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A CONCISE GRAMMAR 

OF THE 
RUSSIAN LANGUAGE 

LEONARD A.MAGNUS 




p(^ 



ci^ 



inlf 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




Gift of the 
CHARLES M. TAYLOR ESTATE 




The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924026616395 



Cornell University Library 

PG 2111.M19 1917 



Concise grammar of ihe Russian language 




3 1924 026 616 395 



A CONCISE GEAMMAE 

OF THE 

RUSSIAN LANGUAGE 



A CONCISE GEAMMAR 

OF TH]'] 

RUSSIAN LANGUAGE 



BY 

LE()NAR]) A. AlAGNLTS, LL.B. 

Editor and translaiar of the " A) iiuiment of Igor,' 
" Eiifuiaii Folk Talts," dc. 



Secohd Edition, Revised and Knlahged. 



NEW YORK 
E. P. BUTTON & CO. 

1917- 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BV WILLIAM CI.OWEH AM* ^tiN^, LIMITED, 

Dt7EE STKEEI, SIAMFOHD STREET, S.E., AND UtlLAT WINDMILL STREET, W. 



¥fc'7^& 



PREFACE. 

The Eussian language is becoming daily of increasing 
importance, both commercially and literarily. It is used 
over nearly one-seventh of the world, from Petrograd to 
Vladivostok and in the other Slav States. The litera- 
ture, popular and cultivated, technical and scientific, 
published in Eussia, must claim the attention of students 
to the same degree, as German has done in the past. 

The greatest puzzle in Eussian is the accentuation, 
which governs the pronunciation and inflection, and 
seems utterly arbitrary. To a large extent it can be 
scientifically and simply explained, and to this feature 
the author has devoted especial care. 

The difficulties of the language cannot be denied ; but 
they have been accentuated by two accidents : first, that 
all grammars were constructed on a plan merely imitative 
of Latin ; secondly, that they mostly came from Germany, 
and were framed in accordance with the requirements of 
the German mind. 

It is with the ambition of writing a book on Eussian 
grammar that shall translate Eussian into Bnghsh idiom, 
and shall proceed on lines more consonant with the 
genius of Slav speech, that this book has been attempted. 

The author wishes to express his obligations to many 
friends, English and Eussian, who have rendered him 
invaluable assistance, and, in particular, to Mr. Mark 
Sieff and Mr. J. H. G. Grattan ; and to acknowledge his 
indebtedness to Berneker's Eussian studies, and the 
essays of Professor Boyer (of the Sorbonne). 

This grammar, whilst aiming at being practical, is 
based on historical and philological methods. Explana- 
tory notes on apparent irregularities are added in 
smaller type, the principal rules being made prominent 
by italics or otherwise. This grammar should be used in 
conjunction with one of the progressive readers now 
being published in England. 

L. A. M. 



CONTENTS. 







I'AOR 


Preface ....... 


V 


Introduction ...... 


xix 


Alphabet ....... 


xxi 


Eussian Script and Italic .... 


xxiii 


Spec 


imen of Handwriting .... 


xxiv 


§1. 


The Use and Value of the Letters . 


1 


§2. 


The Vowels— 






(1) Hard and Soft Vowels 


2 




(2) a and a . 


2 




(3) 3, e and t .... 


3 




(4) H, H, i, T 


3 




(5) and e . 


4 




(6) y and lo . 


5 




(7) % and h . 


5 


§3. 


The Consonants — Voiced and Unvoiced . 


e 


§4. 


General Observations on the Consonanls 


6 


§5. 


Tbe Hard and Soft Consonants. — Preliminar 


r 8 




(1) The Labials n, 6, m, b, (|), e 


8 




(2) The Dentals t, ;ii, h . 


9 




(3) The Gutturals k, r, x 


10 




(4) The Sibilants and Compound Conso 






nants c, 3, m, 3K, m, u, h 


11 




(5) The Liquids Ji and p . 


13 


§6. 


Conglomerated Consonants when Final . 


14 


§7. 


Transliteration into Eussian 


14 


§8. 


Eussian Diphthongs .... 


. 15 


§9. 


The Change of e to e . 


16 



ACCIDENCE. 
§10. The Parts of Speech 19 

The Noun. 
§ 11. Preliminary Observations.— The Genders . 20 
§ 12. The Declensions 21 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
28 



§ 13. The Oases .... 

§ 14. The Numbers .... 

§ 15. Hard and Soft Nouns 

§ 16. The First Declension — MasouliuLS 

§ 17. The First Declension — Neuters . 

§ 18. The Second Declension in a and ji 

§ 19. The Third Declension in ii and Ma — Mascu- 
lines of the Third Declension — iiyit . 30 

§ 20. Feminines of the Third Declension . . 30 

§ 21. Neuters in iia of the Third Declension . 32 

§ 22. Kemains of Older Forms in the Third 
Declension — 

(1) iiaTB, wib ..... 32 

(2) ;i;Hia ..... 33 
§ 23. Discussion of the Nouns . . . .33 
§ 24. Kemarks on the Masculine Nouns of the First 

Declension — 

(1) Genitive and locative singular in "y" 

The " u " declension ... 34 

(2) Plurals in -bh . . . . .35 

(3) Plurals in -a 36 

(4) Genitive plural in -i, . . .37 

(5) Nominative singular in -iiiiij . . 38 

(6) Irregular formations .... 39 
§ 25. Accentuation of the Masculine Nouns of the 

First Declension ..... 39 
§ 26. Kemarks on the Neuter Nouns of the First 
Declension — 

(1) Genitive plural in -% and -eR . . 41 

(2) Neuters in -ie and feminines in -ia . 42 

(3) Mixed masculine and neuter declension 

— nouns in -iime, -kg and others . 43 

(4) Plurals in -Ba ..... 43 

(5) Irregular forms — 

(a) Obsolete, iieoo, ^lyjio, -lira. . 44 

{(i) Duals , , ' , . .45 



Vlll EUSSIAN GEAMMAi;. 

PAGE 

§ 27. Accentuation of the Neuter Nouns of the 

First Declension ..... 45 
§ 28. Eemarks on the Second Deolentsion — 

(1) Genitive plural in -t and -eft . . 46 

(2) Contraction of -oio, -eio to -oS, -eft . 47 

(3) Masculine nouns in second declension . 47 

(4) Nouns in -ia . . . . .47 
§ 29. Accentuation of Second Declension . . 47 
§ 30. Remarks on the Third Declension . . 49 
§31. Accentuation of the Third Declension . . 49 
§ 32. The " Euphonic " Vowels o, e and e — 

I. Extrusion of i, and h when unaccented 50 
II. Insertion of o and e for euphony . 52 

III. What heavy final consonants are 

allowed ..... 54 

IV. Eemarks on the third decleusiun . 55 

The Adjective. 
§ 33. Preliminary Observations — 

(1) The syntactical importance of the 

adjective ..... 55 

(2) The use of possessive and descrijitive 

adjectives . . . . .56 

(3) No distinction of gender in the plural 56 
(i) The predicative adjective ... 56 

(5) The determinative and simple adjective 56 

(6) The accentuation of the adjective . 58 

(7) No third declension adjectives . . 58 

(8) The unnecessary grammarians' spel- 

lings in the determinatives . . 58 

(9) The substantival use of adjectives . 58 
§ 34. Euriuation of Simple, Possessive and De- 
scriptive Adjectives — 

(1) Examples of simple adjectives . . 58 

(2) Formation of possessive adjectives and 

examples . . . . .59 

(3) Formation of descriptive adjectives . 61 



CONTENTS. IX 

PA(!E 

§ 35. The Determinative Adjectives — 

(1) The scheme and formation . . 62 

(2) Examples 64 

§ 36. The Formation of the Predicatives — 

(1) Where no corresponrling prerlicallve 

exists ..... 68 

(2) Where no corresponrling determinative 

exists ...... 68 

(3) Possessives ..... 68 

(4) Instances of accentuation of picdica- 

tives ...... 68 

§ 37. The Comparison of Adjectives. — Formation — 

(1) Comparative and superlative, how 

formed ..... 70 

(2) The superlative . . . .70 

(3) Substitutes for the superlative . . 71 
§ 38. The Comparison of Adjectives. — Eules— 

I. Use of the uninflected form . . 72 

II. The four simple inflected superlatives 73 

III. Adjectives with no detoruiinative com- 

parative . . . . .73 

IV. Use of prefix no with indeolinalile 

comparative . . . .73 

V. Translation of " than " , . .74 

§ 39. The Comparison of Adjectives. — Examples — 
I. The regular form -ic, -Ii^iiiiri, and 

accentuation .... 74 

II. The shorter form -bb, -Biiiift . . 74 

III. Comparison with words from different 

roots ...... 77 

The Pronoun. 

§40 (1) Preliminary observations . . .77 

(2) Table of Kussian pronouns and adverbs . 78-9 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



I'ACiR 



§ 41. Examples of the Pronouns — 

I. The interrogative pronouns . . 80 

Eemarks on Kofi, lefi, KOTopuft, CK6.ibK0 81 

II. The relatives kto, itoTopHH . . 81 

III. The demonstratives Tora, btotT), ohhB, 

ceB ; remarks .on the use of them . 82 

IV. The universals Ka3Kji;H&, bbci., BcaitiR . 83 
V. The personal pronouns and possessives 84 

(1) Usepf CBoJi and ce6fl, ca . . 85 

(2) Use of ero, etc., with preposi- 

tions. .... 85 

(3) Instrumental fem. sing, in -oR 86 

(4) When personal pronouns are 

used ..... 86 

VI. The indefinite pronouns ... 86 
VII. The negative pronouns. The double 

negative in Eussian . . .87 

VIII. The pronouns of identity, and cant 

and caMHH ..... 87 
IX. The pronouns of diflference, jipyroR, 

iiHofi, npo'iie .... 88 

The Verb. 

§ 42. (1) Table of Russian Verbs ... 89 
(2) Preliminary observations — 

(i) The parts of the Eussian verb. . 90 
(ii) The deficiencies of the Eussian verb 

and the aspects . . . .91 

(iii) How the parts are formed . . 92 

(iv) Verbs original and derivative . . 92 
§ 43. The Eussian Infinitive — Consonantal and 

Vocalic 93 

§ 44. The forms derived from the Infinitive . 94 
§ 45. The formations from the 1st person sing. 

Present 96 

§ 46. The laws of the accentuation of the verbs . 96 



CONTENTS. XI 

, PAGE 

§ 47. Paradigms of atejraTB and BipiiTb . . 98 

§ 48. The Four Conjugations. — Some Phonetic 

Eules 99 

§ 49. The First Conjugation. The Present forms — ■ 

I. Guttural roots, infinitives in -hb . 100 

II. Nasal roots, infinitives in -jitb ; verbal 

noun and past part. pass, in t . 101 

III. Sibilant roots, infinitives in -CTii, -ctb , 103 

IV. Liquid roots. (1) Infinitives in -epeiB, 

-eJBTB; verbal noun and past part. 

pass, in T . . . . . 104 

(2) Infinitives in -opoTB, -ojiotb . 104 

V. Dental roots, infinitives in -ctTf, -ctb . 105 

nj;TH, lecTB, cfecTB .... 100 

Accentuation of past tense . . 107 

VI. Eoots in B, KHTB, niHTB, CIHTB . . 107 

VII. Consonantal roots vpith suffixal a iti 

infinitive . . . . .108 
§50. TheSecond Conjugation in -HyTB. Preliminary. 
I. " Instantaneous " verbs and their accen- 
tuation . . . . .109 
II. " Inchoative " verbs and their accentua- 
tion 110 

III. Examples of conjugation . . .111 

§ 51. The Third Conjugation. — Preliminary . . 112 

§ 52. The Original Verbs of the Third Conjugation. 
I. Those in which termination is directly 
to root — 

(1) Liquid roots, oiotb, opOTB . . .112 

(2) Vocalic roots (a) in " a " SHETB, cijlib . 113 
f/S) Eoots in II, 611TB, etc., past part. pass, in r 113 
(y) Eoots in y, ji;yTB, past part. pass, in t. 113 
(8) Eoots in i, CMiTB . . . .113 
(e) Verbs in htb and ntiB, past part. 

pass, in T . . . . .114 

II. Verbs with suifixal infinitive in -aiB, 

-JiTB, and accentuation . . .115 

cjiaiB, CTjaTB, 3,HxaTB, etc. . .116 



Xll RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

PASB 

§ 53. Derivative Verbs of the Third Conjugation — 

(1) From nouns in -aiB, -atl . . . 116 

(2) Inoeptives in -fat . . . .116 
Accentuation of them . . .117 

(3) I. Derivatives in -OBart, and accentua- 

tion. Derivatives in -irpoBaTB, and 
accentuation . . . .117 

II. Original verbs in -OBaTB, -eBaTii . 118 

(4) Iteratives in -aiB, -aiB . . .119 

(5) Iteratives in -HBait, -iiBaTb . .119 
xaBaTL, -ciaBaTB, snaBaiB . . . 120 

§ 54. The Fourth Conjugation. Preliminary — 

Infin. in -iiB, -htb ..... 120 

§ 55. The Fourth Conjugation. Original Verbs — • 

I. In -aiB, -flTB, iHaiB, CToaTB, enaxB . 121 

II. In -iTB, -aiB, and accentuation . .122 

Past tense in -in . . . .123 

xoTiTB, 6'i)maTb .... 123 

Accentuation of original verbs in -htb . 124 

§ 56. The Fourth Conjugation. Derivative Verbs. 

Accentuation and origins . . . 125 

§ 57. Anomalous Verbs — 

I. Mixed conjugations. The same root 
throughout. peBiiB, xoTixt, -jiTB, 
CTaTB, nociTHTB, oCpaiuTB, -uiiiShtb . 126 
II. Using different roots. nji,TH, 6eiib (and 

its compoundsj, ixaTB . . .127 

III. Obsolete forms. 3;i;a'iB, verbs in "m," 

B'lsM'B, ecMB, icTB, ji;aTB . . .128 

§ 58. The Aspects of the Verbs. Preliminary . 130 
Perfective— Imperfective— Abstract— Itera- 
tive — Instantaneous — Causative — In- 
ceptive ...... 131 

Verbs having no perfective , , . 133 



CONTENTS. XIU 

PARK 

§ 59. The Formation of the Aspects — 

T. (1) From original verbs . . . 133 

Monosyllabic roots. Those naturally 

perfective . . . .133 

Iteratives in -aiB, -BaTi> . . . 134 

When compounded . . .134 

-lecTL and -iiiiaTL . . . 135 

(2) Second conjugation in -iiy 1 1) . . 135 
The " instantaneous " aspect . . 135 

(3) Third conjugation. Prepositions 

to form perfective . . .135 

Iteratives in -HBaiE. -axt . .136 

,HBHraTBj XBuraiB, etc. . . .137 

(4) Fourth conjugation. Original verbs 

in -HTt, -iih. Imperfective in -htl. 

Abstract forms in -aiB, -htb, -utb. 137 
When compounded, abstract is 

imperfective . . . .138 

Iterative forms in -axB, -jitb . .139 

Iteratives in -iiBaiB, -HBaiB . . 140 

II. The formation of perfective of derivative 

verbs ...... 140 

With prepositions . . . .140 

III. Aspects formed from a different root. 

Perfective and imperfective, concrete 

and abstract . . . . .141 

IV. The aspects of comjjounded verbs in -htb, 

-aiB, -aiB, -HyiB, -HsaiB . . . 142 

V. Causatives and inceptives in -htb and -irB 145 

VI. Ho and sa as forming depreciatory, or 

diminutive, and inceptive aspects . 146 

§ 60. Befle^ive aod Pfispive Verbs — Apryt SPyra . 147 



xiv EUSSIAN 'GRAMMAR. 

The Numerals. pagi; 

§ 61. Preliminary 149 

§62. I. The numerals 1-10 . . . .150 

Declension of 66a, . . . .152 

II. The numerals 11-90 . . . .162 

III. The numerals 100-1,000,000.— CTO 163-4 
The compound numerals. — uicaia 154-5 

IV. Notes— 

(1) Frequency ..... 156 

(2) Distributives . . . .155 

(3) Nought 155 

(4) Noun governed by last numeral . 155 

(5) Decimals . . . . .156 

(6) Compound ordinals and examples . 156 

(7) Declension of ;i;Ba with nouns — 

j;b6h, etc. ..... 157 

(8) Fractions — nojiOBHHa, nojiTopa; eoji- 

compounds .... 168 

(9) Dates — ro^t and liio . . .160 
§ 63. The Adveebs . . . ; . .160 
§ 64. The Prepositions ..... 161 
§ 65. The Conjunctions ..... 161 
§ 66. The Interjections . . . . .161 



SYNTAX. 

§ 67. Preliminary — Concord — Order of 

Predominance of Adjective 
§ 68. The Article .... 
§ 69. The Cases— 

I. Nominative . 
II. Vocative 

III. Accusative as object 
Special uses : duration 



Words — 




. 


162 


• 


163 


. 


163 


. 


164 




164 


. a 


165 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



(ill) 

(iv) 
(v) 



§70, 
§ 71. 
§72. 

§73 



§74. 

§ 75. 
§76. 
§77. 
§78. 
§79. 
§ 80. 



IV. Genitive ..... 
(i) Ownership — Possessive adjec- 
tives — Subjective genitive 
and objective always follows 
Partitive 

In impersonal sentences 
Eeplaced by dative 
After comparatives 
(vi) Objective case 
(vii) Aftercertainadjectivesand verbs 
(viii) Dates . 
(ix) Partitive sense 
(x) Descriptive . 
V. The Dative . 
VI. Instrumental 

(1) Agent . 

(2) Means 

(3) Predicative . 

(4) Manner 

5) Measurement 

6) Words of quality 

(7) Time . 

(8) After certain verbs 
VII. The Locative. 

Table of Prepositions and Particles . 1 

The Prepositions and Particles. — Preliminary 
The Prepositions governing only the Accusative 

(1). The Prepositions governing only the 
Genitive ...... 

(2). The Prepositions governing only the 
Dative ...... 

The Prepositions governing only the In- 
strumental and MejKj;y .... 

The Prepositions governing only the Locative 
The Prepositions no;i;i, npe;i;i and sa . 
The Prepositions B%, and na . . . 

The Prepositions no and cb. 
The Verbal Prefixes bo3, bh, nepe, npe, past 
The Accentuation of Prepositions and Particles 



PAGE 
165 



166 
170 
171 
171 
172 
172 
172 
173 
173 
173 
174 
175 
175 
175 
176 
176 
176 
177 
177 
177 
177 
(8-9 
180 
181 

182 

187 

188 
189 
189 
193 
198 
201 
204 



XVI EUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

§ 81. The Numerals— 

I. The date, days, months, etc. 
II. Age . 

III. Adjectives compounded with 

rals .... 

IV. The time of day 
V. Fractions 

VI. Eussian money 
VII. Frequencies . 
VIII. One cardinal now obsolete 
IX. Cards .... 

§ 82. The Pronouns— 

I. Interrogative . 
II. Eelative .... 

III. Indefinite pronouns. Useofnii 

IV. The reciprocal pronouns 

V. The negative pronouns 

§ 83. The Eussian Appellatives 
I. In conversation — 
patronymics . 
II. Between masters and servants 

III. Addressing meetings 

IV. Titles .... 
V. Addressing letters . 

§ 84. Interrogative sentences— ji it, pasB^i 
§ 85. Negative sentences 
§ 86. The Verb " to be," omission of " copula 
§87. The Verb "to have" . 
§ 88. Special use of Infinitive 
§ 89. The Gerundives and Participles 
I. The gerundives 
II. The participles — past and present 
-mhS = -ble . 
§ 90. Subordinate Clauses — ■ 



BR, TH, fiapiIHT), 



I. Temporal 
11. Causal 

III. Conditional 

IV. Final. (1) Purpose. 
V. Eeported Speech 



(2) Eifect 



CONTEXTS, XVU 

PAfiE 

§ yi. The Imperative. Full forms . . . 241 
Adverbial, Preterite and Conditional uses — 

nomei'L ...... 241 

§ 92. Further illustrations of the Aspects . . 243 

§ 93. The Auxiliaries 247 

jiaBHo, 6j]s,Y, CTany, 6yji;T0 .... 247 

TOJLKO HTO, 6HBajto ..... 248 

ChjIO, the future perfect .... 249 

§ 94. The Impersonal Construction — 

I. Impersonal verbs .... 249 

II. Translation of " one " (says) . . 250 

III. Impersonal construction of active verbs 250 

§95. Apocopated forms of some Verbs . . 250 

§ 96. The Eeflexive Verbs 251 

Passives, Causatives, Deponents, "Middle'' 

Voice 252 

§ 97. Eussian Relationships .... 253 

Table of Kinship 258 

Table of AfBnity 259 

Etymology. — Preliminary. — Accentuation . 260 
§98. The Nouns— _ 

I. Foreign terminations in common use 260 

II. Disused or dead suffixes . . 261 

III. Patronymics .... 262 

IV. Termination to denote the feminine 262 
V. Abstract nouns . . . .262 

VI. Verbal nouns . . . .263 

VII. The agent or implement . . 264 
VIII. Diminutives — 

(1) Masculines of first declension 265 

(2) Neuters of first declension . 265 

(3) Feminines and masculines of 

second declension . . 266 

IX. Augmentatives .... 267 

X. Miscellaneous . . . .267 

§ 99. Adjectival Suffixes 268 

§ 100. Verbal Formations 270 



( xviii ) 



APPENDIX. 

PAGS 

I. A^erbs of asking, etc., with genitive ; iipocHTL, 

xoiiTb, at;i;aTt, etc. . . . • .271 

II. How to translate "to-morrow morning," etc. . 272 

III. Some indeclinable participles as prepositions . 272 

IV. (1) The root sta (a) -CTaBaTt, CTait . . 272 

(/8) -CTaiiBaTb, CTOflTL . . . 273 

(y) -CTOHTB ..... 273 

(S) -CTaBIlIBaTB, CTaBIITB . . . 273 

(t) -cTanaBjiiiBaTB, cTaHOBirrB . . 274 

(2) The root leg (a) -Jterait, jceir. . . 274 

(13) -JBHtaTB 274 

(y) -jiaraTB, -jioatHTB . . . 274 
(3; The root sed (a) cicib . . . .275 

(/3) CHxiTB 275 

(y) cajHTL, -caasaiB . . . 275 

V. The forms of iiji,th, icTt, ixaiB distinguished 275 
YI. The aspects in the sentence-period : yBiiAaTB, 

yBHj;tTB, BiixaTB ..... 276 

VII. The order of words in Russian . . . 276 

VIII. How to form the passive in Russian . . 277 
IX. How to translate " must " ; the meanings of 

soira, ji;6.i3Keii'B, etc. .... 278 
X. The distinctions in meaning of ct>, otT), and 

im>, and the temporal prepositions . . 279 

XI. Some verbs meaning " to burn," " shine," etc. 280 
XII. A special idiomatic use of the infinitive in 

emphasis ...... 280 

XIII. The Russian for "yes" . . . .281 

XIV. Verbs meaning " to sleep " and " dream " . 281 
XV. Words connoting " cost," " expense," etc. . 281 

XVI. The accentuation of the Russian noun . . 282 

(i) Original forms .... 282 

(ii) Terminations with fixed accentuation 284 

(iii) Derivative nouns .... 284 

XVII. The accentuation of the Russian verb . . 284 

(1) Theundeclined part, accented on the stem 284 

(2) The past part, passive accented on the stem 285 

(3) The accent shifting in the verbal noun. 285 

(4) Polysyllables with shifting accents . 285 



INTRODUCTION, 



The modern Russian language is spoken over the 
whole extent of the Eussian Empire. It originated as 
the dialect of the Principality of Moscow and the 
Eepublic of Novgorod, and thus at first embraced all 
the provinces or governments of Eussia proper, except 
Volhynia, Podolia, Poltava and Southern Eussia (where 
a dialect called Little- Russian is spoken). In Minsk, 
Grodno and Vilna another dialect is spoken, called 
White-Russian. 

Eussian belongs to the Slavonic branch of the Aryan 
or Indo-European family of languages ; other kindred 
tongues are Polish, Cech or Bohemian, Serbian and 
Bulgarian^ SloVeni'dh^ 'SI Vc!t^u.e-j Q Vba-^lV^i 

The Slavonic peoples mostly belong to the Orthodox 
or Eastern Church. They received their alphabet, 
their civilisation and their ritual from Constantinople, 
and hence mostly use modernized or adapted forms of 
the Cyrillic alphabet, which was created by Saint Cyril 
and Saint Method in the ninth century on the basis of 
the Greek alphabet. 

Those Slav peoples who belong to the Eoman con- 
fession use the Latin or Eoman alphabet, as we do ; 



XX INTBODUCTION. 

but, to provido symbols for the many sounds, very 
numerous diacritical marks have had to be added, e.g. 
a, e, c, c, z, z, r, e, etc. The Cyrillic alphabet was 
invented expressly for the Slavonic languages ; and, 
though the signs are at first strange, they express the 
sounds more accurately, and, in reality, aid the learner 
considerably. 

The first task of the student of Eussian is to 
familiarise himself with the alphabet, iotli printed and 
written, so that he may read and write it with ease and 
promptitude. 



In English the. vmoels a, e, i, o, u have, siiirJ Shake- 
sioeare's time, been grotesguely diverted from their original 
value and the general Continental use. The reader must 
tmderstand that in this Grammar a, e, i, o, u, are tised as 
in Italian or German : i.e. ah, cortege, pique, poke, rwle ; 
except where specially stcded othenoise. 

The following symbols are also used (as in other 
Slavonic languages) : — 

c = ch (chuTch) s = sh (she) 

e = i 9 = a (villa) 

i = JIT. sc = m (fres/ic/ieese) 

n = Ht \ z = s (leisure) 

[v. pp. 2-15.] 



( xxi ) 

THE RUSSIAN ALPHABET. 

The Eussian Alphabet consists of thirty-six letters. 
Of these there are twelve vowels, a, e, h, i, y, o, y, ti, 
i, 3, 10, a ; twenty-one consonants, 6, b, r, 4, jk, 3, k, .1, 
M, H, n, p, c, T, <p, X, u, 1, ni, m, e; one semi-vowel, 
i"i (i kratkayi) ; and two letters which have no sound- 
value of their own, x, b — they influence the softening 
or hardening of the consonant immediately preceding 
them. 



Printed. 



Caps. Ord, 

A a 



1) 
B 

r 

4 

E 
}I{ 
3 
II 

ii 
I 

K 
A 



6 

B 

r 
A 
e 
:k 
3 

H 



Italic. 



Caps. Ord. 
A a 

E 6 

B 6 

r 

A 

E 

Hi 

3 

II 



II 
I 

K 



Name. 



a (as in ah) 
be (like English hay) 
ve (as in Eng. vale) 
ge (like English ffay) 
de (like English day) 
ye (like English yea) 
zhe (like French ^ea*) 
ze (like English zay) 
i (like English 'e) 



a itpaxKoe 

(i krAtkayi) 

H CI TOHKOH 

(i s|t6ekoy) 

ka (like English kah) 
ell 



Corresponding 
Value. 



a (fatJier) a 



Trans- 
literation. 



d 

ye 

ikei 

leisure) 



z(Likesin|j 



^ i (as in '^ 

I pique) ) 

S J (as in I 

X jet\ 3 

( i (as in | 

\ pique) S 



b 

V 

g 
d 

e or ye 
z 
z 
i 



pique) 

k 

1 



k 
1 



* Always " hard " as in Give, Got, 



xxu 



THE ALPHABET. 



Printed. 


ItaHo. 


Caps. 

M 


Ord. 
M 


Caps. 

M 


Ord. 
M 


H 


H 


H 


n 














n 


n 


n 


n 


p 


P 


p 


P 


c 


c 


c 


c 


T 


T 


T 


m 


y 


Y 


y 


y 


«D 


* 


(p 





X 


X 


X 


X 


^ 


n 


U 


H 


q 


H 


y 


H 


m 


in 


UI 


m 


m 


m 


m 


«{ 


jb 


T> 


z 


8 


LI 


bi 


LI 


01 


b 


b 


L 


b 


h 


'h 


B 


lb 


9 


9 


9 





K) 


K) 


10 


10 


fl 


a 


a 


H 





e 


6 


e 


V 


Y 


r 


r 



Name. 



em 

en 

(as ia stock) 

pe (as in pay) 

err (as in Scotch air) 

ess 

te (as in tay) 

u (as in rule) 

eff 

khah 

tse (as in tsaij) 

ce (as in chaste) 

sa (as in shah) 

sea 

yerr (epi.) 

yer;^ (epbi) 

yeri (epb) 

yati (flTb) 

e (like English e) 
yu (like English yu) 
ya (like English yah !) 
fita 

izitsa 



Corresponding 
Value. 



n 

P 

r 

s 
t 

f 
ich in loch 

\ or German ch 

ts 

English ch 

English sh 
(sc rapidly) 
(combined*) 

mute 
y like i in) 

swhn ] 

mute 

like I 
(Eussiane) 
i like e in ^ 
[ ell ] 

ya 
1 

like n 



Trans- 
literation. 



* Sounded like shoh in /reshcheese. 



THfi ALPHABET. 



XX HI 



Cursive. 



Russian Script and Italic. 

Italic. Cursive. 



Italic. 






2)8a 



B 6 

r I 

A d 



3 3 ^ 3 3 



My 



E V. 
1 W 
I i 

E ic 

J u 
Mm 
R n 

(T 

JO fin TV H Ti 

f 4v P J> 



91 M ^ 



f 



J/C TW 



y 



X 







^^/ 



C c 

T m 

y y 

#^ 

H bi 
L b 



5 '6 

61 ^ 

Kj UL TLJl'^ ^ lb 
X) 4(X 10 JO 

6 ^' Oe 



( xxiv ) 
^ Specimen of Handwkiting. 

■^ '>KJL^K/i» ,^^ljt/i^cJe^ u/iayi-^cj> 

Italic. 

B^ Munymy oicii3hu mptjdHyio 

TfbCHumcn-A'b eh cepdun ipycim 

Oduy MOMimey Hydnyio 

TeepMy a naiisycmb 

Ecim> ciua dAaiodamnan 
Bz coseyubu cAoe^ Jiaieux^ 
H dhiiuefm HenoHAmnaA 
CeAmdA npeAecmh eg kmxs 

Ca dyma KdKh dpeMA CKamiimcA 

CoMHfbHbe daACKO 

H erbpumcA u iu.aHenicA 

H maia AeiKO, acvw. (AepMonmo6^.) 



EUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 



THE ALPHABET. 

PAETIGULAE attention is drawn to 6, g, d, u, m, 
H, n, c, m, n; letters which often occasion the 
learner difficulty. To distinguish m and lu in loose 
writing, a line is often used above and below, e.g. m, m. 
Eeniember in all transliterations a, e, i, o, u should 
be sounded as in father, cortege (or ete, v. footnote, p. 3), 
pique, Tom, vule. 

§ 1. The Use and Value of the Letters. 

The Eussian language is nearly phonetic, but has kept 
a number of letters that have lost their separate values, 
e.g. i, % V, 0; and further, like English, has a strong 
tonic accent, which tends to slur the preceding and 
following syllables. 

e.g. Wolverhampton, inch'ibitahly, my lord, incom- 
parablencss, Sunday, commit, invulnerability. 

In such English words the vowels all become merged 
in the atonic vowel, phonetically written 3 (e.g. a in 
" villa "), and in Eussian a similar phenomenon obtains. 

But the Eussian alphabet, vnth these reservations, has 
symbols assigned to every se|)arate sound, and thus is 
nearly phonetic. 

The Eussian tonic accent is very hard to acquire, 
and can only be learnt by practice. A few hints can 
be given here and there. In this Gram?nar it is marked 
throughout, as iu all dictionaries, 



2 eussian grammar. 

§ 2. The Vowels. 

(1) Eussian has no less than fifteen symbols for 
vowels. They are partly survivals of an older stage of 
the language. 

They are divided into " hard " and " soft/' i.e. simple, 

or preceded by the consonant y. This distinction 

affects the grammar and pronunciation of every word, 

and the following table must be committed to memory : — 

Hard: a 9 bi o y t 

Soft : a e, i h, i^ ye lo t 

(2) a accented* is sounded like a in "father," but 
Pronunciation Somewhat shorter. 

of a and .i. e.g. 6a6a woman 

a unaccented is sounded like a in " villa." e.g. oaoa. 

The familiar phonetic symbol for this sound is a, 
the atonic vowel. Thus 6a6a is sounded " babs." 

Unaccented a is sounded like the Eussian e after 
)K, H, m, m. [v. § 5 (4).] 

n accented is sounded ya. e.g. h I. 
H unaccented is sounded yl, or yi or i. 

e.g. Ba5a-flra (Bab^-yiga), the name of the 

Eussian witch; jiboaii (lyiibit) they love. 

In one instance n is sounded a in the reflexive 

suffix cfl (sa). [v. § 41, V. (1).] 

a (ya) also represents the Old Slav nasal vowel e (sounded like 
French in in "brin"). This historical fact explains such verbal 
forms as ataib, Hiiay, ntiiy, root zm, z&, and nouns in -jin, e.g. njatm, 
ii.iaMcnH flame, [v. § 21 and § 49, II.] Polish conserves the Old 
Slav nasals o and @, e.g. sgdzid, Eussian cyAHib (sud'if) to judge. 

* " Accented " means emphasised, stressed. There are no 
written accents iu Buasian, except in elementary grammars a,n(J 

texts, 



PKOilUlJCIATIO^f. 



(3) y is used in foreign words adapted to Eussiau, 

but in no pure Eussian words except 

of 9 e t. °^ 9Ton. (etst) this. It is sounded like the 

French e in " treve," or the English ai in 



-^a^ 



" hair," but shorter. It is only used in transliteration 
of foreign e-sounds. 

e.g. Sii^eHX Emden, noaix (po-et) poet, dai Aisne 

e and i now represent the same sound, namely ye. In 
older Eussian i had a separate value, varying between 
ye and ya.* 

e.g. EKaiepiiBa (Yekaterins) Catherine 
iyiT, (yem) I eat 

e is used : — 
(i) When it represents e [v. § 2 (5) and § 9]. 

(ii) When it is inserted to avoid heavy consonants 
and when it represents l [v. § 2 (7) and 
§ 32] ; e.g. Becb, Bca (ve^, fsya) all. 

WTien unaccented it becomes a faint ye or i sound, 
e.g. noje (polye) field cuhcc (sinyeye) blue 

The pronouns o^nu and o^ni, ohu masc, oah fem. and 
neuter, are both sounded oahh, oaii (adni, ani). 

(4) The sound-value of bi is best understood as a 
rapid combination of German ii with i, 

""rrandt" ^i' °r. it ^^J begot by placing the 
tongue in the u position, the lips in the 
i position. Roughly, it may be produced by sounding 
the English word bin deep in the throat. 
No word can ever begin with the vowel bi. 

* The sound " ye " (e and t) is open [yfe] or close [y^] according 
as the following consonant is " hard " or " soft." 



4 RtJssiAN gkammat;. 

II is the pure ■i-sound, produced with elongation of 
the lips, as in French or German. 

I (ii CT. TOHKOio = with a dot) is the same, but only 
used hefore other vowels (e.g. MfliHie [mnenie] opinion), 
except in one word, Jiipx the world. 

When H is used in diphthongs, or reduced to the con- 
sonantal value of ?/ in " yet," it is written \i and called 
II iipaTKoe (u short). 

e.g. cTail (stai) of the flocks 

V (r-Kima) is equivalent to n, and only used to 
represent the Greek i^ in a few Church words. 

Note. — Mipi world, wnpi peace, Mvpo myrrh, c\-ii6ji synod, and 
n.ia/iHMipTi Vladimir (and similar names, e.g. Kasiiiiipi.). 

(5) accented is sounded like the German short o in 
Pronunciation " Gott," and Can be imitated by shortening 
of and e. ^]^q English vowel-sound mt (e.g. cough), 
e.g. port horn 

unaccented is sounded a or o. 

e.g. xopomo (khsrsso) fine 

nopa (para) time 

CJOBO (slova) word 

e is sounded yd, i.e. o with a ^/o^-sound. It only 
occurs in accented syllables, and in writing is not 
distinguished from e, except in elementary books. 
Eules are given in § 9 for the change from e to e. 
e.g. pyjKbe (ru26) gun 

Beceie (uisyote) ye carry 

wteHbi (zony) the wives 

e.i04Ka . (yobfika) fir-tree (Christmas-tree) 



PEONUNCiATlUJN. ^1 

((3) y is sounded like /( in "rule" or "pull"; lo 
Pronunciation is sounded like u in "universe," but 
of y and lo. shorter. 

e.g. loGHjeu (yubiley) jubilee 
iiecy (nisii) I carry 

(7) 1 and b are mute in modern Eussian. The 
Pronunciation former indicates the hardness of a con- 
of -h and I. sonant ; the latter the softness, i.e. the 
absence or presence of a yod element. 

e.g. Cbut (by!) he was bii3T) (vyas) elm 
5li.i5 (byl') a tale CBasb (svyas) tie 

But in older Eussian t> had a value something like 
the 10 in " nut," and b a soft short z-sound. 

Hence the differences in conjugation and declension 
between po4i, po^a (po/i'b generation), and poii, pia 
(poTX mouth), lepexb to rub, ipy I rub. 

This is because in all open syllables (i.e. ending in 
a vowel) -b and b became mute ; in all closed syllables 
(i.e. ending in a consonant) t> and b disappeared when 
unaccented, or became o and e when accented. E.g. 
Ht>b6, 4^m>' (the bottom), now 400, aohx ; pxTx', piiTa 
(the mouth), now poix, pia; /iBHb', AbHa (day), now 
ACBb, AHfl [d'nya]. 

Obviously then t, and b can only occur medially 
(in compounds) and finally. 

Ftcrther, theoretically no Eussian word ends in a 
consonant; the mute vowel is always added, even in 
foreign words. 

e.g. ^OHAOHX London Epibcce.ib Brussels 

Latterly, there is a tendency to discard final i,, when 
it is merely orthographical. 



13 russian grammar. 

§ 3. The Consonants — Voiced and Unvoiced. 

The consonants must first be divided into unvoiced 
and voiced (e.g. in English t and d, p and h). 

We then have : — 



Mutes unvoiced : 

voiced : 
Nasals : 

Spirants unvoiced : 
voiced : 


Labials. 
n 
G 

M 

■I> 

B 


Dentals. 
T 
4 
H 


Qutturals. 
K 

r 

X 


?he remainder must be separately classed :^ 


Sibilants. 
Unvoiced : c m 
Voiced : 3 jk 


Compound consonants. 



Liquids : a and p. 



§ 4. General Observations on the Consonants. 

(1) There is no nasal guttural in Eussian, like the 
English iig. 

e.g. Htenita (z6n-ka) little woman (hk as in pamcake) 

(2) When C, n, v, b, 3, and jk are final consonants, 
they are sounded like n, t, k, <I', c, and lu. 

e.g. pa5T> (I'ap) slave 

/jt^i (d'et) grandfather 

pon. (rok) horn 

ocipoB^ (ostraf) island 

po3i (ros) of the roses 

jOJiib (los) lie 



PKON0NCIATION. 7 

(3) When in compounds t precedes f„ the first t is 
assimilated to 4. 

e.g. OT^ait (ad-daf) to give up 

(4) When iu the same syllable 3 precedes Ht, or c 
precedes m, the combination is sounded like wk, and mm. 

e.g. nosHte (pozzi) later 
Bb'icniifi (vyssi) highest 

(5) * is scarcely found in original Eussian words ; 
is' almost disused, and has the same phonetic value, 
just as pli in "phonetic" has the same sound as / in 
" fine." 

(6) When k and r precede t in the same syllable, 
they are commonly sounded as x (kh). 

e.g. HorTfl (nokhtya) of the nail 
KTO (khto) who 



C?) other instances of assimilation {these constitute 


rules) : — 






6ypo 


(biitta) 


as if 


c^'LaTt 


(zdelsf) 


to do 


OTT. aapi'i 


(adzari) 


from the dawn 


np6ci>5a 


(proz'ba) 


request 


c^acTfce 


(soast'e) 


happiness 


H3BD3'1HI;T. 


(izvoscik) 


driver 


■ITON. 


(sto) 


what 


MiirKiH> 


(myakhki) 


soft 


jerqe 


(lekhce) 


easier 


Generally speciJd') 


Iff the suisequent letter, roiced or 


V nroircd, ai(rnc/H ana 


I asslmili-des the preccdivij, 



8 KUSSIAN GBAJtxMATi. 

(8) 4 before h is sounded m. 

e.g. cKyqHO (skiisna) wearisome 

(9) All consonants are sounded, except 4 and t in 
-3,111-, -CTH- ; .1 in co.iHue (sontsi or else sointsi) sun; .ib 
final after labials. 

e.g. nosABiii (pozni) late 

BJacTHbiu (vlasny) powerful 

py6jb (I'up') rouble 

Mbicjb (mys) thought 

§5. The "Haed" axd "Soft" Consonants. 

Preliminary. 

The vowels have already been divided into two set s 
hard and soft, i.e. plain and ioticised, viz. : — 

Hard: a 9 bi y x 

Soft : H e i D i e lo h 

Some consonants can be combined with any of the 
vowels. These consonants are either hard or soft accord- ^ 
ing as the vowel following is hard or soft. 

Other consonants are naturally " hard " or " soft," 
and can only be used with certain vowels. 

The strictest attention must be paid to these rules ; as 
they explain the inflections, and dispose of most of the. 
apparent exceptions. 

(1) The Labials. 

The labials n, 6, m, b can all be either " hard " or 
" soft," and can be used with any of the vowels. 

But note that j is inserted after a, 6, m, and b in 



]'iiONr:N(;iATiox. 







all '■ soft" uoiuiiial Ibrms and in all verbal forms before 
10 and e. 

e.g. jiomth (lavif) to catch 

MBAK) (lavlyii) I catch 

ToproBaib (tsrgavat') to trade 

ToproBJu (targovlya) trade 

Otherwise n, 6, m, <i>, b are sounded like English p, b, 
m, f, V, subject to the genercd rcmarlcs in § 4 (2). 



(2) The Dentals. 

The dentals can be used with any of the vowels. 
But they modify their pronunciation, and are changed 
in derivatives and verbal forms into palatals when 
" soft." 

Tj 4 and n " hard " are sounded as in English. 

Tt and 4t are sounded midway between t and c, 
something like the cockney "don'i-yer know?" "dAd-yoMV 

Hb is sounded mouille like Spanish n, Erench and 
Italian gn. 

These sounds are here denoted t', d' and n. 

Thus we have : — 

Hard : la [to] tli to ly ttj 

Soft : Tfl Tc TH Te Tio TL, soundcd t'a, t'e, etc. 
Soft derivatives : ^t ny 

e g. n.iaTiiTb (plat'if) to pay 

n.iany (placii) I pay 

MOJOTHTb (mabt'if) to thrash 

MOJO'iy (malaiiu) I thrash 

MO.iOTfin. (malot'it) they thrash 



10 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

Under identical conditions f, changes to )K. 
e.g. CTHAHTbca (styditsa) to be ashamed 

CTbiAiiTcn (stydyatsa) they are ashamed 
hut CTbiHtycb (styMs') I am ashamed 

Eussian, however, has some Church Slavonic deriva- 
tives, in which under these same conditions t became 
m, and 4, jk^. 

e.g. npe^i (pret) before (preposition) 

npeiK/te (prezdi) before (adverb) 
CJa^-Kifl (slatki) sweet, cjame (slasce) sweeter 
poAHTb (rad'if) to bear, poiK^axb (razdaf) 

(3) The Gutturals. 

The gutturals k, r, x are in Eussian words never 
combined with a, a, w, e, lo, b. 

In Old Eussian, before n, e, h, k), they were regu- 
larly changed in all nominal and verbal inflections and 
in all derivatives to h and 'i, at and ui or c respectively. 
In modern Eussian these changes only take place in 
verbs and derivatives. 

The series of hard and soft gutturals is as follows : — 
Hard: i;a no kv i;t. 

Soft : i;e kh 

Soft Derivatives: 'la se in ho or He hv 
or mi uy 

Similarly with r and x ; but r changes to jk, and x 
to III. 

Thus : ra re rn ro ry n. 

Derivatives ma ate jkh h;o or jue aiy aa 
xa xe \n xo xy xi> 
Derivatives ma iiie uiii mo or me mv mb or mi 



PEONUNCIATION. 11 

Thus in Eussian the " hard " noun bojki (volk) wolf, 
has a plural b6.ikii, but an adjective bojhIh. 

Thus, too : — 
[Ipara (Prags) Prague, has an adjective npaiKCKiu 
Bon> (Bokh) God, BoatecTBO (Bazestvo) deity 
citaKaTb (skakaf) to leap, CKa^y (skaHii) I leap ( = kio) 
BepxT. (verkh) the top, BcpranHa (virsins) the height 

K is always like the English h except in cases noted 
in § 4 (6). 

r is always like the English g in " got " or " give " : 
except (1) it is used to represent the foreign sound h, 
e.g. rojjan^ia (GoUandiya) Holland ; also in the 
Eussian word rocno^t (Haspod') Lord. (2) It is 
sounded like a voiced x before dentals, e.g. lor^a 
(takhda) then; also in Bor^ God, and names of 
towns ending in Syprt. (3) It is sounded b in the 
adjective gen. sing, termination -aro, -ore. 
e.g. caMoro (samavo) of himself 

^ypHoro (durnova) of the bad man 
Aooparo (dobrava) of the good man 

X is always sounded as in German ach or icii. 
e.g. xaia (khata) hut 
xiijHH (khily) feeble 
caxap^ (sakhar) sugar 

(4) The Sibilants and Compound Consonants. 

c, 3, iti, 5K, 1 are always sounded like the consonants 
in the English words sword, seal, sAort, leisure, chxuxh ; 
subject to the general remarks in § 4 (2, 7, and 8), 

' ' 2 



12 KUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

c and 3 can be hard or soft and take any vowel. 
When " soft " they are sounded high on the palate, as 
though a sharp i-sound followed. They are here denoted 
as s and z. 

m is a combination of s and 6, which has to be 
practised. 

)i;, in, and n are always hard. 

M and m always soft. 

They can only be used with the following vowels : — 
Hard: }Ka ate 51; h jko or /i;e aiv ;Kb or iia 

ma me mn me or mo my mt or mi. 

na ue ubi and uh m iiy in. 

10, a, bi are never used after jk, 4 or m. 

c and 3 in soft derivatives change to m and jit, 
e.g. 34l>cb (zd'6s) here, 5.ll]3^ (bliz) near, 34'tmuiii, 
O.iii.i.iiifl. 

Soft: <ia '16 4n '10 or 46 4y wt, 
ma me mii mo or me my lub 

However, though in modern Eussian the two 
sibilants m, at are accounted hard, in older Eussian 
m and at were soft ; and the same rules of pronunciation 
in unaccented syllables apply to ma, aia, 4a and ma as 
to «, viz. the vowel- value changes from a to i, and not 
a to d. 

e.g. 4ac6Bna (oesovnya) oratory 
atapa (zspa or zira) heat 
mani (segi) steps 



PEOXUXGIATIOX. 13 

n is always hard ; it can, unlike any of the other 
sibilants, be followed by ti ; and, like them, unaccented 
uo always becomes, and is written, ue. 
Nom. Instr. 

e.g. OTem omoMi the father 

(at'ets) (atsom) 

ii'BMeux H'lijmeM'b the German 

(ne'mits) (ne'mtsim) 

i.e. uo should have been spelt ue. 
Accented : mo iite or jko hc or 'lo uo me or luo 
Unaccented : me nte Me ue me 

(5) The Liquids. 

.1 and p can be accompanied by any vowel. 

The pronunciation of both j-l and jt is quite 
different from that of the English I. 

.n* is a guttural-sounded I produced by raising the 
back of the tongue and contracting the air-passage : 
the front part of the tongue is drawn back and rounded, 
whilst the lips are rounded. It may be imitated 
by pronouncing the English word pull deep in the 
throat. 

jb is a palatal almost like the French I in " viL" 

p^ is trilled, more like the Scotch r, pb is palatal 
with a faint yod-sound. These sounds can only be 
acquired by ear. 

With regard to the liquids a and p two special rules 
of formation should be noted : — • 

In roots of the type rpa^x, ropo^i (grat, gorat) 
town, the Church Slavonic had the monosyllabic form, 

* In Polisb written I. 



14 EUSSIAN GRAMMAE. 

Eussian the dissyllabic ; and as the Church language 
has greatly influenced Eussian, the modern language 
has examples of both. 

e.g. 3JaT0, BOJOTO (zlat9, zobt:?) gold ; CTpatia 
(strana) land ; cTopoHa (starana) side; xpauHTb 
(khranit') to keep ; xopoHHib (kharani't') to 
bury ; ropoAT. (gorat) city ; but IleTporpaAx 
(Pitragrat) Petrograd ; 6eperx (b'erek) coast ; 
but npii6pe!KEe (pfibfezi) the foreshore ; M6J04^ 
(molod) young ; Mja^iuiii (mladsi) the younger. 

§ 6. CONGLOMEEATED CONSONANTS WHEN FlNAL. 

Eussian dislikes a word ending in a conglomeration 
of consonants. Thus Egypt is Eriinen. (Yegipit), where 
en, would in Old Eussian have been written tn.. 
[v. § 2 (6).] 

Similarly, in neuter and feminine nouns, where tlie 
genitive plural is the root, e.g. abjo, a'^ut, (d'e'la, d'6Y), 
•CTx, deed, a vowel o, e or e is sometimes inserted, 
especially when the last consonant is ji or p. 

e.g. cecrpa, ceciepi (sistra, sistyor) sister; iirpa 
(igra) game, adjective nropnbui (igorny) ; 
CBa^bSa (svad'b?) wedding, CBaAeoi. (svadip) ; 
Teiita (tyotka) aunt, TeTOiii (tyotak) ; Gacna 
(basnya) fable, CaceHi (basin) ; najKa (patka) 
stick, najoin. (pafek). 

§ 7. Teansliteeation into Eussian. 

The Eussians, possessing their own special alphabet, 
have to transliterate foreign names and words. Within 
the limitations of their script they strive to be phonetic. 

For h they use r. 

e.g. rdMoypri Hamburg. 



PEONUNCUTION. 15 

For the English th they substitute t. 

e.g. Smith Cmktl. 
For German eu, du they use ea. 

e.g. JeuxTCHSepri Leuchtenberg. 
For the French u, German it, they use lo. 
e.g. Cpioccejb Brussel (Brussels). 
For the French eu, German o, they use and write e. 

e.g. leie Goethe. 
For the rest they try to represent sounds accurately, 
e.g. 4)KeHTJi>MeHT. gentleman, EpauTOHi Brighton, 
KOsiiui>*o comme il faut, IIoaHKapa Poincare, 
TyjOHT. Toulon, )\\AWh Jean, ^HuaHi. Dinant, 
JyeeHT. Louvain, BpjKeataHb Brzezan. 
All these foreign words, if they end in consonants 
or vowels that accord with Eussian declensions, namely 
•t, h, H, a, a, except o and e, are declined in the same 
way regularly. 

e.g. 1)^K0B0M^ by Bacon, bt. JyBeai in Louvain, 
B^ ^Huaai at Dinant (or Dinan). [v. § 23 (3).] 

§ 8. Eussian Diphthongs. 
Eussian diphthongs are nearly all formed with u ; 
and are afi, aft, sounded like i in " white," only broader ; 
eft and ift like ey in "grey," but longer; oft, eft almost 
as English "boy"; and yft, lou like ui in "bruited" 

The digraph ay denotes a true diphthong only in 
foreign words. 

e.g. BpayHuiBeflri Bpayui Braunschweig (Bruns- 
wick) Brown. 
In Eussian words (when found) the a and the y are 
separate vowels. 

e.g. ecayjT) a Cossack captain. Cf. in French 
" caoiitehouc." 



]G EUSSIAN GRA^rMAK. 

§ 9. The Change of e to e. 

Tlie reader will have observed there is no symbol 
for yo, and the diteresis o^'er e is only used in elementary 
school-books. 

The following rules will guide him in the pronuncia- 
tion of e as yc, or yo. 

The rule -is that acjented e preceding a hard con- 
sonant or oxytone is pronounced e. 

e.g. CBJo (^ilo) village, plural ceja, ceji. (sob, sol) ; 
luaienj (pla6it) he weeps, but pacTen, (rastyot) 
he grows ; pyajbe (ruzo) gun ; CMepit (smert') 
death; eJOMKa (yolscks), e.iita (yolka) fir- 
tree ; MepiBbiii (myortvy) dead ; itOHeMi, 
(ksnyom) by the horse ; name (nasi) our 
(neut. nom. sing.) ; iBoe (tvayo) thy (neut. 
nom. sing.). 
Exceptions : — 

e accented before a hard syllable is not pro- 
nounced e — 

(1) In words ending in -eux, e.g. itynem (kupets) 
merchant. This is because u was originally soft, 
[v. § 5 (4).J 

(2) Before the adjectival termination -craii, which is 
unaccented and was originally preceded by l, softening 
the consonant. 

e.g. Hteaa (zina) wife, j)lur. !i;eubi (§6ny), adj- 
iKeHCKiu (zenski). 

(3) In foreign words. 

e.g. anieita (apt'ek?) apothecary's shop 
6ii-ieTT> (bilet) ticket 
Aenema (d'epesa) despatch 



E AND E. 17 

(4) In words from Church Slavonic, 
e.g. lipecTX (kfest) cross 

Eeoo (neba) heaven, but Heoo palate of mouth 

Ha4e)K4a (nad'ezd?) hope, but Ha^ejiia (popularly) 

And iu some few other words, such as ^epsKifl bold, 

AepaocTb boldness, CKBepHbifl nasty, yqeSHwii educational, 

jBBi. lion (but JLeBT. the name Leo), npe^Meii subject. 

These words may also he taken as an exercise in the 
application of the rules regarding pronunciation. 

(5) In some words where e should be spelt i, which 
never undergoes this change, cf. § 2 (3). 

e.g. 6jecKT> brightness, mcikIh little, mejOHb trifle, 
Bpe4T. damage 

(6) The preposition Sesi. without, which is generally 
proclitic. 

e.g. 6e3T. mma (bisscita) without a shield 

(7) In the words Bcpxt the top, aepKOBb church, 
nepBbiii first, HBTBopri Thursday, 'jepnaTb to draw up, 
MepKiiyib to grow dusk, ciepBa carrion, cepnt sickle, 
Bcpoa willow, cep/(ue heart, Hciesi vanished, yate already, 
BOo5me in general. 

e remains before a soft consonant : — 

(1) In declensions and conjugations where other 
forms are hard and e is regular. 

e.g. Hccenib Hecen., HeceMX, Hecere 

thou carriest he, we, ye carry 
yiecTi cliff, Ha yieci on the cliff 
so Sepeaa birch-tree, bt. Cepes'fc in the birch. 



18 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

(2) In tbe instrumental singular of soft feminine 
nouns in a, like the hard nouns. 

e.g. rpoaoK) (rposa storm) 
sesueH) (seiMJii earth) 
£ut MoeK), TBoeio, CBOeio, with c not e. 

Also before the adjectival termination -kIh. As 
explained in § 33 (8), this -idii is a grammarian's mis- 
rendering of the former form -Koii, and, this k being 
only visually soft, there is no real exception to the 
rule. So, too, mcKa cheek, meKH cheeks (because after 
gutturals bi is never used ; v. § 5 (3)). 

(3) In the following words i becomes i, like e, e : — 
3Bfa4a star 3Bb34bi (plural) 

ruis^o nest niisAa (plural) 

npioSptcTii to obtain npio6pijT>* (past tense) 
UBicTH to bloom uBti-b (past tense) 
dknAO saddle ci^ja (plural) 

HBAifeBaTb to dress naA^Baai (past part, pass.) 
nostsbiBaTb to yawn 
aaneHaTjiai impressed 
CMiiKa wits 

These words are merely misspelt. 

In two words a is sounded e : — 
Tpaci he shook, sounded ipecT. 
aanpari he yoked (his horse), sounded aanperii 

Lastly, ei, the genitive of OHa she, is sometimes 
pronounced ee like the accusative (which is ee, sounded 

yiyo)- 

* And other compounds of this verb. 



ACClDfiNCH. 19 

ACCIDENCE. 

§ 10. The Parts of Speech (nacTn p'fein). 

The parts of speech in Eussiau are : — 

1(1) Nouns, HMH cymecTBHTeJtHoe 
(2) Adjectives, mia npHjaraieJEHoe 
(3) Pronouns, MtcTOHMCHie 
Conjugated (4) Verbs, Maroji. 
Declined (5) Numerals, hmh HHCJHieJbHoe 
/(6) Adverbs, HapiHie 

1(7) Prepositions, npe4.i6n. 
Uninflectedi ,„. „ . . , 

I (8) Conjunctions, cok)3x 

^(9) Interjections, MCHtflOMeiie 

There is no article. 

Occasionally o^hhi. (one) is used as an indefinite 
article. 

There is no special form for adverbs formed from 
adjectives. The neuter singular is used, except in 
adjectives in -ciiifl, where the form is -ckh. 

The verbs only have one regularly formed tense, 
namely the present ; and no other personal forms for 
past tenses, passives, moods, etc. These meanings are 
supplied by other simple modifications. 



20 KUSSlAN GKAMMAli. 

THE NOUN (hms cymecTBHiejbHoe). 
§ 11. Peeliminaey Observations. 

The EussiaQ noun has three genders, masculine, 
feminine, and neuter (po^ti MyiKecKifi, HieHciiiii, cpenam). 
Eut Eussian presents no great difficulties in the 
ascertainment of gender, for — 

(a) Nouns proper or common denoting males only, 
whatever the termination, are masculine (" natural " 
gender). 

e.g. IlBaiii John, IleTfi Peter, BaatKa Johnny, Boe- 

Bo^a general, enpoTa orphan (masc. or fern.). 

(/3) Nouns denoting females always have a feminine 

termination (" natural " and " grammatical " gender 

coincide). 

(7) The inflections of the masculine and neuter are 
identical, save in the nominative, vocative, and accusative 
singular and plural ; just as in Latin helium only differs 
from eguus in these cases. 

(S), Generally speaking, the termination fixes the 
gender, unlike French or German, where the beginner 
has no guide, and can only learn by rote. 

(i) Thus, nouns ending in i>, b and u are masculine, 
despite foreign etymology. 

e.g. C10X1, table mpH<i>n) type 

I^apb Tsar yHHeepcHTen. university 

6a3uci basis KOHb horse 

KpusHCT. crisis ciou^ elephant 

coJOBeu nightingale 

(ii) Nouns ending in 0, e, e are neuter, 
e.g. rioje field co.inue sun 

Ali.io affair fylijbe linen 



THE ^om. 21 

(iii) Words ending in a, fi, b are feminine, chqiite 
foreign etymology. 

e.g. pyna hand n^jfl bullet 

Apawa drama {ro 8pa/j,a, le drame, das Drama, 
etc.) 
With this apparent exception, as in Latin and Grech, 
that words in a and a of masculine signification are 
masculine, but declined like femiiiines. Unlike 
German or French, the gender primarily follows the 
meaning, not the termination. 

e.g. niVrKMiHia male c.iyra man-servant 

fi,kni[ uncle lleia Peter (short for IleTp'i.) 

ibbioiiia youth yOiiiua murderer (masc. or fern.) 

Masc. Fern. Neiit. 

Tenni nations : u a o 

h fl e 

u h Ma 

§ 12. The Declensions. 

There are three declensions. 

(1) Original o-stems : masculines in x, t and ii, 
neuters in o, e, e. 

(2) Original a-stems : femiuines in a and a. 

(3) Original t-stems : 

(a) One masculine word, nvTb path. 

(/3) Many feminines, principally abstracts in 

-ocTb, e.g. cKopocTb spced. 
(7) Two relics of older declensions : 

Jiaibj MaiepH, cf. mater, matris, motlier 

/(O'lb, AO'iepH dau^^liter 



22 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

(8) Neuters in mh (mchh). 

e.g. HMa, u.tieHQ name, cf. Latin nomen, nominis ; c4mj, 

CBMCUQ seed, cf. Latin semen, seminis [v. § 2 (2)] 

In Old Slavonic ttere was, as in Latin, an ' U ' declension (e.g. 

manus, manus). This has disappeared, but has left traces in the 

irregular genitives and locatives in y of the first (Russian) 

declension : also in the masculine genitive plural termination -ofii. 

§ 13. The Cases. 
There are seven cases. 

(1) Nominative, HiaeHHTeJtHbiH na^ent^ 

(2) Vocative, SBaiejLHUH 

(3) Accusative, BaEtneAhnhm 

(4) Genitive, PoAHTej[i.Hbiii 

(5) Dative, Ji,a,jeAhEbiii 

(6) Instrumental, iBopuTeJEHbiH 

(7) Locative or Prepositional, IIpe^JOiKHbiH naAeati, 
This list looks formidable, but, as with ApoUyon's 

lion in " The Pilgrim's Progress," apprehensions vanish 
on a close approach. 

The vocative only subsists in a few Church words, 
e.g. B6)i;e from Bon. God, Xpncie from XpucToci Christ, 
rocno^H from rocnoAt Lord, iHcyce from iBcyci Jesus, 
oTse from oieui father, [v. § 69, II.] 

The objective is identical with the nominative in 
all nouns denoting inanimate, but with the genitive in 
all nouns denoting animate objects. This rule has one 
exception— for the one instance where the accusative 
has an independent form, namely, the accusative 
singular of nouns in a and a. 

e.g. a BwniA-b U[apa (genitive) u I^apuiiy. 

I saw the Tsar and the Tsaritsa. 

VHHTeJt nposejx Bame coiBHeHie. 

The teacher read your work. 



THE NOUN. 26 

The original Slav accusative has vanished (except 
in the singular of nouns in a and »), and has been 
replaced by the nominative or genitive forms. 

In all negative sentences the object is in the 
genitive, whatever the noun. 

e.g. fl He OKOHHUJi CBoeii paGdibi. 

I have not finished my work ; the genitive 
being partitive in meaning " nothing of my 
work." 
fl HHKorAa He CJbixajT> laKHXi. CKaaom. 
I never heard such stories. 
The instrumental case marks the agent by whom, 
and the locative or prepositional is used to denote the 
place in which ; in modern Eussian it cannot be used hy 
itself, but only with certain prepositions, hence it is 
often called the " prepositional." 

e.g. Bx ce.i'B (fsile) in the village. 

fl roBopHJT) IlHKOJa-fe (ya gsvafii anikalaye). 
I was talking of Nicholas. 
Thus, virtually, there are only five separate forms 
for the cases — nominative, genitive, dative, instru- 
mental, and locative. 

§ 14. The Numbers. 

There are two numbers, singular and plural (caiih- 
CTBeHHoe THCJo, MBojKecTBeHHoe MHCJo). The forms are 
almost identical for masculine nouns in t., b, li, and 
f eminines in a, a ; neuters in o, e, e only differ in forming 
the nominative and accusative plural in a, a, as in Latin. 
In ancient Eussian there was a dual, but this is obsolete. Some 
few forms of it survive as irregularities, [v. § 24 (3).] 

The plural of nouns in h, of the third declension, is 
slightly different. 



24 



KOSSIAN GKAMJIAK. 



§ 15. Hard and Soft Nuuns. 

All nouns of the first and second declensions cire 
"hard" or "soft" throughout: i.e. there is a double 
scheme of declension in "hard" or "soft" vowels, 
according as the root is hard or soft. 

Those who have learnt the rules in § 3 and § 5 will 
find no difficulty in grasping this fundamental difference, 
which underlies all Eussian inflections. 

Nouns of the a declension, the third, are naturally- 
all " soft." 







Scheme of 


Declensions. 








First 
Declension. 


Second 
Declension. 


Third 
Declension. 




Masculine. 
Hard. Soft. 


Neuter. 
Hard. Soft. 


Feminine. 
Hard. Soft. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Sing. 
















Nom. 


b 


ii ii 





a e 


a a 


b 


M» 


Ace. 


Like N. or G. 





e e 


y i K) 


I 


ma 


Gen. 


a[y] 


a [lo] 


a 


a 


bi ! II 


II 


Mean 


Dat. 


y 


K) 


y 


10 


t 


■Ii 


H 


MOHH 


Instr. 


OMX 


esii 


(1Mb 


ejiTi 


010 ' eio 


ilD 


lueiiCMX 


Loo. 


t, [f ] 


■h [10] 


■t 


■Ii 


■C -a 


H 


JienH 


Plur. 










1 






Nom. 


Bl 


II 


a 


n 


Ll II 


II 


MCHa 


Aoo. 


Like N. or G. 


a 


a 


Like N. or G. 


H 


Mcna 


Gen. 


OBb eii 


CB^ eii 


■L 


eii 


■h 


I) eii 


eii 


jieni 


Dat. 


d,Wb 


(IMS 


ajii 


AMI 


ajii 


aii-b 


nsib 


MCnaM-b 


Instr. 


&MH 


HMH 


aMii 


aMii 


aiin 


aiuH 


IMH 


jienasiH 


Loc. 


axt 


flXl 


axTi 


axi 


axi 


ax-b 


axb 


Menaxi 



It will be observed that in the plurals there is 
scarcely any di\'evgence, 



FIKST DECLENSION. 



§ 16. Examples of AIasculine Nouns in the 
First Declension (nepBoe cK-ioneeie). 

Singular. 





tooth 


work 


cry 


N. V. 


syoT. 


TpyAT> 


Kpniib 


Ace. 


3y6i 


ipVAX 


ItpHKT. 


Gen. 


3^6a 


Tpy4a 


Kpviua 


Dat. 


3^oy 


ipyAy 


Kpiih-y 


Instr. 


syGoMi) 


ipy^oMT. 


KpnitOMI. 


Loc. 


syot 


xpyA* 

Plural. 


i.piiKii 


N. V. 


syobi 


TpyAb'i 


lipaiiH 


Ace. 


syosi 


ipyAbi 


KpHKlI 


Gen. 


syooBi. 


Tpy/lOBl. 


KpHKOBL 


Dat. 


sySaMb 


ipyaaM't 


KpllKaM^ 


Instr. 


sySasi 11 


Tpy4aMii 


npiiKaMH 


Loc. 


3yoa.x^ 

s 


TpyAax^ 

ingular. 


ItpHKaX't 




key 


a German 


march 


N. V. 


K.iio'n. 


iiiMem. 


Mapiut 


Ace. 


KJ lO'l^ 


HfeMua 


MapnjT. 


Gen. 


KJH)4a 


H'ibMiia 


Mapnia 


Dat. 


luioiy 


H'tMUy 


Mapmy 


Instr. 


KJIOHOM'L 


H'inmeMX 


MapmeiMT. 


Loc. 


lUIOH't 


flijiui 

Flural. 


Mapmi 


N. V. 


lUfOHl'l 


HtMnbi 


MapfflH 


Ace. 


KJK)4H 


H-hMneBi 


MapuiH 


Gen. 


Kjivm^a 


niiaqeBT. 


Mapraeu 


Dat. 


KJiK)Hajn> 


HiMUaMl 


MapmaMi 


Instr. 


KJIOHailll 


HijmaMH 


MapmaMH 


Loc. 


iMloiaxi 


H'hjmaxii 


Mapmaxb 



26 



RUSSIAN GEAMMAR. 



These six examples illustrate regular forms in 
"hard" consonants. Please observe the variations neeessary 
after gutturals and .palatals, and re-read § 5 (3) and (4). 
The rules in § 5 apply to all declensions and conjugations. 
Thus oionaMi is sounded klucam, laapniH marsy, etc. 

Examples of Weak Stems. 
Singular. 







hero 


horse 


battle 


knife 










(;k originally soft) 


N. V. 


repoii 


KOBb 


60H 


HO)KT> 


Ace. 


repoa 


KOHll 


60H 


HOHtl 


Gen. 


repoa 


KOHl'l 


ooa 


Homa 


Dat. 


rep OK) 


KOHli) 


66k) 


HOJKy 


Instr. 


repoeMi 


Konejii 


Soesii 


HOiKOMTi 


Loc. 


repoi 


KG Hi 


Gob 


HOlEi 




Plural. 


K V. 


repoii 


KOHH 


60H 


HOKM 


Ace. 


repocBi 


KOHefl 


6oii 


HGJKM 


Gen. 


repoeBi 


KOHefi 


SoeBT. 


HOJKeH 


Dat. 


repoa Ml 


KOHIIMT. 


^okwh 


HoataMT. 


Instr. 


repoa MH 


KOHl'lMIl 


SoAmh 


ROJEaMII 


Loc. 


repoaxi 


KOHiIXT) 


So/lXT) 


HOHiaX'I. 


These examples 


should be learnt by heart ; they are 


explained, and rule 


s stated, in § 5 (3) and (4). 


§ 17. EXAMPL 


Es OF Neuter Nouns of First 




Declension. 




Hard Stems. 




Singular. 




yoke 




village 


quality 


N. V. A. 


HFO 




cejo 


KaiiecTBO 


Gen. 


ftra 




ceja 


itaqecina 


Dat. ! iiry 




ce.jy 


liaqecTBy 


Instr. liroMi 


> 


cejoM-L 


liaHeCTBOMl 


Loc. 




nri 




cej 


% i 


KaHecTBife 



WEST DECLENSION. 



27 













Plural. 






N. V. 


A. 




lira 




ceja 




KaqecTBa 


Gen. 






an 




cejT. 




KaiecTBT. 


Dat. 






Hraittii 




cejaMT. 




Tja^ecTBaMT) 


Instr. 






AraMB 




cejaiun 




Ka^ecTBaMH 


Loc. 






iiraxi 




ce.iax^ 




i;aqecTBaxT> 






Soft and Sibilant Stems. 








Singular. 










sea 


school 




K V. 


A. 


Mope 


yqujiime 




Gen. 




Mopa 


yiiUHuja 




Dat. 




MOpK) 


y4HjHmy 




Instr. 




MOpCM^ 


yiiiiHmeMT) 




Loc. 




Mopi 

Plural. 


ySHJBmt 




N. V. 


A. 


Mopa 


yiiUHma 




Gen. 




Mopeii 


yHHJHmi 




Dat. 




MOpflMl 


yiiijHmaMi. 




Instr. 




MOpHMH 


y4MBmaMn 




Loc. 




MopAxi 

Singular. 
gun 


y4HJHmaxT> 

knowledge 




K V. 


A. 


pyiKbe 


3HaHie 




Gen. 




pVHtBK 


saaBifl 




Dat. 




pyjKLH) 


suaHJio 




Instr. 




pyiKBeMi. 


snaHieMTj 




Loc. 




pyjKb'B 

Plural. 


SHaaiti 




N. V 


A. 


py)Ki>a 


siiaQifl 




Gen. 




p^Hteu 


3Ha,Biu 




Dat. 




pyattHMT. 


SHaeiaMT. 




Instr 




pyjKBHMU 


BBaaiaMH 




Lo 


c. 




F 


yjKLflX^ 




snaeiflx-b 



These examples should be learnt by heart; a dis- 
cussion of them will be found in § 27. 



28 



]!D.SSIA]s GEAMMAE. 



§ 18. Examples of the Second Declension (BTopoe 
CKJoaeeie) in a and h. 

The scheme for these nouns is : — 





Singular. 

N. V. a 11 


Plural. 
1.1 11 






Ace. y 


10 


Like N. or G. [^ 


V. § 13] 




Gen. i>i 


11 


1. 


1. 






Dat. i 


i 


a Ml. jiMi. 






[nstr.oiooii* 


eio eii* 


OMll a Mil 






Loc. i 


t 


axT, axi) 




Exa 


mples : — 

Hard. 


Singular 
Hard. 


Soft. 


Sibilant. 




widow 


hand 


bullet 


soul 


N. V. 


B/ioea 


pyiia 


ny.ja 


Ayma 


Ace. 


BAOBy 


ppy 


ny.iio 


4ymy 


Gen. 


H/lOBb'l 


pVKU 


nyjH 


^ymii 


Instr. 


b40b6io 


pyiioio 


ny.icK) 


iiymoio 


D. L. 


Mosi 


pyiti 

Plural. 


njA 


AVini 


K V. 


B/tOBM 


pyKH 


ny.in 


4ymn 


Ace. 


B40BT) 


pyKU 


nyjii 


Ayuii 


Gen. 


B^OBTj 


pyiiT, 


nyjt 


AyuiT. 


Dat. 


BflOBaMT. , 


pyitaMX 


Tiy.JHMli 


4ymaMi 


Instr. 


B40BaMlI 


pyitaMH 


nyjd.MU 


AyniasiH 


Log. 


B40Ba.\i. 


pyKax'L 


nyjaxi 


AyiiiaxT. 




Sibilant. 


Singular 
Hard. 


Fricative. 


Fricative. 




candle 


tear 


empi'ess 


foodt 


N. V. 


CB^Ha 


c.ie.^a 


uapuua 


niima 


Ace. 


CBiny 


c^iesy 


uapiiuy 


numy 


Gen. 


CBiiii 


cjes.h 


uapiiqsi 


nHUIB 


Instr. 


fCBi)ieio| 
(cBiioio) 
cbIjhIs 


0^630 10 


uapimeio 


niimeio 


D. L. 


Cjiest 


napim']fe 


nil ml) 




* Contra 


cted forn 


. 


fNo plural. 





SECOND DECLENSION. 



29 



Plural. 

I ciesbi uapHUbi 

cjesbi uapHiii 

cjesT. uapaai 

c.iesaMi. napimasn. 

c.iesaMii uapiiiiaMii 

cje3ax'b uapHKax'L 

Fur 2yi'onunciation consult §§ 2 (2), 5 (3), 5 (4). 



N. V. 


CBtjMB 


Ace. 


CBtlH 


Gen. 


CfiilTi 


Dat. 


CB'tiaM^ 


Instr. 


CBt'iaSlH 


Loc. 


caiiaxb 



/S'o/i; aft(^ Vocalic Stems. 
Singular. 







earth 


lightning 






family 


K A'. 


aeMjfl 


MOJHia 






ceMbfi 


Ace. 


SeMJH) 


Mo.iiiiio 






ceMbib 


Gen. 


seivUH 


m^jhIh 






CCMbli 


Instr. 


seiujeio 


MojQiero 






ccMbeio 


D. L. 


seiij'Ii 


M 6.1 U ill 






ceMb'b 


Pk 


iral. 






N". V. 3eM.iH 


Mojflin 




ceMta 


Ace. seMjH 


MOJHin 




cejieu 


Gen. ] sejiejb 


Mojuiu 




cejieii 


Dat. scMjaMT) 


MOJHiflM'b 1 


CeMbflMl, 


Instr. sesuiiMH 


MOjaiflMii i 


CeMbl'lMIl 


Loc. 3eM.i(ix^ 


MO.lHiflXT 


1 


ceMbfix^ 


Examples of 


Masc. in a 


, a. 




Sin(, 


ular. 








H 


ard. 




Soft. 


N. V. 


CTapocT 


1 elder 




4Ma 


uncle 


Ace. 


ciapocT 


f 




AiUk) 


Gen. 


ciapocT 


bi 




4MM 




Instr. 


CTapocK 


)I0 




AH,ieio 


1). L, 




CTapOCT' 


b 




4i'i 


4li 





30 



KtSSIAiJ GEAMMAfi. 





Plural. 




N. V. 


cxapociM 


f.km 


Ace. 


CTapocn. 


flti^eii 


Gen. 


ciapocT^ 


AWii 


Dat. 


CTapocTaMi 


fllMflMT, 


Instr. 


CTapociaMH 


AHAaMti 


Loc. 


CTapocTaxT. 


4«iAax^ 


These examp 


es should be learnt by heart 


§ 2 (5), § 9, and 


5 11. 





Consult 



§ 19. Third Declension (ipexbe ciuoHeoie) : 
Nouns in b and ms. 

These nouns are always soft ; most of the termina- 
tions are in h.* 





Masculine. 






Only one example survives 


— 








Sing. 






Plural. 


N. V. A. 


nyiB pa til 


N. V. 


A. 


nyiH 


G. D. L. 


nyiii 


Gen. 




nyieii 


Instr. 


nyreiuT, 


3Jl 




nyitiMi 
nyTi'iMH 
nyi/ixx 



Formerly there were others of this type ; e.g. 4eHt day, now a 
soft masc. of the first declension. But " after midday " is " no- 
no.if /inii " (pspaliidAi) ; ^iih being the old genitive. 



§ 20. Third Declension in h : Feminines. 

These are numerous and important. In form they 
are liable to confusion with soft masculines like kohb 
horse. 



* Just like the Latin turris ; with which type they correspond 
philologioally. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



ol 



E.S 



Singular. 




Instr. 

N. V. 

Ace. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Instr. 

Loc. 



N. V. 

Ace. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Loc. 

Instr. 



K V. 

Aec. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Instr. 

Loe. 

Observe 
has SBlpbMU 



bone 

KOCTb 

KOCTb 

KOCTH 

KOCTH 

KOCTU 

KOCTb 10 1 

I.OCTilof 



horse 
.loiuaAb 
joraa^b 
jouia^u 
.1011] a^D 
j6uia4H 
joiua^biol 
j6ina4iio j 



door 
4Bepb 



r—i 

(V 

a 



H P 



o 

P 



Plural. 



<» 

d 
• i-i 

'o 
n 

p 



KOCTH .loiuaAn 

KOCTH .loiuaAeii 

KOCTefi JomaAeu 

koctAmi JoinaAfiMT. 

KOCTbMU JOma^bMU 

■ KOCTiixT. JoiiiaAiixi 

Singular. 
fortress care 

i KpiaOCTb OCTOpOJKHOCTb 

! KpinOCTb OCTOpOHtHOCTb 

Kp-fcnOCTH OCTOpOJKHGCTU 

KpbnOCTH OCTOpOJKHOCTH 

Kp'BnOCTH OCTOpoatHOCTH 

KpinOCTblO OCTOpOlKHOCTblO 
Plural. 
' KpinOCTH — 

Kp'tnOCTH 

KpinocTeii , — 

KptnOCTHMl j 

KpinOCTbMH j 

KpinOCTHXl i — 

3Bipb wild beast, which is now masculine, 
instr. plural, besides SBipiiMH, 



KUSSIAN GltAMMAK. 



§ 21. Thied Declension in h : Neutees in mh. 
Consult § 2 (2). 

Those who know Latin grammar have- learnt the 
forms like nomen, nominis, semen, seminis. 

The Eussian words of this type are very similar. E.g. 



Sing. 
Nom. Voc. Ace. 
Gen. Dat. Log. 
Instr. 

Plur. 
Nom. Voc. Ace. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Instr. 
Loc. 



name 
inm 

I'lMeHH 
HMBHeMT. 

HMBHa 

iiMetrii 

HMBBaMT. 

HMeHaMii 

HMCHaXT. 



banner 


tribe 


snajia 


njeMfl 


3HaMeBii 




snaMeHCMX 




SHaneHa 


-a 

03 


SHameHT. 




SHaMeBaMT) 


SBaMeaaMH 




SBainenaxi 





seed 

C'B.Ma* 



PI 

60 = 
^1 



^^ 



22. Thied Declension: Eemains of Oldee Foems. 
(1) Feminine : There are only two. 



Nom. Voc. 
A. G. D. L. 
Instr. 

Nom. Voc. 
Ace. Gen. 
Dat. 

Instr. 
Loc. 



Singular. 
mother 
Mart 
Marepii 
MaiepbK) 
Plural. 
MaxepH 
Maiepeii 
MaiepaMt 
fMaiepaMH 
(MaieptMB 
Maiepaxi 



Cf. mater, mdtris ; MtvPi M'^pis ; Bvya,rr)p, Bvyarpi^. 



daughter 

40Hb 

AoiepH 
/loiepbio 

^o^epH 
4oqepeu 
AciepaMt 
fitO'iepaMH 

(AOiepbMH 

Aosepaxi 



* Of. Latin semen. 



THIED DECLKXSION. 



(2) Neulur: There is only one, aud tliis uouu is 
irregular. 





Singular. 




Plural. 




child 




children 


Nona. Voc. Ace. 


AlITfJ 


Nom. Voc. 


AiiH 


Gen. Dat. Loc. 


AMTl'lTH 


Ace. Gen. 


Aiieii 


Instr. 


AMTlheK) 


Dat. 


Afaajn. 






Instr. 


AilLMl'l 

(andAfaaMH) 






Loc. 


AliiaxT. 



§ 23. (1) The foregoing sections, 16 to 22, illustrate 
tlie rules of Eussian declension. 

Some space must still be devoted to apparent 
exceptions (for euphonic reasons), to true exceptions 
(which are very few), and the principles of the 
accentuation in each class. 

It is assumed that the reader has mastered §§ 2-G 
and § 9, which supply the phonetic basis, the funda- 
mental laws of Eussian orthography. 

(2) Some nouns are used only in the plural. These 
are masculine, feminine or neuter, according as their 
genitive assigns them to one or other of the declensions. 

e.g. HOJKHHUbi, u6a;iiHU5, etc., fem., scissors 
mnnubi, miinuoei, etc., masc, pincers 
BopoTO, BopoTT), etc, neut., gates 

(3) Some nouns are indeclinable; namely, those whicli 
do not end in i., b, ii, a, a (m. and f.), and o, e (neut.). Such 
are (i) a few Eussian words, e.g. K6*e coffee, (ii) Many 
foreign words, especially proper names ; e.g. Capiii Sarti, 
ITeTpyH^o Petruccio, A\m Loubet, Mapie^JO Martello. 
The case in which these nouns stand must be under- 
stood from the context; e.g. bi, noasiii JoHr^c.i.Jo in 



34 SUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

Longfellow's poetry, bo Bpe»ia iipeauAeurcTBa Kapuo in the 
Presidency of Carnot. On the other hand, names like 
PenaH^ Eenan, J^aBAEi, Dinant, AaxeHi Aix-la-Chapelle, 
IIIonaaT. Chopin, are declined like ordinary nouns. 
[v. § 7.] E.g. Pt4b capa S^yap^a Fpea, the speech of 
Sir Edward Grey (rpeii). 

§ 24. Eemaeks on the Masculine N"ouns of the 
FiEST Declension. 

(1) In old Slavonic, as in Latin, there used to be a 
declension in " TJ," e.g. mdnus, manus ; e.g. in Russian 
cbiu^ son (Gothic simus). This declension has com- 
pletely vanished, but has left traces in the following 
irregularities : — 

(a) Some nouns, denoting materials, have mostly 
unaccented genitive in -y, -lo. 

e.g. Hfiio from qafl tea 

caxapy from caxapi sugar 
Hapo^y from iiapoAt people 

e.g. 'laniKa saio a cup of tea, but stotl po^i 
caxapa this sort of sugar. 

e.g. MDoro napo^y many people, xapaiiiepx anrjifi- 
CKaro Hapofla the character of the English 
people. 

Also in the phrases : — 

CBepxy from above 

cuM3y from beneath 

6e3T> T6.!Ky senseless 

H3ii Bii/iy out of sight 
and a few others. 



REMARKS ON FIRST DECLENSION. 35 

(0) Some monosyllables have an accented locative 
in -y, -10, used with bi in, na on. 

e.g. BT. jicy in the forest, but npn jtct at the wood 
B^ TOjif in the year 
Bi 6oib in the fight 
Ha Kpaib on the edge 
Ba MiAY on the ice 
BTi cotry in the snow 
Bt pai6 in Paradise 
Ha 6eper^ on the shore [v. § 5 (5).] 

(7) CM HI. son, Kysn> godfather, and others, insert the 
syllable -ob- into the plural. 

e.g. [cbiBb'i sons (poetical)] CMHOBta 

KVM^ godfather nvMOBiii 

3fiTb son-in-law aaieBbii (saTbi'i) 

CBarb match-maker cBaTOBbii 

(S) It is in the nouns in " u " that the genitive plural 
-OBX originated ; it has spread to nearly all masculine 
stems. 

(2) Some nouns form their plural in -ba ; this is 
really an old feminine collective form. 

e.g. 6pan. brother, Cpaiba (gen. SpaibeB^, dat. 

SpaibaMi, instr. 6paTbaMU, loo. Spaibaxi,) 
ita.weHb stone, KaMCHba stones, Kaiinu single 

stones 
gpocaib KaMHHMH, to throw stones 
CTVJ^ a chair, CTy.iba 
cyKT. a bough, cyiba [v. § 5 (3).] 
yrcib coal, yrcibs 



36 EUSSIiVN GKAMMAl!. 

ayot tooth, syota teeth (of a machine), syobi 

teeth (of a man) 
AiiCTh leaf, jHCTba leaves of a tree, .ihctbi (leaves 

of paper) 
4pyn. friend, Apysbii (gen. ^pyaeii) 
i.DflSb prince, Kiiasba (gen. Kiiaseii) 
MVJiii hushand, Myjitbi (gen. Mymefl) 
saTb son-in-laAV, ^aTbil (gen. saiefl), also siiTCBbii 
/lesepb the husband's brother, iteBepba (gen. 
^ecepbeB^ and ^ebepeii) 
(3) Some masculine nouns form their plural in -a. 
e.g. pynaBb sleeve pyKana 

Seperi) shore 6epera 

r.iasTj eye r.iasa 

noAon bed-canopy uojora 
pori horn pora 

KO.iOKO.ix bell lio.ioKOJa 

It will be observed most of these are essentially 
duals in meaning ; this a is the old dual, Noni. and Ace. 
Cf. § 26 (5) (d). 

This a ending has been extended to a few nouns — 
e.g. ropo^T. town ropo^a 
xich wood .j'ica 
ro.iocx voice rojoca 
AOM'b house Aojia 
as well as most loan-words in -ep'b and -opb — 



e.g. AOKTOpi. 


doctor 


40ET0pa 


npO'teccop^ 


professor 


npo*eccopa 


Kynep-b 


coachman 


Kyqepa 


hut aiaep^ 


actor (French 
adeur) 


aitiepbi 


liMficpaiopb 


Emperor 


UMQcpaiopbi 



REMAUKS (JX FIKST LiKOLEN.SION. 37 

Other iustances are : — 
oopasT. shapes oopasBi shapes oopasa images 
XAio-h bread xjbSbi loaves x.^ioa corn 

neiTh colour HBfab'i flowers UBiia colours 

iiixi bellows Mixi'i 
iiix^ fur M'txa 

op^eBT) the order op^enti the orders opjen a the orders 
(e.g. religious) (decorations) 

(4) The genitive plural of masculines in -% originally 
ended in -t, and was only accentually differentiated 
from the nominative. This genitive plural in -i, still 
obtains in the neuters and feminines. [v. § 24 (1) (S).] 

Hence it is (v. paradigm § 15) that masculines 
ending in a weak consonant form the genitive plural in 
-eii ; e.g. uapt, uapil, napi>'b, which became uapb'ii, and was 
pronounced and spelled uapeii in Eussian, after t> and b 
had become mute. 

So, too, words in -)kt>, -a, -un. (e.g. ^oil;^ knife, Do;i;a, 
iioaiefl), because [v. § 5 (4)] ;i; and m, and 4 and m were 
all originally soft. 

But n is regarded as a consonantal ending, and 
takes -CB-b ; e.g. CTpoii organization, crpoeBi. 

Some masculine nouns still have a genitive plural in -i,. 

Geji. plur. 
e.! 



B O.I OCT) 


hair 


BO-lOCb 


paai. time (so 


many times) 


pa3T. 


canori 


boot 


canon. 


Aparjin, 


dragoon 


aparvHb 


TVpOKb 


Turk 


TVpOKl. 


rpenaAept 


grenadier 


rpeaa^ep-b 


r.iasT. 


eye 


Fjas'b 


peKpyib 


recruit 


peiqiyri, 



38 



KDSSIAN GKAMIVCAR. 



as well as all those which form their nominative 
singular in -hht., and are thus distinguished by diversify- 
ing the nominative. 

Lastly, masculine nouns of measurement — 
e.g. "tynTT. a pound (= '90 lb. avoirdupois) 
casteHB a lineal measure ( = 7 feet) 
make their genitive plural thus : 4>yHn., caJKeuT., or 
cajKCBB, or caJKCHeii. 

(5) Nom. sing, in -hhd. 

Many words, especially words descriptive of race, 
creed, etc., have a singular with the adjectival form 
-BHi [v. §34(2)], but drop the -nn^ in the plural, 
forming the nom. plural in -e or -a. E.g. 

Eoman Christian 

Nom. sing. Phmjaehhi xpHCTianiiui 
Gen. sing. PpiMjaHHaa xpncTiaHiiua 
ISTom. plur. PHiuane xpHciiaHe 

Gen. plur. PiiiuaHt xpHciiaHX 

Tatar master 



Nom. sing. 



Gen. sing. 
Nom. plur. 
Gen. plur. 



SapHHT. 
6apnna 



6ape 
6api 



Englishman 

AHrjHHaBHHl 

AHrJUHaHiina 

AnrjHiaHe 

Aflrja'iam) 

wife's brother 
raypniiTj 
luypHHa 

mypbii 

mypbeBT> 



In 



Taiapuui 

TaiapiiHa 
C Taiapw ■) 
(laiape ) 

TaTap^ 

xosfiHHi (master of the house) is not quite regular 
the singular, xosiihhi, xos/mna, etc. 

Phiral Nom. Voc. xo3iieBa [cf. § 24 (1) (7)] 

„ Ace. Gen. xo3i'ieBT> 

„ Dat. Instr. Loc. xosfiee-, aMi, aMH, axt 

In this connection [v. § 34 (2)] the possessive 
adjectives in -Hm> used as proper names 'sxve declined 
as stated in that section, and not like the above, 



EEMARKS ON FIRST DECLENSION. 



39 



(6) Irregular formations. 



ISrom. 

Voc. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Instr. 

Loc. 



Singular. 
Christ 
XpncTOcx 
XpHCTe 

XpHCTcT, 

Xpuciy 

XpHCTOM^ 

XpHcxi 



The Lord 
rocno^b (Hasp6d') 
Focno^H 
TocnoAa 
r6cno4y 
r6cno40Ji[. 
YocnoA'b 



neighbour 



devil 



Nom, 

Ace. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Instr. 

Loc. 



Voc. 



coctAa 

etc. 



Phir. 
C0C't4H 

cociAefi 



0) .4J 



Plur. 

lepiH 
Hepxeii 

^i 

r3 o 

1^ CO 

HciOBtux, man (in general : MyjK^ husband, MvatiuHa 
mfile), generally forms its plural in jioah (declined like a 
plural of an h stem). 

When the plural is used, the geniti\'e plural is 
'le.iOB'BKi, e.g. ABafluaiB HeAoain-h twenty men. 



Sing. 
•lOpTL* 

■miopia 
•lopia 
Hopiy 

HOpiOMl 

'lopiii 



§ 25. Accentuation of the Masculine Nouns of 
THE First Declension. 

Most masculine nouns retain the accent of the 
nominative ; but, as the original nominative termination 
ii has become mute, and cannot be accented, some 
nouns seem to throw the accent forward, i.e. on to the 
terminations. 



* Not to be confused with 'lepri (fern.) feature. 



40 }ujs,sia:n grammar. 

Eg. HCioiitin, mail, capaii barn, Spart brother, retain 
the accent on the syllable accented in the nominative, 
i.e. on the stem; e.g. HeJoeliKOM^, capaio, Cpaia. 

N"o general rule can explain the variance of the 
accent ; the following principles may be a guide. 

I. The following derivatives were originally accented 
on the termination t,, and therefore throw the accent 
forward on to the other terminations : — 

(1) All names in -I'lin,, e.g. Kapamsi'iux Karamzm. 

(2) All words in -eq^, e.g. i\\aea.i, merchant. 

(3) All derivatives in -aia,* -hkt., -/iirt, -6ki,, -cjkt., 

-aiT.; e.g. AvpaK^ fool, CTapiir.'b old man, 
najeiKT, case, na.iaq^ executioner, kvcokx morsel, 
Cl.•pll^a4^ fiddler, Tio>i>jii;b mattress. 

(4) All derivatives in -vh'i., -apb (except rocy/iapF. 

Lord, as a royal title, rocvAapa), -tipb, -I'lpb, and 
the months in -6pb; e.g. AeBararo OKiaSpii on 
the 9th October, laoYQ^ herd of horses, cioJiip'b 
carpenter, nysbipt bellows, mioupb ginger; 
but namibipb (naiiubipa) cuirass. 

(5) A very large number of words, such as CTO.n. 
table, 6bii;b ox, il!ellll^■^ bridegroom, njOAi> 
fruit, no.iKT. regiment, a3bIb•^ tongue, nixyxi. 
cock. Nothing but I'eading and practice can 
determine which these are. 

II. Secondly, many words retain the accent as in 
the nominative in the singular, but throw it forward in 
the plural; e.g. caAb'i gardens, hhhh ranks, iiian'i steps. 

* Cf. the Greek accent aitos, lk6s. 



ItEMAUKS OX FIRST DECLENSION. 41 



III. Thirdly, some words th 


row the accent forward 


on to the termination in the genitive plural and follow- 


ing cases. 




e.g. 60 rb god 


SoroBt 


Bopi. thief 


BopauH 


FBOSAb nail 


rB03/(aMH 


Kpyn. circle 


KpyraM'b 


jeoe^b swan 


.Ie6e4^'lx^ 



In all cases the original accent on the nominative 
must be learnt from the dictionary or a teacher ; as a 
general rule, a masculine noun that tliroivs its accent 
forward on the genitive singular throws it forward on to 
all the terminations; and a noun not accented on the 
last syllable retains the same accent throughout. 

This section must be read subject to all the rules 
stated in § 24 and § 9. 

§ 26. Eemakks on the Neuter Nouns of the 
First Declension. 

Except, in so far as the masculine nouns have more 
inflections, the special remarks in § 24 apply to neuters 
as well. 

(1) In § 24 (4) it was observed that all masculine 
nouns of the first declension ending in a consonant + b 
or -JKT,, -mi, -mt, -H-h (which were all originally soft, 
v. § 5 (4)), form the genitive plural in -eii. The same 
applies to all soft neuter nouns in -e, and the same 
arguments hold good. 

e.g. no-ie field ncieii 

p 



42 IIUSSIAN GEAMMAR. 

But, with this difference, neuters in -no, -ne, -mo, 
-me, -mo, -me, -ho, -mc, form the genitive plural in i. 

e.g. ujieio shoulder njeii. [v. also § 26 (5) (/3).j 
jKiuHuie home jkhjuiut. 
jnqo face Jimx 

Nouns in -Be form the genitive plural in -efi, the 

reason being that the b is inserted to divide the 

syllables, so that such words come under the general 

rule of neuters ending in e. 

.'. 
e.g. pyJKbe gun pyiKew 

DHTbe drink nmeH 

(2) Neuters in -ie, and feminines in -ia (these termina- 
tions being unaccented) spell the i terminations as 
they are sounded, viz. h. 

e.g. noniiMaBie the understanding 
Loc. noHUManlH 

These nouns in -ie are very common, being the 
regular verbal nouns formed from the infinitives to 
express the abstract idea of the verb. 

e.g. BbipasHTb to express, Bbipaatenie the expressing 
HMiTb to own, HJiliBJe the estate 

The (jenitive phoral in nouns in -ie and -ia is -iii. 

e.g. fl ne xciy ero nMLHift 
Ya ne khacii yivo imSni 
I do not desire his property 

In poetry and colloquial speech such nouns aro 
contracted, e.g. mejianjie for }i!e.!apie, 



REMAUKS ON FIEST DECLENSION. 4-. 

Some such nouLis form a genitive plural in hCBi,, 
e.g. njaTbc clothing, n-iaTbeBt ; nymauLe food, KymaubCBb ; 
but these are exceptions, for such nouns are in reality 
paroxytone collectives, the old collective termination 
being -be, plural -bii. 

These nouns are only found ia the contracted form, 
and may be compared with the plurals ^pvsbft, Gpatba 
[v. §24(2)]. 

(3) Mixed masculine and neitter declension. 
Augmentative nouns in -iime, e.g. ce-io village, 

cejume a big village, form their plural like that of 
the soft masculine nouns, e.g. KOiib. Thus cejuiKH, 
ce.JHmeH, etc. But KjaAOiime, cemetery, is regular; the 
augmentative sense has disappeared. 
So, too, diminutives in -ko. 

e.g. c.iOBeiKO a little word 
PL Nom. Voc. Ace. cjOBeqitn 

Gen. cJOBeicKi [v. § 6.] 

Observe, too, O'iko, 04i;h (little eyes), now spectacles ; 
O'lKOBi), and so on. 

Some other miscellaneous examples are : — 
cojuue sun cojuaaand-bi cojHueBt 

4H0 bottom yjllbl (ilODbfl) AOHl (AOHbCBI.) 

iioJOKO apple KOJOKu hojoki or aojoitOBi 

(4) Plurals in -ba [v. § 24 (2)]. 

Neuter words capable of a collective meaning have 
a collective plural like the masculine nouns, 
e.g. Aepeeo tree 4epeBba 

nepo feather nepba 

bpbi.io wing icpb'i.iba 

d2 



44 ilUSStAl? GRAMllAli. 

Observe. — KOJ'ibHO, knee, has three meanings and three 
plurals : (1) Koxtfla, koj^qt. family or race; (2) KO-iiiin, 
KOJtHea knees ; (3) KOJ^Hba, KOjiHteBi. knots on wood. 

(5) Irregular forms. 

These may conveniently be considered under two 
heads : (a) obsolete declensions, of which a few relics 
subsist ; (/3) dual forms. 

(a) Obsolete forms. 

lleoo heaven, ny^o miracle, cjobo word, liio body, 
i;6.io wheel, formerly belonged to the same declension 
as the liatin gemis,gene7'is, Greek ve<po'i,ve<^ov<^ {ve<^eao<;). 
Hence the adjectival forms are: ciOBecHwa literary, 
neSecHbiii heavenly, ny^ecHbiH wonderful, TLiecHLifi 
corporeal, and KOJecHbiii pertaining to a wheel. 

Of all these forms only two survive in regular use : 
MVAO, HVAeca, MV^eci [not qy^eci., cf. § 9, exception (4)] ; 
and ueoo, Hcoeca, iieSeci [not Heoeci)]. 

The modern Eussian for wheel is kojcco, plural 
KOJeca. 

Cjobo and Ti.io are regular like /iLio. 

In words denoting the young of animals a plural 
-Hia is still used, the singular being -enoirb. 

e.g. KoieflOK^ kitten KOTaia, KOTfh"b 

HtepeoenoKT, colt jKcpeoara, HtepeGi'iTii 

BOiseHOKi wolf-cub BOJ'iaTa, BOJHarb 

[v. § 5 (3).] 

So, too, nbinjiixa chickens, peSaia children (used as 
the plural of peSeHOia), etc., and also miyui) grandson, 
BHynaTa grand-children. 



ACCENTUATION OF NEUTER NOUNS. 



4.^ 



(;S) Dual forms. 
OKO eye (poetical only) 
yxo ear 
KOjiHO knee 
CTO one hundred 
njCMO shoulder 



04U, oqen 
^lUH, ymefl 
KOJ'!^QH, lioitaeii 
4BicTii two hundred 
n.ieiH, n.iCHi 



§ 27. Accentuation of the Neuter Nouns of the 
First Declension. 

As in all cases the accent on the nominative must he 
ascei'tained from the dictionary or the teacher. 

Dissyllabic words reverse the accent in the plural. 



e.g. tBjo 


body 


lija 


Mope 


sea 


MopA 


cejo 


village 


ceja [v. § 9.] 


peSpo 


rib 


peQpa 


AepcBo 


tree 


^epeuba 


IIBCbMO 


letter 


nucbsia, ^l'lceM^ 


npaBO 


right 


npaea 


cep4ue 


heart 


cep4ua 


Except 6.11040 


dish 


6.nbAa 


ropjio 


throat 


ropja 



Trisyllabic nouns, if oxytone, have the plural 
paroxytone; if the stem is accented, make the plural 
oxytone. 

e.g. KCjeco wheel Kcteca 

nojoTHo cloth nojoTBa 

aepitajo mirror sepnaja, sepuajT) or 3epKa.ix 

KpyateBO lace KpyjiteBa, icpyiKCBi 

osepo lake osepa 



46 RUSSIAN GKAMMAE. 

Derivative nouns ia -ie, -ctbo, retain the same accent, 
e.g. cymecTBo being cymeciBa 

3uaaie knowledge 3BaHi« 

npaBUTC-iLCTBO government npaBHTe.H.ciBa 

§ 28. Eemaeks on the Second Declension.. 

(1) Genitive plural in -i. and -eii. 

Practically the same conditions obtain as with the 
neuters, [v. § 26 (1).J 

Soft nouns in -a and -ia, -ma and -Jita, regularly form 
tlie genitive plural in -i> and -hi, and the instrumental 
singular in -eio, -eio ; -moio, -hcio ; -moH), -meio ; ->k6io, 
-;i;ero. [v. § 5 (4).] So, too, nouns in -ua preceded by 
a vowel : instrumental singular -ijoio, -ueio ; genitive 
plural -UT). 

But nouns in -'la, -Hia, -ma, when preceded by a 
consonant, form the genitive plural in -eii : and the 
same applies to nouns in -ma. 



e.g. Beuma 


squirrel 


BeKmeu 


capaH'ia 


locust 


capaHweii 


Similarly: 4H4« 


uncle 


Afl^eii 


HOSAp/l 


nostril 


HOSApeu 


AOAH 


lot 


40Jb and 40.ieu 


3apii 


dawn* 


3opb and sapeii 



Nouns in -ba also have a genitive plural in -eii 
regularly, when accented ; -in unaccented. 

e.g. jryaba liar jryEiifi 

CTaTbi'i article ciaieB 

rocTba guest (fern.) rocTitt 
CBHUbii pig CBHneii 

* Also the evening half-light. 



KEMARKS ON SECOND DECLENSION. 47 

(2) la ordinary speech and ia poetry the iustru- 
mental singular -oio, -eio is contracted to -oii and -eii, 
and often thus written. 

(3) Many nouns in the second declension are 
masculine, because of their meaning, as in Latin agricola. 

e.g. 4ii/ia uncle, rononia youth, Cama diminutive of 
AjeiicaH^pi, Koja diminutive of IJHKO.iaii, tlera 
diminutive of Uerpi., ciyra servant (feminine 
form cjy;i!ani>a), cupoTa orphan, masc. or fern. 
according to meaning, cy^bii judge, opoAfira 
vagabond. 

(4) There are very many derivative nouns in -i«, 
amongst them the loan-words from the Latin tio, e.g. 
uaula nation. 

The rule regarding these is the same as with the 
derivative neuters in -ie [v. § 26 (2)], namely that the i 
forms are written and sounded h. 

e.g. apMin army, B^ apjiiH in the army, ap.Miii 
genitive plural; so, too, Apsieiiia Armenia, 
AiiFjia England, (tpaouia France, etc. 

Note. — Mapi'n, o Mapiii ; but Mapha, o Mapbi, Mary. 

§ 29. Accentuation of Second Declension. 

The rules for the accentuation of this declension are 
comparatively easy. 

Only oxytone nouns, i.e. those accented on the final 
syllable, can shift the accent. All others retain the 
accent on the same syllable. 

Of oxytone nouns only those which are dissyllabic 
can shift the accent. 



48 



KUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



Amongst these [v. § 5 (5) ] must be included liquid 
stems, such as 6opoAa beard, rojOBa head (contrast 
rjana chapter). 

Trisyllabic and polysyllabic nouns retain the same 
fixed accent. 

For the oxytone dissyllables there are two sets of 
rules. 

(a) The accent goes back on the root only in the 
nom. plur. 



e.g. B^oita 


widow 


BAOBbl 


Bcifia 


wave 


BOJHW 


Hrpa 


game 


iirpbi 


piita 


river 


pBKH 


cy4Bfi 


judge 


cyjtii 


cjyra 


servant 


cjyrn 


CTpija 


arrow 


cjpixbi 


cipyna 


string 
(e.g. of violin) 


CTpVBM 


ysAa 


reins 


y34H 


and a few others. 







(0) The accent goes back to the stem in the ace. 
sing, as well. 

e.g. pyi.a hand py'*y> vf^^ 

(Occasionally, by analogy, JKenaMi, iKCHaMH, iKenaxx; 
cecTpaMT., 3eMjaMT>, sets^aM^ are mistakenly used.) 
SopoAa beard 66po4y, 66po/ibi 

BO^a water Bojiy, Bo^bi 

Hora foot uorv, hofh 



jiemabks on third declensiox. 49 

§ 30. Eemakks on the Third Declension. 

The original nouns belonging to this class are few 
in number, but very common in use. Some of them 
have both Slavonic and Russian forms [v. § 5 (5)]. 

e.g. BOJOCTb a rural district, B.iacTt power.* 

The derivative nouns in -octl are innumerable, and 
abstract nouns are mostly created with this termination. 
All such derivative nouns accent the root-syllable, 
[v. § 98, v.] 

e.g. ciapi old, CTapocTB old age. 

(1) There is a special accented locative ending in 
H, used onlij after ua and Kh [cf. § 24 (1)]. 

e.g. rpy^i. breast, na rpjAi'i ; BiTBh twig. Ha Bfouu ; 
cienb steppe, bt> cieQH ; Pycb Eussia (poetical, 
usual word Poccia), Ha Pyeu. 

(2) l(epi;oBb church, has in the dat., instr., and 
loc. plural a for H. 

i.e. uepiiBaui., -ainB, -axi 

§ 31. Accentuation of the Third Declension. 

The accentuation follows the paradigms in § 20 ; 
but some reservations must be made. 

(1) Many of these nouns accent the termination on 
the dative, instrumental, and locative plural. 

e.g. Ao.iJKHOCTb duty, aoj)kuoct)1mi, -bMu, -iixh 

* Such f eminines in -ocTb and -ib correspond etymologically with 
the English forms " might," " draught," German " Wacht," etc. 



50 SDSSIAN GKAMMAE.. 

(2) Amongst such nouns, the following have the 
accented locative singular [v. § 30]. 

6poBb brow ncHb oven CBast connection 

rpy^b breast piiL speech lacTb part 

i;ocTb bone cienb steppe 

'lecTb honour liab shadow 

ocb axle uiub* chain 

§ 32. The " Euphonic " Vowels o, e, e. 

In § 2 (7) and § 6 brief reference was made to the 
former vocalic values of t. and b, as short 6 and i, 
and to the aversion of the Eussian language from heavy 
combinations of final consonants, especially when there 
are liquids (such as b, p and it) in the conglomeration. 

Under these two heads simple phonetic changes, 
which arc luritten, occur in all the declensions, and 
these rules must be applied to all of the declensions. 

I. ExtrusioTi of t. and b %uhen unaccented. The 
ancient Russian for "day" was ^bu-b'. When b became 
mute, being " open," the first vowel was transformed to e ; 
hence the nominative Aeiih, genitive 41111. Shnilarly 
4116 bottom, gen. pi. floux (for 4xh-i/). 

This law may be tabulated : — 

1., originally accented or in close syllables, becomes 
; unaccented disappears. 

b, originally accented or in close syllables, becomes 
c or e ; unaccented disappears, or is retained 
in spelling to soften the consonant. 

* Not to be confused with iftui flail. 



THE EUPHONIC VOWELS AND e. 51 

e.g. JiooTj (formerly jx6x') forehead, gen. .loa; 
poTT. (formerly pin.') mouth, gen. pxa; .icbi. 
(formerly JbBT,') lion, gen. .ibBa*; coti, gen. 
of CTO (for ciTo), one hundred; .leyji ice 

Incidentally it may be stated here that the great 
comidication in the accentuation of masculines arises 
from the loss of the final inflection of the nominative. 
Most Russian nouns retain the accent on the same 
syllable ; but where the original inflection was formerly 
accented and has become mute (i.e. either % or h), the 
accent had to be thrown bach on to the stem. 

In the feminines and neuters the original inflection 
a, 0, has been retained ; hence the rules are much simjolcr. 

Similar instances are : neci dog, genitive nca ; 
Miiri, but MniOBeiiie, both meaning moment, 
the latter should have been spelt latreoBeHie ; 
MFJa mist, for Mbr.ia; B03-, verbal prefix 
meaning " up," but BSJtcTb to climb up, to 
grow up (for BisJibcTb) ; cohi sleep, cna ; jein. 
linen, jbiia, etc. 

As a contrast: Eussian, jieA'b, Mt'4a mead (the 
drink), Old Eussian, mcaT", Jie^a; i.e. the 
original accent was on the stem. 

Some other instances may illustrate the same point. 
All derivatives in en^ (formerly eijb) were once oxytone, 
i.e. accenting the termination b' ; hence, they " throw 
the accent forward " in the other inflections, and extrude 
the e of the nominative which is merely epenthetic, a 
strengthening of the original b (oTbUb). 

* The I. is retaijied to indicate the soft sound. 



52 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



So that the genitive of oxeni is oma ; so, too — 
Kvueui merchant Kynua 
BtBem crown Binqa 

But, where the -eut is unaccented, the accent is 
stable and the form merely abbreviated in spelling, 
e.g. HtMeui German (for Btjibub), HifeMua, etc. 

Conversely in the genitive plurals in t> or l, o and e 
must be restored. 



e.g. a HUG 


egg 


BHUl* 


3j6 


evil 


aojT. 


KOJbUO 


ring 


KOJeUT. 


nncbMo 


letter 


niiceML 


OKHO 


window 


OKOHl 


CTeK.i6 


pane of glass 


cieKOJ^ 


Kpecjo 


armchair 


Kpeceji 


OBua 


sheep 


OBeni 


cvAbSa 


fate 


cy^efi-L 


pyiKa 


little hand 


pyqeia 


KoneiiKa 


copeck 


KonecKii 



And observe that after a vowel the symhol ii replaces the 
symbol h, but has the same value. 

e.g. mea neck, diminutive uiefiKa, raeeKi, i.e. seika, 
sei'k ; cojobch nightingale, coJOBbli, coJOBbcBi ; 
MvpaBeii ant, MypaBbA, laypaBbesi. 

In these last two instances efl represents an original 
h'a, which in Eussian became eii. The original inflection 
would have been coJOBb'ii, coJOBb'a. 

II. Insertion of o and e for euphony. Similarly, 
heavy final combinations of consonants are lightened in 

* Irregular for a^iji. 



THE EUPHONIC VOWELS AND e. 



53 



the nominative singular of masculines and genitive 
plurals of feminines and neuters; i.e. the terminations 
in -h and b. 

Some instances have already been given; viz. 
CTCiuo, itpecio, nncbMo. 

Others are : — 



\^ \Ji.±\JM.U t.VJ.\^ . 






Gen. Pltir. 


jiapita 


postage-stamp 




MapOKT. 


Hoa 


needle 




nroji, iir.li 


Hrpa 


game 




uropi,, Hppb 


posra 


cane 




posorb 


cecipa 


sister 




cecTepx or 
cecTpi. 


nBCHfl 


song 




niceHx 


6apbiiuBa 


young lady 




SapbimeHb 


cothh 


a body of one 


hundred 


COTCHl 


KyXBfl 


kitchen 




KyxoHX or 

KfxODb 


3eM.iil 


earth 




3eMejb 


peopo 


rib 




peoepx 


BBAPO 


ewer 




Be4ep^ 


In the nominatives :— 




Gen. 


ope.i^ (pronounce aryol) eagle 


opja 


oroHb 


fire 




orHi'i 


Biiepi 


wind 




Bfcpa 


BHXOpb 


whirlwind 




Bilxpa 


HaeMT. 


hire 




iiauiua. 


6oeu^ 


warrior 




Coiiua 


saflifb 


hare 




saaqa 


Observe the vowel o or e is 


inserted according as the 


syllable is hard 


[ or soft. 







54 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

Thus, too, TbMa darkness, tcmdmh dark, imaiejtno 
(for TbmaxeJbHo) in vain, Tomiii lean, and compare 
Kussian 40MI., ^osepn, daughter, with the Church 
Slavonic amepH (for 4^InepH), cf. Ovyarepe';* 

An apparent exception really confirms the rule, 
namely, that, when the effect of extruding the euphonic 
vowel would be to accumulate consonants, the vowel is 
retained. 

e.g. mepTBeij^ corpse MepiBeija 
GjiiSHem twin 6jH3Heiia 

III. Nevertheless, some heavy combinations of final 
consonants are tolerated. 

(1) In loan words. 

e.g. ii]pn*TX type (from German) [v. § 11 (8).] 
MHHHCip^ minister (from French) 

(2) In the genitive plural of the abstract termina- 
tion -CTBO. 

e.g. oomecTBX from oomecTBO company 

MnnHCiepcTBi from MHHHCiepcTBO ministry 

(3) In a few words where resolution would not be 

easy. 

e.g. mepTBa sacrifice iKepiBi. 

(4) In such words as py 6.i i. (masculine) rouble, Kopa6j h 
ship (masculine like Koiit), the j can be mute. [v. § 4 (9).] 

(5) In the formation of predicative adjectives no 
vowel is inserted before p. 

e.g. MVflpi wise, 6bicT|n. swift, [v. § 36 (4).] 
H' Whence nA(^iepiiHa, 8 97. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 55 

IV. la the feminine in h of the third declension 
observe — 

nepKOBb church nepiiBH, uepKOBbio 
jioSoBb love jh)5bh, nooonbV) 

Bouib louse BniH, Boinbio 

JOHtb lie J)KH, JOHtbK) 

poJKb rye piKH, poHtbio 

But when Aio66Bb is a girl's name it retains in "o" 
throughout ; thus, ^iooobh, ^loSoBbEO. 

THE ADJECTIVE. 

§ 33. Pkeliminary Observations. 

(1) The syntactical importance of the adjective in 
Russian. 

In English the adjectival function can be expressed 
in many really irregular ways ; e.g. by a noun, " the 
village pump " ; by combinations of adjectives and 
nouns, "the Civil Service Examination," even to the 
point of ambiguity, e.g. " the Women's Eed Cross 
Slavery Abolition League " ; also, vulgarly, by adverbs, 
"this 'ere bloke." In German, also, long compound 
nouns are yet more used to show the dependence. 

Eussian adjectives are fully declined in gender, 
number, and case. 

In Eussian, composition of words is rare and 
occasional, and fully declined adjectives must be used, 
e.g. 3y6Haa 6o.ib tooth-ache 

npaBHTejbCTBeHHbie yKasbi government decrees 
GapaHbfl mepcTb sheep's wool, etc. 

Cf in French, le ministere de I'iuterieur, Home 
Oifice ; les perquisitions militaires, war demands. 



56 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

(2)' In addition to this, Eussian frequently prefers 
an adjective where other languages use other forms, 
e.g. CTCKjaHBaa 6yTb'i.iKa a glass bottle, une bouteille 
de ver; St. Elias' day MAhviai> achb; Igor's 
Army llropeBi. uoakt, ; the local custom 
TaMomuiu hjh aA'tinuiM oSuHaii (from TaM^ 
there, SA^Cb here) ; a reindeer's horns o.ieBbii 
pora. 

Such adjectives are called possessive, e.g. neipoBi 
ACHb St. Peter's day; ItapHUUHO ccjo the Empress's 
village; or descriptive, e.g. Bojitia xpaMX God's Temple. 

Ordinary adjectives when used with nouns are 
called attributive, e.g. Aooptin good, xyfloiKecTBeuBbiii 
artistic; i.e. those not attached to some particular 
noun, and not serving as a kind of inflected genitive. 

(3) In the plural adjective, except in the nominative 
(e masculine, a feminine and neuter), there is no dis- 
tinction of gender. 

(4) Eussian discards the copula " I am, he is," etc., 
and uses a special form as the predicative adjective ; 
this form being the nominative, singular and plural, of 
the old simple form of the attributive adjective. 

e.g. a IlBauoBi I am Ivanov 

OH'b CTOJapx he is a carpenter 

OBU Mai SHaKOMbi they are known to me 

(5) The attributive adjective can in general have 
two forms as stated in the preceding section (4), one 
full, when agreeing with a noun, the other predicative ; 
the latter only used and only surviving with a nomina- 



THE ADJECTIVfi. 57 

tive form. (Certain predicative relations are expressed 
by a dative or instrumental, v. § 69, V. and VI.). 

This apparent anomaly requires explanation. In 
older Eussian, as in the Teutonic languages, there were 
two forms of adjectival declension, the determinative 
and the simple. 

The simple form, as in most European languages, 
was inflected almost the same as the noun, an adjective 
being in a sense only a fuller form of noun capable of 
all three genders. Thus Romdnus in Latin is exactly 
like equus, horse, Romdna like mensa, and Bomdnum 
like helium ; so, too, ingens has the same forms as gens, 
and so on. Similarly, in French the adieetiye occidental 
follows the form of the noun cheval, and occidentale of 
any feminine noun. In Latin there exists little but a 
grammarian's distinction between bonus, bona, good, 
masculine and feminine, and fllius, filia, son, daughter. 

So, too, in Eussian the simple adjective originally 
followed nominal declensions almost exactly. 

But, there being no article, the Old Slav pronoun b, 
he (obsolete in Eussian), was compounded with and 
postponed to the simple form to make the so-called 
determinative form [v. § 35]. 

Thus as in German we find guter Mann, but der 
gute Mann, in older Eussian, too, two forms existed. 
In modern Eussian the determinative form has swept 
the simple form out of existence, except (a) in the 
nominative when used predicatively, (/3) in the possessives 
and descriptives, some of which follow the simple in- 
flection, (7) in rather high-flown archaistic style when 
the old simple forms are used. 



58 feUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

(6) The accentuation of the determinative, possessive 
and descriptive forms, is constant ; that of the simple 
form is very difficult, as difficult as the nominal forms 
which it follows. We have seen [§ 25] how the loss 
of the nominative sufBx i., i> has confused the rules for 
accentuation, and [§§ 27 and 29] the slighter variances 
ia the neuters and feminines. All these rules come in 
to complicate the formation of the predicative adjective. 

(7) In modern Russian no instance survives of 
adjectives in the third declension. 

(8) In the eighteenth century, when Peter the 
Great created the modern Russian script out of the old 
Cyrillic, and Lomonosov (1711-1765) set hard and fast 
rules for Russian, the grammarians introduced some 
unnecessary complications in the spelling of the 
determinative forms; e.g. uoBtiii new, ^hkIiI wild, 
for HOBofi, AHKOH (uoBwe masc. pi., DOBbia fem. and 
neut. pL). 

(9) The adjective may acquire a substantival 
meaning, but is still declined as an adjective. 

e.g. ropoAOBoii policeman 

nopiHou tailor 

HaciuoMoe insect 

CTOJOBaa dining-room 

Atxciiaa nursery 

§ 34. Formation of Simple, Possessive and 
Descriptive Adjectives. 

(1) Simple adjectives, only for reference. These 
forms are now disused save as stated in § 33 (5). 





THE ADJECTIVE. 


5' 




Dear 






Singular. 


Plural. 




Masc. 


Neut. 


Fern. 


All genders. 


JSTom. 


46 port 


Aoporo 


Aopora 


Aoporii 


Ace. 


Like N. or G. 


Aopoi'O 


Aopory 


Like N. or G 


Geii. 


4opora 


Aoporii 


Aoponix^ 


Dat. 


Aopory 


/(oport 


AoponiMi 


Instr. 


^oporviMTj 


AoporoK) 


AoporHMH 


Loc. 


AoporoM'b 


Aopori 


AoporiixT. 




Good 






Singular. 


Plural. 




Maso. 


Neut. 


Fern. 


All genders. 


Nom. 


floSp't 


AGOpo 


AoSpa 


AoSpb'i 


Ace. 


Like N. or G. 


Ao5p6 


Aoopy 


Like JSr. or G 


Gen. 


AoSpa 


floSpb'i 


465pbixT> 


Dat. 


floSpy 


AoSpi 


AoSpwjn. 


Instr. 


^oSpblMT. 


AOOpOK) 


floSpbiiVn 


Loe. 


AOOpOMT. 




4o6pt 


Aoopbixt 



(2) Formation of possessive adjectives and examples. 

Possessive adjectives are formed from names in the 
first and second declensions ; those from the first end 
in -OBI, those from the second in -hhi, -hhi.. 

The accentuation is constant throughout all the cases. 
Adjectives in -obt., -bbi derived from monosyllables 
generally accent the termination : UerpoBi Peter's, 
^apeB^> the Tsar's. Adjectives in -obT), -cbt. derived 
from other names, not monosyllables, retain the accent 
as in the name : e.g. A.ieKcifi, Ajciicljcin. ; AjCKcaBApi., 
AjCKcaiMpoBb. 



60 



RUSSIAN GEAMMAK. 



Adjectives in -hht. are similarly declined, and retain 
the accent of the name. 

e.g. Caiua (Alexander) CauiHHT. 

DBKiiia* Mkita Hhkhthbtj 

lljhk Elias , BjbHH^ 

Tponna Trinity TpoHUbiHt 

Majia mother MaMHHt 

Ilapiiua Tsaritsa I^apaubiB^ 

AUn uncle ^Mhh'b 

Note. — Nouns in -ua take -ubiht, ; and mvjki husband, 
Cpan. brother, rocno/ib Lord, irregularly form MyjKHHHi, 
CpaTHHHx, rocno^eHb. 

The two following examples illustrate the declen- 
sions : — 

Peter's, 







Singular. 
Neut. 




Plural. 




Maso. 


Pern. 


All genders. 


Nom. 


neipoBT. 


neipoBo 


nerpoea 


nerpoBbi 


Ace. 


Like N. or G. 


UeTpoBo 


neipoBy 


Like K or G. 


Gen. 


HeipoBa 


IleTpOBOH 


neipOBblXTj 


Dat. 


neipoBy 


neTpoBOii 


neipoBbiMi. 


Instr. 


neipoBbiMi 


IleTpOBOK) 


IleTpOBHMH 


Loc. 


neipoBOMT. 


HeTpOBOH 


KeTpoBbix'b 




Lord's 




Singular. Plural. 




Maso. 


Neut. 


Fern. 


All genders. 


Nom. 


rocDOAeHb 


rocno^Be 


rocnoAHa 


rocnoAHH 


Ace. 


Like N. or G. 


rocnoiiBe 


rocno/iBH) 


Like N. or G. 


Gen. 


rocno^Ha 


rocno^Befl 


rocnoAHHXT. 


Dat. 


rocno^HH) 


rocBo^Beu 


rOCBO/lHHMl 


Instr. 


rocnoABBMi 


rOCBOAHCIO 


rocnoAHnMB 


Loc. 


rocno/iBeMT. 


FOcno^HeB 


rocnoABBxx 



' NiK^jT7;y, 



THE ADJECTIVE. 61 

Note that very many family names end in -obi 
and -HHT., and are similarly declined, exce'pt that the 
locative singular masculine is -t. 

e.g. B^ nerpoBOMT. nncbMi in Peter's letter, but 
a roBopiiJT. o IleTpoBi I was speaking of 
Petrov. 

(3) Formation of descriptive adjectives. 

Most of these adjectives are soft, being formed from 
nouns by adding -iii to the stem. The nominative 
singular is, masc. -iii, neut. -be, fem. -ba ; and the accent 
is constant and always that of the noun. The accusative 
singular feminine is also in -bio. 

Otherwise their declension is like that of the soft 
determinatives, [v. § 35 (2).] 

Observe that the rules in § 5 as to mutation of 
consonants must be applied in the formation of these 
adjectives. 

e.g. BOJiKi wolf, B6.jHifl, Bojqbe, B6j4ba 
Bon. god, BoHtiii, Boaibc, Boikbh 
jHca fox, JHciii, JHCbe, Jiicba 
A^BHua or 4iBima maiden, ^iBuqifl, ^iBHqbe, 

necT. dog, neciS,. necbe, necba, i.e. n^cba 3Bfo4a 
the dog-star 

Also ^epeao wood, ^epeBHHUbiu wooden 
KOHta leather, KoataHbiii of leather 

This termination -a(H)Hbia is hard, and is generally 
applied to words denoting materials. 



62 eussian grammar. 

§ 35. The Determinative Adjectives. 

(1) Tha scheme and the formation. 

This form of adjective is the most common in 
Eussian, embracing all adjectives except the simpler 
declensions stated in § 34 (1) and (2). 

The paradigms inserted infra are to illustrate the 
application of the rales in § 5 to these adjectives. 

A short historical statement will explain away the 
apparent complications. 

In Old Slavonic there was a 3rd person pronoun 
declined as follows :— 







Singular. 






Plural. 






Maso. 


Neut. 


Pern. 


Masc. 


Neut. 


Pern. 


Nom. 


II 


e 


a 


11 


a 


a 


Aoc. 


U 


e 


10 


)I 


a 


a 


Gen. 


ero 


ei"6 


e» 


HX'D 


nxL 


MXL 


Dat. 


e.Mv 


ejiy 


ea 


HMl 


HMT, 


11 Ml. 


Instr. 


HMl 


am> 


eio 


HMIl 


HMH 


UMH 


Loc. 


CMl 


CMl 


eii 


nxi. 


HXT) 


nx^ 



By adding this vocalic pronoun on to the simple 
adjectival forms, like a postponed article, a determinative 
form was obtained, which in the older language had a 
slightly different meaning, such as is given in English 
by the use of the definite article. 

In modern Eussian the simple form is obsolete in 
the Nom., but a survey of the paradigm of the full 
adjective will show where the fusion has taken place, 
e.g. MOJoAi., MOjofloH, i.e, mo.ioai.'ii, and so on, 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



63 



Hemember that in Eussian the r of the geoitive 
singular is sounded b. [v. § 5 (3) (3).j 



Masc. 
Hard Soft* 


Jmgular. 
Neut. 
Hard Soft 


Fem. 
Hard Soft 


Masc. 
Hard Soft 


Plural. 

Neut. 

Hard Soft 


Pern. 
Hard Soft 


N. bill iii 


oe ee 


aa an 


bie ie 


bifl ia 


bin ia 


OH 

accented 

A. AsNorG 


oe ee 


VH) lOK) 


KorG. 


Nona. 


N.orG. 


Maso. and Neut. 
G. aro aro 


OH ea 


All genders. 


oro 

accented 






D. o>iy eMV 


ou eii 


blMl 11 MT. 


I. blMT. BMb 


OK)t eio 


blMU niuii 


L. OUT, 


e>n. 


oil eii 


blXX EXT, 



The eighteenth century grammarians are responsible 
for three unnecessary complications. 

(i) The invariable nom. sing. masc. hard should 
be -ofi, as t> when sounded in Eussian becomes o. 
[v. § 32, L] 

But it was decreed that the spelling should be -oii, 
only when the termination was accented ; otherwise -bi ii. 

Consequently in guttural stems [v. § 5 (3)] this 
-biu had to be spelled -iii. 

e.g. uoBbiii new, ^hkIh wild 

But in such cases ^hkIm and similar words are still 
sounded d'ikai, as though spelt 4HKoii ; whereas 4Hiiie, 
where the i is there of right, is pronounced d'ikiye. 

* There are no soft adjectives accented on the termination except 
palatal stems (nominally hard). 

t Commonly contracted, v. § 28 (2). 



64 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(ii) The only plural nominative form should be -e. 
The -a is purely orthographic, and in all cases the e and 
the fi in -hh, -bie, -bin, -we, -ia, -ie are sounded alike, viz. ye. 
e.g. Aoopua dobryie, xvAb'ia (xyAoa bad) khudyle 

(iii) When the termination is accented, it is usual 
to write -ore and not -aro. 

e.g. xpaoparo of the brave man (khrabrsv?) ; but 
MVJKoro of the strange man (cuzovs). 

TABLE OF ADJECTIVES. 



Hard. 


Pull form. Short form. 


Masc. -bill MMbiii mi-h gentle 


Neut. -oe mbjoc miuo 


Fem 


-a a MHjaa MHJa 


Soft. Masc. -ill oil B iii chhl blue 


Neut. -ee cimee chhc 


Fem 


-aa cuaaa ciiua 


(2) Exaviplcs of tlte determinative 


adjective. 


Singular. 


Masc. 


Neut. 


Pem. 


Nom. 


6't.l6IM 


6tioc 


6bja/« 


Ace. 


N. or G._ 


^^Aoe 


6bjy;o 


Gen. 


6jbja;o 


6bJ0M 


Dat. 


OtjO.H// 


StjOM 


Instr. 


6'BJ6i.«5 


5kio/o 


Loc. 


Sfcio.io 


sijoii 


Plural. 








Nom. 


G'b.ibfe 


S'LlbJfl 


61iJ6;/? 


Ace. 


X. or G. 


(tixhin 


N. or G 


Gen. 


^^.ibixn 




Dat. 


eiiftutB 




Instr. 


6ij6f.WM 




Loc. 


0l)Jb/J» 






0-b.ib, okii, 6 


tjo, OLibi \v] 


lite 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



65 



Singular. 





Masc 


. 


Neut. 


Fern. 


Nom. 

Ace. 

Gen. 


n pa MOM 
N. or G. 
npa 


npaMo« 
npajioe 

M0?0 


npaMM 
npaMyw 
npaMoft 


Dat. 

Instr. 

Loe. 




opaMo'.Ky 
npaMbiMS 
npaitfo'jits 


npaM(5M 
npa MOW 
npaMdit 




Plural. 
Masc. 1 Neut. 


Fern. 


Nom. 
Ace. 


npaMftie 

N. or G. 


npsMftj/f 
npaubin 


npa MM H 

N. or G. 


Gen. 
Dat. 




npaMbixn 
npaMftuo 




Instr. 




npaMbl.uM 




Loe. 




umtibixn 




ripa 


Mb, npaMa, npihio, npiiMbi 


upright. 




Masc 


Si 


ngular. 
Neut. 


Fem. 


Nom. 


ciiuiu 




cmee 


ciiHan 


Ace. 


N. or 


G. 


cuaw 


ciiawio 


Gen. 




CHH-^^O 


dmeii 


Dat. 




cnue Mt/ 


ciiEeU 


Instr. 




ckmtMS 


dineio 


Loe. 




cimeMti 


ciiaeii 




1 

Maso, 


Hural. 

Neut. 


Fern. 


Nom. 


cwHie 




cknia 


ClIll?-« 


Ace. 


N. or 


G. 


ckuia 


N. or G 


Gen. 




ciiBuxn 




Dat. 




ckmum 




Instr. 




cmuMu 




Loe, 




CHHMa;5 






CDflb, CUHB, 


:ufle, CHHH b. 


ue 



66 



IIUSSIAN GEAMMAR. 



Singular. 


Masc. 


Neut. ] 


Pern. 


Noin. 


5apaHi« 


CapaH6<? 


Gapanft/j 


Acc. 


N. or G. 


6apaH6e 


CapaHftw 


Gen. 


6apaEiB/??o 


OapaBBf!*' 


Dat. 


oApaHheMy 


6apaHL«i«' 


Instr. 


OapaHbtuts 


CapaHbe/o 


Loc. 


6apaBbfjit8 


SapaBbPM 


Plural. 


Masc. 


Neut. 


Pern. 


JSTom. 


dapauftjt 


CapaH6J« 


6apaii6!t 


Acc. 


X. or G. 


SapaesM 


N. or G. 


Gen. 


6apaab?(j"5 




Dat. 


CapaHBMJKS 




Instr. 


SapantMJiit 




Loc. 




SapaBLMiCB 





Capafliu, 6apaHba,6apaHbe, 6apanbii of a ram [v. § 34 (3)]. 



Singular. 


Maso. 


Neut. 


Fern. 


Nora. 


Be.iiii;»« 


BCll'lKOe 


Be.iHi(a;f 


Acc. 


N. or G. 


BCIUKOe 


BejHKy/o 


Gen. 


Viuiimio 


BeJHKOM 


Dat. 


BCJHI.O.Hy 


BCJIIKOM 


Instr. 


Be-IBHMJO 


BeJHKOW 


Loc. 


BeJBKO.I/S 


BejHKOU 


Plural. 


Masc. 


Neut. 


Fern. 


Nom. 


Be.iiii!«> 


Be.i 


ma 


Acc. 


N. or G. 


BejHK;/? 


N. orG 


Gen. 


BClBKltcCB 




Dat. 


BeJHKUllS 




Instr. 


BeJBKM.WM 




Loc. 




BCJUKMaJS 





BpJHin., BBJuita, BCiHiio, ceJUKu great 









THE ADJECTIVE. 


67 


Singular. 




Masc. 


Neut. 


Fern. 


Nom. 




GojihmoU 


m.ibuioe 


ooihuid/i 


Ace. 
Gen. 




N. or G. doihuioe 
6oM,m6io 


Gojbuioie 


Dat. 




QoAhmo.vy 


CojtmoM 


Instr. 




doshmium 


60JbU1070 


Loc. 




QoAhmoMn 


BojbmoM 


Plural. 

Nom. 


I 


Masc. 
6oM.uiie 


Neut. 1 Fem. 


Acc. 






N. or G. 


oojibuii/i 


N. or G. 


Gen. 






GoAhmuxs 




Dat. 






QoAbuiu.un 




Instr. 






6o.ILIUM.MM 




Loc. i 6o.\bmuxs 
Not used predicatively. Gojunofl big, large. 
Thus: ropii'iiii, ropa'n., -a, -6, -ii, hot. 


Singular. 




Maso. Neut. 


¥em. 


Nom. 


1 


CBfoKW 


CBiiKee 


cjihm/i 


Acc. 




N. or G.^ 


CBBiltf? 


CB'bHtyw 

CB'BJKfM 


Gen. 




CBBHta?0* 


Dat. 
Instr. 




cBiKejiiy 

CB'faKM.1(8 


CBl>)KP?i 
CBilKf/O 


Loc. 




CB'fc)KP.U3 


CBllJItPU 


Phiral. 






Masc. 


Neut. 


Pern. 


Nom. 






cehKif 


CB-i 


Ht//? 


Acc. 




N. or G. 


CB'iimn 


N. or G. 


Gen. 




ch'b;km.3;8 




Dat. 




CBii!KM.n5 




Instr. 






CBimuMu 




Loc. 






cBimuxji 




cbBjki, 


CBtiKa, CB'tato, cB'feiKH fresh. 


Thus : xopomiH, 


xopoim., xopomo, xopoma, xopoiuii exce 


[lent. 








* SOUE 


ded sve^ivc). 





rs russian grammar. 

§ 36. The Formation of the Predicatives, 

Consult § 32 regarding the " insertion " of o and e 
to avoid an accumulation of final consonants. 

(1) The following determinative adjectives have no 
special predicative form, and predicatively the full form 
must be used : — 

(a) All adjectives in -cKifi, e.g. aHMiiicKiH English, 
tpaBdyscniH French, p^ccKifl Eussian, ropo^cKOH 
municipal, etc. 

(/3) SoJLinoH big (physically): BciBia is used, e.g. 
Bort BCJiiKT. God is great; but stoti ^omti 
Cojbinoii this house is big. 

(7) Adjectives denoting materials in -a(H)HbiH, e.g. 
flepBBKHHbiH wooden, cepeopaHHbifl silver, etc., 
and the descriptive adjectives, such as Sapaniu 
of a ram, v. § 34 (3). 

(2) The following adjectives are only used in the 
predicative form : pa^i. glad, ropasA'b skilful. 

e.g. a oscHb paAi I am very glad, ona ua Bce 
ropas/ia she is clever in everything. 

(3) Possessives [v. § 34 (2)J are 07ily declined with 
the simple forms. 

Possessives in -obi never shift their accent. 
Possessives in -HH-b are thus accented: cecTpHHii, 
cecipHHa, cecipHHO, cecTpaHbi, as predicatives. 

(4) All other adjectives have both forms, and the 
predicative has to be deduced from the determinative. 



The PfiEDlCATlVE ADJECTIVK. G9 

In polysyllabic derivative adjectives there is 
generally no change of accent. 

e.g. iiyjKecTBeHHMii masculine, jiyiKecTBeHT., iiyaje- 
CTBeHHa, MyatecTBeHuo 
Bat in simpler original adjectives there is practically 
no rule but experience. A few instances may be 
given. 

e.g. (i) HOBMii new, hob^, HOBa, hobo, uobbi 

Thus, too, 6o4p^ awake, obicipi swift, bcihii^ big, 
TopA'h proud, TBepAT, hard, thxt. still, TO.icfb fat, CTapi, old, 
^■1>J^ v^hole, Hncn> clean, [v. § 32, II.] 
Thus, too : — 
leMHbiB dark, lesieHt, TCMHa, tcmho, lesiubi 
KpacHbiu red, itpaceui, KpacHa, Kpacno, KpacHbi 
leiMbiu hot, Tenejx, lenja, len.io, len.ib'i 
HepHbiii black, lepcHi, nepaa, sepao, sepHbi 

(ii) rojbin naked, roib, roja, rojo, rojbi 

Thus, too, BbicoKT. lofty, /(ajeKt far, inmeA'b heavy, 
6Libiu white, uiupoKi far. 

e.g. ^ajeiilfi, ^a-ieia, ^a-ieKa, ^ajeKo, AajoKH 

(iii) BOjbHbia free, BOJeHi, BOiboa, BOibuo, BOJbBb'i 

Thus, too, jierKiii light (in weight), jeroKT., serial, 
jerKO, JcrKU ; CHJbHbiii powerful, j'MHbift sensible. 

(iv) cyxofl dry, cyxa, cyxo, cvxh 

Thus, too, 60C1. barefooted, rjyxi. deaf, rflflj-b foul, 
Aopon. dear, !KHB^ alive, uoaoat, young, Han naked, 
niuT. dumb, hjoxt. poorly, cjim. blind, xpoMi. lame, 
etc.; So-ibHoii sick, Cojen^, GojbHa, So.ibho, SojbHbi ; 
•lecTHoii or HecTUbiu honest, 4ecTeHT., Hecifld, necTHO, 

HeCTflb'l. 



70 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

§ 37. The Comparison of Adjectives. — Formation. 

(1) The Eussian adjective has two degrees of com- 
parison, the comparative and the superlative. 

The comparative is in two forms : uninflected, 
e.g. Sojie pa^i, from pa^'b glad; inflected, e.g. rjySaie 
deeper, from r.iySoKiu. 

The inflected comparative has a predicative and 
determinative form, e.g. Sijie, CBjifuuiii whiter. 

It is formed from the positive in two ways — by 
adding -ie, -iiimia to the stem, the accent generally 
shifting to the termination ; or by adding -(i>)e, -(b) me to 
the stem, the accent remaining on the radical syllable. 

-ie, -■feHmifl, has become the regular form. 

When adding either termination, -ie or -be, the rules 
for the mutation of consonants [v. § 5] must be strictly 
observed, and should be re-perused before the student 
proceeds any further with this section. In addition, he 
should remember [v. § 2 (3)] that in older Eussian i 
had a value approximating to n, and therefore, just as 
It, r, X -I- a in modern Eussian make 'la, na, ma, so, 
too, in the comparatives k, r, x -i- -'fce, -liumiB, make 
Haumiu, iKaQmiii, marimifi. 

Similarly, CK or ci -1- -tiimiii or -e make -me, -maiimiii, 
e.g. HHCTbiu pure, 4Huie, iHrnaiimifl ; n.iocKiii flat, 
njomaumiii. 

(2) No inflections for the superlative exist. 

The comparative form is used, or the positive with 
suitable pronouns or adverbs. So, too, " beautiful," 
"content" in English have no inflected degrees of 
comparison. 



COMPAKISON OF ADJECTIVES. 71 

In some cases, where the shorter comparative is 
used, the longer form is reserved as a superlative. 

e.g. BbicoKiH high, bmuic, lib'icmiii ; superlative 
BbicoHaiiiniu. 

(3) The substitutes for the superlative are : — 

(a) The prefixing of Han- to the positive or com- 
parative. 

e.g. HoTL uaiLiyHmiii npuMlipi.. 
This is the best example. 

9to naHiieHbiiiaa cyjijia. 
This is the least sum. 

(/S) The prefixing of caMbiii, "the very," to the 
positive. 

e.g. Bto caMaa iiHiepecuan KUiiia idt. Bcixi. mhoio 

np04HTaHHblXX. 

This is the most interesting book of those 

I have read [by me read]. 
II ami 40MX caMbiii KpaciiBbiii btj ^epeoHli. 
Our house is the prettiest in the village. 

(7) The addition of a form of Bech, all, to the com- 
parative, either Bcero or bcBxi. 

e.g. Bia KHiira DHTepeculie Bcixx, Koiopbia a 
npoMHTajT>. 

This book is the most interesting of any 

I have read. 
Bami coB'Lrb nojeaeie bcIxtj. 
Your advice is the best. 



72 RUSSIAN GRAMMAE. 

(S) The absolute superlative, as in English, is 
indicated by the positive with such words 
as OHCBb very, etc. 

e.g. 06■|)A^ oM.ii onent BKyccHi. 
The dinner was very tasty. 

(e-) The superlative also can be formed by using — 
B7. Bb'iciueu CTeneHH in the highest degree. 

e.g. Out BT> BHcmeH cieneHH BejHKO/tyraeHT.. 
He is most magnanimous. 

§ 38. The Comparison of Adjectives. — Btdes. 

I. The uninflected form, i.e. with Oujie more, is 
used : — 

(a) With adjectives like pa^i glad. 

(/S) At discretion with lengthy adjectives, e.g. Sojie 
uyQoKm deeper. 

(7) When there is a comparison of two adjectives, 
e.g. PiKa MocKBa Sojie raHpohd, HejKCJH rjy6ona. 

The riyer Moscow is broader than it is deep. 

(8) With adjectives (such as participles, derivative 

words, etc.), which it would be inconvenient 
to lengthen any more, 
e.g. IInKor4a He Biuaja cBoero wyata Go.rlie ociiop- 

6jieuuhnn,. 
She had never seen her husband more 

affronted. 
y Hero 66.i'6e jkhbou vmt.. 
He has a keener mind. 

(s) Adjectives ending in -CKiii, -CKojj, 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 



73 



II. Only four adjectives have a simple inflected 


superlative. 






e.g. HHSKiu 


low 


HHHtaumiu 


BHCOKiu 


high 


BbicoiaHmiH 


rjySoKifi 


deep 


rjyGoHaamiii 


luajbiii 


small 


Maj'iiimiu 

(better HanMeHtme) 



III. Adjectives in -cbiu, -jkIh, -sbih, -mil, and many 
in -Kin, -rifl, have no declinable comparative. 



e.g. jb'icbiH 


bald 


Jbicte 


CBmiu 


fresh 


CBiatte 


ropdiiii 


warm 


ropfliie 



The reason probably is that where the regular form 
-i&e, -iamiii is used, the combination of sibilants would 
be too heavy, e.g. JbimaflmiH, CBiataiiiniu, ropfnaHiniH, 
and the want is supplied in other ways ; v. next sub- 
division. 

IV. The indeclinable comparative with the prefix 
no- can be used in concord with a noun. 

e.g. fl KynM^ mjiiny noGojbme. 
I have bought a larger hat. 



When the object of comparison is stated, the prefix 
no- has a diminutive sense. 

e.g. nomn noSbicTpfce. 

Just write a little more quickly. 



74 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

V. There are two methods of translating " than " : — 

(1) The use of nitu,, or rarely HeateJH : when a 

phrase follows the comparison. 

e.g. Stotl ypoKi jerie, limi, (HejKejH) mbi nfuuu. 
This lesson is easier than we thought. 

(2) When the object of comparison is a noun, the 

noun may be in the genitive. 

e.g. lOpiii yMnie CBoero gpaia KystMb'i. 

George is more sensible than his brother 
Kuzma (or siji^ ero opaii). 

§ 39. The Compaeison of Adjectiyes. 
Hxamples. 

I. The regular form of comparison is -ie, -iuiiiifi, 
predicative indeclinable and declinable. 

e.g. jrooesHtiH amiable, JioSesnie, JcoSeaniiiffliii 
-ie is often abbreviated to -ia. 

When the positive cannot in any part of its 
declension throw the accent on to the ending, the 
original accentuation is retained. 

e.g. cnpaBe^JHDbiH just, cnpaBC^JHsie, cnpaBe/(Jii- 
stuniiu 

II. Another very common form is -(i.)e, -(B)rae, the 
adjective retaining its original accent. 

This is nearly always used when the positive drops 
a suffix, e.g. -HbiH, -Kiii, and the comparative termiuatigu 
is attached to the root. 



COMPARISON OF ADjECTlVJfiS. 



7.^ 



With a very few adjectives the predicative neuter 
-me, of the declinable form -Buiiii, is used alternatively 
with -le. 



(a) Where the suffix of the positive is retained : — 

I 

e.g. KpinKia 
jeniiu 
Mejuiii 
Coiiiiiii 

JOBKJll 

ropbiciu 



strong Kpinie Kp'feniaHniiH 

light (in weight) jerqc jeriaHraiH 

small MejbHB MeJbiaHmia 

brisk 60 H "lie (a modern form) 

clever joBsie 

bitter ropuie 



(b) Where the suffix of the positive is dropped in 
the undeclined comparative, but generally retained 
in the determinative : — 



e.g. BLICOKiu 


high 


Bb'ime 


BMcmiu* 


Bbicoiauniiii 


rjyoditiii 


deep 


F-iyoate 




aySoiaBmifi 


wiaida 


low 


HBJKe 


Busuiiu 


HBiKaumiii 


nos^flia* 


late 


n 03)116* 




no34B'iuiniu 


6jU3Kiu 


near 


6jHa!e 




6iBataamiu 


ysKiii 


narrow 


yme 






pbAiiiii 


rare 


piiKe 




p^b^HafimiH 


cja^iciii 


sweet 


cjamef 




cjaAMafimiH 


KpOTKlii 


gentle 


[Kpose]! 




KpoiiaHmiH 


KopoTKiu 


short 


Kopo'ie 




KpaTHanniiH 


TOHKiii 


thin 


T6nbme 




TOHiaBiniu 


mHp6KiH 


broad 


rnupe 




mBpoqaBoiia 


4cueKiH 


far 


4a.ibiiie 




Aajbatumiu 



* V. § 4 (7) and (9). 

t A Church Slav mutation from n. 

X More usually 06.rlie Kp6TKiii. 



E 2 



76 



■ KtfSSlAN GEAMMAfi. 



(c) When the positive is not altered, there being 
no suffix : — ■ 



e.g. TBep^biH 


hard 


TBepate 


TBepAiHiniH 


SoraibiH 


rich 


i 6oraqe ^ 
I 6oraTie > 


GoraTifliniH 


xyAOH 


bad, lean 


; xyate (bad) 
'. xyA'fie (lean) 


xyAiniH 
xyAMmia 


n.i6cKiH 


flat 


nj6me 




THXiH 


quiet 


TDiiie 


Tumaumiu 


CTporJH 


stern 


cipoate 


CTpoatafiffliH 


^oporoii 


dear 


AopojKe 


ApaiKaumiu 


MOJOAOH 


young 


uoi6me 


MjaAmifl 


ciapwH 


old 


ciapme 


cTapmiH 


Kpyiou 


steep 


Kpyie 


KpyiMinia 


AemeBbiii 


cheap 


AeuieBje 




nycT^H 


( desolate 
I empty 


nyme 
nycT'fce 


nymia 
nycTiiiraiH 


IHCTblH 


clean 


HHme 


HHCTiamia 



It ■will be observed that in modern Eussian the 
mutations mostly only occur in the uninflected form of 
the comparative. 
Note, too — 
Aojriii long, AOJbme (irregular, due to analogy of Soitme) 
HaAGKm far, Aajbme or Aajie, AajbHisumlH (from naAbRuH) 
pane (adverb) early, panbme or panic 

With these fevy exceptions the comparison of the 
adjective is regular ; and all derivative adjectives, e.g. 
snaMeHfiTbiH famous, proceed in accordance with the 
rule, anaMenHTie, 3HaMeuuiiBmiH. So, too, cepAuibia 
angry. 

The inflected comparative of such words is rarely 
used ; the superlative replaced, as stated in § 37 (3). 



THE PEOKOUN. 77 

III. The following adjectives have no positive : — 
e.g. jyqme, j^huiIh better; MeHie less; MeHtnie, 
MeHtuiiu smaller; Sojie more; 66jLiiie, 66ji.miu 
bigger. 

Observe the distinction : — 

MCBbmou junior GojbmoH big 
MeHbiniu smaller Sojbiiiiu bigger 

Xop6miH and ^oSptiH are used as positives for 
jy4Uie; but 4o6pte, ^oSp'tfliniu also exist; also uajwu as 
a positive for iieH'te; and BaJHidfl and CoJbmoH for 
oojte, oojbuie. 



THE PEONOUN. 
§ 40 (1). Peeliminaey Eemaeks on the Peonouns. 

The pronouns in Eussian present very little difficulty. 

Ohserve (1) in the pronouns the genitive in -ro is 
written -ore, -ero, and can be pronounced and accented 
avo, evo. The dative in -My can also be oxytone. 

(2) Pronominal adjectives (such as KOTopbifl, laKoii) 
are declined exactly like ordinary adjectives [v. § 35 (2)]. 

(3) It will be observed that pronouns, though they 
are hard stems, take a soft plural, e.g. cain. self, caMH. 

The reason of this is that in Old Busslan the nominative 
plural was b and the accusative ti. In Kussian the old feminine 
plural forms in M have superseded the masculine ; but the same 
survival of the old nominative is found in the old participles in 
-ii, now used as the past tense, e.g. Ouji, fibua. 



78 



EOSSIAN GEAMMAE. 



> 

Q 

<! 

CQ 
P 

o 

K 
O 

p^ 

!?; 
«>! 

aj 
(§ 
O 
>^ 
H 



o 





1 


J 










11 


1 


1 

a 


— 








§1 


1 


1, 






§1 


sis 


K 


3i 








2^ 


II 


1 












fi 


<3 


f 






as 


1 




-<3 

£ 


•«3 










'1 


s 




1 






H § 5: fe 

H © ^ 








[0 

1 






n 


'1 


1 


■*-+ 












* 
















g 


1 


o 


l=g 


\<S) 




e 


i 


1 




a 

s 




2 

1 


'-43 


1-^ 
11 


-si 


■•g-s- 

II 

o g 

ft 


•1 

If 


-3 
1 

1 



PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS. 



79 







i 
3 

aa 


1 






















25 (D ffl 


1 

i 

B 


03 


•<3 

S 

B 






1 


CO 
EC 

E3 
B 


H VIS 


9 a,-^ 
iifl 






as 
.li 

<s,$a o n 












f 




(« s te s 
o o 










1 

B 

sa 


If 

Us 


III 






B? 1 


B 
B 


IS 

SI 


'Bva-C 






.s? 

^ « a 


B 

E 

E 




II 

H B 


? 1 " 3 3 5 

*s-sggJ 










' 






.^ o J 


SB 

P* 
B 
B 










g g i 5P 


■£ 




Is 

H — ' 


J - 


+-f 


o = 
« 5 


K 

B 
B 


=a = « 3 " 

S a d ta u ,^ 




2' = J = = 

|g =-. = = - 
o JO "2 Id 4= '2 -a 

fi4 


1 

CD 

P3 


S 

1 


1 


1 

s 


s 

i 









.2 »> 
P3 p 



^ 


^ 








>i 








a 


B 


o 






br 




a" 


fp 


•« 


a 






o 


s 


p< a 










B< 


j:^ 






S 


a 










•3 


l-l 



u 
O = 



80 



RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 



§ 41. Examples of the Peonouns. 

I. The Interrogative (singular and plural). 
N. V. KTO (khto) for persons hto (sto) for things 



Ace. Koro (kavo) , 




HTO 


IJ )J 


Gen. Koro „ „ nero (civo) ,, 


Dat. KOMV „ „ 4eMy 


J) >) 


Instr. Kim^ „ ,, liMt 


J) 3) 


LOC. KOMI) „ „ HeMl 


J) )3 


KOToptifl (which of several?) and iiaKoii (of what 


sort ?) are declined adjectivally. 






i;oii which ? 






Singular. 


Plural. 




MasG. Neut. 


Fern. 


All genders. 


Nom. 


lioii Koe 


Kati 


Kon 


Ace. 


K or G. Koe 


KOH) 


N. or G. 


Gen. 


Koero* 


hoeii 


KOH XI 


Dat. 


KOCMy 


KOCH 


KOHM'b 


Instr. 


KOHMl 


Koeio 


Komvm 


Loc. 


KOCMT. 


Koeii 


KOUXl 




^eft whose ? 






Singular. 


Plural. 




Maso. 


Neut. 


Fern. 


All genders. 


Norn. 


Heii 


Hbe 


Sbff 


Hbll 


Ace. 


N. or G. 


Hbe 


I] MO 


N. or G. 


Gen. 


Hbero (civo) 


Tbcii 


^IbBXt 


Dat. 


Hbeiiy 


'IbCB 


ilbHMT. 


Instr. 


IbHMT. 


HbeK) 


HbHMQ 


Loc. 


HbCMl 


Hbeu 


MbHX^ 






* Sounded 1 


c6yiv9. 





TSBl PRONOUN. 81 

Remarks. — (1) koh is practically disused eicept iu 
poetry, and a few proverbs. 

(2) cEiojbKO is the only other declinable interrogative 
form. 

Norn. Voc. Ace. ckojiko 
Gen. Loc. ckojekhxi 

Dat. CKOJbKHMT. 

Instr. CKOJbKHMH 

CTOJBKO is similarly declined. 

Observe. — In the nominative and accusative ckojbko 
is a noun governing the genitive plural ; in other cases 
an adjective. 

e.g. Ckojlko KBnri bbi namji'i? 

How many books have you found ? 
R caiuT) He sHaio, ckojekumh cipaaaMH a Bja^iio. 
I do not myself know of how many countries 
I am the master. 

II. Relatives. 

These forms are now identical with the interroga- 
tives. But, except in proverbs and poetry, kto and hto 
are disused, KOTopbiu replacing them as relatives. 

KTO and HTO are scarcely ever used in strict 
apposition. 

e.g. fl BCTpliHJX HflaHa, KoiopoMy a oGimaji. cbok) 
joma^b. 

I met John to whom I had promised my horse. 

But they are commonly employed in distributive 
phrases where the relative precedes. 



82 



OTSSlAlt gkammak. 



e.g. Kto 6bi uti noflBJiucn y OKua, bv loro ucue^jieaflo 

CTp%ja.iii. 
Whoever appeared at a window, (at him) they 

instantly shot. 
^TO 6bi BLi un cA'kiajH, bh sthmi ropio ne noMOHteie. 
Whatever you do, you will not remedy the sorrow 

thereby. 



III. 


Demonstratives. 








TOTi that 




Sing. 


Maso. 


Neut. 


Fern. 


Plural. All genders. 


Nom. 


Ton. 


TO 


Ta 


Tfe 


Ace. 


N. or G. 


TO 


Xy 


N. or G. 


Gen. 


Toro* 


Toii 


lixi 


Dat. 


TOMy 


TOH 


TtMt 


Instr. 


liMT, 


TOIO 


tBmh 


Loo. 


TO Mil 


TOH 


t4x^ 




aroT'L this 




Sing. 


Masc. 


Neut. 


Pem. 


Plural. AU genders. 


Nom. 


:'Torb 


■ko 


ara 


3TH 


Ace. 


N. or G. 


9T0 


3Ty 


N. or G. 


Gen. 


9T0r0 


tirou 


3THXI 


Dat. 


3T0My 


:iTOH 


9TB Ml. 


Instr. 


arHMTi 


t)T0IO 


3TBMH 


Loc. 


3T0MX 


dtoa 


3THXI 




oubiu that 




Sing. 


Mase. 1 Neut. | Pem. 


Plural. 


Nom. 




oubie, 6nbi« 


Ace. 


Like any hard adjective 


OIlblXT. 


Gen. 


in -Mu 


OUblXl 


Dat. 




OHblMT. 


Instr. 




6HbIMK 


Loc. 




onbixx 






*Soi 


mded tav( 


]. 



DEMONSTRATIVES. 



83 







ceii 


this 






Singular. 


Plural. 




Maso. 


Neut. 


Pern. 


All genders 


Nom. 


ceil 


cie ce 


ciii 


ciii 


Ace. 


N. or G. 


cie ce 


ciib 


K or G. 


Gen. 


cero* 


cefl 


en XI 


Dat. 


ccMy 


ceM 


en Ml. 


Instr. 


CHMT. 


ceK) 


CHMB 


Log. 


ceMi 


cefl 


cllx^ 



Consult § 2 (3). 

All the rest of the declinable pronouns on the 
demonstrative lines in the table follow the regular 
forms of the determinative adjectives without variation, 
e.g. laKoii, laKOBoflsuch as that; aiaKiii such as this, etc. 

Hemarks. — Practically only Ton> and stoti are used 
in modern Euasian. ohlih is found in legal docu- 
ments, and cefl in set phrases; e.g. ceroAua (sivod'nya) 
to-day, cefliaci in a minute, 40 ciixi iiopi. up to the 
present, ciib MBHyry this very minute. 

IV. Universal Pronouns. 

BcaKifl every, everyone, and KaiK^bifl each, are declined 
like the determinative adjectives. 

Beet, all, drops the vowel " e " [v. § 32, I.] 





S 


ingular. 






Plural. 




Maso. 


Neut. 




Fern. 


All genders. 


Nom. 


Beet 


Bce 




Bca 


Bct 


Ace. 


K or G. 


Bce 




BCH) 


K or G. 


Gen. 


Bcerot 


Bcefl 


Bcixi 


Dat. 


BceMy 




Bcefl 


BdfeMT. 


Instr. 


BcfeMl 


BCeH) 


BciuD 


T.OC. 


BCeMl 


Bcefl 


BcliXT. 




* Sounded 


«v6. 


ts 


ouuded fsivo. 





84 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



V. 


Personal Pronouns and Possessives. 








Singular. 






1st pers. 


2nd pers. 


3rd pers. 


Reflexive. 








Masc. 


Neut. 


Pern. 




Nom. 


a 


TbI 


OBT. 


ob6 


OBa 


— 


Ace. 


MCHli 


tcSh 


ero* 


ee 


ceoH 


Gen. 


jieHfl 


Te6a 


ero 


eat 


ceSfi 


Dat. 


MH^ 


leSi 


eMy 


eii 


ceSi 


Instr. 


MHOK) 


TOOOK) 


HMX 


eK) 


COSOEO 




MBOH 


ToCoii 






co66u 


Loc. 


MH'I) 


Test 


eMi 


efl 


ce6i 






PZami. 




JSTom. 


Mbl 


Bbl 


OBH 1 OHU 1 OHi^t 




A.G.L. 


HaCT. 


Bacx 


HXl 


As 


Dat. 


Haux 


BaMi 


BMl 


singular. 


Instr. 


HaMii 


BaMn 




HMH 







The close similarity ' of some of these forms with the Latin 
pronouns will strike the student, e.g. tibi leOi, sibi ce6t. 

Eefer back to § 2 (3) and § 35 (1). 

The possessives Moii, tbou, cbob are declined like koh 
[v. § 41, I.], but accent the last syllable of the termina- 
tions uniformly ; e.g. Moe, moii, mogh, Moeio, Moero, MOCMy, 

MOHMX, MOeMl, MOH, MOHXb, MOHMl, MOBMH, MOHXX. 

nami our, and Barai your, are declined alike, viz. : 





Masc. 


Singular. 
Neut. 


rem. 


Plural. 
All genders. 


Nom. 


Ha nil 


Barne 


Bama 


Hama 


Ace. 


K or G. 


name 


Haniy 


K or G. 


Gen. 


Hamero 


Hamefl 


HaniBxx 


Dat. 


HauiCMy 


HamcH 


BamBM'L 


Instr. 


HamHMb 


nameio 


HaniBMU 


Loc. 


nim&wb 


BameB 


BaaiHxi 



* Sounded yiv6, yim, etc. t Commonly sounded lik? ace. ee, 
X Sounded like oau, 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 85 

Remarhs. — (1) cboh and ce5a always refer back to 
the subject of their ovm sentence, whether subordinate or 
principal, and refer to all persons. 

e.g. Bbi npo^aJB cbok) necTb. 

You have sold your honour. 

The 3rd person pronouns when they are not 
reflexive are the genitives, ero, eii, nxi. 

e.g. Mfli CKasajH, hto Kynem yate npo^ajt ero TOBapw. 
They told me that the merchant has already 
sold his (somebody else's) goods. 
In vulgar speeoli axHift is used for hxi their. 

When ceSil is attached to reflexive or passive verbs 
it takes the shortened form ca {sounded ca) after con- 
sonants, cb after vowels. 

In older Eussian all the pronouns had abbreviated enclitic forms 
[of. French "moi," "me," etc.], viz. mh, ta, ca for mbhh, lefia, cefia ; 
MH, TB, CH for MHt, TeOt, cedt. Of these forms only ca survives. 

e.g. Bt. oT'laaHiH niBHHHKT. aaicojojx ce6a. 

In despair the prisoner stabbed himself (re- 
flexive). 
CrbUKycb 3Toro. 
I am ashamed of this (a reflexive verb). 

lamKa pasSiuacb. 

The cup was smashed (a passive). 

(2) "When ero, eiay, e/i, ee, hxt., hmt., hmh, efl, eio, 
eMT. are governed by any preposition, the letter h is 
prefixed to them. 

e.g. Kh HCMj^ to him (sound knemii) 
BT> Hea in her (sound vnei) 
npoiHBi HHXT) against them 
V Hero with him ^chez lui\ 



86 EUSSIAN CtEAMMAR. 

CT) HHMH with them (sound sriimi) 
6jb3i. Heil near her 
Ha Hero against him (sound nanivo) 
Ha neti-b. on him (sound nanyom) 
But ero pa^w for his sake (the preposition follows) 
OKCio ero AOJia near his house 
noAi Hxi RjacTbK) under their power, etc. 
In these two instances ero and hxt> are possessive 
pronouns, not governed by the preposition. 

(3) As in the nouns and adjectives, the instrumental 
singular feminine -ok), -eio, is often shortened to -oh, -eii. 

(4) As the verbs mostly have full personal in- 
flections, the pronouns are often omitted. 

e.g. KjflBeM^ we curse 

cjb'iniy I hear 

noHBMaemb ? do you [familiar pronoun] 
understand ? 

VI. The Indefinite Pronouns. 

These are formed, as will be seen in the table in 
various ways, by prefixes and suffixes ; cf. English 
who, whoever, whoso, whosoever. 

(1) Prefixing nt- accented, [v. p. 78.] 

(2) Adding -jh5o (i.e. Jio5o, as you please). 

(3) Adding nHfly^b (i.e. as it may be, from Cy^b, 
imperative of 6biTb). [v. § 57, II. and § 82, III.] 

(4) Prefixing Eoe- with a distributive sense, 
e.g. rAi-HH5f4b somewhere or other 

Koe-rA'B here and there 

itoe-KTO various people (say) 

But H'BKOTopbie some people (say) 



WDEFINITE PEONOUNS. 87 

(5) Adding -to. This suffix may be used with nouns 
as well, and gives an ironic or vague sense, 
e.g. HeJOB^KTi-TO that kind of man 
KaiiOH-TO some sort or other 
kt6-to somebody you know who 

VII. The Negative Pronouns. 

These are formed by prefixing hh- nor. 
When declined with prepositions the compound 
breaks up, and the preposition precedes the pronoun 
immediately. 

e.g. HH Ha lioro against no one 

HH Ha KaitOMi Micii not on any place 
In Eussian a negative pronoun requires a negative 
verb, and, contrary to modern English practice, a 
double negative affirms the negative, and does not 
destroy it. 

e.g. HHKor^a ne 6buo BOBHb'i,nox6)KeH na lenepeniHioio. 
Never was there a war like the present war. 
fl uHF^'fe EC BH^iJi Bauiero Spaia. 
I did not see your brother anywhere. 

But consult § 85. 

VIII. The Pronouns of Identity. 

(1) By affixing -jkc to any demonstrative, identity is 
implied. 

e.g. BTOTL-Hte the same as this 

laKOBOH-JKC the same sort as that 

(2) The words caiui and caMbifl. 

CaMi means " self" ; as in English, I myself fl caMi. 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 





Maso. 


Singular. 
Neut. 


Pern. 


Plural. 
All genders 


Nom. 


caiai 


caMo 


caMa 


caMH 


Ace. 


caMoro 


caMo 


caMoe 


N. or G. 


Gen. 


caMoro* 


CaMOH 


CaiUBXT) 


Dat. 


CaMOMV 


cam OH 


CaMHM^ 


Instr. 


CaMflMT. 


CaMOK) 


CaMHMH 


Loc. 


CaMOMT. 


caMou 


CaMHXl 



As regards the soft plural caMH, cf. § 40 (1) (3). It 
has been carried all through. 

CaMHH means " self" or " self-same," and is declined 
like a regular determinative adjective. 

For its use to form the superlative, v. § 37 (3). 

IX. The Proiioitns of Difference. 

The meanings of ^pyroii and duoh should be 
marked. 4pyr6u is " other," Latin alius, Greek dWot, 
i.e. anything indeterminate, not what is being thought 
of. BHOii is "some other," Latin ceterl, Greek erepoi., 
a more or less determinate object. 

e.g. HiKOTopbie 9Toro He Moryn. noHfiTt. 
Some cannot grasp this (fact). 
Hflbie Moryii. no^yjiaTB, qio OHt comeji cl yiia. 
Some (quidam, certain people) may think he 
has gone mad. 

Oahu, OAH't [v. § 2 (3)], the plural of onka-b one, 

means " some " ; cf. English, the one says, the other . . . 

So, too, HHOPAa sometimes, from time to time (definite) 

HiKor^a once upon a time 

KOPAa-TO at some time or other (indeterminate) 

nponie, npoiia means " the rest," " the remainder." 

In the singular it occurs in the phrase : — 
BnpoHeMT. for the rest (of the argument, etc.). 



* Sounded ssmsvd. 



89 



H,Sg 

a ' 



m 






pq 






M 






1^ 






;> 






!? 






<! 






►H 






03 






02 






t) 






P^ 


a" 




fH 


_o 




o 


■§ 




H 


1" 




1-^ 


'e* 




m 






e1 


^ 




<i 




^^ 


^-^ 




« >. 


>-i 




' 


^.^^ 






C<I 




<S • 


-* 




'^ •* 



» S-S 

© ;S CO 
>■ CO c3 

-3 g !^ 

ca =5 _. 

•§•9 a 



S CD 

^ -a 
^2d 



' / 



d 
a 




HI H S 



g o5 



rt 



3 »r-2 5 
-Sod '- 






43 rt 'H 

-s o a _ 

^ Ocpl g 

■rH ^ rt E- 

02 ." V 



-iir 



'a 



a B 






a 

o 

a 



o 



-fiiS 



M 



— <D O 

id s 



_a"5 
^ 2 






c 9 



o d 



-fl 


^•5 


3 




o 










yr. 



o 






9 3' 



.g 



td 
a 



— la s 




M (S 


1.9 


CC 


O 


ca "Jf — 


"|s 





CO -a 


— 


-*3 (-■ 




2 3 






.a -=" 

"Ct ffl 
O f 



— 3\ 



_«/ 



nil cj 

d 2 

3 P. 
\ o . 

a-s 

*-( -^^ 
CD CQ 

> «a 



90 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

THE VEEB. 

§ 42 (2). Preliminaey Obseevations. 

The Parts of the Russian Verb. 

(i) The Eussian verb presents little difficulty in 
comparison with many other modern languages. As 
was remarked in § 10, the forms of conjugation are 
very much reduced. They are : — 

(1) The infinitive. 

(2) A fully conjugated present tense. In per- 

fective verbs it is used as the future. 

(3) A past tense consisting of an old participle in 

-Jih, with the personal pronouns, the copula, 
as usual in Eussian, being omitted. 

(4) An imperative formed directly from the present 

tense. 

(5) A present " gerundive "* active in -a, and present 

participle in -ymifl or -amiii. 

(6) A past participle active in -Buiiu, and a past 

gerundive* in -m, or -biiih. 
These last-named forms are comparable with the pre- 
dicatives and determinatives of the comparative, and 
originate in the same way. In older Eussian rnu was a 
feminine suffix of certain adjectives. 

(7) A present participle passive in -cmwh, and 

(8) A past participle passive in -ibiii or -hbib. 
The participles are all fully declined like ordinary 
adjectives. 

(9) A verbal noun in -nie, and -lie. 

The functions of these parts are more fully discussed 
in the Syntax, § 88 and 89. 

* This so-called " gerundive " is merely an indeclinable participle, 
only used in agreement with the subject of the sentence. 



THE VEKB. 91 

The Deficiencies and the " Aspects " (bh^bi). 

(ii) Thus in Eussian there is no conjunctive, only- 
one conjugated tense, only one so-called past " tense " to 
express imperfects, preterites, perfects, pluperfects, etc. 
The future imperfective is formed by a compound tense, 
the infinitive with 6y4y, one of the forms of 6bitb to be. 

The obvious deficiencies are supplemented by the 
aspects of the Eussian verb. 

This subject cannot at present be approached; it 
may be briefly explained, [v. §§ 58 and 92.] 

In English, " I do," " I am doing," " I was doing," 
" I did," " I used to do," " I do do," " I have done," all 
define the nature of the act ; e.g. " I am doing " is the 
continuous conjugation ; " I used to do " the habitual ; 
" I have done " marks the completion or perfective 
aspect, and so on. 

If the reader knows any Latin, and can imagine 
Latin reduced to one tense, but converting the other 
tenses into separate conjugations with new infinitives 
to match, he will understand what has happened in 
Eussian. Old Eussian had a far fuller complement of 
tenses, imperfect, aorist, perfect, etc. In modern Eussian 
" aspects " replace the tenses and fulfil entirely the 
same object. 

If Latin had evolved an infinitive laborabdre, from 
the imperfect .labrn'obam, to express the habitual aspect, 
or labordvire (from labordvl) to express the completion 
or perfective, such separate by-forms of the verb would 
very nearly correspond with the Russian aspects. Such 
desideratives as esurlre, from esurus, future participle of 



92 ■ EUSSIAN GKAMMAR. 

Mo to eat, and the inceptives in -esco, might indeed in 
the parlance of Slavonic grammar be termed " aspects." 
Compare, too, the French vivre, vivotter. 

To those who know a little Greek, the aspects will 
be even more familiar. 

Thus the present forms vocrelv to be ill, airoOvrjoKm 
to die, correspond to the imperfective Bojirb or xBopaiB 
and VMHpaib; the aorist forms evoarjaa, vocrfjaai, 
diroOavelv, to the perfective saoojiiB, saxBopaib, yjiepeTt, 
to be taken ill, to die. E.g. ohx aaCojiJt, aaxBopaji, 
ivoarja-e ; but 0H^ CoJ'tjx, he was ill some time, ivoaei ; 
OH^ yMnpEUt, he lay a-dying, aired vr)(TK€. 

And just as voa-i^aco, etc., is a future, not a present, 
but has the aorist stem, so saxBopaio, yiip^ signify I 
shall fall ill, shall die. E.g. yjipeii otl laxoTKH he will 
die of consumption. 

How the Parts are Formed. 

(iii) To know every form of the Eussian verb, it is 
only necessary to learn the infinitive and 3rd person 
singular present. The rest follow. 

Verhs Original and Derivative. 

(iv) Verbs may be either original — i.e. unreferable 
to any simpler form — or derivative, from nouns or 
other verbs. E.g. in English "to fall," "to write," 
are original; "to book," "to tabulate" derivative 
(from the noun "book," and the Latin tabula, table). 
Or as in Latin, dicer e to say, iHdicare, from index, a 
judge. 



THE VERB. 93 

Derivatives, verbs which mostly represent complex 
ideas, greatly outnumber the primary verbs ; in fre- 
quency of use they are less, as the simpler relations 
have to be constantly re-stated. 

In Latin derivative verbs have a vocalic stem, e.g. 
iudicd-re, mone-re, audlre* So, too, in Eussian ayiia 
thought, Aj^Maib to think; seJCHbiH green, sejeaBn. to 
become green ; jkhbi alive, hchtb to live (an original 
verb), OJKBBUTL to revive, from jkbb&h alive. 

The derivative verbs being the more numerous, and 
the newest and easiest formations, tend to set the model, 
and become the " regular " verbs. 

The primary verbs, being the most employed and 
the most worn down in daily use, also being drawn 
from more ancient sources, conserve obsolete forms, 
and are sometimes called " irregular " — arbitrarily and 
inaccurately. Actually Eussian has next to no verbs 
that can be really termed anomalous. 

Further, many " original " or " primary " verbs have 
consonantal stems or roots, e.g. Latin reg-ere to rule, 
dlc-ere to say ; i.e. one ending in a consonant. 

§ 43. The Eussian Infinitive. 

The Eussian infinitive ends in -tb and is preceded 
by the root in original verbs, by the stem in derivative 
verbs. 

In some verbs -th accented survived, e.g. hcc-th to 
carry. 

♦ Russian verbs in -in, -in, -aib, -aw, -htb, -» may be compared 
with the Latin -eo, -[a]o, -io, whilst the Eussian first conjugation 
pongists of rgot-verbs, like ^he Laitin third. 



94 RUSSIAN GKAMMAE. 

In some few guttural stems, the guttural and -tb 
coalesce into -'it, e.g. neit to bake, for neK-Tb; JKesb to 
burn, for !i:er-Ti>. 

In some dental roots, the dental and -tb coalesce 
into -cTb, e.g. Beciu to lead, for Bej-ib ; njecTi'i to pleat, 
for njCT-Tb. 

In "original" vocalic stems -tb follows the root, 
e.g. 3Ha-Tb to know. 

Sometimes a consonant is extruded, e.g. jkhtb to 
live, for jkhb-tb. 

All derivative stems are vocalic, e.g. JKCJa-ib to 
wish. 

§ 44. The Foems Derived from the Eussian 
Infinitive. 

The -Tb termination must be removed, and the stem 
or root stripped. 

(1) By adding -nie a verbal noun is formed ; 

e.g. Ko.ieoa-TB to rock, itojefiauie ; Bta-ib to 
blow, B'tanie. 

(2) By adding -at, the past tense is formed ; 

e.g. a KO.Ieoa.l^ I rocked.* 

(3) By adding -a to the present stem the present 

" gerundive " ^feja-iB ; e.g. A'tjtaa doing. 

* In consonantal sterna this -.\T> is dropped in the masculine 
singular, restored in the other inflections. 

E.g. Tepetb (root tbp) to rule, past tense lepi, Tep.ia (fern.), etc. 
ABHb (root jer) to lie down, past tense jeri, jer^A (fem.), etc. 
-pe'ii. (root pen) to speak, past tense peKi, peiuA (fem.), etc. 

But c£. for this last the Polish rzekl, and Cech ifekl. 



THE VERB. 95 

(4) By adding -ymiii, -lomiii to the present stem the 

present participle; e.g. iiM'tiomiu possessing 
(HMi-Tb);* -amiH is added with derivative verbs 
in -HTb: HHC-a-TL, numymiii. 

(5) By adding -bi or -buih the past gerundive; 

e.g. nuc-a-Tb to write, nacaBX, nHcaBraa,t and 
by adding -Biiiiii the past participle active ; 
e.g. BecejH-Tb to enliven, Beceju-Biniii. 

(6) By adding -esi bi b or -n m bi ii the present participle 

passive ; e.g. 3ua-Tb to know, sHaesibiii ; ciaBHTb 
to place, CTaBHMbiu. 
An easier rule is to form this from the 1st person 
plural present ciaBHMij suaein.. 

(7) A perfect participle passive in t or h. t is only 

used in a very few verbs of certain types ; 
e.g. ^BHHyib to move, ^Bi'iuyTbiii, nocjaib to 
send, nocjaHnbiii sent. 
This participle is accented like the 2nd person 
singular present of variable verbs. 

All participles are fully declined as predicatives 
and determinatives. 

Before preceding to learn the verbs, the student must 
be sure he knows the phonetic rules in §§ 2, 5, 6, 8, 9. 

It will be observed that all the forms derived from 
tlie infinitive are accented like the infinitive. There 
are scarcel}' any exceptions to this rule. 

* In older Russian the terminations were -ynn, -aia gerundive, 
->ilii, -niiii participle. Some of the latter survive as adjectives, 
e.g. MOr^MlB powerful (mo>!Ii), ropaMiii (ropHii) hot, cnAiiiiii sedentary. 
E^Ayna is still used as the gerundive present of Ouib ; Oy^ymiB, the 
regular form, means " future." 

t In consonantal roots the termination is -uiiii, e.g. ueciu to 
carry, hccth, iiecuiH. 



96 RUSSIAlir GEAMMAE, 

§ 45. The Formations feom the 1st Person 
Singular Present. 

The imperative is formed from the 2nd person 
singular present by substituting ii, b or u for emb or 
amb, the accent being that of the 1st person singular. 

The addition of -le makes this imperative form plural. 

The same -le added to the 1st person plural makes 
a hortative mood " let us do." 

The accentuation is that of the present tense, 
e.g. 5y4y I shall be, 5y4b, CyAbie, 6y4eM-Te 
BeceJK) I enliven, Beceju, BCceJHie 

There are a very few exceptions to this accentual 
rule, viz. 6uTb to beat [v. § 52 (2) /3], ^aib to give 
[v. § 57, III.], CTOiiTb to stand [v. § 52 (3)], So/iTca to 
fear [v. § 52 (3)], cMttiTbcfl to laugh [v. § 52 (3)], itpbiib* 
to cover [v. § 52 (2) e]. 

e.g. BHeM.iemb thou perceivest, BHeiijii 
6bemb thou beatest, Gefl 
ooHiubca thou fearest, 5oH-ca 
MoeuibCfl thou washest, iiou-ca 

§ 46. The Accentuation of the Verb. 

I. All the forms derived from the infinitive [v. § 44] 
have a fixed accent, that of the infinitive. 

II. Except in a very few verbs the imperative has 
the accent of the 1st person singular present. 

III. Verbs which uniformly accent the termination 
or the stem in every part are said to have a fixed 

* The exception in verbs in -utl is apparent only : if the li be 
taken as a oontraotion of -o& or y, i.e. as equivalent to -iii6cil. 



ACCENTUATION OF VERBS. 97 

accent. Only a few derivatives and most of the original 
verbs have a variable accent. 

IV. The only constant variations in the accentuation 
of the verb are in the present tense and the past parti- 
ciple passive, and forms derived from the present stem. 

V. Every verb which has an infinitive of two 
syllables or more, and is not accented on the ultimate, 
has a fixed accent. 

VI. In dissyllabic verbs accented on the ultimate in 
the infinitive, the accent may vary on certain inflections. 

VII. A verb with a variable accent accents the 
infinitive and 1st person singular present alike, the 
2nd and 3rd persons singular, the 1st and 2nd plural, 
on the penultimate; the 3rd person plural either on 
the ultimate or penultimate, generally the latter. 

VIII. As a rule, the past participle passive has the 
secondary accent when the accent is variable.* 

IX. Eussian verbs are divided into four con- 
jugations, which differ very little. 

Examples of Verbs with and without Variable 

Accents. 

BUA^Tt to see (invariable) (rule V.). 

cujKy BU4nMi> 

BH^QIDb BUjuxe 

nHcaxL to write (variable) (rule VI.). 
nnmy^ nHmeMT> 

nnmeniB nuinsTe 

nHineix niinij'T'i. 

* E.g. BocnHidii educate, BocnuiannHii ; nncte write, nuiueii, 
niJcanHHij. 



98 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

ciiasaTL to tell (variable) (rule VI.). 
cKaJKy CKaatCMT. 

citaiKcuib citaJKeie 

citajKcrb CKajKVTT. 

necTH to carry (invariable) (rule VI.). 
Hecy neccMi 

neceiHi. neceie [v. § 9 (7) (1)] 

HcceiT. Hecvrt 



§ 47. Examples of the Complete Conjugation of 
TWO Derivative Verbs with Fixed Accents. 

Infinitive : jKe-ia-Tb to wish B'tpn-Tt to believe 

Verlcdnoim: atejaflie [Bi5peiiic]* 

Present gerundive : jKCJiaa BBpa 

Present part. act. : jitejaiomift Btpamiii 
Past gerundive act. : !Ke.iaBi>, jiie.iaDraii BipHB't, B'tpuDiuH 

Past part. act. : jitejaBiiiiii B'BpHBniiii 

Present part. pass. : jKaiacMbiu BipHMbiHf 

Past 'part. pass. : jKCJanubiii -BBpeaiibiii 

Present: n pitejiaH) bbdio 

Tbi jKejaeuib BBpniub 

0U7., ODa, ono iKejacTT) B'tpuTX 

Mbi )KeJaeM^ B'Lpmn. 

Bbi jKe.uieTC B'tpHie 

OHH, OB'S jKCJaion. Btparb 

Past : a, tbi )Ke.ja.n., iKe^aja Bipiui, B'lpiua 

, f )EejajT>, )Keja.ia, iKCJaio 

OHT), OHa, 0HO< i i i 

' ' ^BTipiU^, BBpiUa, BBpiUO 

Mbi, Bbi, oni'i, out a!eja.iH, BBpHJii 

•' Replaced by BtpoBaiiie, from B'/ipoBan. f Rare, 



THE CONJUGATIONS. 99 

Future: 6v4v \ , Gy'icmt. \ 

,", " HtciaTb -, atejaTB 

/, BBDHTB J, BBDHTb 

Oy/ten, ; 5y4yTT> ) 

Imperative : 2!id pers. sing. jKejaa Bt>pt 
2iid pers. pi. jKCJaHxe oipLTe 

Unless specially mentioned, all the parts of the Russian 
verb are simply and regularly formed as in these two 
paradigms. 

§ 48. The Pour Conjugations. 
Some Phonetic Rules. 

Before entering on this section, reperuse § 5, § 6, § 8, § 9. 
Remember. — Words in -epe-, -opo-, -e^e-, -ojo-, though 
now dissyllables, represent monosyllabic roots in -pe-, 
-pa-, -.le-, -ja-- 
Rememher — 

r -1- 6 makes Jite r -f n makes jkh r -f lo makes iKy 
And similarly with k and x (changing to h and m). 

Remember — 

T -I- 10 makes in Eussian mv, in Church Slavonic my. 

4 -I- 10 makes in Eussian my, in Church Slavonic ikav. 

T -H a can make in Eussian la, and in Church Slavonic 
ma or remain. 

T 4- e or H can make ne, 'ih or remain. 

4 -|- e or H can make ase, jkh or remain. 

A + a can make jKa or remain. 

When the dental remains, it is due to the influence 
of the written language. 

Remember — k, r -f -n are changed to -Hb; but t or 
4 -f Tii to -CTH, and the ending -ctu is extended to other 
roots by false analogy. 



100 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

Bememher — 3 + a becomes 3Ka or remains, 
c + H becomes ma or remains, 
c + K) becomes my 
3 + H) becomes aty 
CT + 10 becomes my 

Remember. — The euphonic insertion of j after labial 
roots before 10, and -eHHUii. 

Before other soft vowels c, 3 and ct as a rule are 
merely softened in pronunciation, not changed in 
quality, [v. § 5 (4).] 

§ 49. The Pikst Conjugation. 

At the head of § 42 there is printed a scheme of the 
four conjugations. 

The first conjugation forms its present in -y, -emt., 
-CTX, -eMX, -ere, -yii, added directly on to the root, 
without any intermediate vowel. 

It comprises the following classes : — 

I. Guttural Boots. — Infinitive in -hu; e.g. ncML to 
bake, jchl to lie down, Moit to be able. 

e.g. neib to bake (root neu) K&ih to burn (root Htbr) 
Past part. act. : neKmifi jKermiH 

Gerundive: neKraii jKerma 

Present part. act. : ncKymiu iKrymiu 

Past part. pass. : ne4eHHbiH jKJKeaHwfl 

Present: neiiy neneMTj nry ataieMi 

ne^emb nsHeie matemb Hrateie 

nenerb neKyix jiokctti jKryn. 

Past : neKi, neiua, neiao, aeiuu ; JKeri), lurja, vkfjo, jhtji'i 
Imperative : ncKB ; atra 



THB FIRST CONJUGATION. 101 

Similarly : — 

-peiB to speak (root pen) — this verb is obsolete. 
jeib to lie down (irregular present stem Jflry, 

Aamemb, .ikryiT, ; but past jen., Jier.ia, jerjo, 

jerjn); imperative Jan. 
MOib to be able (root Mor) 

Note. — MOHi. makes Mory, MOHteiub, mo/KCtt., mojkcmt., 
MOJKCTe, Moryii; imperative Morti, etc. 

Similarly : — 

Bjeib to draw (root b.ick) 

ciHh to cut (root c^k) 

Sepeib to shelter (root 6eper, present oepery, 

Cepeatemb . . . Oeperyii,, past Seperx, 

Ceperja, Seperjo, oeperju) 
CTcpesb to guard (root cieper, like Gepe4b) 
CTpHqbca to have the hair cut (root CTpar)* 
Teqb to flow (root lei;) 
sanpiisb to yoke (root npar : note the past 

sanpa'n., sounded pryok, prigla, -16, -li) 
BOJOHb to drag (root bojok) 

Practically all of these have a fixed accent on the 
termination. 

II. Nasal Roots. — Infinitive in -htl (-aib after )K, h, etc.). 

Remember. — The Eussian a represents the Old Slav § 
(French aim, in, in faim, fin) ; and the nasal lost in 
some forms is restored in fuller inflections ; cf. BpeinH, 
BpeMCHH. [v. § 2 (2).] 

e.g. Haiaib to begin (root hbh) ; cf. imperf active 
HaiHHaTb 

♦ Note past participle passive ocTpujiteuuHii. 



102 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

The present gerundive and participle Hasda and 
iiaHaiomifl do not exist; for the forms cf. /KM^miii and 
JKHif'miH ; only the past active participles DaiaBX, 
Ha'iaBiuiH. 

But not& past part. pass. Baqaxuu. 

Present (with future meaning) : — 

Ha^ay DasneMt 

naiBefflL naHHeie 

HaiHeiT) HaiDyiT) 

Past: BanajiT., naia.ia, na'ia.io, Hana.iii 
Imperative: HaHBi'i 

Vcrhs of this class take the past passive participle in 
T, and mostly throw the accent back on the past tense in 
-Ml and the participle in t. Otherwise the accent is 
always on the termination. 

Such are : — 5KaTi> (himv) to press (root jelm) ; iKait 
(jKiiy) to reap (root jklh), nait (root 4lh); only 
used in compounds, e.g. uaMHBaib begin, 
co4 a n/iTB compose; nflii. (nuy, root bi.b), mostly 
used in compounds, e.g. pacniiiL to crucify. 

Veris of this class taJce the verbal siibsiantive in -lie 
{as also do the liquid roots, v. infra). 

e.g. pacDi'iTJe the crucifixion 

noBHTie the meaning (of a passage) 

There is one other such verb (with a nasal root) of 
great consequence, only used in compounds, viz. -aib 
(root CM, Latin emerc) to take. 

In compounds, as with the 3rd person pronoun 
[v. § 41, V. (2)], u is prefixed to the root. 



THE FIRST CONJUGATION. 103 

e.g. HaHfiTB to hire, npHnAii. accept, nootiTb to 
understand, saHiiTt to occupy (oneself) or to 
lend, Bsaib to take up, cnaTt to take off; all 
in the imperf ective, HaniiMaTb, npHHiiMaib, etc.; 
all having a past participle passive, naHaii, 
saHHTi, etc. 

The present restores the original root -esf, -bm, or -hm. 

e.g. naHMV, nauMeiiib, etc., noiiiiy, B03bMy, aauMy, etc. 

There also exists a present form in -^mjk), e.g. bii^si.ik) (perceive), 
Biii5M.ieuib, conjugated like a verb with fixed accent of the third 
conjugation, but with an imperative accented D[ieM.iu. 

III. Sibilant Roots. 

These are : — 

necTH to carry (root nee) 

BeaTH" to carry (in a vehicle) (root bc3) 

rpb)3Tb to gnaw (root rpbis) 

jfeib to climb (root jfe) 

II0J3TH to creep (root nojs) 

nacTu to pasture (transitive) (root naci) 

Example : — 

Infinitive: Be3TH 

Gerundive present : jtesk 

Participle present : Bsaj m i u 

Gerundive past : liesmii 

Past participle passive : Base u n bi ii 

Verbal, derived from bosiitb : -BOiKenie 

Present : Besy, Beseiiib, etc. 

Past : Be3x, Be3.ia, -ji6, -/■I'l 

Imperative: Be3H 

Notice. — jii3Tb has a present jisy, j'fcsemb, etc., ji3yT'b ; 
imperative Jiist, 



10-4 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

IV. Roots in Liquids : -epe-, -opo-, -e^e-, -ojo-- 

(1) e.g. lepeTB to rub (root TLp, imperf. inpaTL) 

-MepeiB to die (root Mbp, imperf. -MBpaib) 
nepeib to prop (root nbp, imperf. -nupaib) 
Example : — 

Infinitive : lepeTb 

Verbal: ipenie* 

Past part. pass. : lepn., like the roots in nasals 

Present gerundive aet. : ipymn 

Present part, act.: ipyuufl 

Past part, aet.: lepTbiu 

Present : ipy, ipemb, ipeiT), TpeMX, ipeie, ipyix 

Past : Tepi), tepja, -AO, -ah 

Like the roots in nasals, the verbal noun and past 
participle passive are formed with t, and the past tense 
and past participle passive throw the accent back on to 
the particle with which they are compounded, 
e.g. yiviep7>, yMep.ia, ywepjo, yuepjia (yjiepeib) 

So, too, noAnepx (but -nepi) to prop. 

(2) SopoTb to fightf ncJOTb to weed 
nopoTb to rend mojotb to grind 
KWOTb to chop 

KOJioTb to pierce. 
Present piart. act. : KOJiomiii 
Past part, act.: KOJOBUiiii 
Verbal noun : KOJioibe 
Past part. pass. : K6.iOTbiH 
Present part. pass. : none 
Present (following the third conjugation) : kojio, 

KOJeiDb, KOJCTT., KOJCMT), KOJCTC, k6jI0TI 

Past: KOJIO.!!., KOJioja, kojojo, KOJojn 

* T^piie is disused. 

•f TJsed with -en, omitted in example, 



THE MUST CONJUGATION. 105 

These five verbs differ slightly from the verbs 
ia -epeib, -ejeib. 

(a) The present as in the third conjugation. 

(B) A uniformly variable accent, [v. § 46.] 

(7) A regular vocalic past tense with fixed accent. 

(S) MOJioTb is irregular in forming its present: mcjh), 
Me.ieiiib, MejCTb, Me.ieM^, iiejeie, MejiorL, as though from 
an infinitive mcj^tb. 

V. Boots in Dentals. 
e.g. BecTi'i to lead (root bca) 
ruecTH to press (root rHCi) 
UBicTU to bloom (root ubBt), but v. § 9 (7) (3) 
luacTb to lay (root Kja^) 
itpacTb to steal (root Kpa^) 

(Kpa4y, Kpa^CHbiu) 
nacTb to fall (root na^) 
npflCTb to spin (root npHA) 
cicTb to sit (ciiAv, CH4emb) 
pacTB to grow (root pacT : pacry, etc. ; past 

tense poet) 
-lecTb to read (root Hbi) 
H4TH to go (root b4) 

and by false analogy — 

CKpecTb to scrape (root cKpe6 : cKpeSy, CKpeoemb — 

CKpeoT>) 
rpecTb to row (root rpeo : rpeSy, rpeoemb, rpeoi.) 
luacTb to swear (root kjhh : lUfiHy, KjaBemb — 

Kiaji) 

These verbs form the past in ji'b added on to the 
vowel of the infinitive, the real root being disregarded, 
e.g. BejTi, BBJa, bcjo, nejA 
So ruejx, qB^Jx, Kja.ii 



106 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

Exceptions, rpecTH and cKpecia : rpeoi, rpe6ja, rpeSjH ; 
cKpeSi, CKpeSja, citpeoja; and paciu (root paci), pacTj^, 
paciemL, poc -i, -ja, -a6, -jh. 

-lecTt (to read) and h^tu (to go) follow slightly 
different rules. 

Present : Hfly (in compounds i^y, e.g. HafiAy I shall find, 

etc.), B^eiub, Hjieii), H/(eMT., n^eTe, njifn. 
Past (from root men) : iiieji>, ni.ja, iiijb 
Participles and gerundives : u^fi, H^y'mifl, me/tmifl 

-lecTt (only used in compounds, root ibi) 
Present : -ity, -Hiemt, -HTyiT) 
Past : -'lejx, -Hja, -hjh 
Verhal iioun : MieHie 
Participles: -'iieHnbifi 

cicTi. has a present cfUy accented uniformly like 
JCHB, Jfiry. itpacTb accents the present Kpa4V^, itpaAeiub, 
etc. 

With these variations, one example will explain all 
these verbs. 

KpacTb to steal 

Present gerundive active . lipaAii 

Present participle active : itpaAymiii 

Past participle active: itpaAUiifi 

Past participle passive : Kpa^eni., itpa^ennbi ft 

Present: Kpa^y, -eiub, -en., -eMi., -eie, -yn. 

Imperative : Kpa/(H 

All these forms use the real root of the verb in the 
present forms. 

Past: i!pa.n>, Kpaja, Epa.io, npaja 

So, too, c'Lii., cbja, ctjo, dijii 



THE FIEST CONJUGATION. 107 

For the accentuation of the past tense in its inflec- 
tions, as a rule, monosyllables derived from verbs which 
accent the terminations throw the accent forward, 
e.g. ievh, jcrja, .ier.i6, jigyaii 

najT)* (nacTb) and ciji (cicTb) have a fixed accent, 
influenced by the derivative parts from verbs in -aib 
and -in. 

Forms such as bgjx, n.iejx (bccih, n.iecTH) throw the 
accent forward like jeri., pocx; so, too, khht, (kjucts, 
Kjnny), KpaJi. (itpacTt). 

Uoxept in original verbs, mostly monosyllabic, the 
past tense (or rather the participle in -j) never shifts 
the accent. 

VI. Eoots in B. These are three in number. 

atHTb to live 

DJbiTb to swim 

cjbiTb to have a reputation of (Greek KXveov) 
e.g. OUT) cJbiBeTi iiy^pbiMTi he is thought wise. 
One example illustrates all three. 

)KHTb to live 
Verbal noun : jKHiie and Htaxbe 
Fast participle passive: -HtnTbiii 
Gerundive present active: )KHBfi 
Participle present active: jitHBi^miu (but older form, 

used adjectivally, jKHByniu) 
Gerundive past active: HtHBinH, iKHBt 
Participle fast active: HiuBiuiu 
Present: 5khb^, jKBBemb . . . jkhbvtt. 
Past: JKHJTi, HtHja, jkhjo, jkmh 



* Of. Polish padl, 



108 RUSSIAN GKAMMAE. 

VII. Consonantal roots with a suffixal voivel a. 

e.g. BpaiB to speak at random, or lie 
jraiB to lie (tell falsehoods) 
f)paTi> to take (iterative -SupaTi,) 
iKAaTB to wait (iterative -jKHflaib) 
pBaiB to tear 
pataiB to neigh 
flpaiB to tear (present 4cpy) 
3BaTB to call (present Sony) 

Examples : — 

pBaiB to tear ^paib to tear 

Verbal noun: pBanie -^paeie 

Past part. pass. : pBaHHbiH /tpaHHbiii 

Gerundive pres. act. : none none 

Participle pres. act. : pBymiii ^ep^miu 

Past part. act. : pBaBiniii Apasmiu 

Present : pBy, pBeniB, pBexx, 4epy, AepeinB, ^epeix 

pseMi, peere, pBvn, ^epeM^, Acpeie, AcpyrB 

Past : pBaji>, pBa.ja, pBiio, iipaJii, Apaja, Apa-«o, 

pBa.iii ApaJH 

So, too, jraiB, jry, JHtemb, etc. So, too, Spaib, fiepy ; 

SBaiB, 30 By 

There are many similar forms in the third con- 
jugation, monosyllabic and dissyllabic, e.g. snaTb to 
know, HHcaTt to write, [v. § 52, I. (2).] 



the second conjugation. 109 

§ 50. The Second Conjugation. 

The first conjugation consists of consonantal roots 
attached directly to the terminations. This involves 
phonological difficulties, and slightly complicates the 
accentuation and appearance of the forms. 

The second conjugation is composed of roots with a 
vocalic suffix, and thus greater apparent regularity is 
secured. 

The marks of the second conjugation are : infinitive, 
-hvtl; present, -Hy, -Heuib, -neii, -hcm^, -Here, -Hvit, or, 
accented, -hv, -ueuis, -HeTT>, -E'en'b, -Here, -uJTb. 

The present forms are therefore identical with those 
of the first conjugation, save for the prefixing of the h. 

This conjugation falls under two main heads, which 
must be carefully distinguished. 

I. Perfective verbs conserving the " ay " suffix 
throughout all the forms of verb, and mostly accented 
like the imperfective verb from which they are derived. 
These verbs [v. § 59, 1. (2)] as perfectives have a peculiar 
meaning of instantaneity — of doing an action once and 
suddenly. The suffixal vowel of the imperfective verb 
is dropped, and sometimes the last consonant of the 
root as well, to avoid heavy combinations of the 
consonants. 

e.g. BepiiTi. to turn BepHj^Tt 
cieraTb to quilt CTerHyib 
nopx^Tb to flutter nopxHyib 
jiaxaib to wave MaxH;|^Tb 

ABliraTb to move ylBHHVTb 



110 RUSSIAN GKAMMAK. 

e.g. Aepraib to pull ^epnyib 

TporaiB to touch TpoHyit 

TonuTB to sink tohytb* to drown 

TfirHBatt to drag T»QyTb* to pull 

nacaxbca to concern KOCHyiLca 

uienTaxb to whisper menHyib 

There are some exceptions to this rule of accen- 
tuation. 

e.g. FJH^tTb to look at rjaHyib 

un/iaTb to throw KUHyib 

qepnaib to lade MepnHVTb 

aiaib to gape -s^Hyib 

npmaTb to cry KpiiKflyib 

Note, however, compounds in rji'myTb have a variable 
accent. 

e.g. sarJan^Tt, aarjany, aarjfineuib, etc. 

II. Verbs in -nytb, imperfective and intransitive. 

In the past tense the simple root is used, with no 
suffixal vowel between the last consonant and ji,, 
which latter, as in the first conjugation, drops in tlie 
masculine singular. 

These verbs are distinguished from ordinary im- 
perfectives by having the special inchoative meaning 
of " becoming." 

* With variable accent T6nenii., Tiinemi, TiinyiMii. 



THE SECOND CONJUGATION. Ill 

These verbs are nearly all accented on the pen- 
ultimate. 

e.g. cjfenHyTfc to become blind 
coxByib to become dry 
HaxQyib to die gradually, or wither 
CTUHyib to cool 
ruonyTb (rnoaTb) to decay 
THXBVTb to become quiet 

In this class a few verbs have the past tense in -Hyj!T>. 

e.g. junnyib to adhere, junuyji.; -CHyib (mostly 

used in compounds, e.g. sacuyib, npocu^ib) to 

sleep, -c^yJ^ (as the perfective of aacbinaib, etc.) 

The present runs -cay, -CHcuib . . . cuyii.* 

III. Examples of conjugation in both varieties. 

Perfective and Transitive. Imperf. and Intrans. 
KUHYTb to cast off ruonyTb to decay 

Infinitive: luiHyib riionyib 

Verbal noun : (KHHVTie) none 

Past part. pass. : ituHyTbiii (in t not d) none 

Present part. act. : none riiOHymiu 

Present gerundive act. : none ruoHymH 

Past gerundive act. : KuuyBuiH riiSHyBiun 

Past part. act. : KiiuyBUiiu rHSHyBiiiiM 

Present part. pass. : none none 

Present : i>i'iHy, KHHerab, ruoHv, rHdneuib, 

KiiaeTi, KHHeMx, rHoueT'b,rHOHeMi, 
KUHeie, KHeyn. ruoueie, fhouvtI) 
Past: Ki'iHy.jx, KHHyja, raGii, rikoja 

i;iiBy.!Oj KUHy.in rii6jo, riojH 
Imperative: bnab ru6nn 



* Of. the noun conx, cua. 



112 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

§ 51. The Third Conjugation. 

Preliminary. 

The characteristic of this conjugation is the present 
in -10, -eiiib, -en., -CMt, -ere, -iotb. 

This conjugation comprises a number of primary 
original verbs, mostly monosyllables, and vocalic roots 
(thereby distinct from those in the iirst conjugation) ; 
a few consonantal roots also exist. 

It comprises the enormous and increasing number 
of regular derivatives in -iib ; the derivative verbs in 
-aib and -atb, which is the commonest form, and the 
large class of verbs in -OBaif., -esaTt, together with the 
iteratives in -wBaib, -nBaib. 

Thus, this conjugation perhaps embraces the 
majority of Eussian verbs. 

An example of a simple regular verb in -aib is to 
be found at § 47. 

Verbs in -iib are precisely the same, e.g. seJBHixb 
to become green, the stem sejefli- being substituted for 
the stem jKCJa-. 

§ 52. The Original Verbs of the Third 
Conjugation. 

I. Those in which the terminations are directly 
affixed to the root. 

(1) Liquid roots in -OJOib, -opoTb. 

These have been explained in § 49, IV. (2). 



THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 113 

(2) Vocalic roofs. — (a) Eoots in a. 
e.g. 3Ha-Tt to know 
This is conjugated exactly like atdaib [v. § 47]. 
So, too, ciff-Tfc to shine (ciaio). 

(/8) Eoots in h. 
e.g. 6HTb to beat jhtb to pour ranib to sew 

BHTb to wind 6pBTb to shave rniiTb to rot 

All of these form the past participle passive in -Tt. 
e.g. Shtt., BHTb, JHTx, etc. 

The verbal nouns are formed either in -mie or -eflie. 
e.g. Snibe, Gieaie, rHienie, etc. 

The present tense is formed : — 

CbK), 6bemb, Sberb, 6be.ui., Cbeie, QbiOTh 

So, too, inbK), rniio, Jbio, sbio, etc. 
But 6pHTb, 6peH), 6peeuib, Speeii., SpeCMi, Opeeie, SpeiOTi. 

The other forms present no variance ; e.g. dbibmifl, 
6HBmiH, QuATi (60ja, 6hjo, 6iua), 6eii (imperative), 
[v. § 45.] 

(7) Eoots in y. 

e.g. AVTb to blow oSyib to put on [shoes] 

These are quite regular, the root being f,\, o5f. 
e.g. nym, 4yemb . . . Ayioit, ayii 
Ayn, AyJomiH, AJemiPi, nf^-h 
The verbal noun and past participle passive are 
in T, 4yTbe, oSyTJe, ^yTt, oSyTi.. 

(S) Eoots in ■]§. 

CMiib to dare* rpiib to warm 

ycQiib to succeed 

* Not to be cpafgsed with CMtaTica laugh, [t. § 52, I. (3).] 



114 EUSSIAN GKAMMAK. 

There are very few original verbs of this type ; they 
are all regularly conjugated like the derivatives in -in, 
or like atciaio [v. § 47], substituting the root in i 
for H!eja-. 

They are all accented throughout on the root- 
vowel i>; e.g. CM'hio, rpien., ychmx. Por -nin dress, 
V. § 57, 11. 

For niifc, v. following sub-section (e). 

(e) Verbs in -bitl. 

[For SbiTb to be, v. § 57, II. This verb is anomalous, 
forming its parts — as in nearly all Indo-European 
languages — out of several separate roots.] 

e.g. itpbiTb to cover, sibiTb to wash, butb to howl, 
puTb to dig, HbiTb to grieve, and riliTb to sing, 
which accents the termination; noib, noeiuL, 
noeii, noemi, noere, noibn,. 

bi fully accented is sounded almost as a diphthong 
ui, and KpbiTb may be taken as an abbreviated form of 
Kpoeib. One example will illustrate them all. 

Infinitive: KpbiTb 

Verbal noun : Kpbiiie* 

Past participle pass. : KpbiT'b* 

Past participle act. : KptiBmifi 

Past gerundive act. : KpuBi, Kpb'iBmii 

Past: Kpb'ui, Kpb'ua, itpbuo, Kpb'i.iH 

Present : KpoK), Kpoerab, Kp6eT^, Kpoesi^, Kpoeie, Kpoion. 

Present participle pass. : (KpoeMbifl) 

Imperative: itpoa, Kpoiiie 

» Prom §§ i9 I., II., IV., VI., § 50, § 52, 1. (2) (6) (•>) (<), it will 
be seen that most of the primitive root-verbs, consonantal an4 
vocalic, have the past participle passive in t and not in n. 



The Third conjugation. 



115 



II. Verbs with an infinitive in -aib, -aib ; but 
affixing the root directly on to the terminations of the 
present tense. 

Of these verbs there is an immense number. Some 
instances can be given. Otherwise they are conjugated 

like Htciaio or ^iiaio. 

Present. Accentuation. 

Taio fixed 

.laH) 

KaniEO (Kanaio) 

Mamy 

ptiity 

Hyio 

np/isy 

BBK) 

opio 

iiaAbiocb 
n.iaHv 

ABHJKy (/iBHraio) 
niiDuy, but ni'imemb, variable 
HHiiiyTi, and iiBcanHbiu 

CMiibcb invariable 

Baa;y variable 

flpCMJK) „ 

men^iy ,, 

cKaajy „ 

jencH^ „ 

Nearly all the verbs of this class accented on the 
last syllable have a shifting accent, like that of UHcaib. 

Notice. — (1) CTCuaTb, to groan, has mixed forms : 
cTeaaK), cieHaemb, etc., or ctohk), cTOHeaib, etc. ; past, 

CTBHajT) or CTOHajX. 



laaib 


to thaw 


jaaib 


to bark 


Kanaib 


to trickle 


MasaTb 


to anoint 


pfaaib 


to cut 


lyflTb 
npaiaTb 

B^Tb 


to scent 
to hide 
to wave 


opaxb 
Ha/iiaibca 


to plough 
to hope 


njaKarb 


to weep 


4BHraTb 


to move 


HBCaTb 


to write 


CMiaTbcn 

BHSaib 


to laugh 
to bind 


ApeMaTb 
menTaib 


to sleep 
to whisper 


citasaTb 


to say 


jeneiaTb 


to stammei 



116 ntJssiAii graMMaS. 

(2) KOJteSaTB to rock, kojcSjio or KOJeSaio, tt0Je6jeiut 
or KOjeSaeiiib, etc. 

(3) cjaib to send, nijiio, mjerab, uneTh, mjeie, 
uiJiOTT. (imperfect! ve -Cbuaib). 

(4) CTjaib to spread, cieiio, ciejemb, etc., ciejiOTX ; 
past CTjaiXj CTjaja, cuajo, cuajH (iter. -cTUjaib) 

(5) ijbixaibto breathe, abiuiv, ^biiiieiub, ^biinyTi or 
flbixaio, Abixiieuib, etc., in compounds. 

(6) cTpaAaib to suffer, cipaJMy or cTpaflaio in the 
1st person ; otherwise CTpajaio, CTpaAaeuib, etc. 
CTpajKfly is a Church Slavonic form, the true 
Eussian would have been cipaffiv. 

§ 53. The Thikd Conjugation. 

ITie Derivative Verbs. 

There are three forms of derivatives in the third 
conjugation : — 

(1) With the infinitive in -aib or -aib, and stem in -a-, 
-fl-, mostly derived from nouns, and conserving fixedly 
the accent of the noun. These are mostly transitive. 

e.g. A'l>.io thing ^tjaib to do 

paSoTd work paSoiaib to work 

nenaib printing neqaiaTb to print 

JiH)6e3HHK'b lady's man awSesHU'iaib to court 

There are very few exceptions to this rule of the 
uniformity of accentuation of noun and verb. 

e.g. XBopbiH ill XBopaib to be ill 

jacKa affection jacKaib to dandle 

(2) With the infinitive in -iTh accented, intransitive, 
and with an inceptive and imperfective meaning. 



THE MIBD CONJUGATION. U? 

e.g. aejeH'tib to become green (scjeHbia) 

SoraiiTb to become rich (Soraibiu) 

jKejiiib to become yellow (jKejibiii) 

cjaoiTb to become weak (cjaobift) 

Mj'iKaTb to become a man (layati) 
Bememher—m, m, i, m + t in Russian make iKa, ma, 
la, ma. [v. §§ 37 and 2 (3).] 

These derivatives in -iib are all oxytone. Except : — 
(a) A few words, e.g. yrpiOMbiH surly, yrpibMiib. 

(/3) In accordance with the same principle of 
conserving the accent of the noun or adjective all 
inceptives in -itb, from adjectives in -aBbiH, -HBbifi, 
-OBbiH, -aTbiii, retain the adjectival accent, 
e.g. KpoBaeliTb to become bloody 
Mi'uocTBBBtTb to bccome merciful 
KOCMaTiib to become shaggy 
GesjibAiib to become depopulated (6e3i a (OAefi) 
oSeanaMnTliTb to lose memory (Seat naMaia) 
For full model of conjiigation of these derivatives, all 
of which have a fixed accent, v. § 47, JKBjaTb. 

(3) I. Derivatives in -OBaib, -CBaib, e.g. lyBCTBOBaib 
from HyBCTBO feeling. 

Infinitive : HyBciBOBaTb ropeBaxb 

Verbal noun : nyBCTBOBaHie ropeBaHie 

Past part. pass. : — — 

„ ger.andpart. act.: qyacTBOBaBmiB, -ma ropeBaBraiH, -ma 

Past : 'jyacTBOBajT) ropsBaji 

Present: H^BCTByio, -emb, etc. ropibFO,-emb,etc. 

Present part. act. : syBCTsyiomiii ropibiomiH 

Present gerundive : lyscTBya ropiba 

Imperative : qf BciByH ropibu 



118 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

The accent on these derivatives is fixed, mostly, on the 
syllable accented in the noun or adjective from which they 
are derived. But in the present, and those forms derived 
from it, -OB, -ee changes to -y, which is accented, when the 
infinitive is oxytone. 

e.g. Btpa, BiposaTb to believe 

HtepTBa, atepTBV, atepTBOBaii to sacrifice 
CecfeAa, 6ec'tA0BaTB to converse 
BapBapi), BapBapcTBOBaTB to be barbarous 
cymecTBo a " being," cymeciBOBaxB to exist 
Bou-Ha, BoeBaiB to war 

The foreign loan-words in -HpoBaib. These, if quadri- 
syllable, accent HpoBaTB; if pentasyllable, or beyond, 
BpoBait. 

e.g. aKKjHMaTBSHpoBaTb to acclimatize 
MapniBpoBaiL to march 
anjOAHpoBaih to applaud 
KyjtTHBHpoBaib to cultivate, etc. 

But notice — s/iopoBbin healthy, a^opoBaibca ; s^opo- 
Baiocb to grfeet. This is. really a derivative from the 
adjective, [v. § 53 (1).] 

II. There are a few original verbs in -OBaTb, -CBaib, 
which really belong to § 52 ; but, as they are exactly 
like the derivatives, may be more conveniently treated 
liere. 

They all accent in the same way : — 

e.g. KOBart to forge kvio, ityeuib fixed accent 
coB3.Tb to thrust cyro „ „ 

luCBaTb to nibble kjioio „ „ 

BteBaib to chew atyib „ „ 



THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 119 

(4) Iteratives in -aib, -/itb. 

There is one aspect of the Eussian, called iterative 
or frequentative, signifying habitual or repeated action. 
One form of this is an inflection in -aib, -(iib, -aio, -hk). 
e.g. ABiirait to move, perfective ABHiKy [v. § 52 (3)] 
-4BHraTb to move, iterative -^euraio 
Hanaib to begin, perfective naHHy [v. § 49 (2)] 
naiHHaTb to begin, imperfect! ve 
Other examples vidll be given in the section on the 
aspects, [v. § 59 (4).] 

The conjugation is regular, like atejaso [v. § 47]. 

(5) Iteratives in -biBaib, -HBaib. 

(a) Where the root of the verb is vocalic, in -Baib. 
e.g. ^aib to give Aaeaib 

6biTb to be SbiBaib 

craib to become -CTaBaib 
oSyTbca to put on (shoes) (perf.) oSyBaTbca 
(i8) Where the verb is dissyllabic, or the root 
consonantal in -biBaib, -HBaib, with the 
accent on the root. 
e.2. 



DHCaTb 


to write 


nHCbiBaib 


3BaTb 


to call 


aoBbiBaib [v. § 49, VIL] 
and -3b]BaTb 


ToproBaTb 


to trade 


ToproBbiBaib 


Hrpaib 


to play 


urpbiBaib 


XO^UTb 


to go 


xaHiHBaib 


roBopuTb 


to speak 


roeapHBaib 



For other instances, v. § 59, I. (4). 
These forms are conjugated regularly with a fixed 
accent; e.g. 6biBaio, nHCbiBaio, roBapHBaio, like JKCJaib 
[V. § 47]. 



120 RUSSIAN GKAMMAK. 

Observe. — ^asaTh (from ^aib) forms its present like 
KOBaiL [v. § 53 (3) II.],4ai()j/[aemB, 4aera,etc. Similarly 
-CTaeaTt has -ciaib, -CTaeiDh, etc., and -SHaBait (from saaTB 
to know), -snaib, -snaeuib, etc. 

§ 54. The Fourth Conjugation. 

Preliminary. 

The fourth conjugation consists mainly of derivative 
verbs with fixed accentuation. 

The infinitive is in -ixt for a few very common 
original verbs, and in -aib, -ait in four others : rnais 
to drive, cnait to sleep, ctoiitb to stand (connected with 
CTaTS to stand), and GouTtcfi to fear. 

Otherwise the infinitive is in -hie, and the present 
terminations -lo, -nmb, -hit., -hmt., -htb, -ati are added 
directly to the root or stem, the thematic vowel h only 
occurring in the infinitive and forms thence derived. 
For a complete paradigm of the derivative verb, v. § 47, 
Btpnib, and cf. §§ 44 and 45. 

The derivative verbs of the fourth conjugation are 
mostly transitive, and often causative. 

e.g. cjaSi. weak, cjaOiTt to become weak, cjaSaTb 
to make weak 
ciapi old, ciapiib to become old, cTapBib to 

make old 
fiorarb rich, SoraTiTb to become rich, SoraiHTb 

to enrich 
je^aHoa (from xexh ice), je^euirb to freeze (in- 
transitive), je^eBiiTb to freeze (transitive) 
When derived from verbs, forms in -Hib are usually 



THE FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



121 



the imperfectives of primitive verbs of the first con- 
jugation. 

to carry 

to carry 

to lead 

to lie 



e.g. HecTH 

Be3TH 
BeCTH 
KHh 



nOCUTL 
B03HTb 
BOAHTt 

-joJKHTb to lay 
JOKaib to lie (intrans.) 

Generally speaking, these derivative verbs accent 
the termination throughout ; there are many exceptions, 
some of which are detailed in § 56. 



§ 55. The Fourth Conjugation. 


Original Verbs. 




I. Verbs in -aib. 


-flTb. 








rnaib 


CTOilTb 


cnaib 




to drive 


to stand 


to sleep 


Verbal noion : 


FHauie 


CToaHie 


- — 


Past part. pass. : 


rflaHHMH 


— 


— 


Gerundive present : 


■ roHa 


CTOII 


— 


Present part. : 


roadmiu 


cTOfimiu 


cnamiii 


Gerundive past : 


FHaBT. 


CTOaBl. 


— 




rHaBfflH 


CTOflBfflH 


cnaBuiH 


Present : 


roHib 


CTOH) 


cniw 




roHamb 


CTOHrab 


en 11 nib 




rOHHTT, 


CTOHTl 


cnvm. 




r6flHMT> 


CT011M^ 


cnHjn> 




rOBHTB 


CTOB're 


cnHTe 




lOHHTT. 


CToaii. 


cnarb 


Imperative : 


rOHH 


CToii 


cnH 


Past: 


FHaji 


CTOHA-b 


cnajiT. 


Present part. pass. : 


rOBHMblH 


— 


— 


6oaTbCfi, to fear, is 


conjugated like CTo/iTb; the im^ 


perative is Cofica. 









122 RUSSIAN GRAMMAE. 

II. Verbs in -'Btl. 

Roots terviinating in m, }K, h change i to a ; 
e.g. mviith. Gf. § 37 and § 53 (2), and § 2 (3). 

These verbs mostly have a fixed accent on the 
terminations. 

e.g. roplib to burn, ropro, ropniuB . . . rop/in. 

rnvMOTt to be noisy, myjuio, myMiiuib, rnvmni, 
jerbib to fly, JC'iy, .leTiirar,, imTh 
CHA'tit* to sit, ciiJKy, cHAuuib, ch4(it^ 
/ipojKaTb to tremble, flpoJK^, ApoiKHinb, ApoJKaTTi 
KpHHaib to cry, itpHHy, KpoHiirab, KpHsaTt 
jiCHtaib to lie, jeiity, jeatiiuib, jeiKaii* 
CTynaTb to knock, ciyqy, CTyqaTT) 
MOJHaTb* to be silent, iicjiy, uomkrh 
Soj'bTb (impersonal), SoJHi'b, 6oj)iTi 
BCjibTbt to command, oejib, BejHUib 
rjafliib* to look at, r.iiuKy, rja/i^uib, etc. 

Some have a moveable accent. 

e.g. cMOipfab to look at, CMOTpib, CMOTpniub . . 
CMOiapTi, CMOTpamiii, -CMOipiBBbm 

lepniib to endure, Tepn.iib, TepDHiDb . . .lepnan. 
(but lepnHMbiH, TepnjeHHbiu) 

4cp)KaTb to hold, ^epjity, AepiKHinb . . . AepHtaiTi 
(past part. pass. AepiKaenbia) 



* Present gerundive cii^n, .leina, M64'ia, rji'm'i. 
f Takes the dative. 



THE POXJETH CONJUGATIOlC. 123 

;?bimaTi, to breathe, ^timy, AMUinuib, flbiuiari. 
(Also a secondary form, ^bixaib, 4bimy, ^bimemb, 

4b'irayTi in the third conjugation) 
JiooHTb to love, jH)5jib, Jioomiib . . . jibSan., 

JiibSamifl, JioSiiMbia 

Beprhib, to turn, usually has a fixed accent on the 
termination ; Bepiflnib, BepiHTT), BepniTTj are also found. 

BHC'tib to hang (intransitive) has a fixed accent ; 
but in compounds accents the root, e.g. saBMciib. 

A few are accented fixedly on the root. 

e.g. cjb'iuiaxb, cjbiiiiy, CJbiuiarb, etc., to hear 
BH^'fiiB, BHiKv, si/innTh to See 

As a rough guide it may be stated that verbs of the 
fourth conjugation with the infinitive in -in, if in- 
transitive have a fixed accent, if transitive have a 
moveable accent. 

A^ofe.— njiaiHTb, to pay (njaiy, njammb, njaiaii, 
DjaieuHbifl), must be distinguished from njaitaTb, njasy 
to weep ; njaTHniT) . . . njiaiarb, to pay, is sometimes 
written, and commonly sounded n.i6THUib . . . njoiart. 

The past tense of this conjugation ends in -ijx, 
-ajx, accented like the infinitive. 

In this class the irregular verbs xorBib to wish, and 
6i!Ka,Tb to run, must be included. CfoKarb has two 
irregular forms, 6fcry I run, Siryn. they run, and 
derivative forms. CMOTpiTb, to look, is also given in full, 
to illustrate a verb of the fourth conjugation with a 
moveable accent. 



124 



RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 



Infinitive : xoiiib 


CMOipfab 


Siataxb 


Past : xoTijT, 


CMOipWX 


Siataj'b 


Past gerun. : xoxiBi, xorfBuiii 


1 CMOTptBT, 


5jb)KaBX> 




CMOipiBIUH 


oibHtaBUlH 


Pres. genin. : xoiii [not used] 


CMOTpa 


Siata 


Pres.part.ad.: xox/imiH 


CMOipiimiu 


eirymiii 


Past part. act. : xoTSBmifl 


CMOTpiBiniu 


6kEaBii]iu 


Past pt. pass. : — 


[oJCMOXpiHHHB 


1 — 


Present: h X04y 


CMOipH) 


6iry 


TBI xoMeinb 


CMOTpHfflb 


6'B)Kumb 


ona, OHT. xoqeTt 


CMOTpHT-L 


^imiirh 


MBl XOTHMT. 


CMorpHMl 


SfoKHMX. 


Bbl XOTHie 


CMOipBie 


6foKHxe 


OHH, Oni XOTHTT. 


CMorparb 


Sferyxx. 


Pres. pt. pass. : xothmbib 


— 


— 


Imperative : xoth 


cjioxpu 


6ivk 



Most dissyllabic original verbs in -iixb have a 
variable accent, e.g. jikn to learn, yMv, yiamb; nycxuxb 
to let go, nymy, nycxHmb; the 1st person singular only 
is accented like the infinitive, e.g. nycxarb, Cjyataxi 
(they serve). The present gerundive active, present 
participle active, and present participle passive are 
generally accented like the infinitive, e.g. Jio6)i, 
jroSamiii, jioGhmuh (jioGaxb to love). 

The past participle passive is generally accented 
like the secondary accent of the present, e.g. xsaiuxb 
to seize, xmij, xBaxiiiub, xBaienHbiH. 

Some verbs have a fixed accent, e.g. npocxixb to 
forgive, npom^, npocx^uib, npomenHbifl, etc. ; but such 
are mostly derivative, e.g. ^apx. gift, ^apuxb to present, 
AiiBO marvel, yAnBuxbcii to marvel. 



THE FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



m 



§ 56. The Toueth Conjugation. 
Derivative Veris. 

The infinitive always ends in -htb, and the accentua- 
tion is fixed ; V. § 47 for an example. 

As stated in § 54 these derivative verbs are mostly 
accented on the terminations. 

e.g. from adjectives and nouns : — 



Hepubifi 
nwiflbiH 


black 
drunk 


nepHHTb 

nbHUHTb 


to blacken 
to make drunk 


xuTpbiii 


cunning 


XIITpHTb 


fto dodge 

(to be cunning 


MyKa* 


torment 


MyqHTb 


to torture 


rpycTb 


sorrow 


rpycTHTB 


to grieve 



But those derived from verbs mostly have a variable 
accent, e.g. CTaBHTb (ciaBjio, CTaBHinb), HOCHib, BOSUTb, 
B04HTb, Sy^HTb (to place, carry, convey, lead, awaken), 
from CTaib, ueciH, Bcara, bccth, GA^Tb, v. § 54. 

But very many conserve the original accent, 
especially if the verb has more than two syllables. 



e.g. caopi 


dispute 


CQOpHTb 


to dispute 


ceopa 


quarrel 


ccopHTbca 


to quarrel 


aiaobiu 


weak 


CiaOHTb 


to weaken 


ciapbiii 


old 


CTapnib 


to make old 


KUCJblH 


acid 


KHCJHTb 


make acid 


nn3T. 


low down 


BUSHTL 


to degrade 


HEIII]iu 


poor 


HlIIUHTb 


to impoverish 


Btpa 


faith 


B'tpBTb 


to believe 



* Distinguish from mjkA flour : mjhhuti. to flour. 



126 



HUSSlAl^ GftAMMAK. 



Trisyllabic .' — 

rOTOBbiH ready roi^BHTB to make ready 

(past part. pass. roTOBjeaHbifi) 
aKonoMT. economical 3koh6mhtJj to economize 

(trans, and intrans.) 

To this last principle that trisyllabic verbs retain 
the original accent there are many exceptions, especially 
in all adjectives and nouns denoting substance, 
e.g. ooraTbiii rich GoraxHTt to enrich 

BecejbiH merry BeceJHib enliven 
3e.ieHbiu green acieflUTb to make green 



30JOTO 

A'exh 
roBopi 



green 
gold 

ice, icy 
speech 



aoJOTHTb to gild 
(aoJO'ienubiu) 
jie^eHHTb to freeze 
roBopuTb to say 



§ 57. Anomalous Verbs. 

A few anomalous verbs remain over for discussion. 
They are either of mixed conjugations or obsolete forms. 

I. Mixed conjugations. 

(1) The same root throughout. 

(a) peBiTb, to roar, forms its present like a 
verb of the first conjugation, e.g. pesy, 
peBeittft . . . pcBynjs, and therefore all de- 
rivative forms such as pcB^u^^M, pcB/j 
(gerundive), etc. 

(/3) xoTiiL to wish [v. § 55, XL]. 

(7) -4'6Tt (only used in compounds, ofl-tTb to 
dress, etc.) and ciaib, to stand, form their 
present in fl'toy, ^inemft; CTany, ciauptuo; 

and belong to the first conjugation. 



ANOJr ALDUS VERBS. 127 

(S) nocfauTb to visit, o6paTiiTi> to direct, from 
the 1st person present in m instead of h ; 
thus, nocIi»(y, nocIiTHUJi.; oopau^y, oGpaTumi). 

(e) -miiSHTB (only used in compounds, e.g. 

oinnoiiTLCfl make a mistake, perfective ; 
imperfective oiunCaTLca, omB6a[OCb, etc.) 
forms its present as in the first conjuga- 
tion, its past as in the intransitives of 
the second, e.g. omaoycb, omHSeTca . . . 
oiuHGi/TCfl ; past omuffca, om'u6jach, <miu6- 
Aoch, omiiOjiicb. The participles are 
oraHSaiomiiicd, omiioiuiiicfl ; gerundives, 
omH6aacfc, oniu6ranct. 

(f) Distinguish apiii., spio, spnTt [-speBnbiii] to 

look at; andspiiB to ripen, 3piio,3pieiiibj etc. 

II. U'si7ig different roots. 
E.g. in English " to be," " I was," " to go," " I went." 

(1) DATH forms its present from the root 114, its 
past from me,^. e.g. 

Present : H4y, HAenib . . . n^yri 

Present part, and gerundive : H/iymifi, ii^a 

Past: mejT), mja, nijo, uijh 

Past part. act. and gerundive : me^iDiii, menma 

(2) obiTb to be 
Verbal noun : Gs'iiie 
Present: ecTb; cyit 
Past: 6bUTy, Qbua, Sb'i.io, 6b'uH 
Future : Q-fn^, 6y4emb, Oj^acti, Qjneui, SyAeie, 5jn\"i-h 
Future participle : 6y4y mifl. But v. § 44 (4), footnote. 
Past participle : SbiBmiii 
Past gerundive : Cb'iBuiu or Swbi 
Jriipcrative ; Sy^t, 6y4bTe 



128 RUSSIAN GKAMMAE. 

t 

(3) ixaTB, to drive, has as its present form ixY, 
'i^emt, iACTT., i^eMi, ineie, ^Ayn, and thence 
the gerundive iAyiH, the participle i/iymi^, 
the imperative iaiKaft or is^iH ; but in the past 
ixaAT>, 'BxaBT., etc. ; iaataTt (iterative). 

The present tense of obiTb is scarcely ever used. 
ecTB and cyii. only survive in definitions, and are then 
used for all the persons. E.g. Bort ecu. HCTHHa God 
is the truth; otherwise, IleTpi oieub My^pi. Peter is 
very wise, 9to Moe, a to iBoe this is mine and that 
is yours, [v. § 86.] 

The compounds of Sbitb are peculiar. The future 
tense is -6y4y, e.g. saSbiii. to forget, saoyAy. 

npo6biTS to stay (perfective), DpoGbiBaib (imperfec- 

tive) 
naSb'iTB, HsCbiBaib to lose or squander 
Bb'iObiTb, BbiSbiBaib to retire, resign 
Ao5b[iTB, 4o5biBaTB to obtain 
nepeSBiTB, nepeSBiBaiB to frequent 
npaGbiTb, npnGbiBaib to arrive or increase ; npnGbUb 

(fem.) profit 
0T6biTb, 0T6biBaTB to depart or serve (time) 
ySBiTb, ySbiBaib to decrease 

III. Obsolete forms. 

(1) Sflaib, to build, has a reduplicated present susoicj, 
suoicdemb, autrndeii,, auoicdem, suoicdGn, suoicdYi'b ; and 
thence SHHt^ymifl, swunyma ; and the imperative smicda 
(auoicdb). Por the past tenses it is like sHaio. 

(2) There are four verbs in " m," like the Latii^ 
sum and the Greek verbs jn juli, 



AlfOMALOUS VERBS. 120 

(a) sijii I kuow (root Bi^*). 

This is entirely obsolete ; but one form survives in 
the expression Bor-B Bicit God knovi^s. 

The derivatives are numerous, e.g. ^inoubiii known, 
B't^OMOCTb the gazette or the news. 

The infinitive B^cTb is also a feminine noun, meaning 
"news"; the iterative form Bi^axt is in common use 
in compound verbs; -Bi^aiB being the perfective and 
-Bi^biBaifc the imperfective ; the old imperative siflb 
survives as a conjunction, more or less equivalent to 
void. 

(/8) ecMb, V. antea under obixb. 
(7) icTb to eat (root 4^)- 

Present: iai,, inib, icmri,i ijiuMn, inilme, inuim 
Jmperaiive (irregular) : iiao, iittftie 
Fast : iAT,, ija, ^ao, Li a 

Part, and gerundives: i^ii, i^ymiu, 'Lbuih, iBinifl, 
iAOMbiH, -fbdenahm 

(S) Aaib to give (perfective). The present form 
(perfective future) : — 

flaMT), Aanib, /?acm8, na^dmn, dadume, dad!jm-h 

The imperfective forms are supplied by ^aBaib. 
[v. § 53 (5).] 

Imperative: /(afi 

Past : 4aJT., ^aja, nub, f,Liyi 

Part, and gerundives : ^aBUiH, AaBinifij /laHHMfi 

* Greek oXSa, English " I wot." 

t Cf. Latin est he is, est he eats ; German ist and iszt. 



130 kussian grammar. 

§ 58. The Aspects of the Verbs. 

Preliminary. 

In § 42 (2) (ii) the " aspects " of the Eussian verb 
were mentioned. They could not be adequately ex- 
plained until the accidence of the verb had been fully 
treated. 

To recapitulate: the verb in early Eussian had a 
present, imperfect and aorist (or preterite) indicative, 
and a compounded perfect and pluperfect like the 
English " I have read," and the Latin gavisus sum. 
There were some few traces even of a future, but no 
conjunctive or other moods. 

Eussian discarded all the inflections save that of 
the present, and modified the stem or root to express 
the same tenses; e.g. a CBHCT'Ii.rL I whistled, is "j'ai 
siffle"; a cBucTiiy.i'L is "je siftiai"; a CBHCiaj'b is "je 
sifflais," I was whistling; a CBuciUBa.ix I used to 
whistle (now and then). 

Each of these " aspects " has its conjugation ; and, 
thus, those Eussian verbs which have all the aspects 
possess nearly the same richness as the Greek verb 
with its present infinitive and participle, aorist forms, 
perfect forms, etc. 

The perfective regards the action accomplished or 
to be accomplished, not the process of doing it. 

e.g. yimi,-Aii BaiuTi Ma.ii,4m(T> cbou ypiitn ? 

Does your boy learn his lessons (as a 
rule) ? 



THE ASPECTS. 131 

H'lJTL, 110 out Hxt BMy^iHTx cero^oa is the perfect- 
ive ; there can be no present to an aorist or preterite. 
The present form is used as a perfect contem- 
plating the completion of the act. The answer is : 
" No, but he will learn them to-day." 

The answer might proceed : h laia ohi 6y/(eTt X04HT1, 
Bi. njKOjy ci noneAiiJiiieHKa (i.e. the imperfective future) 
"and SO will go to school from Monday next." Or 
again, a Qjny cTOfiTb eatCABeBHO na oahomt. h TOM^ me 
M'BCTi I shall stand every day at the same spot. 
Ciaay can also be used as the auxiliary, but signifies 
rather " I will begin to." 

e.g. Ci 6y/iymaro ro^a tw cTaBeuifc paSoiaiB bt. 

KOHTOpi. 

From next year you will start working at 

the office. 

The primary division, which very nearly all Eussian 

verbs have, is into imperfective and perfective. Some 

have further forms, derived from either or both in 

certain cases, from the imperfective. 

The abstract, e.g. pbi5a njaeaen. Sb'iCTpo the fish 
swims quickly (as a habit), the concrete 9Ton> n.JOBeuT) 
lUbiBeii oHeHB xopouio this swimmer is swimming very 
well (at this instant). 

f r 

The inceptive, e.g. 'lepniTb to become black, ncjepirliib 
to turn black. The iterative or habitual, only used 
colloquially and in the past tense; e.g. Xo^iTe-Jia Bbi HacTO 
Bi. Tcaipi ? ilfai., Tenepb iie xoiKy, ho KorAa-TO xajKH- 
Baj^. Do you often go to the theatre ? No, I don't 
now ; once I used to go occasionally. From the per- 
fective the perfective form in -Hyib [v. § 50, 1.] has been 



132 RUSSIAN GKAMMAK. 

in some verbs specialized into the " instantaneous " or 
" semelfactive " aspect, an act done on a single occasion. 

e.g. SanpemcBo CTviaTb Bt okho. 

It is forbidden to knock at the window. 
(Imperfective : CTyqaib, ciy'iy.) 

KtO 8T0 XaMX CTVIHTT) BT. /JBCpb? 

Who is that knocking at the door ? 
H He Mon, BOMTii, laKt ciyKHVJx. 
I could not get in, so I knocked. 

Further, certain verbs derived from adjectives have 
causative and inceptive forms in -htb and -iib [v. § 53]. 

Intrans. Trans. 

e.g. se.ieHbiii green seAeairb sejeHHib 

c.iaSbiii weak c.iaSfab cjaomb etc. 

Asjocds. 



_ I I „ L 

I I r" I II 

Diminu- Inoep- Perfective Imperfective Causa- Incep- 

tive tive I I tive tive 

no 3a I II I in -on -in 

Instantaneous Itera- Abstract Incep- 
tive tive 

Some verbs have no perfective, [v. § 59, IV.] 
e.g. npcABiM'tTb to foresee 
saBHciib to depend 
coAepjKaTb (coAepjKBTi) to contain 
npHHa^jejiiaTb {-my, -miivh) to belong 
nofljievKaTb to be subject to 
coiKajiTb (-iio) to regret 
npeACTOih'b (-CTOib) to impend 
coHyBCTBOBaTb to sympathize 
ppeAMyBCTBOBaTb to forebode 



the aspects. 133 

§ 59. The Formation of the Aspects. 

I. From original verbs. 

(1) First conjugation. 

The simplest form of the uncompounded verb is 
imperfective. 

e.g. ne'it to bake 
Jiteib to burn 
HCCTH to carry, etc. 

"With these may be reckoned the primitives of the 
third and fourth conjugations. 

e.g. ciaib m.iio I send 

Chtl otio I beat 

cnaib cnJio I sleep 

FHaiL roHib I drive 

Tliere are some exceptions : — ■ 

e.g. cicTb cfiAy I shall sit down 

.ie4b Jiiry I shall lie down 

CTaib CTaay 1 shall become 

^laib ^asi^ I shall give 

nacTb na/iy I shall fall 

The perfectives ot monosyllabic verbs are formed 
with prepositions, i.e. by compounding the verb. 

The imperfectives of cicTb, etc., are :— 
cicTb ca4iiTbca 

Je4b JOJKBTbCa 

ciaib ciaHOBHTbca (ciaHOBjibcb, cTaaoBBTca) 
/taib /laBaib [v. § 53 (5)J 
jjacib naAaib, na^aw 



lU 



EUSSIAN GKAMMAE. 



But these verbs, when 


<, uncompounded, form iteratives 


out of the full root with 


an -aib suffix. 


e.g. cjaib 


to send 


-Cbuaib 


Spaib 


to take 


-SHpaib 


jKAaib 


to wait 


-JKHflclTb 


4paT[, 


to tear 


-AHpaib 


suaTb 


to call 


-3blBaTb 


JKCTb 


to burn 


-jKHraib 


Tcpeib 


to rub 


-TUpaTb 


jitaib 


to press 


-JKHMilTb 


jKaib 


to reap 


-JKHHaib 


tCTb 


to eat 


-inaih 


[biCTb] 


to know 


B^H&Tb 


Similarly in the third conjugation, in the vocalic 


Stems. 

e.g. 5HTb to beat 


CHBaib 



AVTb to blow /ivBaib 
saaxb to know soaBaib, etc. 

In the last-named verb a distinction must be made 
between -anaio, -sHaenib, etc. (from -SEaib), and -SHaib, 
-anaefflb, etc. (from -snaBaib). [v. § 53 (5).] 

When these primitive verbs are compounded, the 
imperfeotive takes the derivative form in -aib, and the 
perfective the original form in -ib, -ib. 

e.g. oiteib to burn down, cwKry I shall burn down, 
OKHraib (imperfective), OKiiraio I am burning 
down 
noMOHb to help, noMory I shall help ; noMoraTb 
(imperfective) 

Similarly npHsnaib to recognise, npnsuaio I shall 
recognise; but imperfective npnanaBaib, npHSnaib I 
recognise 



THE ASPECTS. 135 

CaaoWBaTi, (imperf.) saobiuaio I forget 

iut \ saob'iTb (perf .) saojAV I shall forget 

( pasc-Beaib (imperf.) paaciBaio I disperse 

1 paacBflTb (perf.) paacBio I shall disperse 

( yMHparb (imperf) yMupaio I am dying 

\ yiiepeib (perf.) yiipy I shall die 

J noHHMaib (imperf.) noHHiiaio I understand 

1 noHf'iTb (perf.) noiiMy I shall understand 

[v. § 49, II.] 

r BoacTaBaib (imperf) Bosciaib I rise 

\ BoacTaxb (perf.) Bosciauy I shall rise 

f BbiHocBTb (imperf.) Bbiaomy I carry away 

Ib.'ihcctu (perf.) Bbiaccy I shall caiTy away 

Observe. — npoHecib, npo^nraib to read through 
(perfective) ; npoHurbiBaxb (imperfective). 

(2) Second conjugation in -Hyib. 

These verbs, as has been explained, are all either 
perfective or imperfective in themselves. 

e.g. yracHyib to be extinguished (imperf.), past 
tense yract ; aacoxHyib to dry, aacoxx ; itHuyib 
to throw, imperf. KiiAaib, past tense itHHy.n,. 

Perfectives in -Eyib are often called "instantaneous" 
or " semelfactive," because they denote a single action, 
e.g. Kpuqaib to shout, Kpuuiyib to shout on one 
occasion 
^epsaib, /tepsByib to venture 

(3) Third conjugation. 

The manner in which the original verbs of this 
conjugation form their perfectives has been stated in 
§ 59, I. (1). 



136 KtJSSlAN GRAMMAR. 

Derivative verbs in -hib are " inceptive " in meaning, 
e.g. sejeniTL, viridesco, to become green, and naturally 
imperfective. They must be compounded with a pre- 
position to make them perfective. 

Derivative verbs in -aib, -axb are naturally imper- 
fective, and compounded with various prepositions 
become perfective, e.g. Atjait to do, c^uiaib. 

Most original verbs in -aib, such as nucaTb to write, 
can only form their perfective by means of a prepo- 
sition, as such verbs cannot vary their form any further, 
or make use of a suffixal stem, e.g. nHcaib, perfective 
nanHcaib. 

Thus Hannujy means "I shall write." 

To the third conjugation belong the iteratives in -ait 
and -bieaib. The former are always accented on the 
termination, the latter always on the root which is in 
its fullest form. 

e.g. -HCCTb, -^iiy : HBTaiL to read (imperfective), 

npoiHiaib (perfective), SHTbiBaio (iterative) 

I read now and then. 

SBaib to call (perfective in compounds only), 

e.g. cosBaib to call together (imperfective 

C03b)BaTb). 

Verbs whose radical vowel is o change the o to a in 
forming the iterative. 

e.g. .lOMaib to break jaMbiBaib 

CpocaTb to throw OpacbiBaib 

(abstract sense : 6p6ciiTb concrete) 

and even ycBomb to appropriate ycBai-iBaTb 



1q some cases, the difference between the imper* 
fective and iterative is merely accentual, the iterative 
termination -aib being always accented. 

Imperfective. Iterative, 

e.g. ABftraitca move ohx ^Buateica -^BBraib -ABaraji 

ObraTh run Siraio -Strait -Siraji 

nojsatb creep nojaaio -nojaaib -no.isajt 

na^aib fall na^aio -naAaib -na^aji 

This distinction only applies to some original verbs of 
the type of nacaib [v. § 52 (3)], in which the suf&xal 
vowel -a- is dropped in the formation of the present ; 
such verbs having a fixed accent in the imperfective on 
the root, and the infinitive termination -aib unaccented. 

(4) Fourth conjugation. 

Many of the original verbs in -Hib or -iib, -lo, -Hfflb, 
have another form of conjugation in -aib, like the 
iteratives in -aib. In some cases the original form in 
-uTb, -tTb is perfective, the imperfective being in -aib 
(as was seen to be the rule in monosyllabic verbs like 
3iiaTb, M04b, SepeHb, suaBaib, -Moraib, -Seperaib); in 
others the original form in -aib is imperfective, and the 
alternative -aib or aib has an abstract meaning. 

Again, some verbs in -Hib derived from intransitive 
monosyllabic verbs, such as je4b, ciaib, etc., are 
causative. 

Perfective, Imperfective. 

e.g. npocTHTb to forgive* npomaib 
aeuTb show aBjaib 

* npocTUTLCH say farewell, npocTUTe good-bye. 

G 



138 



RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 



Perfective. 






Imperfective. 


e.g. JHUIBTB 


deprive 




jHUiaib 


nycTHTB 


permit 




nycKaib 


CTyniiTb 


tread 




CTynaib 


XBaiHir) 


seize 




XBaiaTb 


KyniiTi. 


buy- 




noKynaib (distinguish 
Kynaib to bathe) 


poABTbca 


be born 


pO!K.!(aTbCH* 


Hacja^nifcca 


enjoy 




HacjajK^aTLca* 


nociiHTb 


visit 




nocimaTb* 


yO'^AHTL 


to convince 
[mperfective. 


yOijK^aTb* 


Abstract or habitual. 


Concrete meaning. 


e.g. jeiaTb 


fly 


jierin [v. § 58] 


njaBaib 


swim 


njbiTb 


SiraTb 


run 


6hKaTb{hit -oiraTE iterative) 


caataib 


plant 


ca^uTb 


JOMaib 


break 


JOMHTb 


Similarly hochtb 


carry 


HCCTU 


[ 


mniiTb 


l(;ad 


BCCTII 




soaiiTh 


bear 


BCSTll 




JaSHTb 


climb 


jfalb 




6jHCTaTb 


shine 


OjecTLTb 


rOBf'lTb 


drive 


ruaxb 





When these verbs are compounded, the derivative 
form in -aib, -axb is imperfective, the original form 
perfective. 

e.g. oiajbiBaTb OTnjbiib to swim away 
yCtraib ySfoitaxt to run away 

* Church Slav change of n to ;k,i, and t to m. 



THE ASPECTS. 139 

e.g. fl jojiaio KapaB^auiH. 

I (generally) break pencils. 

Me/iBi^b joMHTca B^ ^sepb. 

The bear is breaking into the door. 

KopaSjb OTnjbiBaeTT.. 

The ship is leaving port. 

A6j!,Ka. yiKe OTnjbua on. Gepera. 

The boat has left the shore. 

IlisMUbi yGtraiOTL on, mibiKa. 

Germans run away from the bayonet. 

CoSaKa cxBaiHJa Kocib h yCiiKaja. 

The dog snatched the bone and ran away. 

IliiMiibi npHiEjM BO <Dpanqiio, saiiiai qioSbi 

rpaSaib. 
The Germans came into France to plunder. 
II'6Mnbi npHffljH Bi, Bejbriio n orpa5a.in Bci 

ropo^a. 
The Germans came into Belgium and plundered 

all the cities. 

Thirdly, the alternative form in -aib, -flib may be 

iterative. 

Imperfeotive. Iterative. 

e.g. xpaHUTb keep -xpaHihb 
BHAfob see BH^aTb 

In compound verbs the form in -aib, -kn is used for 
imperfectives, the form in -aib for perfectives. 
e.g. Oniny I shall answer. 
OiBtiaio I am answering. 
Pasopib Baiua ropo/ia n ccjeBia. 
I will destroy your cities and settlements. 
Bt> npo40JHteHie ^Byxi luicflEieBi Kopojb pasopibi. 

nenpi/iTejbCKie ropoAa. 
For two months the king had been des- 
troying the hostile cities, 

g2 



140 



KUSSIAN GEAMMAK. 



Generally the iteratives are formed in -BBaib or 
-biBaib, verbs in -in taking -iiBait. 

e.g. roBopuTi. speak roBapHBaTi. 



npOCHTb 


ask 


npaiBHBaTb 


XOAHTb 


go 


xaiKHBaib 


r.iaAtTb 


look at 


FJII^blBaTb 


Bl'wiTb 


see 


BH^blBaib 



II. The formation of the perfective in derivative verhs. 

As has been stated, derivative verbs end in -iib, 
-aib and -Hib. 

Most verbs in -iib are inceptive and naturally 
imperfective, and generally, if uncompounded, have no 
perfective. 

e.g. cjaGtib to become weak 

Verbs in -aib form the perfective by compounding, 
and this rule applies to original verbs like nncaib, 
nniny, nHUierb, as well as to derivatives, such as 
jKejaib, noatejaTb. 

As to the choice of preposition, there is no general 
rule; Ha, paai, no, o, y, bh, ex, etc., can all be used. 
Only practice can distinguish the perfectives from the 
compounds. 

e.g. 4^,1 atb to do 

jKCJaib to wish 

Bja^'kTb to possess 

CMOTpiTb to look 

BH4iTb to see 

nHcaib to write 



Perfective. 
CAijaib 
noiKejaib 

OBJa^tTb 

nocMOipLTb 

yBiwiib 

HanHcaib 



TpaiHTb to spend HCTpainxb 
Verbs in -Bib mostly have a secondary form -aib, 
which in the uncompounded vej-b has an iterative 



THE ASPECTS. 



141 



Some uncompounded imperfective verbs in 
-HTb form their perfectives, like those in -aib, by com- 
pounding with a particle. 



e.g. CipOHTb 
rpaoHTb 
cep4HTbca 

TpeBQHtBTb 

njaiHTL 



to build 
to plunder 
to be angry 
to disquiet 
to pay 



nocipoHTb 

orpaoiiTb 

pascepAMTbCfi 

BCipeBOlKHTb 

aanjax^Tb 



Again no general rule can be stated. 



III. Aspects formed from a different root. 
Of these there are very few. 



Perfective. 




Imperfective. 


e.g. n4TH 
noHMaib 


to go 
to catch 


XO^l'lTb 

JOB^Tb (Tmt noHHTb un- 
derstand, DOHHMaTI.) 


y4apHTb 

noJOJKihb 

Bsaib 


to strike 
to lay 
to take 


CHTb, and yAapiiTb 
KjacTb (iua4y) 
Spaxb 


Concrete. 




Abstract. Iterative 


e.g. ixaib 


to drive is^nib faHfaii 



cjb'imaTb (cjbimy) to hear cJbixaTb (cJbiuiy) 
4bimaTb (ahiuhtl) to breathe ^bixaxb (4biiiieT^) 

e.g. II isHty BT> r6po4i Kaat^biu 4eDb. 
I go to the city every day. 

R ixa-iT. 40m6b (bt. KapeT-fe). 
I drove home (in a carriage). 

IIo'iTii e)Ke4neBBo xoaty 40m6h nliiuKOMi. 

Kor^a-TO fl feiKaJi. Ch 6apHH0Mx. 
Almost every day I walk home ; but 

sometimes I drove with the master, 



142 



EUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 



IV. The aspects of covipound verbs. 

The general rule is that all compound verbs are 
perfective. The imperfective is formed by the iterative 
form in -aii., -i'iti., -MBaiB, -HBait; if a derivative form 
exists in -hti> this serves as the imperfective, and the 
iterative in -ait, -iiit, -biBaib conserves the iterative 
meaning. 



Perfective, 
e.g. BblBCCTH 

o6T.txaTt 

Bb'lBeSTH 

BblBCCTH 
Bb'l3BaTb 

Bb'iHrpaib 



[ to carry out "1 
[to endure J 
to drive round 

I to cart out 
to take about 
(in a carriage)] 
to lead about 
to summon 
to gain at play 



Imperfective. 

BblHOCHTb 

05b43JKaTb 

BblBOSUTb 

BblBOAHTb 
Bb]3blBaTb 
BblHrpblBaXb 



Observe. — Bbi takes the accent, except in the imper- 
fective, which retains the accent of the uncompounded 
verb. All other prepositions are unaccented, except in 
the past tenses and past participles passive of mono- 
syllabic verbs, e.g. B35paHi> chosen [v. § 49, II.], BauflXT., 
iipo^aji, etc. 



e.g. BWHTH 

npoBecTH 

oOHOBiirb 

Observe noJOiKiiTb 

yJOIKHTb 
/(OJOHd&Tb 



to go out 

to pass (time) 

to renew 

suppose 

pack 

report (a faot) 



BbJX04HTb 
npOBO^HTb 

oSnoBji'iTb 
nojaraib 
yiua^biBaib 
/joiUMbiBaij, 



THE ASPECTS. 



14S 



Observe : — 

Perfective. 
BblSfoKaib 

but BfaiSiraTL 

Bb'lHTB 
but Bb'lXOAHTb 



to run out 
to attain by a run 
to go away 
to gain 



3aixaTb(3ai;4y) to go beyond 
but 3a'B34HTb to tire out 

npoBecTU to lead through 

but npoBO^uTb to accompany 



Imperfeotive. 
BbiStraib 
BbiO'brHBaTb 

BblXO^HTb 
BblXaiKQBaTb 

aaisHtaib 
saisatHBaTb 

npOB04HTb 

npoBoataTb, or 
npoBaatHBaib 
In some cases the only perfective is the semelfactive 
in -HVTb. 

to move 
to nod 
to touch 
to whisper 
to cry 
to sigli 

In forming imperfectives the general rule is that 
the iterative form of the uncompounded verb is the 
stem of the imperfeotive of the compounded verb. 



e.g. ABHBVTb 
KHBHyib 
TpOBVTb 

luenayTb 

KpHKHVTb 
B340XHyTb 



y(BnraTb 

KUBaTb 

TporaTb 
memaib 
KpanaTb 
BS^bixaib 



to delay npoMe^JUBaib 

to deceive oCiiaHbiBaTb 

to be extinguished noracaib 
to perish noniSaTb 

to look up B3rjH4biBaTb 

to lock up saiibiKaxb 

Observe. — latiyTb (imperfective) to pull, TaruBaib; 

but in compounds, npoTaayTb to stretch forth, npoxarH- 

Baib. [v. § 50, I.] 



e.g. npoMe/(.iHTb 
oSMaayTb 
noracHVTb* 
norHOHVTb* 
BsrjaHyTb 
saMKflyib 



* But past tense noruOi, norAci. 



144 



RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 



e.g. Oub BbVrauyji. orpojiuaro jema. 
He pulled up a huge bream. 

IlBaHillBaBbi4iTaDeT'bjaMKyA66paroceMhaHuHa. 
Ivan Ivanyc works hard like a good family 
man [pulls the shoulder-strap]. 

MoH Apyr^ HeoAaoKpaiHo BbiTiirnBajii Meaa nai 

Tpy4Haro noJOiKeaia. 
My friend more than once has pulled me out 

of an awkward situation. 



Other instances are :- 



Perfective. 
\3HaTb 



recognise 



nopyHHTb 
npoAojJKiiTb 

nOM'BTHTb 

ySiataib 

nepenjbiTb 

vixaib 



ocjaSiib to become weak 

ocjaoHyTb (semelfactive) 
noBipHTb to confide 

to commission 
to continue 
to mark 
to run away 
to swim through 
to drive away 
(in a carriage) 
OTorflaib to drive off 

onucaTb to describe 

npHroidBHTb to prepare 
npH^iiaib to affix 
npnate'ib to cauterize 

DpiiKasaib to command 
npnMHpHTb to reconcile 
ii3opaTL to choose 



Imperfective. 

v3BaBaTb(v3Hai()) 
[§53(5)] 

> ocjaGisaTb 

noBtpiiib 

nopysaTb 

npo^ojiKaib 

noMiiaTb 

yoiraib 

nepenjbiBaTb 

yisffiaTb 

OTrOHBTb 

onucbieaTb 

npuroTOBjaib 

npuAijjbiBaxb 

npiijKHraTb 

npuKasbiBaib 

DpUMQpUTb 
1136Hp£Tb 



THE ASPECTS. 145 

The learner must not confuse those verbs derived 
from compound nouns or adjectives. Such verbs are 
naturally imperfective, as the formative stem contains 
the particle, which is not added to the verb. 

Imperfective. Perfective. 

e.g. 6631 noKoa without rest 6e3noK6nTb oocanoKouTb 

disturb 

pasYMT. reason pasyMtiB ypaayjiiTS 

understand 

oSfe/jT) dinner oGb^ait dine noo6fe/iaTii 

aaSoia trouble saSoTiiTbca oaaooTHTBCH 

f t t 

Bacji^CTBO inheritance Hacji^OBaiB yHacj'BAOBaTb 
DpcAiyBCTBie foreboding npeAi^BCTBOBaib 
coiyBCTBie sympathy coijf^BCTBOBaTb [v. § 58] 
SesTi .iiOAefi without CesJioAtTb to become de- 
people populated (oGe3Jib4'tTb perf.) 
The accentuation of compounded verbs is that of 
the simple, save with bh, v. § 59, IV. 
Except BTopnTb to repeat 

noBTopHTb to repeat, imperfective noBTopaib 
HCHUTbca to clear up (of the weather) 
u3iacHHTb explain, imperfective HSxacHaib 

V. Causatives and incentives. 

As stated in § 53 (1) and § 54, verbs derived from 
adjectives have transitive forms in -UTb, and in- 
transitives in -BTb. , 

e.g. CHHiH blue, CHHiib to turn blue, cnHBTb to 
make blue 
MarKifi soft, CMar4HTb and pasMarqaib 
ukumn sweet, ycjaABib and ycjaatAaib 
mojoa6h young, MOJO^BTb to grow young, 
MClo^HTbto make young, etc., etc, 



146 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

Similarly, transitive verbs in -htb are derived from 
intransitive primitives. 

e.g. jCHb to lie down ncioatuTi. to lay 

ctcTb to sit down nocaAiiTb to seat 

CTaib- to stand (ciaHy) CTaHOBnitcH to stand, 

and ciaBHTb to place 
e.g. fl ^0CTaB^J^ Basy na KOJOHHy. 
I put the vase on the column. 

VI. no and 3a as forming depreciatory and incep- 
tive verbs. 

no when compounded with some verbs gives a 
depreciatory or diminutive sense. 

e.g. Mb'iTbCfl to wash 

noMb'iTbca to have just a wash 

noMyiHTb to create squabbles 

DOKj^pHRaTb, noKvpHTb, to smoke occasionally 

noK^uiaib (perfective no'tcib) to have food 

noKapMJHBaib (noKopMHTb) to feed slightly 

noKa'iBBaTb. to waver (noiiaMaib perfective, 

noKaqny^Tb to shake) 
noiianiJflTb to cough a little (noKam.iHBaTb) 

3a often creates another inceptive aspect, to begin 
doing. 

e.g. sannnaTb (saKHniib perfective) to simmer 
3aBjbmBBaTb (3aB'fecHTb) to veil 
3acBHCTaTb to begin whistling 
sacMiflTbca to begin laughing 
sacbixaib (sacoxsyTb) to dry up 
saTonyTB to sink (saTan^HBaib, saionHTb per-, 
fectiye, transitive) 



HEPLEXIVE AND PASSIVE VERBS. 147 

But compounds with 3a are often perfective. 

e.g. Pi^ccKie saTonija* Kopa6jB bx CeBacToncibCKofl 
6yxTi. 
The Eussians sank ships in the Bay of 
Sebastopol. 

§ 60. Eeflexive and Passive Veebs. 

As stated previously [v. infra, § 10, § 42 (2) (i) and 
(ii)] the Eussian verb is very defective ; it possesses 
only one conjugated tense, and no subjunctives. 

The passive is mostly supplied by the reflexive, ca 
and cb being added to the terminations [v. § 41, V. (1)] ; 
cfl being added to consonantal terminations, cb to 
vocalic. This ca is nearly always unaccented; there 
are very few exceptions. 

e.g. a 4ijaK)Cb I become, ^ijaeTca, ^'BjaBmHCb, etc. 
poAHTbca to be born, poflUTca, po;(HJCfi, poAujucL 

or pO^HJllCb. 

Dejooneni verbs also exist, i.e. reflexive forms in 
which the reflexive idea has vanished, or is not expressed 
or required in translation. 

e.g. a Moiocb I wash myself, I wash 

Kop6jb Bcpajf^jca 40.m6h the King has returned 

home 
CTbi4HTbca to feel ashamed t 

* Distinguish saTOniiTb, saTdnjeHHuil (aaTOD-iiiTi)) to sink ; and 
saiOQUTb, aaidajeHHufl, aaidciiiBaTii, to heat. 

t Distinguish cih41 shame, cmnancn ; and cTuib (perfective), 
ciiliHyTb (imperfeotive) to be cold. 



"148 ittJsStAit GEaMMaS. 

Similarly in French " se suicider," " s'approchet de " 
are always reflexive or deponent. 

But when a verb has as its express object the same 
person as the subject, the enclitic form en and cl 
(which are always sounded ca and ci. [v. § 41, V. (1)]), 
are not used, the full form ceSa taking their place. 

e.g. A.ieKC'Iiu He B.iaA^^fceTT> co56h. 
Alexis has no self-control. 
MajtHBKT. B3Ji3T. Ha Kpbimv, yaaji n ySiucH. 
The boy crawled on to the roof, fell and was 
killed. 

Obi noKOHSHj-L ex co56u. 

He committed suicide [ended with himself]. 

Ofli oroBopH.ic8, HTO Bro HMpbi M6ryn. 6bm 

ncBBpHbi, H 3THMI orpa^^ji ceSii oit BCfiKiixi> 

HapeKafliQ. 
He justified himself on the ground that his 

figures might not be correct, and guarded 

himself on this score from all blame. 
Tti ne HcnojbaoBaj^ cBoero nojo?KeBia,a a npoBeji, 

CBoe BpeMa SesnojesHbiMi. oopasoMi.. 
You made Ho use of your position, and I spent 

my time in a useless fashion. 

fl Bceaa HMiro npn ceoi uopTpeiTi jKeab'i. 
I always have my wife's portrait with me. 

The Passive is also expressed in two other ways :— 

(1) With a passive participle and the verb 6biTb as 
in English. 

e.g. KoMHaia 6bua ;^6paHa iiBtxaMH. 

The room; was decorated with flowers. 



The numerals. 149 

(2) With the verb in the third person plural, with 
the indefinitive meaning of " one," " ore," " man." 

e.g. 3oByTi MCHa no <i>aMu.iiH MoHaxoBWMi. 
My family name is Monakhov [they call 
me ... .J 

The reflexive forms are never used loosely to express 
" one another." Thus [v. § 82, IV.] :— 

Hapo^bi PocciH, Auwia, <l>paBqiH h FepjidaiH 

y5u Baron. 4pyri Apyra. 
The peoples of Eussia, England, France and 

Germany are slaying one another. 

Cj't/50BaviH 4pyr^ sa 4pyroMi. 
They followed each other. 

THE NUMERALS. 

§ 61. Peeliminary. 

The inflection of the Eussian numerals is at first 
sight very difficult. The problem can be simplified. 

(a) In the first place, nearly all the numerals are 
nouns, and are therefore followed by the genitive plural. 

(/3) Secondly, being nouns, when compounded, e.g. 
ABtciB (two hundred), each part follows its own 
declension. 

(7) Thirdly, ^ea, ipii, neibipe, 2, 3 and 4, take the 
eq^uivalent of the old dual, i.e. the genitive singular. 

(S) Fourthly, the noun in ordinals is governed by 
the last element of the numeral. 



150 



EUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 



e.g. niiTB K031 five goats 
hut flfii KOSbi two goats (noaa, plural itosbi) 
TpH pySjtt three roubles (plural pyGjii) 
TpH^uaib TpH noisfla thirty-three trains 

Also CTO one hundred 

flBTiCTH two hundred (Old Slav dual termination) 
ipiiCTa three hundred (gen. sing.) 
nsTLCOTi five hundred (gen. plural) 

Other notes on the use of the numerals will be 
found in § 81. 



§ 62. I.— The Numerals 1-10. 







Part of 








Arabit 


;. Cardinal 


. speech. 


Ordinal. 


Collective.* 


Fraction. 


1 


0^11H1> 


Adj. 


nepBBiH 






2 


4Ba 


„ 


BIOpOH 


4806, napa 


noJOBHBa 


3 


TpH 


» 


TpeTJat 


Tp6e 


TpeTb J 


4 


scThipe 


}> 


■JCTBepTUH 


leTBcpo 


HeTBCpTbl 


5 


HHTB 


Noun 


n/iTbiH 


nfhepo 


naiaal 


6 


mecTt 


j> 


mecToi 


inecTepo 


mecTaa§ 


7 


ceMb 


i> 


ccABMoii 


cemepo 


etc. 


8' 


BOCBMb 


it 


BOCbMOii 


BOCBMepO 




9 


^eBllTb 


J) 


^CBflTbrn 


AeBSTepo 11 




10 


Aecan 


» 


4ecaTbiu 


AecsTcpo 




These are 


the ten simple forms. 





* The most common are nnbn, Tp6e, i^mepo, naiepo, cfijiepo ; but all 
are equally common in the form BAB6e, Brp6e, etc., meaning 2nd, 
twice, three times as much. Families are thus designated : y nero 
ffibi, Tp6e, M^TBepo, /tfiiefl : nait, mecit, ceMt, etc., idouliKi AtreB ; 
of an assembly, hxi Oy^eTi naib, etc., iciOBtitT,. 

t Declined like fiapiniB [v. § 34 (3)]. 

X Feminines in n. 

§ Supply lacTt part. All the other fractions are similarly formed, 

11 Very rare. 



THE NUMERALS. 151 

O^HHT. is declined exactly like caiui [v. § 41, VIII.] ; 
the vowel " a " drops out. 

Thus — OAua-h, oabo, o^Ha, o^Horo, o^noii, etc. 

Plural. 
MaSG. and Neut. Fern. 

e.g. ISTom. oahh OAHi 

Gen. Loc. O/ibhxi o/jHixi 

Dat. OAHHM^ O^BBMl 

Instr. OAHHMH OAHiMH 

The plural means "some," cf. English "the ones." 
Both forms, O/ihh, o^h'B, are generally sounded alike 

(oflBH). 

e.g. Binb Ha -sTvixh nojKaxi ocTa,iocr. tojeko Aecflib 

KBHri. 

There are only ten books left on these shelves. 

y MCBil ocTaJOCb JHint ipa pyCjii. 

I have only three roubles left. 

KaKi Ha Qinf y mcbA ocTajocb xojtKO ipa aaiia. 

Unluckily I have only three eggs left. 

ABU, Tpn, HCTbipe are declined as follows : — 

Maso. and Neut. Pom. 

e.g. Nom. 4Ba 4Bi ipn leibipe 

Gen. Loc. ^bvxt. ipexi Heibipexx 

Dat. 4ByMT) ipeMTi "jeibipeMi 

Instr. AByMfi ipcMa seibipbHa 

nnib to ^ecHTb are regular nouns like Kocib, lacib, etc. 

e.g. N"om. HHTb 

Gen. Dat. Loc. naiH 
Instr. HHibib 

But, as nouns, the numerals are only followed by 
the genitive in the nominative or accusative ; in obHque 



152 



RUSSIAN GKAMMAK. 



cases they take the case of the nouns ; the numeral is 
attracted to the case of the noun. 

66a, 66t both, is declined similarly to ^Ba. 

Masc. and Neufc. Fein. 

e.g. Nom. 66a 65* 

Gen. Loc. 06611x11 o6'Bnx^ 

Dat. o66hmt. o6iHM'L 

Instr. o66nMH oSlniin 



ll.—Tlie JVumerals 11-90. 



Arabic. 


Cardinal. Part of speech. Ordinal. 


11 


OAHHHaumn 


ISToun 


o;(HH[iaAaaTbiH 


12 


4Bi&aaAiiaTt 


3) 


^B'feHa^uaTbm 
(collective ^roiitn na) 


13 


TpHHaAuarr, 


„ 


TpHHa^uaiblH 


14 


veTb'ipHa/maib 


)t 


HCTbipaa/iuaTbiii 


15 


naTHa^qaib 


3> 


naTBa^aaibiii 


16 


mecTHa^uaTL 


,S 


luecTua^qaTbift 


17 


ccMHa^naTb 


J> 


ceMHa^uaTbiu 


18 


BOCeMHa^UaTb 


)) 


BOceMHa^aaTtifi 


19 


AeBflTsa^EiaTb 


}) 


4eBaTHa4BiaTbiu 


20 


^Ba^aaib 


)) 


Asa/iuaTbiH 


21 , 


ABaAuaTb OAMHT. [v. §61 (s)] HB&nn3.ih nepBbiii 


22 


ABa^uaib 4Ba, 


etc. „ 


ABaAuaib BTop6ii, etc. 


.30 


Tpu^qaib 


Noun 


TpnyjuaTbiu 


40 


copoKT. 


J) 


copokob6h 


50 


naTb/jeciin.* 


jj 


nHTH^eCl'lTblH 


60 


fflecTb^ecihi 


)j 


mecTHAecHTbiu 


70 


ceML^ecarb 


)j 


CeM04eCKTblH 


80 


B6ceMbflecaT^ 


jj 


B0CbMH4ecaTbIH 


90 


AeBaH6cTo 


» 


^eBaHocibiB 




For the fractions, 


V. nan. 



* Sounded pidd'isyAt', 



THE XUMEKALS. 153 

The cardinals from 11-90 are mere compositions of 
the simple forms and Aecait (10). 

(1) The " teens " are formed by saying one-on-ten, 
two-on-ten ; the preposition ua is accented, except in 
04HHHaimaTb and MerfaipuaAuaTb, and Aecaib is contracted 
to A^a.^b. 

The numbers 11-19 are all declined like necim. 
e.g. Nom. ceMHa^nait 

Gen. Dat. Loc. ceMHa^naiH 
Instr. ceMHa/(uaTF.H) 

(2) The numbers 20 and 30 are similar compounds, 
two-ten, three-ten. They are declined thus : — 

Nom. TpiuuaTb 

Gen. Dat. Loc. Tpn^ua™ 
Instr. TpHAuaTbH) 

(3) copoia (40), and /jeBflHocTO (90), are nouns of 
the first declension, but the only inflections are a and y. 
copoKX accents the termination throughout. 

(4) The cardinals 50, 60, 70, 80 decline both parts 
separately and similarly. 

e.g. Nom. Voc. Ace. ceMbAecHTT. 
Gen. Loc. Dat. ceMHAecflXH 
Instr. ceMbH)Aec(iTbK) 

As though the two words were not written together. 

III.— The Numerals 100-1,000,000. 
Arabic. Cardinal, Part of speecJi. Ordinal. 

100 CTO Noun COT bin* 

200 ^BicTH Adj. & noun flByxcoibiii 

(joined) 

300 TpHcia „ „ ipexcoTbiH 

400 HeTb'ipccra „ „ leibipexcoTbifi 



f Collective c6th(I, 



154 



RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 



Arabic. 


Cardinal. 


Part of speech. 


Ordinal. 


500 


naibcoTT. 


Two nouns 


naTBCOibiH 


600 


UieCTLCOTT. 


}) >y 


meCTHCOTblH 


700 


CeMBCOTl 


33 >i 


CCMHCOTblH 


800 


BOCCMbCOTT. 


}> 33 


BOCBMHCOTblU 


900 


^eBHTbcon, 


J) JJ 


AeBBTHCOTblU 


1,000 


Tb'lCflHa 


Noun 


Tb'iCaHHblH 


2,000 


4Bi Tb'lCaHH 


Adj. & noun 


AByXTMCaiHblH 


3,000 


TpH TblCMH 


J) 7/ 


TpexTbicainbiii 


4,000 


MCTbipe Tb'lCH'IH „ „ 


4eTbipex- 




and so on 




Tu'icaqflbift 


60,000 


mecTB^ecaT-b 


Three nouns 


niecTH^ecilTH- 




Tb'lCaiT. 




Tb'icaqHbiH 


100,000 


CTO Tb'lCaM^ 


Nouns 


CTO- or cia- 
TbicaqHbiH 


1,000,000 


MHJjioHb 


Noun 


MQJjioHHblU 



CTO is declined as follows : — 

Singular. Nom. Voc. Ace. cio 



Gen. 



era, etc. 



Similarly ^eBanocTO (90). But when cio is used in a 
long figure, with others, all the oblique cases are 
uniformly era (the genitive) ; and similarly AeBanocTO. 

Plural. Nom. Voc. Ace. era 

Gen. coTi 

Dat. ciaMi 

Instr. ciaMH 

Log. ciaxi 

^U the compound numerals in this division decline 
each part separately. 

e,g. flBicTii, 4Byxc6n., ^ByMciaMii, AByMaciaMH, 
AByxciaxi, etc. 



THE NUMERALS. 155 

TMcfl'ia is a regular feminine noun ; but the instru- 
mental singular is sometimes Tbica-Jhio, as though it 
were a noun of the third declension. 

CTO, copoKX, ^CBaHOCTO, when declined with nouns, 
extend the genitive ending to the dative and instru- 
mental, optionally to the locative, 
e.g. 'Nova. Ace. cto copoia juctobt. 140 leaves (of paper) 

Gen. era copoita jbctobi 

Dat. cia copoKa JHCTaM^ 

Instr. era copoKa JHCTaMH 

Loc. cia copoKa JHCiaxi) 

IV. (1) Frequency. Examples of use : — 

OAUHi past once, or oAaaiKAbi 

4Ba pasa twice, or ^Baat^bi 

ipn pasa thrice, or ipHJU/ibi 

HCTbipe pasa four times, etc., or qeibipeiK^bi 

naib pa3i [v. § 24 (4)] 

This is the only and regular way of forming this 
series. 

(2) Distributives are formed with the preposition 
no, e.g. no ^Ba, no Tpn, no leibipe ; but with all other 
numbers in the dative : no ntiTii, no cry, no copoity, no 
/jeeflHocTy (or no copoita). 

(3) Nought is nyjb (nyjfi), masculine. 

(4) The noun is governed hy the numeral immediately 
'preceding, however high the whole numeral may he. In 
the nominative, or accusative, the noun thus enumerated 
is in the singular after oflnai ; gen. sing, after ^Ba, ipn, 



156 HUSSlAU GRAMMAII. 

Meib'ipe ; gen. plural after all the others. In the oblique 
cases, i.e. all except the accusative and nominative, the 
numeral and noun alike are in concord in the appro- 
priate oblique case, 
e.g. 4Ba/maTB oahiii <i>yuTT. 21 pounds 

Tpu4uaTb TpH KonA 33 horses 

Mi^Htnie ABaflaaiii nflii'i MiiHyii less than 25 minutes 

(5) Decimals. 

H}.ib uliJbixx fleBHTb ^eoiTbixT. KoneiiKB ct. BepcTb'i. 

• 9 kop. to the verst (nought wholes and nine 

tenths . . .). 
Oti> OAHoii AG cia luecTii/iecfiTH BepcTT>, no o^noB 

UBJOH, H HCTbipe TbicHHH TpAcia Ce.Mb4ecaTB nflTb 

4ecaTBTb'icfl4Hbixi KoneHKH ch naccaatHpa. 
From 1 to 160 versts at 1 '4375 kop. per passenger 

per verst. 

(6) Compoimd ordinals. Only the last nv,meral is 
declined. 

e.g. 4BaAuaTb AeBirraro AeiiaSpil (M'tcaua) b-b ibicana 
BoccMbcoTx fleBaaocTo ccAbMOM'b roAy. 
On the 29th Dec. 1914. [v. § 24 (1).] 
Bl, CTO ACBaHOCTO CCAbMOMT. FOAy AO pojK^ecTBa 

XpncTOBa. 
In 197 B.C. 

FocTHflHua ch Sojie niiix flByMHcraMB HOMcpasiB. 
A hotel with over 200 rooms. 

Ll'fcHa KOMHaTi nouuiKaeTca jiTOMb ^o naiB^ecaiH 

nponeHTOB'b. 
The price of rooms is reduced in the summer 

by 507o. 



■iim N'ir.MEitALS. 157 

As a complete example, 2,367,134 '8295 arsins 
(apinaHT. a measure of length about a yard) would be 
thus declined : — 

ISTom. 4Ba MHjjioHa, Tpucia mecTb^ecihh ccMb TbicuHi, 
CTo Tp^AuaTb qeibipe utjbixb, Bocesib Tbica4ii 
AB'tcTU ^leBanocio naib ^ecaTmb'icaqnbixi 
apiuima. 

Ace. As genitive or nominative; in this case as 
nominative. 

Gen. ^ByxT- MHjjioHOBx, TpexcoTx uiecTH^ecaTH ceiiii 
Tbica^x, era TpH^uaii'i 'leTbipexi) iil>.ibiX7), 
BocbMH Tb'icaHT. ABvxcoTT. AeBSHocTa naiu 
4ecaTHTb'ica4Dbixi apuiiiBa.* 

Dat. ^oyMt MBJjioBau^ TpeiicTaMi mecTH4ecaTD ceiuii 
Tb'ica4aM^ oTa (or ciy) ipimiaTH 4eTbipe.«'b 
K'BJbiMi, BocbMB TbicaiaMT. /^eBaH6cTa (or 
ACBaHocTv) naiH ^ecaTOTbicaHHbiMT. apuiBua. 

Instr. /(ByM'i MH-uioBaiiH TpcMSCTaMH iiiecTbibA^caTbio 
ccMbib TbicaiaMB, cia TpH/maibib leibipbMii 
ui.ibiMH, BoceMbK) TbicawaMH ^eBaHOCia (or 
4eBaH6cTOMt) naibib /lecaTHTbiefliHbiMH apmiiaa. 

Loc. ^ByxT) Mu.LiioBaxi ipexciaxT. raecTH4ecaTH ccMii 
Tb'icaMaxi., era TpH^ua™ leibipex^ ufejbixT., 
BocbMH Tb'ica4axb ^eBSBocTa (or ^CBaHocrt) 
naxa ^ecaTHTb'ica'jHbixi apniHBa. 

(7) 4Ba, ipu, Hetbipe, in the nominative or accusative, 
are followed by the noun in the genitive singular or 
by the nominative or genitive plural of adjectives. 

* Gen. sing., the decimal being expressed by ^if/^ipg of an arsin. 
Tlu last numeral always governs ihe noun. 



158 fitlSSlAN GRAMMAR. 

This arbitrary rule is based ou the fact that 4Ba, 
ipH, HCTtipe in the older language took the dual ; the 
dual having become obsolete, use was made of what- 
ever inflections most closely approximated to it. 

e.g. Nom. 4Ba blicokhx^ (or -ie) coJAaia two tall 
soldiers 
Gen. 4Byx^ bucokhxt. 00^43,11, 

Dat. /IByMT. BblCOKHMT. COJ^aTaMT. 

Instr. /(Byji/i bhcokhmh coJAaTajiu 
Loc. 4 By XI BbicoKHXi. coj/iaTaxi. 

With nouns only used in the plural, there are 
alternative forms, 4 boh, ipoH ; otherwise the collectives 
are used. 

e.g. Bopoia the gates MeiBepo Bop6n> four gates 

But the ordinary collectives, with the genitive 
plural, may be used instead of ^boh, ipou, MeiBepo.* 

y(B6e and ipoe are declined like 66a, but accent the 
terminations hxt., ilvb, hmh. 

leiBepo and all the other similar collectives form 
the oblique cases like plural adjectives, accenting the 
termination, e.g. naiepbixi., etc. 

(8) uoJOBHHa, standing by itself, is " a half." 

It is also used in composition with other words, 
e.g. noJTopa 1^ (for noJi-Biopa; cf German, andert- 
halb Ih, dritthalb 2i) ; also in words like noj^yeia 
half a pound, nciHaca half an hour, nojro^a half a year, 
etc. For further notes, v. § 81, IV. 



* So, too, in Latin : templum, tria templa ; but aedes, plural 
trinae aedes. 



THE NUMERALS. 159 

Both parts are separately declined ; all the oblique 
cases of noji. being nojiy. 

Masc. Neut. Fern. 

li arsius li versts 

e.g. N v.A. nojiTopa apiUHua nciTopbi Bepcibi 

G-en. nojyTopa apuiHux* nojyiopbi Bepcn> 



-p, (nojyiopa^ 

/nciYTopYJ ^P""'^^"'' nojyTopi BepcTasiT. 

-, , Cnojyiopa t , 

^"'^'- InojyTopbiMx^P'""''^"" no^yTopoK)BepcTaM., 

lnojvTop%3 apin^Ha^tT, nojyiopi BcpcTaxi, 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Half-pound 


jST.V.A. ncifyHia 


DOiyiiyHTbi 


Gen. nojyj'yHia 


no.iy*yBTOBb 


Dat. nojy<t>yHTy 


iiojytynTaM'b 


Instr. najytyHTOMT) 


no-iy*ynTaMii 


Loc. nojy*yiiTii 


nojy*j''UTaxb 



However, usage varies with regard to noJiopa, and 
the masculine forms are often employed with feminine 
nouns. The noun-component is declined in full in 
compounds like noj<i>yuTa, and bears and retains its 
own accent. 

noj^CHb and nojnoMb, "noon" and "midnight," are 
declined nojyAHS, nojyfloqH, and so on, the accent 
always resting on the second syllable, and the nojy 
being invariable. 

Similarly, noJTOpacTa 150, nojyTopacTa, in all oblique 
cases. 



* V. § 24 (4), 



160 KUSSIAN GEAMMAK. 

Other fractions are expressed much as in English, 
e.g. 4Bi ci no.iOBUBOH CyTbUitii two and a half bottles 
TpH^aaiB naib h ceMHa^aaib TpiiAKaTb Bocbiibixi 

MCTb'ipe n ipn leTBepin 4| 



(9) Dates. 

The date and the month are put into the genitive, 
and the year, if accompanying, into the ordinal with the 
genitive ro^a (^0A^) year. If the year stands by itself, 
the locative m, toaj is used. 

In dates the plural of toat, is Aim (jiio summer). 
e.g. n^anudLih naiaro ^eKaGpa Tbicfl^a neBancoTb 
HeTBepiaro ro^a, 25th December 1904 
Bi Tb'ica^ia BoceMbcoTi. nflTHa^uaxoMi ro^y 

in 1815 
fflecTb^ecKTT. AiiT, lojiy HaaaAx sixty years ago 

Numerals preceding the noun are exact denotations ; 
when they follow, approximate. 

e.g. ro^a nepesx ipi'i in about three years' time 
nocjl) ipex^ jifcii after three years 



§ 63. THE ADVEEBS. 

The adverbial forms of adjectives are simply the 
neuter singular predicative, excepting adjectives in 
-cidH, which form -ckh ; e.g. ciporo sternly, ^oporo dearly, 
paHbme earlier, aKOHOMinecKii economically. 

Other adverbs will be learnt in the course of reading, 



UNINl'LECTED PARTS 01" SPEECH. 161 

§ 64. THE PREPOSITIONS. 
These are very commonly used in Eussian, and are 
dealt with in §§ 70-80 in the Syntax. 

§ 65. THE CONJUNCTIONS. 

The conjunctions are best acquired in the course of 
reading. As the Eussian verb possesses no moods, and 
as there is no inversion of sentences, the conjunctions 
present no difficulty. Some few may be noticed here. 

u "and." 

4a " yes," is also used for " and," but has a corrobora- 
tive strengthening significance, and belongs to the older 
language. 

H also is used in a sentence to mean " also." 

a "but" or "and," when used in contradistinction 
rather than conjunction. 

HO " but " in contradistinction, or denial. 

eme " also." 

H.IU " or." HJH — HJH, " either . . . or." 

HH — HB "neither — nor," As wiLl be seen in § 85, 
these require a double negative, i.e. a negatived verb 
as well. 

§ 66. THE INTERJECTIONS. 

These are best learnt from reading. Eussian being 
a phonetic language, these primitive sounds are written 
as pronounced, not conventionally as in English ; 
e.g. " hush " for " sh," " ough ! " for pain. 

e.g. in Eussian yxi ! oxi ! ax^ ! etc. 
Other interjections are developments from recognised 
words, e.g. "Lo" (from "look"). 

So, too, in Eussian VBb'i ! woe ! 



162 EUSSrAN GEAMMAK. 

SYNTAX. 

§ 67. Peeliminaey. 

In comparison with most other European languages 
Eussian syntax presents comparatively few difficulties. 
The order is much the same as in English — subject, 
verb, object, adverbs. 

There are no subjunctives, the iise of which becomes 
technical as in French ; gender is in the main sex, or 
determined by the suffix. Thus in French " sa majeste 
le roi " is feminine, and a following sentence must run : 
"die a bien voulu." In Eussian, Ero IlMnepaTopcKoe* 
BejiiiecTBO coHSBOjiiLn. ; the verb is in the masculine, 
though BejineciBO is neuter. 

In German, again, " das Madchen " the girl, is 
supposed to be followed by neuter pronouns; in 
Eussian, as in English, child ahti'i (neuter), jimo 
person (neuter) may be followed by oni, OHa, according 
to sense. Or again, ^ecaTB is feminine, but "there 
remained ten " (neuter, general impersonal sense) is 
ociajocB ^ecaifc. [v. § 62, I.] 

The Eussian richness in inflections gives the 
language a freedom of order such as was possessed 
by ancient Latin and Greek. But whereas the order 
of Latin was conventionalised and stiffened, Eussian 
retains the natural order of words, with the liberty 
of slight transposition for emphasis ; adjectives precede, 
unless otherwise desired; in fact, much the same 
considerations obtain as in English. But ambiguity 
ceases, the inflection defining the relations. 

* V. § 83, IV. 



SYNTAX. 163 

In one respect, as stated in § 33, Eussian 
shows less flexibility in the formation of compound 
nouns. German (amongst modern languages) is 
the most adaptable, e.g. " Eisenbahnfremdverkehr- 
verbindungen " Eailway - foreign - traffic - connections. 
English tacitly has the same power, with some 
ambiguity, e.g. The Foreign Office Clerks' Providence 
Society; the wooden baby's chair. In Eussiau all 
such relations must be stated by means of adjectives ; 
e.g. JKCjisBaa ^opora the railway, BoeuHbie aanacbi war 
supplies. Ha nciuueucKOJiT. xpaHeain in police keeping. 

§ 68. The Aeticle. 

The article does not exist in Eussian. Nevertheless 
TOTT. is occasionally , used for the definite article, and 
onkm, for the indefinite, where the sentence requires 
amplification. 

e.g. In the folk-tales : — 

>K6jTi-5bUX OAHHX 644nbIM B^OBeUL. 

There once lived a poor widower. 

Toil caMbiii ToproBeuTi, Koiopbiii npo^aJi mh^, 
BCJOCBne^T., coB'liTyeTT. MH'b lenepb Kynaib 
MOTOCHiaerb. 

The same dealer who sold me a bicycle now 
recommends me to buy a motor-cycle. 

§ 69. The Cases. 

I. TJie Nominative. — As in all languages, the 
nominative is used for the subject of the sentence. 
It can never be governed by any preposition, 



164 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

II. The Vocative has survived only a very few 
strictly ecclesiastical phrases. 

e.g. BojKC from Bort God 
r6cno4H from locno^b Lord 
OiMe from Oreui Father 
Xpncie from XpncToci Christ 
K niiate from, K nH3b Prince 
Incyce from Incyc^ Jesus 
Cb'iiie from CbiHT> the Son 
IJapH) from L(apb Tsar 
Bja^biKO from BjaAMna Lord 
In modern Eussian the nominative takes its place. 

III. The Accusative is properly the case to denote 
the direct object ; e.g. Jack (nominative) built a house 
(accusative) llBaHi. nocipoHJb noui,. 

However, in modern Russian, except in the singular 
of the second declension, special accusative forms no 
longer exist, [v. § 13.] 

Hence a rule has sprung up that, except for nouns of 
the second declension in the singular, the objective 
case shall be the genitive whenever the object is a 
living being; also, without any exception, whenever 
the sentence is negative (in which event the genitive 
is really partitire ; e.g. "I did not see him" is 
equivalent to " I saw nothing of him " *). In every 
case the nominative form is used, 
e.g. npnuecii cio^a iiOjokh. 

Bring the apples here [tu familiar pronoun], 

npHBGAM saBipa TBoero /(pyra. 

Bring your friend to-morrow. 

* Of. in modern Spanish the use c£ & when the object is a 
pergop, e.g. " el condu^o a .Juan " he brought John, 



THE CASES. 165 

fl ne Bu^ibji HeMo^aaa. 
I did not see the portmanteau. 
Oaa He Bam.ia joiua/iH. 
She did not find the horse. 
IlHKor^a ne nofiiuaeuir. pb'iSbi. 
You never catch a fish. 
fl npHBe.iT. ^BvxT. Joma4eH. 
I have brought two horses. 

Besides this very limited use as the objective case, 
this accusative case, but never its genitive substitute, 
is found with the following meaning : to indicate 
duration in space or time. 

e.g. fl iK^a.ii Teofi nee yrpo, ukibiii fleiir., bcio ncib, 

BCK) ECA'tJio, no.iHara. 
I was waiting for you all the morning, the 

whole day, all the night, all the week, half 

an hour. 
fl ryMA-h ipa naca h npoiue.ix raecTb Bepcn.. 
I walked for three hours and went six versts. 
fl npoDuej'b Bce pascTOiinie M6K4y BapmaBoii 

H HpaKOBOMI. . 

I went all the distance between Warsaw and 
Cracow. 

... y' ' ' ' 

^ei'iHin. npojieikii. nojOBHay nyiii kt. naracMV 

noMicTbio. 
The airman flew half the way to our country 

house. 

IV. The Genitive. 

In modern Eussian the genitive is used for a variety 
of purposes. The simple genitive indicates the relation- 
ship of possession between two substg,ntives, 



166 KUSSIAN GEAMMAB, 

In English there are two methods of indicating the 
genitive : the possessive case in s, and the preposition of- 

(i) The simple genitive is used in three distinct 
vs^ays : (a) subjective, (8) objective, (7) defining. 

e.g. (a) Wilson's house, i.e. Wilson has a house. 
(In such cases an active verb may be 
substituted.) 
Ctesar's hatred, i.e. Ctesar hates. 

(0) Henry IV.'s assassin, i.e. Henry IV. was 
assassinated. 
The torpedoing of the Formidable, i.e. the 
Formidable was torpedoed. (I.e. a 
passive verb may be substituted.) 

(7) A man of great talent, i.e. a greatly 
talented man. 

In the last case an adjective may be substituted, 
and such phrases are really inversions of adjectives. 

These subjective and objective genitives may be 
compounded. 

e.g. U 21's torpedoing of the Formidable, i.e. TJ 21 
torpedoed the Formidable. 

In other languages there is great ambiguity on this 
score. In Latin the genitive is used both subjectively 
and objectively : thus " Ctesaris odium " may mean 
either that Csesar hates, or that Caesar is hated; so, 
too, in French, " la haine de Cesar." 

In English there are irregular attempts to dis- 
tinguish by means of the two forms, e.g. " Caesar's 
hatred," or " the hatred of Caesar," 



THE CASES. 167 

Lastly, a subjective or objective genitive may be 
general or particular, permanent or casual. In the 
former event, an adjective can in very many cases be 
substituted. 

e.g. God's love = the Divine love. 

The king's banner = the royal banner. 

But one does not speak (except jokingly) of the 
"royal pocket-handkerchief " or "the 'divine' love (of 
Zeus) for Semele." 

In Eussian we find the simplicity of French with 
the accuracy attempted by English, which has a rich 
stock of adjectival forms. 

(1) Subjective genitives (nearly always possessive). 

When general, the adjective of the governing noun 
is used ; when particular, the genitive. 

e.g. Hora cjOBa pas^aojua lepem. Turpa. 

The elephant's leg shattered the tiger's skull. 

(Possessive genitive.) 
Hora oiOHa noMTH 6e3i bo.iocx. 
The elephant's leg is almost hairless. 

(Generic genitive.) 
QoHOBan Kocib ctohtl /(oporo. 
Ivory [literally, elephant's bone] is dear. 

KaBafljbaKx, ySiiiija FeopHxa qeiBepiaro. 
Cavaillac, the assassin of Henry IV. 

(Objective.) 
loaHHOBbi [aaeMBbie] yoifiiibi. 
Ivan (the Terrible's) [hired] assassins. 

(Subjective.) 



IGS litrsslAiN* gfvAMMaji. 

IleTtKHULi Auu TauyjHCb 04aoo6pa3uo. 
Petya's days dragged on monotonously. 
(Subjective and general.) 

4eBb poatAeuia FocyAapa. 

The Emperor's birthday (as a mere fact). 

rocvAapeBM nMeHiiHbi. 

The Emperor's birthday (generalized, e.g. as a 
public holiday). 

SaitaTt cojHua. 

Sunset (as a particular fact on a certain day). 

CojHCiQbiH saKait. 

Sunset (as a natural phenomenon). 

CoJAaTCKaa CBHpiiaocTb. 

Soldiers' savagery (in general). 

But CBHpinocTb cwAan.. 

The soldiers' savagery (in particular). 

BXOA^ BT. ABOpeilT..* 

The entrance of the palace (in particular). 

But ^BOpuoBbie JixoAbi cxporo oxpaHaiOTca co.i- 
AaiaM u . 
Palace entrances are strictly guarded by 
soldiers (in general). 

4op6ra (or uiocce) k^ MocKBt; ox^ MocKBii'i. 
The Moscow high-road (direction to or from). 



* I.e. m a direction ; cf . English " the entrance into the 
station." But in French only " I'entrte de la gare," "la route 
de Versailles." 



THE CASES. 169 

MocKOBCKia 4op6rH oieHt xopomn. 
The Moscow roads are very fine. 

MopcKoe 4H0 cocTOHTT. H31 uecKa. 

The bottom of the sea consists of sand. 

4 no Mopn 34tci> rjySouo. 

The bottom of the sea is deep here. 

fl TKBjn, m, OTaOBCKOM'b AOMi. 

I lived in my father's house (with my parents). 
fl jKHji BT. AOMi oma. 

I lived in my father's house (i.e. his, not mine 
or Mr. Smith's). 

(2) Objective genitives. 

These, too, may be general or particular, but the 
word in the genitive cannot be adjectivally expressed. 

However, Eussian avoids ambiguity by using the 
genitive or any other case with a suitable preposition, 
e.g. such as would be required by the verb corre- 
sponding to the governing noun. 

e.g. KpecTbfincKan .iioGobi. kx necTpbiMxyKpanieHiaMT.. 
The peasant love of gaudy ornaments 
(general proposition). 

JioSoBb 3Toro MyiKiaBbi ki JKeemnHaMi. 
This man's love of woman (in particular). 
HeeaBHCTb kx ^e3apI0. 
The hatred of C?esar (felt against Csesar). 
(Contrast HenaBUCTb I^eaapa the hato Cresar 
felt.) 



170 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

y Hero CHJbHaa jioSobi.. Kt ncKyccTBy. 
He has a great love of art. 
ySiHCTBO 9Ayapita Biop&ro. 
The murder of Edward II. 
HaAeat^H IleTH Ha noBbiraeHie. 
Peter's hopes of promotion (in particular). 
(IleTnBBi in general.) 

Pa3CKa34HKl ^TOH CKa3Ii0. 

The narrator of this fairy tale. 
CKasoiBbiQ pb'maps. 
A fairy knight. 

In conclusion. — (1) The possessive or other adjectival 
form must be substituted for the noun in the genitive 
in all phrases, where the sense is generalized. 

(2) When the genitive is objective, the relationship 
is usually more closely defined by a proper preposition ; 
but the possessive adjectiv^e is almost always in- 
admissible. 

(3) In Russian, except for the proclitic pronouns 
ero, ea, nxi, the genitive always /oWows the noun. 

(4) The possessive adjective is also used to avoid a 
succession of genitives. 

e.g. Moriija Btpti Haxo^iuacb bx rjy5Hui KjaAonma. 
Vera's grave was at the bottom of the cemetery. 
But IIo4p66HOCTn B-fepHHoii cMepm. 

The details of Vera's death {"de la mort de 
Vera"). 

(ii) There exists a partitive genitive [v. § 24 (1)] 
ji; "v" with some nouns of the second declension, 



THE CASES. 171 

and a distinction is made which can only be learnt by- 
practice; generally speaking, when quantity, not 
quality, is implied, the form in " y " is preferred to that 
in " a." 

e.g. O/iaiiTe mh^ laio. 

Give me some tea (donnez-moi du the). 
4Ba •tyHia caxapy. 
Two pounds of sugar. 
y Hacx ecTi) 4Ba copia laa. 
We have two sorts of tea. 

(iii) The genitive (and similarly the dative) fre- 
quently replaces the English nominative, in the 
impersonal constructions, for which the Eussian 
language has a predilection. 

e.g. 3aBTpa, MO/Keii-obiTb MeHii ne Gy^en. 3AicB. 

To-morrow, may-be I shall not be here; 

literally, "there will not be of me here." 
Mui He xoieTCfl cnaiB. 
I do not want to go to sleep. 
Ero niiT. ^oMa. 
He is not at home. 

(iv) The genitive is replaced by the dative, in 
many instances, of ownership or possession. 

e.g. ^iBa 3THMI Joma4aMT. /jBicTH pyS-iefl. 
The price of these horses is 200 roubles. 
Ofli MHi ciapbiH 4pyri. 
He is an old friend of mine. 

Such sentences are really instances of the dativus 
commodi. 

H 2 



172 EtJSSlAN gsaMMak. 

(v) The genitive is used after comparatives 
[cf. § 38, v.] 

e.g. /(Ma MOJOjKe cBoeu njeMflHHBqu. 
The uncle is younger than his niece. 
Poccia Bi ceMHaAKaib pasi 66jbme OpaaaiH. 
Eussia is seventeen times bigger than Prance. 

(vi) The genitive is the objective case, as stated 
in § 69, III. 

(vii) The genitive is used after the adjectives and 
verbs denoting fulness, worthiness, dep'ival, fear, desire, 
expectancy, and value. 

e.g. }Kh3Hl nojHa ropa. 
Life is fuU of sorrow. 

Oht> /joctohh'l HaKaaaHJa. 
He deserves to be punished. 

Bami Bonpoei Kacaeica Bb'imeHSJoaceHHbix'B 

nyflKTOBi. 
Your question touches points previously 

defined. 
fl npomy Bamero npomeHia. 
I beg for your forgiveness. 

Obi JMniujca mkisa. 
He lost his life. 

Avimiixh ceofl xushh. 
Committed suicide. 

Cy4i jhiuAji nerpa HBaHOBHia Bcixi npaBi. 

coCTOflHia. 
The court deprived Peter Ivanovic of all 

rights of position (civil rights). 

Bci jib^H HtejiaioTi s^opoBha. 
Everybody desires health. 



THE CASES. 173 

H ooiocb rpoMa a Mojuiu. 
I fear thunder and lightning. 
9to ct6htt> AeHen>. 
This costs money. 

But if the price is stated, the accusative, 
e.g. Byiiara ctobtT) ipn py6jf'i ny^i.. 
Paper costs three roubles a pud. 
IlHKor4a HC OHtH/iaji laKoro CHacTLa. 
I never expected such luck. 

(viii) To denote dates on which. 

e.g. TpeiBaro 4ua Auaa yMepja. 

On the day before yesterday Ann died. 
IIIecTHafliiaTaro ACuaSpa. 
On the 16th December. 

(ix) In all cases where the object of the verb is 
impliedly partitive, i.e. the word "some" might be 
added, or when in French the " partitive article '' du, 
des, would be used. 

e.g. llpuHecHie BUHa. Bring some wine here. 
Apportez du vin. 

So, too, after all words of quantity, 
e.g. iiajo little, HeMHoro a little, AOBOJbao enough, etc. 

(x) As in Latin to denote descriptions. 

e.g. Oht. leiOBiKT. HtejisHoa HacTOHqaBOCTu. 
He is a man of iron persistence (will). 

Derpi BejHKin 6m.ii BMcoKaro pocia. 
Peter the Great was a man of great height. 

Otti &bwh Torfla mecTHAecaTH xkvh. 

He was then sixty years old. 

(Or, CMy 6buo Tor^a uiecibAecaTi. .rfcii.) 



174 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

V. The Dative. 

As in other languages, the dative marks the personal 
relation or effect. 

e.g. Mai nojesHO 4HTaTb no-pyccitn. 
It is useful to me to read Russian. 

The dative is also extensively used instead of the 
genitive, [v. § 69, IV. (iv).] 

As in Latin, French, German, and other languages, 
many verbs which in English take a direct object are 
intransitive and take the dative. 

e.g. rpo3UTL KOMy threaten 

y^HB-iaibca seiiy be surprised 

cM-tflTBCfl MCMV to laugh at a thing (but 

CMiflTtca oa^i K^Mi of a person) 
cipHTS KOMy or nejiy believe (but BipoBaib 

Bi> Bora believe in God) 

Other instances of verbs requiring a dative are : — 
. iKajOBaTbca KOMy na Koro to complain to A of B 
3aBH/(0BaTb KOM]^ Bi HOMT. to cuvy somebody 

something 
MOJHTbca KOMV 3a Koro to pray to someone for 

someone 
KJanaTbCfl Kosiy to greet (to bow down to) 
MCTHTb KOJiy 3a HTO to take vengeance on 

somebody for something 
uanoMHHaib hto itoiuy to remind somebody of 

something 
ynkih Koro hcmj^ to teach somebody something 
yiuTLca HCiuy to learn something 



THE CASES. 175 

But only practice can supply a full knowledge of 
such usages. 

e.g. 'leM^ Bw CMteTecB ? 

What are you making merry of ? 

H BBpH) TojhKo MaTeMaTH']ecKHM^ ^oKasaTejL- 

CTBaMT>. 

I believe only mathematical proofs. 

a CM'filOCb na^T. BaUlHM^ BblCOKOM'IipieM'L. 

I smile at your arrogance. 

Oicejb rpo3HTb Mbi Qfnatn, UleeAy. 

From this spot we shall threaten the Swede. 

Mbi yAHBMHCb ero citopoMv BOSBpameBio. 

We were astonished at his swift return. 

a 3aBH4yio BauieMV SoraicTBy. 

I envy your wealth. 

H saBii^yio PoT[nH.ib4y. 

I envy Eothschild. 

VI. The Instrumental, 

This case denotes the instrument hy tvhich something 
is done, or the agent hy whom something is done. 

Thus : — (1) It is used after passive verbs, 
e.g. I^ap^ obi.ix noMasBHi apxienucKonoM^. 

The Tsar was anointed by the archbishop. 

Hapb 6bui nOMasaBT. Mvpoin,. 

The Tsar was anointed with the chrism. 

(2) It also denotes the means by which a thing is 
done or made. 

e.g. ;5epeBba pySflTb TonopaMH. 
Trees are cleft with axes. 



176 



KUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 



(3) It is used predicatively (like the dative in 
Latin) after verbs of becoming, or SwTb in the past tense. 

e.g. MfiaBX SbiJT. mohmi c-iyroio. 
John used to be my servant. 
Oa-b cfltjajca 6oJi.Hb'iM^. 
He made himself ill. 

Hence such irregular concords may arise as : OHt 
nasBajT, Meaii AypaKOM-L he called me a fool. 

(4) It is used to denote the mode or manner where 
we in English should say " like . . ." 

e.g. OpejT. jeiiji cTpijoio. 

The eagle flew like an arrow. 

Obt. BooRpajKaei'L ce6il mofj^ihmi rocyAapein.. 

He fancies himself a mighty emperor. 

(5) The instrumental is also used with words of 
measure. 

e.g. Oht. npoACiffiajt h^tii utpBLiMi maroix. 
He continued to go at a regular pace. 

Mope 3A4cb rjySHHofi bt> AecBTt cajKeai. 

The sea is here 10 sazens deep. 

TeMneparypa Cojbnoro noBb'icHjacL ABymi 

rpaAycBMH. 
The patient's temperature has gone up two 

degrees. 

But Btoti ca^b aa apuiHUi mupe iBoero. 

This garden is an arsin broader than yours. 

Moe ASjoko Bi ABaAuaTb past ciame tofo. 
My apple is twenty times sweeter than that 
. one, 



The cases. 177 

(6) The instrumental is used with words of quality. 

r 

e.g. 9tott. TiopeMinHKi 40opi iiynioio. 

This gaoler is kindly in soul (kind-hearted). 

(7) The instrumental is used to denote time in 
which something happens ; e.g. 3hm6io in the winter, 
BecHOK) in the spring, no-ibio at night, yTpoMi in the 
morning. 

(8) Many verbs, especially those denoting tising, 
governing, naining, are followed by the instrumental. 
These can only be acquired by practice. 

Such are : no^bsOBaibca to use 

nasbiBaTbCfl to be called 

B-iaAtib to possess 

rop^HTbca to be proud of 

atepTBOBaib to sacrifice 

npaBHTb to rule 

CJbiTb to be reputed as 

HsSHpaibca to be elected 

e.g. CoJ4aTbi jKepiBviOTb jKHSBbio 3a OTiHsny. 

Soldiers sacrifice their lives for their country. 

A rOpJKJ^Cb CBOHMH pOAHTeJaMH. 

I boast of my parents. 

Ero HasaaiHJB (HsSpaiH) oneiiyHOMi. 

They have appointed (chosen) him as guardian. 

OhI HC BJBAieT'b CBOBM'b pO^Hb'lMX aSblKOMl. 

He does not understand his own language. 

VII. The Locative. 

In modern Eussian this case is never used except 
with the prepositions npH, Bi, o, ua, no. Hence it is 
often called the prepositional. 



178 



EUSSIAK GEAMMAK. 



e 

« 
•A 

03 

o 



O 

M 

Ph 

ft! 

o 

>-] 

m 
<i 
H 



o 



1 
> 


With 
Verbs 
only. 


s 


pa 


1 

B 


B 


a. 












-1 • 


o 

B 


P. 
B 


B 


a 

B 




- 










% 


s§ 


B 


B 


B 


o 


H 

O 


O 
B 


o 
o 


a 


1=. 














; 




CO 


a 

IB 






I 


i 


! 1 1 

1 1 







■3 
> 

< 


a 

B 
O 






I ■ 




! 
1 




6 
"a 

a 




o 
o 

o 












1 




o 

B 


B 


fa 

o 
B 


i 


P. 




P3 
B 
H 

O 

a. 

B 


B 




i 


1 


O 
aa 


B 
H 




§ 


m 
o 
pa 


5 


i 


o 


.a 


IS 


o 


ta 


2 


S 

B 

i 


i 


1 








M 
M 

oT 

CO 

> 

■+3 

§ 

o 


■3 

> 


s 
s 
g 








I 
1 

1 


I 








CC 


a 
p 


r 








' 













TABLE OF PKEPOSITIONS AND PARTICLES. 



179 



■a 
apH 

•2-e 

r 


1 

1 1 

r 
1 


1 
~ i 




. 




s 


a 


1 

C5 






1 
i 


























g 


1 


a 

a 



i 

<° S a 



o 



i 










S 






1 




"3 
"S 


g 

d 

M 

> 






■3 

> 




o 
.S 

Pi 

o 
O 











1 

i 

1 




















.1 




a 
1 




3 

M 

a 
& 
to 
> 


■e 


60 

a 
'3 









180 eussian geammar. 

§ 71. The Prepositions. 
Preliminary. 

I. In order further to assert the relationships of 
nouns and verbs, as in other languages the cases are 
not sufficient. They have to be more accurately and 
extensively defined by means of prepositions. 

II. Prepositions and particles are either simple or 
adverbial, e.g. in English "by" and "beside." 

III. Most simple prepositions are compounded with 
verbs ; but repeal through, itt to, 6e37. without, cannot 
be thus used ; nor are bo3- up, bm- out, nepe- again, 
npe- in excess, used except with verbs. 

IV. Most prepositions govern only one case, some 
govern two, and some three. 

V. The prepositions and the cases they govern are 
all stated in the Table § 70. 

VI. Prepositions governing the objective take the 
accusative (or nominative) of inanimate things, and the 
genitive of living things [v. § 69, III.]. 

In a few instances only the older practice survives 
of a preposition taking the accusative with nouns 
denoting a living being; e.g. the idiomatic use of bt. 
in Bi rocTH, Bi HHHbKH, to be a guest, nurse, etc. 

VII. Monosyllabic prepositions preceding mono- 
syllabic nouns (including under this designation dis- 
pyllabic ^ou^s in liquids, e.g. ropoA'i., 6eperi [v. § 5 (5)]) 



THE PREPOSITIONS WITH ACCUSATIVE. 181 

or dissyllabic nouns of the second declension often 
accent the preposition, especially in adverbial phrases. 

e.g. Ha noji on to the floor 

Ha ropy on to the mountain 

In older Eussian this rule was much more general. 
[v. § 80.] 

§ 72. Prepositions Governing the Accusative. 

Three prepositions govern only the accusative : 
lepesx (or qpeai), npo, ckbosb. 

npo means " for," " concerning." 
e.g. BcHKi npo ce6«, a TocnoAb npo Bcixi. 
Each for himself, but the Lord for all. 
IIpo Koro roBopuinb? 
Of whom are you speaking ? 

Combined with verbs it gives the idea of 
thoroughness. 

e.g. IIpo'iHTaTb to read through. 

CKBOSB right through. 

e.g. Fbos^b ci!B03b flocKy npomejTi. 

The nail has gone right through (pierced) the 

board. 
Om. npoii^eTi neBpcAUMLiMi CKBost oroHb h bo^v. 
He will pass through fire and water unscathed. 

CmOTp'BTb Ha HTO CKBOSb naJbHbl. 

To look through the fingers (i.e. overlook). 
Ohi npomeji ckbosb oroHb h Bo^y h M%y(Hbia 

ipyobi. 
Jle passed through fire, water, and brazen 

tubes [proverb: i.e. eveyy danger] [or 

jjepesT. , , .]. 



182 RUSSIAN GEAMMAK. 

HepeST. through and across, 
e.g. lepesT. piny across the river. 
lepesx cTeK.i6 bhaho. 

One can see [bh4ho it is visible] through the 
pane. 

lepesT. Hero MBorie nocTpa^aiH. 
Through him many have suffered. 

f{ y Hero Sy^y nepeai Hc^'Biio. 
I shall be with him in one week. 

§ 73 (1). Pkepositions Govekning the Genitive only. 

These prepositio7is always govern the genitive; not 
merely the objective case. 

6e3i without, 
e.g. Besi ASHen. without money. 
Ee3T. HaA^atAti without hope. 

6ja3i* near, 
e.g. Bjh3T> ropoAa near the town. 

Bjb3i Moero M^JKa ciofua HacTactir. 
Nastasya was standing near my husband. 

BAOJb along, 
e.g. Baojb yjHiibi along the street. 

BMicTot instead of. 
e.g. Bmbcto Becejia rope 6b'uo. 
It was woe instead of joy. 

BHyrpH* inside, 
e.g. BHyipH leMOAana inside the portmanteau. 

bh4* outside, 
e.g. Bni Eaponbi outside Europe. 

* Whence adjectives diiiKniii, BnJ'Tpennbiil, Bniiuniii. 
^t Not to be confused with the adverb jMCcTt together ; e.g. 
BM'SCT? CI, ToOpH} together with you, 



The prepositions with genitive. 183 

b63.i4 beside, 
e.g. Bosjt neqa beside the stove. 

BOKpyi-L or Kpyr6MT. round, 
e.g. BoKpyri. ijepKBH round the church. 

mn for the purpose of, or intended for. 
e.g. 4ja JiieHJa for the purpose of being healed. 

AO defines the limit " up to which." 
e.g. 4o ciapocTH norsaxb. 
He lived up to old age. 

IniaH c'L Hanaja 40 KOBiia. 

Eead from the beginning to the end. 

Ott. A6Enona. 40 IlapHiKa. 

From London to Paris. 

4o nojyAHfi. 

Until mid-day or before mid-day. 

4o PoHt^ecTBa XpHCToea. 

B.C., i.e. up to or before the birth of Christ. 

4o Itapa HHKOjaa HHKOjaeBHia. 
Before Tsar Nicholas Mkolayevic. 

Hx't 5buo 40 AecaiH. 

There were up to (m- about) ten of them. 

40 in compound verbs gives a sense of finishing ; 
e.g. 40HHTaTb to read to the end. 

B3i from, out of. 
e.g. H3i orfla out of the fire. 

Hat 4p;fat6bi out of friendship. 

nsi is scarcely ever used in measurements of time 

(v. OTT>). 



184 ilUSSlAN GfeAMMAB, 

H3i-3a from behind, 
e.g. CojBue BbiuiJO H3i-3a jicy. 
The sun rose out of the wood. 
H3i-3a Hea " Thanks to her ..." 

H3i-noA^ from under, 
e.g. Hsi-noAx mcbh bsajh ctvji. 

They took my chair from under me. 

B3Ti in composition with verbs retains its original 
meaning. 

Before heavy consonants it becomes h30 ; e.g. 
H3o5paa(aTb to depict. 

Before soft vowels it retains the t ; e.g. BS^'fc^eHuuu 
(MOjbK)) moth-eaten. 

Before unvoiced consonants it is written and 
sounded no ; e.g. HcipaiBib to squander. 

KpoMi besides, 
e.g. Kpoai laKHXi npHMtpoBi.. 
Besides such examples. 
KpoMt JomaA^u oui saneji. eme aBTOMo6vub. 
Besides his horses he brought a motor. 
KpoMi Toro in addition to this. 

The " gerundive " or undeclined participle, BCiaiOHaH, 
is used absolutely to mean "'except, excepting"; e.g. 
HCKJioqaa (or sa HCKJiOHeHieMi) aerjHiaBi HHitaiioH 
BapoAT) Be CBo56/^eB^. excepting the English no nation 
is free. 

MHMO past an object. 

e.g. OpejT. jeiiji mumo Moeio ca4a. 
The eagle flew past my garden. 



THE PEEtOSITlONS WI*H GEXlTlVfi. 183 

OKOJO about, 
e.g. Okojo ABopa about the courtyard. 
Okojo nflTH 480081 about five o'clock. 

BOKpyri) signifies rather " encircling " all the way round, 

e.g. BoKpyrt Moero yjojia 4>pyKT6Bbiu ca^t. 
There is an orchard all round my house. 

OTT. away from, 
e.g. On. KHfliKeHifl Bja^uviipoBa. 

From the time of Vladimir's reign. 
fl uoAynaA-b no^apoKi. oil Maiepa. 
I received a present from my mother. 
fl noKpacHiji on. cibiAa. 
I blushed for shame. 

OTb, as distinguished from usx, indicates the source 
whence, rather than motion whence. 

,e.g. 4op6ra oii MocKObi 40 IleTporpa^a. 
The road from Moscow to Petrograd. 

But Oht. npitxa-ii m-h Mockbh. 
He arrived from Moscow. 
on corresponds more with the Latin ah ; mi with ex. 

When compounded with verbs, on, like h3X, retains 
its meaning, and changes to oto, on.. 

e.g. OTopBaibca to tear oneself free. 
Onixaib to drive away. 
OT^is/cb departure. 

noA-ii means the same as Bosji. 

nosaAu behind, 
e.g. IIo3a/iu 4epeBHH behind the village. 



186 ftlTfiSlAN GKAMMAE. 

nocji after (in time or order). 

e.g. Iloai yxo^a oil 46j)kboctb. 
After retirement from service. 
Ilocji Kopojii BOui'eM, ero cjyra. 
After the king his servant entered. 

npoTHBi against or opposite to. 

e.g. IIpOTHBl 4B0pua CTOHTTi COSop't. 

Opposite to the palace stands the cathedral. 
PocciH Sopeics npOTBBl. HiMaeBT.. 
Eussia is fighting against the Germans. 

pa^u for the sake of. 

e.g. Pa/iii TBoeH MaiepH. 

Por the sake of your mother. 

CBcpxi besides. 

e.g. CBepxT) pasyMa beyond reason. 

CBepxT. jKaiOBaHbH obi BCiynaeTx Harpa/jy. 

In addition to a salary, he gets an emolument. 

Cficpxi Toro furthermore. 

cpe4B or nocpeAU in the middle of. 
e.g. nocpeflu ocipoBa in the middle of the island. 

Other adverbial phrases are also used with the 
genitive, but need not be noticed here. 

y means " at," " by " (of place). 

e.g. y Aijx at work. 

y Hori y Koro at one's feet. 



THE PREPOSITIONS WITH DATIVE. 187 

y with the verb ecu. replaces the verb " to have." 
e.g. y MCBn ecTb xjioi. [v. § 87.] 
I have a loaf. 

y ceSfi .JH CapnH^ ? 

Is your master in his room ? [v. § 84.] 

Y with the personal pronouns, or proper names, has 
much the same force as the Latin apud or the French 
chez. , 

e.g. y HeTpoBbixT. Bcer^a xoporaifl oSiAi- 
They always dine well at the Petrovs. 

In composition with verbs its use can hardly be 
profitably defined. 

§ 73 (2). The Peepositions Goveening the Dative. 
Of these there are only two. 

K^ can be used with some nouns to indicate ap- 
proximate time. 

e.g. Kt> Benepy toward evening. 

Otherwise la merely amplifies the ordinary meaning 
of the dative " to " or " for." 

e.g. Kt. Sepery to the bank. 

ripHHUH) KHHry KT. HBMy. 

I will send the book to him. 

Ki is never combined with verbs. When used with 
nouns, the consonant k is merely sounded in front, like 
r and d' in French : "Fame," "d'autres." Before dentals 
and gutturals Kh is softened to x in pronunciation; 
p.g. HI TOMy is sounded XTOiay ; i;i AOJiy, x^oiiy. 



188 THK PEKPOSITIONS WITH INSTKUMENTAL. 

Before heavy initial consonants kt> is sounded, and 
is sometimes written, kg. 

e.g. Ko 4Bopy to the courtyard. 

Similar rules apply to Kh and ct., which may be 
written and sounded bo and co. 

BonpcKu in spite of. 

BonpeitH ero ciapaHiaMT, despite his endeavours. 



§ 74. Prepositions Governing the Instrumental. 

HaflT) means " above," " over." 
e.g. Hafli seiueio over the earth. 

BpaiB BcpxT. BaAT> KiMT> (liiix) to overcome 
someone. 

BojKbfl Bojia HaAO mhoh). 
God's will over me. 

Bi&4a BncHTT. s&n'b ero rojOBoii. 
Adversity hangs over his head. 

MeiK^y may be added to this paragraph, as it is 
only occasionally used with the genitive. It means 
" between." 

e.g. CHfl'iib Me)K/(y /Ibvx^ CTyJbeB^ — nojoiKenie 
HeUTpaJBHMXl ^epHtaBT.. 
Sitting on the fence [between two chairs] — 
[is] the situation of neutral States. 

MeiK^y AByMtt AepeBbainn 6w.io okbo. 
There was a window between two trees. 

It can also have a derived meaning, " among." 



the prepositions with locative. 189 

§ 75. Prepositions Governing the Locative. 

One preposition, npn, governs the locative and no 
other case. npH originally meant "at." 
e.g. Ilpn a6m% near, by the house. 
IIpH KOMI in the presence of. 
Ilpn CBHAfiTCjaxTi before witnesses. 

IIpH HHKOJai AjCKCaH^pOBBli. 

In the reign {or time) of Mcholas Aleksan- 

drovic. 
Obt> npH 3aB64t. 
He works in the factory. 

Qwh 5bUl BATilOTaHTOMX npn CKOOOJCBi. 

He was adjutant to Skobolev. 
Also causal — 

e.g. Ilpn SoraTCTB't bo3b6chmc«. 

In prosperity we become proud. 

The meaning of npn, when compounded with verbs, 
is best learnt by practice ; no rule can be conveniently 
stated. 

§ 76. no4i, npcAx, and 3a. 

These govern the accusative and instrumental ; the 
former when motion is implied, the latter when a state 
of rest is implied (cf. in in Latin or German). 

I. 3a primarily means " behind," also " beyond." 

With the accusative : — 
e.g. Uxaib 3a rpaHiiqy. 

To travel beyond the frontier, i.e. abroad. 
Mfli ^aBHo sa copoKi jiri. 
\ am long papt forty years old. 



190 THE PREPOSITIONS — 33, nodt, ripeAX. 

3a AecHTb AiTh CBoeii cjiy!K6M npioGpiji 6o.!fciiiyio 

OOblTHOCTb. 

In ten years' service ho gained great experi- 
ence. 

Xotice also : — 

Mbi ca^HJHCb 3a cioji-b. 

We were sitting down at the table. 

Also with verbs of " holding," " grasping." 
e.g. Ero B3(un 3a pvKy. 

They seized him by the hand. 

McHii ^epataJH aa njenu. 

They held me by the shoulders. 

In combination with hto, 3a means " what a . . . ! " 
e.g. 1x0 sa rnvMi ! what a noise ! 

Also " for the sake of." 

e.g. MyqcHHKH ^jiepjH 3a HcinHy. 
The martyrs died for truth. 
MojHCb 3a oma. 
Pray for your father. 

And " in price." 

e.g. TIpo^ajT. KHiiry 3a neibipe py6jfl. 
I sold a book for four roubles. 

■With the instrumental : — 

e.g. 9totx rocnoAHHi HCHoeTi sa rpaHi'meio. 
This gentleman lives abroad. 
3a caAOMTi behind the garden. 

fl CVlHil-b 3a CTCIOiM^. 

I sat at the table. 



THE PREPOSITIONS— 3a, ttOA^, ^pe/^^. 101 

Or " giving the reason." 
e.g. 3a Henpi'B340Mi oiqa mbi ot.io)kiuii Hamy 
noisAKy. 
On account") of my father's non-arrival we 
postponed our journey. 

SasiMi ? why ? 
Also with verbs of " fetching." 
e.g. Meuii nocjaja 3a caxapoin>. 

They sent me to fetch' the sugar. 
3a, in composition with verbs, expresses an incipient 
action [v. § 59, VI.], but sometimes a completed action, 
e.g. 3acHyTb go to sleep, sanjaiHTb to pay up ; in com- 
position with nouns, expresses "at the back of," 
"behind"; e.g. saropo^Hbiu suburban (also npAropoAb 
suburb). 

II. no^T. properly means " under "; with the accusa- 
ti\-e implying motion, with tlie instrumental static. 

e.g. H Spocuj^ ero noATi ctoji. 
I threw him under the table. 
Obi .leiKBTi noA^ neibio. 
He is lying under the stove. 
In regard to time. 

e.g. 9x0 cjyqHJOCb no^i. BCHepi). 

This happened in the evening (cf. Latin sub 
vesper e). 
Also in derivative senses, 
e.g. IIoAi arHMH vcjoBiflMH ne Mory noAnncaTbCfl. 
Under these conditions I cannot give my 
signature. 

III. npe^T) or nepeflx means " before " (of place, and 
of time). 



192 I'llE fEEtosiTioKS— ilpeAl,. 

I*he accusative and instrumental similarly refer to 
inotion oi* rest. 

e.g. fl flBUJCfl npcAi cy4bSii. 

I appeared before the judge. 

llepe^x BopoiaMH croaxt 4Ba CT0J5a. 

In front of the gates there stand two columns. 

IIpe^T. SaKOHOMl Bci paBBb'i. 

All are equal before the law. 

Observe the adverbs BnepeAu in front, Bnepe^x 
forward, HanepcAH beforehand. 

noAT. and npe/ii, when compounded with verbs, 
conserve their meaning. 

e.g. no^HHMaTb noAaaTt raise 

noADHpaTb no^nep^Tb prop up 

npe^craBaib npe^ciaTb stand before 

npeAciaBJilTb npeACiaBHib to present 

Like OTi, noAx and npe^i. keep the i before soft 
vowels, and npe^i changes to npe^y before heavy 
consonants. 

e.g. npe^xaBHTb to present. 
IIpeAycMOTpiTb to foresee. 
IIoAii&AaTb to nibble (eat from below). 

IIpe/iycMOTpiTb Bci Mejcm. 
To foresee all details. 

HpeAT-aBHTb BeKceJb (or cien) iti BSbicKaaiio. 
To present a bill for payment. 

Oht> noAitxaJi Ha koh^&. 
He came by on horseback. 



THE PREPOSITIONS. 192 



§ 77. The Peepositions bx, o, and na. 

These govern the accusative and locative ; the 
accusative as usual relating to motion, the locative to a 
state of rest. 

I. BT. primarily means "in." It is sounded as a 
part of the following word, like iti. and ci., and similarly 
may, if the following word have heavy initial con- 
sonants, be altered to bo. 

B^ with the accusative is primarily " into." 

e.g. (1) HBaHTi BoiiiejT. bt> KOMaaiy. 
John went into the room. 

a isAUJa Bi OpeHSyprx. 

I travelled to Orenburg (feminine). 

(2) It is used in statements of time. 

e.g. Bo BpeMH nyTeniecTBia a cKyiaj^. 
I was bored during the journey. 
Bt> naib jfai. OKOH'iy Moii ipy^x. 
In five years I shall finish my work. 
Bx noHeA4ibHnKi on Monday. 
(Distinguish no noBe4'i.ibHnKaMT. every Monday.) 
Bt /5eBaTb MacoBi at nine o'clock. 
TpM pasa Bi ^eHb three times a day. 
(Distinguish vh 4eB«T0MT. lacy in the ninth hour; 
i,e. between eight and nine.) 

(3) And in statements of price, measure, etc, 

e.g. 4op6ra bi BOceMHai(naTb Bepcti. 
A road eighteen versts long, 



194 THE PEEPOSITIONS — BX. 

(4) One idiomatic use with the accusative plural 
should be remarked, viz. : — 

McHa SBMH BT. rocTii. 
They invited me as a guest. 

Obx ^o^IeJ^ bt. otnuepbi. 
He has become an officer. 

IIocTpHrycb bt. MOHaxH. 

I shall take the tonsure as a monk. 

In this idiomatic use the accusative, and not the 
genitive, is used as the objective case [v. § 71, VI.]. 

(5) Similarly: — 
Cbini Bx oma. 

The son is like his father. 

bi. with the locative means (1) " in." 
e.g. BapuHi BT. ctojoboh. 

Master is in the dining-room. 

(2) "in," in measurements of time, 
e.g. Bt. ceHiaop'B Micniii in September. 

Bi Tb'icHqa ^eBHTbcoTb naiHaAuaTOMi ro^y in 
1915.* 

(3) " in," in measurements of distance. 

e.g. Moil flaia OTCib^a bt. rpexT. BepciaxT.. 
My estate is three versts away. 

(4) After certain verbs. 

e.g. Kaaibca bt. rpf.xaxT. to repent one's sins. 

IlpHanaBaTbca bi omnoiii to confess a mistake. 
OoBHHaib Koro bt. ySiMciBi to convict of 
murder. 

* In these phrases ro/iy cannot be omitted, and no other locative 
form is admissible. 



THE PEEPOSITIONS — Bl, Ha. 195 

In composition bi conserves its meaning, 
e.g. Bxc^HTb to enter. 

The original form bo is kept in some accented 
adverbs ; e.g. Boece altogether, [v. § 80.] 

With verbs commencing with a soft vowel bi is 
still hard and written bi>. 

e.g. BiixaiL (vyekhat') to drive in. 

II. The preposition na primarily means " on." 

With the accusative. 

e.g. (1) fl xonm% Ha Dj6ma4i>. 

I went on to the square. 
Ilaji TyMaHT. ua cupyio aejijio. 
A mist fell on the damp earth. 
fl nojoatiucfi na leoii. 
I relied on you. 

(2) In reference to time. 

Ha leTBepTbiH /leub on the fourth day. 
Oinymy leoa na rpn naca. 
I will let you go for three hours (no ipexi 'laca 
until 3 o'clock). 

(3) In reference to the effect produced. 

KymaiiTe na a^opoBte. 

Eat for your health, i.e. may it do you good. 

fl cAij^0B^iA^ euy na 3i6.* 
I followed him to spite him. 



* Or ai 3.10. 



196 "THE PEEPOSITIONS — Ha. 

(4) " Against," " in respect of." 
R cep^HJCfl ea FpHropifl. 
I was angry with Gregory. 
He Htajyacfl Ha iBoero Spaia. 
Do not make complaints with respect to 
(against) your brother. 

With the locative. 

e.g. (1) Baiiia KHura na cicrt. 

Your book is on the table. 

(2) In words denoting time. 
Ha PoHt^ecTBi. 

On Christmas day. 

(3) In words indicating the points of the 

compass. 
Ha ciBepi in the North. 

(a) MoH 6paTL iKeHB.ica na ^pauuvateHKi, 
n.iejiaHHHaa KOTopofl Buanen, saMvaii aa 
pyccitaro a644aHnaro. 

My brother has married a Prenchwoman 
whose niece is going to marry a Eussian 
subject. 

(;3) HrpajH ex Kapibi. 

They were playing cards. 

Hrpaju Bi niaxMaibi. 

They were playing chess (i.e a game). 

But HrpaJH na CKpuniti. 

They were playing the violin (the musical 
instrument). 



THE tEEPOSlTlOKS— o6l. 197 

(7) Observe ua Pvch or bx Pocciu in Eussia. 
(PycL is a poetical form.) 

In composition Ha has no meaning limited enough 
to be stated in these pages. 

III. The preposition (061 before vowels, 660 before 
very heavy initial consonants) primarily means " on " 
or " against." 

With the accusative. 
' (1) OuT) y^apHJca KaMCHt he hit against a stone. 
(2) 06i aiy nopy at this time. 

With the locative. 

(1) Concerning, about. 

e.g. Mm roBopHjn TBoeMt HecqaciiH. 

We were speaking of your misfortune. 

(2) Of time (when the time is not exactly stated). 

e.g. Dacxi at Easter. 

(3) With numerals, when the objects enumerated 
are constituents of something else, and not accidental. 

e.g. Ciyji ipex^ HOJKKaxx a chair with three feet. 
{B%t CiiHa BT. xpu apinHHa a wall 3 arsins high.) 

In composition indicates the completion of the 
act, and some generality. 

e.g. O60BTH to go round (and survey). 
OrjflHyxtca to glance round. 

Before heavy consonants it can take the full form 
000 ; e.g. oSoApaTb, o5/iBpaTb to flay. 



198 EtrsSIAN GEAMMAE. 

Before verbs beginning in soft vowels it is written 
and sounded o6x. 

e.g. OStacHHTB to explain. 

OoLfiiie, oSxeMi, an embrace — the capacity, 
contents. 

Before verbs beginning with h, t. + h are fused 
into bi ; e.g. oSbirpaii. to beat at play, cf. cwrpaih 
from ct + nrpaiL to play (a piece of music or at cards). 

As a preposition o6i> is the correct form before 
words beginning with a vowel, and occasionally ooo 
before words with heavy initial consonants. 

§ 78, The Peepositions no and ct. 

I. no, with the accusative, states the limit in space 
or time, or the piirpose of the action. 

e.g. Ho Kpafl CBiia to the edge of the world. 
OoaajKH pyity n6-Joi;oTt. 
Bare your arm up to the elbow. 
Mbi npoSyACMi 3Aict no Ilacxy. 
We shall stay here till Easter. 
Ho cie BpeMH a HH4er6 He cjbixaji. 
Up to now I have heard nothing. 
IIo BiitT. CBOii ([UH no CMepib) He saoyAy. 

I will not forget (for all my life) up to my 
death. 

II m'eAT, Bi. Aich HO Majuay. 

I went into the wood ,(to gather) raspberries. 
Mbi nouuH no BO/(y. 
We went for water. 

Distrihutively, no ^Ba, no ipn, no Heibipe [v. § 62, I. 
and IV. (2)]. 



THE PREPOSITIONS — DO, CX. 199 

Notice — no ij CTopoHy, no npaeyio (pj^Ky), no jbbvio, 
that side, to the right, to the left. 

no with the dative indicates extensive space, in 
which something happens. 

e.g. (1) no ropaMT. over the hills. 

no ropo^y through the town. 
11.1 biTb no Mopio to sail the seas. 

dia Tpasa pacTeTi> no 0Bpa^aM^. 
This herb grows in the ravines. 

(2) Distributively — 

Ilo VTpaM^ every morning. 
Do nsTH in fives (and with every number, 
except ABa, ipw, HeiMpe). [v. § 62,IV.(2).] 
Ho HO'^aM^ every night. 
Do cpeAaMT. every Wednesday. 

(3) " According to." 
Ho-MoeMy* in my opinion. 

rio CTaposiy in the old-fashioned way. 
rio HHDy according to rank. 
IIoseMy ? why ? 
rioTOMy HTO because. 

no with the locative. 

(1) With words of time, means "after." 

e.g. IIoTOMi thereupon.! 

Ilo poatAecTBi after Christmas. 

no neipi BcJHKOMi after Peter the Great. 

* In this single phrase Moea^ is accented M6euy. So, too, no tbocmv, 
cBoejiy. Thus : — 

Ho HoeMy npoii^ccy Bb'ira.io no-M6eMy. 
My law-suit came ofi to my liking, 
f Whence noi6jiKH, noTOMCTito (Jesoendants, 



200 THE PKEPOSITIONS — nO, Ch. 

(2) " On account of." 
e.g. JKcBa no Myati HasbiBaeTcn. 

A woman bears her husband's name. 

Ho KOMI Bbi Bi Tpaypt ? 

For whom are you in mourning ? 

no in composition confers a diminutive sense to the 
verb [v. § 59, VI.], e.g. norjiiAbiBaTb to glance here and 
there ; or indicates the completion of the actions, e.g. 
nooHTb to smite down, nociaib to send at last. 

II. (1) ci with the accusative is used in general 
measurements of space and time. 

e.g. Pyojefl ci naioKi ns^epiKaj-b. 
I spent about five roubles. 
TaMT> a npoHiHj^ ct> Mtcano. 
I stayed there about a month. 
Ohi pocTOMT. ci OTua (or BT. oma). 
He is about as tall as his father. 
BepcTT. CO CTO (ex cothio) 6y4en>. 
It will be about 100 versts away. 

(2) C7. with the genitive has the primal meaning 
" down from." 

e.g. Oht. comeji ct. njaTi'opMbi. 
He left the platform. 
(h31) implies rather " away from," in space : e.g. notsA^ 
yuiejT. H3T> MocKBb'i the train left Moscow.) 
Ona comja Cb yjia. 

She has gone mad (literally, out of her mind), 
Ci 1^X1. nopi. from that time. 

JK/iy CO 4HH Ha ACHb. 

I am waiting from day to day 



TIIK PREPOSn'lO.N'S— Cl,. 201 

It may also have a causal meaning, like otl. 
e.g. Ci'TOCKH from melancholy. 

CB with the instrumental has an entirely different 
meaning, i.e. "with," "accompanying." 

e.g. fl npn^y ct. cynpyroio (cynpyroH)- 
I will arrive with my wife. 
Oht. nL\ajn, aio ct> pa^ocibio. 
He was doing this with pleasure. 

OhX MCJOBiKT) 01. yWOMT.. 

He is a man with sense. 
CoBCBMi. quite. 

KtO rOBOpUJl CT KySbMOH ? 

Who was speaking to Kuz'ma ? 

In composition ci can have either the meaning 
" from " or " with," e.g. CHHMaib to take off, ci.'bxaTB to 
travel away ; or cocAHHliTL to unite, co'iHuiiTb to compose, 
CA'tjaib to finish doing. 

Before soft vowels ci is retained entire, e.g. 
CL^AaTb to devour ; or, before u, amalgamates, e.g. cbiCKaTt 
to find after search (ct-HCKaib) ; or remains as co, 
e.g. coe^HHi'iTb. 

§ 79. The Veebal Prefixes bos, bm, nepe, npe, pasi. 
B03 adds the sense of "up" to a verb. 

Before unvoiced consonants it is written and 
sounded boc, e.g. BOCQHTaTb to educate. 

Before verbs beginning with c + a consonant it is, 
however, written bos and sounded boc, e.g. BoacTauie^ 
insurrection. 

I 



202 RUSSIAN GfiAMMAE. 

In Old Slavonic the form was bisi, hence in modern 
Russian b3 and b30 are also met with. 

e.g. BSjexiib to fly up 

BSyiVTB niabi to inflate prices 

Or before heavy consonants^ 

e.g. Bs^npaTL, but Bso^paTt to tear up 

BSHpaiL (for B33HpaTb), but B033piTt to look up 
(Of. cateiB,* but coatry to burn utterly.) 

Before verbs beginning with soft vowels the 3 is 
pronounced and written hard. 

e.g. B3^fe)KaTb to drive up 

As with other similar prepositions, i + n after is 
fused into ti. 

e.g. B031. + HMiTb becomes B03UM'l)Tb to conceive 
(doubts, fears, etc.) 

Similarly pas-, past-, pasbi-, paso-, pac-. 

Bbi probably means "out," and signifies the com- 
pletion of an act. 

e.g. BbiGojiib to become utterly ill 

Bb'i5iHtaTL (perfective) BbiSiiraTb (imperfective) 
to run out [v. § 59, IV.] 

BbiraaTB drive out, BBiroHaiL (imperfective) 

Bbi always takes the tonic accent except as stated 
in § 59, 1. (3), II., and IV., when the imperfective is the 



* Sounded izeH. 



THE VERBAL TREFIXES. 203 

iterative of the simple verb, in which the imperfective 
retains the original accent. 

e.g. BbinpocHTb to obtain by asking, BbinparnHBaiB 
BbiraflBTb to profit, Bbira^biBaib 

nepe implies repetition, or change, 
e.g. nepe^j^Maib to reconsider 

nepeSHTb to kill many, to massacre 
nepeSbiBaib to be in many places 
nepe^onpocHTb to re-examine 
nepejaMbiBaib to break to pieces 
nepenncaTb to copy 

nepecMaipHBaTb to review, survey ; nepecMoipi. 
revision 

npe implies excellence, and is nearly the same as 
npe^i) ; with adjectives it forms a superlative, 
e.g. npeJH)5e3Hbifl very kindly 
npeabiniaTb to surpass 
npesHpaib to despise 

But it is often merely a bye-form of nepe. 
e.g. npespamaTb, npcBpaiHTb to transform 

pasi has a motion of scattering or dissipation, 
e.g. pacTeKaib to flow (in various directions) 
pascTaHaBJHBaib to station people apart 
pasb'irpHBaib to play out to the end 
pasife^T. a departure (of many people in 

different directions) 
pasyBaib to take off one's shoes 
paactBaib to sow (scatter seed) 
paacMaTpuBaTb to survey all round 

l2 



204 russian grammar. 

§ 80. The Accentuation of Prepositions and 
Particles. 

The general rule is that, as in other languages, 
prepositions are proclitics, i.e. atonic words pronounced 
with their noun, which is accented ; e.g. " in-the-wobd," 
" on-the-table," " bt> jtcy," " ua CTOJ'b." But in older 
Eussian, and to a slight extent in modern Eussian, 
certain of the simple prepositions — not the adverbial 
prepositions — when used with monosyllabic or dis- 
syllabic nouns, are accented, the noun becoming the 
enclitic. 

e.g. Ha 6oia on the side 

Further, when particles are used in compound verbs, 
in some cases the particle takes the accent, the verb 
becoming enclitic. This only applies — 

(1) to the prefix bh [v. § 79 and § 59, IV.] ; 

(2) to monosyllabic verbs [v, § 49 and § 52, 

(1) and (2)] 

and generally only to the past participle passive, 
e.g. npoHtHTfc npoHiHTHH to live through 



HaiaTt 


Ha^iajT)* to begin 


BsSpaib 


H35paHT) to select 


HanflTb 


HaoBji and 




HaafliT. to hire f 


BaseaTb 


HaseaHT. called 


noAaiB 


064301 serve (at a meal) 


This list contains some of the most important 


phrases in which the old accentuation of the preposition 



* But past part. pass. nd-iaTbiii. 

f Sp, too, all dissyllabic compounds of -drji, 



THE PREPOSITIONS. 205 

survives. It will be observed the words are nearly all 
monosyllables, or dissyllables with liquids, such as 
f)epen, shore [v. § 5 (5)], or dissyllabic feminines, and 
that the usage is practically confined to the accusative. 

Verbs that accent the preposition are also mono- 
syllabic. 

The forms accenting the particle are mostly used in 
set phrases, like adverbs. 

e.g. na 6ok7> (or na Cora) to one side 
na Seperx (or Ha Sepen.) to the shore 
Ha rojo (of weapons) naked 
Ha rojOBV (or Ha r6joBy) on to the head 
Ha /lyiny (or na Ayuiy) into the mind 
na aeMJK) (or na 3eM.n0) on to the earth 
na 3J0 (or ua 3.i6) in despite 
na no-ii. on to the floor 
na no.ie (or na noje) on to the field 
na HOHb for a night 
na CMixt (to hold up) to ridicule 
na^acTO (to wipe) clean 

So, too, in verbs. 

e.g. nanaj^ I hired 

3aiiajT. (saaflTi) busied 
npe^annwH devoted 
npo^aHHbia betrayed or sold 
nsSpanij selected 
nasBannbiH called 

Similarly with the negative ne : ne ^ajn., 
ne 5pa.ii, h6 5buo, ne niai. 
uepeJBJTj (or nepe..iHJi.) overflowed 
6T4a.n> (oddal) he has given away 
upojitiMT. he has lived through 



206 EUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

Other instances are : — 

110 jyry (no Jiyry) over the meadow- 
no Mopto (no Mopio) over the sea 
no Gepery (no oepery) along the bank 
BOBce at all 

H3i jicy out of the wood 
6 seMJH) (o aeiuio) against the ground 
3a Hory by the leg 
y Mopa (y iiopn) by the sea 

No very general rule can be stated. In modern 
Eussian the preposition is sometimes accented before 
simple monosyllabic or dissyllabic nouns, mostly when 
used with the accusative. 

§ 81. The Numerals. 

Under this head it is proposed to enumerate some 
idiomatic uses of the numerals. 

I. The date (hhcjo), days (ahh), etc. 

The days of the week (Befl'bjn) are : — 
IIoHeA'bJbBHKi. Monday (HeA^ja, Church Slavonic 

for Sunday) 
BTopHHKT. Tuesday 

Cpcfla Wednesday (i.e. the middle) 

leiBeprs Thursday (i.e. the fourth day)* 

DflTBHna Friday (i.e. the fifth day) 

CySSoia Saturday (i.e. the Sabbath) 

BocKpeceHbe Sunday (literally " Eesurrection ") 
rie^'i^jfi the week 

* Jn eoplesi£i;Stical parlance, "jexiiepTOKbi 



DATES. 207 



The months 


(micflqi) are; 


: — 


JiBBapb 


January- 


(aHBaps, etc., accenting 
termination) 


<SeBpajL 


February 


(*eBpaja, etc.) 


Mapn. 


March 


(Mapxa, etc.) 


A opt J b 


April 


(anptja, etc.) 


Maa 


May 


(laaa, etc.) 


IlOHb 


June 


(iioflfl, etc.) 


IlOJb 


July 


(ii<)ja, etc.) 


A Br verb 


August 


(asrycTa, etc.) 


CcHTflOpb 


September 


(ccBTaSpa, etc.) 


OiaiiSpb 


October 


(oKiaSpa, etc.) 


Ho/iSpb 


November 


(aoaSpa, etc.) 


4eKa6pb 


December 


(fleKaSpa, etc.) 



The calendar of the Greek Church is still used in 
Prussia, and is now thirteen days behind the Julian or 
Western calendar. 

Instances are given of the use of these words, 
illustrating the rules. 

e.g. KoTopoe (Kaitoe) hucao y nacx cero^aa ? 
What is the date to-day ? 

IIIeaBMuaToe aHBapa. 
The 16th of January. 

niiTHHua 4Ba4uaTb nararo (niiToe) Mapia. 
Friday the 25 th of March. 

Do not use capitals in designating the days and 
months* 

When the year is mentioned, the year and number 
all go into the genitive, unless the day is named. 

* Nor for adjectives denoting nationality, e.g. pyccKifl, iJussian ; 
«pauqy3CKiS, i''isuch. 



208 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

e.g. Bt. cpe^y SyAcn. ipHAUaTB nepBoe Mapia Tb'icfl'ia 

BOCeMLCOTl COpOKT. BOChMOFO TOUa. 

Wednesday will be the 31st March 1848. 

JBut /(eBHTHaAiiaTaro ^eepaia Twcaia BOceMhcon. 
inecTB^ecf'iTt nepoaro ro^a. 
The 19th of February 1861. 

These would be commonly abbreviated : — 

e.g. CpBAa (bi cpsAy) 31-oe iiapia 1848 r. 
19-ro *eBpaJii 1861 r. 

Generally both dates are indicated, 
e.g. 25/12 iii. 15. 

II. Age. The following instances illustrate the 
rules : — 

CitojBKO IlBaay jtix? 

How old is Ivan ? 

KaKofl B^spacTT. Abbbi IleTpoBnhi? 

How old is Anna Petrovna ? 

Em iBecTbAeciiTL iiTh. 

She is sixty years old. 

Ofla poAHjacb BOCbMoro Maa Tbica4a Bocesibcorb 

copoKTi BToporo FO^a. 
She was born on the 8th May 1842. 
Buy B^en. ^Ba^uaib nepBbm ro^i. 
He is in his twenty-first year. 
Mni TpHAuaib .lin, otl poAy. 
I am thirty years old. 
EMy Gojie /iBa/maTH-BocbMii jii-b. 
He is over twenty-eight. 
Esiy yiKe 3a copoKii aiii. 
He is over forty. 



THE NUMERALS. 209 

III. In forming compound nouns and adjectives in 
which the first element is a numeral, the rule is to use 
the genitive of the numeral, e.g. 4ByxT.-aTaHtHbiH two- 
storeyed; AByrpAeeHnHKi* twenty copecks; ipexroJoBbiH 
auia a three-headed dragon ; MeiBipexcoTMH the 400th ; 
ABa/iuaTHjiiHiH twenty years old ; nainyrojbHHKi 
pentagon, etc. ; except Tbicfl4e.iiTie millennium, and 
compounds with cto, such as CTOiBTie century. 

IV. The time of day. 

The Eussian for hour is laci. ; for a watch or clock 
Macb'i (plural). 

The following sentences give the rules : — 

KoTopbiii HacT. ? What is the time ? 

KoTopbiii leaepb Hact ua Bamnxi 4acaxT>? 
What time is it by your watch ? 

CKOJbKO lenepb BpeMceH ? What is the time now ? 

CKOJbKO np6f)Hjo? What time was it that struck? 

Tenepb /?Ba laca. It is now two o'clock. 

CeB4acT>t niecTb nacoBi. It is now six o'clock. 

CeiiHacb ae 66jbme ccmh lacoBX. 
It is not more than seven o'clock. 

CefiHacx 04Ha MHByia naiaro. 

It is one minute past four. 

Cefliacx •leTBepib naTaro. It is a quarter past four. 

Ceftiacx noJOBHBa naTaro. It is half past four. 

CeiiHacb xpiuqaib 4eBflTb ipeTbaro. 
It is 39 minutes past two. 

Ceflqacx rpa leiBepTH Tpeibaro. 
It is a quarter to three. 

* 4By Qld Russian for (jByxi. f Popular for lenfipi. 



210 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

CeiiHacT. 6e3^ MeiBepiH neemh. 
It is a quarter to nine. 

CeiiiacT. nojoBiina OAHHna^iiaTaro. 
It is half past ten. 

CcHHaci 6e3T> neanii (mhh^ti) nhiuiumm. 
It is ten minutes to twelve. 

Oht. yixa.n, Bi copoKi AesaTb no&ii HCTbipexi. 

He went away at 4.49. 

V. Fractions. 

There is little to add under this head, but the 
student must specially note the compounds with ncjx, 
nojy, a half. IIojt. as a regular noun signifies sex or 
half.* 

e.g. MVJKCKOH nojT. the male sex 
nonojaMi by halves 

(1) When the compound signifies half of a whole, 
the nominative and accusative has noJi- with the sub- 
stantive in the genitive ; the other cases are declined 
regularly with the prefix nojy-. 

e.g. nonaca half an hour, nojy4aca, nojyjacy, etc.^ 
nojBepcTb'i half a verst, nojyBepcTb'i, nciyBepcii 

Thus, too, noJ^eHb mid-day, noJHOHb midnight; 
TiOAjABH, nojyflO'iH, etc. 

After the preposition no, the locative of noj^eub is 
nojy^HB (a relic of the time when ^eub was a feminine 
like KOCTb) ; e.g. 4Ba 'jaca no nojyAHH two p.m. 

Thus, too, nojTopa [v. § 62, IV. (8)]. 

* Diatinguieh mm floor, and po^ft skirt, 



Fractional fixpiiiissioils. 211 

It is most important to distinguish noAnak, i1oJh64d, 
half a day, half a night, whioh signify duration, not 
a point of time. 

In these words only the first element is declined, 
the second already being in the genitive. 

e.g. II SoApcTBOBaji noJ4aH, no-iBOHH, nojHaca, etc. 
I sat up half a day, half a night, half an 
hour, etc. 

In older Eussian, as in German, there were other 
compounds with nojy-, for 2.^, 3h, etc., viz. noJipeibaro, 
21, etc. ; now ipu cb nojOBBHOio ^ynia. 

These are obsolete. Modern Eussian, like English, 
says HBH ct> qmobhhob, etc. [v. § 62, IV. (8).] 

e.g. Ilocji noiyinHHyTLi aioH paooibi OHa yciaja. 
After half a minute of this work she was 
tired. 

In this connection the word c^tkh, cyxoKT., may be 
noticed, meaning the whole day, i.e. 24 hours, including 
^CHb day and ho<il night. 

(2) Where "half" is used loosely, and not in 
terms of strict measurement. 

These are compounds prefixed with nojy- invariable. 

e.g. nojyocTpoBT. a peninsula 

najyiMicam. a crescent moon 

nojyTOMT. a half-volume 

(but noJTOMa, noiyioMa half of a volume) 
nojy-0"i"i'HiiiajbHbiH semi-official, etc. 



212 



fetJssiAif GRikiviAfe; 



VI. lius&idn money. 

The unit is the pySjb (py6ja) or Hijit^Bbifl, \^orth 
about two shillings, [v. § 4 (9).] 

The divisions are as follows : — 
90 copecks flCBaHocTO Koneeia or nehHTb rpi'iBein, 



80 , 


, BoccMbAecan. 


., BOCCMb „ 


70 , 


, ceMb^ecfln, , 


,, ceMb „ 


60 , 


UiecTt^ecatb 


„ niecTb 


50 , 


naTb^ecaiT. 


, nojT^Ha or nojiHHHHKTi 


40 , 


copoKi , 


„ HCTbipe rp^BeHHHita 


SO , 


TpuAuaib , 


„ TpH „ 


25 , 


, ABajuaTb naxb , 


„ HeTBepiaKT, 


20 , 


ABaAuaib 


„ AByrpHBcaHbiii 


15 , 


, naTHaAuaib 


„ naTH-ajTb'iBHbifl 


10 , 


AecaTb 


, „ rpHBCBHllKT. 


5 , 


naib , 


, ., naxaneKT. 




Tpu KoneuKH 


, ajTM n^* 


2 


ABi 


„ rpouii 


1 [ 


lioneiiKa 




i , 


, nojKoneuKa 


„ AeHBJKKa 


i , 


, HeiBepib Koneii 


Kii „ noj>^raKa 



VII. Frequencies. 

Besides ojiEamnu, etc., there are some other locutions 
that should be noticed. 

(1) In the multiplication table eAHHOKjbi is used 
instead of onaiiXAhi, and qeibipeatAbi is retained for this 
purpose. From iive onwards the instrumental of the 
numeral is used, but is accented naibio, mecTbio, BocCMbio, 
AeBflTMO, OAKDHaAiiaTbio, etc., and not on the ultimate, 
as usual. 



* Obsolete. 



THE NUMERALS. 213 

(2) Before comparatives the forms used are b^boc, 
BTpoe, BqeiBepo, Bnaiepo . . . B^ecaTcpo ; and thence- 
foiward bi oflnaHa^uaTb pasi, etc. 

e.g. AJocKBa no npocipaHCTBy bt. ^Ba^uaib csMb pasi 
Sojbnie CepnyxoBa. 
Moscow in extent is twenty-one times bigger 
than Serpukhov. 

VIII. A note should be added that one cardinal has 
become obsolete, namely ibJia or iiaa 10,000 (except in 
some phrases, and as an expression for a multitude). 
There is a derivative, leMeaKi a commander of 10,000, 
and TbMaTbMfmiu, "multitudinous." 

IX. Cards. 

The names of the suits and the cards (KapTbi, 
feminine) may be useful to the student. 

The four suits (iviacTb, feminine, third declension) are : 
hearts nepon ('lepBea, feminine, third declension) ; 
diamonds 6j^6ubi (SyooHT., feminine) ; spades dhkh (hhki, 
feminine), and Tpe<i>bi (Tpe4'^, feminine) clubs. Trumps 
are Kosbipb (mas.) ; a game without trumps nrpa bx 6e3- 
Kosbipaxi. A trick is BSiiiKa, BsaTOiKa ; nrpoKi. the player. 
The cards in each suit are : — 
Ty37> ace mecTepKa six Bajerb knave 

^BOHKa deuce ceiiepKa seven ^aMa queen 
TpoHKa three ocbMepKa eight Kopojb king 
HCTBepEafour ACBaiKa nine 
naxepKa five ^ecaTKa ten 

e.g. Kop6jb qepBea ; naiepita CySeHi. ; TpouKa 
niiin. ; ACBaiKa Tpe*i. 

Notice the phrases : nrpaib, cbirpaib (perfective) bi 
Kapxbi ; nponrpaib to lose; BUHrpaib to win (imperfec- 
tives npoilrpbiBaTb, BbiurpbiBaib). 



214 eussian geammae. 

§ 82. The Peonouns. 

I. The Interrogative Pronouns. 

These are used as in English, kto referring to persons, 
Uke " who "; qio to inanimate objects and neuters like 
" what," and KOToptifl corresponding to •' which." 

Note, however, that in English the genitive precedes 
the noun by which it is governed ; in Eussian it follows, 
[v. § 69, IV. (3).] 

e.g. John's house. Ji,owh HBana. 

Thus ; Bi AOMT. KOToparo MyatBKa tbi Bomeji. ? 

Into which peasant's house did you go ? 

II. The Relative Pronouns, 

As in English, the interrogative and relative are 
now identical in form. 

KID is used when the subject is a person, or in cor- 
relative and indefinite sentences, answering to toti, 

BCflldH, BCt. 

e.g. Toay, kto jLissth, ne BBpani. 
A liar is not believed. 

BC'B, KTO npikSbUH, BSyMHJHCt. 

All who arrived were astounded. 

HTO is similarly used, when the generality is not 
personal. 

e.g. Bee, HTO tbi CKasux — 4ypa4ecTB0. 
All you have said is folly. 



PRONOUNS. 215 

Otherwise, for nouns KOTopbiii is used ; and, as 
aways in Eussian, the genitive follows and never 
piecedes. 

e.g. OnaceocTH, KoxopbiMi a noABepraJca, 
The dangers I have risked. 
4oMT,, Kpb'iraa KOToparo cnecena BiipoMi. 
The house the roof of which has been carried 
off by the wind. 

KaKoa may be substituted, where the sense allows ; 
it means " such as." 

Ohaerve. — The relative is never omitted as in Enfflish. 
But in common parlance hto in the nominative 
tends to replace kto and Koiopbifi for all numbers and 
genders. This is not an admitted literary use. 

e.g. dlO TOTT. CaMblH HHmifi, HID npBXOAHJT, KT. BaiUT. 
^TpOMX. 

This is the same beggar as visited you in the 
morning. 

III. The Indefinite Pronouns. 

These are of two kinds; iirst, kto and hto, etc., 
unaccented (cf. in Greek Tit, n, contrasted with rk, tl), 
and next, compounded pronouns with to, hh, and other 
particles, [v. § 85 on negative sentences.] 
e.g. Bee HTo hh ecTb.* 

Anything whatsoever, 
Ckojbko hh paSoTajH. 
However much they worked. 

* BH as compared with He is like the Latin ne, Greek /iri, e.g. 
irSc 3,Ti hv fj 01 /iii ^ whatever it may [not] be. 



216 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

KtMi 6bi Tbi nil poAiiJCs, TBI BcexaKH oSiisaH^ 

noBHHOBaTbca saKOHy. 
Whatever you were born, you must obey t^e 

law. / 

Kio-nnGyAb. I 

Whoever it may be. | 

Kto-hhSvab nycTb nprniecen. Mai ciaKani BO,ibVj 
Let somebody bring me a glass of water. 
(6y4b imperative of Gutb; v. § 57, II. and 41, Vf. ; 
nycTb from nycTuit let.) 

The distinction between KaKoii-TO... and Kaitoii na 
is almost identical with the English "some" and "any": 
someone (but I don't know who exactly) ; anyone 
(and there is no discrimination nor knowledge of any 
individual). 



IV. The Bedprocal Pronouns. 

To express " each other," " one another," there are 
two phrases: 4pyn. Apyra, oaubi /(pyroro. Apyr'b ^pyra 
is used for all genders and numbers. The latter part 
of the phrase is varied, to be in agreement with the 
verb or sentence. 

e.g. Ohh HeeaBUAijH 4pyra ^pyra. 
They hated each other. 

Oai cnopHJH Apyn cb ^^jvowh. 

They (fern.) quarrelled with each other. 

/ipyrb ^pj^HtKy (from /ipyiKKa, feminine) is popularly 
also in use. 



PEONOUNS. 217 

But with regard to things, the usual phrase is OAuni 
4pyr6ro, both of which are declined in full. 

e.g. BojBbi cxo/ii'i.iiicL u pacxoAiuucB Sopi'ict OAua ci 
Apyroii. 

The waves met and parted, fighting one 
another. 

V. Hie Negative Pronouns [v. § 85 and § -H, VII.], 

In Russian, negatives are doubled, but do not cancel 
each other.* There is no means of expressing in 
Eussian " I did not see nobody." 

e.g. HHKaKou ne Stuo npHHHHbi. 
There was no reason whatever. 

All negative pronouns are resolved when governed 
by a preposition, [v. § 41, VII.] 

e.g. Hh K^ KaKOMy H3T. Bb'imeyEasaHnbixi npHiiipoBi 
3T0 Be no^xo^HTx. 
This does not comply with any of the 
previous examples. 

The only apparent exception is when the second 
negative negates a different verb or a noun or adjective. 

e.g. fl He cMHTaK) ero HeyiTiiBbui^. 
I do not consider him impolite. 
Hhkto He MOHteib He ysBait ero MHJ0cep4iff. 
No one can not-recognise (fail to recognise) 
his clemency. 

* E.g. iu Greek oiiSils ou/c aiptxrai no one has come, but ovk 
eVoflei' ovScv could meaUj as in English, "be did not experience 
pothing, but. . ." 



218 russian grammar. 

§ 83. The Eussian Appellatives. 

Under this head a few notes will be found, as to 
the Eussian methods of speaking to others, writing to 
others, and addressing letters. 

I. Conversation. 

Intimate friends and relatives use the pronoun tbi ; 
the politer form is bm. The Eussian for "tutoyer," 
" dutzen," is TBiitaTi.. 

Bbi takes a predicative adjective in the plural. 

e.g. Bbi 6'jeHb JK)6e3HW you are very kind (wm/iAe 
the French " vous etes tres aimable ") 

But a noun following is in the singular, as in 
French, e.g. bbi Moii Jiy4mifl Apyrt you are my best 
friend. 

Servants when speaking of their masters use the 
3rd person plural. 

e.g. J[dTAA-i\i 6apBHi (hjh CapbimHfl)? 

Is your master (mistress, daughter of the house) 

at home ? 
Ohh yniji'i. 
He (she) has gone out. 

Eussians in addressing one another use not 
the family name, but the Christian name and 
patronymic. 

Eussians have three names : the Christian name, 
the patronymic, i.e. the father's name, and the family 

name. 

e.g. JeBi HuitojaeBHiT. TojcToii, 



APPELLATIVES. 219 

The "patronymic " ends in -OBaqi (-bbui'l) qr -obt. 
(-CBi) (for the lower classes) in the masculine,* and 
-OBHa (-CBHa) and -OBa (-eBa) in the feminine. 

The Christian name is called kan, the patronymic 
oTiecTBO, the family name <i>aMBji8. 

e.g. KaKT.30B^Ti BacL no Amchh, dx'jecTBy, MMi'ijin ? 
KaKt Bame hmit, (Bame) oT'ieciBo, (Bama) 
*aMHjiii ? 

In ordinary narration and conversation all classes 
are designated by the name and patronymic. 

e.g. npH IlHKoaai AjeKcaH^poBHHi. 
In the reign of Nicholas II. 

Bnepa h BcipiJinjci. Maptio AjcKcieBHy. 
Equivalent to "yesterday I met Mary," or 
" yesterday I met Mrs. or Miss ..." 

The Eussian equivalents for Mr., Mrs., Monsieur, 
Madame, are rocnoAHHi (plural rocno4a), and rocnoita. 
The use of them is very much more restricted than in 
other European languages. 

rocnoAHHt, rocnoKa, are only employed when the 
relationship is distant. Thus, the master of a factory 
would address his equal (whose name we will suppose 
to be BacHiiu naBjiOBH4i JlepenejKHHi) as Baciuifi 

* The patronymio is aooented like the name from which it 
is derived ; where monosyllabio names throw the accent on to 
terminations, or the termination can be accented, the accent is 
similarly thrown forward in the derivative. E.g. OosiA, ©omuht. ; 
KysiM^,, KystMBiTi ; CABsa, CdssHHi ; Heipi (IleTpA), neTp6BHHi ; Ajbk- 
c4h4PI (AjBKcAHApa), AjeKc4H4poBHMX. A few feminines are formed 
in -HiTia, e.g. 0oMHUHm('!)Ha, C^BBnm(M)na, Ky3i.MiiHmij(>])na ; JyKi, 
JyKUu[im(<])iia ; Uuiiuxa, Uiikiitiiiu(<i)iiu. 



220 fiUSSIAlt GEAMMAH. 

IlaBJOBHqt; but an underling (such as a clerk) as 
rocnoAUD^ IlepenejKnHT.; and a mere workman or lower 
servant as Bacujiu. He would not address him as 
nepeneJKHHX, unless he were a superior giving a direct 
command to an inferior ; e.g. the master speaking to a 
foreman. 

Again, if a doctor is introduced, he will commonly 
be addressed as ^OKTopi. (as we say " colonel " or 
" lieutenant " or " doctor "), unless he is of higher 
standing, when the polite form would be rocno^uni 

AOKTOpX. 

When comparative strangers address one another, 
they will say rocnoAHHT. EaniitHHT>; as they approach 
intimacy, they will use the form HjBii Ky3bMU4x ;. and 
as close friends, Hjtil ; but seldom BaniKHH^, as in other 
languages, the surname. 

II. Behoeen masters and servants. 

The servant speaks of his master and mistress 
and their daughter, respectively as 5apnuT>, 6apbiHii, 
SapuiiiHii. 

In shops, restaurants, etc., an attendant calls the 
customers or masters cf^apt, cy/iapbmn (an abbreviation 
of rocyAapb, rocyAapbiaa), or adds an enclitic ct; these 
phrases are equivalent to the English "sir" and 
" madam." 

e.g. Cj^maio-CTi. I hear you, sir. 
4a-ci.. Yes, sir. 
Ito npHKaateie-c^ ? What are your orders, sir? 

This ch is supposed to be an abbreviation of cy^apb.- 
The master and mistress (patron and patronne) of a 
business house are xoskaa-h, xosaiiKa. 



APPELLATIVES, 221 

. III. At meetings the company is collectively 
addressed as MHJOCTHBwa rocyAapbiHn ii MHjocTHBbie* 
rocy4apH, or more simply as rocno^a, equivalent to 
" Ladies and Gentlemen." 



IV. Titles. 

Majesty is BeJUieciBO. The monarch is called 
rocy^apb (rocy4apbiBa), and these words are written 
with a capital, unless the reference is historical to a 
deceased monarch. 

e.g. Ero IlMneparopcKoe Bejii^ecTBo Tocy^apb 
IlMnepaTopi. 

Ea HMnepaTopcKoe Be.iuHecTBo rocy^apbiHa 
IlMnepaipuqa. 

I^apb, napHiia, are used in ordinary speech. 

The Eoyal family has the title BwcoHecTBO. 

e.g. Ero IliunepaTopcKoe BbicoieciBo Hacji^nuK^ 
LtecapeBHH'b A.iei!C'M IlHKOjaeBBix. 

His Imperial Highness the heir Tsesarevic 
Alexis. 

Otherwise the forms are KapeBa4x, uapesHa. 

Grand Dukes (who belong to the Eoyal Pamily 
more distantly) are styled BcJHKin Kflasb. 

e.g. Ero HiunepaTopcKoe BbicoqecTBo BejAKia Kaaab 
HuKOjau HiiK0JaeBii4x. 

Ea HittnepaTopcKoe Bbic6qecTB0 Bej^icaa KHaruua 
EjasaBera UaKOJaeBua. 

The daughters of a Keasb are styled KHBHiHa. 
"■ A rendering of the German '' guadige Herrschaften." 



222 IlUSSlAI* GEAMMAK. 

Dakes (imasb) have the title ciaieibCTBO (brilliance). 

e.g. Ero CiiiTCJbCTBO Knash IlaBeix neipoBUMx ^oiro- 
pyKiu. 

Earls are also styled cifixejLCTBO. 
e.g. Ero (Efl) CiiheJtcTBo rpa4>i (Fpa^iiHa) . . . 

The civil ranks are as follows : — 

Ero BBicoKonpeBocxo4HTejfcCTBO (excellency), for a 
4iHCTBHTej[bHbiH TaHBbiH CoBfaHHiti. (something 
like a Privy Councillor; also called CTaTcidft 
TeHepajx). 

Ero ripeBOcxoAiiTeJbCTBo, for a TaHHwi CoBkEHKi.. 

Ero BbicoKopo^ie, for a CTaiCKiii CoBiiHaKX. 

Ero BbicoKoSjaropo^ie, for a KojjiejKCKiu CcKpeiapb, 
and for the lower ranks Ero Bjaropo^ie. 

In the army, ranks from a nopyqaisi (lieutenant) to 
a inTa5ci.-KaniiTaH7) (captain) are styled Ero BjiaropoAie ; 
from a KanBiaHT. to hojhobhhkt., Ero BbicoKoSjaropoAie 
from a general of infantry to a general-lieutenant 
Ero IIpeBOcxoAiiTejbCTBo. 

In the Church, the regular clergy are styled Bwcoko- 
iipenoAoSie, npenoAoSie, BucoKonpeocBameHCTBO, npeocBa- 
ujeBCTBO, according to rank; the lower orders being 
called 6iarocJ0BeBie. 

Persons not titled are addressed ^oc^O/^^lH^., rocnoM, 
followed by the full name. 



TITLES. 223 

As stated in § 67, Eussian concord follows sense 
and not form, unlike French and German. 

e.g. Ero UpeBocxOjiuTejibCTBO hsbojhjb npnCbiTh. 
His Excellency has arrived (deigned to arrive). 
Efl HmnepaTopcKoeBejiuqecTBoroBopi'uOj'JTo . . . 
Her Imperial Majesty the Empress said . . . 

Contrast — "Sa Majeste le roi est arrives.'' "Que 
desire-t-eZ^e?" In Eussian, hto xotdtc. 

These titles must be used in combination with the 
name of the office. 

e.g. Ero BbicoKonpeBocxo4HTe.iLCTBy rocno4uiiy 
MHHHCTpy Hapo^naro IIpocBlimeaia (IlyTeii 
coo6m(5BiB). 
To his Excellency the Minister of Public 
Education (communications). 

In a private letter — 

Ero BbicoKonpeBOCxoAUTejbCTBy ApKaAJH) Mnxafl- 

JOBB>iy PaSHHV. 

To his Excellency Arkadi Mikhailovio Eazin. 

V. In addressing letters the full titles are inserted, 
in the dative. 

e.g. In a private letter, Ero npeBOCxo^uTeJbCTBy 
(or BbicoKonpeBOcxoflHiejbCTBy) HnKOjaio 
CcMeHOBHiy IlyraHeBy. 
If official, Ero BbicoKonpeBocxo^uTejbCTBV 
rocnoAUHy HasajbEHKy HaKOjaeBCKoii jkc- 
jisHOH floporn, HHKOjaro CeMeBOBH-jy 
IlyraieBy. 
To his Excellency the director of the Niko- 
laevskaya railway. . . , 



224 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Where there is no title, any of these three forms are 
applicable : — • 

Ero BbicoKopo/iiio HuKOJaio neipoiiHiy rocno- 

4HHy IIiiBOBapoBy. 
HHKOJaio IleTpoBHiy HnBOBapoBy. 
Or simply, HuKOJaio HeTpoBHiy rocno^HBy IlHBOBapoBy. 

Next follows the name of the street and number, 
then the house, lastly the town and country. 

e.g. Ero CitiiejbciBy KHiisEO CcMCHy ApKa4ieBH4y 
4ojropyKOMy, 

MixoBaa yjHua, 

Bt MocKBk 

Letters addressed abroad are marked: 3a rpaeHay, 
beyond the frontier. 

The letter is usually headed with some honorific 
adjective. 

e.g. When very formal, MiiJOCTHBaa rocy4apbiHa, 
rocnoHta QJaxMaTOBa; when less stiff, MnJOCTHBaa 
MapLa EouMOBHa; if friendly, MHoroyBaMtaeinaa 
Mapta EtuMOBHa ; if intimate, ^oporaa or 
J[K)6e3Haa Mapta E<i>iiMOBna. 

Thus the English equivalent of MBoroyBaHtaeMaa 
Mapta E*uMOBHa, would in this case be " Dear Mrs. or 
Miss Sakhmatov." 

The conclusion of the letter would be as follows : — 
Ci coBepujeHHMMi no^ieHieMT.. 
ToTOBbiH K^ ycjyraMi. 

(or, informally) Bami 

3c^C^jiQ IIlIBOBapOBl, 



interrogative sentences. 225 

§ 84. Interrogative Sentences. 

As ill English, sentences beginning with inter- 
rogative pronouns and adverbs are interrogative in 
themselves. 

e.g. Kor^a npH5y4eTe ? 

"When will you arrive ? 

Other interrogative sentences are distinguished by 
the enclitic particle .in, which is appended to the 
emphatic word of the sentence. The personal pro- 
noun, or subject, may or may not follow the verb. 

e.g. He cMOHieTC-JH bh saeipa npHroTOBHib moh canorA ? 
Will you not be able to get my boots ready 
to-morrow ? 

C[t6po-jH npuoy4eMi KiSepery? 
Shall we soon reach shore ? 

There is another interrogative adverb, pasBi (perhaps), 
which conveys an ironic sense. 

e.g. Paasi hvikho, htoQu HacL noACjyuiHBajB ? 
Is it necessary they should overhear us ? 

§ 85. Negative Sentences. 

Eussian has two particles of negation. He and nil. 
A third one, nin., is a contraction of ue d ly there is not, 
and is used for " No " as a reply. 

nn is used : — 

(1) To express neither — nor — . 

e.g. IIu a HB iioii oiea^ ne Morju cKpHTt Hamy ipeBory. 
Neither I nor my father could conceal our 
anxiety. 
uu II H always requires the verb negatived ivith ne. 



226 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

(2) In composition with negative pronouns [v. § 40 
(1), § 41, VII. and § 82, V.]. Such pronouns, e.g. 
HHKaKOH, also need a verb negatived with He. 

(3) With the indefinite pronouns [v. § 82, III.]. 
He is used :^ 

(1) To express the negation of a verb in all tenses 
and moods. 

e.g. He iporafl Meoii, Kor^a a nibio. 

Do not touch me, when I am sewing. 

(2) With adjectives to negative their meaning. 
Notice in this connection that Eussian possesses no 
such distinction of negatives as English or Latin ; 
e.g. between non-essential, unessential, illogical, non- 
logical, insensate, nonsensical (the distinction generally 
being that an adjective negatived with " un- " or " in- " 
implies the absence of the positive qualities ; whereas 
the non-compound excludes the compatibility of that 
quality with some other object). 

Such a distinction must be otherwise expressed, 
e.g. Your statement is unreasonable, 
TboS ooiflceeuie uepasyMuo. 
yTOTT. Bonp6c7> BO'I) opaDa. This is a non-legal 
question. HesaiiouHLiH nocTynoiti an illegal 
action. So, too, imlawful npoTHBx aaitoua. 
lleonpeAli.ieBHbiH indefinite, undefined; 6e3- 
npeAUiLHWu infinite. 

Observe (as stated in § 41, VII.) that in Eussian a 
double negative asseverates, and does not annul as in 
English. 

e.g. fl ne Bcxpi'^iaji Hniioro I met no one. 



NEGATIVE SENTENCES. 227 

An apparent exception exists, when the negatives 
belong to separate verbs or as stated above. 

e.g. 9to 6b'uo BCTpiieao, KaKx bbito laitoe, 4T0 4oj;kb6 
6bijo cjyiHTbca, hto hc Mor.i6 hb cjyJUTtcn. 
This was faced as something that must have 
come about, that could not not have come 
about (have failed of coming about). 

(3) ne, in combination with certain pronouns, forms 
negative pronouns.* 

The pronouns are itio, ■no, Kor^a, Kv^a, etc. (i.e. those 
on the first line § 40 (2) ). 

In this usage He stands for niTh there is not. 

e.g. Henero A^-Jait. 

There is nothing to do. 

(biU H ne 4i.iaji. Haqero. 
I was doing nothing.) 

Mni He la KOMV oGpaiuTbca. 
I have no one to turn to. 

Euy He Ha leMx ocnoBHBaTb cboh na^eiKAbi. 
He has nothing on which to build up hopes. 

The prejoosition is always inserted between the negative 
and the pronoun, as with hhkto, etc^ 

Observe, in the past or future tense the verb " to be " 
must be inserted. 

e.g. He'iero Si^Aeii. (Sb'uo) ^Ljaib. 

Lastly, the reader is cautioned to distinguish between 
this use of He, as a separable negative, and ni the indefinite 
prefix ; e.g. ntKio somebody, H'SKoiopbiii, etc. [v. § 40 (2).J 

* This use of ue, formerly irfi, is probably derived from ne e there 
is not; « in oldej: Sl^ivonio being an unaccented forpi of ecit, 



228 RUSSIAN GEAMMAK. 



§ 86. Tub -Verb "to be." 

In the present tense the verb " to be " is generally 
omitted. In any case the forms ecMt, ecu, bcmh, ecie, 
are obsolete, and cvtb is only rarely found ; cctb, when 
necessary, replacing all the persons and numbers. 

e.g. fl SAopoBT. I am well. 

Tm nero4)'iii you are a scapegrace. 
Oni'i BopM they are thieves. 
Bapiina (SapLiHn) ntri iioMa master (the 
mistress) is not at home. 

However, the "copula" in the present sometimes 
must be stated. 

(1) EcTb regularly stands for " there is," " there are." 

e.g. EcTb na CBbii xy^b'ia .iioah. 

There are evil people in the world. 

The negative of ecit in this sense is H'in.. [v. § 85.] 

(2) EcTb and cyib sometimes are used to assert 
existence. 

e.g. Bon. ecTb : anre.ibi cyib. 
God is: .the angels are. 

But it is better to use the verb cymecTBOBaTb. 

e.g. Bcer^a cymecTByen, nici;o.ibKO ncK.iio^euiii hm 
BciiKaro npasHja rpaMMaiHKB. 

There are always some exceptions to every 
rule of grammar, 



THE VERB '' TO BE." 229 

(3) In definitions. 

e.g. IIpaMafi Jiiuia ecib KpaiHaiimee paacToauie um^\ 

4ByMli TOHKaMH. 

A straight line is the shortest distance between 
two points. 

LojfeHii cyTb Haiiaaanie 'ie.iOBii:y 3a nepBopo/jnbiu 
rpix^. 

Diseases are man's punishment for primeval sin. 

But, in all such cases it is better to substitute the 
pronoun arc. 

e.g. Ji'iuia — 3T0. . . 

BojtsHU — 3T0 iiaKaaaHJe . . . 

(4) When the use of the copula is essential to 
clarity 6brrb is generally replaced by some exacter 
verb, such as canin, naxoAiiTbca, JCHtaTb, cioaTb, cocToaib. 

e.g. Moii niina naxo^mca bt. njoxoMi cocioauiH 3^op6Bi8. 
My uncle is in poor health. 
MocKBa CTOHTi iia p'titl) Toro JKe nasBania. 
Moscow lies (is) on a river of the same name. 
JwTOCTb aB.i(ieTca jinmoH ocoSeHnocTbio HijiucBi.. 
Cruelty is a congenital quality of the Germans. 

Komua chautt. na cTyj'L. 
The cat is on the chair. 
CoSaita AemuTh hoaT) ctojomi. 
The dog is under the table. 

CiyjTi CTOUTb BT> ^iTCKOft. 

The chair is in the nursery. 

OhX COCTOUTb o<i>BnepoMi HI, apMiii. 

He is an officer on service. 

The omission in Russian of the present of fitiTb explains the 
form of the past tense. In older Russian the perfect ran a ecsn 
(Ha)nHca.ii, -a, -o, ih ccn (Ha)Diica.n., -a, -o, etc. ; later the copula 
vanished. Cf. in Polish pisalem, pisalam, pisalom ; pisales, pisalaS, 
pisalcg, etc. ; pisal:saiy, pisatysmy, etp. 



230 RUSSIAN GKAMMAK. 

In every other tense and mood the verb olitb is 
used, but the predicate put into the dative or instru- 
mental, according to sense. 

e.g. Ont SbUT. SaHKiipoMt (present ohx SaHKnpx), 
a Tcnepb ohi TopryeTi. ceje^KaniH. 
He was a banker and is now selling herrings. 

HaraecTBie Taiapii 6b'uo HecjacTtcMX nm PycH. 
The incursion of the Tatars was a misfortune 
to Eussia. 

Kor^a CbiBaeie (SyAeie) homaI 
When are you at home as a rule ? 
When will you be at home ? 

It should, however, be observed that in the present 
the word boti is used like the French void, voild, or 
the Italian ecco. 

e.g. BoTT. yieHiiKii, Koiopbifl onosAajT). 
There is the boy who was late. 



§ 87. The Verb " to have." 

In Eussian there is no verb which can be exactly 
translated " to have." 

The verb "to have" is replaced by y MCHii ecTb, 
6bUT), etc. 

e.g. y MCHii n-liTT) (hg 6bUo) negen 
and y MCHfl [ecTb] (6bU0 or obuu) ipa rpaMMaiHKH 
p;fccitaro asbiKa. 

J have (had) three grammars of the Eussiau 

language, 



SPECIAL USES OF THE INFINITIVE. 231 

ButiL "to possess" or "own" is also used in this sense. 

e.g. Oh KiMx BMiio HecTb roBopuTt? 

With whom have I the honour of speaking ? 

Otherwise, HMiit means " to own " ; of. HMymecTBO 
property. 

e.g. y Meni ecib coScTBeeHbiii ^OM't. 
I have a house of my own. 

But \\}\%\0 CoScTBeHHblH ^OMT). 

I have (i.e. own as my property) a house 
belonging to me. 

§ 88. Special Uses of the Infinitive. 

The infinitive has a special idiomatic use as a 
sort of general fatalistic future; the construction is 
impersonal, the logical subject and the predicate both 
being put in the dative. 

e.g. Hmi. He saob'iTb cbguxti AiicH. 

They shall not forget their children. 

TaHHM'b 66pa30Mi HHKOMy He Sbixi, Soraiy. 

In this fashion no one gets rich. [v. § 34 (1).] 

Ily, xopoHio, HTO Tbi npHUiejTi KG MHi; a to ne 

GbiBaib TcSi JKHBOMy. 
It is well for you you came to me ; otherwise 

you would not be alive. 

Observe the dative adjective may be in the simple or 
attributive form; the instrumental is also allowable; 
thus in the instance above, laKUMi oSpasoMi . . . CoraTbiMT.. 

The infinitive may be used as a noun, as in English. 

e.g. To fly on an aeroplane is a great pleasure, 
^eiiib na aaponjaui — aio Oo-ibmoeyAOBojbCTfiie.* 

* Observe aviator is jStihk'l. 



'2o2 liL'SSlAH GHAMMAE. 

But the verbal noun in -uie is generally substituted 
in the nominative, and always in the oblique cases. 

e.g. To suffer is our truest experience. 
CipaAaBJe — Hauie HCTHHHoe ucnbiTaQle. 
By trying you will succeed. 
CiapattieMi) leoi vAacica. 

§ 89. The Use of Gerundives and Participles. 

I. The Gcrundi/oes. 

The two " gerundives," present and past, can only 
refer to the subject* of the sentence, and are used as 
indeclinable participles. 

e.g. BpoAfi no yjHui, a BCTpilTHJ^ IlBaaa Akob- 
.leBHHa. 
Whilst wandering along the street I met 
Ivan Yakovlevic. 

^Hiaa Auay KapeHHHV, n n-ianaja. 
On reading Anne Karenina, I cried. 

SanjaiuBi cbou AOJrii, a nosyBciBOBaja ceSa 

CB0664UOK). 
Having paid my debts I felt free. 

II. The participles, present and past. 

These are used in agreement with a noun. 

e.g. Bi KOMHart 6b'uo t6xo, Tojmo mejecAH 
nepeBopaqHBaCMbia JHCirli. 
It was quiet in the room, only the leaves (of 
the book) rustled as they were turned over 
(present participle passive). 

* The historical explanation of this rule is that the " gerundives " 
are the shorter (predicative) form of the uom. sing, masculine of the 
active participles. 



USE OF PARTICIPLES. 233 

llepeA'fc ero paciuHpeHHbiMB rjasasiH npoxoAUJH 
CTpamHbie oSpasu, BbisbiBaeaiie Hajocib . . . 

Before his open eyes terrifyiog images passed, 
provoking pity . . . 

Bl TCMHyH) HOHb OHM JCri^H KVAa-TO Ha CBOHX^ 
KO.!K)qHXl Kpb'ubflXl, 

In the dark of night they flew somewhere on 
their sharp-pointed wings, 

Bee 9T0 6buo npoaBjeflifi o^hoh saraAOHHoii 
cu^ibi, jKCJaiomeH norySuTb lejOB'BKa. 

All of these were aspects of some one 
mysterious power that wants to ruin man- 
kind. 

fl BH^iji ee cH4ameii Ha cTJ.ii, 
I saw her sitting in a chair. 

Oai, noxo4Hjx Ha neiOBtKa, lepaiomaro nocii/t- 
HiOH) saAeHt^y q ocTaBHSuiaro Bce bi npom- 

JOM'b. 

He resembled a man who was losing his last 
hope, and had left everything behind in the 
past. 

Kaat/ibiH ro4T. pj^ccKan iKejisoAijaTejbHaa 
npoMb'iinjeHHocTb yMeHboiaerb KOjHiecTBO 

BB0311Mb1Xl> VlSh FepMaBiQ TOBapOBl. 

Every year the Eussian iron industry 
diminishes the quantity of goods imported 
from Germany. 

It should also be observed that the present participle 
passive, especially when compounded with He, has a 
secondary meaning, corresponding to the Latin -hilis. 

K 



234 RUSSIAN GEAMMATi. 

e.g. BH^HMHH visible, ^bhikhmhh moveable 
, , crapaeMHU incendiable, HeiiooHMbiii unlovable 

Abstracts from these are formed in -ocib, etc. 

H eoTxeM JCMOCTb imprescriptibility 
HeoTMiHfleMOCib irrevocability 

The past participle passive may also bear this same 
secondary meaning, e.g. BecpaBBeHHbiii incomparable. 

As a general rule these gerundives and participles 
are used much like the English forms in " -ing." 



§ 90. SUBOKDINATE CLAUSES. 

I. Temporal. 

There being no moods in the Eussian verb, temporal 
conjunctions merely govern the same forms as are used 
in principal clauses. 

There are some few independent forms, such as 
KOFAa when, noKa until ; most of the conjunctions are 
compounds with hid ; cf. in French qudnd, but quoique, 
bienque, lorsque, etc., all formed with que. 

KOTna, means " when " generally ; noita is followed 
by " He," as in French. 

e.g. IIoKa H6BHI(0B^ hc yfejKaji. h3^ MocKBb'i. 

Until Novikov left. Moscow, "jusqu'a ce que 
Novikov ne quittat Moscou." 

But temporal conjunctions are mostly formed with 
the appropriate preposition governing a cage of TOn, to, 



SUBORDINATE CLAT-SIlS. 235 

followed by KaKi or ito ; e.g. Meat4y TiM^, KaKi while, 
Bi TOMX, 4T0 in the fact of, aoai Toro, Kaia after, 40 Toro, 
KaKT. until, OTT. Toro, ito from which fact . . . 

II. Causal conjunctions, etc. 

These are all fortaed prepositionally ; e.g. noTOM^ 
MTO because, ^la tofo itooh with the object of, KpoMi 
Toro HTO besides which, nocji tofo KaKi after (causal), 
npoTHBT. Toro, HTO against the fact that . . ., etc., 
very much like the German "wogegen," "indem," 
"nachdem," etc. 

III. Conditional clauses. 

The clause prefaced by " if " is called the protasis, 
the principal sentence is called the apodosis. 

The regular method is to prefix the protasis with 
ecJH, in common parlance kojii. 

When the past tense are used the particle obi* may 
be added to the protasis, and must be added to the 
apodosis. 6bi is enclitic and can be abbreviated to 6x, 
e.g. ecjH6i. 

The apodosis is also frequently prefaced by the 
particle to, which stands first in the sentence, like the 
German " wenn . . . " " so." This to, like so, is left un- 
translated in English. 



* Bbi in modern Russian is a particle creating the sense of a 
conditional tense (" I would have," " should be," etc.). It is 
originally the 2nd and 3rd person sing, preterite of (Shti (formerly 
H Ouxi, TBI, OHi fiu). In Old Russian the compound tense duxi 6bui 
was a regular conditional like j'aurais iti, j'eusse iU. 

k2 



236 RUSSIAN GRAMMAE. 

The tense sequence is as in English. 

e.g. Ecjn BacT> nocimy, to npHBe^y Moib cecipy. 
If I visit you, I will bring my sister. 

Ecih-6ti (or ecjH-6bi) cjyiHjacb laKaa Qina., to a 

yBt/lOMHJT>-5tI BaCB 05l 3T0MT.. 

If such a misfortune happened to me, I would 
acquaint you of it. 

When the events stated in protasis and apodosis are 
both unreal, 6m is repeated in both. 

e.g. EcjH-6^ a npocTy^Mca, a He Mori 6m OKOHSHTb 

CBOK) KHHry. 

If I had caught cold, I should not have been 
able to finish my book. 

The infinitive may be used in either clause as 
stated in § 88. 

e.g. EcjH 6bi Met seaTb. 
If I had known. 
Ecjh hath Banpaso. 
If we are to go to the right, .... 

The protasis may be irregularly introduced : — 

(1) By two disjointed verbs. 

e.g. Pa36oraTiio,3aMaq^; He pasooraTiio, He sanjaqy. 
If I grow rich, I will pay ; if I don't, I shan't. 

(2) By the imperative uninilected for any person 

[v. § 91]. 

e.g. SuaH a sto paabuie, a 6bi ue Hanncaji. 

Had I known this sooner, I would not have 
written. 



StJbOKtimATE CLAUSES. 237 

(3) By the infinitive [cf. § 88]. 
e.g. SDaxb obi jiai aio paHBiiie, a 6bi hb ocMijiucfl 

rOBOpfilE. 

Had I known this sooner, I would not have 
dared speak. 

In all these cases 6w marks unreality, an unfulfilled 
condition. Cf. § 93 on Cb'uo. 

IV. Final clauses. 

Final clauses relate either to purpose or effect. 

(1) Purpose. 

Where the subjects of the principal and the sub- 
ordinate clause are the same, HT66bi (sometimes flaSb'i) 
is used with the infinitive. 

e.g. fl nyTeuiecTBOBaJT) no Poccin htoSm y4HTbca 
pyccKOMv asbiKy. 

I travelled about in Eussia to learn Eussian. 
[v. § 69, v.] 

Where the subjects are different, MTOobi (or ^aGb'i) 
generally with the past tense. 

e.g. fl yBAy h3t> Mockbm iToSbi tbi ocTajacb o^ea. 
I will leave Moscow that you may be left alone. 

(2) Effect — " so that," lani hto, with the present, 

past or future, 
e.g. Opejcb jeiiji laKi. 6b'icTpo hto bbjess 5bijo 
DonaCTb Bi Hero. 
The eagle flew so fast that there was no 
chance of hitting him. 

Ona TaKi pasApaatHiejbHa, hto a ne CTepnjio. 
She is so irritable that I shall not stand it. 



238 RUSSIAN GEAMMAK. 

V. Reported Speech. 

In English reported speech goes into the tense of 
the principal verb, with the necessary change of person, 
e.g. " He said that he was going to visit his cousin 
if time permitted." The rem9,rk in direct narration 
would be "I am going to visit my cousin, if time 
permits." 

The same rule does not altogether apply to Eussian. 
Eussian has only one past tense, so that there is no 
difference corresponding to "I have seen," "I said I 
had seen." Further, there is no reported future tense, 
" was going to visit," "would visit." Consequently the 
above sentence in Eussian would run : " Ohi ci;a3a.T^, 
HTO onT) nociTBTT. CBoero ABOidpoARaro Gpaia, ecin y nero 
(fSffiiTi BpeMa " (future tense in reported speech). - ■; 
Or again, "He said he had seen the Tsar." His 
remark was "I have seen the Tsar"; however, in 
Eussian, " I saw," " have seen," and " had seen " are all 
alike, m^^XT,. Consequently the Eussian would be : 
" Oht. CKasajti hto Biutn. I^apu." 

Lastly, in reporting the present tense, Eussian, like 
English, sometimes may change to the past. 

e.f. He said he was writing a letter to his mother 
(I am writing ....). 
Out. cKaaajT., 4to nBuiexT. nnctMO Ki Maiepn, or 
MTO nncajx if he said " I ivas writing." 

Consequently, in reporting an action with a verb in the 
past, Eussian does not, because it cannot, change the tense. 

In reporting a speech with a future tense Eussian 
must use the future, as it has no indirect form of 
expressing the future. 



SUBORDINATE CLAUSES. 239 

In reporting a speech with a verb" in the present 
Eussian can retain the present, changing the person, or 
may use the past tense. 

In reporting an imperative, the imperative must be 
treated like a future. 

e.g. They said they would murder Caesar (i.e. Let 
us murder Caesar). 
Onii cKaaajH 'ito ySbiOTi I(e3apfl (cKa3aJB,y6ievn, 
or yStejiTe ^e3apa). 

In reporting a question, the same changes of person 
and tense must be used, but the particle jh is affixed to 
the first word of the subordinate clause, unless some 
other interrogative word be there instead, [v. § 84.] 

e.g. He asked Peter would his (Peter's) sister be 

going out as a nurse. 
He asked Peter when his sister had lost her 

money. 
He asked Peter whether his sister was ailing. 

In direct speech — 

Will your sister be going out as a nurse ? 
When did your sister lose her money ? 
Is your sister ailing ? 

In Eussian — 

Ohtj cnpocu.n. IleTpa, noH4eTi.-JH ero cecipa 

BX HiiuhKH. [v. § 69, III.] 
Oni. cnpocujt lleipa, itorAa ero cecrpa noiepiua 

CBOH 4eHbrH. 

Om> cnpocMx Heipa, ne 6o.iF.Ha-jH ero cecTpa. 

In all these cases the only change is in the person, 
none in the tens§, 



240 EUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

Similarly — 

He said " could one believe a German." 
Oht. CKasaJX, "pasBi mohiho B^piiTt Hiiauy." 

These are the usual methods of reporting speech in 
Eussian. A few idiomatic usages must still be discussed. 
Three particles, ^e, moji and ^ecKaii., and in vulgar 
Eussian, rpio, rpnmb, rpHTi, rpHJH (abbreviations of 
roBopib, etc.), are used like the vulgar English, " 'e sez," 
to indicate a reported speech ; ^e, moji, ^eciiaiB are all 
three abbreviations of words bearing the same meaning, 
" he said " ; * and are all popular in style. 

These particles are used in reporting messages 
(where in Latin and Greek the accusative and infinitive 
would be employed). 

e.g. Oht> roBopuTT. : a moji HCKa.ii, na. SHaxb moat> 

H'tTV. 

He says, " I looked, but could not find out." 

OoT> HTajbi'iHCKOii apjiia oTstiBajca ct> npespii- 
TejLHoii yjb'iSKOii, itaifB o BejHMBni 4a.Ke 
cepbesuaro BHHsiaHia ne 3ac.i;^)KBBaK)meu ; 
Mbi-Ae ee xopomo sHaeMi.. [v. § 4 (7).] 

He disparaged the Italian army with a con- 
temptuous smile, as though speaking of a 
power not deserving serious attention ; 
" we know all about it." 

Bbi AyMajH sanyraxb meHii, BacHjifi IlBaHOBUHi : 
BOT'b, ^ecKaib, a ero nyray. 

You thought you would frighten me, Vasili 
Ivanovic; you thought, "Iwill frighten him." 

* These examples ^re partly taken fronj Boyer's Manuel de la 
langiie rms?- 



tHE IMPERATIVE. 241 

In every case where these particles are used, the 
quotation or indirect narration is in the person and 
tense of the original; these words merely serve as 
spoken inverted commas. 

§ 91. The Imperative. 

The imperative conjugated in full comprises the 
following forms : — 

e.g. [4a Hrpaio] [nycib Hrpaio] let me play 

HrpaH play 

[4a Hrpaeixj nycib nrpaeii let him play 

[4a BrpaeMi] [nycib nrpaeMT>J wrpaeMie let us play 

HppduTe play 

[4a nrpaiOTi] nycib Hrpdroii let them play 

The forms with 4a express desire ; those with nyci!. 
permission. The forms in square brackets are infrequent. 

The original imperative has only two forms, nrpaii, 
HrpaHie, and in Old Eussian nrpau was the correct form 
of both the 2nd and the 3rd person singular. 

The form in h, h, ii, b (e.g. coxhh, 4ep)K]i, A^rdii, 
ca4b) is used for all numbers and persons in phrases 
which have no imperative meaning. 

(1) Adverbially. 

e.g. nojKajyiicia please (cia suffix) 
noJKajyn* I consent, so be it 
nan* (saaib expect) so be it 
nycib or nycKdii so be it 
KaatHCb apparently 
r.ia4H apparently 

neGocb (for neooHCb do not fear) apparently 
n04H (for noH4H from nofl4iH) apparently 
noHTH almost 

* Probably these are abbreviated forms of noaidjtyio, idio. 



242 MSStAI^ GRAMMAS. 

Aaii with the perfect future " if I only could." 

e.g. BoTL 4afl Y^ecj MimoKi orypuoBt, ^poAaM^. 

If I can manage a sack of cucumbers, I 
will sell it. 

^aBaii with the infinitive. 

e.g. /JasaH Hrpaii.. Let us play. 

The answer may be ^aBaii ! Let us ! = Yes, please ; 
willingly. 

(2) As a preterite.* The form is invariable, and 
expresses a sudden action. 

e.g. OiKyAa hh bosbmbcb from out of the clouds. 
(Literally, from wherever it came.) 

Ct. ropa Aa ct tockk ... a bosbmh 4a Bce ch 
paacKaiKH. 

What with pity and grief I told her every- 
thing. 

^er6-Hn> 6bi a b^ ^oMi He aaajx ? KaiKHCb, Bce 

3BaiO. 

What is there at home T do not know of ? I 
think I know everything. 

IIocTaBHja Ha ctojx HaniiTKH h 3ai;^cKH pasHtie, 
a Ho^Tpy panexoHtKo Oj^ahtti n AaBaii pac- 
npamHBaib. 

She set various foods and drinks on the 
table ; wakes up in the morning, and began 
asking [literally " and let me ask ! "]. 

So, too, TAB Ah he looked up, — lo ! XBaib he seized ; 
AepuH, e.g. AepBH Meiia the idea occurred to me; 
yropasAH, e.g. yropasAH MeHii the idea occurred to me. 

* This usage is in accord with the older grammar, which had 
a 3rd person singular preterite in this form. 



FURTHER ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE ASPECTS. 243 

(3) As a conditional, v. § 90, III. (2). 

(4) One past tense, nome.ii, is used as an imperative, 
equivalent to " get out." The explanation is that the 
older language had the full form 6\J^h nomaix (oyAB 
imperative of 6biTi>). 

e.g. IIoiiiJH BOHi, 4ypaHKH ! 
Out you go, you fools ! 

§ 92. Further Illustrations of the Aspects. 

Eussian has two future forms, perfective and 
imperfective. 

e.g. Bt. CyAymcMx roAy 6yAy 3annMaTbca XHMieii. 
Next year I shall study chemistry. 
3aBTpa saiiMycb Myabiitou. 
To-morrow I shall be busy with my music. 

Bememher Q'Jay and CTaay can never he used with a 
fcrfective infinitive. 

The perfective implies definition of object, and 
completion of purpose; the imperfective the duration 
or method of the process. 

Instances : — 

A^mwh GUI xo^HJi Bi na-ibTo (imperfective). 
In the summer he walked about in an overcoat. 
(French "paletot"; indeclinable in Eussian.) 

Oht. Hepi/tKO xaatHBajT. bi omoBCKiH 4omt>. 
He often went to his father's house. 

(The iterative, expressing discontinuous 
frequent action,) 



244 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Bpo^ary, KOTopwH upoxafflUBaeTca okojo iioro 
AOMa OTT> AecaiH lacoBi. no nojy^ua soBvn. 

HflKllTQHIlMX. 

The vagabond who saunters round this house 
from 10 to 12 a.m. is called Nikitin. 

Ohti mejT. BT. MociiBy he was going to Moscow. 
Oa-b nomeji Ha bokswx. 

He went to the railway station (perfective 
and definitive). 

fl BHAa.ll BH4LI Ea CBOeMl B^Ky ! 

I have seen wonderful things in my life! 
(imperfective ; general). 

H yBHAaji AHHy Ha Qarani. 
I caught a sight of Anne on the tower (per- 
fective). 

R yBH^iji Bi rocTHHHHHi o^Horo SHaKoiaaro. 

I saw an acquaintance in the hotel. 

(I.e. I just saw him for an instant; perfective.) 

TaMX-jKe BHAi&ji mhofo HHOCTpaHneBij. 
I also saw many foreigners there. 
(There is no definiteness in the action.) 

It has repeatedly been stated that the "aspects" 
are best understood as devices for supplementing the 
defective tense-system, there being in modern Eussian 
no inflections save for the present tense. The following 
table illustrates this adaptation of the " aspects." 

Very few verbs, if any, possess all the aspects ; few 
possess as many as meniaTb or BW^BpaiB. The iterative 
is in such cases expressed by the present form, and the 
perfective signifies both the aoristic and a completed 
action in the past. 

A few verbs have an "abstract" and "concrete" 
aspect ; for these, v. §§ 59, I. (4) and 59, II. and III, 



KUSSIAN VERB WITH FULL ASPECTS. 



245 



Scheme of a Russian Verb with Full Aspects 

ARRANGED AS TeNSES AND MoODS. 



Infinitive : 
Verbal noun : 
Part, indecl. act. : 
Part. decl. active : 
Part, passive : 
Indicative : 
Imperative : 



Present. 

To tear out. 
BH^Bpaib 

fibiAQpaaie 
BM^Rpaii 
BMABpaioutiii 
BbiAiipaeMbiii 



To whisper. 

ineniaTb 

ineniaaie 

inema 

uieniymifl 

inemeMbiH 



Bbi4HpaBO,-emb,-ion> nieniy, nienHVTT. 
Bbi4npau nieaiH 



Imperfect. 

Indicative : Bbunpaji 

Part, indecl. act. : BbMnpaBi, -aBOiH 
Part. decl. active : BbMHpaBiuiii 



ineniajT. 
menTaBi, -aeuiu 
menraBmiii 



Imperfect iterative. 

Indicative : Same as menTbiBaji 

Part, indecl. act. : Imperfect inenTbiBaBx.-aBniH 

Part. decl. active ; throughout. uieiiTHBaBiuin 



246 



RUSSIAN GKAMMAE. 



Infinitive : 
Verbal noun : 
Part, indeclin. : 
Part, declinable: 
Indicative : 
Imperative : 



Part, passive : \ 



Perfect active. 
To tear out. 

Bbi^paib 

Bb'iApaaie* 

Bb'iApaBT., -asmH 

Bb'iApaBmiu 

Bb'upaj'L 

Bb'wpH 

Perfect. 
yBbi^paHHbia ) 

BblAQpaUHblU 5 



To whisper. 

Same as 

Aorist 

throughout. 



meQiaHHuu 



Infinitive : 
Verbal noun : 
Part, indeol. : 
Part, declinable: 
Part, passive: 
Imperative : 



Aorist. 

Bbi^epHyTb 
BbiAepHyiie* 
Bbi^epnyBi, -yBniH 
Bb'i4epHyBmiH 
BbMepHyibiH 

BblACpHH 



menHyib 

nieuHAf^Tie* 

meuHyBT), -pmH 

menHyBmiH 

menHyTMH 

meneu 



Future. 

Continuous : 6yAy Bb^i^npaib 6y4y meniaTb 

Iterative : „ „ Cy^y utenTbiBaTb* 

Perfective : Bb'i^py, -emb, -vtx Same as Aoristic. 

Aoristic : Bb'i^epHy, -erab, -yix meany, -enib, -yii 

Conditionals can be formed from any past tense 
:by adding the particle 6 bi. 



■ geldom used. 



AUXlLlAEt PARTICLES. 247 

§ 93. AuxiLiAEY Particles. 

The Euesian verb has only one past tense, and one 
present. It has been explained how the aspects 
supplement the tense system, the imperfective supply- 
ing an imperfect tense [v. § 42 (2) (i) and (ii), § 59, 
§ 90, III., and § 92] ; the perfective a past tense of 
completion, whether preterite perfect or pluperfect, and 
a determinate future ; the iterative a tense to express 
frequency of action ; and the abstract aspect the power 
as contrasted with the act. Further, the particle 6u 
partially replaces the subjunctive mood. 

There are other particles and auxiliaries used, 
e.g. nycTi., 4a, naa, n&hia [v. § 91], principally with the 
imperative ; and the use of some others, e.g. ^bbho, Shjo, 
StiBajo, ciauy, 5y4y, Qjnto, TOJbKO, hto, is important. 

(1) AaBHO (flaBHbiH in the past) or y>Ke (already) is 
used to express the pluperfect. 

e.g. Ohi ^bbho HCKaji floiKy. 

He had long been searching for his daughter 
(imperfective). [II cherchait deja long- 
temps.] 

Tbi yjKe npHroTOBHJi o5bat>. 

You had prepared dinner (perfective), 

(2) S^fly, as has been seen [§ 92], expresses the 
imperfective future [also v. § 58]. 

(3) ciaay also expresses the imperfective future, but 
has a remoter meaning, like the English " I am going 
to ..." or the French " je vais ..." 

e.g. CiaHy cKjaAMBaTb cboh BemH bi qeMo^afli. 

I am going to pack my things in the 
portmanteau. 



248 IIUSSIAN GRAMMAS. 

(4) 6yAT0 or Kaia SyAio means " as though." 

e.g. Ohi Bciaj^ KaKi 6y4TO itoOh yxo^Hib. 
He got up as though he were goiug out. 

Oei yjBi6Hy.icfi, KaKi. 6y4TO ero 6paTT> norayTHJii, 
He smiled as though his brother had made a 
joke 

(5) ToJbKO HTO means "just." 

e.g. Ohx tojbko 'ito noxopoBii.n> cBoero oma. 
He had just buried his father. 

(6) 6biBa.io with the past tense adds a meaning of 
" he used to do," of a continuous practice. 

e.g. R, CbiBajo, nociojaji aiy ceMbib. 
I used to visit this family. 

(7) xoTii (or xoTb) is used for "though"; in com- 
bination with 6bi and a past tense, 6-h when the sense 
imports unreality. 

e.g. Xoia Tbi CbijT) cjaSb, ho hmo 6buo nociapaTBca. 
Though you were ill, you should have tried. 

XotA fl 6y4y bt. MocKBi, ho laai nejibsft GyAcn. 
noBH4aTb Baranxx po^HiejeH. 

Though I shall be at Moscow, I shall not be 
able to see your parents. 

X0Ta-6l fl 6hUT, CaMblMTi CHJbHblMX BO BcSin. 

f I 

cBirt, Gi^Hbixx a-6i ne yrneiajx. 

Even if I were the most powerful man on 
earth, I would not oppress the poor. 



The impersonal construction. 249 

(8) 6b'uo with the imperfective or perfective past 
signifies that the action contemplated, in the clause into 
which Sb'iJO is inserted, was never completed : as some- 
thing — in the following sentence — intervened. 

e.g. fl niABuii 6buo npHroTOB.ieaia, it66h npHrjacuTb 
BacT. KT> ceot Bi rocTH, Kor^a mchh Bb'isBa.in 
nsT. J6H40Ha. 
I was getting ready to ask you as my guest, 
but was summoned away from London. 

fl /lOHniaj-b Bame coqHHeuie h 6b'uo coSBpajca 
nOBiii na no^iy, Kor^a Henpiaiam coatrjii 

MOB flOMb. 

I had finished reading your composition, and 
had packed it up to post, but the enemy 
burned my house. 

(9) The future perfect (I shall have . . .) cannot be 
expressed in Eussian by any one corresponding tense. 

e.g. KoF/ia a 5y4y BDO-iHi y40B.ieTBopeHi, MCHa yate 
He 6y4eTi. bt. jiibbbixi. 

When I shall have been satisfied completely, 
I shall no longer be alive. 

fl no5irj^ 40m6u b 6;^4y oSpaTHo, npen^e niu-h 

Tbi BCiaHenib. 
I shall have run home and back, before you 

even get up. 

§ 94. The Impersonal Construction. 

I. Many verbs are in themselves impersonal ; e.g. 
Kaateica it seems, OKasbiBaeica it transpires.* 

* KaaiTMH to seem, OKasiiL to render, ciiaaATi. teU, npHKaadib order, 
jiaacKas^Tb narrate, yKas^Tb indicate, nOKasiib show, oiKaa^ib dismiss, 
refuse ; all ot them perfective, the imperfectives being OKisbiBaib, etc. 



250 feUSSlAN GfeAMMAR. 

Such verbs are used only in the 3rd person singular, 
as in Latin or Greek without any pronoun. 

II. There is no one word for generality like " one," 
" man," " on "; either the 2nd person singular, or the 
3rd person plural is used, without a pronoun. 

e.g. roBopaTi one says. 

^iMi 06jtecTapaeaii.c8,TiMx56ji;e oniHSaenibCfl. 
The more one tries, the more mistakes one 
makes. 

III. Eussian has a predilection for impersonal con- 
struction in the passive with ca [v. § 60], the agent or 
subject being put into the dative. 

e.g. xciy I wish, or mh^ xoieica ; B^AiTt, iiHi 
BHAi.ioch, I saw; cnaib to sleep, sin't cnajocb 
xopomo I slept soundly ; Ayiaaio I think, MHt 
AyMaeica I think; jkbtb to live, bt. kmiim 
CBo66/^HO iKDBeica life is free in England. 

As a rule the reflexive passive construction imports 
a remoteness or generality to the sentence, whereas the 
active records a precise and determinate fact. 

§ 95. Apocopated Fokms of some Verbs. 

A few verbs signifying a brusque action or noise 
have an invariable form for the past tense.* 

E.g. the interjections axx ! ox^ ! yxi ! axi ! are 
sometimes used like parts of a verb, meaning " to cry 
out " axT>, 3X1, etc. 

* In many oases very similar to the apocopated past of imper- 
fectives in -uyit [v. § 50, II.J, and the imperative preterites [v. § 91]. 



THE REFLEXIVE VERBS. 251 

So, too, the past of inchoatives in -Hyib; e.g. npbiri 
jumped, cryKi knocked, and similarly oyxi bump. 

e.g. ByxT. — nonjbUH bt> BOAaxi. rjyGoKnxi. 
Plump — they swam in the deep waters. 

Ohh noAomJH kt> AOMy h cryKt b^ okho. 

They approached the house and rat-ta-tap-tap 

on the window. 
•Iflca nycTMacB Kb jicy n lopKx bi Hopy. 
The fox started for the wood, and dashed into 

a hole. 

§ 96. The Eeflexive Verbs. 

Under this head a few special phrases may be 
discussed. It has already been stated [§ 60] what the 
distinction is between passives and reflexives. 

e.g. Bioii BOiiHOH pasp^mn-iHct Bci xoAiiiia JHiepa- 
Tvpabia npe^cTaBJeHia. 
In this war all the current literary notions 
were destroyed. 

06a npoTiBHHKa yHn^iTrnKMH caMHXi> ceSa (or 

yHHSTontHJH, perfective). 
Both combatants annihilated themselves. 

Where an action is done for someone at his orders 
French uses the exact phrase " faire . . . " ; English 
leaves it to be understood ; the Eussian usage will be 
illustrated by the example. 

e.g. The workmen built a house. 

L'ouvrier batit une maison. 

Pa66qiH nocTpoHJ'L ^omi. 
But I have built a country-house. 

Je me suis fait batir une maison de campagne. 

a nocTpoHJ'b ce6-h yca^bSy. 



252 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

5Keea oo^jiact. 

My wife has put her shoes on. 

EUe s'est chaussee, or elle s'est fait chausser. 

H noSpeiocB. 

I will shave [mj^self] or be shaved. 

fl 6peH)cb caiM^. 

I shave myself. 

Many verbs are reflexive in Eussian, where they 
would not be so in English. 

In the first place the reflexive indicates that the 
object is identical with the subject. 

e.g. MHTLca to wash (oneself), ofiyBaTBca to put on 
shoes, etc., O/iiBaThca to dress (oneself), etc. 

In the second place [v. § 60] it indicates the passive 
(as in French). 

e.g. CBHp'BnocTH npo^oiHtaiOTCH. 

Les barbaries se continuent (are being 

continued). 
fl JuiuHJCff MaiepH. 
I have lost my father. 

Obi .iHiniucH 3KU3hii. 
He has died. 

Oei .\\\mi\xh ceGA himsuh. 
He has committed suicide. 

In the third place many verbs are naturally 
reflexive or deponent. 

e.g. rop/(HTbC(i HiMT> to boast 
dofiTbca Her6 to fear 



RUSSIAN RELATIONSHIPS. 253 

Fourthly, many verbs with the reflexive import 
M'hat was in Greek the middle voice, i.e. an action 
directed to the purpose of or afiecting the subject of the 
verb, though the object governed be not the subject of 
the sentence. 

e.g. Ohi CTyqwrB bi 4Bep5. 

He is knocking at the door. 
Ohi ciyHHTca bi 4BepB. 

He is knocking at the door (with some 
expectation concerning himself). 

BojocH CTapqa (or y ciapua) SijiiorL. 
An old man's hair goes white. 

CaijKBbia BepniuHbi ropi. Sij^iOTCH bi oi/iajeHia. 

The snow-peaks of the mountain are whitening 
in the distance. 

CjyniaTB to hear. 

CiymaTbca obey. 

M^XH KycaiOTi.. 
Flies sting [bite]. 

Moa KomKa KycaeTca. 

My cat bites (as her habit). 

IIpH3HaBaTB to acknowledge. 

HpHSHaBaiBca to admit, confess. 

fl npnsHajT. ero npasBiMi. 

I acknowledged him to be right. 

H i]pH3Ha.ica, H10 a He Qhwb cobcbmt. 6e3BHHHbiMX. 
I confessed I was not altogether guiltless. 

§ 97. EussiAN Eelationships. 

In the matter of words descriptive of relationships, 
Eussian has an extraordinary abundance of special 
words. 



254 RUSSIAN GRAMMAE. 

Kinship is po^cTBO. 

Degrees of relationship cieneHH po^ciBii : — 

General terms oSmia nasBania. 

npe/ioKi, npe/(KH ancestors 

noTOMKH descendants 

p6/icTBeHHHKi kinsman 

p6/(CTBeHBHua kinswoman 

poAT. (po/ia) family (genealogically) 

ceMBti (i'&muia) a family 

Special designations ocoosia nasBania : — 
Lineal descent noKOjinie nHcxo/[i'imee. 
cbiHT. son 1 noKOjiaia no npaMoii 

4041. daughter i jhbIh generations in 

^■BTH children ) the direct line 

Buyia grandson 

Boy^Ka granddaughter 

BHynaia grandchildren [v. § 26 (5)] 

npaBuyia, etc. great grandson 

Lineal ascent noKOJiHie Bocxo^iimee. 
OTeui* father 

Mart mother 

po4HTeJH parents 

AinTi grandfather 

CaoyniKa (oaoKa) grandmother 

npa^i^i great grandfather 

npaSaSyuiita great grandmother 

npanpa/ii)4i, etc. great great grandfather 

n pa my pt great great great grandfather 

* BiiTBuiKft in familiar speech. 



KttSStAl^ fiEtA'TlONSHli'S. 



255 



Collateral relations noSosaoe po^ciBO. 

Span,* brother 

cecipa sister 

aIiAH uncle 

leia, Tenia aunt 



tcTpb'm 
tcTpb'iii 

tyii 
tyuKa 

tyeut, yu'^H'^^, -e4Ka 

tCTpblilHHHX, -CMKa 

njeMiiHHHKx, -Hua 
6paTaEH4T),J -Hua 
cecTpii4i,| -Hua 
4BOK)pOAHbiH 5paT^ 
(cecTpa) 
ipoibpoAHbiii 6paTX 
ABOlbpO^HblH n.ieMiiH- 

Similarly — 
Tpoibpo^Baa 6a6yiUKa 

TpOK)p04HbIH A^At 



^mcle, paternal 

aunt, paternal 

uncle, maternal 

aunt, maternal 

first cousin on father's side 

first cousin, maternal side 

nephew, niece 

nephew, niece, by brother' 

nephew, niece, by sister 

first cousin § 

second cousin, and so on 
first cousin once removed 

in second generation 

downwards 

great aunt 
great uncle 



These words for relationship are, however; seldom 
used beyond the third generation ; in ordinary language 
a third cousin would be poACTseHHHK'b bt. HCTBepTOMi 
noKOJiiHiH, a kinsman in the fourth generation. 

* Used colloquially to express friendly oonneotion. 

t All of these are obsolete or nearly so. 

J Disused now. 

§ I.e. a brother in the second generation. 



256 RUSSIAN GfeAMMAK. 

Eelations by marriage po^iCTBO no 6paKy (cbouctbo*). 



From the husband's side. 


From the wife's side. 


Pather-in-law 




TeCTb 




CBeKopi. 


Mother-in-law 




T^ma 




CBeKpOBb 


Brother-in-law- 




mypHHi or saTb Aeeepb 
[v. § 24 (2)] 


Sister-in-law 




CBOHHCHima, or 


30^6 BKa 






cBecTB, or 


HCBicTKa 




Son-in-law 




3aTb 




sarb 


Daughter-in-law 




CHOxa or 


f 
HCBtcTKa 


CHOxa or 
HeeicTKa 


Sister-in-law's husband 


CBOHKl 




30j6bkhht> 










Jiyati 


Wife of brother-in 


-law 


HTpOBbf 




aipoBbf 



I.e. my sister's husband is saib ; my brother's wife 
HCB'tcTKa; but my wife's sister is ceecTb or CBoaiCHBua, 
and her husband cbo/iki; my husband's sister soJOBKa. 
In English " brother-in-law," " sister-in-law," leave all 
those relationships indeterminable. 

Other terms to be noted are : — 

6th BMT. step-father 

Manexa step-mother 

nacbiHOKTi step-son 

na/(HepHHa step-daughter 

CBO^awu OpaTi step-brother 

CBO^Haa cecipa step-sister 



* But i'B6acTB0 property. 



t Obsolete. 



RUSSIAN EELATIONSIIIPS. 



257 



KpecTHMH OTem. godfather 

KpecTBaa Mait godmother 

KpecTHHKi (upecTHbiH cwHi) godson 

itpecTHHua (itpecTHaa 404b) goddaughter 
Heeicia bride 
JKBEHXI bridegroom 

jKeeaTbiii married (of a man) 
sasiyjitHaa married (of a woman) 



opaKT. 
CBaAb6a 



marriage 
wedding 



Note.- — MVJKi HteHHTca Ha jKenij but Hieaa bhxoahti 
3a>iy!Ki 3a kofo. 

Oht. Bb'uaji AHBy saMVJKi 3a Il.ibib. 

He gave Anne in marriage to Ilya. 

Mott cecrpa saMyjKeMi. 
My sister is married. 

3aMy)KCTB0, 3aMyH!ecTB0 marriage (of a woman). 
HJeHHTbSa marriage (of a man). 

Eelations of the half-blood are said to be eAHHOEpoB- 
Hbiii ; e.g. moh Spaii. e^HHOKpoBBbiii my half-brother, and 
are further distinguished as SpaiTi no MaiepH, cecipa no 
OTuy, etc. 



258 



RUSSIAN GKAMMAE. 



npe^KH- 







1 




c3 lO 














Efi 


a 











I 



-Ancestors. 



noTOMKH— Descendants. 



I 



I 



I 



a 

n 
w 









02 

Sz; 

o 
w 

H 



R/ ^ OH Og og_ 02 go. 

wO (MO (Ma iMg, 






S *Q 



CO « 









^5 tj =3 

CO B CO g_ 



-ai- 









IS gf_ 


o -t o -^ 



5 S S S 

. o so « ^ 

art a a 



»(? IS X? a 



B S 



«5« 



TABLE OF AI'I'INITIES. 



259 




B Q PS 
.^ ^ a> 

S a »■ 



3 


sg 




o 


;^N:a 


B 


\\$ 






d o 


-| 


M-tQ 


^ 




O ffl 


g B 


B 


M <D 


H S 




O K 


s-S 


d 


Ni-s^-/ 


■gp. 


O 




la 




B 


O 




si 






e- " 


tS 



ca B ^ B3 

» O H H 

(11 H oj ta 

m CO 



H 



260 ttUSSlAN GfeAMMAM. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



Under this head a list of formatives of nouns, 
verbs, and adjectives is inserted in alphabetical order. 
Except for those few whose accentuation is fixed, i.e. 
either absolutely atonic, or else always stressed, and 
subject to special rules stated in the body of the 
grammar, the rule is that these terminations are 
accented, whenever the primary form is capable of 
throwing its accent forward in any inflection (e.g. CToai, 
CTOJia and cTOJiipx ; but oSmiii, oome, oomecTBO ; 
TOBaprnm., TOBapHmecTBo) ; they are unaccented, if the 
primary form has a fixed accent on its stem. Thus, 
too, uapt, uapa, uapHua ; but HaqwbHHia, Ha4a.ii.HHKaj 
BaMajhHHiia; paSoia, paSoTHHiti., paSoiait, etc. 

Some of the terminations are now " dead," i.e. 
disused, except in survivals. When this is so, a 
special remark is made to this effect. 

To many the letter b will be found prefixed. This 
indicates that in composition the previous sounds, 
vowels or consonants, must be modified, [v. § 5.] 

§ 98. The Nouns. 

I. Foreign terminations in common use. These are 
ew in number and easily learnt. 

-'m, in foreign words, = "-tion"; e.g. anuia share, 
Haiiia nation, nosHuia position. Always 
accented as shown. 

-epT>, i.e. the French " -aire " in foreign words ; 
e.g. aKuioHepx. The plural is in -bi. 



Etymology. 261 

-epi, i.e. the French " -eur " in foreign words ; 
e.g. aKTcpi. The plural is in -h. 

-H3MT. = English " -ism." This suffix is mostly 

accented. 
-HCTT. = English " -ist/' used in foreign words ; 

e.g. apTHCTX artist, 
-joria = English "-logy" in foreign words; e.g. 

*n3ioj6rifl physiology. Accented as shown. 

-Topx, -copi, in foreign words ; the I-atin " tor " ; 
e.g. aBTopi author, npo*eccopT> professor. The 
termination is unaccented ; the plural in a 
or M. 

II. Disused or dead suffixes. 

-1.6a (dead). Nouns denoting action, mostly 
derived from nouns ; e.g. CBaAiSa wedding 
(cBart), ApyatSa friendship (^pyrx), cy4b6a 
judgment (cy4T>). These words are mostly 
paroxytone. 

-Ba unaccented (dead). Nouns denoting action of 
verbs ; e.g. SpniBa razor, KjaiBa oath. These 
words are generally paroxytone, unless derived 
from verbs. 

-Mfl (mbbh) neuter (dead). Suffix of a number of 
nouns such as iiiua name, UAina flame. Corre- 
sponds to Latin "-men," always dissyllabic 
and paroxytone. [v. § 21.] 

-yji (dead). A termination found in a few Tatar 
words ; e.g. eca;f jt> captain, Kapayji sentry. 

-ba accented, masc. second declension (dead). 
Names of agents ; e.g. cy^ba judge. 



262 ItOSSlAN GEAMMAR. 

III. Patronymics. 

-ai-h, in patronymics; feminine -HHHa. [v. § 83, I.] 
-OBii'iT), -eBBSi., in patronymics ; feminine -OBHa, 

-eBHa. [v. § 83, I.] 
-OBTi, -eB^, in patronymics; feminine -OBa, -CBa. 

[v. § 83, 1.] 

IV. Termination to denote the female. 
-a; e.g. pa6a (paoi) slave. 

-CBa; e.g. Kop6.ib king, KopojeBa. 
-HKa, forming feminines ; and nouns from verbs ; 
e.g. BHcijuua gallows, njeMsiBHniia niece. 

-uia (never accented), denotes the wife of an official; 
e.g. cDeJBAxerepuia the wife of a state messenger, 
flOKTopma the doctor's wife. 

-una, -HHa, feminine formation; e.g. repoiiQa 
heroine, KnaruHa countess, 6orHUfl goddess, 
CYAapbiflH, Gapbina mistress. 

V. Abstract nouns. 

-3ni> fem. (dead), forms abstracts ; e.g. oojisHb 
illness. 

-HSiia (dead), forms abstracts; e.g. OT^iiSHa father- 
land, H0BH3Ba novelty. 

-una, abstracts from adjectives ; e.g. rjySHna depth, 
ro^uua time. 

-b'lHa^ -Bua, forms abstracts from adjectives; e.g. 
ropflb'iHfl pride. 

-ie (unaccented), forms abstracts from adjectives ; 
e.g. BecejbC mirth. 



ETYMOLOGY, 263 

-BH denotes actLon; e.g. pfeoA massacre, Soiinn 
shambles. 

-ocTi. (ecTB only after i, ra, lit, m) (unaccented), 
forms abstract nouns of the third declension 
from adjectives, and retains accent of the 
adjective, unless it is oxytone ; e.g. CKopocTb, 
CKopbiii quick ; 4bh)kiimocti>, /(bhikhmbih move- 
able ; DarocTh, HaroH naked; CBfoKecTt, cBiiKifi 
freshness. 

-Ta forms abstract nouns from adjectives ; e.g. 
CbiCTpoTa speed, KpacoTa beauty. Almost 
always accented as shown. 

-uiHoa (never accented), forms abstract nouns from 
nouns, descriptive of a state of affairs ; 
e.g. OoJOMOBmnHa Oblomovism (Oblomov, the 
hero of a novel by Goncarov) ; nyraHeBmiina, 
the state of rebellion induced by the rebel 
Pugacov; ToiciOBmHHa, Tolstoyan teaching. 

-LCTBO forms abstracts from adjectives and nouns. 
One of the commonest terminations; e.g. 
jiKapcTBO medicine, TOBapHmecTBO society, 
BopoBCTBO thieving ; 'je-iOB'tqecTBO humanity. 

VI. Verbal nouns. 
-npoBKa forms nouns of action from verbs in 

-HpoBaTb ; e.g. rpynnnpoBKa the grouping, 

MapniHpoBKa the marching. Always thus 

accented, 
-iiie (seldom accented), forming verbal nouns. 

[v. § 42 (2) (i).J Note, however, -nhe (epaHBe, 

4paHBe). 
-Tie (very seldom accented), verbal noun. [v. ^49, XL] 



264 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

VII. The agent or implement, 

-a.Ki, -HKT., an agent ; e.g. SaipaKi workman, bokeikx 
a leader. The accent is thrown forward in 
all the terminations. Always oxvtone. 
[of. § 25, L] 

-apT., -api, an agent, derives nouns from nouns ; 
e.g. CTOjtipt joiner, SoHapi cooper. 

-apL, an agent; e.g. anaxapt magician, aoHaMapt 
sexton. 

-euT., agent or implement; e.g. npiiiMem. a receiver, 
Bajcm. a roller, Sopeiii a wrestler. 

-HKTi, an agent. The nominative is accented 
according to the noun from which the word is 
derived, when the word is oxytone the accent 
is thrown forward in the oblique cases; e.g. 
aJXHMHia alchemist, pa3CKa34Hia narrator 
fiiimuKX coachman. 

-Ka (unaccented), an implement; e.g. BHHioBiia a 
rifle, BosKa carrying. 

-HiiKt, an agent, derived from adjectives and nouns, 
V. -HKi; e.g. a.iTMHUHK^ a miser, 6apb'iinHuin> a 
jobber, bo3hhkx a draught horse. Feminine 
-inma. When -iiKt is accented it throws the 
accent forward on to all the terminations. 

-le.ib, an agent, forms nouns from verbs ; e.g. yiHiftib 
teacher, nHcaTe.iB writer. The termination is 
never accented, the accentuation follows the 
infinitive. Sometimes the words have a 
secondary meaning, e,g. yKasftie^b index, 



fiTYMOLOGY. 265 

-yux fern., -VHta (accented), depfeciatory, agent 
from a verb; e.g. Oojt^ht., -yHLn chatterbox, 
QirfuT, runaway. 

-SHKx, -mHKx, an agent; e.g. 6y*ei'iiiKi a butler, 
flMmuK'b a coachman, uajLimira a paper-layer. 

VIII. Diminutives.* 

(1) Masculine nouns of first declension. 

-eKX, -BKi, diminutive suffix for masculines ; e.g. 
KpyjKoiiT. circle, upyr-L. 

-fl (never accented), forms diminutives of proper 
names; e.g. IleTn (rieip^), Koja (Huitciaii), 
CepejKa (Ceprifl). 

-o'lCKTi, -I'neKx, diminutive denoting affection for 
masculine nouns ; e.g. ^pyiKO'ieia (4pyri), 
Kpyato'icEiT. (Kpyr^). 

-I'luiKO (masc. gen. -iiuiKa, etc.), and -nuiKa, feminine 
(always thus accented), forms depreciatory 
diminutives from masculine nouns; e.g. 
cejuiniio (ccAo), Bopiimita (Bopi thief, pick- 
pocket). 

(2) Neuter nouns of first declension. 

-BKO (seldom accented), forms diminutive of neuter 
nouns ; e.g. KptuLuo, lipbueHKO ; lut o'ii;6. 

-me, diminutive ; e.g. 3epKa.ime mirror. 

* In Eussian the use of diminutives and augmentatives is very 
common, tlie subtleties of meaning are difficult of translation into 
English, and can only be gathered by practice. It is important for 
the student to recognise the forms. 



266 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

-e'lKo, -MiiiKo, -yniKO, forms diminutives of afiection 
from neuter nouns ; e.g. cojHbiuiKO (coJHiie), 

rHfeflblUlKO, ItpbUeHKO. 

-b'lmKO, -HiiiKO, neut., and -b'liuKa, -HinKa, feminine, 
(always accented), forms depreciatory diminu- 
tives from nouns ; e.g. ceJuniKO nasty little 
village, KopoTb'iniKa pigmy, seMjumita barren 
piece of ground, ropo^umKO ugly little town. 

(3) Feminines (and masculines) of the second 
declension. 

-bita (unaccented), diminutive of feminines ; e.g. 
jKOHKa little woman; KUMKa little book. This 
same termination forms diminutives of proper 
names ; e.g. CaiiiKa (AjeKcaH^pi), CepeHKa 
(Ceprifl). 

-enbita (never accented), forms diminutives of 
affection from the second declension ; e.g. 
A^meebKa (Ayma) little soul, darling. 

-ima, -HHKa, forms diminutives of affection from 
feminine nouns ; e.g. cecTpHua. 

-OMKa, -eiKa (never accented), forms diminutives 
of affection from second declension ; e.g. 
cKaMeeiita little stool, HapTO'iita visiting card. 

-ymita, -loniKa (never accented), forms diminutives 
of affection from nouns of second declension ; 
e.g. jiaTymua (jiaib) mother, fiaiioiiiKa (para) 
father. 



ETYMOLOGY. 267 

-eHKa (always accented), forms depreciatory dimi- 
nutives; e.g. jioma/ieuKa nasty little horse, 
KopoBeHita nasty little cow. 

-yoia, -loraa, -yuiKa, -ibmKa (always accented), forms 
diminutives of depreciation from nouns of the 
second declension ; e.g. Kaxioma from Kaia 
Katy, Aiicibma (from AKcneia). 

IX. Augmentatives. 

-Hiue (masc. and neuter), -nma (feminine), forms 
augmentatives from nouns ; e.g. ^OMume a big 
house (masc.) ; /lypiima a great fool (femi- 
nine) ; nojoTHHme a big piece of cloth. 

In some nouns there is no augmentative 
sense; e.g. JKHJHUie abode, iuaA6iiine cemetery 
(generally accented on the first syllable), 
yjHjnme a school. When -nme is not an 
augmentative it is, as a rule, unaccented. 

-HHO, -HHa, forms augmentatives from nouns, gene- 
rally depreciatory; e.g. /(OMHBa a very big 
house. 

X. Miscellaneous. 

-aeanx, -hhhhT), mostly used to denote members of 
nations, religions, etc. [v. § 24 (5).] Accented 
either oxytone or paroxytone. 

-d'li, forms descriptive nouns ; e.g. 6opofla<ii a long 
beard, Scram, a rich man. 

-eiKi (accented, disused), forms nouns from verbs; 
e.g. na^eiKi case (na/(aTb), rpa6e)KT> plunder 
(rpaSflTb) ; in the oblicj^ue cases na^eHta, etc. 

L 2 



-68 RUSSIAN GRAMMAE. 

-enoKi, plural -Hia, the young of animals ; 
e.g. BOJ["jeHOKT., Bo^jiaia wolf; raj'ienoKi. jack- 
daw ; but meEOKT., mennTa puppy ; voahokt, 
wolfs cub. [v. § 26 (5).] 

-JO, from verbs ; noun describes action of verb 
and follows accent of the past tense in Jt ; 
e.g. Haiajo beginning, oniaM blanket, Biajo 
winnowing-fan, BaaJO chisel. 

§ 99. Adjectival Suffixes. 

-aBbiH (dead); e.g. jyHaafcivi sly, BejmaBbiu stately. 
Accented on termination -as. 

-BaTbiii, a termination mainly used with adjectives 
denoting substance, generally accented -BaiHii ; 
e.g. a.iflnoBaTi)iu clumsy, BHiiOBaTbiii guilty, 
BniieBaTbiu eloquent. 

-OBaTbiH, -CBaTbifl, added to adjectives, often has 
the sense of "-ish"; e.g. cHjieBaTbiii bluish, 
6i.iOBaTbifi whitish. Always thus accented. 

-BHTbiH, descriptive adjective (from nouns); e.g. 
rpanoBHTbiH faceted, ^apoBBTbiii talented. 

-iiKiii, adjectival sufQx; e.g. Bduiiiii big. 

-HCTbift, from nouns, "resemblance"; e.g. sojOTiiCTbiii 
gold-coloured, rjiiHHCTbiu clayey. 

-I'lMecKiii forms adjectives mostly from words 
derived from Greek ; e.g. apnGMeTHHecitin 
arithmetical, npaKTHHecitiii practical, Accented 
as shown, 



ETYMOLOGY. 269 

-iii (unaccented), forms possessive adjectives ; e.g. 
BopoHJii a crow's, [v. § 35.] 

-.iHBbiii forms adjectives from nouns ; e.g. ciacTJHBi 
happy, cTbifljaBbiii shamefast. 

-MbiM, present passive participle, equivalent to 
" -ble." [v. § 89, II.] 

-0B-, -BB-, one of the commonest ways of forming 
adjectives of all sorts ; e.g. Gokobou lateral, 
HeTpoBi of Peter, A.jeKcieu^ of Alexis, BepxoBoii 
upper, TucoBbiii of yew, B-feitoBOH age-long. 

-OKiii adjectival ending, -ok^ substantive ; e.g. 
rjySoniH deep, snaroKt an expert, spanoK'b 
pupil of eye. 

-oiibKiH, -eHbKiii, forms adjectives with diminutive 
meaning; e.g. Majenbitiii very small, njoxoHMda 
unwell, THXOQbKJH silent. 

-yjiii, -miii, former pres. part, act., now adjectival; 
e.g. MoryHiii powerful, ropaaiii hot, sbioy'iiii 
vacillating, [v. § 44.] 

-Maibiii, forming descriptive adjectives ; e.g. 
KCiiflqaTbiu knotted, aySsaTbia notched. Ac- 
centuation follows that of principal noun. 

-HBBT., forming adjectives ; e.g. ssAyMiHBbiH thought- 
ful, roBopiHBbiH talkative. The termination 
is unaccented. 

-mnin, adjectival from nouns and adverbs ; e.g. 
/(OMaiDHlu domestic, BieparaniH yesterday's, 
TcnepeniHiu of the present time, 



270 RUSSIAN GEAMMAE. 

-LCKiii, -bcKoii, forms adjectives of all sorts. 
There is no shortened predicative form. The 
accentuation is that of the nonn from which 
the adjective is derived. 

A few words accent -bckoh ; e.g. mvikckoh 
male, jiioackou public, ropo/jcKoii civic. 

-bnLi it, -BHofl, one of the commonest ways of forming 
adjectives of all sorts ; e.g. Sojlhoh ill, rocvAap-' 
CTBeHBbiii of the State, BaiKabiii important. 

-am,, forms possessive adjectives in the second 
declension ; e.g. ahahhx the uncle's, [v. § 34 (2).J 

-ifimifl, -aamiH, -ie, comparatives, [v. § 37.] 

-flOHBiH, -HHOH, adjectives of substance ; e.g. Bo^innou 
watery, ^epeBiiHHbifi wooden, MacjaHBifl 
buttery. 

§ 100. Verbal Formations. 

-wpoBaib (third conjugation), used mainly in 
foreign words ; e.g. aTpo*HpoBaTB to atrophy, 
[v. § 53 (3).] 

-BTb (fourth conjugation), forms transitive verbs ; 
e.g. ciapHTb to make old, OicHib to drive 
frantic, [v. § 59, V.] 

-iiyib, verbs of second conjugation, [v. § 50.j 
-biBaib, -BBaib, iterative verbs, [v. § 59, I. (4).] 
-■bib (third conjugation), inceptive verbs ; e.g. ajiib 
to grow red, KpacirBib to blush, [v. § 53 (2).] 

With roots ending in n, m, m, the termina- 
tion is -aib, V, §^55, II. 



( 271 ) 



APPENDIX. 

I. Veris of ashing. Verbs of asking and wishing 
in Eussian frequently take a genitive, when the object 
is uncertain, and in such events, a partitive genitive in 
y, when such exists, [v. § 24 (1).] 

e.g. Oht> x6"]eTi> naio {or emy xoieica qaio). 
He wants some tea. 

But OflT) xoieib ciyjx [oh-b npocnii ciyia]. 
He wants a chair. 
[Out jK/ieTi nojyqeaia /ieHen>]. 
He is waiting for the receipt of money. 

Farther observe the following differences : — 

fl cnpaoinBaH) y Baci., r/vt bh Sb'i.iii. 

I ask you where you were. 

fl npomy Baci> cKaaaTb mh'6, kto oni). 

I ask you to tell me who he is. 

fl npomy y Bac^ OACiHteaia. 

I ask you for a loan. 

Oht, cnpauiHBajt y na>JMbHHKa ciaHuiH, Kor4a 

ya/ierB noisflT) bi MocKsy. 
He asked the station-master, when the train left 

for Moscow, [v. § 90, V.]; 
Bbi cnpocHJH HBaaa oSx ycnix'6 ero Ai.ii[a] or 

c/('6jOK'b (affairs). 
You asked John as to the success of his business. 
H npomy Bacx o noMn.!OBauin. 
I beg you for mercy. 



^72 RUSSIAN GEAMMAll. 

II. In English, in replying to questions when some- 
thing happens, we indicate the time of day, though 
there is no great emphasis on the point ; e.g. When did 
(will) you call? Yesterday (to-morrow) morning 
(afternoon, evening). 

In Eussian, unless the time of day is important, 
Biepa, 3aBTpa, cero^ua should be used by themselves. 

Thus: Kor^a bbi nocfaujH (nockirre)? 

Bnepa (ceroyiHa, saBipa), corresponding to yesterday 
(morning, etc.), this morning (afternoon, to-night, etc.), 
to-morrow morning (afternoon, etc.). 

If essential, one may add ^ipoMX, bt. noi^euL, 
Be-iepoMi,, HOHLK), e.g. B^ ipa laca nonoj^flHH. 
nocjfaaBTpa the day after to-morrow 
TpeTbaro nan. the day before yesterday 

III. The indeclinable participle must always refer 
to the subject of the sentence [v. § 89, I.], like the 
English participle in -ing. 

But, as in English, some forms have become pre- 
positional, and merely govern the case required by 
the original verb ; e.g. " regarding." 

So, too, in Eussian, SjaroAaps (dative) " thanks to," 
A-ia ( = AliJfi) (genitive), HecMOTpa Ea (^110) notwith- 
standing. 

IV. (1) The common Aryan root sta (Latin stare, 
Greek laTrjfii, English stand) is represented by five 
verbs in Eussian, each with its perfective and im- 
perfective. These must be carefully distinguished. 



APPENDIX. 



273 



(a) -cTaBait imperfective, only in compounds; 
ciaTL perfective, [v. § 57 (1) (7) and § 53 (5).] 
CTaHV means " I shall become." 

Observe the compounds — 
BosciaBaTb to revolt 
sacTaBaib 
HacTaeaTt 
ociaBaTtcfi 
nepecTaBaTi> 
paacTaBarbCH 

AOCTaBaTb 

HeAOCTaBaTL 
OTCTaBaib 
vcTaBaib 
BciaBaib 



to find, light on 
to approach (intransitive) 
to remain, be left 
to leave off (doing something) 
to separate or leave (ct. instrumental) 
(transitive) to obtain, get, procure 
to be wanting, fail (impersonal) 
to remain beliind 
to become tired 
to get up 
Perfectives, B03CTaTb, saciaTt, etc. 

(/S) cTOHTb (cTOio, cTOi'irab) to Stand, -cTaHBaib, 
iterative used in compounds as the im- 
perfective. [v. § 55, I.] 



Compounds — 
npeytcTOi'iTb 
COCTOMTb (n3i) 
sacTaHBaTbCfl 
HacTaHBaib (na loc.) 

OTCTaHBaTb 

40CTaHBaTb (40) 



to impend (no perfective) 

to consist (no perfective) 

to stand too long, e.g. stagnate 

to insist 

to defend (transitive) 

to stand to the end, endure. 

(7) CTOHTb (cTOH), cTOHinb) to cost, to be worth 

(hcfo KOMy) 
There are no compounds, and there is no perfective. 

(8) cTaBDib (-CTaB-iiiTb) to set up, establish. 



274 EUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

There are very many compounds of similar meaning, 
but observe — 

sacTaBjaTt to enforce or compel 

npe^cTaBJiht to "introduce (i<or6 KOMy) 

BCTaBJHTt to insert 

ocTaBjHTb to abandon 

(e) ciaHOBiiTbca (cTaHOBJibcL, cTaHOBHTca), -ciaHa- 
B-iHBaTbca to become. 

There are very many compounds, observe — 
ocTaBaBjHBaTb to arrest, delay 

(2) The root leg (English lie, German liegen) has 
three forms. 

(a) jeib (jiiry) [v. § 49, I.], iterative -jeraib to lie. 
There are a few easy compounds — 

e.g. saieraib to lie behind, hide. 
(/3) jeataib (jOKy, JOKHUib) to lie, the "abstract" 
form to .le'ib. 

There are a few compounds — 

e.g. nojceiKaib to lie a short [time] 
B03Je)KaTb to lie upon 
HaAJieataTb to pertain 
(7) -joiKHTb (-jaraib iterative) to place lying-down; 
jOJKHTbcs to lie down. 

There are very many compounds, but note — 
OTjaraib to defer 
iipDJaraib to enclose 
noJiaraTb to place, suppose 
npcAjaraib to propose, etc. 
(Perfectives OLioiKuxb, etc.) 



APPENDIX. 



275 



(S) The root sed (Latin sedere, Greek eSo<;, English 
sit) has three forms. 

(a) cicTt (cuj, V. § 49, III.) perfective, I shall sit 
down (imperfective ca^iiiTbCfl). 

(^) CH/i'feTb imperfective (cHJiiy, CEnkuih), to sit. 

(7) caAUTB to set [transitive]; (iterative forms 
-caataib, -cajK^aib, and -caiKHBaib) ; caAHTbca to 
sit dov^n. 



There are very many compounds, of them note- 
ocaJK^aTb to besiege 
sacajKHBaTb to plant, place 
nacaHt^aib to set, plant, etc. 



V. The following forms of independent verbs often 
occasion some confusion. A close observation of the 
accentuation will differentiate them clearly. 



BflTH 


XOj^HTb 


ixaib 


Togo 


To rid 


Concrete. 


Abstract. 




H4y 


xoaty 


*Ay 


liHeuib 


xonaaib 


•JjAemb 


H^eTi 


XO^HT^ 


ineTh 


iMeMi. 


XO/lHMb 


'IJAeMi. 


BAeie 


x64HTe 


■bACTe 


iMyrx 


xo^aii) 


in^Th 



H/(ymm I xoAiimiu 



-isJKaib 

or drive 

Iterative. 

-'fcsjKaio 

-isataeinb 

etc. 



Present participle active. 
I i^ymiH I -fojKaiomiu | 



icTb i^aib 
To eat 

Iterative. 
iitf'b -i^aio 
iinb -i^aeiub 
■fecn. etc. 

iAHMT. 

■641116 

fi4t£miB| -inenomia 



In compound verbs the forms -H^y, -ij[j, and -iu^ 
form the perfectives ; aijd the forms -xoaty (-xoAHib), 
-isJKaib, and -t^aTb the imperfectives. 



276 Russian geaMmae. 

VI. The Aspects. On this difficult point a few extra 
hints may be added. On the distinction of yBHAaTt, 
yBia^iTb, Bii/iaTb, Bi'iAijib. 

e.g. OrjHHyBUJncb, oht> yBw^ajT) nsAaiH noronio. 
He glanced round and caught sight of the 

chase from afar. 
Tbi HV/ieca VBUAiimb nofli MiinpocKonoMi. 
You will see marvels under the microscope. 
VBUAaib is more instantaneous and familiar. 

To explain the use of the aspects in connected 
prose, the paragraph should be considered as though it 
were a complex sentence (which Eussian avoids) ; the 
principal verbs in this imaginary period will be marked 
by the perfectives. The same process explains the 
imperfective future. 

e.g. " I shall soon be travelling, and will then 
"write you a letter " ; i.e. " whilst I am 
travelling ... I will . . . ■" 
In Eussian : fl CKopo Oy^y nyxeniecTBOBaTb, h lor^a 
HanHiiiy Teoli. 

Cf. the Latin duin ibo, scriham. 

VII. The order of words in Eussian is practically 
the same as in English. There are a few slight 
differences. 

(1) When there are several pronouns they attract 
each other. 

e.g. fl eay paacitaiKy, Korfla no4T>i4y it^ ropoAy. 
I will tell him when I am near the town. 
Mat ero ae Jiiajb. 
I am not sorry for him. 



AtPENrnx. 277 

Bui H. paacKaiKjf Baraefl leiKi, Kor^a . . . 
I will teU your aunt . . . 
Mfli }ita.it coJAaicKHx^ b4obi. 
I am sorry for soldiers' widows. 

(2) When there are two adverbial expressions of 
time and place, that of time generally precedes that 
of place. 

e.g. I recently saw your brother in Paris. 

H naflnax^ BH^tji Bamero Spaia bt. DapHati. 

(3) The order of pronoun and verb is not changed 
in interrogative sentences beginning with an interro- 
gative pronoun. 

e.g. Yx^ ubi Hauua nOTepanHyio niJiiriKy? 
Where did you find the lost hat ? 

VIII. The Passive Voice is expressed in Russian in 
four ways : — 

(a) By the reflexive pronoun, 
e.g. IIoSbAa ^ociHraeTca. 

Victory is being achieved. 
La victoire s'accomplit. 

(/8) By 6biTb and the present participle passive, 
e.g: BbiTb jameuHbiMB Bcixi npHBHJerifi — AOja 
noSiatA^eHBbixi.. 
To be deprived of all their privileges is the 
fate of the vanquished. 

(7) By GbiTb and the past participle passive, 
e.g. Boa EBpona ocKopojefla HiMeijKBMi npoaa- 

BOJOM'b. 

All of Europe is (or has been) (was, add 
obija) affronted by German arbitrariness. 



278 RUSSIAN GRAMMAE. 

(S) By converting the sentence and using the in- 
determinate third person plural, [v. § 94, II.] 
e.g. Paspymaioit Moe c^acTBe. 

My happiness is being destroyed. 

IX. The translation of "must" and "ought." 
" Must " may be rendered : — 

(a) By Ha/(0 or ByjKHO and infinitive. 

e.g. Mfli Haflo yHTii. I must go out. 

(/3) By ^ojjKeHT. (-Ha, -ho). 

e.g. a ^ojateni cniuiHTb. 

I must hurry, i.e. ought to hurry. 

Ona ^ojiKEia Sbud ySBiKaib. 
She had to run away. 

Be very careful to distinguish the use of ^o-iiKem, 
when it means " owing a debt." 
e.g. Tbi CMy 40J!KHa 3a myoy. 

You (fem.) are in debt to him for a fur coat. 
TboA cecipa laui 6bija ^oJiKHa copoKij pyo-iefl sa 

KBapTi'ipy. 
Your sister owed me forty roubles for her 
apartments. 

Observe. — 3 ^o^vkchi obwh (Qfny) means " I have had 
to . . . , I shall have to . . . ," but a 6biJT> (Sy^y) ^ojiKem. 
means " I owed (shall owe)." 

4ojri means " debt " or " duty " ; ^ojJKHOCTb a specific 
duty or office. 

A useful synonym is oGfisanHbiH ; oSdsaHHOCTb 
obligation, obliged (siMi KOMy). 

e.g. fl CMy oSnsaHT. BoscTanoBjeBienn. Moeii hccth. 
I owe him the re-establishment of my honour. 



APPENDIX. 279 

Russian occasionally uses a very contracted style, 
cf. the apocopated past tense [§ 95]. 

e.g. Pe5i'iTa ! CMOipn [for cMOTpi'iTe] MOJOAuaMii y 
MeHil [supply 6yAbTe] ; h31 pyateii hc naji'iTt; 
a niTHKaMH hxT)! Kor^a a KpiiKHy, ypa, sa 
MHOH, TO He OTCiaBaTt ! 4py'KBiH, FJaBHOe 
A'fe.io ! 
Men ! Look. [Behave like] brave hoys ! 
Do not fire your rifles ; but with the bayonet 
at 'em. When I shout Hurrah, then after 
me ; then no lagging ! Vigorously [that's] 
the principal thing. 

Soldiers are always addressed as peoaia, as in French 
mes enfants. 

X. The distinct meanings of ct, ott>, and HSt are 
sometimes difficult to seize. These sentences may fix 
them on the memory. 

Bin ceJiiHe npninju C5 Ba.iTiiicKaro luopa, U3S ropoAa 

B., y6iran ovid npuTicneHiu HtMiieBi. 
These country-folk came /rom [i.e. down from] 
the Baltic, mot of the city of B., escaping 
[away] from the persecutions of the Germans. 

The following paragraph illustrates the use of 
temporal prepositions. 

4o Moero npifoAa do^a h npoiKiiix en /isa luicHiia (hjh 
oKOAo AByxt M'bcaiieB-b) bb neiporpaAi. Orry4a 
fl HanpaBHJca bi, IIcitoBi), tx^ a ocTaBajca den 
uen^Jia. A leneph, vepess ipa unn, a noi^y bt. 
MocKBj', rfli ociaHycB cs TpHBaAaaiaro cero 
M'kaua do ABaAuaiaro, n «s meuenie tiToro 



280 EUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

ccMiiAHeBiiaro Aocyra ot/ioxh^ ncMHOjKKO. Taiai 
no yipajifT. Gy^y xo^wTt Bi My sen. UocMb 
aioro (hjh nomo.m) caMi> He 3Haio, hto Sy^y 
A'tjaTB. 
Up to my arrival here [before this time I had 
stayed] I lived about two months in Petrograd. 
Thence I went to Pskov, where 1 remained a 
fortnight. Now, in three days' time, I shall 
go to Moscow, where I shall stay from the 13th 
to the 20th instant, and during this seven 
days' leisure I shall have a short rest. There 
I shall visit the Museums in the mornings. 
After that, I don't know what I shall be 
doing. 

XL Some words meaning to hum and to light. 

To burn (transitive) is Hteni ; to consume by fire 
catnraTb, OKCHb; to burn (intransitive) is 
ropiifc (ropib, ropuTi); a fire (at home) is 
oroHB (orHii) ; a fire (incendie) is noH(api> ; 
to burst into flame is BocnjaMCBflTtca (njajia 
flame) ; SjeciiTi), (SjecTHTi) [SjecHyib perfec- 
tive] is to shine, an alternative form is GjiHCTaTt 
(6jncTaio, or O^emy, Gjemenib) ; ciaib (ciaio) to 
glitter. 

XII. The following idiomatic use of the infinitive 
should be noted. 

OGpaAOBaTbca, ohh hc oSpa^oBajHCb, ho ne cohjh 
B^jKHUM'b HajOJKUTb CBoe veto. [TypreaeBi.] 
As to being glad they were not glad, but they did 
not think fit to interpose their veto. 



APPExnix. 281 

XIII. The Eussian for " yes " is ;(a, but it is much 
less used than in English. Generally, the verb is 
repeated. 

e.g. Bbi-JH sacTMH ero 46Ma ? SaciMa. 

Did you find him at home ? Yes [in the 
feminine]. 

IIoHHMaeTe-JH bm (noHajn), noiiMeie? IIo- 

HHiiaio (noHflJT., noHMy). 
Do you understand (did you, will you) ? Yes. 

XIV. The Eussian for "to sleep" is cnait (cnjio, 
en H nib, V. § 55, I.). Perfectives are, however, formed 
from the verb -CHVib (-CHeiub, -cnyji., cf. cohi sleep); 
and imperfectives in -cwnaib, e.g. sacbinaib, aacHyib to 
go to sleep. 

Be careful to distinguish this word from -cbinaib, 
cbinaib, to strew, e.g. sacbinaib to bestrew, perfective 
sacb'inaTb, sacb'iiuio, sacb'injemb, etc. [v. § 59 (3).] 

4peMaTb (^psMJib, ^peMJfeuib) is also "to sleep" or 
" slumber." 

" I dreamed" is either a BH^ifejx coht., or a bm^jt. bo 

OB'S, or MHi CHHJOCb. 

XV. Words connoting " cost," " expense," etc. 
The following hints may be useful. 

lero ct6iitt> Bama joma^b ? 
Lftea is the price, ouiHHib to value; CTOHMOCXb 
is the worth or cost ; aoctohhctbo, /(OCTOUHbiii 
worthiness, worthy; expense is BSAepatKa, 
pacxo^i, ipaia ; expensive ^oporoii, etc. ; to 
spend ipaiHTb (HCTpaiHTb), pacxo^OBaib, etc. ; 
income is ^oxo^t, npaxo^i. ; profit is Bb'iro/?a, 
npHObUb (fem.) ; loss is noiepa, ySbiioKx. 



282 RUSSIAN GRAMMAR. 

XVI. The accenhiation of the Hus-tian noun. In the 
course of this grammar, various hints have been 
dropped. It is impossible to lay down absolute rules, 
but the matter may be briefly resumed. 

(i) Original forms. These are dissyllabic, because 
amongst the dissyllabic, masculines in s and s, feminines 
in b are to be included, as these vowels only became 
mute late in the development of the language. The 
student, indeed, would do better to take as his noun an 
inflexion in a or u. 

e.g. 5a6a (nominative), gen. plural Ga&t; CTOJa 
(table — gen. sing.), croj-b (nom. singular). 

In § 45 it was laid down that only dissyllabic verbs 
accented on the termination cotdd vary the accent. 

In § 29 it was pointed out that only dissyllabic 
feminines in a and s, accented on the termination, could 
shift the accent. 

The same principle applies to dissyllabic nouns 
in general, including masculines in t, and b. The 
student must imagine a lost accent on the x termination, 
which has shifted back on to the root. E.g. 

Invariable : — 

Bpart', Bpara, Bpani foe 

BOJt', BOJa, BOJIb'l bull 

ipy^T,', Tpy^a, ipy/lM work 
MocKBa, MocKBM (MocKBy) Moscow 
poTL (pT.Ti'), pia, pTH mouth 
jiCBX (jbBf)'), JbBa, JibBbi lion 
iiVTb', nyxH, ayiii path 



■ — Invariable. 



AtMNMX. 283 

Variable : — 
ca^T.', ca^a, caAt'i garden 
poAT.', po^a, po^bi, po^oBi race 
crtaa, ciiHbi (ciiny), ctijhbi wall 

Invariable : — 

5a6a woman (because it is paroxytone) 
b3h6ci contribution (because it is paroxytone) 
3y6x tooth (because it is paroxytone) 
Cf. fiipHTb, BiipK) believe (because it is paroxytone) 

If , 

CHflfab, CH^HTl Sit 
HecTH, Heceuib carry 
njaiHTbj n.iaTHTi pay — Variable. 

Also invariable : — 

npoHSBOJiT) caprice (because polysyllabic) 
npoTHBBHia antagonist (because polysyllabic) 
yneHHKi' pupil (because polysyllabic and accented 

on the termination) 
rpaSejKT.' plunder (because polysyllabic and 

accented on the termination) 

Dissyllabic neuters in o and e follow the same rule ; 
but, unlike the feminines [v. § 27], can reverse the 
accent, even though accented on the root in the singular. 
All dissyllabic neuters accented in the singular on the 
ultimate have a shifting accent; and some of those 
accented on the root. E.g. 

Variable : — 
cejo, cda, ceja village 
Be^po, Be4pa, BC/ipa pail 
MicTo, Micia, Micia place 
noje, n6.ifl, nci/i field 



284 ftUSSlAN GKAMMAK. 

Invctriahle : — 

iiTO, Hra, lira yoke 

ropjLO, ropja, ropja throat 
All polysyllabic neuters have a fixed accent. 

(ii) Certain nominal terminations of original nouns 
have a fixed accent, viz. : — 

The locative in -y [v. § 24 (1)] is always oxytone. 

The genitive in -y is always paroxytone. 

Some locatives in -h [v. § 30] is always oxytone. 

The plural forms -aMn, -axt, -amUj -axi in variable 
nouns are generally accented. 

e.g. pyiia, pyitii, pyKauH, pyitax^ 

Also, by way of exception, some few nouns in -ocib. 
[v. § 31 (1).] 

e.g. AOJJKEOCTiiMn, ^ciatuocTfixT. 

(iii) Derivative nouns. These have a fixed accentua- 
tion, for which consult the section headed Etymology, 
E.g. -eiKi always accents the termination ; derivatives 
in -cut, -aKX, -aia, -hkx, -mki, -eiix have a fixed accent 
on the termination, if the nominative is also oxytone ; 
otherwise a fixed accent on the syllable accented in the 
nominative. E.g. yMCHHitT. pupil, yieumta; jiooobhhki, 
lover, JioSoBHHKa. 

XVII. TJie accentuatio7i of the . Russian verb. The 
general rules are simple, and are fully expounded in 
§ 46. Some very few anomalies exist. 

(1) A few verbs, mostly ending -mh, throw the 
accent back on to the root iu the undeclined present 
participle. 



APPENDIX. 



285 



(3.g. CToaifc (cTOBint) stand, CToa 
jeJKaTS (jeasHrab) lie, .lewa 
Md^aib (moJHHiiJb) to be silent, MOj^a 
CH/i'feTb (cHAHUib) to sit, CH^a {or Cll/tll) 

(2) A very few verbs in -aib, -aio, with fixed 
accents, throw the accent back in the past participle 
passive. 

to educate 

to experience 

expect 



e.g. BOcnmaTb (-laio) 
HcnbiTaxb (-laio) 
0!KH4arb 



noiepiixb (-tuo) lose 



BOCnHTaUDblH 

ucabixaHiibm 

HeOlKUAaOHblH 

unexpected 
noTepaDQbiii 



(3) In some very few dissyllabic paroxytone verbs 
the verbal noun shifts the accent forward. 



e.g. noitaaTbca 

yB-fepHTb 
BH/?'6Tb 


repent 
convince 
to see 


noKaanie 
yaipeHie 
BHA'i^Hie (a vision) 


The rule being to 
finitive. 

e.g. je-iiaib 
B'iaib 
laarb 


preserve the accent of the in 

to fondle jej'iaHJe 
to blow Biaaie 
to thaw TaaHJe 


qyaTb to scent 
cjymaib to hear 
and also jiooesHHiaib to court 


syame 

cjymaHie 

.!K)oe3HH4aHie 



(4) In § 45 it was laid down that only dissyllabic 
verbs accented on the termination might vary or shift 
the accent. 



286 



SUSSlAN GEAMMAR. 



There are a very few exceptions : e.g. ciaHOBUTBca to 
become, CTaHOBiimtca, and a number of onomatopoeic 
verbs, descriptive of sounds, in -OTaiB^ -eiaTb. 



e.g. rpoxoTaTB 

XOXOTaiB 

x.ionoTaTB 

jeneraTB 

GopMOTaiB 



to thunder 
to laugh 
to bestir oneself 
to stammer 
to mumble 



rpoxoieiiib 
xoxoieniB 
x.ion6ieujB 
jeneqeiuB 

OopMOHeillB 



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Notes and Queries. — "A more serviceable and practical work, and 
a better guide to the treasures of Spanish literature and the idioms of 
Spanish speech, is not to be hoped." 

Pall Mall Gazette. — "A book to be cordially commended, especially 
to young Enghshmen of business desirous cf gaining a practically 
useful knowledge of Spanish." 



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