
slopes of the Alps. Then furnishing arable land to Um- 
brian and Marsian, and cultivated by Sabine plough, its 
pine-clad cliffs touch every people native to Latium; and 
it disappears not from Hesperia' until barred by the waters 
of Scylla,'' extending its cliffs to the temple of Lacinium.^ 
In fact it projected beyond Italy until the inrushing deep 
broke the continuity, and the sea separated the lands; 
after the earth was sundered by the meeting waters, the 
end of the range became an adjunct of Sicilian Pelorus.* 

H. C. Nutting 

42 Classical Associations 

Si factum cerla mundum ratione fatcmur 
\ consiliumque del machina tanta fuit, 
excubiis Latiis praetexuit Appenninum 

claustraque montanis vix adeunda viis. 
invidiam timuit natura parumque putavit 

Arctois Alpes opposuisse minis. 

Rutil. de Red. Suoii. 31-36. 

Haud longi inde temporis, dum intolerabilia frigora 
erant, quies militi data est; et ad prima ac dubia signa 
veris profectus ex hibernis in Etruriam ducit, earn quoque 
gentem, sicut Gallos Liguresque, aut vi aut voluntate ad- 
iuncturus. Transeuntem Appenninum adeo atrox adorta 
tempestas est, ut Alpium prope foeditatem superaverit. 
Vento. mixtus imber cum ferretur in ipsa ora, primo, quia 
aut arma omittenda erant aut contra enitentes vertice 
intorti adfligebantur, constitere; dein, cum iam spiritum 
includeret nee reciprocare animam sineret, aversi a vento 
parumper consedere. Turn vero ingenti sono caelum 
strepere et inter horrendos fragores micare ignes; capti 
auribus et oculis metu omnes torpere. Tandem effuso 
imbre, cum eo magis accensa vis venti esset, ipso illo, quo 
deprensi erant, loco castra ponere necessarium visum est. 
Id vero laboris velut de integro initium fuit: nam nee 
explicare quicquam nee statuere poterant nee, quod statu- 
tum esset, manebat omnia perscindente vento et rapiente. 

' Hannibal, who after his defeat of the Romans at the Trebia river in 2 18 B. C. leads 
his army into Etruria. 

of Places in Italy 43 

A Divine Barrier 

If we admit that on a certain plan 
The world was fashioned, that this great machine 
Was by a god designed, the Apennines 
Along the Latian watches he enwove, 
A barrier scarce by mountain paths approached. 
Nature feared envy and deemed it not enough 
To oppose the Alps to the invading North. 

G. F. Savage-Armstrong 

Hannibal Encounters a Fearful Storm in the Mountains 

After this he' gave rest to his troops, but not for any 
great length of time, only while the cold was intolerable. 
Upon the first and even uncertain appearance of spring, 
he left his winter quarters and marched towards Etruria, 
determined either by force or persuasion, to prevail on 
that nation to join him, as he had already managed the 
Gauls and Ligurians. As he was attempting to cross the 
Apennines, he was encountered by a storm so furious that 
its effects almost equalled in severity the disasters in the 
Alps. The rain, which was attended with high wind, 
lieing driven directlx' into the men's faces, they at first 
halted, because they either must ha\e cast away their 
arms, or, if they persisted to struggle forward, would be 
hurled round by the hurricane, and thrown on the ground. 
Afterwards, scarcely able to respire, they turned their 
l^acks to the wind, and for awhile sat down. But now the 
whole atmosphere resounded with loud thunder, and 
lightning flashed between the tremendous peals, by which 
all were stunned, and reduced by terror nearly to a state 
of insensibililx'. At length the violence of the rain abat- 
ing, and the fuiy of the wind increasing, the rriore neces- 
sary it was judged to pitch their camp on the very spot 
where they had been surprised by the tempest. But this 
was, in a manner, beginning their toils anew. For neither 
could they well spread their canvas, nor fix the poles; and 
such tents. as they did get raised, they could not keep 
standing, the wind tearing and sweeping off everything in 
its way. And soon after, the water being raised aloft by 

44 Classical Associations 

Et mox aqua levata vento cum super gelida montium iuga 
concreta esset, tantum nivosae grandinis deiecit, ut omni- 
bus omissis procumberent homines tegminibus suis magis 
obruti quam tecti; tantaque vis frigoris insecuta est, ut ex 
ilia miserabili hominum iumentorumque strage cum se 
quisque attollere ac levare vellet, diu nequiret, quia tor- 
pentibus rigore nervis vix flectere artus poterant. . . . 
Biduum eo loco velut obsessi mansere. Multi homines, 
multa iumenta, elephanti quoque ex iis, qui proelio ad 
Trebiam facto superfuerant, septem absumpti. 

Liv. xxi. 58. 

AQUILEIA (Aquileia) 

Aquileia was a city of very great importance from the 
time of Augustus, who raised it to the rank of a colony. 
Situated as it was, upon marshy ground, it was secure from 
attack, and successfully defended itself from onsets by the 
way of mines. It was the starting point for journeys to 
the north and hence much visited. The fact that six 
main roads led from it testifies to its importance as a com- 
mercial center. The surrounding country was productive, 
wine, oil, and hides being exported in large quantities. 
Strabo quotes Polybius for the statement that rich gold 
mines were to be found in its vicinity. From the time of 
the emperor Diocletian it became a favorite imperial resi- 
dence and was in constant use as a war harbor and a place 
for coinage. Throughout the later empire it was the scene 
of important historical events. It was here, for example, 
that the emperor Maximinus was killed in 238 A. D. In 
388 Thepdosius crushed Magnus Maximus in this re- 
gion, a man who for five years had been master of Britain, 
Gaul, and Spain, and had routed Gratian at Lyons a few 
years before. The younger Constantine was defeated and 
slain on the banks of the Alsa(Avsa) in 340, and in 361 it 

oj Places in Italy 45 

the force of the wind, and congealed by the cold which pre- 
vailed above the summits of the mountains, came down in 
such a torrent of snowy hail that the men, giving over all 
their ende^ivors, threw themselves flat on their faces, bur- 
ied under rather than protected by their coverings. This 
was followed by cold so intense that when they wished to 
rise from among the wretched crowd of prostrated men and 
cattle, they were for a long time unable to effect it, their 
sinews being so stifHy frozen that they were scarcely able 

to move their joints Two days they remained 

in that spot as if pent up by an ertemy. Great numbers of 
men and cattle perished, and likewise seven of the ele- 
phants, which had survived the battle at the Trebia river. 

George Baker 

was besieged and captured by Julian (Ammian. Marcell. 
xxi. 12). Odoacer, too, was overcome by Theodoric near 
the river Sontjus (Isonzo) in 489. Long before this time, 
however, hordes of barbarians had been pouring through 
the passes of the Julian Alps to the plains around the city, 
and on the occasion of one of these invasions (452 A. D.) 
the place was destroyed by Attila. It is said that its in- 
habitants together with people from other cities near by 
fled to the islands and that from one of these settlements 
the modern Venice arose. 

46 Classical Associations 

Nona inter claras Aquileii cieberis urbes 
Itala ad Illyricos obiecta colonia monies 
moenibus et portii celeberrima. 

Aus. Orel. Urb. Nobil. i.\. 

Dilem . . Aquileiam. 

Pomp. Mela ii. 4, 61. 

'.\Ku\rila 5', rjwtp fxakiaTa rcji /ivx'? TrXriffLa^ti, KTicfia jxtv iarL 
"Paj/uaitoc eTTtreixif'^ej' toTj vwtpKtLixivois fiafJ^dpoLS, afOTrXeT- 
rai Se 6\Ka.<n Kara, tov Nartccova iroraiidv eiri TrXetffTOus i^i]- 
KOVTo. cxTadiovs. avflraL 6' iij.Tr6pi.ov [tois re 'Everoij Kal] roli 
irepi TOV "\(TTpov rCiv 'YKKvpiSiv 'idvtai' KOfii^ovai. 8' ovtol ixiv 
TO. tK i^aXarrrjs, /cat olvov eiri ^vKivoiv wl&oiv apfia/jid^aLS ava- 
§'tVTt% Kal eXaioi', tKttvoi b' avSpdwoda Kal fioffKrinara Kal 5ep- 

Strab. V. 1,8. 

unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis 
it mare proruptum ct pelago premit arva sonanti. 

Vir. Aen. i. 244-24(). 

Mox iam securus ad oppressionem Romanorum mo- 
vit procinctum, primaque adgressione Aquileiensem 
obsidet civitatem, quae est metropolis Venetiarum. 
. . Ibique cum diu multumque obsidens nihil paenitus 
praevaleret, fortissimis intrinsecus Romanorum militibus 
resistentibus, exercitu iam murmurante et discedere cupi- 
ente, Attila deambulans circa muros, dum, utrum solverel 
castra an adhuc remoraretur, deliberat, animadvertit Can- 
didas aves, idest ciconias, qui in fastigia domorum nidifi- 
cant, de civitate foetos suos trahere atque contra morem 
per rura forinsecus conportare. Et ut erat sagacissimus in- 

' A river in the region of Aquileia. (See, too, Strab. v. 1,8.) 

oj Places in Italy 47 

A City Praised 

Thou shalt be named ninth among famous cities, 
Aquileia, colony of Italy, facing towards the mountains 
of Tllvria and highly famed for walls and harbor! 

H. G. E. White 

Kich .... .'Vquilfia. 

A Description by an Eminent Geographer and Traveler 

Aquileia, which is the nearest to the head (of the gulf), 
was founded by the Romans, to keep in check the barbar- 
ians dwelling higher up. You may navigate transport 
ships to it up the river Natisone' for more than sixty stadia. 
This is the trading city with the nations of lUyrians who 
dwell round the Danube. Some deal in marine merchan- 
dise, and carry in waggons wine in wooden casks and oil, 
and others exchange slaves, cattle, and hides. 


Where like a swollen sea Timavus pours 
A nine-fold flood from roaring mountain gorge 
.\nd whelms with voiceful wave the fields below. 

T. C. Williams 

The Huns Destroy Aquileia 

,\l length, feeling secure, he (Atlila) moved forward his 
array to attack the Romans. As his first move he be- 
sieged the city of Aquileia, the metropolis of Venetia 

The siege was long and fierce, but of no avail since the 
bravest soldiers of the Romans withstood him from within. 
.\t last his army was discontented and eager to withdraw. 
.\ttila chanced to be walking around the walls, consider- 
ing whether to break camp or delay longer, and noticed 
that the white birds, namely the storks, who build their 
nests in the gables of houses, were bearing their young from 
the city and, contrary to their custom, were carrying them 

48 Classical Associations 

quisitor, presensit et ad suos: "respicite," inquid, "aves 
futurarum rerum providas perituram relinquere civita- 
tem casurasque arces periculo imminente deserere. Non 
hoc vacuum, non hoc credatur incertum; rebus presciis 
consuetudinem mutat ventura formido." Quid plura? 
animos suorum rursus ad oppugnandam Aquileiam in- 
flammat. Qui machinis constructis omniaque genera 
tormentorum adhibita, nee mora et invadunt civitatem, 
spoliant, dividunt vastantque crudeliter, ita ut vix eius 
vestigia ut appareat reliquerunt. Exhinc iam audaciores 
et necdum Romanorum sanguine satiati per reliquas 
Venetum civitates Hunni bacchantur. 

Jordanes Get. xHi. 219-222. 

luvat referre, quemadmodum habitationes vestras 
s'itas esse prospeximus. Venetiae praedicabiles quondam 
plenae nobilibus, ab austro Ravennam Padumque con- 
tingunt, ab Oriente iucunditate lonii litoris perfruuntur: 
ubi alternus aestus egrediens modo claudit, modo aperit 
faciem reciproca inundatione camporum. Hie vobis ali- 
quantulum aquatilium avium more domus est. Nam qui 
nunc terrestris, modo cernitur insularis, ut illic magis 
aestimes esse Cycladas, ubi subito locorum facies respicis 
immutatas. Earum quippe similitudine, per aequora longe 
patentia, domicilia videntur sparsa, quae natura non pro- 
tulit, sed hominum cura fundavit. Viminibus enim flexibi- 
libus illigatis terrena illic soliditas aggregatur, et marino 
fluctui tam fragilis munitio non dubitatur opponi: scilicet 
quando vadosum litus moles eiicere nescit undarum et 
sine viribus fertur, quod altitudinis auxilio non iuvatur. 

Cassiod. Var. xii. 24. 

* The above quotation from a letter written in 527 A. D. from tlie court of Tiieodoric 
at Ravenna, addressed to the officials of the maritime states, is interesting as showing that 
the modern Venice was even then beginning its existence. 

of Places in Italy 49 

out into the country. Being a shrewd observer of events, 
he understood this and said to his soldiers: "You see the 
birds foresee the future. They are having tlie city sure to 
perish and are forsaking strongholds doomed to fall by 
reason of imminent peril. Do not think this a meaning- 
less or uncertain sign; fear, arising from the things they 
foresee, has changed their custom." Why say more? He 
inflamed the hearts of his soldiers to attack Aquileia again. 
Constructing battering rams and bringing to bear all man- 
ner of engines of war, they quickly forced their way into 
the city, laid it waste, divided the spoil and so cruelly 
devastated it as scarcely to leave a trace to be seen. Then 
growing bolder and still thirsting for Roman blood, the 
Huns raged madly through the remaining cities of the 


The Beginnings of Venice^ 

It is a pleasure to recall the situation of your dwellings as 
I myself have seen them. Venetia, the praiseworthy, 
formerly full of the dwellings of the nobility, touches on 
the south Ravenna and the Po, while on the east it enjoys 
the delightsomeness of the Ionian shore, where the alter- 
nating tide now discovers and now conceals the face of the 
fields by the ebb and flow of its inundation. Here after 
the manner of water fowl have you fixed your home. He 
who was just now on the mainland finds himself on an 
island, so that you might fancy yourself in the Cyclades, 
from the sudden alterations in the appearance of the 
shores. Like them there are seen, amid the wide expanse 
of. the waters, your scattered homes, not the product of 
nature, but cemented by the care of man into a firm foun- 
dation. For by a twisted and knotted osier-work, the 
earth there collected is turned into a solid mass, and you 
oppose without fear to the waves of the sea so fragile a 
bulwark, since forsooth the mass of waters is unable to 
sweep away the shallow shore, the deficiency in depth de- 
priving the waves of the necessary power. 

Freely translated by Thomas Hodgkin 

50 Classical Associations 

AQUINUM (Aciumo) 

The city belonged to the Volscians and must ha\c been 
of some importance although not often mentioned in his- 
tory. Livy mentions il casually in recounting Hannibal's 
march to Rome by the Latin Road in 211 B. C. {xxvi. '■)). 
Tacitus speaks of it as having colonial rank (Hist. i. 88) 
but before his day it must have been a flourishing town, as 
writers refer to it as a fa\orite resort in ihe later years of 
the Republic. The fact that Juvenal was born here adds 
interest to the place for the classical student. 

Ergo vale nostri mcmor, et quotiens te 
Roma tuo refici properantem reddet Aquino, 
me quoque ad Helvinam Cererem veslramque Dianam 
converte a Cumis. saturarum ego, ni pudet illas, 
auditor gelidos veniam caligatus in agros. 

Juv. iii. 318-.S22. 

A Farewell Chat at the City Gates Between Two Friends' 

And so farewell; forget me not. And if ever you run 
over from Rome to your own Aquinum to recruit, summon 
me too from Cumae to your Helvine Ceres and Diana; I 
will come oyer to your cold country in my thick boots to 
hear your Satires, if they think me worthy of that honor. 

G. G. Ramsay 
Frequens municipium. 

Cic. Phil. ii. 106. 
A large rnunicipality. 

ARDKA (Ardea) 

.\rdca was a city of considerable importance in the 
earlier days of Rome with which power it was often at 
war (Liv. i. .S7, et al.). It was a zealous participant in the 
affairs of the Latin League and often fought with the 
Samnites. Always inclined to distrust Rome, one finds 
the city refusing to give the latter aid during the wars with 

' One of Juvenal's friends who is moving from Rome to Cumae stops for a chat with 
him at the Capenan Gate. The entire third satire is concerned with reasons why this 
friend has decided to leave the city [lermanently. Some of these linL-s arc quoted under 
the topic Life in Rome. 

of Places in Italy 51 

Hannibal (Liv. xxvii.9). The Romans used it as a prison 
in 186 B. C. (Livy xxxix. 19) and later as a place of pastur- 
age for the imperial elephants. It must have been a city 
of considerable culture since Varro speaks of its historians 
and Pliny of its poets and painters ( Var. R. R. ii. 11; Plin. 
N. H. XXXV. 115). Martial mentions its great heat in 
summer (iv. 60, 1). 

One of the most interesting of the legends dating back to 
the time of the Kings is connected with Ardea, namely, the 
story of Lucretia. It was while Tarquinius Superbus was 
besieging this city that some of the young Roman nobles 
while extolling the virtue of their wives decided to ride 
swiftly homeward and take them 1)}' surprise. CoUatinus' 
wife, Lucretia, was the only one found engaged in spinning, 
the others being discovered in the midst of an elaborate 
banquet. Livy's account (i. 57-59) also describes the 
incidents that followed, namely, the insult offered to her 
by Sextus Tarquinius and her consequent suicide. 

Still another interesting story is connected with the 
early days of Ardea. Two men of the city, one a noble, 
and the other a plebeian, are said to have fallen desperately 
in love with a beautiful girl whose parents belonged to the 
class of the latter. So important did the contest for her 
hand become that a violent factional fight between the 
patricians and the plebeians ensued, a contest which was 
only settled by a fierce battle in which the two sides were 
aided respectively by the Romans and the Volscians, 
neighbors who had been called upon for help. The latter 
suffered a humiliating defeat (Li\ . iv. 9-10). 

Ardea is famous, too, from the fact that it was the 
temporary abode of Camillus, a Roman general under whose 
leadership Veil was captured in 396 B. C. and, a few years 
later, the victorious Gauls drix-en from Rome. Although 
his great services to his country were recognized — he was 
five times chosen dictator — he was nevertheless accused 
of unfair distribution of the booty at Veii and went into 
voluntary exile at Ardea (Plut. Camill. 23). 


Classical Associations 

Audacis Rutuli ad muros, quam dicitur urbem 
Acrisioneis Danae fundasse colonis, 
praecipiti delata noto. locus Ardea quondam 
dictus avis (et nunc magnum manet Ardea nomen, 
sed fortuna fuit). 

Vir. Aen. vii. 409-413. 

Magnanimis regnata viris, clarum Ardea nomen. 

Sil. Ital. i. 293. 

^'EXoifij? /cat vo(Tipa,_ola TaricVj ApdecLTUv. 

Strab. V. 3, 5. 

Lago di Nemi near Aricia 

oj Places in Italy 53 

Sic Transit Gloria 

The walls of the bold Rutulian, the city which they say 
Danae built for her Argive settlers, landing there under 
stress of wind. Ardea was the name which past genera- 
tions gave the place, and Ardea still keeps her august title; 
but her star is set. 

John Conington 

Ardea, a famous name, a city ruled over by high-spirited 

Marshy and unhealthy, such as the country of Ardea. 

ARICIA (Ariccia) 

Founded in remote antiquity, the place reached the 
zenith of its prosperity in the sixth and seventh centuries 
B. C, taking a leading part in the affairs of the Latin 
League. In 338 B. C. it fought unsuccessfully with 
Rome. Even after the loss of its independence, however, 
it' styled the leading officer "dictator," and its council 
"senatus," and kept also its own calendar down to the 
time of Caesar. The neighboring Alba finally over- 
shadowed the city. Under the Empire it is largely known 
for its fine vegetables and excellent wine (Plin. N. H. xix. 
110 et al.; Mart. xiii. 19). Augustus' mother, Atia, and 
her father were natives of this place. Antony is said to 
have upbraided Augustus with the fact that his great- 
grandfather at one time kept a perfume shop at Aricia 
(Suet. Aug. 4). 

54 Classical Associations 

Egressum magna me excepit Aricia Roma 
hospitio modico. 

Hor. S. i. 5, 1-2. 

Nemoralis Aricia. 

Luc. vi. 75. 

Vetustate antiquissimum, iure foederatum, propinqui- 
tate paene finitimum, splendore municipum honestis- 
simum. Hinc Voconiae, hinc Atiniae leges: hinc multae 
sellae curules at patrum memoria et nostra: hinc equites 
Romani lautissimi et plurimi. 

Cic. Phil. iii. 15-16. 

Caecus adulator durusque a ponte satelles, 
dignus Aricinos qui mendicaret ad axes 
blandaque devexae iactaret basia raedae. 

Juv. iv. 116-118. 

At Vitellius profecto Caecina, cum Fabium Valentem 
paucis diebus ad bellum impulisset, curis luxum obtende- 
bat: non parare arma, non adloquio exercitioque militem 
firmare, non in ore vulgi agere, sed umbraculis hortorum 
abditus, ut ignava animalia, quibus si cibum suggeras, 
iacent torpentque, praeterita instantia futura pari oblivi- 
one dimiserat. Atque ilium in nemore Aricino desidem et 
marcentem proditio Lucilii Bassi ac defectio classis Raven- 
natis perculit. 

Tac. Hist. iii. 36. 

^ The first slop made by Horace on his journey to Brundisium. (See note under 

2 Connected with the story of the Nemus Dianae, a grove about three miles (rem the 
town, looked upon as one of the sacred places in Italy. (See Nemus Dianae.) 

" The Voconian had to do with legacies and the Atinian granted a seat in the senate 
to the plebeian tribunes. 

* Beggars found the Clivus Aricinus, a steep road leading to what is now Genzano, a 
desirable place for their trade — especially so since the Appian Way upon which Aricia was 
situated was a much-traveled thoroughfare. (See Mart. ii. 19.) 

^ Emperor in 69 A. D. CaecinaandFabiusValens were powerful men at his court. The 
former, however, went over to the side of Vespasian, a rival claimant to the Roman 
throne with whom Vitellius engaged in deadly combat. 

oj Places in Italy 55 

Fresh from great Rome with all its din 
Aricia with its little inn 
Received me first.' 

Sir Theodore Martin 

Aricia with its grove.- 

Cicero Pays Tribute to the Character of Aricia's Citizens 

A town most ancient as to its antiquity; if we regard its 
rights, united with us by treaty; if we regard its vicinity, 
almost close to us; if we regard the high character of its 
inhabitants, most honorable. It is from Aricia that we 
have received the Voconian and Atinian laws;' from Aricia 
have come many of those magistrates who have filled our 
curule chairs, both in our fathers' recollection and in our 
own; from Aricia have sprung many of the best and 
bravest of the Roman knights. 


A Favorite Place for Beggars 

A blind flatterer, a dire courtier from a beggar's stand, 
well fitted to beg at the wheels of chariots and blow soft 
kisses to them as they rolled down the Arician hill.'' 

G. G. R.4MSAY 

A Roman Emperor Disgraces Himself 

A few days after the departure of Caecina, Vitellius^ 
had hurried Fabius Valens to the seat of war, and was now 
seeking to hide his apprehensions from himself by indul- 
gence. He made no military preparation; he did not seek 
to invigorate the soldiers by encouraging speeches or war- 
like exercises; he did not keep himself before the eyes of the 
people. Buried in the shades of his gardens, like those 
sluggish animals which, if you supply them with food, lie 
motionless and torpid, he had dismissed with the same 
forgetfulness the past, the present, and the future. While 
he thus lay wasting his powers in sloth among the woods 
of Aricia, he was startled by the treachery of Lucilius Bas- 
sus and the defection of the fleet at Ravenna. 

Church and Brodribb 

56 Classical Associations 

ARIMINUM (Rimini) 

As early as 268 B. C. the Romans established a colony 
at Ariminum, being quick to perceive the advantages 
they might derive from a well-fortified city situated on the 
3ea and just a few miles south of the line dividing Italy 
from Cisalpine Gaul. The fact that the great highway 
know as the Flaminian Road (built in 220 B. C.) led di- 
rectly from here to Rome, enormously increased its im- 
portance, as did the building of the Aemilian Road a few 
years later (187 B. C), which connected the place with 
other flourishing towns to the northwest. Its value as a 
strategic center for all campaigns in the north as well as 
the fact that it was a convenient base of supplies for mili- 
tary movements in other directions, caused it to take on 
the appearance of a camp. This was in constant use 
throughout the second Punic war (Liv. xxi. 51; xxxi. 10) 
and in the various civil wars that followed. It is perhaps 
best known from the fact that Julius Caesar after making 
his decision to lead his legions to Rome in defiance of the 
senate and after having crossed the Rubicon, a few miles 
to the north, occupied Ariminum, which he used for some 
time as a military center (App. B. C. ii. 35; Plut. Caes. 33). 
The place was conspicuous in the civil wars between Mar- 
ius and Sulla (App. B. C. i. 91) as well as in the later strug- 
gles between Antony and Octavius (App. B. C. iii. 46). 
Tacitus (Hist. iii. 41-42) connects it moreover with the 
bitter contest between Vitellius and Vespasian, and as 
late as the sixth century A. D. it is the scene of several 
struggles between the invading Goths and Belisarius, the 
Roman general (Procop. B. G. ii. 10 et al.). 

It is said that Augustus adorned it with beautiful build- 
ings and works of art to atone for the division of its land 
among the soldiers of the triumvirs (App. B. Civ. 3), and 
certainly existing ruins show traces of this emperor's care. 

Strabo (v. 2, 10) describes the Flaminian Road from Ar- 
iminum to Rome. In this connection the traveler should 
read the account of the journey of the emperor Honorius 

^ Lucan thus voices the lament of the inhabitants of Ariminum at their unfortunate 

of Places in Italy 57 

from Ravenna to Rome as given by Claudian (de vi. 

Cons. Honor. 494-522) closing with the lines, 
"excipiunt arcus, operosaque semita, vastis 
molibus, et quicquid tantae praertiittitur urbi." 

male vicinis haec moenia condita Gallis, 
o tristi damnata loco ! pax alta per omnes 
et tranquilla quies populos; nos praeda furentum 
primaque castra sumus. melius, Fortuna, dedisses 
orbe sub eoo sedem gelidaque sub arcto 
errantesque domos, Latii quam claustra tueri. 
nos primi Senonum motus Cimbrumque ruentem 
vidimus et Martem Libyae cursumque furoris 
Teutonici; quotiens Romam fortuna lacessit, 
hac iter est bellis.' 

Luc: i. 248-257. 

An Onerous Destiny' 

Alas, these city walls erected too near the Gauls, and 
cursed in their location! While all peoples are enjoying 
deep peace and undisturbed tranquillity, we are the victim 
of the war-crazed, we are the first battle ground. Better, 
dame Fortune, hadst thou given us a dwelling under the 
Eastern sky or portable homes in the frozen North than 
this task of defending the gates of Italy. We were the first 
to meet the shock of the Senones, the oncoming Cimbrians, 
the invader from Africa, and the Teuton assault; in fact, 
as often as Fortune has harassed Rome, by this route has 
war entered. 

H. C. Nutting 

58 Classical Associations 

ARPINUM (Arpino) 

Arpinura first becam;e known in the Samnite wars. 
Rome captured it in 305 B.C. For many years a prefec- 
ture with three aediles as its highest officers, it became in 
Cicero's times a municipality (Cic. ad Fam. xiii. 11, 12). 
It is seldom mentioned in the time of the Empire and it is 
chiefly interesting today from the fact that the estate of 
Cicero was there, lying probably, says Nissen, upon the 
left bank of the Fibrenus where it empties into the Litis. 
The conversation quoted below takes place on the occa- 
sion of a visit which Atticus makes at the old home of 
Cicero and his brother Quintus. Cicero frequently 
refers to the town, once quoting this line, '-'My rugged 
native land, good nurse for men." (ad Att. ii. 11). 

Marius, a famous general of the first century B. C. and 
a leader of the democratic party, was born at Arpinum. 

ylU. Sed visne, quoniam et satis iam ambulatum est et 
tibi aliud dicendi initium sumendum est, locum mutemus 
et in insula, quae est in Fibreno — nam opinor id illi alteri 
flumini nomen esse — sermoni reliquo demus operam seden- 
tes? Marc. Sane quidem: nam illo loco libentissime 
soleo uti, sive qiiid mecum ipse cogito sive aliquid scribo 
aut lego. Att. Equidem, qui nunc potissimum hue vene- 
rim, satiari non queo, magnificasque villas et pavimenta 
marmorea et laqueata tecta contemno: ductus vero aqua- 
rum, quos isti nilos et euripos vocant, quis non, cum haec 
videkt, irriserit? Itaque ut tu paulo ante de lege et de 
iure disserens ad naturam referebas omnia, sic in his ip- 
sis rebus, quae ad requietem animi delectationemque quae- 
runtur, natura dominatur. Quare antea mirabar, nihil 

of Places in Italy 

Flifilot^rnlili hy Grant Showcrmau 


Cicero Entertains at His Old Home 

All. Do you feel inclined, since we have had walking 
enough for the present, and since you must now take up a 
fresh part of the suljjcct for discussion, to var\- our situa- 
tion? If you do, let us puss over to the island which is 
surrounded b\' tlic Fibrenus, for such, I believe, is the 
name of the other river, and sit down while we prosecute 
the remainder of our discourse. 

Marc. I like your proposal; for that is the very spot 
which I generally select when I want a place for undis- 
turbed meditation, or uninterrupted reading or writing. 

All. In truth, now I am come to this delicious retreat, ■ 
I cannot see too much of it. Would you beliese that the 
pleasure I find here makes ^me almost des|)ise magnificent 
villas, marble pavements, and panelled ceilings? Who 
would not smile at the artificial canals which our great 
folks call their Niles and Euripi, after he had seen these 
beautiful streams? Therefore, as you just now, in our 
conxersation on justice and law, referred all things to Na- 
ture, so \ou seek to preserve her domination even in those 

60 Classical Associations 

enim his in locis nisi saxa et monies cogitabam, itaque ut 
facerem et orationibus inducebar tuis et versibus, sed 
mirabar, ut dixi, te tarn valde hoc loco delectari: nunc 
contra miror te, cum Roma absis, usquam potius esse. 
Marc. Ego vero, cum licet plures dies abesse, praeser- 
im hoc tempore anni, et amoenitatem et salubritatem 
banc sequor, raro autem licet. Sed nimirum me alia quo- 
que causa delectat, quae te non attingit ita. 

Ait. Quae tandem ista causa est? Marc. Quia, si 
verum dicimus, haec est mea et huius fratris mei germana 
patria: hie enim orti stirpe antiquissima sumus, hie sacra, 
hie genus, hie maiorum multa vestigia. Quid plura? 
banc vides villam ut nunc quidem est, latius aedifieatam 
patris nostri studio, qui, cum esset infirma valetudine, 
hie fere aetatem egit in litteris. Sed hoc ipso in loco, cum 
avus viveret et antiquo more parva esset villa, ut ilia Cu- 
riana in Sabinis, me scito esse natum. Quare inest nescio 
quid et latet in animo ac sensu meo, quo me plus hie locus 
fortasse deleetet: si quidem etiam ille sapientissimus vir, 
Ithacam ut videret, immortalitatem scribitur repudiasse. 
Att. Ego vero tibi istam iustam causam puto, cur 
hue libentius venias atque hunc locum diligas. Quin 
ipse, vere dicam, sum illi villae amieior modo factus atque 
huie omni solo in quo tu ortus et procreatus es. Move- 
mur enim nescio quo pacto locis ipsis, in quibus eorum, 
(juos diligimus aut admiramur, adsunt vestigia. Me 

of Places in Italy 61 

things which are constructed to recreate and amuse the 
mind. I therefore used to wonder before, as I expected 
nothing better in this neighbourhood than hills and rocks 
(and, indeed, I had been led to form these ideas by your 
own speeches and verses) I used to wonder, I say, that you 
were so exceedingly delighted with this place. But my 
present wonder, on the contrary, is, how, when you retire 
from Rome, you condescend to rusticate in any other spot. 

Marc. But when I can escape for a few days, especially 
at this season of the year, I usually do come here, on ac- 
count of thes beauty of the scenery, and the salubrity of 
the air; but it is but seldom that I have it in my power to 
do so. There is one reason, however, why I am so fond of 
this Arpinum, which does not apply to you. 

Att. What reason is that? 

Marc. Because, to confess the truth, it is the native 
place of myself and my brother; for here indeed, de- 
scended from a very ancient race, we first saw the day. 
Here is our altar, here are our ancestors, and here still re- 
main many vestiges of our family. Besides, this villa 
which you behold in its present form, was originally con- 
structed, at considerable expense, under my father's sup- 
erintendence; for having very infirm health, he spent the 
later years of his life here, engaged in literary pursuits. 
And on this very place, too, while my grandfather was 
alive, and while the villa, according to the olden custom, 
was but a little one, like that one of Curius in the Sabine 
district, I myself was born. There is, therefore, an in- 
describable feeling insensibly pervading my soul and 
sense which causes me, perhaps, to find a more than usual 
pleasure in this place. And even the wisest of men, Ulys- 
ses, is related to have renounced immortality that he 
might once more revisit his beloved Ithaca. 

Att. I indeed think what you have mentioned a very 
sufficient reason for your feelings, and for your coming 
hither with pleasure, and being attached to this place. 
Moreover, I myself, to say the truth, feel that my love for 
this house and all this neighbourhood increases, when I 
remember that you were born and bred up here; for, some- 
how or other, we certainly cannot behold without emotion 
the spots in which we find traces of those who possess our 


Classical Associations 

quidem ipsae illae nostrae Athenae non iam operibus 
magnificis exquisitisque antiquorum artibus delectant 
quam recordatione summorum virorum, ubi quisque habi- 
lare, ubi sedere, qui disputare sit solitus, studioseque eorum 
(-•tiam sepulcra contemplor. Qua re istum, ubi tu es na- 
tus, plus amabo poslhac locum. Marc. Gaudeo igitur 
me incunabula paene mea tibi ostendisse. Att. Equi- 
dem me cognosse admodum gaudeo. . . .... 

Sed ventum in insulam est. Hac vero nihil est 
amoenius. Etenim hoc quasi rostro finditur Fibrenus et 
divisus aequaliter in duas partes latera haec adluit rapide- 
que dilapsus cito in unum confluit et tantum complectitur 
quod satis sit modicae palaestrae loci. Quo effecto, tam- 
quam id habuerit operis ac muneris ut banc nobis efficeret 
sedem ad disputandum, statim praecipitat in Lirem et, 
quasi in familiam patriciam, venerit, amittit nomen ob- 
scurius Liremque multo gelidiorem facit. Nee enim, 
ullum hoc frigidius flumen attigi, cum ad multa acces- 
serim, ut vix pede temptare id possim, quod in Phaedro 
Platonis facit Socrates. 

Cic. de Leg. ii. 1-4; 6. 


> ' * '^SMs, 

' ■■'; -^^^ 

Photograph by Grant Sliowerman 

The Fibrenus River 

of Places in Italy 63 

esteem or admiration. And for my own part, even in the 
case of Athens itself, which I love so greatly, it is not so 
much the magnificent works, and exquisite specimens of 
art of the ancients, which delight me, as the remembrance of 
her great men, and the thought where each of them used 
to live, and sit down and discourse. Even their very 
tombs do I contemplate with deep attention. And with 
the same feelings, I shall for the future love the place the 
more where you were born. 

Marc. That being the case, I am very glad that I have 
brought you here, and shown you what I may almost call 
my cradle. 

Att. And I am greatly pleased at having seen it. 

But here we are arrived in your favorite island. 
How beautiful it appears! How bravely it stems the 
waves of the Fibrenus, whose divided waters lave- its ver- 
dant sides, and soon rejoin their rapid currents! The river 
just embraces space enough for a moderate walk; and 
having discharged this office, and secured us an arena for 
disputation, it immediately precipitates itself into the 
Liris; and then, like those who ally themselves to patrician 
families, it loses its more obscure name, and gives the 
waters of the Liris a greater degree of coolness. For I 
have never found water much colder than this, although 
I have seen a great numjjer of rivers; and I can hardly 
bear my foot in it, when I wish to do what Socrates did 
in Plato's Phaedrus. 


64 Classical Associations 

ARRETIUM (Arezzo) 

The place was always a strategic point of importance. 
In the third century B. C. it was a fortress against^north- 
ern barbarians, and in 283 the Romans awaited here [an 
attack from the Gauls. Flaminius went out [from here 
to meet Hannibal just before the battle of Lake Trasi- 
menus in 217, although the omens were not favorable 
and the advice of his friends was adverse to such a step 
(Liv. xxii. 3). In 82 the Marian party used it as a center 

Regio erat in primis Italiae fertilis, Etrusci campi, qui 
Faesulas inter Arretiumque iacent, frumenti ac pecoris 
et omnium copia rerum opulenti. . > 

Liv. xxii. 3. 

Ferme capita Etruriae populorum ea tempestate. 

Liv. ix. 37, 12. 

Arretina nimis ne spernas vasa monemus: 
lautus erat Tuscis Porsena fictilibus. 

Mart. xiv. 98. 

.Amavi curam et sollicitudinem tuam, quod, cum audis- 
ses me aestate -Tuscos meos petiturum, ne facerem, sua- 
sisti, dum putas insalubres. Est sane gravis et pestilens 
ora Tuscorum, quae per litus extenditur; sed hi procul a 
mari recesserunt, quin etiam Appennino, saluberrimo 
montium, subiacent. Atque adeo ut omnem pro me 
metum ponas, accipe temperiem caeli, regionis situm,vil- 
lae amoenitatem; quae et tibi auditu et mihi relatu iucunda 

1 The place was famous for its pottery and much of its industrial prosperity was due 
to its trade in this connection (Mart. i. 53, 6-7). 

2 The villa of the younger Pliny was probably situated to the northeast of Arretium, 
not far from the town of Tifernum (Citti di Castello). An interesting description of it is 
given at length in chapter 6 from which the above passages have been selected. Pliny 
frequently refers to his mode of life while here, notably in Ep. ix. 15; 36. The visitor 
should read the latter passage especially, because of its presentation of an intelligent 
and well-ordered life, which many of Rome's cultivated men of affairs must havp led 
(For a similar picture, see Ep. iii. 1.) 

of Places ill Italy 65 

of operations against the forces of Sulla, and in 49 Caesar 
seized it for a similar purpose of his own. Octavian, 
loo, used it as a military center in 40 B. C. (App. B. C. 
iii. 42), and Catiline likewise turned it to his use in 
his attempt in 63 to overthrow the Roman government 
(Sail. Cat. 36). The town is interesting, also, to the 
classical student, as the birth-place of Maecenas, the 
powerful friend of Augustus and the well-known patron 
of letters at Rome. 

As to the country, it was one of the most fertile in Italy: 
the Etrurian plains, which lie between Faesulae and Arr.e- 
tium, abounding with corn and cattle, and plenty of every- 
thing useful. 

George Baker 

Quilc the foremost Etruscan cities at this time fPerusia, 
Cortona, and Arretium]. 

Wc warn you not to look with too much contempt on 
Arretine vases; Porsena's splendid service was of Etruscan 

Translation from the Bohn Lihrary 

Pliny Describes His Villa in Tuscany- 

The kind concern you expressed when you heard of my 
design to pass the summer at my \illa in Tuscany, and 
your obliging endeavors to dissuade me from going to a 
place which you think unhealthy, are extremely agreeable 
to me. I confess, indeed, the air of that part of Tuscany, 
which lies towards the coast, is thick and unwholesome: 
but my house is situated at a great distance from the sea, 
and at the foot of the Apennine range, so much esteemed 
for salubrity. But that you may lay aside all apprehen- 
sions on my account, I will give you a description of the 
* mildness of the climate, the situation of the country, and 
the beaut v of my villa which I am persuaded you will hear 

66 Classical Associations 

Regionis forma pulcherrima. Imaginare amphithea- 
trum aliquod inmensum, et quale sola rerum natura possit 
effingere. Lata et diffusa planities montibus cingitur, 
montes summa sui parte procera nemora et antiqua ha- 
bent. Frequens ibi et varia venatio. Inde caeduae sil- 
vae cum ipso monte descendunt; 

Villa in colle imo sita prospicit quasi ex summo ; ita leniter 
et sensim clivo fallente consurgit, ut, cum ascendere te 
non putes, sentias ascendisse. A tergo Appenninum, sed 
longius habet 

Habes causas, cur ego Tuscos meos Tusculanis, Tibur- 
tinis Praenestinisque meis praeponam. Nam super ilia, 
quae rettuli, altius ibi otium et pinguius eoque securius; 
nulla necessitas togae, nemo accersitor ex proximo; pla- 
cida omnia et quiescentia, quod ipsum salubritati regionis 
ut purius caelum, ut aer liquidior accedit. Ibi animo, ibi 
corpore maxime valeo. Nam studiis animum, venatu 
corpus exerceo. Mei quoque nusquam salubrius degunt; 
usque adhuc certe neminem ex iis, quos eduxeram mecum, 
(venia sit dicto) ibi amisi. Di modo in posterum hoc 
mihi gaudium, banc gloriam loco servent. Vale. 

Plin. Ep. V. 6, 1-14; 45-46. 

Primi, qua modo praeirent duces, per praealtas fluvii 
ac profundas voragines hausti paene limo inmergentesque 
se tamen signa sequebantur. Galli neque sustinere se 

s This account of Hannibal's painful march through the marsh}^ regions of the 
Arno river as he goes to meet Flaminius in the region of Arretium, will remind many 
soldiers in the recent war of the torments they suffered from the mud and water at the 
Western Front. 

of Places in Italy 67 
with as much pleasure as I shall relate 

The aspect of the country is the most beautiful possible; 
figure to yourself an immense amphitheatre, such as the 
hand of nature could alone form. Before you lies a vast 
extended plain bounded by a range of mountains, whose 
summits are crowned by lofty and venerable woods, which 
supply abundance and variety of game; from hence, as the 
mountains decline, they are adorned with under- woods. 

. . . . My villa, though situated at the foot of the 
mountain, commands as wide a prospect as the summit 
affords; you go up to it by so gentle and insensible a rise, 
that you find yourself upon an elevation without perceiv- 
ing you ascended. Behind, but at a great distance, stand 
the Apennine mountains. 

I have now informed you why I prefer my Tuscan villa, . 
to those which I possess at Tusculum, Tibur, and Prae- 
neste. Besides the advantages already mentioned, I there 
enjoy a securer, as it is a more profound leisure; I never 
need put on full dress; nobody calls from next door on ur- 
gent business. All is calm and composed; which con- 
tributes, no less than its clear air and unclouded sky, to 
the salubrity of the spot. There I am peculiarly blessed 
with health of body and cheerfulness of mind, for I keep 
my mind in proper exercise by study and my body by hunt- 
ing. And indeed there is no place which agrees better 
with all my household; I am sure, at least, I have not yet 
lost one (under favor be it spoken) of all those I brought 
with me hither. • May the gods continue this happiness 
to me, and this glory to my villa! Farewell. 

William Melmoth 

A March Through Mud and Water' 

The troops in the van, though almost swallowed in mud, 
and frequently plunging entirely under water, yet fol- 
lowed the standards wherever theirguidesled the way; but 
the Gauls could neither keep their feet, nor when they fell. 

68 Classical Associations 

prolapsi neque adsurgere ex voraginibus poterant neque 
aut corpora animis aut animos spe sustinebant, alii fessa 
;iegre trahentes membra, alii, ubi semel victis taedio ani- 
mis procubuissent, inter iumenta el ipsa iacentia passim 
morientes; maximeque omnium vigiliae conficiebant per 
quadriduum iam et tres noctes toleratae. Cum omnia 
obtinentibus aquis nihil, ubi in sicco fessa sternerent cor- 
pora, inveniri posset, cumulatis in aqua sarcinis insuper 
incumbebant aut iumentorum itinere toto prostratorum 
passim acervi tantum, quod extaret aqua, quaerentibus ad 
quietem parvi temporis necessarium cubile dabant. Ipse 
Hannibal, aeger oculis ex verna primum intemperie vari- 
ante calores frigoraque, elephanto, qui unus superfuerat, 
quo altius ab aqua extaret, vectus, vigiliis tamen et noc- 
turne umore palustrique caelo gravante caput, et quia 
medendi nee locus nee tempus erat, altero oculo capitur. 

Liv. xxii. 2, 5-11. 


A favorite place of resort during the late Republic and 
the Empire. Cicero spent much time at his villa here, and 
a pathetic interest is attached to the spot by reason of the 
fact that it was at this place that the orator tried to drown 
his grief at the death of his dearly loved daughter, TuUia, 
in 45 B. C. Augustus and several of the later emperors 
frequented the place (Suet. Aug. 97; Tib. 72). 

Narro tibi; haec loca venusta sunt, abdita certe et, si 
quid scribere velis, ab arbitris libera. Sed nescio quo 
modootKos ip'iKos. Itaque mereferuntpedesinTusQulanum. 
Et tamen haec fxawoypaipia ripulae videtur habitura celerem 
satietatem. Equidem etiam pluvias metuo, si prognostica 
nostra vera sunt. Ranae enim pTjToptvovaiv. 

Cic. ad Att. xv. 16b. 

of Places in Italy 69 

raise themselves out of the gulfs which were formed by the 
river from the steepness of its banks. They were destitute 
of spirits and almost hope; and while some with difficulty 
dragged on their enfeebled limbs, others, exhausted by 
the length of way, having once fallen, lay there, and died 
among the cattle, of which great numbers also perished. 
But what utterly overpowered them was the want of 
sleep, which they had now endured for four days and thr^e 
nights; for no dry spot could be found on which they might 
stretch their wearied limbs, so that they could only throw 
their baggage into the water in heaps, on the top of which 
they laid themselves down. Even the cattle, which lay 
dead in abundance along the whole course of their march, 
afforded them a temporary bed, as they looked for no 
further accommodation for sleeping than something raised 
above the water. Hannibal himself, having a complaint 
in his eyes, occasioned at first by the unwholesome air of 
the spring, when changes are frequent from heat to cold, 
rode on the only elephant which he had remaining, in order 
to keep himself as high as possible above the water; but 
at length, the want of sleep, the damps of the night with 
those of the marshes, so disordered his head, that as he 
had neither place nor lime to make use of remedies, he lost 
one of his eyes. 

George Baker 

A Touch of Home-sickness 

I tell you what! this is a lovely place, retired at any rate 
and, if you want to write anything, free from anyone to 
spy you out. But somehow or other "home is sweet": 
and my feet draw me back to Tusculum. And after all 
one seems very soon likely to have enough of the some- 
what artificial charms of this pretty coast. I am also for 
my part afraid of rain, if our prognostics are true; for the 
frogs are loudly "discoursing." 

E. S. Shuckburgh 

70 Classical Associations 

Est hie quidem locus amoenus et in mari ipso: qui et 
Antio et Circeiis aspici possit. 

Cic. ad Att. xii. 19. 

In hac solitudine careo omnium colloquio; cumque 
mane me in silvam abstrusi densam et asperam, non exeo 
inde ante vesperum. Secundum te, nihil est mihi ariiicius 
solitudine. In ea mihi omnis sermo est cum litteris. Eum 
tamen interpellat fletus; cui repugno, quoad possum. Sed 
adhuc pares non sumus. 

Cic. ad Att. xii. 15. 

In unius mulierculae animula si iactura facta est, tanto 
opere commoveris? quae si hoc tempore non diem suum 
obisset, paucis post annis tamen ei moriendum fuit: quo- 
niam homo nata fuerat. Etiam tu ab hisce rebus animum 
ac cogitationem tuam avoca, atque ea potius reminiscere, 
quae digna tua persona sunt: illam, quam diu ei opus 
fuerit, vixisse; una cum republica fuisse; te, patrem suum, 
praetorem, consulem, augurem vidisse; adolescentibus 
primariis nuptam fuisse; omnibus bonis prope perfunctam 
esse; cum respublica occideret, vita excessisse. Quid 
est, quod tu aut ilia cum fortuna hoc nomine queri possi- 
tis? Denique noli te oblivisci Ciceronem esse, et eum, 
qui aliis consueris praecipere et dare consilium ; neque imi- 
tare malos medicos, qui in alienis morbis profitentur 
tenere se medicinae scientiam, ipsi se curare non possunt; 
sed potius, quae aliis tute praecipere soles, ea tute tibi 
subiice, atque apud animum propone. Nullus dolor 
est, quem non longinquitas temporis minuat ac moUiat. 

1 A letter of consolation wtitten to Cicero at Astura by one of his close friends, Servius 

of Places in Italy 7 1 

This is certainly a lovely spot, right on the sea, and 
within sight of Antium and Circeii. 

E. S. Shuckburgh 

Cicero Grieves for His Daughter 

In this lonely place I have no one with whom to con- 
verse, and plunging into a dense and wild wood early in the 
day I don't leave it till evening. Next to you, I have no 
greater friend than solitude. In it my one and only con- 
versation is with books. Even that is interrupted by 
tears, which I fight against as long as I can. But as yet 
I am not equal to it. 

E. S. Shuckbuegh 

A Letter of Consolation' 

If you have become the poorer by the frail spirit of one 
poor girl, are you agitated thus violently? If she had not 
died now, she would yet have had to die a few years hence, 
for she was mortal born. You, too, withdraw soul and 
thought from such things, and rather remember those 
which become the part you have played in life: that she 
lived as long as life had anything to give her; that her life 
outlasted that of the Republic; that she lived to see you, 
her own father, praetor, consul, and augur; that she mar- 
ried young men of the highest rank; that she had enjoyed 
nearly every possible blessing; that, when the Republic 
fell, she departed from life. What fault have you or she 
to find with fortune on this score? In fine, do not forget 
that you are Cicero, and a man accustomed to instruct and 
advise others; and do not imitate bad physicians, who in 
the diseases of others profess to understand the art of 
healing, but are unable to prescribe for themselves. 
Rather suggest to yourself and bring home to your own 
mind the very maxims which you are accustomed to im- 
press upon others. There is no sorrow beyond the power 
of time at length to diminish and soften; it is a reflection 
on you that you should wait for this period, and not rather 

72 Classical Associations 

Hoc te exspectare tempus, ac non ei rei sapientia tua 
te occurre e, tibi turpe est. Quod si quis etiam inferis 
sensus est, qui illius in tc amor fuit pietasque in omnes 
suos, hoc certe ilia te facere non vult. Da hoc illi moituae: 
da ceteris amicis ac familiaribus, qui tuo dolore maerent. 

Cic. ad Fam. iv. 5, 4-6. 

Nihil hoc solitudine iucundius, nisi paulum interpellas- 
set Amyntae filius: "f2 antpavToKoyias dr/SoOs! Cetera noli, 
putare amabiliora fieri posse villa, litore, prospectu maris, 
tum his rebus omnibus. Sed neque haec digna longioribus 
litteris; nee erat, quod scriberem; et somnus urgebat. 

Cic. ad Att. xii. 9. 

ATINA (Atina) 

The city seems to have been an important one in the 
time of the Kings. Livy records its various contests with 
Rome in the fourth and third centuries, B. C. (ix 28; x. 
39 et al.) That it was still populous in the time of Cicero, 
is evidenced by the passage quoted below, and various 
references in later writers lead us to infer that it continued 
to flourish under the Empire (Pliny N. H. iii. 63). 

Sumus enim finitimi Atinatibus. Laudanda est, vel 
etiam amanda vicinitas, retinens veterem ilium officii 
morem, non inf uscata malevolentia, non assueta mendaciis, 
non fucosa, non fallax, non erudita artificio simulationis 
vel suburbano, vel etiam urbano. 

Cic. pro Plane. 22. 

Monte nivoso descendens. 
Atina potens. 
Prisca Atina. 

Sil. Ital. viii. 396-397. 

Vir. Aen. vii. 630. 

Mart. X. 92, 2. 

2 L. Marcius Philippus, jestingly referred to as Philip, king of Macedon, was the 
step- fat herof Augustus. 

3 It is interesting to note that the modern city is considered one of the coldest in the 
region of Naples. 

of Places in Italy 73 

anticipate that result by the aid of your wisdom. But if 
there is any consciousness still existing in the world below, 
such was her love for you and her dutiful affection for all 
her family, that she certainly does not wish you to act as 
you are acting. Grant this to her, your lost one! Grant 
it to your friends and comrades who mourn with you in 
your sorrow! 

E. S. Shuckburgh 

Nothing could be pleasanter than the solitude of this 
place except for the occasional inroads of the "son of 
Amyntas."" What a bore he is with his endless babble! 
In other respects don't imagine that anything could be 
more delightful than this villa, the shore, the view of the 
sea, all the attractions here. But all this does not de- 
serve a longer letter, and I ha\e nothing else to say and am 
very sleepy. 

E. S. Shuckburgh 

Cicero Compliments the People of Atina 

For we of Arpinum are near n*eighbours of the people of 
Atina. It is a neighbourhood to be praised, and even to 
be loved, retaining the old-fashioned habits of kindness 
for one another: one not tainted with ill-nature; nor ac- 
customed to falsehood, not insincere, nor treacherous, nor 
learned in the suburban, or shall I say, the city artifices 
of dissimulation. 


Coming down from the snowy heights^ (of Atina). 

Atina the mighty. 

John Conington 

The ancient town of Atina. 

74 Classical Associations 


Longe sonantem .... Aufidum. 

Hor. C. iv. 9, 2. 

Far-sounding Aufidus. 

C. E. Bennett 

Sic tauriformis volvitur Aufidus, 
qui regna Dauni praefluit Apuli, 
cum saevit horrendamque cultis 
diluviem minitatur agris. 

Hor. C. iv. 14, 25-28. 

So does bull-formed Aufidus roll .on, flowing past the 
realms of Apulian Daunus, when he rages and threatens 
awful deluge to the well-tilled fields. 

C. E. Bennett 

Qua violens obstrepit Aufidus. 

Hor. C. iii. 30, 10. 

Where brawls loud Aufidus. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

^ The principal river of Apulia and one of the larerest in southern Italy, flowinK iiili. 
] I Adriatic sea. 

of Places in Italy 
AVERNUS LACUS (Lago d' Averno) 


The Lake of Avernus was looked upon as one of the en- 
trances to the lower world. It is probable that the volcanic 
nature of the region and, in consequence, the sulphur- 
ous odors arising from it, had much to do with the 
creation of the legend. Writers constantly refer to this 
connection with the under regions, Statins, for example, 
alluding to it in the words "dels pallentis Averni" (Silv. 
V. i. 27), and Horace (Epod v. 26), in speaking of the 
witches' custom of using waters from this lake in their 
unholy rites. Lucretius (de Rer. Nat. vi. 738-746) gives a 
vivid account of the lake which should be read in connec- 
tion with that of Virgil given below. Both Propertius 
(iii. 18, 1) and Silius Italicus (xii. 122-124) speak of the 
dark and gloomy grove surrounding it. Strabo writes 
at length concerning it (v. 4, 5). 

Phniograph by Kalharim A lien 

Lake Avernus 

76 Classical Associations 

Fauces grave olentis Averni. 

Vir. Aen. vi. 201. 

Unum oro: quando hie inferni ianua regis 
dicitur et tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuso, 
ire ad conspectum cari genitoris et ora 
contingat; doceas iter et sacra ostia pandas, 
ilium egx) per flammas et mille sequentia.tela 
eripui his umeris medioque ex hoste recepi; 
ille meum comitalus iter maria omnia mecum 
atque omnes pelagique minas caelique ferebat, 
invalidus, vires ultra sortemque senectae. 
quin, ut te supplex peterem et tua limina adirem 
idem orans mandata dabat. natique patrisque, 
alma, precor, miserere; potes namque omnia, nee te 
nequiquam lucis Hecate praefecit Avernis. 

Talibus orabat dictis arasque tenebat, 

cum sic orsa loqui vates: "Sate sanguine divum, 

Tros Anchisiade, facilis descensus Averno; 

noctes atque dies patet atri ianua Ditis; 

sed revocare gradum superasque evadere ad auras, 

hoc'opus, hie labor est. 

Quod; si tantus amor menti, si tanta cupido 
bis Stygios innare lacus, bis nigra videre 
Tartara, et insano iuvat indulgere labori 
accipe quae peragenda prius." .... 

* When the Trojans arrive in Italy, Aeneas begs the Sibyl at Cumae to allow him to go 
down to' the lower world to seek out his beloved father, Anchises, with the view to learn- 
ing from him the destinies of his people. The Sibyl finally consents and after elaborate 
ceremonies accompanies him on his journey. For a vivid account of his visit to the Sibyl's 
cave, see Cumae; and for a narration of the many interesting sights *hich he saw in his 
journey through thelower world, consult Virgil (Aen. vi. 264 ff.). 

2 A name applied to Diana under her aspect as goddess of the lower world. 

3 Aeneas is told that he must first perform the rite of burial over a dead body which 
later proves to be that of his trumpeter, Misenus. (For an account of this ceremony, see 
Misenum.) He is also charged with the discovery of a golden branch which grows some- 
where in the dark forest surrounding the Lake. This is to be an offering to the queen of 
the lower world. Through the aid of his mother, Venus, he finally finds this (Vir. Aen. 
vi. 185-204). 

oj Places in Italy 7 7 

Foul Avernus' sulphurous throat. 

T. C. Williams 

In Answer to His Prayer, Aeneas is Taken to the Lower 
World to See His Fatheri 

One boon I ask. If of th' infernal King 
This be the portal where the murky wave 
Of swollen Acheron o'erflows its bound, 
Here let me enter and behold the face 
Of my beloved sire. Thy hand may point the way; 
Thy word will open wide yon holy doors. 
My father through the flames and falling spears, 
Straight through the center of our foes, I bore 
Upon these shoulders. My long flight he shared 
From sea to sea, and suffered at my side 
The anger of rude waters and dark skies,—; 
Though weak — task too great for old and gray! 
Thus as a suppliant at thy door to stand. 
Was his behest and prayer. On son and sire, 
gracious one, have pity, — for thy rule 
Is over all; no vain authority 
Hadst thou from Trivia^ o'er the Avernian groves. 

, Thus to the altar clinging did he pray: 
The Sibyl thus replied: "Offspring of Heaven 
Anchises' son, the downward path to death 
Is easy; all the Uvelong night and day 
Dark Pluto's door stands open for a guest. 
But, Oh! remounting to the world of light. 
This is a task indeed, a strife supreme! 

But if it be thy dream and fond desire 
Twice o'er the Stygian gulf to travel, twice 
On glooms of Tartarus to set thine eyes, 
If such mad quest be now thy pleasure— hear 
What must be first fulfilled.' 

78 Classical Associations 

Spelunca alta fuit vastoque immanis hiatu, 
scrupea, tiita lacu nigro nemorumque tenebris, 
quam super haud uUae poterant impune volantes 
tendere iter pennis : talis sese halitus atris 
faucibus effundens supera ad convexa ferebat: 
[unde locum Grai dixerunt nomine Aornon.] 
quattuor hie primum nigrantis terga iuvencos 
constituit frontique invergit vina sacerdos, 
et summas carpens media inter cornua saetas 
ignibus imponit sacris, libamina prima, 
voce vocans Hecaten, Caeloque Ereboque potentem. 
supponunt alii cultros, tepidumque cruorem 
suscipiunt pateris. ipse atri velleris agnam 
Aeneas matri Eumenidum magnaeque sorori 
ense ferit, sterilemque tibi, Proserpina, vaccam. 
tum Stygio regi nocturnas inchoat aras, 
et solida imponit taurorum viscera flammis, 
pingue super oleum infundens ardentibus extis. 
ecce autem, primi sub lumina solis et ortus 
sub pedibus mugire solum et iuga coepta moveri 
silvarum, visaeque canes ululare per umbram, 
adventante dea. "Procul o, procul este, profani," 
conclamat vates, "totoque absistite luco; 
tuque invade /Viam, vaginaque eripe ferrum; 
nunc animis opus, Aenea, nunc pectore firmo.'' 
tantum effata, furens antro se immisit aperto; 
ille ducem haud timidis vadentem passibus aequat. 

Vir. Aen. vi. 106-118; 124-129; 133-136; 236-263. 

^Pluto's wife and queen of the lower world. 

of Places in Italy 79 

Straightway they find 

A cave profound, of entrance gaping wide, 

O'er hung with rocks in gloom of sheltering grove, 

Nearthe dark waters of a lake, whereby 

No bird might ever pass with scathless wing, 

So dire an exhalation is breathed out 

From that dark deep of death to upper air: — 

Hence, in the Grecian tongue, Aornos called. 

Here first four youthful bulls of swarthy hide 

Were led for sacrifice; on each broad brow 

The priestess sprinkled wine; 'twixt the two horns 

Out plucked the lifted hair, and cast it forth 

Upon the holy flames, beginning so 

Her offerings; then loudly sued the power 

Of Hecate, a Queen in Heaven and hell. 

Some stuck with knives, and caught in shallow bowls 

The smoking blood. Aeneas' lifted hand 

Smote with a sword a sable-fleeced ewe 

To Night, the mother of the Eumenides, 

And Earth, her sister dread; next unto thee, 

O Proserpine,* a curst and barren cow; 

Then unto Pluto, Stygian King, he built 

An altar dark, and piled upon the flames 

The ponderous entrails of the bulls, and poured 

Free o'er the burning flesh the goodly oil. 

Then lo ! at dawn's dim earliest beam began 

Beneath their feet a groaning of the ground: 

The wooded hill-tops shook, and, as it seemed, 

She-hounds of hell howled viewless through the shade, 

To hail their Queen. • "Away, O.souls profane! 

Stand far away!" the priestess shrieked, "nor dare 

Unto this grove come near! Aeneas, on! 

Now, all thy courage! now th' unshaken soul!" 

She spoke and burst into the yawning cave 

With frenzied step; he follows where she leads, 

.\nd strides with feet unfaltering at her side. 

T. C. Williams 

80 Classical Associations 

Namque ab lacu Averno navigabilem fossam usque ad 
ostia Tiberjna depressuros promiserant, squalenti litore 
aut per montes adversos. Neque enim aliud umidum gig- 
nendis aquis occurrit quam Pomptinae paludes: cetera 
abrupta aut arentia, ac si perrumpi possent, intolerandus 
labor nee satis causae. Nero tamen, ut erat incredibilium 
cupitor, effodere proxima Averno iuga conisus est, manent- 
que vestigia inritae spei. 

Tac. Ann. xv. 42. 

BAIAE (Baia) 

The town and its neighborhood were famous in the 
Roman world as a place of resort from the last century of 
the Republic to the downfall of the Empire. Its baths 
were unrivalled, its climate attractive, its oysters delicious, 
and its situation as a whole unusually beautiful. Wealthy 
Romans built magnificent villas on every hand, the struc- 
tures covering not only the land but, as Horace indicates, 
even extending out into the sea (Hor. C. ii. 18, 20-23). 
This magnificent and fashionable watering-place attracted 
all people of note in the Roman world. Varro, Caesar, 
Pompey, LucuUus, and Hortensius, for example, had 
costly villas at Baiae, to mention only the Republican 
period (Sen. Ep. 51). But it was quite as popular in im- 
perial times. The young Marcellus, the heir of Augustus 
whom he so dearly loved, died here — a misfortune for 
Rome which Virgil laments in beautiful lines (Aen. vi. 
860-886). Statius speaks of Domitian as "happy to 
move to warm Baiae" (Silv. iv. 3, 24-26); Hadrian died 
here in 138 B. C; and Alexander Severus erected a very 
splendid palace for himself on these shores (Lampr. Alex. 
Sev. 26, 9-10). All the famous writers frequented it, as 
the passages quoted below indicate. Statius, being a 
native of Naples, has, of course, a special fondness for the 
place (Silv. iii. 5, 96). As time went on it gained an un- 
enviable reputation for luxurious living and loose morals. 

of Places in Italy 


An Enterprise in Engineering 

For they^ promised to form a navigable canal from Lake 
Avernus to the mouth of the Tiber. The experiment, like 
the genius of the men, was bold and grand. The canal 
was to be made through a long tract of barren land, and 
in some places through opposing mountains. The country 
round was parched and dry, without one humid spot, ex- 
cept the Pomptinian marsh, from which water could be 
expected. A scheme so vast could not be accomplished 
without immoderate labor, and, if practicable, the end was 
in no proportion to the expense and labor. But the pro- 
digious and almost impossible had charms for the enter- 
prising spirit of Nero. He began to hew a passage through 
the hills that surround Lake Avernus, and some traces of 
his deluded hopes are visible at this day. 

Arthur Murphy 

Plwtosraph by Katharine Allen 

In the Region of Baiae 

iThe engineers ot Xcro. For Asriiipa ;. efiforts to make a harbor, see Baiae and 
llie Lucrine Lake. 

82 Classical Associations 

Perge igitur ad amoenos recessus: perge ad solem, ut 
ita dixerim, clariorem: ubi, salubritate aeris temperata 
terris blandior est natura. lUic miraculis alta cogitatione 
perpensis, cum arcanis mundl mens humana colloquitur 
nee admirari desinit quae ibi agi posse cognoscit: primum 
Nerei fluenta marinis deliciis esse completa; tot portus 
naturae prudentia terrenis sinibus intermissos; tot insulas 
nobiles amplexu pelagi dotatas; deinde immissum Averno 
stagneum mare, ubi ad voluptatem hominum vita regitur 
ostreorum, industriaque mortalium fieri, ut res alibi for- 
tuita ibi semper appareat copiosa. Quantis ibi molibus 
marini termini decenter invasi sunt! quantis spatiis in 
visceribus aequoris terra promota est! Dextralaevaquegre- 
ges piscium ludunt. Claudantur alibi industriosis parieti- 
bus copiosae deliciae, captivi teneantur aquatiles greges. 
Hie ubique sub libertate vivaria sunt. Adde quod tarn 
amoena est suseepta piscatio, ut ante epulosum convivium 
intuentium pascat aspectum. Magnum est enim gau- 
dium desiderata cepisse, sed in huiusmodi rebus gratior est 
plerumque amoenitas oculi, quam utilitas eaptionis. Sed 
ne longius evagemur, inter Neptunias gazas habitare credi- 
tur, cui otia Baiana praestantur. His itaque rebus deliciosa 
exercitatione saginati, ad puleherrima lavacra eontenditis, 
quae sunt et miraculis plena, et salutis qualitate pretiosa: 

Cassiod. Var. ix. 6. 

of Places in Italy 83 

The Charms of Baiae 

Go then to that charming retreat! Go where the sun 
shines brighter, if I may say, than it does on less privileged 
earth! Go where, with a wholesome evenness of climate. 
Nature smiles more alluringly upon the land! There, re- 
flecting with deep thought upon the wondrous sights, 
the human soul holds communion with the mysteries of 
the world, and ceases not to wonder at what it finds can 
occur there: first, that Nereus' streams are full of sea 
delights; the many harbors that in Nature's wisdom have 
been set in among the curving shores; the many islands of 
fame, dowered with the caressing embrace of the sea: then, 
connecting with Lake Avernus, the sluggish Lucrine Lake, 
where for man's pleasure oysters are protected and propa- 
gated: and that through the pains of mortal man it is 
brought to pass that this creature, elsewhere rare, here 
seems always to exist in abundance. How great and 
harmonious are the embankments and moles that project 
into the recesses of the bays! Over how great spaces the 
made land extends, out upon the very vitals of the sea! 
On right and left play schools of fish. Elsewhere may be 
shut in by walls built by man's patience, all that helps to 
delight his palate; elsewhere may be kept in captivity 
hosts of finny tribes; but here, here, everywhere without 
confines, are fishing places and preserves. Add to all 
this that the fishing here .is in surroundings so alluring to 
the eye, that before the rich feast to which it leads, it 
itself feasts the eyes of the beholder. In all else, great is 
the pleasure of securing that upon which one has set his 
heart: but in fishing at Baiae, the charm of the landscape 
gives even greater pleasure than comes from the value of 
the fish caught. But not to digress at greater length, in 
the very rftidst of Neptune's treasures he seems to dwell, 
to whom is given the boon of the peace and leisure of 
Baiae. So, sated with delight and familiarity with the 
landscape, you hasten on to the wondrous baths that are 
filled with all that is marvellous, and are prized for their 
wholesome qualities as well. 

Arthur Winfred Hodgman 

84 Classical Associations 

Portu .... amoeno | desides Baiae. 

Stat. Silv. iv. 7, 18, 19. ~ 

Principesque Baiae. 

Mart. vi. 42, 7. 

Litus beatae Veneris aureum Baias, 
Baias superbae blanda dona naturae, 
ut mille laudem, Flacce, versibus Baias, 
laudabo 5igne non satis tamen Baias. 

Mart. xi. 80, 1-4. 

In Baiarum ilia celebritate. , 

Cic. pro. Gael. 49. 

Liquidae .... Baiae. 

Hor. C. iii. 4, 24. 

Quae sit hiems Veliae, quod caelum, Vala, Salerni, 
quorum hominum regio et qualis via (nam mihi Baias 
Musa supervacuas Antonius, et tamen illis 
me facit invisum, gelida cum perluor unda 
per medium frigus. sane murteta relinqui 
dictaque cessantem nervis elidere morbum 
sulfura contemni vicus gemit, invidus aegris, 
qui caput et stomachum supponere fontibus audent 
Clusinis Gabiosque petunt et frigida rura. 
mutandus locus est et deversoria nota 
praeteragendus equos. 'quo tendis? non mihi Gumas 
est iter aut Baias' laeva stomachosus habena 
dicel eques; sed equis frenato est auris in ore.) 

Hor. Ep. i. 15, 1-13. 

" 1 Towns which were becoming popular as resorts for invalids. Clusium (Chiusi) was 
an ancient Etruscan city. 

2 Antonius Musa, a freedman of Augustus and a well-known physician. He recom- 
mended cold water baths for Horace which, as the poet said, necessitated a change of 

of Places in Italy 85 

Indolent Baiae with its charming harbor. 

Peerless Baiae. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

Praises of Baiae 

Though, Flaccus, I were to praise Baiae, golden shore 
of the blessed Venus, Baiae, kind gift of Nature who is 
proud of it, in a thousand verses, yet would not Baiae be 
praised as it deserves. 

Translation from the Bohn Library 

In Baiae with its throngs of people. 
Cloudless Baiae. 

C. E. Bennett 

A Poet Obeys His Doctor's Orders 

Is winter at Velia'^ mild or severe? 
Is the sky at Salernum' cloudy or clear? 
And what sort of folks are the people down there? 
And, Vala, the roads, are they pretty fair? 
Pray, why all these questions, I hear you reply. 
Bear with me a moment, and you shall know why. 
Baiae, Musa^ protests, will not do for my case, 
And has caused me no little ill-will in the place. 
Since under his treatment, come ice or come snow, 
I am douched with cold water from head down to toe: 
In truth, the whole town groans, that people no more 
Resort to its sweet myrtle-groves as of yore, 
And sneer at its sulphur springs, spite of their fame 
For driving out pain from the shakiest frame; 
And when those who in head or in stomach are weak. 
Relief at the Clusian' waters dare seek. 
Or to Gabii and all that cold region repair, 
Not, a Baian for such has a blessing to spare. 
Needs must, then, to change my old quarters, and spiir 
My mare past the inns so familiar to her. 
"Woa, ho! I'm not going to Baiae's bay. 
Nor to Cumae!" her choleric rider will say. 
Appealing to her through the left rein, because 
Saddle-horses, you know, have their ears in their jaws. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

of Places in Italy 87 

A Roman Poet Fears the Effect upon His Sweetheart of 
the Life at Baiae 

Cynthia,' while thou tak'st thine ease in Baiae's midst, 
where the causeway built by Hercules^ lies stretched 
along the shore, and now marvellest at the waves that 
wash Thesprotus' realm, now at those that spread hard 
by renowned Misenum, dost thou ever think that I, alas! 
pass weary nights haunted by memories of thee? Hast 
thou room for me even in the outer borders of thy love? 
Has some enemy with empty show of passion stolen thee 
away from thy place in my songs? Would rather that 
some little boat, trusting in tiny oars, kept thee safe on the 
Lucrine Lake, or that the waters yielding with ease to the 
swimmer's either hand held thee retired by the shallow 
waves of Teuthras,^ than that thou shouldst listen at ease 
to the fond murmurs of another as thou liest soft reclined 
on the silent strand; for when there is none to watch her, 
a maid will break her troth and go astray, remembering 
not the gods of mutual love. Not that I doubt thee, for 
I know that thy virtue is well tried, but at Baiae all love's 
advances give cause for fear. Pardon me, therefore, if 
my books have brought thee aught of bitterness; lay all 
the blame upon my fear. For I watch not over my be- 
loved mother more tenderly than over thee, nor without 
thee would life be worth a thought. 

Thou only, Cynthia, art my home, thou only my par- 
ents, thou art each moment of my joy. Be I gay or grave 
to the friends I meet, whate'er my mood, I will say: 
"Cynthia was the cause." Only do thou with all speed 
lleave the lewd life of Baiae; to many a loving pair shall 
those shores bring severance, shores that have- aye proved 
ill for modest maids. Perish the Baian waters, that bring 
reproach on love! 

H. E. Butler 

Do you suppose that Cato would ever have dwelt in a 
pleasure-palace, that he might count the lewd women as 
they sailed past, the many kinds of barges painted in all 
sorts of colors, the roses which were wafted about the lake, 
or that he might listen to the nocturnal brawls of seren- 


88 Classical Associations 

Nos, utcumque possumus, contenti sumus Bails, quas 
postero die quam adtigeram reliqui, locum ob hoc devitan- 
dum, cum habeat quasdam naturales dotes, quia ilium 

sibi celebrandum luxuria desumpsit Non tan- 

tum corpori, sed etiam moribus salubrem locum eligere 
debemus. Quemadmodum inter tortores habitare nolim, sic 
ne inter popinas quidem. Videre ebrios per litora errantes 
et comessationes navigantium et symphoniarum cantibus 
strepentes lacus et alia, quas velut soluta legibus luxuria 
non tantum peccat, sed publicat, quid necesse est? 

Sen. Ep. li. 1,4. 

Baiana nostri villa, Basse, Faustini 
non otiosis ordinata myrtetis 
viduaque platano tonsilique buxeto 
ingrata lati spatia detinet campi, 
sed rure vero barbaroque laetatur. 
hie farta premitur angulo Ceres omni 
et multa fragrat testa senibus autumnis; 
hie post Novembres imminente iam bruma 
seras putator horridus refert uvas. 
truces in alta valle mugiunt tauri 
vitulusque inermi fronte prurit in pugnam. 
vagatur omnis turba sordidae chortis, 
argutus anser gemmeique pavones 
nomenque debet quae rubentibus pinnis 
et picta perdix Numidicaeque guttatae 
et impiorum phasiana Colchorum; 
Rhodias superbi feminas premunt galli; 
sonantque turres plausibus columbarum, 
gemit hinc palumbus, inde cereus turtur. 
avidi secuntur vilicae sinum porci 
matremque plenam mollis agnus expectat. 
cingunt serenum lactei focum vernae 
et larga festos lucet ad lares silva. 
non segnis albo pallet otio copo, 
nee perdit oleum lubricus palaestrita, 
sed tendit avidis rete subdolum turdis 

' An account which is in strong contrast with such passages as the preceding. 

of Places in Italy 89 

A Philosopher and Moralist Deprecates the Vices of Baiae 

As for myself, I do the best I can; I have had to be sat- 
isfied with Baiae; and I left it the day after I reached it; 
for Baiae is a place to be avoided, because, though it has 
certain natural advantages, luxury has claimed it for her 

own exclusive resort We ought to select abodes 

which are wholesome not only for the body but also for the 
character. Just as I do not care to live in a place of tor- 
ture, neither do I care to live in a cafe. To witness per- 
sons wandering drunk along the beach, the riotous revel- 
ling of sailing parties, the lakes a-din with choral song, and 
all the other ways in which luxury, when it is, so to speak, 
released from the restraints of law not merely sins but 
blazons its sins abroad, — why must I witness all this? 


Life on a Roman Farm' 

The Baian villa, Bassus, of our friend Faustinus keeps 
unfruitful no spaces of wide field laid out in idle myrtle- 
beds, and with widowed planes and clipped clumps of box, 
but rejoices in a farm, honest and artless. Here in every 
corner corn is tightly packed, and many a crock is fragrant 
of ancient autumns. Here, when November is past, and 
winter is now at hand, the unkempt pruner brings home 
late grapes. Fiercely in the deep valley roar bulls and the 
steer with brow unhorned itches for the fray. All the 
crowd of the untidy poultry-yard wanders here and there, 
the shrill cackling goose, and the spangled peacocks, and 
the bird that owes its name to its flaming plumes, and the 
painted partridge, and speckled guinea fowls, and the im- 
pious Colchians' pheasant. Proud cocks tread their 
Rhodian dames, and cotes are loud with the pigeons' 
croon; on this side moans the ringdove, on that the glossy 
turtle. Greedily pigs follow the apron of the bailiff's 
wife, and the tender lamb waits for its dam's full udder. 
Infant home-born slaves ring .the clear-burning hearth, 
and thickly piled billets gleam before the household gods 
on holidays. The wine-seller does not idly sicken with 
pale-faced ease, nor the anointed wrestling master make 
waste of oil, but he stretches a crafty net for greedy field- 

90 Classical Associations 

tremulave captum linea trahit piscem 
aut impeditam cassibus refert dammam; 
exercet hilares facilis hortus urbanos, 
et paedagogo non iubente lascivi 
parere gaudent vilico capillati, 
et delicatus opere fruit ur eunuchus. 
nee venit inanis rusticus salutator: 
fert ille ceris cana cum suis mella 
metamque lactis Sassinate de silva; 
somniculosos ille porrigit glires, 
hie vagientem matris hispidae fetum, 
alius coactos non amare eapones. 
et dona matrum vimine offerunt texto 
grandes proborum virgines colonorum. 
facto vocatur laetus opere vicinus; 
nee avara servat erastinas dapes mensa, 
veseuntur omnes ebrioque non novit 
satur minister invidere convivae. 

Mart. iii. 58. 

Verum minis eius ac violentia territus perdere statuit; 
et cum ter veneno temptasset sentiretque antidotis prae- 
munitam, lacunaria, quae noctu super dormientem laxata 
machina deciderent, paravit. ■ Hoc consilio per conscios 
parum celato, solutilem navem, cuius vel naufragio vel 
camarae ruina periret, commentus est, atque ita reconcili- 
atione simulata, iucundissimis litteris Baias evocavit ad 
soUemnia Quinquatruum simul celetranda; datoque ne- 
gotio trierarchis, qui liburnicam qua adveeta erat velut 
fortuito concursu confringerent, protraxit convivium, re- 
petentique Baulos in locum corrupti navigii machinosum 
illud optulit, hilare prosecutus atque in digressu papillas 
quoque exosculatus. Reliquum temporis cum magna 
trepidatione vigilavit, opperiens coeptorum exitum. Sed 
ut diversa omnia nandoque evasisse earn comperit, inops 
eonsilii L. Agermum libertum eius, salvam et incolumem 
cum gaudio nuntiantem, abiecto clam iuxta pugione ut 

8The emperor Nero murders Agrippina, his mother, in 59 A. D. Tacitus, who de- 
scribes the scene (Ann. xiv. 8), says that ever afterwards this sea and the shores were before 
the son's eyes (xiv. 10). 

» Agrippina had a villa at Bauli tTac. Ann. xiv. 4). 

of Places in Italy 91 

fares, or with tremulous line draws up the captured fish, 
or brings home the doe entangled in his nets. The kindly 
garden keeps the town slaves cheerfully busy, and, with- 
out the overseer's order, even the wanton long-curled 
pages gladly obey the bailiff; even the delicate eunuch de- 
lights in work. Nor does the country visitor come empty 
handed: that one brings pale honey in its comb, and a 
pyramid of cheese from Sassina's woodland; that one offers 
sleepy dormice; this one the bleating offspring of a 
shaggy mother; another capons debarred from love. And 
the strapping daughters of honest farmers offer in a wicker 
basket their mother's gifts. When work is done, a cheer- 
ful neighbor is asked to dine; no niggard table reserves a 
feast for the morrow; all take the meal, and the full-fed 
attendant need not envy the well-drunken guest. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

An Emperor Murders His Mother 

At last, terrified by her violence and threats,* he deter- 
mined to have her life, and after thrice attempting it by 
poison and finding that she had made herself immune by 
antidotes, he tampered with the ceiling of her bedroom, 
contriving a mechanical device for loosening its panels, 
and dropping them upon her as she slept. When this 
leaked out through some of those connected with the plot, 
he devised a collapsible boat, to destroy her by shipwreck 
or by the falling of its cabin. Then he pretended a recon- 
ciliation and invited her in a most cordial letter to come to 
Baiae and celebrate the feast of Minerva with him. On her 
arrival, instructing his captains to wreck the galley in 
which she had come, by running into it as if by accident, he 
detained her at a banquet, and when she would return to 
Bauli," offered her his contrivance in place of the craft 
which hail been damaged, escorting her to it in high spirits 
and even kissing her breasts as they parted. The rest of the 
night he passed sleepless in intense anxiety, awaiting the 
outcome of his design. On learning that everything had 
gone wrong and that she had escaped by swimming, 
driven to desperation, he secretly had a dagger thrown 
down beside her freedman Lucius Agermus, when he 
joyfully brought word that she was safe and sound, and 

92 Classical Associations 

percussorem sibi subornatum arripi constringique iussil, 
matrem occidi, quasi deprehensum crimen voluntaria 
morte vitasset. 

Suet. Nero 34. 

Portum lulium apud Baias, inmisso in Lucrinum et 
Avernum lacum mari, effecit. 

Suet. Aug. 16. 

BENACUS LACUS (Lago di Garda) 

Paene insularum, Sirmio, insularumque 
ocelle, quascumque in liquentibus stagnis 
marique vasto fert uterque Neptunus, 
quam te libenter quamque laetus inviso, 
vix mi ipse credens Thyniam atque Bithynos 
liquisse campos et videre te in tuto! 
o quid solutis est beatius curis, 
cum mens onus reponit, ac peregrine 
labore fessi venimus larem ad nostrum 
desideratoque adquiescimus lecto? 
hoc est quod unum est pro laboribus tantis. 
salve, o uenusta Sirmio, atque ero gaude; 
gaudete vosque, o Lydiae lacus undae; 
ridete, quidquid est domi cachinnorum. 

Catull. xxxi. 

Limpidum lacum. 

Catull. iv. 24. 

Patre Benaco, velatus harundinc glauca 

Vir. Aen. x. 205-6. 

If Augustus. See Lucrine Lake and Itily (Vir, Georg. ii. 161 ff.); for a full account, 
see Dio xlviii. 50. 

" Benacus was the largest of the Alpine lajtes of Italy. The Roman poet Catullus 
had a villa at Sirmio on its southern shore which he celebrates in a poem on the occasion 
of his return from official duties in the East. This poem gives the lake its chief fame. 
Mincius was a river flowing through it. (See Mantua for a further reference.) 

of Places in Italy 93 

then ordered that the freedman be seized and bound, on 
the charge of being hired to kill the emperor; that his 
mother be put to death, and the pretence made that she 
had escaped the consequences of her detected guilt by 


He'" made the Julian harbour at Baiae by letting the 
sea into the Lucrine Lake and Lake Avernus. 




Home is Sweet to the Returning Official" 

best of all the scattered spots that lie 
In sea or lake — apple of landscape's eye — 
How gladly do I drop within thy nest, 
With what a sigh of full, contented rest, 
Scarce able to believe my journey o'er. 
And that these eyes behold thee safe once more. 
Oh, Where's the luxury like the smile at heart, 
When the mind, breathing, lays its load apart — 
When we come home again, tired out, and spread 
The loosened limbs o'er all the wished-for bed ; 
This, this alone is worth an age of toil! 
Hail, lovely Sirmio! Hail, paternal soil! 
Joy, my bright waters, joy, your master's come! 
Laugh, every dimple on the cheek of home! 

Leigh Hunt 

The limpid lake. 

F. W. Cornish 

Mincius, child of Benacus, with his gray covering of 

John Conington 


Classical Associations 

BENEVENTUM (Benevento) 

The town was of ancient origin and belonged in early 
times to the Samnites. When captured by the Romans, 
it came to be a place of military importance and many 
significant battles have been fought in its immediate 
neighborhood. It was here, for example, that the Ro- 
mans defeated Pyrrhus in 275 B. C; the Carthaginian 
general, Hanno, in 214 B. C, and again in 212. The 
name Beneventum was given to it in 268 B. C. at the time 
when it was made a Roman qolony. At the close of the 
Republic, it was known as one of the most flourishing and 
opulent towns of southern Italy — a reputation which 
continued into the time of the Empire. After its terri- 
tory was assigned to the veterans just after the Second 
Triumvirate, Augustus found it necessary to assist it by 
sending out a fresh colony. Several of the emperors seem 
to have been fond of the place, notably Nero, Trajan, and 
Septimius Severus. A memorial of Trajan's liking for it 
still exists in the splendid arch erected there in his honor. 
The fact that the town was on the Appian Way brought 
many travelers to its doors, among them Horace and his 
companions, an incident of whose stay is amusingly nar- 
rated below. 

Photograph by Frank Gallup 

Ancieni Bridge at Benevento 

of Places in Italy 95 

Tendimus hinc recta Beneventum, ubi sedulus hospes 
paene macros arsit dum turdos versat in igni: 
nam vaga per veterem dilapso flamma culinam 
volcano summum properabat lambere tectum, 
convivas avidos cenam servosque limenles 
tum rapere atque omnes restinguere velle videres. 

Hor. S. i. 5, 71-76. 

An Accident in the Kitchen 

Hence without halting on we post, 
To Beneventum, where our host 
Escaped most narrowly from burning; 
For while he was intent on turning 
Some starveling thrushes on the coals, 
Out from the crazy brazier rolls 
A blazing brand, which caught and spread 
To roof and rafter overhead. 
The hungry guests, oh how they ran! 
And frightened servants, to a man. 
The supper from the flames to snatch. 
And then to quench the blazing thatch. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

Benc\entum auspicatius mutato nomine, quae quondam 
appellata Malc\enlum. 

Plin. N. H. iii. 105. 

Beneventum, so called Ijy an exchange of a more aus- 
picious name for its old one of Maleventum., 

John Bostock and H. T. Riley 

Non equidem insector delendaque carmina Livi 
esse reor, memini quae plagosum mihi parvo 
Orbilium dictare. 

Hor. Ep. ii. 1, 69-71. 

Nor would I wish to see from earth effaced 
Old Livius' poems, which with ruthless cane 
Orbilius' whipped into my boyish brain. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

1 Orbilius, wlio ciime from Ucncventum, (krivcs his tame from the fact that he once 
taught the poet Horace. 

96 Classical Associations 

BRUNDISIUM (Brindisi) 

For many years the chief city of the Messapians, 
the place was captured finally by Rome in 267 B. C, that 
nation being quick to see its importance as a doorway to 
Greece and the East (Flor. Ep. i. 15.)- A Latin colony 
was sent there in 244 B. C. at which time the city began the 
use of the Latin language. The place became increasingly 
important commercially as Rome's conquests in the East 
expanded, and its port came to be looked upon as the us- 
ual point of departure and arrival of ships. Naturally its 
military importance became great and frequent allusions 
deal with the assembling of the Roman fleet in this spa- 
cious harbor. Appian, for example, (B. C. i. 79), gives an 
interesting account of Sulla's return from the .East, and 
of a siege conducted by Antony during the Civil War 
(B. C. V. 56 ff. ). It is obvious that its situation also 
made it the scene of many striking incidents other than 
those connected with war. Several of these are pictured in 
the following passages. 

Brundisium longae finis chartaeque viaeque. 

Hor. S. i. 5, 104. 

Sed cum ingressus iter Athenis occurrisset Augusto ab 
Oriente Romam revertenti destinaretque non absistere 
atque etiam una redire, dum Megara vicinum oppidum 
ferventissimo sole cognoscit, languorem nactus est eumque 
non intermissa navigatione auxit ita ut gravior aliquanto 
Brundisium appelleret, ubi diebus paucis obiit XI Kal. 
Octobr. Cn. Sentio Q. Lucretio conss. 

Suet, de Poet. (Vir.) 35-36. 

1 The journey of Horace and his companions ends at Brundisium, (See note under 

• The death of Virgil in this town took place in 19 B, C. 

Scene in Brindisi 

The Poet Arrives' 

Last comes Brundisium: there the lines I penned, 
The leagues I travelled, find alike their end. 

John Conington 

The Death of VirgiP 

But having begun his journey, and at Athens meeting 
Augustus, who was on his way back to Rome from the 
Orient, he resolved not to part from the emperor and even 
to return with him; but in the course of a visit to the 
neighboring town of Megara in a very hot sun, he was 
taken with a fever, and added to his disorder by continu- 
ing his journey: hence on his arrival at Brundisium he was 
considerably worse, and died there on the eleventh day 
before the Kalends of October, in the consulship of Gnaeus 
Sentius and Quintus Lucretius. 


98 Classical Associations 

Urbs est Dictaeis blim possessa colonis, 
quos Creta profugos vexere per aequora puppes 
Cecropiae, victum mentitis Thesea velis. 
hinc latus angustum iam se cogentis in arlum 
Hesperiae tenuem producit in aequora linguam, 
Adriacas flexis claudit quae cornibus undas. 
nee tamen hoc artis inmissum faucibus aequor 
portus erat, si non violentos insula coros 
exciperet saxis lassasque refunderet undas. 
hinc illinc montes scopulosae rupis aperto 
opposuit natura mari flatusque removit, 
ut tremulo starent contentae fune carinae. 
hinc late patet omne fretum, seu vela ferantur 
in portus, Corcyra, tuos, seu laeva petatur 
lUyris lonias vergens Epidamnos in undas. 
hue fuga nautarum, cum totas Adria vires 
movit et in nubes abiere Ceraunia cumque 
spumoso Calaber perfunditur aequore Sason. 

Luc. ii. 610-627. 

Xcopav 5' ixovcn ^iXriw rrjs T apavTivitiv XeirToyeoi^ yap tKtivrj, 
XPV'^TOKapTros 8(, pieXi 6e nal tpia tuv (TtpoSpa kiraiuovfjiepoov kcri. 
(cat tvXifjLtvov dt fiOLWov to Bpevreaiov ivi yap arbnaTL iroKKol 
KkdoPTai Xtfiives aKKvaroi, koXtciip airoXafafiavofievoiv ivros, ibar' 
eoiKtvai Kkpaaiv 'ikinpov to axw"-) ^<p' "5 koL Tovvo/xa' avv yb.p 
T§ ToXiL Ki(pa\rj ixaXiOTa iXdipov irpoaioLKev 6 totos, ttj Si Mea- 
(TairLq, y\i>TTri fipiPTiov 17 Kt<pa\ri rod tkaipov /caXetroi. 6 de 
TapavTlpos ov iraPTtKSis taTip &,K\v(rT05 Slo. to b.pavtTTaa'&ai, 
Kai TLva Kai xpotr/Spax^ ex«^ to. irtpi top fivxop. 

"Eti 8i roTs iiTTO TJjs "EXXdSos Kai ttjs 'Ao-taj SLaipovaiP tbdi- 

' Another form for the name Brundisium. 

of Places hi Italy 99 

A Poet's Description of the Bay of Brundisium 

This city a Dictaean people hold, 
Here placed by tall Athenian barks of old; 
When with false omens from the Cretan shore, 
Their sable sails victorious Theseus bore. 
Here Italy a narrow length extends, 
And in a scanty slip projected ends. 
A crooked mole around the waves she winds. 
And in her folds the Adriatic binds. 
Nor yet the bending shores could form a bav, 
Did not a barrier isle the winds delay, 
And break the seas tempestuous in their way. 
Huge mounds of rocks are placed by nature's hand, 
To guard around the hospitable strand; 
To turn the storm, repulse the rushing tide. 
And bid the anchoring bark securely ride. 
Hence Nereus wide the liquid main displays. 
And spreads to various ports his watery ways; 
Whether the pilot from Corcyra stand. 
Or for Illyrian Epidamnus' strand. 
Hither when all the Adriatic roars. 
And thundering billows vex the double shores; 
When sable clouds around the welkin spread. 
And frowning storms involve Ceraunia's head; 
When white with froth Calabrian Sason lies, 
Hither the tempest-beaten vessel flies. 

Nicholas Rowe 

The Relative Merits of Two Ports 

They (of Brentesium)'have a much more fertile country 
than the Tarentines. Its soil is light but fruitful; its 
honey and wool are famous. Moreover, Brentesium has 
the better harbor. The single entrance protects the many 
havens within and keeps the waters smooth. The numer- 
ous bays, or reaches, make it resemble the antlers of a 
stag — whence the name; for the place together with the 
city resembles closely the head of a stag, which in the 
iMessapian language is "Brention." On the other hand, 
the port of Tarentum, because it lies very open and 
because of certain shallows near its head, is not entirely 

100 Classical Associations 

irXoia fiaXKov icriv eirt t6 BpevriaLov, Kal 8fi /cat Sevpo irdcTes 
Karaipovciv oTs tU Tfjv "Paj/iTji' irpoKeirai 656s. 

Strab. vi. 3, 6. 

Greges fiunt fere mercatorum, ut eorum qui e Brundi- 
sino aut Apulia asellis dossuariis comportant ad mare 
oleum aut vinum itemque frumentum aut quid aliut. 

Var. R. R. ii. 6, 5. 

Pridie Nonas Sext. Dyrrhachio sum profectus ipso illo 
die, quo lex est lata de nobis. BrundisJum veni Nonis 
Sext. Ibi mihi Tulliola mea fuit praesto, natali suo ipso 
die, qui casu idem natalis erat et Brundisinae coloniae et 
tuae vicinae Salutis: quae res, animadversa a multitudine, 
summa Brundisinorum gratulatione celebrata est. Ante 
diem vi. Id. Sext. cognovi, cum Brundisii essem, litteris 
Quinti fratris mirifico studio omnium aetatum atque or- 
dinum, incredibili concursu Italiae legem comitiis cen- 
turiatis esse perlatam. Inde, a Brundisinis honestissimis 
ornatus, iter ita feci, ut undique ad me cum gratulatione 
legati convenerint. 

Cic. Ep. ad Att. iv. 1, 4. 

Propulit ut classem velis cedentibus auster 
incumbens mediumque rates movere profundum, 
omnis in lonios spectabat navita fluctus; 
solus ab Hesperia non flexit lumina terra 
Magnus, dum patrios portus, dum litora numquam 
ad visus reditura suos tectumque cacumen 
nubibus et dubios cernit vanescere mentis. 

Luc. iii. 1-7. 

* Cicero returned from exile in 57 B. C. In his letter to Atticus, (vii. 2), he says that 
his wife met him in the forum of this city. In 51 B. C. on his way to Greece, Cicero stayed 
twelve days in the place (ad Att. v. 8) ; and, after Pharsalus, he lived here for nearly a year, 

6 Cicero's daughter. 

" Cicero's brother. 

^ In 49 B. C. Pompey fled from Italy to escape Caesar (Caes. B. C. i. 28). For a vivid 
picture of his departure from Brundisium, see Lucan, ii. 677-714; for Caesar's interesting 
address to his men as they were preparing to follow, see Caesar, B. C. iii. 6; and for an 
account of the military works in and about the harbour, see i. 2Sff. Lucan's account of 
Caesar's departure is given in v. 424fif . 

of Places in Italy 101 

Further, the course for passengers from Greece and Asia 
is inost direct to Brentesium, and in fact all who are jour- 
neying to Rome disembark here. 


A Trading Center 

Herds [of asses] are generally formed by the merchants 
such as those from the regions of Brundisium and Apulia 
who carry down to the sea on the backs of asses oil or 
wine, likewise grain and other things. 

A Famous Exile's Return* 

On the 4th of August, the very day the law about 
me was proposed, I started from Dyrrachium, and arrived 
at Brundisium the 5th. There my little Tullia* was wait- 
ing for me, on her own birthday, which, as it happened, 
was the commemoration day of Brundisium and of the 
temple of Safety near your house too. The coincidence 
was noted and the people of Brundisium held great cele- 
brations. On the 8th of August, while I was still at Brun- 
disium, I heard from Quintus* that the law had been passed 
in the Comitia Centuriata with extraordinary enthusiasm 
of all ages and ranks in Italy, who had flocked to Rome in 
thousands. Then I started on my journey amid the re- 
joicings of all loyal folk of Brundisium, and was met every- 
where by deputations offering congratulations. 


Pompey Flees from the Pursuing Caesar 

As Auster, swelling out the willing sails, drove on the 
.fleet and the ships upheaved the open waters, the eyes of 
all on board were strained toward the Eastern Sea. But 
Pompey'' alone turned not his gaze from the land of Hes- 
peria, watching, as they disappeared from sight, the home 
port, the shore he never again should see, cloud-crowned 
summit, and mountains dissolving in haze. 

H. C. Nutting 

102 Classical Associations 

Atque ubi primum ex alto visa classis, complentur non 
,modo porlus et proxima maris, scd moenia ac lecta, qua- 
que longissime prospectari poteral, maerenlium turba el 
rogitantium inter se, silentione an voce aliqua egredientem 
exciperent. Neque satis constabat quid pro tempore foret, 
cum classis paulatim successit, non alacri, ut adsolet, re- 
migio, sed cunctis ad tristitiam compositis. Postquam 
duobus cum liberis, feralem urnam tenens, egressa navi 
defixit oculos, idem omnium gemitus; neque discerneres 
proximos alienos, virorum feminarumve planctus, nisi 
quod comitatum Agrippinae longo maerore fessum obvii 
et recentes in dolore anteibant. 

Tac. Ann. iii. 1. 

s Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, who was the nephew of the emperor Tiberius and 
always the idol of the Roman people, brought her husband's ashes back to Italy in 20 
A. D. The very strong suspicion that he had been poisoned, if not through the agency of 
Tibenus, at least with his knowledge, made the scene especially dramatic. 

oj Plarrs in Italy lO.S 

A Wife Returns to Italy with the Ashes of her Husband"* 

When the fled was first sighted in the offmg, not only 
the harbour and the adjoining parts of the beach, but also 
the city walls, the housetops, and every point which com- 
manded a distant view out to sea, were thronged with a 
sorrowing crowd, each man asking his neighbor whether 
they should receive Agrippina in silence when she landed, 
or with speech of some sort. Before they could agree 
what best befitted the occasion, the fleet came slowlx' in. 
There was none of the usual alertness in the rowing; every- 
thing was arranged to betoken sorrow. And when Ag- 
rippina, with her two children, stepped off the ship, car- 
rying the funeral urn in her hands, and with her eyes fixed 
upon the ground, one cry of grief burst from the entire 
multitude, kinsfolk and strangers, men and women, all 
lamenting alike sa\e that the grief of Agrippina's atten- 
dants was worn by long continuance, while that of those 
who had come to meet her was the more fresh and strong. 

G. G. Ramsay 

CAP",RK (Cervetri) 

A verv ancient city which was early conquered by the 
Etruscans and its Greek name, Agylla, changed to Caere. 
It assisted the elder Tarquin in his attacks upon Rome 
and later offered shelter to the sons of Tarquin who fled 
thither (Li\-. i. 60). However, it was apparently recon- 
ciled with Rome at an early date, inasmuch as we read 
that after the capture of Rome by the Gauls in 387 B. C. 
the Vestals were transferred with their sacred objects to 
this town as a source of safety. So rich and prominent 
was the place in the fourth century that wealthy Romans 
sent their sons here to be educated as later they sent them 
to Greece. A peculiar franchise which the town received 
from Rome conferred cil izenship, but with no right to vote. 
This came to be called "Caerite" and became a proverbial 
expression for the disfranchisement of a Roman citizen. 
The citv fell into decay in the late Republic but seems to 
have revived somewhat under the Empire. 

104 Classical Associations 

Est ingens gelidum lucus prope Caeritis amnem, 
religione patrum late sacer; undique coUes 
inclusere cavi et nigra nemus abiete cingunt. 
Silvano fama est veteres sacrasse Pelasgos, 
arvorum pecorisque deo, lucumque diemque, 
qui primi fines aliquando habuere Latinos, 
haud procul hinc Tarcho et Tyrrheni tuta tenebant 
castra locis, celsoque omnis de coUe videri 
iam poterat legio et latis tendebat in arvis. 
hue pater Aeneas et bello lecta inventus 
succedunt, fessique et equos et corpora curant. 

Vir. Aen. viii. 597-607. 

EvSai/juav .... nai iroKvavdpialros. 

Dion. Hal. iii. 58. 

Ilapd &k Tols "EXXTjaiJ' evSoKifirjatp fi t6\ls aOrrj 6ia re avSpeiav 
Kal SiKaioubvqv tup t€ yap Xjjcrrjpicoj' kirtcxiTO Kaiirep 8vvafikvij 
irXtLCTOv, Kai Hir&ol t6v 'AyvWaiup KaXoiififvov avi^rjKe ■&rj- 
aavpbv. "A7uXXa 7 dp wvoixa^tro t6 irporepov 17 vvv Kaipea, /cai 
\eyiTai HeKacySiv Kriaixa tS>v €K GeTxaXias aipiynkvoiV tSiv 
a Av5S>v, olirep Tvpprivol iitroivonaa^riaav, eTrLcrTpaTevaavToov 
ToZs 'AyvWaioLS, irpocioiv t& Ttixfi- tis eTrvv^avtro TOVPOfiO. rrjs 
iroXews, tcop S' airo rod TeixovsQeTToKuPTLvos aPTlrov cnroKpiva- 
(T&ai TrpoaayoptbaavTOS aiirop ,,Xtttpe," Se^djuevot t6p o'uapdv oi 
Tvpprjpol TOVTOV aXovaap rrip ttoXip p,iTOipbp,a(Tap. fi 8^ ovtu 
\ap,irpa Kcd. ein<papris iroXis pvp ixvv ctifei /xopov, eiavSpet S' 
avrrjs fiaWop to, irXriaiop &tpp,a, a KoKomi Kaiperai'd, 3td 
Toiij ipoLTcipras t^epaxetas X^-pi-v- 

Strab. V. 2, 3. 

1 This contest is but one of the incidents in the early days of the Trojans in Italy and 
is of course purely, legendary in character. It was in this region that Aeneas is said to 
have received divine armour from his mother, the goddess Venus (Vir. Aen. viii. 520ff.). 

» In English, "Hail." 

of Places in Italy 105 

The Trojans Engage in Battle^ 

Near the cool stream of Caere stands a vast grove, 
clothed by hereditary reverence with wide-spread sanctity; 
on all sides it is shut in by the hollows of hills, which en- 
compass its dark pine-wood shades. Rumour says that 
the old Pelasgians dedicated it to Silvanus, god of the 
country and the cattle, a grove with a holiday — the 
people who once in early times dwelt on the Latian fron- 
tier. Not far from this Tarchon and the Tyrrhenians 
were encamped in a sheltered place, and from the height 
of the hill their whole army spread already to the view, as 
they pitched at large over the plain. Hither come father 
Aeneas and the chosen company of warriors, and refresh 
the weariness of themselves and their steeds. 

John Conington 

Wealthy .... and populous. 

How Caere Received Its Name 

Among the Greeks, however, this city was highly 
esteemed both for its bravery and rectitude. With 
favorable opportunities for piracy, they kept from it, and 
dedicated at Delphi "the treasure of the Agyllaei" — their 
country having been formerly named Agylla. It is said to 
have been founded by Pelasgi from Thessaly. The Ly- 
dians, who had taken the name of Tyrrheni, having 
engaged in war against the Agyllaei, one of them, approach- 
ing the wall, inquired the name of the city; when one of 
the Thessalians from the wall, instead of answering the 
question, saluted him with xa''p«-'' The Tyrrheni re- 
ceived this as an omen, and having taken the city, they 
changed its name. This city, once so flourishing and cele- 
brated, preserves only the traces (of its former greatness) ; 
the neighbouring hot springs, named Caeretana, being 
more frequented than it, by the people attracted thither 
for the sake of their health. 

H. C. Hamilton 

106 Classical Associations 

Flamen interim Quirinalis virginesquc Veslales omissa 
rerum suarum cura, quae sacrorum secum ferenda, quae, 
quia vires ad omnia ferenda deerant, relinquenda essent, 
consultantes, quisve ea locus fideli adservaturus custodia 
esset, optimum ducunt condita in doliolis sacello proximo 
aedibus flaminis Quirinalis, ubi nunc despui religioest, de- 
fodere; cetera inter se onere partito ferunt via, quae 
sublicio ponte ducit ad laniculum. In eo clivo eas cum 
L. Albinius, de plebe IRomanal homo, conspexisset plaus- 
tro coniugem ac liberos avehens inter ceteram turbam, 
quae inutilis bello urbe excedebat, salvo etiam turn dis- 
crimine divinarum humanarumque rerum, religiosum ra- 
tus sacerdotes publicas sacraque populi Romani pedibus 
ire ferrique ac suos in vehiculo conspici, descendere uxo- 
rem ac pueros iussit, virgines sacraque in plaustrum in- 
posuit et Caere, quo iter sacerdotibus erat, pefvexit. 

Liv. v. 40, 7-10. 

?See introductory note. 

of Places ill Italy 107 

The Flight of the Vestals from Rome' 

In Ihe meantime the Flamen Quirinalis, and the Vestal 
Virgins, laying aside all concern for their own affairs, and 
consulting together which of the sacred deposits they 
should take with them, and which they should leave be- 
hind, for they had not strength sufficient to carry all, and 
what place they could best depend on for preserving them 
in safe custody, judged it the most eligible method to in- 
close them in casks, and to bury them under ground, in 
the chapel next to the dwelling-house of the Flamen Quir- 
inalis, where at present it is reckoned profane even to spit. 
The rest they carried, distributing the burdens among 
themselves, along the road which leads over the Sublician 
bridge to the Janiculum. On the ascent of that hill Lu- 
cius Albinius, a Roman plebeian, was conveying away 
in a wagon his wife and children, but observing ihem 
among the crowd of those who being unfit for war were re- 
tiring from the city, and retaining, even in his present 
calamitous state, a regard to the distinction between 
things divine and human, he thought it would betray a 
want of respect to religion if the public priests of the Ro- 
man people were to go on foot, thus holily laden, whilst 
he and his family were seen mounted in a carriage; order- 
ing his wife and children then to alight, he put the Virgins 
and the sacred things into the wagon, and conveyed them 
to Caere, whither the priests had determined to go. 

George Baker 

r CAIETA (Gaeta) 

The place appears seldom in the annals of Roman his- 
tory although Florus called it "nobilis." It seems to have 
reached its greatest importance somewhere about the 
eighth century B. C. During imperial times, how- 
ever, many people went to the place for rest and recrea- 
tion. It is said that Faustina, wife of the emperor Antoni- 
nus, used to spend much time there without regard to her 
reputation, attracted, according to Julius Capitolinus (.\nl. 
Phil. 19), bv the sailors and gladiators of the place. 

108 Classical Associations 

Tu quoque litoribus nostris, Aene'ia nutrix, 
aeternam moriens famam, Caieta, dedisti; 
et nunc servat honos sedem tuus ossaque nomen 
Hesperia in magna, si qua est ea gloria, signat. 
at pius exsequiis Aeneas rite solutis, 
aggere composito tumuli, postquam alta quierunt 
aequora, tendit iter velis portumque relinquit. " 
aspirant aurae in noctem nee Candida cursus 
luna negat, splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus. 

Vir. Aen. vii. 1- 

His ibi tum natum Anchises unaque Sibyllam 
prosequitur dictis portaque emittit eburna: 
ille viam secat ad navis sociosque revisit; 
tum se ad Caietae recto fert litore portum. 
anchora de prora iacitur; stant litore puppes. 

Vir. Aen. vi. 897-901. 

Portum Caietae celeberrimum ac plenissimum navium. 

Cic. de. Leg. Manil. 33. 

Par verae amicitiae clarissimum Scipio et Laelius, cum 
amoris vinculo tum etiam omnium virtutum inter se iunc- 
tum societate, ut actuosae vitae inter aequali gradu ex- 
equebantur, ita animi quoque remissionibus communiter 
adquiescebant: constat namque eos Caietae et Laurenti 
vagos litoribus conchulas et umbilicos lectitasse. 

Val. Max. viii. 8. 

1 An incident in tlie wanderings of the Trojans as tliey are in search of tlie promised 
land of Italy where they have been told that their kingdom is to arise. 

2 The Trojans land at Caieta after Aeneas returns from his journey in the lower world ■ 
" The pirates who were infesting the coast of Italy in the first century B.C. even dared 

to enter this well-known harbor without fear of arrest, says Cicero, in connection witl) the 
above reference. 

< Famous statesmen, generals, and philosophers of the second century B. C; They ap- 
pear often in the writings of Cicero, Laelius being one of the chief, characters in his treatise 
Concerning Friendship." Both were prominent in a literary niovemsnt of the day, the 
influence of which was far-reaching. . ' 

oj Places in Italy 109 

Aeneas Buries His Aged Nurse' 

And thou, too, in thy death, Caieta, nurse of Aeneas, 
hast left to our coast the heritage of an ever-living fame; 
still in this later day thy glory hovers over thy resting- 
place, and a name on Hesperia's mighty seaboard is thy 
monument, if that be renown. So when good Aeneas had 
paid the last dues and raised a funeral mound, and had 
waited for the calming of the deep, he spreads sail and 
leavesthe harbour. Nightward the breezes blow, nor does 
the fair moon scorn to show the way: her rippling light 
makes the sea shine again. 

John Conington 

The Trojans Finally Reach Their Destmation in Italy* 

Here now Anchises bids his son farewell; 
And with Sibylla, his companion sage. 
Up through that ivory portal lets him rise. 
Back to his fleet and his dear comrades all 
Aeneas hastes. Then hold they their straight course 
Into Caieta's bay. An anchor holds 
Each lofty prow; the sterns stand firm on shore. 

T. C. Williams 

The harbor of Caieta, much frequented and filled with 

A Famous Friendship 

Scipio and Laelius^ were equally famous for the sincere 
friendship which each felt for the other; not only were they 
united by the bond of love, but they were leagued in the 
pursuit of all virtues. And just as they carried on the ac- 
tivities of life side by side, so they sought relaxation in 
common; for it is said that they roamed up and down the 
shore at Caieta and Laurentum, picking up shell-fish and 

110 Classical Associations 

\lpaTTOij.iv(jiv 5e rovrdiu 6 K-LKepoov fii> jxtv iv SLypols idiois wtpl 
TovckXov, fx^" 7"6i' a.8t\>p6v p.tB' aiirov' irvdontvoi Si Tas Trpo- 
ypcupas iyvoiaav (Is "Xarvpa p.tTa^fjvai, xiiiplov irapaKiov tov 
KiKtpcovoi, tKeWev 6e TrXeij' eis MaKtSovlav wpos BpovTOV ijdri 
yap VTTip auTov \6yos eipolra KpaTodvros. tKO/il^ovTO 5' iv >popti- 
ots airetpij/cores viro Xi)7rr;s' Kai Kara ttju bbov iipiaTa.p.tvoi Kal 
TO. (fopiZa irapapaWovTts dXXTjXots irpocrioKoipvpovTO. fj.S.\\op 
5' 6 KolvTos r)dvp.ti, koI \oyLap.6s avrov et'ajjtt tjjs airoplas' ovSiv 
yap i<fir] XajSetf oiKoOev, ciXXd Kai rtD KiKepoJi'i yXicrxpO" V" ifoSiov 
afxuvov ovv elvai tov piv KiKipwva irpoKap^avtiv rfj (pvyfj, avrdv 5i 
piTuBttv o'Uodtv (TvoKtvaaaptvov. raCr' tbo^f Kai TtpCKa^bv- 
Tt% dXXTyXous Kai avaKXavaapevoL 5i,t\v9r}(Tav. 

"0 piv ovv Ko'ivroi oh TroXXats 'icrtpov ripepaLS vtto rcov oiKfTuiv 
irpoSodeis Tols ^r]Tod<Ti.v avripedrj pera rod iraMs. 6 8i KiKepuv 
ds"A(TTvpaKopi.adeis Kaiir\oloveupi}v eudbs ivejSri Kal irapiTrXivcrev 
iixpi- Ts-ipKaiov, irvevpaTL XP'^M"'"?- tKtWtv bi jiovXopevov 
(iidvs alpuv Tcbv Kv^ipvrjTihv, tiTt beiaas ttjj/ doKaaaav e'ir' 
oviro) iravTairacn ttjv Kaiaapos aTriyv(iiK(j}s irlaTiv, airifii] Kai 
TrapTJ\de TTt^fj iTTablovs tKarov cos eis 'Pwpriv wopevoptvos. avdis 
b' akvuv Kai perajSaWoptvos Karr/et Trpos dakaaaav ets "Aorupa. 
KaKft bitvvKTipivatv itri SeLVwv Kai airopoiv \oyKjpCiv, oicrre Kai 
iraptXdelv ds Tr]v Kaitrapos oUiav bitvo-qdr) Kpvipa Kai apa^as 
iavrdv ini rijs icTTias oKacrTopa irpoafiaXtiv. dXXd Kai raiiTTis 
avTOV dire/cpoutre ttjs obov bios fiaaavcov Kai TroXXd rapaxtoSr; 
Kai TraXivTpoira fiovKevpara rfjs yvoipr/s per aXapfiavoiv irapi- 
bwKt roTs okerats iavrdv eis KaL-qrriv Kara ttXovv Kopi^eiv, 
exuv iKti x'^pitt K"-!- Karatpvyqv iopa dtpovs tpCKavdpuivov, orav 
ribicTov oi irriaiaL KaTairvicocnv. 

■> The death of Cicero at the hands of assassins sent by the triumvirs took place in 4.? 
II. C. Foranotheraccount, see App. B. C. iv, 19-20. 

' Plutarch is referring to Cicero's villa at Formiae, the scene of the tragedy. 

oj Places in Italy 1 1 1 

The Murder of Cicero^ 

While this was going on, Cicero was at his own country- 
seat in Tusculum, having his brother with him; but when 
they learned of the proscriptions they determined to re- 
move to Astura, a place of Cicero's on the sea-coast, and 
from there to sail to Brutus, in Macedonia; for already a 
report was current that he was in force there. So they 
were carried along in litters, being worn out with grief; 
and on the way they would halt, and with their litters 
placed side by side would lament to each other. But 
Quintus was the more dejected and began to reflect upon 
his destitute condition; for he said that he had taken noth- 
ing from home, nay Cicero, too, had scanty provision for 
the journey; it was better, then, he said, that Cicero should 
press on in his flight, but that he himself should get what 
he wanted from home and then hasten after him. This 
they decided to do, and after embracing each other and 
weeping aloud, they parted. 

So then, Quintus, not many days afterwards, was be- 
trayed by his servants to those who were in search of him, 
and put to death, together with his son. 

But Cicero was brought to Astura, and finding a vessel 
there he embarked at once and coasted along as far as 
Circaeum, with the wind in his favor. From there his 
pilots wished to set sail at once, but Cicero, whether it was 
that he feared the sea, or had not yet altogether given up 
his trust in Caesar, went ashore and travelled along on foot 
a hundred furlongs in the direction of Rome. But again 
losing resolution and changing his mind, he went down 
to the sea at Astura. And there he spent the night in 
dreadful and desperate calculations; he actually made up 
his mind to enter Caesar's house by stealth, to slay him- 
self upon the hearth, and so to fasten upon Caesar an 
avenging daemon. But fear of tortures drove him from 
this course also; then, revolving in his mind many con- 
fused and contradictory purposes, he put himself in the 
hands of his servants to be taken by sea to Caieta, where 
he had lands and an agreeable retreat in summer lime,* 
when the breath of the Etesian winds is most pleasant. 

112 Classical Associations 

'Exei S' 6 Toiros Kal vaov 'AiroWwvos ixiKphv iirip tijs 5aXaTT7js. 
(VTevdev apdivTis hSpboi KdpaKts iird KKayfTJs ■KpoaupkpovTo rcf 
TrXoiCf) Tov KiKepoivos firl yfjv ipeaaoixkvt^' Kai KoBicavTis tirl 
Trjv Kepaiav iKaripcadtv ol fiiv kfiocov, ol 8' tKoirTOV rds tuv fit)- 
pvfiaTcov ApxaS) Kal iraaiv iSoKei to arnietov elvai irovripdv. 
airifiri d' otv b Kt/cepojj', (cai irapeXdiiv eis Trjv eirauXii' ojs Lvairav- 
aofievos KareKKidt]. twv 8^ KopaKOiv ol iroWol ixiv kirl rrjs 6vpi8os 
8i€Ka.6riVTO (pBeyyo/xevoL dopvPHSes, els 3^ KarajSas ewl rd K\Lvi8iov 
iyKeKoKviinevov tov KiKepuvos cnrfjye tQ <7t6ho.ti. kclto. p.i.Kp6v 
a.Tr6 TOV irpoawwov to l/xaTiov. ol S' oi/cerat TaW bpSiVTts, Kai 
KaKiaavTes iavToiis ei irepLixevovai tov 8t<nzbT0v spovevonkvov dtaral 
yeveadai, Bripla 8' avT^ fiorideL Kal wpoKriSfTai Trap' d^iai' irpar- 
TOVTOS, avTol 8' ovK a/ivvovai., ra /iiv 8f6fi€voi, to. Si /3t{i Xa^bvTts 
tKO/jLi^ov ev tCo tpopelu irpos Trjv daXacraav. 

'Ev TOVTi^ 8' ol apayili eir^\dov, eKaTOVTapxvi 'Epkvvios Kal 
IIoTriXXios x'^'fiPXOS) ^ irarpoKTOvias iroTi SlKrjv (ptiyovTi avvfl- 
irev 6 KiKepciiv, exovTts vinjpeTas. eirei 8e rdj dipas KtK'Xiiafihas 
evp6vTes k^kKo\l/av, oil <paivofiivov tov Kt/cepwj'os ov8i tUv ev8ov 
elSivai (paaKOVTCOv, 'KkytTai veavlffKov TivaTedpa/xfievov iJ,iv vto tov 
KiKkpuvos h ypanixaaiv eXevBepiois Kal fiadrniaaiv, AireXeWepov 
8i KotvTov TOV aS€\<pov, $1X6X0701' Tovvoy-a, ippaaai. tu 
XtXtdpxy t6 tpopeiov KoixL^dfievov 5td tuv KaTa<p{)TO>v kol (tvck'uiiv 
irepLiraTcov eirl ttjv doKaTTav. b niv ovv X'Xiapxos 6X17011$ dva- 
\aPi)v fifd' iavTov irepiidei irpos Trjv e^o8ov, tov 8' 'Epevi/lov 
8pbiMf tpepofikvov 5td tuv irepiiraTUiv b KiKepcav ficrdtTO, Kal tovs 
OLKkras eKeXevcev evravBa KaTadkadai t6 <popeiov. avTos 8', Siairep 
el<i>6eL, rfi apiCTepa x^'^pl ''''^v yeveicav airTbp.evos dreces iveupa toTj 
(T(/}ayev(nv, avx/Jtov Kal Ko/xris &.vair\eiiis Kal (TVVT6Tr]Kus mb (ppovrl- 
Soiv TO TTpbaoiTTOV, SiCFTt Tovs TrXettTTODS kyKoXbif/aadai. tov "EpefyioD 
(jipa^ovTOS avTov. ka<pdyri 8e Tbv Tpaxv^ov ex tov <popiiov 
irpoTeivas, eTOS eKtivo yeyovws i^riKocTOV Kal TerapTOV. 

Plut. Cic. xlvii-xlviii. 

of Places in Italy 113 

The place has also a temple of Apollo, a little above the 
sea. From thence a flock of crows flew with loud clamor 
towards the vessel of Cicero as it was rowed towards land; 
and alighting on either end of the sail-yard, some cawed, 
and others pecked at the ends of the ropes, and everybody 
thought that the omens were bad. Nevertheless Cicero 
landed, and going to his villa, lay down to rest. Then 
most of the crows perched themselves about the window, 
cawing tumultuously, but one of them flew down upon the 
couch where Cicero lay with muffled head, and with its 
beak, little by little, tried to remove the garment from his 
face. _ The servants, on seeing this, rebuked themselves 
for waiting to be spectators of their master's murder, while 
wild beasts came to his help and cared for him in his unde- 
served misfortune, but they themselves did nothing in his 
defense. So partly by entreaty, and partly by force,they 
took him and carried him in his litter towards the sea. 

But meantime his assassins came to the villa, Herennius 
a centurion, and Popillius a tribune, who had once been 
prosecuted for parricide, and defended by Cicero; and they 
had helpers. After they had broken in the door, which 
they found closed, Cicero was not to be seen, and the in- 
mates said they knew not where he was. Then, we are 
told, a youth who had been liberally educated by Cicero, 
and who was a freedman of Cicero's brother Quintus, Phil- 
ologus by name, told the tribune that the litter was being 
carried through the woody and shady walks towards the 
sea. The tribune, accordingly, taking a few helpers with 
him, ran towards the exit, but Herennius hastened on the 
run through the walks, and Cicero, perceiving him, ordered 
the servants to set the litter down where they were. Then 
he himself, clasping his chin with his left hand, as was his 
wont, looked steadfastly at his slayers, his head all squalid 
and unkempt, and his face wasted with anxiety, so that 
most of those who stood by covered their faces while Her- 
ennius was slaying him. For he stretched his head forth 
from the litter and was slain, being then in his sixty-fourth 

Bernadotte Peesix 

1 14 Classical Associations 

CANNAE (Canne)i 

Cannarum in pulvere victis | consulibus. 

Juv. xi. 200-201. 

Hannibali victori cum celeri circumfusi gratular^nlur 
suaderentque ut, tanto perfunctus bello, diei quod reliquum 
esset noctisque insequentis quietem et ipse sibi sumeret 
et fessis daret militibus, Maharbal, praefectus equitum, 
minime cessandum ratus "Immo ut, quid hac pugna sit 
actum, scias, die quinto" inquit "victor in Capitolio epula- 
beris. Sequere; cum equite, ut prius venisse quam ven- 
turum sciant, praecedam." Hannibali nimis laeta res est 
visa maiorque, quam ut earn statim capere animo posset. 
Itaque voluntatem se laudare Maharbalis ait; ad consi- 
lium pensandum temporis opus esse. Tum Maharbal: 
"Non omnia nimirum eidem di dedere: vincere scis, Han- 
nibal, victoria uti nescis." Mora eius diei satis creditur 
saluti fuisse urbi atque imperio. 

Postero die, ubi primum inluxit, ire ad spolia legenda 
foedamque etiam hostibus spectandam stragem insistunt. 
lacebant tot Romanorum milia, pedites passim equitesque, 
ut quem cuique fors aut pugna iunxerat aut fuga. Ad- 
surgentes quidam ex strage media cruenti, quos stricta 
matutino frigore excitaverant vulnera, ab hoste oppressi 
sunt; quosdam et iacentis vivos succisis feminibus popli- 
tibusque invenerunt, nudantis cervicem iugulumque et 
reliquum sanguinem iubentes haurire; inventi quidam sunt 
mersis in effossam terram capitibus, quos sibi ipsos fecisse 
foveas obruentisque ora superiecta humo interclusisse 

1 Cannae is interesting only as the scene of one of the most important liattles which 
the Romans ever fought, memorable in their annals as one of the few occasions when 
they suffered total defeat at the hands of the enemy. In 216 B.-C. Hannibal met the 
Roman consuls near this village and practically annihilated the Roman army. For a 
full account, see Liv. xxii. 47-56. 

of Places ill Italy 1 1 5 

The consuls conquered in the dust of Cannae. 

A Victorious General Hesitates 

When the Carthaginians, flocking round Hannibal, con- 
gratulated him on the victory, and recommended that, 
after going through the fatiguing business of so great a 
battle, he should take himself, and allow the wearied sol- 
diers, repose during the remainder of that day and the en- 
suing night, Maharbal, general of cavalry, who was of 
opinion that no timu should be lost, said to him, "that you 
may be convinced how much has been accomplished by 
this engagement, on the lifth day following you shall feast, 
victorious, in the Capitol. Follow me: I will advance 
with the horse, that the enemy may see me arrived before 
they are apprised of my being on the way." To Hannibal 
these hopes appeared too sanguine, and the prospect too 
vast for his mind to comprehend at first view. He there- 
fore replied that "he applauded Alaharbal's zeal; but the 
affair required time for consideration." On which Mahar- 
bal observed, "I percei\'e that the gods do not bestow on 
the same person all kinds of talents. You, Hannibal, 
know how to acquire \ictory, but you know not how to use 
it." There is good reason to belie\-e that the delay of that 
day proved the preservation of the city, and of the empire. 
On the day following, as soon as light appeared, his troops 
applied themselves to the collecting of the spoils and in 
\iewing the carnage made, which was such as shocked 
even enemies; so many thousand Romans, horsemen and 
footmen, lay promiscuously on the field, as chance had 
thrown them together, either in the battle or flight. Some, 
whom their wounds, being pinched by the morning cold, 
had roused from their posture, were put to death by the 
enemy as they were rising up, covered with blood, from 
the midst of the heaps of carcasses. Some they found 
lying alive, with their thighs and hams cut, who, stripping 
their necks and throats, desired them to spill what re- 
mained of their blood. Some were found with their heads 
buried in the earth, in holes which it appeared they had 
made for themselves, and covering their faces with earth 


Classical Associations 

spiritum apparebat. Praecipue convertit omnes sub- 
tractus Numida mortuo superincubanti Romano vivus' 
naso auribusque laceratis, cum ille manibus ad capiendum 
telum inutilibus in rabiem ira versa laniando dentibus 
hostem expirasset. 

Liv. xxii. 51. 

Ignobilis Apuliae vicus. 

Flor. Ep. i. 22, 6. 

Photograph by Grant Showerman 

In the Neighborhood or Canosa 

of Places in Italy 117 

thrown over them, had thus been suffocated. The atten- 
tion of all was particularly attracted by a living Numidian 
with his nose and ears strangely mangled, stretched under a 
dead Roman; and who, when his hands had been rendered 
unable to hold a weapon, being exasperated to madness, 
had expired in the act of tearing his antagonist with his 

George Baker 
[Cannae] an obscure village of Apulia. 

CANUSIUM (Canosa) 

This ancient and important city of Apulia fell under 
the power of the Romans after its defeat at the hands of 
the latter in 318 B. C. It seems in general to have been 
loyal to Rome, although during the Social War it joined 
with other Apulian cities against her. The Civil Wars ap- 
parently caused the place to suffer much, as Strabo speaks 
of it as having been formerly great but "now a small 
town." However, it was of considerable importance un- 
der the Empire and its walls are mentioned with praise. 
Its situation on the high-road between Beneventum and 
Brundisium doubtless contributed to its commercial pros- 
perity. Silver and copper were minted here; its wine was 
well known; and its wool is several times referred to in 
literature as possessing superior quality. Horace applies 
the term "bilinguis" to the town in allusion to the fact 
that its inhabitants spoke both Greek and Latin (Sat. i. 
10, 30). 

118 Classical Associations 

Quattuor hinc rapimur viginli et milia raedis, 
mansuri oppidulo, quod versu dicere non est, 
signis perfacile est: venit vilissima rerum 
hie aqua; sed panis longe pulcherrimus, ultra 
callidus ut soleat humeris portare viator: 
nam Canusi lapidosus, aquae non ditior urna 
qui locus a forti Diomede est conditus olim. 
flentibus hie Varius discedit maestus amicis. 

Hor. S. i. 5, 86-93. 

Eos qui Canusium perfugeranl, mulier Apula nomine 
Busa, genere clara ac divitiis, moenibus lantum tectisque 
a Canusinis acceptos, frumento veste viatico etiam iuvil, 
pro qua ei munificentia postea, bello perfecto, ab senatu 
honores habiti sunt. 

Liv. xxii. 52, 7. 

CAPREAE (Capri) 

Capreas se in insulam abdidit, trium milium freto ab 
extremis Surrentini promunturii diiunctam. Solitudinem 
ei'us placuisse maxime crediderim, quoniam inportuosum 
circa mare et vix modicis navigiis pauca subsidia; neque 
adpulerit quisquam nisi gnaro custode. Caeli temperies 
hieme mitis obiectu montis, quo saeva ventorum arcentur; 
aestas in favonium obversa et aperto circum pelago pera- 
moena; prospectabatque pulcherrimum sinum, antequam 
Vesuvius mons ardescens faciem loci, verteret. Graecos 

* One of the stopping places in the journey of Horace. Modern travelers are said to 
make the same complaint of the bread of Canusium. The scarcity of water was later 
remedied by a costly aqueduct. 
■ ^ Refugees from the battle of Cannae in 216 B. C. 

3 Tiberius, emperor from 14-37 A. D., to whose ten-year stay the fame of the island is 
chiefly due. In 27 A. D. he retired to Capri and lived in seclusion until his death in 
.17 (Suet. Tib. 41-42). 

of Places in Italy 119 

A Traveler Finds Fault with the Food 

Then four and twenty miles, a good long way, 
Our coaches take us in a town^ to stay 
Whose name no art can squeeze into a line, 
Though otherwise 'tis easy to define: 
For water there, the cheapest thing on earth. 
Is sold for money: but the bread is worth 
A fancy price and travelers who know 
Their business t.ake it with them when they go: 
For at Canusium, town of Diomede, 
The drink's as bad, and grits are in the bread. 
Here to our sorrow Varius takes his leave, 
And, grieved himself, compels his friends to grieve. 

John Conington 

A Woman is Decorated for Her Services to the Wounded 

Those- who escaped to Canusium, and who received 
from the inhabitants no further relief than admittance 
within their walls and houses, were supplied with corn, 
clothes, and subsistence, by a woman of Apulia, named 
Busa, eminent for her birth and riches; in requital of which 
munificence, high honors were afterwards paid to her by 
the senate, at the conclusion of the war. 

George Baker 

A Roman Historian Describes Capri 

He^ buried himself in Capreae, an island separated from 
the promontory of Surrentum by a strait three miles in 
width. The solitude of the island, I believe, was its main 
attraction for him; it possesses no harbours, and few places 
of refuge even for small vessels; no one could land there un- 
observed by sentinels. Under shelter of a mountain 
which keeps off cold winds, the climate is mild in winter; 
in summer, its western exposure, with open seas all round, 
makes it a charming residence. In front lies what was 
the most beautiful of all bays, before the burning of Mount 

120 Classical Associations 

ea tenuisse Capreasque Telebois habitatas fama tradit. 
Sed turn Tiberius duodecim villarum nominibus et moli- 
bus insederat, quanto intentus olim publicas ad curas, 
tanto occultiores in luxus et malum otium resolutus. 

Tac. Ann. iv. 67. 

Capreas se contulit, praecipue delectatus insula, quod 
uno parvoque litore adire'tur, septa undique praeruptis 
immensae altitudinis rupibus et profundo mari. 

Suet. Tib. 40. 

Carnificinae eius ostenditur locus Capreis, unde damna- 
tos post longa et exquisita tormenta praecipitari coram se 
in mare iubebat, excipiente classiariorum manu et contis 
atque remis elidente cadaveira, ne cui residui spiritus quic- 
quam inesset. 

Suet. Tib. 62. 

^axosa .... insula. , • 

Sil. Ital. viii. 541-542. 

Apud insulam Capreas veterrimae ilicis demissos iam 
ad terram languentisque ramos convaluisse adventu sue, 
adeo laetatus est, ut eas cum re p. Neapolitanorum per- 
mutaverit, Aenaria data. 

Suet. Aug. 92. 

2 One of these was called the villa of Jupiter which it is said Tiberius never left during 
the nine months of the Sejanus conspiracy, looking out from the loftiest rock for news 
from Rome (Suet. Tib. 65). 

3 For a full account of his vices as practised her^, see the a'ccount of Suetonius (Tib. 
41-45). Because of their hatred of the Emperor, and his association with the island, the 
Romans never made the place a resort in spite of its beauty. It was used as a prison in 
later times. 

* Augustus brought about this change in 29 B. C. He visited the island repeatedly 
and spent four days there just before his death (Suet Aug. 98). 

of Places in Italy '121 

Vesuvius changed the aspect of the scene. Tradition has 
it that those parts were occupied by Greeks, Capreae be- 
ing inhabited by the Teleboi. It was here that Tiberius 
now took up his abode, estabhshing himself in twelve 
spacious villas,^ each with a name of its own, and abandon- 
ing himself to a life of secret debauch' and vicious license 
as entirely as he had hitherto devoted himself to public 

G. G. Ramsay 

Tiberius Chooses the Island as a Place of Residence 

He went to Capreae, particularly attracted by that 
island because it was accessible by only one small beach, 
being everywhere else girt with sheer cliffs of great height 
and by deep water. 


An Emperor Indulges His Love of Cruelty 

At Capreae they still point out the scene of his execu- 
tions, from which he used to order that those who had 
been condemned after long and exquisite torture be cast 
headlong into the sea before his eyes, while a band of ma- 
rines waited below for the bodies and broke their bones 
with boat hooks and oars, to prevent any breath of life 
from remaining in them. 


A rocky island. 

A Cultivated Man's Superstition 

He was so pleased that the branches of an old oak, which 
had already drooped to the ground and were withering, 
became vigorous again on his arrival in the island of Cap- 
reae, that he arranged with the city of Naples to give him 
the island in exchange for Aenaria.'' 

■^ J. C. ROLFE 

122 Classical Associations 

CAPUA (Santa Maria di Capua Vetere) 
CAMPANIA (Campania) 

Legend ascribes the founding of the city to Capys, a 
cousin of Aeneas, and it is said tliat a friendly relation ex- 
isted for many years between this city and Rome because 
of their common origin (Vir. Aen. x. 145; Ov. Fast. iv. 45). 
It is probable, however, that the place was Etruscan. 
The cities were rivals until after the wars with Hannibal, 
when Capua became a possession of Rome and one of its 
important military centers. It had a dense population. 
Several training schools for gladiators were established 
here and it became a famous spot in the sporting world. 
It was at this place that the uprising of the slaves and 
gladiators under Spartacus in 73 B. C. had its beginning. 
After its destruction by the Saracens in 840 A. D., its 
people settled at Casilinum, taking the name "Capua" 
with them. 

of Places in Italy 



Acnar ia. 1. 


Sinus Cumanus s.Cratei 






[SaLerni) "^ 


124 Classical Associations 

Hinc muli Capuae clitellas tempore ponunt. 
lusum it Maecenas, dormitum ego Vergiliusque: 
namque pila lippis inimicum et ludere crudis. 

Hor. S. i. 5, 47-49. 

Hinc felix ilia Campania. Ab hoc sinu incipiunt vitiferi 
coUes et temulentia nobilis suco per omnes terras incluto, 
atque (ut veteres dixere) summum Liberi Patris cum 
Cerere certamen. 

Plin. N. H. iii. 60. 

Ilia tibi laetis intexet vitibus ulmos, 
ilia ferax oleo est, illam experiere colendo 
et facilem pecori et patientem vomeris unci, 
talem dives arat Capua et vicina Vesaevo 
ora iugo et vacuis Clanius non aequus Acerris. 

Vir. Georg. ii. 221-225. 

Campani semper superbi .... urbis salubritate, 
descriptione, pulchritudine. 

Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 95. 

Unumne fundum pulcherrimum populi Romani, caput 
vestrae pecuniae, pacis ornamentum, subsidium belli, 
fundamentum vectigalium, horreum legionum, solacium 
annonae disperire patiemini? 

Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 80. 

1 Horace stops here in bis journey to Brundisium. 

2 Famous among the regions of Italy and extolled in countless passages by Roman 
writers. (SeeespeciallyFlor.Ep.i. 11, 16;Strabo. v.4: thetopicItaly;and following pas- 
sages.) The district was the s,cene of many important military events other than those 
connected with Hannibal. For example, it was in Campania that the battle with Pyrrhus 
was fought in which elephants were used, the stringe sight having much to do with the 
defeat of the Romans. It was on this occasion that Pj'rrhus is said to have exclaimed, 
"Oh, how easy it were for me to gain the empire of the world if I had Romans for my 
soldiers!" (Flor. Ep. i. 13, 18). 

3 A small town on the Clanius river. 

* In Cicero's time a discussion arose as to the advisability of dividing this region 
instead of keeping it intact for the Roman state. The orator bitterly opposed the division. 
Chapter 28 and following contain much information regarding Campania. 

of Places in Italy 125 

A Noon-day Rest 

Next day at Capua by noon 
Our mules are all unpacked. Away 
Maecenas hifes at ball to play; 
To sleep myself and Virgil go, 
For tennis practice is, we know. 
Injurious, beyond all question, 
Both to weak eyes and weak digestion.' 

John Conington 

Praise of Campania 

Then comes favored Campania,'' and with this bay be- 
gin vineclad hills and the well-known exhilaration of a sap 
famous the world over, and that mighty conflict, as an- 
cient writers have expressed it, between Father Liber and 

F.G. Moore 

Such land will wreathe the elm with fruitful vines; 

Plenteous in olives, too; the farmer's toil 

Finds it to herds a friend and to his plough 

Obedient. Such land rich Capua tills; 

Such the Vesuvian slopes, where Clanius flows, 

Acerrae's' waster and unpitying foe. 

T. C. Williams 

The Campanians have always been proud .... 
because of the healthfulness of their city, its arrangement, 
and beauty. 

A Roman Granary 

Will you allow the most beautiful estate belonging to 
the Roman people, the chief ornament in time of peace, 
your chief source of supply in time of war, the foundation 
of your revenues, the granary from which your legions are 
fed, your consolation in time of scarcity, to be ruined?" 


126 Classical Associations 

Nee Capuam pol agri cultuque penuqiie potentem, 
deliciis, opibus famaque priore silebo, 
fortuna variante vices, quae freta secundis 
nescivit servare modum. nunc subdita Romae 
aemula, nunc fidei memor; ante infida, senatum 
sperneret, an coleret dubitans, sperare curules 
Campanis ausa auspiciis unoque suorum 
consule, ut imperium divisi adtoUeret orbis. 
quin etiam rerum dominam Latiique parentem 
adpetiit bello, ducibus non freta togatis. 
Hannibalis iurata armis deceptaque in hostis 
servitium demens specie transivit erili. 
mox — ut in occasum vitiis communibus acti 
conruerunt Poeni luxu, Campania fasto, 
(heu numquam stabilem sortita superbia sedem!) — 
ilia potens opibusque valens, Roma altera quondam, 
comere quae paribus potuit fastigia conis, 
octavum reiecta locum vix paene tuetur. 

Auson. Ord. Urb. Nobil. viii. 

Polybius vero libro septimo, "Capuanos," ait, "in Cam- 
pania, ob agri ubertatem magnam opulentiam nactos, in 
luxuriam et sumptuosam vitam prolapses esse, ila ut vul- 
gatam de Crotone et Sybari famam superarent." 

Athen. xii. 36 (Latin version by 
Johannes Schweighakuser, 1804) 

Erant illi compti capilli, et madentes cincinnorum fim- 
briae et fiuentes cerussataeque buccae, dignae Capua, sed 
ilia vetere. Nam haec quidem, quae nunc est, splendidi;- 
simorum hominum, fortissimorum virorum, optimorum 
civium mihique amicissimorum multitudine redundat. 

Cic. in Pison. 25. 

- ^ Aft?r the battle of Cannae, Capua agreed to help Rome, if, in return, one of the 
consuls thereafter should be a Capuan. 

P In the fourth century. B.C. ancient Capua once rivalled Rome and in 212 I{. C. 
threatened to become the chief city of Italy. Laid out on level ground, its situation 
seemed to its citizens far superior to that of Rome (Stat. iii. 5, 76). ' 
7 Cicero was patron of Capua. 

of Places in Italy 127 

A Eulogy of Capua 

Nor, certes, shall I leave unsung Capua, mighty in till- 
age of fields and in fruits, in luxury, in wealth, and in ear- 
lier renown, who, despite Fortune's changing haps, relied 
on her prosperity and knew not how to keep the mean. 
Now she, once rival, is subject to Rome; now she keeps 
faith, once faithless — when, at a stand whether to flout 
or court the Senate, she dared to' hope for magistrates 
chosen under Campanian auspices,^ and that with one 
consul from among her sons she might take up the empire 
over half the globe. Nay, and she attacked the mistress of 
the world, the mother of Latium, trusting not in leaders 
who wore the toga. Sworn to Hannibal's allegiance, she, 
the beguiled, the seeming mistress, passed in her folly into 
slavery to a foe. Thereafter — when they were driven to 
their fall by the failings of them both, and came to 
ruin, the Carthaginians through luxury, the Campanians 
through pride (ah, never does arrogance find a firm-fixed 
throne!), that city with her power and might of wealth, 
a second Rome once, who could rear her crest as high, is 
thrust backwards and scarce can manage to keep the 
eighth place." 

H. G. E. White 

Extravagance at Capua 

And Polybius in his seventh book says that the inhabi- 
tants of Capua in Campania, having become exceedingly 
rich through the excellence of their soil, fell into habits of 
luxury and extravagance exceeding all that is reported 
of Croton and Sybaris. 


Capua's Love of Luxury 

Carefully-dressed hair, and perfumed fringes of curls, 
and anointed and carefully-rouged cheeks, worthy of 
Capua, of Capua, I mean, such as it used to be. For the 
Capua that now is, is full of the most excellent characters, 
of most gallant men, of most virtuous citizens, and of 
men most friendiv and devoted to me.' 


1 2S c Idssitiil . 1 sxoi iiithiis 

Subniolis deinik' Icgalis cum consuluis sciuilus cssol, 
otsi magnae parti urbs maxima opulentissimaiiuc It«lltu\ 
uberrimus ager marique propiiiquus ad vaiiotati-s annonae 
horreum populi Romaiii fore viiiehntur, lanien lanla utili- 
tatc fides antiqujor fuit, iosi>oiuiit(i\ic ita ox auctoritalo 
senatus consul: "auxilio vos, Camjiani, di)jiu>s ccnsot sona- 
tus; sed ila vobiscum anucitiam instilui i>ar i-st, in- qua 
volustior amicitia ac sociclas violetur. Saniuitcs mihis- 
cum foedere iuncti sunt; itaquc anna, iloos prius quam 
homines violatura, adveisus Saniniles vobis ncgamus; 
legatos, sicut ius fasque est, ad socios atciue aniieos iireca- 
tum mittemus, ne qua vohis vis tial." 

Ad ea princeps legatiimis sic enim donio mandatum 
attulerant— : "quando quiiiem" inquil "nosda lueii ad- 
versus vim atque iniuriam iusla vi non vullis, veslra eerie 
defendetis; itaque populum t'ampaimm urbemque Capu- 
am, agros, delubra deum, divina humanaque omnia in 
\eslram, palves conscript!, populiquc Romani dicioneni 
(iedimus, quidquid deinde paliemur, dedilicii vestri ))as- 
suri," Sub liaec dicta omnes, manus ad consulcs lendeii 
les, pleni lacrimarum in vestibule curiae procuhuerunt, 
Commoti pati'es vice forluiiarum humanaruni, si ille prae- 
potens opibus populus, luxuria superhiaque clarus, a quo 
paulo ante auxilium linitimi pelissent, adeo infract os ge- 
reret animos, ut se ijise suaque omnia potestatis alieiiae 

l.iv. vii. .U,n-6, 

" 111 343 B. C. the SnmnilM, ;illifs ni Komc, hnil miai kr.l ilic ('iMnpiiniiinH wlin wrnl 
to Rome (or help. 

of Places in Italy 1 20 

A Weak Nation Appeals to Rome for Help* 

The ambassadors then withdrawing, the senate took 
affairs into consideration. A great many were of the opinion 
that their city of Capua, the largest and most opulent in 
Italy, and their land the most fertile, and situated ilear the 
sea, would serve the Roman people as a granary, from 
whence they might be supplied with all the various kinds 
of provisions; yet they paid greater regard to the faith of 
their engagements than to these great advantages, and the 
consul by direction of the senate gave them this answer: 
"Campanians, the senate deems you deserving of their 
assistance: but in contracting a friendship with you it is 
proper to guard against the violation of any prior alliance. 
The Samnites are associated with us by treaty. We re- 
fuse therefore to take arms against the Samnites, which 
would be a breach of duty, first towards the gods, and then 
towards men. But, as is consistent with both those du- 
ties, we will send ambassadors to those our friends and 
allies, to request that no violence may be offered to you." 
To this the chief of the embassy replied according to in- 
structions which they had brought from home: "Though 
you do not think proper to defend us and our rights against 
violence and injustice, you will surely defend your own. 
We therefore surrender into your jurisdiction, conscript 
fathers, and that of the Roman people, the inhabitants 
of Campania, the city of Capua, our lands, the temples of 
the gods, and all things else appertaining to us, divine and 
human. Whatever sufferings we shall henceforward under- 
go will be the sufferings of men who have put them- 
selves under your dominion." Having spoken thus, they 
all stretched forth their hands towards the consuls, and 
with floods of tears prostrated themselves in the porch of 
the senate-house. The senate was deeply affected at this 
instance of the vicissitude of human grandeur; seeing that 
nation which possessed an exuberance of wealth, and was 
universally noted for luxury and pride, and to whom a 
short time since the neighboring states looked up for sup- 
port, so utterly depressed in spirit, as voluntarily to re- 
sign themselves and all that belonged to them into the 
power of others. George Baker 

130 Classical Associations 

Industriosa Campsima. 

Cassiod. Var. viii. 33. 

Ibi partem maiorem hiemis exercitum in tectis habuit, 
adversus omnia humana mala saepe ac diu duratum, bonis 
inexpertum atque insuetum. Itaque, quos nulla mali 
vicerat vis, perdidere nimia bona ac voluptates inmodicae, 
et eo inpensius, quo avidius ex insolentia in eas se merse- 
rant. Somnus enim et vinum et epulae et scorta balineaque 
et otium consuetudine in dies blandius ita enervaverunt 
corpora animosque, ut magis deinde praeteritae vic- 
toriae eos quam praesentes tutarentur vires, maiusque 
id peccatum ducis apud peritos artium militarium habere- 
tur, quam quod non ex Cannensi acie protinus ad urbem 
Romanam duxisset; ilia enim cunctatio distulisse modo 
victoriam videri potuit, hie error vires ademisse ad vin- 
cendum. Itaque hercule, velut si cum alio exercitu a Capua 
exiret, nihil usquam pristinae disciplinae tenuit. Nam 
et redierunt plerique scortis inpliciti, et, ubi primum sub 
pellibus haberi coepti sunt, viaque et alius militaris labor 
excepit, tironum modo corporibus animisque deficiebant, 
et deinde per omne aestivorum tempus magna pars sine 
commeatibus ab signis dilabebantur, neque aliae latebrae 
quam Capua desertoribus erant. 

Liv. xxiii. 18, 2-16. 

Ad Tifata in veteribus castris super Capuam. 

Liv. xxiv. 12, 3. 

" The wealth of Capua was largely due to its industries. By reason of the prolific 
growth of flowers, the place stood next to Egypt in the manufacture of unguents and per- 
fumes. A street called" Seplasia" was given up to this industry (Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 94). 
Paints for the face were made here and carpets, tapestries, roi3e,'and bronzes were manu- 
factured in Urge quantities. Its wheat and wines were likewise famous. 

!•> In 216 B. C. Hannibal was especially fond of the place; Florus calls it his"sedes et 
patria altera" (Ep. i. 22, 42), and, in reference to the idea in the above, his "Cannae" 
(i. 22, 21). 

" Hannibal's camp may not have been on the series of heights known as 
Tifata (Liv. vii. 29, 6), but "in valle occulta post Tifata montem," heights which are now 
called Monte di Maddolini. 

oj Places in Italy 131 

Industrious' Campania. 

Capua Destroys Hannibal 

Here, during the greater part of the winter,'" Hannibal 
kept his forces lodged in houses, men who had frequently 
and long endured with firmness every hardship to which 
human nature is liable, and had never been accustomed to, 
nor ever had experienceed the comforts of prosperity. 
And it came about that they, whom no power of adversity 
had been able to subdue, were ruined by an excess of good 
fortune and by immoderate pleasures. These produced 
effects the more pernicious because, being hitherto unac- 
customed, as I have said, to such indulgences, they plunged 
into them with greater avidity. Sleep and wine, feasting 
and harlots, with which through habit they became daily 
more and more delighted, enervated both their minds and 
bodies to such a degree that they owed their preservation 
rather to the name they had acquired by their past vic- 
tories than to their present strength. In the opinion of 
persons skilled in the art of war the general was guilty of a 
greater fault in this instance than in not leading his army 
directly to the city of Rome after the battle of Cannae; 
for that dilatory conduct might be supposed only to have 
deferred the conquest for a time, whereas this latter error 
left him destitute of the strength to effect it. Accordingly 
he marched out of Capua as if with a different army, for 
it did not retain in any particular the slightest remnant 
of the former discipline. Most of the men returned to the 
field encumbered with harlots; and, as soon as they began 
to live in tents, and were obliged to undergo the fatigue 
of marches and other military labors, like raw recruits, 
their strength both of body and mind failed them; and 
from that time, during the whole course of the summer 
campaign, great numbers used to steal away from their 
standards without leave; and the only lurking-place of all 
these deserters was Capua. George Baker 

His old camp" on the Tifata over Capua. 

George Baker 

132 Classical Associations 

Vibium Virrium septem et viginti ferme senatores do- 
mum secuti sunt epulatique cum eo et, quantum facerc 
potuerant alienatis mentibus vino ab imminentis sensu 
mail, venenum omnes sumpserunt; inde misso convivio 
dextris inter se datis ultimoque conplexu conlacrimantes 
suum patriaeque casum alii, ut eodem rogo cremarentur, 
manserunt, alii domos digressi sunt. Inpletae cibis vino- 
que venae minus efficacem in maturanda morte vim veneni 
fecerunt: itaque noctem totam plerique eorum et diei in- 
sequentis partem cum animam egissent, ornnes tamen 
prius, quam aperirentur hostibus portae, expirarunt. 

Liv. xxvi. 14, 3-5. 

Praeterea omne iter est hoc labosum atque lutosum. 
Lucil. (Nonius, s. v. labosum) 

12 After the defection of the city to Hannibal and its recovery, the Romans punished 
the place (2U B, C.) by killing or ewling all of its nobles and incorporating the land within 
their own territories. Vibius Virrius had been the chief agent in the revolt. In a vivid 
speech, he pictures to his fellow citizens the horrors they may expect if they live to see the 
Romans enter their gates; then, together with other prominent citizens he commits suicide. 

" Since Capua was situated on the Appian Way (at first this highwayended here), it 
was visited by many travelers, among them the famous Roman satirist Lucilius who thus 
characterizes a trip over this road. Horace, too, whose journey to Capua has already 
been mentioned says, "qui Capua Romam petit, imbre.lutoque'adspersus," (Ep. i. 11, 11- 

of Places in Italy 133 

Suicide Rather than Surrender'^ 

About twenty-seven senators followed Vibius Virrius to 
his house, where, after feasting with him, and, as far as 
they could, banishing from their minds by wine all feel- 
ing of the impending evil, they every one took, poison. 
They then broke up the meeting, gave their hands, took 
the last embrace, condoling with one another on their. owii 
fall and that of their country. Some remained there, in 
order to be burned together on one pile, and the rest re- 
tired to their several houses. Their veins were filled by 
the victuals and wine; which circumstance retarded the 
efl&cacy of the poison in hastening death, so that most of 
them lingered through that whole night and part of the 
next day: however, they all expired before the gates were 
opened to the enemy. 

George Baker 

Besides, this entire road" is slippery and muddy. 


One. hears little of Casilinum after the fifth century B. C. 
It is important chiefly for its part in the wars with Hanni- 
bal. In 217 B. C. the Carthaginian leader escaped 
through the mountains near here by resorting to the clever 
device of tying torches to the horns of oxen and driving 
them by night over the heights, the lights deceiving the 
Romans below into thinking that a vast army of the enemy 
was in motion above their heads (Liv. xxii. 16-17). 

134 Classical Associations 

Sunt morientes Casilini reliquiae. 

Plin. N. H. iii. 70. 

Ceterum mitescente iam hieme educto ex hibernis milite 
Casilinum redit, ubi, quamquam ab oppugnatione cessa- 
tum erat, obsidio tamen continua oppidanos praesidiumque 
ad ultimum inopiae adduxerat. Castris Romanis Ti. 
Semprpnius praeerat dictatore auspiciorum repetendorum 
causa profecto Romam. Marcellum at ipsum cupientem 
ferre auxilium obsessis et Volturnus amnis inflatus aquis 
et preces Nolanorum Acerranorumque tenebant Cam- 
panos timentium, si praesidium Romanum abscessisset. 
Qracchus adsidens tantum Casilino, quia praedictum 
erat dictatoris, ne quid absente eo rei gereret, nihil move- 
bat, quamquam, quae facile omnem patientiam vincerent, 
nuntiabantur a Casilino: nam et praecipitasse se quos- 
dam non tolerantes famem constabat, et stare inermes in 
muris nuda corpora ad missilium telorum ictus praebentes. 
Ea aegre patiens Gracchus, cum neque pugnam conserere 
dictatoris iniussu auderet — pugnandum autem esse, si 
palam frumeijtum inportaret, videbat — neque clam in- 
portandi spes esset, farxe ex agris circa undique convecto 
cum conplura dolia conplesset, nuntium ad magistratum 
Casilinum misit, ut exciperent dolia, quae amnis deferret. 
Insequenti nocte intentis omnibus in flumen ac spem ab 
nuntio Romano factam dolia medio missa amni defluxe- 
runt; aequaliterque inter omnes frumentum divisum. Id 
postero quoque die ac tertio factum est; nocte et mitte- 
bantur et perveniebant; eo custodias hostium fallebant. 

^ An incident of the siege by Hannibal in the winter of 216-215 B. C. Strabosays that 
so dire was the famine that a mouse was sold for 200 drachmas. He adds that the one who 
sold this died, but the purchaser lived (v. 4, 10). 

of Places in Italy 135 

The remains of Caeilinum are fast disappearing. 

The Fortitude of a Starving City' 

However, when the rigor of the season began to abate, he 
drew his troops out of their winter quarters, and returned 
to Casilinum; where, notwithstanding there had been 
a cessation from attaclis, yet the continued blockade had 
reduced the townsmen and garrison to the extremity of 
want. The Roman camp was commanded by Tiberius 
Sempronius, the dictator having gone to Rome to take the 
auspices anew. Marcellus, who on his part earnestly 
wished to bring relief to the besieged, was prevented by the 
overflowing of the river Vulturnus, and by the earnest in- 
treaties of the people of Nola and Acerrae, who dreaded 
the Campanians in case of the departure of the Roman 
troops. Gracchus, having received injunctions from the 
dictator not to engage in any enterprise during his ab- 
sence, but to maintain his post near Casilinum, did not 
venture to stir, although he received such accounts from 
that town as were sufficient to overcome every degree of 
patience. It appeared that several, unable longer to en- 
dure hunger, had thrown themselves down precipices; and 
that others stood unarmed on the walls, exposing their 
naked bodies to the blows of the missive weapons. Grac- 
chus felt great concern for their distress; but he neither 
dared to engage in fight, contrary to the dictator's order, 
(and fight he plainly must, if he attempted only to throw 
in provisions), nor had he any hope of getting them con- 
veyed in clandestinely by his men. He therefore collected 
corn from all parts of the country round; and having 
filled therewith a great number of casks, sent a messenger 
to Casilinum to the magistrate, desiring that the people 
should catch the casks which the river would bring 
down. The following night was passed in attentively 
watching for the completion of the hopes raised by the 
Roman messenger, when the casks, being sent along the 
middle of the stream, floated down to the town, and the 
corn was divided equally among them all. The same 
stratagem was practised with success on the following 

136 Classical Associations 

Imbribus'deinde conlihuis cilatior solito amnis transverso 
vertice dolia impulit ad ripam, quam hostes servabant. 
Ibi haerentia inter obnata ripis salicta conspiciuntur, 
nuntiatumque Hannibali est, et deinde intentiore cus- 
todia caiitum, ne quid falleret Volturno ad urbem mis- 
sum. Nuces tamen fusae ab Romanis castris, cum medio 
amni ad Casilinum defluerent, cratibus excipiebantur. 
Postremo ad id ventum inopiae est, ut lora detractasque 
scutis pelles, ubi fervida mollissent aqua, mandere cona- 
rentur nee muribus aliove animali abstinerent et omne 
herbarum radicumque genus aggeribus iniimis muri erue- 
rent. Et cum hostes obarassent, quidquid herbidi terreni 
extra murum erat, raporlum semen iniecerunt, ut Hannibal 
"Eone usque, dum ea nascuntur, ad Casilinum sessurus 
sum?" exclamaret;et qui nuUam antea pactionem auribus 
admiserat, turn demum agi secum est passus de redemp- 
tione liberorum capitum. Septunces auri in singulos 
pretium convenit. Fide accepta tradiderunt sese. 

Liv. xxiii. 19, 1-16. 

of Phirrs til Italy 137 

nighl, and on the third. The casks were put into the 
river, and conveyed to the place of their destination in 
the course of the same night, by which means they es- 
caped the notice of the enemy's guards; but the river 
being' afterwards rendered more rapid by the continued 
rains, a whirling eddy drove them across to the side where 
the enemy's guards were posted, and there they were dis- 
covered sticking among osiers which grew on the banks. 
This being reported to Hannibal, care was taken for the 
future to guard the Vulturnus with greater vigilance, so 
that no supply sent down by it to the city should pass 
without discovery. Notwithstanding which, quantities 
of nuts being poured into the river at the Roman camp, 
and floating down in the middle of the stream to Casili- 
num, were stopped there with hurdles. The scarcity, 
however, at last became so excessive, that, tearing off the 
straps and the leathern covers of their shields, and soften- 
ing them in boiling water, they endeavored to chew them; 
nor did they abstain from mice or any other kind of ani- 
mal. They even dug up every sort of herb and root that 
grew at the foot of the ramparts of the town; and when 
the enemy had ploughed up all the ground round the wall 
that produced any herbs, they sowed it with turnip-seed, 
which made Hannibal exclaim, "Am I to sit here before 
Casilinum until these grow?" Although he had hitherto 
refused to listen to any terms of capitulation, yet he now 
allowed overtures to be made to him respecting the re- 
deeming of the men of free condition. An agreement was 
made, that for each of these a ransom should be paid 'of 
seven ounces of gold; and then, having received the rati- 
fication of the same, the garrison surrendered. 

George Baker 

138 Classical Associations 


(Near Valle Caudina) 

Duae ad Luceriam ferebant viae, altera praeter oram 
superi maris, patens apertaque, sed quanto tutior, tanto 
fere longior, altera per furculas Caiidinas, brevior; sed ita 
natus locus est: saltus duo alti, angusti silvosique sunt, 
montibus circa perpetuis inter se iuncti; iacet inter eos 
satis patens, clausus in medio, campus herbidus aquosus- 
que, per quern medium iter est; sed antequam venias ad 
eum, intrandae primae angustiae sunt, et aut eadem, qua 
te insinuaveris, retro via repetenda aut, si ire porro pergas, 
per alium saltum, artiorem inpeditioremque, evadendum. 

In eum campum via alia per cavam rupem Romani de- 
misso agmine cum ad alias angustias protinus pergerent, 
saeptas deiectu arborum saxorumque ingentium obiacente 
mole invenere! Cum fraus hostilis apparuisset, praesi- 
dium etiam in summo saltu conspicitur. Citati inde retro, 
qua venerant, pergunt repetere viam; eam quoque clausam 
sua obice armisque inveniunt. Sistunt inde gradum sine 
ullius imperio, stuporque omnium animos ac velut torpor 
quidam insolitus membra tenet, intuentesque alii alios, 
cum alterum quisque conpotem magis mentis ac consilii 
ducerent, diu inmobiles silent; deinde, ubi praetoria con- 
sulum erigi videre et expedire quosdam utilia operi, quam- 
quam ludibrio fore munientes perditis rebus ac spe omni 
adempta cernebant, tamen, ne culpam malis adderent, 
pro se quisque nee hortante uUo nee imperante ad munien- 
dum versi castra propter aquam vallo circumdant, sua 
ipsi opera laboremque inritum, praeterquam quod hostes 
superbe increpabant, cum miserabili confessione eludentes. 

1 In 321 B. C. the Sanmites (a powerful people and one not easily conquered) thus en- 
trapped the Romans, a disgrace which Rome never forgot. Very scanty traces remain of 
the neighboring Samnite city. Augustus assigned its land to Beneventum. 

of Places in Italy 139 

A Roman Army is HumUiated' 

There were two roads leading to Luceria, one along the 
coast of the upper sea, wide and open; but, as it was the 
safer, so it was proportionately longer: the other, which 
was shorter, through the Caudine forks. The nature of 
the place is this: there are two deep glens, narrow and 
covered with wood, connected together by mountains 
ranging on both sides from one to the other: between 
these lies a plain of considerable extent, abounding in 
grass and water, and through the middle of which the pas- 
sage runs: but before this is arrived at, the first defile 
must be passed, while the only way back is through the 
road by which it was entered; or if in case of resolving to 
proceed forward, it must be by the other glen, which is 
still more narrow and difl&cult. Into this plain the Ro- 
mans marched down their troops by one of those passes 
through the cleft of a rock; and, when they advanced to 
the other defile, found it blocked up by trees thrown 
across, with a mound of huge stones. The stratagem of 
the enemy now became apparent; and at the same time a 
body of troops was seen on the eminence over the glen. 
Hastening back, then, to the road by which they had en- 
tered, they found that also shut up by another such fence, 
and men in arms. Then, without orders, they halted; 
amazement took possession of their minds, and a strange 
kind of numbness of their limbs; they then remained a long 
time motionless and silent, with their eyes fixed on one 
another as if each thought the other more capable of judg- 
ing and advising than himself. After some time, the 
consuls' pavilions were erected, and they got ready the 
implements for throwing up works, although they were 
sensible that it must appear ridiculous to attempt raising 
a fortification in their present desperate condition, and 
when almost every hope was lost. Yet, not to add a fault 
to their misfortunes, they all, without being advised or 
ordered by anyone, set earnestly to work, and enclosed a 
camp with a rampart, close to the water, while themselves, 
besides enduring the haughty taunts of their enemies. 

140 Classical Associations 

Ad consules maestos, ne advocantes quidem in consilium, 
quando nee consilio nee auxilio locus esset, sua sponte 
legati ac tribuni conveniunt, militesque. ad praetorium 
versi opem, quum vix di inmortales ferre poterant, ab du- 
cibus exposcunl 

Haec frementibus hora fatalis ignominiae advenit, 
omnia tristiora experiundo factura, quam quae praecep- 
erant ajiimis. lam primum cum singulis vestimentis 
inej;mes extra vallum exire iussi, et primi. traditi obsides 
aLque in custodiam abducti. Tum a consulibus abire 
lictores iussi paludamenlaque detracta: id tantam inter ip- 
sos, qui paulo ante eos execrantes dedendos lacerandosque 
xensuerant, miserationem fecit, ul suae quisque condici- 
onis oblitus ab ilia delormatione tanlae maiestatis velut 
ab nefando spectaculo averteret oculos. 

Primi consules prope seminudi sub iugum missi, tum 
ut quisque gradu proximus erat, ita ignominiae obiectus, 
tum deinceps singulae legiones. Circumstabant armati 
liostes, exprobantes eludentesque; gladii etiam plerisque 
intentati,' et vulnerati quidam necatique, si vultus eorum 
indignita^e reryim acrior victorem offendisset. Ita tra- 
ducti sub iugum et, quodpaene gravius era,t, per.hostium 
oculos,. cum e saltii evasissent, etsi velut ab inferis extracti 
turn primum luceiii adspicere visi sunt, tameii ipsa lux iia 
deforme inluentibu^agjrien omni jnorte tristjor fuit. 

Liv. ix. 2, 6-15; 5,11-6, 3. 

of Places in Italy 141 

seemed with melancholy to acknowledge the apparent 
fruitlessness of their labor. The lieutenants-general and 
tribunes, without being summoned to consultation (for 
there was no room for either consultation or remedy) 
assembled round the dejected consul; while the soldiers, 
crowding to the general's quarters, demanded from their 
leaders that succour which it was hardly in the power of 
the immortal gods themselves to afford them 

. . . . While they were giving vent to such grievous 
reflections, the fatal hour of their disgrace arrived, which 
was to render every circumstance still more shocking in 
fact than they had preconceived it in their imaginations. 
First they were ordered to go out beyond the rampart 
unarmed, and with single garments; then the hostages 
were surrendered and carried into custody. The lictors 
were next commanded to depart from the consuls, and the 
robes of the latter were stripped off. This excited such a 
degree of commiseration in the breasts of those very men 
who a little before were pouring execrations upon them, 
that everyone, forgetting his own condition, turned away 
his eyes from that disgraceful insult on so high a dignity, as 
from a spectacle too horrid to behold. 

First the consuls, nearly half-naked, were sent under 
the yoke; then each ofl&cer, according to his rank, was ex- 
posed to disgrace, and the same of the legions successively. 
The enemy stood on each side under arms, reviling and 
mocking them; swords were pointed at most of them, 
several were wounded and some even slain when their 
looks, rendered too fierce by the indignity to which they 
were subjected, gave offence to the conquerors. Thus 
were they led under the yoke; and what was still more in- 
tolerable, under the eyes of the enemy. When they had 
got clear of the defile, they seemed as if they had been 
drawn up from the infernal regions, and then for the first 
time beheld the light; yet, when they viewed the ignomin- 
ious appearance to which the army was reduced, the light 
itself was more painful to them than any kind of death 
could have been. 

George Baker 

142 Classical Associations 

Gentem, si opulentiam quaeras, aureis et argenteis armis 
et discolori veste usque ad ambitum ornatam; si fallaciam, 
saltibus fere et montium fraude grassantem; si rabiem ac 
furorem, sacratis legibus humanisque hostiis in exitium 
urbis agitatam; si pertinaciam, sexies rupto foedere cladi- 
busque ipsis animosiorem. Hos tamen quinquaginta annis 
per Fabios ac Papirios patres eorumque liberos ita subegit 
ac domuit, ita ruinas ipsas urbium diruit, ut hodie Sam- 
nium in ipso Samnio requiratur nee facile appareat ma- 
teria quattuor et viginti triumphorum. 

Flor. Ep. i. 11, 16. 

Hinc nos Cocceii recipit plenissima villa 
quae super est Caudi cauponas. 

Hor. S. i. 5, 50-51. 

2 For a further account of the Samnites, see Strabo and the cross references indicated 
in the Index. 

■3 Caudium. a town about 2 1 miles from Capua, was one of the stopping places for 
Horace on the Appian Way. Cocceius was one oi the members of his party. 

of Places in Italy 143 

The Samnites Described 

The Samnites,'' a nation, if you would know its wealth, 
equipped with gold and silver armour, and with clothes of 
various colors even to ostentation; if you would under- 
stand its subtlety, accustomed to assail its enemies by the 
aid of its forests and concealment among the mountains; 
if you would learn its rage and fury, exasperated to destroy 
the city of Rome by sacred laws and human sacrifices; if 
you would look to its obstinacy, rendered desperate by 
six violations of the treaty and by its very defeats. Yet, 
in fifty years, by means of the Fabii and Papirii, fathers 
and sons, the Romans so subdued and reduced this people, 
so demolished the very ruins of their cities, that Samnium 
may now be sought in Samnium itself and the evidence of 
four and twenty triumphs be hardly visible. 

J. S. Watson 

Then to Cocceius' country-house we come, 
Beyond the Caudian inns, a sumptuous home.' 

John Conington 

CIRCEII (San Felice Circeo) 

MONS CIRCEIUS (Monte Circeo or Circello) 

The town, situated at the foot of Mons Circeius, be- 
longed to the Latin League in 499 B. C. and came under 
the power of Rome in 393 B. C. Its flourishing period 
seems to have been not izj: from 200. In later times it 
became a place of resort and many beautiful villas were 
built along its shores. Domitian frequented it (Mart. 
xi. 7, 4) and it was the place of exile for the triumvir, Mar- 
cus Lepidus, when banished by Augustus (Suet. Aug. 16). 
It is described by Procopius v. 11, 2-4. 

144 Classical Associations 

Proxima Circaeae raduntur litora terrae, 
dives inaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos 
assiduo resonat cantu tectisque superbis 
urit odoratam nocturna in lumina cedrum, 
arguto tenues percurrens pectine telas. 
hinc exaudiri gemitus iraequ6 leonum, 
vincla recusantum et sera sub nocte rudentum, 
saetigerique sues atque in praesepibus ursi 
saevire ac formae magnorum ululare luporum, 
quos hominum ex facie dea saeva potentibus'herbis 
induerat Circe in vultus ac terga ferarum. 
quae ne monstra pii paterentur talia Troes 
delati in portus neu litora dira subirent, 
Neptunus ventis implevit vela secundis 
atque fugam dedit et praeter vada fervida vexit. 

Vir. Aen. vii. 10-24. 

Eupoc 8' (V /3i5o-(7j;fft TtTvyiJiiva dunara Kt/3Kr;s 
^taTotaiv \atacn, irepiaKeirTii) ivl x<^PV 
a/xipl 8i ixiv XiiKOi rjaav bptartpoi ijSe \tovTts, 
Toiis avTrj KaredeK^tv, eiret KaKO. tpapixaK idooKfv. 
ovS' oi 7' o}piir]dr)(jav eir' avSpaaiv, aXX' apa roi ye 
ovpfjatv /iaKp^ai inpicaalvovTis avtarav. 
ojs 8' 6t' Slv a/jiipi avaKra Kvvts SaLrriBtp iovra 
aaivwa'' aiei yap re <t>epei lietXiyixara Bvfiov' 
cos Toiis afKpl \{iKoi Kparepciivvxts V^t \kovTis 
aalvov Tol 8' i8€Lffav, eTrei l8ov aiva irtKuipa. 
icTav 8' iv Trpodipoiat. fleas KaWiirXoKCLfioco, 
Kip/c7;s 8' 'ip8ov aKovop deiSo6(rijs owl KoKfj, 
larbv tTTOixo/iei'rjs jU€7av a.p,^porov, ola deaoiv 
Xexrd re nai xo-p'uvra Kal 6.y\aa. 'epya Trk\ovTai. 

* The early Greeks identified tiie promontory with the story oi Circe, the beautiiul sor- 
ceress who by her magic turned all who came to her abode into beasts. Ulysses and his 
companions encounter her (see th^ next passage), but ^'i^g^l allows his hero to escape. 

oj Places in Italy 1 45 

Virgil's Account of Circe' 

Close to the land of Circe soon they fare, 
Where the Sun's golden daughter in far groves 
Sounds forth her ceaseless song; her lofty hall 
Is fragrant every night with flaring brands 
Of cedar, giving light the while she weaves 
With shrill-voiced shuttle at her linens fine. 
From hence are heard the loud-lamenting wrath 
Of lions, rebels to their linked chains 
And roaring all night long; great bristly boars 
And herded bears, in pinfold closely kept. 
Rage horribly, and monster wolves make moan ; 
Whom the dread goddess with foul juices strong 
From forms of men drove forth, and bade to wear 
The mouths and maws of beasts in Circe's thrall. 
But lest the sacred Trojans should endure 
Such prodigy of doom, or anchor there 
On that destroying shore, kind Neptune filled 
Their sails with winds of power, and sped them on 
In safety past the perils of the sea. 

T. C. Williams 

The Companions of Odysseus Encounter Circe 

In the forest glades they found the halls of Circe, builded 
of polished stone, in a place with wide prospect. And all 
around the palace mountain-bred wolves and lions were 
roaming, whom she herself had bewitched with evil drugs 
that she gave them. Yet the beasts did not set on my 
men, but lo, they ramped about them and fawned on 
them, wagging their long tails. And as when dogs fawn 
about their lord when he comes from the feast, for he al- 
ways brings them the fragments that soothe their mood, 
even so the strong-clawed wolves and the lions fawned 
around them; but they were affrighted when they saw the 
strange and terrible creatures. So they stood at the outer 
gate of the fair-tressed goddess, and within they heard 
Circe singing in a sweet voice, as she fared to and fro be- 
fore the great web imperishable, such as is the handiwork 
of goddesses, fine of woof and full of grace and splendour. 


Classical Associations 

elatv S' et<ra7a7oO(7a Kara K\i.<Tfiovs re dpovovs re, 

kv di atpiv Tvpbv re Kal S.\<pLra Kal nkXi x^<^P^v 

olvci} UpafivtUf 'tKVKa' Lvkiuaye Si alria 

(papjiaKa "Kiiyp', ha irayxv Xadoiaro TarpiSos aZr/s. 

avrap kirel SuKev re Kal eKTrtof , aiirk' hreira 

paBScc vewKriyvIa Kara aviptoiaiv kepyvv. 

ol 5i avdv flip 'ixov Ke<f>a\as (puvqv re rpLxas re 

Kal SfiJ,as, avrap coOs ^v ifXTtdos is to irapos irtp. 

&s ol fiiv K\aiovTes k'tpxaro' toIbi Si KlpKri 

ir&p p' aKvKov fiakavbv ra ^oKev Kapirbv Tt Kpaveiqs 

eSixevai, ola aves x''M'"*i"'^^'s aliv eSovaLV. 

Horn. Od. X. 210-243. 

Lubrica nascentes implent conchylia lunae; 
sed non omne mare est generosae fertile testae, 
murice Baiano melior Lucrina peloris, 
ostrea Circeiis. . . . oriuntur. 

Hot. S. ii. 4, 30-33. 

The Clitumnus River 

of Places in Italy 147 

• . . . So she led them in and set them upon chairs 
and high seats, and made them a mess of cheese and bar- 
ley-meal and yellow honey with Pramnian wine, and mixed 
harmful drugs with the food to make them utterly forget 
their own country. Now when she had given them the 
cup and they had drunk it off, presently she smote them 
with a wand, and in the sties of the swine she penned 
them. So they had the head and voice, the bristles and 
the shape of swine, but their mind abode even as of old. 
Thus were they penned there weeping, and Circe flung 
them acorns and mast and fruit of the cornel tree to eat, 
whereon wallowing swine do always batten. 

S. H. Butcher and Andrew Lang 

For catching shell-fish the new moon's the time; 
But there's a difference between clime and clime; 
Baiae is good, but to the Lucrine yields; 
Circeii ranks as best for oyster^ fields. 

John Conington 


A small river of Umbria chiefly celebrated for the clear- 
ness of its waters and the fact that the stately white oxen 
used by the Romans in their sacrifices were pastured on its 
banks. The fact that Pliny has described it in a letter to 
one of his friends adds interest to it for the classical stu- 
dent. Claudian (de vi. Cons. Hon. 506 ff.) also refers to 
it at length. 

2 The oysters of Circeii were widely celebrated. Pliny (N. H. xxxii. 63) says that 
Doae were fresher or more delicate. 

148 Classical Associations 

Qua formosa suo Clitumnus flumina luco 
integit et niveos abluit unda boves. 

Prop. ii. 19, 25-26. 

Clitumnus ab Umbro tramite. 

Prop. iii. 22, 23-24. 

Vidistine aliquando Clitumni fontem? Si nondum 
(et puto nondum; alioqui narrasses mihi), vide, quem ego 
(paenitet tarditatis) proxime vidi. Modicus collis ad- 
surgit antiqua cupresso nemorosus et opacus. Hunc sub- 
ter exit fons et exprimitur pluribus venis, sed inparibus, 
eluctatusque, quem facit, gurgitem lato gremio patescit 
purus et vitreus, ut numerare iactas stipes et relucentis 
calculos possis. Inde non loci devexitate, sed ipsa sui 
copia et quasi pondere inpellitur fons adhuc et iaih am- 
plissimum flumen atque etiam navium patieris, quas 
obvias quoque et contrario nisu in diversa tendentes 
transmittit et perfert, adeo validus, ut ilia, qua properat 
ipse, quamquam per solum planum, remis non adiuvetur, 
idem aegerrime remis contisque superetur adversus. lu- 
cundum utrumque per iocum ludumque fluitantibus, ut 
flexerint cursum, laborem otio, otium labore variare. 
Ripae fraxino multa, multa populo vestiuntur, quas per- 
spicuus amnis velut mersas viridi imagine adnumerat. 
Rigor aquae certaverit nivibus, nee color cedit. Adiacet 
templum priscum et religiosum. Stat Clitumnus ipse 
amictus ornatusque praetexta. Praesens numen atque 
etiam fatidicum indicant sortes. Sparsa sunt circa sacella 
complura totidemque di. Sua cuique veneratio, suum 

3 This picturesque lemple is still to be seen. 

of Places in Italy 149 

Where Clitumnus shrouds his fair streams in his own 
beloved grove,, and with his waters laves the snow-white 

H. E. Butler 

Clitumnus from his Umbrian path. 

H. E. Butler 

Pliny Visits the Clitumnus 

Have you ever seen the source of the river Clitum- 
nus? As I never heard you mention it, I imagine not; 
let me therefore advise you to do so immediately. It is 
but lately indeed I had that pleasure, and I condemn my- 
self for not having seen it sooner. 

At the foot of a little hill, covered with venerable and 
shady cypress trees, the river head is sent up out from the 
ground in several and unequal rills, and bursting forth 
forms a broad pool so clear and glassy that you may count 
the shining pebbles, ai>d the little pieces of money which 
are thrown into it. From thence it is carried off not so 
much by the declivity of the ground, as by its own volume 
and, as it were, density. As soon as it has quitted its 
source, it becomes a mighty river, navigable for large 
vessels, even when they are making up stream and have 
to contend against the current. This runs so strong, 
though the ground is level, that boats going with it have 
no occasion for rowing oars ; while it is difficult to advance 
against it, even with the help of oars and poles. This alter- 
nate interchange of ease and toil, according as you turn, 
is exceedingly amusing when one sails up and down merely 
for pleasure. 

The banks are thickly clad with ash and poplar trees, 
whose verdant reflections are as distinctly seen in the 
translucent stream, as if they were actually sunk in it. 
The water is cold as snow, and as white too. Near it is 
a primitive and holy temple,^ wherein stands the river-god 
Clitumnus clothed in a purple-bordered robe. The lots 
kept here for divining, sufficiently testify to the presence 
and oracular power of the deity. Several little chapels are 
scattered round, each containing the statue of a different 

150 Classical Associations 

nomen, quibusdam vero etiam fontes. Nam praeter ilium 
quasi parentem ceterorum sunt minores capita discreti; 
sed flumini miscentur, quod ponte transmittitur. Is ter- 
minus sacri profanique. In superiore parte navigare tan- 
tum, infra etiam natare concessum. Balineum Hispellates, 
quibus ilium locum divus Augustus dono dedit, publice 
praebent et hospitium. Nee desunt villae, quae secutae 
fluminis amoenitatem margini insistunt. In summa nihil 
erit, ex quo non capias voluptatem. Nam studebis quo- 
que; leges multa multorum omnibus columnis, omnibus 
parietibus inscripta, quibus fons ille deusque celebratur. 
Plura laudabis, non nulla ridebis; quamquam tu vero, 
quae tua humanitas, nulla ridebis. Vale. 

Plin. Ep. viii. 8. 

of Places in Italy 151 

god. Each of these has his peculiar worship and title; 
and some of them, too, their own springs. For, beside 
the principal one, which is, as it were, the parent of all the 
rest, there are several other lesser streams, which, taking 
their rise from distinct sources, lose themselves in the river 
over which a bridge is built that separates the sacred part 
from that which lies open to common use. Vessels are 
allowed to come above this bridge, but no person is per- 
mitted to swim, except below it. The Hispellates, to 
whom Augustus gave this place, maintain a bath, and an 
iiin for travellers, at the expense of the corporation. And 
villas, wherever the river is most beautiful, are situated 
upon its banks. 

In short, every object that presents itself will afford you 
entertainment. For you will also find food for study in 
the numerous inscriptions, by many hands all over the 
pillars and walls, in praise of the spring and its tutelar 
deity. Many of them you will admire, others you will 
laugh at; but I must correct myself when I say so; you are 
too good-natured, I know, to laugh at any. Farewell. 

William Melmoth 

CREMONA (Cremona) 

In the third century B. C. the Romans settled a colony 
at Cremona. The town was often used for military pur- 
poses, Scipio having taken his army there for winter quar- 
ters after the battle at the Trebia river in 218 B. C, and 
the Romans having used it as one of their loyal strong- 
holds in the Second Punic War. The city suffered much 
during the various Gallic invasions and finally became so 
depleted that in 190 B. C. a fresh body of colonists was 
sent thither. From this time the place continued to 
flourish until it came to be looked upon as, one of the most 
important towns in this part of Italy. Because of its 
sympathy with the side of Brutus after the death of Cae- 
sar, its territory was seized by Augustus and assigned to 
his veterans — a fate that also befell the neighboring 
Mantua. But the deadly blow fell in 69 A. D. when the 
city was burned to the ground during the war between the 
forces of Vitellius and Vespasian. Although the latter 
rebuilt it, the place never attained its former prominence. 

152 Classical Associations 

Quadraginta armatorum milia inrupere, calonum lixa- 
rumque amplior numerus et in libidinem ac saevitiam 
corruptior. Non dignitas, non aetas protegebat, quo 
minus stupra caedibus, caedes stupris miscerentur. Gran- 
daevos senes, exacta aetate feminas, viles ad praedam, in 
ludibrium trahebant : ubi adulta virgo aut quis forma con- 
spicuus incidisset, vi manibusque rapientium divulsus ip- 
sos postremo direptores in mutuam perniciem agebat. 
Dum pecuniam vel gravia auro templorum dona sibi quis- 
que trahunt, maiore aliorum vi truncabantur. Quidam 
obvia aspernati verberibus tormentisque dominorum ab- 
dita scrutari, defossa eruere: faces in manibus, quas, ubi 
praedam egesserant, in vacuas domos et inania templa 
per lasciviam iaculabantur; 

Hie exitus Crernonae anno ducentesimo octogesimo 
sexto a primordio sui. Condita erat Ti. Sempronio P. 
Cornelio consulibus, ingruente in Italiam Annibale, pro- 
pugnaculum adversus Gallos trans Padum agentes et si 
qua alia vis per Alpes rueret. Igitur numero colonorum, 
opportunitate fluminum, ubere agri, adnexu conubiisque 
gentium adolevit floruitque, bel'lis externis intacta, civili- 
bus infelix. 

Tac. Hist. iii. 33-34. 

of Places in Italy 153 

The Destruction of Cremona 

Forty thousand men had entered sword in hand. The 
number of slaves and mean attendants of the camp was 
still greater, all bent on mischief, and more inclined to 
acts of barbarity than even the soldiers. Neither sex, nor 
age, nor dignity of rank, was spared. A scene of blood 
was laid, and amidst the horrors of a general massacre, 
lust and violation triumphed. Old men and ancient ma- 
trons, who had no wealth to satisfy avarice, were dragged 
forth with scorn, and butchered with derision. The young 
and comely of either sex were to suffer the brutal passions 
of abandoned men, or to be torn piecemeal in the struggle 
for the possession of their persons. In these conflicts the 
contending rivals, in the rage of disappointed lust, turned 
their swords against each other. The men, who were seen 
carrying off the wealth of houses, or massy gold from the 
temples, were attacked and butchered by others as rapa- 
cious as themselves. Not content with the treasures that 
lay open to their view, they put several to the rack, in 
order to extort a confession of concealed riches. The 
ground was dug up, to gratify the rage of avarice. Num- 
bers carried flaming torches, and, as soon as they had 
brought forth their booty, made it their sport to set the 
houses and temples on fire 

Such was the fate of Cremona, two hundred and eighty- 
six years from its foundation. The first stone was laid 
during the consulship of Tiberius Sempronius and Pub- 
lius Cornelius, at the time when Hannibal threatened an 
irruption into Italy. The design was to have a frontier 
town, to bridle the Gauls inhabiting beyond the Po, or any 
power on the other side of the Alps. The colony from that 
time grew into celebrity; their numbers multiplied, and 
their wealth increased; the country round was intersected 
with rivers; the soil was fertile; and b>' intermarriages the 
inhabitants formed alliances. with the neighboring towns 
of Italy. The city continued to flourish in the worst of 
times, safe from foreign enemies, till ruined at last by the 

rage of civil war. 

Arthur jMurfhy 

154 Classical Associations 

Mantua, vae, miserae nimium vicina Cremonae. 

Vir. Ed. ix. 28. 

Initia aetatis Cremonae egit usque ad virilem togam 

quam XV anno natali suo accepit Sed Virgil- 

ius a Cremona Mediolanum et inde paulo post transiit in 

Suet. De Poet (Vir.) 6-8. 

CROTON (Cotrone)i 

AoKei S' fi TToXis TO. Te iroXefiia acrKfjcraL /cat to, irepl rifv 
a.&'Kriaiv kv ;ut$ yovv '0Xu/ixtd5t ol tSiv oKKuv irpoT^pijaavTK rif 
araSUf iirTo, avSpes oirajjres inrfjp^av Kporwi'taTai, Siar' eUdrui 
eiprjadai SoKel dioTL KpoTUviaTuv 6 scxotos rrpccTOs riv tSiv oXXcoi' 
''SXkqvuiV Kal rijv Tapoifiiav Se vyi-faTepov Kporoivos \kyov- 
aav ivTeu&tv dprja&ai tpaaiv, cbs tov tottov vphs vyieiav Kai 
tiit^iav ixovTOS TL ipopov. wXticTovs ovv 'OXu/tirioi'iKas ^ffX'j 
Kaiirtp oil iroKvv xpovov oiKTi^eiaa bio. tov <pd6pov twv eirl HiAyp<i. 
TTfcrovTCOv avSpSiv roaovroiv to xX^iJos' Trpoctka^t &k rfj do^ji 
Kal TO tCiv Tlvdayopi'ui)v irXrj'&os Kal MtXtoc, eirKpaviaraTOi niv 
tSiv k&\r]Twv yeyoviis o/uiXtjtijs 3^ Hv&ayopov dLarpiyl/avTos iv 
TTJ TToXei TToXvp xpovov. ipaol 8' kv tQ avacLTiui irori tS>v tpiKiy- 
cbipuv TTOvijaavTOs (ttvXov tov MiXwca vTodvvTa (rSxrai ixiravTas, 
vwocrwaaai di Kal iavTov. 

Strab. vi. 1, 12. 

1 The town was one of the most celebrated of the early Greek colonies in Italy, its 
fame, being equalled only by that of its neighbor Sybaris. The zenith of its power falls, 
perhaps, in the sixth century B.C. In the last years of the Punic Wars it is still of some 
importance and Hannibal for threfe successive winders chose this neighborhood for his 
head-quarters, finding that the luxuriant pasture land about the place made it easy for 
him to supply his army with food. It is said, too, that the enormous wealth of the sacred 
temple of Juno Lacinia, just a few miles away, was a powerful attraction for him, (Cic. 
de Div. i. 24). But the place is scarcely mentioned during the later Republican period. 

oj Places in Italy 155 

Mantua, alas! too near ill-fated Cremona. 

H. R. Fairclough 

Virgil spent his early life at Cremona until he assumed 
the gown of manhood, upon his fifteenth birthday .... 
Virgil, however, moved from Cremona to Mediolanum, 
and shortly afterwards from there to Rome. 


A Center for Athletics 

The city cultivated martial discipline and athletic ex- 
ercises^ to a great extent, and in one of the Olympic games 
all the spven wrestlers, who obtained the palm in the 
stadium, were inhabitants of Croton; whence, it seems, 
the saying arose that the last wrestler of Croton was the 
first of the other Greeks, and hence, they say also, is the 
origin of the expression, "more salubrious than Croton," 
as instancing a place which had something to show in the 
number of wrestlers which it produced, as a proof of its 
salubrity and the robust frame of body which it was cap- 
able of rearing. Thus it had many victors in the Olym- 
pic games, although it cannot be reckoned to have been 
long inhabited on account of the vast destruction of its 
citizens who fell at the battle of the Sagras.' Its celebrity 
too was not a little spread by the number of Pythagoreans 
who resided there, arid by Milo, who was the most re- 
nowned of wrestlers, and lived on terms of intimacy with 
Pythagoras* who abode long in this city. They relate that 
at a banquet of the philosophers, when one of the pillars in 
the hall gave way, Milo sustained the ceiling while they all 
escaped, and afterwards saved himself. 

H. C. Hamilton 

s The fame of Croton was largely connected with the superiority of its athletes and 
their victories at Olympia. It is said that the physical training given to their youth made 
both the young men and the girls exceedingly beautiful. 

3 A battle about the middle of the fourth century B. C. in which Croton met a disas- 
trous defeat at the hands of the Locrians and Rhegians (Cic. de N. D. ii. 6), a blow from 
which the city never recovered. , , . , i t-i t 

* A society known as the Pythagoreans, based upon the doctrines of the philosopher 
Pythagoras, who was a resident of Croton, played a very considerable part in the political 
and religious life of the city, and their ideas spread far beyond the bounds of this locality. 

156 Classical Associations 

Sed et Crotoniatae, ut ait Timaeus, postquam Sybari- 
tas delessent, in luxuriam prolapsi sunt: ita quidem ut 
eorum praetor etiam per urbem incederet veste purpurea 
amictus, aurea redimitus corona, candidis crepidis cal- 

Athen. xii. 22 (Latin version by 
Johannes Schweighauser, 1804) 

Urbs Croto murum in circuitu patentem duodecim 
milia passuum habuit ante Pyrrhi in Italiam adventum. 
Post vastitatem eo bello factam vix pars dimidia habita- 
batur: flumen, quod medio oppido fluxerat, extra fre- 
quentia tectis loca praeterfluebat, et arx erat procul eis, 
quae habitabantur. 

Liv. xxiv. 3, 1-3. 

In urbe nobili templum erat ipsa urbe nobilius, Laciniae 
lunonis, sanctum omnibus circa populis. Lucus ibi fre- 
quent! silva et proceris abietis arboribus saeptus laeta in 
medio pascua habuit, ubi omnis generis sacrum deae pe- 
cus pascebatur sine ullo pastore; separatimque greges sui 
cuiusque generis nocte remeabant ad stabula, numquam 
insidiis ferarum, non fraude violati hominum. Magniigi- 
tur fructus ex eo pecore capti, columnaque inde aurea so- 
lida facta et sacrata est; Lnclitumque templum divitiis 
etiam, non tantum sanctitate fuit. 

Liv. xxiv. 3, 3-6. 

B Sometime in tiie sixtli century, probably about 510 B. C, Croton utterly destroyed 
Lhe neighboring city of Sybaris. (See the topic Sybaris and Athen. xii. 21.) 

8 The war waged by the Romans with Pyrrhus delivered the final blow to Croton's 
power and influence (Liv. xxiv. 3). 

of Places in Italy 157 

The Luxury of the People of Croton 

And the men of Croton, as Timaeus says, after they had 
destroyed the people of Sybaris,^ began to indulge in lux- 
ury; so that their chief magistrate went about the city clad 
in a purple robe, and wearing a golden crown on his head, 
and wearing also white sandals. 


Croton's Former Extent 

Before the coming of Pyrrhus^ into Italy, the wall en- 
compassing Croton was twelve miles in circumference; 
since the devastation caused by the war which then took 
place, scarcely one half of the inclosed space was inhabited; 
the river which formerly flowed through the middle of the 
town now ran on the outside of the part occupied by build- 
ings, and the citadel was at a great distance from these. 

George Baker 

A Wealthy Temple 

In the region of a well-known city stood the famous 
temple of Juno Lacinia, more universally celebrated than 
the city itself, and held in high veneration by all the sur- 
rounding nations. Here, a consecrated grove, encom- 
passed on the extremities by close-ranged trees and tall firs, 
comprehended in the middle a tract of rich pasture-ground, 
in which cattle of every kind, sacred to the goddess, fed, 
without any keeper, the herds of each particular kind 
going out separately and returning at night to their stalls, 
without ever receiving injury, either from wild beasts or 
men. The profits, therefore, accruing from these cattle 
were great, out of which a pillar of solid gold was erected 
and consecrated so that the fane became as remarkable for 
riches as for sanctity. 

George Baker 

158 Classical Associations 

CUMAE (Cuma) 

One of the most ancient of the Greek cities in Italy 
(Strabo says it was the first of the Greek settlements), 
Cumae rose to a position of great power and influence. 
From 700 B. C. to 500 B. C. it was perhaps the most im- 
portant city in this region of Italy. It waged war for 
many years against the rising power of the Etruscans and 
again against that of the Samnites, who in 420 B. C. suc- 
ceeded in capturing the city, inflicting the most severe 

Sic fatur lacrimans, classique immittit habenas, 
et tandem Euboicis Cumarum adlabitur oris, 
obvertunt pelago proras; tum dente tenaci 
ancora f undabat navis, et litora curvae 
praetexunt puppes. iuvenum manus emicat ardens 
litus in Hesperium; quaerit pars semina flammae 
abstrusa in venis silicis, pars densa ferarum 
tecta rapit silvas, inventaque flumina monstrat. 
at pius Aeneas arces, quibus altus Apollo 
praesidet, horrendaeque procul secreta Sibyllae, 
antrum immane, petit, magnam cui mentem animum- 

Delius inspirat vates aperitque futura. 
iam subeunt Triviae lucos atque aurea tecta. 

Vir. Aen. vi. 1-13. 

1 Cumae is the landing place for the storm-tossed Trojans. 

2 A reference to the temple of Apollo in this neighborhood. 

3 The famous Cumaean Sibyl inhabits a cave near the temple of Apollo, the"Delian 
seer" who is the source of her inspiration. 

* The name" Trivia" is applied to Diana as a goddess connected with the lower world. 

of Places in Italy 159 

suffering upon its inhabitants. In the course of time it 
became a Roman town, although of no special importance. 
Hannibal made an energetic attack upon the place in the 
Second Punic War, but was repulsed by Sempronius Grac- 
chus. (For a vivid account of this affair, see Liv. xxiii. 
36, 37; for Hannibal's destruction of the region, see xxiv. 
13.) As several of the passages quoted below indicate, it 
was known in later times only as a quiet place which at- 
tracted those in search of rest and retirement. 

The Trojans Reach Italy; Aeneas Seeks Apollo 

Thus he cries, weeping, and gives his fleet the reins, and 
at last glides up to the shores of Euboean Cumae.^ They 
turn the prows sea-ward, then with the grip of anchors' 
teeth made fast the ships, and the round keels fringe the 
beach. In hot haste the youthful band leaps forth on the 
Hesperian shore; some seek the seeds of flame hidden in 
veins of flint, some pillage the woods, the thick coverts ot 
game, and point to new-found streams. But good Aeneas 
seeks the heights, where Apollo^ sits enthroned, and a 
vast cavern' hard by, hidden haunt of the dread Sibyl, 
into whom the Delian seer breathes a mighty mind and 
■ soul, revealing the future. Now they pass under the grove 
of Trivia'' and the roof of gold. 

H. R. Fairclough 

160 Classical' Associations 

Hue ubi delatus Cumaeam accesseris urbem 
divinosque lacus et Averna sonantia silvis, 
insanam vatem aspicies, quae rupe sub ima 
fata canit foliisque notas et nomina mandat. 
quaecumque in foliis descripsit carmina virgo, 
digerit in numerum atque antro seclusa relinquit. 
ilia manent immota locis neque ab ordine cedunt; 
varum eadem, verso tenuis cum cardine ventus 
impulit et teneras turbavit ianua f rondes, 
numquam deinde cavo volitantia prendere saxo, 
nee revocare situs aut iungere carmina curat : 
inconsulti abeunt, sedemque odere Sibyllae. 
hie tibi ne qua morae fuerint dispendia tanti, 
quamvis increpitent socii, et vi eursus in altum 
vela voeet possisque sinus implere secundos, 
quin adeas vatem precibusque oracula poscas. 
ipsa canat. voeemque volens atque ora resolvat. 

Vir. Aen. iii. 441-457. 

"Nee dea sum," dixit "nee sacri turis honore 
humanum dignare caput, neu neseius erres: 
lux aeterna mihi earituraque fine dabatur, 
si mea vjrginitas Phoebo patuisset amanti. 
dum tamen banc sperat, dum praeeorrumpere donis 
me eupit, 'elige,' ait 'virgo Cumaea, quid optes: 
optatis potiere tuis.' ego pulveris hausti 
ostendens cumulum, quot haberet corpora pulvis, 
tot rnihi na tales contingere vana rogavi; 
excidit, ut peterem iuvenes quoque protinus annos. 

• An account of the Sibyl's method of communicating her prophecies to visitors who 
come to her cave and an injunction to Aeneas to insist upon a message from her inspired 
lips. In this connection, see Vir. Aen. vi. 42-5 1 ; 5 1-76; 83-97. 

• The Sibyl tells the story of how she received the gift of prophecy from Apollo. 

of Places in Italy 161 

The Cave of the Sibyl' 

When wafted to that shore, 
Repair to Cumae's hill, and to the lake, 
Avernus, with its whispering grove divine. 
There shalt thou see a frenzied prophetess, 
Who from beneath the hollow scarped crag 
Sings oracles; or characters on leaves. 
Mysterious names. Whate'er the virgin writes. 
On leaves inscribing the portentous song. 
She sets in order, and conceals them well 
In her deep cave, wh^re they abide unchanged 
In due array. Yet not a care has she, 
If with some swinging hinge a breeze sweeps in. 
To catch them as they whirl: if open door 
Disperse them fluttering through the hollow rock. 
She will not link their shifted sense anew, 
Nor re-invent her fragmentary song. 
Oft her unanswered votaries depart, 
Scorning the Sibyl's shrine. But deem not thou 
Thy tarrying too long, whate'er thy stay. 
Though thy companions chide, though winds of power 
Invite thy ship to sea, and well would speed 
The swelling sail, yet to that Sibyl go. 
Pray that her own lips may sing forth for thee 
The oracles, uplifting her dread voice 
In willing prophecy. 

T. C. Williams 

A Tragic Tale'' 

"I am no goddess, nor is any mortal worthy of the 
honour of the sacred incense. But, lest you mistake in 
ignorance, eternal, endless life was offered me, had my 
virgin modesty consented to Phoebus' love. While he 
still hoped for this and sought to break my will with gifts, 
he said: 'Choose what you will, maiden of Cumae, and you 
shall have your choice.' Pointing to a heap of sand, I 
made the foolish prayer that I might have as many years 
of life as there were sand-grains in the pile; but forgot to 
ask that those years might be perpetually young. He 

162 Classical Associations 

hos tamen ille mihi dabat aeternamque iuventam, 
si Venerem paterer. contempto munere Phoebi 
innuba permaneo. sed iam felicior aetas 
terga dedit, tremuloque gradu venit aegra senectus, 
quae patienda diu est. nam iam mihi saecula septem 
acta vides: superest, numeros ut pulveris aequem, 
ter centum messes, ter centum musta videre. 
tempus erit, cum de tanto me corpore parvam 
longa dies faciet, consumptaque membra senecta 
ad minimum redigentur onus, nee amata videbor 
nee placuisse deo.' 

Ov. Met. xiv. 130-150. 

UpoTipov p,tv ovv rjvTvxti- Iv T€ TToXtsl Kal TO '^Xiypotov 
KoKovixevov irediov, iv S3 rd irepi tovs riyavras p.vdtvov<nv ova 
aXKo&tv, d)s e k6s, aW ka tov iripifxaxriTOV t7)v yrjv elvai 5t' 
aperriv, viTTtpov 5' ol Katiwavoi Kvpi.01 KaraaravTis ttjs irbXeojs 
■ iifip aav ds tovs av&pdnrovs jroXXa. Kai Sri Kal rais Ywot^ic 
aiiTOjy auvifiKr]<Tav avToL o/xws 8' ovv ert (rojferat TroXXa Ix"'') 
TOV '¥SK\riviKov Kocrfiov kolI tGiv iepSiv Kal twv vofiLfjuav. iivona- 
a^ai 5' fVLOL Kiinriv awo tSiv KVnaTOiv ipaai- paxioiSris yap Kal 
Trpoafxv^ 6 TrXTjo'toi' alycaXos. flal 5i Kal KriTetaL wap' avToh 
apt.(TTai. kv 6i tco koXttoj Toiircj) Kai vXrj tLs ecTL ^aiiv6}5ris fTri 
TToWovs tKTeLvofievri trraStous avvdpos Kai dyit/icoSrjs, fjv FaXXi- 
vapiav v\i]v Kokovcip. evTav^a drj Xjjo'Ti7pta (TvvtaTricravTO oi 
nofiTrilov Se^TOD vahapxoi, Ka&' bv Kaipbv "ZiKtKiav airt<TTr}(Tev 

Strab. V. 4, 4. 

Quamvis digressu veteris confusus amici, 
' laudo tamen vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis 
destinet atque unum civem donare Sibyllae. 
ianua Baiarum est et gratum litus amoeni 

Juv. iii. 1-5. 

^ The poet Juvenal is referring here to one of his friends who has just moved from 
Rome. <See Aquinum.) 

oj Places in Italy 1 63 

granted me the years, and promised endless youth as well, 
if I would yield to his love. I spurned Phoebus' gift and 
am still unwedded. But now my joyous springtime of 
life has fled and with tottering step weak old age is coming 
on, which for long I must endure. Even now you see me 
after seven centuries of life, and, ere my years equal the 
number of the sands, I still must behold three hundred 
harvest-times, three hundred vintages. The time will 
come when length of days will shrivel me from my full 
form to but a tiny thing, and my limbs, consumed by age, 
will shrink to a feather's weight. Then will I seem never 
to have been loved, never to ha\'e pleased the god." 

F. J. Miller 

Miscellaneous Items About Cumae 

.\t first this city was highly prosperous, as well as the 
Phlegraean plain which mythology has made the scene 
of the adventures of the giants, for no other reason, as it 
appears, than because the fertility of the country had given 
rise to Imttles for its possession. Afterwards, however, 
the Campanians becoming masters of the city, inflicted 
much injustice on the inhabitants, and even violated their 
wives. Still, however, there remain numerous traces of 
the Grecian taste, their temples, and their laws. Some 
are of opinion that Cumae was so called from ra Kviiara, 
the waves, the seacoast near it being rocky and exposed. 
These people have excellent fisheries. On the shores of 
this gulf there is a scrubby forest, extending over numerous 
acres of parched and sandy land. This they call the Gal- 
linarian wood. It was there that the admirals of Sextus 
Pompeius assembled their gangs of pirates, at the time 
when he drew Sicily into revolt. 

■H. C. Hamilton 

Cumae Receives a New Citizen' 

Though put out by the departure of my old friend, I 
commend his purpose to fix his home at Cumae and to 
present one citizen to the Sibyl. That is the gate of 
Baiae, a sweet retreat upon a pleasant shore. 

G. G. Ramsay 

164 Classical Associations 

Quieta Cyme. 

Stat. Silv. iv. 3, 65. 

AiTjX&e yap es x'^pi-"- '^'■O' « Kii/xtji' t^s 'iTaXiaj xai kvTaWa iir' 
kprinlas BaXatxa'a n Kal KwriyecLoLs kxPV'''0! °^ (pvXaaco/jxvos 
Upa rbv Kara acrv ISujiTrfv fiiov oiiS' kadeviis &v avdis es 6 tl opfxif- 
atitv. & dvvarfi jxev en :^ ijKiKla Kal to aufia tvpucTOV, 

aXXd fioi SoKti Kopov re iroXifjMV Kal Kopov dpxjjs Kal Kopov dart- 
os XajSciv erl reXei Kal aypoiKlas epacrd^vai. 

, Appian B. C. i. 104. 

Forte illis diebus Campaniam petiverat Caesar, et Cu- 
mas usque progressus Petronius illic attinebatur; nee tulit 
ultra timoris aut spei moras. Neque tamen praeceps vi- 
tam expulit, sed incisas venas, ut libitum, obligatas aperire 
rursum et adloqui amicos, non per seria aut quibus gloriam 
constantiae peteret. Audiebatque referentes, nihil de 
inmortalitate animae et sapientium placitis, sed levia 
carmina et faciles versus. Servorum alios largitione, quos- 
dam verberibus adfecit. Iniit et epulas, somno indulsit, 
ut quamquam coacta mors fortuitae similis esset. Ne 
codicillis quidem, quod plerique pereuntium, Neronem 
aut Tigellinum aut quem alium potentium adulatus est: 
sed flagitia principis sub nominibus exoletorum femina- 
rumque et novitatem cuiusque stupri perscripsit atque ob- 
signata misit Neroni. Fregitque anulum, ne mox usui 
esset ad facienda pericula. 

Tac. Ann. xvi. 19. 

B This and following passages bear out the statement in the introductory note as to the 
attractions of Cumae as a place of retirement. Pompey had a villa here (Cic. ad Att. iv. 
10) as well as Cicero (ad Att. xiv. 20; iv. 11; v. 2.), and many other prominent Romans 
had homes not far away. (For an account of a millionaire's villa, see Sen. Ep. Iv, 1-5.) 

' Sulla, leader of the senatorial party, and practically the ruler of Rome, in 79 B. C, to 
the surprise of all, retired from public life. 

10 The emperor Nero, at whose court Petronius, an arbiter of fashion as well as a man 
of letters, was a prominent figure. For a long time a favorite, he at last fell under the 
censure of the emperor and was obliged to take his own life. 

of Places in Italy 165 

Quiet Cumae.* 

A Prominent Politician Retires 

For he' retired to his own estates at Cumae in Italy and 
there occupied his leisure in hunting and fishing. He did 
this, not because he was afraid to live a private life in the 
city, nor because he had not sufficient bodily strength for 
whatever he might be eager to do, for he was still of virile 

age and sound constitution But I think that 

because he was weary of war, weary of power, weary of 
Rome, he finally fell in love with rural life. 

Horace White 

The End of an Emperor's Favorite 

It happened at the time that the Emperor'" was on his 
way to Campania and that Petronius, after going as far as 
Cumae, was there detained. He bore no longer the sus- 
pense of fear or hope, yet he did not fling away life with 
precipitate haste, but having made an incision in his veins 
and then, according to his humour, bound them up, he 
again opened them, while he conversed with his friends, 
not in a serious strain or on topics that might win for him 
the glory of courage. And he listened to them as they re- 
peated, not thoughts on the immortality of the soul or on 
the theories of philosophers, but light poetry and playful 
verses. To some of his slaves he gave liberal presents, a 
flogging to others. He dined, indulged himself in sleep, 
that death, though forced on him, might have a natural 
appearance. Even in his will, he did not, as did many in 
their last moments, flatter Nero or Tigellinus or any other 
of the men in power. On the contrary, he described fully 
the prince's shameful excesses, with the names of his male 
and female companions and their novelties in debauchery, 
and sent the account under seal to Nero. Then he broke 
his signet-ring, that it might not be subsequently available 
for imperilling others. 

Alfred Church and William Brodribb 

166 Classical Associations 


(Villa Spada near Castel Giubileo) 

A large and important town in the very early days of 
Rome, with whose various wars it was frequently con- 
nected. On several occasions it seems to have joined 
forces with its powerful neighbor, Veii, in order to resist 
Roman domination (Livy i, 27; iv, 17-19). An account 
of one of these contests in which the Roman consul suc- 

Urbs aha et munita. 

Liv. iv. 22, ,3. 

Gabjis desertior atque 
Fidenis vicus. 

Hor. Ep. i. 11, 7-8. 

M. Licinio L. Calpurnio consulibus, ingentium bellorum 
cladem aequavit malum improvisum; eius initium simul 
et finis exstitit. Nam coepto apud Fidenam amphitheatre, 
Atilius quidam libertini generis, quo spectaculum gladia- 
torum celebraret, neque fundaraenta per solidum subdidit, 
neque firmis nexibus ligneam compagem superstruxit, ut 
qui non abundantia pecuniae nee municipali ambitione, 
sed in sordidam mercedem id negotium quaesivisset. Ad- 
fluxere avidi talium, imperitante Tiberio procul volup- 
tatibus habiti, virile ac muliebre secus, omnis aetas, ob 
propinquitatem loci effusius; unde gravior pestis fuit, 
conferta mole, dein convulsa, dum ruit intus aut in ex- 
teriora effunditur inmensamque vim mortalium, specta- 
culo intentos aut qui circum adstabant, praeceps trahit 
atque operit. Et illi quidem, quos principium stragis in 
mortem adflixerat, ut tali sorte, cruciatum effugere: 
miserandi magis quos abrupta parte corporis nondum 
vita deseruerat; qui per diem visu, per noctem ululatibus 
et gemitu coniuges aut liberos noscebant 

* A characteristic allusion in the literature of the Empire. 
2 An accident in the reign of Tiberius. 

ol Places ill Italy 167 

ceeds in capturing the city by digging a tunnel under 
It is especially vivid (Livy iv. 22). The end came in 
the fifth century when the Roman dictator plundered 
the town and sold its inhabitants into slavery although 
not totally destroying the place. It never recovered 
its importance, however, and in the late Republic as 
the passages below show, it has become an insignificant 

A city lofty in its situation and fortified. 

A village more- deserted' than Gabii or Fidenae. 

A Grand-Stand Falls= 

In the consulship of Marcus- Licinius and Lucius Cal- 
purnius, a sudden accident caused a loss of life equal 
to that .of some great battle. The calamity began and 
ended in a moment. A certain Atilius, a freedman, had 
put up an amphitheatre at Fidenae for the purpose of a 
gladiatorial exhibition; but he had neither made the foun- 
dations sure, nor firmly knitted together the wooden super- 
structure, being a man who had undertaken the business, 
not from abundance of means, or to win favor among his 
townsmen, but merely for sordid gain. Lovers of such 
shows, of both sexes and of every age, poured in: debarred 
from such pleasures under Tiberius, they flocked thither 
in all the greater numbers that the place was so near to 
Rome. Hence the magnitude of the disaster that fol- 
lowed. For when the huge fabric was densely packed, it 
suddenly collapsed, part falling inwards, part outwards, 
carrying headlong with it, or overwhelming, a vast num- 
ber of persons who were absorbed in watching the games, 
or were standing around. Those killed outright at first, 
bad as their case was, escaped furthei; suffering; more 
pitiable was the lot of those who, with limbs torn off, were 
still ahve, recognizing wife or children by their faces as 
long as daylight lasted, by their cries and lamentations 
when night came on. 


Classical Associations 

Ut coepere dimoveri obruta, concursus ad exanimos 
complectentium, osculantium; et saepe certamen, si con- 
fusior fades, sed par forma aut aetas errorem adgnoscen- 
tibus fecerat. Quinquaginta hominum milia eo casu 
debilitata vel obtrita sunt. 

Tac. Ann. iv. 62-63. 

Scene Near Fidenae 

of Places in Italy 169 

. . As soon as the removal of the debris began, people 
rushed upon the dead bodies, kissing and embracing them 
and many a dispute took place over some unrecognizable 
face, if similarity of age or form suggested a mistaken 
identification. No less than fifty thousand people were 
either maimed or crushed to death in this disaster. 

G. G. Ramsay 

FORMIAE (MoLA Di Gaeta or Formia) 

An early mention of the place indicates that after the 
close of the Latin War in 338 B. C, it was rewarded by 
the gift of citizenship for the favor it had shown to Rome 
(though not an active participant in the contest) in keep- 
ing its passes open to the Roman army. From the 
close of the second century B. C, it grew rapidly into a 
flourishing municipality and, being situated on the Appian 
Way and in the midst of an unusually beautiful country, 
came to be looked upon as a most desirable resort for the 
nobles of Rome. The prominence of Cicero in the classi- 
cal world and the fact that he spent much of his time at 
his villa at Forraiae, give the chief interest to the place to- 
day. (See ad Att. ii. 9; ii. 11; ii. 13. et al.) 

170 Classical Associations 

temperatae duke Formiae litus, 
vos, cum severi fugit oppidum Mart is 
et inquietas fessus exuit curas, 
ApoUinaris omnibus locis praefert. 
non ille sanctae dulce Tibur uxoris, 
nee Tusculanos Algidosve secessus, 
Praeneste nee sic Antiumque miratur; 
non blanda Circe Dardanisve Caieta 
desiderantur, nee Marica nee Liris, 
nee in Lucrina lota Salmacis vena, 
hie summa leni stringitur Thetis vento; 
nee languet aequor, viva sed quies ponti 
pictam phaselon adiuvante fert aura, 
sicut puellae non amantis aestatem 
mota saltibre purpura venit frigus. 
nee saeta longo quaerit in mari praedam, 
sed e eubiclo lectuloque iactatam 
spectatus alte lineam trahit piscis. 
si quando Nereus sentit Aeoli regnum, 
ridet procellas tuta de suo mensa: 
piscina rhombum pascit et lupos vernas, 
natat ad magistrum delicata muraena, 
nomeneulator mugilem citat notum, 
et adesse iussi prodeunt senes mulli. 
frui sed istis quando, Roma, permittis? 
quot Formianos imputat dies annus 
negotiosis rebus urbis haerenti? 
o ianitores vilicique felices! 
dominis parantur ista, serviunt vobis. 

Mart. X. 30. 

Ego autem usque eo sum enervatus, ut hoc otio, quo 
nunc tabescimus, malim kvTvpavvuaBai, quam cum 
optima spe dimicare. De pangendo quod me crebro 
adhortaris, fieri nihil potest. Basilicam habeo, non vil- 
1am, frequentia Formianorum atque imparem basilicam 
tribui Aemiliae! Sed omitto vulgus; post horam iv 
molesti ceteri non sunt. C. Arrius proximus est vicinus; 

' An epifiram which the pnet writes to his friend .\polIiniiris. 

oj Places ill Italy 1 7 1 

An Ideal Resort 

O delightful shore of salubrious Formiae! Apollinaris, 
when he flees from the city of stern Mars, and, wearied, lays 
aside his anxious cares, prefers thee to every other spot. 
The charming Tivoli, the birth-place of his virtuous wife, 
is not to him so attractive, neither are the retreats of Tus- 
culum, or Algidus, or Praeneste, or Antium. He pines not 
after the bland Circe, or Trojan Caieta, or Marica, or 
Liris, or the fountain of Salmacis, which feeds the Lucrine 
lake. At Formiae the surface of the ocean is but gently 
crisped by the breeze; and though tranquil, is ever in mo- 
tion, and bears along the painted skiff under the influence 
of a gale as gentle as that wafted by a maiden's fan when 
she is distressed by heat. Nor has the fishing-line to seek 
its victim far out at sea; but the fish may be seen beneath 
the pellucid waters, seizing the line as it drops from the 
chamber or the couch. Were Aeolus ever to send a storm, 
the table, still sure of its provision, might laugh at his 
railings; for the native fish-pool protects the turbot and 
the pike; delicate lampreys swim up to their master; deli- 
cious mullet obey the call of the keeper, and the old carp 
come forth at the sound of his ^ oice. But when does 
Rome permit him to partake of these enjoyments? How 
many days at Formiae does the year allot to him, closely 
chained as he is to the pursuits of the city? Happy gate- 
keepers and bailiffs! These gratifications provided for 
your masters are enjoyed by you.^ 

Translated from the Bohn Library 

Bores Spoil Cicero's Days at Formiae 

For myself, however, I ha\'e grown so slack that I 
should prefer to waste my life in my present ease under a 
despotism than to take part in the struggle however bright 
the prospect of success. As for the writing for which 
you so incessantly clamor, it 1= impossible. My house is 
so crowded with the townfolk that it is a public hall rather 
than a private house: and too small at that for the Aemil- 
ian tribe. But — to omit the common herd, for others 
don't bother me after ten o'clock — C. Arrius is my next 

172 Classical A ssociations 

immo ille quidem iam contubernalis; qui etiam se idcirco 
Romam ire negat, ut hie mecum totos dies philosophetur. 
Ecce ex altera parte Sebosus, ille Catuli familiaris. Quo 
me vertam? Statim mehercule Arpinum irem, ni te in 
Formiano commodissime exspectari viderem, dumtaxat 
ad prid. Non. Mai.; vides enim, quibus hominibus aures 
sint deditae meae. Occasionem mirificam, si qui nunc, 
dum hi apud me sunt, emere de me fundum Formianum 

Cic. ad. Att. ii. 14, 1-2, 

Una Formias venimus et ab hora octava ad vesperum 
secreto coUocuti sumus. Quod quaeris, ecquae spes paci- 
ficationis sit, quantum ex Pompei multo et accurate 

sermone perspexi, ne voluntas quidem eat 

Vehementer hominem contemnebat et suis et rei publicae 
copiis confidebat. 

Cic. ad Att. vii. 8. 

In Mamurrarum lassi deinde urbe manemus, 
Murena praebente domum, Capitone culinam. 

Hor. S. i. 5, 37-38. 

2 A letter written by Cicero to his friend Atticus. 

» Pompey and Cicero hold one of their many discussions on the critical political situa- 
tion which has been brought about from Caesar's refusal to disband his legions at the 
bidding of the senate after his victorious campaigns in Gaul. 

* The wealthy and prominent family of Mamurra lived at Formiae. Horace again 
makes a halt in his journey to Brundisium. 

o/ Places in Italy 173 

door neighbor, or rather he lives with me, declaring that 
he has forborne to go to Rome, expressly for the purpose 
of spending his whole day philosophizing with me here. 
Then on the other side there is Sebosus, Catulus' intimate 
friend. Which way can I turn? Upon my word, I would 
go to Arpinum straight away, if I did not see that Formiae 
is the most convenient place to wait for your visit: but 
only up to the sixth of May, for you see what bores my 
ears are condemned to endure. Now's the time to bid for 
my Formian estate, while these people are pestering me.^ 


Two Leading Politicians Talk Over a Critical Situation' 

We reached Foripiae at the same time and were closeted 
together from two o'clock until evening. For your query 
as to the chance of a peaceful settlement, so far as I could 
tell from Pompey's full and detailed discourse, he does not 

even want peace Pompey has an utter com- 

tempt f.or him, and firm confidence in his own and the 
state's resources.' 


Then at Mamurra's^ city we pull up. 
Lodge with Murena, with Fonteius sup. 

John Conington 

FORUM APPI (FoRo Appio) 

A town on the Appian Way whose chief importance for 
the classical student lies in the fact that it was the usual 
resting place for travelers at the end of the first day's jour- 
ney from Rome. A canal led from here, parallel with the 
road, to the neighborhood of Tarracina, and travelers fre- 
quently chose this means of continuing their journey, as 
did Horace and his companions on the occasion of their 
trip to Brundisium. Cicero wrote several letters from 
here in 59 B. C. (ad Att. ii. 10). 

174 Classical Associations 

Inde Forum Appi, 
differtum nautis cauponibus atque malignis. 
hoc iter ignavi divisimus, altius ac nos 
praecinctis unum; minus est gravis Appia tardis. 
hie ego propter aquam, quod erat deterrima, ventri 
indico bellum, cenantes haud animo aequo 
exspectans comites. iam nox inducere terris 
umbras et caelo diffundere signa parabat; 
tum pueri nautis, pueris convicia nautae 
ingerere: "hue appelle; trecentos inseris; ohe 
iam satis est." dum aes exigitur, dum mula ligatur, 
tota abit hora. mali euliees ranaeque palustres 
avertunt somnos. absentem ut cantat amieam 
multa prolutus vappa nauta atque viator 
eertatim, tandem fessus dormire viator 
ineipit, ac missae pastum retinacula mulae 
nauta piger saxo religat stertitque supinus. 
iamque dies aderat, nil eum proeedere lintrem 
sentimus, donee eerebrosus prosilit unus 
ac mulae nautaeque caput lumbosque saligno 
fuste dolat: quarta vix demum exponimur hora 
ora manusque tua lavimus, Feronia, lympha. 

Hor. S. i. 5, 3-24. 

Kt ita contendimus Romam. Unde cum audissent 
fratres de rebus nostris, prodierunt nobis in oceursum us- 
que ad Appii Forum et Tres Tabernas: quos cum vidisset 
Paulus, gratiis actis Deo, sumpsit fiduciam. 

Acta Apost. xxviii. 15-16. 

' Horace and his companions. 

2 An allusion to the journey of St. Paul to Rome. Cicero mentions Tres Tabernae its 
a place where he turned off the Appian W-ay to go to .^ntium. 

of Phurs in Italy 175 

An Uncomfortable Night 

Next Appii Forum, filled, e'en nigh to choke, 
With knavish publicans and boatmen folk. 
This portion of our route, which most get through 
At one good stretch, we' chose to spht in two, 
Taking it leisurely: for those who go 
The Appian Way are jolted less when slow. 
I find the water villainous, decline 
My stomach's overture.^, refuse to dine, 
.\nd sit and sit with temper less than sweet 
Watching my fellow travelers while they eat. 
Now night prepared o'er all the Earth to spread 
Her veil, and light the stars up overhead: 
Boatmen and slaves a slanging-match begin: 
"Ho! put in here! What, take three hundred in? 
You'll swamp us all!" So, while our fares we pay 
And the mule's tied, a whole hour slips away. 
No hope of sleep: the tenants of the marsh. 
Hoarse frogs and shrill mosquitos, sing so harsh. 
While passenger and boatmen chant the praise 
Of their true-loves in amoebean lays, 
Each fairly drunk: the passenger at last 
Tires of the game, and soon his eyes are fast: 
Then to a stone his mule the boatman moors, 
Leaves her to pasture, lays him down, and snores. 
.\nd now 'twas near the dawning of the day. 
When 'tis discovered that we make no way: 
Out leaps a hair-brained fellow and attacks 
With a stout cudgel mule's and boatman's backs: 
And so at length, thanks to this vigorous friend, 
By ten o'clock we reach our boating's end. 
Tired with the voyage, face and hands we lave 
In pure Feronia's hospitable wave. 

John Conington 

Paul Approaches Rome^ 

And so we hurried to Rome. When the brothers heard 
about our affairs, they came out to meet us as far as 
Forum Appi and the Three Taverns; when Paul had seen 
them, and had given thanks to God, he felt new courage. 

176 Classical Associations 

FUCINUS LACUS (Lago di Fucino) 

Vitrea (te) Fucinus unda. 

Vir. Aen. vii. 759. 

neXo7ias to ixiytBos. xP^vrai 5' aiirj} ixaXicTa jtt^i' Mapaoi 
Kal xaJTes ol irK-qcioxoipoi. <pacrl 5' aiirriv Kal TrXripovadai iroTf 
fikxpi rrji opetvjjs (coi raweivovcrdai. tt&Xlv uar\piixii-v rovs 
\i)ivoi6'tvras roirovs Kal yeupyeladai Trapkxeiv, etre fitTacriifftis 
rSiv Kara ^adovs vyp&v airopaSriv Kal d3i7Xcos yivovrat. iroKiv S' 
iiruTvppkovaiv, ^ reXecos fKXtLTrovcnv ai Trrjyal Kal irAXij' (nivd\i- 
fiovTai, . . . : e/c 3^ t^s ^ovKtvas elvai ras Tnjyas iffropovai 
Tov MapKioD iidaros tov ttiv 'F<jifir]v totI^ovtos Kal xapA TfiXXa 
fiiBoKifiovvTOs iidara. 

Strab. V. 3, 13. 

Quin et emissurus Fucinum lacum naumachiam ante 
commisit. Sed cum proclamantibus naumachiariis : Have 
imperator, morituri te salutant! respondisset: Aut noni 
neque post banc vocem quasi venia data quisquam dimi- 
care vellet, diu cunctatus an omnes igni ferroque absu- 
meret, tandem e sede sua prosiluit ac per ambitum lacus 
non sine foeda vacillatione discurrens, partim minando 
partim adhortando ad pugnam compulit. Hoc spectaculo 
classis Sicula et Rhodia concurrerunt, duodenarum trire- 
mium singulae, gxciente bucina Tritone argenteo, qui e 
medio lacu per machinam emerserat. 

Suet. Claud. 21. 

1 The largest lake in central Italy, surrounded by lofty mountains. The hardy Marsi 
inhabited the region about it. 

2 The emperor Claudius, who drained this lake because, having no outlet, it frequently 
flooded the land about it. 

of Places in Italy 177 

The glassy waves of Fucinus.' 


John Conington 

A Curious Phenomenon 

This (lake) is vast as a sea, and is of great service to the 
Marsi and all the surrounding nations. They say that 
at' times its waters rise to the height of the mountains 
which surround it, and at others subside so much that 
the places which had been covered with water reappear 
and may be cultivated; however, the subsidings of the 
waters occur irregularly and without previous warning, 
and are followed by their rising again; the springs fail al- 
together and gush out again after a time. . . . 

It is reported that the Marcian water, which is drunk 
at Rome in preference to any other, has its source in Lake 

H. C. Hamilton 

An Emperor's Diversion 

Even when he''' was on the point of letting out the water 
from Lake Fucinus, he gave a sham sea-fight first. But 
when the combatants cried out: "Hail, emperor, they 
who are about to die salute thee," he replied, "Or not," 
and after that all of them refused to fight, maintaining 
that they had been pardoned. Upon this he hesitated 
for some time about destroying them all with fire and 
sword, but at last, leaping from his throne and lunning 
along the edge of the lake with his ridiculous, tottering 
gait, he induced them to fight, partly by threats and partly 
by promises. At this performance, a Sicilian and a Rho- 
dian fleet engaged, each numbering twelve triremes and 
the signal was sounded on a horn by a silver Triton which 
was raised from the middle of the lake by a mechanical 


178 Classical Associations 

Fucinum adgressus est, non minus compendii spe quam 
gloriae, cum quidam privato sumptu emissuros se re- 
promitterent, si sibi siccati agri concederentur. Per tria 
autem passuum milia partim ecfosso monte partim ex- 
cise, canalem absolvit aegre et post undecim annos, quam- 
vis continuis xxx hominum milibus sine intermissione 

Suet. Claud 21. 


A town on the Appian Way (Strab. v. 3, 6.) between 
Tarracina and Formiae, associated with the latter during 
the Punic War in its friendliness for Rome. Under the 
Empire it became a prosperous municipality. The 
family of Livia, wife of Augustus, ca'me originally from 
Fundi and some writers say that Tiberius was born 
here (Suet. Tib. 5). Its wine was excellent although' 
inferior to the Caecuban made in this region (Mart. xiii. 
113 and the topic Caecubus Ager in the Appendix). But it 
is Horace's stop here that lends the place its chief interest. 

Fundos Aufidio Lusco praetore libenter 
linquimus, insani ridentes praemia scribae, 
praetextam et latum clavum prunaeque batillum. 

Hor. S. i. 5, 34-36. 

Horace Enjoys a Joke 

We turn our back with much delight 
On Fundi, and its praetor, light 
Aufidius Luscus; many a joke 
And jest upon that crack-brained scribe 
We broke and his pretentious ways, 
His grand praetexta, all ablaze 
With a broad purple band, flung o'er him. 
And pans of charcoal borne before him. 

Sir Thkodore Martin 

of Places in Italy 


An Engineering Feat 

He'^ made the attempt on the Fucine Lake as much in 
the hope of gain as of glory, inasmuch as there were some 
who agreed to drain it at their own cost, provided that the 
land that was uncovered be given to them. He finished 
the outlet, which was three miles in length, partly by 
levelling and partly by tunnelling a mountain, a work of 
great difficulty and requiring eleven yeiars, although he 
had 30,000 men at work all the time without interruption. 


GAB 1 1 (Near Ca.stiglione)- 

The ViLTAr.F. OF Castiolioxe \ the Site of Gabu 

According lo \'irgii (Aen. vi. 773), the place was'foiinded by Alb;i. However Ihis may 
be, it attained great importance in the very early days of Rome to which, as Dionysius 
says (iv. 53), the ruins of its buildings and the circuit of its walls attest. During the 
Republic and the early Empire the place is known only as an insignificant village. The 
passages quoted below are characteristic of the writers of these times. The town seem.^ 
to have survived into the later Empire, however, and even to have increased somewhat 
in prosperity 


Classical Associations 

Tunc omne Latinum 
fabula no men erit; Gabios Veiosque Coramque 
pulvere vix tectae poterunt monstrare ruinae 
Albanosque lares Laurentinosque penates 
rus vacuum. 

Luc. vii. 391-395. 

Et qui nunc nulli, maxima turba Gabi. 

Prop. iv. 1, 34. 

rd/3io( /jiev iv rjj UpaivtaTlvn oScp KUfievq, Xarofiiov ixovaa, 
xiirovpybv rfj "Ptoju?? lilt^KTTa tS>v &.Wuv. 

Strab. V. 3, 10. 

Courtesy of Art and Archaeology 

Lago di Como and the City of Bellagio 

oj Places in Italy 181 

Then shall all the Latin name be a fable; the ruins con- 
cealed in dust shall hardly be able to point out Gabii, Veii, 
and Cora, and the deserted fields shall hardly show the 
homes of Alba and the household gods of Laurentum. 

H. T. RiLEV 

And Gabii, that now is naught, was then a. crowded 

H. E. Butler 

Gabii, standing in the Via Praenestina, possesses a 
stone-quarry, in greater demand at Rome than any other. 

H. C. Hamilton 

LARIUS LACUS (Lago di Como) 

The town of Comum was situated upon the banks of 
the lake and according to Justin was founded by the 
Gauls. Both Greek and Roman colonies were established 
there, and under Augustus it held municipal rank. Phny 
speaks of its iron foundries as being well-known (N. H. 
xxxiv. 144), and there is no doubt that by^ reason of the 
efforts of the Pliny family to enrich the town through the 
establishment of schools and libraries (to which frequent 
reference is made in the writings of the younger Pliny) the 
place became well known among the towns of this district. 
However, its fame was largely due to the beauty of the 
lake which made it a favorite resort for northern Italy. 
Mediolanum, especially, used the place for this purpose. 
The emperors were fond of it and we read that Con- 
stantino went there "procudendi ingenii causa" (Am- 
mian. Marcell. xv. 2, 8). Another reason for its popularity 
in later times lay in the fact that many travelers bound for 
the North were accustomed to embark here in order to 
avoid the trip by land which the rugged nature of the 
country rendered difficult. A writer of the fifth century 
A. D., Claudian, has described this voyage (Bell. Get. 

182 Classical Associations 

Quid agit Comum, tuae meaeque deliciae? quid sub- 
ur.banum amoenissimum? quid ilia porticus verna sem- 
per? quid platanon opacissimus? quid euripus viridis 
et gemmeus? quid subiectus et serviens lacus? quid 
ilia mollis et tamen solida gestatio? quid balineum illud, 
quod plurimus sol implet et circumit? quid triclinia ilia 
popularia, ilia paucorum? quid cubicula diurna, rioc- 
turna? Possident te et per vices partiuntur? an, ut 
solebas, intentione rei familiaris obeundae crebris excur- 
sionibus avocaris? Si te possident, felix beatusque es, si 
minus, unus ex multis. 

Plin. Ep. i. 3, 1-3. 

Studes an piscaris an venaris an simul omnia? Pos- 
sunt enim omnia simul fieri ad Larium nostrum. Nam 
lacus piscem, feras silvae quibus lacus cingitur, studia 
altissimus iste secessus adfatim suggerunt. Sed, sive 
omnia simul sive aliquid facis, non possum dicere "invideo" ; 
angor tamen non et mihi licere, quae sic concupisco ut 
aegri vinum, balinea, fontes. Numquamne hos artis- 
simos laqueos, si solvere negatur, abrumpam? Numquam, 
puto. Nam veteribus negotiis nova adcrescunt, nee 
tamen. priora peraguntur; tot nexibus, tot quasi catenis 
maius in dies occupationum agmen extenditur. Vale. 

Plin. Ep. ii. 8, 1-3. 

1 Letters written by the younger Pliny to his friend Caninius Rufua. 

of Places in Italy 1 83 

The Pleasures of a Roman Gentleman at Comum' 

How stands Comum, that favorite scene of yours and 
mine? Wh,at becomes of the pleasant Villa, the ever ver- 
nal Portico, the shady Planetree-grove, the crystal Canal 
so agreeably winding along its flowery banks, together 
with the charming Lake below, that serves at once the 
purpose of use and beauty? What have you. to tell me of 
the firm yet springy Allee, the Bath exposed on all sides 
to full sunshine, the public Salon, the private Dining-room, 
and all the elegant apartments for repose both at noon 
and night? Do these enjoy my friend, and divide his 
time with pleasing vicissitude? Or does the attentive 
management of your property, as usual, call you frequently 
out from this agreeable retreat? If the scene of your 
enjoyment lies wholly there, you are thrice happy: if not, 
you are levelled with the common order of mankind. 

William Melmoth 

The Tired Business Man Longs for Escape' 

How is my friend employed? Is it in study, or angling, 
or the chase? Or does he unite all three, as he well may 
on the banks of our favorite Larius? For that Lake will 
supply you with fish; as the woods that surround it will 
afford you game; while the solemnity of that sequestered 
scene will at the same time dispose your mind to contem- 
plation. Whether you are entertained with all, or any 
of these agreeable amusements, I cannot bring myself to 
say "I envy you", yet it irks me that I cannot partake of 
them too; a happiness I as earnestly long for, as a sick 
man does for wine, baths, and water-springs. Shall I 
never break loose (if I may not disentangle myself) from 
these snares that thus closely enmesh me? I doubt in- 
deed, never; for new affairs keep budding out of the old, 
while yet the former remain unfinished: such an endless 
train of business daily rises upon me, so numerous are the 
ties — I ma>- say the chains — that bind me! Farewell. 

WiLLLVM Melmoth 

184 Classical Associations 

Huius in litore. plures villae meae, sed duae maxime ut 
delectant ita exercent. Altera inposita saxis more Baiano 
lacum prospicit, altera aeque more Baiano lacum tangit. 
Itaque illam tragoediam, hanc appellare comoediam soleo, 
illam, quod quasi cothurnis, hanc, quod quasi socculis 
sustinetur. Sua utrique amoenitas, et utraque possidenti 
ipsa diversitate iucundior. Haec lacu propius, ilia latius 
utitur; haec unum sinum moUi curvamine amplectitur, 
ilia editissimo dorso duos dirimit; illic recta gestatio longo 
limite super litus extenditur, hie spatiosissimo xysto leni- 
ter infiectitur; ilia fluctus non sen tit, haec frangit; ex ilia 
possis despicere piscantes, ex hac ipse piscari hamumque 
de cubiculo ac paene etiam de lectulo ut e navicula iacere. 

Plin. Ep. ix. 7, 1-4. 

Est enim post montium devia et laci purissimi vasti- 
tatem, quasi murus quidam planae Liguriae. Quae licet 
munimen claustrale probetur esse provinciae, in tantam 
pulchritudinem perducitur, ut ad solas delicias instituta 
esse videatur. Haec post tergum campestria culta trans- 
mittit, et amoenis vectationibus apta, et victualibus copi- 
is indulgenter accommoda: a f route sexaginta milibus 
dulcissimi aequoris amoenitate perfruitur; ut et animus 
recreabili delectatione satietur, et piscium copia nulUs 
tempestatibus subducatur. Merito ergo Comum nomen 
accepit, quae tantis laetatur compta muneribus. Hie 
profeeto lacus est nimis amplissimae vallis profunditate 
suseeptus, qui concharum formas decenter imitatus spu- 
mei litoris albore depingitur. Circa quem eonveniunt in 
eoronae speeiem excelsorum montium pulcherrimae sum- 
mitates, cuius ora praetoriorum luminibus decenter ornata 
quasi quodam cingulo Palladiae silvae perpetuis viridita- 
tibus ambiuntur. Super hunc frondosae vineae latus 
montis ascendunt. Apex autem ipse, quasi quibusdam 
capillis, castanearum densitate crispatus, ornante natura 
depingitur. Hinc rivi niveo candore relucentes in aream 
laci altitudine praecipitante descendunt. Huius sinibus 

2 The site of the "Tragedy" is perhaps to be identified with that of the Villa Serbelloni. 

3 This account by a writer of the fifth and sixth centuries A. D. shows the popularity 
of the place at this late date. The writer is an official at the court of Theodoric. and so 
speaks with authority. 

oj Places in Italy 185 

Pliny Describes Two of His Villas 

I have several villas^ upon this shore, but there are two, 
particularly, in which, as I take most delight, so they give 
me the most employment. They are both situated in the 
manner of those at Baiae: one of them stands upon a rock, 
and overlooks the lake; the other touches it. The first, 
supported as it were by the lofty buskin, I call my Tragedy; 
the other, .as resting upon the humble sock, my Comedy. 
Each has its peculiar beauties, and recommends itself the 
more to its owner by mere force of contrast. The for- 
mer enjoys a wider, the latter a nearer prospect of the 
lake. This follows the gentle curve of a single bay; the 
salient ridge upon which the other stands, forms two. 
Here you have a straight alley extending itself along the 
shore; there, a spacious terrace that falls by a gentle des- 
cent towards it. The former does not perceive the force 
of the waves; the latter breaks them: from that, you may 
see the fishermen at work below; from thi'i, you yourself 
may cast your line from your bed-room and almost from 
your bed, as out of a boat. 

William Melmoth 

A Traveler of the Sixth Century A. D. Describes Comum^ 

Comum, with its precipitous mountains and its vast ex- 
panse of lake, seems placed there for the defense of the 
province of Liguria; and yet, again, it is so beautiful that 
one would think it was created for pleasure only. To 
the south lies a fertile plain with easy roads for the trans- 
port of provisions; on the north a lake sixty miles long, 
abounding in fish, soothing the mind with delicious rec- 

Rightly it is called Comum, because it is adorned 
(compta) with such gifts. The lake lies in a shell-like 
N-alley, with white margins, .\bove rises a diadem of lofty 
mountains, their slopes studded with bright villas, a girdle 
of olives below, vineyards above, while a crest of thick 
chestnut-woods adorns the very summit of the hills. 
Streams of snowy clearness dash from the hill-sides into 

186 Classical Associations 

ab austro veniens Addua fluvius, faucibus apertis excipi- 
tur. Qui ideo tale nomen accepit, quia duobus fontibus 
acquisitus, quasi in proprium mare devolvitur, qui tanto 
impetu vastissimi aequoris undas incidit, ut nomen retinens 
et colorem in septentrionem obesiori alvei venire genere- 
tur: putes quandam lineam fusciorem in aquis albentibus 
esse descriptam miroque mcdo influentis discolor natura 
conspicitur, quae misceri posse simili liquore sentitur. 
Hoc et in marinis quidem tluctibus fluviorum rnundatione 
contingit: sed ratio ipsa vulgariter patet, ut torrentes 
praecipites limosa faece corrupti vitreo sint aequori dis- 
colores. Hoc autem iure putabitur stupendum, quod 
simile tantis qualitatibus elementum per pigrum stagnum 
videas ire celerrime: ut amnem per solidos campos putes 
decurrere, quem se peregrinis undis non videas colore posse 

Cassiod. Var. xi. 14. 

Cum multis itineribus Comum civitas expetatur, ita se 
eius possessores paraveredorum assiduitate suggerunt esse 
fatigatos, ut equorum nimio cursu ipsi potius atterantur. 
Quibus indultu regali beneficium praecipimus iugiter cus- 
todiri, ne urbs illa^, positione sua libenter habitabilis, 
rarescat incolis, frequentia laesionis. 

Cassiod. Var. \\. 14. 

' See general note. 

of Places in Italy 187 

the lake. On the eastern side these unite to form the river 
Addua, so called because it contains the added volume of 
two streams. It plunges into the lake with such force 
that it keeps its own colour (dark among the whiter waters) 
and its own name far along the northern shore, a phe- 
nomenon often seen with rivers flowing into the ocean, but 
surely marvellous with one flowing into an inland lake. 
And so swift is its course as it moves through the alien 
waves, that you might fancy it a river flowing over thv 
solid plains. 

Freely translated by Thom.vs Hodgkin 

A Popular Spot" 

The City of Comum is visited by so many travelers that 
the cultivators of the soil declare that they are quite worn 
out with requisitions for post-horses. Wherefore we di- 
rect that by Royal indulgence they be favoured in this 
matter, that this city, so beautifully situated, do not be- 
come a solitude for want of inhabitants. 

Freely translated by Thomas Hodgkin 


(Near C.^stel Porziano) 

This town, according to tradition, was the residence of 
King Latinus when the Trojans landed in Italy (Livy i. 1). 
In historical times, however, it was of little importance, al- 
though it belonged to the Latin League and participated 
in the sacrifices on the Alban Mount (Liv. x.xxvii. 3). 
Since it took no part in the Latin War against Rome, its 
previous treat)- with this city continued to be renewed 
every year down to the Augustan age, as though it were 
an independent ally. During the Republic it was an insig- 
nificant town. Its interest for the classical student rests 
largely upon the fact that certain famous Romans had 
country houses here, notably the younger Pliny. The 
marshy territory around it was a haunt for wild boars to 
which the poets' frequently refer. (See note on a following 

188 Classical Associations 

Tectum augustum ingens, centum sublime columnis, 
urbe fuit summa, Laurentis regia Pici, 
horrendum silvis et religione parentum. 

Tali intus templo divum patriaque Latinus 
sede sedens Teucros ad sese in tecta vocavit. 

Vir. Aen. vii. 170-172; 192-193. 

Mirum est, quam singulis diebus in urbe ratio aut con- 
stet aut constare videatur, pluribus iunctisque non constet. 
Nam, si quem interroges: "Hodie quid egisti?", respondeat: 
"Officio togae virilis interfui, sponsalis aut nuptias fre- 
quentavi, ille me ad signandum testamentum, ille in ad- 
vocationem, ille in consilium rogavit." Haec quo die 
feceris, necessaria, eadem, si cotidie fecisse te reputes, ina- 
nia videntur, multo magis cum secesseris. Tunc enim 
subit recordatio: "Quot dies quam frigidis rebus absump- 
si!" Quod evenit mihi, postquam in Laurentino meo aut 
lego aliquid aut scribo aut etiam corpori vaco, cuius ful- 
turis animus sustinetur. Nihil audio, quod audisse, nihil 
dico, quod dixisse paeniteat; nemo apud me quemquam 
sinistris sermonibus carpit, neminem ipse reprehendo, nisi 
tamen me, cum parum commode scribo; nulla spe, nullo 

1 The King Latinus of this passage became the friend and ally of the Trojans and gave 
his daughter Lavinia in marriage to Aeneas. Turnus, a powerful chief in the neighboring 
region, to whom the girl had been betrothed, at once went to war with this new people, so 
lately landed in Italy, and it jras during this contest that Aeneas was killed, although not 
untilhe hadmarried Lavinia and so carried out the decrees of the Fates. (See Numicius). 
For an explanation of the name"Laurentum,' see Vir. Aen. vii. 58-63. 

a This and following passages are from letters written by the younger Pliny to various 
friends. An interesting and detailed account of his villa at Laurentum is given in con- 
nection with the last one (Ep. ii. 17), a description which has been omitted for reasons of 
space. All visitors should read it, however ,as well as ix. 40. 

of Places in Italy 1 89 

A Royal Palace 

Large and majestical the castle rose: 
A hundred columns lifted it in air 
Upon the city's crown— the royal keep 
Of Picus of Laurentum; round it lay 
Deep, gloomy woods by olden worship blest. 

In such a temple of his gods did Sire 
Latinus,' on hereditary throne, 
Welcome the Trojans to his halls. 

T. C. Williams 

A Roman Gentleman Longs for the Country^ 

One cannot but be surprised, that, take any single day 
in Rome, the reckoning comes out right, or at least seems 
to do so; and yet, if you take them in the lump, the reck- 
oning comes out wrong. Ask anyone how he has been 
employed today: he will tell you, perhaps, "I have been 
at the ceremony of assuming the manly robe; this friend 
invited me to a betrothal, this to a wedding; that desired 
me to attend the hearing of his cause; one begged nle to be 
witness to his will; another called me to sit as co-assessor." 
These are offices, which, on the day one is engaged in 
them, appear necessary; yet they seem bagatelles when 
reckoned as your daily occupation — and far more so, 
when you have quitted Rome for the country. Then one 
is apt to reflect. How many days have I spent on trifles! 
At least it is a reflection which frequently comes across me 
at Laurentum, after I have been employing myself in my 
studies, or even in the necessary care of the animal ma- 
chine (for the body must be repaired and supported, if we 
would preserve the mind in all its vigour). In that peace- 
ful retreat, I neither hear nor speak anything of which I 
have occasion to repent. I suffer none to repeat to me 
the whispers of malice; nor do I censure any man, unless 
myself, when I am dissatisfied with my compositions. 
There I live undisturbed by rumour, and free from the 

190 Classical Associations 

timore sollicitor, nullis rumoribus inquietor, mecum tan- 
tum et cum libellis loquor. rectam sinceramque vitam, 
o dulce otium honestumque ac paene omni negotio pul- 
chrius! mare, olitus, verum secretumque /jiovaetov, quam 
multa invenitis, quam multa dictatis! Proinde tu quoque 
strepitum istum inanemque discursum et multum ineptos 
labores, ut primum fuerit occasio, relinque teque studiis 
vel otio trade. Satius est enim, ut Atilius noster erudi- 
tissime simul et facetissime dixit, otiosum esse quam nihil 
agere. Vale. 

Plin. Ep. 1. 9. 

Tusci grandine excussi, in regione Transpadana summa 
abundantia, sed par vilitas nuntiatur; solum mihi Lauren- 
tinum meum in reditu. Nihil quidem ibi possideo praeter 
tectum et hortum statimque harenas, solum tamen mihi 
in reditu. Ibi enim plurimum scribo nee agrum, quern 
non habeo, sed ipsum me studiis excolo; ac iam possum 
tibi ut aliis in locis horreum plenum sic ibi scrinium osten- 
dere. Igitur tu quoque, si certa et fructuosa praedia con- 
cupiscis, aliquid in hoc litore para. Vale. 

Plin. Ep. iv. 6. 

Miraris, cur me Laurentinum vel, si ita mavis, Laurens 
meum tanto opere delectet. Desines mirari, cum cogno- 
veris gratiam villae, opportunitatem loci, litoris spatium. 
Decem et septem milibus passuum ab urbe secessit, ut 
peractis, quae agenda fuerint, salvo iam et composite die 
possis ibi manere. Aditur non una via; nam et Lauren- 

oj Places in Italy 191 

anxious solicitudes of hope or fear, conversing only with 
myself and my books. True and genuine life! pleasing 
and honourable repose! More, perhaps, to be desired 
than the noblest employments! Thou solemn sea and 
solitary shore, best and most retired scene for contempla- 
tion, with how many noble thoughts have you inspired me! 
Snatch then, my friend, as I have, the first occasion of 
leaving the noisy town with all its very empty pursuits, 
and devote your days to study, or even resign them to 
sloth: for as my ingenious friend Atilius pleasantly said, 
"It is better to have nothing to do than to be doing 
nothing." Farewell. 

William Melmoth 

A Paying Investment 

A hail-storm, I am informed, has destroyed all the 
produce of my estate in Tuscany; while that which I have 
on the other side of the Po, though it has proved extremely 
fruitful this season, yet from the excessive cheapness of 
everything, turns to small account. My Laurentine seat 
is the single possession which yields me any return. I 
have nothing there, indeed, but a house and gardens, and 
the sands lie just beyond; still, however, my sole profit 
comes thence. For there I cultivate, not my land (since 
I have none) but my mind, and form many a composition. 
As in other places I can show you full barns, so there I can 
display a well-stocked bookcase. Let me advise you then, 
if you wish for an ever-productive farm, to purchase some- 
thing upon this coast. 

William Melmoth 

One of Pliny's Country Homes 

You are surprised, it seems, that I am so fond of my 
Laurentinum, or (if you like the appellation better) my 
Laurens: but you will cease to wonder, when I acquaint 
you with the charm of the villa, the advantages of its sit- 
uation, and the extensive prospect of the sea-coast. It 
is but seventeen miles distant from Rome; so that having 
finished vour affairs in town, you can spend the night here 

192 Classical Associations 

tina et Ostiensis eodem ferunt, sed Laurentina a quarto 
decimo lapide, Ostiensis ab undecimo relinquenda est. 
Utrimque excipit iter aliqua ex parte harenosum iunctis 
paulo gravius et longius, equo breve et moUe. Varia hinc 
atque inde fades; nam modo occurrentibus silvis via co- 
artatur, moda latissimis pratis diffunditur et patescit; 
multi greges ovium, multa ibi equorUm boumque armenta, 
quae montibus hieme depulsa herbis et tepore verno nites- 
cunt. Villa usibus capax, non sumptuosa tutela. 

Suggerunt adfatim ligna proximae silvae; ceteras copias 
Ostiensis colonia ministrat. Frugi quidem homini suffi- 
cit etiam vicus, quern una villa discernit. In hoc balinea 
meritoria tria, magna commoditas, si forte balineum domi 
vel subitus adventus vel brevior mora calfacere dissuadeat. 
Litus ornant varietate gratissima nunc continua, nunc in- 
termissa tecta villarum, quae praestant multarum urbium 
faciem, sive mari sive ipso litore utare; quod non numquam 
longa tranquillitas mollit, saepius frequens et contrarius 
fluctus indurat. Mare non sane pretiosis piscibus abun- 
dat, soleas tamen et squillas optimas suggerit. Villa vero 
nostra etiam mediterraneas copias praestat, lac in primis; 
nam illuc e pascuis pecora conveniunt, si quando aquam 
umbramque sectantur. 

Plin. Ep. ii. 17, 1-3; 26-28. 

Laurentino turpes in litore ranas. 

Mart. X. 37, S. 

oj Places in Italy 193 

after completing a full working-day. There are but two 
different roads to it; if you go by that of Laurentum, you 
must turn off at the fourteenth mile; if by Ostia, at the 
eleventh. Both of them are in some parts sandy, which 
makes it rather heavy and tedious if you travel in a 
coach, but easy and pleasant to those who ride. The 
landscape on all sides is extremely diversified, the pros- 
pect in some places being confined by woods, in others ex- 
tending over broad meadows, where numberless flocks of 
sheep and herds of horses and cattle, which the severity 
of the winter has driven from the mountains, fallen in the 
vernal warmth of this rich pasturage. 

My villa is large enough for my convenience, without 
being expensive to maintain. 

The neighboring forests afford an abundant supply of 
fuel; every other convenience of life may be had from 
Ostia: to a moderate man, indeed, even the next village 
(between which and my house there is only one villa) 
would furnish all common necessaries. In that little 
place there are no less than three public baths; which is a 
great convenience if one happens to arrive home unexpect- 
edly, or make too short a stay to allow time for preparing 
one's own. 

The whole coast is beautifully diversified by the joining 
or detached villas that are spread upon it, which, whether 
you are travelling along the sea or shore, have the effect of 
a series of towns. The shore is sometimes, after a long 
calm, loose and yielding to the feet, though in general, by 
the winds driving the waves upon it, it is compact and 
firm. I cannot boast that our sea produces the more 
costly sorts of fish; however, it supplies us with exceeding 
fine soles and prawns; but as to provisions of other kinds, 
my villa pretends to equal even inland countries, particu- 
larly in milk; for thither the cattle come from the meadows 
in great numbers whenever they seek shade or water. 

William Melmoth 

The ugly frogs along the shore of Laurentum. 

194 Classical Associations 

Ac velut ille canum morsu de montibus altis 
actus aper, multos Vesulus quern pinifer annos 
defendit multosve palus Laurentia, silva 
pastus harundinea. 

Vir. Aen. x. 707-710. 

LITERNUM (Torre di Patria) 

The place was under the control of Capua until the 
Romans took it in 215 B. C. In 194 B. C. they sent 300 
colonists there, but the town was never of any importance. 
It is chiefly interesting from the fact that Scipio Africanus, 
the famous Roman general of the second century B. C, 
had a house there. Valerius Maximus (v. 3, 2) speaks of 
it as an insignificant village. 

In ipsa Scipionis Africani villa iacens haec tibi scribe 
adoratis manibus eius et ara, quam sepulchrum esse tanti 
viri suspicor 

Vidi villam structam lapide quadrato, murum circum- 
datum silvae, turres quoque in propugnaculum villae 
utrimque subrectas, cisternam aedificiis ac viridibus subdi- 
tam, quae sufficere in usum vel exercitus posset, balneolum 
angustum, tenebricosum ex consuetudine antiqua: non 
videbatur maioribus nostris caldum nisi obscurum. Magna 
ergo me voluptas subiit contemplantem mores Scipio- 
nis ac nostros: in hoc angulo ille Carthaginis horror, cui 
Roma debet, quod tantum semel capta est, abluebat cor- 
pus laboribus rusticis fessum. Exercebat enim opera se 
terramque, ut mos fuit priscis, ipse subigebat. Sub hoc 
ille tecto tam sordido stetit. Hoc ilium pavimentum tarn 
vile sustinuit. 

Sen. Ep. Ixxxvi. 1-5. 

Undosis squalida terris, | hinc Literna palus. 

Sil. Ital. vii. 277-278. 

sHorace writes {Sat. ii. 4j 40-42)-: ... 

Vmber et iligna nutritus glande rotundas 
curvat aper lances carnem vitantis jnertem: 
nam Laurens malus est, ulvis et arundine pinguis. 

of Places in Italy 195 

Like as the mighty boar' driven by fangs of hounds from 
mountain heights, the boar whom pine-crowned Vesulus 
or Laurentum's pool shelters these many years, pastured 
on the reedy jungle. 

John Conington 

A Roman Ideal of Manhood 

I am resting at the country house which once belonged 
to Scipio Africanus himself; and I write to you after doing 
reverence to his spirit and to an altar which I am inclined 

to think is the tomb of that great warrior 

. . . I have inspected the house, which is constructed 
of hewn stone; the wall which encloses a forest; the towers 
also, buttressed out on both sides for the purpose of de- 
fending the house; the well, concealed among buildings 
and shrubbery, large enough to keep a whole army sup- 
plied; and the small bath, buried in darkness according to 
the old style, for our ancestors did not think that one could 
have a hot bath except in darkness. It was therefore a 
great pleasure to me to contrast Scipio's ways with our 
own. Just think! In this tiny recess the "terror of Car- 
thage" to whom Rome should offer thanks because she was 
not captured more than once, used to bathe a body wearied 
with work in the fields I For he was accustomed to keep 
himself busy and to cultivate the soil with his own hands, 
as the good old Romans were wont to do. Beneath this 
dingy roof he stood; and this floor, mean as it is, bore his 


The swamp of Liternum, unsightly with its submerged 

196 Classical Associations 

LUCRINUS LACUS (Lago Lucrino) 

Dum nos blanda tenent lascivi stagna Lucrini. 

Mart. iv. 57, 1. 

Digna memoratu villa est ab Averno lacu Puteolos ten- 
dentibus inposita litori, celebrata porticu ac nemore, quam 
vocabat Cicero Academiam ab exemplo Athenarum, ibi 
compositis voluminibus eiusdem nominis, in qua et moni- 
menta sibi instauraverat, ceu vero non in toto terrarum 
orbe fecisset. 

Plin. N. H. xxxi. 6. 

Ego hie pascor bibliotheca Fausti. Fortasse tu puta- 
bas, his rebus Puteolanis et Lucrinensibus. Ne ista quidem 
desunt. Sed mehercule a ceteris oblectationibus ut de- 
seror et voluptatibus propter rem publicam, sic litteris 
sustentor et recreor maloque in ilia tua sedecula, quam 
habes sub imagine Aristotelis, sedere quam in istorum 
sella curuli tecumque apud te ambulare quam cum eo, 
quocum video esse ambulandum. 

Cic. Ep. ad Att. iv. 10, 1. 

'0 5i AoKpivoi koKttos irXarvvtrai fitxpi- Baiaj;', x'i'M'i'''' e'PTO- 
fievos dxo Trjs e^co da\a.TTr]i oKTacrTaSLcf to firJKOs, ttXcitos 5e 
OLfia^iTov irXareias, o <pa.(jiv 'HpaxXeo biaxSxjai rds /SoOs tKavvovTO. 

' A fashionable place of resort, famous for its baths and boating (Mart. iii. 20, 19-20). 
- See Cic. ad Att. xiv. 16. 

3 Cicero writes this letter to his friend Atticus in SS B. C. from his villa at Cumae. 
' Called the Via Herculea (Sil. Ital. xii. 116-119). 

of Places in Italy 197 


While the seductive waters of the wanton Lucrine lake' 
keep me here. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

A Description of One of Cicero's Country Homes 

Deserving of mention is a sea-shore villa,^ as one goes 
from the Lake of Avernus to Puteoli. It is famous for 
its portico and grove, and was called the Academy by 
Marcus Cicero, after that at Athens; and there he wrote 
the book which bears that title. There too he had raised 
a memorial to himself, — as if he had not done the same 
all over the world. 

F. G. Moore 

A Tired Politician Turns to His Books 

Here P am feasting on Faustus' library. Perhaps you 
thought it was on the attractions of Puteoli and the Lu- 
crine lakes. Well, I have them, too. But upon my word 
the more I am deprived of other enjoyments and pleasures 
on account of the state of politics, the more support and 
recreation do I find in literature. And I would rather be 
in that niche of yours under Aristotle's statue than in their 
curule chair, and take a walk with you at home than have 
the company which I see will be with me on my path. 


An Ineffective Harbour 

The Lucrine gulf extends in breadth as far as Baiae; 
it is separated from the sea by a bank eight stadia in 
length, and the breadth of a carriage-way; this they say 
was constructed by Hercules'* when he drove away the 


Classical Associations 

rds Fripvovov' Sexoiitvov 8' iTnirdXfjs to Kvfia rots x"A''i'<''"' ^cts 
firi Tct^eiitadai ^g,8'iMS 'AyplirTas tirtaKibaatv. tlcifKovv h' i?x*' 
TrXotois eXa^poTr, evopniaaa^ai fiiv axp'Jo'Tos, tS)v dffrpiuv St 
dripav €X(^v d.ip&ovwTaTi}v. 

Strab. V. 4, 6. 

Non me Lucrina iuverint conchylia | magisve. . 

Hor. Epod. ii. 49. 

Photograph by Sommer, Napoll 

The LucRiNE Lake 

^ Agrippa, the friend and minister of Augustus, wished to make the lake an outer har- 
bor to the newly constructed war-harbor at Avernus, but the water was too shallow for 
warships (see note under Baiae, and Italy, Vir. Georg, ii. 161 ff.)- 

About 100 B. C. an epicure started an oyster bed in these waters and so made this 
spot famous for its products. "Nor," says Pliny,"did he plan them for the sake of his appe- 
tite, but through avarice, receiving a large revenue from so bright an idea." (N. H. ix. 168.) 
See also Mart. vi. 11, 5; xi|j. 90; Hor. S. ii. 4, 32.) 

oj Places in Italy 199 

oxen of Geryon. But as the wave covered its surface in 
stormy weather, rendering it difficult to pass on foot, 
Agrippa^ has repaired it. Small vessels can put into it, 
but it is useless as a harbour. It contains abundant 

H. C. Hamilton 

Not Lucrine oysters would please me more. 

C. E. Bennett 

LUNA (La-ni) 
PORTUS LUNAB: (Porto della Spezia) 

Considerable doubt exists as to the origin of Luna. Ac- 
cording to the reference below, it belonged to the Etrus- 
cans. Aside from the fact that in 177 B. C. a Roman 
colony was settled there, we find almost no historical 
mention of the town which, although it lasted into the 
Empire, was probably of no considerable importance at 
any time. Such prosperity as it had came from the 
marble quarries in its neighborhood. These supplied the 
Romans with a product superior even to the Parian marble 
of Greece for the carving of statues, and with building ma- 
terial second to none. Its spacious harbor, some miles 
from the town, has been frequently mentioned with praise. 
Pliny speaks of the excellence of its wine and the vast size 
of its cheeses (N. H. xiv. 67; xi. 241). 

200 Classical Associations 

Primum Etruriae oppidum Luna portu nobile, 

Plin. N. H. iii. 50. 

Advehimur celeri candentia moenia lapsu: 
nominis est auctor sole corusca soror. 
indigenis superat ridentia lilia saxis 
et levi radiat picta nitore silex. 
dives marmoribus tellus, quae luce coloris 
provocat intactas luxuriosa nives. 

Rutil. de Red. Suo ii. 63-68. 

Tunc, quos a niveis exegit Luna metallis, 
insignis portu, quo non spatiosior alter 
innumeras cepisse rates et claudere pontum. 

Sil. Ital. viii. 480-482. 

TovTbiv 5' ri fiiv AoOi'a TroXts tari Kai \Lixijv, KoXoOai 5' o 
"EXXiji'es SeXijvTjs Xi/i«i'a Kai iroKiv. • ij nkv ovv ttoXis ov neyaKy], 
6 5i Xifirji/ fj, yLCTOi re Kai koXKkttos, kv aiiria irtpikx^^v irXeious 
Xi/tei'as d7X'|8i'^«'5 iravTM, olov av ykvoiro op/iriTripiov doKar- 
TOKparricavTOiv av&poiwwv Toaavrris ^aXarrris tooovtov ht 
Xpbvov. irtpiKkeltTaL 5' 6 Xiixriv optaiv inj/ri\ols, aip' oiv to, 7reXa7T; 
KaTOirreveTaL Kai ri Zapfico Kai rrjs jibvos tKartpw^iv ttoXu fi,tpo%. 
fikraWa 5e \Ldov XeuKoD re Kai toiklXov yXavKL^ovTOS Toaavra. 
t' kari Kai rriXiKavra, /iovoXlt^ovs iKdiSovra TrXd/cas Kai ariiXous, 
oiaTt 70. TrXeTara tS>v eKirptircov epywv tuiv kv rrj "Pw^ujj Kai rais 
aXXais iroKicnv ivT&J§tv exti-v rifv xopvyio-"- 

Strab. V. 2, 5. 

Desertae moenia Lunae. 

Luc. i. 586. 

' The sister of the sun-god, Apollo, was known as Luna in her aspect as jtoddesa ol 


le moon. 

of Places in Haly 201 

Luna, the chief town of Eiruria, famous for its harbour. 

A Visitor's Description 

Swiftly we're wafted to the glittering walls. 
The sister,! who her fitful radiance owes 
The sun, bestows upon the place a name. 
Its clifT of native rock with soft gleam flashes. 
And smiling lilies rivals in its white; 
The soil is rich in marble, which, profuse 
In its light's colour, vies with virgin snow. 

George F. S.^\ .\ge-Armstrong 

A Famous Port 

Then, those whom Luna sends from her snow-white 
quarries, a city renowned for its harbor, than which there 
is no other port more spacious for admitting countless 
ships and enclosing a sea in itself. 

The Reasons for Luna's Renown 

Of these, Luna is a city andharbour;it is named by the 
Greeks the harbour and city of Selens. The city is not 
large, but the harbour is very fine and spacious, contain- 
ing in itself numerous others, all of them deep near the 
shore; it is in fact an arsenal worthy of a nation holding 
dominion for so long a lime over so vast a sea. The har- 
bour is surrounded by lofty mountains, from whence you 
may view the sea and Sardinia, and a great part of the 
coast on either side. Here are quarries of marble, both 
white and marked with green, so numerous and large as 
to furnish tablets and columns of one block; and most of 
the material for the fine works, both in Rome and the other 
cities, is quarried in Luna. 

H. C. Ha.milton 

The walls of deserted Luna. 


Classical Associations 

Mihi nunc Ligus ora 
Intepet hibernatque meum mare, qua latus ingens 
dant scopuli et multa litus se valle receptat. 
"Lunai portum, est operae, cognoscite, cives:" 
cor iubet hoc Enni, postquam destertuit esse 
Maeonides, Quintus pavone ex Pythagoreo. 
hie ego securus volgi et quid praeparet auster 
infelix pecori, securus et angulus ille 
vicini nostro quia pinguior; et si adeo omnes 
ditescant orti peioribus, usque recusem 
curvus ob id minui senio aut cenare sine uncto 
et signum in vapida naso tetigisse lagoena. 

Pers. Sat. vi. 1. 6-17. 

A Modern Peasant 

2The poet Persius, although born at \'o], spciika of the region about Luna as 
ins present home. 

3 The first of the great Roman poets. 

of Places in Italy 203 

A Poet Leads the Simple Life 

To me,^ while tempests howl and billows rise, 
Liguria's coast a warm retreat supplies, 
Where the huge cliffs an ample front display. 
And, deep within, recedes the sheltering bay. 
"The port of Luna, friends, is worth your note — " 
So, in his sober moments, Ennius' wrote. 
When, all his dreams of transmigration past, 
He found himself plain Quintus at the last ! 
Here to repose I give the cheerful day. 
Careless of what the vulgar think or say; 
Or, what the South, from Afric's burning air. 
Unfriendly to the cold, may haply bear: 
And careless still, though richer herbage crown 
My neighbor's fields, or heavier crops embrown. 
Nor, Bassus, though capricious fortune grace 
Thus with her smiles a low-bred, low-born race, 
Will e'er thy friend, for that, let Envy plough 
One careful furrow on his open brow; 
Give crooked age upon his youth to steal, 
Defraud his table of one generous meal; 
Or, stooping o'er the dreg^ of mothery wine, 
Toych with suspicious nose the sacred sign. 

William Gifford 

MANTUA (Mantova) 

A very ancient city, probably Etruscan in origin, which 
became a municipality under Rome's sway but never at- 
tained any importance in history. Its only claim to fame 
comes from the fact that it was the birth-place and early 
home of Virgil. In the Middle Ages, however, it seems to 
have been more widely known. 

204 Classical Associations 

Marone felix Mantua est. 

Mart. 1. 61, 2. 

Primus ego in patriam mecum, modo vita supersit, 
Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas; 
primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas; 
at viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 
propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 
Mincius et tenera praetexit harundine ripas. 

Yir. Georg. iii. 10-1,S. 

Mantua, Musarum domus atque ad sidera cantu 
evecta Aonio. 

Sil. Ital. viii. 593-594. 

Mel. Forte sub arguta consederat ilice Daphnis, 
compulerantque greges Corydon et Thyrsis in unum, 
Thyrsis ovis, Corydon distentas lacte capellas, 
ambo florentes aetatibus, Arcades ambo, 
et cantare pares, et respondere parati. 
hue mihi, dum teneras defendo.a frigore myrtos, 
vir gregis ipse caper deerraverat; atque ego Daphnim 
aspicio. ille ubi me contra videt, "ocius" inquit 
"hue ades, o Meliboee! caper tibi salvus et haedi; 
et, si quid cessare potes, requiesce sub umbra, 
hue ipsi potum venient per prata iuvenci; 
hie viridis teneja, praetexit harundine ripas 
Mincius, eque sacra resonant examina quercu." 
quid facerem? neque ego Alcippen nee Phyllida habe- 
_ bam, ... 

^ Publius Virgilius Maro was born herein 70 B. C. in a country district called Andes. 

«Mt. Helicon: 

8 A small river near Mantua. (See also Benacus.) 

* This passage presents one of the charming rustic scenes from Virgil's poems on coun- 
try life. Meliboeus listens to a rude literary contest between Corydon and Thyrsis, two 

oj Places in Italy 205 

Mantua is blest in Maro." 

Walter C. A. Ker 

A Poet Promises Literary Honor to His Native City 

I will be first, if life be given, to bear 
Home to my native land the Muses song 
From their Aonian hill.^ I first to thee, 
My Mantua, will bring Arabian palms. 
My vows shall build thee in the meadows green 
A marble temple near the river's brim, . 
Where the wide-watered Mincius,' winding slow. 
In mantle of soft sedge hides all his shore. 

T. C. Williams 

Mantua, the home of the Muses, raised to the stars by 
Aonian verse. 

A Musical Contest^ 

One day beneath an ilex' tuneful shade 
Daphnis had sat him down, and thitherward 
Had Corydon and Thyrsis driven their flocks, 
Thyrsis his ewes and Corydon his goats 
With udders dripping full. The shepherd pair 
Were both in flower of youth. Arcadians both,: 
And well-matched rivals in responsiv-e song. 
To that same spot, while I was sheltering 
My myrtles from the cold, my chief goat strayed- 
The father of the flock; and then I saw 
Our Daphnis; and he knew me too and called, 
"0 Meliboeus, the he-goat is safe. 
Thy kids are here. Come take thine ease with u 
And rest, if free to rest, in this good shade. 
Hither across the meads thy bulls will walk 
Uridriven to the stream; for Mincius here 
Has mantled his fair bank with rushes green, 
And from the sacred oak murmur the bees." 
What could I do? Alcippe was not there, 

206 Classical Associations 

depulsos a lacte domi quae clauderet agnos; 
et certamen erat Corydon cum Thyrside magnum, 
posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo; 
alternis igitur contendere versibus ambo 
coepere; alternos musae meminisse volebant. 
hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrsis. . 

Vir. Eel. vii. 1-20. 

Mel. Tityre, tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi 
silvestrem tenui Musam meditaris avena: 
nos patriae finis et dulcia linquimus arva; 
nos patriam fugimus: tu, Tityre, lentus in umbra 
formosam resonare doces Amaryllida silvas. 

fortunate senex! ergo tua rura manebunt, 
et tibi magna satis, quamvis lapis omnia nudus 
limosoque palus obducat pascua iunco. 
non insueta gravis temptabunt pabula fetas, 
nee mala vicini pecoris contagia laedent. 
fortunate senex! hie inter flumina nota 
et fontis sacros frigus captabis opacum. 
hinc tibi, quae semper, vicino ab limite saepes 
Hyblaeis apibus florem depasta salicti 
saepe levi somnum suadebit inire susurro; 
hinc alta sub rupe canet frondator ad auras: 
nee tamen interea raucae tua cura palumbes 
nee gemere aeria cessabit turtur ab ulmo. 

en quo discordia- civis 

produxit miseros: his nos consevimus agros. 
insere nunc, Meliboee, piros, pone ordine vitis. 
ite meae, felix quondam pecus, ite capellae. 

^ In 4 1 B . C. Virgil, together with other inliabitaDts of the region , loses his farm by rea- 
son of Octavian's seizure of the property for the use of his veterans. The poet goes to 
Rome and is fortunate enough through powerful influence to recover his property. The 
conversation in this poem between Tityrus and Meliboeus centers about the theme of this 
cruel order of eviction. 

of Places in Italy 207 

Nor Phyllis, to fetch homeward to the fold 
The late- weaned lambs; but, oh, a rival song 
'Twixt Corydon and Thyrsis, that were rare! 
My toil and task could wait, such sport to see. 
So both in rivalry of answering song 
Began, with answers prompted by the Muse. 
First Corydon, then Thyrsis, each in turn. 

T; C. Williams 

A Farmer Laments the Loss of His Land^ 

Mel. In the wide-branching beech-tree's shade re- 

Thou, Tityrus, playst on thy slender reed 
A shepherd song. I from my fatherland, 
My fatherland and pastures ever dear. 
To exile fly, while Tityrus at ease 
In cooling shadows bids the woodland sing 
Of lovely Amaryllis 

Happy old man, thy lands are still thine own 
Enough for all thy need. Though still I see 
Hillsides washed bare, and fertile pasture land 
Run to rank swamp and reeds, yet strange new grass 
Tempts not thy teeming ewes, nor will they breathe 
From some near-feeding flock the fatal plague. 
Happy old man! by these familiar streams. 
These haunted springs, enjoy thy cooling shade! 
Here as of old thy neighbor's hedge-row line, 
Where Hybla's bees o'er flowering willows rove, 
Shall with a light-voiced whisper woo thy sleep. 
On yonder rocky slope with far-flung song 
The bondman trims the vine; wood-pigeons wild. 
Thy darlings, ne'er shall silence their dull cry. 
Nor from the wind-swept elms the doves their moan. 

Oh, to what woes has civil discord led 
Our wretched countrymen! For whom to reap 
Were these fair acres sown? What profit now 
My grafted pear-trees and my trellised vine? 
Move on, dear flock, whose happy days are done ! 

208 Classical Associations 

non ego vos posthac, viridi proiectus in antro, 
dumosa pendere procul de rupe videbo; 
carmina nulla canam; non, me pascente, capellae, 
florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras. 

Tii. Hie tamen hanc mecum poteras requiscere 
fronde super viridi: sunt nobis mitia poma, 
castaneae moUes, et pressi copia lactis; 
et iam summa procul villarum culmina fumant, 
maioresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae. 

Vir. Eel. i. 1-5; 46-58; 71-83. 

Sin armenta magis studium vitulosque tueri, 
aut ovium fetum aut urentis culta capellas, 
saltus et saturi petite longinqua Tarenti, 
et qualem infelix amisit Mantua campum, 
pascentem niveos herboso flumine cycnos: 
non liquidi gregibus fontes, non gramina derunt, 
et quantum longis carpent armenta diebus, 
exigua tantum gelidus ros nocte reponet. 

Vir. Georg. ii. 195-202. 


After the fourth century B. C, the place bec&me the 
chief city of the region. A central point for travel in var- 
ious directions, it continued to increase in importance to 
which the fact that it formed convenient headquarters 
for northern campaigns contributed not a little (Suet. 
Aug. 20). In 70 A. D., it held a leading place among the 
most powerful municipalities of Transalpine Gaul (Tac. 
Hist. i. 70) . During the fourth century A. D . it became the 
imperial residence, rivaling Rome in its size and adorned 
with beautiful buildings (Aur. Vict. Caes. 39, 45). It was 

of Places in Italy 209 

My mother-goats, move on! No more shall I 
Reclined in cool, green cave behold from far 
How on the bush-grown crag you cling and climb. 
No shepherd songs for me! I shall not lead 
My feeding mother-goats to get their fill 
Of clover buds or willow's bitter stem. 
Tit. Yet enter here and take tonight thy rest, 
Sound-sleeping on my pallet of fresh green. 
Ripe chestnuts are within, full mellowed fruits 
And curds in plenty. Look! The smoke ascends 
From each thatched roof-top in the lowland vale. 
And widening shadows from the mountains fall. 

T. C. Williams 

A Paradise for Flocks 

But if with kine and calves thy business be 
Or new-born lambs, or garden-spoiling goats, 
Seek prosperous Tarentum's distant glens, 
Or pastures such as ill-starred Mantua lost, 
Where swans snow-white in green-sedged waters feed. 
There shall thy flocks find many a fountain free 
And grass unfailing; for, what each long day 
Thy creatures take, the short night's cooling dews 
Restore in full. 

T. C. Williams 

a literary center for this part of Italy and many young men 
came here for study (Plin. Ep. iv. 13). Under Ambrose, 
a bishop and among the most distinguished of the Church 
Fathers in the fourth century A. D., the place held very 
high rank in all matters pertaining to the Church. The 
interesting scene of the conversion of St. Augustine is laid 
within the walls of this city. The Goths finally destroyed 
the place in the fifth century A. D. (Jordanes, Gothic 
History, xlii. 222). 

210 Classical Associations 

Et Mediolani mira omnia, copia rerum 
innumerae cultaeque domus, facunda virorum 
ingenia et mores laeti, turn duplice mure 
amplificata loci species populique voluptas 
circus et inclusi moles cuneata theatri, 
templa Palatinaeque arces opulensque moneta 
et regio Herculei Celebris sub honore lavacri: 
cunctaque marmoreis ornata peristyla signis 
moeniaque in valli formam circumdata limbo, 
omnia quae magnis operum velut aemula formis 
excellunt nee iuncta premit vicinia Romae. 

Auson. Ord. Urb. Nobi!. vi 


(Capo Miseno) 

Atque illi Misenum in litore sicco, 
at venere, vident indigna morte peremptum, 
Misenum Aeoliden, quo non praestantior alter 
aere ciere viros, Martemque accendere cantu. 

sed tum, forte cava dum personat aequora concha, 
demens et cantu vocat in certamina divos, 
aemulus exceptum Triton, si credere dignum est, 
inter saxa virum spumosa immerserat unda. 
ergo omnes magno circum clamore fremebant, 
praecipue plus Aeneas. . . . . . 

at pius Aeneas ingenti mole sepulcrum 
imponit, suaque arma viro remumque tubamque, 
monte sub aerio, qui nunc Misenus ab illo 
dicitur, aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen. 

Vir. Aen. vi. 162-165; 171-176; 232-235. 

1 The baths were built by Maximian, sumamed Herculeus. 

- The appearance of this promontory, resembling as it does a hu^e burial mound, gave 
rise to the legend that Misenus, the trumpeter of Aeneas, was buried beneath it. (For 
a vivid account of the funeral rites performed by the Trojans over the body, sec Vir. Aen. 
vi. 175-184; 212-231.) 

ol Places in Italy 211 


Praises of Mediolanum 

At Mediolanum also are things wonderful, abundant 
wealth, countless stately homes, men able, eloquent, and 
cheerfully disposed; besides, there is the grandeur of the 
site, enlarged by a double wall, the Circus, her people's joy, 
the massy enclosed Theatre with wedge-like blocks of 
seats, the temples, the imperial citadels, the wealthy 
Mint, and the quarter renowned under the title of the 
Baths of Herculeus;^ her colonnades all adorned with 
marble statuary, her walls piled like an earthen rampart 
round the city's edge: — all these, as it were, rivals in the 
vast masses of their workmanship, are passing grand; nor 
does the near neighborhood of Rome abase them. 

H. G. E. White 

Aeneas Erects a Tomb for a Faithful Follower'^ 

Behold Misenus on the dry sea-sands. 
By hasty hand of death struck guiltless down! 
A son of Aeolus, none better knew 
To waken heroes by the clarion's call, 
With war-enkindling sound. 

But, one day, he chanced beside the sea 
To blow his shell-shaped horn, and wildly dared 
Challenge the gods themselves to rival song; 
Till jealous Triton, if the tale be true. 
Grasped the rash mortal, and outflung him far 
Mid surf-beat rocks and waves of whirling foam. 

Faithful Aeneas for his comrade built 
A mighty tomb, and dedicated there 
Trophy of arms, with trumpet and with oar. 
Beneath a windy hill, which now is called 
"Misenus," — for all time the name to bear. 

T. C. Williams 

212 Classical Associations 

lam Tiberium corpus, iam vires, nondum dissimulatio 
deserebat: idem animi rigor; sermone ac vultu intentus 
quaesita interdum comitate quamvis manifestam defec- 
tionem tegebat. Mutatisque saepius locis tandem apud 
promunturium Miseni consedit in villa, cui L. LucuUus 
quondam dominus. lUic eum adpropinquare supremis 
tali modo compertum. Erat medicus arte insignis, nomi- 
ne Charicles, non quidem regere valetudines principis 
solitus, consilii tamen copiam praebere. Is velut propria 
ad negotia digrediens et per speciem officii manum com- 
plexus pulsum venarum attigit. Neque fefellit: nam 
Tiberius, incertum an offensus tantoque magis iram 
premens, instaurari epulas iubet discumbitque ultra soli- 
tum, quasi honori abeuntis amici tribueret. Charicles 
tamen labi spiritum nee ultra biduum duraturum Macroni 
firmavit. Inde cuncta conloquiis inter praesentes, nun- 
tiis apud legatos et exercitus festinabantur. Septimum 
decimum kal. Aprilis interclusa anima creditus est mor- 
talitatem explevisse; et multo gratantum concursu ad 
capienda imperii primordia Gains Caesar egrediebatur, 
cum repente adfertur redire Tiberio vocem ac visus vocari- 
que qui recreandae defectioni cibum adferrent. Pavor 
hinc in omnes, et ceteri passim dispergi, se quisque maestum 
aut nescium fingere; Caesar in silentium fixus a summa spe 
novissima expectabat. Macro intrepidus opprimi senem 
iniectu multae vestis iubet discedique ab limine. Sic 
Tiberius finivit octavo et septuagesimo aetatis anno. 

Tac. Ann. vi. 50. 

■'* The Emperor Tiberius died in 37 A. D. in the villa of Lucullus situated on the 
promontory. This was one of the most splendid of the homes owned by this wealthy 
Roman^ famous during the late Republic for his lavish expenditures (Plut. Lucull. 39). 
The last of the Roman emperors, Romulus Augustulus, was confined here after he was 
dethroned by Odoacer in 476 A. D. * 

4 Prefect of the praetorians and one of the Emperor's favorites. 

oj Places in Italy 213 

The Death of the Emperor Tiberius' 

Tiberius' bodily powers were now leaving him, but 
not his skill in dissembling. There was the same stern 
spirit; he had his words and looks under strict control, and 
occasionally would try to hide his weakness, evident as it 
was, by a forced politeness. After frequent changes of 
place, he at last settled down on the promontory of Mi- 
senum in a country-house once owned by Lucius Lucullus. 
It was there discovered in the following way that he was 
drawing near his end. There was a physician, distin- 
guished in his profession, of the name of Charicles, usually 
employed, not indeed, to have the direction of the Emper- 
or's varying health, but to put his advice at his immediate 
disposal. This man, as if he were leaving on business of his 
own, clasped his hand, with a show of homage, and touched 
his pulse. Tiberius noticed it. Whether he was displeased 
and strove the more to hide his anger, is a question; at any 
rate, he ordered the banquet to be renewed, and sat at the 
table longer than usual, by way, apparently, of showing 
honour to his departing friend. Charicles, however, as- 
sured Macro'' that his health was failing and that he would 
not last more than two days. All was at once hurry; 
there were conferences among those on the spot and dis- 
patches to the generals and armies. On the 15th of March, 
his breath failing, he was believed to have expired, and 
Caius Caesar was going forth with a numerous throng of 
congratulating followers to take the first possession of the 
Empire, when suddenly news came that Tiberius was re- 
covering his voice and sight, and calling for persons to 
bring him food to revive him from his faintness. Then 
ensued a universal panic; and while the rest fled hither and 
thither, every one feigning grief or ignorance, Caius 
Caesar, in silent stupor, passed from the highest hopes to 
the extremity of apprehension. Macro, nothing daunted, 
ordered the old emperor to be smothered under a huge 
heap of clothes, and all to quit the entrance-hall. Thus 
died Tiberius in his seventy-eighth year. 

Alfred Church and William Brodribb 

214 Classical Associations & 

Classem Miseni et alteram Ravdnnae ad tutelam Su- 
per! et Infer! maris conlocavit. 

Suet. Aug. 49. 

Itaque ut a Miseno movit quamvis lugentis habitu et 
funus Tiber! prosequens, tamen inter altaria et victimas 
ardentisque taedas densissimo et laetissimo obviorum ag- 
mine incessit, super fausta nomina sidus et puUum et 
pupum et alumnum appellantium. 

Suet. Calig. 13. 

Mox domesticorum cura levem tumulum accepit, viam 
Miseni propter et villam Gaesaris dictatoris, quae sub- 
iectos sinus editissima prospectat. 

Tac. Ann. xiv. 9. 

AuTTj bi wepi Toiis Ka\ov- 
fievovs M.icr]vovs bierpt-^tv, ovdev fitTaWa^acra. rfji (rvvrj'&ovs 
Sialrris. 'Hi' 5i iroXixpiKos Kal 5td (piKo^tvlav (vrpaTre^os, ael 
fifv 'EWr]V(av Kal ipiKoKbyoiv irepl avrrjv ovtwv, clttclvtuiv Si tSiv 
fiaai\i(iiv Kal Sexoptevoiv wap' airrjs dwpa Kal ■wip.irbvTUiv. "H5i- 
ari) p.h ovv ^v avrrj toZs aipLKVovfikvoi^ Kal avvovai, 5n]yovfitvri 
Tov Tov Trarpos 'kippiKavov ^iov Kal SlatTav, ^avixaaiunaTi] 
&k tSiv iralScov airevdrjs Kal aSaKpvTOs nvrjixovtiiovaa, Kal Trk&i] 
Kal Trpa^eis avT&v, wcnrtp apxalwv tlvSiv, iirjyovixkvq tols 


Plut. C. Gracch. xix. 

& Augustus made this one of the permanent stations of the Roman fleet. It was while 
Pliny the elder was in command of this fleet at Misenum, that he met his death by .the 
eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A. D. For a vivid account of his last moments, see the story 
of Pliny the younger quoted under the topic Vesuvius. These waters were also the scene 
of a famous meeting between Octavian and Antony on the one hand, and Sextus Pompey 
on the other, at which a reconciliation was effected and the Roman world divided among 
the three. 

6 Caligula, the successor of Tiberius. 

' Agrippina, killed by her son Nero, in 59 A. D. (See Baiae). 

8 Two famous men of the second century, B. C. who tried to bring about certain 
reforms in the interests of the people. 

of Places in Italy 2 1 5 

He stationed a fleet at Misenum and another at Ra- 
venna, to defend the Upper and Lower seas.^ 


The People Acclaim the New Emperor 

Accordingly, when he* set out from Misenum, although 
he was in mourning garb and escorting the body of Ti- 
berius, yet his progress was marked by altars, victims, and 
blazing torches, and he was met by a dense and joyful 
throng, who called him besides other propitious names, 
their "star," their "chick," their "babe" and their 


The Tomb of Nero's Mother 

After some time an humble monument was raised by 
her' domestics on the road to Misenum, near the villa of 
Caesar, the Dictator, which from an eminence, commands a 
beautiful prospect of the sea and the bays along the coast. 

Arthur Murphy 

The House of Cornelia, the Mother of the Gracchi^ 

She removed afterwards and dwelt near the place called 
Misenum, not at all altering her former way of living. 
She had many friends, and hospitably received many 
strangers at her house; many Greeks and learned men 
were continually about her; nor was there any foreign 
prince but received gifts from her and presented her with 
them in turn. Those who were conversant with her, were 
much interested when she pleased to entertain them with 
her recollections of her father, Scipio Africanus, and of his 
habits and ways of living. But it was most admirable to 
hear her make mention of her sons, without any tears or 
signs of grief, and give the full account of all their deeds 
-and misfortunes, as if she had been relating the history of 
some ancient heroes. 

Dryden's Translation, Revised by Arthur Clough 

216 Classical Associations 

MUTINA (Modena) 

This flourishing city on the Aemilian Road is chiefly 
known in history for the conspicuous part it played in the 
Civil Wars. Plutarch (Pomp. 16) says that it held out for 
a considerable time against Pompey, and after Caesar's 
death became memorable for the long siege it sustained 
when Antony was assailing, with a numerous army, the 
forces of Brutus shut up within its walls (43 B. C). Owing 
to the aid of Octavian and the senate, just then opposing 
Antony, the latter was finally forced to retire from the 
city (Dio Cass. xlvi. 35-38). The passages quoted below 
bear witness to its commercial prosperity. 

Mutinam firmissimam et splendissimam populi Romani 

Cic. Phil. V. 24. 


Pomp. Mela ii 4, 60. 

Ttjs S' apeTrjs tCiv tottwv reKfjiiipLov fi t' evavdpia. Kai to, /xe- 
•y'f&i) tS>v TToKtuv Kal 6 ttXoOtos, oh iraaLV viripfik^XrjVTaL rriv 
aWr]v 'IraXlav ol ravrri 'Foifialoi. kal yap ri 'y€uipyovp,kvri y^ 
TToWous Kal iravToiovs iKtpeptL Kapirovs, Kal al CXat Toaahrriv 
ixovai fidXavov Hxtt' Ik twv kvrev&ev vo(popl3ioiv 17 'Pwp,ri Tpkiptrai. 
TO irXiov. i(TTL Si Kal Keyxpo(p6pos dLaptpovrois 6td rriv e vSplav 
TOVTO Si \i/ioC fieyia-TOv ecmv Slkos' irpos airauras yap Kaipoiis 
aepwv avrexfi- Kal ovSeTor' IwLKeliruv ivvarai., k&v tov aXXou 
crtTOu ykvrjTaL awdvLs. exet Si Kal irLTTOvpyeia ^^aViiacTa. rod 
S' o'ivov TO TrXfj^os iiT^vvovaiv o irl&oi' ^vKlvoi yap /i«'fous ot- 
Kwv eitri' TpoaXa/x^dveL Si ttoXii 17 rfjs irirTris tmopia wpos to 
evKoivriTOv. ipiav Si Tr)v fiiv /xaXaKiji' ol ttpl MovtIvtiv tottoi Kal 
TOV XKovKTavvav iroTa/xdv ipkpovcn Tro\v iratrSiv KoKKLcrTr^v. 

Strab. V. 1, 12. 

of Places in Ilalv 


Scene Ne« Mutina 

Mutina, a very strong and splendid colony of the Ro- 
man people. 

Very wealthy. 

Mutina Described by Strabo 

The fertility of this country is proved by its population, 
the size of its cities, and its wealth, in all of which the 
Romans of this country surpass the rest of Italy. The 
cultivated land produces fruits in great quantity and of 
every kind, and the woods contain such abundance of 
mast, that Rome is principally supplied from the swine fed 
there. Being well supplied with water, millet grows there 
in perfection. This affords the greatest security against 
famine, inasmuch as millet resists any inclemency of the 
atmosphere, and never fails, even when there is scarcity of 
other kinds of grain. Their pitch-works are amazing, and 
their casks give evidence of the abundance of wine: these 
are made of wood, and are larger than houses, and the great 
supply of pitch allows them to be sold cheap. The soft wool 
and by far the best is produced in the country around 
Mutina and the river Panaro. H. C. Hamilton 

218 Classical Associations 

KaTffap fiiv Kai 'Avtuvlos ks <pi\lav dir' ex^pM avvpecav &.fi(l>l 
MovrLvriv ttoXic, Is VTitrtSa tov Aa^iviov iroTafiov /3pax«tiii>' Tt 
Kai inrTiav, 'ixuv tKarepos ottXltwv rkXri irkvTC koX raSe oX- 
XijXots avTiKaBiaTOLVTes ex'l'poiii' ciiv TptoKOtriots tKartpos iiri 
ras TOV TTOTa/ioO y€(t>vpas. AIttiSos 5' avrhs wpoeKdihv hi/qpthvo. 
Trjv vfjaov Kai rfj xXa;u{i5t Kareaetev fjKeiv (Karepov. ot 8i iiri 
tSjv 'Y«f>vpi!>v TOW TpiaKoaiovs /lera. tSiv 4>iKo}v airoXiirovTis « to 
fikaov 'jjtaav ev xeptOTrrco, /cat cvvribp vov oi Tptis, Kaicapos fv 
fj.ic(i3 Old. TT}v apxhv irpoKadlaavTOS- 

^Q8e fiiv Trjv 'Tiiiixaloov ■fiyefiovlav oi rpeis iveifiavTO i<l>' eauToTs. 

App. B. C. iv. 2-3. 

1 In 43 B. C, Octavian. Antony, and Lepidus formed the league known as the Second 

of Places in Italy 2 1 9 

Three Politicians Divide the Spoils' 

Octavian and Antony composed their differences on a 
small depressed islet in the river Lavinius, near the city 
of Mutina. Each had five legions of soldiers whom they 
stationed opposite each other, after which each proceeded 
with 300 men to the bridges over the river. Lepidus by 
himself went before them, searched the island, and waved 
his military cloak as a signal for them to come. Then each 
left his 300 in charge of friends on the bridges and ad- 
vanced to the middle of the island in plain sight, and there 
the three sat together in council, Octavian in the centre 
because he was consul 

Thus was the dominion of the Romans- divided by the 
triumvirate among themselves. 

Horace White 

NEAPOLIS (Napoli) 

During the fourth and third centuries B. C. this Greek 
town became an important trade center, rivalling Cumae 
and even Puteoli. Its ships traded extensively with Sicily 
and the neighboring islands. In 326 B. C. an alliance was 
formed with Rome to which, according to the testimony of 
Velleius Paterculus ("eximia semper in Romanos fiides"), 
it was always true. The strength of its walls, says Pliny, 
was such that neither Pyrrhus in 280 B. C. nor Hannibal in 
the Second Punic War dared besiege it. (See alsoLiv. xxiii. 
1 ; 14; l.S.) As time wenl on its historical importance grew 
less and the place came to be sought chief!}' by Romans of 
the upper class who were attracted by the atmosphere of 
Greek life and culture or by the charms of its scenery and 
climate. Many beautirul villas were built in its neighbor- 
hood, one of the most splendid being the Pau'^ilypum (lo- 
cated in the region now known as Posilipo). This house 
was originally owned by Vedius Pollio, but later became 
the possession of the emperor Augustus. (For an account 
of its siege by the Goths in the sixth century A. D., see 
Procopius \'. 8, 6-45.) 

220 Classical Associations 

Nostra quoque et propriis tenuis nee rara colonis 
Parthenope, cui mite solum trans aequora vectae 
ipse Dionaea monstravit Apollo columba. 
has ego te sedes (nam nee mihi barbara Thrace 
nee Libye natale solum) transferre laboro. 
quas et mollis hiems et frigida temperat aestas, 
quas imbelle fretum torpentibus adluit undis. 
pax secura locis et desidis otia vitae 
et numquam turbata quies somnique peracti. 
nulla foro rabies aut strictae in iurgia leges: 
morum iura viris solum et sine fascibus aequum. 

nee desunt variae circa oblectamina vitae: 
sive vaporiferas, blandissima litora, Baias, 
enthea fatidicae seu visere tecta Sibyllae 
dulce sit Iliacoque iugum memorabile remo, 
seu tibi Bacchei vineta madentia Gauri 
Teleboumque domos, trepidis ubi dulcia nautis 
lumina noctivagae toUit Pharus aemula lunae, 
caraque non molli iuga Surrentina Lyaeo, 
quae meus ante alios habitator Pollius auget, 
Aenariaeque lacus medicos Stabiasque renatas: 
mille tibi nostrae referam telluris amores? 

Stat. Silv. iii. 5, 78-1Q5. 

In otia natam | Parthenopen. 

Ov. Met. XV. 711-712. 

Otiosa .... Neapolis. 

Hor. Epod. V. 43. 

* The poet Stalius was bom at Naples. 

2 Parthenope was an early name for the place. 

3 At Cumae. 

* A mountain near the Lucrine lake famous as the scene of the first battle between the 
Romans and the Samnites in 340 B. C. It is now called M. Barbaro. 

^ A friend of the poet. 

8 A small island off the coast in this region whose springs were said to possess medicinal 
qualities CPlin. N. H. xxxi. 9). Tn the same line, the Latin text, by plausible emendation, 
makes reference to the rebirth of Stabiae (Castellammare) after its destruction by the 
eruption of Vesuvius. 

of Places in Italy 221 


A Poet Eulogizes His Native Land 

Near lies the native city of my love;' 
The mild soil Phoebus, by the guiding dove, 
Showed to Parthenope;^ the siren maid 
Crossed the wide seas, and here her Naples laid. 
Hither I seek to bear thee: not my race 
Springs from wild Lybia, nor from barbarous Thrace. 
Tempered by breezy summers, winters bland. 
The waveless seas glide slumbering to the land: 
Safe peace is here; life's careless ease is ours; 
Unbroken rest, and sleep till morning hours. 
No courts here rage; no bickering brawls are known: 
The laws of men are in their manners shown; 
And Justice walks unguarded and alone. 

Nor less the various charms of life are found 

Where the wide champaign spreads its distant bound: 

Whether thou haunt warm Baiae's streaming shore. 

Or the prophetic Sibyl's' cave explore; 

Or mount, made famous by Misenus' oar; 

Or Gaurus'* vineyards, or the Caprean isle. 

Where sailors mark the watch-tower's moony pile; 

Surrentum's hills, where acrid clusters twine. 

And where my Pollius* dwells, and tends the vine: 

Aenaria's ' healing lakes; and from the main 

The rocks of Statina emerged again. 

A thousand pleasures could my verse expand, 

.\nd darling loves of this my native land. 

C. A. Elton 

Parthenope for soft pleasure founded. 

F. J. Miller 

Gossiping Naples. 

C. E. Bennett 

222 Classical Associations 

nXeicTTa 5' txvv Tijs 
'EXkrivLKrjs 070)7175 kvravda a6i^tTaL,yvfj,vi,(nii.T€ Kai k<p7jPtia Kai 
ipparpiai. /cat bvoixara "EXXiji'iKa Kaiwep 6vtwv "Pco/jotOJi'. vvvl 
di TivreTTipLKOs lepos aydiv avvrtKiirai irap' avrdii fxovciKos re 
Kal yvfjLVLKO^ iirl irKeiovs 17/iepas, evaniWoi rots tirLtpavicrT6,T0is 
Toiv Kara ttjv 'EXXaSa. icTL 8i Kai kvda.8e Stcopu^ KpvTrri, tov 
/itTa^v opovs Trjs re AiKaiapxeias Kai tjjs NeairoXews virepyaa- 
&evTos ofioius uairtp kiri rr/v Kvfiriv, 68ov re avoLx^daris havrlois 
^ivytci ToptvTTJs iiri iroWovs aradiovs' to. di (fwra e/c Tr/s iiriifia- 
vtias TOV opovs, iroWaxo^tv iKKOiniaiJiv ^vpiScap, Sia /3di?ous 
TToXXoO KarayeraL. ex«t 5f Kai 17 NediroXts ^epjiSiv vdaruv 'tK^o- 
Xas Kai KaraoKtvas \ovTpS>v oh xtipovs rSiV tv Boiats, iroXii 5^ rip 
irXi7!?ei Xeiiroiitvas' kei 7ap ciXXtj xoXis yeyevqTai, crvvi^Kodofiri- 
tievoiv ^aaCKtlMV oKXuv kir' aXXois, ovk i\a.TTUV rijs AiKaiapx«ias. 
kin.Telvovai, 5e rriv hi NeairoXst 5ta7co7i7V Tr)v 'EXXrji'tKiji' 01 'm t^s 
"Pci/iTjs dvaxwpoOi'Tes SeOpo rjavxi-as x^-ptv tuv OTri TraiSeiaj 
ipyacrajxivoiv fj Kal aWav 8ia yrjpas r) aa'&kvtiav iro^oiJVTWV tv 
avkan J'Tjr'' Kal rOiv 'Pco/iatcoj' 5' evioi xo-lpovres rcS |3icj) Toi)T(p, 
^tupovvres to tKtj&os tSiv awo rrjs aiiTfjs ayuyrjs ein5rip.o{ivTwv 
av8pS)V, aap-tvoi, (pCkox'^povai Kal ^Oiaiv ahrly&i. 

Strab. V. 4, 7. 

Docta Neapolis. Mart. v. 78, 14. 

Haec super arvorum cultu pecorumque canebam 
et super arboribus, Caesar dum magnus ad altum 
fulminat Euphraten bello, victorque volentis 
per populos dat iura, viamque adfectat Olympo. 
illo Vergilium me tempore dulcis alebat 
Parthenope, studiis florentem ignobilis oti, 
carmina qui lusi pastorum, audaxque iuventa, 
Tityre, te patulae cecini sub tegmine fagi. 

Vir. Georg. iv. 560-567. 

' Greek customs prevailed until late into the Empire. The mass of the inscriptions 
found is Greek rather than Latin. The Greek calendar was used and the Greek gods wor- 
shipped. Because of this latter fact the people neglected gladiatorial combats, turning 
rather to gymnastic and musical contests. Nero made himself conspicuous by taking 
part on these occasions as following passages show. 

* The Greek name for Puteoli. 

» The city numbered famous philosophers, poets, and historians among its inhabi- 
tants. Lucilius, for example, one of Rome's famous literary men, died here. Virgil passed 
much of his time in the place as the above passages indicate. 

10 A reference to the Georgics. as, at the end, he refers to the Eclogues. 

oj Places in Italy 223 

The City as Seen by a Traveler of the First Century B. C. 

Many traces of Grecian institutions' are still preserved, 
the ephebia, the fratriae, and the Grecian names of people 
who are Roman citizens. At the present time tHey cele- 
brate, every fifth year, during many days, public games 
for music and gymnastic exercises which rival the most 
famous games of Greece. There is here a subterranean 
passage, similar to that at Cumae, extending for many 
stadia along the mountain between Dicaearchia* and 
Neapolis; it is sufficiently broad to let carriages pass each 
other, and light is admitted from the surface of the moun- 
tain by means of numerous apertures cut through a great 
depth. Naples also has hot springs and baths not at all 
inferior in quality to those at Baiae, but much less fre- 
quented; for another city has arisen there, not less than 
Dicaearchia, one palace after another having been built. 
Naples still preserves the Grecian mode of life, owing to 
those who retire hither from Rome for the sake of repose, 
after a life of labour from childhood, and to those whose 
age or weakness demands relaxation. Besides these, 
Romans who find attractions in this style of life and ob- 
serve the numbers of persons dwelling there, are attracted 
by the place and make it their abode. 

H. C. Hamilto.v 

Learned Naples.' 

Virgil Composes Rustic Poetry 

Such' was the song I was making;" a song of the hus- 
bandry of fields and cattle, and of trees; while Caesar, the 
great, is flashing war's thunderbolt over the depths of 
Euphrates, and dispensing among willing nations a con- 
queror's law, and setting his foot on the road to the sky. 
In those days I was being nursed in Parthenope's delicious 
lap, embowered in the pursuits of inglorious peace — I, 
Virgil, who once dallied with the shepherd's muse, and 
with a young man's boldness, sang of thee, Tityrus, under 
the spreading beechen shade. 

John Coninc.ton 

224 Classical Associations 

Ossa eius Neapolim translata sunt tumuloque condita 
qui. est via Puteolana intra lapidem secundum, in quo 
distichon fecit tale: 
Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 
Parthenope; cecini pascua, rura, duces. 

Suet, de Poet. (Vir.) 35-36. 

Silius haec magni celebrat monumenta Maronis, 

iugera facundi qui Ciceronis habet. 
heredem dominumque sui tumulive larisve 

non alium mallet nee Maro nee Cicero. 

Mart. xi. 48. 

Eh egomet somnum et geniale secutus 
litus, ubi Ausonio se condidit hospita portu 
Parthenope, tenues ignavo pollice chordas 
pulso Maroneique sedens in margine templi 
sumo animum et magni tumulis adcanto magistri. 

Stat. Silv. iv. 4, 51-55. 

Cum a Bails deberem Neapolim repetere, facile credidi 
tempestatem esse, ne iterum navem experirer: et tan turn 
luti tota via fuit, ut possim videri nihilominus navigasse. 
Totum athletarum fatum mihi illo die perpetiendum fuit: 
a ceromate nos haphe excepit in crypta Neapolitana. 
Nihil illo carcere longius, nihil illis facibus obscurius, quae 

11 For an account of Virgil's deatii, see Brundisium. Tiie so-called tomb of Virgil is 
still pointed out by"" the guides in Naples. 

" This poet, Silius Italicus, was famous for liis devotion to Virgil, 
u See a preceding passage for Strabo's description. 

of Places in Italy 225 

The Tomb of Virgil 

His ashes were taken to Naples and laid to rest on the 
via Puteolana less than two miles from the city in a tomb 
for which he himself composed this couplet: 
Mantua gave me the light, Calabria slew me; now holds me 
Parthenope. I have sung shepherds, the country, and 


A Roman Writer Worships at the Tomb of His Master 

Silius,*^ who possesses the knds that once belonged to 
the eloquent Cicero, celebrates funeral obsequies at the 
tomb of the great Virgil. There is no one that either Virgil 
or Cicero would have preferred for his heir, or as guardian 
of his tomb and lands. 

Translation from the Bohn Library 

A Poet's Tribute to Virgil 

And so, lured by the desire of sleep to this voluptuous 
shore, where in an Ausonian haven Parthenope, the 
stranger, found shelter, see, with puny hands I strike upon 
my puny lyre. For sitting here at the threshold of Maro's 
shrine, I still take courage and pour forth a lay to my 
master's grave. 

D. A. Slaier 

An Account of a Traveler's Passage Through 
the Tunnel's 

When it was time for me to return to Naples from Baiae, 
I easily persuaded myself that a storm was raging, that I 
might avoid another trip by sea; and yet the road was so 
deep in mud all the way, that I may be thought none the 
less to have made a voyage. On that day I had to endure 
the full fate of an athlete; the anointing with which we 
began was followed by the sand-sprinkle in the Naples 
tunnel. No place could be longer than that prison; noth- 

226 Classical Associations 

nobis praestant non ut per tenebras videamus, sed ut ip- 
sas. Ceterum etiamsi locus haberet lucetn, pulvis auferret, 
in aperto quoque res gravis et molesta: quid illic, ubi in 
se volutatur et, cum sine ullo spifamento sit inclusus, in 
ipsos, a quibus excitatus est, recidit? Duoiincommoda 
inter se contraria simul pertulimus: eadem via, eodem^die 
et luto et pulvere laboravimus. ^ '**>!» 

Sen. Ep. Ivii. 1-3. 

Et prodit Neapoli primum, ac ne concusso quidem re- 
pente motu terrae theatro ante cantare destitit, quam in- 
cohatum absolveret nomon. Ibidem saepius et per com- 
plures cantavit dies; sumpto etiam ad reficiendam vocem 
brevi tempore, impatiens secret! a balineis in theatrum 
transiit mediaque in orchestra frequente populo epulatus, 
si paulum subbibisset, aliquid se sufferti tinniturum Graeco 
sermone promisit. 

Suet. Nero, 20. 

Reversus e Graecia Neapolim, quod in ea primum ar- 
tem protultfrat, albis equis introiit, disiecta parte muri, 
ut mos hieronicarum est. 

Suet. Nero, 25. 

" The emperor Nero^ whose conduct in thus appearing upon the stage and in partici- 
pating in the games greatly shocked the Romans of the better class. 

oj Places in Italy 227 

ing could be dimmer than those torches, which enabled us, 
not to see amid the darkness, but to see the darkness. But 
even supposing that there was light in the p'ace, the dust, 
which is an opp -essive and disagreeable thing even in the 
open air, would destroy the Ught; how much worse the 
dust is there, where it rolls back upon itself, and, being 
shut in without ventilation, blows back in the faces of 
those who set it going! So we endured two inconveniences 
at the same time, and they were diametrically different: 
we struggled both with mud and with dust on the same 
road and on the same day. 


The Emperor Nero Indulges His Vanity by Appearing 
on the Stage 

And he" made his debut at Naples where he did not 
cease singing until he had finished the number which he 
had begun, even though the theatre was shaken by a sud- 
den earthquake shock. In the same city he sang fre- 
quently and for several successive days. Even when he 
took a short time to rest his voice, he could not keep out 
of sight, but went to the theatre after bathing and dined 
in the orchestra with the people all about him, promising 
them in Greek, that when he had wetted his whistle a bit, 
he would ring out something good and loud. 


A Spectacular Entrance 

Returning from Greece, since it was at Naples that he" 
had made his first appearance, he entered that city with 
white horses through a part of the wall which had been 
thrown down, as is customary with victors in the sacred 


228 Classical Associations 


Et foliis Nemorensis abundans. 

Prop. iii. 22, 25. 

Nemus .... glaciale Dianae. 

Stat. Silv. iv. 4, 15. 

Pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Dianae. 

Vir. Aen. vii. 764. 

Lacus est qui speculum Dianae dicitur. 

Serv. ad Aen. vii. 515. 

T6 5' 'Apre- 
filaiov, & KoKovaL vefws, e/c tov tv apLarepq, /xkpovs rrjs bSov rots t^ 
'ApLKias avaPalvovuLV. rijs 8' 'AptKtvrjs to Upov Xkyovaiu a.<pi- 
Spvfia TL TJjs Tavpoir6\ov Kal yap tl jiap^apiKov Kparel Kai 
^KV&iKov Tipl t6 Upov Mos. Ka&laTaTai yap itpeiis 6 yevri^tU 
avToxC'P TOV ltpo}p.tvov irpOTfpov dpaireTrji avrip' ^i(p)7pjjs ovv 
iffTLV ad xepicTKOiruv tois tTn^eaeis, tToi/uos a/jivpea^ai. to &' 
Upov iv aXaei, TrpoKeiTai de Xlnvi] ireKayi^ovcra, KVKKif S' opeivq 
avvfXV^ (Kppiis Trept/cetrat xat \iav i^^r/Xij Kai to Upov Kal t6 vSoip 
awo\afiPavovaa kv koiXo! tottcij /cat Padel. 

Strab. V. 3, 12. 

Vallis Aricinae silva praecinctus opaca 
est lacus, antiqua religione sacer. 

Ov. Fast. iii. 263-264. 

^ This forest contained a very wealthy shrine of Diana which was held in the greatest 
reverence throughout Italy for more than a thousand years. 

2 The small crater -shaped lake upon which the temple was situated was called from the 
grove Lacus Nemorensis or sometimes the picturesque appellation of this reference given 
to it. Because of its remarkable beauty, its shores were much sought by the wealthy as 
a site for country houses. Julius Caesar is said to have destroyed from its foundation, 
through some caprice or other, one which he had started to build there at extravagant cost 
(Suet. Caes. 46). (For a story about Vitellius, see Aricia.) 

' It is interesting to know that this barbarous custom which made the temple unique 
was retained as late as Strabo's day (latter half of first century B. C.) For other refer- 
ences, see Fausan. ii. 27; Suet. Calig. 35; Stat. Silv. iii. 1, 55fE. 

of Places in Italy 229 


And Nemi thick with leaves. 

H. E. Butler 

The grove of Diana, icy cold.' 

Where lies Dian's gracious, gifted fane. 

T. C. Williams 

There is a lake which is called the Mirror of Diana.'' 

A Weird Religious Custom 

On the other side is the Artemisium which is called 
Nemus, on the left side of the way, leading from Aricia to 
the temple. They say that it is consecrated to Diana 
Taurica, and certainly the rites' performed in this temple 
are something barbarous and Scythic. They appoint as 
priest a fugitive who has murdered the preceding priest 
with his own hand. Apprehensive of an attack upon him- 
self, the priest is always armed with a sword, ready for re- 
sistance. The temple is in a grove and before it is a lake 
of considerable size. The temple and water are sur- 
rounded by abrupt and lofty precipices, so that they seem 
to be situated in a deep and hollow ravine. 

H. C. Hamilton 

There is a lake in the valley of Aricia, inclosed by a dark 
wood, sanctified bv ancient religious awe. 

H. T. Riley 

23G Classical Associations 

NOLA (Noi.A) 

This ancient and important city was early occupied by 
the Etruscans and later by the Samnites. The Romans 
captured it m 313 B. C. (Liv. ix. 28), and its senate at least 
remained faithful to this government during the war with 
Hannibal, although the latter made a strong but unsuccess- 
ful attack upon the city (Liv. xxiii. 14-17). Silius Italicus 
summarizes these vain efforts on the part of Carthage and 
the loyalty of the city by the words "Poeno non pervia 
Nola" (viii. 534). In the Social War, however, the place 
gave Rome considerable trouble. Sulla, during the Civil 
Wars, tried to master it when held by democratic sympa- 
thizers, ' and later assigned its- lands to his victorious 
soldiers. Throughout the Empire it continued to be a 
flourishing town and even as late as 455 .\. D. it is called 
"urbs ditissima." 

Campo Nola sedet, crebris circumdala in orbem 
turribus, et celso facilem tutatur adiri 
planitiem vallo. 

Sil. Ital. xii. 162-4. 

Mox Neapolim traiecit, quamquam etiam tum infirmis 
intestinis morbo variante; tamen et quinquennale certa- 
men gymnicum honori suo institutum perspectavit et cum 
Tiberio ad destinatum locum contendit. Sed in redeundo 
adgravata valitudine, tandem Nolae succubuit revocatum- 
que ex itinere Tiberium diu secreto sermone detinuit, ne- 
que post ulli maiori negotio animum accommodavit. 

' The emperor Augustus who died here in 14 A. H. 
2 Beneventum. 

of Places in Italy 


Scene Near Nola 

Nola Guards the Plain 

Nola sits upon the plain, encircled with many towers, 
and by a lofty rampart protects the level districts about, 
easy of access as they are to the foe. 

The Emperor Augustus Dies 

Presently he^ crossed over to Naples although his bowels 
were still weak from intermittent attacks. In spite of this, 
he witnessed a quinquennial gymnastic contest which had 
been established in his honour, and then started with 
Tiberius for his destination.^ But as he was returning, 
his illness increased and he at last took to his bed at Nola, 
calling back Tiberius who was on his way to Illyricum, 
and keeping him for a long time in private conversation, 
after which he gave attention to no business of importance. 

232 Classical Associations 

Supremo die identidem exquirens, an iam de se tumul- 
tus foris esset, petito speculo, capillum sibi comi ac malas 
labantes corrigi praecepit, et admissos amicos percontatus, 
ecquid iis videretur mimum vitae commode transegisse, adie- 
cit et clausulam: 

el 8k Ti 
exot (caXus rd Tra.lyvi.ov, Kporov 86t€ 
Kal iravres fi/xas fierA. x^pas TpoTipf/are. 

Omnibus deinde dimissis, dum advenientes ab urbe de 
Drusi filia aegra interrogat, repente in osculis Liviae et in 
hac voce defecit: Livia, nostri coniugi memor vive, ac vale! 
sortitus exitum facilem et qualem semper optaverat. Nam 
fere quotiens audisset cito ac nuUo cruciatu defunctum 
quempiam, sibi et suis eu&avaciav similem (hoc enim et 
verbo uti solebat) precabatur. Unum omninp ante effla- 
tam animam signum alienatae mentis ostendit, quod sub- 
ito pavefactus a quadraginta se iuvenibus abripi questus 
est. Id quoque magis praesagium quam mentis deminutio 
fuit, siquidem totidem milites praetoriani extulerunt eum 
in publicum. Obiit in cubiculo eodem, quo pater Octa- 

Suet. Aug. 98-9. 

Scriptum in quodam commentario repperi versus istosa 
Vergilio ita primum esse recitatos atque editos (Georg. ii. 

"talem dives arat Capua et vicina Vesevo 
Nola iugo." 

Postea Vergilium petisse a Nolanis, aquam uti duceret in 
propinquum rus, Nolanos beneficium petitum non fecisse, 
poetam offensum nomen urbis eorum, quasi ex hominum 
memoria, sic ex carmine sue derasisse "oram" que pro 
"Nola" mutasse atque ita reliquisse: "et vicina Vesevo 
ora iugo." 

Aul. GeU. N. A. vi. 20, 1. 

of Places in Italy 233 

On the last day-of his life he asked every now and then 
whether there was any disturbance without on his ac- 
count; then calling for a mirror, he had his hair combed and 
his falling jaws set straight. After that, calling in his 
friends and asking whether it seemed to them that he had 
played the comedy of life fitly, he added the tag: 

"Since well I've played my part, all clap your hands 
And from the stage dismiss me with applause." 
Then he sent them all off, and while he was asking some 
newcomers from the city about the daughter of Drusus, 
who was ill, he suddenly passed away as he was kissing Livia, 
uttering these last words: "Live mindful of our wedlock, 
Livia, and farewell," thus blessed with an easy death and 
such a one as he had always longed for. For almost always 
on hearing that anyone had died swiftly and painlessly, 
he prayed that he and his might have a like euthanasia, 
for that was the term he was wont to use. He gave 
but one single sign of wandering before he breathed his 
last, calling out in sudden terror that forty young men 
were carrying him off. And even this was rather a pre- 
monition than a delusion, since it was that very number of 
soldiers of the praetorian guard that carried him forth to 
lie in state. 

He died in the same room as his father Octavius. 


Virgil Indulges in a Fit of Bad Temper 

I found it written in a certain commentary that those 
verses were at first read and edited by Virgil as follows: 
"talem dives erat Capua et vicina Vesevo 
Nola iugo." 
But after Virgil had asked permission of the people of Nola 
to bring water from this place to his neighboring farm, and 
after this favor had been refused, the poet, in anger, erased 
the word "Nola" from his poem (as though in this way he 
would erase it from men's minds), and in its place wrote 
"ora." Thus he left the lines written in this fashion: 
"talem dives arat Capua et vicina Vesevo 
ora iugo." 
"Such land does rich Capua plough, and the shore near 
the height of Vesuvius." 

234 Classical Associations 

NOMENTUM (Mentana) 

This town, situated on the Via Nomentana not far from 
Rome, was perhaps one of Alba's colonies as the VirgiHan 
reference indicates. There is evidence that it belonged to 
the Latin League and together with the other Latin cities 
took part in the war against Rome in 338 B. C. Little is 
known of the city from this time on, although it probably 

Dum tibi felices indulgent, Castrice, Baiae 

canaque sulpureis unda natatur aquis, 
me Nomentani confirmant otia ruris 

et casa iugeribus non onerosa suis. 
hoc mihi Baiani soles mollisque Lucrinus, 

hoc mihi sunt vestrae, Castrice, divitiae. 
quondam laudatas quocunque libebat ad undas 

currere nee longas pertimuisse vias, 
nunc urbis vicina iuvant facilesque recessus, 

et satis est, pigro si licet esse mihi. 

Mart. vi. 43, 1-10. 

Donasti, Lupe, rus sub urbe nobis; 
sed rus est mihi maius in fenestra, 
rus'hoc dicere, rus potes vocare? 
in quo ruta facit nemus Dianae, 
argutae tegit ala quod cicadae, 
quod formica die comedit uno, 
clusae cui folium rosae corona est; 
in quo non magis invenitur herba, 
quam Cosmi folium piperve crudum ; 
in quo nee cucumis iacere rectus, 
nee serpens habitare tdta possit. 
urucam male pascit hortus unam, 
eonsumpto moritur culix salieto, 
et talpa est mihi fossor atque arator. 
non boletus hiare, non mariseae 
ridere aut violae patere possunl. 
fines mus populatur et colono 

' Martial's small estate was presented to him by a wealthy friend. 

oj Flaces in Italy 235 

remained in existence for some centuries. Writers speak 
of its wine with praise (Plin. N. H. xiv. 48; Colum. R. R. 
iii. 3; Mart. x. 48, 19). The fact that such well-known 
writers as Martial, Ovid, Nepos, and Seneca had country 
homes at Nomentum, makes the place interesting to the 
classical student. 

Martial's Idea of a Vacation 

While happy Baiae lavishes on you, Castricus, its 
bounty, and the Nymph's spring, white with sulphurous 
waters, is your swimming-bath, the quiet of my Nomentan 
farm and a small house not too large for its field, recruit 
me. This to me is Baian sunshine and mild Lucrine lake: 
this to me is the riches, Castricus, you enjoy. Erewhile 
I gladly hurried everywhere to famous waters, and did 
not fear long journeys; now places near the city attract me, 
and quiet retreats easy to reach, and 'tis enough for me if 
I am allowed to be lazy. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

A Poet Jests at the Smallness of His Country Estate 

You have given me, Lupus,' an estate in the suburbs, 
but I have a larger estate on my window-sill. Can you say 
that this is an estate,~can you call this, I say, an estate, 
where a sprig of rue makes a grove for Diana; which the 
wing of the chirping grasshopper is sufficient to cover; 
which an ant could lay waste in a single day; for which the 
leaf of a rose-bud would serve as a canopy; in which herb- 
age is not more easily found than Cosmus' perfumes or 
green pepper; in which a cucumber cannot lie straight, or a 
snake uncoil itself? As a garden, it would scarcely feed a 
single caterpillar; a gnat would eat up its willow bed and 
starve; a mole would serve for digger and ploughman. 
The mushroom cannot expand in it, the fig cannot bloom, 
the \iolet cannot open. A mouse would destroy the 

236 Classical Associations 

tanquam sus Calydonius timetur, 
et sublata volantis ungue Prognes 
in nido seges est hirundinino; 
et cum stet sine fake mentulaque, 
non est dimidio locus Priapo. 
vix implet cocleam peracta messis, 
et mustum nuce condimus picata. 
errasti, Lupe, littera sed una: 
nam quo tempore praedium dedisti, 
mallem tu mihi prandium dedisses. 

Mart. xi. 18. 

Hi tibi Momentum et Gabii urbemque Fidenam, 


haec tum nomina erunt, nunc sunt sine nomine terrae. 

Vir. Aen. vi. 773-776. 

Saturis mitia poma dabo, 
de Nomentana vinum sine faece lagona, 
quae bis Frontino consule trima fuit. 

de prasino conviva meus venetoque loquatur, 
nee facient quemquam pocula nostra reum. 

Mart. X. 48, 19-24 

In Nomentanum meum fugi, quid putas? Urbem? Im- 
mo febrem et quidem subrepentem. lam manum mihi 
iniecerat. Protinus itaque parari vehiculum iussi Paulina 
mea retinente. Medicus initia esse dicebat motis venis et 
incertis et naturalem turbantibus modum. Exire perseve- 

Sen. Ep. civ. 1. 

2 Factions of the charioteers in the circus. 

3 Seneca, the philosopher and tutor of Nero, writes a letter to his friend Lucilius. 
* Seneca s wire. 

of Places in Italy 237 

whole territory, and is as much an object of terror as the 
Calydonian boar. My crop is carried off by the claws of 
a flying Progne, and deposited in a swallow's nest; and 
there is not room even for the half of a Priapus, though 
he be without his scythe and sceptre. The harvest, when 
gathered in, scarcely fills a snail-shell, and the wine may be 
stored up in a nut-shell stopped with resin. You have 
made a mistake, Lupus, though only in one letter; instead 
of giving me a fraedium, I would rather you had given 
me a prandium. 

Translation from the Bohn Library 

These, I tell thee, shall rear Nomentum and Gabii and 
Fidenae's city; .... These shall then be names 
that now are nameless lands. 

T. C. Williams 

When you have had your fill I will give you ripe apples, 
wine without lees from a Nomentan flagon, which was 
three years old in Frontinus' second consulship. . . . 
Let my guests converse of the Green and Blue;- my cups 
do not make any man a defendant. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

Illness Takes Seneca to His Country House 

P have run away to my villa near Nomentum to escape 
—what do you suppose? The city? No, a fever, and an 
insidious fever, too, which had already laid hands upon 
me. My physician insisted that the symptoms were under 
way, when my pulse was upset and irregular and at vari- 
ance with my normal condition ; so I ordered my carriage 
at once. I insisted on departing in spite of my dear Paul- 
ina's^ objections. 


238 Classical Associations 

OSTIA (Ostia) 

This famous harbor for Rome was founded by Ancus 
Martius.^ He at the same time developed the salt pits 
in its neighborhood. These continued to be used for cen- 
turies. As Rome developed, the commerical and military 
importance of Ostia increased. It became the port of 
landing for all the trading ships from abroad whose car- 
goes were destined for this part of Italy and the center of 
distribution of Rome's grain supplies from Asia; Egypt, 
and Sicily. So necessary to the safety of the state did Ostia 
become on this account, that its inhabitants came to be 
looked upon as a state possession, immune from military 
serv ce on land and sea (Liv. xxviii. 38). From 267 B. C, 
a special praetor superintended its grain supply. Later, 
firemen from Rome and warships from Misenum guarded 
the hage ware-houses that lined the shores (Suet. Claud. 25; 
Tac. Hist. ii. 63). Such precautions as these make all the 
more significant the statement of Cicero below that pirates 
in 67 B. C. dared to enter even this harbor. 

Until the time of Claudius, the inadequate facilities for 
the loading and unloading of goods, due to the fact that 
there was no proper port, were a constant source ' of 
annoyance. But during the reign of this emperor, a 
spacious and well-constructed harbor was built to the 
north of the city with a light-house to serve as a guide to 
mariners at night. About the beginning of the second cen- 
tury A. D., Trajan also built a harbor, this inner one and 
that of Claudian being referred to together as "Portus 
Augusti et Traiani." A considerable town known as 
"Portus," distinct from the town of Ostia proper, naturally 
grew up about these harbors, whose streets were thronged 
with sailors from all parts of the world. 

Ostia itself was a large and flourishing city, adorned with 
many beautiful buildings and much sought by wealthy 
Romans as a location for their homes (Varro R. R. iii. 2 ; 
Sym. Ep. i. 6; ii. 52). After the time of Claudius it be- 
came a favorite resort for the emperors and was much 
frequented by the dignitaries of the Church in later times. 

I According to tradition. The earliest remains date from tlie fourth century Ii. C. 

oj Places ill Italy 


Courtesy oJ Art and A rchaeology 


Si. Augustine's mother died here as she was on her way to 
Africa in company with her son. For a vivid and interest- 
ing account of this incident, see Augustine's Confessions 
( ix. 8-12) as well as the passage quoted below. 

The city continued to prosper throughout the Empire 
and was looked upon as an important place by the invad- 
ing Goths in the later days of Rome. 

Procopius, a writer of the 6th century A. D., gives a 
vivid account of the way in which Belisarius brought up 
his supplies from Ostia to Rome when the latter city was 
being besieged by the Goths (^■i. 7, 1-12). 

240 Classical Associations 

Sive receptus 
terra Neptunus classes aquilonibus arcet, 
regis opus. 

Hor. A. P. 63-65. 

Ostiamque in ipso maris fluminisque confinio colbniam 
posuit, iam turn videlicet praesagieng animo futurum ut 
totius mundi opes et commeatus illo velut maritiiriourbis 
hospitio reciperentur. 

Flor. Ep. i. 1,4. 

IloXets 5' ext t^aXarTu /i^v twv AcltLviov eiirl rk Te"fi(7Tto, ttoXis 
oKlixa/o^ Slo. t7)v irp6ax<^ci-v W o TtjSepis xapaa/ceuafei irXripoi- 
fievos eK iroXKoiv woTajilHv' TapaKivdvvcos fih ovv opfjii^ovTai 
fierkapa ev tQ cdXtj) to. vavKXrjpLa, to fikvTOi, XvareXh vinq.' /cat 
yap 71 tSjv virrjptTuaav OKaipuiv eiiTOpia tGiv kKStxonkviav to. (poprla 
Kal avTiipopri^bvTOiv raxvv iroteT tov diroxXouj" irplv fj tov TrorajuoC 
S.xf'acr&ai., Kal /xepovs aTroKOv<pia§evTOs ettrxXei Kal avdyeTai, /iexpt 
TTJs 'Poj/iijs, craSiovs eKarov evevrjKOVTa. 

Strab. V. 3, 5. 

Portum Ostiae extruxit, circumducto dextra sinistraque 
brachio et ad introitum profundo iam solo mole obiecta; 
quam quo stabilius fundaret, navem ante demersit, qua 
magnus obeliscus ex Aegypto fuerat advectus, congestis- 
que pilis superposuit altissimam turrem in exemplum 
Alexandrini Phari, ut ad nocturnos ignes cursum navigia 

Suet. Claud. 20. 

Trepidis ubi dulcia nautis, 
lumina noctivagae tollit Pharos aemula lunae. 

Stat. Silv. iii. 5, 100-101. 

of Places in Italy 241 

The land-locked port, a work well worthy kings, 
That takes whole fleets within its sheltering wings. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

He settled the colony at Ostia at the junction of the 
river with the sea; even then, apparently, feeling a pre- 
sentiment that the riches and supplies of the whole world 
would be brought to that maritime store-house of the city. 

J. S. Watson 

An Account of Ostia Before the Port was Constracted 

Of the maritime cities of Latium, one is Ostia. This 
city has no port, owing to the accumulation of the alluvial 
deposit brought down by the Tiber which is swelled by 
numerous rivers ; vessels, therefore, bring to anchor further 
out, but not without danger; however, gain overcomes 
everything, for there is an abundance of lighters in readi- 
ness to freight and unfreight the larger ships before they 
approach the mouth of the river, and thus enable them to 
perform their voyage speedily. Being lightened of a part 
of their cargo, they enter the river and sail up to Rome, a 
distance of about 190 stadia. 

H. C. Hamilton 

How the Harbor was Made 

He constructed the harbor at Ostia by building curving 
breakwaters on the right and left, while before the entrance 
he placed a mole in deep water. To give this mole a firmer 
foundation, he first sank the ship in which the great obe- 
lisk had been brought from Egypt, and then securing it by 
piles, built upon it a very lofty tower after the model of the 
Pharos at Alexandria, to be lighted at night and guide the 
course of ships. 


Where the Pharos, to guide anxious mariners, uplifts a 
beacon bright as the nomad Queen of Night. 

D. A. Slater 

242 Classical Associations 

Impendente autem die, quo ex hac vita eral exitura — 
quern diem tu noveras ignorantibus nobis — provenerat, 
ut credo, procurante te occultis tuis modis, ut ego et ipsa 
soli staremus incumbentes ad quandam fenestram, unde 
hortus intra domum, quae aos habebat, prospectabatur, 
illic apud Ostia Tiberina, ubi remoti a turbis post longi 
itineris laborem instaurabamus nos navigationi Conloque- 
bamur ergo soli valde dulciter; et praeterita obliviscentes 
in ea quae ante sunt extenti, quaerebamus inter nos apud 
praesentem veritatem, quod tu es, qualis futura esset vita 
aeterna sanctorum, quam nee oculus vidit nee auris au- 
divit nee in cor hominis ascendit. 

St. August. Conf. ix. 10. 


Et gernina auratus taurino cornua voltu 
Eridanus, quo non alius per pinguia culta 
in mare purpureum violentior effluit amnis. 

Vir. Georg. iv. 371-373. 

Proluit insano contorquens vertice silvas 
fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnis 
cum stabulis armenta tulit. 

Vir. Georg. i. 4S 1-483. 

Piscosove amne Padusae 
dant sonitum rauci per stagna loquacia cycni. 

Vir. Aen. xi. 457-458. 

At Phaethon, rutilos flamma populante capillos, 
volvitur in praeceps longoque per aera tractu 
fertur, ut interdum de caelo stella sereno 

1 The name Eridanus-was given by the Greeks to the large river in northern Italy 
otherwise known as the Padus. One of its seven mouths was called Padusa. For a 
similar reference, see Lucan ii. 409-434. 

2 Phaethon was the son of Helios, the god who drove his horses daily across the sky 
and so gave light to men. After many prayers the youth at last induced his father to grant 
him the right of driving the sun-chariot for one day only. The whole account of this dar- 
ing adventure as given by Ovid (Met, ii. 1-400), should be read in connection with the 
brief quotation above. 

of Places in Italy 243 

St. Augustine's Mother Dies 

The day now approaching that she was to depart this 
life, (which day Thou well knewest, though we were not 
aware of it) it fell out, thyself, as I believe, by thine own 
secret ways so casting it, that she and I should stand alone 
leaning in a certain window within the house where we now 
lay, at Ostia by Tiber; where being sequestered from com- 
pany after the weariness of a long journey, we were re- 
cruiting ourselves for a sea voyage. There conferred we 
hand to hand very sweetly; and forgetting those things 
which ^re behind, we reached forth unto those things which 
are before: we did betwixt ourselves seek at that Present 
Truth (which Thou art) in what manner the eternal life 
of the saints was to be, which eye hath not seen, nor ear 
heard, nor hath it entered into the heart of man. 

William Watts 


There golden-horned. 
His countenance a bull, Eridanus' 
That with more fury than, all floods beside 
.Sweeps through rich farms to meet the purple sea. 

T. C. Williams 

Eridanus, the king of streams, engulfed 
Whole groves in raging waves, and through wide vales 
Bore flock and fold away. 

T. C. Williams 

Or by the flood 
Of Padus' fishy stream the shrieking swans 
Far o'er the vocal marish fling their song. 

T. C. Williams 

But Phaethon,^ fire ravaging his ruddy hair, is hurled 
headlong and falls with a long truil through the air; as 
som"?ffmes a star from the clear RSvens, although it does 

244 Classical Associations 

etsi non cecidit, potuit cecidisse videri. 

quern procul a patria diverse maximus orbe 

excipit Eridanus, fumantiaque abluit ora. 

Naides Hesperiae trifida f umantia flamma 

corpora dant tumulo, signant quoque carmine saxum : 


Ov. Met. ii. 319-328. 

PAESTUM (Pesto) 

This town is said to have been founded by Sybaris in the 
height of that city's power and to have been called Posi- 
donia (Strab. vi. 1.13,). It is seldom mentioned in history 
and only the ruins of its huge temples and its coins give 
evidence of its former importance. It is said thpt the 
Greek inhabitants, after they were compelled to admit a 
people of another nationality into their midst, still kept 
their Greek customs and for years held a yearly festival at 
which they bewailed their past glory. In 273 B. C. the 
Romans established a colony there to protect their terri- 
tory in this direction, and from this time the name Paestum 
prevailed in place of its former appellation. During the 
Republic it continued to be a flourishing town although 
not often mentioned except for its abundance of roses to 
which there are many allusions similar to those given 

Tantaque Paestani gloria ruris erat. 

Mart. vi. 80, 6. 

So rich the glory of the Paestan fields. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

Biferique rosaria Paesti. 

Vir. Georg. iv. 119. 

How Paestum's roses twice a year unfold. 

T. C. Williams 

oj Places in Italy 


not fall, seems to fall. Here, far from his native land, in 
another quarter of the globe, Eridanus receives and bathes 
his steaming face. The Naiades in that western land con- 
sign his body, still smoking with the flames of that forked 
bolt, to the tomb and carve this epitaph upon his stone: 
^ Here Phaethon lies: in Phoebus' car he fared 
And though he greatly failed, more greatly dared." 

F. J. Miller 

Scene Near Pe^to 

246 Classical Associations 


Capo Paunuro 

The name of the promontory comes from the legend 
given below — the story that Aeneas' faithful pilot, Pali- 
nurus, was buried here. On two occasions it was the scene 
of disasters to the Roman fleet due to violent storms — 
once in 253 B. C. when a Roman fleet of 150 vessels re- 
turning from Africa was wrecked here; and again in 36 B. 
C. when a large part of the fleet of Augustus on its way to 
Sicily was lost on its rocky coast (Dio Cass. xlix. 1.). 

Hie patris Aeneae suspensam blanda vicissim 
gaudia pertemptant mentem: iubet ocius omnes 
attolli malos, intendi bracchia velis. 
una omnes fecere pedem pariterque sinistros, 
nunc dextros solvere sinus, una ardua torquent 
eornua detorquentque; ferunt sua flamina classem. 
princeps ante omnes densum Palinurus agebat 
agmen; ad hunc alii cursum contendere iussi. 
iamque fere mediam caeli Nox umida metam 
contigerat, placida laxabant membra quiete 
sub'remis fusi per dura sedilia nautae: 
cum levis aetheriis delapsus Somnus ab astris 
aera dimovit tenebrosum et dispulit umbras, 
te, Palinure, peten.^, tibi somnia tristia portans 
insonti; puppique deus consedit in alta, 
Phorbanti similis, funditque has ore loquelas: 
"laside Palinure, ferunt ipsa aequora classem; 
aequatae spirant aurae; datur hora quieti. 
pone caput fessosque oculos furare labori. 
ipse ego paulisper pro te tua munera inibo." 
cui vix attollens Palinurus lumina fatur: 
"mene salis placidi vultum fluctusque quietos 
ignorare iubes? mene huic confidere monstro? 

^ The Trojan fleet had left Sicily and was on its way to Italy, Palinurus' ship leading. 
Juno, whose relentless wrath has pursued Aeneas throughout bis long journey from Troy, 
makes a last effort tojDrevent his arrival in the land destined to him by the Fates. Palinu- 
rus is drowned. Aeneas sees him, however, when he goes to the lower world to consult 
his father and learns the story of his death. The last seven lines of the passage quoted 
above tell how the Trojan leader consoled his former pilot. 

of Places in Italy 247 

The Death of a Faithful Pilot' 

Now in Aeneas' ever-burdened breast 
The voice of hope revived. He bade make haste 
To raise the masts, spread canvas on the spars; 
All hands hauled at the sheets, and left or right 
Shook out the loosened sails, or twirled in place 
The horn-tipped yards. Before a favoring wind 
The fleet sped on. The line in close array 
Was led by Palinurus, in whose course 
All ships were bid to follow. Soon the car 
Of dewy Night drew near the turning point 
Of her celestial round. The oarsmen all 
Yielded their limbs to rest, and prone had fallen 
On the hard thwarts, in deep, unpillowed slumber. 
Then from the high stars on light-moving wings 
The God of Sleep found passage through the dark 
And clove the gloom, — to bring upon thy head, 
O Palinurus, an ill-boding sleep, 
Though blameless thou. Upon thy ship the god 
In guise of Phorbas stood, thus whispering: 
"Look, Palinurus, how the flowing tides 
Lift on thy fleet unsteered, and changeless winds 
Behind thee breathe ! 'Tis now a happy hour 
To take thy rest. Lay down the weary head. 
Steal tired eyes from toiling. I will do 
Thine office for thee, just a little space." 
But Palinurus, lifting scarce his eyes 
Thus answered him: "Have I not known the face 
Of yonder placid seas and tranquil waves? 

248 Classical Associations 

Aenean credam quid enim fallacibus auris 
et caeli totiens deceptus fraude sereni?" 
talia dicta dabat, clavumque afExus et haerens 
nusquam amittebat oculosque sub astra tenebat. 
ecce deus ramum Lethaeo rore madeiitem 
vique soporatum Stygia super utraque quassat 
tempora cunctantique natantia lumina solvit, 
vix primes inopina quies laxaverat artus, 
et super incumbens cum puppis parte revulsa 
cumque gubernaclo liquidas proiecit in undas 
praecipitem ac socios nequiquam saepe vocantem; 

"sed cape dicta memor, duri solacia casus: 
nam tua finitimi, longe lateque per urbes 
prodigiis acti caelestibus, ossa piabunt, 
et statuent tumulum et tumulo soUemnia mittent, 
aeternumque locus Palinuri nomen habebit." 
his dictis curae emotae pulsusque parumper 
corde dolor tristi; gaudet cognomine terrae. 

Vir. Aen. v. 827-860; vi. 377-383. 

PANDATARIA (Ventotene) 

Sed iaetum eum atque fidentem et subole et disciplina 
domus Fortuna destituit. lulias, filiam et neptem, om- 
nibus probriscontaminatasrelegavit; .... Defilia 
absens ac libello per quaestorem recitato notum senatui 
fecit abstinuitque congressu hominum diu prae pudore, et- 
iam de necanda deliberavit. Certe cum sub idem tempus 
una ex consciis liberta Phoebe suspendio vitam finisset, 
maluisse se ait Phoebes patrem fuisse. Relegatae usum 

1 While the island is chiefly interesting because of the incident narrated -above, 
classical students will recall that Tiberius likewise exiled Agrippina, grand-daughter of 
Augustus and wife of Germanicus, the emperor's adopted son, to this lonely spot (Suet. 
Tib. 53) where she was very cruelly treated. Her son, Caligula, after he succeeded to the 
throne, at once went to Pandataria in order to remove his mother's ashes to Rome where 
they were consigned with elaborate ceremony to the Mausoleum of Augustus (Suet. 
Calig. 15). For the cruel death of Octavia, wife of Nero, see Tac. Ann. xiv. 63. Strabo 
says that the island was "small but well-peopled.'* 

of Places in Italy 249 

Put faith in such a monster? Could I trust — 

I, oft by ocean's treacherous calm betrayed — 

My lord Aeneas to false winds and skies?" 

So saying, he grasped his rudder tight, and clung 

More firmly, fixing on the stars his eyes. 

Then waved the god above his brow a branch 

Wet with the dews of Lethe, and imbued 

With power of Stygian dark, until his eyes 

Wavered and slowly sank. The slumbering snare 

Had scarce unbound his limbs, when, leaning o'er. 

The god upon the water flung him forth. 

Hands clutching still the helm and ship-rail torn, 

And calling on his comrades, but in vain. 

"But heed my words, and in thy memory 

Cherish and keep, to cheer the evil time. 

Lo, far and wide, led on by signs from Heaven, 

Thy countrymen from many a templed town 

Shall consecrate thy dust, and build thy tomb, 

A tomb with annual feast and votive flowers. 

To Palinurus a perpetual fame!" 

Thus was his anguish stayed, and from his sad heart 

Grief ebbed awhile, and even to this day. 

Our land is glad such noble name to wear. 

T. C. Williams 


Augustus Exiles His Daughter^ 

But at the height of his happiness and his confidence in 
his family and its training, Fortune proved fickle. He 
found the two Julias, his daughter and granddaughter, 
guilty of every form of vice, and banished them. . . . 
He informed the senate of his daughter's fall through a 
letter read in his absence by a quaestor, and for very shame 
would meet no one for a long time, and even thought of 
putting her to death. At all events when one of her con- 
fidantes, a freedwoman called Phoebe, hanged herself at 
about that same time, he said: "I would rather have been 
Phoebe's father." After Julia was banished, he denied 

250 Classical Associations 

vini omnemque delicatiorem cultum ademit neque adiri a 
quoquam libero servove nisi se consulto permisit, et ita ut 
certior fieret, qua is aetate, qua statura, quo colore esset, 
etiam quibus corporis notis vel cicatricibus. Post quin- 
quennium demum ex insula in continentem lenioribusque 
paulo condicionibus transtulit earn. Nam ut omnino re- 
vocaret, exorari nuUo modo potuit, deprecanti saepe p. R. 
et pertinacius instanti tales filias. talesque coniuges pro 
contione imprecatus. 

Suet. Aug. 65. 

PATAVJUM (Pad()\ a) 

UXriaiov di to IlaTa.ovi.ov, wacwv apiaTrj tCiv Tavrrj TroKtwv, 7) 
yt uewcTi \tyeTai Ti/jiricacr^aL irevTaKoalovs IvTiKovi avSpas, Kai 
TO iraXatdi' 5i 'iartWi Budtaa yuupiaSas crrpaTLas. 8r)\oL 8i Kai to 
ttXtji^os TTJs Trtnirofj.ivrjs KaTacrKtvfjs fls ttjv '7uiix't]v /car' eniroplav 
tS}v Tt aWuiv Kai iaSfJTOS TravToSaTrfjs ttjv tvavbplav tt/s TroXeojs 
Kai Trjv ivTexvlav. ixfi- 8t ^aXarTrjs avairXow TroTanw dia. twv 
i\S>v iptpop.kvw aTadlwv irtVTrfKOVTa Kai diaKOcrlwv tK Xi/ikvos 
fxeyoKov KoXeiTaL S' 6 \Lfiriv MeSoa/cos rcji iroTafii^. 

Strab. V. 1,7. 

Censetur Apona Livio suo tellus. 

Mart. i. 61. 3. 

Habet aviam maternam Serranam Proculam e muni- 
cipio Patavino. Nosti loci mores: Serrana tamen Pata- 
vinis quoque severitatis exemplum est. 

Plin. Ep. i. 14. 

' The chief Venetian city because of its central location and its connection with the sea 
through a series of lagoons. Built upon an island and thus well defended from hostile 
attack, it grew rapidly in extent and power until in the tiire of Augustus it ranked next 
to Rome among Italian cities as a wealthy trade center. Strabo (v. 1, 12) mentions its 
wool from which the finer carpets were made. Tradition makes its founding date back 
to the Trojan Antenor and games were celebrated every 30 years in commemoration of 
it (Tac. Ann. xvi. 21). 

2 The famous springs of Aponus were about 8 miles from Patavium. They were said to 
possess medicinal qualities. Cassiodorus describes them at length (Var, ii. 39), and Claud- 
ian celebrates an oracle in connection with them (Carm, Min. xxvi.). 

3 Although a city devoted to trade, it still made claims to culture and took great pride 
in its famous writers, among whom was the historian Livy. Suetonius (Dep. Lib. Rel.) 
records his death at this place. 

4 A reputation for simplicity and integrity always remained the proud boast of the citi- 
zens of Patavium (Mart. xi. 16. 8; and Mommsen: "id ipsum etiam tituli testantur 
niunero multi, sed antiquae fere simpticitatis, item mira paucitas titulorum honorario- 
rum" (C. I. L. v. p. 263). Such men as Thrasea, born at Patavium, reflect this characteris- 
tic in their lives and writings. 

of Places in Italy 231 

her the use of wine and every form of luxury, and would 
not allow any man, bond or free, to come near her without 
his permission, and then not without being informed of his 
stature, complexion, and even of any marks or scars upon 
his body. It was not until five years later that he moved 
her from the island to the mainland and treated her with 
somewhat less rigor. But he could not by any means be 
prevailed upon to recall her altogether, and when the Ro- 
man people several times interceded for her and urgently 
pressed their suit, he in open assembly called upon the gods 
to curse them with like daughters and wives. 



The City's Prosperity 

Near to them is Patavium,' the finest of all the cities in 
this district, and which at the time of the late census was 
said to contain 500 equites. Anciently it could muster an 
army of 120,000 men. The population and skill of 
this city is evinced by the vast amount of manufactured 
goods it sends to the Roman market, especially clothing 
of all kinds. It communicates with the sea by a river 
navigable from a large harbor at its mouth. The river 
runs across the marshes for a distance of 250 stadia. 
This harbor, as well as the ri^■er, is named Medoacus. 

H. C. Hamilton 

The land of Aponus'' is apprised by its Livy.^ 

Walter C. \. Ker 

Virtue Highly Regarded 

His grand-mother on the mother's side is .Serrana Pro- 
cula, of Patavium: you are no stranger to the manners of 
thai place;'' yet Serrana is looked upon, even among these 
reserved people, as an exemplary instance of strict virtue. 

Wtlliam Melmoth 

252 Classical Associations 

PERUSIA (Perugia) 

This city was an ancient one and among the most power- 
ful of the Etruscan towns (Liv. ix. 37). It of course 
played a prominent part in the wars which this people 
waged with Rome, one particularly fierce battle in the 
fourth century B. C. having been fought beneath its walls. 
Like the other Etruscan cities it finally fell beneath the 
sway of Rome (Liv. x. 31) and is found assisting this power 
in the Second Punic war (Liv. xxiii, 17; xxviii. 45). It is 
chiefly famous in history, however, for the part it played 
in the Civil War after the death of Julius Caesar. (See the 
passage below and notes following.) Augustus restored the 
place after its destruction and it continued to be a flour- 
ishing municipality during the Empire. Procopius (6th 
century A. D.) calls it "exceedingly strong" (v. 17, 7). 

Kai ol ixiv TttOr' tTrparTOU, 6 8i Aovklos ojs roTt eK rjjs 'Pa!/i?)s 
awijpiv, ibpuricre nkv « Ti]v VaXariav, eipxdds 8^ Trjs d8ov irpds 
Tlepovaiav TvpffrivlSa iroXiv aireTpaireTO. Kai aWdv ivravda irpbrt- 
pOL nh ot inrapxoi rod Kalaapos, 'tireira Se Kai avrds fKttvos diroXa- 
fibvTts k-KoKiopKovv. xpovlov Se Sij rrjs wpoiredpeiai a<i)lai yvyvo- 
ixevris (to re yap x^^p'^ov rfj t€ <t>ii<Tei Kaprepov tan Kai toIs iiri- 
Ti/Setots iKavcis irapttTKiiiacTO, Kai itttt^s TrpoeKTrefKpdivTts vir' 
avTOV, Trpiv iravTsXwj xepiarotxK^^^i'it, 5et.vS>i C(pai tKvirovv, 
Kai irpoa'tTL Kai 'inpoL iroWoi airov5fj aXXos dXXo^ei' 'fwijuvvov 
aiirQ) xoXXd fih irpos tovtovs ws tKaarovs, ttoXXA 8e Kai wpds 
TOLs Tilxiaiv €Tpdxdrj, fiixpLS ov KalroL irKeovfKTOvvTes to. TrXelo) 
ot Trepi Tov AovKLOv p/iojs viro Xi/uoD edXcocrai', Kai aiirds fi^v oXXoi 
re Tives aStiav tipovTO, ol 5^ 5ri irKeiovs tSjv re fiovKevruv Kai tGiv 
iinrkoiv i<pdkpri<Tav. Kai X670S 76 exe' '^ti. obS' airXSis tovto 

» An account of a siege in 41 B.C. carried on by Octavian against Lucius Antony, the 
brother of the triumvir, who was shut up within the walls of the city. 

of Places in Italy 


Perugia, Arco d'Augusto, with Etruscan Towers and Wall 

A Powerful City Falls' 

While they were thus engaged, Lucius withdrew from 
Rome, as I have stated, and set out for Gaul; but finding his 
way blocked, he turned aside to Perusia, an Etruscan city. 
There he was intercepted first by the lieutenants of Caesar 
and later by Caesar himself and was besieged. The in- 
vestment proved a long operation; for the place is natu- 
rally a strong one and had been amply stocked with provi- 
-sions; and horsemen sent by Lucius before he was entirely 
hemmed in greatly harassed the besiegers, while many 
others besides came speedily to his defense from various 
quarters. Many attacks were made upon these rein- 
forcements separately and many engagements were fought 
close to the walls, until the followers of Lucius, even 
though they were generally successful, nevertheless were 
forced by hunger to capitulate. The leader and some 
others obtained pardon, but most of the senators and 
knights were put to death. And the story goes that 

2,S4 Classical Associations 

iwaJBov, aXX' ctti tov ^uifiov tov r^Kalaapi. t(3 irportpif waMfiivov 
dx^evres Iwirrjs n Tpia/coctoi Kal iSouXeuTat tiXXoi rt Kal 6 K.av- 
vovTios 6 TijSepios, os iroTe ev Tg 5r]|xapx'l■<^ ^6 irXrjdos tQ Ka'urapi 
Tu> 'OKTaovi,av^ T^dpoiaev, iTWriaav. tuv de UepovffLvwv Kal tS>v 
tiXXcoc tS)v tKel oKbvTOiv oi ifkeiovs airdiiKovTO, Kal 17 iroXts aurij, 
7rXj7J' TOV '}J.<pai(TTtiov tov t( rrjs "Hpas eSous, TTOca KareKavdri. 

Dio Cass, xlviii. 14. 

of Places in Italy 255 

they did not merely suffer death in an ordinary form, but 
were led to the altar consecrated to the former Caesar 
and were there sacrificed — three hundred knights and 
many senators, among them Tiberius Cannutius, who 
previously during his tribuneship had assembled the 
populace for Caesar Octavianus. Of the people of Perusia 
and the others who were captured there the majority lost 
their lives, and the city itself, except the temple of Vulcan 
and the statue of Juno, was entirely destroyed by fire. 

Earnest Cary 

PISAE (Pisa) 

A city of Etruria situated on the banks of the Arnus 
river of which little is known, although it was probably 
important in early days. The Romans frequently used 
its port when setting out for Gaul or Spain. For example, 
Publius Scipio sailed from here in 218 B. C. on his way to 
Massilia at the beginning of the Second Punic War and 
returned to the same place. In the long wars waged by 
Rome with the Ligurians, it became an important mili- 
tary center (Liv. xxxv. 21). A Roman colony seems to 
have been established here in 180 B. C. and from this 
time it continued to remain a fairly prosperous city. 
Writers mention its trade in timber, marble, wheat, and 

256 Classical Associations 

Inde Triturritam petimus: sic villa vocatur, 
quae late expulsis insula paene fretis. 
namque manu iunctis procedit in aequora saxis, 
quique domum posuit, condidit ante solum, 
contiguum stupui portum, quem fama frequentat 
Pisarum emporio divitiisque maris, 
mira loci facies : pelage pulsantur aperto 
inque omnes ventos litora nuda patent, 
non ullus tegitur per brachia tuta recessus, 
Aeolias possit qui prohibere minas; 
sed procera suo praetexitur alga profundo 
molliter offensae non nocitura rati, 
et tamen insanas cedendo interligat undas 
nee sinit ex alto grande volumen agi. 

Rutil. de Red. Suo i. 527-540. 

TTOTt, /cat vvv ovK aSo^tl Slo. n emapniiv /cat rd Xtd^ovpyela /cat 
TTiv v\riv T'tfv vav!rrjyricri.fu>v, fi to ixiv waXaLov ixpS^vro irpos tous 
Kara ^aXarrap klvSvvovs' /cat yap /taxtjUciiTcpot Tvpprivwv 
virijp^av, Kal-wapu^vvav avrovs oi ALyves irov-qpol yeirovts irapa 
irXtvpav 6vT€r vvv 5e to irXeov ets rds ot/co5o/tds ava\i(TK(Tai 
rds iv 'Fwfiri Kav rats kira.v\eai |8a<rtX«ta KaTatTKeva^oftkvuiv 

Strab. V. 2, 5. 

' RuUlius, a Gaul returning in 416 A. D. from Rome to his native country, continues 
his account of Pisa in line 565 and following. 

of Places hi Italy 251 

Rutilius Stops at Pisae 

Hence seek we' Triturrita; so is named 
A villa, all but island, dashing back 
The waters from its side; for, with stones knit 
By hand of man, it juts into the sea; 
And he who reared the mansion, had at iirst 
To build its site. With wondering eyes I viewed 
The neighboring harbour, which its fame has made 
Place of resort as being Pisa's port, 
And owing to the riches of the sea. 
Wondrous the aspect of the place. The shores 
By the open sea are lashed, and naked lie 
To all the winds. No inner harbor there 
Fenced by protecting pierg that might repel 
The threats of Aeolus; but seaweed tall 
Fringes the sea that it has made its own. 
Sure to prove harmless to the boat it strikes 
Gently, and yet, while yielding, tangles in 
The raging surf, and suffers no huge wave 
To roll in from the deep. 

G. F. Saxage-Armstronc. 

Strabo's Account 

This city appears to have been formerly flourishing, 
and at the present day it still maintains its name, on ac- 
count of its fertility, its marble quarries, and its wood for 
building ships which formerly they employed to preserve 
themselves from danger by sea: for they were more war- 
like than the Tyrrheni, and were constantly irritated by 
the Ligurians, troublesome neighbours, who dwelt on the 
coast. At the present day the wood is mostly employed 
for building houses in Rome, and in the country villas (of 
the Romans), which resemble in their gorgeousness Per- 
sian palaces. 

H. C. Hamilton 

258 Classical .A ssociations 

PISTORIA (Pistoia)' 

Manlius et Faesulanus in primis pugnantes cadunt. 
Postquam Catilina f usas copias seque cum paucis relictum 
videt, memor generis atque pristinae suae dignitatis, in 
confertissimos hostis incurrit ibique pugnans confoditur. 

Sed confecto proelio, turn vero cerneres, quanta auda- 
cia, quanta vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae. Nam 
fere, quern quisque vivos pugnando locum ceperat, eum 
anima amissa corpore tegebat. Pauci autem, quos medios 
cohors praetoria disiecerat, paulo divorsius, sed omnes 
tamen advorsis vulneribus conciderant. Catilina vero 
longe a suis inter hostium cadavera repertus est, paulu- 
lum etiam spirans ferociamque animi, quam habuerat vi- 
vos, in voltu retinens. Postremo ex omni copia neque in 
proelio neque in fuga quisquam civis ingenuus captus est: 
ita cuncti suae hostiumque vitae iuxta pepercerant. 

Sail. Cat. 60-61.2 

POMPEII (Near Valle di Pompei) 

The fame of Pompeii today rests upon the fact that by 
the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A. D. we have a Roman 
town more or less completely preserved. The place, how- 
ever, was of little importance in ancient times save as a 
resort for wealthy Romans. Both Cicero and Seneca had 
villas there and the emperor Claudius lost his young son 
Drusus while living in that region. Tacitus (Ann. xv. 22) 
speaks of it as "celebre Campaniae oppidum" and the 
natural charms of the surrounding country would seem to 
justify the taste of the Romans in this respect. Under the 
Empire its population was about 20,000. The ruins in- 
dicate that, at the time of the disaster, the inhabitants 
were leading the gay, pleasure-loving life characteristic of 
the well-to-do Romans of that time. The antiquity of the 
place is shown by the ruins of a temple of Minerva dating 
to about 500 B. C. A fanciful derivation of the name 
makes it come from "pompa" (procession), referring to 
the passage of Hercules through this region with the 
cattle stolen from Geryon (Serv. Aen. vii. 662). 

1 Famous as the region in which the final battle between Catiline and the forces 
of the state was fought in 62 B. C. 

of Places in Italy 


Catiline's Last Fight 

Manlius^ and the Faesulan/ sword in hand, were among 
the first that fell; and Catiline, when he saw his army 
routed and himself left with but few supporters, remember- 
ing his birth and former dignity, rushed into the thickest 
of the enemy, where he was slain, fighting to the last. 

When the battle was over, it was plainly seen what bold- 
ness and what energy of spirit had prevailed throughout 
the army of Catiline; for, almost everywhere, every soldier 
after yielding up his breath, covered with his corpse the 
spot which he had occupied when alive. A few, indeed, 
whom the praetorian cohort had dispersed, had fallen 
somewhat differently, but all with wounds in front. Cat- 
iline himself was found far in advance of his men, among 
the dead bodies of the enemy; he was not quite breathless, 
and still expressed in his countenance tlae fierceness of 
spirit which he had shown during his life. Of his whole 
army, neither in the battle, nor in flight, was any free-born 
citizen made prisoner, for they had spared their own lives 
no more than those of the enemy. J. S. Watson 

The Street of Tombs at Pompeii 

« For Catiline's speech to his army, sec 58; for a full account of the battle, see 59-61 . 
• ManliuB was Catiline's chief officer outside of Rome. 
< Perhaps a man namad Publius Furius. 

260 Classical Associations 

POMPEII (Near Valle di Pompei)' 

Pompeios, celebrem Campaniae urbem, in quam ab 
altera parte Surrentinum Stabianumque litus, ab altera 
Herculanense conveniunt et mare ex aperto reductum 
amoeno sinu cingunt, consedisse terrae motu vexatis quae- 
cumque adiacebant regionibus, Lucili virorum optime, 
audivimus, et quidem hibernis diebus, quos vacare a tali 
periculo maiores nostri solebant promittere. Nonis Feb- 
ruariis hie fuit motus Regulo et Verginio Consulibus, qui 
Campaniam numquam securam huius mali, indemnem 
tamen et totiens defunctam metu, magna strage vastavit: 
nam et^Herculanensis oppidi pars ruit dubieque stant 
etiam quae relicta sunt, et Nucerinorum colonia ut sine 
clade, ita non sine querela est. Neapolis quidem privatim 
multa, publice nihil amisit leniter ingenti malo perstricta, 
Villae vero praeruptae passim sine iniuria tremuere. 

Sen. N. Q. vi. 1-2. 

NcbXijs Si Kai NoLiKtpias (cai Ax^ppcij', .... iir',6v iariv 17 
Uo/Mirqia, irapa tu> Xapvw iroranQ koX btxoixkvt^ to. ipoprla Kal 


Strab. V. 4, 8. 

Tusculanum et Pompeianum valde me delectant. 

Cic. ad Att. ii. 1, 11. 

* For an account of the eruption of 79 A. D. which destroyed Pompeii, see X'esuvius. 

2 Feb. 5th, 63 A. D. 

3 Pompeii early became a^port for the surrounding region and attained considerable 
commercial importance. Cato says oil presses should be bought here. The famous pumice 
stone of Vesuvius was shipped from its harbor and the making of cloth flourished in the 

* Cicero elsewhere refers to his liking for Pompeii. Of the bay of Xaples he writes, 
" cratera ilium delicatum" (ad Att. ii. 8). 

of Places in Italy 261 

An Earthquake Shock^ 

We have just had news, my esteemed Lucilius, that 
Pompeii, the celebrated city in Campania, has been over- 
whelmed in an earthquake which shook all the surround- 
ing district as well. The city, you know, lies on a beautiful 
bay, running far back from the open sea, and is surrounded 
by the converging shores, on the ohe side, that of Siir- 
rentum and Stabiae, on the other that of Herculaneum. 
The disaster happened in winter, a period during which 
our ancestors used to claim immunity from such dangers. 
On the 5 th of February, in the consulship of Regulusand 
Verginius, this shock occurred, involving wide, spread de- 
struction over the whole province of Campania; the dis- 
trict had never been without risk of such a calamity, but 
had been hitherto exempt from it, having escaped time 
after time from groundless alarm. 

The extent of the disaster may be gathered from a few 
details. Part of the town of Herculaneum fell; the build- 
ings left standing are very insecure. The colony of Nu- 
ceria had painful experience of the shock but sustained no 
damage. Naples was just touched by what might have 
proved a great disaster to it; many private homes sufifered, 
but no public building was destroyed. The villas built 
on the cliffs everywhere shook, but without damage being 

John Clarke 

Pompeii is the port' for Nola, Nuceria, and Acerrae. 
... . It is built on the river Sarno, by which merchan- 
dise is received and exported. 

H. C. Hamilton 

My Tusculan and Pompeian villas delight me greatly.'' 

262 Classical Associations 


(Paludi Pontine) 

Et quos pestifera Pomptini uligine campi 
qua Saturae nebulosa palus restagnat, et atro 
liventes coeno per squalida turbidus arva 
cogit aquas Ufens atque inficit aequora limo. 

Sil. Ital. viii. 379-382. 


Qua Saturae iacet atra palus, gelidusque per imas 
quaeret iter vallis atque in mare conditur Ufens. 

Vir. Aen. vii. 801-802. 

Aliud miraculum a Circeis palus Pomptina est, quem 
locum xxiiii urbium fuisse Mucianus ter consul prodidit. 

Plin. N. H. iii. 59. 

Sterilisve diu palus aptaque remis 
vicinas urbes alit et grave sentit aratrum. 

Hor. A. P. 65-66. 

Summis Amasenus abundans | spumabat ripis. 

Vir. Aen. xi. 547-548. 

1 A name given to the extensive tract of marsEy ground in southern Latium stretch* 
ing from the country of the Volscians to Tarracina. In 312 B. C. the Appian Way was 
constructed across it (Liv. ix. 29) and a canal dug along it from Forum Appi to Tar- 

^ Streams whose stagnant waters form the marsh. 

* One of the legends connected with the place. 

* A reference to an eflEort made by Augustus to drain the region. Several similar at- 
tempts before and after are mentioned by Roman writers. 

> A stream (now called Amaseno) whose waters flowed into the marsh. 
Often written Populonium. 

oj Places in Italy 263 


The youth that till the unwholesome Pomptine lands, 
Where Satura's marsh,^ with vapours crested, stands. 
And through the squalid plains his turbid flood 
Black Ufens^ rolls and dyes the sea with mud. 

John Chetwode Eustace 

Where lies the black fen of Satura and where icy Ufens 
seeks its way along the low-lying valleys and finds its hid- 
ing in the sea. 

John Conington 

Another wonderful circumstance loo. Near Circeii are 
the Pomptine Marshes, formerly the site, according to 
Mucianus who was thrice consul, of four-and-twenty 

John Bostock and H. T. Riley 

Swamps sterile long, all plashy, rank, and drear, 
Groan 'neath the plough, and feed whole cities near.^ 

Sir Theodore Martin 

Amasenus,^ brimming and foaming over its banks. 

John Conington 

POPULONIA (Populonia)" 

One of the maritime cities of Etruria, situated on a 
lofty hill rising abruptly from the sea and of importance 
in early days as a center for the iron trade connected with 
the neighboring island of Ilva. When Scipio was fitting 
out his fleet for Africa, this city offered to supply him with 
the iron he needed (Liv. xxviii. 45). Another historical 
mention is made by Livy in referring to the fact that in 
202 B. C. this port offered refuge from a violent storm to 
the fleet of the consul, Claudius Nero, which was on its 
way to Sardinia (Liv. xxx. 39, 1). The devastation men- 
tioned by Strabo in the passage below may be due to the 
ravages the town suffered from the forces of Sulla during 
the Civil Wars — a desolation confirmed by Rutilius writing 
at the beginning of the fifth century, A. D. 

264 Classical Associations 

Proxima securum reserat Populonia litus, 

qua naturalem ducit in arva sinum. 
not! illic positas extollit ad aethera moles 

lumine nocturno conspicienda Pharos: 
Sed speculam validae rupis sortita vetustas, 

qua fluctus domitos arduus urget apex, 
castellum geminos hominum fundavit in usus, 

praesidium terris indiciumque fretis. 
agnosci nequeunt aevi monumenta prioris, 

grandia consumpsit moenia tempus edax. 
sola manent interceptis vestigia muris, 

ruderibuis latis tecta sepulta iacent. 
non indignemur, mortalia corpora solvi, 

cernimus exemplis, oppida posse mori. 

Rutil. de Red. Suo i. 401-414. 

To de IIoTrXtbwoj' ■"■' aKpas w/'rjXr/s iSpvTai KaTtppoiyvias ets Tr]v 
daXarrav Kai x^Ppov'r)cn^ov(T-q% , . . to iJ.ev ovv irdKixviov 

irav eprifiov kari ttXtiv rdv ItpCiv kox KaTOiKiOiv oKiyijiv, t6 5' 
kirivtiov oiKeiTai jSeXrtoj', irpoj rrj pi^rf tov opovs \LfifVi.ov ixov 

Kai vecoaoiKOVs 5vo. . eari 5k /cat dvvvo- 

(TKOTeiov UTTO rfj aKpa. KCLTOTrrehtTaL 5' airo rjjs TroXecos wop- 
poi^ev litv KoX pioKis 17 2ap5d). 

•Strab. V. 2, 6. 

of Places in Italy 265 

The Reflections of a Visitor 

Till Populonia yields 
Its natural bay that winds into the fields. 
No watch-tower there, on deep foundations raised, 
High-seen in air, with nightly splendor blazed ; 
But age had worn the solid rocks away, 
And insulated one with slow decay: 
One rock, a natural beacon, spiring stood, 
And overtopped the subjugated flood. 
A twofold use the castled cliff suppUed, — 
An inland fortress and an ocean guide. 
Sunk are the monuments of ages past, 
Time's eating canker has consumed the last: 
Of walls long raised faint vestiges are found, 
And roofs inearthed with ruins heave the ground. 
If human desolation prompt the sigh, 
Lo! cities, e'en as men, are doomed to die. 

C. A. Elton 

A Deserted City 

Populonium is situated on a lofty promontory, which 
projects into the sea, and forms a chersonesus. This little 
place is now deserted, with the exception of the temples 
and a few houses; the sea-port, which is situated at the 
root of the mountain, is better inhabited, having both a 
small harbour and ship-sheds 

On the summit (of the cape) there is a look-out for thun- 
nies. From this city there is an indistinct and distant 
view of Sardinia. 

H. C. Hamilton 

266 Classical Associations 

PRAENESTE (Palestrina) 

One of the most ancient and, in early times, the most 
important cities in Latium, far superior probably in art 
and culture to Rome in the sixth and seventh centuries. 
Various traditions exist as to its origin. It first appears in 
literature as one of the places belonging to the Latin 
League, which confederacy, however, it seems to have 
deserted in 499 B. C. (Liv. ii. 19). At least we find 
it fighting with Rome about this time and being severely 
harassed by the Aequians and Volscians, enemies of the 
former. But after the capture of Rome by the Gauls 
in 387 B. C. this alliance seems to have weakened and 
various contests with Rome follow. In one of these, 
the forces of Praeneste met a disastrous defeat at the 
Allia river at the hands of the dictator Cincinnatus 
(Liv. vi. 27-29). Their struggles continued, however, 
until they were finally terminated in 338 B. C. by the 
victory of the Roman general, Camillus, at Pedum (Liv. 
viii. 12-14). 

An incident which the Praenestines liked to remember 
in connection with their participation in the Punic wars 
was the unique bravery shown by their young men at the 
siege of Casilinum when this city was resisting Hannibal — 
a loyalty which the Roman senate libsrally rewarded (Liv. 
xxiii. 19, 20; see, too, the topic Casilinum). The town 
played an important part also in the Civil Wars, its situa- 
tion making it a particularly desirable defensive point. 
On many other occasions, too, as the passages below 
indicate, the place was sought for military purposes. 
Florus (Ep. i. 18), for example, says that the victorious 
Pyrrhus once occupied it, viewing Rome from its heights 
and "filling the eyes of the trembling city twenty miles 
away with smoke and dust." 

But the popularity of the spot in later days was due to 
its delightful situation which made it one of the favorite 
resorts for wealthy Romans. Horace often refers to his 
liking for the region; Pliny had a villa there (Ep. v. 6,45); 
Augustus frequented it (Suet. Aug. 72); Tiberius once re- 
covered from a dangerous illness here (Aul. Cell. N. A. 
xvi. 13); and both Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius had 

of Places in Italy 


homes in its neighborhood (Jul. Capit. M. Ant. Phil. 21), 
the latter living here when he lost his little son, Annius 
Verus. The town acquired a considerable reputation for 
literary culture because of the many distinguished writers 
and scholars who frequented it. Verrius Flaccus, for ex- 
ample, the author of a Calendar, lived here. The com- 
mercial importance of Praeneste was considerable also, 
the place being widely known for its goldsmiths and work- 
ers in metal in general. 



^^^lUPf ■ .r^5i^^. 1 



9m- 'S 


Photograph by Frank Gallup 

On the Site of the Citadel of Ancient Praeneste 

268 Classical Associations 

Gelida Praeneste. 

Juv. S. iii. 190. 

Aestivae Praeneste deliciae. 

Flor. Ep. i. 5. 

Akum Praeneste. 

Vir. Aen. vii. 682. 

Municipia Italiae splendissima. 

Flor. Ep. ii. 9, 27. 

'Epvfjivrj jjifv 
ovv tKaTtpa, TToKi) 8' ipvfivorepa Upaivearos' aKpav yap ex*' 
T^s fiev TToXecos VT€pdtv opos inf/r]\6v, OTria^tv 5' diro ttjs crvvtxov- 
(TTjs dpeivfjs avxivL 5i.t^€vyp.ivov, vtrtpalpov nal bval araSioLS 
ToiiTOv irpos 6p§iav ava^aaiv. Trpos 5i rfj epv/iVOTrjTL Kai 5i6i- 
pv^i KpvwTali hiaTkTprjTai wavraxo^ev juexpt twv irtSiuv rats piv 
vdptias Xttp"* rats 8' i^oSojv Xad^paloiv, Siv h>, Md/Jtos woKiop- 
Kovfievos awe^ave. rats p-iv ovv ciXXats iroKtcn TrXettrrov t6 
ivtpKts Trpos a'ya&od rl'&eTai, JlpaivtaTivoLS Si cvpipopa yeytvqTai 
bid rds 'VupaUiiv aractis. Karaipevyovcn yap eKeicre oi vt(j}Tt- 
pLcravTti' eKirdXiopKrid^tvTcov de, Trpos tjj KaKwffei rrjs xoXecos Kal 
riiv x<^PC-^ aTraWoTpiova^aL cvp.Palvei, rfjs atrtas p,tTa(ptpop.kvi]i 
iirl Toh% apariovi. • Strab. V. 3, 11. 

Numerium Suffucium Praenestinorum monumenla de- 
clarant, honestum hominem et nobilem, somniis crebris, 
ad extremum etiam minacibus, cum iuberetur certo in 
loco sillcem caedere, perterritum visis irridentibus suis 
civibus id agere coepisse: itaque perfracto saxo sortes 
erupisse in robore insculptas priscarum litterarum notis. 

' Praeneste had long been a stronghold of the democratic party when the younger 
Marius was besieged here in 82 B. C, alter the defeat of his forces by Sulla. In spite of a 
brave resistance and various attempts made to relieve him, the city was at last surrendered 
to Ofella, the ofl&cer in charge of Sulla's forces here. See later passages for details of this 

^ThetempleofFortunewithwhichthe Praenestine lots were connected was of ancient 
date and extremely wealthy. The elaborate remains of the terrace leading up to it indi- 
cate its size and splendor. So famous was it that foreign kings as well as eminent Romans 
came to consult these lots. While Cicero seems to laugh at them, it is still true thai 
many people of note attached weight to their prophecies, among them several of the em- 
perors (Suet. Tib. 63; Dom. 15; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 4). 

of Places in Italy 269 

Cool Praeneste. 

G. G. Ramsay 

Praeneste, a pleasant summer residence. 

J. S. Watson 

High Praeneste. 

Most splendid municipalities of Italy [Praeneste, . .]. 

The Situation of Praeneste 

They are both fortified, but Praeneste is the stronger 
place of the two, having for its citadel a lofty mountain, 
overhanging the town, and divided at the back from 
the adjoining mountain range by a neck of land. This 
mountain is two stadia higher than the neck in direct alti- 
tude. In addition to these (natural) defences, the cit\' 
is furnished on all sides with subterraneous passages, 
extending to the plains. Some of these passages convey 
water; others form secret ways. In one of these Marius' 
perished when besieged. Other cities are in most instances 
benefited by a strong position, but to the people of 
Praeneste it has proved a bane, owing to the civil wars of 
the Romans. For hither the revolutionary movers take 
refuge, and when at last they surrender, in addition to 
the injury sustained by the city during the war, the 
country is confiscated, and the guilt thus imputed to the 

H. C. Hamilton 

Reading the Future— The Lots at Praeneste^ 

We read in the records of the Praenestines, that Nu- 
merius Suffucius, a man of high reputation and rank, had 
often been commanded by dreams (which at last became 
very threatening) to cut a flint-stone in two at a particular 
spot. Being extremely alarmed at the vision, he began to 
act in obedience to it, in spite of the derision of his fellow- 
citizens; and he had no sooner divided the stone, than he 
found therein certain lots, engraved in ancient characters 

270 Classical Associations 

Is est hodie locus saeptus religiose projjter lovis pueri, qui 
lactens cum lunone Fortunae in gremio sedens, mammam 
appetens, castissime colitur a matribus. Eodemque tem- 
pore in eo loco, ubi Fortunae nunc est aedes, mel ex olea 
fluxisse dicunt haruspicesque dixisse summa nobilitate 
illas sortes futuras eorumque iussu ex ilia olea arcam esse 
f actam eoque conditas sortes, quae hodie Fortunae monitu 
tolluntur. Quid igitur in his potest esse certi, quae For- 
tunae monitu pueri manu miscentur atque ducuntur? 
Quo modo a'utem istae positae in illo loco? Quis robur 
illud cecidit, dolavit, inscripsit? Nihil est, inquiunt, 
quod deus efl&cere non possit. Utinam sapientes Stoicos 
effecisset, ne omnia cum superstitiosa solicitudine et mi- 
seria crederent sed hoc quidem genus divinationis vita iam 
communis explosit. Fani piilchritudo et vetustas Prae- 
nestinarum etiam nunc retinet sortium nomen atque id in 
vulgus. Quis enim magistratus aut quis vir illustrior 
utitur sortibus? 

Cic. de Div. ii. 85-86. 

'Ev TovTW Si Mdptos fjiiv dX«r/c6/i€cos tavrov biktpdtipt, Z6\Xa; 
ht etj Jlpaiviarov 'ikdosv irpSira fiiv iSia /car' avdpa koIvwv £K6Xa- 
^tv, elra iis ov cxoKrjs oCctjs iravras h3pbois eis raiiTO avva- 
YaYci)!/, fivpiovs Kai SiaxMovs ovras, eKeXevaev a.iro<r<p6,TTtiv 
/iovif TO) ^kv<f SiSovs 6.8ft.av. '0 5i evyevSss ttclvv (pr\aas wpds avTov, 
us ovStTore aurripias xo-pi'V eltrtrat. t& ipovei t^s Ti'arptSos, Ava/it- 
X«?€W hdsv avyKaTtKOTTij rots ToXiTats. 

Plut. Sulla xxxii. 

oj Places in Italy 271 

on oak. The spot in which this discovery took place is 
now religiously guarded, being consecrated to the infant 
Jupiter who is represented with Juno as sitting in the lap 
of Fortune, and sucking her breasts, and is most chastely 
worshipped by all mothers. 

At the same time and place in which the Temple of 
Fortune is now situated, they report that honey flowed 
out of .an olive. Upon this the augurs declared that the 
lots there instituted would be held in the highest honour; 
and, at their command, a chest was forthwith made out 
of this same olive-tree, and therein those lots are kept by 
which the oracles of Fortune are still delivered. But how 
can there be the least degree of sure and certain informa- 
tion in lots like these, which, under Fortune's direction, are 
shuffled and drawn by the hands of a child? How were 
the lots conveyed to this particular spot, and who cut and 
carved the oak of which they are composed? 

"Oh," say they, "there is nothing which a god cannot 
do." I wish that he had made these Stoical sages a little 
less inclined to believe every idle tale, out of a supersti- 
tious and miserable solicitude. 

The common sense of men in real life has happily suc- 
ceeded in exploding this kind of divination. It is only the 
antiquity and beauty of the Temple of Fortune that any 
longer preserve the Praenestine lots from contempt 
even among the vulgar. For what magistrate or man of 
any reputation ever resorts to them now? 


A Roman Atrocity 

Meanwhile Marius the younger, at the point of being 
captured, slew himself; and Sulla coming to Praeneste, 
at first gave each man there a separate trial before he 
executed him, but afterwards, since time failed him, 
gathered them all together in one place — there were 
12,000 of them— and gave orders to slaughter them, 
his host alone having immunity. But this man, with 
a noble spirit, told Sulla that he would never owe his 
safety to the slayer of his country, and joining his country- 
men of his own accord, was cut down with them. 

Beenadotte Perrin 

272 Classical Associations 

Turn demum desperatis rebus suisC. Marius adulescens 
per cuniculos, qui miro opere fabricati in diversas agro- 
rum' partis fuerunt, conatus erumpere, cum foramine e 
terra emersisset, a dispositis in id ipsum interemptus est. 
Sunt qui sua manu, sunt qui concurrentem mutuis ictibus 
cum minore' fratre Telesini una obsesso et erumpente oc- 
cubuisse prodiderunt. 

Veil. Paterc. ii. 27,4-5. 

Troiani belli scriptorem, maxima Lolli, 
dum tu declamas Romae, Praeneste relegi, [non, 

qui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid 
planius ac melius Chrysippo et Crantore dicit. 

Hor. Ep. i. 2, 1-4. 

3 Seenote* 

of Places in Italy 273 

The Death of Marius' Son^ 

Young Caius Marius, then at length seeing his cause 
desperate, endeavoured to make his way out through sub- 
terraneous passages, which, constructed with wonderful 
labour, led to different parts of the adjacent country; but, 
as soon as he emerged from an opening, he was slain by 
persons stationed there for the purpose. Some say that 
he died by his own hand; others, that as he was struggling 
with the younger brother of Telesinus, who was shut up 
with him, and attempting to escape at the Fame time, they 
fell ])y mutual wounds. 


A Poet Reads the Classics 

While you at Rome, dear LoUius, train your tongue, 
I, .at Praeneste, read what Homer sung: 
What's good, what's bad, what helps, what hurts, he 

Better in A-erst- than Grantor does in prose. 

John Ccimngton 

PUTEOLI (PozzcoLi) 

Apparently there is little mention of Puteoli before the 
Punic Wars. It plays a part, however, in this struggle, re- 
sisting Hannibal in 214 B. C. in an attack made upon the 
city. In 194 B. C. the Romans established a colony there 
and it is mentioned from time to time during the first cen- 
tury B. C. in connection with the various civil wars of 
that period. The height of its prosperity probably came 
in the reigns of the emperors Claudius and Nero, sinking 
rapidly from this time under the growing prominence of 
Ostia — its backwardness being summed up by Petronius 
I Sal. xliv.) in the words. "Haec colonia retroxersus crescit 
tamquam coda vituli." 

274 Classical Associations 

Portus et litora mundi hospita. 

Stat. Silv. iii. 5, 75-76. 

Vetus oppidum Puteoli. 

Tac. Ann. xiv. 27. 

'E^Tjs 8' elalv at -wtpl ALKaiapxn-o-v a/crai Kai avrri 17 ttoXis. fjv 
btirpoTepov n^v 'fKLvewv^vfialdiv eir' oippvos iSpv/ievov, Kara Si Trjv 
'AveijSa (TrpaTtiav avvijiKicrav 'Pco/iatot Kal /ifTOJVoixacav HvtIo- 
Xous &Tr6 Twv (ppecLTcaV ot 5' airo rrjs SvtrwSias tGiv vbartisv. airac 
[yap] TO x^Pi'OV tKel /J.expi' Bai-wv Kai rrjs Kv/^aias Bdov wKrjpks 
tan Kal irvpos Kai depiiwv vbaroiv. nvh 5i Kal ^Xkypav Sia 
TOVTO rriv Kvfialav co^if ouct KXrjdfjvai, Kal tUv TmrTWKOTOJV Ft- 
yavTCiiv TO. Ktpavvia Tpavnara avaipipeiv rdj roiauras irpoxoas 
Tov TTvpos Kal Tod i)8aTOs. ri 5i iroXis iniropiov ytykvr\Tai jxi- 
yicTTOV, x''PO'TOti7Tous fxovaa op/xovs Sia ttjv eiitpvtav rrjs aiifiov 
avu/xtTpos yap earL rfj Tiravii} Kai KoWrjcriv icxvpav khI irrj^iv 
\aixfiavei. dioirep rjj xaXtKi, Karafil^avTis rrjv annoKovlav irpo- 
i8aXXou<n x<J^l^aTa e's rrfv ^aXaTTav, Kal /coXttoOcti rds avawt- 
TTTafievas iiovas Siot' dir^aXcos ivop/il^ea^aL rds ixtylaras 6\Ka.- 
5as. VTrepKtLTai 5e rrjs iroXecos eui?i)s 17 tov 'H^aifTTOu ayopa, 
ireSiou ■wipi.KiKKiLij.kvov diairvpois, d<ppvcn, /ca/.itj'ajSets txoiicrais 
avawvoas iroXXaxoO Kai fipwixoi&u^ t/cavcos" to bi irtbiov dtiov 
■wXrjpts ecTTL cvpTov. Strab. v. 4, 6. 

Urbs Graeca. 

Petron. 9. 81. 

Cum plurimi et lautissimi in iis locis solent esse. 

Cic. pro Plane. 65. 

1 For many years Ihe place was the most important trade center on the coast. Ships 
from all parts of the world touched here and an eager throng was wont to crowd the shore 
at the approach of the merchant ships from the Levant, Egypt, Africa, and Spain. Its 
commercial relations with the East naturally brought a large oriental population, the 
influence of which upon the character of the city was marked. Travelers on their way lo 
Rome generally stopped here instead of at Ostia. Saint Paul, for example, is said to have 
visited Puteoli on his journey to the imperial city in 62 A. D. 

2 The Greek name of the place. 

8 See the Satires of Petronius for a similar passage. 

* Its mole and dock are of ten mentioned (Pliny N. H.xxxvi. 70). 

6 Known as"poE7.olana," a famous product of the place (Sen. N. Q. iii., 203; \'itru\ , 
ii. 6.) 

^ A well-known place of resort with considerable claims to art and culture (Petron. 
Sat.lxxxiii. 88; Aul. Gell. N. A. xviii. 5). Statins (Silv. ii 2) give; an elaborate description 
of a wealthy man's villa situated on the bay of Puteoli. 

of Places in Italy 275 

A harbour and shores which welcome the whole world. ' 

The old town of Puteoli. 

Puteoli in Strabo's Time 

Beyond is the strand and city of Dicaearchia.^ For- 
merly it was nothing but a naval station of the Cumaei. It 
was built on an eminence. But at the time of the war with 
Hannibal, the Romans established a colony there and 
changed its name into Puteoli, (an appellation derived 
from its wells, or, according to others, from the stench of 
its waters, the whole district from hence to Baiae and 
Cumae being full of sulphur, fire, and hot-springs.^ Some 
too are of opinion that it was on this account that . the 
country about Cumae was named Phlegra, and that the 
fables of the giants struck down by thunderbolts owe their 
origin to these eruptions of fire and water). This city has 
become a place of extensive commerce, having artificially 
constructed harbours^ which were much facilitated by the 
facile nature of the sand which contains much gypsum, 
and will cement and consolidate thoroughly.^ For, mixing 
this sand with chalk-stones, they construct moles in the sea, 
thus forming bays along the open coast, in which the 
largest transport ships may safely ride. Immediately 
above the city lies the Forum Vulcani, a plain surrounded 
with hills which seem to be on fire, having in many parts 
mouths emitting smoke, frequently accompanied by a 
terrible rumbling noise. The plain itself is full of drifted 

H. C. Hamilton 

A Greek city. 

A Place of Resort 

.\t a time when a great many of the richest men are ac- 
customed to be in this region." 

276 Classical Associations 

Post in haec Puteolana et Cumana regna renavigaro. 
O loca ceteroqui valde expetenda, interpellantium autem 
multitudine paene fugienda! 

Cic. ad Att. xiv. 16, 1. 

Novum praeterea atque inauditum genus spectaculi ex- 
cogitavil. Nam Baiarum medium intervallum ad Puteo- 
lanas moles, trium milium et sescentorum fere passuum 
spatium, ponte coniunxit, contractis undique onerariis 
navibus et ordine duplici ad anchoras conlocatis, superiec- 
toque aggere terreno ac directo in Appiae viae formam. 
Per hunc pontem ultro citro commeavit biduo continent!, 
primo die falerato equo insignisque quercea corona et 
caetra et gladio aureaque clamide, postridie quadrigario 
habitu curriculoque biiugi famosorum equorum, prae se 
ferens Dareum puerum ex Parthorum obsidibus, comitante 
praetorianorum agmine et in essedis cohorte amicorum. 
Scio plerosque existimasse, talem a Gaio pontem excogi- 
tatum aemulatione Xerxis, qui non sine admiratione ali- 
quanto angustiorem Hellespontum contabulaverit; alios, 
ut Germaniam et Britanniam, quibus imminebat, alicuius 
immensi operis fama territaret. Sed avum meum narran- 
tem puer audiebam, causam operis ab interioribus aulicis 
proditam quod Thrasyllus mathematicus anxio de suc- 
cessore Tiberio et in verum nepotem proniori aflSrmasset, 
non magis Gaium imperalurnm quam per Baianum sinum 
cqiiis discursurum. 

Puteolis dedicatione pontis, quem excogitatum ab eo 
significavimus, cum multos e litore invitasset ad se, repenle 

^ Cicero came oken to Puteoli (ad Alt. xiv. 20;. It was the scene of a joke regarding 
his personal vanity which he relates with much gusto (pro Plane, xxvi. fi.s). 
^ The emperor Caligula. 

oj Places in Italy I'll 

Too Many Callers 

(In a few days I am going to Pompeii and) after that I 
shall sail back to my domains here at Puteoli and Cumae. 
What very attractive places they are, if it were not that 
one almost has to shun them on account of. the crowd of 


An Emperor Diverts Himself 

Besides this, he* devised a novel and unheard of kind of 
pageant; for he bridged the gap between Baiae and the 
mole at Puteoli, a distance of about thirty-six hundred 
paces, by bringing together merchant ships from all sides 
and anchoring them in a double line, after which a mound 
of earth was heaped upon them and fashioned in the man- 
ner of the Appian Way. Over this bridge he rode back 
and forth for two successive days, the first day on a ca- 
parisoned horse, himself resplendent in a crown of oak 
leaves, a buckler, a sword, and a cloak of cloth of gold; on 
the second, in the dress of a charioteer in a car drawn by a 
pair of famous horses, carrying before him a boy named 
Dareus, one of the hostages from Parthia, and attended by 
the entire praetorian guard and a company of his friends 
in Gallic chariots. I know that many have supposed that 
Gains devised this kind of a bridge in rivalry of Xerxes, 
who excited no little admiration by bridging the much 
narrower Hellespont; others, that it was to inspire fear in 
Germany and Britain, on which he had designs, by the 
fame of some stupendous work. But when I was a boy, 
I used to hear my grandfather say that the reason for the 
work, as revealed by the emperor's confidential courtiers, 
was that Thrasyllus, the astrologer, had declared to Ti- 
berius, when he was worried about his successor and in- 
clined toward his natural grandson, that Gains had no 
more chance of becoming emperor than of riding over the 
gulf of Baiae on horseback. 

At Puteoii, at the dedication of the bridge that he contrived 
as has been said, after inviting a number to come to him 

278 Classical Associations 

omnis praecipitavit, quosdam gubernacula apprehendentes 
contis remisque detrusit in mare. 

Suet. Calig. 19; 32. 

Invisusque omnibus sepultus est in villa Ciceroniana 

Spart. Hadr. 25, 7. 

M. Tullius Tiro Ciceronis libertus, qui primus notas 
commentatus est, in Puteolano praedio sue usque ad cen- 
tesimum annum consenescit. 

Suet. Dep. Lib. Rel. p. 289. 

RAVENNA (Ravenna) 

The first important historical mention of the place 
occurs in the time of the late Republic. It seems to 
have been used by Sulla in the Civil War and by Caesar 
during his Gallic campaigns — at least it was from this place 
that he started to Ariminum just before the outbreak of 
his struggle against the Roman government (Caes. B. C. 
i. 5; Suet. Caes. 30). Both Octavian and Antony used it 
as a military center also during the contest between them 
after Caesar's death. Its chief importance, however, 
came from the fact that the emperor Augustus made it a 
permanent station for part of the imperial fleet, construct- 
ing for this purpose a spacious harbor three miles from the 
city capable of holding 250 war ships(Suet. Aug. 49; Tac. 
Ann. iv. 5; Hist. ii. 100). Thereafter the emperors often 
selected it as headquarters from which to watch the march 
of invading armies from the north. 

Because of its comparative seclusion, important 
prisoners were often confined at Ravenna — notably, the 
son of the German chieftain Arminius (Tac. Ann. i. 58). 
Later emperors, beginning with Honorius in 404 A. D., 
chose it as a safe ,place for the imperial residence which 
it continued to be for many years, the city" constantly 
growing, in consequence, in prosperity and splendor. 
But all writers refer to its disadvantages, such as the 

^ The death of this emperor occurred in 138 A. D. 

^° Cicero's favorite freedman to whom he alludes frequently in his letters. It is due 
t o Tiro that the works of his patron were edited and published. 

of Places in Italy 279 

from the shore, on a sudden he had them all thrown over- 
board; and when some caught hold of the rudders of the 
ships, he pushed them-off into the sea with boat hooks and 


Hated by all, Hadrian^ was buried in Cicero's villa at 

Marcus Tullius Tiro,'" a freedman of Cicero, the first to 
write shorthand, spent his old age on his farm at Puteoli. 
He lived to be 100 years old. 

fact that it was built upon piles (much like Venice), 
with muddy canals in place of streets, abounding in 
gnats and frogs, and suffering always from a lack of fresh 

As a capital of the Gothic kings, after the downfall of 
Rome, Ravenna entered upon an interesting period of its 
history and traces of these days undoubtedly give the 
chief charm to the place for the modern visitor. In this 
connection the visitor should read Thomas Hodgkin's 
translation of the letters of Cassiodorus dealing with the 
times of Theodoric, and the Gothic History of Jordanes 
translated by C. C. Mierow. In the latter work, the 
following passages have special interest: xxix. 148-151 (a 
description of the place); xlv. 241 (Romulus Augustulus 
is crowned); Ivii. 295 (Theodoric in 493 A. D., after a 
three years' siege, finally kills the usurper Odoacer). 
Still another later writer, Procopius (6th century A. D.), 
should be read by the visitor at Ravenna. These quo- 
tations are especially worth while for their human interest: 
V. 1, 16-23 (a description of the town); v. 2, 1-29 ( a 
vivid account of the brave struggle of Theodoric's daughter 
with her enemies at court while her young son is growing 

280 Classical Associations 

'Ec 8^ rots eXefft 
IxeyiaT-q fikv kcTL 'Vaovevva, ^uXoira7ijs 6X77 Kal Stdppuros, 7£- 
ipvpais Kal TTOp&iJ.tiois oStvofiivri. dextrai 8' ov fiiKpbv tt/z t?a- 
Xdrrr/s ;uepos ev rais irXruinvplcnv, Sjcre Kal iiiro tovtosv Kal vtto 
TroTap£)v iKK\v^6p.€vov to Pop^opuSts wav iaraL rriv 5v<Ta€piav. 
ouTCos yovv vyifivov e^ijraorai to x'^P'^ov &crTi kvTov&a Tom p,o~ 
vofiaxovs Tpeipeiv Kal yvfiva^eiv aTridei^av ol rueiMovis. eiTTL 
jxiv ovv Kal TOVTO davixacTTOv tS>v ivdabt to ev eXet tow depas 
djSXa/Stts tlvai. Strab. V. 1, 7. 

Est enim proxima vobis regio supra sinum maris 
lonii constituta, olivis referta, segetibus ornata, vite co- 
piosa, ubi quasi tribus uberibus, egregia ubertate largatis 
omnis fructus optabili foecunditate profluxit. Quae non 
immerito dicitur Ravennae Campania, urbis legiae cella 
penaria, voluptuosa nimis et deliciosa digressio. Fruitur 
in septentrione progressa caeli admiranda temperie. Ha- 
bet et quasdam, non absurde dixerim, Baias suas: ubi 
undosum mare terrenas concavitates ingrediens in faciem 
decoram stagni aequalitate deponitur. Haec loca el 
garismatia plura nutriunt et piscium ubertate glorian- 

Avernus ibi non unus est. Numerosae conspiciuntur 
piscinae Neptuniae, quibus etiam cessante industria 
passim ostrea nascuntur iniussa. Sic nee studium in 
nutriendis nee dubietas in capiendis probatur esse, de- 
liciis. Praetoria longe lateque lucentia in margaritarum 
speciem putes esse disposita, ut hinc appareat qualia 
fuerint illius provinciae maiorum iudicia, quam tantis 
fabricis constat ornatam. Additur etiam illi litori ordo 
pulcherrimus insularum, qui amabili utilitate dispositus, 
et a periculis vindicat naves, et ditat magna ubertate 
cultores. Reficit plane comitatenses excubias, Italiae 
ornat imperium, primates deliciis, mediocres victualium 
pascit expensis et quod illic nascitur, paene totum in urbe 
regia possidetur. 

Cassiod. Var. xii. 22. 

Sit cisterna mihi quam vinea male Ravennae, 
cum possim multo vendere pluris aquam. 

Mart. iii. 56. 

of Places in Italy 281 

Ravenna's Unique Situation 

Situated in the marshes is the great (city of j Ravenna, 
built entirely on piles, and traversed by canals which you 
cross by bridges or ferry-boats. At the full tides it is 
washed by a considerable quantity of sea-water as well 
as by the river, and thus the sewage is carried off and the 
air purified; in fact, the district is considered so salubrious 
that the (Roman) governors have selected it as a spot in 
which to bring up and exercise the gladiators. It is a 
remarkable pecuHarity of this place, that, though situated 
in I he midst of a marsh, the air is perfectly innocuous. 

H. C. Hamilton 

A Writer of the Sixth Century Describes the Neighbor- 

For what Campania is to Rome, Istria is to Ravenna — 
a fruitful province abounding in corn, wine, and oil; so to 
speak, the cupboard of the capital. I might carry the 
comparison further, and say that Istria can show her own 
Baiae in the lagunes with which her shores are indented, 
her .own Averni in the pools abounding in oysters and fish. 
The palaces, strung like pearls along the shores of Istria, 
show how highly our ancestors appreciated its delights. 
The beautiful chain of islands with which it is begirt, 
shelter the sailor from danger and enrich the cultivator. 
The residence of the Court in this district delights the 
nobles and enriches the lower orders; and it may be said 
that all its products find their way to the royal city. 

Summarized bv Thomas Hodgki.\' 

I prefer a cistern at Ravenna to a vineyard, seeing that 
I can get a much better price for water, 

Walter C. A. Ker 

D.— Plan 

F Rome 

Couriuy of AlXyn and Bacon 

ROMA (Rome) 


284 Classical Associations 


Surge, precor, veneranda parens, et certa secundis 
fide deis humilemque metum depone senectae, 
urbs aequaeva polo, turn demum ferrea sumel 
ius in te Lachesis, cum sic mutaverit axem 
foederibus natura novis. 

Claudian Bell. Ge'. xxvi. 52-56. 

Qua nihil in lerris complectitur altius aether, 
cuius nee spatium visus, nee corda decorem, 
nee laudem vox ulla capit: quae luce metalli 
aemula vicinis fastigia conserit astris, 
quae septem scopulis zonas imitatur Olympi, 
armorum legumque parens: quae fundit in omnes 
imperium primique dedit cunabula iuris. 
haec est, exiguis quae finibus orta tetendit 
in geminos axes parvaque a sede profecta 
dispersit cum sole manus. haec obvia fatis, 
innumeras uno gereret cum tempore pugnas, 
Hispanas caperet, Siculas obsideret urbes 
et Galium terris prosterneret, aequore Poenum, 
nunquam succubuit damnis et territa nullo 
vulnere post Cannas maior Trebiamque fremebat, 
et cum iam premerent flammae murumque feriret 
hostis, in extremos aciem mittebat Hiberos. 
nee stetit Oceano remisque ingressa profundum 
vincendos alio quaesivit in orbe Britannos. 
haec est, in gremium victos quae sola recepit 
humanumque genus communi nomine fovit 
matris non dominae ritu civesque vocavit, 
quos domuit, nexuque pio longinqua revinxit. 

. . . haec auguriis firmata Sibyllae, 
haec sacris animata Numae. hinc fulmina vibrat 
Juppiter, hanc tota Tritonia Gorgone velal. 
arcanas hue Vesta faces, hue orgia secum 
transtulit et Phrygios genetrix turrita leones. 

Claudian de Cons. Stilich. iii. (xxiv) 131-170. 

1 For other eulogies of Rome (Ihe passages are countless) see Claudian. de Coiis. 
Stil. iii. 65^70; Rutil. de Red. Suo, i. 1-18; 47-62; Themist. Oral. Amat. in Grat. 1.1, 
p. 117, "a sea of beauty, too great for words;" Auson. Ord, Urb. Nob. i. 1, '"golden 
Rome"; Lact. Divinar. Instit. vii. 25; Aristid. Enc. Rom. Dindorf, \'ol. I. p. 348; Terlull. 
de Anima 30; Prop. iii. 22, 17-22. 

For a general account of the city and its buildings, see Plin. N. H. x-Kxvi. 101-123; 
Strabo v. 3, 8; Ammian. Marcel, xvi. 10, 13-15. 

of Places in Italy 285 

Immortal Rome^ 

Rise, venerable mother, and, free from care, trust the 
favor of the gods. Away with craven fears of old age, 
City eternal as the sky; iron fate shall touch thee then 
and only then when nature makes new laws for the stars. 

T. R. Glover 

Naught grander on earth does the sky embrace. The 
eye cannot comprehend her extent, the head her beauty, 
nor the voice her praise. With the lustre of her gold she 
rivals the stars she touches. Her seven hills recall the 
zones of Olympus. Mother of arms and laws, she spreads 
her rule over all mankind, the first to give them law. She 
it is who from narrow bounds spread to either pole, and 
starting from a little home reached forth her hands with 
the sun. Battling with destiny, while she waged countless 
wars at will, she laid hold on the towns of Spain, besieged 
the towns of Sicily, brought low the Gaul on land, the 
Carthaginian on the sea. She never bowed to blow; no 
whit was she affrighted by wound, but her voice rose 
stronger after Cannae and the Trebia, and when the flames 
girt her round about and the fire was at the walls, she 
sent her armies to the distant Iberians. Nor was she stayed 
by Ocean; but embarked upon the deep and sought the 
Britons in a world remote for a fresh triumph. This is 
she who alone took the conquered to her bosom and cher- 
ished all mankind alike, as mother, not as queen, and 
called them her sons when she had conquered and bound 
them to her afar by bonds of love. . . . (Nor shall 
there ever be an end to Rome's sway.) Shestands grounded 
in the Sibyl's oracles, inspired by the rites of Numa. For 
her Jupiter wields the thunderbolt; Pallas shields with 
the Gorgon; hither brought Vesta her secret flame, and 
the tower-crowned mother of the gods her mysteries and 
her Phrygian lions. 

T. R. Glover 

286 Classical Associations 

Nulli sit ingrata Roma quae dici non potest aliena, ilia 
eloquentiae fecunda mater, ilia virtutum omnium latis- 
simum templum. 

Cassiod. Var. iv. 6. 

Fecisti patriam diversis gentibus unam 

profuit iniustis te dominante capi; 
dumque offers victis proprii consortia iuris 

urbem fecisti quod prius orbis erat. 

Rutil. de Red. Suo i. 63-66. 

Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento 
(hae tibi erunt artes) pacisque imponere morem, 
parcere subiectis et debellare superbos. 

Vir. Aen. vi. 851-853. 

Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
promis et celas aliusque et idem 
nasceris, possis nihil urbe Roma 
visere maius! 

Hor. C. S. 9-12. 

oj Places in Italy 287 

Everyone's Country 

Everyone's country — the fruitful mother of eloquence, 
the wide temple of all virtues. 

Freely translated by Thomas Hodgkin 

You have made one country of the various peoples. 
The unruly have found it to their advantage to be beneath 
your sway, and, in giving to the conquered your own laws, 
you have made one mighty city of the world. 

The Mission of Rome 

Yours, Roman, be the lesson to govern the nations as 
their lord: this is your destined culture, to impose the 
settled rule of peace, lo spare the humbled, and to crush 
the proud. 

John Conington 

.\11 bounteous Sun I 
Forever changing and forever one I 
Who in thy lustrous car bear'st forth light, 
And hid'st it, setting, in the arms of Night, 
Look down on worlds outspread, yet nothing see 
Greater than Rome, and Rome's high sovereignty. 

Aubrey de Vere. 

288 Classical Associations 


Hoc ego commodius quam tu, praeclare senator, 
milibus atque aliis vivo, quacumque libidost, 
incedo solus, percontor quanti olus acfar, 
fallacem circum vespertinumque pererro 
saepe forum, adsisto divinis, inde domum me 
ad porri et ciceris refero laganique catinum; 
cena ministratur pueris tribus, et lapis albus 
pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet, adstat echinus 
vilis, cum patera gutus, Campana supellex. 
deinde eo dormitum, non sollicitus, mihi quod eras 
surgendum sit mane, obeuridus Marsya, qui se 
voltum ferre negat Noviorum posse minoris. 
ad quartam iaceo; post banc vagor aut ego lecto 
aut scripto quod me taciturn iuvet, unguor olivo, 
non quo fraudatis inmundus Natta lucernis. 
ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum 
admonuit, fugio campum lusumque trigonem. 
pransus non avide, quantum interpellet inani 
ventre diem durare, domesticus otior. haec est 
vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique. 
his me consolor victurum suavius, ac si 
quaestor avus pater atque meus patruusque fuisset. 

Hor. S. i. 6, 110-131. 

Prima salutantes atque altera conterit hora, 

exercet raucos tertia causidicos, 
in quintam varios extendit Roma labores, 

sexta quies lassis, septima finis erit, 
sufficit in nonam nitidis octava palaestris, 

iifiperat extructos frangere nona toros: 
hora libellorum decima est, Eupheme, meorum, 

1 A statue of Marsyas stood in the Forum near the rostra. 

2 A parsimonius acquaintance. 

of Places in Italy 289 

How a Famous Poet Spent His Idle Hours in Rome 

'Tis thus my life is happier, man of pride, 
Than yours and that of half the world beside. 
When the whim leads, I saunter forth alone, 
Ask how are herbs, and what is flour a stone. 
Lounge through the Circus with its crowd of liars, 
Or in the Forum, when the sun retires. 
Talk to a soothsayer, then go home to seek 
My frugal meal of fritter, vetch, and leek. 
Three youngsters serve the food: a slab of white 
Contains two cups, one ladle, clean and bright : 
Next, a cheap basin ranges on the shelf, 
With jug and saucer of Campanian delf : 
Then off to bed, where I can close my eyes 
Not thinking how with morning I must rise 
And face grim Marsyas,' who is known to swear 
Young Novius' looks are what he cannot bear. 
I lie a-bed till ten : then stroll a bit, 
Or write or read, if in a silent fit. 
And rub myself with oil, not taken whence 
Natta^ takes his, at some poor lamp's expense. 
So to the field and ball; but when the sun 
Bids me go bathe, the field and ball I shun : 
Then eat a temperate luncheon, just to stay 
A sinking stomach till the close of day. 
Kill time in-doors, and so forth. Here you see 
.\ careless life, from stir and striving free. 
Happier (0 be that flattering unction mine!) 
Than if three quaestors figured in my line. 

John Conington 

How the Average Roman Spends His Day 

The first and the second hour wearies clients at the levee; 
the third hour sets hoarse advocates to work; till the end 
of the fifth Rome extends her various tastes; the sixth 
gives rest to the tired; the seventh will be the end. The 
eighth to the ninth sufiices for the oiled wrestlers^- the' 
ninth bids us crush the piled couches. The tenth hour is 

290 Classical Associations 

temperat ambrosias cum tua cura dapes 
et bonus aetherio laxatur nectare Caesar 

ingentique tenet pocula parca manu. 
tunc admitte iocos: gressu timet ire licenti 

ad matutinum nostra Thalia lovem. 

Mart. iv. 8. 

Praeter cetera me Romaene poemata censes 
scribere posse inter tot curas totque labores? 
hie sponsum vocat, hie auditum scripta relict is 
omnibus officiis; cubat hie in coUe Quirini, 
hie extreme in Aventino, visendus uterque: 
intervalla vides humane commoda. "verum 
purae sunt plateae, nihil ut meditantibus obstet." 
festinat calidus mulis gerulisque redemptor, 
torquet nunc lapidem, nunc ingens machina lignum, 
tristia robustis luctantur funera plaustris, 
hac rabiosa fugit canis, hac lutulenta ruit sus: 
i nunc et versus tecum meditare canoros. 

Hor. Ep, ii- 2, 65-76. 

lam parce lasso, Roma, gratulatori, 
lasso clienti. quamdiu salutator 
anleambulones et togatulos inter 
centum merebor plumbeos die toto, 
cum Scorpus una quindecim graves hora 
ferventis auri victor auferat saccos? 

.3 The emperor Domitian. 

* Prominent men in Rome were attended by crowds of tliose in humbler rants; The 
latter were known as" clients." In return for certain favors on the part of the former, these 
foUovvers paid assiduous court to their patrons. One duty consisted in attending his 
morning reception; another in accompanying him to the baths, the. Forum, and other 
places where a throng of follow ers was thought to add to the prestige of the man of rank . 
(See later passages for illustrations of this.) 

^ A popular hero of the Circus. 

of Places in Italy 291 

the hour for my poems, Euphemus, when your care sets 
out the ambrosial feast, and kindly Caesar' soothes his 
heart with heavenly nectar, and holds in mighty hand his 
frugal cup. Then admit my jest: my Thalia fears with 
unlicensed step to approach a rnorning Jove. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

A Poet Complains That He Cannot Write Because of the 
Distractions of the City 

Write verse in Rome, too? How could I, in fact. 
Amidst so much to worry and distract? 
"Bail me'" writes one. "Cut business for the day," 
Another, "and I'll read you my new play 1" 
Then on the Quirinal is one sick friend, 
One on Mount Aventine, quite at the end, 
And each of these expects a call from me — 
Nice manageable distances, you see. 
"But then the streets are clear; with naught," you 

"To hinder one from musing by the wayl" 
Why, here a builder in a fume you meet. 
With mules and porters cramming all the street. 
Anon a crane, whirling a stone in air 
Or mighty beam, obstructs the thoroughfare. 
Then there's a block of dismal funeral trains 
Jammed up and struggling with huge cumbrous wains; 
Anon a mad dog rushes foaming by, 
.\non a pig, all reeking from the sty. 
Go now, my friend, and meditate at ease 
Mellifluous verse 'mid incidents like these. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

A Writer Longs for Sleep 

Ha\c' pil_\- at length, Rome, upon the weary congratu- 
lator, the weary client.^ How long shall 1 be a dangler at 
le\ees, among crowds of anxious clients and toga-clad de- 
pendents, earning a hundred paltry coins with a whole 
day's work, while Scorpus* triumphantly carries off in a 
single hour fifteen heavy bags of shining gold? I ask not 

292 Classical Associations 

non ego meorum praemium libellorum 

— quid enim merentur? — Appulos velim campos 

non Hybla, non me spicifer capit Nilus, 

nee quae paludes delicata Pomptinas 

ex arce clivi spectat uya Setini. 

quid concupiscam quaeris ergo? dormire. 

Mart. X. 74. 

Cur saepe sicci parva rura Nomenti 
lareinque villae sordidum petam, quaeris? 
nee cogitandi, Sparse, nee quiescendi 
in urbe locus est pauperi. negant vitam 
ludi magistri mane, nocte pistores, 
aerariorum marculi die to to; 
hinc otiosus sordidam quatit mensam 
Neroniana nummularius massa, 
illinc palucis malleator Hispanae 
tritum nitenti fuste verberat saxum; 
nee turba cessat entheata Bellonae, 
nee fasciato naufragus loquax trunco, 
a matre doctus nee rogare ludaeus, 
nee sulphuratae lippus institor mercis. 
numerare pigri damna qui potest somni? 

nos transeuntis risus excitat turbae, 
et ad cubile est Roma, taedio fessis 
dormire quotiens libuit, imus ad villam. 

Mart. xii. 57. 

.\nxuris aequorei placidos, Frontine, recessus 

et propius Baias litoreamque domum, 
et quod inhumanae cancro fervente cicadae 

non novere nemus, flumineosque lacus 
dum colui, doctas tecum celebrare vacabat 

Pieridas: nunc nos maxima Roma terit. 
hie mihi quando dies mens est? iactamur in alto 

urbis, et in sterili vita labore perit. 

of Places in Italy 293 

as the reward of my little books (for what indeed are they 
worth?), the plains of Apulia, or Hybla, or the spice-bear- 
ing Nile, or the tender vines which, from the brow of the 
Setian hill, look down on the Pomptine marshes. What 
then do I desire, you ask? To sleep. 

Translation from the Bohn Library 

The Noise at Rome Forbids Repose 

You ask why I so often go to my small domain at arid 
Nomentum and the humble household at my farm? There 
is no place in town, Sparsus, where a poor man can either 
think or rest. One cannot live for schoolmasters in the 
morning, corn-grinders at night, and braziers' hammers 
all day and night. Here the money-changer indolently 
rattles piles of Nero's rough coins on his dirty counter; 
there a beater of Spanish gold belabours his worn stone 
with shining mallet. Nor does the fanatic rabble of Bel- 
lona cease from its clamour, nor the galbbling sailor with 
his piece of wreck hung over his shoulder, nor the Jew 
boy, brought up to begging by his mother, nor the blear- 
eyed huckster of matches. Who can enumerate the va- 
rious interruptions to sleep at Rome? 

But I am awakened by the laughter of the passing 
crowd; and all Rome is at my bed-side. Whenever, over- 
come with weariness, I long for repose, I repair to my 

Translation from the Bohn Library 

The Appeal of the Country to the City Man 

Whilst I frequented, Frontinus, the calm retreats of 
Anxur on the sea, and the neighbouring Baiae, with its 
villas on the shore, the groves free from the troublesome 
cicadae in the heats of July, and the freshwater lakes, I 
then was at leisure, in company with you, to cultivate the 
learned Muses; but now mighty Rome exhausts me. Here, 
when is a day my own? I am tossed about in the vortex 
of the city; and my life is wasted in laborious nothingness; 

294 Classical Associations 

dura suburbarii dum iugera pascimus agri 
vicinosque tibi, sancte Quirine, lares. 

Mart. X. 58, 1-10. 

Dum tu forsitan inquielus erras 
clamosa, luvenalis, in Subura, 
aut collem dominae teris Dianae: 
dum per limina te potentiorum 
sudatrix toga ventilat vagumque 
maior Caelius et minor fatigant: 
me multos repetita post Decembres 
accepit mea rusticumque fecit 
auro Bilbilis et superba ferro. 

Mart. xii. 18 1-9. 

Ego vel Prochytam praepono Suburae; 
nam quid tam miserum, tarn solum vidimus, ut non 
deterius credas horrere incendia, lapsus 
tectorum adsiduos ac mille pericula saevae 
urbis et Auguslo recitantes mense poetas? 

Juv. iii. .S 9. 

Nos urbem colimus tenui tibicine fultam 
magna parte sui; nam sic labentibus obstat 
vilicus, et veteris rimae cum texit hiatum, 
secures pendente iubet dormire ruina. 
vivendum est illic ubi nulla incendia, nuUi 
nocte metus. 

Juv. iii. 193-198. 

Nam quae meritoria somnum 
admittunt? magnis opibus dormitur in urbe. 
inde caput morbi. raedarum transitus arto 
vicorum inflexu et stantis convicia mandrae 

"The Aventine Hill. 

^ A town in Spain where the poet was born. 

of Phurs III Italy 295 

meantime I cultivate some wretched acres of a suburban 
farm, and keep my homestead near thy temple, sacred 

Translation from the Bohn library 

Rome in the Summer Is Not Altogether Restful 

Whilst you, my Juvenal, are perhaps wandering restless 
in the noisy Subura or pacing the hilP of the goddess 
Diana; whilst your toga, in which you perspire at the 
thresholds of your influential friends, is fanning you as 
you go, and the greater and lesser Caelian hills fatigue you 
in your wanderings; my own Bilbilis,' revisited after 
many winters, has received me, and made me a country 
gentleman ; Bilbilis, proud of its gold and its iron! 

Translation from the Bohx library 

Almost Any Spot Is Safer Than Rome 

I myself would prefer Prcchyta and the Subura! 
P'or where has one ever seen a place so dismal and so lonely 
that one would not deem it worse to live in perpetual dread 
of fires and falling houses, and the thousand perils of this 
terrible cit\', and poets spouting in the month of August! 

G. G. Ramsay 

The Insecurity of the Roman Tenements 

We inhabit a city propped up to a great extent by thin 
buttresses; for in this way the steward prevents the houses 
from falling; and when he has plastered over the gaping 
of an old crack, he bids us sleep secure, with ruin over- 
hanging us. The place to live in is where there are no 
fires, no nocturnal alarms. 

John Delaware Lewis 

Discomforts and Dangers of Life in Rome 

For who can hope his weary lids to close. 
Where brawling taverns banish all repose?- 
Rest is not for the poor, it costs too dear. 
And hence disease makes such wild havoc here. 
The rumbling carts with rumbling carts that meet 
In every winding of the narrow street, 

296 Classical Associations 

eripient somnum Druso vitulisque marinis. 
si vocat officium, turba cedente vehetur 
dives et ingenti curret super ora Liburna . 
atque obiter leget aut scribet vel dormiet intus; 
namque facit somnum clausa lectica-fenestra. 
ante tamen veniet: nobis properantibus opstat 
unda prior, magno populus premit agmine lumbos 
qui sequitur; ferit hie cubito, ferit assere duro 
alter, at hie tignum capiti incutit, ille metretam. 
pinguia erura luto, planta mox undique magna 
calcor, et in digito elavus mihi militis haeret. 
nonne vides quanto celebretur sportula fumo? 
eentum convivae, sequitur sua quemque culina. 
Corbulo vix ferret tot vasa ingentia, tot res' 
inpositas capiti, quas recto vertice portat 
servulus infelix et cursu ventilat ignem. 
scinduntur tunicae sartae modo, longa coruscat 
serraco veniente abies, atque altera pinum 
plaustra vehunt, nutant alte populoque minantur. 
nam si procubuit qui saxa Ligustica portat 
axis et eversum fudit super agmina montem, 
quid superest de corporibus? quis membra, quis ossa 
invenit? obtritum vulgi perit omne cadaver 

more animae 

Respice nunc alia ac diversa pericula noctis; 
quod spatium tectis sublimibus uhde cerebrum 

8 A reference perhaps to a banquet of some association to which the guests carried 
their own portion (see note in Wright's Juvenal, page 37). 
' A type of a muscular person able to bear great loads. 

of Places in Italy 297 

The drivers' efforts to enforce their way, 

Their clamorous curses at each casual stay, 

From drowsy Drusus all his sleep would take, 

And keep the calves of Proteus broad awake! 

If business calls, obsequious crowds divide, 

While o'er their heads the rich securely ride. 

By tall lUyrians borne; and read, or write, 

Or, should the sultry air invite. 

Shut close the litter, and enjoy the night. 

\'el reach they first the goal; and by the throng 

Elbow'd and jostled, scarce we creep along; 

Sharp strokes from poles, tubs, rafters, doom'd to 

Bespattered o'er with mud, from head to heel, 
Kick'd by rude clowns, by brutal soldiers gor'd, 
And trampled by the followers of my lord! 

See, from the Dole" a vast tumultuous throng, 
Each followed by his kitchen, pours along! 
Huge pans, which Corbulo' could scarce uprear. 
With steady neck the wretched menials bear. 
And, lest amid the way the flames expire. 
Glide nimbly on, and gliding, fan the fire; 
Through the close press with sinuous efforts wind, 
And, piece by piece, leave their botched rags behind. 

Hark! groaning on, th' unwieldy waggon spreads 
Its cumbrous freight, tremendous, o'er our heads. 
Projecting elm or pine, that nods on high. 
And threatens death to every passer-by, 
Heavens! should the axle break which bears a weight 
Of huge Ligurian stone, and pour the freight 
On the pale crowd beneath, what would remain? — 
What joint, what bone, what atom of the slain? 
The body, with the soul, would vanish quite. 
Invisible as air, to mortal sight! 

Pass we these fearful dangers, and survey 
What other evils threat our nightly way. 
And first, behold the mansion's towering size. 

2^)8 Classical Associations 

lesta ferit, quotiens rimosa et curta fenestris 
vasa tadant, quanto percussum pondere signenl 
et laedant silicem. possis ignavus haberi 
et subiti casus inprovidus, ad cenam si 
intestatus eas: adeo tot fata quot ilia 
nocte patent vigiles te praetereunte fenestrae. 
ergo optes votumque fefas miserabile tecum, 
ut sint contentae patulas defundere pelves. 

nee tamen haec tantum metuas. nam qui spoliel le 

non derit clausis domibus, postquam omnis ubique 

fixa catenatae siluit compago tabernae. 

interdum et ferro subitus grassator agit rem ; 

armato quotiens tutae custode tenentur 

et Pomptina palus et Gallinaria pinus, 

sic inde hue omnes tamquam ad vivaria currunt. 

Juv. iii. 234-308. 

Cedamus patria. vivant Arlorius istic 
et Catulus, maneant qui nigrum in Candida verlunt, 
quis facile est aedem conducere flumina portus, 
siccandam eluviem, portandum ad busta cadaver, 
et praebere caput domina venale sub hasta. 

quid Romae faciam? mentiri nescio; librum, 
si malus est, nequeo laudare et poscere; motus 
astrorum ignore; funus promittere patris 
nee volo nee possum; ranarum viscera numquam 
inspexi; ferre ad nuptam quae mittit adulter, 

^0 A pine forest not far from Cumae used by bandits as a haunt. 

of Places in Italy 299 

Where floors on floors to the tenth story rise ; 

Whence heedless garretteers their potsherds pour, 

And crush the passenger beneath the shower; 

Clattering the storm descends from heights unknown, 

Ploughs up the street and wounds the flinty stone. 

'Tis madness, dire improvidence of ill, 

To sup from home before you make your will; 

For know, as many deaths your steps belay, 

As there are wakeful windows on the way: 

Pray then; and deem yourself full fairly sped, 

If pots be only .... emptied on your head! 

Nor are these evils all; when weary care 
Has fixed the ponderous chain and massy bar; 
When noisy shops a transient silence keep. 
And harass'd nature woos the balm of sleep; 
Then thieves and murderers ply their dreadful trade: 
With stealthy steps your drowsy couch invade — 
R.oused from the treacherous calm, aghast you start. 
And the flesh'd sword is buried in your heart! 

Hither from bogs, from rocks, and caves pursued 
(The Pomptine marsh, and Gallinarian wood)'" 
The dark assassins flock as to their home, 
.\nd fill with dire alarms the streets of Rome. 

William Gifford 

Rome is No Place for an Honest Man 

1 must leave my country: let Artorius and Catulus 
live there; let those remain who turn black into white, to 
whom it comes easy to take contracts about temples, 
rivers, harboiirs, cleansing a sewer, carrying a corpse to the 
funeral-pile, and to put up a man for sale under the mis- 
tress spear 

What should I do in Rome? I know not how to lie; if a 
book is a bad one, I cannot praise it and ask for a copy; I 
am ignorant of the motions of the stars; I neither will nor 
can promise the death of a father; I never inspected the 
entrails of frogs; let others know how to carry to a mar- 
ried woman the presents and the messages of her lover. 

300 Classical Associations 

quae mandat, norunt alii, me nemo ministro 
fur erit, atque ideo nulli comes exeo, tamquam 
mancus et exstinctae corpus non utile dextrae. 

Juv. iii. 29-48. 

Quae te causa trahit vel quae fiducia Romam, 

Sexte? quid aut speras aut petis inde? refer, 
"causas" inquis "agam Cicerone disertior ipso 

atque erit in triplici par mihi nemo foro." 
egit Atestinus causas et Civis — utrumque 

noras — ; sed neutri pensio tota fuit. 
"si nihil hinc veniet, pangentur carmina nobis: 

audieris, dices esse Maronis opus." 
insanis: omnes gelidis quicunque lacernis 

sunt ibi, Nasones Vergiliosque vides. 
"atria magna colam." vix tres aut quattuor ista 

res aluit, pallet cetera turba fame, 
"quid faciam? suade: nam certum est vivere Romae." 

si bonus es, casu vivere, Sexte, potes. 

Mart. iii. .SS. 

Hie ultra vires habitus nitor, hie aliquid plus 
quam satis est interdum aliena sumitur area, 
commune id vitiuih est, hie vivimus ambitiosa 
paupertate omnes. quid te moror? omnia Romae 
cum pretio. 

Juv. iii. 180-184. 

Si potes avelli circensibus, optima Sorae 
aut Fabrateriae domus aut Frusinone paratur, 
quanti nunc tenebras unum conducis in annum. 

Juv. iii. 223-225. 

'^ Insignificant towns near Rome, 

of Places in Italy 301 

Nobody shall be a thief by my aid, and therefore I am not 
going out in the suite of any one, as though I were maimed 
and a useless trunk with right hand destroyed. 

John Delaware Lewis 

The Chances for Earning a Living at Rome 

What reason or what confidence draws you to Rome, 
Sextus? What do you either hope or look for from that 
quarter? Tell me. "I will conduct cases," you say, 
"more eloquently than Cicero himself, and there shall be 
in the three Forums no man my match." Atestinus and 
Civis each conducted cases — you knew both — but neither 
made his full rent. "If nothing comes from this course, 
I will compose poems; hear them, you will call them Maro's 
work." You are crazy; in all those fellows there with their 
chill mantles you see Nasos and Virgils. "I will court the 
halls of great men." Barely three or four has that pro- 
cedure supported; all the rest of the crowd are pale with 
hunger. "What shall I do? Advise me, for I am bent on 
living in Rome." If you are a good man, you may live, 
Sextus, by accident. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

All Romans Live Above Their Means 

In Rome everyone dresses above his means, and some- 
times something more than what is enough is taken out of 
another man's pocket. This failing is universal here: we 
all live in a state of pretentious poverty. To put it shortly, 
nothing can be had in Rome for nothing. 

G. G. Ramsay 

A Way to Avoid the High Cost of Living 

If you are capable of being torn away from the games of 
the Circus, an excellent house can be procured at Sora," 
or Fabrateria,ii or Frusino," for the same price at which 
you now hire a dark hole for a single year. 

John Delaware Lewis 

302 Classical Associations 

Quod novus et nuper factus tibi praestat amicus, 

hoc praestare iubes me, Fabiane, tibi: 
horridus ut prime te semper mane salutem 

per mediumque trahat me tua sella lutum, 
lassus ut in thermas decima vel serius hora 

te sequar Agrippae, cum laver ipse Titi. 
hoc per triginta merui, Fabiane, Decembres, 

ut sim tiro tuae semper amicitiae? 
hoc merui, Fabiane, toga tritaque meaque," 

ut nondum credas me meruisse rudem? 

Mart. iii. 36. 

Intueris illas potentium domos, ilia tumultuosa rixa 
salutantium limina? Multum habent contumeliarum, ul 
intres, plus, cum intraveris. Praeteri istos gradus divi- 
tum et magno adgestu suspensa vestibula; non in prae- 
rupta tantum istic stabis, sed in lubrico. 

Sen. Ep. Ixxxiv. 12. 

Totam hodie Romam circus capit, et fragor aurem 
percutit, eventum viridis quo coUigo panni. 
nam si deficeret, maestam attonitamque videres 
banc urbem veluti Cannarum in pulvere victis 

Juv. xi. 197-201. 

Nam Romae respirandi non est locus. 

Cic. ad. Q. Fr. iii. 1; 3. 

Romae omnia \enalia esse. 

Sal. Bel. Jug. xx. 

12 The friend and helper of Augustus. In 25 B. C. he opened the first of the large public 
baths at Rome calling them after bis name. 

" There were various factions in connection with the circus, the Greens being the most 
popular at. this time. Literature is filled with allusions to the prominent part which the 
races played in the life of the people. See Seneca (Ep. 83, 7) for a characteristic mention; 
also Ammianus Marcellinus (xiv. 6, 26) who says that the crowds were so intent upon the 
outcome of these races that nothing of importance could be done at Rome. 

of Places in Italy 303 

Paying Court to the Rich Is Not Altogether Easy 

The duties of a new and recent friend you bid me per- 
form towards you, Fabianus; that shivering at early morn 
I should pay my respects to you continually; that your 
chair should drag me through the midst of the mud; that 
when I am fagged out I should follow you at the tenth hour 
or later, to the warm baths of Agrippa,'^ although I myself 
bathe at those of Titus. Is this what I have deserved, 
Fabianus, for my thirty Decembers of service, to be al- 
ways a raw recruit to your friendship? Is this what I 
have deserved, Fabianus, that, when my toga (my own 
purchase) is thread-bare, you think that I have not de- 
served my discharge? 

Walter C. A. Ker 

A Morning Reception at a Rich Man's House 

Do you behold yonder homes of the great, yonder 
threshholds uproarious with the brawling of those who 
would pay their respects? They have many an insult for 
you as you would enter the door, and still more after you 
have entered. Pass by the steps that mount to rich men's 
houses, and the porches rendered hazardous by the huge 
throng; for there you will be standing not merely on the 
edge of a precipice, but also on slippery ground. 


The Excitements of the Circus 

All Rome to-day is in the Circus. A roar strikes upon 
my ear which tells me that the Green'' has won; for had 
it lost, Rome would be sad and dismayed as when the 
consuls were vanquished in the dust of Cannae. 

G. G. Ramsay 

For there is no chance to breathe at Rome. 

All things are purchasable at Rome. 

J. S. Watson 

304 Classical Associations 

*Ibam forte Via Sacra, sicut meus est mos 
nescio quid meditans nugarum; totus in illis. 
accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine tantum, 
arreptaque manu 'quid agis, dulcissime rerum?' 
'suaviter, ut nunc est,' inquam 'et cupio omnia, quae 

cum adsectaretur, 'numquid vis?' occupo. at ille 
'noris nos' inquit, 'docti sumus.' hie ego 'pluris 
hoc' inquam 'mihi eris.' 

misere discedere quaerens, 
ire modo ocius, interdum consistere, in aurem 
dicere nescio quid puero, cum sudor ad imos 
manaret talos. 'o te, Bolane, cerebri 
felicem' aiebam tacitus, cum quidlibet ille 
garriret, vices, urbem laudaret. ut illi 
nil respondebam, 'misere cupis' inquit 'abire; 
iamdudum video; sed nil agis; usque tenebo; 
persequar. hinc quo nunc iter est tibi?' 'nil opus 

est te 
circumagi; quendam volo visere non tibi notum. 
trans Tiberim longe cubat is prope Caesaris hortos.' 
'nil habeo quod agam et non sum piger; usque se- 

quar te.' 
demitto auriculas, ut iniquae mentis asellus, 
cum gravius dorso subiit onus, incipit ille: 
'si bene me novi, non Viscum pluris amicum, 
non Varium facies; nam quis me scribere pluris 
aut citius possit versus? quis membra movere 
mollius? invideat quod et Hermogenes ego canto.' 

interpellandi locus hie erat : 'est tibi mater, 
cognati, quis te salvo est opus?' 'haud mihi .quis- 

omnis composui.' 'felices! nunc ego resto. 
confice; namque instat fatum mihi triste, Sabella 

* The Latin text of this passage is quoted at length although the translation has been 
cut. The Latin and English pages will therefore not correspond in this case, 

" This delightful piece of humor cannot be quoted at length in the translation because 
of the limitations of space. The omitted lines deal with the poet's efforts to rid himself 
of his unwelcome companion who only leaves him when dragged off to court. 

of Places in Italy 305 

The Poet Horace Encounters a Bore^^ 

It chanced that I, the other day, 
Was sauntering up the Sacred Way, 
And musing as my habit is. 
Some trivial random fantasies, 
That for the time absorbed me quite, 
When there comes running up a wight, 
Whom only by his name I knew; 
"Ha, my dear fellow, how d'ye do?" 
Grasping my hand, he shouted. "Why, 
As times go, pretty well," said I; 
And you, I trust, can say the same." 
But after me as still he came, 
"Sir, is there anything," I cried, 
You want of me?" "Oh," he replied, 
"I'm just the man you ought to know; — 
A scholar, author!" "Is it so? 
For this I'll like you all the more!" 
Then, writhing to evade the bore, 
I quicken now my pace, now stop, 
And in my servant's ear let drop 
Some words, and all the while I feel 
Bathed in cold sweat from head to heel. 

"Oh for a touch," I moaned in pain, 
"Bolanus,^^ of thy slap-dash vein, 
To put this incubus to rout!" 
And he went clattering on about 
Whatever he descries or meets. 
The crowds, the beauty of the streets. 
This city's growth, its splendor, size. 
"You're dying to be off," he cries; 
For all the while I'd been struck dumb. 
"I've noticed it some time. But come, 
Let's clearly understand each other; 
It's no use making all this pother. 
My mind's made up to stick by you; 
So where you go, there I go, too." 

"Don't put yourself," I answered, "pray. 
So very far out of your way. 

'" Bolanus was apparently a person well known in Rome who would not hesitate to 
rid himself of a bore and very qmckly. 

306 Classical Associations 

quod puero cecinit divinatnota anus urna: 
"hunc neque dira venena nee hosticus auferet ensis, 
nee laterum dolor aut tussis, nee tarda podagra; 
garrulus hunc quando eonsumet cumque; loquaces, 
si.sapiat, vitet, simul atque adoleverit aetas." 

ventum erat ad Vestae, quarta iam parte diei 
praeterita, et easu tune respondere vadato 
debebat; quod ni fecisset, perdere litem. 
'si me amas,' inquit 'paullum hie ades.' 'inteream, si 
aut valeo stare aut novi civilia iura; 
et propero quo scis.' 'dubius sum quid faciam' 

'tene relinquam an rem.' 'me, sodes.' 'non faciam' 

et praecedere coepit; ego, ut contendere durum est 
cum victore, sequor. 

'Maecenas quomodo tecum?' 
hinc repetit; 'paucorum hominum et mentis bene 

sanae ; 
nemo dexterius fortuna est usus. haberes 
magnum adiutorem, posset qui ferre secundas, 
hunc hominem velles si tradere; dispeream, ni 
summosses omnis.' non isto vivimus illic 
quo tu rere modo; domus hac nee purior uUa esl 
nee magis his aliena mails; nil mi officit,' inquahn, 
'ditior hie aut est quia doctior; est locus uni 
cuique suus.' 'magnum narras, vix credibile.' 'al- 

sic habet.' 'accendis, quare cupiam magis illi - 
proxumus esse.' 'veils tantummodo; quae tua virtus, 
expugnabis; et est qui vinci possit, eoque 
diffieilis aditus primos habet.' 'haud mihi dero. 
muneribus servos corrumpam; non, hodie si 
exclusus fuero, desistam: tempora quaeram, 
oceurram in triviis, deducam. nil sine magno 

w This mention of the sacredness of the day because of a Jewish custom is only a joke, 
since the Romans paid no attention at all to the religious festivals of this race. 

of Places m Itaiy 307 

I'm on the road to see a friend. 

Whom you don't know, that's near his end, 

Away beyond the Tiber far. 

Close by where Caesar's gardens are." 

"I've nothing in the world to do, 
And what's a paltry mile or two? 
I like it, so I'll follow you!" 

Just at this moment who but my 
Dear friend Aristius should come by? 
My rattle-brain right well he knew. 
We stop. "Whence, friends, and whither to?" 
He asks and answers. Whilst we ran 
The usual courtesies, I began 
To pluck him by the sleeve, to pinch 
His arms, that feel but will not flinch. 
By nods and winks most plain to see 
Imploring him to rescue me: 
He, wickedly obtuse the while, 
Meets all my signals with a smile. 
I, choked with rage, said, "Was there not 
Some business, I've forgotten what, 
You mentioned, that you wished with me 
To talk about and privately?" 

"Oh, I remember! Never mind. 
Some more convenient time I'll find. 
The Thirtieth Sabbath this! Would you 
Offend the circumcised Jew?'"" 
"Religious scruples I have none." 
"Ah, but I have. I am but one 
Of the canaille — a feeble brother. 
Your pardon! Some day or other 
I'll tell you what it was." Oh day 
Of woeful doom to me! .\way 
The rascal bolted like an arrow, 

308 Classical Associations 

vita labore dedit mortalibus.' haec dum agit, ecce 
Fuscus Aristius occurrit, mihi carus, et ilium 
qui pulchre nosset. consistimus. 'unde venis?' et 
'quo tendis?' rogat et respondet. vellere coepi 
et pressare manu lentissima bracchia, nutans, 
distorquens oculos, ut me eriperet. male salsus 
ridens dissimulare; meum iecur urere bills, 
'certe nescio quid secreto velle loqui te 
aiebas mecum.' 'memini bene, sed meliore 
tempore dicam; hodie tricesima sabbata; vin tu 
Curtis ludaeis oppedere?' 'nulla mihi' inquam 
'religio est.' 'at mi; sum paullo infirmior, unus 
multorum. ignosces; alias loquar.' huncine solem 
tam nigrum surrexe mihi! fugit improbus ac me 
sub cultro linquit. 

casu venit obvius illi 
adversarius et 'quo tu turpissime?' magna 
inclamat voce, et 'licet antestari?' ego vero 
oppono auriculam. rapit in ius; clamor utrimque, 
undique concursus. sic me servavit Apollo. 

Hor. S. i. 9. 

Fastidiosam desere copiam et 
molem propinquam nubibus arduis, 
omitte mirari beatae 

fumum et opes strepitumque Romae. 

Hor. C. iii. 29, 9-12. 

1' Allowing one's ear to be touched in this way meant that the person consented to act 
as a witness and that he would give his testimony if required. 

oj Places in Italy 309 

And left me underneath the harrow; 
When by the rarest luck, we ran 
At the next turn, against the man 
Who had the lawsuit with my bore. 
"Ha, knave!" he cried with loud uproar, 
"Where are you off to? Will you here 
Stand witness?" I present my ear." 
To court he hustles him along; 
High words are bandied, high and strong, 
A mob collects, the fray to see; 
So did Apollo rescue me. 

Sir Theodore Martin ' 

Then plenty quit, that only palls. 
And, turning from the cloud-capped pile 
That towers above thy palace halls, 
Forget to worship for a while 
The privileges Rome enjoys: 
Her smoke, her splendor, and her noise. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

310 Classical Associations 


Quid loquor aerio pendentes fornice rivos, 

qua vix imbriferas tolleret Iris aquas? 
hos potius dicas crevisse in sidera montes; 

lale giganteum Graecia laudet opus. 

Rutil. de Red. i. 97-100. 

Tot aquarum tarn multis necessariis molibus pyramidas 
videlicet otiosas conpares aut cetera inertia sed fama cele- 
brata opera Graecorum? 

Frontin. de Aquis i. 16. 

Quod si quis diligenlius aestimaverit aquarum abundan- 
tiam in publico, balineis, piscinis, domibus, euripis, hor- 
tis suburbanis, villis, spatioque advenientis exstructos 
arcus, montes perfossos, convalles aequatas, fatebitur ni- 
hil magis mirandum fuisse in toto orbe terrarum. 

Plin. N. H. xxxvi. 12,S. 


Basilica Aemilia and Julia 

Paulus in medio foro basilicam iam paene refecit isdem 
antiquis columnis, illam autem, quam locavit, facit mag- 
nificentissimam. Quid quaeris? Nihil gratius illo monu- 
mento, nihil gloriosius. Cic. ad Att. iv. 17, 7. 

At laterum passus hinc lulia tecta tuentur, 
illinc belligeri sublimis regia Pauli. 

Stat. Silv. i. 1, 29-30. 

1 The aqueducts of ancient Rome are properly regarded as one of its distitictivc 
features. The fipst one was built in 312 B. C. and their numbers increased until the third 
century A. D, when we find at least eleven given conspicuous mention. The sources for 
the supply of water were found in springs in the region about Rome. Our chief Latin 
authority on the subject is Sextus Julius Frontinus who was superintendent of the aque- 
ducts in 97 A. D. See also Vitruv. viii. 

^ Rome possessed several basilicas, large public buildings for meetings of various sfirts 
and for holding court. Among the most famous was that builtin 179 B. C. by a member of 
the Aemilian lamilyi Aemilius Lepidus, and his colleague in office, Marcus Fulvius No- 
hilior. This structure was frequently restored and beautified. Paulus is a descendant of 
the distinguished family who first built it and in thus keeping it in repair follows a tradi- 
tioi^l custom (Tac. Ann. iii. 72), Among the most famous basilicas in Rome were the 
Ulpia, the JuHa, and that of Constantine. 

of Places in Italy 311 

Why tell of thine aerial aqueducts 
Lofty as Iris could uprear her bow? 
Say rather mountains lifted to the heavens! 
Let Greece of such a work of giants boast, 
If boast she can! 

G. F. Savage-Armstrong 

Will anybody compare the idle Pyramids, or those other 
useless though renowned works of the Greeks with these 
aqueducts, with these many indispensable structures? 

Clemens Herschel 

But if anyone will note the abundance of water skil- 
fully brought into the city, for public uses, for baths, for 
public basins, for houses, runnels, suburban gardens, and 
villas; if he will note the high aqueducts required for main- 
taining the proper elevation; the mountains which had to 
be' pierced for the same reason and the valleys it was 
necessary to fill up; he will conclude that the whole terres- 
trial orb offers nothing more marvellous. 

Clemens Herschel 

A Member of a Famous Family Restores the Basilica 


Paulus has almost brought his basilica^ in the Forum to 
the roof, using the same columns as were in the ancient 
building: the part for which he gave out a contract he is 
building on the most magnificent scale. Need I say more? 
Nothing could be more gratifying or more to his glory than 
such a monument. 

E. S. Shvckburgh 

Upon his broad flanks [an equestrian statue of Domi- 
tian] from this side the Julian halls, from that the proud 
Basilica of warlike Paulus looks down. 

D. A. Slater 

312 Classical Associations 

Descenderam in basilicam luliam auditurus, quibus 
proxima comperendinatione respondere debebam. Sede- 
bant iudices, decemviri venerant, obversabantur advocati, 
silentium longum, tandem a praetore nuntius. Dimit- 
tuntur centumviri, eximitur dies me gaudente, qui num- 
quam ita paratus sum, ut non mora laeter. 

Plin. Ep. V. 9. 


Peream, si est tarn necessarium quam videtur silentium 
in studia seposito. Ecce undique me varius clamor cir- 
cumsonat. Supra ipsum balneum habito. Propone nunc 
tibi omnia genera vocum, quae in odium possunt aures ad- 
ducere: cum fortiores exercentur et manus plumbo graves 
iactant, cum aut laborant aut laborantem imitantur, 
gemitus audio, quotiens retentum spiritum remiserunt, 
sibilos et acerbissimas respirationes; cum in aliquem iner- 
tem et hac plebeia unctione contentum incidi, audio crepi- 
tum inlisae manus umeris, quae prout plana pervenit aut 
concava, ita sonum mutat. Si vero pilicrepus supervenit 
et numerare coepit pilas, actum est. Adde nunc scorda- 
lum et furem deprensum et ilium, cui vox sua in balineo 
placet. Adice nunc eos, qui in piscinam cum ingenti in- 
pulsae aquae sono saliunt. Praeter istos, quorum, si nihil 
aliud, rectae voces sunt, alipilum cogita tenuem et stridu- 
1am vocem, quo sit notabilior, subinde expriraentem nee 
umquam tacentem, nisi dum vellit alas et alium pro se 
clamare cogit. lam libarii varias exclamationes et botula- 

3 Pliny the younger, who was an eminent lawyer as well as a writer. 

4 The interruption was caused by a notice from the praetor to the effect that the edict 
against offering any fee to an advocate would be strictly enforced, all persons having a 
suit in prospect being obliged to swear that they had not engaged to pay any such fee. 
But Pliny adds that a gratuity of ten thousand sesterces is permitted to be given after 
the case is concluded. 

6 Thegreat public baths of Rome played an important part in the life of the city, espe- 
cially in imperial times. They were more than bathing places — in fact they served quite 
as much as a club-house for the man of leisure and as a place for gossip and recreation in 
general. Their numbers increased rapidly and in the fourth century A. D. there are said 
to have been nearly one thousand (including the smaller ones). Conspicuous for size and 
splendor were those of Caracalla and Diocletian. 

6 Seneca the younger. 

of Places in Italy 313 

An Unexpected Dismissal of Court DeUghts the Judge 

P went into the Julian Basilica to attend a cause in 
which at the next sitting I was to reply. The jurors had 
taken their seats, the presiding magistrates were arrived, 
the opposing counsel had taken their places; after a long 
pause, came at last a messenger from the Praetor. The 
Court broke up at once, and the case was adjourned — 
much to my delight, who am never so well prepared, but 
that I am glad of delay.* 

William Melmoth 

The Noises of a Roman Bath^ 

Beshrew me if I« think anything more requisite than 
silence for a man who secludes himself in order to study! 
Imagine what a variety of noises reverberates about my 
ears ! I have lodgings right over a bathing establishment. 
So picture to yourself the assortment of sounds, which are 
strong enough to make me hate my very powers of hearing ! 
When your strenuous gentleriian, for example, is exercis- 
ing himself by flourishing leaden weights; when he is work- 
ing hard, or else pretends to be working hard, I can hear 
him grunt; and whenever he releases his imprisoned breath, 
I can hear him panting in wheezy and high-pitched tones. 
Or perhaps I notice some lazy fellow, content with a cheap 
rub-down, and hear the crack of the pummeling hand on 
his shoulder, varying in sound according as the hand is 
laid on flat or hollow. Then, perhaps, a professional 
comes along, shouting out the score; that is the finishing 
touch. Add to this the arresting of an occasional roysterer 
or pickpocket, the racket of the man who always likes to 
hear his own voice in the bathroom, or the enthusiast who 
plunges into the swimming tank with unconscionable 
noise and splashing. Besides all those whose voices, if 
nothing else, are good, imagine the hair-plucker with his 
penetrating, shrill voice, — for purposes of advertisement,- 
continually giving it vent and never holding his tongue 
except when he is plucking the armpits and making his 
victim yell instead. Then the cake-seller with his varied 

314 Classical Associations 

rium et crustularium et omnes popinarum institores mer- 
cem sua quadam et in'signita modulatione vendentis. 

Sen. Ep. Ivi. 1-2. 

At nunc quis est, qui sic lavari sustineat? Pauper sibi 
videtur et sordidus, nisi parietes magnis et pretiosis orbibus 
refulserunt, nisi Alexandrina marmora Numidicis crustis 
distincta sunt, nisi illis undique operosa et in picturae mo- 
dum variata circumlitio praetexitur, nisi vitro absconditur 
camera, nisi Thasius lapis, quondam rarum in aliquo 
spectaculum templo, piscinas nostras circumdedit, in quas 
multa sudatione corpora exsaniata demittimus, nisi aquam 
argentea epitonia fuderunt. Et adhuc plebeias fistulas 
loquor: quid, cum ad balnea libertinorum pervenero? 
Quantum statuarum, quantum columnarum est nihil sus- 
tinentiurh, sed in ornamentum positarum inpensae causa! 
Quantum aquarum per gradus cum fragore labentium! 
Eo deliciarurfi pervenimus, ut nisigemmascalcarenolimus. 

Sen. Ep. Ixxxvi. 6-7. 


MuLviAN Bridge 

Itaque hesterno die L. Flaccum et C. Pomptinum prae- 
tores, fortissimos atque amantissimos rei publicae viros, 
ad me vocavi, rem exposui, quid fieri placeret, ostendi. 
lUi autem, qui omnia de re publica praeclara atque egregia 
sentirent, sine recusatione ac sine ulla mora negotium sus- 
ceperunt et, cum advesperasceret, occulte ad pontem Mul- 

, 7 See the topic Liternum. 
8 In 63 B. C. Cicero, as consul, succeeds in obtaining definite evidence against C'tti- 
line and his followers who have formed a conspiracy against the government. 

of Places in Italy 315 

cries, the sausageman, the confectioner, and all the ven- 
dors of food huwking their wares, each with his own dis- 
tinctive intonation. 


A Roman Describes the Luxurious Baths of His Day 

But who in these days could bear to bathe in such a 
fashion?' We think ourselves poor and mean if our walls 
are not resplendent with rare and costly mirrors; if our 
marbles from Alexandria are not set off by mosaics of Nu- 
midian stone, if their borders are not faced over on all sides 
with difficult patterns, arranged in many colors like paint- 
ings; if our vaulted ceilings are not embedded in glass; if 
our swimming-pools are not lined with Thasian marble, 
once a rare and wonderful sight in any temple — pools into 
which we let down our bodies after they have been drained 
weak by abundant perspiration; and finalh', if the water 
has not poured from silver spigots. I have so far been 
speaking of the ordinary bathing establishments; what 
shall I say when I come to those of the freedmen? What a 
vast number of statues, of columns that support nothing, 
but are built for decoration, merely in order to spend 
money ! And what masses of water that fall crashing from 
level to level! We have become so luxurious that we will 
have nothing but precious stones to walk upon. 


Cicero Secures Tangible Evidence Against Certain Radi- 
cals Who Have Conspired to Overthrow the 
Roman Government* 

Yesterday, therefore, I summoned the praetors, Lucius 
Flaccus and Caius Pomptinus. These men are the 
bravest of the brave, and the welfare of the Republic is 
the one thing nearest their hearts. I laid the plan before 
them, and told them plainly what line of action I had 
resolved upon. They, who feel deeply for everything 
that concerns the best interests of the state, without 
hesitation and without the least delay, took the matter 
up, and towards evening went secretly to the Mulvian 

316 Classical Associations 

vium pervenerunt atque ibi in proximis villis ita bipertito 
fuerunt, ut Tiberis inter eos et pons interesset. Eodem 
autem et ipsi sine cuiusquam suspicione multos fortes vires 
eduxerant, et ego ex praefectura Reatina complures delec- 
tos adulescentes, quorum operi utor adsidue in rei publicae 
praesidio, cum gladiis miseram. Interim tertia fere vigilia 
exacta cum iam pontem Mulvium magno comitatu legati 
Allobrogum ingfedi inciperent unaque Volturcius, fit in eos 
impetus; educuntur et ab illis gladii et a nostris. . Res 
praetoribus erat nota solis, ignorabatur a ceteris. Turn 
interventu Pomptini atque Flacci pugna, quae erat com- 
missa, sedatur. Litterae, quaecumque erant in eo comita- 
tu, integris signis praetoribus traduntur; ipsi comprehensi 
ad me, cum iam dilucesceret, deducuntur. 

Cic. in Cat. iii. 3. 

Huius ergo opem implorare coepit, orans atque obse- 
crans ut se ipsi noscendum praeberet, ac praesentibus 
negotiis adiutricem manum porrigeret. Haec praecanti 
ac suppliciter postulanti imperatori, admirabile quoddam 
signum a Deo missum apparuit. Quod si quidem ab alio 
quopiam diceretur,haud facile auditores fidem essent habi- 
turi. Verum cum ipse victor Augustus nobis qui hanc 
historiam scribimus, longo post tempore, cum videlicet in 
eius notitiam et familiaritatem pervenimus, id rettulerit, 
et sermonem sacramenti religione firmaverit, quis posthac 
fidem huic narrationi adhibere dubitabit? Praesertim 
cum id quod subsecutum est tempus, sermonis huius veri- 
tatem testimonio suo confirmaverit. Horis diei meridi- 
anis, sole in occasum vergente, crucis tropaeum in coelo 
ex luce conflatum, soli superpositum, ipsis oculis se vidisse 
aflSrmavit, cum huiusmodi inscriptione : "Hac Vince." 

9 Constantine the Great who in 312 A. D. fought a successful battle with Maxentius 
near the Mulvian bridge. It is saidthat in this contest the Christian standard was first 
carried in the Roman army along with the Roman ones. For the battle, see Eusebius, 
Life of Constantine, i. 38. 

of Places in Italy 317 

bridge, and there in the nearest villas stationed them- 
selves, one in one place and one in another, so that the 
Tiber and the bridge separated them. But they had, 
moreover, taken along with them to the same place, 
without anyone's having the least suspicion of why he 
was going, a number of fearless men; and I had sent from 
the prefecture of Reate a group of specially chosen young 
men, armed with swords, whose assistance I constantly 
employ for the protection of the state. In the meantime, 
about three in the morning, when the ambassadors 
of the Allobroges with a great retinue, and with them, 
Volturcius, began to come upon the bridge, an attack is 
made upon them. Swords are flashed both by the Allo- 
broges and by our soldiers. The significance of the affair 
was understood only by the praetors: the others were 
completely in the dark. 

Then by the intervention of Pomptinus and Flaccus, 
the fight which had begun was settled. All the letters 
found among the members of the retinue are delivered to 
the praetors with seals unbroken; the legates themselves 
are arrested and brought to me. at daybreak. 


A Famous Story About the Conversion of an Emperor 
to Christianity 

And so he° began to beg Him for help, beseeching Him 
earnestly to reveal Himself, and stretch forth His hand to 
assist him in his present difficulties. And while he was 
praying and fervently entreating, a marvellous sign given 
to him by God, appeared before the eyes of the emperor. 
It might indeed have been difficult to give credence to the 
story if it had been told by any other person. But since 
the victorious emperor himself related it a long time after- 
wards to the writer of this history, when he came to know 
him intimately, and since he confirmed his statement by 
an oath, who can henceforth doubt its truth, especially 
since later testimony has established the facts? He said 
that about noon when the sun was beginning to decline, 
he saw with his own eyes, in the sky, a trophy of a cross of 
light above the sun, bearing these words: "Conquer by 

318 Classical Associations 

Eo viso et seipsum et milites omnes qui ipsum nescio quo 
iter facientem sequebantur, et qui spectatores miraculi 
fuerant, vehementer obstupefactos. 

Euseb. Vita Constantini, i. 28. 
(Latin version from Migne's Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 20.) 

SuBLiciAN Bridge 

Cum hostes adessent, pro se quisque in urbem ex agris 
demigrant, urbem ipsam saepiunt praesidiis. Alia muris, 
alia Tiberi obiecto videbantur tuta; pons sublicius iter 
paene hostibus dedit, ni unus vir fuisset, Horatius Codes: 
id munimentum illo die fortuna urbis Romanae habuit. 
Qui positus forte in statione pontis, cum captum repentino 
impetu laniculum atque inde citatos decurrere hostes vi- 
disset trepidamque turbam suorum arma ordinesque relin- 
quere, reprehensans singulos, obsistens obtestansque deum 
et hominum fidem testabatur nequiquam deserto praesidio 
eos fugere; si transitum pontem a tergo reliquissent, iani 
plus hostium in Palatio Capitolioque quam in laniculo 
fore. Itaque monere, praedicere, ut pontem ferro, igni, 
quacumque vi possint, interrumpant; se impetufn hostium, 
quantum corpore uno posset obsisti, excepturum. 

Vadit inde in primum aditum pontis, insignisque inter 
conspecta cedentium pugnae terga obversis comminus ad 
ineundum proelium armis ipso miraculo audaciae obstupe- 
fecit hostis. Duos tamen cum eo pudor tenuit, Sp. Lar- 
cium ac T. Herminium, ambos claros genere factisque. 
Cum his primam periculi procellam et quod tumultuosis- 
simum pugnae erat parumper sustinuit; deinde eos quoque 
ipsos exigua parte pontis relicta, revocantibus qui rescin- 
debant, cedere in tutum coegit. Circumferens inde truces 

of Places in Italy 319 

this." He was struck with astonishment by the sight as 
were all the soldiers who were making some expedition 
with him and had seen the miracle. 

Horatius Holds the Bridge'" 

When the enemy appeared, the Romans all, with one 
accord, withdrew from their fields into the City, which 
they surrounded with guards. Some parts appeared to be 
rendered safe by their walls, others by the barrier formed 
by the river Tiber. The bridge of piles almost afforded 
an entrance to the enemy, had it not been for one man, 
Horatius Codes: he was the bulwark of defense on which 
that day depended the fortune of the City of Rome. He 
chanced to be on guard at the bridge when Janiculum was 
captured by a sudden attack of the enemy. He saw them 
as they charged down on the run from Janiculum, while 
his own people behaved like a frightened mob, throwing 
away their arms and quitting their ranks. Catching hold 
first of one and then of another, blocking their way and 
conjuring them to listen, he called on gods and men to wit- 
ness that if they forsook their post it was vain to flee; once 
they had left a passage in their rear by the bridge, there 
would soon be more of the enemy on the Palatine and the 
Capitol than on Janiculum. He therefore warned and 
commanded them to break down the bridge with steel, 
with fire, with any instrument at their disposal; and prom- 
ised that he would himself receive the onset of the enemy, 
so far as it could be withstood by a single body. Then, 
striding to the head of the bridge, conspicuous amongst 
the fugitives who were clearly seen to be shirking the fight, 
he covered himself with his sword and buckler and made 
ready to do battle at close quarters, confounding the Etrus- 
cans with amazement at his audacity. Yet were there two 
who were prevented by shame from leaving him. These 
were Spurius Larcius and Titus Herminius, both famous 
for their birth and their deeds. With these he endured 
the peril of the first rush and the stormiest moment of the 
battle. But after a while he forced even these two to leave 
him and save themselves, for there was scarcely anything 

10 A story in connection with Rome's early struggle with the Etruscans who, under the 
ieadership of Porsena, have come to capture Rome. 

320 Classical Associations 

minaciter oculos ad proceres Etruscorum nunc singulos 
provocare, nunc increpare omnes; servitia regum super- 
borum, suae libertatis inmemores alienam oppugnatum 

Cunctati aliquamdiu sunt, dum alius alium, ut proelium 
incipiant, circumspectant. Pudor deinde commovit aciem, 
et clamore sublato undique in unum hostem tela coniciunt. 
Quae cum in obiecto cuncta scuto haesissent, neque ille 
minus obstinatus ingenti pontem obtineret gradu, iam 
impetu conabantur detrudere virum, cum simul fragor 
rupti pontis, simul clamor Romanorum alacritate perfect! 
operis sublatus, pavore subito impetum sustinuit. Turn 
Codes "Tiberine pater" inquit,"te sancte precor, haec arma 
et hunc militem propitio flumine accipias." Ita sicut erat 
armatus in Tiberim desiluit multisque superincidentibus 
talis incolumis ad suos tranavit rem ausus plus famae habi- 
turam ad posteros quam fidei. 

Grata erga tantam virtutem civitas fuit: statua in com- 
itio posita; agri quantum uno die circumaravit datum. 
Privata quoque inter publicos honores studia eminebant; 
nam in magna inopia pro domesticis copiis unusquisque 
aliquid fraudans se ipse victu suo contulit. 

Liv. ii. 10. 


Nonne vides, cum praecipiti certamine campum 
coTripuere, ruuntque effusi carcere currus, 
cum ^pes arrectae iuvenum, exsultantiaque haurit 
corda pavor pulsans? illi instant verbere torto 
et proni dant lora, volat vi fervidus axis ; 
iamque humiles, iamque elati sublime videntur 

' 'f te:citcus>4s a char.actsfistic feature of Roman life from the earliest times to the 
sixth c^ritury A. D. The valley between the Palatine and the Aventine was first chosen 
as the-s6ene for the spectacles, and it was here that the Circus Maximus was built, a huge 
structure accommodating perhaps 200,000 spectators and one of the most magnificent 
buildings in Rome. Many other structures were erected later, chief of which, perhaps, 
was the Circus Flaminius. 

of Places in Italy 321 

left of the bridge, and those who were cutting it down 
called to them to come back. Then, darting glances of 
defiance around at the Etruscan nobles, he now challenged 
them in turn to fight, now railed at them collectively as 
slaves of haughty kings, who, heedless of their own liberty, 
were come to overthrow the liberty of others. They hesi- 
tated for a moment, each looking to his neighbour to begin 
the fight. Then shame made them attack, and with a 
shout they cast their javelins from every side against their 
solitary foe. But he caught them all upon his shield, and, 
resolute as ever, bestrode the bridge and held his ground. 
And now they were trying to dislodge him by a charge, 
when the crash of the falling bridge and the cheer which 
burst from the throats of the Romans, exalting in the com- 
pletion of their task, checked them in mid-career with a 
sudden dismay. Then Codes cried, "0 Father Tiberinus, 
I solemnly invoke thee; receive these arms and this soldier 
with propitious stream !" So praying, all armed as he was, 
he leaped down into the river, and under a shower of mis- 
siles swam acrcss unhurt to his fellows, having given a 
proof of valour which was destined to obtain more fame 
than credence with posterity. 

The state was grateful for so brave a deed: a statue of 
Codes was set up in the comitium, and he was given'as 
much land as he could plough around in one day. Private 
citizens showed their gratitude in a striking fashion in 
the midst of his official honours; for notwithstanding their 
great distress everybody made him some gift proportionate 
to his meanSj though he robbed himself of his own ration. 

B: O. Foster 

A Chariot Race 

Who has not seen 
In what imjaetuous contest o'er the plain 
The rival chariots from the barrier pour. 
While kindling hopes the charioteers impel, - 
And throbs of fear each eager heart possess? 
Along the twisted lash they forward lean 
And fling free rein; on speeds the burning wbeel; 
Now plunging low, now leaping to the sky, 

322 Classical Associations 

aera per vacuum ferri atque adsuigere in auras; 
nee mora nee requies; at fulvae nimbus harenae 
tollitur, umescunt spumis flatuque sequentum: 
tantus amor laudum, tantae est vietoria eurae. 

Vir. Georg. iii. 103-112. 

Frangat Idumaeas tristis Victoria palmas, 

plange, Favor, saeva pectora nuda manu; 
mutet Honor cultus, et iniquis munera flammis 

mitte coronatas, Gloria maesta, comas, 
heu f acinus! prima fraudatus, Scorpe, iuventa 

oecidis et nigros tam eito iungis equos. 
curribus ilia tuis semper properata brevisque 

cur fuit et vitae tam prope meta tuae? 

Mart. X. 50. 

Non ego nobilium sedeo studiosus equorum: 

cui tamen ipsa faves, vineat ut ille, precor. 
ut loquerer tecum, veni, tecumque sederem, 

ne tibi non notus, quem facis, esset amor, 
tu cursus speetas, ego te: spectemus uterque, 

quod iuvat, atque oculos pascat uterque suos! 
0, cuicumque faves, felix agitator equorum ! 

ergo illi eurae contigit esse tuae? 
hoc mihi eontingat, sacro de carcere missis 

insistam forti mente vehendus equis 
et modo lora dabo, modo verbere terga notabo, 

nunc stringam metas interiore rota, 
si mihi currenti fueris conspecta, morabor, 

deque meis manibus lora remissa fluent. ^ 

quid f rustra ref ugis? cogit nos linea iungi : 
haec in lege loci commoda circus habet. 

tu tamen, a dextra quicumque es, parce puellae: 
eontactu lateris laeditur ista tui. 

of Places in Italy 323 

Through vacant air the wild yoke seems to rise 

Or on the winds to soar; nor stop nor stay; 

Up rolls the yellow dust; their smoking flanks 

Reek with hot foam-flakes and the followers' breath. 

So dear to them is praise, and victory 

So worth the pains! 

T. C. Williams 

Death of a Charioteer 

Let Victory, sorrowing, cast her palm away, 
Let Favor beat her breast and wail the day, 
Let Honor don the mourner's dark attire. 
And Glory fling her wreath upon the pyre. 
Snatched in his prime, Scorpus, sad thought! must go 
To yoke night's horses in the realm below. 
Swift flew the chariot, soon the goal was won, 
Another race thou hast too quickly run. 

GoLDWiN Smith 

A Flirtation in the Circus 

I sit not here because I am fond of high-bred horses; 
yet, the one you favor, I pray may win. To talk with you 
I came, and to sit with you, so that you might not miss 
knowing the love you stir. You gaze on the races; I on 
you; let us both gaze on what delights, both feast our own 

O, happy driver, who'er he be, that wins your favor! 
Ah, so 'twas he had the fortune to enlist your concern? 
Be that fortune mine, and when my coursers dash from 
the starting-chamber, with fearless heart will I tread the 
car and urge them on, now giving the rein, now striping 
their backs with the lash, now grazing the turning-post 
with inner wheel. Have I caught sight of you as I career, 
I will stop, and the reins, let froin my hands, will drop. 

Why draw back from me? — 'twill do no good; the 
line compels us to sit close. This advantage the circus 
gives, with its rule of space — yet you there on the right, 
whoever you are, have a care; your pressing against my 

324 Classical Associations 

tu quoque, qui spectas post nos, tuacontrahe crura, 
si pudor est, rigido nee preme terga genu! 

sed nimium demissa iacent tibi pallia terra; 

i coUige! vel digitis en ego tollo meis. 

invida vestis eras, quae tam bona crura tegebas; 
quoque magis spectes — invida vestis eras. 

vis tamen interea faciles arcessere ventos? 

quos faciei nostra mota tabella manu. 
an magis hie meus est animi, non aeris aestus, 

captaque femineus pectora torret amor? 
dum loquor, alba levi sparsast tibi pulvere vestis: 

sordide de niveo corpore pulvis abi! 

sed pendent tibi crura: potes, si forte iuvabit, 

cancellis primos inseruisse pedes, 
maxima iam vacuo praetor spectacula circo 

quadriiugos aequo carcere misit equos. 
cui studeas, video; vincet, cuicumque favebis': 

quid cupias, ipsi scire videntur equi. 
me miserum! metam spatioso circuit orbe. 

quid facis? admoto proxumus axe subit. 
quid facis, infelix? perdis bona vota puellae: 

tende, precor, valida lora sinistra manu ! 
favimus ignavo; sed enim reVocate, Quirites, 

et date iaCtatis undique signa togis ! 
eri,"revbcant! at, ne turbet toga mota capillos, 

in nostros abdas te licet usque sinus, 
iamque patent iterum reserato carcere postes: 

evolat admissis discolor agmen equis. 
nunc saltem supera spatioque insurge patenti: 

sint mea, sint dominae fac rata vota meae ! 
sunt dominae rata vota meae, mea vota supersunt; 

ille tenet palmam: palma petenda meast. 
risit et argutis quiddam promisit ocellis : 

hie satis est; alio cetera redde loco! 

Ov. Amor. iii. 2, 1-14; 19-28; 37-42; 63-84. 

of Places in Italy 325 

lady's side annoys. You, too^ wlio are looking on from 
behind, draw up your legs, if you care for decency, and 
press not her back with your hard knee ! 

But your cloak is let fall too far, and is trailing on the 
ground. Gather it up — or look, with my own fingers I'll 
get it up. Envious wrap you were, to cover such pretty 

Would you like, while we wait, to bid soft breezes 
blow? I'll take the fan in my hand and start them. 
Or is this rather the heat of my heart and not of the air, 
and does love for a woman burn my ravished breast? 
While I am talking, a sprinkling of light dust has got on 
your white dress. Vile dust, away from this snowy body! 

But your feet are dangling! If you like you can 
stick your toes in the grating. The circus is clear now 
for the greatest p«irt of the shows, and the praetor has 
started the four-horse cars from the equal barrier. I see 
the one you are eager for. He will win if he has your favor, 
whoever he be. What you desire the very horses seem to 
know! Ah, miserable me, he has circled the post in a 
wide curve! What are you doing? The next hugs close 
with his axle and gains on you. What are you doing, 
wretch? You will lose my love the prayer of hef heart. 
Pull, I entreat, the left rein with all your might! We are 
favoring a good-for-naught — but call them back, Quirites, 
and toss your togas in signal from every side! See, they 
call them back! — but for fear a waving toga spoil your 
hair, come, you may hide your head in the folds of my 

And now the starting-chambers are unbarred again, and 
the gates are open wide; the many-coloured rout comes 
flying forth with reins let loose to their steeds. This time, 
at least, get past them, and bend to your work on the open 
space! See that you fulfil my vows, and my lady-love's! 

Fulfilled are my lady's vows but my vows remain. Yon 
charioteer has received his palm; my palm is yet to be won. 

She smiled, and with speaking eyes promised — I know 
not what. That is enough for here — in some other place 
render the rest! 

Grant Showerman 

326 Classical Associations 


Barbara pyramidum sileat miracula Memphis, 

Assyrius iactet nee Babylona labor; 
nee Triviae templo molles laudentur lones, 

dissimulet Delon cornibus ara frequens; 
acre nee vacuo pendentia Mausolea 

laudibus immodicis Cares in astra ferant. 
omnis Caesareo cedit labor amphitheatre, 

unum pro cunctis fama loquetur opus. 

Mart, de Spect. i. 

Hie ubi sidereus propius videt astra colossus 

et crescunt media pegmata celsa via, 
invidiosa feri radiabant atria regis 

unaque iam tota stabat in urbe domus. 
hie ubi conspicui venerabilis amphitheatri 

erigitur moles, stagna Neronis erant. 
hie ubi miramur velocia munera thermas, 

abstulerat miseris tecta superbus ager. 
Claudia diffusas ubi porticus explicat umbras, 

ultima pars aulae deficientis erat. 
reddita Roma sibi est et sunt te praeside, Caesar, 

deliciae populi, quae fuerant domini. 

Mart, de Spect. ii. 

Admirans . . . . amphitheatri molem solidatam 
lapidis Tiburtini compage, ad cuius summitatem aegre 
visio humana conscendit. 

Ammian. Marcel, xvi. 10, 14. 

1 Gladiatorial combats and fights with wild beasts formed one of the diversions of the 
Romans from about 264 B. C. In the beginning these games were held in the Forum, 
but later several amphitheatres were erected for the purpose, the most famous being the 
Colosseum — a huge structure built by the emperor Vespasian on ground once belonging 
to Nero's Golden House. In 80 A. D. Titus completed and dedicated the building. 
Although frequently damaged by fire and earthquake, it continued to stand compara- 
tively unharmed until the sixth century. At this time depredations began, chiefly 
because of the fact that the travertine of which it was constructed afforded convenient 
material for the building of the Roman palaces. 

2 A colossal statue of the emperor Nero. Vespasian made it over into a statue of the 
sun-god and surrounded the head with glittering rays. Martial (Ep. i. 70), again speaks of 

» Hot baths built by the emperor Titus. 
* The emperor Domitian. 

^ The emperor Constantius the Second on the occasion of a visit to Rome in the fourth 
century A. D. 

oj Places in Italy -^Z? 

In Praise of the Colosseum' 

Let not barbaric Memphis tell of the wonder of her Pyra- 
mids, nor Assyrian toil vaunt its Babylon; let not the soft 
lonians be extolled for Trivia's fane; let the altar wrought 
of many horns keep hid its Delos; let not Carians exalt to 
the skies with boundless praise the Mausoleum poised on 
empty air. All labour yields to Caesar 's Amphitheatre: 
one work in place of all shall Fame rehearse. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

An Emperor's Domain Given to the People 

Here where, rayed with stars, the Colossus^ views heaven 
anear, and in the middle way tall scaffolds rise, hatefully 
gleamed the palace of a savage king, and but a single house 
then stood in all the City. Here where the far-seen Am- 
phitheatre lifts its mass august, was Nero's mere. Here 
where we admire the-warm-baths,' a gift swiftly wrought, 
a proud domain had robbed their dwellings from the poor. 
Where the Claudian Colonnade extends its 'outspread 
shade the Palace ended in its furthest part. Rome has 
been restored to herself, and under thy governance, Cae- 
sar,'' that is now the delight of a people which was once a 

Walter C. A. Ker 

Admiring-' .... the \ast mass of the amphi- 
theatre so solidly erected of Tiburtine stone, to the top of 
which huhian vision can scarcely reach. 


328 Classical Associations 

Casu in meridianum spectacuLum incidi lusus exspec- 
tans et sales et aliquid laxamenti, quo hominum oculi ab 
humano cruore adquiescant: contra est. Quicquid ante 
pugnatum est, misericordia fuit. Nunc omissis nugis mera 
homicidia sunt. Nihil habent quo tegantur. Ad ictum 
totis corporibus expositi numquam frustra manum mit- 

tunt Mane leonibus et ursis homines, meridie 

spectatoribus suis obiciuntur. Interfectores interfecturis 
iubent obici et victorem in aliam detinent caedem: exitus 
pugnantium mors est. Ferro et igne res geritur. Haec 
fiunt, dum vacat arena. Sed latrocinium, fecit aliquis: 
quid ergo meruit, ut suspendatur? "Occidit hominem." 
Quia occidit ille, meruit ut hoc pateretur: tu quid meruisti 
miser, ut hoc spectes? 

Sen. Ep. vii. 3-5. 


Forum of Augustus 

Publica opera plurima exstruxit, e quibus vel praecipua: 
forum cum aede Martis Ultoris, templum ApoUinis in 
Palatino, aedem Tonantis lovis in Capitolio. Fori ex- 
struendi causa fuit hominum et iudiciorum multitude, 
quae videbantur non sufficientibus duobus etiam tertio 
indigere; itaque festinatius necdum perfecta Martis aede 
publicatum est cautumque, ut separatim in eo publica 
iudicia et sortitiones iudicum fierent. Aedem Martis 
belle Philippensi, pro ultione paterna suscepto, voverat; 
sanxit ergo, ut de bellis triumphisque hie consuleretur 
senatus, provincias cum imperio petituri hinc deduceren- 

6 Seneca, the philosopher and man of affairs in Nero's reign, deplores the cruelty of 
the gladiatorial eMibitions. This passage is quoted not because these games actually 
occurred in the Colosseum (not then built) but as a picture of what must have taken place 
many times in this and similar buildings. For Cicero's aversion to such sights, see ad. 
Fam. vii.l. 

7 The emperor Augustus. 

8 For a dramatic account of the scene, see Ovid. Fast. v. 57 1-578. This temple was 
finally dedicated in 2 B. C. Pliny (N. H. xxxvi. 102) says that this Forum togethe;" with the 
temple of Peace in the Forum of Vespasian were the two most beautiful works in exis- 
tence. The many honorary statues set up for its adornment are referred to by Juvenal 
{i. 129-130) and other writers. 

oj Places in Italy 329 

A Cultivated Roman Abhors the Games 

By chance P attended a mid-day exhibition, expecting 
some fun, wit, and relaxation, — an exhibition at which 
men's eyes have respite from the slaughter of their fellow- 
men. But it was quite the reverse. The previous com- 
bats were the essence of compassion; but now all the 
trifling is put aside and it is pure murder. The men have 
no defensive armour. They are exposed to blows at all 

points, and no one ever strikes in vain 

. . . . In the morning they throw men to the lions 
and bears; at noon, they throw them to the spectators. 
The spectators demand that the slayer shall face the man 
who is to slay him in his turn; and they always reserve the 
latest conqueror for another butchering. The outcome 
of every fight is death, and the means are fire and sword. 
This sort of thing goes on while the arena is empty. You 
may retort: "But he was a highway robber; he killed a 
man!" And what of it? Granted that, as a murderer, 
he deserved this punishment, what crime have you com- 
mitted, poor fellow, that you should deserve to sit and see 
this show? 


Why the Forum was Built 

He" built many public works, in particular the follow- 
ing: his forum with the temple of Mars the Avenger, the 
temple of Apollo on the Palatine, and the fane of Jupiter 
the Thunderer on the Capitol. His reason for building 
the forum was the increase in the number of the people and 
of cases at law, which seemed to call for a third forum, 
since two were no longer adequate. Therefore it was 
opened to the public with some haste, before the temple of 
Mars was finished, and it was provided that the public 
prosecutions be held there apart from the rest, as well as 
the selection of jurors by lot. He had made a vow'* to 
build the temple of Mars in the war of Philippi, which he 
undertook to avenge his father; accordingly he decreed 
that in it the senate should consider wars and claims for 
triumphs, from it those who were on their way to the 

330 Classical Associations 

tur, quique victores redissent, hue insignia triumphorum 

Suet. Aug. 29. 

Ultor ad ipse suos coelo descendit honores 

templaque in Augusto conspicienda Foro. 
at deus est ingens, et opus: debebat in Urbe 

non aliter nati Mars habitare sui. 
digna Giganteis haec sunt delubra tropaeis; 

hinc fera Gradivum bella movere decet: 
seu quis ab Eoo nos impius orbe lacesset, 

seu quis ab occiduo sole domandus erit. 

Ov. Fast. V. 551-558. 

Forum Julium 

Tds fih d'fj ovv aXKas twv VLKrjTrip'LCOv fifiipas'iljs ttov ivtvbfitaTO 
Siriyaye' rfj Si reXfiraia eiret^ij tK roO Selirvov ty'tvovro, h re 
Trjv eavTOv ayopav icfjXdi ^Xavras viroSideiJikvos Kai avdtai 
wavTodairoLs ((TTe<pavo:iJikvos, Kal eKtidev o'UaSf wavTOS fiiv ws 
tiirtlv ToO Srjfiov irapa.wtp.TvovTOi aiiTOV, ttoXXcoi' St e\€<pa.VTUV 
XafiiraSas iftpbvTWV iKOfiiaOri. ttiv yap ayopav rriv air' ofiToD 
KtKkt]iJi(VT]v KanaKivacTO' Kal tcrrt jxev wtpLKaWfffTepa rrjs 

Dio Cass, xliii. 22, 1-2. 

' kvkcTrjat Kal rfj Fevereip^i top vt6iv, ibcnrep ei^aro ;ueXX&)v h 
$ap(raX£i) paxiiadai' Kal rkfitvos tQi veC^ irtpikBrjKtv, 8 "Pa)|tai- 
ois ira^iv ayopav tlvai, ov tO>v oivlwv, dXX' eTri irpa^eai avvi- 
ovTuv es dXXijXous, Kada Kai Hkpaais fjv rts ayopa fTjToOtrii' fj 
ixavdavovai to. SlKaLa. 

App. B. C. ii. 102. 

1 An appellation of Mars. 

2 This forunij built by Julius Caesar to relieve the pressure in the Roman Forum and 
to form a convenient means of access to the Campus Martius, was dedicated in 46 B. C. 

* Called the temple of Venus Genetrix. 

* In 48 B. C. Caesar defeated Pompey at this place. 

of Places in Italy 331 

provinces with military commands should be escorted, 
and to it victors on their return should bear the tokens of 
their triumphs. 


The Temple of Mars 

The Avenger himself comes down from heaven to his 
own honours, and to the temple conspicuous in the Forum 
of Augustus. Mighty is the god, and so is the work; and 
in no other fashion ought Mars to have his habitation in 
the city of his offspring. These shrines are worthy of the 
trophies won from the Giants; it becomes Gradivus,^ from 
this spot to give an impulse to the cruel warfare; whether 
it be that anyone shall assail us from the eastern world, 
or whether under the western sun, the enemy will have to 
be subdued. 

H. T. Riley 

Julius Caesar Enjoys His Triumph 

The first days of the triumph he passed as was custo- 
mary, but, on the last day, after they had finished dinner, 
he entered his own forum wearing slippers and garlanded 
with all kinds of flowers; thence he proceeded homeward 
with practically the entire populace escorting him, while 
many elephants carried torches. For he had himself con- 
structed the forum^ named after him, and it is distinctly 
more beautiful than the Roman Forum. 

Earnest Gary 

Why the Julian Forum was Built 

He erected the temple to Venus,' his ancestress, as he 
had vowed to do when he was about to begin the battle of 
Pharsalus,^ and he laid out the ground around the temple 
which he intended to be a forum for the Roman people, not 
for buying and selling, but a meeting place for the transac- 
tion of public business, like the public squares of the Per- 
sians where the people assemble to seek justice or to learn 
the laws. 

Horace White 






10 10 20 30 10 60 60 70 8(1 90 100 

F. — The Forum of the EMPraE 

Courtety of AUvn and Bat an 



334 Classical Associations 

The Roman Forum 

The spot known as the Roman Forum was in the begin- 
ning only a marshy valley between the Capitoline and 
Palatine Hills. After the union of the Romans and Sa- 
bines and during the days of the early kings, the district 
was drained and used as a market place, a spot adjoining 
it being set aside as a place of meeting and called the Comit- 
ium. Here a senate house was erected and a speaker's 
platform known as the Rostra. As time went on various 
buildings were constructed in and around it, temples, pub- 
lic halls, tribunals for the praetors, shrines, etc. and the 
spot came to serve as the center of the city's life. The 
markets and the shops were gradually removed and the 
place given up more and more to political ends. Through- 
out the centuries it has been the scene of innumerable cere- 
monies, bitter political quarrels, bloody encounters — in 
short, the setting for the great drama of Roman history. 
The' passages quoted below can only indicate in an 
inadequate way the wealth of material which is at hand 
for the student who wishes to reconstruct for himself from 
classical litej'ature the life of Rome as played upon the 
stage of the Roman Forum. 

Verbosi garrula bella fori. 

Ov. Trist. iii. 12, 18. 

Illic aera sonant. 

Mart. i. 76, 13. 

Insanumque forum. 

Vir. Georg. ii. 502. 

Forum in quo omnis aequitas continetur. 

Cic. in Cat. iv. 2. 

of Places in Italv 



The Rostra Restored 

Courtesy (ff Allyn and Bacon 

The garrulous warfare of the wordy Forum. 

H. T. Riley 

There money sounds. 

The mad Forum. 

The Forum in which all justice is centered. 

336 Classical Associations 

IlciXii' 5' el Tis ets Trjv ayopav irapeXOuv Tr\v apxaiav aXXijc (^ 
aXXjjs l8oi irapafie^Xriixtvriv TavTT[i Kal |3a(nXtKas aroas Kal caous, 
tSoi S^ Kai TO KaTTiTuiXiov Kal TO. ivTavda epya /cat rd ev tw Ila- 
Xarto) (Cat rcS ttjs At;8tas TreptTrdrco, ;4f6icos eKXiSoir' af tcoi' 

Strabo v. 3, 8. 

Proinde Romam ingressus, imperii virtutumque om- 
nium larem, cum venisset ad rostra, perspectissimum 
priscae potentiae forum, obstipuit, perque omne latus quo 
se oculi contulissent, miraculorum densitate praestrictus, 
adlocutus nobilitatem in curia, populumque a tribunali, in 
palatium receptus favore multiplici, laetitia fruebatur 

Ammian. Marcel, xvi. 10, 13. 

Indici deinde finitimis spectaculum iubet, quantoque 
apparatu turn sciebant aut poterant, concelebrant, ut rem 
claram expectatamque facerent. Multi mortales convenere 
. . . . maxima proximi quique .... Etiam Sa- 
binorum omnis multitudo cum liberis ac coniugibus venit. 
. . . . Ubispectaculitempusvenitdeditaequeeo mantes 
cum oculis arant, tum ax composito orta vis, signoque 
dato iuventus Romana ad rapiendas virgines discurrit. 
. . . . Turbato par matum ludicro maesti parantes 
virginum profugiunt, incusantes violati hospitii scalus 
daumque invocantas, cuius ad sollemne iudosqua per fas 
ac fidem decapti venissent. 

Liv. i. 9, 7. 

^ Augustus built a very beautiful portico in honor of his wife, Livia . After those on the 
Campus Martius, it was the most frequented of any in Rome. This was dedicated in 
7 B . C. The building was not in the Forum, however, but on the Esquiline Hill. 

2 The emperor Constantlus the Second visits Ron-e in 357 A. D. 

^ This famous incident known as the rape of the Sabine women took place, according 
to legend, in the da^s of Romulus who by this stratagem was able to provide wives for his 
Roman youths. Livy,in a later chapter (13),gives a graphic account of how the Sabine 
women intervened to stop the battle when their kinsmen came to avenge their wrongs, 
and of the truce which was made, providing not only for peace but also for the union of 
the two peoples. 

oj Places in Italy 337 

A Striking Sight 

If from hence you proceed to visit the ancient forum — 
which is equally filled with basilicas, porticoes, and tem- 
ples, you will there behold the Capitol, the Palatium, with 
the noble works which adorn them, and the portico of 
Livia,' each successive place causing you speedily to forget 
what you have before seen. 

H. C. Hamilton 

The Emperor Constantius the Second is Astounded 

As he^ went on, having entered Rome, that home of 
sovereignty and of all virtues, when he arrived at the ros- 
tra, he gazed with an amazed awe on the Forum, the most 
renowned monument of ancient power, and being bewild- 
ered with the number of wonders on every side to which 
he turned his eyes, having addressed the nobles in the 
senate-house and harangued the people from the tribune, 
he retired with the good will of all into the palace where he 
enjoyed the luxury he had wished for. 


Romulus Provides Wives for the Young Men of Rome' 

He then bade proclaim the spectacle to the surrounding 
peoples, and his subjects prepared to celebrate it with all 
the resources within their knowledge and power, that they 
might cause the occasion to be noised abroad and eagerly 
expected. Many people .... gathered for the fes- 
tival, especially those who lived nearest The 

Sabines, too, came with all their people, including their 

children and wives When the time came for 

the show, and people's thoughts and eyes were busy with 
it, the preconcerted attack began. At a given signal, the 
young Romans darted thi; way and that, to seize and 
carry off the maidens. . . . The sports broke up in 

a panic and the parents of the maidens fled sorrowing. 
They charged the Romans with the crime of violating 
hospitality, and invoked the god to whose solemn games 
they had come, deceived in ^•iolation of religion and hon- 
o u r . 

B. O. Foster 

338 Classical Associations 

'0 Si BpoOros dvofiaarl 
tCiv vluv tKartpov irpoaeiiruv "Aye, u Tire" elirev "a7«, o) 
Ti/Septe, Ti ovK aTro\oyei(T^e irpos ttjv Karriyoplav ;" "fis 5' ovBiv 
aireKpivavTO rpls epcarri&evTes, ovtojs wpds Toiis inrriperas airo- 
(jTp'e^as TO irpoauTov, "'Tp,iTtpov ^8ri" elire, "to \oi,irbv ipyov." 
01 5i eMvs trvWa^ovres tovs veavitTKOvs TepLeppiiyvvov to. IfxaTia, 
rds x^'PCis CLTrjyov bvlaw, pafiSois 'e^aLvov to. auiiaTa, tS>v fiiv 
aXXojj' oil 8vva,p,iva>v wpoaopav ovbk KapTepohvTWV, tKelvov 5e \kytTai 
p/qTt Tos o^^ets d7ra7a7etj' dXXaxotre jU^r' oiktcj) ti Tp'e^ai tjJs 
TTcpi TO TpoacoTOV opyfjs Kai ^apvTriTos, dXXd Seivov evopav Ko\a- 
^ofikvois Tots waialv axpi- ov KaTaTeivavTes avToiis iTtl ToiiSa<pos 
TTtXkKeL rds Ke^aXds aTreKoij/av. Ovtos 5i roiis aXXous ^Trt r$ 
(TvvapxovTL TTOLijaap.evoi ux^t' k^avacTas. 

Plut. Publicol. vi. 

Romam .... sed occidione occisum cum duci- 
bus exercitum .... allatum fuerat. Numquam 
salva urbe tantum pavoris tumultusque intra moenia 
Romana fuit. Itaque succumbam oneri neque adgrediar 
narrare, quae edissertando minora vero faciam. . . . 
summotaque foro per magistratus turba patres diversi ad 
sedandos tumultus discessissent. . . . Tum privatae 
quoque per domos clades vulgatae sunt, adeoque totam 
urbem opplevit luctus, ut sacrum anniversarium Cereris 
intermissum sit, quia nee lugentibus id facere est fas nee 
ulla in ilia tempestate matrona expers luctus fuerat. 

Liv. xxii. 54, 7-8; 56, 1; 56, 4. 

* In the early days of the Republic, the sons of the consul Brutus were convictert of 
having conspired to bring back the kings. The father's stem sense of duty led him to have 
them killed as traitors. 

« In 216 B. C. 

of Places in Italy 339 

A Roman Father Allows His Sons to be Killed^ 

But Brutus, calling each of his sons by name, said: 
"Come, Titus, come, Tiberius, why do ye not defend your- 
selves against this denunciation?" But when they made 
no answer, though he put his question to them thrice, he 
turned to the lictors, and said: "It is yours now to do the 
rest." These straightway seized the young men, tore off 
their togas, bound their hands behind their backs, and 
scourged their bodies with their rods. The rest could not 
endure to look upon the sight, but it is said that the father 
neither turned his gaze away, nor allowed any pity to 
soften the stern wrath that sat upon his countenance, but 
watched the dreadful punishment of his sons until the 
lictors threw them on the ground and cut off their heads 
with the axe. Then he rose and went away, after commit- 
ting the other culprits to the judgment of his colleague. 

Bernadotte Perrin 

How Rome Received the News of Hannibal's Victory 
at Cannae^ 

At Rome accounts were received that . . both 
armies with the consuls were utterly cut off. Never while 
the city itself was in safety, did such a degree of dismay 
and confusion prevail within the walls of Rome. I there- 
fore shrink from the task and will not undertake to de- 
scribe a scene, of which any representation that I could give 
would fall short of the reality. . . . The crowd being 
removed out of the Forum by the magistrates, the sena- 
tors dispersed themselves on all sides to quiet the commo- 
tions. . . . Then the losses of private families were 
made known through their several houses; and so entirely 
was the whole city filled with grief, that the anniversary 
festival of Ceres was omitted, because it is not allowable 
for persons in mourning to celebrate it, and there was not, 
at the time, oije matron who was not so habited. 

George Baker 

340 Classical Associations 

Inter bellorum magnorum aut vixdum finitorum aut 
imminentium curas intercessit res parva dictu, sed quae 
studiis in magnum certamen excesserit. M. Fundanius 
et L. Valerius tribuni plebei ad plebem tulerunt de Oppia 
lege abroganda. Tulerat earn C. Oppius tribunus plebis 
Q. Fabio Ti. Sempronio consulibus, in medio ardore Punici 
belli, ne qua mulier plus semunciam auri haberet, neu 
vestimento versicolori uteretur, neu iuncto vehiculo in 
urbe oppidove aut propius inde mille passus, nisi sacrorum 
publicorum causa, veheretur. M. et P. lunii Bruti tri- 
buni plebis legem Oppiam t'uebantur, nee eam se abrogari 
passuros aiebant; ad suadendum dissuadendumque multi 
nobiles prodibant; Capitolium turba hominum faventium 
adversantiumque legi complebatur; matronae nulla nee 
auctoritate nee verecundia nee imperio virorum contineri 
limine poterant; omnis vias urbis aditusque in forum ob- 
sidebant, viros descendentis ad forum orantes, ut florente 
re publiea, ereseente in dies privata omnium fortuna, 
matronis quoque pristinum ornatum reddi paterentur. 
Augebatur haec frequentia mulierum in dies: nam etiam 
ex oppidis conciliabulisque eonveniebant. lam et eon- 
sules praetoresque et alios magistratus adire et rogare 
audebant: eeterum minime exorabilem alterum utique 
eonsulem M. Porcium Catonem habebant, qui pro lege 
quae abrogabatur ita disseruit: 

In 195 B. c. 

oj Places in Italy 341 

A Feminist Victory* 

Amid the serious concerns of so many important wars, 
some scarcely ended and others impending, an incident 
intervened which may seem too trivial to be mentioned; 
but which, through the zeal of the parties concerned, oc- 
casioned a violent contest. Marcus Fundanius and Lu- 
cius Valerius, plebeian tribunes, proposed to the people the 
repealing of the Oppian Law. This law which had been 
introduced by Caius Oppius, plebeian tribune, in the con- 
sulate of Quintus Fabius and Tiberius Sempronius, during 
the heat of the Punic war, enacted that no woman should 
possess more than half an ounce of gold, or wear a garment 
of various colors, or ride in a carriage drawn by horses, in a 
city or any town, or any place nearer thereto than one 
mile; except on the occasion of some public religious so- 
lemnity. Marcus and Publius Junius Brutus, plebeian 
tribunes, supported the Oppian Law, and declared that 
they would never sufier it to be repealed; while many of 
the nobility stood forth to argue for and against the mo- 
tion proposed. The Capitol was filled with crowds who 
favored or opposed the law; nor could the matrons be kept 
at home, either by advice or shame, nor even by the com- 
mands of their husbands; but beset every street and pass 
in the city, beseeching the men as they went down to the 
forum, that in the present flourishing state of the com- 
monwealth, when the public prosperity was daily in- 
creasing, they would suffer the women so far to partake of 
it, as to have their former ornaments of dress restored. 
This throng of women increased daily, for they arrived 
even from the country towns and villages; and had at 
length the boldness to come up to the consuls, praetors, 
and other magistrates, to urge their request. One of the 
consuls, however, they found inexorable — Marcus Porcius 
Cato, who in support of the law proposed to be repealed, 
spoke to this effect: . ... 

{This interesting anti-feminist speech is given in Livy, 
xxxiv, 2—4; and an equally powerful one in favor of the 
women's plea, delivered by Lucius Valerius, is quoted in 

342 Classical Associations 

. . . . Haec cum contra legem proque lege dicta es- 
sent, aliquanto maior frequentia mulierum postero die 
sese in publicum efiudit, unoque agmine omnes Brutorum 
ianuas obsederunt, qui coUegarum rogationi intercede- 
bant, nee ante abstiterunt, quam remissa intercessio ab 
tribunis est. Nulla deinde dubitatio fuit, quin omnes 
tribus legem abrogarent. Viginti annis post abrogata est 
quam lata. 

Liv. xxxiv. 1; 8. 

'EiretSi) yap tv tS 
tSiv AvKalcov yvixvowaiSlq. h re rrjv ayopap karfKdt Kal eiri tov 
firinaTOi TJJ re ecrdfJTi. rfj ^aaikiKfj KiKoa/xriixevos Kai t<3 aTe(pa.v(p 
tQ hiaxpiioif \ap,Trpvv6p,tvos es tov b'uppov tov Kexpvcooiikvov 
€KadL^eTO, Kal avTOV 6 'Avt6>vi.os ^aaiXea t€ p,eTa. twv avvupkuv 
irpoariyopeiKTe Kal SiaSruxaTi avtSriaev, eliricv oti "tovto coi 6 Srjuos 
8i kfiov SiStocrii'," aweKpivaTO //.ev oti "Z«iis fiovos tCiv 'Voop,a'uav 
iSafftXeiis 617), " KoX to biabyfiia aiirtS «s to KoTrtTcbXto;' 'iirtn'^tv, 
ov likvTOL Kai opyijv taxiv, aXKa koL es to. VTop,VTinaTa iyypa- 
<prjvai eiroiriaev oti ttiv ^acnXelav irapa tov dripov 5td tov viraTov 
bibonkvrjv ol ovK kbk^aTO. VTrcoirTeWri re ovv iK avyKUixtvov tivos 
aiTO TraxotTjKevot, Kai k<pitadat. ixiv tov bvbp.aT0s, fi vKtadai, Se 
iK^tacrdrjvai ircos Xa^elv avTO, Kai 8eLvS)s kp,i.arjdT). 

Dio Cass. xliv. 11. 

Lectum pro rostris in forum magistratus et honoribus 
functi detulerunt. Quern cum pars in Capitolini lovis 
cella cremare pars in curia Pompei destinaret, repente duo 
quidam, gladiis succincti ac bina iacula gestantes, ardenti- 
bus cereis succenderunt, confestimque circumstantium 
turba virgulta arida et cum subselliis tribunalia, quicquid 

' Julius Caesar, a month before his death. 
' Caesar was assassinated in 44 B. C. 

oj Places tn Italy 343 

Notwithstanding all these arguments against the mo- 
tion, the women next day poured out into public in much 
greater numbers, and in a body beset the doors of the pro- 
testing tribunes; nor did they retire until the tribunes 
withdrew their protests. There was then no further de- 
mur but every one of the tribes voted for the repeal. Thus 
was this law annulled in the twentieth year after it had 
been made. 

George Baker 

Julius Caesar Refuses the Crown 

For when he' had entered the Forum at the festival of 
the Lupercalia, and was sitting on the rostra in his gilded 
chair, adorned with the royal apparel and resplendent in 
his crown overlaid with gold, Antony with his fellow- 
priests saluted him as king and binding a diadem upon his 
head said: "The people offer this to you through me." 
And Caesar answered: "Jupiter alone is king of the Ro- 
mans," and sent the diadem to Jupiter on the Capitol: 
yet he was not angry, but caused it to be inscribed in the 
records that he had refused to accept the kingship when 
offered to him by the people through the consul. It was 
accordingly suspected that this thing had been deliberately 
arranged and that he was anxious for the name, but 
wished to be somehow compelled to take it; consequently 
the hatred against him was intense. 

Earnest Cary 

Caesar's Body is Burned" 

The bier on the rostra was carried to the Forum by 
magistrates and ex-magistrates; and while some were urg- 
ing that it be burned in the temple of Jupiter of the Capi- 
tol, and others in the Hall of Pompey, on a sudden, two 
beings with swords by their sides and brandishing a pair of 
darts set fire to it with blazing torches, and at once the 
throng of by-standers heaped upon it dry branches, the 

344 Classical Associations 

praeterea ad donum aderat, congessit. Deinde tibicines 
et scenici artifices vestem, quam ex triumphorum instru- 
mento ad praesentem usum induerant, detractam sibi at- 
que discissam iniecere flammae, et veteranorum militum 
legionarii arma sua, quibus exculti funus celebrabant; 
matronae etiam pleraeque ornamenta sua quae gerebant, 
et liberorum bullas atque praetextas. 

Suet. Caes. 84. 

Kai aiiTOVs 6 'Avtojvlos iTrLwapw^vvt, tov rt veKpov is Trjv 
ayopav avoriTOTara Koiiiaas, Kai irpodeixevos 'fifiaTUiJievov re, OKTirtp 
elxi, Kai Tpavnara eK<paivovTO., Kai riva Kai \6yov er' avrif, 
rots Tore irapoviri, eiirdiv. eXe^e yap roiaSe. 

"AW ovTos 6 variip, ovtos 6 dpxtepeiis 6 iiavXos d rjpojs 6 
dtbs rkdvriKfv, olfioi., rkdvqKtv ov vbcio ^iaadeis, ov5i yijpa napav- 
deis, ovSe e^oj irov ev ToKkfUf tlvl rpwdels, oiiSi 4k Saifiovlov tlvos 
avTOiiarccs apiracrdeis, aXXd evravda evros tov rtlxovs twi^ov- 
\ev6eii 6 Kai es BptTTavLav acipaXwi OTpartbaai, ev rfj iroKti 
eveSpevdeis 6 Kai to Tco/j.'fipiov avTrji tTrau^ijcas, iv Tci ^ovXevTtipiif 
KaTacnpaytis 6 Kai tdiov dXXo KaraaKevacas, aoirXos 6 eiiTroXc/uos, 
yvfivos 6 elprivoiroios, irpos rots biKacTT-qplois 6 biKaaTi)s, irpos rais 
dpxais 6 apxi^v, vwo tCiv tvoKltSiv bv ixTjbds tS>v ToXeiiiuv /tr;5' es 
TTiv daXaaaav tKvtabvTa aTroKTtlvai rjdvvriBri, virb tS>v tTalpuv b 
iroWaKLs avTovs eXeiycas. ttov SiJTa col, Katcrop, 17 (piKavOpoiirla, 
TTOV 5i ri acTvKia, ttov 5e vbfioi ; dXXd aii )xtv, ottcos iiTjb' vwb tS>v 
kx6pS>v TLS <povevriTaL, xoXXd kvoiiodeTrjcTas, at bt oStojs oIktpus 
aireKTiivav oi'<pi\oi, Kai vvv tv Tt ttj ayopg. irpbKtiaai eatpay- 
nivos, 51 rjs TToXXd/cis kirbfiirtvaas iaTecpavufiivos, Kai exi tov 

* For another account of the speech of Antony over Caesar's body and incidents pre- 
ceding it, see Appian, S. C. ii. 144-148. 

oj Places in Italy 345 

judgment seats with the benches, and whatever else could 
serve as an offering. Then the musicians and actors tore 
off their robes, which they had taken from the equipment 
of the triumphs and put on for the occasion, rent them to 
bits and threw them into the flames, and the veterans of 
the legions the arms with which they had adorned them- 
selves for the funeral; many of the women, too, offered up 
the jewels which they wore and the amulets and robes of 
their children. 


Antony's Speech Over the Body of Caesar 

And Antony" aroused them still more by bringing the 
body inconsiderately into the Forum, exposing it all cov- 
ered with blood as it was and with gaping wounds, and 

then delivering over it a speech He spoke 

somewhat as follows: 

"Yet this father, this high-priest, this inviolable being, 
this hero and god, is dead, alas, dead not by the vio- 
lence of some disease, nor wasted by old age, nor wounded 
abroad somewhere in some war, nor caught up inex- 
plicably by some supernatural force, but right here within 
the walls as the result of a plot — the man who had safely 
led an army into Britain; ambushed in this city — the man 
who had enlarged its pomerium; murdered in the senate- 
house — the man who had reared another such edifice at 
his own expense; unarmed — the brave warrior; defenceless 
— the promoter of peace; the judge — beside the court of 
justice; the magistrate — beside the seat of government; at 
the hands of citizens — he whom none of the enemy had 
been able to kill even when he fell into the sea; at the hands 
of his comrades — he who had often taken pity on them. Of 
what avail, O Caesar, was your humanity? of what avail 
your inviolability? of what avail the laws? Nay, though 
you enacted many laws that men might not be killed by 
their personal foes, yet how mercilessly you yourself were 
slain by your friends! And now, the victim of assassina- 
tion, you lie dead in the Forum through which, crowned. 

346 Classical Associations 

^rifiaros eppL\l/aL KaTareTpcofitvos. dip' o5 TroXXa/cis kdrinriydpriaas. 
OL/iOL iroKiMV xmaTOintvoiv, oi (ttoX^s kcirapaynkvyii, fiv eiri tovtu) 
fiovov, 0)5 ioiKev, eXa/3es, 'iv' tv ravTri (T<payfji." 

Dio Cass. xliv. 35; 49. 

Kedrifov, Kai ovtu tSiv aXXcoy tKacTOV Karayayuv airtKreivtv. 
bpCiv bi TToWoiis tTi TOiV aiTO T^s (rvvo>iJiocriai tv Ayopq. avveaTuiTas 
adpoovs Kal rrfv /lev Trpa^iv ayvoovvras, rriv 5i vvKra irpoa^itvovTOS, 
cos tTt ^6iVT0)v tSiv avSpcov Kal dvvafjievwv t^apiraadrivai, ipdty^a- 
fievos fikya irpds airovs, ""EJ'T/o'aj'," elirtv. outoj 8k 'Poiiiaiuiv 
ol dva<pT]neLV p/q Pov\6p,evoi to rtdvavai aijp.a.lvovaiv. 

"HSjj 5' fjv icirtpa, Kal 81' 6.yopS.s avkfiaivtv eis rifv o'lKiav, omtri 
(TtcoxJ Tccv TroXiTciv ov8k Ta^tL Trpovep,irbvT(j3V avrov, dXXd <piovais 
Kal KpoTOii 8exop.kvii3v Kad' ous ytvoiTO, curijpa Kal KTiaTtjv 
avaKa\oiiVTu>v rijs warpiSos. ra Si (pSira TToXXd KarkXanin 
Tovs cTtvuiTovs, Xa/UTrdSta Kal Sq,Sas tariyvTUV kTrl rats Bhpais. 
al 8k yvva^Kes tK tS>v reyO>v Tpov<paivov twl Ti/ifj /cat ^e^ tov 
av8p6i, iiird irop.wTJ rdv apiaroiv pa\a (Tep.vS)s aviovroi' 

Plut. Cic. xxii. 

Twv S' aKpoirriplbov els "Poj/luj)/ Kop.i(TdevTOiv 'irvxe fitv dpxat- 
pealas TtKoiv 6 ' LvtiJivlos, aKovaas 5a /cat i8(i)v dvefi&r)aev cos vvv al 
vpoypaipal reXos ixoitv. rrjv 8t KetpaKrjv /cat rds x^P^s e/ceXei*- 
crev VTvkp tCiv tv^okwv tirl tov prjfiaTOS dtivai, deap.a "Pco/iatots 

ii'In 63 B.C., just after the Catilinarian conspirators have been put to death in the 
Mamertine prison. 

" After Cicero's murder in 43 B. C, inspired by Antony's liatred which had been ren- 
dered more deadly by reason of the orator's Philippics against him. 

of Places in Italy 347 

you often led the triumph; wounded to death, you have 
been dast upon the rostra from which you have often ad- 
dressed the people. Woe for the blood-bespattered locks 
of gray! Alas for the rent robe, which you assumed, it 
seems, only that you might be slain in it!" 

Earnest Gary 

Cicero is Hailed as Rome's Savior'" 

Then Cethegus in his turn and so each one of the others, 
he brought down to the prison and had him executed. And 
seeing that many members of the conspiracy were still 
assembled in the forum in ignorance of what had been 
done and waiting for night to come, with the idea that the 
men were still living and might be rescued, he cried out to 
them with a loud voice and said: "They have lived." 
For thus the Romans who wish to avoid words of ill omen 
indicate death. 

It was now evening, and Cicero went up through the for- 
um to his house, the citizens no longer escorting him on his 
way with silent decorum, but receiving him with cries and 
clapping of hands as he passed along, calling him the 
savior and founder of his country. And many lights il- 
luminated the streets, since people placed lamps and 
torches at their doors. The women, too, displayed lights 
upon the housetops in honor of the man, and that they 
might see him going up to his home in great state under 
escort of the noblest citizens. 

Bernadotte Perrin 

Antony Insults a Fallen Enemy'' 

When Cicero's extremities were brought to Rome, it 
chanced that Antony was conducting an election, but 
when he heard of their arrival and saw them, he cried out, 
"Now let our proscriptions have an end." Then he or- 
dered the head and hands to be placed over the ship's 
beaks on the rostra, a sight that made the Romans shud- 

348 Classical Associations 

tppiKTOV, ov t6 KiKtpwvos 6pSiv TpbawTTOV oiop,ivoi%, dXXa ttjs 
' \vTb3viov ^vxfj^ t'lKOVa.. 

Plul. Cic. xlix. 

Secundum haec funus eius datum est. Lectus erat ex 
auro et ebore constructus, purpureis stragulis, auroque 
intertextis, ornatus: in eius infima parte cadaver, arcae 
cuidam inclusum, latebat. Imago autem eius cerea, 
habitu triumphali, ostentabatur, quam a palatio ducebant 
magistratus designati: altera aurea ex curia, tertia in 
curru pompali ducebatur. Post has, avorum ipsius ac 
cognatorum vita functorum (excepta lulii Caesaris, qui 
inter semideos erat relatus) aliorumque Romanorum, qui 
quacunque re gesta excelluissent, imagines, inde a Romu- 
lo ipso, ferebantur: inter quas Pompeii quoque Magni 
imago quaedam, omnesque nationes, quas subegisset, cum 
suo ipsarum cultu effictae cernebantur. Has reliquae 
omnes, quas supra commemoravimus, subsecutae sunt. 
Cum lectus pro rostris publice positus fuisset, Drusus 
ex eodem tribunali aliquid de scripto recitavit. Tiberius 
autem pro aliis illis rostris luliis, ex S. C. et publico nomine, 
in haec propemodum verba de eo peroravit. 

Dio Cass. Ivi. 34 (Latin version by Slurz, Vol. iii). 

Sed et Romam eo curru, quo Augustus olim triumpha- 
verat, et in veste purpurea, distinctaque stellis aureis 
chlamyde, coronamque capite gerens Olympiacam, dextra 
manu Pythiam, praeeunte pompa ceterarum cum titulis, 
ubi, et quos, quo cantionum quove fabularum argumento 
vicisset: sequentibus currum ovantium ritu plausoribus, 
Augustianos, militesque se triumphi eius, clamitantibus. 

12 In 14 A. D. 
" The son of Tiberius. 

14 The emperor Nero deeply offended the good taste of the Romans by his love for the 
stage and his habit of exhibiting himself as a performer. 

oj Places in Italy 349 

der; for they thought that they saw there, not the face of 
Cicero, but an image of the soul of Antony. 

Bernadotte Perrin 

The Funeral of Augustus 

Then came his funeral.'^ There was a couch made of 
ivory and gold and adorned with robes of purple mixed 
with gold. In it his body was hidden, in a kind of box 
down below: a wax image of him in triumphal garb was 
displayed. This one was borne from the Palatium by the 
officials for the following year, and another of gold from the 
senate-house, and still another upon a triumphal chariot. 
Behind these came the images of his ancestors and of his 
deceased relatives (except of Caesar, because he had been 
enrolled among the heroes), and those of other Romans 
who had been prominent in any way, beginning with 
Romulus himself. An image of Pompey the Great was also 
seen, and all the nations he had acquired, each represented 
by a likeness which bore some local characteristic, were 
carried in procession. After these followed all the remain- 
ing objects mentioned above. When the couch had been 
placed in view upon the orator's platform, Drusus^' read 
something from that place: and from the other, the rostra 
of the Julian shrine, Tiberius delivered the following 
public oration over the deceased according to a decree: 
(The speech follows in 35-41.) 

H. B. Foster 
(Translated from the Greek.) 

The Emperor Nero Makes a Vulgar Display of Himself" 

But at Rome he rode in the chariot which Augustus had 
used in his triumphs in days gone by, and wore a purple 
robe and a Greek cloak adorned with stars of gold, bearing 
on his head the Olympic crown and in his right hand the 
Pythian, while the rest were carried before him with in- 
scriptions telling where he had won them and against what 
competitors, and giving the titles of the songs or the sub- 
ject of the plays. His car was followed by his claque 
as by the escort of a triumphal procession, who shouted 
that they were the attendants of Augustus and the soldiers 


Classical Associations 

Dehinc, diruto Circi Maximi arcu, per Velabrum Forumque 
Palatium et Apollinem petit. Incedenti passim victimae 
caesae, sparse per vias identidem croco, ingestaeque aves, 
ac lemnisci, et bellaria. 

Suet. Nero 25. 

Temple of Concord 

Candida, te niveo posuit lux proxima templo, 

qua fert sublimes alta Moneta gradus; 
nunc bene prospicies Latiam, Concordia, turbam. 

Ov. Fast. i. 637-639. 

Restoration or the Temple op Vesta 

'^ In 366 B. C. the long quarrel between the patricians and plebeians was settled 
temporarily. In commemoration of this the dictator Camillus dedicated a temple to 

of Places ill Italy .351 

of his triumph. Then through the arch of the Circus 
Maximus which was thrown down, he made his way 
across the Velabrum and the Forum to the Palatine 
and the temple of Apollo. All along the route victims 
were slain, the streets were sprinkled from time to time 
with perfume, while birds, ribbons, and sweetmeats were 
showered upon him. J. C. Rolfe 

Fair Concord,'^ the succeeding day placed thee in a 
snow-white shrine, where elevated Moneta^' raises her steps 
on high: now with ease will thou look down upon the 
Latian crowd. H. T. Rilev 

Temple of Vesta 

\'estaque mater, 
quae Tuscum Tiberim ct Romana Palatia servas. 

Vir. Georg. i. 498-499. 

O Vesla, sacred mother, who dost guard 
Our Tuscan Tiber and Rome's Palatine." 

T. C. Williams 

Usque ego postera 
crescam laude recens, dum Capitolium 
scandet cum tacita virginc Pontifex. 

Hor. C. iii. M), 7-9. 

For long as with his Vestals mute 
Rome's Pontife.x" shall climb 
The Capitol, m)' fame shall shoot 
Fresh buds through future time. 

.Sir Theodore M.\rti\ 

Hie locus est Veslae, qui Pallada servat el ignem. 

Ov. Trist. iii. 1, 29. 

This is the shrine of \'esta which contains the Palladium 
and the eternal fire. ~ H. T. Rilev 

Concord. Throughout the Republic it was llie ^cene of miiny dram;itic events. The 
temple was frequently restored and beautified. ~ 

16 On that part of the Capitoline Hill which towered above the temple of Concord was 
the teiiple of Juno Moneta which contained the Roman mint. 

1" The shrine of Vesta, goddess of the hearth, was looked upon by the Romans with 
.s^iecial reverence. Indeed, they considered that the preservation of the sacred fire within, 
watched over by the Vestal Virgins, as well as that of certain holy objects (among them 
the Palladium) was essential to the safety of the city. 

ts There is a story (not very well authenticated) that the chief priest together with 
( he Vestal at the heart of the order ascended the Capitoline each year to pray for Rome. 


Classical Associations 

Forum of Trajan 

Bibliothecas exstruxit, ac in foro columnam maximam 
collocavit, partim sepeliendi causa, partim ut opus, quod 
ipse circa forum fecerat, posteris ostenderet. Nam eum 
locum, cum montosus undique esset, tanta altitudine, 
quanta columnae est, iussit effodi; forumque eo pacto 
complanavit. Dio Cass. Ixviii. 16. 

(Latin Version by Sturz, Vol. iv.) 

Varum cum ad Traiani forum venisset, singularem sub 
omni caelo structuram, ut opinamur, etiam numinum ad- 
sensione mirabilem, haerebat adtonitus, per giganteos 
contextus circumferens mentem, nee relatu effabiles, nee 
rursus mortalibus adpetendos. Omni itaque spe huius 
modi quicquam conandi depulsa, Traiani equum solum, 
locatum in atrii medio, qui ipsum principem vehit, imi- 
tari se velle dicebat et posse. 

Ammian. Marcel, xvi. 10, 15. 

Coutlesy of Art and Archacfiiogy 

Interior of the Basilica Ulpia in the Forum or Trajax — 
A Restoration 

1 The Forum of Trapan was the largest and by far the most splendid of the imperial 
fora which were built adjacent to the Roman Forum. To construct this, as the emperor 
did in 113 A. D., it was necessary to cut through one shoulder of the Quirinal hill, a 

of Places in Italy .353 

An Emperor's Memorial 

He made libraries and set up in the Forum' an enormous 
column to serve at once as a sepulchral monument to him- 
self and as a reminder of his work in the Forum. The 
whole region there was hilly and he dug it down for a 
distance equalling the height of the column, thus making 
the Forum level. 

H. B. Foster 
(Translated from the Greek.) 

A Royal Visitor's Astonishment^ 

But when he came to the Forum of Trajan, the most 
exquisite structure, in my opinion, under the canopy of 
heaven, and admired even by the deities themselves, he 
stood transfixed with wonder, casting his mind over the 
gigantic proportions of the place, beyond the power of 
mortals to describe, and beyond the reasonable desires of 
mortals to'rival. Therefore, giving up all hope of attempt- 
ing anything of this kind, he contented himself with say- 
ing that he should wish to imitate, and could imitate, the 
horse of Trajan, which stands by itself in the middle of 
the hall, bearing the emperor himself on his back. 


distance of about 97 English feet, and level the ground. In this Forum stood the magnifi- 
cent column erected in his honor and a basilica known by the name of Ulpia. In 
connection with it (although in a separate building) was a valuable library. 
' Constantius the Second on the occasion of his visit to Rome in 357 .'V. 15. 

354 Classical Associations 



Quaeque Aventinum tenet Algidumque, 
quindecim Diana preces virorum 
curet et votis puerorum arnicas 
adplicet aures. 

Hor. C. S. 69-72. 

And may Diana, who holds Aventine' and Algidus, 
heed the entreaty of the Fifteen Men^ and incline her gra- 
cious ears to the children's prayers 1 

C. E. Bennett 


Capitolium fulgens. 

Hor. C. iii. 3, 42-43. 

Hinc ad Tarpeiam sedem et Capitolia ducit, 
aurea nunc, olim silvestribus horrida dumis. 
iam turn religio pavidos terrebat agrestes 
dira loci, iam turn silvam saxumque tremebant. 
"hoc nemus, hunc," inquit, "frondoso vertice coUem 
(quis deus incertum est) habitat deus: Arcades ipsum 
credunt se vidisse lovem, cum saepe nigrantem 
aegida concuteret dextra nimbosque cieret." 

Vir. Aen. viii. 347-354. 

1 The great Latin temple o£ Diana stood upon the Aventine. This hill was in early 
times a public domain. Part of it was given to the plebeians for settlement in the fifth cen- 
tury B. C. and the place continued to be occupiea by them for several centuries. Under 
the Empire, however, wealthy families built houses in this district. 

' A priestly college at Rome known as the Quindecimviri Sacris Faciundis,said to have 
been instituted by Tarquin for the purpose of guarding the Sibylline Books. The verses 
quoted are from a stately hymn chanted before the temple of Apollo on the Palatine in 1 7 
B. C. in honor of the revival of the Secular Games. 

3 The Capitoline Hill wa s a part of the city in early times, the north end, originally 
occupied by the Sabines, being the site of the citadel, and the south being chosen dj^ the 
Tarquins for the building of the temple to Jupiter, a structure known as the Capitolium. 
A path from the Forum, known as the Clivus Capitolinus, led to this hill and it could be 
ascended also by two flights of steps, one near the Tarpeian rock and another between the 
temple of Concord and the prison. So important was the temple and so significant the 
ceremonies both sacred and political, which were connected with it, that the word "Capi- 
tolium" came to symbolize Rome's greatness. 

* A rock at the southwest corner of the Caoitoline Hill from which traitors^ werfc 
thrown was named from Tarpeia, daughter of a Roman officer in command of the citadel 
when the Sabines were assiilmg it in the early days. This maiden, so the story runs, was 
tempted to open the gates to the enemy b v the promi5e that the Sabines would give tO her 
what they wore upon their arm's, for she was attracted by the sHininB bracelets which some 

of Places m Italy 


Photograph by Katharine Allen 

The Tiber frum thi- Avextine Hill 

The shining Capitol. 

The Capitoline Hill Before the Days of Rome 

Then to Tarpeia's dread abode' 
And Capitol he° points the road. 
Now all is golden; then t'was all 
O'er grown with trees and brushwood tall. 
E'en then rude hinds the spot revered: 
E'en then the wood, the rock they feared. 
Here in this grove, these wooded steeps 
Some god unknown his mansion keeps: 

Arcadia's children deem 
Their eyes have looked on Jove's own form. 
When oft he summons cloud and storm. 

And seen his aegis gleam. 

John Conim.lox 

of the chiefs wore. But when slie let them into the citadel, it was shields and not bracelets 
that they threw upon her. In this way she met her death, well -deserved, as the Romans 
thought, because of her traitorous act. (Liv. i. 11.) 

s When the Trojans first came to Italy, Evander, then king in these regions, received 
the strangers most hospitably and pointed out to their leader Aeneas I he sights of his city, 
ii rude settlement upon the site which Rome later occupied. 

356 Classical Associations 

Quem tu, Melpomene, semel 
nascentem placido lumine videris, 

ilium non labor Isthmius 
clarabit pugilem, non equus inpiger 

curru ducet Achaico 
victorem, neque res bellica Deliis 

ornatum foliis ducem, 
quod regum tumidas contuderit minas, 

ostendet Capitolio. 

Hor. C. iv. 3, 1-9. 

Nee Capitolini summum penetrale Tonantis 
quaeque nitent caelo proxima templa suo. 

Mart. X. 51, 13-14. 

Confectis bellis quinquiens triumphavit, post devictum 
Scipionem quater eodem mense, sed interiectis diebus, el 
rursus semel post superatos Pompei liberos. Primum et 
excellentissimum triumphum egit Gallicum, sequentem 
Alexandrinum, deinde Ponticum, huic proximum Afri- 
canum, novissimum Hispaniensem, diverso quemque ap- 
paratu et instrumento. Gallici triumphi die Velabrum 
praetervehens paene curru excussus est axe diffracto as- 
cenditque Capitolium ad lumina, quadraginta elephantis 
dextra sinistraque lychnuchos gestantibus. 

Suet. Caes. 37. 

'0 diZKi,irlwv ravra cvvd ixevos tK Xifivris « riiv 'IraXIac Travrl 
tQ (TTparQ SieTrXet, Koi es tjjc 'Poi/xriv earfXavn dpLanfitvuv, 
'fWKpavtaTOLTa 5ij Tdv irpo avrov. 

Vial 6 Tpowos, (^ Kal vvv (tl xP^t^^voL ht-artKovcLv, iari Toiba&t. 
kcTTetpavuivTai. p.ev iiiravTts, fiyovvrai 8t craKinKTal re Kal \a<pvpuv 
(ifia^aL, TTVpyoL re irapatp'tpovTai p.ip.iip,aTa rdv tWrjukvuv Tr6\e- 
(jiv, Kal ypaipal Kal axviJto-Ta tSiv yeyovoTWV, etra XP^'^°^ '^'^^ 
apyvpos acTTjjuayros re Kal CTe(Triiia<rp,kvos Kal tl ri TOiovTorpoirov 

6 An allusion to the custom of having victorious generals ascend the Capitoline in tri- 
umphal procession. See a following passage. 

7 The temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, 

* Publius Cornelius Scipio in 201 B. C. celebrates his victory over Carthage. 

of Places in Italy 357 

A Poet Needs No Triumphal Procession to En- 
hance His Greatness 

Whom thou, Melpomene, hast once beheld with favor- 
ing gaze at his natal hour, him no Isthmian toil shall make 
a famous boxer, no impetuous steed shall draw as victor 
in Achaean car, nor shall martial deeds show him to the 
Capitol, a captain decked with Delian bays, for having 
crushed the haughty threats of kings.' 

C. E. Bennett 

Nor the loftiest shrine' of the Capitoline Thunderer 
and the temples which gleam with gold nearest to their 
own heaven. 

Julius Caesar Celebrates His Victories 

Having ended the wars, he celebrated five triumphs, 
four in a single month, but at intervals of a few days, after 
vanquishing Scipio; and another on defeating Pompey's 
sons. The first and most splendid was the Gallic triumph, 
the next the Alexandrian, then the Pontic, after that the 
African, and finally the Spanish. Each differed from the 
rest in its equipment and display of spoils. As he rode 
through the Velabrum on the day of the Gallic triumph, 
the axle of his chariot broke, and he was all but thrown 
out; and he mounted the Capitoline by torchlight, with 
forty elephants bearing lamps on his right and left. 


A Triumphal Procession 

When Scipio' had concluded the treaty, he sailed from 
Africa to Italy with his whole army, and made a triumphal 
entry into Rome far more splendid than any of his pre- 

The form of the triumph (which the Romans still con- 
tinue to employ) was as follows: All who were in the pro- 
cession, wore crowns. Trumpeters led the advance and 
wagons laden with spoils. Towers were borne along, 
representing the captured cities, and pictures showing the 
exploits of the war; then gold and silver coin and bullion, 
and whatever else they had captured of that kind: then 

.358 Classical Associations 

ciXXo, Kai ariipavci ocoa tov crparriyov dpeTTJs tveKa avaSovaiv 
r} TToXets fj avixtxaxoL fj to. iiir' aiiTcjj cTpaTOTreSa. (36es 5' €7ri 
TotaSe \evKoi, Kai eKeipavTis fjaav ciri rots fiovcL, Kai Kapxv^°VL03v 
avTUV Kai No^dSci)!' ouot tCip riyefj.6vo}v fXrupdr^cav. avTOV S' 
■fiyovvrai tov (TrpaTrfyov pa^Sovxoi ipoiVLKOvs x'-'''^"'^^ ivSeSv- 

KOTtS, Kai XOPO^ KldapLCFTOlV Ti Kai TLTVpiaTOSV, 65 /ityUIJ/ia Tup- 

priviKrjs woiXTrrjs, Tvepit^oiafitvoi re Kai (TTtipavi)V xpv<^W tiriKti- 
ixivoi. 'iaa T( ^aivovciv iv ra^ti utra (fiSijs Kai pter opxvfffi^^- 
\v5oiis a\TOvs KoKovcLV, OTL (ot/uat) Tvpprjvoi \vSwv airoiKoi. 
TOVTdJv 6i TLs iv fxtaw, wopipvpav TToSiiprj irepiKtiixtvos Kai xl/eKia 
Kai cTptTTTO. aito xpi'foO, axTJiUa-rifeTai Trot/ciXcos es yt\o>Ta d)s 
ivopxovpLtvo^ TOLS iroXep.iois . eiri 8' ahrQ dvpiiaTi)piuiv ttXtjSos, 
Kai (TTpaTTiyos ewi rots dvij.Lap.a(nv, h.<p' app.aTos Karayeypan- 
p.ivov TTOiKiXcos, ecrreTTrai piiv oltto xpv^o^ 'f''' \l6oov iroXuTi/iCOv, 
f(7TaXrai 5' « tov ira.Tpi.ov Tpowov irop(pvpav aaTtpoiv xP^'^'^v 
ivvipaap.kv(j3v, Kai aKfjwTpov ej t\((pavTOS (f>ep€L, Kai baipvqv, rfv 
ati 'Poj/uatoi von'i^ovdL vLktjs (rvp.^o\ov. iiri^aivovai &' avTW eiri 
TO ap/xa waldes Tt Kai irapdtvoL, Kai tiri tCiv iraprjopoiv tKaTtpoidtv 
fideoL (TvyytvtLS. Kai irapeirovTai. ocrot irapa rdv iroXefiov fjaav 
avTW ypafinaTth re Kai vir-qp'traL Kai vwaairicTai. Kai p,tT' eKei- 
i^ovi 7} CTpana Kara re tXas /cat Ta^tis, kaTttpaviiinkvq iraaa Kai 
da<pvri<popovaa. ol Si dpttrreTs Kai to. apiCTUa kirUtLVTai.. Kai 
tS>v apxbvTwv ow fitv eiraLVodcnv, ous 8c <7K6nrTOV(nv,ovs 8i \j/kyov- 
aiv. d^eXijs 7dp 6 Opla/ifios, Kai iv e^ovcia Xiyeiv & tl diXoiev. 
(upiKoixtvoi 8i « TO KaTTircoXioj' 6 "Zkittiwv Tr)v ixiv irofjurriv KaTt- 
iravaev, etorta 8i Toiij (piXous, Hiairtp edos iaTiv, es to iepov. 

App. B. P. viii. 65-66. 

of Places in Italy 359 

came the crowns that had been given to the general as a 
reward for his bravery by cities, by allies, or by the army 
itself. White oxen came next and after them elephants 
and the captured Carthaginians and Numidian chiefs. 
Lictors clad in purple tunics preceded the general; also a 
chorus of harpists and pipers, in imitation of the Etruscan 
procession, wearing belts and golden crowns, and they 
march in regular order, keeping step with song and dance. 
They are called Lydi because, as I think, the Etruscans 
were a Lydian colony. One of these in the middle of the 
procession, wearing a purple cloak reaching to the feet and 
golden bracelets and necklace, caused laughter by making 
various gesticulations, as though he were dancing in 
triumph over the enemy. Ne.xt came a number of incense- 
bearers, and after them the general himself on a chariot 
embellished with various designs, wearing a crown of gold 
and precious stones, and dressed according to the fashion 
of the country, in a purple toga inwoven with golden stars. 
He bore a sceptre of ivory and a laurel branch, which is 
always the Roman symbol of victory. Riding in the same 
chariot with him were boys and girls, and on the trace- 
horses on either side of him young men, his own relatives. 
Then followed those who had served him in the war as 
secretaries, aids, and armour-bearers. After these came 
the army arranged in squadrons and cohorts, all of them 
crowned and carrying laurel branches, the bravest of them 
bearing military prizes. They praised some of their cap- 
tains, derided others, and reproached others; for in a 
triumph everyone is free and is allowed to say what he 
pleases. When Scipio arrived at the Capitol the proces- 
sion came to an end, and he entertained his friends at a 
banquet in the temple, according to custom. 

Horace Whitk 

360 Classical Associations 


Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus atque 
aggere in aprico spatiari, qua modo tristes 
albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum; 
cum mihi non tantum furesque feraeque suetae 
hunc vexare locum curae sunt atque labori, 
quantum carminibus quae versant atque venenis 
humanos animos. has nullo perdere possum 
nee prohibere modo, simul ac vaga luna decorum 
protulit OS, quin ossa legant herbasque nocentes. 

Hor. Sat. i. 8, 14-22. 

"Quid vis, insane, et quas res agis?" improbus urget 
iratis precibus: "tu pulses omne quod obstat, 
ad Maecenatem memori si meijte recurras." 
hoc iuvat et melli est, non mentiar. at simul atras 
ventum est Esquilias, aliena negotia centum 
per caput et circa saliunt latus. 

Hor. S. ii. 6, 29-34. 

' The Esquiline district included the two spurs of the Esquiline hill,Oppius and Cis- 
pius, the valley between these heights, and a wide stretch eutside the Servian wall called 
the Campus Esquilinus. In early times a large area was occupied by a cemetery and in 
the late Republic this was the Potter's Field of Rome. As the city developed, the Esqui- 
line region was occupied by dwellings, temples, and other public buildings of importance, 
beautiful gardens (especially under the Empire), as well as shops and markets of various 

2 Maecenas, the powerful literary patron at Rome and a special friend of the poet Hor- 
ace who, because of this relationship, is often charged by his less fortunate acquaintances 
with petitions to him. 

of Places in Italy 361 

The Improvement in the Esquiline Hill' 

Now is it possible to dwell 
On Esquiline, and yet be well; 
To saunter there and take your ease 
On trim and sunny terraces. 
And this where late the ground was white 
With dead men's bones, — disgusting sight! 
But not the thieves and beasts of prey, 
Who prowl about the spot alway, 
When darkness falls, have caused to me 
Such trouble and anxiety, 
As those vile hags, who vex the souls 
Of men by spells, and poison bowls. 
Do what I will, they haunt the place. 
And ever, when her buxom face 
The wandering moon unveils, these crones 
Come here to gather herbs and bones. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

Horace Forgets the Many Petitions He is to Pour into 
Maecenas' Ear- 

"I say, where are you pushing to? 
What would you have, you, madman, you?" 
So flies he at poor me, 'tis odds. 
And curses me by all his gods. 
"You think that you, now, I daresay, 
May push whatever stops your way. 
When you are to Maecenas bound!" 
Sweet, sweet as honey is the sound, 
I won't deny, of that last speech, 
But then, no sooner do I reach 
The gloomy Esquiline, than straight 
Buzz, buzz around me runs the prate 
Of people pestering me with cares, 
About all other men's affairs. 

Sir Theodore Martix 

.362 Classical Associations 

Scilicet hoc fuerat, propter quod saepe relicta 
coniuge per montem adversum gelidasque cucurri 
Esquilias, fremeret saeva cum grandine \'ernus 
luppiter et multo stillaret paenula nimbo. 

Juw V. 76-7''. 

Nee doctum satis et parum se\erum, 
sed non rusticulum nimis libellum 
facundo mea Plinio Thalia 
i prefer: brevis est labor peractae 
altum \'incere tramitem Suburae. 
illic Orphea protinus videbis 
udi vertice lubricum theatri 
mirantesque feras. 

Mart. X. 19, 1-8. 

The jANicuLt'.M 

luli iugera pauca Martialis 
hortis Hesperidum beatiora" 
longo laniculi iugo recumbunl: 
lati collibus imminent recessus, 
et planus medico tumore vertex 
caelo perfruitur sereniore 
et curvas nebula tegente valles 
solus luce nitet peculiari; 
puris leniter admoventur astris 
celsae culmina delicata villae. 
hinc septem dominos videre montes 
et totam licet aestimare Romam, 
Albanos quoque Tusculosque coUes 
et quodcunque iacet sub urbe frigus, 
Fidenas veteres brevesque Rubras, 
et quod virgineo cruore gaudet 
Annae pomiferum nemus Perennae. 
illinc Flaminiae Salariaeque 

■' The muse of comedy. 

* Pliny the younger who evidently lived on this hilKPHn. Ep. ill. 21). 
^ Fabulous gardens in the West which according to classical mytholog\ contained trees 
hearing golden apples. 

6 Saxa Rubra was a small place about eight miles north of Rome. 

7 A godess whose name is confused with that of Dido's sister, said by legend to have 
crossed over to Latium. The Rdmans seemed to have established a festival in her honor. 

oj Places in Italy .Ui,^ 

Running After the Great is Wearisome 

Forsooth, this it was for the sake of which I often left 
my wife and ran up the opposite hill, the cold Esquiline, 
when the vernal sky sounded with the pitiless hail, and 
my cloak dripped with the frequent showers! 

John Delaware Lewis 

Pliny's House 

Go, my Thalia,' and present to the eloquent Pliny" my 
little book, which, though not learned enough or very 
weighty, is not entirely devoid of elegance. When you 
have passed the Subura, it is no long labor to ascend the 
steep pathway over the Esquiline Hill. Then you will 
see a glittering statue of Orpheus on the top of a perfume- 
sprinkled theatre surrounded by beasts wondering at his 

Translation from the Bohn Library. 

A View from the Janiculum 

The few fields of Julius Martialis, more favoured than 
the gardens of the Hesperides,' rest on the long ridge of the 
Janiculum: wide sheltered reaches look down on the' hills, 
and the flat summit, gently swelling, enjoys to the full a 
clearer sky; and, when mists shroud the winding vales, 
alone shines with its own brightness; the dainty roof.of the 
tall villa gently rises up, to the unclouded stars. On this 
side may you see the seven sovereign hills and take the 
measure of all Rome, the Alban hills and Txisculan. too, 
and every cool retreat nestling near the cit\-, old Fidenae, 
and tiny Rubrae^, and Annu Perenna's' fruitful grove that 
joys in maiden blood. On that side the traveler shows on 
ihe Flaminian or Salarian way, though his carriage- makes 

.364 Classical Associations 

gestator patet essedo tacente, 

ne blando rota sit molesta somno, 

quem nee rumpere nauticum celeuma 

nee elanjor valet helciariorum, 

eum sit tarn prope Mulvius, saerumque 

lapsae per Tiberim volent carinae. 

hoc rus, seu potius domus vocanda est, 

eommendat dominus: tuam putabis, 

tarn non invida tamque liberalis, 

tam comi patet hospitalitate : 

eredas Alcinoi pics Penates 

aut, facti modo divitis, Molorehi. 

vos nune omnia parva qui putatis, 

eenteno gelidum ligone Tibur 

vel Praeneste domate pendulamque 

uni dedite Setiam colono, 

dum me iudiee praeferantur istis 

luli iugera pauca Martialis. 

Mart. iv. 64. 


Eece Palatino erevit reverentia monti! 
exultatque habitante dec. . . . 
non alium certe decuit rectoribus orbis 
esse larem, nulloque magis se colle potestas 
aestimat, et summi sentit fastigia iuris. 
attollens apicem subieetis regia rostris, 
tot circum delubra videt, tantisque deorum 
cingitur excubiis. iuvat infra teeta Tonantis 
eernere Tarpeia pendentes rupe Gigantes, 
eaelatasque fores, mediisque volantia signa 
nubibus, et densum stipantibus aethera templis, 
aeraque vestitis numerosa puppe eolumnis 
consita, subnLxasque iugis immanibus sedes, 
naturam cumulante manu; spoliisque mieantes 
innumeros arcus. aeies stupet igne metalli, 
et cireumfuso trepidans obtunditur auro. 

Claudian de vi Cons. Honor, (xxviii) 35-52. 

■ The wealthy king of Phaeacia at whose palace Odysseus was entertained. 
■- A shepherd who, in return for a favor, was eoricbed by Hercules'. 

of Places in Italy 365 

no sound, that wheels should not disturb the soothing 
sleep which neither boatswain's call nor bargeman's shout 
is loud enough to break, though the Mulvian Bridge is so 
near and the keels that swiftly glide along the sacred Tiber. 
This country seat — if it should not be called a town man- 
sion — its owner commends to you: you will fancy it is 
yours, so ungrudgingly, so freely, a^nd with such genial 
hospitality it lies open to you : you will believe it to be the 
kindly dwelling of Alcinous,' or of Molorchus^ just become 
rich. You who to-day deem all this but small, subdue ye 
cool Tibur's soil, or Praeneste, with an hundred hoes, and 
assign to one tenant Setia on the hill, so that ye let me as 
judge prefer to that the few fields of Julius Martialis. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

The Palatine Hill and Its Surroundings' 

Behold, new honor dignifies the Palatine as with 
joy and gladness it receives the divine tenant [the emperor 
Honorius]. . . . Surely no other seat were fit abode 
for those who rule the world; on no hill is Government 
more conscious of its worth, or feels more deeply the pride 
of supreme power. Rearing aloft its crown, with the 
Rostra far below, the royal power looks forth upon 
countless sanctuaries and countless sentinel gods en- 
circling it. How fair a sight, to behold yonder beneath 
the gable of Thundering Jove the graven temple doors 
and their Giants in space above the Tarpeian Rock, 
lo look upon statues soaring amid the clouds, and upon 
the high air dense with thronging temples, and every- 
where the terrain a forest of columns adorned with beaks 
from many a conquered ship, and palaces reposing on 
foundations mountain-high which the hands of man have 
upreared, adding still to Nature, and arches unnumbered, 
rich with glittering spoils of war! The eye is blinded and 
bewildered by flashing metal and the gleam of gold on every 

"^"°- . Grant Showerman 

8 The Palatine hill was the centre of the Rome of the Kings. Here Romulus made his 
settlement and here the buildings were erected which marked the first stage in the city's 
growth. After the addition of the Forum, however, which gradually became the centre 
of the business and political life, the hill was given up to the houses of the wealthy. 
Temples were erected in increasing numbers. In the Empire the imperial palaces werp 
naturally located on this height. 

366 Classical Associations 

Augur et fulgente decoris arcu 
Phoebus acceptusque novem camenis, 
qui salutari levat arte fessos 

corporis artus, 
si Palatinas videt aequus arces 
remque Romanam Latiumque felix 
aeternum in lustrum meliusque semper 
prorogat aevum. 

Hor. C. S. 61-68. 

Palace of Augustus 

Singula dum miror, video fulgentibus armis 

conspicuos postes, tectaque digna deo. 
an lovis, haec, dixi, domus est? quod ut esse putarem, 

augurium menti querna corona dabat. 
cuius ut accepi dominum, "non fallimur," inquam: 

"et magni verum est banc lovis esse domum." 
cur tamen apposita velatur ianua lauro, 

cingit et augustas arbor opaca fores? 
num quia perpetuos meruit domus ista triumphos? 

Ov. Trist. iii. 1, 33-41. 

Palace of Tiberius 

Vim Ka1. Febr. hora fere septima, cunctatus an ad 
prandium surgeret marcente adhuc stomacho pridiani cibi 
onere, tandem suadentibus amicis egressus est. Cum in 
crypta, per quam transeundum erat, pueri nobiles ex Asia 
ad edendas in scaena operas evocati praepararentur, ut eos 
inspiceret hortareturque restitit, ac nisi princeps gregis al- 
gere se diceret, redire ac repraesentare spectaculum voluil. 
Duplex dehinc fama est: alii tradunt adloquenti pueros a 
tergo Chaeream cervicem gladio caesim graviter percus- 
sisse, praemissa voce: Hoc age\ dehinc Cornelium Sabi- 

* The temple of Apollo stood upon the Palatine. 

5 The poet Ovid, who was exiled by the emperor Augustus, was constantly begging 
to be allowed to return to Rome and addressing the monarch in terms of extravagant 

" The emperor Califiula, who was murdered in 41 ,A D. 

oj Places in Italy 367 

Augur Apollo H Bearer of the bow! 
Warrior and prophet! Loved one of the Nine! 
Healer in sickness! Comforter in woe! 
If still the templed crags of Palatine 
And Latium's fruitful plains to thee are dear, 
Perpetuate for cycles yet to come, 
Mightier in each advancing year, 
The ever growing might and majesty of Rome. 

Aubrey de Vere 

An Exile Indulges in Fulsome Flattery 

While^ I was admiring each object, I beheld a portal 
gorgeous with shining arms, and a habitation worthy of a 
deity. "Is this the house of Jove?" said I, for a wreath 
of oak leaves caused a presentiment in my mind for taking 
it to be such. When I learned who was its owner, I said, 
"I was not deceived, and it is true that this is the house 
of the great Jove.". . . . But why is its gate wreathed 
with the laurel fastened to it, and why does the over- 
shadowing tree surround the doors of majesty? Is it be- 
cause this one house has deserved everlasting triumph? 

H. A. Riley 

The Murder of an Emperor 

On the ninth day before the Kalends of February, at 
about the seventh hour, he^ hesitated whether or not to 
get up for luncheon, since his stomach was still disordered 
from excess of food on the day before, but at length he 
came out at the persuasion of his friends. In the covered 
passage through which he had to pass, some boys of good 
birth, who had been summoned from Asia to appear on the 
stage, were rehearsing their parts, and he stopped to watch 
and encourage -them; and had not the leader of the troop 
complained that he had a chill, he would have returned 
and had the performance given at once. From this point 
there are two versions of the story: some say that as he 
was talking with the boys, Chaerea came up behind and 
gave him a deep cut in the neck, having first cried: "Do 

368 Classical Associations 

num, alterum e coniuratis, tribunum ex adverso traiecisse 
pectus; alii Sabinum, summota per conscios centuriones 
turba, signum more militiae petisse, et Gaio lovem dante 
Chaeream exclamasse: Accipe ratumi respicientique ma- 
xillam ictu discidisse. lacentem contractisque membris 
clamitantem se vivere ceteri vulneribus triginta confece- 
runt; nam signum erat omnium: Repete! 

Suet. Calig. 58. 

Palace of Nero 

Non in alia re tamen damnosior quam in aedificando, 
domum a Palatio Esquilias usque fecit, quam primo tran- 
sitoriam, mox incendio absumptam restitutamque auream 
nominavit. De cuius spatio atque cultu suffecerit haec 
rettulisse. Vestibulum eius fuit, in quo colossus CXX 
pedum staret ipsius effigie; tanta laxitas, ut porticus trip- 
lices miliarias haberet; item stagnum maris instar, circum- 
saeptum aedificiis ad urbium speciem; rura insuper, arvis 
atque vinetis et pascuis silvisque varia, cum multitudine 
omnis generis pecudum ac ferarum. In ceteris partibus 
cuncta auro lita, distincta gemmis unionumque conchis 
erant; caenationes laqueatae tabulis eburneis versatilibus, 
ut flores, fistulatis, ut unguenta desuper spargerentur; 
praecipua caenationum rotunda, quae perpetuo diebus ac 
noctibus vice mundi circumageretur; balineae marinis et 
albulis fluentes aquis. Eius modi domum cum absolutam 
dedicaret, hactenus comprobavit, ut se diceret quasi homi- 
nem tandem habitare coepisse. 

Suet. Nero 31. 

' The emperor Nero who died in 68 A. D. 

of Places in Italy 369 

your duty!" and that then the tribune Cornelius Sabinus, 
who was the other conspirator and faced Gains, stabbed 
him in the breast. Others say that Sabinus, after getting 
rid of the crowd through centurions who were in the plot, 
asked for the watchword as soldiers do, and that when 
Gains gave him "Jupiter," he cried, "So be it," and as 
Gains looked around, he split his jawbone with a blow of 
his sword. As he lay upon the ground and with writhing 
limbs called out that he still lived, the others dispatched 
him with thirty wounds; for the general signal was "Strike 


An Emperor's Extravagance 

There was nothing however in which he' was more ruin- 
ously prodigal than in building. He made a palace ex- 
tending all the way from the Palatine to the Esquiline, 
which at first he called the House of the Passage, but when 
it was burned shortly after its completion and rebuilt, the 
Golden House. Its size and splendor will be sufficiently 
indicated by the following details. Its vestibule was large 
enough to contain a colossal statue of the emperor a hun- 
dred and twenty feet high; and it was so extensive that it 
had a triple colonnade a mile long. There was a pond too, 
like a sea, surrounded with buildings to represent cities, 
besides tracts of country varied by tilled fields, vineyards, 
pastures and woods, with great numbers of wild and do- 
mestic animals. In the rest of the house all parts were 
overlaid with gold and adorned with gems and mother- 
of-pearl. There were dining rooms with fretted ceilings 
of ivory, whose panels could turn and shower down flowers 
and were fitted with pipes for sprinkling the guests with 
perfumes. The main banquet hall was circular and con- 
stantly revolved day and night, like the heavens. He 
had baths supplied with sea water and sulphur water. 
When the edifice was finished in this style and he dedi- 
cated it, he deigned to say nothing more in the way of ap- 
proval than that he was at last beginning to be housed 
like a human being. 


370 Classical Associations 

Palace of Domitian 

Tectum augustum,ingens, non centum insigne columnis, 
sed quantae superos caelumque Atlante remisso 
sustentare queant. stupet hoc vicina Tonantis 
regia, teque pari laetantur sede locatum 
numina. nee magnum properes escendere caelum : 
tanta patet moles effusaeque impetus aulae 
liberior campo multumque amplexus operti 
aetheros et tantum domino minor; ille penatis 
implet et ingenti genio iuvat. aemulus illic 
mons Libys Iliacusque nitet, .... multa Syene 
et Chios et glaucae certantia Doridi saxa 
Lunaque portandis tantum suffecta columnis. 
longa supra species: fessis vix culmina prendas 
visibus auratique putes laquearia caeli. 

Stat. Silv. iv. 2, 18-31. 


"E(7Ti 5' obv Tov kovKovWov filov, KodaTtp apxo-las KwncoSias, 
avayvuvaL to. /jitv irpSiTa. irdXiTeias Kal aTparajyia^, to. 8' varepa 
woTovs Kal Silirva Kal /lovovovxl K6ip.ovs Kal Xa/iird5as Kal TraiSidc 
airacav. Eis TraiSiai' yap 'iycjyt Ti§ Kal oiKo8ona.i wdKv- 
TeXeTs Kal KajaaKevas TTipiiraToiv Kal XovrpSiv Kal in /^aXXoj' ypa- 
(pas Kal a.v8pi.avTas Kal ttjv irtpl ravras ras rkxvas (nrovSrjv, &s 
eKilvos avvrjyt /i67dXots ava\6itj.a<nvi us raCra ra ■w\ovT(f pvSrjv 
Karaxpoifiivos ov r^d^polKU -koKvv koI Xafiirpov airo rSiv arpa- 
Tei&v, oirov Kal vvv, eiriboaw roi.avT'qv tt}% Tpv>pfjs exoixrris, oi 
AovKOvWiavol ktjvol tS>v PaciXiKciiv kv toTs xoXureXeordTOts 

Plut. Lucull. xxxix. 

' Domitian became emperor in 81 A. D. 

* LucuUus was a prominent general, politician, and patron of art at Rome in the 
closing century of the Republic. This passage is quoted as being typical of others in 
which the houses of the wealthy are described. The magnificent gardens in connection 
with the houses deserve mention, especially so in the case of those of Lucuilus and S.illust . 
Both of these lay in the region of what is now the Pincian Hill. 

oj Places in Italy 371 

A Poet Glorifies the Reigning Emperor' 

Noble is the hall and spacious, not glorified with a hun- 
dred columns, but with so many as might bear up the gods 
in Heaven, were Atlas discharged. The neighboring 
palace of the Thunderer is amazed at thine. The gods 
rejoice that thou hast thy home in as fair a seat as their 
own. Hasten not to ascend to the great sky. So spacious 
is the pile; more enlarged than the plain is the career of thy 
vast hall, clasping and closing within it wide space of sky, 
unsurpassed save by its lord. He fills the place; and his 
mighty presence makes its delight. There, as in rivalry, 
gleams the marble of Libya and of Ilium; resting upon 
syenite are slabs of Chian and blocks of sea-grey stone: 
and Luna is there, pressed into the service only to support 
the columns. So high is the vault above, the weary sight 
can scarce strain to the roof: you might think it the ceiling 
of the golden heavens. 

D. A. Slater 

The Home of a Roman Millionaire 

And it is true that in the life of LucuUus,^ as in an ancient 
comedy, one reads in the first part of political measures 
and military commands, and in the latter part of drinking 
bouts, and banquets, and what might pass for revel-routs, 
and torch-races, and all manner of frivolity. For I must 
count as frivolity his costly edifices, his ambulatories, and 
baths, and still more his paintings and statues (not to 
speak of his devotion to these arts), which he collected at 
enormous outlays, pouring out into such channels the vast 
and splendid wealth which he accumulated from his cam- 
paigns. Even now, when luxury has increased so much, 
the gardens of LucuUus are counted among the most 
costly of the imperial gardens. 

Bernadotte Perrin 

372 Classical Associations 

SitouStJs 5' ix^ia Kal X670U to. wtpl ri/v tSiv ;8i/3Xta)i' KaracFKiVi)v. 
Kai yap TToXXa /cat yeypafiiikva /caXSs avviiytv, ?} t« XP'?"''* 1'' 
ipCKoTipxurkpa rjjs KTrjcews, dveifikvuv itaai. tS>v PijJKio^riKSiv, Kal 
tS>v TTipl avTas Trepi.Tr&.Toiv Kal <Txo\a(TTripiwv aKioKxirui vtto- 
5ixoiJ.ivuv Tovs "EXXijj'as ibawep els MovcrSiv n Karayuiytov kKet<7e 
(poLTUvTas Kal cvvSiriiiepe{iovTas aWri\ois, (xtto tS>v aWwv xP^i^v 
aajxtvois airoTpexovrai. UoWclkls Si Kal (rvvtaxo^O'^tv avTOi e/i- 
/SaXXojj' ets TOW wepiiraTovs tois ipi\o\6yoLs Kal tols iroXtrtKots 
avvewparTtv otov Skoivro' Kal oXojs t<rTia Kal irpvTaveiov "EXXj;- 

VLKOV 6 OIKOS fjV aVTOV ToTs a(pLKVOVIJ,kvOK eis 'Pw/iTJJ'. 

Plut. Lucull. xlii. 


Ut primum caedem Pertinacis intellexit, propere 
ad exercitum contendit. Cumque ad portas munimenti 
accessisset, petere coepit a militibus Romanum imperium. 
Hie vero res turpissima, atque indignissima nomine urbis 
accidit. Roma enim, una cum toto suo imperio, quasi in 
foro aut mercatu venalis proposita est: eamque vende- 
bant ii, qui imperatorem suum occiderant. Empturiebant 
autem Sulpicianus et lulianus, contra licentes invicem, 
ille intus, hie foris; atque paulatim eo ventUm est, ut singu- 
lis militibus, vicena sestertia licentes promitterent. Erant 
enim, qui utrique renuntiarent, dicerentque luliano: 
"Sulpicianus tantum nobis dabit; quid tu adiicis?" Item- 
que Sulpiciano: "lulianus nobis tantum promittit; quid 
tu praeterea polliceris?" Potior autem fuisset Sulpi- 
cianus, (quippe intra castra, et praefectus urbis erat, prior- 
que vicena sestertia promiserat) nisi. lulianus non sensim 
amplius, sed simul quinis millibus nummum eundem 
superasset, eamque summam, magna voce clamitans, 
manibus simul ostendisset. Tanta enim accessione man- 

lUnder Tiberius, tlie imperiai^uard Icnown as the praetorians was given permanent 
barraclcs at Rome. From this time their power continued to grow until it reached the 
point where no one could be declared emperor without the sanction of the soldiers. The 
passage quoted above cites a case which the Romans remembered ever after with humilia- 
tion. In 193 A. D., after the emperor Pertinax had been killed by the soldiers, a most 
disgraceful scene takes place in the camp: Sulpicianus, the city prefect, and Didius Julianus, 
an ex-senator, vie with each other in bidding for the vacant throne. 
2 A denarius was about sixteen cents. 

of Places in Italy 373 

A Wealthy Man Opens His Library to the PubUc 

But what he did in the establishment of a library de- 
serves warm praise. He got together many books, and 
they were well written, and his use of them was more 
honorable to him than his acquisition of them. His li- 
braries were thrown open to all, and the cloisters surround- 
ing them and the study-rooms were accessible without 
restriction to the Greeks who constantly repaired thither 
as to an hostelry of the Muses, and spent the day with one 
another, in glad escape from their other occupations, 
LucuUus himself also often spent his leisure hours there 
with them, walking about in the cloisters with their, 
scholars, and he would assist their statesmen in whatever 
they desired. And in general his house was a home and 
prytaneium for the Greeks who came to Rome. 


Rome is Sold to the Highest Bidderi 

He, accordingly, on- hearing of the death of Pertinax,; 
hastily made his way to the camp, and standing near the 
gates of the fort made offers to the soldiers in regard to the- 
Roman throne. Then ensued a most disgraceful affair 
and one unworthy of Rome. For just as is done in some 
market and auction room, both the city and the whole 
empire were bid off. The sellers were the people who had 
killed their emperpr, and the would-be buyers were Sulpi- 
cianus and Julianus, who vied to outbid each other, one 
from within, the other from without. By their increases 
they speedily reached the sum of five thousand denarii^ 
per man. Some of the guard kept reporting and saying 
to Julianus: "Sulpicianus is willing to give ao much; now 
what will add?" - And again to Sulpicianus: "Jul- 
ianus offers so much; how much more do you make it?" 
Sulpicianus would have won the day, since he was inside 
and was prefect of the city and was the iirst to say five 
thousand, had not Julianus riisecj his bid, and no. longer 
by small degree but by twelve hundred and fifty denarii 
at oncef, which he offered with a great shout, indicating 
the amount likewise on his fingers." 'Captivated by the 

374 Classical Associations 

cipati milites, metuentesque ne Sulpicianus caedem ali- 
quando Pertinacis ulcisceretur, quod lulianus aiebat fore; 
hunc recipiunt, et imperatorem designant. 

Dio Cass. Ixxiii. 11 (Latin Version by Sturz, Vol. iv.) 


Postquam, ut dixi, senatus in Catonis sententiam dis- 
cessit, consul optimum factu ratus, noctem, quae instabat, 
antecapere, ne quid eo spatio novaretur, triumviros quae 
supplicium postulabat parareiubet; ipse, praesidiis disposi- 
tis, Lentulum in carcerem deducit; idem fit ceteris per 
praetores. Est in carcere locus, quod Tullianum adpel- 
latur, ubi paululum ascenderis ad laevam, circiter duo- 
decim pedes humi depressus. Eum muniunt undique 
parietes atque insuper camera lapideis fornicibus iuncta, 
sed inculta, tenebris, odore foeda atque terribilis eius f acies 
est. In eum locum postquam demissus est Lentulus, 
vindices rerum capitalium, quibus praeceptum erat, 
laqueo gulam fregere. Ita ille patricius ex gente claris- 
sima Corneliorum, qui consulare imperium Romae ha- 
buerat, dignum moribus factisque suis exitium vitae 
invenit. De Cethego, Statilio, Gabinio, Cepario eodem 
modo supplicium sumptum est. 

Sail. Cat. Iv. 

Ingenti incremento rebus auctis cum in tanta multitu- 
dine hominum, discrimine recta anperperamfacticonfuso, 
facinora clandestina fierent, career ad terrorem incres- 
centis audaciae media urbe imminens foro aedificatur. 

Liv. i. 33, 8. 

* The Romans did not confine wrongdoers as a punishment but made use of their 
prison as a place of detention until the trial, or as a place for execution. This prison (built 
in the time of Ancus Martius) was situated near the Comitium and consisted of upper 
rooms and a frightful dungeon underneath called the Tullianum, in which countless prison- 
ers met their death, among others Jugurtha and the Gallic chief, Vercingetorix, who so 
bravely defied Julius Caesar during the latter's closing campaign in Gaul. The above 
passage is famous because of the importance attached to the story of Catiline's con- 
spiracy in 63 B. C. and the execution of its leaders. The triumvirs (tresviri capitales) were 
minor magistrates who had charge of prisons and executions. 

of Places in Italy 375 

difference and at the same time through fear that Sulpi- 
cianus rnight avenge Pertinax (an idea that Julianus put 
into their heads) they received the highest bidder inside 
and designated him emperor. 

H. B. Foster 

Some Famous Revolutionists are Executed^ 

After the senate had adopted the recommendation of 
Cato, as I have said, the consul thought it best to forestall 
any new movement during the approaching night. He 
therefore ordered the triumvirs to make the necessary 
preparations for the execution. After setting guards, he 
personally led Lentulus to the dungeon, while the praetors 
performed the same office for the others. 

In the prison, when you have gone up a little way 
towards the left, there is a place called the TuUianum, 
about twelve feet below the surface of the ground. It -is 
enclosed on all sides by walls, and above it is a chamber 
with a vaulted roof of stone. Neglect, darkness, and 
stench make it hideous and fearsome to behold. Into this 
place Lentulus was let down, and then the executioners 
carried out their orders and strangled him. Thus that 
patrician, of the illustrious stock of the Cornelii, who had 
held consular authority at Rome, ended his life in a manner 
befitting his character and his crimes. Cethegus, Sta- 
tilius, Gabinius, and Caeparius suffered the same punish- 


Rome Feels the Need of a Prison 

While these enormous additions to the commonwealth 
had been effected, it was found that in so great a multitude 
the distinction between right and wrong had become ob- 
scured, and crimes were being secretly committed. 
Accordingly, to overawe men's growing lawlessness, a 
prison was built in the midst of the city, above the Forum. 

B. O. Foster 

376 Classical Associations 

Quibusdam custodiae traditis non modo studendi so- 
lacium ademptum, sed etiam sermonis et conloqui usus. 
Citati ad causam dicendam partim se domi vulneraverunt 
certi damnationis et ad vexationem ignominiamque vitan- 
dam, partim in media curia venerium hauserunt; et tamen 
conligatis vulneribus ac semianimes palpitantesque adhuc 
in carcerem rapti. Nemo punitorum non in Gemonias 
abiectus uncoque tractus, viginti uno die abiecti tractique, 
inter eos feminae et pueri. 

Suet. Tib. 61. 

Vitellium infestis mucronibus coactum modo erigere os 
et offerre contumeliis, nunc cadentes statuas suas, plerum-. 
que rostra aut Galbae occisi locum contueri, postremo ad. 
Gemonias, ubi corpus Flavii Sabini iacuerat, propulere. 
Una vox non degeneris animi excepta, cum tribuno insul- 
tanti se tamen imperatorem eius fuisse respondit; ac deinde 
ingestis vulneribus concidit. Et vulgus eadem pravitate 
insectabatur interfectum, qua foverat viventem. 

Tac. Hist. iii. 85. 


Via Appia 

Ausoniae maxima fama viae. 

Mart. ix. 101, 2. 

Appia longarum .... regina viarum. 

■ _ - ., Stat. Silv. ii. 2, 12. 

2 An accodnt of the persedution under the emperor Tiberius. It was the custom to ex- 
pose the bo(^ies of those executed within the prison upon the Gemonian Stairs just outside. 

3 Emperor' in 69 A. D. who fell before the advance of Vespasian. 

* Anotherenlpefor who reigned in 68-69 A. D. He was killed by a mob in the Forum. 

'-> Brother of jVespasian, and prefect of the city. 

*The Via Appia was built by Appius Claudius in 312 B. C. It ran as far as Capua at 
first, leaving the city towards the south at the Porta Capena It was later extended to 

oj Places in Italy 377 

How an Emperor's Victims are Disposed oP 

Some of those who were consigned to prison were denied 
not only the consolation of reading, but even the privilege 
of conversing and talking together. Of those who were 
cited to plead their causes, some opened their veins at 
hoine, feeling sure of being condemned and wishing to 
avoid annoyance and humiliation, while others drank 
poison in full view of the senate; yet the wounds of the 
former were bandaged and they were hurried half-dead, 
but still quivering to the prison. Everyone of those w^io 
were executed was thrown out upon the Stairs of Mourn- 
ing and dragged to the Tiber with hooks, as many as 
twenty being so treated in a single day, including women 
and children. 


A Well-deserved Fate 

Vitellius,' compelled by threatening swords, first to raise 
his face and offer it to insulting blows, then to behold his 
own statues falling around him, and more than once to 
look at the Rostra and the spot where Galba^ was slain, 
was then driven along until they reached the Gemoniae, 
the place where the corpse of Flavins Sabinus* had lain. 
One speech was heard from him showing a spirit not ut- 
terly degraded, when, to the insults of a tribune, he an- 
swered, "Yet I was your Emperor." Then he fell under 
a shower of blows, and the mob reviled the dead man with 
the same heartlessness with which they had flattered him 
when he was alive. 

Alfred Church and William Brodribb 

The Appian Way 

The most celebrated of Italian roads.' 

Appia, the queen of the long highways. 


Classical Associations 

Pholograph'by Katharine Alien ^ ^ 

The Appiak Way Where It Enters Terracina 

Donee Troius ignis ,et renatae 
Tarpeius pater intonabit aulae, , .. 

haec donee via te regente terras . 

annosa magis Appia seneseat. 

Stat. Silv: iv. 3. 160-163. 

"EcTTL 5i ri 'Airiria 68os rintpS>v irevrt tii^wvw dvSpl tK 
'Pa)/ir;$ yap avrri es Kairirrji/ Stij/cet. tipos 5i kari t^s bhov 
TaiiTJjs oaov apia^as dvo avrias levai dXXijXais, Kal lariv 
a^iodkaros iravTwv ^uaXurra. t6v yap \i9ov airavra, ^uXitijj' 
T€ ovra Kal (piiau (TKXrjpov, eK xwpas a)^ris fiaKpav oCo-tjs 
Ttp.div "Attttuk evTavBa iKoiiiae. raijTris yap 5j) t^s yijs oiidanrj 

I Jupiter.'' 

\The emperor Domltian. 

■ Procopius writes in the sixth century A. D. 

of Places in Italy 


Scene Near the Appian Way Not Far from Rome 

The Time-worn Appian Way 

As long as the altar-fire of Troy endures and the Tar- 
peian Sire^ still thunders in his re-born temple: aye, until 
this road comes to be older than the time-worn Appian 
and sees thee^ still sovereign over all the world. 

D. A. Slater 

The Appian Road Described^ 

Now the Appian Way is in length a journey of five days 
for an unencumbered traveler; for it extends from Rome to 
Capua. And the breadth of this road is such that two 
wagons going in opposite directions can pass each other, 
and it is one of the noteworthy sights of the world. For 
all the stone, which is mill-stone and hard by nature, 
Appius quarried in another place far away and brought 
there: for it is not found anywhere in this district. And 
after working these stones until they were smooth and 
flat, and cutting them to a polygonal shape he fastened 

380 Classical Associations 

■;iriipuKt. Xeious 6e toiis \ldovs xat 6/iaXoiis ipyaaantvos iyyoiviovs 
T,e rfj kvTOnfj ireiroirifjievos, ks aXXi^Xous ^vpiStjatv, oire xd\i.Ka 
ivTos o!)Tt TL oXXo in^f^Xtifievoi, oi &i aWriXoLS otirw re 
a<ripa\S}s ffvvSidevTai Kai ntfimaaiv, were otl hi) oiiK tl(7lv 
Ttpiwcuevot,, oXX' eiJLireipvKaai.v dXXi7Xois, So^av toTs opSiai Traps - 
XOVTai. Kai xpovoy rpt^iVTOs cvxvov 8fi oiirws afia^ais rt 
TToXXaTs Kol f&jOis axaffi biafiarol yivofievoi es ijfikpav hcaarriv 
oire Tjjs ap/xovlas iravTawaffL diaKtKpLVTai ovre tlvI ahrSiv 5ia- 
<pdapfivai fj fieiovL ylvtaBai ^vvkirtatv, ov tiifv ovbt ttjs d/tapu7fls 
Ti airofiaKkadai. to. fxev odv rrjs 'Airirias d8qv TOiavTO, 'tan. 

Procop. V. 14, 6-11. 

AiiTos 5' es "E^ecroy Karafias duTXtvatv « rriv 'IraXiac Kai es 
'VdinTjv TjirilyeTO, 5i.a<pus kv BptvTta'u^ tov OTpwrbv es ra oticela. 
e(p' 0T(^ p,(CKi(STO. COS dritiOTi.K(^ toiis "Pto/iaious e^eTrXijfec. Kai aiiT<3 
irpoaibvTL aTrjVTCOv Kara fiepos, ToppoiTaroi fiev ot veoi, ^^^$ 8i 
01$ iSvvavTO'Kad' fiXwiav e/cacrroi, Kai ctti iraaiv ri fiovXr) davfia- 
foi'ca TCOJ' yeyovoTcav. ov yap iro) rts kx^pbu ttiXikovtov eXoJC 
ToaaSt o/xov Kai fieyiara Wvri 7rpo(retXr,0et, Kai ttjc 'Pco/.iaicoj' 
apxvf ^T'l TOV EiY'paTTji' coptKei. 

App. B. M. xii. 116. 

Ad urbem ita veni, ul nemo ullius ordinis homo nomen- 
clatori notus fuerit, qui mihi obviam non venerit,praeter eos 
inimicos, quibus id ipsum, se inimicos esse, non liceret aut 
dissimulare aut negare. Cum venissem ad portam Cape- 
nam, gradus templorum ab infima plebe completi erant. 
A qua plausu maximo cum esset mihi gratulatio significata, 
similis et frequentia et plausus me usque ad Capitolium 
celebravit, in foroque et in ipso Capitolio miranda multi- 
tude fuit. 

Cic. ad Att. iv. 1. 

* Pompey the Great who, in 62 B. C, returned from the East after having brought the 
Mithridatic War to a successful conclusion. 

6 Cicero was exiled from Rome in 58 B. C. by reason of a charge based upon his action 
in putting Roman citizens to death in connection with the conspiracy of Catiline in 6.S 
B.C. He was recalled the next year, however, through the efforts of his friends, and after 
(ravelling from Brundisium along the Appian Way, entered Rome amid scenes of rejoicing. 

oj Places in Italy 381 

them together without putting concrete or anything else 
between them. And they were fastened together so se- 
curely and the joints were so firmly closed, that they give 
the appearance, when one looks at them, not of being 
fitted together, but of having grown together. - And after 
the passage of so long a time, and after being traversed 
by many wagons and all kinds of animals every day, they 
have neither separated at all at the joints, nor has anyone 
of the stones been worn out or reduced in thickness, — nay 
they have not even lost any of their polish. Such, then, 
is the Appian Way. 

H. B. Dewing 

The Victorious Pompey Returns to Rome 

Then he^ marched to Ephesus, embarked for Italy, and 
hastened to Rome, having dismissed his soldiers at 
Brundisium to their homes, a democratic action which 
greatly surprised the Romans. As he approached 
the city, he was met by successive processions, first 
of youths, farthest from the city, then bands of men 
of different ages came out as far as they severally could 
walk; last of all came the Senate, which was lost in wonder 
at his exploits, for no one had ever before vanquished so 
powerful an enemy, and at the same time brought so many 
great nations under subjection and extended the Roman 
rule to the Euphrates. '- ' =' 

Horace White 

A Popular Politician Returns from Exile 

When P came near the city, there was not a soul of any 
class known to my attendant, who did not come to meet 
me, except those enemies who could neither hide nor deny 
their enmity. When I reached the Capenan Gate, the 
steps of the temple were thronged with the populace. 
Their joy was exhibited in loud applause: a similar crowd 
accompanied me with their like applause to the Capitol, 
and in the Forum and on the very Capitol there was an 
extraordinary gathering. 


382 Classical Associations 

Capena grandi porta qua pluit gutta 
Phrygiumque Matris Almo qua lavat ferrum, 
Horatiorum qua viret sacer campus 
et qua pusilli fervet Herculis fanum, 
Faustine, plena Bassus ibat in raeda, 
omnes beati copias trahens ruris. 
illic videres frutice nobili caules 
et utrumque porrum sessilesque lactucas 
pigroque ventri non inutiles betas, 
• illic coronam pinguibus gravem turdis 
leporemque laesum Gallici canis dente 
nondumque victa lacteum faba porcum. 
nee feriatus ibat ante carrucam, 
sed tuta faeno cursor ova portabat. 
urbem petebat Bassus? immo rus ibat. 

Mart. iii. 47. 

Via Flaminia** 

Romae ad primum nuntium cladis eius cum ingenti 
terrore ac tumultu concursus in forum populi est factum. 
Matronae vagae per vias, quae repens clades adlata quaeve 
fortuna exercitus esset, obvios percunctantur. Et cum 
frequentis contionis modo turba in comitium et curiam 
versa magistratus vocaret, tandem baud multo ante solis 
occasum M. Pomponius praetor "Pugna" inquit "magna 
victi sumus." Et quamquam nihil certius ex eo auditum 
est, tamen alius ab alio impleti rumoribus domes referunt 
consulem cum magna parte copiarum caesum, superesse 
paucos aut fuga passim per Etruriam sparsos aut captos 
ab hoste. Quot casus exercitus victi fuerant, tot in curas 
distracti animi eorum erant, quorum propinqui sub C. 

" The Flaminian road was built in 220 B. C. It ran northeast to Ariminum pa.ssing 
in later days through the Porta Flaminia. The first part of it (from the Capitol to the 
Portico of Agrippa) was called Via Lata. This street is now marked by the modem Corse. 
For a good story in connection with an incident in the Gothic invasion, see Procop. B. G . 
vi. 5, 5ff. 

' Above the Capenan Gate (through which the Appian Way led) was an aqueduct. 

' A small branch of the Tiber. 

« Cybele. 

^° The so-called site of the legendary contest between the Horatii and Curiatii in the 
7lh century. (Liv. i. 24 ff.) 

u The defeat of the Romans in 217 B. C. at Lake Trasimenus, 

oj Places in Italy 383 

Living in the Country Does Not Always Mean Fresh 
Eggs and Vegetables 

Where the Capene Gate drips' with heavy drops, and 
where Almo' washes the Phrygian Mother's' knife, where 
the plain, hallowed by the Horatii,'" is green, and where 
the temple of the little Hercules is thronged, Bassus was 
riding, Faustinus, in a traveling carriage crammed full, 
■ dragging with him all the abundance of the rich country. 
There might you see cabbages with noble heads, and each 
kind of leek, and squat lettuces, and beets not unserviceable 
to a sluggish stomach; there a hoop heavy with fat field- 
fares, and a hare that had been wounded by the fang of a 
Gallic hound, and a sucking-pig too young to munch beans. 
Nor was the runner taking holiday: he went before the 
vehicle carrying eggs protected by straw. Was Bassus 
making for the city? On the contrary: he was going into 
the country. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

Tragic News by the Flaminian Way 

As soon as the first news of this disaster'^ arrived at 
Rome, the people in great terror and tumult crowded to- 
gether into the Forum. The matrons, running up and 
down the streets, asked every one who came in their way 
what sudden calamity was said to have happened; in what 
state was the army. At length, after a crowd, not less 
numerous than that of a full assembly of the people, had 
collected in the coinitium and about- the senate-house, 
calling on the magistrates for information^ a littfe before 
sunset, Marcus Pomponius, the praeto'r', told them, "We 
have been defeated in a great battle.-" Though nothing 
more particular was heard from hintr, yet the people, catch- 
ing up rumors one from another, returned to their houses 
with accounts that "the consul was slain, together with a 
great part of his army; that few survived, and that these 
were either dispersed through Etruria, or taken by the 
enemy." Every kind of misfortune which had ever be- 
fallen vanquished troops was now pictured in the anxious 
minds of those whose relations had served under the con- 

384 Classical Associations 

Flaminio consule meruerant, ignorantium, quae cuiusque 
suorum fortuna esset; nee quisquam satis certum habet, 
quid aut speret aut timeat. Postero ac deinceps aliquot 
diebus ad portas maior prope mulierum quam virorum 
multitudo stetit aut suorum aliquem aut nuntios de iis op- 
periens, circumfundebanturque obviis sciscitantes neque 
avelli, utique ab notis, priusquam ordine omnia inquisis- 
sent, poterant. Inde varios vultus digredientium ab nun- 
tiis cerneres, ut cuique laeta aut tristia nuntiabantur, 
gratulantisque aut consolantis redeuntibus domos circum- 
fusos. Feminarum praecipue et gaudia insignia erant et 
luctus. Unam in ipsa porta sospiti filio repente oblatam 
in conplexu eius expirasse ferunt; alteram, cui mors iili 
falso nuntiata erat, maestam sedentem domi ad primum 
conspectum redeuntis (fill) gaudio nimio exanimatam. 
Senatum praetores per dies aliquot ab orto usque ad occi- 
dentem solem in curia retinent consultantes, quonam 
duce aut quibus copiis resisti victoribus Poenis posset. 

Liv. xxii. 7, 6-14. 

Quisquis.Flaminiam teris, viator, 
noli nobile pr5,eterire marmor. 
urbis deliciae salesque Nili, 
ars et gratia, lusus et voluptas, „ 
Romani.decus et dolor theatri 
atque omnes Veneres Cupidinesque 
hoc sunt Qondita, quo Paris, septilcro. 

Mart. xi. 13. 

A popular actor in the time of Domitian. 

oj Places in Italy 385 

sul Caius Flaminius, having no positive information on 
which they could either hope or fear. During the next, 
and several succeeding days,' a multitude, composed of 
rather more women than men, stood round the gates 
watching for the arrival either of their friends or of some 
who might give intelligence concerning them; and when- 
ever any person came up, they crowded about him with 
eager inquiries; nor could they be prevailed on to retire, 
especially from such as were of their acquaintance, until 
they had examined minutely into every particular. Then, 
when they did separate from their informants, their 
countenances expressed various emotions, according as 
the intelligence which each received was pleasing or 
unfavorable; and, numbers surrounding them, offering 
either congratulations or comfort, they returned to their 
homes. Among the women, particularly, the effects both 
of joy and grief were very conspicuous: one, as we are 
told, meeting unexpectedly at the very gate her son 
returning safe, expired at the sight of him: another, who 
sat in her house, overwhelmed with grief in consequence of 
a false report of her son's death, on seeing that son return- 
ing, died immediately, through excess of joy. The prae- 
tors during several days kept the senate assembled in 
their house, from the rising to the setting of the sun, de- 
liberating by what commander, or with what forces, op- 
position could be made to the victorious Carthaginians. 

George Baker 

A Popular Actor Dies 

Whoever thou art, traveler, that treadest the Flamin- 
ian Way — pass not unheeded this noble tomb. The de- 
light of the city, the wit of the Nile, the art and grace, the 
sportiveness and joy, the glory and grief of the Roman 
theatre, and all its Venuses and Cupids lie buried in this 
tomb with Paris.' 

Translation from the Bohn Library 


C 'lassical A ssociatioti s 

Felices, quibus urna dedit spectare coruscum 

solibus Arctois sideribusque ducem. 
quando erit ilk dies, quo campus et arbor at omnis 

lucebit Latia culta fenestra nuru? 
quando morae dulces longusque a Caesare pulvis 

totaque Flaminia Roma videnda via? 
quando eques et picti tunica Nilotide Mauri 

ibitis, et populi vox erit una "venit"? 

Mart. X. 6. 

Photograph by Frank Gallup 

On the Flaminian Way 

^ Ode on the arrival of the emperor Trajan from a northern campaign. 

3 The Via Latina branched oS from the Appian Way to the east about half a mile 
south of the PorttT Capen.T. Later, it pas'ied through the Anrelian wall by the Pnrtu 

of Places in Italy 


A Regal Pageant 

Happy are they whom Fortune has permitted to behold 
the leader beaming with the rays of northern suns and con- 
stellations! When will the day come on which the fields, 
and the trees, and every window shall shine resplendent, 
adorned by the ladies of Rome? When shall be witnessed 
the delightful halts on the roads, the distant clouds of 
dust telling of Caesar's approach and the spectacle of all 
Rome assembled on the Flaminian Way? When will ye, 
Knights, and ye Moors clad in rich Egyptian tunics, go 
forth to meet him? And when will the unanimous voice 
of the people exclaim, "He comes!"?^ 

Translation from the Bohn Library 

fhotograph by halliarive Allen 

Porta Latixa 

Via Latina' 
("lis'osae veheris dum per monumenta Latinae. 

Juv. V. 55. 

While you are borne along between the tombs on the 
^teep Latin way. 


Classical Associations 

Via Nomentana' 

Via Nomentana, cui turn Ficulensi nomen f uit, profecti 
castra in monte Sacro locavere modestiam patrum suorum 
nihil violando imitati. "Secuta exercitum plebs nullo, qui 
per aetatem ire posset, retractante. Prosecuntur coniuges 
liberique, cuinam se relinquerent in ea urbe, in qua nee 
pudicitia nee libertas sancta esset, miserabiliter rogitantes. 

Cum vasta Romae omnia insueta solitudo fecisset, in 
foro praeter paucos seniorum nemo esset, vocatis utique in 
senatum patribus desertum apparuisset forum, plures iam 
quam Horatius ac Valerius vociferabantur: "Quid ex- 
spectabitis, patres conscripti? Si decemviri finem perti- 
naciae non faciunt, ruere ac deflagrare omnia passuri estis? 
Quod autem istud imperium est, decemviri, quod amplexi 
tenetis? Tectis ac parietibus iura dicturi estis? .... 
Atqui aut plebs non est habenda, aut habendi sunt 
tribuni plebis. Liv. iii. 52, 3-8. 

Shop on the Via Nomentana Not Far .from Rome 

1 The Via Nomentana ran to'Nomentum in the territory of the Sabines. It began at 
the Porta CoUlna, passing later through the Aurelian wall by the Porta Nomentana. 

* The date of the secession of the plebeians in an effort to obtain from the patricians 
the election of tribunes to safe-guard their rights is uncertain, but was probably not 
far from 493 B. C. 

s The Mons Sacer was a hill about two and one-half miles from Rome. 

of Places in Italy 389 

How the Common People of Rome Finally Obtained 
Their Tribunes^ 

Marching along the Nomentan road, then called Ficu- 
lean, they encamped on the Sacred Mount,' imitating the 
moderation of their fathers in refraining from every act 
of violence. The army was followed by the commons, — 
not one, whose age would permit him, refusing to go. 
Their wives and children attended their steps, asking in 
melancholy accents, to whose care they were to be left in 
such a city where neither chastity nor liberty were safe? 
So general a desertion, beyond what was ever known, left 
every part of the city void, not a creature being even seen 
in the Forum, except a few very old men, when the senators 
were called into their house. Thus the Forum appearing 
entirely forsaken, many others with Horatius and Valerius 
began to exclaim: "Conscript fathers! How long will ye 
delay? If the decemvirs will not desist from their obsti- 
nacy, will ye suffer everything to sink into ruin? And ye, 
decemvirs, what is this power which ye so positively re- 
fuse to part with? Do ye intend to administer justice to 
bare walls and empty houses? .... Either we must 
lose the commons or they must have their tribunes." 

George Baker 

390 Classical Associations 

Via Salaria 

Sed revocato rursus impetu, aliquid secretions latebrae 
ad colligendum animum desideravit, et offerente Phaontc 
liberto suburbanum suum inter Salariam et Nomentanam 
viam circa quartum miliarium, ut erat nudo pede atque 
tunicatus, paenulam obsoleti coloris superinduit, adoper- 
toque capite et ante faciem optento sudario equum in- 
scendit, quattuor solis comitantibus, inter quos et Sporus 
erat. Statimque tremore terrae et fulgure adverse pave- 
factus, audiit e projsimis castris clamorem militum et sibi 
adversa et Galbae prospera ominantium, etiam ex obviis 
viatoribus quendam dicentem: Hi Neronem persequuntur , 
alium sciscitantem : Ecquidin urbe novi de Nerone? Equo 
autem ex odore abiecti in via cadaveris consternate, de- 
tecta facie agnitus est a quodam missicio praetoriano et 
salutatus. Ut ad deverticulum ventum est, dimissis equis, 
inter fruticeta ac vepres per harundineti semitam aegre 
nee nisi strata sub pedibus veste ad aversum villae parie- 
tem evasit. Ibi hortante eodem Phaonte, ut interim in 
specum egestae harenae concederet, negavit se vivum sub 
terram iturum, ac parumper commoratus, dum clandestinus 
ad villam introitus pararetur, aquam ex subiecta lacuna 
poturus manu hausit et Haec est, inquit, Neronis decoctal 
dein, divolsa sentibus paenula, traiectos surculos rasit. 
Atque ita quadripes per angustias effossae cavernae re- 
ceptus in proximam cellam, decubuit super lectum modica 
culcita, vetere pallio strato, instruetum; fameque et iterum 
siti interpellante, panem quidem sordidum oblatum as- 
pernatus est, aquae autem tepidae aliquantum bibit. 

1 The emperor Nero, with whose death in 68 A.D.,in a villa not far from Rome, close to 
the Salarian Road, this passage is concerned. For dramatic accounts of scenes at the 5a- 
larian Gate, see Procop. B. G. v. 18, 19-29; 29-33; 22, 1-11; vi. 1, 11-20. 

2 The Via Salaria led to the country of the Sabines. It began at the Porta CoUina in 
Republican times, passing through the Porta Salaria of Aurelian. The old course of the 
road as distinguished from a later one is now marked by the modern Via di Porta Pinciana. 

oj Places in Italy 391 

The Emperor Nero Meets His Death 

Changing his purpose again, he' sought for some retired 
place, where he could hide and collect his thoughts; and 
when his freedman Phaon offered his villa in the suburbs 
between the Via Nomentana and the Via Salaria^ near the 
fourth mile stone, just as he was, barefooted and in his 
tunic, he put on a faded cloak, covered his head, and hold- 
ing a handkerchief before his face, mounted a horse with 
only four attendants, one of whom was Sporus. At once 
he was startled by a shock of earthquake and a flash of 
lightning full in his face, and he heard the shouts of the 
soldiers from the camp hard by, as the>' prophesied de- 
struction for him and success for Galba. He also heard one 
of the wayfarers whom he met say: "These men are after 
Nero," and another ask "Is there anything new in the 
city about Nero?" Then his horse took flight at the 
smell of a corpse which had been thrown out into the road, 
his face was exposed, and a retired soldier of the guard 
recognized and saluted him. When they came to a by- 
path leading to the villa, they turned the horses loose, and 
he made his way amid bushes and brambles and along a 
path through a thicket of reeds to the back wall of the 
house, with great difficulty and only when a robe was 
thrown down for him to walk upon. Here the aforesaid 
Phaon urged him to hide for a time in a pit, from which 
sand had been dug, but he declared he would not go under 
ground while still alive, and after waiting for awhile until 
a secret entrance into the villa could be made, he scooped 
up in his hand some water to drink from a pool close by, 
saying: "This is Nero's distilled water." Then, as his 
cloak had been torn by the thorns, he pulled out the twigs 
which had pierced it, and crawling on all fours through a 
narrow passage that had been dug, he entered the villa 
and lay down in the first room he came to, on a couch with 
a common mattress, over which an old cloak had been 
thrown. Though suffering from hunger and renewed 
thirst, he refused some coarse bread which was offered 
him, but drank a little lukewarm water. 

392 Classical Associations 

Tunc uno quoque hinc inde instante ut quam primum se 
impendentibus contumeliis eriperet, scrobem coram fieri 
imperavit, dimensus ad corporis sui modulum, componique 
simul, si qua invenirentur, frusta marmoris, et aquam 
simul ac ligna conferri curando mox cadaveri, flens ad sin- 
gula atque identidem dictitans : Qualis artifex pereol 

Inter moras perlatos a cursore Phaonti codicillos praeri- 
puit legitque, se hostem a senatu iudicatum et quaeri, ut 
puniatur more maiorum, interrogavitque quale id genus 
asset poenae; et cum comperisset, nudi hominis cervicem 
inseri furcae, corpus virgis ad necem caedi, conterritus duos 
pugiones, quos secum extulerat, arripuit, temptataque 
utriusque acie rursus condidit, causatus nondum adesse 
Jatalem horam; ac modo Sporum hortabatur ut lamentari 
ac plangere inciperet, modo orabat ut se aliquis ad mortem 
capessendam exemplo iuvaret; interdum segnitiem suam 
his verbis increpabat: Vivo deformiter, turpiter — ov irpinti 
Nlpojci, oil TTpiireL — vr}(pet.v deZ ev rots tou>vtoi.s — ayt fyeipi 
atavTov ! lamque equites appropinquabant, quibus praecep- 
lum erat ut vivum eum adtraherent. Quod ut sensit, 
trepidanter effatus: 

"iTTTrojj' /i' aiKUTToSojc aixipl ktvttos oiiaro jSdXXet — 
ferrum iugulo adegit, iuvante Epaphrodito a libellis. 
Semianimisque adhuc irrumpenti centurioni et paenula ad 
vulnus adposita in auxilium se venisse simulanti non 
aliud respondit quam Sero! et Haec est fides! Atque in ea 
voce defecit, extantibus rigentibusque oculis usque ad 
horrorem formidinemque visentium. 

Suet. Nero 48-49. 

of Places in Italy 393 

At last, while his companions one and all urged him to 
save himself as soon as possible from the indignities that 
threatened him, he bade them dig a grave in his presence, 
proportioned to the size of his own person, collect any 
bits of marble that could be found, and at the same time 
bring water and wood for presently disposing of his body. 
As each of these things was done, he wept and said again 
and again: "What an artist the world is losing!" 

While he hesitated, a letter was brought to Phaon by 
one of his couriers. Nero snatching it from his hand read 
that he had been pronounced.a public enemy by the senate, 
and that they were seeking him to punish him in the an- 
cient fashion; and he asked what manner of punishment 
that was. When he learned that the criminal was stripped, 
fastened by the neck in a fork and then beaten to death 
with rods, in mortal terror he seized two daggers which he 
had brought with him, and then, after trying the point of 
each, put them up again, pleading that the fatal hour had 
not yet come. Now hie would beg Sporus to begin to 
lament and wail, and now entreat someone to help him 
lake his life by setting him the example; anon he re- 
proached himself for his cowardice in such words as these: 
"To live is a scandal and a shame — this does not be- 
come Nero, not become him — one should be resolute 
at such times — come, rouse thyself!" And now the 
horsemen were at hand who had orders to take him off 
alive. When he heard them he quavered: "Hark, now 
strike on my ear the trampling of swift-footed coursers!" 
and drove a dagger into his throat, aided by Epaphroditus, 
his private secretary. He was all but dead when a cen- 
turion rushed in, and as he placed a cloak to the wound, 
•pretending that he had come to aid him, Nero merely 
gasped: "Too late!" and "This is fidelity!" With these 
words he was gone, his eyes so set and starting from their 
sockets that all who saw them shuddered with horror. 


394 Classical Associations 

Praestabat castas humilis fortuna Latinas 
quondam, nee vitiis contingi parva sinebant 
tecta, labor somnique breves et vellere Tusco 
vexatae duraeque manus ac proximus urbi 
Hannibal et stantes Collina turre mariti. 

Juv. vi. 287-291. 

'H de rr/v rrapdeuiav Kar- 
aiaxvvaaa. ^S>aa KaropOTTeraL irapa ttjv KoXXIi'TJC Xtyoixevriv 
TTvkqV ev fi rts 'icTiv evros rrjs iroXeciJs 6(ppvs yeoi&rji irapaTei- 
vovaa TToppW /coXetrat 5c X'iJM'i 5taXe/cra rfj AaTlvwv. ivrav^a 
KaraffKeva^eTai Karayeios oIkos ov fityas ex^" avoji^ey Kara- 
fiainv. KtLTO.L bi ev avTw kK'ivt] re vweffTpwfievri /cat Xvxvos /cat- 
o/ievos, airapxai- Tt ruv wpos to f^i' i.vayKai(xiv ^paxtial Tivts, 
olov ixpTos, vdwp tv kyyeli^, yaka, iXaiov, oxrircp a.<poaiovtJ,kvuv 
TO iirj Xifiw bLcupdflpeiv aufxa raTs iitylaTais Ko3upuixkvov 071- 
oretats. avTriv be ttjv Ko\alofj.tvriv ets tpoptiov hdifievoi Kal Kara- 
(jTeyacravTts 'i^ccdev Kal KaToXafiovTts ip.acnv, cbs yiiTjS^ ipuvijv 
f^aKovaTOU ytv'tadai,, KOfii^oiiaL bi ayopas. t^iffTavTai, be 
TravTis aLcoTrfj Kal irapaTre/jLTTovaiv atp^oyyoL ixtTo. tlvos bnvrls 
KaTr]iftias' oibi iuTLV trtpov deapa ippiKTOTtpov, oib rjptpav 17 
TToXw iD\.\r,v iiytL CTiyvorkpav iKtlvris. orav bt tt/cos tov 
TOTTOv KOfiiadfj TO (/lopetci', ol VTfqptTai tov% beapoiis t^eXvaav, 
b be tS}v leptuiv e^apxos evxas TLvas awoppiiTOVs iroiTiaapevos 
Kal x''P'i5 avaTelvas «?€oTs irpo T?js avayKris tja76t cFvyKeKaXvp- 
p'evr)v Kal KadiaTTjaiv eirl KSipaKOs eis to o'Uripa Kara) ipepova7)%. 
tiTa auTos p.ev aTTOTpeirerat. ixeTO. twv aWwv lepkoiv. rrjs be 
KaTafia.(j7]s fj t« KXiyuaJ avaipelTai Kal KaTaKpvwTeTai to o'Uripa 
yrjs ttoXXjjs avcc^ev iwL<popovfievris, waTe iaoTebov rcS XoiTroi 
XUfiaTL yevea&ai. tov tottov. ourco ptv al irpoepevai Tr]v lepav , 
wap'&evlav KoXa^ovTai.. 

Plut. Numa x. 

' For a vivid account of tiie burial of Cornelia, a \'estal unjustly accused by the 
cmperorDomitian.seePlin. Ep. iv. 11, 

oj Places in Italy 395 

Ip days of old the wives of Latium were kept chaste by 
their humble fortunes. It was toil and brief slumbers 
that kept vice from polluting their modest homes; hands 
chafed and hardened by Tuscan fleeces; Hannibal nearing 
the city, and husbands standing to arms at the Colline 

G. G. Ramsay 

The Fate of a Guilty VestaP 

But she that has broken her vow of chastity is buried 
alive near the Colline Gate. Here a little ridge of earth 
extends for some distance along the inside of the city wall; 
the Latin word for it is "agger." Under it a small cham- 
ber is constructed, with steps leading down from above. 
In this are placed a couch with its coverings, a lighted 
lamp, and a very small portion of the necessaries of life, 
such as bread, a bowl of water, milk, and oil, as though 
they would therefore absolve themselves from the charge 
of destroying by hunger a life which had been consecrated 
to the highest services of religion. Then the culprit her- 
self is placed .on a litter, over which coverings are thrown 
and fastened down with cords so that not even a cry can be 
heard from within, and carried through the forum. AH 
the people there silently make way for the litter, and follow 
it without uttering a sound, in a terrible depression of 
soul. No other spectacle is more appalling, nor does any 
other day bring more gloom to the city than this. When 
the litter reaches its destination, the attendants unfasten 
the cords of the coverings. Then the high priest, after 
stretching his hands toward heaven and uttering certain 
mysterious prayers before the fatal act, brings forth the 
culprit, who is closely veiled, and places her on the steps 
leading down into the chamber. After this, he turns 
away his face, as do the rest of the priests, and when she 
has gone down, the steps are taken up, and great quantities 
of earth are thrown into the entrance to the chamber, 
hiding it away and making the place level with the rest of 
the mound. Such is the punishment of those who break 
their vow of virginity. 

Bernadotte Perrin 

396 Classical Associations 


The Argiletum 

Occurris quotiens, Luperce, nobis, 
"vis mittam puerum" subinde dicis, 
"cui tradas epigrammaton libellum, 
lectum quern tibi protinus remittam?" 
non est quod puerum, Luperce, vexes, 
longum est, si velit ad Pirum venire, 
et scalis habito tribus, sed altis. 
quod quaeris propius petas licebit. 
Argi nempe soles subire letum: 
contra Caesaris est forum taberna 
scriptis postibus hinc et inde totis, 
omnes ut cito perlegas poetas. 
illinc me pete, nee roges Atrectum 
— hoc nomen dominus gerit tabernae — : 
de primo dabit alterove nido 
rasum pumice purpuraque cultum 
denaris tibi quinque Martialem. 
"tanti non es" ais? sapis, Luperce. 

Mart. i. 117. 

C.\MPUS Martiusi 

Lydia, die, per omnes 

te deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando 
perdere; cur apricum 

oderit campum, patiens pulveris atque solis? 
cur neque militares 

inter aequales equitat, Gallica nee lupatis 
temperat ora frenis? 

. cur timet flavum Tiberim tangere? cur olivum 
sanguine viperino 

cautius vitat, neque iam livida gestat armis 
bracchia, saepe disco,- - 

saepe trans finem iaculo nobilis expedito? 
quid latet, ut marinae 

I A district to the northwest of the city of Rome consecrated to the g6d Mar5. 11 
served as a military field and as a place for athletic training in general and sports con- 
nected with it. During the Republic, the Romans assembled here to vote, for which 
purpose a structure called the Saepta was erected. As the emperors gradually usurped 
the power, and elections, therefore, had less and less significance, the district came to be 
used for other purposes and various buildiiigs were erected which had no connection 
with the uses for which the Campus was originally planned. 

oj Places in Italy 397 

A Famous Book-shop 

As often as you run across me, Lupercus, at once you 
say, "May I send a boy to get from you your book of 
epigrams? When I have read it, I will at once return it." 
There is no call, Lupercus, to trouble your boy. It is a 
long way if he sets out for the Pear-tree,^ and I live up 
three flights of stairs, and high ones ; you can look for what 
you want nearer. Of course you often go down to the 
Potter's Field.' There is a shop opposite to Caesar's 
Forum with its door-posts from top to bottom bearing 
advertisements, so that you can in a moment read through 
the list of poets. Look for me in that quarter. No need 
to ask Atrectus (that is the name of the shop-keeper) : out 
of the first or second pigecn-hoie he will offer you Martial 
smoothed with pumice and smart with purple, for three 
shillings. "You're not worth it," you say? You are wise, 
Lupercus. Walter C. A. Ker 

A Lover Shuns the Athletic Field 

Why, Lydia, why, 

I pray, by all the gods above. 
Art so resolved that Sybaris should die, 

And all for love? 
Why doth he shun 

The Campus Martius' sultry glare. 
He that once recke^ of neither dust nor sun? 

Why rides he there, 
First of the brave. 

Taming the Gallic steed no more? 
Why doth he shrink from Tiber's yellow wave? 

Why thus abhor 
The wrestler's oil. 

As 'twere from viper's tpngue distilled? 
Why do his arms no livid bruises soil, 
, He, once so skilled 
The disk or dart 

Far, far beyond the mark to hurl? 

3 The poet Martial Ihus identifies his place of residence upon the Quirinal Hill as being 
near the "pear-tree." 

' The Argiletum was a street leading from the Subura into the Forum between the 
Basilica Aemilia and the Curia, and a very important avenue of communication. That it 
contained book -shops is obvious from the above passage, but in general its character was 
probably not widely diflferent from that of the Subura. 

398 Classical Associations 

filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Troiae 
funera, ne virilis 

cultus in caedem et Lycias proriperet catervas? 

Hor. C. i. 8. 

Quid tibi visa Chios, Bullati, notaque Lesbos, 
quid concinna Samos, quid Croesi regia Sardis, 
Smyrna quid et Colophon? maiora minorave fama? 
cunctane prae Campo et Tiberino flumine sordent? 

Hor. Ep. i. 11, 1-4. 

Horum pleraque Martius habet campus, cum natura, 
tum hominum prudentia ornatus. Nam et magnitudo 
eiusmirabilis est, quae curruiimequorumque decursionibus 
libere patet, tantaeque multitudini pila, circo ac palaestra 
sese exercentium, tum opera circumiecta, solumque toto 
anno herba virens, tumulorumque coronae supra amnem 
usque ad alveum, scenae quandam ostentant speciem, a 
cuius spectaculo difficulter quis avellatur. 

Strab. V. 3, 8 (Latin version from Miiller 
and Diibner's Geographica). 

Funere indicto, rogus exstructus est in Martio Campo, 
iuxta luliae tumulum et pro rostris aurataa,edes ad simu- 
lacrum templi Veneris Genetricis collocata; intraque lectus 
eburneus, auro ac purpura stratus, et ad caput tropaeum 
cum veste, in qua fuerat occisus. Praeferentibus munera, 
quia suffecturus dies non videbatur, praeceptum, ut 

oj Places in Italy 399 

And tell me, tell me, in what nook apart, 

Like baby-girl. 
Lurks the poor boy, 

Veiling his manhood as did Thetis' son, 
To 'scape war's bloody clang, while fated Troy 

Was yet undone? 

Sir Theodore Martin 

A Query for a Returning Traveler 

Now that you've seen them all, BuUatius, — seen 
Fair Chios, Lesbos, famed of isles the queen, 
Samos the beautiful, Sardes the great. 
Where Croesus, Lydia's monarch, kept his state, 
Smyrna, and Colophon, — I ask, are they 
Less fine or finer, friend, than people say? 
Or look they poor and commonplace beside 
The Field of Mars, or Tiber's rolling tide? 

Sir Theodore MartiiT 

A Description of the Campus 

The greater number of these may be seen in the Campus 
Martius, which to the beauties of nature adds those of art. 
The size of the plain is marvellous, permitting chariot 
races and other feats of horsemanship without impediment, 
and enabling multitudes to exercise themselves at ball, in 
the circus, and in the palaestra. The structures which 
surround it, the turf covered with herbage all the year 
round, the summits of the hills beyond the Tiber, extend- 
ing from its banks with panoramic effect, present a spec- 
tacle which the eye abandons with regret. 

H. C. Hamilton 

The Funeral of Julius Caesar 

When the funeral was announced, a pyre was erected 
in the Campus Martius near the tomb of Julia, and on the 
rostra a gilded shrine was placed, made after the model of 
the temple of Venus Genetrix. Within was a couch of 
ivory with coverlets of purple and gold, and at its head a 
pillar hung with the robe in which he had been slain. 
Since it was clear that the day would not be long enough 

400 Classical Associations 

omisso ordine, quibus quisque vellet itineribus Urbis, por- 
taret in Campum. Inter ludos cantata sunt quaedam ad 
miserationem et invidiam caedis eius accomodata ex 
Pacuvii Armorum iudicio: 

"Men servasse, ut essent qui me perderent?" 
et ex^Electra Atili ad similem sententiam. Laudationis 
loco, consul Antonius per praeconem pronuntiavit sena- 
tus consultum, quo omnia simul ei divina atque humana 
decreverat; item ius iurandum, quo se cuncti pro salute 
unius astrinxerant: quibus perpauca a se verba addidit. 

Suet. Caes. 84, 1-2. 

Prata Quinctia 

(The Quinctian Meadows) 

L. Quinctius trans Tiberim, contra eum ipsum locum, 
ubi nunc navalia sunt, quattuor iugerum colebat agrum, 
quae prata Quinctia vocantur. Ibi ab legatis, seu fossam 
fodiens palae innixus seu cum araret, operi certe, id quod 
constat, agresti intentus, salute data in vicem redditaque 
rogatus, ut, quod beneverteretipsireiquepublicae, togatus 
mandata senatus audiret, admiratus rogitansque 'satin 
salvae?' togam propere e tugurio proferre uxorem 
Raciliam iubet. Qua simul absterso pulvere ac sudore 
velatus processit, dictatorem eum legati gratulantes con- 
salutant, in urbem vocant, qui terror sit in exercitu, ex- 

Liv. iii. 26, 8-10. 

* An incident connected by legend with one of the wars between the Sabinds and the 
Romans. At a critical period, Cincinnatus is made dictator and saves the state from 

of Places in Italy 401 

for those who offered gifts, they were directed to bring 
them to the Campus by whatsoever streets of the city they 
wished, regardless of any order of precedence. At the 
funeral games, to rouse pity and indignation at his death, 
these words from the "Contest for the Arms" of Pacuvius 
were sung: — 

"Saved I these men that they might murder me?" 
and words of a like purport from the "Electra" of Atilius. 
Instead of a eulogy, the consul Antonius caused a herald to 
recite the decree of the Senate in which it had voted 
Caesar all divine and human honors at once, and likewise 
the oaths with which they had all pledged themselves to 
watch over his personal safety; to which he added a few 
words of his own. 


Cincinnatus, the Farmer, Becomes Dictator of Rome^ 

Lucius Quinctius, now the sole hope of the people and of 
the empire of Rome, cultivated a farm of four acres on the 
other side of the Tiber, at this time called the Quinctian 
meadows, opposite to the very spot where the dock-yard 
stands. There he was found by the deputies, either lean- 
ing on a stake, in a ditch which he was making, or plough- 
ing; in some work of husbandry he was certainly employed. 
After mutual salutations, and wishes on the part of the 
commissioners, "that it might be happy both to him and 
the commonwealth," he was requested "to put -en his 
gown and hear a message from the senate." Surprised, 
and asking if "all were well?" he bade his wife Racilia 
bring out his gown quickly from the cottage. When he 
had put it on, after wiping the sweat and dust from his 
brow, he came forward. The deputies congratulated 
him, saluted him dictator, requested his presence in 
the city, and informed him of the alarming situation of 
the army. 

George B.^ker 

402 Classical Associations 

Via Sacra 

Ibam forte via Sacra, sicut meus est mos, 
nescio quid meditans nugarum, totus in illis. 

Hor. S. i. 9, 1-2, 

Lupis et agnis quanta sortito obtigit, 

tecum mihi discordia est, 
Hibericis peruste funibus latus 

et crura dura compede. 
licet superbus ambules pecunia, 

Fortuna non mutat genus, 
videsne, Sacram metiente te Viam 

cum bis trium ulnarum toga, 
ut ora vertat hue et hue euntium 

Uberrima indignatio? 
sectus flagellis hie triumviralibus 

praeconis ad fastidium 
arat Falerni mille fundi iugera 

et Appiam mannis terit 
sedilibusque magnus in primis eques 

Othone contempto sedet! 
quid attinet tot ora navium gra\'i 

rostrata duci pondere 
contra latrones atque servilem manum, 

hoc, hoc tribuno militum? 

Hor. Epod. iv. 

'Excopet Si yuera rrjs fiov\rj$ tiri Toiis avSpas. OVK ev ravrQ de 
wavTts fjaav, dXXoj 5' a.Wov ttpvXaTTt rdv cTparriyCov. Kal 
TvfiWTOV €K liaKariov 7rapaXa(3civ rdv KwtKov riye 5td rrjs itpas 
65od Kai tjjs ayopas fitarjs, tCiv fikv rtyeixovvKoiTaruiv o.v&pwv kvkKqo 
Trepitc'KtLpajj.evojv Kal 5opv(popovvTWV, rod di drjixov ipp'iTTOvros to. 
Spdop,tva Kai TapLovTos trtojTT^, fia.\i<TTa St toov vtwv, iccnrtp 
lepols Tiai Trarpiois d.piaTOKpari,Kfjs tlvos i^ovaias TtKelcdai. p,tTa 
(pSPov Kai dafifiovs Sokowtwv. Si.tKdd>v St rriv ayopav Kai ytvc- 
ixtvos Tpos Tu> Stc/iciiTripiio -rrapiScoKf rov X'tVTKov tG> Sr]p.ix$ Kal 
irpocrtTa^fv avf\tiv' Plut. Cic. xxii. 

1 Horace's encounter with a bore takes place on the Sacred Way, an incident which is 
quoted at length under Life in Rome. 

The Sacred \\ ay was one of the most famous streets in Rome, It was lined with 
interesting shops and in the late Republic and in the Empire it was the fashionable lounge 
for wealthy Romans. In earlier days many of thearistocratic families lived on this 
street, and shrines and sacred structures of various kinds adorned it. It was the scene, 
of course, of many stately processions since the triiunphal car had to pass through it on its 
way to the Capitol. 

2 An invective against a fashionable fop of low birth. 

of Places in Italy 403 

I happened to be walking along the Sacred Way' as is 
my wont, thinking of some trifle or other and entirely ab- 
sorbed in it. 

A Parvenu Parades in a Fashionable Street^ 

As great as is the enmity between lambs and wolves, by 
Nature's laws decreed, so great is that 'twixt me and you — 
you whose flanks are scarred by the Spanish rope, and 
whose legs are callous with hard shackles. Though you 
strut about in pride of wealth, yet Fortune does not change 
your breed. See you not, as with toga three yards wide 
you parade from end to end the Sacred Way, how indigna- 
tion unrestrained spreads over the faces of the passers-by? 
This fellow, scourged with the triumvir's lashes till the 
tired beadle wearied of his task, now ploughs a thousand 
acres of Falernian ground, and with his ponies travels the 
.'\ppian Way. Braving Otho's law,' he takes his place 
with the importance of a knight in the foremost rows 
of seats! What boots it for so many well-beaked ships 
of massive burden to be led against the pirates and hordes 
of slaves, when a fellow such as this is tribune of the 
soldiers! C E. Bennett 

A Conspirator Goes to His Death^ 

Then he went with the senate to fetch the conspirators. 
These were not all in the same place, but different praetors 
had different ones under guard. And first he took Len- 
tulus from the Palatine Hill and led him along the Via 
Sacra and through the middle of the Forum, the men of 
highest authority surrounding him a-s a body-guard, and 
the people shuddering at what was being done and passing 
along in silence, and especially the young men, as though 
they thought they were being initiated with fear and trem- 
bling into some ancient mysteries of an aristocratic regime. 
When Cicero had passed through the Forum and reached 
the prison, he delivered Lentulus to the public executioner 
with the order to put him to death. 

Bernadotte Feerin 

" This famous law of L. Roscius Otho, tribune of the people in 67 B. C, reserved for the 
Icnights the 14 rows of seats just bacic of those assignee! to the senators. 

* Lentulus was one of the chief conspirators in the celebrated conspiracy of Catiline in 
63 B. C. 

404 Classical Associations 

The Subura 

Ferventi .... Subura. 

Juv. xi. 51. 

Senem adulterum 

latrent Suburanae canes. 

Hor. Epod. V. 57-58. 

Mane domi nisi te volui meruique videre, 

sint mihi, Paule, tuae longius Esquiliae. 
sed Tiburtinae sum proximus accola pilae, 

qua videt antiquum rustica Flora lovem: 
alta Suburani vincenda est semita clivi 

et nunquam sicco sordida saxa gradu, 
vixque datur longas mulorum rumpere mandras 

quaeque trahi multo marmora fune vides. 
illud adhuc gravius quod te post mille labores, 

Paule, negat lasso ianitor esse domi. 
exitus hie operis vani togulaeque madentis: 

vix tanti Paulum mane videre fuit. 
semper inhumanos habet officiosus amicos: 

rex, nisi dormieris, non potes esse meus. 

Mart. V. 22. 

Raucae chortis aves et ova matrum 
et flavas medio vapore Chias 
et fetum querulae rudem capellae 
nee iam frigoribus pares olivas 
et canum gelidis holus pruinis 
de nostro tibi missa rure credis? 
o quam, Regule, diligenter erras I 
nil nostri, nisi me, ferunt agelli. 
quidquid vilicus Umber aut colonus 
aut rus marmore tertio notatum 
aut Tusci tibi Tusculive mittunt, 
id tota mihi nascitur Subura. 

Mart. vii. 31. 

' The Subura, one of the most disreputable and crowded sections of the city, lay to the 
north of the Forum in a narrow valley between the Oppian and Quirinal heights and in th e 
wider space beyond. 

2 See note under Argiletum. 

of Places in Italy 405 

The stuffy Subura.' 

G. G. Ramsay 

May Subura's dogs bark at the old rake. 

C. E. Bennett 

A Street Both Crowded and Dirty Adds to a Poet's Dis- 
comfort in Making a Morning Call 

If I did not wish and deserve to see you at home in the 
morning, Paulus, may your Esquiline house be for me still 
farther off! But I am next-door neighbor to the Tibur- 
tine column,^ where rustic Flora looks upon our ancient 
Jove; I must surmount the track up the hill from the 
Subura and the dirty pavement with its steps never dry, 
and I can scarce break through the long droves of mules 
and the blocks of marble you see hauled by many a cable. 
And — more annoying still — after a thousand exertions, 
when I am fagged out, Paulus, your door-keeper says you 
are "not at home"! Such is the result of misspent toil, 
and my poor toga drenched! To see Paulus in the morn- 
ing were scarcely worth the cost. A diligent client al- 
ways has inhuman friends; my patron, if you do not stay 
in bed, you cannot be. 

Walter C. A. Ker 

Martial Does His Marketing in the Subura 

Birds of the cackling farmyard, and eggs of mother 
hens, and Chian figs yellow from insufficient heat, and the 
young offspring of the bleating she-goat, and olives un- 
able now to stand the cold, and cabbages whitened by 
chill hoar frosts — do you believe these were sent you from 
my country place? Oh, how carefully wrong, Regulus, 
you are! My small field bears nothing but me. What- 
ever your Umbrian bailiff, or tenant sends you, or your 
country-house marked by the third milestone, or your 
lands in Etruria or at Tusculum — this for me is produced 
all over the Subura. 

Walter C. A. Ker 


C 'lassical A ssociations 

Photograph by Frnnh G'il!iif> 

A Sckm: rx \ MnoKUN Sl'buka 

Vicus Tuscus' 
Tusci turba inpia \-ici. 

Hor. S. ii. 3, 22.>^. 

Tuscan Alley's scum. 

John Conington- 

I The Vicus I'uscus was a sLret-t leading into the ]-orum between the Basilica Julia 
;md the temple of Castor. As the above references show, it was not any too respectable. 

'^The Velabrum was an open place between the Korum, the Palatine and Capitoline 
hills, and the river. In earlier times it was marshy and often entirely inundated. After it 
was drained, however, it became an important trade center in which all kinds of shops 
were found, especially those in which food-stuffs, oil, and wine were sold. Macrobius 
(Sat. i. 10, 15) calls it "locus celeberrimus u'bis" because of the dense crowds that 
thronged its streets. Its reputation was unsavory. 

of Places in Italy 407 

In vicum vendentem tus et odores 
et piper et quidquid chartis amicitur ineptis. 

Hor. Ep. ii. 1, 269-270. 

To that too fragrant quarter of the town, 
Where pepper, perfume, frankincense are sold, 
And all the wares one sees in still-born books unrolled. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

In Tusco vico, ibi sunt homines qui ipsi sese venditant. 

Plaut. Cure. iv. 484. 

In the Vicus Tuscus are people who will sell themselves 
for money. 


In Velabro vel pistorem vel lanium vel haruspicem. 

Plaut. Cure. 483. 

The baker, or the butcher, or the soothsayer in the 

Quasi in Velabro olearii. 

Plaut. Capt. 489. 

Just as the oil dealers in the Velabrum. 

408 Classical Associations 


Theatre, Poeticus, and Curia of Pompey 

Ob haec simul et ob infirmam valitudinem diu cuncta- 
tus, an se contineret et quae apud senatum proposuerat 
agere differret, tandem Decimo Bruto adhortante, ne fre- 
quentis ac iam dadum opperientis destitueret, quinta fere 
hora progressus est libellumque insidiarum indicem, ab 
obvio quodam porrectum, libellis ceteris, quos sinistra 
manu tenebat quasi mox lecturus, commiscuit. Dein 
pluribus hostiis caesis, cum litare non posset, introiit cu- 
riam spreta religione Spurinnamque irridens et ut falsum 
arguens, quod sine uUa sua noxa Idus Martiae adessent: 
quamquam is venisse qaidem eas diceret, sed non prae- 
terisse. Assidentem conspirati specie of&cii circumstete- 
runt; ilicoque Cimber Tillius, qui primas partes susceperat, 
quasi aliquid rogaturus propius accessit, renuentique et 
gestu in aliud temp us differenti ab utroque umero togam 
adprehendit; deinde clamantem: Ist'a quidem vis est, alter 
e Cascis aversum vulnerat, paulum infra iugulum. Cae- 
sar Cascae brachium arreptum graphio traiecit, conatus- 
que prosilire alio vulnere tardatus est; utque animadvertit 
undique se strictis pugionibus peti, toga caput obvolvit, 
simul sinistra manu sinum ad ima crura deduxit, quo 
honestius caderet etiam inferiore corporis parte velata. 
Atque ita tribus et viginti plagis confossus est, uno modo 
ad primum ictum gemitu sine voce edito; etsi tradiderunt 
quidam Marco Bruto irruenti dixisse: Kat av reKvov; 
Exanimis, diffugientibus cunctis, aliquamdiu iacuit, donee 
lecticae impositum, dependente brachio, tres servoli do- 
mum retulerunt. Nee in tot vulneribus, ut Antistius 
medicus existimabat, letale ullum repertum est, nisi quod 
secundo loco in pectore acceperat. 

Suet. Caes. 81-82. 

1 The Romans used temporary wooden structures for many years in the place of a 
permanent theatre, although several of these were elaborate and costly (Plin, N. H. 
xxxvi. 113-120). It was not until 55 B. C. that a stone building was erected. This was 
known as the Theatre of Pompey and regarded as one of the most remarkable buildings 
in Rome. In connection with it was a hall in which meetings of the senate were occasion- 
ally held (Julius Caesar was murdered there in 44 B. C. while attending a session) and a 
beautiful colonnade facing upon a garden. Two other stone buildings were erected later, 
the Theatre of Marcellus ancf the Theatre of Balbus, both of which were completed about 
13 B. C. 

oj Places in Italy 409 

Julius Caesar is Assassinated 

Both for these reasons and because of poor health, he 
hesitated for a long time whether to stay at home and put 
off what he had planned to do in the senate; but at last, 
urged by Decimus Brutus not to disappoint the full meet- 
ing which had for some time been waiting for him, he went 
forth almost at the end of the fifth hour; and when a note 
revealing the plot was handed him by someone on the way, 
he put it with others which he held in his left hand, intend- 
ing to read them presently. Then, after several victims 
had been slain, and he could not get favorable omens, he 
entered the House in defiance of portents, laughing at 
Spurinna, and calling him a false prophet, because the 
Ides of March were come without bringing him harm; 
though Spurinna replied that they had of a truth come, 
but they had not gone. 

As he took his seat the conspirators gathered about him 
as if to pay their respects and straightway Tillius Cimber, 
who had assumed the lead, came nearer as though to ask 
something; and when Caesar with a gesture put him off to 
another time, Cimber caught his toga by both shoulders; 
then as Caesar cried, "why, this is violence!" one of the 
Cascas stabbed him from one side just below the throat. 
Caesar caught Casca's arm and ran it through with his 
stylus, but as he tried to leap to his feet, he was stopped 
by another wound. When he saw that he was beset on 
every side by drawn daggers, he mufiled his head in his 
robe, and at the same time threw down its lap to his feet 
with his left hand, in order to fall more decently, with the 
lower part of his body also covered. And in this wise, he 
was stabbed with three and twenty wounds, uttering not a 
word, but merely a groan at the first stroke, though some 
have written that when Marcus Brutus rushed at him, he 
said in Greek, "You, too, my child?" All the conspirators 
made off, and he lay there lifeless for some time, until 
finally three common slaves put him on a litter and carried 
him home, with one arm hanging down. And of so many 
wounds, none turned out to be mortal, in the opinion of 
the physician Antistius, except the second one in the 
breast. J. C. Rolfe 


Classical Associations 

Dum aliis curis intentum Neronem opperiuntur, inter 
ea, quae barbaris ostentantur, intravere Pompei theatrum, 
quo magnitudinem populi viserent. Illic per otium (neque 
enim ludicris ignarioblectabantur) dum consessum caveae, 
discrimina ordinum, quis eques, ubi senatus percontantur, 
advertere quosdam cultu externo in sedibus senatorum; et 
quinam forent rogitantes, postquam audiverant earum 
gentium legatis id honoris datum, quae virtute el amicitia 
Romana praecellerent, nullos mortalium armis aut fide 
ante Germanos esse exclamant degrediunturque et inter 
patres considunt. 

Tac. Ann. xiii. 54. 

Courtesy of Art arid Archaeology 

A Reconstruction of the Theatre of Pompey 

2 Two German chiefs who came to Rome to secure certain concessions from the 

of Places in Italy 411 

A Story of German Pride 

Having gone to Rome and being there obliged to 
wait until Nero was at leisure from other business, 
they^ employed their time in seeing such curiosities 
as are usually shown to strangers. They were conducted 
to Pompey's theatre, where the grandeur of the people 
in one vast assembly could not fail to make an im- 
pression. Rude minds have no taste for the exhibi- 
tions of the theatre. They gazed at everything with a 
face of wonder: the place for the populace, and the dif- 
ferent seats assigned to the several orders of the state, 
engaged their attention. Curiosity was excited: they 
inquired which were the Roman knights, and which the 
senators. Among the last, they perceived a few, who, by 
their exotic dress, were known to be foreigners. They 
soon learned that they were ambassadors from different 
states, and that the privilege of mixing with the fathers 
was granted by way of distinction, to do honor to men, who. 
by their courage and fidelity, surpassed the rest of the 
world. The answer gave offense to the two chieftains. 
In point of valor and integrity, the Germans, they said, 
were second to no people upon earth. With this stroke 
of national pride, they rose abruptly and took their seats 
among the senators. 

Arthur Murph\ 

4 1 2 Classical A ssociations 


Quantos ille virum magnam Mavortis ad urbem 
campus aget gemitus! vel quae, Tiberine, videbis 
funera, cum tumulum praeterlabere recentem! 

Vir. Aen. vi. 872-874. 

Prope hunc campum alius est campus, porticusque 
circumcirca permultae; turn luci, tria theatra, amphi- 
theatrum, templa alterum alteri subinde contiguum mag- 
nifica: quorum respectu ipsa urbs quasi additamentum 
quoddam videri possit. Itaque Romani hunc locum 
maxima sacrum ac venerabilem rati, illustrissimorum 
virorum monumenta ibi coUocarunt, ac matronarum: 
quorum omnium praeclarissimum est quod vocatur Mau- 
soleum, magnus agger ad amnem supra sublimem albi lapi- 
dis fornicem congestus, at ad verticem, usque virentibus 
arboribus coopertus: in fastigio statua aenea est Augusti 
Caasaris; sub aggera loculi aius at cognatorum ac fami- 
liarium; a targo lucus magnus, ambulationes habens ad- 
mirabilas; in medio autam campo busti aius ambitus ex 
albo saxo, in orbem cinctus ferrea sepe, intus populis 

Strab. V. 3, 8 (Latin version from Miiller and Diib- 

ner's Geographica). 

1 built for the emperor Augustus whose ashes were deposited here in 14 A.D., together 
with those of other members of the imperial family. The passage quoted refers to the 
death of the young Marcellus, the emperor's prospective heir, whose loss was a source of 
great grief not only to Augustus and iiis family but to the Roman people as well. 

of Places in Italy 413 

A Young Man Dies 

The lamentation of a multitude 
Arises from the field of Mars, and strikes 
The city's heart. Father Tiber, see 
What pomp of sorrow near the new-made tomb 
Beside thy fleeting stream! 

T. C. Williams 

A Visitor Gives His Impressions of the Tomb of Augustus 

Near to this plain is another surrounded with columns, 
sacred groves, three theatres, an amphitheatre, and superb 
temples in close proximity to one another; and so magni- 
ficent, that it would seem idle to describe the rest of the. 
city after it. For this cause, the Romans, esteeming it 
the most sacred place, have there erected funeral monu- 
ments to the most illustrious persons of either sex. The 
most remarkable of these is that designated as the Maus- 
oleum, which consists of a mound of earth raised upon a 
high foundation of white marble, situated near the river, 
and covered to the top with evergreen shrubs. Upon the 
summit is a bronze statue of Augustus Caesar, and beneath 
the mound are the ashes of himself, his relatives, and 
friends. Behind is a large grove containing charming 
promenades. In the centre of the plain is the spot where 
this prince was reduced to ashes; it is surrounded with a 
double enclosure, one of marble, the other of iron, and 
planted within with poplars. 

H. C. Hamilton (Translated from the Greek). 

414 Classical Associations 

RUBICON FLUMEN (Urgone-Fiumicino)' 

A small river flowing into the Adriatic a few miles north 
of Ariminum, of interest only as the scene of the famous 
incident related below which occurred in 49 B. C. Caesar 
has been told to disband his Gallic legions and return to 
Rome if he does not wish to be declared a public enemy. 
His decision to disobey this order of the senate is made 
upon the banks of the Rubicon and from there he begins 
his victorious march to Rome. For Lucan's account, see 
i. .183ff. 

Dein post soils occasum, mulis e proximo pistrino ad 
vehiculum iunctis, occultissimum iter modico comitatu 
ingressus est; et cum luminibus extinctis decessisset via, 
diu errabundus, tandem ad lucem duce reperto, per an- 
gustissimos tramites pedibus evasit; consecutusque cohor- 
tis ad Rubiconem flumen, qui provinciae eius finis erat, 
paulum constitit, ac reputans quantum moliretur, con- 
versus ad proximos Etiam nunc inquit regredi possumus; 
quod si ponticulum transierimus, omnia armis agenda erunt. 
Cunctanti ostentum tale factum est. Quidam eximia 
_ magnitudine et forma in proximo sedens repente apparuit, 
harundine canens; ad quem audiendum cum praeter pas- 
tores plurimi etiam ex stationibus milites concurrissent 
interque eos et -aeneatores, rapta ab uno tuba prosilivit 
ad flumen et ingenti spiritu classicum exorsus pertendit ad 
alteram ripam. Tunc Caesar, Eatur inquit, quo deorum 
ostenta et inimicorum iniquitas vocai. lacta alea est, inquit. 

Suet. Caes. 31-32. 

Fonte cadit modico parvisque inpellitu»undis 
Puniceus Rubicon, cum fervida canduit aestas, 
perque imas serpit valles et Gallica certus 
limes ab Ausoniis disterminat arva colonis. 

Luc. i. 213-216'. 

' The Rubicon river has been identified with the Pisciatello which in its upper course 
is called Urgone (or Rugone") and in its lower, Fiumicino. 

oj Places -in Italy 41.S 


Caesar Crosses the Rubicon 

It was not until after sunset that he set out very pri- 
vately with a small company, taking the mules from a 
bak e-shop hard by and harnessing them to a carriage; and 
when his lights went out and he lost his way, he was astray 
for some time, but at last found a guide at dawn and got 
back to the road on foot by narrow by-paths. Then 
overtaking his cohorts at the river Rubicon, which 
was the boundary of his province, he paused for awhile, 
and realizing what a step he was taking, he turned to 
those about him and said: "Even yet we may turn back; 
but once cross yon little bridge, and the whole issue is 
with the sword." 

As he stood in doubt, this sign was given him. On a 
sudden there appeared hard by a being of wondrous stature 
and beauty, who sat and played upon a reed; and when not 
only the shepherds flocked to hear him, but many of the 
soldiers left their posts, and among them some of the 
trumpeters, the apparition snatched a trumpet from one 
of them, rushed to the river, and sounding the war-note 
with mighty blast, strode to the opposite bank. Then 
Caesar cried: "Take we the course which the signs of the 
gods and the false dealing of our foes point out. The die 
is cast," said he. 


A Poet's Allusion 

Springing from a modest source, the dark red Rubicon 
flows on with diminished stream in the blaze of summer's 
heat; and, winding along the depths of the valleys, it pro- 
vides a landmark that definitely separates the fields of 
Cisalpine Gaul from the farms of Italy. 

H. C. Nutting 

416 Classical Associations 


A rocky promontory jutting out into the sea on the 
Italian side of the straits between Italy and Sicily. The 
poets identiiied it as the abode of a monster named Scylla. 
Homer relates the encounter of Odysseus with this creature 
on his way home from the Trojan War in which, although 
the hero himself escaped, several of his crew lost their lives. 
(For details other than those given below, see Homer, 
Odyssey, xii. 225f.) The Trojans happily escaped this 
danger owing to a kindly warning given to them before 
they left Greece. Virgil's description of Scylla should be 
read, however, in connection with Homer's account 
(Aen. iii. 410-432). Just opposite, on the Sicilian side, 
was the whirlpool Charybdis, equally dangerous to 

Ot di Svw cKOTTtKoi 6 ixiv ovpavov evpvv iKavei 

Kvav'eq' to iitv ov ttot' epwiZ, ov8e iror' aWpr] 
Kiivov «x«' Kopvipijv oiir' tv dkpu o(it' iv 6Tr6)pxi' 
ovSk Ktv kji^air) fiporbs avrip, ov Kara^alri, 
01)5' el ol xetpss Te eeiKoai Kal TroSts elev 
irtTpr) yap Xis eort, irepi^taTTj e'lKvla. 
ixtctjco 5 tv CKOirtKif iari (Tirkos rjepoeidts, 
Tpos ^6<pov eis "Epe/3os TtTpa/j.jj,tvov, fiwep av vfiels 
vfja Trapa y\o.tpvpiiv iSiivtre, (palbLp.' 'Obvcciv. 
ohSk Kiv tK vqds y\a<pvp7Js atfijtrs avrip 
To^cf. 6L(rT€v<ras koZKov aireos elcraipLKOLTO. 
evda 5' kvl S/ciiXXij vaiti deivdv XtXaKvla' 
rrjs rJTOi, ipiavq fikv ocr) aKvKaKos veoyiKiji, 
yiyveraL, aiirij 5' avre weKoip Kcubv ovbk Kt Tts mv 
ytidriceiiv iduv, ovS' ei 6t6s dirtcto'eie. 
rijs rJTOi. TToSes etcrt SvooSiKa Travrts acopoi, 
■'-e^ 8k Tt ol Supal wipLjiriKeis, kv 5e eKaaTy 
irptpSoKkri Ke(pa\Tj,kv Se rplaroixo'' odovres, 
irvKVoi Kal dapikes, xXeTot fikXavos davaroLO. 
p.kff<rri fikv re Kara (XTelovs KolXoio SkSvKfv, 
i^u 8' k^iaxeL Kt(pa\as btivolo fiepkdpov, 
avTov 8' IxBvaa,, (jKOTviKov TrepLfiaLixwcixra, 
beXiptvas re Kvua^ re Kal el' irodi p.ti^ov iKyaL 

of Places in Italy 


Plwlograpit by Sommer, .Vnpoli 

The Promontory of Scyi.l\ 

The Monster Scylla is Described 

By the other way there are two crags, one reaching up 
to the broad heavens with its sharp peak. Clouds gather 
about it darkly and never float away; light strikes its peak 
neither in heat nor harvest. No mortal man could 
clamber up or down it, though twenty hands and feet were 
his; for the rock is smooth, as it were polished. About 
the middle of the crag is a dim cave, facing the west and 
Erebus, the very way where you must steer your rounded 
ship, glorious Odysseus; and from that rounded ship no 
lusty youth could with a bow-shot reach the hollow cave. 
Here Scylla dwells and utters hideous cries; her voice like 
that of a young dog, and she herself an evil monster. None 
can behold her and be glad, be it a god who meets her. 
Twelve feet she has, and all misshapen; six necks, exceed- 
ing long; on each a frightful head; in these three rows of 
teeth, stout and close-set, fraught with dark death. As 
far as the waist she is drawn down within the hollow cave ; 
but she holds forth her heads outside the awful chasm and 
fishes there, spying around the crag for dolphins, dogfish, 
or whatever larger creatures she may catch, such things as 

418 Classical Associations 

KTJTOs, a fivpla ^oaKtL ayaarovos 'Aij.ipi.TpiTri. 
TJj 5' cO XOJTT re vavTai aKripioi tvxiTOUiVTai 
wapipvy'ttiv avv vqi ipepn. de rt Kparl eKaarw 
tpijiT e^apira^acra veos Kvavoirf-wpoio. 

Horn. Od. xii. 73-100. 

SINUESSA (Mondragone) 

A town on the sea coast of Latium. Livy says that a 
colony was established there in 296 B. C. (x. 21). How- 
ever, the place was never of any great importance other 
than as a pleasant resort on the Appian Way where most 
travelers stopped (Cic. ad Att. ix. 15; xiv. 8) and where 
many wealthy Romans liked to live because of the climate 
and beautiful scenery. Horace (Ep. i. 5, 4-5), mentions 
its wine. 

Postero lux oritur multo gratissima: namque 
Plotius et Varius Sinuessae Vergiliusque 
occurrunt, animae, quales neque candidiores 
terra tulit, neque quis me sit devinctior alter, 
o qui conplexus et gaudia quanta fuerunt! 
nil ego contulerim iucundo sanus amico. 

Hor. S. i. 5, .?y-44. 

Sinuessanum deversoriolum. 

Cic. ad Fam. xii. 20. 

^ One of the stopping places of Horace on liis journey to Brundisium (see note under 
Anxur) . Plotius and Varius were friends of both Virgil and Horace. 

2 A passage from one of Cicero's letters to his friends. Many references in literature 
testify to the balmy climate of Sinuessi. Martial calls it "mollis" and Silius ftalicus 
alludes to it as"tepens" (viii. 527). 

of Places ill Italy 419 

vo.iceful Amphitrite breeds by thousands. Never could 
sailors boast of passing her in safety, for with each head 
she lakes a man, snatching him from the dark-prowed ship. 

G. H. Palmer 

A ReUiiio.1 of Friends 

Here ha\ ing rested for the night, 
With inexpressible delight 
We hail the dawn, — for we that da>' 
At Sinuessa' on our way 
With Plotius, Varius, Virgil too. 
Have an appointed rendezvous; 
Souls all, than whom the earth ne'er saw 
More noble, more exempt from flaw. 
Nor are there any on its round, 
To whom I am more fondly bound. 
Oh, what embracings, and what mirth! 
Nothing, no, nothing on this earth, 
Whilst I have reason, shall I e'er 
With a true-hearted friend compare I 

Sir Theodore Martin 

My little lodge at Sinuessa. " 


420 Classical Associations 

In tanta mole curarum valetudine adversa corripitur, 
refovendisque viribus mollitia caeli et salubritate aquarum 
Sinuessam pergit. 

Tac. Ann. xii. 66. 

Concurrere ex lota urbe in Palatium ac fora, et ubi 
plurima vulgi licentia, in circum ac theatra effusi seditiosis 
vocibus strepere, donee Tigellinus accepto apud Sinues- 
sanas aquas supremae necessitatis nuntio inter stupra 
concubinarum et oscula et deformes moras sectis novacula 
faucibus infamem vitam foedavit etiam exitu sere et 

Tac. Hist. i. 72. 

Niveisque frequens Sinuessa columbis. 

Ov. Met. XV. 715. 

SORACTE MONS (Monte Soracte) 

Summe deum, sancti custos Soractis Apollo. 

Vir. Aen. xi. 785. 

Vides, ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte, nee iam sustineant onus 
silvae laborantes, geluque 
flumina constiterint acuto. 

dissolve frigus ligna super foco 
large reponens, atque benignius 
deprome quadrimum Sabina, 
o, Thaliarche, merum diota. 

permitte divis cetera; qui simul 
stravere ventos aequore fervido 
deproeliantes, nee cupressi 
nee veteres agitantur orni. 

3 Emperor from 41-54 A. D. 

* The infamous prime minister of Nero. 

of Places in Italy 42 1 

In the midst of these distractions Claudius' was at- 
tacked by a fit of illness. For the recovery of his health 
he set out for Sinuessa, to try the effect of a milder air, and 
the salubrious waters of the place. 

Arthur Murphy 

An Unscrupulous Politician is Forced to End His Life 

They crowded together from all quarters; they sur- 
rounded the palace; they filled the forum; and in the 
circus and the theatre, where licentiousness is most apt 
to show itself, they clamoured, with a degree of violence 
little short of sedition, for the punishment of a vile male- 
factor. Tigellinus^ was then at the baths of Sinuessa. 
Orders were sent to him to put a period to his life. He 
received the fatal news in a circle of his concubines; he took 
leave with tenderness; and after mutual embraces and 
other trifling delays, he cut his throat with a razor; by the 
pusillanimity of his lagt moments disgracing even the 
infamy of his former life. 

Arthur Murphy , 

Sinuessa with its thronging flocks of snow-white doves. 

F. J. Miller 


Apollo, greatest of the gods, guardian of sacred Soracte. 
A Poet Inspired by Soracte's Snowy Summit 

Seest thou how Soracte stands glistening in its mantle 
of snow, and how the straining woods no longer uphold 
their burden, and the streams are frozen with the biting 
cold? Dispel the chill by piling high the wood upon the 
hearth, and right generously bring forth in Sabine jar 
the wine four winters old, O Thaliarchus! Leave to the 
gods all else; for so soon as they have stilled the winds 
battling on the seething deep, the cypresses and ancient 
ash-trees are no longer shaken. Cease to ask what the 

422 Classical Associations 

quid sit futurum eras, fuge quaerere, el 
quem Fors dierum cumqiie dabit, lucro 
appone, nee dukes amores 
sperne puer neque lu choreas, 

donee virenti canities abest 
morosa; nunc et campus et areae 
lenesque sub noctem susurri 
composita repetantur hora; 

nunc et latentis proditor intimo 
gratus puellae risus ab angulo 
pignusque dereptum lacertis 
aut digito male pertinaci. 

Hor. C. i. 9. 

'TtTO 8i TcJ Xo)p6.KT<^ OptL ^tpwv'ia TToXlS iaTLV, 6fJ,<jlVVIJL0% CTTIXW- 

pla Tivl 5alp.ovL Tipxiip,kvjj (Tipbhpa. virb tCiv irtpio'iKUiv, rjs Ttptevos 
kcTTiv iv T(3 TOTTO) d^avp-dOTrfv kpoTTodav exov yv/jivois yap voal 
Sie^laaiv av^paKiav Kal ciroSiav p.tya.\riv ol KanxbixevoL virb 
r^s balpavo^ ravrr^s diro!?eIs, /cat avvkpxtTai irXfj^os dv^ponrcov 
ap.a TTJs T€ Travr]yvpiws, X^piv, fj avvTeXflrai Kar' eros, Kal t^? 
Xex^darjs ^kas. 

Strab. V. 2, 9 

of Places ill Ilalv 


morrow will bring forth, and set down as gain each day 
that Fortune grants I Nor in thy youth neglect sweet love 
nor dances, whilst life is still in its bloom and crabbed age 
is far away! Now let the Campus be sought and the 
squares, with low whispers at the trysting-hour as night 
draws on, and the merry tell-tale laugh of maiden hiding 
in farthest corner, and the forfeit snatched from her arm 
or finger that but feign resistance. C. E. Bennett 

A Miracle Related 

Below Mount Soracte is the city of Feronia, ha\ ing the 
same name as a certain goddess of the country, highl\- 
reverenced by the surrounding people: here is her temple 
in which a remarkable ceremony is performed, for those 
possessed by the divinity pass over a large bed of burning 
coal and ashes barefoot, unhurt. A great concourse of 
people assemble to assist at the festival which is cele- 
brated yearly, and to see the said spectacle. 

H. C. Hamilton 

Photograph by Katharine Allen 

• the Top of ilouNX Soracte 

424 Classical Associations 

SURRENTUM (Sorrento)' 

^tLpfjvas fiiu trpGiTOv a^i^eat, at ^a re ■ko.vto.s 
avdpwirovs BiXyovcnVi oris atpias tiaatpUriTai.. 
OS rts aibptbg irtXacrji Kal (pdoyyov aKobay 
1ieipi]V03V, rw d' o'ii ti. yvvfj xat v^TTta reKva 
oiKade voaTrjcavTL irapiaraTai ov5i yavvvrat, 
dXXo. T€ l^eipfjvis Xiyvpfj dkXyovcriv aotSjj, 
^fievai tv \ei.fiS}vi' ttoXus S' a.ix<p' oartotpLV 6h 
kvbpSiv TTvdoiikvwv, irepl 8i pivol mvvdovai. 

■ Horn. Od. xii. 39-46. 

lamque adeo scopulos Sirenum advecta subibat 
diificiles quondam multorumque ossibus albos 
(turn rauca assiduo longe sale saxa sonabant). 

Vir. Aen. v. 864-866. 

Surrentum .... amoenum. 

Hor. Ep. i. 17, 52. 

"Airas 5' eort KO.TtaKtva.ap.tvo'i tovto fiev rats TdXtaLV &i 
etpaiiev, tovto Si rats olKoSofilais Kal (pvTeLaii, at litra^b 
(TvvexiLS oCcat /xtSs iroXeojs 6\l/i.v irapexovTai. 

Strab. V. 4, 8. 

Plaga cara madenti | Surrentina deo. 

Stat. Silv. iv. 8, 8-9. 

Et Surrentino generosos palmite coUes. 

Ov. Met. XV. 710. 

' A town situated upon what is now the bay of Naples, a few miles from the promon- 
tory. U IS seldom mentioned in history. 

■ 1 j^*!' ^'°'''' ?f ""' Sirens was associated with the promontory of Minerva and adjacent 
islands (now called Galli). For a longer account of the adventures of Odysseus with 
these Sirens, see lines following above passage. 

• , '.Virgil allows Aeneas and the Trojans only to hear the breakers and to see these 
islands from afar — not to visit them. 

* Many passages in Latin literature praise the climate of Surrentum. 

iThe celebrity of the place was chiefly due to the wine produced in its neighborhood 
See the following passages: Mart. xiii. 110; Stat. Silv. iii. 5, 102; Columella 6 R iii ■>' ■ 
Pl.N. H.xxiii.33. ' "me»a K. K. ill. 2 , 

oj Places in Italy 425 

The Sirens' Song 

To the Sirens^ first shalt thou come, who bewitch all 
men, whosoever shall come to them. Whoso draws nigh 
them unwittingly and hears the sound of the Sirens' voice, 
never doth he see wife or babes stand by him on his return, 
nor have they joy at his coming; but the Sirens enchant 
him with their clear song, sitting in the meadow, and all 
about is a great heap of bones of men, corrupt in death, 
and round the bones the skin is wasting. 

S. H. Butcher and Andrew Lang 

Where the Sirens Lived 

Yet were they' drawmg nigh 
The Sirens' island-steep, where oft are seen 
White, bleaching bones, and to the distant ear 
The rocks roar harshly in perpetual foam. 

T. C. Williams 

Pleasant Surrentum.^ 

The whole is adorned by the cities we have described, 
by villas and plantations, so close together that to the eye 
they appear but one city. 

H. C. Hamilton 

The region of Surrentum, dear to the god dripping with 

Hills of Surrentum, rich in vines. 

F. J. Miller 


Classical Associalio)i.s 

Photograph by Kallhiyine \Ucn 


Prinii (jtiam S}"baritae artes eas quae cum strcpitu f.\- 
ercentur, ut fabrorum aerariorum el lignariorum aliorum- 
que id genus, intra urbem recipere recusarunt; ne scilicet 
somnus ipsis uUo modo turbaretur. Eandemque ob 
causam ne gallum quidem gallinaceum in urbe alere licitum 
erat .... Equites Sybaritarum, numero supra 
quinquies mille, pompam agentes transvehebantur croceas 
vestes super thoracibus induti. .\estivo tempore iuniores 
in Nympharum Lusiadum antra secedentes, in omni 
luxuriae genere vitam ibi agebant. Ditiores quando 
rusticatum ibant, vehiculo licet proficiscentes, tamen 
unius diei iter non nisi intra triduum conficiebant. Erant 
vero etiam viarum nonnullae, quae ad villas ducebant, 
superne teclae. 

Athen. .xii. 1,^-17 (Latin \ersion by Johannes 

Schweighaeuser, 1804). 

1 The luxuriou!5 life of the people of Sybaris at the height of the city's power went 
Ijeyond all bounds and has become proverbial. For a fuller account, see .Athen. xii. 1.^-21. 

oj Places in Italy 427 


(Near the River Crathis) 

One of the earliest and most powerful of the Greek 
cities in southern Italy, rivalled only by its neighbor 
Croton which finally utterly destroyed it. The fact that 
it was surrounded by a fertile plain added to its prosperity, 
as well as the policy of freely admitting settlers of other 
nations to its citizenship. It is said that Sybaris rose to 
such heights of prominence that it rivalled the cities of 
Greece and that its arrogance became so great that it even 
planned to supplant the Olympic Games by attracting 
famous artists, writers, and athletes to its walls. 

The Extravagance of the Sybarites 

The Sybarites' were the first to prohibit those who 
follow the noisy trades (braziers, smiths, carpenters, etc.) 
from living in the city. Thus they insured themselves 
against being aroused too early. They would not even 
allow a cock to be kept within the city limits. 

But the cavalry of the Sybarites, being in number more 
than five thousand, used to go in procession with saffron- 
coloured robes over their breastplates; and in the summer 
their younger men used to go away to the ca^'es of the 
Lusiades Nymphs, and live there in all kinds of luxur)-. 
And whenever the rich men of that country left the cit}" 
for the country, although they always travelled in char- 
iots, still they used to consume three days in a day's jour- 
ney. And some of the roads which led to their villas in 
the country were covered with awnings all over. 


(Translated from the Greek.) 

428 Classical Associations 

ToaovTov S' evrvxl'l' SirivtyKtv ri ir6Xis avri] to TraXaioi' ware 
TtTTaptav fiev k&vSiv tS>v irXjjtrtoj' kwrjp^f, irivre di Kal elKocn iroXeis 
vwTiKoovs iaxe, rpiaKovra Si nvpiaciv 6.v8pSjv ewl 'KpoTUViaras 
eaTpcLTevcev, irevrriKOVTa Si cradUiiv KiiKXov avveirXripovv oIkovv- 
Tts erl T(2 KpadiSi. inro p.ivTOi Tpviprjs Kai iijSpecos ixiracav ttjv 
evSaiiioviav aipripk^Tjaai' viro KpoToouLarSiv iv rifiipan i^Sofiii- 
Kovra' iKovTts yap rriv toKlv kwriyayov tov Torapxiv Kai Kart- 
KKvaav. vaTtpov S' ol Trepfyevbp,evoL (TvvtkdbvTts iv(^KOvv oXiyof 
Xpbvia Se Kal ovtol Suip^aprjaav inro ' A^rivaloiv Kal aXXcoi' "EX- 
\tivcov, ol avvoiKrjaovTts /xec eKeivois aiplKOVTO, Karaippovqaavrt^ 
Si avrSiv roiis iiiv Siextiplaavro .... rriv Si toKiv eh erepov 
Toirov nerk&riKav TrXrjfflov Kal Bovpiovs wpoariyoptvaav (iitb Kpr]- 
vris bfioivv/iov. 6 /xiv ovv Su^apts tovs wivovras 'iirwovs aw' avrov 
TTTvpTLKoiis TTOLil. Slo Kal Tos d7eXos OLTTfipyovcnv clt' aVTOV. 

Strab. vi. 1, 13. 

' A river (Crathis) near this place. 

» This defeat of Sybaris at the hands of the people of Croton occurred somewhere 
about 510 B. C. The city was utterly destroyed the course of the river beinj; ^o turned 
that its waters flowed over the site. 

oj Places in Italy 429 

The Former Glory of Sybaris 

So great was the prosperity enjoyed by this city an- 
ciently, that it held dominion over four neighbouring 
people and twenty-five towns; in the war with the people 
of Croton it brought into the field 300,000 men, and oc- 
cupied a circuit of 50 stadia on the Crathis.^ But on ac- 
count of the arrogance and turbulence of its citizens, it 
was deprived of all its prosperity in 70 days by the men of 
Croton who took the city,*^ and turning the waters of the 
river (Crati), overwhelmed it with an inundation. Some 
time after, a few who had escaped came together and 
inhabited the site of their former city, but in time they 
were dispossessed by the Athenians and other Greeks who 
came to settle among them, but despising them, they 
slew them, and- removed the city to a neighbouring 
place, calling its name Thurii, from a fountain of that 
name. The water of the river Sybaris has the peculiar 
property of making the horses which drink it shy, for 
which reason they keep their horses away from the river. 

H. C. Hamilton 

430 Classical Associations 

TARENTUM (Taranto) 

This powerful city of Southern Italy was situated on 
the north shore of the bay that bears its name (Golfo 
di Taranto). It was Greek in origin, its founding perhaps 
dating back to the eighth century B. C. A rapid rise to 
power was largely due to its port, — the only safe harbor of 
any size in the early days along this part of the coast; hence 
it became the center for the commerce of this region of 
Italy. By various wars with its neighbors, it gradually 
extended its conquests until it became the ruling power in 
Magna Graecia. Not until the second Samnite war 
(326 B. C.) did it come into any serious contact with the 
power of Rome (Liv. viii. 27; ix. 14 et al.) but soon after 
that it seems to have announced to the latter a Monroe 
doctrine; namely, that Roman war ships were not to pass 
beyond the Lacinian promontory (Appian Bel. Samnil. 
7). The Romans disregarded this restriction in 302 B. C. 
when a fleet entered the gulf and came within sight of the 
city. The Tarentines at once attacked it ; whereupon an 
embassy was sent from Rome to protest. The demands 
that they made at this time were treated with scorn and 
the ambassadors insulted. A proclamation of war was 
promptly issued by Rome (281 B. C), and the powerful 
Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, summoned to the assistance of 
Tarentum. In consequence, a long and troublesome 
struggle with this eastern monarch began. At his final 
withdrawal in 274 B. C, the city fell a prey to the Roman 
consul Papirius (272) although a force from Carthage came 
to its assistance. A Roman possession from this time on, 
it assumed special importance in the second Punic War al 
which time Hannibal endeavored to capture it. This he 
partly succeeded in doing in 212 B. C. (although the 
citadel was still held by a Roman garrison) through the 
treachery of two leaders within the city, Nico and Phile- 
menus (Liv. xxv. 9). But finally in 209 the Romans pre- 
vailed and the whole city was given up to plunder (see 
passage quoted below). Livy gives an interesting account 
(xxvii. 15) of the stratagem by which this was brought 

of Places in Italy 


about — a love affair being cleverly used to force the issue. 
From this time on Tarentum declined in importance, 
partly because of the growth of Brundisium not far away, 
although it never fell into complete decay; on the other 
hand it continued to be a fairly prosperous port through- 
out the Empire. 

Scene in the Harbor at Taranto 

432 Classical Associations 

Vnde si Parcae prohibent iniquae, 
■ dulce pellitis Ovibus Galaesi 
flumen et regnata petam Laconi 
rura Phalantho. 

ilk terrarum mihi praeter omnes 
angulus ridet, ubi non Hymetto 
mella decedunt viridique certal 
baca Venafro; 

ver ubi longum tepidasque praebet 
luppiter brumas, et amicus Aulon 
fertili Baccho minimum Falernis 
invidet uvis. 

ille te mecum locus et beatae 
postulant arces; ibi tu calentem 
debita sparges lacrima favillam 
vatis amici. 

Hor. C. ii. 6, 9-24. 

Nunc mihi curto 
ire licet mulo vel, si libet, usque Tarentum, 
mantica cui 1 umbos onere ulceret atque eques armos. 
obiiciet nemo sordes mihi, quas tibi, Tilli, 
cum Tiburte via praetorem quinque sequuntur 
te pueri lasanum portantes oenophorumque. 

Hor. S. i. 6, 104-109. 

* Written to Septimius, a friend of the poet. 

'A river near Tarentiun which Propertius thus describes "umbrosi subter pineta 
Galaesi" (ii. 34, 67). 

3 The region was famous for its wool (Stat. Silv. iii. 3, 93; Mart. xiii. 125). 

* One of the young men from Sparta who were said by tradition to have founded the 

' A mountain in this neighborhood. 

* The wine of Tarentum was well-known. 

of Places in Italy 433 

A Poet's Praise of Tarentum 

But shotild the cruel Fates decree, 

That this, my friend,^ shall never be, 

Then to Galaesus," river sweet, 

To skin-clad flocks,^ will I retreat, 

And those rich meads, where sway of yore 

Laconian Phalanthus^ bore. 

In all the world no spot there is, 
That wears for me a smile like this ; 
The honey of whose thymy fields 
May vie with what Hymettus yields; 
Where berries clustering every slope 
May with Venafrum's greenest cope. 

There Jove accords a lengthened spring, 
And winters wanting winter's sting; 
And sunny Anion's^ broad incline 
Such mettle puts into the vine," 
Its clusters need not envy those, 
Which fiery Falernum grows. 

Thyself and me that spot invites. 
Those pleasant fields, those sunny heights; 
And there, to life's last moments true. 
Wilt thou with some fond tears bedew — 
The last sad tribute love can lend — 
The ashes of thy poet friend. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

The Joys of Being Obscure 

Now on my bobtailed mule I ride at ease, 
As far as e'en Tarentum, if I please, 
A wallet for my things behind me tied. 
Which galls his crupper as I gall his side, 
And no one rates my meanness, as they rate 
Yours, noble Tillius, when you ride in state 
On the Tiburtine road, five slaves en suite 
Wineholder and etceteras all complete. 

John Coningtun 

434 Classical Associations 

Inbelle Tarentum. 

Hor. Ep. i. 7, 45. 

Atque coronatum et petulans madidumque Tarentum. 

Juv. vi. 296-297. 

ToO &t koXtov wavTCS tov T apavTlvov to wXkov aXinevov ovtos, 
tvTavda. |5ij Xtjuiyc] ecrt fi'eyicrTO% /cat KaXXtcrros yeipvpq, xXeto- 
fxevos iJieyahri, CTadLoiv 5' earlv tKarov ttjv TtpLiiiTpov. 'tK hi 

TOV TpOS TOV flVXOV fikpOVS IcT^fiOV TTOlti TTpOS TrjV e^CO J^dXaTTttJ', 

coctt' iirl x^Ppov'i'rv Ktic&aL ttjv ttoKlv Kai to. TrXota virepveui\- 
Keladai. pq,Sic>is (.KaTepwdiv rairtLVOv ovtos tdv avx^yos. raxet- 
vov di Kal TO Trjs TroXetos 'eda(pos, fxiKpov S' o/xcos kirfjpTaL KaTo. Trjv 
aKpOTToXLV. TO p,iv ovv TokaMV Teix^s kvk\ov exiL ixeyav, vvvi 
8' e/cXeXetTrrat to Tr\tov to irpos t<2 ia'&fj.^, to 8e wpos roi aTbp.a.Ti 
TOV \ifjiivos, Kad' o Kal t] aKpowoXi-s, (€L tJ,'eyedo% 0.^10X6701; 
■KoKtws €KT\ripodv. 6xet Si ■yvp.vacnbv Tt ko-Wlctov Kal ayopav 
ev/xeyei^t), iv fi Kal 6 tov Atos ISpvTai KoXoccros xiX/coOs, /xkyicrTos 
fiiTO. TOV 'PoStoji'. ixiTa^i) di TTJs ayopds Kal tov aTO/xaTos 17 d/cp6- 
TToXts jxiKpa Xeii/'aya ixovva tov raXatoj Koap-oi tSiv,a- 
Tdiv TO. yap iroXXd to. p.iv KaTkip^upav Kapxv^ovMi Xaffovres riiv 
iroKiv, TO. d' kXaipvpaydoyriaav 'Pwyuatoi KpaTrjaavTfs jSiatcos' 
&v icTi Kal 6 "Hpa/cXTjs ev tQ KaTreTO)\icj> x^^^koDs koXocclkos, 
Xvalwirov 'ipycv, avadrjpia Ma^iyuov ^afilcv tov eXovrcs Ti]v irbXLV. 

"IcFXvcrav bk iroTi ol TapavTlvoi Ka&' virtp^o\riy TroXtreuo/tevoi 
brjfiOKpaTLKUis' Kal yap vavTiKov kKtKTrfVTO p,kyi<TTOV tS>v TavTji 
Kal Trefoils eaTtWov Tpujfxvpiovi, iirirkas Si rptO'X'Xioiis, lirwap- 
Xovs di x'Xious. aireSi^avTO Si Kal ttjv Uv^aybptiov ipCKoaoiplav, 

^ The reputation of the Taren tines for effeminacy was wide-spread. (See the'foliowinK 
passages; also Athen. xii. 23.) 

8 The city was renowned for its worlts of art. (See a 1 ater passage describing the cap- 
ture of the town.) 

'In 212 B. C. 

1" In 209 B. C. (See the following passage.) 

of Places in Italy 435 

Un warlike TarentumJ 

Tarentum, wearing garlands, wanton and drunk. 

F G. Moore 

Tarentum's Former Greatness 

The Gulf of Tarentum is for the most part destitute of 
a port, but here there is a spacious and commodious 
(harbour), closed in by a great bridge. It is 100 stadia 
in circuit. This port, at the head of its basin which re- 
cedes very far inland, forms, with the exterior sea, an isth- 
mus which connects the peninsula with the land. The city 
is situated upon this peninsula. The neck of land is so low 
that ships are easily hauled over it from either side. The 
site of the city likewise is extremely low; the ground, how- 
ever, rises slightly towards the citadel. The old wall of 
the city has an immense circuit. However, the portion 
towards the isthmus is now deserted, but that standing 
near the mouth of the harbour where the citadel is situated, 
still endures, and contains a considerable city. The place 
possesses a noble gymnasium and a spacious forum, in which 
•there is set up a brazen colossus of Jupiter, the largest 
in the world, with the exception of that of Rhodes. The 
citadel is situated between the forum and the entrance of 
the harbour. The place still preserves some slight relics of 
its ancient magnificence^ and gifts, but the chief of them 
were destroyed either by the Carthaginians when they took 
the city,' or by the Romans when they took it by force 
and sacked it.'" Amongst other booty taken on this occa- 
sion was the brazen colossus of Hercules, the work of Ly- 
sippus, now in the Capitol, which was dedicated as an 
ofiering by Fabius Maximus, who took the city 

At one time, when the government of the Tarentines had 
assumed a democratic form, they rose to great importance; 
for they possessed the greatest fleet of any state in those 
parts, and could bring into the field an army of 30,000 foot 
and 3000 horse, exclusive of a select body of cavalry called 
Hipparchi. They likewise encouraged the Pythagorean 

436 Classical Associations 

diaipepovTCiis 5' 'Apxvras, os Kai irpokarTi ttjs TroXecos iroKiiv xpo- 
vov. i^lcxvcre 5' 17 varepov Tpv<pii dia rrjv evSaiixovlav, Siare tos 
iravSriiJiovi eopras irXtious ayetr^ai xar' eros Trap' aiiToTs rj ras 

Strab. vi. 3, 1-4. 

Tarentos, Lacedaemoniorum opus, Calabriae quondam 
et Apuliae totiusque Lucaniae caput, cum magnitudine et 
muris portuque nobilis, tum mirabilis situ. Quippe in 
ipsis Hadriani maris faucibus posita in omnis terras, His- 
triam Illyricum, Epiron Achaiam, Africam Siciliam vela 
dimittit. Imminet portui ad prospectum maris positum 
maius theatrum, quod quidem causa miserae civitati fuit 
omnium calamitatum. Ludos forte celebrabat, cum ad- 
remigantes litori Romanas classes vident atque hostem 
rati emicant, sine discrimine insultant. Qui enim aut 
unde Romani? Nee satis. Aderat sine mora querellam 
ferens legatio. Hanc quoque foede per obscenam turpem- 
que dictu contumeliam violant; et hinc bellum. Sed ap- 
paratus horribilis, cum tot simul populi pro Tarentinis 
consurgerent omnibusque vehementior Pyrrhus, qui semi- 
graecam ex Lacedaemoniis conditoribus civitatem vindi- 
caturus cum totis viribus Epiri Thessaliae Macedoniae 
incognitisque in id tempus elephantis mari terra, viris 
equis armis, addito insuper ferarum terrore veniebat. 

Flor. Ep. i. 13, 2-6.. 

" A philosopher of the fourth century. 

•2 Second only to Athens and Syracuse among cities of its day in size; its population 
has been estimated as between 100,000 and 150,000. During the height of its prosperity, 
the city had few peers in power and riches. A vast number of coins testify to its wide- 
spread commerce. 

" See introductory note. 

of Places in Italy 437 

philosophy, and Archytas," who for a long time presided 
over the government of their state, gave it his special 
support. But at a later period their luxury, which was 
produced by their prosperity, increased to that degree that 
their general holidays or festivals exceeded in number the 
days of the year. 

H. C. Hamilton 

A Famous Incident in Roman History 

Tarenlum was built by the Lacedaemonians, and was 
formerly the metropolis of Calabria, Apulia, and all Lu- 
cania; it was famous for its size*^ and walls and harbour, 
and admired for its situation; for, being placed at the very 
entrance to the Adriatic, it sends its vessels to all the ad- 
jacent countries; namely, Istria, Illyricum, Epirus, Greece, 
Africa, and Sicily. A large theatre lies close upon the 
harbour, built so as to overlook the sea; which theatre was 
the cause of all the calamities that befell the unhappy 
city. They happened to be celebrating games, when they 
saw from thence the Roman fleet rowing up to the shore," 
and, supposing that they were enemies approaching, ran 
out and attacked them without further consideration; for 
"who or whence were the Romans?" Nor was this 
enough: an embassy came from Rome without delay, to 
make a complaint. This embassy they vilely insulted, 
with an affront that was gross and disgraceful to be men- 
tioned. Hence arose the war. The preparations for it 
were formidable — so many nations, at the same time, rising 
up in behalf of the Tarentines; andPyrrhus, more formid- 
able than them all, who, to defend the city, (which, from 
its founders being Lacedaemonians, was half Greek), cartie 
with all the strength of Epirus, Thessalia, and Macedonia, 
and with elephants — till then unknown in Italy — menacing 
the- country by sea and land, with men, horses, arid arms, 
and the additional terror of wild beasts. 

J. S. Watson 

438 Classical Associations 

Alii alios passim sine discrimine armatos inermisque 
caedunt, Carthaginienses Tafentinosque pariter. . . . 
Turn a caede ad diripiendam urbem discursum. Milia 
triginta servilium capitum dicuntur capta, argenti vis 
ingens facti signatique, auri octoginta tria milia pondo, 
signa et tabulae, prope ut Syracusarum ornamenta aequa- 
verint. Sed maiore animo generis eius praeda abstinuit 
Fabius quam Marcellus; qui interroganti scriba, quid fieri 
signis vellet ingentis magnitudinis — di sunt, suo quisque 
habitu in modum pugnantium format! — , deos iratos 
Tarentinis relinqui iussit. Murus inde, qui urbem ab arcc 
dirimebat, dirutus est ac disiectus. 

Liv. xxvii. 16, 6-9. 

Pectinibus patulis iactat se moUu Tarentum. 

Hor. S. ii. 4, 34. 

Lana Tarentino violas imitata veneno. 

Hor. Ep. ii. 1, 207. 

Tarentum veni a. d. .xv Kal. lunias. Quod Pomptinum 
statueram exspectare, commodissimum duxi dies eos quoad 
ille veniret, cum Pompeio consumere eoque magis, quod 
ei gratum esse id videbam, qui etiam a me petierit, ut se- 
cum etapudseessemcotidie. Quodconcessilibenter. Mul- 
tos enim eius praeclaros de re publica sermones accipiam, 
instruar etiam consiliis idoneis ad hoc nostrum negotium. 

Cic. ad Att. v. 6. 

" By the Romans in 209 B. C. 
"Tarentum was famous for its shell-fisfa. 

w The purple dye, so widely celebrated throughout the Roman world, was made from 
a small sea creature living along the coast. 

" A visit made by Cicero in 51 B. C. when he was on his way to Cilicia. 

oj Places in Italy 439 

Tarentuni Falls a Prey to Rome's Soldiers 

The rest were put to the sword without distinction, 
armed and unarmed, Carthaginians and Tarentines alike. 
. . . . After this carnage, the victors proceeded in 
several parties to plunder the city. We are told that 
there were taken here thirty thousand persons in a state 
of servitude, a vast quantity of silver wrought and coined, 
eighty-three thousand pounds weight of gold, together 
with statues and pictures in such numbers as almost to 
rival the decorations of Syracuse. But Fabius, with more 
greatness of mind than was shown by Marcellus, re- 
frained from meddling with booty of that sort; and when 
his secretary asked him what he would have done with the 
statues of their gods, which were of gigantic size, and 
habited like warriors, he ordered him "to let the Taren- 
tines keep their angry gods to themselves." Then the 
wall which separated the citadel from the town was de- 
molished and razed." 

George Baker 

Flat bivaKe mussels are Tarentum's pride.'" 

John Coningtdn 

Wool dipped in the dye of Tarentum, imitating the color 
of violets.'^ 

Cicero Calls on Pompey'' 

I came to Tarentum on the 18th of May. .\s 1 had 
decided to await Pomptinus, I thought it most convenient 
to spend the days before his arrival with Pompey, the more 
so because I saw it pleased him. Indeed he begged me to 
see him and to be at his house every day; and I was glad 
to give him my company. I shall have some grand con- 
versations with him about the political situation, and shall 
get useful advice on this business of mine. 


440 Classical Associations 


Vidimus flavum Tiberirti retortis 
litore Etrusco violenter undis 
ire deiectum monumenta regis 

templaque Vestae; 
Iliae dum se nimium querenti 
iactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra 
labitur ripa love non probante u- 

xorius amnis. 

Hor. C. i. 2, 13-20. 

Et terrain Hesperiam venies, ubi Lydius arva 
inter opima virum leni fluit agmine Thybris. 

Vir. Aen. ii. 781-2. 

lamque rubescebat radiis mare et aethere ab alto 
Aurora in roseis fulgebat lutea bigis, 
cum venti posuere omnisque repente resedit 
flatus et in lento luctantur marmore tonsae. 
atque hie Aeneas ingentem ex aequore lucum 
prospicit. hunc inter fluvio Tiberinus amoeno, 
verticibus rapidis et multa flavus harena, 
in mare prorumpit. variae circumque supraque 
assuetae ripis volucres et fluminis alveo 
aethera mulcebant cantu lucoque volabant. 
flectere iter sociis terraeque advertere proras 
imperat et laetus fluvio succedit opaco. 

Vir. Aen. vii. 25-36. 

Nox erat, et terras animalia fessa per omnes 
alituum pecudumque genus sopor altus habebat, 
cum pater in ripa gelidique sub aetheris axe 
Aeneas, tristi turbatus pectora bello, 
procubuit seramque dedit per membra quietem. 

1 The Tiber frequently overflowed its banks in Rome, causing much destruction and 
distress. "For vivid accounts, see Tac. Hist. i. 86; Liv. xxxv. 9; Hist. Aug. Vit. M. Ant. 
Phil. 8, 4-5. 

2 The Trojans approach Rome by sailing along the Tiber. (See Rutil. de Red. Suo i, 

oj Places in Italy 441 


We s^w the yellow Tiber, its waves hurled back in fury 
from the Tuscan shore, advance to overthrow the King's 
Memorial and Vesta's shrines, showing himself too ardent 
an avenger of complaining Ilia, and spreading far and wide 
o'er the left bank without Jove's sanction, — fond river- 
god.^ C. E. Beijinett 

And you will arrive at the land of Hesperia where 

Tiber, Lydia's river, rolls his gentle volumes through 

rich and cultured plains. ,. „ 

^ John Conington 

The Trojans Sail Up the Tiber^ 

Now morning flushed the wave, and saffron-garbed 
Aurora from her rose-red chariot beamed 
In highest heaven; the sea- winds ceased to stir; 
A sudden calm possessed the air, and tides 
Of marble smoothness met the laboring oar. 
Then, gazing from the deep, Aeneas saw 
A stretch of groves whence Tiber's smiling stream, 
Its tumbling current rich with yellow sands. 
Burst seaward forth: around it and above 
Shore-hunting birds of varied voice and plume 
Flattered the sky with song, and, circling far 
O'er river-bed and grove, took joyful wing. 
Thither to landward now his ships he steered. 
And sailed high-hearted up the shadowy stream. 

T. C. Williams 

The River God Speaks to Aeneas Who in Turn Prays 
to Him 

Now night had fallen, and all weary things. 
All shapes of beast and bird, the wide world o'er. 
Lay deep in slumber. So beneath the arch 
Of a cold sky Aeneas laid him down 
Upon the river-bank, his heart sore tried 
By so much war and sorrow, and gave o'er 
His body to its long-delayed repose. 

442 Classical Associations 

huic deus ipse loci fluvio Tiberinus amoeno 
populeas inter senior se attoUere frondes 
visus (eum tenuis glauco velabat amictu 
carbasus et crines umbrosa tegebat harundo), 
turn sic affari et curas his demere dictis: ' - i 

"o sate gente deum, Troianam ex hostibus urbeni 
qui revehis nobis aeternaque Pergama servas, 
exspectate solo Laurenti arvisque Latinis, 
hie tibi certa domus, certi (ne absiste) penates; 
neu belli terrere minis; tumor omnis et irae 

concessere deum 

ego sum, pleno quem flumine cernis 
stringentem ripas et pinguia culta secantem, 
caeruleus Thybris, caelo gratissimus amnis. 
hie mihi magna domus, celsis eaput urbibus, exit." 
dixit, deinde lacu iluvius ^e eondidit alto 
ima petens; nox Aenean somnusque reliquit. 
surgit, et aetherii spectans orientia soils 
lumina, rite cavis undam de flumine palmis 
sustinet, ac tales effundit ad aethera voces: 
"nymphae, Laurentes nymphae, genus amnibus 

unde est, 
tuque, o Thybri tuo genitor cum flumine sancto, 
aceipite Aenean et tandem arcete perielis. 
quo te cumque lacus miserantem ineommoda nostra 
fonte tenet, quocumque solo puleherrimus exis, 
semper honore meo, semper celebrabere donis, 
corniger Hesperidum fluvius regnator aquarum." 
Vir. Aen. viii. 26-41: 62-77. 

of Places in Italy. 443 

There 'twixt the poplars by the gentle stream, 

The River-Father, genius of that place. 

Old -Tiberinus rvisibly uprose ; 

A cloak of gray-gfeen lawn he wore, his hair ; 

O'erhung with wreath of reeds. In soothing words 

Thus, to console Aeneas' cares, he spoke: 

"Seed of the godsl who bringest to my shore 

Thy Trojan city Tvrested from her foe, 

A stronghold, everlasting, Latium's plain 

And fairiaureiLtum long have looked for thee. 

Here truly is thy home. Turn not away. . . 

Here the true guardians of thy hearth shall be. 

Fear not the gathering war. The wrath of Heaven 

Has stilled its swollen wave 

. . I am the copious flood 

Which thou beholdest chafing at yon shores 
And -parting fruitful fields: cerulean stream 
Of Tiber, favoured greatly of high Heaven. 
Here shall arise my house magnificent, 
.\ city of all cities chief and crown." 
So spake the river god and sank from view 
Down to his deepest cave: then night and sleep 
Together from Aeneas fled away. 
He rose and to the orient beams of morn 
His forehead gave; in both his hallowed palms 
He held the sacred waters of the stream. 
And called aloud ! 0, ye Laurentian nymphs, 
Whence flowing rills be born, and chiefly thou, 
Father Tiber, worshipped stream divine, 
. Accept Aeneas, and from peril save! 
' If in. some hallowed lake or taunted spring 
,'Thy poWer, pitying my woes, abides. 
Or wheresde'er the blessed place be found 
Whence first thy beauty flows, there evermore 
My hands shall bring thee gift and sacrifice. 
O chief and sovereign of Hesperian streams." 

T. C. Williams 

444 Classical Associations 

Thybris ea fluvium, quam longa est, nocte tumentem 
leniit, et tacita refluens ita substitit unda, 
mitis ut in morem stagni placidaeque paludis 
sterneret aequor aquis, remo ut luctamen abesset. 
ergo iter inceptum celerant rumore secundo. 
labitur uncta vadis abies; mirantur et undae, 
miratur nemus insuetum fulgentia longe 
scuta virum fluvio pictasque innare carinas, 
olli remigio noctemque diemque fatigant, 
et longos superant flexus variisque teguntur 
arboribus viridesque secant placido aequore silvas. 
Sol medium caeli conscenderat igneus orbem, 
cum muros arcemque procul ac rara domorum 
tecta vident, quae nunc Romana potentia caelo 
aequavit (tum res inopes Evandrus habebat) : 
ocius advertunt proras urbique propinquant. 

Vir. Aen. viii. 86-101. 

Atque opulenta tibi placidis commercia ripis 
devehat hinc ruris, subvehat inde maris. 

Rutil. de Red. Suo i. 153-154. 

Tiberis antea Thybris appellatus et prius Albula e medio 
fere longitudine Appennini finibus Arretinorum profluit. 
Tenuis primo nee nisi piscinis conrivatus emissusque na- 
vigabilis, sicuti Tinia et Clanis influentes in eum, nove- 
norum ita conceptu dierum, si non adiuvent imbres. Sed 
Tiberis propter aspera et confragosa ne sic quidem prae- 
terquam trabibus verius quam ratibus longe meabilis fer- 
tur. . . . sed infra Arretinum Clanim duobus et 

of Places in Italy 445 

The Trojans Approach Rome 

That whole night long Tiber smoothed his brimming- 
stream, and so stood with hushed waves, half recoiling, as 
to lay down a watery floor as of some gentle lake or peace- 
ful pool, that the oar might have nought to struggle with. 
So they begin their voyage and speed with auspicious 
cheers. Smooth along the surface floats the anointed 
pine: marvelling stand the waters, marvelling the un- 
wonted wood, to see the warriors' shields gleaming far 
along the stream, and the painted vessels gliding between 
the banks. The rowers give no rest to night or day, as 
they surmount the long meanders, sweep under the fringe 
of diverse trees, and cut through the woods that look green 
in the still expanse. The sun had climbed in full blaze 
the central cope of heaven, when from afar they see walls 
and a citadel and the roofs of straggling habitations — 
the place which the power of Rome has now made to mate 
the skies: then it was but Evander's poor domain. At 
once they turn their prows to land and approach the town. 

John Conington 

And for thy needs between his peaceful banks 
Waft down the country's wealth, waft up the sea's. 

G. F. Savage-Armstrong 

The Tiber in Pliny's Time 

The Tiber, formerly called Thybris, and still earlier Al- 
bula, rises about midway down the length of the Apen- 
nines, in the territory of Arretium. A slender stream at 
first, it is navigable only when dammed and then released 
(as is true of the Tinia and Clanis, which empty into it), 
nine ^ays storage of water being required, if there be no 
help from rain. But even so the Tiber, on account of its 
rough and rugged bed, is not navigable, except for a raft 
that might more truly be called a timber, and is fordable 
for a long distance. . . . But below the Arretine Cla- 


Classical Associations 

quadraginta fluviis auctus, praecipuis autem Nare et 
Aniene, qui et ipse navigabilis Latium includit a tergo, nee 
minus tamen aquis ac tot fontibus in urbem perductis,- et 
ideo quamlibet magnarum navium ex Italo mari capax, 
rerum in toto orbe nascentium mercator placidissimus, 
pluribus prope solus quam ceteri in omnibus terris amnes 
adcolitur adspiciturque villis. Nullique fluviorum minus 
licet inclusis utrimque lateribus, nee tamen ipse depug- 
nat, quamquam creber ac subitus incrementis et nusquam 
magis aquis quam in ipsa urbe stagnahtibus. Quin immo 
vates intellegitur potius ac monitor auctu semper religiosus 
verius quam saevos. Plin. N. H. iii. 53-55. 

Num istic quoque immite et turbidum caelum? Hie 
adsiduae tempestates et crebra diluvia. Tiberis alveiim 
excessit et demissioribus ripis alte superfunditur. Quam- 
quam fossa, quam providentissimus imperator fecit, ex- 
haustus premit valles, innatat campis, quaque planum 
solum, pro solo cernitur. Plin. Ep. viii. 17. 

The RorxD Temple in Dtring a Flood in 1900 

' A letter written by the younger Pliny to his friend Macrinus describing a Ilouil 
caused by the overflow of the Tiber and Anio. 

of Places in Italy 447 

nis it is swelled by forty-two streams, conspicuous among 
them being the Nar and the Anio, which is likewise navi- 
gable and encloses Latium in the rear. It is further 
swelled by the aqueducts and a great number of springs 
which have been conducted into the city, and thus it ad- 
mits even the largest ships from the Italian Sea; it trades 
most peacefully in the products of the whole world; and 
it is bordered and commanded by more villas almost than 
all other rivers in the world put together. No stream has 
less freedom, as it is imprisoned on both sides, and yet 
makes no resistance, although it rises frequently and sud- 
denly, while nowhere do its waters overflow more than at 
the city itself. Nevertheless it is considered in fact a 
prophet and mentor, always awe-inspiring, rather than 
vindictive, in its flood. 

F. G. Moore 

A Flood 

Is the weather in your part as rude and boisterous as it 
is with us? All here is tempest and inundation. The 
Tiber has overflowed its channels, and deeply flooded its 
lower baliks. Though drained by a dyke, which the em- 
peror providently had cut, it submerges the valleys, swims 
along the fields, and entirely overspreads the flats.' 

William Melmoth 


Classical Associations 
TIBUR (TivoLi) 


The founding of the city of Tibur far ante-dates that of 
Rome. Little is known of it, however, in the early period. 
It appears first in an important way as taking the part of 
the Gauls against the Romans — notably in 361 B. C. — 
and as a prominent factor in the Latin League. In 335 
B. C. it was captured by Camillus; but, while henceforth 
under Rome's sway, it remained nominally free and inde- 
pendent and continued to preserve its well-organized city 
administration. In matters of religion, it was conspic- 
uous for its worship of Hercules whose temple was one of 
the richest in Latium, and from its stately portal the em- 
peror Augustus more than once administered justice (Suet. 
Aug. 72). An oracle in the place was widely known 
also, and many visitors came to consult the Tiburtine 

Its peculiar relation of independence to Rome made 
it a place of asylum to which distinguished persons 

of Places in Italy 449 

fled, as, for example, Cinna, after the death of Caesar. 
Syphax, the Numidian king also lived here for two years 
until his death in 201 B. C. and, most conspicuous of all, 
Zenobia, the former queen of Palmyra and of the East, 
spent the last years of her life in this place (Script. Hist. 
Aug. Tyr. Trig. xxix. 30, 27). 

It boasted many distinguished families among its 
nobility (Cic. pro Balb. 53), and exercised, therefore, 
considerable prestige at Rome. But it is chiefly famous 
as a city of villas whose praises were constantly sung b_\' 
the Roman poets. The charm of its site, its groves and 
streams, its hills covered with vineyards and orchards, its 
coolness in summer, and its quiet, were powerful sources of 
attraction. In the splendor of its villas, gleaming white 
against the green of the trees, it surpassed its neighbor and 
rival, Tusculum. During the last years of the Republic 
and late into the Empire, especially, it was a favorite 
resort. Caesar, Antony, Horace, Augustus, Germanicus, 
and the later emperors made the place fashionable by their 
residence there. The most notable remains in its neigh- 
borhood today are those belonging to an elaborate villa 
which the Emperor Hadrian built. 

■iSO Classical Associations 

Me nee tarn patiens Lacedaemon 
nee tarn Larisae percussit campus opimae, 

quam domus Albuneae resonantis 
et praeceps Anio ac Tiburni lucus et uda 

mobilibus pomaria rivis. 

Hor. C. i. 7, 10-14. 

Tibur Argeo positum colono 
sit meae sedes utinam senectae, 
sit modus lasso maris et viarum 

Hor. C. ii. 6, 5- 

Ego apis Matinae 
more modoque 
grata carpentis thyma per laborem 
plurimum circa nemus uvidique 
Tiburis ripas operosa parvus 
carmina fingo. 

Hor. C. iv. 2, 27-32. 

Sed quae Tibur aquae fertile praefluunt, 
et spissae nemorum comae. 

Hor. C. iv. 3, 10-11. 

Vacuum Tibur. 

Tiburque superbum. 

Ud\im Tibur. 

Hor. Ep. i. 7, 45. 
Vir. Aen. vii. 630. 
Hor. C. iii. 29, 6. 

' The nymph or sibyl of Tibur. 

-' A name for certain heights in Apulia connected with Mount Garganus. 

oj Places in Italy 45 1 

Tibur's Charm 

For me stern Sparta forges no such spell, 
No, nor Larissa's plain of richest mould. 
As bright Albunea' echoing from her cell. 
O headlong Anio! O Tiburnian groves. 
And orchards saturate with shifting streams! 

John Conington 

A Wish 

Fair Tibur, town of Argive kings. 
There would I end my days serene, 
At rest from sea and travelings. 
And service seen. 

John Conington 

A Poet at Tibur 

I, like the Matine^ bee, that sips 
The fragrant thyme, and strays 
Humming through leafy ways, 
By Tibur's sedgy banks, with trembling lips 
Fashion my toilsome lays. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

But the cool streams that make green Tibur flourish, 
And the tangled forest deep. 

John Conington 

Tibur and its dreamful ease. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

Proud Tibur. 

Well- watered Tibur. 

C. E. Bennett 

452 Classical Associations 

Proni Tiburis arce. 

Juv. Sat. iii. 192. 

Anio, delicatissimus amnium. 

Plin. Ep. viii. 17, 3. 

Ramosis Anib qua pomifer incubat arvis 
et numquam Herculeo numine pallet ebur, 

hie carmen media dignum me scribe columna, 
sed breve, quod currens vector ab urbe legat: 

Hie Tiburtina iacet aurea Cynthia terra: 
acrcssit ripae laiis, Aniene, tuae. 

Prop. iv. 7, -81-86. 

3 For a vivid account of a disastrous flood in connection with this river, sec the letter 
as a whole. 

* Tibur was famous for its apples (Her. Sat. ii. 4, 70-7 1). 

'' Cynthia, the mistress of the poet Propert*us, was often at Tibur. He thus complains 
of an untimely summons from Rome (iii. 16): 

"Nox media, et dominae mihi venit epistula nostrae: 

Tibure me missa iussit adesse mora, 
Candida qua geminas ostendunt culmina turres 
et cadit in patulos lympha Aniena lacus." 

of Places in Italy 


On the sloping heights of Tibur. 
The Anio, most delightful of rivers.' 

G. G. Ramsay 

A Poet Celebrates the Haunt of His Mistress 

Where apple-bearing* Anio broods o'er its orchard 
meadows and by the favor of Hercules the ivory ne'er 
grows yellow. And write these verses on a pillar's midst; 
thev shall be worthy of me, but brief, that the traveler 
may read them as he hastens by: HERE GOLDEN CYN- 

H. E. Butler 

Courtesy oj A rt and A rchneoloey 

'I'liE Anio River 

4.S4 Classical Associations 

TRASUMENUS LACUS (Lago" ui Trasimeno) 

Hannibal quod agri est inter Cortonam urbem Trasu- 
mennumque lacum omni clade belli pervastat, quo magis 
iram hosti ad vindicandas sociorum iniurias acuat. Et 
iam pervenerat ad loca nata insidiis, ubi maxima montes 
Cortonenses Trasumennus subit. . Via tantum interest 
perangusta, velut ad id ipsum de industria relicto spatio; 
deinde paulo latior patescit campus; inde colles adsurgunt. 
Ibi castra in aperto locat, ubi ipse cum Afris modo His- 
panisque consideret; Baliares ceteramque levem armatur- 
am post mentis circumducit; equites ad ipsas fauces saltus 
tumuiis apte tegentibus locat, ut, ubi intrassent Romani, 
obiecto equitatu clausa omnia lacu ac montibus essent. 

Flaminius cum pridie solis occasu ad lacum pervenispet, 
inexplorato postero die vixdum satis certa luce angustiis 
superatis.postquamin patentiorem campum pandi agmen 
coepit, id tantum hostium, quod ex adverse erat, con- 
spexit; ab tergo ac super caput baud detectae insidiae. 
Poenus ubi, id quod petierat, clausum lacu ac montibus et 
circumfusum suis copiis habuit hostem, signum omnibus 
dat simul invadendi. Qui ubi, qua cuique proximum fuit, 
decucurrerunt, eo magis Romanis subita atque inprovisa 
res fuit, quod orta ex lacu nebula campo quam montibus 
densior sederat, agminaque hostium ex pluribus coUibus 
ipsa inter se satis conspecta eoque magis pariter decucur- 
rerant. Romanus clamore prius undique orto, quam satis 

^ The largest of the lakes in Etruria, famous as the spot where Hannibal in 2 17 B. C 
completely defeated the Roman consul Gaius Flaminius — one of the greatest disasters 
that ever befell a Roman army. 

of Places in Italy 455 


A Roman Military Disaster 

Hannibal, the more to exasperate the enemy and pro- 
voke him to seek revenge for the sufferings of his allies, 
desolated with every calamity of war the whole tract of 
country between the city of Cortona and the lake Trasu- 
menus. And now the army had arrived at a spot formed 
by nature for an ambuscade, where the Trasumenus ap- 
proaches, closest to the Cortonian mountains. Between 
them is only a very narrow road, as if room had been de- 
signedly left for that purpose; farther on, the ground opens 
to a somewhat greater width, and beyond that rises a 
range of hills. On these he formed a camp in open view, 
where he himself with the African and Spanish infantry only 
was to take post. The Balearians, and other light-armed 
troops, he drew round behind the mountains, and posted 
the cavalry near the entrance of the defile, where they 
were effectually concealed by some rising grounds; with 
design, that as soon as the Romans entered the pass, the 
cavalry should take possession of the road, and thus the 
whole space be shut up between the lake and the moun- 
tains. Flaminius, though he arrived at the lake about 
sunset, took no care to examine the ground, but next 
morning, before it was clear day, passed through the nar- 
row way, and when the troops began to spread into the 
wider ground, they saw only that part of the enemy which 
fronted them; those in ambush on their rear, and over 
their heads, quite escaped their notice. The Carthagin- 
ian, having now gained the point at which he aimed, the 
Roman being pent up between the mountains and the 
lake, and surrounded by his troops, immediately gave the 
signal for the whole to charge at once. They accordingly 
poured down, every one by the shortest way he could find; 
and the surprise was the more sudden and alarming, be- 
cause a mist rising from the lake, lay thicker on the low 
grounds than on the mountains; while the parties of the 
enemy were the better able to run down together. The 
Romans, before they could discover their foe, learned 
from the shouts raised on all sides that they were sur- 

456 Classical Associations 

cerneret, se circumventum esse sensit, et ante in frontem 
lateraque pugnari coeptum est, quam satis instrueretur 
acies aut expediri arma stringique gladii possent. 

Consul perculsis omnibus ipse satis, ut in re trepida, in- 
pavidus turbatos ordines, vertente se quoque ad dissonos 
clamores, instruit, ut tempus locusque patitur, et, qua- 
cumque adire audirique potest, adhortatur ac stare ac 
pugnare iubet : nee enim inde votis aut inploratione deum 
sed vi ac virtute evadendum esse; per medias acies ferro 
\'iam fieri et, quo timoris minus sit, eo minus ferme peri- 
culi esse. Ceterum prae strepitu ac tumultu nee consilium 
nee imperium aecipi poterat, tantumque aberat, ut sua 
signa atque ordines et locum noscerent, ut vix ad arma 
capienda aptandaque pugnae eonpeteret animus, oppri- 
merenturque quidam onerati magis lis quam tecti. Et 
erat in tanta caligine maior usus aurium quam oculorum. 
Ad gemitus vulnerum ictusque eorporum aut armorum 
et mixtos terrentium paventiumque clamores circumfere- 
bant ora oculosque. Alii fugientes pugnantium globo 
inlati haerebant, alios redeuntes in pugnam avertebat 
fugientium agmen. Deinde, ubi in omnis partis nequi- 
quam impetus capti, et ab lateribus montes ae lacus, a 
fronte et ab tergo hostium acies claudebant, apparuitque 
nullam nisi in dextera ferroque salutis spem esse, tum sibi 
quisque dux adhortatorque factus ad rem gerendam et 
nova de integro exorta pugna est, non ilia ordinata per 
principes hastatosque ae triarios, nee ut pro signis antesig- 
nani, post signa alia pugnaret acies, nee ut in sua legione 
miles aut cohorte aut manipulo esset: fors conglobabat et 

of Places in Italy 457 

rounded; and the attack began on their front and flank 
before they could properly form a line, or get ready their 
arms and draw their swords. 

In the midst of the general consternation the consul, 
perilous as the conjuncture was, showed abundance of in- 
trepidity: he restored, as well as the time and place 
would allow, the ranks which were disordered by the men 
turning themselves about at all the various shouts, and 
wherever he could come or be heard, encouraged and 
charged them to stand steady, and to light; telling them 
that 'they must not expect to get clear of their present 
situation by vows and prayers to the gods, but by strength 
and courage. By the sword men opened a way through 
the midst of embattled foes; and, in general, the less fear 
the less danger.' But such was -the noise and tumult, 
that neither his counsel nor commands could be heard with 
distinctness; and so far were the soldiers from knowing 
each his own standard, his rank, and post, that scarcely 
had they sufi6cient presence of mind to take up their arms, 
and get ready for fighting, so that many, while they were 
incumbered rather than defended by them, were over- 
powered by the enemy. Besides, the darkness was so great 
that they had more use of their ears than of their eyes. The 
groans of the wounded, the sound of blows on the men's 
bodies or armor, with the confused cries of threatening 
and terror, drew attention from one side to another. Some 
attempting to fly, were stopped by running against the 
party engaged in fight; others, returning to the fight, were 
driven back by a body of runaways. At length, after 
they had made many fruitless essays in every quarter, 
and inclosed, as they were, by the mountains and lake on 
the sides, by the enemy's forces on the front and rear, 
they evidently perceived that there was no hope of safety 
but in their valor and their weapons. Every one's own 
thoughts then supplied the place of command and exhor- 
tation to exertion, and the action began anew, with fresh 
vigor;but the troops were not marshalled according to the 
distinct bodies of the different orders of soldiers, nor so dis- 
posed that the van-guard should fight before the standards, 
and the rest of the troops behind them; or that each soldier 
was in his own legion, or cohort, or company: chance 

45S Classical Associations 

animus suus cuique ante aut post pugnandi ordinem dabat; 
tantusque fuit ardor animorum, adeo intentus pugnae 
animus, ut eum motum terrae, qui multarum urbium 
Italiae magnas partes prostravit avertitque cursu rapidos 
amnis, mare fluminibus invexit, montes lapsu ingenti 

proruit, nemo pugnantium S2nserit. . 

Magnae partis fuga inde primum coepit; at iam nee 
lacus nee montes pavori obstabant: per omnia arta prae- 
ruptaque velut caeei evadunt, armaque et viri super alios 
alii praeeipitantur. Pars magna, ubi locus fugae deest, 
per prima vada paludis in aquam progressi, quoad capi- 
tibus umerisque extare possunt, sese inmergunt. Fuere 
quos inconsultus pavor nando etiam capessere fugam in- 
pulerit, quae ubi inmensa ac sine spe erat, aut deficientibus 
animis hauriebantur gurgitibus aut nequiquam fessi vada 
retro aegerrime repetebant atque ibi ab ingressis aquam 
hostium equitibus passim trueidabantur. Sex milia ferme 
primi agminis per adversos hostis eruptione inpigre facta, 
ignari omnium, quae post se agerentur, e saltu evasere, 
et cum in tumulo quodam constitissent, elamorem modo 
ac sonum armorum audientes, quae fortuna pugnae esset, 
neque scire nee perspicere prae caligine poterant. In- 
clinata denique re cum incaleseente sole dispulsa nebula 
aperuisset diem, turn liquida iam luce montes campique 
perditas res stratamque ostendere foede Romanam aciem. 
Itaque, ne in eonspeetos procul inmitteretur eques, sub- 
latis raptim signis quam citatissimo poterant agmine sese 

Liv. xxii. 4-6. 

oj Places in Italy 459 

formed their bands, and every man's post in the battle, 
either before or behind the standards, was fixed by his own 
choice. So intense was the ardor of the engagement, so 
eagerly was their attention occupied by the fight, that not 
one of the combatants perceived a great earthquake, which, 
at the time, overthrew large portions of many of the cities 
of Italy, turned rapid rivers out of their courses, carried 
up the sea into the rivers, and by the violence of the con- 
vulsion levelled mountains. 

This event first caused a great number of the troops to fly; 
and now, so great was their panic, that neither lake nor 
mountain stopped them. Through every place, however 
narrow or steep, they ran with blind haste, and arms and 
men were tumbled together in promiscuous disorder. 
Great numbers, finding no room for farther flight, pushed 
into the lake, and plunged themselves in such a manner, 
that only their heads and shoulders were above water. 
The violence of their fears impelled some to make the 
desperate attempt of escaping by swimming; but this 
proving impracticable, on account of the great extent of 
the lake, they either exhausted their strength, and were 
drowned in the deep, or, after fatiguing themselves to no 
purpose, made their way back with the utmost difficulty 
to the shallows, and were there slain, wherever they ap- 
peared, by the enemy's horsemen wading into the same. 
About six thousand of the van-guard, bravely forcing 
their way through the opposite enemy, got clear of the de- 
file, and knowing nothing of what was passing behind 
them, halted on a rising ground, where they could only 
hear the shouting and the din of arms, but could not see 
by reason of the darkness, nor judge with any certainty 
as to the fortune of the day. At length, after the victory 
was decided, the increasing heat of the sun dispelling the 
mist, the prospect was opened. The mountains and plains 
showed the desperate condition of their affairs, and the 
shocking carnage of the Roman army: wherefore, lest 
on their being seen at a distance, the cavalry should be 
sent against them, they hastily raised their standards, and 
hurried away with all possible speed. 

George Baker 

460 Classical Associations 

TUSCULUM (Near Frascati) 

The political importance of Tusculum is limited to 
early times. It was very powerful during the Latin 
League in the fourth century B. C. and almost constantly 
at war with its neighbors. Friendly assistance was fre- 
quently given to Rome and returned by this city in kind 
(Liv. iii. 25 et al.). However, one often finds the place 
leagued with the enemies of Rome — the Aequians, Vol- 
scians, and Samnites (Liv. vi. 25; viii. 7; viii. 37 et al.). 
Even before the end of the Republic, its political influence 
has disappeared and it becomes henceforth a dwelling- 
place for men of wealth and leisure. 

Ex municipio antiquissimo Tusculano, ex quo plurimae 

familiae sunt consulares quot e reliquis 

municipiis omnibus non sunt. 

Cic. pro Plane. 19. 

'Eiri rauTJjs 5)j to 
TovckXou IdpvTai. ttoXis oii ipavXuis KaT€(jKeva(Tixevr)' K€KbairqTa.i 
bk Tols kvkKcii (pvTelais Kal oiKoSo/utats, /cat yudXtcrra rats vtotiwtov^ 
aais kwi to Kara rriv 'Pccfiriv fiepos. to yap TovctkKov kvTavda 
earl \6ipoi ivyt(^s Kai eiJvdpos, Kopv<povixevos y)ptp.a ToWaxov Kal 
Sixofifvos l3aai\tloiv KaTacKfvas tawpttrtCTaTas. 

Strab. v. 3, 12. 

> Famous from the earliest times for its distinguished-men.- - 

2 Frascati today with its palaces of distinguished churchmen contin-ues the tradition of . 
the later Tusculum as a city of villas (Her. Epod. i. 29; Sen. De Ben. iv. 12). The place 
was healthful, its climate and scenery attractive, and its distance from Rome such that it 
was desirable as a country home. The emperors were fond of it, Tiberius, Nero, and 
Galba often staying there (Tac. Ann. xiv. 3; Suet. Galb. iv. 18). 

of Places in Italy 


Pboliigrapli by Frank GiiUup 

On the Road to A.nxient Tusculum 
Cicero Compliments the Town 

From Tusculum, a very ancient municipality, from 
which a great many families of consular rank have sprung 
. . . . more than from all the rest of the municipali- 
ties put together.' 

A Favorite Site for Villas 

It is on this ridge that Tusculum is situated, a city 
which is not wanting in adornment, being entirely sur- 
rounded by ornamental plantations and edifices, particu- 
larly that part of it which looks towards Rome. For on 
this side Tusculum presents a fertile hill, well irrigated, 
and with numerous gentle slopes embellished with ma- 
jestic palaces.^ H. C. Hamilton 

462 Classical Associations 

Quae tibi mandavi, et quae tu intelleges convenire nos- 
tro Tusculano, velim, ut scribis, cures, quod sine molestia 
tua facere poteris. Nam nos ex omnibus molestiis et 
laboribus uno illo in loco conquiescimus. Quintum fra- 
trem cotidie exspectamus. Terentia magnos articulorum 
dolores habet. 

Cic. ad Att. i. 5, 8. 

Nos Tusculano ita delectamur, ut nobismet ipsis turn 
denique, cum illo venimus, placeamus. 

Cic. ad Att. i. 6, 2. 

Marcus. Nos vero, si quid tale acciderit, ut a deo de- 
nuntratum videatur ut exeamus e vita, laeti et agentes 
gratias pareamus emittique nos e custodia et levari vinclis 
arbitremur, ut aut in aeternum et plane in nostram do- 
mum remigremus aut omni sensu molestiaque careamus: 
sin autem nihil denuntiabitur, eo tajnen simus anittio, ut 
horribilem ilium diem aliis, nobis faustum putemus nihil- 
que in mails ducamus, quod sit vel a dis immortalibus vel 
a natura parente orrinium constitutum. Non enim temere 
nee fortuito sati et creati sumus, sed profecto fuit quaedam 
vis quae generi consuleret humano nee id gigneret aut 
aleret quod cum exanclavisset omnes labores, turn inci- 
deret in mortis malum sempiternum: portum potius par?.- 
tum nobis et perfugium putemus. 

Quo utinam velis passis pervehi liceat. Sin reflantibus 
ventis reiiciemur, tamen eodem paulo tardius referamur 

^ Cicero constantly testifies to his love for his Tusculan villa. He took great pride in 
adorning it with works of art and in collecting choice books for its library. His friend 
Atticus often assisted him in this connection. 

* Such discourses on the part of Cicero and his friends (Atticus, in this case) give the 
chief charm to the villa for' the classical student. The orator has many times expressed his 
feeling for his country homes as places for retirement and study. 

of Places in Italy 463 

Cicero Writes an Informal Note to a Friend 

Please carry out my commissions, and, as you suggest, 
buy anything else you think suitable for my Tusculan 
villa,' if it is no trouble to you. It is the only place I find 
restful after a hard day's work. I am expecting my 
brother Quintus every day. Terentia has a bad attack of 


I am so pleased with my house at Tusculum that I am 
never really happy except when I am there. 


A Philosophical Discussion Between Cicero and a Guesf 

Marcus. But let us, if indeed it should be our fate to 
know the time which is appointed by the gods for us to die, 
prepare ourselves for it with a cheerful and grateful mind, 
thinking ourselves like men who are delivered from a jail, 
and released from their fetters, for the purpose of going 
back to our eternal habitation which may be more em- 
phatically called our own; or else to be divested of all 
sense and trouble. If, on the other hand, we should have 
no notice given us of this decree, yet let us cultivate such 
a disposition as to look on that formidable hour of death 
as happy for us, though shocking to our friends; and let 
us never imagine anything to be an evil, which is an ap- 
pointment of the immortal gods, or of nature, the com- 
mon parent of all. For it is not by hazard or without 
design that we have been born and situated as we are. 
On the contrary, beyond all doubt there is a certain power, 
which consults the happiness of human nature; and this 
would neither have produced nor provided for a being, 
which, after having gone through the labours of life, was to 
fall into eternal misery by death. Let us rather infer 
that we have a retreat and haven prepared for us, which I 
wish we could crowd all sail and arrive at; but though the 
winds should not serve, and we should be driven back, 
yet we shall to a certainty arrive at that point eventually, 
though somewhat later. But how can that be miserable 

464 Classical Associations 

necesse est. Quod autem omnibus necesse est, idne mise- 
rum esse uni potest? Habes epilogum, ne quid praeter- 
missum aut relictum putes. 

AtTicus. Ego vero, et quidem fecit etiam iste me epilo- 
gus firmiorem. 

Marcus. Optime, inquam. Sed nunc quidem valetu- 
dini tribuamus aliquid, eras autem et quot dies erimus in 
Tusculano, agamus haec et ea potissimum, quae leva- 
tionem habeant aegritudinum, formidinum, cupiditatum, 
qui omni e philosophia est fructus uberrimus. 

Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 118-119. 

^lH.(Tav 5' avTco irepl TovaKKov 
eyxoiipioi SiaiTtti kolI KaraaKOTral irepLoicrwv koX KaraaKeval 
avaTtirrafxevuv avbpiivwv koI irepLTrarccu, kv ah 6 Uonirrj'w 
yevofievos kixeixipkro t6v AovkovWov, oti irpos t^epos apiara bia- 
!?ets Ti]v 'iiravKiv a.o'iKrjrov hi x^'-l'^vi, TeTolriice. yeXaaas oiv 
e/ceiyos "EiTa" ttprj "ffoi BokSj tkarTOva tSjv yepavicv vovv ix^iv 
Kal Tuiv ire\apyS>v, uan raTs wpaLS lirj (ivp,)j.tTa.^aKKti.v rds 6iat- 

Plut. Lucull. xxxix. 

Latini quoque Tarquinios adserebant aemulatione et 
invidia, ut populus qui foris dominabatur saltim domi 
serviret. Igitur omne Latium Mamilio Tusculano duce 
quasi in regis ultionem tollit animos. Apud Regilli lacum 
dimicatur diu Marte vario, donee Postumius ipse dictator 
signum in hostis iaculatus est — novum et insigne commen- 
tum — uti repeteretur. Cossus equitum magister exuere 

s A Roman of the last century of the Republic, remembered chiefly for his vast wealth. 
(See note under Misenum, and the topic Houses under Places in Rome.) 

of Places in Italy 465 

for one which all must of necessity undergo? I have 
given you a peroration, that you might not think I had 
overlooked or neglected anything. 

Atticus. lam persuaded you have not; and, indeed, 
that peroration has confirmed me. 

Marcus. I am glad it has had that effect; but it is now 
time to consult our health; tomorrow, and all the time we 
continue in this Tusculan villa, let us consider this sub- 
ject; and especially those portions of it which may ease our 
pain, alleviate our fears, and lessen our desires, which is 
the greatest advantage we can reap from the whole of 


A Wealthy Man's Country Home 

He* had also country establishments near Tusculum, 
with observatories, and extensive open banqueting-halls 
and cloisters. Pompey once visited these, and chided 
Lucullus because he had arranged his country seat in the 
best possible way for summer, but had made it uninhabi- 
table in the winter. Whereupon Lucullus burst out laugh- 
ing and said: "Do you suppose, then, that I have less 
sense than cranes and storks, and do not change residences 
according to the seasons?" 

Bernadotte Peerin 

The Battle of Lake Regillus 

The Latins also took part with the Tarquins, out of 
rivalry and envy towards the Romans, desiring that a 
people who ruled abroad, might at least be slaves at home. 
All Latium, accordingly, under the leadership of Mam- 
ilius of Tusculum, roused their spirits as if to avenge the 
king's cause. They came to a battle near Lake Regillus, 
where success was for a long time doubtful, till Pos- 
tumius, the dictator, threw a standard among the enemy, 
(a new and remarkable stratagem), that it might be re- 
covered by rushing into the midst of them. Cossus, the 

466 Classical Associations 

frenos imperavit — et hoc novum — quo acrius incurrerent. 
Ea denique atrocitas proelii fuit, ut interfuisse spectaculo 
decs fama tradiderit. Duo in candidis equis iuvenes more 
siderum praetervolaverunt; Castorem atque PoUucem 
nemo dubitavit. Itaque et imperator ipse veneratus est 
pactusque victoriam templa promisit et reddidit, plane 
quasi stipendium commilitonibus diis. 

Flor. Ep. i. 5, 1-4. 

'Hv Si T\rialov olvtov tS>v a.'ypCiv ri ytvofitvn] Mai'iou Koupioi; 
Tov Tpls ^pianfitvaavTos eiravKis. 'Eirt ravrriv (ruvexcos ^aSL^wv 
Kal ^eiifievos tov re x'^P'-ov rrfv fUKpoT-qra koX rrjs- oiKiiaeois to 
\lt6v, evvoLaPi Xd jx^aviTOv avdpoi, otl 'Pco/uaicoc ixeyLcrTOS yevo- 
fievos /cat TO /xaxi-fiooTaTa tSiv k^vSiv inrayayotievos Kal Hvppov 
i^eKaaas ttjs 'IraXias tovto t6 X'opiStoj' oiiros 'ecKaiTTe Kal ravrrju 
TTjv eiravXiv cliKeL fitTO. Tptis ^pia/i^ovs. 'EvraDi^a irpds kcxi-Pl. 
Ka'drjfievov avTov hpovTa yoyyv^lbas tvpovres oi l^avviToiv Trpt- 
(T/Sew tdidocav woXv xp^ctoi'' 6 5' aimrkix^aTO ipijcas oii&iv XP^ 

(TLOV SilV 0} SflTTVOV apKil TOLOUTOV, aVTci fieVTOI. TOV XP^<^'^°V 'X*'-'' 

KoKKiov elvaL t6 vi.kS.v tovs ixovTas. TaW 6 Karoov iv&vtiov- 
/iivos airfiu, Kai tov aiiTov tra\i.v oIkov tipiopSiv Kal x'Jpia xaJ t^e- 
pairovTas Kal diaiTav eTrtTfLve ttjv avroupi lav Kal TtpuKOTTt tijc 


Plut. Cato ii. 

'Hi' 5e Tis avrjp evTrar pldris ixtv iv Tots p,aki,aTa 'Poipia'uau Kal 
dvvaTOS, aptTrjv bi tpvofikvrjv fiev aiad^avea^ai dttvos, evfievris Si 
Kal ^pkipaL Kal irpoayaytlv tls do^av, OvaWkpios ^Xcikkos. 

" An account of one of the early struggles between the Romans and the Latins in 496 
B. C, in which Tusculum played an important part. This contest known as the battle of 
Lake Regillus (Livy ii. 20) was distinguished by the miraculous happening noted above. 
Tradition says that the gods rode into the Forum on snow-white steeds and announced the 
victory. The temple of Castor and Pollux was said to have been a memorial of this event. 

' Cato the elder, renowned as an exponent of the stem Roman virtues of earlier days, 
had a farm nKir Tusculum. 

8 Famous in Roman history for his military achievements as well as for simplicity in 
his manner of life. He triumphed over Pyrrhus in 275 B. C. jfEutrop. ii. 1 1). 

of Places in Italy 467 

master of the horse, too, ordered the cavalry to take off 
their bridles (this was also a new contrivance), that they 
might attack with greater force. Such at last was the 
desperateness of the engagement, that fame reported two 
of the gods, on white horses, to have been present to view 
it, and it was universally believed that they were Castor 
and Pollux. The Roman general accordingly worshipped 
them, and, on condition otgaining the victory, promised 
them temples; a promise which he afterwards performed, 
as payment to the gods who assisted him.^ 

J. S. Watson 

The Story of Manius Curius and Cato 

Near his' fields was the cottage which had once belonged 
to Manius Curius,* a hero of three triumphs. To this he 
would often go, and the sight of the small farm and the 
mean dwelling led him to think of their former owner, who, 
though he had become the greatest of the Romans, had 
subdued the most warlike nations, and driven Pyrrhus out 
of Italy, nevertheless tilled this little patch of ground with 
his own hands and occupied this cottage, after three 
triumphs. Here it was that the ambassadors of the 
Samnites once found him seated at his hearth cooking tur- 
nips, and offered him much gold; but he dismissed them 
saying that a man whom such a meal satisfied had no need 
of gold, and, for his part , he thought that a more honourable 
thing than the possession of gold was the conquest of its 
possessors. Cato would go away with his mind full of 
these things, and on viewing again his own house and 
lands and servants and mode of life, would increase the 
labours of his hands and lop off his extravagances. 

Bernadotte Perrin 

How Cato Became Prominent 

There was at Rome a certain man of the highest birth 
and greatest influence, who had the power to discern ex- 
cellence in the bud, and the grace to cultivate it and bring 
it into general esteem. This man was Valerius Flaccus. 

468 Classical Associations 

Ouros elxf dfiopovvra xt^pio toIs K&Twvoi, irvx^ofitvos 5i Triv 
aiiTovpyiav (cat dlaiTav avTOV wapa tSiv olKerSiv Kal t?aii/i(i(raj 
e^rjyovfikvccv, otl irpuiX nhv ets ayopav fiaSi^ti. Kai iraplcTarai rots 
SeofiivoLi, eTravtk&uv 5' tls to xtoplov, av fiiv § x6i'M'^''i «?w/it5a 
\afi6iv, d^epovs S: yvp.vbs ipyaa&fievos tiera. tuv oUeTiiv eff^Lei 
Tov avTov apTov o/jiov Ka^rifntvos Kal irivti. Tov ahrbv olvov, 
aXKfiv re ttoXXjjj' iTrulKuav avrov Kal fitrpLOTriTa Kai rti'as Kal 
\6yovs aTO(f>§eyjj,aTLKOvs bLap.vrjiiovtvbvTwv, tKtKtvat K\r}^T\vai 
WpOS TO StLTTVOV. 'Ek Si TOVTOV xpup.iVo% Kai KaTavouv fiixipov 
Kal aoTiiov fi^os, axnrep (pVTOV dcr/oycrecos koI X'^po^s €Tn.ipavovs 
Seopitvov, irpotTpeij/aTO Kal avveiriLcev hpaa^ai rfjs ev "Pw/ij; 
TToXtretas. KareXj^wy ovv ebd-iis tojs p.'tv avTos iKraro ^av/jiaarai 
Kal (pikovs SlA tuv avvriyopLSiv, iroWriv 8e tov OuaWepiov Tifiiiv 
Kai bvvatiiv aura irpoaTLd^evros X'-^'-o-PXio-^ eruxe irpSiTOV, etra 

Plut. Cato iii. 

0] Places in Italy 469 

He had a farm next to that of Cato, and learned from 
Cato's servants of their master's laborious and frugal way 
of living. He was amazed to hear them tell how Cato, 
early in the morning, went on foot to the market-place and 
pleaded the cases of all who wished his aid; then came back 
to his farm, where, clad in a working blouse if it was winter, 
and stripped to the waist if it was summer, he wrought 
with his servants, then sat down with them to eat of the 
same bread and drink of the same wine. They told Val- 
erius many other instances of Cato's fairness and modera- 
tion, quoting also sundry pithy sayings of his, until at last 
Valerius gave command that Cato be invited to dine with 
him. After this, discovering by converse with him that 
his nature was gentle and polite, and needed, like a growing 
tree, only cultivation and room to expand, Valerius urged 
and at last persuaded him to engage in public life at Rome. 
Accordingly, taking up his abode in the city, his own 
eSorts as an advocate at once won him admiring friends, 
and the favour of Valerius brought him great honour and 
influence, so that he was made military tribune first, and 
then quaestor. 

Bernadotte Perrin 

470 Classical Associations 


(Near Isola FarnEse) 

An ancient Etruscan city (about 18 miles from Rome), 
the height of whose prosperity fell in the eighth century 
B. C. The early accounts of the city given by Livy show 
that it was constantly embroiled with Rome as this power 
came to be prominent in Latium, often allying itself with 
the neighboring Fidenae (Liv. i. 27 et al ). The capture 
of the latter place by the Romans in 426 B. C. (?) only 
checked the power of Veii but did not destroy it. Finally 
the Romans resolved to put an end forever to this trouble- 
some neighbor. In 396 B. C, after a ten-year'siege, they 
succeeded in entering the town. From this time Veii 
almost disappears from history. However, a few years 
later- it was occupied by the frightened Romans who 
had fled from the Gauls at the Allia river, and fortified 
to withstand this enemy. After the capture of Rome by 
this foe in 387 B. C, there was a serious debate before the 
senate as to the desirability of transferring the govern- 
ment to Veii to avoid the trouble of re-building the dev- 
astated city (Liv. v. 51 ff.). The passages quoted below 
show that in the later Republic few, if any, traces remained 
of Veii's former greatness. 

For interesting notes on this city, see Dionysius, Book ii. 
as well as the passage from this author quoted below. 

Heu, Veii veteres! et vos tum regna fuistis, 

et vestro posita est aurea sella foro: 
nunc intra muros pastoris bucina lenti 

cantat, et in vestris ossibus arva metunt. 

Prop. iv. 10, 27-30. 

Hoc tunc Veii fuere. nunc fuisse quis meminit? 
quae reliquiae? quod vestigium? laborat annalium 
fides, ut Veios fuisse credamus. 

Flor. Ep. i. 6, 11. 

1 A characteristic reference in writers of Republican times and later. 

oj Places in Italy 


Looking Towards the Hill or the Fabii 

Alas! Veil, thou ancient city, thou too wert then a 
kingdom and the throne of gold was set up in thy market- 
place: now within thy walls is heard the horn of the idle 
shepherd, and they reap the cornfields amid thy people's 


Such was Veil at that time; who now remembers that it 
existed? What relic or vestige is left of it? Even the 
trustworthiness of our annals can hardly make us believe 
that Veil e\er had a being. 

J. S. Watson 

472 Classical Associations 

''Hv 5c 17 OvLevTavuv ttoXk ov6iv vwodeea-repa ttjs "Poj/xtjs evoi- 
Kiladai, yyjv re TroXXi^j' Kai ToXincapirov exovaa, Tr)v fih bptivqv, 
Tr/p 8i TTeSiaSa, Kai t6v irtpiKdixtvov ak/a KadapuiraTOV /cat irpds 
vyuiav audpoiirois apiarov, ovre tXovs irXricrLov'iivTos, 69ev t\KOv- 
rat fiapels arfiol kclI dvaooSeis, oire TForafiov tlvos \}/vxpas ioidtv 
avitVTOi avpas, vSaroiv re oil airavUav ovroiv ovd'- eiraKTciv, dXXa 
avBiyevwv Kai tXovctIwv Kai irivecdai KparlaTCiiv. 

Dionys. xii. Frag. 21. 

Fabii postera die arma capiunt: quo iussi erant, con- 
veniunt. Consul paludatus egrediens in vestibule gentem 
omnem suam instructo agmine videt; acceptus in medium 
signa ferri iubet. Numquam exercitus neque minor 
numero neque clarior fama et admiratione hominum per 
urbem incessit: sex et trecenti milites, omnes patricii, 
omnes unius gentis, quorum neminem ducem sperneres, 
egregius quibuslibet temporibus senatus, ibant, unius 
familiae viribus Veienti populo pestem minitantes. 
Sequebatur turba, propria alia cognatorum sodaliumque 
nihil medium, nee spem nee curam, sed inmensa omnia 
volventium animo, alia publica solUcitudine excitata, 
favore et admiratione stupens. Ire fortes, ire felices iubent, 
inceptis eventus pares reddere; consulatus inde ac trium- 
phos, omnia praemia ab se, omnes honores sperare. 
Praetereuntibus capitolium arcemque et alia templa, 
quidquid deorum oculis, quidquid animo occurrit, pre- 
cantur, ut illud agmen faustum atque felix mlttant, sos- 
pites brevi in patriam ad parentes restituant. In cassum 
missae preces. Infelici via, dextro iano portae Carmen- 

2 A vivid account of a dramatic incident in tiie long struggle between Rome and Veil. 
This aristocratic family of Rome, the Fabii, undertake single-handed, to put a stop to the 
marauding exjjeditions of Veii, and for two years succeed in doing so. Finally, however, in 
476 B. C, as is related, they were enticed from their stronghold on the hill just outside 
Rome and utterly defeated. (For this and other matters, see Flor. Ep. i. 6, 12.) 

of Places in Italy 473 

A Description of Veil 

The city of Veii was not inferior to Rome as a place of 
residence. It had much fruitful land both in the moun- 
tains and on the plain. The air in the neighborhood was 
very pure and salubrious. There were no marshes near 
to throw off heavy and ill-smelling vapours, nor any river 
to give rise to chill breezes in the early morning. Its 
water supply was sufficient and in the vicinity, and its 
vegetation flowered with rich luxuriance. 

W. R. Bryan 

A Brave Family Sacrifices Itself for Rome^ 

On the following day the Fabii arm and assemble at the 
designated place. The consul, coming forth in the cloak 
of a general, sees his entire clan drawn up in his vestibule, 
and being received into their midst gives the order to 
march. Never did an army march through the City less 
in number or more distinguished by the applause and the 
wonder of men: three hundred and six soldiers, all pa- 
tricians, all of one blood, no one of whom you would have 
rejected as a leader, and who would have made an admir- 
able senate in any period, were going out to threaten the 
existence of the Veientine nation with the resources of a 
single house. They were followed by a throng partly 
made up of people belonging to them, their kinsmen and 
close friends, whose thoughts were busy with no mean 
matters, whether of hope or of fear, but with boundless 
possibilities; partly of those who were moved with concern 
for the commonwealth, and were beside themselves with 
enthusiasm and amazement. "Go," they cry, "in your 
valour, go with good fortune, and crown your undertaking 
with success as great!" They bid them look forward to 
receiving consulships at their hands for this work, and 
triumphs, and all rewards and all honours. As they pass 
by the Capitol and the citadel and the other temples, they 
beseech whatever gods present themselves to their eyes and 
their thoughts to attend that noble band with blessings and 
prosperity, and restore them soon in safety to their native 
land and their kindred. Their prayers were- uttered in 

474 Classical Associations 

talis, profecti ad Cremeram flumen perveniunt. Is 
opportunus visus locus communiendo praesidio. . . . 

Rursus cum Fabiis erat Veienti populo sine uUo maioris 
belli apparatu certamen, nee erant incursiones modo 
in agros aut subiti impetus in incursantes, sed aliquotiens 
aequo campo conlatisque signis certatum, gensque una 
populi Romani saepe ex opulentissima, ut tum res erant, 
Etrusca civitate victoriam tulit. Id primo acerbum in- 
dignumque Veientibus est visum; inde consilium ex re 
natum insidiis ferocem hostem captandi; gaudere etiam 
multo successu Fabiis audaciam crescere. Itaque et pe- 
cora praedantibus aliquotiens, velut casu incidissent, ob- 
viam acta, et agrestium fuga vasti relicti agri, et subsidia 
armatorum ad arcendas populationes missa saepius simu- 
lato quam vero pavore refugerunt. 

lamque Fabii adeo contempserant hostem, ut sua in- 
victa arma neque loco neque tempore ullo crederent sus- 
tineri posse. Haec spes provexit, ut ad conspecta procul 
a Cremera magno campi intervallo pecora, quamquam 
rara hostium apparebant arma, decurrerent. Et cum in- 
providi effusg cursu insidias circa ipsum iter locatas super- 
assent palatique passim vaga, ut fit pavore iniecto, ra- 
perent pecora, subito ex insidiis consurgitur, et adversi et 
undique hostes erant. Primo clamor circumlatus exter- 
ruit, dein tela ab omni parte accidebant; coeuntibusque 
Etruscis iam continenti agmine armatorum saepti, quo 
magis se hostis inferebat, cogebantur breviore spatio et 

oj Places in Italy 475 

vain. Setting out by the Unlucky Way, the right arch of 
the Porta Carmentalis, they came to the river Cremera, a 
position which seemed favourable for the erection of a fort. 

. . . Again the Fabii were pitted against the people 
of Veii. No preparations had been made for a great war, 
yet not only were raids made upon farming lands, and sur- 
prise attacks upon raiding parties, but at times they fought 
in the open field and in serried ranks; and a single clan of 
the Roman People often carried off the victory from that 
most mighty state, for those days, in all Etruria. At first 
the Veientes bitterly resented this; but they presently 
adopted a plan, suggested by the situation, for trapping 
their bold enemy, and they even rejoiced as they saw thai 
the frequent successes of the Fabii were causing them to 
grow more rash. And so they now and then drove flocks 
in the way of the invaders, as if they had come there by 
accident; and the country folk would flee from their farms 
and leave them deserted; and rescuing parties of armed 
men, sent to keep off pillagers, would flee before them in a 
panic more often feigned than real. By this time the 
Fabii had conceived such scorn for the enemy that they 
believed themselves invincible and not to be withstood, 
no matter what the place or time. This confidence so won 
upon them that on catching sight of some flocks at a dis- 
tance from the Cremera, across a wide interval of plain, 
they disregarded the appearance here and there of hostile 
arms, and ran down to capture them. Their rashness 
carried them on at a swift pace past an ambuscade which 
had been laid on both sides of their very road. They had 
scattered this way and that and were seizing the flocks, 
which had dispersed in all directions, as they do if terrified, 
when suddenly the ambush rose up, and enemies were in 
front and on every side of them. First the shout which 
echoed all along the Etruscan line filled them with con- 
sternation, and then the javelins began to fall upon them 
from every quarter; and as the Etruscans drew together 
and the Romans were now fenced in by a cpntinuous line 
of armed men, the harder the enemy pressed them the 
smaller was the space within which ttiey themselves were 

476 Classical Associations 

ipsi orbem colligere, quae res et paucitatem eorum insignem 
et multitudinem Etruscorum multiplicatis in arto ordini- 
bus faciebat. Turn omissa pugna, quam in omnes partes 
parem intenderant, in unum locum se omnes inclinant. Eo 
nisi corporibus armisque rupere cuneo viam. Duxit via 
in editum leniter collem. Inde primo restitere; mox, ut 
respirandi superior locus spatium dedit recipiendique a 
pavore tanto animum, pepulere etiam subeuntes; vincebat- 
que auxilio loci paucitas, ni iugo circummissus Veiens in 
verticem collis evasisset. Ita superior rursus hostis fac- 
tus. Fabii caesi ad unum omnes praesidiumque expug- 
natum. Trecentos sex perisse satis convenit, unum prope 
puberem aetate relictum, stirpem genti Fabiae dubiisque 
rebus populi Romani saepe domi bellique vel maximum 
futurum auxilium. 

Liv. ii. 49, 3-8; 50. 

Kal /idXtcTa KCLT-qirti- 
yiv 17 Ovritwv ■woXiopKia.. tovtovs evioi. Oiiri'ievTavois Ka.\ov(rLV. 
'Hi' 8i irpocxVIJ^o- Trjs Tuppijyias 17 ttoXis, otKcov ixiv dp«?/i£p Kal 
■KKridtL Twv arpaTtvoiievwv oik a.To8eovcra ttjs 'Voiixtjs, irXouTtj) 5e 
Kal piojv afipoTriTL Kal Tpv<pa'i% Kal TroXuTeXeiats d7aXXo/^ej'7j iro\- 
Xoi/s Kal KaXoiis aycovas rjywvlcraTo wepl SoJtjs Kal SvvaiTTeias 
TToXefioiJaa 'PwiialoLS. iv bt rii rbrt xpo^V '''V^ M*'' (Pl\otl- 
filas a<ptLarr]Kei awTpLfitiaa fxeyaXais /id-xaw kirapatxivoi Se 
Ttixv jue7aXa Kal Kaprtpa Kal Trjv ttoKlv 6ir\oiv Kal 0e\S)v 
Kal a'iTov Kal vapacrKevfjs awaaris'kqaavTK, abtus VTep,tvov 
rijc TrdkiopKiav, /xaKpav fiiu ovirav, ovx fJTTOv be toIs iro\i.opKOV- 
aiv ipyiibrj Kal xaXexiji' yevonevqv. el§i.iTnevoi. yap ov iroXvv 
Xpbvov a/ia ihpq. i9epovs e^co aTpareiieLV, oUoi bi Siaxetyitafetv, rSre 

3 See general note. 

oj Places in Italy 477 

forced to contract their circle, a thing which clearly re- 
vealed both their own fewness and the vast numbers of 
the Etruscans, whose ranks were multiplied in the narrow 
space. The Romans then gave up the fight which they 
had been directing equally at every point, and all turned in 
one direction. Thither, by dint of main strength and 
arms, they forced their way with a wedge. Their road 
led up a gentle acclivity. There they at first made a 
stand; presently, when their superior position had afforded 
them time to breathe and to collect their spirits after so 
great a fright, they actually routed the troops which were 
advancing to dislodge them; and a handful of men, with 
the aid of a good position, were winning the victory, when 
the Veientes who had been sent round by the ridge 
emerged upon the crest of the hill, thus giving the enemy 
the advantage again. The Fabii were all slain to a man, 
and their fort was stormed. Three hundred and six men 
perished, as is generally agreed; one, who was little more 
than a boy in years, survived to maintain the Fabian 
stock, and so to afford the very greatest help to the Roman 
People in its dark hours, on many occasions, at home and 
in the field. 

B. O. Foster 

A Powerful City is Besieged' 

Especially burdensome was the siege of Veil (some call 
the people Veientani). 

This city was the barrier and bulwark of Tuscany, in 
quantity of arms and multitude of soldiery no whit inferior 
to Rome. Indeed, pluming herself on her wealth, and on 
the refinement, luxury, and sumptuousness in which her 
citizens lived, she had waged many noble contests for glory 
and power in her wars with the Romans. At this time, 
however, she had been crushed in great battles, and had 
given up her former ambitious pretensions. But her 
people built their walls high and strong, filled the city full 
of armour, missiles, grain, and every possible provision, 
and confidently endured the siege, which, though long, 
was no less laborious and difficult for the besiegers. These 
had been accustomed to short campaigns abroad as the 

478 Classical Associations 

trpwTOV rjuayKaa^riaav vir6 tCjv x'^iapx'oi' ippoiipia KaraaKtva- 
cra/xtvoi. Kal rd arpaTOWiSov rei.xi-'^f-V'res iv t% iroKtixla x«'MW>'a 
/cat dkpos avvdiTTHV, fihr) axibbv erous i^bbpav Tcp iroKkfic^ reKtv- 
TWVTOS. "QcTTt Kal Tovs apxovrai ev alTiq. ytvkadai Kai /uaXa/cws 
ToKiopKiiv SoKcvvTas a<paiip€dfjvai rriv apxhv, eripc^v alped'anoiv 
f TTi Tov Trc\f fxov S>v fjv Kal Kd/itXXos Tore xiXiapxcSi' to bevrtpov. 

Plut. Camill. ii. 

Veientes,ignari .... se ultimum ilium diem agere, nihil 
minus timentes quam subrutis cuniculo moenibus arcem 
iam plenam hostium esse, in muros pro se quisque armati 
discurrunt mirantes, quidnam id esset, quod, cum tot per 
dies nemo se ab stationibus Romanus movisset, tum velut 
repentino icti furore inprovidi currerent ad muros. . . . 

Cuniculus delectis militibus eo tempore plenus in aedem 
lunonis, quae in Veientana arce erat, armatos repente edi- 
dit, et pars aversos in muris invadunt hostes, pars claustra 
portarum revellunt, pars, cum ex tectis saxa tegulaeque 
a mulieribus ac servitiis iacerentur, inferunt ignes. Cla- 
mor omnia variis terrentium ac paventium vocibus mixto 
mulierum ac puerorum ploratu complet. Momento tem- 
poris deiectis ex muro undique armatis patefactisque portis 
cum alii agmine inruerent, alii desertos scanderent muros, 
urbs hostibus inpletur; omnibus locis pugnatur; deinde 
multa iam edita caede senescit pugna, et dictator prae- 
cones edicere iubet, ut ab inermi abstineatur. Is finis 
sanguinis fuit 

Hie Veiorum occasus fuit, urbis opulentissimae Etrusci 
nominis, magnitudinem suam vel ultima clade indicantis. 

* An account of the final capture of the city in 396 B. C. 

of Places in Italy 479 

summer season opened, and to winters at home; but then 
for the first time they had been compelled by their tribunes 
to build forts and fortify their camp and spend both sum- 
mer and winter in the enemy's country, the seventh year 
of the war being now nearly at an end. For this their ru- 
lers were held to blame, and finally deprived of their rule, 
because they were thought to conduct the siege without 
energy. Others were chosen to carry on the war, and one 
of these was Camillus, now tribune for the second time. 

Bernadotte Perrin 

The Destruction of Veil* 

The Veientians, ignorant . that this was the 

last day of their existence; fearing nothing less than their 
walls being already undermined, and the citadel filled with 
enemies, ran briskly in arms to the ramparts, wondering 
what could be the reason, that when for so many days not 
one Roman had stirred from his post, they should now run 
up to the walls without apprehension, as if struck with a 
sudden fit of madness. . . . The mine at this time, 
full of chosen men, suddenly discharged its armed bands 
in the temple of Juno, which stood in the citadel of Veil, 
some of whom attacked the rear of the enemy on the walls, 
some tore down the bars of the gates, some set fire to the 
houses, from the roofs of which stones and tiles were 
thrown by females and slaves. Every place was filled 
with confused clamor, composed of the terrifying shouts 
of the assailants and the cries of the affrighted, joined to 
the lamentations of the women and children. Those who 
defended the works were in an instant beaten off, and the 
gates forced open through which some entered in bodies 
while others scaled the deserted walls. The town was 
filled with the enemy, and a fight commenced in every 
quarter. After great slaughter the ardor of the combatants 
began to abate, and the dictator, proclaiming by the 
heralds that no injury should be done to the unarmed, 
put an end to the effusion of blood. . . . Thus fell 
Veii, the most powerful 'city of the Etruscan nation, even 
in its final overthrow demonstrating its greatness; for, 

480 Classical Associations 

quod decern aestates hiemesque continuas circumsessa, 
cum plus aliquanto cladium intulisset quam accepisset, 
postremo iam fato quoque urgente operibus tamen, non vi 
expugnata est. 

Liv. V. 21, 5-7, 10-13; 22, 8. 

Progenies Caesarum in Nerone defecit: quod futurum, 
compluribus quidem signis, sed vel evidentissimis duobus 
apparuit. Liviae olim post Augusti statim nuptias Vei- 
entanum suum revisenti, praetervolans aquila gallinam 
albam, ramulum lauri rostro tenentem, ita ut rapuerat, 
demisit in gremium; cumque nutriri alitem, pangi ramu- 
lum placuisset, tanta pullorum suboles provenit, ut hodie- 
que ea villa "ad Gallinas" vocetur, tale vero lauretum, ut 
triumphaturi Caesares inde laureas decerperent; fuitque 
mos triumphantibus, illas confestim eodem loco pangere; 
et observatum est sub cuiusque obitum arborem ab ipso 
institutam elanguisse. Ergo novissimo Neronis anno et 
silva omnis exaruit radicitus, et quidquid ibi gallinarurh 
erat interiit. 

Suet. Galba i. 5-15. 

Pauper Opimius argenti positi intus et auri, 
Qui Veientanum festis potare diebus 
. . . . solitus. 

Hor. S. ii. 3, 142-144. 

* At Prima Porta, just outside Rome, on the Flanjinian Way. 
« Poets thus refer to the cheap wine of Veil. 

oj Places in Italy 481 

after having withstood a siege during ten summers and 
winters, without intermission, after inflicting on its 
enemy losses considerably greater than itself had felt; 
even now, even when fate at last urged its doom, yet still 
it was vanquished not by force, but by the art of engineers. 

George Baker 

A Superstition 

The race of the Caesars ended with Nero. That this 
would be so was shown by many portents and especially 
by two very significant omens. Years before, as Livia 
was returning to her estate* near Veii, immediately after 
her marriage with Augustus, an eagle which flew by drop- 
ped into her lap a white hen, holding in its beak a sprig of 
laurel, just as the eagle had carried it off. Livia resolved 
to rear the fowl and plant the sprig, whereupon such a 
great brood of chickens was hatched that to this day the 
villa is called AD GALLINAS, and such a grove of laurel 
sprang up that the Caesars gathered their laurels from it 
when they were going to celebrate triumphs. Moreover 
it was the habit of those who triumphed to plant other 
branches at once in that same place, and it was observed 
that just before the death of each of them the tree which 
he had.planted withered. Now in Nero's last year the 
whole grove died from the root up, as well as all the hens. 


' Opimius, poor amidst untold 
Amounts of silver and of gold. 
Who'd drink, from mug of common clay, 
Veientan on a holiday.' 

Sir Theodore Martin 

482 Classical Associations 

VENUSIA (Venosa) 

Venusia was an Apulian town which as early as the 
third century B. C. was both populous and important. 
In 262 it was captured by a Roman consul and a colony 
established in the place. During the second Punic war 
it served the Romans in various ways, notably after the 
battle of Cannae in 216 B. C. when, as a following passage 
indicates, it gave generous assistance to the survivors. 
On this occasion, too, one of the consuls, Terentius Varro, 
gathered his scattered forces here, and it became the head- 
quarters for some years after for Roman commanders in 
Apulia (Liv. xxvii. 20; 41). Appian (B. H. 50), gives a 
graphic account of the death of one of them near this spot, 
Claudius Marcellus, conqueror of Syracuse, who died 
when leading an attack against a small marauding party 
of Numidians in Hannibal's army. His account closes 
with these words: "When Hannibal stood over the body 

Sequor hunc, Lucanus an Apulus anceps: 
nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque colonus, 
missus ad hoc pulsis, vetus est ut fama, Sabellis, 
quo ne per vacuum Romano incurreret hostis, 
sive quod, Apula gens seu quod Lucania bellum 
incuteret violenta. 

Hor. S. ii. 1, 3.4-39. 

1 The fact that Horace was born in Veausia makes the place important to theclassical 
student. The town was very close to the border of Lucania, 

oj Places in Italy 483 

and saw the wounds all in his breast, he praised him as a 
soldier but ridiculed him as a general. He took off his 
ring, burned his body with distinguished honors, and sent 
his bones to his son in the Roman camp." 

Fresh colonists were sent in 200 B. C. to repair the 
ravages of the Punic wars (Liv. xxxi. 49). During the 
SociaJ war in 90 B. C. it became one of the leading 
strongholds of the allies (App. B. C. i. 39). The 
triumvirs, Octavian, Lepidus, and Antony, later assigned 
it as booty to their soldiers together with other places 
which are mentioned by Appian (B. C. iv. 3) as "cities 
which excel in wealth, in the splendor of their estates and 

It continued to flourish during the Empire. The 
fact that it was on the Appian Way and that travelers 
to Brundisium found it a convenient stopping-place, con- 
tributed to its importance. Several of Cicero's letters are 
written from the city (ad Fam. xiv. 20; ad Att. v. 5; 
xvi. 5). 

A Poet Refers to His Birth-place 

Him follow I,' Lucania's son, 
Perhaps Apulia's. 'Tis all one; 
For the Venusian dalesman now 
O'er either border drives his plough, 
Sent hither, says tradition eld. 
What time the Sabines were expelled, 
To keep back foes from Roman ground. 
Who through these wilds might else have found 
An entrance; or, belike, to stand 
Between the Apulian people and 
Lucania's headstrong sons, and mar 
Their love of breaking into war. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

484 Classical Associations 

Eo tempore, quo haec Canusii agebantur, Venusiam ad 
consulem ad quattuor milia et quingenti pedites equitesque, 
qui sparsi fuga per agros fuerant, pervenere. Eos omnes 
Venusini per familias benigne accipiendos curandosque 
cum divisissent, in singulos equites togas et tunicas et 
quadrigatos nummos quinos vicenos et pediti denos et 
arma, quibus deerant, dederunt, ceteraque publice ac 
privatim hospitaliter facta certatumque, ne a muliere 
Canusina populus Venusinus officiis vinceretur. 

Liv. xxii. 54, 1-3. 

Quis feret uxorem cui constant omnia? malo, 
malo Venusinam quam te, Cornelia, mater 
Gracchorum, si cum magnis virtutibus adfers 
grande supercilium et numeras in dote triumphos. 

Juv vi. 166-169. 

2 See introductory note. 

8 For assistance rendered by Busa, see Caousium. 

' Roman writers mention tlie place as one wliere simple habits of life prevailed. 

oj Places in Italy 485 

The Red Cross — ^A Roman Precedent 

While these things passed at Canusium, about 4500 
horse and foot, who, in the flight, had been dispersed 
through the country, came to the consul at Venusia.^ 
There they were all distributed by the Venusians through 
their several families where they were received a'nd treated 
with kindness. They also gave each horseman a gown 
and tunic, and 25 denarii; and to each footman, 10 denarii 
and such arms as were wanted; and every other hospitable 
attention was shown them, both by the public and by 
private persons; all exerting themselves that the Venusian 
state might not be outdone in kindness by a woman of 

George Baker 

A Country Girl Preferred 

Yet who could bear to lead an humbled life, . 
Curst with that veriest plague, a faultless wife? 
Some simple rustic at Venusia bred, 
Oh! let me, rather than Cornelia, wed! 
If to great virtues, greater pride she join, 
And count her ancestors as current coin.* 

William Gifford 

4S6 Classicul Associations 

VERONA (Verona) 

An important town of whose early history almost noth- 
ing is known. In later times it became a flourishing 
Roman colony whose prosperity was partly due to the 
productiveness of the surrounding country and partly to 
the fact that the city was the center of several high-roads. 
Such striking Roman remains as that of its amphitheatre 
testify to the fact that it was no inconsiderable place. 
Mention of it becomes more common in the literature of 
later periods. Constantine captured it after a long siege 
while on his way from Gaul to Rome in 312 A. D. and it 
was the scene of a victory won by the powerful Theodoric 
over Odoacer in 489 A. D. This Gothic king made it his 
imperial residence for some time and the presence of the 
court doubtless contributed much to the magnificence of 
the city at this period. The famous red marble quarried in 
its neighborhood afforded building material of unusual 
beauty, and it is probable that no city in northern Italy had 
more splendid buildings. 

\'erona docti syllabas amat valis. 

Marl. i. 61, 1. 

Athesim . . amoenum. 

Coloniam copiis validam. 

\'ir. Aen. ix. 680. 

Tac. Hist. iii. S. 

Felix, qui patriis aevum transegit in agris, 
ipsa dcmus puerum quem videt, ipsa senem; 

qui baculo nitens, in qua reptavit arena, 
unius numeral saecula longa casae. 

ilium non vario traxit Fortuna tumultu, 

' \'erona U chiefly inlerestinR to classical students as the birth-place of the poet Catul- 
lus. See also Mart. x. 103, 5. 

'^ \ river (now the Adige) upon which the city was situated. 

^ A picture of an aged peasant who, though living close to Verona, had never dreamed 
of traveling as far as this. 

oj riiKcs in Italy 


-«• » 


X'erona loses ihe syllable of her learned bard.' 

Walter C. A. Ker 

Lovelv Athesis.- 

A colony strong and flourishing. 

Arthur Murphy 

The Simple Life' 

Blest is the man who, in his father's fields, 
Has past an age of quiet. The same roof 
That screen'd his cradle, yields a shelter now 
To his grey hairs. He leans upon a staff, 
Where, as a child, he crept along the ground ; 
And, in one cottage, he has number'd o'er 
.\ length of years. Him Fortune has not drawn 

488 Classical Associations 

nee bibit ignotas mobilis hospes aquas; 
non freta mercator tremuit, non classica miles; 

non rauci lites pertulit ilk fori, 
indocilis rerum, vicinae nescius urbis, 

adspectu fruitur liberiore poli. 
frugibus alt^rnis, non consule, computat annum; 

auctumnum pomis, ver sibi flore notat. 
idem condit agar soles idemque reducit; 

metiturque suo rusticus orbe diem, 
ijigentem meminit parva qui germine quercum, 

aequaevumque videt consenuisse nemus. 
proxima cui nigris Verona remotior Indis, 

Benacumque putat litcra Rubra kcum. 
sed tamen indomitae vires firmisque lacertis 

aetas robustum tertia cernit avum. 
erret, et extremos alter scrutetur Iberos: 

plus habet hie vitae, plus habet ille viae. 

Claudian Epig. ii. 

VESUVIUS MONS (Monte Vesuvio) 

Two events of historieal importance are connected with 
Vesuvius aside from the spectacular one of the eruption in 
79 A. D. One of these was a contest between the Romans 
and the Latins about the middle of the fourth century 
B. C. at a little distance from the foot of the mountain. In 
this battle, Decius, one of the Roman commanders, seeing 
that fortune was going against him, called upon the gods 
to witness that he vowed his life to them in return for 
victory. Then he sprang into the midst of the foe and 
was immediately killed (Liv. viii. 9). The other 
incident was the uprising of the slaves and gladiators in 

oj Places in Italy 489 

Into her whirl of strange vicissitudes; 
'Nor has he drunk, with ever-changing home, 
From unknown rivers. Never on the deep, 
A merchant, has he trembled at the storm; 
Nor, as a soldier, started at the blare 
Of trumpets; nor endured the noisy strife 
Of the hoarse-clamouring bar: — of the great world 
Simply unconscious. To the neighboring town 
A stranger, he enjoys the free expanse 
Of open heaven. The old man marks his year, 
Not by the names of consuls, but computes 
Time by his various crops: by apple notes 
The autumns; by the blooming flower the spring. 
From the same field he sees his daily sun 
Go down, and lift again its reddening orb; 
And, by his own contracted universej 
The rustic measures the vast light of day. 
He well remembers that broad massive oak. 
An acorn; and has seen the grove grow old. 
Coeval with himself. Verona seems 
To him more distant than the swarthy Ind: 
He deems the lake Benacus like the shores 
Of the red gulph. But his a vigour hale, 
And unabated: he has now outlived 
Three ages: though a grandsire, green in years. 
With firm and sinewy arms. The traveler 
May roam to farthest Spain: he, more has known 
Of earthly space; the old man, more of life. 

C. A. Elton 

73 B. C. For many months their leader Spartacus 
used this mountain as his stronghold against desperate 
attacks by the Romans (Plut. Crass. 9; Flor. Ep. ii. 8, 4). 
At the time of the fatal eruption, Vesuvius was princi- 
pally noted for the fertility of the surrounding country 
and the slopes at its base. Since it had been so long 
quiescent as a volcano, no one thought of fearing its 
violence. Later references in classical literature empha- 
size the fear of eruptions, notably in the writings of 
Procopius (6th century A. D.) vi. 4, 21-30. 

490 Classical Associations 

Hie est pampineis viridis modo Vesbius umbris, 

presserat hie madidos nobilis uva lacus: 
haec iuga, quam Nysae eolles plus Bacehus amavit, 

hoc nuper Satyri monte dedere choros. 
haee Veneris sedes, Lacedaemone gratior illi, 

hie locus Herculeo nomine clarus erat. 
euncta iaeent flammis et tristi mersa fa villa: 

nee superi vellent hoc lieuisse sibi. 

Mart. iv. 44. 

Aetnaei ignis imitator. 

Flor. Ep. i. 11, 16. 


.Ais te adduetum litteris, quas exigenti tibi de morte 
avuneuli mei seripsi, cupere eognoseere, quos ego Miseni 
relietus (id enim ingressus abruperam) non solum metus, 
verum etiam casus pertulerim. 'Quamquam ani- 
mus meminisse horret, ineipia m.' 

Profeeto avunculo ipse reliquum tempus studiis (ideo 
enim remanseram) inpendi; mox balineum, cena, somnus 
inquietus et brevis. Praecesserat per multos dies tremor 
terrae minus formidolosus, quia Campaniae solitus; ilia 
vero nocte ita invaluit, ut non moveri omnia, sed verti 
crederentur. Inrumpit eubieulum meum mater; surge- 
bam invieem, si quieseeret, excitaturus. Resedimus in 
area domus, quae mare a tectis modieo spatio dividebat. 
Dubito, eonstantiam voeare an inprudentiam debeam;" 
agebam enim duodevicesimum annum. Posco librum 
Titi Livi et quasi per otium lego atque etiam, ut coeperam, 
exeerpo. Ecce amicus avuneuli, qui nuper ad eum ex 
Hispania verierat, ut me et matrem sedentis, me vero 

1 An account of the eruption of 79 .\. D. as viewed by the younger Pliny who together 
with his mother was living in the region of Misenum at the time. The uncle to whom he 
refers was the elder Pliny, then in command of the fleet in these waters. 

' Quoting VJr. Aen. ii. 12. 

0] Places in Italy 491 


A Picture of Desolation 

This is Vesbius', green yesterday with viny shades; here 
had the noble grape loaded the dripping vats; these ridges 
Bacchus loved more than the hills of Nysa; on this mount 
of late the Satyrs set afoot their dances ;'this was the haunt 
of Venus, more pleasant to her than Lacedaembn; this 
spot was made glorious by the name of Hercules. All lies 
drowned in fire and melancholy ash; even the High Gods 
could have wished this had not been permitted them. 

W.M.TER C. .\. Ker 

The imitator of Aetna's fire. 

The Eruption of Vesuvius as Described by an Eye-witness 

To Cornelius Tacitus 
The letter which, in compliance with your request, I 
wrote to you concerning the death of my uncle, has raised, 
you say, yourcuriosity to know not only what terrors, but 
what calamities I endured when left behind at Misenum 
(^for there I broke off my narrative). 
"Though myshock'd soul recoils, my tongue shall tell.'"^ 
My uncle having set out, I gave the rest of the day to 
study — the object which had kept me at home. After 
which I bathed, dined, and retired to short and broken 
slumbers. There had been for several days before some 
shocks of earthquake, which the less alarmed us as they are 
frequent in Campania: but that night they became so 
violent that one might think that the world was not being 
merely shaken, but turned topsy-turvy. My mother flew 
to my chamber; I was just rising, meaning on my part to 
awaken her, if she was asleep. We sat down in the fore- 
court of the house, which separated it by a short space from 
the sea. I know not whether I should call it courage or 
inexperience — I was not quite eighteen — but I called for 
a T?olume of Livy, and began to read, and even went on 
with the extracts I was making from it, as if nothing were 
the matter. Lo and behold, a friend of my uncle's who 
was just come from Spain, appears on the scene; observing 

492 Classical Associations 

etiam legentem videt, illius patientiam, securitatem meam 
corripit. Nihilo segnius ego intentus in librum. lam 
hora diei prima, et adhuc dubius et quasi languidus dies, 
lam quassatis circumiacentibus tectis, quamquam in 
aperto loco, angusto tamen, magnus et certus ruinaermetus. 
Turn demum excedere oppido visum. Sequitur vulgus 
attonitum, quodque in pavore simile prudentiae, alienum 
consilium suo praefert ingentique agmine abeuntis premit 
et inpellit. Egressi tecta consistimus. Multa ibi mi- 
randa, multas formidines patimur. Nam vehicula, quae 
produci iusseramus, quamquam in pianissimo campo, in 
contrarias partis agebantur ac ne lapidibus quidem fulta 
in eod'em vestigio quiescebant. Praeterea mare in se re- 
sorberi et tremore terrae quasi repelli videbamus. Certe 
processerat litus multaque animalia maris siccis harenis 
detinebat. Ab altero latere nubes atra et horrenda igaei 
spiritus tortis vibratisque discursibus rupta in longas 
flammarum figuras dehiscebat; fulguribus illae et similes 
et maiores erant. Tum vero idem ille ex Hispania amicus 
acrius et instantius "Si frater"inquit"tuus,tuus avunculus 
vivit, vult esse vos salvos; si periit, superstites voluit. 
Proinde quid cessatis evadere?" Respondimus non com- 
missuros nos, ut de salute illius incerti nostrae consulere- 
mus. Non moratus ultra proripit se effusoque cursu.peri- 
culo auf ertur. Nee multo post ilia nubes descendere in 
terras, operire maria; cinxerat Capreas et absconderat, 
Miseni quod procurrit, abstulerat.. Tum mater orare, hor- 
tari, iubere, quoquo modo fugerem; posse enim iuvenem, 
se et annis et corpore gravem bene morituram, si mihi 
causa mortis non fuisset. Ego contra salvum me nisi una 

oj Places in Italy 493 

my mother and me seated, and that I have actually a book 
in my hand, he sharply censures her patience and my in- 
difference; nevertheless I still went on intently with my 

It was now six o'clock in the morning, the light still am- 
biguous and faint. The buildings around us already tot- 
tered, and though we stood upon open ground, yet as the 
place was narrow and confined, there was certain and for- 
midable danger from their collapsing. It was not till then 
we resolved to quit the town. The common people follow 
us in the utmost consternation, preferring the judgment of 
others to their own (wherein the extreme of fear resembles 
prudence), and impel us onwards by pressing in a crowd 
upon our rear. Once away from the houses, we halt in 
the midst of a most strange and dreadful scene. The 
coaches which we had ordered out, though upon the most 
level ground, were sliding to and fro, and could not be 
kept steady even when stones were put against the wheels. 
Then we beheld the sea sucked back, and, as it were, re- 
pulsed by the convulsive motion of the earth; it is certain 
at least that the shore was considerably enlarged, and now 
held many sea-animals captive on the dry sand. On the 
other side, a black and dreadful cloud bursting out in gusts 
of igneous serpentine vapour now and again yawned open 
to reveal long fantastic flames, resembling flashes of light- 
ning but much larger. 

Our Spanish friend, already mentioned, now spoke with 
more warmth and instancy: "If your brother — if your 
uncle," said he, "is yet alive, he wishes you both may be 
saVed; if he has perished, it was his desire that you might 
survive him. Why therefore do you delay your escape?" 
' 'We could never think of our own safety , " we said , ' 'while we 
are uncertain of his . " Without more ado our friend hurrie d 
off, and took himself out of danger at the top of his speed. 

Soon afterwards, the cloud I have described began to 
descend upon the earth, and cover the sea. It had already 
begirt the hidden Capreae, and blotted from sight the 
promontory of Misenum. My mother now began to be- 
seech, exhort, and command me to escape as best I might; 
'a young man could do it; she, burdened with age and cor- 
pulency, would die easy if only she had not caused my 

494 Classical Associations 

non futurum; deinde manum eius amplexus addere gradum 
cogo. Paret aegre incusatque se, quod me moretur. lam 
cinis, adhuc tamen rarus. Respicio; densa caligo tergis 
imminebat, quae nos torrentis modo infusa terrae seque- 
batur. "Deflectamus" inquam, "dum videmus, ne in via 
strati comitantium turba in tenebris obteramur." Vix 
consederamus, et nox, non qualis inlunis aut nubila, sed 
qualis in locis clausis lumine extincto. Audires ululatus 
feminarum, infantium quiritatus, clamores virorum; alii 
parentes, alii liberos, alii coniuges vocibus requirebant, 
vocibus noscitabant; hi suum casum, illi suorum misera- 
bantur; erant, qui metu mortis mortem precarentur; multi 
ad deos manus tollere, plures nusquam iam deos ullos 
aeternamque illam et novissimam noctem mundo inter- 
pretabantur. Nee defuerunt, qui fictis mentitisque ter- 
roribus vera pericula augerent. Aderant, qui Miseni illud 
ruisse, illud ardere falso, sed credentibus nuntiabant. 
Paulum reluxit; quod non dies nobis, sed adventantis ignis 
indicium videbatur. Et ignis quidem longius substitit, 
tenebrae rursus, cinis rursus multus et gravis. Hunc iden- 
tidem adsurgentes excutiebamus; operti alioqui atque 
etiam oblisi pondere essemus. . . . Tandem ilia caligo 
tenuata quasi in fumum nebulamve discessit; mox 
dies verus, sol etiam efifulsit, luridus tamen, qualis esse, 
cum deficit, solet. Occursabant trepidantibus adhuc 
oculis mutata omnia altoque cinere tamquam nive ob- 
ducta. Regressi Misenum curatis utcumque corporibus 
suspensam dubiamque noctem spe ac metu exegimus. 

Plin. Ep. vi. 20. 

of Places in Italy 495 

death.' I replied, I would not be saved without her, and 
taking her by the hand, I hurried her on. She complies 
reluctantly and not without reproaching herself for re- 
tarding me. Ashes now fall upon us, though as yet in no 
great quantity. I looked behind me; gross darkness 
pressed upon our rear, and came rolling over the land after 
us like a torrent. I proposed while we yet could see, to 
turn aside, lest we should be knocked down in the road by 
the crowd that followed us and trampled to death in the 
dark. We had scarce sat down, when darkness overspread 
us, not like that of a moonless or cloudy night, but of a 
room when it is shut up, and the lamp put out. You 
could hear the shrieks of women, the crying of children, 
and the shouts of men; some were seeking their children, 
others their parents, others their wives or husbands, and 
only distinguishing them by their voices; one lamenting 
his own fate, another that of his family; some praying to 
die, from the very fear of dying; many lifting their hands 
to the gods; but the greater part imagining that there were 
no gods left anywhere, and that the last and eternal night 
was come upon the world. There were even some who 
augmented the real perils by imaginary terrors. New- 
comers reported that such or such a building at Misenum 
had collapsed or taken fire — falsely, but they were cred- 
ited. By degrees it grew lighter; which we imagined to, 
be rather the warning of approaching fire (as in truth it 
was) than the return of day: however, the fire stayed at a 
distance from us: then again came darkness, and a heavy 
shower of ashes; we were obliged every now and then to 
rise and shake them off, otherwise we should have been 
buried and even crushed under their weight. . . . At last 
this dreadful darkness was attenuated by degrees to a 
kind of cloud or smoke, and passed away; presently the 
real day returned, and even the sun appeared, though 
lurid as when an eclipse is in progress. Every object 
that presented itself to our yet affrighted gaze was 
changed, covered over with a drift of ashes as with snow. 
We returned to Misenum, where we refreshed ourselves 
as well as we could, and passed an anxious night between 
hope and fear. 

William Melmoth 

496 Classical Associations 

Erat Miseni elassemque imperio praesens regebat. No- 
num Kal. Septembres hora fere septima mater mea indi- 
cat ei apparere nubem invisitata et magnitudine et specie. 
Usus ille sole, mox frigida gustaverat iacens studebatque; 
poscit soleas, ascendit locum, ex quo maxime miractilum 
illud conspici poterat. Nubes, incertum procul intuentibus, 
ex quo monte (Vesuvium fuisse postea cognitum est), 
oriebatur, cuius similLtudinem et formam non alia magis 
arbor quam pinus expresserit. Nam longissimo velut 
trunco elata in altum quibusdam ramis difiFundebatur, 
credo, quia recehti spiritu evecta, dein senescente eo 
destituta aut etiam pondere suo victa in latitudinem 
vanescebat, Candida interdum, interdum sordida et 
maculosa, prout terram cineremve sustulerat. Magnum 
propiusque noscendum ut eruditissimo viro visum. lubet 
Liburnicam aptari; mihi, si venire una vellem, facit co- 
piam. Respondi studere me malle, et forte ipse, quod 
scriberem, dederat. Egrediebatur domo; accipit codicillos 
Rectinae Tasci inminenti periculo exterritae (nam villa 
eius subiacebat, nee ulla nisi navibus fuga); ut se tanto 
discrimini eriperet, orabat. Vertit ille consilium et, 
quod studioso animo incohaverat, obit maximo. Deducit 
quadriremes, ascendit ipse non Rectinae modo, sed 
multis (erat enim frequens amoenitas orae) laturus 
auxilium. Properat illuc, unde alii fugiunt, rectumque 
cursum, recta gubernacula in periculum tenet adeo so- 
lutus metu, ut omnis illius mali motus, omnis figuras, 
ut deprenderat oculis, dictaret enotaretque. lam navi- 

* An account of the death of his uncle by the younger Pliny, the author of the preced- 
ing passage 

< Tascus is now thought more correct. 

of Places in Italy 497 

A Brave Official Dies in an Attempt to Save Refugees' 

He was at that time with the fleet under his command 
at Misenum. On the 24th of August, about one in the af- 
ternoon, my mother desired him to observe a cloud of 
very unusual size and appearance. He had sunned him- 
self, then taken a cold bath, and after a leisurely luncheon 
was engaged in study. He immediately called for his shoes 
and went up an eminence from whence he might best view 
this very uncommon appearance. It was not at that dis- 
tance discernible from what mountain this cloud issued, 
but it was found afterwards to be Vesuvius. I cannot give 
you a more exact description of its figure, than by resem- 
bling it to that of a pinetree, for it shot up a great height 
in the form of a trunk, which extended itself at the top 
into several branches; because, I imagine, a momentary 
gust of air blew it aloft, and then failing, forsook it; thus 
causing the cloud to expand laterally as it dissolved, or 
possibly the downward pressure of its own weight pro- 
duced this effect. It was at one moment white, at another 
dark and spotted, as if it had carried up earth or cinders. 

My uncle, true savant that he was, deemed the phe- 
nomenon important and worth a nearer view. He ordered 
a light vessel to be got ready, and gave me the liberty, if 
I thought proper, to attend him. I replied I would rather 
study; and, as it happened, he had himself given me a 
theme for composition. As he was coming out of the 
house he received a note from Rectina, the wife of Bassus,"* 
who was in the utmost alarm at the imminent danger 
(his villa stood just below us, and there was no way to 
escape but by sea); she earnestly entreated him to save 
her from such deadly peril. He changed his first design 
and what he began with a philosophical, he pursued with 
an heroical turn of mind. He ordered large galleys to be 
launched, and went himself on board one, with the inten- 
tion of assisting not only Rectina, but many others; for 
the villas stand extremely thick upon that beautiful coast. 
Hastening to the place from whence others were flying, he 
steered his direct course to the point of danger, and with 
such freedom of fear, as to be able to make and dictate his 
observations upon the successive motions and figures of 
that terrific object. 

498 Classical Associations 

bus cinis incidebat, quo propius accederent, calidior et 
densior, iam pumices etiam nigrique et ambusti et fracti 
igne lapides, iam vadum subitum ruinaque montis litora 
obstantia". Cunctatus paulurii, an retro flecteret, mox 
gubernatori, ut ita faceret, mbnenti 'Fortes' inquit 'for- 
tuna iuvat. Pomponianum pete.' Stabiis erat dir- 
emptus sinu medio (nam sensim circumactis curvatisque 
litoribus mare infunditur); ibi, quamquam nondum 
periculo adpropinquante, conspicuo tamen et, curii 
cresceret, proximo sarcinas contulerat in naves certus 
fugae, si contrarius ventus resedisset; quo tunc avunculus 
meus secundissimo invectus conplectitur trepidantem, con- 
solatur, hortatur, utque timorem eiussuasecuritateleniret, 
deferri in balineum iubet; lotus accubat, cenat aut hilaris 
aut, quod est aeque magnum, similis hilari. Interim e Ve- 
suvio monte pluribus locis latissimae flammae altaque in- 
cendia relucebant, quorurn fulgor et claritas tenebris noctis 
excitabatur. Ill'e agrestium trepidatione ignis relictos 
desertasque villas per solitudinem ardere in remedium for- 
midinis dictitabat. Tum se quieti dedit et quievit veris- 
simo quidem somno. Nam meatus animae, qui illi propter 
amplitudinem corporis gravior et sonantior erat, ab iis, qui 
limini obversabantur, audiebatur. Sed area, ex qua 
diaeta adibatur, ita iam cinere mixtisque pumicibus op- 
pleta surrexerat, ut, si longior in cubiculo mora, exitus ne- 
garetur. Excitatus procedit seque Pomponiano ceterisque , 
qui pervigilaverant,. reddit. In commune consultant, 
intra tecta subsistant an in aperto vagentur. Nam ere- 

ot Places in Italy 499 

And now cinders, which grew thicker and hotter the 
nearer he approached, fell into the ships, then pumice- 
stones too, with stones, blackened, scorched, and cracked 
by fire, then the sea ebbed suddenly from under them, 
while the shore was blocked up by landslips from the 
mountains. After considering a moment whether he 
should retreat, he said to the captain who was urging that 
course, "Fortune befriends the brave; carry me to Pom- 
ponianus." Pomponianus was then at Stabiae, distant by 
half the width of the bay (for, as you know, the shore, in- 
sensibly curving in its sweep, forms here a receptacle for 
the sea) . He had already embarked his baggage ; for though 
at Stabiae the danger was not yet near, it was full in view, 
and certain to be extremely near, as" soon as it spread; and 
he resolved to fly as soon as the contrary wind should 
cease. It was full favourable, however, for carrying my 
uncle to Pomponianus. He embraces,, comforts, and en- 
courages his alarmed friend, and in order to soothe the 
other's fears by his own unconcern, desires to be conducted 
to a bathroom; and after having bathed, he sat down to 
supper with great cheerfulness, or at least (what is equally 
heroic) with all the appearance of it. 

In the meanwhile Mount Vesuvius was blazing in sev- 
eral places with spreading and towering flames, whose 
refulgent brightness the darkness of the night set in high 
relief. But my uncle, in order to soothe apprehensions, 
kept saying that some fires had been left alight by the 
terrified country people, and what they saw were only 
deserted villas on fire in the abandoned district. After 
this he retired to rest, and it is most certain that his rest 
was a very genuine slumber; for his breathing, which, as 
he was pretty fat, was somewhat heavy and sonorous, was 
heard by those who attended at his chamber-door. But 
the court which led to his apartment now lay so deep under 
a mixture of pumice-stones and ashes, that if he had con- 
tinued longer in his bedroom, egress would have been 
impossible. On being aroused, he came out, and returned 
to Pomponianus and the others, who had sat up all night. 
They consulted together as to whether they should hold 

500 Classical Associations 

bris vastisque tremoribus tecta nutabant et quasi emota 
sedibus suis nunc hue, nunc illuc abire aut referri vide- 
bantur. Sub dio rursus quamquam levium exesorumque 
pumicum. casus metuebatur; quod tamen periculorum 
collatio elegit. Et apud ilium quidem ratio rationem, 
apud alios timorem timor vicit. Cervicalia capitibus in- 
posita linteis constringunt; id muniment um adversus 
incidentia fuit. lam dies alibi, illic nox omnibus noctibus 
nigrior densiorque; quam tamen faces multae variaque 
lumina solabantur. Placuit egredi in litus et ex proximo 
aspicere, ecquid iam mare admitteret; quod adhuc vastum 
et adversum permanebat. Ibi super abiectum linteum 
recubans semel atque iterum frigidam poposcit hausitque. 
Deinde flammae flammarumque praenuntius odor sul- 
puris alios in fugam vertunt, excitant ilium. Innixus 
servulis duobus adsurrexit et statim concidit, ut ego con- 
iecto, crassiore caligine spiritu obstructo clausoque sto- 
macho, qui illi natura invalidus et angustus et frequenter 
interaestuans erat. Ubi dies redditus (is ab eo, quem 
novissime viderat, tertius), corpus inventum integrum, 
inlaesum opertumque, ut fuerat indutus; habitus corporis 
quiescenti quam defuncto similior. 

Plin. Ep. vi. 16. 

of Places in Italy 501 

out in the house, or wander about in the open. For the 
house now tottered under repeated and violent concus- 
sions, and seemed to rock to and fro as if torn from its 
foundations. In the open air, on the other hand, they 
dreaded the falling pumice-stones, light and porous though 
they were; yet this, by comparison, seemed the lesser 
danger of the two; a conclusion which my uncle arrived at 
by balancing reasons, and the others by balancing fears. 
They tied pillows upon their heads with napkins; and this 
was their whole defence against the showers that fell round 

It was now day everywhere else, but there a deeper 
darkness prevailed than in most obscure night; relieved, 
however, by many torches and divers illuminations. They 
thought proper to go down upon the shore to observe from 
close at hand if they could possibly put out to sea, but they 
found the waves still ran extremely high and contrary. 
There my uncle having thrown himself down upon a dis- 
used sail, repeatedly called for, and drank, a draught of 
cold water; soon after, flames, and a strong smell of sul- 
phur, which was the forerunner of them, dispersed the 
rest of the company in flight; him they only aroused. He 
raised himself up with the assistance of two of his slaves, 
but instantly fell; some unusually gross vapour, as I con- 
jecture, having obstructed his breathing and blocked his 
windpipe, which was not only naturally weak. and con- 
stricted, but chronically inflamed. When day dawned 
again (the third from that he last beheld) his body was 
found entire and uninjured, and still fully clothed as in 
life; its posture was that of a sleeping, rather than a dead 

William Melmoth 

502 Classical Associations 


Contiriui monies, ni dissocientur opaca 
valle, sed ut veniens dextrum latus adspiciat Sol, 
laevum discedens curru fugiente vaporet. 
temperiem laudes. quid, si rubicunda benigni 
coma vepres et pruna ferant, si quercus et ilex 
multa ffuge pecus, multa dominum iuvet umbra? 
dicas adductum propius frondere Tarentum. 
fons etiam rivo dare nomen idoneus, ut nee 
frigidior Thracam nee purior ambiat Hebrus, 
infirmp capiti fluit utilis, utilis alvo. 
hae latebrae dulces, etiam si credis, amoenae, 
incolumem tibi me praestant Septembribus horis. 

^Hor. Ep. i. 16, 5-16. 

Hoc erat in votis: modus agri non ita magnus, 
hortus ubi et tecto vicinus iugis aquae fons 
et pauUum silvae super his foret. auctius atque 
di melius fecere. benest. nil amplius oro, 
Maia nate, nisi ut propria haec mihi munera faxis. 

Hor. S. ii. 6, 1-5. 

Me quotiens reficit gelidus Digentia rivus, 
quem Mandela bibit, rugosus frigore pagus, 
quid sentire putas? quid credis, amice, precari? 
"sit mihi, quod nunc est, etiam minus, et mihi vivam 
quod superest aevi, siquid superesse volunt di; 

^ Sometime between 35 and 30 B. C. Horace was presented by Maecenas with a small 
estate about thirty miles from Rome which he called his"Sabine Farm." This gift freed 
him from financial anxieties and left him more or less free to devote himself to literature. 

' The modem name is Licenza. 

3 A small village near Horace's estate, still called Mandela. 

of Places in Italy 503 


A Poet Describes His Farm 

Girdled by hills it' lies, through which but one 
Small valley, rich in shade, is seen to run, 
Where on the right the moving sunbeams play. 
Whilst on the left they rest at close of day. 
You'd like the air, wild cherry there, and sloe 
Purple and dark, in rich profusion grow. 
While oak and ilex bounteously afford 
Food for my herds, and shelter for their lord. 
"How's this?" you'd say, could you behold the scene; 
"Tarentum's here, with all its wealth of green." 
We have a fountain, too, that well may claim 
To give the stream, whose source it is, a name; 
. More cool, more clear, not Thracian Hebrus flows. 
Balm for head-pains, and for the stomach's woes. 
This dear, yea, truly exquisite retreat 
Keeps me in health through even September's heat. 

Sir Theodore Martin 


This used to be my wish: a bit of land, 
A house and garden with a spring at hand. 
And just a little wood. The gods have crowned 
My humble vows; I prosper and abound: 
Nor ask I more, kind Mercury, save that thou 
Wouldst give me still the goods thou giv'st me how. 


True Riches 

As for myself, whene'er I sit and dream 
By the cool waters of Digentia's^ stream — 
Which all Mandela' drinks — that hamlet old, 
Pinched into wrinkles by the winter's cold. 
What, think you, is my prayer? — "Let me possess 
The goods that now I have, or even less! 
Live for myself the days I have to live, 
So please the gods a few more days to give. 

504 Classical Associations 

sit bona librorum et provisae frugis in annum 
copia, neu fiuitem dubiae spe pendulus horae." 
sed satis est orare lovem, quae ponit et aufert: 
det vitam, det opes; aequum mi animum ipse parabo. 

Hor. Ep. i. 18, 104-112. 

Ponendaeque domo quaerendast area primum : 
novistine locum potiorem rure beato? 
est ubi plus tepeant hiemes, ubi gratior aura 
leniat et rabiem Canis et momenta Leonis, 
cum semel accepit Solem furibundus acutum? 
est ubi divellat somnos minus invida cura? 
deterius Libycis olet aut nitet herba lapillis? 
purior in vicis aqua tendit rumpere plumbum, 
quam quae per pronum trepidat cum murmure rivum? 

Hor. Ep. i. 10, 13-21. 

Purae rivus aquae silvaque iugerum 
paucorum et segetis certa fides meae 
fulgentem imperio fertilis Africae 
fillit sorte beatior. 
quamquam nee Calabrae mella ferunt apes, 
nee L^estrygonia Bacchus in amphora 
languescit mihi, nee pinguia Gallieis 
crescunt vellera pascuis; 
importuna tamen pauperies abest, 
nee si plura velim tu dare deneges. 
contracto melius parva cupidine 
veetigalia porrigam, 
quam si Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei 
campis eontinuem. multa petentibus 
desunt multa; benest, cui deus obtulit 
parca quod satis est manu. 

Hor. C. iii. 16, 29-44. 

oj Places in Italy 505 

Books let me have, and stores to last a year, — 
So 'scape a life all flutter, hope and fear!" 
At this I stop. It is enough to pray 
To Jove for what he gives and takes away. 
Let him give life, and means to live; a mind 
Well-poised behooves me for myself to find. 

Theodore Martin 

The Lure of the Country 

Or if we'd seek a spot whereon to raise 
A home to shelter our declining days. 
What place so fitting as the country? Where 
Comes nipping winter with a kindlier air? 
Where find we breezes balmier to cool 
The fiery dog-days when the sun's at full? 
Or where is envious care less apt to creep, 
And scare the blessings of heart-easing sleep? 
Is floor mosaic, gemmed with malachite, 
One half so fragrant or one half so bright 
As the sweet herbage? Or the stream town-sped. 
That frets to burst its cerements of lead. 
More pure than that which shoots and gleams along. 
Murmuring its low and lulling undersong? 

Sir Theodore Martin 

A Roman Poet's Philosophy of Life 

My stream of pure water, my woodland of few acres, 
and sure trust in my crop of corn, bring me more blessing 
than the lot of the dazzling lord of fertile Africa, though he 
know it not. Though neither Calabrian be'es bring me 
honey, nor wine lies mellowing for me in Laestrygonian 
jar, nor thick fleeces are waxing for me in Gallic pastures, 
yet distressing poverty is absent; nor, did I wish more, 
would you refuse to grant it. By narrowing my desires, 
I shall better enlarge my scanty revenues than were I to 
make the realm of Alyattes continuous with theMyg- 
donian plains. To those who seek for much, much is ever 
lacking; blest is he to whom the god with chary hand has 
given just enough. C. E. Bennett 

506 Classical Association^ 

Quern bibulum liquid! media de luce Falerni, 
cena brevis iuvat et prope rivum somnus in herba. 
nee lussise pudet sed non incidere ludum. 
non istic obliquo oculo mea commoda quisquam 
limat, non odio obscuro morsuque venenat; 
rident vicini glaebas et saxa moventem. 

Hor. Ep. i. 14, 34-39. 

O fons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
dulci digne mero non sine floribus, 
eras donaberis haedo, 
cui frons turgida cornibus 
primis et venerem et proelia destinat; 
frustra: nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
rubro sanguine rivos 
lascivi suboles gregis. 
te flagrantis atrox hora Caniculae 
nescit tangere, tu frigus amabile 
fessis vomere tauris 
Praebes et pecori vago. 
ties nobilium tu quoque fontium, 
me dicente cavis inpositam ilicem 
saxis, unde loquaces 
lymphae desiliunt tuae. 

Hor. C. iii. 13. 

Amoenum .... Lucretilem. 

Hor. C. i. 17, 1. 

* It is uncertain whether the Fons Bandusia was near Venusia, the birthplace oi Hor- 
ace or in the neighborhood of the Sabine Farm. It is possible that the poet may have trans- 
ferred the name from the spring he knew in his childhood to the one in this region.. . 

6 Now called M. Gennaro, of which mountain it was probably a part in Horace's day. 

oj Places in Italy 507 

The Convert 

He who of yore caroused from noon till night 
Now quits the table soon, and lives to dream 
And drowse upon the grass beside the stream, 
Nor blushes that of sport he took his full ; — 
He'd blush, indeed, to be tomfooling still. 
In that calm spot no evil eye askance 
Upon my simple comforts brings mischance. 
Nor does cold hate, with slanderous fang obscure. 
Its venom drop for my discomfiture. 
True, as I turn a sod or shift a stone. 
My neighbors laugh, — no mighty harm, you'll own. 

Sir Theodore Martin 

The Fountain of Bandusia* 

Bandusia, stainless mirror of the sky, 

Thine is the flower-crown'd bowl! for thee shall die. 

When dawns yon sun, the kid; 

Whose horns, half-seen, half-hid. 
Challenge to dalliance or to strife — in vain ! 
Soon must the darling of the herd be slain. 

And those cold springs of thine 

With blood incarnadine. 
Fierce glows the Dog-star, but his fiery beam 
Toucheth not thee: still grateful thy cool stream 

To labour-wearied ox, 

Or wanderer from the flocks: 
And henceforth thou shalt be a royal fountain: 
My harp shall tell how from yon cavernous mountain, 

Topt by the brown oak-tree, 

Thou breakest babblingly. 

Charles Stuart Caverley 

Fair Lucre tills .^ 

C. E. Bennett 


Classical Associations 

Perditur haec inter misero lux non sine votis: 
O rus, quando ego te adspiciam? quandoque licebit 
nunc veterum libris nunc somno et inertibus horis 
ducere sollicitae iucunda oblivia vitae? 
o quando faba Pythagorae cognata simulque 
uncta satis pingui ponentur oluscula lardo? 
o noctes cenaeque deum, quibus ipse meique 
ante Larem proprium vescor vernasque procaces 
pasco libatis dapibus. prout cuique libidost 
siccat inaequales calices con viva, solutus 
legibus insanis, seu quis capit acria fortis 
pocula seu modicis uvescit laetius. ergo 
sermo oritur, non de villis domibusve alienis, 
nee male necne Lepos saltet; sed, quod magis ad nos 
pertinet et nescire malumst, agitamus,'_utrumne 
divitiis homines an sint virtute beati; 
quidve ad amicitias, usus rectumne, trahat nos; 
et quae sit natura boni summumque quid eius. 

Hor. S. ii. 6, 59-76. 


1 /)L?>''m^M^i^ 

Courtesy of Art ani Archaeology 

Excavations qm i-mr tJiTPPosm <;tte or Hor ace's Sabine Farm 

of Places in Italy 509 

Pleasant Memories 

Oh! when shall I the country see?" 
Its woodlands green? Oh! when be free 
With books of great old men, and sleep, 
And hours of dreamy ease, to creep 
Into oblivion sweet of life, 
Its agitations, and its strife? 
When on my table shall be seen 
Pythagoras' kinsman bean? 
And bacon, not too fat, embellish 
My dish of beans and give it relish? 
Oh, happy nights! oh, feasts divine, 
when with the friends I love, I dine 
At mine own hearth-fire, and the meat 
We leave gives my bluff hinds a treat! 
No stupid laws our feasts control. 
But each guest drains or leaves the bowl. 
Precisely as he feels inclined. 
If he be strong, and have a mind 
For bumpers,-— good! If not, he's free 
To sip his liquor leisurely. 
And then the talk our banquet rouses! 
Not gossip 'bout our neighbors' houses. 
Or if 'tis generally thought 
That Lepos dances well or not. 
But what concerns us nearer, and 
Is harmful not to understand: — 
Whether by wealth or worth, 'tis plain. 
That men to happiness attain? 
By what we're led to choose our friends, — 
Regard for them or our own ends? 
In what does good consist, and what 
Is the supremest form of that? 

Sir Theodore Martin 

510 Classical Associations 

VOLSINII (Orvieto, the Probable Etrus- 
can Site; Bolsena, the Roman) 

Volsinii was an ancient and powerful Etruscan city 
not far from Clusium. Its site was probably on a hill and 
should not be confused with that of the later Roman city 
which lay on a plain near a lake (now Bolsena). Soon 
after the fall of Veii the ancient city came into contact 
with Rome with which it continued to fight at intervals 
until its final subjugation by the latter in 280. B. C. 
Livy gives an account of one of these early struggles 
in V. 31-32. At the time of its fall the place was 
known for its wealth and artistic treasures, one writer 
saying even that its luxury brought its downfall by 
reason of the effeminacy it produced (Val. Max. ix. 1, Ext. 
2). The Roman city is known as the birth-place of Sejanus, 
the corrupt minister and favorite of Tiberius (Tac. 
Ann. iv. 1; vi. 8). Several marvellous stories are told 
of the lake — one, that it contained two floating islands 
whose contacts produced changing forms (Plin. N. H. ii. 
209); another, that during the second Punic War its waters 
flowed red with blood (I'iv. xxvii. 23). Its banks are said to 
have supplied the Roman markets with water-fowl. Noted 
quarries, also, upon its shores afforded building material. 
A vivid account of the imprisonment and death of Theo- 
doric's daughter upon an island in the lake (6th century 
A. D.) is given by Procopius v. 4, 14-29. 

Positis nemorosa inter iuga Volsiniis. 
At Volsinii amid its leafy hills. 

Juv. iii. 191. 

G. G. Ramsay 

Tres validissimae urbes, Etruriae capita, Volsinii, Per- 
usia, Arretium. 

Liv. X. 37, 4. 

Three very powerful cities, Volsinii, Perusia, and Arre- 
tium, capitals of Etruria. 

oj Places in Italy 511 


At flavum caput umidumque late 
crinem moUibus impeditus ulvis 
Volturnus levat. 

Stat. Silv. iv. 3, 67-69. 

Volturnus with his yellow locks and far-streaming ooze 
of moisture on his sedge-crowned head, arose. 

E. D. Slater 

Multamque trahens sub gurgite harenam 

Ov. Met. XV. 714-715. 

The Volturnus, sweeping along vast quantities of sand 
beneath its whirling waters. 

F. J. Miller 

Volturnus celer. 

Luc. ii. 423. 

The swift Volturnus. 

Amnisque vadosi .... Volturni. 

Vir.Aen. vii. 728-9. 

Of many-shoaled Volturnus. 

T. C. Williams •■ 

512 Classical Associations 



Abella (Avella) 

"Qtjos maliferae despectant moenia Abellae." (Vir. Aen. vii. 740.) 
Alsium (Palo), a favorite resort for wealthy Romans. Fronto thus 

characterizes it, "maritimus et voluptarius locus." 
Amiternum (S. Vittorino Sabina) , famous as the birth-place of Sallust, 

the Roman historian. 
Ampsanctus (Mefita), a valley and lake in the Apennines whose fame 
rests chiefly upon these lines from Virgil: 

"Est locus Itahae medio sub montibus altis, 
nobilis et f ama multis memoratus in oris, , 

Ampsancti valles: densis hunc frondibus atrum 
urguet utrimque latus nemoris, medioque fragosus 
dat sonitum saxis et torto vertice torrens. 
hie specus horrendum et saevi spiracula Ditis 
monstrantur, ruptoque ingens Acheronte vorago 
pestiferas aperit fauces." 

Aen. vii. S63-S70. 
Anagnia (Anagni), characterized by Virgil in the words, "dives Anagnia" 
(Aen. vii. 684). Marcus Aurelius, when a boy, made a horseback trip 
from this place to Lanuvium. In a letter to Fronto, his tutor, he says 
that "it is a small ancient town containing antiquities, especially 
shrines and sacred memorials." Cicero had" a villa at Anagnia (ad 
Att. xii. 1). 
Antemnae (Antenne), a very ancient city belonging to the Sabines 
and prominent in the days of Rome's infancy. In historical "times 
it was either an insignificant village or, as Strabo says, land owned by 
private individuals. Virgil refers to it as "turrigerae Antemnae" 
(Aen. vii. 631). -' - ''■■" ' "-"- " 

Apulia (Puglie), a region in southern Italy famous for its production 
of wool and the rearing of cattle (Juv. ix. 54-55; Hor. C. iii. 16, 26). 
It was very hot in summer, as indicated by Horace's adjective, "siti- 
culosa." (Epod. iii. 16.) This poet- was borii" at Vehusia" neai: the 
hmits of Apulia and so mentions its "well-known heights" in connec- 
tion with his journey to Brundisium: 

"Incipit ex illo montes Apulia notos 
ostentare mihi, quos torret Atabulus et quos 
numquam erepsemus, nisi nos vicina Trivici 
villa recepisset lacrimoso non sine fumo, 
udos cum foliis ramos urente camino." 

Hor. S. i. 5, 77-81. 
Arcanum (Arce), a small village near Arpinum where Cicero's brother 
had a country home. The orator happened to be taking lunch there 
one day when his sister in-law had a fit of temper. After an angry 
remark on the part of his wife, Quintus turned to Cicero with the 
words, "There you are. That's what I have to put up with every day" 
(Cic. ad Att. v. 1.). 

of Places in Italy 513 

AsisnjM (Assisi), the birth-place of Propertius (iv. 1, 63, 121 ff.). 
Bakium (Bari), interesting as a place where Horace stopped on his 
famous trip: 

"Postera tempestasjnelior, via peior ad usque 
Bari moenia piscosL" 

S. i. 5, 96-^7. 
BoNONiA or Felsina (Bologna), an ancient city whose situation on the 
Aemilian Road and proximity to important^ towns made it a con- 
spicuous commercial and military center. It played a considerable 
part in the civil wars of An tpiiy and Octavian (Dio Cass, xlvi.' 36; 54) 
and was the spot where the political arrangement known as the Second 
Triumvirate was drawn up (Suet. Aug.. 96). Martial calls it "culta" 
(iii; 59) and Pomponius Mda^. "opnlentissima" (ii. 60). Its .chief 
fame, however, belongs to ages later than the classical period. 
BoviLLAE (on the Appian Way between the xii and xiii milestones), a 
. small town.-which is interesting as the? spot to which the body of 
the emperor Augustus. was first taken after his death at Nola. Its 
neighborhood was also the. scene of the murder of Clodius at the 
hands of Milo (Cic. pro Milon. 29.). .iPropertius speaks of it thus: 
. "Quippe suburbanae parva minus urbe BovUlae." (iv. i, 33.) 
Bkixia (Brescia), 
"Brixia ex iUajiostra Italia, quae multum adhuc verecundiae, frugali- 
tatiaiatque.etiam: rusticitatis antiquae retinet ac servat'.' (Plm. Ep. i. 
14). J . .... 

Bruttii, a district.of southern Italy thus. described in the letters of 
Cassiodorus (viii. 31) as summarized by Thomas.Hodgkin: . 
"In truth it. is a lovely land.. Ceres and Jallashavexrawned it with 
; their respective gifts; the plainaare green with pastures, theslnpesare 
. purple with vineyards. Above ail it is rich^in its vast herds of iorses, 
and no wonder, since the dense shade of its forests protects them 
from the bites of, flie%:and; provides them.with ever.verdant pastures 
even in the height of summer. . Cool waters flow from its lofty heights; 
fair harbors on both its shores woo the cpnmieTCB/.Df Ae world." 

Jordanes in his History of thetGothiG.War£(3Q)i .says .that the body 
of Alaric was buried in the bed_of ihe;:riyer: Buseatiis, a stream in 
Bruttii near the cityiof Coiiseirtia: . .The waters were turned o£E for this 
, pugjose and aiterwards allowed to return -,todieir channel so-^at 
the exact spot^f - the burial of the conqueror of Ronae together -wath 
m}ich of thesppils takehm$10 A. D, frona-^e imperial city inigEt be 
■ -forever unknown. This is'ain interesUng story, whether 'b^sed up<?n 
facts or hot. ; 

For an account of this district, see Strabo vi. I, 4, 
Caecubus Ager, a district in Latium famous for its wine. The follow- 
ing passage is characterUtic pf many; 

"Absumetheies Caecuba digniior 
~ ierva^ ciitujn clavibus. et mero 
tfiiguet pavimentum supeirbo, 
pontificuin potiore-cenis." 
-,,,;:. ::~. Hqr.pai.l4/25r28. 
"Xhy-^oarded Caiecubaja s^aJl share, 
And on the tesselated floor 

514' Classical A ssociations 

The purple nectar madly pour- 
Nectar more worthy of the halls, 
Where pontiffs hold high festivals." 

Sir Stephen E; j)eVere 
See also Hor. C. i. 20, 9; i. 37, 5; iii. 28, 3; Epod.'ix. 1; 36; S. ii. 8, 15; 
and Mart. xiii. 115. - 
Calabria, a region of southern Italy widely known' for its herds and 
flocks. Horace thus alludes to it: ■ 

"Pecusve CalabHs ante sidus fervidum 
Lucana mutet pascuis." (Epod. i. 27-28.) 

"Aestuosae Calabriae.." (C. i. 31, 5.) ■ 

Cales (Calvi), a town whose surrounding territory was celebrated for 
its wine. Sfee Hor. C. i. 31, 9; iv. 12, 14-16. 

Centum Geleae; (Civita Vecchia), a favorite resort of the emperor 
Trajan who constructed an artificial island with long moles extending 
out from the town. ' Pliny (Ep. vi. 31) gives a pleasant picture of the 
place in connection with a meeting of Trajan's privy council. 

CiMiNius Saltus (Monte Cimino near Lago di Vico), a forest which 
formed a vast boundary wall between Rome and Etruria, and the 
object of superstitious dread. It was entered in 310 B. C. by the 
Roman consul, Fabius Maximus, during a war with the Etruscans 
although this act was in direct defiance of an order from Rome for- 
bidding him to risk so great a danger; but by so doing, he forced the 
enemy, to seek peace from the Romans (Liv. ix. 36-38). 

Cures (Correse), a small village in the country of the Sabiries important 
only as the neighborhood in which Numa, one of the early kings 
of Rome, was born. Strabo says that in his time it was a small village 
although formerly it had been a famous city (Strab. v. 3, 1). Virgil 
refers to it thus; 

"Quisprocul ille autem ramis insignis olivae 
sacra ferens?, nosco crinis incanaque menta 
regis 'Romani, primam qui legibus urbem 
fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra 
missus in imperium magnum." • 

Aen. vi. 808-812. . 

Etruria, a region north of Rome inhabited in early days by the Etrus-- 
cans, an ancient and powerful race which largely influenced Roman 
civilization.' For Strabo's account of the country, see v. 2, 2,-8^9. - 

Euganei-Colles (Euganer Monti), a "district between Pataviutn and 
Verona, widely famed fqr its wool. 

Faesulae. (Fiesole), interesting t6 classical students as the military- 
center for Catiline's cohSpiraty. • ■ ^ . 

Falerii (Civita Castellana), a large city in sbuthern EtrufiEt which in 
the early centurieS joined withVdi in withstanding Roman supreni' 
acy, and in other ways proved asource of ahil6yance to Some. It waS 
besieged by Camillus in the early part of- thie fourth century B. C. 
and in 240 it was finally destroyed by- the; Romans who started a new 
settlement known as-Nb-vi: Falerii- d few iniles frDm.jthe site of the 
former city. Plutarch -(Caniillf'9i^ll)'^:eHs ait -iiiteffeting story 6f a 

of Places in Italy 515 

schoolmaster who attempted to betray the city through the agency 
of his pupils when Camillus was besieging it. 
Falernus Acer, a district in Campania widely celebrated for its wine. 
The following quotation from Horace is characteristic of many; 
"Seu maestus omni tempore vixeris, 
seu te in remoto gramine per dies 
f estos reclinatum bearis 
interiore nota Falemi." 
C:.ii; 3, 5-8. 
"Whether thou live always sad,- or redining in 
grassy nook take delight on holidays in some 
choice vintage of Falernian wine." 

C. E. Bennett 
For other Horatian references, see S. i. 10, 24; ii. 2, IS; ii. 3, 115; 
ii. 4, 24; ii. 8, 16; ii. 4, 19; C. i. 20; 10; i. 27, 10; iii; 1, 43; Ep. 
i. 14, 34; i. 18, 91. 
Faventia (Faenza), the scene of a -crushing defeat inflicted upon the 
Marian forces (App. B. C. i. 91). Poets mention its vines with praise. 
Silius Italicus (viii. 595-<596) also speaks of its pines as a feature of the 

"Undique sellers 
■ i arva coronantem nutrire Faventia pinum." 
Floeentia (;Firenze), a city whose chief fame belongs to a peiriod later 
. than the classical, in which it is rarely mentioned. Such importance 
as it had,! dated from the estabUshment of a colony there by the 
triumvirs. But Floras mentions it among the ''municipia splendidis- 
sima" (Ep. ii. 9, 28). 
Forum Cornelh (Imola), a city used by Octavius as headquarters for 
some time during his war with Antony. Martial lived there while 
writing some of his Epigrams (iii. 4). 
Garganus Mons (M. Gargano), a mountain on the eastern coast of Italy 
to which Horace thus alludes (C. ii. 9, 6-7) : 

"Aut Aquilonibus 
querqueta Gargani laboranf ." 
Genua (Genova), a city which was probably a trade center at one 
time for this stretch of coast, although Roman writers never allude 
to it as a place of any considerable importance. 
Gnatia (Torre d' Agnazzo), interesting to the classical a place 
where Horace stopped on his journey to Brundisium: 
"Dein Gnatia Isrmphis 
iratis exstracta dedit risusque iocosque, 
dum flamma sine tura liquescere limine sacro 
persuadere.cupit." . 

Hor. S. i. 5, 97-100. 
Hadriaticum Mare (Adria or Adriatico Mare), a sea to which poets 
thus refer: 

"Fretis acrior Hadriae 
. , curvands Calabros .sinus." 

Hor. C. i. ii, 15-16. 

516 Classical Associations 

dux inquieti turbidus Hadriae." 
Hor; C. iii. 3, 4-S. 
"Minacis Hadriatici." 
Cat. iv. 6 
Heraclea (Policoro), a city of considerable importance mentioned 
often in Cicero's oration for Archias. ■ Pyrrhus inflicted a crushing 
defeat upon the Romans in this cegion inr280 B. C. 
Herculaneum (Resina), a rather small town, Greek in origin, which 
was situated not far from the base of Mt. Vesuvius. Its fame today 
is due only to the fact that by the eruption-,of thjsyolcano in 79 A. D. 
a considerable part of the city and itsxontents have been preserved 
from Roman times. The remains show that its inhabitants possessed 
many works of art. 
Lacinium Prom. (Capo delle Colonne), a spot well known in ancient 
times because of the wealthy temple of Juno on its height (see the 
topic Croton). As the Trojans approach the shores of Italy, they 
see this rising up in the distance (Vir. Aen. iii. 552). 
Lanxjvium (Lanuvio), widely known for its grove and temple of Juno 
Sospita to which Romans resorted annually for making sacrifices in 
the name of the state. 
Latium, a region of Italy which is famous for the fact that it was the 
birth-place of Rome and the scene of many exploits by which the 
Roman race rose to greatness. Strabo describes it at length .in v. 3. 
One of the best known references to it in classical literature follows: 
"Anna virumque cano Troiae qui primus ab oris 
Italiam fato profugus Laviniaque venit 
htora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto 
vi superum saevae memorem lunonis ob iram, '•— 
multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem 
. inf erretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum 
Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae." , 

Vir. Aen. i. 1-7. 
Lavinium (Pratica), celebrated in legend as the town which the Trojans 
founded upon their arrival in Italy and from which Rome ultimately 
descended. For a detailed history of the place, see Dionysius, i. 35 
et al. 
LiRis Flumen (Liri or Garie;liano), a river in southern Latium often 
mentioned by poets: i 

"Non rura, quae Liris quieto 
mordet aqua taciturnus amnis." 

Hor. C. i.31,7-8, .; . 
"Et Liris nutritus aquis, qui fonte quieto 
dissimulat cursum ac, nullo mutabilis imbri, 
perstringit tadtas geminanti gurgite ripas-" 

Sil. ItaL iv. 348-350. :. - 

LucA (Lucca) , a city of Etruria used by Caesar as a frontier town during 
the Gallic war and as a place of conference with prominent politicians 
of Rome. . ' 

LucANiA, a region of Italy almost entirely filled with the rugged ranges 
of the Apennines. Among them were many mountain pastures to 
which flocks were driven to escape the heat of summer (Hor. Epod. i. 
27). For Strabo's account, see vi. 1, 1-3. 

of Places in Italy 517 

LucERiA, (Lucera), famous for its wool (Hor. C. iii. IS, 13-14). 

Massicus Mons (M. Massico), a district in Campania which produced 
excellent wine as the following references indicate: 

"Oblivioso .... Massico" (Hor. C. ii. 7. 21). 
See, also, Hor. S. ii. 4, 51; Plin. N. H.xiv. 64; Stat. Silv. iv.3, 64; Sil. 
Ital.iv. 347. 

Historically the mountain is famous as the spot whence Fabius, 
while leading the Roman army, saw Hannibal burning and pillaging 
the villages below; and was forced to hear the bitter reproaches of 
Minucius for his policy of watchful waiting, "those slow plans which 
the timid call cautious" (Liv. xxii. 14). 

Metaurtjs Flumen (Metauro), known in history as the scene of the 
defeat of Hasdrubal, the brother of Hannibal, in 207 B. C. by the 
Romans — one of the most critical battles of the Punic Wars. Horace 
thus celebrates the able leadership of the consul Nero: 
"Quid debeas, O Romi, Neroilibus, 
testis Metaurum flumen et Hasdrubal 

C. iv. 4, 37-39. 
For Livy's account of the battle see xxvii. 47 f . 

MiNTURNAE (Traetto), a town in whose neighborhood were extensive 
marshes to which poets often refer. Ovid (xv. 716) speaks of "Min- 
turnae graves." These swamps were the scene of the famoUs attack 
upon the life of Marius who in 88 B. C. had sought a hiding-place 
here when pursued by his enemies. The story says that at the bold 
challenge, "Slave, dost thou dare to kill Marius?" the would-be 
murderer fled in terror. (See Lucan ii. 67 ff.) 

Nar Flumen (Nera), a river thus described by Virgil (Aen. vii. 517): 
"Sulpurea Nar albus aqua." 

Narnia (Narni), a city whose site is mentioned by Martial (vii. 93, 1-2) : 
"Narnia, sulpureo quam gurgite candidus amnis 
circuit, ancipiti vix adeunda iugo." 

NoRBA (near Norma), a city which was probably well known in the 
fourth century B.C. It is remembered especially by classical students 
for the vivid account of an incident in the Civil Wars given in Appian's 
Roman History (B. C. i. 94-95). When this town was finally captured 
by one of Sulli's generals (although by a trick) the inhabitants killed 
themselves. The account ends with these words, "In this way did 
these stout-hearted men perish." * 

NuMicros Flumen (Rio Torto), a small stream famous only because of 
the disappearance of Aeneas upon its banks (Liv. i. 2). 

His mother Venus comes to the stream to find her son's body, and 
the kindly river-god gives it to her, after first cleansing it of all mortal 
stain (Ov. Met. xiv. 596-609). 

Nursia (Norcia), "Frigida Nursia" (Vir. Aen. vii. 715). 

Parma (Parma), a town of some importance in classical times. It was 
taken by Antony and savagely plundered because of its stand against 
him in 43 B. C. Poets speak of its wool (Mart. iv. 37, 5). 

Petelia (Strongoli), a small city in Bruttii conspicuous only for its 
heroic resistance to Hannibal in the Second Punic War. See Athen. 
xii. 36 for a vivid account of its hardships. 

518 Classical Associations 

PisAURUM (Pesaro), an unheal thy'region, says Catullus (Ixxxi. 3): 
„Moribunda ab sede Pisauri." 

Placentia (Piacenza), a city which from early times was an important 
military center. ■ It was the headquarters for Scipio's army at the 
time of the battle on the Trebia river. Caesar's army was stationed 
liere on the occasion of the mutiny in his army so graphically described 
by Appian (B. C. ii. 47). Both Otho and Vitellins used it as a base. Its 
commercial prosperity greatly increased after the Aemilian Road 
was extended to this point. In 576 A. D. Totila took the place 
by shutting off its food supplies. 

PoLLENTiA (Polenzo), a city of which both Antony and Brutus made use 
in their Civil War in 43 B. C. Pliny mentions it as being among the 
"nobilia oppida" in the time of the Empire (N. H. iii. 7); but it is 
chiefly known as the scene of the famous battle between the Goths 
under Alaric, and Stilicho in 403 A. D. Mr. T. R. Glover thus trans- 
lates Claudian's lines (Bell. Get. 645-647) : 

"Here laid in ItaUan soil are the Cimbri and the valiant Goths slain 
by the great captains, Stilicho and Marius. Learn, foolish peoples, 
not to despise Rome." 

Reate (Rieti), celebrated as the birth-place of Varro and of the emperor 
Vespasian — a spot which the latter often visited as did his son Titus 
(Suet. Vesp. 24). Cicero was a patron of Reate and it was from this 
place that in 63 B. C. he gathered certain young men to assist in the 
arrest of the Gauls at the Mulvian bridge and the seizure of the proof 
necessary to convict the leaders in Catiline's conspiracy. In its 
neighborhood was the Lacus Velinus, a series of pools whose waters 
now form the famous falls of Terni. 

Rhegidm (Reggio di Calabria), a Greek city in southern Italy prominent 
in the fifth century B. C. Augustus settled some of his veterans 
here and the place came to bear the surname Julium. Travelers 
commonly crossed the straits to Sicily from a point about nine miles 

RuBi (Ruvi), a small place, interesting largely because of Horace's allu- 
sion : 

"Inde Riibos fessi pervenimus, utpote longum 
carpentes iter et factum corruptius imbri." 
S. i. 5, 94-95. 

Rudiae (Rugge), renowned as the birth-place of Ennius, the first Roman 
poet (Ov. A. A. iii. 409). 

ScYLACitTM (SquiHace), a town which is associated with Cassiodorus — 
a native of the region. This eminent man, an official at the court of 
Theodoric in the sixth century, finally retired to this spot to spend his 
last years in a monastery over which he presided. Virgil speaks of 
"ship-wrecking Scylaceum" in allusion to the rocky coast in the 

Sentdjum (Sentino), a town in Umbria historically important as the 
scene of a decisive defeat inflicted upon the Samnites by the Romans 
in 295 B. C. This battle assured the victors of the leadership in Italy. 

Setia (Sezze), a place whose fame is due to the fact that its surrounding 
territory produced an excellent wine. Mr. G. G. Ramsay thus trans- 
lates a passage from Juvenal (v. 33-37) in which it is celebrated: 

of Places in Italy 519 

"Tomonow he will drink a vintage from the hills of Alba or Setia 
whose date and name have been effaced by the soot which time has 
gathered upon the aged jar — such wine asThrasea andHelvidius used 
to drink with chaplets on their heads upon the birthdays of Cassius 
and the Bruti." 

SiLARUS (Sele), a river in southern Italy forming the boundary between 
Campania and Lucania, into which the Tanager flowed. It is interest- 
ing to classical students because of Virgil's reference (Georg. iii. 146- 
151) which Mr. T. C. Williams has translated as follows: 
"But near the woods of Silarus, and where 
Albumus' ilex groves wear Kving green, 

A gad-fly swarms ... 

'Tis merciless, and with vociferous rage 
Whirs loud, till oft whole herds in panic wild 
Run scattering through the wood; the smitten sky 
And all the forests by the shallow stream, 
Tanagrus, echo far the bellowing sound." 

Spoletium (Spoleto), a city which played a prominent part in the 
Second Punic war, having repelled an attack of Hannibal m 217 B. C. 
(Liv. xxii. 9), and again deserving of praise in 209 wlien it once more 
rendered distinct service to Rome (Liv. xxvii. 10). It was rebuilt 
after Sulla's attack upon it and in the Empire contained many beauti- 
ful buildings. Vespasian's mother is said to have had a villa near the 

SuBLAQUElTM (Subiaco), Nero had an extensive villa here with three 
artificial lakes. While dining at this place on one occasion he narrowly 
escaped death by lightning which, according to Tacitus, struck the 
banquet table (Ann. xiv. 22). The place is famous as the spot to 
which St. Benedict retired in 530 A. D., living the life of a hermit in 
one of the grottoes (II Sagro Speco). The monasteries which are now 
widely known were dedicated in the tenth century to Santa Scholastica, 
the sister of St. Benedict. 

SuLMO (Sulmone), known to classical students as the birth-place of 
Ovid. The poet thus characterizes it, "gelidis uberrimus undis" 
(Trist. iv. 10, 3). See, too, Fast. iv. 81; Hor. C. iii. 19, 8; and Sil. Ital. 
viii. 510. 

Sdtrium (Sutri), an important Etruscan capital, "velut daustra Etru- 
riae." (Liv. ix. 32, 1.) The city was early allied with Rome . 

Tahquinii (Corneto), an ancient and powerful city which became one 
of the leaders in the spread of the Etruscan civilization. Tarquinius 
Priscus who, according to legend, moved to Rome and there became 
king, was a native of this place. It played an important part in the 
long series of wars with Rome, finally meeting a disastrous defeat in 
company with other Etruscan towns in 309 B. C. 

TiciNUS Flumen (Ticino), a large river which is memorable as the scene 
of the desperate battle in 218 B. C. between Scipio and Hannibal 
(Liv. xxi. 39-46). See, too, Sil. Ital. iv. 82-87. 

TiFERNUM (CittJl di Castello), a town near Pliny's villa (in the neighbor- 
hood of Arretium) of which he speaks with affection. 

Trebia Flumen (Trebbia), interesting as the spot where Hannibal 
inflicted a serious defeat upon the Romans in 218 B. C. (Liv. xxi. 

520 Classical Associations 

Ueubrae (near Cisferna), an insignificant town, of interest only because 
of Horace's allusion to it in. the following lines:. 

"Caelum, non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt. 
strenua nos exercet inertia: navibus atque 
quadrigis petimus bene vivere. quod petis, hie est, 
est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit aequus." 
Ep. i. 11, 27-30. 

Vadimonis Lacus (Lago di Bassano), a lake which is Important histori- 
cally because a decisive defeat of the Etruscans at the hands of the 
Romans in 309 B. C. took place' on its banks. Pliny describes the 
lake on the occasion of a visit which- he made to the neighborhood for 
the purpose of looking after a family estate (Ep_ viii. 20)^ 

Veha (Castellamare della Brusca), a town of Greek origin, the birth- 
place, according to one account, of the famous Eleatic philosophers, 
Parmenides and Zeno. Cicero often visited it and speaks of it with 
affection as the home of his friend Trebatius (ad Fam. vii. 20). It 
was in the harbor there that he saw one of the ships of Verres, loaded 
with plunder which this corrupt governor had stolen from the Sicilians. 
The climate was attractive and several well-known Romans were 
accustomed to frequent it for purposes of rest. Aemilius Paulus, for 
example, once retired to this spot while recovering from a long'and 
dangerous illness (Plut. Aemil. Paul, xxxix.). 

Velitrae (Velletri), the home of the distinguished Octavian family 
(Suet. Aug. 1; 6). 

Venafrum (Venafro), famous for its oil to which Horace thus alludes: 
"His mixtum ius est: oleo quod prima Venafri 
pressit cella." (Sat. ii. 8, 45-^6). 
See, too, "Viridi .... Venafro" (C. ii. 6, 15-16). 

VOLATERRAE (Volterra), an ancient and exceedingly powerful Etruscan 
city whose lofty situation made it an impregnable stronghold. Because 
of its remoteness from Rome, it is not often mentioned in early times 
even though it must have played a prominent part in Etruscan 
affairs. We hear of it in connection with the struggle between Marius 
and Sulla as an adherent of the former. Strabo says that it made so 
able a resistance to the forces of SuUa that a two-year siege was 
necessary in order to capture it. Rutilius describes the place (de Red. 
Suo i. 453 f.) and Strabo .writes as foUows concerning it: "The territory 
belonging to Volaterrae is washed by the sea. The town is situated 
in a deep valley. There is a very high hill, precipitous on all sides, 
with a lofty summit upon which the citadel is situated. The ascent, 
fifteen stadia, is steep and diflicult" (-v. 2, 6). 

of Places in Italy 521 


Appian — ^Died about 100 A. D. 

Athenaeus — Third century A. D. 

Augustine (Saint)— 354-430 A. D. 

AusoNius, Decimus Magnus — Born about 310 A. D. 

Caesar, Gaius Julius — 100-44 B. C. ;- . 

Capitolinus, Julius — ^TEird and fourth centuries A. D. 

Carus, T. Lucretius— 98-55 B. C. 

Cassiodorus, Magnus AuEELius-rFifth and sixth centuries A. D. 

Cassius, Dig CoccEiANUS^4iorn 155 A. D. 

Catullus, Gaius Valerius — 87-54? B. C. . 

Cicero, Marcus Tullius — 106-43 B. C. 

Claudianus, Claudius — Fourth and fifth CMituries A. D. 

Claudianus, Claudius — Fourth centuirjftA. D. i , 

Columella, L. Junius Moderatus— =-Flrst century A. D. (Time of 

Crispus, Gaius Sallustius — 86-34 B. C. 
DiONYSius OP Halicarnassus — Died 7 B. C. 
EusEBius, Pamphili — Died about 337 A. D. 
Felix, Minucius — Second or third centuries A. D. 
Festus, Sex. Pompeius — Second century A. D. 
Flaccus, Aulus Persius — 34-62 A. D. 
Flaccus, Q. Horatius — 65-8 B. C. 

Florus, Lucius or (Julius) Annaeus — First and second centuries A. D. 
Frontinus, Sextus Julius — 40 A. D. — end of century. 
Fronto, M. Cornelius — 90-168 A. D. 
Gellius, Aulus— 125P-175 A. D. 

Homer — Date uncertain; probably in the ninth or tenth century B. C, 
Horace — See Flaccus 
Italicus, Tib. Catius Silius — 25P-101 .\. D. 
JORDANES — Sixth century A. D. 

Juvenalis, D. Junius — Date uncertain; perhaps 46-130 A. D. 
Livius, Titus— 59? B. C— 17 A. D. 
LuCANUs, M. Annaeus — 39-65 A. D. 
LuciLius, Gaius— Second century B. C. 
Lucretius — See Carus 

Marcellinus, Ammianus — Born about 325 A. D. 
Maro, P. Virgilius— 70-19 B. C. 
Martialis, M. Valerius — 40-104 A. D. 
Maximus, Valerius — First century A. D. (Time of Tiberius.) 
Mela, Pomponius — First century A. D.(Time of Nero.) 
Namatianus, Rutilius — Fourth and fifth centuries A. D. 
Naso, P. Ovidius— 43 B. C— 17 A. D. 
Nepos, Cornelius— 99-24 B. C. 
Ovid — See Naso 

Paterculus, Velleius— 18 B. C.-31 A. D. 
Persius — See Flaccus 
Petronius — Died in 66 A. D. 
Plautus, T. Maccius— about 254-184 B. C. 
Pliny — See Secundus 

522 Classical Associations 

Plutarch— 46-120 A. D. 

PoLYBius— 204-122 B. C. 

Procopius — Sixth centunr A. D. 

Peopertius, Sex.— 48?-rS B. C. 

RuTiLius — See Namatianus 

Salltjst — See Crispus 

Secundus, Gaius Plinius (major) — '23-^79 A. D. 

Secundus, Gaius Plinius (n)in6r)-7-62-113 A. D. 

Seneca, L. ANNAEtJS-(fiiinor) — 4 B; C.^S'A. D. 

SiLius — See Italicus 

Spartianus, AELius-rrThird andiourth centuries A. D. 

Statius, p. PAPiNius-T-Last half of first century A. D. 

Steabo— 64? B. C.-19? A. D. 

Sue on. us — See Tranquillus 

Tacitus, Cornelius — S4rli8? A. D. 

Themistius — Fourth century A. D. 

TiBULLus, Albius — Died 19 B. C. 

Tranquillus, GaiusS uetonius — 75P-160 A. D. 

Valerius — See Maximus 

Vareo, M. TeRentius— 116-28 B: C. 

Victor, Aurelius — Fourth and fifth, centuries A. D. 

Virgil — See^ Maeo 


F. = fluiiaen (river); I.»insula (island);. L.=lacus (lake); M. = mons (mountain); 
Pr.=promunturium (promontory); R.=riv6r. 

Maps and Plans 

A = ltaly; B = Latium; C = Campania; D = Rome; E = Imperial Fora; F=Forum 
of the Empire. 


Abella, 512, C. 
Acerrae, 125, 135,261. 
Adige R., 4S7, A. 
Adriatic Sea, SiS, A. 
Adrialico Mare, 515, A. 
Aenarial., 121, 122,221, C. 
AlbiLonga, 12-19, 53, 181 

234, B. 
Albaiu), Lago, 12-19, B. 
Albano, see Alba Longa. 
Albanus L., 12-19; B. 
Albanus M., 12-19, 187, 363 

Alburno, Monte, 519, A, 
Alburnus M., 519, A. 
AlgidusM., 19-21, 17J,B. 
Allia F:, 20, 470, B. 
AlpesM., 21-29,A. 
Alps, the, 21-29; A: 
Alsium, 512, A. 
Altino, 2S-29,A. 
Altinum, 28-29, A. 
Amaseno R., 263, B. 
Amasenus F., 263, B. 
Amiternum, 512, A. 
Ampsanctus L., 512, A. 
Anagtti, 512, B. 
Anagnia, 512, 6. 
Anient R., see Anio. 
AnioF., 447, 451,453, B. 
Antemnae, 512, B. .■ 
AnUnne, 512, B. 
.\ntium, 30-35, 71, J71, A, B. 
Anxur, 36-39, 293, 173, 178, 

A, B. 
Anzto, see Antium. 
Apennitu'i, the,- see Appenni- 

nus. ... 
Appenninus M., 40--45^'65, 

67, A.., - 
Apulia, 512, 101, 117, 119, 

293, 437, A., . 
Aquilda, 44-49, 29, A. 
Aquino,^SOiA .- 
AquinUm, SO, A. 
Ardea, SO-53, A.^B. 
Aresao, se& ATTKunm. . . 
Ariccia, see Aricia. 
Aricia, 53-55, 229 B. . 
Ariminum, 56-57, 278, 414, 


ArnuS F., 255, A. 
Arpina, see Arpinum. 
Arpinum, 58-63, 73, 173, A. 
Arretium, fi4-69, 445, 510, A. 
Asisium, 513, A. 
Assist, 513, A. 
Astura, 68-72, lll.B. 
Athesis F., 487, A. 
Atina, 72-73, A. 
Aufidiis F., 74, A. 
Avetta, 512, C. 

Averno, Lago d\ see Avemus. 
Avemus I.., 75-81, 7, 81, 
83, 93, 197, 281, C. 

Baia, see Baiae. 

Baiae, 80-93, 29, 147, 163 

185, 197, 221, 223, 225 

235, 277, 281; 293, B. 
Bandusiae Fons, 507, B. 
Barium, 51.^, A. 
Bassana, Lago di,S20, A. 
Benaciis L., 92-93, 7, 489, A 
BeneoetUo, see- Beneventum 
Beneventum, 94-95, 117, A 

Bologna, 513, A . 
Balsena, 510, A. 
Bononia, 513, A. 
Boyillae, 513, B. 
Brescia, 513, :A: 
Brindisi, see Brundisium. 
Brixia, 513, A. ^ . 
Brundisium, 96-103, 117,381 

431,483, A. 
Bruttii, 513, A. 

CaecubusJVger, 513,,U&j B. 
Caere^ 103-107^ A» .- . 
Caieta; 107-113, 471;A. . . 
Calabna, 514", 437, SOS, A. 
Cales,:514, C. 
Calni514.C. . I 
CampinU, 122^133,. -0,- 163, 

258, 261, 281, .491, & ; 
CxtsaiA, 114-117, 131, 285, 

482, A. 

Canne, Mortie di, see Cannae. 
Canoiii, 117-119, A. 
Canusium, 117-119, 485, A. 
Capo delle ColOnne.Sld, A. 
Capo Miseno, see Misenum. 
Capo Palinuro, 246-249, A. 
Capreae I., 118-121, 221, 

493, A. 
Capri /., see. Capreae. 
Capua, 122-133, 194, 233, C. 
Casilinum, 133-137, 122, 266, 

Castel Giubileo, see Fidenae. 
CasteUamare delle Brusca, see 

Castrllammare, see .Stabiae. 
Castel Poniano, 187-194, B. 
Castello, Lago di; see Albanus 

Castiglione. 179-1)1, B. 
Caudinae Furculae, 138-143, 

C. . , - 

Caudine Pass, 138Tl43i B. . 
Cavo, Monte,-see Albanus M-, 
Centuin CelIae,.S14, A.. , 
Cervelri, see Caere., .-.r* 
Cliiusij SS, A . 
Ciminius Saltus,-514^ A.. 
Cimino, Monte, 514,A.' 
Circeii, 143-147, 71,111,171, 

263, A-, B._ , .. 

Circev', Monte, see Circeii,; . ., 
CisterAa, 520, B. 
CiliiMCasteOo, 5 19; A. 
Civila Ld5ieUana,.S14^ A. 
Civita Vecchia, 514, A. 
aitumnus F., 147r-JSlr7, A. 
Clititnio R., see Cliturtous... 
Clusiuin, 85, A- ;■ 
Como,'see Comuni:.;- .^.t 
Como,'Lago di,.see%Mius lo. 
Coiiiaoi, 181-187. A.; 
. Cora, 181, B.-. . 
Cori, tSl, B. 
Corrtsi, 514, A.. 
Cortoiia, 4^ AZ 
Cotroni, see-CcatDJU ^ .:. 
Ciathis F., 429, A. 
Crali.R., 429, A. 
CremeraiF.,.47S, B.. 
Cremona, ISl^lSS, A. 




Croton, 154-157, 127, 427, 

429, A. 
Cwna, see Cumae. 
Cumae, 158-165, 50, 85, 

219, 221, 223, 275, 277, Aj 

Cures, 514, A. 

Digentia F., 503, B. 

Eridanus F., see Padus. 
Etrnria,: Sl4„A.i 
Euganei Colles, 514, 29,- A. 
Eueanei, Monii, S14,Z9, A. 

Faenzat 515, A. 

F^esulae, 514, 65, A. 

Falerii, 514, A. 

Falernus Ager, 515, 19, 403, 

'433 C. 
Fallen, 514, A. 
Faventia, SIS, A. 
Fibreno R,, see Fibrenus. 
Fibrenus E., 58, 59, 6i, A. 
Fidenae, 166-169, 17, 237, 

363, 470, B. 
FiretKe, 515, A. 
Florence, see Firenze . . 
Florentia, SIS, A. 
Fondi, 17S-179, B. 
Formta, see Forraiae. 
Formiae, 169-173, 110, 178, A. 
Pora.Appia, 173-175, B: 
Forum Appi, 173-175, B. ' 
Forum .Gornelii,.515, A. 
Fossa della Bettina, see Allia 

Frascali, see.T\iS(Sul\mu. . - 
Fucino, Lago di, see Fiicinus 

Fucinus L., 176-179, A. 
Fundifl78, B. .. cl 

Gabii,-.l 79-181, 85, 167, 237, 

B. _•. 
Gaettl, 107-113, A. , 
Gain I., 424, C. '. . 
Garda, Lago di, 92-93, A . . 
Gargano, Mottle, 5 15, A. 
Gar|;anus-M., 515, A..'. 
Gangliano JR., il6,.A.,' 
Gennaro, Monte, i07, B^ 
Genoa, see GQn\i2.:<. ' 
Genova, see Geaua~< 
Genua, 515, A..-. .- . . 
Gnatia (Gnatbia^ 545^^. . 
Golfo della S fiesta, see Luna.^ 

. H - 

Hadriaticuih.Mare,' 5 15-, 99, 

A. ■ ' ■ • ■ '■ 
Heraclea, 516, A. 
Herculaneum, 516, 26, C. 
Histria, 281, A. 


Imola, 515, A. 
Ischia /., see Aenaria. 
Isola Farnese, see Veil. 
Italia, 6-11, A. 

Lacinium Pr., 516, 41, 157, 

430, A. 
Lanuvio, 516, 512, B. 
Lanuvium, 516, 512, B. 
Larius L., ISl-lsr.,7, A. 
Latium, 516, 127, 395, A, B. 
Laurentum, 187-195, 109, 

181, 195, 443, B. 
Lavinium, 516, 15, A, B. 
Licenza R., 503, B. 
Liri R., see Liris. 
Lirls F,, 516, 58, 63, 171, A. 
Liternum, 194-195, B. 
Luca, 516, A. , 
Lucania, 516, 437, A. 
Lucca, 516, A . 
LucerOf, see Luceria. 
Luceria, 517, 139, A. 
Lucretilis M., 507, B. 
Lucrine Lake, see Lucrinus L. 
Lucrino, La^o, see Lucrinus L. 
Lucrinus L., 196-199, 7, 87, 

93, 147, 171, 191,235, JJ. - 
Luna, 199-203, 371,- A. 
Luni, 5ec_Luna. 


Mandela, 503, B. 
Mantova, see Mantua- 
Mantua, 203-209, 151, 155, 

225-,A. . . , . 

Massieo, Monte, see MassicuS. 
MassicusM. S17i'7, C. 
Mediolanum, 208-211, 181, A. 
Montana, see Nomentum." 
Metauro R.,S17,A: 
MetaurusF., 517, A. 
Milan, see Mediolanum. 
Milanq, 5fe. Mediolanum* 
Mincio R , see Itlincius. 
Mincius F,, 93; 205> A. 
Mintumae, 517, A. 
Misenum Pr., 210-315, • 8? , 

221, 238, 491, 493, 495 

497, C. 
Modenoj see Mutina. ' 
Mola di Gaeta, -see 
Mondragone, 5ee'5rnuessa;^' 
Mutina, 216-220, A, 

Ftfrmiaiei Popul. 


Naples, see Neapolis. 
Napolif see Neapolis. '-'■ • 
Nami R., see Nar, • - .-.: ^ 
Narnia, 517,A. 
Neapolis, 219-227, 121, 231 

261, A, C. - •, 
Nemi, Lago di, 22S-229, B. 

Nemorensis L., 228-229, B 
Nemus Dianae, 228-229, 54 

Nera R., see Nar. 
Nocera; 261, C. 
Nola, 230^233, 135, 261, A. C. 
Nomehtuki, 234-237, 293, A. 
Norba, 517, B. 
Norcia, 517, A. 
Norma, 517, B. 
Nuceria, 261, C. 
Numicius F., 517, B. 
Nursia, 517, A. 

Ofanlo R:, 74,- A . 
Orvieto, 510, A. 
Ostia, 238-243, 33, 193, 273 
A, B. 

Padova, see Patavium.' 
Padua, see Patavium. 
Padus F., 242-245, A. 
Paestum, 244-245, A. ' 
PaleUrina, see Praeneste. 
Palinurum Pr., 246-249, A. 
Palo, 512, A. 
Paludi Pontine, see Fomptinae 

Pandataria K, 248, 251, A. 
Parma, 517, A. 
Patavium, 2S0'251, A. 
Pelorum Pr., 41, A. 
Perugia, see J?erusia. 
Perusia, 252-255, 510, A. 
Pesto, 244-245, A. ■ 
Petelia, 517, A. - 
Piacenz3, 518, A. 
Pisa, 255-257,--A. 
Pisaurum, 518, A. 
Pistoia, see Pisforia. 
Pistoria, 258-259,- A.- 
Placentia, SlSfA; 
Po River, see Padus. 
Ptilenio,51S,A. - ■ 

Policnro, 516, A. " " 

Pollentia, 518, A.- 
Pompeii, 258-261, 277, A. C. 
Pomplinae Paludes, 262-263, 

81, 293, 299, B. -V ■ 

Pomptine Marshes, see' Ppmp- 
'tinae Paludes. - "■ ' ' 
Ionia, 263r26S, A. • 
Porto, 23S,C. •- ■-■ 
Portus Traiani, 

2.38, C. , -'• . 
Poztuoli, see Futedli. '■- 
Praeneste, 266-273; 67;-171, 

365, A, B;;- 
Pratica, 516; A; B; 
Prima Porta; 4S0. 
Prochyta I., 295, C. 
Proiiaa I., 295, C. 
PuteoU, 273-279, 197, 219, 

223, A, C. 



Ravenna, 278-281, 55, 215, A 
Reate, 518,317, A. 
Reggio di Calabria, 5 IS, A. 
Regillus L., 465. 
Resina, 516, C. 
Rhepum, 518, A. 
Riett, see Reate. 
Rimini, 27S, 414, A. 
Rio Torto R., 517, C 
Roma, 284-41.^ A, B, D. 
General Comment, 284- 

Life in Rome, 288-309. 
Places, ,n0-314, D, E, F 
Aqueducts, 310-311. 
Basilicas,, 310-313. 
Batlis, 312-315, 327. 
Bridges, 314-321,363 
Circus, 320-325, 289 

Colosseum, 326-329. 

Of Augustus, 328-331 
Of Julius Caesar, 330- 

Roman, 334-351. 
Of Trajan, 352-353. 
Gates, see Roads. 

Aventine, 354-355, 

291, 295. 
Capitolinc, 354-359, 
319, 337, 341, 351, 
Esquiline, 360-363, 

369, 405. 
Janiculura, 362-365, 

Palatine, 364, 371, 319, 
337, 349, 351, 369, 
Houses, 370-373. 
Praetorian Camp, 372- 

Prison (Tullianum or 
Mamertine), 374-377, 

Appian, 376-383, 36, 


178, 277, 403, 418, 

483. , 

Flaminian, 382-387, 

56, 363. 
Latin, 387. 
Nomentan, 388-389 

391. ., 
Salarian, 390-395, 
Streets and Districts: 
Argiletum, 396-397. 
Campus Martius, 39fr- 

Prata Quinctia, 400- 

Sacra Via, 402-403, 

Subura, 404-405, 295. 
Tuscus Vicus, 406-407. 
Vclabrum, 407, 351, 
Temples of; 

Apollo, 329, 351, 367. 
Jupiter Capitolinus, 
39, 329, 343, 359, 
Concord, 350-351. 
Mars Ultor, 329, 331. 
Venus Genetrix, 399. 
Vesta, 351, 107,441. 
Theatre of Pompey (and 
Curia), 408-411, 39, 
Tomb of Augustus, 412- 
Rubi,518, A. 

Rubicon F., 414-415, 56, A 
Rudiae, 518, A. 
Rugge, 5 IS, A. 

Sacer, Mons, 389, B. 
Sabine Farm, 502-509, B. 
Salernum, 85, A. 
San Felice Circeo, see Circeii. 
Santa Maria di Capua Velere, 

see Capua. 
5. Viitorino Sabina, 512, A. 
Sarno R., 261, C. 
Sarnus F., 261, C. 
Satura F., 263, B. 
Saxa Rubra, 362, B. 
Scilla, 416-419, A. 
Scylacium (ScolaciumK 518, 

Scyllaeum Pr., 416-419, 41, A. 
Sele R., 519. A. 
Selva dell' Aglio, see Algidus. 
Senlino, 5 IS, A, 
Sentinum, 518, A. 
Setia, 518, 293, 365, B. 
Sezte, see Setia. 
Silarus F., 519, A. 
Sinuessa, 418-421, A, C. 
Sirenusae I., 424, C. 
Sirmio, 92-93, A. 
Sirmione, 92-93, A. 
Soracte M., 420-423, A. 
Soratte, Montr., 420-423, A. 
Spoletium, 519, A. 
Squillau,51S, A. 
Stabiae, 261, 499, C. 
Strongoli, 517, A. 
Subiaco, 519, B. 
Sublaqueum, 519, B. 
Sulmo, 519, A. 

Surreotum, 424-426, 1 19, 22 1 , 

261, A. C. 
Start, 519, A. 
Sutrium, 519, A. 
Sybaris, 427-429, 127, 157, 

244, A. 

Tanager F., 519, A. 
ToTiagro R.,519,A. 
Taranto, see Tarentum. 
Tarentum, 430-439, 99, 209, 

503, A. 
Tarquinii, 519, A. 
Tarrarina, see Anxur. 
Terracina, see Anxur. 
Tevere R., see Tiber F. 
Teverone R., see Anio, 
Tiber River, see Tiberis. 
Tiberis F., 440-447. 241, 307, 


399, 401. 
Tibur, 448-453, 67, 171, 365, 

A, B. 
Ticino R.,519,A. 
Ticinus F., 519, A. 
Titernum Tiberinum, 519, A. 
TimavusF., 29, 47, A. 
Tivoli, see Tibur. 
Torre d* Agnazzo, 515, A. 
Torre di Patria, see Liternum. 
Trasimeno, Lago di, see Tras- 

umenus L. 
Trebbia R., see Trebia F. 
Trebia F., 45, 151, 2iS, 519, 

Tres Tabernae, 175, B. 
Tusculum, 460-469, 67, 69, 


A, B. 


Ufens F., 263, B. 
Uffenle (Ufente) R., 263, B. 
Ulubrae, 520, B. 
Urgone-Fiumicino iRugone)R. , 
414-415, A. 

\"admionis L., 520, A. 
Voile Caudina, 138-143, B. 
Voile di Pampei, 258-261, C. 
Veii, 470-481, 51, 166, 181, 

514, B. 
Velia, 520, 85, A. 
Velitrae, 520, B. 
Velleiri, 520, B. 
Venafro, see Venafrum. 
Venafrum, 520, A. 
Venetia, 47-49, A. 
Venice,' 45, 49. 
Ventolene I., 248-251, A . 



Venusia, 482-485, 512, A. 
Verona, 486-489, A. 
VesuviOf Monle, see Vesuvius. 
Vesuvius M., 488-501, 121 

125, 233, C. 
Vico, Lago dif 514, A. 

VUIa Honti, 502-509, B. 
Villa Spada, see Fidenae. - 
Volaterrae, 520, A. 
Volsiniensis L., 510, A. 
Volsinii, 510, A. 
Volterra, 520, A. 

Voliumo R., see VoUurnus F. 
VoltUmus P., 511, 135, 137, 
A, C.