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Cornell University Library 
PE 2121.S7M98 

NOV 2 3 1950 

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jj^j ^j^M r -fl f&Mt? 




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the Cornell University Library. 

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Historical Introduction (for arrangement see commencement) 


Pronunciation — General charaeteristics ... 


' Visible Speech ' Alphabet 






Consonants ... ... 


"Unaccented Syllables and Terminations 


Scotch pronunciation of English 


Phonetic relation between Modern Scotch anc 
Anglo-Saxon ... 



,, and English 



Grammar — Nouns 










Prepositions . . . 


Conjunctions ... 


Interjections ... 


Appendix — Present limits of the Gaelic 


Dialects of Lowland Scotch 


. 237 



Index of Subjects and Words spe 

cially i 

eferred to 



The local dialects are passing away,: along with, them disappears 
the light which they are able to shed upon so many points in the 
history of the national tongue that supersedes them, and the con- 
tributions which they, more than artificially trimmed Literary 
idioms, are able to make to the Science of Language, whether in 
regard to the course of phonetic changes, or the -spontaneous 
growth of natural grammar. They are passing away : even 
where not utterly trampled under foot by the encroaching lan- 
guage of literature and "education, they are corrupted and arrested 
by its all-pervading influence, and in the same degree rendered 
valueless as witnesses of the usages of the past and the natural 
tendencies of the present. 

These pages attempt to photograph the leading features of one 
•of the least-altered of these dialects, that of the Southern Counties 
of Scotland, and, with this as a basis, to illustrate the character- 
istics of that group of dialects descended from the old 14th 
•century "Inglis of the Northin lede," which under the names 
>of Northern English and Lowland Scotch, still prevail in more 
or less of their original integrity from the Yorkshire dales, to the 
Pentland Firth. Farthest removed from Celtic contact, and from 
the influence -of the literary English, the Northern tongue has in 
4he south of .Scotland retained more of its old forms than else- 
where, and so far as concerns its vocabulary, and grammatical 
-structure, affords almost a living .specimen of the racy idiom in 
which Hampole and Barbour, at opposite extremes of the 
Northern-Speech-land, wrote five centuries ago. Its pronuncia- 
tion has of course changed since then, but with a consistent 
course and definite direction ; and its system of sounds is still of 
interest, showing in actual operation, the processes by which the 


old guttural -gh, -ch, has sunk into the -/ and -w of modern 
English, and that by which the long l and u in so many of the 
Teutonic tongues have from simple vowels, become the diph- 
thongs in English mine, house, German mein, haus, Dutch mijn, 

As the history of the Lowland Scotch division of the Northern 
tongue, and its relations to the adjacent dialects in England, have 
been the subject of much wild theory and but little research in 
the direction whence light was to be obtained, the Historical 
Introduction has been made especially full and complete. 

The spelling employed to represent Scottish sounds will pro- 
bably be objected to in many points by Scotchmen, who would 
prefer our shoon, to oor schuin. I have no quarrel with their 
taste ; when they give specimens of the speech heard around 
them, they may choose what symbols they please, provided they 
only explain what sounds their symbols mean. My own aim has 
been truth and distinctness. Spelling is only a means (a cumbrous 
one at best) to an end : the written forms so often misnamed 
words, are but conventional signs of the real words, the spolcen 
sounds for which they stand. To convey to the reader's ear and 
mouth, by the circuitous medium of the eye, a clear and correct 
idea of the real word, is the first use of spelling. At the same 
time, no student of a language can be insensible to the associations 
of the " historical spelling " which has grown up along with its 
spoken forms, nor will he willingly discard the drapery with 
which it was clothed in earlier times, and which in so many cases 
is our only guide to the living organism which once breathed 
within. Still in dealing with a living dialect of the 19th century, 
one cannot always do justice to its own form and spirit by con- 
fining it to the winding sheet which decently enough envelopes 
the dead language of the 16th. If the spelling used, with help 
of the key and account of the pronunciation, succeed in giving 
an idea of the living words to those who never heard them 
spoken, it will fulfil its purpose. Of course in quoting the 
ancient language, where the spelling is the only guide we have 
to the words, care has been taken faithfully to preserve their 
original written forms ; the quotations are, wherever possible, 


from the editions of the Early English Text or Philological 
Society, or of such conscientious editors as Dr. David Laing, and 
in most other cases from the original MSS. or editions. Only 'in 
cases of importance are references to the actual passages given ; 
where the point in question was the ordinary usage to be found 
on every page of a work, it seemed unnecessary to give reference 
to page and line. 

James A. H. Murray. 

Mill Sill, Middlesex, N. W., 
March, 1873. 


Page 2, Note 1, 1. 4, for some centuries read a century. 

10, „ 40, ,, a few „ few. 

39, „ 4, ,, allanely ,, allanerly. 

54, ,, 30, after left-handed, add partan, a crab. 

74, „ 1, „ oys „ oy r s. 

„ 37, dele tartan (this word 

being of French, origin and unknown to Celtic). 

99, In the " Glides " for i, 3. read i, J. 

113, ,, 4,forloelie „ Bocke. 

126, ,, 12, „ hua»z ,, hubjz. 

147, ,, 47, „ road „ rode. 

195, ,, 20, „ owms „ rowms. 

202, ,, 1, „ the past ai ,, the past ui. 

205, Note 1, 1. 2, „ gie „ gis. 



§1. Changes in the application of the words Scot and Scottish .... 1 

§ 2. In what sense the Lowland tongue is called Scottish 4 

§ 3. Its early history, not the history of Scotland, but of the Angles of 

Northumbria 5 

§ 4. The country south of the Forth from the'Angle settlement to its union 

with Scotland 6 

§5. The language south of the Firths originally Welsh 15 

§ 6. An Anglo-saxon dialect older in the south of Scotland than in most 

parts of England 16 

§ 7. It thence spread northward and westward over the original Scotland . 19 
§8. Early remains — the JRuthwell Cross — already exhibits northern 

characteristics - 20 

§9. Scanty materials from the Wth to the lZth century 22 

§ 10. The Scandinavian influence 24 

§ 11. Language of Scotland from the Hth century divisible into three periods 28 

§ 12. The Early Feriod — identical with old Northern English — Specimens . 29 

§ 13. Known only as English to those who used it 40 

§ 14. When dnd how it began to be called Scotch 43 

§ 15. The Middle Feriod — its characteristics — the Celtic influence — the 

French element — the Classical element — Specimens 49 

§ 16. The Reformation and English influence 65 

§ 17. Decay of Scotch as a literary language 71 

§ 18. The Modern Period— popular poetry — conventional spelling— fails to 

represent the living speech 74 

§ 19. The spoken language — exists in several dialects — their classification . 11 
\ 20. The dialect of the Southern counties — its area — its peculiarities and 

their origin 80 

§ 1. The words Soot and Scottish have passed through im- 
portant revolutions in signification since they first appeared in 
history. Originally applied to inhabitants of the country now- 
called Ireland, they included in the eighth century, and for some 
centuries previous, a portion of the inhabitants of North Britain, 
to whom all accounts concur in ascribing an Irish origin, and 
whose territory lay along the west coast of Alban, beyond the 
Firth of Clyde. At that period the terms Scot and Scottish 


found their usual correlatives in Pict and Pictish, names applied 
to the race and language which prevailed on the east side of the 
Island, as far south as the Firth of Forth —perhaps somewhat 
farther. The qucestio vexata of the ethnological relations between 
the Scots and Picts does not here concern us, and we have only to 
notice that, when, in the middle of the 9th century, the Scottish 
ruler succeeded also to the Pictish throne, he retained his original 
title of King of the Scots, the latter word gradually 1 acquiring a 
corresponding extension of meaning, so as to embrace the inha- 
bitants of the whole country north of the Forth, or Scottis-wath 
(Mare Scoticum), which, as the territory subject to the king of 
the Scots, came in the 10th century to be spoken of by the Angle 
writers as Scot-land. Scot and Scottish were now opposed to 
Angle and English, 2 terms embracing the Teutonic tribes who 
already occupied the greater part of the present England, as well 
as the southern part of what is now Scotland, as far as the Forth ; 
the terms Scottish and English having thus an ethnological or 
linguistic value. 

Even after the territory south of the Forth had, through the 
Northumbrian and Saxon alliances of the Scottish kings, become 
part of their dominions, it does not appear that it was included 
in Alban or Scotland. It was an outlying province of Saxonia 
or England (ethnologically, if not politically), over which the king 
of the Scots held dominion, much as, in later times, kings of Eng- 
land held sway over large parts of France. Thus, so late as 1091, 
we are told by the Saxon Chronicle, that when King Malcolm 
learned that William Eufus was advancing against him with an 
army, he proceeded with his army out of Scotland, into Lothian 
in England, and there awaited him (he for mid hys fyrde ut of 
Scot-lande into Loftene on Engla-lande and ]> ser abad). The sim- 
ple and natural meaning of these words, which partisan writers 
have displayed much ingenuity in explaining away, is confirmed 
by the oldest Scottish laws, which show that, even a century 
later, Lothian was still considered " out of Scotland." In those 
laws Stirling is spoken of as a town on the frontier of Scotland, 
and provision is made as to the mode to be adopted by an "in- 
habitant of Scotland," i. e. a dweller north of the Firths, when he 
had to make a seizure or distraint, "ultra aquani de Forth." 3 

1 Gradually ; for the name Pictavia or Angles, the Celts knew them as Sa- 
continued to be applied to the eastern smmaich or Saxons ; the Scots called 
part of the kingdom, and its inhabit- themselves^ZAamnaicA.theAnglesknew 
ants to be called Picts for some cen- them as Scottas or Scots. 

turies later. a And all bai bat wonnys beyhond 

2 These are, of course, the English Forth, as in Lothyane or in Galloway, 
names : the Scotish equivalents of Scot- or in ony obir place, sail ansuer be 
land, Scottas, Englaland, Engle, were challangeouris of Scotlande (calumpma- 
Alban, Albannaich, Sasimn, Sasmi- toribus de Scocia i.e. the accusers from 
naich, latinized Saxonia and Saxones. Scotland) at J;e end of vj wolkis daye, 
The Teutons called themselves Engle at ]>e brig of Striveling throu ye for- 


Moreover, Lothian arid Galloway, as well as the Bretts or Welsh 
of Strathclyde, long retained their special laws as distinct from 
the laws of Scotland, 1 and these the king of the Scots bound him- 
self to abide by and preserve. The charters of David I., Malcolm 
IV., and William the Lyon, were addressed to all their subjects, 
Normans, English, Scots, Galwegians, and Walenses, or Welsh of 
Clydesdale ; and the same ethnical elements are distinguished 
by contemporary chroniclers as composing the army of David at 
the battle of the Standard. 

Under the succeeding sovereigns of the line of Malcolm; down 
to Alexander III., the "English," that is to say, the Anglo- 
Saxon-speaking portion of their subjectsj became ever the more 
important and predominant, and that with which the reigning 
line became more and more closely identified, and, as a conse- 
quence, the country south of the Firths, if not strictly Scotland,* 
became, at least, the most important possession of the King of 
Scots. For exactly as the royal house adopted the language, and 
beoame identified with the sympathies and fortunes of its Anglo- 
Saxon territories, . it lost the sympathies of its own ancient kins- 
men, and the allegiance of its early cradle land ; so that of the 
descendants of the Scots, Picts, Welsh, Galwegians, English, 
Normans, Flemings, and Northmen, out of which arose the 
Scottish nationality, the only section over whom the king of 
Scots no longer ruled was the Scots themselves — those Celtic 
clans of the north and west who, from the days of Edgar to those 
of James III., ignored the authority, and defied the arms of the 

sayd assise. And all ]>ai jiat wonnys Galloway J>e quhilk hes speciall 

on ye north half Jie wattir of Forth, lawys. — -Ibid. xiv. 

in Scotlande, sail ansuer to Jjam on 2 But by the reign of Alexander II. 

south half Forth, at that ilke terme, the name of Scotland had been eur- 

and. Jjat ilke stedde. — Assise Regis Wil- rently extended so as to include Lothian 

lehni, in. and Galloway, for in 1 249 similar or- 

It is ordanit be ye kyng thru con- dinances to those quoted above were 
sail of his- gret men at Striveling Jat made, no longer between Scotland and 
na man of Scotland aw to tak pund Lothian, but between Scotland and 
bejond ye watter of Forth, but git' ]>at England. In that year it was ar- 
pund be first schawyn to ye schiref of ranged " gif ony misdoar duellis in 
Striveling. And quhen ony man takis Scotland Jat has mysdone by rubry 
a pund- he aw til hald Jat pund at wythin ye kinrik of Ingland," or the 
Hadintoun be ye space of iii dayis for converse, the east marches were to 
to se quha cumis to proffer a borgh for answer at Camysfurd, the middle 
Jiat pund. Item, yai Jat duellis be- marches at Reuedeneburne or Jedwart 
Jond Forth may, with ye leff of ye ouerburne, Coquetdale and Redesdale 
schireff tak a pund in Scotland, and at Kenmylispeth (Gammelspath) , and 
Jiat pund til hald iii dayis at Striveling. " J>e scheris of Carlile and Drumfres sail 
— Ibid, xxvii. (These and the following ansuere at Sulway efter ye lawis and 
extracts are taken from the 14th c. ver- custumys betuix he twa kinrikis vsit." 
nacular versions given along with the A commission had been issued by Alex- 
original Latin in the Acta Pari. Scot. ander II. and Henry III. to trace the 
Vol. I.) marches in 1222, when the Border line 

1 " It wes jugit of Gilespy be al ye practically coincided with that still in 

jugis als wele of Galowa as of Scotr existence. 
land." — Assisa Alex andri II . m. 


Sasunnach sovereign who ruled on the banks of the Forth. It 
was reserved for the great struggle for the independence of the 
Scottish crown and nation to give to the words Scottish and 
English the political and geographical import which they now 
bear, as distinct from the questions of language and race ; just as 
it was reserved for the wars between England and Prance to 
give a political and geographical definition to the terms French 
and English, which, for generations after the conquest, were used 
in England to distinguish the French-speaking descendants of 
the conquerors from the English-speaking descendants of the 
conquered ; although both alike born in England, and both, in the 
eyes of their French rivals, English. The War of Independence, 
although it created the Scottish nationality of after times, was in 
its essence the struggle of the last remaining bit of Anglo- 
Saxonism to preserve its freedom from the Norman yoke ; the 
Celtic population of Scotland, so far as they shared in it, ranked 
chiefly on the side of England. The Gaelic-speaking clansmen 
had never been reconciled to the Scoto-Saxon line of kings, 
founded by Duncan and Malcolm ; a sovereign on the Thames 
was likely to leave them more freedom than a king on the Forth ; 
and accordingly we find them, under the Macfadyans and Mac- 
dougalls, the Lords of the Isles, of Lorn, and Galloway, implacable 
foes to Wallace and Bruce, and formidable enemies to the Anglo- 
Saxon Lowlanders in their struggle for independence. Never- 
theless, it was under the Scottish name and against the English 
king that the combat was fought and won ; and its result was to 
extend, we might almost say to transfer, the name of Scot from 
the Gael of the north and west — who thenceforth ranked rather 
as Erschmen than Scotsmen — to the Angles of Lothian, of 
Tweedside, and Annandale, — men of the same blood and the 
same tongue as the Angles of Northumberland, Durham, and 
Yorkshire. 1 

§ 2. It is in this latter or geographical sense that the dialect 
which forms the subject of this paper is called Scottish. Ethno- 
logically speaking, the Lowland Scotch dialects are Scottish only 
in the sense in which the brogue spoken by the descendants of 
Strongbow's followers, or of the Cromwellian settlers, is Irish ; or 

1 But the old feeling of a distinction on ye north side of }>e Scottis see sett 

between Scotia proper and the country bare justice airis T; hald ]>aim twiss in 

south of the "Scottis So" did not at be !ere as aulde use & custum is. 
once die out. In a dim indefinite form ibid., 1449, it is ordained "at >e 

it lingered in the reign of James II., kingis liegis ^ all placis tbrou oute j, e 

nearly a century and a half after the rea i me ba f powe r to by and sell vitall 

War of Independence, when laws ap- at j, are likyne bat]l on j, e nortb half and 

plicable to the entire "kingryk" still 60utb balf of fortb .. wbicb probably 

Btated ezpresm verbis that they were fi na u y repealed the old statutes inter- 

vahd for both sides of Forth ferillg . witb a mm of Scotland having 

Acta Par ., James II., 1440. The dealings south of Forth, and vice 

samyn day it is ordanit at ye Justice on versd. 
be south side of be Scottis se % alsua 


in which the Yankee dialect of the descendants of the New Eng- 
land Puritans is American — in other words, they are not Scottish 
at all. They are forms of the Angle, or English, as spoken by 
those northern members of the Angle or English race who 
became subjects of the King of Scots, and who became the leading 
race, and their tongue the leading language of the country ; to 
which, however, another race, with whom the monarchy had 
originated, gave its name. More particularly they are forms 
of the Northumbrian or Northern English, — 

" The langage of the Northin lede," 

which, up to the War of Independence, was spoken as one lan- 
guage, from the Humber to the Forth, the Grampians, and the 
Moray Firth ; but which, since that war, or at least since the 
final renunciation of attempts upon the independence of the king- 
dom, has had a history and culture of its own, has been influ- 
enced by legal institutions, an ecclesiastical system, a foreign 
connection, and a national life, altogether distinct from those 
which have operated upon the same language on the southern 
side of the border. And yet, despite these diversifying influences, 
which have obtained more or less for five centuries, — despite the 
incessant warfare, the legacy of wrongs done and suffered, and 
" \mdying hate," which were entailed from father to son, on both 
sides, during the first half of that period, and the remembrance 
of which it has taken nearly the whole of the second half entirely 
to efface, — the spoken tongue from York to Aberdeen is still one 
language, presenting indeed several well-defined sub-dialects on 
both sides of the Tweed, but agreeing, even in its extreme forms, 
much more closely than the dialect of Yorkshire does with that of 
Dorset. It is the old phenomenon with which ethnology has continu- 
ally to deal, of a community of name concealing an actual difference, 
a diversity "of names disguising an identity of fact. The living 
tongue of Teviotdale, and the living tongue of Northumberland, 
would, in accordance with present political geography, be classed, 
the one as a Scottish, the other as an English dialect : in actual 
fact, they are the same dialect, spoken, the one on Scottish the 
other on English territory, but which, before Scottish and Eng- 
lish had their political application, was all alike the Anglian 
territory of Northan-hymbra-land. The living tongues of the 
Carse of Gowrie, at the mouth of the Tay, and of Eannoch, at its 
sources, would both be viewed as dialects of one Scottish county, 
and their speakers classed under the common appellation of 
Scotchmen, while in fact they are representatives of two distinct 
linguistic families, more remote from each other than English and 
Eussian, or English and Sanscrit. 

§ 3. The early history of the Lowland Scottish, therefore, 
especially in the southern counties, is not the early history of 
Scotland, with which it came into contact only at a later period ; 
but of the Angle settlement, state, or kingdom, of Northan-hym- 


bra-land. In its original extent the Northan-hynibra-land — 
Latinized Northumbria — included the whole country occupied by 
the Angles north of the Humber, that is, the territory from the 
Humber to the Forth. The oldest division of this territory was 
at the river Tees, by which it was parted into the two provinces 
of Bernicia and Deira — the Bryneich and Deifr of the anoient 
British bards — which were now under the rule of a single mo- 
narch, now independent of each other ; the seat of the Bernician 
ruler being at Bamborough, that of the sovereign of Deira at 
York. After the final separation of the two provinces, the name 
of Northumbria was retained by the northern .province between 
the Tees and the Forth, until the cession of the district north of 
the Tweed to the King of the Scots, and the placing of the dis- 
trict between the Tees and Tyne under the jurisdiction of Durham, 
left the territory between the Tyne and Tweed, or the present 
shire of Northumberland, as the mutilated representative of the 
ancient Northan-hymbra-land. Cymraland, Cumbra-land, or Cum- 
bria, the territory of the northern Cymry, the Gwynedd-a-G-ogledd, 
or " Wales of the North " of Aneurin, stretched from the Firth 
of Clyde to Morecambe Bay ; but after Strathclyde and the 
territories adjacent had been annexed to Scotland, the name of 
Cumberland became restricted to the fragment south of the 
Solway. It is necessary to distinguish carefully these varying 
applications of the names of Northumberland and Cumberland ; 
and especially not to confound the ancient territories with the 
modern English counties, which are the mere stumps of the 
original provinces, after the kings of England and Scotland had 
successively cut off and appropriated their northern and southern 
extremities, and England, as the stronger power, finally absorbed 
the remainder. 

§ 4. The date at which the Teutonic invaders first appeared 
in the north has not been accurately determined. There seems 
good reason for believing that, before the abandonment of the 
country by the Romans, they aided the Picts and Scots beyond 
the Northern Wall in their attacks upon the Eomanized pro- 
vinces, and shortly after that event they appear as permanent 
settlers. According to Nennius, shortly after the landing of the 
Saxons in Kent, Octa and Ebissa, the son and nephew of Hengist, 
crossed the North Sea with forty ciules, and having devastated 
the Orkneys, and sailed round the land of the Picts, they came 
and seized several districts below the Forth (Mare Fresicum, 
which he describes as forming — in his day — the boundary between 
the Saxons and Scots) as far as the confines of the Picts. Accord- 
ing to the tradition preserved by Fordun, they came at the invi- 
tation of Drust or Drostan, the Pictish king, a statement whioh 
tallies with Bede's account of a league between the Saxons and 
Picts. William of Malmesbury, who wrote at a much later 
period, in the midst of the feudal notions of his age, states, that 


having in several conflicts overcome the natives who withstood 
them, they admitted the rest to terms of peace, but that they 
continued 100 years, all but one, in dependence on the kings of 
Kent, at the end of which their dependent state (Ducatus) was 
changed into a kingdom, Ida being advanced to the royal dignity. 
From all of which we may at least infer a Teutonic settlement, or 
series of settlements, slowly establishing themselves in defiance 
of native opposition, and, during a century of struggle and con- 
flict, shaping themselves into something of a coherent state. The 
natives whom the invaders found in possession of the soil were 
not Picts or Scots, but Britons, of the same race as the inhabit- 
ants of the more southern parts of the island, who were known 
to the Angles as Welsh, and are shown by the contemporary poems 
of the bards, Taliesin, Aneurin, and Lliwarch Hen, to have ac- 
quired from the Eomans no small degree of refinement and civili- 
zation. But centuries of peace, and dependence upon the pro- 
tection of the Eoman legions, had rendered them, like the inhabit- 
ants of all parts of the empire, ill-fitted to defend themselves 
against the ferocious assaults of their untamed enemies ; and al- 
though under the leadership of Arthur, Urien, Owain, and other 
valiant princes, whose very personality seems afterwards to melt 
away in a cloud of poetry and romance, they maintained a gallant 
struggle against the "heathen barbarians," — it was a losing 
struggle with a hapless issue. It was evidently during the 
early part of this hundred years' contest for the establishment of 
the North Angle State, that the twelve great battles recorded by 
Nennius were fought between the Saxons and the Britons under 
Arthur, the first of which was on the Eiver Glen, and several 
at Dubglass, identified with " the strong frontier afforded by the 
waters of the Dunglass and Peass Burn," at the east end of the Lam- 
mermoors. 1 Had any genuine works of Merddyn or Merlin Cale- 
donius come down to us, we might have possessed contemporary 
glimpses of this period, like those of the heroes, battles, and 

1 The above was written before the had first landed, upon which Arthur 
appearance of Mr. J. S. Glennie's fought against the enemy along with 
■valuable paper upon Arthurian locali- the British chiefs, he being himself 
ties, prefixed to the third part of the commander-in-chief, and ending with 
Early English Text Society's Merlin, the statement that while the Saxons 
1869. 'While considering that there is were repeatedly defeated they con- 
room for wide difference of opinion as tinually sought fresh aid from Germany, 
to the identification of special localities, whence also they received the hinge 
as will be seen, I agree with him in who led them, until Ida, the son of 
thinking that all early authority points Eobba, reigned as first king of Bernicia 
to the country south of the Forth as — so manifestly refers to the struggle 
the historical scene of the Arthur Con- in the north, that it is difficult to see 
flicts. Indeed, the whole passage in how any other meaning could suggest 
Nennius, relating to Arthur and the itself, except to those who came to the 
twelve battles — beginning with the subject prepossessed with the legendary 
departure of Ochtha to Kent, from the Arthur history of the Middle Ages. 
region near the northern wall where he 


sieges of the generation that followed in the poems of the other 
three northern bards. 

The Arthur period was over when Ida, the son of Eoppa, 
whom all accounts agree in denominating the first local ruler of 
the Northan-hymbrian Angles came to the throne in 547, a 
century after the arrival of the Saxons in Kent, and half a cen- 
tury after the "two ealdormen," Cerdic and Cymric, landed at 
Cerdices - ore, to found the West-Saxon kingdom. According 
to Welsh accounts, Ida, named by the Britons, Flamddwyn, the 
Flame-bearer, formed an alliance with one of the British chiefs, 
Culvynawyd Prydain, the son of Gorion, marrying his daughter, 
Bun or Bebban, distinguished in the Triads as one of the three 
shameless wives of Britain, and execrated by Aneurin in the 
Gododin as Bun Bradwenn, Bun the fair traitress. In honour of 
his wife, Ida conferred upon the place where he fixed his re- 
sidence the name of Bibban-burh, the modern Bamborough, and 
long the most important fortress of Northumbria. He fought 
with the Britons in many battles, until his career was cut short 
and himself slain in 560 by Owain, son of Urien, prince of 
Eeged, as sung by Taliesin in the Maronad Owen Mab Urien. It 
was apparently during the reign of his successors that the famous 
battle of Cattraeth or Caltraeth was fought, commemorated by 
Aneurin in the poem of the Gododin. On that occasion the entire 
British forces of the old province of Valentia were drawn up to 
defend a pass or position, apparently at one end of the northern 
wall, against the united attack of the Angles of Deifr and Bry- 
neich, and the Picts. After seven days fighting, the Britons, who 
spent the intervals in mead-drinking and revelry, were, on account 
of their inebriation, defeated with terrific slaughter, so that out 
of 363 chiefs who wore the golden torque and led their men to 
battle, only three survived the fatal day, one of them being 
Aneurin himself, son of the prince of Cwm Cawlwyd, in Strath- 
clyde. This great victory confirmed the power of the Angles in 
the east, as far north as the Forth, the Britons either becom- 
ing slaves, escaping to join the larger body of their countrymen in 
Wales, or retreating to the west, where British power made a 
stand for a while, and formed itself into a doubtfully indepen- 
dent kingdom, known as Cumbria, or Strath clyde and Eeged, the 
capital of which was the fortress of Alclwyd, or Petra Cloithe, 
the Eock of Clyde, known also to the Scoto-Irish as Bun-breton, 
the fort of the Britons, now modernized into Dumbarton. The 
battle of Caltraeth is placed by Villemarque about 578, by Mr. 
Skene in 596. It is somewhat curious that no direct record of an 
event which figures so prominently in early Cymric literature, 
should be found in the Anglo-saxon writers ; however, the date 
596 falls under the reign of the Northumbrian iEthelfrid, who, ac- 
cording to Beda, " ravaged the Britons more than all the princes 
of the Angles. For he conquered more territories from them, 


either making them tributary, exterminating or expelling the in- 
habitants, and planting Angles in their room, than any other king 
or tribune." The Cymry in their straits called in the aid of 
Aedan, king of the Scots of Dalriada, who, passing south of the 
Firths with an immense army, joined in the struggle against the 
Angles. The war ended in 603 with the decisive battle of Dseg- 
sastan (understood to be Dalston, near Carlisle, if not Dawstone 
Eigg, in Liddesdale), in which the Britons and Scots sustained 
such a crushing defeat that the latter never again ventured south 
of the Forth, till after their union with the Picts in the 9th 

For some years after the battle of Dsegsastan, the attention 
of the Northumbrian rulers was directed more towards the south 
than the north; but when Eadwin ascended the throne in 617, 
he seemed destined to reduce beneath his sway the whole island. 
According to the Chronicle, " he became supreme over all 
Britain, the Kent-ware alone excepted," and in the north he 
firmly established the Angle dominion as far as the Forth, where 
he is said to have erected his strong fortress of Badwines-burh, 
which was at a later date to become the far-famed metropolis of 
Scotland. 1 The reign of Eadwin is memorable for the adoption 
of Christianity by the Angles of the north, he and his people, 
being baptized by Paulinus in 627. The Scots, Picts, and Strath- 
clyde Britons had been Christians long before. Eadwin was 
succeeded by Oswald and Oswiu, during whose reign the Angle 
power was still further extended in what is now the south of 
Scotland, their supremacy being apparently recognized by the 
Cumbrian Britons. Witnesses to this extension of the Northum- 
brian area, at or shortly after this period, exist in the Cross at 
Bewcastle, in Cumberland, with a Eunic inscription commemorat- 
ing Alchfrid, son of Oswiu, who was associated with his father 
in the government about 660, and the Eunic Cross at Euthwell 
in Dumfriesshire, of the same high antiquity. 

The reign of Ecgfrid was marked by still more ambitious designs, 
being occupied by incessant wars with the Picts, and efforts to 
extend the Northumbrian dominion beyond the Forth. In these 
he was at first successful, and gained such an extension of terri- 
tory in the north, that it was deemed proper to form a new 
bishopric, the seat of which was fixed at Abercorn, on the upper 
estuary of the Forth, and, according to the Chronicle, a.d. 681, 
" Trumbriht was consecrated bishop of Hexham, and Trumwine 
of the Picts ; for at that time they were subject to this country." 
In 685 " Ecgfrid made war upon the Pictish king Bredei, and 

' It is not probable that Eadwin the Pictish chronicler, which would be 

originated the name of Edinburgh. The Anglicized Eden-burh (compare Kome- 

fortress doubless existed before, under burh, Cantwara-burh), and probably 

some such name as Eiddin, Caer-eidin, confounded with Eadwines-bnrh, in 

Dun-eiden, the " oppidum Eden" of memory of Edwin's conquests. 


resolved, in opposition to the advice of his nobles and the fore- 
bodings of his bishops, among whom was the famous Cuthbert, 
to invade the Pictish territory. He is supposed to have passed 
the Forth below Abercorn (at the modern Queensferry), and 
destroying everything before him, plunged into the forests of 
Caledonia. After laying waste the Scottish and Pictish capitals 
of Dunadd and Dundurn, he crossed the Tay into Angus. 
Bredei, the Pictish king, feigning flight, retired before the in- 
vaders till he had drawn them into the recesses of the country, 
where he attacked them in a narrow pass in the Sidlaw Hills, 
at Nechtans-mere, near Dunnechtan (now Dunnichen in Forfar- 
shire), on the 20th May, 685. The Angle army was defeated 
with great slaughter, and the king was himself slain by the 
hand of Bredei. Ecgfrid's body was carried to Iona, and there 
buried ; and few of his followers returned to Northumbria to tell 
of his defeat." As a result of their victory, according to Bede, 
who wrote 46 years after the event, " not only did the Picts 
recover possession of their land which the Angles had seized, 
but the Scots and even a considerable part of the Britons re- 
gained their freedom, which they continued to hold at the date 
of his writing ; while a great number of the Angle race perished 
by the sword, were reduced to slavery, or driven to a hasty flight 
from the land of the Picts ; amongst others, the venerable man of 
God, Trumwine, who had received the bishopric among them, with- 
drew with his companions from the monastery of iEbbercurnig, 
situated indeed in the Angle territory, but in the immediate 
vicinity of the Firth which divides the land of the Angles from 
the land of the Picts — and took his abode at Strea-nses-healh " 
(Whitby), where he remained till his death. This expulsion of 
Angle settlers from the land of the Picts, with Bede's careful 
distinction between what was Pict-land and what Engla-land, 
and his care to explain that Abercorn was not in Pict-land, 
though dangerously near to it, imply that, during the victorious 
period of Eadwin, Oswald, Oswiu, and Ecgfrid, numerous 
Angles had crossed the Forth and settled in the Pictish terri- 
tory beyond. An attempt of the Angles in 699 to avenge their 
defeat was again repulsed, but in 710, Berhfred, the general 
of King Osred, defeated and overcame the Picts, slaying their 
king Bredei. 

From this date, for more than a century, we hear of a few or 
no hostilities between the Angles and Picts or Britons, and the 
former held undisputed possession of what is now the south-east 
of Scotland, the elevated range distinguished as the Peht-land or 
Pentland Hills, indicating probably the north-western frontier. 
Along the Sol way their dominions evidently extended farther west, 
since from the contemporary words of Beda, in closing his history, 
we learn that " in the province of the Northumbrians, of which 
Ceolwulf is king, there are now (a.d. 731) four Bishops, to wit, — 


Wilfrid in the church of York, iEthelwald in that of Lindisfarne, 
Acca in that of Hexham, and Pectelm or Peht-helm in that which 
is called Candida Casa (Whitherne)." On Pecthelm's death, in 
735, he was succeeded by Frithewald, and at his decease, in 763, 
Pechtwin held the see till 776. Four bishops — JSthelberht, 
Baldwulf, Heathored, and Ecgred succeeded in due course. Not 
only do the names of these bishops indicate their nationality, but 
their existence proves that this part of the country was under 
the rule of the Northumbrian kings, for the rivalry between the 
Scoto-Irish and Latin-English branches of the church was so 
strong, that the expulsion of the ecclesiastics of either party fol- 
lowed as a matter of course when a territory changed hands. 

But with the eighth century the tide of Northumbrian pros- 
perity decisively turned. During the greater part of that cen- 
tury the North Anglian kingdom was torn and distracted by in- 
ternal feuds and disputes for the crown, while its closing years 
brought the first instalments of those heathen hordes, whose 
devastations were continued with unabated fury for more than a 
century. The Danes were closely related kinsmen of the original 
Angle settlers, but being still heathens, their ravages were as 
terrible to the Christians of Northumbria, as those of Ida and his 
followers had been to the British. The final result of their in- 
vasion was to people the southern part of the Northan-hymbra- 
land (Deira) with a considerable Danish and half-Danish popu- 
lation, forming an important element in the ethnology, and what 
was of more immediate consequence, constituting a barrier which 
long retarded the incorporation of Northumbria, and permanently 
prevented that of the country between the Tweed and the Forth, 
with the rest of England. During this period the Northumbrian 
kingdom relapsed into utter anarchy and dismemberment, and 
the territories beyond the Tweed and Solway would have fallen 
an easy prey to the attacks of a powerful neighbour on the north. 
But the final struggle for mastery between the Scots and Picts, 
north of the Forth, on one or other side of which the Strathclyde 
Britons were generally engaged, occupied all the energies of 
these tribes, and restrained them from taking advantage of the 
weakness of the Angles. After" the union of the Picts and Scots 
under Kenneth Mac Alpin in 843, " Saxonia " or Lothian was, 
according to the Pictish Chronicler, six times invaded and pillaged 
by him, in which incursions he is recorded to have " burnt the 
fortress of Dunbar, and spoiled the Abbey of Melrose." But 
he and his immediate successors made no attempt to retain 
possession of these districts, having enough to do in holding 
their own against the turbulence of their new Pictish subjects, 
the hostilities of the Britons of Strathclyde, and the inroads of 
the Danes and Norwegians, who, having now permanently occu- 
pied the east of England, the Orkneys and Caithness, the Isles 
and coasts of the West of Scotland and the Irish Sea, used these 


as points of vantage whence to ravage and plunder, with indis- 
criminate fury, the territories of Saxons, Scots, and Britons. 
In the south, the rulers of Wessex had been gradually gaining 
that ascendency over the other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, which 
converted the shadowy dignity of Bretwalda into the more 
tangible authority of king of England, but they also were en- 
gaged for nearly a century in a death struggle with the Danes, 
and it was not until the days of Edward the Elder, the worthy 
son of the great Alfred, that their hands were sufficiently free in 
the south to allow of their effective interference north of the 
Humber. In 924, Edward had reduced to submission the Danish 
and half-Danish rulers of the northern provinces, and received 
their allegiance, when, in the words of the contemporary chroni- 
cler, there " chose him for father and lord, the king of the Scots 
[Constantino III.], and the whole nation of the Scots, and Eegnald 
[Danish ruler of York], and [Ealdred] the son of Eadulf [of 
Bamborough], and all those who dwell in Northan-hymbra-land, 
as well English as Danes, and Northmen and others, and also the 
king of the Strathclyde Welsh, and all the Strathclyde Welsh." ' 
Thus early began that theoretic recognition of the supremacy of 
the Bretwalda, or king of England, which another Edward tried 
to reduce to practice, and which was only finally repudiated at 
Bannockburn. In the reign of Edward's successor, iEthelstan, 
Constantine king of the Scots, alarmed at the consolidation of the 
English dominion, combined, on several occasions with the Welsh, 
the Northumbrian and Irish Danes, against the Anglo-Saxon 
monarch, by whom Scotland was in consequence ravaged by land 
and sea, as far as Caithness. At length Constantine, " the hoary 
warrior," effected that great alliance of Scots, Danes, Britons, 
Welsh, and Irish, who invaded England in 937, and were de- 
feated in the famous battle of Brunan-burh, which resulted in 
establishing more firmly than ever the Anglo-Saxon power in the 

An event of great importance to the Scottish monarchy oc- 
curred in 945, when the English king, Eadmund, having overrun 
the principality of Cumbria or Strath-clyde, over which the English 
kings claimed authority as a dependency of Northumbria, but 
which was too remote to be worth the trouble of keeping, trans- 
ferred the supremacy to Constantino's successor, Malcolm, on 
condition of obtaining his aid whenever required for keeping in 
order his troublesome half-Danish subjects in Northumbria. The 
rule of the king of the Scots was thus extended south of the 
Firths, which had hitherto been its boundary, and although the 
Strathclyde Britons offered a persistent resistance to their incor- 
poration in the Scottish dominion, the union was fully consum- 
mated before the close of the century. In pursuance of this 
engagement we learn that when the Northumbrian Danes re- 

1 And eac Straecled "Weala cyning and ealle Strsoclod Weallas. Chron. 924. 


volted in favour of their native leaders, the Scottish kings re- 
peatedly overran the territories of Lothian and Northumberland, 
in co-operation with the Anglo-Saxon monarch. Similar reasons 
to those which prompted the transfer of Cumbria, led probably 
also to the cession of the Northumbrian frontier fortress of Ead- 
winesburh, to Malcolm's successor, Indulf, the son of Constantine, 
in whose time, according to the Pictish chronicle (954-962), 
" oppidum Eden vacuatum est, et relictum est Scottis usque in 
hodiernum diem." 1 While Northumbria was an independent king- 
dom, whose relations to the Picts and Scots were generally 
hostile, Edinburgh was of course one of its most important bul- 
warks ; but to the English kings, separated as it was from the 
rest of their dominions by the two only half-subdued Northern 
provinces, it was probably better in the hands of their ally and 
" fellow- worker," the king of the Scots, whose aid they so often 
required against their own refractory Northumbrian subjects. 
Whether the cession was due to the policy of Eadred or the 
weakness of Eadwig is unknown, but it shews the direction in 
which the Scottish kings were now casting eager glances, and 
it paved the way for that possession of Lothian and Tweeddale, 
which proved so pregnant with mighty consequences for the 
language, the laws, the civilization, and whole history of Scotland. 
The circumstances of the latter transaction are not quite clear, 
but according to John of Wallingford and Eoger of Wendover, 
the grant of Lothian, or that part of Bernicia north of the Tweed, 
was made by Eadgar, who died 975, to Kenneth III., son of 
Malcolm I., who began to reign 970, and therefore between those 
two years ; the latter holding it in the same capacity as it had 
been held by the Northumbrian eorls, and engaging that the 
province should retain its own laws and customs, and its Angle 
or English language (" promittens quod populo partis illius 
antiquas consuetudines non negaret, et lingua Anglican a rema- 
nerent"), stipulations which we know were faithfully observed; 
this "English" of Lothian, as we shall presently see, having 
become the national language of Scotland, or "Lowland Scotch." 
Shortly after this date began the second great series of Danish 
invasions, which, after devastating England for forty years, re- 
sulted in placing a Danish dynasty upon the English throne. 
During the utter helplessness and prostration to which the central 
power was reduced in this struggle, the remote provinces again 
relapsed into quasi-independence, the eorls of Northumbria acting 
for themselves without any reference to their nominal sovereign 
in the south. A quarrel, the grounds of which we do not know, 
broke out between the eorl of Northumbria and Malcolm II., king 
of the Scots ; perhaps the former wished, with the help of the 
Danes, to reunite Lothian to the rest of his dominion, and rule 
once more over a united Northan-hymbra-land, — at any rate, 

1 Skene— ChionicleB of the Picts, So., Edin. 1867, p. 10. 


Malcolm invaded Bernioia and laid seige to Durham, where he 
was defeated in a great battle, by Uhtred, son of eorl "Waltheof. 
Whether, in consequence of this, Malcolm lost part of his terri- 
tories south of the Forth is uncertain, but in 1018, the year after 
the accession of Cnut to the English throne, he renewed the 
war with Eadwulf, the brother of Uhtred, whom he defeated in 
a great battle at Oarham. Eadwulf afterwards came to an agree- 
ment with Malcolm, and ceded to him Lothian for ever. The 
division of the old Northan-hymbra-land, lying between the 
Forth and Tweed, was thenceforth a portion of the dominions of 
the king of the Scots, who held it however, as it had been held 
by the eorls of Northumbria, and as he himself held Strathclyde, 
i. e. in his own right when he could maintain it, — when he could 
not, in dependence upon the king of England. In the latter 
capacity, when Cnut personally visited Scotland in 1031, "-the 
king of the Scots, Malcolm, submitted to him, and became his 
man, but that he held only a little while ; and two other kings, Mac- 
beth and Jehmarc." L 

The history of the Scottish kingdom during the 10th cen- 
tury exhibits the struggles of two dynasties, one of which was 
by marriage and sympathies more connected with Northumbria, 
and courted the English alliance ; the other identified with the 
northeast, and more exclusively Celtic in its leanings. The Celtic 
or native line found its greatest representative in Macbeth, who, 
after the defeat and death of Duncan, ruled over the original 
Scotland, while the Angle districts south of the Forth remained 
attached to the family of Duncan. It was rather as a king 
of Lothian, conquering Scotland, that Malcolm Ceanmor, son of 
Duncan and the Northumbrian eorl's daughter, at the head of an 
Anglo-Saxon army overthrew Macbeth and recovered the crown 
of his fathers. Having spent the days of his exile with his uncle, 
Eorl Siward, in Northumbria, and at the Court of Edward the 
Confessor, Malcolm returned to Scotland the heir of a line of 
Celtic kings, but half a Saxon in blood, and wholly Saxon in tastes 
and sympathies, whioh were still more confirmed by his marriage, 
in 1067, with Margaret, sister of Edgar the iEtheling, heiress of 
the hopes and aspirations of the English Saxon dynasty. The 
southern names of the children born from this union are thus 
recorded by Wyntown (Book VII. iii. 30) : — 

" Malcolm kyng, be lawchfull get, 
Had on hys Wyff Saynt Margret, 
Sownnys sex, and Dowchtrys twa. 
Off Jrir Sownnys, thre of J;a 
Wes Edmwnd, Edward, Ethelrede, 
Kyng of Jiire nowcht ane we rede ; 
Bot Edgare, Alysawndyre, and Dawy yliyng 
Ilkane of fire wes crownyd a kyng. 

1 Saxon Chronicle, a.d. 1031. tions, expansions of the contractions of 

* In this and the subsequent quota- the MSS. are indicated by italic letters. 


They form quite a contrast to the characteristic Celtic nomenclature 
of the Donalds, Kenneths, Duncans, Malcolms, and Ferguses, who 
had hitherto occupied the throne, and mark the turning point 
from which the Scottish royal family may be looked upon as an 
Anglo-Saxon line, and the history of Scotland that of its Teutonic 
element. This element continually increased, through the policy 
of Malcolm and his successors, in encouraging English settlers 
north of the Forth, affording refuge to the fugitives from the Nor- 
man conquest, and displacing the ancient troublesome chiefs by a 
nobility personally attached to the sovereign, of Saxon, Flemish, 
and Norman origin. The Celtic portion of their subjects, who 
had formed the original germ of the kingdom, did not submit to 
be thus ousted from the first place without many a struggle, and 
in the reign of Malcolm's immediate successors, it seemed doubt- 
ful for a while whether the Celt or the Saxon should eventually 
gain the predominance. The struggle was scarcely decided before 
the year 1100, and after fortune finally declared in favour of the 
latter, backed as they were by their kinsmen in England, the 
work of Saxonizing the seaboard country north of the Firths went 
on rapidly under Edgar, Alexander, and David I. ; or, as Wyntown 
puts it : — 

" pe Saxonys and be Scotfa's blude 
In natyownys twa before fan ;hud, (i. e. went) 
Bot be Barnetyme off bat Get 
pat Malcolme had off Saynt Margret, 
To-gyddir drw full vnyowne 
To pass syne in suceessyowne." — (Book VII. iii. 163.) 

§ 5. Having traced the course of events by which the Angles 
of Northern Bernicia became politically connected with the 
ancient kingdom of the Celtic Scots, and a leading element in 
the later Scottish nationality, we approach the question of the 
language. At the arrival of the Teutonic invaders on the east 
coast, the territory between the walls, now forming the south of 
Scotland, was like England, British ; that is, Celtic, of the Cymric 
or Welsh division. The names of the princes with whom the 
invaders leagued or fought, of the principalities and places men- 
tioned in the record of the wars, are all Cymric. It is in an 
ancient form of "Welsh, and by the care of the Welsh bards, that 
the poems of Taliesin, bard of Urien and Owain, princes of Beghed, 
of Lliwarch Hen, son of Elidir, chief of Argoed, both divisions of 
ancient Cumbria, and of Aneurin, a native of Strath-clyde, and 
probably of Alclwyd, or Dumbarton, have come down to us with 
contemporary delineations of the great events of the struggle. 1 
It was among their kinsmen in Wales or Brittany that all the 
three northern bards ended their lives ; to Wales also that many 

1 Les Bardes Bretons. — Poemes du revu sur les manusorits. Par le Vi- 
vi e sieole, traduita pour la premifere fois, comte Hersart de la Villemarque, 
en Francais, aveo le texte en regard Nonvelle Edition. Paris, 1860. 


of the Cumbrian Britons fled after the battle of Oaltraeth. It is as 
Bretts and Welsh, moreover, that the inhabitants of Cumbria or 
Strathclyde are referred to by the contemporary Saxon chroniclers, 
and in the charters and proclamations of David I., Malcolm IV., 
and William the Lion. So late as 1305, it was enacted by 
Edward I., in revising the laws of Scotland, that " the usages of 
the Scots and Bretts should be abolished and no more used." 
Finally, it is to the ancient British or Welsh that we must still 
look for the etymology of the names of the great natural features 
of the country, " the ever-flowing rivers and the ever-lasting hills." 
It is to this tongue that we look for the derivation of the names 
of the Tweed, the Teviot, the Clyde, the Nith, and the Annan, 
the numerous Esks, Edens, Tynes, Avons, Calders, and Alns or 
Allans ; that we explain Cheviot, and the other border hills, 
which were conspicuous enough to retain the names given by the 
earlier race. The eminences of the south country, when not 
hills, fells, laws, or knows, are pens like Pennygent, Pen-maen- 
maur, and the other Pens of Wales and Cornwall. In Teviot- 
dale we have Penielheugh, Pen-chrise Pen, Skelf-hill Pen, and 
the obsolete Penango and Penangoishope ; on the watershed be- 
tween Teviotdale and Liddesdale, Pennygent repeats a southern 
name in its entirety. At the head of Eskdale rises Ettrick Pen ; 
in the vicinity of Innerleithen in Tweeddale, the Lee Pen. There 
is no trace of any Gaelic element at this time in the south-east 
of Scotland ; the occupation of Galloway and Carrick by a colony 
of Scots from Ireland took place some centuries later. A few mo- 
nastic and missionary settlements of the Scoto-Irish church like 
Melrose have a Gaelic etymon ; but these are isolated, and, from 
their very nature as exceptions, prove the rule. Many of the Celtic 
local names which occur along the southern borders of the Firth 
of Forth doubtless belong to the period when the Scottish kings 
first extended their authority over Lothian, and Celtic Scots were 
mixed with the Angles who occupied the district. 

§ 6. An Angle or Engl-ish dialect has been as long established 
in the South-east of Scotland as in any part of England, with 
the exception, perhaps, of Kent. According to accredited ac- 
counts, the district was entirely abandoned by the Britons after 
the battle of Caltraeth, and even though we allow of a much 
less sweeping change of population, it is evident that Northum- 
bria north of the Tweed and Cheviots was as completely peopled 
by the Angles as Northumbria south of these lines. In confir- 
mation of this we find that the geographical names of the 
Southern Scottish counties, so far as they refer to the dwelling- 
places of men, or even to the smaller streams or burns, the hursts, 
shaws, morasses, and lower hills, are as purely Teutonio as the 
local names of Kent or Dorset. Such names as Coldingham, 
Eedpath, Haliburton, Greenlaw, Mellerstane, Wedderburn, Cran- 
shaws, in Berwickshire ; Linton, Morebattle, Newbigging, Ed- 


garston, Fernieherst, Kutherford, Middleham or Midlem, Langton. 
Eckford, Hassendean (Halestanedene), Hawick, Denholm, Lang- 
lee, Whitmoor, Whitriggs, "Whitchesters, Wilton, Ashkirk, Essen- 
side, Harwood, Wolfelee, Wolfcleuchhead, Swinnie, Swinhope, 
Todlaw, Todsnaw, Todrig, Catcleuch, Oxenham, Buocleuch, 
Newstead, Stow, Drygrange, Darnwick, Selkirk, Oakwood, 
Hartwood-myres, Hindhope, Drykope, Midgehope, Hellmoor, 
Thirlstane, Oorsecleugh, in Boxburgh and Selkirkshires ; Lang- 
holm, Broomholm, Muckledale, Westerkirk, Morton, Thornhill, 
Euthwell, Lookerby, Canonby, Mousewald, Torthorwald, Tin- 
wald, Applegarth, Elderbeck (the latter of which are Norse), in 
Dumfriesshire, are only specimens of the common names of towns, 
hamlets, parishes, and farms. The instant we leave the dales of 
the Esk and Annan, in Dumfriesshire, and cross into that of the 
Nith, we find ourselves in the midst of a foreign nomenclature, 
that of the Ersch of Galloway. Drumfries, Sanquhar, Auchen- 
cairn, Auchendarroch, Glencairn, Oairnkinna, Linncluden, Dals- 
cairth, Darngarroch, Drumlanrig, Drummore, and hundreds of 
other examples of Dal, Drum, Auchen, Craigen, Bal, Glen, and 
Cairn, testify to the ethnological change. To return to the Angle 
area, it was from the banks of the Leader, a northern tributary 
of the Tweed, that the shepherd boy, Cuthberht, was called to 
be the apostle of Northumbria ; it was over the area of Tweed- 
dale, Teviotdale, and Ettrick Forest, as well as in Tynedale and 
Lindisfarne, that his labours of faith and love were performed, 
and that commemorative chapels rose to his memory. One of 
the most famous of these, to the history of which six chapters are 
devoted by Eeginald of Durham, 1 stood by the Slitrith, a tributary 
of the Teviot, and among the worshippers we have recorded the 
genuine Anglo-Saxon names of Seigiva (Sseigifu) and Bosfritha 
(BosfrrS), "duae mulieres de villa quadam Hawich dicta, ipsius 
provintias de Tevietedale." Dumfriesshire has, moreover, pre- 
served to us, in the " Dream of the Holy Eood," inscribed in 
Anglo-Saxon Eunes upon the Euthwell Cross — perhaps the most 
venerable specimen of the language of the Northumbrian Angles, 
which ranks with the Eunic inscription upon the Bewcastle ' 
Cross, commemorative of Alchfrid, son of Oswiu (ab. 664) — the 
genuine fragment of Caadmon, and the deathbed verses of Beda, 
as our chiefj almost our only, data for the state of that dialect in 
the 7th and 8th centuries. The Euthwell Cross is of course of 
Christian origin, but a relic of North Anglian heathendom seems 
to be preserved in a phrase which forms the local slogan of the 
town of Hawick, and which, as the name of a peculiar local 
air, and the refrain, or "owerword" of associated ballads, has 
been connected with the history of the town "back to fable- 
shaded eras." Different words have been sung to the tune from 

1 " Reginaldi Monachi Dunelmensis Virtutibus." Ed. Dr. Eaine, Publica- 
Libellus de Admirandis Beati Cuthberti tions of the Surtees Society, toI. i. 



time to time, and none of those now extant can lay claim to any 
antiquity : but associated with all, and yet identified with none, 
the refrain " Tyr-ibus ye Tyr ye Odin," Tyr hasb us, ge Tyr ge 
Odin! Tyr keep us, both Tyr and Odin! (by which name the 
tune also is known) appears to have come down, scarcely mu- 
tilated, from the time when it was the burthen of the song of the 
gleo-mann, or scald, or the invocation of a heathen Angle warrior, 
before the northern Hercules and the blood-red lord of battles had 
yielded to the " pale god " of the Christians. 1 

Tt seems probable that although the Northumbrian territory 
extended to the shores of the Forth, the Anglian occupancy of 
Lothian was more fitful and precarious than that of Tweeddale 
and the basin of the Solway, and that it was not till a later 
period that the Teutonic dialect exclusively prevailed there. 
This idea is supported by the geographical nomenclature ; such 
names as Dunbar, Aberlady, Drummore, Killspindy, Pencaithland, 
Dalgowrie, Dalkeith, Dalhousie, Eoslin, Pennicuick, Abercorn, 
Cathie, Linlithgow, Torphichen, Cariden (Caer-eiden?), Kinneil, 
are mixed with the Teutonic Haddington, Linton, Stenton, Fen- 
ton, Dirleton, Athelstaneford, Ormiston, Whittingham, Gifford, 
Newbattle, Cranston, Duddingston, Broxburn, "Whitburn, and, so 
far as they are ancient, indicate the continued existence of a 
British or Pictish population, among whom the advancing Teu- 
tonic made its way more gradually. 8 To this later prevalence of 
the North Angle dialect on the shores of the Firth, 1 also attribute, 
in part, the difference still existing between the pronunciation of 

1 The ballad now connected with the dually doing away with much of the 
air of "Tyribus" commemorates the parade and renown of the Common- 
laurels gained by the Hawick youth, at Riding. But " Tyr-ibus ye Tyr ye 
and after the disastrous battle, when, in Odin " retains all its local power "to 
the words of the writer, Are the lieges, and the accredited me- 
Our sires roused by "Tyr ye Odin'' thod of arousing the burghers to any 
Marched and joined their king at political or civic struggle is still to send 
Flodden. round the drums and fifes "to play 
Annually since that event the " Com- Tyribus " through the town, a sum- 
mon-Riding " has been held, on which mons analogous to that of the Fiery 
occasion a flag or "colour" captured Cross in older times. Apart from the 
from a party of the English has been words of the Slogan, the air itself bears 
with great ceremony borne by mounted in its wild fire all the tokens of a re- 
riders round the bounds of the common mote origin. It will be found in the 
land, granted after Flodden to the Appendix, accompanied by the first verse 
burgh ; part of the ceremony consist- of the modern ballad, 
ing in a mock capture of the " colour," 2 Upon consulting the map it will be 
and hot pursuit by a large party of seen that the Celtic names increase in 
horsemen accoutred for the occasion. number as we travel west. East Lo- 
At the conclusion " Tyribus " is sung, thian is nearly as Teutonic as Berwick- 
with all the honours by the actors m shire or Teviotdale ; West Lothian or 
the ceremony, from the roof of the oldest Linlithgow, which was on the Pictish 
house in the burgh, the general popu- frontier, has a very large Celtic element 
lace filling the street below, and j oimng in its nomenclature ; around Edinburgh 
in the song with immense enthusiasm. the names are pretty well mixed. 
The influence of modem ideas is gra- 


Lothian (in the modern restricted sense of the word), and that of 
the Southern counties. 

§ 7. As to the country north of the Firths, or Scotland proper, 
we find that the vulgar tongue, the lingua Scotica, was still 
Celtic in the reign of Macbeth. Still later, in the days of Malcolm 
Ceanmor, when " Queen Margaret in 1074 caused a council to be 
convened to inquire into the abuses which were said to have crept 
into the Scottish church, it was found that the clergy could speak 
no language but Gaelic. As Margaret, who was to be the chief 
prolocutor, could speak to them only in Saxon, her husband, king 
Malcolm, who happened to know Saxon as well as Gaelic, was 
obliged to act as interpreter." l Gaelic continued to- be the lan- 
guage north of the Forth down to the final defeat of Donald Bane, 
under whom the Celtic element made its final struggle for pre- 
dominance in connection with the succession to the crown and 
the accession of Edgar, son of Malcolm and Margaret in 1097. Such 
was the effect, however, of the identification of the royal dynasty 
with the English-speaking portion of their subjects, and of the 
policy of Edgar, David, and their successors, in encouraging the 
settlement of Anglo-Saxons, Flemings, and Normans, by grants 
of land, charters, and privileges, that during the course of the 
two following centuries, the Teutonic dialect, hitherto confined to 
the district south of the Forth, crept northward along the coast 
line to the shores of the Moray Firth, and before the death of 
Alexander III. was apparently the spoken tongue of the greater 
part of the population, the Welsh having disappeared before it in 
Strathclyde, and the Gaelic being confined pretty nearly to what we 
still Tlesignate the Highlands, and to Galloway. There is no need 
to account for this change by the operation of any sudden and 
violent causes ; the Celtic dialects of the north-east, and the 
British of Strathclyde, disappeared before the Anglo-Saxon tongue 
of the court, and education, just as at a later time the Erse of 
Galloway and Carrick, the British of Cornwall, the Irish of 
Leinster, died out before the English, or as in our own day the 
Gaelic of Perthshire, the Cymric of Wales, the Irish of Tipperary, 
are ever retreating backwards before the same advancing tide. 
The people remain, but with the change of language they lose 
the greatest of their distinctive marks, and in course of time 
merge their history in that of the country at large. 

The name of Scotland, and the language now known as Scotch, 
were thus in their introduction and diffusion exactly the converse 
of each other. Neither of them indigenous to North Britain — the 
name was introduced from Ireland to the extreme west, and by a 
gradual movement eastward and southward, in the wake of the 
ascendancy of the king of Scots, attained its present limits in the 
thirteenth century ; the language, introduced from the opposite 

1 "Wright— History of Scotland, p. 33. 


coast of the continent to the extreme south-east, extended itself 
westward and northward, till by the end of the same century it 
occupied something like its present area. Totally unconnected, 
and even antagonistic in their origin, the encroaching monarchy 
and the encroaching language met each other on the battle- 
furrowed banks of the Forth, when the kings of Scotland com- 
menced their attempts upon Lothian. The struggle which ensued 
ended in a compromise. The Angles of Lothian and Tweeddale 
accepted the Scottish king and the Scottish name — Scotland and 
the king of Scots accepted the Angle tongue, and the Anglo- 
Saxon character. The sovereign ruled as the hereditary descend- 
ant of Fergus the son of Ere and the fabulous Gathelus — he 
reigned because he represented the feelings and sympathies, and 
was identified with the interests and national spirit, of his Anglo- 
Saxon subjects. 

§ 8. Of the dialect of the North Angles before the tenth century, 
the remains are scanty. The inscription upon the Euthwell Cross, 
the most certain specimen 1 afforded by that part of the Northan- 
hymbra-land now included in Scotland, forms no inconsiderable 
portion of the whole. The following transcription of that fragment, 
chiefly after its latest and most eareful editor, Professor Stephens 
(by whom it is attributed to Casdmon), along with the West 
Saxon version or paraphrase of the poem from the Codex Vercel- 
lensis, shews that already in the seventh century the Northern 
dialect was distinguished from the Southern by some of the chief 
characteristics which afterwards defined them. 

The EuthwelL The West Saxon paraphrase. 

On-gereda3 hinse On-gyrede hine ]>a geong hsele^S 

God almeyottig bset wses God selmihtig 

Jia he walde Strang and strSmod 

On galgu gi-stiga gestah he on gealgan heanne 

Modig fore Modig on manigra gesylrSe 

Alle men Jat he wolde mancyn lysan 

Buga ik ni darsta? Bifode ie ba me se beorn ymbclypte 

Ne dorste ic hwse'Sre bugan to eor- 

Bod waes ic araered ['San. 

Ahof ik riiknas kuningk Ahof ic ricne cyning 

Heafunaes hlafard Heofona hlaford 

haelda ik ni darstse hyldan me ne dorste 

Bismsersedu ungket men Bismeredon hie unc 

1 A monumental cross at Friar's also considers many of the inscribed 
Carse, in Dumfriesshire, bears a short stones of the N. E. of Scotland to be 
inscription, read as North-Anglian by Teutonic. See his " Sculptured Stones 
Ralph Carr, Esq,, of Hedgeley, Aln- of Eastern Scotland," Edin., T. and 
■wick, who has devoted much attention T. Clark, 1867 ; and paper on the In- 
to Anglo-Saxon inscriptions. See his 6eribed Stones of Newton Insch and 
paper, read before the Philological St. Vigean's, in the Transact, of Soc. 
Society, in November, 1869. Mr. Carr Antiq. Scot., vol. vii., pt. 1, 1866-7. 



The Jl at /are//. 
ba astgadre 
Ik [waes] mib blodse bistemid 
Bi-goten of 

Krist waes on rodi 
Hwebrae ]>ev fusse 
fearran cwomu 
-33J?);il8e til anum 
Ik J?aet al biheald 
Sare ik wses 
MiJ> sorgum gidroefid 
Hnag ic [hwejjrse] 

MiJ> strelum giwundad 
A-legdun Mae hinse lim-woe- 

Gistoddun him set his likses 

Bihealdun hiae her heafun .... 

The West Saxon paraphrase. 
butu setgasdere 

Eall ic waes mid blode bestemed 
begoten of baes guman sidan 
sy'S'San be hsefde his gast onsended. 
Crist wses on rode 
Hwasftere J;aer fuse 
feorran owomon 
to ]?am aej?elinge 
Ic Jjaet eall beheold 
Sare ic wses 
Mid sorgum gedrefed 
Hnag ic hwae'Sre 
Jam secgum to banda 
Eall ic waes mid straelum forwundod 
Aledon hie 'Saer limwerigne 

Gfestodon him aet his lices heafdum 

Beheoldon hie^Sser heofenesdryhten. 

On-graithed him(self) 

God almighty 

When he would 

On the gallows ascend, 

Strong-of-mood hefore 

All men. 

Bow I dared not 

tA rood I was reared] 
fp-heaved I the rich king, 
Heaven's lord. 
Lean I dared not ! 
Men reviled us-two 
Both together ; 
I [was] with blood bestained 

Translation of the Suthwell. 

Out-gushed from [the hero's side, 

Since his ghost he had sent forth.] 

Christ was on rood ; 

Howbeit there hastily (fussily) 

From-afar came 

Noble one's to- him alone (P) 

I that all beheld. 

Sore I was 

With soitows oppressed ; 

Inclined I yet 

[T o the hands of his servants.] 

With shafts wounded, 

Laid they him limb-weary ; 

Stood (by) him at his lyke's head, 

Beheld they there heaven['s lord]. 

In the form walde for the southern wolde, we see the distinction 
between the northern wald, wad, and the southern wold, would. 
Bi-heald for beheold, and darstte for dorste, are dialectical points 
of the same kind. The use of ea for eo, as heafun for heofon, 
heaven, fearran for feorran, and the use of ce for e, rni]> for mid, 
and the prefixes gi- and bi for ge- and be-, are well-known cha- 
racteristics of the Northumbrian glosses of the tenth century. But 
the most interesting point to be noticed is the dropping of final 
n from the inflections of nouns and verbs (galgu, buga, hselda, 
bismsersedu, kwomu), also noted in the glosses, in which the Old 
North Anglian agreed with the Scandinavian and Frisian, rather 
than the Saxon, and anticipated the early loss of the noun and 
verb inflections by the northern dialect, seen in comparing the 
southern ihei loven to ben, we wolden gon, with the northern thai 
Ivf to be, we wald ga. 



§ 9. In the tenth century, or thereabouts, several interlinear 
translations or glosses of Latin ecclesiastical works were executed 
in a Northern dialect in England, especially a gloss to the Eitual 
of Durham, and two glosses of the Gospels, the Lindisfarne, or 
Durham-boc, and the Eushworth, 1 the intimate relation between 
which suggests the existence of a currently recognized rendering 
of the Evangel in the Vernacular. A charter written at Durham 2 
gives a specimen of the language, about 1100, and a few words in 
the native tongue in the Latin charters of David, William the 
Lion, and their successors, such as " cum sacca et socca cum tol et 
them et infangtheefe," answering to the "mid saca and socne, mid 
tolles and. teames, and mid infangenes theofes " of the contem- 
porary English charters ; the terms ut-were and in-were, foreign 
and internal war, tri-gild, a penalty for cutting down trees, and a 
reference in defining the boundaries of properties to landmarks, 
known in the vulgar tongue as ]>e stane cross, \e standcmd stane, 
are contemporary witnesses of the dialect in Scotland. 3 The Leges 
Quatuor Burgorum (Berewic, Eokisburg, Edinburg, et Strevelin) 
and other of the early Scottish laws, have also embalmed in their 
Latin originals, some of which date to David I. numerous words 
and phrases of the vernacular speech, some with Latinized termi- 
nations, but others in their naked forms, intended to identify 

1 I do not include the Psalter (M.S. 
Cotton, Vesp. A. 1), seeing na grounds 
on which to consider it Northumbrian. 
I altogether fail to see the " close agree- 
ment in the general structure of its 
language with the Lindisfarne and 
Rushworth Gospels, and with the Dur- 
ham Ritual," spoken of by the Surtees 

2 The Charter of Ranulph, created 
Bishop of Durham 1099 (Hickes The- 
saurus, Tol. i. 149), contains some 
Southern forms as well as Northern. 
To the Rev. W. Greenwell, M.A., 
Canon of Durham, I am indebted for 
the following fresh transcript of the 
original, correctingtheerrorsofHickes's 
text: — 

R[anulf] bisceop jrete'S wel alle 
his Jieines *j drenjes of Ealondscire "] 
of Norhamscire. Wite ge \at ice habbe 
je-tySed See Cuhtberht \at lond in 
Elredene, *j all yat J>ajr to be limpcS 
claene *j clacles. *] Haliwareftelle ic 
habbe je-tySed See Cuhtberht his 
agen into hif cyrce. ~J hua sua b[e]- 
raues 'Sisses, b[e]raue Crift hine Jisses 
liuef hele "] heofne ricef mirde. 

In the oldest Lowland Scotch or 
Northern English this would be : 

Ranulf bischop gretis wel alle his 

Jiaynes and dryngis of Yland-schire and 
of Norham-schire, Wyt je J>at Ik hafe 
tythyd to Sanct Cuthberht )>e land in 
Ellerdene, and all }>at J>ar-to belangis 
clene and clag-les ; and Haliwarestele 
Ik hafe tythyd to Sanct Cuthberht, his 
awen in-to his kyrke. And quha sua 
bereuis [)>ame] of yis, Christ bereue 
hym of Jis lyfis hele and hevyn-rikis 
myrd {or mirthe). 

Hickes notices the words drenges 
(Dan. dreng, a lad, an attendant) and 
clac-les (Dan. Mage, a complaint, charge) 
as Scandinavian, and wanting in the 
Southern Saxon, where the latter term 
would be sac-leas. Both are used by 
Scottish writers, dryng by Lyndesay, and 
clag as a law term, a charge or burden 
upon property. Eor Ik see Barbour : 
Cursor Mundi has ic. Belimpes might 
perhaps have been retained instead of 
belangis (the only verbal change) ; 
at least we find the simple limpus in tne 
sense of falls to, pertains, in the 
" Anturs of Arthur at the Tarne Wa- 
thelan" (ab. 1300), edited by Mr. 
Robson, for the Camden Society, in 

3 Quoted by Prof. Cosmo Innes — 
Introduction to Barbour's Brus, in 
Spalding Club series. 


more thoroughly the subjects of legislation. Thus " Si quis ver- 
berando feoerit aliquem blaa et blodi, ipse qui fuerit blaa et blodi 
prius debet exaudiri," etc. In the 15th century translation, " Gif 
ony man strykis anoj;ir, quhar-thruch he is mayd blaa and blodi, 
he ]>at is mayd blaa and blodi sail fyrst be herde, etc. " Stal- 
lingiator nullo tempore potest habere loth, cut, neque cavyll de 
aliquo mercimonio, nisi infra nundinas quando quilibet potest 
habere loth, cut, atque cavyll," translated ' : Na stallangear (itine- 
rant stall-keeper) may hafe na tyme loth, out, or cavyll wyth a 
burges of ony maner of merchandise, but in J>e tym of Je fayris, 
quhen Jat ilk man may hafe loth, cut, and cavyll, wythin the 
kyngis burgh." The stalingiator may also have " botham cooper- 
tarn " a covered buith. " Et sciendum est quod intra burgum non 
debet exaudiri blodewite, stynge&dynt (a cudgelling), merchet, 
lierieth (transl. here-gild, military-tribute, the heriot), nee ali- 
quid de consimilibus." The widow of a burgess is to have left to 
her " interiorem partem domus que dicitur le flet ; " among the 
personal effects of which the destination is fixed are "plumbum 
cum maslcfat (mash- vat, mashing-fat in Lyndesay's Fly ting), hucham 
(a hutch, transl. schyrn, shrine), girdalium (the gyrdle or griddle)," 
etc. Further instances are found in the following expressions : — 
" Infantem clamantem vel plorantem vel &rai'antem," the chylde 
cryand or gretand or brayand ; " Si in responsione negaverit wrang 
et unlaw et dicat, etc" ; " post woch (A.S. woh, injustice) et wrang 
et unlaw"; "Nonuttofccmdinonutpastores"; "forestarius habebit 
unum hog." So also among other terms we meet with hamesolcyn, 
ibur]>eneseca seu berthynsah, explained in the translation as " ber- 
thynsak, }e thyft of a calf or of a ram, or how mekill as a man 
may ber on his bak ;" inboruche et \h~\uteboruche potestatem habens 
ad distinguendum, cohestole, opelandensis, "ane uplandis-man," 
schorlinges (shearlings), etc., etc. So "fremd" do these terms 
look in the Latin texts, so entirely natural are they in the verna- 
cular versions, that it is very difficult to realize that the Latin is 
the older by two or three centuries, and the conviction is forced 
upon one that there must have been an earlier vernacular in oral 
if not in written existence, which the scribes had in their mind, 
if not before their eyes, and which was drawn upon where the 
Latin would have been wanting in precision, or failed altogether 
to render a technicality. 

But, with the exception of such isolated fragments, the history 
of the northern dialect is all but a blank for nearly three cen- 
turies, and that precisely at the period when the old Northan- 
hymbra-land was being incorporated with the English and Scottish 
monarchies respectively ; so that we have no connected data 
shewing the transition of the Old North Anglian into the Early 
Northern English of Cursor Mundi and the Scottish laws, such as 
those which enable us to trace the insensible passage of the clas- 
sical Anglo-Saxon into the Southern English of the Ancren Riwle 


and Ayenbite, or to inform us of the date at which the Northern 
tongue emancipated itself from the trammels of inflection, and 
assumed that essentially modern form which it wears in the 
earliest of these connected specimens. All we know is, that the 
grammatical revolution had already begun in the 9th and 10th 
centuries, and that the change was completed long before it had 
advanced to any extent in the south, so that when the curtain 
rises over the northern dialect, in England towards the close of 
the 13th century, and in Scotland nearly a hundred years later, 
the language had become as thoroughly uninflectional as the 
modern English, while the sister dialect of the south retained to 
a great extent the noun-, pronoun-, and adjective-declension of 
the Anglo-Saxon. The same phenomenon of earlier development 
has been repeated in almost every subsequent change which the 
language has undergone. The South has been tenaciously con- 
servative of old forms and usages, the North has inaugurated 
often by centuries nearly every one of those structural changes 
which have transformed the English of Alfred into English as it 
has been since the days of Shakspeare. Hence, of two contem- 
porary writers, one northern and the other southern, the En- 
glishman of to-day always feels the former the more modern, 
the nearer to him — Cursor Mundi and Barbour are infinitely more 
intelligible, even to the southern reader, than the Kentish Ayenbite 
of Inwyt. 

§ 10. The same deficiency of materials, in the period preceding 
the 13th century, renders it difficult to estimate the amount of 
influence exerted upon the Northern dialect by the Scandinavian, 
in consequence of the Danish invasions and settlements of the 8th 
and 10th centuries. In the opinion of the writer the present 
tendency is rather to over-estimate the amount of this influence. 
He sees reason to believe that the Northern dialect from the 
beginning diverged from the classical Anglo-Saxon in a direction 
which made it more closely connected in form with the Scan- 
dinavian. The chief points in which the language of the Euthwell 
Cross, and the verses of Crodmon and Beda differ from the con- 
temporary West Saxon, are the inflectional characteristics which 
distinguish the Scandinavian and Frisian from the Saxon and 
German division of the Teutonic languages. There seems ground, 
therefore, to regard many of the characteristics of the northern 
dialect which currently pass as Danish as having been original 
elements of the North Angle speech, due to the fact that this 
dialect was, like the Frisian, one which formed a connecting link 
between the Scandinavian and Germanic branches. Such charac- 
teristics would of course be strengthened and increased by the 
influx of Danish and Norwegian settlers, but the influence of 
these was necessarily at first confined to particular localities, and 
only gradually and at a later period affected the northern dialect 
as a whole. Cursor Mundi and Hampole have more of it than 



the glosses of the 10th century, but Cursor Mundi and Hampole 
have little of it in comparison with certain modem provincial 
dialects of the north of England, such as those of Cleveland, 
Whitby, Lonsdale, Eurness, and parts of Cumberland. In the 
county of Northumberland, and in Scotland, the Danish influence 
is apparently at a minimum, agreeing with the fact noted by 
Mr. Worsaae, that "the whole east coast of Scotland, from the 
Cheviot Hills to Moray Firth, is entirely destitute of characteristic 
and undoubted Scandinavian monuments." 1 As a consequence 
the Lowland Scotch of the present day represents Hampole and 
Cursor Mundi, and the Northern dialect of the 13th and 14th 
centuries generally, much more closely than those North English 
dialects, in which the Danish element, or what currently passes 
for Danish is more apparent. The use of at as the relative, of til 
for to, thir for these, and waar for worse, are common to the 
modern Scotch with the old northern writers. The use of V or 't 
as the article, instead of the (f master o' t' houses), of at instead 
of to in the infinitive (a sup o' summat at drink), of the form I is 
for I am, I war for I was, are unknown in Scotland. In general 

1 The Danes and Norwegians in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, by J". J. 
A. "Worsaae, Lond. 1852, p. 217. Else- 
where the author says : " Extremely few 
places with Scandinavian names are to 
be found in the Scottish Lowlands, and 
even these are confined almost without 
exception to the counties nearest the 
English border. Dumfriesshire, lying 
directly north of Cumberland and the 
Solway, forms the central point of such 
places. Northumberland and Durham, 
the two north-easternmost counties of 
England, contain but a scanty number 
of them, and consequently must have 
possessed, in early times at least, no 
very numerous Scandinavian popula- 
tion. Cumberland, on the contrary, 
was early remarkable for such a popu- 
lation; whence it will appear natural 
enough that the first Scandinavian co- 
lonists in the Scottish border-lands pre- 
ferred to settle in the neighbourhood of 
that county. On the S.E. coast of 
Scotland they would not only have been 
separated from their kinsmen in the 
East of England by two intervening 
counties, but also divided by a broad 
sea from their kinsmen in Denmark and 
Norway. Such a situation would have 
been much more exposed and dangerous 
for them than the opposite coast, where 
they had in their neighbourhood the 
counties of Cumberland and Westmore- 
land, inhabited by the Northmen, as 

well as their colonies in Ireland and 
the Isle of Man The Scandi- 
navian population in Dumfriesshire 
evidently appears to have emigrated 
from Cumberland over the Liddle and 
Esk, into the plains which spread 
westward of these rivers ; at least the 
names of places there have the very 
same character as in Cumberland," 
p. 202-3. Mr. "Worsaae then instances 
the names of fell (fjeld) and rigg (ryg) 
applied to hills, and the local names 
Thornythwaite, Treethwaites, Robie- 
thwaite, Murraythwaite, Helbeck, 
Greenbeck, Bodsbeck, Torbeck, Stony- 
beck, "Waterbeck, Hartsgarth, Tunder- 
garth, Applegarth, Lockerby, Alby, 
Middleby, Dunnabie.Wyseby, Percebie, 
Denbie, Newby, Milby, Sorbie, Canoby, 
and the words pock-net (Isl. pokanet) 
and leister (Isl. Ij6ster, Danish lyster), 
fishing implements also well known in 
the Tweed and Teviot, and adds : " In 
the Lowlands the number of Scandi- 
navian names of places is quite insigni- 
ficant when compared with the original 
Celtic or even with the Anglo-Saxon 
names." I may add that the dialect 
spoken in the S.E. corner of Dumfries- 
shire and the adjacent corner of Eox- 
burghshire, or Canobie and Liddesdale, 
is still quite distinct from that of the 
rest of these counties, and is rather that 
of Cumberland than of Lowland Scot- 


it may be said that the contributions which the Scotch has received 
from the Scandinavian affect rather the vocabulary than the gram- 
mar ; numerous words passed from the districts in which the 
Danes settled into the Northern dialect generally ; the grammatical 
inflections, particles, and formative affixes have not been so widely 
adopted. As an illustration of the caution which ought to be 
exercised before pronouncing a word or grammatical form to be 
of Scandinavian origin upon internal evidence alone, we may take 
the case of the relative at (the man &t was here) for that. This is 
generally, if not universally, accepted as Scandinavian, as the 
same word occurs in Old Norse and the modern languages derived 
from it. 

Old Norse Ek hen spurt at ]m hafir aldri blotat sku.rgo'S. 
Fcerceese E havi spurt at tu hevir aldri ofra til Afgudar 

I have learned at thou hast never offered to idols. 
Swedish Du wet, att jag sade, att jag horde det 
Danish Du veed, at jeg sagde, at jeg horte det 

You know at I said, at I heard that. 

So far nothing could seem clearer than that the at of the English 
dialects is the Norse at. But there is another class of facts 
requiring consideration. In the Gaelic, although ih is one of the 
commonest of written combinations, the sound is quite lost in the 
language as now spoken, its place being indicated by a breathing, 
or a simple hiatus. Thus athair, mathair, brathair, ceithir= father, 
mother, brother, quatuor, are pronounced a'air, ma'air, bra'air, 
kai'er. Cath, cathair (Welsh cad, cader), fathast, leth, are ca', 
ca'air, fa'ast, le'. Thighearn, thigh, Thomais (vocative of Tomas), 
Theurlach (genitive of Teurlach, Charles), are pronounced hee-arn, 
hee or high, homish, hairlach. Now the Lowland Scottish dialects, 
all along the Celtic border-line, or in districts where the Teutonic 
has only lately superseded the Celtic, have a tendency to drop 
the initial ih of unaccented subordinate words and particles. 
Aa'nlc or aa'inh for / thinlc is generally diffused ; and in Caithness 
we hear not only at, but ee, ay, aim, an, air, are, for that, the, 
they, thaim, than, thair, thare. In the West of Forfar and Fife, 
South of Perth, in Kinross, Clackmannan, etc., the article is regu- 
larly abbreviated into ee " ee haid o ee toon, ee haid ee toon, pyt 
ee braid i' ee press " (the head of the town put the bread in the 
press). 1 After disappearing in Clydesdale and Lothian this pecu- 
liarity crops up again in Galloway, a district which was Celtic in 
the 16th century. Lest in these districts, and Caithness in par- 

1 The definite article de, den, has Glossary, p. xxiii.) At an earlier time 

also been contracted into e, «, in South the Norse at and en themselves were 

Jutland, as a By, e Barn, e Bynder, doubtless from the j>at and Jen (dat, 

e hele Hus, the town, the bairn, the denn) of the first Germanic occupants 

farmers, the whole house (Det Danske of the Scandinavian peninsulas, and 

Folksprog in Sonderjyllandved J. Kok, perhaps by similar contact with a pre- 

quoted in Introduction to Cleveland existent language. 


ticular, this peculiarity should be claimed as Norwegian (although. 
it extends to words never so contracted in Norse), we have a con- 
clusive example in the interesting dialect of Barony Forth, in 
County Wexford, Ireland. The baronies of Forth and Bargy 
were occupied by an isolated colony of Strongbow's followers in 
1169, who have preserved almost to the present day a remarkable 
form of speech, being a very archaic stage of English (with verbal 
-eth singular and plural, as in Chaucer, the ye- prefix to past parti- 
ciples, etc.), modified in pronunciation and glossary by the native 
Irish, by which it was surrounded, especially in this matter of the 
aphasresis of initial th, as may be seen in the following passages : 

Yn eroha an ol o' whilke yt beeth In ever-each and all of which it beeth 

wi' gleezomo' core 'thoureene dwytbeth with joy of heart that our eyen looketh 

apan ee Vigere o' dicke zouvereine, npon the Viceroy of thilk sovereign 

Wilyame ee Vourthe, nnnere fose William, the fourth, under whose 

fatherlie zwae ure dai-ez be ye-spant ; fatherly sway our days are y-spent ; 

az avare ye trad dicke lone yer name as before you trode thilk land your name 

waz ye-kent var ee Vriene o' Livertie was y-known for the friend of liberty 

an he fo braak ee neckar-ez o' zlaves. and he who broke the halters of slaves. 

Mang ourzels — var wee dwytheth an Among ourselves — for we look on 

Eerloane, as ure general haime — /ast Ireland as our common home — you have 

be ractzom n' hoane ye-delt t'ouz ee byrighteousnessofhand.y-dealttousthe 

laas ye-mate var ercha vassale, ne'er laws y-made for ever-each subject, never 

dwylhen na dicke waie nar dicka. looking to thilk side nor to thilk {i.e. 

this nor that), 

Wee dwitheth ye ane fose daiez bee gien Welookonyouasonewhosedaysbegiven 

var ee gudevare, o' ee lone ye zwae, for the well-fare, of the land you sway 

t' avance pace an livertie an wi' oute toadvancepeaceandliberty.and without 

vlynch, ee garde o' general reights an flinching,theguardofcommonrightsand 

poplare vartiie. public virtue. 

(From Address to the Viceroy, 1836.) 

Mot w' all aar boust, hi soon was ee-teight 
At aar errone was var aam ing aar angish ee-height 
Zitch vezzeen, tarvizzeen, tell than w' ne'er zey 
Nor zitchel n'e'er well, nowe, nore ne'er mey. 

Ha-ho ! be mee coshes, th'ast ee-pait it, co Joane ; 
T'oure w' thee crokeen, an yie mee thee hoane. 
He at nouth fad t'zey, Uean vetch ee man 
Twish thee an Tommeen, an ee emothee knaghane. 

(From a " Tola Zong.") 
But with all their boasting, they were soon y-taught 
That their errand was for them in their anguish y-heightened, 
Such driving and struggling, till then we ne'er saw, 
Nor such never will, no, nor never may. 

Hey-bo ! by my conscience thou hast y-paid it quoth John ; 
Give over with thy croaking, and give me thy hand. 
He that knows what to say, mischief fetch the man 
Twixt thee and Tommie and the emmet-hill (knockan) 

(From an " Old Song.") 
Aar was a weddeen ee Ballymore 
An aar was a hundereth lauckeen vowre score. 
There was a wedding in Bally-more 
And there was a hundred lacking four score. 1 

1 A Glossary (with some Pieces of Wexford, Ireland. Collected by Jacob 
Verse) of the Old Dialect of the English Poole. Edited by W. Barnes, B.D. 
Colony of Forth and Bargy, County of London : J. B. Smith, 1867. 



To the Scottish philologer this dialect is of importance in more 
respects than one. Not only does the aphasresis of initial ih 
illustrate the similar forms in some Scottish dialects, but the same 
(or a similar) Celtic influence which has changed the hwo, Tiwose, 
hwat, hwan, hware, of Strongbow's English followers into fo, fose, 
faad, fan, far, has changed the hwa, hwas, hwat, hwan, hwar, of 
the Angles and Flemings of the north-east, and Norwegians of the 
north, into the faa, faa's, fat, fan, faar of Aberdeen, Caithness, 
Angus, and Moray. The same (or a similar) influence which 
has in Barony Forth produced loane, hoane, sthoan, eiloane from 
the old Southern English lond, hond, stond, ilond, has in Scotland 
produced laan', haan', staan', Melan's, wherever the Teutonic has 
come in peaceful contact with the Celtic, the original land, hand, 
stand, heelands, being retained in the old Angle area of the 
south-east. There is therefore as much to be said for the Celtic 
as for the Norse influence in at ; and what has been shown with 
regard to at, may mutatis mutandis be shown, I believe, of much 
else that passes as Danish. 

§ 11. From the fourteenth century onwards, Scotland presents 
a full series of writers in the Northern dialect, 1 which, as spoken 

1 Among the earliest connected 
specimens must be placed the fragments 
of Scottish songs relating to the siege 
of Berwick, 1296, and the hattle of 
Bannockburn, IS 14, preserved by the 
English chronicler Fabyan, which, al r 
though they have suffered somewhat in 
orthography, retain the characteristi- 
cally Northern grammatical inflexions. 
What wenys kynge Edwarde, with his 

lange shankys, 
To have wonne Berwyk all our 

vnthankys ? 

Gaas pykes hym 

And when he had it 
Gaas dykes hym. 
Maydins of England sore may ye morne, 
For your lemmans ye haue loste at 


Wyth heue a lowe, 
What wenyt the kynge of England 
So soone to have wonne Scotlande, 

Wyth rumbylow. 
To these may be added the well- 
known fragment, contrasting the peace 
and plenty of the reign of Alexander 
III. with the calamities of the inter- 
regnum and war with England, which 
followed his death, thus introduced by 
Wyntown into his CronyMl (Royal 
MS. 17 d. xx., leaf 1904, newnumber- 
ing-Bk. VII., chap, x., 1. 521 of Mac- 
pherson's edition) : — • 
A boll off ben?, for awcht or ten, 

In comowne pryse sawld wes Jen ; 

ffor Sextene a boll off qwhete, 

Or fore twenty, be derth wes grete. 

pis falyhyd fra he deyd suddanly ; 

pis sang wes made off hym for-J>i: — 
" Quhen 1 Alysandw oure kyng wes dede, 

pat Scotland led in luwe and le, 
Away wes sons off ale and brede, 

Off wyne and wax, off gamy« and gle ; 
Oure gold was changyd m to lede, 

Cryst borne in to viVgynyte, 
Succoure Scotland, and remede 

pat stad in his p«-plexyte." 

As a specimen of the language, how- 
ever, these lines cannot, with certainty, 
be placed earlier than the date of the 
CronyMl (1430). Indeed every MS. 
of Wyntown gives us a different version 
of them, the variations being instruc- 
tive as to the fate of poems handed 
down by popular tradition. Thus the 
Harleian MS. 6909 has : — 

Sen Alexander our king wes deid, 

Away wes sones of aill & bread, 

That Scotland left of lust & le, 

Of wyne and wax, of gamyr & gle. 

The gold wes changeit all in leid, 
The fruit failjcit on evil- ilk tre ; 

Ihum succour and send remeid, 
That stad is in perplexitie. 

1 Pronounce A'lsander or E'lshander, in 
three syllables, as Btill used in some parts 
of Scotland. Sons, fullness, abundance, the 
root of sonsy. 


and written in this country, may be conveniently divided into 
three periods. The first, or early period, during which the 
literary use of this dialect was common to Scotland, with England 
north of the Humber, extends from the date of the earliest 
specimens to the middle or last quarter of the fifteenth century. 
The second, or middle period, during which the literary use 
of the northern dialect was confined to Scotland (the midland 
dialect having supplanted it in England), extends from the close 
of the- fifteenth century to the time of the Union. The third, 
or modern period, during which the northern dialect has ceased 
to be the language of general literature in Scotland also, though 
surviving as the speech of the people and the language of popular 
poetry, extends from the union of the kingdoms to the present 

§ 12. The language of the early period may be called Early 
Lowland Scotch, at least that of the early Scottish writers. In 
point of fact it is simply the northern English, which was spoken 
from the Trent and Humber to the Moray Eorth, and which 
differed characteristically from the Midland English, which 
adjoined it on the South, and still more from the Southern 
English which prevailed beyond the Thames. 1 The final division 
of the Northan-hymbrian territory — over which the King of Scots 
had at times held dominion as far south as the Tees, and the King 
of England claimed supremacy as far north as the Eorth — between 
the two kingdoms, produced no sudden break in the common 
language. Previous to the War of Independence, the relations of 
the owners of the soil in this territory were such that the division 
was more nominal than real ; and even after that struggle, which 
made every one either an Englishman or a Scotchman, and made 
English and Scotch names of division and bitter enmity, Barbour 
at Aberdeen, and Eichard Eolle de Hampole near Doncaster, wrote 
for their several countrymen in the same identical dialect. It is 
not, of course, implied that in the matter of orthography, in 
which every man did that which was right in his own eyes — and 
ears — and in which every copying clerk altered the spelling 01 
his original to suit his own taste or convenience, there was 
absolute uniformity, although, even in this matter, the older our 
examples are, the closer is the agreement. The following spe- 
lt is to "be regretted that Macpherson, of the two lines is evidently " Succour 
in his printed edition of Wyntown — Scotland, and remedy that state (or 
implicitly copied, apparently, by all stead f) in its perplexity." 
subsequent writers— instead of follow- 1 For the distinguishing charac- 

ing the contemporary Eoyal MS., teristics of the three great English 
altered the last line after this garbled dialects of the 13th and 14th centuries, 
copy, reading : — the reader is referred to Mr. R. Morris's 

Succour Scotland, and remede, " Specimens of Early English," and his 

That stad is in perplexyte, numerous contributions to English 

which is simply nonsense, although philology in the proceedings of the 
Dr. Jamieson makes stad a past parti- Philological, and publications of the 
ciple, meaning placed. The meaning Early English Text Society. 


cimens show the identity of the Northern dialect in England and 
Scotland, and illustrate the difficulty experienced in judging, from 
internal evidence alone, whether a given production of the period 
was written north or south of the Tweed. They consist of: 

1. Passages from the Northern version of Cursor Mundi, written, 
near Durham, about 1275-1300 (while Alexander III. reigned in 
Scotland), and preserved in an orthography not much later. 

2. Extracts from the Early Scottish Laws, the Latin originals of 
which date to the reign of David I., William the Lion, &c. ; and 
the vernacular translations to the end of the fourteenth and begin- 
ning of the fifteenth century. 3. Passages from Barbour's Brus, 
written at Aberdeen about 1375 ; but as the existing MSS. are 
more recent by a century, the extracts are taken from the passages 
incorporated by Wyntown in his " Orygynal Cronykil of Scot- 
land," 1419-30, and preserved in the Eoyal MS. 17 d. xx., of 
date 1430-40. 4. The same passages from John Bamsay's 
transcript of Barbour in 1489, assimilated to the orthography of 
that later period. 5. An Extract from The Craft of Beyng, one of 
the 15th c. Scottish pieces contained in Camb. Univ. MS. K.K. 1, 5, 
and important as being, with exception of some of the older trans- 
lations of the laws, and other formal documents, perhaps the most 
archaic specimen of Scottish prose yet published. 6. Prom Ham- 
pole's " Pricke of Conscience," written near Doncaster early in the 
fourteenth century, but of which the MS. is not earlier than the 
beginning of the fifteenth, and the orthography influenced by that 
of the Midland English. 7. Prom the prose works attributed to 
Hampole in the Thornton MS., of which the orthography is also 
somewhat modified, but, upon the whole, more Northern ; and 
8. Specimens of contemporary date with the Thornton MS., from 
the Acts of the Scottish Parliament of James I. and James II. 

The identity of the language of these works may be studied, 
first, in the words and word -forms, such as wone, mirkness, hyggin, 
gar, tynsel, pouste, reaute, to-morn, barne, dede, mekyll, mare, maste, 
kynrik, quhilk, swilk, ilka, swa, quha, stane, aid, cald, liald, aucht, 
ga, gang, gede, gane, tas, tane, ma, mas, sal, sould, wald, chese, ane, 
twa, nowcht, na, wrang, lang, nathyng, bath, ryn, hyng, hym, kyng, &c. 

Secondly, in the grammatical inflections : the irregular plurals, 
brether, childer, kye, gait, schone, &o. ; .the possessive, as in his 
fader broder, his syster sone, the childer ayris ; the indefinite 
article identical with the numeral, a before a consonant, ane or an 
otherwise ; the demonstratives, thir, tha ; distinction between 
tha and ihay ; the pronouns, scho, thay, thair, thame ; the relative, 
at ; the forms, whatkyn, alkyn, nakyn, swylkin, the tane, the tother ; 
the verbal inflections, thow cumis, clerkes sayis, we that lyves ; the 
participle, in and, and gerund in ing, falland, fallyng ; preterites, 
like fand, rayse, &c. ; the negative, nocht, noght ; the preposition, 
tyl, for to, &o. 

Thirdly, in the orthography, in which we notice that the 


guttural was originally gh, both with English and Scottish writers, 
but with the latter gradually changed into ch; the Ags. hw 
became first qw, qu, afterwards quh, qwh, and, in England, at length 
wh ; sh, originally se, became, in both, sch, upon which the Mid- 
land English sh intrudes ; i and y are interchanged ; the past 
participle in-yd in the oldest Scotch, as in English, but later 
changed into -yt. 

1. — Cursor Mundi, or Cursor o "Worlde (Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii.) 
God's creative might. 
Quat man mai wiit, quat man mai lere 
Quat man may se, quat ere may here 
Quat man in erth mai thine in thoght 
Hu al f is werld ur laverd wroght, 
Heven and erth al in fair haldes, 
fat mighti godd fat alle waldes ? 
Qua can sai me hu of a sede (i. e. ae seid) 
He dos an hundret for to brede ? 
Thoru his mighti wille dos fat king 
Ute of the erd tre to spring 
ffrst the lef and sithen f e flur 
And fan f e frut with his savur 
Ilkin frut in his sesun . . . 

The "Resurrection. 

Sua haali sal f ai fan rise fare, 

pam sal noght want a hefd hare, (i. e. one hair of the head) 

Ne noght a nail o fote ne hand ; 

pof-quether, we sal understand 

pat nail and hare fat haf ben scorn, (i. e. schorn) 

Bes noght al quar f ai war beforn ; 

Bot als potter with pottes dos, 

Quen be his neu wessel fordos, 

He castes al fan in a balle, 

A better for to mak with-alle ; 

O noght he lokes quilk was quilk 

Bot maks a nother of fat ilk 

Wei fairer fan f e first was wroght ; 

Eight sua sal crist, ne dut f e noght. 
Here the Anglo-Saxon u (and even the French ou) is still 
represented by u, which in later times was written on, u alone 
being reserved for the French u. The vowels remain simple, ai 
and ei, being used only to represent an original diphthong, mai, 
nail. Qu and sc prepare the way for the Scotch quh, sch, for 
which the English afterwards substituted wh and sh. 

2. — The Old Scottish Laws (Acta Parlm. Scott., vol. i.). 
pe blude of f e hede of ane erl or of a kinges son is ix ky. 
Item f e blud of f e sone of ane erl is vi ky or of a thayn. Item 


}e blude of Je sone of a thayne is iii ky. Item Je blud of )>e 
nevo of a thayn is twa ky and twa pert a kow. Item J>e blud of a 
carl (rustici) a kow. — Leges inter Scottos et Brettos. 

Giff ony be tane with. J>e laff (loaf — pane) of a halpenny in 
burgh, he aw throu ]>e toun to be dungyn. And for a halpenny 
worth to iiij penijs worth, he aw to be mar fayrly (A.S. faeger) 
dungyn. And for a pair of schone of iiij penijs he aw to be put 
on the cuk stull, and efter ]>at led to }>e hed of je toune and Jar he 
sail forsuer ]?e toune. And fra iiij penijs till viij penijs and a 
ferthing he sail be put upon ]>e cuk stull, and efter Jat led to ]>e 
hed of }e toune and J>er he at tuk hym aw to out his eyr 
(A.S. ear, South, ejr) of. And fra viij penijs and a ferding to 
xvj penijs and a obolws he sail be set apone Je cuk stull and efter 
)>at led to J?e hed of J;e toune, and J?er he at tuk hym aw to cut his 
uther ear of. And efter J>at, gif he be tane with viij penijs and a 
ferding he Jat takis hym sail hing hym. Item for xxxij penijs j 
obi he fat takis a man may hing hym. — Fragmenta Vetusta, ii. t 

It is to wyt J>at all playntis Je quhilkis ar in burgh sail be 
endyt wythin }e burgh, out-takyn )>a at fallis to ]>e kyngis croune 
— Leges Quatuor Burgorum, vj. 

pa landis at war gottyn in }>e tyme of J?e fyrst wyffe sail turn 
agayne to }e childer ayris of ]?e first wyffe. — Ibid, xxiv. 

Nane aldirman, bailje (French bailli), na beddell sail bake brede 
na brew ale to sell wythin Jar awin propir house durande \e tym 
Jiat Jai stande in office. — Ibid, lix. 

Baxtaris at bakis brede to sell sail bake quhyte brede and gray 
eftir )>e consideraoion and prise of )>e gud men of J?e toune eftir as 
J;e sesson askis . . . And quha Jmt bakis brede to sell aw nocht 
for to hyde it, but sett it in Jair wyndow, or in )>e mercat Jat 
it may be opynly sauld. — Ibid, lx. 

Gif ony man fyndis his bonde in the fayre, the quhilk is fra 
hym fled, quhil the pece of the fayre is lestande, he may nocht of 
lauch chace na tak hym. — Ibid, lxxxviii. 

Gif a leil man passis thruch a wildernesse or thruch woddis, 
and seis a man Jat he weil knawis leddand a hors or an ox, or 
suilk othir maner of gudis, and he knawis nocht quha Jat it aucht, 
and syn it be spent at hym be ony man J?at Jrn said gudis hes tynt, 
gif he wyst ocht of suilk maner of gudis, and gif he sayis Jat he 
saw sic a thyng in Je hand of sic a man, he aw to suer ]»at sa it is, 
as he sais, and syn \e tothir sal seik to his gudis. And gif forsuth 
he Jat challangis Je gudis sais wytterly j?at he hes art and part of 
]>a gudis takyng, and Jat he wald pruff eftir Je assyse of ]>e land, 
Jat he J>at sa is challangyt, gif he be fre man and worthi to fecht, 
wyth his awyn hand he sal defend hym thruch bataile. — Assise 
Begis Davidis, xx. 

Here ou has come into use for the Anglo-Saxon u (u being used 


for Ags. o), but the other vowels generally remain simple. The 
qu and sc of Cursor Mundi have become quh and sch ; and ch is 
seen generally taking the place of gh as the symbolisation of the 
guttural. Final e also becomes more abundant, but, upon the whole, 
the language approaches closely to that of the former specimen. 

3. — Andro of "Wyntown's Extracts from Barbour's Brus in 
' the " Cronykil," (ab. 1440.) 

Qwhen Alysandyre oure kyng wes dede, 
pat Scotland had. to stere and lede, 
pe land, sex yhere and mayr perfay, 
Wes desolate eftyr his day. 
pe barnage off Scotland, at Je last, 
Assemlyd ]?ame and fandyt fast 
To cheft a kyng fare land to stere, 
pat off Awncestry cummyn were 
Off kyngis )?at aucht ]>at Eeawte, 
And mast had rycht fare kyng to be. 
Bot Inwy fat is fellowne 
Amang fame mad dissensiown. 

o ts » * 

A 1 blynd folk,, fulle of all foly, 
Had yhe wmbethowch[t] yowe inkyrly 
Quhat peryle to jowe mycht appere, 
Yhe had noucht wroucht on f is manere. 
Had yhe tane kepe how fat fat kyng, 
Off Walys, for-owtyn sudiowrnyng, 
Trawalyd to wyn f e Senhowry, 
And throw his mycht till occupy 
Landys, fat ware till hym merchand, 
As "Walys wes and als Irland, 
pat be put till sic threllage, 
pat f ai fat ware off hey parage 
Suld ryn on fwte als rybalddale, 
Quhen ony folk he wald assale 
Durst nane off Walis in batale ryd, 
Na yhit fra evyn fell, a-byde 
Castell or wallyd towne wytfe-in, 
pan he suld lyff and lymmis tyne, 
In till swylk thryllage fame held he 
pat he oure-come wyth his powste. 
Yhe mycht se, he suld occupy 
Throwch slycht, fat he na mycht frow maystn. 
Had yhe tane kepe quhat was threllage, 
And had corasydryd his oysage, 
pat grypyd ay, but gayne-gyvyng, 
Yhe suld, for-owtyn his demyng, 


Hawe chosyn yhowe a kyng ]>at mycht 
Hawe haldyn welle yhoure land at rycht. 
Walis ensawmpill mycht hawe bene, 
To yhow, had yhe It before sene. 
Quha will be o);ir hym-selff chasty 
Wyft men sayis, he is happy, 
And pe»-ylowifa thyngis may fall perfay, 
Als well to-morne as yhystyr-day 
Bot yhe trastyd in lawte, 
As Sympil folk but mawvite, 
And wyst noucht quhat suld eStyr tyde ; 
For in )>is warld ]>at is sa wyd, 
Is nane determyne may, na sail 
Knaw thyngis bat ar for to fall : 
For God, bat is off mast powste 
KefWwyt bat till hys Maiestd. 

4. — Barbouk. The same passage from John Bamsay's transcrip- 
tion of the Brus, towards the close of the century (1489). 1 

Quhen Alexander be king wes deid, 
That Scotland haid to steyr and leid, 
The land vj jer, and mayr perfay, 
Lay desolat eftyr hys day ; 
Till bat be barnage at be last 
Assemblyt J7aim, and fayndyt fast 
To cheyfi a king bar land to ster, 
pat off awncestry cummyn wer 
Off kingis, bat aucht bat reawte 
And mayst had rycht bair king to be. 
Bot enwy, bat is sa feloune, 
Maid amang bairn gret discencioun. 

«» o « « 

A ! blynd folk full of all foly ! 
Haid je wmbethocAt jow enkrely, 
Quhat perell to jow mycht apper, 
}e had nocht wrocM on that maner : 
Haid ;e tane keip how at bat king 
Alwayis, for-owtyn soiournyng, 
Trawayllyt for to wyn senjhory, 
And throw his mycM till occupy 
Landis, bat war till him marcheand, 
As walis was, and als Ireland ; 

1 From Mr. Skeat's edition of the printed in old books, Mr. Skeat prints 

Brus for the Early Eng. Text Soo. th italic. It is here printed J>, the 

The thorn ()>), which was by this time letter intended by the MSS. 
confounded in writing with y, and so 


pat he put to swylk thrillage, 

That Jrai, \at war off hey parage, 

Suld ryn on fute, as rebaldaill, 

Quhen he wald our folk assaill. 

Durst nane of Walis in bataill ride ; 

Na yhet, fra ewyn fell, abyd 

Castell or wallyt toune witA-in, 

pat he ne suld lyff and lymmys tyne-. 

In-to swilk thrillage j>aim held he, 

pat he ourcome throw his powste. 

Je myc/it se he suld occupy 

Throw slycht, ];at he ne mycht throw maistn. 

Had je tane kep quhat was thrillag, 

And had consideryt his vsage, 

pat gryppyt ay, but gayne-gevyng, 

}e suld, for-owtyn his demyng, 

Haiff chosyn jow a king ]>at mycM 

Have haldyn veyle J;e land in ryeht. 

Walys ensample niycAt have bene 

To ;ow, had je It forow sene. 

J?at be obiV will him chasty, 

And wyn men sayis he is happy. 

For wnfayr thingis may fall perfay, 

Alfi weill to-morn as jhisterday. 

Bot je traistyt in lawte, 

As sympile folk, but mawyte ; 

And wyst nocht quhat suld eftor tyd. 

Tor in Jjis warld, ]>at is sa wyde, 

Is nane determynat J;at sail 

Knaw thingis \at ar to fall ; 

But god jjot is off maist poweste, 

Reserwyt till his maieste, 

For to knaw, in his prescience, 

Off alkyn tyme the rnowenoe. 

In the later transcription of Barbour we note the greater fre- 
quency of the orthographic peculiarities of the Scottish writers of 
the Middle period, ai, ay, and ei, ey, being used for the older a 
and e. Thus, deid, leid, weill, cheys, steyr, keip — travayll, bataill, 
ihaim, (hair, mayst, maid, traist, haiff, haid, faynd, represent the 
older, dede, lede, well, chese, stere, Jcepe — travail, batale, (ham, thar, 
mast, mad, trast, have, had, fund. In the 16th c. all long a's and 
e's were represented by ai and ei, which in early times were used 
only for an original diphthong Anglo-Saxon or French. Observe 
also the change of the Ags. and Eng. past participle in d, 
assemlyd, travallyd, wallyt, consydryd, grypyd, trastyd, used 
by Wyntown, into the Middle Scotch form in t, assembly*, 
travaylytf, wallyi, consideryi, gryppyi, traistyt. 

36 historical introduction. 

5. — The Cbaft of Deyng. 1 

Efter the dear [i.e. dier] be informyt of thir temptaciouws, at 
will be put to hyme, he fuld be demamdyt, Fyrft, gyf he be blyth 
at he deis in the faith of crift and of haly kirk, and fyne gyf he 
grantis at he has nocht leuit rye At wyfly, as he aucht to do, and 
gyf he forthinkis his myfdedis, and gif he has wyll to mend thai™ 
at his poware. Syne fuld he ask at hym, gyf he trowis that crift, 
godis fonne our lord, deit for hym, and al fynaris ; and gif he 
thankes hyme thar of vrith al his hart, And gyf he trowis ony 
o]>er ways than be the faith of hym and ded to be fauf. Than 
byd hyme be ftark and fykir in that faith, and have hop of nan 
vthir thinge for temptacioune of the deuill : and gif thi fynis be 
laid befor the by the angell gud or 111, fay than, " the paffiourae of 
crift I put betuex me and my fynis, & betuex me and the eternall 
ded, the ded of cri&." And alfua, he fuld be examynit in the 
arteclis of the treuth, that is to fay, gyf he trowis in the fa^er, and 
in the fone, and the haly gaift, and ane anerly god, makar of 
hevyne and erde ; and in our lord Ihesu crift, anerly lone to god 
by natur, at our lady mary euervyrgne confauit by ]>e werkis of 
the haly gaist, but feid of man : the quhilk tholyt ded one the 
cor ft, for ws fynaris, and was grawyne and difcendyt to hell, to 
radem our eldaris at had hope of his cumyne. The quhilk raift 
one the thrid day, fra ded to lyf, one his awne mycht, and aftendyt 
to hevyne, & fytis one his faderis ryeftt hand, and fra thyne, in 
the famyne wyft as he paflyt, is to cum agan one domys day to 
lug all mankynd. Als he fuld trow in the haly gaist, & in the 
bydingis of haly kirk, and the facramentis ]>arof. He Suld trow 
Alfua, in the refurrectiouwe of al mem, that is to fay, at the fam 
body and faull, as now is, fal met to-gyddyr and tholl perpetuall 
Ioy or payne. He fuld noofet anerly trow in thir xii arteclis, bot 
als in the haly wryt, and haf his hart rady to do thar-to, as his 
curat chargis hyme ; and he fal fbrfak al herefyfi ande wichcraftj's, 
forbydin[g] be haly kyrk. Als ]>e fek maw fuld afk mercy with 
al his hart, of the fynis done agane )>e lufe, gudnes, and mycht of 
god, and erar for the luf of god, than for the dred of ony payne ; 
alfua, he fuld fykirly think that in cafi he mend of that feknes, 
that he fal neuer wylfully fyne in thai fynis, na in na vthir dedly : 
For in the thocht, at the faull paflys fra the body [it] is tan For 
euer, and thar after ched or rewardyt ay leftandly, as the angellis 
was in the begynyng. 

Comparing this with the extract from Wyntown, we see at once 
the striking similarity of the language. Although here the past 
participle ends in -yt instead of -yd, the orthography of the Middle 
Period otherwise scarcely appears in it. Its close correspondence 
with the following specimens from Hampole is no less marked :— 

1 Ratis Raving, and other Moral KK. 1, 6, by J. Rawson Lumby, M.A. 
and Religious Pieces, in Prose and Early Eng. Text Soo., 1870. 
Verse. Ed., from Camb. Univ. MS. t 


6. — Hampole's Pbicke of Conscience, 1 

The miseries of old age. — 1. 766. 

Bot als tyte as a man waxes aide, 

pan waxes his kynde wayke and calde, 

pan chaunges his complexcion 

And his maners and his condioion ; 

pan waxes his hert hard and hevy, 

And his heved 1 feble and dysy ; i head. 

pan waxes his gaste seke and sare, 

And his face rouncles, ay mare and mare ; 

His mynde es shorte whan he oght thynkes, 

His nese ofte droppes his and 2 stynkes, s breath. 

His sight waxes dym pat he has, 

His bak waxes croked, stoupand he gas. 

Fyngers and taes, fote and hande, 

Alle his touches er tremblande : 

His werkes forworthes bat he bygynnes, 

His hairo moutes, his eghen 3 rynnes : a ey en, eyes. 

His eres waxes deef, and hard to here, 

His tung fayles, his speche is noght clere, 

His mouthe slavers, his tethe rotes, 

His wyttes fayles, and he ofte dotes ; 

He es lyghtly wrath, and waxes fraward, 

Bot to turne hym fra wrethe, it es hard ; 

He souches and trowes sone a thyng, 

Bot ful late he turnes fra J?at trowyng ; 

He es covatous, and hard-haldand, 

His chere es drery and his sembland ; 

He es swyft to spek on his manere, 

And latsom and slaw for to here ; 

He prayses aid men and haldes bam wyse, 

And yhung men list him oft despyse ; 

He loves men )>at in aid tyme has bene, 

He lakes J>e men J?at now er sene ; 

He es ofte seke and ay granand, 

And ofte angerd, and ay pleynand ; 

All j>ir, thurgh kynd, to an aid man falles, 

pat clerkes propertes of eld calles. 

pe last ende of mans lyfe es harde 

pat es, when he drawes to ded-warde ; 

When he es seke, and bedreden lys, 

And swa feble ]>at he may noght rys. 

1 The Pricke of Conscience : A Nor- (from MS. Cotton-G-alba E. ix.V pnb- 
thnmbrian Poem, by Richard Eolle de fished for the Philological Society by 
Hampole. Edited by Kichard Morris A. Asher and Co., Berlin, 1863. 


Dam Fortone and hir Whele. — 1. 1273. 

Bot with the world comes dam fortone 
pat aythir hand may ohaunge[e] sone ; 
For sho turns about ay hir whele, 
Up and doune, als many may fele ; 
When sho hir whele lates about ga, 
Sho turnes sum doune fra wele to wa, 
And, eft, agaynward, fra wa to wele ; 
pus turnes sho oft obout hir whele, 
pe whilk thir clerkes noght elles calles 
Bot happe or chaunce pat sodanli falles 
And pat men haldes here noght elles, 
Bot welthe and angre in whilk men duelles. 
parfor worldly happe es ay in dout 
Whilles dam fortune turnes hir whele about. 

The broad and the narrow way. — 1. 1394. 

pis world es pe way and passage 
purgh whilk lyes our pilgrymage 
By pis way by-hoves us al gang, 
Bot be we war we ga noght wrang ; 
For in pis world liggis twa ways 
Als men may fynd pat pam assays 
pe tane es way of pe dede calde, 
pe tother es way of lyfe to halde 
pe way of dede semes large and eesy 
And pat may lede us ouer-lightly, 
CJn-tU pe grysly land of mirknes 
par sorow and pyn ever-mare es. 
pe way of lyfe semes narow and harde 
pat ledes us til our contre-warde 
pat es pe kyngdom of heven bright 
Whare we sal won ay in Goddes sight 
And Goddes awen sons pan be calde 
If we pe way of lyfe here halde. 

Here the orthography of the adjacent Midland English has 
caused the substitution of wh for quh, in most cases, although 
instances of the latter also occur, e.g. lines 1165, 1354, 

He says pe world es na thyng elles 
Bot ane hard exil in qwilk men duelles. 

pe quilk als says wyse men and witty 
Onence God is bot folly. 

This MS. also uses the more modern s^ for the older seh, which 
occurs in other MSS. of the same work, and in the following, 
which is also in other respects more characteristically northern, 


7. — Hampole's Prose Works. 1 

" Of the vertus of the Haly name of Ihesu :" from a sermon of 
Richard the Hermit on Canticles i. 3. (page 4). 

Allanely Jay may joye in Ihesu Jat lufes hym in Jis lyfe, and 
Jay Jat fyles jam with, -vices and venemous delittes, na drede J?at 
ne Jay ere putt owte of joye. Also with all Jat Je name of 
Ihesu es helefull fruytfull and glorious. Thare-fore wha sail 
haue hele Jat lufes it noghte, or wha sal bere Je frwytt before 
Cnste Jat has noghte the floure, and joy sail he noghte see Jat 
joyeande luffede noghte Je name of Ihesu. The wykkede sal 
be done awaye Jat he see noghte Je joye of God. Sothely e 
ryghtwyse sekys Je joye and Je lufe and Jay fynd it in Ihesu 
whaym Jay luffede. I gede abowte be covatyse of reches and I 
fande noghte Ihesu. I rane Je wantonnes of flesche and I fand 
noght Ihesu. In all thir(e) I soghte Ihesu bot I fand hym 
noghte, ffor he lett me wyete by his grace Jat he ne is funden in 
Je land of [Je] softly lyfand. . . . Sekyrly may he or scho 
chese to lyfe anely Jat has chosene Je name of Ihesu to thaire 
specyalle, for thare may na wykked spyrite noye Jare Ihesu es 
mekyll in mynde or is nevenyd in mouthe. 

8. — Acts of the Parliament op Scotland, under 
James I. and James II. 

Alsua it is seyn speidfull, Jat all taxatouris Je tyme of Jar 
extent, warne all rnaner of man Jat of all Jair gudis Jat ar 
taxit bathe of bestw, corn, and vthir gudis, within xv dais nixt 
eftiV following Je taxt, Je payment be redy in siluer and golde 
as is befor wntyne. And gif at Je ende of Je saide xv dais, 
Je payment be nocht redy, Je officiary of ilk schyrefdome sail 
tak of ilk maw Jat warnys paymewt a kow for v s a jowe 
or a wedder for xij d. a gait a gymmer or a dynmont for viij d 
a wilde meire and hir folowar for x s, a colt of thre jere and 
mare of eild xiij s iiij d. a boll of quhet xij d. a boll of 
ry, bere, or peift viij d. a boll of aitis iij d. And. gif Je scMref 
takis Jar gudis, he sail ger Je lorde of Je lande, gif he may be 
gottin, pay Je taxt to Je king and deliuer Je gudis till him. And 
gif he will nocAt, Je scMref sail ger sell Je gudis at Je nixt 
mercat day or sende Jame to Je king on Je kingis costis quhar Je 
king or his deputis ordanys. — Acta Jacobi I., 1424. 

Item, it is ordanit Jat of ilk sek of wol Jat sal pafi out of 
Scotland, Je Scottjs merehande gif he sailys JerwitA, or Je Scotfas 
merchande Jat sellys it to strangearis sal fynde sickar souerte to 

1 English Prose Treatises of Richard coin Cathedral, by George G. Perry, 

Rollede Hampole (who died a.d. 1349), M.A., London. Early English Text 

Edited from Robert Thornton's MS. Society. No. 20. j 
(cir. 1440 a.d.) in the Library of Lin- 


}e custumari's of J>e portts quhare J»e schippis sailys to bring hame 
in Scotlande to ]>e maister of ]>e kingis mone thre vnce of buljeon. 
And of a last of hydis al6 mekill as of three sekkis of wol. And 
of v hamburghe barellys alft mekill as of a sek of wol. And of 
\]>er gudis )>at aw na custum or }>at aw custum efter he frauobt of 
]>e serplaithe ; )>at is to say, it at payis as a serplaithe in fraucht 
sail bring thre vnce of buljeon hame under ]>e payne of tynsal of 
alfi mekill buljeon as hay sulde bring hame to be applyit to }e 
king.— Bid. 1436. 

Item, it is ordanyt for ]>6 distruccione of wolfrs hat in ilk cuwtre 
quhar ony is, ]>e schiref or he bailjeis of J>at cuwtre sail gader J?e 
cuntre' folk Jjre tymis in the jere betuix sanot markis day and 
lammeft for jiat is he tyme of he quhelpis. And quhat euer he be 
hat rysfi nocht with ]>e schirei or ]?e bailje or barone, witMn 
himself he sail pay vnforgeuin a wedder as is contenyt in he 
aulde act maid herapone. And he hot slays ane wolf J?an or ony 
v];er tyme he sail haif of ilk houfi halder of \at parochin hat Je 
wolf is slayne wittm j d. And gif it happyranis ony wolf to cum 
in he cuntre Jot witting is gottyne Jerof j;e curetre salbe redy and 
ilk houshalder to hvnt hame vnder he payne forsaide. And he 
hat slays ane wolf sail bring he hede to he schirei, bailje or barone 
and he salbe dettowr to ]>e slaar for ]>e sovme forsaide. And 
quha ever he be hat slays a fox and bringis he hede to he schiref, 
lorde, barone or bailje he sail haif vj d. — Acta Jacobi II, 1457. 

§ 13. The identity of the language of the Scottish writers of 
the 14th and 15th centuries with that of the northern half of Eng- 
land, during the same period, has been only partially recognized, 
or not recognized at all, by most writers upon the origin of " the 
Scottish language," who, comparing early Scottish fragments with 
specimens of Semi-Saxon and Southern English, such as Layamon, 
the Cuckoo Song, and the Ayenbite of Inwyt — not as Northern 
contrasted with Southern dialect, but as Scotch in contrast with 
English — have, without difficulty, shown that the difference be- 
tween the idioms was much greater then than now, and quite 
enough to warrant their being ranked as distinct languages ; 
whereupon, ignoring the Northern English, or claiming all the 
Northern romances as Scotch, 1 they have asserted for the Scotch 
an origin independent of the Anglo-Saxon, which has been 
variously sought (and found) in the Pictish (whatever that might 
be), the Norwegian, the " Suio-Gothic " — anywhere, indeed, 
rather than in the Old Angle or Northern English of Lothian and 
Northumbria. Allowance will, however, be made for these 
vagaries, when it is remembered how very recent is our know- 
ledge of any facts connected with the distribution and distinguish- 

1 See David Irving's History of any of which are Scotch, and some not 
Scottish Poetry, in which the second even Northern, in language, 
chapter is taken up with works scarcely 


ing characteristics of the dialects of the 13th and 14th centuries — 
a region of research which was all but a terra incognita when 
taken up by Mr. Eichard Morris. His classification of the Early- 
English dialects into Southern, Midland, and Northern, with the 
careful discrimination of their grammatical forms, has introduced 
order and precision into the study, and has contributed more than 
anything to a true appreciation of the position of the Scottish 
varieties of the Northern dialect. But the facts are still far from 
being generally known, 1 and I have repeatedly been amused, on 
reading passages from Cursor Mundi and Hampole to men of 
education, both English and Scotch, to hear them all pronounce 
the dialect " Old Scotch." Great has been the surprise of the latter 
especially on being told that Eichard the Hermit wrote in the 
extreme south of Yorkshire, within a few miles of a locality so 
thoroughly English as Sherwood Forest, with its memories of 
Eobin Hood. Such is the difficulty which people have in sepa- 
rating the natural and ethnological relations in which national 
names originate from the accidental values which they acquire 
through political complications and the fortunes of crowns and 
dynasties, that oftener than once the protest has been made, 
"Then he must have been a Scotchman settled there ;" reminding 
us of the dictum of a learned Scottish judge upon the Pricke of 
Conscience — " You call it Early English, but it is neither more 
nor less than Broad Scots !" To which the reply has been 
given, " Yon call the language of Barbour's Brus and Blind 
Harry's Wallace, of Wyntown, James I., and Dunbar, Scotch; 
but this is only a modern notion, for those writers themselves, 
whose patriotism certainly was not less, while their authority was 
greater than yours, called their language Inglis." The retort has 
certainly the facts on its side. Down to the end of the 15th 
century, there was no idea of calling the tongue of the Lowlands 
Scotch, ; whenever the " Scottish language" was spoken of, what 
was meant was the Gaelic or Erse, the tongue of the original 
Scots, who gave their name to the country. The tongue of the 
Lowlanders was " Inglis," not only as being the tongue of the 
Angles of Lothian and Tweeddale, and as having been introduced 
beyond the Eorth by Anglo-Saxon settlers, but English as 
being the spoken tongue of the northern subjects of the King of 
England, those with whom the subjects of the King of Scotland 

1 Even eo careful a writer as John land Scots of the day." The sentence 

Bill Burton quotes Bishanger's version may represent the chronicler's trams- 

of the taunt offered by the Scots to lation of what was said, but " wanne 

Edward I. at the siege of Berwick, thuhavest"i8characteristically/SOTrfAera 

1296 : — English, and could never have been 

" Kyng Edward wanne thu havest used north of the Hutnber. More truly 

Berwic, pike the; wanne thu havest Northern is the metrical version given 

geten dike the," by Fabyan (see ante. p. 28.) 

as " perhaps the oldest relic of the Low- 


came most immediately in contact. So Andro of Wyntown, in 
introducing his "Orygynal Cronykil," thus explains his plan : — 

Allsua set I rayne Intent 

My wyt, my wyll, and myne talent, 

Era fat I sene hade storis sere, 

In Cronyklys quhare Jai wryttyne were, 

pare matere in-tyll fowrme to drawe, 

Off Latyne in-tyll Ynglys sawe, 

And clerly bryng Jame tyll knawlage, 

Off Latyne intyll owre langage, 

Tyll ilke mawnys wndyrstandyng 

For syndrynes of Jare chawngyng. — Book 1., Prol., 1. 26. 

Barbour (Brus IV. 252) thus translates into his own " Inglis" 
the answer of the nigromansour consulted " be the erl Ferandis 

modir" :— 

Sex ruet in bello, tumulo que carcbit honore. 

This wes J>e spelt he maid perfay, 

As is in Tngbs tonng to say : 

" The king sail fall in the fichting 

And sail fale honour of erding." 

Harry the Minstrel (Wallace, p. 231) says of Wallace's French 
friend, Longueville : — 

Lykly he was, manlik of contenance, 
Lik to the Scottis be mekill governance 
Sauff of his tong, for Ingliss had he nane. 

So Dunbar, in his well-known apostrophe to Chaucer, Gower, 
and Lydgate, at the end of The Golden Terge : — 

reverend Chawcere, Rose of Rethoris all, 
As in oure Tong ane Flouir imperiall, 

That raise in Brittane evir, quho redis rycht, 
Thou beiris of Makaris the Tryumphs riall \ 
Thy fresch anamalit Termes celicall 

This matir couth illumynit have full brycht : 

Was thou noucht of our Ingliseh al the Lycht, 
Surmounting eviry Tong terrestriall 

Als fer as Mayes morow dois Mydnycht. 

morall Gower and Lydgate laureate, 
Jonr sugurit lippis, and Tongis aureate 

Bene til our eris cause of grite delyte ; 
?our angel mouthis maist mellifluate, 
Our rude langage hes clere iltumynate, 

And faire owre-gilt our speche, that imperfyte 

Stude, or jour goldyn pennis schupe to write 
This lie before was bare and disolate 

Off Rethorike or lusty fresch endyte. 

A letter addressed to Henry IV. of England by George, Earl of 
Dunbar, February 18th, 1400, is of such interest, not only from 
the writer's denomination of his language, but also as a dated 
specimen of the current Lowland tongue at an early period, that 
I cannot withstand the temptation of reproducing the concluding 


sentences entire from the careful transcription given by Professor 
Cosmo Innes, in his introduction to the Spalding Club edition of 
Barbour : — 

" And excellent prince, syn that I clayme to be of kyn tyll 
yhow, and it peraventur nocht knawen on yhour parte, I schew it 
to yhour lordschip be this iny lettre that gif dame Alice the Bew- 
mont was yhour graunde dame, dame Mariory Cumyne hyrr full 
sister was my graunde dame on the tother syde, sa that lam bot 
of the feirde degre of kyn tyll yhow, the quhilk in aide tyme was 
callit neir. And syn I am in swilk degre tyll yhow, I requer 
yhow as be way of tendirness thareof and fore my seruice in 
maner as I hafe before writyn, that yhe will vouchesauf tyll help 
me and suppowell me tyll gete amende of the wrangs and the 
defowles that ys done me, sendand tyll me gif yhow lik yhour 
answer of this, with all gudely haste. And noble prince, mervaile 
yhe nocht that I write my lettres in Englis fore that ys mare clere 
to myne understandyng than latyne or Fraunche. Excellent 
mychty and noble prince, the haly Trinite hafe yhow euermar in 
kepyng. Writyn at my Castell of Dunbarr the xviij day of 

" Le Count de la. Marche Descoce." 

§ 14. That " Scottice " meant " in Gaelic," in the reign of 
Macbeth, has been already mentioned. The same meaning con- 
tinued to be attached to the word during the reigns of the early 
Scoto-Saxon kings down to Alexander III. ; and even after the 
War of Independence, John of Fordun (about 1400) expressly 
distinguished the Celtic of the original Scots from the Lowland 
tongue as Scotish. Speaking of his fellow-countrymen, he says 1 : — 
" For two languages are in use among them — the Scotish and 
the Teutonic ; the people using the latter tongue occupy the sea- 
coast and lowland districts ; the people of Scotish language 
inhabit the highlands and the isles beyond." But as Scotland 
became more and more distinct from England, and Scottish became 
confirmed in a political sense, instead of its ancient historical one, 
it was found inconvenient or misleading to apply the name to 
one of the two languages used in the country, and the original 
Celtic tongue of the Scots consequently came to be generally 
known to the Teutonic Lowlanders as Yrisch or Ersch (the 
modern Erse), in allusion to its Irish origin and affinities, al- 
though the Gael themselves distinguish the Gaelig Albannach 
(Scotch Gaelic) from the Gaelig Eiriunnach (Irish). Thus, Sir 
David Lyndesay, in pleading that the people should have all books 
necessary for their faith in their own vulgar tongue, instead of 
Latin, says : — 

1 " Duabus enim utuntur Unguis, giones, linguae gens Scotticae montanas 
Scotica et Teutonica ; hujus linguae inhabitat et insulas ulteriores." — 
gens maritimas possidet et planaa re- " Scotochronicon," vol. i. p. 44. 


Sanct Ierome in his propir toung Bomane 

The law of God he trewlie did transmit, 
Out of Hebrew and Greik, in Latyne plane, 

Quhilk hes bene hid frome ws lang tyme, god wait ! 

Onto this tyme : hot, efter my consait, 
Had Sanct Ierome bene borne in tyll Avgyle 
In to Yrische toung his bukis [he] had done eompyle. 

In the " Plyting " between Dunbar and Kennedy, one of the 
points with which the former poet taunted his rival was his 
extraction from the Irish Scots of Galloway and Carriok, who 
still retained their Celtic tongue, whence he styled him " Ersch 
katherane, 1 ' " Ersch brybour baird," and his poetry as — 

Sic eloquence as thay in Erschery use ; 
proceeding to vaunt : — 

I tak on me, ane pair of Lowthiane hippie 
Sail fairar Inglis mak and mair parfyte, 
Than thow can hlabbar with thy Carrik lippis. 

But though the Saswnnach might thus forget or ignore the fact, 
the Celt was not likely to forget that his own ancient and sonorous 
tongue was the original "Scots," and the "Lowthiane Inglis" 
but an intruder in the historic Scotland. In this spirit Kennedy 
answered Dunbar's taunt of the " Erschery " : — 

Thow luvis nane Erische, elf, I undirstand, 
But it sowld be all trew Scottismennis leid ; 

It wes the [fyrst] gud langage of this land, 
And Scota it causit to multypry and spreid, 
Quhil Corspatrik, that we of tressoun reid, 

Thy fore fader, maid Ersche and Erschmen thin, 

Throw his tressoun brocht Inglis rumpillis in ; 
Sa wald thy self mycht thow to him succeid. 

Probably this defence of the Ersch, as the original Scotch, and 
the insinuation that the Inglis or Lowland tongue was intro- 
duced by traitors under Edward I. — when Corspatrick, Earl of 
Dunbar, refused to attend the summons of "Wallace King in 
Kyle" — was influenced by the fact that the " Lowthiane Inglis," 
not content with supplanting the Celtic as the language of the 
Court and nation, was now in the act of completing the work of 
displacement by monopolising the name of Scottish, which had, 
up to this, been retained by the older tongue. The causes which 
brought about this consummation arose partly from the important 
change in the mutual relations of the English dialects in England ; 
partly from certain changes which had been gradually passing 
over the language of the Scottish writers during the two centuries 
since the death of Alexander III., and had now reached, such a 
point as to justify us in fixing upon the last quarter of the 15th 
century as the approximate starting point from which to date the 
commencement of the Middle Pei-iod of Scottish literature — that 
in which the Northern dialect became thoroughly national or 


Scottish. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the three English 
dialects— the Southern, Midland, and Northern — had held equal 
rank as practically distinct languages, each sovereign in its own 
territory, and each boasting its own literature. When a work 
which had been produced in one dialect had to be reproduced for 
the speakers of another, it was not a simple transcription, but a 
translation that had to be made : — 

In Suthrun Englys -was it drawin, 
And I have turned it till our awin 
Langage of the Northin lede, 
That can nane other Englys rede. 

The man who lived north of the Humber was only partly intel- 
ligible when he wrote, probably altogether unintelligible when 
he spoke, to the man who lived south of the Thames. But 
as the country became more consolidated into a national unity, 
and its extremities more closely drawn together, the Mid- 
land dialect, which united the characteristics of the other two, 
and was, moreover, the form of speech used at the great seats of 
learning, where Northern and Southern thought were blended in 
one, began to stand forth as the medium of a common literature, 
the language of education and culture. In proportion as the 
Midland dialect acquired this pre-eminence, the dialects of the 
North and South, understood only in their own localities, ceased 
to be employed for literary purposes, and sank gradually into the 
position of local and rustic patois. By the close of the 15th 
century, when England settled down from the Wars of the Koses, 
and the great collisions of populations and dialects by which they 
were accompanied, there was thus but one standard language 
acknowledged, viz., that founded upon the Old Midland tongue. 
But while the Northern tongue had thus sunk beneath the surface 
in the North of England, in Scotland it had continued to be culti- 
vated as the language of the Court, literature, and law. No 
wonder, then, that this dialect, from which the literary English 
had severed itself, and which had now a literature only in the 
Northern kingdom, came to be considered as peculiar to that 
kingdom, and to be distinguished from the literary English as 
Scotch. As Scotch, accordingly, we find it distinguished from 
English, and also from the Gaelic, by the protonotary Don Pedro 
de Ayala, who, as a personal friend of James IV., and the only 
Spaniard who knew the country, was engaged by the envoys of 
Ferdinand and Isabella, in London, to write to those sovereigns 
a report upon Scotland. His letter, of date July 25th, 1-498, 
preserved in the Simancas archives, of which a translation is 
given by the late Mr. Bergenroth, in his Calendar, after describing 
the linguistic attainments of the king, which embraced a know- 
ledge of Latin, French, German, Flemish, Italian, and Spanish, 
continues : — " His own Scottish language is as different from 
English as Aragonese from Castilian. The king speaks, besides, 


the language of the savages, who live in some parts of Scotland 
and in the Islands. It is as different from Scottish as Biscayan 
is from Castilian. His knowledge of languages' is wonderful." ' 
The first native writer who applied the name of Scottish to the 
Anglo-Saxon dialect of the Lowlands was apparently Gawain 
Douglas, in the well-known passage in the preface to his " XIII 
Bukes of Eneados of the Famose Poete Virgill, translatet out of 
Latyne Verses into Scottish Metir, bi the Beuerend Father in 
God, Mayster Gawin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkel, and Unkil to 
the Erie of Angus— every buke hailing his perticular Prologe," 8 
" compilyt," we are told, "in auchtene monethis space," and 

" completit 

Apoun the feist of Marye Magdalane, 

Fra Cristis birth, the date quha list to here, 

Ane thousand, fyue hundreth and threttene ;ere." 

Douglas sought especially to recommend his work to his country- 
man by the homeliness of his style, and was patriotically ostenta- 
tious of his " vulgare rurale grose," his 

Bad harsk speich and lewit barbare toung ; 
for he had, to his best ability, 

"Writtin in the langage of Scottis natioun ; 

and as to his aim, he described it thus : — 

And jit forsoith I set my besy pane 
(As that I couth) to mak it brade and plane, 
Kepand na Sodroun, bot oure awin langage, 
And speke as I lerned quhen I wes ane page ; 

1 Bergenroth's Calendar, vol. i. No. tonic stock. Don Pedro's reference to 
210. Don Pedro's characterisation of the Celtic clans as "the savages who 
the Lowland Scotch is singularly exact, live in some parts of Scotland and the 
and shows that he was possessed of no Islands," is a faithful echo of the cur- 
small amount of philological insight. rent sentiment of Anglo-Saxon Scot- 
The languages of Spain, like those of land in his own day and for centuries 
Britain, belong to two widely-severed after. A competent authority has re- 
linguistic families. The Castilian and marked, " The Highlanders were the 
Catalan, or Aragonese, are sister de- human raw material which a king of 
scendants of the Latin, as the Southern Scots could in that day employ, so far 
English and Lowland Scotch are of the as their nature suited, for the use or 
Anglo-Saxon. Although the rougher amusement of his guests. Them, and 
and stronger Catalan is in many re- them only, among his subjects could he 
spects the more interesting tongue, the use as the Empire used the Transalpine 
softer Castilian, us the language of the barbarian — 'butchered to make a 
capital and court, is the Spanish of Roman holiday.' The treatment of 
Literature. The Hasque dialects of the the Celt is the blot on that period of 
ancient Iberians, which linger on the our history. Never, in later times, 
slopes of the Pyrenees and along the has the Red Indian or Australian 
rugged coast of the Bay of Biscay, are, niitive been more the hunted wild beast 
like the Celtic dialects which survive in to the emigrant settler than the High- 
similar situations in Britain, the modern lander was to his neighbour the Low- 
remains of a language which once ex- lander." — " The Soot Abroad," vol. i, 
tended over the country. The Basque p. 133. 

is as far removed from the Bomance a The title of the original edition, 

family as the Gaelic is from the Teu- "imprinted at London, 1553." 



Na jit sa clene all Sudroun I refuse, 

But sum worde I pronunce as nychboure dois, 

Like as in Lntine bene Grewe termes sum, 

So me behuffit quhilum, or be dum 

Sum bastard Latyne, Frensche or Ynglis ois, 

Quhare scant wes Scottis, I had nane vther chois ; 

Not that oure toung is in the seluin skant, 

But for that I the fouth of langage want. 1 

And yet, as if to show that it was the patriotic feeling of the good 
bishop rather than the consent of his contemporaries to which he 
gave expression, we find his friend and survivor, Sir David 
Lyndesay, in an affectionate eloge upon the poet, refer to this very 
work as " Inglis" : — 

Allace for one, qnhilk lamp wes of this land, 

Of eloquence the flowand balmy strand, 

And in our Inglis Rethorick the rose, 

As of rubeis the Oharbunckle bene chose ! 

And as Phebus dois Cynthia precell 

So Gawane Dowglas, Byschope of Dunkell 

Had, quhen he wes into this land on-lyue 

Abufe vulgare Poetis prerogatyue, 

Boith in pratick and speculatioun ; 

I saye no moir, gude redaris may discriue 

His worthy workis in nowmer mo than fyue : 

1 The expressed intention of Douglas 
to " kepe na Sodroun" is very curious, 
in the light of the fact that no Scottish 
writer — indeed, so far as I know, no 
Northern writer, of any period, either 
in England or Scotland — has em- 
ployed so many genuine Southern 
forms. For example, not only does he 
use the y-prefix to the past participle 
(which the Northern dialect had drop- 
ped before the 12th century), in y- 
beried, y-clepit, y-conquest, i conquest, 
y-fettent, y-iorgit, y-lowpit, y-markit, 
y-sowpit, y-womplit, y-wymplit ; y- 
drad, y-plet ; y-bound, i-bound, y- 
boundin, y-brokin, y-graven, y-slane ; 
but he has even the peculiarly Southern 
forms which retain the prefix and drop 
the terminations— y-buik, y-be, y bore, 
y-clois, y-draw, y-schronde, y-set — for 
the Northern b'ak-en, be-en, bor-en, 
clos-it, draw-en, schroud-it, sett-en or 
sutten. (Compare the modern Dorset, 
"Thay be a-zet,"with the Sc. "Thay're 
suitt-en.") Some of these forms were 
indeed more " Sodroun " than the 
literary English of his own day; but 
all are Chaucerian, and show how 
deeply Douglas had drunk of him who 
was, more even than Virgil, 

In that art of eloquence the flude 

Maist cheif, profound and copious 

Surss capitall in vene poeticall 
Souerane fontane, and flum imperiall. 
Nor must we forget the exigencies of 
the situation — the requirements of the 
measure and rhyme, and the restric- 
tions of faithful translation. 

Quhare as the cullour of his propirte 
To keip the sentence {i.e. the sense) 

thareto constrenit me, 
Or that to mak my sayng schort 

sum tyme, 
Mare compendius, or to lykly my 

ryme ; 
Tharfor gude freyndis, for ane gympe 

or ane bourd, 
I pray jou note me not at every 
The lyhly-ing of the rhyme is, I sup- 
pose, also accountable for the frequent 
use of mo, more, two, so, one, none, 
tone, own, go, also, hold, &c, as well 
as the more " brade and plane" ma, 
mare, twa or tway, sa, swa, ane, nane, 
tane, awin, ga, alswa, hauld; but only 
partly for the Midland English and 
Chaucerian, thay bene instead of the 
Northern thay ar or er. 

Thay bene sa plane, eke and sa 


And speciallye the trew translatioun 
Off Virgill, quhilk bene consolatioun 
To cunnyng men to knaw his gret ingyne 
Als weill in natural science as deuyne. 

Compl. o/Papyngo, 1. 22. 

"With Lyndesay, as with the older writers, from Barbour to 
Dunbar, the Lowland tongue is always " English." Thus, in the 
"Satyre of the thrie Estaitis," the Doctour who is desired by 
Veritie to preach a sermon in the vulgar tongue, so as to edify the 
common people of Scotland, is addressed : — 

" Magister noster, I ken how )e can teiche 
Into the scuillis, and that richt ornatlie ; 
I pray ;ow now, that je wald please to preiche 
In Inglisch toung, laud folk to edifie." 

So also we are told — 1. 2597 : — 

Snnct Paull, that pillar of the kirk, 

Sayis to the wretehis that will not wirk, 

And bene to vertews laith, 

Qui non laborat non manducet. 

This is in Inglisohe toung or leit, 

" Quha labouris nocht he sail not eit." 

On the other hand, the author of the celebrated " Complaynt of 
Scotland" — a contemporary of Lyndesay — claims for his "propir 
toung materne " the name of " Scottis langage." In his " Prolog 
to the Eedar," he prays all wise men to excuse the homeliness of 
his style, in consideration of his patriotism : — 

" Ane affectiue ardant fauoir that i hef euyr borne touart this 
affligit realme quhilk is my natiue cuntre. Nou heir I exort al 
philosophouris, historigraphours, & oratours of our scottis natione, 
to support and til excuse my barbir agrest termis : for i thocht 
it nocht necessair til hef fardit and lardit this tracteit witht 1 
exquisite termis, quhilkis ar nocht daly vsit, bot rather i hef 
vsit domestic scottis langage, maist intelligibil for the v[ujlgare 
pepil. ther hes bene diuerse translatours and compilaris in aid 
tyinys, that tuke ' grite pleseir to contrafait ther v[u]lgare 
langage, mixand ther purposis witht oncoutht exquisite termis, 
dreuyn, or rather to say mair formaly, reuyn fra lating, and sum 
of them tuke pleiseir to gar ane word of ther purpose to be ful of 
sillabis half ane myle of lyntht, as ther was ane callit hermes, 
quhilk pat in his werkis thir lang tailit wordis, conturbabuntur, 
constantinopolitani, innumerabilibus, solicitudinibus. ther was ane 
vthir that writ in his werkis, gaudet honorificabilitudinitatibus. 
Al sic termis procedis of fantastiknes ande glorious consaitis. I 
hef red in ane beuk of ane preceptor that said til his discipulis, 
thou sal speik comont langage ande thou sal lyue eftir the verteous 
maneirs of antiant men. Jit nochfcheles ther is mony wordis of 
antiquite that I hef rehersit in this tracteit, the quhilkis culd 

1 In this and all other cases, the original has v, instead of u> — vitht, vas, 
voman, &c. 


nocht be translatit in oure scottia langage, as auguris, auspices, 
ides, questeours, senatwus, censours, pretours, tribuns, ande mony 
vthir romane dictions : ther for gyf sic wordis suld be disusit or 
detekkit, than the phrasis of the antiquite wald be confundit and 
adnullit : ther for it is neoessair at sum tyme til myxt oure lan- 
gage witht part of termis dreuyn fra lateen, be rason that oure 
scottis towg, is nocht sa copecms as is the lateen tong, and 
alss ther is diuerse purposis and propositions that occurris in 
the lating tong that can nocht be translatit deuly in oure 
scottis langage : ther for he that is expert in latyn tong suld 
nooht put reproche to the compilation, quhou beit that he fynd 
sum purposis trawslatit iw scottis that accords nocht witht the lateen 
regester : as we hef exempil of this propositione, homo est animal, 
for this terme homo signifeis baytht man and woman : bot ther is 
nocht ane scottis terme that signifeis baytht man and woman : 
and animal signifeis al thyng that hes lyue and is sensibil, bot 
ther is nocht ane scottis terme that signifeis al quyk sensibil thyng, 
ther for this propositione, mulier est homo is treu, and jit we suld 
nocht say that ane woman is ane man. Ande siclyik this propo- 
sitione, homo est animal is treu, and jit we suld nocht say that ane 
man is ane beyst ; of this sort ther is baytht termis and proposi- 
tionis in lateen tong, the quhilk wil be difficil to translait them." 

The author of the "Complaynt" was evidently a strenuous 
adherent of the French party, in the divisions with which Scot- 
land was torn during the minority of Mary Stuart ; and the 
purpose of his work was to arouse his countrymen to combine 
against "our mortal aid inemyis," the "rauand sauvage woffis," 
" cruel insaciat borreaus," and " incredule seid of ingland," 
against whom his animosity knows no bounds. He puts it to the 
sense of " uniuersal cristianite to juge quhidder that inglismen be 
sarrasyns or oristin men," and whether they be not " excom- 
municat and denuncit goddis rebellis be al lauis for ther infidilite, 
incrudilite, cruaute, tirranye, sacreleige, &c." Of course he recog- 
nized no connection with the "Inglis" tongue. It would have 
seemed too dangerous an act of deference to the enemy to call the 
language of Scotland " Inglis," albeit he allows, in the sequel, 
that the difference was not in the language, but the men who 
spoke it. " There is nocht tua nations vndir the firmament that 
ar mair contrar and different fra vthirs, nor is inglis men and 
scottis men, quoubeit that thai be vitht in ane ile, and nychbours, 
and of ane langage" (fol. 69 [84]). 

Later in the same century, John Knox, who wrote many prose 
works in the vernacular, is celebrated in a poem entitled " Ane 
brief Commendatioun of Vprichtnes," 1 by John Davidson, Eegent 

1 " Ane brief Commendatioun of gell, Johne Knox. Set furth in Inglis 

Vprichtnes, in respect of the sureness meter be M. Johne Dauidsone, Eegent 

of the same, to all that walk in it, in S. Leonard's College. Imprentit at 

amplifyit chiefly be that notabill docu- Sanctandrois be Robert Lekpreuik, 

ment of Goddis michtie protectioun, in 1573." Reprinted in Suppl. to McCrie's 

preseruing his maist vpricht seruaDd, Life of Knox. — Irving's Hist, of Scot- 

and feruent messingerof Christis Euan- tish Poetry, p. 399. 



of St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, as eloquent in the " Soottis 
leid," or language : — 

For weill I wait that Scotland never bure 

In Scottis leid ane man mair eloquent : 
In to perswading also, I am sure, 

Was nane in Europe that was mair potent. 
In Greik and Hebrew he was excellent, 

And als in Latine toung his propirnes 
Was tryit trym, quhen scollers wer present, 

Bot thir wer nathing till his vprichtnes. 

Yet, curiously enough, the poem itself, though much more 
Scottish than any of the works of Knox, bears on its title that it 
is " set furth in Inglis meter" ; while, to increase the inconsis- 
tency, the Poems and Fables of Henrysoun, published at the same 
time, in the same dialect, and from the same press, are " compylit 
in eloquent and ornate Scottis meter." 

Abacuck Byssett, servant to Sir John Skeane, in his " Eolment 
of Courtis," written in the reign of Charles I., in language differing 
but little from the literary English of the period, also claimed to 
write in Scottis, " I haue writtin reuerendlie and spairinglie, 
usand my awin maternal Scottis langaige or mother toung, as we 
call it, in als pithie, schoirte, and compendious termes, and clene 
dictionare, according to my simpill iudgment and knawledge for 
oppyning up and declaratioun of the truth of my intensiounis of 
the mater or purpoiss in hand, and making it sensabill to the 
unlerned and vulgare sortis understanding." l 

To sum up these authorities, then, we may say that the lingua 
Scotica, or Scottis toung, from the earliest period down to the year 
1400, meant the Gaelic of the original Scots ; which, however, 
from the 15th century onwards, was known to the Lowlanders as 
the Yrische or Ersche. The Teutonic tongue of the Lowlanders 
was, in like manner, known only as the Lingua Anglica, or Inglis, 
from the earliest period to the close of the 15th century, and by 
many writers was called Inglis, even down to the Union of the 
Crowns. But during the 16th century there were foreign writers 
who, for the sake of distinction, and. native writers who, from 
patriotic or political motives, began to distinguish it from the 
Inglis of England as Scottis or Scots. And thus the tongues of 
the Highlands and Lowlands were distinguished down to the 14th 
century as Scottish and English — during the 15th century as 
Yrische, or Ersch, and English — and during the 16th century by 
some as Ersch and Inglisch ; by others, probably, as Ersch and 

§ 15. By whatever name known, the language of the Scottish 
writers of the Middle period had come to differ considerably from 
that of the 14th and beginning of the 15th century. The dif- 
ferences which it presents fall under three heads : First, those of 

1 Quoted by Leyden, Preliminary Dissertation to the " Complaynt of Scot- 
land," p. 82. 


native growth — being changes in the form of spoken words, and 
consequently in their written form, due mostly to Celtic influence ; 
secondly,, those of French origin, arising from the intimate con- 
nection between, Scotland and France during the 15th and first 
half of the 16th c. ; and, thirdly, those of Classical origin. The 
first class of changes is that which belongs most to the natural 
history and life of the language, appearing first in the spoken 
tongue, and only securing a tardy acknowledgment in the lan- 
guage of books ; the other two, and especially the last-mentioned, 
belong more to its culture and artificial development, having been 
for the most part introduced into the literary language, whence 
they reacted, to some extent, upon- the living speech. 

The differences of natiye- growth are due mainly to the fact, 
that the literary, Middle Scotch was not founded upon precisely 
the same dialectic type as the written language of the Early 
Period. We have seen that the original centre of the " Northin 
Inglis" was the ancient province of Bemicia, whence it gradually 
spread westward and northward over a large part of the original 
Seotia. In the outlying districts, .where it came into contact with 
earlier tongues, which only gradually died out before it, the lan- 
guage was, as , a, matter of course, modified in its pronunciation^ 
and perhaps even in, many of its idioms. On the shores of the 
Forth, which formed so long the contested frontier between the 
Angles and the Picts — and where, after the cession of Lothian to 
the King of Scots, there must have been a considerable admixture 
of blood — but still more, to the north of that estuary, where the 
blood was to a- great extent Celtic, the pronunciation was no 
doubt considerably affected. Nevertheless the written language 
seems to have been, in early times, the same for the whole of the 
area ; the words and phrases in the Latin text of the early laws, 
and other, ancient fragments, agree, even in orthography, with the 
language of Cursor Mundi, from the neighbourhood of Durham; 
and, as we have seen, the identity was preserved, in all essential 
respects, in the earlier part of the 15th c. But after the final 
establishment of Scotland as a distinct nationality, and much 
more after the decline and extinction of the "langage of the 
Northin lede" in England, the written language of Scotland 
became more and more conformed to that type of the Northern 
speech which was spoken on the shores of the Forth — in Edin- 
burgh, Linlithgow, Stirling, Dunfermline, and St. Andrews, the 
centre of political and ecclesiastical government, of the education, 
as well as the commerce of the kingdom ; and, as a consequence, 
it came more and. more to assume characteristics of its own, dis- 
tinct from the Old Northern tongue, which had been common to 
Southern Scotland and Northern England. The substitution of a 
sound of u. for the older o, as in Mud, buke, for blode, boke, which 
was probably owing to Celtic influence, 1 took place, indeed, as 

1 The long Ags. 6 has become, in m6r. The sound of oo in moon, is a 
English oo, as moon, moor, Ags, m6na, double or compound vocal effect, pro- 


early as the middle of the 14tb c. 1 But it was not till near the 
close of the 15th c. that the language assumed the chief features 
which it retained during the brilliant period of Scottish literature, 
and down to the union of the kingdoms. The most important of 
these has already been indicated, in :oomparing the older extracts 
from the JSrus, preserved by Wyntown, with the later MS. of 
1489, viz., the substitution of the combinations ai ay, ei ey, yi, oi 
oy, ui, oui, for the older a, e, i, o, u, ou (Ags. a, e, i, 6, li). On 
examining the history of .this change — which has been pronounced 
" an entirely independent development .of the Scottish ortho- 
graphy, neither English nor French" — it appears that it arose 
from a defective pronunciation of the diphthongs ai, ei, oi, etc., 
whereby the second vowel was practically lost, and the combina- 
tion treated as simple long a, B, 5, as is to a great extent the case 
in Gaelic at the present day. In that language, although the 
combinations ai, ei, oi, ui, are called diphthongs, in most cases the 
second vowel is not really heard, only influencing the following 
consonant so as to change it from the "broad" to the "small" 
sound. Thus ait, glad, baile, town, paidir, paternoster, eid, clothe, 
ceithir, four, beithir, bear, teisteas, testimony, poit, pot, oibrich, to 
work, toiseach, beginning, coinneal, candle, oillt, terror, cuirt, court, 
buitseach, wizard, uisge, water, seirbhis, serve, are pronounced 
atch, ballay, patcher, aitch, kai'er, bai'er, cheshtshas, potch, obrikh, 
toshakh, conyel or cognel, ditch, coortch, bootshakh, ooshkay, sher- 
revish, with the first vowel only heard. Even where the second 
vowel is audible, it is not with a distinct i sound, as in Eng. ay, 
oil, Germ, bei, kaiser, It. mai, lei, lui, suoi, but rather an obscure 

duced by simultaneous action of the oral land; in Hampole's "Pricke of Con- 
cavity and of the lips, as shown by Mr. science" and Prose Works we find 
Melville Bell in his "Visible Speech," buke, hike, as well as boke, Joke. 
where the composite character of oo l In the isolated words in the Early 
was first pointed out. If the labial Laws, etc, o and « remain exactly as 
part of the process be removed, by in Ags. ; thus blodi, coke-stole, ojier ; 
holding the fips asunder while pro- utwere, utboruehe, tun, which after- 
nouncing oo, we obtain the lingual wards became bludie, cukstull, uthir, 
element alone, viz., the Gaelic sound outweir, outbruche, town. The old 
represented by ao, as in aon one, spelling also appears in the interlineary 
taobh side, laodh calf. This sound gloss to a Latin indenture of lease be- 
being thus naturally connected with oo, tween the Abbot of Scone and the 
was perhaps the form taken by Ags. 6 Hays of Leys, dated 1312 (see Introd. 
in Scotland, and might form an inter- to the Brus, by Prof. Cosmo Innes), 
mediate step to the sound now given to in which we find the words fode, other, 
w in muin, muir, which, though certainly comis, forutin, abide, which later 
labialized like the French eu in some became fude, uther, cwnis, forowtm, 
partsof Scotland,inothersisonlyformed about; but in the Minutes of the Par- 
ty " internal rounding." That this pro- liament of 1389 (Acta Pari. Scot., 
duces something of .the same effect, is vol. i. p. 210), and Precept to the 
Shown by Gaelic orthoepists identifying Monks of Meuros, of the same year, to 
their ao with the Fr. eu. Thus, Forbes — pass their wool free of custom into 
New Gaelic Grammar, Edin. 1848, p. 7 — England (Liber de Melros, No. 480), 
says, " ao has no similar sound in En- the later spelling appears in full use ; 

flish ; it is like the French eu or eux." so that its introduction would almost 

t must be borne in mind, however, that seem to coincide with the recovery of 

the spelling u was not confined to Scot- Scottish independence. 


vocal glide, like the Eng. e in the words drawer, layest, weighed, 
sayeth, seest, prayer, and so easily disappearing altogether. The 
same pronunciation appears to have been given, in Central and 
N.B. Scotland, to the Ags. and French diphthongs, so that such 
words as away, rain, slain, eyne, Join, choice, rejoice, void (from 
Ags. onwaeg, raegen, slegen or slaegen, eagan or egen, Fr. joigne, 
choix, rejouisse, voide), were pronounced awa-eh,. ra-en, sla-en, 
e-en, j5-en, cho-es, rejo-es, vo-ed, or awa', ra'ne, sla'ne, e'ne, 
jo'ne, cho'se, rejo'se, vo'd, and by-and-by appear in writing as 
simply awa, rane, slane, Jone, chose, reiose, vode. 1 But more 
usually the original spelling was retained with the altered pro- 
nunciation (shown by such rhymes as bray — Lybia, refuse — dois, 
hale — tail, way — tha, sua — tway, etc.) ; and ay, oi, ei, being now 
looked upon merely as ways of expressing long a, o, e, etc., they 
began to be extended to all words with long vowels, where there 
had been no original diphthong, giving the well-known forms, 
baith bayth boyih (both), maist mayst moyst (most), weill, wyif, 
ihoill, schoyne, oyse (use), rois, clois, soir, moit, schouir, flouir, 
muir, buik. Hence the alternative forms mad, made, maid, mayd, 
mayde — tas, tase, tais, tays, etc., found often in the same page of 
works belonging to the transition period ; as also the confusion 
between words originally distinct (and still distinct in the dialect 
of Southern Scotland and Northern England), such as tha, thai, 
thare, thair, made, maid, hale, hail. 8 This confusion is at times 
misleading, as where we read of "the tayl of the wolfe of the 
warldis end, the tail of the thre futtit dog of Norrouay, the tail of 
Syr Euan Arthours knycht, the tail of the thre weird systirs" 
(Compl. of Scot., chap, vi.) ; where, notwithstanding the context 
of dog and wolf, we are to understand not a tail that is wagged, 
but a tale that is told. 

Among other changes which similarly began to make their 
mark on the written language, were the dropping of g and d after 
n, and consequent mixing of such distinct forms as etand, etyng, 
and even the confusion of both with the past participle etyn. 3 
The loss of t in pronunciation after another consonant, as in 
excep(t), direc(f), appears also, as well as the consequent writing 
of a silent t in the same position, as in lentht, witht, moutht, taxt. 

1 These imperfect diphthongs still gretted that Prof. Iunes, in editing 

characterize the Scottish dialects ; wcC, Barbour, by whom they are always 

awa', a a I, maa my, are well known ; carefully distinguished, has printed 

but in the central and more northern them both tha, from not observing 

districts such words as ay, cry, Jin, this distinction between early and 

are almost eh!, erah', feh-er ; and Mel- more modern usage, 

ville Bell gives in his " Visible 3 The Celtic influence in the forms 

Speech," p. 94, mK as the common Urn', han', atari, is suggested by the 

Scotch pronunciation of Eng. eye. Gaelic forms of such words as London, 

3 Tha and thai or thay= those, they, window, candle, island, Lunuinn, 

are used indiscriminately by the writers uinneag, coinneal, eilean. See also the 

of the Middle Period, showing that similar forms in the Barony Forth 

they had quite lost the feeling for the dialect, ante p. 28. 
distinction between them. It is to be re- 


The letter I becomes mute after the open vowels a and o, which it 
serves only to lengthen, and, having thus become a mere orthoepic 
sign, is inserted in words where it has no etymological force, as 
chalmer, waiter, police, for older chambir, watyr, pok. Such are 
some of the obvious peculiarities which distinguish the ortho- 
graphy of the Middle Period from that of the earlier writers ; 
and most of them indicate modifications of pronunciation due to 
the contact of the North Anglian with the Celtic in Central 
Scotland. Many of them are not adopted by the dialect of the 
Southern Counties, which remains at the present day better repre- 
sented by the language of Wyntown than by that of Gawain 
Douglas, and Lyndesay. On the other hand they form only a part 
of the changes which the language underwent in the extreme 
North, showing, for example, no specimen of the pronunciation of 
wh as /, as in the fat, fan, 'fite, of Moray and Buchan. Of gram- 
matical changes, either in inflection or syntax, which can be 
attributed to Celtic influence, there are perhaps no traces in Scot- 
tish literature. Even in the modern dialects these are rare, 
though they are probably to be seen in the fondness for peri- 
phrastic verbal forms, such as " Te'll be gaan'," "I'm sayan'," 
for You will go, I say ; and a certain indirectness in the matter 
of tense, thus, " What was ye wantan' ?" " I was wantan' to see 
you just for a minute," etc., for "What do you want ?" "I want 
to see you." So " Wad ye be sae guid as — " etc., for " Will you 
be so good ?" The additions to the vocabulary of the Literary 
Scotch of the 16th c. from the Celtic are also scanty, being con- 
fined mainly, though not entirely, to words referring io Celtic 
customs and institutions, such as corinoch, bard or baird, Beltein ; 
add also, bannoch or bannock, capyl or capul (a mare), ker- or car- 
handed, left-handed. These words are much more numerous in 
the modern dialects, which lie near the Gaelic frontier ; see, for 
example, the Eev. Walter Gregor's " Dialect of Banffshire, with a 
Glossary of Words not in Jamieson," published by the Philo- 
logical Society in 1867. In the south of Scotland their number 
is not much greater than in ordinary English, in which we find 
more or less naturalized crag, brae, cairn, colley, galore, creel, 
kerne, gillie, clann, tartan, plaid, philabeg, claymore, pibroch. At 
the last word I pause; it is Celtic only in form. When the 
Highlander borrowed " the pipes" from his Lowland neighbour — 
making them so thoroughly his own that it now seems little short 
of heresy to refer to a time when the bagpipe was an English, not 
a Scottish instalment — he borrowed along with them the English 
names pipe ^ and piper, which appear in Gaelic orthography as 
piob, piobair (pronounced peep, peeper, as in French pipe, and 
16th c. English). Prom the latter, by the addition of a Celtic 
termination, was formed the abstract noun piobaireachd = piper- 
age, pipership, piping ; as from maighstir we have m&ighstireachd, 
master-ship, mastery. When the Sasunnach, having forgotten 
his own pipership, reimported the art from the Gael, he brought 


with it the Gaelicised name piobaireachd, softened into pibroch, 
where the old English piper is so disguised in the Highland dress 
as to pass muster for a genuine Highlander. 

The second influence which greatly modified the language of 
the Middle Period came from the French League. That famous 

Weill keipit ancient alliance, 

Maid betuix Scotland and the realme of france, 1 

through which the former managed to maintain the national inde- 
pendence regained in the 14th century, made her, to a great 
extent, the pupil of France in learning, art, and polity, during 
the two following centuries. Scotchmen completed their educa- 
tion at the University of Paris, and founded their own universities 
upon French models ; the entire legal system of the country was 
transferred from France ; and even the Presbyterian system of 
the Reformed Church was drawn up under the supervision of the 
great French Reformer. The connection between the two countries 
was of the closest nature, leaving its traces in almost every 
department of Scottish national life, and in none more so than the 
language. In addition to peculiarities of orthography, we have 
examples of the French construction being used as the model, con- 
trary to the usage of the earlier writers. Perhaps one of the most 
notable of these instances of imitation is the use, by the writers 
of the Middle period, of the full numeral an or ane, instead of its 
contracted form, a, alike for article and numeral, and before a 
consonant as well as a vowel. This is generally recognized as a 
most characteristic Scottish usage, and the common theory has 
been to consider it as archaic — that is, to suppose that, while the 
English had dropped the n before a consonant by the year 1200, 
the Scottish had retained the full form, ane man, ane tonne, like 
the Anglo-Saxon an man, an tun. But the fact seems to have 
been overlooked that ane man, ane tonne, were not Old Scotch ; 
that the early writers, like those who employed the same dialect 
in England, used a and an (oftener written ane) just as we do at 
the present day. Such is the case in the old Laws, in Barbour, 
Wyntown, Harry the Minstrel, Holland's Howlate, the old poem 
of Cockelbie's Sow, The King's Quair, and even in Christis Kirk 
of the Grene. The extracts from the old Laws (page 31) fully 
exemplify this usage, as do the following : — 

Barbour : — For he wald in his chambre be 
A weill gret quhile in private, 
With him a clerk for-owtyn ma. 

A king of a gret reawte. 

He entryt in ane 2 narow place 
Betuix a louchside and a bra. 

1 Lyndesay — Deploration of the a nadder and an adder ; a nere (a kid- 
Deith of Quene Magdalene. ney) and an ere ; a nest and an est ; ane 

2 This curious use of an before n is efete, ane evete, an eft, and a neft or 
common in Barbour, reminding us of newt ; a natter-cop and an etter-cop ; an 
the confusion between ane nseddre, ag aud a nag, &c, &c. 



the thryd wes ane 
That rowyt thaim our delyverly, 
That in a nycht and in a day 
Cummyn out our the louch ar thai. 

Wyntown : — A nycht he (Macbeth) thowcht in hys dremyng, 
That syttand he wes besyd Je kyng 
At a sete in huntyng ; swa 
In-til his leisch had grew-hundys twa. 

God of J>e Deuyl sayd in a quhile, 
As I have herd red the Vangyle, 
He is, he sayd, a leare fals. 

A yhok of oxyn Makbeth saw fayle. 

Harry : — Ane Ersche mantill it war thy kynd to wer, 

A Scottis thewtill under thy belt to ber. 

But a richt straik Wallace him gat that tyde. 

Ane abbot passed, and gaif our this legiance. 

For weill he wut thar suld be bot a king 
Off this regioun at anys for to ryng. 

Without the place ane aid bulwark was maid. 

Holland : — Sa come the rake with a rerd and a rane roch, 
A bard out of Ireland with Bannachadee 
Said gluntow guk dynyd dach hala mischy doch, 
Raike her a rug of the rost, or scho sail ryive the. 

Brym as a bair 
He couth cary the cowpe of the kyngis des, 
Syn leve in the sted - 
Bot a black bun- wed ; 
He couth of a hennis hed 

Make a mane mes. 

Cockelbie's Sow : — A lunatyk, a sismatyk, 

An heretyk, a purs-pyk, 
A Lumbard, a Lolard, 
An usurar, a bard, 
An ypocreit in haly kirk, 
A burn-grenge in the dirk. 

King's Quair : — Quhare in a lusty plane tuke I my way, 
Endlang a ryuer plesand to behold. 

And efter this the birdis everichone 
Tuke up ane other sang full loud and elere, 

And with a voice said, Well is us begone, 
That with our makis are togider here. 

Christis Kirk : — Ane hasty hensure callit Hary, 

Quha wes ane archer heynd, 
Tilt up a taikle withouten tary, 
That torment sa him teynd. 

But in "Peblis to the Play" we find constantly the ane of the 
Middle period, which, were we sure of having the original ortho- 
graphy, would indicate the latter to be a more recent production ; 
but no M6S. of either exists of earlier date than late in the 
16th century, and of course we cannot tell how the spelling was 
treated by the transcribers. The very old poem of Eauf Coiljear, 


which exists only in a printed copy of 1572, and the whole ortho- 
graphy of which has been assimilated to that of the 16th century, 
also of course uses arte. The poems and fables of Henrysoun, 1 
who lived till 1478, shew some of them the one, some the other 
form. Compare 

I say this be Euridice the quene, 

Quhilk walkit furth in till a Maij mornyng, 
And -with a madyn, in a medowe grene, 

To tak the dewe, and se the flouris spring ; 

Quhar in a schawe, nere by this lady ying, 
A busteouft hird callit Arystyus, 

Kepand his bestis, lay under a bufi. — Orpheus and Ewydice, 1. 92. 

Than in ane mantill and ane bavar hat, 

With cop and clapper, wonder prively, 
He opnit ane secreit yett, and ont thairat 

Convoyit her, that na man suld espy, 

Unto ane village, half ane myle thairby. — Test, of Gresseid, 386. 

Henrysoun lived just in the transition period : the age and state 
of the MSS. would probably shew whether the diversity of usage 
is due to this or to subsequent transcription. 2 The Acts of the 
Scottish Parliament from James I. to James V. furnish complete 
data for the entrance of this Middle Scotch ane in room of the 
older a. Instances of ane before a consonant are extremely rare 
before 1475 ; after this date it becomes more frequent, and the 
regular form after 1500. 

Now whence was this sudden appearance of ane towards the 
end of the 15th century ? It is not in accordance with what we 
know of the life of languages that a form, which had been obsolete 
for at least 300 years, should spontaneously start again into life. 
My own impression is that it was introduced in literature and set 
speech in imitation of the French, so that the Sc. ane hyng 
answered to the French un roi — that is, both one king and a king. 
I doubt whether ane hyng was used in the language of common 
life ; nobody said so from the days of Alexander III. to those of 
James III. ; nobody has said so in Scotland within living memory. 
The tongue of Barbour and Harry is still that of the people, and 
we can hardly imagine the two periods, which have all the marks 
of continuity, uncomformably severed by one with a different 

Another very evident trace of French fashion is found in the 
plural form given to certain pronouns and adjectives, as quhilMs, 
the quhilkis personnis, the saidis, the for-saidis, uthiris, principallia, 
Fr. les-quels, les dits, les sus-dits, les autres, principaux. These 
were perhaps first introduced in legal verbiage, but became 
quite usual in the writers of the Middle Period. 

1 Edited by D. Laing, Edinburgh, doubt that the difference is due to the 
1865. dates of the existing copies. The poems 

2 Since writing the above, I have having ane are those taken from M SS. 
looked into the subject, and feel no or printed copies late in the 16 c. 


Thay dividit the pray and spulejeis, quhilkis war takin fra the 
saidis theiffis amang the remanent herdis of that regioun. — Bellen- 
den's Livy, Cap. II. 

Thir sacrificis onely ressavit Eomulus of all the uthiris solem- 
niteis, quhilkis war that time accustomit in the warld. — Ibid. 
Cap. III. 

The foure gret vertues cardinalis, 
I see thame with the' principalis. 1 

Lyndesay, The Complaynt. 

As in the case of ane, so in that of quhilkis, saidis, &c, the usage 
of the 16th century is not that of the present spoken dialects ; 
whence we may infer that it never became thoroughly naturalized. 
But in the very remarkable instance of the Personal Pronouns, 
the current usage is, as will be seen in the Grammar, not that of 
the English and Teutonic, but that of the French ; there being a 
special Nominative and Objective, as well as an Indirect case, like 
moi, toi, lui, used for both Nominative and Objective in certain 

A large accession to the vocabulary of the Scottish writers of 
this period was another important result of the league. Many 
French words which had entered the more Southern dialects 
during the Norman Period, and in their Norman forms, and had 
long been thoroughly assimilated to the other elements of the 
English language, but which had not been accepted by the 
Northern dialect, were now adopted by the Scottish writers in 
their later French form, and form a bizarre and incongruous 
element in the language. Such are gloir, memoire (memory), 
abiljement (habillement), arrace (arracher), ane (an ass), assoljie, 
balein (whalebone), barbare, baston (a staff), burdoun (a pilgrim's 
staff), cahute, compacience, covatyce, cure (care), debonaire, deray, 
disprise, dedeinjie, enseijnie, exerce, feinjie, fenester, failjie, 
feuljeis (feuilles, still preserved in fether-fuiljie or fether-fuillie, 
feverfew), galjeard, garnisoun, gentrice, gouvernaill, gyane, 
jerefloure, ische, istablit, laurer, lawte, lammer (l'ambre), mal-eis, 
mallewrus (malheureux), mandements, manjory (a banquet,) 
matalent (fury), merjolyne (marjoram), moblis or meublis 
(furniture), moyen, mural jeis, nouellis = news, nurice, oljie or 
uiljie (huile), orlege, parage, paregale, (perfectly equal), pas- 
tance (passe-temps), perfurnis, pyssance, pleinjie, plesaunce, poune, 
powne, (paon, a peacock), pourpoure, prattik, punje (a handful, 
poigne'e), railjeare, randoune, remeid, repaitrit, re wis (rues, streets), 
reddoure, roche, rounge (to gnaw), roy — 

King lames the first, Eoy of this Eegioun, 
Said David was ane sair sanct to the croun. 

Lyndesay, Satyre. 

1 We must therefore qualify Mr. wateres principals, is unknown to the 

Morris's statement (Ayenbite of Inwyt, Northern dialect." It was regularly 

p. xlv.), "The plural of Adjectives used in the Middle Scottish period, 
(mostly of Romance origin) in -<-*, as 


salust, sclavis, scripture ( a writing-case, Sscriptoire) , sege (seat), 
supple, succure (suore), syrurgiane, tailjeis (taillees), treljeis 
(curry-combs), velis (calves), viage (journey), vesy, volounte, 
bew, as in bew schirris, beaux sieurs, fair sirs — 

Lo this is all ; bew schirris, haue gude day ! — Douglas. 
Most of these are obsolete in the modern dialects, or exist only in 
a more English form, as glorie, memorie, cair, disdain, gairrison, 
suggar, &c. But among French words, or words in a French 
form, which have been retained, we may note, gigot, ashet (assiette), 
taiss or tasse, fulzie (fouille — the sweepings and refuse of the 
town), glaur (glaire) , porte (the gate of a town), gein (guigne — a 
black-hearted cherry), grosel (groseille), corbie (corbeau), houlette, 
botynes (bottines, buskins), servit, serviot (serviette), drogue, 
droguiste, cor diner (cordonnier), tour (turn — wait tyll yer ain toor 
cums), gou or gow (gout, an after-taste or peculiar flavour), 
malisoun, boule (a ball, a globular body generally, as a sugar-boule, 
a butter-boule 1 ), dour (dur, hard, stubborn), douce (sedate, gentle); 
touc o' drum (touche ant. toque, stroke, blow, similarly applied), to 
casse, causey (chaussee, the street pavement), pennair (a pen- 
holder), cuin)ie, uiljie, spuil^ie, dule or duil (Douglas writes the 
full deuil), vague (to ramble), vaque (to be vacant), vacance 
(vacation), fasch (to trouble — facher), fascMs (facheuse), dam- 
brod (the board on which is played the jeu aux dames, draughts), 
mouture (miller's fee in kind), sussy (souci — I sussy not), baillie 
(still pronounced in the Southern counties with the liquid I — 
bail^ea, baylyea, like the Fr. bailli), contraire, ordinaire, extraor- 
dinaire, necessaire ,• not to speak of those whieh retain the Fr. u 
or ou, as cure, lute, sure, due, tour (tower), doute, court, course; or 
accent the final syllable, like govern, confdrt, realm, reaume ; or 
have a pronunciation founded upon the French spelling, as main- 
tein, sustein, contein, pertein.* From the same language were 
derived the old names of the months ; witb the French Janvier, 

1 " Have you any bulls here ?" asked states that gueuset is only used in the 
an English gentleman of a herd-laddie, metallurgic sense, but gives the follow- 
whose cattle blocked the straight path ing interesting note as to forms not 
up a m'ountain. "Eh?" " f want to unlike guissie in various French patois : 
know if you have any bulls ?' " Bools — " Geuset is a metallurgic word, and 
— ooh ay !" and plunging his hand into simply the diminutive of gueuse, also 
his breeches pocket, he produced a a metallurgic word, which means cast 
neffu' of marbles. pig, pig iron. I am not aware that 

2 The common name for a domestic this word is used for pig (cochon, por- 
pig, in the south of Scotland, is guissie. ceau) in any of the French dialects, 
Seeing that the French gneuset, which but I find in them : coutzou in Au- 
is nearly identical in pronunciation, vergnat, gouzi in the patois of Vesoul, 
means a pig of iron, I nave wondered coico, gor4, gorre, cosso, in other ver- 
if the Scotch word could be, in some naculars. The French cochon, and the 
indirect way, connected with the Spanish cochino, as well as coutzou, and 
French, and have asked H.I.H. Prince coico, are not without a certain resem- 
L. L. Bonaparte, if there are any traces blance to your geussie, but the gouin of 
of gumset being applied to a living pig the Italian dialect of Parma beats them 
in the French dialects. The Prince all." 


Fevrier, Avril, and Juillet, compare the Scotch forms Janevar, 
Janevere, Janiveir, Janiveer, Janeuar, Janueir, Januar; Feverer, 
Februeir, Februar ; Averil, Aperil, Apreyle ; Julet, Juljie, Juiljie, 

Quhar art thov May, with Iune thy syster schene, 

Weill hordourit with dasyis of delyte P 
And gentle Julet with thy mantyll grene, 
Enamilit with rosis reid and auhyte ? 
Now auld and cauld Ianevar in dispyte, 
Eeiffis from us all pastyme and plesoure. 
Allace ! quhat gentyll hart may this indure ? 

Lyndesay — The Dreme. 

If the grass grow in Janiveer 

'T will be the worse for 't a' the year. 

March said to Averil 
I see three-hoggs on yonder hill, 
And if you'll lend me dayis three, 
I'll find a way to gar them dee. 

JR. Chambers — Popular Ehymes of Scotland. 

But the French was not the only foreign source whence the 
Scottish writers of this period added to their native vocabulary. 
The Latin, from which English writers had already begun to 
borrow, was drawn upon in far more wholesale fashion by their 
brethren in the north. The circumstances which led to this have 
been thus stated by the learned author of " The Scot Abroad" : — 
" A free access to this great medium for the exchange of thought 
(the Latin of the learned world) was one of the compensating 
benefits which the Scots derived from the contest with England. 
The exclusion of the Scots scholars from English ground only 
prompted their aspiring spirits to seek a wider arena of distinction, 
and they found it in securing to themselves as an audience the 
learned men of all the world. When there arose two distinct 
languages, an English and a Scottish, the latter afforded a far too 
limited intellectual dominion to satisfy the ambition of Scottish 
men of letters ; hence they had recourse to Latin." If the 
Scottish writer " was to speak to an audience worth collecting, it 
must be in Latin. It is not correct to speak of the Latin as a 
dead language among Scots scholars . . . they drew in their own 
way on the resources of the language used by them, adapted it to 
the purposes of a new order of sooiety, and made it the vehicle of 
original and striking thoughts." (Vol. II., p. 27-28.) This 
familiarity with Latin led them to " adorn," and too often to 
overload and embarrass, the vernacular with a profusion of termB 
adopted from that language, many of them formed in accordance 
with the genius of the French rather than of the English, and 
including a very large number which the English has not ad- 
mitted. As specimens of these " aureate" but grotesque elements, 
with which the poets of the 16th century bristle, may be given 
the adjectives, dulce, amene, decore, preclair, illustir, frustir, 
celical (heavenly), degest (grave), facund, mansuete, prosper, 
humile, innative, redymyte, superne, inferne, eterne, matutine, hodiern, 


sempitem, matern, fructuous, meridiane, mellifluate ; the nouns, 
vult (countenance), flum (torrent, flumen), spelurik (a den), macul 
or maikle (stain), habitahle, umbraMe, veir or vere (spring), fuge 
(a fleer), lucerne (torch), plagis (zones), imperatrice, genitrice, 
gemmel (twin), vilipention, ingyne, inobedience, contemption, distern- 
perance, mansuetude, puleritude, celsitude, dompnationis, conjura- 
tiouns, occisioun (slaughter), penurite" ; the verbs, proport, prevert, 
propyne, descrive, determe, precell, and a series of verbs derived 
from the infinitive of the Latin, where the English has adopted a 
form from the past participle, and vice versa, such as promyt, 
dispone, propone, depone, promove, expreme, posseid, conqueis, 
acqueis, exerce, incluse, perversit. The past participles of such 
verbs as ended in t often took no additional it, as statut, institut, 
constitut, depaint, creat, deput, or the Latin participle was used 
without the case ending, as disjunct, determinant, illuminat, fabricat, 
dedicat, insinuat, &c, of which usage traces still remain in the 
spoken dialect, as in the phrases, " it was statut and ordainit," 
" the chapel was dedicat," " a suit was institut," " a sheriff 

It is surprising, however, how few of these foreign accretions 
remained as permanent elements of the language. The case 
would doubtless have been different had the language of the 
16th century been perpetuated as a literary medium. As it is, 
the speech of the people has cast out most of these foreign ingre- 
dients, and remains almost as purely Teutonic as it was in the 
13th and 14th centuries ; and indeed the Scotchman of the present 
day finds Barbour and Hampole, in spite of their more distant 
date, nearer to him by centuries than Dunbar and Gawain Douglas, 
with all the efforts of the latter to " mak it brade and plane." It 
is proper also to add that the prose writers, of whom Scotland 
produced several during this period, were in general less given to 
the use of these lang-nebbit words than their brethren the mahars. 
No better specimen of the language of the Middle Period in its 
classical purity exists than the vigorous prose of Johnne Bellenden, 
or Ballantyne, Archden of Murray. From his " Traductioun " of 
Livy, executed for James V. in 1533, I quote the following 
passage : — 

" Thir desiris war nocht displesand to Tullius, howbeit Mecius 
Fufficius was at this time mair feirs than he was, baith in curage 
and hope of victorie. At last, quhen thay had socht on all sidis 
how this mater micht be dressit, ane reponabill way was found, 
to quhilk fortoun gaif sufficient occasioun to discuss this pley ; 
for in ilk ane of thir armyis war thre brethir, nocht unlike to 
utheris in yeris and strenth ; thay quhilkis war in the Bomane army 
war namit Horacianis, and thir uthir, quhilkis war in the Albane 
cumpany, namit Curacianis. Thair is nane uthir opinioun, that is 
authorist amang oure anciant faderis, mair illuster and nobill than 
is this opinioun ; and thocht the said Historie be notabil, yit it is 
sum erroure, nocht knawing quhilk of thir twa pepill war callit 


Horaoianis, and quhilk Curacianis. Hk opinioun has sufficient 
auctoriteis ; nochtheles, I find monyest auctoriteis saying, the 
Eomane brethir war Horacianis ; and thairfore, I applaude to 
thair opinioun. 

" The twa princis afore namit tretis with thir sex brethir to 
fecht aganis uthir with scharpe and grundin swerdis to the deith, 
for defence of thair naciounis and pepill ; with sic condicioun, that 
the empire and liberte sail stand perpetually with the samin 
pepill quhare victorie war presentlie fallin. Thir sex brethir 
refusit nocht thir condiciouns ; and sone eftir thay war aggreit 
baith of day and place for battal. Yit afore the battal, ane band 
was maid betwix Eomanis and Albanis, undir thir ferme con- 
diciounis : Of quhilkis pepill the cieteyanis war victorius, that 
samin pepill sail regne with perpetual empire abone that uthir, 
but ony eftir rebellioun. Mony uthir bandis war roborat betwix 
the twa pepill, with uthir condiciounis, howbeit the samin war 
maid all to the samin effett. We find all thingis done in this 
wise, as we have schawin ; for of ony uthir mair anciant band of 
confideracioun is na memorie. 

" The form of aith maist faithfully corroborat, in maner afore 
rehersit, betwix the twa pepill ; thir sex brethir, as wes convenit, 
tuke thair armoure and wappinnis. Than ilk side began to 
exhort thair cieteyanis and campiounis to schaw thair manhede 
and vassalage, saying thair goddis, thair landis, thair liberte, and 
every uthir thingis pertening to thaim, baith at hame and of feild, 
dependit on the chance of thair battall, and beheld thair fechting 
that day. Thir brethir, feirs and ful of curage;, rasit to extreme 
jeoperdie of armes, be hortacioun of thair native and kindelie 
nacioun, come furthe to the campe betwix baith the oistis, quhilkis 
stude campit about thaim on every side, and richt pensive in thair 
mindis ; for thocht thay war exonerat of all present dangere, thay 
war, yit, ful of grete sollioitude and thocht ; for thair empire wes 
set on the fortoun and vertewe of thir fewe campiounis. Baith 
the pepill, ereckit sum time in esperance of victorie, and sum 
time suspendit betwix hope and drede, beheld the unthankful 

" At last, quhen the signe, be blast of trumpat, wes gevin to 
jone, thir sex brethir, inflammit with sprete, and curage of baith 
the oistis, ruschit, with maist penetrive and awful wapinnis, like 
the bront of twa armyis togiddir ; for nouthir this nor that side 
regardit thair propir dommage or slauchter, bot alanerlie tuke 
sicht to the public empire, to the public liberte, and public ser- 
vitude, following be the chance of thair battall ; knawing weill 
sic fortoun suld stand perpetualie to thair pepill as they wan that 
day. Als sone as thair bricht armoure, be feirs concursioun, 
resoundit in the aire, and thair schinand swerdis begouth to 
glance ; incontinent, ane huge trimling invadit all the pepill that 
beheld this batall. And, becaus nouthir this nor that oist saw, as 
yit, ony signe of victorie appere, baith thair voce wes rank, and 


thair sprete solisfc and dull, quwhen thir brethir war fechtand 
togidder hand for hand. Nocht alanerlie apperit the ithand 
mocioun of thair bodyis, and weilding of thair doutsum and 
dangerus swerdis and dartis, bot als thair rude and wide woundis, 
springand with rede stremes of blude, apperit to the sicht of the 

" In the mene time, twa of the Eomane brethir, woundit and 
slane, fell doun, ilk ane abone uthir. All the thre Albane brethir 
beand, for the time, woundit cruelly and hurte, the fall and 
slauchter of thir twa Eomane brethir maid the Albanis to rejose, 
with vehement noyis and elamoure. Yit the Eomane legiounis 
war nooht halelie destitute of curage, howbeit they war pensive 
in thair mindis ; havand, as than, na esperance bot in the thrid 
broder, namit Horaciane, quhilk wes inclusit amang the thre 
Albane brethir namit Curaoianis. This Horaciane hapinnit, as 
than, to be haill, but ony stres or hurte of body ; and wes of sic 
strenth, that, howbeit he micht nocht be equale partie to fecht 
aganis all the thre Curacianis atanis, yit he micht haif fochtin 
aganis thaim all, ilk ane eftir uthir. And thairfore, to skail 
thaim in sindry partis, he began to fle ; traisting ilk ane of 
thaim, be this way, ay to follow on him, as the hurte or woundis 
of thair bodyis micht suffir for the time. 

" Now wes the Horaciane fled fra the place quhare he faucht 
afore, and lukand behind him, saw all thir thre Curacianis following 
on him as fast as thay micht, ilk ane severit ane large space fra 
uthir, and ane of thaim nooht far fra him. Incontinent, he 
returnit with grete force on this nerrest Ouraciane, quhil the 
Albanis war criand, with schil noyis, on the remanent Curacianis 
to support thair brothir. This Horaciane had slane his fallow, 
and enterand with new victorie on the secund Curaciane. Then 
the oist of • Eomanis began to help their campioun, with sic 
elamoure as effrayit pepill hes quhen ony gude fortoun fallis abone 
thair esperance. This forcy campioun maid him, with grete 
diligence, to end this bataill, afore the thrid brothir, quhilk wes 
nocht far distant, micht cum to his supporte ; and finalie, slew 
the secund brothir. 

" Now, wes nocht bot man for man on athir side, with equale 
chance of batall : howbeit, thay nouthir equale in strenth of body 
nor esperance of victorie ; for this ane deliver and but ony wound 
of body, havand double victorie of inemyis, come mair feirsly to 
fecht in the thrid bataill, that he had sa recent victorie. That 
uthir, ouirset with bleding of his woundis, and fast rink to haif 
supportit his brether, and nere discomfist for thair slauchter afore 
his ene, enterit in the batall aganis his victorius inemye, and 
maid bot smal debait. This Horaciane, rejosing in his minde, 
said, ' I haif send twa brethir to hell ; and I sal send the thrid, 
quhilk is occasioun of our debait, the samin gate : to that fine, 
that the Eomanis, in times cuming, may regne with perpetual 
empire above the Albanis.' And incontinent, he straik this thrid 


brothir, quhilk inicht skarslie bere up his wapinnis, in the 
thrappill, and spulyeit him baith of his life and armoure at anis." 
The " Complaynt of Scotland " (written 1548), already referred 
to, is an extreme specimen of the Frenchified style. We have 
read the author's declamation against the use of " lang-tailit 
words," and " oncoutht exquisite termis," and his determination 
" nocht til hef fardit and lardit this tracteit with exquisite termis, 
quhilkis ar nocht dalie usit, but rather to hef usit domestic scottis 
langage, maist intelligibil to the vulgare pepill." "With which 
declaration of principles compare his exordium — " To the excellent 
and illustir Marie Queen of Scotlande (the Queen Regent Marie de 
Guise), the margareit and perle of princessis. The immortal gloir 
that procedis be the rycht lyne of vertu, fra jour magnanime auansing 
of the public veil of the affligit realme of Scotlande, is abundantly 
dilatit athort al cuntreis, throucht the quhilk the precius germe of 
jour nobilite, bringis nocht furtht alanerly branchis and tendir 
leyvis of vertu ; bot as veil it bringis furtht salutiffere and Jioilsurn 
frute Of honour, quhilk is ane immortal and supernatural medicyne, 
to cure & to gar conuallesse al the langorius desolat & affligit pepil, 
quhilkis are al-mast disparit of mennis supple, ande reddy to be 
venquest & to be cum randrit in the subiection and captiuitd of our 
mortal aid enemeis, be rason that ther cruel inuasions aperis to be 
onremedabil. The special cause of oure afflictione hes procedit of 
thre vehement plagis quhilk hes al maist succumbit oure cuntre in 
final euertione, that is to saye, the cruel inuasions of our aid enemeis, 
the vniuersal pestilens and mortalite, that hes occurit mercyles 
amang the pepil, and the contentione of diuerse of the thre estaitis 
of Scotland, throucht the quhilk thre plagis, the vniuersal pepil ar 
be cum distitute of iusiice policie ande of al verteus bysynes of 
body and saul. Ande nou, illustir princes, engendrit of magnanime 
genoligie, & discendit of Boyal progenituris, jour regement ande 
gouernyng, ande alse jour honorabil amplitude of verteouse dignite 
incressis daly in the contenual auansing of the deffens of oure cuntre, 
quhar for jour heroyque vertu is of mair admiratione, nor vas of 
Valeria the dochter of the prudent consul publicola, or of cloelia, 
lucresia, penolope, Cornelia, semiramis, ihomaris, penthasillie, or of 
any vthir verteouse lady that plutarque or bocchas hes discriuit, to 
be in perpetual memore. for al thair nobil actis ar nocht to be 
comparit to the actis that puvprudens garris daly be exsecut, contrar 
the cruel woffis of ingland. And nou sen the deceis of oure nobyl 
illustir prince Kying iames the fyift, jour vmquhile faythtful lord 
and hisband, tha said rauisant wolfis of ingland hes intendit ane 
oniust weyr be ane sinister inuentit false titil contrar our realme, in 
hope to devoir the vniversal floe of oure scottis natione, ande to 
extinct oure generatione furtht of rememorance. Ther is na prudent 
man that wil iuge that this pis til procedis of assentatione or adula- 
tione, considerant that we may see perfytlye quhou that jour grace 
takkis pane to duelle in ane straynge cuntre distitute of iustice 
Ande als jour grace beand absent fra jour only jong dochter, our 


nobil princes, and rychteous heretoure of Scotland ; quha is presentlye 
veil tretit in the governance of hyr fadir of lau, the maist illustir 
potent prince of the maist fertil and pacebil readme, vndir the 
machine of the supreme olimp, quhar that jour grace mycht remane 
& duel amawg the nobil princis & prmcessis of France, quhilkis ar 
jour natiue frendis of consanguinite and affinite ande ther je myeht 
posses abundance of al pleiseirs mast conuenient for your nobilite, 

§ 16. We can hardly accept the foregoing as " domestic Soottis 
langage, maist intelligibil to the vulgare pepill" ; it may, perhaps, 
be taken as a specimen of what it was, under French influences, 
becoming, when a much more potent influence ■ appeared to 
alter the whole complexion of the matter. The Eeformation, 
which ushered in such a brilliant period in the literature of 
England, proved adverse to the independent growth of the lan- 
guage of Scotland. It was not merely that the effulgence of the 
Elizabethan era made contemporary Scottish literature grow dim 
in contrast. There was no translation of the Scriptures into the 
Northern dialect ; for the first forty years of the Eeformation 
movement, these and other books used by the adherents of the new 
faith had to be obtained from England. Compare Lyndesay, 
" Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis," 1. 1144 :— 

Quhat buik is that, harlot, into thy hand ? 

Out ! walloway ! this is the New Testment, 
In Englisch toung, and printit in England ! 

Herisie ! herisie ! fire ! fire ! incontinent. 

and " Kitteis Confessioun," 1. 19 : — 

Quod he, " Ken je na Heresie ?" 
" I wait nooht quhat that is," quod sche ; 
Quod he, " Hard je na Inglis Bukis ?" 
Quod scho, " My maister on thame lukis :"' 
Quod he, " The Bischop that sail knaw !" 

Moreover, the adherents of the Eeformed faith, with the Lords 
of the Congregation at their head, were, from the necessities 
of the political situation — in opposition to the French or Ca- 
tholic party — an English party, in intimate correspondence with 
the Protestant leaders in England; and the two causes — the 
dependence of Scotland upon England for the Bible, and the 
relations of the leaders of the movement with England— soon 
produced a marked assimilation to the contemporary English in 
their language. This is apparent, even in the writings of Sir 
David Lyndesay, especially in his more important works, such as 
" The Monarch^," and " The Tragedy," where we have constantly 
the forms, go, also, quho, quhois, and even one, used like the Scotch 
awe. 1 The writings of Knox, renowned as he was for his eloquence 

1 But there is reason to believe that Chaucer and the other English poets 

Lyndesay, like his predecessors, Dun- of his age, and to imitation, conscious 

bar and Gawain Douglas, owed much or unconscious, of their language. 
of this Anglicism to familiarity with 


in the "Scottis leid," are still more English in form; witness 
the following passage, which at once exemplifies his style, and 
illustrates this connection between the two dialects : — 

" And so by Act of Parliament [March 15th, 1543] it was maid 
free to all, man and woman, to reid the Scriptures in thair awin 
toung, or in the Engliss toung ; and so war all Actes maid in the 
contrair abolished. This was no small victorie of Christ Jesus, 
feghting against the conjured ennemyes of his verite ; not small 
conforte to such as befoir war holdin in such bondage, that thei 
durst not have red the Lordis Prayer, the Ten Commandimentis, 
nor Articules of thare faith in the Engliss toung, but thei should 
have bene accused of heresye. Then mycht have bene sein the 
Byble lying almaist upoun everie gentilmanis table. The New 
Testament was borne about in many manis handes. We grant 
that some (allace !) prophaned that blessed wourd ; for some that 
perchance had never red two sentences in it, had it maist common 
in thare hand ; they wold chope thare familiares on the cheak with 
it, and say, ' This hes lyne hyd under my bed-feitt these ten 
yearis.' Otheris wold glorie, ' how oft have I bein in danger 
for this booke ; how secreatlie have I stollen fra my wyff at 
mydnycht to reid upoun it.' . . . Then ware sett furth werkis in 
our awin toung, besydis those that came from England, that did 
disclose the pryde, the craft, the tyranny, and abuses of that 
Eomane Antichrist." — Life and Works of Knox, Wodrow Soc, 
ed. D. Laing. 

Notice, who, whose, so, from, such, would, should, hold, told, 
these, those, for the Scotch, quha, quhais, sa, fra, sic, wald, suld, 
hald, tauld, thir, tha, &c. 

Elsewhere, in quoting or applying Scripture texts, the language 
of Knox becomes entirely English, even to the Southern verbal 
forms in -est, -eth, for the Northern -s : — 

" Thow wilt say, ' Whairfoir doith God command us that which 
is impossible for us ?' I ansuere, ' To mack thee know that thow 
art bot evill, and that thair is no remeady to save thee in thine 
awin hand ; and that thow mayest seak a remeady at some uther ; 
for the law doith nothing butt command thee.' " 

The copies of the Scriptures referred to by Knox were of 
course from England ; another generation passed, and Knox him- 
self died before the first edition was printed in Scotland, by 
Arbuthnot and Bassendyne, in 1576-79. This was regarded as a 
great national work, each parish in the kingdom being required 
to contribute £5 toward the expense. In the address of the 
General Assembly, upon its completion, they say : — " O what dif- 
ference between thir days of light, when almost in every private 
house the book of God's law is read and understood in our vulgar 
language and the age of darkness, when scarcely in a whole city, 
without the cloisters of monks and friers, could the book of God 
once be found." A few months afterwards it was enacted in 
parliament that each householder worth a certain sum of money 


should have in his house a Bible and psalm hook in the vulgar 
tongue. It is a proof how thoroughly the use of the English 
Bible by three generations had familiarized the people of Scotland 
with, the literary language of the Southern kingdom; that this 
"Bible in the Vulgar tongue" was the English Geneva version, 
without the slightest attempt at Northern adaptation, either in 
words or spelling. The parable of the sower, Matthew xiii. 3, 
will serve as a specimen : — 

"Then he spake many things to them in parables, saying, 
Behold' a sower went forth to sowe, (4) And as he sowed some fel 
by the wayes side, and the foules came and deuoured them vp ; 
(5) And some fel vpo stonie grounde, where they had not much 
earth, and anone they sprong vp because they had no depe of 
earth. (6) And when the sunne rose vp, they were parched, and 
for lacke of rooting withred away. (7) And some fel amog 
thornes, & the thornes sprong vp and choked them, (8) Some 
againe fel in good' grounde & broght forth frute one come an 
hundreth folde, some sixtie folde, and another thirtie folde.. 
(9) He that hath eares to heare, let hi heare." 

The same version is quoted in Lyndesay's " Satyre," ed. 1602, 
1-. 2908, where it is all the more striking from contrast with tha 
vernacular by which it is surrounded : — 


Luik quhat Sanct Paul wryta vnto TimatHe. 
Tak; thair, the Buik : lat se gif je can spell. 

I never red that. Thairfoir, reid it jour sel. 
(Qude Counsall sail reid thir wordis on ane Buik.)!- 
Fidelia Sermo : si quis Episcopatum desiderat, &c. 
That is :— 
This is a true 6aying : If any man desire the office of a Bisbop, he desireth a worthie 
worke. A Bishop, therefore, must be vnreproueable, the husband of one wife, &0. 
Thir ar the verie words of th' Apostill Paull. 

The quotations made by the author of the " Complaynt" seem- 
to be translations or paraphrases of his own made directly from 
the Vulgate, and are of course in Scotch, as are also the Decalogue, 
Lord's Prayer, Ordinances of Baptism and of the Lord's Supper, 
and other portions prefixed to the " Gude and Godlie Ballatis," 
1-578. 1 These, though affected by the English orthography, afford 
an idea of what a Scottish version of the Scriptures would have 
been, had it been completed : — 

" The keyis of heuin will I giue vnto the, quhat sa euer thow 
sal bind vponthe eird, salbe bound also in heuin.; and quhat sa 
euer thow sail louse vpon the eird, salbe lowsifc also in heuin. 
Quhais sinnis $e forgiue, ar forgiuen vnto them, and quhais sinnis 
, e retene, ar retenit vnto them." — Matt. xvi. 

The metrical version of the Psalms, adopted in 1564-5, was,. 

1 Reprinted by David Laing, Edinburgh, 1868 


like the Bible, in the literary English; but two black-letter 
editions published in Edinburgh used the Scotch orthography. 
Comparing William Kethe's Old Hundred, in the English edition, 
Edinburgh, 1565, with that in the black letter of about 1578, we 
see how closely the latter followed the English; — 

English, 1566. ' Scotch, 1678. 

All people that on earth do dwell Al pepill that on eirth do dwell, 

Sing to the Lord with chereful voyee, Sing to the Lord with cheirfull voce, 

Him serve with feare, his praise foorth Him serve with feir, his praise forth 
tel, tell, 

Come ye hefore him and rejoyoe. Come ,}e befoir him and rejoyce. 

The Lord, ye knowe, is God in dede, The Lord, )e knaw, is gude indeid, 

Without our aide he did us make, Without our aide he did us mak, 

We are his flocke, he doth us fede, We ar his folk : he dois us feid, 

And for his shepe he doth us take. And for his soheip he deds us tak. 

enter, then, his gates with praise, Och ! enter then his gaitis with praise, 

Approche with joye his courtes unto, Approche with joy his courtis unto : 

Praise, laude, and blesse his Name Praise, laude, and blys his Name 

. rls > 
For it is semely so to do. For it is semelie so to do. 

For why ? the Lord our God is good, For quhy ? the Lord our God is gude, 
His goodness is for ever sure, His mercy is for ever sure : 

His treuth at all tymes firmely stoode, His trueth at all tymes firmelie stude, 
And shal from age to age indure. And sail from age to age indure. 

Here the English construction is followed word for word, even 
to the transference of do dwell, did mak, dois feid, dois tak, in 
which the do is, in Southern English dialects, a living part of the 
language, forming a. habitual tense 2 (as in the Cornish and Welsh), 
not a mere stop-gap to eke out a line or coax a rhyme. In that 
dialect it had appeared as early as the date of the Ancren Eiwle 
(about 1225), where we have, Irif bi luue nis nout for to giuen, 
auh wult allegate bet me bugge hire r 1 do seie hwu — If thy love 
is not to be given, but thou wilt by all means that it be bought, 
do say how 1 (fol. 110). jif Jra hauest leaue, cwe^ he, do sting, 
gif bu meih — If thou hast leave, quoth he, do sting, if thou 
mayest (fol. 161). Dina, Jacobes douhter, eode vt uor to biholden 
uncufte wummen : lo jet ne serS hit nouht bet heo biheld weopmen ; 
auh de% wummen" — Dinah Jacob's daughter geade out for to behold 
unco' women : lo yet it says not that she beheld men, but it does 
(say) women (fol. 123). But in the old Northern dialect, do say, 
he dois us fede, would have meant, make or gar say, he makes us 

He sal do rise alle maumentri 
And clepe him godd self al myghty. 

Dan he sais, neder in strete, 
Waitand hors to stang in fete, 
To do the rider falle bi the way. 

1 Both of these versions are taken from the Life and Works of Knox, edited by 
David Laing for the Wodrow Society. 

2 Barnes's Dorset Grammar, p. 26. 


And in be temple o Salamon 
pan sal ]>at traitur sett his tron, 
pat al was feld lang siben gan, 
He sal do rais it eft o stan. 
Circumcise him- ]>ar he sal 
And goddes sun him do to calle. 

Thoru his mighti wille dos bat kyng 
Ute of be erd tre to spring. — Cursor Mundi. 
Do wait, and lat him nooht awai. — Dunbar. 

But by the makaris of the Middle Period, do was used as a simple 
expletive, and extended by them, not only to the present and 
past indicative, but to all parts of the verb, as he dois cum, he hes 
done cum, he sal do wryte, to do descryve, doand knaw — 

Lat workis beir witnes, quhilkis he hes done compyle — 
i.e. which he has compiled. 

The use of the interrogative quha, who, as a simple relative, for 
which the early writers used at, that, and subsequent ones also 
qvihilh, quhilkis, began to prevail also about this time. In English, 
according to Mr. Furnivall (Phil. Soc. Trans. 1865* p. 139-149), 
" who was first used as a relative once in Wyclyffe's Bible, then 
very frequently by Lord Berners in his " Froissart," and "Arthur of 
Little Britain," and then but sparingly till Shakspeare's time and 
after." By Barbour, Wyntown, Douglas, and Dunbar, quha is 
regularly used for the compound whoever, he who, or as the ante- 
cedent, quha that = he that, he who.. 

Quha that bakis brede aw nooht for to hyde it. — Leges Burgorum. 

Quha that dois deidis of petie 
And levis in pece and cheretie 
Is haldin a fule, and. that full nyce, 

And all for cause of C'ovetyce. 

Quha na thing hes can na thing get. 

Quha best can rewll wald maist haye governance. 

In luve to keip allegiance 

It war als nyce an ordinance 

As quha wald hid ane deid man dance 

In sepulture. — Dunbar. 

The oblique cases quhais, and quham, were used as relatives 
from an early period ; but the first instance of the use of the 
nominative quha, as a simple relative, that I have met with, is in 
" Chrystis Kirk of the Grene " — if indeed it is safe to assume that 
the form of that poem is older than its earliest copy preserved in 
the Bannatyne MS. of 1568 :— 

Ane hasty hensure callit Hary, 

Quha wes ane archer heynd, 
Tilt up a taikle withouten tary, 

That torment sa him teynd. 

Similar doubt attaches to an instance in Henrysoun's poem of 
Orpheus and Eurydice, 1. 548 (Mr. Laing's ed.) : — 


Schawand to ws, quhat perrell on ilk syd 
That thay incur, quhay will trest or confyS 
In to this warldis vane prosperitie. 

Unfortunately, lines 547-50 are among those wanting in the early- 
printed ed. of 1508, as well as in the early Asloane MS., being 
supplied from the copy in the Bannatyne MS. ; so that the date 
1568 is again the oldest which we can certainly give to quhay in 
the passage in question. We are on firmer ground with a single 
example in Lyndesay's "Monarche" (edition of 1552), where quhilh 
is the usual relative : — 

And in that samyn land, Iwys, 

He tuk to wyfe Semeramis, 

Quha, as myne author dois discryve, 

Was then the lustiest on lyve.— 'E. M. T. S. ed., 1. 2787.' 1 

The later editions of Lyndesay's works regularly insert quha 
instead of the original quhilh ; thus the passage which stands in 
the editions of 1538 and 1559 as 

Or qnho can now the workis cuntrafait 
Off Kennedie, with termes aureait ? 
Or of Dunbar, quhilh language had at large 
As maye be sene in tyll his goldin targe ? 

Complaint of the Fapyrtgo,A. 16. 
appears in the edition of 1582, 

Or quha can now the warkis cunterfait 
Of Kennedie with termes aureait? 
Or of Dunbar, quha language had at large 
As may be sene intill his " Goldin Targe." 

This alteration of the later editions accounts for the fact that the 
" Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis" (first edition extant, 1602) con- 
stantly uses quha as the relative. 

In the Acts of the Scots Parliament, this use of quha seems to 
commence after 1540, as, "My said lord gouernor & aduocate 
being als personaly present quha ar warnit hereof." — Acta Mariae, 
12 Mch. 1542. The " Complaynt of Scotland," 1548, also 
exhibits this form as well as the older quhilh — " Siclyke that 
maist sapient prince and prelat fadir in gode Ihone of Loran, quha 
is jour fadir broder quhilh be his prudens hes been mediatour 
betuix diuers forane princes, to treit pace and Concorde in diuerse 
cuntreis, quha hes nocht alanerlie vsit hym lyik ane sperutual 
pastor, bot as veil he hes vsit hym lyik ane vailjeant captan," 
&c. The same usage is regularly observed by Knox : "he was 
committit to the secular judge (for our biscboppis Mow Pilat, who 
boith did oondempne, and also wesche his handis), who condempned 
him to the fyre" (vol. i. p. 6). Quha continued to be so used, in 
the written language, during the decaying period of Scottish 
literature, and although the usage is unknown to the living 

1 The Editor of Lauder's Office and instead of quhilh, at 1. 115 of that 

Dutie of Kyngis, printed 1556 (E. E. work : — 

T. S. ed., 1864) also notes a single That Kyng that eittis all kyngis abone, 

instance of quha as the simple relative Quha heiris and seis all that is wrocht. * 


dialects of Scotland, we find it in the poets of the Modern Period, 
as " Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled !" ' 

Is there for honest povertie 
Wha hangs his head an' a' that ? 

§ 17. It thus appears that long before the accession of James 
VI. to the English throne, there was a marked assimilation in the 
literary language of Scotland to that of England. After that event 
the Scotch ceased to be used in general literature ; Scotchmen who 
had anything to say to their fe]low-men found a much wider 
audience by expressing themselves in the language of England. 
For local purposes, however, such as the proceedings of Parlia- 
ment and the law courts, municipal records, and similar docu- 
ments, the vernacular continued still to be used, although one 
characteristic of the orthography disappeared after another, until, 
at the union of the Parliaments, only an occasional word connected 
with local customs or the technicalities of Scottish law survived to 
distinguish the language, to the eye, from the literary English. 
The pulpits of the national church and the parish schools seem 
also to have preserved the Scotch down at least to the time of the 
Commonwealth. In a copy-book and set of school exercises, 
written at Selkirk in 1630, which are in my possession, 2 the 
" settings " or texts are all in the native dialect, into which also 
the Latin themes are rendered. The former consist of such 
couplets as these : — • 

Quhair sair calamitie ouersettis ane gentill hart 
Quha beiria it pacientlie, he playis ane proudent pairt. 

Na plesour is hot pane, as preuis experiens, 
Thairfoir let hoip remane, and tak in paoience. 

For eftir snaw and sleit, sail cum the somer flouris, 

Thay are noeht worthe the sueit, that may not suffer souris. 

}e sie the stormis blast, garris cluddis fall owt in rane, 
Bot quhone the schour is past, the sky will cleare agane. 

Of the language of the courts of justice, after the Union, the fol- 
lowing specimens are taken from the Eecord of the Jedburgh 
Circuit Court, under date April, 1623 : — 

" Johne Halle, callit ]>e Cheiff, in Newbigging, and Lancie Hall 
thair, ar accusit for airt and pairt of be thifteous steilling and 
resetting of sevin nolt, sax of fern perteining to Isaac Patersoune 
in Huronnesclois, four of bem ky, ane ox, and ane stott, and ane 
uther ox perteining to Jon Meitfurd thair, furth of be lands of 

1 " Scots wha hae" is fancy Scotch — The vernacular is still " Scots at hses,' ' 

that is, it is merely the English which Burns apparently considered un- 

" Scots who have," spelled as Scotch. grammatical, and therefore shaped the 

Barbour would have written " Scottis words after an English model. Much 

at hes ;" Dunbar or Douglas, " Scottis of the contemporary Scotch is of this 

quhilkis hes ;" and even Henry Char- character ; it is Scotch in spelling, 

teris, in the end of the 16th century, English in everything else. 
" Scottis quha hes." Compare 2 See notice in "Leisure Hour" of 

Luif justice ye quha hes ane Judges cure. Jan., 1870. 
Lyruksay— Satyre,!. 1027 (ed. 1602). 


Huronnesclois, about }e first Ladie-day last. Clenges thame of 
]>e thift, but fyllis thame upone J»e ressett of ]>6 said nolt, and 
being airt and pairt with John Hall of Heviesyde, being ane 
outlaw and fugitive in selling of thame. 

" Item quhair Johne Irwine, callit lang Laird Hoddame, his 
brother and his spouse ar aocusit for airt and pairt of J?e thifteous, 
steilling, resett and away takin of seviD gaitt furth of Je lands of 
Broohtschall, at several tymes, perteining to Elizabeth Hardie, 
spous to umquhill David Dalrymple, betwixt Yull and Candlemas 
last ; and for \& cruell burning of ane barne full of come, beir, 
quheit, and ry, perteining to W m Bell in Holmheid, upon Jra tent 
day of Febrnar last by past. Clengit of the haill. 

" Williame Scott of Burnefute upon the watter of Aill, actit him 
as cawtionar, and souertie for Geordie Jonsoune in Eschinsyd, that 
he sail compeir befoir his Maties saids Commissionaris the nixt 
Justice Court to be haldin be thame and underly his hienes lawis, 
under ]>e pane of fyve hundreth merkis. 

" The persounis foirsaid fund guyltie and foull of certain crymis 
of thift and utheris contenit in fair particular dittayes, wer, be ]>e 
saidis Commissioners, decernit and condempnit, thay, and ilkane 
of Jem to be takin to ]>e place of execution, and there to be hangitt 
be ]>e heid, ay quhill thay wer deid, and all thair landis, guds and 
geir to be escheit and inbrooht to his hienes use, as was pronuncit 
in judgement be Jie mouth of \e said Johne Junkisoune, dempstar 
of J>e said Court." — Annals of Hawick, pp. 215-305. 

The language of the pulpit in the middle of the 17th century is 
exemplified by the following extract from a sermon preached by 
Mr. James Bow, sometime minister of Strowan, in St. Giles' 
Church, Edinburgh, on the occasion of the signing of the " Solemn 
League and Covenant," in 1638, which was long famous under 
the name of the " Pockmanty Preaching" : — 

" The Kirk of Scotland was a bony trotting Naig, but then she 
trotted sae hard, that never a man durst ryd her, but the Bishops ; 
wha after they had gotten on her back, corce-langled her, and 
hopshaikled her, and when shee becam a bony paceing beast, they 
tooke great pleasure to ryde on her. But their cadgeing her up 
and downe from Edenbrugh to London, and it may be from Eome 
to, gave her sik a hett cott, that we have been these twall months 
by gane stirring her up and downe, to keep her frae foundrying. 

" Yea, they made not only ane Horse, but ane Ass, of the Kirk 
of Scotland. Hou sae? ko ye. What meane ye by this? He 
tell you hou : they made Balaam's Ass of her. Ye ken well 
eneugh Balaam was ganging ane unluckie gate, and first the 
Angel mett him in a broad way, and then the Ass, bogled and 
startled, but Balaam gote by the Angel, and till her and battand 
her sufficiently ; that was when Episcopacy came in, and then 
they gave the Kirk of Scotland her paiks. 

" AfterwardB Balaam mett the Angel in a narrow gate, and shee 
startled more than before ; but Balaam till her againe, and whaked 


her soundly; that was when the Fyve Articles of Perth were 
brought in. 

" The thrid time the Angel mett Balaam in sae strait a gate that 
the Ass could not win by ; and then it pleased the Lord to open 
blind Balaam's eyes, and that is this happy dayes wark. Now 
God has opened all our eyes ; we were lyk blind Balaam ganging 
ane unluckie gate, and ryding post to Borne ; and what was goten 
behind him upon the Ass, watt ye ? He tell you, there was a 
pockmanty. And what was in it, true ye? but the Book of 
Cannons and Common Prayer, and the High Commission ; but as 
soon as the Ass sies the Angel, shee falls a flinging and a farting, 
and oregangs the pockmanty; and it hings by the string on the 
one syde, and aff gaes blind Balaam, and he hangs by the hough 
on the other syde, and faine would the cairll [hae] been on the 
sadle againe, and [h]a[e] been content to leave his pockmanty. 
But, beloved, lett not the false swinger gett on againe, for if he 
gett on againe, he will be sure to gett his pockmanty also." 

Here, it will be observed, not only is the orthography largely 
assimilated to the current English, but the words used are a 
mixture of the literary tongue with the vernacular. The full 
course of the change during the 17th century may be seen by 
examining the Acts of the Scots Parliament during that period. 
As a few data for the dialect of the Southern counties, I give the 
following from the contemporary records of the Burgh of 
Hawick : — 

"A.D. 1640. Whatsomevir person sail commit blud upon 
utheris, within the freedom of the brughe, sal pay 5 pundis for 
the blud, and 5 pundis for the bludwyte, efter tryal taken and 
convict thereof be the Baylyeas, and aucht days in the stockis. 

" 1660. The haill counsellers being covened within the Tolbuith, 
did all with ane voice statute and ordain, that every inhabitant 
within the brughe sail have libertie to tur and theik, and sett ane 
ladder in his neighbour's close or yaird where they cannot win to 
tur and theik (cover with turf and thatch) and sett ladders on 
thair awin ground. 

" 1686. The qwMk day, by appointment of the baylyeas W. P. 
and D. H. being ordanitto search the meall markitt did after exact 
tryell and search find George Trumbell in Dovshaugh to have 
seidie and insufficient meale at the markitt the said day, being 
about ane gouping of seids or thereby sifted out of ane pecke of 
his fulle sacke, who compeirand came in the baylyea's will for 
tenn pounds of fyne, and also for the pryse of the haill meall. 

" 1700. Wee, John Cochrane, ane old lame tall black man, 
with some grey hairs in his head, lame in both elbows, and 
having ane cutt in the brow, and James Anderson son to Adam 
Anderson, scholem aster in the Canongate of EdinF, being about 
16 years of age, of ane little stature, wanting ane ey — in respect 
that they were apprehended on the 25 th inst., being the fair day, 
and imprisoned within the tolbuithe for alleat stealing of several!. 


goods and oy s, which were wanting in the said fair, and that as 
the baylyeas has sett us at libertie out of the samen, therefore witt 
ye us to have enacted ourselves, that we shall never in tyme 
coming hereafter, be seen by night or by day w'in the brughe of 
Hawicke and liberties y r of under the paine of being lyable to all 
punishments that can be inflicted on us. 

" 1706. The baylyeas and Towne Oounsell did enact that noe 
burgess or other inhabitant should, in noe tyme coming heirafter, 
att or before the fairs to be holden w*in the said brugh, merke or 
sett down nieiths for merchands, packmen, or pedders that lives 
out of the liberties of the town, until they come themselfs and 
take up y r stands the day before the fair, under a penaltie of tenn 
pound Scotts and imprysonment dureing the bayleas will and 

By such a gradual transition going on during the whole of the 
17th century, and most active during its latter half, the written 
language became, by 1707, identical with that of England. Here 
and there a solitary archaic form survived a few years longer ; 
thus ane, the article before a consonant, is found lingering till 
about 1720 ; but although in this and other respects the written 
language might present Scotticisms, it was no longer in any sense 
Scotch. It is not to be supposed, however, that the spoken 
language had undergone a similar change, or that the writer of 
even the last of the above specimens would have read it, as 
it would have been read by a Southern Englishman. The dif- 
ference between the two pronunciations was nearly as great as 
that between the English and Scotch pronunciation of Latin ; at 
the present day the reading of English in a country school in 
Scotland is very different from the reading of English by a Lon- 
doner. The sounds are meant to be the same, but a very 
different conception of their value prevails in the two localities. 

§ 18. The Lowland Scotch had now ceased to be used for ordi- 
nary literary purposes, but it still remained as the common tongue 
of the people ; and in this third period of its history it expe- 
rienced a brilliant revival as the vehicle of ballad and lyric 
poetry. In still more recent times Gait and Scott have led the 
way in its copious use in prose works illustrative of Scottish life 
and character — a path in which many successors have followed. 
These productions of the third period are not, however, of exactly 
the same value as witnesses to the contemporary spoken tongue of 
the people, as were the old Scotch laws, the works of Barbour, 
Henry, or Dunbar. They are more or less conventional represen- 
tations. To a greater or less extent they are almost all contami- 
nated with the influence of the literary English — the language 
which their authors have been educated to write— whose rules of 
grammatical inflection and construction they impose upon their 
Scotch, to the corruption of the vernacular idiom. I have already 
pointed out, p. 71, note — at the risk, perhaps, of being set down 
as an unpardonable heretic, that "Scots wha hae wi' Wallace 


bled," although composed of Scotch words, is not vernacular 
Scotch, any more than "How you carry you?" as a translation of 
" Comment vous portez-vous ?" is vernacular English. Hundreds 
of similar examples might be quoted from modern poets. The 
vernacular introduced by Sir Walter Scott in his novels is much 
more pure and genuine, though even he has at times been led 
astray by unconscious deference to English grammar. Thus, 
opening The Antiquary at chap, xxvi., I find Luckie Mucklebackit 
saying, " Them that seUs the guids, guide the purse ; them that 
guide the purse, rule the house," where sells is grammatical, but 
guide (twice) and rule are Anglicisms, and would be guides, rules, 
(geidz, rc>ulz) in the mouth of a native speaker, as well as in the 
classical writers, when the vernacular was still the national lite- 
rary tongue. But where Scott and Burns have thus occasionally 
Anglicised the native idiom, many other writers have done so sys- 
tematically, apparently looking upon the vernacular usage, where it 
differs from that of literary English, as "bad grammar," or "igno- 
rant corruption," 1 and it is hardly too much to adopt the phrase 
of the author of the Cleveland Glossary, and say that their Scotch 
is only " ordinary English in masquerade," and of about the same 
value philologically as the snuff-shop Highlander is in ethnology. 
In the matter of orthography, also, there exists no recog- 
nized standard for the spelling of Modern Scotch, and the lite- 
rary productions of this period, in consequence, afford no man- 
ner of insight into the actual pronunciation — that is, into the 
living language — which they are supposed to represent. Amid 
the general orthographic anarchy, two principal fashions may be 
roughly distinguished as dividing the field. In the commoner of 
the two, the standard English spelling forms the basis to 
which the Scotch is conformed wherever possible. Words pecu- 
liarly Northern, and wanting in the literary English, form, of 
course, an exception, as do words of which the Northern form is 
very different from the Southern, whether as regards the conso- 
nantal skeleton, as streek for stretch, kirk for church, skart for 
scratch, a' for all, or from the characteristic vowels being very 
distinct, as sair for sore, wad for would, auld for old, ee for eye ; 
but in all other cases, where the sounds, though different, are near 
to each other, no intimation is given of the dialectical difference. 
The result of this treatment is that, to the eye, a piece of Lowland 

1 " Language is a natural production, may be acquainted. As though gram- 
living and growing, as much as a tree maT were anything hut a systematic 
or flower ; and no natural development statement of usage ! What would be 
can be called a corruption. The only thought of the botanist who should 
corrupters of dialects, that I know of, mutilate his specimens of flowers and 
are the literary men who 'improve plants to improve their symmetry, or 
nature,' by writing them, not as they mate them fit into pre-arranged arti- 
are, but according to their notions of ficial systems, instead of following 
what they ought to be — i.e., in accord- nature, and drawing his laws and sys- 
ance with " rules of grammar" derived terns from her !" — Frince L. L. Bona- 
from other languages with which they parte. 


Scotch, bo written, looks like literary English with a good many 
apostrophes, a small per-centage of words not to be found in the 
English Dictionary, and about the same number of idiomatic 
phrases and grammatical constructions not recognized by the 
literary tongue. To show that this is no fanciful statement, I 
turn to Burns's Poems, and analyse two or three of the best known 
and most national of his pieces, with the following results : — A 
man's a man for a' that, contains 115 different words, of which 
18 only do not occur as English. Ihmcan Gray cam here to 
woo, the different words in which number 117, has 30, and Avid 
Lang Syne, out of 80 words, has 24 which an English reader 
would point out as Scotch. Scots wha hae, with 100 words, has 
only 9 not English. The Death of Poor Mailie, an Unco Mournfu' 
Tale, consisting of 461 words, has 71, or, including repetitions, 98 
words not English, several differing only in the use of an apos- 
trophe for an elided letter. 1 And yet if a countryman of the 
poet were to recite these poems to a Southern audience, it is not too 
much to say that not more than three words in a hundred would 
be heard as the same as the English words with which they are 
identified in spelling. Hence the observation one so frequently 
hears from Englishmen — "I can understand Burns's poems quite 
well, when I read them ; but I cannot follow you when you read 
them." They read the words, spelled like their English equiva- 
lents, as English ; and three-fourths to nine-tenths of the words 
being thus old friends, the context enables them to guess at the 
meaning of any new faces. Doubtless, an orthography so largely 
English renders Burns, or any other Scottish writer, more widely 
intelligible and enjoyable. A Scotchman disregards the spelling, 
and reads it in the dialect of his native district (sometimes as 
distinct from that of Burns as that is from English) ; an English- 
man reads according to his conception of Scotch. The merits of 
such a spelling for general purposes I do not question, pointing 
only to the fact that the Scotch so written is not a witness to the 
actual spoken dialects ; it does not represent — as it does not 
pretend to represent — the amount of difference, but rather to 

1 The following are the word's in Scots wha hae — wha, hae, wi', wham, 

question : — A man's a man for that — aften, o', sae, fa', sodger. 

a', gowd, hamely, hoddin, gie, sae, o', Poor Mailie— thegither, ae, cloot, 

birkie, ca'd, wha, coof, mak, aboon, coost, owre, warsled, earn, doytin', wi', 

guid, maunna, fa', gree, warld. glowering, een, near-hand, waes, na, 

DvmanOray— cam, o',fou, Maggie?, naething, spak, brak, woefu', muokle, 

coost, fu', asklent, unco, skeigh, gart, mair, o', ca', woo', kin', guid, gie, frae, 

abeigh, fleeched, craig, baith, grat, een, tods, fend, themsel, tent, teats, ripps, 

bleer't, blin', spak, lowpin, owre, linn ?, gaets, wanrestfu, »laps, kail, forbears, 

sair, hizzie, gae, heal (=hale), sic, mony, bairn*, greet, toop, ha-vins, 

could-na, smoord, crouse, canty. winna, yowes, hame, no (=not), rin, 

Auld Lang Syne — auld, o', lang, ither, mense-less, neiBt, yowie, gude, 

syne, tak, twa, hae, braes?, pu'd, forgather, ony, blastit, moop, mell, 

gowans, monie, sin', paidl't, i', burn ?, thysel, lea'e, blessin', baith, upo', 

frae, mornin', till (=to), braid, here, mither, ano, anither, dinna, a', thou-s', 

gie, guid-willie, waught, pint-stoup. blether, amang. 


show the maximum of likeness, between them and the usual 
English. To the actual spoken language it bears precisely the 
relation that is borne to Chaucer's English by a modern- 
ized version of his writings, using the present English spelling, 
except for obsolete words, or where prevented by the rhyme. 
The other mode of writing Scotch consists in using the spelling 
of the writers of the 15th and 16th centuries, without regard to 
the question whether it represents the modern pronunciation, or 
suits it better than any other. It is seldom used except when 
accompanying an archaic dietion, in that species of writing known 
as the quasi-antique, as in some of the poems of the Ettrick 
Shepherd ; and in the absence of any correct notions of philology, 
owing to which the language and orthography of far distant 
periods have been jumbled together, and a very clumsy imitation 
has passed muster as " old Scots," it has been employed to obtain 
celebrity for modern ballads by passing them off as ancient com- 
positions — a species of literary fraud of which the modern period 
of Scottish literature presents abundant instances. 

§ 19. While neither of these modes of spelling shews the 
great difference between the Northern and Southern utterance, 
they also fail in shewing the dialectical differences of pronuncia- 
tion which are now found in Scotland. It is customary to speak 
of Scotch as one dialect (or language), whereas there are in 
Scotland several distinct types, and numerous varieties of the 
Northern tongue, differing from each other markedly in pro- 
nunciation, and to some extent also in the vocabulary and gram- 
mar. The dialects of adjacent districts pass into each other 
with more or less of gradation, but those of remote districts 
(say, for example, Buchan, Teviotdale, and Ayr) are at first 
almost unintelligible to each other, and, even after practice has 
made them mutually familiar, the misconception of individual 
words and phrases leads to ludicrous misunderstandings. 1 Un- 

1 Once, on a pilgrimage to St. Mary's where, however, I did not read wain 
Loch and the Grey Mere's Tail, I put hut wetn, or weedn. The sentence 
up for the night at the well-known now became, "Mother!— baby's walk- 
" Jenny o' Birkhill's," on the top of ing !" Quite accidentally, I after- 
the watershed between the streams wards found out that what I had heard 
which fall into the German Ocean and as walhiri was wauhen — awake — and 
those that reach the Irish Sea. Some that the information conveyed was 
" Wast-Cuintrie folk" were staying in neither " the waggon is walking," 
the house at the same time, and in the nor " baby is taking its first toddle ; 
morning I was awakened by the shrill but "Mother!— baby is awake!" or, 
voice of a girl shouting behind my as it would have been in Teviotdale, 
door, "Mither! mither! — the wain's "Muther! — the bairn's weaken!" I 
walkin' !" My instinctive impulse was smiled to think how I had been as 
to understand wain as waggon, and the completely tripped up by a simple sen- 
sentence as, " Mother ! —the waggon's tence in a Scottish dialect, separated 
walking, or moving off!" when the from my own only by a ridge of hills, 
voice of a child in an adjoining room as if it had been French or German. — 
reminded me of wean — a word not in I have since found that a mistake, the 
ordinary use in our dialect, but familiar converse of mine, was made, under less 
enough in the writings of Burns, extenuating circumstances, by Pinker- 


doubtedly the interval of a hundred and fifty or two hundred 
years that has elapsed since Scotch was a literary language, 
used in the church and taught in the schools, is accountable, in 
some degree, for this dialectical diversity ; but this could at most 
exaggerate existing differences, by giving full play to tendencies 
which already existed, and whose causes must be sought in earlier 
times and more remote conditions of things. 

In examining the actual state of the Lowland Scottish dialects — 
which even at the present day barely extend over one half of the 
area of Scotland, the Gaelic, so far as actual acreage goes, still 
being spoken over the larger half ' — I have been led to arrange 
them in three groups — a North-Eastern, a Central, and; a Southern — 
which may be further subdivided into eight minor divisions, or 
sub-dialects. Of these, the North-Eastern group, embracing the 
dialects north of the Tay, seems to fall into three sub-dialeots — 
those of Caithness, of Moray and Aberdeen, or the country between 
the Grampians and Moray Firth, and of Angus, or the district 
between the Grampians and the Tay. In the Central group are 
the sub-dialects of Lothian and Fife, of Clydesdale, of Galloway 
and Carrick, and of the Highland Border, extending from Stirling 
and the Forth, between the Ochil, Lomond, and Sidlaw Hills, on 
the one side, and the Gaelic frontier on the other, across the Tay, 
toward the Braes of Angus. The Southern group is represented 
only by the dialect of the Border Counties, extending from the 
Tweed to the Sol way, and from the Cheviots to the Locher Moss, 
or, as the " South" country is described by Lyndesay (" Dreme,"- 

" Almoist betuix the Mers and Lowh-mabane." 

These divisions, being founded solely upon internal character- 
istics of pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary, have been 
found, quite unexpectedly, to correspond with great political and 
ethnical divisions made known to us by history. Thus we see in 
the dialect of the Southern Counties (including Annandale, Esk- 
dale, Teviotdale, and Ettrick Forest) a direct descendant of the 

ton, in his " Scottish Ballads" of 1783. is still pronounced as ai, as. in Shak- 

Among the poems given in that collec- speare's English, and the words pear, 

tion is " Christis Kirk of the Grene," bear, tear, wear, relates how he used, 

in which are the lines — when a hoy, to be puzzled with the 

" Sum strak with stings, sum gatherit expression, "We played — we played 

stainis, with Thee," regularly used by his 

Sum fled and ill mischevit ; father in conducting family devotions. 

The menstral wan within twa wainis, Why there should be so much said 

That day full weil he previt, about playing in the family prayers 

For he cam hame with unbirst bainis, was a mystery which was only cleared 

Quhair fechtaris wer mischievit." up on revisiting the paternal home in 
Wain is glossed by Pinkerton as " a latter years, when the expression was 
child"; so that the minstrel found found to be, " We plead with Thee." 
his safety from the stainis and straiks, 1 For a complete account of the 
not in crouching between two waggons, present area of the Gaelic, as well as 
but between two children ! — A South of the dialectical divisions of the Low- 
Country friend, whose parents were land tongue, see the Appendix, 
natives of Central Scotland, where ea 


old Northumbrian, whose annals have already been given. The 
dialect of Lothian and the Forth Valley is the same language as 
spoken on the Celtic frontier, and as subsequently cultivated at 
the Court of Holyrood, Linlithgow, Dunfermline, and Stirling, 
and used in those burghs which crowded both sides of the Forth, 
and formed the seat of the national life of the Scotland of the 
Stuarts. In the dialect of Clydesdale we have the same tongue, 
as diffused some centuries later, among a people whose original 
language had been British or Welsh, and who continued to be 
known as Walenses or Bretts, long after Lothian was recognized 
as a province of Saxonia or Engla-land. The dialect of Galloway 
and Carrick represents an extension of the Teutonic speech over 
an area occupied by the Ersch so late as the 16th century, and 
still presenting abundant examples of a Scoto-Irish nomenclature. 
The Teutonic tongue of Central Scotland is also a very recent in- 
truder upon the adjacent Celtic of the Highlands, which, as will 
be seen in the sequel, is still retiring parish after parish before it. 
The dialects of the North-East are interesting as occupying an 
originally Pictish area, to which it is reasonable to attribute some 
of their well-marked peculiarities, among the most prominent of 
which are the pronunciation of wh as /, and of w, in some posi- 
tions, as v, as, faa fuppit the feyte fulpie (who whipped the white 
whelpie), the watch vras'lt wi' the vryeht tyll hys wryst gat a vrang 
vranch (the wretch wrestled with the wright till his wrist got a 
wrong wrench). The peculiarly thin and narrow vopalization of 
the language north of the Grampians — so different from the broad 
and heavy vowels of central Scotland — may be connected with 
the fact that a large number of the early Teutonic settlers here 
consisted of Flemings, introduced by David I. 1 The Teutonic 

1 Dr. Leyden (Compl. of Scotland, tures of Pinkerton : — " Strange as 
Edin., 1801, p. 347) attributes the the opinion may be, there is no diffi- 
peculiarities of the North - eastern culty of establishing it, both by an 
dialect to a more recent connection appeal to historical documents, and by 
with the opposite coast of the conti- the traditions of the people. But this 
nent. " Along the east coast of Scot- question is connected with, the origina- 
land the fishermen are chiefly of tion and distinctions of the different 
Flemish and Danish origin, and retain Scotish dialects — subjects which I in- 
many words of their respective Ian- tended to have discussed in an additional 
guages. They seem to have settled in dissertation. An attentive examina- 
small colonies, at that later period of tion of the subject for that purpose 
Scotish history when the Scotish convinced me that there is no founda- 
nation was in habits of friendly inter- tion whatever for supposing the Scotish 
course with Denmark and the Low language to be a dialect of the Icelandic 
Countries. The broad Buchan dialect, or Scano- Gothic, but that, on the con- 
as it is termed, is of this origin instead trary, whether we regard the derivation 
of Pictish extraction, and is spoken in or the flection of words, it is more 
its utmost purity by the fishermen of closely allied to the Anglo-Saxon as a 
Fife and Angus, but particularly at mother tongue than is the English 
Buckhaven on the Forth, and Davoch itself. The English contains more 
on the Cromarty Firth, where they Danish or Icelandic words than the 
seldom intermarry with their neigh- Scotish. . . . The Border and Western 
hours." The same view he afterwards dialects of the Scotish are almost 
maintained, in replying to the stric- purely [Anglo] Saxon in their peculiar 


dialect of Caithness, an isolated member of the North-Eastern 
group, oeoupies a little corner of an area that was conquered and 
colonised by the Northmen in the tenth century, the inhabitants 
of which are, to some extent, of Scandinavian blood. The Norse 
possessions extended, at times, far to the South ; and Norse 
topographical names are found along the east coast, beyond 
the confines of the county which was to the Northmen emphati- 
cally the Suther-land, or southern territory, as far as the head of 
the Beauly Firth. But, as in the "Western Isles, where the blood 
is also partly Norse, the Celtic speedily regained its lost ground 
in Boss and Sutherland. Hundreds of places with names ending 
in -wick, -dale, -boll, -kirk, -land, -buster, or -bster, can be 
pointed out, where Gaelic alone has been spoken for centuries. 
Even of Caithness itself, fully one half the area is included within 
the Gaelic line, and as the latter is now again receding before the 
Lowland tongue, it is maintained by some that the entire county 
was Celtic in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is certain that the 
dialect of the portion which is now Teutonic presents few charac- 
teristics which can be distinctly set down as Scandinavian, but 
many which show the influence of the Gaelic. It is essentially 
that of the North-eastern coast of Aberdeen and Moray, with / for 
wh, but having also other characteristics of Celtic origin, such as 
the substitution of the sound of sh for ch — shapel, shumlay, shin, 
sheese, shilder — and the elision of initial ih in the demonstrative 
class of words — the, they, them, then, there, that, &c. — met with 
elsewhere in semi-Celtic districts of Sootland and Ireland. (See 
supra pp. 26-27.) 

§ 20. The following pages are devoted to the consideration of 
the actual characteristics and historical relations of the dialect of 
the Southern Counties — of the dales of the Teviot, the Esk, and the 
Annan, the Ettrick and the Yarrow. The grammatical character- 
istics of this dialect consist in the preservation of inflectional dis- 
tinctions which existed in the old Northern dialect of Hampole 
and Barbour, but which are no longer known in other parts of 
Scotland. In respect to these, the dialect of Lothian, as may be 
anticipated, approaches it most closely, and has retained more of 
these peculiarities than the more recently introduced dialects of 
the North and "West. Such is the distinction between meae and 

vocables. The [North] eastern dia- Introduction to his edition of the Bruce. 

lect contains numerous Danish and I rejoice to learn that the Rev. "Walter 

Flemish words, with a considerable Gregor, of Pitsligo, Member of the 

mixture of Celto-Gaelic." It is muoh Philological Society, and author of the 

to be wished that Dr. Leyden had valuable "Glossary of the Dialect of 

written the dissertation referred to, Banffshire," published by the Society, 

which would have done more for 1867, has taken up the question of the 

Scottish philology than all the vagaries origin and history of the North-eastern 

of Pinkerton, Chalmers, and Jamieson. dialect, and promises to g^ve to the 

It is doubtful whether as many words subject an investigation similar to what 

of senBe were written on the subject is hero given to that of the Southern 

during the next half century until Counties, 
the remarks of Cosmo Innes in the 


mair, the former being a plural, the latter a singular, form — meae 
bairns, an mair tui gie them, (more children, and more to give 
them) — corresponding to the old Northern ma, mar, old Southern, 
mo, more; but both now merged in the English more, and also 
confused in other parts of Scotland as mair. The distinction is 
also observed in the most northern counties of England, but I do 
not find it mentioned in the Cleveland Glossary. A similar dis- 
tinction is made in the two forms aneuwch and aneuw, as in 
aneuwch o' waitter, aneuw o' steanes (enough of water, enough of 
stones), for which the old Southern writers had ynogh, ynow. In 
the dialect of Burns both of these forms, which the old Scottish 
writers distinguished, are confounded as een-yuch (palatotype, 1 
injakh). The Northern plural demonstratives ihyr and iheae, 
answering to the Southern these, those, older the, are unknown in 
the dialects beyond the Grampians, where we hear ihys byoolcs, 
that scheen, for ihyr buiks, iheae schuin (these books, those shoes), 
apparently after the Gaelic usage, in which sin, so, are both 
singular and plural — an leabhar so, na leabhraichean so (this 
book, these books) ; a' bhrbg sin, na brbgan sin (that shoe, those 
shoes). A still more important distinction is that between the 
gerund, or noun of action, and the participle, distinguished by 
the old writers as synging, syngand, and still carefully separated 
in pronunciation, as, the bairn was hyngand be the hyngings (dha 
bern wras Heqim bi dho Heqinz), or 

I've heard o' a liltin' at our yowes milkin' 
The lasses a' liltan' afore the break o' day. 

(atrv HEerd o 8 leltin st uur jouz melkin 
dha l«siz aa lelten afaa'r dho brek a due.) 

In the literary English the form in -ing had begun to be con- 
founded with that in -end or -inde as early as the 14tli century, and 
the latter is now quite lost. The other Scottish dialects have also 
confounded the two forms since the 16th century, reid'n being 
equivalent both to reidand and reiding. The distinction seems 
now to be confined to the South of Scotland and most Northern 
counties of England — the ancient kingdom of Bernicia. 

Other points of the same kind will be noted in dealing with 
the grammar. As regards the pronunciation, the most striking 
peculiarity of this dialect consists in its using (like the Northern 
English counties) the diphthongs, ey, uw, (Pal. ei, au), for the 
simple vowels ee, oo — that is, where a native of the centre, west, 
or north-east of Scotland says he, me, see, free, lee, dee, a Borderer 
says, hey, mey, sey, frey, ley, dey, which may be compared with 
the Dutch hij, mij, zij, vrij, &c. Similarly, for the final oo of the 
others, this dialect uses the diphthong uw—yuw, euw, duw, fuw 

1 A key to the Palceotype equivalents, section of this work dealing with Pro- 
added within parentheses to shew the nunciation. 
pronunciation, will be found in the 


puw, for you, coo, doo, fu\ pu\ Both peculiarities are expressed 
in the well-known test-sentence, pronounced in Lothian as 
Yoo an' mee '11 gyang uwr the duyke an' poo a pee, 
which in this dialect is 

Yuw an' mey '11 gang owre the deyke an' puw a pey — 
i.e., You and I will go over the wall and pull a pea. Connected 
with this is the further fact that where the sounds ey and uw occur 
in other dialects, this dialect advances a step, and uses aiy, bw ; 
thus hay, may, clay, ewe, hollow, bowl, which in Edinburgh are 
hey, mey, cley, yuw, huw, buwl, are here, haiy, maiy, claiy, yowe, 
howe, bbwle, to distinguish them from hey, mey, yuw, huw, meaning 
he, me, you, how. In illustration of this peculiarity, Mr. Ellis 
(E. E. P., p. 307, note) tells of a school-inspector who, wishing 
to get the sound of do out of a Hawick girl, without himself pro- 
nouncing it, and unaware of the local pronunciation, asked her 
what she called a pigeon. " A duw," replied she, completely 
posing her questioner, who had expected the Central Scottish doo. 
This uw comes near to the English ow in how, now, its first 
element being the Scotch u in hut, dull ; the ey also approaches the 
English i, y, in my, die, its first element being the vowel in 
yet, bless. This dialect also distinguishes in pronunciation 
between the pairs, pail, pale; laid, lade; main, mane; maid, 
made; sail, sale; beet, beat; feet, feat; heel, heal; peel, peal, 
&c, which were still distinct in the English of the 17th century, 
but are identified in sound in the modern literary tongue, as well 
as in the Central Scottish dialects, in which, as early as 1500, the 
two forms tha and thai (theae, thay) had begun to be confounded. 
The diphthong oy, which in the centre of Scotland has sunk into 
ey or uy, as in the English of the 17th and 18th centuries, and 
the American " to strike yle," retains its full round pronunciation 
in the Southern counties. Another peculiarity consists in the 
pronunciation of the guttural ch, which, instead of being simple, 
as in the German lachen, or the Gaelic much, nochd, clachan, 
becomes labialized or palatalized in accordance with the cha- 
racter of the preceding vowel, producing peculiar combinations ; 
the labialized form at least is very unusual, and presents consi- 
derable difficulty to the articulative organs of those unaccustomed 
to it. The name Beuwch-heuwch-hauwch, (in palseotype, rakich- 
Hakwih-haaktch), which comes very natural to a Teviotdale mouth, 
is a " jaw-breaker " for an Englishman or a Northern Scot. 

When viewed in relation to the regular course of phonetic 
development, these modified gutturals, as well as the use of ey, 
uw, for ee, oo, indicate a maturer or more advanced stage of pro- 
nunciation than the simple sounds which they replace ; a still 
further development being indicated by the vocalization of the 
guttural or its change into /, as in the English eight, plough, 
enough. Their evidence thus agrees with the historical fact that 
the Lowland tongue has been longer established in the country 


south of the Forth than elsewhere in the north-east and west of 
Scotland. It is a curious though well-substantiated philological 
law, that the transplantation of a language into a new region gives 
a check to its growth, and interrupts for a time its normal rate of 
development ; so that while the same dialect in its original home 
continues to grow and change, in its new position it remains for 
a longer or shorter period stationary at the stage at which it was 
transplanted. The case is somewhat similar to- that of the trans- 
plantation of a tree, which takes some time to root itself in the 
soil, and accommodate itself to its new position and new circum- 
stances, during which time there is no growth, and the plant con- 
sequently falls much behind its congeners left in their native 6oil. 
In truth, there are two tendencies observable in the case of a 
transplanted language. One is that produced by oontact with the 
language which it supersedes, and which always gives something 
of itself to the new comer; the other is the conservative tendency, 
produced by reaction against the contact, which strives to' fix and 
crystallize, as it were, the new tongue in' its actual state. The 
effect of both these influences is well seen in the English of 
Ireland, which has borrowed much of its vocal modulation and 
other characteristics from the native Irish which it has sup- 
planted, but the main characters of which, when compared with 
the English of England, are, that it is the English of the 17th cen- 
tury. As Mr. Ellis has pointed out, whayte, taye, and gon* or goon 
— oo in book — (wheat, tea, gun), are not properly Irish;- they are 
17th century English — the English of the Tudor and Cromwellian 
settlers. The notable instance of the ancient form of English 
preserved in Forth and Bargy has already been considered (supra 
page 27). So also, according to the author of the Biglow Papers, 
" the New Englander is nearer by a century, not only in habits 
and modes of thought, but in language, to the Englishman of the 
Commonwealth, than John Bull himself is. A person familiar 
with the dialect of certain portions of Massachusetts will not fail 
to recognize, in ordinary discourse, many words now noted in 
English vocabularies as archaic, the greater part of which were in 
common use about the time of the King James translation of the 
Bible. Shakspeare stands less in need of a glossary, to- most 
New Englanders, than to many a native of the old country." 

Now, the dialect of the Southern counties of Scotland is, as 
we have seen, distinguished by its proneness to develop diph- 
thongs out of vowels which were originally simple in Anglo- 
Saxon, and which remain simple in other Scottish dialects ; while, 
on the other hand, it retains a series of grammatical distinctions 
characteristic of the old North Angle speech, which the others 
have dropped, probably in imitation of the Ersch, Pictish, or 
British idioms which preceded them. These facts indicate that 
the Teutonic speech has in this district come less into peaceful 
contact with pre-existent languages, and thus yielded less to their 
influence, than the same dialect further west and north, and that, 


having been longer established on the soil, it has, in its system of 
sounds, received a fuller phonetic development here than else- 
where. The transition is very marked in passing from Annandale 
into Nithsdale, in Dumfriesshire, the yum and mey, tweae, threy, and 
fower of Annandale changing into the yoo,, twaa, three, and 
fuier of Galloway. We have already seen (supra page 17) how 
the topographical nomenclature undergoes a similar abrupt 
change, as do, indeed, the personal surnames, the Galloway Macs 
— like Mac William, Mac Eobert, Mac Nichol, Mac Walter, Mac 
Adam, Mac George, Mac Quhae, Mac Candlish — being alike 
distinct from the Wilsons, Bobsons, Nicksons, Watsons, John- 
stons, and Eiohardsons of the Borders, and the Highland Macs — 
as Macdonald, Maekay, Maclean, Maegregor — of the North-west, 
and reminding us rather of the Ap Eoberts, Ap Jones, Ap Wil- 
liams, Ap Adams, Ap Ehys, Ap Eichards, of Wales; and we 
know that the Brech was spoken in Galloway down to a very 
recent period. The dialectical frontier is much less sharply 
marked in passing from Koxburghshire into Lothian — a fact -to 
be accounted for by the consideration that the dialect of Lothian 
and Fife became that of the Scottish Court and seats of learning, 
and had, during the reign of the Stuarts, an artificial culture and 
consequent ascendency over the other dialects, invading, dis- 
placing, and overlapping them. There is no doubt that the 
Southern Counties' dialect originally extended over the whole of 
the lower basin of the Tweed south of the Lammer Moors and 
Muir-foot Hills ; but its most salient characteristics, especially 
the diphthongal pronunciation, are now almost confined to Teviot- 
dale, the vales of the Ettrick and Yarrow, Upper Bskdale and 
Annandale ; and the Lothian pronunciation extends to Tweedside, 
in the towns at least ; so that yuw and mey are not now heard in 
Galashiels, Melrose, or Kelso, and, even in Jedburgh and Hawick, 
they are fast disappearing before railways, telegraphs, and metro- 
politan fashions. A correspondent who knows the Border dialect 
well, 1 in writing to me on this subject, says : — " The diphthongal 
utterance of yuw and mey is of course Teviotdale, Oxnam, Jed Val- 
ley, Bowmount. It is old Jedburgh, but I find it is being pressed 
upon by the more pretentious pronunciation. I find I speak 
broader than my own bairns, who ask me why I pronounce words 
as I do." Another observer s writes, as to the limits of this dialect 
on the north-east : — " I think Hawick and Jedburgh are the real 
centres of the pronunciation of ee and oo referred to. Lauder- 
dale (in Berwickshire) is completely Lothian in pronunciation; 
Melrose is largely so. Jedburgh is thoroughly Teviotdale, but 
Kelso tends more towards the Lauderdale and Merse type of the 
Lothian. The change from Jedburgh to Kelso is of course very 
gradual ; Jedburgh gives the rule for the parishes of Southdean, 
Edgarston, Oxnam, flownam, and, to a great extent, Morebattle 

1 Mr. John Hilson, sen., Jedburgh. 

' Mr. James Tait, Editor of the Kelso Chronicle. 


and Yetholm, till it gets a tinge of the Northumberland burr. 
It is remarkable, however, how well defined are the limits of the 
burr, much more so than of any other dialectic form." In the central 
valley of Berwickshire — the Howe of the Merse — eh is curiously 
pronounced as ah, as we have also found it in Caithness, reminding 
us of the Cambridge MS. of Chaucer (G-g. 4, 27), 1 with its schyn, 
schaunce, schaunged, schastite, schosyn, sehurch, and the West 
Midland Anturs of Arthur (Camden Soc., 1842), with its schayer, 
chair, schapelle, chapel, schimnay, " the sehaft and the shol, shaturt 
to the shin," the chaft (or jaw) and the jowl chattered to the chin. 
This dialectical peculiarity, moreover, furnishes a living analogue 
to the change of the Trench ch from its mediaeval sound of tch to 
the modern sh. Thus the Latin cdballus, canto, causa, campus, 
became first palatalized into Icyaval, hyante, Tcyose, Tcyamp, then, 
as in English, softened into cheval, chante, chose, champ (the 
old Norman pronunciation), and finally, in modern times, weak- 
ened into sheval, shante, shose, sha/mp. Compare lcirk, Tcyirhy', 
cherch, shursh? The correspondent last quoted thus refers to this 
peculiarity : — "The sheese pronunciation seems to be strictly con- 
fined to Chirnside and its neighbourhood ; and you have doubtless 
heard the phrase, ' There's as guid sheese i' Shirset as was ever 
shouwed wi' shafts' — i.e., ' There's as good cheese in Chirnside as 
was ever chewed with chafts (jaw-blades)." 3 With regard to the 
north-western frontier of the Southern Counties' dialect, I have 
been favoured with some notes by Mr. George Lewis, in which he 
says : — " When I came to Selkirk, twenty-five years ago, the pro- 
nunciation of me, you, see, tea, and all that class of words was, mey, 
yuw, sey, ley, almost universally among the natives ; but now, 
from the influx of strangers, the bringing of people more into 
intercourse with each other, and such like causes, the pronuncia- 
tion has been greatly modified, as in Galashiels and Melrose, to 
which you refer. I should say -the railway has had a good deal 
to do in effecting this change. As to the vales of Ettrick and 
Yarrow, the old dialect remains in them pretty much the same as 
it was, although doubtless somewhat modified in consequence of 
the change that has taken place among the Selkirk folks — the 
process being, however, as may be supposed, very much slower. 
These vales, as well as the other country districts of Selkirkshire, 

1 Mr. Fnrnivall's Temporary Preface than he was himself; that his efforte 

to the Six-text Edition of the Canter- were constantly directed to its eradica-^ 

bury Tales, p. 57. tion ; and that, if still heard, he could 

3 A story is told of a country school assure the Committee that it was not 

in the district where the peculiarity for want of continual stocking on his 

was so disagreeably apparent in the part! 

English reading, that the Presbyterial 3 I happened to quote this phrase to 
Committee, at the close of their annual an eminent Scottish scholar, asking 
" examination," felt it their duty him if he understood it. He " sup- 
mildly to call the teacher's attention to posed" it meant, " There's as good 
the point. The latter replied, with shoes in Shirset as were ever shew'd 
consiaerable agitation, that no one (sewed) with shafts — whatever kind of 
could be more sensible of the fault implements the latter might be" ! 


must still be included among those using the Teviotdale pro- 
nunciation, although, I should say, not quite so emphatically as 
do the people in and around Hawick." 

Soutn of the Tweed and Cheviots, a dialect closely akin to that 
of Teviotdale and Dumfriesshire extends far into England, over 
the whole of the ancient kingdom of Bernieia. The diphthongal 
sound in mey and yuw is strongly marked in Tynedale. The dis- 
tinction between such forms as maid, made, is made as far south 
as Yorkshire ; the sound in the latter word, which on the Scottish 
side is meade, with a slight glide in -the ea, becomes, in Cumber- 
land, Westmoreland, and Cleveland, meead, or almost m'yaid, 
m'yed, m'yad. In the Danish parts of the North of England the 
change of the article into t\ as t'wtan, (titter oohp c6 t'udiher (the 
earlier up call the other), I sah t'yare, an' it ran oohp f ill, doon 
t' olio, an' ihroo t'og-wol (I saw the hare, and it ran up the hill, 
down the hollow, and through the hog-hole), introduces an ele- 
ment of diversity; but this is not heard in the non-Danish 
Northumberland and Northern Cumberland, where the full the, or 
at least th', is used. 1 But the long a, which in Scotland is always 
broad, so as to be heard by Englishmen generally as aw, is in the 
North of England long and slender ah, as in path, ask. Com- 
pare the Scotch gaan' (pal. gaan, gaahn), almost gawn, with the 
Northumberland gahn (pal. gaahn, gseeen). The Northumbrian 
burr, or r grassiyS, seems to be a compromise between the Northern 
trilled r, used in Scotland, and the smooth r of England; the 
Northumbrian, endeavouring at once to retain the consonantal 
character of the r, and to avoid the tip-tongue-trill, exaggerates 
the final English r in air, oar, produced by a gentle and almost 
inappreciable tremor of the tongue, into a rough vibration of the 
soft palate. The sound is more advanced than the Arabic grAain, 
and, in a softer form, is common in French and German. Any one 
who will pronounce forcibly the Parisian r in Paris, may produce 
the Northumberland burr, or, as it is called at home, the crhoup 
(kmp). As has been hinted above, the Northern limits of the 
burr are very sharply defined, there being no transitional sound 

1 The line dividing the the dialects population, no definite line can now be 
on the north from the t\ or more laid down. But while in Upper "Wear- 
Danish dialects on the south, runs dale, the article is regularly f, as in 
from Allonhy on the Solway eastward Central Cumberland and "Westmore- 
by Aspatria, Brocklebank Fells, Seber- land ; in and about "Wolsingham, 
gham, and Croglin to Black Law Fells ; Bishop's Auckland, Durham, and Sun- 
south by that range to Cross Fell ; east derland, it is the, as in Northumber- 
bythe watershed of the South Tyne land and North Cumberland, or the 
and Tees to the county of Durham, and ancient territory of Bernieia. South 
so on by the northern watershed of of the Tees, " the article t' is of con- 
Weardale, as far as Stanhope, after tinual, almost exclusive, occurrence in 
which it crosses to the south side of Cleveland," as well as in the various 
the "Wear, and apparently loses itself other dialects of Yorkshire and North 
in the mining district between the Lancashire, formerly included in Deira 
"Wear and Tees, where, on account of or Danish Northumbria. 
the mixed and fluctuating nature of the 


between it and the Scotch r. From Carham eastwards, the 
boundary follows the Tweed, which it leaves, however, to include 
the town and liberties of Berwick, which in this, as in other 
respects, now adheres to the Southern in preference to its own 
side of the Tweed. Along the line of the Cheviots, the Scotch r 
has driven the burr a few miles back, perhaps because many of 
the farmers and shepherds are of Scottish origin. In the vale of 
the Meed we suddenly enter the crhoup country in the neighbour- 
hood of Otterburn (Otohr-bohra). In Cumberland, Westmore- 
land, and the rest of the North Angle area, the r is now pro- 
nounced as in other parts of England. 

The greatest of the phonetic differences between the language 
north and south of the Cheviots is the suppression by the latter 
of the guttural sounds — a change of such recent date as to have 
taken place within living memory. For the record of this inter- 
esting fact we are indebted to the venerable Professor Sedgwick, 
who, in a little work full of affectionate memories of his native 
North (A Memorial by the Trustees of Cowgill Chapel, with a- 
Preface, and Appendix on the Climate, History, and Dialects of 
Dent, by Adam Sedgwick, LL.D., Senior Fellow of Trinity 
College, and Professor of Geology in the University of Cambridge. 
Cambridge, 1868), printed for private circulation, thus describes 
this among other changes which have come over the Northern 
speech during his long lifetime of eighty years : — 

" The suppression of the guttural sounds is, I think, the greatest 
of all the modern changes in the spoken language of the Northern 
Counties. Every syllable which has a vowel or diphthong fol- 
lowed by gh was once the symbol of a guttural sound ; and I 
remember the day when all the old men in the Dales sounded 
such words as sigh, night, sight, &c, with a gentle guttural 
breathing ; and many other words, such as trough, rough, tough, 
had their utterance each in a grand sonorous guttural. The former 
of these sounds seemed partly to come from the palate, the latter 
from the chest. Both were aspirated and articulate, and differed 
entirely from the natural and simple vocal sounds of the guttural 
vowels a, 6 (aa, aa). All the old people who remember the con- 
tested elections of Westmoreland must have heard, in the dales of 
that county, the deep guttural thunder in which the name Harry 
Brougham was reverberated among the mountains. But we no 
longer hear the first syllable of Brougham sounded from the 
caverns of the chest — thereby at once reminding us of our grand 
Northern ancestry, and of an ancient Fortress, of which Brough 
was the written symbol. The sound first fell down to Bruffham, 
but that was too vigorous for the nerves of modem ears ; and then 
fell, lower still, into the monosyllabic broom— an implement of 
servile use. We may polish and soften our language by this 
smoothing process, yet in so doing we are forgetting the tongue of 
our fathers, and, like degenerate children, we are cutting ourselves 
off from true sympathy with our great Northern progenitors, and 


depriving bur spoken language of a goodly part of its variety of 
form and grandeur of expression." — pp. 103-4. 

Here we have a distinct recognition of the labialized and 
palatalized gutturals still existing on the Scottish side of the 
Border, where Brough and Brougham are pronounced Bruwch 
and Bruwcham. In Cumberland and Westmoreland, since the 
suppression of the guttural, ich has fallen into ee, eych into Sy, 
anwch into off, qwch into dm, uwch into uff or u, euwch into eii, 
giving leet, neet, feyte, laff, burnt, Brvff, Broohm, eneawf, for 
light, night, fight, laugh, bought, Burgh or Brough, Brougham, 
enough. The effect has been to make the close connection between 
the dialects north and south of the Border line much less apparent 
than it was two generations ago. 1 

The foregoing view of the history and fortunes of the Northern 
dialect may be summed up as follows : — 

1. The language of the Angles of the Northan-hymbra-land 
differed ab initio from that of the Saxons of the South — the 

■ tongue of iElfred and iElfric — which, following the fortunes 
of the monarchs of Wessex, became the standard or "classical" 
form of the Anglo-Saxon. The Northern dialect had, both in its 
phonology and grammatical inflections, a closer relationship with 
the Frisian and Scandinavian branches of the Teutonic family. 

2. The original seat of the North Angle dialect was the district 
between the Tyne and the Forth, of which Bamborough, near the 
Tweed mouth, was the royal centre ; thence it extended south- 
wards and westwards to the Humber and the Irish Sea, and even- 
tually northwards and westwards, over the ancient Pictland 
beyond the Forth, Strath Clyde, and Galloway. 

1 I have written down the modern (fikht ekht ffoklit, strEkht straakht, 

South Cumberland and "Westmoreland leekh \aa) ; 2. (sekjht aakwht, straekjht 

forms of the following words, having straakwht, l««k«h loo) ; 3. (mt, 

originally a guttural sound, from the strek, laa) — laugh, draught, taught. 

pronunciation of Mr. John E. Thomp- 1. (laakh, draakht, taakht) ; 2. Q.aakwh, 

son, a native of the neighbourhood of draakwht, tsakwht) ; 3. laf, draut, 

Kirkby-Stephen. Along with them I taut) — daughter, bought, sought, 

give the Central Scottish and the thought, wrought, nought, ought, 

Southern Scottish forms, making a drought. 1. dakhter dokhtor, bokht, 

Eeries which shews the transition from sokht, thokht, rokht, nokht, okht, 

the pure guttural through the modified druth) ; 2. (daakwhtar dokwhter, 

varieties to the vocalized and / sounds bokwmt, sokwht, thokwht, w'rokwht, 

of the North English. For the sake of noku>ht, sokwht, druth) ; 3. (daut|-'r, 

greater precision, all are given in Palseo- baut, sant, thaut, rawt, naut, aut, 

type. Thigh, high, nigh, drigh[o\d draut)— cough, trough, slough. 1. (kokh, 

Eng.), 1. Centr. Sc. (thii, hikh hii, nii, trokh, slokh) ; 2. kokwh, trokwh, 

drikh) ; 2. South. Sc. (thei, hekjh hei, slokwh) ; 3. (kof, trof, slot)— rough, 

drekjh) ; 3. S. Climb, and Westm. (thii, through (a flat tomb-stone), Brough, 

hii, nii, drli)— light, night, sight, right, Brougham, tough, enough. 1. (rakh, 

height, 1. (lekht, nekht, aekht, reitht, thrakh,brakh,orakham,tjakh,injakh); 

hekht ; 2. lekjht, nekjht, sekjht, rekjht, 2. (raktoh, thrakwh, brakwh, brEkw- 

hekjht); 3. (liit, niit, siit, riit, hiit)— hom, tekwh, OTwkwh) ; 3. (r«f, thr«f, 

might, fight, weight, weigh. 1. (mekht, brwf, t«f, brww'm brwwm, enwf onraf) 

fskht, WEkht, wii) ; 2. (mekjht, —plough, though, 1 . (plukh pluu pjukh 

fsokjht, wffikjht, wei) ; 3. (meeit, feeit, pjuu, thoo) ; 2. (pkkwh plou, thoo) ; 

weeit, wwi)— eight, straight, low. 1. 3. (pluu, ahoo). 


3. At the political division of the Northan-hymbra-land between 
England and Scotland, the " Inglis of the Northin lede" was still 
written as one language from Doncaster to Aberdeen. 

4. It is still most typically represented within the ancient 
limits of Bernicia— the Forth, the Solway, and the Tyne ; "the 
language south of the Tyne having been greatly affected by the 
Norse of the Denalagu, and, in later times, by the literary Midland 
English, while that of the West and North-east of Scotland has 
been modified by the Gaelic and Cymric dialects which slowly 
receded before it. 

5. Within this restricted area, the Northern English, having 
become in Lothian the language of the Scottish Court and seats 
of learning, and received an artificial culture, has changed .con- 
siderably from the original type as found in the Early Scottish 
writers ; while south of the Scottish Border it has lost the original 
gutturals, and otherwise yielded to the English of literature, 
leaving the speech of the intervening district between the Tweed 
and Cheviots, extending north of the Solway as far west as the 
vicinity of Kuthwell, as the least changed representative of the 
ancient tongue of Ceedmon, Cuthbert and Beda, and the Northern 
writers of the 13th and 14th centuries. 

To the speech of this district, as already stated, the following 
phonetic and grammatical observations specially apply. It is, 
as spoken in Upper Teviotdale, my native dialect, of which, 
therefore, I can speak with perfect confidence, and as to which 
I am a competent witness. I have endeavoured to shew, as 
fully as possible, its direct relationship to the literary Northern 
dialect of the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, the grammatical 
forms and phraseology of which it preserves to a great extent 
unaltered, and upon which, I think, it is fitted to throw great 
light, and correct many misconceptions inseparable from the 
estimation of a language or dialect by its literary remains alone. 
At the same time the attempt is made to indicate wherein it agrees 
with or differs from the other Scottish and North English dia- 
lects, wherein its forms and usages may be taken as typical, and 
wherein they are exceptional. Of this, of course, I cannot be a 
witness to the same extent ; and I cannot hope to escape what 
scarcely any writer upon local dialects, so far as I have seen, has yet 
escaped — the twin faults of assuming as local or peculiar what is 
really general or widespread, and of accepting as generally known, 
and therefore passing by, that which is really peculiar, though 
familiar to himself. The Anglo-Saxon dialects of England and 
Scotland individually must be studied and described much more 
minutely than has yet been done before their Comparative Phi- 
lology, and the historical relations which it illustrates, can be 
satisfactorily discussed. I earnestly desire to see a native student 
in each dialectical district of Scotland subject the popular tongue 
of his locality to such an investigation as I have attempted to give 


to that of the Southern Counties. The possession of so valuable 
an instrument for registering the varieties of pronunciation as the 
Visible Speech of Mr. A. Melville Bell, to which Mr. Ellis has 
adapted his Palmotype and Glossotype, 1 so that the ordinary 
Eoman alphabet can be used to express all the Yisible Speech 
Bymbols (without, of course, indicating their organic formation or 
relations to each other, as is pictorially done by Mr. Melville 
Boll's great invention), ought to render the treatment of this 
department of dialectical study as precise and intelligible as it has 
hitherto been vague and unsatisfactory. It is a matter of deep 
regret that nine-tenths of what has been written in or on the 
dialects is, for philological purposes, positively useless, from the 
wan.t of any clear explanation — often of any explanation what- 
ever — of the values which the writers have attached to the combi- 
nations of letters employed by them. Only those who have gone 
into the subject, and endeavoured to learn something as to the 
living words thus symbolized by dead letters, can have any idea 
of the sort of infatuation which possesses writers, that because 
certain letters seem to them the fittest spelling of a particular 
sound, the same sound will, without any explanation, be sug- 
gested to their readers by those letters. It cannot too often or too 
loudly be repeated that words are combinations of sounds, not 
strings of letters, and that to attempt to describe an unknown lan- 
guage or an unknown dialect by spelling its words in such and such 
a manner, without rigidly defining the values attached to the letters, 
is as futile as it would be to represent to us a landscape with its 
various parts not only uncoloured, but labelled with the names of 
their diverse hues and shades in an unknown tongue. "With a 
conviction of the importance of a full description of the pronun- 
ciation, I have gone into that part of the work at length, explain- 
ing every sound, and elementary combination of sounds, by a 
reference to the Visible Speech Alphabet, which, being a natural 
standard, the points of which are fixed like the freezing and 
boiling points of the thermometer, or the length of a pendulum 
beating seconds at sea-level, and can at any time be verified by 
actual experiment, is thus fitted to convey across any distance or 
lapse of time the precise quality of every phonetic element. Mr. 
Ellis's inquiry into the history of Early English Pronunciation 
shows how much the restoration of past stages of the language is 
aided by what has been already done for the phonology of the ex- 
isting dialects ; — how much greater would the aid have been if all 
the varieties of pronunciation in use were faithfully noted ! It 
would be of special service to northern philology to have an edition 
of Jamieson's Dictionary with the pronunciation marked ; or, 
rather, what is wanted is a Dictionary founded upon Jamieson's, 

1 The Palaotype is founded upon literary English analogies, and is espe- 

the original values of the Eoman cially intended for writing the English 

letters, and is thus a historical system ; dialects so as to show their relations to 

the Glossotype is founded upon modern the standard idiom. 


but embracing the Northern dialect as a whole, and not merely 
that fragment of it used in Scotland, concerning the character and 
relations of which Jamieson did so much to create a false notion, 
by calling it the " Scottish Language." Such a Dictionary ought 
to be more than a mere register of spellings, which give often 
most imperfect ideas of the actual words ; it ought to give, after 
the various historical modes of writing, the actual pronunciation of 
each word in the various dialects. Thus the interrogative pronoun 
would appear under the historical forms, hwa, hua. qua, quha, qwlia, 
quhay, wha, what/, whae, with the modern dialectical forms — 
Caithness fhaa, North-eastern faa, fae, Clydesdale whaa, whau, 
Lothian whaa, whae, Teviotdale wheae, quheae, Cumb. and Westm. 
wheea, Lonsdale whaa, Shields whee or wee, other dialects of North 
of England wheya, weya, &c. This result might be attained by a 
local worker in each dialectical district taking a copy of Jamieson 
and marking all the words which are in use in his dialect, adding 
any that are wanting, and noting, in the margin, the local pronun- 
ciation in palasotype, or any other systematic orthography which 
could be referred to a natural standard. By this means we 
should obtain a Dictionary of the Northern speech worthy of the 
name. The dialectical specimens appended to the present work, 
which have been written down from the dictation of natives of 
different districts, are given as suggestions of what might be done 
in this direction, as well as illustrations of the division of the 
Scottish dialects proposed above (p. 78) . 

Note. — In the extracts from the Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, given at page 
39, I failed to remark that these do not exist in contemporary documents, but in 
transcripts made from the originals at a later period, a fact which accounts for the 
appearance in these extracts of some Middle-Scottish forms, as speidfull, gait, 
meir, peiss, aitis, haif. Contemporary fragments do exist of date 1389 and 1398, 
of which, as the oldest known documents in the vernacular, handing down to us 
the language as actually written in the days of Barbour, a specimen may be here 
added : — 

Liber de Melros, No. 480, a.d. 1389.— Eobert Erie of ffyf & of Menteth, "War- 
dane & Chambirlayn of Scotland to }e Customers of be Grete Custume of Jie 
Burows of Edinburgh, hadyntown, and Dunbarre, greting : ffor-qwhy bat of gude 
memore Duma kyng qwhilom of Scotland, J>at god assoilhe, witA his chartir vndre 
his grete sele has gyvm to )>e Beligiouss men be Abbot & be Conuent of Meuros, & 
to Jair successours for euer mare, frely, all be Custume of all bair wollys, als wele 
of Jair awin growing as of bair tendys of fair kyrkes, as it appms be be forsaid 
Chartir confennyt be our mast souej-eigne and doubtit Lorde and fadre, our lorde 
Je kyng of Scotland Eobert fat now ys, wyth his grete Sele : To yow ioyntly and 
seuerailly be Je tenour of bis lettte fennely. "We bid & commandes, bat be for- 
said wollys at your Portis — bir letties sene, be qwilk leMres yhe ielyuer to baim 
again — yhe suffre to be shippit, & frely to passe witA outyn ony askyng or takyng 
of Custume, or ony obstacle or lettyng in ony point, eftir as ]>e tenour of be for- 
saides chartir and confirmaciown plenely askis and parportis. In wytnesse here of, 
to bis httre, We haue put our Sele at Edynburgh J?e xxvj day of Maij, be yhere 
of god Mill.ccc iiij 1 ™ and nyne. 

Act of Robert ill., 27 January, 1398. — It is ordanyt bat Jjar be raysit a general 
controbucfon of ii m pound of be monay now ry»nande (i.e. current), for commoan 
nedis of ye ky»nke & be commown profyte. bat is to say. be message & be treteis 
to be send in france & in Ingland, as is befor sayde, To Jie qwhilki* to be sped, be 


clergie at Jiis tyme has grawntit, as it may cum to fair parte, with pretestaci'ons 
vnderwrytin, bat is to say, fat it ryn nocht to be clergy in prejudice in tyme to 
cum, na hurtyng of fredome of haly-kirk, and it be raysit be mimsteris of haly- 
kirke, sua bat be kyngs's officeri* na na seculeri* entaVmit jiaim in be raysing of 
it. And at be said contn'bucyon be raysit of all gudis, catale, ft landys, alswele 
demayw as ober landw. Owtane qwhite schepe, Eydin hors, & drawyre oxin. 
Alsua be burges sal pay to bat ilke contrsbucyon of bair gudis — alswele beyhond 
ye see as on bis side — & of all other gudis, be said!* burges makand protestaoyon 
J>at bai be kepit in bair fredomes, & at bai pay nocht for custume of wol, hyd«'», 
na skynnis, atour be som bat bai war wont to pay in be tyme of gude memore 
lyng Robert tat last deit, And at bai be fre fra all mscaer of imposicyon set apon 
Je saummondVs. *With jere protestactons, at be lach (i.e. law) be haldyn bairn 
as is before said, be thre communitej has grartntit coratribucton, & for to resaue 
be taxt of be forsaid coKtnbucaon, bare sal be at perth be thursday next efter 
paske thre deputss of ilkane of be thre estatis, for to set apon be taxt be yhelde 
bat salbe raysit. 

Item, it is ordanyt bat be statute made at Perth in Auril bat last wes, touch- 
ande be paying of custume of Inglis clath brocht in be lande, & Scottis clath, 
salt, flesche, gresche, buter, hors, ft nowte, had out of ^e land, sal be payit as it 
wes ordanyt in be forsaid cownsail. 





In comparing cognate words in kindred languages or dialects, 
the chief differences which present themselves to our notice con- 
cern the vowels ; even in idioms which have been long severed 
from each other, and have had quite different histories, the con- 
sonantal skeleton of such words is found to remain more or less 
identical. We may see this in comparing Hebrew, Arabic, and 
Aramaic ; Latin, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and French ; Ger- 
man and Dutch ; Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and English. 1 In the 
case of dialects so closely related as the. various forms of the 
Teutonic speech, once written and still spoken in the British 
Isles, this obtains, of course, much more strongly ; and the 
points which distinguish from each other the literary or Standard 
English, the English of Dorset, of Norfolk, of Yorkshire, of 
Cumberland, the Lowland tongue of Teviotdale, of Ayr, of Eife, 
and of Aberdeen, are, not indeed exclusively, but at least, to a 
very great extent, vowel differences. The only consonantal ele- 
ment present in the Lowland Scotch, and wanting in the English, 
is the guttural in nicht, laueh (the existence of which, however, 
in the Standard English, is a much more recent matter than is 
generally supposed). If to this we add a stronger and more 
archaic utterance of E, WH, and H ; the use of the original K 
and SK for the derived CH and SH ; the occasional interchange 
of S and SH ; a different treatment of many consonantal com- 
binations, by the transposition of their elements, the utterance of 
both where the literary English has allowed one to become silent 
(as in WE, KN, initial), or the dropping of one where the 
literary tongue preserves both (as in MB, ND, NG-, PT, KT, 
final) ; and the diverse treatment of the liquid L, — we sum up the 
leading differences in the articulate framework of words common 

1 Compare Xat.MoTiTua,Ital. Muo- STeN, Icel. STeiNN, Ags. STaN, 

RTa, Span. MueRTa, Portug. MoRTa, STseN, OldEng. SToaN, STooN, Mng. 

French MoflTe, Germ. HaBBeN Sie SToNe, dialectically STowN, SToaN, 

eiN BuCH, Dutch HeBBeN ZijeeN STooiN, STooaN, STwoNe; STeeaN, 

BoeK, Germ. STeiN, Dutch STeeN, STayaN, STeyaN, STyaN, STeaNe, 

Frisian STieN, Dan. STeeN, Swedish STaNe, STehN, STeeN. 


to the Scottish and North English dialects with the literary- 
English. But when we proceed to compare the vowel sounds — 
the breath of life by which these same " articulate- skeletons " are 
converted into living words — we find on every hand differences 
and contrasts. Not only are the vowel sounds in corresponding 
words, e.g. in booh — buih, stone — steane, would — wald, different 
vowels, but the vowel system of the dialect as a whole is not the 
English vowel system. The two may run parallel with each 
other, — as all vowel systems must do, while human organs of 
utterance continue the same, — each may have its a, e, i, o, u, as 
the other has, but the sounds naturally or habitually associated 
with the symbols a, e, i, o, u in the one, are not those associated 
with them by the mouth and ears of a speaker of the other. In 
point of fact, there are scarcely any elements phonetically identical 
in the two systems ; almost every vowel recognized in^the one 
differs to some extent, either in quantity or quality, from the 
nearest vowel sound in the other, and though each distinction 
may seem in itself a slight one, their sum is sufficient to give a 
very marked character of difference to the language as a whole. 
(Compare the effect of a mere quantitative change, as in the 
Scotch feit, heil, deip, for the English feet, heel, deep ; or an 
equally minute change of vowel quality, in the Scotch ceitie, 
suffeicient, compared with the English city, sufficient). The prac- 
tical effect of this difference is much increased by the fact that 
the sounds which are phonetically nearest in the two idioms are 
not those which are etymologically most closely related, for here, 
as elsewhere, "strangers walk as friends, and friends as strangers." 
For example, the nearest Scotch sound to the English long o, in 
stone, hone, home, is the o in store or woa ! But the Scotch form 
of these words is not therefore stoan, boan, hoarn, : that is indeed 
the Scotch English, the pronunciation with which these words 
are usually read as English, — but the Scotch is (in the southern 
counties) steane, beane, heame. The Scotch uw and ow in hum, 
gowpin, are not far from the English ou, ow, in about, power ; 
but the Scotch is not therefore abuwt, puwr, or abowt, powr, but 
aboot, poor. With similar results we might examine the other 
vowel sounds. 

Moreover, the effect of accent or vocal stress comes to increase 
and exaggerate these differences. I do not here refer to what is 
commonly meant by " the Scotch accent," " the French accent," 
etc., i.e. the modulation or intonation of sentences, the general 
key of the voice and its inflections. That is indeed a great and 
patent distinction, which, although the most volatile and in- 
tangible, is yet the most tenacious and ineradicable characteristic 
of a dialect, lingering, and even surviving in full vigour, after 
every point 'Of verbal distinction, or mere vowel difference, has 
long passed away. " This accent," the author of English Pro- 
nunciation has remarked in an earlier work, 1 " does not lie merely 

1 Essentials of Phonetics, London, 1848, p. 80. 



in the pronunciation of individual words, but in the peculiar mode 
of intonating whole sentences. A Frenchman, a German, an 
Italian and an Englishman, would read a sentence, having pre- 
cisely the same meaning, in a totally different succession of tones, 
setting it, so to speak, to a different air. There is hardly any 
part of a foreign language which is so difficult to acquire, and- yet 
hardly any in which failure is more likely to excite ridicule .... 
But in the great majority of cases, the difference is too fine for 
symbolisation, and must be left to a loose description, or a mere 
indication, as, 'with an Irish brogue, a Scotch drawl or rising 
inflection, with an American nasal twang, with a French accent,' 
and so on." So little attention has hitherto been given to the 
whole subject of vocal modulation, and vocal gymnastics, in con- 
nection with ordinary reading and speech, that such a loose 
description as that referred to is still almost all that either 
writers or readers are prepared for. But a careful investigation 
of the subject by Mr. A. Melville Bell has shown that the 
peculiar modulation or " accent " of any language depends 
usually upon a simple repetition of the same series of tones with 
a variety of pitch, and that the writing of these dialectic tunes is 
thus comparatively easy, as will also be their reading, when a 
little elementary training in the principles of vocal modulation 
shall have become an essential part of ordinary education. 1 

1 Dialectic tunes depend principally 
on relative pitcb of elementary vocal 
inflexions, distinguished as Simple Bise, 
Simple Fall, Compound Rise, Com- 
pound Fall, Eising Double Wave. 
These five tones, with two varieties of 
pitch, constitute the " gamut of speak- 
ing tones " designed by Mr. A. Mel- 
ville Bell. By means of this gamut and 
a few modifying signs the author states 
that any variety of phraseological melody 
may be exhibited to the eye with such 
approximate accuracy as to be repro- 
duced from the writing by those who 

have mastered the elements of the 
scale. The essential characteristic of 
relative pitch is very simply indicated 
by placing the five elementary signs 
above or below the syllables to which 
they refer. In Mr. Melville Bell's most 
recent development of the gamut a. 
further distinction is shewn in con- 
nection with pre-accentual tones, which 
affect the expressiveness of the accen- 
tual inflexions by being turned towards, 
or from the pitch of the accent. The 
following analysis of the gamut has 
been tabulated for us by Mr. Bell : — 

Gamut op Speaking Tones. 

Elementary Tones. 



Eising Tone ... < 

( Compound... 

Falling Tone... ] 

( Compound... 





< above. "" 
( below. 
/ above. 
( below. 

( above. 
\ below. 
| above. 
\ below. 

/ above. 
\ below. 

In relation to a preceding 

tone, or to the middle of the 



But, what I now refer to, is the effect of syllabic accent or 
emphasis, in sharpening the accented, and dulling, or obscuring, 
the unaccented parts of a word, so that the same letters, and even 
the same word, have quite a different sound when unaccented from 
that which they have when accented. Even in English we are 
familiar with this effect of the presence or absence of accent, in 
comparing manly and horsemaw, body and nobody, age and non- 
age, dayly and Monday, fullness and nestful, day-school and school- 
day, tea and guinea. But in the Scotch dialects the principle 
extends much farther, so that all vowels, when final in syl- 
lables, if not under an accent primary or secondary, lose their 
own sound, and assume an obscure or neutral quality. While, 
therefore, every English long vowel can also occur brief, i.e. 
short in an open syllable, as in re-cover, Monday, outlaw, grotto, 
cornw-copia, so that we have pairs of long and brief vowels ; in 
some of the Scotch dialects there seems to be only one, in others, 
including that of the Southern counties, two such brief vowels, 
into one or other of which all the others fall when unaccented.. 
On the other hand, every long vowel in Scotch can also be 
stopped (that is, abruptly closed by the following consonant, as 
in bat-tie, not oa-ttle,) without change of vowel quality, so that 
in Scotch we have pairs of long and stopped vowels. But in 
English, apparently, none of the long vowels occurs stopped, or 
shortened in quantity, without also changing its quality, so that 
the ' long ' and ' stopped,' or ' closed,' vowels do not form 
pairs. Thus the a in pat is not the short of the a in pale, nor 
of the a in pass, in palm, or in pall. From each and all of 
these long a's it differs in quality as well as quantity, while a 
long vowel agreeing with it in quality is not used in the Stan- 
dard English. In the same way the o in lot is not the short of 
the o in lo, nor the oo in book of the oo in boon. But in Scotch 
the a in man is the short of the aa in daar, the o in not of the 
oa in road, the oo in stook of the oo in stoor. Now, from the 
difficulty which people experience in realizing or identifying even 
a familiar sound, under conditions of accent or quantity different 
from those which they have been accustomed to associate with it, 
these two methods of treating short and unaccented vowels re- 
sult in a great practical difference in actual speech. Thus, com- 
paring the Standard English and the Scotch pronunciation of 
widow, — English wido (wido), Scotch weida (wide), — we observe 
not only the different treatment of the final unaccented vowels, 
but, in the accented syllable, an English speaker hearing weid, 
(wid) as distinct from his wid (wid) is apt to identify this 
unfamiliar sound with the familiar weed (wiid), and to hear the 
Scotch as weeder (wiidah). When, on the other hand, the 
difference is one only of quantity, as in reilcie (Auld Reekie), 
the English ear hearing reikie (rikt) as distinct from the English 
reeky (riiki) is apt to identify it with ricky (rikt), the short i 
being the nearest English stopped vowel to the long e. Exactly 


in the same way Englishmen are apt to pronounce the French 
fini (fini) either jinny (fini), as in finish, or feenee (fiinii), the 
intermediate French and Scotch true short_fie in fee nee (fini) 
being a new and hard-to-be-apprehendedi(ound. 

Since, as has already been mentioned, every long vowel can 
also occur stopped {i.e. short in a closed syllable), without change 
of quality ; and, since vowels are regularly closed in positions- 
where they remain long in the Standard English, the following 
general rules, as to where a vowel remains long, and where it is 
shortened by the following consonant, are important : — 

1. A vowel at the end of a monosyllable, or accented final syl- 
lable, is long ; as wee, tiny, day ; faa, fall ; gee, gave ; schui, shoe. 

The words a, the, can scarcely be looked upon as exceptions, 
for, so far as pronunciation is concerned, they are not independent 
words, but mere prefixes, or initial syllables to the words which 
they define, and are consequently brief (i.e. short in an open 
syllable). The same may be said of possessives and prepositions 
like maa, my ; tui, to ; wui, with ; free, from ; i, in; which have 
a long sound only when emphatic, but otherwise are brief, ma, ta, 
wd, frd, a, like a- in d-bove, a-mong. 

The above rule also holds good, where such a monosyllable is 
followed by s or d, in the process of noun- or verb-inflection, as 
faa, faa's, day, days, preae, preaed, preaes. 

2. A vowel is also long before the sounds of r, z, v, and th 
vocal (dh), however these may be written, as meir, mare ; fayr, 
fair ; duose, dose ; bleeze, blaze ; moove, move ; leeve, live ; scheave, 
shave ; braythe, breathe ; baythe, bathe ; or, when s or d are added 
in inflection, as meirs, fayrs, bleez'd, leeves, leeved, braythes, meethes, 
bounds. But not when these consonants are followed by another 
consonant in a root word, as pairt, hcert, pudrt, cudrn, fearce ; 
contrast cayr, cayr'd= coxed, with caird=caxd (keer, keerd, kerd). 

3. Before all other consonants in monosyllables, and before 
consonants generally, in words of two or more syllables, a vowel 
is stopped, even when long in English, as heit, heat ; sein, seen ; 
Leith, fedte fate, bait bait, pdle pole, spudrt sport, hdoss house, 
main moon, bairn child, falther father, wditter water, budrder 
border, Jeinie Jeanie, sdber. 

Exception to this rule must be marked in writing. 

4. But when a polysyllable is derived from a monosyllable it 
follows the quantity of its primitive, as druover from driiove, 
which does not rhyme with dudver, to sleep lightly ; rudzie rosy, 
does not rhyme with cuozie cosy, bayther bather, from baythe, 
does not rhyme with faiiher father. 

The words long and short are used relatively, and with reference 
to the dialect itself. Absolutely, short, or, as it might better be 
called, ordinary or natural, quantity in Scotch is longer than 
English short quantity, though not quite so long as English long 
quantity ; but long quantity in Scotch is much longer than long 
quantity in English. Thus, when I compare Scotch cheap and 



cheep with English cheap, I hear the Scotch short e in cheap 
nearly as long as, but the Scotch long e in cheep much longer than, 
the English long e in cheap.* This greater natural or ordinary- 
length of the vowels is no doubt a chief cause of that more 
leisurely enunciation which is known as the Scotch drawl. It is 
to be noted, however, that the distinction between long and short 
is much more distinctly preserved in the 'high' than in the 
' low ' or open vowels ; with ce and a, and to a less degree with 
ai and 6, there is a great tendency to lengthen the short vowel 
before the mutes, and to pronounce egg, skep, yett, beg, bag, rag, 
bad, bog, dog, as ehg, skehp, yeht, behg, baag, raag, baad, boag, 
doag (seseg, skseaep, jasast, bseasg, baag, raag, baad, boog, doog). 

In order to show the exact values of the sounds used in the 
Scottish dialect of the Southern counties, and their relation to 
the English sourjds, I give, by permission of Mr. Melville Bell, 
the Universal Table of sounds from his Visible Speech Alphabet, 
and place under each symbol the equivalent from the 'Palaeo- 
type ' of Mr. Ellis. 2 In the subsequent description of the sounds 
occurring in this dialect, their palaeotype symbols are given 
within parentheses ; by means of the table these can be referred 
to their Yisible Speech equivalents, and, consequently, to their 
organic formation. 

The spelling used in the work itself is based upon the his- 
torical usage of the Scottish writers, modified so as to adapt it to 
the dialect under consideration. In these modifications three 
principles have been kept in view. First, to make the spelling 
systematic ; without indeed representing each sound by one in- 
variable symbol in all positions, to provide that the same letter, or 
combination of letters, should always have the same sound. 
Secondly, to represent to the eye the differences patent to the ear 
between the Dialect and the Standard English ; to spell words in 
such a way as at least to suggest that they are not identical in 
sound with their English representatives. And, thirdly, as far as 
consistent with the other two principles, to use forms for which 
a precedent already exists in Scotch usage. Fortunately, the 
latter presents considerable variety, so that, in most cases, one or 
other of the equivalents of each sound, already or formerly in use, 
could be appropriated. The result will be seen in the list and 
description of the vowels and diphthongs used in the dialect of 
the Southern counties, which follow. 

1 Even in English, quantity differs that in sees, short quantity nearly like 

greatly in absolute length ; for though that in cease. 

the vowel sounds in thief, thieves, cease, 2 The "Visible Speech" and Palae- 

sees, are considered all alike long e, otype symbols have been placed diago- 

thieves and sees are certainly pronounced nally, so as not to interfere with the 

with a longer vowel than thief and eye taking in the full series of either, 

cease. It would perhaps be most correct whether horizontally or vertically, 
to say that Scotch long quantity is like 








-< 3 





























































THE. GLIDES, ET.C. (in part only.) 

Voice Gl. Round. Front. F. Rnd. Lip End. Point. Back Gl. Catch. Whisper. Aspirate. 


'w i,J y u,w J r ; ' h' 
























































i— i 















































No. 1. 
/~\ ( 

No. 2. 

No. 3. 

i, £ I, y. 

ce, v, u, u. 

Y,y, V,uh. 

No. 4. 

No. 5. 

3, ah, oh, oh. 

No. 6. 

*, e, ^, ce. 

a, a, o, o. 


No. 8. 

No. 9. 

E, se, ^h, aeh. 


CE, fl, A, D. 


3h, ao, <zh, oh. 


the visible speech alphabet. 101 


The vowels are named thus : (i) Sigh-front ; (ee) Low-front-wide ; 
(o) Mid-lack-round ; (ce) Mid-front-wide-round. Lengthening is 
expressed in Visible Speech by adding the 'holder' f to the symbol 
of the sound to be lengthened ; in Palaeotype, by doubling the 
symbol, thus X \ (ii), the ee in see. The diphthongs are expressed 
by adding the w 1, y R, or voice glide I ; in Palaeotype, by adding 
(u, i, 9, ',) thus 31, [R, XI (au, ei, ia i'), the Scotch diphthongs 
in \owp, leyke, and bieae, respectively. 

The nine 'primary' vowels are formed by the simple action of 
the tongue and oral cavity, with the lips open, and the pharynx 
contracted, only in a less degree than for consonants, (i, e, e), be- 
tween the front of the tongue and the palate, with a ' high ' or 
narrow, a ' middle ' or natural, and a ' low ' or wide aperture re- 
spectively ; (ce, k, cb), between the hack of the tongue and back 
palate, with the same three widths of aperture ; the ' mixed ' series 
(t, q, ah,) by a simultaneous pronunciation of the ' front ' and 
' back ' vowels just described, conformative apertures being formed 
both at back and front, with an arching of the tongue between. These 
nine conformations of the mouth are shewn in the preceding diagram 
of Lingual positions. The nine '"Wide' vowels are the primary 
vowels, with the pharyngal cavity naturally relaxed or widened 
during their utterance. The 'Bound.' vowels are the nine primaries, 
with the lips 'rounded' or pouted during their pronunciation, as 
shewn in the diagram of Labial positions. The "Wide-round" 
vowels are the nine primaries, with pharynx widened, and lips 
rounded at same time. Thus the ee in feet (i), when widened, be- 
comes the* in f*'t (»}; when rounded, the German ii in fibel (i) ; 
when both widened and rounded, the French u in ane (y). 

The consonants are thus named : C (kb) lack, Q (s) front-mixed, 
£p (n) point-nasal-voice, 3 (v) lip-divided-voice, Q (b) lip-shut- 
voice. The ' breath ' consonants are formed by the expulsion of non- 
vocal breath through the "conformative aperture;" the 'voice' 
consonants by the expulsion of vocal breath through the same; 
thus, the sounds of T and 1> differ only in the fact that the one is 
formed by simple breath O, the other by voice Q. All oral con- 
sonants therefore exist in pairs of breath and voice. 1 The 'primary' 
consonants are formed by central apertures between the back of the 
tongue, arched surface of the tongue, or tip of the tongue, and 
adjacent part of the palate, or between the lips. In the ' Divided ' 
consonants the same apertures are divided by a central contact of 
the parts, the breath escaping on each side. In the ' Shut ' con- 
sonants, or mutes, the apertures are entirely closed, and forcibly 
opened by the stream of breath. In the ' Nasals ' the apertures are 
kept closed, and the breath or voice directed through the nose. 
The ' Mixed ' series are produced by a simultaneous formation of 
two modifying apertures. Thus, in blowing to cool, we form the 

1 A third series formed by whispered thus appearing to lie between T and 
voice, like the German final D in bind, D, P and B, etc., is not here con- 
and the Gaelic B and D in baid, and sidered. 


primary ' lip ' consonant O (denoted in palaeotype by ph, and 
forming a letter in several "West African languages), the breath 
being modified only by the round aperture of the lips. By dividing 
the aperture, artificially with a slip of card, or naturally, by 
touching the upper teeth with the centre of the lower lip, we 
produce the 'Lip-divided' 3> or ordinary E. Shutting the lips 
entirely, and forcibly qpening them by expulsion of breath, we form 
the 'lip-shut' ,Q, or common P. Substituting voice for mere 
breath, P becomes B, ©. Betaining the lips shut, and directing 
the voice through the nose, we have the ' lip-nasal ' 0, or M. If, 
while forming the primary lip consonant (ph) as before, we simul- 
taneously contract the back of the oral cavity, we produce the 
' lip-mixed ' £) , or "WH. Contracting the back cavity still more, 
and proportionally opening the labial one, we make the 'back- 
mixed ' (£, or Southern Scottish guttural in lauwch. Taking off 
the labial action entirely, we have the ' back-primary,' or ordinary 
guttural C» ii Gaelic clachan, German aeh ! Opening the back 
cavity also, and allowing the breath to escape without any oral 
modification, we have the ordinary aspirate 0> or H. 

By means of the 'outer' J and 'inner' \, position symbols, con- 
sonantal varieties are expressed: thus Q\ (kj), is the 'forward' k 
in card, siy; £j \ (gj), the 'forward' g in ^uard, and Northern 
Scotch #ang or #yang. The palatalized or forward variety of the 
guttural (kjh), as in German ioh, and Southern Scottish mycht, 
ftsycht, is similarly expressed by C \ • 

No one language possesses all the vocal elements represented in 
the table ; a selection from their number, comprising usually from 
one third to a half of the vowels, and from one half to five-eighths of 
the consonants, with a few of the glides, forms the " phonetic 
system" of any particular language or dialect, which it strives to 
embody in its alphabet. Wot only do different languages differ in 
the elements which they thus select from the great natural scale, 
but the same language varies in different stages of its history, 
altogether losing sounds which it once possessed, and adopting 
new sounds formerly unknown. Thus, to compare the consonants 
(which are least affected in this way), we find that modern English 
uses, among others, four elements which German does not use, viz., 
those represented by (th, dh, wh, w) in thin, then, whey, way, while 
German makes use, among others, of five which English refuses, 
viz. (kh, kwh, gh, gwh, bh), in acA! aucA, ta^, au^re, wo. The 
sounds which one idiom thus refuses, it replaces by others of the 
same class ; German replaces the ' lip-mixed- voice ' 3 (w) in 
English W3.J by the ' lip-primary- voice ' 3 (kh) in German w>eg. 
English replaces the 'back-primary' C (kh) in German bracA by 
the ' back-shut ' Q (k) in English broie. 

A full understanding of these changes, so important to the com- 
parative philologist, can only be gained through the medium of 
"Visible Speech," without which, also, precision in explaining 
dialectical varieties of sound would be quite hopeless. 




The following constitute the simple sounds, or vowel scale of this 
Dialect : — 


1. High front £ 

2. High front wide £ 

3. High front wide 
with Voice Glide f J 

4. Mid front 

5. Mid front wide 

6. Low front wide 

7. Low back wide 

8. Mid back 

9. Mid back wide 

10. High back wide 
round with Voice 
Glide 3-J 

1 1 . High back round J 

12. Mid front round \ 









ee, e 









(e, a) 










L««th; Heir, creep, wee; b«-lang 
eiU't, fysch-4s, cant-«'«,wurr-««t 

w«ade ; thgare, weae. 
Tait ; Ayr, fayth, way. 
hyll, fyrst ; syll-«r,dynn-a. 
mtsn, h«d ; yaitt, fiirr, h«. 
man, past; blaa, l«<znd, Yaa. 
burr, grand, cwt. 

Edb, scdn ; doar, road, woa ! 

bwot ; bwore, clwose, frwo. 
doot ; stoor, shoo ! 
swt ; pSjr, dui. 

The six vowels, 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, in peer, pa#r, peer, paar, poor, 
poor; leid, laid, Iced, lad, clod, lood, in Palaeotype (piir, peer, 
pseser, paar, poor, pwwr ; lid, led, lasd, lad, klod, lud), meaning 
peer, pare, pair, par, pore, power or pour ; lead, laid, led, lad, 
clod, loud, — are the simple or primitive elements of the scale. 
They appear to represent the six simple vowels of the Teutonic 
languages, Anglo-saxon win, ren, stel, hal, hoi, scur ; German 
sieh, weh, ahre, saal, kohl, buhn ; Moeso- Gothic spillan, etan, 
bairan, swaran, fotus, tunthus ; Danish i, e, as, a, o, u, etc. The 
original simple vowels of the Eoman alphabet seem to have been 
only five, and in adapting the Eoman letters to the various Teu- 
tonic idioms we find that No. 6 has been variously represented by 
ai, as, a, a, indicating its position between e and a. In the modern 
idioms, however, the distinction between Nos. 4 and 6, or 6 and 7, 
has been greatly lost. Thus Modern German confuses e and a, 
while English uses short a for both a and ce of the Anglo-saxon ; 
man and fat, for Ags. man ew.AfcBt. 

1 The semicolons separate closed, 
long, and brief, or unaccented open, 
vowels. The words are Leith ; Keir, 
creep, wee (tiny) ; belong ; ate, fishes, 
eantie, worried ; wade ; there, wo ; 
Tait ; Ayr, faith, way ; hill, first ; 
silver, do not ; men, had ; gate, far, 

have ; man, past ; blow, land, Faa ; 
burr, ground, cut; Rob (Bob), scon 
(griddle-cake), door, road, wo .' (to stop 
a horse) ; boat ; bore, close, froth ; 
doubt ; stour (dust in motion), shoo! 
(to drive away birds, etc., by calling 
sh .') suit ; poor, do. 


Eemarks on the Vowels. 

1. "High Front" vowel (Pal. i), English e, ee, ea, ei, etc., in 
me, see, feet, mete, field, mean, be-fore ; French, i, i, in gite, fini ; 
Italian i in vino, Lunedl, fisso ; German ie, i, in sieh, mir, mit. 
This vowel is in English long and brief. For the stopped sound, 
is substituted No. 2, the " High Front Wide " (i) in pit, tin. In 
Scotch it is found long, brief, and stopped. Long, final in wee, 
yee (wii, ii) ; medial, before r, z, th (dh), v, as weir, leeze, 
deeve (wiir, liiz, miidhz, diiv). Brief in prefixes, as 6e-lang, de- 
mem, re-gaird (bi-laq - , di-min-, ri-gerd"). Stopped, before other 
consonants, as seih, feit, deip, lein, feist (sik, fit, dip, lin, fist), 
French sique, fitte, dippe, line, fiste, which must be carefully dis- 
tinguished alike from the English seek, feet, deep, lean, feast 
(siik, fiit, diip, liin, fiist), to which they correspond in meaning, 
and the English sick, fit, dip, linn, fist (sik, fit, dip, lin, fist). 
The historical Scotch spelling ei is adopted for this sound when 
medial ; deip will thus be distinguished alike from deep and dip 
(Pal. dip, diip, dip). When final, ee is used ; and the same 
symbolisation may be used for the medial sound when long, 
except before r, where ei will naturally be pronounced long, thus, 
meir, keek, sweep, cheep (miir, kiik, swiip, tshiip) as distinct from 
cheip cheap (tship). When brief e is used, as be-lang, wad-ye ? 
(bilaq/, wad-i). 

This vowel rarely occurs final in the Southern Scottish dialect ; 
the final long ee of English and other Scottish dialects being 
replaced by the diphthong ey (Pal. ei), as me, sea, bee, Southern 
Scottish mey, sey, bey. 

2. " High Front Wide " (Pal. i). In deference to the opinions 
of Mr. Ellis and Mr. Melville Bell, I identify the unaccented ie, i, 
in bbnnie, maim'et, . fyttit, lassis, lassies, with the English short 
i, y, in many, married, benefit, Harris, mercies. My own appreci- 
ation of the sound would lead me to refer it rather to the short of 
No. 1, the French i in fini, and the Scotch ei in feit. At least 
when the sound is emphasised or artificially prolonged, it seems 
to become pure ee, as cun-tree in singing, which is different from 
the English coun-try ; and I think the Southern Scotch sound 
must at least be considered a closer or less ' wide ' variety of (i) 
than the English i in it. The terminations -y, -it, -es, in the more 
northern Scottish dialects, present an opener or lower sound than 
this, and if this is identified with the English i in it, must be 
considered as ai or y (e, e). Compare the Lothian kyntrae lasses 
(%ntre lasez) with Teviotdale cuintrie lassis (kantri lasiz). 
The Southern Counties' sound I represent by ie final, i medial ; 
the opener sound of other dialects by ae final, e or y medial. 
Historically, we find both kyntrae and cuntrie, fyschis and fyschys, 
graythit and graythyt. 

3. "High Front Wide," with Voice Glide; the second element 
tending to become the "Mid mixed wide," and "Mid front wide" 



vowels (Pal. i', fo, ie). This, the ea, eae, in leade, breae, is a very 
difficult sound to analyse. When pronounced leisurely, however, 
the main element will generally be recognized as the long of the 
English i, heard in singing bit to a long note bi-i-i-t, this sound 
gliding or opening at the end into the e in yet, Scotch y in byt, or 
perhaps the _" Mid-mixed " vowel in the second syllable of real, 
which Occupies a mid position between the Scotch y in myll (mel) 
and u in mull (mal). I often hear the identical sound in English 
when the word real (rii-el) is carelessly pronounced, as (riol, ri'l). 
When rapidly pronounced, especially in a closed syllable, as 
beat, teape, the glide is scarcely heard, and the two sounds seem 
to mix into an impure ee or close ai. Etymologically, indeed, 
the sound is an a, which in English partly remains a, partly has 
become e, while in Scotch it takes the intermediate, as English 
hale, heal (=heel), Scotch heale. In North English dialects this 
sound is written eea or eya, as steean, steyan, and is more distinctly 
diphthongal, the second element, which is brief and fugacious in 
Southern Scotch, being there dwelt on equally with the first 
element, or even receiving the chief accent. Both forms appear 
to be described: in Barnes's Dorset Grammar (p. 12), illustrated by 
bed and mead. In Scotch, when this ea is initial, or preceded by 
h, it develops into yeh (je), the first element (i) becoming the 
consonant y, the second being then distinctly heard as the e in 
yet (Pal. e) and accented. So in Norse we have jarl for the eorl, jord for the Ags. eorSe, Swedish stjern, tjenare, hjerta, 
German Stem, Diener, Hertz. In this dialect both forms are in 
use, ea being the older, yeh, the newer, thus : — 















This development confirms the primitive sound, as («') the 
development being (»', ie, ie, ie, i6, je). It is here written eae 
final, ea medial. The initial ea, hea, developing into yeh, hyeh 
are written ea, hea, thus eane, which may be read eane or yen, 
both pronunciations being common. It might be thought better to 
refer this sound to the diphthongs. As, however, it is no more 
diphthongal than the Southern English ai in wait, where the a 
glides into a closer sound, just as here the (*) glides into an 
opener, and a Scotchman is no more conscious than the Southern 



0«e,O.E. 0,00 

earth or 







eate ,, 







earb „ 







eacre „ 

hyeh ! 






heae ! „ 


here ! Hens ! 




heade ,, 



a whit 



heale „ 



hale, whole 




heame ,, 







hearsch „ 













hearo „ 







heaste „ 






to whine 

heastie „ 



haste ye ! 




heate „ 






Englishman is of uttering a double sound ; and as the sound is 
in many respects treated as a simple one, it is here classed among 
the simple vowels. By means of it the Southern Scotch is en- 
abled to distinguish in sound between numerous pairs of words 
sounded alike in English in ee, or in ai, thus : — 





meal flour 

meil (mil) 


beit (bit) 

meal repast 

meale (miel) 


beate (Wat) 


















sail (sel) 
seale (siel) 






laid (led) 
leade (Ked) 





where, note that the ei and ai are short closed vowels (i, e), 
though long in English. 

This distinction is not known in the Central Scotch dialects, 
where sail and sale are pronounced alike, with a close variety of 
ai, or even (i). 1 But in the English of 1685, Cooper distinguished 
between the two sounds, main mane, hail hale, maid made, tail 
tale. (See Mr. Ellis's Early English Pronunciation, p. 71.) 

4. " Mid Front " (Pal. e). This vowel is perhaps an opener 
variety of (e) than the English vowel in sail, say, or the French 
in jai i\A aiAS, approaching to (e) ; 2 but its chief difference from 
the former lies in the fact that it is a uniform sound, not gliding 

1 In Caithness a distinction is made, 
quite different from the above. See Ap- 

2 As pronounced in the South of 
Scotland, it is certainly opener than 
the French or English ai («). But it 
is nearer to this («) than to any other 
of the six front vowels. A long and 
careful observation of the sounds of 
English and Scottish dialects, and col- 
lation with those of the Standard 
English, has convinced me that, in 
order to shew their precise values and 
relations, it would be necessary to make 
a more minute division of the vowel 
scale, as suggested by Mr. Melville 
Bell, at page 16 of his "Visible Speech." 
The number of possible shades of vowel 

sound, for example, between the 'high' 
and 'low' of any series is infinite, 
forming a regular and insensible gra- 
dation from (i) to (e), (u) to (a), etc. 
Mr. Bell has considered the discrimi- 
nation of three points, a ' high,' ' low,' 
and 'mid,' as practically sufficient, 
which is of course amply the case for 
any one language or dialect. But he 
has also pointed out the means of indi- 
cating a greater refinement by recog- 
nizing a closer or higher, and an opener 
or lower, variety of each position, thus 
making nine instead of three intervals. 
For the English and Scottish dialects 
it would be convenient to adopt this 
division, so far as concerns the ' mid ' 
vowels, the precise degree of openness 



or closing into ee, like the English, — at least the English of the 
south ; thus, English day>ee, Scotch day-ay. This rowel is not 
recognized as stopped in English, the vowel in wait, main, being 
as long as in way, may. In Scotch it occurs long and stopped, as 
in wayr, bayihe, way, wait, tail (Pal. weer, beedh, wee, wet, tel), 
the two last words being carefully distinguished fron the English 
wait, tail (weet, teel, or weeit, teeil), and wet, tell, but pronounced 
like the French dtS. 

In the central dialects this vowel is pronounced much more 
closely, i.e. nearer to ee, so as to be almost like our No. 3. Thus 
way, day, are, in Edinburgh, nearly weae, deae, perhaps (wti, Hi) 
— but see the note below. In the North-east this is still more 
remarkable, and a Southern ear would undoubtedly set down the 
pronunciation of Jacob, compare, stane, as Jeecub, compeer, steen. 

5. "Mid Front Wide" (Pal. e). The Scotch i or y, in fyll, 
pyt, is a very different sound from the English i in fill, pit, to 
which it answers etymologically. As generally pronounced it 
appears to be identical with the English e in bless, yes, yet, as 
pronounced in London and the South of England, but not as 
heard from educated English speakers in the North, where (b) is 
used. 1 In some parts of Scotland, I believe that the " high 

given to which is very fluctuating. We might provisionally indicate these va- 
rieties in palaeotype, thus : 

Front. Front-wide. 

Back-roimd. Back-wide-rotmd. 


Sigh Mid. 


Low Mid. 


The Eng. ai in wait being then (e) the 
South Sc. would be (e) ; the close sound 
common in Edinburgh would be {4). 
The S. Sc. sound in hreae would pro- 
bably be rather (<*') than (i'), as we.are 
obliged to make it when using only the 
three vowels. The Sc. y in hyll, byt 
(see No. 4) would probably be (e) 
rather than (e), explaining how the 
diphthong ey seems closer than aiy, 
which it ought not to be if y in byt were 
the exact ' wide ' of ai in bait. In the 
round vowels also, the very close o used 
in Edinburgh, which, compared with 
my o, seems almost («), would pro- 
bably be (<5), and the South Sc. wo (see 
No. 10J might be (<!') rather than («'). 
It need! scarcely be said that no single 
language or dialect does ever, in prac- 
tical use, distinguish such fine shades ; 

few idioms even find the three positions 
distinct enough ; none certainly dis- 
tinguish the six sounds formed by the 
' primaries ' and ' wides ' of any series 
(except as accidental varieties due to 
the character of the following conso- 
nant, or to presence or absence of 
accent — never to distinguish words). 
It is only in comparing different lan- 
guages or dialects that we find the 
exact quality given to particular vowels 
in one, intermediate between certain 
vowels in another, the one set of sounds 
grouping themselves, so to say, along- 
side of and around, but not quite coin- 
ciding with, the other set. 

1 These words, bless, yes, yet, are 
pronounced almost identically in Sc. 
and Eng.; but while in Eng. they 
rhyme with mess, Bess, pet, set, in Sc. 



mixed " and " mid mixed " vowels are used instead, and towards 
the west and centre, the "mid front" takes its place, hyll, myll, 
mylk, being pronounced hull, mull, mulh (hal, mal, malk), as in 
the well-known snuff-mull (snaf-mal) .' In all parts of Scotland i 
is gutturalized into" u after w, thus, wull, wut, Wulliam, wun, 
quhun, instead of wyll, wyt, Wylliam, wyn, quhyn, the English will, 
wit, William, win, whin. In English w has a similar effect upon a, 
seen in comparing an, ant with wan, want (sen, sent, win, wAnt). 
This vowel never occurs long in the Southern Scotch dialect, for 
it does not occur at the end of a syllable under the accent, and 
before r its effect is to make the trill stronger, instead of being 
itself lengthened, as in byrr,fyrr (be.r, fe.r), etc. 

I consider this also as the brief vowel in the Southern Counties' 
dialect, used for all the English brief vowels except (i). Perhaps 
the kindred "mid mixed" vowels (9, ah) would seem to some ears 
more entitled to this place, and, in truth, the sounds of all are so 
near that, when brief and unaccented, it is extremely difficult to 
distinguish them ; but in emphasising and prolonging the final 
vowel in such words as America, dynna, weido, the sound I hear is 
the same as that in hyll, bynd. (In the more northern Scottish 

they find rhymes in miss, this, pit, sit, 
having indeed heen written with i or y 
by the Scottish writers : yhis, yhit, 
blissin' {bless being thus confounded 
with bliss). Eng. set and Sc. sit both 
rhyming to yet, seems to prove the 
identity of Sc. short i with Eng. short 
e, though there may be a shade of 
difference in openness, as stated in last 

1 Many years ago I read some re- 
marks, by a southern critic, on the 
pulpit oratory of the late Dr. Chalmers, 
in which the pronunciation of that 
divine was given as " Let hum that is 
fulthy be fulthy stall." With my 
Scotch value of u, I read the words 
italicised, as (Hum, 'faiths', stal), and 
knowing that this was not the pronun- 
ciation of Dr. Chalmers, I resented the 
caricature as a libel upon my native 
tongue. Acquaintance with Southern 
English habits of utterance has since 
shewn me that the -London critic at- 
tached a different meaning to his spell- 
ing from that which I did, and only 
intended to give the Sc. pronunciation, 
as (Horn, falthi, stol), which he perhaps 
heard. Even if the sound really given 
were (hem, felthi, stel), with a "Scotch 
accent," it would be so far from the 
Eng. (mm, filthi, stil) as to seem to a 
Londoner more like his hum, fulthy, 
stull, than anything else. In the same 

way, when Englishmen mean to repre- 
sent broad Scotch vernacular, they write 
the Scotch pronunciation of man as 
mon. Scotchmen, with their Conti- 
nental idea of short 0, seeing this spell- 
ing, read mon as (mon) or (mon), and 
laugh at it as a pitiful caricature of their 
utterance, due either to Cockney igno- 
rance or to a desire to cast ridicule 
upon the Scotch. But the English 
writer has no idea of suggesting the 
sounds of (mon) or (mon), which he 
would probably express by morn, moan ; 
what he means is (mon), as in his own 
on, the Sc. a that he hears, being so 
much broader than his a in man, or 
indeed any Eng. short a, that he appre- 
ciates it only as a "Scotch variety" of 
(mon), and writes it mon. The truth is 
people's habits of hearing get into 
grooves, as well as their habits of utter- 
ance, so that neither hears sounds ex- 
actly as the other gives them, but as 
sounds in his own groove, more or 
less near them ; and attaching as they 
do still more distinct values to the 
letters, the result is that the sound, 
after being, first, not quite accurately 
heard and described, and, secondly, still 
more inaccurately realized in the de- 
scription, comes back to the speaker 
with an appearance, at which he kicks, 
as a wretohed travesty. 


dialects a much closer sound is used in such terminations. In 
the Lothians it is nearly ay or eae, usually written ae ; and the 
Teviotdale dynna, Munda, banna, vaila, nearly equal to the 
\Cockney dernier, Munder, banner, vailer, are, in the Lothians, 
dynnae, Mundae, bannae, vailae, nearly = dennay, Munday, banney, 
vailay. Further north the sound sinks almost into ie, as dynnie, 
Mundie, bannie, vailie.) 

The letter y has been used from the earliest periods to express 
a (broader ?) variety of the i sound ; thus, Ags. hym, syttan, for 
him, sittan. In the Scottish writers it was very common, thus 
Gawain Douglas : dynlis, fyll, gymp, gyrd, myrh, mynt, pyt, qwyk 
(quick), ryng, rym, ryvere, sylly, tyll, etc. There is, therefore, a 
good historical basis for adopting it to express this sound regu- 
larly when stopped. At the end of a word a is used, as in the 
closely allied English sound, in manna, sofa. "When brief and 
indistinct in the middle of a word, e is used, as in the English 
latter, latest, mallet ; also, to prevent confusion, after y initial in 
yes, yet, or yen the developed form of eane. In both of these 
positions, i, y were used by the older Scottish writers, thus, nevyr, 
wattir, heruyst, devyl, eityn, hevin, drevin, yhit, yhis, yhistyrday, or 
$it, yis, jistyrday, y/stirday. 

6. " Low Front Wide " (Pal. as). The English short a in man, 
pat, lad (as pronounced in the south), is the sound given in this 
dialect to e, in men, pet, led, viz., mcen, pcet, Iced. In Anglo-saxon 
the sound was often written in the same way, as grces or gcers, 
grass, Sc. gcerse or grass ; Ags. Icesse, less, Sc. lass ; Ags. bcem, 
a barn, Sc. bcem. The sound does not occur long in the Standard 
English, but is very common in the "West of England, where 
Bath, bashet, ash, are pronounced (bseseth, bsesesket, asaesk), and in 
Ireland, where the letter A is commonly called (sese). In the 
Southern Scotch it is long, as in farr, yatt, -path, ha — far, gate, 
path, have ; stopped, as in hart, man, han, asch, wasch, lass, bast 
= heart, men, ken, ash, wash, less, best. The Scotch writers 
commonly used e for this sound, writing gerse, bern, hes, hed, 
hert, wesch, hesp, peih, heruyst, etc ; in this work, following the 
example of the Anglo-saxon, and other languages, as well as Mr. 
Ellis's system of Palaeotype, it is written a, and so distingushed 
from the English e in men, met, yet, already considered. In most 
of the other Scottish dialects this sound is replaced by the " low 
front " vowel without the widening, (k), the sound also given in 
the North of England to e in met, men. Thus, in the centre of 
Scotland, the words far, gate, path, have, heart, men, Teen, ash, 
wash, hasp, better, best, would be pronounced (fcsr, jEEt, pEEth, 
heb, HErt, mEn, kEn, Esh, WEsh, hesp, bster, bEST), with the 
French and Italian open e in aperto, bete, mere ; German mahre. 
Using the narrower sound, the central Scots consider the pro- 
nunciation of the Borderers very 'braid,' and reproach them with 
calling Pen-chrise-pen (a hill in Teviotdale) Pan-chrise-pan, 
whereas they really say Pan-chrise-pan. 


7. " Low Back Wide " (Pal. a). The Scotch a, long in faa, waar, 
laand, short in man, wad, and well illustrated in the line — 

A man's a man for a' that 
(a m«nz 3 man for aa dhot) 

varies considerably in different dialects, and even in different 
individual speakers of the same dialect. Upon the whole, the 
value here given, which is that of the German a in mahnen, man, 
may be considered as the average one, although it is not un- 
common to hear it narrowed into the " mid back wide," the 
English vowel in father, the French in matte, carme, the Italian in 
mano, gatto. Still more common is the tendency, known also in 
South Germany, and especially in Austria, to labialize the sound, 
and pronounce it as the " low mixed round " or " low mixed wide 
round" (oh, oh) sounds so near to the English aw, o, in-law, 
lawn, lot (Iaa, lAAn, lot) that Englishmen rarely distinguish 
between them, and therefore accuse the Scotch of saying cawnie 
maun, or connie mon, for cannie man. In reality, the Scotch a, 
when most broadly pronounced, is only equal to the common 
Cockney pass, ash, demand (pahs, aahsk, demaahnd), and I have 
heard a London broker pronounce demand drafts with an a, which, 
for broadness, I have never heard bettered in the North. As 
a rule the broader or labialized sound will be heard when the 
vowel is long, as in glaar, laand, waa (glaar, baand, waa) or 
(glaahr, baahnd, waah), the narrower in a closed syllable, as 
man, hat, want (man, hat, want) or (man, hat, want), less fre- 
quently (mahn, haht, wahnt). 

It is notable that the Anglo-Saxon used both a, and se (in 
different dialects ?) for its long a, thus : stan, sar, stsen, sser. 
From the former, by a series of successive steps, comes the 
English stone, sore, from the latter, by a different series, the 
Scotch steane, sair. The long open a seems to have demanded 
too wide an opening of the mouth for the northern nations, and 
consequently the original stdn (staan) became, on the one side, 
labialized into stoan, on the other, palatalized into stdn. By a 
further narrowing of the sound we have the English stone, the 
Scotch stane. In some of the Scottish dialects we have steane, 
and even steen ; and in the English we are not without indica- 
tions that the slide is still progressing, and that the London and 
Kentish stown will at length end in stoon, just as the Anglo-Saxon 
stdl, ddm, bdc, Old English stole, dome, lohe, are the modern 
English stool, doom, booh. "When the process is complete we 
shall have the curious phenomenon of a sound starting as the 
openest possible {aa), and ending as the closest possible ee, oo. 
The other Teutonic tongues have mostly, like the Scotch, followed 
the series of front vowels, German stein, Dutch steen, Swedish 
sten, etc. 

8. " Mid Back " (Pal. a). The Scotoh vowel u in gun is an 
opener or more ' back ' vowel than the corresponding (South) 
English sound, variously identified as (e, e). The Scotoh sound 


is indeed often pronounced still opener, as the "low back" (as), and 
this is probably the older sound of the two. This vowel presents 
many points of connection with No. 5, the corresponding " front 
vowel," like which it is never lengthened, but before r increases 
the trill of that consonant, as burr, furr. As already remarked, it 
takes the place of that vowel in the central districts of Scotland, 
as rnullc, hull, for mylk, hyll, and after w, as wut for wit. In the 
north-east the two vowels are curiously confused, as " he gyan's 
tull's myther," for till his mother; " hum an' his twaa syns," him 
and his two sons. We have this only as a stopped vowel. 

9. " Mid Back Wide Bound " (Pal. o). The French o in mot, 
bonne, Italian o aperto in coda, amb, English o in glory, according 
to the most approved pronunciation, as distinguished, on the one 
hand, from glow-ry, on the other from glaw-ry, both of which are 
also current. This o, common also in provincial English, as hoam 
(Hoom), for home, is the ' wide ' of the long English o in bone, no. 
It is also a uniform simple sound, and not a diphthong or quasi- 
diphthong, like the o of the South of England, which begins with 
o, but tapers off into oo, thus n5>oo, ro>ood (Pal. noou, rooud), 
while the Scotch sound is no-6, ro-5d (noo, rood). Compare what 
is said of ai, No. 4. If the English vowel be pronounced pure 
without the terminal do, into which it glides, it will be nearly the 
Scotch o, the difference between the " mid back round " (o) and 
" mid back wide round " (o) not being great. This vowel occurs 
long in noa, doar, hard. God is also pronounced in the same way, 
Goad (noo, door, loord, good) ; short, but unchanged in quality, 
in lot, doll, scon, which must be carefully distinguished alike from 
the long lote, dole, scone, and the English lot, doll, sconn, where 
the o represents, not the short quantity of long o, which English 
has not, but the short ' wide ' sound of au or aw in laud, law. As 
a series of such sounds we may compare the English naught, not, 
note, and the Scotch not and nuote (nAAt, not, noot noout, not, 
not mist. 

10. " High Back Mid Bound " gliding into " Mid Back " (Pal. 
ws). This vowel bears precisely the same relation to oo (u) and o 
that ea does to ee (i) and ai. When pronounced leisurely the main 
element will be heard to be the same as the English 'wide' oo (u) 
in book, poor, but this sound opens and glides toward the u in 
gun. When rapidly pronounced, however, the effect of the glide 
is scarcely felt, and we seem to hear only a very close o, almost 
falling into oo, and nearly, if not quite, identical with the Italian 
o chiuso, representing a short Latin u, as dolce, rompe, somma. 
Etymologioally the Scotch sound is an o on its passage to oo, and 
it serves to distinguish pairs of words, some of which are con- 
founded in English. 

boar. buore, to bore. foar, for. fuore, fore, 

sole, only. suole, sole of a shoe. roam. Huome, or Eoom, Home. 

In the north of England, and also in Wessex, this sound 
regularly developes into wo ; as Cumberland Jwohn, Iword, mwor- 


nin, rwose, cworn, bworn ; Dorset bwoth, bwoil, spwoil, pwoint, from 
which it would appear that the second element is the one on 
which the voice dwells, whereas in the Teviotdale Juohn, luord, 
muornin, cuorn, buorn, etc., it is the first. When initial, however, 
or preceded by h, as in the kindred case of eii, the Scotch sound 
developes into wu or hwu = whu, thus : — 

uortchet, wurtshet = orchard. orpieleif, wurjie-leif = orpine, 

huole, hwull „ hole. huorn, hwurn „ horn, 

huone, hwun „ honeetone. uopen, wuppen „ open, 

huope, hwup „ hope. unrest, wunrest „ unrest. 

With this we may compare the development of the English 
one into its modern pronunciation wun (for uone), like the pro- 
vincial wuts for oats, (uotes). So in Scotland oor, our, often 
becomes wor, wur, wer, and conversely week often becomes ouk, 
i.e. ook. (See further, under W.) Though a diphthong, or quasi- 
diphthong, this is always treated as a simple sound, just as the 
English o in home, which begins in o and glides into oo in the 
south, is treated as a simple vowel. It is long in duose, bubre, 
fruo froth, stopped in buot, cuot, suod, English boat, coat, sod. 
When subject to development into wu it is here written uS, hub', 
as huole (hmgI or Hwstl). 

11. " High Back Bound " (Pal. u), English oo in moon, French 
ou long in rdute, short in doute, Italian uno, German huhn, blut, 
gut. This vowel, when stopped in English, becomes (u), as in 
book, bull, full. In Scotch, as in French and North English, 
it remains unchanged in quality when stopped ; doot (Fr. doute), 
bool (Fr. boule), making true pairs with door stubborn, booze to 
bouze. The Scotch words derived from French thus retain the 
true sound of the French ou. Before a consonant this vowel also 
represents the Anglo-Saxon u, which, in English, has developed 
into ou or ow, as toon, oot, doon, schoor ; Anglo-Saxon tun, ut, dun, 
scur ; English town, out, down, shower. In most of the Scotch 
dialects the Anglo-Saxon sound is also retained when final ; but 
in the Southern Counties' dialect it has, when final, become uw 
(au) ; thus, Ags. cu, Scotch dialects generally coo, S. Coun. cuw, 
Eng. cow. So the Central Scotch soo, doo, hoo, yoo, foo, noo, are 
in the South, suw, duw, huw, yuw, fuw, nuw ; duel, cruel, gruel, 
in Southern Counties, duwel, cruwel, gruwel. This change is 
exactly parallel to the substitution of ey, for ee, noticed under 
No. 1 ; in both cases the Southern Scotch sound is about half way 
between the original Ags. and Fr. i, u, and their modern English 
representatives I and ow. 

12. The "Mid front round" vowel (Pal. 9), which, follow- 
ing the usual spelling, is here represented by ui, has very different 
values in different Scottish dialects, ranging almost from the 
French eu in peu to the German provincial u in iibel, and the 
English ee in Dee ; a common form in the north being also the 
" high mixed wide," identified by Mr. Ellis with the Welsh u, 
and almost the Slavonic y. Thus Aberdeenshire mum, ruit, tuip, 


are (m^n, ryt, typ), that is, nearly min, rit, tap ; puir, dui, are un- 
distinguishable from peer, dee. The Southern Counties' ui is one of 
the openest, being equal to the French eu in peu, nearly the Ger- 
man 6 in loclce. It is long in dui, puir, bruise, stopped in buit, 
cuit, fail, duin. This vowel seems to be eminently a restless and 
unsettled one, and in almost all languages gradually gravitates to 
rest in ee. Thus the Greek v, Latin y, and Anglo-Saxon y have 
long ceased to be distinguished from i (=ee), and in German 
eebel for tibel, like English evil for Anglo-Saxon yfel, is quite 


By diphthongs are here meant combinations of vowel sounds, 
which may or may not be expressed by combinations of vowel 

The Scotch dialects are peculiarly rich in diphthongs. In the 
Southern Counties' dialect almost every simple vowel combines 
with ee and oo, so as to form a diphthong of the y series, and 
another of the w series. There are in fact five of each series, or ten 
in all. This contrasts with the literary English, in which the only 
recognized diphthongs of the y series are i, oi, in fine, eider, cry, 
hoy, boil (fein, eid-j, krei, boi, boil), and the only ones of the w 
series ow, in vow, out (vou, out), and ew, which latter has in the 
Standard English lost its original character of (iu) and developed 
into yoo, just as the Scotch and north English eii (io) developes 
into yeh. 

In the English diphthongs i, oi, ow, the first element seems 
long ; at least, in comparison with the Scotch diphthongs, where 
the first element may almost be said to be stopped by the follow- 
ing. This is a difference which, apart altogether from the dif- 
ference of vowels, distinguishes the Scotch diphthongs generally 
from the English. In the English diphthongs of the y series also 
the second element seems to be the i in it (i) rather than ee (i). 
This may, however, only be owing to the indistinctness of the 
second element. In the diphthongs of the Scottish Southern 
Counties' dialect, however, the second element is very distinctly 
ee, and is less overshadowed by the preponderance of the first 
element than in English. But in the central Scottish dialects the 
second element is a much opener sound, apparently ae, ay, or even 
the simple voice glide. Thus ay, in Teviotdale (e-ie or c£-ee be- 
comes ce-ai, ce-eh, or almost «e' ; ' by, Tev. bd-ee becomes baa-ai, 

1 It is in dialects where ay is reduced man entering woollendraper's shop, and 

to<8',andwhere<meisae(e0or«)noteae, seizing between finger and thumb a 

yeh, as in the south, that the following piece of cloth, to which she administers a 

dialogue, intended at once to show the vigorous pinch, loquitur, " Oo?" Sales- 

brevity of Scotch words, and laconism of man, "^S", 'oo\" Customer (gives 

Scotch manners 'tells' best: — Old wo- cloth a stretch), "Aa 'oo?" Sales- 


baa-eh, or almost baa' ; fire, Tev. fai-yer, becomes feh-air, or 
almost feh-er, feh'r. This widening and final evanescence of the 
second element is particularly marked in the Yorkshire dialects, 
■where title, bizen, shive, become simply lah'tle, bah'zen, shah've; 
about, now, down, abaah't, naah', daah'n. The words I and my 
(ai, mai), contracted in most parts of Scotland to (a, ma), illus- 
trate the same tendency. 

The following are the diphthongs in the Southern Scotch : — 

Formed from. Diphth. of Diphth. of Illustrations. 

y series. 

w series. 



ee or i 

> euw 

feuw, beuwtie 









mey, beyte 









fyve, bye 





yuw, huwt 




K6y, boyl 

lowe, bowl 





1. aiy (Pal. ei). This diphthong is = ai-ee, and comes very 
near to the pronunciation of lay, Main, in the South of England, 
laee, mdeen, from which it differs chiefly in the greater distinct- 
ness of the second element, and abbreviation of the first. 
It occurs final in aiy always, claiy clay, haiy hay, gaiy con- 
siderably, Maiy, the month and female name, staiy stay, quhaiy 
whey, which, in other Scottish dialects, are pronounced with ey ; 
cley, hey ; or uy, cluy, huy, etc. In the dialect of the Southern 
Counties this is also sounded instead of the next diphthong 
before all the voice consonants, liquids, and nasals ; thus weyde, 
deyve, meyle, feyne, are pronounced waiyde, daiyve, maiyle, faiyne 
(weid, deiv, meil, fein). This is especially marked before r, 
which, besides, forms a syllable of itself ; thus, feyre, teyre, heyre, 
cheyre, i.e. chair, are pronounced faiyer, haiyer, taiyer, chaiyer 
(feier, Heiar, teier, tsheior). I am not sure indeed whether we 
ought not to consider the Southern Counties' pronunciation of i 
before a breath consonant, e.g. in white, pipe, nice, as theoretically 
aiy (ei) rather than ey (ei). Practically, the sound is so short, 
that it is almost impossible to catch the difference between (peip) 
and (peip). Unless when comparing one dialect with another it 
will be safe enough to write weyde, meyne, feyre, peype, for all 
the shades of the medial vowel ; but when final we must in 

man, "JE', aa 'oo ! " Customer (draw- ee uu.) Translation : ""Wool P" "Ay, 

ing out a length of the fabric, with a wool ! " "All wool P " "Ay, all wool ! " 

searching glance), "Aaae' oo p" Sales- "All one wool?" (i.e. of one 

man, "M\ aa ae 'oo ! " (Pal. eeae', aa "Ay, all one wool ! " 


this dialect write Maiy or Maye, haiy or haye, for May, hay, etc. ' 
to distinguish, them from mey, hey, i.e. me, he. 

2. ey (Pal. ei). Composed of the y in hyll, or e in yet, and ee. 
As a rule it represents the long English l before a consonant, e.g. 
pipe, fire, time, mine; Scotch peype, fey re, teyme, meyne ; and in 
some dialects final ay, as clay, hay, way, Lothian cley, hey, wey. 
In the dialect of the Border counties it is used as the substitute 
of the final long ee, e, in English and other Scottish dialects ; 
thus the English see, me, he, we, pea, bee, free, etc., and the 
central Scottish dee, flee, lee, thee, i.e. die, fly, lie, thigh, are in 
Roxburgh, Selkirk, and Dumfries-shires, sey, mey, hey, wey, pey, 
hey, frey, dey, fley, ley, they. This is exemplified in the char- 
acteristic sentence. " Yuw an' mey '11 gang dwre the deyke an' 
puw a pey," which in central Scotch is " Too an' raee' 11 gyang 
uwr the duyke an' poo a pee." As pronounced in the south ey is 
(ei), but as we advance north the first element seems to become 
the " mid back " u, especially before voice consonants, liquids and 
nasals, so weyves, meyle, beyde become wuyves, muyle, buyde (waivz, 
mail, baid). We may say therefore that the central Scottish ee 
answers to the southern ey, and the central ey to- the southern aiy, 
when final ; before a consonant the central ey inclines to uy, the 
southern to aiy. So Teviotdale a gaiy waiyde sey, Lothian a gey 
wuyde see, a pretty wide sea ; Teviotdale naiyne dey'd i' Maiy, 
Lothian nuyne dee'd ae Mey, nine died in May. The most 
accurate analysis would probably be as follows : — 

Lothian see, dee, hey, buyte, buyde wuyne. 

Teviotdale sey, dey, haiy, baiyte, baiyde, waiyne- 

for the English see, die, hay, bite, bide, wine, 
which, however, may be written — 

Lothian see, dee, hey, beyte,. beyde, weyne. 

Teviotdale sey, dey, haiy, beyte, beyde> weyne. 

In the use of these two diphthongs, and a kindred usage with 
regard to oo, uw, ow, with the distinction between ea and ai, uo 
and o, lie the chief differences between the Southern Counties' 
Scotch — " the language of yuw and mey " — and that of central 

3. The diphthong my (Pal. sei) = se-ee, and closely akin to a 
common Cockney pronunciation of I, mine, is heard in ceye, yes, 
also in the combined words hce-ye, mce-ye, gce-ye, fra-ye (hsei, masi, 
gaei, frsei), have you, may you, gave you, from you, which are 
pronounced as monosyllables. Otherwise it is rare, and confined 
to the guttural combinations ceycht, fceycht, pceych, eight, fight, 
Pech or Pict. In central Scotland, however, this diphthong, or 
rather a-ai, a', is used for ey before r, as fa-air or fee'r for 
feyre, fire. 

4. y (Pal. ai). Composed of aa-ee = the German ai, ay, in 
Kaiser, May, nearly as in the Italian daino, laido ; French pa'ien, 
faience ; English ai in Isaiah, Shang-hai' ; though sometimes labial- 


ized in the first element (olri), and then confounded by Englishmen 
with their oi, just as they confound a labialized pronunciation of 
man with mon. It is used as the equivalent of English final y 
in many words, as crye, frye, drye, w'rye, applye. It occurs 
medial in syze, fyve, five, now used for the older feyfe, which is 
nearly obsolete. So also in tryal, dyal, deriyal, dyemont, i.e. dia- 
mond, tryhle, treacle (Old Eng. tryakle), lyan, and such words. 
It is not originally found other than at the end of a syllable ; but 
in a Scotch pronunciation of English is commonly put for the 
English long i, to which it is the nearest Scotch sound. Thus, 
in country schools, tyme, gyle, pype (taim, gail, paip), will be 
heard instead of the vernacular teyme, geyle, peype, the readers 
fancying that they pronounce the English time, guile, pipe (taim, 
gail, paip) . Others, who have learned that this is "too broad," give 
tmyme, gceyle, pceype, the next closer diphthong. This diphthong 
may be conveniently written ye or y instead of the analytical form 
aay, when to do so will lead to no ambiguity, thus fyve, lyon, lye. 
5. The diphthong oy (Pal. oi) = o'a-ee, differs from the English 
oy, oi, in that the first element in the latter is the aw in law, or o 
in lot, whereas, in Scotch, it is the oa in road, or even the close 
uo in cuole ; as English, boy (boi) ; Scotch, boa-y, buo-y, and even 
boo-y. the latter of which has been shewn by Mr. Ellis to be the 
old English pronunciation. In the central and north-east districts 
of Scotland this diphthong, when medial, is pronounced exactly 
like No. 2 in the same dialects, boil, point, quoit, becoming buyl, 
puynt, Icmjte, or beyle, peynt, heyte. So a collier is in Dalkeith 
called a heyler, i.e. coiller (compare Bauf Goiljear), which rhymes 
with teyler, tailor. In Eoxb. the two words are far apart, cuollier 
and teallier, with liquid 11, Old Sc. coil^ear, tailjeour. This sub- 
stitution of ey, uy, for oy, was all but universal in English a 
century ago. The borderers who laugh at the peynts and jeynings 
of their northern neighbours, pride themselves upon their well- 
rounded oy, although a false etymology confounds one word, beyle, 
i.e. a boil, with beyle, bile. 

The W series. 

1. The diphthong bw, owe (Pal. ou) differs but little from 
the long o in no, road, as pronounced in the south of England, 
nooo, roood, the terminal oo being more distinct. In the Southern 
Scottish dialect it occurs final in howe, a hollow, lenowe, a knoll, 
growe, yowe, a ewe, etc., which, in the other Scottish dialects, have 
the next diphthong, huw, hnuw, yum. So also it is used in this 
dialect for the uw of the other Scots before a voice consonant, 
liquid or nasal, especially I and r, as buwl, gluwr, fuwr ; Teviot- 
dale bowle, glowre, fowre. Compare the similar dialectical re- 
lations of aiy and ey. 

2. The diphthong uw (Pal. au) has as its first element the 


Scotch m in dull, and thus differs from the English, the analysis 
of which is (ou), or, according to Mr. Melville Bell, (au). In 
the Southern Counties' dialect it occurs medial, as in huwt ! tut ! 
and final, as in yuw you, cuw cow, duw dove, suw sow, thruw 
through, buw, to bend, which in other Scottish dialects are yoo, 
coo, doo, soo, throo, boo, etc. As already stated, the Southern 
Counties' bowe, a bow to shoot with, lowe a flame, rowe to roll, 
powe a poll, howe, growe, etc., are elsewhere buw, luw, ruw, puw, 
hum, gruw. So that the Lothian 600 is in Teviotdale buw, the 
Lothian buw in Teviotdale bowe. Boxb. Huwt man ! Caa yuw 
the cuw owre the bruw o' the knowe, quhair yee sey the gserss 
growe. Fowre bowles fuw o' neuw mylk thrse the cuw. Lothian. 
Hoot man ! Caa yoo the coo uwr the broo ae the knuw, whar yee 
see the gyrse gruw. Fuwr buwls foo ae nyoo mylk fae the 
coo. The Southern Counties' distinction between buw. to bend, 
and bowe, to shoot with, is exactly that of Sir T. Smith, in 
1568 (as quoted by Mr. Ellis)', "Early English Pronunciation," 
Part I., p. 151, who gives "bow, /Sou, flectere, /3&>0, arcus, a 
bowle, @a>v\ vas in quo lac servatur." 

3. The diphthong auw (Pal. au — aau) is like the Italian au in 
aura. It occurs in sauwl or sdwl, soul (Ags. sawul), auielt, and 
in Latin and Greek derivatives, like auwdience, auwditor, tauw- 
tologie, pauwper, this being the Scotch pronunciation of audio, 
ravra. It is also heard in combination with the guttural in the 
Southern Counties' pronunciation of lauwch, sauwch, where the 
northern Scots say laach, saach. 

4. The diphthong <sw (Pal. asu) = ce-ob, occurs in to maw, like 
a cat, to waw, like a kitten. The mew of the cat is very variously 
imitated in different dialects ; in Aberdeenshire the sound is held 
to be mee-6w or mi-uw (miau), French miauler. 

5. The diphthong euw occurs very frequently, representing the 
Ags. eaw in feawa, deaw ; iw in hiw ; eow in hreow, greow. 
Many shades of difference prevail in its pronunciation, thus, 
e'e-oo, i-00, e'a-00, ui-oo, ai-00 (Pal. iu, iu, i'u, au, eu). I choose 
euw as the most convenient general symbolization, though I have 
usually heard uiw, i.e. vowel No. 12, followed by 00 in the south 
of Scotland. It very seldom occurs before a consonant, in which 
position the simple ui is its representative, thus, luit, fruit, duik, 
cuih; lute, fruit, duke, cook (Fr. lute, flute, due). So in the 
English of the 16th century the French u was the regular sound 
of the long English u, whence the modern sound you has been 
developed by a process which must have been like du, du'w, du-oo, 
di-oo, dioo, dyoo. The southern Scottish diphthong represents an 
early stage of the transition, while the original sound remains 
pretty nearly in duik, tuin. In the Lothian dialect this diphthong 
has become like the English ew = yoo, or after r oo, as nyoo, fyoo, 
lyooch, roo, rool ; Tev. neuw, feuw, leuweh, reuw, reuwle (nau, fau, 
lakwh, rau, raul), i.e. new, few, laughed, rue, rule. 




The consonants are used with their recognized English powers. 
But SCH and QUH represent Sh and Wh. The former is 
merely a point of taste, recommended by the old Scotch ortho- 
graphy. The latter is something more : Wh has in most parts of 
England so degenerated as not to be distinguished from W, and 
the pairs when wen, whale wail, while wile, are pronounced in the 
south exactly alike, teste the Dean of Canterbury's " Queen's 
English." We require a spelling to show that the corresponding 
Scotch words must not be so treated. Moreover, the Scotch sound 
is originally, and as still pronounced in the Southern Counties 
by old people, a strongly aspirated one, being really a labialized 
guttural, the 'back-mixed' consonant of Visible Speech, repre- 
sented by Mr. Ellis, in his Palaeotype, by (kioh). With, many 
speakers, however, this strong pronunciation now falls into the 
' lip -mixed ' or true Wh. 

CH has always been used for the guttural by the Scotch 
writers. It would have been more convenient to use ch for the 
sound in church only, and express the guttural by GH ; but this 
would be dangerous, as gh is in English so commonly changed 
into /, into a diphthong, or lost altogether, that it is desirable to 
use some other constant symbol to represent to the eye the differ- 
ence between the Scotch licht, eneuch, lauch, dowcnter, and the 
English light, enough, laugh, daughter. 
j The guttural, which in most of the Scottish dialects is pro- 
nounced quite simple, as in German ach ! lacht, buch, is, in the 
dialect of the Southern Counties, labialized or palatalized in 
accordance with the character of the preceding vowel, the vowel 
being at the same time made to glide into the modified guttural, 
so as almost to form with it a sort of diphthong. Thus, after 
bach vowels, the guttural or ' back ' consonant (kh) becomes the 
labialized guttural or ' back-mixed ' (kteh), formed by a simul- 
taneous utterance of ch and w, as in quh above. After front 
vowels the guttural becomes changed into the palatalized variety 
(kjh, fch), which may be approximately described as a strongly 
aspirated utterance of the initial sound in human, Hugh, being 
really a simultaneous utterance of ch and y consonant. The 
result is that the Southern Counties' pronunciation of -ach, -och, 
-uch, is something like that of the diphthongs auw, dw, mo, with a 
guttural aspiration given to the second element, while that of 
-ich, -ech, resembles the diphthongs ey, cey, with the last element 
aspirated instead of simply vocalized. Advantage may be taken 
of this likeness to symbolize the sounds by means of a preceding 
w or y, though it is of course to be borne in mind that owch, 
ajych, are not ow+ch, asy+ch, but ow, asy mixed with ch (o kwh, 


as kjh). After the extreme lingual and labial sounds ee and oo, 
the guttural remains simple. The series will thus be : — 

eech eych aeych auwch owch uwch euwch eawch ooch 
Exam, feeoh ! heych ceycht lauwch lowch ruwch leuwch leawch hooch ! 
Pal. (fikh HeAh seiht laktoh. lokwh rakwh tekwh lii'kwh Hukh) 

or leekwh 
which in central Scotland have the simple guttural : 

feech ! hych aicht laach loch ruch leuch laioh hooch ! 
ehcht lyooch 

Pal. (fikh Hekh skht kskh lokh rakh hukh leekh Hukh !) 

Ekht ljukh UYkh 

i.e. faugh ! high eight laugh loch rough laughed low ugh ! 

The words deawch, leawch = dough, low, are the only examples 
of -eawch. Elsewhere they are daigh, laigh, or deagh, leagh. The 
sound -euwch is in the other dialects sometimes -yooch, sometimes 
-yuch. Leuivch = laughed, Old Eng. lough, is in Edinburgh 
lyooch, but teuwch = tough is tyuch, almost tshuch (tjakh, tjxkh, 
tshakh). These compound gutturals, which form one of the 
peculiarities of this dialect, are also heard in Germany; the 
palatalized form being the sound in nicht, recht, as heard in 
North Germany (ni&ht, rEfcht), which, however,. in some parts, as 
in Switzerland, is kept quite hard (nykht, rakht), and in others, 
as on the Danube, sinks almost into sh (nisht, rEsht). The labi- 
alized form is usually heard in auch (aukwh). Historically, they 
are interesting, as representing a stage of phonetic development, 
through which the English gh must have passed before becoming 
entirely vocalized, or advancing into /, as in eight, rough, Ags. 
eahta, ruh (e'kht'B, rukh), the stages through which the former 
must have passed, being pure guttural, palatalized guttural, pure 
palatal or whispered y, vocal y making a diphthong with pre- 
ceding e (e'kht, ekjht, ejht, ejT, ee'jt or eeit), the latter making 
successively the pure guttural, labialized guttural, gutturalized 
labial, pure labial, divided labial (rukh, rukwh, ruwh, ruph, raf, 
rof). The dates at which these changes were made of course 
varied in different districts ; for the standard or literary English 
Mr. Ellis (who has minutely investigated the question) has shewn 
that the guttural was still heard in taught, night, fight, etc., in the 
16th century, that in the beginning of the 17th it had become yh, 
wh, and by the end of that century was "now by disuse lost 
- among us " (E. E. P., p. 209-214). In Cursor Mundi we have 
though spelled as thofva. the 13th or 14th century, but this was an 
exceptional word, for in the northern counties of England, the 
rejection of the guttural has taken place within living memory. 
(See ante, p. 87). 

CH in chin. As the guttural never occurs initially no am- 
biguity can arise from using CH with the power of (tsh) at the 
beginning of words, as in cheild, chaamer, chairge. "But in other 
positions this sound must be distinguished by writing tch, as is 
already done for orthographical reasons in many Ags. words, as 


watch, ditch, wretched, potch, hutch, as well as in a few of French 
origin, as butcher, where the t is an expedient which must be 
extended to rytch, beseitch, poatcher, etc. Already the recognized 
Scotch pootch, English pouch, Ritchie for Bichard, etc., show a 
recognition of the want of some means to keep these words 
distinct from the guttural which would be suggested by pooch, 
richie. Even initially we find tch in the writers of the 16th 
century, tchyre and tcheir (compare the modern chaiyer, cheyre), 
being used by Lyndesay (Satyre, 1942, 1953) for chair. 

H is in Sc. very strongly pronounced, almost with somewhat 
of guttural effect, as seems to have been the case in Ags. : com- 
pare jenoh, eahta, burh, boht, with enoach, ejcht, bruch, bocht. 
The abuse of h, by dropping it where it exists, and inter- 
calating it where it has no existence, is unknown in Scotch. 
When mute it is totally dropped, as in ostler, eirb, ayr = herb, 
heir. It remains in hyt = it (Ags. hyt) ; and the 0. Eng. hus = us 
appears as huz, the only word, which has taken a prosthetic h. 

E is in Scotch always a consonant, and in all positions trilled 
sharply with the point of the tongue, and never smoothly buzzed 
or burred, or converted into a mere glide as in English, nor rolled 
with the whole length of the tongue as in Irish, nor roughly burred 
with the pharynx as in Northumberland, in France and Germany. 
Even the initial English r, in road, rung, is softer and more gliding 
than the Scotch, which is used with equal sharpness before or 
after a vowel, as in rare, roar, rayther, roarer. In the south of 
England its subsidence after a vowel into a mere glide renders it 
impossible to distinguish, in the utterance of some speakers, 
between law, lore ; lord, laud ; gutta, gutter ; Emma, hemmer. 
Hence, when these words are used with a following vowel, a 
hiatus is avoided by saying draw-r-ing, Sarah-r-Anne, Maida-r- 
'ill, idea-r of things, law-r of England, phrases which even 
educated men are not ashamed, or not conscious, of uttering. No 
such liberties are allowable with the Scotch r, which is always 
truly consonantal. 

Notes on the other Consonants. 

B is usually dropped in pronunciation after M in the accented 
or any following syllable. As the b was in many cases of French 
or English insertion, the Scotch forms thus return nearer to the. 
original Latin and Gothic. Lamb, dumb, limb, thumb, thimble, 
tremble, rumble, tumble, number, timber, chamber, clamber, 
Campbell, Dumbie-dykes, Cumber-trees, Turnbull (originally 
Trumbal, Trum-bald), are pronounced lam, dum, lym, thoom (Ags. 
Jrama), thymle, trymle (Lat. tremulo), rumle, tumle, noomer or nam- 
mer (Lat. numerus), tymmer (Dutch timmer), chaamer (Lat. 
camera), claamer, Caamle, Dummie-deyhs, Cummer-treys, Trumle. 
Humble is in Old and Middle Scotch humyl, humile, but the b now 
begins to be sounded, as it is in member, November, December, 
Scotch December. 


C in the Scotch writers = either K or S, as in caice, case. It 
must in this dialect be considered as = s before ce, unless we 
follow the example of the writers of the Middle period, who sub- 
stituted s, in such cases as dissayve, ressayve, consait = deceive, 
receive, conceit. Before ea, which in this dialect replaces a, it 
must be written k, as in keave, leeane, heace, slceale, skeame = cave, 
cane, case, scale, scheme, which is only an extension of what has 
already been done in kaim, kail, Kate, kirk, Kirsty, kae, kye, kirn, 
kist, skuil, for comb, cole, Catherine, church, Christy, caw, Ags. cy, 
plural of cii, churn, chest or cist, school, and is exemplified in the 
English kitchen, as compared with cook and cocina. 

D is dropped after n in the Scottish dialects generally. In the 
Southern Counties it is usually preserved, except between n and I, 
as in handle, candle, spindle, trundle, foundling, pronounced 
ha/nle, canle, spynnle, trynnle, funlin. In bundle the d is heard. It 
is also dropped in thunner, gayner = thunder, gander ; in «»'=and ; 
and one or two verbal forms, ban', bun', gran', grun', wan', wan' , mean- 
ing bound, ground, wound, past tense, and past participle. It is 
also mute in the termination of the present participle, eitand, 
syngand, standand, pronounced eitan, syngan, stannan. Except the 
participles aand, owing, and wulland or wullant, willing, with one or 
two which are only used adjectively, ythand or eydant, persevering, 
and farrand or /arrant, favouring, savouring, seeming (aald-farrant, 
savouring of age). Otherwise d is pronounced ; as in aald, caald, 
laand, staand, Hielands or Hielants. 

There has been a confusion between d and the voiced th (dh), 
as in then from an early period, traces of which still survive in 
the English murder murther, burden burthen, wedder wether, Beth- 
lehem Bedlam. In the Early and Middle Scotch d or dd was 
always writen before r, as fadir, modyr, brodyr, gader, togiddyr, 
fedder, hidir, furder, weddir, uddir, the d being pronounced I 
believe, neither as in dare nor in there, but with an intermediate 
sound, the front or dental d (formed by touching the teeth with 
the tip of the tongue), still used in the same words in the 
northern English counties (where it is sometimes written dth, as 
fadther), and a familiar sound in southern and oriental languages. 
In the modern dialect of the Southern Counties this d has become 
th, as in English : faiiher, muther, bruther, gather, thegether, etc. 
The th even extends to several words which in English retain 
dd, viz. adder, bladder, ladder, peddar or pedlar, fodder, udder, 
which are tether, blather, lather 1 (and thus confounded with 
leather), pather, f other, uther. In a few words the change is not 
complete ; bdther, fathom, worthy, axe often bddder, f adorn, wurdie, 
while shoulder, powder, pewter, solder, generally shoodder, poodder, 
puidder, sbwder, are sometimes shoother, poother, puither, sdwther 
or saather. The proper names Bedrule (a parish in Koxb.) and 

1 As illustrating the wide diffusion ladder and bladder are laSer, blaSer, 
of such forms, we find in Barnes's Dorset just as in Scotland. 
Grammar (p. 16) that, in that dialect, 


Stoddart, are often Bathrool and Stothart, while Mather is often 
Mayder, and southernwood generally sudron-wud. 

F of the Old Scotch, still retained in the more northern dialects, 
is in the south often v ; not only in plurals, as weaves, thieves, for 
wyffis, theiffis, but in some singulars, as neive, caave, for neif, calf 
or chaff, and sometimes staave, scheive, for staff, sheaf. Grave is 
graaf (older) and greave. Compare English love, reeve, glove, 
with Ags. lufu, refa, glofa. 

G, having often its hard sound before e and i, as geape, geir, 
geade, gie, gytt, the soft sound should be expressed by J initially, 
as in the old jebat, jeroflouris, jimp, for gibbet, gillieflowers, 
gimp. In Scotch the g often remains hard when it has become 
soft in English, as in bryg, ryg, smgg = bridge, ridge, sedge ; 
gym = gin. 

K is still pronounced before n by old people, as k'neyfe, 
k'nowe, k'neycht ; but the habit of suppressing it in the English 
taught at school has led the rising generation to drop it also in the 
vernacular. In the north-east of Scotland it remains in regular use. 

K or hard of the Anglo-Saxon is, as is well-known, preserved 
in the northern dialect, where the southern has developed the 
palatalized form of CH. Thus we have Tcyrlc, hym, cairl, kyst, 
kaisart, caah, kink-cough, byrk, iheih, thah, puock, steik, pyck, 
streik, nyck, breiks, stynk, beseik, larick, raaks, ylk, quhylk, syc, 
gowd-spink, corresponding to the English church, churn, churl, 
chest, chixzard, chalk, chincough, birch, thatch, pouch, stitch, pitch, 
stretch, niche or notch, breeches, stench, beseech, larch, reach, each, 
which, such, gold-finch. Similarly, SK is in a few words used for 
SH, as in skyrl, skrynk, skelf, skleff, scunner, skreych, skreik, 
skmldreake, skayr = shrill, shrink, shelf, Germ, schleif flat, shun, 
shriek, sheldrake, share ; and SKL often occurs initially for SL, 
as in sklate, sklender, sklander, sclye, sklidders, sklcent, skleyce, 
English slate, slender, slander, slide, sliders, slant, slice. In the 
older writers we find also sklave = slave. 

L is very variously treated in Scotch. After a it is usually 
elided, not only before K and M, as in stalk, balm, but also when 
final, or before other consonants, as all, fall, alum, alms, malt, 
fault, salt, halse, als, pronounced aa, faa, aam, aamus, maat, faat, 
saat, haass, aass. So with the guttural sauwch, fauwch, tauwch =- 
English sallow, fallow, tallow. This pronunciation is found at 
the beginning of the 16th century. 

Sum man musand with the wa, 
Luikis as he mycht nocht do with a. 

Dunbar — Of Solicitors at Court. 

Compare — 

And haistelie, or euer je knaw, 
}e sal be plagitj ane and aw. 

Lauder — Office, 204. 

Defy the warld, fenjeit and fals, 
With gall in hart, and hunyit hals : 
Off quhais subchettis sour is the sals — 

Dunbar — Of Content. 


where the rhyme sals = sauce, gives also faass and haass. So 
regular was this elision of I after a, with lengthening of the 
vowel, that the combination al became a mere orthoepic device to 
express the long and broad a ; and an intrusive I is thus found in 
words where it has no etymological raison d '6tre, as waiter, chal- 
mer, bald, awalh, walhin = water, chamber, bad, awake, waken. 

Hay now the day dallis (= daws !), 
Hay Christ on us callis ! 

The spelling chalmer is a history in itself; shewing, first, that 
when the French chambre was introduced, it was naturalized by 
dropping the b, as has been pointed out under that letter; 
secondly, that to indicate the length of the vowel the Scotch 
intrusive I was inserted. Now for the sound : 

And than scho passit vnto hir Chalmer 
And fand hir madinms, sweit as Lammer — 
Sleipand full sound. 

Lyndesay — Sq. Meldrum, 1007. 

Lammer = I'ambre, having also become Scotticised. The two 
forms of the family name Chambers and Chalmers are alike pro- 
nounced Chaamers in Scotch. 

When the spelling was aul, corresponding to English ol, the I 
is sounded, as in auld, bauld, cauld, sauld, hauld (noun) pro- 
nounced add, baald, etc. Hauld (verb) and wald == English hold, 
would, are had, wad. 

After o, L is also often dropped, making the diphthong owe : 
powe, Tcnowe, rowe, bowe, howe, cowt, yowk = English poll, knoll, 
roll, boll, hollow, colt, yolk. So folk in some dialects fouk, in 
others fuok ; soldier, sodger, suodger. Here also the I became a 
phonetic device in some words, as nolt, meai-cattle, oxen, Ags. 
nyten. In many words I is sounded after o, as bolt, doll. 

L is also often suppressed after u, as wool, 'oo, pulpit, pobpet, 
bulk, book, culm, coom, moult, moot, foulmarten, foomart, suld = 
should, s&id or solid, shoulder, shobder, full, foo, S. Scotch fuw. 
The spellings beaulte, pulder, occur in Middle Scotch for beauty, 
pooder = powder. 

After e and i, L is pronounced, the only exception occurring 
to me being Melrose, which is called by country folk Meuross, 
Meuwress. When followed by M the latter has a syllabic effect, 
as elm, helm, film ; pron. ell'm, hett'm, fill'm, where the m is as 
syllabic as in solemn, rhythm, or Scotch boddum. 1 

Terminal -LE, -EL, -EN, used to be pronounced with a con- 
necting vowel, as in sadyll, tabyll, bummill, abill, writtyn, eityn, 
but the I and n are now usually uttered without the vowel, as in 
English ; saiddle, teable, bummle, eable, w'rytt'n, eit'n. 

1 It is possible that this rolling of short ti between them, thus, aim, calm, 

the L may be of Gaelic origin ; in that sgealb, bdlg, drm, orm, earb, make alum, 

language the combinations hn, lb, Ig, calum, skellubp, bpalugk, arrum, orrum, 

rm, rb, rg, are pronounced as if with a errubp. 


The liquid L and N of the Eomance languages (Fr. monille, 
regne, Ital. egli, degni, Span. caWe, nono, Portug. fi^o, minha.), 
existed in the older Scottish, being represented by lj, nj. Thus 
bailje, artailjie, capercailjie, myljeoun, spuljie, tailjeour, ooiljear ; 
fenjeit, dedeinjie, Spanje, cuinjie, gaberlunjie, etc., corresponding 
to the French bailli, artiller, million, espouille, tailleur, /eigne, 
dedaigne, Espagne, coigne. In the modern dialects generally these 
sounds have become obsolete, and simple I, n, or lie, nie, are used 
instead, thus, baillie, caper-caillie, spuillie, teyler, keyler, Spain, 
cuinie. But in the Southern Counties the original sound is 
retained in many words, as bail-yea, tail-yer, cuol-yer, fever-fuill- 
yea. The $ having been erroneously represented by Z by the 
early printers, this letter is retained in many proper names, 
having originally the liquid n or I, as Menzies, Drummelzier, 
Mackenzie, Dalziel, Cockenzie, and is pronounced as a z by those 
who are ignorant of its origin ; although natives say correctly 
Drummel-yer, Dal-yell, Cocken-yie or Cocken-nie, etc. 

NG in the middle of a word always retains its simple final 
sound, as in sing, long. In English, on the contrary, it usually 
takes an additional g in pronunciation, as sing-gle, long-ger, 
fing-ger, hung-gry, young-gest, Eng-glish, which in Scotland and 
North England are syng-'l, lang-er, fyng-er, hung-rie, yung- 
est, Ing-lish. The Standard English has the simple sound in 
verbal derivatives, as sing-er, sing-est, sing-ing ; in the North it 
is universal, the combination ng-g being utterly unknown. The 
Southern English seem fond of ng-g (compare the vulgar any- 
thing-g or any-thingh), and we sometimes hear long-g, song-g, sing- 
ging. So in Germany Wohnung is in some parts bhoh-noong, 
in others, bhoh-noongh. The Northern dialect has, doubtless, 
always had the same pronunciation. In the 16th century we 
find Ang-us, not Ang-gus : 

For his supporte tharefor he hrocht amang us, 
Furth of Ingland, the nobyll Erie of Angus. 

Lyndesay — Tragedie, 132. 

Comparing this with what has been said as to MB and ND, we 
may lay it down as a principle, that the Northern tongue has a 
repugnance to the combination of the nasals M, N, NG, with their 
cognate mutes, B, D, and G. 

NG is in Scotch replaced by N before TH, as in lenth, strenth, 
spellings found in the Northern dialect since the 13th century. 
The termination -ing is also pronounced -in (in Southern Counties 
-ein), as dealin\ schylliri, mornin'. This also is found at an early 
period in Scotch, thus : 

pocht a man mycht nocht have space to ask mercy, J>arfor suld he nocht dyspare, 
fore that ware mare ekyne {i.e. eking) of sorow to hyme. — draft of Deyng, 90. 

Be this men suld leif all thair kyn 
And wyth thair Wyms mak dwellyn. 

lyndesay — Monarch^, 779. 



So we find garden, children, Latin, spelled garding. childryng, 
Laiting, pointing to the same pronunciation of -ing as -in or -ein, 
these words being now gairdein. chyldrein, laitein. 

In to that gardyng of plesance, 
Twa treis grew — mast tyll auanee. 

Ibid., 739. 
Beildingis, gardyngis, and pleeant parkis. 

Ibid., 1928. 

In the older stages of the language ng was often written for 
Latin gn, thus, sing, ryng, impung, propung, conding, moling, benyng, 
prengnant, etc. Vestiges of this substitution of the nasal for the 
liquid n are still found in the spoken dialect, as in condyng, 
benyng, and the verb ryng, rang, rung, to reign, tyrannize. 

For weill he wut thar suld be bot a king 
Off this regioun at anys for to ryng. 

Blind Harry — Wallace. 

As QUH is often found QWH, so QU is found written QW, as 
Qwyk, qwyt, qwene. 

E, being truly consonantal, has not the same gliding effect 
before consonants as in English. This is especially noticeable 
before L, and less so before M and N. The combination EL is 
quite hard ; thus such words as curl, dirl, world, earl, are pro- 
nounced cur'l, dyr'l, wor'lt, yer'l, just as cuddle, fiddle, waddle, 
are cud'l, fid'l, wad'l, in English. The L is as much a distinct 
syllable in cur'l, dir'l, as it is in squirrel, barrel, coral. In arm, 
harm, worm, barn, turn, the same semivocal transition is heard, 
though less distinctly ; but in districts towards the Celtic fron- 
tier, arm, harm, term, warm, worm, are distinctly airem, hairem, 
terem, warem, wurem. The combination SHE is always pro- 
nounced with a slight vocal effect between, thus, shrub, shrew = 
sherub, shereiiw. Or the difficulty is got over by other means, 
as shriek, shrill = skreych, schyll. 

The interchange between the forms E*'S and e "BS seen in com- 
paring some English words with their Ags. originals, as gasrs, 
grass, cors, cross, is largely represented in Modern Scotch. Thus : 


birsses bristles 

corse cross 

gserse grass 

Kirstie Christy 

kirs'n christen 

Kirs'nmas Christmas 
wars'le {Aberd. vras'le) wrestle 

and per contra 

brod (Germ, brett) board 

brunt burnt 

crab curb 

gryth girth 

crutchie curtsey 













thrill, drill 


w'rait {Aberd. vrat) wart 

thryd ) third 

thretteen j antiq. thirteen 

threttie ) thirty 

Trumble Turnbull 

The same transpositions are seen, not only in comparing old 


with modern English, but in comparing the different English 
dialects ; thus in Devonshire we have urn, urd, purty, gurt = run, 
red, pretty, great ; in Dorset claps, crips, haps, maps, ax, for clasp, 
crisp, hasp, wasp, ash. Ax, Ags. acsian, acsode, which is also the 
Scotch, is much more widely used than its corruption ash, used 
in the Standard English. 

Prein (Ags. preon), thryssle, spreeklet = English pin, thistle, 

S has the hissing or buzzing sound, generally as in the cognate 
English words, but plural nouns, which change the 'hiss' into 
the ' buzz ' in English, retain the 'hiss ' in Scotch. Thus English 
house, houses (hgus, Heuzyz), Scotch (hus, husiz), as contrasted 
with the verb (huuzi'z) — he houses his cattle. The terminational 
s in plural nouns and such words as his, is, was, has, has now the 
z sound, but so late as the 16th century had still the 7m'ss or s 
sound, being often written iss, haiss, mass, and regularly rhyming 
with words which have still the ss sound. 

My will and final sentence is ( = iss) 
Ilk ane of sow vthers kiss. 

Of al thing sal be, and was, 
As gud dissert, will, or trespass. 

Richt dulefulliye doling down amang the asse, 
Bot, as Danid did slay the gret Gollyasse 
Or Holopharne be Judeth killit wasse. 

In English also wise has the z sound ; but in Scotch the ss sound, 
as in nice, mice. Compare — 

Quhat is vertew and quhat is vyce, 
And quha is fule, and quha is wyft. 

Satis Saving, 2062. 

An interchange between the sounds of S and SH is frequent. 
Initially, the SH is used for the S sound, in sew, cinders = 
scheuw, schunders. But in the 16th century we find also the 
forms schir, scherve, schervice, pschalm, scherene = sir, serve, 
service, psalm, syren. This was undoubtedly of Celtic origin ; in 
Gaelic, s is always pronounced sh in connection with the ' small ' 
vowels e, i, the very word serve being adopted in Gaelic as seir- 
bhis = sherrevish. 

This pronunciation of s as sh before e explains the abnormal 
derivation of the pronoun she from the Ags. feminine demonstra- 
tive se6. Se6 on the Celtic frontier would, as a matter of course, 
become scho, a form which arose in the Northern dialect, and 
travelled south, till as scheo, sche, she, it was adopted also into the 
midland and southern dialects, displacing the original feminine 
pronoun heb. There is consequently no need to assume (as some 
writers do) a form sco, sho, 1 as the origin of scho, any more than we 

1 I mean a form pronounced sho ; the (after 1100), where it seems to have 
spelling seo is of course found in Cursor been the orthographical device for the 
Mundi, and in a late portion of the sound of sh, sho having already sup- 
Saxon Chronicle of northern character planted se6. 


have a right to suppose forms like skir, skervice, shew, as the 
origin of the Scotch schir!, schervice, shew = sew. 

Medially, the words vessel, vassal, officer, assiette, gusset, and in 
some parts of Scotland Alsander = Alexander, Jackson, Bussell, 
are pronounced veschel, vaschal, offischer (spellings found in the 
15th and 16th centuries, so also braschelets, courticians), aschet, 
guischet ; Elshander, Jackshon, Kuschel (compare Eng. bushel 
from O.Fr. boissel). A similar change of the z sound into that 
of zh or French J occurs in Fraser, poison, pronounced Frazher, 
poyzhon, though puzzen is also in use. In all these instances the 
Celtic influence is obvious. 

Finally, the words farce, hoarse, hearse, hare-sel = hare- 
dipped), scarce, grilse, mince, pincers, notice, rinse, cleanse, 
grease, are usually farsch (so spelled in 1554), hairsch, hearsch, 
hearschel, scairsch (so spelled in 16th a), gylsch, mynsch, 
pynschers, notisch, reinge, clenge (so always spelled in Sc. 
writers), creisch (in old Acts of Parliament, gresche). 

On the other hand, a southern sh is represented by a northern 
s, in sal, suld = shall, should, and Lyndesay gives us the spelling 
cedull for schedule, this being a recognized English pronunciation. 
In sal, singularly enough, the northern tongue agrees with the 
Germanic, the southern with the Scandinavian languages. Thus, 
German soil, sollte, Dutch zou, zoude ; but Danish skal, skulde. 

The same change of SK into S, instead of SH, is seen in the 
words ash or ashes (Ags. asce), wish (Ags. wiscian), bush (Ital. 
bosco, Fr. hois), and busk ; in Sc. ass, wuss, buss. 

Think, man, thow art bot erd and ass, 
And as thow com, so sal thow pass. 

So the old national names, Scottis, Inglis, Frence, Dence, Wallys = 
Scottish, English, French, Danish, Welsh, of which Scots alone 
now retains the simple s sound. Erse seems always to have had 
the sh sound on account of the preceding R : Erisch, Irische, Ersch. 

S followed by u, which has in English become SH in sugar, 
sure, retains in Scotch the s sound, protected by the follow- 
ing u being either the French eu, or the u in dull, thus, suggar, 
suir, suit. With these may be classed the whole series of words 
ending in -sure, such as leisure, measure, treasure, pleasure, which 
retain in Scotch the simple z sound of s, layser, mesur, treesur, 
pleisur. Similarly in the terminations -ture, -dure, there is in the 
north no tendency to the pronunciation -chure, -jure, as in nature, 
creature, picture, posture, verdure ; naytur, creatur, pyctur, postur, 
verdur, with hard T and D, as they were still pronounced in the 
English of the 17th century. In the 15th and 16th centuries we 
find the French verbs nourisse, fleuriss, perisse, etc., adopted 
with the French ending, as nureiss, fleuriss, pereis. Whatever 
the sound then was, it is now sh in all this class of words. 

T is usually rejected between S and L, S and N, F and N, as 
in whistle, castle, thistle, wrestle, casten, moisten, soften, pro- 


nounced quhussle, cassle, thryssle, warsle, cuissen, moyssen. Final 
T is always dropped after the other mutes, K and P, in such 
words as direct, directed, director, exact, compact, act, fact, detract, 
deject, strict, defunct, apt, corrupt, corrupted, tempt, tempted, ex- 
empt, empty, Pict or PecM, which are pronouncd direk, direkkit, 
direkkar, exack, compack, ack, fack, detrak, dejeck, strik, defunk ; ap, 
corrup, corruppit, temp, tempit, exemp, empie, Pik, or Pech. (In 
the Standard English, on the contrary, it is the p which is mute 
in -mpt, thus temt, exemt.) In the middle of words, as in Scrip- 
ture, doctor, factor, rapture, the t is sounded. This dropping of 
final t was common in the Middle Scotch, being often indicated 
by the spelling, as direkkit, stupefah, corruppit ; at other times 
by the rhyme, as where detractit rhymes with lakit, act with 
mak. In other cases we find a t tacked on by false analogy, 
where it had never been pronounced, as in taxt, campt, lact = 
lack. To the habit of thus writing t, either where it was no 
longer sounded, or where it had never been so, and not to any 
peculiarity of pronunciation, must, I think, be referred the spell- 
ing tht, as in mouiht, ' witht, treutht, lentht, montht, so common 
in the Middle period. That the combination was pronounced as 
a simple th appears alike from its rhyming with words so spelled, 
and from the fact that the spellings mouth, mouiht, zenyth, zenytht, 
with, witht, are found promiscuously on the same page of early 
books and MSS. From the resemblance between c and t in many 
MSS., and the further fact that both combinations cht and ih were 
indicated by the same contraction, thus, w*, bay*, bly 1 , no*, my* = 
with, bayih, Myth, nocht, mycht, the two were often confused, by 
copyists and early printers, giving such erroneous forms as wycht, 
baycht, blycht, notht, myth, mytht, for the above words. The 
" Complaynt of Scotlande," printed 1548, is full of such errata, as 
is also the edition of Lyndesay's "Works, published in Prance, the 
error being one to which foreign printers or copyists would 
be especially liable. In " JRatis Having," a volume of Scotch 
prose and verse, published by the E.E.T. Society, 1870, we also 
come continually upon such clerical errors, or erroneous expan- 
sions of contractions, as moucht, blycAt, worcftt, for moutA, blytfe, 
■worth. In some words the combination cht seems to have sunk 
into ch, and afterwards into a mere vowel, thus, ihocht, nocht 
(adv.) are now tho and no (thoo, noo), and aucht or ocht, in 
quhea's aucht it? is often (aa, oo) : quhea's d'd? (kwhii'z aad). 

TH, as in English, represents two sounds, the breath sound as 
in thin, and the voice sound as in then, written by orthoepists dh. 
The latter sound (dh) occurs initially only in the demonstrative 
the and second pers. pro. thou, and their derivatives, viz., the, that, 
this, those, these, they, them, their, theirs, there, then, than, thence, 
thither, therefore, though ; thou, thee, thy, thine. In Scotch the list is 
tlie, that, thys, thae, thyr, thay, thaim, thair, thairs, theare, thdn, 
than (thyne, thider,for-thy, antiquated), thon and thonder, variants 
of yon and yonder ; and the forms of the second pronouns, thow, thy, 


ihyne, thee, which are obsolete in the spoken dialects, but read as 
(dhau, dhai, dhain dhii). But though, in Sc. thd, formerly thocht, 
has the breath sound as in thin. With in English (widh) is in 
Scotch wuth ; and the same sound is retained in plural words like 
mouths, truths (muths, truths), which in English take the voice 
sound (moudhz, truudhz). The confusion between the voiced 
sound and D in the middle of words, as bodder or bother, has been 
considered under the letter D. For the voiced sound initially, 
and even medially, the old Ags. thorn-letteT J? was retained. But 
in the hand-writing of scribes this came gradually to be confused 
in form with the character for vowel y, and was in consequence 
printed as y by the first printers, whose founts of types — all of 
foreign manufacture — contained no letter for the English \. In 
some of the MSS. we find the true y distinguished from this thorn 
y by being dotted, y. But this was by no means general, and, in 
consequence, the words given above appear in old books as ye, yat, 
yis, ya, yir, yai, yaim, yair, yairs, yare, yan, yine, yider, foryi, 
yow, yi, yine, ye ; and we also find oyer, nouyer, quheyer, and 
less commonly broyer, for other, nouther, quhether, brother, 
While the character y had thus come into use to express the 
sound of voiced th, the sound of y consonant had similarly in- 
truded upon the character proper to z. The Ags. g, of which the 
form was g, had in certain positions a guttural sound, like ch in 
licM. After the Norman Conquest the Ags. character was retained 
to express this sound, while the Roman g was used for the sounds 
in gage. The guttural sound became successively weakened 
into the initial whispered y heard in hue, Hugh, and the simple 
y consonant as in you ; and although occasionally written yh, as 
in the Royal MS. of Wyntoun (yhit, yhow, yhe, yhisterday), its 
regular form in Scotch was j, a modification of the original Ags. 
g or g. But the letter z having come to have the same form in 
MS., the two letters were identified, just as it happened with the 
thorn and the vowel y, so that early printers used g or z alike for 
both, printing ge, gellow, geal, genith ; je, jellow, jeal, jenith, or 
ze, zellow, zeal, zenith. Whence it happens that in turning to a 
printed book of the 16th century, we find z used, not only for z, 
but for y consonant ; and y, in its turn, used not only for y vowel, 
but also for the voice sound of th, as in the. In Scottish hand- 
writing and on tombstones, etc., the compendium of y for th was 
still in use two generations ago ; and the use of z for y has 
fastened itself permanently upon some proper names and other 
words, such as Gockenzie, Dalziel, Menzies, Mackenzie, Drummel- 
zier, gaberlunzie, etc., where people who affect to be correct 
speakers, pronounce it as if it were a real z, and doubtless this 
habit will eventually drive out the genuine pronunciation, for 
already in Edinburgh it is ' proper ' to call Cockenjie Coclcenzie, 
and ' vulgar ' to say Coclcennyie. 

V is often expressed by F in the older Scotch orthography, as 
half, leif, preif, moif, have, leave, prove, move. As in Ags., the F 


was probably pronounced as V, which letter, or rather U, was 
often used instead, as haue, leaue, preue, mow, move. But in 
plurals such as wyiffis, theiffis, as already mentioned, the / had its 
own sound. 

An original V is very frequently elided in Scotch after a vowel 
or a liquid. Thus we have pree, lea'e (Burns), een, eend, een, 
eenin', yestreen, se'enight, e'er, ne'er, Innerleithen, Stein, Steinson, 
Te'iot, (teiet), Lennox, Stirling, etc., for preve or preif, prove, try, 
leave, even, evened, i.e. straightened, eve, evening, yester-even, seven- 
night, ever, never, Innerleithen, Stephen, Stevenson, Teviot, Levenax, 
Striveling. Leis-me or leeze-me represents the old leifis me, dear 
to me is, — • 

" leeze me on my spinnin' wheel ! 
leeze me on my rook and reel ! " 

as lesum, leful, represents leif-sum, leif-ful. Have, give, gave, given, 
have become hae, gi'e, ga'e, gi'en = has, gee, gee, geen ; and, 
like the latter, unthriven, riven, driven, are often unthre'en, re'en, 
dre'en. The 16th century spelling was reuyn, dreuyn, but like 
heuyn, euyl, deuyl (now yll, deil), the pronunciation was mono- 

Gaif nocht thy makar the fre wyll 

To tak the glide and leif the euyll ? 

Lyndesay, Mon. 969. 

The tre to knaw baith glide and enyll, 

Quhilk be perswatioun of the Deuyll, etc. 1. 746. 

Both pronunciations nevir and ne'er were known in the 16th 
century. Compare James the Sixth's " Beulis and Cautelis of 
Scottis Poesie." Chap. "VI. : " As in Flyting and Inuectiues, jour 
wordis to be cuttit short .... sic as thir, — 

lis neir cair 


/ sail neuer cair, 

gif jour subiect were of loue or tragedies. Because in thame, 
jour wordis man be drawin lang, quhilkis in Myting man be 
short." Further examples are seen in he, loesome, doo (S. Sc. 
duw), aboon, oiore, for love, dove, aboven, over ; sel, twall, ser, hairst 
for self or selue, tuelf twelve, serve, heruest ; braw, saw, and in Old 
Sc. (also Old Eng.) ivaw, for brave, salve, wave ; sawr, sawrless, 
sairless, for savour, savourless, insipid ; weel-faur'd = well-favoured . 

In Gaelic we find a similar elision of the bh or v, and mh or 
nasalized v. Compare ionar = inver ; thalla = thalamh ; cumhach, 
eoimhleabach, pronounced coilepach. 

W is still commonly pronounced before B by country folk in 
the Southern Counties, and I suppose by old people in many 
parts of Scotland, a slight pause, or scheva as it is called in 
Hebrew, being interposed, as with SH'B, thus, w'rang, w'richt, 
w'rist, tv'ryte, w'ren. In the north-eastern dialects the w is re- 
placed by v, as wh is by/, thus, vrang, vrycht, vryst, vreet, vran. 


Between twenty and thirty years ago I used to hear lisp pro- 
nounced by Old Teviotdale villagers as w'lisp, like the Ags. 
wlispian, and as in Barbour, where we read of Sir James Douglas : 

And in spek wlispit he sum deill, 
Bot that sat hym rycht wondre Weill. 

This pronunciation is now, I fear, quite gone, and that of WE is 
rapidly following it. Two other of the numerous Ags. words in 
WL came down some distance in the Northern tongue ; namely, 
wlatsom, loathsome, hateful, found in Hampole, etc., and wlonk, a 
gay lady, a belle. The alliteration of Dunbar's "Tua marryit 
wemen and the Wedo " shews that in wlonk the W was pro- 
nounced in the 16th century. 

And of thir fair Wlonkes, with, tua Weddit War with, lordis, 
Ane was ane Wedo, I Wist, Wantoun of laitis. 

The Wedo to the tothir Wlonk Warpit thir Wordis, 

From a pronunciation of Wlorike as Vlonke, like Vreet for Wreyte, 
we are said to derive the word flunkey. 

The northern speech both in England and Scotland has a 
tendency to drop initial W and T before' the cognate vowel 
sounds of oo and ee, thus, woo, wool, woollen, wolf, ye, year, yield, 
are pronounced 'oo, 'oo', 'oollin, 'oolf, 'ee, 'eer, 'eild. And in read- 
ing English, would, wood, woman, womb, are (or were) similarly 
pronounced 'ood, 'ood, 'ooman, 'oom, 1 the vernacular saving the w 
by changing the following vowel, wad, wud, wumman, weame, some- 
times also woff, wuff, for wolf. Week, in Ags. wuce, and hence in 
Old Sc. wouk, is similarly made into 'ouk = ook ; but this is old 
fashioned, and weik is now the common form in the south of 
Scotland at least. The Danish ug.e, ulv, urt, I, aar, week, wolf, 
wort, ye, year, present the same peculiarity, of which traces are 
already found in the Gloss to the Lindisfarne Gospels in the 
10th century. 

As week and ouk are alternative forms, so we often becomes 
oo in Central Scotland, — " Oo no ken nochts aboot it," We 
don't know anything about it, and, per contra, our = oor, is often 
expanded in the south to wuv, wer ; and the prefix wm- used to 
be regularly written wan = wun, as wanrestfu', wanricht, wan- 
luck, wanthryft, etc., but this pronunciation is now disappearing. 
Wan- (Ags. wana, want, lack, deficiency,) was probably the older 
form of un-, for which it was still used in some words in Ags., as 
wan-hal un-hale, wan-hasl^ un-Jtealih, wan-hydig un-Tteedy, wan- 
spedig unspeedy, corresponding to the Scandinavian vanheil, van- 
heilsa, vanhyggja, etc. The Old Norse had the two forms van- 
and u, which appear in the modern tongues as van and u or o; 

1 I can remember the time when pro- as we know they do to Germans and 
nunciation of the combinations, woo, ye, Frenchmen, who often never get be. 
presented considerable difficulties to me, yond 'oo, 'ee. 


O.N vanmattr ; Danish, Swedish, vanmagt, unmight, weakness. 
O.N. u-rettr, Dan. uret, Sw. oratt, untight, wrong. The contrac- 
tioa of ye, yer = your into 'ee, 'eer, seems to belong to the 
Southern Scotch ; in other dialects the y is saved by altering the 
vowel yd, y&r or yeh, yer. These fluctuations in the value of W 
and Y are due to the intermediate position of the w and y glides 
between consonants and vowels, and. the consequent facility with 
which they pass into either class of sounds ; they are intimately 
connected with the development of close o and 4 into wu and ye, 
as in English one, wun, and Scotch awe, yen, already considered 
under the vowel sounds ea and uo. 

Unaccented Syllables and Terminations. 

The vowels and diphthongs already described represent the 
sounds heard in those syllables which are under an accent pri- 
mary or secondary ; in other positions the vowel sounds are 
dulled or obscured to such an extent that they lose their original 
quality, and fall into the obscure £ described under No. 5, or the 
short 1, No. 2. This is especially the case in open syllables 
following the accent, in which position all vowel sounds, except 
Nos. 1 and 2, sink into an obscure £ or a sound, as heard in 
English bounded, in sofa, or the London pronunciation of er final 
in manner, grocer, which has already been referred to as a dulled 
form of the mid front wide, or perhaps more correctly the mid- 
mixed vowel. This is the final sound heard in this dialect in the 
words sofa, America, India, widow, window, shadow, sparrow, 
borrow, sorrow, Chatto, Minto, Yarrow, yellow, fellow, hero, 
stucco, potato, tobacco, value, sinew, nephew, Andrew, sirraA, 
PharaoA, Laidlaw, Boonraw, Wooflaw, Greenhauoft, Hea,dshavgh, 
~Lmthaugh-lee, Todshaw-hill, Moray, Monday, railway, sheriff, 
can-nocA<, w&ld-nocht, bannocfc, haddocfc, back-fa', hand-fit', sor- 
row-fit', paddo', Islay, baillie or bailjea, Kedjie, etc., etc., where 
the diverse final vowels shewn in the spelling have all alike sunk 
into this obscure, colourless £ or &, thus (sofa, gxm'Vike, Endie, 
wide, wsinde, shade, spare, bore, sore, Tshate, Mente, jare, jale, 
fale, mars, stuko, potato, baake, vele, sene, ni'fe, .Andre, sere, Faare, 
Ledle, Banre, Wufle, Grine, Hidshe, Leirte-lei, Tod-she-hel, More, 
Mande, r«lwe, shero, kane, wadne, bane, nado, bakfe, Haandfo, 
sor-efe, pade, Uile, bfol-je, Kied-je). The proper treatment of 
these final vowels" is one of the most difficult problems connected 
with a systematised orthography. Are we to continue to spell 
the words weido, wundo, sparrow, yallow, Monanday, handfu', etc., 
leaving it to the reader to find out that the o, ow, ay, u, ue, etc., 
are not to be pronounced as, o, ow, ay, u, ue, but as this obscure £, 
or are we to discard the historical spelling and write the words 
as actually pronounced ? When we examine the usage of other 
languages, we find that it has been the rule to indicate this 


obscuring of unaccented vowels (which is a regular phonetic law, 
seen in operation in all languages in which we can compare a 
later with an earlier stage of growth,) by a corresponding change 
in the spelling. In Early English, when the Anglo-saxon lufu, 
wudu, cildru, ssjru, ealo, feo, haelo, J>reo, gerefa, mona, blostma, 
Beda, hara, oxa, assa, drincan, geclypod, lufode, heofon, lufige, 
had come to have their final syllable obscured in the same way as 
the Scotch weido, nephew, etc., they were so written, luve, wude, 
childre, ejre, ale, fee, hele, three, reve, mone, blosme, Bede, hare, 
oxe, asse, drinken, ycleped, luved, heven, luve, without regard to 
the original vowel which the e represented. In Anglo-saxon 
itself, an e had replaced other original vowels, as sylle for syllw, 
syllo, eage, tunge, eare, sealfe, for the Old Gothic augo, tungo, 
auso, salbo. In the modern Teutonic languages we see the same 
adaptation of spelling to the changed sound, even where the 
English has preserved the historical vowels, as in German schatte, 
sorge, wittwe, neffe, for shadow, sorrow, widow, nephew ; Danish 
vindue, padde, window, paddo' (frog). So when the French had 
similarly dulled the unaccented vowel of the Latin homo, cornM, 
tonitra, porta, tenebras, amo, ama, amant, dicant, dicant, ego, it 
did not continue to write the original vowels, but spelt homme, 
corne, tonnerre, porte, tenebres, aime, aime, aiment, disent, disent, 
je, where, as in English, the e has at length become quite silent. 
In other languages the method has been adopted of writing the 
original vowels distinguished by certain marks to shew that 
they have no longer their own sounds, — that, though etymologi- 
cally a, o, u, they are, practically and phonetically, an obscure 8. 
The language in which the most systematic attempt has been 
made (it cannot yet be said successfully) to make spelling do two 
things, — at once tell the etymology, and the actual living word, — 
is the Bumanian of Moldo-Wallachia, in which, according to one 
system of writing, a sound like the English e in the, faces, is 
variously written d, 6, i, 6, u, and another vowel, near to the 
English u, in but, foctts, takes the forms a, &, i, 6, it,, according as 
they represent, or are derived from, a Latin a, e, i, o, u, respec- 
tively. This is as though we were in modern English to write 
the words hare, eye, ended, fee, shame, verse, as hara, eyS, endod, 
feo, shamu, versu, to shew that we knew that they were once 
hara, eage, endod, feo, sceama, versus, a concession to the etymo- 
logical principle which the most rigid believer in "historical 
spelling " is hardly prepared for. 

The chief difSculty in writing Scotch arises from the want of a 
vowel to substitute. E is no longer admissible on account of the 
habit of regarding a final e as naturally silent. A seems most 
suitable alike from its preserving the form of the proper names, as 
in Bella, India, Africa ; being known with this power, as in gala, 
sofa, among, Armadale ; and being already used for the very 
purpose when we write canna, dinna, wadna, for the older caw- 
nocht, do-nocht, tcald-nocht ; iacca, shirra, banna, for tobacco, 


sheriff, bannock; or when we contract proper names, as Isla, Jura, 
Eona, for Islay, Juray, Eonay, Greena for Greenhaugh, Lintalee 
for Linthaughlee. 

It seems, therefore, desirable to extend the spelling in a to as 
many cases as possible ; but when for any reason the etymolo- 
gical spelling is retained, it might be marked with * , thus, weida, 
Andra, hadda, vaila, railwa, or weidtf, Andre - , haddfi, vailit, rail- 
way ; the u being conventionally understood to mean that the origi- 
nal sound of the vowel is quite lost, and that even in drawling or 
prolonging the sound, we only hear the sound of e in yet, next, 
wanted. To write weido, shado', Monanday, Andrew or Andro, 
awfu', waefu', is quite deceptive, and misleads an English or 
Foreign reader ; for in English the final vowels in widow, shadow, 
Monday, Andrew, awful, woful, are, though unaccented, clearly 
and distinctly o, ay, ew, u, whereas in Scotch, even when artifi- 
cially accented, drawled, or sung to a long note, there is no 
vestige of the vowel which is shewn in the writing, but only of 
this obscure e. The same obscure vowel-sound is also given to 
a number of subordinate words and particles, including the, a, an, 
an' and, dt relative, tMn conjunction (dho, 9, on, en, ot, dhon) ; 
and to the words, i' in, o' of, at, to, wi' with, free from, than then, 
may, man or maun must, had, nor, thay they, me, when unac- 
cented (e, 9, et, to, wg, frg thra, dhen, me, men, Hod, nor, dha, 
mo) ; when emphatic they become (en en - 9, 00 of, at, taa, w»9 
w!ith, frffiffi thrseffi, dhan, msess, msen man, Hsed, noor, dhe«, mei). 
It is besides the sound given to the unaccented a- prefix in open 
syllables, as in a-mang, a-buin, a-yont, a-neuweh, a-neuw (omaq - , 
obm 1 , ojont-, emikwh-, 9n»u-). When followed by two consonants 
a more decidedly back vowel is used, nearer to a, probably (•e) 
or (a), as in admyt, asklcent (■edmet - , eskleent - ) ; and the same 
sound is taken by the words quhan when, was, waar were, can, 
wad, would, I, my, als — as, as — as, when unemphatic, (kwben, 
wbz, wer, k«n, wed, 13, ms, bs — vz), which under the stress are 
(ktflhon, waz, waar, kan, wad, aa, maa, as — az). 

The other unaccented vowel is the brief i (No. 2), which I 
have already said I think closer than the English i in pity, comfit, 
and, before a consonant at least, undistinguishable from the 
accented short ei in feit, L«ith, or Trench i in petite, visiter. 

This i generally represents the English i, y, in unaccented 
syllables, as in merit, charitable, carry, carried ; Scotch mearit, 
chseritable, cairo'0, cairo'et. In polysyllables there seems to be a 
kind of harmonic law preventing the recurrence of this brief t in 
two or more successive syllables. In words where it would so 
come naturally, the recurrence is avoided by ohanging one i into 
the other brief vowel (9), thus qualify, charitable (kwalifei, tshaer 1 - 
itobl), with i, but quality, charity (kwal'ati, tshoareti). where the 
i is changed into e, a, to avoid the combination Ui. So in polecie 
policy, prophfoie, as compared with poleice, propheit, muit£nitf, 
mutiny, muitinous. 


The terminations -able, -ible, are alike (ab'l), as in visible, 

feasable (vii-zab'l, fii'z-ab'l). So -ability, -ibility, (abil-atj). 

-ao, -ack = (ak) ; but -10 = (ik, 4k), as in stomach, music 
(stanrak, mss'zik). 

-ace, -ase, -es = (as), but -ice, -is, in old or French words = 
(is, is), as in palace, Forbes, notice, haggis (pel - es, forbas, 
noHs, Hag'is). Only in a few words, mostly of recent in- 
troduction, is -is = (-as), poultice (paltas). 

-aot, -ast, -icy, -est, -1st = (asi), as prelacy, policy, phrenesy 
(pra'1-asj, pol'esi, fren'est). 

-age, -iage, -ege = (idzb, idzh) : manage, marriage, college 
(man'idzh, mer-idzh, kol-idzh). In cabbage, porridge, the 
consonantal ending loses its vocality, becoming (kab'itsh, 
poritsh). So -ager, as bondager (bon-ck'dzhar) . 

-an, -ain, -en, -on = (an), but -in, ing, in old words = (in, tn), 
hallan, certain, baron, garten = garter ; Latin, a singing, a 
being (Hal'sn, sserten, baa-ran, gwten, leHn, seq - in, bei-in) ; so 
verbal -ing always. With the termination -ity added, hu- 
manity, divinity (ramen'ott, devhrati). But -iny, as well as 
-any, becomes (ani) ; mutiny like harmony (mat'ani, hermani). 
The Words garden, children, linen, woollen, flannen = flannel, 
have the close termination (gerdin, tshel'drin, len'in, ul-in, 
flan-in). They were usually written yn, ing, by the old 
writers, gardyng, childryng, lyning, etc. ; not being original 
Scotch words, the Scotch writers seem to have looked upon 
them as collective forms from garth, childer, lint, wool, like 
housing, cleihyng, sheeting, from house, claith, sheet, and to 
have written and pronounced them accordingly. The parti- 
cipial -and is (-an) or (-en), syttand, beand, cummand 
(set - an, beran, kanran) or (set - en, bei'en, kanven). -en of 
the past participle and of causative verbs, now usually ('n) 
without connecting vowel, as written, stooden, holden, open, 
weaken, whiten (w'ret - 'n, stad^'n, H<zd - 'n, op - 'n, wee'k'n, 
kieheit , 'n). 

-anoe, -ence = (ans) ; anot, -enot (ens*) owerance, impudence, 
sapience, (ouTens, empid - ens, sap - ians). 

-ant, -ent = (ant) : callant, parent (kal-ant, paa-rent). 

-ae, -eb, -OB (er) ; -ar was in the Scottish writers the most usual 
form of the termination of the agent, as in baxtar, tailjear, 
coil\ear; it was also used in comparatives as erar rather, 
hiear higher ; in other words, the common spelling was -yr, 
ir, as in fadyr, modyr, neuyr, wattir. The modern pronunci- 
ation of all these forms is (ar). -ary, -ery, -ory, are (ar«), as 
history (Hes'tari). 

-abd, -abt = (ard, art), as coward, guisart (kau-ard, gei-zart). 

-ate, -at, et = (at), but -it, -he, in old words, especially of 
French origin = (it, it), as merit, Jacobite (nu'rit, dzhak - - 
ebit), In words of recent introduction -it has the opener 
sound (at), pulpit, vomit, rabbity hermit — for the native armeit 


now obsolete — (pup-at, vom-et, rab-at, haermat). -aty, -ity, 
always (ati) rarity (ree-rett). 

-ek, -ess, -est = (ar, as, ost), father, rather, comtess, weakest 
(fedh-er, redh-er, cun-tes, wee-kest). 

-FUL = (fa) mouthfu', thochtfu' (mutlrfa, thokioht-fa). 

-fy, in tbe pronunciation of older people (fi, ft), but with the 
more modernized (fei) or (fei) ; terrify, older (taer-afi), 
newer "(taer-ifei) . 

-hood, in its old form, -hede, heid (bid), as manhede, maydinheid 
(man - md, mee-danhid), but now often -huid (-Had). 

-id = (id, id), rapid (rapid), but in some more recent words (ad), 
as vivid, tepid (viivad, tip-ad). 

-ife = (if), as waherife, cauldrife (wt'k-rif, kaald-rif). 

-ion = (ien, jan), communion (koman-ian). 

-ish, -isch = (isb, ish) , parish, finish (per-ish, fin - isb). 

-ive = (iv), olive (ol-iv). 

-ize, -ise, when under the accent (iiz), baptize, civilise (baptiiz-, 
ciivaliiz-), otherwise (iz, iz), exercise noun (sk-sarsiz), verb 

-le, -al, -el, -il, -yl, in its older form (el), but now more gene- 
rally ('1) as in English table (teevb'l). So handle, moral, barrel, 
devil (han-'l, mor'l, bar-'l, diiv'l) ; the last word contracted 
deil (dil). 

-less = (las) thowless (thou-les). 

-lenth = (lanth)yboi-Zewa^ (fet-lanth). 

-ly = (It) sometimes purposely accented and made (lai), trew-ly 

-man, when carefully pronounced, has more decidedly a back 
vowel (mm, man), but is perhaps oftener confused with 
-men, as (man). In English also no difference is heard in 
ordinary pronunciation between boatman and boatmen. 

-ment = (mant) judgment (dzhsdzh-mant). 

-mony = (mant), or under secondary accent (mant), harmony, agri- 
mony (Her •mant, ag-rt'mant). 

-most = (mest), boonmest, Mndmest (ton-mast, Hen-mest). 

-ness (nes), as sweetness (swit-nas). 

-ous, us (as) as almous, alms («<rmes). -iotrs, -eotjs (ies, jas), 
but in several words made -uous (uas, was), as righteous, 
piteous, richtwis, pituous (rekjht-wes, pit-ues, pit-was). 

-ship (shap), friendship (frind-shap) ; a few words retain an older 
form in -ship (skap), as huswifskip, ayrskip (Haz-iskap, eer-- 
skap), house wifeship, heirship. 

-sive, in Eng. always (stv), is in Sc. often (ztv, ziv), as decisive 

-some (sam) or (sam), tiresome (tei-arsam). 

-tion, -oion, -sion, -tienoe, -oienoe. Down to the middle of the 
16th century this termination was dissyllabic = (si-on-). 
When James VI. wrote his Beulis and Gautelis (Edin. 1585) 
it had become reduced to a monosyllable in ordinary practice 


but the dissyllabic pronunciation was retained at the end of 
a line in verse : " There is a kynde of indifferent wordis, as- 
weill as of syllabis, the nature quhairof is, that gif ^e place 
thame in the begynning of a lyne, they are shorter be a fute, 
nor they are, gif je place thame hinmest in the lyne, as 

Sen patience I man haue perforce, 
I liue in hope 'with patience. 

}e se there are bot aucht fete in ather of baith thir lynes 
aboue written. The cause quhairof is, that patience in the first 
lyne is bot of twa fete (peeaes'jens), and in the last lyne of 
thrie (psese-si-ens - ), in respect it is the hinmest word of that 
lyne." 1 Examples of the same usage abound in the so- 
called Scottish version of the Psalms in metre, as — 

" A man was famous, and was held 
in estima-ti-on, 
According as he lifted up 

his axe thick trees upon." 

But although the traditional pronunciation -a-shi-on, a-shi- 
ence, is retained liturgically in singing, the termination has 
become as in Eng. (shon sben, shens) in actual use. With 
regard to the preceding vowel, I have heard (a) from old 
people in Galatians (galaa - shonz), but a is now usually ai, 
as in Eng., thus, nation, national (nee - shan, nee-shonel) ; 
-assion, -ashion, are (ashan) ; -ession, -ition, -otion, -ution 
(se'shon, i-shen, oo - shen, a-shan). The voice consonant is 
heard in -esion, -ision, -osion, -usion (iizhon, ii-zhen, oo-zhen, 
sa-zhon) ; but occasion is usually pronounced as if written 
occaition (okee - shon), and transition in Eng. (trasnsi^zhen) is 
in Sc. usually (tranzrshan). Patience is usually made (pee - - 
shonz), as if it were the plural of pation, which may be the 
cause of its being used as a plural noun, thus, monie 
paytience, owre feuw paytience. 

-tiotjs, -cious, which in England are also monosyllabic, still make 
two syllables (shi-os) in Sc, as in precious (pree-shios), like 
glorious (gloo - ries). The same is the case with all such forms 
as -teous, -geous, -gious, as in plenteous (plen'tias), and 
Dominie Sampson's pro-di-gi-ous ! (pro-di - -dzhi-es). 

-tial, -cial = (shial, shjel), official (ofi'shiol) ; with -ity (shial - - 
etj), partiality (parshial'oti). 

-tt (tf), -tilt (teK), canty, cantily (kan-ti, kan'toK). The noun 
ending -ty still survives as -tith in several words, bountith, 
poortith, daintith, (bmrtoth, pasrteth, den-teth). 

-ube (or), the preceding consonant being unchanged, thus, nature, 
leisure, measure (nee'tor, lee'zar, mez - er). 

-ward (wart, wert), doonwart (dun - wert). 

-wise, -ways (wez, wez) likewise, side-wise, or side-ways (leik - wez 
lek - woz, seid-waz). 

1 Works of James I, in Arber's English fieprints, No, 19, p. 61. 


Scotch Pboituhotation of English. 

It has already been stated that the liturgical language of Scot- 
land — the language of the Scriptures and devotion — has been, 
since the Beformation, more or less the literary English. Since 
the union of the kingdoms — in most parts of Scotland, since the 
Commonwealth — English has been the only language taught at 
school, and, for ordinary purposes, need in writing. But while 
there has been one written standard for Scotchmen and English- 
men, in actual pronunciation this English of Scotland has been, 
and still is, greatly different from the English of Southern Eng- 
land. To say that it is English read or spoken with northern 
instead of southern vowels, with the northern trilled r instead 
of the vocalized r of the south, and with northern habits of 
quantity and accent, would not be to state the exact difference 
between the two modes of utterance ; it would be more correct to 
say that it is English read with a northern conception of the 
southern vowels, sometimes identifying them with the correspond- 
ing northern vowels, at other times discriminating between them 
and exaggerating the difference. Thus him, his, with (mm, hi'z, 
w/ dh) are distinguished from the Sc. hym, hyz,wuth, but pronounced 
(mm, hiz, with) ; book, both, stone, fall (Irak, booth, stoon, f ul) 
are distinguished from the native luik, baith, stane, full or fou, 
but made (buk, both, ston, ful). In many respects this pronunci- 
ation represents a more archaic stage of English, and many words 
doubtless retain the traditional sounds with which they were 
introduced into Scotland in the 16th or 17th century. As a 
specimen I give the Hundredth Psalm (of which two 16th century 
forms have already been given, page 68,) as it was read in school, 
and from the pulpit, within my own recollection, and may still 
be heard in any cottage in Teviotdale. For the sake of comparison 
I give (also in palaeotype) the standard Southern English pro- 
nunciation, as written for me by Mr. Ellis ; l and, to shew how 
this English of Scotland differs from the vernacular pronunciation 
of Scotch, the Scotch forms of the words are also added. The speci- 
men probably shews the extreme of the difference between the 
English of Scotland, as still existing, and the Standard English ; 
in the pronunciation of individuals every variety of approxi- 
mation from this to the Southern English pronunciation will of 
course be heard, in proportion to the intercourse they have had 
with those who use the standard idiom, not merely as a liturgical, 
but as a living tongue. 

1 I have ventured to differ from Mr. south, and as I seem to hear them from 

Ellis's transcription only so far as to Mr. Ellis himself although he considers 

write the long a and 6 (eei, oou) as them theoretically as oulv {ft, oo). 
they are always pronounced in the 


Standard Eng. 1 aaI pii-p'l dhaet on jth duu dicel, 
Eng. of Scot. 2 aal pii-p'l dhat on serth du dwsel, 
Scotch. 3 aa iu'ls. et on Jerth dez dwal, 

1 si'q tu dhy Laid wj'dh tshiu-M vpis. 

2 siq tu dhe Loord with tshiir-ful vois. 

3 seq te dhe Lww'rd w» tshiir-fe vois. 

1 mm sxv wj'dh math, m'z preea'z fooith tel, 

2 Him sserv with merth, Hiz preez forth tsel, 

3 Hem sseser wa merth, hqz preez farth tsel, 

1 kern ji bifooj min aend ridzhois - . 

2 kam ii bifoor Him asnd ridzhois - . 

3 kam ii efuu'i em en ridzhoiz\ 

1 noou dhast dhy Lojd iz God indiid- ; 

2 noo dhat dhe Loord iz Good indid- ; 

3 kaen et dhe Lww'rd ez Good endid- ; 

1 wi'dheut- &ax eeid, Hi did es meejk : 

2 withaut- aur ed Hi ded as meek : 

3 wethut- uur Haslp Hei ded es mjek : 

1 wii aai hiz flok, ni deth es f iid, 

2 wi aar hiz flok, Hi doth as fid, 

3 wei er Hez Her-s'l, Hei dez es fid, 

1 aand foj hiz shiip Hi deth es teak. 

2 aend foor Hiz ship Hi doth as teek. 

3 en foor Hez ship Hei dez es tfek. 

1 oou ! en - tt dhen hiz geeits widh preea'z, 

2 oo ! asnter dhaen Hiz ge«ts with preez, 

3 oo 1 kam en dhen et ez jaeaets ws preez, 

1 ■eprooMtsh* w«dh dzhoi m'z koojts entuu- : 

2 ■eprotslr with dzhoi Hiz korts antuu- : 

3 gaq for-et wa dzhoi Hez kurts tes : 

1 preej'z, lAAd, send bles ro'z 'nwi'm AAlweei'z-, 

2 pr««z, laad, end bles Hiz - nem aalweez - , 

3 preez, laud, en bles ez mem ei, 

1 foa: it iz siira-K boou tu duu 

2 for it iz sim-K soo tu duu 

3 for et ez far-ant st»' te daa 

1 foa: whai ? dhy Loid, em God, iz gwd, 

2 for whai ? dhe Loord aur Good iz gud, 

3 for kwhai ? dha Lww'rd uur Good ez gad, 


1 m'z gud-nys «'z foi evi shum 

2 Hiz gud-nes iz for ever shsur 

3 Hez gad'nas ez for ev&v saar 

1 m'z truuth set aaI toimz fmvlt stwd 

2 Hiz trauth at aal taimz fernrli stud 

3 Hez trath et aa teimz fernrli sfod 

1 aend shael from eeidzh tu eeidzh endkuu 

2 send shal from edzh tu edzh endaur 

3 on sal free iodzh t9 iodzh endaar 

The third line is, of course, not given as idiomatic Scotch, but 
merely as shewing the vernacular forms of the words. An idio- 
matic version would alter the entire order of the words and mode 
of expression in some lines, rejecting altogether the do, did, doth; 
and in the Southern Scotch might he something like this — (to 
disregard the metrical form) : "Aa fuok at leeves (dwalls, 
wonns), onna the yerth, syng tui the Luord, wui a cheerfu voyce. 
Sser 'ym wui myrth, taell furth 'yz prayse, cum ye afuore 'ym, an 
rejoyse ! Kasn ye, the Luord yz God yn trowth ; hey meade us, 
wuthoot onie haslp o' oors : wey're hyz hyrsel at hey feids, an 
hey teakes us for 'yz scheip. cum yn, than, at 'yz yletts wui 
prayse, gang forrat tui 'yz coorts wui joye : aiy prayse, an' lauwd, 
an' blyss 'yz neame, for yt's farrant tui dui seae. Quhat for ? the 
Luord oor God's guid ; hez guidness is suir for aiy : hyz truith 
stuid sycker at aa teymes, an yt '11 lsest free eage tui eage." 

Phonetic Eeiations between Modern Scotch, Anglo-Saxon, 
and English. 

As a part of the great series of phonetic changes by which the 
modern Teutonic tongues have come to differ so widely from their 
ancient sources, and from each other, the Laut-verschiebung or 
systematic vowel-change from Anglo-Saxon to Modern Scotch, and 
the different forms which the same original vowels have assumed 
in Southern English and Modern Scotch, possess interest for 
every student of language. This interest is in no way dependent 
upon the literary or commercial importance, the culture or the 
diffusion of the idioms to which it attaches ; the most isolated and 
unimportant dialect may, and often does, illustrate these laws of 
phonetic growth better than the most cultivated and widely-used 

The Anglo-Saxon vowel groups are represented with consider- 
able regularity in the Southern Scottish dialect, the chief ex- 
ception being in connection with the g and h of the older tongue, 
and the guttural or vocal diphthongs which represent them in the 
Scotch, and with the modifications produoed by the letter r, whioh 


generally affects the quantity of the preceding vowel, although it 
does not so often alter its quality as in the Standard English. 
The following table shews the written forms assumed by the chief 
Ags. vowel combinations in the Early and Middle Scotch, and 
their spoken forms in the modern dialect of the Southern Counties. 

For the sake of brevity, a closed syllable, caused by a following 
consonant, is indicated by a turned period ; thus a - indicates a in 
a closed syllable, or a followed by a consonant; ar means ar 
followed by a consonant or final ; as", se followed by two con- 
sonants. An open syllable is indicated by a hyphen, thus a- 
means a at the end of a syllable. The same original vowel 
assumes different values in the modern dialects according as it 
occurs in an open or a closed syllable. 

While, as shown by the first and fourth columns of the following 
table, the old vowels and combinations are represented in this 
dialect with considerable regularity, so that, given the modern 
Scotch representative of one Ags. word, we can with tolerable 
safety fix that of all words containing the same original vowels, 
the correspondence between the dialect and modern literary 
English is much less regular and harmonious. This arises largely 
from the chaotic state of modern English spelling, in consequence 
of the partial alterations which it has undergone, sometimes in 
obedience to a phonetic, at other times to an etymological feeling ; 
also from the loss in English of the, sound of gh and the various 
forms which have replaced it, as in plough, enough, Ags. ploh, genoh, 
S. Sc. pleuwch, eneuwch ; and from the Eng. vocalisation of final 
r, and the great disturbance in the vowel system caused thereby. 
It is also partly due to the different treatment which words of 
French and Classical origin have received in English and Scotch, 
from which it often comes that the same Eng. vowel has one 
representative in Sc. when of Ags. origin, and another form when 
of French origin, as in rain, strain, complain, S. Sc. rain, strein, 
complein (ren, strin, komplin-), play, pray, S. Sc. play, preae 
(plee, pme) rose pret. of rise, rose the flower, S. Sc. rayse, ruose 
(reez, xuu'z). A detailed account of the Southern Scottish equiva- 
lents of the chief vowel combinations in modern English follows 
on page 144. 





a - 

man, sang 


man, sang 


carl, warnian 


carle, warn 


na-ma, ha-tian 


name, hate 


ha-ra, fa-ran 


hare, fare 

as, ah 

lag, laga, lage, lah 

awch, aw 

lach, lawch, law 


dah, lab 




ga, stan 


ga, stane 


sar, mare 


sure, mare 





ah, ah- 

ah, aht 

aw, awch- 

aw, awch-t 


blawan, craw 


blaw, craw 


fat (fatu), stsef (stafas) 


fat, staf 


sefter, bla?ddre, sesc 


eftir, bleddyr, each 
day, fayn, fayr 
rede, ele, fere, blese 


does, foejen, fffijer 



ra5de, a?L far, bla;s& 


„ final 


e-, ee 

se, see 


mffijden, ssfejde 

ay, ai 

maydin, saydj said 

„ final 

clicj, a5j(hwa5r) 


clay, ay 


men, hetst 


men, best 


he-re, be-te, fe-dan 


here, fede 


fit, her, gled 


fete, her, glede 

e final 

he, me, 3e, }>e 


he, me, je, ]>e 


wezr h«s 


way, hay 


eald, sealt, sceaj 


aide, salt, sal 


beam, fearn, cear 


barn, caTe 


eac, east, bread 


eke, est, brede 



ey, ee 


eah- eoh- 

eahta, feohtan 

ey, eych 

eycht, feycht fecht 



eych, ey 

heych, hey 


dcaw, feaw, heawan 


dew, few, hew 


heorte, steorra, feor 


hert, stern, fer 


dedp, be6f, de6r 


depe, thef, dere 

e6 final, eo^l se6, bed, nefih, treow, \ 
e6h, eow J fle6ge / 


se, be, fie, tre, fie 


ble6w, hre6wan 

ew, eu 

blew, rew, reu 


him, hym, brycg, blind 
hider, biten 

i. y 

him, hym, brig, bryg 
hider, bitten, bytten 


h y 


wif, brjd 

i. y. »j 

wif, wyf, wijf 


drfg, drigde 


diy, dryit 


manij, moras 

y' 1 

mony, moni 


niht, syfriS 

igh, yeh 

night, nycht, sicht 


hiw, niwe 

ew, eu 

hew, new, neu 
lot, bolt, hors 


Wot, bolt, hors 






horn, sceort 

horn, schort 


bo-lede, to-ren 

tholyd, toryn, torn 






ogh, owch 

soght, sowcht 






6Jer, b6c, do 

f o(13thc.; 
( u (later) 

othir, boke, do 
vthyr, bnke, do 


h6, hoh, dohtor 


howch, dowchtyr 


growan, gr6wcn 
full, sunes, cuman 


grow, growyn 

Jul, sunnis (sownnys), cum 


n (ow) 
| u (13th c. 
j ow (latei-' 


it, tun 

ut, tun 
owt, town 

u final 

cu, nu 


\ ow (later) 

uch, owch 

ku, nu 
kow, now 



ruch, rowch 






bugan, sug 

owch, ow 

bow, sowoh 






man, sang 


man, sang 

a, ai 

carle, wairn 


cairL wairn 

a,ai, ay 

name, hart 


neame, heate 


hayr, fayr 


hayr, fayr 

awch, aw, 

au lawch, law, lau 






deawch, leawch 

a, ay 



geae, steane 

ai, ay 

sarr, mayr 


sayr, mayr 

aw, ai 

awin, ain 

auw, ay 

auwn, ayn 

aw, auch 

aw, aucht 

aa, auwch 

aa, auwcht 

aw, an 

hlaw, blau 


blaa, craa 


in r , staff 


fat, staff 


eftir, hleddir, esch 


sefter, blaether, aesch 

ay, ai 

day, fain, fayr 

ai, ay 

day, fain, fayr 

ei, ey 

reid, feir, bleize 

ei, ee 

reid, eil, feir, bleeze 

e, ey 

se, sey 



ay, ai 

maydin, said 

ai, ay 

mayden, said 


clay, ay 


claiy, aiy 


men, best 


man. haest 


beir, feid 

ei, ee 

beir, feid 


feit, heir, gleyd 

ei, ee 

feit, heir, gleid 


he, me, je, )>e 

ey, ee, e 

hey, mey, yee, thg 

ay, (a) 
al, au 

way (wa), hay 


waiy, haiy 

auld, salt saut, sail 

aa, a 

aald, saat, sal 

a, ay 

bairn, cair cayr 

ai, ay 

bairn, fairn, cayr 


eik, eist, breid 


eik, eist, breid 

ey, e 

ey, e 



auch, ech 

aucht, fecht 


Eeycht, fasycht 

ey, ie, e 

hie, he, hich, heych 

eych, ey 

heych, hey 

ew, eu 

dew, deu 


deuw, feuw, heuw 


hei% stem, ferr 


In Tt, stajrn, fa;rr 


deip, theif, deir 

ei, ee 

deip, theif, deir 

e, ey 

se, be, fley, tre trey 


sey, bey, fley, trey 

ew, eu 

blew, bleu 


hlenw, reuw 


him, hym, etc. 


hym, bryg, blynd 


hider, bytten 


hyther, bytten 


wyff, wyif 

ey or aiy 

weyfe, hreyde 

y . 

dry, dryit 


drye, dryed 

y, ie, e 

mony, monie, mone 



ich, ych 

nicht, nycht 


neycht, seycht 

ew, eu 

hew, neu 


heuw, neuw 

lot, bolt, hors 


lot, holt, horse 

ol, ow 

bolstyr bowstyr 



o (oi) 

horn, schoirt 


huoru, schuort 

o, oi, oy 

thoillyt, thoyll 


thuoled, tuorn 













u, ui, uy 

uthir, huke buik, du'd 


(uther), buik, dui 

ouch, och 

houch, dochtir 


howch, dowchter 


grow, growin 

full, sunnis sonnis, cum 


growe, grdwn 
fuw, suns, cum 

on (ow) 

out, toun 


oot. toon 

on (ow) 

cow, nou 


euw, nuw 









ow, owch 

bow, sowch, sow 


buw, suw 



Scotoh Equivalents of English Vowels. 

English A short, or A, ATJ, long and 

slender, in -ass, -ast, -ant, -aunt, is 

in Scotch usually a short, as man, 

battle, pass, ass ashes, past, last adj. 

cas'le, ant, ant aunt, chant, hant 

haunt, vant vaunt, dant daunt. Any, 

many, are in Scotch onie, monie. 

But when the English A in -ass, -ast, 

-ash, represents an Ags. ae, the S. Sc. is 

usually se, as maess the mass, glsess, 

gaers or grass, laest to last, fses'n fasten, 

Eesch ash-tree, waesch wash, thraesch, 

hsev, haes, haed. 

Before nch the Sc. sound is ai, as 
branch, haunch, stanch, Sc. brainsch, 
hainsch, stainsch. 

English A, short or long in -and, is in 
Sc. aa long : laand, baand, staand, 
haand, graand, command, demaand, 
waand. But pret. of verbs short, as 
fand, gran'. 
Eng. A, broad in -al, -all, -aw, -au, 
usually long aa in Sc. : wall, ball, 
walk, called, law, malt, hawk, salt. 
Sc. waa, baa, waak, caa'd, laa, maat, 
baak, saat. 

But au, aw, from classical source are 
in Sc' auw (au, aau), audience, auto- 
graph, pauper, laud, laudanum, Sc. 
auwdience, auwtograph, pauwper, 
lauwd, lauwd'num. 

Eng. AR, representing an Ags. eor, is 
in Sc. as long or short, thus, far, 
dark, darn, smart, starve, star, farm, 
bark, as a dog, carve, farthing, re- 
presenting the Ags. feor, deorc, 
deorn, smeort, steorf, steorra, feorm, 
beorcan, feoriSing, are in Sc. fitrr, 
daerk, daern, smaert, staerve, staern, 
fferm, baerk, caerve, faerdin. So saerk, 
sark, shirt, hierk hark. Spark, mark, 
are spaerk, mfirk, though having ea 
in Ags. Tar is also tser. 
Eng. AR, representing an Ags. ear, is 
in Sc. ai (e, ee), thus, arm, harm, 
sharp, park, ark, yard, narrow, swarm, 
ward, warn, warp, the Ags. earm, 
hearm, scearp, pearroc, earc, geard, 
nearw, swearm, weard, wearn, wearp, 
are in Sc. airm, hairm, schairp, pairk, 
airk, yalrd, nairra, swairm, waird, 
wairn, wairp. 
Eng. AR, from classical and recent 
Bources, is also ai, as in art, cart, 
part, dart, card, charter, scarce, 
Charley, market, Martinmas, garter, 
charge, large, carry, marry, army, 
alarm, harmony, garden, yarn, bard, 

carl, Sc. airt, cairt, pairt, dairt, caird, 
chairter, scairsh, Cbairlie, mairket, 
Mairtinmess, gairten, chairge, lairge, 
cairrie, mairrie, airmie, alairm, hair- 
menie, gairdin, yairn, baird, cairl. 
AR in a few words is dr, aar : bar, 

par, war, hard, farce, warm, warran' 

warrant, barrel, marl, snarl, barley, 

garlic, lar' (laar) lard. 

Eng. A long with its name sound, be- 
fore a consonant and e mute, is in 
the S. Sc. dialect ea, in the others 
a close variety of ai (e or i) ; tale, 
face, mane, state, save, paste, paling, 
taken, waken, S. Sc. teale, feace, 
meane, steate, seave, peaste, pealin, 
teane, weaken. 

a If the consonant be r or ng the 
opener ai, ay is used, and fare, care, 
hare, ware, range, change, manger, 
angel, danger, are fayr, cayr, hayr, 
wayr, rainge, chainge, mainger, 
aingel, dainger. So ladle. Sc. laidle. 
So with z, v, (dh) : Craze, wave, 
bathe, crayze, wayve, baythe. 

j3 Blaze, mare, hazel, take ee, bleeze, 
meir, heezel. 

7 Dare takes aa, daar. 

8 Scare, cradle, trade, take as, skaer, 
craeddle, traed. 

Eng. AI is in Sc. ai, ay : air, fair, 
hair, raise, faith ; bait, wait, hail, 
sail, pain. Sc. ayr, fayr, hayr, rayze, 
fayth ; with short vowel bait, wait, 
hail, sail, pain. Chain, strain, main- 
tain, con-tain, and complain, take ei, 
chein, streind, mentein, contein, 

Fail, again, take ea, feale, ageane. 
Chair takes the diphthong ey or aiy, 
cheyre, chaiyer. 
Eng. AT is usually ay : say, fray, gray, 
day, lay, play, etc. 
But the following take the diph- 
thong aiy : aye, clay, gay, hay, May, 
stay, way ; Sc. aiy, claiy, gaiy, haiy, 
Maiy, staiy, waiy. Ay ! makes aey ! 
Eng. ATJGH is in S. Sc. auwch (in 
Central dialects aach) ; laugh, haugh, 
haughty, laughter ; Sc. lauwch, 
bauwch, hanwchtie, lauwchter. 
Daughter, Ags. dohtor, is generally 
Eng. E long, followed by a consonant 
and e mute, and EE medial, are in 
Sc. ee, ei, as in here, seethe, freeze, 
deer, complete, seek, seen, beet, peel ; 
Sc. hour, seethe, freeze, deer ; with a 



short vowel, compleit, seik, sein, beit, 
peil (komplit - , sik, sin, bit, pil). 
Where is quhayr, there is tneare, so 
also some words of Froncb origin in 
e-e, as sincere, theme, scene, scheme, 
revere ; Sc. synceare, theame, sceane, 
skoame, reveare. 

Eng. E, EA, EE final (in most of the 
Be. dialects ee), in S. Sc. ey diph- 
thong, as be, he, me, we, sea, tea, 
pea, see, tree, bee, knee, flee, free j 
S. Sc. bey, hey, mey, wey, sey, tey, 
poy, sey, trey, bey, k'ney, fley, frey. 
Eng. 10 in an open syllable under the 
accent, in words ox classical origin, 
is regularly eae. Most of these words 
have in French '4 acute, with which 
they wore originally pronounced, also, 
in Scotch, and probably in English ; 
in modorn English they have become 
either e, in me, (ii) or 6 in yet (e). 
The S. Soottish sound is the acute 
4 in its passage into Eng. ee. Thus 
heathen, Venus, second, deceive, were 
once haytheti, Vaynus, saioond, de- 
sayve ; they are now in Eng. heethen, 
Veenus, second, deceeve; in the dia- 
lect of Southern Scotland heathen, 
Veanrn, seacond, deceave (Hfothon, 
vfones, sfokont, distYov. 
So in deist, deity (dn'oti) desert, 
dexterity, olomont, elephant (i'ltfant), 
emery, ephemera (t'fi'onverEP), equal 
equi-, female, feminine (fi'nronm), 
genial, genius (dzhi'Vos), generous, 
heretic, nero, idea (ids'*"), ingenious, 
memory, merit, penetrate, penitent, 
period (p/or-ied), petrel, real {rial), 
schedule (in Lyndesay, cedull), secret, 
series, serious, 6eraph, segment, several, 
skeleton (sksoliten), superior, telegraph, 
venerable, veteran, etc 

In proper names : Eve, Ephraim, 
Hebrew, Hebron, Enoch, Ephesus, 
Herod, Csesar, Euphemia, Phemie, 
Telfer (Ii: Taillefer). 

With Latin or Greek prefixes : 
desert, depute, decent, delicate, deci- 
mal, decorate, dedicate, etc, eminent, 
elevate, educate, elegant, elegy, egotist, 
edict, epoch, etc, epicure, epitaph, 
epic, etc ; present, preface, president, 
prelacy, prejudice, etc. ; recent, recre- 
ant, reprobate, rofuge, regal, rebel, 
regiment, reconcile (ri'konsir), record, 
regular, relish, revolution, etc. ; secret, 
separate, secretary, second, senate, 
several, sepulchre, etc. Unacoented, 
tho prefixes arc as in English, se-cede, 
de-sert, re-pont. When followed by 
two consonants the sound is ce, as 
desperate, destitute, dsesperet, dcostituit. 

In benefit, precious, discretion, the 

sound is ai, bainefeit, praishius, dys- 


Eng. E short (e), in a closed syllable, 
is regularly represented by <e (Pal. 
83), in other dialects (e) the French 
k circumflex, as bed, egg, best, let, 

Een, hem, pet, settle, restless, send, 
sss, sell, pest, vent, direct, rest, 
pellet, scent, tent, venture, test, mend, 
text; S. Sc. bsed, segg, baest, lset, 
psen, hsem, paet, saettle, rsestless, 
saend, lsess, ssell, psest, vsent, derseck, 
reest, psellet, ssent, tsent, vsenter, tsest, 
mama, tsext. 

a The following have y (the South 
English e in yet), bless, yes, yet, 
chest, stench, get ; Sc. blyss, yys, yyt 
(Old Sc. yhis, yhit), kyst, stynk, 
gytt or geate. 

$ These have ei (i) : well bene, wet, v. 
and n. jet, red, spread, next, stretch, 
quest, arrest, lest, rest (to be restive 
as a horse), crest. Sc. weill, weit, jeit, 
reid, spreid, neixt or neist, streik, 
queist, arreist, leist, reist, creist. 

7 The following have d (a), wet, adj. 
well (fons), wedge, west, wed, wed- 
ding, web, welt, wealth, wretch, 
when, then, wedder, weapon. Sc. wat, 
wall, wadge, wast, wad, waddein, 
wab or w6b, wait, width, w'ratch, 
quhan, than, wather, wappen. 

5 The following have ai \e), them, 
welcome, wench, quench, French, 
Welsh, hench, tench, wrench, ven- 
geance, avenge, Benjamin, plenty, 
question ; thaim, wailcum, wainsch, 
quainsch, frainscn, Wailsh, hainsch, 
tainsch, w'rainsch, vaingence, a- 
vainge, Bainjamein, plaintie (or 
plajntie), quaistein. 

Eng. ER final, or in a closed syllable, 
is generally eer; as stern, concern, 
prefer, err, deter, certain, serpent, 
serve, divert, merle, Merlin, yerk, 
nerve, mercy. Sc. sta3rn, conzcern, 
prefoer, ffirr, detaer, coerten, sserpent, 
eserr, devsert, masrl, Mserlein, yesrk, 
na)rv, msercie. 

o In a number of words from the 
French it is ear, as in herb, pirch, 
tei'm, terse, verse, pert, exert, insert, 
insertion, disconcert, des4rt, sergeant, 
assert. Sc. earb (Compl. of Scot. 
eirb), pearch, tearm, tearse, vearse, 
peart, exeart, ynseart, ynseartion, dys- 
conceart, dezeart, seargent, asseart. 

j3 In clerk, merchant, alert, and when 
rep. an Ags. ea, as fern, it is ai; Sc. 
olairk, mairchant, alairt, fairn. 

y In her it is y ; Sc. hyr. 




Eng. EA before E, Z, V, without suc- 
ceeding consonant, is in Sc. ee long ; 
hear, clear, dear, tear, wear, bear, 
pear, please, tease, leave, weave, 
neave, teazle. Sc. heer, cleer, deer, 
teer, weer, beer, peer, pleeze, teeze, 
leeve, weeve, heeve, teezle. 
Eng. EA before E, with a following 
consonant, is in Sc. ea ; earl, earth, 
beard, learn, search, pearl, hearse ; 
Sc. (iar'l, iarth, biard), etc. Heart, 
hearth, hearken, take ce; hsert, hserth, 
Eng. EA before other consonants is in 
Sc. ei ; bead, head, dead, lead (v. and 
«.), peace, breast, feast, beast, least, 
mean, lean, speak, eat, peat, heap, 
meal flour, seal, bleach, leaf, deaf, 
read pres. t., spread, pleasure. Sc. 
beid, heid, deid, leid, peice, breist, 
feist, beist, leist, mein, lein, speik, 
eit, peit, heip, meil, seil, bleitch, leif, 
deif, reid, spreid, pleisur. 
a The following have ea : threat 
(thri'ot), death, deal, heal, meal re- 
past, wean ; and several words of 
French origin, as beat, feat, seat, 
real, heathen, pheasant (Kazan), 
creature, feature (fiatar), theatre, 
reason, season, treason (tre'az'n). 
$ The following have ay, ai : weak, 
breathe, breath, neat, endeavour, 
weasel. Sc. wayk, braythe, braith, 
nait, endaiver, wayzel. 
y These have y : great, break, measure, 
heavy. Sc. gryt, bryk, myzzer, 
5 These have se : health, leather, 
feather, heather, knead, tread, treadle, 
leaven, breakfast, treasure, the pre- 
terites read, spread. Sc. hselth, 
lsether, fsether, nsether, nsed, trsed, 
trseddle, lseven, brcekfest, trsesur, 
rfed, sprffid. 
€ These have d : wealth, weather. Sc. 

walth, wather. 
£ One has the diphthong y (si), treacle, 
Old Eng. triacle, Sc. trykle (traik'l), 
Gaw. Douglas, tryahill. 
Eng. EI, EY are in Sc. usually ai, ay: 
either, neither, their, they, survey, 
vein, veil, heir, leisure. Sc. aither, 
naither, thayr, thay, survay, vain, 
vail, ayr, layser, Old Fr. laysir. 
a In several French words it is ea : 
conceive, conceit, deceive, receive, 
receipt, etc., seisin or sasine. Sc. 
conceave (Douglas consayve), conccat, 
deceave, receave, receat, seasin. 
$ Rein, takes ei, rein or reind(rin). 
y Key takes the diphthong ey, key (kei) . 
EIGH is in Sc. ey, eyeh, ceych : weigh, 

wey ; height, sleight, heycht, sleycht; 
eight, weight, seycht, wseycht. 
EU, EW, in Sc. euw (aw), feud, feu, 
few, new, yew, hewn, Ewen, Europe, 
S. Sc. feuwd, feuw, feuw, neuw, 
yeuw, heuwn, Euwen, Euwrope 
(aurop) . 
I short in a stopped syllable (or before 
R) is regularly represented by y, as 
hill, sit, middle, thistle, first, fir, 
firm, dirt, third. Sc. hyll, syt, myd- 
dle, thrys'le, fyrst, fyrr, fyrm, dyrt, 
thyrd. A preceding w changes the 
sound to «, as will, wit, window, 
wisp, witness, whin, whip. Sc. wull, 
wilt, wunda, wusp, wutness, whun, 
whup. In wing, wicked, whig, 
swink, swill, the y sound remains. 
Swim is soom. 
I short, in words of French and classi- 
cal extraction, but also in many of 
Ags. origin, is represented by ei, ee; 
as city, civil, cylinder, pill, sick, 
wick, wig, critic, pity, split, drip, 
jig, rig, drill, skill, whim, pin, 
wtusht, finish, guinea, pinion, Bri- 
tain, the terminations -ition, -itious, 
-ician ; Sc. ceitie (siti), ceevel (sii-v'l), 
ceilender, peil, seik, weik, weig, 
creitic, peitie, spleit, dreip, jeig, reig, 
dreill, skeil, quheim, prem, quheisht, 
feinish (finish), geinie, peinien, Brei- 
ten (britan), poseition, suspeicius 
(saspish - ias) . 
I, with its long or name sound, in Ags. 
words, however expressed in spelling, 
is in a closed syllable,usually expressed 
by ey (ei) before a voice consonant, 
liquid or nasal, inclining in the 
Southern Counties to aiy, aye («i), 
- in the centre of Scotland to uy (ad). 
Pipe, write, dyke, mice, wife, hide, 
rise, wives, blithe, mile, wine, rhyme, 
fire. Sc. peype (peip), w'reyte, 
deyke, meyce, weyfe, heyde (heid, 
haid), reyse, weyves, bleythe, meyle, 
weyne, reyme, feyre (feier). 
But the words bind, blind, find, hind, 
adj. behind, grind, wind, which have 
long i in Southern English, have a 
short vowel in the dialects north of the 
Humber ; they are in Scotch bynd, 
blynd, fynd, hynt, ahynt, grynd, wund. 
Like, likely, are often lyk, lyklie. 

In most words of French or Classical 
origin this long I is in Sc. represented 
by ee, ei (ii, i), polite, site, cite, type, 
oblige, chastise, baptize, civilize, adver- 
tise, -ment, friar, briar, miser, library, 
invite ; malign, benign, condign. Sc. 
(polit - , sit, sit, tip, oblidzh, tshustiiz-, 
mjptiiz - , siivoliiz - , odvartiiz - , -mant, 



friir, briir, mirzar, lib-ran, anvit- ; 

nreleq - , bineq - , kondeq - . 

I long (however written), when final, 
or in an open syllable, is represented 
by the diphthong y (ai, oi), as lie, 
jacere, tie, pie, vie, by of 'place, buy, cry, 
dye, dry, fry, ply, pry, rye, shy, sty, 
spy, sky, try, wry, and their inflec- 
tions or compounds, lies, tied, fried, 
etc. ; dial, dyer, trial, phial, denial, 
crier, defiant, giant, lion, riot, pliant, 
etc. ; also in the words, five, size ; 
sigh is seych or sye. Sc. lye (lai), 
tye, pye, etc. ; lyes, tyed, fryed, etc. ; 
dy-al, (d«i-al), dy-er, try-al, etc. ; 
fyve, syze (faiv, saiz). 
In lie mentri, die, thigh, eye, fly, by 

of the agent, the Southern dialect has 

ey (ei), the others ee (ii). S. C. ley, dey, 

they, ey, fley, bey, Central lee, dee, 

thee, ee, flee, bee. High is in the S. C. 

heych, hey or hye, in Central Sc. hych, 

or hee ; highland, heelant or heelan'. 

IGH is regularly eyeh (ekjh), in other 
dialects ych (ekh) , as neycht, reycht. 
Fight is fseycht, fecht. Sigh, thigh, 
and sigh (see above). 

IE medial m Sc. ee, ei: pier, grieve, 
thief, chief, field, friend, fiend. Sc. 
peer, greeve, theif, cheif, feild, 
freind (frind), feind or feint (fint). 
Before B, and another consonant it is 
ea : pierce, fierce. Sc. pearce, fearce. 

Eng. 0, OA, OE, representing Ags. a, 
is in Sc. replaced by ea (usual ortho- 
graphy ae, a-e) : so, go, wo, who, 
two, toe, sloe, bone, stone, broad, 
load, toad, one, none, no, ghost, cloth, 
whole, foam (Ags. swa, ga, hwa, 
twa, ban). Sc. seae, geae, weae, 
quheae, tweae, teae, sleae, beane, 
steane, breade, leade, teade, eane, 
neane, neae, gheast, death, heale, 

a When followed by /, and in verbal 
preterites the vowel is ai : more, 
sore, lord; wrote, road, shone, rose 
Ags. mar, wrat, etc.). Sc. mayr, 
sayr, layrd ; wrait, raid, schain, rayse. 

/3 Spoke, broke (Ags. spsec, braec) are 
spdk, Irak. 

Eng. 0, OA, OE, representing Ags. 6, 
u, is in Sc. ui (a) : to, do, ado, 
done, board, hoard, ford, broth, shoe, 
bore, swore, shore did shear, whore, 
smother, love, above, oven. Ags. 
t6, d6, d6n, h6rd, sw6r, etc. Sc. 
tui, dui, adui, duin, bruid, huird, 
fuird, brui, schui, buir, swuir, schui, 
huir, smuir, luive, abuin, uin. So 
in coral, doleful, move, prove, Some, 

Scone. Sc. cuiral, duilfu, muive, 
pruive, huim, skuin. 

u These have in Sc. u (a) : brother, 
come, comely, monger, mongrel, 
monk, monkey, month, mother.other 
poppy (Ags. popig), rob, robber, 
sloven, some, son, sponge, tongue, 
ton, woman, won, wont, wonder, 
word, worm, worn, worry, worsted, 
wort, and sometimes wolf; and in 
the following, not of Ags. origin : 
colour, company, donkey, dromedary, 
forage, form a bench, front, lodge, 
money, pommel. Sc. bruther, cum, 
cumlie, mung-er, mung-rel, munk, 
munkey, munth, muther, uther, 
puppy, rub; rubber, sluwen, sum, 
sun, spunge, tung, tun, wuman, wun, 
wunt, wunder, wurd, wurm, wurn, 
wurrie, wurset, wurt, wuff or 'oolf, 
culler, cumpanie, dunkie, drumedary, 
furrige, furm, frunt, ludge, munnie, 

j8 These have y : dozen, honey, onion, 
cover. Sc. dyzzen, hynnie, yngim, 
kever rhyming with Eng. ever. 

y Bosom has- uo, buosem. 

Eng. before ng (rep. Ags. ang), is in 
Sc. d : long, song, strong, wrong, 
throng, among. Sc. lang, Strang, 
w'rang, thrang, amang. Tongs and 
thong, older tangs, thwang hwang, 
now oftener taings, hwaing or tai- 
yngs, hwaiyng. So the proper name 
Laing for Lang. 

Eng. OA, or followed by a conso- 
nant and e mute, from other sources 
(i.e. Ags. open o not 6, or classical o) 
is most commonly uo : coat, coal, 
roast, toast, drone, hone, John, hope, 
sole of the foot, vote, bank-note, 
close adj., close vb., rose flower, dose, 
suppose, compose, drove n. S . Sc. cuot, 
cuole, ruost, tuost, druone, huone, 
Juone, huope, suole, vuote, nuote, 
cluoss ; with long vowel cluoze, ruoze, 
duoze, suppuoze, compuoze, druove. 

a But a large number of words, includ- 
ing almost all those of recent adop- 
tion, have the open 6, oa: boast, 
clove, coax, coach, coast, code, coke, 
cone, cope, cove, croak, crone, float, 
grove, hose, host, joke, loam, oath, 
ode, pole, pope, post, probe, prose, 
quote, road, roam, roan, rogue, rove, 
scope, slope, sloth, soak, stroke, toll, 
tone, troth, vogue, yoke, de-pone. 
Sc. bost, cloave, etc. 

ft In hoe, pony, the diphthong ow is 
used : howe (French houe) powny. 

Eng. 0, open medial, has usually the 



open d or oo : broken, bother, Colony, 
oovet, crocus, promise, Roman, soda, 
sofa, modern, etc. Sc. broken, bother, 
or bodder, etc. 

It is difficult to say whether, in this 
position, o is long or short ; it seems to 
nave a kind of medial quantity which 
may be lengthened or shortened, ac- 
cording to the feeling of the speaker. 

The close sound uo is found in body, 
bodice, bogle, closet, covey, crozier, 
frozen, monument, positive, posy, 
rosin, soldier, story, open, stoic Sc. 
buodie, buodiee, buogle or boogie, 
cluoset, cuovie, cruozier, fmozen, muo- 
nimcnt, puosetive, puosie, ruoset, suod- 
ger, stuorie, uopen, stuoic (stww'ik). 
Eng. shut (o), is in Sc. usually o 
short : bottom, bottle, box, cod, doll, 
fodder, fox, goblet, honour, post, 
rotten, bolt, toss, ostler, flog, clock. 
Sc boddum, bottle, box, etc. 
The close uo occurs in bog, bonny, 
cog, cost, cot, folk, frost, lost, sop, sod. 
Sc. buog, buonnie, cuog, cuost, cuot, 
fuok, fruost, luost, suop, suod. 
Eng. followed by r has the close uo 
in the following words : bore, fore, 
score, snore, born, corn, horn, for- 
lorn, morn, -ing, scorn, shorn, Lorn, 
torn, thorn, border, cord, lord, sword, 
force, forge, fortune, north, port, 
porter, report, portion, portly, por- 
tent, short, sort, sport, storm, George, 
story. Sc. buore, ruore, scuore, buorn, 
buorder, etc. 

In almost all other words the open d 
oa, is used : or, for, core, gore, store, 
order, corner, cornet, corporal, corpse, 
cork, roar, oar, boar, scorpion, sea- 
shore, soar, snort, stork, torment, form, 
world, tory, sorrow, borrow, horrid, 
sorry, etc. Sc. (foor, koor, goor, ordor, 
kornar), etc. 

Work, worse, icorst, and sometimes 
world, take d : wark, waar, warst, world. 
Eng. OLL final, OL medial, is in Sc. 
usually the diphthong 6w (ou) : boll, 
hollow, knoll, poll, roll, colt, yolk, 
golf, solder. Sc. bowe, howe, knowe, 
powe, rowe, cowt, yowk, gowf, sow- 
der. Folk, soldier, are in S. Sc. fuok, 
suodger. Doll, toll, poll, stroll, bolt, 
have short d : ddll, tdll, etc. 
Eng. OLD is aald: bold, cold, fold, 
hold, sold, told. Sc. baald, caald, 
faald, haald, saald or sa-ld, taald or 
tseld. Scold is scoald; gold in Central 
Sc. gowd, in Southern Counties more 
commonly goold. 

Eng. 01, OY, is in S. Sc. oy (oi) : boil, 
spoil, oil, employ. Sc. boyl, spoyl, 
oyl, employ. (See page 116.) 

Eng. 00 is in Sc ui, French eu (a) : 
stool, soon, door, floor, doom, moon, 
book, took, stood, blood, good, flood. 
Sc stuiL suin, duir, fluir, duim, 
muin, bulk, tuik, stuid, blind, guid, 
The following have oo : woo, wool, 

cuckoo, boon, ooze, groove, loop, room, 

W ith u : wood, Se. wud. With y : 

foot, Sc. fyt ; in some dialects fut ; 

16th eentury fute, fuit. With uo : 

brooch, Sc bruotch. With ow : loose, 

Sc. lowse vb., lowss adj. With oy: 

choose, S. Sc. ehoyse ; French choisir. 

Eng. OU, OW, representing Ags. u or 
French ou, eu, are in Sc. oo : our, 
pour, hour, sour, power, flower, 
flour, tower, bower ; out, mouse, 
soup, about, sound, brown, drown, 
crowd, house. Sc oor, poor, oor, 
soor, poor, floor, floor, toor, boor; 
with short oo, oot (ut), mooss, soop, 
aboot, soond, broon, droon, crood, 

u When final the sound is in South Sc. - 
uw (au), in other dialects oo, as in 
you, cow, now, a sow, to bow ; S. Sc. 
yuw, cuw, nuw, suw, buw ; also in 
open syllables, as bow-el, troto-el, 
tow-el, cow-ard, gru-d; S. Sc. buwel, 
truwel, tuwel, cuward, gruwel ; Cen- 
tral Sc. booel, tooel, trooel, etc. 

|8 The past participles bound, found, 
ground, wound, take short u (a), as 
do also ground, hound, pound, mount, 
mountebank, mountain, fount, foun- 
tain, ounce, pounce, flounce, poul- 
tice, cloud, touch, trouble, couple, 
scourge, bourn, mourn, journal, jour- 
ney, flourish, nourish. Southernwood, 
young, younker, although some of 
these have an older form in oo, or a 
newer in ow : Sc. bun', fund, grun', 
wun' ; grund, hund lioond, pund, 
funt, funten, munt, munten, also 
pownd, etc., muntibank, uuce, punce, 
flunce, also pownce, flounce, pultess, 
chid, tutch, truhle, cuple, scurge, 
burn, murn, jurnal, jurnie, flurish, 
nurish. Bound, to spring, to limit, 
and its derivatives boundary, boun'- 
tree, or elder, etc., to found, founded, 
etc., to wound, wounded, follow the 
usual rule boond, fooiul, 'oond, and 
are thus distinguished from the par- 
ticiples of bind, find, wind, 

y In the following the Sc. has hi : 



sprout, country, cousin, should, could. 
Sc. spruit, cuintrie, cuisin, suid, cuid. 

5 Would, Ags. walde, is in So. wald, 

Eng. OW, OU, representing an Ags. 
oja, ow, is in Sc. ow (ou); bow, to 
shoot with, glow, grow, row a mUee, 
remigere, stow, tow, trow, bowl, 
growl, jowl, prowl, soul, troul, four, 
fourth, fourteen, glower, flown, grown. 
Sc. bowe, glowe, growe, rowe, stowe, 
towe, trowe, bowle, growle, jowle, 
prowle, sowle (also sauwl, saal), 
trowle, fbwre, fowrt, fowrtein, glowre, 
fl6wn, grown. Dower makes towcher. 

Eng. OW, representing Ags. aw, is in 
Sc. long aa, usually written aw, aa ; 
blow, crow, know, low, row a rank 
or line, mow, show, slow, snow, sow, 
6trow, throw, as well as in their 
p. pies, blown, mown, sown, etc. Sc. 
blaa, craa, knaa, laa, maa, raa, schaa, 
slaa, snaa, saa, straa, blaa'n, maa'n, 
saa'n. Low often retains a guttural 
form laigh, leawgh. Own (Ags. ajeu) 
is older auwii, aan, later ayn ; the 
verb is amen, owner, autener. 

Eng. OUGH is in Sc. usually owch 
(okwh) : hough, trough, bought, 
brought, thought, etc So. howch, 
trowch, bowcht, browcht, thoweht. 

o These have euweh (akwh) : plough n. 
enough sing, tough, clough. Sc. 
pleuwch, aneuweh, teuweh, eleuweh. 
Plough vb., and enough, enow, pi., 
drop the guttural pleuw, aneuw. 
Bough was formerly beutcch, beuw, 
rhyming in 1 6th century with plough ; 
1 think it is now bowe, but the word 
is little used. 

3 These have uwoh (akwh) : rough, 
swough, brough, through (a flat tomb- 
stone, Ags. )>ruh, a stone coffin,) 
Sc. ruwch, suwch, bruweh, thruweh. 

7 Sough, Ags. dah, makes daigh, 
deawch ; t/irough, which appears 
very early in the Sc. writers as 
throw, is now thruw, throo ; though, 
in Middle Sc. thocht, is tho, as the 
Mid. Sc. iwc/it is nd 

Eng. U in a closed syllable is in Sc. « 
(a) : but, bush, push, dull, bull, pull, 
full, much, fur, curl, turn, bulwark, 
bushel, cushion, pudding. Sc. but, 
bush (not boosh), push, dull, hull (not 
booll), pull, full (also puw, fuw), 
muckle, furr, currl, turrn, bullwarfc, 
buschel, ouschen, puddin (not poodin) , 

a The following have ui : bluster, cud, 
cutler, duck, fluster, fusty, gum (of 

the teeth), gusset, gutter, huddle, 
hull (a shell or covering), judge, just, 
rubbish, ruth, stutter, truth, tup. 
Sc. bluister, cuid, cuitler, dirk, 
fluister, fuisty, guim, guischet, guit- 
ter, huiddle, huill, juidge, juist, ruib- 
bish, ruith, stuit, truith, tuip ; also 
proper names, as Guthrie, Hutton, 
Bunyan, Tully. Sc. Quithrie, etc. 
3 The following have short oo : butcher, 
suck, pulpit, thumb, bulk, culm, 
fuller, pussie, cuckoo, bulge, plum. 
Sc. bootcher, sook, poopet, thoom, 
book, coom, fooller, poossie, coo-k6o, 
boolge, ploom. 
y These have short y (e) : buzz, church, 
churn, nut, put, run, snub. Sc. 
byzz, kyrk, kyrn, nyt, pyt, ryn, snyb. 
In more northern dialects this vowel 
is taken by several other words, 
muckle, huzzie = housewife, etc., be- 
ing there mickel, hizzie. 
5 These have long o : blur, drug. Sc. 

bloar, droag ; Fr. drogue. 

€ Rush takes se : rcesch — " Green grow 

the rushes, 0!" (grin grou dhs 

rseshtz oo !) 

Eng. U long, before a consonant and e 

mute, is in Sc. ui : cure, sure, endure, 

use, refuse, Bruce, Bute, lute, time, 

mule, consume, scruple, yule. Sc. cuir, 

suir, enduir, uise, vA.uiss no., refuise ; 

with short vowel, Bruiss, Buit, luit, 

tuin, muil, consuim, scruiple, yuil ; 

rule, (Ags. riwle) is reuwl. 

This Scotch ui is usually said to be 

the same as the French u. It may 

have been sq in the 16th century, but 

is certainly not now. Prince L. L. 

Bonaparte "has not heard the true 

French u in any part of Scotland ; the 

sound so described is either the Fr. eu, 

or something between eu and «." In 

the Southern Counties w» is simply the 

French eu in peu. 

Eng. U long in an open syllable, and 
UE final, are in Sc. euw (au) : fuel, 
blue, due, rue, imbue. Sc. feuwel, 
bleuw, deuw, reuw, embeuw. So 
Hugh, Sc. Heuw. But in an open 
syllable it is often uw, as jewel, duel, 
gruel, cruel, truant, S. Sc, juwe}, 
quwel, gruwel, oruwel, truwan^d). 
Eng. UI is in Sc. ui (») : fruit, recruit, 
build, built, b,ruise. Sc. (ftvt, ri- 
kr,)t, h?ld, bslt, brasz), In guild, 
guilt, quit, etc., where the « belongs 
to the consonant, the sound is of 
course y, gyld, gylt, quyt. Juice is 
usually Joyce, 





The Plural Number. 

Of the eight or nine plural forms used in Anglo-saxon, the 
\JLowland Scotch preserves four : plurals in s, plurals in n, 
plurals in the Umlaut or modified vowel, and plurals the 
same as the singular. In one word we have a vestige of a 
fifth form in -er. The form in s, confined in Anglo-saxon, 
semi-Saxon, and Old Southern English to masculine nouns 
ending in a consonant, now embraces the vast majority of all 

As early as the date of the Lindisfarne and Eushworth glosses, 
the Northumbrian shewed a tendency to extend the s plural to 
nouns of all genders and declensions. 1 By 1250 this tendency 
was quite established in the northern tongue, the plural forms in 
Cursor Mundi and Hampole being almost identical with those of 
the living northern dialects, while the contemporary southern 
dialects continued to exhibit the utmost variety of forms, with a 
marked predilection for those in -en. It is due apparently to the 
early preponderance of the northern dialect that s and not n is the 
common English termination of the plural at the present day. 

Plural in -S. 

This plural, representing the Ags. -as, Lind. and Bush, -as, 
-es, Ormulum -ess, Cursor Mundi and Hampole, -es, -s (some- 
times -is, -ys), was regularly formed by the Scottish writers 
down to the 17th century in -is or -ys (rarely -es and -s). The 
modern dialects retain the connecting vowel only where the 

1 See instances cited by Dr. E. Morris, Introduction to "Early English 
Homilies," pp. lv, lvi. 


pronunciation demands it, viz., after the sibilant sounds of -s, 
-z, -sh, and zh (however these may be written). 




lass lassis 
feace feacis 



fox foxis 
bleeze, Maze bleezis 



In all other cases -s only is used : 

1. With the sound ofs. 


With the sound of z. 





kyrk, church kyrks 
Bauch, sallow sanchs 
cloot, clout cloots 
smyth, smith smyths 
tuip, ram tuips 
luif,^«to(ofhand) luifs 
leafe, loaf leafes 

segg, egg seggs 
laad, lad loads 
sceythe, scythe sceythes 
wob, web wobs 
scheyve, slice scheyves 
skuil, school skuils 
meyle, mile meyles 

luim, loom luims 
loon, rascal loons 
ryng, ring ryngs 
craa, crow craas 
trey, tree treys 
\<me, flame lowes 
keae, jackdaw keaes 

Note 1. — E mute at the end of a word is elided before -is, 
retained (mute) before -s. 2. The final s has its own hissing 
sound after a breath consonant ; the z or buzzing sound after a 
voice-consonant or vowel. The % sound is alone used in the 
termination -is, which differs in its vowel from the Eng. -es, 
being pronounced more like the Eng. -is, in Ms, or rather the 
French -ise, in bise, dise. Examples : treys, aeggs, fyschis (treiz, 
aagz, fesh - *z fesh-iz). In the centre of Scotland the opener -yz 
seems to be the sound, lassyz, fysch-yz (l#s - ez, feshez). 

3. The -as, -es, -ys, -is, originally, of course, formed a distinct 
syllable in all nouns ; although, even in Ags., an increase in the 
number of syllables was often avoided by ejecting a preceding 
short vowel, as in engel, fugol, heofon, secer, faedor, deofol, 
inflected eng-las, fug-las, heof-nas, see-ras, fsed-ras, deof-lu, geni- 
tive deof-les. If Cursor Mundi can be taken as exemplifying the 
contemporary usage of northern speech, it would appear that in 
the 13th century the termination was still pronounced as a distinct 
syllable in monosyllables, although the connecting vowel was 
already suppressed in longer words. 1 Thus (printing the -s -es or 
-is in Italics, where it does not make a separate syllable) : — 

Als it war dint-es on a steTpi, 

pat smyth-es smitt-es in a smejiey. 

parfor sal Jai pined be 
With )>aa pin-es sex and thre. 

Firend band-es es J>e nind. 

Nine orders of angels J>ai forsok 
Quan Jiai ]>am to J>e warlau tok. 

1 I say, If, etc. The testimony of pronunciation dint-es, smyth-es, might 

Cursor Mundi is complete as to the be an archaism retained in poetry, as 

fact that the e was dropped in words of we shall presently see it was in the 

two or more syllables, not as to its Scottish poets of the 16th century, 
preservation in monosyllables. The 


Felle draguns and tad-es bath. 

Nathyng sal I fene you neu, 
Eot Jat I find in bok-es treu : 
pir clerk-es tell-es fat er wise, 
pat he o Ju-us king sal rise, 
And o ]>e kind man clep-es dane. 

Ur maisters tell-es o )>is chaunce. 

Wind-es on ilk side sal rise, 
Je devels ute sal be fordriven. 

nedders batb and of draguns. 

In the following century, at least, the evidence of Hampole's 
Pricke of Conscience (1320-1350) shews that, even in mono- 
syllables, the termination had already sunk into simple s in pro- 
nunciation, although, according to the lax northern use of e mute, 
es was commonly retained in writing. Compare with the above : — 

And als smyths strykes on yren fast, 
Swa fat it brekes and brestra at last, 
Eight swa Je devels sal ay ding 
On Jie sinfulle, with-outen styntyng. 

Na clathes J>ai salle have to gang in, 
Ne na beddes to lyg in bot vermyn ; 
Als I haf herd som grete clerkes telle. 

pe planetes and J>e sternes ilkane 
Sal shyne brighter Jian ever ]>ai shane ; 
J>e son sal be, as som clerkes denies, 
Seven sythe brighter J?an now it semes. 

pir words* by Jam may be sayd here. 
For in this world ligge's twa ways, 
pe saules )>at to purgatory most wende ; 
Whilk sauls in purgatory duellos. 

pe sevend day byggyns doun sal falle, 
And gret castels and tours with-alle ; 
Ne cragges ne roches sal nan }>an be. 

And als kynges and qwenes corouned be, 
"With corounes dight with ryche perre. 

This pronunciation also appears in Scottish poets from the middle 
of the 15th century, i.e. in popular poems, short metres, satirical, 
humorous and lyrical pieces. 

Henrysoun : — Hir slevis suld be of esperance, 
To keip hir fra dispair ; 
Hir ghm's of the gud governance 
To hyd hir fyngart's fair. 

" Rowll's Cursing : 

Blak be thair hour, blak be thair part, 
For fyve fat geiss of Sir John Eowh's, 
With oapons's, henna's, and uther fowlu, 

Resettam and the privy steilaris : 
And he that sauU's saisis and damim's, 
Beteioh the deuill thair guttis and gammj's, 

Thair toung, thair teith, their handi's, thair feit, 

And all thair body haill compleit. 


Dunbar, A General Satire : — 

Sa mony lordis — sa mony natural full's 

That bettir accordis, to play thaim at the trulis 

Nor se the duli's that commouns dois sustene ; 
New tane frae scuU's, sa mony anis ' and mulis, 

"Within this land was never herd nor sene. 

The Fh/tmg : — Ersch Katherane, with thy polk breik and rilling, 
Thow and thy quene, as gredy gleddis, ye gang 

With polki's to mylne, and beggts baith meill and schilling ; 
Thair is but lyse and lang naib's yow amang : 
Fowll heggirbald, for henm's thus will ye hang, 

Thow hes ane perrellus face to play with lambt's ; 
Ane thowsand kiddi's, wer thay in faldis full Strang, 

Thy lymmerful luke wald fie" thame and thair dammis. 

Christis Kirk of the Grene : — 

With forks and flails thay lent grit flappts, 

And flang togidder lyk friggi's ; 
With bougars of barnj's thay beft blew kappas, 

Quhyle thay of bernis maid briggis ; 
The reird rais rudely with the rapps 

Quhen rungis wer layd on riggis ; 
The wyffj's cam furth with cryis and clappi's, 

Lo quhair my lyking ligs, 

Quo thay, 
At Christis kirk of the Grene. 

But while this was doubtless the pronunciation of prose and 
living speech (which thus, in some parts at least of the northern 
area, agreed, as early as 1340, with that of the present day), we 
find an entirely different usage in sustained poetry, such as the 
Brm, Wyntown's Cronykil, Douglas's Eneid, the Kings Quair, the 
chief poems of Dunbar, etc. An examination of the metres of 
these poets shews that, in the early period of Scottish literature, 
the -is or -ys (pronounced as in abb-«ss, or German kind-es), 
formed a distinct syllable in monosyllables and words accented 
on the final syllable, and even in dissyllables not finally accented, 
where it could be done without increasing the length of the 
word (i.e. by dropping a preceding short vowel as in Anglo- 
Saxon). Thus : feld-ys, best-ys, day-is, fa-yss, knycht-ys, sown-yss, 
aspict-is, honoiir-is, palpown-is = fields, beasts, days, foes, knights, 
sons, aspects, honours, pavilions ; while fadyr, modyr, dochtyr, 
wappyn, tabyl, hevyn, sadditt, mastyr, wondir, takyn, mayor, baron, 
made fad-rys, mod-rys, docht-rys, wap-nys, tab-lis, sad-lys, mast-rys, 
wond-ris, tak-nys, ma-rys, bar-nys, indicating this as the pro- 
nunciation even when the vowel was retained in writing, as 
baronys, wappynys. Where the preceding vowel could not be 
suppressed, as in husbandis, ragmentis, the termination was pro- 
bably treated as *s only; at least, no additional syllable was 
recognized. Words ending in a sibilant have of course always 
made a syllable of the -is, palacis, escarmouschis ; though in some 
words the plural was the same as the singular : vers, 

1 anis, Fr. anes, asses, 



burgeis (see on page 92), benefyiss. These rules apply also to the 
possessive singular, which in all cases followed the 'analogy of 
the plural ; and partly to the -is of the present tense/of verbs, 
although the process of contraction commenced earlier with the 
latter than with nouns (the inflection being of much less signi- 
ficance in the verb) ; so that even in the Early period there was 
an option of pronouncing the verbal -is either as -is or -s. 

Barbour, 1375. For luff is off sa mekill mycht, 

pat it all payn-ys mak-is lycht. 

Till arm-ys, swyth ! and makys jow jar, 
Her at oure hand our fay-is ar 

Knicht-is J>at wicht and hardy war, 
Undyr horss feit defoulyt Jar'! 

pe king Robert wyst he was tar 

And quhat-kyn chiftany* with him war. 

pir angr-ys may I ne mar drey. 

pan ma-yss clerk-is questioun 
Quhen Jai fall in disputacioun. 

Predom mayss man to haiff liking. 

pay sped ]jaim intyll hy to ride, 
pe ta part to ]>air pailyown-is 
The tothyr part went in Je town is. 

Wyntown, 1410. Of his gud ded-is and manheid 

Gret gest-is, I heard say, ar made ; 
But sa mony, I trow nowcht, 
As he intil his day-is wroucht. 

All J>ir land-ys, as Jiai ly, 
I have ourhalyd hastily. 

Of lord-is J>at mast myehty wes, 

paire eldast barn-ys and Jare ayr-is 

Of erl-ys, baron-ys, and of mar-ys : (bar'n-ys ?) 

Sown-yss sex and dowchtr-ys twa 
Of Jiir sownn-ys, thre of ]>a. 

Men and wemen, nobl-is grete 
And of }>ai schypp-ys mastr-ys thre 
Happenyd at anis to drownyd be. 

Thit is Jmre odyr Autor-ys sere, (Autor's or Aut'rys.) 
Jiat tell-is part of ]ris matere. 

pan (1116) Trent and Tamys war sa schalde, 
Jat a barne of twelf yhere awlde 
Mycht wayd oure Jame, and na spate, 
pat mycht mak paire kney-is wate. 

James I., 1420 . — This is to seyne, that present in that place, 

Me thocht I saw of every nacion, 
Loueris that endit [had] thaire lyf-is space. 

In lov-is service mony a mylion, 

Of quho-is chanc-is maid is mencion 
In diverse buk-is, quho thame list to se, 
And therefore here thaire nam-ys lat I be. 


Harry the Minstrel, 1460 : — l 

Born Scott-is men baid still in to the field, 
Kest wappynys thaim, and on thar kne-is kneild, 
With petouss voice thai cryt apon "Wallace, 
For Godd-is saik to tak thaim in his grace. 

Henrysoun, 1470 : — In his passage amang the planetis all, 
He herd a hevynly melody and sound, 
Passing all instrument-is musicall 

Causid be mowyng of the sper-is round. 

Merser : — Heirfoir I pray in term-ys schort, 

Chryst keip thir bird-is bricht in bowris, 
Fra fals luvara and thair resort ; 
Sic perell lyis in paramouris. 

In the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th century, the -is, 
although still generally making an independent syllable in mono- 
syllables, or after a final accent, had quite sunk into -s in other 
words of two or more syllables. Even in writing, s alone began 
to appear. Monosyllables ending in a vowel or diphthong made an 
additional syllable or not, of the inflectional -is, at the pleasure of 
the poet. So Icyng-is, hour-is, hour-is ; but faderis, wappinis, were 
= faders, wappyns, no longer fad-rys, wapp-nys. Treis, seyis, 
dayis, were optionally tre-is, sey-ie, day-is or trees, seys, days. 

Lancelot of the Laik, 1490 : — 

He saw the knycht-is semblyng her and thare, 

The sted-is rynnyng with the sadilli* bare ; 
x. His spur -is goith in to the sted-is syde, 

> pat was full swyft, and lykit not tobyd(e). 2951. 

Dunbar, 1500 :— 

Celestial fowl-is in the air, 

Sing with your nott-is upon hicht, 
In firth-is and in forestis fair 

Be mirthful now at all your micht. 

Full angel-like thir bird-is sang thair houris, 
"Within thair courtyns grene, in to thair bouris, 

Apparalit quhite and red wyth blom-es suete ; 
Anamalit was the felde wyth all colouris, 
The perly dropp-is schuke in siluir schouris, 

Quhill all in Dalme did branch and lev-is fleete. 

Douglas, 1513 :— 

The batellss and the man I will descryve, 
Fra Troy-is bound -is first that fugitive. 

And eke the faderis, princ-is of Alba 
Come, and the walleris of gret Borne alsua. 

The Grek-is chiftants irkit of the were. 

Cauchit and blaw wide quhare all seye* about. 

Abufe the sey-is lift-is furth his hede. 

1 The usage of Harry is far from or rustic, he often mixes the poetic 
uniform; being, according to his own measure with the style of vulgar speech, 
account, an uneducated " bureil man " 


This pronunciation of the -is was, I suppose, like that of the 
Trench e mute in poetry or solemn oration, or of the English -ed, 
in passed, loved, carried, the echo of an older utterance, con- 
ventionally retained in that poetic style apparently referred to by 
Montgomery — 

" I pass to poetis, to compyle 
In hich heroick staitlie style, 
QuUais Muse surmatches myne. 1 

Its co-existence with that of ordinary speech was no doubt a 
great boon to ' Makaris ' distressed by a redundant or deficient 
syllable, for, in conjunction with the laxity of accentuation which 
prevailed in words of French or classical origin, it enabled them, 
e.g. to call themselves p6-ets in two syllables or po-it-is in three. By 
the middle of the 16th century the prose pronunciation had so far 
made way, that even in sustained poetry, the retention or dropping 
of the connecting vowel was quite optional, giving the poet the 
same power of choice as is the case in modern German with final 
e and the terminations -es, -est, -et, -ete. Thus in contiguous lines 
of the first book of Lyndesay's Dialog of the Monarchi (written. 
1553-4) we find— 

Nor tell quhen thay had Sonn-is two, 

Cayn and Abell, and no mo. 1. 1145 

Nor of thare murnyng nor thare mone, 

Quhen thay, hut Sonnis, wer left allone. 1149 

Wyld heist-is did to thame repair, 

So did the Fowl-is of the air. 807 

And hrooht he Diuyne prouience, 

All beisfas and hyrdt* tyll his presence. 731 

Heiryng the byrd-is annoneis 

Taistyng the fructis of diverse treis. 827 

Quhow fruot-is indeficient 

Ay alyke rype and redolent. 847 

Had Sanet Jerome bene borne in tyll Argyle 

In to Trische toung his bukis had done compyle. 627 

Quhairfore I wald all buk-is necessare 

For our faith war in tyll our toung vulgare. 600 

Of Languagis the first Dinersytie 

Wes maid he Godd-is Maledictioun. 588 

Quhy brak thow Goddis Commandiment ? 

Quhow mycht thy forfalt he excusit 

That Goddis commandiment refusit. 966-72 

Still later in the century the syllabic pronunciation of the -is 
became quite obsolete, even in long measures, and the " hich 
heroick staitlie style " became entirely conformed to the usage of 
ordinary speech, which is also followed by the poets of the modern 
period, ro. the " Reulis and Gautelis to be observit and eschewjt 
in Scottis Poesie," of King James VI. (Edinb., 1585, republished 

1 The Cherrie and the Slae.— Stanza 6, 


in Edward Arber's English Reprints, 1869), the plural has the 
modern pronunciation in all the specimens of poetry quoted ; even 
in the verse " Heroicall " the termination is no longer syllabic. 
It is further noteworthy that, though in his prose the royal author 
still writes -is, in verse he writes -« only. Thus in "a quadrain 
of Alexandrin Verse : " 

To ignorants obdurde, quhair wilful errour lyis, 
Nor jit to curious folks, quhilks carping dois deiect thee, 
Nor jit to learned men, quha thinks thame onelie wyis, 
Bot to the docile bairns of knawledge I direct thee. 

But in prose : 

" Je aucht alwayis to note, that as in thir forsaidt's, or the lyke wordi's, it 
rymis in the hinmest lang syllabe in the lyne, althoucht there be Tther short 
syllabis behind it, sa is the hinmest lang syllabe the hinmest fute, suppose there 
be vther short syllabi's behind it, quhilkis are eatin vp in the pronounceing, and 
na wayis comptit as feit." 

The reason of this was, that in prose the termination had long 
been pronounced as -s only, and would be so read, as a matter of 
course, by every one ; but in verse this pronunciation was still 
comparatively new, so that it was needful to mark it by the 
spelling. For a similar reason we often see in modern English 
poetry such spellings' as these (which were still commoner a 
century ago) : pass'd, past, toss'd, tost, fetch' d, fetcht, sooth'd, pain'd, 
curst, blest, mixt, vext, not meaning that these words are to be 
pronounced differently from passed, tossed, fetched, soothed, pained, 
cwsed, blessed, mixed, vexed, but that they are to be pronounced 
in the prose way, and not pass-ed, toss-ed, fetch-ed, sooth-ed, pain-ed, 
curs-ed, bless-ed, mix-ed, vex-ed, as they used to be, and still 
occasionally are, in verse. In prose the contracted spelling is not 
considered requisite since no one would think of pronouncing 

In Scottish prose the spelling -is long survived the pronunci- 
ation. In the dialect of Teviotdale the Annals of Hawick shew it- 
in full use in 1600 ; by 1640 forms in -es and -s become equally 
frequent, the same document shewing personnis, personnes, and 
persons, utheris and uthers, mindes and minds, quhillcis and quhilks ; 
the forms in -is finally disappear about 1660. 

A few nouns in / change into the corresponding voice- 
consonant v before -s (or rather s) of the plural. This usage 
seems to be recent, for it extends only to a few of the words 
which undergo the change in English. In the south of 
Scotland, Leif, theif, kneyfe, leyfe, weyfe, usually make the 
plural leives, theives, kneyves, leyves, wfyves ; but haff, leafe 
(loaf), schself, self, make haffs, leafes, etc. In the Sc. writers 
of the 16th century, as in the earlier dialect of Hampole and 
Cursor Mundi, / is usually retained in the plural, as wyffls, 
theiffis, lyiffis ; in the more northern dialects of Scotland also, 
e.g. in Aberdeenshire, leifs, theifs, kneyfs, weyfs, leyfs, are 
still the regular forms. 


Of the analogous change of s and th into their voice sounds, z 
and dh, in the plural, recognized in the English pronunciation of 
houses, mouths, truths, etc. (hauzyz, maudhz, truudhz), I do not 
find any traces in the Scottish dialects. 

Beist has pi. betss ; chase (or claise), clothes, seem to be simi- 
larly formed from death, claith, cloth. There are traces of this 
pronunciation as early as the 15th century. In " Batis Having," 
1. 2780, we find the rhyme- 
He honoris na man for riches, 
For honore is nocht gevyne for claithw, — 

■where richesse requires clans for the rhyme, as the pronunciation 
of claithis. The modern form would be — 

For honore ys nocht gi'en for claise. 

The same forms are found all over the northern area; thus, in 
the Cleveland dialect, beeas, cleeas (the latter being pronounced 
nearly as in South of Scotland). In South Lancashire (Midi. Dia.) 
we find clooas (with which compare Cockney close) ; the South 
English dialects get over the difficult combination beasts by pro- 
nouncing beast-es, heard alike in London and in Devonshire. 

Pl/tTRAL in -N. 

Ee (South Sc. ey) eye, makes tin (Cumberl., Westmorel., etc. 
e'en) ; schui, shoe, makes schuin. To which may be added oxen or 
owssen, for which, however, nowt, sing, and pi., is more commonly 
used in this dialect. 

It is interesting to note that the same three words, eghen or 
eyen, sehon or schoyn, and oxyn, were the only plurals in -n 
retained by the northern dialect in the 13th century, 2 while 
nearly 200 such forms existed in the southern dialect a century 
later, including, e.g. eyen, scheon, oxen, applen, gloven, bellen, unclen, 
tungen, etc., 2 of which Dorsetshire still presents us with cheesen, 
housen, pledcen, vurzen, 3 and the authorised version of the Bible 
with hosen. 

His haiie moutes, his eghen rynnes, 

His eres waxes deef, and hard to here. — Hampole, P. of C. 780. 

His eyn with his hand closit he, 

For to dey with mar honeste. — Barbour. 

Na sehoyne )>ai had 
But as )>ai Jaim of hyd-ys mad. — Barbour. 

JJai sayd Mactduff, of Fyfe ye Thayne, 

pat ilk yhoke of oxyn aucht, 

pat he saw fayle in to Jie draucht. — Wyntown. 

1 Dr. E. Morris, Grammatical In- 2 Dr. E. Morris, Grammatical In- 

troduction to Hampole's Fricke of traduction to the Ayenbite of Inwyt. 
Conscience. 3 EeT.W. Barnes, Grammar & Glos- 

sary of the Dorsetshire Dialect, p. 19. 


Plukal IN -EE. 

The only vestige of this class is supplied by the word 
childer (Age. cildru, German, kinder), used by all the northern 
writers from Hampole and Barbour to Lyndesay, Lauder, 
and the Complaynt of Scotland. 

Maysters some tyme uses the wand, 

pat has childer to lere undir bair hand. — P. ofC, 1. 5881. 

To wemen jeit we do bot litill ill 

Na jong childir we lik for to spill. — Henry, Wallace. 

He (Ascanius) taucht the auld Latinis to hant sic play, 
The samyn rise as he, ane child, now wrocht, 
And uthir Troiane childer with hira brocht ; 
The Albanis taucht thair childer the samyn way, 
And myohty Rome sine efter mony ane day. — 

Gaw. Doug. Eneid. 
Mony auld men maid childer-les, 
And mony childer fatherless. — Lyndesay, Man. 1909. 

• Than I beheld the scheip-hirdis wyuis and ther childir that brocht there 
mornyng bracfast to the scheip hirdis. — Compl. of fie., p. 65. 

This word is still in common use in the north of England and 
many parts of Scotland; but the synonym bairn, bairns, being 
generally used in the south of Scotland cheyld, chylder, have 
become nearly obsolete. Cheild, a young man, a lad, has plural 

Plural in the Umlaut. 

The forms in the modern idiom corresponding to the Ags. man, 
men ; fot, fe't ; cu, cy ; are the following : — man, men msen ; 
wumman, weimen (in Southern Scotch wuimein) ; guiss, geiss : 
tuith, teith ; fuit, fute, usually fyt, feit ; bruther, breither ; looss, 
leyss ; mooss, meyss ; coo (S. Sc. cuw), kye. 

These are, I believe, all the Umlaut forms that the northern 
dialect has possessed since the 13th century. See geiss, teith, and 
feit, in " Koull's Cursing," ante p. 152. 

Brether, Ags. brewer is used as the plural of brother by all the 
northern writers. Thus : 

Hampole : — Suthly I say yhow, swa yhe wroght, 

pat ilka tyme when yhe did oght, 
Until ane of be lest bat yhe myght se, 
Of my brether, yhe did til me. 

Barbour : — For twa brether war in that land, 

That war the hardiest of hand, 
That war in til all that cuntre\ 

Wyntown : — pe thryd part off be land alsua, 

As banysyd wyth hys bre^yr twa. 

Schortly to say be lawchful twa 
£re]>ire forsuke wyth hym to ga. 

And bat traytour he suld sla, 

pat banysyd him and his Bredyr twa 


Dunbar : — Sen be be* al my brother tone, 

Hi; will not let me lire alane, 
On tons I roaan bill newt prey be; 

Timt/r nu/rti$ eonturbal trie ! 

Lyndenay : — Jiretktr in armed, adew in generaU ! 

For me, 1 wait, jour hartut bene full soir. 

Cham lench to ae bu Father fa, 
Qnhowbeit hi* Jirether win rycbt wa. 

Thou reprafia and accom me of the falti* that my tna trrtihir eotmmtti* 
daly ; my tna brethir, nobilli* and elergie, ar mafr cruel contrar me nor i* my 
aid enemet of Ingland. — Osm/il. of Scot., p. 191. 

Quod he, my bredir, be je noeht in jour Tit lyik ehMir. — lb. p. 46. 

This word is now nearly obsolete * in the Southern Counties, 
bruther* being the common form. In the Annals of Hawick, anno 
1622, p. 204, we have " Thomas Lytle in SeheiU and James and 
Christie Lytlet his bretfter." Jirether is still common in many 
parte of Scotland. Mr. K. Giffen informs me that he has beard it 
used by old people in Strathavon ; another friend reports it from 
Perth ; the Kev. \V. floss gives it as the common form in Caithness ; 
and Mr. John Addison, replying to a finery in the Atttmaum, says : 
"this word i-. in every-day use among the common people in 'the 
kingdom ' of Fife as the plural of broths/r. In the town it has in 
some degree given place to britfieri ; but in the country it still 
holds its own." The general j/ronTineiation is brmthtr, bat in 
Caithness IrrUJter, as in brethren. The singular ought analogically 
to be pronounced bruithtr, according to the usual equivalent of 
the Agg. 6. Compare to¥, go», So. fc«'£A, ^a»'«. The pronunci- 
ation of the Middle Period was probably bruilfter an/1 muither, 
whence the brither and miiheriA Central Scotland, like the modern 
fit, fytt, for Middle Scotch fv,U,fuit. 


Barnes of animals winter in Anglo-saxon for which there 
existed distinct sexual names besides — 

gayt (goat; grey/* 'pi ?/ . 
gayt jtreyee. 


To this class also belong* juroperly nweym, swine, which, in 
most of the Northern dialects, is used both as singular and plural 
like the Ag-. ««»; but in this dialect the original feminine *««;, 
*o«, older *<^<A, *>«;, is n»ed for the singular, with tweyne as it* 
plural OVy't or y«t'«, goat, goat*., is used by the nortljern 
writers down to the 17th century at least : 

1 Xne Ber. J. PiiliM inform* me of it* we in AmsjiAale within bi* memory. 

>'«^. h.r-.': nowt 'ne&t-c&ttle, 



i?. horn nowt. 


l^r*. h//.-. nyten 




His angels }>an 

Sal first departe Je gude fra )>e ille, 
Als ]>e bird ]>e shepe dus fra ]>e gayte. — 

Hampole, Pi: of Con. 

In the Eecord of the Jedhurgh Circuit of 1622 (Annals of 
Hawick, p. 246), two of the border thieves then brought to " Jethart 
justice," " wes accusit for ye thifteous steilling of tuentie scheip, 
and fyve auld gaitt, with yair kiddis, furtli of ye lands of Cruiks, 
thrie jeir syne or y r by." In two other instances we find gaitt 
among the booty carried off, the chief part consisting, however, 
of nolt, kg, stottis (bullocks), oxin, hors, meiris, naigis, scheij), yotcis 
(ewes), and lammis, a fine series of northern plurals. Since gayte 
have disappeared before Cheviot sheep from the Border hills, the 
word has also disappeared from current speech, and the English 
goat, goats, have taken its place. 1 According to ' D. C in the 
Athenaum, 27th Feb. 1869 : "gaitt is in familiar use in the north- 
east of Perthshire, where the rhyme is current : 

Wha's gaitt are thae, 
Doun in yon green ? 
What gie thay ? 
Milk and whey, etc." 

To this class also may be added fysch and fool, fowl, which had 
originally plurals in -s, but of which the singular has passed from 
a collective into a plural signification. 

Most nouns of time, space, quantity, weight, measure, and 
number, remain unchanged in the plural when used collec- 
tively, or with a numeral that already indicates plurality. 8 
Such are 

Of Time. — Yeir, munth. 

Of Sjpace. — Tnsch, fytt, sell, meyle, eacre, yerd, peartch. 

1 A number of the original northern yer schuins i' the passage ! " With all 

words in a have of late become obsolete diffidence, as became one of the culprits, 

before the southern forms in o. In I ventured to remark upon the oddness 

addition to gayte, bait, bair, nets, air, of such a form as schuins, but was 

rair, slaw, have more or less yielded to rather testily told : " Gin ye had them 

boat, boar, nose, oar, roar, slow. This tui clean, ye wad ken the difference 

was one of the chief points introduced atween ae bodie's sehuin an' aa o' yer 

by the Anglicising writers of the 16th schuins." The argument of course 

century : Knox, Lyndesay, and Dunbar, admitted of no reply, but I have often 

have almost always one, tone, more, thought of the words as illustrating 

«>, for ane, tane, mare, sa, etc. Several the numerous southern double plurals 

northern forms in u are also disappear- calver-en, tamber-en, eyr-cn, etc., of 

ing before southern forms in o, oo, such which children, brethren, and kine 

ns dure, door, muitie,more,pruir<',proie. (sing, child, brother, cow; pi. child-er, 

3 In connection with the difference brether, ky ; double pi. child-er-en, 

between plurals collective, and plurals brether-en, ky-en, ky-ne,) have come 

distributive, I have known a second or down into modem English. Did the 

double plural to be formed from such original plurals — still preserved in the 

words as sehuin, feit, kye. An old lady northern dialect, ehilder, brether, ky — 

met a company of muddy-booted lads come to be used collectively for the 

at the door with the injunction, '■ Nuw, offspring or members of a single family, 

screape yer fsits weil, an' pyt off aa o* the herd of a single owner, so that a 



Of Weight. — Pund, unce, steane, tun, leade, hunder-wasyeht. 

Of Measure. — Mutchkyn, peynt, quart, gallon, bushel, haf-fou', 
bowe, sssck, leade, cliappin, fyrkin, and such compounds as 
haandfu', naaffu', canfu', cairtfu', haands-breith, etc. 

Of Number. — Pserr, dyzzen, scuore, hunder, thoosant, myllion, 
sast, cupple, heid. Examples : Syx munth aald, six months' old ; 
twall yeir aald, twelve years' old ; the fceclc o' teen yeir, the space 
of ten years ; fyve cell o' reape, five ells of rope ; toontie meyle o' 
geate, twenty miles' walk ; tweae bowe o' meil, two bolls of meal ; 
a hunder thoosant. 

But when used severally, or not preceded by a numeral, 
they are made plural in the usual way. Thus : 

Hey baid away for yeirs, he remained away for years ; hey hoes 
eacres on eacres, aa s' warran' ye, a thoosant eacre, he has acre 
upon acre, I warrant you a thousand acres ; huw muonie meyle 
said hey ? threy meyle an' a byttoch ; wye, threy lang meyles, an' the 
byttoch as guid as onie tweae o' them, how many miles said he? 
three miles and a bit ; ay, three long miles, and. the bit as good 
as any two of them. Aa saa hunders hyngan' aboot, I saw 
hundreds hanging about. JSuw muonie dyzzen hx-ye ? Aa dynna 
coont be dyzzens. How many dozen have you ? I don't count by 
dozens. The' waar seiven cupple hyrkit, an' (hay cum oot be 
cupples. There were seven couples churched, and they came out 
by couples. 

The same distinction has prevailed from the earliest appearance 
of northern literature in the 13 th century. 

As in English several nouns are naturally plural. Such are 
taings, or taiyngs, tongs, scheirs, scissors, breiks, breeches. 

Collective nouns being in Scotch usually construed as plural, 
several preparations of food, considered as collective nouns, are 
spoken of as thay, thaim, monie, meae, or feuw. Such are bruose, 
pbrritch, soioens, heale, brbih, cruds. The collective idea seems to 
arise from viewing them as containing the collected meals or 
portions of many individuals. 

Examples. Thyr pbrritch '11 bey ower caald, yf ye dynna teake 
them suin. Huw dui-ye leyke theae broth, yr-n' thaay vaerra 
feyne ? Aa've ower feuw bruose. 

The Possessive Case. 

In common with the other modern representatives of the 
Anglo-saxon, the Lowland Scotch retains the case-inflections 
of the ancient tongue only in the Q-enitive or Possessive Case. 

second plural inflection became necea- objects naturally found in groups ; and 

sary to express the brethren and chil- in modern English we restrict brothers, 

dren of many families, the Icy-en of which replaces brether, to those of one 

many owners, or as my old friend family, using brethren for those who 

would have expressed it, " aa o' thair call each other brother, though of 

liyes ? " All the words so inflected different families, 
seem to be tho names of animals or 


The Possessive Singular. — As in the case of the nominative 
plural, the termination (-es) originally peculiar to masculine 
and neuter nouns of the complex order, was extended, first, 
by the northern, and, afterwards, by the other dialects to 
nouns of all genders. The change, although begun in the 
10th century, 1 does not seem to have been completed quite so 
early as the corresponding extension of the plural s, for in 
Hampole, Barbour, and other writers, down even to the 
" Complaynt of Scotland," 1548, we still find examples of 
genitives, originally in e-, -en, or the umlaut, which have 
lost these inflections without as yet adopting the termination 
-s, and thus appear in their simple, uninflected form. Thus, 
in Hampole, we have fader house, moder kne, ]>e son rysyng, 
J?e hert rote, an eghe twynkelyng, til helle ground, helle pyne, 
pi endyng day, in saul dede, representin the Ags. fseder, 
moder, sunnan, heortan, eagan, hellan, endunje, sawle ; al- 
though it is proper to add that the same forms are occasionally 
found where both the Ags. and modern language entitle us 
to expect a genitive in -s, as in man son, hefd hare, ur laverd 
wither wines, our lord's adversaries. 
In Barbour we have : — 

Modreyt his systir son him slew, 

And gud men als ma ]>an inew. 

Wynton : — pan he 

Banysyd his Broder barnys thre. 
As j>ai wald fame redy mak, 
For fair fadyre dede to tak 

Lyndesay : — to speik with ony other 

Except that kyng, quhilk was hi&mother brother; 

Jour vmquhile/«<&> broder Antonius due of Calabre, loran/and of bar. 

Siclyike that maist sapient prince ande prelat fadir in gode, ihone of loran, quha 

is sour fadir broder. 
Joung Iunius Brutus was sistir sone to tarqninus. 

Here systir,,fadyre, mother, represent the Ags. genitives sweoster, feeder, moder. 

But the usual ending of the possessive in Scotch was the 
same as that of the plural number, -is. The i is now elided 
and its place indicated by the apostrophe, as man's, iveyfe's, 
schyp's, for the older mannis, wyffi's, schyppis, and Ags. mannes, 
wifes, scipes. 

Though omitted in spelling, the i must still be pronouced 
after s, sh, z, and zh sounds (see formation of plural). Thus 
lass's, juidge's, fysch's,. are pronounced lassiz, juidgiz, fyschiz,. 
just like the plural. 

1 Dr. R. Morris, Introduction to the witigimges, bro'Sres,. fadores, modres^ 
" Early English Homilies," lv. lvii., from the Lindisfame Gospels, 
cites ncdles, sanies, Aelles, eostunges, 

164 . (GRAMMAR. 

The Possessive Plural in Ags. ended in -a, -ra, -na, but this 
termination has disappeared in the modern -dialects, which 
have replaced it by a new form in 's, after the analogy of the 
singular. 1 In the literary English this appears in full only 
where s is not already the plural ending, as in men, sheep, 
mice, poss. men's, sheep's, mice's ; when the plural ends in s, 
euphony requires the second s to be omitted and its place 
indicated by the apostrophe alone, thus, boys' for boys' s. But 
in our dialect this euphonic contraction does not take place, 
and thus the possessive plural, as well as the singular, is 
regularly formed by adding 's to the nominative. Thus, the 
kye's huorns, cow's horns, the meyee's huoles, mice's holes, the 
bairns' s clease, the children's clothes, thefcermers's kye, farmers' 
cows, the doags's lugs, dogs' ears. As in the singular the 
apostrophe must be pronounced as a connecting vowel after s 
sounds ; men's, kye's = (msenz, kaiz), but bairns's, doags's, 
meyee's = (bernzi'z, doogz^z, meis«'z). 

The history of the possessive plural, and the first appearance of 
forms in s seem to deserve further investigation. In the Southern 
dialect of 1340, the " Ayenbite of Inwyt " makes this case in -ene 
(Ags. -ena), and this or its contraction -en remained as the 
southern possessive plural till near the end of the 14th century. 
The West Midland dialect of the 14th century also retained some 
vestiges of a genitive plural in -en, hut such forms had long 
before disappeared from the Northern dialect. As to the modern 
substitute, in plurals not formed in s, Hampole has mens — 

pe fire mens bodys to askes sal brin ; 
Mens sons and doghters unchastyede. 
alle mens knawyng ; till all mens sight 

But also simply men — 

sal dede men banes be sett togyder : 
tbuvgb messes, and rightwis men prayers : 

In the case of s-plurals we find — 

Man here es nathyng elles 
Bot wormes fode Jiat Jai wald have. 

Compare the Southern — 

"Huet is man bot velthe and a zechvol of donge, wermene mete." — 

Ayenbite, p. 216. 

1 A relic of the genitive plural in -er, " Deploratioun of Quene Magdalene," 

Ags. -ra, survived to tbe 16th century Edition of 1568 : 

in the phrases alter- best, alter-last, alter- The greit Maister of houshold all than 
maxst, best, last, most, of all. Ags. i aa t 

ealra-betst, omnium optimus. Already „ . -.'.,. - , ,.,.„ 

in Hampole we find alter strengthened l*™ echtlcm . of 1558 -~ 

into alder atyer, and latterly we find Tne g relt master of howshold all yair 
that the true origin of the expression l* 18 *' 

was entirely lost, so that it is expanded where read alter-last, last of all, Ags. 

into all thare, all yair ; thus, Lyndesay ealra-latost. 


pai sal turne Jiurgh Goddes myght 
pefadirs hertes until Je sons right. 

pe boke of Apostels werkes 

pe- Sebriens bokcs = some bobes of ye Ebriens> 

Aboven al ]>at er paens goddes calde- 
that is 

" aboven the goddes alle 
pat the paens fair goddes sal calle." 

In the Scottish, writers plurals not in -s are used as possessives 
without any additional inflection, down to a late period : 

Knychtis }>at wioht and hardy war, 
Undjr horss feit defoulyt fair. — Barbour. 

The childer ayris of the fyrst wyff. — Leges Burgorum. 

Gif the pure commontis that lyis vitht in the Inglis men handis be nocht 
of ane qualitie to defend or resist there enemeis.— CompA of Seat. 1548. 

But elsewhere we find also mennis. Plurals in -is, -s, were used 
as possessives without any change of form. 

The preist of peblis speris ane question, quhy that burges ayris thryuis 
nocht to the thrid ayr p — Compl. of Scot. 

The Grekis chiftanys irkit of the weir. — Douglas. 

In which there is nothing but the context to distinguish the 
possessive plural from the nominative plural, or indeed from the 
possessive singular. Was it simply the nominative plural placed 
in juxtaposition to the object possessed, as in dede men banes, my 
fader hous ? Is- the modern English boys' really an euphonic con- 
traction for boys's, or is it simply the nominative placed in juxta- 
position with a diacritical mark to distinguish it to the eye ? 
Concerning the modern Scotch boys's, doags's, there can be no 
doubt, and it is significant that the northern dialect, which first 
gave us this genitive plural in s, pushes its application to the 
fullest extent. 

The Norman French possessive (of, o') is also used in Scotch, 
especially with inferior animals and things ; as the heid o' 
the heist ; the tail of a lyon. With persons it seems to be 
used in a ludicrous or derogatory sense, as ranking them 
with the inferior animals ; as look at the ein o' the buodie ! 
look at the eyes of the creature ! 

Instead of either Saxon or Norman possessive, the two 
nouns are often placed in juxtaposition in their simple state. 
This form is especially used with inanimate objects, as the 
hyll-heid, the trey-ruit, the trey-t6p, the doar-back, the 
doar-key, the hoose-send, the toon-geate, the hoose-seyde, a 
clock-feace, a burn-seyde, a maad-neuk, a cuot-tail, a cuot- 
sleive. Sometimes also with animals when dead, as a scheip- 
heid, a caave-skyn. Aa saa a cuw heid at the doar, would 
mean the head of a dead cow ; aa saa a cuw's heid, might be 
the head of a living cow looking out. 


This form of the possessive is very common in Hampole ; as 
already mentioned, it is found with nouns which had not origi- 
nally an s in the genitive, but is not confined to them, numerous 
nouns occurring now with and now without the s quite arbi- 
trarily. Proper names scarcely ever take an s. Examples : 
haly kirk fas, holy church's foes, also, haly kirkes tresor ; an 
egge yholke, also the yholke of the egge, man saul, mans lyfe, 
the dede hand, the hand of death, )>e dede thraw, til a hors bak a 
mykel lade, a hefd hare (a hair of the head), man son (the son of 
man), J>e rich man saule, Antecrist mdder lend (Antichrist's 
mother's loins), Lazar saule, Lazar fynger ende, Abraham bosom, 
" als byfel in Noe and Loth days." ' 

The 's is often separated from its noun by a word or clause, as 
in " Thamson the Myller's cairt ; Eob o' the Toor's kye ; the 
man-wui-the-quheyte-cuot's horse ; that's the man-at-ye-mset- 
yesterday's dowchter. Connected with this is the development 
of the -s into his, in formal language. Robert Laidlaw, quhilom 
of Haviesyde, his Executors." 

Adjectives of Quality. 

These present few peculiarities of form, being either 
simple or derivative with such terminations as -ie, -rie, -lie, 
-le, -sum, -rif, -fix, -less, -isch, as haandie, handy, clever ; 
sleiprie sleepy, bairnlie childish, bruckle brittle, weaesum 
mournful, weakerif wakeful, cayr/tc carefull, heidless headless, 
fayrisch pretty fair. 

Of the derivative forms those in -ie (Eng. -y, Ags. ig, 
German -ig, -ich,) are the most frequent, being formed from 
almost all nouns simple or compound, as well as verbs, with 
the idea of possessing, characterised by, as wuddie woody, 
haandie handy, adroit, fouthie copious, having fouth or full- 
ness, yll-ivullie malevolent, fuore-thowchtie, having fore- 
thought, thuole-muidie patient, synkie sloughy. In one word, 
-rie, represents the English -y, sleiprie sleepy. Compare the 
German schlaf-rig, Dutch slape-rig. 

The termination -le has the power of inclined to, given to, 
as bruckle, liable to break, forgettle, apt to forget, smyttle, apt 

1 This is still a characteristic of would write on the fly-leaf of a hook, 

the dialect of the Northern English "John Smith book." In short, I never 

counties. " One peculiarity of our dia- remember hearing 's from an unedu- 

lect is that we have no Genitive, or cated Cumbrian." — Rev. J. JSethering- 

rather, possessive case, especially in ton in letter to Mr. Ellis, on Cumberland 

proper names. A servant would speak Dialect. So with the pronoun it : " it 

of ' Mr. Atkinson boots ; ' a boy would lifted it head, and opened it mouth, 
say, ' that is John book ; ' a man 


to smytt (Danish smitte, Sw. smitta, to infect), infectious, 
contagious. Compare Ags. et-ol, drinc-ol, sprec-ol, given to 
eating, drinking, speaking, edax, bibax, loquax. We have 
also East-le and Wast-le, lying to the East and "West re- 
spectively. The town of Hawick is divided by the north- 
ward-running Slitrig into two parts, known as Eastle-the- 
waitter and Wastle-the-waitter, commonly contracted into 
Eis'la-waitter and Was'la-waitter, or simply Eis'la and Was'la. 

Adjectives in -sum are distinct from those in -fu. Thus a 
weaesum stuorie is a mournful story, one that would make 
the hearer weae or sorry, a weaefufeace is a face already wo- 
begone. So feirsum terrific, aasum producing awe, gruwsum, 
such as to make one groose or shudder (German grausam), 
teyresum tiresome. 

Adjectives in -less are the opposite of those in -fu, -sum, 
or -ie, as cayr-fu, cayr-less, thoivchtsum, thoicchtless, haandie, 
haandless handless, gauche. 

The termination -isch forms diminutives from other adjec- 
tives, as guidisch, yungisch, aaldisch. Also adjectives from 
nouns, as fuilisch. 

The termination -en, for which the Southern English dialects 
have so great a predilection, is all but obsolete in the north, 
where the simple noun form is used instead ; as quheit breid, 
wheaten bread, a wud han'l, a wooden handle. The present 
tendency of the literary English is to imitate the Northern dialects 
in rejecting the termination -en. Thus, leathern, silken, hempen, 
waxen, oaken, birchen, beechen, ashen, brazen, leaden, golden, are 
disappearing before the simple forms leather, silk, hemp, wax, oak, 
birch, etc. Dorsetshire, on the other hand (southern dialect), 
retains many old forms, such as hornen, peapern, stwonen, ele- 
men, etc. 

Degrees of Comparison. 

The comparative and superlative are formed by adding -er 
and -est (pronounced as in hyr, kyst), or in long words by 
prefixing mayr, meast. 

The following are irregularly compared : — 
Guid good beetter beest 

Yll ) 

■p. ■, J evil, bad waar warst 

Lyttle Utile lsess leist 

Muckle great mayr meast 

Monie, muonie, many meae meast, moniest ' 

' Ilk opinioun has sufficient auctoriteis, nochtheless, I find monyest auctoriteis 
sayand, the Eomane brethir war Horacianis. — Bellenden, Zivy. 



Fasrr far 



faerrest l 

Nserr, neir near 



nssrrest, neixt, neist 

Leate late 


leatest, last 

Fuore fore 

fuormest, 2 fyrst 

Hynt hind 


hyntmest, hynmest 3 

Several adverbs 

and nouns 



are compared and 

used adjectively :— 

Up _ 


upmest, upper-mest 

(abuin) above 


buinmest, -ermest 



Heid head 


Doon down 


doonmest, -ermest 

(anseth) beneath 






Boddam bottom 


Fytt foot 


Ynn in 


ynmest, ynnermest 

Oot out 


ootmest, ootermest 

Eist east 


eistmest, -ermest 

Wast west 


wastmest, -ermest 

Hynder is only used in the expression hynder-end, the last end, 
the close, death. " Ye man beyde an' sey the hynder-eend," you 
must stay and see the close. End alone is used for either ex- 
tremity, the beginning or end. " Thay gang oot-bye free the fuore- 
send o symmer tui the hynt-asnd o haerst," they go in the open 
air from the beginning of summer to the end of harvest ; " the 
back-send," the fall of the year, the period between harvest and 
winter ; " ye'U fynd the neame at the fuore-send o the buik," you 
will find the name at the beginning of the book. 

Eister and Waster, written Easier and Wester, are used in dis- 
tinguishing hamlets or farms of the same name, as Easter Essen- 
side, Wester Middle, Wester-hirh. 

The Superlative absolute is formed by vcerra (older veray, 
verra 1 ), real, truly, exceedingly; "hey's a vmrra guid maister; " 
" schui was real guid tui the puir," she was exceedingly good to 
the poor ; " yt's real weill duin," it is exceedingly well done, es 
ist recht wohl gethan. Sayr is used when a degree of pity or 
regret is expressed, as "the waa was sayr broken doon," the wall 

1 And J 'arrest from the heuin Impyre 
The erth, the watter, air, and tyre. — 

Lyndesay, Monarch^, 697. 

2 And wan before the firmest schyp in hy. 

Dowglas, Eneid. 133, 13. 
3 Je aucht alwayis to note that as in thir foirsaidis, it rymes in the hinmest lang 
syllabe in the lyne, sa is the hinmest lang syllahe the /tinniest fute. — 

James VI., Reulis and Cautelis, 
1 Munitius was verra glaid of this ansuer. — Compl. of Scot., fol. 134. 


was very much broken down, die Mauer war sehr umgebrochen ; 
" quhow ! but hey's sayr altert ! " alas ! he is greatly changed, 
ach ! doch ist er sehr verandert ! Sayr has not assumed quite so 
wide an application as German sehr, Dutch zeer, but has a more 
general sense than English sore. With a nearly similar force 
uncb (Ags. uncu'S, unknown, unfamiliar, strange, uncommon,) is 
used : " It's unco caald the-day," it is exceedingly cold to-day. 
Unco somewhat insinuates the idea of too, too much, more than 
was expected, or is wished. 

Than, after the Comparative Degree, is expressed in- 
differently by several words : 

1. By nor, perhaps the commonest form still in use, as well as 
with the writers of the Middle Period. 

Munitius the maister of the hors men was verra proud in hym self, and 
alse in his weyrs,he was mair furius nor prudent. — Oompl. of Scot. 

Na personne sail hruick the office of Balliarie langer nor the space of twa 
yeir together. — Burgh See. of Hawick, Anno. 1669. 

The older form of nor was na ; thus in the Craft ofDeyng, 1. 112 : 

He opnyt na mare his mouth na the lam dois quhen his throt is wnder 
the knyf. 

2. By than, the form always used by Hampole, and commonly 
by the early Scottish writers down to Gawain Douglas. 

3. By as (ez), like the German als, a very common construction 
in the Southern Counties, of which instances are also found in 
the 16th century : 

Ane verteous captain can nocht exsecut ane mair vailjeant act as quhen 
he purchessis pace and Concorde. — Gompl. of Scot. 

There can nocht be ane mair vehement perplexite as quhen ane person 
beand in prosperite, syne dechays in miserabil adversite. — Ibid. 

4. By be, bey, "hey's yunger be onie 6 thaim." This curious 
form appears to be as old as the Gloss to the Lindisfarne Gospels, 
where one of the renderings of magis Mis is mare bi him. Com- 
pare Gawain Douglas : 

an fer greter wonder 
And mare dredful to cativis be sic hunder ; 

i.e. than a hundred such. 

A very emphatic comparative is formed by using the posi- 
tive with be, bey — " yung be yuw " — young to a degree by or 
beyond you, or young beside you, by comparison with you, de- 
cidedly younger than you. This may have led to the use of be 
with tbe comparative, as in yunger be thaim. 1 

Baad is apparently a word of recent adoption, the true opposite 

1 In a company of Scotchmen, re- "nor sheets," "as sheets," and "be 

cently, I referred to the proverb, sheets," by different members of the 

" Better weir schuin than sheets," and, company, without any one perceiving 

without calling attention to the con- the diversity, until I called attention 

junction, heard it given " than sheets," to it. 


of guid being yll (Ags. yfel. So. writers generally euyll, but pro- 
nounced yll. See ante p. 130).- Thus : 

pat day sal alle men byfor hym be, 

Bathe gude and Hie, mare and less. — Hampole, 1. 6123. 

Wa till yhow fat says with will, 

pat ille es gud, and gud es ill ! — Ibid. 1. 1612. 

Efter as his deid was gud or ill 

Hym self to deme sail be his will. — Satis Saving, 1354. 

Yll is still generally used in the sense of bad, as " hey's an yll 
loon; " "yt's an yll wund at blaas neaebuodie guid." 

Away, away, ye ill womyne 

An iU deide met ye dee ! — Mtrick Shepherd — Witch of Fife. 

Also in the sense of hard or difficult, as " yll tui beyde," hard to 
bear ; " yll to meake oot," difficult to decipher. To be yll aboot a 
thing is to be vexed or grieved about it; "thay're unco yll aboot 
luossin' the lyttle eane ; " to be yll at, is to be dipleased with, 
opposed to : " hyr freinds war yll at hyr mairriein' hym ; " to be 
yll 6n is to be hard upon ; " schui was seae yll bnna the lassie, at 
schui ran away, an' wadna beyde wui'r." Bad and yll are used 
indifferently in reference to health : " hey's vaerra baad," or 
" vaerra yll." " Aa heir ye've bein baadlie," that is, rather ill. 

Muckle and lyttle are used to express size, as magnus, parvus, as 
well as adverbially, and to express quantity, like the English 
much, little, and French beauooup, peu. Thus, a muckle waitter, 
a large river ; a lyttle burnie, a small streamlet ; muckle waitter, 
much water ; lyttle wut, little wit ; " hey eits lyttle, but hey 
drynks ower muckle," he eats little, but drinks too much ; " ye 
msenna weale, but teake lyttle and muckle as thay cum," you 
must not choose, but take small and large as they come. The 
Norse bygg, bulky, is now used as almost synonymous with 
muckle in speaking of size ; at an earlier period it was used in 
the sense of wealthy. Thus Hampole : 

Now er we ryche, now er we pur, 
Now haf we our litil, now pas we mesur, 
Now er we bigg, now er we bare, 
Now er we hale, now seke and sare. — 

Where MS. additional 1305, translates bigg by riche. The bygg 
hoose, in north of Scotland, the myckle hoose, is the mansion house, 
or residence of the laird. 

The Comparative and Superlative of muckle are now used 
almost exclusively as adverbs, or to express quantity, like the 
English more and most ; as mayr rain, measte scense. At an 
earlier period they were used also to express size, as major, 
maximus. Thus Hampole : 

Hampole : — Ilk man J?at here lyves, mare and lesse. 

Of the mare world yhit wil I mare say. 
pe mare world es Jjis world brade 
And )>e les es man for quham it cs made. 

Gawain Douglas : — Heruest to rendu- his frutis maist and kist. 


But though, we still say " hey was the mayr fuil tui gang," the 
greater fool to go, "the measte pairt o' the siller," bygger and 
byggest regularly replace mair and measte, as adjectives. 

In comparing modern English with the ancient forms of the 
language, we observe a curious slide or displacement in meaning, 
which has befallen the adjectives of size. In Anglo-saxon mycil 
and lytil were = magnus and parvus. In English (and partly in 
Scotch) mycil (much, muckle) has lost this sense, and become = 
multum. Iytil has also taken the meaning of parum, but without 
altogether abandoning its adjective sense of parvus. In the sense 
of the Ags. mycil, the English now uses the Ags. great, and Latin 
large, while the Scotch uses, in part at least, the Norse bygg. 
Similarly for lytil, modern English uses (partially at least) small, 
Ags. smeel. Now great and smart in Ags. meant thick [i.e. having 
girth, that is girtness, gritness, or greatness), and thin or slender 
respectively. This is the sense in which gryt and smaa are still 
used in Scotch, as " grytt stycks an' smaa stycks," "Lang smaa 
fyng-ers." Thic and thyn in Ags. meant dense and sparse, and so 
they are still used in Scotch, as " the road was thyck o' fuok." 
This curious displacement may be thus exhibited : 

Anglo-saxon mycil, lytil = English great, small 
„ great, smsel = „ thick, thin 

„ thyc, thyn = „ dense, sparse 

The lapse of meaning is most complete with the " big-enders," 
mycil, great, thyc, for we still hear of " a thin meeting," though no 
longer "a thick meeting;" "small seeds," though not "great 
seeds;" "little men," but not 'much' or "muckel men." In 
Scotch it is only mycil that has changed its meaning in part, and 
being supplied by bygg, it has not occasioned the successive slides 
of meaning which we see in English. 

The true opposite of bygg is wee, as in the school-boy play- 
rhyme : 

Aa wairn ye aa, beath grytt and smaa, 
Beath bygg an' wee, amang ye aa ! 

So, " wait a wee," wait a little ; a wean or wee-ane, that is, a little 
one, a child. The different senses in which these adjectives are 
used is shewn in the phrase " a bygg smaa faimilie," i.e. a large 
family of little children. 

For the sake of intensity are used muckle bygg, grytt muckle, 
lyttle wee, as " a muckle bygg man," a very tall or stout man ; 
" a lyttle wee aald mannie," a diminutive old man ; "the Quene 
Dido astonyst ane litill we." — Gawain Douglas. 

Grytt is used idiomatically in the sense of friendly, intimate 
(prov. Eng. thick), as "the tweasum war vserra grytt," the two 
were very intimate friends ; " hey wad fain bey grytt wui 's," he 
would fain be on friendly terms with us. 1 

1 In this sense chief is used in the west and north of Scotland, thay war aa 
verra cheif, all very intimate. 


Meae (conventional spelling mae) may be viewed as the plural 
of mayr, being applied to a greater number of things, while mayr 
is used of a greater quantity of one thing. This distinction, now 
lost in English, as well as in the more northern parts of Scot- 
land, existed in all the ancient forms of the language (Ags. md 
and mdre ; Old North. Eng. and Scotch ma and mar, mare ; Old 
Mid. and South. Eng. mo, mo e and mor, more). Thus : 

South. & Mid. : — pe mo f e myryer, so god me blesse, 

In honour more and neuer the lesse. — 

West Midi. Attit. Poems A. 

He knew of hem mo legendes and mo lives 
Than ben of goode wives in the Bible. 

He spake more harm than herte may bethinke, 

And therewithall he knew of mo proverbes, 

Than in this world there growen gras or herbes. — Chaucer. 

The greter lionesses that a man hath, the mo dispendours he hath. — 

Ibid. Meliboeus. 

Ac more zenejef f e ilke fet dispendef fane zonday and f e festes ine zenne. 

Huervore f er bye]? zeuen, ne mo, ne les.— Ayenbite of Inwyi. 

Northern : — pe ma fat gaders to that place (heaven) 

pe mare fair joy es and solace. 

And f e foner fat f ider (to hell) commes for syn 

pe les payn Jiai have fat duelles J)ar-in, 

And ay f e ma saules fat f ider wendes 

pe mare fair payn es, fat never endes. — Hampole, 3728. 

"With na doutsum takinnis ma than twa. 

I have herde oft be ma na olerkis 

To idill folkis full licht bene lukand werkis ; 

To jou my Lord, quhat is thare mare to say ? 

Eessaue jour werk desyrit mony ane day. — Gawain Douglas. 

Modern Scotch : — Meae bairns and mayr tui gie them. 
The mayr siller, the meae cairs. 

Adjectives of Number and Quantity. 

These are Definite and Indefinite ; the former including the 
Numerals strictly so called, Cardinal and Ordinal, of which 
the following are the forms in the Southern Scotch. 1 

1 The following forms occur in dif- (EEkht, eekht), 4 (akht), 6 (««kht) ; 

ferent dialects, No. 2 meaning Lothian Nine, 4 (nEin) ; Ten, other dialects 

and Fife, 3 Angus, 4 Aberdeen and (tEh, tEEn) ; Eleven, 4 (eleivn) ; Twelve, 

Moray, 5 Galloway, 6 Clydesdale, 8 2 (twEl), 4 (twal) ; Twenty, other dia- 

Caithness : One, 2 (jen, en) 3, 4 (in) 8 leots (twynti, twinti) ; Hundred,, other 

(ein) ; Two, 2 (twse, twasah) 3, 4 (twffia) dialects (HEnar, HCEner) ; Thousand, 

5, 6 (twooh); J%f(!eotherdialects(thrii); other dialects (thuuz'n, thuuzon). A 

Four, 4 (fauor), other dialects (faur, hundred thousand pound, Eoxb. (o 

fcaur) ; Five, other dialects (faa'v, fah'v, Hander thuuzent pound), Buchan (o 

faaev) ; Six, 2 (seks, saks), 6 (sales), 4 nasnor thuuz-n pauon). 

(saks) ; Seven, 4 (seivn) ; Might, 2 



Eane (=yen) 



eae (= yeh) 




toontie -eane 






toontie tweae 

fyve {older feyfe) 


thsertie (thrasttie) 

syx {older sax) 


fortie (fowrtie) 



fyftie (feyftie) 

ssycht {older auwcht) 

aaychtt ' 

syxtie (saxtie) 






asychtie (auwchtie) 






a hunder 

thsertein (thrasttein) 


a hunder an'eane 



tweae hunder 

fyftein (feyftein) 


threy hunder 



fower hunder, etc. 



a thoosant 



tweae thoosant, etc. 



a myllion 

toontie, tuontie 


tweae myllion, etc. 

Eane and its negative neane are absolute forms, used without a 
noun ; before a noun the forms eae and neae are used ; thus, " hey 
hass eae bairn leevan', only eane," he has one child alive, only 
one ; " aa've neae friends, neane avaa," I have no friends, none at 
all ; " yt's mayr as eae-buodie's wark," it is more than one 
person's work. 

Modern English retains the distinction in no and none; Old 
English had it also in o and one ; thus in Chaucer : 
He moste as well sayn o word as an other. 
flesh they ben, and o flesh as I gesse 
Hath but on herte in wele and in distresse. 
Ovides art, and bourdes many on 
And alle thise were bounden in o volume. 

1 An old northern form of eighth was 
a ij hi end, achtande; Frisian achtenda, 
achtanda ; Old Norse attende. In the 
Scotch writers it appeared as auehtand, 
auehten ; thus Gawain Douglas : 
Unto Enee geuis the auehten buke 
Baith fallowschip and armoure, quha 

list hike. 
But this form must have even then 
been growing obsolete, as elsewhere 
we find, 

Bot quhen I saw nane vthir bute, 

I sprent spedily on fute, 

And vnder an tre rnte, 
Begouth this aueht buke. 
Auehten, as an old form of aueht, 
seems to have been in the mind of 
the writer of Sweet Willie and Fair 
Annie, one of the pseudo antiques of 
the Sir Patrick Spent order, where 
we read : 

Thejirsten bower that he cam till, 

The lasten bower that he cam till — 

the coined forms, firsten and lasten 

being evidently intended to be palmed 

off as " Old Scots." 


Scotch, eae wurd, eae flsesch, eae hgert, eae volum. See further as 
to ane, eane, and their connection with an, a, among the demon- 
strative adjectives. 

In counting we say " eane, tweae, threy," etc., but " eae buik, 
tweae buiks, threy buiks," etc. In the case of 21, 31, 41, etc., we 
must say " eane-an-toontie kye, eane an thasrtie staaks." Toontie- 
eane Tiye, or toontie-eae kye are not used. 

The Multiple numbers are syngle, dooble, or tweae-faald, threy- 
faald, etc. ; also tweaesum, threysum, fowersum, etc. ; thus, " a 
syngle or a dooble hsedge," "a dooble schayr," "a threyfaald 
dainger." But in describing an object composed of several dis- 
tinct parts, the other form is used, as "a tweaesum plset," a plait of 
two; " a threysum cuord," a triple cord; "a, fowersum bunsch o' 
cherries, a fyvesum cluster o' nytts" (nuts), etc. Tweaesum and 
threysum are used absolutely in speaking of persons in company, 
to express their close and undivided companionship ; as " the 
tweaesum geade thair ways," the two friends went their way ; 
"the threysum laid thair heids thegyther," the three confederates 
took counsel together ; " they're a bonnie tweaesum ! " they are a 
pretty couple ! said in irony. These forms are found in the 
Scottish writers from the earliest period : 

(The bate) sa litill wes that it 

Mycht our the watter hot thremm flyt. — Barbour. 

He wes bot audit sum in his rout 
For of danger he had no dout. — 

Lindesay — Sq. Meldrum, 1225. 

Thir cur coffeis that sailis cure sone 
And thretty-mm about ane pat. — 

Lyndesay — Pedder Knavis, 26. 

The Fractional Numbers are a haff, a ihyrd pairt, a quarter, a 
fowrt pairt, etc. We say, " haff an ynsch," " haff a pund ; " also 
" a haff- ynsch, a haff-pund ; " a quarter of a pund, the fowrt of a 
glass, an aeycht o' an ynsch." 

Distributively, eane-be-eane, tweae-be-tweae, are used. " Thay 
cam oot eane-be-eane," they came out one by one ; " thay geade 
yont the toon-geate tweae-be-tweae," or " tweae-an' -tweae," or 
"tweae in a raa," or " tweae-man-rank," they went along the 
street of the town two by two. 

Indefinite Numerals. 

Are sum, onie, act, heale, heath, aneuch, aneuw, syc, uther, 
anuther, eane-anuther, thet-eane, thet-uther. 

Aa and heale are used almost synonymously in the singular, 
as "aa the toon," or "the heale toon," the whole town; "aa the 
road hearne," or "the heale road heame," all the way home. 
Before nouns plural aa is more common, as " aa the bairns, aa the 
chylder," all the children. 


Beath is often used redundantly with tweae, as " the faither an' 
sun war theare beath the tweae o' them," the father and son were 
both there. The pleonasm is very old, thus : 

Hampole : — Bot bathe Tpa twa Je sanies has 

pat fra hethen to purgatory gas. 

Allit. Poems : — Byndez byhynde at his bak bo\e two his handez. 

Chaucer r And sompne hem to the ehapitre bothe two. 

Gawain Douglas ; 

Bot Venus, with ane sop of myst, baith twdy 
And with ane dirk clud, closit round about. 

And to the tempill furth jede thay, baith tway. 

Compare the Italian ambidue, the French tous-les-deux, and the 
word both itself, Ags. bu-tu, ba-twa, formed from ba = both, and 
twa two. 

Aneuweh (sing.) is used for quantity, aneuw (plural) for number. 
Aneuwch o' syller bryngs aneuw o' freinds, enough of money brings 
enough of friends ; Ye've aneuw o' pootches, yf ye'd aneuwch tui 
fyll them, you have enough of pockets if you had enough to fill 
them with. Observe that the construction in Scotch is as in 
French and Latin, assez de lait, satis laetis, aneuwch o' mylk, 
rather than as in Teutonic, milch genug, milk enough. The dis- 
tinction between aneuwch and anew was observed by the old 
Scottish writers, and partly in the Southern dialect. 

Gawain Douglas : — 

" Clere takynnis ynew " 
Aneueh of this — us nedis preich na mare. 

Barbour : — Modreyt his syster son him slew 

And gud men als ma then inew 
For he had a fair oumpany 
And gold yneweh for to dispend. 

Harry : — Till hym thar socht may feechtaris than anew. 

Chaucer : — Though so were, that thou haddest slaine of hem two or three, yet 
dwellen there enow to wreken his deth, and to slee thy persone. 

In all the place saw he not a frere 
Of other folk he saw ynow in wo. 

Have thou ynough — what thar thee rekke or care 
How merily that other folkes fare. 

It is ynough, and farewell, have good day. 

Sye is followed by as : " syo as yuw suid had yeir tung," such 
as you ought to keep silence. Also, without it, as "aa wuss aa 
hsed syc," I wish I had such; "thay're duist syc an' seae wui 
thaim ye hae," they are just such and so (such-like) as those you 
have. In comparing one object with another, syccan, syc'na 
(apparently derived from syc-hyn, anciently, swilh-Jeyn) is used ; 
" gie 's syc'n-a-eane as ye hae," give me such a one as you have ; 
" syc'n-a-eane," or " syc 'n-a-leyke-eane tselld hym," such a one 
told him; "syc, nonsense!" such nonsense ! "yt's duist syc'n 


nonsense as ye of'n heir," it is simply such nonsense as you 
often hear. 

In thet-eane, thet-uther (W. and N. Scotch iiher) we have the 
old neuter article thmt, Ags. ]>aet an, jjset other. The true analysis 
of the expression having been forgotten after the northern dialect 
came to use the for the article in all genders and cases, it was 
commonly written the tone, the tother. The southern writers who 
retained that, thet, as the article for a longer period, divided the 
words rightly that one, that other. 

Chaucer : — That on of hem spake thus unto that other, 

Thou wotest wel thou art my sworen brother. 

Knight of La Tour : — " And thus that one doughter discouered her to that other, 
and that one oounsailed," etc. Chap. lv. 

Allit. Poems : — In \at on oure pes watz mad at ene 

In \at olper is nojt hot pes to glene. A. 952. 

Hampole : — \e tan es gastly, invisile and clene 

Je tother es bodyly, and may be sene. 

Je tan es heghe, and Tpe tother lawe. 

J>e ta right frely he graunted me, 
And )>e tother til himself held he. 

Gawain Douglas : — " the tone borne of Epiria 

And the tothir was of Archadia." 
The ta part feirs and fell with.birnand ene 
The tother part_lamed clynschis, and makis hir byde. 1 

Modern Scotch : — Saett doon thet-eae fytt, an' pytt up thet-uther. Thet-eane's 
raither langer than thet-uther. 

The loss of the true idea of the combination led, in course of 
time, to such anomalies as the use of thet-uther before plural 
nouns, as " hey leykes thyr bastter as thet-uther eanes,' he likes 
these better than the others, and even to the use of ta and 
tuther severed from the; as Gawain Douglas, 118-15, "the Qwene 
stands, her ta fute bare," i.e. one of her feet. Modern Scotch, 
"hey's hys muther's t-eae ey," alter oculus, i.e. as much to her as 
one of her eyes, said of a child foolishly doated upon. 

The Scotch tane, tuther, must not be confounded in origin with 
the provincial English t'one, t'other, for the one, the other, like 
t'master, for the master. English, " Show me t'other hand," i.e. 
t(he) other hand ; Scotch, " Shaw me the-tuther hand,' i.e. thcet- 
uther hand. A similar error was made by the northern writers, 
in analysing another as a nothir, making nother, like tother, a 
separate word : "a nothir thyng I sail th.6 tell," "na nothir man 
wald cum him by." 

Ane nother wyse that bell sail now be roung. — Douglas. 

If this had kept its ground as fully as tother, we should have had 
exact equivalents of the Latin alter and alius. 

1 Correctly, Dame naturis menstralis on that uthyr parte. 


Other is used elliptically in Scotch, where English requires 
each other ; thus, ' thay 're verra leyke uther ; thay strak uther, 
an' tuir uther's clease.' Examples of this usage occur from the 
earliest period : 

pus sal ilka saul o\er se 
For nan of Jam may feled be. — Hampole. 
The twa princis tretis with thir sex brethir to feeht aganis uthir. — 

Bellenden, Livy. 

Distributives. Tlk each, yvverie every. Ylk (Ags. eelc) be- 
fore a consonant generally becomes ylka, (the appended a being 
originally the article ilk a, ilk ane, O.S.E. ich a, each a. — Com- 
pare such a, many a, etc.), "ylka bleade o' gserss kseps yts ayn 
drap o' deuw," each blade of grass catches its own drop of dew ; 
"Cum heir, ylk-eane (pr. ylk-yen or ylkein) o'ye," come hither, 
each one of you. An Tlka-day, or yvverie-day, is a week-day, 
in opposition to the " Sab'tha day." "Hey cam yn hys ylka- 
day clease," Ilk, ilka, are used as far south as Cleveland and 

Another Tlk, ilk (Ags. ylc, same), to be distinguished from ylk, 
each, is regularly used by the Scotch writers : 

pai sail ansuer to J>am on south half Forth, at that ilhe terme, and that 
ilke stedde. — Assism Willelmi. 

In the modern tongue this word appears to be known only in 
titles, such as " Gledstanes of that ilk," " Langlands of that ilk," 
etc., meaning Gledstanes of the same, i.e. Gledstanes of Gledstanes, 
Langlands of Langlands. 

Aither and Naither are conjunctions, but not adjectives in the 
modern dialect. ' Neither of you shall go ' would be expressed 
" neane o' the tweae o' ye maan gang ; " ' Either of them will do,' 
" onie o' the tweae o' them '11 dui." 

The Scotch possesses several words, adjectives, adverbs, or 
nouns, to express indefinite number and quality, as a wheen, 
a pyclcle, a hyt, a vast, a lot, a help, a hantle, the fceck. Most 
of these are common to all the dialects north of the Humber. 

A quhein or wheen, whim, whon (Ags. hwasne, hwene, hwon, little, 
few ; Gawain Douglas, quheyn ; Barbour, quhone, quhoyne,) is a 
small number, a few ; gie's a quhein aipples, give me a few apples ; 
a quhein callants, a few boys. 1 

1 Gallant, the South Scottish for boy, In Flemish it signifies not only a cut- 
is strictly a Modern word, unknown to tomer in the proper sense, but is also 
the writers of the Early and Middle used in the slang sense of a customer, 
Periods. It seems to be one of those a fellow, a chap, a Hade, a boy, as 
words which have spread inland from when we say, " a queer customer," " a 
the fisher-folk of the East Coast, of Western boy," "a jolly boy." From 
Flemish origin (p. 79), being, not the this, by a natural transition, comes the 
French gallant, as Jamieson suggests, Scottish sense of " young chap," a 
but the Flemish and Dutch kalant, lad, a boy, in the strict meaning of 
calant, a customer, from the French these words, although the earlier use 
chaland, a word which the latest French of the word is familiar in " Hawick 
etymologists are unable to trace further. Callants." 



Thocht thai war quheyn, thai war worthy, 
And Ml of gret ohewalry. — Barbour. 

Of mony wourdis schortlie ane qtthene Ball I 

Declare. Thole me, I pray the, 

Thir wourdis quheyn of weoht til the to say. — Gawain Douglas. 

Compare the Old Northern fone, which bears apparently the 
same relation to hwon, quhone, as the N. E. Scotch fat, fan, do to 
what, quhat, when, quhan. 

And for to life here a fan dayse. — Hampole. 
Scotch : An' for tui leive heir a quhone or quhein days. 

What quhein is to number, pyckle (W. and N. Sc. puckle, 
literally, a grain, compare a barley -pickle,) is to quantity, and byt 
to size : " Gie the beist a pyckle eates," give the horse some oats ; 
" Hey's onlie a byt bairn," he is only a mere child. Luohe and 
hayr are used for quantities less than a, pyckle : " Hse ye a luoke 
meil 'at ye cood spair ? Have you a small quantity of meal to 
spare ? " Ay naa ! lass, aa hasna a hayr i' the hoose." 

All these words may be diminished by prefixing wee, or en- 
larged by gaye, guid; "Gie them a wee quhein meae;" "Syc a 
wee pyckle 1 " "a wee byt laddie ; " " Thay've a gaye byt ferm, 
an' thay growe a gaye pyckle eates, an' a guid quhein tattoes, 
an' aa s' warran ye, thay're wurth a gaye byt syller." 

A hantle is a good many, a considerable number or quantity : 
" The' war a hantle o' fupk at the meitin' ; " "hey spak a hantle 
o' nonsense ; " "ther's a hantle o' fuok i' yoor way o' thynkin'." 
Hankie, the dialectical form used in Angus, is considered by Dr. 
Jamieson as the original form ; but the word seems rather to be 
hand-tal, a hand-tale or number, like haiC la' quheyle from hand- 
lang-while, a hand's-length of time, a span, as "Aa canna gytt 
hym tui syt styll a hanla-quheyle, an' hys tung never dyz devaal," 
I cannot get him to sit still for any space of time, and his tongue 
never makes a pause. The full form occurs in the Townley 
Mysteries : 

I may not syt at my note 
A hand-lang while. 

In older English and Anglo-saxon we have hand-while, as in the 
(West Midland) Eomance of the Destruction of Troy : 

I hope it shall happon in a hond-while. 

Herkinys now a hond qwhile of a hegh oas ! 

Fozck (Ags. fee, space, amount,) is used for space, quantity, the 
greater part, the bulk : "Quhat feck o' fuok wad ther bey theare?" 
The feck o' a hunder, aa daar-say." " Ys ther onie feck o' waitter 
i' the lowch ? " " Hey hses bein away the feck o' twall yeir." 
" Haas hey duin onie feok o' wark the-day ? " 

A lot, a heip, a vast, are used for an indefinitely large number : 
" Quhat a Idt o' fuok cumman' alang the road t " "He hses a heip 


o' freinds eae pleace an anuther." " Ther's a vast o' thyngs eane' 
■wad leyke, yf eane cood gytt them." * 


The Demonstrative or Distinguishing Adjectives are <m> (a), 
the T thys, that,, and t%m or yon. The two first are usually 
called Articles, the remainder Demonstrative Pronouns^- As 
the primary use of all is the same, viz., to qualify ordefine 
Noun*) rather than to replace them, they are properly classed 
as Adjectives. 
An (a) is used to individualize or indicate a noun, not already 

under consideration. 
The- is used to indicate or identify a noun whichi is already 
under consideration. 

When several objects are under consideration 
Thy& is used to identify the object nearest to the speaker. 
That is used to identify the object nearest to the person spoken to. 
Thorn, or Ton is used to identify an object remote from both.. 

So in Spanish there are three demonstratives, este thys, esethat, 
aqueilor thon. The Anglo-saxon, like the modern Teutonic lan- 
guages, was poor in these distinctive words, having only this and 
that (the latter of which also did duty for the). Although! the 
northern demonstratives are all from Teutonic roots, their use is 
by no means Teutonic,, and is probably imitated from the Celtic, 
where the distinction is a triple one. The Gaelic an duine so, an, 
duine sirm, an duine ud,. correspond exactly to the Lowland Scotch 
thys man, theft man, thon man. 

Thys and that have distinct plural, forms,, thon or yon is 
alike in both numbers : 

Singular, thys that thon or yon. 

Plural. thyf (thir) theae (thae) thon or yon. 

An, a, is the unaccented form of the numeral ane, eane, Ags. an, 
sen, one, which, at a later date, became, like the Norman im, used 
also as the indefinite article. In this signification it was lightly 
pronounced An, a, but as a numeral was strongly pronounced, 
appearing in the Old Southern English as oon, one, oo, o, accord- 
ing to the regular transliteration of the Ags. broad a. (Compare 
bone, stone, from ban, stan.) In the Northern dialect the more 
slender cen has given birth to such forms as ane, mm, eane, eean, 
yen, yan, 2 and in the existing Lowland Scotch and North English 

1 Compare the Cleveland "He can still bide a vast, thof he's bodden a deal in 
his day." 

2 " T'en things an' yan Bobby, ten thing* an yan 

Five an five for Betty Banks, an yan for Betty's man." 

" Bobby Banks' Boddermmt," — Cumberland DiaUet. 
Few words in the language present one ; im' thie Northern dialects they 
such a variety of dialectical forms ad range from yan over the whole series 

180 «KAMMAE. 

dialects these strong forms are taken by the numeral, while the 
the article is simply an, a, (en, 9). In the early Northern writers, 
both in England and Scotland, there was no distinction in writing 
between the numeral and the article, the numeral being an, later 
ane, when standing alone or before a vowel, a before a consonant ; 
the article also an, ane, before a vowel, a before a consonant. 
The pronunciation of the latter was no doubt less emphatic than 
that of the numeral. Thus in Hampole : 

May be understanden ma warldes J>an ane; 
An es J)is dale whar we ar wonnand. 

pe body and saule bytwene Jam twa 
Makes bot a man and na ma. 

God in a substance and being. 

An eghe twynkelyng — an egge yholke. 

See examples from the early Scottish writers at pp. 55-6. 

But in the Scottish writers of the Middle period the single form 
an, usually written ane, was used in all positions for numeral and 
article alike. Thus : 

As thay bene in ane substance knyt all thre, 
Thie persQuns regnis in ane Deite ; 
Flambe, hete, and licht ben in ane fire we se. 

... .. ane mekle fare altare, 
Nere quham thare grew an rycht auld laurer tre, 
Bowand toward the altere one litill we. — Douglas, Eneid. 

He was ane Munjeoun for ane Dame, 

Meik in Charmer, lyk ane Lame, 

Bot in the feild ane Campioun, 

Rampand lyke ane wyld Lyoun. — Lyndesay, Sq. Meldrmn. 

I have already given, in the Historical Introduction, reasons for 
believing that this use of ane was a literary mannerism of the 
Middle Scotch ; and it may be added that the analogy of ane was 
not extended to its compounds wane and the tane, which were still 
contracted into na and the ta, before a consonant, as in the early 
writers, and the modern dialects. We find ane man, ane kyng, 
but not nane man, nane kyng, or the tane man, the tane kyng, only 
na man, na kyng, the ta man, the ta kyng. See instances on p. 176. 

The use of ane continued in Scottish writings down to the 
beginning of last century ; it disappears from the Burgh Eecords 

of front vowels to e in been, and in the has developed in the Southern dialects 
Southern from wan over "the entire into w, in the northern into y. The 
range of back and back round vowels, steps by which the Ags. an has reached 
to 00 in foot, and u in fun, while, to these diverse extremities may be tabu- 
increase the variety, an initial glide lated thus : — 

, ( aan, awn, one, uone, ubne, wone, wun. 
( ahn, ten, ane, eane, e'ane, yane, yen. 

It is worthy of notice that the con- use about the introduction of printing, 
ventional spelling, both in English and but which the existing pronunciation 
Scotch, represents an early middle pro- wun and yen has passed many stages 
nunciation, being that which was in beyond. 


of Hawick about 172$. In striking contrast with this single 
form, the existing Lowl. So. and N. Bng. dialects, like the old 
Southern English, have four ; in the Southern Counties' Scotch, 
eane, eae, numeral, &n, &, article. But while the Old English 
oo, o, was used only before a consonant, the Scotch ae, eae, is used 
before all nouns, eane being a strictly absolute form, used without 
a noun. The following table shows these curious dialectical and 
historical varieties of usage with regard to an and its compounds : 

Old North. Middle Modern Old South. Modern 

Eng.- $ So. Scotch, Scotch, English. English. 

Numeral, alone. an (ane) ane (an) eane one (on, oon) one 

„ bef. vowel, an (ane) ane (an) eae one (on, one) one 

„ bef . eons, a ane fan) eae o, oo one 

Indef. Artl. bef. voweL an (ane) ane fan) an an an 

„ ,, bef. cons, a ane (an) a a a 

Negative, alone. nan (nane) nane (nan) neane none none 

„ bef. vowel, nan (name) nane (nan) neae none no, none 

,, bef. com? na na neae no no 

Compound, alone. the tan, -e the tane the teane that one the one 

„ bef. vowel, the tan, -e the tane the teae that one the one 

„ bef. cons, the ta the ta the teae that o (oo) the one 

Thys and that are the neuter forms of the Ags. demonstratives 
)>is or )>ys, and }>8et, of which the latter was likewise used as the 
Definite Article, and as the Eelative. The is the uninflected stem 
of the same word, which at an early period in the Northern 
dialect, and later in the Southern, supplanted the various inflected 
genders and cases, when used as the simple article. While Cursor 
Mundi and Hampole used the, this, and that, exactly according to 
modern practice, the contemporary Southern dialect had twelve 
inflected forms of this, and no less than fifteen of the or that, a 
striking instance of the earlier date and more rapid rate at which 
the grammatical revolution was carried through in the north. In 
the phrase the tane, the tother = thet-ane, thet-other, Ags. jjaet 
an, Jset 6J?er, we have, as already remarked, an instance of the 
retention, in a disguised form, of the old neuter article thaet, thet. 

Thae (South Sc. theae) represents J;a or \&, the plural of J>set, 
Semi-Saxon and Old Southern and Midland English (ho, Old 
North. Eng. and Scotch tha, thaa, another form of which is thay, 
English they, O.E. thei, O.N. Eng- thai, the pronoun of the third 
person plural, pa was in Anglo-saxon a demonstrative = Mi, 
isti, those, the ; but already in the Lindisfarne Glosses we find it 
used as the equivalent of Ma, hea (South Saxon hig, hi), the 
plural of the third personal pronoun. Some time between the 
date of these Glosses and the end of the 12th century, the proper 
pronoun went entirely out of use, leaving ya in. its place, which 
was split into two forms }a (tha, thaa, thae,) demonstrative, and 
\ai {thai, thay,) the pronoun, a distinction still retained by the 
Scottish and Northern English dialects. Thus ; 

Cursor Mundi : — If >«»' suld for 'baa feluns prai 
It war gain goad and gret derai. 

182 'GRAMMAR. 

Hampole : — Ay when ]><n' cm b« paynes thoght 

Barbour : — Thomas Eandell was ane of ba 

'pat for his lyff become bair man ; 
Of othyr ,bat war takyn ban, 
Sum bat ransownyt, sum bat slew 
And sum \ai hangyt, and sum bat drew. 
The Erie Jhone wes ane of ba, etc, 

Gawain Douglas: — — his expert mate Sibylla 

Tauoht him thay war bot vode .gaistis all tha, 
Bot ony bodyis. 

Modern Scotch : — Dynna teake theae, thay wunna weir Weill. 
Dont take those, they will notirear well. 

So in the 'Cleveland dialect : — 

Wheea's theea tweea bairns, sa' thee P Whuh ! they'helongs me. 
Scotch: — Quheae's theae tweae bairns, say-ye P "Wuh ! thay belang mey. 

As early as 1230, the Ormvlum shows the northern distinction 
between tha and thay, which Orrmin wrote .fca and Jejj : 

pezz haffden sexe fettles bear, att tatt .hridaless seete, 

And twafald oberr brefald met, "-ta fettles .alle tokenn ; 

And Crist badd batt bejj sholden gan, and fillenn J>ejjre fettless. 

Wibb waterr, and bejj geden till, and didenn batt -he se j^de. 

The Southern dialect was much slower in adopting the Northern 
pronouns ; the AyenbMe, 1340, has still the old forms, Nam. hy, 
heo, Gen. her, Ace. hem. 'Chaucer, 1360-1400, has adopted the 
Northern Nom. they, but retains Southern her and hem in the 
oblique cases. The vernacular of the south of England has still 
in the 19th century hem, 'em, in the objective, although it has 
long used they and their, in the other oases. 

In addition to ]>a, ]>aa, Cursor Mundi and Hampole have also, 
especially as the antecedent of die relative, \as, \aas, the Midland 
jios, //(os, those. 

Cursor Mundi : — paas ober sail ha ferehed nan. 

Hampole : — pas bat be world serves and loves, 

Serves j/e devel, as be Auk proves. 

But this form of the demonstrative has long disappeared from €he 
Scottish dialects, where the latter sentence would be thaim 'at the 
warld sers an' luives, etc. 

In -the earliest or Anglo-saxon period, ba and bas, were distinct 
and contrasted forms, ba being the plural of that, bas the plural of 
this = these. The IdnoHsfarne amd Eushworth glosses, and the 
Bituale, shew that the Old Northumbrian was in this respect iden- 
tical with the classical Anglo-saxon. The same distinction was 
retained between b& and bas in the Semi-Saxon period and 
Southern dialect, where the forms were regularly transliterated 
into ,bo, bos, and the latter, in course of time, transformed into 
beos, \ues, \e&, and, finally, bese, bise, forms in which the kinship 
to the singular J>es, Jm's, was more obvious. Thus the Ancren 


Kiwle has Jeo illi, Jeos hi ; the Ayenbite Jo, Jeo, illi, Jeos, Jise, 
hi ; Chaucer Jo illi, Jise hi. 

In the Northern and Midland dialeots, where the inflexional 
power of -s as a plural formative was more generally recognized, 
the distinction of meaning between Ja, Jo, and J?as, Jos, was lost 
sight of between 1100 and 1230, and at the latter date both forms 
were used synonymously as the plural of that. So in the ex- 
amples quoted from Cursor Mundi and Hampole for the Northern 
dialect. 1 For the West Midland see the Early English Alliter- 
ative Poems, edited by Mr. (now Dr.) Morris, in which the value 
of Jo and Jose, is absolutely identical. This having thus lost its 
original plural, new forms made their appearanoe to supply it, the 
Northern dialect adopting fir (thir, thier, ther, thur, thoor, thor), 
and the Midland forming a direct plural Jase from the singular 
Jis, in the same way as al, sow,, other, his, good, yvel, formed 
plurals dlle, some, othere, hise, gods, yvele, in the Midland dialect. 
(See Chaucer and Wiclyff. 2 ) 

Of the two plurals for that, which now (13th & 14th oenturies) 
existed in the Northern and Midland dialects, only one was 
eventually retained by each. In the Northern dialect the sur- 
viving form was Ja (tha, thae), the other form }as, thas, being 
absent from the Scottish writers, and totally unknown to the 
living Scottish dialects (and I believe also to those parts of the 
North of England which still retain the true Northern speech). 
In the Midland dialect, on the other hand, Jos (those) was trium- 
phant, Jo, tho, being gradually eliminated, perhaps because the 
former was more distinctly plural, and more distinct from the 
third personal pronoun thai and article the. 

The literary English being, in it main features, of Midland 
origin, acknowledges the Midland Demonstratives Jise and- Jos, 
thetfe, those, both of which we see are really plurals of this ; thos 
being the original, Jise, a newer form introduced after thos had 
passed over to the plural of that. These and those have not, how- 
ever, been cordially welcomed by the popular speeoh either in 
the North or South; the Dorsetshire peasant does not say "I 
think those houses better than these," but " I think them housen 
better than thedsem," from Ags. Jaein and Jisum, dat. plurals. In 
the Northern dialect the Scotch has retained thir and tha, thae, as 
its plural demonstratives. In the North of England, although 
the influence of the Standard English has been gradually driving 

. ' An examination of Cursor Mtmdi s Dr. Morris {AIM. Poems, p. xxvii.) 

and the Pricke of Conscience leads to questions the plural value of the final e 

the conclusion that tha was used be- in thise. I think it was certainly 

fore a plural noun, but thas when not looked upon as the sign of the plural 

followed by a noun, as when antecedent in the Midland dialect, but there might 

to a relative, in which case the s might be a Southern thise, these, theose, from 

serve more distinctly to indicate the theos. The relations of the different 

plural. A similar usage occurs in South forms to one another are very per- 

Scottish vernacular, where thir is often pleiing. 
made thirs when not followed by a noun. 


the old dialect northward, so that thir and tha are not now, as in 
Eichard the Hermit's time, heard in the neighbourhood of Don- 
caster, we meet with them as thor and theea in the dialect of 
Cleveland in the North Biding, and in Cumberland and West- 
morland, thttr (sound of u in full), thor, are in regular use as the 
plural of this. But tha, thae, is not now used in the two Western 
Counties, which supply its place by them : " I'll gie-tha thwr (in 
my hand) for them (in yours) ; " " Thwr's mi aan, them's mi 
fadther's, an' yon's laal Jacup's." In South Lancashire we find 
these forms displaced by the Midland these, thooas ; and in the 
Barnsley dialect of Yorkshire thease seems also to replace the 
Northern thir. In Scotland thir and thae have, curiously enough, 
not penetrated beyond the Grampians, the North-eastern Scotch 
using thys and that in the plural as well as the singular : " thys 
beuks an' that pens." (See ante, p. 81.) 

Where the literary English uses those as the antecedent of the 
relative, the Lowland Scotch uses the third personal pronoun, in 
the plural as well as in the singular, as thaim at dyd it, those who 
did it ; hym at said seae, he who said so. 

These changes may be tabulated thus : 

PI. of he. PI. of the. PI. of that. PI. of this. 

< „ 

Aas Period ' South Saxon hI ' hi S * k < J" 6 J" 18 ' J ,iES 

* ' ' \ Northumbrian hia, hea, & Ja }>a, J>as J>as, J>ses ' 

, -^ , 

/ Southern hi,hy,heo,&c. )>o Jo Jos, Jeos, 

Early Engl. 1 Jes, Jise 

Period. j Midland Jai, Jei, they Jo, Je Jo & J>os, those Jise, thise 

\ Northern Jai, thay Je Ja, tha & Jas ther, thir 

{Dorsetshire they the them theasem 

Literary Eng. they the those these 

Scotch thay the thae thir, thyr 

Thir (S. C. Scotch thyr (P. dher), West and Central thur (dhar), 
Cumberland thur (dhMur), Westmoreland thoor, thor (dhwwr, 
dhoor) ; Cursor Mundi and Hampole, \ir, \er, ]>ier, fere ; Ham- 
pole's Prose Works, fire,) is the northern plural of this. 

Hampole : — Bathe \er worldes I dar wele say 

Sal faile atte the last and pass away. 

pir takens, er tald efter the lettre here, 
Bot ye exposition may be in othir manere. 

pere twa may be taken, bathe wele and wa. 
All Js'er benefice hald in mind. 

Sampole's Prose Works. " In all thire, I soghte Ihesu, bot I fand hym 
noghte, ffor he lett me wyete by his grace Jat he ne is fundene in Je lande 
of softly lyfande." p. 4. 

" He lufes God Jat kepis thire commandementes for lufe." p. 11. 

Gawain Douglas :— " Vyrgil in thir VI forsaid bukis, follouia the maist 
excellent Greik poet Homer. 

Juno inflammit musing on thir casis nyse. 


James I. : — To danss thir Damysells them dicht, 

Thir Lasses licht of Laits. 

Lancelot of the Laih : — 

Bot yhe and ek thir vthere ladice may, 
If that yhow lykith, to the knycht gar say 
The mesag. 

Lindesay : — Quhen thir nouellis dois into Ingland spreid, 

Of Londoun, than, the lustie ladies cleir 
Will, for my saik, mak dule and drerie cheir. 

Boxburgshire. — Quhat dui-ye thynk o' thyr? Tt's noa easie geattin' 
a;nd-ways i' thyr dawk days. Aa've a hywie haand-fu wui aa thyr bairns 
aboot us. Aa've meade it aa, wui thyr tarn fyng-ers. 

Cumberland. — " I coontit ower t' things i' t' basket till they began to shap 
theirsels intil oa maks o' barnish sangs i' my heid, and I fund mysel creiman' 
away at sec bits o' rhymes as thurr." — 

I 'se flayt to beyde here i' thurr lang neeghts. 
Westmorland. — 
" Mapp'm they hev neea Eysbes doon i' thoor laa pleaces," 
I'le gee thah thor books if thooll gee-mah them. I'le swap thor for them." 

Northumberland. — An' she says, Thor six measurs he gov us ; for he says 
tiv us, Divent gan away empy te thaw muthor o' law. — Muth m. 17, Bona- 
partean Version. 

When thir is used absolutely, without a noun following, it 
generally becomes thirs : " Thirs is meyne." I find this also in 
the Northumbrian version of Buth, by J. P. Eobson, quoted above : 

"Noo, thor's is the fem'lies o' Pharez : Pharez gat Hezron, etc. 

~£uth iv. 18. 

The true origin of thir is somewhat obscure. Most etymologists 
refer it to the Norse ]>cer, bceir, the, those ; others derive it from 
the-here, like ihilk, from the ylh, The history of the Northern 
dialect presents us with a blank at the period of its introduction, 
and the only certain data in connection with it are these : — 

1. Thir is totally unknown to the older Northumbrian writings, 
the Lindisfarne and Eushworth glosses, and the Eitual, in which 
hmc is always expressed by ]>as, as in the West Saxon. 

2. Thir is in regular use for hmc in the Northern writers from 
the reappearance of Northern literature in the end of the 12th 
century, \as being either obsolete or = ]>a, ilia. 

3. Thir is now the word for hcec in Scotland, and the Northern 
counties of England. 

The difficulty in deducing thir from the Norse \mr arises chiefly 
from the fact that the latter word did not mean hmc but ilia, being 
indeed the simple equivalent of the Ags. \d, the plural of that and 
the. I am informed, however, by the Eev. J. C. Atkinson, author 
of the Cleveland Glossary, that the use of thor is rather lax in 
Yorkshire, and that in the strongly Danish district of Cleveland 
it is used, not for these, but for those, being synonymous with 


thae, while the old Northern thas, under the form of thease, 
retains its earliest meaning of these, with which ihors or thoase 
is also identical in use. 1 It is probable, therefore, that the dis- 
tinction between these words was originally not so clearly de- 
fined as now, and that it was only gradually that thir came to 
have its use as the opposite of thae. As regards the derivation 
from the-here, which exactly suits the sense of thir, we have the 
analogy of thilh, from the-ilh, and the example of the Latin hic-ce, 
the French ce-ci, celui-ei, ceux-ci, and the vulgar English this- 
here, that- ere. It is urged on the other hand that the Northern 
dialect was averse to such compound forms, and that we have no 
early examples of any tendency to say the-here men, or iha-here 
men. Apart from either derivation we have the fact that the 
Kentish dialect of the 14th century, in the Ayenbiie and Shore- 
ham's Poems, used theme, thirne, for thisne, ace. masc. of this. 
The exact details of the origin and diffusion of thir, between the 
beginning of the 12th and end of 13th century, have still to be 

Yon, the Moeso-Gothic jain-s, German jen-er, -is not found as a 
pronoun or adjective in Anglo-saxon, 8 but occurs as an adverbial 
root in $eond, te^eondan, etc. It is constantly used in Scotch, in 
referring to things remote in place or time, where the English 
would generally use that, which in Scotch is used for things 
nearer to the person addressed ; thus, " yon or fhon's a graand 
hoose ower the waitter," "D'ye meynd yon wunter quhan the 
snaa lay seae lang onna the grund ; " " Aa tselld ye thon teyme 
aa mast ye ; " " thon was a seermon wurth heirin' last weik ; " 
" Thys is meyne, that's yoors, but quhae's auwcht thon ?"" "Quhae 
was yon ye brocht wi'ye yesterday ? " 

Thon is probably a corruption of yon, developed by analogy of 
thys, that, to render it more significantly demonstrative. K is in 
regular use in all parts of Scotland,, in Northumberland, about 
Shields, and as far south as Teesdale. 

I have not found yon in Hampole ; it is common in the Scottish 
writers of all periods. 

1 This use of the demonstratives in we also find " thoer, thon, pronoun, 

the Cleveland dialect, as given by Mr. these, those," but I suspect that when 

Atkinson, is very curious, shewing as it used definitely, or in contrast, it should 

does four forms, theea, thor, theiise,, be- these only, as it is in Scotland, in 

thors or thoase, of which the two in -s Northumberland, Cumberland,, and 

are used as plurals of this, and the two Westmoreland', 
without -s as plurals of that. Theea 2 While this is passing- through- the 

and thease are undoubtedly the North- press, Mr. Henry Sweet, of the Philo- 

ern forms of the, fas, retaining logical Society,, has shown that the. 

their original values of ilia, htec. Tho{r), Demonstrative' %eon existed in the older 

thoase, or tho(r)s, may be the Midland Ags.,-tlLough> apparently afterwards lost 

forms of the same, bo, bos. Or \or in the standard idiom. In the contem- 

may be the Norse Tposr, retaining its porary MS. of King Alfred's transla- 

original meaning of those. In the Ions- tion of Gregory's Pastoral he finds 

dale Glossary, prepared by the late Mr. (p. 443) " Aris and gong to jeonre 

Peacock, and edited by Mr. Atkinson,- byrij," Eeyse aa! gang to yon town. 


Douglas :— « To jone place ar thay eumyn, thow may take hede, 
Quhare now risis jone large wall-is stout 
Of new Cartage with hie towr-is about." 

My chyld cleith the with ;one kend ehildis vissage. 

Burns ; — I'm wae to think upo' yon den 

Even for your sake. 

Ye see yon birkie ca'd a lord 

Wha struts an' stares an' a' that. 

Lancelot of fhe Laik : — 

Who is he )one p who may he be, ;hone knyeht, 

So still that hovis, and steris not his ren. 2828. 

I am not aware of the literary occurrence of ihon, except in 
representations of the popular dialect of quite recent date. But its 
use over the whole area of ancient Bernicia, from the Tees to the 
Clyde and the Grampians, leads to the conclusion that it must 
have arisen before the division of the province between England 
and Scotland. How, otherwise, should it be common to the pit- 
men of the Tyne, the fishers of Montrose, and the shepherds of 
Ettrick and Aumandale ? 


Pronouns are olassed as Personal, Possessive, Interrogative, 
and Relative ; in each elass there are Cowpomd Pronouns, and 
many adjectives are used pronominally. 

P^jRSOjfAif Pronotjhs. 

The usage of the Personal Pronouns in the current Scottish 
dialects differs essentially from that of the Standard English, 
being in most respects identical with the French. There is 
a direct or proper Nominative, and a direct Objective, as well 
as an indirect case, used like the French moi, toi, lui, eu%, for 
both Nominative and Objective in certain positions. But 
while in French this, indirect case or dative is in its history 
and derivation distinct from the direct accusative, the in- 
direct case in Scotch is, viewed etymologically, really the 
objective of the English (the dative or accusative of the 
Anglo-saxon), while the direct Objective is a contracted or 
mutilated form. 

!Nom. Aa [Thow obs.] Hey Schui Hyt (yt, it) 

Obj. mS (us, 's, 'z) replaced by plural ym, 'm 'yr, 'r it, 't, 'd 

Ind. mey hym hyr hyt 

> i ^ ,' 

I Norn. Wey Yee Thay 

Plu. { Obj. us, 'a, 'z yfih, yell, ye, 'e thgrn 

( Ind* huz yuw. thaim 



The Ags. ic, Old South. Eng. ich, remained in the Scottish 
writers of the 14th century as ik before a vowel or h, but the k 
was dropped before a consonant. Thus : 

Barbour : — Betuix a louch-Bide and a bra, 

That wes sa strait Ik underta. 

Bot thair fayis war ma then thai 
Be fifteen hundyr, Ik herd say. 

I count nocht my liff a stra 
Thir angrys may I ne mar drey. 

But ik has, I believe, long been obsolete, and I, originally pro- 
nounced I, as in ik, first became diphthongal, as in cry, lie (Pal. 
ai), and was then reduced to the first half of the diphthong (a). 
In all the Scottish, and most of the North English dialects, I, 
when unaccented, is now A or &h (e, e), as in the first syllable of 
about, among. In some of the Scotch dialects it is, when em- 
phasized, (ai) or (de), but in the Southern Counties there is no 
trace of the diphthong, and the emphatic form is simply aa (ace), 
which may be compared with the Northumbrian aw, the York- 
shire ah, and Lancashire aw. 

" Sally, hinny, sit aside us ; lang maw bairn, aw canna last, 
Beukt aw's for the dowley lonnin' ; thoo may see aw's sinkan' fast." — 
Poems in Newcastle Dialect. By J. P.- Robson. 

The true Objective Singular ma (formed from mik, as a, from 
ik,) is now almost obsolete, except among old people, the plural 
us being regularly used instead, just as in the second person you is 
used for thee. Where an old person would say " hey taelld-ma, 
gi'-ma," the present generation say, "hey tselld-us, gie 's or 
gie 'z " in the singular as in the plural. The same usage prevails 
over the English part of Bernicia. 

" An she says tiv him, What for sud thoo teayk a likin tiv us, an' teayk 
sec notish on us, kennin' thit aw's a straingur ?" — 

Ruth. ii. 10. Northumberland Dialect. 

Huz is, perhaps, the only Scotch word which aspirates an 
originally simple vowel ; anil this is not a modem corruption like 
the Cockney " hair of the hatmosphere," but an ancient form : 
compare the Paternoster of the 13th century, given by Mr. Ellis 
(Early Eng. Pron. p. 442) : 

Vre bred Jat lastes ai 

gyue it hus fis hilke dai, 

and vre misdedis J>u forgyue hus 

als we forgyue Jaim Jat misdon hus. 

As in Dutch and Flemish the second person singular pronoun 
has quite disappeared from the spoken dialect. Even in prayer I 
have heard an old shepherd say " Ye war oor Faither, aathoa 


wey haed forseaken ye," but as a rule English is the liturgical 
language even among the illiterate, and thou, thy, thee, of course 

The objective of ye is yfih, or yeh, in most of the Scotch 
dialects, but in that of the Southern Counties it sinks into simple 
ye, or rather (y not being sounded before e) 'ee : pyt it 6n-yeh. 
Tev. pyt it 6n-'ee = onie. 

The diphthongal sound of hey, wey, is scarcely perceptible 
when unaccented, in which case they shrink into hi, wi (h», wi) , 
as schui, thay, do into schuh or scheh, theh (she, dho). 

The h of hym, hyr, hyt, is not heard when unemphatic ; in such 
a case yt is used before the verb, it after, as yt fall doon, dyd-it 
fact, f emphatic hyt fell doon, dyd hyt faa ? The euphonic change 
of it, 'I, into 'd after a voiced letter has been recognized since the 
middle of the 15th century, at least. Thus ; 

" Eatis Eaving " : — 

111 neuer na seruand to thar lord 

He sal the neuer luf the better for'd. 3534. 

An' he it hyd(e) and heil and hald 

He is a theif rycht as he staid = staw'd, stole it. 

Ibid. 3446. 
To knaw the cours of ti jouthed, 
And of the mydys, and of thin eild 
As thow has felt, and mar sal j 'eild (=feel it). 

That neuer man may preif one the" 

A taynt of falsat of his gud 

pow art wndone, and ( = if) euer }>ow dud (= dui it). — 

Ibid. 3218. 
Dunbar, " Complaint to the King " : — 

Fenjeing the feiris of ane lord 

And he ane strummeU, I stand ford = for it. 

Lyndesay, " Satyre," 2095 :— 

Heir is ane coird baith great and lang, 
Quhilt hangit Jonnye Armistrang, 

Of gude hemp, soft and sound ; 
Gude halie peopUl, I stand for' d 
(Julia ever beis hangit with this cord 

Neidis never to be dround. 

" Gude and Godlie BaUatis," p. 124 :— 

Then suld we outher do or die, 

Or ellis our lyfe we suld lay for it (for'd) 
And euer to Hue in cheritie 

Be Christ Jesus, quhilk is our Lord. 

Direct and Indirect Forms. — The Nominative Direct is used 
when it immediately accompanies the verb, or is separated from 
it only by the qualifying adverb. It is used either with or with- 
out emphasis. 

Aa was theare. Dyd ye heir ? Te suin cam back. Dyd thay 
dui seae ? Tt was aboot fower o'clock. Waar-n' yee theare ? 



The Indirect form is used for the Nominative — 

1. When the Verb is not expressed, as in answer to a question. 

(So in French.) 

2. When the Nominative is separated from the Verb by a Eelative 

or Eelative clause, a numeral or a substantive. (So in French.) 

3. As the second Nominative (predicate) after the verb to be, etc. 

(So in French.) 

4. When the Nominative is repeated for the sake of emphasis, the 

added nominative being put in the indirect case. (So in 

5. When two or more Nominatives form the subject of the same 

verb. (So in French.) 

6. With a participle as the absolute case. 

Examples: 1. Quheae was heir? Mey (Fr. moi). 2. Mey, 'at 
bass bein theare (Fr. moi, qui ai ete la). Thaim 'at hses, aye 
geates mair. Yuw tweae was theare. Huz laddies ran sefter 
them. Tuw eanes kaens aa aboot it. 8. It was yuw (C'etait toi). 
It wasna mey. That's hym. Yt's thaim 'at sood cum fyrst. 4. 
Mey, aa canna gang (Fr. moi, je ne puis aller). Yuw! yee're 
aye ahynt. Schui's noa tui lyppen tui, hyr. 5. Yuw an' mey '11 
gang ower the feild (Fr. toi et moi, nous irons, etc.). Thaim an 
huz dyd vaerra weill thegyther. 6. Hym beyin' seae hungrie. 
Mey cummin' yn, stoppit the dyn. 

The Objective Direct is used when an Objective (or two Objec- 
tives in different relations, not separated by conjunctions,) occurs 
after a verb or preposition, without emphasis. In pronunciation 
this form of the Objective is scarcely a separate word, but an 
enclitic syllable or letter added to the verb or preposition. Some 
monosyllabic prepositions and verbs blend with these pronouns 
into a simple sound. Such are tui, free or three, yn, on, o', wi', gie, 
gee, hce, thus : 

















(toi, tei) 






tui 'm or 



on 'ym 






tui'r or 









tui 'd or 


yn't, yu'd 

on't on'd 

o't, 6'd 


tui z or 














gi ma 

gie 'm 


(warns, wema) 





wui'd gie 'd 



(giis, giiz) 

wui-them gie-them 


The Objective Indirect is used when the Object is from the 
sense put under emphasis, or when two or more objects, coupled 
by a conjunction, are governed by the same verb or pre- 



Objective Direct. Gi'ma or gie's yer haand. Tall ma or tsell- 
us_ aa aboot-it. Hey hat-ma or hat-us ower tlie heid. That was 
sair ageane-ye. Aa saa-ye beath. Dyd-ye heir-'ym ? Hse-ye 
hserd-it ? Wad-ye kam'd, yf ye saa 'd. Pyt the 1yd on't. Ther's 
neathyng yn't. Dynna bey seae hard on'ym. Gie'r hyr deuws. 
Lsst'yr gang. Bryng-us a quhein peirs. Aa'll gi'ye sum. Hey 
follo't-them. Sohui brocht-them tui-them. Hey tuik-them frse-them. 

Objective Indirect. Gie mey yer haand. Teell' mey aa aboot it. 
Yt was sair ageane yuw — that. Aa saa yuw-tweae. Dyd ye heir 
hym ? Haa-ye hasrd hyt ? "Wad-ye kaen hyt, yf ye saa'd ? Pyt 
the 1yd onna hyt ? Dynna bey hard onna hym ? Last hyr gang. 
Bryng Mz sum peirs. Aa"ll gie yuw a quhein. Hey follo't 
thaim. Hey tuik thaim thrae-them. Hey tuik-them time thalm. 
Thay're tui yuw and m6y. Aa mset hym an' hyr. Aa want yuw- 
eanes heir. 

After the verbs give, tell, send, bring, sell, etc., in such sentences 
as "Give them to me," "He told it to them," the order of the 
pronouns is reversed in Scotch, that expressing the Dative relation 
being put first without a preposition, thus : gie mey them, hey 
tceld-ihem't. The same position is maintained with nouns, Hey gee 
the dreyver them, wey browcht-them wurd, thay bowcht iher faither 
a hoose. 

In the case of two pronouns, they may be both direct, both 
indirect, or one of each form, according to the sense regulating 
the emphasis or stress of the voice. Thus, he gave it to you = 
hey gae-ye'd ; he gave it to YOU = hey gse yuw'd ; he gave IT to 
you = he gse-ye hyt ; he gave IT to YOU = hey gse yuw hyt. So 
he gives it to the man = hey gies the man 'd ; he gives IT to the 
man = hey gies the, man hyt. 

From which it appears that a pronoun may be added encliti- 
cally to another pronoun or a noun, as well as to a verb. 

Gie mey'd, gie yuw'd, gie hym'd, gie hyr'd, gie huz't, gie 
thaim'd. So gie the man'd, gie the bairn't, gie the burd it, give it 
to the man, the child, the bird. 

When both pronouns are unemphatic, they are both enclitic, 
thus : — 

gi'ma't, gi'ye'd, gie'm't, gie'r't, gie'd-it, gie's't, gie-them't 

give it to me, it to you, it to him, it to her, it to it, it to us, it to them 

tsell-ma't, tsell-ye't, tsell'ym't, tsell'yr't, tsell-us't, tsell-them't 

tell it me, it to you, it to. him, it to her, it to us, it to them 

Eane (yen) Eng. one, Fr. on, is an indefinite personal pronoun. 
Its objective is eane, but in a reflective sentence eane'sscel. "Eane 
leykes tui sey that ; " " yt dyz eane muckle guid ; " " Wad eane 
hurt eane's-sasl ? " 

Instead of eane, a buodie (i.e. persona, a person,) is often used, 
e.g. " A buodie leykes tui sey that ; " " yt dyz a buodie muckle 


guid ; " " wad a buodie hurt thersel, yf thay fsell owre theare ? " 
the plural pronoun being used with buodie to signify the general - 
ness of the idea, and indefiniteness in gender. 

Possessive Pronouns. 

These are of two classes, those used Adjectwely, and those 
used Absolutely. 

The Adjective Possessives are maa, yoor (or yuwr), hys, hyr 
{hyts), oor, thayr ; when not accented pronounced m&, yer or 
'eer, 'yz, 'yr, 'yts, oor or wer, ther ; as my father, md /wither, 
MY father, maa faither ; your daughter, yer or 'eir dowchter ; 
YOUR daughter, yoor or yuwr dowchter. 

The Absolute Possessives are meyne, yoors or yuwrs, hys, 
hyrs (hyts), oors, thayr s. 

Maa bears the same relation to my that aa does to I; it is the 
first element of the diphthong, which is still (raaai, maae, maaa, 
maa') in some of the dialects. Maa or my has been formed from 
mine, Ags. min, in the same way as ae, nae, from ane, name, 
i.e. by dropping the final n, first before a consonant, and at length 
before all nouns, leaving mine as an absolute form only, used 
without a noun. In the case of the other pronouns the adjective 
form is the original, from which the absolute is formed by adding s. 1 

These forms arose in the Northern dialect, and the tendency to 
carry the analogy farther is shewn by the form meynes, often 
heard in South Scottish vernacular, "aa'll gi'ye yoors, quhan ye 
bryng mey meynes ; " " meynes is the bsest sefter aa." Had not 
the distinction between my and mine come into existence, mine 
and mines would analogically have been the English forms. We 
see a similar extension of analogy in some of the Midland English 
dialects, which have adopted the n distinction, and formed own, 
yourn, hisn, hern, theirn, which in use and form bear the same 
relation to our, your, Ms, that mine and thine do to my and thy, 
though having of course a very different history. 

The word hyts is, as in English, of very recent formation, and 
but little used. Instead of yts heid, yts han'le, yts ayn, are gene- 
rally used the heid o'd, the han'le o'd, the ayn o'd, or ayn o't. The 
Northern English likewise eschews its : " it heead, it han'le, 
leeak at it een," Sc. " luik at the ein o't." 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

The simple Interrogatives are Quheae (Central dialects 
quhae, quha, N.E. faa, North Eng. wheea,) and quhat. In 

1 See Dr. Morris's Introduction to That thai he urs and thair airs ; 

the Ayenbite of Inwyt, p. liv., giving If they win urs that we be thairs. 

the quotation from Cursor Mtmdi :— Whence it appears that urs and thairs 

A man of thair gains an of ur, were originally double possessives = 

If urs may him win in stur, of ur, of thair. 


asking the precise person or thing of several, quhulk or 
quhylk, which P 

The Possessive of quheae is quhease (whase, quhas). The 
Objective, in poetry and in all the old writers, quham, wham, 
is in the spoken tongue of the present day, the same as the 

Quheae yr yee ? Quheae d'ye sey ? Quhat's yon cumand ? 
Quhat dyz hey say ? Quhulk wull ye teake ? Quhulk's yer 
freind ? Quhease schuin waar thay ? Aa ksen-na quheae yee 
bey. Deir kasns aa quhat hey said. 

"When quhat and quhulk are used adjectively before a noun 
they usually become quhat'n, quhulken. " Quhat'n clease wull ye 
pytt on the day ? " With the article added quhat'n a, quhulk'n a, 
are equivalent to the German Was fur ein ? " Quhat'n a noyse is 
that ? " Was filr ein L&rm ist das f " Quhulk'n a cuintrieman 
mse hey bey?" Was fur ein Landsmann sei er? "Quhat 'n a fuil 
was yee tui heid them ? " How were you such a fool as to mind them ? 

Quhat'n is probably derived from the old quhat-hyn, what-hin. 

Hampole :-~ What-Jcyn thyng may fouler be 

pan a mans carion es to se. 

Alex. Scot (about 1660) : — 

Quhatttme ane glaikit fule am I 
To slay myself with melaiicoly ? 

The Possessive quhease is seldom used, except before a noun, 
as "quhease beiss ys yon?" Whose beasts are those ? In other 
positions, a curious phrase is substituted, the etymology of which 
is difficult to trace. Instead of Whose is that ? we find in Scotch 
and Northern English, Quheae' s auwcht that ? or quheae 's owcht 
that ? (Aberdeen, Faa's aicht that ? Cleveland, Wheea's aught 
that), or more commonly, quheae' s aa that ? or quheae' s 6 that ? 
Perhaps the full phrase is quheae is awcht o' that ? "Who is 
possessed of that ? "Who is the owner of that ? awcht being the 
past participle of the Ags. verb agan, ahan, to have, to possess, 
(Maeso-Gothic aihan. Greek e%-eiv). "Whatever the etymology, 
this is the ordinary phrase used to express sentences beginning 
with Whose and the verb to be. " Quheae's auwcht that doag ? 
Quheae's aa thyr duiks ? Quheae was auwcht (or aa) the syUer 
'at ye fand ? Quheae was aa thys hoose afuore yee bowcht it ? 
Aa dynna keen quheae cood bey auwcht it (or aa'd) ; quheae'll 
bey auwcht them (or aa them) a hunder yeir rafter thys ? " We 
cannot say, Aa'm auwcht it, or hey's auwcht-it, but only yt's meyne, 
or yt belangs tui mey, etc. Auwcht can only be used with the 
Interrogative and Kelative, and some Indefinite pronouns, as 
thaim at's auwcht it, those whose it is ; ther maun bey sumbodie 
auwcht it, it must belong to somebody. So with neaebodie, onie- 
bodie, quheaever. 



Quhulk being properly an adjective has eane usually added, 
when used without a noun ; " Quhulk eane wull ye hse ? Quhulk 
eanes dui ye mein ? " 

Quhat is used in exclamation, as " Quhat a breycht staern ! " 
The Preposition governing the Interrogative is always placed 
at the end of the sentence or clause, " Quheae wull ye gie them 
tui ? Quhat yr ye thynkand aboot ? Quhulk eane wad hey bey 
baast pleis't wui ? " 

The Belative. 

The simple Relative of the Scottish and Northern English 
dialects is at, " the man at was heir, thaim at said seae, yuw 
at dyd it, the burd (at) ye sch6t." (The word is never 
accented, but pronounced like the syllable at or et, in carat, 
garret, mallet.) 

As to the origin of tii see p. 96. Whencesoever derived, we 
find it in the Northern dialect from the 13th century ; at first, as 
it appears, most commonly for the conjunction that. As the 
relative we find it only once in Hampole, but in later writers, as 
in the Scottish poets of the Early period, it is more commonly 
used than that as the relative, and it is now everywhere in use in 
the popular language, from the Humber to the Pentland Firth. 

Hampole (conj.) : — 

Swa wald God at it suld be. 

* * * na difference bot at the tame 
Has ende, and the tother has nane. 

(rel.) Namli of Jat at him fel to know. 

pat might meke his herte and make it law. 

Barbour :— And at he boune wes in all thing 

To tak with him the gud and ille. 

" yon folk " 
Schapis thaim to do, with slycht, 
That at thai drede to do with mycht. 

Fra at the Brwce to dede war brocht. 

Henry : — Befor the tyme at King Edward it fand. 

He drew a suerde at helpit him at neid. 

Nane wes tharin at gret defens couth ma, 
Bot wemen fast sar wepand in to wa. 
Craft of Deyng : — 

He gaif to the maist synare maist mercy and grace, as to Petyr at denyd 
hyme, to Paul at persewit hyme, to Matho the okerar, etc. 

Hatis Having : — 

Here efter followis Je consail and teiching at the wyss man gaif his sone. 

That ay, qnhen at thai one it luke, 
Thay pray for hyme that maid the buk. 

Gawain Douglas : 

At thare bene mony goddis, I will not say. 
Bot at sic thingeB are possibill this I schewe. 

Thare renjeis and thetis at thaym areistis. 


Douglas was almost the last Scottish writer who used at ; for 
in the 16th century it went entirely out of use in literature, being 
replaced by quhilk, quhilhis, probably owing to the influence of 
French fashion. I do not remember to have met with a single 
instance of the relative at in Lyndesay, Lauder, or the Complaynt 
of Scotland, a very remarkable circumstance when we think how 
regularly it was used by the writers of the 15th century, and that 
it is the common form in actual use at the present day. 

In the modern dialects of the North of England we find it 
represented under the various forms at, 'at, ut, et, all indicating 
the same sound (at) or (jet), thus : 

Lancashire. — '' AVd say, for thoose ut wanten mayte, let's groo it for 'em 
for thoose ut wanten clooas, let's wayve th' cloth, an' mak 'em ; for thoose; 
ut wanten foyer, let's get cooals for 'em."— Bundle o' Fents. 

Barnsley. — " Them afs niwer reight but when they're at t' top' a t' tree, or 
wants ta be goin ovver t' head a iwry boddy afs abaaht em." — 

T' Bairnsla Foaks Annual, 1866. 

Cleveland. — " Is there nought at Ah can dee f Nowght at Ah can tell. 
Ah said at Ah wad, an' Ah ded." — Cleveland Glossary. 

Westmorland. — " I sum meear ewms theear wes o maks a things et ivver 
ya cud neeam, things et thae sed hed leev't lang afooar t' world wes meead." 
" Jonny Shippard" at the British Museum. 

Sigh Furness : — It's oa a heeap o' mapment 

Ut say, 'at this or that, 
Sud put things off i' thissan — 
Thow toaks thow kna 'sn't what I 

Cumberland. — " He said iv his oan mak' o' toke, 'at he duda't want to 
hinder wark, but he wad give anybody 'at ken't t' fells weal, a matter o' five 
shillin' to ga wid him, an' carry two lal bags." — Joe and the Geologist. 

If iv'ry teal 'at 's telj't be true, thy stwory's nea lee. 
Roxburgh : — Yf ylka teale 'at 's taell'd bey treuw, yer stuorie's neae ley. 
Lothian : — Gin ilkae taele at's te-U't bee troo, yer storie's nae lee. 

The Interrogative quheae, quha, who, is not used as a relative 
in the spoken Scotch, as it is in modern English. For its use by 
Scottish writers since the middle of the 16th century see pp. 69-70. 

The living Northern dialects follow the old Teutonic usage of 
identifying the relative, not with the interrogative but with 
the demonstrative. 1 

1 The original relative form of the thatei, Anglo-saxon ]>cet, ye, Old Norse 

Aryan languages ya as distinguished \at, er (for yer) ; in the modern Ger- 

from the interrogative ha (qua, hwa), man, Dutch, etc., weleher, welk, which, 

and the demonstrative ta (tha, sa, ha), is used in addition to the demonstra- 

seems to have disappeared at a very tive. Such was also the case in Middle 

early period, leaving its place to be English, as shewn in the authorized 

supplied in the Teutonic, Hellenic, and version of the Bible, where the two 

•Celtic branches by the demonstrative, usual relatives are that and which — 

•and in the Italic, Slavonic, and Iranic, " him that cometh unto me," " Our 

by the interrogative. The original father which art in heaven," The use 

Teutonic relative was the same as the of who is rare, and confined chiefly to 

demonstrative, or a contraction or mo- the oblique cases— "whose I am, and 

dification of it, as Moeso-Gothic thata, whom I serve." Since that time, how- 

196 .GRAMMAR. 

Quhulk (quhilk), so commonly used as ^a simple relative in the 
Middle Scottish writers, is used in the spoken dialect as a Com- 
pound Relative, when the antecedent is a sentence or clause : 
" Hey said 'at hey maat us onna the muir, quhulk wasna the case." 
But a common substitution for this is to resolve the Eelative into 
a conjunction and demonstrative, " and that," or " but that." 

When the Eelative is used in the Possessive Case (whose) it is 
necessary to express it by tike conjunction at_ (that) and the pos- 
sessive pronoun belonging to the antecedent; thus, "the man at 
hys weyfe's deid" >the man whose wife is dead, "the wumman At 
yee kasn hyr sun " the woman whose son you know, " the doag at 
yts lseg was run ower "the dog whose leg was run over. 

The same primitive form of the relative is used in Hebrew, as 
13 ty"!] "lt0$ y§ the tree that its seed is on it, i.e. the tree whose seed 
is on it ; n»2 VUPl SVW W$ B"Kn the man that the cup is found 
in his hand ; DON D3^> D13 -?|S5>N ne>N1 WW ^3 every man and woman 
that their heart hath inclined them, i.e. whose heart ; D5?n HB'K 
Vnbat mrw Blessed is the people that their God is Jehovah, i.e. 
whose God. Numerous instances of the same usage occur in 
Anglo-saxon. Thus from the Mene : Se God So Sis his beacen 
waes, the God that this was his sign, i.e. whose sign this was. In 
the Pastoral : se brS eac eallenga healede, se-fte eall his mod hv8 
aflowen to gaeglbsernesse, he is .also altogether hernious, (or rather 
hydrocelous), that his (i.e. whose) whole mind is addicted to 
wantonness. 1 

A good example from the Early Scotch is afforded by the Act 
of Parliament .of James II., 19th Oct., 1456.: 

Item it is ordanyt at ilk map, bat his (i.e. whose) gudis extendis to 
xxti merckis, be bodyn at "J;e lest with ane Jsk with slevis to j>e hande, or 
ellis a payr of splentis, a sellat or a prikit hatt, a suerde and a buclare, a 
bow and a schaif of arrowis. 

The same construction is used in "Welsh, and in many other 

For inferior animals and inanimate objects, hyts being but little 
in use, o't, o'd, is used, as " the hoose 'at tbe send ,o',t fasll," " the 
scheip at the tail o'i, was cuttit off." 

,ever, the .use of who as a simple relative instance, showing at the same time 

has become more and more common, how loosely and diffusely the relative 

until it has quite supplanted which pronoun is often expressed. Hit is wen 

when applied to persons. This pecu- %set se ne mse^e o'oerra monna scylda 

liarity, which distinguishes English from ofa'Suean, se se-fte hine 'Sonne jiet his 

the other Teutonic tongues, is no doubt ajena on herigea'S, it may be imagined 

.owing to its more intimate connection that he cannot absolve the sins of other 

with French and the other Romance men, he he-that him his own (sins) even 

languages, in which the same word qui yet assail, i.e. he whose .own still assail 

has represented both relative and in- him. I think the Ags. generally shirks 

terrogative from the earliest period. the possessive construction of the re- 

1 Mr. H. Sweet, who kindly found lative altogether. The more usual con- 

me the above examples, jemarks : " In struction of the last example would he 

Anglo-saxon the same analytical con- ftone Se his ; or less usual, simply be 

struction is also found in the other or .)>one his." 
pases, of which the following is a good 


With a noun in the objective' the hyf or 't may Be omitted ; as, 
"the hoose at ye sey the send o'; the scheip at aa buistit the heid 
o' ; the trey, at he sseld the fruit o', 's deid." The form of the 
sentence may also be" changed ; thus instead of " the man at hys 
cuot's tuorn," may be said, the man at hses hys cuot tuorn, or, the 
man wui the tuorn coat. The styck at the heid o't 's broken, or, 
the styck at hses the heid o't broken, or the styck wui the heid o't 
broken. Sometimes the personal pronoun is repeated' for the 
sake of distinction, as, "the aald man, by mi at hys lseg was 
broken, cam hyrplan,- oot." 

When the Eelative is used in the Objective case, the Pre- 
position or Verb by which it is governed always follows it, " The 
man r at ye gse'd tui," the man to whom you gave it. 

An ellipsis of the Eelative is extremely common, especially 
when it is the object of a verb or preposition, or a nominative in 
sentences beginning with there is, there was, etc. " The deyke 
('at) ye built, the fuok hey meet, the pleace ye cam free, an' 
the geate ye earn be." "Ther's moniff eane duis that;" "the' 
war a lot o ? fuok cam tui sey quhat hey dyd ; " " ther'll bey 
plaintie '11 lyssen tyll 'ym ; " " Aa baid a lang quheyle, but the' 
war neaebodie cam." " Aa ksenn'd a man geade oft theare." The 
Northern writers generally, but especially those of Scotland, 
used such elliptical phrases constantly : 

Cursor Mvndi : — Bot a point es J>ar Jmm pines mare' 
pan elles al fair ojer fare. 

Gawaih- Douglas- : — 

Syne perdoun me sat sa fer in my lycht.- 

Ane sang ""The schip salisour the salt fame, 
"Wil bring thir merchandis and my lemane hame." 


Compound Personal Pronouns are formed by adding sel 
(ssei), sels (seels) to the Possessives : Ma-set, yocvsel or yersel, 
hys-sel,hyr-sel, yts-sel or the sel o't, oor-sel or oor-sels, yoorsel, 
or -sels, thair-sel or -sels. 

In the plural there is a double form : oor-sel, yoor-s'el, 
thair-sel, are used when the idea is collective : oor-sels, yoor- 
sels, thair-sels, when the idea is segregate. Thus, "Wey'll 
dui'd oorsel ; Ye maun keip thyr be thair-sel," But " Gang 
away yeif tweae sels ; wey^ll speik it ower amang oor-sels ; 
yt hses bein eane o' yeir-sels/ r In the third person neuter, 
" the burd hurt the sel o't ; trye yf yt can staand the sel o'd; 
aa fand that eane lyeand be the sel o'd," antiq. the selvin. 

The contraction sel, sell, for self,selue, or sehien, is met with 

already in- the end of the 15th century : 

Thairfoir I red that thow excuse thy sell, 
And rype thy mynd h<w every thyng befell. 


He that hee gold and greit richese, 
And may be into mirryness, 

And dois glaidness fra him expell, 
And levis into wretehitness 

He wirkis sorrow to him sell. — Dunbar. 

Tak thair the Buik ; lat se gif je can spell. 

I neuir red that : thairfoir reid it jour sel. — Lyndesay. 

Gawain Douglas lias usually sefoin, eeluyn : 

Quhat helpis thus thy selu/yn to torment P 

Not that oure toung is iu the sefoin skant, 
But for that I the fbuth of langage want. 

Sel, it is to be observed, is treated as a noun, hence, the gel o'd, 
the self of it, hys-sel, ihair-sel, not him-sel, ihem-sel, and the em- 
phatic form hys ayn sel, or hys vcerra ayn sel. From sel is formed 
the adjective sellie, scellie, selfish. Self occurs in smlf-saim, "hey 
■was sein theare the saelf-saim nicht." 

Compound Povsessives add ayn (aan, awn, awen) to the 
simple form : maa ayn, hys ayn, our ayn, etc. In the first 
person we often hear man-ayn or myn-ayn, a relic of the 
old m\n-a\en or min-awen. The n is sometimes by a false 
analogy extended to the other persons, as oor-n-ayn. (Com- 
pare nothir for other.} For hyts-ayn is generally used the 
ayn o't. 

Compound Interrogatives and Relatives are such as quheae- 
erer, qahease-ever, quhat-ever, quhulk-ever, and quhat used for 
that which, " hse-ye geatten quhat ye wantit ? " 

Adjectives used as Pronouns. Most of the Demonstrative and 
Numeral adjectives can be used as pronouns, i.e. to represent a 
noun as well as to qualify one. But in Scotch it is common to 
add eane, eanes, in reference to objects, ihyng in reference to 
quantities of stuff, as thys eane, that eane, thon eane, thyr eanes (or 
thyrs), yon eanes, ylh eane (ylk yen or ylkin), sunt eanes; thys- 
ihyng, ihat-thyng, aa-ihyng, sum-thyng, onie-thyng, neae-thyng. 
" Ye're aither aa-thyng or neae-thyng wui hym." Eane and 
thyng are in the same way added to ordinary adjectives, which 
would in English generally stand alone, as " aa'll bye a quhein 
ny tts yf thay're guid-eanes. Thay're uneo smaa-eanes. Aa dynna 
leyke saat butter, hse-ye neae frcesch-thyng ? Wey'll hse sum 
neuw-thyng ynn the-muorn. Aa've sum mair peaper, but yt's noa 
syc guid-thyng as that," Eng. not so good as that. " Wad ye 
leyke sum black ynk, or sum bleuw-thyng ? " In this application 
-thyng has not an independent accent, but is added to the pre- 
ceding adjective, as in no-thing, &ny-thing ; eane also is pro- 
nounced like the termination -yan or -ion, e.g. " hsed hey a black 
horse or a dun-eane," where the last two words rhyme with 

The compounds aumbuodie, oniehuodie, neabuodie, aabuodie, 


yvvrie-buodie, are used with a plural pronoun to express their 
indefiniteness in gender, as " sumbuodie haes laeft ther fytt-meerks 
ahynt them j Tt's vaerra saaldum 'at oniebuodie fynds ther wav 


As in the other Teutonic languages and dialects the lead- 
ing features of the Verb depend upon the form taken by the 
Past Tense and Past Participle, in accordance with which two 
main divisions are made, the Strong Verbs, or consonantal 
stems, and the Weak Verbs, originally derivative, and ending 
in a vowel termination. 

The Weak Vebbs. 

In the Old Scotch the Past Tense and Past Participle were 
formed by adding it, yt, to all verbs of this class. In the 
modern dialects this full form undergoes certain euphonic 
changes in accordance with the character of the preceding 
letter or syllable. In the Southern Counties the usage is as 
follows : — 

1. The full form is retained only by Verbs ending in a " shut 

consonant " (k, t, p, g, d, b), as lyck h/ckit, teaste teastit, 
slyp slyppit, rug ruggit, bcend bcendit, rub rubbit, bonnet 
bonnetit, plaid plaidit, profit profitit, scollop scollopit. 

2. After any other consonant, except a liquid or nasal, the 

vowel is elided and -t retained, as suwch suwoh't, graith 
graith't, snuff snuff 't, baaithe baaith't, deive deiv't, pdss 
pass't, leace leacet, ax ax't, bryz bryz't, fysch fyseKt, 
fmtch fcetcht, juidgejuidge't. 

1. So also with a liquid or nasal, preceded by another con- 
sonant, as airm airm't, turn turn't, dyrl dyrl't, lys'n lys'n't, wars'le 
wars'l't, tsttle intend, attle't. 

2. This rule moreover includes all words of more than one 
syllable unaccented on the last, except such as fall under Eule I., 
as honour honour't, wunder wunder't, plainish plainish't, harhen 
hcsrhen't, wurrie wurriet, folio, follb't, mairrie mairriet. 

3. After a liquid, a nasal, or a vowel, in a monosyllable or 

accented syllable, the connecting vowel is elided and -t 
becomes -d, as tcell tcell'd, smuir smuir'd, deim deim'd, 
steane steaned, belang belangd, dey deyed, staye stayed, 
rowe rowed, woo wooed, trye tryed, entail entail'd, mentein 
In the more Northern Scottish dialects t is retained in these 
verbs ; thus, tell telt, Tcyll Tcylt, dee diet, trye try't, stey or stuy 


stuy't ; anciently spelt ■deyit, stayit, Tcyllit, belangit, etc. ; but as 
early as the 15th century the pronunciation was the same as that 
now used in the Southern Counties. Compare such rhymes as 
the following, where begylyt is of course to be read begyled : 

Thai leif furth as the bestys wyld 

Till courss of eild have thaim begylyt. — Satis Saving, 2310. 

In the 16th century the -d was also written — 

Als I pray to the Rude 
That Martin Luther that fals loun, 
Black Bullinger, and Melancthoun, 
Had been smorde in their cude. — Lyndesay— Satyre, 2070. 

Heir, quhat our Pastouris thay may spend, 
Me neidis nocht schaw ; sen it is kend.— 

Geue thay godds wourd hes weill declaird, 
I saye thare leueings ar weill waird. 

Lauder— The Office, 327. 

Where these are written instead of smurit, declarit, warit, hermit 
or Icent. 

The deviations from these rules may be classed under the 
following heads : 

1. A change of quantity, in the long vowel being stopped by the 

consonant added (in a few much-used words only) say, s&id 
(for say'd), lay l&id, geae geade (for geaed), ha, had. 

2. A slight change in vowel quality, as did, dyd (for dui'd), schui 

schod, heir hcerd or hard, tall tall'd or taald. 

3. A transposition of consonants, as burn brunt, wurk wroeht. 

4. An elision of t or d of the stem before t or d of the termination, 

with or without modification of the vowel, as sand, scent 1 (for 

sandit, scend't), meit mat, spreid sprad. 
But many verbs contracted in the literary English remain full 
in Scotch, as band, bandit. Others develop a new strong form, 
as Erig. let, let, let, Scotch lot, luit, luitten. so sat, suit, suitten ; 
put, Scotch pyt, pat, putten? 

5. A modification of the consonant (and vowel) before -t, as leive, 

laft, bryng, browcht (for brought), wurk, w'rocht (for wurkt, 
w'rukt) ; thynk thowcht, bye bowcht, catch caucht, cleik or 
clutch claucht, meake made (Ags. macod). 

1 In older Scotch the past tense of send was send ; Anglo-saxon he sende. 

Chryst efter his glorious Ascentioun, 

Tyll his Disciplis send the Haly Spreit.— Lyndesay. 

2 This is as old, at least, as the 16th century : 

Thay lute the leiges pray to stocks and stanes 

And paintit papers (at) wats nocht quhat thay mein. — 

Alex. Scot — New Tear's Gift to Queen Mary. 
Witht in the quhilk he pat five thousand fut men and horse men. — 

Complaynt of Scotland, fol. 133 (138) *. 
I met Gude Cornwall be the way 
Quha pat me in ane fellon fray. — Lyndesay's Satyre, 1. 686. 


To this section belong those peculiar stems, which, originally 
strong pasts, have adopted a present signification and developed a 
new past : wyll or wull wad, sail suid, can cuid, mce meycht, daar 
durst, dow dowcht, aa audit or owchi, wait or wat must. Many of 
these serve as aaxiliaries, among which see their full conjugation. 

The Steons Verbs. 

These form the Past Tense by strengthening, or modifying 
the stem vowel. The Past Participle ends in -en, but this 
termination is dropped whenever a nasal (m, n, or ng) is 
found in the preceding syllable, 1 Thus beyte, bait, bytten ; 
but ch/m, clam, clum (for clumben) - T fynd, /and, fund (for 
funden) ; ryng, rang, rung (for rungen). In drynk we may 
thus drop the -en and make drunk, or we may expel the n of 
the stem, and retain the termination, drukk-en (compare- the 
Norse drukken). In cum-en, after dropping the -en, d is 
added to distinguish the past participle from the present 
tense : " thay're cum'd," Eng. come, Old Northern dialect 

The change from the strong cum-en to the weak cum-it, cvimd, 
took place in the 16th century. In Henry Oharteris's Preface to 
his edition of Lyndesay's Poems, Edin., 1568, within half a dozen 
lines we have both forms " jit war thay not cwmmit to that furie 
and rage, as to bryle and scald quha sa euer suld speik aganis 
them" — "bot quhan thair iniquities was cummin to maturitie, 
God raised up Johne Wicleif," etc. For the pronunciation of 
eummit, compare 1. 32 of the " Deploratioun " in this same edition 
of Lyndesay — 

That brybour had nocht cwnmit within hir boundis— 
with the reading of the Paris edition — 

That brybour had nocht cwmd wythin hir bundis. 

These Verbs may be classed according to the changes 

which they undergo ; thus : 

1. Stems in a changing in the past to e (S.C. ce), and in the 
past participle resuming a, as hold or hid, hceld r fialden 
or hidden. This verb and fm, fall, faa'en, drop I after 
a, but retain it after e in the past tense. Where there was 
originally a guttural, now represented by w, the present 
tense isaa for aw, as blaa, bleuw {blew) blcufen ; or ow, as 
growe, greuw, grown. 

1 This rule is of course unwritten, period. No rule ean be given for the 

but it is invariable ; I have not ob'- dropping or retention of -en in the 

served the same regularity in the dia- Book-English. , 
lect of any other district or of any 

Gawain Douglas : 


2. Stems in ai (S. C. ea), with the past ai, and past participle 

resuming ai {ea) ; as beake, buik, beaken, teake, tuik, tea'n 

for teaken. 
This contraction is as old as the 13th century ; Cursor Mundi 
and Hampole, Barbour, Harry, and "G-awain Douglas, have not 
only tane, but also ta and tas, like the modern Lancashire and 

Cursor Mundi : — But ]>ai Mow ay ]>air awen wille 

And of noght elles Jynkes ne tas hede. 

And yheld agayn, if he be myghty, 
Alle ];at he tas wrangwysly. 

Hampole : — But bi Je name of ded may be tane 

And understanden ma dedes )>an ane. 

In J?at state fat he is in tane 
He sal be demed when he is gane. 

The auld gray all for nocht to him tais 
His hawbrek quhilk was lang out of usage. 

Our inemyis has thir worthy wallis taine 
Troy from the top down fallis, and all is gane. 

Wyntown : — His way out of that land he toys. 

Barbour: — He bad him men of arrays ta 

And in hy to Scotland ga. 

Him that myght othir ta or sis 
Bobert the Bruce that was his fa. 

Harry : — Quhen Wallace herd the erll sic ansuer mais (makes) 

A gret hate ire throw his curage he tais (takes). 

3. Stems in e (S.C. ce) past in ui, and past participle in ui, as 

lad, luit, htitten ; thrasch, thruisch, thruischen. 

4. Stems in ei long, past in ui or uo, past participle in uo, as 

scheir, schuir (or schuore), schuorn; beir, buir (or buore), 

5. Stems in i («/), ei short, or u, past in a, past participle in 

u, as byd, bad, budden ; syng, sang, sung ; greit, grat, 
grutten, to weep ; cum (anciently cym, Mceso-Gothic aim), 
cam, cum'd, Mid. Sc. cumen. 

6. Stems in the diphthong ey, past in ai, past participle in y : 

beyde, baid, bydden ; reyse, rayse, rysen; scheyne, schain, 

past participle obsolete. 

Several verbs take parts from two different classes, or have 

forms according to both. Others have in the tear and wear of 

time so changed their stem, or its inflections, as to appear quite 


Many are inflected both as Strong and Weak verbs ; in such 
cases the \Veak inflections are generally the newer ; instances of 
Verbs, originally weak, developing a new strong form are rare, 



and generally based on a false analogy. Such is bryng, which 
has not only the original brocht, but also a strong inflection brang, 
brung, after the analogy of syng, dyng, etc. 

Several Verbs, which in the literary English have a new weak 
form, retain in Scotch the strong forms of the Anglo-saxon and 
Old English ; and conversely, a few verbs which retain in Eng- 
lish the old strong forms, have in Scotch adopted a weak one. 
But many weak verbs, which are in English contracted or other- 
wise divergent, are in Scotch full and regular. 

The following Table of Verbs contains (1) all the strong stems 
in the language ; (2) all the weak stems whose inflections vary 
from the three general rules for -it, -t, -d ; (3) all verbs which 
have a double form or partly follow two forms ; and for com- 
parison with the English ; (4) all verbs irregular or deviating in 
English, which in the Scottish dialects are full or regular, and 
(5) all strong or deviating stems retained in English, but which 
the Scotch has lost. 

Verbs or parts of verbs which have only the regular weak 
inflection are indicated by italics ; forms which are antiquated or 
nearly obsolete in the spoken dialect are marked ant. ; those 
believed to be quite lost are denoted by obs. = obsolete : — 



Band b. 
Bereive b. 

Bey, pr. ym 
Byg . 

Blyn, ant. 

buik ant., beahit 

began, begoad, be- 



) besowchtj beseitcht 

bug, byggit 

browcht, brang 
built, buildit 
(brast obs.) burstit 



to bake 


beat, ovei 







besowcht, beseitcht 





abide, stay 


bid, invite 







blaa'n, bleuwn 









, brung 









cuid, cood 

cuid, cood 







catcht caucht 

catcht, caucht 






Choise (Ft. 

choisir) l 








Cleik or 


claucht, cleikit 

claucht, cleihit 



cleiv't, cleeft 

cloven, claeft 

cleave, split 







eraa'n, creuwn 



crap, creepit 

eruppen, creepit 




(cumen, obs±), cum'd 



cuost, cuostit 










dare, venture 




dare, chal- 


deal'd, dealt 

deal'd, dealt 

Dig wanting, supplied by 

hovok, delve 



draa'n, dreuwn 








dry wen, dri'en (=- 





drunk, ctaukken 









push, knock 


(ast, ait.) eitit* 









feuwchen> fowehen: 


Feel wanting, supplied by fynd. 







fleuwn, flowen 









fling, throw 




flit, change 











for-seaken , 


In more Northern dialects chuisc, chaise, ohms' t. 
In the 16th century eit— 

Scho eit of it to that intent, 

And patt her Hushand in beleue 

That he said heals sapient 

As the grete God omnipotent ; 

He eit on that condition.— Lyndesay — Monarchic, 928. 











Gangorgeae geade 



Geate or gy tt gat 

geatten, gotten 


Gie (=gee) 

l gse_ 

gi'en (= gein) 



gruive, greav't 






cry, weep (Itl. 












grip, seize 





(Hald ant.), 


(halden, ant.), 




Hffiv, hae 







execute by 






hard, hserd 

hard, hserd 



liuive ant., heiv't 

huoven, heiv'd 













hang, neut. 
and act. 






hurt, hurtit 

hurt, hurtit 














Knaw, dbt. 












Lsen 3 











ham, teach 

















1 This contraction of give is as old as the 13th century — 
pat gie of sothfastnes the sight. — Cursor ~ 
5 Pas on, and of treis thou mak ane bing 
To be ane fyre, and thayr apoun thou hing 
Jone mannis swerd. — Douglas — Eneid. 

3 I wat thy Grace wyll nocht misken me 
Bot thow wyll ather geue or len me, 
Wald thy Grace len me to ane day 
OS gold ane thousand pound orttway, — 

Lyndesay — Complaint, 459. 



Lowp 1 

lap, lowpit 















Lye (hg 



leyne, 8 layen 

lie, Jacere 


meuw, maa'd 







Moan, maan 








meads b 




mein'd, meint 

mein'd, meiut 




















pruived, proven 









quit, let go 




whittle, cut 


rasd, raddit 


arrange, dis- 





Bend -wanting, supplied by 

reyve, teir. 
















rive, rend 








ring, reign 



rottit, rotten 




saa'n, seuwn 



saa'd, seuw 

saa'd, saa'n 







suid, sood 

suid, sood 

shall, ought 


sauld ant, s&U'd 

sauld ant, scell'd 


1 In the 16th century — 

Thare wald nocht be sic brawlyng at the bar, 
Nor men of law loup to sic royall rent. — 

Lyndesay — Monarchic, 600. 
Out ouer the wall scho Up and brak her banys — 

Douglas — Eneid, Book i, Prologue. 

2 " Quhilk in a wait hes lyne for us sa lang." — Dunbar — Of the Resurrection of 
Christ. " Zigging tharon, as semely for to see." — Douglas. Lig appears to be 
obsolete in Scotland, though still used in the North of England. 

3 Ags. macod, but the contracted forms ma, mas, or mase, mad or made, are as 
old at least as the 13th century in the Northern dialect, and continued to be used 
by the Sc. writers of the Middle Period : 

Than ma-ys clerkis question. — Barbour. 
But ma, mais, mase, are now obsolete. 










set, place 




shed, divide 

Schaw, ant. 









schuip, scheapit 




schuive, ant. 1 














scheyn'd 2 










Schrynk ) 
Scrynk ) 


sohrunk ) 
scrynMt ) 



schbd, schui'd 





| sohotten = pushed 
( schbt = shot 








(sad) seeth't 







Slay, ant. 















unsew, slit 














smait, smyttit 




sneuw obs., snaa 

'd sneuw'n obs., snaa'd 



snsed, snaddit 


trim (trees) 

Sneyte, ant. 



snvff, blow the 
nose, mungere 














spasnt, spemdit 

spsent, spemdit 




splast, splytten 





spill (fluid) 





















1 Quhen that thay maid thair beards and schuve thair crown, 

2 Ags. past participle scinen, which ought to have given sohyn in the modern 
tongue ; but according to Dr. R. Morris, this was already wanting in the 13th 
century. — Introduction to Mampole. 





stang'd, stung 





stave, walk 


stale, stail, staw 

ant., steill'd 




streuw, straa'd 





















fitukken, styhMt 1 

stick, adhere, 
thrust, etab 






swam, soom'd 

soom'd, swum 








swall'd, swallen 




swuorn, swurn 



swat, sweet 

swutten, sweet 






Syng ■ 

















tuir, tuore 




teitch't, taucht 

teitch't, taucht 



tcdl'd, tauld ant. 

teell'd, tauld 








thaa'n, thaa'd 








thraa'n, threuwn 












thryvven, threin 







trsed, trmddit 




trset, treitit 





twun, tweyned 


Understaand understuid 





waax't (wox obs.) 

waax't, waxen 



wuisch 3 



1 StyhTeit is used in a neuter sense for one who has stuck or failed, as a " stickit 
minister," like Dominie Sampson. 

2 Soom and soop from the original swim and swip, changed by the action of the 
w on the vowel into swum, swup, then suom, suop, soom, soop. The development 
is as old as 1500, Gawain Douglas giving us sowme, sowp = soom, soop. 

3 In the 15th century wosche, wusche — 

He wosche away all with the salt watir. — Douglas. 



"Wit, wait 



wot, know 


weed, weedit 





wuorn, wurn 



wat, weitit 

wat, wutten, weitit 


Weep -wanting, supplied by greit. 


wuive, wuove 

wht n, wew t 












w'rung / 


Wun/orwyn wan 


win, gain, 

get at 


wan', wun' 


dry in the 



wundit, wan' 

wundit, wun' 



w'rowcht, wurhit 








The parts of the Verb formed by inflection, without the 
aid of auxiliaries, are the Present and Past Tenses of the 
Indicative and Subjunctive Moods, the Imperative, Infini- 
tive, Present and Past Participle, and Gerund or Verbal 
Noun, which in this dialect, as in that of Northumberland, 
is distinct from the Participle or Verbal Adjective. The 
distinct inflectional forms are in the Weak Verb five, in the 
Strong Verb six, e.g. skip, skips, sleipand, sleiping, sleipit ; 
reyde, reydes, reydand, reyding, raid, rydden. The literary 
English has in sleepest, sleptest, two forms, or if we reckon 
sleepeth, three forms additional, but has lost the distinct form 
for the participle, confounding it with the gerund sleeping. 

The following is the conjugation of the Simple Tenses : — 

I. The Weak Class. 

Present. Aa leyke (thuw leykes), hey leykes, wey leyke, yee 
leyke, thay leyke. With any other nominative leykes 
in all the persons. 

Past. Aa leykit (thuw leykit), etc. 


Present. Yf aa leyke (thuw leyke), hey leyke, etc. 
Past. Yf aa leykit, etc. 



Imperative. Leyke ! Infinitive, tui leyke. 

Participle Present, leykand, leykan'. Past, leykit. 
Gerund, leyking, leykein. 

II. The Strong Class. 

Present. Aa w'reyte (thuw w'reytes), hey w'reytes, wey, yee 
thay w'reyte. "With, any other nominative w'reytes 
in all the persons. 

Past. Aa w'rait (thuw w'rait), etc. 


Present. Tf aa w'reyte (thuw w'reyte), etc. 
Past. Yf aa w'rait, etc. 

Imperative, w'reyte ! Infinitive, tui w'reyte. 

Participle Present, w'reytand, w'reytan'. Past, w'rytten. 
Gerund, w'reyting, w'reytein. 

The verb go has in the pres'ent tense a double form. Indie. 
Pres. Aa gang or geae, hey gangs or geaes. Past. Geade (Old 
Sc. ^ede, Old Eng. yhede, yhode, Ags. eode). Imper. Gang or 
geae. Infin. tui gang or geae. Partic. pres. gaand, gaan'. 
Gerund ganging, gangein. Past Part, geane. Imperative fol- 
lowed by away, gang away, geae 'way or g'way ! so with cum, 
cum away, cu 'way or c'way ! 

The double forms in go are as old as the Sanscrit, where both 
stems ga and gan are used. In the Lindisfarne Gospels both 
forms are regularly given by the glossist, thus Matt. viii. 9. ic 
cue'So ^issum or 'Seem, gase, and (he) gaes or geongas, I say to 
this or to that one, gae, and he gaes or gangs, viii. 28. nasnij 
monn msehte gae or geonge ^Serh ]>a ilco woe?, neae man meycJit 
geae or gang thruw that ylh way. ix. 5. aris and geong or gaa, 

Gerund. — The distinction between the Participle or Verbal 
Adjective, and Gerund or Verbal Noun, survives in this dialect, 
and that of the adjacent county of Northumberland. In the 
Southern English, the two inflections were confounded before 
1300, but in the northern tongue they are quite distinct from the 
earliest period to the 16th century, the participle being in -and, 
-ant, the gerund in -yng, yne, ene, een. 

The movand world withouten doute 

Sal than ceese o twnyng ahoute. — Sampole. 


It aperit be preaumyng and presuposing, that blaberand eceho had beene hid 
in ane hou hole, cryand her half ansueir. 

The wirkyng of the suelland wallis of the brym seye, undir ane hingand 

The garruling of the stirlene gart the sparrou cheip — the jargolyne of the 
suallou gart the jay jangil, the ropeen of the rauynis gart the crans crope. 

Thai war of diuerse seetis ftaldant straynge opinions contrar the scriptour. 

Complaynt of Scotlamd. 

But in the 16th c, the dialect of central Scotland, and the 
literary Middle Scotch founded upon it, lost the distinction be- 
tween the participle and gerund, apparently on account of the 
final consonants becoming mute, and the vowels being then con- 
founded, so that both forms were written -ing, -in', in Lothian 
now pronounced (-en). In the Southern Counties, also, the final 
consonant is now mute, except in a few words (see under d and 
ng, pages 121, 124), but the terminations are quite distinct, as in 
the words paeara, crinoline. 1 The two forms may be exemplified 
thus : — " Thay war dansand aa thruw uther (durch einander) an' 
syc dansin' aa never saa afuore ; hey beguid a,-greitin, but feint o' 
eane kaannd quhat hey was greitand for ; syc on-gangin's as yr 
gaan' on yonder ! " 

When the past participle has the same vowel as the stem, as in 
leaden, hadden, bealcen, eiten, rotten, we have three forms closely 
alike, but nicely distinguished by the vowel or no vowel before 
the -n, as haddan' Jiaddin' hadden (radian, Hodin, Had-n ; ifren, 
itin, it - n; roten, rotin, rot-n). "Quhat keynd o' eitin' dui-ye 
fynd them ? Wey hsena eiten onie o' them yet. Yr n' ye eitand 
them een-nuw? The heale beakin' o' neuw beak'n breid, 'at 
scbui was thrang beakand yestreen." 

It is desirable to write the d in the participle, and perhaps also 
the g in the gerund, when the orthography is not strictly phonetic, 
when both may be supplied by the apostrophe. In the dialect of 
the county of Northumberland, according to Mr. Carr of Hedgeley, 2 
the gerund ends in -pig, " with an obscure sound nearer to that of 
short u than short i." In 'the other Scottish dialects, both forms 
are now confused in -en, apparently that of the participle, as in 
the literary English both are confounded in -ing of the verbal 
noun. Thus in Lothian they would say, "He begood a-greit'n, 
but quha kent, quhat he wus greit'n fur? D'ye heir 'ym reid'n? 
The reid'n o' the wull." 

In the Present Tense,_ aa leyhe, wey leyhe, yee leyhe, thay 
leyhe, are used only when the verb is accompanied by its proper 
pronoun ; when the subject is a noun, adjective, interrogative or 

1 It is as absurd to a Southern Scot to hear eating used for both his eiting and 
eitand as it is to an Englishman to hear will used for both his will and shall.- 
"When'he is told that "John was eating," he is strongly tempted to ask what kind 
of eating he proved to be P , 

2 On the Present Participle in the Northumbrian Dialect, and on the Verbal 
Noun or Noun of Action terminating in -ing." Pro. of Berwickshire Nat. Club, 
1863, p. 356. 


relative pronoun, or when the verb and subject are separated by a 
clause, the verb takes the termination -s in all persons. Thus 
" aa cum fyrst; yt's mey at cums fyrst; wey gang theare ; huz 
tweae quheyles gangs theare ; yt's huz at says seae ; ye sey quhat 
thay mem; yuw eanes seys quhat- thir meins ; yuw at thynks ye 
can dui aa-thyng ; thay cum an' teake them ; the burds cums an' 
pmcks them ; sum thynks hey was reycht, but uthers menteins the 
contrar ; fuok at cums unbudden, syts unseer'd." 

Such expressions as "the men syts " are not vulgar corruptions, 
but strictly grammatical in the Northern dialect. The -s is a true 
plural inflection, as witnessed by the 13th c. sittes, the old North- 
umbrian sittes or sittas, answering to the Old South. Eng. sitteth, 
Ags. sitta 1 &. 1 

The modern Scotch usage, thay cum, the men cums, is identical 
with that of the Northern Dialect from the 13th century, which 
is incorrectly said by many English scholars (Mr. Guest, I think, 
is the father of the mistake), to have made all the persons of the 
present tense in -s.„ But this was only when the pronoun subject 
was absent ; when accompanied by the pronoun, this tense was 
inflected (with exception of 2nd pers. sing, in -es, ihow loves), as 
in modern literary English. In the Old North-Anglian indeed, 
the conjugation was : — 

Ih cyme we cym-es \ 

ftu cym-es jee cym-es j or cyme we, jee, fa. 2 

he cym-es hea or Ja cym-es ) 

But before the date of the earliest Northern writings of the 
13th century, the form without the -s had been extended to all 
cases in which the verb was accompanied by its proper pronoun, 
whether before or after it, leaving the full form in -s to be used 
with other nominatives only. 

Mampole : — Now haf we rest, and now travail, 

Now we f ancle our force, now we fail ; 

Now love we, now hate, now saghtel, now strife, 

Wharfor we suld Jink \at lyves here. 

1 In the Ags. an n is dropped before 2 Compare the classical West Saxon 
the final 8 or d, the Moaso-Gothic being we cumcM, eumeth, but cume we, the 
sit-and, Latin sed-unt, Sansc. sad-anti. use of -s for -th being Northern. Light 
The Slavonic tongues agree with the has been thrown upon the origin of 
Ags. in expelling the n before the final these syncopated forms by the re- 
dental, Russian siad-ut' for siad-unt. searches of Mr. Henry Sweet (Preface 
The modern Dutch and German, like to Anglo-Saxon Text of Gregory's 
the old Midland English, retain the Pastoral Care), who has shown that 
n and drop the t or d, sitt-en, sess-en. the forms in -e were preceded by older 
The Greek not only expels the n, but, ones in -<■«, originally subjunctive, from 
like the Northern English and Scotch, which mood and the imperative, their 
changes the dental into s, <pep-ovo-t, for use passed into the indicative, whence 
Qep-ovvri, Latin fer-unt, Sanscrit they have finally expelled the original 
bhar-anti, M. Goth, bair-and, Ags. indicative terminations -a'S, -eth, North 
ber-d$, Old Midi. Eng. ber-en, Old Anglian -es. 
Southern ber-eth, Old Northern ber-es. 


Yhe ]>at foUwes me here. 

Sen the 1 creatures bat skill has nane, 
Hym Uvea in the kynde fat \ai have tane. 

But ]>ai folow ay fair awen wille, 
And of noght elles \ynkes ne tas hede 
"What wonder es yf \ai haf na drede P 

Many spehes, and in buke redes, 
Of purgatory, but fon {few) it dredes; 
For many wate noght what it es, 
parfor J«s itfrafe it wel ]>e les. 

Gawain Douglas ': — Eeuthfull Eneas am I 

That Troiane goddis caryis in my navy. 

Baith here and thare standis large craggis and brais 

How wourschipfull eik war thy parentis of micht 
Quhilkis the engenerit has, sa worthy ane wicht ! 

The quhile oure sey that salis the Troianis, etc., etc. 

Ettrieh Shepherd : — Now quha are ye, ye sillie auld man, 
That sleipis se sound and se weil ? 
Or how gat ye into the bishopis vault 
Through lokkis and barris of steel ? 

When the kye comes hame. 

In the verb be where the plural (aron, aren, are, ar, er, yr) did 
not end in -es, the presence or absence of the pronoun subject 
did not affect the form of the verb originally ; but at a later date, 
the analogy of the other verbs, in which a form identical with 
the 3rd pers. sing, was used in the plural in the absence of the 
pronoun, led to the use of es, is, in like cases for ar, er, though 
only as an alternative- form. In the same way was, wes, intruded 
upon wer, war, in the past tense. 

Cursor Mtmdi : — The chiHer Jjat es abortives, 
paa that er born o-lives. 

Hampole :— Many thinges to knaw and se, 

pat has bene, and es, and yhit sal be. 

And swilk er Jas fat here er fre, 
Of dedly syns and er in charite.- 

I am a commelyrig toward J;e, 
And pilgrym as alle my faders was. 

Men ete and drank >an and war glade, 
And wedded wyfes and bridalles made. 

In the modern dialect also the usage is various, though is and 
was are more common than are and were, when the pronoun is 


" Kainbowe, rambowe, ryn awa' fceame f 
Aa yer bairns is deid but eane." 
Yuw at 's seae kein o' fyschin'. The treys was aa cuttit doon. Thaim at was 
(or war) heir. Tuw an' mey was beath theare. 


The -S of the first person singular, as in the quotation from 
Gawain Douglas, " Eeuthfull Eneas am I, that Troiane goddis 
caryis in my navy," or the modern " Wad ye beheave that way 
tui mey at hces trast ye seae weill ? " is not in the same position 
as the -s in the plural, where it was an original characteristic of 
the North- Anglian (ih cyme, we cymes), and is due either to a false 
analogy, or to contact with the Scandinavian languages, in which 
the first person, as well as the second and third, ends in -r= 
English -s : jeg haver, du haver, hart haver. I find a trace of it 
as early as the 10th century in a double gloss to Matthew viii. 9, 
Lindisfarne Gospels, " ec ic monn am under masht, hasfis or haafo 
under mec %>eignas," "I am eke a man under might (that), has or 
have under me thaynes." Those modern dialects of the North of 
England wiich shew the Norse influence liave -s in the first 
person singular, even when I is present, in which they differ 
essentially alike from the 14th century northern dialect, and the 
modern Scotch. Thus we find in the " Cleveland Glossary," 
Ah's about hungered to deid. Sc. Aa'm aboot hunger't tui deid. 
CI. Ah's gannan tiv Hull t'moorn. Ah's getten a sair deeas'ment. 
Sc. Aa'm gaan, A&'ve geatten, etc. CI. Ah doots it's gannand to 
be a sair back-kest tiv 'im. Sc. Aa doot yt's gaan' a-bey a sair 
bak-set tyl 'ym. 1 

But this form is colloquially used in Scotch when the present is used as a 
dramatic past ; thus, " Aa heirs a reis'le at the doar, an' thynks aa, quhat ean that 
bey, an' aa reyses an' gangs tui the wunda, an' theare aa seys hym stan'an', etc." 
In the verb say the same usage is extended to all .the persons, Aa says or says 
aa=I said, says we=said we, ye says, says thay=you said, said they, just as in 
colloquial English. The s here distinctly indicates that the action is not present, 
but a representation of the past, or even of the future, as, " The -neist teyme ye 
meit hym, says ye, quhair hee ye bein seae lang." 

The solitary point in which the inflection of the verb in modern 
Scottish differs from the older forms of the Northern dialect is in 
the plural of the Imperative, which retained the -s ending of the 
Old North- Anglian when the pronoun was omitted, Cymes ! or 
Cyme ye ! ("West Saxon CumaK ! or Cwme ge / ") 

He sal than say, " Commes now til me, 

My fader blissed childer fre, 

And weldes ]>e kyngdom Jat til yhow es dight." 

" Lufes noght ]>e world here," says he, 

Ne Jat, fat yhe in world may se. — Sampole. 

"When Gawain Douglas wrote, two centuries later, the -s form 

1 In the Introduction to his "Glossary be contrasted with the Scotch inflection, 

of the Cleveland Dialect," Mr. Atkinson In the examples of the dialect scattered 

thus gives the present tense of the verb, through the volume, however, the s in 

" Ah gans, thou gans, he gans, we gans, the first person singular and in the 

you gans, they gans ; Ah is, thou is, he plural is often absent, 
is, we is, you are, they is," which may 


was still in use (and not even confined to the plural number), but 
generally only' for the first imperative in the sentence : 

Now hark je, schirris ! thare is na mare ado ; 
Quha list attend, gyffis audience and draw nere. 

/ Maistres of woddis, ieis to us happy and kynd 
Releif our lang travell, quhat ever thow be. 

Ye writaris al, and gentil redaris eik, 

Offendis not my volume I beseik 

Bot rede lele, and tak gude tent in tyme, etc. 

But the modern dialects have altogether rejected the s, using 
the simple form, whether with or without the pronoun, exactly as 
in English, as "Look!" or "Look-ye!" " Syt doon an' teake a 
beyte wui's." " Syt ye door* aseyde 'ym." In some verbs a first 
person plural is in use, as thynh-toey, let us think. 

Auxiliary Vebbs. 

The parts of the Verb formed by inflection being so few, most 
of the modifications of verbal action are expressed by the aid of 
auxiliaries. The auxiliary verbs used in Scotch are Mae, Bey, 
Bui, Wull, Sail, Mm, to which may be added Uise, and Gang, and 
the so-called Potential auxiliaries Can, Man. 

A very interesting group of Verbs is found with little variation in all the 
Teutonic languages, ancient and modern, distinguished by the peculiarity that 
their original Present Tense has long been obsolete, and is supplied by the original 
strong Past, from which a new Past has been developed with various irregularities. 
These verbs are more numerous, and exist in greater completeness in the ancient 
Teutonic languages ; in all the modern dialects some of them are obsolete, and of 
others the merest fragments remain. From the occurrence in Greek of o!8a 
eSSemi, Mceso-Grothic wita, Witan, Anglo-Saxon wite, witan, English wit, a 
preterite with a present signification, we learn that this class of verbs extends 
beyond the Teutonic languages ; and a similar tendency is observable in the Latin 
novi, anciently gnovi, for the obsolete qnoo (know). 

The verbs of this group which remain in Scotch in whole or 
part are wtll, wull will, sall shall, mm may, can can, maan or 
ilen (often written maun, mon, Norse man, Sw. mun) must, dow 
(A.S. dugan, whence dought, valour, doughty valiant, and German 
taugen, tugend, tuchtig) to avail, valere, daae, dare, wtjt, wat, wit, 
aught or owoht (Bng. ought, A.S. agan, ahan to possess, own), to 
which we may add bxd must, a word of more recent origin. 

Forms op the Verb. — Each tense of the Verb, independently of its limita- 
tion to time, is susceptible of assuming various forms, according as it is used to 
express affirmation, interrogation, negation, emphasis or any combination of these ; 
such forms being indicated by changing the position of the words, by the pre- 
sence or absence of certain auxiliaries, the contraction or emphasising of elements, 
etc. In this dialect these changes of form are important. 

1. The Affirmative or simple statement, expressed in the independent verb by 
the simple form, but in the auxiliaries by a contracted form, as hey gangs, hey' 11, 

2. The Emphatic form, used in asserting strongly, or repeating an assertion 
which has been questioned. Expressed in auxiliary verbs by the full form as hey 
wull, hey ys ; in the principal verb by help of an auxiliary as he dyz gang, hey 


3. The Negative form, a simple Negation, usually formed in auxiliaries by 
adding -na, as hcena, wasna, otmna, wunna ; in independent verbs by a negative 
form of the auxiliary as ye dynna cum, wey dydna Teen. But in some verbs the 
custom is retained of adding -na as in auxiliaries as aa cayr-na, hey geade-na. 

4. The Negative Emphatic, a strong negation, or re-denial of a statement 
asserted, formed in auxiliaries by the full form with the adverb ni or not (anciently 
nocht) ; in principal verbs by the negative emphatic form of the auxiliary, or by 
the adverb neane as hey ys not, wey dyd not or hey no ys, wey nd dyd ; hey dya. not 
gang, hey wull not gang, or hey neane gangs, key'U neane gang. 

5. The Interrogative form, formed in auxiliaries by placing the verb before the 
subject as wad ye ? can thay ? in principal, verbs, with the interrogative form of 
the auxiliary, as dyd hey cam ? wad ye dui'd ? ; but in some short words by simple 
inversion without an auxiliary as earn ye ? quhat thynk ye ? 

6. The Negative Interrogative, a negative question ; as Is he not ? formed by 
adding nS or not (anciently nocht) after the subject; as, dyd thay n6 ? dyd schui ' 
no cum ? dui ye n6 thynk ? The more northern dialects use nae instead of n6 or 

7. The Suasive form, as wad-n 'ye leyke, equal to the English " You would like, 
would you not ? " the German Sie wiirden lieben, nicht wahr ? the French Vous 
aimeriez, n'est ce pas ? formed from the Interrogative by inserting -ri between the 
verb and subject, " Dyd-n' ye gang p " You went surely ? or you went, did you 
not ? " Hsev-n' thay a neyce gairdin' p" They have a fine garden, have they not ? 
This was no doubt originally the Negative Interrogative form, but it now does 
more than ask a simple question ; it also insinuates an expectation of what the 
answer should be. 

8. The Dissuasive form as wad-n 'ye no gang ? you would not go, would you 
now P formed by adding no after the subject of the Suasive form. 

■With reference to the last three forms, dyd ye no heir 'd ? expresses no expecta- 
tion as to the answer ; dyd-n 'ye heir'd, expresses an expectation of an affirmative 
answer ; dyd-n 'ye nS heir 'd, expresses an expectation or fore-knowledge of a 
reply in the negative. 

WYLL usually wull (see page 108, so pronounced in 16th cent.) 

Pees, aa wull, hey wull, yee wull, etc. Contracted unem- 

phatic form, aa'll, hey'll, yee'll, etc. ; Negative wunna for 

wyllnocht=tt>i7Z not. Suasive wull-n' ? 
past tense wad (older wald) contracted aa wad or aa'd ; Neg. 

wadna ; Suas. wad-n' ? 
Pees. Paet. wullant, wullint ; Advh. wullantlie, willingly. Gerund, 

wullin'. Used also in Compound tenses, as, "hey hasd-na 

wad dui'd " he had not been willing to do it " schui hses-na 

wad cum," she has not consented to come. 
SALL=shall. Pees, aa sail, thay sail, etc. ; contracted form, 

aa s', yee s', thay s' ; Neg. sauna, schanna=shall not. The 

Present is almost out of use in this dialect. 

past, suid, or sood (older suld, sould). Neg. suidna, soodna. 
CAN. Pees, aa can, hey can, wey can, etc. ; Unemphatic aa can, 

aa c'n ; Neg. canna. 

past, cuid, cood (older culd, could, couth) ; Neg. cuidna, 


paet. cannan'. Ger. cannin', being able. Past part, cuid, 


Used in comp. tenses as " thay hasna cuid geate eane," they 

have not been able to get one ; '' If wey hsed cuid cum ; 

ye'U can cum neist weik ? " " Wi' hym noa cannin' fynd 


them " through his heing unable to find them. " He'll no 
can haud doon his head to sneeze, for fear o' seeing his shoon." 

Scott, Antiquary, chapter xxvi. 

MM (more northern dialects MAE)=may. Pees, aa, yee, thay 
mse. Unemphat, aa-ma. 
past, meycht. Negat. meychtna. 

BOEN or MAN (older man, maun, mow, mun)—must. Pbes. aa, 
hey, thay masn. Unemphat. aa-men, aa-man ; Neg. msenna, 
often written maunna. Past, aa med, mud (older met, mot), 
almost obsolete, and usually supplied by 6«d=behoved, hmd- 
tui, was obleist or obleiget-tui, as "aa mud gang, aa bud gang, 
aa heed tui gang, aa was obleist tui gang." 

DOW. Pbes. aa dow. Neg. downa. 
Past, dowoht. Neg. dowchtna. 

Nearly obsolete, used in such phrases as "aa downa bey 
fash't," I cannot bear to be troubled. " Hey dowchtna 
reyse*" he could not exert himself so as to rise. 

Thay downa bide the stink o' pouther. — Burns.' 

DAAE (often written dar, daur)=dare. Pees. daar. Neg. daarna. 

Past durst ; Neg. durstna. 

Used also in Comp. tenses " wull-ye daar gang ? thay wad- 

na daar cum ; yf wey heed durst beyde onie langer." 
"WAIT, "WAT, "WUT=know. Pees, wat, wait ; used only in such 

phrases as aa wait-na, I know not, wat-ye ? know ye ? weill 

aa wat, full well I know. 

Past. wust. Neg. wustna. " Thay war oot o' sycht or ever 

aa wust," spelled wyst, but pronounced wust already in 16th 


Bot I allace ! or ever I wyste, 

Was 'trampit doun in to the douste. — 

Lyndesay, Comp., 254. 

Infin. Teake wut o' quhat happens ; dynna let wut, do not let 
(any one) know. 
AA (older aw, awe) atjwcht. The Anglo-Saxon agan, ahan, past 
ahte (Mceso-Grothic aigan, aihan, Greek e%-eiv), meant 1. To 
have, possess, own; 2. to make another to possess or own 
(Bosworth). Hence, through such phrases as he ah cuman, 
he has to come, he owes to come, the modern English owe= 
debere, and ought. The only parts of this verb retained in 
Scotch are the Present Participle aand (Ags. agend, O.B. 
awend, awand), owing, by which with the verb to be, the 
English verb owe is expressed, thus aa'm aand hym nowcht, I 
owe him nothing ; yee was aand yer rant, you owed your 
rent, hey's bein lang aand hym, he has long owed him, he has 
been long in his debt, etc. The Past Participle apparently 
occurs in the difficult idiom " Quheae's auwcht that ? " often 


" Quheae's owcfa that?" contracted " Quheae's aa that? Quheae's 
o' that ? " whose is that ? who owns that ? In addition to 
what has been said with regard to this phrase under Quheae, 
the second meaning given to agan by Bosworth would allow 
us to construe Quheae's aucht that ? as Who is made to possess 
that, i.e. Who is entitled to that, Who has a right to that, or 
To whom does that belong? The 's is in the South of 
Scotland construed as is, making the past quheae was auweht 
or aa, future quheae '11 bey auweht or aa, etc. In the dialect 
of Buchan, it is stated that the past is faa aicht and the 
future faa'll aicht, and it is considered by some that the 's in 
quheae's does not represent is, and that the modern quheae 
was auweht, quheae '11 bey auweht, etc., are formed upon a 
false analysis. This view is supported by the use of aucht in 
the following passages : — 

" In the whylke (seuende comandeinent) ea forboden all manere of with- 
draweynge of ojjer men thynges wrang-wysely agaynes Jarre wyll \at aghte 
it." — Hampole's Prose Treatises, p. 11. 

pis heste ous uorbyet to nimene and of-hyealde o]>re manne Jing huet )>et 
hit by, be wickede skele, aje )>e wyl of bym jet hit ojJ>. — Ayenbite. 

" The ladies and gentilwomen that aught the tresses were comynge thider- 
ward on pilgrimage." — Knight of La Tour Landry. 

" With power to his said nichbour that aught the grund whereupon it 
standis, to cast downe the said dvck, and tak it away. — Annals of Hawick. 
Act of the Bailies 1640. 

The modern form occurs in " A Ballat in derision of Wanton 
Women," by Alex. Scot about 1550. 

" And nevir speir quhais aucht hix.'' 

BYD=must. Pres. aa byd ; Neg. byd-na. 
Past, bud, bood ; Neg. budna. 

A contraction of behoved. So in the Northern and West 
Midland Dialect of the 14th cent, we have bus, bos, for be- 
hoves ; bud, byhod for behoved : 

Me bos telle to that tolk Je tene of my wille. 

Yow byhod haue with-outen doute. — West Midi. Allit. Poems. 

Byd implies a logical or natural necessity, as " The man byd bey a fail." He 
must be a fool. "The trey bud faa, quhan the ruifcs was lows't." The tree of 
necessity fell when its roots were loosened. " It's a byd-tui-bey (or a byd-bey)." 
It is a must-be, a necessity from the nature of things. In this respect byd differs 
from mozn, maun, which expresses a necessity dependent upon the will of a 
person ; compare " thay byd cum thys way " with " thay mcen cum this way," the 
former implying that there is no other way, the latter that they are under personal 
constraint to take this road. 

TJISE— use, is used as an auxiliary in the habitual past tense, 
when the full forms uise, uise't (a»z, sazt) are shortened into 
itis, iiist (as, ast). Wey uist tui gang. As an independent 
verb its conjugation is regular. 


J)Tn.=do, used as an auxiliary in Pres. and Past Indie, Subj. and 
Imp. ; in Middle Scotch used pleonastically in all tenses. 
Present. Aa dui, hey duis, wey, yee, thay dui. Auxiliary 
form aa dui or dyv, 1 hey dyz, wey, yee, thay, dui or dyv. 
Negative aa dynna, hey dyzna, wey dynna. Interrog. Dui- 
aa or dyv-aa, dyz-hey, dui-wey or dyv- wey, dui-ye (dai, dei) 
dyv-ye^dui-thay or dyv-thay. 
Suasive dy v-n' aa ? 

Past. dyd. Neg. dydna. Suasive dyd-n' ? 
Imperative dui ! Neg. dynna ! 

Fart. Pres. duian'. Past duin. Gerund dui-ing, dui-ein. 
As an independent verb, dui has all the compound tenses. 

HiEV or HiE^have. Pees, aa has or haav, hey haas, wey haa 
or haav. Contracted form aa've, hey's, wey've. Neg. hsena, 
haasna. Interrog. haav-aa, baas-hey, haa-wey. Suas. haav-n', 

Past. haad. Contract, aa'd, yee'd, etc. Neg. haadna. Suas. 
haad-n' ? 

Impeeative has or haav ! Neg. dynna has ! 
Past, pees, haaan', haavan'. Past haad. Ger. haain', haavin'. 
The Imperative with a different pronunciation heae ! or 
hyeh ! (Hjaa) is used for Here ! in offering anything (French 
tiensl). "Heae! theare's a peice tui-ye," Here! there is a 
piece of bread for you. " Hey's neane seae deif, at hey 
canna heir Heae ! " He is by no means so deaf, that he 
cannot hear an offer made to him. 
The Compound tenses of "hmv are formed as in regular verbs. 

BEY— be. Present. Aa ym, hey ys, wey, yee, thay yr. Contract. 
Aa'm, hey's, wey're, yee're, thay're. 2 Neg. Aa'm no, hey's 
no. Suas. ym-n' aa, ys-n' hey. 

Past, aa was, hey was, wey was or waar, yee was or waar, 
thay waar. Contract, aa was (wez, wez), hey was, wey was, 
yee was, thay war (war, wer). Neg. was-na. Suas. was-n' ? 
war-n' ? 

Subj. Pees, yf aa bey. Neg. yf aa bynna (bene). Past, yf 
aa waar or was, yf aa waarna, wasna. 
Impebative bey. Neg. bynna, dynna bey. 
Paet. Pees, beyand, beyan'. Past, bein (bin). Ger. beying, 
beyin' (berin). 
Has the compound tenses of the first form. 

1 Dyv is a Northumbrian form ; dw. part II.), giyes the conjugation of- be 
tiv, wiv, are used for dui, tui, wui (do, in the North-east of Scotland, thus : 
to, with), as far south as Cleveland, "A'm, y're, he's, we're, y're, they're; 
and form interesting examples of the I wiz, ye wiz, he wiz, we wiz, ye wiz, 
passage of « into v as seen in Modern they war," which closely agrees with 
Greek, etc. the contracted form above. See the 

2 The Eev. W. Gregor {Dialect of Cleveland form ante p. 214 note. 
Banffshire, in Phil. Soc. Trans. 1866, 



By the aid of the auxiliaries, all the varieties of Verbal Action in Time, Mood, 
and Form, can be expressed with minuteness. 

The following are the Tenses used in the full conjugation of complete Verb, 
each of them possessing all the modifications of form, Affirmative, Negative, 
Emphatic, etc., already described. 

The Indicative Hood makes a statement of what is actually happening, has 
happened, or will happen. 

The Present Habitual. The simple present tense of a full verb does not 
describe an action going on at prc<ent, but a habitual act or state ; thus " hey 
gangs theare," does not mean "he goes there" at present, but "he is in the 
habit of going there." 

The Emphatic, Negative, and other forms take the auxiliary dui. 

The Present Actual is formed by prefixing the present tense of the verb be to 
the present participle, as "hey's gaan' thruw the wud." But in verbs expressive 
of sensuous or mental impressions, as sey, heir, fynd, fancie, leyke, heate, also bey, 
ha>, there is only ono form for these two tenses, as wey sey them een-nuw, an' wey 
sey them at aa teyraes ; with which contrast, thay're syngan 't een-nuw, an thay 
syng '.d at aa teymes. 

The Past General. The simple Past of a Verb in the affirmative form, and 
with the auxiliary dyd in the other forms, is a General Past^both historical and 
habitual. To express more decidedly 

The Past Habitual, the auxiliary Uise is employed as " hey nist tui gang, dyd 
hey uis tui gangp" 

The Imperfect is formed by prefixing the past tense of be to the present 
participle, as hey was gaan', was-n' hey gaan' p 

The Perfect Indefinite prefixes the Present tense of the verb have to the past 
participle, " thay've w'rytten." It describes an action already finished without 
defining the time of its completion. 

The Perfect Definite prefixes the perfect of the verb be to the present par- 
ticiple, " tlniy've bcin w'reytan'." It indicates an action which has continued to 
the present moment. 

The Pluperfect Indefinite prefixes the past tense of the verb have to the past 
participle, " thay hsed-na sung." 

The Pluperfect Definite prefixes the pluperfect of be to the present participle, 
" thay hsed-na bein syngan'." 

The Future is expressed by various periphrases. 

The Simple Future is formed by the auxiliary will as hey' 11 gang, wull ye bey 
theare ? 

The Second future prefixes the future of be to the present participle, " thay' 11 
bey s/eipan', quhan ye wun theare." 

A Future is also formed by the aid of sal, hut this is all but obsolete in the 
first person, where aa'll gang is used for aa s' gang. In the other persons, sal 
implies compulsion, i.e. action independent of the will of the subject, " Ye s' get 
yer fairin' ; schui's non gang hyr fyt-lenth ! " But in the interrogative form sal 
is quite obsolete, and a Scotchman says wull aa / where an Englishman says 
shall I? will having almost lost in Scotch its sense of volition, and become n 
mere sign of the future, like B&w in Modern Greek. 1 

A Proximate or Paullopost Future, is formed by help of the verb be and the 
Future participle, " hey's gaand-a-scheir or gaan tui scheir thys on-cummnn' 
ruerst," he is going to reap, this approaching harvest. 

A Future of Design or Destination is formed by prefixing the present of the 
verbs have or be to the Infinitive, the former when the arrangement is made for 
the subject, the latter when with his concurrence ; " wey've tui gang theare 
everie neycht ; thay're tui syng us a sang." From the former of these periphrases 

1 In Maori's Modern Greek Inter- 6ikop.t, SiKm, 64\ovv •ypctym, I shall, 
prefer, Corfu, 1825, tho Future of thou wilt, he will, or I will, thou shalt, 
ypdifja is given as 64\u, 64\eis, 04\ei, he shall write. 


is formed the furore of the Modern Romance tongues, ils par.ei-ors:=i'.s ont 
par'.er. By the latter the Future of the Old latin and Greek, aiaa-bi;=b.c beeth 
to love. ij-«iwEr=we are :o praise. 

The Future iVr^cf prefixes the auxiliary will km to the past participle : «• thay 
wanna ha 1 fund ease yet." 

The Svss-t>->.ttvs and Totsxt^vi Moods express action tsatis only supposed or 
conceived of as happening, the former expressing a hypothesis, or stating a con- 
ditiou. the latter expressing v by the auxiliary mug, niight^ the itrter.ded or 
expeetcd result of an action, or ,bv the auxiliary uym&T) the natural result of a 
hypothesis or erudition. The o".d '.ar.eraa.res had a distract inflexional form for 
these depe-adca: modes of expressiov. which their modem represe ntnivos have 
more or Us* lost. In the case of Conditional or Hypothetical expressions, it has 
not heen necessary to provide any substitute, the conditional words iY, ths.«.-'i. 
«h.V.s<. ete., sufficiently showing the nature of the expression : ia the ret-cr.ti.U 
or Pe pendent mood, an auxiliary tuvessary to distinguish- them clearly from 
the Indicative. Hence in modern English the $<.,'y';<%;i>,:v is practieally identical 
with the lr,dic,ative ; the P ;\"»r«Whas the aaxiiiartes f mg, mi&l-'. ie^'w/'i. .<", ',//,}. 
The tt.>r.tes Sub/tractive a-a.i To:.. v.'.:.-.'. .-ire tar from satisfactory; if;#wiA«!ifs.%;<, and 
JVjv..fe(t/ wottlci rr.uch re ere leeurately express their functions. 

The words wag, *-*», WW*:, ■KigM, c~wii, «v.srf«, <%o«M, are "tsndly given as 
auxiliaries of the Potential, but the c'.aira* of many of them to svt.h a character 
will not bear examination. It is evident that we can only apply the name, where 
the auxiliary and principal verb together hare a meaning, different from the sum 
of the meaniugs of the separate parts; thus jw. mmg fr, k* tv* cm*, are not 
TVte'.'.tia 1 .. because each word retains its independent force as y»* \.>>:'-'.v-'?,hti:"i- 
mjv, .V u:i ',','-;=> urn. If we admit such phrases as Potential or SvdMirjetive, 
we may -is well extend the name to *e rf«»v jw. 4<? "Wftf go. But in I ;,':i M>« a 
ksme i#i«t ke vmg ge, wg go is Potential or Dependent, for we cannot render i: 
he-hus-perraissieii to ere-. 

The only auxiliaries of the Dependent Meed in Scctch are «~r, mgn-ii, tmd, 
may, might, would. Ctes and .v*f a'.voiys hare the >< of V«&V, and .<■.»<? of 
mtg'M or duly. Where s&mxti is dependent in English, it is rcp'.ac-ed in Scotch by 

The Jhrf.-itt Si."pV«*w» agrees with the Present Indicative, except that the Srd 
person sin -xtiar dots not usually take — ; which moreoTer ; .s never taken in the 
plural : — J ■die, the burds - n,-t! $;,#. yf the burds .<}.•-; .-■ 

The Jtorf Snifh-.ttirt is re-nlarly the same as the Vast Indicative ; - yt" ye said 
seae ; yf thay dydna cum." less as.-.aEy -yf thay no cam." 

The IVtwi* ibtmtuu has the auxiliary <.*,,? with the infinitiTe. 

The Tt/*f has "t'weMt to express an expec:e»i result ; wad to express the con- 
sevp t nce of a eoitiitionj "hey ha".d it heyeu, as aa meycht sey'd: yi ye ran, 
thay wad suin foUo*." 

The Rtrjfctt v.kes the auxiliarr »M«e with the r:5s: rarth'-p'.e. 

The Hi.prrft<^ has »'«•* Le. or mW *«, with the i'ast Partieiple in the 
sa-:. circumstances as the Fas: ; •• y; yt hasd bein aw ;ts sayr. aa wadna hse 
thuoled it seae lang," If it had always been so painful, I would r.ot have borne it 
so long. 

Tie IstrssATtrs Mood is the simple stem of the Terb; in the Emphatic form 
it rakes the a.sxi.iarv tf««", and in the X.^ittTe rfjr««* .• the simple verb foEowed 
by m*ii or »*, as in f#x«!-mv&t ot^«k;'- ■;.;. Mkj .va:iaaa:ed. and nearly obsolete 
in livra^- sp^wlt. 

The Ixs-sitive Presest is also the steal of the Terb, or the present partieiple 
pree-tviec br be : tui syilj or :.:i bev syngan". 

Tie IVrfint Iufhtislr* t-.kes the auxiliary km hefbre the Fto$t Jtertieiplt: tui 
hse eiten, er tui ha? bein ei:a.d. 

The Fbtm* IxjtmiHc* sake* the auxiliary go tui bey gsand-a-*it, gaan -a-«tt or 
gaan* tut eit. 

The r ' and itemEd haxe alrestdy beeu described. 

The y?:*tiir* forms of a'.i these p-itts are formed by prefixing "io. no tui gavcg, 
no cumman*. nd haein" hard o*d. 


Analytical Perfect Tense. 

The combination of the past participle with have continues to 
be used in the Scotch dialects in a more primitive or analytical 
form than in the English Perfect tense, where the two elements 
coalesce into the single idea expressed in Greek by a single word 
ireTrpar/a, I have done. In this older construction, the participle 
follows the governed words as in German, thus " Hse ye aa yer 
wark duin ? Hey'U suin hse the buik rsed," which have not pre- 
cisely the same force as " Ha? ye duin aa yer wark, Hey'll suin 
has rsed the buik," the latter referring to the process, the former 
to the result, and suggesting that the thing remains in the con- 
dition to which it has been thus brought. Thus " schui hsed her 
wark suin duin " is really— she soon had her work in a state of 
completeness, she soon had her work (in the state of) done 
(work). This is, of course, the original idea out of which the 
modern Perfect tense with have has arisen. 

As is well known, examples of the use of have as an auxiliary are rare in 
Anglo-Saxon, and the earliest of them all convey the idea expressed by the 
Scotch " schui hses her wark duin." In JElfric's Colloquy, we find " monache, 
ecce probavi te habere bonos socios " translated " Eala J>u munuc, efne ic heebbe 
afandod Tpe habban jode jeferan," where the sense is " I have (it as a thing) 
ascertained ; " to be compared with the Latin " Compertum habeo, milites," " de 
Csesare hoc dictum habeo," " vectigalia parvo pretio redempta habere," instances 
from the classical writers of the construction which has produced the perfect tense 
of the modern Romance languages, as inj'ai compris,j'ai dit, avoir rachete les 
impots. The true Teutonic usage, according to which the simple preterite was 
used for all shades of past action, occurs a few lines later in the Colloquy : flu 
cnapa, hwset dydest (fecisti) J>u, to-daej ? Maneja Jring ic dyde (feci.). Thou boy, 
what hast thou done to-day. Many things have I done. Ware ]m (fuisti) to-dsej 
beswunjen ? Ic nces (fui), forjiam wasrlice ic me heold (tenui). Hast thou been 
whipped to-day ? I have not been, because 1 have behaved myself carefully. 

It would be interesting to know how far the Perfect remains in this rudimentary 
form in other dialects. 

Pull Conjugation of the Verb. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Actual. Present Habitual. 

Affirm. Aa'm . Aa 

Emphat. Aa ym J Aa dui or dyv 

Negat. Aa'm no > syngan'. Aa dynna 1 \ s J n £ 

Emph. } Aa ym not ' Aa d y v not 

Interrog. Ym-aa . Dyv -aa 

lS.} Ym - aan6 syngan'? B ? Y " aa n6 
Snasive. Ym-n' aa \ Dyv -n' aa \ syn £ ' 

Disuas. Ym-n' aa no Dyv -n' aa no 

1 Older, but now uncommon " aa syng-na," sometimes " aa n6 syn°\" 












Aa was 
Aa wasna 
Aa was not 
Was aa 
Was aa n6 
Was -n' aa 
Was-n'aano , 

syngan . 

syngan' ? 

Past General. 

A. Aa sang 

E. Aa dyd syng 

N. Aa dydna syng ' 

N.E. Aa dyd not syng 

I. Dyd aa 

N.I. Dyd -aa n6 

S. Dydn'aa iVI - 

D. Dyd n' aa no 


Past Habitual. 

Aa uist-tui . 

Aa dyd uis-tui ) 

uist-na tui > syng. 

no uist-tui 1 
Aa dyd-na uis-tui 
Uist-aa-tui 2 ^ 

Uist-aa-no tui f , 

Uist-n'aatui f s y n S ; 

Uist -n' aa no tui ) 

Perfect Indefinite. 

A. Aa 've 

E. Aa has or hsev 

N. Aa has-na 

N.E. Aa hsev-not 

/. Hsev-aa 

N.I. Hsev-aa no 

S. Haav -n' aa 

D. Hsev -n' aa no 



Perfect Definite. 

Aa 've bein ^ 

Aa hse or hsev bein 
Aa hee-na bein 
Aa hsev-not bein , 
Hsev-aa bein r 

Hasv-aa no bein | 
Hasv -h' aa bein ( 
Hsev -n'aa no bein ; 

syngan . 


Pluperfect Indefinite. 



Aa'd \ 


Aa haad ! 


Aa hasd na ( 


Aa heed not / 




Hasd-aa no 


Haed n' aa 


Heed n' aa no 


Pluperfect Definite. 


Aa 'd 
Aa hsed 
Aa haed-na i syngan'. 
Aa hsed not ) 
Hasd-aa \ 

Hasd-aa no r bein 
Hasd-n' aa I syngan'. 
Hsed-n'aano J 

1 Older, tut now uncommon "aa 
sang-na," sometimes "aa n6 sang." 

2 Perhaps more commonly " Dyd-aa- 

uis-tui, dyd ai n6 uis-tui, dyd n' aa 
uis-tui, dyd n' aa no uis-tui ?" 







Simple Future. 

Aa '11 \ 

Aa wull F syngorbey 

Aa '11 n6 i syngan. 

Aa wunna / 


Wull-aa no 

Wull-n' aa 

Wull-n' aa 

> syngan'? 

Future of Design. 

Aa 'm or aa 've 
Aa ym or has 
Aa 'm no or aa has-na 
Aaym not or hasv-ndt 
Ym aa or hasv-aa 
Ym-aa no or hasv- 
aa no 



Ym -n' aa or haev -n' )~ „ 
aa | s y n S ? 

Ym -n' aa no or hsev | 
-n' aa no J 









Future Proximate. 
Aa'm gaand-a- 

Aa 'm no gaand-a- 

Ym -aa gaand-a- 
Ym-aa no gaand-a- 
Ym -n' aa gaand-a- 
Ym-n' aa no gaand-a- 

Future of Obligation. 

Aa-s' \ 
syng. Aa sail I 

Aa-s' no ^S- 

Aa sanna ' 

No Interrogative forms in use. 

syng? Future Perfect. 

Aa '11 has sung, or has bein 
syngan', etc., etc. 

" Subjunctive " or Hypothetical Mood. 
Present. Past. 

A. (Yf ) aa, yee, hey syng 

E. (Yf ) aa dui syng 

N. (Yf) aa dynna syng or 

(Yf ) aa no syng 

(Yf ) aa sang 
(Yf ) aa dyd syng 
(Yf ) aa dyd-na syng or 
(Yf ) aa no sang. 

" Potential " or Dependent Mood. 





(at) aa ma? syng 
(at) aa mas no syng 

(at) aa meycht \ 
aa wad f 

(at) aa meycht -na I ' °' 
aa wad -na / 





(at) aa mas has i 

v ' j sung. 

(at) aa mas no has ) 

(at) aa meycht has \ 
aa wad baa 1 

(at) aameycht-nahas I sun & 
aa wad-na has J 


Imperative Mood. 
Syng ! Empk. Dui syng. Neg. Dynna syng (Syng-na antiq.) 

Infinitive Mood. 

Pres. tui syng or Perf. tui has sung or Fut. tui bey gaand-a-syng. 
tui bey syngan' tui has bein syngan'.. 


Pres. syngand, syngan'. Past sung. Perf. hsean' sung. 

Fut. gaand-a-syng, gaan'-a-syng, or gaan'-tui-syng. 


Pres. synging,, syngein. Perf. hasin' sung. 

Passive Voice. 

The past participle of a verb preceded by the auxiliary be, 
forms the Passive Voice, as the waa's built, the eairt was cowpit, 
the cart was overturned. 

This Passive only expresses the' completion of an action, thus 
the hoose is built, does not mean the house is now being built (das 
Haus wird gehsmt, domus ozdificatur) ,but the house is already built 
(das Haus ist gebaut, domus mdifieata est). Here the present fact 
is that the building is past ; similarly in the assertion the hoose '11 
bey built the-muorn, the future fact is that the building will to- 
morrow be past. This is, therefore, not a Passive of Action, but 
of Besult. To express the Passive of action, equal to the Latin 
mdificatur, cedificabatur, aidificabitur, the Scotch uses the form the < 
hoose is buildan'. This is not a contraction of the Old Eng. a- 
building, as the form is not the gerund but the participle, and 
represents the middle voice buildan' itsel', and thus being built. 
But as this form, being identical with the Active voice, would 
often cause ambiguity, it is usual in Scotch, as in French, to 
make such sentences active; with the indefinite Nominative 
thay, pronounced (dho), Fr. on. Thus, " Many houses are at 
present being built here," would be rendered "The 're buildan' 
monie hooses heir the-nuw." Indeed, this use of thay in the 
indefinite sense of people generally, some one, any one, is almost 
as common in Scotch as in French. " Thay say at wey're tui has 
waar," it is said that we shall have war ; " quhat dui thay dui 
wui thyr ? " what is done with these ? " dui thay ssell schuin 
at the kreames?" are shoes sold at the stalls? So in all the 
operations of husbandry, etc., as, "thay're scheiran' aa roond 
heir-away," reaping is going on all around in this direction; 
"thys is the munth at thay clyp the scheip onna the oot-bye 1 
faerms," this is the month in which sheep are shorn on out-lying 
or upland farms; "quhat dui thay meake oot o' the schuort- 
'oo ? " what is made from the short wool ? 

The Old English usage in " a house to let," " a letter to write," 
holds its ground in the north : ' Thyr stycks is tui eairrie heame.' 




The Adverbs of Manner which in Eng. are formed by the 
termination -ly, Ags. -lice, O.E. -liche, are in Sc. as in most of 
the Teutonic dialects, identical with the Adjective ; thus a hod 
synger, hey syngs lood ; neerr duin, nearly done ; schui can eisie 
dui'd, she can easily do it. Guid is an adjective only, the adverb 
being weill. From adjectives in -lie we sometimes find adverbs 
in -lies, as if genitive forms, like once, thrice, needs ; thus leyklie, 
leyklies, radilies, probably ; compare stridlings, astride, gruvelings, 
(also a-gruif), prone, eablins, cables perhaps, ma-bey, meebeys, 
mayhap. The word ways (wez)=wise, ways, is also used to give 
an adverbial force ; as, " hey was lookan' keynd o' hyngan'-wa's 
quhan aa mset 'ym ; the cheild cam lowpan'-wa's doon the luone." 
The phrase an'aa (=and all) is used with the value of also, 
besides, ' callants an' wainschis an'aa', boys and girls also. 

Adverbs of Degree comprise keynd o' (American kinder), some- 
what, rather, gaye, pretty, gayelie,-s, pretty much, unco', exceedingly 
uncommonly, aa, all, quite, aaihegyther, altogether, ameaste, almost, 
vozrra, very, sayr, sore, very much, ower, too, too much (American 
over). Avaa', in negative sentences, noa avaa' not at all, i.e. not 
of all (point du tout). Aqfu' and teerrible, meaning simply very, 
exceedingly, illustrate the change in the use of the Greek Seivo? be- 
tween Homer and Demosthenes. In Eng. the adverb as has two 
uses, demonstrative and relative, as in ' as white as snow,' the distinc- 
tion between which becomes apparent on translation : aussi blanc 
que la neige, so weiss wie Schnee, tan bianco como la nieve, etc. In 
Early and Middle Scotch, the forms were quite distinct, als quhyte 
as snau ; and in the modern dialect they are still pronounced 
differently (aas, az) ; aass quheyte az snaa. The Eng. so is 
translated by seae, older sa, swa, when it expresses manner: 
" Gang an' dui seae ''' ; but by that when it expresses degree, or is 
used pronominally : " the bairn 's no that yung," the child is not 
so young ; " hey said it that oft," he said it so often. Is that 
true ? It is so. Sc. Yt yz that. 

The Adverbs of Cause and Effect, quhy or more fully for-quhy, 
and for-ihy (Ags. forhwi, forf?^), are found in Sc. literature 
down to the 16t'h c, but seem now to be obsolete, being replaced 
by quhat for ? and for that ; quhairfor and thairfor are less 

Of Adverbs of Place, whence, thence, hence, whither, thither, 
hither, in the old language quhethen, theihen, hethen, later quhyne, 
thyne, hyne, and quhiddir, thiddir, hiddir, are now obsolete, 
although hyne-furth henceforth, fra thyne thenceforth, were still 
used in the 17th c. The modern spoken idiom is " Quhayr dui-ye 
cum free ? quhayr 're ye gaan' tui f or more commonly " Quhayr 
'r ye gaan' ? Thay 're geane away free theare." Tdnder or thbnder 
is the adverb from ydn, thbn. 

In compound adverbs, the Eng. -where is replaced by -geate :' 


sumgeate, oniegeate, neaegeate, aageate>, -s, somewhere, anywhere, 
nowhere, everywhere. 

Away is used pleonastieally, with verbs of motion, like hin and 
her in German. Thus " Cum away yn, hommen Sie herein ; Eyn 
away doon, Laufen Sie hinunter. Cum yn, Gang oot, sound per- 
emptory and harsh ; by saying Cum away yn (or Cum yeir ways 
yra). Gang away oot, the effect is softened into the form of an 
invitation. Bye is used to form adverbs out of prepositions, thus 
up-bye, doom-bye, oot-bye, ower-bye, yn-bye, meaning at some place 
which is recognized as up, down, etc. Huw yr ye aa doon-bye ? 
How are you all down with you ? Cum yn-bye an' gie's yeir craks, 
come in this way and tell us your news. An oot-bye wurker, an 
out-of-doors servant. 

Adverbs of Time. — To-day, to-morrow, to-night, are the day, the 
muorn, the neycht. We find the same in the 16th c, but in the 
Early Period, to-mome .r 

Thocht thow wer gret as Gow-mak-morne, 
Traist weile that we sail meit the morn. 

Lyndesay — Sq. Meldrum. 

Perilows thingi's may fall perfay, 

Als wele to-mome as yhistirday. — Barbour's Bruce. 

A similar change of to into the is seen in thegether for together, old 
Sc. togyddir. Morn, muorn, is always used for morrow, demain ; 
mornin' for morning, matin. To-morrow morning, to-morrow night, 
are the muorn' s muornin', the muorn' s neycht. Tester evening is 
yestrein. As in the old dialect, when, then, are still quhan, than. 

Just now, at present, is in Sc. een-nuw, eenuw, often the num. In 
Mod. Eng. it looks toward the past ; in Scotch, as in Shakespeare's 
English, to the future, "hey'll cum the nuw," he will come pre- 
sently. Yet older y,t, yhit, refers to continuation of past time : 
the quhuns is aye theare yet, the furze is still there ; but in in- 
terrogative and negative sentences to anticipation of future time : 
hm ye hdppent onna them yet ? No yet. Have you lighted on them 
yet ? Not yet. Ells (eelz) antiq. ellis, is used for already. Key's 
suirly nd bach ells ! Surely he has not returned already ! 

The Ags. si\^an, O.E. sithen, has been split into two forms, 
seyne advb. subsequently, afterwards, further, and sen, syn, prep, 
and conj. since ; quhayr hm ye bein sen harst? where have you 
been since harvest ; fyrst ihay grat an' seyne (hay leuwch, first 
they wept and then they laughed; ye'd as weill dui'd suin as 
seyne, you would as well do it soon as later : lang-seyne—long- 
ago, "the days o' auld lang syne." The two forms combined, 
sen seyne, equal the Eng. since then ; aa've oft thouwcht o' d sen- 
seyne, I have often thought of it since. 

The same distinctions are found in the 15th and 16 centuries : 
" he gart strik the heidis fra the tuelf lordis of Irland, and sen 
syne al the Irland men ar sklauis til hym." — Compl. of Scot. 

The forms of the Negative in use are : in composition n-, as 



aither, Naither, eane, «eane. But verbal forms in »-, like wis, 
nave, niU, nare, have never been favoured by the Northern 
dialect, which uses instead forms with an affixed -na, lut-na, 
annua, camia, wasna, in the 16th century haif-nocht, can nocht, 
was nocht. In other cases not is expressed by noa, no", also de- 
rived from nocht (compare tkd from tkotht) ; Wad ye no gaBg= 
would you not go ? In more northern Scotch nae (derived from 
nane) is used instead of n6, as, IV thay nae foo f South Sc Tr 
thay n4fuw t Neane and not are used as stronger negatives than 
nae and noa. The three degrees of negation in the French il ne 
pent, il tie pent pas, il ne pent point, might be rendered in Scotch 
he canna, he no" can, he wane can. The adverb No 1 in answer to 
a question, is noa .' " Te main ans'er aither «ey or naa." The 
affirmative my is perhaps more common than yes in the spoken 
dialect. ; yhis, $ts, is the usual form in the old writers. By pro- 
nouncing (By as a dissyllable <t-ay, in a lazy manner with the lips 
shut, so that the voice escapes through the nose, we have the 
northern '»»A»», 'nhn, 'nghng, " that ugly word 'mhm that stands 
for an ay I" 1 

Alone has given rise to curious forms in the Northern Dialect, recalling the 
change of tfift-axe into the torn (p. 176) and English tken o«<*> into th* nonet. 
Alanc properly aM-ant seems to bavc been taken as al-lme, or «-&»»#, and then 
lane separated and used by itself as an adjective, as in "a leane wumman," in 
which form it has also passed into modern Eng. as a lone tarn, Lant was next 
treated like stl, self, and accompanied by the poMtstir/ pronouns : " aa leive aa' 
be mastl, or aa' ma leant ; the bairn's garni' Ajw bane." 


The chief prepositions arc the following, in which it will be 
seen that the English prefix be- is in Scotch commonly a- (Ags, 
on-, a-) : — 

amyds o\ } am(d be, boy, by 

i' theinydso', j ben, within 

anseth, beneath but, without 

aneent, concerning 

anunder, under 

aseyde, beside 


atlmort, athwart 

atwein, between 

ayont, beyond 

Aboot, about 
abuin, above 
mfter. after 
afuore, before 
ahynt, behind 
aluug. along 
turning, among 


bye, by 

doon, down 

exeep', excep'in, except 


for aa, notwithstanding 

for bye, besides 

fra>, thra\'/row 

1 According to popular statement, 
'mlmi was first uttered in iho following 
circumstances i "Auld Clootio" baa 
made a raid upon tho wicked wives of 
n cvriiun town, and was marching otf 
wiih olio undor each " oxter," and ono 
between bis teeth, when a goodman, 
loalh tn loso the ohanco of such a 
deliverance, called anxiously aftor tho 

fiend if he could not take ono more. 
Unable to open his mouth to say <?y .' 
for fear of dropping part of his booty, 
Sininiie grunted 'm)im, and with a 
dexterous cMk of his tail, snatohod off 
tho fourth victim also. 

a Tkra is the universal pronunciation 
in tho South of Scotland, and tho sub- 
stitution of th for /, is found as far 


n8Br \ L,„- seayin', save wuthoot, ) ... , 

neerrhaand, j near tui, to. athoot, j mthont 

of o', of, off tyll, to, till yont, ) along, through, 

on, onna, on thruw, through yownt, J to or towards the 

ontui, upon under yoint, ) oiAer side. 

ower, oner up ynn, ) . 

oot o', o«< of -wart, -w>«w<J ynna, i', j "* 

quheyle, tt'M wui, wuth, toiift yntui, | . 

roond, round wuthyn, within yntyll, j 

Prepositions of time and place are used also adverbially. 

Anunder is perhaps in under, "quhat yr ye luikan' for anunder the ba?d p" 

Athuort, " hey gangs a suort athuort the cuintrie," he goes a great deal about, 
or up and down, the country. 

Be and bye are distinct, be being used of the instrument or author iirb ; bye of 
place and mental relationship irop*. They thus become the reverse of each other, 
as in the following from H. Charteris's Preface to Lyndesay, "nouther gude nor 
euill can fall vnto tham, by the will of thair Father, " i.e. beyond, or without his 
will ; *' he forther intendis be the help of God, to vse the lyke diligence," i.e. by 
or with his help. Bye preserves the sense of xapi when compounded, as bye- 
common, bye-ordnar. The derivation forbye, means besides, in addition to, ad- 
verbially moreover, " the'U be plaintie theare forbye yuw." 

But, bot, was regularly used in the Early and Middle periods in the sense of 
without, tine; " a land bot a king." But is still used for without in speaking of 
place, and particularly of the parts of a house, when it is opposed to ben, been ; 
thus " gang but the hoose," go into the outer apartment or kitchen ;. " ye're wantit 
ben-a-hoose or ben the hoose," you are wanted in the inner part of the house, in 
the parlour, Ags. bdtan, bynnan, be-out, be-in, with-out, with-in. In the old 
style of domestic architecture, aecess to the parlour was had only through the 
kitchen, and the former was called the ben-end, the latter the but-end, and in 
farm kitchens the domestics still speak of the master's family as " the ben-a-house 
folk." Houses which consist of two rooms only are said to have "a but and a 
ben ; " if there is an additional chamber off the parlour, they have a but, a ben, 
and a fmrr-ben. People who live in contiguous apartments are said to live but- 
and-ben with one another ; and hence also the metaphorical phrase " to be unco 
far-ben " with any one i.e. to be very intimate with him, deeply in his confidence, 
as if invited not only to his parlour, but to his chamber or " far-ben." In the 
Romance of " Guy of "Warwick," etc., we have but and ben also in Old English. 

0', t", wui are the common forms of of (not ov), in, with, unless when em- 

Oot, yn, on, are almost always used adverbially, oot 6, ynnh, onnS, being the 
prepositional forms. It is doubtful whether the etymology is out of, in of, or 
oota, inna, from Ags. utan, innan, Old Eng. ute, ine ; probably the former. Com- 
pare " Quhat ys 't at 's at eance ootii Cheinie an' innS Oheinie I Tey. " What it 
it that is at once out-of China and (?) in-of China ? Tea. Ontui, onl&, expresses 
motion, "hey lap ontS. the horse." 

Quheyle, quhyl=til\, as " beyde q„uhyl the muornin," is becoming antiquated. 

Tyll and tui are synonymous ; in most parts of Scotland tyll is used more than 
tui in speaking of place, or even with the infinitive mood, " Tell him till gang'till 
his faither," but in the South tui is the more common, tyll being only substituted 
for euphony, as tyl't for lui't, to it ; " hey was sayr put tyl't aboot his luoss," he 
was sadly perplexed about his loss. In Fife and adjacent districts, the prepositions 
of motion into, onto, are regularly used for those of rest, " Te'll fynd the preins 
ynti the box ; he leeves yntui or ynt'l a graan' hoose." So with Lyndesay, 
Harry the Minstrel, and other writers who were natives of the Central district. 

south as the Barnsley dialect, where Northern Scottish is fae (compare 
from is throo. Frae must be a difficult Greek (%a and Latin /era). 
combination, for the Central and 



The chief Conjunctions are : 

An', and, tui, too, also, aither, either, naither, neither., 6r, nor, 
but, for, sen, since; yf, gyf, gin, an, if; tfhoa, athoa (thoo, ■ethoo), 
though, although, at, that, leist, lest ; a-cause, 'cause (kez) because. 

Yf and gin, gyn, are the ordinary conditional conjunctions. 
Gin is probably a contraction of gie'n, given, i.e. granted; yf spelt 
by the Scotch writers gyf, give, gyue, was also by them identified 
with the verb give, though not really connected with it. An is 
little used in the living dialects, though common in the early 
writers, where, as in Old Eng., it was often spelt and, with which 
word it was identical. The combination and if, an if, seems to 
have been used to express a hypothesis more emphatically=e«ere 
if, even though : 

But and if that wicked servant say in his heart, etc. 
Then with the omission of if, the and or an was used alone with 
the same meaning, as in the Early Scotch writers : 

For and he de, as he suld de, he suld think that he suld pas to mare joy. 
And we resist his temptaciouns, we sal have Jerfor gret reward in hevyne. 

Craft of Deyng. 

If if s and ans were pots and pans 

There'd be nae trade for tinkers. 1 

Though was always written by the Sc. writers thocht, thoucht ; 
perhaps they identified it with thought, as if it were supposed, 

Thocht thai war quheyn, thai war worthy. 

Thd is used like the German doch and Dutch toch, to imply a 
concession; Es ist heute doch kalt ! yt's caald thd the day! it is 
cold to-day, though who would have thought it ? Hey's a Tceynd 
buodie thd, he is a kind man, one must confess after all. 


Exclamation Ay ! Wonder ee ! Alarm, awe, pain ! oo ! Ob- 
jection, opposition, ah! ahbutJ Doubt, contempt, h'mh ! Vexation 
HJ 't! 'ts ! 'ts! (with suction of the breath). Aversion, repulse 
towts ! tuts ! Disgust feech ! Surprise losh ! Ibh ! Surprise at 
meeting halloa ! Calling after, haye ! hoy ! Expostulation weh ! 
(weh ! quhat wad ye hse ?) Triumph, contempt, hooch ! Exultation 
hurray ! Laughter he ! he !, hay ! hay .', ha ! ha .', ho ! ho !, hui ! 
hui ! Commiseration wuw ! quhowe I ay quhowe ! allaice ! weae's 
mey ! N&, or nih, apparently from now, is often used interjec- 
tionally to soften a command or give force to an entreaty, quite 
like the Hebrew N3 now ! pray ! Co 'way nih J do come, pray. 
Staand styll, neh ! leyke a man. Do stand still, there's a man ! 

1 The Rev. Hateley Waddell says in expressing a concession, and if a mere 
his remarks on the language of Burns, supposition. I have not found this dis- 
that if and gin are used differently, gin Unction in actual speech. 




The extent to which the Gaelic is still spoken in Scotland has 
been referred to in the preceding pages. Having found, while 
engaged in the preparation of this work, that there exists no 
accurate account of the limits within which the old tongue is 
now confined, at the suggestion of some of the members of the 
Philological Society, I issued in 1869-1870, a series of inquiries 
to clergymen and others residing along what, from personal 
examination. I knew to be the linguistic frontier, accompanied 
by sketch maps of their respective districts, upon which I asked 
them to lay down the approximate limits of the Gaelic. These 
inquiries were in every instance most courteously and fully 
answered, and I have here to acknowledge the great obligations 
under which I lie to the various gentlemen who so warmly 
responded to my requests. 1 When arrangements were being made 
for the census of 1871, the Philological Society memorialized the 
Home Office with a view to have the linguistic statistics of Great 
Britain collected in the returns, as is so admirably done in Russia, 
Austria, and other Continental countries. Had this been acceded 
to, very much more minute information than is here communicated 
would have been within our reach. But as no attention was paid 
to the suggestion, these notes will in some measure do for the 
Gaelic what would have been possible also for Irish, Welsh, and 

1 These are the Eev. Vm. Eoss, of Chapelhill Manse, Rothesay, a native of 
Caithness, to whom I am mainly indebted for notes upon Caithness and the other 
counties N. of the Murray Firth, and also on the islands and coasts of the Clyde ; 
the Eev. Colin Mackenzie, of Ardclaoh, and Rev. John "Whyte, Moyness, for the 
counties of Nairn and Elgin ; the Rev. Walter Gregor, of Pitsligo (Editor of the 
" Banffshire Dialect "), and James Skinner, Esq., Factor to the Duke of Richmond, 
for Elgin and Banff ; the Eev. Eoht. Neil, of Glengairn (through Eev. Dr. Taylor, 
of Crathie), for Aherdeenshire ; the Rev. Neil McBride, of Glenisla, for N.W. of 
Forfar, and adjacent parts of Aberdeen and Perthshires ; the Rev. Samuel 
Cameron, of Logierait, Rev. Dr. McDonald, of Comrie, Eev. Hugh McDiarmid, 
of Callander, for the adjoining parts of Perthshire; the Rev. W. Mackintosh, of 
Buchanan, for the W. part of Stirlingshire ; the Rev. Duncan Campbell, of Luss, 
for the district hetween Loch Lomond and Loch Long; and the Rev. Neil 
Mackenzie, of Kilchrenan, formerly missionary in St. Kilda, for that island, and 
other western parts. To the Eevs. W. Eoss, Neil McBride, and "Walter Gregor 
(Member of the Philological Society), I am specially indebted for much general 
assistance in addition to the information as to their own districts. 


the Norman French of the Channel Isles. The general result is seen 
in the Map, where, however, it is to be observed that the outside 
limits of the Gaelic aro shown, that is, evory district is included in 
which Gaelic is still spoken by any natives, regardless of I lie fact, 
that English may be spokon by the majority of the people. To 
a distance of ten miles probably all round the frontier, Gaelic 
may be considered to bo tho language of a decreasing minority, 
especially in the towns ; in almost overy part of the Highlands, 
English is now moro or less understood and spoken. These facts, 
which could not easily be shown on the map, are detailed in tho 
following notes, whenco also it can bo seen how steadily tho 
Celtic has boen retreating backwards step by step within living 
memory. Tho traditional Highland boundary line, as it existed 
to 1745, is shown in tho map, and affords the same evidence as to 
the retreat of the Gaelic frontier. 

Tho linguistic boundary is formed by a wide curve, extending 
from the head of tho Murray Firth by the N.E. corner of Perth- 
shire to the Firth of Clyde ; of the three natural divisions of 
Scotland, the Gaelic area does not touch the Southern, cuts off the 
larger part of tho Central, and the whole of the Northern, with 
exception of tho N.E. point of Caithness, and the Orkney and 
Shetland Isles, which have long been Teutonic. On the other 
hand it includes a portion of the N.E. of Ireland, the dialect of 
which is identical with that of the opposite coast of Kintyre. 
More particularly, the line may be drawn from a point on the 
Murray Firth, about threo miles W. of the town of Nairn, south- 
wards towards Loch Clans, and 8.E. to Geddes, thence >S. and E. 
by tho 8.W. boundary of tho parish of Auldearn, and so on to 
Coulmony on the Findhorn, whence S.E. to the Knock of Murray. 
Thence across the Spey, midway between Cromdalo and Ballin- 
dullocb, to Lyne on the Avon, and along the southern watershed 
of Glen Livet to Aberdeenshire ; across Strath Don, nearly in the 
line of the road from Inverness to Balmoral, to a point on the Dee. 
about three miles above Ballater. South of the Dee, the Gaelic 
has retreated several miles farther west, so that tho line leaves that 
river about nix miles above Balmoral, and runs south over the 
Grampians, to the boundary between Perth and Forfar (no part of 
the latter county being Gaelic), which it follows as far as Mount 
Blair, thence across Glen Sheo and Strath Airdle, the lower 
part of which is now English, and S.W. across the moors 
to tho Tay between Dunkeld and Dowally. From Dunkeld 
by Birnam Hill, and the southern watershed of Strath Bran to 
Glen Almond, thence south by the head of Glen Turritt to 
Comrie. From Cornrie, along the braes of Doune to the Teith, 
throe or four miles below Callander, and so on by the north side 
of Lake of Monteith to Gartmore, where the boundary leaves 
Perthshire. In Stirlingshire, from Gartmore to Bowardennan on 
Loch Lomond, and across that lake by Glen Douglas to Loch 
Long. In the Clyde, the lino may be carried directly down by 


the east of Bute, Arran, and Oantire. But this includes extensive 
districts in which it is hard to say how far the Gaelic is to be 
considered native, inasmuch as it would certainly have been 
already extinct there but for fresh accessions of Celts from more 
inland districts. One correspondent, a native of Arran, says the 
line should proceed " from Arroquhar to Dunoon, and from Dunoon 
to Karnes Castle (leaving out the Toward district as no longer 
Gaelic) ; from Kames, across the narrow part of Bute (Gaelic 
being no longer native in the south half of Bute) to Arran, so as 
to include that island, and thence to the Mull of Kintyre ; . . . . 
even in some districts within the line, such as Dunoon and south 
end of Kintyre, Gaelic is almost extinct." Another, who is 
minister of the Free Gaelic Church in Eothesay, says, " In Bute, 
and the district on the shores of Cowall, from Inverchaolin, by 
Toward, Dunoon, Sandbank, Kilmun, and Strone, English pre- 
vails, but a few natives and a considerable immigrant population 
still speak Gaelic. Of the native farmers in the Isle of Bute, 
probably ten can speak Gaelic. A small portion of the Gaelic- 
speaking people in the town of Eothesay are also natives, but the 
large body consists of immigrants. Gaelic is still preached in 
the Established Church at North Bute, also occasionally at Port 
Bannatyne, while there is regular Gaelic service in the Established 
and Free Gaelic churches in Eothesay. The Gaelic population in 
North Bute is almost entirely immigrant. About 1843-5, the 
estate of Skipness was sold, and the new proprietor cleared away 
a large part of the inhabitants, who came over and settled in" 
Bute. In the district from Inverchaolain to Strone, along the 
shore, a few natives still speak the language ; there is a con- 
siderable Gaelic population in Kilmun, and a few in Sandbank ; 
in Dunoon there are said to be upwards of 200 Gaelic-speakers, 
but chiefly immigrant. It is curious to observe the nature of the 
change going on along the border line : the Gaelic people are 
gradually going to the principal towns in their neighbourhood, 
while Lowlanders who have been successful in business in the 
towns, or farmers from the south, go to occupy farms or residences 
within the Gaelic area. This change has taken place extensively 
in the district from Otter Ferry on Loch Fyne round to Loch 
Long .... I do not think Gaelic is extinct anywhere in Kintyre. 
Even in the farming district of Southend, a few natives still 
speak it ; and in Campbellton, I think a majority of the people 
use the ancient tongue, so that the line may safely pass south of 
the peninsula." 

In Caithness, at the other extremity of the line, the boundary 
is drawn " from the mouth of the water of Forss, west of Thurso, 
by the village of Hallkirk, and to the N.E. of Harpsdale, along 
the road to Achkeepster, and thence by a gentle curve to Bruan 
Head." The majority of the people in the village of Lybster, 
and in Mid Clyth and East Clyth, speak English. In Caithness, 
Gaelic is regularly preached in Dunbeath, Latheron, Lybster, 


Halsary, Westerdale, Hallkirk, Reay, and occasionally in Bruan. 
In Ross-shire the district from Tain to Tarhat Ness, and along the 
coast to Invergordon, is chiefly Gaelic. The Gaelic School Society 
occupies two stations in this peninsula, one at Hilton and Balintore, 
and another at Inver. The district from Cromarty southward 
along the shore to near Avoch, is chiefly English, local tradition 
stating that it has been so since the time of James VI., when a 
number of people from the south settled here (see Hugh Miller's 
" Schools and Schoolmasters "). 1 But there is a large Gaelic con- 
gregation at Eesolis, and smaller ones at Fortrose and Avoch. 

In the County of Nairn, Auldearn has been an English parish 
for many generations. In the town of Nairn, Gaelic preaching 
was given up in the parish church in 1854, upon petition of the 
parishioners ; it is still partly used in the Free Church for the sake 
of old people, but these are chiefly immigrants from the parishes 
of Ardersier, Petty, etc., who have settled in the town. In the 
parish of Ardclach, a few natives speak Gaelic, and for the sake 
of old people it is preached in the Free Church, but has been dis- 
continued for ten or twelve years in the parish church. In the 
other parishes of this county, Gaelic is still preached for the sake 
of the old people, but the Celtic is " gradually disappearing, most 
of the young people being quite ignorant of it." The traditional 
Highland boundary passes through the town of Nairn, and its mixed 
population was already a matter of note in the reign of James 
VL, if we may credit a story told of that monarch after his 
accession to the English throne. His courtiers are said to have 
boasted in his presence of the size of London in comparison with 
any town in Scotland, but the King declared that there was in the 
North of Scotland a town so large, that the people at one ex- 
tremity of it spoke a different language from those at the other ! 

In the lower division of Elginshire, Gaelic is extinct, but is 
still preached in the parishes of Cromdale, Abernethy, and 
DuthU, in the upper part of the county ; in Banffshire it is used 
in divine service only at Kirkmichael and Tomantoul. " No 
Gaelic has been spoken in any part of Inveravon for very many 
years, nor in Glen Livet for upwards of forty years at least ; even 
in Tomantoul, I am told by natives that the children now cannot 
speak one word of it, and that in thirty years or less it will be 
quite lost." 

In Aberdeenshire, Gaelic is not now used in the public worship 
of any church. Down to the Disruption in 1843, it was partly 
used in the parish churches of Braemar, Crathie, and Glengairn, 

1 Inverness has also a large English population, which local tradition attributes 
to a garrison left by Cromwell. Extraordinary ideas are current as to the purity 
of the Inverness English, the most that can be said for which is, that it is Book- 
English and not Lowland Scotch. But " it is not correct to consider Inrerness as 
an English town, isolated and surrounded by the Gaelic ; the latter has still a firm 
hold of a large part of the town ; in at least four churches Gaelic is the language 
used, and that for people born and brought up in the town." 


and in the parish church at Ballator at tho Communion only ; but 
in all those it hag been disused since 1845, and in tho Free 
Churches since 1850. Ju tho Jtoinan Catholic Chapels it lias been 
obsolete tor a much longer period. It is still usod in ordinary 
conversation liy a considerable proportion of tho population of 
Glongairn, Cralhio, and Braeumr ; it is tho first language learnt in 
a very few families, but ovory child above ton years of ago may 
be Maid to understand English. It is nearly, but not altogether 
extinct in Strathdon ; but has not boen used in Glonbuokct for a 
long time past. Towio and Glentannor, although their lopical 
names are all (Jaelie, have been considered as below the Highland 
line for several centurion. None of the natives there know any- 
thing of Gaolio, which is fast disappearing oven in Braomar. 

Although a portion of Forfarshire was includod within the High- 
land boundary, and tho local names are Celtic, Gaelic is not 
spoken in any part of the county ; nor has it been usod in publio 
worship in any parish since Ihe 'Reformation at least (except in 
Dundee, where there is a Gaelic church for immigrants, as in 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, and London). 

In Perthshire, Gaelic is commonly spoken in tho upper part of 
Glen Shoe and Strath Ardle ; but "in the Free Church of Kirk- 
michael, Btrath Ardle, there has been no Gaelic preached for 
several years, and it is going and almost gone in the Established 
Church." 1 It has for some time been used in divino service, 
in summer only, in the parish of Logioruil, ami "is or ought to 
bo used in wholo or part in every parish in tho I'rosbytory of 
Woem." It has boen quite disused at Dowally, but is partly 
usod at Liltle nucleoid. "In tho parishes of Comrio and 
Callander, Gaelic is much spoken, and frequently preached in ; 
Aborfoylo has a Gaelic-speaking minister, and ho till rocently 
offloiatcd half tho Sabbath in Gaelic ; but now only oooasionally. 
Those parishes lio along tho frontier lino ; inward, and completely 
or nearly quite Celtic are Hulquhiddor, Killin, Konmoro, Woom, 

In Stirlingshire, Buchanan parish, whioh extends along the 
whole cast side of Loch Lomond, and across to Loch Katrine, 
is the only part in which Gaelic is spoken, though there is now 
"probably not a porson in the parish who cannot understand and 
Bpoalc Mnglish. No Gaelic is spokon bolow tho pass of Balmaquha. 
Between that and Kowurdonnan, Gaolio is usod in some families, 
and is in pretty oommun uso above Eowardennan. But it has 

1 An AttdrtM to Highlander) retpeoting their native Oaelio, thawing its 
mperiarity over the artificial Jin//li/ih, oto., by Arohilmlu Farquharson. Edinburgh, 
Maulaohlan and Stewart, 180H. lloforring to Strath Ardlo, tho writur says, 
"Although my nativo unuutry, I am tmito anharaed of thorn. Who wroto tho 
iiiN«ri|>llim 'Milo fuilto ' (a thawuiml wolooraos) on tho top of tho aroh at 
Klrtniiinlinol, on tho oouumihi of a oortain gontloman up tho country taking homo 
hit English bridu t I passoil under It, ana expresiod my attonisbment to boo it, 
at the children tpoto nothing but Mnglith in the ttreei." 

286 Arrxxmx. 

long tvateA to be Vm$A in school, and has not htm used ><> 
rii'irr}, for half a century, with the exception of tat annual aermon 
at InverKnaid, discontimicd in 1^8," West of Loch Lomond, 
Gaelic w extinct ■■ai.f/s,^ the natives of Lass, hot tlKa» is * '/#»' 
stant influx of slate qoarriers, servants, etc,, wh/> speak Gaelic, 
from A rjr/I Whir's. English alone ban been used in chur«b for 
fifty year*^ the last Gaelic minister Wrir.g i#*#> Itr. Stewart, one 
of the translators of tbe Gaelic f'/tbU-,. Ysi<m he, m tbe latter 
part of hi* ministry, bad a Gaelic service only once a month. 1 r< 
Arrorjuhar, Gaelic is still >V> general nse, hit receding. I/Mm 
service is regularly is Gaelic and English. 

With f< : s(*/J to the identity of dialect between the Sfeottisb 
Hollands and a p*r. of f.'lster fa point to which «»y attention 
was fits* called tr ii.HM. P«w* Lueien Bonaparte), J have 
been favoured with information from die fc-r. Classen Porter, of 
Larne, and lu.'t.. MacAdara, Esq., of Belfast, an eminent Celtic 
scholar, and well aoqnaiftted with the dialectical divisions of tbe 
In » r„ 7 V. % district m rjnestior. is "die Glen* of Antrim " ',%,■$/***■. 
to Kintyre, with tbe Weof Baehrir. An^iiri/^/J li/Mdi*) ; 
tbe ir«A baa v^r, r&.vch ^Vrumscribed yr'akit, !ir»*ig i;.«tu/rj. 

T'..h yi.-ylh ate evidently tbe **me a* d«oseef Argyll, as hv 
A'/z-jm', oj f.r.eir names, and for centuries a constant intercourse 
bas been kept on between Kwr. yet tbe Glensmen of 
Antrim ■#, /--^rtfeyij v, tbe J/ighlawJ fans, and e<*»manicate 

myself '/x-.fitvA with both Glensmen 3<vl .'..'«,»-.. / can 
testify to die t&AtAnte identity of tbeh- speech.'* A' >f v/. , ! .<•;// -- 15*?. 
Tbe Cekie of all tbe rest of Ulster, viz., in Ronegal, and isolated 
patcbes in Iferry, Tyrone, and south of Armagh, dHfer* con- 
siderably from the Scottish Gaelic, and is rr>*Jy an !nv, dialeet. 
Bat tber« is not tbe *,:%*.?#*: reason to dednee t!-^ Glensmen from 
Swdand; w^y are a re.ic of tbe ancient continaity of tbe pvf«' 
bttion of C;.«esr and Western Heotland. 

Tbe most advanced omtp^t of flbe Oekie «be OM World, is 
tibe Isle of Sc Kilda, i/ins; for out in tbe Adantie, v, tbe west of 
d»e Hebrides. Tbe .>.c.yr--*-xfi i* entivAy OWI*-,, i^xse »f tbe 
natives xunr'.t^ vsj V.:i,..<.:. bat tbe fittie tbat tbev may bo 
*^j"^;-.t fcy *i..%{ ,' r.'. ..'.;.» rer o* missionary. AH die topical names 
are ( >..r'^:, and due 5-.ri..r.*r. »ee» never to have r%a.'i..y! tbe 
island. The Gaelic bas die dialestie '..^y,.^.r.;j, tbat 2 is pro- 
*s,;:xsf': instead of r as in Harris, wbiel» stribes fti** .v-#.»--.? very 
stran^fely at Ant. 

Sa^> are the H.-.jita widur. which dte ->//j-l*h Gaelie is now 
Wi-% ; its recession w>4r..'a living mtr.vvcj aid* as at lesat 
i;.a--i.'.jr tbe sneeesstve steps by wbfcfc it Va* mf&fcA fatrmx the 
tew eenwries sinee it o««apied all tike ->>rrr,t/,rj wtarfk 'A ford*. 
At the V/ic- of l&ii^endenee, I tbi»k > m--'a.',U diat it *rx'v..".*i*. 
to riA Otba w.. J . iSdlaw Hflls, and v_is r..-.-r>. of tbe T47 Oe 
* Ingla*" was limited % a very natv/w strip along dte eoast. 


Galloway and Carrick in the S.W. were also Gaelic in the 16th 
century ; and it is probable that we are to look to the Keformation, 
and to the use of the Lowland Scotch in public worship and the 
parish schools, for its disappearance there. No mention of this 
division of the Erse stock is found in the earliest records, and 
they appear to have occupied, in the 8th or 9th century, a territory 
formerly held by the Britons. 

Celtic scholars distinguish three dialects in the Scottish Gaelic, a Northern, a 
Central, and a South-western (see Map). The Northern division, comprising 
Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, and North Hebrides, is distinguished by its " narrow, 
sharp, and arid " pronunciation, its consonantal character, and tendency to sup- 
press guttural sounds, as in mac, pasgadh, deagh, which are pronounced (rank, 
poskgov, tjee-ov) for (makhk, poskgBgh, tjee~Bgh). "The pronunciation gives 
reason to think that the inhabitants spoke some Northern language at one time." 
Probably this is due to the great influence of the Norse in these parts. In the 
South-western division, comprising Argyle, Perth, and the Southern Isles, long 
i (ee) is used for long £ (ii) of the central division ; the language is most vocal, 
" the swelling sound of the terminations adh and agh are scarcely audible after a 
broad vowel ; the words are generally pronounced with amazing rapidity, falling 
from the mouth with a kind of jerk, and such heedlessness that it is not easy 
sometimes for a stranger to catch the nature of the sound." 1 The northern 
variety is that which is easiest for a Sasunnach to acquire and understand, the 
South-western comes nearest to the Irish and the language of the old Celtic 


At p. 78 the general dialectical divisions of the Lowland 
Scotch, as well as their historical relations to each other, have been 
given. The areas occupied by these divisions, viz. the North- 
eastern group, containing the dialects of Caithness, Aberdeen, and 
Angus, the Central group, embracing those of Fife and Lothian, 
of Clydesdale, of the Highland border, and of Galloway, and the 
Southern group, containing only the border counties in Scotland, 
but closely connected with the dialects of Northumberland, of 
Shields, and of North Cumberland in England, will be seen in 
the map, where the affinities between the idioms are to some 
extent represented in the colouring. 

As to the distinguishing characteristics of these dialectic forms, 
it has been the object of the preceding pages to show those of the 
Southern group ; and at § 20 of the Historical Introduction, as 
well as throughout the work, they have been contrasted with 
those of the Central group. 

The most prominent distinction of the North-eastern dialects 
is the use of / for wh, and of vr for wr. as in " fat's vrang," 
what's wrono-? This peculiarity is current from the Pentland 
Firth to the 'Firth of Tay, and the dialect is most typically re- 
presented in Aberdeenshire and the district to the N W. toward 
the Murray Firth. Here the 12th vowel (», y) of the Central 
and Southern dialects, loses its labialization, so that long English 

» Principles of Gaelic Grammar, by John Forbes, F.B.I.S. Edinburgh, 1848. 
The introduction contains a short sketch of the characteristics of the three dialects. 


oo (in Centre and S. Scotland tit), is represented by ee, as in do, 
boot, roof, here dee, beet, reef; short oo by i, or the high mixed 
vowels (x, y), moon, stool, (min, mjm, stil, styl). The back con- 
sonants k. g, affect a preceding or following oo, changing too, ook, 
into kicee hut, and yook, as in good, cool, school, book, general Scotch 
guid, cuil, scuil, buik, here gweed, queel, squeal, byook. The sound 
of co, in the south euo, is often also changed to cwey (kwai) as 
cireyte. ctceyle. for coat, coal. As the ai (ee) of the other dialects, 
corresponding to Eng. 6, also often sinks into ee, thus borne, stone, 
Central Sc. baene, staene, here been, steen, the long ee is a pro- 
minent feature of the dialect. But this latter change is not found 
all over the district ; and the Rev. Walter Gregor, in the preface 
to his "Dialect of Banffshire," distinguishes three dialectic 
varieties within the area, in the lower or coast variety of which 
stone and bone are steen, been, while in the middle they are stehn, 
behn (sten, ben), and meal, peats, fear, bear, etc, mail, paits, fehr, 
behr (mel, p«?ts, feer, beer). The short u (a) of the other dialects 
often becomes » (e, y), as in mother, son, bull, full, here my (her, 
syn, byll, fyU, often even with the vowel long. The long aa of 
the south of Scotland is often replaced by ai, as gayu, aieht, for 
gaan, auwcht, going, ought. The hard g is strongly palatalized, 
so much that I have often found it difficult to distinguish the pro- 
nunciation of oeng or gyang, go (gJEq, dJEq) from jeng. In the 
coast districts there is also a strong tendency to substitute d for 
ih, in fadder, mudder, icidder. etc., for father, mother, weather. 

In the dialect of Angus, south of the Grampians, the con- 
sonantal peculiarities of the North-eastern group are still found, but 
the vowel system is more like that of the Central Scottish, y.ncrligri 
oo being ui as good, guid. The i or y of other dialects is often 
widened into «, as hum, full, hur. muJk, etc, for him, till, her, milk. 
D is sometimes softened into th (dh), as laddies (ladhiz). 

In Caithness, in addition to the consonantal peculiarities of the 
Xorth-east, we find the use of sh for ch, s%Zder=childer, and the 
regular dropping of initial ih in the demonstrative class of words, 
so that, the, they, them, there, that, appear as (i, ee, em, eer, at). 
The pairs made, maid, tale, tail, are distinguished as (me'id, 
metd. twl, teel), a very different distinction from that used in 
the south. So the words one, home, bread, head, place, way. are 
eynn (e»n, «nn), heyme, breyde, heyde, pleyee, itey. While, bide, 
wife, are foyle or fhoyle, boyd. woyfe (wohif). 1 

Of the Central group, the Clydesdale dialect is distinguished 
from that of Lothian chiefly by its broader vowels. The long aa 
especially is almost if not quite aw (aa) in tica', aura', v:auk= 

1 Mr. Melville Bell says that the sound often at least given to vA in Caithness 
is not the simple/, hnt his mixed-divided labial (fh). Probably, however, this 
is an individual peculiarity. I hardly know whether to consider general a peculiar 
dwelling upon the letters m and » when final, as though they were doubled eyn-n, 
man-n, which was very noticeable in some of my Caithness correspondents, and 
seems to suggest Old Norse influence. 


wake. It is heard also in the combination -and. where the d is 
regularly dropped, leaving such forms as lawn, hawn, for Zand, 
hand; so ehn for ena*, metpie for mind, fyn for find. Long t be- 
comes broad (ai), tcuyces, buyde, stuy, for wives, bide, stay. The 
«* is scarcely labial, dui, tui, icui, etc., being undistinguishable 
from da*, /tit', icae (dee, tee, wt) or (dii.tii, wit). Short o before 
a consonant has a tendency to be replaced by (a, a) as in pit, tdp, 
stCip. pirritch, drap, bdnnet, dff, aft, hap, warlt, for pot, top, stop, 
porridge, drop, bonnet, off, oft(en), hop, world. This change does 
not appear in the Early or Middle Scotch, and is probably of 
Celtic origin. In Modern times it has gained a wide currency 
from being used by Burns in this dialect. 

In the Highland border along the south-east of Perthshire, we 
find I regularly pronounced as «, as in hull, mull, mulk, sulk, hill, 
mill, milk, silk. Ea which in the more Southern dialects is ei, 
here remains ai, as braid, haid, mail, for 6reid, heid. meil, Eng. 
bread, head, meal. The article the is commonly contracted into 
««, especially after in, as, in the. fee (in, ii). 

This last-mentioned peculiarity is found again in Galloway, at 
the opposite point of the Central group, associated with the pro- 
longing or doubling of final nasal consonants even more strikingly 
than in Caithness. The verb gang becomes gann : the pronouns 
his and her are contracted to simple s and r, he can gann tyfs 
faither, he may go to his father ; gann yer tcatcs, go your way. 

I had intended to furnish a comparative specimen of each of tbese eight 
dialectic forms, and had for this purpose taken down the first chapter of Ruth in 
the vernacular from the dictation of native speakers ; hut doubts as to the accuracy 
of my paheotvpie renderings in some cases, which I have not at present the means 
of testing, have induced me to give only three of these, viz. one from each of the 
three great dialectic groups. The Southern counties dialect is represented by the 
Teviotdale specimen, given both in the conventional spelling used in this book, 
and for comparison with the others, in Mr. Ellis's palteotype also. The Central 
group is represented by the Ayrshire specimen, 1 and the Sorth-eastern by th;it of 
Buchan.* In these I have nsed pala?otype only ; the conventional alphabet would 
have required a large extension of symbols in order to exhibit their phonetic 
differences, which even then would have been but clumsily and inaccurately shown. 
In the pabsotype I have made use of the distinction suggested at p. 106, note 2, 
writing <y, 6) "for efos: sounds of («, e) i-c nearer to ^i, r ; (e. e^ for open ones, 
nearer to (e, a>\ Thus I make the Teviotdale day (A<i\ nearly (oeb); the 
Aberdeen (deV\ that is almost (dii) or \Aii). The Scotch sound of i in bill, tit, 
etc.. is gonerallv t,e"\ «.*. a shade Aigker than Southern English bell, set, though 
much nearer to "that than to Eng. bill, tit. The short or stopped (<t. e) should 
have the same qualitv as the long vowels in each dialect, but as the difference is 
in their cue scareelv perceptible, I have generally left them unmarked. In the 
Paheotype the words are united by hypbeus into phonetic groups as pronounced, 
the accented svllable in each bei'ngmarked by the turned period (•). "Where 
this mark is wanting, the accent is on the last syllable of the group. 

1 From the dictation of Mr. Heron Duncan and his brother Mr. "W. Duncan ; 
revised by Mr. B. Giffen. 

» Dictated by Mr. Thomas Forrest, and revised by his brother, Mr. "W. Forrest, 
with the assistance of Mr. Melville Bell, by whom the sounds were written in 
ritibl* tpoceA, 



Note. — The expression of the yowel sounds in Palssotype, so far as concerns 
Scotch, has been already explained pp. 103-113. The consonantal signs, not 
haying been referred to as a whole, are here arranged alphabetically (b, d, f, k, 1, 
m, n, p, t, y) haye each their usnal yalue ; (dh) as in <Aat (dhast) ; (dzh) =j in 
judge (dzhedzh) ; (g) as in got (got) ; (y) or (gj) palatal jr=g+y, as some pro- 
nounce guard (yaaid, gjaajd) ; (h) only used as an auxiliary in consonantal groups, 
as (ph. th, kh, sh) ; (h) the full A in Aat (Est) ; (j) only an auxiliary sign of 
palatalization, a weakened y as in (kj, gj, dj, sj) ; (j) a full consonantal y as in 
you (juu) ; (k) or (kj) palatal A=k-|-y, as sometimes heard in sky (afai, skjsi); 
(kh) the simple " guttural " ch, gh, in German aeh, Gaelic clacAan (akh, klakhsn) ; 
(ih) or (kjh) the palatalized guttural, in German ieh, Southern Scotch negeht, 
(iAh, nekjht) ; (kich) the labialized guttural in German sueA, South. So. thoweAt 

Teviotdale. THE BUIK 6 EU1TM (Chap. I.). 

Nuw, yt cam aboot i the days quhan the juidgis reuwl'd, at 
the' war a dserth i the laand. An' a caerten man frae Basthlem 
Jeuwdah geade away tui heyde a quheyle 1 the laand o Moab, 
hym an' hys weyfe an' hys tweae suns. An' the man's neame 
was Eleimelek, an' thay caad the guid-weyfe Naaomie, an' the 
tweae callants Mauwchlon an' Cheilion, Eaphratheytes fraB 
Baethlem Jeuwdah. An' thay cam ynta the cuintrie o Moab, an' 
baid theare. An' Eleimelek Naaomie's guidman deyed, an' schui 
was laeft wui the tweae laads. An' thay tnik thersels weyves 
thrae mang the wuimein o Moab, the neame 5 the-teane was 
Orpah, an' the neame 6 the-tuther Euith, an' thay baid theare the 
fseck 5 tsen (y)eir. Dhan Mauwchlon an' Cheilion deyed tui, 
beath the tweae o them, an' the wnmman was laeft hyr leane. wni 
naither bairn nor man belangan' 'er. 

Ayr (in Palaotype). Dhe Bjak 8 Buth.. (Central Group). 

Nuu, et-kam-abut- 'n-dhe-de'e'"z, ktohan-dhe-dzhad-zhez ruult, 
dhaht'-dher-wsz 9-de'e'rth y-dhe-lAAn. gpi-a-SErt-'n man bilAqon 
te-BEth - lam Dzhuu - da. gje"d-9WAA- te-star-a-kwhail y-dhe-kyntTah 
e-Moob, Hem, en-ez-watf- an-ez-twAA - sanz. gp-dhe-nem e-dhe- 
mun waz Ilanrelek, 9n-ez-gjyd-wa»fs - ne"m waz-Xaoome, an-dhe- 
kAAd ez-twAA-lad--ez Makh-lan en-Kil-'n, :Ef-rsthaits e-BEth-lam 
Dzhuu - da. gn-dhe-kanr 9nt - l dhe-kynt-rah 9-Moob, en-stai-t dheer. 
[jn-Ilanrelek, Naoo-mez gjyd-man* dirt, sn-shy waz-lEft% Har 'n- 
ar-twAA kal'nz. gn-dhe'e tak'-dharselz waivz 9-dhe-w»nren o- 
Moob, dhe-nem o-dhe-Jen waz-Orpa, gn-dhe-nem e-dhe-ydlrar 
Kuth ; 9n-dhe-stai - t dheer dhe-fEEk 9-tEn iir. gri-Makh-lan en- 
Kil'n dii't tee', be'e'th'-9-dhem, 9n-dhe-wam - 9n waz-lEft - elen-, wjj- 
ne^'dher man ner-ween. 



£Sw! ^ W- : ( 1 J),P al * tal ° r " ^ " ' in Ital - m, Old Sc. coi/jear (Mil, 
as a simple sign for (ng « Ouy ti»q) ; (ok) =nk in tbfc th.qk/; rfalways 
En ^ST 1 '? S ^ b we . should «* Ae stronger (.r) to indicate the sharp 
taU (j) the vocalized Eng. r in roar (rooj) ; (r) the uvular trill in French Paris 
(ran)— tins or often a stronger (.r) is the Northumberland burr or "crhoup" ; 

M.ft* 1 (*•»»*". w ^h) r (w) as in «,all (waa!) ; («,) an auxiliary sign 
of labialization In (k«-h) etc.; (y, y, T ) are vowels only, never consonants: (z> 
as in bust (bsz) j (zh) French y, in vision, (v.zh-tm). The (') indicates a vocal 
murmur, or imperfect vowel as heard in eatar (iifr'n). In Scotch it often follows 
other vowels making an imperfect diphthong as (mif, baa', tii', bs'l), etc. 

(8tmt/i<rH Counties). Dhe B?k 9 Rffth. Teviotdale (in Palaiotype). 

Nau, et-kam-ebut- e-dhe-deez* kichan-dhe-dzbadzh-iz rauld, et- 
dbe--war e-dwrth e-dbe-laand. En-e-sssrt-'n man tbrse-Bastb-lem 
Dzhavrda g»'d-ew^e- te-b<»id--e-kwbeil e-dhe-kant-ri 9-Moob, Hem 
ea-ez-weif en-ez-twj'i' sanz. En-dhe-manz ni'm wstz-Elim-elek, 
en-dbe-kaa-d dbe-gadweif- Naoo-mi, en-dhe-tw«»" kal-ents 
Maakwb-len en-KiWen, It'-fretbeits thrse-Bastb-lem Dzhavrda. En- 
dhe-kam ente-dhe-kant-ri 9-Moob, en-bed dhi't'r. En-Elim-elek 
Naoo-miz gadman- derd, en-sha wsrz-larft- wa-dhe-twu' laadz. 
En-dhi£ tak--dherselz weivz thrse-moq- dhe-wamin. 9-Moob, dhe- 
n«'m 9-dbe-t»'n waz-Orpa, en-dhe-ni'm 9-dbe-tadb-er Bath, en- 
dhe-bed" dhtt'r dhe-fasjB-k-e tarn iir. Dban Maakwb-len en-KiWen 
dei-d taa, bi'th dhe-tw«T--9-dbem ; en-dbe-wsnven waz-lasft" er- 
lfn, wa-ne*dber bern ner-mon bil<xq;en-er. 

(North-eastern Group). Dhe Bjuk 8 Eutll. Buehan (in JPaltsotype). 

Nun, et-Hap"'nt y-dhe-d<M-z fyn-dbe-dzhiu-dzhez ruu-'lt, et- 
dher--wyz o-feV-men y.-dhe-laan. Th-dber-wyz 9-man bilaq-en 1y- 
BetMem Dzbmrde gje'd tj-beid 9-feil y-dbe-kwtnt-re e-Moob, beem 
yn-yz-weif t/n-yz-twaa see - nz. In-dhe-manz neni wyz 2Jh'nrelek, 
yn-dhe-kaa - d yz-wetf Neoo'nit, jra-dhe-twaa lad-iz Mee-len yn- 
KUn'en, JEe'-fretbettsft-Beth-leniDzhuude'. In-db«-kam- ent-'l dhe- 
kw»n , tre' 9-Moob yn-becLdheYr Th-Slinvelek Neoo-nu'z man dirt, 
yn-sbi wyz-lEft yn-er-twoa sdenz. Th-dbe-mervt wym - en bilaq - - 
en ty-dhe-kwintT<! e-Moob, dbe-n^m e-dbe-tin w^z-Or-pe, _yn- 
dbe-n^m o-dbe-tidb-er -wjz-Butb. Fn-dbe-dwalt- dh&r, niir- 
ebut - t^n iir. Fn-Mee-len yn-Kili'en beVdb dii't tii', tm-dbe-weif 
wyz-left er-lii'n, wi/tbut* A ! dber bern or-man. 




Than schui rayse up, hyr an' 'er tweae guid-dowchters, tui gang 
heame ageane fr» the laand o Moab, for schui'd hard i the cuintrie 
6 Moab, huw at the Loard hed luikit setter 'ys fuok, an' gein-them 
breid. Seae sehui geade away oot frse the pleace at schui was at, 
an' the tweae guid-dowohters alang wui'r ; an' thay tuik the geate 
tiii gang bak tui the laand o' Jeuwdah. Than quo' Naaomi tui 
hyr tweae guid-dowchters, " Gang away ! geae bak jlk eane o'ye 
tui (y)eiraynmuther'shoossJ the Loard bey guid tui-ye, az (y)ee've 
bein guid tui mey, an' tui thaim at's geane. The Loard grant at 
(y)emae fyndrsest, ylkino'ye 1 (y)eir aynhooss, wuiamano (y)eir 
ayn ! " Than schui kysst them, an' thay beguid a-greitein lood an' 
sayr. An' thay said tyll'er " JEh but ! wey'll gang heame wui 
yuw, tui (y)eir ayn fuok. But Naaomi said, " Turn agean, ma 
dowchters ! quhat wad-ye gang wui mey for ? Ym aa gaand-a- 
hae onie meae bairns tui bey msen for-(y)e? Turn bak, ma 
•dowchters, gang yeir ways, for aa'm ower aald tui hse a man. 
Yf aa was tui say, Aa've hub'pe, aey, an' yf aa'd a man thys vserra 
neycht, an' was tui hse bairns as weil, wad-(y)e wait dn-them quhyl 
thay greuw up, wad-(y)e staye free hsein' masn for thaim? Naa ! 
naa ! ma dowchters, for aa 'm sayr vwxt for yuwr seakes at the 
haand o the Loard hes geane seae agean us." An' thay cryed oot 
lood, an' grat ageane, an' Orpah kysst byr guid-muther, but Euith 

Ayr. {PaL). 

DbEn sb^-r^-z wy-er-twAA gjj/d-dookh-terz, far-te-gjseq - owaa- 
Hem - fe-dhe-ki/nt - rah e-Moob, fsx-shyyA Hard t»l y-ihe-kynt-rah. 
e-Moob, dhaht-dhe-Loo-rd had-te'e'n-thookht te-9Z-fok, en-ghr-dhem 
brid. See shy-gjed-ewAA - fe-dhe-pys" kwh.Ar-shy waz-stop-'n, wy- 
«r-twAA gj^d-dooktrterz olaq- wj/j/t; en-dhe-tak- dhe-wai te-gjseq- 
©waa- bak Hem te-dhe-laa-nd o-Dzhuu-dg. Dh«n Naoo'me sed - -te 
ar-twAA- gjyd-dookh-terz, GJ8eq--9wAA- bak elk-en--e-J9 te-jor- 
nu/dh-erz hus, 9n-dhe-Loordbi-gJ2/d--te-j9 gz-jr-ne bin-gj^d - te-mii, 
on-te-dhem dbaht-s-owAA - . Dhe-Loord gii-ja te-fen 1 rEst beVtlr-e- 
J9 w«/-9-hus 9n-9-man e-jer-AA-n. DhEn-shy kest--dh^m 9n-dhe- 
bigud- 9-grit - 'n 9n-grat seer seer. gpi-dhe-sed - -te-9r Naa ! naa ! 
wi-l-gjseq - -we-j9 bak te-jer-frinz - . g;n-Naoermised, Jt-mAn-tarn- 
niar-do-okh'ters, kiohat-far wad-jj-gjaaq- w^-mii - ? Dyy-JB theqk 
aa' - l-Hee one-me'e'r - weVnz te-bii-lAA-dz-te-jg ? Gjssq-9WAA ma- 
dookb-terz, gjaeq J9r-AA-n gjet, far^aa'-m fAAr aar aa-1 te-nee- 
em/dh-er gjj/d-man-. g;n-gin aa'-s%d-see, aa'-h^e-Hoop 1 , seas', on- 
gin'-aa'-Had 9-man dhe-nekht, en-Had-sanz- tii, wad-J9-wet--far» 
dhem tal*-dhe Had-grawn up, wad-ji-kip- fe-taak"'n man, far- 
w^t - 'n on-dhem 1 ? Naa J naa! ma-dookh'terz, far-aa' - m gai - -en 
pat-ebut- fET-juur seks, dhaht-dhe-HAAn- 9-dhe-loo-rd H^z-gjen- se- 
se'e'r ogjemst'-iiaz. Sain dhe-foigud- 9-grit"'n 9gjen f , 9n- Orpa kest ar- 


Teviotdale Palceotype. 

Dhan sha-re^z-ap 1 , Her en-er-twj'i' gad-dokich-terz te-gaq-Hjem- 
egi'n thrae-dhe-laa-nd 9-Moob, for sha-ed-Hard- e-dhe-kant-ri 
e-Moob, Hau--at dhe-Loord Hed-lak-it sef-ter ez-fu'k, en-gin--dhem 
brid. SW sha-gi'd ewe-ut- thrse-dhe-pli'-s et-sha waz-at-, en- 
dhe-twii' gad-dokwh-terz glaq- waa-r ; en-dhe-tak- dhe-gi't te-gaq- 
bak- te-dhe-laand e-Dzhau-da. Dhan kwa-Naoo-mi taa-er-twii' 
gad-dokwh-terz : " Gaq-awee- ! gii'-bak- elk-jen--oi te-ir-een- 
madh-erz hus ! dhe-Loord bei-gad tei oz-ii'v-bin gad te-mei-, en- 
te-dhem- ets-gi'n. Dhe-Loord grant et-ii mse-fend- rsest, elk--in-oi 
e-ir-ee"n hus, waa-e-man 9-ir-ee-n." Dhan sha-kest - dhem, en- 
dhe-bigsd - 9-grhvin lud en-seer. En-dhe sed-tel - er " seb-et, weH 
gaq-Hjem- wa-jau ta-ir-ee'n ftt'k." Bat-Naoo-mi sed " Tarn- 
agi'n- ma-dok«oh-terz ! kwhat'-wad-ii gaq wa-mei--for ? Em-aa 
gaanta-HBese - oni-mir' bernz te-bei msen--for-i ? Tarn-bak-, ma- 
dokwh-terz, goq-ir-we^-z, for-aa - m our aald te-Hsese e-man. 
Ef-aa'-waz te-see- " aa-v-Hwap-, sei, en-ef-aa-d e-man thes vae're 
nekjht, en waz - -te-Hse bernz as-wil, wad-i wet-on-dhem k«jhal--dhe 
grau-ap- ? wad-i stei thrse-Hseas-in maen for-them. ? Naa ! naa ! 
ma-dokwh-terz, for-aa-m seer vsekst for-jaur si'ks, et-dhe-Haand 
9-dhe-loord Hez-gi'n SM'-9g»'n'-9z. En-dhe-krard ut lud, en-grat 
9gi 'n ; en-0rp9 kest er-gad-madlrer, bat-Kath Haq bei-er. En- 
sha-sed, Sei, ir-gad-ses-terz gi'n-ewe-Hjem' ta-er-ee - n-ftt'k, en ta-er 

Buchan {Pal.). 

Dhen shi-got-ap- wii-er-gwid-dAA.-therz, ty-gjEq-he'in--9gje'n f«- 
dhe-kwt'nt-re 9-Moob, far-shii-d Hard-tsl- y-dhe-kwint-re 9-Moob, 
et-dhe-Loord m/d-luk-et eft-r-^z-fok-, yn-ghr-dhem brid. Fn shii 
gjed-ut- 9-dhe-ples faar-shi-wjz-, Her, n-er-twaa- gwid-dAA-therz 
wii-er, yn-dhe-tuk- dhe-gjet bak-9gje"-n t'1-dhe-laan e-Dzhuu-de. 
Fn-Neoo-mi sed--t'l-er twaa gwid-dAA-therz, " Grieq-awaa- ! yn- 
gje-bak- b^dh--9-« ty- jir-ee-n midh-erz hus ! dhe-Loo-rd bi-gwid- 
ty-jv, ez-ji He-bin- ty-mii, yn-ty-ib.6m ats-ewaa. Dhe-loo-rd grant- - 
jb, et-ji-me-fen- rEst, elke-i-n y-m, wy-a-man- ?m-9-Hus y-iiv-iiva.. 
Sain shi-kesfc--dhem, yn-dhe-roo-rt yn-grat. Fn-dhe-sed--t'l-er, &■- 
byt ! wii-1 gJEq-Henr-wy-J'B ty-juur-fok. Fn-Neoo-mi sed, GJEq- 
bak--9gje'n my-dakh-terz ! fat wyd-ji-dii', gjaa-n wy-mii-. Fm-aai 
gjaan-ty-H^- oni'-me'e'r- be"rnz ty-bi mEn--t'l-je? GjEq-bak;, my- 
da-khterz, gJEq «r-waa'z, far-aa'm aur aal ty-sii anidh-er man. 
Gin-aa« sy&siS-, aai-He-Hau-ps, aai, gra-aai syd-He'e am'dh-er man 
dhe-nekht, yn-syd-si bernz as-wil-, wyd-ji wait--far-dhem t'l-dhe- 
wyr grauan-ap- ? wyl-JJ-baid- fi-tak'n idh-er men ty-wsit far- 
dhem-. Naa! naa! my-dakh-terz, far-aa'-m se'^r-T«k-st on-juur 
akunts- et-dhe-Haan y-dhe-loo-rd Hj/z-gj^n-agje'n-my s^-mak'l. 
Fn-dhe-bigud- B-grit-'n egjen- ; ^m-Or-pe kest er-gwid-midh-er, byt 



hang bey 'er. An' schui said, " Sey, (y) eir guid-syster's geane away 
heame tui her ayn fuok, an' tui her g6ds; geae 'way yuw tui, 
aefter (y)eir guid-syster." An' Euith said, "0 dynnatreit on-us tui 
leeve-(y)e, or tui gang bik frae cumein aefter (y)e, for quhayr-ever 
(y )ee gang, aa '1 gang, an' quhayr (y)ee beyde, aa '1 beyde ; yoor fuok 
'11 bey maa fuok, an' yoor G6d maa G-6d. Quhayr (y)ee dey, 
aa '11 dey, an' bey laid 1 the greave theare aseyde-(y)e : the Loard 
dui-seae an' mayr tui mey, yf owcht but death cum atwein yuw 
an' mey ! " Quhan schui saa, at schui was sast bnna gangein wui 
'r, schui gee ower speikein tyll 'er. 

Seae the tweaesum geade, tyll thay cam tui Baethlem. An' 
quhan thay wan tui Basthlein, quhat but the heale toon was yn a 
steir aboot-them ; an' quo' thay, " Ys thys Naoomie, thynk-wey?" 
An' schui says tui-them " Dynna caa mey Naaomie, caa-meh 
Maarah, for the Almeychtie hes dealt wui-meh vaerra bytterlie. 
Aa geade oot fuw, an' the Loard hes browcht-meh heame tuim : 
huw wad-(y)e caa-meh Naaomie, syn the Loard hes wutnest 
ageane-meh, an' the Almeychtie hes gein-meh sayr truble V " 

Seae Naaomie cam heiime, an' Euith the Moabeytess, hyr guid 
dowchter, wui 'r, hyr at cam oot 5 the cuintrie o Moab ; an' quhan 
thay cam tui Baethlem, yt was aboot the fuore-end 5 the baarlie 

Ayr (Pal.). 

gjyd-mydh'er an-gjed-awAA - , bat-Buth naq tce - er. gp-shy-sed. 
" Lak'-sii J9r-gjyd-8!/8'ter hyz-gjen-awAA - b«k t«-ar-fok' an te-ar- 
goo*dz, gjaeq juu awAA - icftT-ar. gii-Eutlr-sed, Dan-a aask--ma te- 
gjseq-awAA'-fe-ja, or te-tara-bak', en-noo gjaeq-- wy-ja, far kwhar- 
yver juu gjaeq, aa'l gjaeq, an-kwhar-juu- baid aa'l bai'd; Juur 
fok al-bii-maa' fok an-juur good maa' goo'd. Kwhar juu dii, aa'l 
dii, en-bi-led* ^-dhe-jarth asai'd-je.. g;n-dhe-loo - rd dyy ty-mii 
as-mak-1, aeae', an-m<*<?r Mi, ef-on-e-theq bat-dAh p<?rts-es. Kwhan 
shy-saa'-dhaht shy-d-fee-rK med-ap'-ar-main - te-gjaeq wyy-ar, shy 
lzft-af - spik-'n-tee-ar. 

S^e'dhe-twAA-gjed-on' tal-dhe-kam t«-BEth-lam, an-kwhandhe- 
wan' te-BEthdam dhe-hM tun waz-en - a-stiir- abut--dbem ; an-dhe- 
sed - te-jen-onydhcr, " Ez dhat Naoo-me 1 " [jn-shyy sed-ty-dhem 
Den - a kAA-mii* Naoo-me, byt-kAA'-mi Maa-ra, far-dhe-Almekh-ti 
Has-delt'-wi-mi gai-an bet'erli. Aa' gjed-ut* fuu, an-dhe-loo-rd 
Haz-braq--mi Hem - -agjen tym ; kwhat-wai- wad-ja-kAA--mi 
Naoo-me-dhyn, syn-dhe-Loo-rd Hyz-tES'tifut egjenst--mt, an-dhe- 
Almekh'fa' Haz-bin-se'<?r-on-im f 

866 Naoo-me kam-bak-, en-Euth dhe-Moo-ebaites ar-gjyd- 
dookh*ter aloq - -wyy-r ; Har-at kam-ut--a dhe-kyntTah o-Moob* ; an- 
kwhan-dhe-kam- te-BEth-lam, et-waz-niir-baa' dhe-foor-EEn--9 
dhe-baar-le Haerst. 


Teviotdale (Palteotype). 

goodz ; gj'wee- jau taa, aef-ter ir-gad-ses-ter." En-Batb--sed, Oo, 
den-a trit on-es te-lii-v-i, or-te-goq-bak- thre-kam-in aef-ter-i, for 
kwher-ever ii gaq, aa-1 gaq, en kwheer-ii- beid, aa-1 beid ; juur 
fw'k--'l-bei macr-ftt'k, en juur good maa good. Kwbeer-ii- dei 
aa-l dei, en-bei-led- e-dbe-gru'v dhii'r eseid-i : dhe-loo - rd da-sii' 
en-meer te-mei-, ef-okwbt bat-dj'tb kam-otwin- jau-en-mei- ! " 
Kwhan-sha-saa- et-sbaa-waz-sset- on-9-gaq-in waa-r, sba-gse-ou-r 

Sii' dbe-tvra'-sam gi'd, t'1-dhe-kam- te-Baetb-lem. En kroban- 
dbe-wan- te-Baetb-lem, kwhat--bat dbe-Hjel tun waz-en-e stii-r 
ebut-dhem; en-kwg-dhee-, Ez-dhes- Naoo-mi, tbeqk-we?" En- 
sba sez-te-dbem, " Den-9 kaa mei Naoo-mi, kaa-me Maa-ro, for 
dhe-almekjb-ti Hez-di'lt--wa-me vaer-e bet-erli. Aa ga'd-ut- fau, 
en-dbe-loo-rd Hez-brokwbt--me mem tarn : Hair-wad-i kaa-me 
Naoo-mi, sen-dhe-loo-rd Hez-wat-nest 9g«'n--me, en-dbe-almekjb-ti 
Hez-gin-me see"r trab'l ? 

Si? Naoo-mi kam-Hjem-, en-Kath dbe-Moo-9beites Her-gad- 
dokwh-ter waa-r, ner-et kam-ut-9 dbe-kant-ri e-Moo-b ; en-kwban- 
dbe-kam- te-Beetb-lem, et-waz-ebut- dbe-fim'-r-send--9 dbe-baa-rli 

Buchan {Pal.). 

Eutb wyd-ne gJEq-awaa- fn'-er. Fn-shi-sed-, Luk, jjr-gwid-ses-ter 
Hys-gjen-bak- t'l-er-e&--fok, j/n-t'l-er-goo-dz, gjEq-ii- bak eft-r-er. 
Ih-Eutb--sed, De-ne sik-my ty-gJEq-9waa--fi-je, or-ty-gJEq-bak- fi- 
fola-en-JB, for faar ii gjEq, aa'l gJEq tii', yn-faar ii b9*d, aa'l beid, 
juur--fok-'l-bii- maai--fok, yn-juur Good maai Good. Faar ii dii 
aa'l dii, yn-bi-byrit dbe'e'r tii', dbe-loo-rd dii-seV ty-mii, aai, yn- 
me'e'r tii', gjin-okbt- bi/t-deth- pert juu «m-mii. Fim-sbi-saa - , et-shi- 
w^z-bent- on-gjaa-n-wii-er, dhen shi-gje-au-er spik-'n-t'l-er abuWt. 

Se'e" dhe-gje'd-on- dbegidh-er, t'1-dhe-kam ty-Betb-lem. Yn-fyn 
dhe-kam ty-Beth-lem, dbe-He'el tun wyz yn-9-stiir- abut--dbem ; yn- 
dbe-sed-, K«m-dbes--biNeoo-mi? Fn-sbi--sedtj--dhem,Den-ekaamii 
Neoo-mi, kaa-my Maa-re", far wil-a-wgit- dhe-almekb-tj m/z-delt-- 
wy-my bet-erli ynju-kb. Aa' gjed-ut- fuu, yn-dhe-loo-rd-z 
brokbt-my Hem tyyra : fuu kaa--my Neoo-mi, sen-dhe-loo-rd-z 
wat-nest 9gje'n--my jm-dhe-Almekb-tt Hj/z-bin se'-seVr- apo--my ? 

See 1 Neoo-mi kam-Hem, yn-Eutb dbe-Moo-gb las Her-gwid- 
dAA-ther wii-er, Her-yt-kam-fi-dbe-kwm-tre y-Moo-b; yn-dhe- 
kam- t'1-Betb-lem 'n-dbe-bigen-en e-dbe-baa-rli Hee'rst. 


(Continuation in Southern Counties Dialect). 
Chaptek II. 

An' Naaomie bed a freind bey hyr guid-man's seyde 8 tbe hooes, a rowthie man 
duian' weil T the wor'lt, an' eane 8 Eleimelek's kyn ; an' thay caa'd 'ym Boaz. 
An' Ruith the Moabeyte lass said tui Naaomie, " Last's gang oot ontui the hasrst- 
ryg neh, an' gaether the beids 8 cuorn ahynt dnie at aa mas fynd greaeo Y ther 
seycht." An' schui said tyll'er, " Gang (y)eir ways, ma lassie." An' ecbui gcade 
oot, an' cam an' beguid a gaotherin' Anna the bserst-ryg ahynt the scheirers, an' 
Sz hap wad hae'd, dyd-n' schui leycht on a byt 8 the feild at was Boaz's, hym at 
was eane 8 Eleimeleks ayn kyn. 

Aweil than, Boaz cam oot fraa Bajthlem, an' says tui the scheirers, " The 
Loard bey wui-ye ! " An' thay aansert bak, " The Loard blyss-(y)e ! " Than Boaz 
says tui the greive at was stan'an' ower the scheirers, " Quheae's auwcht thyg lass 
than ?" An' the greive at stuid ower the scheirers taelld 'ym, an' said, " That's 
the Moabeyte lass, at cam back wui Naaomie fras the laand 8 Moab ; an' schui 
axt-us, ' Aa baeg o'ye, last-us gaether ahynt the scheirers, amang the stooks.' Seac 
schui cam, an' hes bydden heir fras the muomin' tyl duist cenuw, at schui baid 
a wee quheyle T the hooss." Than Boaz said tui Euith, " Heir (y)e, ma lass, 
dynna gang tui gsether ynna 6nie uther feild, nor gang away frae heir avaa, but 
beyde heir cluoss aseyde maa maydens. Keip (y)eir em dnna the feild St thay're 
scheiran', an' gang ahynt-them ; haev-n' aa cbairget the laads n6 tui fasch-(y)e ; 
an' quban (y)e re drye, gang tui the cans, an' teake a drynk 8 quhateyer the laads 
tuim oot." Than schui fsell doon dnna 'er feace, an' buw'd 'ersel tui the grand, 
an' said, " Huw ys't at aa've fund greace i (y)eir seycht, for (y)e tui teake nuotice 8 
mey, syn aa'm eane 8 the fra?md." An' Boaz taelld-' er, an' said tyl-'er, "Aa've 
bein luitten kasn the heale stuorie, aa' huw (y)ee've duin tui (y)eir guid-muther syn 
the deathe 8 (y)eir ayn man, an' huw (y)e've laeft (y)eir faither an' mutber an' the 
laand 8 (y)eir byrth, an' cumdheir amang a fuok at (yje kaennd nowchts aboot afuore. 
Ma3 the Loard requeyte (y)eir dunns an' a heale rewaird bey gic'n-(y)e fras the Loard 
GSd 8 Ysrel, St (y)e've cumd tui lyppen (y)eirsel anunder 'ys wyngs ! " Than schui 
said, " Laet mey fynd fayver ynna (y)eir seycht, ma luord! for (y)e've eomfortit-us, 
an' sp6ken hsertsum wurds tui (y)eir haand-mayden, athoa aa'm noa tui bey coontit 
leyke dnie eane 8 (y)eir maydens." An' Boaz taelld'er, " At meale-teymes cum 
f6rrat, an' teake a beyte 8 the breid, an' dyp (y)eir peice 1 the vynniegar." An' 
schui sat doon aseyde the scheirers, an' hey raaxt'er bye ruostit cuorn, an' schui 
eitit 'er fyll an' geade 'er ways. An' quhan schui'd rys'n up tui gaether, Boaz 
cbairget the laads, an' said, " Last 'er gaether f&rrat amang the schtives, an' dynna 
challinge 'er. An' laat faa' a naeffti nuw an' than wullantlie for 'cr, an' dynna 
fynd faat wui'r. Seae schui gaethert on I the feild tyl neycht, an' schui thruisch 
oot qubat schui hed gaethert, an' yt meade the faeck o tweae haffuw 8 baarlic. 

An' schui lyftit it up, an' geade 'er ways ynta the toon j an' 'er guid-muther saa 
quhat schui hed gaethert, an' schui browcht oot an' gae 'er quhat schui hed laeft 
ower, aefter schui hsed aneuweh. An' 'er guid-muther axt 'er, " Quhayr hie-ye 
bein gaetheran' thc-day P an' quhayr hae-ye w'rowcht f Bly6sins onna bym St haes 

^ , .,, - , . L . i . i . ,i i ni\ r\' %m An' on nil 1 lint' 1 i >• r -i- 1 i 1 1 1 n , i » i 1 . . . . Irmn . ... I ,,..,. . , i nr/. Ht- saIibm 

hed gael 

Loard, St haes-na gie'n ower 'ys keyndness tui the leivan' an' the deid." An' 
Naaomie taelld'er, "The man's a naerr freind 8 oor ayn, eane 8 oor neist 8 kyn." 
An' Ruith said, " Hey tajlld-us tui, ' (y)ee maen beyde cluoss aseyde maa laads, tyl 
thay 've duin wui aa' maa haerst. An' Naaomie said tui Ruith, hyr guid- 
dowchter, " Yt's weill f6r-ye, ma dowchtcr, tui gang alang wui hyz maydens, St 
thay mae no meit wui-ye yn dnie uther feild." Seae sehui stak cluoss be Boazis 
maydens, an' gaethert, tyl the baarlie haerst an' the quheit haerst was beath duin. 
An' schui baid wui 'er guid-muther. 


Ckaptbr III. 

Than Nnaoniio, her guid-muther, said tyl 'er, "Ma dowohter, mton-n' aa 
soik a hoiimo for yo, St (y)oe mro dui weill P Nuw ya-n' Boaz eane 8 oor ayn 
kyn, hym St (y)e was aseyde 'vs mnydcus. Look-ye, hey's doychtnn' 'ys baai'lie 
ttic-ncyclit i the brern-fiuir. AVivseh-yersol than, an' rrod-yersol up, an' pyt on 
(y)i'ir guid oleaso, an' slyp doon tut the brain, but dynna meake-yersel ktennd tui 
tlio man, tyl hoy's duin wui eitin' an' dryukin.' An' quhan hey lyes doon, (y)ee 

mien tcako miotics 8 the pleaoe quhnyr bey lyes, an' gang yn, an' lyt't the hap off 
hyz IVU, an' lye doon ; an' (y)e'll soy St hey'll toll-(y)e quhat (y)e're tui dui." An 
Ruith says, " Ati'l dui aa'tuyng Sz (y)o ta>U-ns." 

An' sohui geado doon tui the biern, an' dyd aa Sz hyr guid-muther hed budden 
'er. Au' rafter Boaz bed oiton an' drukkon, an' yz hrort was merrie, hey geade 
an' lay doon nyowut a hot 8 ouorn ; an' sohui cam slyppan' yn vwrra caanie, an' 
lyftit the hilp off hyz feit, uu' laid 'ersel doon. Au' aboot the myddle o' the 
neycht, the man was feh-'d, for hoy turnt 'ys-sel, an' thcaio was a wumraan lyan' 
at liys tint. An' hoy says, " Quheae's that F " An' sohui says, " Yt's moy, (y)eir 
hannd-nmydon Ruith ; spreid (y)eirhupowei'(y^oirhaand-mByden,for(y)e'reana)rr 
freind." An' hoy says, •• Myssin's on (y)e fr«j tlio Loard, mS dowohter ! for ye've 
sohna'n mayr yuiioillonoss St the hyndei'-iinid Sz at the fyrst, syn (y)o hieua run 
tefter yung mam, naither puir nor rytoh. An' nuw, mS dowohter, hee noae feirs ; 
aa '1 dui for-(y)o aa' St yo want; for na' the fuok 8 oor toon k«)ns St (y)e're a 
deacout wuuunan. An'" (y)e're reyeht nneuwoh, aa ym a nam- freind ; but for aa' 
that, ther's eane a neirer n8r nicy. Wait aa' noyoht, an' wey'U soy ageane 
muorniu', yf hey'll dui a freind' s jairt bey-ye — weill an' guid: let hym dui the 
froinds pairt. But yf hey'll noa dm the freinds pairt bey-yo, than as suit' az aa'm 
loivan', aa '1 dui the freind's pnirt bey-yo ; lye styll tyll day-leyeht." 

An' sohui lay St hys feit tyll the muornin', an' sohui vayso afuoie yt wns leyoht 
aneuwoh for eiino tui k:cu anuthor. Au' hoy said, " Dynna hot wut St a wumnian 
ha>s boin i the brarn." An' hoy said foibyc that, " Bryng the vail St yo'vo on, an' 
luVd-it." An' quhan sohui lueld it, hey mrazert out syx wteyohtfii baai'lie, an' 
htvluit 'or 'on wui'd ; an' sohui geado yiita the toon. An' quhan sohui earn tui 'er 
guid-uuitlior, sohui said, " Quhcao yr (v)eo, ma dowohter F" An' schui geade ower 
aa' St Hie man said tyU'er, an' sohui said, " Hoy gu»'s thyr syx wanohtfil baai'lie tui, 
for hov said, " (,\"lo nicsnna gang away tuiiu-iuuulit tui voir guid nvuther." Than 
Nnaoiiiio says, ■' Syt styll, ma dowohter, tyll (y)o soy huw tlio uiaittei'll tend ; for 
the nian '11 noa bey St west, tyll hey bos wuu St the bodduni o'd the-day." 

Chaptkb IV. 

Thtln Boaz geado up tui the puoit, an' silt doon thoare : an' the freind, 
lit Hoa» sp.ik 6. otim bye; au' hey orvod tyll 'ym. "Haye! sye'n-a-leyke 
eiine. stiep ower tins way, an' syt doon "heir." An' hoy stwppit across an' sit 
doou. Thou hey tuik ton nucu 6 the raiders 8 the toon, au' said, '• Syt (y)ee doon 
thearo." An' thay sat doon. Than hoy says tui the freind, " Xaaomie, hyr St's 
oumd bilk frre the laand 8 Moab, 'ssrollan'a'bvt grundSt belang'd tui oor brother 
Eleimolok. An' aa thoweht aa wad lrat-ye Wii o M, an, can' on-ve tui bye 'd 
afuore the rensidwuters, an' ai'uore the telden8 oor toons-fuok. Yf vyVre gaau'-a- 
bye'd hak, dui-seae : but vf O'V* dynna icttle tui bye'd up, than tailt-mey, an' aa'll 
bye'd bak, for thev' neane tiii bve'd bilk but yuw, an' mey rofter ^y)e." An' hey 
says," Aa'llbve'd." Than says Boaz, " Butineynd. the day St (y)e live the feild off 
tho haand 8 N\iaomie. (y)e'll hre-tui-bye'd tui fro Ruith the M'oabeyte wumnian, 
the weyfe 8 hym tit's go'aue. tui keip up the neaine 8 the deid ynna the ayrskep." 
An' the neist o kyn said, •• ThtVn aa ctknna bye'd for masel', for feir aa spoyle ma 
»yn avi^kep; (y)oe'd btetter bye up ma reyeht for ivVir-scl, for aa eanna bye'd." 
Nuw.'tlw wav thav uist-tui dui i the days o aald'ynna Yzrel, anwut byein', an' 
anivmt eowpiii', for tui meake aa-thyng Wear, was thys : a man puw'd Off 'ys 
schui, an' srte'd tui hys neiber ; an' thvs was the seyne St a bargain was meade, yn 
Tirol. Seao tha neist o' kyn said tui Boaz, " Bye'd for (yjeir-stal," an' he puw'd 
off hyz sohui. 



An' Boaz said tui the selders an' tui aa' the fiiok, " (T)e're aa' wutnessis thys 
day, at aa've bowcht aa' St was Eleimelek's, an' aa' at was Cheilion's an' 
Mauwchlen's, off the haand 8 Naaomie. An' Ruith the Moabeytess tui, at^was 
Mauwchlon's weyfe, aa've bowcht tui bey maa weyfe, tui keip up the neame 1 the 
deid ower hys ayrskep, at the neame 8 hym at's geane bynna luost frae mang 'ys 
kyn, an' free the puorts 8 hys ayn toon ; (y)e 're aa' wutnesses, the-day ! " An' aa 
the fuok at was aboot the puort, an' the selders, said, " Wey're wutnessis : msethe 
Loard meake the wumman at's cumman' ynta (y)eir hooss, leyke Eseyohel an leyke 
Leaah, the tweae at byggit up the hooss 8 Yzrel ; an' mae (y)ee dui weill yn 
Eaphraatah an' bey faimus ynna Baethlem. An' mae yuwr hooss bey leyke the 
hooss 8 Phaarez at Taamar haed tui Jeuwdah, wui the bairns at the Loard gie's 
(y)e frae thys wumman." 

Seae Boaz tuik Ruith, an' schui was hys weyfe ; an' aefter thay war mairriet, 
schui turnt wui bairn, an' schui buir 'ym a sun. An' the wuimein said tui 
Naaomie; " Blyssin's tui the Loard at haesna laeft-(y)e the day, athoot eane 8 (y)eir 
ayn, at 'ys neame mae bey faimus- yn Izrael. An' hey'll meake-ye leive (y)eir 
leyfe ower agean leyke, an' hey'll teake cayr o'ye quhan (y)e're aald, for (y)eir 
guid-dowchter hes gie'n byrth tui 'm, at leykes ye seae weill, an' 'sbsetter tui-ye 
5z seiven suns." An' Naaomie tuik the bairn, an' laid it ynna hyr buosem, an' 
schui was a nurse tyl 't. An' hyr neiber wuimein gae'd a neame, an' said, 
"Ther's a sun buorn tui Naaomie; 1 an' thay caa'd hys neame Obed; an' thys 
was the faither 8 Jesse, an' the griin' faither 8 Daavyt. 

Thyr's the gendligies 8 Phaarez ; Phaarez gat Heazron, an' Heazron gat Ram, 
an' Ram gat Aminadab, an' Aminadab git Nachshon, an' Nachshon gsit Saalmon, 
an' Saalmon gat Boaz. An' Boaz gat Obed, Obed gkt Jesse, an' Jesse gat 


This air, referred to a-t p t 18, is here given, accompanied by a verse of the modern ballad. 







J — I — ' 

Sco-tia felt thine ire, O O-din! On the blood -y field of Plod-den; 

=p=*q=p:r p. 









There our fa - thers fell with honour, Round their king and country's banner. 

p ^Jggpp S ^bbfrJtfc^ 

TJ-r-hieb-us ye Tyr-ye O-din, Sons of he - roes slain at Plod-den, 





Im - i - tat-ing Border Bowmen, Aye de-fend your Bights and Common. 



A, an, 179. 

aafu", 226. 

aand, owing, 121, 217. 

Accent and quantity, 96, 97. 

Adjectives of number, 172; of quality, 

166 ; plural forme of, 57. 
Adverbs, 236. 
all, a', aw, 122. 
allerbest, alderlaat, 164. 
Alone, 228. 
als — as, 226. 
an=if, 230. 
an aa', 226. 

Anglo-saxon and Scotch vowels, 142. 
one, history of, 55, 180. 
as = than, 169. 
as = as, 226. 
at=that, 26, 194. 
av,cht= belonging, 193, 217. 
auchtand, auchten= eighth, 173. 
avaa', 226. 
away, expletive, 227. 
Auxiliary Verbs, 215. 

Barbour, language of, 34; claimed to 
write " Inglis," 42. 

Barony Forth dialect, 27. 

be, verb, conjugated; 219; in Cleve- 
land, 214. 

be and bye, 229. 

be = than, 169. 

Bellendean's Lwy, 61. 

Bible, first edition in Scotland, 66. 

bid, byd, bud, 218. 

big, 170 ; big-hoose, ibid. 

bit, 177. 

both, baith the twae, 175. 

brether, 169. 

Burr, the Northumberland, 86. 

but and ben, 229. 

bye, adverbial, 227. 

Caltraeth, battle of, 8. 
callant, 177. 
can, cuid, 216. 

Celtic border, 232. 

Celtic and Saxon names of Scottish 

kings, 14. 
Celtic words in Lowland tongue, 64. 
chamber, chabner, 123. 
Charter of 1100, 22; of 1389, 91. 
childer, 159. 

Collective nouns considered plural, 162. 
Comparison of Adjectives, 167. 
Complaynt of Scotland, 48, 64. 
Conjunctions, 230. 
Consonants, 118. 
Craft of Deying, specimen, 36. 
Cumbria, Cumberland, early extent, 6. 
cumd, eumen, 201. 
Cursor Mundi, 31. 

D and th, confused, 121. 

Danish and Non-Danish Northumbria, 

Danish invasions created Saxon Scot- 
land, 11. 

daur, daar, 217. 

Demonstratives, 179; in Cleveland 
dialect, 186. 

deuill, deil, 130. 

Dialects of lowland Scotch, 78, 237. 

Diphthongs, 113; in Middle Scotch, 

do, auxiliary, 68 ; conjugated, 219. 

dow, 217. 

drunk, drukken, 201. 

Dunbar, "William, 42, 44. 

each, 177. 

Earliest Scottish prose, 91 

Early poetical fragments, 28. 

Easter and Wester, 168. 

eat, eit, 204. 

Edinburgh ceded'to Scotland, 13. 

een-now, eenow, 227. 

either, neither, 177. 

els= already, 227. 

enough and enow, 175. 

euyl, ill, 130, 170. 




Jfor Wh, 79. 

fae=frae, 228. 

/arrant, 121. 

feck, 177. 

Forth, old frontier of Scotland, 2. 

Flemish element on East Coast, 79. 

Fordun on Scottish and Teutonic, 43. 

for aa\ 228. 

forquhy, forthy, 226. 

French words in Scotch, 58, 59. 

frae, 228. 

gaitt, goat, 161. 
-gate, adverbial, 226. 
Gawain Douglas's Eneid, 46. 
gaye, 178. 

General Rules for Quantity, 97. 
Gerund distinct from Participle, 81, 211. 
give, gie, gis, 205. 
go, gang, double stem, 210. 
great and small, 171. 
grytt, intimate, 171. 
Guttural ch, gh, in North of England, 
87, 88; in Scotland, 117. 

Hampole, language of, 37, 39. 

hanlaquhyle, 178. 

hantle, 178. 

have, hoe, 219. 

hue = us, 188. 

hynder, 168. 

J, ik, ic, ich, 188. 

Identity of Scotch with Northern 

English, 5, 29. 
ilk, 177. 
ill, 130, 170. 
Interjections, 230. 
Imperative Mood, plural of, 214. 
it, 't, 'd, 189. 

James IV. as a linguist, 45. 

Kn still pronounced, 1 22. 
Knox, language of, 66. 

Latinized words, 61. 

leap, louip, 206. 

leeze me, 130. 

len, lend, 206. 

let, lute, lutten, 200. 

lie, Kg, 206. 

Length of Scotch vowels, 97. 

Limits of Gaelic and Lowland tongues, 

Limits of Southern dialect, 84, 85. 

Lothian and Galloway "out of Scot- 
land," 2. 

Lyndesay, language of, 47. 

man, and mair, 172. 
riue, may, 217. 
make, mak, ma, 206. 
ma-n-ain, 198. 
maun, man, 217. 
me, mik, 188. 
'mhm=yes, 228. 
mo, more, 172. 
muckle and little, 170. 

Negative, forms of, 228. 

neh, now, precative, 230. 

«or=than, 169. 

Norse of Caithness, 80; in England 

and Scotland, 25. 
Northumberland, old extent of, 6. 
Numerals, 172. 

O, one, 173. 

one, dialects of, 179 ; as an affix, 198. 

other— each other, 177. 

Participle present in -and -ant, 210. 

Perfect Tense, primitive form of, 222. 

Phonetic relations of Scotch, 141. 

pibroch, 64. 

pickle, puckle, 177. 

Plural of nouns, 150 ; of adjectives in 

-s, 57 ; of verbs in -s, -es, 211. 
Poekmanty preaching, 72. 
Poetical fragments, early, 28. 
Possessive case, 163. 
Prepositions, 228. 

Present tense of Northern Verb, 211. 
Preteritive verbs, 201, 215. 
Pronouns, personal, 187; possessive, 

192; interrogative, 192; relative, 194. 
Put, 200. 

Quantity, words expressing, 177. 
Quantity of Vowels, 97. 
Quh-, sound of, 118. 
Qufiein, wheen, 178. 
Quheyl=till, 229. 

Relative at, 26, 194 ; analytical forms 

of, 196. 
Ruthwell Cross, 17, 20. 

Sioxsh, 127. 

sair, 168. 

sail, 216. 

Scotland, old limits of, 2. 

Scotch pronunciation of English, 138. 

Scotch and French «, 149. 

self, set, 198. 

send, 200. 

set, suit, suitten, 200. 

Sh for ch, 80, 85 ; for S, 126. 

since, sin, syne, 227. 

small, 171. 



so, 226. 

Spelling of Modern Scotch, 75; used 

in this work, 98. 
St. Kilda, language of, 236. 
such, 175. 

sum in threesum, etc., 174. 
take, tak, ta, 202. 
Terminations, 133. 
Th initial, 128 ; lost initially, 26. 
thae, thus, 122. 

than after Comparative Degree, 169. 
than =then, 227. 
that =so, 226. 
the day, the morn, 227. 
the gether, 227. 
the now, 227. 
f/iese and those, 183. 
Me force, iAe tother, 176. 
M^iy, as an affix, 198. 
thir, thirs, 184. 

this and <A«<, 181 ; used as plurals, 81 
thocht, thi, 230, 228. 
thon, 186. 
thras=frce, 228. 
<«7=to, 229. 
to-day, to-morrow, 227. 
together, 227. 
ta>aesw»>, ttreMKW, 174. 
Z#r A«J'«m, 18. 

Ulster, Scottish Gaelic in, 236. 
Unaccented syllables, 133. 

unco, 169. 

ms, used in the singular, 188. 

use, auxiliary, 218. 

V, elided, 130. 

Verbs, strong, 201 ; weak, 199; list of, 

203; forms of, 215; Auxiliary, 215 ; 

simple tenses, 209 ; full conjugation 

of, 220 ; Passive Voice, 225. 
Vernacular words in old Scottish laws, 

' Visible Speech,' Alphabet, 99. 
Vowels, 104. 
Vr for Wr, 130. 

Wmute initial, 131. 

wait, wat, wut, 217. 

wean, wain, 77. 

what'n, what kin. 193. 

whae's aucht, 1 93. 

.wheen, 177 

whilk, 193. 

who, wha, as Relative, 69 ; forms of, 91. 

wlisp, wlonke, 131. 

wool, 'oo', 113. 

wr- pronounced, 130. 

wull, wyll, 216. 

Wyntown, language of, 33. 

V, mute initial, 131. 
Ye and you, 189. 
yon, 186 ; yonder, 226.