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'"'iss Jprn »f C -jerr.iott 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 





1906. ' 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, In the year 186S, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern 

District ot New York. 







While living in Brazil, I was often told by my 
English and American friends, that there was no hook 
to assist them in acquiring the Portuguese language. 
I resolved to supply this want, as far as it was in my 
power to do so ; hut circumstances prevented me from 
carrying out this purpose, until I came to the United 
States. The undertaking was one of considerable 
difficulty, owing to the almost total want of books for 
reference. But I endeavored to overcome all impedi- 
ments by faithful labor and diligence, and am confi- 
dent of the correctness of the rules as well as the 
appropriateness of the examples. 

Should the present volume fill, not unworthily, a 
long-felt vacuum ; should it contribute, in however 
small a degree, toward extending the knowledge of 
the beautiful language of Camoens, the rival of Tasso, 
the warrior-poet, I should consider my labors as more 
than compensated. E. F. G. 

Cleveland, 0., May, 1863. 


« M 


Pronunciation n 

Orthography 24 




A. Predicate is a Verb. 

I, Present indicative of I. conjugation .... 27 

II. Present indicative of II. conjugation .... 29 

III. Present indicative of III. conjugation .... 30 

IV. Present indicative negatively (of all three conjugations) ; 

omission of the subject, pronoun ; unipersonal and 

impersonal verbs 31 

V. Present indicative interrogatively ; it it I, etc. . . 32 
VI. Present indicative negatively and interrogatively ; pro- 
nouns of civility 35 

VII, Imperative mood 37 

VIII. Future imperfect 38 

IX. Recapitulation; preliminary remarks on the plural of 

nouns and the agreement of adjectives ... 39 

X. Historical preterit 42 

XI. Descriptive preterit 45 

XII. Perfect ; past participle 47 

XIII. Pluperfect (compound and simple) 49 

XIV. Future perfect 51 

XV. Recapitulation of the tenses of the indicative mood . 52 

XVI. Conditional mood 54 

XVII. Present participle; th» verb ettar ; periphrastical con- 
jugation 56 


Lcuson. Pa 8«- 

XTIII. Orthographical changes of the verbal character when a 
consonant (verbs ending in car, gar, far, cer, ger, gir) ; 

cardinal numbers ; date *>8 

XIX. Euphonic changes in verbs with a vowel for character 
(cahir, saMr, troMr, verbs in ear, iar, oar, uar, oer) ; 

ordinal numbers *>2 

XX. Preterits of ser, estar, ter, haver ; impersonal verbs . 64 

B. Predicate is an Adjective (Numeral, Participle). 

XXI. Gender and number of adjectives ; agreement of the pre- 
dicative and adnominal adjective 67 

XXII. Ser and estar 71 

XXIII. Comparison of adjectives 73 

XXIV. Absolute superlative; indefinite pronouns; negatives; 

one after adjectives not expressed .... 76 

C. Predicate is a Noun (Pronoun, Infinitive). 

XXV. Plural and gender of nouns 81 

XXVI. Agreement of predicate and subject ; predicative so ; in- 
finitive as subject and predicate 85 

XXVII. Augmentatives and diminutives 88 


XXVIII. Declension ; de and a • .91 

XXIX. Article 95 

XXX. Determinative adjectives ; position of the adnominal ad- 
jective 101 

XXXI. Genitive of quality, quantity, etc. ; English compounds 105 
XXXII. Present subjunctive (formation) ; full paradigm of the 

imperative mood . 109 

XXXIII. Imperfect subjunctive 113 

XXXIV. Future subjunctive 115 

a. Object of Verbs. 
A. Object is a Noun. 

XXXV. Position of the object ; irregular verbs of I. conjugation 118 
XXXVI. Object governed by a ; factitive object ; irregular verbs 

of II. conjugation . 121 

XXXVII. Dative and genitive objects ; irregular verbs of II. conju- 
gation 125 

XXXVIII. Irregular verbs of II. conjugation continued . . 129 














Irregular verbs of II. conjugation continued . . . 132 
Irregular verbs of III. conjugation .... 136 
Passive voice ; verbs with a double past participle . 141 

B. Object is a Pronoun. 

Reflexive and reciprocal verbs and pronouns . . 145 

Declension and position of the personal conjunctive pro- 
nouns : euphonic changes in these and the governing 
verb 149 

Another form of the future and conditional tenses ; dis- 
junctive personal pronouns 154 

The indefinite subject one rendered by the reflexive pro- 
noun ; possessive and demonstrative pronouns . . 158 

C. Object is a Verb (Infinitive). 

Infinitive as subject, object, predicate ; without preposi- 
tion, governed by de and a ; accompanied by the defi- 
nite article 163 

Auxiliary verbs 167 

b. Object of Adjectives. 
Objective adjectives (with de, a, para) . . . .174 
u. Object op Noons. 

Objective nouns I' 8 


Adverbs and prepositions 183 

A. Local Adverbs. 

Local adverbs and prepositions I 87 

B. Temporal Adverbs. 

Temporal adverbs and prepositions 194 

C. Modal and Causal Adverbs. 
Modal and causal adverbs and prepositions; compari- 
son of adverbs • .197 

Paratactical conjunctions ; ellipses , ... 208 


Lesson. P«gfc 



LV. Attributive sentence (with the verb in the indicative 

mood) ; relative pronoun 212 

LVI. Attributive sentence with the verb in the subjunctive 

mood 217 


LVII. Relative sentence used substantively .... 219 

LVIII. Substantive sentence ; subjunctive mood . . . 222 

LIX. Indirect question and speech (oratio obliqua) . . 228 


1. Local and Temporal. 

LX. Local and temporal conjunctions ; subjunctive mood . 232 

2. Modal. 

LXI, Modal conjunctions 236 

3. Causal. 

LXII. Causal conjunctions ; subjunctive mood .... 240 


LXIII. Participles ; infinitive ; flexible infinitive ... 245 

LXIV. Gerund 251 

Vocabulary ggg 

Appendix ' . \ . ' . ' . 330 





Pronunciation of Names. 

A a 


ah (Ital. a, as in father} 

B b 






D d 



E e 


ai (in hair) 

F f 



G g 


. . . 

H h 



I i 



J J 


. . . 

K k 



L 1 



M m 



N n 





o (in for) 

P P 



Q q 



R r 



S s 



T t 



U u 


oo (indoor) 

V v 



X x 



Y y 



Z z 



In the names marked with an asterisk, the final e is to bo 
pronounced, but softly. 

For g soft, and j, there are no corresponding sounds in Eng- 


lish (see these letters under IV.) ; they are in the same relation 
to the English sh (Port, ch), as s is to s sharp («s, c). 

The letter k is not properly a letter of the Portuguese alpha- 
bet, being used only in words of Greek and Arabic origin ; even 
there it is avoided, its substitute being c (as halendas or calendas, 
alkali or ahali). The letter to is only found in proper nouns be- 
longing to the English or German ; it is generally called double 
ve (from the French). 

I. The Vowels. 

a long, i. e. when it has the tonic accent (whether marked or 

not), is the so-called Italian a, as in father, though not quite 

so broad. Ex. dmo, dr, fiscal, da. 
a short, when it has the accent, is almost like a in act (French 

animal). Ex. alto, bdsta, la, pdto. 
a short, when unaccentuated, is nearly like a in umbrella. Ex. 

menina, alludo, bda. 
e open (e) is = ai in hair. ~Ex. fe, /era, esta, ella, pole, 
e close (e) = ai m/ain. Ex. Mr, ver, sello, mhmo. 
e dull is pronounced almost as in belong ; at the beginning, when 

followed by s, it is almost inaudible ; at the end, its sound 

approaches the short i. Ex. estdr, espero, ferbz, liberddde, 

rude, f biles, dntes. 
i long = ee, i short = i mfit. Ex. fina, sino, rio; isto,fita, in- 

o open (6) = o in for, not. Ex. no, rosa, nota. 
o close (o) = o in note. Ex. Roma, ovo, boa, commodo. 
o dull and short, almost = oo in boot, good, principally at the 

end of words. Ex. o (Article), povo, porto, ramo, livros. 
u long = oo in poor; u short = oo in booh. Ex. rua, uva; 

bulla, tr'ibu. 
V = i- 

II. The Diphthongs. 

ae, ai (ay) sound almost like the English word eye. Ex. pae (or 
pai), toes, vai (or vae). 


ao, au = ow in cow. Ex. pausa, pdo (or pdu), mdo (or mdu), 

ei (ey) has no corresponding sound in English ; it is a compound 
of e and i. Ex. grei, lei, sei, teima. In verbal forms, and 
in the termination -eiro, the i is almost inaudible, as sei, 
hei,fallei, primeiro, verdadeiro. 

eo, eu, is a compound of e and o (dull, = u), or u. Ex. Europa, 
eu, breu, deo, viveo (or deu, viveu). eo or eu are two sylla- 
bles : chapeo, ceo or cbm. 

oe = oi in raoiX or oy in 1<m/. Ex. heroe, doe, faroes. 

oi is not oi, as in English, but oi. Ex. 6oi, /oi, dois. 

ou is a compound of 6 and m, the latter being almost inaudible. 
Ex. voit, estou, touca, louco. In a few words the u sounds 
here = i, and these are often written so, though in good 
authors the orthography ou prevails. Ex. ouro — oiro, agou- 
ro — agoiro, doudo — doido, coma — coisa, dous — dois (in the 
last three the pron. oi is most generally adopted). 

lie, ui = oo-i. Ex. azues, fui, cuidado. In mm, muito, the i is 
nasal (see III.). 

III. The Nasal Sounds. 

Their pronunciation, having no equivalent in English, can 
only be learned by hearing them pronounced. They are, at least 
in part, similar to the French nasal sounds. 

Each vowel has its corresponding nasal sound, which is indi- 
cated either by m or n following, or by the sign called til (~) 
placed over it : the til is now only used over a and o. Thus we 
have o, am, an (aa, in the terminations of some nouns subst. and 
adj., pronounced = an); em, en; im, in; o, om, on; um, un. 
These syllables have always the nasal sound, whether at the end 
of words, or when followed by a consonant. (Ex. raa or ran, 
hem, fim, bom, um; anzbl, emprego, instante, honra, funcho). 
When followed by a vowel, they lose it (comigo, amar, etc.), 
except in uma, the fern, of the def. article um, and in oema- 
venturado and similar compounds of oem, well. 

Nasal diphthongs are: ae, ai, ao; oe (aes, oes, were formerly 
written aens, oens). 


IV. The Consonants. 

B is = b in English ; its pronunciation ;= v is dialectical and 

C as in English ; with the cedilha (f) it is = as, as caga, ago: 
ch = «A in «Ae; ex. cArf, c/wwo, acAo. Before a consonant, 
and in some words derived from the Greek, it is pronounced 
= c in cal (or = Jc): Christo, chronica; parocho, Spocha, 
anarchia, chimica, chimera, Archilocho (these are by some 
authors written pdroco, epoca, anarquia, quimica, quimera, 

Q, before a, o, u, as in English ; before e, i, y, it is = j, which 
see. In order to give it the hard sound before e or i, an u 
(silent) is added : entregue, guia. 

H is always silent, except in a few words, where it has a very 
slight aspiration, as anhelar, hdlito, bahu. 

J is pronounced like the s in measure, collision (it is the same as 
in French). Ex. jota, jarro, ndjo, sujeito. 

L as in English ; Ih = li in million (the Spanish 11, or the 
French Imouille). ~Ex.jilho, malha, trabalho. 

M and 

N, when at the end of a syllable, give the preceding vowel the 
nasal sound (see III.) ; nh= ni in pinion (Spanish n, French 
gri). Ex. ninho, banhar, sonlio. 

Qu, before a and o, as in English, except in quatorze, fourteen, 
and in quo at the beginning, as quociente, quotidiano. Be- 
fore e and i it is = h; ex. quero, quilate, except in conse- 
quencia, frequente, ubiquidade, extorquir, antiquissimo, 
where the u is pronounced. 

B has the rolling sound of the Spanish or Italian letter ; it is 
very strong at the beginning of words, and when double ; 
soft at the end, or between two vowels, and before a con- 
sonant (in the latter case far more distinct than in English). 
Ex. rosa, rabo ; ferro, barra; era, ora, costureira, horta, 
parte, far fa, cur to, forma. 

S as in English, sharp at the beginning, softer at the end of 
words (though not quite so soft as in English), very soft, = 


*, between two vowels. Ex. sabHo, sizo ; rosa, base ; livros, 
nos. It is always sharp after a consonant (Ex. cansado, sub- 
sisto,fins). Before one of the soft consonants it is also soft 
(before b, d, g, 1, m, n, v). Ex. mesmo, deade, rosgo, rosnar, 
cisne. It is sharp before a hard consonant (o, f, p, q, t) ; 
ex. casca, esforco, raspar, esquecer, basta : sc as in English. 
At the end of words or syllables, when a consonant follows, 
* is very frequently pronounced almost like the j, and this, 
indeed, seems to be the genuine Portuguese pronunciation 
(even in crescer, nasci) ; it is, however, not generally adopt- 
ed, rather avoided by the majority. 

T is always like t in time ; th = t. 

X is = eh (sh English) at the beginning of words, and between 
two vowels. Ex. xarope, caixao, luxo. In compounds with 
the prefix ex, it sounds = s sharp, when followed by a con- 
sonant (expor, extremo); = z, when between two vowels 
exanie, existir, exonerar, exhortar, for h is silent). It sounds 
like x in the English fox, in the words sexo, nexo, cornplexo, 
convexo ; = s in sexto, texto, pretexto ; = ss in fiuxo, defluxao, 
trouxe (perfect tense of the verb trazer). 

Z as in English ; at the end of words it is sharper. Ex. zona, 
aza ; ferbz, voz, assdz. 

V. Mute oe Silent Letters. 

Vowels are always pronounced, except u in gue, gui, que, qui 
(see g and q under IV. Consonants) ; i and u in diphthongs, 
though hardly or not at all pronounced in some words when 
speaking rapidly (sei, fallei, baixo, caixa, fallou, poueo, see II. 
Diphthongs), are distinctly, though feebly, heard when the 
words are spoken slowly. 

Of the consonants are silent : 
b in subdito, substancia, subtil, subscrever, subscripfao. 
c before another e or p (aecao, accidents, suecesso), and before t 
, (acto, facto, tecto). 
/g before another g (sytfgerir, exafrg'erar), and in -ign (digno, 

h see under IV. 


to before n (hymno, damno, solemne). 

p before c (descripgad) and before t (eseripto, prompto, exempto). 
s at the end of words, when the following word begins with an 
r {as rosas, duzentos re is). 

These rules are neither general nor strictly adhered to, as in 
declamation there is a tendency towards pronouncing consonants 
which, in conversation, are generally silent. They refer mainly 
to words of daily use, whereas in words of less frequent occur- 
rence (such as scientific terms, words directly and recently taken 
from other languages, etc.), those rules are disregarded. Thus, 
c is sounded mfldccido, occidente, accelerar ; in compacto, actuar, 
octogesimo ; g in benigno, maligno, ignorar ; p in apto, rapto, cor- 
rupto, etc., etc. In poetry the suppression of the above letters 
is preferred, and carried to a great extent, for the sake of 

VI. Prosody and Accentuation. 

"We can only treat of the most general laws of prosody in the 
Portuguese language. Prosody teaches the distinction between 
long and short, accentuated and unaccentuated syllables. In most 
of the modern languages, the tonic accent (i. e. the accent of the 
word, the stress laid on one syllable of each word) has super- 
seded the quantity (length or brevity of syllables) ; so also in 
Portuguese : therefore we shall give the principal rules of accen- 
tuation, and, by using the terms long and short, merely indicate 
the variations peculiar to vowels, already mentioned in I. 

1. The tonic accent of a Portuguese word can not go beyond 
the antepenult (third from the end). 

2. On the last syllable are accentuated words ending in a 
diphthong, a nasal sound (except em), i, I, r, z. Exceptions : seve- 
ral verbal forms (for these see the respective Lessons), ruim, 
quasi ; arrdtel, crivel, civel, nivel, consul, and the adjectives in il 
when derived from Latin adj. ending in ilis, asfdcil, util, hdbil, 
and those ending in vel, as amdvel; accordao, benpao, orfao, 
irgao, rdbao (horse-radish, rabao, horse with a docked tail), 
»6tbZo ; aljofar, ambar, assucar, nectar, martyr; armazem, vin- 
tem, alem, aquem, and compounds like desdem, pardbim. 


3. On the antepenult are accentuated the superlatives in imo 
{celeberrimo, altissimo, optirno, mdximo), words ending in ulo 
(cumulo, vestibulo), in ico (publico, rtistico), and a great many 
others which can only he learned by practice. A knowledge of 
the Latin (and Greek) prosody will prove very useful, though 
not in all cases decisive. 

4. The remainder, by far the greatest number, have the tonic 
accent on the penult (last syllable but one), principally when the 
penult contains a diphthong (verdadeiro, repousd), or two con- 
sonants (enterro, condemno), except words belonging to Rule 2, 
as bastao, contraccdo. 

5. There are, in Portuguese, two signs called accents, the 
acute (J_) and the circumflex ( * )■ A system for the regular use 
of these accents has not, as yet, been established : therefore, 
great uncertainty prevails, some of the best authors using them 
only for grammatical reasons (in certain verbal forms, contrac- 
tions, etc.), or in order to distinguish homonyms, or in words 
accentuated on the last syllable ( pe, se, no, tafetd, jacare, etc.), 
while others make a very extensive use of accents ; and yet in 
very few books great consistency is to he found. The following 
contains only the most general observations and rules about 

a) Both accents have a double destination, first, to mark the 
tonic accent of a word, i. e. that syllable which is pronounced 
with greater force than the rest (it is never used over a diphthong 
or a vowel followed by a double consonant, as such syllables al- 
ways have the tonic accent, unless comprised under one of the 
rules above) ; in the second place, in order to indicate the nature 
of the vowel, whether it has the open sound (_|_) or the close 
sound (_1). In syllables not having the tonic accent, and in 
words which it is not customary to mark with the accent, it is 
left to the reader's knowledge of the Portuguese language, to 
give each vowel its right pronunciation (see below, b). This is 
the use of accents with regard to prosody ; but they also serve 
certain grammatical purposes: 1. They distinguish homonyms, 
when having a different accentuation (dd [he] gives, da, of the ; 
estd [he] is, stands, esta, this; coniinuo, continual, continuo, I 


continue) ; 2. they are used in certain verbal forms ; 3. they 
indicate contractions (d for aa, to the; barris for harries, for- 
merly written barriis ; ler for leer). 

b) Each vowel has a long and a short pronunciation ; this, 
however, does not affect its sound, which may be open or close, 
whether long or short. In unaccentuated syllables the vowel is 
generally close and short. In the syllable with the tonic accent 
this is different. The vowels i, u, can, according to their nature, 
have no other variation than that produced by quantity ; a, when 
short, approaches the English a in act, villa; these three, as they 
offer little or no difficulty, can have only the acute accent for the 
uses mentioned in a). But the vowels e and o require great at- 
tention, as the difference between e and e, 6 and 6, is very dis- 
tinct, and one of the greatest difficulties for a foreigner. Their 
several sounds see under I. Vowels. It is impossible to give 
rules even approaching generality ; the following remarks, how- 
ever, will be found useful : — The termination a generally indi- 
cates 6 in the preceding syllable, o indicates 6; ex. rbsa,fbra; como, 
foro; thus, in adjectives ending in oso, the masc. has 6, the fern. 
6, as generoso, generosa. Also substantives having 6 in the penult 
in the singular, change it into 6 in the plural: ovo, ovos; povo, 
povos. Before m, n, r, the pronunciation is e, 6, as leme, amino, 
Roma, Una, ver, termo, berco,forca, veador, forma (mould). In 
homonymic substantives and verbs, the former have e, 6, the lat- 
ter e, 6, as comeco, the beginning, comeco, I begin; almogo, the 
breakfast, alrnoco, I breakfast. 

c) The acute is always placed over the vowel terminating a 
monosyllabic substantive or adjective (and also in their plural), 
and in some verbs ; ex. pa, chd, pe, se, no, so, nu, cru. Also, in 
words of two or more syllables, having the tonic accent on the 
last, this being terminated by a vowel, as tafetd, pole, javali, 
filhb, peru. Over the vowel i the accent is, however, generally 
omitted (see 2). 

6. There are combinations of two vowels, in which the second 
vowel has the stronger accentuation, the first being pronounced 
so rapidly as to make it partake of the nature of a consonant (« 
and i like y in Engl, yes, o and u = w; there is no such com- 



bination with a). These are by some grammarians called diph- 
thongs, but erroneously, as, in poetry, they form one or two 
syllables, according to the wish of the poet. Thus Idcteo, Idctea, 
may be considered as having two or three syllables, glorioso as 
having three or four. Such are dgoa, legoa, tregoa (now gene- 
rally written with v instead of o), coalhar, contiguo, area, glo- 
ria, etc. 

7. Double consonants have not the effect of sharpening the 
preceding vowel, perhaps rather the contrary ; they are pro- 
nounced almost as separate letters, or rather, they are lengthened, 
as it were ; ex. hello = bel-lo, J'olles = fol-les, terra = ter-ra. 


(We leave it to the teacher to point out such peculiarities and 
distinctions as have not been mentioned in the rules and obser- 
vations above.) 

I. Vowels. 







































e dull 



o dull 






o (def. article) 


6 (verb) 

e (conj.) 












































e dull 



o dull 













































vontade s6frego 

pdlvora commode 





pae (pai) 



vae (vai) 



























(in these ou 





■ is also pro- 




nounced oi.) 













3. Nasal Sounds. 





laa (Ian) 

























































































































4. Consonants. 

C. — cara, fraco, cnrto, ceo, cifra ; caca, laco, acncena ; (ch = sK) 

acho, chamma, cheio, chifre, chorar, chugo ; (ch = h) epocha, 

parocho, christao, monarchia, chronologia. 
G.— garra, gola, agudo; gelo, gemer, coragem, gisso, frigir, affli- 

gir, vestigio, relogio; (gu = g in game) guerra, pagne, 

agougue, guincho, guia, guindaste. 
H. — habito, herva, historia, hora, humilde. 
/.— ja, jarro, Jesns, jejum, justo, JoJio, jogo, forja, esbanjar, 

aiTanjo, fuja, sujo. 
Lh. — alho, batalha, orelha, velhice, olho, pilhar, lhe, lhes. 
Nh. — -banho, brenhas, tenho, moinho, sonho, unha, manhaa. 
Qu. — quadro, quatro, quando, qual ; quero, rebenque, quem, aqui, 

quinta, quilate, riquissimo, quotidiano, quociente. 
R. — ramo, resar, risco, rosa, rumo, roubo, renda, raso ; barro, 


ferro, embirrado, jorro, burro, enterro, forro ; ar, caro, ge- 
rar, querer, furao, mira, parar, digerir ; pranto, crespo, en- 
rolar, franco, braco, tracar, crer ; farto, perna, divirto, porta, 
curva, barba, morno, orbe. 

S.— santo, servir, sino, sogro, susto; caso, oousa, odioso, uso; 
jaspe, casca, basta, asco; desde, musgo, marasmo, asno, 
cisne, desvelo; manso, dansar, penso, absoluto; nascer, 
nascimento, crescer, oresca. 

T.—tio, tia, guarantia, consentia, fatia, Santiago, tiara ; thermo- 
metro, theologo, mathematico. 

X.— (= sb) xadrez, puxar, baixo, caixa, roxo, enxofre, xarope, 
lixa, luxo, rouxinol, paixao, peixe, xerife, xiz; (= ss) de- 
fluxao, syntaxe, trouxe; (= cs) sexo, nexo, complexo, con- 
vexo ; (= z) exaltar, exame, exemplo, eximir, exhibir, exor- 
bitante, exultar, exigir, existencia, exhortar, exacerbar ; 
(= s) sexto, pretexto, texto, mixto, extenso, expedir, excepto, 
extremo, extincto, expresso, excellente, exclusivo. 

5. Silent Letters. 

B. — subdito, substantia, subtil. 

C. — facto, recto, affiicto, activo, tecto, contracto, olfacto, as- 

pecto, fructo, conducta; accao, construccao, predileccao, 

0. — signal, indignacao, assignar. 
M. — damno, condemnar, solemne, indemnisacao, somnolento, 

P. — prompto, assumpto, escripto, redemptor, exempto, optimo, 

captivo, descripcao. 

6. Accent. 

last syllable. 






















last syllable. 


























































































fugir • 
























last syllable. 
















The Portuguese orthography is, as yet, in a very unsettled 

state, the great number of letters or combinations of letters of a 

similar pronunciation facilitating frequent interchanges. 
The most common of these interchanges are : 

e and i : pae — pai ; vae— vai ; sahe, cahe — sai, cai ; 

o and u : mao — mau ; Deos — Deus ; abrio — abriu ; 

i and y : sistema — systema ; 

c {s) and « (ss) : laco — lasso ; acucar — assucar ; cancar — cansar ; 

eandcA: epoca — epocha; 

ch and x : chelim — xelim ; 

ch and qu : chimica — quimica ; monarchia — monarquia ; 

faaiph: filosofo — philosopho; fisica — physica; 

g'andj: sugeito — sujeito; gerarchia— jerarquia ; 

s and z : casa — caza ; 

simple and double consonants : falar — fallar ; exaggerar — exagerar 
(never, of course, where this would produce a different pro- 
nunciation, as would be the case with r and s) ; 

mute letters omitted : escripto — escrito ; prompfo — pronto ; 
fructo — fruto; damno — dano; sahir — sair; 

in nasal sounds: forao — foram; vaa — van, etc., etc., etc. 

There is, however, in the best authors of the present age, a 

tendency towards regulating the Portuguese orthography by ety- 
mology, which we shall also follow, and for which the student 
who is unacquainted with the Latin and Greek languages may 


consult the English orthography, as there are many thousands 
of words common to the English and Portuguese languages. 

The Division of Words. 

1. Monosyllables, diphthongs, and two consonants represent- 
ing one sound (ch, Ih, nh, ph, rh, th), can not be separated (le-nha, 

2. One consonant between two vowels belongs to the second 
vowel (e-nu-me-rar). 

3. Double consonants are always separated (fal-lo, guer-ra). 

4. The vowel u after g and q can not be separated from these 
consonants (lin-gua-gern, ft-que-mos). 

5. Any combination of two consonants must be separated, ex- 
cept where the second consonant is I or r (ac-cres-cer, pro-cla- 
mar, in-sis-tir). From this rule some exclude sp, st, dividing 
re-spi-rar, re-si-stir, de-stro. 

6. The letters c and p, when mule before t, are drawn over 
to this letter : fru-cto, es-pe-cta-cu-lo, es-cri-pto. 

7. In combinations of three consonants the first is separated 
from the two others (re-gis-trar, in-spi-rar, con-cen-trar). 

8. Prefixes retain their last consonants in every case (in-ter- 
esse, trans-mit-tir, suo-or-nar). 

Capital Letters. 

The rules for the use of capital letters are in Portuguese al- 
moot the same as in English. Proper nouns, i. e. particular 
names belonging to only one individual without regard to the 
species to which it belongs, such as Christian and family names 
or names of persons, places (countries, towns, etc.), animals (as of 
horses, dogs, cats, birds, etc.), of rivers, mountains, seas, lakes, 
woods, vessels, houses (hotels, palaces, etc.), are written with 
capital initials; also Deos, God, and the attributes of Divinity 
when used instead of Deos (as a Provideneia, o Omnipotente). 
Adjectives derived from proper nouns are not written with capital 
letters : francez, French, cesdreo, Caesarian, o portuguez, Portu- 
guese (i. e. the Portuguese language), though a substantive, is 


written with a small initial, while o Portuguez, with a capital 
initial, means an individual of the Portuguese nation ; thus o 
ingles, the English language, urn Ingles, an Englishman. Titles 
are generally written with small initials, but when abbreviated, 
always with capitals: S. M. o imperador D. Pedro II, = sua 
magestade o imp. Bom Pedro II, H. M. the emperor Don Pedro 
II. The word Dom (Sir, Lord), and the common titles Senhor 
(Sr.), Senhora (Sra.), Dona {D., B°.), when added to names of 
persons, are mostly written with capitals. 







First conjugation : infinitive, fall-ar, to speak. Present in- 
dicative : 

eu (7) fiUl-o (speak) 

tu (thou) fall-as (speakest) 

elle, ella (he, she) fall-a (speaks) 

nos (we) fall-amos (speak) 

vos (you) fall-ais 

elles, ellas (they) fall-ao (or fall-am). 

O fogo brilh-a. A hora so-a. Tu cham-as. Ella cant-a. 
Nos consider-amos. Elles escap-ao. Vos tard-ais. Carlos fall-a 
portuguez. O inimigo ameac-a. A cortica nad-a. N6s esper- 
amos. Ellas bord-ao. Ella toc-a piano. Tu tard-as. O espe- 
ctaculo cornec-a. As horas pass-ao. Os soldados avang-ao. 

The Portuguese verbs are divided into three classes called 
conjugations, according to the vowel which prevails in the ter- 


initiations of each. The characteristic vowel of the so-called 
first conjugation (the most numerous of the three) is a, that of 
the second e, that of the third i. The infinitive mood is gener- 
ally (and properly) chosen in order to indicate the conjugation 
to which a verb belongs ; its termination in the first conjugation 
is ar, in the second conjugation er, in the third conjugation ir. 
By cutting off the termination of the infinitive, we obtain the stem 
[often, but erroneously, called the root] of the verb : fall-ar, ter- 
mination ar, stem fall. 

The examples in A. exhibit the tense called present indicative 
jf the first conjugation ; its terminations are : singular, o, as, a ; 
plural, amos, ais, do (or am), which are joined to the stem of the 
verb. The tonic accent, which in the infinitive is on the last 
syllable (the termination), recedes in the present tense on the 
penult, as indicated in the paradigm. Some use the circumflex 
over the a in amos, in order to distinguish this form from the 
first person plural of the perfect ; this is unnecessary, as the lat- 
ter is most generally accentuated (pres. fallamos, perf. falld- 

In anticipation of the respective rules, let the student observe 
that the proper termination of the feminine gender in adjectives 
and pronouns is a, as in the pronoun of the third person elle, 
he, ella, she, and in the definite article o, a, the ; also, that the 
termination of the plural number of nouns, pronouns, articles, 
etc. is s, as: elle, ella, he, she; elles, ellas, they; a hora, the 
hour, as horas, the hours • o soldado, the soldier, os soldados, the 


He speaks English. She cries. The gale continues. The 
weather threatens. We doubt. You recoil. They (fern.) 
sing. She embroiders well. The vessel rolls. Thou waitest 
in vain (em mo). They (mase.) dance. We hesitate. John 
gambles. The ice bursts. This (isto) suffices. The concert be- 
gins. The waves thunder. The horse stops. The horses stop. 
AVe hope. The children play (irincar). The rivulet murmurs. 
The birds sing. Thou arrivest in time. I believe this (isto). 
They (masc.) despair. 




Second conjugation : infinitive, tem-er, to fear. Present in- 
dicative : 

eu tem-o, I fear 

tu tem-es, thoufearest, etc. 

elle tem-e 

nos tem-emos 

vos tem-eis 

elles tem-em 

Pedro aprend-e. Nos aprend-emos. Ellas aprend-em. Eu 
comprehend-o. Vos conced-eis isto. Elle vend-e farinha, vinho, 
etc. Elles vend-em tudo. O3 cavallos corr-em. A agua corr-e. 
Os ratos ro-em tudo. Vos promett-eis muito. Nos ced-emos. 
Joao escrev-e bem. Tu perguntas, e (and) eu respond-o. A 
crianca morr-e. Ellas entend-em tudo. Ella cos-e bem. Eu 
escrev-o cada dia. Elle dev-e muito. Eu trem-o. A letra 
venc-e hoje. Os irmaos de Carlos viv-em ainda. 

The characteristic vowel of the second conjugation is e (e), as 
is seen in the termination of the infinitive, er. By this vowel 
alone the present indicative of the second conjugation is distin- 
guished from the same tense of the first conjugation, the termi- 
nation of the first person singular being the same in both (first 
conjugation, o, as, a, amos, ais, ao or am; second conjugation, o, 
e8, e, emos, eis, em). The accent is the same as in the first con- 


The water boils. I understand. He writes well. She lives 
still. They sell paper, ink, pens, etc. You fear, but I hope. 
The water rises (= crescer). The day breaks. We correspond. 
She learns well. They promise everything. This (este) dog 
bites. The snow melts. You break the armistice. The banner 
waves and trembles (estremecer). He drinks only water. 



Third conjugation: infinitive, part-ir, to depart, start, etc. 
Present indicative : 

eu piirt-o, I depart, etc. 

tu part-es 

elle part-e 

nos part-imos 

vos part-is 

elles part-ein 

mensageiro part-e agora. Nos admitt-imos isto. Elles 
repart-em o dinheiro. Vos partis? Tu applaud-es! Deos re- 
mitt-e os peccados. Eu applaud-o. Nos consent-imos. A cam- 
painha tinn-e. Joao abr-e a porta. Vos possu-is um grande 
thesouro. Elles resid-em em Lisboa. As tropas resist-em com 
coragem. Vos reprim-is os abusos. Nos insist-imos. Ella 
desist-e agora. Os geographos divid-em a terra em cinco (five) 
partes. Este homem resid-e em Londres. Esta machina cOm- 
prim-e o ar. Os perigos dimimi-em com o medo. Esta casa 
remitt-e muito dinheiro para Lisboa. Estes documentos ainda 
exist-em. As moscas zun-em. O gato niia, o cao lat-e (or ladra), 
o cavallo rincha, o gallo canta, etc. 


The characteristic vowel of the third conjugation is i (as seen 
in the termination of the infinitive, ir). This conjugation has 
many forms in common with the second conjugation ; thus, in 
the present indicative, all unaccentuated terminations of partir 
are the same as those of temer; the characteristic vowel appears 
in the accentuated terminations of the first and second persons of 
the plural, imos, is. The latter is always marked with the acute, 
being a contraction of ies or iis. The third conjugation is the 
least numerous of the three. 


1 resist. "We resist. He insists. They desist. This vice 
pervades all (todas as) classes. The bees hum. I admit this. 

tESSON IV. 31 

He unites great courage with incredible strength. You illude 
the people. We own a little (pequena) house. The laws pro- 
hibit this. You possess great riches. The eyes express every 
(cada) emotion. These things exist. The vessel leaves (= sa- 
hir, to go out) to-day. We distribute the rewards. She con- 
founds these two (estas duas) circumstances. I attribute this to 
(a) various (varias) causes. He shares every thing with his (seu) 
brother. You demand much. Thou liest. 



Eu nao nego isto, = / do not deny this. Tu nao obedeces, 
= thou dost not obey. Elle nao vende a casa, = he does not sell 
the house. Nos nao queremos isto. Vos nao admittis esta razao. 
Ellas nao tocao piano. Aquelle homem nao conhece estas cousas. 
En nao escrevo hoje. Elle nao manda aqui. Antonio nao falta. 
Ella nao mora la. Tu nao conflas em Deos. Maria nao cose 
hem. Estas mocas nao bordao mal (t. e. pretty well). Meu pai 
nao falla francez. Aquellas arvores nao crescem. O juiz nao 
conhece as testemunhas. Nos nao consentimos. Tal (such a) 
livro nao existe. Eu nao receio isto. 

(Eu) nao entendo. (Nos) moramos ali. (Elles) nao ousao. 
Nao comprehendo isto. Nao conhecemos aquelle homem. 
Basta (= it is enough). Onega (= this will do). Chove (= it 
rains). Nao chove. Ji nao chove (= it rains no more). 


The negative form of assertion, in Portuguese, differs mate- 
rially from the English mode ; the auxiliary verb to do is not 
employed. The negative adverb not is nao ; it has its place be- 
tween the subject and verb. Thus : I do not write, eu nao es- 

In Portuguese, the subject of the verb, being a pronoun, may 
be omitted, the terminations of the verb and the context being 


sufficient to indicate the subject. This omission is most frequent 
in the first person singular and plural ; in the third person it is 
much less frequent, and can, of course, only take place when the 
person or object to which the pronoun (elle, ella, etc.) should re- 
late has already been mentioned ; a restriction, which, for ob- 
vious reasons, does not apply to the first and second persons. 

As there are only two genders in Portuguese, the masculine 
and feminine (see, however, Lesson XLV.), the so-called uniper- 
sonal and impersonal verbs can take no pronoun like the English 
it, as : it rains, chove, it is enough, basta. 

The omission of the pronoun does not affect the collocation 
of nao. 


I do not believe this. Thou dost not forsake the poor (os 
pobres). This does not count. We do not deny this fact. You 
do not perceive your error. They (fem.) do not sing. My (meus) 
brothers do not live here. She does not hear. This thread does 
not break. We do not fear those individuals. My sons do not 
earn much. This rain does not injure the crops. This is not 
enough. You do not work. I do not understand this rule. My 
(meu) father does not smoke. This girl does not lie. Now he 
does not suffer. The ostrich does not fly. The play does not 
begin yet. Those men do not respect the laws. This key does 
not open that door. We do not demand (exigir) all this (tudo 

(I) do not doubt. (We) do not know (conhecer) those ladies. 
(I) doubt. (I) understand. (We) know (saber) all. 



Quem? who? que? oque? what? 

Sou, I am; es, thou art; 6 {or he), he, she, it is; somos, we 
are ; sois, you are ; sao, they are. 

Quem entra la? E (it is) meu primo. Quem desce a escada? 


E a crlada. Quem me (me) chama ? Sou eu. Quern acredita 
isto? Ninguem. Quem conhece aquella senhora? Quem grita 
assim? Siio elles. Quem escreve eates artigos? Sou eu. — Que 
e isto? Que dizeis a isto? que e o homem? que e uma 
chimera? que aprende elle la? que provaisto? (= what 
does this prove f) 

Quando chega o vapor? Hoje. Quando voltas? Como 
passa o Sr. (= senhor, Mr.) Antonio? (how is Mr. A. f) Muito 
bem (very well). Como 6 isto? Quanto custa este livro ? Onde 
moraoellas? Porq ue choras? 

Tocao ellas piano ? Sim, senhor ; nao, senhora. Fallais vos 
hespanhol? Fallo (= I do). Comprehendeis agora ? Compre- 
hendo. Sois pobres ? Somos. Sao elles parentes ? Sao. 

Este senhor (gentleman) e seu (your) irmao? Nao e. Aquella 
familia e poderosa ? £. Aquelle senhor ensina inglez ? Sim, 
senhor. Teu pai sabe isto ? Nao sabe. Isto k verdade ? (is this 
true f) 


The construction of interrogative sentences is as follows : 

a) The auxiliary verb to do is never employed. 

b) The subject being an interrogative pronoun (quem f who ? 
que ? o que t what), the construction is the same as in English : 
quem entraf who enters? o que acontece? what happens? (o que 
ts much more used than the simple que). 

c) In all other cases the subject ought to follow the verb. 
But this rule is only strictly observed when the sentence has an 
interrogative pronoun, adjective, or adverb (quanto, how much, 
quando, when, como, how, onde, where, porque, why, etc.). Let 
the student analyze the respective sentences in A. In all other 
sentences, i. e. where the expected answer is either yes or no, or 
their equivalent expressed by a verb, the subject may also be 
placed before the verb, as : elle sabe latim t does he know Latin ? 
This form is also expressive of doubt or astonishment, just as in 

d) The subject being a substantive, it is generally placed be- 
fore the verb (aquelle senhor ensina inglez ?). In conversation, 



the subject, whether a pronoun (not interrogative) or a substan- 
tive, generally precedes the verb, the tone of the speaker being 
sufficient to indicate the question. 

The adverbs sim, yes, nao, no, are generally, for the sake of 
politeness, accompanied by senhor, sir, senhora, madam. Very 
frequently, instead of these adverbs, the verb of the question is 
repeated, in the same tense, and in the person and number 
required by the sense ; for instance : fallals francez ? Fallo, = 
do you speak French ? / do. Sometimes the adverb is even 
used together with the verb, as in this example, we may say 
fallo, sim, senhor, or sim, fallo. This answer is more emphatic. 
It is to be noticed that, in answering with the verb, the pronoun 
is never added (not eu fallo). 

The phrases it is I, it is you, etc., are rendered sou eu, sou 
vbs, the verb ser, to be, always agreeing with its subject in per- 
son and number. 


Who sells this paper ? Who runs there? Who writes this ? 
Who is that gentleman ? Who lives here ? Who knows these 
boys ? What is this ? What causes this movement ? What is 
wanting (to be wanting =f altar) here? What does this mean? 
When do you depart ? When does his father write ? How much 
is it? What (= how much) does this book cost? Nothing. 
How is this? Where does the sun rise (nascer)? Where does 
he set (entrar) ? Why dost thou say this? Why does the child 

Do you know that man ? Yes, sir. Do you expect some- 
body? No, madam. Does she write well ? Do your children 
(vos80s filhos) obey? Do the ladies know (saber) this? Do we 
break (infringir) the laws? Does Joseph (Jose) draw? He 
does. Do they owe much ? They do. Do you believe this ? 
Yes, sir, I do. Is the child a girl? Yes, she is. Are they 
(masc.) poor (pobres)1 No, madam, they are not. Do the 
pupils translate this author? They do. Does the boy learn s 
He does. Do you doubt ? No, sir. 



Nao comprehendes isto ? Nao acreditais esta historia? Tal 
conducta nao inspira confianca? Nao sabemos isto ? N6s nao 
dividimos os trabalhos? O Sr. A. (Mr. A.) nao e um homem 
alto ? Ella nao e bonita ? Nao sou eu vosso amigo ? Este 
livro nao e teu? Nao conheces esta letra? (letra = handwrit- 
ing). Esta fazenda nao e forte? Aquelle districto nao elege 
dous deputados? Nao sao elles parentes? Este dinheiro nao 

[Vm 08 , i. e. vossa merce, pronounced vosm'ce, is used, as a 
term of politeness, instead of tu and vos; also, o senhor, a se- 
nhora {or abbreviated o Sr., a Sra.), and V. S., i. e. vossa senho- 
ria; these terms being substantives, they require the verb in the 
third person, singular or plural, according to the number of per- 
sons addressed ; the plural of those terms is marked thus : Ym* 
V* S\] 

Como passa Ym' 1 ? (= how do you do ?) Quern 6 o senhor ? 
(= who are you f) Ym" nao e myope ? Sou, sim, senhor. V. 
S. falla bem portuguez. O senhor nao sahe hoje? Porque nao 
toma (Ym") uma cadeira ? A senhora nao conhece aquella gente ? 
Ym" nao mora com seu {your) pai ? Porque nao conipra (Vm") 
estes cavallos ? Ym" nao parte hoje ? Y. S. nao me {me) co- 
nhece? O senhor falla francez ? A senhora nao passeia hoje ? 

Sentences at the same time interrogative and negative are 
subject to the rules given in Lessons IV. and V., i. e. nao precedes 
the verb, the subject may be placed at the beginning of the sen- 
tence or after the verb, etc. 

The second person singular is seldom used in daily language, 
the second person plural never. The use of the former is limited 
to the conversation between intimate friends, and towards slaves 
and animals; it is also employed in poetical language, though 
rarely. The second person plural is used in poetry, speeches, 


prayers, in short, in what is called the elevated style. The ex- 
pression most frequently used in addressing persons (for the Eng- 
lish pronomen referential you) is vossa merce (literally your 
grace), pronounced vosm'ce, and always written abbreviated, 
Vm ci or Vm. (all similar abbreviations are written with capital 
initials). In its stead, o senhor, a senhora may be used (just as 
in French Monsieur, Madame), but never in letters. A corrup- 
tion of Vm ci , written and pronounced voce, abbreviated V., is 
very frequently used, especially amongst friends and relations, 
towards children, servants and people of inferior station- The 
Portuguese grammarians disown and condemn the word; this 
does not, however, interfere with its very extensive use in com- 
mon language. The terms vossa senhoria, literally your lordship 
( V. S., V a S a ), and vossa excellencia ( V a Exc«- , V. K), belong 
of right to the higher classes of society ; the former is, however, 
by many applied to any gentleman. — All these terms require, of 
course, the verb in the third person, and any pronoun relating 
to the same (English you, your, yours, yourself, etc.) must be of 
the third person. "When two or more persons are addressed, 
those terms receive the regular termination of the plural, s 
( Vm ci \ V as <S««, V as Exc as , os Senhores, etc.), and the verb is to 
be put in the plural. For instance: you know, tu sales, vos 
sabeis, Vm cl (o Senhor, a Senhora, V. S.) sabe, Vm^ (os Se- 
nhores, etc.) sabem ; you and your brother, Vm a (o Senhor, 
Vm eSs , os Senhores, V. S., etc.) e seu irmao. All these terms 
may also be omitted, like the personal pronouns. In the sen- 
tences in 0., the student should, if the sense allows it, translate 
you in every one of the ways indicated (by tu, vos, Vm^, o Se- 
nhor, a Senhora, V. S.), the possessive pronoun for tu being ten 
(fern, tua), for vos — vosso (fern, vossa), for the rest seu (fern, sua), 
all of which take «, when their substantive is in the plural (seus 


Do not the ladies dine here? Do not the children play? Do 
you not correspond with your father? Does he not speak 
French? Are you not our friend? Do you not understand 
this? Why do they not speak ? Why do you not write? Don't 

lesson vn. 37 

you think so? Does not Mr. A. belong to this society? Does 
not this journal accuse those deputies? Don't you smoke? Does 
she not know this? Do I not work? Are you the landlord? 
Do you desire any thing (alguma cousa)? Do you remain here? 
Are you not our guest? Do you sell drugs? You draw well. 
You are my only friend. Are you relations? Do you prefer 
this book ? Do you not hear this noise ? Am I your servant ? 




First Conj. tu fall-as, thou speakest; fdll-a, speak! 

vosfall-dis, you speak ; fall-di, speak ! 
Second Conj. tu aprend-es, thou learnest; aprend-e, learn! 

vos aprend-eis, you learn ; aprend-ei, iearn ! 
Third Conj. tupdrl-es, thou departest; pdrt-e, depart! 

dos part-is, you depart; part-i, depart! 

Applau-di! Vend-ei tudo! Corr-e! Aprend-ei! Trabal- 
hai! Cheg-ai! Fic-aaqui! Arred-a ! {stand back /) Caminh-a! 
And-a ! Atir-ai as armas ! Avanc-ai, bravos guerreiros ! Fug-i ! 
Kesist-i com coragem! Escrev-ei! Olh-a! Admir-ai tanta 
virtude ! Respeit-ai as leis ! Escolh-ei ! Komp-e aquelles lacos ! 
Implor-ai a misericordia de Deos ! Confl-ai em Deos ! Respond -■ 
ei! Esper-a! Escut-ai! Ouv-i! 


The imperative is formed by dropping the final s of the second 
person singular or plural of the present indicative, the pronun- 
ciation and accentuation remaining the same. See the paradigm 
at the beginning of this lesson. The forms for the first person 
plural, and the third person singular and plural (the latter being 
also employed when the subject is Vm cS , Vm cls , etc.), and the 
prohibitive (negative) imperative are taken from the subjunctive 
mood, and will be treated of in Lesson XXXII. Translate each 
of the following examples in the singular and in the plural. 

38 lesson vm. 


Advance, soldiers! Come down! (= descer.) Try! Burn 
everything! Go on ! (= continuar.) Stop! Run! Take this 
sword! Mount! Reflect! "Work! Distribute the arms! 
Write! Wait a little! Forgive! Kill this traitor! Desist! 
Obey! Eat and drink! Begin! Die! 



First Conj. eu fallar-ei, I shall speak. 

tu as, thou wilt speak. 

elle a, he will speak. 

nos emos, we shall speak. 

-cos eis, you will speak. 

elles do, they will speak. 

Second Conj. eu aprender-ei, I shall learn. 
Third Conj. eupartir-ei, I shall depart. 

A mala chegar-a esta tarde. Chegar-emos la amanhaa. Eu 
mandar-ei os livros em poucos dias. V6s perdoar-eis os nossos 
peccados. Vm ei chegar-a, em tempo. Quando acabar-ao Vm* 
aquelle trabalho ? Escrever-ei a meu pai. Tu soffrer-as grande 
ignominia. Elle vendera tudo. Nos estender-emos o negocio. 
Saber-eis isto em tempo. Estes campos pertencer-ao um dia a 
meus filhos (children). Eu nao consentir-ei a isso. Vos punir-eis 
os perversos. Nao desistir-emos. Os inimigos invadir-ao a 
nossa patria. Seu pai nao permittir-a isto. Ter-emos chuva. 
Ter-ei paciencia. Ella nao ter-a bastante coragem. Nao com- 
prar-ei esta casa. Nao chover-a? Isto nao bastard. Pagara 
elle ? Vm cS vera. Nao teremos bastante dinheiro. O ministro 
demittira aquelles empregados. Quando voltara V. S. ? Vol- 
tarei cedo. Nao ficarei la muito tempo (long time). Quanto 
custara esta meza ? Quem acreditara isto ? 



The future (imperfect) is formed from the infinitive, by adding 
the terminations e i, as, a, emos, eis, do, the accent of the infini- 
tive advancing to the first vowel of these terminations. The 
second and third persons singular are always marked with the 
accent. For another form of this tense see Lesson XLIV. 

I shall go on with this work. They never will finish this 
building. The musicians will play (tocar) nine pieces. You 
will know this. My children, you will soon (em breve) lose your 
father. The messenger will return to-morrow. His (sua) sister 
will go this week. You will arrange all this. The steamer will 
sail to-morrow. I shall not go out to-day. We shall pay the 
costs. He will not suffer much. I shall not fail. When will 
they come back ? He will have the place (posto). The govern- 
ment will protect this institute. They will not insist. This will 
produce great animosity. Will they learn French ? Mr. N. will 
sell that house at auction. We shall not hesitate. The troops 
will march to-morrow. Who will accompany this lady? We 
shall have few (poucos) guests to-night (= this night). When 
shall yon go ? I shall wait here. He will be rich one day. All 
this property will belong one day to this young lady. 



Eu tenho, / have ; tu tens, thou hast ; elle tern, he has ; nos 
temos, we have; vos tendes, you have; elles tern (teem), they 

Quanto custa este livro? Quanto custao este-s livro-s? 
Vm c6 e meu amigo. Vm c6 tem muito-s arnigo-s. Somos vizi- 
nho-s. Teremos novidade-s.— Conheceis nqueWahomem? Quem 
sTio aquelles homens ? Tenho ainda algum dinheiro. Perdere- 
mos algum contos de r6is. Quem tem o meu lapis? Quanto 


custao estes dous lapis ? As nossas forcas atacarao a fortaleza 
por mar e por terra. Aquelles mar-es sao mui (very) perigosos. 
Quem conhece esta flor? Aquellasj*Wr-e« sao mui bonitas, mas 
tern um cheiro desagradavel. Esta moca tem uma bella voz. As 
voz-es de mil passaros accompanhao o sol nascente. V. S. 6 mui 
cortez. Aquelles homens sao cortez-es, porem falsos. Uma vez, 
= once ; muitas vez-es, = often ; tres vezes, = three times ; esta 
vez, = this time. 

Comprarei um cavallo, um-a carruagem, est-e jardim, est-a 
casa. O senhor conhece aquell-e homem, aquell-a senbora? 
Comprai este hell-o cavallo ! Teremos uma bell-a noite. F. (= 
fulano, Mr. so-and-so, N.) e um grand-e charlatao. Os Francezes 
sao uma grand-« nacao. — Vos encontrareis muitas difficulades. 
Elle 6 teu amigo. Elles sao teus amigos. Ellas serao ricas um 
dia. Eeceiamos uma sorpreza. Esta carta nao chegani em tempo. 
Tu seras um grande homem. Os Chins sao um povo industrioso. 
O mundo 6 a obra de Deos. Meu irmao nao completara esta 
obra. Mens (my) irmaos nao alcancarao isto. Minha (my) 
irmaa tem um bom piano. Minhas irmaas bordao bem. Vos 
tendes este direito. Grandes acontecimentos sao muitas vezes 
os effeitos de pequenas causas. Os trabalhadores nao apparecem 
hoje. O vento dispersara, as nuvens. A lua 6 um planeta. Este 
piano tem boas vozes. Onde acharei um fiador? Nao tendes 
fiadores? Vm eS nao vendera estas carruagens e aquellas cadei- 
ras? Affastai aquelles homens! Fugi, mulheres! — meu ca- 
vallo ja 6 velho. A minha casa k, nova. O Sr. F. vendera a sua 
ciacara. Os nossos vizinhos venderao os sens bens em leilao. 
Vm ci nao perderd o seu posto. 


This lesson is a recapitulation of the preceding lessons. At 
the same time, it contains some new matter, which, though an- 
ticipated, is necessary in order to enable us to vary the examples 
of the following lessons, and part of which has already occurred 
in the preceding ones. 

1) In Lesson I. it has been said that the termination of the 
plural of nouns, articles, etc. is s, which is affixed to the singu- 


lar. Certain terminations of the singular cause some modifica- 
tions or exceptions to this rule, of which we give here only the 
three following (being only orthographical changes or euphonic 
necessities) : a) There are a few words ending in s, as lapis, lead- 
pencil, folles, bellows ; they do not change in the plural, b) 
Words ending in m change this letter, in the plural, into n (the 
pronunciation remaining the same, i. e. nasal), as horn-em, horn- 
em; alg-um, alg-uns ; bom, bons. c) Words ending in r or z 
take es instead of s, as mar, mar-es ; voz, voz-es. 

2) The student will already have observed, that adjectives, 
articles and other determinatives (demonstratives, possessives, 
etc.) agree with their substantives in number and gender. For 
the number of these words see 1). [The gender of substantives 
designating persons depends on the sex of these : for all others, 
see the Vocabulary at the end of this book.] The proper ter- 
mination of the feminine is a, which in the pronouns elle, este, 
esse, aquelle substitutes e (ell-a, etc., changing in these words the 
pronunciation e for e) ; in nosso, vosso and all adjectives ending 
in o it takes the place of this vowel (noss-a, bonit-a, changing the 
preceding 6 for 6, as vosso, vossa, generoso, generbsd) ; it is affixed 
to urn, algum; most of the adjectives ending otherwise exhibit 
no change in the feminine. — Cardinal numbers (except um, one, 
uma, and dous, two, duos) do not change at all. 

3) Possessive pronouns (meu, my, minha ; teu, thy, tua ; seu, 
his, her, its, their, your [when relating to Vm™, etc.], nosso, our, 
nossa ; nosso, your, vossa) are generally accompanied by the defi- 
nite article, except when their substantive expresses a degree of 
relationship: o meu cavallo, a minha casa; hut meu pai, minha 

All these rules will be treated of at length in their proper 



God is my strength. This is a favor. You know your duties 
(dever). The duties (direito) on {sobre) liquors are very high. 
Your sufferings will cease to-day. The princes of P. are descen- 
dants of B. The colors of those snakes are very brilliant. The 
travels of F. are celebrated. Their carriages are not worth much 


(to be worth = valer). Those dinners will cost much money. 
Your education will be your only inheritance. I have several 
books of great value. Your country (patria) confides in you. 
My uncles have many horses. I shall deliver the letter to your 
cousin. These bills are due (= veneer) to-day, those will be due 
to-morrow. These last words explain everything. You will not 
find many flowers now. The prices will rise (subir). Are not 
these gardens magnificent? The rain falls in torrents. You 
will not convince those people (gente, fem. sing.). Will she 
come with her daughters? We shall depart in a fortnight (= 
em quinze dias, in fifteen days). Those tribes are very ferocious. 
Will they fulfil their promise ? This will be his last undertak- 
ing. This will be your ruin. Their success is doubtful. Where 
shall we meet our friends ? When shall you send the books to 
your father ? Humble your pride ! Who has [got] my lead-pen- 
cils? Will your friends come? She will lose her fortune. 
They do not know their situation. 



First Oonj. I spohe; Second Conj. Isold; Third Conj. I opened. 

eu fall-«i vend-i abr-i 

tu fall-aste vend-este abr-iste 

elle ou eu iu 

n6s dmos emos vmos 

vos astes estes istes 

elles drao erao vrao 

Compr-ei hoje dous bellos quadros. Onde compr-aste isto ? 
Quem compr-ou aquella chacara? Compr-amos o outro dia duas 
vaccas. Com o vosso sangue compr-astes a vossa liberdade. Os 
caixeiros do (= d'o = de o) Sr. F. compr-arao o outro dia um 
barril de cerveja. As hostilidades comeearao hontem a meio 
dia. O Senhor fallou com o ministro ? O menino borrou o seu 
papel. Como passarao Vm^» a noite ? Paramos em casa do Sr. 


F. Tu quebvaste esta caixa. Niio esperei estes cavalheiros tao 
ceclo. — Aprend-i esta lingua com o Sr. N. Tu aprend-este isto 
por tua propria experiencia. Minha irmaa aprend-eu o francez 
em dous annos. Nos tres aprend-emos o mesmo officio. Aprend- 
estes pouco em tanto tempo. Minhas filhas aprend-erao o francez 
e o italiano. Os Romanos estenderiio as fronteiras do seu im- 
perio ate (as far as) o rio Euphrates. Este negociante perdeu 
muito dinheiro por sua propria culpa. Escolhi estes tres livros 
entre milhares. Corremos desde o mercado ate aqui. Perdestes 
a minha amizade para sempre. Estas casas ja (once) pertencerao 
a meus pais (parents). — Fug-i com meu filho para a Inglaterra. 
Porque nao fug-iste da (= d'a = de a) tentagao? O inimigo 
fug-iu com precipitacao. Nao fug-imos como covardes, mas 
combatemos como soldados. Fug-istes, sois desertores ! Muitos 
dos (= d'os = de os) seus escravos fug-irao (ran away). A me- 
nina cahiu da meza. As senhoras distribuirao dinheiro entre os 
pobres. Vos alludistes a certas circunstancias da minha vida. 
Nao reparti os meus bens com elles? Algumas das (= d'as = 
de as) senhoras exigirao isto. 

The historical (or narrative) perfect simply states, relates, 
denies, e*c. a fact belonging to the past. The paradigm, at the 
head of A., shows that its forms, in the three conjugations, differ 
from each other only by the characteristic vowel of each (a, e, i). 
The terminations of the third person singular of the second and 
third conjugations are also written eo, io instead of eu, iu, the pro- 
nunciation remaining the same ; for ao, in the third person plural, 
many write am. The terminations are affixed to the stem of 
the verb, the accent advancing to theirs* vowel of the termina- 
tion. The first and third persons plural are to be marked with 
the accent (as is done in the paradigm), in order to distinguish 
the former from the same person of the present tense, the latter 
from the same person of the future. [It will not be amiss to 
warn the students of two very common errors : many people say 
tufugist-es instead of fugist-e, aaAfall-emos instead of fall-dmos.] 

The preposition de, of, from, generally loses its e before a 


vowel, as d'este = de este, d'aquelle = de aquelle, d'um = de 
um ; with the definite article it is always written in one word, 
as : de o = d'o = do, de a = d'a = da, etc. (the same is often 
done with elle, ella, este, esse, aquelle, as delle, deste for d!elle, 


Hannibal ( AnnibaT) gained many victories over (sobre) the 
Romans. Nothing was wanting. "Why did you not try ? Did 
they pay the bill ? Yes, they did. The troops of the enemy 
attacked the forts, but without success. I rejected the proposals 
of our adversary. Thou savedst my life. You (second plur.) 
hoped in vain. Who perpetrated this crime ? When did you 
arrive ? What did they gain by (com) this ? My horse won. — 
My father wrote a treatise on (sobre) this subject (assumpto). I 
did not write for (por) want of news. Our grand-mother died 
this week. This happened yesterday. A detachment of soldiers 
protected the travellers. You promised this. What did I prom- 
ise ? We sold our furniture. They committed many crimes. 
You did not know my mother. I did not deserve this rebuke. — 
My cousin fell from the fourth (quarto) story and died immedi- 
ately (logo). He demanded the fulfilment of our promise. You 
infringed the laws of the country (paiz). Who opened this win- 
dow ? I did not go out this morning. We heard loud screams. 
The last storm destroyed the orchards of this village. They re- 
sisted to (ate) the last moment. Why did you not insist ? I 
heard their conversation. — Did you put out (= apagar) the light? 
He went out on horseback (a cwallo). They plotted against the 
life of our monarch. I found a key. What did you find there ? 
The companions of Mr. L. crossed the desert in two weeks. His 
partner left a great fortune. Did you buy those horses ? Who 
won the bet ? I translated the documents. Did it rain yester- 
day ? Some of the passengers died. I did not understand those 




First Oonj. I spoke ; Second Conj. Isold; Third Conj. 

(= Second Conj.) 
eu fail-dva vend-ia 

tu dvas ias 

elle ^—dva %a 

nos dvamo iamos 

vos dveis ieis 

elles dvdo (avam) iao (iarri). 

Eu era (I was), tu eras, elle era, nos eramos, v6s ereis, elles 
erao (eram). 

Meu pai fall-ava cinco idiomas. As nossas ferias comegavao 
no (= em o) primeiro (first) domingo d'este mez. Pass-ava- 
mos as noites n'uma (= em uma) miseravel choupana. Ellas 
nao esper-avao isto. Os meios falt-avao. A chnva continu-ava. 
N6s prepar-avamos a casa para a recepcao dos hospedes. Eu 
cont-ava com (on) este dinheiro. Entao cant-aveis? dangai 
agora. — Quando era menino, eu aprend-ia com muita facilidade. 
Tu tem-ias a minha vinganca. No anno passado meu cunhado 
escrev-ia de vez em quando (= from time to time). Na (= em 
a) primavera e no verao n6s vend-iamos leite, manteiga, ovos, 
frangos, etc. Vos estend-ieis os vossos favores sobre todos. 
Estes predios pertenc-iao n'aquelle (= em aquelle) tempo a 
meus pais. — Eu resist-ia com toda a (all my) forga. Nos (= em 
os) dias da tua prosperidade tu repart-ias os teus bens com os 
pobres. Elle sempre descubr-ia um ou outro erro. Nos exig- 
iamos o pagamento do nosso soldo. Quando as circunstancias 
o (it) exig-iao, vos exhib-ieis uma firmeza inabalavel. — As c6res 
da bandeira erao azul, branco e encarnado. Eramos vizinhos, e 
nas (= em as) horas vagas tocavamos ou passeiavamos juntos. 
A agua corria com uma velocidade de cinco milhas por hora 
(an hour). Eu visitava os meus amigos cada mez. Durante 
aquelle mez o Sr. F. e seu irmao residiao em Londres. Por (for) 
algum tempo nos receiavamos uma repetigao d'aquellas scenas. 


Elle sahia todos os dias {every day) a uma bora {at one o'clock'). 
Eu nao sabia isto. 


The descriptive perfect (often, but improperly, called imper- 
fect tense) has the tonic accent on the first vowel of its termi- 
nations, though the accent is never marked. In this tense the 
second conjugation does not differ from the third. 

The difference between the historical and descriptive perfects 
(or preterits) is of great importance, and of no little difficulty for 
foreigners. The two tenses admit of no compromise. While 
the historical preterit states a fact or facts which has or have 
occurred hut once, the descriptive preterit indicates a continuation 
or a repetition (or habit). For instance : eu entrei, I entered 
once, the other day, yesterday, in 1850, etc. ; but eu entrava, I 
entered often, always, seldom, during that time, etc., or I used to 
enter. The meaning of the sentence must decide which of the 
two tenses is to be employed. [For those who know Latin or 
any of its daughter-languages, this point will offer little or no 

The preposition em, in, into, before a vowel or h (but not be- 
fore nouns) is changed into n\ as n'este = em este, n'aquelle = 
em aquelle ; with the definite article it becomes one word : em o 
= n'o = no, em a = n'a = na, etc. (which some do also with 
este, aquelle, elle, writing neste, naquelle, without the apostrophe). 


At {em) that time I frequented the school of Mr. C. When 
A. held that post, he never permitted this. My father always 
dined at one o'clock. We spent {passar) our evenings at the 
house {em casa) of our grand-mother. They were cousins, and 
studied at {em) the same university. He paid the interests with 
great punctuality. At (= in the) church she always occupied 
the same place.— The place offered a beautiful view. This hap- 
pened every night. Every year, in the month of September, we 
made an excursion among the mountains of S. The little house 
shook {estremecer) with every wind. Did you know this ? The 


princes of this house always protected the commerce of our city. 
I received a small salary. — Our uncle always slept in a room of 
the second (segundo) floor. In your youth you did not follow 
the advice of your parents and friends. This city did not exist 
yet. Above all (= sobretudo) I felt the want of hooks. Every 
year we covered their graves with flowers. My circumstances 
did not permit so (tao) great expenses. — The colonel of the regi- 
ment was my enemy. The Egyptians embalmed their dead 
(mortos, defunctos). We were students, when this happened. 
Formerly (outr'ora) this country produced and exported great 
quantities of wheat. " What did you do during the summer ? " 
asked the ant. "I played and sang," answered the cricket. 
"Well (pois), now dance! " 



First Conj. fall-ado, spoken ; Second Conj. vend-ido, sold; 
Third Conj. part-ido, departed. Present perfect : 

eu tenho fallado, / have spoken 
tu tens acabado, thou hast finished 
elle tem vencido, he has conquered 
nos temos tido, we have had 
vos tendes sido, you have been 
elles tern cahido, they have fallen 

Vm cS tem trabalhado muito. Temos contractado o forne- 
cimento dos viveres para o exercito. V6s tendes experimentado 
a nossa clemencia. Para (to) este fim elles tem espalhado aquelle 
boato. Tenho acabado (done) com isto. Tenho almogado (= / 
have done breakfasting, I shall eat no more). — V6s tendes perdido 
grossas sommas. Tenho percorrido todas as ruas. Elle tem 
perdido muito da sua forca. Temos sido muito infelizes. Elles 
tem tido todas as vantagens d'uma boa educacao. — A rebelliao 
tem succumbido. Quantos reinos tem cahido e desapparecido ! 
Todos tem ido para fora (out of town, into the country). Temos 


conseguido o que (what) desejavamos. — Reflect! ! Tenho reflec- 
tido. Temos respeitado os direitos de todos, temos economizado 
uma grande somma de dinheiro, temos supprimido muitos abusos, 
e por isso (therefore) temos mereeido a vossa approvacao. Tenho 
concluido aquelle negocio. Tendes mereeido a nossa gratidao. 


The present perfect indicates a past action or state with refer- 
ence to the present. In Portuguese, the use of this tense is very 
limited (principally in conversation) ; it is generally employed in 
order to indicate a conclusion, a completion, as in the following 
phrases: tenho jantado, I have dined, i. e. I.shall eat no more, I 
have done dining ; a este respeito temos covmersado, it is no use 
talking any more about that, eto. 

This tense is formed, as in English, by the auxiliary verb ter, 
to have, and the past participle. The terminations of the latter 
are ado in the first conjugation, ido in the second and third con- 
jugations, accentuated on the penult. With the auxiliary ver'r 
ter (or homer) it is invariable. 

I have endured your extravagances long enough (= oastante 
tempo). We have found little assistance. This gale has caused 
great damage (plur.). Many sorrows have blanched this hair. 
You have studied the laws of your country with great (muito) 
zeal. I have done (acabar) with this. I have met this gentle- 
man very often (= muitas vezes). The defendant has confessed 
every thing. They have sent money every day of' this week.— 
"We have received a large assortment of goods. I have answered. 
The waters have decreased since yesterday. He has had many 
friends. We have read your book with great pleasure. Many 
years have elapsed since that event. This lad has grown much 
since last year (1. y., = o anno passado). You have not deserved 
this favor. The month of July has been disastrous for (para) 
our navy.— I have followed your example. You have contributed 
much to this state of things. We have attained the object of 
our wishes. The enemy has united all his forces on (em) the 

lesson xm. 49 

left bank of the river. — The government has given orders for the 
reconstruction of that bridge. We have been friends since our 
childhood. 1 have not obtained the license. Three centuries 
have passed since that remarkable event. Your conduct has 
been the object of severe criticism. You have suffered much. 
I have had this honor. " I have been thy emperor ! " 



Eu tinha, / had; tu tinhas, elle tinha, n6s tinhamos, v6s 
tinheis, elles tinhao. Preterit perfect : 

eu tinha fallado, / had spoken ; eu tinha tido, / had had. 

(Another form?) 

First Conj. 
eu fall-ara 
tu fall-aras 

elle ara 

n6s aramos 

v6s areis 

Second Conj. 




Third Conj. 




elles arao (aram) 

Eu tinha acabado as minhas tarefas, quando tu entraste. Tu 
tinhas apenas chegado, quando eu voltei. A criada ja tinha 
fechado as portas. Tinhamos alugado dous cavallos e duas mulas. 
Vos tinheis recebido a vossa recompensa. Os hospedes ja tinhao 
partido. Ellas tinhao voltado muito antes (long before). O fogo 
ja tinha consumido quasi a metade do edificio. O Senhor ja 
tinha lido o livro ? A viuva tinha ganhado o sorte grande. Nos 
tinhamos chegado um momento antes. 

Ja antes d'aquelle acontecimento eu fallara com o ministro 
da fazenda. O advogado contestdra a competencia do tribunal. 
O coronel F. resignara, mas o ministro da guerra nao aceitou a 
sua resignacao. N6s desejaramos outro (another) desfecho.— O 
Sr. M. recebera muito dinheiro para este fim. A propriedade 
revertera a meu pai. O soldado desapparecera d'uma maneira 

50 lessoit xni. 

mysteriosa.— vapor partira no dia 20 de Maio. Eu exigira isto 
dos meus companheiros. Reuniramos todos os nossos amigos e 


The preterit perfect (commonly called pluperfect) has a simple 
and a compound form. The latter {eu tinhafallado, I had spoken, 
etc.) is analogous in form to the same tense in English, and re- 
quires no explanation. The simple form is shown in the para- 
digm at the head of A ; it is generally marked throughout with 
the accent. Both forms have the same signification ; as to their 
use, that of the compound form is hy far the more frequent, 
whereas the simple form is considered as more elegant (it is, 
therefore, oftener met with in book-language than in conversa- 
tion). Of the latter, the singular is chiefly used; the third per- 
son plural is even avoided, as it may cause ambiguity, being 
equal to the same person of the historical perfect. Another use 
of this form will be shown in Lesson XVI. 

Every verb in the following exercise should be translated 
both ways, except the verbs marked with an asterisk as being 
irregular, which are to he translated in the compound form. 


When we arrived, they had already taken possession of the 
house. I had fallen sick (=r edhir doente, adoecer). She had 
lived until then in a little town of this province. The earthquake 
had thrown down (derrubar) many houses. The enemy had cut 
off (eortar) all (toda a) communication with the capital. He had 
gone* to (para) Portugal. Some of our companions had been* 
prisoners of war. Two of these houses had belonged to my 
mother-in-law. These circumstances had contributed much to 
(para) the good success of his enterprise. Death (a morte) had 
spared the innocent child. My grand-father had completed his 
eightieth (octogesimo) year. The baggage had remained behind. 
The news of his death had produced a profound sensation. The 
play had already begun. We had reached the end of our long 
journey. The packet had not yet (ainda nao) sailed. The boy 


had delivered the parcel to a servant of Mr. B. You had already 
started. I had bought a horse and a cart. 




Eu terei fallado, I shall have spoken, tu teras fallado, thou 
wilt have spoken, elle tera fallado, he will have spoken, etc. 

Terei trabalhado em vao. A estas horas (at this time) v6s 
tereis recebido a minha ultima carta. Amanhaa os carpinteiros 
teriio apromptado o grande portao. Tu teras quebrado alguma 
cousa. Amanhaa a estas horas teremos passado o equador. No 
mez de Novembro elles terao concluido aquelles trabalhos. Teras 
merecido este castigo. Muitos d'elles terao fugido. Elle tera 
roubado este relogio. Elle tera perdido no jogo. 


The future perfect is formed in the same manner as in Eng- 
lish, i. e. by the future of the auxiliary verb ter, to have, and 
the past participle of the principal verb, thus: I shall have 
spoken, eu terei fallado. The signification and use of this tense 
are in both languages the same. 

They will have perceived their mistake. "We shall have over- 
taken our companions in six (seis) hours. Our friends will have 
remained in (na~) town. Some accident will have happened. 
To-morrow I shall have conquered all these difficulties. You 
will have worked for nothing. They will have arrived there 
yesterday. At the end of this year we shall have paid all our 
debts. The concert will have finished late. This will have 
frightened the horses. She will not have waited until now. 
Shall we have fought in vain? You will have set (dar) the 
example. They will have applied (recorrer) to the governor of 
this province. 



Este of&ci-al tern sido prisioneiro durante seis annos. Tres 
dos nossos offici-aes cahirao mortos. O meu cachorro e urn 
anim-al muito sagaz. O oao, o gato, a gallinha, o boi, etc. sao 
anim-aes domesticos. O Sr. F. tinha sido coron-eZ do nosso 
regimento. Hontem o ministro demittiu dous coron-eis. Este 
phar-oZ tern uma altura de oitenta (80) pes. O vento de hontem 
derrubou dous phar-oes pequenos. Minha irmaa trazia um fita 
az-ul nos cabellos. As racas do norte da Europa tern olhos az- 
ues. Comprei hoje um b&rr-il de assucar. Chegarao hoje cem 
(100) barr-is de polvora. — Eu communicara este incidente ao (= 
a o, to the) Jornal do Commercio. Mandarei uma copia d'esta 
carta aos (= a os, to the) jornaes da c&rte. Os antigos preferiao 
a morte d (= a a, to the) escravidao. Preferimos isto as (= a 
as, (o the) propostas do Sr. M. Tudo tinha flcado no mesmo 
estado. Ninguem esperava isto. Kecebiamos jornaes, tinhamos 
uma pequena bibliotheca de livros instructivos, instrumentos 
musicaes, emfim, nada faltava para o nosso entretenimento. A 
mentira triumphou sobre a verdade. Este anzol nao presta (is 
good for nothing). Quantos anzoes tem Vm cS ? Ambos erao 
coroneis na guarda nacional. Meu pai prohibira a mencao 
d'aquelle individuo. O governo concedera estes privilegios s6 d 
cidade de B. Jantaremos as duas horas (at 2 o'clock). Elles 
terao participado isto ao presidente. Os antagonistas erao iguaes 
em forga. Mentiste ! Nao menti. O navio bateu n'um banco 
de coraes. Limpou aquelles costicaes? Quando escrevereis 
outra vez (again) ? Escrevi hoje. Temos dado provas da nossa 
boa vontade. Irei a Pariz no mez proximo (next month). 


This Lesson recapitulates the tenses of the indicative mood. 
Let the student make a paradigm of them all with the verbs 
esperar, to hope or to wait, comer, to eat, resistir, to resist, simi- 
lar to the paradigm of the future imperfect, Lesson VIII. 


Substantives (or adjectives") ending in al, ol, ul make theii 
plural in aes, oes, ues ; those ending in el change it into eis, those 
in il make is (see Lesson XXL). 

The preposition a, to, at, always becomes one word with the 
definite article and with aquelle, thus : a o = ao, a os = aos ; a 
a = a, a as = as ; a aquelle = aquelle, a aquella = dquella. 
The accent on a, as, dqmlle is always written, in order to indi- 
cate the contraction which took place. 


A net of canals facilitates our commerce. The officers of our 
battalion demanded a court-martial. The combats of gladiators 
and of wild beasts were the principal entertainment of the Ro- 
mans during the empire. The fire had seized (atacar) the bar- 
racks of the first regiment. Rockets and bonfires will be the 
signals of our success. These brushes (pinceT) are not good. 
He had stolen a watch and two rings. I had many rivals. This 
pair of sheets costs four (quatro) mil reis. [A real, plur. reis, is 
an imaginary coin worth about ^^d. ; mil reis, 1000 reis (writ- 
ten 1$000 rs.) is about 5s. T£d. ; this is Portuguese currency, 
called moeda forte ; in Brazil, the real is worth about half as 
much, therefore Brazil money is called moeda fraca ; 2$000 rs., 
in Brazil, are in the southern provinces called um patacao ; this 
is the Spanish piaster, worth a little more than a dollar.] We 
have three nightingales in our garden. — At 3 o'clock he died. I 
shall write to the president. They attributed their misfortune 
to the indiscretion of some of their friends. Mr. L. left all his 
fortune to the hospitals of this town. I had noticed this circum- 
stance. They had crossed the river at {em) two different places. 
Many suspected the honesty of the new administrator. How 
much did they offer? Will they accept our proposals? Our 
firm had suffered great losses. Some of the newspapers deny 
this. I sold my horses to two officers of your regiment. We 
arrived at the same time. She will not betray our secret. You 
have promised your assistance. He will not have escaped. He 
will have run away. She explained the matter to the poor 




First. Second. Third. 

eu fallar-ia, vender-ia, partir-ia, 

J should speak, I should sell, I should depart, 

tu fallar-ias, vender-ias, partir-ias, 

thou wouldst speak, thou wouldst sell, thou wouldst depart. 

(All three conjugated like the descriptive preterit of the sec- 
ond or third conjugation.) 

Sem esta interrupgao eu agora fallar-ia inglez. Tu ser-ias 
infeliz. Ser-ia verdade? (6 verdade = it is true). O governo 
recompensar-ia taes servicos com generosa liberalidade. Em tal 
caso n6s partir-iamos as 2 horas da tarde. V6s ter-ieis esta 
audacia? Sem isto (put for this) ellas estar-iao ainda em Pariz. 
V. S. ser-ia incapaz de semelhante baixeza. Meus pais nunca 
consentir-iao. N'este caso vos ter-ieis a approvacao de todos os 
cidadaos. Em pouco tempo ter-iamos uma revolucao. Eu sen- 
tir-ia muito (= be very sorry for) a perda d'este escravo. Sem 
o vosso auxilio os meus filhos soffrer-iao os horrores da fome. 
Ninguem dar-ia credito a semelhante accusacao. No tempo da 
inquisicao Vm c6 nao escapar-ia a fogueira. 

(Conditional preterit : eu ter-ia fallado, / should have spoken.) 
Eu teria pagado esta divida sem demora. Muitos teriao pro- 
cedido d'outra maneira. Com um pouco de paciencia Vm c8 teria 
vencido este obstaculo. Ella teria consentido, mas seu pai nao 
attendeu as minhas supplicas. A morte d'este homem teria sido 
uma calamidade publica. Semelhante (such a) medida teria cau- 
sado immensa dissatisfapao. N6s nao teriamos rejeitado essa 
condigao. Muitos outros teriao succumbido a tantas fadigas. 
V6s terieis abandonado o vosso bemfeitor ? Poucos teriao atu- 
rado tammanha insolencia. O que ganhdra (= ganharia) Vm°" 
oom isto ? Eu desejdra (= desejaria) a vossa assistencia. 



The conditional present and future is derived from the future 
imperfect, by changing the terminations of the latter into ia, 
ias, etc. (these are also the terminations of the descriptive pre- 
terit of the second and third conjugations). The conditional 
preterit is a compound tense, formed, as in English, by the con- 
ditional of the auxiliary verb ter, to have, and the past participle 
of the principal verb. The terminations dra, era, xra (of the 
preterit perfect) are sometimes used instead of aria, eria, iria, 
principally in certain standing phrases (as eu desejdra, tomdra, 
quizera [from querer], I should wish), in elegant language and 
in poetry. In conversation, the forms of the descriptive preterit 
are very commonly used, as escrevia for escrewria. 


You would not understand a single word. I should drive 
such an individual from my house. He would not believe this. 
Without this delay we should arrive at 10 o'clock. I should not 
brook the interference of those people. They would reject your 
offers. You would commit a great mistake. The narrative of 
this journey would fill a book. This would be sufficient. This 
would prove his guilt. In this way you would avoid a collision. 
Your interference would spoil (perder) all. What (qual) would 
be the result of this proceeding ? What (quanto) would they 
not give for (por) this document ! 

I should have preferred cash to all these promises. You 
would have lost your credit. She would have gone mad (to go 
mad = enlouquecer). We all should have died with (de) hunger. 
They would have departed last week (a semana passada) ; but 
the consul had not signed their passports. But for this they 
would have lost the battle. 




fall-ando, speaking ; vend-endo, selling ; part-indo, departing. 
Estar, to be; pres. ind. estou, estas, esta, estamos, estais, estao. 

Estou escrevendo (=: I am writing). Quem esta chamando? 
Sou eu. Ella estava chorando quando eu entrei. Estava cho- 
vendo, quando sahimos. Estii chovendo muito. Esta casa esta 
cahindo (= is ready to fall). Tenho estado trabalhando toda a 
manhaa. O menino esta cahindo de sono. Estava escureoendo. 
O que estao elles fazendo ? Estao estudando. Porque estas 
chorando 1 Que esta Vm e = dizendo ? As criancas estao dor- 
mindo. A agua esta fervendo. Por duas horas seguidas (run- 
ning) estou fallando sobre a mesma cousa. Minha mai estava 
escrevendo a irmaa do Sr. F. O que esta Vm cS lendo ? Esta- 
vamos jantando, quando elles chegarao. Os criados estavao 
esperando a porta. V. S. esta gracejando. que estao Vm* 
aprendendo ? Estamos aprendendo o desenho. 

Onde esta o Sr. Antonio agora ? Esta viajando na Europa. 
Onde estas? Estou aqui. O almogo esta na meza. Isto nao 
esta em minhas maos (= in my power). Meu primo esta no Rio 
de Janeiro. Nos nao estavamos em casa, quando isto aconteceu. 
VnT» nao sabe aonde botei o meu canivete ? Esta na gaveta. 
Eu estava entao nos Estados Unidos. Eu tinha botado os jornaes 
emcima d'esta (on, upon this) meza, agora ja nao (no more) 
estao la. 


The original form of the present participle (as derived from 
the Latin part, in -ans, -em, -iens, Portuguese -ante, -ente, -inte) 
is nearly lost. There are still some thirty or forty words with 
these terminations, which are now either substantives (instante, 
instant, lente, lecturer, professor, ouvinte, hearer) or adjectives 
(degradante, degrading, seguinte, following), some even preposi- 
tions (durante, during, mediante, by means of). It now partakes 


t>{ the terminations of the gerund (as is also the case in English), 
which are -ando, -endo, -indo. 

The periphrastical conjugation, formed by the present parti- 
ciple and the auxiliary verb to be, indicating duration (7 was 
writing, it was raining), is the same in Portuguese, to be being 
rendered by estar, not ser. We beg leave to direct the attention 
of the student to the various uses of the verb estar, as it is one 
of the principal points of difference between the Portuguese and 
English languages, and offers considerable difficulty to the 
learner. The primitive meaning of estar is to be in a local sense, 
as to be, stand, lie (in, on, with, without, below, etc.), as is shown 
by the examples in the second part of A. Hence its use for ex- 
pressing a passing state or condition. Further on we shall see 
the verb estar in connection with the adjective and past parti- 

Is it raining ? What are the boys doing ? They are playing 
(brincar) in the garden. Who is playing piano ? It is my sis- 
ter. You are getting (ficar) very lazy. It is getting late. At 
three o'clock he was still writing. I was conversing with some 
of my friends. We are calculating our losses. At four o'clock 
in (de) the afternoon the water was still rising (crescer). We are 
expecting some guests. I was trying the strength of the ma- 
chine. They will be dining now. The soldiers were preparing 
their breakfast. The missionary was explaining some passages 
of the Bible. Some of the girls were sewing, others reading, 
others drawing. I was sleeping when you came back. They 
are waiting for (por) you. Are you dreaming ? The steeple of 
our church was already burning (arder). 

Where is your son ? He is in Lisbon. Some trees stood in 
the centre of the square. At (em) that time I was in Berlin 
(Berlim). Some books lay on (emcima de) the table. They were 
at (= in the) church when we arrived. The children were at 
(= in the) school. 



Os debates sobre a nova tarifa comefdrao hontem. Oomecei 
esta obra no dia 2 de Marco do anno passado. Elles pagdrao 
parte d'esta quantia em letras. Ja paguei esta conta. Os outros 
ficdrao em Pariz. Eu fiquei em casa. Arranjdmos aquelle ne- 
gocio ao contentamento de todos. Arrangei tudo conforme os 
vossos desejos. Alguns dos meus conhecidos e amigos favor eciao 
o outro partido. Eu nao favorepo semelhantes projectos. Estas 
leis nao protegem os nossos direitos. Nao protejo vagabundos. 
Elles fugirao. Eu fvjo da sooiedade d'aquelles homens. A se- 
nhora danfou? Dancei. O tempo esta ameafando. Ameacei 
os nossos adversarios com outro processo. Entregou aquelles 
cartas ao Sr. L. ? Entreguei. Vos esmagastes a revolta. Es- 
maguei o meu chap6o. Apagaste as velas? Apaguei. Elle 
replicou em termos asperos. Nao repliquei a isto. As duas me- 
ninas arrancdrao todas as flores. Arranquei ao ladrao a bolsa 
que (which) elle jii tinha segurado. Elles nao me (me) conhecem. 
Nao conhepo este homem. Este negocio exige grande cautela. 
Nao exijo isto. 

Vendemos hontem urn cavallo, e hoje dous. Duas vezes 
dous fazem quatro. Tinhamos quinze (15) cavallos, ninte e duas 
(22) mulas, cincoenta e dous (52) bois, cem (100) vaccas, duzentos 
e trinta e cinco (235) carneiros, etc. Cento e guarenta (140) 
prisioneiros chegarao hoje. Estamos no anno mil oitocentos e 
amenta e um (1861). Milhares de individuos estao morrendo de 
fome. AqujJle ministerio gastou centenares de contos de reis 
para o exereito. Aquelle territorio tem um areal de quasi duas 
mil (2000) leguas quadradas. O anno bissexto tem trezentos (e) 
sessenta e seis dias. O anno tem doze mezes, que sao : Janeiro, 
Fevereiro, Margo, Abril, Maio, Junbo, Julho, Agosto, Setembro, 
Outubro, Novembro, Dezembro. [The names of the months may 
also be written with small initials.] Estamos hoje em vinte e 
note (29) de Julho. O meu dia natalicio (or dia de annos, birth- 
day) cahe no primeiro (first) de Marco. Aos (or a) 25 de Abril 

lesson xvm. 59 

cheguei em Londres. dia dezeseis (16) do mez passado foi 
(was) urn dia fatal para esta cidade. A criada comprou libra e 
meia de cha perola. Quanto custa o cento de ostras ? a duzia de 
ovos? Uma arroba tern trinta e duas (32) libras. Tenho so 
trinta e uma libra. 


The character of a verb (or any other flexible word) is the 
last letter of the root or stem, the letter which immediately pre- 
cedes the terminations. It may be either a consonant or a vowel. 
Of the vowels as characters we shall speak in the following Les- 
son. Of the consonants only two require particular notice, c and 
g. The pronunciation of both varies according to the vowel that 
follows (let it be remembered, that, in Portuguese, all verbal 
terminations begin with a vowel) : before a, o, u they are palatal 
(or hard), before e, i, y they are sibilant (or soft). In regular 
verbs, the whole stem must remain unaltered, its orthography 
only being changed when the preservation of the pronunciation 
of the stem requires it. In Jicar, pagar, the characters c and g 
are palatal (hard), and must remain so throughout the whole 
conjugation; and as, for instance, in the historical perfect, ficei, 
pagei would suggest a different pronunciation (e = ss, g = j), 
they are written fiquei, paguei, the qu and gu (before e, i) being 
only orthographical equivalents for c and g palatal. In comegar 
the character is c sibilant (= ss); this accounts for the cedilha 
before terminations beginning with a or o ; in comecei the cedilha 
is superfluous. In favorecer, proteger, fugir the characters c and 
g are soft ; therefore, before a and o, they become g and. j, as 
favorepo, protejo, fujo. This gives the following rules : 

1) verbs ending in -car, -gar change their c and g into qu 
and gu before e (i does not occur as first vowel in any termina- 
tion of the first conj.) ; 

2) verbs ending in -gar drop the cedilha before e ; 

3) verbs ending in -cer take the cedilha before a and o ; 

4) verbs' ending in -ger, -gir change their g into j before a 
and o. 

Arranjar changes j into g before e (the g being radical, as 
the word is derived from the French arranger, from rang) ; so 


also viajar; the other verbs in -jar retain their j. In analogy 
with the ahove rules, the few verbs in -guer, -guir ought to drop 
the u before a and o as useless : this is, however, not usual ex- 
cept in seguir, to follow, and its compounds. 

The cardinal numbers (see the list in the Appendix, page 334) 
are invariable, except um, one, fem. uma (the plur. um, umas 
signifies some, a few), dous (dots), two, fem. duos, and the hun- 
dreds, duzentos, -as, trezentos, -as, etc. Cem, 100, becomes cento 
when another numeral follows ; mil being an adjective like the 
other numerals, we must say duos mil leguas, not dous m. I. 
In compound numbers, the conjunction e, and, should stand be- 
tween the hundreds and tens, and between the tens and units ; 
but generally it is used only between the tens and units : tre- 
zentos e sessenta e seis (366) or trezentos sessenta e seis. — Numeral 
substantives are: unidade, dezena, centena, milhar, dezena de 
milhares, etc. (in arithmetic, units, tens, etc.) ; um cento, a hun- 
dred, um milheiro, a thousand (as of eggs, bricks, and the like), 
uma duzia, a dozen; centenares, hundreds, milhares, thousands 
(ininis sense only used in the plural, = some hundreds or thou- 
sands, a great many, etc.) ; um conto, one million, but only to- 
gether with reis (written 1:000$000 rs.). Meio, meia, half, 
admits no article. It is remarkable that, when a compound 
number ends with um, the following substantive is generally in 
the singular, as trinta e uma libra, cento e um tiro (or tiros); in 
all other cases the substantive is put in the plural, as two pair 
of shoes, dous pares de sapatos. — The date is expressed by car- 
dinal numbers, except the first day of a month (o primeiro de 
Marco, o dous de AbriV), which are always followed by the pre- 
position de, of. On the 10th of January 1861 is to be translated 
aos (a, em, no did) dez de Janeiro de 1861. After anno, year, the 
preposition de is also employed : o anno de 1861, no anno de 1861 
(or em 1861). — Time, as measured by hours, is expressed thus: 
what time (o'clock) is it? que horas sao? e uma hora, e hora e 
meia (half-past one), sao duas horas {horas may be omitted), sao 
tres e meia (half-past three), cinco e um quarto (a quarter past 
five), falta um quarto para as nove (a quarter to nine) ; twelve 
o'clock is expressed by meio dia, noon, meia noite, midnight ; half- 


past twelve = meia hora, a quarter past twelve = um quarto 
depois de (after, past) meio dia or meia noite; at two o'clock = 
As duas horas. — The best way of learning the cardinal numbers 
would be to make all kinds of accounts in Portuguese. — See Ap- 
pendix, page 334. 


Did he pay that bill ? Yes, he did. I paid all. I communi- 
cated these facts to several persons of my acquaintance {pessoai 
conhecidas). When will you commence ? I commenced the day 
before yesterday. They deserve all praise (plur.) for their con- 
duct. I do not deserve this treatment. Who arranged this ? 1 
engaged a cook and arranged everything for that occasion. God 
will protect His holy religion against its enemies. I do not pro- 
tect your enemies. She demanded the payment of the rent for 
the last seven months. I demand this as a proof of your faith- 
fulness. Who put out this lamp ? I put out all the lights in the 
house, except a little lamp in the passage. The two cabinets ex- 
changed several notes on this subject (asmmpto). I changed the 
piece {moeda). They are intriguing against their own interest. 
I never intrigued against you. 

Five of my companions died during the voyage. I have two 
sisters and three brothers. Last night (a noite passada) I played 
with Mr. R. and lost ten guineas. Our battalion had lost 126 
men (soldados) and 4 officers. A day has 24 hours, an hour has 
60 minutes. In the last battle the enemy lost 2788 men between 
killed and wounded, besides {alem de) 3759 prisoners. The let- 
ter bore the date of (the) 13th of May, 1854. The first French 
revolution (transl. revol. French) broke out in 1789. My grand- 
father died in 1831, at the age of 92 years, 11 months, and 16 
days. I arrived on the 9th instant {aVeste mez, do mez corrente). 
The birthday of the emperor falls on the 2d of December. I re- 
ceived your letter on the 20th last {do mez passado). This hap- 
pened at 8 o'clock in {de) the morning. At half-past ten all 
were asleep. I embarked at 12 o'clock. The fire broke out at 
a quarter past nine. It was a quarter to eleven when we finished. 
The concert will begin at 8 o'clock precisely {preckas). 



A criada esta penteando a sua senhora. Ella nunca penteia 
as criancas a horas proprias (at the proper time). A nossa divisao 
flanqueou a ala esquerda do inimigo. Duas torres flanqueiao a 
muralha. O Sr. seu (your) filho grangeou a estima de todos. 
Assim Vm 1 * grangeia o amor do povo. S. M. o imperador me 
nomeou camareiro m6r. Quern nomeia estes empregados, o go- 
verno geral ou o presidente? Vm c6 ja copiou aquella carta? 
Copeio isto da obra do Sr. A. Quern agenciou aquelle posto a 
seu irmao ? Elle agenceia no interesse do seu amigo F. O me- 
nino cahiu n'agua. Nao cdio. Vni cS sake ? Nao sdio hoje. 
Elle nos (us) trahird. Nao trdio os meus amigos. Aquelle ho- 
mem nunca perdoa uma offensa. Ella perdoou a minha pequena 
indiscricao. Os ratos roerao os meus livros. Isto me roe o 

Partirei no dia primeiro de Agosto. Moravamos no segundo 
andar d'uma casa que estava em frente da igreja. Na terceira 
nolte elle expirou. O quarto livro da Eneida de Virgilio e o 
mais (most) interessante. Os dias da semana sao : domingo, se- 
gunda feira, terga (not terceira) feira, quarta f., quinta f., sexta 
f., sabbado. O rei David morreu no quadragesimo (40th) anno 
do seu reinado. Eu era o deeimo sexto (16th). Este anno b o 
millesimo octingentesimo sexagesimo primeiro da era christaa. 
Dom Pedro V. (quinto), rei de Portugal, 6 filho de Dom Fer- 
nando I. (primeiro). Aquella passagem esta no livro segundo, 
capitulo deeimo. Meu tio deixou a quarta parte da sua for- 
tuna ao hospital d'esta cidade. O discurso do Sr. F. duron 
tres quartos de horas. Quando F. qtiebrou (to fail), elle pagou 
dous tercos (f). Oinco septimos mais dous nonos fazem cin- 
coenta e nove sessenta e tres dvos (| -f | = £§). Quanto fazem 
tres onze dvos ( f 3 T ) divididos por dous ? — Ella nos escreveu s6 uma 
vez (one time, = once). Chamei duas vezes (two times, = twice), 
mas ninguem respondeu. Tres vezes quatro sao doze. Esta 
fazenda & barata, mas aquella custa o dobro d'esta, e vale o tri- 
plice (or triplo). 


The verbs whose character is a vowel are comparatively few. 
1) With a there are only three, cahir, to fall, sahir, to go or 
come out, trahir, to betray, with their compounds ; the h is only 
written in order to separate the two vowels (ai being a diph- 
thong), but it is not used by all. These verbs take a euphonic i 
(consonant, = y in yes) when an o or a follows, dropping the h 
in these forms : cdio, sdio, trdio. Those who do not write the h, 
put an accent over the i in the other forms (saia, caiu, etc.). • 2) 
With e there are some in the first conjugation ; they take the 
euphonic i in those forms where the tonic accent falls on the last 
syllable of the stem (in the whole singular and third person 
plural of present indicative and subjunctive), as nomear, nomeou, 
but nomeio, nomeias, nomeia, nomeiao (and second person singu- 
lar imperative nomeia, but plural nomeai). 3) With i there are 
many in the first conjugation, some of which change their i into 
ei, like those in ear, as medlar, to mediate, medeio ; they are : 
abreviar, agenciar, alumiar, copiar, odiar, remediar, premiar, 
and perhaps a few more ; but even some of these are of doubtful 
authority. 4) The character o is 6 in the first conjugation, 6 in 
the second ; it remains unchanged, as also u. 

The ordinal numbers (see their list in the Appendix, page 
835) are not formed from the cardinal numbers, but directly 
taken from the Latin, with few alterations. In compound ordi- 
nals, each number takes the form of the ordinal (not only the 
last one, as in English), the conjunction e, and, not being used ; 
f. i. the 469th, o quadringentesimo sexagesimo nono. The ordinal 
numbers following names of sovereigns, chapters, etc. take no 
article, as Bom Pedro I (primeiro ; no stop after the Roman 
figures), capitulo segundo. The denominators of fractions are 
also ordinal numbers as far as ten (one third is um tergo, not ter- 
ceird) ; all others are formed from the corresponding cardinal 
numbers with the substantive dvo, dvos (a meaningless word, 
probably taken from oitavo); f. i. three quarters, tres quartos; 
| = oito nonos; J J = onze quime dvos. All ordinal numbers 
agree with their substantives in gender and number. — The multi- 
plicative numbers are formed by the substantive feminine vet, 



time, as uma vez, once, duas vezes, twice, tres vezes, three times, 
etc. Others are : o dobro, the double (subst.), ddbrado, dvplo, 
duplicado, double (adj.) ; triplo, triplice, triplicado, triple, gua- 
druplo, fourfold, etc. 


Why do you not comb the children ? The author grounds 
his argument on (sobre) a passage of the letter of Mr. B. They 
manifested their indignation by shouts and hisses. His face 
shows (patentear) the ferocity of his disposition. We were 
walking (passear) on the beach when the steamer ran aground 
(= encalhar). I walk every day (todos os dias) for (por) two 
hours. (The) Money is getting scarce (= eseacear). The wind 
slackens (eseacear). Who copied this ? He copies every article 
from the Gazette. This does not remedy the evil. I hate these 
people for (por) many reasons. I fall ! She will not fall. When 
shall you go out ? I go out every morning at 8 o'clock. 

These were the first houses of the town. Frederic William 
IV., King of (da) Prussia, died in the twentieth year of his reign. 
Mr. N. has finished the sixth volume of his great work. Vol- 
taire wrote the life of Charles XII., King of Sweden (da Suecia). 
This is the 128th day of our voyage. Two-thirds of our crew 
had died with (de) the yellow fever (= f. y.). I paid five- 
twelfths, my brother four-ninths, and our cousin the rest. He 
has been three times in London, twice in Madrid, once in Lisbon. 

































f6ra estivera tivera houv6ra 

O que foi isto ? Fui nmito feliz na minha escolha. N6s dous 
fomos oamaradas d'escola. Vos fostes o meu bemfeitor. Os dis- 
cursoa de hoje forgo pouco interessantes. Tu foste um escravo 
tiel. F. fora o valido do monarca. Nunca estive em Roma. 
Onde estiveste? Elle esteve ainda agora (just now) aqui. No 
anno de 1854 estivemos na Franca. Estivestes na corte? Os 
senhores nao estiverao em casa. Meu filho escreveu que no dia 
28 de Abril elle estivera com V. S. Estivemos calculando as 
difficuldades da nossa empreza. Gracas a Deos (thank God), eu 
nunca tive este desgosto. Tiveste um bom pai. Aquella festivi- 
dade teve lugar (tooh place) no dia 16 de Junho. Hontem tive- 
mos a visita de S. Exc a o barao de M. Vos tambem tivestes uma 
mai ! Elles nao tiverao esta audacia. 

Em toda a co9ta d'aquella provincia ha (third pers. sing, 
pres. of haver, = there is) um so porto. Ha (there are) muitos 
milhares de especies de animaes. Ha pouca difficuldade n'isso. 
Entre a multidao havia (there were) muitas mulheres e criancas. 
Souve (was there) concerto hontem? Nao houve. Haverd 
(there will he) pouca fructa este anno. Ultimamente (of late) 
tern havido muitos casos de febre amarella. N. morreu ha cinco 
annos (5 years ago). Meu sobrinho partiu para a Inglaterra ha 
oito mezes. Ella chegou ha pouco (tempo). Ha muitos annos 
que elle desappareceu. Ambos tinhao fallecido havia muito 
tempo. Quanto tempo ha que isto aconteceu ? Ha uma semana. 
— Ghoterdf Choveu hontem todo o dia. Nao tern chovido 
desde o dia 11 do mez passado. Hontem gelou. Aqui nunca 
gela. NSo tem nevado (or cahido neve) todo este inverno. No 
Brazil nunca neva. Trovejou ? Esta trovejando. Esta fuzi- 
lando. Esta ventando muito. 

Let the student put together all the forms of the verbs ser, 
estar, ter, which we have had of the regular verbs, except the 
imperative (future, conditional, and participles of these verbs are 


regular). Homer, when not auxiliary, is little used except as an 
impersonal verb. Of all four we shall treat more fully under the 
head of irregular and auxiliary verbs. 

It has already been said, that there is no neuter in the Por- 
tuguese language, and that, consequently, there is no pronoun 
which could represent the subject of impersonal and unipersonal 
verbs, as is done in English by the pronoun it (it rains, it seems) ; 
so these verbs are left without any pronoun. There is no gram- 
matical difficulty attending these verbs, except haver. This verb 
signifies to have ; but it is no longer used in the sense of to pos- 
sess, to own, which significations have been transferred to the 
verb ter. Haver, used impersonally, signifies: 1) to exist, and 
is rendered in English by there is, there was, etc. ; it retains its 
nature as an objective (transitive) verb, having an undetermined 
subject, and the substantive connected with it being its object, 
whereas in English it is the subject. This explains the reason 
why this verb must always be in the singular (just like the 
French il y a); f. i. there is a God, ha um Deos; there are such 
men, ha toes hornens. 2) It indicates past time, in English gene- 
rally expressed by ago, as: some time ago, ha algum tempo; 
three years ago, ha tres annos ; long ago, ha muito tempo ; a 
short time ago, ha pouco tempo (tempo may be omitted). 

"Who was it? Who were the murderers of Caesar? I was 
judge in this cause. "We were witnesses of that horrible scene. 
You were the cause of all our misfortunes. The battle was 
obstinate and bloody. I had been his friend. How long (quanto 
tempo) were you in (no) Brazil ? I was fifteen months in (no) 
Rio de Janeiro. "Who was here this morning? "We were some 
time with Mr. O. Two ladies were here this afternoon. You 
were in great peril. I never had this honor. She had two sons 
and two daughters with her first husband. We had a very good 
passage. You had your fortune in your hands. They had an 
audience last Monday. The christening took place on (in) the 
21st inst. Both (ambos os) marriages took place on the same day. 

I arrived here two years and a half ago. Two days ago he 


was still in P. We had news of our friends some time ago. I 
knew this long ago. It will be now ten years ago. There is 
little hope for his recovery. There are many who (que) believe 
this. ("What is the matter? = o que ha?) At that time there 
were few rich men in our town. There was not a single horse 
in the village. There was great confusion among the crowd. 
There will be great festivities on that day. Is it raining ? It 
has been raining since six o'clock. It hcid not rained for three 
weeks. It is thundering and lightening. There are few flowers 
now. In that desert it never rains. It has not rained for a long 
time (= it is long ago). There will be a concert to-night. Was 
there (a) ball at Mr. N.'s? (= em casa do Sr. JV.) There are few 
railroads in Brazil. There are still many millions (milhoes) of 



Um oell-o jardim; um-a oell-a flor; bell-os jardins, bell-as 
flores. Que (what a) homem alt-o ! Que mulher alt-a ! O Sr. 
F. comprou o outro dia uma bonita casa na Rua direita. A lin- 
gua portuguez-a nao e facil. Moravamos n'um lugar encantador. 
Ella tinha uma voz encantador-a. O Sr. F. nao come presunto 
cru. Eis a verdade erua e nua (this is the simple truth). Elle 
chegou ha oito dias, sao e salvo. Uma saa moral e o caracter 
distinctivo d'aquelle livro. Vaos esforcos! vaas ameacas! O 
Senhor entende alemao ? A lingua alemaa 6 mui difficil. — Temos 
um grand-e assortimento de fazendas de 15a e de seda. A sua 
morte foi uma grand-e perda para o paiz. O Sr. A. e um moco 
muito agrada-vel. Aquella senhora tern uma voz fraca, porem 
agrada-tel. Vm tS julga que este retrato e fi-el ? Ella tern sido 
uma criada fi-el. Este fel-iz acontecimento causou immenso 
prazer a todos. Tu es uma creatura fel-iz. Aluguei um bom 
cozinheiro. Esta tinta nao e boa. O mdo comportamento do 


seu filho e a causa da sua grande affliccao. Uma md oonsciencia 
6 um grande tormento. Ohegiimos em ma hora (= inoppor- 
tunely). Este papel e muito ruim. Tenho um so cavallo. Ella 
estava so em casa. Cada {every) anno o Sr. F. manda um rico 
presente a sua nora. Coda {each) senhora tera um ramo. — 
Vm cS (o Senhor) e solteir-o t Vm cS (a Senhora) sera ric-a um 
dia. Eu nao sou ingrat-a. 

Aquelles paizes sao ric-os em mineraes. Estes homens sao 
invejos-os. Nos seoulos XIV e XV as oidades hanseatieas erao 
poderos-as, Elles chegiiriio saos e salvos. Os meus criados sao 
fi-eis. Elles sao m\xmgosfigad-aes do novo presidente. Os via- 
jantes soffrerao tormentos incriv-eis. Isto nao 6 fdc-il. D. 
(dona) Maria nao toca senao {plays only) pecas fac-eis. Que 
homem ml! Vis traidores ! Elle comprou todas as fitas, boas 
e ruins. A raposa e um animal muito subtil. Os advogados do 
vioio sao hab-eis e sub-tis. Na sua moeidade ella era uma simples 
costureira. Eu gosto muito de vestidos simples. — Sois feliz f 
{art thou happy?) Vos sois felizes; tendes bons filhos, uma 
grande fortuna, uma posioao elevada, parentes e amigos pode- 


The attributive adjective agrees with its substantive in gender 
and number. Subject to the same rule are all other words par- 
taking of the nature of adjectives (numerals, articles, demon- 
stratives, possessives, etc.). What has been said of the latter in 
the preceding lessons, is sufficient for the present. 

Gender. The proper termination of the feminine is a. 

1) Adjectives ending in o change this vowel into a, as bell-o, 
bell-a ; so, alone, only, does not change in the feminine. 

2) Adjectives ending in u, and those in dor, tor (properly 
verbal substantives) add a, f. i. md, naked, nu-a; ameaca-dor, 
threatening, ameacador-a. 

3) Adjectives ending in do make aa (or an), as : wo, vain, 
vaa or van ; alemdo, German, alemaa or -an. 

4) Irregular are bom, good, boa ; mdo, bad, md (for maa).— 
All other adjectives do not change in the feminine, except um, 
um-a, and its compounds algum, -a, some, nenhum, no, nen- 


hum-a, (commu-a for the feminine of commum, common, is no 
longer used ;) and adjectives derived from the names of countries 
or towns, as hespunhol, -a. 

When the subject is a pronoun of the first or second person, 
or any substitute for the latter ( Vm ci , etc.), the gender of the 
adjective predicate is determined by the sex of the person desig- 
nated by the pronoun or its substitute. Thus we should say to 
a lady : tu es (yds sois, Vm c ' e) ingrat-a, and she would answer : 
eu nao sou ingrat-a. 

Nojibee. The plural of adjectives is subject to the same rules 
as that of substantives (belUo, -os ; bell-a, -as ; fel-iz, feliz-es ; 
exteri-or, -or-es; ru-im, ru-ins; ger-al, -aes; az-ul, -ues; fi-el, 
'fi-eis; agradd-vel, -veis ; sub-til, sub-tin). Adjectives ending in 
il, this syllable not being accentuated, make eis, as fdcil, faeeis ; 
util, uteis. Only pensil, pensile, has pensile*. Simples, simple, 
has simples or simplices (the latter is rare). 

Of the position of attributive adjectives we shall speak in 
Lesson XXX. For the present it suffices to say that adjectives 
indicating physical qualities (dimension, color, etc.), those derived 
from names of countries or towns, participles, and very long ad- 
jectives usually stand after their substantive. 

Sancto, saint, when before a proper name beginning with a 
consonant, becomes sao or Sao, as sao Francisco (usually abbre- 
viated, 8. Francisco) ; before a vowel or h, it becomes sanct' or 
Sancf, as S. Antonio, read SancV Antonio ; with feminines it is 
always sancta (abbr. Sta.). — Grande, great, is abbreviated grao, 
fern, graa or gran, in grao-duque, grand-duke, grao-senhor, the 
grand seignior (sultan), Graa Bretanha, Great Britain. — Ambos, 
both, and todo, all, have always the article after them (both 
hands, ambos as moos, all men, todos os Tiomens). 


God is almighty. Our house is large. The distance was not 
great. They were great impostors. Unripe fruit is very un- 
wholesome. He already has white hair (plur.). You know the 
house; it has a green door in (na) front, and a high roof. The 
young ladies (young lady = moca) had red ribbons in their hair. 


Mr. N. owns a pretty house in Church street [na rua da Igrerjd). 
A small portion of the ground (terreno) belongs to an old servant 
of the family. The incessant civil wars in those countries are 
the chief cause of their poverty. Have you good pens ? We 
have pens of excellent quality. Your bad conduct is a shame 
for your family. The glorious campaign of 1852 terminated the 
war. During this long time he stayed (ficar) with his sick 
friend. Their long (longo) quarrel ended in 1816. He had a 
long (comprido) beard. A broad river separates the two States. 
The first chapter of the book treats of the principal causes of the 
late revolution. The second part of the work is very interest- 
ing. Some of our great capitalists and land-owners founded last 
year an agricultural society. All these circumstances wore a 
frightening aspect. I bought to-day five barrels of Spanish olives. 
The French language is not so easy as (como) many think. We 
received a fortnight ago two vessels, one with French wine, the 
other with German goods. This is [a] bad sign. This boy has 
a had disposition. 

These calculations are difficult and tedious. His courage was 
indomitable. Your means are insufficient. The scars of his 
wounds are scarcely perceptible. These plants are very useful. 
Your lead-pencils are very bad. Our fields are fertile, our cattle 
is excellent, our men are strong, our women are fair (Undo). 
The Arabs (Arabes) are strong and agile. These ideas are ridicu- 
lous. Idle (vao) words! All men are equal before (perante) 
the law. All the trees of our garden are old. The savages 
killed all the men and some of the women. Both sisters died 
last year. Both steamers arrived on the same day. Who is the 
patron-saint of this parish ? It is St. Francis. St. Ann's day 
(= the day of St. A.) falls on the 28th of July. Who was St. 
Hilarius (Hilario) 1 There will be great fire-works on St. John's 
day. The grand-duke of Toscana had been very popular. Grand 
seignior is a title of the Turkish sultan. 



O seu fllho nao e doentio ? Nao, senhor, porem agora estd 
doente. P. e uma cidade triste (dreary, tiresome). Porque 
estais triste (sad) ? Este vestido e feio. A nossa casa agora estd 
feia. Elle e um homem secoo. A roupa estd secca. O Sr. L. e 
alto e magro. Teu filho jti estd alto. O clima da Siberia « frio. 
Esta agua estd fria. Oomo estd Vm c « ? (how are you ?) Estou 
bom (I am well). Oomo esta o Sr. seu pai ? Esta um pouco 
incommodado (unwell). Hontem estive muito doente. Hoje 
estais ricos, amanhaa talvez estareis pobres. O vento estd forte. 
Esta carne e muito gorda. Meu irmao agora estd g6rdo ; mas no 
anno passado elle esteve magro como um esqueleto. Aquelles 
homens sao felizes (happy). Hoje estou feliz (lucky). Estou 
rouco. Elle e um louco furioso. Estais louco? Seu pai estd 
furioso. O Brazil e um paiz quente. O ferro ja estd quente. 
Estou certo d'isto. Esta claro ! (of course !) Quanto custa a 
jarda d'esta fazenda? 1$500 rs. Isto nao e caro. A farinha 
estd oara. Durante todo este mez o milbo esteve barato. O al- 
moQO estd prompto. Ella sempre/oi pallida. Como estd pallida! 
Fallai, estamos sos! Esta bom! (it is well, all right). Estais 
contentes? Elle sempre esta alegre. N'aquelle tempo eu era 
empregado (officer) da alfandega; agora estou empregado (em- 
ployed) n'uma casa de commercio. Eslou com fome (or tenbo 
fome, / am hungry) ; estou com frio (/ am or feel cold), estou 
com sede (/ am thirsty). Esta direito ! (right !) Nao estou por 
isso (I will not stand this). Que estais com os bracos cruzados? 
(why are you standing idle ?) Minha fllha esta de cama (in oed, 
ill). A nossa casa nao esta longe d'aqui. A cidade esta perto. 
Esta manteiga esta fresca. 


In Portuguese, the adjective predicate is connected with its 
subject either by ser or by estar. These two ways of connecting 
the predicate with the subject differ materially from each other, 

72 lesson xxn. 

and their use requires great attention. Ser indicates an inherent, 
essential, lasting quality, estar an accidental, temporary or pas- 
sing quality or condition (always with a reference to time). The 
following examples will illustrate this. A agua e transparente, 
water is transparent, i. e. transparency is an essential quality of 
the matter called water; a agua esti fria, the water is cold, can 
only be said of a certain quantity of water, being cold through 
some cause, for a time. Ella e oonita, she is pretty, i. e. she has 
always been so, she has that kind of features called so ; ella esta 
oonita, she is pretty, i. e. now, on account of her tasteful dress 
or the like. Ella e pallida, she is pale, i. e. paleness is her na- 
tural or usual color ; ella esta pallida, she is pale, i. e. now, from 
fear or sickness. Estar also indicates a termination, as estar 
prompto, to he ready ; estar completo, to be complete, estar aca- 
bado, to be finished (see Lesson XLL). With substantives (and 
relative superlatives, as they always accompany a substantive, 
plain or understood) estar can not be used ; f. i. elle sempre esta 
alegre, he is always merry, but elle e um homem alegre. 


How is your mother? (a Sra. sua mai). She is well, thank 
you (obrigado). Those books are very dear. Sugar (p ass.) is 
dear now. Are you ill ? Yes, I am. We are free from danger. 
My horse is lame. It is a beautiful horse. It is already dark. 
This looking-glass is dark. All our children have been sick with 
(de) the meazles, but now they are well. Why is your brother 
so sad? He always was melancholy. Our young (jovern) 
monarch is absent. These pigs are very fat. This season is al- 
most always rainy. After his last illness he has been very weak 
and nervous. They will be content. The third series is not yet 
complete. Some astronomers say that {que) the sun is a dark 
body. The river is very low now. They are not content with 
their share. Our bread was (as) hard as (como) a stone. Now 
I am old and infirm. She was very pretty at (em) the last ball. 
Your boots are dirty. The doors were open. You never are 
ready in time. Your translation is incorrect (errado). He was 
an affectionate father and a faithful friend. This glass is not 


clean. The blossoms of this tree are white. The heat was in- 
tolerable. Our roads are very bad. The roads were very bad 
on account (por causa) of the heavy (grosso) rains which had 
fallen last week. This ink is very pale (branco). This line is 
crooked.— Are you hungry? The children are sleepy. I am 
not thirsty. I was very thirsty (com muita side). Is this right? 
No, it is wiong (= it is not right). Is it far from here ? No, it 
is close hj (muito perto). Are you ready? Every thing is ready. 
My sister is ill. Is she in bed ? It is cold in your room. 



O climb do nosso paiz 6 saudavel. ferro nao 6 too pesado 
como o ouro. Para muitas pessoas o frio 6 mais saudavel do que 
(than) o calor. De todas as bebidas a agua 6 a mais saudavel. 
Este rapaz seri muito alto ; elle ja esta mais alto do que o seu 
irraao mais velho. Elles sao tao ricos como nos. Aquella mon- 
tanha e a mais alta de toda a provincia. Ella 6 a mais bonita 
moca d'esta cidade. A vacca e o mais util dos animaes domesti- 
cos. Vmce 6 mais rico do que eu. Qual (which) 6 o mais duro 
dos metaes? Virgilio e o mais celebre dos poetas romanos. 
Esta passagem niio e tao difficil como a outra. Este arranjo 
seria menos dispendioso e mais satisfactorio para todas as partes 
(parties). F. is o menos desconfiado dos homens. N'isto eu nao 
sou menos escrupuloso do que Vm». Isto e o menos importante. 
— L. 6 o homem mais rico da cidade. A inveja & o vicio mais 
desprezivel. Carlos 6 o menino mais preguicoso da minha classe. 
Este foi o acto mais imprudente da minha vida. Sou o homem 
mais infeliz do mundo. Elles morao na mais bella casa d'esta ma. 

O Sr. N. herdou uma grande (great, large) fortuna. A Asia 
d rnaior (greater, larger) que a Africa. Uma m:i conscieDcia k o 
maior dos males. As maiores difficuldades cedem a perseveranea. 
A distancia entre as duas aldeas era peguena (small, little). 
numero de doentes 6 menor (smaller, less) do que no mez passado. 

74- lesson xxin. 

Ella punia a menor opposicao oomo um crime imperdoavel. A 
nossa casa e mais pequena do que a vossa ; ella e talvez a man 
pequena d'esta rua. A (at) pouca distancia da cabana havia um 
poco. Tenho menos (less) forca do que elle. Isto e o menos (the 
least). Ella ainda e de idade menor (under age). Dos males o 
menor ! Ao menos (at least) pagai o que deveis. Isto e muito. 
O Sr. K. falla mais linguas do que VmcS. Elle tem 18 annos ao 
mais (at most). O mais e historia (that is all, the rest is stuff). 
Estes livros sao obras theologicas, os mais (the rest) sao authores 
classicos. A maior parte d'elles (most of them) sao vagabundos. 
Isto e mais do que desejara. Elle conhece mais gente do que 
nos todos juntos (together). Seu pai teni mais de 60 annos. 
(Tenho 50 annos = I am 50 years old.) Mais de 2000 pessoas 
estiverao presentes. Nao menos de 22 criancas morrerao da 
escarlatina nos ultimos tres dias. Tinha deferido este trabalho 
para a semana proxima. 


The comparison of adjectives is effected, in the positive, by 
the adverbs too — como, as — as, so — as (too alto como, as high as) ; 
in the comparative by mais, more, or menos, less (mais alto, 
higher, mais prudente, more prudent, menos prudente, less pru- 
dent) ; in the superlative, by o (os, a, as) mais, the most, or o (os, 
a, as) menos, the least (o mais alto, the highest, o mais prudente, 
the most prudent, o menos prudente, the least prudent). Irregu- 
lar [or rather, what remains of the simple Latin gradation] are 
the following : 




born, good 


o melhor 

mdo, bad, ill 


o peior 

grande, great, large 



pequeno, little, small 


muito, much 


pouco, little 


Pequeno, in the sense of small, is generally used as regular; 
in the sense of little or insignificant, it is as above. 

The conjunction than is que, or, more frequently, do que. 
When mais, more, compares quantity, it is followed by de, not 

lesson xxm. 75 

que or do que ; f. i. elle /alia mais linguas do que eu, i. e.fallo; 
but maw de cincoenta pessoas estiverao Id. 

The superlative relative (for the sup. absolute see next Les- 
son) is generally placed after its substantive without the article ; 
f. i. o acto mais imprudente. Superlatives of short adjectives are 
also placed before their substantive (a mais lella casa) ; the ir- 
regular superlatives almost always precede their substantive. 

My proposition is as advantageous as yours (a vossa). John 
is not so strong as Frederick. These difficulties are not so con- 
siderable as you think. He is as proud as you. The tiger is 
more ferocious than the lion. Your brother was more generous 
than you. That province is more fertile than ours (a nossa). 
Of all our servants Antonio was the most faithful. You are the 
most generous of (dos) men. The most guilty of the whole (todo) 
set is F. The circumstances are the most favorable. Our street 
is very long ; but the two principal streets of our city are still 
longer. Those hills are not high, but they are very steep. 
Flour (a f.) is cheaper now than it was last month. The straight 
way is the shortest. You are not taller than Joseph (Jose). 
Who is the tallest of those young ladies ? It is Miss Anna (Bona 
Anna), daughter of the richest proprietor of this neighborhood. 
Mr. L. is the most skilful physician of this city. The finest gar- 
dens in the suburbs belong to our uncle. — Is he a good man ? 
Oh! he is the best man in (= of) the world. Mow is your 
mother to-day ? She is much better than she was yesterday ; 
she is almost well. So much the better (= tanto melhor). 
They are now the best friends. This cloth is very bad ; but that 
other is still worse. You are the worst of the lot (sucia). The 
bad state of the roads caused a great dearth in the provinces of 
the interior. The roads are worse than ever (nunca). Yon 
have lost almost all the territories which your great ancestors 
had conquered. The danger was greater than I had imagined. 
He was the greatest man of his age (seculo). The larger, the 
better (= quanto maior, melhor). I have little confidence in 
those people. They encountered less difficulties than they ex- 

76 lesson xxrv. 

peoted. This will cost more money than he has. S. is a little 
town on (em) the coast of the Atlantic ocean. This bird is the 
smallest of its species. I spent more than 20 doubloons in these 
three weeks. More than 3000 persons accompanied the funeral. 
He owes more than we four together. This is the hottest day 
which we have had this summer. He is the greatest scoundrel 
that lives. 


O baile de hontem esteve muito esplendido = esplendid-issi- 
mo. Esta renda e muito ftna = fin-issima. Kecebi hoje uma 
noticia muito triste = trist-issima. Elle e um grand-issimo vel- 
haco. A musica era bell-issima. Os decretos do Alt-issimo (the 
Most High) sao inscrutaveis. Meus queridos irmaos! Minha 
queridissima esposa ! — Estamos vi-cos, ri-guissimos ! Esta crianca 
esta mui fra-ca = fm-quissima. Um lon-gro silencio seguia estas 
palavras. Este anno me (to me) parece \on-guissimo. — Alfleri foi 
um celebre author italiano. Dante, o celeberrimo author da Di- 
vina Oomedia, era natural de Florenca. O tubarao e um animal 
muito feroz = ferocissimo. Damasco e uma cidade muito antiga 
= antiquissima. O cliria saluberrimo de Nizza attrahe cada 
anno numerosissimos hospedes. Sua Magestade Fidelissima (S. 
M. F.) el rei Dom Pedro V. Os reis de Franca tinhao o titulo de 
Sua Magestade Christianissima. Os habitantes da corte feste- 
jarao este felicissimo acontecimento com o maior enthusiasmo. 
A deputacao teve uma recepcao frigidissima (or friiisima). O 
Sr. F. reprehendeu seu filho com palavras asperrimas. Os me- 
ninos voltarao em misero estado. Que vida miserrima ! 

Os vossos consclhos sao optima (= muito bons, excellentes). 
Todos os trastes erao de optima madeira. O tempo estava 
pessimo (= muito mao or ruim). O maximo (the highest penalty) 
e 20 annos de prisao com trabalho (forced labor), o mini-mo e 6 
annos. Li (from ler) a vossa carta com summo prazer. O tes- 
temunho d'um homem tao sabio e de tumma importancia. Tra- 


ctaremos agora d urn assumpto da mais alta importaneia. 
summo pontifice = o papa. 

N'este livro ha uma pequena oracao para cacla dia. Meu 
fallecido tio legou 3:000$000 rs. a cada um dos seus sobrinhos, e 
5:000$000 rs. a cada uma das suas irmaas. Elle esta ficando 
cada vez mais (more and more) surdo. Os Athenienses mandavao 
cada anno (or todos os annos) um navio sagrado para a ilha de 
Delos. Todas as manhaas temos o mesmo barulho. Todos os 
homens sao iguaes perante Deos. Elle sahiu com toda a pressa. 
Durante toda a noite ouviamos os gritos dos infelizes prisioneiros. 
Eu passeiava horas inteiras no peqneno jardim atraz da (behind 
the) casa. Todo o homem que nao cumpre a sna palavra nao 
merece confianfa. Um conta isto, outro aquillo. Uns estavao 
lendo, outros escrevendo ou conversando. Uns poucos d'elles (a 
few of them) sabiao o que tinha acontecido. Desde aquelle 
tempo elle e outro homem. Em outra (n'outra) occasiiio falla- 
remos n'isso (of this). £ este o livro que Vm cS desejava ler? 
Nao, senhor, e outro (it is another one). Nenhum dos meus filhos 
sabe d'isto. Conhece Vm c6 algum d'elles? Conheco alguns. 
Nenhuma relacao tenho com elles, = nao tenho relapao alguma 
com elles. O Sr. deseja alguma cousa? Nao, senhor, nada. 
Entrou alguem ? Ninguem esteve aqui. Nao conhego ninguem 
n'esta cidade. Nao onvi nada. Nao tenho nenhuma confianca 
n'elle, = nao tenho confianca alguma n'elle. 

Nao tenho dinheiro (= I have no money). Ella nao tern 
parentes mais proximos do que eu. Nao ha (there are no) cobras 
renenosas na Inglaterra. Nao teremos nvas n'este anno. Nao 
houve concerto hontem. Ha homem mais infeliz no mundo do 
que eu? Nao ha (there is none). Nao comprei peixe, porque 
esteve muito caro. Ja nao ha prophetas (there are no more pro- 
phets). — Qual e o seu chapeo, este ? (this one ?) Nao, aquelle 
outro. Este cavallo nao presta; quero outro melhor (a better 
one). Que (what) chapeo comprou, um preto ou um branco & 

The so-called absolute superlative indicates a very high degree 
of the quality expressed by the adjective. It has no proper form 


in English, in the place of which the adverbs very, exceedingly, 
highly, most and the like are used. In Portuguese, these adverbs 
are generally rendered by muito, much, very, or its abbreviation 
mui (in both words the i is nasal) ; but there is also a proper form 
for the absolute superlative in issimo. Not all adjectives, how- 
ever, can take this termination, and its general use is limited to 
few adjectives. When the adjective ends in a vowel, this is 
dropped, as bell-o, beautiful, bell-issimo, very or most beautiful ; 
grand-e, great, grand-issimo, very great. Adjectives ending in 
co or go change c, g into qu, gu, as pou-co, pou-quissimo, lon-go, 
lon-guissimo (but antigo makes antiquissimo, the u being pro- 
nounced). All other adjectives take this form directly from the 
Latin : feliz, ,/eZi-cissimo ; aspero, fljsp-errimo ; celebre, celeb- 
errimo ; facil, fac-\\\imo ; noire, nob-ilissimo ; amavel, ama-bi- 
lissimo ; and the irregular forms optimo, pessimo (bonissimo, ma- 
lissimo are also occasionally used), maximo, minimo, summo, 
supremo, infimo, extremo, intimo, proximo. Of the latter, maxi- 
mo, minimo and summo have, in certain phrases, retained the 
signification of relative superlatives (the greatest or highest, etc.). 
A list of the more frequent superlatives in errimo, illimo and 
other peculiar terminations will be given in the Appendix, page 
333. Adjectives ending in a consonant (except some in z and 
vel), or in a vowel preceded by another vowel (except frio, 
friissimo or frigidissimd) generally do not take this termination. 

Of the so-called indefinite pronouns some are adjectives, 
others substantives, others both, and even adverbs. In this, they 
do not differ from their equivalents in English, and the following 
remarks will be sufficient to teach their use. 

Cada, every, each, is invariable, and only used with a singu- 
lar ; cada um is every one, each (also cada qual). 

Todo, all, every, is used in the plural as well as in the singu- 
lar; it means also whole; todo o dia, the whole day; todos os 
dias, every day ; todos os homens, all men. In the sense of every, 
when in the singular, it is more comprehensive than cada, the 
latter being distributive. Tudo = all, everything. 

Um, one, is, as an indefinite pronoun, only used together with 
outro, another ; uns = some (also used for alguns, before sub- 


stantives). Outro, other, does not take the indefinite article. 
Outrem = somebody else, another, is now rarely used ; in its 
stead outro or outra pessoa may be said. Another, meaning one 
more, is outro or mais urn. 

Algum, some, any; when nao precedes, algum must follow 
its substantive (nao conhefo pessoa alguma) ; even without nao, 
it means no, not any, when placed after its substantive. Alguem 
= somebody. 

Nenhum (for nem urn), no, none ; meaning not one, it is writ- 
ten nem um. Ninguem = nobody. 

Nada = nothing. 

The negatives nenhum, ninguem, nada, when coming after 
the verb, require the negative adverb nao before the verb, as 
nao espero nada, I hope nothing. 

No more, no longer, is rendered by jd nao when relating to 
the past, by nao — mais when relating to the future ; f. i. jd nao 
chove, it has ceased raining ; nao chove mais, it will rain no more. 

The adjective no, when accompanying the object of a verb, is 
not rendered by nenhum, but in the following manner : I have 
no time, nao tenho tempo; there are no slaves here, nao ha 
escravos aqui (hater is a transitive verb, see Lesson XX.). 

The indefinite pronoun one, which, in English, substitutes the 
substantive which ought to come after an adjective, is not ex- 
pressed in Portuguese ; as f. i. I want a better one (say a hat, a 
chair, etc.), quero um melhor (or outro melhor); is it this one? e 
este ? (here outro could not be employed, as in the first example, 
for obvious reasons) ; or, in the common phrase, " this is a good 
one,'' i. e. idea, ironically, esta e boa. 


It was a most beautiful day, when we left the town. There 
were extremely few people at (em) the concert. She wore a 
very rich dress. He was exceedingly pale. The battle was most 
obstinate (renhido). The enterprise seemed most difficult. 
This undeniable fact is a most important circumstance in our 
favor. I found the house in a most wretched state. It is a most 
perfect likeness of the late Mr. B. He was a man of a most 

80 lesson xxrr. 

noble character. I find this cloth very dear. A very ancient 
temple stood on the brow (cume) of the hill. The very long 
speech of Mr. M. had little effect on the audience. The conduct 
of your son is very good. The dinner was very bad. 

Do you know anybody in that city? Nobody. I was stand- 
ing (estava) with some of my friends on the balcony. Some 
deputies attacked the ministers with great acrimony. Some In- 
dian tribes attacked the settlement, burning most (a maior parte) 
of the houses and devastating the fields. Not one of the robbers 
escaped. None of them were sick. Some few died of their 
wounds. At (em) no hour of the day I am so busy as from 11 to 12 
o'clock. Each of them received a present. Each room had a 
separate entrance. Each company elects its captain. At every 
moment we heard an explosion. He stumbled at every step. It 
is every day the same thing. Nothing of the kind ! (nada /) In 
the last crisis they lost everything. This is all ? Every citizen 
is subject to this law. — This is of no importance. I do not exact 
this from anybody (ninguem). I owe nothing to these people. 
Is there no hope ? We have no friends here. I had no books. 
There are no flowers now. My father had no enemies. There 
was not room enough (= en. r.) for all. There are no ghosts. 
Some of them had no shoes, others had no shirts. There was 
no other chair in the room. This is no joke. He is no coward. 
Tbis requires no great strength. Are you not ashamed? (= have 
you no shame ?) I am no impostor. He is (existir) no more. I 
have no more children. Henceforth we are no longer your 
friends. There was already no water in the well. It will not 
rain any more to-day. Which of these boys is your son, this 
one ? Every carriage was drawn by a black horse and a white 
one. Have you (got) pianos to let (para alugar)1 Yes; we 
have some very good ones of one of the best manufactories of 




O hornem virtuoso nao teme a morte. Poucos homens sao 
contentes com a sua sorte. O Sr. C. 6 o melhor orador da assem- 
bles. Quaes forao os principaes oradores ? Este estado de cousas 
durou mais de um mez. Ha seis metes que nao recebo noticias 
d'elles. Seu pai era ourives. N'esta rua morao oito ourives. A 
resignacao na vontade de Deos e o melhor conforto na adversi- 
dade. Os deoses dos antigos nao erao exemplos de moralidade. 
E na zona torrida que existem os animaes mais ferozes. Todos 
estes males sao a consequencia da vossa imprudencia. Quasi 
todos os consules residentes protestarao. Tenho um s6 irmao. 
Onde estao os seus irmaos t Meu primo 6 tabelliao. Os tabelliaes 
sao empregados publicos. Os cdes nas ruas de Constantinopla 
sao uma verdadeira praga. O Senhor tern razao {you are right). 
Estas razbes nao sao sufflcientes. Quern foi o ladrao ? Aquella 
casa era o escondrijo d'um bando de ladroes e assassiuos. O Sr. 
barao de M. e um cavalheiro de alta integridade. Os oarbes 
normannos erao uma raoa valente, altiva e cruel. Os Egypcios 
erao, na sua opiniao, a nafao mais antiga do mundo. A maior 
parte das napoes da Asia pertence a raca mongolica. — Os annaes 
da historia contem exemplos da mais alta virtude como da maior 
perversidade. Os viveres escaceavao de dia em dia. Alvicaras ! 
Esta tesoura nao 6 minha. Quanto custou esta tenaz f 

homem 6 o rei da creacao. Nao precisa muita coragem 
para tyrannisar umafraea mulher. Quem k o nosso mzinho f ' A 
vizinha nao esteve em casa. O ouro k o mais precioso dos metaes, 
mas o ferro 6 o mais util. Era uma completa desordem. Um 
senhor e duos senhoras cantarao um terceto. Aquelle collegio 
tern agora 120 alumnos e 67 alumnas. O mestre esta ausente. 
Entao quero fallar com a mestra. £ coo ou cadela f Temos um 
gato e duas gatas. O filho do Sr. R. matou o outro dia uma 
loba. Quem k o director d'este estabelecimento ? E o Sr. F. ; a 


sua filha 6 directriz (or directora) d'um collegio de meninas. S. 
M. o imperador estava apenas sentado, quando a imperatriz 
entrou, acompanhada por suas damas de honor. SS. MM. II. 
(= Suas Magestades Imperiaes) honrarao o asylo dos surdos^ 
mudos com a sua visita. S. A. B. (= Sua Alteza Real) o prin- 
cipe Carlos e as serenissimas princezas partirao para B. Temos 
um poeta e uma poetisa entre nos. O author d'esta peca nao 6 
conhecido. N'este processo a justica e authora. O Sr. F. tern 
um leao e uma leda no seu museo. O ganso, o pato, a gallinha, 
o peru sao aves domesticas. Esta perua pesa 8 libras. Vendi 
hoje 5 canarios, tres machos e duas femeas. O animal macho e 
geralmente (generally) maior e mais forte do que a femea. Ma- 
tamos um crocodilo femea. — A Franga e um paiz muito fertil. 
Portugal nao e rico em mineraes. Os rios principaes da Europa 
sao : o Tejo, o Ebro, o Loire, o Sena, o Rheno, o Ehodano, o 
Elba, etc. — O Sr. F. foi a testemunha mais importante. Mia 
gente nao e respeitada. 

The general rule for the formation of the plural of substan- 
tives is already known to the student. The special rules or ex- 
ceptions are seven: 1) m is changed into n; 2) nouns ending in 
r or z take es instead of s ; 3) those ending in s do not change in 
the plural (except deos, which makes deoses) ; 4) those in al, ol, 
ul make aes, oes, ues (except mal, males, and consul, consules) ; 
5) those in el make eis ; 6) those in il make is ; 7) of those end- 
ing in So some are regular (-aos), as irmao, irmaos; a few make 
their plural in aes, as cao, caes ; by far the greatest number (al- 
most all abstracts) make oes, as razao, razoes. See the list in the 
Appendix, page 330. Other irregularities are appendix, appen- 
dices ; index, indices ; calis (caliz, calix, z and x = s), wine-glass 
does not change in the plural ; when signifying a chalice, it makes 
cdlices. — There are a number of substantives only used in the plu- 
ral, as annaes, annals, alicerces, foundations, pulmoes, lungs, etc. ; 
others that are used in the singular, being- plural nouns in Eng- 
lish, as uma tesoura, scissors (or a pair of scissors). These are 
best learned by practice and the dictionary. Some English sub- 


stantives take no s in the plural in certain phrases, a9 pair, 
pound, sail, head, etc. This is not the case in Portuguese. 

The gender of substantives may be ascertained either by their 
signification or their termination. Both ways, however, are far 
from infallible ; the general rules suffer many exceptions, which 
are subject again to other exceptions ; the best guides are again 
the dictionary and practice. Notwithstanding, we shall endeavor 
to give here the most reliable rules. 

By their signification are masculine all names of males, femi- 
nine all names of females. Exceptions : a gen te, people ; a 
canalha, a gentalha, mob, rabble ; a testemunha, witness ; a per- 
sonagem, personage (also masc.) ; a multiddo, crowd. Names of 
rivers, mountains, months, and (generally) vessels are masculine ; 
names of countries and cities follow the rules about the termina- 

By their termination are masculine 1) the substantives end- 
ing in i, o, u (except a grei, a lei; a enxo, a filhb, a mo, a ndo ; 
a tribu) ; 2) those ending in I, m, r, s (except a cal, a colher, a 
cor, a dor, a flor ; a ordem). — Feminine are those in a (except o 
dia, o guardaroupa, o mappa, most of those in d, and a number 
of words of Greek origin, as o planeta, o cometa, o systema, o 
clima, o idioma, etc.), e, gem, ao, z. 

The sex of men or animals is often, as in English, designated 
by particular names for the male and female, as marido, hushand, 
esposa, wife ; hoi, ox, vacca, cow. Other names effect this dis- 
tinction hy taking the termination of the feminine, a, under the 
same rules as the adjective; f. i. vizinho, vizinha; leitor, leitora ; 
cidadao. cidadaa ; some in dor, tor make triz, as imperador, im- 
peratric; actor, actriz; substantives with other terminations 
than o, ao, r, z can not change (except mestre, gigante, infante, 
which change their e into a). Irregular are reo, defendant, re; 
deos, oleosa; leao, lion, leoa; villao, hoor, mlloa;oarao, oaroneza; 
conde, count, condeza; principe, prince, princeza, and some more. 
See the list in the Appendix, page 331. Names of animals, 
which, on account of their termination, can not change, or the 
feminine form of which is not used, supply this want by adding 
the adjective macho, male, or fcmea, female ; f. i. urn crocodilo 


macho, a male crocodile; um crocodilo femea, a female crocodile. 
In order to avoid the incongruity of having the article (and con- 
sequently the substantive) masculine and the adjective feminine, 
or vice versa, it is preferable to say f. i. o macho da aguia, the 
male eagle, a femea do elephanle, the female elephant. 

His real estate (bens de raiz) is worth more than 20,000£ 
(libras esterli-nas). Partridges (os p.) are abundant in this part 
of the province. Both his sons were ensigns in the same regi- 
ment. The ancients had about (perto de) 30,000 gods and god- 
desses. The advantages will be equal for both parties (partes). 
The cruel persecutions of the dictator were less ruinous than this 
anarchy. Yesterday we received 10 barrels of gunpowder. His 
hands were bloody. Both were orphans from (desde) their child- 
hood. The chaplains in our army have the rank of captains. 
We are sister nations. These conditions are the apex of (da) 
impudence. The foundations of the old house were yet sound 
and strong. You held in your (= in the) hands the reins of the 
government. Did you find my scissors ? 

She was the most celebrated actress of her time. H. M. the 
empress of France departed for F. Who were your companions? 
Two Englishmen and a French lady. The marchioness of B. 
and the baroness of A. married on the same day. Our hunters 
killed a she-bear of enormous size. In the zoological garden of 
P. there is a female crocodile, a tiger, a lioness, etc. The female 
whale defends her young (filho) with incredible ferocity. The 
last winter was most severe (rigoroso). The four seasons of the 
year are : the spring, the summer, the fall, the winter. Portugal 
is a very fertile country. [Names of countries take the article, 
except Portugal and Castella.] The city of Lisbon is the capital 
of this kingdom. The river Elbe passes by several large cities, 
as Dresden (Dresda), Hamburg (Hamburgo), etc. The drunken- 
ness is a very low vice. There was little or no order in his 
affairs. Those languages have a common origin. These men 
were the champions of our liberty. The best coffee grows in 
Arabia. Paris is full of fugitive Poles (Polonez). The English 
are very fond (gostar muito) of the Spanish language. The 


Spaniards discovered and conquered Mexico and Peru in the six- 
teenth century. The climate of Guiana (as Guyanas) is pesti- 
ferous. The United States of North America (Am. do Norte) 
export an immense quantity of flour to (para) South America 
(Am. do Sul). The heroine of this novel is an Italian singer. 


Muitos dos soldados nem (not even) tinhao sapatos. O Sr. D. 
e eu somos primos irmaos (first cousins). Vos e vossos filhos 
sereis infelizes (better: sereis inf., v6s e v. f.). O Sr. R. e sua 
senhora (Mr. and Mrs. E.) sao inglezes. Toda a tripolacao pere- 
cen, menos (except) o piloto. A multidao era harulhenta. Mais 
da metade do nosso batalhao estava doente. Vm c » 6 capitao ? 
TJm dos meus filhos e padre, outro e doutor em medicina, o mais 
moco esta estudando as leis na academia de P. Vm™ tambem 
e pai. 

Minha irmaa § myope, mas eu o (so) sou muito mais. Nao 
estou contente com o meu caixeiro ; no anno passado elle foi 
muito preguigoso, mas agora elle o e dez vezes mais. Se (if) 
estas acgoes sao louvaveis, as seguintes o sao ainda mais.— Sois 
meu amigo? Eu o sou de todo o coracao (with all my heart). 
Sois mai? Eu o sou desde ha pouco tempo. Somos inimigos, e 
o seremos at6 o fim dos nossos dias. 

Morrer e renascer. E impossivel viver sem ar. O seu maior 
prazer 6 viajar. Oomprar e vender ainda nao 6 ser negociante. 
Dormir com as janellas abertas 6 perigoso n'esta estacao do anno. 
Nao basta ter aprendido, precisa saber. E mister cumprir a 
minha palavra. Kecuar agora seria traicao. Isto seria faltar 
aos meus deveres. Nao chamo isto viver ; e existir, vegetar. 
viajar n'estas partes nao 6 sem perigo. descer sempre 6 mais 
facil do que o subir, porem tambem mais perigoso. 


The rules of the agreement of the predicate with its subject 
are the following : 


1) Verb: 

a) When the subject is in the plural, or when there are more 
than one subject, the verb is always in the plural ; 

b) when there are two or more subjects of different persona, 
the first person has the preference over the second and third, 
and the second over the third ; f. i. nos e vos temos, vos e elle 
tendes ; 

c) collectives are never construed with the plural, as in Eng- 
lish, f. i. a tripolapao foi salva, the crew were saved ; a maior 
parte, the greatest part, or most, is construed with the plural, 
when the sense requires it. 

2) Adjective: 

a) The adjective predicate agrees in number and gender with 
its subject ; 

b) there being two or more subjects of different gender, the 
adjective is in the masculine ; f. i. Carlos e sua irmaa sao ambos 
muito altos ; 

c) when there are two or more subjects, each in the singular, 
the adjective must be in the plural (see the ex. in b). 

3) Substantive: 

a) The predicate being a substantive, it can agree with its 
subject in gender only when designating a person or animal, ac- 
cording to the rules given in the preceding Lesson ; 

b) it agrees in number with the subject according to the sense 
of the phrase ; f. i. os caes de C. (collectively) sao uma praga ; os 
meus dous caes da Terra Nova (Newfoundland) forao os meus 
companheiros ; 

c) when it indicates a rank, profession, relationship, nation- 
ality, it stands without the article ; f. i. elle e capitao, he is a 
captain ; elle e homem Jionrado, he is an honest man. 

The adverb so, when taking the place of the predicate, whether 
an adjective or one of the substantives designated in c), is ren- 
dered by the personal (neuter) pronoun o ; f. i. I am shortsighted, 
but she is still more so, = eu sou myope, mas ella o e ainda mais. 
Estar can not be used here. 

The infinitive of verbs may be considered as a substantive 


(without losing its nature as a verb) ; it can, therefore, be sub- 
ject, predicate, object, etc., and even takes the definite article 
(masc). The English preposition to is, in this case, not expressed. 
In English, the present participle (or rather gerund) is mostly 
nsed, when the verb is made a substantive ; but in Portuguese it 
is always the infinitive. More of this later. 

He and I were schoolfellows. You and your brothers have 
committed a great crime. Our crew was the best possible. The 
whole crew were sick with (de) the scorbut. Flour and sugar 
are dear now. Mr. and Mrs. F. (o Sr. F. e ana senhora) are Bra- 
zilians (Brazileird). His son and one of his daughters are still 
living (ei»o). All these birds are carnivorous. He is a consum- 
mate hypocrite. Are you the brother of Mr. G. ? Our father 
had been a captain of artillery. Are you an Englishman ? No, 
sir, I am an American. She was mother of eight children. Is 
he a Jew ? He is not an honest man. This is (a) falsehood. 

Since when are you blind? I am so since my childhood. 
Now you are ill, and you will be so for [a] long time. She is a 
great talker, no doubt (nao ha duvida) ; but her daughter is so 
still more. I have been yonr friend these (por estes) 25 years, 
and I shall remain so until my death. You are a fool, and will 
ever be so. 

It is sad to die far from our friends. It was impossible to 
penetrate into the interior of the church. To describe that scene 
is impossible. To live in such (a) hole would be to die by inches. 
To be sick and alone is one of the saddest things in the world. 
He used to say (costumava dizer) : To cheat an enemy is a venial 
sin ; but to rob a thief is a merit. Gambling with other people's 
money (dinheiro alheid) is almost as bad as stealing. Crying 
alone is not a sufficient proof of repentance. This is preaching 
in the desert. The art of cutting (talhar) precious stones is very 
old (antigo). To waste the time in such trifles is to shorten the 

88 lesson xxvrr. 



Quem e este rapaz-inhof (little toy). £ meu fllho. Que 
flor-zinha bonita! (what a pretty little flower !) Achei este 
livr-inho (little book) na escada. Os teus passar-inhos fugirao. 
Elles estavao ao pe da (near the) mez-inha. Socega ! (be- quiet) 
o teu irmao-zinho esta dormindo. Vm°» era entao uma rapari- 
guinha de 12 annos. Oh! meus pobres filh-inhos! Perdi 
hontem uma cham-iiiha d'ouro. O que esta n'esta caix-inha? 
Meu bem-zinho! (my dear [sweet] little creature!) O dinheiro 
estava n'um saqu-inho (little sack or bag). Ella parece (is like) 
uma bonequ-inha. Sois meu anjo tutelar ! Hontem enterrarao 
um ang-inho (little angel, a child under 10 years). Encontramos 
a porta da igreja uma crianc-inha morta. J a principiarao o novo 
canal? Elle morava entao na Eua do canalete. O meu criado 
era um rapaz-ote de 16 annos mais ou menos. — Coitado ! (poor 
fellow !) Ooitad-inho ! Que menina engrapad-inha ! (what a 
nice little girl !) Ella e bonit-inha. O Joaosinho ja esta grand- 
ote. Que maos pequen-inas ! Vm cS esta so-sinho f 

P. era um homem-zarrao (tall, big fellow) de mais de seis pes 
de altura. A estalajadeira era uma mulher-ona de proporcoes 
quasi gigantescas. Quem e aquelle ^wr-ao f (tall man.) Quem 
mora n'aquella cas-ona f (big house.) Elle e um dos nossos flgu- 
roes (great or important men). Que narigao ! (what a big nose !) 
O Sr. F. e um bonacho de pouca intelligentsia. Aquelle rapa-gao 
e meu criado. Tudo isto estava n'aquelle caix-ao. 

Heitor (Hector) morreu pela (= por a) lanca de Achilles. Esta 
cioatriz e o signal d'uma lanc-ada (thrust with a lance) que 
(which) recebi na batalha de M. Elle nunca sahe sem o seu 
porrete. F. morreu d'uma porret-ada (blow with a cudgel) que 
apanhou no dia de S. Joao. Um bando de negros, armados com 
paos, percorreu as ruas. Apanharao paulada (blows, a licking). 
Os punhaes dos assassinos ameacao a vossa vida. Cesar recebeu 
23 punhaladas. A populaca perseguiu o moDge as pedradas. Os 
soldados ferirao varias pessoas com baionetadat (or baionetacos). 


Augmentatives and diminutives are very frequently used in 
Portuguese, especially in familiar language. The former indi- 
cate greater size than the original word (often together with 
elumsiness) ; applied to persons, the augmentative is not very 
respectful. Its principal termination is masculine do (pi. oes), 
feminine ona ; the final vowel is dropped before this termination, 
and feminine substantives generally become masculine ; f. i. caix-a, 
chest, box, caix-ao, a big chest ; velhaco, scoundrel, velhac-do, a 
great scoundrel ; mulher, woman, mulherona, tall, stout woman ; 
homem makes homemzarrao, a tall, big, heavy man ; rapaz, nariz 
make rapagao, narigao ; tolo, fool, makes toleirao, toleirona. — 
Far more numerous are the diminutives. They indicate princi- 
pally smallness, but also prettiness, and often contempt, and are 
frequently used as expressions of endearment. Their principal 
termination is inho or zinho (also sinho after a vowel), feminine 
inha,zinha; the latter is always used when the substantive ends 
in a consonant, but also after a vowel. When inho is used, the 
final vowel of the noun, a or o, is dropped, c and g become qu, 
gu, j becomes g, f loses the cedilha (see Lesson XVIII.) ; f. i. 
flor-zinha, irmao-zinho ; biquinho from bico, amiguinho from 
amigo, anginho from anjo, bracinho from braco. Substantives 
ending in an accentuated vowel, in a diphthong or in a vowel 
preceded by another vowel, take zinho or sinho, not inho, as 
pe-sinho, mao-sinha, chapeo-sinho. Other terminations are ete, 
ote, as palacio, palace, palacete (mansion of a nobleman) ; fidalgo, 
nobleman, fidalgote (contemptuously). — Even adjectives are ca- 
pable of this kind of augmentation and diminution ; f. i. bonito, 
pretty, bonitinho ; pouco, little, pouquinho; grande, grandote; 
augmentatives generally become substantives, as ricaco, from 
rico, = a very rich man ; vilago, from vil, a great coward ; the 
latter are rare, the superlative in issimo being used for this pur- 
pose. Pequeno makes pequenino ; bom makes bonaeho, a good- 
natured man, or a simpleton. 

A blow, stroke, thrust, stab, throw with an instrument gener- 
ally used for that purpose, is indicated by the termination ada 
or ago, added to the name of the instrument, as langada, a thrust 


with a lance, punhalada, a stab with a dagger, facada, a cut or 
stab with a knife, chicotada, a whipping, baionetada or -ago, a 
thrust with a bayonet, espadafo, a cut with a sword, etc. 


A little chapel stood near the entrance of the village. I 
bought at (em) the auction a sofa, a dozen of chairs, and two 
little tables, all (tudo) of mahogany. The premium was a little 
book with engravings. Where is your little dog ? Poor little 
children! Poor little ones ! (pobrezinhos ! coitadinhos !) What 
a big fellow he is! Is he not your great friend? (amigalhao.) 
He turned his (= the) face towards the wall. He is making 
faces (earetas) at (para) you. John got a blowing up (J. apanhou 
um carao, familiar). This mansion contains two drawing-rooms, 
nine other large rooms (1. r. = sala), a very large dining-room, 
and twelve bed-rooms. The jewels were in a little box of ivory 
inlaid with mother-of-pearl. The papers were kept (guardar) 
in a tin box (caixa de folha). F. had been cashier in a banking 
house. In a corner of the room stood a chest containing (= 
with) French and Latin books. He tore the letter into frag- 
ments (= little pieces). The house has a gate in front, and a 
door on each side. We have paper and paste-board of every 
quality and size. Do you know that tall fellow? What a great 
fool you are ! He is a little man of 50 years, more or less. You 
will hurt your little foot. The little bonnets that are now in 
the (a) fashion are at least more elegant than those old ones. 
She has pretty little hands. Where is my little doll? Why do 
you not play with your little friends? I had put (metter) all 
into a little bag, which I hid under (debaixo de) my coat. 

A sabre-cut severed the hand of the robber from his arm. 
More than one officer bore the mark of a cut of the horse-whip 
of Murat. The throwing of stones continued for (por) more 
than half an hour. This negro killed his master by a blow with 
a club. 



Sahimos de Londres as 9 horas da manhaa. A chicara cahiu 
da meza e quebrou. Belem dista de Lisboa poucas leguas. Esta 
palavra e derivada do latim. Por este accao V. S. desceu da sua 
dignidade. Do sublime ao ridiculo ha so am passo. Elles nao 
morao longe d'aqui. — As produccoes lyricas de Camoes sao 
menos conhecidas do que os Lusiadas. As fabulas <£' Esopo sao 
celeberrimas. A cathedral de Londres e um edificio magnifico. 
Vm c « sabe a casa do Sr. S. ? A cidade de Lisboa esta na margem 
direita do rio Tejo. A foz do rio das Amazonas e muito larga. 
O filho do conde de T. e embaixador a corte de X. O monte 
Ves'ivio e um volcao. Nao temos retrato do nosso avo. Mi- 
lhares (faquelles bravos perecerao no deserto. A revolucao fran- 
ceza de 1789 foi o principio i'ama nova ordem de cousas no 
mundo politico. Dous dos meus amigos tiverao a febre amarella. 
Os Srs. A. e C* (Messrs. A. and Co.) embarcarao hoje 500 barris 
de farinha, e una grande quantidade de came secca. Hoje tenho 
tido um pouco de descanco. Quanto custa a pipa (Z'este vinho? 
— Os antigos consideravao o amor da patria como a principal 
virtude. Fallavamos de Vm ei . Este livro tracta da immortali- 
dade da alma. Nos todos precisamos do auxilio dos nossos 
proximos. Eecebi hontem uma carta cheia de insultos. Elle 
morreu coberto de gloria. — Perdi a minha corrente (Tovro. O 
vizinho guardava o seu dinheiro n'uma caixa de folha. Parece 
que tens um estomago de borracha. Uma ponte de pedra liga 
as duas margens do nosso rio. O lugar estava cercado por uma 
grade de ferro. — Vm cS ja comeu (did you ever eat) carne de 
cavallo ? Esta carne de porco esta podre. Meu primo tinha uma 
loja de livros. O fogo destruiu uma grande fabrica de papel na 
Eua de S. Paulo (St. PauVs street). A porta da frente estava 

92 lesson xxvin. 

ferrolhada. asylo dos cegos em 0. 6 urn ediflcio espacoso e 
bem situado. 

Irei a Pariz. Ella tenciona fazer uma viagem a Eoma. O 
general mandou os prisioneiros d fortaleza de S. Ao lado da 
porta estava uma rude imagem de S. Antonio. — Esta chacara 
pertence a duas senhoras solteiras. Devo a esta firma a somma 
de 8:000$000 rs. Ja esoreveu a seu pai? F. contou isto ao 
doutor. Mandei alguns livros d irmaa do Sr. R. Quando entre- 
gou Vm cS aquellas cartas ao caixeiro do Sr. A. ? Participarei aos 
Senhores quando a ceremonia tera lugar. Nao emprestarei mais 
pecas de musica cm fllhas do Sr. L. — O capitao esta a bordo ? 
Viajar a cavallo nao e tao agradavel como o Sr. pensa. Quando 
eu estava na Europa, eu fazia cada anno uma viagem a pe. Esta 
chovendo a cantaros. Elle sahe so d noite. Ao romper do dia 
subirao mil foguetes. Ella tocou aquella peea d primeira vista. 

De quern (whose) 6 esta quinta ? E do Sr. general M. A quern 
(to whom) entregou Vm t8 o embrulho ? Ao Sr. Dr. (doutor) L. 
Isto nao depende de mim (on me). Nao esperei outra cousa de 
ti (of thee). Estive ao lado d'elles, d'ellas (at their side). 

There is, properly speaking, no declension in Portuguese as 
well as in English, with the exception of a few instances among 
the pronouns (and, in English, the so-called possessive genitive). 
The terminations of the different cases have been substituted by 
prepositions, except in the accusative, which is only known by 
its position and the sense of the phrase (see, however, Lesson 
XXXVL). The preposition for the genitive case is de, of, that 
for the dative is a, to. For practical reasons we shall retain the 
well-known denominations nominative (for subject and predi- 
cate), genitive, dative, and accusative (for the object of transitive 
verbs and the case after prepositions) ; to speak of an ablative, 
either in Portuguese or in English, is absurd, originating in the 
old-fashioned and improper desire of shaping the grammar of a 
modern language after the model of the Latin grammar. — Let 
us consider the nature of the prepositions de and a, as far as 
necessary here. 

lesson xxvrti. 93 

De is of or from ; 

1) Partimos de Londres, we departed from London; local. 

2) .4* poesias de Camoes, the poems q/ - 0. ; o _/eMo de i* 1 ., the 
son o/'N. ; o secretario do ministro, the secretary o/ 1 the minister ; 
o ordem do general, the order <j/" the general ; subjective genitive. 

3) .4 ca«a do Sr. L., the house o/Mr. L. ; os ramos da arvore, 
the branches q/ 1 the tree ; possessive genitive (related to the pre- 

4) Privar uma mai do seu filho, to deprive a mother of her 
child ; tractor Ralguma cousa, to treat of something, o amor da 
patria; gostar, gozar d?alg. c, to he fond of (= to like), to 
enjoy something ; objective genitive. 

5) Dm par de sapatos, a pair of shoes ; milhares de homens, 
thousands of men; genitive oi quantity. 

6) TJm relogio d'owro, a watch ofgoli (= a gwM watch) ; um 
menino de sew annos, a boy o/" 6 years ; uma ponte de ferro, an 
iron bridge; genitive- of quality. In this way all English adjec- 
tives indicating the matter of which something is made, must be 
translated, as there are no such adjectives in Portuguese (aureo, 
ferreo, argenteo and the like being only used in poetical language). 
Compounds of substantives, so frequent in English, are almost 
unknown in Portuguese, and must be expressed by the genitive, 
as: house-door = door of the house = porta da casa; glass- 
frame, caixilha de vidro; the sense will indicate whether the 
article must accompany the genitive or not. 

The so-called possessive genitive is always to be translated 
thus : my father's house = the house of my father, a casa de 
meu pai. 
A is to, at. 

1) Irei a Paris, I shall go to P. ; local. 

2) Emprestar dig. cousa a alguem, to lend sth. to somebody ; 
contar dig. c. a alguem, to relate or tell sth. to somebody ; dativt 
or terminatvee {indirect object). 

8) An&a/r a pe, a cavallo, to go on foot, on horseback (to 
walk, to ride) ; modal. 

4) A este momento, at this moment; &s duos horas, at 2 
o'clock; temporal. 


Of the contractions do, da, ao, d, etc. we have already spoken. 
These prepositions can never be omitted (as is sometimes the case 
in English, f. i. a dozen times, uma dvzia de vezes ; I lent this 
gentleman some monej, emprestei algurn dinheiro a este senhor). 
Mark also the position of the dative, always after the accusative 
(the object of the verb), when the latter is not accompanied by 
an adverbial phrase or a relative clause. 

Pronouns governed by prepositions do not change their forms, 

except eu and tu, which become mim, ti (as de mim, of me, de 

ti, of thee), but d'elle, oVella, de nos, a vos, a elles, etc.). The 

pronoun interrogative whose? (= wAo's) is de quern, to whom = 

a quern. 


The steamer will leave (= sahir de) Eio de Janeiro on the 
16th of the next month. The audience lasted from 11 a. m. till 3 
p. m. [A. M. is rendered by da madrugada for the time from 
midnight till sunrise ; from then till noon it is da manhaa; P. M. 
is rendered by da tarde for the time from noon till sunset ; for 
the time between sunset and midnight it is da noite.] I got (re- 
ceoer) several letters from P. Our cousin arrived from Hamburg. 
Have you no news of your brother in the United States ? None. 
The family was once (jd foi) the most powerful in (= of) Eu- 
rope. Sixtus V. was of low origin, yet he was one of the greatest 
men of his time. Spain will be one of the great powers (potencia) 
of Europe. The gulf of Naples is one of the finest spots on (sobre) 
the earth. I bet my whole (= all my) fortune against a pinch 
of snuff', that he is an impostor. The grandson of Mr. B. mar- 
ried (casar com) a rich widow. His uncle's wife is my sister. 
Which is Mr. A.'s house ? That man's conscience is very wide. 
Our house is at (em) the corner of this street and the market- 
place. In what bookshop do you buy your books ? At Mr. L.'s 
(= na loja do Sr. L.). Here are your bed-clothes (roupa de 
eama, sing.). Where is my tooth-brush ? The thief jumped over 
(por cima de) the garden-fence and escaped. Take this powder 
(pos, pi. masc.) in a glass of water. What a beautiful rose-bud ! 
In the window stood some flowers in china vases. Is this wheat- 
flour ? Mr. M. has in his collection a most beautiful marble bust 


of N. The stranger wore a cap of deer-skin. We want (pre- 
cisar de) two iron bedsteads. My pocket-book (carteira) con- 
tained some gold and silver coins, to the amount of 4£ more or 
less. Paper-money is a very modern invention. Is this my 
sleeping-room ? {quarto de dormir). 

To whom are you writing ? To-day I shall not go to the 
mass. They carried the wounded to the hospital. I shall send 
my servant to Mr. P. The failing of some of the most consider- 
able banking houses in France contributed much to the ruin of 
our commerce. The art of painting in (a) oil is older than you 
think. The iron gate resisted to all the efforts of our men (gente). 
Our regiment crossed the river swimming (a nado). I have tra- 
veled (over) more than 2000 miles on foot. To me you did not 
write. At every step we met a family of emigrants. What 
were you doing here at midnight ? Did I not lend you this book ? 
This would be contrary to our laws. 


cagado e a raa sao amphibios. Os soldados d'este destaca- 
mento commetterao muitas desordens. As plantas carecem de 
chuva. Um homem d'este caracter nunca tern amigos. Uma 
semana depois eu cahi doente. 

commercio de Pernainbuco 6 importantissimo. Londres 6 
a cidade mais populosa do mundo. Rio de Janeiro e a Bahia 
sao as cidades mais importantes do Brazil. A Havana 6 a capital 
da ilha de Cuba. Porto 6 a segunda capital do reino de Por- 
tugal. Onde esta seu pai agora ? Esta em Boma. A Franca 6 
dividida em departamentos. Qual (which) k maior, a Prussia ou 
a Italia? Os Estados Unidos sao a republica mais poderosa que 
existe. As Indias Orientaes tem um clima tropico. Os Paizes- 
Baixos pertenciao n'aquelle tempo a Hespanha. Portugal e um 
reino mui pequeno. Para Homero a Sicilia era ainda uma regiao 
fabulosa. As Ilhas Jonicas estao sob a proteccao da Gran-Bre- 


tanha. A ilha de Sta. Helena pertence aos Inglezes. — Luiz de 
Camoes 6 o mais celebre poeta portuguez ; elle 6 chamado o Ho- 
mero lusitano. Bocage foi o Archilocho dos Portuguezes. Tenho 
lido o Camoes. Joao ainda nao 6 velho. velho Joao morreu 
hontem. Etna 6 um volcao na Sicilia. Eheno separava a 
Gallia da Germania. Jupiter era o deos supremo dos Eomanos. 
Venus era a deosa da belleza. A Venus de Ganova 6 uma 
bellissima estatua. Deos 6 omnipotente. Hoje 6 domingo. Elle 
chegara sabbado ou segunda feira (or no sabb., na seg. f.) Nasci 
em Mar? o. Marco d'aquelle anno foi um mez fatal para mim. 
verao do anno passado foi muito chuvoso. A primavera 6 a 
estacao predilecta dos poetas. c6o nao 6 s6 para os ricos. — 
Sr. A. k um ricaco d'este lugar. general Lafayette morreu 
muito velho. S. M. a rainha Victoria 6 filha da duqueza de 
Kent. Dom Pedro V. 6 fllho de Dom Fernando. Dona Anna 
casou com o fllho do duque de B. A Sra. D. (Senhora Dona) 
Emilia das Neves k a mais celebre actriz e cantora portugueza. 

A inveja e o vicio mais baixo, mais repugnante. O fanatismo 
religioso 6 muito mais feroz do que o fanatismo politico. A 
pobreza nao e o maior dos males. A arrogancia 6 quasi sempre 
a companheira da ignorancia. medo causa as vezes ataques 
epilepticos. Isto 6 o cumulo da impudencia. A belleza 6 um 
dom precario. A historia 6 o meu estudo predilecto. " A expe- 
riencia 6 a mestra dos tolos." 

homem nunca foi perfeito, e nunca o sera. O principio da 
historia do genero humano se perde (loses itself = is lost) n'uma 
impenetravel eseuridao. A agua nao 6 tao elastica como o ar. 
ouro 6 mais pesado do que o chumbo. troco estd muito 
escasso. Os principaes productos d'esta provincia sao o assucar, 
o caf6 e o arroz. A manteiga ingleza e mais g6rda do que a nossa. 
Os habitantes de S. exportao sal, azeite, sardinhas, vinho, etc. 
vinho tinto (red wine) 6 geralmente mais forte do que o vinho 

Esta cerveja custa um xelim a garrafa. Ninguem vendera 
este panno por menos de 2$000 rs. a jarda. Quanto custa a libra 
d'este ch&? 

Sou soldado, e conheco o meu dever. Na campanha de 1852 


elle era ainda capitao. O pai d'aquellas mocas 6 doutor em 
medicina. F. 6 advogado. Quern e o advogado do outro par- 
tido ? Nao sabia que D. Maria era poetisa. Elle e pai de seis 
filhos. Dionysio nasceu principe e morreu mendigo. Vm t! 
parece ser homem de bem (an honest man). Vm 1 * 8 sao vns pre- 
guicosos (lazy fellows). Aquellas mocas sao umas tagarellas. 

Nunca ouvi tal cousa. Semelhante proposta e quasi um in- 
sulto. Tammanho barullio houve que eu nao entendi nem uma 
palavra (but houve um barulho tammanho). Que bella creatnra ! 
Tao grande zelo n'um homem d'estes (of this hind) 6 suspeitoso 
(but um zelo tao gr.). 

As injurias e males que estamos soffrendo sao incriveis. O 
embaixador nao obteve as instruccoes e recursos necessarios. 
Os habitantes mandarao as mulheres e criancas para o matto. 
Esperai tudo da influencia e poder dos vossos amigos e parentes. 
Defendemos as nossas vidas, fazenda, liberdade, e honra. As 
illegalidades e absurdos d'aquelle processo patenteiao a parciali- 
dade do juiz. 

£ facto innegavel que a religiao christaa 6 a mai da civilisacao 
moderna. F. pediu desculpa da sua imprudencia. Nao sou 
homem para isso. Tammanha crueldade nao cabe em peito de 
homens. A perseguicao tomou nova direc? ao. Tenbo esta no- 
ticia de pessoa fidedigna. F. esta preparando a segunda edigao 
da sua excellente obra. O mesmo aconteceu hoje segunda (outra) 
vez. Por tal acto Vm" 8 perderia a sua reputa?ao de homem de 
bem. As grandes descobertas e invengoes d'aquella epocha 
abrirao caminho a civilisacao.— Ella corou, signal evidente que 
ella sabia do segredo. Philippe de Macedonia, pai de Alexandre 
o grande, foi tambem um grande principe. 


The definite article is : masculine o, feminine a, plural os, as ; 
the indefinite article is i/m, uma. It always stands before its sub- 
stantive and any adjective belonging to the latter, except with 
todo and ambos, which are always followed by the article. — The 
following are the principal rules for the use of the article in Por- 
tuguese, when differing from the English : 


1) Proper nouns do not take the article. 

Exceptions : a) the names of countries (a Fran fa, o Peru), 
except Portugal and Castella (Castile), which never take the 
article. Also rivers, mountains, islands (small islands have gen- 
erally a ilha de added to their names), some cities (a Havana, a 
Bahia, o Porto, o Rio de Janeiro ; this article is not used on title- 
pages or in the date of letters), vessels, the four seasons, and gen- 
erally the names of days ; 

b) Christian names, and also family names, when speaking 
familiarly : o Joao, o Almeida ; 

c) the names given to dogs, horses, etc. ; 

d) proper nouns when accompanied by an adjective, f. i. a 
propria Roma, Rome herself, or, even Rome; o celebre Vieira; 
also names of persons when accompanied by a title, as o Sr. Al- 
meida, o rei Fernando (more usually with the Spanish article, 
el-rei or elrei), a rainha Victoria ; Bom (B.) and Bona (B a , B.) 
do not admit the article ; f. i. B. Pedro, B. Anna ; 

2) Beos, when meaning the Christian God, never has the 
article, not even when accompanied by an adjective, as Beos om- 
nipotente; but inferno, hell, ceo, heaven, paraiso, paradise, pur- 
gatorio, purgatory, always have the article ; 

3) abstract nouns, when in a general sense, always take the 
article, as : music is his greatest delight, a musica e o seu maior 

4) names of any matter (metals, wood, stone, water, meat, 
etc.), when in a general sense, take the article, as : flour is dear 
now, afarinha estd cara agora ; also, names indicating a whole 
species of objects, as : melons are cheap here, os meloes sao oaratos 
aqui; so also o homem, man, a mulher, woman, os homens, men, 
o genero humano, mankind, a gente, people, o parlamento, par- 
liament, o governo, government. 

5) no article is used with names of dignities, professions, 
nationality, religion, etc., when they are predicates (see Lesson 

6) the definite article accompanies some pronouns, as o meu 
cavallo, a sua casa, etc. (see Lesson IX.) ; 

7) the names of measures and weights have the definite article, 


instead of the indefinite article in English, as : two shillings a 
bottle, an ell, a pound, dous xelins a garrafa, o covado, a libra; 
with expressions of time, the preposition por is used, as : so much 
a year, a month, tanto por anno, por mez ; 

8) ordinal numbers, after the names of sovereigns, have no 
article, as D. Pedro II (Dom Pedro segundo) ; 

9) appositions generally take no article, as D. Pedro II, im- 
perador do Brazil, o Si: F.,filho do coronet R; but Thaller g, o 
celebre pianista ; 

10) when two substantives are connected by the conjunction 
e, and, the second substantive does not take the article, especially 
when they are synonyms, or when their significations are, in any 
way, considered as related to each other; f. i. as mulheres e 
criangas soffrerao mais do que os homens ; elle recebeu as instruc- 
fdes e recursos necessarios ; for the sake of emphasis the article 
may be repeated ; 

11) substantives accompanied by tal, semelhante, tammanho, 
como (and por after the verbs tomar, ter, to take), or by adjec- 
tives with que (what), too, do not take the article (indefinite), 
when these words precede their substantive ; as : tal (semelhante) 
projecto, such a plan ; tammanho desejo, so great a desire ; como 
soldado, as a soldier ; tomar or ter alguem por homem honrado, 
to take one for an honest man ; but um homem tal, um desejo 
tammanho ; 

12) in many idiomatic phrases the article is omitted; these 
must be learned by practice ; the best way for learning them 
(and all other peculiar phrases or constructions) is, to note them 
down whenever they occur, and to learn them oy heart. 

To-morrow the sun will rise at 6 o'clock precisely (em pontd). 
The moon is a little planet which accompanies the earth. Tour 
vacation will begin on the 5th of next month. The brothers-in- 
law of Mr. S. have established a silk-manufactory. France pro- 
duces wine in great abundance, and of superior quality. Spain 
has lost almost all her colonies. The Netherlands have been 
part of the dominions of Philip II. Portugal does not produce 


(priar) much cattle. Lima is the capital of Peru. Brazil was 
the only Portuguese colony in America. Joseph never studies 
his lessons. Did you speak with Charles ? Mr. and Mrs. F. will 
be at home (em casa) this evening. — These opinions are incom- 
patible with honesty. Modesty is the most beautiful ornament 
of youth. Life is not worth the sacrilice of honor. Agriculture, 
industry, and commerce are the three principal sources of the 
wealth and power of a nation. Learning is only the fruit of 
labor and perseverance. Poetry and music are twins. Dancing 
(a danga) made part of many religious ceremonies among the 
ancients. The bloodiest pages of history are those (as) which 
contain the deeds of religious fanaticism. Patience is not in- 
compatible with energy. — Copper is much softer than iron. 
Linen is much stronger than cotton. Tea was introduced into 
Europe about 200 years ago (ha perto de 200 annos). Mahogany 
grows only in tropical countries. — The glories of Heaven are the 
reward of virtue. Disobedience drove (expellir) the first men 
from paradise. What (qual) is your trade ? I am a tailor. He 
is a nobleman. F. was a portrait-painter. Mr. R. is an excellent 
piano-player (pianista) and violinist. Camoens was a brave 
warrior and a great poet. — Man was the last work of creation. 
Is he not a member of parliament? 

Many merchants sell this cloth at (por) 2$500 rs. a yard. 
This wine costs 360$000 rs. a pipe. He has a salary of 20£ 
(libras esterlinas) a month. They charge three shillings a day. 
Dom Pedro I, emperor of Brazil, abdicated in favor of his son, 
Dom Pedro II. Miss Caroline is the bride of Mr. L. Queen 
Victoria and Prince Albert departed for the Isle of "Wight. — This 
shows the character and inclinations of that man. The pro- 
ceedings of Mr. T. are against the spirit and letter of our con- 
stitution. Such a law does not exist. This is much work for 
bo short a time. What a singular man 1 




caminho da virtude e escabroso. Este proverbio e mui 
antigo. Cada dia 6 urn passo para {towards) o tumulo. Muitos 
salteadores infestao aquellas provinoias. Meu filho esfcudou em 
Coimbra. Alguns jornaes negao este facto. Muitos familias 
estao soffrendo pela falta d'agua potavel. Vm cS achara este 
diccionario em qualquer loja de livros (= livraria, boolc-shop). 
A agua e levada por carrocas a qualquer ponto da oidade. Teria- 
mos aceitado quaesquer condicoes. Qualquer pessoa maior 
{older) de 20 annos tern entrada n'este museo. Qualquer d'elles 
e incapaz de tammanha presumpcao. Isto nao e para qualquer 
{everybody). Certo individuo communioou isto ao redactor d'este 
jornal. Certo morador da Eua formosa incommoda os seus 
vizinhos todas as noites com a sua musica execravel. Por seme- 
lhantes manobras aquelle sujeito adquiriu certo infinencia nos 
circulos politicos d'esta cidade. Tenho esta noticia de pessoa 
certa. Outra terra, outros usos. Una preferem os olhos azues, 
outros os pretos. Perdemos outro {or mais um) cavallo bontem. 
Oonheco uns poucos d'elles ha muito tempo ; os mais {the rest) 
parecem ser estrangeiros. Ambos sao bons musicos. Tern havido 
erros de {on) ambos os lados. Ha homens habeis n'um e n'outro 
{in both) partido. Biversos poesias soffriveis tem apparecido no 
jornal de hoje. Varios grammaticos pretendem que esta con- 
struccao nao e correcta. S6 duas ou tres pessoas presenciarao 
este acto. — O Sr. tem noticias {any news) do seu filho mais velho ? 
Nenhumas. Tendes amigos ou conhecidos aqui? Nenbum. 

Os nossos bravos soldados escalarao as altos muralhas da for- 
taleza com incrirel alacridade e coragem. A sarsaparilha bravo 
{wild s.) 6 uma herva medicinal. Que homem bravo/ {fierce, 
irascible). N'este paiz nao ha montanhas altas. Quasi todo 
este bairro e habitado por gente pobre. O pobre menino {or o 
pobre do menino) estava chorando. Elle e um homem sabio. O 
uosso sabio professor de latim explicou esta passagem da (in the) 


maneira seguinte. — Preciso d'algumas folhas de papel azul. Elle 
ja tem cabellos brancos. Uma meza redonda e pouoo commoda 
para esorever. Oesar fui um grande homem. Olhos grander sao 
bonitos. A belladona e uma herva venenosa. O novo passeio 
publico sera muito extenso. P. mora no Oaminho novo, n° 136. 
A lingua italiana k suave e sonora. A memoria dos trabalhos 
{sufferings, hardships) passados e dooe. Uma batalha encarnipada 
teve lugar no dia 21 d'este mez (or do mez corrente, = instant). 
Nao gosto de carne cosida. O tractamento revoltante que elle 
recebera n'aquella occasiaofoi o motivo do suicidio. Ofallecido 
M. sempre dizia que seu filho nao prestava para nada (= was 
good for nothing). O celeberrimo 0. foi um grande impostor. 
Elle k homem trdbalhador. Boatos assustadores voavao de boca 
em boca. Mattos virgens cobrem ainda grande parte d'este im- 
perio. Isto e um caso virgem (unheard-of) na historia da nossa 
cidade. (Ouro virgem, pure gold.) 

As linguas hespanhola e portugueza sao mais differentes uma 
da outra do que muitos pensao. Os exercitos inglez e francez 
acamparao o ponca distancia da cidade de S. A industria e o 
commercio nacionaes tomarao dimensoes gigantescas. 

In Portuguese, the position of the attributive adjective offers 
some difficulty ; some are generally placed before their substan- 
tive, some after it, others may take either place. In a number 
of cases, the signification or the laws of euphony determine the 
position of the adjective, but in most cases the greatest liberty 
is allowed, and it depends generally on the degree of emphasis 
to be given to the adjective, whether it shall stand before or after 
its substantive (in writing, the emphatical adjective is usually 
placed after its substantive ; in speaking, it may also stand be- 
fore the substantive, as the tone of the speaker will sufficiently 
indicate the emphasis). We give here the most reliable rules ; a 
practised ear will do the rest. 

a) Before their substantive are placed very short adjectives 
(monosyllables, and dissyllables with a weak termination, as e, o) ; 
f. i. urn, bom homem, mao tempo ; also numerals, except ordinal 


numbers with the names of sovereigns, and, often, in quotations 
of chapters, paragraphs, etc. (then always without the article), 
b) After their substantive are placed: 

1. very long adjectives; 

2. adjectives indicating physical qualities (color, dimension, 
form, strength, etc.) ; 

3. adjectives derived from proper nouns (countries, cities, 
persons) ; 

4. participles, and such adjectives as are originally substan- 
tives (matto virgem, homem trabalhador) ; 

5. those ending in I, r, z, ico, ivo, oso, esco, So, inho, io ; 

6. adjectives accompanied by a long adverb or an adverbial 

With proper nouns, adjectives generally precede (with the 
usual exceptions, as Alexandre o grande, Carlos o temerario). — 
When the attribute is supposed to belong to the species, or known 
to belong to the individual designated by the substantive, the 
adjective precedes; being a, distinctive, the adjective follows the 
substantive ; f. i. os valentes soldados, o sabio professor, o nosso 
velho viz inho, because all soldiers are supposed or ought to be 
brave, all professors are supposed or ought to be learned, our 
neighbor is known to be an old man ; but we shall say um homem 
valente, um homem sabio, um homem velho, as these attributes 
do not belong to the species. 

Some adjectives have different meanings according to their 
position : um bravo soldado, a brave soldier — um homem bravo, 
a fierce, irascible man ; um homem sancto, a holy (most virtuous) 
man — um sancto homem (um sanctarrao), a hypocrite; certa 
pessoa (without the article), a certain individual, somebody — 
pessoa certa, a reliable person ; um homem pobre, a poor man — 
um pobre homem, a poor fellow (expression of contempt or pity). 

When two adjectives belong to one substantive, they are 
placed after it, connected with each other by the conjunction e, 
and (except with proper nouns). 

When one adjective belongs to two substantives of different 
gender, it must be in the plural and masculine, as f. i. as instntc- 
coes e recursos necessarios. 


Constructions like os capitulos primeiro e segundo, os exercitot 
inglez e francez, need no explanations. 

Any, when equal to whatever, is qualquer, plural quaesquer 
(a compound of qual, which, and quer, third person singular pres- 
ent of querer, will, like the Latin quivis). In questions, it is not 
expressed, f. i. have you any news, etc. ? Vm<^ tern noticias ? 
As a pronoun, qualquer means anybody. 

This event had great influence over the development of his 
character. Many of our rich merchants reside during the hot 
season at (em) the little village of N. Some battalions of in- 
fantry encamped in the suburbs of L. Some hotels remained 
open during the whole night. This incident created (causar) 
some sensation amongst a certain class of people. He is unfit 
for any employment of that kind. I am ready for any service. 
In courage they are equal to any European troops. He confides 
his secret to everybody (qualquer). 

Blue cloth is dear. Every year the yellow fever visits those 
beautiful countries. In many districts the black (negro) popula- 
tion (gente) exceeds the number of the whites. I want a very 
fine needle. This wind prevails during the rainy season. Fresh 
water is the best beverage. A cold rain fell during the night. 
He burnt his (= the) hand with hot water. What a long word ! 
We had a very dry summer. The Spanish sheep are of excellent 
quality. The Asiatic pestilence is a terrible scourge. The Eng- 
lish language contains many Latin and French elements. Zeno 
was the founder of the Stoic school. The catholic religion pre- 
vails (predominar) in the south and west of Europe, and in 
America with the exception of the United States and the British 
possessions. The principal streets of R. are paved. Matters (as 
cousas) have now a more agreeable aspect. Your speech pro- 
duced a favorable impression on (soore) the greater part of the 
audience. The civil authorities will be responsible for the main- 
tenance of order in their respective districts. He asked this in 
a sarcastic tone. The radical vowel of this word is long (longo). 
Our town has two large public squares, The dagger is a treach- 


erous weapon. This is a very complicated affair. A warned 
man is worth two. He is a well known gambler. Generous 
man I F. is a generous and amiable man. My faithful servant 
accompanied my daughter as far as (ate) the little town of Z. 
This narrative is a faithful picture of those times of superstition 
and fanaticism. Great evils require powerful remedies. To 
whom does this large house belong ? The consequence of such 
measures would have been the inevitable downfall of the dynasty. 
We met the inevitable Mr. A. at Mr. L.'s. The fox is a shrewd 
animal. The shrewd lawyer perceived the mistake at once. 
That holy man used to drink like a sponge. 

He would have accepted any salary. Anything will do (ser- 
vir). They will reject any conditions. A certain person of my 
acquaintance wrote an article on this subject (asuumpto) for one 
of the best journals of the capital. I received last week several 
anonymous letters. 



A falta de estradas e a principal causa de todos estes males. 
Elle obteve este successo a forca (by dint) de dinheiro. A lucta 
entre os dous partidos era uma lucta de morte. Quanto custa 
o caderno (or quaderno) d'este papel de peso? Oomprei hoje 
uma magnifica pelle de tigre. F. e um absolutista d'agua pura. 
Elle tern o costume de exaggerar. O habito de fumar e espalhado 
sobre toda a terra. Um negociante de L. participou isto a um 
seu amigo (one of his friends) <Taqui. A batalha de M. terminou 
a campanha. As manchas (Tazeite nao sahem. Oomprehendi 
isto n'um golpe de vista. Elle morreu d'um ataque (fapoplexia. 
Os soldados romanos davao aos seus generaes victoriosos o titulo 
de imperador. Na sua qualidade de ministro plenipotenciario S. 
Exc* procedeu com dignidade. Isto foi um acto de homem or- 
dinario (base). Eramos companheiros de viagem. Foi um ser- 
vjco <2'amigo falso, AchaiuQs a sala de jantar n.'u,ma terrivel 


confusao. O Sr. M. e urn homem de fina educacao. Para esta 
occasiao eu tinha cumprado um novo uniforme de gala. Procurei 
tres bilhetes cTentrada. A meni a tinha uma cara de anjo. O 
juiz era um homem de integridade proverbial. 

nosso doente nao oomeu senao (eat only) um prato de caldo 
de gallinha. Minha irmaa perdeu hontem um par de brinoos 
com diamantes. As suas promessas nao valem uma pitada de 
rape ! Quer tomar {will you take) uma ohicara de cafe, ou um 
copo de vinho? tribunal condemnou o reo a 20 annos de 
prisao. A sua physiognomia nao tinha nada <f extraordinario. 
As guerras de Napoleao I custarao a Europa mais (Turn milhao 
de homens. Acceitarei um pouco de vinho. Um belles des- 
cubriu algumas gotas de sangue sobre o lagedo. 

F. recebeu por presente um riquissimo relogio (Z'ouro com 
brilhantes. A inauguracao da nova estrada de ferro tera lugar 
no dia 1° do mez proximo futuro. Ella sempre trajava um ves- 
tido de seda preta. Quanto custa a groza d'estas pennas (Z'ago? 
Eu g6sto mais de (/ like better) pennas de ganso (goose-quills). 
A porta principal do edificio sera, ornada por duas estatuas de 
marmore. O sen rosto e uma mascara de ferro. Os ladroes 
roubarao uma duzia de colheres de prata e uma sopeira de finis- 
sima porcelana. 

O leao e o rei dos animaes. H. e o rei dos magicos. A velhice 
dirainue as forcas do corpo, e augmenta as luzes do espirito. Isto 
foi um acto da mais negra ingratidao. O tempo das perseguigces 
sanguinolentas por causa da religiao ja passou. O desejo de 
saber nao e curiosidade, e a emulacao nao e inveja. O temor de 
Deos e o principio de toda a virtude. F. era amigo dos bons 
bocados {tit-bits). O fanatismo e o inimigo mortal da civilisacao. 

Temos n'esta cidade dous moinhos de vento. Nao havia uma 
arma de fogo em toda a povoacao. Um raio cahiu no armazem 
de polvora, mas nao causou estragos consideraveis. Elle tinha 
uma loja de ferragens na Eua direita. £ prohibido trazer len- 
galas fPestoque. Nao tenho papel de (or para) cartas. 

Vm» e um homem sem palavra. O meu almopo consiste de 
duas chicaras de cafe com leite e algumas fatias de pao com man- 
feiga. Isto nao e um jogo de (para) criancas. Elle e homem 


para isso. Um negociante sem credito e ran poco sem agua. 
Quem e aquelle homem com oabellos branoos? 

O Sr. bariio de M., ministro plenipotenciario a corte de B., e 
meu padrinho. F. nasceu em Setubal, cidade maritima do reino 
de Portugal. G-uilherme, duque da Norrnandia, conquistou a 
Inglaterra em 1066. Miguel Angelo, pintor, esculptor e archi- 
teoto, foi tambem poeta. Tito Livio, o celebre historiador ro- 
mano, era natural {a native) de Padua. Maria Stuart, a bella e 
infeliz rainha da Escossia, mais que expiou os seus erros. 

Attributes are often expressed by substantives {pronouns, or 
verbs in tbe infinitive) ; they are, then, connected with the noun 
to which they belong by a, preposition, generally de, of (also com, 
with, sem, without, para, for, and others). In English, this con- 
nection is very frequently effected by forming a compound of the 
two nouns (see Lesson XXVIII.). For instance: fire-arms, 
armas de fogo ; windmill, moinho de vento ; sugar-mill, engenho 
d'assucar; winter-clothes, roupa dHnverno ; horse-hair, cabello 
de cavallo ; book-shop, loja de livros; head-ache, dor de cabepa, 
etc. It has already been said (Lesson XX VIII.), that in Portu- 
guese there are no adjectives indicating the material of which 
an object consists ; in English, the substantive itself is often used 
for this purpose {gold spurs, an iron kettle, etc.) ; in Portuguese, 
the preposition de is required {esporas d'ouro, nma caldeira de 
ferro). As this mode of expression can not indicate the nature 
of the different kinds of attributes (quality, quantity, mode, pos- 
session, etc.), it may sometimes cause ambiguity; f. i. wine-glass 
and a glass of wine may both be translated by um copo de vinho ; 
to avoid this, a wine-glass may be rendered um copo para vinho. 
— In order to know whether the article is to be used with the 
attribute (after the preposition) or not, when the corresponding 
expression in English is a compound, the student has but to dis- 
solve the compound; the article being used in English, it is also 
used in Portuguese. F. i. the garden-fence = the fence of the 
garden, a cerca do jardim ; = the fence of a garden, a c. d'um 
jardim ; garden-fences = fences of gardens, cercas de jardins. 


Appositions are also attributes in the form of substantives ; 
the indefinite article, which, in English, sometimes accompanies 
them, is omitted in Portuguese (f. i. Eutropius, a Roman author, 
Eutropio, author romano). — There are also attributive sentences 
or clauses, of which we shall treat further on. 


Was it (a) want of energy or of courage? This is (eis) the 
reward for (= of) my kindness! These papers contain the 
proofs of his guilt. Presence of mind is a precious quality. He 
has not yet lost his habit of exaggerating. Their mania of imi- 
tating the French fashion is very ridiculous. The battle of 
Waterloo decided the fate of Napoleon. The London news- 
papers bring a refutation of these rumors. Swedish iron (— the 
iron of Sweden, Suecia) is the best. She is a native of Paris. 
He had the features of a woman (f. of w.) and the courage of the 
lion. Your father was a man of learning and of great {muito) 
experience. You broke your word of honor. 

We shall have an iron bridge across the river. The portrait 
was in a mahogany case. The sword of Mr. P. had an ivory 
handle and a silver scabbard. With his wooden leg my uncle 
walked as fast as any man of his age (idade). A brick wall en- 
closed the garden. My cousin lost her diamond bracelet. 

I shall want at least two quires of letter-paper a week. 
There was not a drop of water in the well. A great many (= 
grande numerd) houses were unoccupied. I found this volume 
amongst a lot of old books which I had bought at (em) an auc- 
tion. Heaps of corpses covered the battle-ground. About a 
dozen persons were present. Most of the vessels which had gone 
out, came back. There are several millions of slaves in these 
States. Your plan has nothing impossible. 

The foundation of Alexandria was the death-blow (golpe 
mortal) to the commerce of Tyrus (Tyro). Justice is the soul 
of the laws. He was the best of men. The most remarkable 
of inventions is that (a) of typography. — The detection and 
arrest of this great criminal is due to the indefatigable zeal of 
Mr. N. You have no wish to learn (= of learning). I have no 


appetite (= vontade de comer). My hope of success is very 
slight. The loss of such a friend would be a great misfortune. 

Our fellow-passengers (companheiro de viagem) were not con- 
tented with this arrangement. She was sitting (sent ado) in her 
rocking-chair (cadeira de balan^o). I suffer much from tooth- 
ache. My traveling dress cost about 400 francs. He wounded 
his aggressor with a table-knife. In one of the corners stood a 
mahogany book-case (armario de I.). 

William I., King of Prussia, is the brother of the late king. 
Mr. B., professor of rhetoric at the university of L., is a very 
amiable man. Hamburg, a commercial city of great importance, 
is one of the four free cities of the German confederacy. They 
elected Mr. K., a man of great capacity and well known integrity. 





First. Second. Third. 

f a ll-e vend-a (like Second) 

tu es as 

elle — e a 

nos emos amos 

v6s eis &is 

elles em ao 

Precisa (it is necessary) que eu fall-e com o Sr. ministro da 
justica. E possivel que tu desprez-es assim a authoridade pa- 
terna ? Eu quero que Vm°* oot-e estes livros no seu lugar. 
Sr. F. deseja que tract-emos d'este negocio com todo o zelo e 
cuidado. Srs. deputados ! os vossos constituentes tem o direito 
de esperar que fall-eis sem medo, que represent-eis ao governo 
os innumeros abusos que certas authoridades d'esta provincia 
commettem quasi diariamente (daily). E impossivel que as des- 
pezas import-em em (amount to) mais de 3:000$000 rs. Muitos 
dos meus freguezes querem que eu vend-a esta fazenda mais 
barato; mas d3o posso (/ can not). Pode ser (it may he) que 


outros logistas a (it) vend-ao por menos. Tua mai deseja qne 
aprend-as o francez. E tempo que attend-amos aos nossos pro- 
prios negocios. Desespero da empreza, ainda que (though) V. 
S. promett-a o seu auxilio. Nao reoeio que a directoria per- 
mitt-a semelhantes abusos. O patriotismo pede que n6s todos 
contribu-amos a conservacao d'esses monumentos da nossa antiga 
gloria. E mister que Vm* part-ao no instante. — Nao quero 
que a minha filha danc-e com um cavalheiro d'industria. E 
tempo que eu arrang-e dinheiro para pagar o aluguel da casa. 
Nao 6 preciso que o Sr. pagu-e tudo d'uma vez. O meu desejo 
e que a casa fiqu-e no mesmo estado ate a minha volta. Nao 
queremos que alguem semei-e a discordia entre nos. Todos os 
dias r6go a Deos que nos (us) protej-a de semelhante flagello. E 
possivel que taes cousas acontecao no nosso seculo? — Talvez 
quereis que eu seja (subj. pres. of ser) mais explicito ? Kogo a 
Deos que sejas feliz. Vm cS nao pode (can) esperar que um me- 
nino de seis annos seja tao prudente como um homem da sua 
(your) idade. A religiao prescreve que sejamos obedientes lis 
leis. Talvez que ella esteja (svbj. pr. of estar) doente. Precisa 
que as cartas estejao promptas as 4 e meia da tarde. Nao penso 
que eu tenha melliores prospeotos do que o Sr. Para alcancar 
isto, precisa que elles tenhao mais habilidade do que outros. 
Duvido que haja (haver) homem mais ordinario do que elle. — 
Nao 6 possivel que a Sra. sua mai tenha permittido isto. Nao 
ha um s6 entre os meus collegas que nao tenha sido objecto do 
escarneo d'aquelle miseravel. Duvido que estas cousas tenhao 
acontecido antes da minha partida. 

Falla! fallai! Fall-e (i. e. falle Vm* speak!) Principle! 
(begin /) Esper-em ! (i. e. esperem Vm«^ wa n ;y Entre ! (come 
in .') Eespond-a ! Desc-ao ! Fnj-a ! fuj-ao ! Seja prudente ! 
Sejao applicados! Esteja quieto! Estejao contentes com o que 
tem ! Tenha paciencia ! Tenha mao ! (= hands off!) — Sejamos 
prudentes ! (= let us be pr.) Fallemos (let us speak) com fran- 
queza. Saia! (sahir) saiamos! Vendamos tudo e fujamos! — 
Que saia (i. e. que elle s.), que m'importa! (what do I care !) Que 
cheguem! (let them come !) — Nao mefallesf Nao desespereis ! 
Nao gritem (i. e. Vm*) tanto ! Nao seja importuno I Nao 


rhore ! Nao pense n'isto ! Nao tenhlio medo ! Oh Deos ! nao 
permittais que tal (such a thing) aeontega ! 

The subjunctive mood has, in Portuguese, three simple tenses, 
the present, the preterit (imperfect) and the future, of which we 
give here the present tense. In the first conjugation its termina- 
tions are e, es, e, emos, eis, em; in the second and third conjuga- 
tions a, as, a, amos, ais, ao (am). Let the student remember the 
rules concerning the orthographical and euphonic changes of the 
character, given in Lessons XVIII. and XIX. (come-par, come- 
ce; Q-car, fi-que; pa-gar, pa.-gue ; arran-jar, arrange; sem-ear, 
sem-eie; aconte-cfc, aconte-pa; protc-^er, prote-ja; iu-gir, fu- 
jn ; sahir, sdia). Ser makes seja, estar — esteja, haver — haja, ter- 
tenha, all four after the second conjugation. The present perfect 
tense is formed by tenha and the past participle : eu tenha faU 
lado, etc. 

Of the nature and use of the subjunctive mood we shall speak 
in the proper place. For the present it will be sufficient to say 
that the verb is put in the subjunctive mood after words expres- 
sing a wish, an order, a possibility or doubt ; also after the con- 
junctions ainda que or posto que, though, afim que or para que, 
in order that, and some others. 

The subjunctive mood also supplies the imperative with such 
forms as are wanting in the latter : 1) The third person singular 
and plural, generally accompanied by the conjugation que ; f. i. 
que fall-e, que fall-em, let him or them speak (he or they may 
speak). 2) The first person plural: fall-emos, let us speak. 3) 
The common term of politeness in addressing a person being a 
mhstantive (Vm c «, V. S., o Sr., a Sra., etc.), the verb must be in 
the third person. Thus the imperative speak may be rendered 
in four different ways, according to the person or persons ad- 
dressed, viz. : folia (tu),fallai (vos), falle (Vm cg ), fallem (Vmfi^). 
In conversation, the third person singular or plural is generally 
used. 4) The whole negative imperative (prohibitive) is taken 
from the subjunctive; f. i. do not speak, nao fall-es (tu), nao 
fall-eis (vos), nao fall-e ( Vm^), nao fall-eis ( Vm^) • nao fall- 


emos, let us not speak. — The following will thus be the complete 
paradigm of the imperative mood : 


Second, fall-a (tu) vend-e part-o 

Third, que (elle, ella) fall-e vend-a part-a 

fall-e (Vm<», o Sr.) vend-a part-a 


Fvrst. fall-emos vend-amos part-amos 

Second, fall-ai vend-ei part-i 

Third, que (elles) fall-em vend-ao part-ao 

fall-em (Vm* os Srs vend-ao part-ao 

Do you desire that I go on ? (continuar.) Your father desires 
that you return soon. Her mother will not have (nao guer) that 
she dances waltzes. Is it possible that they frequent such houses ? 
It is necessary that we consider these objections. It is hardly 
possible that I remain here to-night. It is probable that they 
arrive in time. It may be (pode ser, talvez = perhaps) that 
others do not think so. Though I am not rich, I should have 
refused. Do you wish that I protect such miscreants? Religion 
ordains that we assist (acudir a) the unfortunate. My father 
will not have (nao quer) that I visit those people. Is it possible 
that this be true ? (it is true, e verdade.) "We must (= it is ne- 
cessary that) be more prudent for the future. This man must 
(precisa que este h.) have more money than he seems (to) have. 
It suffices that you are present. I doubt that he has the neces- 
sary means for this undertaking. It is not true that Mr. F. has 
died. We all regret that you are offended. It is prudent that 
we wait a little longer (rnais urn, pouco). We expect that you ful- 
fil your promise. They want me to give up (= they will that I, 
etc.) my right to this place. I want you to be ready at noon. 
Though this (should) happen, I shall not alter my opinion. We 
want him to stay till night. 

[The following examples of the second person imperative to 
be translated in the four different ways indicated in B.] 

lesson xxxin. 113 

Oome in ! "Write ! Wait ! Run ! Call the servants ! Stop ! 
"Work ! Leave (sahir de) the house ! Mount ! Desist ! Have 
done! (= acabar.) Remain! Let go! (= largar.) Forgive! 
Be generous ! Have pity ! Be faithful to your masters ! (amo.) 
— Let us flee ! Let us be united ! Let us go in ! Let us work 
together ! Let us hope that all will be for the better. 

Do not exact this from me ! Do not go out in this terrible 
weather ! Do not hesitate ! Do not walk so fast ! Do not be- 
lieve such stories ! Do not be afraid (to be afraid = ter medo) 1 
Do not be cruel to (para) animals ! 




First. Second. Third. 

eu fall-asse vend-esse part-isse 

tu — asses esses isses 

elle asse esse — — isse 

nos assemos 6ssemos issemos 

v6s asseis esseis fsseis 

elles assem essem issem 

Muita gente pediu que o espectaculo principi-asse 4s oito e 
meia. Se olh-assem mais aos seus negocios, elles nao estariao 
tao embaracados. Se recei-assemos tal cousa, procederiamos 
d'uina maneira diflerente. Se eu falt-asse aos meus deveres, os 
meus subalternos imitariao o meu exemplo. O imperador Au- 
gusto recommendou no seu testamento aos Romanos que nao 
procur-assem estender os limites do imperio por novas guerras. 
Seria preoiso que eu eserev-esse ao Sr. barao de B. Seus pais 
queriao que elle aprend-esse o officio de sapateiro. Ella seria 
inconsolavel, se tal acontec-esse. A nossa ruina seria completa, 
se perd-essemos este processo. Tomara que chov-esse (= I wish 
it -would rain). De primeiro (at first) ella nao queria que eu 
l£sse a carta. O que seria de n6s (what would become of us), se a 

114 lesson xxxm. 

religiao e as leis nao cohib-issem os crimes ! Eu cahiria doente, 
se dorm-isse tao pouco. Elle nao fallaria assim, se nao sent-isse 
quanto a sua situacao e precaria. Se Vm° 6 reflect-isse urn pouco, 
acharia que eu tenho razao {that I am right). Se permitt-issemos 
isto uma vez, dariamos um precedente perigoso. 

Elle foi meu generoso protector durante a minha mocidade. 
Se isto fosse (were) verdade, eu teria tornado as medidas precisas 
para castigar a sua insolencia. Se nao fossemos pobres, os nossos 
parentes nos visitariao. Tanto luxo seria imperdoavel, ainda 
que eiles fossem ricos como Creso (Croesus). — Eu tive a honra de 
conversar com V. Exc a no ultimo baile. Se eu tivesse as van- 
tagens que tu tens, eu seria outro homem. Ainda que Vm c & 
tivesse o poderoso auxilio do Sr. seu cunhado, estou certo que 
Vm c8 nao succederia. Se tivessemos filhos, de certo (certainly) 
nao morariamos n'um lugarejo tao retirado. Muitos dariao gra-, 
cas a Deos, se tivessem recebido tao boa educacao como tu. Se 
eu tivesse esperado at6 agora, ja seria tarde (it would be too late). 
— Hontem estwe em casa do Sr. Dr. (doutor) M. Ainda que isto 
estivesse no meu poder, eu nao o (it) permittiria. — Nunca houve 
homem mais teimoso do que Vm c6 . Se nao houvesse outro re- 
medio, Vm c & seria justificado em proceder assim. 


The subjunctive preterit (imperfect) is formed from the his- 
torical preterit (as is best seen in the irregular verbs ser, ter, etc.) 
by the terminations asse, esse, isse in the respective conjugations. 
The tonic accent is always on the first syllable of these termina- 
tions. Ser makes fosse (6), estar — estivesse, ter — tivesse, haver — 


It would perhaps be more profitable that I should accept your 
offers. I wanted him to (= eu queria que elle) stop at (em) my 
house. If we believed this, we should not remain one day in 
the city. If I spoke French, I should go to Paris. If you knew 
(conhecer) the dangers of my position, you would not be so ready 
to blame my precaution. If the happiness of these young men 
depended on (de) our efforts, they would not have suffered so 

lesson xxxrv. 115 

long (tanto tempo). They acted as if (como se) those laws did not 
exist. If we preferred our old place (morada) to this one, we 
should go back (wltar) there (para la). If you followed the 
advice (plur.) of your friends, you would be in better circum- 
stances. If I were you, I should publish this affair in every 
newspaper of the kingdom. If she were envious, she would not 
praise her rival with so much sincerity. If we were your ene- 
mies, we should not have given our protection to your son. If 
you were true Christians, you would be more generous to (para 
com) your enemies. If they were sincere in their professions of 
friendship, they would it (o) show by their actions. I should be 
the happiest of men, if I had such children. If we had the means, 
we should rent a country-house in the neighborhood of L. He 
continued his visits, as if nothing had happened. If she were ill, 
she would not go out so late. If I had known (saber) this, I 
should not have gone to E. How should you act, if you were in 
my place? They would not have the courage to stay, if we 
were not with them. We should have chosen your city, if there 
were a library there (alii). 



First. Second. Third. 

eu fall-ar vend-er part-ir 

tu ares eres ires 

elle ar er ir 

n6s armos erm irmos 

v6s ardes erdes irdes 

elles arem erem irem 

Se elle pergunt-ar (if he [should] ash, should he ash), precisara 
que o Sr. responda. Quando os Srs. F. mand-arem as fazendas 
que comprei, tenha Vm cfi a bondade de chamar meu irmiio. Se 
flcar-mos aqui, procuraremos outra casa. Se isto nao bast-ar, 
mandarei mais. Quando os nossos companheiros chegar-em, 


partiremos juntos. Quando Vm cS escrev-er, nao mencione a 
chegada da minha tia. Se elles respond-erem affirmativamente, 
parta no instants. Quando eu morr-er, deixarei toda a minha 
fortuna ao hospital de X. Se vencer-mos esta difficuldade, 
poderemos gritar victoria. Srs. jurados ! se absolv-erdes este reo, 
establecereis urn precedente perigoso. Se os inimigos reun-irem 
as snas forgas, nao poderemos mais resistir. Se elle fug-ir outra 
vez, elle recebera um castigo exemplar. Se ouv-irdes gritos, 
acudi logo. Quando eu sah-ir, feche todas as portas. Se suc- 
cumb-irmos n'esta lucta, ficaremos (we shall be) reduzidos a 
miseria. — Vm«* ira quando for (ser) tempo. Se f&r preciso, eu 
mesmo irei la. Se formos felizes n'esta especulacao, daremos 
um esplendido baile. Se Vm 1 * forem prudentes, nao duvido do 
seu successo. Nao sacrificarei os interesses dos meus filhos a 
quern quer que fdr (= whoever it may be, to whomsoever). Quando 
tiver (ter) tempo, esereverei ao Sr. F. Quando Vm c6 tiver 
occasiao, mande estes livros a D. Clara. Se tivermos uma re- 
volucao, a ruina d'aquelles estabelecimentos sera inevitavel. 
Quando tiveres acabado as tuas tarefas, poderas ir brincar. 
Quando tiverdes perdido vossos pais, entao reeonheeereis a vossa 
ingratidao. Se elle tiver trahido o nosso segredo, elle nao sera 
mais admittido em nossa casa. Guarde os seus conselhos para 
quando eu tiver precisao d'elles. Seja isto como f6r (be this as it 
may), elle e o culpado. Se elle nao estiver (estar) em casa, volte 
logo. Quando estivermos em P., Vm c6 tera noticias nossas por 
cada paquete. Acharei este homem, esteja onde estiver (wherever 
he may be). Se honver (haver) espectaculo hoje, iremos la com 
os nossos hospedes. Levarei as minhas fllhas ao primeiro baile 
que houver n'este inverno. 


The subjunctive future is also formed from the historical per- 
feet, by the terminations or, er, ir, as shown in the paradigm 
Ser, ter, estar, haver make for (always written with the circum- 
flex), tiver, estiver, houver. — This tense is principally used after 
se, if, and quando, when, in connection with a future or impera- 
tive. In conditional sentences, the conjunction if is, in English, 


often omitted, which is impossible in Portuguese ; f. i. se eu achar, 
if I find or should find, = should I find; se elle titer, if he 
(should) have, should he have. 

If the rain continues, we shall not go out. Should I come 
back sooner than I expect, we shall have time to {para) go there. 
If you (second sing.) confess all, you will not be chastised. If 
we annul these contracts, the public will enjoy greater security. 
If they wait till the end of the year, it will be too late (= jd sera 
tarde). Should they arrive before the 22d of August, it will yet 
be time. If you (second plur.) consider the high dignity of your 
office, you will not give this permission. If you undertake this 
journey, I should wish to be (desejdra ser) your companion. If 
I live until that time, you may ( Vm™ poderd) reckon upon (com) 
my assistance. If the directors establish this as (a) general rule, 
several people (alguns) will suffer great losses. If the testimony 
of that wretch is worth more than my word of honor, the shame 
will be for you, not for me. If we commit the least indiscretion, 
all our efforts will be frustrated. If the distance exceeds three 
miles, they will receive each 400 rs. per (por) mile. If I do not 
discover the error, I shall lose my place. Should they prefer 
this arrangement, you will have the kindness to (de) furnish the 
necessary documents. What shall you answer, if he demands 
those papers ? When we unite our efforts, we shall be invincible. 
— If this be true, it will be so much the worse for them. If we 
are true (Jiel) to our principles, we need not fear the enmity of 
such men. Do not refuse, if the conditions are acceptable. I 
shall have no rest as long as (emquanto) I have no news of that 
poor young man. If they have good coffee, you may buy 3 of 
4 pounds. Carry (levar) these patterns to Mr. N., when yon 
have dined. When we have finished this business, we shall take 
(dor) a walk. You shall have the place, if it be in my power. 
When the ohildren are tired, take an omnibus. Should there be 
no grapes in the market, buy some pears and apples. 




Present indicative of dar, to give : don, das, da, damos, dais, 
dao ; subjunctive : de, des, de, demos, deis, dem ; historical pre- 
terit: dei, deste, deu, demos, destes, derao; pluperfect: dera; 
subjunctive imperfect : desse; subjunctive future: der. 

Quanto da Vm 1 * por (for) este cavallo ? Nao dou 10$000 rs. 
por elle. Tu me das muito cuidado. Oada anno damos 50$000 
rs. a Sancta Oasa (the hospital). Vos dais um mao exemplo a 
mocidade. Elles dao um baile no primeiro sabbado de cada mez. 
Nao exija o Sr. que eu de satisfacao a semelhante velhaco. Nao 
quero que tu des um so vintem aquelles vagabundos. De atten- 
cao ao que esta fazendo ! E preciso que demos todo o cuidado 
a educacao dos nossos filhos. Nao deis ouvidos as insinuacoes 
dos invejosos ! Nao emprestarei nada a estes homens, sem que 
dem bons fiadores. F. dava mais cuidado a seus pais do que todos 
os seus irmaos juntos. Oada semana davamos um pequeno con- 
certo. Parece que nao dei corda ao meu relogio (dar corda ao 
r. = to wind up the watch). Deste agua aos cavallos? Dei, 
sim, senhor. O menino esta cborando, porque deu (or bateu) 
com a cabeca na porta. Nao tenha medo ! nao demos o menor 
valor a estas insinuacoes. Vos destes o primeiro impulso a este 
movimento. As investigacoes da commissao nao derao resultado. 
Tudo isto deu em nada (had no result). Ella deu a luz um par 
de gemeos, um menino e uma menina. Ja derao 5 boras ? Elle 
queria que eu desse as costas (= the cold shoulder) a F. Seria 
(era) preciso que Vm c6 desse comeco ao seu trabalho. O governa- 
dor exigiu de nos que dessemos conta de tudo quanto presencia- 
mos. O commandante ordenara as sentinellas que dessem entrada 
s6 a pessoas munidas d'um passaporte assignado pelo (= por o) 
ministro da guerra. Isto aconteceu depois que eu dera a minba 
demissao. Em breve daremos a luz (= to publish) a biographia 


do fallecido Sr. bispo de P. Se elle der parte {information, to 
inform) do acontecido ao seu amo, Vm° 6 sera infallivelmente 
demittido. Quando derem onze horas, aooorde os criados. Eu 
daria a metade da minha fortuna para possuir os conhecimentos 
d'aquelle sabio. Elles nao dariao ouvidos aos meus queixumes. 
Infelizmente elle deu em beber (= took to drinking). Se dermos 
a entender que somos sabedores do seu segredo, o nosso projecto 
sera frustrado. Dai esmolas aos pobres ! Dem attencao ! Elle 
e muito dado (sociable, affectionate). Aquelle moco e dado ao 
jogo (given to gambling). Ella esta dando a sua licao de canto. 
(O mestre toma as licoes, o disoipulo dd a sua licao ; but also : 
F. dd ligoes de musica ; better, ensina a musica.) 

Estou prompto. Onde estas ? Esta claro ! Estou que sim 
(familiar: I think, yes). Estamos em Maio. Estais contentes ? 
Elles estao a espera (waiting for) de Vm«*. Que boras sao ? 
Esta para dar 4 horas (= it is going to strike, on the stroke of, 4 
o'clock). £ impossivel que estejamos tao perto de 0. Pode ser 
que elles estejao aqui antes d'este tempo. Esteja descansado! 
(= be comforted, do not be afraid.) Estejamos alerta! O que 
estava elle fazendo? Todas as senboras estavao em pe (were 
standing). Eu estava para sabir (was [about] going out), quando 
recebi o seu recado. Estavamos todos em mangas de oamisa. 
Estive muitos annos no Brazil. Estiveste bem (eery) perto de 
morrer. Minba tia esteve mais de tres mezes de cama. Nao 
estivemos no caso (in the position) de prestar servicos tao impor- 
tantes. Onde estiverao Vm cfe ? Se eu estivesse certo d'isto, 
escreveria logo a meu pai para que mandasse o dinheiro necessa- 
rio. Se estivesse nas minhas maos, Vm<* sabiria bem depressa 
dos sens embaracos. Quando estiver em Londres, irei todas as 
noites ao theatro. Quando estivermos livres d'estas difficuldades, 
iremos a nossa chacara. Se elles estiverem ainda dormindo, 
volte logo. Ella estivera n'um convento. Tenho estado doente 
por mais d'um mez. 


The object of an active and transitive verb being a substantive, 
it is generally placed after the verb, without any distinguishing 


sign. We shall see in the next Lesson, by what means the Por- 
tuguese language avoids ambiguity in this case. 

There are only two irregular verbs in the first conjugation, 
dar and estar ; the irregular forms of the former are given in A., 
the latter is already known. The imperative estd, estai is hardly 
ever used. 

In order to facilitate the learning of the irregular verbs, we 
beg to direct the attention of the student to the following obser- 
vations : 

1. Always or mostly regular are: both participles, the im- 
perative mood (see Lessons VII. and XXXIL), the future and 
conditional tenses (derived from the infinitive), the descriptive 
preterit in the indicative mood, and the first and second persons 
plural of the present indicative. 

2. The present subjunctive is, with few exceptions, derived 
from the first person singular of the present indicative. From 
the first person singular of the historical preterit are derived a) 
the perfect preterit or pluperfect (the simple form), 6) the sub- 
junctive imperfect, and c) the subjunctive future. 

In the paradigms, we shall give only the irregular forms, in 
their order of derivation. 

Another point worthy of attention is the variety of significa- 
tions and the idiomatic use of some of the irregular verbs, which 
the student will do well to learn by heart. 


The girl broke a glass. I heard voices in the adjoining room. 
My friends here (d'aqui) know nothing of this affair. I feel an 
intolerable coldness in my (= the) back. This king treated his 
subjects like slaves. This gives room for (a) grave suspicions 
against you. I set (give) no value on (a) his promises. Our vine- 
yards yield in good years about 80 pipes of excellent wine. It 
is quite disgusting (= da nojo). Let us not listen (== da,r ouvi- 
dos) to such odious insinuations. Give this book to your father. 
I wind up my watch every morning after [depots do) breakfast. 
You pay (give) no attention to what I am saying. The clock of 
St. Paul's church struck (dar) seven. Your speculation will 


yield (dar) little profit (luero). They struck (dar em) the old 
man with bludgeons. Our captain ran (dar com) the vessel 
ashore. Turn your head, so that (de maneira que) the sun will 
not shine (dar, subj. pres.) into your eyes. I resigned (dar baixa) 
some years ago. You will give account of your conduct to your 
superior. It would be better for your health, if you took a long 
walk every morning, instead of sleeping till nine o'clock. Here 
is the book which I had given to your cousin. Should he give 
to you permission to (para) go out, would you have (condit.) 
the kindness to deliver this letter to Mr. A. ? This is very clear 
(= isto da nos olhos). 

Our country stands on (sobre) a volcano. I am not ill. You 
are in danger. He was then in Berlin. The books lay on (em- 
cima de) the table. We are in the power of a generous enemy. 
You are lost! (They) say that she is dying (= estar para 
morrer). Where have you been ? (hist, pret.) We were at Mr. 
A.'s. The weather was very bad. On the first of June I shall 
be with you. Where can he be ? (fut. of estar.) If this had not 
happened, we should still be there. Though I am very poor, I 
would (queria) not change [places] with you. Perhaps (tafoez 
que) she is ill. Should they be absent, deliver the letter to one 
of the clerks. Be ready on the 2d of March ! Let us be pre- 
pared for any contingency. 


Temer a Deos e amar aos nossos proximos sao os principaes 
preceitos da religiao christaa. Francois Eavaillac assassinou a 
Henrique IV., rei da Franca, em 1610. Antonio mandou (or- 
dered) matar a Oicero. Os Komanos expulsarao a Tarquinio o 
soberbo no anno de 509 antes de Jesus-Christo. 

S. M. o imperador nomeou presidente da provincia de P. ao 
Sr. barao de M. Meu cunhado foi nomeado tenente-coronel. A 
sua nomeacSo de collector das rendas foi revogada. A assembles 


entao elegeu um presidente. O Sr. F. foi eleito {elected) secreta- 
rio. O povo o (him) proclamou rei. O governo os (them) fez 
(made) responsaveis. D'esta maneira elle se tornou (= became) 
indispensavel. A noite se esta tomando tempestuosa. Eu o fiz 
(made) socio. De soldado elle se tornou frade. Esta ficando frio 
(= it is getting cold). O tempo esta esfriando. Estas ficando 
velho (= envelhecendo). Elles ficarao ricos (se tornarao r., 
enriquecerao) por especulacoes pouco louvaveis. Fiquei fraco 
como uma crianca. Esta ficando tarde. Ella ficou (tornou) ver- 
melha como uma cereja. — Eu chamo isto descaramento. Meu 
pai o (him) chamou de ladrao. 

Nao posso (/ can not) ler com esta luz. Nao leio semelhantes 
livros. Leia isto ! Eu nunca li aquelle livro sem um certo sen- 
timento d'inveja. Passeiavamos juntos, liamos os mesmos livros, 
cantavamos e tocavamos juntos. O que esta o Sr. lendo ? Ja 
tenho lido isto. A leitura de taes livros 6 esteril. Ha um 
gabinete de leitura (reading-room, library) n'esta cidade? Oha- 
mamos a attengao dos leitores a este capitulo. — Nao posso crir 
que elle seja tao vil. Creio que o filho do Sr. F. e padre. Nao 
creia V. S. que eu seja algum impostor. Os nossos credores nao 
aceitarao estas condigoes. A crenca dos fatalistas 6 pouco con- 
soladora. — Quanto perderao Vm°^ a com este negocio ? Pouca 
cousa. Creia o Sr. que mais perco n'isto do que ganho n'aquillo. 
Pode bem ser que elle perca o seu emprego por causa da sua 
negligencia. Nao quero que Vm c « s percao um s6 real. As nossas 
perdas forao pouco consideraveis. — Quanto pode isto valer ? Nao 
vale nada. Um servico vale outro. Mais vale (or antes, = 
rather) morrer do que ser escravo. Valeu ! (= done ! I accept!) 
Valho pouco como orador, e ainda menos como poeta. Nao 
creio que isto valha a pena (vale a pena, =it is worth while) para 
que Vm«« se (yourself) incommode. Yalha-me Deos ! (God help 
me !) O que me valeu (helped me, saved me) na minba desgraca, 
foi a minba perseveranca. Este complimento lhe (to him, him) 
valeu (got, procured) o titulo de conselbeiro. — Quando escreverd 
Vm<* a Sra. sua irmaa ? Escrevi hontem. Isto esta muito bem 
escripto. A lettra escripta 6 mais diffioil a ler do que a lettra 
impressa. Esta escripta nao e feia. Os escriptores nao sao 
d'aocordo sobre este ponto. 



The accusative (object.) case is, in Portuguese, sometimes dis- 
tinguished by the preposition a ; this is, however, only the case 
with names of persons (or personal pronouns). It is generally 
done when the object emphatically precedes the verb, as : a meu 
irmao elle odeia como a uma cobra, my brother he hates like a 
snake. Otherwise it is more a construction of the elevated 'style 
than of common conversation. 

The factitive object has no article, as : the king made him a 
baron, o rei ofez barao. The synonymous verbs to turn, become, 
grow, get are rendered by tornar-se (or tornar) andftcar; the 
original signification of the latter is to remain, but it is (princi- 
pally in familiar language) used, just like to get, for the reflective 
tornar-se or the neuter tornar. There are many verbs derived 
from adjectives, indicating a growing or becoming, and making, 
as enriquecer, to make or grow rich, envelhecer, to grow old, en- 
gordar, to fatten or grow stout, etc., from rico, velho, gordo. — 
The factitive object of chamar, to call, to give a name, has the 
preposition de, when it is an epithet of praise or blame, as : elle 
me chamou de ladrao, de mentiroso, he called me a thief, a 
liar, etc. 

The first class of irregular verbs of the second conjugation 
comprises the verbs ler to read, crer to believe, perder to lose, 
valer to be worth. The present indicative of ler is leio, lis, IS, 
lemos, ledes, lem (leem); present subjunctive leia ; imperative le, 
lede ; all other forms are regular : lia, li, lesse, ler, lera, lerei, 
leria, Undo, lido. Crer is conjugated in the same manner ; of its 
forms those belonging to the present tense (present indicative 
and subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and present participle) are 
most in use ; its other forms are, when the sense admits of it, 
substituted from pensar, to think, to believe. (The transitive to 
believe, i. e. to give credit to what is said or told, is acreditar.) 
Perder and valer are irregular only in the first person singular 
of the present indicative, and in the whole of the present sub- 
junctive : indicative eu perco, tu perdes, etc. ; subjunctive eu 
perca, tu percas, etc. ; indicative eu valho, tu vales, etc. ; sub- 
junctive eu valha, tu valhas, etc. Some write, in the third per- 


son singular of the present indicative, val for vale, but this is 
incorrect and not generally adopted. — Escrever is regular, ex- 
cept in the past participle, escripto (pronounced, and sometimes 
written, escrito) • the regular form escrevido is obsolete. 


The government has appointed a commission of three cap- 
tains, in order to (para) examine the new invention of Lieutenant 
M. The minister of the interior (do reino in Portugal, do im- 
perio in Brazil) has appointed Mr. A. president of the committee 
of, etc. Mr. L. was elected speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives (deputados). She called him a villain. His hair turned 
grey (branco) in one night. My poor father grew old before the 
time. In this way (d'este modo, d'esta maneira) you will grow 
rich in less than two years. They are becoming troublesome. 
He is getting very old. From lawyer he turned priest. It is 
growing dark (ficar escuro, escurecer). He grew pale with (de) 

Where did you read this ? Our hoy still reads with some 
difficulty. The old man always read a chapter of the Bible, be- 
fore going to bed (antes de deitar-se). I am reading a very in- 
teresting work on physiology. She had read the letter of her 
nephew, and was rather (assaz) anxious about him (acerca d'elle). 
Do not read so fast ; read slowly and distinctly (distinctamente). 
Do you think (crer) that he will come? I think not (que nod). 
Do you believe (acreditar) this ? Believe me, he is innocent. 
May be (pdde ser que) you will lose (pres. subj.) your sight. All 
is lost. I lose no opportunity of being (de ser) useful to my 
country. You will not wish (querer) that I lose my reputation. 
If you lose this opportunity, perhaps you will find no other. If 
I had lost this money, I should be a beggar now. They are not 
worth the salt which they eat. How much do you think that 
this watch is worth ? It will be worth fifty dollars. This is not 
worth so much trouble. Perhaps (por ventura) I am not worth 
as much (tanto) as he? It is not worth my while (= nao me 
vale a pena). May be it is worth while going there (ir Id). [To 
be worth, in the sense of to possess, to have, is rendered possuir, 

lesson xxxvn. 125 

ter ; f. i. he is worth at least a hundred thousand dollars, elle 
tern, etc. ; what may he be worth ? quanto terd elle ?] Who 
wrote this ? I wrote it (o, before the verb). To whom are you 
writing? He has written several treatises on {sobre) this subject 


Vm° 6 respondeu a esta carta ? Com muita dimculdade esca- 
pamos ao furor da populaca. Resist! ao primeiro impulso da 
c61era ! Ella nao sobreviveu muito tempo d perda de todos os 
seus fllhos. Agradeceste a esta senhora por {for) sua bondade ? 
Ajude um pouco a este menino ! Devo a este homem todo o 
meu infortunio. Elle foi removido do seu posto por ter {for 
having) desobedecido ds ordens do seu superior. F. ordenou aos 
seus criados que mettessem aquelle sujeito & porta f6ra {to throw 
. . . out of the door). O mestre prohibira isto aos meninos. A 
quem pediu Vm c « licenca para sahir ? Pedi ao nosso amo. Pro- 
metti dquelles malandros um castigo exemplar. Quando era 
menino, elle roubava dinheiro a sua mai ; agora que e homem. 
elle rouba a todos. Isto nao agradara a muita gente. Pergunte 
isto a seu pai ! Eu ensinava o inglez a dous mocos muito in- 
telligentes. Quero muito bem (querer bem, = to like, to love) a 
ambos. Quem supprira a esta falta? Paguei a importancia 
d'esta conta ao Sr. seu pai. Isto equivale a um castigo. Nao 
posso dar a Vm cS o que recusei ao Sr. seu irmao. 

Vm c6 esta molhado, precisa que mude de roupa. Mudei de 
intento. Elle muda ^'opiniao como de roupa. O meu novo 
criado nao me agrada; desconfio da sua honradez. Faltar de 
respeito aos seus pais 6 um grande peccado. F. gozava cTalguma 
reputacao como artista dramatico. Vm c8 gosta de laranjas ? Vm eS 
usa de expressoes muito improprias. Nao me foi dado o tempo 
de fruir do repouso esperado. Triumphastes dos vossos inimigos. 

Nao posso sahir agora. Tu nao podes com elle {familiar, = 
he is too strong or too clever for you). Podemos ir ? Nao podeis 


nada contra esta pressao da opiniao publica. Que posso fazer 
para Ym 08 ? Nao creio que o Sr. possa fazer cousa alguma em 
nosso favor. Tenhao tudo prompto, para que possamos partir 
quanto antes (as soon as possible). Nao pude (pret. hist.) fallar 
com elle. Tu pudeste trahir o teu melhor amigo ? O Sr. nao 
pode arranjar este negocio ? Nao pudemos alcancar o nosso fim. 
Se o meu filho pudesse vir, elle estaria aqui ha muito tempo. 
Vm c6 pague quando puder. O commandante nao pudera des- 
cobrir quern era o espiao. Porque nao escreveu o Sr. mais cedo ? 
Nao tenho podido. — Algum dos Srs. sale latim ? Eu sei. Pode 
ser que elle saioa do negocio. Nao que eu saiba (not that I Jcnoto 
of). Nao sabia que Vm cS era doutor. So hoje eu soube (heard, 
learned) que Vm c6 estava doente. Tu soubeste isto, e nao me 
procuraste ? ladrao soube lograr todos os esforcos da policia. 
Logo que (as soon as) soubemos esta triste noticia, montamos a 
cavallo e partimos para a casa de B. Se eu soubesse o que nao 
sei ! Quando tu souberes fallar francez, entao eu te comprarei 
um cavallo. Elle soubera subtrahir-se a justica. Ella nao sabe 
nem ler nem escrever. Saber inglez, e conhecer a lingua ingleza, 
sao duas cousas differentes. Eu sei fallar inglez, mas nao pre- 
tendo conhecer esta lingua a fundo (thoroughly). Conheces este 
homem ? Nao o conheco, mas sei que elle e Inglez. — Hoje nao 
p6de haver espectaculo, por causa da chuva. S. M. o imperador 
bouve por bem (graciously resolved) acceitar o protectorado da 
nossa sociedade. J a nao havia agua nos tanques e nas cisternas. 
Pensei que howoesse concerto hoje. Quando homier flores, eu te 
enviarei um ramo cada dia ; agora nao as (them) ha (now there 
are none). Dous proveitos nao cabem n'um sacco [an adage]. 
P6de ser que o quadro caiba n'este caixao. Isto nao cabe no 
meu poder. Na casa nao cabia toda a gente. Ooube ao Sr. conde 
de L. de presidir. Seria melhor se o piano coubesse entre estas 
duas portas. Mas nao caberia t Creio que nao. — Tenho muito 
prazer em ver V. S. Praza a Deos ! (would to God.) Prouve 
(or aprouve) ao Omnipotente chamar a si (to Himself) o meu 
filhinho. Prouvera! (i. e. prouvera a Deos, would to God!) 
Nao me apraz (= it pleases me not), kqaijazem os restos mor- 
taes de F. " Aqui jaz a alma do licenciado Pedro Garcia." 

lesson xxxvn. 127 


A number of verbs, that in English have a direct object 
(accusative), require in Portuguese the preposition a with this 
object (dative). They are chiefly the following : the verbs sig- 
nifying to ask, beg, answer, escape, please, assure, teach, thank, 
steal, pay, cost, refuse, envy, remedy, resist, satisfy, equal, aid, 
and perhaps a few more. There are some other verbs, which 
require the preposition de : mudar, to change, gostar, to like, 
gozar, to enjoy, precisar, to want, mar, to use, abusar, to abuse, 
confiar, to trust, desconfiar, to mistrust or suspect, fruir, to en- 
joy. The verbs to admit, to accept, which in English require 
the preposition of, have in Portuguese the direct object : admittir, 
aceitar alg. cousa. 

Irregular verbs : 1) Pooler, to be able (I can, could) ; present 
indicative posso, podes, pode, podemos, podeis,podem (mark the 
accent); present subjunctive, possa; preterit historical, pude, 
pudeste, pode, pudemos, etc.; pudesse; puder; pudera (or po- 
desse, poder, podera, but u is preferable). 2) Saber, to know ; 
present indicative, sei, sabes, etc.; subjunctive, saiba; preterit 
historical, soube (pronounce sube), soubeste, soube (pronounce sobe), 
etc. ; soubesse ; souber ; soubera. 3) Caber, to be contained, = 
saber. 4) Haver. 5) JPrazer and aprazer, to please, and 6) 
jazer, to lie, are defective and only used in certain phrases ; in 
the third person singular of the present indicative they have 
praz (apraz), jaz ; subjunctive, praza, jaza; preterit historical, 
prouve, jome (the latter obsolete). 

The difference between the auxiliary verbs poder (to be able, 
I can, may) and saber (to know) is obvious : nao posso Ur, be- 
cause it is too dark, my eyes are too weak, etc. ; nao sei Mr, be- 
cause I did not learn it. Not so the difference between saber 
and conhecer ; the examples in A. give a correct idea of this dif- 
ference. To know a person is always conhecer. [For those who 
know French, it will suffice to remember, that poder, saber, 
conhecer correspond exactly with pouvoir, savoir, connaitre.] 


His speech pleased everybody. When shall you answer my 


letter of the 25th last? (= do mez passado.) Whom am I to 
thank {dew agradecer) for (por) this favor? How are your 
children ? They are all well (born), thank God (gragas a Deos). 
How much do I owe you ? You owe this to the memory of your 
mother. He resisted the temptations of wealth and fame. F. 
did not survive long the loss of his wife. I taught my children 
to (a) speak the truth and to respect the laws. Who taught you 
(the, for a Vm ci ) this ? I can not refuse this man my assistance. 
You aided my son in his efforts to {para) gain an honorable 
position. In {de) what manner shall we be able to remedy this 
evil ? This may cost your brother his life (transl. the life to 
your brother). I begged your father to consider (= that he 
should consider) the consequences of this step. Did you ask 
Mr. M. about {acerea de) the house which we were going to buy 
(= iamos comprar)1 — Do you like (are you fond of) peaches? 
I do not like that man. You enjoy the reputation of a most 
honest man. Until to-day I have not changed (my) opinion 
with regard to {a respeito de) his conduct. We want a more 
energetic man than he (is). You mistrust your best friends. 
These rumors want {carecer) confirmation. 

Can you go out ? I can not dance in these shoes. She could 
not resist the temptation. Speak loud, so that ( para que) all 
can hear. If I could alter this state of things, I should not have 
waited until now. We shall not be able to attend {a companhar) 
the funeral. I shall pay this bill as soon as {assim que) I shall 
be able (subj. fut.). You may go. May I come in ? — Can you 
write ? Yes, I can. We did not know where you lived {morar). 
Only yesterday I learned {saber) that Mr. and Mrs. F. (o Sr. F. e 
sua senhora) had arrived. He could not answer these questions. 
I can not answer this question, because the secret is not mine. 
If you knew what I know, you would not go there. When he 
will know this, I believe that he will go mad {tornar loueo). 
This is known all over (= in all) the town. I do not know him 
personally {pessoalmente), but I know that he is an officer of 
cavalry. This lad knows almost every house of the town. I 
doubt that he knows where I am. — So many persons {gente) do 
not go {caber) into this vessel. The theatre did not hold {caber; 


transl. in the theatre) the multitude of spectators. — No doubt ! 
(= there is no doubt.) There was a terrific thunderstorm in the 
neighborhood of B. Let there be (que nao h.) no noise here. — 
It pleased God to visit our family with great misfortunes. Would 
to God that we were out (livres) of this danger I There lie the 
ruins of the mighty city of Carthage (Carthago). Here lies our 
little son. 


Tenha a bondade de mt; trazer os livros que lhe (to you, you) 
tenho emprestado. " Aqui vos trago guerra e paz: escolhei!" 
O que trazes n'este sacco ? Elle traz o signal da infamia na testa. 
Quern esta a testa d'aquella empreza ? Alguns jornaes trazem a 
noticia do fallecimento do Sr. bispo de P. Ella trazia (wore) 
uma rosa no cabello. Quern trouxe (pronounced tr&ce) esta carta? 
Eu a (it) trouxe (ou = u). Trouxeste o dinheiro? Trouxemos 
os papeis de que Vm cS fallou. Eu trarei tudo quanto f&r neces- 
sario. Se tivessemos sabido isto, teriamos trazido alguns amigos 
para ajudar aos Srs. Vm d quer que eu traga a minha rabeca ? 
Traga uma vela ! Traga luz ! (bring a light.) Traga fogo ! (a 
light, to light a cigar with.) Traze o teu irmao. Ella me man- 
don dizer (sent me word) que eu trouxesse o retrato da minha 
irmaa. Quando o Sr. trouxer os livros que eu lhe (you) empres- 
tei, entao lhe darei estes. Trazei os prisioneiros ! Leve este 
vestido a D. Maria. Levei os meninos a escola. O criado levou 
a carta, mas nao trouxe resposta. 

Quern 6 aquelle sujeito ? Nao sei dizer. Nao diyo o contra- 
rio. Que dizes ! (= >you don't say so !) Ella diz isto por brin- 
cadeira (or por brincar, in jest). O que dizem os Srs. a isto ? 
Meu pai sempre dizia que um hyp6crita, um adulador, um in- 
trigante e um preguicoso erao igualmente (equally) despreziveis. 
Eu nao disse isto para offender a Vm cS . Elle me dime que talvez 
nao podia vir hoje. O que disserao elles a este respeito ? Elle 
nao disse mais palavra. El-rei dissera que nao abandonaria este 

130 lesson xxxvm. 

projecto. Eu direi tudo ao Sr. seu pai. O que dirao elles, 
quando souberem isto ! Muitos diriao que elle estava louco. 
Precisa que eu diga isto a meu amo. Nao diga isso ! Diga a 
verdade ! Diga-me {I say !). Se eu dissesse tudo o que sei, seria 
peior para Vm e8 . Se ella disser que sim, precisara que Ym^ 
escreva logo a minha mai. O que esta o Sr. dizendo ? Isto nao 
diz respeito {does not regard) a Sra. sua tia. O Sr. padre F. dira 
amanhaa, na igreja de S. Pedro, uma missa para o eterno repouso 
do fallecido Sr. N. Diga adeos (good lye) a papai. Isto nao 
quer dizer nada. Que quer dizer isto ? (what does that mean ?) 
Nao tenho dito isto. Esta dito ! (done !) 

Nao sei fazer isto. Eu faeo isto s6mente (only) para agradar 
ao Sr. O que fazem elles agora? Isto nao faz differenga. Nao 
faz frio. O meu relogio me faz muita falta (/ miss my watch 
very much). Todas as semanas faziamos pequenas excursoes. Eu 
fiz (pret. hist.) um requerimento a camara municipal. Fizeste o 
que eu disse ? Vm eS fez o que nao devia fazer. Hontem fez 
trinta annos que cheguei a esta cidade. Nao flzemos easo (we 
paid no attention) d'essas calumnias. Elles flzercio quanto (as 
■much as, whatever) podiao. Eu fizera todos os esforcos, mas em 
vao. Seria preciso que eu mesmo fizesse tudo. Se fizer muito 
frio esta noite, Vm c8 podera flcar em casa. No proximo anno 
eu farei uma viagem para Lisboa. Amanhaa ford quinze dias 
. (a fortnight) que elle partiu. O que faremos agora? Se eu 
estivesse na posicao do Sr., faria o mesmo. Muitos fariao outro- 
tanto. Que quer que eu faca? (what will you have me do?) 
Facamos todos os esforcos, para que elles nao nos ganhem (over- 
take). Nao facao barulho ! Faca-me o favor (or simply faca 
favor, do me the favor, be so hind, please) de fechar aquella porta. 
Isto tem feito muito mal ao Sr. Para satisfazer a sua vaidade, 
elle seria capaz de sacrificar os interesses mais sagrados. Vm cS 
esta satisfeito ? Hontem fiz annos (= was my Mrthday). Quantos 
annos fez ? Tenho agora 25 annos. Depois d'amanhaa (the day 
after to-morrow) tu faras 14 annos. Faca forca ! (= pull, push, 
etc., hard !) Os soldados fizerao fogo (fired) sobre a multidao 
inerme. Esta noticia fez com que partissemos mais cedo (made 
us, caused us to start sooner). Dito, feito (said and done). 


Irregular verbs: trazer, to bring, to wear, dizer, to say, to 
tell, fazer, to do, to make. — Present indicative, trago, trazes, 
traz, trazemos, etc. ; digo, dizes, diz, dizemos, etc. ; /ago, fazes, 
faz, fazemos, etc. ; present subjunctive, traga, diga, faga; pre- 
terit historical, trouxe, disse (dice), fiz, fizeste, fez, fizemos, etc. ; 
its derivatives trouxesse, dissesse, fizesse; trouxer, disser, fizer; 
trouxera, dissera, fizera ; past participle, trazido, dito,feito. 

The letter x in trovxe and its derivatives is pronounced ss; ou 
= u in the first person singular of the preterit historical (as in 
soube, from saber). Disse and its derivatives are written by some 
dice, dicesse, etc., and dicto for dito. 

The student will have observed that the personal pronouns, 
when objects of the verb (whether accusative or dative) are gen- 
erally placed before the finite verb ; they are in the accusative 
me, te, o (him, it), a (her, it), nos, vos (without accent, o almost 
= u), os, as (them) ; dative = accusative, except in the third 
person singular, Ihe (to him, to her, to it, or him, etc.), plural 
Ihes (to them, them). The latter, referring to Ym<&, stand for 
to you, you; the accusative, o, a, etc., relating to Vm<^, are 
rather avoided. See Lesson VI. 

Here I bring something which will please the children. The 
empress wore a diadem of immense value. Did you bring these 
flowers ? Our vessel brought from France a great assortment 
of ladies' bonnets (chapeos de senhora) of the latest (ultimo) 
fashion. I shall bear (trazer) this in mind (na memoria). He 
had brought his cousin, in order to confirm the truth of his 
assertion. Shall I (= will you that I) bring the newspaper of 
to-day ? It would be more convenient for me (para mim), if 
you brought my bill on the 3d of every month. When they 
bring the chairs, they may take with them (= levar) the round 
table that stands in the little parlor (salinha). Bring some (um 
pouco de) water ! Bring your girls [with you]. — I dare not say 
what I think. I do not say that you have stolen the money. 
Nobody says that. You do not say what you think. I did not 


understand a word of what he said. "Who said so (into) ? Many 
said that he had died of a wound received in the battle of M. 
Though (ainda que) they all (= all they) say the contrary, I 
know that it is true. Tell to your master, that I shall go there 
this afternoon. If men said all (tudo o que) they think, we should 
hear many unexpected things. My son will tell you where those 
people live. They will say that they had no time. "What would 
your father say, if he knew this? Who should have said (= 
would say) this of Mr. E. ? I have said this twice, but I shall 
say it no more (= I shall not it say more). — A child could not 
do this. What are you doing ? I do not care for (= fazer caso 
de) what they say. The Indians of this tribe make many curious 
things of wood and horn. It is very hot. Never mind ! (nao 
faz mal.) At the time of Homer (Homero) the Greeks made 
their arms of copper or bronze. I made a parcel of some clothes 
and departed before sunrise. This affair did you great harm 
(muito mal). The rats made a hole in the bottom of the piano. 
We did all we could. If I did what they want, I should be a 
great fool. We took the intrenchments, without that (sem que, 
with the subj.) the enemies made the least resistance. Should 
he make difficulties, you will tell him that I wish it so. This 
will make little difference. We shall do all that may be in our 
power. "What should you do, if you were in my place ?' Do me 
the favor to tell Mr. L. that I shall be ready in two hours. 
Please give me a glass of water. He has done what was possible. 
This likeness was made in 1830. She wore a bracelet made of 
the hair of her two children. I do not miss him (= elle nao me 



Nao quero que os meus filhos sejao vadios. Que me queres? 
(= what do you want of me ?) Quer CVm c &) tomar um pouco de 
vinho? Nos todos queremos ser felizes. O que querem estes 
homens ? Elles nao queriao entrar. Eu quiz vir, mas nao pude. 


Til nao quizeste fazer o que eu te disseVa. D. Anna nao quiz 
aceitar o presents do seu primo. Vm c8s o quizerao assim ; agora 
ja nao ha remedio. Eu quizera (or tomaraj que elle chegasse (I 
wish he would tome). Meu pai quizera que eu estudasse medi- 
cina. V. S. nao qnererd a vergonha dos mens filhos. Ellas nao 
quererao entrar. O menino o fez sem quever (could not help it). 
Ninguem pode querer bem (like, love) a um menino mentiroso. 
Meus queridos (beloved, dear) filhos ! Nao creia o Sr. que eu lhe 
queira mal (hate you, wish you ill). Ja nao podes, ainda que 
queiras. Talvez que elle queira vender a sua ohacara. Queira 
entrar ! (please come in, step in.) Vm c » nao quer entrar ? Se 
eu quizesse fazer mal aos meus inimigos, esta seria a occasiao. 
Nao poderiamos recuar agora, ainda que quizessemos. O Sr. 
pode ir quando quizer (whenever you like). Digao o que qui- 
zerem, nao posso acreditar isto. Elle foi bemquisto (liked, popu- 
lar) em toda a cidade. Para obter isto elle requereu ao governa- 
dor, etc. 

F. nao quiz ver seu filho. Nao vejo differenca entre os dous. 
Ves as consequencias da tua loucura ? Vm cS ve que eu tenho 
razao. Vemos isto todos os dias. V6s vedes a insuflioiencia dos 
esforcos humanos contra a furia dos elementus. Agora elles 
veem que forgo enganados. Eu via que nao podia succeder, por 
isto desisti logo. Oada vez que viao de longe uma carruagem, 
ellas pensavao que eramos nos. Eu nao vi que Vm eS estava la. 
Nao viste o meu cachorrinho ? Ninguem me viu, quando entrei. 
N6s vimos um cavalleiro chegar a porta do hotel. Vos vistes os 
eflfeitos da vossa incuria. Muitos virao este phenomeno. Eu 
verei o que poderei fazer. Veremos ! Elle diz isto para que 
Vm cS veja a sua boa vontade. Veja se isto esta direito. Se 
Vm* visse o pobre Carlos, nao o reconheceria. Quando virmos 
que elle tern bastante capacidade, nos lhe daremos este emprego ; 
antes nao. Veja so ! Vede o que tendes feito ! Nao o tenho 
visto ha muito. Minha irmaa 6 tiio myope, que nao enxerga 
d'aqui at6 o fim da rua. Isto faz mal a vista. 

Um so dia nao chega (or basta) para por isto em ordem. Nao 
ponho em duvida a vossa boa intenciio. Porque nao poes os tens 
livros em ordem? Esta declaracao poe fim as nossas diseussoes, 


Nunca nos pomos a meza sem rezar. Vos pondes a vossa con- 
fianga em vossos bens terrestres. Agora as gallinhas nao poem 
ovos. A que horas quer Vm c <> que eu ponha a meza? Ponha- 
se {place yourself) no meu lugar. O seu descuido punha em 
perigo continuo a existencia de nos todos. Eu me pus a correr 
(began to run). Tu puzeste todos os meus papeis na maior desor- 
dem. O exercito se poz em marcha. Elle se p6z ao largo (took 
to his heels, cut). Puzemos a casa em estado de defeza. Elles se 
puzerao do lado do partido venoedor. Isto pord fim aquelles 
escandalos. Ella desejara que eu puzesse isto aparte. Feliz- 
mente elle se tinha posto ao abrigo dos seus poderosos amigos. 
Pondo todas as consideracoes de lado, eu so pensava em salvar o 
meu amigo da perigosa situacao em que a sua imprudencia o 
tinha mettido. Aquelles deputados se oppunhao a qualquer 
especie de oompromisso. Supponhamos (or ponhamos o caso) 
que isto estivesse em nosso poder. O Sr. F. compoz um diccio- 
nario latino de grande merito. Forao elles que propuzerao a 
introduccao dos negros esoravos. Ponha-se em p6 ! (stand up !) 

Irregular verbs: 1) Querer, to want, will, wish, desire-, pres- 
ent indicative, quero (e), queres, quer, queremos, etc. ; present 
subjunctive, queira ; preterit historical, quiz, quizeste, quiz, etc., 
its derivatives quizera, quizesse, quizer. The derivative reque- 
rer, to require, demand, petition, has the preterit historical regu- 
lar, requeri, etc. ; the past participle quisto is only found in bem- 
quisto, beloved, popular, and malquisto, hated (malquistar-se, to 
make one's self unpopular, to fall out with sb.). 2) Ver, to see ; 
present indicative, vejo, ves, ve, vemos, vedes, teem; present sub- 
junctive, veja; preterit historical, vi, viste, viu, etc., after the 
third conjugation; its derivatives, vira, visse, vir; imperative, ve, 
nede ; past participle, visto. 3) Ter, to have. 4) Por (for poer), 
to put, set ; present indicative, ponho, poes, poe, pomos, pondes, 
poem; present subjunctive, ponha; preterit descriptive, punha; 
preterit historical, puz, puzeste, poz, puzemos, etc. ; its derivatives, 
puzera, puzesse, puzer ; future, porei (losing the circumflex) ; im- 
perative, poe,ponde; present participle, pondo ; past participle, 


Querer, according to its meaning, can have no imperative ; 
queira (like the French veuillez) is only an expression of polite- 
ness or entreaty, as queira entrar, queira perdoar. This verb is 
both auxiliary and independent ; in the latter sense it is ren- 
dered in English by to want or will have, as : nao quero isto, que 
quer que eufaga ? (what will you have me do?). — The difference 
between ver and enxergar is best seen in the following example : 
o eego (blind) nao ve, o myope nao enxerga hem. — Por, with its 
compounds (compor, oppor, suppor, etc.), has been considered by 
some as a fourth conjugation, but without any necessity, as it 
really belongs to the second conjugation {por = poef). 

I want to see some patterns of gold lace. Will you not come 
in ? What do you want ? We will not have but {senao) what 
is ours. He wanted me to give (= that I should give) him the 
money. She would not come. They wanted to fire (incendiar) 
the bridge, but they did not succeed. You will want your 
money, but I can not yet pay so large an amount. I do not 
think that he wants to cheat me (lograr-me). Pray accept this 
little token of gratitude. If I wanted to buy a horse, I should 
choose a better one. If we wanted to do this, we should easily 
(facilmente) find the means. Do as you like. They may go 
out whenever they like. — You see that my mother was right. I 
do not see what this has [to do] with our plan. In such times 
we often see the most sublime patriotism side by side with (ao 
lado de) the basest treason. They see an enemy in every 
foreigner. All this time we saw the danger come (= come the 
danger). I did not see the botanical garden, because I had no 
time. Did you see the comet ? They say that they saw a tiger 
in yonder wood. Let us see ! Let them see that there is justice 
in this country ! If I saw the least chance of success, I should 
not say a word against your project. If you saw what they have 
done in so short a time, yon would be astonished. When we 
shall see the necessity of buying a carriage, then we shall buy 
one. We shall see ! That old man has seen six kings mount 
(wdir a) the throne. — I suppose that he has gone to France. 


This action presupposes a very high degree of perversity. Man 
proposes, God disposes. The gentlemen propose a walk ; do the 
ladies accept ? Put aside (de lado) your private enmities and 
defend your country against the common enemy. They sup- 
posed that we would take part in their enterprise. The rebels 
laid down (depor) the arms. He laid (depor) the child on (em) 
the steps of the church-door and disappeared. I exposed my 
motives, and they declared themselves (se derao por) satisfied. 
He had put in jeopardy his fortune and even his life. I shall 
dispose of my property (bens, m. pi.), so that (de sorte or maneira 
que) all be satisfied. Put these books in order ! It is time that 
we expose the infamous proceedings of that individual. If N. 
put his name at the head (testa) of the subscription, I do not 
doubt but (que) you would bring together (ajuntar) a consider- 
able sum. 


Nao quero ouvir semelhantes despropositos. Elle nao own 
quasi nada. Onvi dizer que F. esta para morrer. Vm c ^ ja tera 
ouvido fallar n'isso. Nao oupo o que Vm<* diz. Oupa ! A igreja 
nos prescreve que oucamos missa em cada domingo e dia sancto. 
Oupao isto ! Ouvi a voz da consciencia ! Nao de ouvidos aos 
queixumes infundados d'aquelles homens. O ouvido (hearing) 6 
o segundo dos cinco sensos. Dizem que a dor dos ouvidos k 
peior do que a dor de dentes. Os selvagens Ihe cortarao o nariz 
e as orelhas. Esta musica atordoa os ouvidos. — E prohibido 
pedir esmolas (mendigar) pelas ruas d'esta cidade. Pepo des- 
culpa ao Sr. (I beg your pardon) por nao ter mandado os livros 
mais cedo. Pega licenca ao Sr. seu pai I Nao pepas o que 6 im- 
possivel ! Nao posso perdoar isto, ainda que Vm* todos pecao 
por elle (intercede, beg for him). Pedl perdao dos vossos pecca- 
dos ! Elles nao quizerao attender ao meu pedido. — Mandamos 
medi/r o panno (we had the cloth measured), e achamos tres cova- 
dos de menos. Eu meco isto pelo pe cubico. Meca este papeU 


alfaiate me tomou medida para um sobretudo e um par de 
calcas de easimira. — Elle nao costuma mentir. Nao minto. 
Mentes ! Se elle disse isto, mentiu. Nao mintas ! Que men- 
tira ! Estes pregos nao servem. Eu nao sirvo para semelhante 
emprego. Nos servimos a um bom amo. Pode ser que este 
papel sirva. Sirva-se! (help yourself.) O nosso servico nao era 
dos mais pesados. Vm 04 le tao ligeiro que eu nao posso seguir. 
O que segue e menos iinportante. Eu sigo sempre os vossos con- 
selhos. Siga-me ! (follow me.) Sigamos o exemplo dos nossos 
antepassados ! O vapor seguiu viagem (continued her route, 
went on) para B. Qual d'estes cavallos prefere o Sr. ? Preflro 
os chapeos de palha aos outros. Talvez que elle prefira um 
piano de meza (square piano). Desde que quebrei este braco, 
nao me posso veslir so. Nao me v isto ainda. Vista-se depressa ! 
Alguns jornaes nao cessao de aggredir a nova administracao por 
causa das medidas tomadas para a suppressao das sociedades 
seoretas. Este correspondente do Jornal das Modas aggride o 
nosso artista com muita acrimonia. As sciencias, as artes, a in- 
dustria, o commercio progridem sob a vossa generosa proteccao 
com passos agigantados. Deixe as criancas dormir ! Nao durmo 
n'este quarto. Agora elle dorme o s6no dos justos. Estou com 
sono (/ am sleepy). Fug'% das tentacoes da ambicao ! Porque 
fogesf Elle nao foge. Os immigos fogem ! Fujamos! As aguas 
do rio estao subindo. Suba! (come or go up.) Quem sobet O 
preco d'aquelles generos subiu muito desde o anno passado. Uma 
grande multidao acudiu aos gritos da pobre mulher. Ninguem 
ouve, ninguem acode ! Oristovao Colombo descubriu a America 
em 1492. Se elle discobre isto, tu estas perdido. — A nossa porca 
pariu hontem. A leoa respondeu as zombarias da rap6sa, 
dizendo : " E verdade que pairo um so filho, mas e um leao." 
Isto Aevia. produzir um effeito magico. Aquella Tprovincia, produz 
vinho de superior qualidade. O sol luz para todos. Aonde 
conduz este caminho ? As pretensoes d'aquella gente me fazem 
rir. Eu rio das vossas ameacas. Porque te ris t Este bobo ri 
de tudo. Hoje rides, amanhaa talvez chorareis. As criancas 
riem e chorao com igual facilidade. Elles riao as gargalhadas 
(they shouted with laughter). Pprque estd rindo ? Eu nao me 


ri. Eis aqui a prova do que eu disse : ria agora ! O riso dos 
perversos e mao signal. F. affrontou as risadas da platea com o 
maior sangue-frio. 

Nao pudemos vir mais cedo. Quando vira este tempo ? Eu 
venho para convidar os Srs. a um pequeno entretenimento que 
meu pai tenciona dar sabbado proximo. Venho tarde ? {am I 
too late?) Donde vensf Qnando vem seu irmao? N6s vimos 
para pedir desouipa da nossa falta involuntaria. V6s vindes para 
ver o vosso triumpho. Estas cartas vem a tempo. Tm"* quer 
que eu venha as duas? Deixe que venhao! {let them come.) 
Venha ca! Eu vinha da igreja, e elles vinhao da casa d'um 
conhecido. Parece que eu vim (pret. hist.) em ma hora. " Vim, 
vi, venci." Ja vieste ? Ella veiu varias vezes. N6s memos 
d'aquelle lugar em menos de quatro boras. Viestes em boa hora. 
Minhas primas nao vierao. Se ella viesse hoje, ainda seria tempo. 
Quando minha cunhada vier, chame o doutor. Se elles vierem 
antes das cinco, iremos juntos a igreja. Vem ca ! Vinde, pobres 
e ricos, felizes e desgracados, vinde todos, e vede o vosso Sal- 
vador ! Ahi elles vem vindo {there they are coming). Nao tenho 
vindo por nao ter podido. Os seculos vindouros vos agrade- 
cerao. Venha ver o que tenho para Vm<». A minha vinda nao 
lhes foi agradavel. — Tenciono ir a Pariz no mez que vem {next 
month). Vm cS ird hoje ao baile ? Iria, se nao estivesse incom- 
modada. Eu vou {I go) la todos os dias. Para onde vas f Como 
vae {or vai) o nosso doente? Nos vamos de mal para peior. 
Vos ides combater os inimigos da patria. Aquellas mocas vao a 
todos os bailes. Preclsa que eu mesmo va la. Vd levar este em- 
brulho em casa do Sr. A. Vamos embora ! {let us go.) Nao 
qUero que elles vao la ! Isto vae cahir. Vou e venho (= I shall 
he bach immediately). Eu ia ao mercado todas as manhaas. O 
Sr. N. ia passando pela Rua do Oommercio, quando isto acon- 
teceu. Quando eu fui {went), ja tinha dado meio dia. Foste 
hoje ao mercado ? menino foi com meu filho. Elles /orao-se 
embora {went away). Seria melhor que o Sr. mesmo fosse la. 
Quando eu for, Vm™ m'acompanbara. Elle ja fora (tinha ido) 
dizer ao Sr. E. que viesse. Vae ligeiro ! Ide por todo o mundo 
pregar o evangelho ! Como vae o Sr. ? Vou indo (= I am pretty 


well). Desde a minha ida a P. nao a tenho visto. Estes sao os 
vaivens da vida humana. 

Irregular verbs of the third conjugation : 

1) Pedir, to beg, ask, medir, to measure, and ouvir, to hear, 
change their d and v into $ in the first person of present indica- 
tive, and the whole present subjunctive : peg o, pega ; mepo, mega ; 
ouqo, onpa. 

2) In the same forms parir, to bear, changes its radical a 
into ai; present indicative, pairo, pares, etc., subjunctive, paira. 
There is a number of verbs which ohange their radical vowel e 
into i, also in the forms mentioned above : sentir, sinto, sentes, 
sinta; vestir, visto, vestes, vista; see a full list of them in the 
Appendix, page 342. 

3) Some verbs change the radical u into o before the weak 
terminations es, e, em (present indicative, second and third per- 
sons singular and third plural), aa fugir, fvjo,/6ges,/6ge,/ugimos, 
fug'u, fog em ; eubrir, cubro, cobres, cobre, cuhrimos, cubris, co- 
brem; see the Appendix. — Dormir changes its o into u in the 
first person singular of present indicative, and in the whole pres- 
ent subjunctive: durmo, dormes; durma. The verbs aggredir, 
progredir change e into i in the whole singular of present in- 
dicative and the third plural, and in the whole present subjunc- 
tive (progrido, progrides, progride, progredimos ; progrida). 

4) Ofsahir, cahir, trahir we have spoken in Lesson SIX. 

5) The verbs in uzir take no e in the third person singular 
of present indicative, as produzir, produz. 

6) Sir (or rir-se, to laugh) is irregular only in the present 
indicative and in the imperative mood ; present indicative, rio, 
ris, ri, rirnos, rides, riem; imperative, ri, ride. 

7) Vir, to come ; present indicative, venho, tens, vem, vimos, 
vindes, vim; present subjunctive, venha ; preterit descriptive, 
vinha ; preterit historical, vim, vieste, vein, memos, viestes, vierao ; 
its derivative, viera, viesse, vier ; imperative, vem, vinde; pres- 
ent participle, vindo ; past participle, vindo. 

8) Ir (also written Mr, but incorrectly), to go ; present io- 


dicative, vou, vas, vae (or vai), vamos, ides, vao ; present subjunc- 
tive, va, vas, va, vamos, vades, vao ; preterit descriptive regular 
{id) ; preterit historical and its derivative are taken from the 
verb ser (f ui, fora, fosse, for) ; imperative, vae (or vat), ide. 

The sentinels say that they heard the report of a piece of 
artillery (urn tiro de pefa). I hear better now than some time 
ago. I heard say that he will be appointed president. N. lost 
his right ear in a riot. When he was a child, he begged alms 
in the streets of Rome. I beg you to direct (= that you direct) 
your attention to this part of the building. Ask permission of 
(a) Mr. B. I asked (perguntar) him what he had done with the 
money. They asked (convidar) me to (para) dine with them. 
Ask (fazer) no idle questions ! I measure your difficulties by 
my own. The wealth of a country progresses with its popula- 
tion. May be he prefers this house. Your conscience shall serve 
(pres. subj.) you as a (= de) shield against the attacks of your 
enemies. I am very sorry (= sentir muito). Do you consent? 
I do not. Do not think that they will obtain (conseguir, pres. 
subj.) this. I sleep better on a straw-mattress. We slept in 
the shade of a large oak-tree. Who discovered the cape of (da) 
Good Hope ? Thou (vos) discoverest the most secret thoughts 
of our hearts. Come up ! The thermometer rose (subir) 10 de- 
grees to-day. Some rise, others go down (= descer). The 
locusts often destroy the vegetation of entire provinces. The 
stork destroys a great quantity of reptiles. How can you laugh, 
when your brother is so ill ? Who (quern) laughs at (de) every- 
thing, is either a fool or a knave. At this passage of B.'s speech 
the hearers burst (romper) into a loud and continuous laughter. 
He laughs at your admonitions. Laugh as much as (= quanto) you 
will, it is true what I say. The tittering (as risadinhas) of the 
ladies showed him that he had committed an indiscretion. Who 
is laughing there ? Nobody laughed. She smiled, when they 
proposed this arrangement. Miss Mary died with a smile on 
her lips. 

Where do you come from ? I come from Mr. A.'s (= from 


the house of Mr. A.). We come in order to reclaim our pro- 
perty. All these words come from the Greek. He wants me 
to come (= that I come) at six. Come (or call) to-morrow. 
Come to breakfast itenha almofir). The letter was (= came) 
accompanied by a small parcel containing (de) books. Come, see 
(infin.) this curious little animal ! When did you come ? I came 
(or called) the day before yesterday. We came about half au 
hour before the others. The peasants of the neighborhood came 
in crowds into (para) the town, armed with .pikes, guns and all 
sorts of weapons. If he came now, he would not find the house. 
If we did not come punctually at 8 o'clock, we should find the 
door locked. Should you come before that time (hora), please 
wait a little. As soon as (assim que) the gentlemen come (fut. 
subj.), call the servants. — Whither do you go ? I go to London. 
This won't do (= isto nao vae). We go to the office (escritorio) 
at 8 o'clock in (de) the morning. They go to church three times 
a day. When I was at P., I went every day to X. Go to (em 
casa de) Mr. L. and stay there until I come. Let us go ! Go ! 
Go with God ! Tell the workmen to go (= that they go) to 
dinner (= to dine, jantar). At noon I went to the museum. I 
did not go there, because my sisters had gone into the country 
(d campanha). At what time (horas) did you go ? Why did 
they not go when it was time ? We went as far as (= ate) the 
windmill of Mr. G. They went away before us. Some of them 
wanted me to go too (tambem). If we went there, we should 
ba received as enemies. I did not want them (= that they) to 
go with those gentlemen. When I shall go, you will go also. 
When you go to Mr. F.'s, do me the favor to deliver this letter 
to his son. A steamer had gone (to) fetch the deputation. Be 
off! (= go away). 



Todos estimao um homem probo, = um homem probo e 
estimado por (de) todos. Esta capellinha e muito frequentada 


pelas (= por as) senhoras. A nossa cathedral e visitada por 
todos os estrangeiros. Ellas fordo acolhidas como filhas da casa. 
Elles serao tidos por (or considerados como) inimigos publicos. 
Nelson foi mortalmente ferido na batalha de Trafalgar. Ella 
fora accusada de infanticidio. Este retrato foi feito por meu 
sobrinho. Todos os reos forao absolvidos. Algumas arvores 
forao arrancadas pelo ultimo temporal. Eu sou conhecido por 
muitas pessoas que eu nao conheco. O Sr. L. diz que aquelles 
reos serao condemnados a morte. Estes bordados sao feitos com 
primor. Ella era querida por (de) todos. Muitas casas forao 
derrubadas por nm terremoto que durou tres minutos. Os Chris- 
taos d'aquelles paizes sao cruelmente perseguidos pelos Mussul- 
manos. Todas estas fazendas serao vendidas em leilao. 

A celebre cathedral de Oolonia foi comecada em 1248, mas 
ainda nao estd acabada. A nossa casa (de commercio) foi esta- 
belecida em 1849, por conseguinte estd estabelecida ha 12 annos. 
Os suicidas nao sao enterrados em terra sagrada. F. estd en- 
terrado (sepultado) no cemeterio de S. Francisco. Fui persua- 
dido da necessidade d'esta medida, pelo raciocinio do meu amigo 
Carlos. Estou persuadido d'isso. Estamos rodeados de inimigos 
implacaveis. Fomos cercados e desarmados. Esta porta foi 
aberta (from abrir) com uma chave falsa; ella estava aberta, 
quando eu vim para casa. A America foi descuberta (descubrir) 
em 1492. Semelhante remedio ainda nao esta descuberto. A 
casa ja estd cuberta (cubrir). 

Eu sabia que tinha pagado isto. Esta conta foi paga no dia 
2 de Abril. Todas as minhas dividas estao pagas. Muitos outros 
o teriao aceitado. Ninguem mais sera aceito. V6s me tendes 
sahado. Todos estao salvos. Muitos dos naufragos forao salvos 
pela tripolacao d'uma fragata que estava anchorada nao longe do 
lugar do desastre. Enxugue esta meza! Ella tinha enxugado as 
suas lagrimas havia muito tempo. A meza esta enxuta. vento 
tem seccado as ruas. Esta tinta nao presta, porque secca mui 
depressa. Antonio era um homem alto e secco. Elle tinha um 
armazem de seccos e molhados (a grocery and liquor store). 
Os sinos da (igreja) matriz estao repicando ; quern terd rnorrido f 
Meu primo/oi morto (killed) n'aquella escaramuca. Esta morta! 


(she is dead.) Os soldados tinhao prendido um espia. Elle foi 
preso logo depois. O Sr. esta preso! A guarda lhe deu voz de 
preso (arrested him). O celebre professor N. tern sohido este 
problema. Todos os prisioneiros/brao soltos hoje. A nossa so- 
oiedade (partnership) esta dissolvida desde hontem. O Sr. vis- 
conde de M. foi eleito (eleger) presidents do senado. 

Matarao um homem = um homem foi matado (morto). 
Arrombarao a minha porta ! (= my door has been broken open.) 
Dizem (they say, it is said) que F. ganhou a sorte grande. — Man- 
dei fazer uma casaoa (/ had a coat made). O chefe de policia o 
mandou prender (had him arrested). Me disserao (/ have been 
told) que Vm t6 tenciona deixar-nos. Mandarao chamar-me (/ 
have been sent for). 


The passive form of the Portuguese verb corresponds entirely 
with the same form in English : it is composed of the past par- 
ticiple of the principal verb, and the auxiliary verb ser or estar 
(see below) ; the subject of the active verb is then governed by 
the preposition por, by (which, with the definite article, becomes 
pelo, pela, pelos, pelas, for por o, etc., or rather the obsolete pre- 
position per), and sometimes de (with verbs expressing emotions, 
as to love, to hate, etc.). The past participle must agree with its 
subject in gender and number. Example : active form, my grand- 
father planted these trees, men avo plantou estas arvores ; pas- 
sive form, these trees were planted by my grandfather, estas 
arvores fordo plantad-as por meu avo. . 

Very important is, here again, the different use of ser and 
estar ; while estar, with the past participle, expresses a state or 
condition, ser with the participle is only the passive form by 
which an action may be expressed. F. i. este tumulo e enfeitado 
cada anno pelos orphaos, etc., this grave is adorned every year 
by the orphans, i. e. the orphans adorn this grave, etc. ; but o 
tumulo esta enfeitado com flores does not signify, as the former 
does, the action of adorning, but the state or condition of being 
adorned during a certain time. Thus elle foi morto, he was hillea, 
but elle estava morto, he was dead. 

There are a number of verbs which have two forms of the 


past participle, one regular, the other irregular (original Latin 
forms), as pagado and paijo, inorrido and morto, ajfligido and 
afflicto. The regular forms are used in the active voice (with 
ter and haver), the irregular forms in the passive (with ser and 
estar). See the list of these verbs in the Appendix, page 343. 
Abrir, cubrir, and its compounds, as deseubrir, have aberto, cu- 
berto, descuberto ; solvido is used only in phrases like solver um 

Of the construction of mandei construir uma easa, = I had a 
house built, we shall treat in Lesson XL VI. Such constructions 
as : I was told, where the dative (they told me, i. e. to me) be- 
comes the subject of the passive sentence, are inadmissible in 
Portuguese (I am told, = dizem-me or me dizem). — Sometimes 
the active voice is used, where, in English, the passive is pre- 
ferred, with an indefinite subject in the plural (meaning they, 
some persons, people, and the like) ; f. i. estao chamando a Vm^, 
= you are called (wanted). 

My daughter made these drawings; these drawings were 
made by my daughter. Everybody (todos) likes (estimar) him — 
he is liked by (de) everybody. Some authors condemn these 
acts, others justify them (active and passive). Some churches 
and other public buildings were destroyed by the recent bom- 
bardment of the town. This square will be planted with chest- 
nut-trees. He was killed by a cannon-ball. Some of the unfor- 
tunate sailors were dashed against the rocks. The princess 
Lamballe was literally (literalmente) torn to pieces (fazer em 
pedagos) by the mob. During five hours I was exposed to the 
rays of a tropical sun. Sometimes entire cities are destroyed by 
earthquakes. Our houses are burnt, our walls are thrown down 
(derrubar). All possible means will be employed in order to 
discover the guilty (plur.). My nephew is employed in the cus- 
tom-house. Three of the prisoners were condemned to die (d 
morte). They are condemned to the galleys for life (a gales per- 
petuai). The statue of Minerva, by Phidias, was made of ivory 
and gold. My work is done. Those laws had been repealed. 


That law is repealed. I have been informed of your wicked de- 
signs. I am informed of all that (tudo o que) has happened. 
This is explained by the following facts. All is explained. His 
estate will be sold next week. It is not yet sold. War will be 
declared against France. The war is already declared. — The 
government of B. has accepted my proposals. My proposals 
were all accepted. Our servant-girl had not yet delivered the 
letter. Your letter is delivered. Dry your tears ! He had al- 
ready wiped off the blood which had stained his hands. The 
floor is not yet dry (= dried). This soil is very dry. "When I 
shall have paid all my debts, I shall go to England. See if this 
bill is paid or not. If you had come one hour later, he would 
have died infallibly (infallivelmente). Their only son was killed 
by a stone thrown at him (= por uma pedrada). By your con- 
duct you have afflicted deeply (profundamente) your parents and 
friends. The poor girl is much afflicted by the death of her little 
sister. You have spent more money since that time, than you 
will be able to earn in five years. Is all that money spent ? Such 
foolish expenses had exhausted the public treasury. All my re- 
sources are exhausted. 

We shall have a road made from our house to the top of yon- 
der hill. My uncle had his house whitewashed, his furniture 
polished, and his garden put in order. A. is said to have (= 
they say that, etc.) acted the part (papel) of (a) spy in this 
affair. It was said (= they said) of him that he had betrayed 
his master. She is said to have been for (por) some time in a 
lunatic asylum. I have been robbed of all I had (= roub&rao- 
me tudo quanto Uftha. 



Eu me sirvo (/ avail myself) com prazer da licenca que V. 
S* me tern dado. Tu te (f) entregas aos excessos d'um vicio 


abominavel. Elle se contentou com esta somma. F. s'enforccra, 
porque perdera tudo no jogo. Ella se sustentava coino o tra- 
balho das suas maos. A nossa consternacao se communicou aos 
(to those) que estavao fora. Nos nos defendiamos o melhor pos- 
sivel. Vos vos considerais oomo senhores absolutos do paiz. 
Elles se tem por logrados (= they believe themselves to be cheated). 
Nunca ro'arrependerei do que tenho feito para elles. Isto nao 
se chama (is not called) assim em portuguez. Oomo se chama 
VmcS ? (what is your name ?) Oomo se chama esta palavra em 
inglez? Isto nao se diz (you must not say so). Muitos dos habi- 
tantes se refugiarao no convento de S. Bento. Eu nao me lembro 
de todos os pormenores d'aquella transaccao. Elles se esquece- 
rao de levar o dinheiro. Nao vos esquecais da vossa origem ! 
Nao s'esqueca (Vm t{ ) d'isto ! O nosso commercio s'estende sobre 
toda a terra. Tu te gabas ainda da tua malvadez ! Passao-se 
cousas que fazem arripiar os cabellos (the hair stand on end). A 
Sra. ja se vae ? Diverti-m« muito. Eu m'abstenbo de fazer ob- 
servacoes acerca d'isto. A criada se calou. Oale-se / V6s vos 
arrependerels d'isto. De que se queixao elles ? Elle se zanga de 
qualquer cousa. A guarnicao entregou-se aos 24 de Outubro. 
Nao se assustem ! Seu filho conduziu-s« admiravelmente n'aqnella 
situacao critica. Joao parece-se muito (is very like) com seu tio. 
Eu me refiro a um facto assaz conhecido. Divertimo-nos (for 
divertimos-nos) muito. Oonsolemo-nos ! 

Nos nos (each other) abracamos como velbos amigos. V6s 
vos perseguieis uns aos outros (one another, each other) com a 
maior ferocidade. Ellas se detestao uma d outra. Nos nos en- 
contramos no passeio publico. Dous partidos poderosos se dis- 
putao a preponderancia. Aquelles dous sujeitos se lograo um ao 
eutro. Os Cbristaos e os Mahometanos d'este paiz s'opprimiao 
alternadamente. Elles se cubriao mutuamente de opprobrios. 
Dependemos um do outro. 

Estes livros se vendem (are sold) na livraria dos Srs. L. e C" 
(= companhia, L. & Co.). Elle se chama Alexandre. Oomo se 
chama o nosso novo cozinheiro ? Vm 08 s'engana (or esta enga- 
nado). Nao s'engane ! P6de ser que eu m'enganasse. O papel 
se fat (is made) de trapos de linho. Nada mais se ouviu d'elle- 


A luz (Teste farol se ve a distancia de 20 milhas. Uma magnifica 
edigao das poesias de C. se esta imprimindo em H. sob a direcciu 
do sabio Dr. R. Oalculou-se que elles chegariau la era meiados 
de Julho. Contao-se muitas historias interessantes a eate res- 
peito. Falla-se muito n'um ronbo mysterioso que teve lugar na 
noite de 15 para 16 do mez passado. As nuvens se formao dos 
vapores aquaticos que a snperficie da terra exhala. A atmos- 
phera que nos rodeia se compoe de diversos elementos. Este 
metal se acha em grande abundancia na vizinhanca de M. Esta 
palavra nao s'escreve assim. Aqui nao se passa ! 

In the examples in A. the object is the reflexive and recipro- 
cal pronoun; its forms are: 1) reflexive: me, myself, te, thyself, 
se, himself, herself, itself, one's self {yourself, when relating to 
Vm cS , etc.) ; nos, ourselves, vos, yourself or yourselves, se, them- 
selves (yourselves, when relating to Vrrfi^, etc.) ; nos and vos are 
unaccentuated, the o sounding almost like u; 2) reciprocal: nos, 
vos, se, each other, one another, according to the subject. The 
pronouns here mentioned are in the accusative case. The re- 
flexive pronoun in the nominative case (/ myself) is eu mesmo 
(or mesma), tu mesmo (-a), nos mesmos (-as), etc., i. e. the per- 
sonal pronoun with the adjective mesmo, which latter agrees in 
number and gender with its subject; f. i. I did it myself, eu 
mesmo (a man speaks) o flz, eu mesma (a woman speaks) o flz. 
Of the emphatical strengthening of the accusative (or dative) of 
the reflexive pronoun by mesmo we shall speak further on. The 
reciprocal pronouns (accusative and dative) are the same in form 
as the reflexive pronouns; they exist, of course, only in the plu- 
ral. For the sake of emphasis, they may be accompanied by um 
o outro (better ao, in the accusative, see Lesson XXXVI.), uma, 
a (a) outra, etc., according to the number and gender of the per- 
sons indicated by the subject ; when two persons are meant, it 
must be um ao outro, uma d outra ; when more than two, these 
words must be in the plural. When each other or one another 
ire governed by a preposition, this must stand between those two 
srords, as : they speak ill of each other, elles fallao mal um do 


With regard to the position of these pronouns, the following 
will suffice here (see next Lesson) : 1) They may stand before or 
after the verb (in compound tenses, the auxiliary verb) ; when 
placed after the verb, they must be united with it by a hyphen, 
as achei-me, etc. ; 2) in the imperative mood the pronoun is 
placed after the verb; 3) also, when the subject (pronoun) is 
omitted; 4) the objective pronoun is generally placed after the 
verb in the infinitive, but never after a past participle. 

Very often the reflexive verb is used instead of the passive 
form, as : paper is made of rags, o papel se faz de trapos ; this 
metal is found in S., este metal se acha em S. The same form is 
also employed in phrases where the subject is indefinite, and 
where, in English, either the active form with the subject one or 
they (people), or the passive form is used, as: it is said of N. (= 
they say, people say of NT), diz-se de F. ; it is generally believed 
that, etc., acredita-se geralmente que, etc. 

Many verbs that, in English, are intransitive (neuter), are 
reflexive in Portuguese, as: to withdraw, retirar-se, to boast, 
gdbar-se, ufanar-se, etc. Also some passive expressions, as: to 
be silent, calar-se, to be mistaken, enganar-se, etc., and recipro- 
cal, as : to meet (each other), encontrar-se. 

I found myself embarrassed on (de) all sides. Thou showest 
Thyself ever merciful. He had committed himself (compromet- 
ter-se) in the revolution of 1848. We had exposed ourselves to 
the just censure of our superiors. In vain (debalde) you (second 
pers. pi.) defend yourselves. They availed (aproveitar) them- 
selves of the opportunity (occasiao). Spain awoke from her long 
lethargy. I awoke at midnight. Do you not remember the 
date of their marriage ? They will remember this as long as they 
live (= por toda a sua vida). You forget your illness. Do not 
forget the pictures. Then I withdrew my consent. We retired 
to (para) L. He withdrew from the theatre. Spring is approach- 
ing. She is gone (ella sefoi, or foi-se embora). I will go (vou-me 
embora). When did you get up this morning ? I got up a quar- 
ter past three (ds Z e um quarto). We always went to bed (to 


go to bed = deitar-se) at ten o'clock. I shall never submit to 
these humiliating (humilhante) conditions. Do not meddle with 
(intrometter-se em) the affairs of those people. Do not complain, 
it was your own fault. He repented of having offered his ser- 
vices to Mr. 0. My horse took fright (assustar-se) at (de) the 
trunk of a tree that lay across (atravessar) the road. The 
important document disappeared (sumir-se) in (de) a strange 

They love each other like dog and cat. The two rivals met 
at Mr. B.'s. We missed each other (desencontrar-se). They 
fought (bater-se) with equal bravery. Villains know each other 
at first sight. They distrust (desconfiar de) each other. Mr. D. 
and his predecessor accused each other of falsehood. 

It is said of L. that he never slept more than five hours. 
Brass is composed of pewter and copper. It was generally be- 
lieved that N. had died by poison (= envenenado). Is it already 
known who stole those jewels ? There is much talk (= much 
is talked) of a new invention in aeronautics. Thousands of things 
are now made of gutta-percha, that were formerly made of horn 
and other similar materials. The origin of these institutions is 
lost in the darkness (trevas, f. pi.) of the remotest antiquity. 
Lost (perdeu-se, in advertisements) a gold watch and chain, etc. 
Children under (menores de) 10 years of age are not admitted 
(place the verb first). Heretics are no more (Jd nao) burnt now- 
a-days (hoje em did). This newspaper is published twice a week. 



A Sra. nao me conhece? Nao te comprehendo. Alguns 
lobos atacarao o meu cavallo e o matarao logo. Vm c6 conhece 
aquella senhora ? Ja a tenho visto, mas nao me lembro aonde. 
A quern comprou o Sr. esta chacara ? Eu a comprei ao meu 
cunhado. F. se defendeu com muita coragem ; eu mesmo o (it) 
vi. Vm c6 nos tern (take) por seus inimigos figadaes ; n'isto esta 


muito enganado. Deos vos recompense. Eu conheco estes ho- 
mens, e os detesto. Que chaves sao estas ? Nao sei ; o Joao- 
zinho as achou na rua. Sim, Vm c « esteve la ; eu nao o (you) vi ? 
Eu fui em procuradas Sras. (I went in search of you), mas nao as 
(you) encontrei. Nao acho a ohave da minha gaveta. Vm™ a 
(it) terii perdido. Aqui esta a sua chavinha. Aonde estava? 
Aehei-a perto da esoada. Deixe-me/ (let me alone.) Aonde 
quer Vm™ que eu bote estas flores ? Bote-as aoude quizer. Nao 
o digas a teu irmao. Nao s'incommode ! 

Nao o posso ver, = nao posso re- to (for ver-o). Vm c8 nao 
devia da-la (= dar-a) aquelles rapazes. O general queria man- 
dd-los (= mandar-os) fuzilar. Quero vende-las (= vender-as). 
Alguns dos presos puderao evadir-se (effected their escape). Pa- 
rece que elle nao quer dar-se ao trabalho (take the trouble) de 
escrever. Diver timo-nos (= divertimos nos) pouco. Lembre- 
mo-nos dos tempos passados ! Nos o ignoramos, = ignoramo-lo. 
N6s a vemos, = vemo-la. Ei-lo ! (or eilo, for eis-o, here he is !) 
ei-la, ei-los, ei-las ! ~Euft-lo (= fiz-o) com todo o cuidado. Vos 
o sabeis, = sabei-lo. Elles o ignorao, = ignorao-no. Digao-reo 
os sabios ! (or os sabios que o digao !) Matarao-no ! Dizem-no 
os authores contemporaneos. 

O cheiro d'estas flores me (to me, me, dative) da dor de cabeca. 
Eu te digo que nao quero saber d'isso. S. M. el-rei da Prussia 
The (to him, him) enviou as insignias da ordem da Aguia ver- 
melha. Ella escreveu a sua mai, participando-ZAe (to her, her) 
os seus embaracos. F. nos fez uma visita antes de partir. Isto 
vos deve provar, quanto (how) sois fracos. O ministro Ihes (to 
them, them) concedeu licenca por tres mezes. Vm<» me dira 
quern Ihe (to you, you) contou isto ? Os Srs. nao sabem quanto 
mal isto Ihes (to you) fara. Elle me dissera que tinha ido a Lis- 
boa. A carta lhe foi entregue por uma pessoa desconhecida. 
Quem lhe disse isto ? Ella nao nos quiz mostrar (or nao quiz 
mostrar-nos) o retrato. O chefe Ihes imp6z silencio absoluto. 
Eu te prohibi isto. Que me querem os Srs. ? (what do you want 
of me ?) O medico lhe prescreveu a mais rigorosa dieta. Eu 
vos provarei que fizestes mal. Elles nos propuzerao uma tran- 
eacsao mui vantajosa. Nao vas la, eu t'imploro. V6s m'acctf- 

LESSON XLin. 151 

sais de traicao. Eu lhe envio meu filho. Sua irmaa s'exprime 
com muita elegancia. 

Ella m'o (= me o) emprestou. Eu fo (= te o) disse. N6s 
Wos mandaremos. Meu sogro m'o deixou por heranca. Sr. 
A. no-los (= nos os) enviou. Eu vo-lo (= vos o) dissera. F. 
no-la (= nos a) vendeu pela metade. Eu vo-los (= vos os) re- 
commendo. Quern lhe dera este poder? Elle se o (s'o) arrogou. 
Ninguem lhe deu licenca para isso; elle s'a tomou. F. se me 
offereceu. Urn individuo se lhe apresentou com cartas de recom- 
mendagao do Sr. conde de N. Eepresentou-se-ZAts o perigo em 
que elles se achao. Eu Wo empresto, com a condigao d'entre- 
gar-mo (m'o) no fim d'esta semana. Nao vos posso dize-Zo. 
Aproveitando-me do ensejo, eu lhe disse os meus pensamentos 
com toda a franqueza. Ella nos escreve regularmente, dando-reos 
noticia do que se passa no circulo dos nossos amigos. Sendo-ttes 
intimado esta decisao, elles tiverao a prudencia de submetter-se 
sem opposicao. 


The personal (and reflexive and reciprocal) pronouns are the 
only words which have retained part of their declension ; they 
have still a form for the dative and accusative cases. With those 
of the accusative the student is already acquainted (-me, te, o, a 
[refl. se], nos, vos, os, as [refl. and recipr. se]). The dative forms 
are equal to those of the accusative, except in the third person 
singular, lhe, and plural Ihes, for both genders (when relating to 
Vm cS , o Sr., etc., they are to be translated by to you or you). 
As very frequently, in English, the preposition to, indicating the 
dative, is left out, the student should take great care not to con- 
found this case with the accusative ; f. i. I told him (him is dat.), 
eu lhe disse ; eu o disse means I said or told it. 

The objective personal pronoun (i. e. its dative and accusa- 
tive) may be placed either oefore or after the verb of which it is 
the object, euphony being the general norm for its position. We 
will give here some rules concerning the position of the pronoun, 
which, though not decisive in all cases, the student will do well 
to follow. (It has already been said, that the pronoun, placed 
after the verb, is always united with it by a hyphen). 


a. One pronoun (dat. or accus.) : 1) It generally precedes 
the verb in any of the tenses of the indicative or subjunctive 
moods {always in those of the latter), i. e. the finite verb (the 
auxiliary in compound tenses). 2) It always follows the gerund 
{da.ndo-1/ie, vendo-rae), but never a participle (eu Ihe estava di- 
zendo, elle me tinha escripto). 3) It follows the verb in the im- 
perative mood when affirmative (the jwsivus, ordering something 
to be done), but precedes ihe prohibitive (dizei-me, nao me diga). 
4) It generally follows the verb in the infinitive mood. 5) When 
the subject (pronoun) is left out, or placed after the verb, the 
dative or accusative follows the verb. 6) In interrogative and 
relative sentences it mostly precedes the verb. 

b. Two pronouns : The dative always precedes the accusative, 
except se, which stands always first, whether dative or accusative. 

Euphony demands the following changes, either in the de- 
pendent pronoun or in the verb : 

1) The e in me, te, se, Ihe is generally suppressed before a 
vowel or an h, especially before e, i {he, hi), and before the pro- 
nouns o, a, os, as ; only a practised ear can decide whether this 
suppression is to take place or not ; instead of m'o, nCa, fos, Vha, 
etc. some write mo, ma, tos, Ilia (like do, da), but this orthography 
is becoming antiquated. 2) The s (in the verb) before nos is 
suppressed: consolemo-nos. 3) The r of the infinitive becomes I 
before o, a, os, as ; also the s in the first and second persons plu- 
ral in nos and vos, and in the adverb (or interj.) eis, see here, 
and the z in faz,Jiz, diz, as: amd-lo, dize-lo (mark the accent!), 
sabemo-lo, no-lo (= nos o), vo-las (= vos as), ei-los {= eis os), 
fi-lo (= fiz-o) ; the hyphen is left out by some in nolo, eilo, etc. ; 
for amd-lo some write amdl-o (the former orthography is prefer- 
able, for etymological reasons), or (obsolete) amal-lo, dizel-lo. 
4) After a verb in the third person plural, o, a, os, as become no, 
na, nos, nas, f. i. sao-no (= sao-o), dizem-no. 5) The s in Ihes ia 
often (principally in poetry) suppressed before o, a, os, as, f. i. 
Wo, Was for Ihes o, Ihes as. 


You do not know that man ; I called him a {de) villain, be- 


cause he is one (o). He knows me too. I did it, because my 
friend would [have] it so. She said it in order to vex her cousin. 
Do you know that A. has died? Yes, I heard (learned, saber) it 
an hour ago. We saw her on the promenade. Have you my 
gold pen-holder ? No, I have not seen it to-day. She was bet- 
ter, when we saw her this afternoon. What do you think of 
B.'s last novel ? I read it with great interest. What did she do 
with the books? She threw them into the Are. I dismissed 
them on the spot (immediatamente). We did not call them. 
Here are the horses ; who brought them ? The child gathered 
some flowers and gave them to its mother. They thanked the 
ladies and invited them to (a) take tea. Where have you (masc. 
sing.) been all this time ? I have not seen you for an age (seeulo). 
They would not say this of you (fem. sing.) if they knew you. I 
expected to meet you (masc. pi.) at (em) the theatre, but I did 
not see you. You (fem. pi.) can not go home (para casa) alone, 
my son is ready to accompany you. 

Your mother writes me, that you have made good progress 
(plur.) in drawing (no desenho). I told him that this would 
make no difference. Mr. R. makes you [a] present of his books. 
He was owing us some money. They exposed to us their mo- 
tives. His countenance did not please me. What do you think 
of that? (= que Iheparecef) This happened to us on new-year's 
day of 1850. She promised us her likeness. I proposed to him 
an arrangement which would have been approved [of] by all his 
friends, if he had consulted them. The judge asked her some 
questions concerning her family, and promised her his assist- 
ance. I assure you that I have seen her in Paris. We brought 
you some drawings made by our daughter. God speaks to you 
through your conscience. We lent them our boat. I thank you. 

I refused it him roundly (redondamente). He gave it me 
without hesitating. I told you so (= it). They sent it to us 
the other day. The keeper showed it to them. She communi- 
cated it to me in a letter from D. We lend it to you with one 
condition. Show me the house of Mr. G. Give me a little 
water. Please (Jaffa favor de) send me the books which you 
have promised me. Explain this to me. Withdraw ! Get up ! 


Give it me ! Do not leave me ! Do not believe it , Do not 
show it him ! Do not refuse me your aid ! Do not answer her! 
Do not forget your cane. If I did not do it, he would do it. I 
have not seen him since his arrival. We had not invited her to 
the ball. He would not buy them. They wi mid receive us with 
joy. We had followed them to the house of their aunt. You 
must not complain ; you have no right to complain. I will not 
punish them, because they do not deserve it. To send them (the 
letters) by mail would be dangerous. To deny me this would 
almost be equal (equwaler a) to an insult. I can not find them. 



Amanhaa hei de escrever (= escreverei) ao meu advogado. 
Nao te assustes! nao has de perder (= perderas) a tua fortuna 
por isto. Elle lia de responder (= respondera) que nao tern po- 
dido. Savemos de ver o que elle fara. Vos haveis de reconhecer 
que os vossos esforcos forao insufflcientes. Os vossos filhos hao 
de agradecer-vos um dia por este acto de justica. Eu nao havia 
de recommendd-lo (= recommendaria), se nao pudesse affiancar 
a sua conducta. N6s nao haviamos de acompanhar (= acom- 
panhariamos) os Srs. tao longe, se nao fosse por causa d'este 
perigo. — Lembrar-me-hei (= me lembrarei, lembrarei-me, hei de 
lembrar-me) de vos ate a hora da minha morte. Escrever-te-hei 
todos os dias. Procurd-lo-has (= has de procura-lo) em vao. 
Nao contentar-se-ha com esta vinganga. Limitar-nos-hemos a 
poucas palavras. Arrepender-vos-heU d'esta escolha. As minhas 
observacoes limitar-se-hao ao mais necessario. O nosso filho 
chamar-se-ha Jos6. Occupar-nos-hemos dos teus negocios. Ees- 
ponder-vos-hei com toda a sinceridade. Dir-te-hei (for dizer- 
te-hei, direi-te) o que tens a fazer, quando for tempo. Fd-lo-hei 
(for faze-lo-hei, farei-o) com sumino prazer. Se eu tivesse urn 
s6 amigo, contentar-nie-hia (— me contentaria) com a minha 
sorte. Perder-te-Mas (= te perderias) nos immundos labyrinthos 


do vicio. Dir-se-hia (one might, should say) que era impossivel 
haver homens tao corruptos, tao imbuidos de todos os crimes. 
Obrigd-los-hiamos a obedecer-nos. Compadecer-vos-hieis de tan- 
tos soffrimentos. Fd-lo-hiao em todo o caso. Envia-lo-hemos a 
V. Exc a , assim que estiver complete Faltar-nos-hiao todos os 
recursos. Esfbrcar-me-hei para recobrar o tempo perdido em 
ociosidade e dissipacoes. Acontecer-nos-hia o mesmo. A es- 
quadra destinada para esta expedicao reunir-se-ha no porto de 
P. Esta serie completar-se-ha no mez de Agosto. 

Todos elles sao contra mim. A tua felicidade agora depende 
so de ti. Queria fallar com elle. D. Anna me disse que aquella 
carta nao fora dirigida a ella. Isto e para nos ? Dependemos de 
i)6s. Vm 1 * veiu com elles t Fui com ellas a casa da nossa avo. 
Uma grande responsibilidade peza sobre mim. Vm ci nao tem 
direito para exigir isto d'elle. Dirija-se a elles! Nao quero 
saber de ti. Elle chamou sobre si (himself) a vinganca d'um 
inimigo poderoso e implacavel. Tomarao a maior parte para si 
(themselves). O Sr. nao se lembra (think) senao de si (yourself). 
— Venha commigo (for com mim). Irei comtigo (= com ti). O 
Sr. B. levou o menino comsigo (= com si). Ella foi comnosco 
(— com nos) ao baile. Desejara fallar comvosco (= com vos). 
Leve isto comsigo (with you). — Ym«* nao ha de querer que eu 
trabalh« contra mim mesmo (or proprio). Isto seria um grande 
infortunio para nos mesmos. Elle nao ama senao a si mesmo. As 
consequencias d'esta traicao recahirao sobre vos mesmos. Jupiter 
mesmo nao pode contentar a todos. Ella mesma m'o disse. Eu 
mesmo os fiz. Tu mesmo nao o p6des negar. Vos mesmos assim 
o quizestes. Os proprios selvagens nos acolherao com mais hos- 

A mim me parece que o Sr. nao fez senao o seu dever. Tu 
me dizes isto a mim? Longe de perder-?ios a nos, Ym c8 perder- 
»e-ha a si mesmo. Elles se prejudicao a si mesmos. 


It has already been said that the future and conditional tenses 
are compounds of the infinitive and the auxiliary verb haver 
(pres. and impf. tenses, mostly abridged). These forms can again 


be dissolved into their compound parts, thus: eufallarei = hei 
de foliar ; tufallards = has def attar, etc.; eufallaria = havia 
de foliar ; nos fallariamos = haviamos de f attar, etc., the full 
forms of haver being then always employed. The latter form is 
very frequently used in common language, principally with po- 
lysyllabic verbs. It has the same meaning as the other form 
{fallarei,fallaria), though it may also signify what is expressed 
by the English auxiliary verb shall, should (f. i. he shall go = he 
is to go) ; of this we shall speak in Lesson XLVII. The forma- 
tion of those two tenses allows a very elegant construction : a 
dependent pronoun may be inserted between the infinitive and 
the (disguised) auxiliary verb, thus: fallar-vos-hei (mark the 
two hyphens!), for fallarei-vos or %os fattarei (also hei defallar- 
vos, nos hei defallar) ; contentar-nos-hemos for nos contentaremos 
or contentaremo-nos ; submetter-se-hiao for se submetteriao, etc. 
In this construction the abridged forms of haver are retained 
(equal to the terminations of the simple future and conditional), 
but generally written with the initial h. Of course, for vender- 
o-hei we. shall say vende-lo-hei, etc. (see the preceding Lesson). 
The verbs fazer and dizer (of trazer I do not remember having 
seen or heard an instance) retain their contracted forms : dir-te- 
hei, fd-lo-hemos. 

The personal (and reflexive) pronouns hitherto spoken of are 
conjunctive pronouns, i. e. such as are in immediate connection 
with the verb, either as its subject or object (accusative and da- 
tive). In A. we have also disjunctive personal and reflexive pro- 
nouns, i. e. ,such as are not governed directly by the verb. They 
are in the nominative case the same as the conjunctive pronouns 
(en, tu, elle, etc.), and, have different forms only in the accusa- 
tive, the dative being indicated by the preposition a. They can 
only be used with & preposition. , 

a) Personal pronouns : 


(conj. and disj.) 

conj. disj. 


me mim 
te ti 
o elle 





(conj. and disj.) 

conj. disj. 


a ella 


nos n6s 


vos v6s 


os elles 


as ellas 


V) Reflexive (and reciprocal) pronouns : 

elle, ella, elles, ellas se si 

(The other persons are equal to the personal pronouns). 

For the sake of emphasis, the disjunctive pronoun is often 
added to the conjunctive one, as : a mim me disserao, elles nos 
desprezao a nos; when the conjunctive pronoun is in the accusa- 
tive, the corresponding disjunctive must he accompanied by the 
preposition a (see Lesson XXXVI.). 

"With the preposition com, with, the pronouns mim, ti, si, nos, 
vos become migo, tigo, sigo, nosco, vosco (pronounce nosco, vosco), 
and are written commigo (sometimes spelled with one m), com- 
tigo, comsigo, comnosco, comvosco. This is a pleonasm, the forms 
migo, tigo, etc. being derived from the Latin mecum, tecum, se- 
cum, ndbiscum, vobiscum. 


[In the following examples, the future and conditional tenses 
should be translated in the different ways indicated above.] 

This state of affairs (cousas) will not last long. They will 
know this. We shall meet [with] great obstacles. I should buy 
this house, if it were not so far from the centre of the city. 
Tour friends would not approve [of] this step. We shall de- 
liver it to its owner. Your fame will spread over the whole 
civilized world. He will remember us. Many persons will op- 
pose (oppor-se a) this arrangement. I shall write to him about 
this (a respeito d'isto). You will justify me before (perante) the 
king. They would answer us with insolence. I shall apply 
(dirigir-se) to his father. This narrative will be continued (refl.) 
in the next number. In this case we should apply to the em- 
peror himself {em pessoa). The voice of the people would ris( 


above the roar of artillery. I should consider myself as the 
vilest of men, if I were capable of such an act. They would be 
contented (refl.) with less. I shall tell you what afflicts me. 
One should say that he is the master (senlior). I shall do it 
without murmuring. Now it will be seen (mostrar-se) who is 
right. "We shall receive him with open arms. He would have 
done it, if he had had the opportunity. 

What would become (seria, or seriafeito) of me without him? 
"Without thee I will not live. Go with her ! They took it upon 
themselves. For whom is this shawl ? For me. We did for 
you what you would have done for us. The money received by 
me amounts to 594 dollars. We went with them to (d casa de) 
Mr. B. Expect nothing of me. They said things of her which 
I cannot believe. Confide in us. Do not forget them. For you 
too our saviour died. He has no confidence in himself. They 
have against them (= themselves) [a] great number of officers 
of the army. He went with me to {para) see the museum of 
Mr. L. With us this is different. With thee I should be happy. 
They were with me until 11 o'clock. We count upon (com) you 
(second plur.). She took the children with her (refl.). The In- 
dians brought with them an interpreter. — To us he said that he 
would return in two days. What do I care (que m'importa a 
mini) what they say or think ! To you it becomes (competir) to 
punish them. 



Nao se deve julgar dos outros por si mesmo. Quando se ve 
isto, pode-se fazer uma idea do resto. Nao se pode servir a dous 
amos ao mesmo tempo. Ve-se logo que isto nao 6 possivel. 
Mais se pensa n'isso, mais complicado parece. Quando se consi- 
dera as circumstancias que lhe impuzerao esta necessidade, com- 
prehende-s« que elle nao podia proceder outramente (otherwise). 
Oave-se tanto fallar n'aquella invencao, que tenho muita curiosi- 
dade de a ver. Adtnira-se com razao a perseveranca com que os 


Romanos executavilo todas as suas empreza9. Qnando se tem 
traballiado tanto, o desejo de repouso (descanso) e mui natural. 
Tem-se traballiado para este effeito, porem sera resultado satis- 
factory. Mai (hardly) se p6de comprehender a rapidez com que 
o regiraento executou esta evolucao. Nao se acredita o que se 
receia. Acredita-se facilmente o que se deseja. Diz-se muitas 
vezes o contrario do que se pensa. Prejudica-se as vezes a urn 
amigo por demasiado zelo. Ser preguicoso e lograr-a« a si 
mesmo. Expor-se desnecessariamente ao perigo, nao e coragem, 
mas sim uma temeridade culpavel. £ difficil acostumar-se a po- 
breza, quando se tem vivido desde a infancia no seio da opulen- 
cia. Logo que se entra na caverna, sente-se um cheiro suffocante. 
Todos os meus irmaos, e duas das minhas irmaas morrerao no 
espaco de dous annos e meio. Este livro e men, mas esta penna 
nao e minha. Aquelle bone e ten f Meu primo Antonio perdeu 
seu pai e sua mai n'um mez. Ella fugiu com as suas fllhas. A 
nossa liberdade nos e mais cara do que os nossos bens. Esta casa 
agora e nossa. Elle nao e dos nossos. A vossa misericordia, oh 
Deos ! e illimitada. Os inlmigos levarao comsigo os sews mortos 
e feridos. Vni« nao me quer vender o seu cavallo baio ? Eaca 
favor de m'emprestar a sua (your) tesoura. Estes sao seus ? (= 
de Vm [S , do Sr., etc.). Esta casa e sua (= consider this house 
as yours). A casa do Sr. (or a sua casa) e muito mais elegante 
do que a nossa. As despezas de V. S a sao mui consideraveis. 
O pai d'elles f&ra condemnado a morte. Este jardim nao e Welle. 
A culpa nao e d?ella (hers), e sua (yours). — Um meu amigo (or 
um amigo meu, um dos meus amlgos) tomara conta (care) do 
meu filho. Elle nao e conhecido meu. Isto nao e negocio seu 
(or nao e da sua conta, this is none of your business). Um criado 
no: so nao p6de ter feito isto. Um dos nossos criados quebrou o 
outro dia um espelho que custara 500$000 rs. £ culpa tua ! — 
Cahi a escada abaixo, e quebrei um braco. Me doe a cabeca. 
Vm t8 se ha de queimar as maos. Elle quebrou a nuca. Uma 
pedra Ihe esmagou a perna esquerda. Os Botocudos se furao o 
nariz e as orelhas com pedagos de pao. Os selvagens cortarao 
os narizes e as orelhas a todos os prisioneiros. Eis o que me 
opprime o coracao. Eu Ihe conheco (/ know that he has) bas- 


tante capacidade para este emprego. Eesolvi-me finalmente a 
escrever-lhe, trazendo-ZAe a lembranca os dias da nossa amizade 
juvenil. O luxo e a cubija afibgavao-tte os remorsos. 

Estes cavalheiros vierao commigo. Esta senhora vem. de la. 
Aquelle homem sabe mais dos nossos designios do que nos con- 
vert!. Aquellas regioes abundiio em metaes preciosos. Este e o 
individuo que nos trouxe aquella noticia. A nossa casa e esta. 
Aquelles forao os malvados que incendiurao a aldea de R. Quern 
sao aquelles f O seu quarto e aquelle. Venderei todos os meus 
cavallos, menos aquelle. Esse piano tern para si (in its favor) a 
facilidade da execucao. Essas pretensoes sao rldiculas. Essas 
palavras sao injuriosas ! Que significa isto ? Eu sei isto. Isso 
e demais ! Por isso (therefore) nao quiz vir. Alem d'isso elles 
fizerao todos os esforcos para que eu perdesse o meu emprego. 
Aquillo nao p6de ter influencia sobre a nossa decisao. — A nossa 
chacara nao e tao bonita como a (that) do Sr. C. meu cavallo 
e mais forte do que o do Sr. F. Nao se p6dem comparar as con- 
quistas de Alexandre o grande com as dos Eomanos. Os pin- 
tores italianos sao mais celebres do que os da escola flamenga. 
Os sinos da cathedral sao muito maiores do que os da igreja de 
S. Pedro. As ruas d'aquella cidade sao bastante largas, princi- 
palmente as que correm de l§ste para oeste. 

The indefinite pronoun one has no equivalent in Portuguese ; 
it is substituted by the reflexive form of the verb (as in English 
often by the passive), so that the object, if there is one, becomes 
the grammatical subject, with which the verb agrees in number. 
All pronouns relating to one, as one's, one's self, are rendered by 
the corresponding pronouns of the third person singular (se, seu, 
a si mesmo). "With really reflexive verbs, one might expect to 
find se twice, once for the subject, and once for the object ; it is, 
however, only put once, f. i. without committing one's self, sem 
comprometter-se. Phrases like " one may commit one's self" are 
best translated thus : urn homem or uma pessoa pode compromet- 
ter-se. The indefinite subject is, in English, often expressed by 
we, you, they, according to the meaning of the phrase; this is 


also done in Portuguese (they is then never translated), with the 
exception of the second person plural, which is usually rendered 
by the reflexive form (f. i. as soon as you enter the cavern, etc., 
logo que se entra, etc.). 

The possessive pronouns are already known. They are the 
same, whether conjunctive or disjunctive (meu, my, o meu, mine) ; 
the latter always take the definite article, except when they are 
predicate (este livro e meu, this book is mine). The conjunc- 
tive possessive is placed before its noun ; but for the sake of 
emphasis it may be placed after the substantive (e culpa tua, 
it is your fault), or the disjunctive pronoun may be used (this 
is my house, esta casa e minha). Very frequently the possessive 
pronoun of the third person singular or plural is substituted by 
the genitive of the personal pronoun, especially in order to avoid 
ambiguity, which often arises from the use of seu, sua for vosso, 
etc. (i. e. de Vm cl , de Vm c &, do Sr., dos Srs., etc.). For instance : 
Vm cS achou a sua bengala f means : did you find your cane ? If 
it meant : did you find his cane ? we should say : Vmfii achou a 
bengala d'elle ? Also the dative of the personal pronoun (lhe, Ihes) 
is substituted for the possessive seu, sua, etc., especially in the 
higher style ; f. i. this circumstance revived his hope, esta circum- 
stancia lhe resuscitou a esperanca. — In English, the names of parts 
of the body or dress are accompanied by the possessive pronoun ; 
in Portuguese, the definite article suffices, when the possessor is 
the subject of the verb ; in all other cases, the dative of the re- 
spective personal pronoun is added; f. i. I burnt my finger, 
queimei o dedo; a cart passed over his legs, uma carreta lhe 
passou por cima das pernas. 

The demonstrative pronouns are also known. Isto, isso, 
aquillo are neuters (like o, tudo, nada). With regard to the dif- 
ferent use of the three demonstratives, it will be sufficient to ob- 
serve that este corresponds to the present, and to the first person, 
esse to the time just past (f. i. speaking of something just men- 
tioned), and to the second person (= this your), aquelle to the 
farther past and the third person. [Compare the Latin hie, iste, 
ille.] The same difference exists with regard to place. "The 
former — the latter " are translated by aquelle — este. 



One often bears (aturar) with patience a great suffering, 
through fear of the remedy. You (one) can get (ir) there on 
horseback in less than two hours. The more one learns, the 
better one sees how much remains to be learned (=fica para 
aprender). One can not believe all that is said. One has 
no right to judge of the motives of others, without knowing their 
characters. One often rejoices more at (de) a trifle than at a 
happy event of considerable importance. One may be kind and 
severe at the same time. One can not believe him, because he 
is a great dissembler. One is often disposed to sadness, without 
any apparent cause. One is not always disposed to laugh. To 
sacrifice one's self for an ungrateful [person] is to pay what one 
does not owe. To act against one's own interest is either (ou e) 
generosity or folly. To envy one (alguem) is confessing (infin.) 
one's self his inferior. Speaking (infin.") ill of one's family is dis- 
honoring one's self. 

He went there against my will. Tour mother invited me to 
(para) accompany her. He is always the first to laugh at (a 
rir-se de) his own jokes. I saw her sisters at (em) M. We saw 
that our friends forsook us one after (apos) the other. Your acts 
of benevolence are innumerable. Our boys had invited some of 
their comrades, and they amused themselves in every way (de 
todas as maneiras). Pray tell your father that I could not come 
yesterday as (conforme) I had promised, but that I shall do what 
he wishes in the shortest time (= o mais breve) possible. The 
house is not yet mine. Is this your dog? (= is this dog yours?) 
One of our men (= of ours) knocked him down with a blow on 
the head. My house is yours. This is none of my business. It 
was our own fault. The fault was ours. Sis father and her 
mother were first cousins (primes irmaos). Did you know her 
father ? Your son and his daughter would make an excellent 
match (par). 

These grapes are excellent ; will you take some ? (= Ym cS e 
senido d'algumas ?) Thank you, I have got some (= jd estou 
servido). This man has done everything in order to create dis- 
union amongst us. "Which (qual) is your hat, this one ? No, 


(it is) that one. These questions are impertinent. This man 
seems to be out of his senses (juizo). That part of the country 
does not produce wheat enough for the tenth part of its popula- 
tion. Give me that newspaper. We did this for your sake (em 
abono de Vm'*). This is nothing but (nao e senao) humbug. We 
spoke of this and that, but did not come to the main point. You 
will repent of this. Besides this I gave him some money and 
clothes. Her voice is even (ate) worse than Miss Anna's (= 
that of Miss A.). My losses are far (muito) more considerable 
than those of my nephew. Do you not find my bonnet prettier 
than my sister's '(= that of my sister) ? This cattle is far supe- 
rior to that which we saw last Monday. 



A religiao christaa manda que amemos aos nossos proximos 
como a n6s mesmos. Nao me mandarao (enviarao) os papeis 
que lhes pedira. Mandei chamar um eirurgiao. Mande vir seu 
filho. Eu mandara preparar a casa para a recepcao dos nossos 
hospedes. Mandei fazer um collete de velludo preto, e outro de 
setim branco. Porque nao manda encadernar estes livros ? Nao 
o-uso dizer o que sinto. Quem ousa contradizer isto ? Elles nao 
ousarao avancar. Beixei cahir o meu relogio. Deixe vir o seu 
amo ! Nao os deixarei ir sem que tenhao satisfeito a todas as 
suas obrigagoes. Elle o deixou escapar. Deixe ver ! Ella deixa 
ir as cousas como querem. Deixe as criancas brincar ! Elle me 
fez cahir. Isto me faz esperar que elle se emendara. Vm c8 me 
faz rir com as suas burlas, ainda que nao queira. Eu fiz ver 
(showed, proved) ao Sr. L. que elle nao tinha razao n'isto. N6s 
os vimos chegar. Nunca o vejo sahir de dia (in day-time). 
Todos os dias vemos passar esta senhora. Amanhaa pretendo 
(tenciona) ir a S. Que pretendeis fazer comnosco ? Julgo ter 


feito o meu clever. Creio ter direito a isto. Nao se ovxe mais 
foliar d'aquelle individuo. Contamos ir ao concerto. A teste- 
munha affirma ter visto o reo dar o golpe. Nao sei fazer isto. 
Elle soube esquivar-se da responsabilidade que o contracto lhe 
impuzera, Nao g6sto d'esses divertimentos. Nao gbsto dormir 
n'um quarto pequeno. Havera homeni que nao goste ser rico ? 
Desejo foliar com a Sra. sua miii. Precisamos comprar uma duzia 
de facas. Alguns dos membros admittem ter havido desordens. 
secretario recusou entregar os livros. Nao havia fugir d'esta 
altemativa. O advogado fingiu ter provas positivas. Elle pro- 
punlia ir em pessoa (= himself). Eu costumwa deitar-me um 
pouco antes da meia noite. Parece ser verdade o que ella disse. 
Meu sogro resolveu aceitar aquelle posto. Alcanedmos (we suc- 
ceeded) mandar-se expedir as ordens precisas. Sinto muito ter-me 
na necessidade de dar parte d'isto ao seu chefe. 

F. me pediu de ir com elle. Eu lhe prohibira de dizer isto a 
quem quer que fosse (= to whomsoever). Ella nao duvidou (hesi- 
tate) de lancar-lhe em rosto a sua baixeza e perfidia. O dono da 
casa m'offereceu de mandar um proprio para R. Eu lhe acon- 
selhei de escrever uma carta respeitnsa ao Sr. B. O rapaz pro- 
metteu de voltar logo. Aquelle jornal nao cessa de atacar o 
ministerio. Meus amigos me recommendarao de esperar ate a 
chegada do proximo paqnete. Elle so curava de obedecer a voz 
da sua propria consciencia. Estamos tractando de mudar-nos 
(remove) d'aqui. Taes expressoes nao podiao deixar (could not 
but) de suscitar remonstracoes violentas. A nossa sociedade 
deixou de existir. O commandante lhe ordenou de se retirar. 

O islamismo comecou a propagar-se com uma rapidez assus- 
tadora. Meus pais m'ensinarao a considerar a mentira como o 
vicio mais vergonhoso. Se continuar a chover, as estradas se 
tornarao intransitaveis. Aprendi a tocar piano com um mestre 
excellente. Principiou a fazer um frio insupportavel. Custa a 
crer (one can hardly believe) que haja homens tao crueis. Elles 
entao tornarao a perseguir-nos. Comecei a comprehender a 
minha situacao. 

Eetirar-se da sociedade dos homens § commetter um suicidio 
moral. Desejar o impossivel e proprio as criancas e aos tolos. 


Pazer versos ainda nao e ser poeta. Demorar e proceder era 
igualmente perigoso. E diffloillimo conhecer-se a si mesmo. 
Nao era facil calcular as oonsequencias d'este passo. NHo e vir- 
tude morrer pela gloria. Era impossivel ir adiante. — escrever 
me custa menos (is less difficult to me) do que o ler. estar sen- 
tado por muito tempo 6 prejudicial ;i saude. expressar-se ao 
mesmo tempo com brevidade, clareza e elegancia nao e cousa 
facil. Ao comeear o ultimo quartel do termo assignado aos mor- 
taes, elle achou-se no abandono mais complete nao aceitar 
essas offertas teria sido uma grave offensa. 

The infinitive mood participates of the nature of a noun sub- 
stantive, and can, therefore, enter into all the functions of the 
latter. In A. we see it employed as the object of another verb. 
To most verbs the infinitive (object) is simply added without a 
preposition, as is seen in the first section of the examples in A. 
In English, the present participle (or rather the gerund) is very 
often the form given to the verb, when it has the power of a 
noun substantive, but in Portuguese always the infinitive mood ; 
f. i. he denies having said this, elle nega ter dito isto. 

The subject of the infinitive (at the same time object of the 
finite verb), when a pronoun, is placed before (rarely after) the 
finite verb : I saw him come, eu o vi chegar ; when a substan- 
tive, between the two verbs or after the infinitive : eu vi as car- 
ruagens chegar, or eu vi chegar as carruagens. 

There are some verbs which require their verbal object (the 
infin.) to be accompanied by the preposition de, others require 
the preposition a. Of the first class (with de) are the verbs 
which signify to order, to beg, to forbid, to recommend, to advise, 
to cease ; of the second class (with a) are the verbs signifying to 
begin, to continue, to learn, to teach. These infinitives are not 
to be confounded with the adverbial phrases (causal, modal, local, 
etc.) or the dative, the construction of which is similar to the 
construction exhibited in this Lesson. 

It has already been mentioned that the verb in the infinitive, 
when it has the power of a substantive, may be accompanied by 


the definite article ; it sometimes even loses entirely the nature 
of a verb, requiring the preposition de for its subject (f. i. ao 
romper do did). 


When do you intend to start? He hopes to be appointed 
secretary of the treasury. I declined to receive him. We wish 
to see your library. She feigned being offended. N. confessed 
being the author of the pamphlet. You will make me fall. He 
dropped his pistol. She does not know [how] to express herself. 
I intended to write to Mr. 0. We dared not touch (tocar em) this 
delicate topic. Why did you not send for me ? (to send for some- 
body, mandar chamar alguem). The colonel sent for his horse 
(to send for an animal or inanimate object, = mandar vir). You 
will make the child cry. The minister of finances ordered these 
negotiations to be broken off (= atalhar). I acknowledge hav- 
ing committed an indiscretion. He tried (ten tar) to obtain my 
father's consent. His brother used to visit us in B. They re- 
fused to sign the contract. The defendant denied having struck 
(dar) the first blow. 

When will you cease insulting us ? I told him to embark in 
the first vessel that would sail. My friends advised me to pub- 
lish this. He did not hesitate (duvidar) to say that I had robbed 
him. I learned dancing at the age of fifteen years. Where did 
you learn writing ? Learn to submit with patience to your fate. 
If you continue to trouble me, I shall apply (dirigir-se) to your 
principal. They still continue cheating the people. I shall 
teach him to behave with more decency. This will teach her 
not to confide too much (demasiadamente) in her ability. A 
heavy (grosso) rain began to fall. I began to feel the effects of 
my late fatigues. He commenced writing for the " Weekly Ke- 
view " (Bevista semanal) in 1845. 




Nao vou mais la. Vou aeabar com isto. Vd buscar una 
cavallos. Hoje fui fazer uma visita ao Sr. F., que esta doente 
ha tres dias. Cuidado ! Vnr=* vae cahir ! Nao va cahir. Oorao 
vae o nosso paciente ? Elle vae indo (passando) melhor ; elle 
vae melhor. O horizonte politico ia asserenando, quando de su- 
bito a noticia da morte de L. veio ameacar novos disturbios. A 
criada/ora ver o que causava este barulho. Todos os seus ami- 
gos vao-se retirando d'elle. Vaojantar! Vaestudar! Vd estu- 
dando (= continue estud.), e nao se occupe em outras cousas! 
Eu ia acompanhando o Sr. B., quando men pai nos encontrou. 
Que horas sao ? Vao dar quatro. Vou chamar um medico. O 
menino ia passando pela porta da casa do Sr., quando o seu cao 
o assaltou e o mordeu na perna. 

Donde mm o Sr. ? Venho da casa do meu cunhado. Isto 
vera de fiar-se com demasiada facilidade nas promessas da gente. 
Venho (or vim) fazer-lhe uma visita. Diga a seu irmao que 
venha desculpar-se ; senao, elle sera demittido. Venha brincar 
eommigo ! Venha ver-nos de vez em quando. A carta veio 
acompanliada por um embrulho. O imperador vinha acom- 
panhado pelos Srs. generaes A. e B. Isto vem a ser? (this 
means f) Elle veiu a ser o homem mais opulento da provincia. 

Quando aeabard isto? Acabo de dizer (= / have just said) 
que isto seria muito prejudicial para mim como para v6s. Aca- 
bamos de ver, no capitulo antecedente, quaes erao as causas 
d'aquella revolucao. Vm c6 ja aeabou de escrever? (= have you 
done writing ?) Quando tiveres acabado de escrever, daremos 
uma volta. — A religiao manda (= ordena) que respeitemos as 
authoridades. Bern manda, quem bem soube obedecer. Man- 
de-me (= envie-me) o jornal da terca feira passada. Mandei 
cliamar a guarda. Porque nao me mandarao chamar ? Vm t8 
pode mandar buscar o seu passaporte quando quizer partir. 
Quando mandard Vm cS concertar este guardaroupa ? Vou man- 


dar fazer uma escrevaninha. Mande afinar o seu piano quanto 
antes (as soon as possible, the sooner the better). Quando os Srs. 
estiverem promptos, mandem-me dizer (= send me word). Man- 
dei-lhe dizer que fizesse o que lhe parecesse (= to please). O 
Sr. seu tio manda dizer a Vm cS que venha logo em casa d'elle. 
Vm cS esta certo que elle mandou dizer isto ? 

Nao viste a carta que deixei emcima da meza ? Nao posso 
deixar-vos ir sem dar-vos alguns conselhos. Elle nao deixou 
recado para mim ? O Sr. jii nos vae deixar ? Deixe-me ver o 
que fez. Apezar do castigo que recebeu, este menino nao deixa 
de dar (beat) no seu irmaozinho. Deixe isto ! (= let that alone.) 
Deixe-me! Deixe-se d'isso! (= let that alone! don't!) Nao 
pude deixar de me rir (/ could not help laughing). Deixe estar ! 
(threatening or consoling: wait a bit! never mind!) Vm tJ 
deixou cahir o seu lenco. Elle adoeceu no dia 16, e no dia se- 
guinte elle deixou de existir. 

Nao quero que os meus filhos saiao de noite. O Sr. nao pode 
querer isto. Quer uma laranjaS Eu quero ver como elles se 
hao de tirar d'este negoeio. Os Hungaros nao quizerao acceita- 
lo por seu rei. Eu quero bem (= like, love) a todos elles. 
Queira perdoar! Queira acceitar este fraco testemunho da 
minha gratidao. 

Os callos m'incommodao tanto que nao posso caminhar. Elles 
haviao de vingar-se de nos, se pudessem. Quern quer, pode. Se 
cahirmos no poder d'elle, sera mao para nos. Quaes sao agora 
as nacoes mais poderosas ? Posso abrir uma janella ? esta fazendo 
muito calor. Pode abrir todas, se quizer. O Sr. pode retirar-se. 
Nao poderei acabar este trabalho antes de noite. Podendo eva- 
dir-se, Socrates preferiu obedecer as leis. Isto pode bem ser. 
Poderia ser falso o boato, e entao estariamos bem arranjados (= 
be in a sad scrape). Eu se i fazer isto. Sabe ler ? 

F. deve mais do que tern. Vos me deveis respeito e obedien- 
cia. Isto era devido (due) a sua posicao elevada. Quem sao 
os devedores mais importantes ? Pagar as suas dividas nao 6 
uma das suas qualidades. Isto 6 devido (owing) a varias causas. 
O vapor deve (must) chegar boje ou amanhaa. O doutor diz 
que nao devo sahir ainda. Vm c6 nao devia (ought) mais escre- 


ver-lhe. Farei o meu dever, digiio la (let them say) o que qui- 

Muitos ha que nao fariao o que Vm t8 fez. Se houvesse pece- 
gos, eu te daria alguus ; mas agora nao os ha. Nao ha quern nao 
goste d'elle. Hei de fazer o que eu julgar conveniente. N5o 
m'importa se elle quer ou nao quer ir, elle ha de (shall) ir. Ha 
de fazer-se o que eu digo ! Elles hao de aprender que nao me 
podem insultar impunemente. Elle ja havia sido eleito. 

Tenho pouoos amigos, porqne tenho pouco dinheiro. Meu 
avo tinha por costume banhar-se (or o costume de hanhar) todos 
os dias, tanto no inverno como no verao. Eu o tenho por igno- 
rante (= I tale, believe him to be ignorant). Ella foi ter com 
(went to see) o bispo. Tenho por mim (in my favor) todos os 
cidadaos respeitaveis. Tenho-o em pouca conta (= / think little 
of him). Elle parece ser tido em muita conta (held in high 
esteem) em certos circulos. Tenho de sahir logo. Este menino 
diz que tern de fallar com Vm c *. Alguem borrou este manu- 
scripto ; agora tenho de copia-lo. Vm c8 nao tern nada a fazer ? 
Sim, tenho que fazer. O governo tinha a adoptar outro expe- 
diente. Haviamos (or tinhamos) a escolher entre dous meios 
igualmente repugnantes. 

Auxiliary verbs, properly speaking, have the function of 
supplying the verbs with forms which do not exist in the con- 
jugation; thus, in Portuguese, the verbs ter and haver supply 
part of the past tenses, and the future and conditional ; ser and 
estar are used for the passive, etc. There are, however, other 
verbs, which, though capable of being used as independent verbs, 
are generally (at least in a particular sense) found together with 
the infinitive of another verb, with or without the preposition 
to (de, a, sometimes em, para). The name of auxiliary verbs has 
been extended over them, and not improperly. They mostly 
signify a will, power, possibility, necessity, command, permission, 
intention, futurity (English will, can, may, must, ought, shall, 
have, bid, let, allow, go, etc., Portuguese querer, pooler, dever, 
haver, ter, mandar, deixar, ir, vir, etc.). As the use of these 


verbs is as difficult as their employment is important, we will 
give an exposition of the signification and use of each, and then 
show how their equivalents in English are to be translated. 

Ir and vir signify a movement, and therefore, by analogy, an 
intention or futurity. Thus, ir is rendered in English by to go 
or be going, or simply by the future tense, also by will; f. i. vou 
escrever, I am going to write, I shall or will write ; vd trabalhur, 
go and work ; fui ver, I went to see ; vamos jantar, let us go to 
dinner, let us dine ; isto vae cahir, this will fall, is going to fall. 
With the present participle ir signifies a continuance, as vd escre- 
vendo, go on writing. Venho dizer-vos, I come (in order) to tell 
you ; venha ver, come and see. Vir a, with an infinitive, signi- 
fies to grow or become. 

Acabar (inf. with de) means 1) to finish something, as acabeide 
escrever, I have finished (done) writing; 2) the nearest past (cor- 
responding to the nearest future expressed by ir), as acabo de 
dizer, I have just said. [This use of the verbs ir, vir, acabar is 
analogous with that of the French verbs alter, = ir, venir = vir 
and acabar.] 

Mandar is to order and to send. Mandar chamar = to send 
for somebody ; mandar vir, to send for something ; mandar bus- 
car or trazer, to send somebody for (= to fetch or bring) some- 
thing. In the sense of ordering something, it is remarkable that 
in Portuguese the infinitive of the active is used where in Eng- 
lish the passive is employed, as : I ordered the horses to be saddled, 
mandei sellar os cavallos ; I had a desk made, mandei fazer uma 

Deixar is to leave or let (suffer, allow, permit), as: deixar 
cahir, to let fall, to drop ; deixar alguma coma arruinar-se, to 
allow something to go to ruin or to be spoiled. Deixar de = to 
cease, to leave off (as deixar de existir, synonymous with morrer ; 
deixar de fazer algum cousa = to abstain from something). 

Querer, when independent, is often rendered by will have, or 
want (he would have, or wanted me to say = elle queria que eu 

Poder = to be able, I can or may. 

Dever, to owe, to be indebted for, as an auxiliary verb indi- 


cates a necessity, duty, or certainty, = must. Ought, being a 
conditional form, is rendered by deveria or devia. Sometimes 
dever is followed by de, when expressing a supposition, as: elle 
dere de estar Id, he must be there, i. e. I have reason to believe 
that he is there. The correctness of this construction is, how- 
ever, disputed by many. 

Haver and ter both may signify a necessity, and correspond 
to the verbs to have and shall ; f. i. elle ha de ir, he must or shall 
go ; elle tern de ir, he must or is to go. They always require a 
preposition with the following infinitive, generally de; with a, 
they express a necessity imposed by circumstances. Saver, in 
the second and third persons, implies a peremptory order. In 
certain phrases, the pronoun relative que is used after ter, as ter 
que fazer, to have something to do. 

For the translation from English into Portuguese notice the 
following : 

to be, = ser, estar ; I am to = tenho de; 

to have, = ter, haver; mandar (= to order); 

to let (allow, suffer, permit), = deixar ; 

can, may, = poder ; saber ; 

will (not in the future tense), = querer ; 

shall, = haver de ; 

must, = dever ; 

ought, = deveria or devia ; 

to order, get, have, = mandar. 
A remarkable difference between the English and Portuguese 
auxiliary verbs is this, that, in English, many of them are defec- 
tive, but in Portuguese they are full verbs, and that therefore 
the English language resorts to certain substitutes for the forms 
wanting (f. i. nao tenho podido, I have not been able). 


My brother is going to be married (= casar-se) in a few days. 
Go, bring me a glass of water. I will tell you what (quaT) is the 
reason of his vexation. I was going to say, etc. Do not go and 
break the looking-glass. Where is John? He went to fetch 
the chairs. Where have you been this morning ? I had gone 


to see (visitar) Mr. E. ; from there I went to buy some flowers, 
but did not find any. The child will (is going to) fall. Let us 
take a ride (dar um passeio a cavallo). We are going to have a 
severe {rigorosd) winter. Go to breakfast ! Read on ! How are 
you to-day? So, so (vou indd). — Those books of yours came in 
right time (= muito a proposito). I know very well from what 
part (ladd) this comes. This comes from being too kind (bon- 
doso demais). Come, see what a pretty little bird I have caught. 
Don't come afterwards [to] complain. They came [to] bother 
me with their eternal quarrels about nothing (= frivolo). Where 
is our boy ? Here he comes running up (por) the street. He 
became (= came to be) a general in less time than it took others 
(dat.) to become captains. By their untiring industry they he- 
came the most opulent colonists of the new world. — The mail 
has just arrived. Messrs. A. have just published the first volume 
of Mr. B.'s interesting hook on geology. We had just finished 
our dinner (= finished dining), when the thunderstorm broke 
out. The words which we have heard just now deserve the 
greatest attention. Have done with your jokes ! The govern- 
ment will soon put a stop to (= acabar com) these nuisances. 

Did you send them those fruits ? I shall not send them [any] 
more goods, unless (se nao) they pay (fut. subj.) what they owe 
me. Did you send for him ? We should send for a physician, 
if we thought that there could be [any] danger. You may send 
for your piano whenever it be convenient for you. I have al- 
ready sent for some samples. Have the goodness to send these 
pictures to my house. The Caliph ordered to give the Jew 20 
lashes. I had ordered the parcel to be delivered to my brother- 
in-law. Where do you get your clothes {roupa, sing.) made ? 
We had her likeness taken (tirar) about 3 months before she 
died. Get this atlas bound. The president ordered them to be 
dismissed instantly. I sent them word that I would come to- 
wards evening (pela noitezinha), — Let me see (or let see) what 
you have written. Let us take a walk ! Let me alone ! Let us 
drop (= deixar) this conversation ! Let the dog alone ! You 
want to leave us? Let this rest! (= deixemos iato.) If you do 
not leave off (cease) throwing stones, I shall go (and) tell it to 


your father. At last (finalmente) he ceased writing. Though 
(ainda que) exceedingly lazy, lie is not without (nao de ter) 
some talent. I could not help making this remark. — I do not 
want to know who has done this. Do you want to speak to 
(com) me? Nobody wanted you (= that you) to go there. He 
would not hear (saber) of this. Please be seated (sentar-se). My 
father would not have me (= would not that I) study medicine. 
They will be obliged to sell their house, whether they will or 
not (queirao ou nao queirao). Say what you may (will), I will 
and shall go. — How could you do this to your own mother? It 
was so dark, that I could not distinguish anything (cousa alguma). 
It can not be that he should obtain (pres. subj.) what he asks. 
May be ! May I come in ? You may come at any time of the 
day, as I shall be at home from nine in (de) the morning till six 
in the afternoon. Is it possible ! This is no longer (jd nao) in 
my power. In those days the Portuguese were a powerful na- 
tion. Can you carry (= poder com) this big trunk? They are 
too strong for me (elles podem mais do que eu, or eu nao posso 
com elles). — You owe me nothing. I am still owing you the re- 
pair of my watch. His misfortune is chiefly owing to the weak- 
ness of his health. Give everybody his due (= what is due to 
him). It is to you that I owe my liberty and that of my chil- 
dren. We owe them obligations for the splendid hospitality 
which they showed us last year. You must not do that. I must 
go. I can not help it (= there is no remedy). You ought to 
write oftener (mais vezes). Where can my hat be? It must be 
where you put it. The train must arrive soon. You ought not 
to use this language (linguagem). I ought to have gone an hour 
ago. One can not always do what one ought to do. 

There is not a better man between the poles than your grand- 
father. How many are there ? There may be six or eight of 
them. When shall you have finished your work ? I shall see 
what can be done (refl.). I will not hear one word more (= 
more one word) ; yon must and shall do what I bid you. — With 
whom have I the honor of speaking ? During his reign, women 
and favorites held (= had in their hands) the reins of govern- 
ment. He held a high office (posto) during the latter part of 


the reign of the late (defuncto) king. I hold him to be (= ter 
por) a very honest man. They had to go back, because they 
had lost a trunk. She has some letters to write (= to write 
some letters). You have to copy what you have written. They 
had to change their policy. Have you nothing to do ? 




A vossa generosidade 6 digna de todos os louvores. Taes 
accusaQoes s6 sao dignas de desprezo. Esses homens sao indignos 
da vossa consideracao. Eu o julgo capaz de tudo. Sou incapaz 
d'isto. S6 agora podemos dizer que estamos livres de perigo. 
Nao estou contente de {or com) Vm«. Tu es culpado Xum crime 
ignominioso. Ve-se que ella e innocente de tudo isso. A igreja 
estava cfieia de gente de todas as classes. F. era muito zeloso da 
sua authoridade. Estou isento (exempto) do servico militar, por 
causa da minha vista curta. Privado de todos os recursos, que 
pudera eu fazer? Este livro esta farto de mentiras. Cioso da 
sua dignidade, elle nao permitte contradiccao. Desconflada de 
si mesma, ella nao ousou dar este passo. Elle esta muito satis- 
feito de si mesmo. Desejoso de conhecer o exito d'este negocio, 
meu primo partiu logo para B. Este author parece ser mais 
avido dos eulogios do vulgo, do que desejoso de promover a cul- 
tura. Elle 6 mais ambicioso do dinheiro do que da gloria. Esta- 
vamos faltos de roupa e de dinheiro. O nosso paiz e rim de 
mineraes. Ufano dos triumphos que a sciencia lhe alcancou, o 
homem as vezes se esquece do seu creador a quem elle os deve. 
Todos estamos anciosos de ver Vm c « succeder. 

Este arbusto da uma fruta semelhante a romaa. Elle se torna 
desagradavel a todos os sens cqnhecidos. Attento ao meu tra- 
balho, nao notei o que se passou no quarto contigun. As circun- 
stancias actuaes sao pouco favoraveis ao desenvolvimento da nossa 


industria. O que e util a uma cousn, e muitas veze% prejudicial 
a outra. Sede doceis aos preoeitos do Evangelho I Os membros 
d'aquella sociedade entretinhao sentimentos hostis a religiao. 
Ser obediente as leis e o primeiro dever do cidadao. Fieis a po- 
litica que adoptarao, os Romanos s'introraettirio nos negocios 
d'aquelle paiz, protegemlo o partido mais fraco contra o mais 
forte. Sou sujeito a esta molestia desde a minha infancia. Elle 
se mostrou insensuel as minhas remonstracoes. El-rei continuou 
svrdo us supplicas dos perseguidos. Este acontecimento foi fatal 
ao partido opposto. Isto e contrario a razao e a experiencia. A 
for<;a d'um cavallo regular (common) e igual a de quatro homens 
vigorosos. Deisemos todos os assumptoe alheios d nossa discus- 
sao. Uma economia arrazoada e essential ao bem-estar d'uma 
familia. F. e dado ao jogo. Aquellas nacoes sao muito affei- 
Qoadas a musica. A sua dieta uao pode deixar de ser nociva a 
saude. — Vm<* nao me 6 pesado. Elle nos pode ser util n'esta 
occasiao. Isto me e totalmente indifferente. Ella nos e indis- 
pensuvel. A nossa liberdade nos e mais cara do que as nossas 
riquezas. Eu -dos sou muito agradecido. A sua posicao Ihe era 
mais cara do que a sua honra. Nao Ihes foi possivel engracar-se 
com o Sr. X. Fico-tte muito obrigado (= / am very much 
obliged to you). Esta feicao Ihes era commum. 

Um homem de semelhante caracter seiia bem capaz de tomar 
uma vinganca tao atroz. Meu filho e incnpaz de mentir. Elle 
foi um homem digno de oocupar um posto tao elevado. Estou 
ancioso de saber noticias d'elles. Reoeioso de perder um em- 
prego tao lucrativo, elle s'accommoda a todos os desejos do seu 
amo. Parece que o Sr. esta. curioso de saber o que esta carta 
contain. Estou certo de ter posto o meu chapeo emcima d'esta 
meza. — A directoria esta determinada a empregar todos (is meios 
legaes para obter a restituigao d'aquelle terreno. A casa estava 
prestes a cahir. Estou prompto a fazer tudo o que V. S. man- 
dar. Este moco parece destinado a fazer honra ao seu paiz. 
Vejo-me obrigado a reduzir as minhas despezas. 


There is a great number of adjectives called objective adjec- 


tives, because they require either a direct or an indirect object, 
in order to complete their signification ; the former is indicated 
by the preposition de, the latter by a (sometimes para). The 
object may be a noun, or a pronoun, or a verb. The verb is then 
always in the infinitive (gerund in English). "When the indirect 
object (dative) is a pronoun (personal), the dative form of the 
conjunctive pronoun is used in sentences where the objective 
adjective is the predicate ; f. i. he will be useful to us, elle nos 
sera util, not util a nos ; in all other cases the disjunctive pro- 
noun with the preposition a or para is used. 


He is not worthy of your esteem. You are unworthy of my 
friendship as well as (tao oem como) of my hatred. I do not 
think (erer) that he is capable of so much falsity. He is inno- 
cent of this man's death. They are guilty of treason. Those 
articles are free of duty (direitos). In some countries the Jews 
are exempt from military service. How could he escape, being 
deprived of all means of defence? Our house was full of guests, 
so that {de maneira qve) we could find no place for him. N. is 
so jealous of his fame as an (= de) author, that he makes him- 
self (tornar-se) ridiculous. She is jealous (= ter ciume) of her 
own sister. We are not yet sure of success. Are you quite 
(bem) sure of this ? The negroes are very fond (amante) of music. 
I am out (falto) of money. We are satisfied with your progress. 
At last we are rid of this tiresome talker. Be not greedy of the 
praises of the crowd. Alexander, thirsting for {sedento de) ven- 
geance, appeared suddenly before the walls of Thebes (Thebas). 

This measure would be contrary to all the rules of equity. 
He made himself very useful to his master. Many of the inhabi- 
tants remained faithful to Christianity, in spite of the cruel per- 
secutions to which they were exposed. Be faithful to your mas- 
ters ! Such words are disagreeable to the ears of the mighty. 
The smell of this fruit is similar to that of an apple. He was 
given to all sorts of extravagances. The poor woman was sub- 
ject to epileptical fits. This arrangement will be agreeable to 
all parties. At last he became insensible to shame. You are 


deaf to the voice of conscience. Please send me the documents 
relative to our case. Your weakness is owing to your unreason- 
able diet. These things are hidden from (occulto a) the eyes of 
men. The strength of this machinery is equal to that of twenty 
men. This is alien to our purpose. The moment was unfavor- 
able to our enterprise. The new law concerning the service of 
the national guard will be odious to many. Such was the con- 
dition of France anterior to the outbreak of the great revolution. 
The army of the enemy was superior to ours in almost every 
(todos) respect. Our literature is inferior to no other. The king 
was naturally inclined (propenso) to clemency, and adverse to 
rigorous measures. His house was open to every stranger. 
Every new invention of efficient and destructive arms is con- 
ducive to the abbreviation of wars, and consequently, to hu- 
manity. The days following (subseguente a) this tragical event 
passed in a gloomy silence. Some of the tribes showed them- 
selves hostile to the missionaries. The company of those young 
men is injurious to your reputation. I will not be a burden (= 
pesado) to my family. 

Your recommendations have been very useful to me. The 
fate of your relatives can not be indifferent to yon. It has been 
impossible to me to discover the person that brought the letter. 
You are dearer to me than life. I am thankful to them for the 
many favors which I received from them during the time of my 
late misfortune. 

He is so enraged that he is capable of committing some im- 
prudence. I know that she is incapable of saying such a thing. 
She was anxious to go to M., in order to see how things (as 
cousas) went. You are free to go wherever you please (aonde 
quizer). I am ready to follow you. 






Tende compaixdo de n6s! Eu teria vontade (= I have a 
mind) de lhe dizer tudo. Ha mais de quinze dias que nao tenho 
vontade de comer (= appetite). Nao tenho appetite. Nao faca 
caso (do not mind) do que elle diz. Creia o Sr. que nao tive a 
intencao de offende-lo. Elle disse que nao tinha tempo de atten- 
der a Vm c6 . Sr. nao tern medo de sahir a estas horas ? O me- 
nino tinha vergonha de dizer o que tinha visto. Nao tenho 
fome, tenho sede. Vm c & tern razao. E. teve muita curiosidade 
de ver o que se passava dentro. Faco tencao de dedicar-me in- 
teiramente ao estudo das mathematicas. Tinha vontade (or 
deu-me vontade) de me rir, quando elle disse isto. O meu desejo 
de reeonciliar-me com a minha familia crescia de dia em dia. 
Tenho pena d'elle. O seu pai nao tern obrigacao de pagar as 
dividas do Sr. 

Ninguem tern direito a isso senao nos. De attencdo ao que 
digo. O Sr. nao deve dar credito a estes boatos. Eeceio que a 
carruagem faca falta ao Sr. seu pai. N'este caso nao se pode 
fazer justiga a todos. Nunca fiz mal a elle (or lhe fiz mal). 
ar da noite lhe fara mal. O carcereiro deu escapula a dous presos 
condemnados a gal6s perpetuas. Milhares d'aquelles infelizes 
pagarao com a vida o seu apego d crenca dos seus pais. Elles 
sempre tern mostrado muita affeigao ds bellas letras. Depois do 
seu regresso a Lisboa eu nunca mais ouvi d'elle. Um dos mais 
poderosos incitamentos d perseguicao dos Judeus erao as suas 
enormes riquezas. A sua propensao d crueldade nao encontrou 
mais obstaculo. Acabamos de ver quaes erao os sentimentos da 
nacao em relagao ds ultimas innovacoes. Os Christaos forao 
accusados de sacrilegios e offensas publicas d religiao. Esta pa- 
lavra foi um msulto d pessoa do monarca. O desprezo 6 a melhor 
respo8ta a taes insinuates. O general mostrou grande repug- 


nancia a essas medidas. — Ponhamosfim a essas disputas inuteis! 
Os novos depntados prestarfio juramento e tomdrao asscnto na 
camara. Isto nao diz respeito no Sr. (this does not concern you). 
Eespeito a velhice era uma das principaes virtudes que os Laoe- 
demonios inculcavao a mocidade. Fizemos alto a entrada da 
villa. Nao posso fazer frente a tao grande opposicao. 

Quem arrematou aquelles predios? A arrematagao da illu- 
minacao publica tera lugar no dia 7 do mez proximo futuro (= 
next). Eu lhe pagarei a importancia (amount) quando a letra 
f6r vencida, nem uma hora antes. O pagamento d'esta letra me 
da muito cuidado. B. foi nomeado pagador do batalhao 15. 
Esta anecdota 6 impagavel. Nao se p6de comparar aquelles 
tempos com os nossos. Aquelle quadro nao soffre comparaeao 
com nenhum dos outros. Dizem que ella era d'uma belleza in- 
comparavel. Nao compre esta espingarda; nao presta. O Sr. 
conhece o comprador d'esta chacara? A compra foi annullada 
pelo tribunal de commercio. Muitos obreiros agora ganhao (earn) 
3$000 rs. por dia. Eis o ganho d'um mez. Ohame alguns 
ganhadores. Quem ganhou a batalha de Marengo ? Nunca 
ganhei n'este jogo. Ganhaste a aposta ? O nosso partido esta 
ganbando forgas. Amai aos vossos proximos como a vos mes- 
mos ! Que senhora amavel ! Os amadores dos bons bocados 
gabao muito aquelle hotel. Formou-se n'esta cidade uma socie- 
dade com o nome de " Sociedade amante da instruccao." Ella 
chora por seu amante. Por quanto vende Vm 08 a libra de carne ? 
Os vendedores estao contentes. Quando tera lugar a venda (sale) 
dos bens do fallecido Sr. L. ? F. tem uma venda (grocery) na 
esquina d'esta rua e da do commercio. Esta casa nao pode ren- 
der mais d'um conto de r6is por anno. Os rendimentos da 
alfandega de B. s6bem as vezes a mais de trezentos contos por 
mez. Creia-me que esta enganado. F. reuniu os seus credores 
para Ihes mostrar os seus livros. O credito e a alma do com- 
mercio. Ficarei flel a crenca em que fui educado. Elles effec- 
tuarao a passagem do rio com incrivel rapidez. Eu o vi sahir 
correndo. O meu cavallo era bom corredor. As contas correntes 
da nossa casa sao consideraveis. Este corredor occupa dema- 
siado lugar. Achet esta corrente de relogio. Duas d'estas letras 


vencem hoje; as outras ja estao vencidas. O dia do vencimento 
d'estas letras sera um dia terrivel para mim. Se o outro partido 
veneer, n6s todos estaremos arruinados. Os venoedores entrarao 
triumphantes na capital. Cuidado que nao se perca! (= take 
care not to lose your way.) Isto seria a perdicao dos meus filhos. 
Que homern flngido ! Na historia da origem dos povos a ficgao 
geralmente toma o lugar da realidade. A hypocrisia e o fingi- 
mento da virtude. Destruir e mais facil do que ediflcar. A 
destruigao das bibliothecas de Alexandria e do Vaticano foi a 
obra do fanatismo religioso. Sentimos muito a falta dos Srs. 
Estas duas palavras tem um sentido muito differente. Este sen- 
timento 6 digno de vos. A perda de qualquer dos cinco sensos 
e uma grande infortunio. Elle mostrou-se muito sentido (afflicted, 


The examples in A. contain objective substantives, some re- 
quiring the preposition de with their object, others a, according 
to their nature. F. i., in the phrase " the love of virtue," the 
substantive virtue is the direct object of the sentiment expressed 
by love; in "his faithfulness to his master," the substantive mas- 
ter is the indirect object of faithfulness (= being faithful). It 
is often the case, that a whole phrase, consisting of a transitive 
verb and its direct object, is employed instead of a simple verb, 
the direct object of which is then governed by a preposition ; 
thus, " to have pity on somebody " is equivalent to " to pity 
somebody." Such phrases are numerous in both languages, 
though not always corresponding to each other. Sometimes an 
adjective or participle with the verb to be is used in English, 
when in Portuguese ter with a substantive is employed ; f. i. I 
am afraid, tenho medo, I am hungry, tenlio fame. Such phrases 
can only be learned by practice. 

Most objective substantives are derived from verbs ; some of 
them are found already in Latin (amor, compaixao, odio), others 
are formed directly from Portuguese verbs, mostly by means of 
the terminations mento and fao added to the root of the verb by 
a in those of the first conjugation, by i in those of the other two 
conjugations (espanc-ar, -amento ; mang-ar, -a$ao; rend-er, 


-imento; perd-er, -ifao ; destru-ir, -icao, etc.) The affix niento 
is more expressive of the active, fao of the passive form (thus 
fingimento is feigning, i. e. the action of feigning, ficcao = what 
is feigned, fiction) ; both are, however, frequently confounded. 
There are some verbs of which substantives are formed by adding 
a or o to the root, as compra, venda, perda, arranjo, etc. Other 
substantives are formed from the (lost) present participle, as 
mudanga, crenga, etc. (like perseveranga). Still other formations 
are eonquista, sentido, cuidado, etc. The termination dor (tor), 
added to the past participle, indicates the subject of the verb 
from which the substantive is derived (= English er), as compra- 
dor (fem. -ora), buy-er, vencedor, feitor, etc. The same form is 
used for forming verbal adjectives, as assustador, threatening. 
But most verbal adjectives are formed by the termination vel 
(avel for the first conjugation, ivel for the second and third), as 
amavel, crivel (credible), preferivel. — All verbal substantives and 
adjectives have the same construction (i. e. the same preposition 
for their object) as the verbs from which they are derived ; and, 
the latter being active and transitive, the object is governed by 
the preposition de. These rules are the same as in English, and 
therefore need no further explanation ; the use of the different 
prepositions requires great attention, but for our present purpose 
the examples in A. are sufficient to guide the student. 

Have pity on the poor ! Johnny had the patience to count 
all the rails of our garden-fence. Are you afraid of going out 
at night? Do not be afraid to say the truth. Are you not 
ashamed of forsaking (desamparar) thus your poor little chil- 
dren? I have a mind to tell him what I think of his conduct. 
She has little appetite. Are you hungry ? No, but very thirsty. 
I am so sleepy, that I can hardly stand on my feet (= ficar em 
pe). We miss his company very much. I have no occasion for 
(precisao de) this. I am in need (ter precisao) of some assistance, 
in order to carry out (levar ao Jim) our plans. You have the 
right of saying whatever you wish. You have no right to this 
property. Who can give credit to what those malicious people 


say ! They show little affection for (a) their country. I have 
no great confidence in his abilities. My remarks do not concern 
your friendly relations with 0. Any allusion to the past will be 
an incitement for a new outbreak of their mutual hatred. Con- 
cessions to our enemies, in our present situation, would be proofs 
of our weakness. Their obstinate clinging (apego, afferrd) to 
such antiquated ideas is certainly (de certo) no proof of their su- 
perior intelligence. Some journals recommend the annexation 
of the whole territory of M. to our dominions. This would be 
no great obstacle to my plans. Even the most perverse show 
respect to true virtue. Your son seems to have little inclination 
to the serious studies. He exhibited great repugnance to the 
adoption of this policy. 

His speech did not please everybody. Our prospects were 
not very (= pouco) pleasing. The green color is the most agree- 
able to the eyesight. H. R. H. (Sua Alteza Real, S. A. R.) 
prince Lewis (Luiz) passed last night through our city. I feel 
(passar) better since your last visit. How have you been (pas- 
sar) since I saw you last? (pela ultima vez.) The passage of the 
river was facilitated to us by the kindness of Mr. N., who lent 
us his boat. His impudence passes all bounds. One of the pas- 
sengers had not paid the fare. The heavy rains of last Sunday 
have made (tornar) some of the streets quite impassable. "Worldly 
joys are transitory. The word "pastime" is most frequent in 
the mouth of the idler. One can not trust (fiar-se em) him. He 
has ruined himself by giving security for anybody that asked 
him [for] it. Who is your surety? I knew him very well. 
This author is little known at present. His knowledge (plur.) in 
military affairs is very extensive. He is no acquaintance of mine. 
Are you acquainted with them ? I made their acquaintance 
(fazer conhecimento com) last summer. Are you a connoisseur 
in painting ? I prefer this little book to a whole library of novels. 
Death would be preferable to such a life. They gave us the pre- 
ference over more than sixty competitors. His remorses will 
punish him sufficiently for this deed. The punishment of such 
crimes we must leave to God alone. 

LESSON L. 183 


Eu lhe disse muitas vezes que nao posso nem devo nem quero 
aooeitar essas condicoes. Paramos alguns dias em casa da nossa 
tia. Ainda que eu viva tern annos, nao quero mais ve-lo. Esta 
rez pesara cinco quintaes. A minha ultima doenga durou dous 
mezes e meio. Proeuranio-vos ha tres dias. Este panno custa 
8$000 rs. ajarda. 

Fizemos o caminho de A. a B. em menos de meia hora. Estes 
Indios fazem as suas armas de pedra ou de madeira durissima. 
Apartamos a nossa sociedade {partnership) de commum accdrdo. 
Elle era rei de faeto, senao de nome. F. sempre esta do lado do 
mais forte. O menino nao fez isto de proposito. Elles nos offe- 
recerao de boa vontade tudo quanto tinhao. O meu primo vol- 
tou leve de dinheiro, porem rico de mais uma preciosa experien- 
cia. Ella estava vestida a moda hespanhola. Os pobres soldados 
marchavao a custo {with difficulty) no caminho pantanoso que 
conduz para 0. Muitos d'elles obtiverao a sua liberdade d custa 
(at -the cost) dos seus bens. O primeiro batalhao passou o rio a 
vao, os cacadores {riflemen) o passarao mais abaixo a nado. 
Vm c6 veio a tempo (a proposito). Nao vendas a tua reputacao 
a troco de alguns favores duvidosos. Muitos dos negros forros 
repassao a Africa. Isto se ve em toda a parte (everywhere). Em 
poucos annos tudo aquillo mudou. Quanto ganha o Sr. por mez? 
Fazei em tempo o que tendes a fazer. Nao me zango por tao 
pouca cousa. Para fazer uma agulha, precisa-se de mais maos 
do que para uma casa. 

Alguem esteve aqui ? Sim ; nao. E km<7« d'aqui k sua casa? 
Nao, senhor, e perto. Ja derao sete horas ? Ainda nao. Vm 1 * 
devia levantar-se mais cedo. Nao me levanto tarde. G6sto 
muito d'esta fructa. Sou pouco dado a esta especie de diverti- 
mentos. Estou tafoez em maiores apuros do que o Sr. Falle 

184: LESSON L. 

alto ! Fallem mais baixo ! Caminha mais ligeiro ! Isto e alto- 
mente louvavel. Elle cahiu felizmente emcima d'um montao de 
palha. Isto aconteceu provavelmente antes do anno 1703. 

Indications of place (where? whence? whither?), of time 
(when? how long?), of mode (how?), and of cause (why? where- 
fore ? to what end ?) are expressed 

1) by mere substantives : to live many years, = viver mnitos 
annos ; 

2) by substantives (or pronouns) with a preposition : I did it 
in good faith, ji-lo de boafe; (these expressions are called ad- 
verbial phrases) 

3) by the so-called adverbs. 

The knowledge and use of these different expressions are a 
matter of practice and the dictionary ; the following will suffice 
for our purpose. 


a) simple prepositions: a, to, at; ante, before; apbs, after; 
ate, till, until, as far as ; com, with ; contra, against ; conforme, 
according to ; de, of, from ; desde, since, from ; durante, during ; 
em, in, into, on; entre, between, among; para, for, towards; 
por {per, obsolete), by, for ; perante, before ; segundo, according 
to ; sem, without ; sob, under ; sobre, over, upon ; traz, behind. — 
These prepositions govern the accusative case, i. e. they are 
simply joined to their substantive, and require disjunctive per- 
sonal pronoun (mim, ti, etc.) ; f. i. a meu pax, a mim. Of the 
contractions and alterations which some prepositions undergo we 
have already spoken ; they are mainly the following : a is writ- 
ten in one word with the masculine of the definite article (ao, 
aos), and contracted with the feminine of the article and with 
aquelle (aa = d, aas = as, a aquelle = aquelle, a aquella = 
dquella, etc.); commigo, comtigo, comsigo Y cmnnosco, comvosco for 
com mim, com ti, com si, com nbs, com vos ; de is contracted with 
the definite article (do, dos, da, das), and loses its e before a 
vowel or h, especially before pronouns (d'este, d^aquelle, Welle, 

LESSON L. 185 

etc.) ; por with the definite article becomes pelo, pelos, pela, pelas 
(from the obsolete preposition per) ; com, with the masculine of 
the definite article, is often written and pronounced cV, c'os (in 
older writers also co, cos) ; em with the definite article becomes 
no, nos, na, nas, and ■»' before um, elle, esle, aqnelle, esse. 

b) compound prepositions: \) para com, towards ; por entre, 
between; oVentre, from among; a travez, through; afora, be- 
sides; 2) (all compounds with dc) abaixo, below; acima, above; 
acerca, about, concerning ; alem, beyond, besides ; antes, before ; 
aquem, on this side ; atraz, behind ; debaixo, under ; dentro, 
within; depots, after; detraz, behind, from behind; diante, be- 
fore ; embaixo, below ; emcimu, on, upon ; fbra, out of, besides. 
— These are formed from substantives (or adjectives and adverbs 
considered as substantives), which explains the employment of 
de; thus cima means top, and emcima de = on top of, on, upon; 
acima de = above, por cima dc, above, over. They are, there- 
fore, in reality adverbial phrases ; but at the same time virtual 
prepositions, and are often translated, in other languages, by real 
prepositions. Similar combinations are: defronte de, in front of, 
opposite ; perto de, near ; longe de, far from ; ao lado de, near, 
beside ; ao longo de, along ; a or por causa (razao) de, on account 
of, because of; a pezar de, despite, in spite of; aredorde, around; 
em lugar {vez) de, instead of; junto a, near, close to; ao pe de, 
near, hard by, close to ; still others are nao obstante, notwith- 
standing; medvmte, by means of; uisto, considering; also du- 
rante, during; excepto, except; these five require no preposition 
to follow them (because they are participles, and a kind of abla- 
tivus absolulun). 


1) Adjectives (and participles) are changed into adverbs by 
means of the termination mente ; this word being a feminine 
noun a mente, the mind (meaning here wise [compare likewise, 
otherwise] or manner, way), those words must have the feminine 
termination, when they can take it : alto, high, alta-mente, 
highly; christao, christian, christaa-mente, in a christian man- 
ner ; riquissima-mente, most richly ; but constante-mente, fiel- 
mente, feliz-mente. The comparatives melhor, peior, maior, me- 

186 LESSON L. 

nor can not take this termination, the adjective serving instead 
of the adverb ; maiormente or its contraction mormente means 
chiefly, especially. When two or more adverbs are united by co- 
ordination, only the last one takes mente, as : discorrer sabia e 
elegantemente, to discourse learnedly and elegantly. The adverb 
of horn, is hem, of mdo (and ruim) mat. 

2) Some adjectives take no termination on becoming adverbs, 
especially in certain phrases, as : foliar alto, haixo, to speak loud, 
low; caminhar ligeiro, direito, to walk fast, straight; custar, 
pagar caro, to cost, to pay dearly ; muito, pouco, salvo (safe, and 
safely) ; the latter, as also its synonym sao, always remains an 
adjective, as : ella chegou salva, chegdmos saos e salvos. 

3) Substantives without prepositions used as adverbs are: 
um dim, one day, or once ; uma vez, once ; duos vezes, twice ; 
muitas vezes, often (mais vezes = oftener) ; algumas vezes, some- 
times ; outra vez, again ; esta vez, this time ; um pouco, a little ; 
and others. 

4) Original adverbs : a) of place : agui, cd, here, ahi, ali, 
Id, acold, there, yonder ; onde, where ; aonde, whither (or where) ; 
donde, whence ; longe, far ; perto, near ; b) of time : quando, 
when ; agora, now ; jd, already, presently ; hoje, to-day ; hontem, 
yesterday ; (amanhaa, to-morrow ;) nunca, never ; sempre, ever, 
always ; depois, after ; antes, before ; c) of mode : como, how, 
as ; assim, so ; too, so, as ; quasi, almost ; assaz, hastante, enough ; 
tanto, so much ; quanto, how much ; mui, muito, very, much, 
etc. ; d) of cause : porque, why. 

5) Derivative adverbs : adiante, before, in front ; ahaixo, em- 
baixo, below ; acima, emcima, above, upon ; etc. etc. 

6) Sentences used adverbially : ha muito (tempo), long ago, etc. 

The use of adverbs and adverbial phrases is, in every lan- 
guage, rich in idioms, and therefore offers to the learner great 
difficulty ; the same prepositions are not always used in Portu- 
guese and in English, and a literal translation would often per- 
vert the meaning of the phrase. "We shall, for this reason, ex- 
tend the three following Lessons, which treat of the adverbs and 
adverbial phrases (and, consequently, of the prepositions) far be- 
yond the length of the preceding Lessons, by which means we 


likewise give the student an opportunity for recapitulating all 
the rules we have given until now. 



Onde estao elles ? B'onde vens ? Aonde vai o Sr. ? Aonde 
quer Vm c6 que eu bote isto ? Venha cd ! Sente-se (sit) aqui ! 
Que estas fazendo Id ? Aqui nao ha ladroes. O Brazil e urn 
paiz fertilissimo ; ali crescem as plantas da zona torrida como as 
das zonas temperadas. AM vem o seu oachorrinho. Vm cS nao 
ve a casa que esta acold no cume d'aquelle outeiro? Partimos 
de Cadiz no dia 2 de Junho. Da sua casa eu fui ao mercado. A 
America 6 o continente mais comprido ; extende-se do Norte ao 
Sul, por quatro zonas e mais de 120 degraos de latitude. As 
minhas primas estiverao dez mezes em Pariz. O rio das Ama- 
zonas nasce no Peru, corre primeiro do Sul para o Norte, depois 
dirige o seu curso para o Leste. Todo este terreno, desde o rio 
ate aquella serra, pertenceu um dia aos meus antepassados. Que 
elle nao se dirija a mim ! Acompanharemos o Sr. ate a ponte de 
B. N'aquella semana morriao do cholera de quarenta a cincoenta 
pessoas cada dia. Muitos dos fugitivos acolherao-se a Lisboa. 
Se fosse como o Sr. diz, ainda poder-se-hia occorrer ao mal. A 
sombra da proteccao real elles s'entregavao a todos os excessos, 
sem medo de punicao. A estes successos seguirao-se outros 
ainda mais brilhantes. Ohegue-se mais a meza, para ver melhor. 
Accresce a isto a credulidade do vulgacho. Isto seria adverso 
aos meus principios. Os vencedores furibundos arrancavao os 
filhinhos aos bragos das mais, e lhes esmagavao os craneos contra 
as paredes dos aposentos. A ma vontade que a classe indigente 
sempre tem ds classes opuleutas, nao tardou a rebentar em tu- 
multos. As lagrimas da pobre viuva nos moverao d compaixao. 
Este boato chegou aos ouvidos do proprio monarca. F. se poz d 


testa da empreza. Aparte d'isso nfio tenho motivo de queixar-ma 
d'elle. A casa d'elles esta ao pe da minha. Isto se chama tra- 
duzir ao pe da letra (— literally). Ella estava do lado direito, 
ao lado da imperatriz. Taes erao as oircumstanoias que o impelli- 
rao a esta fatal resolucao. Eu obriguei-o a isto. Voltastes aos 
vossos lares, cobertos de gloria. Os escriptos d'aquelles authores 
tendem a perverter a opiniao publica. Nem (not) todos curvar- 
se-hao a vontade d'essa orgulhosa oligarchia. Nao falle na sua 
carta em cousas que toquem as nossas differencas. Ve-se facil- 
mente que a maior prudenoia presidiu a essas investigates. As 
suas expressoes induzirao-nos a crer que Vm ci tinha mudado de 
parecer. Eecorrestes a adulagao e ate a corrupcao d'alguns em- 
pregados publicos. Hei de submetter esta materia a juizes com- 
petentes. Nao se queixe a mim, porque nao quero saber d'este 
negocio. Se elle hesitar, refira-se u, mim. Deixe isto ficar a 
meu cargo. — Tenciono sabir do nosso club. Saia d'aqui ! (= be 
off.) Esta fortuna me cahiu das nuvens. Trago-lhe um recado 
da parte do Sr. Dr. E. Um passeio d'aqui ate a ponte nao deixa- 
ria de fazer-lhe bem. Abstenhamo-nos de reflexoes sobre esses 
acontecimentos. Retirei-me d'aquelle negocio, porque um dos 
socios tornou-se meu inimigo. A carteira desappareceu da ga- 
veta, sem que eu possa explicar como isto era possivel. De quern 
e a bella casa que esta de fronte da igreja de S. Paulo ? Estes 
cristaes vem de Fran fa. Nos todos participamos da vossa pro- 
teccao. Livre-me d'este homem ! O tyranno se desembaracou 
dos seus inimigos pelo punhal do assassino. Nao me despeco de 
Vm* porque ainda Lei de ve-los. Isto nao passaria (= wovld 
be nothing more than) d'uma baixeza. Este senhor passa d'um 
partido ao outro com espantosa facilidade. Bo sublime ao ridi- 
culo nao ha senao um passo. Precisa olhar muito de perto para 
acbar as distinccoes que o Sr. fez. De longe aquelle rochedo 
parece-se com a oabeca e o bnsto d'um homem. Isto nao de- 
pende da minha vontade. Fujiio d'aqui ! Be uma parte V. S. 
tem razao. Tres cadetes forao expulsos da academia militar. 
Fui demittido do meu posto por nao querer annuir aos roubos e 
prevaricacoes do chefe da reparticao. Elle safou-se (tirou-se) 
d'aquelle dilemma com muita honra. Quern tirou o meu livro 


de notas d'esta gaveta ? O paquete de Londres ja devia ter che- 
gado hontem. — Nao permitto isto em minha casa. Meu irmao 
esta agora em Eoma. Um dos nossos espias chegou a penetrar 
no acampamento dos Francezes. Metta este canivete no bolso, 
seDao, receio que aconteca alguma desgraca. O pobre do meu 
gatinho (my poor little cat) cahiu na agua" e atfbgou-se. Os 
negros carregao quasi tudo na (on the) cabeca. O cha esta na 
meza. O assassino lhe deu uma caoetada na cabeca que fractu- 
rou o craneo. Quera lhe metteu isto na cabeca (into your head) ? 
No meio da ponte achava-se uma estatua de S. Nicolao. Crudes 
vos em Deos Omnipotente ? Nao estou fallando m'isso. Nin- 
guem pensou «'isto. Na noite passada sonhei em varias cousas 
pouco agradaveis. Tenho toda a confianca em Vm<*. O orador 
estribou-se nas palavras do ministro. Tropecei n'uma pedra e 
oahi. Em que se fundao essas assercoes? Pegue na outra 
banda! Nao pegue n'este ferro, porque esta muito quente. 
Hoje estive na igreja. Estivemos no theatre Os dous partidos 
convidrao em protestar contra esta medida. Puzemos as nossas 
familias em (or a) salvo. — Sobre elles recahe toda a responsabili- 
dade. Deitamo-nos sobre a relva avelludada, gozando da mag- 
nifica perspectiva que se estendia diante de n6s. Ponba esta 
cadeira sobre a meza, entao podertl talvez chegar ao tecto. Um 
dos guardas arremessou-se wore o ladrito e o segurou, ate que os 
outros puderao amarra-lo. Uma passagem do nosso author nos 
esclarece sobre este ponto. Centenares de volumes se tern es- 
cripto sobre este assumpto, mas sem fructo perceptive!. Um vio- 
lento temporal desfechou sobre a cidade de G. Sobretudo pro- 
cure-me um bom cozinheiro. Mandei fazer um sobretudo (uma 
sobrecasaca) de panno grosso. O fanatismo prevaleceu sobre a 
caridade christaa. Todas as calamidades pareciao accumular-se 
sobre a provincia infeliz. Saquei 2000 libras esterlinas sobre 
Londres. Os soldados da guarda lanciirao sortes sobre a tunica 
de Jesus Ohristo. Conviemos em guardar o silencio mais pro- 
fundo sobre estas transaccoes. Isto nao pode deixar de trazer o 
odioso sobre os nossos adversarios. Uma grave responsabilidade 
peza sobre vos. Traga a sobremeza ! A assemblea flcou sobre- 
ealtada, quando se lhe annunciou isto. — Emcima da meza estava 


um bello relogio francez. Um dos trabalhadores cahiu emcima 
d'uma pedra. Ainda emcima de tudo isso perdi a minha fortuna 
n'um so dia. Pendure este retrato acima do da nossa mai. A 
conducta de F. n'este negocio esta acima de toda a reprehensao. 
A corrupcao n'um estado sempre vem d'emcima. Va para cima ! 
(= up stairs.) A estrada real vae d'aqui o rio acima (arrriba, = 
up the river). Indo o rio abaixo {down the river), entramos 
n'um valle estreito, mas riquissimo em bellas vistas. Trace duas 
linhas de cima para baixo. Sob o reinado de Carlos Magno o 
christianismo comecou a estender-se na Alemanha. Sob estaB 
condigoes de certo (certainly) nao hei de continuar a servir aos 
Srs. Aquella instituigao recuperou, sob a sabia administragao do 
presidente actual, a sua antiga importancia e reputacao. Ella 
communicou-me isto sob o sigillo do segredo. P6de-se conside- 
rar isto sob dous aspectos. Sob este nome appareceu estes dias 
um pampbleto que contem uma critica acerrima da administragao 
do Sr. conde de L. Debaixo do quadro lia-se a inscripcao se- 
guinte. Elle cahiu a escada abaixo. Cheguei embaixo (below) 
sem me pisar. Uma grande cobra estava escondida debaixo do 
arbusto. Venha para baixo ! (come down.) Ab'aixo de mim es- 
tavao sentados alguns mocos meus conhecidos. Quern vae la 
embaixo ? Estes sao os altos e baixos (ups and downs) da vida. 
Abaixo de Deos e a Vm«6 que devo a minha salvacao. Isto esta 
debaixo do meu caracter. Elle escreveu isto debaixo da influen- 
cia da sua paixao. Aquelle principe tinha, segundo o testemunho 
dos escriptores contemporaneos, uma intelligencia abaixo da 
mediocridade. Debaixo do manto do enthusiasmo religioso elles 
commetterao toda a casta de excessos e atrocidades. — Alem de 
estar cego, elle tinha um braco de menos (= but one arm). 
Alem (Z'isso Vm cS nao tem direito a esta propriedade senao de- 
pois do fallecimento do Sr. seu tio. Estas fazendas nos vem 
cCalem-mar (from over the sea). Isto k a mesma cousa aquem e 
alem do oceano. Moramos fora da cidade. Elle estava fbra de 
si (beside himself) de raiva. Fora (Tisto nao sei nada. Fora 
com elles ! Tomei um passaporte para fora do imperio. Venho 
de f6ra (from outside, from the street, from the country, from 
abroad). Afbra a sua incapacidade havia outro obstaculo a sua 


nomeacao, que era, a inimizade do Sr. marquez de V. Mette- 
rao-no a porta fora. — Sempre tenho ante os olhos aquella scena 
horrivel. O tiuteiro esta diante do Sr. Caminhe para diante ! 
Adiante ! {forwards !) menino s'escondeu atraz de mim. O 
preso tinha as maos atadas atraz. Vou traz elle (or atraz d'elle). 
Ha uma grande difterenca entre os dons irmaos. A distancia 
entre A. e B. e de sessenta leguas mais ou menos. Entre Vm* 
e eu (not mim) ha uma different de ao menos doze annos. 
" Entre ovelhas e fraqueza ser leao." (Oamoes.) Ha um traidor 
entre nos ! — seu chapeo de sol (umbrella) deve estar dentro 
d"'aquelle guardaroupa. Os prisioneiros podiao passeiar dentro 
da cidade. A nossa casa estava dentro das fortificacoes. Elle 
esta den tro. Va para dentro ! — Dlrigimo-nos para L. Vou paras 
casa (home). Olhe para mim ! Para quem e este embrulho ? 
Isto nao 6 para todos. A sua conducta para com os seus parentes 
e irreprehensivel. Vm c6 sempre tem sido muito bom para com- 
migo. — Havemos de passar por Setubal. Isto me passou pela 
cabeca (= I forgot this). Passe por debaixo da meza! Elle 
passeia pelas ruas como se nada tivesse acontecido. Acabamos 
de passar por uma quadra terrivel. Ella passou a mao pela testa. 
A bala me passou por cima (above) da cabeca. Nao podemos ir 
por terra. O cabo rebentou pelo meio. Abrimos um caminho 
sanguinolento atravee os inimigos que nos rodeavao. — F. foi no- 
meado ministro plenipotenciario junto d c6rte de S. Petersburgo. 
Moravamos perto de Pariz. Ao pe da casa estava um antiquis- 
simo carvalho. Fique ao pe de mim ! Tal idea esta longe de 
mim. Um d'entre elles o ha de ser. Caminhei meia hora as 
apalpadellas (groping) ao longo do muro. A pedra lhe passou 
rente d cara. " A hypocrisia e o reptil que se arrasta por entre 
as flores e morde a victima descuidada." O nosso exeroito 
marchou contra o tyranno. O ferido encostou-se contra a parede. 


Solre, on, upon, over, is not often used with a concrete sub- 
stantive ; in its stead emcima de is employed, also em (on the 
table, na meza or emcima da meza). Sob, under, is never used, 
at least in conversational language, with a concrete substantive, 


its place being taken by emhaixo de or debaixo de (thus sob estat 
condigoes, but debaixo da mesa). Abaixo, acima mean principally 
lower down, higher up; de cima or d"emcima = from above, 
d'embaixo = from below (but debaixo = under, beneath ; em- 
baixo = underneath). 

Ante, before, is only used in certain phrases, as ante os olhos, 
ante a mente. Perante = in presence of (Latin coram), as before 
a judge, tribunal, God, etc. In the common local sense before is 
expressed by diante de. — Entre, between, among, requires, in 
the first sense, two objects ; the second of these being a personal 
pronoun, it does not take the form of the accusative case, but 
that of the nominative, as : entre elle e eu, not mim. 

Para, towards, for, is in the former sense often synonymous 
with a, by which it is sometimes substituted. — Por means 
through or by, as passar por uma rua, and passar por uma casa 
ou pessoa. — Em is frequently used in the sense of on, upon. 


Let us go to mass. Where shall I find rest? Here lies the 
conqueror of many kingdoms. Who goes there ? Nobody knows 
whence the wind comes nor whither it goes. He came to this 
city without [the] permission or knowledge of his parents. Why 
do you not show it to Mr. N. ? I returned to the house of his 
brother-in-law. To whom am I to deliver it? You will do well 
to (em) devote yourself exclusively to the study of the natural 
sciences. The new ministry withdrew from (a) the Jews all the 
concessions which they had obtained under the preceding ad- 
ministration. The city council (camara municipal) bought from 
(a) Mr. A. all his lots (terreno) situated along the canal. Will 
not this exposition move them to pity s They will not dare to 
touch ow (a) those ancient privileges of the town. My house is 
at your disposal. We stopped at the door of an old conveDt. 
At every step one could see the effects of a vigorous spirit of en- 
terprise and persevering industry. — Where do you come from ? 
She left (sahir de) the room bathed in (de) tears. The difficulties 
which arose from the new state of things overwhelmed him 
completely. The tyrant fell from the height of power into the 


depth of the most abject misery. The hurricane tore (arrancar) 
the strongest trees from their roots, and threw them down at a 
considerable distance. L. is (dixtar) from O. 10 miles. Erom 
your negligence will result the ruin of our commerce. I must 
have lost it from my pocket. This depends on (de) circumstances 
with which I am uuacquainted (que me sao desconhecidas). This 
is falling from the frying-pan into the coals (da panella nas 
brazas). — I went as far as the new bridge. It was then thought 
impossible to go (passar) beyond the equator. He comes from 
beyond the sea. — The steamer will start for Rio de Janeiro on 
the 15th of this (eorrente) month. She looked at (para) her sis- 
ter, expecting some explanation. They returned towards the 
forest. — By sea it will take us some twenty days, by land more 
than forty. They escaped by the postern gate. He passed 
through our town the day before yesterday. Through a thou- 
sand obstacles we reached at last the goal of our toilsome jour- 
ney. — His testimony will perhaps throw some light on those 
shameful transactions. These cares weigh on me since long- 
time. Let us say no more (mais nada) on this subject. Your 
hat is on that chair. Get (= climb, trepar) on this box. The 
storm passed over our villa, but without doing any damage. — 
Under your care we hope for (por) some relief of our distress. 
This is prohibited under penalty of death. Look for it under 
the bed. The hangman entered with a naked sword under his 
arm. He said this, when he was still under the influence of his 
false friend, Mr. R. That individual is below you in every 
respect. — The Rhine (Rheno) forms part of the frontier between 
France and Germany. These two languages, though of the same 
stock, differ greatly (muito) from each other (= entre si). Divide 
the sum amongst you. There is not one amongst us who would 
not assist you in your troubles. I found it amongst my books. 
— She must be in the garden. We went (entrar) into the draw- 
ing-room. He is in the jail. Are you still in the bed ? I went 
(entrar) into partnership with my father-in-law. There is no- 
body in the house ; they are all at church. Breakfast is on the 
table. Who is there within? In summer we do not live in the 
city. Within the city there are five public fountains. Besides 


these instructions he gave me letters of introduction (recommen- 
dacdo) to some of the most prominent citizens of B. From out- 
side nothing was to be seen. Do not venture outside of the 
town. I flung the heavy inkstand at (em) his head. Six com- 
panies of riflemen were sent against the Indians. 



Hontem e hoje tern feito mais frio do que todo este iiwemo. 
Talvez que chova amanhda. Anthontem eu fui a cidade, e voltei 
no mesmo dia. Algum dia Vm° 6 vera que eu tive razao em 
dizer isto. Eu estava um dia passeiando na beira do rio, quando 
vi um homem atirar-se na agua. Espere um momento ! Isto 
durou pouco tempo. Ha um anno que nao vejo o Sr. ! Volte 
logo ! Va jd ! {go now, go quick.) Jd voltou ? (— have you al- 
ready come tack f) Ainda nao se sabe o que foi feito d'elles. 
Venha logo mais (a little later, a little hence). Eu voltarei d'aqui 
um mez. A coda instante ella vira a cabeca. O que poderiamos 
fazer a estas horas ? Fiquei com elles ate o dia 27 de Marco. 
Sr. ainda vem a tempo. Jantaremos hoje as 4 horas. Eomos 
para casa d meia noite. Aos (a) 22 de Dezembro o Sr. visconde 
de P. foi nomeado vice-almirante. A final (finalmente) elle 
comprehendeu a necessidade de proceder com energia contra 
aquelles malvados. A final de contas (in the end ) ninguem ganhou 
com isso. Ao romper do dia ouviu-se o estrondo da artilharia, 
que saudava a aurora da nossa liberdade. Ao por do sol tudo 
estava acabado. Ao amanhecer levantamo-nos todos. A estas 
palavras ella estremeceu. Antes da invencao da imprensa a in- 
struccao limitava-se a um numero bem pequeno de pessoas. Nao 
hei de sahir antes de meio dia. Vm tE nao podia vir um pouco 
antes ? D'antes (before this) elle dizia o contrario. Apbs a fome 
veio a pestilencia. Depois de ter acceitado a proposta do seu 


socio, o Sr. 0. negon o direito d'aquelle de retirar-se da flrraa 
quando quizesse. Depois rf'isto nao tenho mais nada a dizer. 
Venha depois ! Depois da morte de Julio Cesar o imperio ro- 
mano tornou-se outra vez o theatro das mais sanguinolentas 
guerras civis. Elle p6de chegar <fum dia para outro. Desde 
aquelle tempo eu perdi toda a confianca n'elle. Desde logo (= 
immediately) comecarao as perseguicoes por crimes politieos. 
Este moinho me pertencera desde o dia l 10 de Outubro. Ate 
hoje ainda nao tenho podido escrever. Quanto tempo pensa 
Vm c! que isto vae durar? Ate amanhaa! At6 logo! (= till by 
and by.) Isto deve ter aoontecido nos fins de Julho ou nos pri- 
meiros dias de Agosto. Em meiados (about the middle) de Feve- 
reiro concluiu-se finalmente aquelle negocio. No cabo (= no 
fim) de tres dias elle ja morreu. Acabarei este trabalho em 
menos de dous mezes. Pelofim {towards the end) d'esta semana . 
pretendemos ir a P. Isto fica para o anno proximo futuro (or o 
anno que vem, = next year). O ultimo dia do mez passado foi 
para n6s um dia de lucto. Durante todo este tempo fomos per- 
seguidos com uma perseveranpa realmente diabolica. Vm c6 vem 
muito cedo hoje. O Sr. queria que eu viesse mais tarde ? Ac- 
tualmente nao vejo possibilidade de arranjar-se isto. Por ora 
(just now, as yet) nao. sabemos que curso havemos de tomar. 
Por muito tempo estive sujeito a esta molestia. Quando fara o 
Sr. o que me prometteu? Agora nao posso. Elle esteve com- 
migo ainda agora (just now). Que triste mudanga n'um caracter 
outr'ora tao nobre ! Para o futuro serei mais acautelada. D'agui 
para diante nao me fiarei mais em ningnem. Elle foi inconti- 
nente queixar-se ao chefe da casa. Tome um banho de pes antes 
de se deitar. Nunca me hei de esqnecer do que vos tendes feito 
para mim. Ella sempre foi assim. Logo depois nos nos despe- 
dimos. Vae immediatamente levar isto d'onde o tiraste ! Sdia 
no instante ! (on the spot.) Jamais se viu semelhante homem ? 
Se eu jamais te risse em companhia com aquelle sujeito, deixaria 
de ser teu amigo. A sua reputagao esta perdida para sempre. 
Quantas vezes tenho de dizer isto? Poucas vezes estive la. Raras 
vezes saio. Elle foi-se embora ri'este instante. Antigamente Uto 
nao era tido por crime. De primeiro gcstei muito d'elle, agora 


nao posso ve-lo. Be quando em quando (from time to time, 
evexy now and then) ouvia-se um tiro de peea. Temos licoes um 
dia sim, outro nao (every other day). Eu tinha entao apenas 17 
annos. N6s nos encontramos de vez em quando (from time to 
time) na praca do commercio (exchange). £ a mesma cousa cada 
dia. Elles casarao ha um mez ou seis semanas. Por duos horas 
estivemos expostos a um fogo destructor. F. accumulou a sua 
fortuna colossal em menos de oito annos. Para quando quer 
Vm«s que eu lhe aprompte isto ? Para sabbado, se f6r possivel. 


The prepositions used with expressions of time are partly the 
same as those indicating place (a, ate, de, desde, em, para, por) ; 
besides these we have apos, after, antes de, before, depois de, 
after, durante, during. The English preposition on, with an ex- 
pression of time is generally rendered by em ; with a date also 
by a (with or without the article). Antes and depois are adverbs. 


When was that? At two o'clock in (de) the morning the fire 
had already consumed the greatest part of the building. By (a) 
this time they must have reached 0. The people of the country 
(campanha) generally dine at noon. At sunrise nothing could 
be seen of the vessels. I shall come in (a) the afternoon. On 
the 11th of January there was a battle between the rebels and 
the government troops. What are you doing in the street at 
this hour (plur.) of the night ? Did I come in time ? Several 
minutes before the beginning of the play a number of suspicious 
individuals entered into the pit. What time (horas) is it? It is 
just half-past four; it wants (plur.) 10 minutes to (para, or de) 
six. Towards evening she grew worse (= peiorar). Towards 
the close (fins) of the eighteenth century all Europe went (pas- 
sar) through a great political and social crisis. Since the earliest 
(primeiro) days of his childhood he was accustomed to priva- 
tions of every kind. Since your departure I have not had an 
hour of rest. Since when are you in this country ? It is now 
nearly (guasi, perto de) 15 years ago since I arrived at Bahia (d 


Bahia). How long is it since (= quanto tempo ha or faz que) 
Mr. L. died? Almost 11 years. Two months ago nobody would 
have believed it. Before five o'clock I shall not be able to re- 
ceive you. See if you can come before that day. It is almost 
dinner-time (horas de jantar). It is time that you should go 
home. I shall be back (= vollar) before supper. After so many 
fatigues it is no wonder that he should feel (seutir-se) ill. After 
having robbed me, he endeavors to ruin my credit. I have borne 
your insolence for some time, but now I am tired of it. For a 
long space of time those abuses continued to torment the lower 
classes of the people. This will last you until to-morrow. Until 
what day do you intend to stay here ? Until next Saturday. 
You ought to go to bed (deitar-se) earlier. It is already late. 
What a beautiful evening ! G>od afternoon! Good morning 1 
(bom dia or ions dias.) Good night! (Good byo = adeos.) 
Will you write soon ? You will soon understand the peculiarity 
of your new position. Go immediately to Mr. R. and tell him 
to come to me at half-past one. Come here, on the spot ! I 
often thought that your friend must have some deep grief that is 
gnawing (at) his heart. I'll forgive you for this time. How often 
(= how many times) have you been deceived by him, and you 
still trust him ! I went several times to your house, without 
having the pleasure of seeing you. This happens very rarely 
(rariasimas veses). How seldom (quao poucas vexes) do you find 
so much sincerity! Whenever (= every time that) he sees me, 
he blushes and tries to avoid me. Did you ever hear such music ? 
I never saw the like (semelhante covsa). Adieu forever! He is 
never at home, when a creditor calls (= comes). 




Como se faz isto ? Oomo esta (passa) Ym«= ? Esta palavra 
nao se pronuncia assim. Assim tu tractas os teus bemfeitores ? 

198 LESSON Lin. 

Isto nao podia sucoeder outramente. Fui falsamente accusado de 
ter sido subornado. Elle vingou-se atrozmente das injurias rece- 
bidas. Taes discussoes me sao summamente desagradaveis. A 
vossa conduota e altamente reprehensivel. Felizmente ninguera 
foi ferido. Este boato e provavelmente uma invengao d'alguns 
especuladores. Os empregados d'aquelle estabelecimento sao 
liberalmente pagos. Essas offertas naturalmente forao logo 
aoceitas. Um mensageiro recem-cliegado (for recentemente che- 
gado) nos trouxe a infausta noticia do fallecimcnto da nossa ado- 
rada rainlia. Encontrou-se na esquina d'esta rua e da praca da 
Aeclamagao uma crianca recem-nascida. Os refugiados recem- 
vindos forao logo internados. O piano feito por aquelle enge- 
nbeiro e demasiadamente dispendioso. Este documento contra- 
diz clara e positivamente as pretensoes dos Srs. O orador esbocou 
rapida e elegantemente a nossa situaQao. Isto me parece bastante 
claro. A scena era assaz comica. Sao duas cousas inteiramente 
(totalmente) differentes. Quero somente dizer que nao tenho 
provas d'isto. Nem sequer nos offereoeu uma cadeira. Elle nos 
deu provas nada equivocas da sua falsidade. Nao lhe posso dizer, 
quanto lhe sou agradecido. Vedes agora quao pouoa confianga 
aquelles bomens merecem? £ difficil dizer, qual d'elles vale 
mews. Creio que elle e mais tolo que perverso. Tao grande pre- 
sumpcao mereceu um castigo. Que lem feito esta este bordado ! 
E bem verdade o que dizes? Isto vae mal. Passei muito mal 
esta noite. Quern forao os malfeitores ? — Elle sempre marchava 
direito ao seu alvo. Nao leia tao ligeiro ! Direi mui alto que 
sois um traidor. Ella fallou tao oaixo que nao entendi o que 
ella disse. Paguei caro aquella indiscrifao. 

Eaco isto de bom grado, porque Vm' 8 e um homem que me- 
rece toda a confianca e estima. Elle de certo (certamente, por 
certo) nao consentira de boa voiitade a este casamento. Elles me 
tractao de resto (with the utmost indifference). Aquelle matto 
pertence de direito ao municipio de X. Ande depressa ! Escreva 
mais devagar ! Fiz isto de proposito, para lhes mostrar que nao 
sou de brincadeiras (that I will not he trifled with). Todos se 
puzerao de joelhos diante do altar-mor. De veras f (indeed ? 
true ?) Elle vae de mal a peior (worse and worse). Como pode 

LESSON Lin. 199 

Vm° 6 estar de bracos cruzados (to be idle, to looh on), quando o 
seu irmao esta soffrendo estas indignidades ? Elles andao de 
maos dadas (hand in hand). Tudo esta de pernas para o ar 
(topsy-turvy). Ccmsinto a isto de todo o coracao. De repente 
desapparecerao todos, sem ninguem saber como. De subito tudo 
mudou. D'esta maneira e superfluo que eu va IL TJva homem 
d'estes (of that hind) e capaz de tudo. Hei de alcanfar o men 
fim d'uma ou d'outra maneira. D'esta sorte Vm t! nao p6de 
deixar de perder o processo. Ellas estao de luclo, por causa da 
morte da sua avo. Hoje estou de guarda. O meu pai esta de 
cama (bed-ridden, sick). Elle nao e de ceremonias. Todas estas 
medidas forao de todo inutilisadas pela insubordinacao d'alguns 
subalternos. Dou-lhe isto de graga (gratis). O casamento foi 
annullado de commum accordo. F. explicou o negocio do modo 
seguinte. Meu padrinho me deu isto de presente. Elle cahiu de 
costas (on his bach). De uma parte nao posso negar que ella tern 
razao. Este documento me parece ser do punho do Sr. Joao. 
Foi uma lucta de morte. Na minha situacao de (as) tutor d'estes 
meninos nao posso permitti-lo. Durante essa epocha eu estava 
de magem. Elles fizerao-no de boa fe. Os espias serao punidos 
de morte. Nao tome isto de leve (lightly). 

Vm ci agora esta bastante rico para viver d sua iontade. Os 
homens alii trajao a franceza (i. e. & moda franceza), porem as 
mulheres oonservao o traje nacional. Vm cS nao tomara a mal 
(to take ill) a minha franqueza? Elle defendeu-se a unhas e 
dentes. Estou as suas ordens. A populaca o proseguiu As pedra- 
das. A respeito do nosso amigo nao sei o que devo fazer. Toda 
a guarnigao do forte foi passada a espada (or ao fio da espada, 
put to the sword). Eu fi-lo sahir u, forga. O que tendes rece- 
bido a troco dos vossos sacrificios ? Ao dizer d'elle nao ha homem 
mais innocente do que elle. Isto ia As mil maravilhas (wonder- 
fully, famously). Nos todos sornos a favor d'elle. As vossas 
ordens tern sido exeoutados d risca (strictly). Elles puderao 
faze-lo muito a seu salvo (very safely), porque pertenciao ao par- 
tido dominante. A pretexto da guerra que pendia, muitos nego- 
ciantes se declararao insolventes. Elle sahiu a oecultas. F. 
conhecia a fundo todos os manejog d'aquelle emprego. Elle 

200 LESSON Lin. 

fallou a torto e a direito (confusedly). A porta da estribaria 
estava fechada a chave; mas abrirao-na a for fa de bracos (forced 
it open). Elles sempre estao a hracos (quarreling) um com o outro. 
Esteja a gosto (do not disturb yourself). Isto parece ser feito a 
pressa. Esta menina cresce a vista d'olhos. Nao quero saber de 
contas ; eu pago tudo dinbeiro a vista. Creia-me que elle nao e 
tao pobre como se faz; elle tern dinbeiro a premio (interest). 
Sabe pintar a oleo ? Nao sou capaz de traduzir isto a primeira 
vista. Corremos a redea solta (full speed, headlong). Os Srs. 
vierao a cavallo ou em carruagem ? Nem uma nem outra cousa, 
viemos ape. N'esta estacao se pude passar o rio a vdo. Aquelle 
miseravel nao teve a coragem de accusar-me face a face. Foi um 
combate de corpo a corpo (~ hand-to-hand fight). Caminhem 
dous a dous ! Tivemos de continuar o caminho as apalpadellas. 
A minba casa e a primeira a direita para quem vem da praca. 
Elle se comporta muito mal, u, ponto de (so as to) arriscar a sua 
reputacao. A principio elle era a benevolencia personificada. 
Isto nao e assim ; ao contrario, F. sempre foi tido por um homem 
de bem. A vista (according to, considering) dos preparativos 
gigantescos que se faziao, podia-se esperar um successo brilhante. 
Esta passagem pinta ao vivo a situacao desgragada em que o paiz 
entao se achava. Vm<=* toma tudo as avessas. Os soldados met- 
t§rao a cidade a saque. Uma escuna foi a pique n'esta noite. 
Os inimigos estao devastando o nosso paiz a ferro e fogo. Pro- 
cure obter isto a todo o custo (at any cost or price). Vendemos 
esta fazenda a 2$000 rs. o covado; e o preco mais chegado 
(lowest). O principe finalmente cedeu, a despeito da sua propria 
consciencia. Eimo-nos as gargalhadas (we shouted with laughter). 
Estava chovendo a cdntaros. A forpa de perseveranca meu 
cunhado obteve finalmente a licenca. — Vim com alguns amigos 
dar os parabens ao Sr. pela sua bem merecida nomeacao. Ella 
foi commigo. Quem fere com a espada, perecera pela espada. 
Estejamos contentes com o pouco que temos. Estou com fome. 
Com medo de perder um pouco de dinbeiro, elle perdeu tudo 
quanto possuia. Eu te prometto isto, com a condiclio de ter 
direito ao teu auxilio, quando d'elle precisar. Comtudo nao me 
quero queixar da minba sorte. Com brandura se alcanca as vezes 


mais do que com severidade. Com effeito (indeed), nao pensei 
que Vm c4 era tao forte. En cumpro com os meus deveres, e 
poueo m'importa o que a gente diz. Nao acertei com a solucao 
d'este problema. El-rei distribuia com mao largo, ordens e titulos. 
N. nao era homem para prender-se com consideraeues (= to stop 
to consider). Sr. L. sempre usava commigo da maior generosi- 
dade. Taes sentimentos nao condizem com o espirito evangelico. 
Ella instou commigo para que eu a acompanhasse. Insisti com 
elle para que fosse mais energico. Acabemos com isto ! O povo 
compadeceu-se com os soffrimentos d'elles. — O que fariamos nos 
sem elle ? Sois um miseravel, sem consciencia e sem vergonha. 
Sem vos (but for you) eu estaria morto a esta bora. Carlos nao 
pode estar um momento sem rir-se. Ella cabiu no chao sem vida 
(lifeless). A carta da minha prima continha um sem-numero (= 
numberless) de anecdotas sobre a vida em P. Que semsaborias ! 

O Sr. barao de M. foi ultimauiente nomeado commandante 
em chefe das tropas na nossa provincia. A igreja de S. Francisco 
cahiu em ruinas. Easguei o pergaminho em pedagos. Nao posso 
estar em pe por muito tempo. Queira acceitar esta pequena 
somma em signal da minha amizade. A sua viuva recebe uma 
pensao, em razao (because of on account of) dos servicos presta- 
dos por elle ao paiz. Em recompensa dos meus servicos eu fui 
demittido. Em vdo todos s'esforcarao para salvar os naufragos ; 
todos perecerao. O vapor de hontem trouxe grande quantidade 
de ouro em pb. A irregularidade das estacoes n'aquelle anno den 
em resultado a carestia de todos os viveres. Ella se desfazia em 
lagrimas. Todo aquelle barulho deu em nada (was for nothing). 
Cuide no seu trabalbo, e nao s'importe com o resto. Nao repa- 
rei m'isso. Tenbo muita satisfagao em ver que o Sr. esta resi- 
gnado. Elle nao cessa de occupar-se em negocios alheios. Esta 
decisao reverte em meu beneficio. O numero das pessoas que 
morrerao da peste calcnlou-se em mais de 20,000. Eis a casa que 
o tio da minha mai me deixou em heranga. Em virtude do nosso 
contraeto o meu socio ficou com (keep) o armazem e as fazendas. 
Ella o tomou em boa parte. O Sr. B. foi condemnado nas custas. 

N'aquella loja vende-se tudo por precos modicos. N6s so ven- 
idemos por atacado (wholesale), JEramps tr'mta, por todos (in all). 

202 LESSON Lin. 

F. recebeu a cruz da legiao d'honra, por premio da sua coragem. 
O Sr. 6 por demais (too) generoso. Por ventura (perhaps) eu 
nao sei que elle e meu inimigo ? O inspector deu a obra por 
acabada (declared the work finished). Por acaso entramos no 
mesmo momento. Levei por engano o seu chapeo de chuva 
(umbrella). Ainda por cima Wisto (besides this) elle quer que eu 
pague o cavallo. Por mais (whatever) que eu faca, elle nunca 
esta contente. Aquella grande expedicao tinha por alxo a des- 
truicao dos nossos arsenaes. Comprei hoje um bom piano por 
500$000 rs. Tome isto por norma! Nao troco a minba oasa 
por nenhuma d'esta cidade. Elle nao 6 tolo; pelo contrario, 
creio que e mais fino (shrewd) do que o seu antagonista. Por 
uma parte (on one side) as vantagens da proposta sao palpaveis, 
mas por outra nao a considero a sua posicao. 
Durante esse tempo Dom Pedro de M. estava por embaixador a 
corte de B. Todos elles sao, por via de regra, altivos, crueis e 
falsos. Eu acceito isto pelo que vale. Espere (wait) por elle ! 
Por mais d'uma vez tu estiveste a beira do precipicio. Eemet- 
ta-me uma copia, por integra (full). O juiz se deu (declared) por 
suspeito. Um por um elles sahirao. Deixarao-no por morto. 
Pega por mim ! Ninguem perguntou (enquire) por mim ? Pas- 
sei-lhe aquelle documento por simples formalidade. Houve 
grandes festejos por occasiao do casamento do principe Dom Luiz. 
— Para ir 14 Vm" 8 nao precisara da carruagem. Elle seria um 
membro nao somente inutil, mas at6 (even) prejudicial a nossa 
assooiacao. Nao o acbarao habilitado para aquelle posto. Apel- 
larei para Sua Magestade. Vm oS nao estava authorisado para 
tanto. Ohegou um enviado extraordinario com poderes para 
concluir um tractado de commercio entre as duas nacoes. 

nosso gabinete pediu explicacoes sdbre os acontecimentos 
do dia 9 de Marco. O secretario m'instruiu sdbre o modo mais 
efficaz para alcancar os nossos fins. Porque nao me consultou 
sdbre este negocio ? Vm c & e sobremaneira (far too) indulgente 
para com os seus filhos. Isto 6 obra de sobre-mao (superficial). 
Elle me communicou isto debaixo de segredo. Vm=S ve isto sob 
um ponto de vista parcial. 

Os teus pobres passarinhos estao morrendo de fome. Esta 


noticia os fard dancar de alegria. A meza estava coberta de 
flores. Milhares de pessoas morrerao do cholera. Os mortos de 
peste forao queimados f6ra da cidade. O general estava reves- 
tido da mais ampla authoridade. A vida d'aquelle principe foi 
manchada de toda a casta de crimes. O seu filho havia fallecido 
de morte repentina, nao sem suspeita de envenenamento. Elles 
erao homens possuidos do verdadeiro espirito evangelico. Estas 
cousas sao conhecidas de todos. Apenas chegado, adoeci da febre 
amarella. A pobre crianca estava tremendo de frio. Trespas- 
sado da mais profunda magoa, participo a V. S. o fallecimento 
do meu melhor amigo. Ella viveu por alguns annos so da pen- 
sao miseravel que lhe derao depois da morte do seu marido. 
Quern esta encarregado d'isto ? Afflijo-me de ver tanta desgraca. 
Elle s'envergonbou de confessar a sua fraqueza. Agora elle 
s'arrepende de ter dito isto. Estou cansado de dar conselhos 
inuteis. F. se lisongeia de ter ganhado as affeigoes de D. Anna. 
B. enfureceu-se de ver a pobre victima escapar-lhe. Elle se per- 
suade de ter feito o possivel. Chamavao-nos de miseraveis, de 
ladroes, emfim, de quantos nomes injuriosos ha. — V. S. esta 
preso por ordem do Sr. general commandante em chefe. Por 
mim (or por minha causa) nao baja impedimento. Vm c6 esta 
muito doente ; por conseguinte nao pode tractar dos seus nego- 
cios. Por certo elle negara isto ; mas por isso nao deixarei de 
fazer o que tenho promettido. Este desenho foi feito por minha 
filha. Vm cS sera punido por sua insubordinacao. Elle ja fora 
processado por estellionato. Nao succederaos, por falta de pro- 
teccao. Por si sos elles nao serao capazes de faze-lo. Ainda 
nao lhe agradeci por seu auxilio generoso nos meus recentes em- 
baragos. Oulparao-me por nao ter vindo n'aquelle dia. Elles 
peccavao, nao por malicia, mas por ignorancia. Eavorecia-se 
este ourso, por ser o mais breve. Por quem estais suspirando ? 

Os seus bens forao conflscados, conforme a lei de . . . , Se- 
gundo o meu parecer Vm c8 procedeu bem. Eis os decretos 
dcerca dos quaes houve tantas discussoes animadas. Os Chaldeos 
interrogavao os astros dcerca dos successos (events) futuros. Isto 
de per si (in or by itself) era o abandono da causa. 

Diga d'uma vez se me quer pagar, sim ou nao. Quero, sim, 

204 LESSON Lin. 

mas nao posso. Nao ha ninguem que nao queira ser feliz. Nin- 
guern quer saber d'elle (will have to do with him). Nao tenho 
mais nada a dizer = nada mais tenho a dizer. Nunea fallei em 
publico. Jamais m'esquecerei da bondade que V. S. se dignou 
de mostrar-me. Isto nada tern de singular. Nao tenho mcdo ! 
Medo nao tenho, mas nao vejo necessidade de exp6r-me ao perigo 
sem proveito adequado. Nem todos podem sacrificar o seu com- 
modo para salvar um amigo. Se Vm™ nao quer ir, eu nao vou 
tampouco (neither). Elle nao sabe o que diz, nem o Sr. tampouco. 
Nada de historias ! (no nonsense !) Estive nao pouco assustado. 
Nao estou nada bom (not at all well). Isto nao 6 senao uma 

Gosto muito de uvas. Vm c = gostadancar? Alguma cousa 
(= so, so) ; gosto pouco ; nada (not at all). Nao vos sntregueis 
em demana (too much) aos divertimentos. Oustou-me muito caro 
o ter desprezado os vossos conselhos. Isto 6 mui facil a com- 
prehender. Creio que sou tao bom sapateiro como qualquer 
outro. A nossa alegria foi algum tanto diminuida por aquelle 
incidente. Quanto sou desgracada! (Jwebonitae! Que bella 
noite de luar ! A sua opiniao acerca do meu modo de pensar me 
e inteiramente indifferente. A agua esta bastante quente (hot 
enough, and, rather hot). Tenho estado bastante infeliz (un- 
lucky). As ex6quias da nossa nunoa assaz chorada rainha terao 
lugar no dia 20 d'este mez. Acabo de receber noticias assaz 
desagradaveis. Estes sapatos sao mui (very, too) apertados. O 
Sr. 6 bom demais (too hind). Aquelle edificio 6 demasiadamente 
extenso para esse flm. Esta casa seria grande (= too large) para 


A careful examination of the examples in A. will do more to 
show the meaning and use of the modal and causal adverbs and 
adverbial phrases (and the corresponding prepositions), than any 
explanations we could give here, as these latter would, of neces- 
sity, be too extensive for our purpose, and yet not exhaust the 
subject. But the preposition por deserves particular attention. 
Besides its local and temporal significations, it mainly indicates 
a cause or means, and its equivalents in English are by, through, 


because or on account of, ly means of, for. Thus it is liable to 
be confounded partly with de, partly (and chiefly) with para. Of 
de and por with the passive verb we have already spoken (Lesson 
XLL). Para indicates a direction, a movement towards some- 
body or something, and, therefore, a destination for the good or 
evil of somebody (dative). In this sense alone it can represent 
the English preposition for; in all other cases por must be used. 
Thus we are to say : por este motivo, agradecer por, pedir, per- 
guntar por, comprar, vender por (price), trocar por, por exemplo, 
etc , etc. 

The comparison of adverbs is analogous to that of the adjec- 
tives (positive, tao-cotno, as, so-as, comparative, mais, superlative, 
o mais). For the adverb too there is no proper correspondent 
adverb in Portuguese, except demasiadamente, which, on account 
of its length, is not often used ; in its stead the following are 
used: demasiado, demais (always placed after its adjective or ad- 
verb), em demasia, muito or mui, and often nothing at all is 
added, principally in conversation, the context and tone suffi- 
ciently showing the meaning of the speaker. — Bastante and assaz, 
enough, rather, always precede their adjective or adverb. 

How do you feel (achar-se) to-day? Better; much better 
than some days ago. This is not so. So it is. Thus ended the 
long and cruel war between those two powerful nations. Tell 
me frankly your opinion about my son. This is easily explained. 
All the rooms were richly furnished. Well done ! My services 
were generously rewarded. Your precepts will be scrupulously 
observed. His remarks are generally based on his own experi- 
ence. This was a truly heroic action. Our commerce is com- 
pletely paralyzed. Nothing has been heard of them of late (re- 
centemente). I desire your happiness with all my heart. Do 
you know your lesson ? I know it by heart (de cor). Our 
troubles began afresh (de novo). He made me a present of it (= 
he gave it me as a [de] present). Go quick to (em or a casa de) 
Mr. T. and tell him to come here immediately. He speaks very 
slowly. In this manner you will never become rich. 1 should 


willingly lend my aid to so humane a work. Who is on duty 
(de guarda, de did) to-day? She has been bed-ridden these 18 
months. For whom are you in mourning ? On a sudden all the 
doors flew open (abrir-se). You belong to the house (= Vmf* e da 
casa). I know him by (de) name. This is too much ! (demais.) 
This young man has too much money (diriheiro demais) and too 
little brains (juizo de menos). She said it on purpose. My father 
was of opinion that we all should go. I answer for (de) his good 
conduct. You neglected this. We obtained (impetrar) this from 
him with difficulty. Here you are safe (seguro) from all perse- 
cutions. I was on the point of departing (= estar de partida). 
— Despite all her efforts she could obtain nothing from her 
parents. They said nothing to [the] purpose. Do you think 
that Mr. R. knows this business thoroughly ? He obtained his 
position in exchange for his honesty. The first part of the jour- 
ney we made on horseback, the remainder we had to make on 
foot. You may buy it on terms (a prazo). I was so sleepy, that 
I put on (vestir) my coat on the wrong side (as avessas). This 
article is sold by (a) the pound. My house is at your orders. 
By dint (a forgo) of coaxing he at last persuaded his mother to 
(a) give him the money. Under cover (a favor) of the fog the 
soldiers reached the foot of the ramparts. Considering (= at the 
sight of) the great dangers that threaten us on (de) all sides, it 
becomes (cumprir) us to implore the assistance of the Most High. 
At this signal all rose. — I wish to speak to you in particular 
about that affair. She is your equal (= equal to you) in beauty, 
hut your inferior in accomplishments. I did not even (= nem) 
dream of (em) this. They dealt (mercadejar) in linen and silk. 
I endeavored to (em) convince them of the danger to which they 
would expose themselves. He hastened to (em) contradict these 
statements. — For whom is this letter ? For me. We have no 
room (lugar) for them. It has been a dreadful time for us. I 
have no money for such nonsense (asneiras). — For various rea- 
sons I can not accept your offer. He was surely elected by mis- 
take. He swore by all the saints in heaven that he was innocent. 
Send me the money by the hearer of this (esta, i. e. carta). I 
exchanged my former peaceable profession for that of a soldier. 


I should not do that for all the money in (de) the world. For 
God's sake (por amor de Deos), save us ! They took me for their 
brother. He did not even thank me for this favor. At last 
(por Jim) he declared himself (dar-se por) convinced. The Jews 
chose for their king Saul, son of Kis. F. was always thought to 
be (tido por) an honest man. We bought this little house for 
2000 dollars. How much did you pay for this garden ? What 
reward did you receive for your devotion? For your sake I 
abandoned my friends, my country, everything. My son was 
dispensed for being near-sighted. I know it for certain. — We 
reached the top of the hill with little difficulty. With whom did 
you dine to-day ? The child is sleepy. He is in (com) fever. 
She urged us to leave (= that we should leave) the city immedi- 
ately. My cousin married (casar com) a rich heiress. I was 
vexed (sangar-se) with him. There was no remedy but (sen&o) 
to comply (condescender) with the repeated instances of 0. — 
What could they do, without friends or resources? No (sem) 
doubt he is gone after (atrae de) his thief of [a] partner. No 
(sem, nada de) ceremonies, if you please (fa$a favor). This book 
contains countless (um sem numero de) errors. — I do not fear 
them. Are you busy? No, madam. This is of no consequence. 
He has neither money nor credit. An apparently unimportant 
circumstance was the cause of all this. This is not fair (justo). 
Did you ever try it ? I never thought of this. You have never 
been in the necessity of having recourse to those people, there- 
fore you do not know them. They hate nobody more than those 
that have obliged them (= to whom they are obliged). I have 
nothing against him, except that he is an idle fellow. Nothing 
is more contemptible than a lazy man. Are you going (= do 
you go) to the concert? No, sir. Well (pois bem), sir; in that 
case we shall go neither. In a certain village the people com- 
plained that the butchers killed only one ox every market-day, 
and that this was too little ; but to kill two oxen would be too 
much ; so the judge (alcaide) ordered the butchers to kill an ox 
and a half on every market-day. This coat is too good in such 
a weather. Such things are too insignificant for his high wis- 
dom. This side of the hill is too steep, you can not get up (subir) 


How lucky you are ! How far is it (quanto e) from here to 
C. ? Three leagues more or less. She does not know how poor 
she is. I will never see him again. Is it not your own fault? 
He can not do it, nor you either. The child is nowhere to be 
found. Nobody can say that. There is nobody in this town 
whom he does not know. 

My father died of apoplexy. I am tired of admonishing him. 
Mr. L. was respected and beloved by all who knew him. We 
are threatened with (de) ruin. She screamed with pain. "We 
were almost dying with thirst. I was sick with rheumatism. 
His life is stained with many a crime. Are you provided with 
the necessary means? Their scheme will fail through the want 
of a competent leader. He was offended (refl.) at (de) my indif- 
ference. The poor child shivered with cold. Lisbon was almost 
entirely destroyed by the earthquake of 1755. I knew him by 
his walk. You will suffer for this. Do not wait for me! 



O homem corajoso soffre com paciencia, e o covarde busca a 
morte. Cumpre rigorosamente com os teus deveres, e nao te 
faltarao amigos. Va depressa, e volte logo. Vm c6 nao quiz 
seguir os meus conselhos, soffra agora as consequencias da sua 
vaidade e obstinacao. Precisa ser reconhecido; tamhem o sou. 
Elle nao somente me deu a licenca que eu pedira, mas tamhem me 
fez presente d'um bello cavallo para o passeio (trip). Nao so 
nao quereis cumprir o vosso dever para com a patria, mas ainda 
vos tornais traidores. Nao so tenho feito para elle quanto podia, 
mas ate tenho sacriflcado os meus prospectos, para salva-lo. Nao 
s6 isto e uma mentira, senao tudo quanto elle tern dito de mim. 
Nao so e leviano, mas perverse — Ora quer uma cousa, ora quer 
outra. O exercito era composto de 30,000 homens, a saber: 


vinte e dons mil de infantaria, seis mil e quinhentos de cavallaria, 
e mil e quinhentos de artilharia. Corre o boato (a voz, the 
rumor') que aquella firma vae quebrar, mas eu duvido que seja 
verdade. P6de ser que assim seja; mas nao me lembro do que 
eu disse n'aquella oeeasiao. Muitos admirao a virtude, mas 
poucos a praticao. Muitos o dizem, mas eu nao posso acreditd-lo. 
Com muito prazer eu serviria ao Sr., mas por ora me e absoluta- 
mente impossivel. IJlle era bom liomem, porem a sua fraqueza 
o levava as vezes a excessos. Esta palavra existe em Portuguez, 
porem pouco se usa. Nota-se grande actividade no ministerio 
da marinha, porem ate este momento nada transpirou do que se 
esta preparando. Diziao que F. fora nomeado chefe da reparti- 
cao ; isto, porem, nao podia ser o caso, pelas razoes ja allegadas. 
As cousas estao mal ; comtudo nao peroo toda a esperanca. F. 
e um homem economico e trabalhador, comtudo custa-lhe arran- 
jar a vida, por causa da sua numerosa familia. O sueoesso nao 
e duvidoso, todavia facamos todos os esforcos. Elles estao re- 
duzidos quasi a mendioidade, nem por isso (r.evertheless) nao 
deixao de participar em todos os divertimentos. Antonio e 
muito mais mogo do que tu ; nao obstante isso elle e mais in- 
struido e mais prudente. N'aquelle dia eu estive em D., por 
conseguinte nao posso ter dito o que Vui c6 assevera. O nosso 
amo no-lo prohibiu categorioamente, portanto e inutil dizer mais 
uma palavra. Ou traballiem, ou vao-se embora! Elles hao de 
sujeitar-se, ou nao sei o que ha de aoonteoer. Quando um 
velhaco se ri, ou tern feito uma das suas, ou estii para faze-la. 
Quer venliao quer nao venhao, eu hei de ir. Quer tenba mere- 
cido ou nao, o pobre do negrinho sempre apanhava (got it, i. e. 
was beaten). Nao havemos de fazer nem uma nem outra cousa. 
Tractem-me com civilidade, senao eu me retiro. Pode muito 
bem ser que este seja o sen ultimo acto de poder ; pois ouvi dizer 
que em breve elle sera demittido. Elle nao ira longe ; pois (or 
porque) a gente principia a comprehender que elle e um gran- 
dissimo impostor. O Sr. nao me acredita? pois (well, then) va 
mesmo informar-se do que avanco. Somos cidadaos, por conse- 
guinte temos direito a vossa proteccao. Nao posso nem quero 

faze-lo. Seja covardia, seja outro motivo, elle nao aceitou o des- 


afio. Isto ou 6 uma invencao inalevola, ou ao menos uma in- 
qualificavel exaggeracao. Ou obedeca, ou saia da casa. Ou tudo, 
ounada! F. ou foi feito prisioneiro ou morreu. Quer seja ver- 
dade o que o Sr. diz, quer nao, eu desconfio d'elle. 

A gloria e o oommodo raras vezes sao camaradas. A verdade 
e a honradez nao precisao de altas protestacoes. Nem ouro nem 
grandeza nos fazera felizes. Nem o desprezo nem o escarneo 
tern effeito sobre o avarento. O teu unico dever e obedecer e 
calar-te. O retiro e uma prisao para o tolo, e um paraiso para 
o sabio. Elle principiou pelo jogo, e aoabou pelo roubo. Aquelle 
acto nao foi nem justo nem prudente. 

O Sr. B. falla tanto o inglez como o francez com a maior per- 
feicao. Elle ensinava as linguas portugueza e italiana. Quantas 
crueldades se tern perpetrado em nome da nobreza e dignidade 
humanas ! 

Nada d'isso ! (nothing of the hind !) Fora os barulhentos ! 
A forca com os espias ! Qual pae qual (or tal) filho. Quando 
muito elle p6de ter 50 annos. Seria fraqueza da parte d'elle ? 
creio que sim. Estou certo que nao. 


Paratactical conjunctions are such as can only unite sen- 
tences (or words) of the same class ; these conjunctions coordi- 
nate. They are : e, and ; ou, either, or ; nem, neither, nor ; mas, 
but; porem, comtudo, todavia, however, but; pois (por que), for; 
portanto, therefore ; tanibem, also ; tampouco, neither ; quer — quer, 
seja — seja (fosse — -fosse), ou — ou (quer — ou, seja — ou), whether — 
or. The nature of these conjunctions is readily understood, as 
well as the construction of the sentences which they accompany. 
The subjunctive mood of verbs after ou, quer, seja is caused by 
the conjunction que, expressed or understood; thus queira ou 
nao queira (whether he will or not) = que elle queira, etc. 
That in principal sentences this is not the case, needs hardly to 
be mentioned. 

The rules concerning the agreement of the predicate (whether 
a verb or an attribute with the copula), such as : one subject and 


two predicates, two subjects aDd one predicate, etc., are the 
same as in English. 

The last section of A. contains some ellipses ; their explana- 
tion is easy; their use can only be learned and acquired by 


Envy and calumny always go hand in hand (de maos dadas). 
Seek, and thou wilt find. Abandon this career, or you will go 
to ruin. Either this is a false rumor, or my friends have for- 
saken me in a most shameful manner. Either obey, or expect 
to be punished. Whether (que) your proposal be advantageous 
or not, I do not care (nao m'importa) ; what I want to know, is, 
whether (se) it is honorable or not. An honest man deserves 
esteem, whether (qver) he be rich or poor. We neither lost nor 
gained by this transaction ; our intention was to extricate you. 
Neither have I said this, nor could I have said it, as (porque) it 
would have been to my own disadvantage. Weak men are 
neither dangerous enemies nor serviceable friends. — She is pooi, 
but honest. He is a clever man, but his morals are more than 
doubtful. We readily see pride in others, but we can rarely see 
it in ourselves. What you say is true; however, I have my 
doubts as to (a respeito de) their real intentions. I will do it for 
your sake ; but I am sure that it will be of little use. All this 
is probable, yet' it is hard (= cvstar) to believe. I have to con- 
tend with powerful adversaries ; yet I do not despair. It seems 
difficult: still there is no harm (nao faz mat) in trying. You 
have shown the sincerity of your repentance, therefore you are 
forgiven. He is a fool, therefore you ought to keep out of his 
way (= evitar alguem, dar-lhe passagem larga). Lukewarm 
friends are as bad as enemies, if not worse. Beware of that man, 
or else (= senao) you will have cause to repent of your too great 
trust. Let the dog alone, or (senao) he will bite you. You must 
be cautious, or you will frighten her. I am no friend of his, for 
I know that he has been false to (para com) ine. Keep away 
(fugir) from political or religious disputes; for I never saw 
other results from them but (senao) animosity and even enmity. 
She ought to reflect a little before taking such a step ; for she 


must know that her reputation is at stake (em perigo). Both 
(tanto) he and (como) I set (dar) the highest value on (a) your 
opinion. His father and I were brothers-in-law. 





A religiao que ordena o exterminio d'aquelles que nao a que- 
rent adoptar, nao pode ter origem divina. Todos os que haviao 
tornado parte n'aquella revolucao, ou forao sentenciados a morte, 
ou tiverao de fugir. A pega que se representou hontem e tra- 
duzida do francez. A gloria 6 uma arvore que florece mas nao 
da fruota. Desgracada (woe to) da cidade que oppuzesse resis- 
teneia aos barbaros conquistadores ! Todos os que o eonhecem, 
o estimao. Nao fallo d'este livro ; fallo do que se publicou no 
anno passado sobre esta materia, da penna do distincto esoriptor 
H. A mulher que se entrega ao luxo em detrimento da econo- 
mia domestica, se torna altamente culpavel ; porem a que se en- 
trega aos prazeres em detrimento da educacao dos seus filhos, e 
criminosa. — Chegou hoje, pelo vapor Imperatriz, um preso de 
importancia, o qual sera processado aqui. Eecebi ha tres dias 
uma carta do Sr., a qual me foi entregue pelo Sr. seu cunhado. 
Os pais do meu novo amigo, os quaes eu encontrara jii antes em 
P., acabavao de chegar. Uma patrulha prenden alguns indivi- 
duos que estavao escondidos n'uma chacara deserta, os quaes pa- 
reciao ser desertores. Elle foi em prooura d'algumas plantas, a» 


quaes se reputao efflcazes contra o mal que o atormenta. Oon- 
versei hontem com o pai da noiva, o qual me disse que o casa- 
mento devia ter lugar no dia natalicio d'elle. A mai da menina, 
a qual chegara dous dias depois, tambem se queixou amarga- 
mente d'ella. 

O homem que v6s calumniais, est;i inflnitamente aoima de vos. 
Alguns dos senhores que V. E. convidou, ja vierao. Ali vae a 
senhora que Vm 1 * acaba de menoionar. Os homens que vemos a 
frente d'este movimento, sao dignos de todo o respeito. O s6no 
e a esperanea sao os dous calmantes que a natureza concede ao 
homem. A energia e coragem com que Vm 08 tern trabalhado 
em nosso favor, estao acima de todos os louvores. Isto 6 um 
acto de atrocidade, de que havera poucos exemplos na historia 
dos povos civilisados. Eis os pontos em que elles mais insistirao. 
A pessoa de quern lhe fallei hontem, morreu hoje. Meu pai, a 
quern a minha situacao precaria dava bastante cuidado, foi ter 
com o Sr. presidente. Os mocos com quern elle se da, sao todos 
de boa familia, e bem morigerados. Sempre lembrar-me-hei 
d'aquelle longo tempo, durante o qual tu foste o meu unico amigo 
e apoio. Eis o homem a quern tenho confiado o futuro da minha 
filha. Comprei o outro dia cinco mulas, para cada uma das quaes 
paguei nada menos de 100$000 rs. A senhora a qual me reflro 
mora em Santarem. — Tal 6 o homem em cujo poder esta a sorte 
de n6s todos. Este e um livro, cujas tendencias immoraes tern 
feito um mal immenso a nossa mocidade. As casas cujos inqui- 
linos tinhao fugido forao saqueadas. Este tractado esta dividido 
em quatro capitulos, dos quaes o primeiro contem, etc. Arrema- 
tei hoje uma porcao de fazendas francezas e alemaas, algumas 
das quaes tenciono dar outra vez em leilao, porque pouco valem. 
— Eu, que tenho soffrido mais do que qualquer d'elles, me calo. 
Assim proccdertio pagiios ; e nos, que professamos a religiao chris- 
taa, mostrariamos menos heroismo ? Padre nosso (nosso pai), 
que estais no c6o, sanctiflcado seja o vosso nome. Pais e mais, 
que tendes fllhas adultas, vigiai sobre ellas ! Tu, que es o mais 
miseravel dos homens, queres fallar em gloria? — Tudo quanto 
tenho esta ris suas ordens. Ym« p6de aoreditar tudo quanto 
ella disser. Nao tenho medo de todos quantos sao (of them all). 


V. S. se sirva dos que (of such, as) lhe parecerem idoneos. qua 
agradou hontem, p6de desagradar hoje. Julgo do que (from 
what) vi. 


An attribute may be expressed by a sentence as well as by a 
word; such sentences are, therefore, justly called attributive 
sentences or clauses. They are, however, more generally called 
relative clauses, because a relative pronoun (or adverb, as onde 
= em que lugar, etc.) connects them with the noun or pronoun 
which they define, or of which they express an attribute. There 
are two classes of attributive sentences, 1) those which contain 
an essential attribute, which define or individualize, 2) those 
which contain an incidental attribute, and which, therefore, 
could be omitted without rendering the meaning of the period 
obscure ; Lhe former are necessary in order to define an unknown 
person or object, the latter relate to a person or object which 
would also be known without them. In attributive sentences of 
the first class (essential attribute) the pronoun relative, when in 
the accusative case (either as object of the verb, or when gov- 
erned by a preposition) may be omitted in English (also, some- 
times, when subject), but in Portuguese never ; and when the 
pronoun relative follows immediately after the noun or pronoun 
to which it relates, it is not separated from the latter by a comma. 
In sentences of the second class (incidental attribute) the pro- 
noun relative (or the word on which it depends) is always pre- 
ceded by a comma. For instance : 1) the person (whom) you 
speak of is my brother, a pessoa de quern Vm<^ falla e rneu ir- 
mao ; 2) my father, whom I had never seen angry, was in a per- 
fect rage, meu pai, a quern eu nunca linha visto zangado, estava 

The relative pronouns in Portuguese are: que, who, which, 
that; quern, who; o qval (a qual, os quaes, as quaes), who, 
which ; and the possessive cvjo, -a (-os, -as), whose. Of these, 
only o qual and cujo are variable; the former agrees in nnmber 
and gender with the noun to which it relates, the latter with the 
noun to which it belongs as an adjective (the person or object 
possessed). Observe the following : 


1) Que refers to persons or objects ; it can be governed by 
prepositions, but only when relating to objects. 

2) Quern is who, relating only to persons; it is only used 
with a preposition ; therefore, when it is the object of the verb, 
it must always be accompanied by the preposition a (see Lesson 
XXXVI.). As a direct object of the verb, it is chiefly used in 
incidental attributive sentences. 

3) qual (always with the definite article), who, which, that, 
is used either in incidental attributive sentences relating to an 
object (as quem relating to a person), or in order to avoid ambi- 
guity, when not following immediately after its correlative (as : 
o dono d'esta casa, o qual, as que would refer to casa), or instead 
of quem when relating to a plural (f. i. aquelles homens, aos quaes, 
etc. for a quem). It must be used, when the pronoun relative is 
preceded by a numeral, as : esses individuos, alguns {dons, muitos) 
dos quaes, etc. 

4) Cujo, whose, is used for persons or objects; being a deter- 
minative (possessive) adjective, it naturally excludes the article, 
and agrees with the following substantive (o senhor cuja casa, 
cuja agreeing with casa). 

When the relative pronoun relates to a personal pronoun, the 
verb in the relative sentence must agree with the latter in per- 
son and number ; as : vos, que sois o nosso amparo, etc. 

A man who knows no interest but (senaa) his own, is little 
better than an animal. What (qual) is the reward of the soldier 
that will be first in the breach ? Some of those that had been the 
most obstinate in their resistance to the introduction of the new 
system, are now its staunchest supporters. Here I bring you 
the man that has witnessed the whole scene. The beautiful 
villa which stood on yonder hill was destroyed by the late earth- 
quake. " The virtue which must be guarded is not worth the 
sentinel." All the streets that lead (vao dar) to the arsenal 
were guarded by strong pickets of infantry. The gardens which 
surrounded our house were much neglected. I forgot the name 
of the gentleman whom yon introduced (apresentar) to me last 


night. Some of the ladies whom I met at Mr. D.'s were from 
A. Those are the men whom the public voice accuses of the 
murder of poor Mr. B. She is a lady whom everybody respects, 
and whom I venerate like my own mother. These are facts 
which you can not deny. Here is the key I found on the floor. 
The accident you mention occurred in the beginning (principios) 
of 1850. How old is the boy you hired the other day ? The 
men we engaged for this job are not worth the salt they eat. 

The man with whom I shared everything I had, has deceived 
me. Yesterday we buried the man to whom our city owes its 
prosperity. The lawyers whom you consulted are the best in 
the city. Some of the persons to whom this affair had been en- 
trusted expressed entire confidence of success. The individual 
you allude to is no longer here. The lady you are speaking of 
is my cousin. The zeal and perseverance with which he con- 
ducted this enterprise were well rewarded. You will lose the 
independence you enjoyed until now, and which cost you so 
much to obtain, without any compensation adequate to the sac- 
rifice. Please tell me the signs by which I may know them. 

Two of the defendants, who could prove an alibi, were forth- 
with released. We sent word (recado) to Mr. L., who started 
immediately for X. A friend of my father's, whom the latter 
had not seen for many years, sent word (mandar dizer) the day 
before yesterday that he would be here on Monday. The por- 
trait of Mrs. N., which excited so much admiration, was made 
by a lady of our acquaintance. One of the sons of our neighbor, 
who had married the daughter of my cousin, joined (unir-se a) 
us. The father of the officer who distinguished himself at the 
taking of S., had been a poor schoolmaster. 

Those whose fate you deplore are happier than we. I have 
been told that the noble lad to whose courage we owe our lives 
is the only son of a destitute widow. Mr. H., for whose estab- 
lishment the city council ceded a considerable lot in ... . street, 
has already commenced the main building, which, he says (~ 
says he), will be finished in about nine months. Those houses, 
the owners of which have died many years ago, are going to be 
repaired. — The streets through which (por onde) the procession 


passed, were decorated with costly carpets and strewn with 
flowers. The district in which (= where) I was horn lies fifty 
leagues farther up the river. You slight me, me, who saved you 
from ruin ! Oh ! Thou that givest the worm its food, look on 
our misery! If you can do nothing, what can we do, we who 
are almost destitute ? 



Nao ha cousa que eu nao/apa para ti. Para tammanha ohra 
nao ha dinheiro que chegue (suffice). Nao ha homem tao per- 
verso, que nao tenha alguma boa qualidade. Nao conheco pessoa 
alguma que me possa servir n'isso. N'aquella loja nao ha cousa 
que siroa. Ninguem ha que nao s'engane as vezes. Pouco tenho 
que valha a pena vender. Poucos havera que possao resistir a 
taes tentacoes. Havera homem que possa negar seriamente a 
existencia de Deos? Na nossa aldea nao havia pessoa que sou- 
besse ler, excepto o padre. Em todo este inverno o impresario do 
nosso theatro nao mandou representar uma so peca que nao fosse 
traduzida do francez. Se eu quizesse satisfazer a todos os teus 
desejos, nao haveria dinheiro que chegasse. V6s sois o unico 
homem em quern eu tenha confianca. homem 6 a unica crea- 
tura que saiba que ha de morrer. Nao ha um s6 entre elles que 
nao seja capaz de qualquer baixeza. Nada se passa na vizinhanc a 
que ella nao saiba. A Biblia e o unico livro que nos possa guiar 
nas treVas que encobrem a historia primitiva do genero humane 
Vm ot nao podera allegar um s6 facto na nossa historia que prove 
isto. Nao havia um so official que nao fosse morto ou ferido 
n'aquella accao. Eis o unico meio que nos possa salvar. 

Isto e o melhor que Vm cS possa fazer. A melhor carta de re- 
commendacao que o Sr. possa apresentar aquella gente, e um 
sacco de dinheiro. Esta 6 a rnaior impudencia que eu tenha 
visto em minha vida. Vm° 6 e o homem mais descuidado que eu 
conhefa. A. menor resistencia que elle fizer, chame a patrulha. 


Isto 6 o menos que Ym 08 lhe possa dar. — Elle e o maior velhaco 
que ha (or haja) no mundo. F.eo unico entre elles que seja 
digno d'esta honra; ao menos elle e o unico que tern estudado. 
O cavallo baio com que ganhei a carreira 6 o melhor que tenho 
tido (but o melhor que jamais tenha visto). £ a primeira vez 
que isto tenha acontecido entre nos. 


The subjunctive mood is used in attributive sentences, 1) 
when the attribute is demanded, as : mostrai-me um homem que 
esteja sempre contente; 2) when a negative precedes, in sentences 
of a general meaning, as : nao ha homem que nao se julgue digno 
de melhor sorte; 3) when the pronoun relative relates to a noun 
accompanied by a superlative (or primeiro, ultimo, unico), but 
also only in sentences of general meaning ; as : esta e a mais bella 
peca que eu tenha visto represent ar ; but eis o unico livro que 
tenho. In sentences of the third class, however, the indicative 
mood is very frequently used instead of the subjunctive. — "With 
regard to the correct following of tenses [consecutio temporum] we 
will here only say that after the imperative and the future, the 
subjunctive of the present or the future may follow, according to 
the sense of the phrase; thus mande-me (mandarei-lhe) o melhor 
que houver la, i. e. of a certain number of objects, but que haja 
= that exists, i. e. of all objects of that kind. 

They appointed a committee who should watch over the faith- 
ful execution of the measures adopted by the general assembly. 
Let us send them a messenger that shall (pres. subj.) communi- 
cate to them our good fortune. Procure me an individual that 
has some knowledge of Portuguese. You want a nurse that is 
more careful and less talkative than that woman. He will cer- 
tainly not accept a place that will not satisfy his ambition. I do 
not know any person to whom you could apply in your present 
difficulty. Is there anything I can do for you ? Anything (qual- 
que cousa) you may want will be ready in due time. Whatever 
you may do for them, they will regard as a duty accomplished 


by you, and not as a favor. Do not lose a word of the instruc- 
tions which he may give you. There is not one amongst us who 
would not serve you in every way (de qualquer modo). There is 
hardly a newspaper throughout (par todo) the kingdom, that 
does not complain of your administration. Few men will be 
found that approve [of] his conduct. I have not an hour to my 
disposition which I can devote to my family. In the whole 
house there was not a door that was not off the hinges (arran- 
cado das dobradifas), not a window that closed tight. Should 
there be no person in your place that series your purpose, I shall 
send you one whom I think fit in every respect. There are few 
authors that can be compared witli 0. for elegance of diction. — 
This is the most important invention that has been made in this 
century. Yours is the best treatise that has been written on this 
subject. It is the most perfect likeness I ever saw (= have seen). 
The institute called the Inquisition is the greatest infamy that 
has yet disgraced the history of mankind. You are not the only 
man that has to suffer from his arrogance. Our lieutenant- 
colonel was the only officer that survived. You are perhaps the 
first who says that. He would be the last person to whom I 
should confide a secret of importance. The only road that could 
lead us there, will be made impassable by the last rains. 




Quern, porfw, vence. Qvem se cala, consente. Quern me 
reprehende, e meu amigo. Qnem nao arrisca, nao ganha. A 
maxima d'aquella gente 6 : qnem rouba a nacao nao 6 ladrao. 
Quem tem dinheiro, tem amigo", tern sabedoria, tem belleza, tern 
tudo quanto e bom. Quem mora em casa de vidro nao atire 
pedras. Quem diz o que quer, ouvira o que nao quer. Bern 
manda quem bem soube obedecer. Quem vem primeiro, e ser- 

220 LESSON Lvn. 

vido primeiro. " Quern pensa, nao casa.'' Quern subjuga as 
suas paixoes, vence os seus maiores inimigos. — Quern, quer que o 
tenha dito disse uma mentira. Quern quer que o fizer, ha de ser 
rigorosamente punido. — Aquelles que (os que, quem, with the 
singular) querem trabalhar, sempre acharao com que ganhar o 
seu pao. Os que rolao no ouro, naturalmente nao sabem quanto 
soffrem os que nada tern. Os que me conhecem hao de acreditar 
o que vou dizer. — que e bom para uns, pode ser ruim para 
outros. que acaba de se passar em G. e quasi incrivel. que 
mais m'incommodou, foi o desoaramento d'elle, de ainda apre- 
sentar-se em minha casa. que foi util hontem, p6de fazer mal 
hoje. Eu sei o que devo a minha posicao. Ninguem acreditara 
o que dizes. Isto era o que faltava! Este pamphleto contem o 
que ha de mais absurdo e falso contra o fallecido rei. 

Nao prezo a quem nao me preza. Escolherei o que bem me 
parecer. Amai aos que vos perseguem. Todos os momentos sao 
preciosos para quem conhece o valor do tempo. Isto nao e um 
enigma para os que conhecem o caracter d'aquelle homem. Para 
quem sabe as difficuldades que tivemos de veneer, e facil julgar 
qual deve ter sido a nossa anciedade. Prometteu-se muito 
dinheiro a quem desenbrisse o author d'aquelle pasquim. Nao 
tenho boa opiniao de quem me lisongeia. Hei de castigar severa- 
mente a quem quer que entrar no jardim sem licenca. Eu nao o 
faria para quem quer que fosse. Di-lo-hei a quem quer que esteja 
presente. Ella o disse a quantos o quizessem ouvir. Nao conheci 
ninguem de quantos la estavao. F. ajuntou quanto dinheiro 
pode, e desappareceu. Se eu Ihe desse tudo quanto tenho, elle 
ainda nao estaria contente. Elle se associava com quantos ma- 
landros havia na cidade. Nao tome tudo serio o que elle diz ; 
elle e um tanto (a little, rather) dado a exaggerates. 


The relative pronoun quem, in the examples above, is a com- 
plex of aquelle que (or um homem que) ; it can, therefore, only 
be used for persons. The sentences which contain this pronoun, 
may be considered as having the value of substantive nouns (as 
substantive sentences) ; f. i. in : quem se cala, comente the gram- 


matical subject of consente is the demonstrative aquelle, hidden 
in quern ; yet, as this pronoun could not be without the following 
relative sentence (containing an essential attribute), it may be 
said that the subject of consente is quern se cala. In the same 
manner we may, in the sentence nao prezo a quern me nao preza, 
consider as object of prezo the whole phrase quern me nao preza 
(a, the sign of the accusative case). The same is the case with 
sentences containing o que (for objects), where the demonstrative 
(o) is, however, always expressed. 

Quanto, -os, etc., has often the meaning of whosoever, as many 
as. Quemquer (or separated, quern quer) is whoever it may oe, 
and requires the subjunctive mood, on account of the following 
conjunction, que, that. 


He that has never been ill does not know the value of health. 
He who commences many things, finishes few. He who owes 
nothing is rich. He that amasses money without using it, sows 
what he will not reap. He who asks (fazer) impertinent ques- 
tions, must not complain if he receives rude answers. He who 
knows nothing of the past, can not judge of the present nor cal- 
culate on the future. Who admits the premises, must not deny 
the consequences. Whoever has deceived me once, has lost my 
confidence forever. How can I respect a man that does not re- 
spect himself? Nobody will have confidence in him who has 
none in himself. For those that (= him who) come from the 
other side of the hill, the view from the top of it is an agreeable 
surprise. One can not expect an act of generosity from a man 
(= him) who only looks out for (olhar para) his own profit. — 
What is wicked in one man, can not be good in another. What 
pleases me, may be disagreeable to others. What I say is true. 
You do not know what you ask. He got what he deserved. I 
could not understand what she said. Pay me what you owe me ! 
To me they owe what they are and what they have. — They who 
say so, are deceived by their egotism. I will accept no favors 
from those who have contributed to my ruin. Almost every- 
body is satisfied with your explanation ; such as (= those who) 
are not so, have been your enemies long before. 




Parece que me chover. Parece que assim k. Parece-me que 
os Srs. forao iUudidos. Parece-me que temos sido precipitados 
n'este negocio. £ verdade que Vm 1 * e nomeado vice-consul do 
Brazil em Marselhas ? Quasi sempre acontece que o sangue-frio 
nos abandona nas occasioes em que mais precisamos d'elle. £ 
certo que uma longa experiencia nao nos isenta de commetter 
graves erros. E sabido que o preso evadiu-se com connivencia 
de certa authoridade. D'ahi se segue que esta ou foi subornada, 
ou engodada por promessas, ou intimidada por ameacas. Da ex- 
posicao que V. S. fez, resulta, que toda a culpa d'essas desavencas 
recahe sobre o Sr. seu irmao. £ claro que uma crianca de tres 
annos nao p6de ter feito isso. — Eu sabia que aquillo era impossi- 
rel. Vm c * bem sabe que a culpa nao era minha. Creio que 
ainda e cedo. Acredite-me que tenho feito o que era humana- 
mente possivel. Dizem que F. morreu d'um ataque de apoplexia 
fulminante. Diz-se pela cidade que o nosso vizinho, o ferragista, 
vae quebrar. Creio que o Sr. tem razao. Ignoravamos que V. 
S. estava doente. Nao lbe diga ainda que eu ja cheguei. 

Pode ser que venhamos mais cedo. Nao creio que elle teriha 
a coragem de mostrar-se n'aquella cidade. Nao acbo que faca 
tanto frio que ja se precise d'um fogao. Nao pensei que Ym cS 
fosse tao excellente artista. Ninguem ha de crer que elle seja 
capaz d'isso. Nao digo que ella seja indigna de melbor sorte. 
Elles negao que Vm cS Hies tenha participado a chegada do Sr. 
seu padrinho. Supponbamos que assim seja: o que cumpria 
fazer ? £ impossivel que elles ja tenhao voltado. £ excu9ado 
(no use, superfluous) que Vm c6 me diga isso. £ raro que nao 
monteca alguma desgraca n'aquelles dias. Precisa que o Sr. seu 
pai o saiba. Precisaria ^ae eu mesmo fosse ter com elle. £ sin- 
gular que ninguem saiba o que foi feito (became) d'aquelle moco. 
Admira (it is strange, surprising) que nao s'encontre um vestigio 
d'elle em qualquer parte que se tenha procurado. Sera melhor 


que tu vds s6zinho. Nao 6 possivel que elle queira isso. Duvido 
que elles tenhao direito aos juros d'aquelles cabedaes. Seria con- 
veniente que Vm c6 participasse a sua intengao ao seu chef'e. Nao 
roe convem y«e os criados ssmo e entrtm quando lhes parece. 
Importa que elle mesmo o declare perante o juiz do commercio. 
Para que nao haja mais guerras, e indispensavel que todos os 
povos estejao no mais alto degriio da civilisacao. £ de suppor 
que n'aquelles tempos os homens fossem mais ferozes do que sao 
hoje. £ mister que elle seja muito astuto para illudir a um 
homeni tao fino como o Sr. F. £ tempo que eu va-me embora. 
Seria (era) tempo que tu fosses. — Nao quero que Vm d toque nos 
meus livros e papeis. Eu quero que os meus filhos aprendao tudo 
o que f6r necessario para assegurar-lbes uma carreira honrosa e 
independente. Elle queria que eu lhe escrevesse todas as semanas 
(but I did not). Elle quiz que eu lhe escrevesse sobre aquillo 
tudo quanto eu soubesse (I did it). Ella ha de querer que Ym^ 
a acompanhe. Quiz6ra que tn fosses mais cuidadoso. O Sr. nao 
pode exigir que a sua gente trabalhe tambem nos domingos. O 
nosso general exigiu que a guarniciio s'entregasse a discrigao. O 
evangelho nos prescreve que pratiquemos a caridade. Desejo 
que a Sra. seja feliz. Desejara que os mens filhos se dedicassem 
com todo o zelo ao estudo das linguas antigas. Tomarei que elle 
venha (I shall be glad if he comes). Tomarei que Vm cS melhore. 
Tomara que elles viessem (I wish they would come). Nao approvo 
que ella va la sozinha. Perm itta-me que eu o siroa. Oseuchefe 
nao lhe permittiu que Disitasse a sua familia nos domingos e dias 
sanctos ? Nao sofframos que a nossa liberdade seja calcada aos 
pes por uma oligarchia arrogante ! Saberei achar os meios de 
impedir que elles partao antes do tempo marcado. Todos dese- 
javao ardentemente que Vm cS aceitasse o posto offerecido. O 
commandante em chefe ordenou que qualquer soldado que rou- 
basse a menor cousa, fosse fusilado. Vm cC me disse que viesse (or 
de vir) As cinco e um quarto. Diga-lhe que venha quanto antes. 
O islamismo mnnda que os fleis s'abstenhao das bebidas alcoolicas. 
Eu lhe mandei dizer que viesse a meio dia em ponto (precisely). 
A vontade do Sr. seu pai b que o Sr. fi que onde esta. A intengao 
da minha mulher era que nos mudassemos (remove) para a casa 

224 lesson lviii. 

n° 69. O estado da minha saude nao permitte que eu sdia k 
noite. Nao gosto que tu vas la com tanta frequencia. Meu3 
pais nao desgostao que eu estude a medicina ; mas elles preferirao 
que eu estudasse para padre. Eeceiamos qve elle esteja mais 
doente do que quer mostrar. Eu vos imploro que perdoeis a meu 
filho a falta que elle commetteu inconsideradamente. Ella pediu 
que n6s a acompanhassemos. Peca a Deos que lhe perdoe o que 
Vm cS me tern feito. — Que elle venha! (let him come.) Que nin- 
guem se atreva a deter-me ! Praza a Deos (or Deos queira) que as 
cousas mudem para o melhor! OxaLi que assim sejaf (please 
God it may be so !) Oxala que asslm fosse ! (would to God it 
were so !) Seja como o Sr. quer. — Estimo muito (/ rejoice, am 
glad) que V. S. esteja com boa saude. Sinto (/ am sorry) que 
elles nao tenhao succedido em tao nobre empreza. Admira-me 
que elle nao lhe tenha dito nada acerca do que combimimos. F. 
propoz que todos fossemos agradecer ao Sr. C. pela hospltalidade 
com que nos honrara. Toma cuidado que ninguem te veja. Nao 
duvido que seja como o Sr. acaba de dizer. 

Elle insistiu em que todos estivessemos presentes. Muitos se 
queixao de que o novo thesoureiro nao cumpre com as suas obri- 
gagoes com tanto zelo e pontualidade como o fallecido Sr. N. 
Nao tenho medo de que tal circumstancia venha embaracar-me. 
Temos toda a certeza de que os nossos adversarios recorrerlio ao 
mlnistro da justica. Esta consideracao obstou a que elle tentasse 
de vingar-se. Finalmente meu pai consentiu em que eu empre- 
hendesse aquella viagem. Todos convierao em que F. nao havia 
feito senao o seu dever. Hei de oppor-me com todas as forcas a 
que esta gente tome a si um direito que nao lhes pertence. Vm c & 
s'esquece de que deve tudo a seu sogro. Hei de lembrar-me de 
que tu foste a causa da minha desgraca. Tenho grande satisfacao 
em que o Sr. tenha succedido. El-rei e o principe Dom L. estao 
interessados em que o nosso piano se execute. Tanto elle como 
n6s estamos empenhados em que Vm* obtenha aquelle lugar. 
Quern p6de dizer que esta certo de que elle vivera ate o dia se- 
guinte ? 

O Sr. M. nos recommendou (que) tractassemos o seu filho 
como se fosse nosso. O general lhe ordenou (que) se abstivesse 


de fazer fogo sobre a cidade. Um decreto prohibiu aos chefes 
de policia {que} proseguissem os fugitivos. Elles pediriio {que) 
lhes fossem entregues todos os documentos relativos aquella he- 

Substantive sentences, according to their nature, may be sub- 
ject or object. When subject, they usually precede or follow a 
vnipersonal verb (f. i. it seems, it appears, precisa, etc.) or an 
adjective with to be, the pronoun it serving as a substitute for the 
subject (it is clear, it is necessary, e mister, etc.). The nature of 
these sentences is the reason why before the conjunction que, 
that (or se, if, whether, see next Lesson) no comma is used. 
When object, the infinitive mood is sometimes chosen in English, 
■where in Portuguese we have a full sentence, as : I knew him to 
be idle, = I knew that he was idle, eu sabia que elle era iiadio. 
The conjunction que, that, can not be omitted, as is often done in 
English, except after verbs signifying to order, beg, recommend, 
etc. ; this omission, however, though frequently used by the best 
authors, is better avoided by the beginner. 

The subjunctive mood is required in substantive sentences 
after verbs which signify a will or desire (querer, desejar, tomar), 
a demand (pedir, implorar, rogar), an order (ordenar, mandar, 
dizer, mandar dizer, prescrever, escrever, responder), a fear or 
doubt (temer, receiar, duvidar, nao crer, pode ser), a liking or 
dislike (estiinar, gostar, sentir), and after a verb in the impera- 
tive mood. 

The elliptical constructions, like : que ninguem se atreva, etc. 
require no explanation. 

Intransitive verbs (i. e. such as have their object governed by 
a preposition), also objective substantives and adjectives, retain 
their respective prepositions before the substantive sentence 
which is their object ; f. i. insistir em alguma eousa, insisto em 
que Vm ci faga o que prometteu ; queixar-se de alguma cousa, elles 
se queixao de que eu nao os considero, etc. In this case, the sub- 
stantive sentence is often substituted by the infinitive, as in Eng- 
lish by the gerund ; of this we shall treat in Lesson LXLTI. 

226 lesson Lvni. 


It seems that we shall have to contend with more disaffection 
than we had expected. It appears that the Pelasgians {Pelasgos) 
were one great nation, divided and subdivided into numerous 
tribes, and that they had attained a high degree of civilization 
long before history commences. It appears, by what we read in 
history, that great events are often brought about (effectuar) by 
comparatively insignificant circumstances ; but it would be ab- 
surd to infer from this, that those great events are the results 
of these little causes. If we examine the evidence (depoimento) 
of the second witness, it will be clear that the defendant could 
have no knowledge of what was going on {passar-se) around 
him. It is certain that no religion of human origin could have 
done for true civilization what Christianity has done. It is 
known that you have been in B. during that time. It is 
acknowledged by all the most prominent geologers that our 
globe is much older than was formerly believed. — Does he al- 
ready know that he has gained his law-suit ? I think that you 
are the only one of my relations that knows me. I see that you 
are a better man than you seemed [to be]. They saw that I was 
poor, and therefore they despised me. I observed (notar) that 
he turned his head as often as {coda vez que) somebody mentioned 
the name of Miss Anna. Believe me that, if ever such a thing 
should happen, I should leave the country. He now compre- 
hends that he has committed himself (comprometter-se). Tell 
him that I shall come at seven o'clock precisely (on the stroke 
of seven, as sete em ponto). 

Maybe (pode ser, tahez que) you will find the book in the 
drawer of yonder table. Do not think that I am capable of be- 
traying your secret. It is hardly possible that he can have 
arrived yet. It is just that they should receive (pres.) an ade- 
quate compensation for the sacrifices they have made in our 
cause. It would be necessary that you should come early. It 
is necessary that you speak to him about your son. I want every- 
thing to be (= I will that, etc.) in order when I come back. He 
wanted me (= would that I) to go with him to Mr. O.'s. "We 
all wish that you [may] prosper. I shall pray God that he [may] 

lesson Lvin. 227 

give yon a better sense of your duty. She told us not to accept 
the money. Tell him to come later. My uncle wrote me to 
wait for him at A. My father sends you word that you please 
deliver to me the horse he lent you. He entreated his brother- 
in-law to intercede for him. The governor issued an order that 
every person between 18 and 45 years, capable of bearing arms 
(pegar em armas), should report (apresentar-se) himself at head- 
quarters. I wish he was here. I shall not suffer that such a 
miserable fellow be found in company with my sons. You can 
not wish that your only son [should] live in poverty. It was not 
at all required that you should tell her everything that has been 
spoken here. I am very glad that he has escaped from (a) the 
hands of his inexorable persecutor. I am very sorry that you 
can not succeed in your endeavors to (para) obtain employment. 
It is a pity (e pena) that you are not rich ; you could then carry 
out the charitable schemes you speak of. 

I insisted on his making (=: that he should make) excuses to 
my father. The British consul advised our minister of his hav- 
ing detained the captain and crew of the Neptune. Everybody 
is satisfied that justice has been done to these men. They com- 
plained that others had been preferred to them. He was vexed 
at (de) my getting the advantage of (tomar vantagem sobre) him. 
This alone was sufficient to prevent my accepting their services. 
She persuaded herself that nobody knew her to be the sister of 
O. They ought to be contented with our having rescued them 
from bankruptcy. It was arranged (assentar-se em) that we 
should meet at B.'s. In the order of the 22d it was provided 
(provia-se a) that nobody should stay there over night (= per- 
noitar) without previously giving notice to the alcaide. I have 
no apprehension that he will act otherwise than he has been or- 
dered. Be certain that all this blustering signified only their 
fear. He is very much afraid that I should tell all. Everybody 
was surprised that your brother should have done this. 



Nao se sabe ainda quern foi o rnyaterioso estrangeiro. Sabe o 
Sr. quern e aquella mascara? Nao sei quern sao. Dize-me com 
quern lidas, e dir-te-hei quern es. Faca favor de me dizer a quern, 
devo entregar esta caixinha. Ella nao nos quiz dizer de quern 
recebera o annel. Vm cS nao sabe dizer-me quern 6 o dono d'esta 
casa? Nao sei o que elles querent. Agora o Sr. sabera o que ha 
de fazer. E difficil dizer qual d'elles 6 o maior velhaco. Sei 
perfeitamente bem qual dos dous e o verdadeiro culpado. Man- 
de-me dizer qual dos meus cavallos quer. Deixe estar, que (for) 
elle ha de saber que caminho elle deve seguir. Digao-me so que 
vantagem eu poderei tirar de semelhante arranjo. Vm cS nao 
sabe que homem traicoeiro elle 6 Sabeis v6s qual sera o castigo 
que recebereis por tammanha leviandade? Isto bastard para 
mostrar-lhe qual e o caracter do homem a quern V. S. confiou a 
sua fortuna. Estou de tal maneira embaracado que nao sei de 
que lado virar-me. Nao comprehendo com que meios o Sr. quer 
alcancar o seu objecto. 

Vm cfi nao sabe dizer-me onde esta o seu irmao ? Ninguem 
sabe d'onde elle veiu, nem para onde elle foi. Nao sei dizer 
quando o meu amo ha de chegar. Nao sabemos a que horas elle 
sahiu. E impossivel dizer eomo e quando isto ha de terminar. 
Vou dizer-lhe como foi. Vivemos, sim; mas Deos sabe eomo. 
O Sr. p6de imaginar-se quanto eu tenho soffrido durante aquelle 
tempo de suspensao e receios. Desejo saber quanto ainda lhe 
devo. Elles nao perguntao quern es, mas quanto tens. S. M. a 
imperatriz perguntou a pobre mulher, quantos fiftios ella tinha. 
O menino nao quiz dizer porque chorava. Que sei eu porque 
elles o querem assim ! Diga-me so para que Vm c6 quer tanto 
dinheiro? — Tenho que fazer. Tenho quern me ha de amparar, se 
eu for infeliz. E verdade que elle gasta muito ; porem elle tern 
com que. 

Eaca favor de ver se isto esta direito. Pergunte ao Sr. N. se 


elle tern estado doente. Perguntei-lhe se elle queria que eu fosse 
com elle em casa do nosso amigo. Nao sei se elle vira lioje. 
Nao se podia distinguir se a bandeira era azul ou verde. Diga 
d'uma vez se quer ou nao. Veremos se k verdade o que dizes. 

Minhas primas mandao dizer que nao podem vir lioje. Quem 
disse que era eu quem divulgou o segredo ? Dizem que algumas 
pessoas morrerao hontem do cholera. Alguem nos disse que o 
nosso vizinho ia casar brevemente. Eu lhe assevero que ninguem 
tem a culpa de todos esses desarranjos seniio o Sr. mesmo. Minha 
sogra m'assegurou que nao havia o menor motivo para receiar 
uina mudanca desfavoravel em seus negocios. Diga que nao quer, 
nao, que nao pode. Eu sempre dizia que F. era um homem probo 
e incorruptivel. O Sr. R. nos escreveu que estava muitissimo 
satisfeito com o nosso sobrinho. Respondi-lhe simplesmente que 
o seu pedido nao tinha lugar {could not be granted). O rustico 
contou que fallara com o proprio rei. Vm tS nao negara que ella 
e mais bonita do que a irmaa d'ella. Pensei que o Sr. jii tinha 
ido a X. Provavelmente ella pensou que era eu. Teu pai nao 
te disse que elle havia de vir hoje? Bern sabiamos que elle nos 
lograria. Eu lhe prometti que faria o que era possivel. Era facil 
prever que o seu descuido traria resultados fataes. 

In A. we have examples of that kind of substantive sentences 
which contains the indirect question and the indirect speech {ora- 
tio obliqua). The latter are objects of verbs which signify to 
say, tell, write, answer, relate, think, etc. ; they have their verb 
in the indicative mood. Indirect questions are objects of verbs 
signifying to ask or question, doubt {not to Jcnow, not to be sure, 
etc.) ; also to tell, know, imagine, etc. ; they have also their 
verbs in the indicative mood. The oratio obliqua is always in- 
troduced by the conjunction que, that. It is to be noted that 
after the verbs mentioned {verba declarandi), in English the con- 
struction with the infinitive is often used, but in Portuguese 
generally the full sentence. Indirect questions are introduced 
either by the conjunction se, if, whether, or by an interrogative 
pronoun, adjective, or adverb. The interrogative pronouns are 


quern, who, o que (or que alone, but much less frequently), what, 
qua! (without the article), which (of a certain number of objects), 
what (= what kind of), and que, what, what a (pronoun adjec- 
tive). The verb ser, in these sentences, generally precedes its 
subject (sabeia o que e urn reptilf). 


Can anybody tell me who is that Mr. E. ? Nobody knows 
who he is. If he knew who has played him this trick, he would 
make him pay for it. Do you know with whom you have dined 
at the hotel in P. ? I can not tell who it was. I did not know 
whom they called by that nickname. You ask me with whom 
you are to associate? Only few know to whom the author re- 
fers in this passage. Can you tell me whose house this is? He 
asked me whose son I was. Probably you do not know whom 
you have offended. Be so kind as to tell me whose children 
they are. Guess whom we have invited for dinner ! I could 
not discover to whom she alluded. Do you know what this is ? 
I do not know what you mean. Why did you not ask him what 
he wanted ? I know what this signifies, as well as you do. Pray 
tell me what time (horns) it is. We want to know what you 
have done with the will of our aunt. Tell me first what you are 
speaking of. They could not make out (descubrir) what it was. 
Nobody could tell us which of the two brothers was killed. It 
is not easy to tell which of the two singers is the better one. If 
it were known by what means they have got their money, they 
would not be so much sought after (procurodos). We now know 
what kind of man you are. Please tell me in what street is the 
office (escriptorio) of Mr. J. ? I asked him what his trade (officio) 
was. Who knows how much the poor lad may have (fut. ind.) 
suffered under such a master. Can you remember how much 
you have paid for this book ? You have no idea of how much he 
is altered. I know where he is. The mob shouted that they 
wanted to know where L. was. Did you not ask her when she 
intended to come back ? Ask your father when he will favor us 
with his visit. Do you know how this is made ? At last no- 
body knew how the quarrel had begun. Can any of you tell me 


how this flower is called ? They could not even say why they 
had done it. He will probably ask you why you did not come. 
I did not know what he wanted me for. 

We do not know whether he has come or not. She asked 
the boy if he belonged to Mr. D. One does not know whether 
he tells the truth or not. Please let me know (let know = par- 
ticipar) if you can come, and when. Do you know whether the 
mail-steamer has arrived ? You should have asked him if he was 
willing to accept my offer. — Caesar said that he would rather be 
the first in the smallest village than the second in Eome. Did 
your father say you might go ? Did I not tell that this would be 
the result of your foolish obstinacy ? I told you beforehand that 
he would treat you with contempt. He said it was' absolutely 
impossible. Tiberius used to say that he wanted his sheep to be 
fleeced, but not flayed. They say that our sovereign is going to 
abdicate in favor of his son. How often do we say that we can 
not, instead of saying that we will not ! I wrote on a slip of 
paper that I had come at the time appointed, and that I should 
return within an hour. The Egyptians asserted that they were 
the oldest people, and that it was from them that all other na- 
tions, especially the Greeks and Romans, had their knowledge 
and civilization. There are historians that say, and pretend to 
prove, that Romulus has never existed. I assure you that I had 
not the remotest idea of your wishes, or else I should have as- 
sisted you in every way. Anybody could have told you before- 
hand that you would not succeed. It has been prophesied that 
the world would not exist two thousand years after Christ. The 
King of N". had declared that he would rather die than surren- 
der ; but he did not die, preferring an ignominious exile to a 
glorious death. He swore that he would maintain the constitu- 
tion and laws of the country, even while he was meditating on 
(em) the means of treading both under his feet. I thought you 
had finished your work long ago. 




Em qualquer parte que estejas, respeita sempre as opinioes 
dos outros. Em qualquer parte que eu fosse, elle insistia em 
acompanhar-me. Hei de encontra-lo, aonde quer que elle estiver. 
Precisamos de dinheiro, venha oVonde vier. Onde quer que esteja, 
elle nao podera escapar a justica. A qualquer cidade que for- 
mos, sempre precisaremos do Sr. Elle nao aceitou cartas, 
viessem ffonde viessem (or de qualquer parte que viessem). For 
onde quer que passassemos, nao vimos senao semblantes tristes, e 
todos os signaes d'uma miseria profunda e prolongada. Em qual- 
quer parte do mundo que eu estivesse, sempre achei as mesmas 
fraquezas, as mesmas virtudes, os mesmos vicios, apenas com 
uma differenca dos degraos. 

Quando os vicios nos abandonao a n6s, a nossa vaidade diz 
que n6s abandonamos os vicios. Quando a pobreza entra pela 
porta, o amor sahe pela janella. Quando vejo este retrato, nao 
posso deixar de me rir. Coda vez que o vejo, fallo-lhe n'isso. 
Quando a fructa esta madura, ella cahe no chao. Emquanto 
tenho dinheiro, tenho amigos. Precisa bater o ferro emquanto 
esta quente. Emquanto flzer tanto frio, nao podemos pensar em 
viagens. Nao posso sahir emquanto minha mai estiver em pe- 
rigo. Como eu io passando pela praca do mercado, notei um 
movimento singular e inexplicavel nas nuvens. Quando tiver 
50 annos, retirar-me-hei do negocio. Quando Vm°6 ainda era 
crianca de peito (baby), eu ja era liomem. Nao hei de socegar 
emquanto nao achar uma occupacao para o Sr. Quando a occa- 
siao s'offereceu, tu nao quizeste fallar; agora ja e tarde. Em- 
quanto eu tinha, eu dava. Emquanto eu caminhava, nao sentia 
tanto o cansaco. Corrige-te emquanto f6r tempo. Assim que 
elle vier, tenha a bondade de me avisar. Assim que chegou o 
vapor de 0., eu o fretei para M. Assim que um entra, outro 


sahe. Logo que cheguei, fui ter oom o Sr. N". Logo que estiver- 
mos promptos, iremos ao encontro dos Srs. deputados. Entre- 
gue-lhe esta carta logo que elle vier. Sahi logo que tinha aoabado 
de escrever. Vm c8 p6de ficar comnosco quanto tempo quizer. 
Durante que estavarnos occupados com o arranjo da quinta que 
tinhamos arrendado, elle vinha todos os dias para ajudar-nos. 
Emquanto isto se passava em Pariz, scenas analogas tiverao lugar 
em quasi todas as provincias. Isto aconteceu durante que eu 
estava dormindo. Desde que nao ha mais fogueiras, acabiirao-se 
as feiticeiras. Nao tenho ouvido fallar n'elle desde que estou 
aqui. Desde que a sua mai morreu, el-la nao teve um so d?a de 
descanco. O pobre do Joao tem estado doente desde que o 
conheco. Depots que meu pai foi para Londres, houve tres fal- 
lecimentos em nossa familia. Depois que choveu, os mosquitos 
comecarao a tormentar-nos. Depois que F. esteve doente, elle 
mudou completamente. Va antes que seja tarde. Antes que eu 
podesse acudir, elle ja tinha ido ao fundo. Precisa acabar este 
trabalho antes que venha o amo. Ficarei ate que Vm c * voltar. 
Espere ate que a chuva acabar. Todos esperavao ate que os 
musicos viessem. Escrevi ate que nao podia mais ver. Ficamos 
em D. ate que nao havia mais perigo em passar a fronteira. 


Adverbial sentences, as their name indicates, have the same 
functions as adverbs and adverbial phrases, i. e. they indicate 
the circumstances of time, place, cause, and mode. In A. we 
have local and temporal adverbial sentences. The principal dif- 
ficulty for the student is, to know, when he is, in these sentences, 
to use the indicative or the subjunctive mood. The subjunctive 
mood is required : 1) after em qualquer parte que, onde quer que, 
quando quer que and similar expressions ; 2) of the future tense 
after quando, when uncertainty is to be expressed ; 3) after the 
conjunctions of time denoting futurity (as ate que, until, em- 
quanto, as long as), unless an accomplished fact be stated ; f. i. 
esperei ate que elle viesse, he did not come,— ate que veiu, he 
came at last. 

Logo que and assim que both mean as soon as } but tb.§ latter 

23 i LESSON LX. 

implies a more immediate succession (almost equal to no mo- 
mento que). Desde que and depois que, since, after, differ inas- 
much as the former denotes the beginning, the latter the end of 
a period. Durante que and emquanto, while, differ in this, that 
the former means the whole time that an action or condition 
lasted, the latter indicates contemporaneousness without regard 
to the exact duration ; f. i. elle se ria, emquanto eu chorava, not 
all the time, or perhaps all the time, or- longer; durante que eu 
escrevia, o menino nao se movia, i. e. the whole time. 

Wherever you may go, you will always find that riches alone 
do not make a man happy. I shall follow him wherever he may 
go. I have traveled thousands of miles, over land and sea, but 
the remembrance of that face haunted me wherever I went. 
Wherever he staid, he was sure to gain the esteem and affection 
of almost everybody. On the whole route the victorious troops 
were received with unbounded enthusiasm, and wherever they 
halted, the population offered them the best tbey had. Our hut 
was so ruinous that, when it rained, there was not a dry place 
where we could make our beds of straw. When the Khan of 
Tartary has dined, a herald cries out to all the other princes of 
the earth, that they may dine if they choose (se Ihes parecer). 
When I was a boy, I had a very clever little dog; whenever 
(coda vez que) he had done anything for which he knew that he 
would be punished, he absented himself from home for several 
days. When the boys saw their master, they escaped over (por 
cima de) the wall. My uncle had some queer habits ; when it 
was cold, he would drink water incessantly, saying that it made 
the blood circulate more vigorously ; and in summer, when the 
thermometer stood at 90 degrees in the shade, he put on thick 
woolen clothes, saying that, what was good against the cold, 
was equally good against the heat. We shall go to the circus 
when there will be less people than to-day. When we go, we 
shall take (levar) you with us. Do not interrupt me when I am 
speaking with somebody. When you are (fut.) tired, you may 
go to bed. Dissensions will cease, when there will be only one 


man in the world. While all others were engaged in saving 
whatever they could, the owner of the factory was seen sitting 
(sentado), with his arms crossed, and looking on with the utmost 
indifference. The house couid not be whitewashed while I was 
ill. Stay here, while we go up (subir) the hill. Her death 
occurred while she was staying with Mr. P. We can not think 
of leaving this place, while this state of things lasts. As long as 
he was poor, he was a hard-working man ; now that he has in- 
herited some money of («) his uncle, he is lazy and indolent. 
You may read while I write. I shall remember this as long as 
I live. We can not expect any rain, as long as this wind blows. 
As the troops were crossing the river, the scouts reported that 
a large body of cavalry was coming down (descer) the road. As 
I was going out I received your note. He came just as (assim 
que) we were going to dinner. The moment they stepped on 
shore (por pi em terra) they were arrested. As soon as a sol- 
dier was seen in an embrasure, he was shot down (derrubado 
pelas balas de) by our sharp-shooters. I shall visit him as soon 
as I shall be able to go out. Please send me the boots as soon 
as they are ready. Since you left us, our house seems deserted. 
She is more quiet, since she knows where her child is. Ever 
since I can remember him, he treated me with the greatest kind- 
ness. Ever since she had that attack, her health has been de- 
clining. He recovered after we had gone to B. After several 
members had spoken, Mr. V. rose. This must have occurred 
before we went into (para) the country. Go before it begins to 
rain. He was an old man before you were born. Wait here 
until I come. Tou shall not go out with me until you behave 
better. They shouted good-bye until we could no longer hear 


2) MODAL. 



Nao darei um passo n'este negooio, sem que Vm tS me de in- 
struccoes por escripto. Entramos sem que ninguem nos perce- 
besse. O Sr. nao succedera sem que seu pae lhe ajude. Nao 
poderemos fazer nada sem que elle esteja aqui. A multidao se 
dispersou sem que houvesse o menor disturbio. Um anno inteiro 
passou sem que tivessemos noticias d'elles. Vm^ me reprehends 
sem que eu saiba porque. — Oomportai-vos de maneira que nin- 
guem vos possa taxar (tachar) de rudeza. Escreva ao menos de 
sorte que eu o possa ler sem microscopic Procedei de modo que 
ninguem tenha motivo de queixar-se de injustica da vossa parte. 
Farei com que {or de modo que) todos estejao contentes de mim. 
Facao com que estejao promptos para as quatro boras da tarde. 
Precisa distribuir a somma de sorte que cbegue para todos. Elle 
se comporta de maneira que ninguem gosta d'elle. Arrangei tudo 
de maneira que a cada um tocou o que lhe era preciso. Vm c * 
escreve (de maneira) que ninguem o pode ler. — Como as folhas 
seccas v6ao diante da tormenta, assim fugirao os inimigos diante 
d'este heroe. Isto sera como Deos quizer. Seja como o Sr. quer. 
Seja como f6r (however that may 6«), estou certo de que nao me 
faltarao recursos quando as cousas chegarem a este ponto. Fosse 
como fosse (however that may have been), a culpa sempre ficava 
do lado dos nossos adversarios. Como d'um grao diminuto nasce 
uma arvore gigantesca, assim o cbristianismo nasceu de origem 
humillima, e veiu a estender-se sobre todo o mundo civilisado. 
— Os mais dos homens vivem como se nao devessem morrer. 
Aquella gente se conduz como se nao houvesse nem leis nem jus- 
tica no paiz. Elle me tracta como se eu fosse o seu escravo. A 
bala atravessou a parede como se esta fosse de vidro. 

Descubriu-se na vizinhanca de B. um manancial de aguas 
mineraes tao quentes, que um ofo flcou cozido em menos de cinoo 


minutos. Os nossos guerreiros sao tantos que as suas flechas 
escurecem o sol. Estamos too habituados a vossa companhia, 
que nos custara miiito a deixar-vos partir. O teu irmao falla 
too alto que quera passa na rua deve pensar que esta brigando 
com alguem. O parricidio pareoia aos antigos Romanos uin 
crime too desnatural, que nem tinhao uma lei que lhe marcasse 
o oompetente castigo. O medo das mulheres era tanto (or tao 
grande) que estremeciao cada vez que se abria uma porta. A 
perversidade de oertos homens e tammanha que ate fazem alardo 
d'ella. O habito tern tanto poder sobre nos, que muitas vezes 
lhe sacrificamos nao s6 os nossos interesses materiaes, mas ainda 
a propria virtude. As dividas d'aquelle bomem sao tatitas, que 
nao as poderd pagar com dez vezes o dinbeiro que tem. F. en- 
redou o processo de tal maneira, que nem o proprio juiz tinha 
uma idea clara sobre o que se tractava. A sua posigao lhe dera 
uma preponderancia tal que os esforcos reunidos dos seus adver- 
saries erao impotentes contra elle. — Elle nos recebeu tao bem 
como era de esperar. Luiz e tao estupido como o seu pai era 
sabio. Nao me restabeleci tao cedo como esperava. Este muro 
nao esta tao alto como eu desejava. — Tanto m'alegra saber que 
V. S. esta gozando de boa saude, quanto m'affligi por saber que 
a Sra. sua mai esta enferma. Estimo tanto ao Sr. quanto des- 
prezo a seu irmao. — Elle e mrtis rioo do que quer dizer. As 
criancas observao mais do que geralmente se suppoe. O suioidio 
e menos frequente hoje em dia do que nos tempos antigos. Creio 
que Vm cS estima aquelle homem mais do que merece. Isto era 
maia do que eu podia aturar. Ella s'affligiu d'aquillo menos do 
que era de esperar. Vm« 8 me pergunta mais do que eu sei res- 

Quanto mais eu me zangava, mais elle se ria. TJm d'elles 6 
tao teimoso como o outro ; quanto mais ran insiste n'uma cousa, 
menos o outro cede. Criancas sao assim ; (quanto) mais se lhes 
da, mais ellas querem. Nao sei como e ; quanto mais eu leio 
este livro, menos o comprehendo. Quanto mais eu quero poupar, 
mais ella quer gastar. homem e tanto mais rico, quanto menos 
deseja. — A medida que a, civilisacao progride, as supersticoes 
desapparecem. Sereis pagos segundo tiverdes trabalhado. 



The adverbial sentences in A. are modal. The conjunctions 
sem que, corn que, and como se always require the subjunctive 
mood; also de maneira (sorte, modo) que, tal (too, tanto, etc.) 
que, when a wish, an order, a necessity is expressed; f. i. precisa 
distribuir o dinheiro de sorte que chegue para todos (that it may 
suffice), but elle distribuiu o dinheiro de sorte que chegou, etc. (it 
did suffice) ; escreva {de sorte) que eu o possa Mr, but Vm c $ es- 
creve (de sorte) que ninguem o p6de ler. 


I shall not give you the money, unless I know in what you 
will spend it. You will obtain nothing from him unless you im- 
portune him every day. Our embarrassments will not cease 
unless we introduce a system of reasonable economy. He offered 
me the necessary sum without {sem que) my asking it. In this 
manner he was enabled to make the most scandalous extortions, 
without anybody having the right to interfere. Johnny climbed 
on the chair without anybody assisting him. I will not have you 
go out without my knowing where you go. Why do you not 
arrange your papers so that at any moment you are ready to 
give account? When you give alms, give them so that your left 
hand know not what the right hand gives. Hang up this pic- 
ture so as to be seen through the door of the next room. There 
are authors who seem to have written on purpose so that no- 
body should understand them. The windows of those horrible 
dungeons were exceedingly small, about 18 inches by 8 (dezoito 
pollegadas de comprido a oito de largo), and so arranged that the 
prisoners ^should see neither earth nor sky. He told the story 
so that everybody believed (Julgar) him to be innocent. You 
speak so quick that nobody can understand you. Our fat neigh- 
bor snores so loud that one can hear him in the next street. All 
these circumstances made that (fazer com que) we could hardly 
keep (flcar com) what we had. The poor [man] lives as he can, 
the rich [man] as he may. He will die as he has lived. As the 
sun disperses the clouds, so truth destroys falsehood. As the 
warmth of the sun calls forth (fas desabrochar) innumerable 


flowers, so joy and happiness awake kindness and benevolence. 
— You speak of your journey to N. as if it were a trip of ten 
miles. I remember him as if I saw hini standing before me. I 
felt as if I were going to die. He went home as happy as if he 
had gained a fortune. This is just the same as if you said that 
he who fired (dar) the shot has nothing [to do] with the person 
whom the ball hit. As if envy were not the source of all this 
talk ! — She had grown so thin that she was as light as a baby. 
The night was so dark that you could hardly see three steps 
ahead. I was so surprised that I could not utter a single word. 
I have so much to do that I do not know where to begin. Your 
remark vexed him so much that he said to me that he would 
never come to your house again. They made so many condi- 
tions, that it was clear they had no wish to help us. He has 
always so many things in his head that he forgets them all. The 
rain poured down in such force that many branches of the trees 
were broken off. The enemy attacked us in such numbers, that 
we were obliged to retreat within the entrenchments. The gale 
became so violent as to make even our harbor unsafe. N. tells 
his stories so well that one is actually inclined to believe them. 
The looking-glass was so dirty that I could not distinguish the 
color of my shirt. Make the fence so that the chicken can not 
get (passar) through it. — She is as well as can be expected under 
the present circumstances. We have never been so poor as we 
are now. You have as many protectors as he has enemies. An 
honest man has as many enemies as there are rogues about him. 
I have as much interest in your success as I have in my own 
welfare. I have as little faith in his constancy as in that of April 
weather. Take as many books as you want. No money is so 
welcome as the first earned by ourselves. — Why he has taken 
such a step is more than I can tell. This problem is more diffi- 
cult than it seems at first sight. Lions are less frequent now in 
the north of Africa than they were at the time of the Romans. 
We had more income than we could spend in our little town. 
Those village girls dress with more taste than is seen in many 
city ladies. " We see the past better than it has been ; we find 
the present worse than it is ; and we hope the future to be hap- 


pier than it will be." The longer we live, the shorter life ap- 
pears to us. The longer we wait, the greater will be our danger. 
My disappointment was the greater, the more I advanced in 
years. The more he swears, the less I believe him. The higher 
a man stands, the more he is exposed to envy and censure. The 
less you want, the happier you will be. — As (a medida que) we 
advance in years, our confidence in men decreases. The scenery 
changed as we came nearer (to come near = aproximar-se). 




Quantos homens sao infelizes, porque na sua mocidade per- 
derao o tempo em prazeres futeis ! Desistirei do meu intento, 
porque vejo que as vantagens nao valerao o trabalho. Nao pu- 
demos atravessar o rio, porque a correnteza tinha arrebatado a 
can&a. Tomei este criado, porque veiu recommendado pelo Sr. 
D. Nao gosto d'elle para caixeiro ; nao que o julgue pouco fiel ; 
mas elle me parece um tanto dado a vadiacao. — Se e verdade o 
que dizes, eu procurarei uma pessoa que me mereca mais con- 
fianca. Se Vm 06 esteve em Londres, deve ter visto a celebre 
cathedral de S. Paulo. Se elle quer vir, que venha ja. Se queres 
succeder no mundo, escuta muito, ve imiito, dize pouco. Se 
fosse verdade o que ella diz, ereio que ella nao estaria tao soce- 
gada. Elle o teria feito, se fosse possivel. Vm c6 poderia gozar 
de muito mais tranquillidade, se buscasse a sua felicidade no seio 
da sua familia, em lugar de busca-la f6ra. Se Vm c8 tivesse tido 
um pouco mais paciencia, nao teria agora de soffrer estas perdas. 
Se amanhaa./Mje?' tanto frio como hoje, teremos de comprar uma 
carreta de lenha. Se thermos tempo, daremos uma chegada 
(call) em easa da nossa tia. Se acreditarmos a Xenophonte, 
Oyro, o fundador do grande reino dos Persas, foi o modelo dos 
principes. — Va comprar uma libra de end verde no armazem do 


Sr. A. ; caso (i. e. no caso) que nao o tenha, va no armazem que 
esta ao pe. iVo caso que que Antonio esteja doente, Vm cS to- 
mara o lugar d'elle. — A nao ser (= se nao fosse) isto, eu havia 
de acompanhar a Vm c8 com muito gosto. Seja que elle tenha 
inais talento, seja (ou) que estude com mais applicacao, o facto 6 
que elle esta mais adiantado no piano do que a minha filha. Quer 
sejao ricos quer (ou) sejao pobres, os preguivosos sempre sao des- 
preziveis. — Dou-te licenca para sahir, comtanto que primeiro 
acabes as tuas tarefas. Nao m'importa nem o trabalho nem as 
despezas, comtanto que alcauce o meu fim. Da nossa parte nao 
havera impedimento, comtanto que Vm c&i entrem com a metade 
do cabedal. Muitos se offerecerao a tomar parte na nossa ex- 
pedicao, comtanto que pudessem voltar quando lhes parecesse. — 
Ainda que elles o soubessem, eu nao teria medo de que fariao o 
que elles ameacarao. Ainda que eu seja pobre e elle rico, eu 
nao quizera trocar com elle. Ainda que fosse como o Sr. diz, o 
seu procedimento nap deixa de suscitar graves suspeitas. Eu lhe 
darei o que pede, hem que eu mesmo esteja algum tanto embara- 
cado. Aquelle poema, embora tenha algumas passagens fracas, 
e uma das mais bellas producgoes da nossa literatura. F., em- 
bora fosse homem falso, tinha algumas qualidades estimaveis. 
JPosto que Cesar anhelasse o poder absoluto, elle nao ousou 
aceitar a dignidade real, tao detestada dos Romanos, ainda no 
tempo da sua mais profunda corrupgao. Eu lhe recusei a licenca 
que pedira, posto que soubesse que elle se queixaria de mim ao 
Sr. presidente. Apezar que nao havia abrigo la onde paramos, 
resulvemo-nos a esperar por nossos companheiros. 

Qualquer que seja a minha sorte, hei de esforcar me a mere- 
cer a estima dos homens de bem. Nao aceitarei desculpas, 
quaesquer que sejao. Todo o homem de educacao merece con- 
sideracoes, qualquer que seja a sua fortuna e posicao. Quaesquer 
que fossem as mais condicoes que elles quizessem impor-nos, a 
esta nao pudemos assujeitar-nos. Eejeitemos todas as offertas 
d'essa gente, sejao quaes forem. A nossa situacao, fosse qual fosse, 
nao nos forcava a uma paz ignominiosa. Quern quer que o tenha 
dito, tudo e falso. Nao falle mal de quem quer que seja. Seja 
elle quem for, elle nao tern, por certo, o direito de passar pelo 

242 LESSON LXlf. 

nosso terreno sem a nossa licenca. Quern quer que venha me 
procurar {call for me), diga que me 6 impossivel ver pessoa algu- 
ma. O que quer que seja (= seja o que f6r), receio alguma traicao 
da parte d'elles. Fosse o que fosse (= o que quer que fosse), 
ninguem me convencera de que nao tenha havido jogo falso 
em tudo isso. — Por mais que (however, howsoever) aquelle homem 
s'esforce a ganhar e a economisar, com uma familia como a d'elle 
nao ha possibilidade de enriquecer. Por mais que eu o tenha 
estimado, nao Ihe posso perdoar o ter-me calumniado aos meus 
proprios pais. Por mais innocente que seja uma palavra, a ma 
vontade sempre 6 capaz de fazer d'ella ran crime. Elle esta 
tao enfraquecido, que nao pode levantar um peso, por mais leve 
que seja. Por mais agradavel que fosse a sociedade d'aquella 
gente, eu sempre sentia um nao sei que de oppressivo, quando 
estava com elles. Por mais que elle fallasse a favor do seu piano, 
elle nao p6de convencer a ninguem da exequibilidade do mesmo. 
Por maiores que sejao as honras adquiridas na guerra, ellas nao 
p6dem compensar a perda da felicidade domestica. 

Pois que todos os Srs. querem retirar-se, eu tambem vou-me 
embora. Seja, pois que Vm c * absolutamente o quer assim. Jd 
que Vm c * me obriga, vou-lhe dizer tudo. Eu mesmo desejara que 
tiyessemos outra morada ; mas, jd que nao achamos outra, pre- 
cisara contentar-nos com a que temos. Os inimigos do Sr. pre- 
sidente pretendem ter provas da sua deshonradez ; porem, como 
nao as produzem, ninguem Ibes da credito. Como nao bavia 
occasiao para dar-lhe esta noticia pessoalmente, eu lh'a participo 
por esta (i. e. carta). Se o dono da casa estivesse aqui, Vm c&! 
seriao bem acolbidos ; mas como nao esta, os Srs. devem descul- 
par-nos. Como nao sabemos onde ella esta, precisa esperar ate 
que venha. — Vm 1 * p6dem ir deitar-se, visto que as malas j4 estao 
feitas e tudo esta prompto. Essa nomeaeao seria illegal, visto 
que, segundo as nossas leis, um magistrado deve ter passado a 
idade de 25 annos. Isto ja nao 6 practicavel, visto que o prazo 
marcado pela lei ja expirou. 

Exp6-lo-hei ao patibulo da infamia, afim que todo o mundo o 
conheca e despreze. O astuto ladrao flngiu-se doente, afim que 
os seus complices ganhassem tempo para escapar. Porque nao 

lesson Lxn. . 243 

lhe escreve o Sr., para que elle saiba a qnem se deve dirigir? F. 
fez esforcos incriveis para que seu filho fosse nomeado chefe 
d'aquella reparticao. Para que o Sr. veja que nao fallo sem fun- 
damento, vou-Lhe mostrar nm papel assignado por aquelle sujeito 
mesmo. Foi preciso saorifioar uma parte da oarga, para que 
o navio pudesse safar-se do banco em que tinha encalhado. Ar- 
range tudo d'antemao, para que nao haja demora quando quizer- 
mos partir. 

The adverbial sentences in A. indicate causality (cause, con- 
dition, concession, motive, etc.). The conjunctions (conjunc- 
tional phrases) nao que, caso que, a nao ser que (unless), seja que 
(quer, ou), comtanto que (provided), quando, embora, ainda (pos- 
to, bem, apezar) que, quern quer and qualquer que, por mais-que, 
aflm que and para que require the subjunctive mood ; se, if, re- 
quires the subjunctive mood when the condition mentioned is 
supposed not to exist, or to be doubtful (se isto fosse verdade, if 
this were true ; se elle vier, if he should come) ; this conjunction 
can not be omitted, as in English. 

I would not take the book, because some leaves were want- 
ing. Because you hate him, you want us to do him injustice. 
They were dismissed because they were found unfit for service. 
He gained the law-suit, because the opposite party could bring 
no decisive proofs of his having (de elle ter) promised to pay the 
whole sum on the first of March. — If she is ill, how can she have 
gone out? If you are all of the same opinion, I shall say no 
more about this. If you will not tell it him, I shall. If there is 
a man that knows it, it is Mr. N. How can I assist you, if I am 
myself embarrassed on all sides ? If you knew all the harm they 
have done us, you would certainly not take their part against 
us. He would have much to do, if he wanted to settle his af- 
fairs in so short a time. Many a young man would deem him- 
self happy, if he had had the opportunity which you have lost. 
If there be anything within my reach with which I can serve 


you, pray let me know it. Should they have gone already, 
come back as fast as possible. If she were to die without mak- 
ing a will, all her property would revert to her sister. Should 
you wish to see the botanic garden, I shall be very happy (terei 
muito prazer em) to accompany you. If we consider the great 
age of those gigantic monuments, we can not but think that 
there was a period of high civilization in those times in which 
we are accustomed to see nothing but barbarism and darkness. — 
In case that my presence [should] be required, please send for me. 
In case they should refuse to come, you will show them this 
letter. We shall start this afternoon, unless (a nao tier que) you 
wish to go with us. The money must be in the drawer, unless 
some of you has taken it out (tirar). — "Whether he was ill, or 
feigned to be so, he refused to obey. Whether you deny the 
charge or not, I hold you to be (= por) the author of these dis- 
turbances. You may leave the house whenever you like, pro- 
vided you pay the rent first. I shall deliver the papers to you, 
provided that you make yourself responsible for their preserva- 
tion. Though you were richer than Croesus (Creso), you could 
not buy this man for your purposes. Though I could pay you 
now, if it were absolutely necessary, it would inconvenience me 
greatly. Although the river was much swollen by the recent 
rains, we attempted to ford it. Although it were as you say, 
what inference can you draw therefrom (d'ahi)1 They would 
have silk dresses, though their little brothers and sisters went 
(andar) barefoot. You will not follow the advice of persons 
that are more experienced than you are, though you have seen 
the evil consequences of your obstinacy more than onoe. I dis- 
like her, let her be (embora seja) more beautiful than Venus. It 
was a mean trick, whoever has done it. Whoever may believe 
this, I shall not believe it. In whatever situation you may find 
yourself, remain the honest man you have been hitherto. What- 
ever he may have been in his youth, he is now a respectable 
man, and beloved by everybody. Remain faithful to your 
principles, whatever may be the consequences. You are in such 
a condition (situafao), that you are forced to accept their terms 
(condifoes), whatever they may be. However this may be, many 


people consider him as an accomplice in the great robbery of 
last week. — However great was his desire to obtain the post of 
commander-in-chief, he could not bring himself (persuadir-se) to 
ask the assistance of his old antagonist. However small your 
means may be, it never is quite impossible to do some good to 
your fellow-men. However poor you may be, you will yet 
(sempre) find some one who is still poorer. This fortress will 
resist any attack, however formidable it may be. 

As there is no other way of obtaining his consent, do as you 
said. As we found nobody in the house, we went back to the 
hotel. As the night looked (ter um aspecto) threatening, we re- 
solved to put off our departure till the next day. As I have 
neither relations nor friends in this place, I feel (sentir-se) rather 
lonely. We went to bed early, so that we might have some rest 
before our intended trip. He wrote the letter in Spanish, in 
order that, should it fall into the hands of D., it should not 
commit him before he finished his operations. Hide yourself 
that nobody may see you in my presence. Do not judge, that 
you may not be judged. Do your best in order that your sisters 
may come with you. 




O menino achou na esquina da nossa rua um embrulho que 
continha (containing) um numero de cartas e algum dinheiro. 
Recebi hoje uma carta que assevera (stating) que o cholera se tem 
mostrado em varios pontos da capital. Em toda a bibliotheca 
nao ha dez livros que valhao (worth) a pena de lev. Os viajantes 
avistiirao algumas mulheres que levavao (carrying) jarros grandes 
na cabeca. Um homem morador (= que mora, living) na 
vizinhanca de M., diz que viu o meteoro cahir na lagoa. No 
sitio de Vienna, a artilharia dos Turcos lancava balas de pedra 
que pezavao (weighing) ciDco quintaes. A nossa cavallaria persa- 


guiu o inimigo que se retirava {retreating'), ate a ponte de B. 
Vm c8 achou o livro quefaltava (missing)l — Um negociante recem- 
chegado de L. nos deii a notioia de que se receiava uma grande 
crise mercantil. Algumas pessoas vindas d'aquelles lugares nos 
sontao que ali houve uma terrivel inundagao que devastou mui- 
tos campos e arrazou algumas aldeas. Tiramos isto d'uma carta 
reeebida pelo Sr. N. Publicou-se hoje uma peticao dirigida a 
S. M. a imperatriz, a favor do novo asylo das orphaas desvali- 
das. Fizerao-me hoje presente d'uma carteira riquissima de mar- 
roquim, bordada pela Sra. D. Maria X. 

A suspeita de eu ser o author d'aquelle artigo, e por demais 
estupida. Basta ser-es (tu) amigo meu para que elles te odeiem. 
A noticia de elle ter sido ferido nos veiu por pessoa de confianca. 
Basta ser-mos (nos) pobres, para que elles nos desprezem. A glo- 
ria de ser-des (vos) o Salvador da patria vos sirva de escudo contra 
as malignas aspersoes dos vossos inimigos. A sua esperanca de 
ser-em (elles) mais felizes n'esta especulacao fundava-se princi- 
palmente nas promessas do seu amigo, o Sr. barao de L. A 
probabilidade de ganharmos o processo ia diminuindo oada dia. 
Estais tao seguros de encontrardes apoio na nacao ? Por medo 
de perderem a metade elles perderao tudo. O unico motivo de 
termos regeitado esta condigao foi o nao querermos pedir um 
favor aquelle homem arrogante. £ preciso tomarmos medidas 
mais energicas. £ tempo de te corrigires. O unico modo de 
arranjarmos isto satisfactoriamente e o de abstermo-nos (or de 
nos abster) de toda e qualquer ingerencia na administracSo do 
institute, ate a convoeacao d'uma assemblea geral dos accionistas. 
Todas essas accusacoes fundavao-se unicamente no facto de 
terem-se achado, no escriptorio do Sr. A., cartas dirigidas a elle 
por um anonymo, as quaes, porem, pouco ou nada continhao que 
podesse aggrava-lo. A principal otfensa que Vm°* deu foi o ter- 
Ihes lancado no resto a sua baixa origem. No caso de serem 
verdadeiras as accusacoes levantadas contra elles, cumpre puni- 
los com todo o rigor. A causa de todos os embaracos e terem-se 
demorado tanto os apontamentos que V. S. promettera. Seria 
isto um meio de elles fazerern com que n6s sejamos excluidos das 
proximas eleicoes? Na hypothese de nao quererem elles aceitar 

lesson Lxni. 247 

estas propostas, Vm c6 pode prometter-lhes uma indemnisacao 
equivalents ao preco dos predios em questao. Longe de se 
obrigarem a isto, aquelles senhores ate recusurao pagar a impor- 
tancia da obra que fora feita por sua ordem. If ao precisa sermos 
ricos para mvermos contentes. Afim de conhecerdes o mal que 
flzestes, mostrar-vos-hei os effeitos fataes da vossa loucura. Mui- 
tos moradores d'esta, rua forao mulctados boje por terem lanca- 
do o cisco no meio da rua. Isto seria punir-nos por termos 
ganhado uma batalha ! Alem de terdes offendido ao vosso bem- 
feitor, tendes emperigado a vossa reputacao de homens de bem. 
Elle diz ser poire ; mas eu nao o acredito. Muitos affirmao 
ter visto um cometa do lado do sueste. Creio ter feito o que 
devia. F. pretende ser descendente dos condes de 0. Elle nega 
ser casado. As testemunhas declararao so ter ouvido dizer que 
os assassinos de M. baviao sido pagos por alguns inimigos d'este. 
— Para alcanfarmos o nosso objecto, precisaremos d'um cabedal 
de ao menos cem contos de reis. So o faco para nao /altar a 
minha promessa. D'este modo nao ficard tempo para o Sr. 
acabar a traduccao que comecou. Eis a tua punicao por teres 
violado as leis da bumanidade. A vossa maior recompensa por 
terdes salvado a vida a tantos infelizes sera a lembranca de tao 
bella accao. Nao se poderd proceder sem serem ouvidos os 
pareceres d'estes dous senbores. Antes de procederrnos a leitura 
d'este documento, seja-nos permittido de fazer algumas observa- 
Qoes acerca da sua origem e historia. Antes de ser caixeiro na 
casa do Sr., eu era empregado no correio. Depois de ter sub- 
jugado as Gallias, Cesar conduziu o seu exercito fiel e aguerri- 
do contra Pompeo. Ja vejo que elles bao de tardar ate nao haver 
mais tempo para darmos o nosso passeio. Sempre ba gente 
n'aquelle jardim durante a noite, apezar de terem sido mulctados 
muitos individuos por serem ahi encontrados depois das nove 
horas. Sem sermos ricos, gozavamos d'uma fortuna mais que 
sufficiente para darmos aos nossos filhos uma educagao conve- 
niente a sua presumptiva posicao social. 


Subordinate sentences often appear in an abridged form, 

248 lesson lxiii. 

either as a participle, or as a gerund, or as an infinitive; rela~ 
tive (attributive) sentences are represented by participles, which 
then take the nature of an adjective ; substantive sentences are 
represented by an infinitive, adverbial sentences either by an 
infinitive or a gerund (-ando, -endo, -indo). 

1) Relative sentences ; they are, according to their nature, rep- 
resented either by a participle present or past. The original forms 
of the present participle (-ante, -ente, -inte) having nearly died 
out (see Lesson XVII), this form of abbreviation, in Portuguese, 
can not be employed, except in very few cases where the old form 
of the present participle has survived (f. i. urn homem temente a 
Deos, = um liomem que teme a Deos) ; therefore, the English pres- 
ent participle (not the gerund) is almost always, in Portuguese, 
rendered by (or rather dissolved into) a relative sentence ; thus : I 
saw a man carrying, etc., vi um homem que carregava, etc. The 
past participle (which represents the passive voice) exists in its 
full extent in Portuguese, and is, in that language, rather more 
used for the abbreviation of relative sentences than in English. 
The rules of this construction are so obvious that they need no 
further exposition. We shall see, in the next Lesson, that the 
past participle also sometimes represents an adverbial sentence. 

2) Substantive sentences are represented by the infinitive 
mood, as: elle diz ser pobre, = que e pobre; in most cases, the 
English language employs the gerund (pres. partic). When the 
substantive sentence, in this abbreviated form, is the subject of a 
verb, the infinitive is generally accompanied by the definite article, 
f. i. o substituir a um anciao respeitavel um mancebo ainda na 
idade das paixoes violentas fora um erro mui grave. In English, 
the subject of the verb (in the gerund) is converted into & posses- 
sive pronoun, or, being a noun, put in the possessive case, where- 
as, in Portuguese, it remains in the nominative case; f. i. the 
statement of his having been met, etc., a nnticia de elle ter sido 
encontrado. The subject of the infinitive precedes it, when there 
is no auxiliary verb ; and it may be placed after the auxiliary 
verb in compound tenses. 

3) Adverbial sentences, when expressed by the infinitive 
mood, always require a preposition to accompany and govern 


the latter. This preposition (or an equivalent) is always con- 
tained in the conjunction which would introduce the adverbial 
sentence ; when it is a real (original) preposition, que is, in the 
construction with the infinitive, suppressed (f. i. para que, por- 
que, sem que become para, por, sem) ; in all other cases que is 
substituted by de (thus depots que, qfim que, antes que become 
depois de, etc.). 

In order to avoid the ambiguity which may arise from the 
omission of the subject of the infinitive, and very frequently also 
without this motive, the Portuguese language resorts to a pecu- 
liar form, which may be called the flexible infinitive, being in- 
flected, like any other tense, according to person and number ; 
the terminations are those of the future subjunctive, added to 
the infinitive of the present tense (ser eu, ser-es tu, ser elle, ser- 
mos nos, ser-des vos, ser-em elles). The pronouns are generally 
omitted, except in the first and third persons singular, on account 
of the similarity of the forms. For instance : a probabilidade de 
ganharmos o processo; eis a punicao por teres mentido. When 
the subject is the same as that of the preceding verb, the simple 
(inflexible) infinitive is preferred : obtivemos licenca para vender- 
mos, better para vender. When the infinitive is directly depen- 
dent on another verb, it is always inflexible, as precisamos (quere- 
mos, temos de, temos a) comprar ; but e preciso comprarmos. 

Friendships formed in youth are generally more lasting than 
those formed in mature age. On the socket of the column there 
was an inscription in Arabic, but so defaced that none of us 
could read it. National power, based on commerce alone, may 
become very great, but it can not be lasting. The king wore a 
costly robe of purple silk embroidered with gold, reaching to 
(descer ate) the feet. There is, in this part of the province, a for- 
est extending over more than two hundred square miles. Some 
cases containing arms and ammunition were yesterday seized at 
the custom-house. His father was killed by a falling tree. A 
rolling stone gathers no moss (pedra que gyra nao cria bolor). 
They were making a deafening noise. He was a very promising 


boy (= a boy that promised much). Between the two doors 
hung a large picture representing the coronation of Queen Vic- 

Traveling in those parts (lugares) is attended by great ex- 
pense, hardships, and even danger. His hope of being appointed 
tax-gatherer was founded on Mr. S. having expressed a good 
opinion of his abilities. Our apprehensions of being surrounded 
(— the apprehensions of our being surrounded) proved ground- 
less. The idea of his being made a general is ridiculous. The 
certainty of being beaten in the next elections must not deter us 
from exerting ourselves in behalf of our party. One of the con- 
sequences of your refusal will be the loss of (= your losing) the 
patronage of His Excellency. She talks of going to L. This 
would be equal (= equivaler) to obliging us to leave the city. 
Being obliged to pass through 0., we could not help calling on Mr. 
V. It is necessary that we be (infin.) more cautious. We have no 
proofs of his having been an officer in the navy. Far from com- 
plaining, they even declared to be satisfied with their lot. All 
our efforts for obtaining his pardon were in vain. They will not 
do it without being forced to it. Mr. R. is such a skilful and 
amiable talker, that you can not leave his shop without buying 
something from (a) him. She offered it to us without our ask- 
ing for it. After having given his word not to gamble any more, 
he never set his foot again into that house. Immediately after 
having signed the contract they began their operations. "We 
will not judge of this opera before having heard it again. Be- 
fore embarking on board of the steamer our passports were de- 
manded (= they demanded, etc.). We received orders to (para) 
be ready on the 21st of April. Many emigrated to (para) Amer- 
ica, in order to enjoy political and religious liberty. He fled, in 
order to avoid the fate of his predecessor, who had been put 
(metter) to death by the infuriated mob. In order to compre- 
hend better the effects of this measure, let us consider the cir- 
cumstances under which it was taken. I do not blame you for 
entertaining such an opinion of me, but for denying me an oppor- 
tunity of (para) defending myself. He was vexed at (por) my 
saying this. Their spite against us for not assisting them in 


their wicked speculations increased every day, as they saw how 
fortunate those were who had supplanted them. This act, be- 
sides being wicked, was very stupid. Without being painters, 
we may judge of the merits of a picture, and without being poets 
we may be able to criticize a poem. 


Vimos muitas pessoas correndo em varias direccoes, sem 
podermos explicar o que significava este tumulto. O menino 
voltou para casa chorando. Deixamo-los jogando. Elle sahiu 
jurando que havia de vingar-se. O que fazes aqui, olhando para 
as moscas ? (= looking at nothing, idle). Assim viviamos, con- 
tentes com a nossa sorte, e divertindo-nos do melhor modo que 
podiamos. 0. morreu lamentando a ruina da sua patria, e invo- 
cando a vinganca divina sobre os tyrannos que a opprimiao. 
Encontrei-a na sala, escrevendo a sua mai. Einalmente elles par- 
tirao, despedindo-se com visivel reluctancia. 

Tendo vivido por muitos annos n'aquelle paiz, creio ter um 
direito de exprimir a minha opiniao acerca d'elle. Esta posicao, 
offerecendo-lhe maiores vantagens do que a outra, condizia tam- 
bem com o seu genio um pouco pachorrento. Sendo-me impossi- 
vel chegar em tempo, peso a V. S. queira tomar o meu lugar, 
para o que mando-lhe com esta (i. e. carta) uma procuracao 
bastante. Nao tendo outra occupacao, elle se divertiu a emendar 
todos os erros typographies (as erratas) de quantos livros havia 
na sua bibliotheca. Sabendo que era possivel, nao hesitei em 
enceta-lo. F. falleceu hontem, faltando dous dias para comple- 
tar noventa annos. Tendo tornado o remedio, o paciente passou 
a noite mais tranquillo. Nao havendo outra entrada, tivemos de 
passar a rasto pela estreita abertura na muralha. 

Ensinando apprendemos. Jose esperava melhorar a sua sorte, 
casando com uma rica herdeira. Muitos ganhao a sua vida ven- 
dendo objectos de curiosidade que s'encontrao ali com grande 


abundancia. Ella defendeu-se allegando que fora forcada a este 
casamento por seu padrasto. Fallando d'este modo Vm 1 * s6 
podera offender a seus melhores amigos. Alguns dos prisioneiros 
quizerao salvar-se, asseverando que haviao sido forcados a en- 
trarem no exercito dos rebeldes. O navio foi a pique, salvando- 
se a ousto a tripolacao e os passageiros-. Encetamos esta em- 
preza, contando com a vossa proteocao. O Sr. commetteu uma 
perigosa iudiscricao, communicando o seu segredo a um parente 
do seu adversario. So vendo-o coin os nieus olhos hei de acredi- 
ta-lo. Talvez que, fazendo-Zhes algumas concessoes pouco im- 
portantes, Vm™ succeda em persuadi-los a unirem-se com o Sr. 
Viajando dia e noite, poderemos chegar ali no dia 24. O mo- 
menta era desfavoravel, sendo-me impossivel arranjar o necessario 
cabedal. O nosso major cahiu mortalmente ferido, uma bala 
tendo-lhe atravessado o peito de lado a lado. A casa que aluguei 
me causara muitas despezas, sendo necessario derrubar uma das 
paredes interiores. ffavendo eu pmhibido que se fechasse esta 
porta antes da noite, como e que Vm c6 se lembra de fecha-la 
agora ? Tendo-ne introduzido este abuso durante a minha 
ausencia, a responsabilidade recahe sobre o Sr. Verificando-se 
o que Ym c8 allega, tomaremos medidas emcazes para que o cul- 
pado seja descuberto e severamente castigado. Sendo elle o que 
Vm c6 diz, nao me admira que Vm<* o deteste. Nao tendo os 
meios para continuarem a viagem, muitos flcarao em M. Alguns 
dos nossos companlieiros tendo cahido doentes, vimo-nos obriga- 
dos a parar em E. por alguns dias. Um dos nossos criados foi 
mandado levar a carta, recommendando-se-lhe que a mostrasse a 
ninguem senao a pessoa a quern ella era dirigida. 

Acaoado (= sendo acabado) este trabalho, eu farei uma via- 
gem a Lisboa, para ver se esta fara algum bem a minha saude. 
Covfirmada a sentenca, os criminosos forao executados no dia 
seguinte. Chegadas as cousas a este ponto, nao era mais possi- 
vel retirar-m«. Dado o primeiro passo no caminbo declive do 
vicio, o homem avanca com rapidez progressiva, ate ser-lhe im- 
possivel parar. Passados dez a doze dias, nenhum de nos estara 
mais aqui. Dado o exemplo na capital, facil e prever que as 
provincias bao de imita-lo dentro em pouco tempo. Julgados 


summariamente, elles forao todos enforcados. Presos os caudi- 

lhos do motim, o resto se dispersou logo. Tornado, esta resolu- 

ciio, el-rei ordenou que ella fosse exeeutada immediatamente. 

Levado perante o juiz, N. tentou negar a accusacao. Posto o 

caso que eu quizesse desamparar-te, o que farias tu para viver? 

Morto o rei, os validos aposstirao-se do palacio e da cidadella. 

Dados certas circumstancias, a execucao do seu piano nao me 

pareee difficil. Attentas as tendencias d'aquelle partido, nao e 

de admirar que elle seja fortemente sustentado pelas classes 

opulentas. Supposto isto, as deduccoes sao mui faceis e claras. 

Attentos os seus servicos, elle mereceria uma recompensa mais 

liberal. Submettidas as duas tribus mais poderosas, as outras 

vierao pedir a paz. 

Muitos grandes homens viverao na miseria, sendo o seu meri- 

to reconheoido s6 depois de mortos. As nossas tropas, apezar 

de destituidas das primeiras necessidades, continuarao a defender- 

se heroicamente. Alem de enfraquecido pela grande perda de 

sangue, elle soffria dbres orueis no estomago. Geralmente e 

mais facil impedir um negooio do que desfaze-lo depois de con- 

eluido. A casa e espacosa e commoda, posto que um pouco 



The use of the gerund (-ando, -endo, -indo), which in many 
cases takes the place of the now lost present participle, is nearly 
the same in Portuguese and in English ; the principal difference 
is, that, in Portuguese, no preposition can accompany the gerund 
(with the exception of em, which is sometimes used to denote co- 
incidence). Adverbial sentences, represented by the gerund, are 
either temporal (tendo acabado = depois de ter acabado), or causal 
{sabendo isso = as, because I knew this). The subject, being a 
pronoun, is generally not expressed in English, but frequently in 
Portuguese ; it must always follow the gerund (pres. part.), as 
sabendo eu, querendo elle. 

Sendo, connected with a past participle, is very frequently 
omitted; f. i. morto el-rei, the king being dead, or having died, 
concluido este negoeio, this affair being concluded ; oumdas as 
testemunhas. In the same manner, the infin. ser may be omitted 


after depots de, antes de, alem de, apesar de, as depots de mortos 

= depois de ser mortos = depots de ter morrido ; antes de con- 

demnados, etc. The elliptical construction with posto que (or its 

synonyms oem que, ainda que), though, although, is also used in 



Descending from that hill, you will see a rivulet winding (= 
which winds) round its foot. Sleeping and waking I think of 
you. Seeing that kindness had no effect on them, I threatened 
to bring them before the tribunal. At last, finding that there 
was no possibility of escaping, they surrendered. Where is 
your sister ? She is in the parlor, embroidering a pair of slip- 
pers for papa. Smiling at her ingenuity, he answered negative- 
ly. Thinking that it was too late to call on you, I went to the 
hotel. She remained longtime in the room, weeping over the 
corpse of her husband. The picture represented Hercules spin- 
ning amongst the women, and Iole wearing the skin of the lion 
and the terrible mace. The spy was seen creeping down the 
hill. Thus we spent a delightful day, singing, playing, dancing, 
and doing all kinds (toda a eastd) of funny things. 

By asking his pardon you have of course acknowledged your 
guilt. I obtained what I desired by threatening that I would 
write to our minister at Berlin. On showing my certificates I 
was at once appointed as civil engineer. By adopting this course 
we are sure to gain the affections of those who are now opposed 
to us. On hearing this he became frightened. Augustus, 
[when] dying, exhorted his step-son Tiberius not to extend the 
Koman empire, foreseeing that its very (proprio) greatness would 
be the chief cause of its ruin. Being a near relative to (de) Mr. 
L., I beg to be excused (pepo queirao excusar-me) from giving an 
opinion in this matter. Having served under him for more than 
twenty years, you must know him better than I do. Receiving 
no answer to my letter of the first of May, I conclude that you 
have left Paris. Some of the regiments having suffered severely 
from the fire of the fort, the general ordered them to fall back, 
in order to bring up the reserves. Everything being ready, the 
grand ceremony began. The bridge being destroyed by the in- 


undation, we had to cross the. river in a small boat. The house 
being too small for us, we hired an adjoining building. The 
church being full, many persons were obliged to remain outside; 
and many of these, not being able to stand (ficar em pe) so long, 
sat down on the grass. By adopting this system you are sure 
to fail, as I am going to prove. This was impossible, my father 
having declared that he would rather die than submit to these 
degrading conditions. As he did not know (= he not knowing) 
who you were, you must excuse him. As I had nobody to con- 
verse with (com quern conversar), I took up (pegar em) a news- 
paper and began to read. This being indispensable for obtain- 
ing correct information, we furnished him the means for this 

The sermon [being] finished, the coffin was deposited in the 
family vault. This letter [being] finished, I shall write no more. 
Hope [being] lost, life becomes a burden. This fact [being] ac- 
knowledged, we want no further (mais) argument. The passage 
being paid, we embarked on board of the Margaret. That great 
man being dead, the hostile neighbors recommenced their preda- 
tory incursions. War being declared, the army passed the frontier 
in,three columns. 



adj. signifies adjective. 

a av. 

p. p. 
pr. p. 

- adverb. 

- article. 

- coDjunction. 

- feminine. 

- interjection, 

- masculine. 

- past participle. 

- present participle. 

pi. signifies plural. 

prep. preposition. 

pron. pronoun. 

s, substantive. 

v. verb. 

v. intr. intransitive verb. 

v. tr. transitive verb. 

v. refl. reflexive verb. 

Note. Accents are placed only where the majority of good writers usu- 
ally employ them. Syllables or letters between brackets, after a Portuguese 
word, indicate pronunciation. The tonic accent of a word, when differing 
from the rules given in the introduction, or when doubtful, is indicated 
thus : (1) means that the accent is on the last syllable ; (2) shows the accent 
to be on the penult or second syllable from the end ; (3) on the antepenult 
or third from the end; f. i. barbaro (3) = bdrbaro / colono (2) = colono; 
fatia{2) =fatia. 

In the Portuguese part, many words are omitted, their meaning being 
easily known by their similarity with their equivalents in English; such 
as nouns substantive in cao, mento, dade, adj. in oso y al, etc. 


o, f. of the def. art., the. 

a, accus. sing, of the pers. proa, ella, 

= her. 
a, dem. pron., that. 
a, prep., at, to, on. 
abaixo, adv., below, down. 
abandono (2), a. m., abandonment, 

neglect; -ar, v. tr., to abandon, 

aberto, p. p. of abrir, open ; -tura, f, 

aperture, opening. 
abominavel, adj., abominable. 

abragar, v. tr., to embrace ; -go, s. 
abrigo ('.'), o. m., shelter, protection. 
abrir, v. tr., to open. 
absolute (2), adj., absolute; -tismo, 

». m., -tista, s. m., absolutist. 
absolver, v. tr., to absolve. 
abster-se, v. refl., to abstain. 
abuso, ». m., abuse; -ar, v. intr., to 

abuse, misuse. 
acabar, v. tr. and intr., to end, finish ; 

-com, to have done with ; -de dizer, 

to have just said. 
academia (2), s. f., academy. 




acampar, v. intr., to encamp ; -amen- 
to, s. m., encampment. 

acautelado, p. p., cautious. 

accao, s. f., action ; share (commer- 

acceitar, vide aceitar. 

accionista, s. m., share-holder. 

accommodar, v. tr., to accommo- 

accordar, v. tr. and intr., to awake. 

accordo, =. m., accord. 

accumular, v. tr. and intr., to accu- 

accusur, v. tr., to accuse; -of do, ». f. 

aceitar, v. tr., to accept (also ace ). 

acerrimo (3), superl. of acre. 

acertar, v. tr. and intr., to hit, guess 
( — com). 

achar, v. tr., find ; -se, v. refl., to find 
one's self, to be found, to be. 

aco, s. m., steel. 

acompanhar, v. tr., to accompany. 

acontecer, v. intr., to happen ; -ci- 
mento, s. m., event. 

acostumar, v. tr., to accustom. 

acre, adj., sharp, violent, sour, tart. 

acrimonia (3), s. f., acrimony, etc. 

acreditar, v. tr., to believe, credit. 

acto, s. m., act. 

actor, s. m., actor (fem. -triz). 

actual, adj., actual, present ; -mente, 
adv., at the present time, now. 

acudir, v. intr., to hasten to assist- 
ance, to flock together. 

adeos (2), adv., adieu, farewell, good- 

adequado, adj., adequate. 

adiante, adv., forward, on, before; 
-ar, v. tr., to advance, to further ; 
-ado, p. p., advanced ; -amento, s. 
m., advancement, progress. 

admirar, v. tr., to admire, to sur- 
prise; -se, v. refl., to be surprised, 

to wonder ; -avel, adj. ; -acao, s. f., 
admiration, surprise. 

admittir, v. tr., to admit; admissdo, 
s f., admission. 

aUoecer, v. intr., to fall sick. 

adoptar, v. tr., to adopt. 

adorar, v. tr., to adore, worship. 

adquirir, v. tr., to acquire. 

adular, v. tr., to flatter; -cdo, s. f., 
mean flattery ; -dor, s. m., flatterer 
(adulao, s. m., fam., toady). 

adulto, adj., adult, grown up. 

adversario (3), s. m., adversary. 

adversidade, a. f., adversity, misfor- 

adverso, adj , adverse, disinclined. 

advogar, v. tr., to advocate; -ado, s. 
m., advocate, lawyer, attorney. 

afastar, v. tr., to remove. 

affeicao, s. f., affection, love ; -goado, 
adj., affectionate, loving. 

offirmar, v. tr., to affirm. 

affiigir, v. tr., to afflict; -se, v. refl., 
to grieve; affliccao, s. f, affliction, 
vexation ; qfflicto, p. p., afflicted, 
grieved, vexed. 

affrontar, v. tr., to affront, brave ; -a, 
s. f., insult. 

ajiancar, v. tr., to answer for, give 

afim de, conj., in order to ; — que, in 
order that, that, so that. 

afinar, v. tr., to tune. 

afogar, v. tr., to strangle, to drown ; 
■se, v. refl., to be drowned. 

afura, prep., besides. 

agenda (3), s. f., agency; -iar, v. tr. 
and intr., to manage, procure, ne- 

aggravar, v. tr., to aggravate. 

aggredir, v. tr., to aggress, attack 

agigantado, adj., gigantic. 

agora (2), adv., now, presently. 




agradar, v. intr., to please; -avel, 
adj., agreeable, pleasant. 

agradecer, v. intr., to thank; -ido, 
adj., thankful, grateful ; -cimento, 
s. m., thanks, thankfulness. 

agricultura (2), s. f., agriculture; 
-tor, s. m., husbandman, farmer ; 
— , adj. agricultural. 

agua, s. f., water. 

aguerrido, adj., accustomed to war, 

aguia (3), s. f., eagle. 

agulha, s. f., needle. 

ahi, adv., there. 

ainda, adv., yet, still ; — que, though, 

ajudar, v. intr., to aid, help, assist. 

ala, si. f , wing (of an army). 

alacridade, s. f., alacrity. 

alardo, s. m., muster, show. 

alcaide, s. m., a magistrate, bailiff. 

aloanfar, v. tr., to reach, obtain, 
overtake; -ce, s. m., reach, power. 

aldia, s. f., village. 

alegre, adj., merry, joyful, gay ; -ia 
(2), gaiety, joy ; -arse, v. refl., to 

diem, adv., beyond; — de, prep., be- 
yond, besides. 

alemao, adj., German ; Allemanha, 

dlerta (2), adv., estar dlerta, to be on 
the alert, wide awake.. 

alfaiate, s. m., tailor. 

alfandega (3), ». f., custom-house. 

alguem, pron., somebody. 

algum, adj., some, any. 

alheio, adj., alien, belonging to an- 
other person. 

ali, adv., there. 

allegar, v. tr., to allege. 

alUvio (3), s. m., alleviation, com- 

alludir, v. intr., to allude. 

alma, s. f., soul. 

almirante, s. m., admiral. 

almoeo, s. m., breakfast; -ar, v. intr., 

to breakfast. 
attar, s. m., altar ; — rnur, chief altar. 
alterar, v. tr., to alter, change. 
alternar, v. intr., to alternate, take 

turns; -adamente, adv., alternate- 
ly ; -Una, s. f., alternative. 
alHw (2), adj., proud, haughty; -vez, 

h. {., haughtiness. 
alto, adj., high, tall, loud; — , s. m., 

top ; fazer — , to halt, stop ; alto ! 

halt! -ura, s. f., height; -eza, s. f., 

highness (a title). 
alugar, v. tr., to rent, hire ; let ; 

-guel, s. m., rent, hire. 
alumno, s. m., pupil. 
alviearas (3), s. f. pi., a reward given 

for good news. 
alvo, s. m., aim, goal, mark. 
amanliaa, adv., to-morrow. 
amar, v. tr., to love ; -avel, adj., 

amiable ; -ante, s. m., lover; -odor, 

s. m., lover, amateur; amor, s. m., 

amarello, adj., yellow. 
amargo, adj., bitter ; -gura, 3. f., 

amarrar, v. tr., to tie, fasten, bind. 
Amazonas, o Ho das — (or o Am.), the 

river Amazon (Maranhdo). 
amhifdo, s. f., ambition, greediness; 

-cioso, adj., ambitious, avaricious. 
ambos, adj., both. 
ameaga, (2), s. f., threat, menace ; -ar, 

v. tr., to threaten; -dor, adj., 

amigo, s. m., friend ; -sade, s. f., 

amo, s. m., master, landlord, princi- 
pal, employer. 




amparar, v. tr., to protect, aid ; -o, I 
s. m., protection, prop, aid. 

amphibio (3), o. m., amphibious ani- 

amplo, adj., ample, vast. 

analogo (3), adj., analogous. 

anchora (3, pronounce dncora), s. f., 
anchor; -ar, v. tr. and intr., to 
anchor, to moor. 

anciao (pi. -dos), s. m., a (venerable) 
old man. 

ancioso, adj., anxious; anciedade, s. 
f., anxiety. 

andar, v. intr., to walk, go ; — , s. m., 
walk, gait, floor, story. 

amecdota (2), s. f., anecdote. 

anhelar (pr. an-elar), v. tr., to desire 
anxiously, to strive eagerly after 

animal, s. m., animal. 

animar, v. tr., to animate, encour- 
age; -o, a. m., courage, spirit. 

anjo, s. m., angel. 

annaes, s. m. pi., annals. 

annel, a. m., ring. 

anno, s. m., year; — bom, new-year; 
dia de annos, birthday; hoje fa<;o 
annos, to-day is my birthday. 

annuir, v. intr., to assent, consent. 

annunciar, v. tr., announce, adver- 
tise ; annuncio (3), s. m., adver- 

annullar, v. tr., to annul, declare 

anonymo (3), adj., anonymous. 

antagonists (2), s. m., antagonist. 

ante, prep., before. 

aniemdo, adv., <£ — , beforehand. 

antepassados, s. m. pi., ancestors. 

antes, adv., before ; — de, prep. ; 
— que, conj. 

ant'hontem, adv., the day before yes- 

antigo, adj., ancient, old, former; 
-quidade, s. f., antiquity. 

anzol, s. m., fishing-hook. 

aonde, adv., whither, where. 

apagar, v. intr., to extinguish, put 
out, blot out, erase, to quench. 

apalpar, v. tr., to feel, touch, sound, 
try ; ds apalpadellas, groping. 

apanhar, v. tr., to catch, seize, over- 

apartar, v. tr., to separate. 

aparte, adv., apart, aside. 

aptgo, s. m., attachment, affection. 

apellar (or app.), v. intr., to appeal. 

apenas, adv., scarcely, hardly. 

apertar, v. tr., to clasp, tighten, hold 
fast, squeeze; -a mao, to shake 
hands ; -ado, p. p., tight, close. 

apesar (or apezar, or ap.), adv. ; — de, 
despite, in spite of; — que, conj., 

apoderar-se, v. refl., to seize, take 
hold of. 

apoio, a. m., support, prop, protec- 
tion ; -ar, v. tr., to support; -se, v. 
refl., to lean upon, to rest. 

apontar, v. tr., to point at, to note ; 
-amentos, a. m. pi., notes, instruc- 

apoplexia (2), a. f., apoplexy. 

aposento, s. m., inner room, bed- 

ap'os, prep., after. 

apossar-ee, v. refl., to seize, take pos- 

aposta, s. f., bet, wager; -ar, v. tr. 
and intr., to bet. 

apparecer, v. intr., to appear. 

appetito (2), s. m., appetite. 

applaudir, v. tr. and intr., to applaud. 

applicar, v. tr., to apply ; -ado, p. p., 
diligent, studious; -(do, s. f., ap- 




apprehemao, s. {., apprehension. 

approvar, v. tr., to approve. 

aprazer, v. iutr., to please. 

aprender, v. tr., to learn. 

apresentar, v. tr., to present, intro- 

apromptar, v. tr., to prepare, make 

aproveitar, v. tr., and -se (de), v. refl., 
to profit (by something). 

aproximar, v. intr. (land refl.), to ap- 
proach, near. 

apuro, ». m., embarrassment, scrape. 

aquatico (3), adj., aquatic. 

aquelle, pron. dem., that. 

aquem, adv., on this side. 

aqui, adv., here. 

ar, s. m., air. 

arbusto, s. m., bush, shrub. 

architecto, s. m., architect; -ura, s. 
f., architecture. 

arder,v. intr., to burn; -ente, adj., 

area (or -eia), s. f., sand. 

areal (or drea), s. f., surface, ex- 

argenteo (3), adj. (poet.), of silver. 

ai'ma, s. f., weapon; pi., arms; -ar, 
v. tr., to arm. 

armazem (1), ». m., magazine, store. 

arrabalde, s. m., suburb. 

arrancar, v. tr., to tear off, root up, 
snatch away. 

arranjar, v. tr., to arrange ; jo, s. 
m., arrangement. 

arrastar, v. tr., to drag. 

arratel (2), s. m., pound. 

arrazar, v. tr., to raze, level. 

arrazoado, p. p., reasoned, reason- 

arrebatar, v. tr., to snatch. 

arredar, v. tr., to remove, put back. 

arrematar, v. tr., to buy at auction. 

arremessar, v. tr., to throw, fling, 

arretidar, v. tr., to rent, lease. 
arrepender-se, v. refl., to repent; -di- 

niento, a. m., repentance. 
arripiar, v. intr: (os cabellos), (the 

hair) to stand on end. 
arriba (2), adv., above, upward, up. 
arriscar, v. tr., to risk, endanger. 
arroba (2, 6), s. f., a weight of 32 

arrogante, adj., arrogant; -da (3), 

s. f., arrogance. 
arrombar, v. tr., to break open, force. 
arroz, s. m., rice. 
arruinar, v. tr., to ruin. 
arsenal, s. m., arsenal. 
arte, s. f., art; -ista, s. m., artist. 
artigo (2), s. m., article. 
artilharia (2), s. f., artillery. 
arvore (3), s. f., tree. 
asneira, s. f., nonsense. 
anpecto (2), s. m., aspect. 
aspero (3), adj., rough, harsh. 
aspersao, s. f., aspersion, slander. 
assaltar, v. tr., to assault ; -o, s. m. 
assassino (2), s. m., murderer; -ar, 

v. tr., to assassinate, murder ; -inio 

(3), s. m., murder, assassination. 
assaz (or assds), adv., enough, rather. 
assegurar, v. tr., to assure. 
assemblea, s. f., assembly, meeting. 
assento, s. m., seat; -ar, v. tr. and 

intr., to seat ; (-em) to resolve, 

agree ; -se, v. refl., to sit down, take 

a seat. 
assereao, s. f., assertion. 
asserenar, v. intr., to clear up. 
asseverar, v. tr., to aver, assure. 
ussignar, v. tr., to assign, sign ; -tura, 

s. f., signature. 
assim, adv., thus, so ; — que, conj., as 

soon as. 




assistir, v. intr., to assist, help, aid ; 
-encia (3), s. f, assistance, help. 

associar-se, v. red., to associate. 

assucar (2), s. m., sugar. 

assujeitar, v. tr., to subject. 

assumpto, s. m., subject, topic. 

assustar, v. tr., to frighten ; -dor, adj., 
frightening, startling; -se, v. refl., 
to be frightened, startled. 

astro, s. m., constellation, star. 

astuto (2), adj., astute, shrewd, cun- 

asylo (2), s. m., asylum. 

atacar, v. tr., to attack; — que, a. m., 
attack, St. 

atar, v. tr., to tie, bind, fasten. 

ate, prep., till, as far as; — , adv., 
even; — que, conj., until. 

atirar, v. tr. and intr., to throw, 
shoot; -dor, s. m., sharp-shooter. 

atmosphera (2), s. f., atmosphere. 

atordoar, v. tr., to stun, deafen. 

atormentar, v. tr., to torment. 

atravez (1), adv., across, through ; 
atravessar, v . tr. and intr., to tra- 
verse, cross, pass through. 

atraz, adv. ( — de, prep.), behind. 

atreverse, v. refl., to dare, venture ; 
-ido, p. p. and adj., daring, saucy ; 
-vimenfo, s. m., daring, impudence. 

atroz, adj., atrocious, cruel; -cidade, 
s. {., atrocity, cruelty. 

attender, v. intr., to attend ; -gao, s. f., 
attention ; dar — , to pay attention. 

attento, adj., careful, attentive, con- 
sidered, attended. 

attrahir, v. tr., to attract ; •$do, s. f. ; 
-ctivo, adj., attractive; — , s. m., 
attraction, charm. 

attribuir, v. tr., to attribute. 

aturar, v. tr., to endure, bear, suffer. 

audaz, adj., daring, audacious ; -dacia 
(3), s. f, audacity. 

augmento, s. m., augmentation, in- 
crease ; -ar, v. tr., to increase, aug- 

aureo (3), adj. (poet.), golden. 

aurora (2), s. f., dawn. 

author, s. m., author, plaintiff; -idade, 
s. f., authority; -isar, v. tr., to au- 

auxilio (3), a. m., aid, succor. 

avan<;ar, v. tr. and intr., to advance, 

avarento, adj., avaricious, miserly ; 
-eza, s. f., avarice, greediness. 

ave, s. f., bird, fowl. 

aoelludado, adj., velvety. 

averso, adj., adverse, disinclined ; 
-stio, s. f., aversion, disinclination. 

avessas, as — , the wrong way; to- 
mar — , to misconstrue. 

avido (3), adj., covetous, greedy ; 
-dez, s. f., avidity, covetousness. 

avisar, v. tr., to advise, warn. 

avistar, v. tr., to perceive, see. 

dvo, s. m., a noun added to cardinal 
numbers, to indicate a fraction, as 
tres onze dvos = 3 /n- 

avd, s. m., grandfather; avb, f., 
grandmother; avbs, m. pi., ances- 
tors, forefathers. 

aza, s. f, wing. 

azeite, s. m., oil ; -tona, s. f., olive. 

azul (1), adj., blue; -ado, -ejo, adj., 


baile, s. m., ball. 

baio, adj., bay. 

baioneta (2), s. f, bayonet. 

bairro, s. m., ward (of a town). 

baixo, adj., low, deep, mean ; -ar, v. 

tr. and intr., to lower, go down/ 

■eza, s. f., meanness. 
bala, s. f., ball (of a gun). 




baldar, v. tr., to frustrate. 

bancario (3), adj., banking. 

banco, s. m., bank, bench. 

banda, s. f., side. 

bandeira, s. f., banner, ensign, flag. 

bando, s. m., gang. 

banho, s. m., bath; -ar, v. tr., to 

barao, s. m., baron ; f. baroneza. 
barato, adj., cheap. 
barba, s. {., beard. 
barbaro (3), s. m. and adj., barbarian, 

barbarous ; -idade, s. f., barbarity, 

barril, s. m., barrel, cask. 
barulho,s. m., noise; -ento, adj., noisy. 
bastar, v. intr., to suffice, be enough ; 

-ante, adj. and adv., enough ; — 

alto, pretty high. 
batalha, s. f., battle; -do, s. m., bat- 
bater, v. tr. and intr., to beat, strike, 

beber, v. tr., to drink ; -ida, s. f. , 

drink, beverage. 
beira, s. f., brink, margin, bank. 
bettadona, s. f., belladonna, deadly 

bello, adj., beautiful, fair, handsome ; 

-as letras, belles-lettres, fine arts ; 

arts; -eza, s. f., beauty. 
bem, adv., well ; — , s. m., good ; 

bens, pi. m., estate, property ( — de 

raiz, real estate, landed property) ; 

-que, conj., although ; — estar, s. m., 

bemfeito, s. m., benefit; -or, s. m., 

bemquisto, p. p., beloved. 
beneficio (3), s. m., benefit, benefice. 
benevolo (3), adj., benevolent; -lencia 

(3), s. f. 
bengala (2), s. f., cane, walking-stick. 

biblia (3), s. f., the Bible. 

bibliotheca (2), s. f., library. 

bico, b. m., beak, bill. 

bilhete (2), s. m., billet, note, ticket. 

biographia (2), s. f., biography. 

bispo, s. m., bishop. 

bissexio, adj., bissextile; anno — , 

boato (2), s. m., rumor. 
bobo, s. m., booby. 
boca, s. i., mouth ; -do, s. m., mouth- 
ful, a little, a bit. 
boi, s. m., ox. 
bolsa, s. f., purse, pocket. 
bom, adj. (fem. boa), good ; bondade, 

s. f., goodness, kindness ; bondoso, 

adj., kind. 
bonacho, s. m., a good-natured man, 

bone, s. f., cap. 
boneco (2), s. m., doll. 
boniio (2), adj., pretty, handsome. 
bordar, v. tr., to embroider; -ado, s. 

m., embroidery. 
bordo, s. m., a — , on board. 
borracha (2), s. f., Indian rubber. 
borrar, v. tr., to blot. 
bota, s. f., boot. 
botar, v. tr., to put, place, set. 
bote, s. m., boat. 
braco, s. m., arm. 
branco, adj., white. 
brando, adj., soft, gentle; -ura, s. f., 

bravo, adj., brave, fierce, irascible, 

breve, adj., brief, short; — , adv., or 

em — , shortly, soon ; -idade, a. f., 

brevity, shortness. 
briga, s. f., fight, quarrel; -ar, v. 

intr., to fight, quarrel. 
brilho, b. m., brilliancy, lustre; -ar, 

v. intr., to shine. 




brinco, s. m., ear-ring, plaything ;| 
•ar, v. intr., to play, jest, trifle ; 
-deira, s. f., play, jest, trifle ; -quedo, 
s. m., plaything, toy. 

bulir, v. tr. and intr., to move, stir. 

buraco (2), s. m., hole. 

burla, s. f., jest, joke ; -esco, adj., bur- 

buscar, v. tr., to seek, fetch. 

lusto, s. m., bust. 


ca, adv., here, hither. 

cabana (2), s. f., hut, cottage. 

cdbeca (2), s. f., head. 

cabedal, s. m., capital, principal, 

cabello, a. m., hair. 

caber, v. intr., to be contained. 

cabo, s. m., end, extremity, handle. 

caca, s. f., chase, game; -ar, v. tr. 
and intr., to chase, hunt; -dor, s. 
m., hunter, rifleman. 

cacete, a. m., club, cudgel ; -ada, s. f., 
blow with a stick. 

cachorro, s. m., dog. 

cada, adj., every, each. 

cadeira, s. f., chair. 

cadela (or -ella), s. f., female dog, 

caderno (or quad.), s. m., quire, copy- 

cadete, s. m., cadet. 

cafe, s. m., coffee. 

cdgado, a. m., tortoise, turtle. 

cahir, v. intr., to fall. 

caixa, s. f., box; — , s. m., cashier; 
-ao, large box, chest; -eiro, s. m., 

cal, a. f., lime. 

calamidade, ». f., calamity, misfor- 

calar-se, v. refl., to be silent. 

calcar, v. tr., to tread upon. 

calcas, s. f. pi., pantaloons. 

calculo (3), s. m., account, calculation. 

caldo, o. m., broth. 

callo, s. m., corn (on the feet). 

calmo, adj., calm ; -ante, s. m., sooth- 
ing medicine. 

color, s. m., heat, warmth. 

calumnia (3), o. f., calumny, slander ; 
-ar, v. tr., to slander. 

cama, s. f., bed. 

camara (3), s. f., chamber, council. 

camareiro-mbr, s. m., great chamber- 

caminho, s. m., road, way; -ar, v. 
intr., to walk. 

camisa (2), a. f., shirt. 

campainha, s. f., (little) bell. 

cam/panha, s. f., country, campaign. 

campo, s. m., field, camp. 

canal, s. m., canal, channel. 

canario (3), s. m., canary-bird. 

canivete, s. m., pen-knife. 

canba, h. f., canoe, boat. 

cansar, v. tr., to tire; -aco, a. m. ( 

caniar, v. tr. and intr., to sing, to 
crow ; -or, s. m., singer ; -o, s. m., 
song, chant. 

cantaro (3), s. m., large water-pot; 
chover a -os, to rain in torrents. 

coo, s. m., dog. 

capaz, adj., capable ; -cidade, s. f., 
capacity, capability. 

capella, s. f., chapel. 

capitao (pi. -aes), s. m., captain. 

capitulo (3), s. m., chapter. 

cava, a. f., face. 

caracter (2), a. m., character. 

carcereiro, s. m., jailor. 

carecer, v. intr., to want, lack. 

carestia (2), s. f., dearth, scarcity, 

careta (2), s, f., face, grimace. 




carga, s. f., charge, load. 

cargo, s. m., charge, office. 

Carlos, prop, u., Charles. 

came, s. f., flesh, meat. 

carneiro, a. m., sheep (male). 

caro, adj., dear; caridade, s. f., chari- 
ty; -itativo, adj., charitable. 

carpinteiro, a. m., carpenter. 

carregar, v. tr., to bear, carry, to 

carreira, a. f., career, race. 

carreta (2), s. f., cart. 

carroga (2), s. f., wagon. 

carruagem (2), a. f., carriage, coach. 

carta, s. f., letter ; -teira, s. f., pocket- 
book, portfolio, writing-desk. 

carvalho, s. m., oak-tree. 

casa, s. f., house. 

casaca, a. f., dress-coat. 

casar, v. tr. (or -se, refl.), to marry ; 
-mento, s. m., marriage. 

casimira (2), s. f., cassimire. 

caso, s. m., case; — que, conj., in case 

casta, s. f., caste, race, species, kind. 

castical, s. m., candlestick. 

castigar, v. tr., to chastise, punish ; 
-igo (2), a. m., punishment. 

categoria (2), s. f., category; -orico 
(3), adj., categorical. 

cathedral (1), s. f., cathedral. 

caudilho, a. m., chieftain, ringleader. 

causa, s. f., cause ; -ar, v. tr., to cause. 

cavalheiro, s. m., cavalier, gentleman. 

cavallo, a. m., horse; -eiro, s. m., 
horseman, rider, knight. 

czverna, s. f., cave. 

da (or ceia), ». f., supper. 

ceder, v. tr. and intr., to cede, yield, 
give up. 

cedo, adv., early, soon. 

cego, adj., blind. 

cegonha, s. f., stork. 

celebre (3), adj., famous, celebrated. 

cemeterio (3), s. m., cemetery, church- 

cem, adj. num., one hundred. 

cento, s. m., a hundred ; -tenar, s. m., 

ceo, s. m., heaven, sky. 

cerco, s. m., siege; -ar, v. tr., to be- 
siege, to surround, inclose. 

cereja (2, e), s. f., cherry. 

ceremonia (3), a. f., ceremony. 

cerlo, adj., certain, sure; par — , cer- 
tainly, to be sure ; -eza, s. f., cer- 

cerveja, s. f., beer, ale. 

cessar, v. intr., to cease. 

chd, s. m., tea. 

chacara (3), s. f., » farm, country- 

chale, s. m., shawl. 

chamar, v. tr., to call. 

chao, s. m., ground, soil, floor. 

chapeo, s. m., hat, bonnet. 

charlatdo (pi. -des), a. m., charlatan, 
impostor, quack. 

chave, a. f., key. 

cA«/e, s. m., chief, principal. 

chegar, v. tr. and intr., to arrive, ap- 
proach, to suffice (isto chega, = 
this will do) ; -se, v. refl., to ap- 
proach, draw near; -ada, s. f., ar- 

cheio, adj., full. 

cheiro, s. m., smell, scent, aroma; 
■ar, v. tr. and intr., to smell, scent. 

chicote (2), s. m., whip. 

chimera (2, pr. quim,), s. f. chimera, 
idle fancy. 

China, s. f., China; -nez, or Chim, 
s. m., Chinese. 

cholera (3), s. m. (-morbus), cholera. 

chorar, v. tr. and intr., to weep, cry, 




ehovpana, s. {., hut, cottage. I 

chover, v. impers., to rain ; -iscar, to 

drizzle ; -isca, s. f., a drizzling rain. 
Christo, s. m., Christ; -tao (pi. aos), 

s. and adj., Christian; -tianismo, 

s. m., Christianity; -tandade, s. f., 

chumbo, s. m., lead. 
chusma, s. f., crowd, gang. 
chvva, s f., rain ; -oso, adj., rainy. 
cicatriz, s. f., scar. 
cidade, s. {., city, town; -dao (pi. 

-aos), s. m., citizen. 
cidadella (or c$.), s. f , citadel. 
cinco, adj. num., five. 
ct'oso, adj., jealous. 
circulo (3), s. m., circle. 
circumstancia (3), s. f., circumstance. 
cirurgiao, s. m., surgeon, 
cisco, s. m., sweepings, filth. 
cislerna, s. f., cistern. 
ciume (2), s. m., jealousy. 
civil, adj., civil, polite ; -idade, s. f., 

civility, politeness ; -isar (or -tsar), 

v. tr., to civilize. 
ctaro, adj., clear, light, fair; -eza, s. 

f., clearness, perspicuity; -idade, 

s. f., light, gleam. 
classe, s. f , class. 
classico (3), adj., classical, classic. 
clemencia(3),s.f., clemency, mildness. 
cHma, s. m., climate, 
cfoi, s. m., club, society. 
coberto, p. p., covered. 
cobra, s. f., snake. 
cobrar, v. tr., to collect debts. 
cobre, s. m., copper. 
cohibir, v. tr., to cohibit, restrain. 
coitado, adj., miserable; coitado! = 

poor fellow ! 
ciilera, s. f, anger, wrath. 
colher {-er), s. f., spoon. 
colher, v. tr., to collect, gather, take- 

collector, s. m., collector. 
collega (2, ?), s. m., colleague. 
collegio (3), s. m., college. 
collete (2), s. m., waistcoat, vest. 
colligir, v. tr., to collect, gather; 

-lec(,'do, s. f., collection. 
colossal, adj., colossal. 
com, prep., with ; — que, conj., so that. 
combate (2), s. in., fight, combat; -er, 

v. intr., to fight. 
comecar, v. tr. and intr., to begin, 

commence; -go, s. m., beginning. 
comedia (3), s. {., comedy, play. 
comer, v. tr., to eat; -ida, s. f., food, 

repast, meal ; -ildo, a. m., glutton. 
cometa (2), s. m., comet. 
comico (3), adj., comical; — , s. m., 

actor, comedian. 
comjnandar, v. tr. and intr., to com- 
commercio (3), s. m., commerce, trade. 
commetter, v. tr., to commit. 
commodo (3), adj., convenient, com- 
modious; — , s. m., commodity, 

convenience, leisure. 
commum, adj., common. 
como, adv. and conj., how, as, like. 
compadecer-se, v. refl., to have pity; 

-cimento, s. m., compassion. 
compaimo, s. f., compassion, pity. 
companhia (2), s. f., company ; -eiro, 

a. m,, companion. 
comparar, \. tr., to compare. 
compensar, v. tr., to compensate. 
completo (2), adj., complete. 
complice (3), s. m., accomplice. 
corwpor, v. tr., to compose, to settle; 

-posicao, s. f., composition. 
comportar-se, v. refl., to behave ; 

-mento, s. m., behavior. 
comprar, v. tr., to buy, purchase ; -a, 

s. f., purchase ; -dor, s,. m,, buyer, 





eomprehender, v. tr., to comprehend, 

comprido, adj., long; -mento, s. m., 

comprimir, v. tr., to compress. 

comprometter, v. tr., and -se, refl., to 
compromise, commit ; -misso, s. 
m., compromise. 

coneeder, v. tr., to concede, grant, 

concertar, v. tr., to concert, to repair, 
mend; -to, s. m., repair, concert. 

conduit; v. tr., to conclude; conclu- 
sao, s. f., conclusion. 

conde, s. m. (fem. -em), count. 

condemnar, v. tr., to condemn. 

condicao, s. {., condition. 

condizer, v. intr., to agree. 

conducta (2), s. f., conduct, behavior ; 
condusir-se, v. refl., to conduct 
one's self, to behave. 

confessar, v. tr., to confess, avow. 

confiar, v. tr. and intr., to confide, 
trust, entrust; -an^a, s. f., confi- 
dence, trust. 

conforme, adj., conformable; — , prep, 
and conj., according to, as. 

conforto, s. m., comfort. 

confundir, v. tr., to confound. 

confuso (2), adj., confused ; -sao, s. f. 

conkecer, v. tr., to know, to be ac- 
quainted with ; -ido, s. m., an ac- 
quaintance ; -cimento, s. m., knowl- 
edge, acquaintance ; -dor, s. m., 

connivencia (3), s. f., connivance. 

conquista, s. f., conquest; -tar, v. tr., 
to conquer ; -dor, s. m., conqueror. 

consciencia (3), s. f. , conscience. 

conseguir, v. tr., to obtain; Ante, 
adj., consequent (por — , conse- 
quently) ; -guencia (3), s. f., conse- 

conselho (2), s. m., advice ; -eiro, s. 
m., counsellor. 

consentir,v. intr., to consent; -mento, 
s. m., consent. 

consolar, v. tr., to console, comfort; 
-se, v. refl., to be comforted. 

construir, v. tr., to construct, con- 

consul (2), s. m., consul. 

conta, s. f., account, bill ; -ar, v. tr., 
to reckon, count ( — com, — upon), 
to relate, tell (from conto). 

contemporaneo (3), s. m. and adj., 

contente, adj., content, satisfied, glad ; 
■tar-se, v. refl., to be contented; 
-mento, s. m., contentment. 

conter, v. tr., to contain, hold. 

conteudo (A), s. m., contents. 

contiguo (3), adj., contiguous, ad- 

continuo (3), adj., continual. 

conto, s. m., tale; — de reis, one mil- 
lion of rees (= 500$). 

contra, prep., against. 

contracto, s. m., contract. 

contradizer, v. tr., to contradict; 
-diccao, s. f, contradiction. 

contrario (3), adj., contrary; pelo or 
uo — , on the contrary. 

contribuir, v. tr. and intr., to con- 
tribute; -buifdo, s. {., contribution. 

convencer, v. tr., to convince. 

conveniente, adj., convenient. 

convento, s. m., convent. 

convidar, v. tr., to invite; -ado, s. 
m., guest; -vite, s. m., invitation. 

con-vir, v. intr., to become, be fit or 

copia (3), s. f., copy; -ar, v. tr. 

copo, s. m., glass, tumbler. 

cor, s. f., color ; -ar, v. tr. and intr., 
to color, blush. 




tor, s. m., memory ; de — , by heart, 

by rote. 
coragdo, a. m., heart. 
coragem (2), s. f., courage ; -joso, adj., 

coral, s. m., coral. 
corda, s. f., cord, rope, string ; dar — 

ao relogio, to wind up the watch 

or clock. 
coronel, s. m., colonel. 
corpo, s. m., body ; — a corpo, man 

to man, hand to hand. 
correcto, adj., correct. 
correio, s. m., courier, post-office. 
correr, v. intr., to run ; -dor, s. m., 

runner, race-horse, corridor, pas- 
sage ; -ente, adj., running, current; 

— , s. f., current, chain ; -eza, s. f., 

current, stream. 
eorrigir, v. tr., to correct, punish ; 

-se, v. refl., to mend, reform. 
corromper, v. tr., to corrupt, spoil ; 

-rupto, adj., -goo, a. m. 
cortar, v. tr., to cut. 
cbrte, s. f., court; -ez, adj., courteous, 

polite ; -zia (2), a. f., courtesy ; 

-mo, s. m., courtier. 
cortiga (2), s. f., rind, bark, cork. 
coser, v. tr., to sew. 
costa, s. f., coast, shore ; -as, pi., back. 
costume, s. m., custom, habit ; -ar, 

v. intr., to use, be in the habit, etc. 
costura, s. f., seam, sewiDg; -reira, 

a. f., seamstress. 
cousa, s. f., thing. 
cmiado, s. m., ell. 
covarde (or cob.), s. m., coward. 
cozer, v. tr., to cook, boil ; -inha, s. 

f., kitchen; -eiro, s. m., cook. 
craneo (or -to), s. m., skull. 
crear, v. tr., to create; -dor, s. m., 

creator; -tura, a. f., -gao, s. f. 
tredito (3), s. m., credit, reputation. 

crer, v. tr. and intr., to believe, think, 

•dor, s. m., creditor; crenga, s. f., 

belief, creed ; credulo (3), adj., 

crescer, v. intr., to grow, rise, in- 
criado, s. m., man-servant. 
criar, v. tr., to create, produce, breed, 

raise ; -anca, s. f., child, baby. 
crime, s. m., crime; -minoso, adj., 

arise, s. f., crisis. 
cristal, s. m., crystal. 
crilica (3), s. f., criticism ; -co, adj., 

critical ; — , s. m., critic ; -car, v. 

tr., to criticise. 
crocodilo (2), crocodile. 
cru, adj., raw. 
cruel (1), adj., cruel; -dade, ». f., 

eras, s. f., cross ; -ar, v. tr., to cross ; 

-ado, s. m., a coin worth 400 rees. 
cubiga (2), or cob., s. f., cupidity. 
cubico (3), adj., cubic. 
etibrir (or cob.), v. tr., to cover. 
cuidar, v. intr., to think, to take 

care ; -ado, s. m., care, carefulness, 

sorrow ; -doso, adj., careful. 
culpa, s. f., fault, sin, guilt ; -ar, v. 

tr., to accuse ; -ado, s. m. and adj., 

cultura, s. f., culture, civilisation. 
cume, s. m., top. 
cuiwprir, v. tr., accomplish, fulfil ; 

cvmpre, it is 6t, proper. 
cumulo (3), s. m., height, top, pitch. 
cunhado, o. m., brother-in-law; -a, 

s. f., sister-in-law. 
curar, v. tr., to cure. 
curioso, adj., curious, nice, singular 
curso, a. m., course. 
curto, adj., short. 
cursor, v. tr., to bow, bend. 




custar, v. intr., to cost ; -a, s. f. t cost, 
expense, charge ; -o, s. m., cost, 
difficulty ; a custo, with difficulty 

damn, s. f., lady; -as, pi., draughts; 
— d f honor, lady of honor. 

iatnno (dano), s. m., damage. 

danra, s. f., dance ; -ar, v. intr., to 

dar, v. tr., to give, strike ; dado, p. 
p., given. 

de, prep., of, from. 

debaixo, adv., — de, prep., under, un- 

delate (2), s. m., debate. 

decidir, v. tr., to decide ; 'Sdo, s. f., 

declive (2), adj., sloping, downward. 

decreto (2), s. m., decree, order; -tar, 
v. tr., to pass an order, a decree. 

dedicar, v. tr., to dedicate, devote. 

dedo, s. m., finger. 

defender, v. tr., to defend; -sor, s. 
m., defender; defeza,s. f., defence. 

deferir, v. tr., to grant, to defer, put 

degrao, ». m., degree, step. 

deitar, v. tr., to lay, put ; -se, v. refl., 
to lie down, to go to bed. 

deixar, v. tr., to leave, let, let alone. 

denials, adv., moreover, besides, too, 
too much. 

demasia (2), s- f., superfluity ; em — , 
excessively, too ; -ado, adj., exces- 
sive; -adamente, adv., too. 

demittir, v. tr., to dismiss ; derrdssao, 
s. f., dismissal. 

demora (2), s. f. , delay ; -ar, v. tr., 
-se, v. refl., to delay, tarry. 

dente, s. m., tooth ; dor de dentes, 

dentro, adv., within. 

Deos (or Deus), s. m., God ; -ta, s. f, 

departamento, s. m., department. 

depender, v. intr., to depend (de — , 

', s. m., evidence. 
is, adv., after, afterwards. 

depressa, adv., quickly, quick. 

deputado, s. m., deputy, representa- 

derivar, v. tr., to derive. 

derrubar (or derribar), v. tr., to 
throw down, overthrow. 

desafio (2), s. m., challenge, defiance ; 
-ar, v. tr., to challenge, defy. 

desagradar, v. intr., to displease ; 
-avel, adj., unpleasant, disagree- 

■arar, v. tr., to forsake. 
recer, v. intr., to disappear. 
. tr., to disarm ; -ado, p. 
p., unarmed. 

desaiTanjar, v. tr., to derange; -jo, 
s. m., derangement, trouble. 

desastre, s. m., disaster; -oso, adj. 

desavenfa, s. f., discord, dissension. 

descansar, v. intr., to rest; -so, s. m., 
rest, repose. 

descarado, adj., barefaced, impudent. 

descer, v. tr. and intr., to come down, 
descend ; to lower. 

desconfiar, v. intr., to mistrust, sus- 
pect; -anca, s. f., diffidence, sus- 

desconhecido, adj., unknown. 

descubrir, f. tr., to discover, detect ; 
-cuberta (or cob.), s. f., discovery; 
-brimento, s. m., detection. 

descuido (2), s. m., negligence, care- 
lessness ; -ado, adj., careless. 

descul/pa, s. f., excuse. 

desde, prep., since, from; — que, conj., 




desejo, s. m., desire, wish ; -jar, v. I 
tr., to wish; -joso, adj., desirous. 

desembaragar, v. tr., to disembar- 
rass ; -go, s. m., disembarrassment, 

desenganar, v. tr., to undeceive. 

dtsenho, s. nv,, design, drawing; -ar, 
v. tr., to draw, sketch. 

dexenvoher, v. tr., to develop ; -vi- 
menio, s. m., development. 

dzserto, s. m. and adj., desert, de- 
serted ; -ar, v. intr., to desert; -or, 
s. m., deserter. 

deseepero (2), s. m., despair. 

desfavoravel, adj., unfavorable. 

desfazer, v. tr., to undo; -se em la- 
grimas, to melt into tears. 

desfeclw, s. m., the unraveling of a 
plot, issue, result. 

desgosto, s. m., disgust, trouble, grief; 
-oso, adj., disgusted. 

desgraga, s. f, misfortune; -ado, adj., 
unfortunate, unhappy, 

deshonra, s. f., dishonor, shame ; -ado, 
adj., dishonored, dishonest; -dee, 
a. f., dishonesty. 

desigtiio, s. m., design, plan. 

desinteressado, adj., disinterested. 

desistir, v. intr., to desist. 

desnatural, adj., unnatural. 

desneeesmrio (3), adj., unnecessary. 

desobedecer, v. intr., to disobey; 
-diente, adj., disobedient ; -encia 
(3), s. f., disobedience. 

desordem (2), a. f, disorder. 

ar, v. tr., to tear or break to 


'ir, v. tr., to dismiss; -se, v. 
refl., to take leave; -ida, s. f., fare- 
well, leave-taking, dismissal. 

o, s. m., spite; a — , in spite, 
speza, s. f., charge, expense. 

desprezar, v. tr., to despise; -so, o. 
m., contempt ; -zirel, adj., con- 
temptible, despicable. 

d&sproposito (3), s. m., nonsense. 

desiacar, v. tr., to detach; -mento, s. 
m., detachment. 

destino (2), s. m., destiny, fate. 

destruir, v. tr., to destroy ;' -uigao, s. 
f., destruction. 

dtsvalido, adj., destitute. 

deter, v. tr., to detain, stop. 

detraz, adv., behind, after. 

ddrimento, s. m., detriment, disad- 

deoagar, adv., slowly. 

devaetar, v. tr., to devastate, lay 

dever, v. tr., to owe, to be indebted 
for something; — , v. aux., must, 
shall; — , s. m., duty; -dor, s. m., 
debtor ; -ido, p. p., owing, due. 

dez (e), adj. num., ten. 

dia, s. m., day; — de annos, birthday. 

diabolico (3), adj., diabolical, devil- 

diante, adv., before ; em — , hence- 

diario (3), adj., daily; — , a. m., 
diary, journal. 

diccionario (3), s. m., dictionary. 

dieta (2), s. f., diet. 

difficil (2), adj., difficult, hard ; -ali- 
dade, s. f., difficulty. 

digno, adj., worthy; dignar-se, v. 
refl., to deign, vouchsafe; -nidade, 
s. f., dignity. 

dilemma, a. m., dilemma. 

dimensao, s. f., dimension. 

diminuir, v. tr. and intr., to dimin- 
ish, decrease. 

dmheiro, s. m., money. 

direito, adj., right, straight ; — , a. 
m., right, duty (custom). 




dirigir, v. tr., to direct, address ; 
■rector, s. m., director, fern, -tora 
or -trie; direccao, s. {., direction. 

discordia (3), s. f., discord, strife. 

discrete (2), adj., discreet; -cricao, s. 
f., discretion. 

discurso, s. m., discourse, speech. 

dispendio (3), s. m., expense; -oso, 
adj., expensive. 

dispensa, s. f. ( dispense, leave, ex- 
cuse; -ar, v. tr., to dispense, ex- 

dispersar, v. tr., to disperse, scatter. 

dispor, v. tr. and intr., to dispose. 

dieputa (2), s. f., dispute, quarrel. 

dissatisfeito, p. p., dissatisfied. 

distar, v. intr., to be distant; dis- 
tance, adj., distant, far ; -anew (2), 
s. f. 

distinguir, v. tr., to distinguish ; -cto, 
adj., distinct, distinguished. 

districto (2), s. m., district. 

disturbio (3), a. m., disturbance. 

diverso, adj., divers, different, vari- 
ous ; -os, pi., several. 

dlvertir-se, v. refl., to amuse one's 
self; -mento, s. m., amusement. 

divida (3), s. f., debt. 

dividir, v. tr., to divide, part, share ; 
-sou}, s. f., division. 

divino (2), adj., divine; divindade, 
s. f, divinity, deity. 

divulgar, v. tr., to divulge, spread. 

dobro, s. m., or ddbrado, s. and adj., 

doce, adj., sweet, soft ; -es, a. pi., 
sweetmeats, confectionery; -gura, 
s. f., sweetness. 

docil (2), adj., docile. 

doer, v. intr., to ache, pain, hurt; 
-ente, adj., ill, sick; -enca, s. f., 
illness, sickness, disease. 

dom, s. t, gift, talent. 

dom, s. m., don (a title of honor, = 

sir, lord). 
domestico (3), adj., domestic, tame. 
dominante, adj., dominant, ruling. 
domingo, s. m., Sunday. 
donde (or d'onde), adv., whence. 
dono, s. m., owner, master; -a, s. f, 

mistress (or miss, before names of 

dor, s. f., pain, grief. 
dormir, v . intr., to sleep. 
dotar, v. tr., to endow ; -ado, p. p., 

doudo (or doido), adj., mad, insane*, 

-ice, s. f., madness. 
dons (dots), adj. num., two. 
doutor, s. m., doctor, physician. 
drama, s. m., drama, play ; -atico (3), 

adj., dramatic. 
duque, s. m., duke; -eza, f., duchess. 
durar, v. intr., to last; -nte, prep., 

during; — que, conj., while. 
duro, adj., hard ; -eza, s. f., hardness. 
duvida (3), s. f., doubt; sem — , no 

doubt; -ar, v. tr., to doubt; -oso, 

adj., doubtful. 
duzia (3), s. f., dozen. 
dynastia (2), a. f., dynasty. 


e, conj., and. 

economia (2), s. f., economy; -ico (3), 

adj., economical; -isar, v. tr., to 

edicao, s. f., edition, publication. 
edificio (3), s. m., edifice, building. 
edvear, v. tr., to educate, bring up; 

-coo, s. f., education. 
effeito, ». m., effect; com — , indeed; 

-tuar (or effectuar), v. tr., to effect. 
efficaz, adj., efficacious. 
tit, interj., lo, behold, there is, etc. 
elegante, adj., elegant ; -cia (3), s. f. 




r, v. tr., to elect; eleigao, a. f, I 
election ; -tor, s. m., elector, voter. 

elevar, v. tr., to elevate, raise. 

el-rei (or elrei), a. m., the king. 

em, prep., in, into, on, at. 

embaixada, s. f., embassy; -dor, s. 
m., embassador. 

embaixo, adv., below, down, down- 

embarafar, v. tr., to embarrass, en- 
cumber; -go, a. f., embarrassment. 

embora, adv., be it so, never mind, 
away ; — , conj., although. 

embrulho, s. m., parcel, packet, bun- 
dle; -ar, v. tr., to pack, wrap. 

emcima, adv., above, on top, up- 
stairs; — de, prep., upon, on. 

tmendar, v. tr., to amend, correct. 

emfim, adv., at last, in fine, in short. 

empenho, s. m., pledge, endeavor in 
favor of another ; -ar se, v. refl., to 
pledge one's self, endeavor, etc. 

emperigar, v. tr., to imperil, jeopar- 

emprego (2, e), s. m., employment ; 
-ar, v. tr., to employ; -ado, s. m., 
officer, clerk. 

emprehender, v . tr., to undertake ; 
-preza, s. f., enterprise. 

emprestar, v. tr., to lend; -timo (3), 
s. m., loan. 

emquanto, conj., while, as long as. 

encadernar, v. tr., to bind (books). 

encalhar, v. intr., to run aground. 

eneantar, v. tr., to enchant, charm ; 
-dor, adj., charming. 

encarnado, adj., red. 

encarnigado, adj., furious, raging. 

encarregar, v. tr., to charge ; -se, v. 
refl., to take charge, undertake. 

encetar, v. tr., to try, undertake. 

encontro, s. m., encounter, meeting; 
•ar, v. tr., to meet, to find. 

encostar, v. tr., to lean. 

encubrir, v. tr., to cover, conceal, 

energia (2), o. f., energy; -gico (3), 
adj., energetic. 

enfeitar, v. tr., to adorn, trim. 

enfermo, adj., sick, ill, sickly, infirm. 

enforcar, v. tr., to hang. 

enfraquecer, v. tr. and intr., to enfee* 
ble, to grow weak. 

enfurecer-se, v. refl., to become furi- 
ous, enraged; -cido, p. p., enrag- 
ed, infuriated. 

engano (2), a. m., mistake; -ar, v. tr., 
to deceive, cheat; -se, v. refl., to 
make a mistake, to be mistaken. 

engenheiro, s. m., engineer. 

engodar, v. tr., to allure, entice. 

engragado, adj., pretty, nice, grace- 

engragar-se, v. refl., to ingratiate 
one's self. 

en-gulir, v. tr., to swallow. 

enigma, s. m., enigma, riddle. 

enorme, adj., enormous. 

enredo (2, e), a. m., intrigue, plot; 
-ar, v. tr., to entangle, intrigue. 

enriquecer, v. tr. and intr., to enrich, 
to grow rich. 

ensejo (2), s. m., occasion, opportu- 

en&inar, v. tr., to teach ; -sino (2), s. 
m., instruction, teaching. 

entao, adv., then ; — ? well? 

entender, v. tr., to understand, to 
mean ; -imento, s. m., understand- 

enterrar, v. tr., to inter, bury ; -ro, a. 
m., burial, funeral. 

entrar, v. intr., to enter, go or come 
in ; -ada, s. f., entrance. 

entre, prep., between, among. 

entregar, v. tr., to deliver, give up ; 




-se, v. refl., to surrender; -ega (2), 
s. f., delivery; — gue, adj., deliv- 

entreter, v. tr., to entertain, to amuse ; 
-tenimenio, s. m , entertainment. 

envelhecer, r. intr., to grow old. 

envergonhar, v. tr., to shame; -se, v. 
refl., to be ashamed, to blush. 

enviar, v. tr., to send; -ado, a. m., 

euxergar, v. tr., to see, perceive. 

enxi>, s. f., addice or adze (a tool). 

enxugar, v. tr., to dry, to wipe; -uto 
(2), p. p., dried up, dry. 

epilepsia (2), s. f., epilepsy ; -eptico 
(3), adj , epileptic. 

epocha (3), or epoca, s. f., epoch. 

equador, s. m., equator. 

equioaler, v. intr., to be equal or 

equivoco (3), adj., equivocal. 

era, s. f., era. 

erguer, v. tr., to raise. 

erigir, v. tr., to erect. 

errar, v. tr. and intr., to err, miss, 
to wander; -o, s. m., error, mis- 
take ; -ado, p. p., mistaken, wrong ; 
-oneo (3), adj., erroneous ; -atas 
(2), a. f. pi., errata. 

esbocar, v. tr., to sketch. 

escabroso, adj., rugged, craggy. 

escacear, v. intr., to become scarce. 

escada, s. f., ladder, staircase. 

escalar, v. tr., to scale. 

escandalo (3), s. m., scandal. 

escapar, v. intr., to escape ; -via (3), 
». f., escape. 

escaramuca (2), s. f., skirmish. 

escarlatina (2), s. f., scarlet-fever. 

escarneo (3), s. m., contempt, taunt ; 
-cer, v. intr., to scoff, rail, mock at. 

escasso, adj., scarce, scanty; -es, s. f., 

esclarecer, v. tr., to clear, to enlighten. 

escola (2), s. f., school. 

escolher, v. tr., to choose; -a, a. {., 

esconder, v. tr., to hide, conceal; 

-drijo, s. m., hiding-place. 
escova (2, d), s. f., brush. 
escravo (2), s. m., slave; -vidao, a. f., 

escrever, v. tr., to write; -aninha, s. 

f., writing-desk ; escripto, p. p., 

written; -a, s. £, writing, copy; 

eseriptor, s. m., writer; -orio (3), 

s. m., desk, office, counting-room; 

-ura (2), s. f., Scripture ; escrivdo 

(pi. Iks), ». m., scrivener, secreta- 
ry, clerk. 
escrupulo (3), s. m., scruple. 
eseudo, s. m., shield. 
esculptor, s. m., carver, sculptor ; 

-tura, s. f., sculpture, carving. 
escuna, s. {., schooner. 
escuro (2), adj., dark, obscure; -cer, 

v. tr. and intr., to darken; -idao, 

a. f., darkness, obscurity. 
escutar, v. tr., to listen. 
esfoTQO, s. m., effort; -far-se, v. reft., 

to endeavor, try, strive. 
esfriar, v. intr., to grow cold, to cool. 
esmagar, v. tr., to crush, shatter. 
esmola (2), a. f., alms. 
espaco (2), s. m., space, room ; -oso, 

adj., spacious, roomy. 
espada, s. f., sword, sabre. 
espalliar, v. tr., to spread. 
espanto, a. m., fright, astonishment ; 

■ar, v. tr., to frighten, astonish; 

-oso, adj., astonishing, amazing. 
especie (3), s. f, species. 
espectacido (3), s. m., spectacle, play. 
especular, v. intr., to speculate; -gdo, 

s. f., speculation. 

, s. m , looking-glass, mirror. 




esperar, v. tr. and intr., to hope, to 
wait, to await, expect ; -era (2), s. 
f., waiting (estar & — de, to be 
waiting for); -an<;a, s. f., hope; 
-eosOj adj., hopeful. 

espia (2), s. m., or espiao, spy, scout; 
-ar, v. tr., to spy, pry. 

espingarda, ». f., gun, musket. 

espirito (3), s. m., spirit, mind, ghost. 

esplendido (3), adj., splendid. 

esposo (2), s. m., bridegroom, hus- 
band ; -sa, s. f., spouse, wife. 

esquadra, s. f., squadron, fleet; -ao, 
s. m., squadron (of cavalry). 

eequeeer-se, v. refl., to forget ; -ei- 
mento, a. m., forgetfulness, ob- 

esqiieleto (2), s. m., skeleton. 

esquerdo, adj., left. 

esquina (2), s. f., corner (of a street). 

esquivar-se, v. refl., to shun, to escape. 

esse, essa, pr. dem., this, that. 

essentia (8), s. f., essence; -al, adj., 

estabelecer, v. tr., to establish, set up. 

estagao, s. f., station, season. 

estado, ». m., state ; -ista, s. m., 

estalagem (2), ». f., inn; -jadevro, a. 
m., innkeeper, host. 

estanho, s. m., tin, pewter. 

estar, v. intr., to stand, to be. 

estatua (3), s. f., statue. 

este, esta,yr. dem., this. 

este, s. m., east. 

estellionato, s. m., stellionate, unlaw- 
ful transaction. 

estender, v. tr., to extend, spread. 

esteril (2), adj., sterile, fruitless. 

esterUna (2), adj., libra — , pound 

estima (2), s. f., esteem ; -ar, v. tr., 
to estimate, esteem, to rejoice. 


estomago (3), s. m., stomach. 

estoque, s. m., rapier ; bengala de — , 

estrada, s. f., high-road, causeway. 

estragar, v. tr., to waste, damage, 
spoil; -o, s. in., damage, devasta- 

estrangeiro, a. m., stranger, foreigner. 

estreito, adj., straight, tight, close. 

estremecer, v. intr., to tremble, shud- 
der, shake. 

estribo (2), s. m., stirrup ; -aria (2), 
s. f., stable ; -ar-se, v. refl., to de- 
pend on, confide, to base one's self. 

estudar, v. tr. and intr., to study; -o, 
s. m., study; -ante, s. m., student. 

estupido (3), adj., stupid, dull; -dez, 
s. f., stupidity. 

eulogio (2, or elogio), ». m., eulogy, 

Evropa (2), s. f., Europe; -eo (2), 
adj., European. 

evadir, v. tr., to evade, shun ; -se, v. 
refl., to escape. 

evangelho, s. m., Gospel. 

evitar, r. tr., to avoid, shun. 

exaggerar, v. tr., exaggerate. 

exame, s. m., examination. 

excepto, adj., except; -war, v. tr., to 

excesso, s. m., excess. 

excluir, v. tr., to exclude. 

excursao, s. f., excursion, trip. 

execravel, adj., execrable. 

exeeutar, v. tr., to execute. 

exemplo, a. m., example, instance; 
-or, adj., exemplary; — , a. m., 

exempto, adj., exempt, free. 

exequias (3), s. f. pi., obsequies, fu- 

exequimel (2), adj., feasible; -bilidade, 
s. f., feasibility. 




exercito (3), s. m., army. 
exhalar, v. tr., to exhale. 
exhibir, v. tr., to exhibit. 
exhortar, v. tr., to exhort, admonish. 
exigvr, v. tr., to exact, demand. 
existir, v. intr., to exist. 
exito (3), s. m., event, issue, result. 
expellir, v. tr., to expel, drive out. 
experiencia (3), s. £, experience. 
experimento, s. m., experiment, trial ; 

-tar, v. tr., to experience, try. 
expiar, v. tr., to expiate. 
expirar, v. intr., to expire, die. 
explicar, v. tr., to explain. 
explicito (3), adj., explicit. 
expor, v. tr., to expose. 
expressar, v. tr., to express. 
exprimwr, v. tr., to express, state. 
expulso, p. p., expelled, driven out ; 

-ado, s. f., expulsion; -or, v. tr., to 

expel, drive out. 
exqwsito (2), adj., exquisite, nice, 

curious, strange. 
exteneo, adj., extended, extensive. 
extermimo (3), s. m., extermination. 
extreme, adj., extreme ; -oso, adj., 

tender, loving, doting. 

fabrica (3), s. f., fabric, factory ; 
-ar, v. tr., to fabricate, manufac- 
ture; -ante, s. m., manufacturer; 
-{So, s. f., manufacture. 

fabula (3), s. f., fable. 

faca, s. f., knife; -ada, s. f., stab. 

face, s. f., face, cheek. 

faoil (2), adj., easy. 

fadiga (2), s. f., fatigue, toil, weari- 

foliar, v. tr. and intr., to speak, 
tali.; f alia, s. f., speech; -dor, s. 
m., talker ; — , adj., talkative. 

■ fallecer, v. intr., to die, decease; -ido, 

p. p., defunct, deceased, late; 

-mento, s. m., decease, death. 
falso, adj., false, deceitful. 
faltar, v. intr., to be wanting or 

missing; -a, a. £, want, need; -o, 

adj., wanting, lacking, deficient. 
familia (3), s. f., family. 
fanatico (3), adj., fanatic; -tismo, s. 

m., fanaticism. 
farca, s. f., farce. 
farmha, s. f., flour, farine. 
farol, s. m., lighthouse. 
farto, adj., sated, full. 
fatal, adj., fatal ; -ista, s. m., fatalist. 
fatia (2), s. f., slice. 
favor, &. m., favor; -reeer, v. tr., to 

favor, protect. 
fazenda, s. f., estate, farm, fortune, 

wealth, finances ; -as, s. f. pi., 

fazer, v. tr., to do, to make; -se, v. 

refl., to become, to feign. 
fi, s. f., faith, trust. 
febre, a. f., fever, ague. 
fechar, v. tr. and intr., to close, 

shut, lock ; -dwa, s. f., lock. 
feigao, feature. 
feio, adj., ugly. 
feira, s. f., fair, market ; segimda — , 

Monday, terga — , Tuesday, etc. 
feitigo (2), s. m., fetish, charm; 

-ceiro, s. m., sorcerer ; -ceira, a. f., 

sorceress, witch. 
feUz, adj., happy, lucky, fortunate ; 

■cidade, s. f., felicity, happiness, 

luck ; -citar, v. tr., to congratulate. 
fimea, adj. and s. £, female. 
ferias (3), a. f. pi., holidays, vaca- 
ferir, v. tr., to strike, hurt, wound; 

-ida, s. f., wound. 
feroa, adj., fierce, cruel, wild. 




ferro, s. m., iron; -eo (3), adj., iron, 
of iron ; -agens, a. f. pi., hard- 
ware ; a ferro efogo, with fire and 

ferrolho, s. m., bolt; -ar, v. tr., to 

fertil (2), adj., fertile. 

ferver, v. tr. and intr., to boil. 

festa, s. f., feast, festival ; dia de — , 
holiday, saint's day; -ejo, a. m., 
festival, festivity; -jar, v. tr., to 
feast, celebrate. 

fiar, v. tr. and intr., to spin. 

fiar-se, v. refl., to trust; -nca, a. f., 
security, bail; -dor, s. m., securi- 
ty, surety, bail. 

ficar, v. intr., to stay, remain, to be- 
come, turn ; — com, to keep. 

fidalgo, a. tn., nobleman. 

fidedigno, adj., credible, reliable. 

fidelissimo (3), superl. of fid ; sua 
magestade -a (8. M. F.), title of 
the kings of Portugal. 

fid, adj., faithful; -dade, s. f., faith 
fulness, fidelity. 

figado (3), a. m., liver; -adal, adj.; 
inimigo — , bitter enemy. 

figura (2), s. f., figure; -do, s. m., 
tall stout man, prominent man 

filko, s. m., son; -a, s. f, daughter. 

filhb, a. f., omelet, pancake. 

fim, s. m., end, intention, aim. 

final, adj., final; -mente, adv., final- 
ly, at last, at length. 

jmgir, v. tr. and intr., to feign, in- 
vent; -ido, p. p., feigned, dissem- 
bling; -imento, s. m., feigning; 
ficgao, s. {., fiction. 

fio, s. m., thread, string, wire, rill, 
edge (of a knife, etc.) ; passar ao 
— da espada, to put to the sword. 

firma, s. f., signature, firm. 

firme, adj., firm, steady, fast; -eza, 
s. f., firmness. 

fita, s. f., band, ribbon. 

flagello, s. m., scourge. 

fiamengo, adj., Flemish. 

fianguear, v. tr., to flank. 

flecha, s. f., arrow, dart. 

flor, a. £, flower, blossom; -ecer, v. 
intr., to flourish, bloom. 

fiogo, s. m., fire;/as«r — , to fire; 
-do, s. m., stove ; -gveira, s. f., 
bonfire, pile; -guete, s. m., rocket. 

folha, a. f., leaf, sheet. 

form, s. f., hunger; estar com — , ter 
— , to be hungry. 

fvra, adv., out, without, outside, off; 
— de, prep., out of, without, be- 
sides ; de — , from abroad, from 

forca, a. f., gallows, gibbet. 

forca, a. f., force, strength; aforga, 
by strength, by dint, by force; 
forcar, v. tr., to force, compel. 

forma (8), s. f., form, mould. 

forma (p), s. f., form, shape. 

formiga (2), a. f., ant. 

forneeer, v. tr., to furnish, provide. 

forro, adj., free. 

fortaleza, s. £, fortitude, fortress. 

forte, adj., strong ; — , s. m., fort. 

fortificar, v. tr., to fortify. 

fortuna (2), s. f., fortune, fate, luck. 

foe, s. f., mouth of a river. 

fraco, adj., weak. 

fracturar, v. tr., to fracture, break. 

frade, s. m., monk, friar. 

fragata (2), s. f., frigate. 

Franca, s. f., France ; -cez, adj., 

franco, adj., frank, sincere ; -queza, 
a. f., frankness. 

frango, s. m., chicken. 

fraqueza, s. f., weakness, feebleness, 




freguez, s. m., parishioner, customer ; 

■sia (2), s. f.; parish, custom. 
frente, s. f., front. 
frequente, adj., frequtDt. 
fresco, adj., fresh, cool. 
frete, s. m., freight; -tar, v. tr., to 

freight, charter. 
frio, adj., cold. 
f route, s. f., front; de — , in front, 

fronteira, s. f., frontier, boundary. 
fructa (orfruta),s. f., fruit (of trees); 

-to, s. m., fruit, result. 
fruir, v. intr., to enjoy. 
frustrar, v. tr., to frustrate. 
fugir, v. intr., to flee, fly, run away ; 

■ida, -a, ». f., flight. 
fulano, s. m., such a one, so and so. 
fulminante, adj., fulminating. 
fuma.r, v. tr. and intr., to smoke ; 

-oca, o. f., smoke. 
fundo, adj., deep ; — , s. m., bottom ; 

a — , profoundly, thoroughly ; -ar, 

T. tr., to found ; -cao, s. f., founda- 
tion ; -dor, s. f., founder ; -mento, 

s. m., foundation. 
furar, v. tr., to bore, pierce. 
furia (3), s. f., or furor, s. m., fury, 

rage; -ioso, -iundo, adj., furious, 

Mil (2), adj., futile. 
futvro (2), adj. and s. m., future. 
fuzilo (2), s. m., sheet-lightning ; 

-ar, v. intr. and imp., to lighten ; 

— , t. tr., to shoot. 

gabar, v. tr., to praise; -se, v. refl., 

to boast, brag. 
gahinete, s. m., cabinet, private room. 
gado, a. m., cattle. 
gaU, s. f., galley. 
galliiiha, s. f., hen ; -as, pi., chicken. 

I gallo, s. m., cock, rooster. 

ganhar, v. tr., to gain, win, to earn; 
-o, s. m., gain, earnings; -odor, s. 
m., day-laborer. 

ganso, s. m., goose. 

gargalhada, s. f., loud laughter. 

garrafa, s. f., bottle. 

gastar, v. tr., to waste, to spend. 

goto, s. m., cat. 

gaveta (2, e), s. f., drawer. 

gelo, s. m., frost, ice; -ar, v. intr., 
to freeze. 

gemeo (3), s. m. and adj., twin. 

general, s. m., general. 

genera (3), s. m., gender, species; 
-os, pi., goods, wares. 

generoso, adj., generous. 

genio (3), s. m., genius. 

genro, s. m., son-in-law. 

gente, s. f., people. 

geograpAo (3), s. m., geographer; -ia 
(2), s. £, geography. 

geral, adj., general. 

gigante, s. m., giant; -esco, adj., gi- 

gloria (3), s. f., glory. 

golpe, s. m., blow, stroke ; — de vis- 
ta, look. 

gbrdo, adj., fat ; -ura, s. f, fat. 

gostar, v. intr., to like; -o, s. m., 

gota, s. f., drop, gout. 

governo, s. m., government. 

gozar, v. intr., to enjoy; -o, s. m., 

graca, s. f., grace, favor; -as, pi., 

gracejo, a.m., jest; -or, v. intr., to jest. 

grade, s. f., harrow, grate, bars. 

grado, mao — , despite; de bom — , 

grammatica (3), s. f, grammar; -o, 
a. m., grammarian. 




gran or grcto, grda, abbrev. of 

grande, adj., great; -eza, s. f., great- 
ness; Gran-Bretanha, Great Bri- 
tain ; grao-duque, grand-duke, etc. 

grangear, v. tr., or -se, v. refl., to ob- 
tain, gain, to gather. 

grdo. s. ra., degree. 

grao, s. m., grain. 

gratidao, s. f., gratitude. 

grave, adj., serious, grave. 

grego, adj., Greek. 

grei, s. C, flock (fig.). 

gritar, v. intr., to cry, shout ; -o, s. 
m., cry, shout. 

grosso, adj., big, thick, coarse; -eiro, 
adj., gross, coarse, rough, rude. 

groza, s. f., gross. 

guarda, s. f. t guard, watch; — , a. 
m., watchman, keeper, guard ; -ar, 
v. tr., to guard, watch ; — livros, s. 
m., book-keeper. 

guardaroupa, s. f., wardrobe, press. 

guarnigao, s. f., garrison. 

guerra, s. f., war; -eiro, ». m., war- 
rior; -ear, v. intr., to war. 

guia, s. £, guide. 

habil (2), adj., able, clever; -idade, 

s. f., ability, cleverness. 
habitar, v. intr., to inhabit; -ante, s. 

m., inhabitant. 
habito (3), s. m., habit, custom ; -uar- 

se, v. refl., to accustom one's self. 
haneeatico (3), adj., hansealic. 
haver, v. intr. and aux., to have, 

shall, etc.; ha, impers., there is; 

-se, v. refl., to behave. 
heranga, a. f., inheritance. 
herdar, v. tr., to inherit; -eiro, a. m., 

\erbe, s. m., hero. 
ieroa, s. f., herb, grass. 

Tiesitar, v. intr., to hesitate. 

Hespanha, s. f., Spain ; -ol, adj., 
Spanish; — , s. m., Spaniard. 

historia (3), s. f., history, story, tale ; 
-dor, s. m., historian. 

hoje, adv., to-day. 

homem, s. m., man. 

honra, s. f., honor; -ar, v. tr., to 
honor ; -ado, adj.. honest, respect- 
ed ; -dez, s. f., honesty. 

hontem (2), adv., yesterday. 

hora, s. f., hour. 

horizonie, a. m., horizon. 

horror, s. m., horror ; -ivel (2), adj., 
horrible, frightful. 

hospede (3), s. m., guest, host. 

hospital (1), a. m., hospital ; -idade, 
s. f., hospitality. 

hostil (1), adj., hostile. 

humano (2), adj., human, humane. 

humido (3), adj., damp, moist; -dade, 
s. {., dampness, moisture. 

humilde, adj., humble, modest. 

hypoovita (3), o. m., hypocrite ; -sia 
(2), s. f., hypocrisy. 

hypothese (3), s. f., hypothesis, sup- 
position ; na — , supposing. 


ida, s. f., going, departure. 

s. f., i 
idea (2, i), ». f., idea. 
idioma (2), s. m., idiom, language. 
idoneo (3), adj., apt, proper. 
ignominia (3), s. f., ignominy, shame. 
ignorar, v. tr., to ignore, not to 

know ; -ancia (3), a. f., ignorance. 
igreja (2, i), s. f., church. 
igual, adj., equal ; -ar, v. tr. and intr., 

to equal, to be or make equal; 

-dade, s. f., equality. 
ilha, s. f., island. 
ilUmitado, adj., unlimited. 




illudir, v. tr., to illude, deceive. 

illuminar, v. tr., to illumine. 

i/magem (2), s. f., image; -mar, v. tr., 
and -se, v. refl., to imagine. 

imbuir, v. tr., to imbue. 

imitar, v. tr., to imitate. 

immediate (2), adj., immediate. 

immenso, adj., immense. 

immtmdo, adj., unclean. 

impagavel, adj., priceless. 

vmpedir, v. tr., to impede, hinder ; 
-mento, s. m., impediment, hin- 

impelUr, v. tr., to impel, drive. 

imperador, s. m., emperor; -<m, s. 
f, empress; -erio (3), ». m., em- 

imperdoavel, adj., unpardonable. 

implacavel, adj., implacable. 

implorar, v. tr., to implore, beseech, 

impbr, v. tr., to impose. 

importar, v. tr. and intr., to import, 
to amount (to = em); — , v. im- 
pers., it is important or necessary ; 
nao m'importa, I do not care ; 
-ancia (2),s.f., importance, amount; 
importe, s. m., amount. 

importuno (2), adj., importune, trou- 

impossivel (2), adj., impossible. 

imprensa, s. f., press, printing. 

impresario (3), s. m., undertaker (of 
a theatre, manager). 

impresso, adj., printed ; -sao, s. f., 

imprimir, v. tr., to print. 

improprio (3), adj., improper. 

vmpune(%), adj., unpunished; -mente, 
adv., with impunity. 

inabalavel, adj., unshaking, immov- 

inaugurar, v. tr., to inaugurate. 

incapaz, adj., incapable. 

iiicendio (3), s. m., conflagration, fire. 

inchar, v. n., to swell. 

mctiar, v. tr., to incite; -mento, ». 
m., incitement, inducement. 

incommodo (3), adj., inconvenient; 
— , s. m., inconvenience ; discom- 
fort, trouble, illness ; -or, v. tr., to 
trouble, inconvenience; -ado, p. 
p., unwell. 

inconeolavel, adj., inconsolable, not 
to be comforted. 

incontinence, adv., on the spot. 

incrivel (2), adj., incredible. 

ineulcar, v. tr., to inculcate, recom- 

incuria (3), s. f., negligence, care- 

indemnisa?ao, s. f., indemnification. 

India, s. f., India ; -as orientaes. 
East Indies ; -io (3), s. m., Indian. 

indigente, adj , indigent, needful. 

indigno, adj., unworthy; -idade, s. 
f., indignity ; -arse, v. refl., to be- 
come indignant, angry. 

indiscreto (2), adj., indiscreet; m- 
discrif&o, s. f., indiscretion. 

individuo (3), s. m., individual. 

indizivel, adj., unutterable, unspeak- 

industria (3), s. f., industry. 

induzir, v. tr., to induce. 

inerrne, adj., unarmed. 

inevitavel, adj., inevitable. 

infallivel (2), adj., infallible. 

infame (2), adj., infamous; -ia (3), 
s. f., infamy. 

infante, s. m., infant, infante (titlo 
of the king's sons) ; -da (3), s. f., 
infancy ; -aria (2), s. f., infantry ; 
-ticidio (3), o. m., infanticide. 

infavsto, adj., unlucky, unfortunate. 

infeliz, adj., unhappy, unlucky. 




inferno, a. m., hell. 

infestar, v. tr., to infest. 

infintio (2), adj., infinite. 

imflumcia (3), s. f., influence ; influ- 
ir, v. tr., to influence, inspire. 

infortunio (3), s. m., misfortune. 

ingerir-se, v. refl., to interfere, med- 
dle ; -encia (3), s. f., interference. 

ingrato, adj., ungrateful; -Udao, a. 
f., ingratitude. 

inimigo (2), a. m., enemy ; -zade, s. 
f., enmity. 

injuria (3), s. f., injury, insult. 

innumero (3), adj., innumerable. 

inqualificai-d, adj., unqualified, un- 

inquieto (2), adj., restless, troubled. 

inquilino (2), s. m., inmate, tenant. 

inquisifao, s. f., inquisition. 

inscripfao, s. f., inscription. 

insistir, v. intr., to insist. 

instar, v. intr., to insist, urge ; -nte, 
s. m., instant; -ancia (3), s. f., in- 
stance, entreaty. 

instruir, v. tr., to instruct, teach; 
instrucgao, s. f., instruction, learn- 

inteiro, adj., entire, whole. 

intenpao, s. f., and intento, s. m., in- 

interesse, s. m., interest; -ado, p. p., 
interested, greedy. 

internar, v. tr., to send into the in- 

interprete (3), s. f., interpreter. 

inberrogar, v. tr., to question, ask. 

interromper, v. tr., to interrupt. 

intimo (3), adj., intimate, innermost. 

intransitavel, adj., impassable. 

intriga (2), s. f., intrigue, plot; -ante, 
adj. and s. m., intrigant, plotter. 

intrometter-se, v. refl , to meddle, in- 
terpose ; -ido, p. p., meddling. 

inundagao, s. f , inundation, flood. 

intitil (2), adj., useless. 

invadir, v. tr., to invade. 

inveja (2, «), s. f., envy; -jar, v. tr., 

to envy ; -joso, adj., envious. 
inveniar, v. tr., to invent ; -gao, s. f., 

inverno, s. m., winter. 
invocar, v. tr., to invoke. 
ir, v. intr., to go; -se, v. refl., to go 

away, to leave. 
irmao, s. m., brother ; -da, s. f., sister. 
irreprehensioel, adj., irreproachable. 
isento (or iz.), adj., exempt. 
isso, pron. dem., that. 
isto, pron. dem., this. 
Italia (3), s. f., Italy ; -iano (2), adj., 


jd, adv., already ; — que, conj., as, 

jacarandd, s. m., rosewood. 
jamais, adv., ever, never. 
Janeiro, s. m., January. 
janetta, s. f., window. 
jantar,v. intr., to dine; — , s. m., 

jarda, a. f., yard (measure). 
jardim, s. m., garden ; -newo, s. m., 

jarro, a. m., jar, pitcher. 
jazer, v. intr., to lie. 
jejum (1), s. m., fast; -uar, v. intr., 

to fast. 
Jesus (1), Jesus. 
Joao, John. 
joelho (2), s. m., knee. 
Jo^o, a. m., play, game, gambling ; 

-ar, v. intr., to play, gamble ; -odor, 

s. m., gambler. 
joia, s. £., jewel. 
jornal, s. m., journal, newspaper, 




diary, wages; -eiro, s. m. ( day- 

Jose, Joseph. 

jovem (2, 6), adj. and s. m., young, 
youthful, youth. 

Judeo (2, e), s. m., Jew; -dia, s. f., 

jwus, ». m., judge; -o, s. m., judg- 
ment, reason. 

julgar, v. intr., to judge, think. 

Julho, s. m., July. 

juncar, v. tr., to strew. 

Junho, s. m., June. 

junta, s. (., joint, assembly, board. 

junto, adj., joined ; -os, together. 

jwar, v. tr. and intr., to swear ; -ado, 
B. m.. juryman ; -mento, s. m., 
oath; juros, s. m. pi., interest. 

junto, adj., just, fitting; -iga, s. f, 
justice; -tificar, v. tr., to justify. 

juvenil (1), adj., juvenile, youthful. 

Id, adv., there. 

Ida (or Ian), a. f., wool. 

laco, a. m., noose, snare, tie, lasso. 

lado, s. m., side. 

ladrao, s. m., thief, robber; -oeira, 

s. f., robbery, swindle. 
ladrar, v. intr., to bark. 
lage, s. f., flag-stone ; -edo (2), s. m., 

lagba, s. f., lake. 
lagrima (3), a. f., tear. 
lampeao, s. m., lamp. 
lanfa, s. f., lance; -ada, s. f., thrust 

with a lance; -ar, v. tr., to fling, 

lapis (2), a. m., pencil. 
laranja, s. f., orange. 
lares, s. m. pi. (household-gods), 

hearth, home. 
largo, adj., broad, wide, far, vast, 

large ; -ura, s. f., breadth, width ; 
-ar, v. tr., to let go, to cast loose. 

latim, a. m., Latin ; -vno (2), adj. 

laiir, v. intr., to bark, yelp. 

leao, s. in, lion ; leba, s. f., lioness. 

legar, v. tr., to bequeathe ; -ado (2) ; 
s. in., legacy. 

legiao, s. £, legion. 

legua (3), s. f., league. 

lei, s. f., law. 

leildo, a. m., auction. 

leite, s. m., milk. 

leitor, a. m., reader; -ura, a. f, lec- 
ture, reading. 

lembrar, v. tr., to remind ; ■««, v. 
refl., to remember, recollect; -anga, 
a. f., remembrance ; mandar, dor 
■as, to send, give one's love. 

lengo, s. m., handkerchief 

lenha, a. f., fire-wood, fuel. 

leba, s. f., lioness. 

lev, v. tr., to read ; lente, s. m., lec- 
turer, professor. 

leste (or Vette, este), s. m., east 

letra, s. f., letter (of the alphabet), 
bill of exchange ; -as, pi., litera- 

Uvantar, v. tr., to lift, raise, erect; 
•se, v. refl., to rise, get up. 

levar, v. tr., to carry or take away. 

/■eve, adj., light, 

leviano, adj., light-hearted, thought- 
less, trifling; -andade,&. f., thought- 
lessness, levity. 

Mberdade, a. f., liberty, freedom. 

libra, s. f., pound. 

li;ao, s. f., lesson. 

licenga, s. f., license, permission, 
leave, furlough ; -dado, s. m., li- 

lida, s. f., toil, social commerce; -or, 
v. intr., to toil, to have intercourse. 

ligeiro, adj., light, fast, quick. 




limite (2), s. m., limit; -ar, v. tr., to 

limpo, adj., clean, neat; -eza, ». f, 
cleanness, cleanliness. 

Undo, adj., pretty, beautiful. 

lingua, s. f., tongue, language ; -agem 
(2), s. f., language. 

linha, s. f., line; -o, s. m., flax, linen. 

Lisbon (2, o), Lisbon. 

lisonja, s. f., flattery ; -ear, v. tr., to 
flatter; -tiro, adj. and s. m., flat- 
tering, flatterer. 

livre, adj., free; -ar, v. tr., to free, 

liwo, s. m., book ; -aria (2), s. f., 
book-shop; -eiro, s. m., book-sel- 

lobo, s. m., wolf. 

logo, adv., soon, by and by, imme- 
diately, presently; — mais, in a 
little while; — que, conj., as soon 

lograr, v. tr., to cheat, to disappoint. 

loja, s. f., lodge, shop, store ; logista, 
s. m., shopkeeper. 

longe, adv., far. 

longo, adj., long. 

louga, o. f., crockery, china. 

louco, adj., mad ; -ura, ». f., madness. 

louvar, v. tr., to praise; -avel, adj., 
praiseworthy, laudable, commend- 
able ; -or, s. m., praise. 

Vua, s. f., moon; -ar, s. m., moon- 
shine, moonlight. 

lucro, a. m., gain, profit; -ar, v. tr., 
to profit. 

lucto (luto), s. m., mourning. 

Vucta (Jiuta), s. f., struggle, wrestling ; 
■ar, v. intr., to struggle. 

lugar, s. m., place, spot; em — de, 
instead of; -ejo, s. m., little place, 
little town. 

tuva, 8. f., glove. 

luxo (x = ch), s. m., luxury, extrava- 

lue, o. f., light ; dar & — , to publish ; 
-es, pi., intelligence, learning; -»r, 
v. intr., to shine. 

lyrico (3), adj., lyrical 


mi, fern, of mao. 

magaa, s. f., apple. 

machma (3, pr. maquina), s. f., ma- 
chine, engine. 

macho, adj., male. 

madeira, s. f., wood, timber. 

madrugada, a. f., dawn. 

maduro (2), adj., mature, ripe. 

mageetade, s. f., majesty. 

magico (3), ». m. and adj., magician, 

magistrado, s. m., magistrate. 

magnifico (3), adj., magnificent. 

magoa (3), s. f, grief, sorrow. 

magro, adj., meager, thin, lean. 

mai, s. f., mother. 

Maio, May. 

maior, adj., greater, larger; idade 
— , full age. 

mais, adv. and 'adj., more; ao — , at 
the highest, at the most. 

major, s. m., major. 

mal, adv., badly, ill, scarcely; — , s. 
m., evil, illness, sickness. 

mala, s. f., portmanteau, mail. 

malandro, s. m., vagrant, good-for- 

malevolo (3), adj., malevolent. 

malfeitor, s. m., malefactor. 

maligno, adj., malicious, wicked. 

malvado, adj., perverse, wicked. 

manancial, s. in., spring, fountain. 

mancebo (2, 1), s. m., youth. 

mancha, a. f., spot, stain ; -ar, v. tr., 
to stain, defile. 




mandar, v. tr., to send, to order, bid, 

maneira, s. f., manner, way; de — 
que, so that. 

mamjo (2, «), s. m., management, 

manga, s. f., sleeve. 

manhJaa, s. f., morning, morrow. 

manobra (2, o), s. {., manoeuvre. 

manteiga, a. f., butter. 

manto, s. m., veil, mantle, cover. 

mawuscripto, s. m., manuscript. 

moo, s. f., hand. 

mdo, adj., bad, ill, wicked. 

mappa, s. m., map. 

mar, s. m., sea. 

maravilha, s. f. , marvel, wonder ; As 
mil -as, wonderfully. 

marca, s. f., mark, brand, note, to- 
ken ; -ar, v. tr., to mark, stamp, 

marcha, s. f., march; -ar, v. tr., to 

Marco, March. 

margem (2), ». f., margin, brink, 
bank, edge, verge. 

marido (2), s. m., husband. 

marinha, s. f, navy; -eiro, s. m., 
mariner, sailor. 

marifimo (3), adj., maritime. 

marmore (3), a. m., marble. 

marquez, s. m., marquis. 

marqveza, s. f., marchioness, bed- 

marroquvm (1), s. m., morocco. 

mas, conj., but. 

mascara (3), a. f., mask. 

mastro, s. m., mast. 

matar, v. tr., to kill. 

materia (3), a. f., matter, stuff, sub- 

maihemaUcas (3), a. f. pi., mathe- 

matriz,,igreja — , mother-church, 
chief parish church. 

motto (mato), a. m., bush, wood, 

maxima (3), a. f., maxim. 

maxima (3), adj., highest. 

medico (3), s. m., physician ; -cina 
(2), a. f., medicine. 

mediocre (2), adj., mediocre, midd- 

ir, v. tr., to measure; -ida, s. £, 

medo, s. m., fear ; estar com — , ter 

— , to be afraid. 
meia, s. f., stocking. 
meiados, s. m. pi., em — de, in the 

middle of. 
meio, adj., half, middle; — , s. m., 

melhor, adj. comp., better; -a, s. 

f. (or pi. -as), improvement (in 

health) ; -ar, v. tr. and intr., to 

ameliorate, to grow better ; -mento, 

s. m., improvement. 
membro, s. m., member, limb. 
memoria (3), s. f., memory. 
mencuo, s. f., mention; -cionar, v. 

tr., to mention. 
mendigo (2), s. m., beggar; -ar, v. 

intr., to beg alms; -icidade, s. f., 

menino (2), ». m., boy ; -a, s. £, 

girl ; -ice, s. f., boyhood, girlhood. 
menor, adj. comp., less, minor, under 

age ; -os (2), adv., less ; ao — , at 

mensageiro, s. m., messenger. 
mentir, v. intr., to lie ; -ira (2), s. f., 

lie, falsehood ; -roso, adj., lying, 

mercado, s. m., market. 
mercantil (1), adj., mercantile, com- 




merce, s. f., grace; Vmt> = vossa 
mercS (pr. vosm'ce), your grace, 
title of civility given to any per- 
son (= you). 

merecer, v. tr., to merit, deserve; 
-imento, or merito (3), s. m., merit, 

mesmo, adj., self. 

mestre, s. m., master, teacher ; -a, s. 
f., mistress. 

metade, s. f., half. 

metal (1), s. m., metal. 

meteoro (2), s. m., meteor. 

metter, v. tr., to put, set, place. 

men, f. minha, pron. poss., my, mine. 

mez, s. m., month. 

rneza, o. f., table. 

miar, v. intr., to mew, miaul (of cats). 

microscopio (3), s. m., microscope. 

mil, adj. num., thousand ; milhar, s. 
m., one thousand ; -eiro, ». m., a 
thousand (of cigars, oranges, etc.). 

milagre (2), s. m., miracle. 

milha, o. f., mile. 

mUhao, a. m., million. 

milho, s. m., maize, Indian corn. 

militar, adj., military. 

minha, fem. of meu. 

minUtro, s. m., minister. 

minute (2), h. m., minute. 

miseria (3), s. f., misery ; misero (3), 
and -avel, adj., miserable, unfor- 

misericordia (3), ». f., mercy, pity. 

missa, s. f., mass. 

mister, s. m., want, need, office, bu- 
siness ; e — , it is necessary. 

mb, s. f., mill-stone. 

mogo, adj., young ; — , s. m., youth, 
young man ; -a, s. f., young lady ; 
-idade, s. f., youth. 

moda, s. f., mode, fashion. 

model o (2), s. m., model. 

I modico (3), adj., moderate. 
modo, s. m., mode, way, manner; 

de — que, so that. 
moeda (2, i), ». f., money, coin. 
moinho, s. m., mill. 
molestia (3), s. f., trouble, sorrow, 

molhar, v. tr., to wet; -ados, s. m. 

pi., liquors. 
monarca, s. m., monarch ; -chia (2, 

ch = qu), o. f., monarchy. 
monge, s. m., monk. 
montanha, s. f, mountain, hill ; mon- 

te, s. f., mount; -ao, ». m., heap. 
montar, v. intr., to mount. 
mbr (contr. of maior), adj. comp., 

chief, principal, first ; -mente, adv., 

morar, v. intr., to dwell, to live ; -dor, 

s. m., inmate, tenant, inhabitant ; 

-ada, -adia (2), s, f., dwelling- 
morder, v. tr., to bite. 
morigerado, adj., hem — , well-bred, 

morrer, v. intr., to die ; morto, adj. 

and p. p., dead, killed. 
morte, s. f., death; -al, adj., mortal, 

deadly ; -tandade, s. f., slaughter, 

mosca, s. f., fly ; olhar para as moscas, 

to be idle. 
mosquito (2), s. m., mosquito, gnat. 
mostrar, v. tr., to show. 
motim, s. m., mutiny. 
motivo (2), s. m., motive. 
mover, v. tr., to move; -se, v. refl., 

to move, stir ; -imento, s. m., 

movement, motion. 
mudar, v. tr. and intr., to change, 

alter, to remove ; -se, refl., to move 

(to other lodgings) ; -ansa, s. f., 

change, alteration. 




mudo, adj., mute, dumb. 

muito, adj., much ; — , or mui, adv., 
much, very, too. 

mula, s. f, mule. 

mulcta (multa), s. f., fine, mulct. 

mulher, s. f., woman, wife. 

multidao, s. f., multitude, crowd. 

mundo, s. m., world. 

munigao, ». f., ammunition. 

municvpio (3), s. m., town-corpora- 
tion, township ; -pal, adj. ; camara 
— , city council. 

munir, v. tr., to provide, furnish. 

murcho, adj., withered, faded; -ar, 
v. intr., to wither, fade. 

muro, s. m., wall; muralha, s. f., 
wall of a fortress. 

museo (2), s. m., museum. 

mudca (3), s, f., music; -o, =. m., 

mutuo (3), adj., mutual. 

myope (3), adj., shortsighted. 

myeterio (3), s. m., mystery. 


napdo, s. f., nation ; national, adj., 

nada, s. m., nothing. 
nadar, v. intr., to swim, float; a 

nado, swimming (paasar a nado, 

to swim across). 
ndo, adv., no, not. 
ndo, s. f., ship, man-of-war. 
nariz, s. m., nose. 
nascer, v. intr., to be born, to arise, 

spring, come forth, proceed ; -ente, 

s. m., east; -imento, s. m., birth. 
natal, adj., dia — , Christmas; -licio 

(3), birth-day. 
natural, adj., natural, native; -eza, 

s. f, nature. 
naufrago (3), adj. and u. m., ship- 

I wrecked; -ar, v. intr., to wreck; 
■gio (3), s. m., shipwreck. 

navio (2), s. m., ship, vessel; nave- 
gar, v. tr. and intr., to navigate. 

necessario (3), adj., necessary. 

negar, v. tr., to deny, refuse. 

negligencia (3), o. f., negligence, 

negocio (3), s. m., business; -ante, s. 
m., merchant. 

negro, adj., black; — , s. m., negro. 

nem, conj., nor, neither; — , adv., 
not even. 

nenhum, adj., not one, no, none. 

neve, s. f., snow; -ar, v. intr., to 

ninguem, pron., nobody. 

ninho, s. m., nest. 

nobre, adj., noble ; -eza, ». f., noble- 
ness, nobility. 

nocivo, adj., hurtful, injurious. 

noite, b. f., night. 

noivo, s. m., bridegroom; -a, ». f., 

nome, s. m., name; -ar, v. tr., to 
name, appoint ; -opao, s. f., nomi- 
nation, appointment. 

nora, a. {., daughter-in-law. 

norma, s. f, norm, rule. 

norte, s. m., north. 

nosso, pron. dem., our, ours. 

nota, o. f, note, blemish ; -ar, v. tr., 
to note, observe, perceive. 

noticia (3), s. f., notice, news. 

neve, adj. num., nine. 

novo, adj., new, young ; -idade, a. f., 
novelty, news. 

nv, adj., naked. 

nuca, s. f., neck, nape of the neck. 

numero (3), s. m., number. 

nunca, adv., never. 

nuvem (2), s. f., cloud. 




o, def. art. m., the; — , pers. prou., 
him, it; — , dem. pron., that, he. 

obedecer, v. iutr., to obey ; -diencia 
(3), s. f., obedience. 

olijecto (2), s. in., object. 

obra, s. f., work; -ar, v. intr., to 
work, to have effect; -eiro, s. m., 

obrigar, v. tr., to oblige, force. 

obsequio (3), s. m., favor. 

observar, » . tr., to observe. 

obstar, v. intr., to withstand, stand 
in the way, hinder; -ante, pres. 
p., hindering {nao — , notwith- 
standing) ; -aculo (3), s. m., ob- 

obter, v. tr., to obtain. 

occasiao, s. f, occasion. 

occorrer, v. intr., to occur, to meet. 

occupar, v. tr., to occupy ; -se, v. 
refl., to follow a pursuit or trade, 
to busy one's self. 

ocioso, adj., idle ; -idade, s. f. , idle- 

oceano (2), s. m., ocean. 

odio (3), a. m., hatred; -ar, v. tr., 
to hate ; -080, adj., odious, hateful. 

oeste, s. m., west. 

offender, v. tr., to offend ; -so, s. f., 

offerecer, v. tr., to offer ; -erta, a. f., 

officio (3), s. m., office, employment, 
profession, trade, official note ; -al, 
s. m., officer, journeyman. 

oito, adj. num., eight. 

oleo (3), s. m., oil. 

olho, s. m., eye ; -ar, v. intr., to look ; 
— , s. m., look. 

oMgarchia (2, ch = qu), s. f., oli- 

omittir, v. tr., to omit, leave out. 

omnipotente, adj., almighty. 

onda, s. {., wave, billow. 

onde, adv., where. 

onze, adj. num., eleven. 

opiniao, s. f., opinion. 

oppbr, v. tr., to oppose; opposto, p. 

p., opposed, opposite. 
opprimir, v. tr., to oppress. 
opprobrio (3), s. m., disgrace. 
optimo (3), adj. superl., best, very 

opulento, adj., opulent, wealthy. 
ora, adv., now. 
oragao, s. f., oration, prayer, sentence 

(gramm.) ; -dor, a. m., orator, 

ordem (2), s. f., order; -ar, v. tr., to 

order, dispose, to ordain, bid ; 

-ado, s. m., salary, income. 
ordinario (3), adj., ordinary, mean. 
orelha, s. f., ear (the outer ear). 
orfao (2), orphao, s. m., orphan. 
orgao (2), =. m., organ. 
orgulho, s. m., pride; -oso, adj., 

oriente, s. m., orient, east. 
origem (2), ». f., origin. 
ornar, v. tr., to adorn, deck. 
0880, s. m.,bone. 
ostra, ». f., oyster. 
ou, conj., or, either. 
ouro, s. m., gold ; -ives (2), ». m., 

ousar, v . intr., to dare ; -ado, adj., 

daring, bold ; -dia (2), o. f., dar 

ing, boldness, audacity. 
out&wo, s. m., hill. 
outono (2), s. m., autumn, fall. 
outro, adj., other, another ; — tanto, 

as much more; outra vez, again, 

once more ; -mente, adv., otherwise, 

O-utubro, October. 




ouvir, v. tr. and intr., to hear ; -inte, 
s. m., hearer; -ido, s. m., hearing, 
ear (inner). 

ovelha, a. £, sheep, ewe. 

ovo, s. m., egg. 

oxald, interj., would to God ! 

pachorra, a. f., sluggishness; -ento, 

adj., sluggish, phlegmatic. 
paciencia (3), s. f., patience. 
padrasto, s. m., stepfather. 
padre, s. m., father, priest. 
padrinho, s. m., godfather. 
pagao, s. m., pagan, heathen. 
pagar, v. tr., to pay ; -mento, s. m., 

payment ; -dor, s. m., paymaster, 

pai, s. m., father; -«, pi., parents. 
pain (pa-iz), a. m., country, land. 
paixao, s. f., passion. 
palacio (3), s. m., palace; -cete, a. 

m., mansion. 
palavra (2), a. £, word. 
palha, s. {., straw. 
pallida (3), adj., pale; -dee, s. f., 

palpavel (2), adj., palpable. 
pamphleto (2), s. m., pamphlet. 
o, a. in., cloth. 

(2), s. m., swamp ; -oso, 

adj., swampy, marshy. 
pao, s. m., bread, loaf. 
p&o, s. m., wood, stick ; paiilada, s. 

f., a licking. 
jt>a;oa, s. m., pope. 
papai (1), s. m., papa. 
papel, a. m., paper, part. 
paquete (2), s. m., packet. 
^>or, aaj., even ; — , s. m., pair, 

para, prep., for, towards, to; — , 

conj., in order to ; — que, conj., in 
order that. 

parabem (1), s. m. pi., congratula- 

paraiso (2, para-iso), a. m., para- 

parar, v. intr., to stop, stay. 

parasol (1), a. m., umbrella. 

pardal, adj., partial. 

parecer, r. intr., to appear, seem, to 
look like (com) ; — , s. m., opinion, 
judgment; -ido, p. p., resembling, 

particular, adj., particular, private. 

parede (2), a. f., wall. 

parente, s. m. and f., relation, rela- 
tive; -tesco, s. m., relationship. 

parir, v. tr., to bring forth, bear. 

parridio (3), o. m., parricide. 

parte, s. f., part, share ; dar — , to 

participar, v. tr., to participate, 
communicate, impart; — , v. intr., 
to partake, share. 

partir, v. tr., to divide, sever, cut in 
two; — , v. intr., to break in two, 
to depart, start, leave; -ida, s. f., 
departure ; -ido, s. m., party. 

paegvim, s. m., pasquinade, libel. 

passaporte, s. m., passport. 

passaro (3), s. m., bird. 

passo, s. m., pass, step, pace; -ar, r. 
tr. and intr., to pass, cross, pierce, 
to go beyond, outstrip, etc. ; como 
passa Vm"? how are you? -ado, 
p. p. and a. m., past; -agent (2, s. 
f., passage; -geiro, adj., passing, 
transitory; — , s. m., passenger; 
passatempo, a. m., pastime. 

patente, a. f., patent. 

paterno, adj., paternal. 

patibulo (3), s. m., gallows, pillory. 

pato, s. m., duck. 




patria (8), a. f., native couutry. I 

patrulha, s. f., patrol. 

paz, a. f., peace. 

pi, a. m., foot; ao — de, near, close 


pega, s. f., piece, trick. 

peccado, s. m., sin; -dor, a. m , sin- 

pecego (3, S), s. m., peach. 

pedoco, s. m., piece, bit, fragment. 

pedir, v. tr., to ask, beg, pray, de- 
mand ; -do, s. ui., or -da, s. f., de- 
mand, request, entreaty. 

pedra, s. f., stone ; -eiro, s. m., ma- 
son, bricklayer. 

Pedro, Peter. 

pegar, v. tr. and intr., to take, seize, 
lay hold of, to stick. 

peior, adj. comp., worse. 

petto, s. m., breast. 

peixe, s. m., fish. 

pelle, s. f., skin. 

perm, s. f., pain, trouble, pity, pen- 
alty, punishment. 

pender, v. intr., to hang, be sus- 
pended, to impend. 

pendurar, v. tr., to hang up. 

penetrar, v. tr., to penetrate. 

pauia, a. f., feather, plume, pen. 

pensile, a. f., pension. 

pensar, v. tr., to think; -mento, s. 
m., thought. 

pente, s. m., comb; -ear, v. tr., to 

pequeno (2), adj., small, little. 

pera, s. f., pear. 

perante, prep., before, in presence of. 

perceber, v. tr., to perceive. 

percorrer, v. tr., to travel through or 
over, to peruse. 

perder, v. tr., to lose; -se, v. refl., to 
lose one's self, to lose one's way ; 
-da, s. f., loss. 

perdis, a. f., partridge. 

perdoar, v. tr., to pardon, forgive ; 
■dao, s. m., forgiveness. 

perecer, v. intr., to perish. 

perfeito, adj., perfect. 

perfido (8), adj., perfidious; -dia (8), 
s. f., perfidy, treachery. 

pergaminho, s. m., parchment. 

pergunta, s. f., question; -ar, v. tr., 
to ask, inquire. 

perigo (2), s. m., peril, danger, haz- 
ard ; -oso, adj., dangerous, perilous. 

periodo (3), s. m., period. 

permittir, v. tr., to permit, allow. 

perna, s. f., leg. 

perola (3), s. f., pearl. 

perseguir, v. tr., to persecute, pur- 
sue ; -{do, s. I'., persecution. 

persomficar, v. tr., to personify. 

perspectiva (2), a. f., perspective, 

persuadir, v. tr., to persuade. 

pertencer, v. intr., to belong. 

perto, adv., near. 

peril, s. m., turkey. 

perverso, adj., perverse, wicked. 

perverter, v. tr., to pervert, corrupt. 

pesar (or pezar), v. tr. and intr., to 
weigh, to grieve, afflict ; a — de, 
prep., in spite of, despite, notwith- 
standing; — que, conj., although; 
-ado, adj., heavy; peso, a. m., 
weight ; papel de — , letter-paper. 

pessimo (3), adj. superl., worst, very 

pessoa (2, b), s. f, person ; -al, adj. r 

petifdo, s. f., petition. 

pharol (or far.), s. m., light-house. 

phenomeno (3), s. in., phenomenon. 

physiognomia (2), s. f., physiogno- 

piloto (2), a. m., pilot, mate. 




r, v. tr., to paint; -or, s. m., 
painter ; -ura, s. f, painting. 
pipa, ». f., a pipe ( = 2 hogsheads). 
pique, s. m., ir a — , to sink (of ves- 

pisar, v. tr. and intr., to tread, to 
hurt, bruise. 

pUada, s. f., a pinch of snuff. 

planeta (2, e), s. m., planet. 

piano, a. ni., plan, scheme, project. 

platea, s. f., pit. 

pb, a. m., dust; pm, pi., powder. 

pobre, adj., poor; -«sa, s. f., pov- 

^)OfO, s. m., well. 

poder, y. aux., to be able, can, may; 
— , s. m., power; -oso, adj., pow- 
erful, might. 

podre, adj., rotten, putrid. 

poeta (2, e), o. m., poet; -tisa (2), s. 
f., poetess ; poema (2), s. m., poem. 

poie, adv., well, why, then ; — nao, 
certainly ; — que, conj., as, since. 

polegada (or poll.), s. f., inch. 

policia (3), s. f., police. 

politica (3), s. f., policy, politics ; -o, 
adj., political ; — , s. m., politician. 

polvora (3), s. f., gun-powder. 

ponte, s. f., bridge. 

pontifice (3), s. m., pontiff. 

ponto, s. m., point, stop. 

pontnal, adj., punctual. 

populaca (2), s. f., populace, mob. 

por, prep., by, for, through. 

par, v. tr., to put, set, place. 

porcdo, s. f., portion, share. 

porcelana, a. f., porcelain, china. 

porco, s. m., pig, hog ; -aria (2), s. 
f., filth, dirt, uncleanliness. 

porem, conj., but, yet, however. 

porfia (2), s. f , obstinacy, persever- 
ance ; -ar, v. intr., to persevere. 

porque (1), adv., why. 

porrete (2, e), s. m., cudgel ; -ada, s. 
m., a blow with a stick, a beat- 

porta, ». f., door. 

portanto, conj., therefore. 

poriao, s. m., gate. 

porto, s. m., port, harbor. 

posicao, s. f., position, situation. 

pomvel (2), adj., possible. 

possuir, v. tr., to possess, own. 

posto, s. m., place, post. 

posto que, conj., though, although. 

potavel, adj., potable. 

pouco, adj., little. 

poupar, v. tr., to spare, save. 

povo, s. m., people, nation; -ar, v. 
tr., to people; -afdo, s. £, village, 
small town. 

praca, s. f., place, square. 

praga, s. f., plague. 

praia, s. f., shore, beach. 

prata, s. f., silver, plate. 

pratica (3, or prod.), ». f., practice; 
-co, adj., practical; -car, v. tr., to 
practise, do. 

prato, s. m., plate, dish. 

praeer, s. m., pleasure ; ■ — , v. intr., 
to please. 

prazo, s. m., term, instalment. 

precario (3), adj., precarious. 

precedente, adj., preceding ; s. m., 

preceito, s. m., precept, mandate. 

precipicio (3), s. m., precipice. 

jw«c»p&afao > s.f.,precipitation,haste, 
hurry; -ado, adj., precipitate, has- 
ty, hurried. 

preciso, adj., precise, necessary; -ar, 
v. intr., to want, need; precisa, it 
is necessary; -do, a. f, precision, 
want, necessity. 

preco, s. m., price. 

, predUecto, adj., favorite. 




predio (3, I), s. m., farm, lot, house- 

preferir, v. tr., to prefer. 

prego, s. m., nail ; -ar, v. tr., to nail. 

pyeguiga (2), a. f., idleness, laziness ; 
-oso, adj., lazy. 

prejudicar, v. tr., to prejudice, in- 
jure; -Hal, adj., injurious ; preju- 
izo, s. m., prejudice, damage, loss. 

prertdo (3), s. m., premium, prize, 

prenda, s. f., talent, accomplishment; 
-ado, adj., talented, accomplished. 

prender, v. tr., to arrest. 

preparar, v. tr., to prepare; -tivos, 
s. m. pi., preparations. 

prescrever, v. tr., to prescribe, ordain. 

presenciar, v. tr., to be present at, 
to witness. 

presents, adj. and s. m., present. 

presidir, v. intr., to preside. 

preso, p. p., arrested ; — , s m., pris- 

pressa, s. f., haste; a — , hastily. 

pressao, s. f., pressure. 

prestar, v. tr., to lend, give ; — servi- 
gos, to render services; — juramen- 
to, to take an oath ; — , v. intr., to be 
serviceable ; isto nao presta, this is 
good for nothing, this will not do. 

prestes, adj., ready. 

premmir, v. tr., to presume. 

presunto, a. m., ham. 

pretender, v. tr., to pretend, claim, 
to intend. 

pretexto (x = e), a. m., pretext, pre- 
tence ; -tar, v. tr., to pretend. 

preto, adj., black. 

prevalecer, v. intr., to prevail. 

prever, v. tr., to foresee. 

previo (3), adj., previous. 

prezar, v. tr., to esteem, value. 

primavera (2), s. f., spring. 

primeiro, adj., first. 

primo, s. m., cousin ; -a, s. f., female 

prwnor, a. m., consummate skill. 

principe (3), s. m., prince ; -ceza, s. 
f., princess. 

prvneipio (3), a. m., principle, be- 
ginning ; -iar, v. tr. and intr., to 
begin ; -ante, s. m., beginner. 

prisSo, s. f., prison, imprisonment ; 
prisioneiro, s. m., prisoner (of 

privar, v. tr., to deprive ; -ado, adj., 
private ; -(So, a. f., privation. 

privilegio (3), s. m., privilege. 

problema (2), s. m., problem. 

probo, adj., righteous, honest; -idade, 
a. f., probity, integrity, righteous- 

proceder, v. intr., to proceed, be- 
have ; -imento, a. m., proceeding, 

processo, s. m., process, law-suit; 
-ar, v. tr., to try. 

proclamar, v. tr., to proclaim. 

procurar, v. tr., to procure, to seek, 
look for ; -(So, s. f., .procuration ; 
— bastante, full power. 

produzir, v. tr., to produce. 

professar, v. tr., to profess ; -JissSo, 
a. f., profession, trade. 

progredir, v. intr., to progress, ad- 

prohibir, v. tr., to prohibit, forbid. 

projecto, a. m., project, plan. 

prometter, v. tr., to promise ; -messa, 
a. f., promise. 

promoter, v. tr., to promote. 

prompto {pronto), adj., ready, 

pronunciar, v. tr., to pronounce; 
-(So, or pronttncia (3), s. f., pro- 




propagar, v. tr., to propagate. 
propenso, adj., inclined; -sao, s. (., 

propheta (2), s. m., prophet. 
propbr, v. tr., to propose ; -posta, s. 

£, proposal ; -posito (3), ». m 

purpose ; vir » 

to come on 

purpose, to come at the right time. 
propria (3), adj., proper, very, own ; 

elle — , himself; — , s. m., express, 

messenger ; -iedade, s. f., property. 
proromper, v. intr., to burst out. 
proseguir, v. tr. and intr., to pursue, 

to go on. 
prospeeto, s. m., prospect, view. 
prospero (3), adj., prosperous. 
proteger, v. tr., to protect, patronize. 
prova, s. f., proof; -ar, v. tr., to 

prove, to taste. 
proveito, a. m., profit, gain. 
proverbio (3), s. m., proverb. 
provincia (3), s. f., province. 
proximo (3), adj., near, next ; — fu- 

twro, next coming ; — passado, last. 
publico (3), adj., public. 
pular, v. intr., to leap. 
punhal, s. m., poniard, dagger; -ada, 

s. f., stab. 
punho, o. m., fist, hand-writing. 
punir, v. tr., to punish. 
puro, adj., pure ; -eza, ». f., purity. 
puxar, v. tr., to pull. 

quaderno (or cad.), a, m., copy-book, 

quadra, s. f., square, block, season. 
quadrado, adj. and s. m., square. 
quadro, s. m., picture. 
qual, pron. rel. and interr., which. 
qvalidade, a. f., quality. 
qualquer, pron. ind., any. 

', adv., when; — muito, at 
most ; — menos, at least. 

qvantia (2), s. £, quantity, amount. 

quanto, adj., how much ; — a mim, 
as for me. • 

quao, adv., how. 

quartet, s. m., quarter, barracks, quar- 
ters ; — general, head-quarters. 

quarto, adj., fourth. 

quarto, s. m., fourth, quarter, room, 

quasi (2), adv., almost, nearly. 

quatro, adj. num., four. 

que, conj., that, than ; — , pron. rel. 
and interr. , who, which, that, what. 

quebrar, v . tr. and intr., to break, to 
fail, become bankrupt ; -ado, s. in., 
fraction; quebra, s. f., breach, fail- 
ure, bankruptcy. 

que da, s. f., fall. 
ijo, s. m., cheese. 
', v. tr., to burn. 

queixarse, v. refl., to complain ; 
queixa, s. f, -ume, s. m., complaint. 

quern, pron. rel. and interr., who. 

quente, adj., warm, hot. 

quer, conj., or, either. 

querer, v. tr., to want, will, be wil- 
ing ! — oem a alguem, to like, 
wish well, mean well to somebody, 
to love ; -ido, p. p., beloved, dear. 

questao, s. f., question. 

quieto (2, e), adj., quiet. 

qui/iihao, s. m., portion. 

quinta, s. f., country-seat, farm. 

quintal, s. m., hundredweight, gap 
den (about the house), yard. 

raa, s. f., frog. 

rabeca (2), s. f., fiddle, violin. 

rabo, s. m., tail. 

raga, s. f., race, kind, breed. 




raeiocmio (3), s, m., reasoning, ar- 
rainha, a. f., queen. 
raio, s. m., ray, thunderbolt. 
raiva, s. f., rage, fury. 
raiz (1), s. f., root; bens de — , real 

estate, landed property. 
ramo, s. m., branch, bough, bouquet, 

rapae, adj., rapacious. 
rapaz, a. m., boy, lad; -gao, s. m., 

great, big boy ; -riga (2), s. f., girl, 

rapido (3), adj., rapid, quick ; -dee, 

s. f., rapidity, Telocity. 
raposa (2, o), a. f., fox. 
raro, adj., rare, scarce; -amente, adj., 

rarely, seldom. 
rasgar, v. tr., to tear. 
rastejar, v. intr., to creep; de rasto, 

a — , creeping, by force, dragged. 
rato, s. m., rat, mouse. 
raeao, ». f., reason ; a — de, at the 

rate of, in proportion ; razoavel, 

adj., reasonable. 
re, s. f., t. reo. 
real, adj., real, royal. 
real, s. m., ree (an imaginary coin). 
rebanho, a. m., flock, herd. 
rebelde, s. m., rebel. 
rebentar, v. tr. and intr., to break, 

recado, s. m., message, errand ; man- 

dar — , to send word. 
recahir, v. intr., to fall back, to re- 
receber, v. tr., to receive, get; recep- 

(ao, a. f., reception. 
receio, s. m., fear, apprehension ; -ar, 

v. tr., to fear; -oso, adj., fearful, 

recente, adj., recent ; recem = re- 

centemente, adv., recently, newly. 

recobrar, v. tr., to recover. 

recompema, a. f., reward. 

reeonciliar, v. tr., to reconcile. 

reconhecer, v. tr., to recognize, to ac„ 
knowledge ; -ido, p. p., thankful ; 
-mento, s. m., gratitude. 

recordar, v. tr., to recall, remind; 
-se, v. refl., to recollect ; -agao, a. 
f., recollection, remembrance. 

recorrer, v. intr., to have recourse. 

recreio, s. m., recreation. 

reeuar, v. intr., to recoil, draw back, 
start back. 

recuperar, v. tr., to recover. 

recurso, s. m., recourse, resource. 

recusar, v . tr., to refuse, deny. 

redactor, s. m., editor (of a journal). 

redea, s. f., rein ; & — eolta, full speed. 

redobrar, v. tr. and intr., to redou- 

redondo, adj., round. 

redor, s. m., ao — , round, about. 

redimr, v. tr., to reduce, bring down. 

re/em (1), s. m., hostage. 

referir, v. tr., to refer, relate. 

reflectir, v. intr., to reflect ; -xdo, a. 
£, reflection. 

refugiar-se, v. refl., to take refuge, 
to flee. 

regiao, s. f., region. 

regozifo, s. m., enjoyment, joy; -ar- 
se, v. refl., to rejoice. 

regra, a. f., rule. 

regresso, s. m., regress, return. 

regular, adj., regular, middling; — , 
v. tr., to regulate. 

rei, s. m., king ; -no, a. m., kingdom ; 
■nar, v. intr., to reign ; -ado, s. m., 

reis, pi. oCreal, rees. 

rejeitar, v. tr., to reject. 

relacao, s. f., relation, intercourse. 

relampago (3), s. m., lightning, flash. 




relogio (3), s. m., clock, watch ; -jo- 
eiro, s. m., watchmaker. 

relva, s. f., greensward, grass. 

remedio (3), s. m., remedy, medicine ; 
■ar, v. tr. and intr., to remedy, 

remetter, v. tr., to remit (money). 

remittir, v . tr., to remit, pardon. 

remorso, s. m., remorse. 

remover, v. tr., to remove, displace. 

renascer, v. intr., to be born again. 

renda, a. f., lace. 

renda, s. f., rent, income ; -er, v. tr., 
to yield, to rent; -mento, s. m., 

rente, adv., close. 

reo, s. m. (fem. re), defendant, ac- 

reparar, v. tr., to repair; — , v. intr. 
(-em), to observe, pay attention ; 
reparo (2), ». m., repair. 

repartir,v. tr., to divide, distribute; 
-(So, s. f., distribution, department. 

repassar, v. tr., to repass, recross. 

repente, de — , suddenly ; -ino, adj., 

repetir, v. tr., to repeat. 

repicar, v. tr., to ring (the church- 

repUcar, v. intr., to reply. 

repouso, s. m., repose, rest. 

reprehender, v. tr., to reprehend, re- 
primand, blame, reproach. 

representor, v. tr., to represent, to 
play (at the theatre). 

reprimir, v. tr., to repress, restrain. 

reptil, s. m., reptile. 

repulUca (3), s. f., republic. 

repugnar, v. intr., to be contrary or 

reguerer, v. tr., to require, request; 
-mento, s. m., request, petition. 

residir, v. intr., to reside, dwell, live ; 

I -elite, adj. and s. m., residing, deni- 

resistir, v. intr., to resist, withstand. 

respeito, s. m., respect, esteem, re- 
gard; -ar, y. tr., to respect; -uoso, 
adj., respectful. 

responder, v. tr. and intr., to answer, 
reply ; resposta, s. f., answer ; -sa- 
vel, adj., responsible. 

restabelecer, v. tr., to reestablish ; -se, 
v. refl., to recover. 

restituir, v. tr., to restore, return. 

resultar, v. intr., to result; -ado, a. 
m., result. 

retirar, v. tr., to withdraw ; -se, v. 
refl., to retire, withdraw, retreat ; 
-tiro (2), s. m., retirement, retreat. 

retracto (retrato), s. m., likeness, 
portrait; -ar, v. tr., to draw from 
life, to make a portrait; -ista, s. 
m., portrait-painter. 

revnir, v. tr., to unite, gather. 

reverter, v. intr., to revert. 

revestir, v. tr., to clothe, to invest. 

revogar, v. intr., to revoke, repeal. 

revolia, a. f., revolt, mutiny. 

res, s. f., head of cattle. 

rezar, v. intr., to pray. 

Bheno, Rhine. 

rico, adj., rich, wealthy ; -ago, adj. 
and s. m., very rich ; -queza, s. f., 
riches, wealth. 

rigor, s. m., rigor; -oso, adj., rigor- 
ous, severe. 

rinchar, v. intr., to neigh. 

rio, a. m., river. 

rir, v. intr., or -se, v. refl., to laugh; 
-so, s. m., -soda, s. f., laughter; 
-adinha, s. f., tittering. 

risca, a. f., dash, stroke, stripe; a — , 
literally, punctually, to the letter ; 
-ar, v. tr., to stripe, to strike out. 

risco, ». m., risk, danger. 




rochedo (2), s. m., rock, cliff, crag. 

roda, s. f., wheel. 

rodear, v. tr., to surround. 

roer, v. tr., to gnaw. 

rogo, a. m., entreaty, request; -ar, 

v. tr., to pray, entreat. 
rolar, v. tr. and intr., to roll. 
romaa, s. {., pomegranate. 
romper, v. tr. and intr., to break, 

rend, to burst ; o — do dia, day- 
rosa, s. f., rose ; -eira, s. f., rose-bush. 
rosto, s. m., face. 
roubar, v. tr., to rob, steal ; -o, a. m., 

robbery, theft. 
rouco, adj., hoarse. 
roupa, s. f., clothes. 
rouxinol, s. m., nightingale. 
rua, s. f., street. 
rubi or rubim, s. m., ruby. 
rude, adj., rude, rough, ignorant; 

■esa, s. f. , rudeness, ignorance. 
ruim (2), adj., bad, worthless; ruina 

(2), s. f., ruin, destruction. 
rustico (3), adj., rustic, boorish ; — , 

s. m., rustic, clown, boor. 

sabbado (3), s. m., Saturday. 

saber, v. tr., to know, to hear or 
learn ; — , s. m., learning, knowl- 
edge; -doria (2), s. f., learning, 
wisdom; sabio (3), adj., wise, learn- 
ed ; -dor, adj., acquainted with. 

sacar, v. tr., to draw, pull out, to 
draw (mercant.). 

tacco, s. m., sack, bag. 

sacrifieio (3), s. m., sacrifice ; -car, v. 
tr., to sacrifice. 

sacrilegio (3), s. m., sacrilege; -go 
(3), adj., sacrilegious. 

sadio (2), adj., healthy, robust, sound. 

safar-se, v. refl., to escape. 

sagaz, adj., sagacious, shrewd. 

sagrado, adj., sacred. 

sahir, v. intr., to go or come out ; 
-ida, s. f., egress, going out. 

sal, b. m., salt ; -gar, v. tr., to salt. 

sala, s. {., parlor ; -do, s. m., saloon, 
drawing-room, ball-room. 

salttador, s.m., highwayman, robber. 

salubre (2), adj., wholesome. 

salvar, v. tr., to save ; -dor, s. m., 
savior; -vo, adj., safe ; a sen, salvo, 
safely, without danger. 

sancto (santo), adj. and s. m., holy, 
saint ; -tidade, s. f., holiness ; -jicar, 
v. tr., to sanctify, hallow. 

sangue, s. m., blood; — frio, s. m., 
cold blood, sang-froid, presence of 
mind, calmness ; -inolento, adj., 

sao (fern, sda), adj., sound, safe, un- 

sao, abbrev. for sancto. 

sapato (2), s. m., shoe ; -eiro, s. m., 

saque, a. m., plunder, pillage ; metier 
a — , or saquear, v. tr., to sack, 
pillage, plunder. 

sardinha, s. f., sardine. 

satisfazer,-v. tr., to satisfy, to please; 
■feito, p. p., satisfied, pleased, con- 
tented; -facpao, s. f., satisfaction, 
account; -torio (3), adj. 

saudade, s. f., longing. 

saudar, v. tr., to greet. 

saude (w), a. f., health ; -avel, adj., 
healthy, wholesome. 

saudoso, adj., longing, yearning. 

scena, s. f., scene. 

sciencia (3), s. f., science. 

se, conj., if, whether. 

se, pron. refl. and recipr., one's self, 
himself, etc., each other. 

se, a. f., seat, see, cathedral. 




secco, adj., dry ; -ar, v. tr. and intr., 

to dry ; -cos, s. m. pi., groceries. 
eecretario (3), s. m., secretary. 
seereto (2), adj., secret. 
seculo (3), o. m., century, age. 
seda, s. f., silk. 
tide, s. f., thirst; estar com — , ter 

— , to be thirsty; -enio, adj., thirsty, 

thirsting for. 
segredo (2), o. m., secret. 
segitir,v. tr. and intr., to follow ; -vote, 

adj., next, following. 
segundo, adj., second. 
eegundo, prep., according to ; — , 

cooj., as. 
seguro, adj., secure, sure, certain, 

safe; — , s. m., insurance; -ar, v. 

tr., to secure, hold fast, to insure ; 

-anca, s. f., safety. 
seio, s. m., bosom. 
seis, adj. num., six. 
sellar, v. tr., to saddle. 
selvagem (2), adj. and s. m., savage, 

sem, prep., without; — que, conj.,. 

semana (2), s. f., week. 
semblante, s. m., face, figure, counte- 
nance, aspect. 
semear, v. tr., to sow ; -ente, s. f, seed. 
semelhante, adj., similar, resembling, 

like ; -anca, s. f., resemblance. 
sem/pre, adv., always, ever. 
semsaboria (2), s. f., insipidity. 
senado (2), s. m., senate; -dor, a. m., 

senao, conj., if not, else, but, but also. 
senhor, s. m., lord, master; -a, s. f., 

mistress; -ia (2), o. f., lordship, 

senso, s. m., sense. 
lentar-se, v. refl., to sit down ; -ado, 

p. p., sitting; estar — , to sit. 

senienca, s. f., sentence, judgment; 

-iar, v. tr., to sentence. 
sentmella, s. f., sentry, sentinel. 
sentir, v. tr., to feel, to grieve, be 

sorry ; -ido, p.p., grieved, offend- 
ed ; — , s. m. , sense, meaning, care ; 

tomar — , to take care, heed ; 

-menio, s. m., feeling. 
separar, v. tr., to separate ; se, v. 

refl., to part. 
sepultar, v. tr., to bury ; -tura, s. £, 

grave; -cro, s. m., sepulchre. 
eeguer, adv. ; nem — , not even. 
ser, v. intr. and aux., to be; — , s. 

m., being. 
sereno (2), s. m., night-dew. 
sereno, adj., serene, clear; -issimo, 

adj. superl., title given to princes 

and princesses. 
serie (3), ». f., series. 
serio (3), adj., serious, earnest. 
serra, s. f., saw, range of mountains. 
sertdo, s. m., interior, inland. 
servir, v. tr. and intr., to serve, to 

help ; -ico (2), s. m., service ; -dao, 

s. f., slavery. 
sete, adj. num., seven. 
setim, s. m., satin. 
ecu (fem. sua), pron. poss., his, her, 

its, their, hers, theirs, one's. 
sigillo, s. m., seal. 
signal, s. m., signal, sign, mark. 
significar, v. tr., to signify. 
sikneio (3), ». m., silence. 
si/m, adv., yes. 
simpUs, adj., simple. 
sincero (2), adj., sincere. 
sino, s. m., bell. 
sitio (3), a. m., siege; -ar, v. tr., to 

situacao, s. f., situation, site. 
so, adj. and adv., alone, only, but; 
•mente, adv., only, solely. 




soalho, s. m., floor. 

soar, v. iutr., to sound, ring. 

sob, prep., under. 

soberbo (e), adj., proud, haughty. 

sobre, prep., over, upon, on ; -casaca, 
s. f., overcoat ; -mesa, s. {., dessert ; 
-sattado, p. p., startled, surprised, 
amazed ; -tudo, adv., above all ; 
— , s. m., overcoat. 

sobrinho, a. m., nephew ; -a, niece. 

eocego (2, e), ». m., quiet, repose; 
-ar, v. intr., to be quiet. 

socio (3), s. m., partner, associate, 
member (of societies) ; -edade, s. f., 

soffrer,\. tr., to suffer, bear; -ivel, 
adj., tolerable; -mento, s. m., suf- 

sogro, s. m., father-in-law ; -a, mother- 

sol, s. m., sun. 

soldado, a. m., soldier. 

soldo, s. m., pay, hire. 

soltar, v. tr., to let loose, unfasten, 
release; -to, p. p., loose, released. 

solteiro, adj., single, unmarried. 

solver, v. tr., to solve. 

sombra, s. f., shade, shadow, protec- 
tion, shelter. 

sombrio (2), adj., dark, gloomy. 

somma, s. f., sum. 

sono, a, m., sleep. 

sonoro (2), adj., sonorous. 

sbpa, s. f., soup ; -eira, ». f., terrine 

sorprender, v. tr., to surprise, aston- 
ish ; -preza, s. f., surprise. 

sorrir, v. intr., to smile. 

sorte, s. f., lot, chance, fate, sort, 
kind, manner ; de — que, so that. 

sortvmento, a. m., assortment. 

sosinho (or toe.), adj., alone. 

sua, fem. of sen. 

suave (2), adj., soft, sweet. 

subdito (pr. sudito), s. m., subject. 

subir, v. tr. and intr., to go or come 
up, to mount, rise ; -ido, adj., 
high ; -ida, a. f., ascent. 

subtto (3), adj., sudden; de — , on a 
sudden, suddenly. 

subjugar, v. tr., to subjugate, subdue. 

sublime (2), adj., sublime. 

submetter, v. tr., to subject, reduce ; 
■se, v. refl., to submit. 

subornar, v. tr., to bribe; -o, o. m., 

subtil (pr. svtiV), adj., subtle, shrewd. 

subtrakir-se, v. refl., to avoid, escape. 

succeder, v. intr., to succeed, to hap- 
pen ; -cesso, s. m., success. 

succumbir, v. intr., to succumb, sink 

sueste, s. m., south-east. 

svfficierde, adj., sufficient, enough. 

suffocar, v. tr. and intr., to suffocate, 
smother, stifle; -ante, adj., suffo- 

suicidio (3), s. m., suicide. 

sujeito, adj. and s. m., subject, per- 
son, fellow; -se, v. refl., to submit. 

sujo, adj., dirty, nasty. 

sul, s. m., south. 

sumir-se, v. refl., to vanish, disap- 

summo, adj., highest. 

swmo, o. m., sap, juice. 

suor, s. m., sweat, perspiration. 

superficie (3), s. f., surface. 

swperftuo (3), adj., superfluous. 

supplica (3), o. f., petition, prayer. 

suppor, v. tr., to suppose. 

mpprimir, v. tr., to suppress. 

supprir, v. tr., to supply. 

supremo (2), adj., supreme, chief. 

surdo, adj., deaf. 

suscitar^ v. tr., to ejj;cite ; rouse. 




tuspeita, s. f., suspicion; -to, adj., 
suspected, suspicious; -ar, v. tr., 
to suspect. 

tuspiro (2), s. m., sigh. 

sustento, s. m., sustenance, nourish- 
ment; -ar, v. tr., to sustain. 

sueto, s. m., fright. 

systema (2), o. m., system. 

tabellido (pi. -to), s. m., notary. 

tagarela (2), s. f., talker. 

tal, adj., such. 

talento, s. m., talent, accomplishment. 

talhar, v. tr., to cut. 

talker, a. m., knife and fork. 

talvez, adv., perhaps. 

tambem (1), adj., also, too. 

tammcmho, adj., so great, so large ; 
— , s. m., size. 

tanque, s. m., tank, pond. 

tarda, adj. and adv., so much. 

too, adv., so. 

tapete (2), s. m., carpet. 

tardar, v. intr., to tarry, delay. 

tarde, adj. and adv., late ; — , s. £, 
afternoon, evening. 

tarefa (2), is. f., task. 

tarifa (2), s. f, tariff. 

taxar, v. tr., to rate, tax, to accuse. 

tecer, v. tr., weave. 

tecto, s. m., roof, ceiling. 

teima, s. f., obstinacy; -oso, adj., ob- 
stinate, stubborn. 

temer, v. tr., to fear, dread; -or, a. 
in., dread, awe. 

temeridade, a. f., rashness. 

temperodo, adj., temperate. 

tempest uoso, adj., stormy. 

tempo, s. m., time, weather. 

temporal, a. m., storm, gale. 

tenaz, adj., tenacious; — , s. f., pair 
of tongs. 

tengao, s. f, intention; -cionar, t. 
intr., to intend. 

tendencia (3), s. f., tendency. 

tenente, s. m., lieutenant. 

tentar, v. tr., to tempt, to attempt, 
try ; s&o, s. f., temptation. 

tear, s. m., tenor, substance, purport. 

ter, v. tr. and aux., to have, to hold. 

tergeiro (tergo), adj., third. 

teredo (3), s. m., tercetto, trio. 

terminar, v. tr. and intr., to termi- 
nate, end, to put an end. 

termo, s. m., term, condition. 

terra, s. f., earth, land, soil, ground. 

terremoto (2), s. m., earthquake. 

terreno (2), s. m., ground, piece of 

terrestre, adj., terrestrious, earthly. 

territorio (3), s. m., territory. 

terrivel (2), adj., terrible. 

tesoura, s. f., scissors. 

testa, s. f., forehead, front, brow ; d 
— ele, at the head of. 

testamenio, a. m., testament, will. 

testemunha, s. f., witness ; -o, ». m., 
testimony, evidence. 

ten (fem. tua), pron. poss., thy, thine, 
your, yours. 

theatro (2), a. m., theatre. 

theologo (3), s. m., theologer, divine; 
-ia (2), s. f., theology, divinity. 

ihesouro, s. m., treasure, treasury; 
-eiro, a. m., treasurer. 

Ugre, s. m., tiger. 

tinnir, v. intr., to tinkle. 

tinta, s. f., dye, tint, ink; -eiro, s. 
m., inkstand; -o, adj., dyed; viriho 
— , red wine. 

tio, s. m., uncle; -a, aunt. 

tira, s. f., strip, slip; -ar, v. tr., to 
draw, pull, to take away, remove ; 
-o, s. m., shot; -dor, s. m., rifle- 




iitulo (3), o. m., title, right. 

tocar, v. tr., to touch, to play (piano, 
etc.) ; toca-me, I am entitled to, I 

todavia (2), conj., nevertheless, how- 
ever, yet. 

todo, adj., all, whole, every. 

tola, adj. and s. m., foolish, silly, 
fool ; -ice (2), a. £, folly ; -eirdo, s. 
m. , great fool. 

tomar, v. tr., to take. 

tormentor (or atorm.), v. tr., to tor- 
ment, teaze ; -o, s. f., torment ; -a, 
6. (., storm. 

tomar, v. tr. and intr., to turn, to 
return, to turn, become. 

torre, s. f., tower. 

torrido (3), adj., torrid. 

torto, adj., crook°d. 

total, adj., total, utter. 

trabalho, a. m., work, labor, toil, suf- 
fering, trouble; -ar, v. intr., -to 
work, to strive; -dor, s. m., work- 
man, laborer ; — , adj., hard work- 
ing, laborious. 

trocar, v. tr., to draw a line, to trace, 

tractar, v. tr. and intr., to treat, use, 
take care ; -ado, s. m., treaty, trea- 

traduzir,v. tr., to translate; -ducgao, 
s. f., translation. 

trqfico (3), or trdfego, s. m., traffic, 
trade (especially slave-trade). 

trahir, v. tr., to betray; traidor, 6. 
m., traitor ; -gao, s. f., treason ; 
coeiro, adj., treacherous. 

traje (trage, trajo), s. m., apparel, 
costume ; -ar, v. tr., to wear. 

tranguillo, adj., tranquil, calm. 

traneacfao, s. f ., transaction. 

trapo, s. m., rag. 

trade, s. m. , piece of furniture. 

tras, prep, and adv., behind. 

trazer, v. tr., to bring, to bear, wear, 

(renter, v. intr., to tremble. 

ires, adj. num., three. 

trespassado, p. p., pierced, over- 
whelmed, overcome. 

trevas, ». f. pi., darkness. 

tribu (2), s. f., tribe. 

trigo, a. m., wheat. 

triplo, adj. and s. m., triple, treble. 

tripolagao, s. f., crew. 

triste, adj., sad, poor, wretched, mis- 
erable; -eza, s. f., sadness. 

troeo, ». m., change ; a — de, in ex- 
change for ; -ar, v. tr., to exchange, 
truck, barter. 

tropa, s. f., troop. 

tropefar, v. intr., to stumble. 

tropica (3), adj. and ». m., tropical, 

trovao, s. m., thunder; -ejar, v. intr., 
to thunder; -voada, s. f., thunder- 

tubarao, s. m., shark. 

tudo, s. m., all, everything. 

tumulo (3), s. m., tomb. 

tumulto, s. m., tumult, uproar. 

tunica (3), a. f., tunic. a (2), s. {., guardianship; -ar, 
adj., tutelary; anjo — , guardian- 

tutor, s. m., tutor, guardian. 

tyranno, s. m., tyrant. 


ufano (2), adj., vain, proud, glorying 
in ; -arse, v. refl., to boast of, glo- 
ry in. 

ultimo (3), adj., last. 

um, adj. num., one ; — , jn,d,ef. Wt, 
a, an; uns, pi., some. 




unto, s. f., nail (of finger or toe), 

uniao, s. f., union. 

unico (3), adj., only, soie. 

■uniforme, s. m., uniform, regimen- 

unir, v. tr., to unite. 

uso, s. m., use, usage, custom ; -ar, 
v. intr., to use. 

util (2), adj., useful; -idade, a. f., 
utility, usefulness. 

mm, s. £, grape. 

vacca, s. f., cow. 

vadio (2), adj., idle; — , s. m., vaga- 
bond ; -iar, v. intr., to be idle. 

vagabundo, s. m., vagabond, vagrant. 

vago, adj., vague, vacant, unoccu- 
pied ; horas vagas, leisure hours. 

vaidade, s. f., vanity. 

vaivens (1), s. m. pi., vicissitudes. 

valente, adj., valorous, brave ; -ia (2), 
s. f., valor, bravery. 

valer, v. intr., to be worth ; -ido (2), 
s. m., favorite, minion ; -or, s. m., 

valle, s. m., valley. 

vantagem (2), s. f. , advantage, profit; 
-joso, adj., advantageous. 

vdo, s. m., ford ; passar a — , to ford. 

vao, adj., vain, idle. 

vapor, s. m., vapor, steam, steamer. 

vario (3), adj., various; -os, several. 

vaso, s. m., vase, vessel. 

vegetar, v. intr., to vegetate. 

vela (or vella), s. f., candle. 

vela, s. f, sail. 

velhaco (2), s. m., rascal, villain. 

velho, adj., old ; -ice, a. f., old age. 

velVodo (2), s. m., velvet. 

veloz, adj., rapid, swift ; -cidode, s. f., 
velocity, swiftness. 

veneer, v. tr., to vanquish, conquer, 

gain; — , v. intr., to be due (of 

bills of exchange); -dor, a. m., 

victor, conqueror. 
vender, v. tr., to sell; -a, s. f., sale, 

small grocery, or liquor shop. 
veneno (2), o. m., venom, poison. 
venial, adj., venial. 
vento, s. m., wind; -ar, v. intr., to 

v&r, v. tr., to see. 
verao, s. m., summer. 
verdade, s. f., truth; -eiro, adj., true, 

verde, adj., green, unripe; -ura, s. f., 

verdure; -as, pi., greens. 
vergonha, s. f., shame; ter — , to be 

ashamed; -oso, adj., shameful. 
verificar-se, v. refl., to be verified or 

vermelho, red ; ficar (tornar) — , to 

blush, redden, color. 
vestir, v. tr., to clothe, dress, wear; 

-se, v. refl., to dress ; -ido, s. m., 

ves, s. f., time; uma — , once; duo* 

vezes, twice; ds vezes, sometimes; 

muitas — , often. 
via, s. f., way, means. 
viagem (2), s. f., voyage, journey, 

travels; -jar, v. intr., to travel; 

-jante, s. m., traveller. 
vice-almirante, s. m., vice admiral. 
vicio (3), s. m., vice. 
victima (3), ». f., victim. 
victoria (3), s. f., victory. 
vida, s. f., life. 
vidro, b. m., glass ; -a^a, s. f., pane, 

vigiar, v. tr. and intr., to watch. 
vigoroso, adj., vigorous, strong. 
vil, adj., vile, base, dastardly; -eza 

a. f., baseness. 




vimda, s. f., coming, arrival ; -ouro, 

adj., coming, future. 
vingar, v. tr., to avenge; -se, v. refl., 
to take revenge; -anga, s. f., re- 
venge ; -ativo, adj., vindictive, re- 

vinho, s. m., wine ; -a, s. f., vine. 

vinte, adj. num., twenty. 

vintem, s. m., vintin, a coin = 20 
reis (nearly a cent). 

violar, v. tr., to violate. 

vir, v. intr., to come ; — a ser, to be- 

virar, v. tr. and intr., to turn, change; 
-se, v. refl., to turn round. 

virgem, a. f. and adj., virgin ; caso 
— , an unparalleled case. 

virtude, s. f., virtue. 

visconde, o. m., viscount. 

visita (2), =. f., visit, call. 

■vwivel, adj., visible. 

vista, s. f., sight, view. 

visto que, conj., considering, as, since. 

viweo (2), s. m., widower ; -a, widow. 

viver, v. intr., to live; -es (3), ». m. 
pi., victuals, provisions. 

vivo, adj., alive, live, quick, brisk, 
sharp ; ao — , to the quick, lively. 

, o. m. and adj., neighbor; 

■ania, s. f., neighborhood. 
voar, v. intr., to fly. 
volcao, s. m., volcano. 
iioltar, v. intr., to go or come back; 

-a, s. f., return ; estar de — , to be 

back ; dar uma — , to take a walk. 
vontade, s. f., will, wish, appetite. 
V088O, pron. poss., your, yours. 
voz, o. f., voice. 
vulgo, ». m., vulgar, mob; -acho, a. 

in., mob, rabble. 


xelim, a. m., shilling. 

zangar, v. tr., to vex, annoy; -se, v. 

refl., to fret, to be angry, vexed. 
zelo, s. m., zeal; -oso, adj., zealous, 

zombar, v. intr., to joke, to jeer, 

mock ; -aria (2), s. f., mockery, 

zona, s. f., zone. 
zunir, v. intr., to hum. 


abandon, dbandonar. 

abbreviation, abbreviacao. 

abdicate, abdicar. 

abject, abjecto, ml. 

able, habil, capaz ; to be — , poder ; 

ability, habilidade, capacidade. 
about, prep., cerca de, deerca, sobre. 
above, adv., acima ; — , prep., acima 

absent, adj., ausertte ; to — one's 

self, ausentar-se. 
absolute, absolute. 
absurd, absurdo. 
abundant, ahundante. 
accept, aceitar ; -able, aceitavel. 
accident, accidente. 
accompany, acompanhar. 
accomplice, complice (3). 
accomplish, cumprir; -ment, talen- 

to, preada ; -ed, talentoso, prenda- 

account, conta, satisfacao ; on — of, 

por causa de. 
accuse, accusar. 
accustom, acostwmar. 
ache, v., doer ; — , s.,dbr, f. 
acknowledge, reconhecer. 
acquainted, corihecedor, sabedor; to 

be — with, conhecer ; -ance, conhe- 

cimento ; (a person) conhecido. 
acrimony, acrimonia (3). 
across, atravez. 

act, v., obrar, proceder ; — , s., ado. 
adequate, adequado. 
adieu, adeos; to bid — , diser adeos. 
adjoining, junto, pegado. 
administer, admimstrar ; : ator, 


admire, admirar; -ation, -acao. 

admit, admittAr. 

admonish, admoestar ; -ition, -afdo. 

adopt, adoptar ; -tion, -cdo. 

advance, adiantar. 

advantage, cantayern, f. ; -geous, 

adversary, adversario (3). 
adverse, adverso. 
aeronautics, aeronautica (3), f. 
affair, negocio (3). 
affection, affeicao ; -nate, -coado. 
afflict, affiigir ; -tion, -ccao. 
afraid, to be — , ter medo, eetar com 

after, adv., depots ; — , prep., depots 

de, atraz de ; -ward, < 
afternoon, tarde, f. 
against, contra. 

aggressor, aggressor. 

agile, agil (2). 

agree, concordar ; -able, agradavel. 

agriculture, agricultura ; -al, -cultor. 

ahead, adiante. 

aid, v., ajudar, assistir; — , s., aju- 

da (2), assistencia, auxilio (3). 
aim, ah)o. 
air, ar. 
alibi, alibi. 
alien, alheio. 

all, adj., todo ; — , s., tudo. 
allude, alludir / -sion, -sao. 
almighty, omnipote.nte, todopoderoto. 
almost, quasi. 
alms, esmola (2). 
alone, so, sbsinho. 
along, ao longo de. 
already, jd. 




also, tambem. 

alter, alterar, mudar. 

although, posto que, ainda que, bem 

always, sempre. 
amass, ajuntar, accumular. 
ambition, ambigao ; -ious, -cioso. 
amiable, amavel. 
ammunition, mvnigao. 
among, entre. 
amount, a., somma, importancia, im- 

porte, m. ; quantia (2) ; — , T., im- 

amuse, divertir ; -ment, -Hmento. 
anarchy, anarchia (pr. -quia). 
ancestor, avo ; -s, avbs, antepassados. 
ancient, antigo (2). 
and, e. 

animosity, ammosidade. 
annexation, annexagao. 
annul, annullar. 
anonymous, anonymo (3). 
answer, v., responder; — , s., resposta. 
ant, formiga (2). 
antagonist, antagonista, m. 
anterior, anterior. 
antiquated, antiquado, obsolete) (2). 
antiquity, antiguidade. 
anxious, ancioso ; -iety, -eiedade. 
any, qualquer / -thing, qualquer cou- 

sa; -body, qualquer, quemquer ; 

-where, em qualquer parte. 
apex, a/iice, m., cumulo (3), cume, m. 
apoplexy, apoplexia (2). 
apparent, apparente. 
appear, parecer, apparecer. 
appetite, appetite (2), m., vontade, f. 
apple, magaa. 
apply, applicar, recorrer. 
appoint, apontar, nomear ; -ment, 

apprehension, apprehensdo, receio. 
approach, aproximar-se, chegar. 

Arabic, arabico (3). 

argument, argumento. 

arm, brago. 

arms, armas, f. pi. ; to arm, armar. 

armistice, tregoa. 

army, exercito (3). 

around, em roda de, ao redor de. 

arrange, arranjar ; -ment, -jo. 

arrest, v.,prender ; — , s.,prisao. 

arrive, chegar ; -al, -ada. 

arrogance, arrogancia. 

arsenal, arsenal, m. 

article, artigo (2). 

artillery, artilharia (2). 

ashamed, to be — , ter vergonha. 

ashore, em terra, 

Asia, Asia ; -atic, -atico. 

ask, pedir; (a question) perguntar. 

asleep, dormindo. 

aspect, aspecto. 

assembly, assemblea. 

assert, asseverar, avangar ; -tion, 

assist, assistir, ajudar ; -ance, assis- 

associate, associar-se, lidar. 
assortment, sortimento. 
assure, assegurar. 
astonish, admirar, pasmar ; -ment, 

admiragdo, sorpresa. 
astronomy, astronomia (2) ; -er, -mo 

asylum, asylo (2). 
at, a, em. 

Atlantic, atlantico (3). 
atlas, atlas. 
attack, v., atacar, acommetter ; — , s., 

ataque (2), m. 
attain, attingir, chegar a, alcangar. 
attempt, v., tentar ; — , s., tentativa. 
attribute, v., attribuir; — , s., -buto 

auction, leilao, in. 




audience, audiencia. 

aunt, tia. 

author, author ; -ize, -isar ; -ity, 

avoid, evitar. 
awake, accordado. 
away, embora (2),/ora. 


baby, crianca (depeito). 

back, s., costas, f. pi. 

back, adv., de volta, atraz ; to stand 

— , arredar-se. 
bad, m&o, ruim (2). 
baggage, bagagem (2), f. 
balcony, balcdo, m., sacada. 
ball, baile, m. ; (of a gun) bala ; (for 

play) bola. 
bank, banco; banking house, casa 

bankrupt, quebrado; -cy, quebra, 

banner, bandeira. 
barbarous, -ian, barbaro (3); -ism, 

-ismo, -idade. 
barefoot, descalgo. 
barracks, quartel (1), m. 
base, adj., baixo, ml, ordinario. 
base, s., base, f. ; — . v., basear, fun- 

bath, bariho ; -the, v. intr., bankar-se. 
battalion, batalhao, m. 
battle, batalha; -ground, campo de 

beach, praia. 
bear, s., urso. 
bear, v., aturar, soffrer. 
bear, v., parir ; to be born, nascer. 
beard, barba. 
beast, besta, animal. 
beat, bater, dar em, veneer. 
■ beauty, belleza ; -ful, bello, bonito. 
because, porque. 

| become, tornar. 

bed, cama; -room, quarto (de dor- 
mir) ; -ridden, de cama; -stead, 

bee, abelha. 

before, adv., antes; — , prep., antes 

de, diante de , -hand, d'antemOo. 
beg, pedir, rogar, pedir esmola, men- 

digar ; beggar, mendigo (2). 
begin, principiar, comecar / -ning, 

principio (3), comedo ; -ner, prin- 

behalf, abono (2). 
behave, comportar-se, conduzir-se ; 

-ior, comportamento. 
behind, adv., atraz; — , prep., atraz 

believe, crer, acreditar ; belief, cren- 

belong, pertencer. 

beloved, querido, bem.qv.isto. 

below, adv., embaixo ; — , prep., em- 

baixo or abaixo de. 
benevolence, benevolencia. 
besides, alem de,fbra de. 
bet, v., apostar; — , s., aposta. 
betray, trahir. 
beverage, bebida (2). 
beware, tomar seniido. 
beyond, alem de. 
Bible, biblia (3). 
bid, mandar, ordenar. 
big, grosso, grande. 
bill, conta. 

bird, ave, i.,passaro (3). 
birth-day, dia natalido (3), dia dt 

annos ; to-day is my — , hoje faco 

bite, morder. 
black, preto, negro. 
blame, v., reprehender, ouVpar. 
blanch, branquear. 
blind, cigo. 




blood, sangue, m. ; -y, sanguinolento. 

blossom, s.,jlor, f. ; — , v ., florecer. 

blow, t., soprar, ventar. 

blow, s., golpe, pancada. 

bludgeon, cacete (2), m. 

blue, azul. 

blush, corar. 

blustering, fanfarronada. 

boat, bote, m. 

board, ou — , a bordo. 

body, corpo, tropa. 

boil, v. tr., cozer ; — , v. intr., ferver. 

bombard, bombardear ; -ment, -dea- 

bonfire, fogueira. 
bonnet, chapio (de senhora) 
book, Uvro ; -keeper, guarda-Uvros ; 

-shop, livraria (2) ; -seller, liv- 

boot, bota. 

botanical, botanico (3). 
both, ambos. 

bother, incommodar, vexar. 
bottom, /undo. 
bounds, Hmites (2), m. pi. 
box, caixa. 
boy, menino, rapaz; -hood, menirri- 

ce, f. 
bracelet, pulseira. 
brag, gabar-se. 
brass, latao, m. 
brave, v., qfroniar, desafiar. 
brave, adj., iialente, bravo; -ery, 

valentia (2). 
breach, quebra; (milit.) brecha. 
bread, pao, m. 
break, quebrar, rompar, mfringvr ; 

— out, romper, proromper,rebentar. 
breakfast, s., alm&go; — , v., almogar. 
brick, U/olo (2, o). 
bride, noiva ; -groom, noiw. 
bridge, ponte, f. 
brilliant, brilhante. 

bring, trazer; — up, (Lesson LXIV.), 

fazer avangar. 
Britain, Bretanha ; -ish, briltawico 

broad, largo. 
bronze, bronze, m. 
brother, irmao ; -in-law, ounhado. 
brow, testa ; (of a hill) cume, m. 
brush, escova (2) ; (of a painter) 

pincel (1), m. 
bud, botao, m. 
build, edificar, construw, fazer ; -ing, 

edificio (3). 
burden, peso. 
burn, v. tr., queimar ; — , v. intr., 

burst, rebentar. 
bury, enterrar ; -ial, enterro. 
bust, busto. 
busy, occvpado, activo; -ness, nego- 

do (3). 
but, mas, porim. 
butcher, carmceiro. 
buy, comprar. 
hj, par. 

cabinet, gabinete, m. 
calculate, calcular ; -tion, calculo (3). 
Caliph, caUfa (2), m. 
call, charnar ; to be called, chamar- 

se ; — on, visitar, w ver; — , s. F 

visita (2). 
calumny, calummia (3). 
campaign, eampanha. 
can, poder. 
canal, canal. 
cane, bengala (2). 
cannon, eanhao, m., pei;a ctartilha. 

cap, bone, m. 
capacity, capacidade. 
capable, capaz. 
cape, cabo. 




capital (city), capital, f. ; — (money), 

cabedal, m. ; — , adj., capital, ex- 

captain, eapitao. 
care, s., cuidado ; — , v., cuidar (em) ; 

I do not — , nao m'iirmporta ; -ful, 

enidadoso ; -less, descuidado. 
career, carreira. 
carnivorous, carnivore- (3). 
carpet, tapete, m. 
carriage, camtagem (2), f. 
carry, carregar, levar. 
cart, carreta (2). 
case, caso. 

case (box, etc.), caixa. 
cash, dinheiro & vista. 
cashier, caixa, m. 
cast, atirar, lancar. 
cat, goto. 
catch, apanhar. 
Catholic, cathoUco (3). 
cattle, gado. 

cause, s., causa; — , v., -ar. 
cautious, acautelado. 
cavalry, cavallaria (2). 
cave, caverna. 
cease, cessar. 
cede, cedar. 

celebrate, celebrar ; -ed, celebre (3). 
censure, censura, reprehensao ; — , v., 

censurqr, reprehender. 
centre, centro. 
century, seculo (3). 
ceremony, ceremonia (3). 
certain, ccrto ; -ty, -teza. 
certificate, attestado. 
chain, corrente, f. 
chair, cadeira. 
champion, campeao. 
change, v., mudar, trocar; — , s., 

mudanca; (of clothes, etc.) muda; 

(of money) troco. 
thapel, capella. 

chaplain, capellao (pi. -aes). 

chapter, capitulo (3). 

character, caracter (2). 

charge, s., carga; — , v., carregar^ 

accusar, argwir. 
charitable, caridoso, caritativo. 
Charles, Carlos. 
cheap, barato (2). 
cheat, lograr, enganar. 
cheese, queyo. 

chest, caixao, m. ; peilo (breast), 
chestnut, eastern ha ; -tree, -eira. 
chicken, gallinha, frango. 
chief, s., chefe, principal; — , adj., 

child, crianga, f. ; -hood, -da (2), 

infaneia (3). 
china, louca, porcelana. 
choice, escolha. 
choose, escolher. 
Christ, Christo ; -ian, christao ; -ity, 

christianismo, christandade. 
christen, baptisar ; -ing, baptisado. 
church, igreja. 
circle, circulo (3). 
circulate, circular. 
circumstance, circunstancia. 
circus, circo. 

city, cidade ; -zen, -duo (pi. -aos). 
civil, civil, hem criado ; -isation, 

class, classe, f. 
clean, Umpo, asseiado; -liness, Km- 

pesa, asseio. 
clear, claro. 
clemency, dementia. 
clerk, caixeiro. 
clever, habil (2), sabio (3). 
climate, cMma, in. 
climb, trepar. 
close, v., fechar; — , adj., perto, ao 

pi de. 
cloth, panno; -e, vestir; -es, rovpa. 




club, club, m. 

club (stick), maca, f., porrete, m.; 

cacete, m. 
coacb, sege, f. carruagem, f. 
coast, costa. 

coat, casaca (2), robicdo, m. 
coax, lisongear, mimosear. 
coffee, cafe", m. 
cottiu,, m. 
coin, moeda (2). 
cold, /Wo. 

collect, colligir ; -tion, colleccdo. 
collision, collisdo. 
colonel, coronel. 
colony, colonia (3). 
color, »., cor, f. ; — , v., corar. 
column, columna. 
comb, s.,pente, m. ; — , r., pentear. 
combat, combate, m. 
come, iiir ; — up, subir ; — down, 

descer ; — back, iioltar ; — out, 

sahir; — in, entrar. 
comet, cometa (2), m. 
comfort, v., covfortar, consolar ; — , 

s., eonforto. 
command, v. , commandar; -er, -dante. 
commerce, commercio. 
commission, commissdo. 
commit, t. tr., commetter ; — , v. refl., 

committee, commissdo 
common, commum (1). 
communicate, communicar, partici- 

company, comparihia (2) ; -ion, -nhei- 

compare, comparar ; -ative, -ativo ; 

-ison, -acao. 
compensation, compensagao, mdem- 

competent, competente. 
competitor, concurrente; -tion, -en- 
da. 2Q 

complain, qtieixar-se ; -t, queirn, 

queixume (2), m. 
complete, adj., completo ; — , v., -or. 
complicate, complicar. 
comprehend, comprehender. 
comrade, camarada, m. 
concerning, concernente a, a rmpeito 

concert, concerto. 
concession, concessdo. 
conclude, concluir. 
condemn, condemnor. 
conducive, conduzente. 
conduct, s., conducta / — , v. tr., 

conduzir ; — , v. refl., conduzir-se, 

confederacy, confederacao. 
confess, confessor. 
confide, confiar, fiar-se ; -ence, con- 

confirm, confi/rmar. 
confound, confundir. 
confusion, confusdo. 
connoisseur, conhecedor. 
conquer, veneer, conquistar ; -or, 

conquistador, vencedor ; -quest, 

conscience, consciencia; -tious, -cioso. 
consequence, consequencia / -ently, 

por conseguinte. 
consider, considerar ; -able, -avel. 
constant, constants ; -cy, -cia (3). 
constitution, constituicdo. 
consul, consul. 
consult, consultar. 
consummate, consummado. 
contempt, desprezo ; -ible, -ivel. 
contend, contender. 
content, v., contentar ; — , or -ed, 

adj., contente, satisfeito. 
contingency, contingencia. 
continue, continuar ; -ous, -al, -uo 





contract, v., contrahir; — , s., con- 
contradict, contradizer ; -tion, -dic- 

contrary, contrario (3); on the — , 

ao — . 
contribute, contribuir. 
convenient, convemente. 
convent, convento. 
converse, comiersar ; -ation, -ac ao. 
convince, convencer. 
cook, v., cozinhar ; — , s., -eiro. 
copper, cobre, m. 
copy, o., copia (3) ; — , v., -iar. 
corner, canto ; (of a street) esquina 

(2). f- 
coronation, coroacao. 
corpse, cadaver (2), tn. 
correct, adj., correcto ; — , v., corri- 

correspond, corresponder ; -ent, 

■ente ; -ence, -encia. 
cost, v., eustar ; — , »., custa ; -ly, 

cotton, algodao, m. 
council, conselho ; city — , camara 

I credit, s., credito, m. ; — , v., acredi- 

tar j dar credito. 
creep, rastejar. 
crew, tripolacdo. 
cricket, grillo. 

crime, crime, m. ; -al, -minoso. 
crisis, arise, f. 
critic, critico (3) ; -cise, -Hear ; -ism, 

critica (3). 
crooked, torto. 
crop, colheita. 
cross, s., cruz, f. ; — , v., cruzar, atra- 

vessar, passar. 
crowd, wmltidao, f. 
cry, v., gritar, chorar ; — , s., grito ; 

to — out, proclamar. 
curious, curioso, exquisito (2) j -ity, 

count, a., conde ; -ess, -eza. 

count, v., contar ; — upon, — com, 

countenance, rosto, eernblante, m., 

phytiognomia (2). 
country, paiz, m., terra, campanha ; 

native — , patria (3) ; -house, cha- 

cara (3). 
courage, coragem (2), f., brio. 
course, curso, deewso ; of — , natu- 

court, corte, f. ; — martial, conselho de 

cousin, primo. 
cover, cobrir. 
coward, cobarde (or-cov.). 
treate, crear ; -tor, -dor ; -tion, -acao. 

custom, costume, m. ; — house, alfan- 

dega (3), f. 
cut, cortar, talhar ; — off, intercep- 



dagger, pwnhal. 

damage, estrago (2). 

dance, s., danca ; — , v., -ar. 

danger, perigo (2) ; -ous, -oso. 

dare, ousar ; -ing, adj., -ado; — , 3., 

ousadia (2). 
dark, escuro (2) ; -ness, -idao. 
dash, arrojar. 
date, s., data; — , v., -ar. 
daughter, filha ; -in-law, mora, 
day, dia ; — before yesterday, ant 

hontem (2) ; daily, diario (3). 
dead, morto ; death, morte, f. 
deaf, surdo ; -en, atordoar. 
deal, s., porrao ; a great — , muito ; 

— , v. intr., negociar. 
dear, caro ; dearth, carestia (2). 
debt, divida (3) ; -or, devedor. 
deceive, enganar. 
decent, decente ; -cy, -cia. 




decide, decidir ; decision, decisao. 

declare, declarar. 

decline, recusar, decahir. 

decorate, decorar. 

decrease, v., diminuir, decrescer; — , 
s., diminuicao. 

deed, acto,facanha. 

deem, julgar. 

deep, /undo, profunda. 

deer, veado. 

deface, apagar. 

defend, defender ; -ce, defeea (2), or 
defeza ; -dant, reo. 

degrading, degradante. 

degree, degr&o. 

delay, t., demorar; — , s., demora (2). 

delicate, delicado. 

delight, s., deleite, m. ; -ful, delicioso. 

deliver, Uvrar, entregar. 

demand, v., exigir ; — , &.,pedido. 

deny, negar. 

depart, partir ; -ure, -ida. 

depend, depender (de). 

deplore, deplorar, chorar. 

deposit, »., deposito (3) ; — , v., -tar. 

deprive, privar. 

depth, /undo, profundidade. 

deputy, deputado ; -ation, -actio. 

descend, descender, descer ; -ant, 

describe, descrever ; description, des- 

desert, s., deserto / — , v., -ar ; -ed, 

deserto ; -ter, -tor. 
deserve, merecer. 
design, designio (3). 
desire, a., desejo ; — , v., -ar. 
desist, desistir. 

despair, s., desespero (2) ; — , v., -ar. 
despise, desprezo. 
despite, apezar de, a despeito de. 
destitute, destituido, demaUdo (3). 
destroy, destruir. 

destruction, destruicao. 

diadem, diadema (2), m. 

diamond, diamante, m. 

dictator, dictador. 

diction, dic$ao. 

die, morrer. 

diet, dieta (2). 

different, differente ; -ence, -ca. 

difficult, difficil (2) ; -ty, -culdade. 

dignity, dignidade. 

dine, janiar ; -ing-room, sala dejan- 

tar ; dinner, jantar. 
direct, adj., direilo ; — , v., dirigir ; 

-tor, director. 
dirty, mjo. 
disadvantage, desvantagem (2), f., 

prejuizo (2) ; -geous, prejudicial. 
disaffection, desaffeicao, ma iiontade. 
disagreeable, desagradavel. 
disappear, desapparecer. 
disappointment, desengano (2), desil- 

disaster, desastre, m. ; -rous, -roso. 
discover, descubrir ; -y, -berta. 
disgrace, s., vergonjia, desfavor ; — , 

v., infamar. 
disgust, desgosto, nqjo ; -ing, nojento, 

dishonor, deshonrar. 
dislike, s., aversao ; — , v., desgostar 

disobey, desoiedecer ; -dient, -diente ; 

-ience, -iencia. 
dispense, dispensar. 
disperse, dispersar. 
dispose, dispor ; -al, -sition, disposi- 

dissemble, disfarfar. 
dissension, dissensao, discordia (2). 
distant, distante ; to be • — from, 

distar de ; -ce, -da. 
distinguish, distinguir ; distinct, 
-tion, -c$ao. 




distress, infortunio (3). 

distribute, distribuir. 

district, districto. 

disturb, disturbar ; -ance, -io (3). 

disunion, desuniao. 

do, fazer ; to have done with, acabar 

document, documento. 
dog, cao, caehorro. 
doll, boneco (2). 
dollar, dollar, patacdo, m. 
dominion, dommio (3). 
door, porta. 
doubloon, dobla, onga. 
doubt, s., duvida (3); — , v., -ar ; 

-ful, -doso. 
down, prep., abaixo ; — , adv., em- 

baixo ; -fall, qucda. 
dozen, duzia (3). 
draw, tirar, puxar, desenhar ; -ing, 

desenho ; -room, sala de nsitas ; 

-er, gaveta (2). 
dreadful, terrivel (2). 
dream, s., sonho ; — , v., sonhar. 
dress, s., vestido (of ladies); traje ; 

— , v. intr., vestir-se. 
drink, beber. 

drive out, expellir, expulsar. 
drop, »., gota, pingo; — „v., deixar 

drug, droga. 

drunken, bebado ; -ness, bebedice, f. 
dry, adj., secco ; — , v., -ar, enxugar. 
due, devido, vencido (of bills of ex- 
change) ; -ty, dever, direito (on 

merchandise, etc.). 
dynasty, dynastia (2). 

ear, orelha (exterior), owvido (inte- 
early, cedo. 
earn, ganhar. 

earth, terra ; -quake, terremoto (2). 

easy, facil (2). 

eat, comer. 

educate, educar ; -ion, -g do. 

effect, s., effeito ; — , v., effectuar. 

efficient, efficaz. 

effort, esforgo. 

egotism, egoismo ; -ist, -ista, m. 

Egypt, Egypto ; -ian, -cio (3). 

either, conj., ou, guer, seja; — , adj, 

elapse, decorrer. 
elect, eleger y -ion, eleicao. 
elegant, elegante ; -ce, -da. 
element, elemento. 
else, adv., outramente ; somebody 

— , outra pessoa ; -where, n'outra 

embalm, embalsamar. 
embark, embarcar. 
embarrass, embaragar ; -ment, -go 

embrasure, portinhola (2). 
embroider, bordar ; -y, -dado. 
emigrate, emigrar ; -ant, -ante, m. 
emotion, emogao, f. 
empire, imperio (3); emperor, im- 

perador ; -ess, -atris. 
employ, empregar ; -ment, ernprego 

enable, capacitor, habilitar, tornar 

encamp, acampar. 
enclose, encerrar, cercar. 
encounter, s., encontro ; — , v., -ar. 
end, »., Jim, m. ; — , v., acabar, ter~ 

endeavor, s., esforgo; — , v., -gar-se. 
endure, soffrer, aturar. 
enemy, inimigo (2) ; enmity, inimv 

energy, energia (2) ; -etic, -gico (3). 
engage, engajar. 




engineer, engenheiro. 

England, Inglaterra ; -ish, inglez; 

-man, Inglez. 
engraving, estampa. 
enjoy, gozar (de) ; -ment, gozo, rego- 

sijo (3). 
enormous, enorme. 
enough, bastante, assaz. 
enraged, raivoso, enfurecido. 
ensign, alferes (2). 
enter, entrar ; -ranee, -ada. 
enterprise, emprezu. 
entertain, entreter ; -ment, -tenimen- 

entire, inteiro. 

entreat, implorar, rogar ; -y, rogo. 
entrenchment, trincheira. 
entrust, confiar. 
envy, inveja (2, i) ; -ious, -joso. 
epileptical, epiUptico. 
equal, adj., igual; — , v., igualar. 
equator, eqvador. 
eqiity, eqwidade. 
error, erro. 
escape, escapar. 
especially, specialmente, particular- 

establish, estabelecer; -ment, -cimen- 

estate, propriedade, estancia ; real 

— , bens de raiz. 
esteem, s., eslima (2); — , v., -ar. 
eternal, eterno. 

Europe, Etiropa (2) ; -ean, -io. 
even, adv., mesmo, ate. 
evening, tarde, f, noite, f. 
event, acontecimento. 
ever, jamais ; worse than — , peior 

que nunca ; — since, desde entao. 
every, coda, todo ; -body, todos, todo 

o mundo ; -thing, tudo ; -where, 

em toda parte. 
exact, adj., ezacto ; — , v, 

exaggerate, exaggerar. 

examine, examinar ; -ation, exam* 

(2), m. 
example, exemplo. 
exceed, exceder ; -ingly, extremamen- 

except, v., exceptuar ; — , adj., excep- 

to ; -ion, -gao. 
exchange, s., troco ; — , v., -ar; — , 

s., casa do commercio ; bill of — , 

letra (de cambio [3] ). 
excite, excitar. 

exclude, excluir ; -sive, -sivo (2). 
excursion, excursdo, passeio. 
excuse, »., 

; — , v., -ar; to 
make excuses, descnlpar-se. 

exempt, adj., exempto, isento; — , v., 

exert, v. refl., es/orgar-se; -ion, es- 

exhibit, exhibir ; -ion, -gao, exposi- 


exhort, exTiortar ; -ation, -agao. 
exile, exilio (3) ; (a person) exulado, 

exist, existir ; -ence, -encia. 
expect, esperar. 
expense, despeza. 
experience, s., experiencia; — , v., 

explain, explicar ; -ation, -gao. 
explode, rebentar ; explosion, explo- 

export, exportar ; -ation, -gao. 
expose, expor ; -ition, -sigao. 
express, exprimir, expressar. 
extend, estender ; -t, -sion, extensao ; 

-ded, extenso. 
extortion, extorgao. 
extravagant, extravagante ; -ce, -cia. 
extreme, extremo (2). 
extricate, extricar, sqfar, tirar. 
eye, olho ; -sight, vista. 




face, s., cara, rosto ; to make faces, 
fazer caretas (2) ; — , v., encarar, 

facilitate, Jacilitar. 

fact, facto ; in — , de — . 

factory, fabrica (3). 

fail, f altar, falhar. 

fair (market), feira. 

fair, adj., hello, Undo ; (of complex- 
ion) claro ; (of hair) lowo,justo. 

faith, fe, f. ; -ful, fiel (1); -fulness, 
ftdelidade; -less, perfido (3). 

fall, v., caliir ; (of rivers, etc.) baix- 
ar / — , s., queda, tombo. 

false, /also ; -ity, -idade ; -hood, 
falso, mentira (2). 

fame, fama / -ous, ~oso. 

family, familia (3). 

far, longe. 

fare, passagem, f. 

fashion, moda. 

fast, Ugeiro (= quick); seguro (2). 

fat, adj., gordo; — , s., -ura. 

fate, sorte, f. 

father, ^jai (or^oc); -in-law, sogro. 

fatigue, fadiga (2). 

fault, culpa, falta, erro. 

favor, s., favor / — , v ., favorecer / 
-able, -<rae£ / -ite, -iio, valido (2). 

fear, s., meoto, receio ; — , v., temer, 

fe&st, festa ; festival, -ity, festividade, 

feature, feicao. 

feed, svstenlar ; — upon, -se de. 

feel, serMr ; -ing, -mento. 

feiga, fingir. 

fellow", swjeito ; -man, proximo (3). 


fence, cerco. 

ferocious, feroz; -ity, -cidade. 

fertile, fertil (2). 

fetch, bvscar. 

fever, febre, f. 

few, povcos. 

field, campo. 

fight, v., combater, pelejar, brigar. 

fill, encher. 

finances, finan^as, fazenda publico. 

find, achar, encontrar. 

fine, adj.,^?no, AeZfo, bonito (2). 

fine, s., mulda ; — , v., -ar. 

finish, acabar, terminar. 

fire, s., fogo ; — , v., fazer fogo i 

-works, fogo artificial. 
firm, s.,firma, cam {de commercio). 
firm, adj.,y?nrae / -ness, -ezo. 
first, primeiro. 
fit, o., ataque (2), m. 
fit, adj.,yropWo (3), idoneo (3). 
flay, esfolar. 

fleece, jDeMe, f. ; iosdo, m. 
fling, lanpar. 
floor, soalho (2). 
flour, farinha. 
flower, jlor, f. 
fly, soar, 
fog, cerracao. 
follow, seguir. 
fond, to be — of, gostar de. 
food, aUmento, sustento. 
fool, louco, tolo ; -ish, fofo / folly, 

foKce (2), f., loucura. 
foot, ^?e, m. 
for, ^jara, ^wr. 
ford, v., passar a vdo; — , s., v6o. 

foreign, estranlio ; -er, estrangeiro. 

foresee, prever. 

forest, Jloresta, motto. 

forever, para sempre. 

forget, esquecer se de. 

forgive, perdoar. 

form, forma. 




former, previo (3), anterior, aquelle; 

-ly, antes, antigamente. 
formidable, formidavel. 
forsake, abandonar, desamparar. 
iott,forte,m.; -ress, fortaUza. 
fortnight, quinze dias. 
fortune, fortuna (2), fazenda ; -ate, 

afortunado, feliz. 
found, fundar ; -er, -dador ; -ation, 

fundamento, alicerces, m. pi. 
fountain, manancial, m. 
fragment, fragmento, pedaco (2). 
franc, franco. 

frank, franco; -ness, -queza. 
Frederick, Frederico (2). 
free, lime ; -dom, liberdade. 
French, francez. 

frequent, adj., frequente; — , v., -tar. 
fresh, fresco. 
friend, amigo (2) ; -ly, -gavel ; -ship, 

fright, susto ; -en, assustar. 

from, ate. 

front, f rente, f. 

frontier, fronteira. 

fruit, fructo,fructa (of trees, etc.). 

frustrate, frustrar, baldar. 

fugitive, fugitivo, foragido. 

full, cheio ; -fill, cumprir ; -ment, 

fun, bnncadeira ; -ny, divertido. 
funeral, enterro. 

furniture, mobUiar, trastes, m. pi. 
future, adj.,/«tera / — , s., — ,porvir. 


gain, s., ganno ; — , v., -ar. 
gale, temporal, m. 
galleys, gales, f. pi. 
gamble, jogar ; -er, -dor. 
garden, jardim, m. ; -er, -neiro. 
gather, colligir, coVher. 

gate, portao, m. 

gazette, gazeta (2). 

generous, generoso ; -ity, -idade. 

gentleman, cavalheiro, senhor. 

geology, geologia (■/) ; -er, -go (3). 

German, alemao ; -y, Alemanha. 

get, receber, tornar, ficar ; — up, 

ghost, espirito (3) ; duende, m. 
gigantic, gigantesco. 
girl, menina (2). 
give, (for; — up, abandonar. 
glad, contente, satisfeito ; I am very 

— , estirno mutio. 
gladiator, gladiador. 
glass, vidro, copo (drinking-glass). 
globe, globo. 
gloomy, sombrio (2). 
glory, gloria (3) ; -ious, -ioso. 
gnaw, roer. 
go, «r/ — away, ir-se (embora) ; — 

on, continuar ; — out, sahir. 
goal, afao. 
God, Deos. 
gold, ouro. 
good, bom; -s,fazendas; -ness, bon- 

dade ; -bye, adeos. 
govern, governar ; -or, -arfor / -ment, 

grand, grande, grandioso ; -father, 

avo ; -mother, avb ; -son, neto ; 

-daughter, neta ; -duke, graoduque. 
grape, uva. 
grass, herva. 
gratitude, gratidao. 
grave, adj., grave, serio (3). 
grave, s., tumulo (3), sepulcro. 
great, grande; -ness, -eza. 
greedy, avido (3). 
Greece, Grecia (3) ; Greek, grego. 
green, vei'de. 

grey, einzento, branco (of hair), 
grief, magoa (3). 




ground, razao, chao, m. ; -less, sem \ 

causa, infundado. 
grow, crescer, tornar, tornar-se. 
guard, s., guarda ; — , v., -ar. 
guess, adivinhar. 
guest, hospede (3), convidado. 
guilt, culpa ; -y, -ado. 
guinea, guinco. 
gulf, golfo. 
gun, espingarda, pe;a (d'artilharia) ; 

-powder, polvora (3). 
gutta-percha, gutta-percha. 

habit, habito (3), costume (2), m. 

hair, cabello. 

half, adj., meio / — , s., metade 

halt, alio ; — , \.,fazer alto. 

hand, mao. 

handle, cabo. 

hang, pendurar, enforcar (a crimi- 
nal) ; -man, carrasco. 

happen, acontecer. 

happy, feliz; -ness, -cidade. 

harbor, porto. 

hard, duro ; -ship, fadiga (2), tra- 
balTw ; -ly, apenas; — working, 

harm, mal, m. 

haste, pressa ; -en, apressar-se. 

hate, odiar ; -red, odio (3) ; -ful, -oso. 

haunt, frequentar, perseguir. 

have, ler. 

head, cabe$a (2) ; at the — of, a testa 
de ; -quarters, quartel general. 

heap, s., montao, m. ; — ,v., amontoar. 

hear, ouvir. 

heart, coracao, m. 

heat, color. 

heaven, do ; -ly, celeste. 

heavy, pesado. 

height, altura. 

heir, Tterdeiro. 

hence, d'aqui; -forth, d'aqui para 

her, seu, sua. 
herald, arauto. 
here, aqui (1). 
heretic, herege (2). 
hero, heroe (2); -ine, -ina ; -ism, 

hesitate, hesitar. 
hide, s.,pelle, f., couro. 
high, fflSo. 

hill, edmoro, outeiro, collina (2). 
hire, alugar. 
his, sew, ffwa. 
hiss, sibilar, assobiar. 
history, historia (3) ; -ian, -iador. 
hit, acertar, bater,ferir. 
hold, ier, segurar. 
hole, buraco (2). 
holy, sancto. 
home, adv., ^rara ccwo/ at — , em 

honest, hortesto, honrado ; -y, -aVs. 
honor, honra ; -able, honorifico (3). 
hope, v., esperar ; — , o., -anga. 
horn, corno, chifre, m. 
horrible, Twrriml. 
horse, cavallo ; -man, -eiro ; -whip, 

chicote (2), m. ; on — back, a co- 

hospital, hospital, m. ; -ity, -idade. 
hostile, hostil (1) ; -ity, -idade. 
hot, quente. 
hotel, AoicZ (2), m. 
house, casa. 

how, como / -ever, porcm. 
hum, zunir. 

human, -e, Jmmano (2) ; -ity, -idade. 
humble, adj., humilde ; — , v., hu- 

humbug, impostura. 
hunger, fome, f. ; -ry, esfaimado ; 

to be — , terfome. 




hunt, cacar; -er, -dor. 

hurricane, furacao, m. 

hurlf ferir, pisar. 

husband, marido. 

hut, cabana (2). 

hypocrite, liypocrita (3), m. ; -sy, 

-sia (2). 

idea, idea. 
idle, vao,preguigoso ; -er, ^arfio (2); 

-ness, vadiagao, pregui^a. 
idolater, idolatro (3) ; -y, -ia (2). 
ignominy, ignominia (3) ; -ious, -ioso. 
ill, &dy,doente,incommodado; -ness, 

doenca, incommodo (3) ; — , adv., 

illude, illudir. 

imagine, imaginar-se / -ation, -a^ao. 
imitate, imitar. 

immediate, immediate ; -Iy, -tamente. 
immense, immenso. 
impassable, intransitavel. 
impertinent, impertinente. 
importune, adj., importuno (2) ; — , 

v., -ar. 
impossible, impossivel (2). 
impostor, impostor, charlatao (pi. 

impression, impressao. 

impudent, insolente, desavergonhado ; 

-ce, insolencia. 
in, em- 
incessant, ineessante. 
inch, polegada. 
incident, incidents, m. 
incite, incitar, aticar. 
income, rendimentos, m. pi. 
incompatible, incompativel. 
inconvenience, v., incommodar, em- 

incorrect, incorrecto. 
increase, v., augmentar, crescer ; — , 

s., a 

incredible, incrivel (2). 
incursion, ineursdo. 
indefatigable, incancavel. 
independent, independente • -ce, -da. 
Indies, Indias ; -ian, -dio (3). 
indifferent, indifferente / -ce, -cia. 
indignation, indignagao. 
indiscretion, indiscricao. 
indispensable, indispensavel. 
individual, s., individuo (3) ; — , adj., 

indolent, indolente. 
indomitable, indomavel. 
industry, industria (3). 
inevitable, inevitavel. 
inexorable, inexoravel. 
infamy, infamia (3); -ous, infame 

infantry, infantaria (2). 
infer, inferir, concluir ; -ence, in- 

ferencia, conclu&ao. 
inferior, inferior. 
infirm, enfermo ; -ity, -idade. 
influence, injlueiicia. 
inform, informar / -ation, -a$ao. 
infringe, infringir. 
infuriated, enfurecido. 
ingenuity, ingenuidade. 
.inhabit, kabitar ; -ant, -ante. 
inherit, herdar ; -ance, keranca. 
injure, injuriar, prejttdicar, estragar; 

-y, injuria (3), prejuizo (2), damno, 

mal, m. 
ink, tinta ; -stand, -teiro. 
inlaid, incruslado. 
innocent, innocente ; -ce, -cia. 
innumerable, inwumero (3). 
inquisition, inquisicao. 
inscription, in&cripQao. 
insensible, insensivel. 
insinuate, insinuar / -tion, -£&o. 
insist, insistir. 
insolent, insolente ; -ce, -cia. 




instance, instaneia, exemplo. 
instant, s., instante ; -ly, instantanea- 

mente, immediatamerde ; — , adj., 

eorrente; on the 12th instant, no 

dia 12 do mez eorrenie. 
instead, em lugar, em vez. 
institute, v., imtituir ; — , s., -tuto 

(2) ; -tion, -ti&icdo. 
instruct, instruir ; -ion, -ucg do. 
insufficient, insvfficiente. 
integrity, mtegridade, probidade. 
intend, tencionar, pretender ; -tion, 

inteng do, tengdo. 
intercede, interceder, intrometter-se. 
interest, interesse, m. ; -ing, -ante ; 

— , s. (of money), juros. 
interfere, intervir, mgerir-se, entre- 

interior, adj., interior ; — , a., inte- 
rior, tertdo, m. 

interpreter, interprete (3). 

interrupt, interromper ; -ion, -rvp- 

into, em. 

intolerable, intoleravel, insoffrivel. 

intrenchments, trincheiras. 

intrigue, s., intriga (2) ; — , v., -ar. 

introduce, introduzir, apresentar ; 
-tion, introduccdo. 

inundation, inundaodo. 

invent, inventar ; -ion, invengdo. 

invincible, invencwel. 

invite, convidar ; -ation, convite (2), 

iron (i /Wo. 

issue, s., exito (3), resultado ; — , v., 

ivory, marfim (1), m. 

jail, prisdo, cadea ; -er, carcereiro. 
jealous, cioso ; -y, ciwme, m. 
jeopardy, perigo (2). 

Jew, Jud&o (fern., -id) ; -ish, judaico 

jewel, joia, alfaia. 
job, enconvmenda, negocio (3). 
John, Jodo. 

joke, graga, brincadeira. 
Joseph, Jose. 

journal, jornal, diario (3). 
journey, viagem (2), f. 
joy, alegria (2), regosijo (2). 
judge, s.,juiz; — , v.,julgar. 
July, Jullu). 
jump, pular, saltar. 
June, Junho. 
just, adj. ,justo; — , Sidv.,justamente ; 

-ice, justiga (2) ; -tify, -tificar. 

keep, guardar, ficar com ; -er, guar- 

da, m. 
key, chave, f. 
khan, hlian. 
kill, matar. 
kind, s., especie (3), f, sorte, f. ; — , 

adj., bom, bondoso ; -ness,bondade. 
king, rei, el-rei ; -dom, reino. 
knave, velhaco (2), patife (2). 
knife, faca. 

knock, bater ; — down, derrubar. 
know, saber, conhecer ; -ledge, corihe- 

cimento, saber. 

labor, s., trdbalho ; — , v., -ar. 

lace, renda. 

lad, rapaz. 

lady, senhora. 

lame, manco. 

lamp, lampedo, m. 

land, s., terra; — , v., desembarcar; 
-lord, estalajadeiro, dono da casa: 
— owner, proprietario (3). 




language, Ungua, {., idioma (2, b), 

m. ; Unguagem (2), f. 
large, grande. 
lash, chihatada. 

last, adj., ultimo (3), passado (2). 
last, v., durar ; -ing, duradouro. 
late, adj., £anj!«, defuncto, fallecido ; 

— , adv., tarde / -ly, uUimamente. 
latter, ultimo (2), esie. 
laugh, rir, ?v-s0 ,' -ter, riso, risada. 
law, lei, f. ; -yer, advogado. 
lead, s., chumbo ; -pencil, lapis, m. 
lead, v., conduzir, levar; -er, cabefa, 

m., capitao. 
league, fc^ua (3). 
learn, aprender, saber (news, etc.) ; 

-ed, adj., sabio (3), douto ; -ing, 

saber, sabedoria (2). 
leave, »., licenga ; take — , despedir- 

se ; — , v., deixar. 
left, esquerdo. 
lesson, liff&o. 
let, deixar, alugar. 
lethargy, lethargia (2). 
letter (of the alphabet), letra, carta ; 

— paper, papel de carta or de peso. 
liberal, liberal. 
liberty, Uberdade. 
library, bibHotheca (2). 
license, Ucenca. 
lie, v., men.Hr; — , s., mentira (2) ; 

-ar, mentiroso. 
lie, v , estar deitado, estar. 
lieutenant, tenente. 
life, vida ; -less, sem vida. 
light, adj., leve. 
light, s., luz, f. ; -en, fuzilar ; -ing, 

fuzilo (2), relampago (3). 
like, v., ^osiiw <fe. 
like, adj., semelhante, parecido ; — , 

adv., coroo / -ness, retrato. 
linha, linha. 
linen, Unho, roupa. 

I lion, faao/ -ness, Zeda. 
lip, £««{», &»Mo (3). 
liquor, Ucor. 
listen, eseutar. 
literal, literal ; -ly , -mente ; translate 

— , traduzir ao pe da letra ; -ture, 

littfe, pequeno (2), pouoo. 
live, viver ; (in a house, etc.), morar. 
lock, i.,fechar ; — , s.,fechadura. 
locust, gafanhoto (2). 
lonely, solitario (3). 
long, longo, cumprido (of objects), 
look, v., olhar, parecer ; — , s., olhar; 

-ing-glass, espeiho. 
lose, perder ; loss, perda. 
lot, sorte, {., lote, m., terreno (2), 

bando, corja, s{uda. 
loud, afto. 
low, iaftco. 
luck, fortuna, sorte; -y, /«Mz, a/br- 

lukewarm, morno, tibio (3). 
lunatic, lunatico (3), doudo, louco. 

mace, mopa. 
machine, machina (3, pr. m&quina) ; 

-ery, mecanismo. 
mad, doudo, louco ; to go — , enlou- 

madam, senkora. 

magnificent, magnifico (3). 

mahogany, mogno. 

mail, mote / — steamer, paquete a 

main, principal. 
maintain, manter ; -tenance, manti- 

male, macho. 
malice, malicia (3) ; -ious, -ioso, ma- 




man, homem (2) ; -kind, genero (3) 

Tiumano (2). 
mania, mania (2). 

manifest, adj., manifesto ; — , v., ~ar. 
manner, maneira. 
mansion, palacete (2), m. 
manufactory, fabrica (3) ; -ture, fa- 

marble, marmore (3), m. 
march, s., marcha / — , v., -or. 
March, Marfo. 

mark, s., marca, alvo / — , v., marcar. 
market, mercado ; — place, praga do 

marquis, marquez. 

marrj, casar {com) ; -iage, -mento. 

mass, missa. 

master, senlwr ; (teacher) mestre ; 
(employer) amo. 

materials, materiaes. 

matter, materia (3), negocio ; what 
is the — ? o que ha t what is the 
— with him ? o que tern elle f 

mattress, colchdo, m. 

mature, maduro (2). 

m&j,poder; — be,pode ser, talvez. 

May, Maio. 

mean, adj., baixo, ordinario ; -ness, 

mean, v., significar ,• what do you 
— ? o que quer Vm" dizer f 

means, meio. 

measure, v., medir ; — , s., -dida. 

meazles, sarampo. 

meddle, entremetter-se. 

meditate, meditar. 

meet, v. tr., encontrar / — , v. recipr., 

melancholy, s., melancolia (2) ; — , 
adj., -calico (3). 

melt, derreter. 

member, membro. 

memory, memoria (3). 

merchant, negociante. 

mercy, merce, f., mhericordia (3), 

graga ; -ful, mieericordioeo. 
merit, s., merito (3), merecimento; 

— , v., merecer. 
message, mensagem (2), f., reeado ; 

messenger, mensageiro. 
midnight, meia noite. 
might, poder ; -y, -oso. 
mile, milha. 
military, militar. 
million, milhdo, m. 
mind, mente, f., espirito (3), alma. 
minute, minuto (2). 
miscreant, malvado (2). 
misery, miseria (3) ; -able, -avel. 
misfortune, infortunio (3), infelid- 

dade, desgraga. 
miss, s., wrihora, Bona (D.). 
miss, v., nao achar, sentir a falta 

missionary, missionario (3). 
mistake, s., engano (2), erro ; — , v., 

enganar-se ; to be -en, enganar-se, 

mistrust, v., desconjiar (de) ; — , a., 

mob, vulgo, populaga. 
modern, moderno. 
modest, modesto ; -y, -ia (3). 
moment, momento. 
monarch, monarca ; -y, -chia (2, pr. 

money, dinheiro. 
month, mez, m. 
moon, lua; -light, luar. 
moral, moral ; -s, moralidade. 
morning, mankaa. 
mother, mai ; -in-law, sogra; -of- 

pearl, madre-perola (3). 
motive, motivo (2). 
mount, v., subir, montar (a cavallo) 
mount, monte, m. ; -ain, montanha. 




mourn, v., chorar, lamentar, luctar ; 

-ing, lucto. 
move, mover ; (to another place) 

mudar-se ; -ment, movimenlo. 
much, muito. 
multitude, multidao. 
murder, v., malar, assassinar ; — , 

s., asmssinio (3) ; -er, assassino (2). 
murmur, v., murmwar / — , s., -rio 

museum, museo. 
music, m-usica (3) ; -ian, -co (3). 
must, dever, haver de. 
mutual, mutuo (3). 
my, meu, fem. minha. 
mystery, mysterio (3) ; -ious, -ioso. 


naked, nH. 

Naples, Napoles (3). 

Napoleon, Napoleao. 

narrative, narracao. 

nation, narao ; -al, national. 

native, natural ; — country, patria 

nature, naiureza ; -al, natural. 
avy, marinha. 

ear, perto ; -ly, quad (2) ; -sighted, 
■myope (3). 

needle, agulha. 

negative, negativo. 

neglect, negUgir, descuidar-se de; neg- 
ligence, negligenoia, descuido (2). 

negotiation, negociacdo. 

negro, negro ; -ess, negra. 

neighbor, vizinho ; -hood, -anca. 

neither, conj. nem ; — , adj., ne- 

nephew, sobrinho. 

nerve, nervo ; -ous, -oso. 

net, rede, f. 

Netherlands, Paizes-Baixos. 

never, nunca. 

new, novo ; -s, noticia (3), novidade', 
-paper, jornal ; — year, anno bom. 
next, proximo (3). 
nickname, alcunha. 
niece, sobrinka. 
night, noite, f. 
nightingale, rouxinol, m. 
no, adv., nao ; — , &Aj.,nenhum. 
noble, nobre ; -man, fidalgo. 
nobody, ninguem (1). 
noise, barulho ; -y, -ento. 
noon, meio dia. 
north, norte, m. 
not, nao. 

note, nota, bilhete (2), m. 
nothing, nada. 

notice, s., noticia (3) ; — , v., observar. 
novel, novella. 
now, agora (2). 
nowhere, em nenhuma parte". 
nuisance, incommodo (3), praga. 
number, numero (3) ; -ous, -oso. 
nurse, ama. 

oak (tree), carvalho. 

obey, obedecer; obedience, obediencia. 

object, a., objecto. 

objection, objecgao. 

observe, observar, notar. 

obstacle, obstaculo (3). 

obstinate, obstinado, teimoso / -acy, 

obstinagdo, teima. 
obtain, obter. 
occasion, occasido. 
occupy, occupar ; -ation, -acao. 
occur, occorrer, acontecer. 
ocean, oceano (2). 
odious, odioso. 
of, de. 

offend, offender ; -ce, -sa. 
offer, v., qfferecer ; — , s., offereci- 

mento, qfferta. 




officer, official (in the army) ; empre- 

often, muitas vezes. 
oil, azeite, m., oleo (3). 
old, velho. 
olive, azeitona (2). 
omnibus, omnibus (3), m. 
on, prep., em, emcima de; — , adv., 

para diante, adiante. 
once, uma ves ; at — , de repente. 
one, <wm. 
only, adj., unico (3), so; — , adv., 

sbmente, unicamente, so. 
open, v., dbrir ; — , adj., aberto. 
opera, opera. 
operation, operagdo. 
opinion, opiniao. 

opportunity, opportunidade, occasiao. 
oppose, oppor ; -ition, opposigao. 
opulent, opulento ; -ce, -cia. 
orchard, pomar, qwinta. 
ordain, ordenar. 
order, s., ordem (2), f ; in — to, 

para ; in — that, para que ; — , v. , 

ordenar, mandar. 
origin, origem (2), f. ; -al, -ginal. 
ornament, ornamento, adorno, en- 

feite, m. 
orphan, orphdo (2), fern. -da. 
ostrich, avestruz, m. 
ought, deveria, devia. 
our, nosso. 

out, fbra ; — of,fora de, for. 
outbreak, erupgdo, ro?npimento t re- 

outside, prep.,/om de; — , adv., fbra. 
over, sobre, acima de. 
overtake, alcangar. 
overwhelm, acabrunhar. 
owe, dever. 
own, v., possuir ; — , adj., proprio 

(3) ; -er, proprietario (3), dono. 
ox, boi. 

packet, paquete (2), m. 

page, pagina (3). 

pain, dor, f. ; -s, euidado. 

paint, pintar ; -er, -tor ; -ing, -two. 

pair, par. 

Y>ale,pattido (3). 

pamphlet, pamphleto (2). 

paper, papel (1), m. ; — money, moe- 

da de — . 
paradise, paraiso (2, ?). 
paralyze, paralysar. 
parcel, embrulho, bando (of persons), 
parents, pais, m. pi. 
parish, parochia (pr. paroquia). 
parlor, sola. 
part, parte, f. ; -y, -ido (political, 

etc.), parte (in law) ; -ner, socio 

(3) ; -ship, sociedade. 
pass, passar; -age, -agem (2), f. ; 

corridor ; -port, passaporte, m. ; 

-enger, passageiro. 
passion, paixdo. 
past, passado. 
pasteboa.rd,papeldo, m. 
pastime, passatempo. 
patience, paciencia ; -t, -te. 
patriot, patriota (2) ; -ism, -tismo. 
patron, protector ; -age, protectorado, 

protecgdo ; — saint, padroeiro. 
pattern, amostra, modelo (2). 
pave, calgar ; -ment, -gado. 
pay, v., pagar ; — , o., soldo ; -ment, 

peace, paz, f. ; -able, pacifico (3). 
peach, picego. 
pear, pera. 
peasant, lavrador. 
peculiar, particular, proprio ; -ity, 

pen, penna ; -holder, caneta (2). 
penalty, pena. 
penetrate, penetrar. 




people, povo, gente, f. 

perceive, perceber, notar. 

perceptible, pei-ceptivel. 

perfect, perfeito. 

perhaps, talvez. 

peril, perigo (2). 

period, periodo (3). 

permission, licenga. 

permit, permittir, dar licenga. 

persecute, perseguir ; -tor, -guidor ; 

-tion, -guigdo. 
persevere, perseverar; -ing, -ante; 

-ance, -ancia. 
person, pessoa (2); -al, -oal. 
pervade, pervadir. 
perverse, perverso ; -ity, -idade. 
pestilence, peste, f. ; -tiferous, -tifero 

pewter, estanho. 
physician, medico (3). 
physiology, physiologia (2). 
picket, piquete (2), m. 
picture, quadro. 

piece, pedago, pega, moeda (coin), 
pig, porco. 
pike, chuga. 
pinch, pitada. 

pipe, pipa (= two hogsheads), 
pipe, cachimbo (for smoking), 
pistol, pistola (2). 
pit, platia. 
pity, a., compaixao, pena; — , v., 

compadecer-se com, ter compaixao 

or pena de. 
place, s., lugar ; take — , ter — ; — , 

v., collocar, metter, par. 
plan, piano, projecto. 
planet, planeta (2), m. 
plant, s.,planta; — , v., -or. 
play, s.,jogo, espectaculo (theatre); 

— , v., jogar (cards, etc.) ; tocar 

(piano, etc.) ; brincar (as children 


please, agradar, aprazer ; — , imper., 
faca favor ; -ant, agradavel ; -ure, 

plot, conspiragao. 

pocket, bolso, algibeira ; -book, oar- 

poem, poema (2), m. ; -et, poeta (2) ; 

-tess, -tiza; -try, poesia (2). 
point, ponto. 
poison, »., veneno (2); — , v., enve- 

pole, polo (geogr.), pdo. 
polish, polir. 
policy, politica (3); -tics, -Uca; -cal, 

poor, pobre. 
popular, popular. 
population, populagao. 
portion, porg do, f., qvAnhao, m. 
portrait, retrato (2) ; — painter, re- 

position, posigdo. 
possess, possuir / -ion, possessao / to 

take — , tomar posse. 
post, posto. 
postern, postigo (2). 
pound, libra. 
pour down, cahir. 
poverty, pobreza. 
powder (gun-), polvora (3), pbs, m. 

pi. (medic), 
power, poder ; -ful, -oso. 
praise, v., louvar ; — , s., -vor, ada- 
gio (2). 
pray, orar, rezar; -er, oragao. 
preach, prfgar / -er, -odor. 
precaution, precaugao, cavtela (2). 
precede, preceder ; -ing, -ente. 
precept, preceito. 
precious, precioso. 
predatory, predatorio (3). 
predecessor, predecessor. 
prefer, preferw. 




premises, prermssas. 

premium, premio. 

prepare, preparar ; -ation, -acao, 

■ativo (2). 
present, adj., presente; — , v., apre- 

sentar ; -ce, -ca. 
preserve, preservar, guardar. 
preside, presidif ; -dent, -dente. 
presuppose, presuppbr. 
pretty, bonito (2). 
prevail, prevalecer. 
prevent, impedir. 
previous, previa (3). 
price, preco. 
pride, orgulho. 
priest, sacerdote (2), padre. 
prince, principe (3); princess, prin- 

principal, principal. 
principle, principio (3). 
prison, pHsao, cadea ; -er, preso, 

prisioneiro (of war), 
private, particular. 
privation, privagao, 
privilege, privtiegio (3). 
probable, provavel. 
proceed, proceder ; -ing, -der, -dimen- 

produce, v., produzir ; — , a., -ducto ; 

-duct, •ducto/ -tion, -ducoao. 
profession, prqfissao, officio (3). 
professor, professor. 
profit, proveito, lucro ; -able, lucra- 

tivo ; profit, v., aproveitar-se, lu- 

profound, prof undo. 
progress, s., progresso ; — , v., pro- 

prohibit, prohibir. 
promenade, passeio. 
prominent, prominente. 
promise, v., prometter ; — ■, s., pro- 

proof, prova. 

proper, proprio (3) ; -ty, -iedade ; 

proprietor, -tario (3), dono. 
prophesy, prophetisar ; -cy, propher 

cia (2); -et, -eta (2). 
propose, propbr; -al, proposta; -ition, 

prospect, prospecto. 
prosper, prosperar ; -ous, prospero 

(3) ; -ity, -idade. 
protect, proteger; -tion, -cgao ; -tor, 

proud, soberbo, orgulhoso. 
prove, v. tr., provar; — , v. intr., 

provide, fornecer ; -ed, conj., com- 

tanto que. 
prudent, prudente ; -ce, -da. 
public, publico (3) ; -ish, -car. 
punctual, pontual ; -ity, -idade. 
punish, punir, castigar ; -ment, punu 

gblo, castigo (2), pena. 
pupil, discipulo (3), alurnno. 
purple, purpura (3). 
purpose, proposito (3) ; on — , de — . 
put, par, botar, metter ; — out, apa- 


quality, qualidade. 

quantity, quantidade. 

quarrel, s., disputa (2), briga ; — , v., 

disputar, brigar. 
quarter (of a city), bairro, (arithm.) 

queen, rainka. 

queer, singular, exquisito (2). 
question, pergunta; to ask a — t 

fazer uma pergunta. 
quick, ligeiro, depressa. 
quiet, quieto (2). 
quire, mao. 
quite, inteiramente. 





radical, radical. 

rage, raiva. 

rail, barra ; -road, caminho deferro. 

rain, s., chuva ; — , v., eliover ; -y, 

rampart, baluarte, m., murallia, trin- 

rank, qualidade, classe, f. 
rat, rato. 

rather, antes, vmpouco, bastante. 
ray, raio. 

reach, s., alcance, m. ; — , v., -gar. 
read, ler ; -er, leitor ; -ing, leitura. 
ready, prompto (pronto) ; -ness, -ti- 

real, real, verdadeiro ; -ity, realidade, 

reap, colher. 

reason, razao ; -able, razoavel. 
rebel, s., rebelde; — , y., rebellar. 
rebuke, v., censurar / — , a., -ura. 
receive, receber. 
reckon, contar. 
reclaim, reclamar. 
recoil, recuar. 
recommence, tornar a principiar or 

recommend, recommendar ; -ation, 

reconstruction, reconstruccao. 
recourse, recurso. 
recover, recobrar, restabelecer-se ; -j, 

red, encarnado, vermelho, 
refer, referir. 

reflect, refiectir ; -ion, reflexao. 
refuse, recusar ; -al, recusacao. 
refute, refutar ; -ation, -acao. 
regard, v., considerar, olhar para y 

— , s., conaideracao. 
regiment, regimento. 
regret, o., lastima (3); — , v., -or. 

reign, s., reino ; — , v., -ar. 

reins, redeas (3), f. pi. 

reject, rejeitar. 

rejoice, regozijav-se. 

relation, relagao, (a person) parente; 

-tive, adj., -ivo ; — , a., parente. 
release, soltar. 
relief, allivio (3) ; -ve, -iar. 
religion, religiao ; -ous, -oso. 
remain, ficar. 
remark, v., observar ; — , s., -acao ; 

-able, notavel. 
remedy, »., remedio (3) ; — , v., -iar. 
remember, lembrar-se (de) ; -ance, 

lembranga, memoria (3). 
remorse, remorso. 
remote, remoto. 
render, render, fazer. 
rent, v., alugar ; — , »., -guel (1), m. 
repair, s., reparo (2), concerto ; — , v., 

repeal, revogar. 
repeat, repetir. 
repent, arrepender-se ; -ance, arre 

reptile, reptil (1), m. 

reputation, repvia;ao. 

require, requerer, exigir, neces&itar. 

rescue, v., salvar; — , s., -acao. 

reserve, a., reeerva ; — , v ., -ar. 

resist, resistir ; -ance, -encia. 

resource, recurso. 

respect, s., respeito ; — , v., -ar ; 

-able, -avel. 
responsible, responsavel. 
rest, resto. 

rest, s., descanfo, repouso ; — , v., -or. 
result, v., resultar ; — , s., -ado. 
retire, retirar-se. 

retreat, v., retirar-se ; — , s., retirada. 
return, a., volta. 
return, v., voltar, resfflmw, 
revert, reverter. 




revolution, revolucao. 

reward, s., recompensa ; — , v., -ar. 

rhetoric, rhetorica (3). 

rheumatism, rheumatismo. 

ribbon, Jita. 

rich, rico. 

riches, riqueza. 

rid, to get — of, Uvrar-se de. 

ridiculous, ridiculo (3). 

rifleman, atirador, cacador. 

right, adj. and s., direito. 

ring, annel (1), m. 

riot, motim, m., tumulto. 

rise, levantar-se ; ( = grow) crescer ; 

(= go up) svJbw ; (of the sun, etc.) 

rival, rival. 
river, rio. 

rivulet, riacho, ribeiro. 
road, caminho, estrada. 
roar, v., ruyir. 
roar, s., eetrondo. 
rob, roubar ; -ber, ladrao, salteador; 

-y, roubo. 
robe, vestido, vestimenta. 
rock, rochedo (2). 
rocketj/oyaeie (2), m. 
rogue, velhaco (2). 
roll, rotor. 

Borne, Roma; -an, -ano. 
roof, telhado. 

room, espaco, lugar, quarto, sola. 
root, ra«z, f. 
rose, nwa. 
route, derrota (2). 
royal, raii. 
rude, rude, grosseiro ; -ness, rudeza, 

grosseria (2). 
ruin, s., ruina (2); — , v., arruinar ; 

-ous, nrfwoso. 
rule, regra. 
rumor, boato (2). 
ran, correr; — away,/j*y*r. 

sabre, espada (2) ; -cut, espadago. 
sacrifice, »., saerificio (3); — , v., 

sad, <to<« / -ness, -eza. 
sail, s., vela; — , v., partir, fazer 

vela ; -or, marinheiro. 
saint, sancto, sao (before names), 
sake, causa. 
salary, salario (3). 
salt, s., sal, m. ; — , v., salgar. 
same, mesmo. 
sample, amostra. 

sarcasm, sareasmo /-astic, -aslico (3). 
satisfy, satisfazer ; -faction, -faccao ; 

-fled, -feito. 
savage, selvagem (2). 
save, salvar, poupar, economisar ; 

-ior, Salvador. 
say, dizer. 
scabbard, bairika. 
scandal, escandalo (3) ; -ous, -oso. 
scar, cicatriz, f. 

scarce, raro, escasso ; -ly, apenas. 
scene, scena ; -ery, scenario (3), vista. 
scheme, projecto. 
school, escola (2) ; -fellow, camarada 

d'escola ; -master, mestre d'escola. 
science, sciencia. 
scissors, tesoura. 
scorbut, escorbuto (2). 
scoundrel, patife (2). 
scourge, castigo (2), praga. 
scout, espia (2), m. 
scream, gritar. 
scrupulous, eservypuloso. 
sea, mar, m. 
season, estafdo. 
second, segundo. 
secret, s., segredo (2) ; — , adj., secre- 

to (2). 
security, seguranca, fianga. 
see, v., vSr, enxergar. 




see, s., se, f. 
seek, buscar, procurar. 
seem, parecer. 

seize, agarrar, pegar em, confiscar. 
sell, vender. 
send, enviar, mandar. 
sensation, sensagao. 
sense, senso, senUdo, sentimento (Les- 
son LVIII.). 
sentinel, sentinella. 
separate, v., separar, partir ; — , adj., 

September, Setembro. 
series, eerie (3), f. 
serious, serio (3). 
serve, servir ; -ice, -igo (2) ; -ieeable, 

servigal; -ant, criado. 
set, pbr, entrap (of the sun), 
settle, v. tr., arranjar ; — , t. intr., 

estabelecer-se ; -ment, colonia (3). 
sever, partir, cortar. 
several, varios (3), diversos. 
severe, severo (2), rigoroso ; -ity, 

severidade, rigor. 
sew, eoser ; -ing, s., costura. 
shade, shadow, sombra. 
shake, v. tr., sacudir, abaJar ; — , v. 

intr., tremer, estremecer. 
shame, vergonha; -ful, -oso ; -less, 

share, s., quinhao, m. ; — , v., par- 

sharpshooter, atirador, cagador. 
shawl, ehale, m. 
sheep, ovelha. 
sheet (paper), folha ; (bed) lengol, 

shield, escudo (2). 
shilling, xelim (1), m. 
shine, brilAar, luzir. 
shirt, caimisa (2). 
shiver, tremer. 
shoe, sapato (2) ; -maker, -teiro. 

shoot, atirar,fusrllar ; shot, tiro. 

shop, loja ; -keeper, logista. 

short, curto, breve ; -en, abbreviar. 

shout, s., grito ; — , v., -ar. 

show, mostrar. 

shrewd, astuto (2). 

sick, dot nt,: ; -ness, -eng a. 

side, /«</", banda. 

sight, msta. 

sign, v., astignar ; — , 3., -al, signal. 

silk, seda. 

silver, prata. 

similar, semelhante. 

sin, peccado (2) ; -ner, -dor. 

since, prep., desde ; — , eonj., como, 

visto que. 
sincere, sincero (2) ; -ity, -idade. 
sing, cantar ; -er, -tor. 
single, iinico (3), so. 
singular, singular. 
sir, senkor. 

sister, irmaa ; -in-law, cunhada. 
sit, estar sentado ; — down, sentar-se ; 

-ting, sentado. 
situated, situado, silo / -tion, situa- 

size, tammanho. 
skill, habilidade; -ful, habil (2). 
skin, pelle, f. 
sky, ceo. 

slacken, retardar. 
slave, escravo (2) ; -ry, -viddo. 
sleep, sorao/ to be -y, estar com or 

slight, adj., leve; — , v., menoscabar, 
menosprezar ; — , a.,menoscabo (2). 
slip, tira. 
slippers, ginellos. 
slow, vagaroso ; -ly, devagar. 
small, pequeno (2). 
smell, s., cheiro ; — , v., -ar. 
smile, v., sorrir ; — , s., sorriso (2). 
smoke, v.,/umar; — , s., -maga. 




snake, cobra. 

snore, roncar. 

snow, a., neve, f. ; — , v., nevar. 

snuff, rape, m. 

so, assim, too. 

social, social. 

society, sociedade. 

socket, pedestal. 

sofa, sofd, m. 

soft, brando, doce, macio (2) ; -ness, 

brandura, dogura. 
soil, terra. 
soldier, soldado. 
some, algum ; -body, alguem ; -thing, 

alguma cousa. 
son, jitho ; -in-law, genre 
soon, breve, empouco tempo. 
sorrow, magoa (3), affiiccao. 
sorry, sentido ; to be — , sentir. 
sort, sorte, f. 
soul, alma. 
sound, »., som; — , v., soar ; — , adj., 

sadio (2). 
source, manancial, m.,fonte, f. 
south, sul, m. 
sovereign, soberano (2). 
sow, semear. 

space, espaco ; -ious, -coso. 
Spain, Hespanha ; Spanish, -iard, 

spare, poupar. 

speak,fallar : -er, orador,presidente. 
species, especie (3), f. 
spectator, espectador. 
speculation, especulagdo / -tor, -dor. 
speech, oracao, falla. 
spend (money), gastar, (time) passar. 

spirit, espirito (3), animo (3). 
spite, despeito; in — of, a — de, 

apesar de. 
splendid, esplendido (3). 
cpoil, estragar, arruinar. perder. 

sponge, esponja. 

spot, Ivgar (place). 

spot, s., mancha; — , v., manchar. 

spread, espalhar. 

spring (season), primavera (2), f. 
(water) manancial, olho d'agua, 
(of steel) mi/la ; —, v., saltar, 
pular (jump), (burst) rebentar, 

spy, espia (2), espido. 

square, adj., guadrado ; — , s.,praga. 

stain, s., mancha/ — , v., -ar. 

start, parlir. 

state, s., estado ; — , v., asseverar, 
depor; -ment, assergao, depoimento. 

statue, estatua (8). 

staunch, f/rme. 

stay, parar. 

steal, roubar. 

steamer, vapor. 

steep, ingreme (3). 

steeple, torre, f. 

step-son, enteado. 

still, adv., ainda ; — , adj., quieto (2) ; 

— , conj., comtudo (2). 
stock, raca,familia (3). 
stoic, stoico (3). 
stone, pedra. 
stop, parar. 
stork, cegonha. 
storm, s., temporal, trovoada, tempes- 

tade; — , v., assaltar, tomar por 

story, Mstoria (3). 
story (or -ey), andar. 
straight, direito, teso. 
strange, estranho ; -er, estrangeiro, 

straw, palha. 
street, rua. 
strength, forca. 
strew, juncar. 




strike, hater, dar em. 

strong, forte. 

study, s., estudo (2) ; — , v., -ar ; -ent, 

stumble, tropegar. 
stupid, estupido (3). 
subdivide, subdividir. 
subject, s., sujetto, asswmpto, subdito 

(3) ; — , v., sujeitar. 
sublime, sublime (2). 
submit, submetter-se, sujeitar-se. 
suburb, arrdbalde, m. 
succeed, succeder ; -cess, -cesso ; -ful, 

sudden, subito (3), repentino (2) ; on 

a — , or -ly, subitamente, de repente. 
suffer, soffrer ; -ing, -frimento. 
suffice, bastar ; -cient, svjjiciente. 
sugar, assucar (2). 
sultan, soldao. 
sum, somma. 
summer, verao, m. 
sun, sol, m. ; -rise, nascer do sol ; 

■set,por do sol. 
superior, superior. 
superstition, swpersHgao. 
supper, ceia. 
supplant, svpplanlar. 
support, s., apoio, sustento ; — , v., 

apoiar, sustentar ; -er, apoio. 
suppose, suppor ; -ition, -posigao. 
sure, seguro (2), certo ; -ty, fiador, 

surprise, s., sorpreza, admiragdo ; 

— , v., sorprender, admirar. 
surrender, v. tr., entregar ; — , v. 

intr., se. 
surround, rodear, cercar. 
survive, sobreviver. 
suspect, suspeitar ; suspicion, sus- 

peita ; -cious, suspeito. 
swear, jurar. 
Sweden, Swcia (3). 

swell, inchar. 

swim, nadar ; — across, passar a 

sword, espada. 
system, systema (2), m. 

table, meza. 

tailor, alfaiate (2). 

take, tomar. 

talk, fallar, conversar ; -er, -ador ; 

-ative, -odor. 
tall, alto. 

Tartary, Tartaria (3). 
taste, s., gosto ; — , v. tr., -ar,provar ; 

— , v. intr., saber. 
tax-gatherer, collector das rendas. 
tea, chti, m. 

teach, ensinar ; -er,'mestre. 
tear, s., lagrima (3). 
tear, v., rasgar,fazer empedagos. 
tedious, abhorrecido. 
temple, templo. 
temptation, tentagdo. 
terrific, temivel (2), terrivel. 
territory, territorio (3), terreno (2). 
testimony, testemunlio. 
than, que, do que. 
thank, agradecer, dar gramas; — God, 

gramas a Deos ; -s, agradecimento, 

gragas, f. pi. ; -ful, agradecido ; 

-fulness, -mento, gratiddo. 
that, pron. dem., aquelle, aqviUo y 

— , conj., que; — , pron. rel.,^a«. 
the, def. art., o, a. 
theatre, tJieatro (2). 
then, entao. 
there, Id, ali, ahi (1). 
thermometer, thermometro (3). 
thick, grosso. 
thief, ladrao. 

thin,_^;io, (of persons) magro. 
thing, mum. 




think, pernor. 

thirst, sede, f. ; to be -y, estar com or 

ter sede. 
this, este, isto. 
though, ainda que, apesar que, hem 

que,posto que. 
thought, pensamento. 
thoroughly, a /undo. 
thread, jio. 

threat, ameaga (2) ; -en, -car. 
throne, throno. 
through, por, atravez. 
throw, atirar, lan-car / — down, der- 

rubar, atirar no ckao. 
thunder, v., trovejar; — , a., trovao, 

m. ; -storm, trovoada. 
thus, assim (1). 
ti^er, tigre, m. 
tight, apertado. " 
till, lavrar. 

time, tempo, vez, f. ; this — , esta vez. 
tin, folha. 
tire, cancar (or cantor); -some, ab- 

to, a. 

to-day, lioje. 
together, juntos. 
toil, trabalho, cansaco (2) ; -some, 

token, prova, testemunho. 
to-morrow, amanhaa. 
tone, torn. 
to-night, esta noite. 
too, conj., tambem (1) ; — , adv., de- 

masiadamente, muito, demais. 
tooth, dente, m. 
top, eume, m. 

topic, topico (3), assumpto. 
torment, s., tormento ; — , v., ator- 

torrent, torrente, m. and f. 
touch, tocar em ; -ing, -ante. 
towards, para. 

town, cidade. 

trade, profitsao, officio (3), trafico (3), 

trafego (3); — . v., traficar, nego- 

tragical, tragico (3). 
train, trem, m. 
traitor, traidor. 

transitory, transitorio (S),passageiro. 
translate, traduzir / -ion, traduccdo. 
travel, viajar ; -s, viagens (2), f. pi. ; 

-er, -jante. 
treacherous, traicoeiro. 
Xreai, pisar, calcar (aospis). 
treason, traieao. 

treasure, -y, thesouro ; -er, -reiro. 
treat, tractar ; -ise, -y, -tado ; -meat, 

-tamento, tracto. 
tree, arvore (3), f. 
tremble, tremer, estremecer. 
tribe, tribu (2), f. 
trick, peca. 
trifle, bagatella. 
trip, passeio. 
troop, tropa. 

tropics, tropicos (3) ; -cal, -co. 
trouble, s., incommodo (3); — , v., 

incommodar ; -some, -dativo (2). 
true, verdadeiro ; -th, verdade. 
trunk, hali ii, m., tronco (of a tree), 
trust, y.,fiar-se, confiar ; — , s., con- 

try, experimenter. 
Turk, -ish, Ttirco ; -ey, -quia (2). 
turn, vottar, virar, tornar. 
twice, duas vezes. 
twins, gemeos. 
typography, typographic (2). 

unbounded, illimitado. 
uncle, tio. 

undeniable, innegavel. 
under, debaixo de, sob. 




understand, entender ; -ing, -dimen- 

undertake, emprehender ; -ing, em- 

unexpected, inesperado. 
unfavorable, desfavoravel. 
until , incapaz, improprio (3). 
unfortunate, desafortunado, infeliz. 
ungrateful, ingrato (2), mal agrade- 

unhappy, infeliz. 
unimportant, pouco important^, i/r- 

unite, v. tr., unir ; — , v. intr., -se. 
university, universidade. 
unless, sem que, a nao ser que. 
unoccupied, desoccupado. 
unreasonable, desrazoavel. 
unripe, verde. 

unsafe, pouco seguro, perigoso. 
until, prep., ate ; — , conj., — que. 
untiring, incansavel. 
unwholesome, insalubre (2). 
unworthy, indigno. 
urge, impellir. 
use, s., uso, servipo ; — , v., near de, 

costumar ; -ful, util (2) ; -fulness, 

utilidade ; -less, iradil. 
utmost, extremo (2), summo. 
utter, v.,proferir. 

vacant, vago. 
vacation, ferias (3), f. pi. 
vain, vao ; vanity, vaidade. 
value, s., valor ; — , v., prezar, 

various, vario (3). 
vase, vaso. 
vault, abobada (3). 
vegetation, vegetacdo. 
venerate, venerar. 
vengeance, virlganca. 

venture, s., Ventura ; — , v., arriscar- 

very, adj., prdprio ; — , adv., muilo, 

vessel, navio (2). 
vex, vexar, incommodar. 
vice, vicio (3). 

victory, victoria (3) ; -ious, -ioso. 
view, vista, prospecto, opiniao. 
vigorous, vigoroso. 
villa, chacara (3). 
village, aldea. 
villain, patife, canaXha. 
vine, vinha ; -yard, vinha. 
violin, rabeea (2) ; -ist, -qu-ista. 
voice, voz, f. 
volcano, volcao, m. 
volume, volume (2), m. 
vowel, vogal, f. 
voyage, viagem (2), f. 


wait, esperar. 

wake, despertar ; — up, accordar. 

walk, v., camimhar, andar, passeiar ; 

to take a — , dar um passeio. 
wall, parede (2), f., muro ; -s, mura- 

lha (of a fortress). 
waltz, valsa. 
want, %.,falta,precisao,necessidade; 

— , v., precisar de ; to be wanting, 

war, guerra ,• -rior, -reiro. 
warm, quente ; -th, color. 
warn, avisar ; -ing, -aviso (2). 
waste, v., gastar ; — , adj., deserto ; 

to lay — , devastar. 
watch, s., relogio (3) ; — , v., guardar, 

water, agua. 

wave, s., unda; — , \.,fluctuar. 
way, camvriho (= manner), manevra, 
sorte, f. 




weak,/raco ; -ness, -queza. 
wealth, opitlencia, riqueza ; -y, opu- 

lento, rico. 
weapon, arma. 
wear, trazer, trajar, vestir. 
weather, tempo. 
week, semana (2). 
weep, chorar. 

weigh, pesar ; -t, peso (pezo). 
welcome, adj., bemvindo ; — , v., 

welfare, bem-eetar. 
well, adv., bem,pois. 
well, a., pogo. 
west, oeete, m. 
whale, balea. 
what, que, o que. 
wheat, trigo. 
when, guando. 
whence, Honde. 
where, onde, aonde. 
which, que, o qual. 
while, conj., emquanto, durante que; 

it is worth — , Dale a pena; — , s., 

momenta, algum tempo. 
white, branco ; -wash, caiar. 
whither, aonde, para onde. 
"who, pron. rel., que; — , pron. interr., 

whole, inteiro, todo. 
why, porque (1). 
wicked, mdo, malvado (2) ; -ness, 

maldade, malvadez, f. 
wide, largo. 

widow, viuva (2) ; -er, -«<?. 
wife, mulher, esposa (2). 
wild, selmgem (2), bravo, bravio (2). 
will, t., querer ; — , a., vontade, tes- 

William, Ghiilherme. 
willingly, de boa vontade. 
win, ganhar. 
wind, a., veato. 

wind up (a watch), dar corda (ao 

windmill, momho de vento. 
window, janella. 
wine, vinho ; red — . — tin to. 
winter, inxerno. 

wipe off, enxugar ; — out, apagar. 
wise, prudente, sabio (3) ; -dom, sa- 

bedoria (2). 
wish, s., desejo (2) ; — , v., -ar. 
with, com; -in, dentro; -out, sem, 

withdraw, t. tr., retirar; — , v. intr., 

witness, s., testemunha, f. ; — , v., 

woman, mulher. 
wood, p&o, madeira; (for fuel) It- 

nha ; -en, de madeira, de pdo. 
wool, Ida ; -en, de Ida. 
word, palavra. 
work, s., obra, trabalho ; — , t., tra- 

balhar; -man, -dor, obreiro. 
world, mundo. 
worm, verme, m., bicho. 
worth, s., valor ; -y, dig no ; to be 

worth, valer. 
wound, \.,ferir ; — , s., -ida (2). 
wretch, -ed, miseravel, misero (3). 
write, escrever ; -ing, escripta; -er, 

wrong, a., injuria (3); — , adj., er- 

rado ; you are — , Vm'' eetd en- 

ganado, nao tern razao. 

yard, pateo (3), (measure) jarda. 
year, anno ; new — , — bom. 
yellow, amarello. 
yes, sim. 

yesteraay, hontem (2) ; the day be- 
fore — , ant' hontem. 
jet,adr.,ainda; — , conj .,comtudo (2). 




yield, ceder, dar, produtsir. 

yoke, jugo. 

yonder, adj., aquelle ; — , adv., Id, 

young, moso, jovem, (of animals) 

novo; — man, mogo; — lady, moga. 

your, vosso, vossa. 
youth, mocidade. 

zeal, zelo ; -ous, -oso. 

zoology, zoologia (2) ; -cal, -gico (3). 



1. Definite article : sing, o, m., a, f. ; plur. os, as ; 

2. Indefinite article: um, m., uma, f. 


I. Number : The plural of nouns is formed by adding 8 to the 

Exceptions : 1) Nouns ending in s do not change in the plu- 
ral, except deos, pi. deoses ; 

2) m is changed into n (hom-em, Jiom-ens) ; 

3) nouns ending in r or z take es (mar, mar-es ; voz, voz-es) ; 
except cdliz (cdlis, cdlice), which does not change ; 

4) those ending in al, ol, ul lose the I and take es (can-al, 
ean-aes) ; except consul, pi. consumes, mal, pi. mal-es ; 

5) el is changed into eis (pap-el, pap-eis) ; 

6) il is changed into u (fun-il, fun-'u) ; 

7) ao becomes oes (nag-ao, nag-oes) ; regular (pi. -aos) are the 
following : 

aldeao, villager, eidadao, citizen, 

anao, dwarf, cortezdo, courtier, 

aneiao, old man, gaviao, hawk, 

bencao, f., blessing, grao, grain, 

fhristilo, Christian, irmao, brother, 


mao, f., hand, " rdbao, horse radish, 

orfao, orphan, sotao, room on the ground-floor, 

brgao, organ, villao, peasant, boor. 

pagao, pagan, 

The following change ao into aes: 

Alemao, German, charlalao, quack, 

Catalao, Catalonian, escrivao, scrivener, clerk, 

coo, dog, pao, loaf, 

capellao, chaplain, tabelliao, notary. 

capitao, captain, 
II. Gender : Names of males are masculine, names of females 
are feminine. Exceptions : testemunha, witness, gente, people, 
tripolagao, crew, plebe, common people, canalha, mob, villain, 
gentalha, mob, rabble, pereonagem, personage, are feminine. 
Masculine are : 

1) Nouns ending in i (except grei, flock, lei, law), in o (ex- 
cept enxb, adze, fllhb, pancake, mo, millstone, ndo, man-of-war), 
in u (except tribu, tribe) ; 

2) those ending in I (except cal, lime), m (except ordem, or- 
der, and those in gem), r (except colher, spoon, cor, color, dor, 
pain, _/&»■, flower), and s. 

Feminine are : 

1) Nouns ending in a (except dia, day, guardaroupa, ward- 
robe or press, mappa, map, most of those in a, and a number of 
words of Greek origin, as clima, idioma, systema, planeta, come- 
ta, etc.). 

2) most of those ending in ao, e, gem, z. 

Masculine nouns, being the names of males, are made femi- 
nine according to the following rules : 

1) Nouns ending in o change this into a (as lob-o, wolf, lob-a) ; 
except reo, defendant, re ; 

2) those ending in ao change this into aa (as cidad-ao, citizen, 
cidad-aa); except leao, lion, leoa; villao, boor, villoa; barao, 
baron, baronena; 

3) those ending in r add a (as leitor, reader, leitora) ; some 


nouns ending in dor or tor make their feminine in triz, as actor, 
actriz; imperador, emperor, imperatriz ; director, directriz (or 
-tora) ; 

4) nouns designating nationality, ending in z, add a : Inglez, 
Englishman, Ingleza; also Hespanhol, Spaniard, Hespanhola ; 

5) all other nouns do not change in the feminine, except 
gigante, giant, f., giganta; infante, infant (title of Portuguese 
and Spanish princes), f., infanta ; mestre, master, teacher, mes- 

6) irregular formations are : 

abbade, abbot, abbadessa, ladrao, thief, ladra, 

avo, grandfather, aw, marquez, marquis, marqueza, 

conde, count, condessa (or -eza), principe, prince, prinoeza, 

deos, god, deosa, rapaz, lad, rapariga, 

dom, sir, lord, dona, rei, king, rainha. 

duque, duke, duqueza, 

7) to names of animals which have no proper form for the 
feminine, the adj. macho, male, or femea, female, may be added. 


I. Number : 1) Adjectives form their plural according to the 
same rules as the noun ; 

2) those ending in ao take s (as vao, pi. vaos) ; 

3) those ending in il, this syllable not having the tonic ac- 
cent, change it into eis (as fdcil, pi. fdceis) ; except pensil, pi. 

II. Gender : 1) Adjectives ending in o change this vowel in 
the feminine into a (as bell-o, fern, bell-d) ; 

2) do becomes aa (as vao, fern, vaa) ; 

3) those ending in or add a (as encantador, fern, ennantadora) ; 

4) those ending in z, denoting nationality, add a (as portu- 
guez, fem. portuguezd) ; also hespanhol, fern, hespanhola ; 

5) bom makes boa, mao makes ma ; 

6) all other adjectives remain unchanged in the feminine. 

III. Comparison : 1) Adjectives are compared, a) in the posi- 
tive by too — como, as — as, so — as ; b) in the comparative by mail, 



more, or menos, less; c) in the superlativ 
etc., the most, or o menos, the least. 

by o mais, a metis, 

2) Irregular are : 

Pos. Compar. 

bom, good, melhor, 

mao, bad, ill, peior, 

grande, great, maior, 

pegueno, little, menor, 

muito, much, mais, 

pouto, little, menos, 

3) Irregular forms of the superlative absolute : 

acre, sharp, 

amavel, amiable, 

amigo, friendly, 

antigo, ancient, 

aspero, rough, 

bom, good, 

celebre, celebrated, 

faeil, easy, 

feliz, happy, 

fiel, faithful, 

frio, cold, 

grande, great, 

humilde, humble, 

mdo, bad, 

misero, miserable, miserrimo, 

nobre, noble, nobilissimo, 

pequeno, little, minimo, 

prospero, prosperous, prosperrimo, 

saibio, wise, sapientissimo, 

sagrado, sacred, sacratissimo, 

salubre, healthy, saluberrimo, 

simples, simple, simplicissimo. 

o melhor, 
o peior, 
o maior, 
o menor, 
o mais, 
o menos. 

















I. Cardinal numbers . 

1, um, f. uma, 

2, dous (dois), f. duos, 

3, tres, 

4, quatro, 

5, amco, 

6, seis, 

7, sete, 

8, oito. 

9, no«e, 

10, dez, 

11, onze, 

12, doze, 

13, ireise, 

14, quatorze, 

15, quinze, 

16, dezaseis, 

17, dezasete, 

18, dezoito, 

19, dezanove, 

20, winto, 

21, wnto e mto, 

22, wrato e oom*, 

23, wflte e #res, 

30, trinta, 

31, trinta e um, 

32, irimto e (tows, 
40, quarenta, 
50, cincoenta, 
60, sessenta, 

70, setenta, 
80, oitenta, 
90, noventa, 

100, ce?rc, 

101, cento e wto, 

102, cento e dona, 

103, cento e ires, 

104, cento e quatro, 
110, cento e <te, 
116, cento e dezaseis, 

120, ce?ito e vinte, 

121, cento e einto e im», 

122, cento e vinto e dous, 

130, cento e trinta, 

131, cento « trinta e um, 
140, cento e quarenta, 

145, cento e quarenta e eineo, 

199, cento e noventa e note, 

200, duzentos, f. -a«, 
300, trezentos, f. -a«, 
400, quatrocentos, f. -aw, 
500, quinhentos, f. -as, 
600, seiscentos, f. -as, 
700, setecentns, f. -as, 
800, oitocentos, f. -as, 
900, novecentos, f. -as, 

958, novecentos e cincoenta e oito, 

999, novecentos e noventa e nove, 

1000, m«Z, 

1001, mi7 e «to, 
1010, wiiZ e a^3, 

1027, wm7 e wnto e seto, 

1683, mil seiscentos e oitenta e tres, 

1700, mil setecentos, 

1862, mil oitocentos e sessenta e 

2000, dous (f. ottos) mil, 

2591, (tows mi? quinhentos e no- 
venta e um 



3000, ires mil, 

4000, quatro mil, 

5000, cinco mil, 

6000, seis mil, 

7000, sete mil, 

8000, oito mil, 

9000, nove mil, 

10,000, dez mil, 

11,000, onze mil, 

50,000, cineoenta mil, 

51,000, cineoenta e um mil, 

58,000, cineoenta e oito mil, 

100,000, cem mil, 

II. Numeral substantives 

120,000, cento e vinte mil, 
200,000, duzentos mil, 
300,000, trezentos mil, 
500,000, quinhentos mil, 
900,000, novecentos mil,' 
1,000,000, um milhao (um conto, 

only used with reis), 
1,200,000, um milhao duzentos 

2,000,000, dous milhoes, 
15,379,824, quinze milhoes (con- 

tos) trezentos e setenta e nove 

mil oitocentos e vinte e quatro. 

unidade (unit), dezena, centena, 
milhar, dezena de milhares, centena de milhares (these are mostly 
used in arithmetic) ; uma duzia (a dozen), um cento (a hundred), 
um milheiro (a thousand), uma vintena (a score) ; centenares 
(hundreds), milhares (thousands). 
III. Ordinal numbers : 

1, primeiro, 

2, segundo, 

3, terceiro (per go), 

4, quarto, 

5, quinto, 

6, sexto, 

7, setimo (septimo), 

8, oitavo, 

9, nono, 

10, decimo, 

18, decimo oitavo, 

19, decimo nono, 

20, vigesimo, 

21, vigesimo primeiro, 

22, vigesimo segundo, 

23, vigesimo terceiro, 

24, vigesimo quarto, 

30, trigesimo, 

31, trigesimo primeiro, 

32, trigesimo segundo, 

11, undecimo (decimo primeiro), 40, quadragesimo, 

12, duodecimo (decimo segundo), 50, quinquagesimo, 

13, decimo terceiro, 60, sexagesimo, 

14, decimo quarto, 70, sepluagesimo, 

15, decimo quinto, 80, octogesimo, 

16, decimo sexto, 90, nonagesimo, 

17, decimo setimo, 100, centesimo, 


101, centesimo primeiro, 400, quadringentesimo, 

102, centesimo segundo, 500, quingentesimo, 

103, centesimo terceiro, 600, sexcentesimo, 
110, centesimo deaimo, 700, septingentesimo, 
137, centesimo trigesimo setimo, 800, octingentesimo, 

199, centesimo nonagesimo nono, 900, nongentesimo, 

200, ducentesimo, 1000, millesimo, 

201, ducentesimo primeiro, 1927, millesimo nongentesimo vi- 
288, ducentesimo octogesimo oi- gesimo setimo, 

tavo, 10,000, decimo millesimo. 

300, trecentesimo, 

IV. Fractions : 

\ um meio, a metade ; adj. meio, f. -a, 

5 wwi terpo (mwkjs or a terpa parte), 

f &>its Zerpos (<fea8 tercas partes), 

I um quarto, 

I ires quartos, 

5 aw quinto, 

4 wto setimo, 

\ um oitavo, 

$ um nono, 

y j wto decimo, 

y T wto orose oflo (a undecima parte), 

jy note onze avos, 

Y2 urn doze avo (a duodecimo parte), 

2*5 um vinte avo (a vigesima parte), 

4j treze vinte avos, 

■jy nove vinte e cinco avos, 

|j quarenta e um cincoenta e quatro avos, 

-j-jtt um centesimo, 

ybts um 'millesimo, 

f^ff dous mil trezentos e oitenta e seis oito mil qui- 
nhentos e quarenta e sete avos. 

V. Multiplicative numerals : 

uma vez, once ; duos vezes, twice ; tres vezes, thrice or three 
times; quatro vezes, four times, etc. 


VI. Proportional numerals : a) adjectives: 
simples, simple, 
duplice, doirado, double, 
triplice, triplicado, triple. 

b) substantives : o dobro, duplo, double ; o triplo, o quadru- 
plo, quintuplo, decuplo (tenfold), centuplo (hundredfold). 


I. Personal: 

eu, I ; tu, thou ; elle, he ; ella, she ; nos, we ; vos, you ; elles, 
ellas. they. 

me, me ; te, thee ; the, to him or her ; nos, us ; vos, you ; Ihes, 
to them. 

mim, me ; ti, thee ; o, him ; a, her ; os, as, them. 

II. Reflexive and reciprocal: 

The first and second persons singular and plural are the same 
as the personal pronoun ; third person se, si, himself, herself, it- 
self, one's self, themselves, each other. 

III. Possessive: 

men, f. minha, my, mine. 

teu, f. tua, thy, thine. 

seu, f. sua, his, her (hers), its, one's. 

nosso, f. nossa, our, ours. 

vosso, f. vossa, your, yours. 

seu, f. sua, their, theirs. 

IV. Demonstrative: 

este, f. esta, this ; esse, f. essa, this, that ; aquelle, f. aquella, 
;hat, yonder ; isto, this ; isso, this, that ; aquillo, that. 

V. Interrogative : 

quern ? who ? j"«e ? o j"we .' what ? jmojZ ? which ? 

VI. Relative: 

que, quern, o qual, who, which, that ; cujo, f. c«ja, whose. 

VII. Indefinite: 

aiguem, somebody, ninguem, nobody, 




outrem, another, 
nada, nothing, 
tudo, all, everything, 
quemquer, qualquer, anybody, 
algum, f. -a, some, 
nenhvM, f. -a, none, no, 
todo, all, every, 

coda, every, each, 
coda urn, each, 
todos, all, everybody, 
outro, another, 
um e outro., both, 
urn ou outro, either. 


I. Conjugation. 



HI. Conj 




Present Indicative. 

















Present Subjunctive. 



















Preterit Descriptive Indicative. 

ia ia 

ias ias 

ia ia 

iamos iamos 

ieis ieis 

avSo (avam) iSo (iam) iao. (iam) 







Preterit Descriptive Subjunctive. 

















Preterit Historical. 









eu (eo) 

iu (io) 







arao (aram) 

erao. (Iram) 

irao (iram) 

Preterit Perfect or Pluperfect. 












i ram os 




arao (aram) 

erao (§ram) 
Future Indicative. 

irao (iram) 

















Future Subjunctive. 











arm os 



























ariao (ariam) 

eriao (eriam) 

iriao (iriam) 










Present Participle and Gerund. 

endo indo 

Past Participle. 


Euphonic and orthographical changes of the character of verbs : 

I. Conjugation : c and g, before e, become qu, gu (as to-car, 
to- que; pa-gar, pa-gue) ; c and _;, before e, become c, g (as tra- 
car, tra-cei ; via-jar, via-gei) ; e becomes ei in the whole singu- 
lar and in the 3d person plural of the present indicative and 
subjunctive, and in the corresponding forms of the imperative 
mood (as rod-ear, present indicative rod-eio,-eias, -eta; plural, 
rod-eamos, -eais, eiao ; subjunctive, rod-eie, etc. ; imperative, 
rod-eia, rod-eai) ; in the same forms * is changed into ei in the 
following verbs: abreviar, to abridge, abbreviate, agenciar, to 
to manage, procure, alumiar, to light, copiar, to copy, medlar, 
to mediate, odiar, to hate, rernediar, to remedy, premiar, to 

II. Conjugation: c and g, before a and o, become c, j (as tor- 
cer, tor-fo; prote-ger, prote-ja). 

III. Conjugation: g, before a and o, becomes j (as fu-gir, fa- 

Irregular verbs : 

N. B. — In the following list the regular forms of the differ- 
ent verbs are not given ; the irregular forms are given in this 


order : present indicative and subjunctive ; preterit descriptive 
or imperfect ; preterit historical and its derivatives, a) pluperfect, ' 
b) imperfect subjunctive, c) future subjunctive; future indica- 
tive ; past participle ; for the derivation of tenses see Lesson 

First Conjugation. 
dar, to give ; dou, das, da, damos, dais, dao ; d§, d6s, de", demos, 

deis, dem ; dei, d6ste, deu, demos, dfetes, ddrao ; dera ; 

desse ; der ; 
estar, to stand, be ; estou, estas, esta, estamos, estais, estao ; es- 

teja, estejas, etc. ; estive, estiveste, esteve, estivemos, es- 

tivestes, estiverao ; estivera ; estivesse ; estiver. 

Second Conjugation. 

1) crer, to believe; creio, cres, cr6, cremos, credes cr6m (creem); 

creia, creias, etc. ; , ' 

16r, to read; leio, les, le", lemos, ledes lgm(leem); leia, leias, 

2) perder, to lose ; perco, perdes, perde, etc. ; perca, percas, etc. 
valer, to be worth ; valho, vales, vale (val), etc. ; valha, va- 

lhas, etc. 

3) caber, to hold, to be contained ; caibo, cabes, cabe, etc. ; caiba, 

caibas, etc. ; coube, coubeste, coube, etc. ; coube>a ; cou- 

besse ; couber ; 
saber, to hnow ; sei, sabes, sabe, etc. ; saiba, saibas, e(c. ; 

soube (pr. sube), soubeste, soube (pr. sobe), etc. ; soubdra ; 

soubesse ; souber ; 
haver, to have ; hei, has, ha, havemos, haveis (hemos, heis), 

hao ; haja, hajas, etc. ; houve, houveste, houve, etc. ; hou- 

vera ; houvesse ; houver ; 
jazer, to lie (defective) ; jazo, jazes (both little used), jaz, etc. ; 

(pret. hist.) jouve (obsolete). 
poder, to be able, can ; posso, p6des, p6de, podemos, etc. ; 

possa, possas, etc. ; pude, pudeste, pdde, pudemos, etc. ; pu- 

de>a ; pudesse ; pnder ; 
prazer, to please (defective) ; third person singular, praz ; 

preterit historical, prouve ; prouv6ra ; prouvesse ; prouver 

(aprazer, to please, is conjugated in the same manner) ; 


4) dizer, to say, tell; digo, dizes, diz, dizemos, etc. ; diga, digas, 

etc. ; disse, disseste, disse, etc. ; dissera ; dissesse ; disser ; 

direi; dito; 
fazer, to make, do ; faco, fazes, faz, fazemos, etc. ; faca, fa- 

cas, etc. ; fiz, fizeste, fez, fizemos, etc. ; fiz6ra ; fizesse ; fi- 

zer ; farei ; feito ; 
trazer, to bring ; trago, trazes, traz, trazemos, etc. ; traga, 

tragas, etc. ; trouxe ( pr. trusse), trouxeste, trouxe {pr. 

tr6sse), trouxemos, etc. ; trouxera ; trouxesse ; trouxer ; 

trarei ; 
6) querer, to wish, will; quero, queres, quer, queremos, etc. ; 

queira, queiras, etc. ; quiz, quizeste, quiz, quizemos, etc. ; 

quiz6ra ; quizesse ; quizer ; 
ter, to have ; tenho, tens, tem, temos, tendes, t@m (teem) ; 

tenha, tenhas, etc. ; tinha ; tive, tiveste, teve, tivemos, etc. ; 

tivera ; tivesse; tiver; imperative: [tem], tende ; 
ser, to be ; son, es, e (he), somos, sois, sao ; seja, sejas, etc. ; 

era, eras, etc. ; fui, foste, foi, fomos, fostes, forao ; fora ; 

fosse ; for ; imperative : [at], sfide ; 
ve"r, to see ; vejo, vta, v6, vemos, vfides, v6m (veem) ; veja, 

vejas, etc. ; vi, viste, viu, etc. ; vira ; visse ; vir ; visto ; 
p6r, to put; ponho, poes, poe, pomos, pondes, poem ; ponha; 

punha ; puz, puzeste, p6z, puzemos, etc. ; puzera ; puzesse ; 

puzer ; pondo ; posto. 

Third Conjugation. 

1) medir, to measure ; mepo, medes, mede, etc. ; meca, mecas, etc. 

pedir, to beg, ask ; pego, pedes, pede, etc. ; peca, pegas, etc. ; 
ouvir, to hear ; ou§o, ouveB, ouve, etc. ; ouoa, oucas, etc. ; 

2) parir, to bring forth ; pairo, pares, pare, etc. ; paira, pairas, 

etc. ; 

3) cahir, to fall; caio, cahes, cahe, etc. ; caia, caias, etc. ; 
sahir, to go or come out ; saio, sahes, sahe, etc. ; saia, saias, 

etc. ; 
trahir, to betray ; traio, trahes, trahe, etc. ; traia, traias, etc. ; 

4) sentir, to feel ; sinto, sentes, sente, etc. ; sinta, sintas, etc. ; 

in the same manner are conjugated the following verbs: 


advertir, to apprize, warn; digerir, to digest; ingerir-se, 
to meddle ; despir, to undress, lay off; ferir, to hit, wound ; 
preferir, to prefer ; deferir, to defer, and other derivatives 
of the Latin fero, as referir, proferir, oonferir, etc. ; mentir, 
to lie ; reflectir, to reflect ; repellir, to repel, and other com- 
pounds of the Latin pello, as, compellir, impellir, etc. : 
prevenir, to apprize, warn, provide; progredir, to progress; 
aggredir, to attack; seguir, to follow, and its compounds; 
servir, to serve ; repetir, to repeat ; vestir, to dress, and its 

6) cubrir, to cover ; cubro, cobres, Cobre, cubrimos, cubris, co- 
brem ; ctibra, etc. ; past participle, ouberto ; in the same way 
are conjugated: acudir, to come to assistance, bulir, to stir, 
meddle; construir, to construct; cuspir, to spit; destruir, 
to destroy ; engulir, to swallow ; fugir, to fke ; sacudir, to 
shake ; subir, to go or come up ; sumir, to take away ; sur- 
gir, to anchor ; tussir, to cough; 
dormir, to sleep ; durmo, dormes, dorme, etc. ; durma, dur- 
mas, etc. ; 

6) conduzir, to lead; condnzo, oonduzes, conduz, conduzimos, 
etc. ; so also induzir, reduzir, introduzir, produzir, etc., and 
luzir, to shine ; 

T) rir, to laugh ; rio, ris, ri, rimos, rides, riem ; ria, rias, etc. 

8) Vir, to come ; venho, vens, vem, vimos, vindes, vSm ; venha, 

venhas, etc. ; vinha ; vim, vieste, veiu, viemos, viestes, vi- 
6rao ; viera ; viesse ; vier ; vindo ; vindo. 

9) Ir, to go ; vera, vas, vae (vai), vamos, ides, vao ; va\ v&s, v4, 

vamos, vades, vao ; fui, foste, foi, etc. ; f6ra ; fosse ; fdr ; 
imperative: vae (vai), ide. 

Verbs with a double past participle. 

First Conjugation. 

aoeitar, to accept aceitado aceito 

completar, to complete completado complete 

entregar, to deliver entregado entregue 

enxugar, to dry enxugado enxuto 



exceptuar, to except 



expulsar, to expel 



gastar, to waste, spend 



izentar, to exempt 



pagar, to pay 



professar, to prof ess 



salvar, to save 



soltar, to release 



6ujeitar, to subject 



Second Conjugation. 

absorver, to absorb 



acender, to light 



corromper, to corrupt 



«leger, to elect 



envolver, to involve 



escrever, to write 



incorrer, to incur 



morrer, to die 



prender, to arrest 



romper, to break, tear 



suspender, to suspend 



torcer, to twist 



Third Conjugation. 

abrir, to open 



affligir, to afflict 



cubrir, to cover 



exhaurir, to exhaust 



expellir, to expel 



exprimir, to express 



extinguir, to extinguish 



frigir, to fry, bake 



imprimir, to print 



incluir, to include 



submergir, to submerge 



surgir, to anchor 





Verbs with constructions different from their equivalents in 
English, (sb. = somebody, sth. = something.) 
with a. 

r, S 

to assure 

aconselhar, to advise 

acquiescer, to acquiesce in 

acreditar, to believe sb. 

agradar, to please 

agradecer, to thank 

ajudar, to help 

arrancar, to snatch, wrest from 



assistir, to assist sb. 

attingir, to attain 

comprar, to buy from 

custar, to cost sb. 

dever, to owe sb. 

disputar, to dispute 

ensinar, to teach sb. 

escapar, to escape from 

esqvivar-se, to shun, eschew 

fugir, to flee from 

herdar, to inherit from 

igualar, to equal 

invejar, to envy sb. 

negar, to deny, refuse 

oiedecer, to obey 

with DB. 

abundar (de or em), to abound chamar, to call 

abusar, to abuse 
alegrar-se, to rejoice at 
ameacar, to threaten with 
armar (de or com), to arm with 
ataviar, to adorn with 
carecer, to want, lack 

obstar, to hinder 

occorrer, to meet 

occultar, to conceal from 

ordenar, to ordain, bid sb. 

pagar, to pay 

pedir, to beg sb. 

perguntar, to ask sb. 

permittir, to allow sb. 

presidir, to preside over 

prometter, to promise 

querer, to like sb. 

recusar, to refuse 

resistir, to resist 

responder, to answer 

retirwr, to withdraw sth. from sb. 

rogar, to beg sb. 

roubar, to rob sb. 

satis/azer, to satisfy 

servir, to serve 

sibreviver, to survive 

to take from sb. 

w, j ' 


tocar, to concern 

cowfiar, to trust 
consolar, to console for 
cubrir, to cover with 
depender, to depend upon 
de8conflar, to mistrust 
descuidar-se, to neglect 
dotar, to endow with 



encarregar, to charge with 
eiquecer-se, to forget 
fruir, to enjoy 
gosar, to enjoy 
gostar, to like 
lembrar-se, to remember 
manchar, to stain with 
tfiorrer, to die with or of 
mudar, to change 
munir, to furnish 
partieipar, to participate in 
precisar, to want, need 
prover, to provide with 

punir, to punish with 
responder, to answer for 
revestir, to invest with 
rzr (or rir-se), to laugh at 
seroir, to serve as 
tachar, to charge with 
tractar, to treat as 
tremer, to tremble with 
triumpTiar, to triumph over 
■w«<w, to use 
fliuer, to live upon 
zombar, to mock at 

with com 

dor, to find, meet 
fallow, to speak to or with 
instar, to urge sb. 
offender-se, to be offended at 
parecer-se, to be like 

abragar-se, to embrace 
acabar, to finish, have done 
acertar, to hit, find 
oasar, to marry 
compadecer-se, to pity 
cumprir, to fulfill, accomplish 

with em. 
assentar, to settle, decide on pegar, to seize, take hold of 
ealcular, to calculate at 
corawr, to agree on 
cuidar, to take care of 
foliar, to speak of 
insistir, to insist on 
oeeupar-se, to occupy one's self 

pensar, to think of 
reparar, to notice 
sorihar, to dream of 
trabalhar, to work at 
tropegar, to stumble against 



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