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Gift of the 

Cornell University Library 
PG 2111.M92 1922 

Russian conversation-grammar 

3 1924 026 616 890 

Cornell University 

The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 










lAVm HOTT (A. G.' Berry), 212 Shaftesbury Avenae, W.C. 2. 

SULAD <k 00., 34—36 Maritaret Street, Cavendish Square W. 1. 

NEW YORK: BREKTANU'S, Fifth Avenue and 27"' Street. 


G. E. STECHERT & CO, 151— 1SS West 25* Street 

E. STEIGER & CO., 49 Murray Street 

' BOSTON: G. REUSCHEL, 1 10 Tremont Street 





The Gaspey-OttO-Seuer Method has become my sole properl:^ by 
right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All lights 
especially those of adaptation and translation into any language, are reser- 
ved. Imitations and copies are forbidden by law. Suitable communications 
always thankf^ly received. 

Heidelberg. aTuIIus Oroos. 




In strict adherence "to the Gaspey-Otto-Sauer method, 
I have divided this Conversation Grammar into two parts. 
The first of them, preceded by an introduction exhibiting 
the theory and practice of correct pronunciation, ofifers 
in as clear and scientific a form as possible the roles of 
the accidence and the elements of the language in general, 
including the irregular verbs. Each lesson treats a 
group of rules complete in itself and conveniently exem- 
plified, a reading exercise in which the rules are applied 
to numerous sentences in fluent and modern conversa- 
tional language, an exercise for translation into Russian, 
and a conversation in which the matter introduced in 
the previous exercises receives a new and more varied 
application. From the twenty-first lesson onwards, anec- 
dotes and tales are appended to encourage students 
by showing them that they are now capable of deci- 
phering something better than detached sentences. At 
the end a certain number of recapitulatory exercises 
are given. 

The study of the first part being finished, it will 
soon be seen that Russian is a very methodical language, 
and that it is not by far so difficult as it is generally 
thought Declension and conjugation obey, with few 
and rare exceptions, more apparent than real, fixed and 
well ascertained rules. Great simplification is afforded 
by a constant application of the law of permutation, 
and by a rigorous distinction between hard and soft 
terminations. On the other hand, learners will have 
observed with pleasure that the Russian language is 

rv Pkbfaoe. 

characterized by a fusion of sweetness and force and 
that its immense fund is not only supplied by Slavonic 
roots, but by the ample admission of Germanic, Ro- 
mance and Oriental elements, without in the least di- 
minishing its regularity and flexibility. 

In the second part, comprising syntactical and sup- 
plementary rules, I have Umited myself to the most 
necessary rules. The Russian sentence is on the whole 
so like the English, that all details have been disregarded 
as a work of supererogation. Such must be left to 
practice and reading, unless beginners are to be utterly 
disheartened. As to the exercises for translation, the 
most of them are on subjects referring to Russia and 
Russian literature. Likewise the reading exercises of the 
second part are almost all drawn from the masterpieces 
of Russian literature, and notes to them have been added 
in order to assist learners, where the vocabulary at the 
end of the grammar would not prove a sufficient help. 
All the conversations that follow refer to the preceding 
reading exercise. The final exercises for free trans- 
lation are mostly taken from Sir D. Mackenzie- Wallace's 
< Russia', the reading of which can be warmly recom- 
mended to all who take any interest in a great and 
now so unhappy p^ple. 

The remaining portion of the book is occupied by 
a threefold appendix, for travellers, tradesmen and officers, 
i. e. for the three classes of students who are most hkely 
to use this book. To write this, and especially the last 
portion intended for officers, has certainly been no easy 
task. My good-will and patience were often sorely 
tried; special works were at every moment to be consulted 
and information to be got from Russia. And after all, 
I do not know whether I have entirely succeeded in 
meeting all exigencies, but if this addition prove really 
serviceable, I shall be amply compensated for my trouble. 


The present edition exhibits no important changes, 
such not being found necessary. 




Introduction. The RnsBian Alphabet. Classificatioii of Letters 1 

ProDtmciation of Vowels 5 

Pronanciation of Semi- Vowels and ConsonantB .... 8 

First Part. 

1. Lesson. Gender of the Rnssian Substantives IS 


2. D Declension of masculine Nouns (hard form) . 

3. » Declension of masculine Xouns (soft form) . . 

4. » Declension of feminine Noons (hard form) . . 

5. I Declension of feminine Nouns (soft form) . . 

6. : Declension of neuter Nouns ... .■ . . . 

7. » General view of substantive Inflections . . . 

8. » Nouns with Prepositions 

9. » Conjugation of the auzUiary Verb 6htb to be . 42 

10. 7> Hints to the regular Gonjueation 45 

n. » Hints to the regular Conjugation (Continuation) 48 

12. > Interrogative, negative and conditional forms . 51 

13. » Personal Pronouns 54 

14. » Possessive Pronouns 57 

15. « Reflexive and demonstrative Pronouns'. ... 60 

16. » Interrogative and relative Pronouns 64 

17. » Definite and indefinite Pronouns 67 

18. » Declension of Adjectives with full Terminations 72 

19. » Declension of Adjectives with apocopated Termi- 

nations 77 

20. » Degrees of Comparison 81 

21. » Cardinal Numbers . . . 85 

Reading exercise : The mistake 92 

22. » Ordinal Numbers ■ 92 

Reading exercise: The hungry Arab 96 

23. » Adverljs . 97 

Reading exercise: The invention of glass . . 101 

24. » Impersonal verbs JOl 

Reading exercise : The prayer 105 

25. > Conjunctions and Interjections 106 

Reading exercise: The Starling 109 

26. » Aspects of the Verb 110 

Ileading exercise : Origin of the Russian Alphabet 115 

27. » Forroaiion of the Present, Past and future . . 115 

Reading exercise: The evening-bells ; . . .119 

28. » Formation of the Imperative, Gerunds and Par- 

ticiples 120 

Reading exfrcise: Extraordinary strength . . . 124 

29. » Irregular Verbs with a regular infinitive Ter- 

mination 125 

Reading exercise; Schismatics and sectarians . 126 

30. » Irregular Verbs with an irregular infinitive Ter- 

mination .... • 130 

Reading exercise: The Cossaok-messenger . . 134 



Alphabetical List of irregular Verbs • • • ^^^ 

Promiscuous exercises for Translation and Conversation . . . 186 

Some Russian Proverbs 140 

Second Fart. 

1. Lesson. Remarks on the Gender of Substantives .... 141 

The four musicians of Riazan (after Grimm) . 144 

2. » Remarks on the Declension of masculine Nouns 146 

The four musidans of Riazan 149 

3. Lesson. Remarks on the Decl. of fem. and neut. Nouns . 152 

The four musicians of Riazan 154 

4. » Irregular Nouns 157 

The Forest-King (Zhukofsky) 159 

5. » Augmentative, diminutive and foreign Nouns . . 162 

The young mouse, the cat and the cock . . 164 

6. » Concord of Words 16V 

The Assault (Pushkin) 169 

7. » Use of the genitive Case .... .... 17.3 

The Assault 176 

8 » Use of the other Cases 179 

The Assault 182 

9. » Remarks on the use of some Pronouns .... 185 

The Old-Believer's death (Gorky) 187 

10. » How to express the English modal auxiliaries . 189 

The Old-Believers death 191 

11. » Remarks on the use of Prepositions with two Cases 193 

The Stpppe and the Zaporovian Setch (Gogol) 195 

12. » How to express some English Prepositions . . 198 

The Steppe and the Zaporovian Setch .... 201 

13. » How to express some Engl. Prepositions (Cont.) 204 

The Steppe and the Zaporovian Setch .... 207 

14. » How to express some Engl. Prepositions (Cont.) . 209 

The Steppe and the Zaporovian Setch . . . 21? 

15. » How to express some English Conjunctions . . 215 

The Steppe and the Zaporovian Setch . . . 217 

16. » Remarks on Construction 219 

The Steppe and the Zaporovian Setch . . . 221 

17. » How to express some English Idioms .... 224 

Oneghin's education (Pushkin) 226 

18. » Formation of Russian Words 228 

Boris Gtodunof (Pushkin) 232 

19. » Remarks on Orthography , • • • 234 

Boris Godunof 237 

20. » The displacement of the tonic Accent 239 

Boris Godunof 241 

Additional exercises for free Translation 245 


a) Dialogues for travellers 259 

b) Commercial Phraseology and Correspondence 275 

Models of commercial Letters 294 

Models of Bills, Letters of Attorney, Customs Declara- 
tions, Telegrams, etc 304 

Vin OoifiEirrs. 


c) For Amy and Navy Olficers ^08 

Phraseology -. • „„„ 

Military narration (Tolstoy) 


Engliab-Russian Sgo 





(See the table pages 2 and S.) 

The Russian alphabet may be considered as an 
enlarged" Greek alphabet. The many letters added have 
rendered it as nearly phonetic as can be desired, because 
it not only expresses each sound by means of one 
character, but it has also the practical advantage of ex- 
pressing even complex sound? by means of only one 
character. Its large! number of letters is therefore not 
to be regarded as an inconvenience by beginners, but 
as a r6al and useful simplification, both with regard to 
orthography and pronunciation.' 

Certain letters are indeed somewhat puzzling at 
first sight on account of their similarity to English 
letters having a diflferent signification. Such are: 

B = V, H = n, p = r, c =• s, y = u, x = kh. 

Deserving of particular attention are also the ita- 
licized forms of the following letters: 

u = i «' = p *w. = t. 

In books printed before 1840, the ancient Roman 
form m is frequently met with instead of t. The great- 
est care is then required not to mix it up with m. 

* Learners who have not the assistance of a teacher should 
copy the rules of pronunciation before committing them to memory; 
but being yet unacquainted with the Russian written alphabet (see 
page 12), they may imitate as well as they can the printed types. 
This is the best way of learning them. 

Busdan Cony.-Grammar, 1 








A a 

a* a B 




1 t 


iJ 6 

b b, 



m m, 


H B 

V V, 




n n, 


r r 

g & 








P p. 


V] e 

le lo 



r r, 





C c 

s s. 


3 3 

z z, 



T T 

t t, 









I i 





f f. 


11 It 



i B'kratkai 

X X 

X X, 


K K 





ts ts, 

* The phonetic trajismpts are in the „Alphabet de I'Associ- 




Proper sound. 


.. 25 

»I H 





ni in 





ni, m 




t T> 


/lari «i^» 








L L 

half mute 

so/t si^ 


^ -fe 

ie £ 




9 9 





10 K) 

iu u 


.f '' 

a a 

la a Is 



f f, 




y r 



ation Fhon^tique Internationale". 


It is of the utmost importance that the foUowinj; Classifica- 
tions of Rnssian Letters- be committed to memory.' They greatly 
facilitate the understanding not only of the rules of the pronun- 
ciation, but also many apparent anomalies of decleosion and con- 
jugation are thus to be explained. 

Of the thirty-six letters which compose the Eussian 
alphabet, twelve are vowels; three are semi-vowels; the 
twenty-one others are consonants. 

Vowels: a, e, h, i, o, y, ii, 4, 3, ro, a, r; 
Semi- vowels: %, h, S; 

Consonants: 6, b, r, s, ffi, 3, k, ;i, m, h, n, p, c, t, 
4), X, ^, % ffl, m, e. 

Vowels and semi-vowels are of course also divided 
into hard and soft, while consonants rnay be classed 
into strong and weak, as in other languages. 

Hard vowels: a, 3, y, o, h; 

Soft vowels: a, e (i), k), e*, h (i); 

Hard semi- vowels: %; 

Soft semi-vowels: b, fi; 

Strong consonants: n, (j>. k, x, t, ra, c; 

Weak consonants: 6, b, r, fl, ai, 3.^ 

Besides this, with regard to the organs that give 
utterance to the various consonants, a second and more 
important classification is obtained which extends to 
them all: 

Labials: n, 6, 4>, b, m; 
Gutturals: r, k, x; 
Dentals: T, a; 
Lispings: c, 3; 
Lingual: n,; 
Hissings: k, ^, m, m; 
Palatals: ji, h, p. 

» For the present thev mav be overloolted, if found too diffi- 
cult to retain; bat the sooner they are studied the better it will be. 

'' Pronounced i/ok. See page 7, pronunciation of E. 

' Neither the liquids a, m, n, p, nor n, u, m, have a corre- 
sponding weak consonant; they have therefore not been comprised 
in this classification. The weak consonant r corresponds to the 
strong consonants k and x, according to circumstances. 

Pronunciation op towels. 5 

The vowel v and the consonant e have not been 
comprised in the above classifications, their use being 
extremely rare and restricted to words of Greek origin. 
The first is employed for o, the second for ■&: Evanrejie, 
AefiHH (Eha.ffi'kiov, 'A^Tjvai). Such words are now ctfm- 
monly written with b and' ^ : EBanrejrie, A^6hh. 


a) Hard vowels. 

A, a. 

Its proper sound is that of a in father; but when 
at the end of words and not accented^, it is pronounced 
very rapidly so as to approach a in fat: 

a&atifl,% 6ap&H'b 6&6Ba r&ra 

'zapat ba'rann 'bapka gaga 

west matton grandmother eider-duck. 

The hard vowel a has the sound of v, when found 
after a lyssing consonant (see page 4), provided it be 
not accented and not at the end of a word: 









small part 




In th6 accented genitive termination 4ro*, the vowel a is 
pronounced o; but in this case also i is pronounced irregularity. 
Se therefore page 10, pronunciation of r. 

d, 3. 

It has uniformly its proper sound of e in met. This 
letters occurs mostly in words of foreign origin: 

aBadmeH'L sTaaeepKa noaHa aTOii 

ek'zamen st'e'gsrka p^'ema 'stBt 

examination cupboard poem thiis. 

1 The tonic accent is no longer printed in Russian; but to 
assist beginners all words occurring |u this grammar are accentuated, 
when consisting of more than one syllable. 

'' In the new Orthography, the genitive singular termination 
accented on the penultimate is written oro instead of aro. 

6 , Pronunciation of rowELS.' 

H, n. 

The proper sound of this vowel is that of i thick 
and guttural. To catch the right pronunciation of H, 
learners ought to utter with a guttural affectation the 
final y of such words as pity, witty, ■ etc. 

After labials (see page 4), it is pronounced much 
similar to wi in wig: 

cawh jsfaHF& miao rpH6u 

'sin tsin'ga 'milo gri'bl 

son scarvy soap mnshrooms. 

0, 0. 

When accented, it sounds like in note; when un- 
accented, its pronunciation greatly resembles that of a 
in father, but at the end of words it generally preserves 
its proper sound: 

fl,owh npecTO^Tb ^^o bo;iokoji& 

dom pje'stol 't/udo kvlvkvla. 
honse throne wonder bells. 

y, y. 
It has uniformly its proper sound of 00 in moan: 

pyK& yniH AjpHO K^a 

ru'ka 'u/1 'durno 'muka 
hand cars badly torment. 

Repetition. Sdnaxi, 6apaHi, 6i6a,, f&ra, ^acrdi^i, 
ysaci, ^^cio, Ayma, Qmiueob, dTas^psa, noaiia, dTOTb, 
CHffB, i^iHra, MHjro, xpirfiii, jsflwh, npecTOJPB, ^flo, Koao- 
K0Ji4, pysa, yum, Kjfuo, Tsfisa. 


Sanac'b, CTasaHx, M^HHa, Jiana, ^Br 
CO., mstH^kpwbf ssapBO, ^pa, dcsa^ipoffb, 
9x6j[6Ma, no-^OMy, axo, cupi, ii;iir&Hi>, 

' The phonetic transcript and literal translation of this 
and the following Reading Exercices are given in the Key to this 


cHonu, 6ujio, 66a, m^SL, ohh, oeojio, 
jiyHa, yxo, xy;i;o, nysa. 

b) Soft vowels. 

Si, a (soft a). 

When accented, it has its proper sound of ia in 
yard. When not accented and at the end of words its 
sound is that of is: 

flBKa CTOflHKR 3eH.!Ifl Bp^HS 

'iafka st^'Ianka zem'l,a 'vr,£m,a 
notice halt earth time. 

In aE other cases, when 'not accented, it is pro- 
nounced as le: 

ajifio flpuo A^BHTB Bflaey 

'ie'dro Isr'mo 'd.eviet v.e'ju 

bullet yoke nine I tie. 

E, e (soft 9); £, e (soft o). 

At the beginning of words and sylables, when not 
accented, it sounds nearly Uke le: 

6}ifi& at6Jii»rb Be,xHEift ecTb 

'led'va ge'loiet v.e'likil lest, 

' hardly he wishes great he is. 

When accented it has very often the sound of lo 
or 3, if preceded by a lingual or hissing consonant, 
(see page 4). In such cases however, it is customary 
to mark it with two dots: 













In all other combinations, and especially after a 
consonant belonging to the same syllable, the soft vowel 
e has the hard sound of s: 














% i (soft a). 
The same rules stated for e apply equally, to % 
with the exceptioji that this never has the sound of » 
and only very seldom that of ta: 

•bcTh "hajfji. idsMOd Bdhpa 

lest, lez'da n.e'moi V.era 

to eat journey dumb faith. 

Note. Among the words in which i has the sound fo, ob- 
serve the following and their derivatives': cijia saddle, BsisAH 
stars, nrls^ia birds' nests, mtit he flourished, oCpiai I (thou, he) found. , 

H, H, I, i (soft h). 
The proper sound of both these soft vowels is al- 
ways that of i in sich and iota. The second of them, A, 
must invariably be followed by another vowel or semi- 
vowel, whereas h is eniployed exclusively before a cpn- 

MBjyh npi'jbs^i.'k cHHifi 

mir pri'Iszd 'sin.ii 

peace arrival blue. 

m, ro (soft y). 
The compound soft vowel lo has in most I^ussian 
words the sound of iu. In words of French or Crerman 
origin, k is often pronounced as French u or German fi: 
Kondio v>6k& timcTt Bpio^cejiB 

ku'palu 'lupka 'b.ust 'br.^ssel, 

I dig petty-coat bilst Brjisselg. 

Bepetition. Hssa, cToiHsa, seiuid, speMH, flApo, 
apMo, A^BaT^, BHxy, ejsfii, sejiaerB, BeMsoe, ecxB, ejisa, 
TBep;i;o, mejmi, ^^pnufi, d^peri, aope, lejo, cejio, §ct*, 
isA^, h^m63, sipa, uap^B, npiisA'B, c^ii, Eonax), K)6Ea, 
gffiCTt, BpibcceJB. _^ 


Maco CHTHaa nniii;a. BainHa bh- 
coKa, xnasHHa HH3Ka. Jli&msi d-fejia, 
moHJa K pacHa. KjiioBBa BMOJias aro3;a. 

' Only those of course in which the accent is preserved on the i. 
2 The only exception is mp^ world, to distinguish it from 
HHpi peace. 


Jljodpoe cepA^e ysaacaercA bc^mh. 
HcHH TonflTCH ;i;poBaHii. JJjmk Hama 


a) Seml-Towels. 

The hard 8emi-vowel % has now no sound whatever, 
but it serves to give to the consonant that precedes it 
a strong and harsh pronunciation as though this were 
double. Before %, a weak consonant has always the 
sound of its corresponding strong, 6 = n, b = (|^, etc. : 

CTOoh BpoBi mecTi ctojtb 

stan 'krof ybst 'stoi 

stage roof perch table. 

L, B. 

The soft semi-vowel b may to a certain extent be 
regarded as a half uttered i, giving to the preceding 
consonant a soft and liquid resonance somewhat similar 
to the French 11 mouitte or the German j: 









begin (then) 



30 much 

% fi. 

This semi-vowel is but a very short h occurring 
only after a vowel and pronounced very rapidly along 
with it, so as. to form one syllahle: 

^aft noft Heft csfvaA 

'dal 'mol psi 'slu^al 

give (thou) I my (masc.) drink (thou) I oceadon. 

Bepetition. Cran'B, Epos's, raecn, ctojii, ctohb, 
KpoBB, mecTB, CTOJo., safi, Mofi, neft, cjryaat. 

10 Pbontociation of coksonants. 

b) Consonants. 

Labials: U, n; B, 6; $, ((>; B, b; M, m. 

These five letters have the same sound as their 
English equivalents (p, b, f, v, m), observing however 
that the weak 6 and b are pronounced like the strong 
n and (j), when followed by a strong consonant or by i: 

naBJiHHX (iHTBa <()OH&pb Tsaih 

pav'lin 'bitva fe'nar 'mat, 

pea-cock battle lantern mother. 

Gattorals: K, k; X, x; T, r. 

The consonant b is generally pronounced as in 
English ; only when placed before K, T or q, it has the 
aspiration which is heard in the German word ^a^. Such 
is always the sound of the Russian x, often transcribed 
in English by hk: 

BpecTi xpaicb pyccBaro j^ypnoro 

'kr,sst 'xram rusk'BVO dur'novo 

cross temple. of the Russian of the bad (one). 

Dentals: T, t; Ji;, j. 

The sound of both these consonants is exactly that 
of English t and d in done and turn: 

Tarn TeTKa ^ont A^^a 

'tam 'tiotka 'don ' 'diadia 

there aunt Don uncle. 

Lispings: C, c; 3, 3. 

These two consonants are pronounced respectively 
like the s in safe and z in none; but c is pronounced 
like 3 before a weak consonant: 








n;, ^ 


to bum. 


is always pronounced 

as IS in wits: 


emperor (king) 






Pronusciation of conbokants. 11 

Hissings: III, in; fflE, »; % ^■, JO^ m;. 

They correspond respectively to sli in shut to z in 
asure, ch in charm, shtch in smasM-china: 

mtM&uph menii naci nprn 

fe'i&f je'na 't/as yt/it 

cottage woman hour shield. 

It must be noted that: ^ before t; m before h, m; 
X before a strong consonant or %, are pronounced 
like /; 

?T0 noMon^HmcB HOHCBa nyacB 

yio p^'mo/nik 'no/ka mu/, 

what assistant little foot husband. 

Palatals: JI, ji; H, h; P, p. 

These four consonants do not sensibly differ in 
their usual pronunciation from 1 in life, n in note, r in 
rose. With regard to a, it must be noted that its proper 
sound of 11 in doUar occurs only when followed by a 
strong consonant, a hard vowel, or i. With the Russian 
p, great care is required not to lisp it, as Englishmen 
frequently do (arm, northern), but to pronounce it rather 
as if it were double, as in the word hurry: 

pfiHO jrbHBBEift jioacKa roBopsAi 

'rano l,e'nivil 'bj"ka gBVB'r,il 

soon idle spoon I spoke. 

Repetition. Uasjikoh, 66TBa, 4>oHapB, v&Tb, BpecTi, 
xpam, pyccKaro, ;iypH6ro, laMi^ TCTKa, ^OHi, Ma^, ca«i, 
cectpa, 3B0HI, croptTB, iiapB, n^pei^i, xam, n^na, nia- 
jiamt, KSHa, HacB, miirs, ^to, noMomHHKt, HoatKa, Myat, 
pdHo, jtH^Buft, joaKa, roBopi&Ji'B. 


Mejsji^^ OHeni cHJieirb. ^6to 
cosp'bBaen jt^tomi. Jlysme js^&Bsm, 
^wh npocHTL. Bdma jno^HMaa nHiii;a 


12 BEADme exercise. 

Ctfio KOca'Tb KocaMH. yKymeHie ptH 
^acTO nDBraHHaeTt cMepTL. Jtkh 
jnodaiyfc njiasaTL no bo/i;*. y^HTejiB 
o^ynaeTTt y^emneoBi.. flHsapB ecTt 
nepsnft MicaD,t b^ roji,y. flEopn ne- 
o6xo;i,nMM npH Kopadjiaxt. Smmoio 
seMJia noKpHiTa CHiroMi. 



Oji;BaFB 6oTkTb ynajn op[ajKj];M Bt 
piiKy. Ha rpoMsiS ero BpHst npH^'t- 
SR&jm jdb^H H Cb BejmBnMi Tpy/i;6Mi 
BMTamiHJin ero nsnb bo;oi,]ei. Ohl npo- 
CHJTB, ht66h nocxapajincL noi^aTL ero 
mjmny, icoTopaa ynjii^jia yaee ji;ob6jil- 
HO ji;aj[eB6, s o^in^aji'b ^aTb 3a to 
B03Harpa^ji,eHie. Ojijswh pn6airb nolle- 
najit ffljEany h npHHect e6 k^ Hejiy. 
Bora^ii ^^ajix en^ sa to no^TiOLmns.'h, 
a Tfcxi, soTopne ero caMoro BiiTaBi;njm 
HS'b BOji,H, j];asas;e n Be no^jiaro^apnjn.. 

BnjT,HO, ^TO 6oTkTb noHHTajTb CBoib 
iiij[fl[ny /i;op6me ce6£ 

Italic and written alphabet. 




i(.^r^^«f^ idy/iUO^ n^^ZAliJ A 

2(§^tf %(^/ S 14 


9 CA/P t4' w-zjy.iy N' 

4-C3^ ^ X^Kli/ tc 16 C/^ 


I ir^^ Yi(^Wn 

&{pe 12 



Reading EXERCisii:. 






Odum Gown ynaxb odHooKdn eb pnKif. Ha tpoMieiii 
ao KpUKb tipuGnoKaA.u Atbdu u cb eemmiMh mpydoMb «ii- 
mawMU em U3b eodii. Om npocuAb, Hm66u nocmapoAucb 
noHMamt ew mMwy, Komqpaa ytuiua yace doeoMuo doMKo, 
u otknudjiz damt, aa mo eoanaipaoicdeHie. OdumpraSdm nou- 
Moxb uuAny u npunecb ee m uejuif. Emdm daxb eMif aa 
mo nojtmuHHUKb, a mnxb, Komqpwe m comow e^matitUMi 
un eod'A,, ddoice u ue no^AaiodapuM. 

Buduo, Hmo Gvi&Hb noHumdxb ceoib tuAAny dopoxce ee6A. 

Reading exercise. 15 



^uf^ m'^€l^'h una^^ 


V'6i?^C€^,Me ^l^CU U' <y6 ve^M^- 

'M^ n^mooM/b vti^na- 

mt/(yc. (zy^^ 


(u^^^^m^^j fw^m^ofiasi' i^^.m>^ 

^itt^daAk) 'nod^m'Mb uc^si^- 

no^mnu/^fium)^ t^ ^^/&^?&^ 

Law op permutation. 17 

■nf>mt}/iMe e^0' t^.M€^^o vtd- 


u /^ n>oo^t^'^t?tMf^U'^t^. 

'■(}, "tmo otj^O'^^ 9^0- 

Russian Conv. -Grammar. 

18 Law of permutation. 


In the vaxfous changes that words undergo through 
declerigipn, conjugation, composition and derivation, the 
final letter of the root is frequently changed according 
to fixed phonetic rules, which it is of the utmost im- 
portance to commit to memory as soon as possible: 



r, A. 3, » 
^' '^' "•' } before a, e, h, kj, b change into ^ 
CK, CT, J ( m 





J after r, k, x, at, ^, in, iii,, u; change into 


H xrKxffiqinui; » » h 


sacHmmn; » »e^ 

■fe » i » » H. 



B after a vowel changes into fi 
h before a consonant with t » » e 
•B before two consonants » » o 
fi before a consonant with t » » e. 

These pennatations are however subject to certain exceptknut 
Epenthesis and Prosthesis. 

Epenthesia is the insertion of a letter in the middle of a 
word in order to facilitate the pronanciation, or to unite letters 
which cannot be placed in juxta-position. It may be observed in 
jiKi6jiio from jikiS^tb, in jemeBae from jgineBo, and so on. 

Prosthesis is the addition of a letter at the beginning of a 
word. This is the case with the consonant b in B6ceMi (Slavonic 
oCBMi) and the vowel o in opssandfi (from poatB). 

Apocope and Syncope. 

Apocope is the contraction of a vowel into a semi-vowel at 
the end of a word. Ex. co sraott instead of co mh6h), hto6i. instead 
of ht66h. 

Syncope is the elision of a letter in the middle of a word to 
facilitate the pronunciation. Ex. oSimdTB for oCBimdrt, noJiTopi 
for nciiTopa. 

1 When the accented vowel e is pronounced o (after i;, h, at,, 
m, m) the vowel o is now usually printed and written instead of e. 
Thus they spell xdpom6 ajid not xoponie well, om6m. instead of 
OTiieMi by the father, and so on. 





The Russian language has no article, either de- 
fioite or indefinite. Thus OT^m * signifies indifierently 
the father; « father; father; it being left to the sense 
of the sentence to indicate whether the substantive is 
taken in a definite, indefinite or general sense. 

Number and case are distinguished by means of 
inflections alone. Hence the necessity of a careful study 
of the Russian declensions. 

There are three genders in Russian, as in English ; 
but this distinction applies in Russian also to inanimate 
objects. Id many cases however, the gender of sub- 
stantives may be known either by their signification or 
by their termination. 

Masculine by their signification are all appellations 
of men, whatever may be their termination: 

Tsop^iCb Creator spairb liar 

napi> Emperor (king) sasHai^H treasurer 

Kop6jii> king , ninn uncle. 

Masculine by their termination are all names of 
animate beings or inaniEc»ate objects ending in * or m: 
Bort God rep6fi hero 

6parB brother cxyiati occasion. 

Feminine by their signification are all female ap- 
pellations : 

Mail, mother isMHTiaa princess 

JI01B daughter cecipA sister 

TCTKa aimt xewk wife. 

Feminine by their termination are all riouns ending 
in a or ^ (not jwi): 

KH^a book aeiu^ earth 

n&JiKa stick hshji nurse-maid 

rpj^ma pear repo^na heroine. 

Neuter by its signification is jmra child. 

Neuter by their' tei-mination are all nouns ending 
in 0, e or m ji: 

For the right pronunciation of each new word presenting 
some difficalty, consult the Russian-English Yocabulary at the end 
of this Grammar. 8* 

20 Gender of substantivks. 

caoBo word hmh name 

ii6joKO apple np^Mfl time 

nojie field Sp^ma burden. 

Substantives in h are partly masculine, partly femin- 
ine; the proper gender of each of them must be learnt 
by practice, or by consulting a good dictionary: 
joacflt rain — masc. jiub idleness — fem. 

KopaCjtb ship — masc. mnsHt life — fern. 

H6roTi finger-nail — masc. cia^L steel — fem. 

Besides masculine, feminine and neuter nouns, there 
are in Russian also nouns of common gender, i. e. such 
as are either masculine or feminine according to circum- 
stances. Thus CHpoTia an orphan, is masculine when de- 
noting an orphan boy, and feminine when denoting an 
orphan girl. 

Nouns of common gender present no difficulty at 
all; nor does their declension, which is always in ac- 
cordance with the termination of the nominative singular. 


rat where b and, also 

Besjt everywhere a and, but 

3xtcB here ■sa.wb there 

cerdXBH to-daj ym6 already 

KorjA when eme still, yet 

ecTb is (frequently understood) kto who 

flOHa at home (aomi house) mto what. 


Tuopei;!.. atena. Tpynia. Hmji. Bpait. jI6joko. 
JI,oatfli>. Kopagjii.. JliHt. Bori Besjit. BpaTt eme lam,, 
a cecTpa yaie SAicb. Kto ^OMa? Oiem ^OMa. 

Bpairt H TCTKa i&wh, a cecTpa h aha* 3Aicb. KorAa 
HHHa AOMa? HflHa ceroAm AOMa. Ta* rp;^ina h fl6jioKO? 
Fpyraa SA^cb, a a6ji0K0 TaMi. 


God. The book. A time. The field. Life. The 
word. A sister. God is the Creator. Who [is]^ there? 
The mother [is] there, but the daughter [is] here. When 
[is] the father at home? The father [is] at home to-day. 

The mother and nurse [are] already at home, but 
the sister [i s] still here. What [is] there? The pear is 

■ These words as well as those contained in the precedine 
rules must be thoroughly committed to memory, before doine the 
exercise and translation. 

■■= Observe that a parenthesis (....) encloses a word to be 
translated or an annotation, whereas hrackets[ ] signify «leave out* 

Hard masculike nouns. 21 

there, but the apple [is] here. Who [is] here? The 
brother [is] still here, but the father [is] already there. 


Tfl,i OTeu.-B^ Oven-b isoTna,. 

Kor^a 6paTi ;i,6Ma? BpaTi ceroana aome. 

Kto TaMt? TaM'B cecTpd. 

^TO 3fficL? S^icb ji6j[oko. 



(Hard form.) 

General remarks. There are in Russian three 
declensions, which may be arranged according to the 
genders: the first, masculine; the second, feminine; the 
third, neuter. But the masculine declension, as well as 
the feminine and neuter, must be subdivided into hard 
and soft, according to trie termination of the nominative 
singular of each substantive.* 

Besides the usual cases, common with other lan- 
guages (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative), there are 
in Russian two more cases: the instrnniental answering 
to the questions by whom? and with what? and the 
prepositional, so called, because it is always preceded 
by one of the prepositions o, no, eh, npu, na, as will 
be seen further on. It never occurs alone. 

The form of the vocative is always like the 710- 
mindtive. It is therefore no distinct case, and will be 
entirely neglected in the study of the declensions. 

In a few ChurcB Slavonic words alooe, the vocative differs 
Bometimes frdin the nominative. These are chiefly B<)se! (Jjon) 
God! Fdcno^^Hl (tocnddi) Lord! Oiqe Hamil COme^^ naiwi) 
Oar Father! iHCyce XpHCT6! (lue^n Jfpucmdci) Jesus Christ! 
But it must also he added, that the use of these ancient vocative 
forms is restricted to ecclesiastical books and to some popular ex- 

> The best Russian Grammarians adopt, from a general and 
scientific point of view, only two declensions (hard and soft). But 
for foreigners the division of declensions according to the three 
genders is unquestionably the best and that to which all others are 
effectively reduced. See the table annexed to the 7'h lesson. 

22 Hard masculine nouns. 

Examples of hard masculine nouns. 

a) Animatf Beings. 

N. iidBHi the warrior b6hhh the warriors 

G, BOBHa of the warrior bohhobi of the warriors 

D. BOBHy to the warrior BdHHSM* to the warriors 

A. B6HBa the warrior b6hhobi> the warriors 

I. BdBHOH'b by the warrior sdHHaMH by the warriors 

P. (o) B6HBt (about) the warrior. (o)"B6BBaxt (about) the warriors. 

In the same manner as eoum are declined the 
greatest number of masculine nouns of animate beings 
ending in ^, such as: 

CToi«pi joiner genitive': CToiapi 

sysB^m blacksmith » Ey»HeKa ' 

Bopi thief » B6pa 

cnz^TB subject' y> ciox^Ta. 

dyjoiBBKi baker' » 6yio^BHEa 

6ap&Bi ram' » 6apaB& 

6bk% bull > 6iiK4 

Bon ox » BOJia. 

b) Inanimate Objects. | 


CTOJ* the table 
CTOJ16 of the table 
CTOjy to the table 
CTOJii the table 
CT0Ji5iu'fc,with the table 
(0) cTOJit (about) the table. 

CTOJiH the tables 

CTOJidB-b of the tables 

CTOJi&Hi to the tables 

CTOJiH the tables 

cTOJi&MH with the tables 

(0) cTOJi&x* (about) the tables. 

The declension of masculine nouns denoting inani- 
mate objects differs from that of animate beings only 
in the accusative of both numbers, which in the former 
is the same as the nommative whereas in the latter it 
is the same as the genitive. 

In the same manner as cmoAi are declined among 

' The genitive is indicated to show the displacement of the 
tonic accent throughout the declension. 

' Foreign nouns in i are declined as if they where true Rus- 
sian nouns. 

' It must be constantly borne in mind, that according to 
what has been stated (page 1§) concerning the use of Russian let- 
ters, after a guttural or hissing sound (t, k, x; ok, m, h, w,) the plu- 
ral inflection is u and not m: 6yAmHVKU, and not 6yjiovimiM; Stun, 
6uKU, etc. 

* Animals are considered as animate beings with regard to 
their declension. 



Kj6t, oak 

genitiye : 


sas^Bi law 



xjii&b bread, loaf 



ffiXTh debt 



C7E1 l)ranch 



naiasioi shop 



Bosi knife 



Some nouns elide in all other cases the vowel e 
or o of the termination of the' nominative singular, and 
are declined as follows: 

N. 3iH0ii> the castle 
,G. 36MSA of the castle 
D. saHKy to the castle 
A. 3&MOE1 the castle 
I. 3&HK0M% with the castle 
P. (o) aiuEi (about) the castle. 

3&ME11 the castles 

84heobi> of the castles 

3&HEair& to the castles 

3&HEH the castles 

s&uKa«H by the castles 

(0) 3&HEaxi (about) the castles. 

Thus are 


saudEi lock 

genitive : 


ftosb comer 
6ai6pi ' hook 
OT^K'b father 
Eyn^U'b merchant 
opeii eagle 
lewb lion 







Ae^i give (thou) poMiai novel 

ffi&ie give (you) h&jb^hei the boy 

HrpAert he, she, it plays y^eB^Kt the pupil, gen. yqesHEi 

B^y I see paddianEt the workman 

B^ABmB thou seest eorSei the skate, gen. eobbk^ 

a roBop^ I speak BMnepaTopi the emperor 

iioc6jii ambassador, gen. nocjii th roBopAmb thou speakest. 

d&VidE'b £dra. Cjnd Aj66«b. Cios^t^ poMaHa. 
Xjiifii Gyjo^HHEOBi. ^ojirA BopoBi. ^aft xjv^-b pa66THHKy. 
A&ltTe CTOJii pafidTHBsaiirb. M^jh^hki nrpaeirb ch (with) 


■ The displacement of the accent begins in this noun from 
the nom. plur. dy6ti downwards. 

■ The displacement of the accent begins from the nom. plur. 

' After a hissing consonant, the genitive plural ends inei, 
when the accent falls on the inflection: HOSHciu, of the knives. 

* It must be remembered that in names of animate beings, 
the accusative is like the genitive, for the masculine gender. 

' In the elision, the vowel e becomes t> after a, and f< after 
a vowel; sdxia (sdevn) the hare, aauna of the hare. 

24 Soft mascomne souns. 

il roBopK) CTOJii, a th roBopfino. o^ saMKaxt. Th 
B^jmmh 3aMKH HMnepaTOpa h saMKH Ky3Heii,6Bt. Hos'b bi 
Marasfiai Ky^^a. Th roBopfimL o Jihsk, a a roBopi) o fiHKt. 


The laws of God. The branch of the oak. The 
loaves of the baker. The debts of the thief. Give (thou) 
the table to the baker. Thou seest the pupil; he plays 
with (ci instr.) the boys. Give the pupils the tables. 

I speak of {transl. about) the ambassador, and thou 
speakest of the merchant.^ Give (thou) the hook to the 
fisherman (nom. pH6aKS, gen. pH6aKa). I see the house 
of the father and the shop of the merchant. Thou 
seest the castle of the emperor, and I see the lock of 
the blacksmith. 


r^i CTOjrB pa^oTHHKa? Ctoji pa66THHKa z^itih. 

Kto bi. ;i;6Mi nocja? Bi ;i,6M'fe nocjia 6paTi. 


A a 'iTO BHacy? Th BH^mnb JU>Ba. 

Kor^a MajBiHK-B jtoMa? Ma.jiBHHKi cero^Ha aoMa. 



(Soft form.) 
Soft masculine nouns have a twofold termination: 
some end in b; others in m. 

Examples of soft masculine nouns in 6. 

a) Animate Beings. 
N. uapt the Tsar (Czar) uaplk the Tsars 
6. iiapa of the Tsar uap^tt of the Tsars 
B. qapib to the Tsar uapHMi to the Tsars 
A. Aapa the Tsar uap^tt the Tsars 
I. napeMiby the Tsar ^apaBIK by the Tsars 
P. (o) i;ap* (about) the Tsar. (o) iiapaxi (about) the Tsars. 

Thus are declined: 
Kop6;ii> king 
cjiecapL locksmith 
yiHTejiL teacher 
npiaiejn. friend 

genitive: KopoM 
» CJiecapa 
» yHiiejia 
» . npiiiTeJia 

1 The preposition of, after a verbum sentiendi et declarandi, 
is translated with o that sometimes becomes o6^ and 66o for eu- 
phony's sake. 

Soft mascdline nouns. 


nenpiHTeji) enemy 
XHTejiB inhabitant 
0J1611B stag 
MeAsiAB bear 

genitive: Henpiaxe.w 

b) Inanimate Objects. 



ijioBdpB the lantern (jionapH the lanterns 
^OHapA of the lantern ())0Bap6ft of the lanterns 
4)0HapM to the lantern ifioHapaMi to the lanterns 
({poHipB the lantern lionapn the lanterns 
(j>OHapeM* with the lantern ^lOHapaMH with the lanterns 
(0) (jioHapt (about) the lantern . (0) (^OHapax^ (about) the lanterns. 

Such are: 
csoBdpb dictionary {sp. karihp) ship, boat 
rBOsjB iron nail 

genitive : 



Examples of soft 

masculine nouns in u. 

a) Animate Beings. | 


repoft the hero 

repda the heroes 


repda of the hero 

repdee-b of the heroes 


repdio to the hero 

repdaMi to the heroes 


r.ep6a the hero 

repdeai the heroes 


repdem-b by the hero 

repdaMH by the heroes 


(0) repot (about) the hero. 

(0) repdaxi (about) the heroes. 

Such are: 
KasHa^^S treasurer 
laK^R footman, servant 

genitive: Kasaa^fa 
> jiaK^Ji. 

b) Inanimate Objects. | 


cjiyMft the occasion 

cji^^aH the occasions 


cj^Haa of the occasion 

cji^iaeai of the occasions 


CJryMaM to the occasion 

CJiy^aaMi to the occasibns 


cjiyiaft the occasion 

cj^?aH the occasions 


cji^vaeM'B with the occasion 

cijHasasa with the occasions 


(0) cji^iat (about) the occasion. 

(0) esi'Haax'b (about) the occasions. 

Such are: 
cap4£ cart shed, coach house 
noEdii room 

A few nouns in cm change in all cases the e of the 
nominative singular into *, and are declined thus: 

genitive: cap^ 
» noKdfl. 

N. coJiosefi the nightingale 
G. cojioBB^ of the nightingale 
D. cojiOBBK) to the nightingale 
A. coJiOBBA the nightingale 
I. coiOBBgiii by the nightingale 
P. (0) coJOBBi (about) the nigh- 

cojobbA the nightingales 
coaoBBCBi of the nightingales 
coJioBBSH'B to the nightingales 
coJiOBbesK the nightingales 
cojiOBBiuH by the nightingales 
(0) coJOBiaxi (about) the nightin- 

' Plur. TBcSsjH, rB03i6fl, etc. 

26 Soft masocline nouns. 

Such are: 

BopoS^H sparrow 

Mypas^ ant 

pyH6B rivulet 

pen^a (knot of) burdock. 

genitive: Bopo6&fl 
» jiypaBLa 
» py^ia 
» penbi. 

Qx6thhk'& the hunter 6h3i scTpiieHt he was met 

HejioBiBi man, human creature doct^jii ffem.) bed, bedstead 

Bipb believe (thou) Ten6pB now, at present 

BJipbTe believe (you) niMt with what: o 11611% about 

He (before the verb) not what 

TsuinsBXh the carpenter Huiwh by whom 

vb in nosisHBaeTi (be, she, it) shows. 


CjOBapfl npiaxejieft. fl sfiaty njapa. Th BiiAHiiib 
Kopojieft. BipB npiaTe;iK), a ne sipB oxoTHHKy. Oxothhr* 
Bpajib. npiaTejt noKasHsaeT'B sa&TGJisswh MeSBiAa- He 
BipBTe EenpiflTejHU'B. IIoct^ji? bi noKoaxi Kopojia. R 
Teii^pB B'B capat. 

H roBopw ci KasHaneeMi Kopa6jiflX'B nenpiaTejret. 
KopojiB 6hjiq& BCTpiqcHi MTejaMH. Th roBopSniB mo- 
sapt, a a. roBopra 061 oxothhbj^ Th b^keoib cojobbSbi, a s. 
B^xj Bopo6BeB'B. ,!I,aHTe BopofiBaMi x.!it6a (some bread), 
r^i BopofiBfi? Bopo6B6 Bt capai. 


The dictionary of the friend. The [iron] nail of the 
workman. Thou seest the king, and I see the heroes. 
Do not believe (transl. Believe not) the enemy (dat.). 
The enemy is a liar. Thou speakest with (ci iristr.) 
the teacher about the bedsteads and ships. The Tsar 
was met by the inhabitants. With what does the boy 
play (transl. plays the boy)? With an [iron] nail. 

The hunter shows the stag and the lion. The king 
was met by the heroes. I speak of the ships of the 
enemy, and fhou speakest of the bedstead of the teacher. 
The hunters [are] in the coach houses, and the [iron] nails 
[are] in the room. Give the pupil the burdocks, and 
some bread to the sparrows. The ants [are] in the 
rooms (B'B prep.). 

mneb pafioTacTi n.ii6THHKii? Ohi. (he) pafioraeTi tbos- 


^TO noKasHBaeTi oxothhki? Ohi noK^SHBacTi ojt^Ha: ' 

Haed femikine nouns. 


r^i 6paTTi Kopojia? 
EorAa ot^i^'b b^b soiraaT'l? 

H^apB Shjtb BcrpiTOHi ko- 

BpaTi Kopojii TaMi. 
OTeKi ceroAHa bi KOMnaTi. 



(Hard form.) 
Examples of hard feminine nouns. 

a) Animate Beings. 

xShei the wives 

xSb% of the wires 

xgHam to the wives 

xiwb the wives 

seattUB. by the wives 

(o) afinaxt (about) the wives. 

N. seH& the wife 
G. seHU of the wife 
D. xeni to the wife 
A. xeay the wife 
I. xeniio (-dfl) by the wife 

P. (o) aegB (about) the wife, 

Such are 

I(apiua Empress (of Bussia) plural: lutpAoH' 

Eopoji^Ba queen » sopoi^BB 

BA0B& widow » ba6bh 

niej& bee * mejin 

co64Ka dog » C06&EH 

Kop6Ba cow » KopdsH 

AiB^qa girl » A^BiitB. 

In the same incmtier are also declined 
masetdine nowae in a, such as: 
CT&pocTa headman 
CJtTr& servant. 

some rare 

b) Inanimate Objects. 
N. xapiaBa the picture EapT^HU the pictures 

G. Kapr^BH of the picture 
D. Kapmsik to the picture 
A. KapTtey the picture 
L sapT^HOiO (-ofi) with the pict, 
P. (0) KapiAH* (about) the pict 

KapT^ai of the pictures 
Eapiteamb to the pictures 
sapiABEi the pictures 
KapT±HaMH with the pictures 
(0) KaprtBaxt (about) the pict. 

Such are: 
pdsa rose 
TpaB& grass, herb 
KdMHaia room 
EB^a book 
np^Tia' proverb 
BOA& water 

plural: p63H 

» ipiBH 

» EdHiram 

» KB^rs 

» npni^H 

» b6ah. 

1 With feminine nouns the displacement of the accent is rare 
and limited to the plural. , . , 

* Certain feminine nouns in oica, na, vm, preceded by a consonant, 
and in wa even when preceded by a vowel or semi-vowel, form 
their genitive plural in e& (not in i); rvpinmeu of the proverbs; 
eo33ied the bridle, eoaoiciu of the bridles, etc. 

28 Hard femixine xouns. 

In the accusative of feminine nouns, there is 
no distinction: between animate and inanimate in the 
singular; but in the plural the same distinction is made 
as in masculine nouns (page 23). 

genitive pliir. 

» » 
» » 



» » 


Such feminine nouns as have two consonants be- 
fore the final vowel, or a consonant and a soft semi- 
vowel, insert e or o between them in the genitive plural, 
the soft semi-vowel being suppressed: 

N. nAjiM, the stick nijKH the sticks 

G. najtKH of the stick ndaOKi) of the sticks 

D. n&josjk to the stick najKasit to the sticks 

A. n^jiKy the stick iiAjikh the sticks 

I. dAjiboe) with the stick ndjiKajin with the sticks 

P. (o) nAjmi (about) the stick. (o) nd-iKaxi (about) the sticks. 

Such are: 

0Bi;d sheep 

K6oiEa cat 

6&6sa old womaa, grandmother 

Aap^BHa Imperial Princess 

ji63CBa spoon 

CB^ABfia marriage 

Kon^fiEa copeck (Buss, coin.) 

The vowels o and e are inserted solely to facilitate 
the pronunciation; when unnecessary they are omitted. 
Thus BepcTa verst, acepxBa victim, cecipa sister, and others, 
make regularly eepcrm, owepmsi, cecmp'o^, etc. 


«Hi to mc a BHjiat I saw, I have seen 

nos&iytCTa if you please jh? (interr. particle) 

ciyadHEa servamt-maid ijjiH either, or 

Kopstesa basket ^icTO often, frequently 

cynp^ra wife o6hkhob^hbo usually 

jijiaexe you make, you do KymasMt (we) eat 

ijetTi colour; itsirdKi flower KpacoiA beauty 

3M6ji6Ma emblem pXaoctb joy. 
n.]eiiflnHni;a niece 

R BiA^JPt co6aKy. Co6a,Ka nrpdexx qacTO. cb Kopo- 
BOK). ^aft (give) co6aKi xji46a. Jl,afi MHi KopsHHKy j^ 
BfiuH. ^at KopoBaMi TpaBH (gen. sing.). II^JiEa 6a6KH Bt 

Cecmpd has also the irregular form cecmep^ besides cecmpt 
which nowadays is very seldom used. 

Soft feminink nouns. 29 

jTJif. Ji,&Me uwk, nosajiyficTa, KH^ry h KopsdHKy. 

I'osa, KopojeBa npbiosh, ecu. SMfijiesia KpacoTu h 
paAOCTH. S. roBOpib o cB&jsf>6i, i^ap^BHS. I^BiTi. EomeKi mhI 
HpaBHTca (pleases me). J,aft KHfira caymaHKlj, a KopsfiHKH 
AiBfiui. Mh KymaeMi JEoaKoro h b6jikok) (fork). ?to bh 
Tenepfc ^tiaaeie? 

Give bread to the dog, and grass to the cow. 
I saw a rose in the basket. I saw the basket of the 
niece and the book of the girl. Give the widow the 
basket. You speak of (transl. about) the dog, and 
I speak of the cow. What do you make (Hto bh 
Aijaeie), a basket or a book? I often see the picture. 

What do you do' with the money (ci fleHBraMH) 
of the widow? I saw a rose, but you speak of the 
basket. Who usually plays with the cat? The boy 
usually plays with the widow's cat. We eat with 
spoons, knives and forks. 


Kto HrpaeiT. c* KoniKaMH? Majit^HKi. h AtBOiKa h- 

rpajoii ch KoniKanH. 

Kto BHAiJi'B KHary Kopo- R BifaiJi'B KHfiry KopojieBti 

jiCBH? H Kapifey n;apeBHU. 

KoM^ (To whom) bh aaeie fl mk) KopsHHKy aten'fe 6y- 

KopaAsKy? jciHHKa. 

Mto bu A^JiaeTe TenepbV Si. j.'fejaro 4)0HapB. 



(Soft form.) 

Soft feminine nouns have, like soft masculine nouns, 
a twofold termination. Some of them end in a ; others in ?.. 

' The particle m is omitted whenever the interrogative sen- 
tence begins with an interrogative pronoun. 


Soft feminine nousb. 

Examples of soft feminine nouns in h. 

a) Animate Beings. 


HiBfl the nurse (-maid) bAhh the nurses 


eAhh of the nurse Bisb of the nurses 


Has* to the nurse nkESiwb to the nurses 


MHH* the nurse hsbb the nurses 


HMBM (-eii) by the nurse niHtniH by the nurses 


(6) hAh* (about) the nurse. (o) Hanax* (about) the nurses. 



TSMarkRn princess 
6or]&Bfl goddess 
rpa^BBa countess 
repoAaa heroine 

gen. plur.: ^uaricah 
» » fior^Bb 
■D » rpa4>i&ai> 
» s> repo^Bb. 

b) Inanimate Objects. 

N. u'jm the buUet 

nyjiH the bullets 

D. B^jiH of the bullet 

nyjiB of the bullets 

G. jrjiA to the bullet 

n^nKWh to the' bullets 

A. vfao the bullet 

D^;iH the bullets 

I. irjitaa (-efi) with the bullet 

n^JSMH with the bullets 

P. (o) wjx'k (about) the 


(o) Tijssa.'h (about) the bullets. 

Such are: 

AHHa melon 

gen. plur. 


6^pH tempest 

» » 


He^tjia week 

» » 


sapa dawn 


» » 


T6Ba fishing net 

» » 


l6ja portion 

» > 

jojii and soa6fi' 

n^Ba fine, penalty 

» j> 


seiKji^ earth 

» » 


Some nouns ending in jmov km preceded by another 
consonant, insert in the genitive plurai e or o^ or change 
* and a into e, just as in the case of the hard feminine 
nouns (page 27): 

6&CHa fable geiK plur.: 6&ceBb' 

6&mua tower » » fi&meHB. 

Such feminine nouns as end in in, hke AuiAia, 
England, Poccin Russia, have in the dative and prepo- 
sitional the inflection u instead of n, according to the 

• Some nouns of this class form their genitive plural also in eU. 

^ Some nouns of this class form their genitive plural only 
in eii. 

' One single noun k^xhh, the kitchen, inserts o: K^xont C«y- 
xom,) of the kitchens. 

■ * Instead of -em,, many grammarians write -exa, according 
to pronunciation. 

Soft feminine nouns. 


law of permutation (page 17) Amjiiu to England, o&b 
AhuIu about England, Pocciu, o Pocdu. 

Examples of soft feminine nouns in &. 

N. nomain the horse 
G. jdmaAH of the horse 
D. jdmaAH to the horse 
A. lomaAB the horse 
I. AdmnxMO (-ix>) by the horse' 
P. (o) j[6inaAH (about) the horse. 

a) Animate Beings. 

ji6iDaAH the horses 
]som&j!fi& of the horses 
jiomaAaH'b to the horses 
jomaA^tt the horses 
jomaAHMH (-bmA) by the horses 
(o) lomaAHXi (about) the horses. 

gen. plur.: CBeRpdaefi 

» » MHIII^Z. 

Such are: 
CBeKpdsB mother-in-law 
HBiDi. mouse 

The two words aaxB mother, and jiflHh daughter, 
are declined throughout as if their nominative singular 
were Mdmepi> and donepb. Their accusative singular is 
however jiarcb and ao^b. 

b) Inanimate Objects. { 

N. RocTB the bone 

k6cth the bones 

G. KdcTH of the l;one 

BOCT^tt of the bones 

D. k6cth to the bone 

EOCTflHi to the bones 

A. k6ctb the bone 

e6cth the bones 

I. EocTBH* (-iio) with the bone 

KocTaMH (koctbmA) With the bones 

P. (o) k6cth (about) the bone. 

(o) Kocraxi (about) the bones. 

Such are: 

cipacTi passion 

gen. plur.: CTpacT^H 

KpoB^TB bedstead 

» » EposaT^fi 

np&.')AuocTB idleness 

» » (cpaaAHocT^ft) 

Beu(B thing 

» » Bem^H 

AsepB door 

» » jBep^fi. 

SH3HL life 

» » xiisHett. 


roBop^i%'(he, she, it) speaks 
yfiMijia (she) ran away 

3TH these 

KOHioBiRA Stable 

npEBaAJeac&iB (they) belong 

nopdEB vice 

BUC0T4 height 

Tepninie patience 

Kjf^cpi coachman 

orpdHHa (she is) immense. 

ras^ gazelle 

HecHictie unhappyneES. 

^ovb KHarHHH Hrpaeii ct HflHeio rpa^fina. Tfli ao- 
niaflH CBeKpoBH? JI6ma;^H CBeKpoBH b-b KOHibmH't, a Jio- 

^ These nouns even when denoting animate beings admit of 
no distinction betwem the nominative and accusative singular, but 
in the plural the usual distinction is made. 

32 Haki> and soft skutee nouns. 

raa;i,n MaTepH sa^cb. 3th kocth npHHa/i;;ieffiaTi JIh)66bh.' 
BHCOTii 6ameHT, ropo^a (town) orpoMHa. 

Mh KymacMi ahhh). IleHa CTpacTH HecqacTie. Mh 

He KyinaeMX rpymi. bhjkoio. Mhihi. yetmaja oti, kohhch. 

JlK)66Bb MaTep^H orpoMHa, ho TepniHie HaHb TaKate^(also) 

orpoMHO. JI,aHT€ Tpasy jioraaAiMTb. KoniKa y6t^ajra ci koctbh). 


The daughter plays with the mother, and the boy 
plays with the nurse. The Tsar speaks of the princess, 
and thou speakest of the countess. These horses belong- 
to the mother-in-law. The horses [are] in the stable of 
the mother. Idleness is the mother of vices. Coachman, 
give me the bullet! 

We often eat melons. The cat is playing with the 
meuse. T often saw the beauty of the dawn. The 
house of the uncle does not please me [trans, pleases 
me not, Exerc. 7). Give the uncle the book of fables. 
The height of the tower is immense. 'The dog ran 
away with the bone. I saw the hunter's bullets. 

r^i ceroAHH HjiHa? Hina yfiistajia cb Ma;iB- 


Ta* aoib TenepbV ^omb cb HflHero na Tpasi. 

KoMy npuHafljemaT'B 3th Oh4 npHHa;i;jieataT'B pH^aKy 

TOHH? rpa(j)HHH. 

Bha^jh jih bh hobhx'b (new) H BfiA.iji'B vioniaA^fl KHariiHii 

jioniaA^ii KHariiHH? bt. KOHibmHaxt ASflH. 

"■Ito bh roBopiiTe o repoiiHi? R roBopib He o repoiiHi, ho 




(Hard and soft terminatiou.) 
Example of a hard neuter noun. 


cjoBO the word 

cjiobA the words 


MOBa of the word 

CJI0B1. of the words 


cjour to the word 

CMBdM* to the words 


c.jioBO the word 

cioBii the words 


uoBOMt witli the word 

cjoBiiMH with the words 


(o) odst (about) the word. 

(o) cjioBdxi (about) the words. 

' J[k)66bi> Love, a Christian name very frequently met with in 
Russia, touch are also: Bipa Faith, and Haj^Ksa Hope. 

Hard and soft keuteb nouns. 

Such are: 
Tijio body 
CT&jifl herd 
daepo lake 
36pKa;[o mirror 
bhh6 wine 

fikio business, aifair 
ABnfi person, face 
cejid village 
flftu6 egg 
aiBo beer 

gen. sing. 


» 36pKa;ia 



nom. plur. liaa' 
» » CTaa4 


nuBa not used in the plur 
Example of soft neuter nouns in e. 

N. M6pe the aea 
6. Mopfl of the sea 
D. M(5pio to the sea 
A. Mope the sea 
I. Hopem by the sea 
P. (o) Mdpt (about) the sea. 

Hopa the seas 

Hop^fi of the seas 

MopflHi to the seas 

MopH the seas 

Hop^KH by the seas 

(o) MopgX'B (about) the seag. 

i6aa the couches 

jidmi, of the couches 

jibxaMi to the couches 

Ji6xa the couches 

Ji6sauH with the couches 

(o) jidaaxi (about) the couche^. 

Such is also: 
noje the field. 

Words exhibiting this typical inflection are however 
very rare. Neuter nouns in ite, oice, m, me take for the 
most part the inflections' of the hard form : 
N. jdxe the couch 
O. Ji6xa of the couch 
D. Jiday to the couch 
A. Ji6se the couch 
I. ^idacem with the couch 
P. (o) nbsA (about) the couch. 

Such are: 

luevd (iiJieMe) shoulder'^ gen. sing, njieii nom. plur. oj^ie 

yiB.iHiqe school » > yi^niua » » yi^Jiauia 

SMximfi dwelling » » xanniita » » XH;iHiaa. 

Nouns in ie, such as mepn4,me patience, have in 
their prepositional singular the termination iu (instead of 
itb): mepm/bHiu about the patience. 

Also some neuter nouns insert a vowel in the 
genitive plural to facilitate pronunciation: okho the 
window, OKOHt of the windows, ctckjio glass, the pane of 
glass, CTCKOJi* of glasses. 

There are ten neuter nouns in mh (some are of very 
frequent use) which have a peculiar form of declension. 

1 Iu neuter nouns, the accent very often distinguishes the 
gen. sing, from the nom. plur. 

2 Neuter forms in e are now generally replaced by those in o. 
Russian Conv.-Orammar. 3 


Haku axi> soft nedter jxovsh, 

Example of soft neuter Dounayin mk 

"??'.'" sp^MaTThe time 
G. Bp(5in'HH of the time 
D. Bpi5i!M(a to the time 
A. iipssia the lime 
I Bp^MCHeM* with the time 
P. (o) BpeMCHH (about) the tinle. 

upeMCHA the times 
BpeMCH* of the times 
BpetceR&H'b to the times 
BpeMSHil the times 
BpeueMMH with the times 
(o) BpeweH&X'h (about) the times. 

fipejia burden Teua crown 

BMji name, noun 3bAms standard' 

nuaxK flame cima seed' 

nj^MM race , BiiMfl udder. 

cipeMH stirrup 

The word ahta child, exhibits the following irregu- 
larities : 

Sing. N. ;THiA, G. jaiaTH, D. shtAth, A. «htA, I. SHiaTeio, P. o jHiaTH. 

.Plur. N. s^TH, G. aiidii, D. xbTsat, A. Jtiiefi, I. jtTiMH, P. o sirajcb. 


9Toro of this, sthxt. of these 
BKVcj, taste. 
iiocjroBBKa proverb 
irepeaiFawTca (they) change 
DepeMiHaeMCfl (we) change 
MH 3B4eMi we know 
Hameii of our (f.) 
oSiacHjieT'B (it) explains 
asji^Hie phenomenon 
co^an^Hie work (literary) 
virh (there is) no 
jep^BHa village 
ripoB3Hom6Hie pronunciation 

cer6 of this (obsolete) 
Toro of that 

HBtxT, colour, plur. u,EiT4' 
iijiaBaiOTi (they) swim or sail 
arpS, play 

y;tOB(5aicTBie pleasure 
CMepTb f. death 

4>H3HKa physics, natural philos. 
naMt to us 
npnpoAa iiature 
cTHxoTBop^Hie poetrj, poem 
ecTb there is, there are 
MB'b Hp&BHTca it pleases me, I like. 
IIpon3HOin6Hie 9Toro cjiOBa oieHt TpyAHO (difficult). 
UBiTi) SHaMCHH npiiiejia uni HpaBHTca, a n;B'feirB SHaMCHS 
HenpiflTejieS mhI; iie HpanHTcn. H roBopib o noji a th tobo- 
pAini. ciMeHE Botb (Here is) 3Ha,Mfl h CTp^Ma. Ot^u,!.' 
Hrpaen. ci. a*tbm6. 

tpiiaHKa sum, oC'LacEaen, amemn npHpoAU. He o 


cTHxOTBop^Hiaxi J[6pM0HT0Ba. Jlid^H (people) roBopiTt 
HacTO, HTO BpeMeaa nepeMiHiiracL (are changed), ho BpeMena. 
He nepeMinaiOTca; jiio^h nepeMiHatcrca ct Bp^MeHCMi. 
The pronunciation of these words is veiy difficult. 
The colour of this beer does not please me, but the 

1 In the nom. plur., it is pronounced SHaMCHa and aaaMgHa. 
' In the genitive plural, it has ctMaHt instead of ciMeHi. 
' This word has a double plural with a different signification 
See the fourth Lesson of the Second Part. 

GeNEBAL view of substantive INFI.EOTIOKS. 


colour of that wine pleases nae much. In Russia (B'bprep.) 
(there are some] lakes. You speak of the standards of 
the enemies, and I speak of the friends' stirrups. The 
taste of the eggs does not please me. Hope is the joy 
of life. 

[A] proverb saj's: times change while we change with 
the times. Do you see the window? I see the panes 
of glass of the windows. The children play in (Baprep.) 
the field. The ships sail on the sea. The play causes 
(AOCTSiBJiAeTL) the children (dat.) pleasure. We know 
nothing about the time of our death. 


Hto th BH;^H^It? 
^To BH A^JiaeTe? 
r^iii Tenepb ^liHTa? 
^eMX TH roBopfiniB? 
KaKii soByTi (call) 3to autA? 
HnTajiH-jiH (Did you read) bu 
y at^ coiHH^HiH aToro no3Ta ? 
K,To Ha nojiax-B? 

R vdmj Mna. h bhho. 
S. arparo cb jsfitAteio. 
^HTfl Ten^pL Bi yqftjiHni^. 
K roBopK) atHjfiin^ js^iitevt. 
&Toro Mu He BHaeiffb. 
R yace iHTajii CTHXOTBope- 

Hia 3Toro no3Ta. 
Ha nojax'B uyatHKH ct> ci- 




From what has been hitherto said concerning the 
declensions of substantives, and from the following 
synoptical table, we may easily draw a few hints of a^ewe- 
ral character, which will no doubt greatly assist the learner. 

Hard form. 

Soft form 



S'em. Neut.| 




Neuter. | 

Sing.Nom. -k 







Gen. a 









Dat. y 









Ace. (a) 








Inst, om 

on (oh) 





bB (in) 



Prep. 4 









Plnr. Nom. u 






i " 


Gen. i om. 







! eii 










' am 




















a MB 













36 Gen'ebal vikw of substantive inflections. 

1. Though each of the three genders has its own 
declension, yet we may state that the singular inflections 
of neuter nouns are in the main Hke those of the mas- 
culine gender, whereas their plural inflections do not in 
general differ from those of the feminine gender. 

2. The prepositional singular always ends in t, 
except in a few feminine and neuter nouns (page 31 
and 33). 

3. The dative, instrumental and prepositional of 
the plural take without any distinction of gender, ihe 
inflections em's, emh, axi>, in hard nouns; and hhi, amh, 
ax*, in soft ones. 

fieniarks on the genitive case.^ 
This case must, always be emplojed in negative 
sentences containing transitive verbs (see page 52) and 
after the following adverbs of quantity: 
UHoro much, many cii^eohi. too, too muc)i 

u&io little, few ctdit&KO as much, as many 

66jiie more HH4er6 {pr. nit-cbai v6h) nothing 

H^Eie less 'ixo vmi'jjsfi something, somewhat 

CKoaiKo how much, how many HicKOJUKo some, any, several 
Aob6jii>ho enough EeMB6ro a little, some.''' 

uBdro ctoji6bi. many tables. 

CK6jbK0 paSdTHHKOBi? _ how many workmen? 

Aob6:ii>eo sheer's {notn. pi. tfiahrn). money enough, 
a Be B^A^x i^ipa. I did not see the Tsar. 

Bu He BBjiHie CTesojTB. You do hot see the panes. 

SAicfc ae 6uio ji^maAH. here was no horse.^ 

The genitive singular of some masculine nouns in 
^, h and m, when used in a partitive sense, i. e. to denote 
a part of a totality, or a certain quantity, ends in y 
or H», instead of a or a: 

^&HTe usi neMudro c4sapy! Give me some sijgar! 

Bon. idiHKa lin. There is a cup of tea. 

Kyp^HBe xafiaE^ bp^abo. The smoke of tobacco is harmful. 

Note also the ten following words of frequent use 
which take y (lo) instead of i in their prepositional singular: 

' Further details on the use of the genitive case are given in 
the 7tl» lesson of the second part. 

» The simple particle ne does not require the genitive, because 
the turn of the sentence is considered as pesitive: y Meoa ne cjo- 
B&pi> I have no dictionary. 

' The use of the genitive case after a negation and an ad- 
verb of quantity is by uo means a peculiar feature of the Slavonic 
languages, as some grammarians have styled it. Comp. the French: 
Combien de travailleurs? II n'y a pas de cheval ici, etc. 


roji year Bpaii country, spot 

Bepxi top jici forest 

BiKi century iiocrt bridge 

Call ball caji garden 

C6perb shore, coast naci hour.' 

CoK-B Side, flank WORDS. 

Mmch^ki batcher, gen. -a xyndaBjat artist 

aaK&iHBaTb to kill, to slaughter noA^fiTe give (yoa)! 

Kyz&pKa woman-cook speAi damage, ^en. -& 

K^pHita hen HaK0Bdjii>Hji anvil 

niryxi cock, jren. -ft oTsi^^TB to answer 

rycii goose (masc.) nHci>H6 letter 

JTKa duck, gen. pi. yroEx KOTdpnfi which, who, what 

ryjAcTT) (he, she, it) walks cocin neighbour 

Apyri friend cK6po soon, quick 

6()r£.TCTBo' riches « Sjnj OTBi^&Tb I shall answer 

cocToiiTi (he, she, it) consists cjdsa glory 

CEOTi cattle • cii0K6iicTBie tranquillity 

BepG^ibsB camel noji d^hjiomi under the ashes 

npH^BB^a (she) caused muputimn they discover 

Ha on, upon, to MudxecTso quantity 

xMia^Ki, coachman, gen. -a Beon. (fern.) thing 

rp^6en£ comb koj^ii6 ring 

Gpacji^Tb bracelet oxep6ibe necklace 

3acT6iKKa hook ocTasjaerE (he, she, it) abandons 

cnAvKa lucifer, match capoift orphan 

noACBiiBBKi candlestick AwfiM, box, case 

Bibci> weight CKaac^Te tell [cjiyrH 

<iepHA2bBni(a inkstand C3yr& servant, footman, plur. 

fiesi nacTyxft without shepherd GaHK^pi banker [the victim 

yAOBdJiBCtBie pleasure CHsinTi AofSii^eio (they) become 

nonA, goat, plur. udsH cjiohI elephant, gen. -& 

BO.iEi> wolf AiJiaeTi (he, she, it) does, makes. 

Aiao affWi-, buaineBB EXERCISE 13. 

Bori> He ocTaBjiaeTi cnpo-ra. noAaftre cjoh^ afijioKO. 
C5a»6Te, noaiajiyficTa, cjiyr-h 6aHK6pa, qio a SAict bi 
KOHHaT^, 6biih 6e3i nacTyxd 6uBijoTh Ao6iiieK) bojikobi. 
dio xkiQ ;(OCTaBjrae'rB Mni jraoro yAOBOJitCTBia. JH^Ute 
MHi eme HeHHoro xjii6a. 

Ilojti. neujiQji'b FepKyjiaHyMa oTKpuBanTb MHoatecTBO 
Ben^^ft: noxfi, joskh, rp66BH, amiHEH, K6m(a, ose- 
pdii>a, 6pac.i6Tii, .^acTessH, cvAvui, vbcii, ^epakxamofi. 
Ha roBop^DiB EapTAHaxi. xyAOXHHKa, a a roBopK) o 
syfiapaxi imothheob*. KHfirH yieHHKa Bt yiAjHmi. 

The butcher slaughters cows and bulls, goats and 
sheep (plur.), and the woman-cook [kills] hens and cooks, 

> All further remarks and exceptions concerning the declen- 
sion of nouns have been removed to the Second Part. 

38 Nouns with prepositions. 

geese and ducks. The teacher walks with the boy, the 
mother (walks) with the daughter, the brother with the 
sister, the friend with the friend. The riches of the 
Kirghise consist Cs««^.^ of (bi prepos.) cattle: of camels, 
bulls, goats, sheep and horses. 

The terripest caused much damage to the houses 
and fields. Neighbour, give me some tea. The glory 
of man does not consist in riches. Have you already 
answered (aa, accus.) the letter of the friend who yester- 
day was (BHepa 6ujn,) in the room of the neighbour? 
I have not yet answered (R eme He OTBtiajit), but I shall 
soon answer. The century of Octavius (Norn. OKTaaifi) 
was a century (instr. here) of glory and tranquillity. 


TAi csyra yquTtJia? Ciyra yqaTejia 3;i4ci>, a cjiy- 

ra oaHKHpa na nocTy. 
He atejiaeie Jiw bh o64;i,aTi> Ci y^toBOJiBCTBieMi. 

ceroAHa bi r6po;i;4? 
Kto CuaT) Taut Ha noji ci il 6aji'b na nojii ci Mac- 


He npHiHHHja jih 6ypa mh6- EypanpHHUHBjaMHdroBpeAa 
10 BpeAa Ji1icsM% H ca- ne ji'fecajpb h caA&Kb, a 
AaMt? flOMaMi H noxAwb. 

Ta* Jiemiii-h lleTepfiyprt (or HeTepg^prt, crojifii^a (capi- 
CaHKra-lIexepgypra.)? tal) PoccfH, jiextrb ua 

6eperaxi Hsbu. 



A. Prepositions wMch always govern the same case: 
a) With the genitive: 
6e3i without oit from, away from 

Wi for pajH for the sake of 

no till, up to y at, by, near. 

H3X out of, from 

• Very often the cases of nouns are governed by prepositions 
(as in Greek, Latin, Qerman, etc.), which occur so frequently in 
most sentences, that they must be learnt as early as possible. For 
the present only those prepositions are given which are most ne- 
cessary, this put of speech being fully treated in the Second Part. 


b) With the dative: 
Ki, Ko' to, towards. 

c) With the accnsatiye: 
npo Of, aboat, concerning qpest, ^^pesi over, across, 

CKBOSB through, throughout through, after. 

d) With the instramental: 
HaA% aboye, over. 

e) With the prepositional: 
npH near, in the time of. 


BoT'i soMi 6e3i dKOB'6. There is a house without win- 


M&nhiEKb, yfifli omz ornh! Boy, go away from the fire! 

KHira y y^Axejia. The book is at the teacher's. 

DojiHTe »ra miBOBapyl Go to the brewer! 

n^jra npojieT'&ia cxeosi, cieBaa. The bullet flew through the 


IlT^ita jieideit nadi rouBOD The bird flies over the head of 
npiarejia. the friond. 

9to cjiyii&jiocB npu A.ieKc4HAp4. This happened in the tiiiie of 


B. Prepositions wMcli govern two oases: 

a) With the accasative and instrumental: 

noji under, below aa behind, after, for (with verbs 

n^peA'B, npeu before, to of thanking). 

These three prepositions govern the accusative, when 
the verb of the sentence conveys an idea of motion or 
direction ; whereas they are followed by the instrumental 
if denoting a state of rest: 

& (5p6cHjii SH^ry nodi ctoji'b. I threw the book under the table. 

K6mEa ohaAti no&t n^Hsoio. The cat lies under the stove. 

EjiaroAapA saci aa M^^sHsy. Thank you for the music. 

b) With the accusative and prepositional: 
vb in, into, to, at aa on, upon, against, to. 

When implying motion with the accusative, when 
implying rest with the prepositional: 
ObA iioni.iiA n DiRd.iy. They went to school. 

Ou'b 6hjii Ha yjiHKi. He was in the street. 

The preposition o, o6i, 660 generally governs the 
prepositional when employed for about, concerning and 
the accusative when taken in the sense of against: 

> The final (instead of t) is frequently met with in many 
prepositions, in order to soften pronunciation. 

40 Nouns with peepositionb. 

Ohi yf^pjiin, KyjiaKdHi o6^ cioii. He struck (against) the (able 

with his fist. 
H roBopx) o6t oTui, a tu tobo- T speak (about) of the father, and 
p^mi cuH^. thon speakest of the son. 

C. Prepositions which govern three cases*: 
a) With the instrnmental, genitive and accusative: 

Ci with; from; about. 

Generally speaking, Cb governs the instrumputal 
when it signifies with, the genitive when, it signifies 
from and tifie accusative when it signifies about: 
Ct yipfi 10 B^uepa. From morning to evening, 

nijisa TojmiHBdx) a, n&:iei('B. A stick about one fin^rer thick, 

a nomwi ryjaiB m aeHdB. I went and took a walk with my 

b) With the dative, accusative and prepositional: 
110 along, according to; up to; after, on. 

This preposition is used with the dative to express 
motion, time and manner; it is followed by the accusative, 
when signifying up to, as far as; with the prepositional, 
when corresponding to after, on: 
a ryaaK) no r6pojy. I walk in the town. 

R er6 BHjdJii no BTdpnaKaMt. I saw him on (every) Tuesday. 

Ohi ofliBfteicfl no M6ji He dresses fashionably. 

no jiiByB CT6poHy. On the left hand side. 

no npomScTsiH nsn-a. nix-h. After the lapse of five years, 

fl CUTS no I am full up to my throat. 

no npiisi* CMAa. On the arrival here. 


CiiBd wall, plur. ctiHH cajiOBHBKi gardener 

BepciA verst'', plur. sepcxH OHi npamejii he came 

pisi river, plur. piKH ko mh* to me 

ia^iHTi to go, to drive, to pass on&cao (it is) dangerous 

n Biit>xa.ii I started pascR&s'B tale- 

n npitxajii I arrived npiaiHO agreeable 

oTofuAre! keep away! cjiyoiaTb to listen 

nofiAfiTe go (you)! j6jirp long, long time 

BM)? to him HRdaa image (sacred) 

OTSHxaxb to rest BoroMiTepi, Holy Virgin 

jepeBo tree KpecTi cross 

iiji6majb place, square rjiaBA top, head 

ynd.n. (he) fell co66pt cathedral 

n ofiijaH) 1 dine 6oJii.m4a great ffem adj.) 

■jTofii th*t, in order that mAthhei carpenter 

' As it is rather difficult for beginners to understand which 
case must be employed, it has been thought advisable to assist them 
with practical hints, whenever necessary, in the translations ncur- 
ring in the First Part. 

^ A Russian verst is equal to 8500 English feet. 

Nouns with pkkpositioxs. 41 


E Biepa npiixsiJi'h us-h Mockbh. Jlj'feTH, OTOflAUTe 
OTt MOCTa; on^HO fo^i.HTb no MocTi.M'B! CeroAHs a ©64- 
Aaio y cocb^iia. PaacKasi o repoi MHt oneHL HpasHTca, 
er6 npiaxHO cji;^niaTt. HoH^^fiTe ki njioTHMKy h cKaacHTe 
eMy (to him), hto a xen^pL bi ropoAi- 

9totx cioBapt x-i'S 6paTa, a 3th KHiirH sJra ceexpii. 
J^aftxe pa;i,H Bora xa46a paSoTHHKaMi, a najKH hjothh- 
KaMx! Ohii ynaji'B bi, piK^. B^epa 6Hja 6ojr>inaa fiypa 
Ha dsepi. fUeni, jre3K?iXT> na piK4 Jl^ninpi. KoniKa ca- 
;t6BHHKa B% yjiHn,i. 


I started from St. Petersburg. How many versts 
[is it] from St. Petersburg to Moscow? Keep away from, 
the fire! To-day I dine at the teacher's. Go to the 
gardener, please, and tell him that he may come (transl. 
he came) to me tomorrow. It is dangerous to pass 
over the bridge. 

Where didst thou rest, in the room or under the 
tree? I rested under the oak. The bird flies through 
the square. There is a room without mirrors. Fairy 
tales (Ck43kh) [are] agreeable to listen to. The sister 
prayed (MOJifijiacb) a long time before the image of the 
Holy Virgin. The cross fell from the top of the cathedral. 


KotA^atHJ!!. (lived) CoKpaxi? CoKpdxi mnji'h bi ip6xbeMt 

cxcjitiH ^century) xo 
PoffiAecxBa XpHcxoBa. 

Kxo ynajii cb aomajH? CoMaxi ynajTB ct Ji6raaji;H. 

Hxo yniio Bt ptKyV niaana (hat) ynajta b^ pis^. 

Kxo OAiBaexca no MOfli? Cecxpd o;iiBaexca no MOAi. 

Ky;i;& nomejii ox6u;x.? Ont nomejit ryjraxb ct m4- 


KoTjs,& B03Bpax6jica (return- Hpiax^JiB BOSBpaxAaca no 
ed) npiaxejB nat llexep- npomtoBin nax6 jiixT>. 

?eMi XH xen^pt ^yMaemb? H A^MaK) 06% orni, a xh ay- 

Maemb boa4. 

42 The acxiwahy verb bhti to be. 



Indicative Moo.d. 


a (ecHfc) 1 am' mh (ecMii) we are 

TH (ee4) ihou art' bh (ectfi) you are 

0H%, 0H&, oh6 ecTB he, she, it is. obA, oai, qbA, cyii. they are, 
n 6\iXb, -Jii, -Jio I was" MH <5iijiH we were 

TH, -Ji4, -ao then wast bbi Chjih you were 

OHi 6h.ii he was ohh Sujih they were 

0B& ( she was on* SiiaH they were 

oh6 Ciijo it was. oni't 6aAVL they were. 

a- 6yjty I shall be ma fiy^tejit we shall be 

TH 6]?ACini thou wilt be bh oyjeie you will be 

OBI., OHa, OHO SyfleTi he, she, it ohh, oHi, ohh Cysyii they will 
will be. be. 

Imperative Mood. 
fiyjk be (you). Syjixe be (you). 

Conditional and Subjunctive 3food.* 
Present and Past, 
a £u3% 6u I should be mh 6iijiH 6h we should be 

TH 6hji 6u thou wouldst be bh 6ii;iH 6h yon would be 

oHi 6b;ii 6h he would be. onu Shjih 6u they would be. 

Infinitive Mood. 

, Participle present, 
cyniiii, -aa, -ee being. 

Participle past. 
6mm% -aa, -ee been. 

' The forms given in parenthesis are used only in poetry. 
The third person is also very frequently omitted in prose. 

^ In poetry sometimes also ecib. 

^ The distinction of genders extends in Russian also to the 
singular of the past of verbs. A man says a Chjti; a woman a 
6u»it; a child, or a personified thing says a 6iijio. This fact is 
explained in the 27tl» lesson (page 116). 

•" These moods which are wanting in Russian, may be sup- 
plied by the forms of the Indicative past followed by the particle 6h. 

The auxiliary verb bhtb to be. 43 

Participle future. 
(jxyuUfi, -aa, -ee that sliall be. 

Gerund present. 
6yjiy'iH being, while being. 

Gerund past. 
611BI, 6iiBmB having been. 

NB. The conjugation of duBaxb (to be usually) 
does not differ in the least from that of all other verbs 
ending in HBaTB or HBaxB. See the 26"" lesson. Its 
present tense however is never omitted. 

The verb to have may be rendered by HMirt, but 
the usual way of expressing it in Russian is by the 
verb 6uTB, expressed or understood, and accompanied 
by the genitive of the possessor (noun or pronoun) 
preceded by y. 

Hereby must be observed that the present tense of 
6HTb is almost always suppressed. Of course the pos- 
sessed object stands in Russian in the nominative, and 
not in the accusative as in English.* 

y MCBX (ecTi>) I have y naci we have 

y Tefifl thou hast y sacL you have 

y Her6 he has y hhxx they have 

y aei she has y coc^Aa the neighbour 

y Ber6 it has.,' y ;idinaAH the horse has. 

y aeHH 6vn'b fipai'b I had a brother 

y Te6ii Gtuk snAra thou hadst a, book 

y Ber6 6iiJip A&ioko he had an apple, etc. 

y MCBx 6]^AeTi noxb I shall have a knife 

y TeCa SyxeTi aSiio thou wilt have an egg 

y Berd CyAyrt CJioBapii he will have the dictionaries, etc. 


Bb^ki, BiiBo eternally iip^sjia truth, right 

ndcjil 3&BTpa the day after to- xdpEO hot, warm 
morrow jiTom in summer 

BaHaAi> back; TOMy nasdA't ago poAi^TeJH parents 

1 The reason of this is evident. If instead of saying I have 
a book, I say Near me (is) a hook (y Mena EBtra), the word book 
is no longer a possessed object, but a subject which indicates its 
possessor. This manner of expressing the idea of possession may 
be usefully compared to the Latin constructions: tibi eat pater, mihi 
est uxor and to the French: ee livre eat a moi. 

44 The auxiliary verb bhtb to be. 

CKOsaaa (she) said, told a ji^imw I think 

cerosHH B^wpoMt this evening jep^BBa village, country, gen. pi. 
T^itase also, too jepeseHi. 

Bi JBCY in the forest Biepa ^ipoMi yesterday morning. 


Boate, TH ecA, th 6uji%, th fiyxemb Bi^Ho! Ta* 
6iijio ABTa B^epd no ^Tpy? Mh hc snaeMi, ta* oho 6hjio 
BTOpa no yipy, a Biepa BCTepoMi. too SiiJio Bt jFtef.^ Y 
cocf Aa ecTb^ cHHt h ao^b. y nacB ecn. KoniKa h co6aKa. 
y Bacb Htra co6aKi. y ehx-b 6uso MHoro co6aKi. Y 
MeHa xaKSKe co6aKH. 

fl ceroAHs B^qepoMi AOMa, a bh 6yAeTe AOMa sasTpa 
iijm noMi aaBTpa. Ito y Mena ecTB? Y Bact HHiero Hifb. 
JliTOMi MH 6yAei4i bt, Aep^BHi, a 3hm6h) mh BcerAa bi 
ropoA*. y HacB aomi bi AcpeBHi, a y Her6 aomi. b-b 
ropoA*. y Hei mhopo a^hcfb. y Bact jh AeHLra? 

God is, was and shall be eternally. Where will the 
parents be the day after to-morrow? Where were you yester- 
day morning? Your sister (Bama ce.CTpHn;a) wis at home 
and told me: My sister (Moa cecTpa) will be back this 
evening; she is now at [her] mother's. She told the truth: 
I was there.- I have the bread, and you have the basket. 

Where will the friends be? They will be in the 
garden. We should have been (6iijrH 6u) this morning 
in the forest, if you had been {transl. yfevs) there. 
When will the brother and sister be- at home? You 
have many friends. You had a house in town. Yester- 
day it was very (otiSHb) hot, to day it is also hot, and 
T think that to-morrow it will be hot too. 

Fa* ShiJii OT^n,* ceroAHa CeroAna yTpoMi OHi fiujii 
yTpoM-b ? 3Aicb, a ceroAna B^'iepoM'B 

OH-b B'fepoaTHO (probably) 
6yAeTb vh ropoA'fe. 
EcTb-jTH y Hea ctojii? H^ti., y Hea Hi-ra CTOJia. 

y MeHa jiH ipocTb (cane)? ^a, xpocTb y sae^. 
BBA^Jit JiH TH sdMOK-B i];apfl? HiTi, a He Bfixkjcb smKa, 

i;apa, a bi^a^-i^ ABop^n;^ 
: (palace) Kopojiri. 

• If we wish to assert the existence of the object possessed, 
ecTi. cannot be otnmitted and, being in this case an impersonal 
verb, it does not agree with anything. 

Hints to the reoclar cosjogation. 45 

BdA'^jia JH Bama cecTpHii,a Jta, OHa mA'kjia, saMOKi) KHa- 

SaMOKT) KHfflrflHH? rHHH. ' 

BfiAiJiH JiH BH cjiona, ko- B^epa no yipy a 6uA'h He 
TopHi 6hijub Bt flepesHi bi. ffepeBHi, a bi ropoA*. 
BHepa no yipy? 

EcTL-;iH y 6paTa JiomaAB';' Y 6paTa JiomaAH Hixi.; y 

Hero ecn> 6hki> h Koposa. 



All Russian regular verbs are divided into hvo 
conjugations, according to the inflections of the second 
person singular and the third person plural of the in- 
dicative present.^ 

To the first regular conjugation, which embraces 
the greatest number of verbs, belong those which have 
the second person singular of the present ending in 
enib, and the third person plural in ypt or jorb. 

To assist beginners, it may also be added that the 
first conjugation comprises the greater part of those 
verbs which in. the infinitive present end in aTB, aib 
or HyTB. 

Examples of the first conjugation 

a) VBT&Th to read. 

« uBTdH) I read uh "101^61)11 we read 

TH HBTaeiiib thou readest bh iHTdeie you read 

out snTieTb he reads oHi ihtAioti they (m.) read 

OHa HHTieTb she reads oh^ ihtAmt* they (f.) read 

oh6 vtiT&eTh its reads. oh4 hhtAmtb they (n.) read. 

;nHT6JX,-Jia,-JioI read, I have read' mh qHX&jiH we read 
TH <inT^.Ai, -Jia, -Jio thou readst bh vHTajm you read 

' The complete theory of the Russian verb is given later on 
(Lesson 26). Here only the most necessary paradigms are presented to 
learners, who will no doubt be impatient to know the mechanism 
of the most important of all parts of speech. 

' Properly speaking, there is but one regular conjugation in 
Biissian, as will be seen in the 27tii lesson. This division into two 
conjugations has been provisionally adopted here, because of great 
and unquestionable practical utility. 

" k man says a ^ht4jii, a woman n "jHTa^a, a thing a ^Hiajio, 
and so on. See footnote 3, page 42. 

46 Hints to the regular cokjdgation. 

OHi ^HTaii he read ohh nm&m they (m.) read 

OBa 'jHT^jia she read oai 'imam they (f.) read 

oh6 hht4jo it read. oHii laiajiji they (n.) read. 

K 6ysy tot4tb I shall read mh CjAem, iHidTi we shall read 

XH CyAeiDi qHidxi thou wilt read sa Syaexe ?Hx4ib you will read 
oHi fiyAeii wt4ti. he will read onA 6yAyTt ^hx^tb they will read 
OB^ e^sexi HHX&xi she will read oni 6ynyTh iniaxB they will read 
OHO SyAexi. ^Hxaxb it will read. onk eyayxi HHxaxt they will read. 

MHifiii read (thou)! -jhi^Atc read (you)l 

In the same manner as iHTaTt are also conjugated: 

paddxaxb to work fioiiaxh to chatter 

pascEiaHBaxi to tell, to narrate nprfiaxi. to jump, to spring 

CBp&inaBaTi to ask, to demand atea^xL to wish, to desire 

oxBinAxb to answer, to ref)ly ^tjaxb to make, to do 

nosBOJHTb to permit, to allow ryaaib to walk 

jyjiaxb to think, to believe xBScxaTi to boast. 

b) 3K;i,aTB to wait, to expect. 

« sKjy I wait mh aae-Mb we wait 

XH aiieuib thou waitest bh Jiaexe you waU 

OHi atflert he waits oaii atAVxi, they wait 

oiia Kaexi. she waits oei atAyxi they wait 

on6 atiftri. it waits. ohm kavxi. they wait. 

a x.jL.&n'h, -jia, -JO I waited mh jbjAjim we waited 

XH atjai'b, -Jia, -no thou waitedst bh ajA.iH you waited 
oHi asAaai he waited oaii aij^jiH they waited 

ob4 s&n&jsa. she waited oai kaSjih they waited 

OHO stjijio it waited. obu iKjdiH they waited. 

a 6yRy ffijaxb I shall wait mh fiyjeMi KAaxb we shall wait 

TH CyAeiBb a^aTi. thou wilt wait bh Sj'jere ajaxb you will wait 
OBI Syjexi ffijaib he will wait ohu OyayTi wflaib they will wait 
ouk Sj^iexi. atftaxb she will wait oh4 6fi,yTh wjaxb they will wait 
oh6 (Syjeii aijaxb it will wait. oh6 CyAyxi wsaxi. they will wait. 


KAB wait (thou)! KAiixe wait (you)! 

Such verbs as 3K.naTb are: 

pBaxh to tear, to rend rayxb to bend, to bow 

Bp:in> to lie. to tell a falsehood ' iHHyxi. to draw, to pull. 

Hints to the regular cokjogatios. 47 


Bc4 mfm all sciences cboAmh ycnixaiiH of his success 

oxdTHO willingly letkn to fly 

r6jy64 pigeon,' gen. plur. -eii BixBt branch (of a tree) 

noctoiBBO incessantly wpowb raven 

copdKa magpie Hoa^Ari to be silent, -^f, -innii 

CBAiji (be) sat th Bipajni tKou believest 

sc6 t4bh faowerer. m6xo sipK I hardly believe 

BasipHo indeed, in truth toti this one, that one 

noHBH&TB to understand 6iea» xyjo very badly. 

A^peBo tree 


Hto bu 6fA&te flijiaTB ceroAHa B^iepoMi? Mh 
B?ep& BBqero ne A^jjajiH. 4to iifnajoTb HenpiaiejH? 
Oh6 J^]?MaH)Tl, OTO OHfi Ten6pi. SHaio'TB Bci HaVKH. 
H-feMi XBacTajiii 6paTiV Ohx xBaciajii cbohmh ycntxaiiH. 
Mto itiH Ai-iajOTi. TaKi oxoTHO? Qhh MymaioTB cjiOBa 
y#Tejra. ""Ito rojiyfit ;;4mji>? Ohi jietkirh no BiiBaMi 

OxoTHHKi. ;i,6jiro mji^jn, na nojii h bi :iicy. CopoKa 
BiJAtja BopoHa h ayjiajia: Ohi ;^ypaK^ (a fool), OHt mhih- 
KOMi MHoro 6o5iTaeTi>; kto laKt Mttoro 6ojiTaeTi, KaKi 

OHl, TOn» HaBtpHO H MHOrO BpCTl. Th He BipHDIb TOM^, 

HTO a 1664 paacKasHBaio? fl Bceay (all) Bipro, npiatejib 
Mot; Tu HHKorAa (never) ne npajTb.* 


What do you there? I work, and you do do- 
thing. He thibks that he knows all sciences and in- 
cessantly boasts of his success. We willingly listen [to 
you], when you tell [something]. What did you [do] 
yesterday? We do not know (irans. we know not). To- 
day I shall answer, and you will answer to-morrow or 
the day after to-morrow. 

Listen, child, when the teacher tells [a story]! 
The magpie jumped on (no dat.) the branches of a tree 
and incessantly chattered; but the raven sat [tranquil] 
and was silent. — What dost thou, friend, perhaps (hjh) 
thou dost not believe what I tell thee? asked at last 
the magpie. — I hardly believe, answered the raven, 
[for] he who chatters so much, like (KaKi) thou, he (tot*) 
indeed alies amuch itoo. 

' In polite oonversation one seldom uses the verb BpaiB; as 
in English, Bti ojnB64eTecb is to be preferred. 

48 Hints to the regular conjugation. 


DoEHMaJIH JTH BH, 1T0 fl BaMl H BCC HOHHMa;!*, APyi"i MOS, 

Bqepa paacKasHBaat o co- ^to bh iiHi pascKasHBa jh 

6aKi coci;^a? , mh* OHent HpaBH.ioci.. 

Fxk BH 65'AeTe o64AaTb 9Toro a He sHaro: a CyAj 

ceroAHa, bi ropofl,* ^JtH o6tji;aTS cb npiflTejieMi. 

Bi aepeBHi? 

Koro BH asAajiH aa naomaAH, H atAa;ix 6paTa h eecTpy. 

Kor;;a a saci Bj&s'^Ji? 

IIoHHMaeTe jih bh lenepb no 3. eme o^enB Majio noHHMaio 

pyccKH? no pyccKH. 

qeM'B OHH A^MaroTt? Oafr jyMaioTi. 6htb sflicB 

saBTpa fijiH nocjii saBTpa. 

KaK-B OH'E noHHMaeT'b no Owh eni,e otohb hjioxo hohh- 

aHMificKH? MaeTt h roBOpAit no aa- 


%o A^TH A^jiajH? Oafi MHoro AyMajia, ho ace 

TaKH He 3HaJIH,HT0 flijtaTb. 



To the second regular coDJugation belong those 
verbs having the second person singular of the indica- 
tive present in anit, and the third person plural in aii 

or ATI. 

This is mostly the case with verbs having in the 
infinitive present the terminations htb, acaTB, lait, maTb, 
luiaxb and liTh. 

Examples of the second conjugation, 
a) roBOpHTB to speak, to say. 

n lOBopib I speak, I say hh roBopiiiin> we apeak 

Tu rouopiimb thou speakest bh roBopHTe you speak 

OBI roBopHTi he speaks oni roBopaxi they speak 

oea TOBop^Ti she speaks oni roBopHTb they speak 

os6 roBopHTi it speaks. ob^ roBopjiTb they speak. 

fl roBopHJiT., -jia, -jio I spoke mh rosopHJiH we spoke 

TH roBop^M., -ja, -JIG thou spokest bh rosopAjiH you spoke 

Hints to the RECULAa. coitjugation. 49 

pm TOfiopHu &e spoke ohA roBopAiii they spoke 

ob4. roBop^a she spoke ob'I^ roBop&m they spoke 

oh6 roBopB.10 it spoke. oh£ tobophjie they spoke. 


a 6^Ay roBop^Tb I shall speak ub SifxeHii roBopAxi whe sh. sp. 

TH 6^AeinB roBopAxB thou rr. sp. bh fiyjiexe roBopHxB you w. sp. 

OBI fi^xexi TOBop^TB he w. sp. 0K& G^iyT'B lOBopAxB they w. sp. 

OHi 6}neTb TOBopi^TB she w. sp.. oui 6if,jTh iobop&tb they w. sp. 

oh6 G^ffiTT, TOBop^Tb it w. Sp. OH^ 6yjiyrB lOBop^Tb they w. sp. 


roBopA speak (thou)! roBop^ie speak (you) I 

Thus are conjugated: 

xyjiAiB to blame Eypi^xb to smoke, -pn, -pnuiL 

zBa-iHTB to praise, -sb, -ifanh ^.taro^ap^TB to thank 

TOTdBBTB to prepare' jiob^ti. to catch* 

xpaa^TB to preserve, to protect cipoHTB to build. 

b) CTy^aTL to knock, to strike. 
a CTyiy I knock uh CTyi^tii. we knock 

TB cTyiEiDB thou knockest bh cxyqi^Te you knock 

OHi ciyrkT'b he knocks orh cxy^&Ti they knock 

0B& CTy^iTi she knocks ob4 cxyjaii they knock 

oh6 CTy^ifb it knocks. oiiii cxyq&xB they knock. 

a cxyiiii, -Jia, -jio I knocked mh ciy?4jiH we knocked 

TB . cxyi&^iB, -na, -JIO thou kn. bb cxy^^H yon knocked 

OHi CTyvin-b he knocked out cxyiajiti they knocked 

0H& cxyi4jia she knocked oni cxyiliH they knocked 

'Oh6 CTyv&Ao it knocked. ob^ cxyiajiB they knocked. 

a 6'jf,y cxyiAxB I shall knock mh 6fis,etii> ciyiiTB we sh. kn. 

TB 6'jnemb cxyi^TB thou w. kn. bb 6;^aeTe cxy^&xB you w. kn. 
OBI lOy^eii cry^AxB he w. kn. oh4 Cysyxi cxy^dxB they w. kn. 

ob4 6fnefb cxyidxB she we kn. oni fiyayiB cxynixt they w. kn. 
ob6 C^Aext cxyMixB it w. kn. onk G^nyrb ciyiaxB they w. kn. 

cxyqi knock (thou)! cxyiBxe knock (you)! 

Thus are: 
spRi&TB to cry, to shout. xpeni^xB to rattle, to crack 

AepsdxB to hold, -ai, -snini ropixB to burn [-xpaiub 

MOJt^xB to be silent, not to CKoxpixB to look, to gaze, -xpn, 
speak CBAixb to sit (a easy, xb CHAi&nib 

npHea^'iesixb to belong and so on). 

Pri6a fish ACHb (lay, gen. una 

ndeapi cook noieBy? why? 

' Verbs in bbtb, ahxb, mhxb, heib, (|)hxb (polysyllable) insert 
s in the first person singular of the present: a roT6Bii», a soBii>. 
See Lesson 27. 

Russian Conv.-Grammar. 4 

50 Hint's to the regular coifjuoATioif. 

Bp^flHo (it is) prejudicial, harmful lafi^Kt tobacco, gen. -4 (pag. 37) 
np^xje formerly khtb to live 

Ph64k% fisherman, gen. -a noTOM]^ ito because 

jBopi court, yard, gen. -a ropisjo muclij very much 

oeijt dinner Aop6ra way, road. 



H ]ifi^h. noBap-B roTOBHTi o64;^'b, a pufiaKt jiobhti pafiy. Tti 

CTpOHJi JI,OMi, Vh KOTdpOMl TBI HB fiyflefflB KHTb HH 0;i;- 

Horo XHfl (not even one day). IIoqeMy ra ne KypHUii.? 
HoTOMy ^TO MHi poAHTe JH^ roBopfljiH : KypcHBe (to smoke) 
Ta6aKy (pag. 37) Bp^^HO. 9to npaB;i;a, oho o^ent Bp^^HO. 

$fiWh cociMa ropij'B ipn r6;i,a TOiay Haaafli (three 
years ago). Oh^ TenepL CTpoHirb hobhA aomi. Ha^OTH 
CMOTpHfflB? fl B^A^j't pii6y Bi piKt; a pHfiaKa sjicb 
HiiTi. yqaTSJi. roBopfi;!^ no pyccKH; OHt Bcer^a roBO- 
pfi'PB no pyccKH. nTfiri,a cHA^Jia Ha siTBaxi ;^epeBa, OT^iti 
xyj)&jii CHHa noTOMy hto OHi ne Sjtaro^tapfijrt y^HTejia. 
BoTi Ta6aKi>, noneMj bh ne k^phtb? Bjarosapib Baci, 
a He Kypib. 


God save the Tsar! The parents protect [their] 
sons and daughters (cHHOBefi h ji;oqepefl). You do not 
believe what you say. The teacher blames the pupil. 
The cook-woman prepared the dinner. We catch fish 
in the river. There is too much tobacco, why do you 
not smoke to-day? I thank [you], my friend; formerly 
I smoked frequently, but now I do hot smoke. 'They 
will smoke. 

The daughters will speak with [their] mother in 
(no) English, and the father will speak with the sons 
(ct CHHOBLiiiH) in (no) Russian. Don't praise a day till 
evening! We build a house now in which we shall not 
live. The Russians (P^ccKie) spoke with us {c:h HaMH) 
in Russian, but we did not understand them (hxi). We 
shall never smoke, because the smoking (KypeHbe) of 
tobacco is harmful. 


KToroBopHjractyiifiTeJiejrB? MaTb yqcHHKa roBopii.iia c* 

Koro (Whom) xsa-iftjii y- Yqfirejrb XBajifijt 6paTa, ho 
HHTejL? owh xyjiyunt cecTpy. 


CTpoanib-jiH TH Ten6pi> ho- HiTB. H y»e bmctpoh.tb 
Bufi jiowb? AOM'B TpH r6;i;a tom]^ 

Kto KypHT'fc Bi KOMHarli? Ot6hi. KypHTt Ha ABopt, a 

He Bl KOMHaTi. 

Kyfla TH CMOTpHfflb? a cMOTpib Ha 6aniHK). 

Kto Tain. CH;i;fiT'i.? Bopont CHflfiTt laMi, rAt 

np4ffi;te CHXijta copoKa. 

Ob K^Mi TH 6^Aenib roBO- R Syjty roBopHTb cb Majii.- 

pHTb ceroAHa bbtopomx? ^hkom^ h cb jiByniKoio. 

M^TO B^epa ropijo? Hiniero B^epa ne ropijro. 

3HaeT6 jiH BH Tui. copoKa Bnepa no yTpy, Korsa a 

CHA^Jia Biepa ifrpoM-B? ryjiaxB no sopojri, copoKa 

CH^ijia na sepesi h npii- 
raaa no BiTBHMi ero. 




a) Interrogative form. 

iHTiJo an »1 do I read? etc. msiieit^ ra mh? do we read? etc. 



HKT&eTb sa oh4? ^wikim la cHi? 

HHT&ei'B IH oho? ^HT^roTi JIH 0h6? 

iHTEUii JIH a? did I read? etc' OTTaJiH .th mh? did we read? etc. 


^mkX-b JIH 0H%? 'IHTaJIH jih ohh? 

^HT^Jia JIH 0H4? qHT&JIH JIH OHi? 


6*iv JIH ji TOTaTi.? shall I read? G-JKetsi, jih mh totAti.? shall we 
' ' read? 

Cyflemb jib th iht4tl? fiyseie jih bu iHTaw,? 

6if.ei% JIH oHi qHT^Ti? 6yjy.T»i. jih ohh hht4tb? 

e^Sei* jih OHd HHTaiB? eyjyTl JIH oh* IHTdTb? 

e^jieTi JIH ofi6 vmkTb? fijjyrB m ohA ^HT^Ttf? 

« The usual distinction of genders (see page 42) takes place 
of course also in the interrogative, negative and conditional forms: 
iMiajia JIH a (.woman)? ?ht4jio jih a (thing)? 


52 Interrogative, negative and conditional form. 

This is the usual structure of an interrogative sen- 
tence in Russian. But, when there is at the beginning 
an interrogative pronoun or adverb, such are: kto who, 
1T0 what, KOW when, ta^ where, and others, the inter- 
rogative particle jih must be suppressed, and the verb 
may indifferently be placed before or after the subject: 
Ito roBopAjia oea? What did sbe say? 

KorAa TH 6*jiems aosia? When wilt thou be at home? 

b) Negative form. 

» HS iHiaio I do not read 

TH He iHTaefflh thou dost not read 

oHi He HHTdeit he does not read. 

MH He HHTdeMi we do nt)t read 

BH He iHT^eTe you do not resld 

ouii ne iHTaioTt they do not read 

He MBiaH) JH a? do I not read? 

He >£HT4erab jih th? dost thou not read? 

He qHTaeii jih ohts? does he not read? 

He MHT&eMi JIH MH? do we not read? 

X Hc HHTdni I did not read 

ae MHTaji jih ji? did I not read? 

a He 6yjy iHiaii I shall not read 

ae 6i?jiy jib a iht4t6? shall I not read? 

The negative form of the verb is always expressed 
as in English by means of the negative particle hc 
(not), but in Russian- this particle is not even suppres- 
sed when the verb is accompanied by a negative pro- 
noun or adverb: 

a HHqero «e "jHTaB I read nothing. 

er6 3atcL HHKOTaa ne 6iijio he never was here. 

It has already been stated on page 37, that the 
accusative case following a transitive verb is rendered 
into Russian by the genitive, whenever the sentence 
has a negative form: 

n He bh;i'6jii Kuim I did not see any hooka 

0H1. He npojaers miwi he does not sell eggs. 

c) Conditional (subjunctive) form. 
The conditional and subjunctive moods are entirely 
wanting in Russian. To express the idea of dependence 
or uncertainty conveyed by these moods in English, one 
must have recourse to the past and the particle 6h.' 
This is not unfrequently combined with Scau if, and 
Kmdd when, to render the subjunctive imperfect. 

' Derived from 6uTh to be. 

Intebbogative, kegative and conditional form. 53 

In many cases however, the Enghsh conditional 
or subiunctive are expressed in Russian by means of 
the corresponding indicative tenses: 
JI Cbjii. Oh A0B6jera, 6ciia6ii bh I should be (or have been) satis- . 

laKi ci'fejajiH KaKi.a xoii;ii,. fled, if you had done as I 

Obh CiijiH 6h SAtcb, Kor;^a 6h They would be here, if you were 
, BH Cmb xaMi,. (or had been) there. 

EcJinfil' BH Be 6ii.iH MoiMt spy- If you were not my friend, I 

^0Ml^ a MOJiHajii Oh. would not speak. 

R 6a Be, ito bh 9to I should not believe, that you 

exhmxa. had done it. 


nacBHO letter (ji^i^iiTa flute, flageolet 

ypoKi lesson ckoh his 

ciiaatb to do, to finish xoxixB to wish, to desire (will) 

iioayriiTb to receive ?t66h that, in order that. 

X0B6ibUHR satisfied 


He hiiKbjvb jiH TH Kopojfl bi ropoAi? HtTi, a He 
bAa^JI'b Kopojra, ho h BiiAijii KopojieBy h rpa^tfins). 3HaemL 
jiH TH, r;(i Tenepb moh yqfiTeJii.? fl He snaio, r;!;* OHi 
Ten^pt; ero a^ich se 6ujio. XeaaMH jih bh najb^HKa? 
Mu He XBajiAjiH MajtiHKa, ho mh ero xyjiftjra. IIOHeMy bh 
ero xyjfijra? IIoTOMy mto ohi hb HHT&Ji'b CBoero ypoKa. 
KoMy npHHaAJieacfcb i^Mewia,? 

Mh 6ujih 6h bi Pocci'h, 60x861 bh Toate 6hjih TaMi. 
Bh 6ujh 6h aobojibhu, ecjiH6H mh TaKi A^JiaJiH, saBi bh 
xorijiH. nojiyiH.iH jth Bh yate hhcbmo on, M^Tepa? S. 
ein,e He noxywsui'h nncbMa OTi Maiepn, ho a 6Hjn. 6u jifl- 
B6jeHi, ecjrafin uojiynfixb nncbMO oti> 6paTa hjih ot% 
cecrpH. Th ne noBipujii 6h, hto a 3to c^ijiajii. 


Did you not speak with the warriors? No, we did 
not speak with the warriors. Does the teacher 
praise the pupils? No, the teacher does not praise the 
pupils; he blames them. Didst thou already read the 
letter of the father? No, I did not read the letters of 
the father. 

' Contracted for euphony's sake. 

' The instrumental case is frequently placed after the verb 
6bti to denote a transitory or exterior quality. 

54 Peiisokal rEONomts. 

The brother would be very satisfied, if he had many 
dogs and cats. Why did you not read the letter? Be- 
cause I have no time to read letters. The wife would 
be here, if the busband were here also. You would 
not believe what I 2tell lyou, if I were not your 
friend (BamHMi jip^roMi). Have you seen the magpie?. 
I have not yet seen the magpie, but I saw the raven, 
when it jumped on the branches of a tree. 

Kor^iia OTen^h roBopH Jt, qio Ot^hi, HHKorAa He roBopMi, 
fiyAeTt Ha noji? ^to OHt 6yAeTi na nojii. 

KorAa H r;ti bh 6f?,eTe Mh saBTpa fipeMt ofiiAaTB 

3aBTpa ofiisaTB? y coc4;i;a. 

TA'fe BHepa pa66Ta.iH hjot- Djothhkh Biepa paCoTaJiH 
HHSH? Bi capat, a ceroAHA ohii 

He xoTflTi TaMt pafioTaTij- 

r^lt 3Ke (then) onfi fipyiYB 9Toro a He snaro; oh& 6hjh 

pa^oTaTB? 6u xobojbhh pa66TaTi. Ha 



BaMi pa3CKa3MBa.ii? pa.soKasHBa.i'B; mh hohh- 

MaiB 6a, ecjiHdH ohi ne 
roBop^ji'B ta.K'h CKopo. 
He roBopHJiH jih ohh, 'ito Ohm sto CKasajiM; ho ohm 

OHfflTB (again) 6yAyTi. He fipyTi asict cer6;tHa 

s^icb cer6;i;Hfl BeTOpoMi? BCHepoMi. 





First Person. 


N. fl I 

G. uevli of me 

D. MHi to me 

HH we 
Baci of us 
uaMi to us 

A. aenk me 

Haci us 

I. MHOB by me 
P. (660) MHi (about) me. 

iiaMH by us 

(0) naci (about) us. 

N. iH thou 
G. TfeSa of thee 
D. lefii to thee 
A. leSa thee 
I. T06610 by thee 
P. (0) Te64 (about) thee. 


BH you 
aaci of yoii 
BaMi to you 
aacii you 
B^MH by you 
(0) BacTi (about) you. 

Pbbbonal FBOKorti's. 55 

Third Person (niasculine). | 



N. OHi he 

oh6 they 

G. er6 of him 

Hxi of them 

D. euf to him 

HMi to them 

A. erd him 

HXi them 

I. hh:e by him 

ixB by them 

P. <o) RgHi (about) him. 

(0) HHKi (about) them. 


person (feminine). 

N. 0H& she 

offfe they 

6. ei of her 

Bxi of them 

D efi to her 

nwh to them 

A. ee her 

nxi them 

I. 610 by her 

^HB by them 

P. (0) aefi (about) her. 

(0) HBxi (about) them. 


person (neuter). 

N. oh6 it 

oui they. 

6. er6 of it 

Hxi of them 

D. eKf to it 

BHi to them 

A. erd it 

Bxi them 

I, BKfc by it, with it 

imx by then), with them 

P. (0) HeHi (about) it. 

(0) mil, (about) them. 

When preceded by a preposition, the personal pro- 
noun of the third person takes an initial h, to soften 
the pronunciation: 

S. 6ui^ y uetd. I was at his house. 

y HeA MH6ro A^neri. . She has much money. 

3to jpifl uux^. This is for them. 

Th roBopAmi neim. Thou speakest of him. 

Remark, that the accnsatire is always like the 
genitive, except in the feminine third person singular. 


& nporaj I pray, I beg (of you) Hcidpia history, stfiry 

TeAipi theatre Sb* nes'fejiH two weeks, a fortnight 

npHsisHBaTL to order, to com- M6aen 6htb (it) may be 

maud oChehob^hho usually 

EycdKi bit, piece, gen. -CKa 6ieHL xopomd very well 

iiicAAX month Aa yes. 

ca;(% garden 

nponiy Baci, CKaatfiTe MHi, CKoabKO wicai^eBi Bh 
6kuih y EHXi. R Chucb y Hero HicKoabKO M^caiieKB, a 
y ■ neA a 6wi'b TOJihuo jifii HCAtJiH. Ona Hrpaaa cb naMH. 
A npHK^SHBaio emf padoTaTi, ho ohi eni,e He xopomo 
padoTaeiYB. Th MHoro^s^Maemb newb, ho ohi HHKor;i;a 
He A.-fuaerb Te6i. 9to MoateTt 6hti>, a ero o^chb xo- 
pomo 9HaE). 

56 Personal prosouns. 

He roBopaie o hhxi; oh6 HaniH Bparfi. Bha'£-I1> 
jm TH ee yati? S. em,e He stxkjn, es, ho ona mbbh bht- 
AiJa, Kor^a a Shj* bi> ieaipi. Mh ryjiaeM'B cb HHMt 
o6hkhob6hhq, noTOMy ito ohi. Hamt npiaTCJiB. Kto sto 
roBopAJii, TH 6jih OHa? Tf^i. on-b? Ohi y Hero. Y 
Haci fikjpB XOMX, a y hmx-b Sbutb caAt- 

What did the teacher tell thee about me? The 
boy works with me. Dine to-day with us, I pray you! 
The mother knows me, thee, him and her. Thou wilt 
have many books. Where wert thou with [thy] sister? 
I was with her at the theatre. What are the children 
doing (transl. do the children)? They [are] in the garden 
(vh ca,n^), we play with them. Give to him and to her 
a bit of bread. Do you know me? Yes, I know you. 

You were long at my house (transl., at me); This 
may be, but I do not know you. We speak with you, 
but you never speak with us. Do you know this warrior? 
I know him very well. About what did he apeak? He 
told me a story. Did you not speak to him of me? 
Of you I did not speak, but of her and of them. I think 
of you, but you do not think of me. 

He 6ajm jih Bh yaie y Mena? HiTi, a eni;e ne HMJbat 9to- 


EcTB jiH y Te6a lenepB Bpeiaa Hiit, Moft apyn, y mchh 

roBopATB no pyccKH? TenepB Kkvb BpeMeHH. 

Byji;euii> jih th mhok) apbo- ^a, a to6oh) 6y;iy flOBOJieiHi : 
Jiewh? TH pafioTaefflB o^enb xo- 

^TO 6ujio y Te^H Biepa yMeHiiB^epaBeqepoM^fiHJii 
BeqepoM'B? KycoKi xjiiSa ci cupoMi. 

KTOHrpaji'BciBaMHB'Bcajiy? Hana nrpajra ci HaMH wb 

KOMHaii, a He Bt ca^y. 

OtI KOrO 9T0 HHCBMO? He 3HaH), HO ftyMaiO, HTO OHO 

OTb Hero. 
Ci KiMi. BH ryjajiH cer6;i,Ha Mh ryjajiH cb khm-b; a ce- 
yTpoMi? roAHa B^qepoiTB oh6 6^- 

flyTi ryjiflTB ch BaMH. 
^ewb OHi. BajTB TaKi Ohi mh* pascKasHBajix hh- 
AOJiro pa3CKa3UBa.ix? Tep^cHyio (interesting) hc- 


Possessive pbonouns. 57 



First Person. Singular. 
Masc and neut. sing.' Feminine singular.' 

N. MOfl, Mofi my, mine aoa my, mine 

G. Koer6 of my MO^fi of my 

D. MoeMj to my Mo«i to my 

A. Hoard, moS, ho6 my Hoib my 

I. Hoiiii by my, with my mo6» by my, with my 

P. (o) J106M1. (about) my. (0) Mo^ii (about) my. 

Plural for the three genders.' 
If. H0± my, mine 
G. HOHXi of my 
D. Mo6irt to my 
A. xo^xi, Mofi my 
I. no^HH by my, with my 

P. (0) Mofat (about) my. 
In the same manner are modified and decliued 

TBOft, thy, CBOfi his own, her own, its own etc. 

The pronoun CBOfl often corresponds also to my own, 
thy own, our own, your own, their own, because it is 
the possessive case referred to the subject of the sentence 
without any regard to the gender, person and number 
of the possessor: 

y HeHfl oioA EB^ra I have my book 

y te6i ceoU f,om> thou hast thy house 

J Herd ceoe nep6 he has his pen 

y Bei ceou lyjidai she has her stocking 

y Raci ceou jidmaxn we have our horses 

y BacB cwA ii^CbMa you have your letters 

y HHxi ceoe they have their mirror.' 

When not referred to the subject of the sentence, 
the same possessive pronoun as in English is employed 
also in Russian: 

y Te()^ MOH EH^ra. Thoii hast my book. 

y mbhA meou nois'h. I have thy house, etc. 

First Person. | 

Masc. and neut. sing.' 

Feminine singular.' 


Rami, Hime our, ours 

Bima our, ours 


B&mero of our 

B&met of our 


H&meHy to our 

Hamen to our 


Bdinero, Bami, B&me our 

Biniy our 


B&maut by our, with our 

admei) by our, with our 


(0) HdnieMt (about) our. 

(0) B&mefi (about) our. 

Of the possessed object. 

Compare the Greek: OStuj natSeuci; mix; ahzoii tfiXoog. 

58 Possessive pronouns. 

Plural for the three genders.' 
N. aima our, ours 
G. BirnHxi of our 
D. H&niHMi to our 
A.' E&niHz'B, H&iDH our 
I. H&mHHH by our, with our 
P. (o) H4iiraxi (about) our. 

According to the above paradigm (Ham'B) is modified 
and declined also the possessive pronoun of the second 
person plural: Bami, Bdnie, sama, Bdnm, your yours. 

The possessive pronouns of the third person are 
in the singular: 

ero his, its, for masculine and neuter possessors, 
ea her, for feminine possessors. 
In the plural: 
HXi their, without any distinction of gender. 

a -Bifiai, eio kohx I saw his horse 

TH B^ijii ei& KBvrH thou sawest his books 

OHi •B.^aii'b 6» joai he bought her house 

BR npdffajH uon sopsAoiii you sold their baskets. 

The pronouns ero, ea, isxh, are not declined at all. 
They remain always unchanged whatever may be the 
gender, number and case in which the possessed object 
is employed. * But the greatest care is required in their 
choice, because they must at any rate strictly agree in 
gender and number with the possessor, otherwise serious 
misunderstandings may arise: 

0«h BMai er6 M&'y. He took hjs book (of a man). 

Obi Bsaai ei M^ry. He took her book (of a woman). 

Remark also: 

Obi Bsaai caoi) Kniry. He took his own book. 


Hacii (plu/r.) watch bi uii Micaui in the month of 

npox&Tb to sell May 

Kpaft border, country 3jiop6Bi>e health 

niyCa fur-coat, pelisse eojib46 ring. 

■jitxman school 

' Of the possessed object. * 

' It must be borne in mind that, properly speaking, the words 
er6, ea, vxh are but the genitive (possessive) case of obi, oHa, ohu, 
just as in Greek a&Tou is the genitive of ahto^. 




KOJibi^o. Moe sflopoBbe Ten^pt o^eHb xoporao. Mh tobo- 
pfijiH ero 6paTi, a owb roBopajTB Hauieurt fipaii. Bh 
Ten^pB ^HTacTe co cbo^m^b j^inejiewb acTopiro Hamero 
r6poaa. B-b Mai urbcaufh Bt Hamejii ropo;!;^ mhofo nrmtx. 
H. Bfiflijit ceroflHa cecTp^ CBoero APJ^ra vb aicy. y nei 
Mog nepo, a y Te6i cboS nepo. 

EaKi. Banie sjopoBBe? BaaroAapio Baci, a Tenepb 
SAopoBi; a BH KaKi noacHBacTe (how are you)? CKaacHTe, 
noJKajyficTa, r^i Moa nwana. fl ae bAs^jh B&nieS mjianH ; 
a He 3HaH) r;i'fe osa. Th Bdji.iJi'b cbok) nuiany. Ona npo- 
Aajia CBOH ;i;om'b; anaeTe jih Bh, kto Kynfijix ea aomi.? 
9Toro a ne SHaro, ho a XyMaio, hto Banii 6paTi Kynfiji 
ea AOMi, noTOMy wo ohx teroAHa npos^ji* cboh sojtb. 


Here is my hat, where is yours? My sisters are 
now at (bi prep.) school. Children, do not play with 
my watch! I play with my sister. I sold my fur-coat. 
We now read your book with our mother. In the month 
of May, it is very pleasant (npiaTHo) in. our country 
(page 37). Dost thou know my teacher? I saw his 
house and her garden. 

Thou sawest their horses. Tell, please, [something] 
about our heroes. He works with his brother. I was 
with my friend in the garden, and thou wast with thy 
brother in the forest. They love even (jm6s.Tb ^affie) 
their enemies. I know my horses, but I do not know 
his horses. My parents are now at your father's, and 
your father will be here to-morrow. 


r^i Banii nacnopTi? BoTh Moft nacnopTi. 

Barn's JTH 9T0 sojtb? Hin, 9to ne moh aomi.. 

KaKTi BAopoBBC Bamero co- Ero sAopoBte 'ren^pB o^shb 

cisa? xopofflo. 

KOM-B OHa roBopfiJia co OHa roBop^jia CBoeMo. 

cBoero cecipoio? Spaii. 

%o roBopHJia OHa cbo6m'b Ona XBaaiiJia CBoero Spaia. 


60 Rbflexive and demonstrative pbonohns. 

UpoAacTT. (will sell) jh Bauia Ona KynfiTi. (will buy) h 
TBTKE CBOiJxi JoinaAeH? BamHxt jomaxeft: y ne^ 

MHoro A^Heri. 

HCMi ™ roBopHmb? a Te6fl He roBopA cjianiKOM^ Muoro 
He noHHiiaio. o CBofix-b ;^'hJIax'B : 9T0 moS 


Ito HHTepecHaro bt. tbo6xi Bi Mai MicaiJcfc at mdwh 
. Epaaxi Bi Mai Micaiti? Kpaio mhofo dthd;!. 



a) Reflezive pronouns. 

(Reflexive verbs.) 

The reflexive pronoun or all genders and numbers 

is ce6i, which, according to circumstances, corresponds 

to myself, thyself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, etc. 

It naturally has no nominative form; its declension 

is as follows: 


G. ceCa of himself, of herself, etc. 

D. ce64 to himself, etc. 

A. ce6a himself, etc. 

I. co66e) by himself, etc. 

P. (o) ce6i (about) himself. 

Combined with verbs, it is contracted into ca after 
a consonant or semi- vowel, and cb after a vowel, and 
forms the so-called reflexive conjugation. 

Conjugation of a reflexive verb. 

oniektica to dress oneself. 


a oAiakxycb I dress myself, etc. mq oA^B^eMcx we dress ourselves 

TH oxi^Bieiniica BH oA'^sdexecB 

OHi, 0H&, GEO OA^B^exca. ovA, oai ojiBinTca. 


a ojiB^aca I dressed myself, etc. mh oAiaiii^ch we dressed oursel- 
TB o^iis^jca BH OA'bB&iacb [ves 


OH^ OAis^aci ofli oAisiJHCb 

OHO o^d^B^ioci. oh6 oxiBkima.. 

Reflexive and demonstrative pronoi^nb. 61 

fl 6'jsf OA'^B^Ticfl I shall dress myself, etc. 

TH 6yAemh OAiakThcn, etc. 

oAiB&ftcii dfeels thyself. oniaiAjecb dress yourselves. 

Thus are conjugated amongst others: 
paaAlB&TBca to undress oneself 
KyndTbca to bathe, to take a bath 
jHwthca to learn, to instruct oneself (second conjug.) 
MyiHTbCJi to torment oneself (second conjug.). 

b) Demonstrative prononns. ^ 

axoTt this. 

Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. 9TorB, 3T0 this 3Ta this 

G. Stoio of this 3I0U of this 

D. 9T0My to this 3toh to this 

A. 3Toro, itoTb, 3T0 this iij this 

I. MHMi by this, with this ^tob, 3Tofi by this, with this 

P. {06%) i5tom% (about) this. (o) siofi (about), this. 

Plural for the three genders. 
K. 3TH these 
G. sTHzi of these 
D. BTBu-h to these 
A. Sthxi, 8TH these 
I. 3THHH by the^e, with these 
P. (061.) 3THX% (about) these. 

TOrt that. 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. TOTt, TO that la that 

G. Tor6 of that toh of that 

D. tony to that Tofi to that 

A. Tor6, TOTi, TO that ly that 

I. TtM% by that, with that t6io, toh by that, with that 

P. (0) TOMt (aboutj that. (o) toR (about) that. 

' Plural for the three genders. 

N. Ti those 

G. Tix* of those 

D. Ttoi to those 

A. T^xi, Ti those 
I. tImh by those, with those 

P. (0) T*x% (about) those. 

TRKOfl such. 

Masc. and netit. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. TaKdH, laKde such Tauaa such 

G. laKoro of such TaE6fi of such 

D. laKdMy to such raEdii to such 

A. lanoro, laEdS, laKde such lat^n such 

I. laKHMi by such, with such landm, laEdS by such, with such 

P. (o) TaKdMi (about) such. (0) raKOH (about) such. 


Befi-bxive and demonstrative pronouns. 

Plural for the three genders. 

N. laKie (m.), laKia (f. and n.) such 

G. laB^xi. of such 

D. xaKtei to such 

4. laKHxi, lasle, laEla such 

I. TaKHMH by such, with such 

P. (o) TaBifaci (about) such. 

In the same manner as laEdt are declined Tasoadfi stteh 


one, and loiHKiK such a great, so great a.^ 

ceft this, that.* 

Masc. arid neut. sing. Feminine singular. 


ceS, ci6 this cia this 


cer6 of this ceft of this 


ceaf to this ceft to this 


cer6, ceS, cie this ci* this 


CHB1 by this, with this c6io by this, with this 


(o) c6mi (about) this. (o) ceS (about) this. 
Plural for the three genders. 
N. ci6 these 
G. CHxi of these 
D. CHMt to these 
A. CHX'B, ciz these 
, 1. c&tH by these, with these 
P. (o) CHxi (about) these. 

Another demonstrative pronoun, which is also some- 
times though not frequently usedl, is OHUft this or that one. 

Its declension does not differ from that of qualifying 
adjectives having the same termination (see 20th lesson). 


CipaH^ country, region, j)2.cTp^nH saHEiu&Tiui to occupy oneself 

Topr6Bji« trade, commerce xoCTaBJi^Tb to procure 

MCTb (fem.) honour [self) rocnojiAHt gentleman 

iipHroTOBiiTBCfl to prepare (one- s&seica it appears, it seems 

asTo year; summer ceM^ftcTso family 

H&xa, lady K&ueab stone, plur. k&hhi 

npoMiinueHHocTi. industry nyTem^cTBeaBBsi traveller 

Hin no cosn&Tb soldier, gen. plur. -i. ^ 

B-B 9THXI CTpaHaxi ssAiejia BaHHMaiOTCffl Topr6BjieK). 
B% Tofi KH^rt MHoro KapTHH-b. Hto bh j.'kiajrH Bt TOfl 
E6MHaTi? Mh h6 6hjih b-b toh KOMHarh, cy;i;apB; mh osi- 
BajiHCB Bi 3Tofi KOMHaxi. Owb ceda He saaeTt, ho ohi 
MHoro jyMaeTi o ce6i. Bfi^^jH m Bh yac6 TaKyio KHfiry? 

' The pronoun ToazKift is now obsolete. 
" The pronoun ceft was formerly much in use, but now it is 
very seldom met with. In its place, iiort is most frequently employed. 


Reflexive akd demonstrative pronouns. 6S 

a exssfi He B&}s,'k3.'h TaKoft KHara. Korfl4 Bh KyniiHct Bt 
Tofi piKi? 9Toro a He anaio. SaHHMaexcH jih eni;e roeno- 
jfeHi N. N. laKO© pa6()T0K)? Jl^yMat o ce6i, ;i;pyra moSI 
3hii6h) acBxejiH axoro ropoAa saHHHaraxcii TaKHMn pa66- 
xaMH, a JtixoMi 6yjyxi aaEHMaxtea ;i;pTrHMH (with other) 
pafioxaHH. Owh AocxaejifleT'b cbo^S xoproBJieE) toit^ ceu4fi- 
CTsy necxB h 6oraicxBO. Owb onaxB 6ijsfirb nparoxoBaixbca 
Kb BoiH'b, noTOMy hxo ohi BHaext, qxo jiixoMi fiy^er* 
BofiHa. BHiemr. jih th axoro rocno^fiHa? Hira, a ero 
He SHaio, HO MHi KajKexcH, ixo a ero BftAijn b^ tojpb 
ropojti. H^xo 9X0 laKoe? KaKi saMi bxo Kdatexca? 


In this country, the inhabitants occupy themselves 
with commerce and industry. Trade procures for these 
inhabitants riches and honour. In those Jbooks [there are] 
many tales. These pictures belong to that girl. The 
glass of that window pleases me very much. Didst 
thou not already bathe in this river? No, I did not 
yet bathe here, but I shall soon bathe in that river. 
We do not know ourselves. 

Do not speak much about yourself I They thought 
much of themselves. I saw myself in the mirror. Thou 
do«tt not know thyself. This traveller never was in that 
country. These books belong to that gentleman whom 
(KOi6paro) you saw yesterday morning in this garden. 
These soldiers prepare themselves again for (m, dat.) 
the war. Have you not already seen this town? Yes, 
Sir, I saw it three years ago. You occupied yourself 
formerly with commerce, but now you occupy yom-self 
with industry. 



AOM*? , Ham&. 

r^i arpajiH 9XH Aim ce- 9xh j^-ktu arpaM na xoifb 

^6;^Ha yxpoMi? 

KoMy npHHaAJieatfixx 3xa 9xa KHfira h oto nepo npn- 

KHfira? HasJie»aTi, xoMy yieHHKy. 

KorAa XH BOBBpaxHJica (didst R BOSBpaxliJifta Bt repMaairo 

thou return) bi. Tepjid- B'BXOTbcaMHtroAtjKorAa 

Hiio? aa^ajiacB (began) BoSna. 




KtO 6wrh BIp TOHl KOMHaTi? 

Mnoro jib BOH^fi vb axon 

Kto Ten6pB oxkBiema bx 

^TO }^iJl&rD•rb yieHHKii Ha 

3T0M1. MOCTy? 

a ee T&Kb lacTO ^Hiajii, 
MTO 3Haro eeno^iA (almost) 
HaHsycTB (by heart). 

ToTi rocno^fiHi, KOToparo 

BU B^epa B^A^'SH Wh Toi/i 

KOMHaTi, 6wn> Mofi spyri 
HflaHi IleTpoBHii. 

Bx 3T0fi KOHtblDHi uksO KO- 
Hefl, HO Ha TOMt ^iBopi 

MHoro K0H6ii h Chkobi. 
MajiB^HKi OAiBaeTca len^pi. 

B-b easy. 
Ci. moct4 h cb depera s^th 

6poc4K)rB (throw) KaHHH 

Bi 3Ty piKy. 



a) laterrogative pronouns. 

Kto who, H10 which, what, neft whose are far more 
often used as interrogative pronouns than otherwise. 
Their declension is as foHows: 
N. STO who MTo which 

6. Bord of whom qer6 of which 

D. Koir^ to whom leisf to which 

A. Kor6 whom hto which 

I. kImi by whom ij^mi with what 

P. (o) BOMi (about) whom. (o) newb (about) what. 

Heft whose. 


Masc. and neut, 
N. Hofi, <ii@ whoso 
O. uer6 of whose 
D. ii>eiiy to whose 
A. ^aeti, vefi, Vhe whose 
I. qi>HMi> by whose 
P. (o) iiexi (about) whose. 

Feminine singular. 
<ii>;i whose 
iBeii of whose 
Hiefi to whose 
HbiD whose 

^n,6to, Hhek by whose 
(o) Hiefl (about) whose. 

Plural for the three genders. 

N. ?BH whose 

G. HbHXi of whose 

D. HfcHHi to whose 

A. HbHxx, qiH whose . 

I. Mb^ini by whose 

P. (o) ^hvxT, (about) whose. 

Interrogative and relative pROKOnNS. 65 

b) Relative pronouns. 

BOTdpjEift who, which, that. 
Masc. and oent. sing. Feminine singnlar. 

N. BordpHft, KOT6poe who, which Eoidpan who, which 
G. BOTdparo of whom, of which KoidpoH of whom, of which 
D. KOT6poH7 to whom, etc. KoidpoS to whom, to which 

A. Kordparo, KOTopaR, KOT6poe Koidpps whom, etc. 

whom, etc. 
I. KOTdpiiH'B by whom, etc. KOT(5poi), Eoidpofi by whom 

P. (o)BOT6poM'B (about) whom, etc. (o) BoidpoH (about) whom, etc. 
Plural for the three genders. 
N. Roxdpiie (m.), E0T6pii« (f. and n.> who, which, ete. 
G. Bordpaxi of whom, etc. 
D. KOTdpHMt to whom, etc. 
A. Eordpaxi,, KOTfipHe, EOTdpiifl whom, etc. 
I. EOTdpHua by whom. etc. 
^ P. (o) EoidpHxt (about) whom, etc. 

Kojbi(6, KOT6poe bh Kyn^jiB .... The ring which you bought . . . . 
BoTi caii6BHiiE'fc, Eoidparo bh eiep^ Here is the gardener whom you 
uAxbrn. saw yesterday. 

saBofi? which, what? what sort of? 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 
N. KaKdfi? EaE6e? which? what? EaE4a? which? what? 
G. EaKdro? of which? etc. KaEfifi? of which? etc. 
D. xaKdMy? to which? etc [etc. Easdi? to which? etc. 
A. EaE6ro?BaE(5fl?KaK6e? which? Eattyx)? which? etc, 
I. KaE^m? by which? etc. RaRdio? by which? etc. 
P. (o)BasdMi? (about) which? etc (o) Eaadft? (about) which? etc. 
Plural for the three genders. 
' N. EaEfe, EaKia? which? what? 
G. eeeAxi? of which? etc. 
P. EaEiiui.? to which? etc. 
A. KaR^xi? Kaafe? Eaaia? which? etc. 
I. EaaiMH? by which? etc. 
P. (o) Easiixt? (about) which? etc 

rocttoAisbfytJocecTpfBUhinBTe.. The gentleman whose sister yon 

see ... . 
Kopoji^Ba, vbeui XBopni a ro- The queen of whose palace I 

BopA .... speak .... 

Eas^i cniraxt bu jjMaeie? Of what books do you think? 
KaKEiirB 66pa30H%? In what manner? 

^leiiy 6paTy npznsLnnex&rb axon To whose brother does this 

XOHi? house belong? 

Hbfiui s6Mt BH roBopHTe? Of whose house do you speak? 

KoT6piift leo^pB TOCi? What o clock is it now? 

Hki) cecipfiuy TH bAa'Sjii? Whose sister didst thou see? 

Russian Conv.-Grammar. 

66 Interrogative and relative pronouxs. 


JaMa lady npoeATt to ask 

BesAopdsa (she is) unwell KOHu^pii concert 

Baiu> ayxHO you want sact hour, o'clock 

CTOCT^Qsi (he is) happy ohA khbj^ti they live 

X0B6jieH% (he is) satisfied npHmiio^^Hie adventure, event 

ofi'&iii^Tjg to promise CTapiitciB old man, gen. -i, 

noREHdTb to understand noiyHtoi. to receive. 

noja, OKOTopHXi a roBopib, a^va&jsji&MkTh HameMy 
cociAy- IIoHHMaeTe jh bh, ^to a bsmi, roBopib? Totb, 
kt;o ffOBOjeHi, ct^ctjihbi. neiKb th lenepb flyMaeiiiB? 
Hero npocfijTb namt dpa-n? Ohi npocHJi KH6ry, KOTopyio 
BH eMy BTOp^ oSimdjiH. BoHHa, o KOTopoMt BH roBopfiTe, 

HiTl SfliCB. OhH npOCHJIH MCHH paSCKaSaTB HMl (to tell 

them) Moft npHMro^eHia, hto a h csaijajii cb y^OBOJiB- 
CTsieMi. Bqii itBiTH, KOTOpHe BaiTB oieHb HpaaaTca. 
CTapfiKi, Bi iBejpB jioMi MH jifinio atfiJiH, TsnepB b-b AmepHKi. 
Eo^eM^f TH He ;i;yMaeinB o tom-b, tto th o6'fein;aji'b 
HaMt? KoMHaTa, bi KOTopofi MH o64;^aeM^, mh^ hb npa- 

BHTCa. leM-B BH fl^MaeTB? KOMi BH rOBOpHTB? Mh 

flVMaeMi A^Taxi, MaTB KOTopHxi TenepB He3;i;op6Ba. 
HBero cocfeffa ^to nojre? Hbbm^ cuay npHHa^JieacaTi. 3th 
nojia? Koro bh BCTpfoHJH (did you meet) BHspa y CBOiJfi 
TeTKH? KoTopHft ^aci? Bib KOTopoMi Tiacy BH ofiiflacTe? 
KoMy TH xajit MOe hhcbmo? Cjiyri, KOTopHfi 6HJii TaMi. 
Hto oHt cKasajPB? 


To whom did you give (oTflajH bh) your ring? 
Which womau spoke with you? The ladies who were 
yesterday at my aunt's, [are] the daughters of this gent- 
leman. Do you know the lady who was to-day at the 
(b'b prep.) concert? The letter which I received from my 
friend gave me much pleasure. Who is there? Whose 
dog is this? To whom did you write a letter? With 
whom did your mother speak? About what did she 
speak? Which of (h3i) your sisters is unwell? Louisa 
(Jyfiaa). Which of your friends returned to> America? 

What does he say? Which book do you want? 
In which room were you? At what o'clock (transl. In 
which hour) do you dine? What a winter we have! 
What flowers [are there] in the garden? Which of these 
books belongs to your brother? Do you know the house 
in which they live? This is (9to) the picture which I 

Definite and ind-efinitk PRONonss. 67 

showed to your sister, who (KOTopaa) returned from 
America three years ago. The garden of which you 
speak, belongs to my father. The bird, which flew 
away (BiijieTijta), is in the garden of the neighbour. 

BtKka.i> jiH TH yate jifiwh, Hfet, Mofi flpyra, a erd'se 

KOTOpHfi MH npOflaJIH? . B6;^iXB- 

KoM^ BH ;i;ajrH cbo6 bhcbmo? Bopb catyra, KOT6poMy a 


8to He Ta EH^ra, o KOTopoft ^ejoBiK'B, KOTopHfi duxi, 

a roBop6ji%, a r^'fe Ta? SAict, bshjit, ee, 

Tjijk Ten^pb soHTHKi (para- H noTepaat (I lost) er6; 

sol), KOTopHfi Bami ;^aXa a o^ieHE coacajiH) 061, 

npHHSc^b (brought) Bamefi otomi (I am very sorry 

cecrpi? for it). 

R&Kpo KapTfiny ' KynAjit SI Be swam, Bynajri ja ohi 

Bami OTeui? KapTHHy, Ajh whTb 

^er6 MHoro BecHOK) (in BecHOK) bi ptB&x'b PoccfH 

spring) BipiKaxiPocciH? mhofo p^($h. 

^bto MaTb Bu B^A'ii'™? ^ B^A'^^ HaTB y^eBHKa, 

EOTOpufi 6U.31 Bl MoCKsi. 

EaKoS D())Hi^ep'B 6ujrB aa O^uui&pb, co6iKj KOT6paro 
yjini];i^? bh B^epa Kynfuns, osxh 

Ha yjiHi^^fe. 



a) Definite prononns. 

c&HHft the same, self. 

Masc. and neat. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. 'C&HH&, c&Hoe the same c&Kaa the same 

6. ciMMO of the same c&moS of the same 

D. c&MOKy to the same cftuoft to the same 

A. c&Karo, c4hhB, educe the same c6mjs> the same 
I. c&MHin by the same ciuoK), c4ho& by the same 

P. (0) c&MOHi (about) the same. (0) c^uoh (about) the same. 
Plural for the three genders. 
N. ciirae (m.), c&aaa (f. and n.) the same 
6. c&HHxi of the same 
D. c&itwrh to the same 
A. ciime, duBxi, c&iom the same 
I. ciMiiKu by the same 
P. (0) ciMHxt (about) the same. 


68 Definite and indefinite pronouns. 

cawh self, same. 
Maac. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. caMi, caM6 self caiid self 

G. caHord of . . . self caMrta of . . . self 

D. cauoM^ to . . . self caMdfi to . . . self 

A. caHoid, aawb, caM6 self caKog self 

L caK^H'b by ■ . ■ self caHds, cau(5fi bj . . . self 

P. (o) camoBix (about) . . . self. (o) caudfi (about) . . . self. 
Plural for the three genders. 
N. c&HH selves 
G. caMBxt of . . selves 
D. caH^m to . . . selves 
A. ca,«.i!x% selves 
I. caii^uB by . . . selves 

P. ^o) catiisxT. (about) ■ . . selves. __^___ 

The pronouns cawh and caMHfi have the same 
meaning, but they may not be used indifferently. Cam 
accompanies the personal pronouns and the names of 
animate and abstract beings: 
H cam, owb caHi> I myself, he himself 

caHor6 ce6a oneself (accus. case). 

CaiiHfi is used with the demonstrative pronouns and 
the names of inanimate objects: 
Toil. c&hbS. The very game. 

C^a;i cHepTi. Death itself. 

N. B. The pronoun caMHft before a qualifying adjective ex- 
presses the superlative. See Lesson 20. 

BecB all, whole, 
and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. BecB (m.), Bce (n.) all bch all 

G. Beer6 of all Bcefi of all 

D. Bceuy to all Bcea to all 

A. Bcei6, BecB, see all bcd all 

I. bcShh. by all bc6», bcbh by all 

P. (o) BceBi (about) all. (o) scefi. (about) all. 

Plural, for the three genders. 

N. Bci all 

6. Bcixi of all 

D. BC'ba-b to all 

A. Bcix'i, Bct all 

I. Bchai by all 

P. (o) Bcixi (about) all. 

KdjK;i;ntt each, every. 

Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. n&xnuU, KkMnoe each, every K^asaa each, every 

G. JsAaf.a,To of each Kiacjofi of each 

D. aSxnovj to each Kftasofi to each 

A. KiisAaro, s&aAiifi, K&acAoe each B^aciyD each 

I. B.&mji.UH'b by each niiRnoiD, K4at;iofi by each 

P. (o) KdaAOM'B (about) each. (o) Kiatjofi (about) each. 

Depikite and indefinite pkonoukh. 69 

Plaral for the three genders. 
N. K&.MU'ae (m.), K4ffiJ^Ha (f. and n.) each, every 
G. K^xiHX'L of each 
D. kAmuhki, to each 
A. isMxjmxi,, E&siAHe, KdjEABA each 
I. KaxAHMH by each 
P. (o) KdatjHX'b (about) each. 

b) Indefinite pronouns. 
u^KTO a certain (used only in the nominative). 
H*Tro something (used only in the nominative and 

In the oblique cases instead of these two prononne, 
KTO-TO and ^to-to are frequently employed. 
HiiKOTopHft some one (declined like KOTOpHft, page 65). 
HHBTO nobody (declined like kto, page 64). 
HHHTO nothing (declined like qio, page 64). 
Roe-KTO somebody or other (declined like kto, page 64). 
Koe-HTO something or other (declined like ^pto. page 64). 
kto-jih6o, KT0-HH6y;i;i. whoever, anybody. 
HTO-jm6o, HT0-HH6y;i;B whatever, anything. 

The words jft6o and HH6ysi> are indeclinable, where- 
as KTO and TTO combined with them are declined as if 
they were alone. 


HHOfl many, more than one, several, other | 

Masc. and nout. sing. 

Feminine singular. 


BHdfi, BH6e many a 

bbAji many a 


HHdro of many a 

bh6h of many a 


HH^iiy to many a 

bh6K to many a 


na6ro, SEdfi, Biioe many a . 

BB^n many a 


HHiiirB by many a 

liBdiO, bh68 by many a. 


(ofit) BHdim. (about) many a. 

(o6i) bb<5b (about) many a. 

Plaral for tl 

le three genders. 

N. HHiie, nttim many, several | 

6. BHlixi of 

many i 

D. HBliM'b to 

many 1 

A. BBiix'B, BBiie, BfliiA many | 

I. BHiiMB by 

many 1 

P. (o6%) BHiixi (about) many. | 

OAUH'b one, some 

one, a certain, alone. 

Masc. and neat. sing. 

Feminine singular. 


OA^Hi, oxn6 one 

o;ih4 one 


OAPor6 of one 

0AH6ti of one 


OABOK^ to one 

0AH6Ii to one 


ojHord, off^Bi, oab6 one 

oABy one 


oxBA}in> by one 

0AB6n, OABdii by one 


(o6t) ojadHi (about) one. 

(o6t) oAHdS (about) one. 

70 Definite and iNDKi-iKiifi pRONonKS. 

Masu. and neut. plur. 

Feminine plural. 

N. oArt ones 

oAsi ones 

G. oaiiAxi of ones 

oAHtbxi of ones 

D. OAB^m to ones 

oKskwi' to ones 

A. onvixh, OAHH ones 

oxH'&xi, oahI ones 

I. oahAmh by ones 

oABiuB by ones 

P. (o6t) ow^xt (about) ones. 

(oi5i) OABixi (about) ones. 

apyrt-flpyra each other, one another. 

N. — ■ - 

(i. spyr%-sp]?ra of each other 

D. ipyri-jipj^ry to each other 

A. apyn-Apjra each other 

I. jpyri-flpyroM'B by each other 

P. jtpYFh-^ppi about each other. 
To the indefinite pronouns belong also many others, 
such as BCflKift every one, HiiCEOJiBKilt ^ some, any, 
mn6A, HHsaBOft, hh o;i,hh% none; but their use does 
not present any dif&cujty at all. 

Hhbto and HH^vo must always be accompanied by 
a negative adverb He, wkTh: 
y Mena HHiero nmm. I have nothing. 

Hhkt6 Baci «e sAjijn. Nobody saw you. 


OA^Kb are used with a preposition, the preposition is 

placed between the hh and the pronoun proper: 

Hh Bi oAHOMi noxi. In no house. 

Hh y Bor6. At nobody's. 

9to bh Kb veH^ He roA^^TCfl. That is good for nothing. 


noKpHB^iB, naspiiiB to cover uanpdTnsi on the contrary 

CM^pieH'B (he is) mortal npejiii^TX subject, thing 

Beci>H& ffimo very long oma6&chcti to err 

jilE&pciBO medicine ssim caught 

SBipB animal cb^ti, Mipi world 

Eptnocib fortress uapoAi people, nation 

noanaB^TB to know KdH^HTBcn to end 

6yiiJlra paper oai&Ssa fault 

^fm men, people Hdseii (he) can, may. 


fl caMi noKpMBaai ctoji'b 6yMaraMH. Bori. ot^ht, 

Bcixi jiioA^ft. CKaffifixe Sto, noatajiyficTa, KOMy-HHdywb. 

Hsi HB^ero ne CA&iaemB HH^ero. B'b KaacAou'B ceji 

ecTB i^^pKOBB. Bi TBH^Hie (In the course) HicKQflMtHKB 

1 It is obsolete in the singular, while in the plural it is used 
in the oblique cases only: HicKoiBEHxi, HicEOJu.KHH'B, HicsojuEHHH, 
HicEOJiBEHxi; but in the nominative and accusative plural, the 
adverbial form nicEOJiBEO is more frequently used instead of bA- 


Definite and indefinite PRONorNs. 71 

MicimeBi OHt He aojiymijFb hh o^hoi'o nHctua. AHrjiHiane 
B (J)paHuy3H Jiv)6arh spyri-;ipyra. Hsia nyniKHHa SHasie- 
HHTO (is celebrated) no BceMy CB-tTy. R aao ^eMi 66ji4e 
(more) He 6yAy BaM-B pascKasHBaTL. 

Bu EHKorAa en;e He roBopdjH ci hAhh caM^MH. 
9toti ;toMi npHHaffljeffifirs eny cawoMy. Haue bohhh He 
xpa6pH. GaJieci, rpeqecKift (j>Hjr6co$i, roBopflxB: TpyflHie 
Bcero HOSHaBaTB cauoro ce6i, a j^rne Bcero HaxoA^TB (to 
find) omft^KH B-b spyrfix-B (others). Mh pafioiajH h30 
Bctxi cHJii. Th fiysemt ryjraTb cb h^io caMOio. BciKiS 
Hsi Baci SHaeTi, ^to seiijifl Kama Bpan^aeiscA (turns) 
BOKpyrt cojHi^a. JIio6fi Bora fiojiie Bcero h cbocto fijiHat- 
Hflro (nam. Cjuffinifi next) Kairb cauoro ce6H. 

I shall soon have an opportunity to thank him for 
some books which, he gave me. Cover the books and 
papers with sometfaiugl Some one spoke about that 
affair, but nobody believed him. I myself was in the 
city. The most difficult of all things (TpyAHie Bcero) 
is to know oneself. Do you know the weight of our 
earth? These objects belong to her. I never (HHKorsa) 
spoke with him. T shall show that to nobody. Every 
man is mortal. 

Some people live very long. Not one was caught; 
a,ll took to flight (yfiiaiiH). Give him the medicine 
every (v^pesi Ka»AHe) two hours (xBa ^ac^). In this 
world [there is] nothing [that is] durable (gen.). Even 
the birds and animals love their native country, 
in the street [some] workmen construct something and 
speak with one another. In the fortress something is 
being done (AijiaiOTi). I think on the contrary, that 
they are doing nothing in the fortress, because I saw 
nobody there. 


mwh BH HaKplijH CTOli? Mh HaEpUJH CFO HicKOJb- 

HHKoro ceroflHH h6 6ajio y Cev6ji:aa oujih y Baci KaKie- 


He CMHiajiH jiH Bh ^ero JI HHiero ne Muxajii o neMi.. 


roBop&JiH JH Bii yK6 Cb H^Ti, fl eme ne roBopfijTB 


72 Adjectives with Fnu, terminations. 

Ito owb euf AaBknj, "aepeai Ohi saBajri cm/ JiiEapcTBO, 

KaaKAHe ABa qaca? ho He ;i;aBajii ]ut^6a. 

Kto MOffieTi CKaaaTB, ^TO 0H% Hhkto hc MoaceTi CEasaib, 

HHKorxa He oniHSaaca? ^to ohi HHKor;i;a ne oniH- 


Koro Bh jBaaiaeTe 66ji4e, fl yBaacaio nasi, oauoto, 

OAHoro HJH flpyroro? laKi h spyroro. 

KaKia tTpaHH bh;i,4jih Bh? flBAA^JitnoiTfiBCioEBpcSny. 

r^i BaMi. 66jibnie (most) Kaaxaa cipana awkerb CBoe 

Bcero noHpaBHJioci? xopomee h CBoe sypnoe. 



Adjectives in Russian may be divided into two classes: 
I. Qualifying adjectives, such as: ao6pHfi good, kind, 

xpa6pHS brave. 
II. Possessive adjectives, such as: IleTpoBi Peter's, 
otd;6bi. of the father.* 
Both agree in gender, number and case with the 
noun with which they are coupled.* 

Qualifying adjectives have a twofold termination: 
the full and the apocopated.' 

The full termination is used when the adjective is 
employed attributively, i. e. when it quahfies a substan- 
tive which generally follows it: xpadpuft bohhi the brave 

The apocopated or abridged termination is used 
when the adjective is employed predicatively i. e. after 
a verb expressed or understood: bohhi xpa6pt the 
warrior is brave. 

• This kind of adjectives is discussed in the next lesson. 

^ Most Russian Orammarians enumerate also a third class 
comprisini; the circumstantial adjectives, i. e. those which point 
to dependence on circumstances of time or place, such as a^'iniiiifi 
of here, cerosHaniHifi of to-day (Greek oTjjiEpivo;,' Lat. hodiernus, 
Germ, tieuttg). But to the author of this hook, they seem to be, as 
in other languages, nothing else tfaan'ordinary qualifying adjectives 
deserving of no particular mention, the less so as their declension 
does not in the least differ from that of all other qualifying adjec- 
tives. It may suffice to state that they all follow the soft declension. 

^ See Lesson 19. footnote 1. 

Adjectives with full terminations. 73 

Example o 

f hard full terminations. 

Masculine: xp46pHS adum the brave warrior. 
N. xp&6pHit b6bbi xp&6pHe bohbh 
6. xp46paro sdHBa xpAfipHxi b6hhobi 
D. xp46poMy BdHBy xpdSpKTMi BdHHajii 
A. xp&6paro BOHBai xp&Gpuxi BdnaoBii 
I. xp46pHin.BOHB6iii xpafipuHH BdHHauH 

P. (O) XpACpOMl BdHBt. (o) XpiiCpHXl BOHHaXT.. 

N. A66pafl Sieak 
G. fl66poft aeaii 
D. A6(!poft seai 
A. AoSpyio seBi 
I. A66poio aeH6B 
P. (o) A66poft aeHi. 

AdSpaa zeB& the good wife. 
A66pua xeHH 
AdCpux-b xeHi 
Ad^ptiMi seHajti 
A66puxi ateBt' 
A66puBiH seaaHB 
(o) A66pHx% »eBaxi. 

Neuter: iipiaTHoe Micro the agreeable place. 
N. npiaTBOe Micio ripiaTBHa MiciA 
6. npiaTHaro MicTa npiaiHEixi HicTi 
D. npiiiBOMy MicTy npiaTHHjn, MiciaMi 
A. npiaiHOe MicTO ni)iaTBHa aicia 


p. (o) npiaTHOMi MicTi. (o) BpiaTBHXi Micxaxi. 

In the same manner may be declined: 
BdBiiii ropoAi the new totrn SiAHiiK ^ejiOBisi (plur. sAffi) the 

orpdMsaa cxpaHd the immense - poor man 

region Gordiaa A^Ha the rich lady 

iHCToe nbjie the clean field (level cAjiiHoe ot6tcctbo the strong 
ground) fatherland. 

Adjectives having the accent on the last syllable 
take in the nominative singular of the masculine gender 
the termination ofi, and in the genitive singular ore 
in other respects, they are declined according to the models 
given above. 

Such are: 
(Joiim6fi AOM% the great house, fiojiimdro^ Aoua, f)ojibm6Hy etc. . . . 
Oojibmia piKa the great river . . . 6ojibmde ce^id the great village.' 

Example of soft full terminations. 

Masculine: AcKpeHHiii npiaTejb the sincere friend. 

N. HCRpeBHiik npiaiejib ^cKpenaie upiaTejia 

G. BCEpeHaaro npiaieja HCKpeBSHXi npiaTe;ieii 

D. i^CKpeBHeuy npiaieiio HCKpeuspMi npiaxejaHi 

A. AcKpeHBaro upiaxeaa BCKpeBBHXi spiaTejieii 

I. HCKpeBBHUi npiaTeJieMi HCKpeHnnnu npiaTCJiaHB 

p. (o<!i) dcKpeflaeM'B apiaTeai. (ofii) HCRpeiiRHXi opiaTejiaxi. 

* When accompanied by nouns denoting inanimate objects, the 
accusative form of the adjective does not differ from the nominative. 
' In the old orthography, 6ojimaro. 


Adjectives with foll terminations. 

Feminine : jtinaa 

HO^b the summer night. 


jiiiHaa 110 lb 

jiiTHia u67H 


^liiTHen ndiH 



aiiHefi HoiH 

jiiTBBU'B Ho^an^b 


JlilHIOK) HO?l 

aiTBiji h6to 


i^THen b6?i>io 



(o) JliTHeri BOHR. 

(o) JlixBHX'B BOI&Xl. 

Neuter; upeacHee OAtaJio the former coverlet. 


np^xnee oaMjio 

np^xaifl oA^l^ajia 


np^KHHTO ojMjia 

np^sBHXi o^iaii 


npfiatHeiiy oAtoy 

np^ZBHU'b oKbfa&wh 


iip(^;Rnee OAiaJio 

up^KBia vflUjia 


np^atHHim oiiajoMi 

npeKBHMH OjUjiaMB 


(o) np^KBeM* oniiuii: 

(o) npteHHXi esiajtaxi. 

yuch are: 
jiiTBiB f,eHh the summer day 
siatBsx BO<ib the winter night 
c^aee h66o the blue sky (plur. of b66o = neGeci). 

It must be noted that, not all qualifying adjectives 
having the nominative singular of the masculine gender 
terminating in iii, belong to the soft form. 

A considerable number of hard adjectives have an 
apparent mixed declension for the simple reason that 
the law of permutation (page 16) does not permit the 
use of u after a guttural or hissing consonant (page 5). 
Such is JierKifi light, which has in the feminine jreraaa 
and in the neuter jierKoe (and not JierKaa, lentee) and 
BHCOKifi high, CTporifi rigorous, pi^Kift rare, niRpoBii 
broad, large, and so on. 


adjectives in Hfi or iS which are derived 

from iiames 


animate beings exhibit the following 


exemplified in: o^i^hIh of a deer. 

. Singular. 


Fem. Neut. 

N. oj^Bit 


6. M^BMrO 

oji^HbeR oji^Hwiro 

D. 0Ji6ui,eMy. 

ojeHbett OA^EbeMy . 

A. oaSaifi 

Od^BblD OJI^Bbe 


ojieiibeio o;i6BbH«i 

P. 06l OJ^HBeMl. 

o&b oJi^Bbett. o6:b oji^Hbeui. 

• Plural. 




OA^flbBXl OA^BbBXl 

D. Ol^B&EM'b 



0JI6bBH ' OA^HbH 



P. (o6i) OI^IIbBX'b. 

(061) OJI^BbHXl. 061 OJI^BBBXl.. 

Adjectives with full tebminitioks. 75 


ToJiOBa head i^iknisA violet 

flaK43BBaT& to punish sosBpaxuica (he) retorned 

oCBiut&Ti. to light up, to enlighten spac^BiiH handsome 

ciBepeoe ciasie aurora borealis niintiafi long 

BofiH& war TOBsit narrow, slender 

HOJioidii young cisepHufi northern 

OTniAsth to separate opespdcHiiu beautiful 

Hef,iano recently cxapiiS old 

no^HTdxii to adore H^asiil low 

c^a force, strength ueaontAKBuii immobile 

npoAOjix&Tfc to continue uphji^xhiih diligent 

xkxHHa hut HajienbEiii small, little. 


Ckojibko JiiTT> nposojiaajiaci. BOfiHa? Bi^HHe jikah 
SHByTB B'B HjgsKoS x^ffiHst. Ha ,!i,Bopi 6ajiw. npeEpacHua 
jiomaAH. SsisAH (page 7) 66;n>nieE> ?dcTBK> HenoAB^KHiui 
T&id. Maib pa66TaeTi co cbo^hh npHJi^acHiiMH AO^epBui^, 
J[6qepH yKpamaBOTB eeofi ctojiii chhhmh ^iiiKaMa. IIpHJi&B- 
Hue yneEHBd j[flaia.BJi&vyrb Tpo^^nesamt MHoro y^OBDJiBCTBiH. 
OtpoMHoe Mope OTAiJuieTb Espony orb Am^phkh. ,!l,66pHa 
A^TH ErpoH cb HiHes). IlacTyxi soaspaT^Jica Aouofi cu 


^ yKpacB::9:-B 6oj[bwfti EOMHaxy c^HiniH CTSKJiaHH. SI 
noxY^ji'b TBoe KopoTKoe dhcbmo. Boraxaft Kyn^Ai, koto- 
poofi schbSt'B B'B dojTBinoM'B AOMJi Ha lUHpoKOit yjmni, HHieTB 
6iAHaro dpaxaa d^AHyio cecTp^. Bi 3tohi aou']^ nanjioiqaAB 
SHBerB MHoro cxapiix'B JiH>Aei. Bi ApesHia Bfeueai PducKaa 
(Roman) Hmnepia fiiuia Toate, qxo xen^pB PoccfScxaii 
Hun^pia ; ho bi AP^BHet PAmckoS Hmn^piH 6hjio rop43AO 
66jiBine (much more) at^iejefi, h^kcjih Bi len^peniHeS 
PocciftcKofi HttnepiH. 

The widow of the good Peter gave (Aaaa) the poor 
man a bit of bread. What is the good child doing in 
the large yard? The horse has a beautiful head, a long 
body, and long (high) and slender legs. Bad actions are 
punished {transl. punish themselves, instr.) with rigorous 
kws. Winter nights [are] often lighted up (oeBimaroxca) 
by thp aurora borealis. In the handsome rooms of the 
uncle [there are] many rare things. I know your old 
friend very well. He showed us the high room with 
great pleasure. 


Adjectives with full termisatioss. 

We recently read in a new book the interesting 
story of a young merchant. There is the high house 
of the rich Frenchman (nom. '^paHaysii) ! The children 
played in the long street. The rich people in the 
town often spoke with the poor old man. My 
good old father wrote me a very agreeable letter. The 
ancient people worshipped the moon, the stars and the 
forces of nature. In northern countries where the night 
continues for (npoflOjrjBdeTca) several months, the moon 
and the stars light up the earth. 


Ito Bh Btix^ji^ Ha 6eperax'B 
<j)paHuy3CKHX^ piK%? 

KaKia KHHrH KYufunj y^e- 


^To s66pHH OTeu,'i. no^i.apHJi'b 
(presented) CBOHMt npa- 

KaKaa Tenept noro;];a (wea- 

^Ito bh HHTajH ceroAHH s-h 
HOBofi KHiiri? 

mn-h saHHMaioTefl npHj^ac- 

HHe aCHTCJH 3Toro 60JIb- 
moro ropoAa? 
Kto lajti Te6'h aTOTB 6ojib- 
nioii KycoK'R xjiifia? 

Ha 6eperdxGb ^'P^Hi^y.icKHXii 
piKi a b6a*Jpb BHCOKie 
H BsjiHqecTBeHHue saHKH. 

yqeHfiK'b VijndjPb T6jIbK0 

xopomiji Kdara. 
^66pHa 0T6^^ noflapAjn. 

CBO^Mt npna^acHuii'b ^■k- 

TflM'B Hrp^mKH (toys). 
H660 noKpuTO (is covered) 

Mei ?ht4;ii[ npHji^XHUxt 

pafioTHHKaxi, KOTopne pa- 

66x3 JH B'B 6ojihm6}iL'h fl.6wfi 

y 6oraTaro Kyimd. 
Oh^ saHHHaioTca ToproBjet, 

npoMumjieHHOCTiiK) h pas- 


JKeaa fitAHaro pafioTiiHKa 
;i;ajia mh* 91011 6ojrBiu6fl 
EycoKi xjii6a h iotl 
cTaR^Ht OTJi^^Haro bhb& 





(Possessive Adjectives.) 

The apocopated terminations are, what the name 
plainly indicates, shortened terminations which the ad- 
jective takes when it acts as predicate of a verb. 

Their declension would therefore seem quite un- 
necessary. * But they sometimes occur in poetry in- 
stead of the full terminations. Besides this, their termi- 
nations are adopted by possessive adjectives, as will soon 
be seen on page 79. 

Example of hard apocopated terminations: 

xpadpi, xp46pa, xp46po brave. 


Fem. Neut. 

xpd6pa xpdCpo 

(xpi6pofi) (xp46pa') 

(xp46poH) (xp&6py) 

(xpa6py) (xp46pa) - 

(xp46poiD) (xpaepHMi) 

(o xpiCpofi). (o xp&6poMt, -i). 

xp&6p£i xp&6pEi 

(xp&6pHXi) (xpAfipHXl) 

(xpi6piiui.) (xp&SpBU'B) 

(xpAfipaxi, xpACps) (xpiCpa) 

(xpaOpauH) (xpifipHMz) 

(o xpaSpHXi). (o xpiCpHxi). 

Thus may be declined, for the sake of practice; 

jo6pi., Ao6p4, jo6p6 good (j66piiH; 

HOB'b, HOB&, h6bo new (HdBIlfi) 

^HCTt, HHCTd, hActo clpan (?6cth8). 

Example of soft apocopated terminations: 

CHHB, CHHfl, CHBg blue. 


Masc. Fem Neut. 

N. CHHB CBHa chhS (cine) 

G. (cAhs) (cHfiefi) (chhh) 

D. (cAhh)) (cHHeft) (cAhid) 

1 It is derived from the Greek &ic6 away, and xiitto) I cut. 

2 In prose, only the nominative forms of each gender and 
number are used. 

N. xpafipi 
G. (xp46pa) 
D. (xpa6py) 
A. (xpdSpa, xpaSpi) 
I. (xp&6piiii%) 
1*. (o xp&SpoMi, -i), 

N. xpifipBi 
G. (xpafipHxi.) 
D. (xpifipHMi) 
A. (xp46piixi, xp46pB) 
I. (xp&GpsuH) 
P. (o xpACpaxi). 


Adjectives with apocopated terminatioss. 

A. (qAhs), (CHHb) 


(cane, cAhc) 

I. (ciiBHlIl) 



P. (o CfiHeHt). ' 

(O CHHefi). 


(o c^Heui). 

N. cAhh 



G. (cAhhxi) 



D. (CHHBMt) 



A. (cAwix'b, CBja) 

(disasii,, cHaH) 




p. (O CHHHXl). 

(O CiBBXh). 

(O C^HBXIb). 

In forming the apocopated termination of the mas- 
culine gender, the vowels e and o are often inserted for 
euphony's sake. Also b and fi become e: 

full: CBiTJiBt brilliant apocopated: eiiiei%, -ni, -u6 

6ojnB6fi sick, ill 6d3eBi, •sbvi,, -jii>b6 

KpiDEiK strong spindKi, -nKi, -nso 

cnoEoflHHH tranquil CD0K6eBi, -iaa, -Bho 

jp^BElit ancient jp^Besb, -bba, -bhc 

c»'6iim6H ridiculous ciiiin€Ei,-)iiH&,-i]ra6. 

After the polite second person bh, an apocopated 
adjective is always put in the plural, although but one 
person is addressed: 
Bh lieiwi, Kpyvb Mofi. You are lazy, my friend. ' 

The name of possessive adjectives is given by 
Russian Grammarians to those adjectives which point 
out to whom an object belongs. 

They are deserving of particular attention, both with 
regard to their use and to their declension: as to their 
use, we must state that they do not correspond to any 
English adjective, but to an English substantive em- 
ployed in the genitive (possessive) case; as to their de- 
clension (pag. 72), they always take the apocopated ter- 

Examples of possessive adjectives: 
IIeTp6Bi wMi Peter's house.' 
neTp6Bii AOH& 
neipdBsxi j[0M6B'b 
neTpdHHHt fflvixh 
neTp6BH AOH& 


(o) neTp6Biix% ffm&si,. 

N. neTp6FK som 
6. nerpdBa ^&Ha 
D. neipday j6My 
A. neip^Bi fflUT, 
I. neipdBSHi a6xoik 
P. (o) neTp6B0Mi jdjit, 

It is even better to say aom% IIeTp4, b,tob& 6p&Ta, etc. 

Adjectives with apocopated tebmikations. 79 

6p4TRHHa BAoga the brother's widow. 

N. (5p4THHHa BAOBd 6piTBBBil QA^BH 



A. 6paTHHHy sAOBy 6p&tbhbiixi baob^ 


F. (o) 6p^TBaH0H BAOsi. (o) 6p&THHBUXl BAdBaXt. 

UjapiSimiHo cejio the Empress' village. 

N. I(apAi<BHo ce36 I(apAqHaH cexa 

G. I(apiSa(HHa ceA4 I^ap^UUPHXt. c§jii 
D. liap^BHy ceA^ Il^apiiBiHHfiMi ceAasi^. 
A. ItapiQHBO ceAO L(apAilHiiB cejia 

I. I^apifaiHBHU'B ceA6u'B Uap^HHHuz cejana 

P. (o) I](apAiiHHOHi (-£) cejii. (o) Djap^HHiixi ce^iaxi. 

Thus also: 

' Hb^hobi caAi> John's garden 
cScipHHa A6maAB the sister's horse 
A^B^itiiBO K0Jii>ti6 the girl's ring. 

A great number of proper names having the form 
of possessive adjectives are declined in the same way. 
Such are: 

EEiBAOB^b Pavlov II^niEHHi Pushkin 

r&TiHHa Gatchina CK6(>ejeBi Skohelev 

EopoAHHd Borodino Kopc&soBH the Koreakov family. 

It must however be remarked that such names, 
in the prepositional singular take the substantival in- 
flection % instead of curb or oft. 

In Russia,, persons of all conditions are usually 
called and addressed not by their family name, as in 
Western Europe, but by their Christian name and patro- 
nymic. {auE H drqecTBo). 

The patronymic appellation is formed by means of 
the termination osHqi or eBjm% for a man, and OBHa or 
eBHa for a woman. Obh^-b and cbhh'b are often con- 
tracted into BVb. 

Thus, if a man's name is Hbeh-b, and his father's 
Christian name is, or was, ngipt, you address him as 
HsaH'B EeTpoBiraB; and if this man should happen to 
have a sister called Mapia, you will address her, even 
though she were married, Mapia HeTpoBHa. 

80 Adjectives with apocopated tsbuinations. 


^HBonHCHHii picturesque CTOJifii;a capital (city) 

TpyjiBHM difficult innAra sword 

rjy66KiH deep npoHSHom^Hie pronunciation 

Aopor6ii dear, costly oiceaBi Ocean 

JiiHUBHH idle, lazy BcfiTaKH ueve.rtheless 

ysKifi narrow candri boot, shoo, gen. -a 

BHaweHHTHH Celebrated iiepeBOfli translation 

saopoBHfi healthy, well BpacBopi'iie eloquence 

ciacMHBBH happy Tp^nia Greece 

A0B6jtHHH satisfied omaCKa mistake, fault 

HeflOB6jiiHHii not satisfied coAepsK^Ti to contain 

npeaecTHHii superb, splendid intcionojioK^Bie situation 

RH<l>T&,wh coat, over-coat snflt view, landscape. 


K ueAOBOJiewb mohmi hobhmt. Ka^iTaHOMii, OHt ciHin- 
KOMT, yaoKt. Mu Tenept ryMeMi, noTOMy ^to noroAa 
npejecTHa. Bauii nepesoA'B Shji rpjuewh. MicTonojio- 
at^Hie rieTep6ypra ne acHBOiiHCHO. Y^eB^K'h jtiHABt. Btoti 
xjf-b6'h o^eiib xopomi, a to bhho oichb Aypno. IleTpoBTi 
cuHX 6ajn> Biepa ch npiaTejMMH hi BacAjiteBOMt cajny. 
TopoA'B MocEBa AP^eeHi, ho axa ciojifiita He xaKi. ApesHa, 
KaKi ropoA* IlapEtrnt. BH^t ci bthxi 6anieHtB npejr^cTen'B. 

,31|op6ra AJiHHHa. JIomaAi., KOTopyro HMnepaTopt nojry- 
qaji OT-b (|)paHi;y3CKaro nocja, npeKpacna. KynajH je 
BH pyccKyro rpaMMaTHKy HBd,H0Ba? , Bfi^ijH jih bh cBoero 
npijjTejra AjiCKc^HApa HBanoBHqa? Btoti co^AarB otohb 
xpa6pi H ero KanHTani BecfcMa xopomi. ToBop^JH jih 
Bh yffie ci IleTpoMi AjeKcaHAppBHHCM'B? JI tojbko ito 
(just now) BCTp'iTHJi'B ero na yjiHii,i. BoraTH jih BaiuH 
yHCHHEfi? HiTi, oh6 oieHL 64ahh; ho npeac^e onfi 6iijrH 
6oraTH. a Ten^pL jtoBOJien^, a bh Bcersa HexoBOJiBHH. 


The teacher was satisfied with the pupil, because 
he was diUgent. In summer (instr.) the days are very 
long. This castle is picturesque. The warrior whom 
you saw on the bridge is very brave. Have you seen 
the brother's sword ? The pronunciation of the English, 
language is v^r^' difficult. The .Ocean is very deep. 
The feathers (U^pta) which you bought at your neigli- 
bour's the merchant are very dear, and neveitheless 
they are not good. Thy brother is very idle. The 
teacher's shoes are too narrow. 

Degrees of oomparisox. 81 

The eloquence of Demosthenes was celebrated through 
(bo) all Greece. Who was ill? I .do not know, I am 
healthy. The sister was also ill, but now she is well. 
Would you be happy, if you were rich? Wilt thou be 
satistied? Be satisfied (plural)\ The sister's translation 
contains many mistakes. The situation of Heidelberg 
is superb. The view from this tower is superb. The 
teacher's watch' is old. The watch which I bought 
yesterday is good but dear. 


Xopouiaa .ih B^epa 6Hjia noyTpynor6fla6H.aaxopoma, 
noro^a? ho ki. se^epy ona h3m4- 

HfijiacB (changed). 
KaKOBO 6Hjro nHCbM6,KOT6poe IIhcbmo, KOTopoe a no jyiaJiB, 
Bh BHepa nojiyqfe-iH otb 6hjio oieHb npiflTHO. 
CBOero daTiomKH (father)? 
3;t6p6Bi JiH Banii) oxeu,!.? Mofi OTeu,B Ten^pB 3ao- 

poBB; OHB sojrro Shjib 
CKOJBKOAoporocToaTiBaniH Mo6 lacH ne hobh; oris 

HOBUe laCH? O^CHt CTapH. 

, KoMy Bh h&jsii Bac6.3BeBy H f[,aJVh BacHJiBeBy TeTpa;i:B 

TBTpa^HB CT> KapTHHKaMH? Cb KapTHHKaMH npHJI^ffi- 

HOMy, a He jrkakiOMj 
JlinHBi JIH TenepB BamcB Owh Ten^pb npHji^ateHB, ho 
yqcHiiKi turn npHJieateHT.? npemfte owh 6ujn> oienB 


KaKOBa 9Ta yieHfii;a? 9Ta jneuftna, npHJieacHa. 



The comparative is forifted in three different ways : 

1. By changing the termination of the positive 

preceded by any consonant except a guttural into iftmifl 

for the full, and into "fee for the apocopated termination : 

1 The Russian word for watch is lacH, that is the hours; it 
is therefore used in the plural only. 

Russian Conv -Graiumar. 

82 Degrees of compabisox. 

CHmBHfi strong CBjii>H^flmitt, cHJiia^e stronger 

ci&6iiii weak cit&Gi&mlA, cjaS'&e weaker.' 

Some adjectives form the apocopated comparative 
simply in e changing the preceding consonant : 

CordiHfi rich CoraTiBniiii, 6ovi,ie richer 

jtemesHH cheap ;ieiueBMmiH, nemiane cheaper 

rycT6& thick, dark rycTifinriR, r^ciie (r;^ine) thicker" 

iipocT(5ii simple iipocTifiuiift, np6ii(e simpler 

TBepAufi hard, finp TBepxiftuiti, TB^p»e harder 

HiicTHH pure, clean iHciiftniiH, lime purer. 

2. By changing the termination of the positive pre- 
ceded by a guttural consonant (r, k, x) into dfimifl for 
the full, and e for the apocopated termination, with a 
consonantal change: 

Tiy6(>is.i& deep r.iy(5oq&ftmitt, Tjif6xe deeper 

CTpdriu rigorous CTpoaULttmitt, CTpdase more rigorous 

KpioKifi strong KpinvAftmitt, Epsnve stronger. , 

A great number of adjectives in rifi, Kift, xift 
have not the full termination of the comparative; whilst 
others of very frequent use form their comparatives in 
different ways: 

Aajieiufi (jilibHiH) distant sBLjihtiivimifi, niahme more distant 

A^jirilf long (AOJs&Smifi), sfmme longer 

Aopordli dear ApaiKaBioiu, Aopome dearer 

6iH3EiH near 6jiBs&&uiift, CMxe nearer 

Kop6TKiH short KpaTii&mifi, Eopdve shorter 

ptoin rare piA^^iiDiiii, pise rarer 

laopbEift broad iaBpoi&iimi&, mipe broader 

sej^Eifi (60UD16K) great BejBidKmifi, 6d.ii>ine greater 

BHcdElH high BHcoi&iiinifl, Biicmifi, Biiuie higher 

HiisEit) low BB3s&&nii£, Bdismifi, nAse lower. 

Obser^'e also: 

M&jiHfi, H&jeBiEifi small u^ai.mig,(ueHbui6S),u^Hbine smaller 

MOjioA6i) young luiiAniiB, Ho^dne younger 

ct&phR old CTipmiB, cTapifiuiiH, CT4pme older 

xop6mi& good j^qmili, Jt^^me better 

xyAdfi bad xyjraift, xyjKe worse. 

3. By placing the ad^ferb 66jiie, morei before the 
positive : 

* The form in 'fclimia is however more commonly considered 
as a superlative, though according to grammar it is a comparative. 

* The form ryme is properly speaking the comparative of the 
corresponding adverb r^CTo thickly. 

Degrees op comparison. 83 

paji pleased; ready' 66ji%e pa^t more pleased 

ji6BKiH clever 66a'bo Ji6BKifi, .TOBq^finria, ji6bto 

more clever. 

The saperlative of the attributive adjective (ftiU 
termination) is also formed in three diflferent ways: 

1. By placing caMHfi, the same, before the positive: 
cAmutt c^i>n£[fi HejiosiEi the strongest man 

e&HaH c^LHaa s^auuiBa the strongest -woman 

e6Hoe cAjBHoe ahts the strongest child. 

2. By using the comparative form in 'bSmifi and 
Mmifi; but in this case the words hbi Bcixx, of all, 
must be understood, as in English: 

Poccfa (ecTb) CHJi&Hitttniee locy- Russia is the most powerful mo- 
AapcTBo Bi cB-iTi. narchy in the world. 

3. By prefixing Bce- or npe- to the positive and 
Haa- to the comparative: 

npex66piifi very good, best 

BcenoK6pHiiS very humble, hnublest 

Haiu^vnifi the very best. 

The predicative (apocopated) adjective forms its super- 
lative by adding Bcero or bc^xi to the comparative: 
Stotl noat jij^Hine BCtai. This house is the best of all. 
HecT& j^op6xe Bcerd. Honour is dearest of all. 

For further intensifying the comparative, the word 
ropisAO can be placed befpre the apocopated termination 
of that degree: Ohi. ropd3;i,o ciuihwke Bam>.He is by far 
stronger than you. — For the purpose of detracting 
from the quality of an adjective, the prefix no is fre- 
quently used with the comparative: Ohtb nocHJiBHie Bacb 
He is a little stronger than you. — The absolute super- 
lative signification of the adjective is expressed as in 
English by means of an adverb, such as BecBud or spdfiHe 
extremely, o^eHB very: BecBHa noJi^SHoe H30(5piTeBie An 
extremely usefvA mveniion. 6?eHb npijiTHaa Bcrp'^na A 
very pleasant meeting. 

H^xejiH, ita'B than cepefipd silver 

sdjoTo gold seilso iron 

noji^sH^ useful cp^ACTso means 

Blpniifi faithful E&MeHB stone 

' This adjective is not used in its full form. When neces- 
sary, it is rendered by BeceniS joyful, p&AocxHHri merry, rordBuii 
ready, ioB6jLBiiS contented. 


84 Degrees of comparison. 

TDJitnaat tulip serkjiA-b metal 

CEpduuafi modest ajiMdsi diamond 

yHAiejibHHua school-mistress o5hkhob6hbo usually 

T^iiaa the Thames HecpaaH^HHO incomparably 

flparoitiHBHM costly oceat autumn. 
c&xapHHH TpocTH^Ki sugar-cauB 


TeM3a canaa 6ojcbma.ii piKa Bt AnrjiH. Ohx ciacT- 
xawb&mivL TCaoBtKt bi, CB-feTi. fl ropaaflo cnacTjiHBhe, 
Hint BH AyMaexe. Moh nepcBOfli x-raneHi, Bami a-ihh- 
Hie, a nepcBOA'B Bauiero fipaxa caimifi j^jiaREUB (nepeB6ffi). 
Tbow cecipa irpHjeacH'te Mo6fi. Becna npiiTflie oceHH h 
3HMU, HO npijiTHie Bcixt — JLhio. ^ Posa HecpaBHeHHO Kpa- 
cAsie ApyrfiXTS niBiioBii. BtAHHe jiioah mcTO ciacM^Bie 
dordTHXt. ^Ta fldna CTapme sameft cecTpii. Moh CTap- 
mifi cuwh oieHB npnjieateHT>. 

BpcMa yqeHuxi jimjiM ;i,paroii;4HHie BpeMCHH HeBimXi 
(of the ignorant). Bepjifin-B cauufl KpacHBHfi ropoA^ Bt 
repMamH. Mofl ynpaatH^nia Tpysaie ynpaatH^Hift Moefi 
cecTpii. Cepe6pb Aparoji.'iHHie ateaiaa, ho atejfoo caMHH 
noJi^SHuft MCTajijrb. AjiMasi) TB^pate ajejiiaa. BejHEie 
jib^H oChkhob^hho citpoMHie HeBiacA^. CoSaitn Bipflie 
KomeKt. Kto h3% Bacb CTapiue, Bh djih Bamt 6paTi? 
OTO BHHO ropasjo Jiyime Toro. PasB'h Bama cecxpa M0:i6ffie 
Baci? Moa cecxpd ropa3AOMOJi6aieMeHa,OHa caiiaa Mjia^niaa 
H3% Bcero Haaiero ceMCHCTBa. 

Your house is high, the house of your neighbour 
is higher, but the house of your friend is the highest 
house in (sdiprep.) the whole street. Today the weather 
is more agreeable than yesterday. Gold and silver are 
costlier than iron, but iron is more useful than gold 
and silver. This wine is worse than water. The morning 
was beautiful, but the evening was more beaiatiful. The 
richest (use the comparative here) people are not al- 
ways the happiest. Simple means are the best [means]. 
The dog is more faithful than the cat. Stone is harder 
than metal. I am more diligent than you and he. The 
cow Is more useful than the sheep, the horse is more 
useful than the cow, but the most useful of all is the 

T^ ■ 

* Instead of ecTt a dash ( — ) is sometimes employed. 

Cardinal numbbus. 


The rose is more beautiful than the tulip. The 
hijppiest people do not always live in palaces and castles. 
The hardest and costliest stone is the diamond. The 
best sugar is extracted from (npHroTOBJaeTca hsi) the 
sugar-cane. Your pen is a httle worse (noxyace) than mine. 
The school-boy was modest, the school-girl was more 
modest, but the .child was the most modest of all. The 
diligent artist is usually more modest than the lazy [one]. 
The teacher is more rigorous than the school-mistress. 
This wine will be incomparably better than that beer. 
Which animal belongs to the most useful |animals]? 
To the most useful animals belongs also the dog. 

Xopomee jth 3to ntiBO? 

9to niiBO noxyate, qiMX oh-b 

MHi roBopHjii. 
Uoro^a 6HJia 6'!eHb npiaTHa. 


q^CTHHii a caMHH iryjtpHfl 
(wise) AefiHaHHH'B fiiMii 
6es'b coMHiHia (undoub- 
tedly) ApHCTiJJl. 

PyccKie roBopamb, ^to nei«p- 
fijprii TopisAO BejiHKO- 
JiinH'i^e Ilapdsa. 

PyccKie roBOpflTi, hto Ha ero 
fjm^axb He Mfmk, ho 

TIo MoeMy MHim?) (In my 
opinion), IJ,e3apK 6Hjn> 
BejiHMaSniHM'B repoeM'b 
a,p6BHHXt BpeMeHt. 

a xyMaio 3T0 noTOMV, 1T0 oat 
Shjii He TojrBKO saBoeBa- 
TejicMi. (conqueror), ho h 
3aKOHo;(aTej!iein> (legisla- 



flpiflTHaa JH 6Hjra noro^a? 

Kto 6njrB cauuH cepomhhji 
H caMHii q^cTHHii (honest) 
Myatt B-b AoHHaxi? 

KOTOpHS H31 ropoffOBt BeJH- 
KOJiinHie (magnificent), 
neTep6ypr'B hjih Ilapflffii.? 

IIoieMy PyccKie 3to roBO- 

Kto 6ujrh BejiHHafimHMi 
repoeiPB ApeBHHxi. spe- 


IIoieMy BH TaKi jiiyMaeie? 

of,iBh, o;ini, ojho (page 70) one 

mecTi Sx 

f.B&, flB* (page 87) two 

ceub seven 

rpH three 

BdceHi eight 

leriipe four 

H&aaih nine 

njrn> five 

A^caTi ten 

86 Cardinal ndmbers. 

OA^flHaMfti>b eleven 

AeB;iH6cTo ninety 

jB*H4jnaTB twelve 

CTO hundred 

ipHB&maTB thirteen 

CIO oAHHi hundred and one 

HenipHaAUaTb foarteen 

CTu Asa hundred and two 

naTB^uaTi fifteen 

AB^CTB two hundred 

uecTH4ju;aTi> sixteen 

ipHcia three hundred 

ceuB^AuaTi) seventeen 

qeiiipecTa four hundred 

BoceHHiwaTb eighteen 

nHTbc6i'B five hundred 

seaaB^jqiaTB nineteen 

mecTBcdri six hundred 

ABdjuati twenty 

ceMBc6Ti seven hundred 

jBajnait osAhi twenty one 

RoceHBc6rB eight hundred 

XB^uaxB ABa twenty two 

AeBHTBcdii nine hundred 

ip^WaiB thirty 

Tiicaia thousand 

cdpoKi forty 

f^'b i^CH^H two thousand 

iMTBAecATi fifty 

A^cjiTB ticaii, ten thousand 

mearhjiediTb sixty 

CTO TiicBHt hundred thousand 

c^MBAecan seventy 

MiuAidHi a million 

BficeHBAecflTt eighty 

HyjiB nought. 

In forming numbers the copula is suppressea, 
Tiica^a BoceMBcdra AeB;iH6cTo One thousand eight hundred and 
B6ceMB. ninety eight. 

All Cardinal numbers, with the exception of oflfiHt ^, 
ABa, TpB, iCTiipe, copoK'B, flieaHHOCTO, cto, THCffia and 
uaAMOWh, are declined like the singular of feminine nouns 
in h, such as ji6ffla;(B (page 31) without any regard to 
the gender of th^ noun that follows them. 

Examples of the declension of numbers. 

N. nnB five B6ceHB eight 

6. JuerA of five bocbmiA of eight 

D. Biai to five bucbhA to eight 

A. lUTTB five B6ceHB eight 

I. njiTBib by five bocbhbk) by eight 

P. (o) n«TH (about) five. (o) (b)ocbh6 (about) eight. 

N. 0AMHHaA^aIB eleven 

G. 0AHHnaAi;aTH of eleven 

D. oAUHHaAiiaTH to eleven 

A. oAHnRaAnaiB eleven 

I. OA^HaAuaTBE) by eleven 

P. (061) OA^HHaAuain (about) eleven. 

Declension oi jifia,, ipa, HCTtipe. 

N. ABB (m. and n.), ab* (f.) two ipH three 

6. Asyxi of two TpSxi of three 

T). AByHt to two TpSui to three 

A. ABa, AB*, AByxi two ipn, ipgxi three 

I. AByiiA by two • Tpeiw by three 

P. (o) AByxi (about) two. (0) ipSxt (about) three. 

' See page 6f> 


N. qeTiipe four 
G. leTHpgxb of four 
D. ^eTHpgH'B to four 
A: leTiipe, ^einpSxi four 
I. HenipbMH by four 
P. (o) HetHpext (about) four. 

Declension of copoKi, ji;eaaH6cT0, cto, ;(b4cth, etc. 

N. cdpost 40 AeBsHdcTO 90 

G. copoK& of 40 sesuHdcTa of 90 

D. copoG^ to 40 ^jeeandcTa to 90 

A. cdpoEi 40 seBaH6cT0 90 

I. copoK4 by 40 jeBflBdexa by 90 

P. (o) copoK4 (about) 40. (o) neaimdCTa. (about) 90. 

N. CTO 100 jsicTH 200 

G. era of 100 ;5ByxT.coTi of 200 

J). CTa to 100 HByMTbCxaMi to 200 

A, cro 100 flBtcTH' 200 

I. CTa by 100 jtBywacTaME by 200 
P. (o) CTa (about) 100. (o) XB^xicxaxi (about) 200. 

Declension of Tiicfl^a, sb* THcatH, miJiJiio^'h. 
N. T^CAHa 1000 SBt THcaiH 2000 

G. TiicHHH of 1000 jByxi Tricaii of 2000 

D. Tdcait to 1000 AByMi Tiicfliau'b to 2000 

A. TiicHHy 1000 IB* TiicaHH» 2000 

I. Tiicji^uo (-ei)) by 1000 jayMi Tiicji^aMH by 2000 

P. (o) Tiica?* (about) 1000. (o) jByxi Tiicaiaxi (about) 2000. 

N. MBJi;ii6Hi a million 

G. HHJiJiidHa of a million 

D. trajj[i6sy to a million 

A. MHjijii6Hi a million 

I. MH3jn6Hoir& by a million* 

P. (o) MBoidni (about) a million. 

Declension of aggregate numbers.* 

N. Tiica^a BoceHicdii. ndceMtjecait Bdceub 1888 
G. Tiica^a BoceM&cbn BOCLH^xeciiTH bocikh of 1888 
D. Tiica'ia BoceMi>c6T< BOCbH^AecaTH bockm^ to 1888 
A. tiicaia BoceMic6Ti B6ceUBAecaTb sdceHB 1888 
I. Tiica^a BoceMi>c6Ti Bocemi)secaTi>K) bocbmbd by 188S 
P. (o) Tiicaia BoceHbc6ii BocBH^ecaxH boclm^ (about) 1888. 

To the class of cardinal numbers belong also: 

1. the Collective numerals, such as: 
n&pa, AB6e, d6a, AB69Ka a pair, a set of two, hotb, a couple 
xpoftKa, Tp6e three, a set of three, a triplet, three in hands 

> In the case of animate beinga^ the genitive form is em- 
ployed according to the general rule 

' Generally only the two last are declined. 

88 Cardinal scmbers. 

leioepo four 

naiepo, naTom five 

m^CTepo six 

I^CBTepo, jecaTOKi ten 

liojiEHa a dozen, Tiosx^xnas half a dozen 

jBa jecaTKa a score 

coTHs a hundred. 

2. the Fractional numerals: 

noaoBHHa a half o;(h4 naTaa (^acTi.) */6 

TpeTB a third TpH namxi (i4cth) '/s 

q^TBepTB a fourth sesaTi naiHii (h^cth) ^/b. 

oci>Myxa or ociH^mKa an eighth 
no.iTop& one and a half 

(noiipeiBa) two and a half; better: jsa cb noJioBBHoK 
(noaieiaepTA) three and a half; better: ipn ei nojioBAHofi 
no;iTopacTa one hundred and fifty 

Examples of the declension of the Collective 

and Fractional Numerals. 

N. 66a (masc. and neut.) 66i (fem.) both 

G. ofidaxi oCtaxi of both 

D. o66hmi o6iBMi. to both 

A. 66a, o66hx'i. 66i, o6iHX'i. both 

I. o66hmh o6iBHH by both 

P. (061) o66hxi. (oCt) o6iBx'B (about) both. 

N. Tpoe three ?6TBepo four 

G. ipoBXi of three neTBepiMi. of four 

D. Tpo^Hi to three ^eTseptiHi to four 

A. Tp6e, ipoHxi three i^xBepo (-rixt) four 

f. ipo^MH by three HeiBepiiMH by four 

P. (0) TpoHxi (about) three. (o) leTBepHtxi (about) four. 

^B6e is declined like Tp6e; napa, ABotim and ipofiKa have 
the terminations of feminine nouns in a (page 27); nsTepo, m^cTepo 
and x^caTepo are declined like i^Tsepo ; jecaTOKi, jibaiBiia, cdiBa, 
noaoB^sa, ipeiB, <r£TBepi>, ocBHj^za and ocivjmRa, are regarded as 
substantives and declined according to their termination. 

Declension of nojiTopa and nojTopacTa. 

N. DoaTopd (masc. and neut.) l'./2 noMopii (fern.) I'/s 

G. noJiyiopa of I'/a noJiyiopH qf l'/« 

D. no;[yTopa to IV2 uojiyiopt to I'/s 

A. noJiTopA 1^/2 iioaxopii P/2 

I. noJi^Topaiit by I'/a nojiyiopoio by 1^/2 

P. (0) no.iyiopi (.about) I'/s- (0) noayropt (about) I'/s-" 

' Instead of nojiTop^cia one may quite as well say as in Eng- 
lish CTo iiaTBjecaxi. HojiTopAcTa corresponds to the French une 
centaine et demie. — IIojiTopd is a contracted form for nojiostaa 
EToporo. Compare the German aubert^olfi. 

' Except in the Genitive or Prepositional, it is generally not 
declined at all. 

Cardinal numbers. 89 

Seldom declined or not at all is also: 

K. noJiTopicTa 150 
G. uoJi;^opacTa of 150 
D. noJijiopacTy to 150 
A. noiTop&CTa 150 
t. noji^TopacTaHB by 150 
P. (o) nojyTopacTi (about) 150. 

Examples of the declension of cardinal numbers 
combined with substantives. 

N. fpa, cioj!4 2 tables ipo rop6bh 3 cows 

G. jpyxt ctoj6b'& of 2 tables' xpex-b Kopdai of 3 cows 

D. jByMi CToj&in to 2 tables ipeMi KopbBaMt to B cows 

A. xsa ctojA 2 tables ipSxi KopoBi 3 cows 

I jsyMfl CTOJidMH with 2 tables ipesw KopdsaMH by 3 cows 

P. (o) jeyxi CT0jr4xi (ab.) 2 tabl. (o) Tpfixi KopdBaxi. (about) 3 cows. 

N. n«TB cofi^Ki 5 dogs mecTfc ^eioBist 6 men 

G useti co6&K% of 5 dogs mecx^ lejiosiKi of 6 men 

D. d8tA co^&Kaui to 5 dogs mecTu leJiOBiKaMi to 6 men 

A. nan co6^Ei 5 dogs inecTi> ^lejoBiEt 6 men 

1. nuTBK) coG&RaHH by 5 dogs mecnD qe.ioBiiuiM0 by 6 men 

P. (o) naii cofidsaxi (ab.) 5 dogs, (o) mecTi sejoBiKaxt (ab.) 6 men. 

The cardinal numbers ^va,, Tpa, ^eiHpe, when used 
in the nominative or accusative, require the genitive 
singidar, whereas the subsequent numbers require the 
genitive plural of nouns or adjectives : 

JlBa iac4. Two hours (two o'clock). 

TpH jibmaAH. Three horses. 

^enipe aojia. Four oxen. 

UflTb ^80681. Five hours. 

mecTB 6ub6bi. Six oxen. 

GeHi> AdSpuxt H&iiHBEOBi. Seven good boys. 

B6ceHB 0[jiiJi6xHHX% AtT^H. Eight diligent children. 

Yet, the qualifying adjective which is placed be- 
tween ABa, TpH, qeTiipe and the noun in the nominative 
or accusative may stand also in the nominative or ge- 
nitive plural, as: 

JSfii KpacHBHfl cecTpii. Two pretty sisters. 

TpH orpouHHXB EopaSjia. Three immense vessels. 

In compound numbers the noun and adjective agree 
with the last numeral, as: 

JijiauBjkTb oA^Hi jySjtti. Twenty one roubles. 

[laTiAecaii jsa py6*A. Fifty two roubles. 

C^MBjecaTi B6ceiiB py6jUu. Seventy eight roubles. 

> Note that in the dolique cases the plural forms must follow 
jisa, TpH and leTiipe. 

90 Cardinal ifUMBERS. 

A cardinal number used after a noun signifies 
about .... Ex.: 
S jifijn, eny mtf.xiHHTOB'B ;[Bi;(i(aT&. I gave him about twenty shillings. 

K. B. After ox&wb, nsa,, TpH, neitipe, the substantive years 
is translated by roAi, rdsa; but after dstb and the higher numbers 
by i4ti (gen. plur. of jiiio summer), as: Obi 6Hai bi ]IeTep6ypr'fc 
xsa rd^a, a vh Mockb^ n«TB itT-b. — In the genitive case the word 
jAit, is always used: najxi, s'bTb, ceuii jijbTi; whereas in the dative, 
instr. or prep. co^Airb, tou&me, voji.&s.'b are exclusively in use: npil- 
<54BBTe £1 ceiid roA&ui enie abe idna.. Add to seven two morer years. 

When the age is stated, the Russians use: 
Either the dative of the person, and the nominative 

of the number of years, in which case ora-pOAy, since 

birth, is most frequently understood, as : 

Mwh Ten^pB TpHjiiaTB xpn rdja. I am now thirty three years old. 
MoeM^ 6p&TY CE6po 6fffiTh jifii- My brother will soon be twelve 
EimaiB xiTi (6ti T)OAy). years old. 

Or the nominative of the person and the gfCM^Y^Ve 
of the number of years, as: 
Oh4 ABa;iKaTA xiirb.iiyn, pojy). She is twenty years old. 


CocTaBiiiTB to compose, to make sa rpaR^ueio abroad 

xacTb a leaf, a sheet of paper ^yBn, pound 

M&cio oil; bntter nyji pood (40 Bussian pounds) 

?To ct6htb? what costs? apm^ei arsheen (Bussian mea- 

cyxB6 cloth, woollen-cloth sure = 0,77 yard) 

<|>paHKi franc BncoK6ciiein rojii leap year 

npoisx&Tb to drive, to travel iipH6aBji«;rB to add 

pasi time (imth numbers) scero altogether 

i;iinj§BOEi chicken d^Aeii make (with numbers). 


IlflTBAeCflTl ,HB§ HCAijH /AjH TpHCTa meCTBACCflTl 

naTb flHeii cocTaajraioTi roAi. 3th qeriipecTa Eon^eKi co- 
CTaBjaBOTTb TOJBKO HBTiipe pyfija. Bt stomi r6po;i;i ort 
copoEa AO naTfi;i;ecaTH tuchh'b attoejieft. Db OA^H'b qaci 
MH npoiss^jH 66jiie^sB%H4Ai;aTH BcpcTi. Ck6jii.ko 3T0 
coCTaBJiaeT'B Bcero? 9to cocTaBJiaeTi Tpflcia ny;(6Bi H wa 
4>yHTa. MMe nwk apmi^Hi xopomaro cyRHd. Hto cto^ 
4)yHii> Macjia bi Ilaplact? ^yirr'B xopomaro HdcJia croBTb 
vb HapSsti xpH &.3H HeTupe 4>P^HKa. Cto caBTAHOBi co- 
craaxaDTb ^paHBt. Ki aTHMi jBaAuaT^ TpeHi jtHcraHi 
npafidaiixe enie oeojio naTH^Ai^aTH jihct6bi ^6cTofi CyHdrH., 


Ha CTOj-b jes&Tb fl;eeaTOKi rpymt h nojiropa 4>yHTa 
ofixowh. y MCHa BtiiTB nojiyTopa py6ji6fi. OptxH CTororB 
OAHOK) Tp6n>K> pyfijra ji;op6ate rpymt. fl roBopib o Tpex-B 
flfoaxt, a TH roBopimB o ;tByxi yHeHHKax-B. y Te6a 
TpH CHHa H nvk ;i;6iepH. y Hact Ha ckothomi SBop'fe (in 
the cattle-shed) TpHHa^imTb KopoBX, nait 6hk6bi, cbm- 
HaxuaiL ;ionia;^6S h qexupe OBHiiit. Bt JIohaoh'^ oeojo 
RByxicoT* copoKa flcBflTfi THCJi^i AOMOBi H 66jtie 
mecT/i MHjijrioHOBi atfiiejiefi. Ckojibko cto xpnAuaTt 
inecxt pasi ab4 xkeaqH abScth ABawaib flsa? Cto Tpft^- 
^aT^ raecTb pasi 22 22 6^^6X1 302 192. 


Twelve months make a year. Four weeks make a 
month. Three hens were fn the yard. In our school 
[there are] five diligent pupils. We lived {6wia) ten 
years in Paris. Twenty four pupils were do-day in the 
school. In the month of June (Bt irorfi wbca^k) [there 
are] thirty days. How many years were you abroad? 
My aunt has two dogs and five cats, and thy mother 
has two cats and five dogs. In your copy-book [there 
are] still thirty two clean sheets. How many pounds 
[are there] in three poods? In three poods [there are] 
no more than a hundred and twenty pounds. How old 
is vour brother? He is forty years old. . 

What do three quarters (fourths) of a pound of 
good oil cost? A pound of such oil costs twenty two 
copecks. Give me two arsheeus of black cloth. Both 
brothers walked with my two (both) sisters. My brother 
has a hundred and seventy five sheep. In a year [there 
are] three hundred and sixty five days, and in a leap 
year three hundred and sixty six days. Eleven times 
three hundred make three thousand [and] three hundred. 
My uncle will pay {6^jifiTh aanjiaifixi.) six thousand nine 
hundred [and] thirty seven francs and ninety centimes. 
I have four hundred roubles. 


Ckojibko i^epKB^fi wl Moc- Bx. Mockb^ okojio ACBaiH- 
KB^? corh iiepKB^fl. 

A CKOJIBKO BfipKB^A Bi He- Bx. IIexep6ypri HecpaBH^a- 
xep6ypr4? ho M^Hte nepKB^ft, ho 

92 Ordinal ndmbeks. 

saTO (on the other hand) 

fopasflo 66jrte ^Bopi^oBi. 

CKOJtKO atftTCjefi CTHTaeTca B-b Mockb* Tenepb ccMb- 

Ten^pt B^ MocKBi? . coTi Tuca^-h mmesek. 

CKOJibKO ffiHTCJieH Bt IleTep- Bi IleTepSyprfe c^iaer- 
6ypr4? ca Ten^pt Cesi Mdjafo 

(about) MH j.iioHT. acKiTejiefl. 

CKOjn.KO (^fvojii, (feet) bh- ToqHoft (The escact) BHmHHti 

mHHu HMieTi ^Ta ropa? 9Tot ropHaHe SHaro, ho 

OHa HMieTi OKOJO wsaa- 
naTii naTii THca^'b 4)yT0BT> 
BHCOTu HaAt ypoBHeui 
(level) Mopa. 
Ckojbko 6j!i,eTh iiaTt pa3i IlaTb pa3i cxo ABa^ii;aTb naTb 
CTO flBawaTb naTb? 6y;i,eTii mecTBCOTi. flBa- 

OTaTb naTb, 
Maoro jh bh nojiyi&JiH ;i;e- ilAeHer^nojiy^^rBHeMHoro, 
Heri? MHi npHCJiajiH TOjibKO Ae- 

caTb HepB6Hi;eBi (ducats). 


OmH6Ka. — The mistake. 

nepenficiHKi, nepenHcasi hto-to cb SojibmAMi CTa- 
paHieMx, BOCKJi&KHyji'B ch pa;^ocTbH): „Koh6ii,x BtH^^erb 
Atjio". CKasate 3th ciOBa, ohi bss.tb ^epafljibHHi^y bm4cto 
necoiHHi^u H BUJiKjii, M6pe"epHiijii.HacB0ib Tpyxayio padoTy. 

JlepenHC^HKt copyist iiepeuHC^Bi haAing copied 

CTap&Hie pain, trouble bociuhkhj'tb to exclaim 

stH^i^Ti to crown CKasAB'i having said 

<iepBHJii>HHii;a inkstand neco'iiraua sand-box 

HbUHTb to pour, to cast lepsHja ink 



UcpBHH first 

AesHTEifi ninth 

BT0p6ti second 

AecArafi tenth 

Tp^Tifi third 

os^HHa^^uaTHit eleventh 

HeTB6pTHii fourth 

ABibBawaTiro twelfth 

IlATHfi fifth 

TpHHdjuaTHfi thirteenth 

mecT6a sixth 

yeiiipHaAiiaTHri fourteenth 

cejiM6a seventh 

iijiTHdjuaTHH fifteenth 

i)oci.m6h eighth 

iiiecrHawaTHrt sixteenth 

Ordinal numbers. 93 

cemiawaTHH seventeenth 

jesafldCTBH' ninetieth 

BoceMHaauarua eighteenth 

c6thu hundredth 

AeBBTHajwaTHji nineteenth 

CTO n^pBHii 101 8t 

jBainixHii twentieth 

jByxi-coTuft 200*Ji 

flsajwaib n^pBufi twenty iBrst 

Tpexi-c6THH SOO'i 

ABdjuaTt BTop6u twenty second 

"seTHpexi-coTHH 400"' 

TpHAndTua thirtieth 

naTHCOTHu 500*1' 

copoKOBoS fortieth 

necTiicoTBS 600'ii 

BiijiinediTa& fiftieth 

TiiCfllHHfi lOOO'h 

iiiecTHAecaTHii sixtieth 

flByxi-THCa^BH 2000"! 

ccMBAecaTBii seventieth 

CTOTiica^BHii 100000th 

BocbMHAecaTH") eightieth 


Ordinal numbers do not differ in their declension 
from qualifying adjectives having the same terminations. 
They agree therefore in gender, number and case with 
the noun with which they are used: 
n^pBUE yp6Bi The first lesson: 

BiopaH ^acTB. The second part. 

Tp6rifi is declined after the manner of adjectives 
terminating in ifi which are derived from the names of 
animate beings 

The ordinal number nepBuft first, when used in 
the sense of best or excellent has its degrees of comparison: 
nepBUft, nepBMinii, caMui n^psiiS. 

Here belong also the Circumstantial and Propor- 
tional numbers: flpyroft other, second; noMiflHifi last. — 
e;(HHHfi sole, alone; SBOHKift twofold; ;;B0fiH6H double; 
TpofiHOH treble, ternary; leTBepnoft quadruple; CTOKp^THHt 
and sometimes CT0p£raBH3 centuple, which have the 
meaning and declension oi adjectives. 

The •Distributive numerals are formed by using no 
with the dative of the cardinal, with the exception of 
XBa, TpH, ^eTlipe, which are put in the accusative, as: 
no oAHOH^one a-piece no nsTn five a-piece 

no Asa two a-piece no copoK4 forty a-piece 

d6 ipn three a-piece do ciy hundred a-piece. 

no "leriipe four arpi^ce 

Observe also the foUowing adverbial expressions 
formed with the help of numerals: 

oAU^AB once £0 nepsaxx firstly 

ABaacAH twice bo siopiixi secondly 

rp^SAU ihrice bi TpeTBBxi thirdly 

Tpn pfea three times vh AecaxHxi tenthly, etc. 
CTO pasi hundred limes 

1 JleBfiTBAeciiTBu is also frequently employed. 


Ordinal numbghs. 

In expressing dates and years the last number 
only receives the ordinal form and inflections: 

Bi Tiica^a BoceHi>c6r& xeBaHdcxo In the year 1898. 

boci>h6u'b coAf. 
Jifiami'iBxo M&pia.^ March, the twentieth. 

The hours of the day or night are expressed thus: 

KoT6pHfi Kara? 

CK6jibR0 np66iuo Hac6Bi? 

BieTK qeiiipe ?ac4. 

Ha HOHXi Hac&x:& ceinb nacdsi. 

XakAHMh HHHyii. Tp^raaro. 
Eme He itpdCnjio HeiBpexi iac6Bi. 
Ten6pi ipn n^TsepTH TpfiiLiiroor: 

Ten^pB 6esh i^iBepTii Tpii. 
CKupo npofiBeTi. umti> vacoBi. 
Owh npi'lseTi bi ^eriipe 6e3'B 


jl npi:txajix bi a^bstl ci^nojio- 
B^Hon • 

What o'clock is it? 
What o'clock did it strike? 
It is striking four o'clock. 
According to my watch it is seven 

It is twenty minutes past two. 
It has not yet struck four. 
It is now three quarters past 

two (a quarter to three). 
It is going to strike Ave. 
He comes at a quarter to four. 

I came at half past nine. 


JlHBiipB January 
^eBp^ju February 
Mapn March 
Anpi.ib April 
MaH May 
Ik)be June 
lujib July 
ABrycTX August 
CeHT^fipB September 
OsTiiCpB October 
HoiGps November 
JleB^fiipB December 
BocKpec^H&e Sunday 
noBexiuiBHHK'B Monday 
Bt6pbbki Tuesday 
Cpeji Wednesday 
^eTB^pri Thursday 
lUTBiDta Friday 
Cy666Ta Saturday 

iipoHuiuieHBHH industrial 
noeA^HOEt sySufc duel 
CMepT^jiBHO mortally 
uHBj^ra minute 
Ejacci class 
D&uxTBHKi monument 
H^BBCB inscription 
cjiijynqii following 
■poxiiLCg (he) was born 
yMepi, cBOBi&jicfl (bej died 
a npBA^ I shall come 
H Bpiixajii I came, I arrived 
TorAd then 
BceufpBHfi universal 
BiiciaBKa exhibition 
oTsptiTHg opened, discovered 
p&HeHi wounded C^'pocopatedj 
3BTi> son-in-law 
iBCid date. 


Ha naMaTHHKi Ileipa Beji6Karo H3o6paaceH4 (is en- 
graved) CJiiijiYsom^a B.a,}sjmci>: Hnrpy IlepBOMy EEaxep^Ha 
BTopda. Rueni IleTpd II^pBaro, €>pfiApHxa BTop6ro h 
r^HpHxa ^eTBepxaro 6e3CMepTHH st HCTopin. U^pBBifi ;i;eHb 

> The days of the month have the genitive form. 

Ordinal kumbebs. 95 

HQAim — BocKpee^Hbe, BTopofl — noHeAtjiBHHicL, Tp^iig 
— BTopHHKi, ^ersepTHfi — cpe^a, naTHfi — qersiprb, 
mecTOH — naiHHi^a, ce^bMoa — cyOooxa. llerpi EejiAKiM 
flo64ji,Mi> (vanquished) Kdpjra ABinawaTaro, Kopoja IIIb^x- 
CKaro, npH HojiTaBi bi Ttkcaaa c^mbcoti xeBaToirB ^o;^y 
Racxa bocto^hoh (eastern) u6pKBH 6y;^eT'b bi 3toms ro^y 
(this year) n^psaro anpijiH no HOEomy cifijiio, ftjiH ABamaTaro 
MapTa no ciapoMy. 

^BaOTaiB Kon^BKi. cociaBjraroT'B niTyE) lacTL py6jra. 
MoH 6paTi BacBtJiifi po;i^jica HeiBipHajimaTaro Maa Tucaqa 
BoceMiTOTi naTBjtecaTi ACBaTaro roja. KaEoe y aaci cero^na 
HHCJO? y Hacx ;i;eBaToe ;;eKa6pa Ttica^a BOceMBCOTi. 
BOccALbjiiecaTi ,BocBM6ro r6;i;a. JIoh^ohi,, l2ro ceHTa6pa, 
1900 ro^a. AHMificKifi Kopoju. ^kobi, Biopoft yMep-B 
6ro ceHTafipa, 1701 roAa. Ero aaib BAjBre^BMi III ckoh- 
^sLiCA socBUoro uapia, 1702 roAa. Mu mHBem b:b ABa^- 
il&THMi CTOJitTiE (ceotury). 


The first month in the year is January, the second 
February, the third March, the fourth April, the fifth 
May, the sixth June, the seventh July, the eighth August, 
the ninth September, the tenth October, the eleventh 
November, the twelfth December. John is now the 
twenty third pupil in the class, and Gregory (FpHropift) 
the thirty first. To-day [it is] the fifteenth of May. 
Schiller (IMjuiepl) was born the tenth of November in 
the year one thousand seven hundred and fifty nine. Peter 
the Great was bom the eleventh of July in the year 
one thousand six hundred and seventy two, and died at 
St.-Petersburg the eighth of February in the year one 
thousand seven hundred and twenty five in the fifty 
third year of his life. 

A month makes the twelfth part of a year. In an 
hour [there are] sixty minutes, it makes the twenty fourth 
part of a day and the eight thousand seven hundred and 
sixtieth part of a year. Towards (6kojio genii) nine 
o'clock I come to you. [It is] on the twenty fourth of 
October of this year [that] I first arrived at St.-Peters- 
burg; I was then twenty four years old. The last great 
universal industrial exhibition was opened at Paris in 
the month of May in the year one thousand nine hun^- 


Okdisal numbers. 

red. The celebrated Russian poet Pushkin (HyniKHHi) 
was mortally wounded in a duel on the twenty seventh 
of January in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
thirty seven. 


Snaere xa bq bi EOTopoMi 
roAy XpHCT0(ii6pt Ko- 
JtyMfii OTKpiiui'B AaepHKy? 

EoM^ npHHafljreffiHTi HHHi 
Mucb jl^oSpoii HaAcacflH 
(the Cape of Good Hope)? 
Kiwb H Kor;ta 6uji'b ohi> 


KoTfla yMept 6ffe;i;HHt cci- 
AaTt, KOTopHH noTepjiJii. 
(lost) CBOH) Hory bt, cpa- 
at^Hia npH BaJiaKjraBi? 

SaacTe jh bh, bi KOTopoMi. 

. rofly 6ojn>in6ft noatapi 


Bi KoHcraHTHHonoji mho- 


KaK-b MHoro .moflen norfi6jio 

Bl ILiaMeHH? 

Tto bh KyniuH? 

Ohi oTnpaBHjica hsi (He 
started from) HcnaHiH na 
Tpexi Kopafijflxi B'f. 1 492 

Mhct. JHofipOH Hafl6»AH 
6u.a'& OTKpuTi Bi 1486 
rosy nopTyrajTbueMi Bac- 
KG ne Tawa; hotom'b ohi 
npHHawemaji Vojuslkh- 
^aM^ H 6hjii OTHaii 
(taken) y hhxi AnrjiHia- 
HaMH Bi 1806 ros^. 

Ohi ^Mep-b 12ro ;^eKa6pfl 
1856 rosa bi JIoHflOfffe. 

^BaAU^Tt ce;i;bM6ro ceHTaSpa 
1720 roAa, noatapi pas- 

pyinH.IX Bl KoHCTaHTH- 

Honcii 12000 AOMOBt. 

Bojiie vbwh 7000 lejiOBiK^ 
norfi6.!io bi njaiieHH. 

a Kyni'i Ji flBa ct> no.iroBiiHoio 
(J)jfHTa K64)e H leTHpe ^ja- 
Ta ci H^TBBpTLK) caxapy. 


Toa6ji,HHft ApaBHTflHHH'L. — The hungry Arab. 

Oahhi. rojEOAHHH ApaBHTJiHHHi aaSjiy^fijica Bi ny- 
CTUHt. Bi npoAOJiateHie ^Byxi ahch OHt ocTaBajca Sesi 
BcaKOH nfimE H 6hjpb b% oiiacHOCTH yMep^Tb oti roaoAy. 
HaKOHeo'b OHt Aocifiri OAHoro K0Ji6Ai],a, h31 KOToparo 
npoisacaBomie no<i.!iH CBofixi Bep6.JK)A0Bi., h na necKt yBii- 
Ai-ii MMeHbKig KOJicaHHH MimoKt. «C.iaBa B6ry», BCEpa- 
ipi OHi, noAHiiBi. H omynaBt ero, «a AyMaio, qio b-b 



HeiTB 4>firH HJH op4xH: Tenept a Mory HacHTHTbca ! » Bt 
npiflTHOMi ceMi offiHflaHm, ohi> pasBflBa-TB MimoKX, ho 
yBfiAtBi, HTo htj HCMi Haxo/^HJOCb, BCKpHiMi CI Hey^o- 
BdvibCTBieire : «axi! 9to tojsko ac^Mqyrx!* 

3a6jyx^Tic;i to lose one's way 
Bt npoAOJK^nie (luring 
nitiua food, nutriment 
K0J6Je^^ fwosc.^ wel) 
noAiB to give to drink 
nec6K:B sand 
HismdRi purse, bag 
no;iHATi> to lift up 
HaciiTnTi>cji to satiate oneself 
HaxoAATbca to be fbund 

iTfCTiiHs desert 
ocia.Bi,ThCii to remain 
jocT^qb to arrive 
npotoatdiomifi traveller 
Bep6;i»Ai camel 
E6saHiiH leathern 
CJiasa glory 
omynaTi to feel 
pa3Bfl3&Ti to open 
sK^Miyri pearl. 



Russian adverbs are, like those of other languages, 
divided into different classes according to their mea- 
ning; there are: 

1. Adverbs of quality or manner, as: 

TaKi so, thus Hap6iBo intentionally 

xoponi6 well Bayr&jrs at random 

xjno ill, badly 3aoAH6 by agreement, jointly 

CE6po quick, rapidly no-CB6eMy in one's own way 

Hanp&CBo in vain nirnKdui on foot 

nn&^e otherwise Bepxdus on horseback. 

2. Adverbs of time, as: 

Hiiei, Ten^pi at present, now 
ndsAoo late 

yipoHi in the morning 
B^iepoHi in the evening 
Toii&ci, cei^4c% directly 
np^xe before, formerly 
n6c;it afterwards. 

cer6xBx to-day 

fiHefik yesterday 

ip^TLjiro jiHa, nosaBiep^ the day 
before yesterday 

3&BTpa to-morrow 

n6cii siBTpa the day after to- 

p4Bo early, soon 

3. Adverbs of place, as: 

SA'bcb here A^na at home 

TaHi there Aoxdii home 

HHrA^ nowhere hsbb^ from without 

sesf/h everywhere oTOBCBjy from all sides 

CIDA& hither oxcBAa from here, hence 

lyAi thither oiryAa from there, thence. 
Russian Conv. -Grammar. 7 

98 Lesson 23. 

Certain adverbs of place govern the genitive case when they 
are used as separable prepositions. Such are: 6x113% near, at, vdsiA 
beside, ndjifii along, 6eojio about, npdTHBt opposite, miiio by, near, 
cpeAH in the midst, Bnepe^u in front, nosaAii behind, etc. 

4. Adverbs of quantity, as: 

M&no little T^Kse also 

HH6ro much idjiiKO only 

HicEOJibso some iio<it± nearly, almost 

AOb6ji>ho enough Bec&H4, d^eni very much 

cuimKowb too, too much ipe3BBHi4BBO excessively 

B6Bce entirely ito-to somewhat. 

5. Adverbs of affirmation, interrogation etc., as: 

Aa yes VRCsdihKO not at all 

nifb no 6e3'B coHHima undoubtedly 

m> ciMOMi jiii indeed koia^? when? 

KOB^VHo, pasyuieica of course aoe6ji£? how long? 
npasAa in truth rji, kjaA? where? 

Mdxei'B 6htb perhaps oisyAa? whence? 

There are also a great many more adverbs which can easily 
be learnt by practice and reading. 

It will have been seen that adverbs are for the 
most part nouns in the instrumental, and adjectives in 
the apocopated tennination of the neuter singular. 

Such adverbs in o which are derived from adjec- 
tives, have degrees of comparison: 
B^ceio joyously Beceiie more joyously Bcerd seceAie most joyously 
zopooi6 well ay^ine better jij?ine Bcer6 best. 

Some adverbs, too, which denote quantity, place, 
and time, have likewise degrees of comparison, such as : 
UHdro much 66iie more 66iie Bcer6 most 

6;i^3B0 near Sjiitee nearer Bcer6 fijiAse nearest 

pteo early p^nie, p&BBiie earlier Bcer6 p&aie earliest 

H&xesA far A^'be, A&wne farther Aii^Bnie Bcer6 farthest 

m4jio little H^aie, u^HBme less viBnae Bcer6 least. 

To the adverbs of manner belong also certain 
locutions formed by means of the preposition no, as: 
no p^ccKH in Russian no leAosiibH like a man 

no ApysecEH as a friend no SB^^piRouy like a beast. 


BiiracTEiL to clean » yixaii I started 

9xeKTpAqecEit electric xe;i'63Bafl Aopdra railway 

npoHBomAo (it) took place Bapmisa Warsaw 

npHE;iE>i6Bie event leAerp&jti telegraph 

lOiCTsi big, fat orpdniHHS terrible 

noiRiiTbCH cnaxB to go to bed ofisEHOB^Bie habit, custom 

Adverbs. 99 

)iHoro;na;(CTBO populousneES ueicti to blossom 

KHTda China BCiyn^Tb to mount 

CToiiiie century ynorpefijiaTi. to employ 

KpecntiHREt peasant nomejii (he) went 

ovkA spectacles cnpocin to ask for 

dniHEi optician Bsrian^Bi having looked 

sTo6t om> Hort in order that HyataaS necessary 

he might 4>pyKT6Biiri fruit . . . 

asLiim no^eMJ why, wherefore iidMATt memory 

nuin yn (they) write npHssaKi mark, sign. 


SHaueHtTuS ^pasiuite'B ^miji'b o6HKHOB^Hie roBop^TB, 
HTO TOTb, KTO paHO aojKfeca cnaxB h pano BCTaert, 6JJ^eTb 
6orai:iui;b, SAopoBUU'B h yHHtiiii. ^ no^6 BOBce He bh- 
xbiTi ropo^a H.; Eor^^ a lYj^i opi'ixaji'B, 6ujia, eo9i>, a 
yix&i'B £ p&HO 3fTpoirb. Ilocjit xoro a HuxorAa laH-b ee 6iui. 
HiirAt BiTi Tasoro uHorojooACTBa, v&vh wb Kwr&b. Mnoro 
roBopdTb H Hajio AJMaTB ecTB np^sHaEi JierKOHUCJOH (light- 
mindedness). noTOMy He BHyHHJiH bh cBoero yp<5Ka? Y 
Bact ffjia 3Toro 6ujro ^obojilho Bp^neHB. — IIponiidSTe 
(Good bye)! 

Mnorie jwji,^ nfiniyTi Jipnae vbwb roBopaT^b, a Apy- 
rie Ji^^Hme roBopaTi vkwb utniyTb. Xopomo jh nvkiii 
<{)pyET6Bi>ia AeiS^BBa? ,]I,a, oM v,nijiA Jiy<nne,ntHi Bi 
nponijioM'B (past) to^. KaKi tboB Cpai* roBopfiTi le- 

n4pB no dHTJOftCKH? Ten^pB cob rOBOpfiT* HtCKOJIBEO 

xf^me, vkwh roAi tovf naaaAi. 3a^4Mi bh liKb rpoMEO 
roBop^Te, s^TH? roBopAxe Tfime! Ectb sb ET0-HH6yAi> 
.jjoMa? ,5a, nocTyqfiTe tojibeo JteroHBEO (softly) vh ;iBepB. 
I^TOT% M^JiB^HE'B ci> Tp^AOMi> say^HBaexi HaHsycTB, noTOHy 
?T0 y Hero nj[Os.aa nauaxB. 


Your servant cleaned my boots early in the morn- 
ing thinking {xpiaa) that I might start for (a oxnpa- 
BJuirocB Bi ace.) Warsaw. Formerly they knew neither 
railways nor electric telegraphs; the latter were inven- 
ted only towards the first quarter of our century; the in- 
vention of the former took place at about (b* to «e) 
the same time. The Winter Palace (Sforaifi ,HBop6i^t) 
is extraordinarily large. You speak too rapidly for me. 
I am sorry you related to her such terrible events. Did 


Lesson 23. 

you ever see such a man? Indeed, he is very fat! 
Dress yourself sooner, my children; it is very late! 
A peasant, having seen (saMiTHBt) that old men 
employ spectacles in order to read, went to an optician 
and asked him for some (cnpoeHJH y Hero HXi). — The 
optician gave him the spectacles and a book, in order 
that he might read. The peasant having only looked 
into the book, said that the spectacles were not good. 
— The optician gave him others, but the peasant found 
them all no good (instr.). Then the optician said: 
„B\il, my friend, can (yiiieTe) you read?" — „Alas (Axt)!" 
cried the peasant, "if I could read, wherefore should I 
requke your spectacles {na aa^iMi 6h mh* 6iijni HyacHH 
viuai o^kh)?" 


noTOMy Bh Bcer;i;a 
nosAHO BCTaere? 


KaKb - j!,6jito n.apcTsoBaj'B 
(reigned) HMnepaiopi Hh- 
KOjd£ I.? 

^ojro xa owb napcTBOBaxb? 

YMjiniJieEHO jih Bh pa36H.iH 
(did you break) ctckjio 


He xoT^Te jh (Let us go) 
Ten^pB nofiifi m, BamcMy 

Ckojibko pasi bh hhtsuih Eb- 
rema OnirHHa II^niKHHa? 

CeroflHfl a BCiaji nosxHO, 
noTOMy wo a ho^io He 
Mora cnaTB. 

HMnepaTopi HaKO-iafl I ii;ap- 

CTBOBajIl. TpfiiWaTi JliTb. 

^a, HHKTO HBt ero npe;t- 
ffl^CTBeHEHKOBt (prcdc- 
cessors), nocjii lletpd Be- 
jiHEaro, T&B.'h }i, He itdp- 


HiT%, a cfliaajTB aio cjiy- 


9to 6uao 6h Banp&eHO, oh* 
B^nepoMt HHKO^;^d He 6h- 
BaeTB flOMa. 

Past &JH ffBa, HO MOfl cecxpd 
npoqja er6 inecrt past. 

Impeksokal verbs. 101 


H3o6p'JfiTeHie cxeKJid. — The invention of glass. 

roBopflTX qTO CTBKJio 6ujio H3o6p'feTeeo npH cjitjiiyiomHXi 
odcTOflTejibCTBaxT. : $HBHKificKie KynEtii, ToproBaBmie cejifi- 
TpoE), npHCTaBmH OAHdatAH k^ cbBepHOMy 6epery A4)pHKH h, 
He Ham^A'b ksmb^Pi, Ha KOTopuxi 6u oni Mor.;i6 nocTaBHTb 

KOTJIil CBOH, yTBepAM.Jll HXt Ha HicKOJbKHX'B I'JIhlfiaX'B cejiM- 

TpH. Ha MicTi, r^i ohh pasBeJiH oroHB, Haxo^fijca m^jkIS 
necoKi. Chjok) orHS pacnjiasHjacB ce^Aipa h, ciainiaB- 
fflHCB CB necKOM^, o6pa30Baja ctbkjo. — ,HcKyccTBO o6pa- 
fioTHBaTB CTBKJio, npeHMymecTBeHHO Bi> AhfjIh, aoB^jieHO 
hjjh4 jtfi BHCOKofl CTeneHH coBepin^HCTBa. 

(|)HHHKificKiil Phcenician ToproB^Tt to deal, to trade 

cejiHTpa saltpetre npiiCTaB&TL to land 

Haflieit having found nocT&BHit to place 

KOTe^ii kettle yiBepiHTL to fix 

rjiH6a clod, block pasne;!^ (they) lighted 

M^jiKifi fine pacm&BHTLCfl to melt 

HcnyccTBO art CMtm&Tica to mix 

npeHM^^mecTBeHHo especially oCpasoBAis to make 

SOB^AeHO carried, brought oGpafibTHsaxb to work 

CT^neuL degree coBepin^HCTBO perfection. 



Besides the impersonal verbs denoting meteoro- 
logical facts, and those common to other languages, 
such as : noMf^h i!i(eTh it rains, CH'fer'B na^naert it snows, 
MoposHTi it freezes, Tderi it thaws, KaatCTca it appears, 
cjy^aeTca it happens a. s. o., there are in Russian a 
great number of impersonal expressions of very 
frequent occurrence which are formed by apocopated 
neuter adjectives. 

By far the most important of them are nyacHO Chtb, 
AOjatHO 6htb to be necessary, to be obliged; and as they 
require a peculiar construction of the sentence, their 
apparent conjugation is here exhibited in full. 


Lesson 24. 

TU }^6MXeB.'b, -XRk, ■ 

OBI ffijixewb 
ob6 A0JiacB6 

OBli, OH^ AO''"KB£i 


I must, it is necessary that, 

I am obliged, 
thou must, it is etc., thou art etc. 
he must, it is etc. 
she must, it is etc. 
it must, it is etc. 
we must, it is etc. 
you must, it is etc. 
they must, it is etc. 


St ndaxem, 6ujn> 
TU flfiastewb 6ujii> 
0Bi> ^6xaiem> Gujrb 
ob4 H0I3S6. 6hj& 
ob6 noxmao 

KH AO-OSEBii 6lijH 

obA, OBi ffliXEi 6iuai 

I was obliged to. 
thou wast obliged to. 
he was obliged to. 
she was obliged to. 
it was obliged to. 
we were obliged, 
you were obliged, 
they were obliged. 


n fldjuKBBi, -KHa, -6 (5tw I shall be obliged. 
TU }^6j[xewh, -sRi, -6 6^Aemi> thou wilt be obliged. 
OBT. fl6jiaeHT. 6t«eTi. he will be obliged. 
ob4 not^Ek Ctflen. she will be obliged. 
ob6 floaacHd Ctfleri. it will be obliged. 
Hu ?paxB& CtfleMT, we shall be obliged. 
BU floi»B6 fiyfleie you will be obliged. 
0B«, oat flOJiKBii 6fnjrb they will be obliged. 


HBt BfXBBl, -WB4, -0 

Tefli HtaceBi, -XEk, -o 
evi HtateBT., -KBi, -o 
eft HtaceBi, atai, -o 
Hajn. HtateHHb, -XEk, -o 
Baui. BtseHi>, -XB&, -0 
HMT. BfweBX, -aai, -o 

I want, I require (him, 
thou wantest, etc. 
he, it wants, etc. 
she wants, etc. 
we want, etc. 
you want, etc. 
they want, etc. 


her, it) 

MBi BtaeBi, -acBi, -o ( 
-4, -6 

Suffb, I wanted (him, her, it). 

uat B^jKeai., -atfli, -o 6infiTb I shall want (him, her, it). 

Next in importance are iioatHO it is possible, Hemaa 
it is impossible which are construed as ji,6:ixem>. Those 
which follow the model of H^ffiHO are more numerous. 
We quote Haflo, HasofiHO it is necessary, jto^bo it 
is agreeable, it is comfortable, acajt it is a pity. 

Impebsonal verbs. 103 

Many verbs have, besides their usual conjugation, 
also an impersonal form such as: 

MH* x6<ieTCfl I have a mind. 

■at Jf^aeTCB . I succeed. 

Mrt cni&Tca . I want to sleep.' 

MHi^ CH^Tca I dteam. 

HBt xpeiuSTca I am falling asleep. 

The number of impersonal forms, especially in 
the spoken language, is so great, and their turns are 
so varied, that no fixed rules can be established. The 
reading of popular authors and the study of proverbs 
can alone enable the student to master this difficult 


OiAHxdTB to rest t^bl sUade, shadow 

noKaa&t&ca to show oneself flyTemecTBOsaTi to travel 

tocj6 number npenxoisAn to offer 

nosBOJi^Bie permission pascToAHie distance 

ndrpefii cellar npocih'& to beg, to pray 

DojtonAATe wait (you)! 6lraTB to run 

yA^ia luck, success mp& play, gamble 

Dpom^nie petition naiar^iB to explain 

Hec?4cTBe misfortune iiomoiql assistance, help 

Tapdixa plate sap^Ta carriage 

Kpyr6ui round, around ci&mk& stake 

yAaiHo successfully, luckily ces^B^a a second 

noios^Ti to place nociu&Ti to send 

npHSixBme refuge j6AKa boat. 

Bau% HysHO bMth, a Hwk Toace x6?eTca b^tb. Ua- 
aoayifiTe T6jti>E0 (just) oah;^ MHHyTy! Btotb TOcaoAtwb nox- 
seHi UHoro oyrein^CTBOBaTL: owh 6ki'ji'b sb TepMauiH e 
HiajoH; Ten^pB eir^ sfamo BOSBpaT^TBca bi Eepj^Hi. 
H^pesi HicKciBKO ;(HeS ohi AOJiseHi 6yAeTB oniTL 0Tnp4- 
BHTbca Bi MocKB^ H HAffiHifi-HoBropoA*. Mh nyTem^CTBO- 
BajH uo }Ke.i!63U0H Aopori. Mh jsflJisiBa 6usa nposecTi 
jsfiEh BH^ Aoua, xoTi noro^a 6ujik He 6HeHB xopoma. S. ea- 
;i;'kii M^xnj HO^H'B ^piTom h uo^ft cecrpdio. Ha ABop'b 
zrpajio MHOffiecTBO y^e^raKOBt h ho3 MoeHBKiS dpari 
61raji M^Ay ApyrfiMH x^tmsA. 

BjtHS'B IIIa4)ray8eHa HaxoAHTca navbemsi PMHCKifi 
BOAon&Xb. y^^Hie ex^xaii, ^ejOB^Ky bi cnacriH yspa- 
in^HieMi, a wb HecnacTiH — npH^isonieutb. ypajtBCEia ropu 
OTxbxoKyt'h EBpon^fiCKyH) Pocciio otb Ch66pb. C^tJiajiH 

' Yet one cannot translate it so in all cases: Mat cn&jocb 
iu6xo means : / slept badly. But such are Russian idioms which 
are tan?ht bv practice. 

104 Lessou 24. 

jiH Bh ycnixH bi> pyccicoMi asHEi? ^a, a Hsyiajii ero 
6es'h yraiejia ei. noMombio rpaMMaTHKH h cjiOBapa. n6c;i'& 
fi,07R!i.a xopomaa nor6;i;a, roBopHTt 4)paHi];y3CKaa nocjiOBHua. 
KaKi BH npiixajiH: b^ Kapexi hjh na Jto^Ki? Mh npii- 
xajiH Ha j6ak4 h moh leTKa ocxaBHja b^ JtOAKi cbok) maji. 


We were obliged to rest in . the shade, under the 
oak. The enemy showed himself from behind the moun- 
tain. In many countries one can travel (nyTeniecTBy- 
mvh) on railways from one town to another, across rivers 
and mountains. I want a certain number of beautiful 
birds. At this moment he asks me (y Mena) for a book 
in order to offer [it] to you. The boys must not go out 
(BHHTfi) without my permission. From the river up to 
the house [there are] five versts. At some distance 
from the shore [there] is a ship. The cellar must be 
situated (Haxo;i;flTLCJi) under the house. 

General Schott so celebrated for his success (instr.) 
in gambling, was playing one evening very high {transl. 
into great gamble) with the count of Artois and the Duke 
of Chartres (fnapTpcKHMt), when they brought up (npHHecjA) 
a petition from the widow of a French officer in which 
she explained her various misfortunes and begged [for] 
assistance. A plate was handed (oSHecena) round, and 
each put into it one, two or three louis d'or; but when 
it was held (npHHeceHa) to the general, who was playing 
for a stake of five hundred louis d'or, he said: "wait, 
please, [for] a second, here goes (sto 6y;i;eTt) for the 
widow". He played successfully, and immediately 
placing the whole into the plate, sent it to her. 


Ha CKOJiBKO Bp^MeHH Bu sa- H AajrB mn, BaMi tojibko 


^jifl Koro TH 3T0 c;^4JIaa'b, Si calwajii 3to ;i;jifl Moero 
Mo6 ;i;hth? Aopororo OTita. 

Bo CKOJIbKO BpeMBHH Hpois- 3t0 DpOCTpdHCTBO npoi.3- 

xcaioTB npocTpaHCTBO OTt acaiOTi Ten6pi. wb ;i;b4- 

neiepSypra ;i;o Mockbu? nafflaiB ^acoB'b. 

r^i BH BCTptTHJH CBoeio jl BCTpiTHji ero y ^Bep^fi 

npiiiejia? ko(J|)63hh (coffee-room). 

Impebsonal verbs. 


OTKy^ta Bu6imajra co6aEa? 

KaKi Bh nonajQi (did you 
come) H31. ropofla Ha aiy 
cTopoHy piKfi? 

Ha EaKoS pticb ^exiiTi) 


r^i Mofi (yroBapb? 

YBHaty (Shall I see) jh a 

Baci eme ;^o Bamero otb- 

tsM (departure)? 
3ai4Mi Bu ;niwiaeTe aiy 


Ofla BH6iffl:ajia H3i-noA'i. 

KycTa (bush). 
,9 nepefaajix ipeai piEy 

Ha jio;^']^. 

J^T^eajsfiWh .leffiHTi na pini 

Owb y Bacx bi KapMaHt. 
HaBibpHO, 9T0 He Mory BaiTB 

y^HTejB MOi aaaajrt mhS 
ee B% HaKasanie aa to, 
^TO a cerosHM He BiiyiH.i'E 
CB0er6 ypoKa. 


MoJiuTBa. — The prayer. 

Bi MHHyTy s^SHH Tpy;i;Hylo, 
TicH6TCH-JtB Bi cepAD,i rpycTb, 
OAPy MOJ^TBy H^;^Hy«) 
Tnepsy a HaHsycTb. 

EcTB. efijia fijiaroAaxHaa 

Bl COanfihTi CIOB^ SHBUXl, 

H jiiumen HenoHflTHaa 
CehHs npdiecTi. bi hhxi.. 

Vt AyinA, KEEi 6p6Ma, cKaxHTca 


H BipHTca, H njianeTca, 

H TaEi JierEO, aerEo! Mp^ 

TicH^Tbca to press clos$ 
^yAHHE miraculous 
fijaroA&THHfi blessed 
shb6& living 
rpycTb (fern.) sorrow 
TBCpA^Tii to learn, to recite 
cosByiEe harmony 
RenoHiTBaa incomprehensible 

CBardft holy 

caaT^T&ca to fly away 

Aajieio far, away 

n.i&EaTi>ca to complain, to weep 

npejecTi. Cfem.J charm. 

coHH^nie doubt 

sipuTica to trust, to believe 

8aB3^cn by heart 

106 Lesson 25. 



The conjunctions most frequently used in Russian 
are the following: 

a and, but be . . . bb neither . . . nor 

CyjTO, CyjTO 6a as if ho but 

H3. and, but oxaixo bat, however 

J^a,6A in order that noceirf therefore, accordingly 

esem, 6cjih if botokJ tto because 

me (si) then, also TaKi KaEci because 

H and, also iiycnaH or uycT& let 

ii6o because, for tea whatever 

iin (Tun,> or Tor6 paja theretore 

H TaRi noBTOMy therefore xoii (xoTb) although 

EaEi as, when xotA 6h even though 

EaEi-TO for instance ?to that 

EorxA when, whenever ^t66h (^to6%) in order that 

JH (ai.) if, whether (mterroff.) H*Mi than (compar.) 

i66o either, or ^iwB . . . TiHi the more ... the 

nvaa. t6;ibeo just, as soon as more 

ae T6ibEo . . . Bo H not only ... h . . . n both . . . and 

but also TO ... TO sometimes . . . some- 

H^neiH than times. 

For and, the most important of all conjunctions, 
there are three words in Russian: u, a and da. 

M indicates a simple copulation, whereas a and 
especially da join to it the idea of contrast or oppo- 
sition, as may be seen by the following examples: 

Bpan. H cecTpft CiIjih fl6Ma. The brother and sister were at 

EparB yixajTB, a cecTpi ocT^acb The brother started and the 
' ^6ua. sister remained at home. 

Ohi> Bcer^^ fiep^rb, ?,3, umiOT}s,k He always takes and never gives. 
Be OT;;a&n.. 

Besides this, when used adverbially da, signifies yes. 

To express or there are hjh and sMo, but the 
former is by far more frequently employed. 

The interrogative particle jih must always be pla- 
ced behind the word to which the interrogation refers : 
Eor&TL JIB OBi>? Is he rich? 

Ohi. jih CoriTb? Is it he who is rich? 

With HH . . . Hu the sentence must assume a ne- 
gative turn: 
Hh Bm, bb oht. ae 6Hjrfi ta.vrb. Neither we nor he were there. 


Hh may sometimes occur in positive sentences to 
denote tliat no exception is admitted: 

KyflS, HB nocH^TpHDiB, Bea^i* Wherever you look, you see life. 

Ito 6h hh c;iyq6Jioci>, a Bam. Whatever may happen, I shall 

Banning. write you. 

Kam. 6u to afi 6hjio. However it might be. 

The principal interjections are: 
BOTb! BOEi! see there, look I 
ypa! ra! express joy 

axt! QX'bl ysHl axTfil express pain and wonder 
aii! yxtl oft! express fear 
Tb(j)y! (J)h! expresses aversion 
y(j|)il expresses fatigue 
CThl Tci! to impose sUence 
831 refi! to express wonder 
Hy! H^ate! come on! 
Ha! there yon have! 
xaja>\ what a pity! 
npoHBl away! 


HociTtxi. to visit, to see a Hon I could 

BanBcixi to write CKyn6R avaricious 

x6ieTh (he) wishes, desires xoT^xe you wish, desire 

BpHBHHdTb to accept npejuoK^Bie proposal 
6iarop6ABBifi noble, of noble birth t6paoctb pride 
yA^pjKHBaTi. to refrain, to restrain n&BCXBc vanity 

Tiixulk whole, entire nsBiciie news, information 

6e3noK6ficTBie anxiety ySiscAeHi persuaded 

oropi^Hie sorrow bo3ii6«bo jib? it is possible? 

8a6iiTiift forgotten c^tkh twenty-foor hours 

HSBtcT^xB to inform ysipfliB to assure 

cepAi^TiiH angry nepeniB^B to change 

a H^ciK) I think jqaA^TL to spare. 


BjiaropojtHaa ropjocTB lacTO yKpamacTi qejiOBtKa h 
^dcTO yA^psHBaerb ero orb UHorHxi nopoEOBi, ho HsdH- 
CTBO He TOUhKO CH^niHO, HO H Hepi^KO Bpe^^Tb HaiTb Ha 
Hameirb seMHOMi n6npHni;4, fi6o oho ocjrkujiA&rb (it dazzles) 

HaCl TaKl, HTO MH He BfiflHMt CBOHX'b HOpOKOB'b H }ijp- 

108 Lesson 25. 

Huxi npBBiiieKi.. r6p;i;ocTB Momeii Bt hhux* cayTOaxi 
6htb ;i,o6poji,tTeJii)io, TorA^ KaK't iBancTBO w.evfl,A noposi. 
ficjiH CKynoft OTKasHBacTi ee6i bi. nojiesHOMi h nyatHOMO), 
1T0 CMV AOCTynHO (accessible) no ero cocTOflHiro, to ero 
CKynocTt A'fejiaeTCH rjiynocTtio. 

R MucjiK), H cjiiaoBaTejiBHO a cymecTByK). Cmbptb He 
in,axHTB HH 6oraTaro, hh 64;i;Haro. H36'feraS npasAHOCTH, 
h6o OHa (ecTL) hctoihhki MHornxi nopoKos'B.' Ybh, cKOJb 
HenocTOflHHO cwTie ^e:ioBiTOCKoe! ^acro ^eji0Bt>Ky He 
cjii^yeTi B-fepHTb (must not trust) saae cboAm'b eQ6cTBeH- 
HUM% rjasaMi. Ohx to BejiHKOAynieHi, to CKynt. Bu 
Bce acajiyeTecfc (You incessantly complain), Tor^a KaKt 
MHorie 61JJIH 6h BecBMa ciacTJiHBU, ecjiH 6h hm^jh bocb- 
Myio nacTB BameTo cocTOHHia. 


Although he was in town, he did not visit us. 1 
could not write the exercise, because I had no dictionary. 
He is rich, but he is very avaricious. [Either] thou or 
he must (;i;6.JiaceHi) remain at home to-day. They speak 
sometimes in the (sa prep.) Russian, sometimes in 
the English, but never in the German language. 
Let him do what he desires ; this is not my 
affair. What does this boy desire? He desires some- 
times one [thing], sometimes another. If you have not 
them, then I shall give them to you (a saM-B naifb). Do 
you desire [them]? I thank you; [it is] with pleasure 
[that] I accept your proposal. 

My dear sister, — Three whole weeks have passed 
(Ilponuo yac6 u.ijiHX'B Tpa HextjiH), since {&&■&%) I received 
any news from you, and all this time I have awaited 
a letter [of yours] with great anxiety. You must no 
(6^3^) doubt be persuaded (yfiiffiAeHu) that your silence 
gives me great sorrow. Is it possible that I [may] so 
soon [be] forgotten? Can you not find some minutes 
to inform me of your health? I assure you that I am 
very angry. If you wish me to change my {noOi, a 
nepeMiHHJii) opinion of you (0 Baci) send me your news 
(asBtcTHTe ce64) in order that I may remain your 
aiiectionate brother N. N. 




Bh cerojtHa ae 3aBTpaKa;iH, 
pdsB* Bh He rojoAHH? 

He xoTfiTe xa Bh BHiiHTb 
CTaKaHt xoji6}Sfla.TO naBa? 

OT^ero TaEB x6jio;i,ho bi 

Bameit EOMHaT^? 
Bu HH?er6 He cjisxa;iiH 061 


JI,6jiro jiH MHi eme at^aTB 
Baniero fipdia? 

B&A^jm jiH Bu cero^HA nd- 
niero Eopojifl n Hamy eo- 
poji^By ? 

a npaB;ia He saBTpaKajrb, 
HO Ji TaKi ycTajEB (tired) 
OTb CBoero nyrenitoBiii, 


BjaroAapib Bact, a 6ok)cb 

(I fear) npocTysfiTBca (to 

catch cold), ecJH a bhhbio 

xojioAHaro nnBa. 
JI He Beji'kji'b TonfiTb ee. 

H a HHiero o&b otomi hc 
c;iEixaJi'B, xoTH a. 6uj['b bt, 
Tofi ate caMOH KOMHarfe. 

HiTi ; Baui at;iaTB ero 66jib- 
nie He HyatHO, a eny cKaacy, 
MTo Bh ;i,6jiro dujH sAicB, 
H acA^-iH ero. 

JI He BflKhjiT, HH KOpOJIfl, HH 

Kopoji^BH) Korji,a a nf)H- 
niejTB, 6hiJiO yat6 n63;i;HO. 

CKBOp^i^ — The Starling. 

y ca^toBHHKa Mopnqa 6hjii cKBop6ni, KOTopHii yMiji 
roBop^Tb HiKOTopHa cjob4. Ecjh, HanpHwipi, kto-jh6o 
SB&ja,: «cKB6pymKa, r^i th?» to CKBop^n;^ OTBiHaji Eaat- 
jsfi& pasi: «a sa^bI^ 

Baa, nrfi^cEta oienb 3a6aBJiajia MaaeHbKaro IlaBJia, cHHa 
coc^;(a, H OH'b nacro npHxoAui'b E'b ca^^oBBEEy. O^HaacAH 
U&Bexh npHHieji'b eb Mopnuy, Eor;i;a nocjitAHaro h6 6imo 
AOMa. MijrbHHEi cxBairfyi'b niAqKy, cnpaiajii ee bi Eap- 
nia-h E TOJiBEO HTO xoTijci yJtT^ ;i;0H6t, EaEi ca;i6BHHE'B 
Bomeji'b Bh EOUHaTy. 

MopHi;^ xoTbii HOsa^aBHTb Majib^BEa, EOToparo oob 
BOo6ii^6 JiK)6^Jii, H BCEpH^ajTb: sCEBOpynuta, r^i th?» Bi ly 
ae }iBBfsj HTHHEa OTBiTHja B% EapMani IIaB;ia : «a sfffccb ! » 

MajieHbEifi Bopi }i,6jis.ewh 6uM'h BOSBpaTfiTb nra^Ey, 
H AOJcroe Bp^Ma nocjii Toro ne Mori otb CTH;i;a noKa- 
3aTbca Ha rjiasa ca;i;6BHHKy. 

110 Lesson 26. 

yMiiB to be able, to knov/ how naiipHMipi for instance 

3BaTi> to call cKBopyniKa little starling 

3a6aRiflTb to amuse niH^sa little bird 

cxBaiHTb to take cnpsTaxB to hide 

yETB to go nosaSiBHTi. to please, to amuse 

CTHji shame nosasatiui to appear. 



A feature peculiar to the Slavonic languages is the 
subdivision of verbs into various aspects. These aspects 
are different forms of one and the same verb with regard 
to the time required for the performance of an action. 

The Russian verb has three principal aspects viz. 
three different conjugations, which fact amply atones 
for the apparent poverty of moods and tenses it exhibits 
at first sight. 

These three aspects are called: imperfective, per- 
fective and semelfactive. 

The imperfective aspect generally ends in tb 
preceded by any of the vowels a, e, h, o, y, h, i, a. It 
denotes that the action is going on, that it has not 
altogether ceased, or that it not going to finish: CTyndiB 
to knock, CHI. ciyqajii he was knocking (Fr. il frappait, 
Lat. percutiebat).! 

The perfective aspect shows that the action has 
been quite completed, or that it will definitely cease. 
The termination of this aspect is likewise tb preceded 
by one of the above vowels ; but it is easilv recognized 
either by a prepositional prefix or a quite different (ir- 
regular) form: nocxy^fiTt to knock; offB nocTyttdaihe 
knocked {Fr. il frappa, Lat. percussit); ohi nocTy^Ti 
he will have knocked. « 

. 1 The imperfective aspect of a few verbs admits of a double 
form, such as xoaht&, httA to go, HocstTb, necTii to bring, neikth, 
jieiiiB to fly, nj&BaTB, nsuii to swim. The first form, called in- 
definite, denotes the faculty or habit of performing an action: 
nT^H aerixm, a pH6ii ni&Baxm>. The definite form of the imper- 
fective aspect denotes that the action, though vague, takes place 
at some particular time: IIo H£6y noi^Ho^n dureii ler&ii. Mb'6 
B^xHo virki 

' Verbs of perfective aspect have no form for the present. 
Their apparent present form corresppnds to the 2nd future of Eng- 
lish vSrbs. 


Ths semelf active aspect which shows that the 
action has taken place, or will take place, once and 
rapidly, ends in HyiB: CTyKHyiBto knock, OHt ciyEHyjii. 
he knocked (for that only time, and then no more), owh 
CTVKHeri he will soon knock, he is going to knock. ^ 

It must be observed that only a few verbs have 
all three aspects. In this respect they are nearly all 
defective. Nor does the distinction of the aspects em- 
brace the whole conjugation: the past tense alone 
exhibits all the three aspects, but the future has no 
iterative aspect, whereas in the present the distinction 
of aspects is possible only for verbs of the imperfective 
aspects. (See footnote 1 page 110.)* 

The wanting aspects are however easily expressed 
by having recourse to a circumlocution, as in English, • 
whenever a necessity arises. Let us take for instance . 
the verb mnvkn,: 

Obi t6ii>eo pasi ^vt&xh. He lead only once. 

Ohi licTO C'jjifiTb Mwajh. He will often read.' 

Thus are expressed the ideas conveyed by the past 
tense of the semelfactive aspect and the future of the 
iterative aspect of nwiiib, which are both wanting. 

A thorough knowledge of the preceding rules may be of 
great use to learners, but the proper use of aspects can only be 
learnt by practice. 


TypniH Turkey HairariTi to -write 

CBBBi^Ba pork Maiep^s'B continent 

HBxapBTB to roast 6B6jioi^Kapi librarian 

atapRoe roast meat sonpoci question 

jipuapia fair, annual market aoct&tohbhS sofficieut 

^ The so called iterative aspect, denoting that the action has 
taken place several times, ends in BsaTi and utan: CTfuxmn to 
knock; obi ci^sBBajn he used to knock, he often knocked. Yet 
not all verbs ending thus are of the iterative aspect; their number 
is on the contrary very small. 

' Aiuny imperfective verbs have also a fifth aspect called in- 
(^oative, denoting that the action has merely begun; 3acTy<[&TB to 
begin to knock, saniTB to begin to sing, saarpiTB to be'gin to play: 
iOTik BH sacry^^B? when did you begin to knock? (also vorni, bh 
Ba^iuiB CTyi&Tb?), « saniu I began to sing (also a na^ajn lAth), 
OBI, sanrp^eTB he will begin to play this minute (also owt uaHueTK 
nrp&TB cin HBayxy). It use presents no difficulties. 

' PaLsciiTiiB&Th, though derived from hbt&t6, is a distinct verb 
signifying not to read repeatedly but to rely upon. 


Lesson 26. 

ImperfectiTe. Perfective. Semelfactive. 

etyi&Th nocTyndTL CTyKHyiB 

to knock. to have knocked, to knock once. 


a CTyiiy 

Offib CTyHHTb 
MH CTyHfiMl 

BH CTyqfiTe 

OHfi CTyiaTTb. 




a ciy^kn-h 


OH-B CTynaai 
ira cryqajra 
BH cTyqajiH 
OHfi cTy^ajH. 

a nocTyiaa% 
TH nocTynaji'B 
OWh nocTy?a.ii 
MH nocTyqajiH 
BH nocTyHa.3H 
OHii nocTyqajH. 

SI CTyKHy.ft'i> 
TH ciyKHyai 

OWh CTf^WjXh 

MH CTyKHyra 


Fu-ture. _| 

a 6yAy CTyqaTB 
TH 6ij!,emh cTyidiB 
offiB dj^xeTi CTyiaTB 
MH 6jM,ewb cxynaTB 
BH Sy^eTe CTyiaib 
OHH 6yAyT% CTyiaTB. 

a nocTyqy 

TH nOCTyqfifflB 

OWh nocTyqfiTi 


OHfi nocTyiaTi. 

a CTyKHy 

TH CTyKHefflB 
OHfi CTyKHyTl. 





Participle present. . 




Participle past. | 



CTyKHyBmifi. 1 

Gerund present. 

cryqa. | 

Gerund past. 

CTy^aBT, • 



Aspects of the vebb. 113 

csani^nnHKi clergyman I^Bd^ia Sweden 

Bozny^T, air Hops^rU Norway 

OTiAqHsa excellent ^panuHCKt Francis 

npHraacfiTt to Invite npHSBbpBHii courtier 

TeaaTHBa veal enHCjoirL bishop 

jra)6diB to love nosjpaBMTB *o congratulate 

Bpai'L physician, doctor, surgeon npRxdji parish 

BapAiB to boil, cook, prepare nni&TBca to nourish oneself 

ro^uHii good, suitable pasrosdpHBaTi to talk 

B^Hppia Hungary ciaiM article. 



HanfinieTe-JiH Bti khcbmo BameMy 6aTK)raK'fe? H yat6 
HanHcajii aio nHCtMO, len^pB a narfHin/ nncBMO CBoeMV 
6paTy, KOTopHit BecbMa AaBHO ( sKHBeii bi, nexepSypri. 
OcTpoB'B jiH illBeuia ci HopBeriero? HiTB, 66t 3th cxpaHu 
cociaBaaiOTx. nojiyocxpoB'B h coPXHHeHH ch MaiepHKOMt. 
r^i BH KynfijiH CBOH lacH? H Kjuiuii, hxi bi Mockb4, 
KOPAa Chuvh laMi. bt, n^pBuS paai. Hama Kyxapsa ox- 
Mfm^ao BapHxi cyni. CKaacHxe cjiyri, Hxofii oHi Mni 
npHBecB cBHHUHy; a pieab rojiOAeHt. 

AHrjiHMaHHHi, CB KoxopiiMi) naiu'B 6paTt paaroBapii- 
BajTB, Bpa^i Kopoj^Bu. He cxy^ajt jth Kxo-HH6y;i;b Bt 
;i,Bepb? PofliixejH jioSaxi CBofixi a'^^t^S- Kxo nocxpOKjrB 
^TOTh ABop6n;'B? He naKasHBafixe Mo6ft cecxpii, cyAapHHa, 
noxepnnxe eni;e, ona fiyxex'B npHJ^ana. Oxiero xh ho 
OKOHiHJi^ CBoero 4)paHii;y3CKaro nepeBO^a? Mh^ naso 6hjo 
roTOBflxBca ki anrjiificKOMy ypoKy Th 6ojixaenii> cjiHniKOM'B 
MHoro, Mofi spyrt, 6yflB, aaKOHei^'B, cnoKoeHi! Uo^eMy 
Bh He oxB'liqaexe Ha moS BonpocB? H ne noTuun, Baniero 
Bonpoca: Bu roBopHxe cjjAhikom'b CKopo (or 6ucTpo). K 
cerQAHa ne fiy^y oSiAaxb AOMa, Meaa npHrjacfijrb na o64a* 
AodpEiS MoS npiixe^TB, EOXopaS loxbzo hto BosspaxHJica 
HBi Poccia. 


Where you already in Turkey? Does your father 
like pork? Go (CxoA6xe) please to the doctor and tell 
him that my sister is ill. Our cook understands better 
[how] to make soup than to roast the meat. Have our 
children already taken a walk? No, they have not yet 
taken a walk, they played, in the yard with the son of 
our good neighbour. I bought [some] paper, but it is 

Russian CbuT -Qrammar. 8 

114 Lessos 26. 

not good; I must (a ;i;6jia£eH'L) buy [some] better (geni- 
tive). Did these girls weep? Did you already see the fair 
of Nizhny-Novgorod (HHateroposcKyto apMapKy)? I often 
saw the fair of Frankfort. Will you not buy an estate 
in Hungary? No, I shall not buy (Kynjiib) an estate 
in Hungary, I have bought a house in ViennalsiBiHi). 
The celebrated Duval, librarian of the emperor 
Francis I. often answered: "I do not know" to the 
questions that were put*to him (ct kot^pbimh ki Hewy 
o6paiii,a.!iHCi.). "But, sir, they pay (to) you, to know" 
said a courtier to liim once. "Yes, the emperor pays 
me only for what (sa to, tto) I know", answered the 
modest scholar, "if he wished to, pay me for what I do 
not know, all the treasures (6oraTCTBa) of the monarchy 
would not be sufficient." — A very rich bishop con- 
gratulated a very poor clergyman on (ct instr.) the ex- 
cellent air of the place where his parish was situated 
(HaxoA&Jica). "Yes", answered the clergyman, "the air 
would be excellent if one could nourish oneself with 

it (^CJH 6u MOKHO 6h10 HMt IIHTdTBCa)." 


KaKoii xjiMi Bh npeAnoia- JI npeAnoHHTaro 64jiHi! 
TaeTe? XAi>6'b. 

^lacTO JiH Bu 6mbAjih bx S. Chj'b Tami tojibko osAHt 
JoHAont? pasi. 

RypHTC MH Bh xaCaKi.? npeffi;i,e a KypHJit o^ienb 

MH6ro Ta6aKy, ho Tea^pt 
a 66jiie He Kypib. 

Eoro Bh bhahtb na ropt? E he ropi HHKoro ne Bnaty, 

HO Bt xojfiHi a Bfimy 
napTiH) nyTeffl^CTBCKHH- 


Kto atapHj* 9Ty lexjiTHHy? Moft noaap'b acapHJii. ee. 
PasBi OHa ne xopoma? Mh4 KaateTca, tfo ohi ee 

OT^<rao aaxapHJirb. 
Xopomyio jh pii6y npo^a- 7 nerd HHorAa oMHiHaa 
eii. 9TorB Kyn^Di'b? piifia, HHor^a »e onem. 

OiKy^a HOJiyi^eTi ohx Ont ee nojtyiAerB Hst 
pli6y? AcTpaxaHH. 

Formation op the presekt, past and putube. 115 

CaMH .mi BH HanHcdjiH 3Ty HiTt, a ee He cant nann- 
CTaxBK)? caji., HO CHHcajit (copied) 

ee cb TeTpa;tH ;^66pa^o 
Moero npiflTeja, 


IIpOHCXOac/il^Hie pyccKOft &36yKH. — Origin of the 
Russian alphabet. 

]i,o BTopofi nojroBHHH ;^eBiTa^o B^Ka daBiiHe hb 
nwbjiw HHEaEoS dsdyEH. Kor;i;a KiescEie xpECTiHHCKie 
KHasta o6paTfljiHCB k^ HMuepaTopy Mnxafijfy cl npocL- 

IlHeaHifl, TOTl OTnpS.BHJ'B Kt HHMl MOHaxa KHpfijIJia B 

6paTa ero Mee6;iifl, KOTopne, ct noMomiro rp6'jecKofl, 
H3o6p'ijH cjaBancKyK) aaSyKy, ynoTpefijaeMyH) no Huai b^ 
ii;6pK0BHHX'B KHfiraxi noA'B HasBaHiemt khphjjhi(k. — 
IIocp6;i;cTBdM'B aioro nncBMa oh6 uepeseM, ci rp6necKaro 
asHKa Ha cjiaBaHCKifi, HCTElpe EBdnrejia, Ahoctoji, Ilcajih- 
Tfipt H ente ;npyrfa khAfh, TaK^Mi o^aaoM'B pacnpo- 
CTpaH6.iacB KE^fuixana. nexny cjiaBKHauH; h t6jbeo iipi< 
Xlerpi BejifiEOMT) 6ajik BBeAeHa Ten^peninaa pJcCKaa 
asSyica, KOTopaa OTjiH^aeTca otb khphxihe(h eAfincTBeHHO 
66ju>ineH> HsaniHOCTBio h npocTOT6io. 

offpaT^T&ca to apply np6cb6a request 

nocj&TL to send TOJisoB&Te.ii interpreter 

OTnp&BHTB to send, to direct pacnpocTpaH&TLca to spread 

Cl ndHomiD with the aid Csflni^BHoe IlHC&Hie Holy Scrip- 

KapisAEiii a Cyrillic (alphabet) ture 

oTJB^fiT&ca to be distingaished npocT0i4 simplicity. 

H3^iilHocT& elegance 



With regard to their inflection, Russian regular 
verbs have been provisionally divided into two conju- 
gations (10. lesson). But this division, which, will no 
doubt have proved very useful from a practical point 
of view, must now be given up as unnecessary and 

116 LEBsoiir 27. 

Besides wliat has already been said concerning 
regular verbs, there are many other rules and excep- 
tions. But to assist learners without embarrassing them, 
only those rules will be given here which are most im- 
portant and admit of the least number of exceptions. 
The rest may be easily learnt by practice and analogy. 

Formation of the present. 

Some verbs in aTt preceded by a consonant, or in 
aTb preceded by a vowel, lose their a or a throughout 
their present: 

opdiB to plough' a opi&, th opeuib ... ohA opibn..^ 

T4aTB to thaw a t^ei, th T^emt ... 

ctflTt to sow a c^K), TH c'lenib ... 

Verbs in aTt preceded by a labial (6, b, m, n, <})) 
insert i before the inflections of the present; whereas 
those in hts (and also a few in ait) have the insertion 
of J in the first person alone: 

jpeH^Tb to slumber a ApeMJub, th ^peMJieuit. ... 

jih)6Atb to love, to like a .aiofijiib, th jiifefiHini. ..". 

touAtb to heat a loiulb, th TdnHiub ... 

cuaxb to sleep a cnjuo, th cnumb ... 

The consonants fl, 3, e, c, t, ct, ck, x, which precede 
the termination aT&, are very frequently changed to »,. 
H, in, m, throughout the present: 

JIU34TI to lick a mmy, tu Jii'aceiiib ... 

K-rtKaxb to call a oiiiy, th vninemh ... 

TonT&Tb to tread a Toniy, tm Tou'iemb ... 

nncAib to write a numy, th nlimeuib ... 

HCKixb to seek a nmy, th fimenib ... 

This change is restricted to the first person in those 
verbs which end in iit and htb : 

Beprixb to turn a sepiy, tu sepTiiuib ... 

CHjiwi to sit a cnacy, tu cHfllimb ... 

BHcixL to hang a BHmy, th BHClSuib ... 

EpyiiTi to twist a Kpyq^j th KpyTHinb ... 

jBCTHTi to flatter a Jibmy, th jibCTHmb ... 

i Obserre that op&iB when Bignifying to shout makes a opy, 
TH opgnib . . . obA opyTi. 

^ The third person plural has the same vowel as the in- 
flection of the first person singular; the other persons have the 
same vowel as the second person singular: om, open, hu op^iii, 
Hu opgie. 

Formation of the peesitnt, past A3Sd tdtdre. 117 

Verbs ending in asaTB have in the present tense 
the endings aio, aemt . . . aioTt: 
0T;^aB4Tb to give up a oxflaib, tm OTflaemb ... 

BCTas^TB to get np a Bcxaib, tu Bciaemt ... 

yaaaBari to learn a ysaaib, tu ysHaenib .... 

Most verbs ending in eBaib and oBaTt undergo the 
following contraction : 

ToproB&TB to trade a Topryio, tu Topr-yeiub ... 

ropsB^TB to be afflicted a ropi6io, th lopi&eiub ... 

Verbs in epeiB are likewise liable to contraction: 
lep^TB to rub. a ipy, tu Tp6inb ... 

iiep^Tb to die a wpy, tu iipemt ... 

Verbs ending in Hyib form their present thus : 
coxHyTb to dry 9 coxny, tbi cfixiiemb ... 

Formatiou of the past. 

The form of the past is properly an ancient par- 
ticiple past with an active signification, fl JH)6fiJi'B 
= I (am he that has) loved, s. JiH)66ja = I (am 
she that has) loved. The distinction of the three genders 
becomes thus evident. 

Those verbs which in the formation of the past 
depart from the general rule will be ranged among the 
irregular ones (29. and 30. lesson). 

A few regular verbs in epexL and nyTB undergo 
however a contraction in the masculine singular: 
yjieperb to die m. ^xep'b, f. yjiepjia, n. yMepjo 

coxiryxb to dry „ cox'b „ coxjia „ c6xjio 

fij^xHyxB to spring „ CyxB „ Cyxjia „ C^xjo 

riiOHyTB to perish „ rH6'B ., raSjia „ raS-io. 

Formation of the future. 

Instead of 6y;i;y, 6yAenii> . . . the present of cxaTb, 
to become, is sometimes employed to express the future. 

This is generally the case, when the Russian fu- 
ture corresponds to English to be just going: 
A CTiiny a^BTpaKari.. I am just going to breakfast. 

Bu cxaneTe roBopfixi,. You ate just going to speak. 


C.iajKiu swBbt sacTasjiaTb, aacidBHiB to compel) 

KaK6BB what sort of, how to oblige 

AHrjHHdHHHi. Englishman ysiflOMjiaTB, yBijoMBiB to inform 

>iecTB (fem.J honour yfinBdib to kill 

ctp&hhhH extraordinary ociaB^TBca, ootAtbch to remain 

118 Lessos 27. 

iiAaocTHBaft gracious cieieHie concurrence- 

octAtoki remainder fiesnoKdHTL, nofieanoKOHTi to di- 

o6cTOflTejBCTBO circumstancfi sturb 

onHcanie description 6jiaro;;4pnHa grateful 

ci D^pBoii ndiTOD by return of nojcdpniiii humble 

post cn'^m^TB, Docn'binHTL to hasten 

noiTinie respect ' HaKjajB4a bill, invoice. 

Jlv)6mah JiH Bu cMjijas. Bina? EaEOBO siopoBte sa- 
mero 6paTa? Owb ^Mepi yat^ ;i;aBH6. Bh, Kaacerca cnfiTe, 
Mofi jipyrt. KasyE) KHfiry Bh Ten6pb noKyMeTe? S. KyiMK) 
OHHcaaie Poccia sHaMeHHTaro aHrjiH^aHHHa MaKeHSH Yojr- 
jieca (Mackenzie Wallace). R B&Wh Hannray Cb nepBoS 
noRTOBO. Oaa yMep^sa npn crpaHHOMi. cie^eHiH o6cToa- 
Tejii.CTBi. a Tenept cass.^, r^t BTOpd CH^tijrB aHrjmqaHHHi. 
Hecib HMiK) ocTaB^Tca CB oyfioKHMT) noHT^HieMi, Bami 
noKopHiSmig cjiyra. 

MhjocthbhS Focyftapb, — Cniiuy Bact yB'iflOMHTb o 
noJiy^^HiH Bamero nncbMa ot^ BOCbMoro HHCja 3Toro ni- 
cai^a, co^iiepffiamaro bi ce64 Asa BeKceaa Ha cvMMy mecTii 
laam, ustkcotl TpH;i;i^aTH mecTH (j[)paHKOBi h naTii- 
secaTH caHT^MOBi no HaKjasHHiPb TOTBepTaro h naTaro 
9Toro Micaii,a. K BHecy no sthmi BeKce.iaMi h saKpejtHTviD 
3Ty cyMMy sa Bami merb. Bi HaA^atA'h na noayneHie ;i;a.Jb- 
v.'kimi/a.'h BaniHX'b saK^soBi, qecTb hm^k) BaM'b EJianaxbca. 

I shall buy a book, and you will buy [some] paper. 
What is the peasant doing now? Where do you sit? I sit 
on the table. Do you sleep ? 1 do not sleep, I slumber. 
Who shakes the table ? We shake it. They write [some] 
letters. His aunt died, when he was in Russia. I am just 
gomg to write to him. 1 like black bread. The hunter 
kills the old wolf. Do you Hke sweet wines? No. I 
do not like sweet wines. 

To the Postmaster General (rocnoAfiHy JIJHp^KTopy 
Iloirb). — I have the honour of requesting you to cause 
a search to be made (Tr66H bh Beji4;iH paanopa^HTbca 
ofit OTHCEdHiH) in the offices of your administration, [for] 
a letter addressed to Mrs. K . . . at Moscow, which I 
placed in the box of the Post-office of (a QT!]i,aji'b na noiTy 
vb) . . . the 15* instant (cer6 Mtcai^a) and which has 
riot yet been handed to her. With deep respect, I have 
the honour to remain your humble servant N. N. 




HrpaeTe jivl Bh bt. kApth? 

Ba^^M'B me Bh TorAa nrpa- 

JKhbctb jm Batut ;^py^'b 

emfi y Baci? 

Mnoro jih a'Ijt^m, KOTopHa 
He XOTHTl HrpaTB? 

064^3-12 JIH BH ys^? 

Mhofo jih Bam-B SparB aa- 
HHMaeTca MysuKOio? 

Ito bh A'i-iajiH ceroAHfl Bt 

JI Hrparo, ho a He jnoSjiJo 

JI Hrparo, vio6% ji.ijia.ih Apy- 

rfiMi yflOBOJiBeTBie. 
Ohi 66jiie He jkhbbt'b y 

mbeh; OHi atHBCTi Ten6pB 

Ha yjiHUji Mfipa. 


He xoTflTB yqfiTbca, ho 
Bci XOTHTl HrpaTB. 
Mi.1 Baci OKHjiajiH no ceiii'i 
HacoB^b, H taxi, KaKi (but 


noo6iA£tJiH CesT, Baci. 
^a, OHi 6ro MHoro saHH- 
MacTca, HO He ctojibko, 


HrpajiH; mh He hht^jih, 
noTOMy "^To y Hac% hb 

fiiijIO BpeMCHH. 


Be?epiii& sboh-b. — The Evening-Bells. 

(Imitation of Moore's well known ballad.) 

Be^epnift 3bohi, Bei^pHift sbohi, 
KaKTE. MHoro ;i;yMi HaBOAHTB oh*! 

O lOHHX'B AHHX'B B'B EpaK) ]^0JlJ[6wb, 

r^t a jao66jii, r^i OT^ifi aojtb, 


TaMi cJiymajTB 3bohi> bi hociSahIS pa3i>'. 

yat6 He SpiTB MHi CB'tTJIUX'B SHeS 

BecHiSc o6MdHHHBOJt mo^h! 


TorM BecejrHxi., MOJiofluxii! 

H EpinOE* HXi MOrfijIBHHft COHl, 

He cJiiinieH'B swb BenSpHifi bbohi! 

120 Lesson 28. 

.leataTb h mh^ bii seMjii mpoS! 
Hanisi yHUBHHi Ha;i;o mhoh 
Bi soJiHHi siTepi pasHecCTi, 
Jl^pyrot niBen,% no neft npoftflCTi, 
H yati He a, a 6^;i;eTi oh^ 
Bi paa^yMBi n'ferB Be^^pmft 3boh'b! 

poaH6S Epafi native country npocifiTiCH HasiK'B to say good 
spiTi to look at bye for ever 

odu&H^BiiHi illusory csiTJiHH bright, serene 

Mornji&HBH sepulchral Bpimcifl cobi profound sleep, 

CBp63 damp, wet Hanisi, melody, song 

aojfina valley yHHBHH& mournful 

pasjyMie meditation paau^CTB to carry about. 



(Passive and impersonal verbs.) 

Formation of the imperative. 

This mood has but the second person of both 
numbers. Their terminations, when accented, are fi, 
HTe ; when unaccented they are fi, htb if preceded by a 
vowel, and i>, tie if preceded by a consonant. 

The wanting third person of both nimibers may 
be expressed by means of nycTB (let) followed by the 
present. The iirst person of the plural is supplied by 
the indicative future. 

We have thus a Russian imperative just as com- 
plete as in English: 

roBopA, cxyji, Btpil speak, knock, believe (thoujl 

nycTb OHT. roBopiiTi, etc. let him speak, etc. 

Syji.eM'E roBopfiTB, cTyii^Tt, Bi- let us speak, knock, believe. 


roBopAie, CTyiAie, stptie! speak, knock, believe (you)l 

nycTb oh4 roBop^TT., etc. let them speak, etc." 

Sometimes tc is added to the first person plural, 

and the particle m, instead of ujeih, is employed before the 

third person of both numbers, to express the imperative. 

CTyq()MTG. let us knock. 

Aa CTyiliTT.. let him knock. 

SacTyidTb. let them knock. 

Formation of the impehatitb, gebund^ asd participles. 121 

The infinitive is also sometimes employed instead 
of the imperative, both with and without a negative: 
CTyiftTb ! knock f 

roRop^Tb! speak I 

He B'fcpHTb! do not believe I 

Formation of gernnds. 

In Russian, there is a gerund present and a 
gernnd past. The termination of the former is a, a 
or yiH, I01H preceded by the vgwel which is met 
with before the inflection of the third person plural of 
the present of the same verb: 
nm&H, nmkiova. in reading, 

nama, n^iuyiB. in writing. 

The termination of the gerund past is at or bihh: 
laii.B'h, hht&bdih.' having read. 

nHC^BT., nHC^BmH. having written. 

It need not be added that gerunds are invariable, 
whereas participles are declined like adjectives. 

Formation of participles. 

The active participle present ends in niifi (maa, 
mee) preceded by the same vowel which is met with 
before the termination ti, of the third person plural in 
the present of the same verb : 

iiiiT4iomifi, -maa, -mee. (he, she, it) that is reading, 

nrtmymiii, -maa, -mee. (he, she, it) that is writing. 

The active participle past ends in Binifi (Bmaa, 
Bmee) : 

iiHTABinifi, -Bmaa, -Bmee. (he, she, it) that has read. 

nHC^Binifi, -Bma-H, -Bmee. (he, she, it) that has written. 

The passive participle present ends in mhS or 
Ml preceded by the same vowel which occurs iq the 
first person plural of the present. The former is the 
full, the latter is the apocopated termination: 
iHTA.eMbiK or iHT^eMT>. that is being read: 

XBajiJiMMii or XBajiliMi.. that is being praised. 

The apocopated form of the passive participle pre- 
sent is sometimes combined with the verb 6uTb (ex- 
pressed or understood) to form the passive conjugation : 
H XBaji^Mb. I am praised. 

Th XDa.iUMi, etc. Thou art praised, etc. 

' The termlBations a, n and m are generally preferred in 

122 Lessok 28. 

In the present this mode of forming the passive 
voice, is now rather obsolete. It is usual to convert 
the passive into a reflexive or even an active form: 
Sxa KFfira naina nwiaerca. This book is read by everybody. 

MeHji Bffh XBknarb. All praise me. 

Te6j} XBijiflTi, etc. They praise thee, etc. 

The passive participle past ends in hhhS or hi. 
preceded by the same vowel which occurs before the 
termination of the infinitive: 

nAcaBiiuii, n^caei written 
i^iaHHan, ^AraHi read. 

Some verbs, for the most part irregular (29. and 
30. lesson)!, have in their passive participle past the 
termination thS. A few others have eHHHH, whilst their 
infinitive ends in htb or ait. Such are: 
XB&;ieiiHH& praised from xsa^iuTB 

ii(5DieHBHB carried » roc^tl 

sadB^HBBii forgotten » .<!a6uBdTi> 

iiponiSBBEiS forgiven » npomaiB. 

Beside the impersonal verbs denoting meteoro- 
logical facts and those conunon to other languages, such 
as MoposHTi it freezes, ikeTb it thaws, EdaieTca it 
appears, and on, there are in Russian a great number 
of impersonal expressions formed by apocopated neuter 
adjectives preceded' by the verb 6uTh which in the 
present is nearly always understood, such as : ' 
BysBo it is necessary Aoct&toibo it suffices 

ji,033b.r6 it is necessary iipHj^iao it becomes 

H6acEo it is possible acho it is evident 

HeB03ii6sno it is impossible n;i6xo it is difficult. 


OGtnkth to inhabit cy«i.6d destiny, fate 

coJBe^Hau solar BpeaHasHiHHja (she) destined 

Hapdflt nation, people ocMtjiHiica to dare, to venture 

pajoBaiica to rejoice yCHpSfiiecE bobi! be gone! 

110 6nHTy by experience njaa^ta planet 

ffiHsdiHufi animal CHCTfiMa system 

Mflco meat ysaadTB to respect 

KOBTpHfijfuia tribute BHHuaHie attention 

j[HBi^Ti> to deprive H3BtcTHo it is known 

ceMMHHHi father of a family pacT^Hie plant 

1 Monosyllabic verbs (except those ending in ait), also ending 
in nyib and ep^TB. 

Formation op the imperative, gerunds and participles. 123 

TOBdpH goods yciyra service 

noiE&p'B conflagration Hiiii;ifi beggar 

KpoBt shelter, boase sospas^me, otvi'fb repartee 

osaaaTB to render npoc^TeiB soUicitor, candidate. 


EcTb aiHBOTHHJi, nHTaiomiacH tojibko pacTeniflMH, h 
»HB6THHa,nHTaH)iii,iafta tojlko mcom^. ^ejiOB'^Ky, roBopa- 
meMy Bcerfla npaB^y, bc4 atpaTS. YnenviKi,, Jiy^uie bc4x'b 
pascKasuBaBiniS HCTopiK), 6u;i'b Eap.i:b HBaHOBi. To- 
BapH, cflijiaHHHe bi AhoIh, camue ayqmie. He roBopn 
HH cJiOBa, Hanra J^66^pue cjiyra S'^jiAmti to, topo mh ace- 
jaeiTb. HeMHoro OT;i;oxHyBinH, mh npo^ojatajrH CBoe nyie- 
intoBie. OfflHji,aff n6cBMa otl BacB, a He 3Haji3,^T0 n'ksa.ih. 

OaAhi npoefmejih npocfiai y npifccsaro Kopoja mtcTa. 
KopojB cnpocftji'B y Her6, r^i OHt poaftjica. «5 po- 
]!,kicji Bi Bepjfifffe*, oTBiraj'B ohi. «y6HpaftTecL boh'l . » 
CKasajii MOH^pxt, «Bci Bepji'iHim HHKysa He ro^HTca (are 
good for nothing).* — «fl npora;f HSBHH^Hia y Bainero 
BejiHiecTBa», oTBirajii. npoc£nreJib, «ecTB Meatfly hSmh h 
xopomie, a SHaro flByxi.» — «Kto 3th flBa?» cnpocHJi^ 
Kopojt. «nepBHfi», B03pa3u.11. npocHTCJiB, «3T0 Baffle 
BeaaiecTBO, a BTopofi 3T0 a. » Kopojit ne mofb yflepiKaTf.- 
ca OTB CM'txa npa 9tom% OTBirli h flapoBa.!rB eMy MicTO. 


The earth inhabited by us is a planet belonging 
to the solar system. Men speaking one language (instr.) 
form one nation. A man that does not respect (not 
respecting) the laws does not respect even God. Win- 
dows ornamented with flowers delight us. Pupils not 
listening with attention know little. It is difficult to 
believe people who chatter much. By experience it is 
known that people who have incessantly wished (to 
themselves) something new, were unhappy. 

Honourable Sir, — He that presents (part, pres.) 
you this letter is the father of five children. A con- 
flagration deprived him of his house; but he was a 
rich father of a famny, always disposed to render ser- 
vices to everybody; his house was always open to all 
poor [people]. Fate destined otherwise, and he is now 
a beggar. Relying on your good heart, I have ventured 
to disturb you and send him to you. Your humble 
servant N. N. 


Lesson 28. 


K'bMi odHTaeMa ^a^a Baine- 

ro ;i;aji;H? 
CKaiKfiTe MH't, noatajyficTa, 

Koro'ra sanii 


SaKpiJTH Ml TaKate oKHa? 


nocjiiofiijieHHoe Bpeina? 
KaKOBi SiMt nepBOHaiajib- 


m^Hia PfiMa (of Rome's 

no^ieMy KHprH3H 6oaTca nsoi- 


B'h Hcfi Ten§pB acHBeTt Moa 

Oh^ nockm^&Th tojibko ao- 
dpHxt JTOflieg, noTOMy ito 
OHx SHaeiTB nocji6BHr;y, 
KOTopaa rjiacHTS (says): 


SHaKOMi, H a Te64 CKa- 
»y, KTO TH (xaKOBi). 

Hifl, OHH eme OTKpUTH, 

xoTa a BeaijTB hxi aa- 


Ohh fiirajiH no noJiaMi. 

nepBOHaMajtBHHH h rjiaBH'fiH- 
mifi HCTO^HUKi o6oraffl,6- 
Hia PHMa 6HJia Boftna, 
AOcraBjraBmaa cm^ orpoM- 
raia K0HTpH6;^ipH cb 3a- 


KHpr&SH 6oaTC>a KajniHKOB'B, 
B^pa CKasKaiirB, ^tro Kaj- 
MHKH iflarb (eat) nejio- 
Bi^ecKoe iiaco. 


Heo6uKHOB^UHaa ciiji&. — Extraordinary Strength. 

ABrycTi n, Kyp(|iiopcT'B caKcoHCKifi h KopojtB nojiLCKiS, 
OTJinqaaca HeodHKHOB^HuoH) rfejecHOH) cfijtoio. 0;i;aaHtAU, 
BO Bp6Ma ero nporyjKH BepxoMi., jroniaAB noTepaja noa- 
K6By; no3TOMy OHt sateajii bi> 6jHffiaH)iiiyK)H) fl;ep6BHK) kb 
KysHeuy. Kor^a tot* npHHect no^KOBy, to Kyp(})iopc'i"b 
saxoTijti np^at^e Hcnp66oBaTb, aobojibho jih Kpiffito ona 
c^iJiaHa. Ont Bsajii ee o64hmh pyKaiiH h nepe.ioMH.'ii, 
KaK-b MopKOBb. «&Ta no^KOBa HHityAa ho roAfiTca», CKa- 
sa.ji'b oH'b KysHeuiy, KOTopHft BCJii^t sa TiMi npmieci 
HhcKOJUbKO Apyriixi. Ho Kyp(|)K)pc'rb nepeMMHsajJi hxi 
ojiny 3a Apyroio. Ky3H6n;% npHsaAyMajHia, a TOBapHmH 
ero ch HayM^ieHieMTb uorja^HBajH spyri Ha apyra. Ha- 
KOH^Di'b Kyp(j|)K)pcTi c^ijiaji BHA*, TTO HamejTB OAH^ noA- 



KOBy, KOTopaa fiiuia ^ocr&ToqHO Kpinita. JEomast 6iMa 
noAKOBana, h KorM KyaHen-L koh^hjii CBoe si jo, to Kyp- 
4)ibpcTB saJTB eM;f Tajtepi; ho KysH^i^'B, bskbti ero, corHfjit 
Me2£;ty najibi;aMH. — <1&totb Tliepi He to^iAtcii, saine 
BHeo^ecTBO*, CKasajTB EysH^u,*, soeb rneTea Meatfly naat- 
i;aMH.» Kyp4>E)pcTi nosaB^xb eM^ eme h4ckoji.ko xsuie- 
poBt cpa^, HO Offt ernfiaj'B hxi oahh^ aa ApyraMi. — 
<TaK'B BOTB jyHa6pi», CKaaajii HaK0H6n,i Kyp^ropcTi., 
«aTOTB yasci ^oJiaceKB 6htb xopomi.* KyBH^i;* ocxajcH 
AOBOJieffB, a syp(j»H)pcTB paji;oBajtca, ito namej-b lejroBiKa, 
paBHaro ce6i no eiui']^. 

syp())K>pcTb elector 

TiuilcHHlt corporeal 

noAsdaa horse-shoe 

HHEjrA^ ne roxftrcs (it) is good 

for nothing 
nepeji&MHBaTb to break 
TOB&pHiilB commde 
noiiixBwah to look (from time 
K6a9HT& to finish [to time) 

corHjfis to bend 
rn^Tica to be bent 
€rH6&T& to carve 

OTjmi&ibCJi to distinguish oneself 
npor^jsa sepxaui ride 
Hcnp6ffDBaT& to try 
BCJiiA'B aa Tiin immediately 
npHsaAyuaT&cii to become thought- 

fdl, to be puzzled 
HsyHJi^Hie astonishment 
CA&iaTB Buxh to feign 
T&jiepi J:haler, a German dollar 
n^eiti finger 
cpijy one after another 
p6BHH& equal, match. 



The so called irregular verbs are in Russian less 
numerous, and more easily learnt than in many mo- 
dern languages. They amount to 70 in all, and their 
anomalies are generally restricted to the present, im- 
perative and passive participle past. 

To facilitate' their study they are exhibited here 
accoi'ding to analogy and graduated difficulty, a ge- 
neral alphabetical list of them being appended to ttie 
30"' lesson. They have also been divided into two 
groups according to their regular or irregular infinitive 

The seven following undergo vowel change in the 
present and imperative. Those of them, which are 


Lesson 29. 

1. (ipuTb to shave 

2. wbvh to sing 

3. BUTb to howl 

4. RpiiTb to cover 

5. M<»Tb to wash 

6. HUTb to ache 

7. puTb to dig 










used in the participle past, form it in thh (instead of 
hhhh). Their past being regularly formed, it will not 
be given: ' ' 

n 6p4ro, th fipiemt . 

a noK), TH iioemL . . 

a Boio, TU Edemb . 

a KpdHi, TH Epoemb . 

fl Mdio, TH M6enib . . 

a uow, TH Hoenib . . 

u poK) TH pdemL . . 

The five following undergo both vowel and con- 
sonantal modifications in the present and imperative. 
Their past tense and participle past are regular, but 
the latter is also given to prevent the learner's being 
misled by false analogy: 

8. (a}s,a,Th) to build (a shkay), th SHataemb . . . simxa 3a4hhhh 

9. ;iraTb to tell lies ii nvy, th .ixemi> . . . jiih 

10. ciaTb to send n mum, th msenn, . . . mjia 

11. CTJiaxb to spread a ct6.5io, th ciMsinL . . . crejis 
1^. TKaTb to weave a isy, th i^eim . . . tkh 

The four foDowing undergo vowel insertion in the 
present and imperative: 

13. Opaxb to take a (lepy, th 6ep@iiui . . . 6epA 6p4BHHfi 

14. rHATb to drive a ronio, th rdHHoiB . . . iodA (redHHHfi) 

15. ;!^paTb to tear a xepy, th xepgim . . . ^ep^ jipiHHii& 

16. BBaxb to call a Sony, ih 30B@ini> . . . sobA 3b4hbh3. 

The six following insert a consonant in the pre- 
sent and imperative: 






SHTb to live a acBs;^, 

TU nsBSnib . . 

. XHB1& 



njiuTb to swim a njiHsy, 

TH UJHB§nib . . 

. iuhbA 



cibiTb to be reputed a MHay, 

TH CJEHBemb.. 

. cxaai 



jEaxb to press a kmj, 

TH sBMemh . . 

. SRjia 



acaTb to reap a xBy, 

TH SBglDb . . 

. XHB 



^i^Tb to put away a aiay', 

TH ji^vemh . . 

. KkBb 


The three following exhibit several irregularities 
in their present: 

23. xoriiTB to desire (will): a xoHf, th sTdnentb, owb xdMit, uh 
xoTJ^Hi, BH xotAtb, ohh xorivb. 

24. O'bsea.Tb to run: a GiTf, th 6iximh, ohi 6issATb, uh Gixcto'b, 
BH 6iffiilTe, obA Cir^ii. 

25. ;^aTb to give ; a nans?, th Aamb, obi xacxs, mb ^a^^ui, bh ja- 

S^Te, 0H± HSLjiffb. 

1 This present has a future signification. 
^ This present has a future signification. The present of 
to give is rendered by a ;^aA, th jaSnib, etc. from AaBAtb. 


26. The verb ixan to drive, to ride, to travel, to go, is quite 
irregular and defective. Its wantiug tenses are supplied by 
some circumlocutioDB. 

Present: a ijy, th iwiiiB, ohi inen, uh ijeai, bh ifleie, ohh iAyTfc- 

Past: a ixa,it, etc. 

Future: « (no)4sy, th (no)4Aenii, etc 

Imperative: (no)&safi or isffi. 


nopTH6ft tailor otchj4ti, OTociixi to send back 

aiueuL barley jryri meadow 

Kpsima roof iepeir6i;a slate 

coj6Ha straw ^ait' tea 

cepTj^ttt frock, coat Ko^e (indecl.) coffee 

nojdTejB bearer jhcti plate, sheet 

nopyq&TL, nopy^&Ti. to recommend yooHBH&TB, yn6MUHTs to mention 

couHis&TbCs, ycoMH^T&ca to doubt jpyaSa friendship 

vb (prepos.) npedBBinie sojourn, stay 

pacE^TBCH, pacK&HsaT&ca to re- HcsjiKi^iji except 

pent Bi (prepoi.) saeAjoBaTB, no3aBHjoBaTL (dat) 

tfeciaa company, society ' to envoy 

nofii^a victory bmtb bi n^iBB to capture 

npnsHB^iB, opHSBtiTB to summon naj&TEa tent 

BiacT^TCJiB sovereign BiisyaB ransom. 


^TO BH CTaHexe hhtb: ^afi, Ko^e, n^BO, fljia bhho? 
,HafiTe mh4 CTaKafft xoponiaro nfiBa. Tp^ Bh len^pt atn- 
Beie? S. XRBf Bi ;;ep6BHi. Hai KaKoro cyKHa ohi mben, 
BaMt cepT^Ki? Ohi DiBeii ero nat a^tunaro dnrjiiftcKaro 
cyKHa. KaKi BacB soByii? Mens sosyrB neTpoMii. 
KpiiniH Hamaxt ;i;om6b'b mu npoeiTb xenept uepeniiii;aMH 
H ace-i'lbsHUMH jiHCTaHH, a np^at^e hu hx-b spiirjiH co.16- 
MOH). JlibAH, o6hkhob6hho nB]Bbiii;ie bhho, hc jiK)6arb hhtb 

Maji^K^. BHSHpB xajili^a MocTa^H, oXepataj'B no6'fe;i;y 
HaA'B rp6KaMn h Bsajii, b% njrfem. hxi HMnepaxopa. TIpHS- 
Basi aToro BJiSLCifiTejia b-b cboh) najiaxBy, om> cnpocdjTB ero, 
KaKoro o6pam;§Hia oacHAaex'B oh'b or& ^o6*;^fiTeJra. «Ecuih 
BHBeAeieBofiHy KaKiuapB*, oTBiinjii HMnepdxopx, «0Toin- 
jiHTe Mena; 6cjih Be^eTe ee, Kan's Kyn6n;'B, npoAafixe Mena; 
6cjiH ace Bejifite ee KaK^ mhckhk^, y66fiTe nena. » Typ^i^Kift 
reHepaaw)CBo6oAfiJi* ero fiesi uuKyna. 


My tailor sews very badly. Where are you driving 
the horses ? We are driving them to the meadow. The 


Lesson 29. 

peasants are now reaping the barley. Drink, if you 
wish. The nightingale sings and the wolf howls. Your 
brother lives in St. Petersburg and is reputed [to be] 
a rich man (instr.). He desires to sleep and I desire 
to play. Children, never tell lies! Do you not know 
what liey call this man? With what do we now cover 
the roofs of our houses? We cover them sometimes 
with slates and sometimes with iron sheets. 

The bearer of this is Mr. Rozanoff whom I have 
so often mentioned in my letters. I recommend him 
to your friendship. You will not doubt that he is 
deserving (of) it, because I told you so much good 
about him. Pray endeavour (IIocTapaHTecB, noffiajyficTa) 
to make (for him) his sojourn as agreeable (instr.) as 
it is possible to you. You [will] not repent it (bi btostb), 
because you will find (Hafisere) so much pleasure in 
[your] conversation with him, that I should envy you, 
if 1 were not (bi caMOjrB ^ijii) your sincere friend [in- 
deed] N. N. 

Eas'B HasBiBaeTCfl piKa, npa Pia^, npn ycTB'fc KOTopofi 

fCTbi KOTOpOfi JieatfiTB 

Xopomo jiH BaiTB cJCfSKkuT, 

3T0TB ^eJOBiK'B? 

XoTfire jra Bh bsstb 9Toro 


^TO BaMi CEaslii 


KaK-B Bh Haxo^HTe aiy ro- 

a XOTijPB 6h BHaTB, noTCMy 
Bh noffljifi ryjiflTB deai 


jremflTi Pnra, HasHBaeicji 

Ohi mh4 oieHB xopomo cay- 

ssajny, HO OHi cJiinmoirB 

MHoro TpaTHJii (spent). 
fl xoH^ ero BSfiTB, 6cjrH om> 

xoieTB Mfffe cjiyatfeTB. 
Hira HH^ero HOBaro, hc- 

KJiibqaa Toro, ^to reHS- 

pajTB Hora bshai, IIopTB- 

Ohi Mwk CEasijTB: Ttixpwk 

pasMHinJiieTB npem;^esAe 

TfeuTB fliScTByer'B. 
R ee Haxoaty o^eHB xopo- 

nieft; ho oh^ Baui, b&- 

ateTca, ne Hp^Birrca. 
YBipjiH) BacB, hto tanfiii 

a JESUIT,, TTO Bh h6 firitJiw 

60JIBHH, a npaniejii 6h 

8a BaMif. 

Ibbegdlab verbs. 129 


PacK6.3BHVKn H ceKT&HTH. - - SchisiTiatics and sectarians. 
T6HHaa ii;fi(|>pa pyccKHxi pacKO^itHHEOBX ne HssicTHa, 
HO MoaHO CKaaaTB, hto ^HCio Hxt BOo6ui:e onesh BejHKO. 
Hxi o^eHb MHoro cpe^A BCJEKop^ccKaro Hacej^Hifl, oco- 
6eHH0 Ha ciBepi h boct6e4, b-b 3aB6,isBH, na ypaxb h 

si-b Ch6hPH. X^ate Bt MoCKBi, V.6xAJ SaMOCKBOp'll^KHMH 

6oraqdMH, HCMdao peBHfiieaeft AP^BHaro daaro^ecTia, 
KaE-b OHfi ce6i uaauBaaovb. Ho pacEOA'B ne cesTa b-s 
npaMOM-B cn^cjtb (yi6Ba. CeKiaHTH HHa^e TOJKyrorB pe- 
JHriosHHe AorstaTBi, ^wb npaBocjiasHue, Tor^a KaEi pac- 
EOJBHHEH ms-ijoTh OAHHaEOBue AorMaTu ch npaBocjaBHU- 


flax-B H no;(pd6HOCTflxi 6orocjiyffi6Hia. PacKOJii BOSHfiKi 
OTToro, ^TO SHa^ATCJiBHait qacTb p^ccEaro Hap6;^a ne aa- 
xoTi;ra npHsndTB HcnpaB^ieHHux'B b'b ceuHa^i^aTOiyrL BtK^ 


OHi66o£'B H HCEameHifl. Ho, Kponi pacEOJiBHHEOB'B, cy- 

H^eCTByiOrB B'B PoCCfH B'B 60Jlhm6ll'b EOJifiTOCTBi H ;^4fiCT- 

BfiTejiBHHe ccETdHTH. Oh4 HaxoflHTca npeHuyocecTBeHHo 
Ha ibr'k H TOTO-Maroirk. B&k c^ktu uo^tA HesosiiosHO 
nepe?6cjiHTB, ho bck> 3Ty uaccy pasM^HHX'B 66nuiH% 
MOXHO pasA^JiATB Ha AB^ EaTeropin: c^eth UHCT^^ecEia 
H pai^ioHajtHCT^TOCEia. Cauaa pacnpocTpaneHHaa h3i> 
OTHX-B nocji'b;tHHX'B ecTB TaK-B HasH^eMaa IQT^^Hsa. MTyHr 
;i;^CTU 0T($p^ciiBaK>T'B bc£ o6pa;i;ii h ({topuu EaseHHOit 
B'bpu, EaEi osk HadUBaH)Tb npaBOCJiaBie, h cipesATca kt, 
OAHOMy, xpHCTidHfiEO-eBaHrejiBCEOiiy H^eaiy, npH noHOn^H 
cBO^fi: jifnBO& coB'fecTH H paaywa, pyEOBOACTBjacB Heno- 
cp^ACTBeHHHirB noHHMdHieui Cflam^HHaro IlHcaHia. OneHB 
oacnpocTpaHeHH^ T^Ese ^yxo6opHU a MoJOKdHe, a c4Miie 
saMiH^TeaBBHe hsi bc^xi — CEonn;6. 

To^HHi exact Caaros^ciie church service 

Bh SasdJiziH beyond the Tolga toieob&ti explain 

peBHiTem zealous follower nojpdfiHociL peculiarity 

npaudfi CMHCJii proper sense BosaiDKByTB to rise 

odp^A'b ceremony, form Bcsax^aie alteration 

tiorociyx^Hie worship nepesicjiBTB to enumerate 

BEpdCTLca to slip into passfa^ii to diyide 

B0o6iu£ altogether KasennHfi official 

saHocEBopii^ beyond the Mos- jra^naa c6BtcTfc individual coo- 
cova science 

Kusslan Cbnv.-Cnunmar. ' 

130 Lesson 30. 

p&3yH'& reasoa nononib assistance 

Jtyxofidpeut Holy Ghost denier pyEOBdACiBOBaTB to guide 
66m,iiBa, community Hojioe4hhhi Milk-eater 

0T6p4cHBaTL to repel Ceoo^i^i Mutilated. 

CTpeMHTBWi to aspire 

irreglilar yerbs with an irregular 
infinitive termination. 

Most verbs having the infinitive termination qt are 
liable to consonantal changes in the present, imperative 
and participle past. 

All of them are contracted in the past; and the 
masculine sing:alar form of this tense does, not even 
take the characteristic inflection jii,. 

They are fifteen in number: 

27. (iep^vi> to preserve. — Pres. a 5epery, th Sepeaceinb ... oh4 
6eperyr6. Past a Cepepb, -rxk, ra6. Imp. 6eperfl. Part. 6e- 

28. HOVb to be able (can, may). — Pres. a Mor^, th Mfiacenn. ... 
QVA M6ryTT>. Past a Mon, T^ik, -rjio. Imp. uorfi (rarely used). 
The participle is wanting. 

29. sanpHib to put (the horses) to. — a aanpary, th aaapaaceniB ... 
OHn aanparyrb. Past a aanperi, -mk, -rad. Imp. sanpard. 

30. CTCp^qB to guard. — Pres. a CTepery, th CTepexcemb ... oai 
CTeperyTTi. Past a cTepen., -rat, -rji6. Imp. CTeperfi. Part. 

31. CTpoiB to shear. — Pres. a CTpttry', tu CTpHacenn> ... oh6 
CTpHr'j'TT). Past a CTpHrb, -rjii, -rji6. Imp. cTpHrti. Part, cipfi- 

32. aevh to lie. — Fut. a aiiry, tu JuSjKeim. ... OHfi a^yTt. Past 
a Jierb, -rji4, -rao. Imp. aan,. The part, is wanting. 

33. BJieWi to draw. — Pres. a BJieKy, tu BJieqginb ... ou& BJiesyri. 
Past a eaes^b, -ssk, -Ka6. Imp. sneKA. Part. BaeqeHHuS. 

34. BO^lOib to train. — Pres. ii bojiok^, th B0Ji65efflB . . , oh6 bojio- 
K^Tb. Past a Bo.joRii, KJI&, -KJlo. Imp. B0JI0K6. Part. Boao- 

35. ne^b to bake. — Pres. a nesy, tm neqemb ... oHii neityTB. 
Past a neKii, -itak, -kjio. Imp. neKli. Part. iie^enHufl. 

36. neqbca or nen^HCb to be anxious. — Pres. a neKycb, tu ne- 
lenibca ... ohA neKyTca. Past a ngKca, -laacb, -KJiocb. Imp. 
□eE^cb.. The part, is wanting. 

37. cliVh to whip, to hew. — Pres. a ctKy, tu ciiemb ... ohA c'£- 
Kyrb. Past a chsrb, -oa, -kjio. Imp. ciKli. Part. ctieaHufi. 

38. Te^b to flow. — Pres. a Teicy, tu Teieiiih ... onri TeK^T*. Past 
a TeKT., -04, -o6. Imp. TeKli. Part, wanting. 

Ibbegulab tebbs. ISl 

39. Toadvb to pound. — Pres. a TojiKt, tm TOJi<iSim> ... ohi& wu- 
Ktrb. Past a to.ii6ki., -bji4, -o6. Imp. ioskA. Part. toj^ShhuJI. 

40. xevb to burn. — Pres. a aery, th xxemb ... obA acryTB. Past 
a jK^rii, acraa, acrjip. Imp. xri. Part. aiseHnHfi. 

The four following ending in stb or 3th are con- 
jugated as follows: 

41. BeaxB or BesTu to lead, to drive. — Pres. a seaf, tu sesemb ... 
obA B6^Tb. Past a B&gh, -aii., -and. Imp. eeaA. Part: Besesnufl. 

42. rpEisTB to gnaw. — Pres. a rpHS"^, tei rpusemb ... osi rpu- 
afrb. Past a rpusi/, -ajia, -sjio. Imp. rpua^. Part. rpiiseHHuft. 

43. ji^Tb to climb. — Pres. a Jiisy, th Jitseint ... oh^ xbayrii. 
Past a jr&si, -s^a, -3;io. Imp. jitsb. Part, wanting. 

44. noasT^ to creep. — Pres. a nojist, tu nojiaemb ... oh6 noji3yTi>. 
Past a nojiai, -3JI&, -3Ji6. Imp. nojis^. Part, wanting. 

Twenty two verbs ending in ctb or cth exhibit the 
following anomalies: 

45. BecTB or BecrA to lead, to guide. — Pres. a Be^f, tu BeAenu 
... oh£ BeA^Ti. Past a seJTb, -Jik, -36. Imp: Be^i. Part, bs- 


46. OjnocTtk to observe, to keep. — Pres. a Caio;^'^, tu 6siofj&mb ... 
obA 6jiioAtn>. Past a CjiiojiIi, -Jii, -.16. Imp. 6atO!i;i. Part. Gjiio- 

47. OpecTb or OpecTi to ramble, to train. — Pres. a fipexy, tu 
CpexeniB ... ob^ Gpe^frb. Past a 6pSjn>, -Jid,, Jid. Imp. 6pe;(A. 
The part, is wanting. 

48. luacTb to lay. — Pres. a oaAt, tu luiaAemb, obA KJiaA^Ti. Past 
a KJiajn, -jA, -ad. Imp. lua^^. Part. KJi^AeHuufi. 

49. npscTb to spin. — Pj-es. a npa^ti '^^ npaASmb ... ob^ npa^^yn. 
Past a npajii, -a&, -16. Imp. npa;(d. Part npjiAeHHutt. 

50. naoTB to fall. — Fut. a n^Ay. tu naflemb ... onA nafl^rb. Past 
a naai, -Jia, -ao. Imp. na^^. Part, wanting. 

51. THecTB or thcctA to press. — Pres. a rneTf, tu rHeTemb ... 
OBiS raeT'^ni. The past is not in use. Imp. raeTA. Part, rae- 


52. necrA to sweep. — Pres.. a,MeTi^, tu HeTemb ... OHli xeTyn.. 
Past a uejtb, -ji&, -Ai. linp. neti. Part. ueTSBHuli. 

53. BJiecTb or naecrA to plait, to chatter. — Pres. a naeT^, tu njie- 
T6uib ... oh6 naei^rJ.. Past a njieai, -wia,, Imp. n;ieTd. 
Part. naeTeaaufi. 

54. ipi^CTb or iibjictA to bloom, to flower. — Pres. a i;BiTy, tu 
i^BtTemb ... ob4 o^wbTfn. Past a UBijrb, -aa, -to. Imp. ustxii. 
Part. ABtTeBHUfi. 

&5. qecTb (imtb) to think. — Pres. a wy, th wemb . . . ovi Myn. Past. 

a vSjTb, wa, ?ao. Imp. qui. Part. ^tSbbuA. 
56. rpecTS or rpecrA (rpeOcTii) to row. — Pres. a rpefiy, tu rpe- 

6emb ... OHfi rpeSyrb. Past a rpe&b, -6.14, -6a6. Imp. rpe6i. 

Part. rpe66HBuit. 


132 Lessoit 30. 

57. CKpeCTB or cKpecrA to scrape. — Pres. a cicpefi^, th cEpeCSnib 
... OHfi CKpedyn>. Past x cKpeGi, -fijia, -Cjio. Imp. CRpeCA. 
Part. CKpeCeHHuS. 

58. KiflCTb to curse. — Pres. a lUflHy th KJiflHenn. ... onfi KJiflH^rb 
Past a KJifljTb, Jia, -jio. Imp. kjmh^. Part. BJrjiTuft. 

69. HeciA to carry. — Pres. a. nect, th Hecemb ... ohA Hectii. 
Past a Hect, -jia, -so. Imp. h9c6. Part. HBCgHBufi. 

60. nacxA to pasture. -^ Pres. a nacy, th nacgmb ... oh^ nacfrb. 
Past a nacb, -jia, -ao. Imp. nac6. Part. nacSHHufi. 

61. TpacTA to shake.- — Pres. a Tpao'J, th Tpacenn, ..; OHfi Tpa- 
ctTT>. Past a TpacT>, -cjia, -cao. Imp. Tpacfl. Part. TpaceHHHfi. 

62. pacT^ to grow. — Pres. a paoTy, th pacTemb ... OHi pacT^rb. 
Past a pocb, -caa, -cao. Imp. pacTA. Part. pan^eHBHfi. 

The three following verbs are quite irregular: 

68. e^^tA to go. — Pres. a mt, th flflSmb, Offb Hfleirb, mh HfleMi,, 
BLi H^eTe, 0V& nff^Tbi Past a meax, nua, mac. Fat. a S'^ay KTTii 
TB Cy^^emb btt6, etc. bat also a nofiAt> th no3;ieinb, etc. Imp 
HA^. The participle past H^eHEHtt is never nsed: instead ot 
it, one always uses Tspf&ffinm^ 

64. 'beTb to eat. — Pres. a 4111., m ■tmb, om. tcTi., mh t;;toi., bh 
'^A^Te, OB^ 'bf^irb. Past a ^ax, iaa, 'i^ao. Imp. 'bnib. Part. 

65. (y)iiiH6AT£ to hurt. — Pres. a (y)raB6t, tu (y)niH6eBib ... OBti 
(y)niB(5tTi. Past a (y)ni46i, -6aa, -6ao. Imp. (y)mBfi6. Part. 

The verbs A^Tb. Mtb, nacxB, cicTb and jieHi, are 
the perfective aspects of the regular verbs s^BaTB, ;i;aBaTi>, 
ndAaTB, caji;£[Ti>CH and joatilTbCfl. Thus the infiections 
Atay, AftMi, najiy, CH^y and .anry, are future tenses, be- 
cause the perfective aspect has not the present tense 
(page 110). 


BHHecTB to sweep (perf. asp.) cora&cBiiri of one a' cord 

ci&xo herd na iioe&3:& for show 

coo6iq&Tb, cooGimlTB to inform BiiroHi pasture, pasturage 

MHt Bce paBB6 it is the same to me sisxpaKaTb to bteakfast 

ByponaxKa partridge op>Tb again 

HajiaTbca to hope na oxdiy (to go) hunting 

npoBOAATb, npoBecTA to spend, upHraam^Bie invitation 

to pass OHTb Bi BoCTdprJt to be delighted 

noaardTb, uonoxim to suppose paspliiD^Hie permission 

Apj^xecEH affectionately irbaoB&Tb to kiss, to embrace 

^ytCTBOBaTb.soiyBCTBOBaibiofeel CBasEa bundle 

npyTt stick, rod ca&MUBaTb, caoH&Tb to break 

dnepcAb turn oc66o separately. 

Irregdlab yebbs. 133 


KorM a 3Aop6Bi, a ne Bcer^a 6epery CBoe 3;i;op6BBe. 
EpaTb HH^ cooGm.aerb bi CBO&s.'h n6cBuax%, ^to OB'S 
CJiHsert BO BceMi ropoxi sa ohchb HCKycnaro qeJOBiKa. 
a jary SAicB, Apyn moS, a tbi MateniB trmi, ho ^;^t. 
jiascera Ham'B OT^iiirB? BecHOH) a oxotho xo»cy ^epesi Jiici, 
EorA^ npHpo^a noJiHa k^shu. OTHeciiTe, noacajiyficra, axo 
nHCi>M6 Ha noHTy. ^ira. Bh xoTfiie cer6;ipa . saBxpa- 
KajB? Mh4 Bce paaHO; saflie vwk, hto y Baci cctl. Y 
-asiCh OT^i^^Haa moj[OA^ syponaTEa; a saBxpa a onaxb 
no4fly Ha oxoiy. 

OfffiHi 0T6i(i, HyBCTBya, hto oh% yimpdeTi, Beitai 

HMl, ?T06l 0H6 CJlOuijTB. 3iy CBHSEy. KaXAI>ld HSI EHXl 

Bi CBOK) oiepcAB, HHTajcca ee cjiom4tb, ho hc Mora ototo 
c;i;4jraTB. Torjd oxei^i BCJiiai, pasBasaxB siy CBasKy h 
cjOMaTB Eaac;i;Hfi npyTB oc66o. 9to 6am jierEO. — «^4- 

TH», CEaSaJIl OT^ai, <EaEl 3Ta CBaSEa np^TBCBl, BH 

CyfleTC diJihBu, noKyaa ocianeTecB coraacmi, h *ja6H, 
KO^;^a 6]fAeTe necooacHH.* 


A healthy man often does not take care of his 
health. What is the servant doing? He guards and 
shears the sheep (plur.). Did you sweep my room?. 
I will sweep it immediately (perf. asp.). Where are 
you going? I am going home. Where do you take (necfae). 
these books? Where do you drive your horse? They 
are driving an elephant in the streets for show. The 
shepherd feeds (pastures) the herd on the pasturage in 
front of the town. They often sweep the dtreets in the 
towns. To-morrow I shall go hunting with my friend. 
Give your friend a sheet of note paper. 

My dear friend, — I come to give you an invi- 
tation (lefia npHTjiacfiTB)* and I hope that you will ac- 
cept (npiftMepfc) my invitation with pleasure. Please, 
come to spend a few days with us in the country (na 
Aaqi). My father and I shall be delighted, for (66o) 
you know the friendship that we feel (nHTacKB Ki) 
for you. I suppose that you will easily obtain per- 

1 Employ in Russian the second person singular. 


Lesson 30, 

mission, from your parents. Ours will also be with us. 
Your mother can be quite at ease (cnoKOfind). Come 
soon ; we await you with impatience. Your dear friend. 


Kto HanHcaji'B npeEpdcHyiQ 
pyccKyn nosuy o 6^^,1101/0, 
pm^apt (knight)? 

KaKi'e ypoKH xaerB y^firejiB- 
HHi^a Bameit cecTpfi? 

PasB^ noHTajibOffB (post- 
man) yaie npHHeci. hhcb- 

EaKaji noroAa Ha ABopi? 

Kto dpocttii &th cixH bi 

Kyxa OTHec;iE[ aJth KHfiry, 

EOTopyio AaJTB HMi npo- 

KpoBonpojrfiTHa (bloody) jm 

6uja oca^a (siege) Ce- 

BacTonojiH ? 

Msk mh&eica, ?to oaa na- 
n^cana JKyKOBCKHii'L. 

Ofla ?,Aerh ypoKH ^paunja- 
CKaro H HiMeniKaro aau- 


Hirt, eme cjifimKOWh paHO, 
no3TOMy OHi He irori eme 
npofiTft no Hanieii yJH^i. 

FpOM-B rpeMHTl H flOKAB 

wjijifb (it rains). 
C4th 6p6raeHH bx B6;i;y it- 

MH pu6aKaMH, EOTopiie 

npH6jiHacaH)Tca ki 66pery. 
Ohh OTHecjifi ee ki nepe 


Ona Cujia. o^bbb EpoBonpo- 
jitxHa. EojEBOioe hhcjio 
renepdjioBi h cojffarB 
6hjo yfiHTO (killed), ho 
HHCJ16 yu^pmnxx otb paHi 
H OTh doJiisHeft 6u.TO 
HecpaBHCHHO 66jitnie. 


Eaa&Bi-roH^Di. — The Cossack-Messenger. 

Kto npH sb'J^smx'b h nps ;iyH'& 
TaKi nosAHO ix/sri, na KOHi? 

^eft 3T0 KOHB HeyTOMHMUft 

BixfiTb wh CTenfi Heo6o3piHoii? , 

KasaKi Ha chaept ;i;6pffiHTi nyrt, 
Ka.34Ki He xo^eit OTjiflJiBfih 
Hh Bi irftCTOMi HOJii, HH Bi ;^y6pdBi, 
Hh upH ondcHoS nepenpis']^. 

IrbegcIiAR verbs. 


KaKi cTEJio fiyjiaiTB ero 6aecTfiTB, 
M'JtmoK'B 3a nisyxoS SBeH^TB: 
He cnoTUKOACB eohb per^oS 
E^HTB, pasMaxHsaa rp^BOfi. 

^epBOHitM HyatHU mh ronaa, 
ByjaTi — noTixa MOJio^na, 
PeTfiBHfl KOHb — noitxa Toate, 
Ho manKa ;ija Hero flopoace. 

3a manKy ohx ocTaBHTB paA^ 
KoBH, iiepB6Hipi H 6yjiaTi: 
Ohi BHAacrb mdinty tojebko cx 66io, 
H to anniB cb 6yfiH0fi to^iobok). 

3a^^Mi OHt nianEod AopoacBTi? 
SaiiffiB, ^TO B-B Heft aohocb samfiTi, 
^OHOci Ha rcTMana sjioaia, 
liapK) IleTpy otb KoMyfi^a. „ 

BeyTou^Huii infatigable 
AyCpasa forest 
6f j&Ti poniard 
M-bmosi purse 
sBeniTb to jingle 
rpHsa mane 
peT^BHli mettled 
noiiza pastime, fun 
BHAaiB to give oat 
AopoxBTB to cherish 
reiHaHt hetman, chieftain 
decSosp^uniK unbounded 

nepenp&Ba passage (of a river) 

6xecriih to sparkle 

sa nasyxolt on his breast, bosom 

cnoTBK&Ticji to stumble 

pasHixHsaTB to wave 

^epsdBeirK ducat 

paji joyous 

jiHiOL hardly 

6yoHii& boisterous 

AOBOCI denunciation 

samifTB to sew in. 


Bep^HB 271 
6iK>CTi6 46 
6paTi> 13 
<5pecT)i 47 

CpHTB 1 

6dba&T& 24 
6htb page 42 
BesrA 41 
BecTH 40 
BJie«> 33 

Boji6u 34 


rnaiB 14 
rnecT^ 51 
rprnxB 42 
rpeciA 56 
f.ath 25 
;cpaTB 15 

J*TB 22 

sarB 20 

xaxL 21 
ateiB 40 
XHTB 17 
3BaTb 16 

sjaTB 8 

ETTH 63 

KiacTB 48 

KpHTB 4 

jie^B 32 

jraTB 9 
lisTB 43 
HecT^ 52 

M01IB 28 

HeciA 59 


nacTH 60 
nacTB 50 
oe^B 35 

1 Figure indicating the number of each verb in the 29"* and 
30"> Lesson. 


Promisccods exeecises. 

n^uCH 36 
nJiecT^ 53 
njfHib . 18 
no:i3T^ 44 
npacTb 49 
sanpHTi 29 
niit 2 

pacTH 62 

pHTB 7 

CKpeCTH 57 
cjiait 10 

ClHTi 19 

CTaii 117 
ciepe'ii 30 

CTJaTB 11 
CipHHB 31 
cin 37 
le^b 38 

TKaTi 12 

T0Ji6?b 39 
TpacT* 61 

xoiiib 23 
nstcT^ 54 
^ecib 55 
mEfi^Tb 65 
icTb 64 
ixaTb 26. 



Have you an apple ? Yes, I have an apple. Whefe 
did you see your uncle? I saw him in the house/of 
the merchant. What did the cousin see? The coj/sin 
saw the flowers. What is (^to laKoe) Moscow ? Moscow 
is the ancient capital of Russia. Have you your b/ead ? 
I have my bread. What cheese have you ? We have 
your cheese, and vou have our cheese. Have fou mv 
beautiful candlestick (nojCBi^HHKx)? Yes, 1 have it. 
Have you the silver thimble (HanepcTOKi.)? I /have not 
the silver thimble, I have the golden [one]. 

Are you right? No. I am wrong. What bull have 
you? I have the bull of the Russian proprietor 
(noMiiuHKi). Have 1 the sugar or the honey? You have 
nothing. What sort of tea have you? I have not the 
tea, 1 have the coffee of my father. Does the prince 
possess a beautiful horse ? He has no beautiful horse : 
he has an ugly ass. What knife have you, yours or 
the knife of the rich merchant ? I have neither (niTi hh) 
mine nor (hh) the knife of the rich merchant, I have 
yours. To whom did he give his trunk (cymyKi)? He 
gave it to nobody. At whose [house] is he? He is at 
the old baker's. 

My good friend has the bull of his enemy. Has 
he also the sheep (6apaa*)? No, he has not the sheep. 

1 These Exercises may be translated either orally only or 
by writing, along with the other Exercises, as soon as the pupil 
has gone through the 21"' lesson or even sooner. 

Promiscuous exercises. 137 

Is there much sugar, honey, tea and wax (bocki) at this 
poor merchant's? At the poor merchant's there is 
only much sugar and little honey. Whose friend is 
this Frenchman and whose friend is that German? 
This Frenchman is the friend of that Englishman, and 
that German is the friend of this Spaniard (HcnaHi];eBi), 

To whom does this officer give his lion ? He gives 
it to his father. Do you see the garden of the rich 
Englishman? I see his beautiful garden and his large 
house. Did vou see the nliller's (MejitHHRi) ass ? I saw 
it and I saw the tall horse of the prince. Of which 
prince? Of that of whom you always speak. Do 
you see the large town of the great king? I see his 
large town, but I see neither the magnificent castle nor 
the beautiful garden of the gallant prince. Which do 
you prefer, veal or mutton? I like neither veal nor 
mutton, I like coffee and tea. 

Do you see the shoemaker with my new shoes ? 
I see him, buC my brother does not see him. With 
whom does the good peasant speak? He speaks with 
my good old father. What have gallant kings? They 
have good soldiers. Of what shoemaker do you speak, 
of mine or of yours? I speak neither of mine nor 
of yours, but [I speak] of the shoemaker of my cousin 
(j^BOI6poAHHft Sparb). Have you my weasel (xopeKi)'!" 
I have my weasel. What weasel has he? He has the 
weasel of your cousin. Of what do you speak with 
this rich merchant? I speak with him about my son 
who is his clerk (npHKaiii,HKi>). 

Of what emperor did you speak? I spoke of the 
emperor who has many brave warriors. Why did you 
speak neither with Alexander nor with Constantine? 
Because they did not speak with me. Where did he 
see the Empress with the daughters of the Grand-Duke 

138 Promiscuous exercices. 

(Bej^Kifi KHflSh). He saw them in {vb) the palace. 
Is he fond of eagles and pigeons? No, he does 
not lilce eagles, he only likes pigeons. What goods 
have these rich merchants? They have velvet, cloth, 
linen and hemp (jreHi h KOHOneab). 

Is the sister well? No, the sister is ill, but the 
father is well. What did she receive from the good 
lady? She received a beautiful book from her. What 
did he give to the diligent boy? He gave him [some] 
new books, [some] beautiful copy-books and [some] 
good letter paper. Were ydu in London, when the 
Queen was there? I was there, when she was there, 
but I did not see her. Do you perceive the man that 
is coming? I do not perceive him. Do you see the 
children that study? I do not see those who studv, 
but those who play. 

Were these children ever punished? They never 
were punished, because they are always diligent; but 
those are punished very frequently, because they are 
idle. For what reason (oTHero) does your sister not 
kindle (saatHraTb) the fire? She does not kindle it, be- 
cause she fears to burn herself (ofiac^qBca). Can your 
sisters see themselvas in this large mirror? They can 
see themselves quite well in it. For what reason does 
your motlier not read the book which you lent her? 
She cannot read it, because she has lost (her) sight 

What do they say in the market (phhoki)? They 
say that the enemy has been beaten (paaSfin.). Do you 
believe (dat.) this? I believe this, because all say it. 
For what reason did you buy this book? I bought it, 
because I want it (MH'h OHa HyacHJi) in order to learn 
Russian and because they speak well of it. Can you 
go with me? I cannot go with you, because I must 
accompany my little sister to take a walk (ryjraTt). Where 
do you walk? We walk in the garden of our good 
aunt. Why do you listen to this man? I listen to him, 
but I do not believe him ; I know that he is a liar. 

PaoMiscnocs' exercises. 139 

How long is it since your uncle died ? [It is] three 
months since he died. Whom do you see in this room? 
I see some girls with pale (6jitAHufl) faces. What did 
your friend show to your brother? He showed him 
the fine gnn (pyacbe) which he bought in Paris ten years 
ago at the time of the universal exhibition. Did you 
see on those high trees the nests of the old nightingales ? 
I did not see the nests, but I saw the nightingale. 
About what and with whom did the children of the 
old soldier speak? They spoke with us of their poor 
father. What novelty has this merchant ? He has some 
fine white cloth and many new books. 


Boy and highwayman. — A boy having sold a 
cow, at the fair of Hereford, was waylaid by a high- 
wayman (nona jftH AoporoH pa366flHHKy), who, at a convenient 
place, demanded the money. On this the boy took to 
his heels and ran away (HaB0CTp6.!ii naiKH h nycrfljica 
StaiaTi.); but being overtaken by the highwayman he 
pulled the money out of his pocket and strewed it 
about, and, while the highwayman was picking it up. 
the boy jumped upon the horse and rode off with it. 
— Upon searching the saddle-bags (Ilpn 66ucKk cyMOKt 
npHBimeHHUx^b vrb ciji,Jiy), there were found twelve 
pounds [in cash] and two loaded pistols. 

Girl and philosopher. — At the moment, when a 
learned philosopher was very busy in his study, a 
little girl came to ask him for some fire. "But", says 
the doctor, "you have nothing to take it in". And he 
was going to fetch (H ohi co6pajiGH iipMHecTii eft) some- 
thing for that purpose, when the little girl stooped 
down at the fire-place, and, taking some cold ashes in 
[one] hand, with the other she put burning embers on 
them. The astonished doctor threw down (6p6cmvh bt. 
CTOpoHy) his book, saying: "With all my learning, I 
never should have found out that expedient". 


Some bussiaV proverbs. 


After the storm comes a 

Content goes before wealth. 

11602* ;i;oat;i,^ h coJiHHin- 

KO CBinCHT-h. 

JI^OBoaBCTBO npeBtinie 60- 

BoTi> Bi n'ewb niTyKa. 
CBOai pyfianiKa Ki. Tiay 

He 66fica co6aKH 6pexji6- 

b03, 66Scfl MOJi^aji^Bofi. 

C^iJiaTii cpasy ;i;Ba ;^§JIa. 

Eyfl mejiiso noKa ropa- 

Besi. ornfi ;i,^iMa He 6h- 

JIfiirae nosjsfio ^iMt hh- 

B.yssijt,k saKOHa ne snaeii. 
Phmi. He 3% o;i,6hi> ;^eHB 

^lejioBiEi ^pe;^^o JiarieTi, 

a Bori pacnojiaraeTi.. 
Bi;^H0CTb He nopoKi. 
Hixi. pdsH 6e3'h raraioBS. 
IIjioxo JieauiTi., 6pi5xo 60- 

IIpa3;i;H0CTi> ecTB MaTB 
BCfeXi nopoKOBi. 

KaKl. H^HTO, TaKt H 

He Bce TO sojioto, ^to 

^ijto M&CTcpa 6o6TCfl. 

BeSi M^KH, H^Tl. HayKH. 

B'3fe;i;a o;i;Ha He npHXdflHTi.. 

XoTB y66ftTe Meni, 6cjih a 

Jl,66pHH KOHeu,^, — BccMy 

;^iay B±Heii,i.. 

That is the point. 
Charity begins at home. 

Barking dogs seldom bite. 

To kill two birds with one 

Strike the iron while it is 

Where the gmoke iSj there 

is the fire. 
Better late than never. 

Necessity has no law. 
Eome was not built in a 

Man proposes and God 

Poverty is no disgrace. 
No rose without a thorn. 
Opportunity makes the 

Idleness is the root of all 

Ill gotten goods never 

All is not gold that glitters. 

Assiduity makes all things 

No pain, no profit. 
Misfortunes never come 

Take me in a lie and hang 

All is well, that ends well. 






In regard to the gender of substantives ending in 
h the following rules may be established: 

To the masculine gender belong most names of 
animate beings, especially of those denoting male in- 
dividuals : 

BoxAb leader r6jiy6b pigeon 

Y^iiexh teacher lepsB worm. 

Masculine are also such as terminate in eJiB, hjb, 
eHb, apt, HpB, and Jit preceded by a labial: 

BOBoniib hemp SyEs^pb ABC-book 

^tiTAsb match uoBaciiipb convent 

Aeab day sop&j6ia, ship. 

To the feminine gender belong most names of in- 
animate and abstract objects: 

i;ecTb honour j(o6poj4Te.ib virtue 

xikipoCTB cunning v/kak chain. 

Many names of towns, rivers and countries in b 
are likewise of the feminine gender: 

nepHb Perm AcTpaxanb Astrakhan 

0<?i Obi CaGiftpb Siberia. 

Feminine are likewise such as end in a hissing 
consonant (at, ^i, m, m): 

MOJOAexb young people MBinb mouse 

plib speech senib thing 

Jioxb falsehood, lie dm, shade, shed, shelter. 

The above rules are however subject to some ex- 
ceptions. The following names of abstract and inani- 
mate objects are masculine: 
aJtKor6.ib alcohol C!z3d,Hb mizzen-sail 

6aBAep6jB band rsoim iron-nail. 

6eii&ifc B flat (music) 

» See First Part, 1st Lesson. 


Lesson 1. 

rocnHiiii hospital 
rpysAB fungus 
jgroTi, tar 
4oxxi> rain 
sejiyAb acorn 
bh6:^pi> ginger 
K6roTB claw 
KOJi6se3B well 
EOCTiijb crutcli 
speMjiL citadel 
KfjiB sack 
jiirepB camp 
jiinoTB bast-shoe 
j6kotl elbow 
lOMOTB slice 
MHHA&XB almond 

HBTKajB calico 

HBKeaB nickel 

H6roTB finger-nail 

uyjiB zero 

or6HB fire 

neJiBM^Hi. meatpasty 

nHCT6jB pistol 

iiyTi way (See lesson 4) 

pyjB helm 

cep&jiB seraglio 

TonojiB poplar 

yrojB charcoal 

xM^jiB hop 

xpycrAjiB crystal 

UiapsyjiB pair of compasses 

aKopB anchor. 

Most appellations of male individuals admit of a 
female appellation being formed from them : 

a) by changing the terminations hki oren,! into Hi^a: 
njieHSEBHEi nephew lueiuniBBi^a niece 

CT^pem monk CT&pH^a nun 

nJ^B^Ki a singer nisAiia & female singer. 

b) by appending Hita to the names of animals : 
boje:b he-wolf ■aonvkua, she-wolf 

ocelli he-ass ociMa she ass 

opgjii male eagle op^iHi^a female eagle. 

c) by changing rejiL into Tejfi>HHn;a: 

npiATe.iB friend (man) npiAieJiBBniia friend (woman) 

yriiejtB teacher yTOTejiBHRita school-mistress*. 

d) by means of the termination Ka preceded in most 
cases by some euphonic letters or syllables: 

Esp^H Jew Esp^iiEa Jewess 

rpesi Greek (man) rpei&Hsa Greek (woman) 

r6iy6B male pigeon roiyfiEa female pigeon. 

e) by changing the masculine termination %, t or 

B into HHA, HHfl, B«, Hxa : 

r^pi(on> duke lepAorHua duchess 

rep6tt hero repoHua heroine 

c^jtapB sir cyA^pHHa madam 

t.oiji,pn, sorcerer EOJiAyBBa sorceress 

n'bsi^H'B songster nisVnBfl songstress 

rocTB guest r6c-TBa female guest 

ndsapi cook nonapAxa cook-maid 

ipycB coward (man) ipycHxa coward (woman). 

* By means of the termination ma is indicated the wife of A 
professional man : yi^TeiBina teacher's wife, BHcn^Eiopina inspector's 
wife, etc. 

Bemarkb on the gekder op substantives. 143 

f) family names are also liable to form their female 
derivative : 

TocnoAHH£ IIaKi6BCBiii Mr. Pavlovsky rocnox4 IIaBJi6BCEaa 
Ksasi Opj^Bi Prince Orlov KHurHsa Op^dsa 

Hoii Aitfifl JlesHRi my ancle Levin uoa lexsa JleBBaa. 

Yet foreign family names, even when they have a Russian 
termination, must remain unchanged: rocnoAAHi niiAjjepi, rocnosd 

The following have an irregnlar feminine form: 

rocnoAHBi master rocnos4 mistress 

Ayp&Ki madman Ajpa mad woman 

Kopojib king Kopoji^Ba queen 

csyrk footman uyxdBsa servant-maid 

6apdHi baron 6apoH^cca baroness 

npBBicfc prince npBHU^cca princess 

BAOB^Ai widower baob& widow 

BHnep&Topi emperor nunepaipAiia empress. 


Every empire is a ship whose anchors lie in the 
heart of the people. The second wife of the Tsar Alexey 
Mikhailovich was the Tsarina Natalia Kirillovna Na- 
ryshkin. Our way is traced by our inclinations and 
abilities ; morality and good sense must be our leaders, 
virtue our support. An excessive danger may give 
courage even to a coward woman. 

Alexander the great. — The celebrated quarrel 
between Macedon and Persia, we are told (KaKi pascxd- 
giiBaio'irt), originated in Alexander's refusal to pay the 
tribute of golden eggs, which his father paid. "The 
bird that laid such eggs has flown to the other world", 
is reported to have been (laKOBi, roBopairb, Cajn,) the 
answer of the Macedonian prince to the Persian envoy, 
who had come to receive the tribute. After this, Darius 
sent to the court of the Grecian monarch another am- 
bassador, whom he charged to deliver to Alexander a 
bat, a ball and a bag of very small seed called gunjad 
(ryHfflaA'b). The bat and ball were meant (nM-kiH i^ijitio) 
to throw ridicule on Alexander's youth, being fit 
amusements for his age (KaKt 6h usofipaacafl arp^, cboS- 
OTBCHHyH) ero BOSpacTy). (To be continued.) 

144 Lesson 1. 


CKd3Ka ^exHpexi Fas&HCKHXi jiyaiiBdHTaxt. — 

The tale of the four musicians of Riazan. 

y o;i;Hor6 qeaosiKa SHJit pcejii>, sipHO cjyatHB- 
niift BMy MHoro jEiTi., ho KOTopoMy HaKOHeni cAjlli 


Bi&jica Bce Hecnoc66Hie Hi pafibrt. Xosjinmb p*in6a- 
ca y66Tb er6 h co^p^tb ci> Her6 incypy. Ocejii, aa- 
M'tTHBt, TITO ]s,%Jio He Jii;i;H0, yfiiatajix h nycxAaca no 
;i;op6r4 ki> r6p6;i;y Phs^hh. 

«TaMi», CKa3l,Jiii 0H3> ce6% «a Mory cii,ijiaTBca ro- 
po;^CK6Ml> MysHKaHTOMB.)) Jl^djiro 64at&jii. ont h na- 
KOHei^B BCTpiTHaca cb jiaraBOfl co65,KOfi, K0T6paH 
BSB^srHBajia, KaKB acHBOTHoe yTOMJieHHoe ;^6JI^HMB 

«^T0 TBI TaKi> B3B63rHBaeinB, TOBapHmB?» cnpo- 
C^JIB ocejiB. 

«3xi>», OTBi^ajia co6aKa, «xo3^hhb xoTin-B Menji 
yTonfiTB, noTOMy' ^to a cxaJia CTapa h He Mory xo;i;6tb 
Ha oxoTy. BoTB a h y64at4iia bte> n6:ie, aa h ne sh&h) 
TenepB, KaKB ;^o6B^BaTb ce6i xn.±6'b Hacym;HEifl.» 

sTaKt no&iJ,eM% co MH0fi», CKasajiB ocejiii. «S xoqy 
c;^iJIaTBca bb Pa3aHH MysHK&HTOM'B. Te6A T6ate Mom- 
Ho npHH^TB BB opKecTpi. SI 6yAy Hrp^TB Ha ^^eflTi, 
a TBI Ha 6y6HaxB.» 

Co6&Ka npHHaa^ npe;i;j!ioateHie, h okA nonijOi BMi- 
CT*. BrB He;i;A.JiBHeMTb paacToAnin yB^^iJiH oh6 Kdin- 
Ky, jieaK&BinyH) na ;i;op6r'fe. ^nsioHOMia y neS fiHJia 
TaKaa K6cjiaa, kekt. 6yflT0 0H& BMicTO mojiok^ jiiis- 
Hfjia facycY- 

Tiewh npnropiOHHJiacB, ycAxaa? cnpocfijB ocejii. 

Bf;i;eniB ne bb ;^yx■fe, oTBiTHJia KdmKa, Kor^^Hyac- 
HO onacaxBca sa CBOlb rojiosy. 3a to, ito a CTap&, 
vro 3^6bi mo6 npHTyniaHCB h^to anpe;i;no'iHTaH)Jiy»i- 
me neat&TB 3a n^^iKOfi, HeatejiH jiobStb MEinreS, xo- 
sMEa HO^ co6Hp4jiacB nen^ HSBecT]^. Cnac^6o, vto 
a emS B6-BpeM^ ^aJiA T^y. — Ho ^to ^ijiaTB ? Ky^a 

Il0fi;i,eMB C* HdMH B-B PflS^HB ! BiflB HO^Hia My- 

3EiKa TBoe ;^4JI0. Tbi 6^;^einB, kekb h mh, ropo;i;cKiiMB 


Remarks on the gender op substantives. 


KomKi noHp^BHJtcfl: cosiTi., h ona npHCoe;i,HH6- 
jacb Ki H^Mi. Jipoxo;!,& m6mo 0flHor6 ji,BO'pk, nkma 
6po/i,^H yB6;i;'fejiH n^Tyxa, KOTopBifi KpaiaJit bo bchj 
rJl6TKy. (IIpodoAOKenie 6ydemi.) 

vsnAwtih to fail, to be gone 
pim^ibca to decide 
sautTHTB to perceive 
oycTHTica to undertake a jour- 
ney, to start 
BSBiarBBaib to scream, to cry 
yioiiiTi to drown, to kill 
BacyiqBHfi of every day, daily 
6y($eH'& the tambourine 
npHropiDHiiTbcn to be grieved 
BT. i^xt of good cbeer 
npHxynBTbca to grow blont 
H3BeCT6 to kill 

jiaTb Tary to escape 
Spojiara vagabond 
saKi^HyTi to throw back 
Eiecnoc6(5RHii unfit 

cojpaiB niKypy to skin 

jijio He i4jjHo the affair did not 

go well, no good wind was 

jiflrdaaa co6aKa a setter 
yioijjieHHHfi tired, fatigued 
SofiHBiib to procure, to earn 
(tixeSra the flute 
jH3Hyii to lick 
yc&TH& whiskered 
onaciiBCfl to be in danger 
cofiEpaiBca to prepare oneself 
cnaCHfio thanks to, fortunately 
Bii». no doubt 
EpnidTii BO BCB o^TKy to cry 

with all one's might. 


^TO XOTijIl) X03toH1> OCJI& 

c;i;4jiaTi) cb hhm'b? 

^TO ace cflijiaj'B ocejiii? 

^To OHx xoxijii. ;^4JIaTB 
B1. PasaHH? 

Cl> k4m1> OHi BCTpiTHJICfl 

Ha /];op6ri? 

^TO OTBiTHja co6aKa, 
Kor/^d ocejH. cnpociiix 

Rossian Conv Grammar. 

Ont xot4jii. y66Tb er6 h 
co,a,p4TB ct Her6 niKy- 
py, noTOMy uto ohi> 
c'n&Ri, Hecnoc66eHi. kt 

SaMiTHBi, ^To ;i;'feno 66- 
jio He jia;i;HO, ohi. y6't- 
Hcaici. H nycT^ncH no 
^i.opor'fe, Be/i;yHi,efl BiPa- 


Ohi xoTijii. c;i,ijiaTBca 


Oh^ ;i;6jiro diac&Jii h na- 


jrariBofi co6dKOK), kot6- 
paa BSBiterEBajia, m&RTj 
acHBOTHoe yTOMjeHHoe 
;i;6nrHMi> nyxeMi. 
Ona OTBiTHJia ocjiy, ^ito 
XQSfiHHi xoxijii yTO- 


Lesson 2. 

ee o npH^^H* eA bbbAs- 
rHsaHBa ? 

KaK63 coBixi p,SiJi-h efl 
ocejii. ? 

Koro BCTpiiHiH 0Hi4 eme 
no ;i;op6ri? 

n^Tb ee, TaKT> KaKi. OHa 
cocTapHJtaci., a He mo- 
Ts.k 66ji'6e xo;i,6Tb ci> 
h6mi> Ha ox6Ty. 
Ohi npefljiojEiijti eft c;^i- 

JiaTBCfl, KaKi H OHI>, Bi 

0h6 HaniJi6 KdniKy, Jieata- 
Brayio Ha Rop6ri ; h ona 
cocTaptoJiacb, eA 8^6h 
BEinrajiH h OHi 66jiie He 
Morjia jiobAtb Muinefi ; 
no3TOMy HefijiaroffapHaa 
ea xoBflfiKa xoiijia h3- 
BecTfi ee. 

To se caMoe, wto om 

JSRS TI^Q}iJlQ7B,fl3Vb <i06kKk; 

Bi> PasdHb H c;i;4jraTB- 
ca Taiii. MysHKaHTOMi. 

€% BeaH^&fimHMi) y;i;o- 
B6jiBCTBieMi>. Eft Bi;i,b 
HHierd He ocTaBaaocB 
66abnie ftijiaTB. 

Ki HHMx npHCoe,a,HH6i[ca 
€m,e qeTBepTHfl tob^- 

IliTyxi. Hfla m6mo o/i,ho- 
r6 ftBop&, HamH hobhc 
p^pyahA yB6fl,tJiH ntry- 
xk, KOTdpHfi CH;i;iai. Ha 


BCK) rji6TKy, aaK^HyBi. 



The following nouns, and a few others rarely em- 
ployed, form their genitive plural in i i. e. like their 
nominative singular: 

1 See First Part, 2nd and 3^3 Lessons. 

■^To eft npe;!;jioat6jii 
oceai. ? 

IIpHHaaa jih K6niKa co- 


H TaKi>, Bc4 Tp6e Hanpi- 

BHtolCb BMiCTt Bi Pa- 
KtO 6x0 fiHA-b? 

Remarks on the declension of masculine nouns. 


HejOB^i man 
jiparyBi dragoon 
Vjiaai uhlan 
TytioKi. Turk 
peapjii recruit 
Hyibut stocking 
candri boot 
pasi time 

Nouns which end in iMumi, and aHHHi have in the 
pltiral peculiar inflections, their -singular being (juite 
regular : 

coJisdTi soldier 
ryc&pt hussar 
Kaji^Ti cadet 
rpeuanepi grenadier 
apmnBi. arsheen 
nyji pood 
c4meeb fathom (7 feet). 

N. ABOpuH^H'B the nobleman 
G. ABopaa^Ba of the nobleman 
D. ^^BopflH^ay to the nobleman 
A. ABopasBEa the nobleman 
I. ABopaH6Hoii:b by the nobleman 
P. (o)jiBopflB6B'6 (about) the nobi. 

Such are: 
AaTxa^&Bvwb Englishman 
nocejABBiii husbandman 
Eoxr&pBBi Bulgarian 

Most names of young 
have retained in the plural 
and aia: 

N. lejieEOEi the calf 
G. lejieHKa of the calf 
D. TBJieBKy to the calf 
A. TejSBKa the calf 
I. TejeaEOMi by the calf 
P. (o) Tejieaai (about) the calf. 

Such are 
flraSuoEi lamb 
nopoc^BOKi young pig 
zepefifiHOKi foal 
iqinjgHOKi pullet 
KOT@BOKi> kitten 

A few masculine nouns in i, and t take in 
nominative plural the accented inflections a and a. 
following are the most common words of this class: 
*66peri. shore' fiepera shores 

*6oKB side ooe^ sides' 

B^EceJi bill of exchange seEcejifl bills of exchange 

ABOp^Re the noblemen 
ABopuB'b of the noblemen 
ASopaHaui. to the noblemen 
ABop^Bt the noblemen 
ABopaHaiiE by the noblemen 
(o) ABopflBaxt (about) the nob). 

FocciaBBHi. Russian 
rpaBAaaAa'b citizen 
specTBHaBBi peasant. 

animals ending in mowh 
the Slavonic inflection aia 

lejiaia the calves 
leiHi^ of the calves 
lejrjiiaMi to the calves 
leiifb the calves 
TejMTaMH by the calves 
(o) TeiEiax'E (abont) the calves. 

pe6eE0Ei child 
ocjieaosi young ass 
boji^Shoei wolf's cub 
jhBeaoBi lion's wbelp 
MBrngaoEi young mousp. 


1 Those marked with an asterisk have already been men- 
tioned in the g"* lesson of the First Port, as having their pre- 
positional caSe in accented y when following bi or aa. 



LsssoN 2. 

iieieps evening 
roioci voice 
♦rdpoat town 
rpi4)BJi!> slate-pencil 
s6ciopi> doctor 
s(aono3i. bell 
C]^<!epK coachman 
*aftci forest 
*jiyn> meadow 
*6cTpo!ii island 
DHcapE writer 
n6iiap% cook 
pygasi sleeve 
^ca;!^ garden 
^sop& anchor 

Be^p& evenings 
roioci voices 
ropox& towns 
rpzjiejia slate-pencils 
AOETopi doctors 
Kjicpi, coachmen 
iici forests 
Jiyri, meadows 
ocTpoBa islands 
nHcapA writers 
noBap4 cooks 
pyKasi sleeves 
cani and ca^^ gardens 
HKojiii anchors. 

The following words have special terminations for 
the noTiiinaMve and genitive plural: 
6ipBBi master, gentleman 6ape gentlemen 

fioapiHi boyard 
Span brother 
Hdsa, eye 
rocnoAtei sir 
jpyra friend 
KH«3fc prince 
EyHi godfather 
CTjrj^ chair 
K^pmi wife's brother 

gen. plar. 6api 

0oape boyards » ($oipi 

6ipkTbt brothers » Cp&Tiem 

r^iasi eyes » tixn 

rocDo;(& gentlemen " Tocn6;ii 

ApysBi friends > Apys^il 

EBJ13M princes * kbhs^H 

KyMOB&a godfathers » KyHOB^R 

CTyji>fl chairs » CTyjii>eBi> 

mypu wife's brothers » mypifiBi 

xoatesi master of the jionse xoaieBt masters of houses » xoaaesii. 

The following nouns have a double termination in 
the nominative plural, the first of which is more fre- 
qpiently used in colloquial language: 

Boioci hair 

iQKh year 

B&iieui> stone 

K6pnyc'B body 

cpaft brink, land, territory 

EpvKi hook, crook 

Jtisapi physician 

KiAi honey 

6KopoKB ham 

npoi|)^copi professor 

pork born 

}ron charcoal 

ytAien. teacher 

B0J0C&, B&iocH hairs 
rox4i roAH years 
saH^HiJi, K&HHB stones 
Kopnyca, sdpnycH bodies 
Epai, Bp&H brinks 
Kpx>ua, spKiEH hooks 
lesapi, itsapii physicians 
MeA&, m€ah honeys 
osopoE4, dEoposn hams 
npo^ieccop^, Dpo4>^opH pro- 
p>or4, p6tb horns [fesson 

y'roiiui, fnu charcoals 
yiHieu, yiiteiH teachers. 
N. B. Those noons with a double plural termination con- 
veying a different meaning will be found in the fourth lesson. 

Some nouns in eft and a few Christian names in 
ft change e or i of the nominative sin^Iar into b in 
all other cases, as has been seen in <£e third lesson 


of the first part, but most nouns in it retain their i 
in all cases, because in the prepositional singular 4 
after i is always changed into h. 

Singular. Plural. 

K. T^niK the genius T^niH the genii 

0. r^Bia of the genius r^Biesi. of the genii 
D. T^Hin to the genius r^eiam to the genii 
A. r^Eix the genius r^Hiesi the genii 

1. i^Biem with the genius r^aiaiiH with the genii 

P. (o) r^HiH (about) the genius. (o) r^aiiixi (ahont) the genii. 

Such are: 
iBsipifi vicar. sHHoi^pniH cup-bearer. 


Misfortunes are the only teachers that can blame 
us with success (cb uojtbsoio). Will you judge of a man, 
consider what friends he has. A man in a good si- 
tuation (npn MtcTi) loses his friends, as soon as he 
abandons his place, just as if not he but his place had 
friends. Black eyes have a greater force of expression 
and more liveliness ; but blue eyes have more mildness 
and grace; so said Bufion. 

Continuation.! — The bag of seed was intended 
as an emblem (o6o3Ha?djra> 3M6j6My) of the Persian army, 
which was innumerable. Alexander took the bat and 
ball into his hand, and said : "This is -the emblem of 
my power, with which I strike the ball of your mo- 
narch's dominion; and this fowl (he had ordered one 
to be brought) will show you soon what a morsel (KaKi 
HCBHa^TejiBHo) your army will prove to mine". The 
grain was instantly eaten up and Alexander gave the 
envoy a wild melon, desiring him to tell his sovereign 
all what he had heard and seen, and also to give him 
that fruit, the taste of which would enable him (jojaeHi 
6u3.% }i,&T;h eMy B03M6aHOCTB) to judge of the bitter fare 
that awaited him. 


CB&3Ka HeTHpexi FasdHCKHXi HyauK&Hxax'B. 

. «Tbi Haci> OTs^mks.'h, CKaa^jit oceJFi. Hsi-aaHerd 
i5to th xaKi. pa3op^jiCH?» 

1 See page U.S. 

150 Lesso'k 2. 

«3 B03Btin;ajii> Acnyio nor6j],y, OTBi^ajii. nifeTyxi. 
SdBxpa BOCKpeceHBe, y xosMkh sfliniHsro ^6Ma 6y- 
;i;yT'i. o6tjs;aTi> r6cTH, h OHa sejiijia KyxapK* CBepHyiB 
MHob m^io. MeHji xoTixi cbSctb bx cyni, h botb 
no^esif a cnimy HaKpn^iaTBca Bfl6B0JiB.» 

«Ji|ypaKi TBI, ^yp^Ki, Kp^CHEnft rpe6eHB ! CKaaajii 
oceiiB; nofifleMi-Ka ayqme ci h4mh bb PaaaHB. y 
Te6A xop6inifl rbaocB, h Kor^A mbi 3a;i;a;i;6iii KOHii;epTi, 
jiit)6o 6y;!;eTB nocaymaTB Haci..» 

H^Tyxy npHmji6cB TaK6e ^pe;^J[omeHie no sK^cy, 

H BOTI. OHJ& OTnpaBHJIHCB BP.i BMicXt. flo PfiSaHH 0H6 

He Moraii ;i;ofiT6 bb toti ace c^mhA ^chb; ki B^^iepy 
oh6 ;^o6p4j[acB ;^o aica, r^i h pim^an nepeHOTiesaTB. 
Ocejix H co6aKa pacnoaoaEtAaHCB no^i;!. ;i;epeBOMi, a 
K6mKa E niTyx-B BCKapaCKajiHCB na Her6. R'kifx'h 
;^JIa 66jihme& SesonicHOCTH BCKoqijiB ;^ame Ha ciMyio 
BepxfmKy. IIoBOflA raasAME bo Bci CT6poHBi, ohb 
BflpvrB aaMfoHJti r;i;t-TO oroHCKB h lOT^kch ace sa- 
spH^iaflB CBO^Mi TOBapHn];aMi, 1T0 6kojio ;i;o.ihch6 
6htb acEJiBe. 

«£cjiH TaKTb, CKa3§,Jii ocejii, to nocn:feni6Mi> cko- 
p4e Bx Ty CTopoHy. Sia rocT6HHHii;a 66JtBHO mh4 He 
no BKtcy.» 

CofiaEa npE^asHJia : Q bb caMOUB fi,is.% h^rosb- 
Ko KOCTefi ch uAcowb 6iijm 6bi TenepB 6qeHB kct^th. 

0h6 HanpaBEJiECB kb CBiTABmeaca T6iKt. CK6po 
oroHeKi safijiECTajiB ^qe, h oh6 o^yT^jniCB ^6peJ^^ 
pasWfiHHqBHMi ;^6mhkomb, 0CB*iu;eHHHMi BHyxpi 
OceJii, KasB c&MHfi 6ojiBm6S, noflomejii. Ki OKny h 
saraanyj/i bi. Her6. 

Hto TBI B6;i;HmB, cipHfi? cnpocfijiB niifxi. 

^TO a B6aty? OTB^fe^^nB oceai. Bfiacy ctojii., y- 
CTasjOieHHBig KymaHBaMH h namiTKaMH, a KpyrbMB se- 
ceao nnpyioTB pa366fiHHKH. 

BoTh 6m noacEB^TBca to, CKasdai n^TyxB. 

JJ,a., cjiiiBHO 6h, no;i;TBepfl;6jix oceaB. 9xb, ecan- 
6h mh 6liaH na hxb nicTtl (IIpodoAOKiHie 6yderm.) 

orjyinATB to deafen Bepx^inBa the top 

ptuopancA to cry oroHesi a light 

csepHi^B n6vi to wring the neck ect&tb by the way, seasonably 

joG^&TiiCx to reach oiyTATica to appear 

DspeBoieB&Ti to spend the night cipuS gray one 

BctapdfisaTLCfl to climb yci&iuieBBHft covered 


nHpoB&TL to banquet 
ci&BHo pleasant 
coBciwh entirely 
BosB^iit^TB to annonnce 
BAdsoiB to one's satisfaction 
pimtTica to decide 
pacnojosHTBca to take place 
BCEo^TB to leap 

noBOA:iTi to tnrn (eyes) 

xHJiie a dwelling 

To^Ea the point 

33.TiiKBfn to peep 

KjfaiaHie food 

HanHTOEi beverage, drinking 

noxnE^Tica to make the best of 

no^^Tsepj^TB to assent. 



BosB^n^&eTii xop6myio 
nordAY, ^'^ sisTpaBOc- 
Kpec^Hfce n mo xos^fi- 
Ka Beataa yCfirb ero, 
660 y Hea sasTpa svks- 


IIoTOMy ^TO OHi. ;i,4jiajii 
5to Bi. nocfli^Hifi paai. 

HiTi, oh6 ein;e HMian 
;i;pyria npEKJaca^Hia, 
np^s^e H^scexH ;^oniJi^ 

AO PflS&HH. 

TaKi EaKi 6£kjQ[0 yace 
n63;^HO, TO oh6 6£kjm 
npHHyat;i;eH£i HO^eBAxb 
Ha OTEp^TOMt 061*. 

TaKi. KaKi. OHii, no pia- 
HOCTH nop6RH H npKB^- 
UBK-h, He Mor;i± Jie^b o- 
^6hi> Ir6;^JIi ;ipyr6ro, to 
OHi H B^6pakH ce6'£ pas- 
HHs M£cT&ji;;ia HO^Ji^ra. 

^pyat6a K6niKH ch co6k- 
EOH) 6uaa. TaKi> HOBa, 
TTO EdmKa He coBC^vb 
;(OB:]&p^aa efi; E6inEasce 
H nix'^xi. npe;tn6qjiH 
BSJiisTb ^jia 6e3onacHO- 
CTH Ha ;^6peB0, a co6k- 
Ea H ocgjit paciiojioac6- 
jiHCfc no;;i> ciHBio ero; 
Bflpyrt niT^xi no3skm> 
CBo6xi h6bhxi ;i;pyBefl. 

A noHeiay ace oh^ TaK-B 
rp6MEo ■B.pma.ii'h? 

H TaKHb 0H6, 3Ha?HTl>, CO- 

EaKia ate i5to 66jih npa- 
KJiK)^6Hia ? 

Tisfi Hte oh6 HCieBdaH? 

IIoieMV Sto? 

152 Lesson 3. 

yB±}sfkiii> JiH OHt ^TO-HH- Ohi yBi;i,tJii. HCBflaaeKi 
6y;i^ onacHOe? Mepi],4Bniifi oroneKii. 

Ha qTO-ate omi p-femA- ^pyatji.nocoBiTOBaBinHCB 
.1HCB ? neatay C06610 tomi,* hto 

6tO Morao 6htb, ckjio- 
uAjinch KB npe^nojioate- 
HiiOj iiTO TO 6LiJia ro- 
CT6HHHn;a; h xaKi. KaKB 
Bct oh6 6tijin r6aoj(HH, 
t6 h o6p&;i;OBaJiHCi. Sto- 
My OTKpiiTiK). 

HaUiafi JIH OHH Bl CaMOMl> H4t1, AOMB, Bt KOTOpOMl 

js^ixi, rocTHHflHi;y? MejitKMB oroHCKi, fiajTB 

He TpaKT^pB, a pasSofir 
HH^ifl npHTdH-L. 



Most feminine nouns ending inaia, ^ preceded 
by another consonant, in in;a, some in ;i;a, 3a, jh, pa, 
and also those in ta, take in their genitive plural the 
inflection eft instead of % and b: 

Bosza (Boxxd) bridle Eosseti of the bridles 

EiuaH^i belfry KaianH^ti of the belfries 

B^ima squirrel B^Eineft of the sqairrels 

p6ma grove pomefi of the groves 

ctesa footpath CTes^fi of the footpaths 

CBBHiii pig CBHbeK pigs. 

The great majority of nouns ending in ia and Ba 
(unaccented) have their genitive plural in 13: 

&piii« army 4pHifi of the armies 

i.ishx cell S.6M& of the cells. 

The vowel o is elided in some cases of the singular 
and throughout the plural, in the four following nouns : 

U^psoBB church i^^PKbh churches 

jik)66bi. love' (juofisi") love affairs 

;ioiKB lie, falsehood (smv) lies 

poati, rye paa ryes. 

' Jho6bsb when used as a Christian name never elides the 
vowel 0. 

Eemabks on the declession of feminise and xeuter nodns. 163 

Singular. Plural. 

N. uepsoBb the church nepEsn the churches 

G. i^epKBn of the church nepKB^fi of the churches 

D. nepKBH to the church nepKBaMi to the churches 

A. iiepKOBb the church uepKBU the churches 

1. K^pEOBbK) with the church uepRBajin with the churches 

P. (o) n^pKBH (about) the church. (o) aepKBaxi, (about) the churches. 
NeTiter nouns in ko and ne (n;o) having a diminu- 
tive signification insert e in the genitive plural ; and in 
the vominative plural the former take h, and the latter 
H. In other, respects they are regularly declined : 
KOje4Ko small rinsr KOjieiKH small rings gen. plnr.^eKi 
cepi^iEvO little heart cepie^KH little hearts » cep^^ieKi 

SOMHiUKO little house joM^niKn little houses » joMHraeKt 

ayjiiie mouth-piece lyabUB mouth-pieces » syJiei;'i 

noioTeHije towel nojoT^Bim towels » nojioT^ueiii. 

Nouns ending iu 3^0, cto, cko, ctbo and many in 
JO never insert any vovi^el in the formation of the geni- 
tive plural: 

rnisjo nest rHisAi (pron. gnyozd) of the nests 

Micro place utcTi of the places 

BoficKO army boScki of The armies 

^yscTBO feeling ^yacTBi of the feelings 

peiieci6 trade, profession peMecat of the trades 

ropjo throat, gullet ropat of the throats. 

A few neuter nouns in Be form their genitive plural 
in teBi; they are: 

Kymane food, dish RymaHieBi of the dishes 

noMicTiie domain nouicTLeai of the domains 

ycTie mouth (of a river) ycTiesi of the mouths. 

Neuter augmentative nouns in me have their nomi- 
native plural in h: 

f,OMfsm,e large ugly house joh'hiiih large ugly houses 

CTO.Tiiiiie great table cioJiHinn great tables. 


My dear friend. — You wish to subscribe to a 
Russian newspaper and you do not know which to 
choose. Well! I will assist you (fl noMory BaMi). Of 
the political papers, the most important is undoubtedly ' 
The Moscow Gazette, ,a journal of great authoritv and 
as independent as circumstances permit. Its chief 
editor for many years was the late Katkoif. Equally 
important and very Mddespread is the New Time, as 
is also the News, which incessantly pi'each or defend 

154 Lesson 3. 

more or less advanced views. Our Life and the Russian 
Word have come of late years in great renown (cA'feJia- 
jiHCB HaBicTHHMH) even out of Russia. 

Of the papers which serve as the organs of the 
government, the most important are: the Government 
Messenger Russia and the Russian Invalid; the latter is 
edited by the Ministry of War and chiefly discusses 
military matters. Nowadays one must name also the 
Speech, the Voice of Moscow, the Russian Land, the 
Exchange Gazette, and New Russia. The best review 
is the Messenger of Europe, and among illustrated 
publications, almost all issued weekly, you will do 
well to choose the Illustrated World or the Field 
(HHBa). I hope I have at least indicated to you the 
best papers and remain yours sincerely. 

CEfliiEa leTupext PflsdHCKOxi sysuK&Hxaxi. 

T/L oh6 HAiaaH npH/^yMHsaTi., KaKi. 6h biJbkhtb 
pa366flHHE0Bi.. HaKonen;!. pim^jiHCi. . . . Oceat crajii. 
Hi j;h6£i h nojrojK6;ii> ^ep•e;^Hifl Horn na okho, co6^Ka 
BCK0^6aa na cnAny ocna, KdniKa B3o6pajracB na co- 
6aKy, nixyx'b BSJteriji'B na rojosy kodikh. PasM*- 
cxfeEiHCB la.idm.'h oBpagoMx., onli, no /^aHHOMy CHrHa^ 
jiy, Bc4 bm§ct4 naiajiH B;i;pyrx CBofi KOHqepxt. OceaX) 
sapeB^jii, co6aKa sajraaaa, K6niKa saMayKajia, nixyxi) 
sanijii. nox6MrB oh6 bcko^Aah bi. okho, pasdfemH 
cxeKJia, K0x6pHa co sbohomi pasneT'ifejiHCB bi. ;i;p§-, 

Pa366£HHKH, ycJi^raasmH Sxotx. cxpamHBifl myMi., 
Bt Hcnyri BCKogfijiH ct m4cxi CBofcci, fltM3.a, qxo bi> 
KOMHaxy BOinjio npHBHS^Hie, h pas6'feac^JiHCB bi> Jiici. 
ToTji^k ^exiipe xoB^pnii^a cian sa ctojix. h npHHflJi6cB 
KfniaxB cx> xaK^Mi annex^xoMt, KaK3> 6y;^xo ^oao;^4- 
jiH nijiBifi idican;!.. Ho OKOHii^HiH yjKHHa, MyatiKaH- 
XH noxymiijiH cBi^H h cxaan HqK^TB ce6i M'ifecxa ^jth 
6TflHxa. Kiatfl^ B£i6pajii ce6i xaK6e, KOx6poe tbia,- 
me no^o;i;]ijio ki> ero naxypi h npHB^raKaMi>. Ocejiii 
jieirb Ha HaB63i>, co6&Ka 3a ;];Bepbio, KdntKa y h^ikh, 
irfexyxx ciai. na niecxi ; n xaKt KaKi oh6 6£ijni yroii- 

Kemarks on the declension or feminine and nbuteb nounb. 155 

jieHii j^dsTswh nyTewh, to BCKdp* sacHyjtH. Kor^A 
pa366fiEHKH yB^^ijijiH' qro Bi ^ijom* hxi> h*ti. ornii, h 
^TO Bce TaMi. Kasajiocb cnoKofiHtiMi., aTaiiaHii CKa- 
shji-h: «A B'£;i^ iSto o;i;h&ko cpaMi, ^to mu pasdiata- 
flHCb» H nocaaji'B o;i;Hor6 nai CBoixi paaysHaTB, <ito 
;^iaaeTca bi fl6Mi. HdcaaHHtifi nainejii, ^to noBci6- 
;^y Bce Tiixo h, BO&fi,A b-b KyxHio, xot4jiii same^Lt ornA. 
Owh Bsajri cn6^Ky, h nopfiSci, ee Kt rjraaiM'B KdniKH, 
KOTopMe noKasajiHCB ewy AByMii rop^HMH yrjiaMH. 
Ho KomKa ne JtEo66jia rayTfeB h BUj'in^JiacB eity bi. 
jiHiijo. Cipaxi 0BJIa;^'6J^'B n6cjiaHHBiMi h oh3> 6p6cnj- 
ca onp6MeTBio ki /^Bep^^. 

Co64Ka, cnaBmaa no 6ji630Cth, BCKOtt^Jta a yny- 
c6jia ero sa-nora. Kor;i;& ohx 6'feataJii no RBopy, m6mo 
KyiH HaBOsa, oceai 630 Bcefl cSjih jtarnyjii er6 skji,- 
HHMH Hor^MH, a ntT'^xi, BCTpeneHyBDiifica oti iJTOro 
niyMa, yac6 Kpz^^Jit ci CBoer6 mecTa: «KyKypeKf!» 

Pa366flHHK'B, saniixaBniHOB, npH6ia:^Jii. ki. aiaM^- 
Hy. «y nacB Bi nda-k CTpaniHaa KOJi;i;yHBa, CKas&at 
OH^b, oKk iici];apanaaa hh^ .ini^6 CBOiiMn sorT^ira; y 
;i;Bepefi ctoAt-b iiejioBiKi ci Hoac6Mi, KOTdpnt piHaai. 
Meni Bi Hdry ; /i,Bopi CTopoatHTi KaK6e-T0 TOpno^ ^- 
;^6BHii!;e, XBaT^Bmee MeHJi fly66Hofi, a na Kp]&ni ch- 
jsfiTh cyjifiA, K0T6pBift. saKpn^ijii : ^pHB6;^6Te mh* ^to- 
ro B^cfejibHHKa . . . S. Kac6jiy ymeni oti khx^!* 

Ci t4x3> nopi. pa366fiHHKii He CMijra 66ji£nie no- 
K^3HBaTBca B-h /noMi, a ^exBipeMi Paa&HCKHMi MysH- 
itdHraMi OHTb TaKB noHpaBHJca, qTO oh6 octAjihcb bi. 
HCMi HascerflA. 

npHj^ymiBaTB to begin to think lyAdsHote a monster 
ciaTB Ha xa6i to stand on one's tiiciihvjiia, a gallows-bird 

hind legs BHXHT& to ged rid of 

v3o6jakjbat to climb bceovatb to leap 

ji;p6oeiia plwrl shivers paaaicrATUX to place oneself 

ToioiiiB to starve npnanjiBie a ghost, a spectre 

noAxodn to suit noTymiTi to blow out 

mecT'B a perch, a beam Hae'dsi straw, manure 

sacHyn to fall asleep aTa«&Hi chieftain, captain 

paaysH&Tb to see, to learn cpaii's a shame 

cn^ua a match saa^iB to light (fire) 

dnpoiieTLD rashly tuixiwtbcn to scratch 

BCTpenefl^nca to awake laiBfih to kick 

Kosuftihfi a witch viciibBBKb the knave 

K6roTB the claw sanux^TMui to get ont cf breath 


Lesson 3. 

Eici(ap^naTi> to scratch 
CTopoffiBTk to guard 

Ay6AHa a big cudgel 
Eaci^jiy with pain, hardly. 



^To ace oh6 npH;i;yMaji0 ? 

Hy, a noTOMi? 

A TaKi KaKi. Sto cjiyifi- 
jiocB TaKii HeoHt6;i;aHHO, 

TO pa366fiHHKII 6681. COM- 

H^Hia HcnyraaHCB? 

A ^TO c;];4jiajiH geTiipe Jiy- 
SHKaHTa ? 

He HHTajiHCL ;iH paaCofiHUKH 

B03BpaTHTbCfl Bi ^OMI. 
CBOfl ? 

0h6 HaiaiiH npH;i;yim- 

BaTB, KaKI. 6w B^aCHTB 

Ocejii. CTajii. Ha ;i;ei6^, no- 
jioac6jii riepe^Hia Hdrn 
Ha okh6, co64Ka bcko- 
Ti^jia Ha cn^Hy ocjii, 
KoniKa B3o6p4aacB Ha 
coCfey, n^Tyxi. B3Jie- 
Tfeii. Ha r6aoBy K6niKH. 

no ;i,teHOMy CHTHaay Bci 

BMicT* H&iiajIH CBOfi 

KOHn;epTi>. IIoTdMi oh6 

BCKOilfijH Bl. 0Kh6 H 

noAHajTH a;^CKia myMi 
(devilish noise). 
CaMo C06610 pasyMieTCH, 
oh6 /[.yMajiH, ^To 5to66- 
jio np6cT0 CBiTOnpe- 
CTasa^Hie h pasfiiaci- 


To, ¥T0 BC^Kifi ro.i6;i;HHfi 
cfliaajii 6bi na hxb m^- 

CT*. 0h6 cijIH 33, CTOJII. 

oh6 jier:i6 cnaxB. 
E^^e 6bi! yBA^a, ^to bi 
/ildM'fe Bce TeMHO, oh6bo- 

pOT^JIHCB 63i-Jlicy, CTH- 
^^CB C&MH, ITO pa364- 

atajiHCB,HcnyraHHBie ny- 
ct6k) TpeB6roK) (alarm). 
AxaMaHi Bea^Jii. oaho- 
My pasSoflHHKy noflTii h 

nOCMOTpiTBj^TO ;^'£JIaeT- 

ca Bi n6Mi. 

Irbegitiab kovks. 


^TO me owb ysiiftiai)? 

Ki KaKOMy Sto yrojcbKt? 

H no jifindiTbl a hotomi? 

^TO ate nordM'b Cfl;4jaj[H 
pasSdfiHnxH ? 

TaEi>KaEi>B'B E6MHaTd^ 6£i- 

JIO TeMH6, TO OHI. B3)^y- 

Majix 3ame^a> cn^^ucy h 
no^Heci ee Ki jrosb- 

■ Ky. 

To, HTO any KaaAaocB yr- 
seii'h, Ea caHOHi ^ijii 
6BIJ16 rjiasa e6iiikh, a 
EoniEH He jao6iTh mj- 
t6tb, no dTOiiy Haraa 
E6mEa BTi^-kTsARgiCb any 
Bi jiHii;6. 

Ho TyxB er6 eiu;e co6aEa 
yEyc6jia, oceai Jiar- 
Hyjii, a niryxi, Bcrpe- 
neH^mHCb, saniatiEy- 
EypeEy. Taiti> hto n6c- 
jiaHHHft ;i;0Heci>, tto 
AOHii saHflTB yscacHOB) 
Bij^^uov) H ei noM6iq- 

Pa366ftHHEH, ycjnimaBi 
5to, HaBce^;^a ncE^HyjiH 

CBOfi JSflli'b n BB HCMIi 

nocejiijHCb naniH npiii- 



The masculine noun nyiB way, takes in the 
tive, dative and prepositional singular the feminine in- 
flection h; the other cases are regular. 

Chhi, son, inserts ob before the soft inflections of 
the plural: CQEOBBa, CEtHOB^g, cuHOBBflirB, etc. 

The words qeprb (TOpn) devil, coeiA'B neighbour, 
xojon'B slave, jnbKb people, are declined hard in the 
singular and soft in plural : nepTB, Hepia, nepiy, etc. and 
^^piH, wpi^H, HeprflM'B, etc. 

The neuter nouns cojraiie sun, 66jiaKO cloud, o^ko 
point, ymEO handle, are declined in the plural as if they 

158 Lebsok 4. 

were of the masculine gender : coxsom, c6jiHi;eB'B ; ohich, 
o^OKb; but yinicH, ymsKi and o6jiafia, od^aEOBi. 

B4ko eyelid, and aCjioko apple, have their nomina- 
tive plural in H, hxit their genitive in t: b^kh, BiK^; 
afijroKH, afijiOKi (also flfijioKOBi). 

The following form their plural in a peculiar way ; 

He6o heaven ne6ec& heavens HeG^ci of the heavens 

^■jfP wonder Hysec& wonders ^yAfci of the wonders^ 

A^peBo tree jep^sia trees lep^sieB'B of the trees' 

SEC ground a^uls grounds AOBtesi of the grounds 

3X0 evil (not used) 30Ji;b of the evils 

6bo eye (poetical) 6?h eyes oi6fi of the eyes 

pio ear ;^inH ears ym^fi of the ears. 

The following have a double inflection in the plural, 
one regular and one irregular, the latter with a collec- 
tive force: 

6aT6ri> whip Gaior^ -obi CaiomM -iieBi 

BByE;b grandson bh^^kb -obi BHyi^ia -slti, 

Kdpeei root e6phb -eft na'piuhft -:beBi> 

cyEi branch cysE -obii cjiia -lesi 

AEipd hole AHpii -Aup% Ai^Pbh -bcb^l. 

The following have a douhle inflection, conveying 
in each instance different meanings: 

8y6i tooth syCH teeth (in the mouth) syCia teeth (of a comb etc.) 

jiHCTi leaf JHCTH leaves of a book j^ctbi leaves of a tree 

vysK man hvsA men HysBa husbands 

Mixi fur [ageusxH pair of bellows mtxi furs 
6(fpa3% form, im- 66pasii forms oCpasA images 

cyAHo vessel cj^ahh vessels (utensils) cyA& vessels (ships) 
xiiGi bread xjii6ii loaves zjiiSi kinds of com 

vfin. colour i^siTii flowers iiBiii colourB." 

The word KOJitHO has three plural inflections: 
soitiHo tribe Eoa^na tribes *gen. nojiiHi. 

Koi^HO knee Boiina knees », KOfliseit 

Kojiflo joint (of a chain) KoainM joints » itoatitteBi. 

N. B. The irregular 'nouns Man, aow and ahtA have been 
declined in the First Part, Lessons 5* and 6ti>. 

The two nouns XpHCToeB Christ, and rocn6;it the 
Lord, make: 

"■ ■'Hao when it means a monster is used only in the singular. 
' Now and then also regularly AepeB& and Aep^si. 

' In poetry these distinctions are often disregarded. 


N. XpncTdci Christ Iocooab the Lord 

6. XpacTa of Christ TdcnoAa of the Loifd 

D. XpHCT^ to Christ rdcnoay to the Lord 

A. XpHCiA Christ TdcnoAa fhe Lord 

I. XpzcTdiTb by Christ r6cngjow& by th« Lord 

P. (o) XpHcii (about) Christ (o) IdcnoAli (about) the Lord 

V. Xpaci^l Christ. PdcnoAH! o Lord! 


The way to Heaven is wet with tears and blood, 
and encumbered with ruins and corpses heaped up by 
fanaticism. Beligion has no necessity of miracles crea- 
ted by men j she has quite enough (j;ja Toro aocidTOi- 
Ho) of the wonders of creation and natiire. Yet it is evi- 
dent (cdMo C06610 paayMierea) that the same God who 
drew nature from nought, can do all miracles he likes. 
There are two powerful means against evil (plur.) : to 
get accustomed to it for the ignorant mob (npBBHKiaie SJia 
i^phh), reflection and circumspection for the wise. 

My dear brother. — You remind me that I had 
promised to give you a general notion of St. Peters- 
burg and you reproach me because (^to) I have not yet 
told you anything about this great city, the capital of 
a rich and powerful Slate, a centre of trade and in- 
dustry of great importance. I pray you to pardon my 
[sin of] omission, and I am going (oSimdio) to make 
amends for it {acu^mmtica). St. Petersburg lies, as you 
know, on the banks of the Neva, not far from where 
it flows into the Gulf of Finland. Strangers desirous 
(KOTopHe 3B,6ji&v)Tb) of obtaining- a general idea of the 
town, usually ascend [onj the Dome of St. Isaac's 
(HcaaitieBCKifi, Cofiopt) and it is exactly what I did (i^afe 
caMoe M a c^tJiajii) a few days ago. Then alone I could 
justly appreciate the dangerous, I might say (cEaas]^ 
xdate) threatening situation of this great city. 

(To he continued.) 
JVken6& II,apB. — The Forest King.* 


■BsfldK'b 3aB03;i;ajiHft, ch sawh cus'h uoao;sfi&. 
K^. OTii;y, BecB H8;i;p6rHyBTb, Maai&TKa npHH^Ki.: 
06Hfei>, er6 ;^6pacHT3. h rpicTt CTap6K3>. 

1 Free translation of Goethe's Erl-king ((Sxllontg). 

160 Lesson 4. 

— ^HTA, ^TO KO MHi TM TaKI. p66KO npHJBHyjII. ? 

«Pofl6Mi>ifl, JlicHofl IlJapL Bi. rjiasa MHi CBepKHfjii) : 
Onib Bi> TCMHofi •KopoH'fe, cb rycT6ft Sopoflofi !» 

— HiTX, TO 6ijiieT'h TyMaHi> nafl-b BOflofi. — 

^htA, orjiaH^Cfl, MJia/iieHel];!), ko mh*;. 
Becejiaro MHoro bi> Moefl CTopoHi; 
IIJBtTSi 6hpk)36bbi, jKeMTyacHBi CTpyA; 
Hsi) 36jioTa cji6th TiepTdrn mo6. 

«Po;i;6MEifl, JlicHofi Djapb co MHoa roBopHTi : 
Ohi sojioto, nepjiH h pa/i,0CTb cyji6Ti..» 

— Hd^Ti, Mofl MJia;i;eHeii,i>, ocji£imaJica th: 
To Bixept, npocHyBinncB, KOJiiixHyit'b jmcTii. 

— Ko MH'Jb, Mofl M;ia/i;eHen;i> ! b-l ,a;y6paB4 MOefl. 
ysHaemb npeKpacHMXt mo^xo, floqepeft: 

IIpH micsuxfi Sy^yT'i. nrpaTb ii JieTaxbj 
Hrpaa, JieTan, Te6A ycbinJidTb. - — 

«Po;i;6MBifl, HtcHofi H^apb cosBka-b ^o^epefi: 

Mni, B^HCy, KHB^roT-b H3I> TeMHWXI. BiTB6ft.» 

— Hirh, Bce cnoKofiHO bi. H0iH6fl raySHni: 
To BeTJibi C'£;i;Sia ctoAti; bi. cxopoH'Jfe. — 

— AHTi, H njiiH^jica TB063; KpacoT6ft: 
HeB6jiefi hjib B6jiefl, a 6f;i;enii. tbi Mofl. — 
«Pofl6MHfi, JTifeCHdfl IIjapB Hacb x^^eii. ;^orHiTB ; 
yacB boti. OHi; mh* /(yraHO, mh* T^acKO flBimaTb.» 

^3;i,6ki. opofiinBifi: fie CKaieTt, jieT^Ti.; 
Mjia;i;6Heni TOCKyeTi., MJia;i;6Heii;i. KpH^Ti. 
'B8;h6ki noroHjieTt, ia^^dKi. ;^ocKaKa;II. — 
B-b pyK^i. er6 MeprsHfi Maa;i;6Hen;i. Jieataa-b. 

csaE^Ti to gallop rp'lTB to warm 

uTjia darkness, mist p66eo timidly 

sanosAliiifi belated, behind, time poahmhS my father 

npHHHK&Tt E'& to press oneself to EopdHa the crown 

o6E^Tb to embrace Tyw&Bi the fog, mist 

trpEioM^th Bi to press oneself to 6Bpi)36BHii like a turquoise 

CBepeH^T& to twinkle lepidri apartment, castlts 

rycTdfi thick ocJirimaTbca to misunderstand 

orjiaH^^T&cfl to look round npocnjiica to awake 

aikihca to hurry ycHiuaTB to lull to sleep 

isAdKi a rider aetai, a willow-tree 

B3jp6rHyTB to become benumbed nitHiTica to be cbanued 

Irregular kodks. 


AOTB&TB to overtake, to seize 
TisKo painfnl 
TocKOB&TB to pant 
HocaaxlkTh to arrive 
ciHTi to cast, to melt 
cyji^fc to promise 
KojuxByiB to shake 

Eiu&Ti to nod 

tiffii grey 

aesdjiefi nnwillingly 

Mat KjmBo I am soffocatiiig 

opoGiaifi firighteoed 

noroHiiB to whip, to urge (horses) 

ugpTBHfi dead. 


Eto OjifikaififiL CEaKaxi. b-b O^i^h'Ii 
TCMHyio H xofl6;i;HyH) 


iJto TaKde JItcHdft Kjapb ? 

£aK6Bi> dujii) J[%CH6fi 
BfiLph 3% Txa.Bkx'b Hcny- 
r^Haro M^Jtb^HEa? 

A iTO TOBopAai, OTei^i, 
^t66h yrimaTb er6? 

BTb dxoMt? 

BoBMoacHO JIH 6to? 

Kor6 emS co3B&ai JI*CH6fl 
HapB, no cjiOB&MB ;(HT)i- 


A MTO 6iiJiH 3TH mhAmhh 

;^65epH ? 
KaKi oKOH^raJiocb 9to hc- 
npiaTHoe npHKJiiOH^Hie? 

3ai[03Aaji£iS is- 

fl,OB,'h Ch MaJieHiKHM-B 

M&xbmiBh npoAporb om, x6- 
.lOAa H Soaxea jIicH6ro 

dro BOo6p£iacaeMafl jiA^- 
HOCTb y }s,feBHBXT> Tep- 


Owh Koc^a-b TeMHyio ko- 
poHy H HMijii. rycTyio 

Ohb roBopliJii. CMf, TTO 

j&Hoe.KaK'b TyM^HHaa no- 

H*Ti., OHO yTBepm;^iJO 
Hanp6THBi, qTO JI^ch63 
n^apB eMy o6±jn&eTb 
MH6ro xoponiHXi se- 
mefi. ^ 

9to HeBOSMoacHO, ho mh 
SHAeMt, iTO Jnb^^H b> 
cxp&xdb ii4cT0 BHAan ne- 
cyn^ecTByioin,ie npe/i,M6- 


Ohi co3b4jii. CBOi^xi fl;o- 
uepefi, KOTopBia ;^oji2ch^ 
6£ijiH HrpaTb ch p^tA- 
, Teio. 

9to 6h;ih bctjih, CToamia 
nejiajieKO era Aopora. 

B4;i,Hblfi MdjIblHK'b yMCpTb 

OTt CTpaxa : rop^^Ka no- 
xiiTHJia ero. 

Rnsaiao ConT.-Orammai. 

162 Lesson 5. 




It is an advantage of the Russian language that 
by means of various teiminations, one and the same 
substantive may become augmentia,tive, diminutivti and 
derogatory. — This is a point deserving a great atten- 
tion on the part of learners, the use of modified substan-. 
tives being so frequent and multifarious in Russian, 
and especially in colloquial language. 

1. Augmentative substantives show the unusually 
large size of an object, its ugliness and little value. Such 
ideas are conveyed by the termhiations ama, ame, HHa. 

pyE& hand py^nia large hand 

cojA^Ti soldier (osa^THiiie big soldier 

nom, house foisima, ugly house.* 

2. Diminutive. This class comprises the compli- 
mentary or carressing form used when naming favourite 
persons or objects: 

fipaii brother 6p&Tei(!E dear brother 

i6mai£ horee jiom&Aynisa dear hoi:se 

Kop6Ba cov sopdaymsa dear cow'. 

Sometimes diminutive forms are derived from a 
word already diminutive, that is, diminutive termina- 
tions may be superposed: 

3y6i tooth 3y66E& a little tooth syfieHOE'B a very little tooth 
pyKi hand p^sa a little hand pyigBica a very little hand. 

To the numerous class of diminutive nouns belong 
also the various and often obscure alterations which 
Christian names undergo, not only in familiar but also 
in literary language: 

C&ma Sandy from AieKC&EAepi Alexander 

M^Dia Molly » M4pia Mary 

BtoH Johnny ' » HbAhi John 

Jiyui little Eadoxia » kaffyaa Eudoxia. 

The diminutives of politeness and respect, where- 
by no diminution of size js meant, belong likewise to 
this group. The most important are: 

1 Not all nouns having these terminations are augmentative: 
3s.\ixa\a/i dwelling, csBB^a pork,. etc. 


CdiBBiKa little father' nin^mtA little unqle 

Mdiymsa little mother t^rymia. little aunt 

6p4TyniEa little brother sisymsa little grandfather 

cecTpaj^a little sister GiSyaua little grandmother.* 

Foreign noans, proper as well as common, when 
ending in o, h, e, a, y, ro are invariable and may not 
be declined: 
Ha oiHp6KOH'& laocei 6iiio nndro On the broad highway there were 

Rap^i'i.. many carriages. 

Po6bbc6h% S^iao, pomAhi Aa- Robinson Crnsoe, a nbrel hy. 
viuLdt flfi^i, MBi He Bp&BBTc«. Daniel Defoe, does, not please 

to me. 
All foreign nouns ending in i, b, ft, a, a are con- 
sidered and declined as if they were Russian words : 
A jp&»B iZ&KCWttpa npo^ni&iH And Shakespeare's Jramas hare 

BH? you read them? 

<S xdjro npoxiuiJii b% Thiffni, a bh I Uved long at Genoa, and you 
vh Maipiiubn,. at Madrid. 

Exceptions. French family names in a or &, such as 3o;ii, 
J^tkk (Zola, DumeuJ may not be declined. Also certain Kussinn 
family names in. o are sometimes left unchanged: & roBop^i ct 
renep&joMi^ rvpitit. — R6<|>e, like &11 foreign nouns of th« same class, 
is invariable, but its mssifled form bo^)^ is declined regnlarly. 

3. Derogatory. They express want of regard or 
even contempt: 

ffiTiimso poor little house .xomaxeHEa worthless hdrse 

BOK^mKo an ugly knife coCs^iSHsa an ugly little dog. 


The inhabitants of the small towns and localities 
of Western Russia are for the most part Poles, Ger- 
mans and Jews. We often see that a small coal falling on 
a cask full of petrol€lum may cause (6htb npHH&HOio} 
a terrible conflagration. The Captain's little Daughter, 
that is the exact title of Pushkin's famous novel. A 
great soldier, if not led to drill (6cjih He Bo;i;iT* Ha y^eHBe), 
for ever remains (see 6Yji,&rb) a little soldier. 

Continuation. ' — I could then for the first time 
view the immense body (rpoMasHoe kojihtoctbo) of water 

' The Tsar is generally- ^oken of and addressed to as 6h- 
TuiDEa, by soldiers, peasants, efc. 

' These diminutive forms are almost euclusively used when 
speaking to a person, and correspond to the French expressions 
monsieur vatre pire, madame voire mire, etc. 

" See page 159. 

164 Lesson S. 

in which it seems to float with great pain like a bark 
overladen with precious goods. Turning my looks to 
the North, I saw the Basil Island where the Academy 
of Arts, the Military School, the Academy of Sciences, 
the University and the Exchange are Situated, all of 
which face (Bct BHxoAaii Ha) the Neva. A little to the 
right stands the Fortress, and along (na) the northern 
and western banks of the Neva rise (Bax6A)BTCx),a few 
other islands occupied by {siaaTue instr.) barracks, fac- 
tories and other establishments. All these islands are 
joined with the continental part of the city by means 
of four bridges very similar to (na) many Paris and 
London bridges. The most beautiful of them is the 
Nicholas Bridge (HHKOJideBCEid Mocn). (To be eontimud.) 


MhoiShok'b, KOTi H v/b'sfx.'h. — The young mouse, 

the cat and the cock. 

A^TH, p,in:s. 1 East on&CHU Bkam Ji^Ta ! Mnine- 

HOKi>, He BH^^BmiS CB'^ra, non&irb 6^3io b% 6±p,^, a 

BOTb KaKi OHi. o6'h He3 pascB&suBajnk b% cevhi CBolfi : 

OcT&BHBi H&my H6py h nepe6p&BmECi> ^Speai rdpn, 

E0T6p£ia cocTaBa^H)Ta> rpan^y nkm.e& ipd^flmn, zty- 

ciAaca. a 6tsc&TB saErb v.oiiO]s,6& •MHmgHORt, EOTdpufi 

z6?eTi> HORasiTb, ?T0 OKI Sdjrbe He ;^t£. B]{yirh a 

CB pasH&xy Ha ^Byxtb hchb6th£ixi> MaS^xiurb: Easle 

asiipvi, caM:f> He askw h ren^pB I Oj^AhT) hsb hhsii fiBiai 


6bijib TaEB HHJiOBiiAeHB co6dH)! ,2]|pyrdfl Hanp6THBB 
6BISB saxkarb, bphr-^hb h ciiotf^ai, raR^irB safiijisoK), 
RaRB 6-f;i,ro BcizB xot^jib B^ssaTB na noeAtoosB, 
QHB 6bijib secB ^B u^BflXB; ROCM&TBiS XBOCTB er6 
CTajiB Rpi&ROMB ; aa^'h c&mhbib ji6omb erd ;^pom&jiB 
EaE6fi-T0 Hap6cTB 6rHeHHaro i^Bt^Ta, h 6£[[jih y Herd bb 
p6is,i pyEt EaEfe-TO ;^Ba nf sa hsb n^pBeBB, E0T6pue 
eaf cxfsB.SiT% f^na nouieTa, ohb 6mh MaxiiiB h raEB 
EpH^4jiB, ^TO Bc6 BOEp^B. ;i;poaKajio. a, SHiexe, He 
xpyctb, a Bc6-TaEH TaRB HCijyrAaca, tto bbcb 3ia;^po 
ssAsi-h 11 ^nasM 64at&TB, ^to Bon. flaji-B H6rH. EaxB a 
o6b Stomb coacaiiH)! He 6y^B er6, Bipno 6h a no- 
flpyatiijica cb ;i;pyr6MB h HamSjiB 6bi bx hSmb h ffPt^a 
VL HacT&BHHEa — a BB rjras&xt er6 MorB bh^Atb, ^to 


OHi. TOTdht CusL-h HE Bci ycjifrH. EaK3> t6xo mese- 
ji^Ajb OHi CBO^Mii nyuidcTBiu'B xboct6mi> I Ob BaBdlTB 
yc^p^ieMi. 6poc&ji'b ohii Ha hch^ CMnp^HHBie Bsdpu 
CBOii I E»Bi> Kp6TBii 6£^;iH 0S& H KaKi> hojih:^ uy^^Ha- 
ro orHii ! IIIepcTB Ha niiwh psmk raaj^ik BaBi> mes.s.'h, , 
roji6BKa er6 Chisk necTpaa h b;^ojib ciraH^i thh-^jihcb 
p43H£ie ysdpH; yuiH er6 6^jih noxdacH na n&mu, vl s 
no HMMt cyaty', vcio y Her6 ;i;ojiacH4 6bitb CHMn&xiH ct 

H^MH, B^poiXHO OKI) A^^^ pO^^Hjt HBIQI^d. Ho HyTb 

MaTB npepB^Jia HsiingHKa: «r;iyn6HOK'B tm, CBindKOb 
Mofi; TOTii, B0T6p£ifl HOKas^Jica Te6£ CTOJTb ;];66p£iM:b, 


cTdna) hukt6 HHdfi keeb boti>, jnoTMmifi span BceA 
^op6;^BI H&raeft. IIo;i;i. b6;i;om3. kp6tocth, ohb aaoft 
ryfiAxejiB Hami.; APyr6fi ate, KoxdpBifi TaBX HcnyrijiB 
Te6A, Sms-h u^rfx-h, BOxdpBig rp6MR0 Kpn^xi., ho sjia 
HHKOMf He ;i;iaaexi.l He x6jibko ohb hc npHinnAexB 
HaiiB HHKaKdro Bpe^i, h hskofa^ He oropv^exB HacB, 
Hanp6xnB% He pasB 6p£xBH er6 h nyMOBBii cjryA^jiH 
HaMB ;i;^iace ni&ni^eH). I[6mhh, cundKB Jnofi^sHHfl, ^xo 
no Hap^acHOCXH o^ndfi HHKor;^& ne ji,6asiuo cy;i;^B o 
6jsAs!.seiii> ; oh4 o6M&H?HBa h ?&cxo BB6;^nxi> HacB bb 

non&jn Giijio vb 6iA]P ran great ci pasH&zy violently 

dancer Raziii impertinent 

Hop& furrow BocM&Tii& hairy, shaggy 

orapeai peaceful aaCiisa squabbler 

KpnayHi noisy aap^eri an excrescence 

Apox&Tb to tremble noifirb flying 

nyat a truis Haci&BHiu'L mentor 

Tpyci a coward nScTpiiA many-coloured 

mepcTK wool, hair spdrocib mildness 

npepa&TB to interrupt ndmanB to remember 

iy6iteih destroyer noAiiHcdTkca na (accj to sab- 
DepeAOBdB advanced scribe to 

nycTAiic-A to begin j^tuB cruel, implacable. 


Kb BaR6Hy p6;(y co^HH^mS I^to Cicaa. 
npHHaAJieac^xTb ynpasH^- 
Hie Vb vtimni, HaxoA«- 
]^eeca vb H^B^mHeHB 


LEsaoir 5- 

%o TaKoe 6acHa? 

KaKoe HpaBoyi^ide moheho 
BusecTH H3i npe^Hiii^mefi 

KaKfiMi. 66pa30Mi 3to M6aH0 


BipoaTHO owb om^Ccfi h 
cMiip^HHHE'b 6ujrBonacHibe 
Toro, KOToparo ohi Hcny- 

%p eme c;i4ayeTi h3i 3Tofi 
ddcHH ? 

EacH£ ecTB pascEasi, bi 

KOTOpOMi atHB6THHa fijM 

;i;aa£e HeojynieBJieHHHe 
npexM^TH Moji^nxA ^42- 
CTByromHMH jifin;aMH, hto6x 
BliccEasaTb Easoe hh^yab 
HpaBoyneHie ea coerofiTi bi 


KorAa noJiaraTBca Ha Ha- 
pyasHOCTL, 66o ohA ohchb 
MuiiieBOE^b, pascEdsHBaeTB 

aBTOpt, BBftfixaBl BBl 
CBO^fi HOpU, yB^^I^JTb 
XByX% aillBOTHfilXl; O^HO- 

r6 H3i HHXi OffB HCny- 
rajica, ]&6o npHBH^i 
ero sa pasOouHiiEa, Tor^a 
KaKi apyroft eisy TaKi 
noHpS,Ba!icfl, TOO ohx ro- 
TOBii 6h;ii 6p6cHTBca eay 
B-B o6iaTia. 
KoHe^HO ! ToTT., KOToparo 
oHii Hcnyrajca, Cwrh ni- 

TyXTb, KOTOpHB rpouKo 
SpH^T^B, HO BpeA^ HH- 

Kor^d HHKOMy He Aiji&erb, 
Torja EaKi toti, ki. eo- 
TopoMy er6 BJieKJi6 h ko- 
Topafi eM^ noEa3ajica 


- H3;i;p6B;re spari mim.6% 
AsTopi ea xoTiji npejiy- 

npeflfiTB MO.TOAUXi H He- 

6nHTHHXi jraoA^fi, ^to6i 
oh6 He npsAaB^JiHCB n^p- 
BOMy Bjie^^Hiro c6pflD;a 
CBoero, a spijio ofi^lfMH- 
BajH 6h Biifiopi ;i;py36S 

Concord op words. 167 


6HJia npHHHHOK) T&Cejm 
a66pHXi H ;i;apoBHTHXi> 



The most important rules on the concord of Russian 
words are the ten following: 

1. The suhject and the predicate, when expressed 
by declinable parts of speech, agree in case, but in 
gendfr and number they may differ when the predicate 
i^ a noun: ' 

Moji Ha;^6afla —7^- Bora. My hope is in God. 

KdHoacb (SujTb B&acHoe nsoSpii- The mariners' compass was an 

Tenia. important discovery. 

OpSjTb (ecTi) iiTfii;a. The eagle is a bird. 

2. When the verb 6htb indicates a temporary or 
accidental condition, the predicate is used in the in- 
sti'nmental case^: 

Span, uofi lotfjk Cuitb KaA^TOHi. My brother was then a cadet. 

Tu CK6po C-inemh o(j[)m^6poin>. ThOu wilt soon be an officer. 

IlaJi&Toio f^ ]iHptioii^HSi> 6^0 The banqueter's hall was the 
EopoAitecKoe ndjie. field of Borodino. 

3. When there are two nouns in apposition signi- 
fying one and the same object, but of a different gender 
and number, the predicate agrees with the appellative 

Pop4 KaaC^m bucok^, spyr^ h Mount Kazbeck is high, steep 
HenpHCTfnHa. and inaccessible. 

r6po^ Ae^au caasBzaa bi aP^b- The town of Athens was famous 
HocTH. in ancient times. 

4. The personal pronoun of the second person 
plural, when used for politeness in addressing one 
person (as in English), requires the plural of adjectives 
and detenninatires, but the singular of nouua : 

Bu (AtsB, ;giyn> moS, HesAopdau. Ton yourself, my friend, are 

B^Te CBH^TejeiTB. ' ~ Be a witness. 

> This occurs however only in the past and future, never in 
the present. 

168 Lesson 6. 

5. The verb Shtb in the sense of to exist does not 
always agree in number with its subject, and in the 
present it is sometimes used in the singular, though 
the subject be plural: 

y Menrf ecTb pi;(Kia KapT^Hii. I have rare pictures 
EcTb AbAH, KOTdpue ... There are people who ... 

6. Contrary to the English polite custom, when 
two or more persons compose ttie subject of a sen- 
tence, the grammatical order must be strictly followed : / 
fl H Bu nol^eHii BH'{u3'rb. You and I go together. ' 
Bu n fiparb up^x&kine eg ua'6. You ^d your brother shall driyb 

:■ to me. 

Yet such expressions- may be rendered more pojite 
by saying: 

Mu ci> T066S DOfiAeHi wei>ark. You and I go together. ' 
Bu cb 6p&T0in> npitsxifiTe so You and your brother shall drive 
HBi. to me. 

7. When the verb 6HTb in the past tense occurs 
between two substantives of different genders, it must 
agree with the -first, and nijt with the second -J 
Derp'b 6ujT> pisBoe n secejiqe Peter was a playful and merry 

flHwi. chUd, / 

8. In the case of titles, such as BejiMecTBO Ma- 
jesty, Baco^ecTBO Highness, CstTJiocTS Serenf Highness, 
etc., the predicates belonging to them agree in gender 
with the -personage to whom the title refers: 

Er6 HMnepaidpcEoe BeiAiecrBo His Imperial majesty is unwell. 

'EA Buc6qecTB0 nocin^&jia set Her Highness visited all supe- 

Biicmifl yq^fiBHa aaBeft^ma. rior educational establish- 

Er6 CfliTJlocTb npor^jBBajioi. His Serene Highness took a walk. 

9. The predicate is placed in the neuter singular 
whenever the adverbs of quantity MHoro, m^jio, hIcko- 
jiBEO, ;i;ob6j[IiHO, ct6.ji>ko and cko^ko, or the numbers 
ABa, rpH, ^eriipe, narb, etc., precede the subject: 
S^icb ff&io HiicKo;ii>KO leJiOBiKT.. There were some people here. 
OcT&jiocb cms ipH py6jii. There remained still three 

N. B. This rule is 'Subject to some exceptions in the case of 
numbers governing the noun., 

to. If two or more appellations relate to the 
same person or object, then both the subject and the 
predicate are put in the plural number: 


Bijioe B AabBCKoe Mopji Hax6- The White Sea and the Sea of 
SflTCfl Bx npe^'iijax'b PoceiB. Azoff are situated on the 

confines of Russia. • 

HtH^Ktifi H (tpaHn^aesift ushkA The German and French lan- 
dieai noi^sHH. guages are very useful. 


Civil Society has . completely swallowed up man. 
She took hold of him at his very birth (Oho 0BJa;^4JI0 
HHt ci cdMaro ero poai^Hia), to quit him only at his grave. 
Selflove includes in itself all germs of human crimes and 
debauchery (fiesnyTCTBi). Revolutions are but waves in 
which there can be neither foam nor dirt. It generally 
happens, that in our mortal life (na HimeMi seMHOM'B no- 
npHm*) we enquire after the way, when a half of it is 
already bygone. 

Continuation.' — A great -number of steamers 
incessantly cross the Neva in every direction. One thing 
which at first surprised me was the great number of cir- 
cular towers rising in all parts of the city which they built, 
as I was told, in order to keep a strict look-out foir 
fires and in order fo inform the population immediately 
by convenient signals. Looking a little to the North- 
East, almost at my feet, are to be seen the Palace and 
Place of the Admiralty, south [of which] extends the 
principal part of the city along the left bank of thfe 
Neva, Here is the residence of the Government, of the 
nobility and of more than half the population which at 
present amounts to (cocToiirB hsi) more than a million 

inhabitants. (To be continued.) 


IIpKCxyiEb. — "Hie assault. 

MflTeatHHKH ctixaJiHCB OKoio CBoero npeftB0ff6- 
xeaH H B;^py^'I> na^ajH caiaaTB ci CBOfei) jioma;j;eft. 
«Teirepb CT6flTe KpinivO», CKasAai. KOMeHftaHTB, «&y- 
jsfiT-h np6cTyni..» Bi. ^Ty MHuyTy pa3;i;^jicH CTpainHHfi 
BHsn H Ep^KH; uflT^acHHKH d'j&rdui 6iatai[H K'b Kpi- 
nocTH. n^mKa H^ma aapAiKeHa 6HJia Kapxe^BH). Ko- 
MeH^ijiHrB no;iiiiycT]ijii hxi ua c&Moe 6ji63Koe pasCTO- 
Aaie h B;i;pyri> Bimaxaivh oh^b. Kapie^B XBaxAaa b* 

1 See page 163. 

170 Lbsson 6. 

cdujno cpeffl^Hy Tojm^. MaT^atHHKH oTXJiiScHyjni Btb 664 


OT^^BTb Bnepe^6 . . . Owl siaxdjii. ca,6aeto h, viaskaoch, 
Ch m&poMi. Mxi, yroBapHsaJii. — KpHKt H sHsri, 
yMdjiKHyBinie Ha MHHfTy, TOT^dpi cndsa bo3o6hob6- 
bhCb. «Hy, pe66Ta», CKasdai. K0MeH?;dHT3i, «TenepB 
OTBopjift Bop6Ta, 6efi bi. eapaCAHil Pe6iiTa, Bnep6ji,i. 
Ha B^caasKyl sa mh6io1» 

KoMeHfl&HTX, HBaHrt Hth^tbh^I) h a M&vowh o^y- 
tAjihcb 8a KpinocTH^Mi. Bknowh; ho opoSiraifi rap- 
hh36hi> He Tp6Hya:cH. «^to ate bh, ;i;*TyinKH, cto6- 
Te?» saKpH^^ai HbAhi. Ey3BM±^l. «yMHp4TB, TaKt 
yiiHp4TB, ;^4ao cjryaE±Bbe!» Bi dxy MHHyry MSTexc- 
HHKH Hae-feffiAaH Ha Hac-B, H BopBaa^Cb BI. EpinoCTB. 
£apa64H% ymds.K'b; rapHHSOHt dpdCHflB pyatBa; mbhA 
cin^6jra 6Brji6 Ch Hori. (they nearly knocked me off 

my legs), ho H BCTaJIl H BMicxi CI. MHT^KHHKaMH BO- 

meal, bx KpinocTB. KoMeH^nxt, pdneHHsifi bb r6- 
jiOBy, CTO&ni, b4 K^^Ki 3ao;i,ieBi, KordpHe Tp66oBajiH 
0T3. Herd KJOO^^fi. fl 6p6cHJica 6Aao kb hcm^ Ha n6- 
Mon^B : HicKOJibKO ;i;ibiKHXi> KasaKbBX cxsaTiSjiH MeHri 
H CBHS&JiH KyraaK^MH, npHroBapHBaa : «Boti. yat6 Bam 
fiffleTB (Yon will catch it by-and-bye), rocy;i;ipeBHMi 
oca^raHHKaM'b l» HacB noTam;6aH no '^jrai^aM'B; acAre- 
iH BHXo;^6Jm nax ;];om6bi. cx xji46ojib h c6:ibio. * Pas- 
;i,aB&jica KOJiOK6jiBHtifl aBOnt. B^pyrx et6-to saitpH- 
qasB Bi. TOJini, ^TO rooy^ipB Ha njudn^a^n oacHff&eTB 
njLinwa.x'h h npHHHM&eri. npHciry. Hap6/i;B noBajiftai. 
Ha na6ma;(B, nacB iiorH&jiH Tya& ate. 

nyra^§B3. cumia-h b-b Kplcaaxi na KpBijn»n;4 ko- 
HeH;^&HTCEaro ^i^dMa. Ha Eeu% 6us^ sp^CHBifi Raa^i^- 
■RiA Ea(j[)T4HB, o6m:6cris& rajiyH&MH. BBicdKas co66jiBfl 
m^mca ch sorotAhvl khct^mh 6Tii3ik Ha;i;B6HyTa Ha er6 
CBepE4K)]i^ie r;ia3&. llmi,6 noicas&JiocB hh^ 3HaR6MO. 
Ka35,n;Kie CTapnrfiHH ospy^jiH er6. Ot^i^i. Tepd- 
CHMB, 6ji£;]^H£i3 h j!fiomATn,i% cto^jib y BpraJiBn;^, cb 
KpecTdM-B Bi pyB^x-B H, Ea3^ocB, M6jraa yhoji^iib erd 
sa Hpe;](CToi]^ifl ac6pTB£i. Ha njidn^aAH CT&BHJm h&- 
CKOpo B^c^jiHi^. HoTj^k WEL npH6n^3HniicB, 6aiiiB^- 
i^si pasorH&jiH Hapd^B n nacB npeji^CT^HXH IIyra?§By. 

I In token of submission to Pugachef. 

Concord op words. 171 

Ko;iOK6jii:BEEift sbohi jT&x.'h; HacT^Jia rj[y66Kafl thuih- 
h4: «KoTdp£[fi EOMeHA^HT%?» cnpoc^xii CaM03B4Heii;x>. 
Hami ypiS^BHK% B£^CTyimjii> h3i> TOJinfi h yKas^ji^b na 
HB&Ha Kjshismk. IIyra^eBi> rpdsHO BsraaHf Jit na 
CTapHK^ H CKaaAji-B eiiy : «KaKi> tm CMtjii. npoTfeHTB- 
ca mh4, CBoeMy ^ocy;^dpH)?» KoMeH;;4HTi., H3HeMoraa 
OTi) p&HH, co6p4ji^ nocjii;i;Hifl ci&jm n OTB'i?&Jii> TB@p- 
AUiiKb rdnocoMx: «Th mh* ne rocy^^pB, th Bopi h 
caMoaB^Heni., cimm. tmI» IlyraTOBi Mpknno nacf- 
HHJica H HaxHyjii. 6%ji£imi> njiaTE6Mi>. H^csojibeo Ea- 
3aE6B:B nonnBaLt^jm cxdparo EanHT^na h noxan^^jiH 
K-h BiidiSMU'k. Ha e^ nepeB;i&AHH'& oiiyT^Jica Bepx6u'b 
Hsys^iieHHBifi ^amE^peii;!., EOTdparo pfiup&mMBasa mm 
HaEaHf H!]&. OhI) ;i;ep]E&Jix si pyE^ Bepessy h ?epe3i> 
MHH^y jBAji^iR-h a 6ip,naLV0 HB&Ha Ey3BHH?&, Ba;^ep- 
Hyxaro na B63;^yxi. To^;^& npHsejil a-h IlyraTOBy 
Ks&Ha Mrairrbwia,. «IIpHcar&flI» CEas&Jii nyraqeBX, 
«rocyflApH) IleTp^ Ged^opoBH^y l» «TBt, ^iflioinEa, Bopt 
H caiiOSB&Hei^ii !» IlyraQeB^b maxRfjrh on^rB n;iiaTKdirb 
H ;i;66pBifl nopy^HEi. noB^ci ^6;^JIil CBoer6 cxiparo 
KanHxAna. CUpodojuKSitie (Spdetm.) 

aiia&Ti ci jidmaAB to dismonnt sKinsKpteH howling and yelling 

KapT^?B grape, canister Dosnyci^it to let come 

nax&TB to waive BitnasEA sally 

o^yi^&ca to appear Bops&TBca to burst into 

npncira oath of allegiance sfusbno porch, perron 

BBCTb tassel pasoiniiB to disperse 

ypiKBMSb orderly, corporal RaBeiior4a fainting, faint 

Hac;^TECs to frown nepeiui&AHBa cross-beam. 


Hsi. KaKoro co^HH^ma Bsart Ont, Baart hsx nSvbara 
npemnnimfA paacKdsi? II^KHHa,H3B'hcTHofinoai 

aarJi&Bieu.'b : <£aiiHT&H- 
CEaa ^6qKa>. 

Bi Hem saiuiiOHaeTca co;i;ep- nyniKHffb onficHBaen cm^- 
ffianie aioS noBicxH? hoc Bp^ua, HSBicTHoe b% 

Hap6;(i nofli ^HeHeui 
■« IlyrSHeBiiiiHHU » . 

Kto fiajt nyraHCKb? &to Sbutb fiirjraS Kaiop- 

KHHKi, BBAaBaBmifi ce<}^ 
sa yuepmaro Bunepaxopa 
nexpd Tp^Ttaro. 


Lesboit 6. 

BcE) sa SBSHb nyianeBa 
pascEdsHBaera UymBHHi^ 

^TO saBUD^^ieTi vh ce6i 
iiTOfFb orpuBOEi? 

PascEasdte uni, ^o sa- 
ne^aTJ^ocb vh BameS 
naMflTHHSipa cicisallyiii- 


Ho p&3Bi rapHHsoHi He 

npOT^BBJICfl BlirB? 

Rim, T6aEKo oaAhi sna- 
aoA'^ 1131 Hefl. 

Ero coAepscame coac&BxAerb 
ssiiie Eajioft-io Kpinocr- 
QH, TiaxAsh MHoro H Te^ 
n^pB Bi Tbcb^ qiasxx, 
Tor;i;d se, a 6MeHE0 66jib- 
me 7£ic& CTO jiim Tony 
Has&A^, Hxi (luo en^e 
66jie, ^To6i santHn^aTB 
KpaS orb EHprdsoKb, saji* 
HiiEOBi H Canas^neBt, 


BOJiscEHXi crenaxi. 
^ifiCTBie Ha^HHaerca npd- 
CTynoiTB Ea E:LiordpcEyD 
EpinocTuy, npejuip^Ba- 


npexBOAliTejiiCTOWb ca- 
Moro liyraTOBa. Komch- 
AaHTi ^pi^0(r^^I, saEoft- 
To MBaHiB KysBV^Hi., se- 

X'kjl'h CBO^Mt COJ^aTajTB 

niHCf) np^atAe HcnyriTb w- 


BucTpbJiaiiH H31 nVnncH, 
sapasgHHodEapi^^uD. Ha 


T^mHHKH OTXJiuHyjm Ha- 
9kxh, HO BCE6pi o6o- 
xpgHHHe ysbsaiksbaa cbo- 
6x1 npeABOA^Tejeit h hi 
oc66eHBOCTii caMoro caMO- 


rapBB36H:b opo6ijrB, noTou^ 
HTo faia IlyraqeBa pac- 
npocTpaH^jio crpaxi, npa- 

TOni Vb ^CJH) COiJiATh 

BEp^iocB 6oji£m6e eoji6- 


Use of the oenitite case. 


fl TaSl HHT^EHKH OBJia- 

nisa 5ijor6pcEofi Epi- 


CKajiai, v6m hto len^ps 
conpoTEBJ^e 6h:io th^^ 


KyiieEHTOCsyiD cuepTB? 


A^jiCA ojifiwb 8uBinifi rsap- 
A^ficBiS o^Hi^^pi, no HHe- 
HH IIlB&6puHi, nepeseAeH- 
HHft 3a pasHiie npocTyincH 
Di rapBHSOHHyD pory. 

^a, H (Jest 66b, noxomy mo 
c;uucH H nojios^jTB op^- 

Eirb, owb ocTaicA s^lpeirb 
CBo4i npHC^ H npex- 
noHejirb osHiHi nocTiiw- 
Hyi) cjiepTL Ha vkckxani 
Ero npHBejfi CBxisaHHaro 
E-B Ily raTOBy , EOToparo owb 


SBaHi^em, h oh% 66apo 
^pej^aaca KaEoiiy-TO Hsy- 
BiieHHOHy 6auiKupuy, eo- 


HOi AOJiSHOCTb najia^a. 
Qb HHii'b BHicTt 6iurb no- 
BimeEi H nopyTOKb ero, 
HBaHi HrHaTbeBHTb, bo- 
Topiid, noApaxaa cboch^ 
HaqiiBHHEy, toct6ji Ily- 
ra^eBa rkwi xe nposBH- 
maim, soTopuH eiiy ;(^- 

BaXb EOMeHA^Hirb. 


The genitive case is used: 
1. To eicpress origin, property, possession, de- 
pendence and so on: 

Jlflib TBuepiM,. The general's daughter. 

dXh noni. ' The priest's garden. 

Csjrii mnjk. The father's footman. 

N. B. Tet in inch cases the ose of possessive adjectives is also al- 
lowed: yrtreiesa xow, noniai caji, ornfiat ciyri. 

174 Lesson 7. 

— With proper names this is more particularly frequent: $ARCRit 
3aitBi the gulf of Finland; Baciurb^BCBifi 6cTpoBi S' Basils Island 
R^BCuK JIpocn^KTB the Neva Prospect. — Also the dative may some 
times be substituted for this genitive : sa'^cb HasHd^BHa uinA HicT&m, 

2. In the case of nouns derived from active verbs 

iT^nie no;i63Huxi. khhtb. The reading of useful books. 

OOpasoB^me ynd. The forming of the intellect. 

KEniHie Bojii. The boiling of water. 

3. With words expressing quantity, weight, mea- 
sare, date: 

Mfldro x^tiH. Many children. 

ApmiaHT) cyKH^,. An arsheen of cloth. 

Tp^TbOTo anpijia. The third of April. ' 

4. In negative sentences and with numerals : 

y Bacb HiTB fldMa. You have no house. 

R He sHdso B^mero oti;4. I do not know your father. 

He BiiflHO nepeatHbi. One does not see any change. 

JI^Ba CT0;i4, jBtaAttaTi ctojiobt.. Two tables, twelve tables. 

5. In comparative sentences, instead of the ad- 
verbs ^iiTB or Heatejra: 

Mofi epan. raimen. jiyqme jieHii My brother writes better than I. 

(or H6acejiH a). 

Oht. npBji^jKffte H cnocfiBnte He is more diligent and more 

cEoer6 CTftpmaro 6p4Ta (Hht. clever than his eldei; bro- 

eid CTipmiS 6part). , ther. 

6. After certain prepositions and after most of 
the adverbs used as prepositions: 

MliMO rycTdro jitca. Near a dark forest. 

Okojio flecflTii lacdsT.. Towards ten o'clock. 

Bjih3t> ptKfi. Near the river. 

7. After the adjectives socToflHHfi worthy, n6jiHHS 
fuU, gyac^Hft stranger to, free from, and others conveying 
an idea, of merit, fullness, strangeness; and after 
the impersonal expression acajB it is a pity: 
JlocT6flHua ysaacema. Worthy of respect. 
KomejieKi. nojmuft n&nerb. A purse full of money. 
Itatjua r6p^ooTH. Free from pride. 

EMy acajH. 6p4Ta. He is sorry for his brother. 

8. With such active and reflective verbs as express 
wish, expectation, privation, obedience, fear, 

such as : 


BQE&Tt to look for npocAib to be^ 

xei^TB to wish, to desire Tpe6oBaTB to require 

xoiiTB to wish, to be willing raSir&Tb to avoid 

;io6HBd'rBCA to strive for 6oflTi>cx to fear 

AocTBTiiB to attain CTUji^iBca to be ashamed of 

sjaTB, ossxukth to wait, to expect imakihcii to be deprived of 

cnp&mHBaTB to ask saci^sHBaib to deserve. 

fl aejiSjo BaHT. ycnfea m> b4- I wish you success in your af- 

meirb J^iai. fair. 

Ohi jifisTO acflajn. narpS^tH. He waited long for a reward. 

Bh aamfljia ueei yfl0B6jn.CTBia You deprived me of the plea- 

sinttb Bacb. sure of seeing you. 

Kp B. The abstract nouns formed from theae verbs also re- 
quire the genitive: oacHAteie uarp&^^H the expectation of a reward, 
MmSaie HHima the loss of property. 

9. With active verbs, when the action extends 
only to a part of the objects, or lasts only a limited 

]Ifi&Te Ks/b jijkEerh. Give me (some) money. 

IlpnHecd BOA^i. Bring (a little) water. 

,9^oct4hi> Hffb 6y)i&rB. Get me (some) paper. 

N. B. The reason is that adverbs of quantity, such as si- 
CKOJiBKo, HeiiE6io, etc, are always understood with such verbs. 


In nature, and not in a body of laws (a He bi cboa* 
saKOHOBt) ought man to look for (noHepnaTB) the rules of 
his cojjdtrcj., if he wished to be really happy. There 
are certain bad examples which are worse than crime ; 
and more than one empire perished more for the fact 
(66jrte OTToro) that ttie morals were corrupted, than for 
the laws being irif ringed (hto HapymliH asmowh). 

Continuation. * ^ Three canals called Moika, 
Catherine and Fontanka divide this sea of buildings into 
three semicircular parts, and from the Place of the 
Admiralty radiate three magnificient streets like three 
rays. They are called the' Neva Prospect (HeBCKifi 
llpocneKTi), the Grorokhovaia Ulitsa (Peas' Street) and 
the Ascension Prospect (BosHec^HCKifillpocneKTx). A little 
to the East of the Admiralty are the Winter Palace, 
the Column of Alexander, the palaces of the Synod 
and of the Senate, and in front of them (HanpoTHBi) 
the large house of the General Staff, and not far from 

1 See page 169. 

176 Lessok 7. 

it the Ministry of War. Further south are to be seen 
on the right bank the villages and suburbs inhabited 
for the most part by the working classes. 

(To he eonttnued.) 



O^epepfj 6hL)ik sa mh6h>. S. Tsaf[,^n.'h CM^ao Ha Ily- 
raiieBa, roTdsacB noBTOp^TB otb4ti> BeaaKop^fBoraax'b 
MO^icB TOB&pHu^efi. Tor;^& mi. HeoMcaHHOMy MOeMy 
y;^HBn6Hiio, yBH^ijii^ a cpe^ MaTemHHXi. cTapm^i 
IIlBa6pHHa, ocTp6aceHHaro Bt KpyatdKi (with his hair 
cut round) h b-b Kaaknuou-b Ka(|)T&Ht. Owb nojsfimes.'h 
K-h Ilyra^eBy h cKaaka-h eiiy nAyxo H'^CEOjubso caoBi. 
«BiraaTB er6!» CBaa^Ji'B IlyraTCBi., He bsfjiah'^bi ;^4- 
Ke Ea MBH^. MHdb EaKiicHyjiH Ha in6K) neroAi. SI crajii 
^HT^TB npo ce6^ MOJEfrrsy, npHHOc^ B6ry 6cKpeHHee 
pacK&aHie bo Bcix-h uo^xi, nperp^m^Hioxx h uoaA 4ro 
o cnac^Hia bc4xi Csianjixii Moemt c6pAi^y. Meni noia- 
mAnM no;^% Bdcd^jinqy. «He66cB, He66cB», noBTop^JiH mh^ 
ry66TeaH, Jidmeii, 6bitb h snpABfly meada o66;^pHTB 
MeHA. Bp,fyr'h ycji^miaji^b a KpHBrb: «IIocT6fiTe, OEa- 
jtHHue, noTOjsfiTe] ...» IIa;iat[]& ocTaHOBAjiHCB. ran- 
3Kf: CaB6a£H^i. aes&ilnrb bt> hof4xi. y IlyraqeBa. 
«0t6hi. poAH6ft», roBopIi;ii> fiiiAHBiii nAubjua.. <<'5to tc- 
64 Bi CHepTH 64pcKaro shthth? OinycTA er6 ; sa Her6 
Te64 B^yn:b js,a,]j,'^Th ; a /^aa npHM^pa h CTpdxa pa^a, 
BeflA nosicHTB xotb hch^, CTapHKd !» IlyraueBii ;;aJii. 
sHaKii, H jieuA tdTvac^ passas^^H h oct&bhjih. 

«EiTH)mEa Hamob re6& M^ayen.)), rosop^aa mh*. 
B-h dry MHHfry ne Mor^ CKasATB, ^ToSt a o6p5,ffOBaji- 
CH CBOCMf H36aBJi6HiK), He CKaat^ o;i;h&kohctei, utoGj, 
a o MBifh H co«aji4jra>. V'^yBCTBOBania m;o6 6^uaiCX6m.- 
KOM-B cm^thbi. Meni cndsa npHBejifi Ki caMosBaaniy 
H nocTdBHrna nep6;^i. nHM-b na koji4hh. Ilyra^eBi. npo- 
Tanyn mh4 at^JiHCTyio CBOib pyKy. «]j;4jif fi pt^Y. 
H4jr-f fi pt^y l» roBopliJiH 6Koao 'Mbh^. Ho a npe;i;no- 
v.Sn.'h 6h ckuyio JH&Tyio KasHB TaKdny nd^JiOMy yHH- 
ac6Hiio. «B&TH)mKa, IleTpt AHflp^H^^!* mennfjii Ga- 
B^jiBH^'B, CT6fl 3a mh6h) h TOJiKda uesA. «He ynptoB- 

Use of the genitive, case. 


chI "^to Te6i ct6hti. ? iijiiohb ;i;a noutjiyft y 3Jo;i, . . . 
(spit and then kiss the scoundr . . .) (TB(J)y) 1 non-fejiya 
y Her6 pyTiKy.» SL ne nieBeji^aca. Hyra^eBi. onycxliji'B 
pyKy, CKasaB'B cb ycMiniKOio: «Er6 Sjiaropo^ie, SHaTb, 
o^ypinn oti. pa;i;ocTH. HopfiiuiiTe er6!» Men^ noff- 
nijia H ocTaBHiH Ha cboCo;!;*. .SI ctslhtj cuoxpiTB 
Ha npo;i;oj[aceHie yiKacHoft kouejj^m. 

neiai slip-knot, rope 
oCp^SOBaiiCH to rejoice 
sAsBCTali sinewy 
i^tjioB&Tb to kiss 
ToaKaTi. to nudge 
ojypiTb to grow stupid 

(Konenf 6yde'rm.} 

poAB()H parental, own 
H36aB;ienie deliverance 
cuyTHuti confused 
siivsk cruel 
onyCTixi to drop 
meBeraxBCH to stir. 


A MHorHx^B xa HyraieB'B 
eme Beji4;i'B noBicHTb? 

KtO 3T0 (jBIJGfB? 

IIoHeMy Ilyra^eBB hommjio- 
BajiB ero?- 

Ha 3TorB pasB, KdffieTca, 
OHB ^us.!, vh xopomeMB 
pacnojoaceHiH flyxa, iio- 
TOMy ^TO Aaace noMHjo- 


HHxi, npHBeAeHHaro ki 


6hjh h npo'iia atepiBH. 

l&TO 0HJB repoH noirifecTH, 
h4kto rpuHeB'fc. 

Korsa rpHHgBa upeflCTasHjH 
HyraifiBy, stot-b h hc 
Bsr.iaHyji'B na nero, a se- 
jiijiB ero KasH^TB, noTO- 

My 1T0 UlBafipHHB, KOTO- 

poMi. MH yat6 roBopAjH h 
KOTopHfi He^JiaronpijiT- 
CTBOBaj'B rpHHeay, inen- 
Hyji-B 'iTO-TO Hayxo Ily- 
raiSBy, ho Tyn CTapnit 
SflftBKa TpHHCBa, CaB§- 
jbHii, 6p6cHJca Bi> Honi 
DyraMfiBy, npoca ero no- 


ero MOJiosocTH, ito Ilyia- 
h6bt. h CA'feJiajix. 

Russian Conv. -Grammar. 


Lebson 7. 

cojiKiaia, o6pa,)ifiB&xca 
CBoeMy cnac^HiH). 

Kto me ero npHseji^B bi 

Oh'b, B^poflTHO, nocTapajica 

MoaiHO CKopie? 

J^jra ^ero 3to? 

HtO rpHHCBl, BipOflTHO, CT. 

paAOCTbH) H CA^JtaJi? 

Hto ds/kjiajut ero ciapHfi 

H TaKi OHi oraycrfiji FpH- 


Tid.'b ysaJKCHiA jih OHt ;i;ajii 
TpHHeBy TfiTyjii 6jiaro- 

npoHcin^cTBia cji^aob&jih 
TaKt 6ucTpo oah6 aa xpy- 
Tinieb, TTO OHi bx Ha^irt 
BOBce Be noHHuajTb, ^o 
dh HHui> s^JiaeTCH. Em^ 
Basajiocb, 9T0 oe-b bo chjs. 

OBpysdiD]ii;ie ero EasaEBf, 
E0T6pHe eM]f roBopfijiH, hto 
IlyraTOBi er6 MfijiyeirB. 

B'ibacaTB eH]^ nejiBsa 6djo, 
ooTOu;^ ^To Easafig see 
eiii,e ero ne sHnycEajiH Ha 
BOJiBo, OBk npHTain;Ajin ero 

K-B CaM03BaHIty, EOTOpHft 

eM^ npoTBHyj'BpyKy cbok). 

B-B SHaK'b m6jiocth oh:b ji,ajn, 
ee PpHneBy nonijOBait. 

IHiTb, offB CB OMepa^HiesTB 
OTBepnyjicji, npe;;noHHTfia 
CMepTb TaEofi n6;i;jTOCTH. 

Ohi jMOJiHJi'h ero ^o^iJI0- 
BaTF. pyEy 6yHT0BmHKa. 
IIpaBAa, HTO OH'B Bi pas- 
roBopi oniH6ajica h nasH- 
Bajra> nyraiesa sjion^ena,, 
HO Kt CTacTLK) DyraHSsi 
6hj(x Bi xopomeMi pacno- 
jioffi^HiH fl^xa H He cjh- 
xajii oaoBi cTaparo Ca- 


flfi,, OHt npHH^CBiBajTB cro 
MOJi^aHie 6jffl Hcnyry, Ajh 
paAOCTH — no^TOMy osb 
onyc'rtji'B p^y h CKasdxb 
Oh yciiniKoro: SHaiB, ero 
fijiaropoAie o^yptjnB eh 


H'txi, oHi ynoTpe6fiJi3 sto 
cjiOBO Cojiie, vio6'h Biipa- 
SHTB npespime kti ne- 
HaB^CTHOMy eM^ SBopaH- 
CTBy. KaEi MH yffi6 CKa- 

Use op the othes cases. 179 


meH-B pacnojioaceHiH Ayxa, 
no aioay om> vesijch no^- 


Aoro lejiOB'&Ka, soTopufi, 
Bopo^eiTB, Cujii, secbHa 


STOiiy HHKaKi He isorb 
BHymaTE KOMy 6h to hA- 
6UJI0 onac^Hifl. 


The dative case is used: 

1. To express advantage, utility, gain, pleasure, 
aim, detriment, dislike, and so ou: 

Sto udacerb nospe^fiTi. M,wb. This may hurt you. 

Th no^ajiT. MlJjiocTWHro Gi^BOHy Thou gavest alms to the poor 


2. After verbs formed with the prepositions npexB 
and CO (in a sense of reciprocity), or with the adverbs 
6ji4ro, npoTHBi and np^Ko: 

fl npeAnoqHT&K) qecib ;^6Hb^aK^.. I prefer honour to money. 
He npsKOCJidBb CTApmaHi. Do not contradict the aged. 

3. With the impersonal verbs: 

Mh^ 6qeHb acajib. I am very sorry. 

Te6i x6qeTca cnaib. Thou wantest to sleep. 

BaMi) He3Aop6BHTCfl. You are unwell. 

4. With th© verb 6htb (expressed or understood) 
to express relationship, friendship, enmity, etc.: 
Onii nab jiAffl- He is my uncle. 

Tu euf ;^pyn>- Thou art his friend. 

Ohi neipy Cojibmdfl sparb. He is Peter's great enemy. 

5. With certain verbs that are sometimes used in 
the infinitive with a future signification: 

BuTb Ctxi. There will be a misfortune. 

He BR^^^Tb BaHi> jicHbixi> ^eS. We shall see no fine days. 

6. After the prepositions Kt and no^, and the 
adverbs BonpeK^, ua-SJio, Ha-cMtxi, Bt-yrfiffy, etc. : 
BonpeKii TOMy. Notwithstanding this. 

1 This preposition governs also other cases. See the eighth 
lesson of the First Part 


180 Lesson 8. 

7. Very often the dative is employed after a sup- 
posed participle (past or present): 

PacnHC^Hie KHfiraBi.. The catalogue containing the 

TUcna EoroHaTepH. A song dedicated to the Virgin. 

8. Remark especially the following verbs as go- 
verning the dative in Russian and not in English: 
rpoa^TB to threatea HacKjr^c^b to annoy 

rpyti^iB to scold otoucihtb to avenge 

AOcaA^Tt to grieve nOApaz&TB to imitate 

saB^SOEaTB to envy noTaKaii. to pardon, to spare 

B.iH'ibBdTB to betray cjiy»HTb to serve 

Mim&Ti to prevent cjiijOBaii to follow 

HaAoicTb to bore yraib to instruct. 

The accnsative case is used: 

1. As a complement, after active verbs without a 
negation : 

fl B^jBy CBoB flOMT.. I see my own house. 

Th KynfijTb p■i;^KyK) KHfiry. Thou boughtest a rare book. 

2. As a complement, after neuter verbs indicating 
a known distance or time: 

Oh6 ixajH flB^^^naTb BepcTB mS,- They walked twenty versts at 

TOWb. a foot pace. 

Onk caajii. bchj Hoib. She slept all night. 

3. The accusative is likewise used in certain ex- 
pressions peculiar to the Russian language: 

Obi BaHMCM bi By?epd. He engaged himself as a coach- 

nocTynAib Bi coJijdTH. To grow a soldier. 

np6pBa;io luOT^Hy h Kan^By 3a- The dam broke and the ditch 
necjio. was filled with sand. 

4. The accusative of neuter nouns is the same as 
their nominative, as it has been seen. Yet when they are 
used to denote animate beings their accusative plural 
assumes sometimes the form of a genitive: 

a BAni-rb HXT> Be.iHqecTBT> or I saw their Majesties. 

The instramental case is used: 

1. With all passive verbs: 

Oht. ^0XBaJ^eH^ HaqdjibHHKaMH. He is praised by his superiors. 

2. With the active, neuter and reflective verbs to 
designate the agent, instrument, means or quali- 
fication : 


a 6epy KHfiry pyK4Mii. 1 hold the book with my hands. 

a h6ioci> BOfl6io. I wash myself with water. 

Sra KHfira nanficaHa MofiMt flpy- This book has been written by 

rOHi.. my friend. 

MeHif aoB^Th HB«iHOMT>. They call me John. 

Te6A ciHTaiorb tMHiurt. They think thije an intelligent 


3. With the following verbs ;i;opoa£fiTE to prize, 
acepTBOBaxB to sacrifice, H3o66jiOBaTL to abound, CTpa;;dTi. 
to suffer, and a few others: 

a jipfoxif CBOiwb BpfiMeHeifb. I prize my own time. 

PyccKie ac^piBOBajiu s^sHiio h The Russians sacrified their 

HMymecTBOMt Ha samfiiy ot6- lives and property to defend 

MBCTBa. their country. 

JIaA6accKoe dsepo B3o66jiyeTi> Lake Ladoga abounds in sa- 

BKtcHOK) p^doto.. voury fish. 

a lAcTo cTpafl^M 3y6B6!0 66jii>io. I often suffer from tooth-ache. 

4. With nouns derived from verbs which govern 
the instrumental case: 

Sa.wk/i^Ba.'th ^tji&HH. To manage affairs. 

3aB'b;(UB&Eic ;^tji^ii. The management of affairs. 

5. To indicate that part of an object which is 
distinguished by some particular qnality: 

Jlmjfiwb &kxh. White in the face. 

niepdiCB njieq&HH. Broad in the shoulders. 

6. The following adjectives of very frequent oc- 
currence must also be noted: 

6iixjBi& pale spdrEifi tame 

6or&T£!S rich icpyTdS harsh 

6oj[Bb6& sick Kp^nKifi strong 

BM^Kiil great M&iiHli small, little 

BHc6iuii high motoa6h young 

j(ob6ji&hii& satisfied hhskIS low 

AdfipHi good ai46Hii feeble 

SHaMeni&TiiiS famous cJi&BB<iri glorious 

B3b£ctbh& well known CTapufi old 

B3o6&ii>HHfi abundant hhcthii pure, clean. 

7. With the names of seasons and parts of the 


3bh6io Mop63Hrb. In winter it freezes. 

OfitflaTb B6qepoMT>. To dine in the evening. 

8. After the prepositions sa, nani,, uo}s,%, npeAi, 
ci^, and the adverb B^atAy: 

M&KAy ApysbjiMn. Among friends. 

> Also: BiHp6Ki Bi naeHixt. 

182 Lesson 8. 

The prepositional occurs exclusively after one of 
the prepositions: b-b, na, o(o6i), no, npn.* 

He who offends and blames decency, at the same 
time picks a quarrel with (aaxisaeTi) the interests and 
passions of those around him (ero OKpyacdromnxi), becomes 
an enemy of society, and deserves to be thrown out of 
it. The greatest danger of prejudices and vices consists 
in the fact that they cover themselves under the mask 
of truth and virtue. Mediocrity, acting by routine, in 
its enthusiasm for the past (bi BOCTopri orb nponi^A- 
maro) lives in the present only to render it old. 

Continuation. — But however {saxh 6h hh 6ju.%) 
magnificent the view from the height of the Dome of 
St. Isaac's is, one will look in vain for anything approa- 
ching the picturesque or for any. record of Uie past: all is 
regular, all is new. But this does not prevent St, Peters- 
burg from being on an equality (HapaBai) with the 
most beautiful cities in the whole world. When you 
take a promenade in winter on the Neva Prospect between 
three and four o'clock, you feel obliged to admit that 
neither London nor Paris presents anything better as to 
the beauty of edifices, as to the richness of shops, as 
to the elegance of carriages. I have endeavoured to 
communicate (nepeAaxb) to you my first impressions 
and to give you a general idea of St. Petersburg. I don't 
know if I have succeeded in doing so, but I have at 
least sincerely wished it and I hope you will appre- 
ciate my good intentions. I am your affectionate brother. 



atliTejiH Ha^ajiH npHCsraxB. Oh6 noftxo;i;6jiH 
0flM% aa ;i,pyr6Mi., ixfhjifa pacn^ie h noTdMt kji&hhhci. 
caMOSB^Hny. PapHnsoHHtie coaf^&Thi cxoiiJiH Tyxi ace. 
PdxHHfl nopTHdfl, BOopyaceHBufi xynikMH cbo^mh H6at- 
HHi^aMH, p^3ajii> y hhxi> k6cei. 0h6, oxpjtxnBaACb, 

» Some of these prepositions gorem also other cases. See 
the 8* lesson of the First Part. 

Ube of the other cases. 183 

ubuxop^SR Ki pyK* nyra^eBa, EordpuS o6i,sB3t&3i-h 
HM-b npon^^aie h npnsauka-h HXt Bt CBOib mMKy. 
Bee 6to npoAOitatdjiocb 6koj[o Tpexi ^acdsi,. Haxo- 
H^nt Ilyra^eBi. BCTajii ci> Kp6cejn. h comgjit ci> 
KpHjiBn;A Bi. conpoBOSA^HiH CBO±xi cTapin^H^. Em^ 
noflfiesA fiijiaro koh^, yKpameHHaro 6oraToS c6pfe&. 
JIJBa KaaaKa Bs^ian er6 n6;i;i.-pyKH h nocapfisa B-h ci- 
]s,a6. Oa-h o6i>flBdjn> OTi^y TepAcHMy, tto 6^;i;eTi. o6i- 
jaTb y Her6. B'b diy mbh^ xy pasfldaca atcHCKifl KpHK-b. 

H-feCKOJIBKO pa36di!HHEOB'I> B^TamiHJIH Ha KpiJJD.Ii;6 

BacsuiHcy EropoBHy pacTpeHaHHyio h pasfliTyK) so-nara. 
Oa^h^b H33 Hnxi. ycn'fejiii yace HapaA^TBca bi, eA 
flynierpMny. Jl|pyrie xacKAan neptesi, cyH;i;yK6, ^aft- 
HyK) nocf;i;y, 6^ab& h bch) pfxjra^B. «B&TH)niKH mo6!» 
KpH^daa 6^;i,Eafl CTapfniEa, «OTirycT6Te ;^y^Iy Ha no- 
KajtHie (give me time to make my repentance). Otts,^ 
po^H^ie, OTsefltoe MenA ki. HsAHy KyaBMBraf !» Bflpyr-B 
OHa BsroflH^jia na b^c^jibi^ h ysH&Jia CBoer6 M^aca. 
«3jiOA^nh> saEpH^&Jia oh& b% ncTynji^HiH. «^to bbi 
iSto- Ch hhm;& c;('ijiaaH ? Cb4tx tbi moS, Hb^hi) KysB- 
jiAz-h, ysajiaa coji^iTCKaa rojibayniKal (my brave sol- 
dier darling!) ne Tp6Hyjra re6& hh bithk^ np^ccKie, 
HH nyjiH TypenKia; ne Bt q^cxHOMi 601& noJioat^Ji'b 
TBI CBOft jkhb6tti, a criiHyjii oxi 64rjiaro K&xopatHH- 
Ka! «yHAxB cxapyH) Bi;tBMy!» CKa3&Jii> IlyrageBi. 
Tyxi. Moao;^6fi sas^KTb j^kpuji-h ee c&6jieio no tojiob*, 
H OHa yn^Jia MepxBaa na cxyn^HH KptiJiBniA. Ilyra- 
«eB3. yixajii; Hap6;^'B 6p6cHJica sa hhmi.. jiymmm. 

Tyndft blunt koc& pig-tail, tress 

iD&UKa band cfipya harness 

xyinerpiuKa warm-jacket nepsHa feather-bed 

cyiijiyBi box, cheat p^xaaji utensils 

mtAiai^Th to look BCTjrnJidnie frenzy 

mxiiKi bayonet k&topjkhhki convict 

ynaTB to silence yAdpnii to strike. 


^To CA^JiajH atfixejrH? ffifireaH BfcioropcKoS Kps- 

nocTH HaqajiH, KaKt axo 
■jtijiajiocb BO BCtxi M%- 
ciaxi, saHHMaeMHx'B Ily- 
raneBHM'B, npHcaraxB eMy 

V!h BipHOCTH. 


Lesson 8. 

KaKi 3T0 stjajoct? 

1x0 ffie ;i,ijiajiH b'l 9to 
BpeMfl cojisaTU? 

KaKia KOCH? 

A OTO ]i,iza,jvh Hyra^cBi Bce 
9T0 Bp^Ma? 

Kto ^to KpHiaJIT>? 

Ottofo OHa Kpnqdjia? 

Saajia-JiK ohh, y»^, ^to Myact 

ea fiHJiTj noBimeHiV 
Kto ee HSBicTfiaii o tom^? 

Ona, BipojiTHO, ynajia bi 

odMOpOKX, Ka.K'b 3T0 "jaCTO 

Onfi no;i;xo;i;HJH o^fini sa 
Hpyr^Mi K-B pacnflTiK), 
KOTopoe xepma;iii CBam^H- 


Bi noflCi CaMOSBaHuy. 
Ohh Toate 6Ajm Ha njiomajE 

H Bin. pOTHHH nOpTHOfl 

OTptsHBaj-B TynuMH Hoac- 


Tor^a pyccKie cojr;!;aTH, o6- 
MyH;i,Hp6BaHHHe no npyc- 
CKOMy o6pa3^y, ^oJifflHti 
6iSiJm HocixB jsjifinmiE 


Oh% cHA'iJt, noKa Bce 3to 
npoAOJ5Kaj[(5cB, b-b Kp6c- 
jiaxx, OKpyateHHHft Kasa- 
HBHMH CTapuiHHaMH, ero 
npHBepKeHu,aMH. HaKO- 
nenj,, Kor;i;anpHHflTie npa- 
cara 6UJI0 kohhcho, owh 
BCTaas Ci Kpeceji, h 
xot4j% 6tjJ0 yji,ajifiTBca. 
Bi 9T0 BpeMa pas^aJica 
B;^py^^ atCHCKifi kphk<b. 

OTO 6iija BacHjfica EropoB- 
Ha, ateHa cxapdro komch- 
AaHTa BijforopcKoft Kp4- 


HicKOJiBKO H3i paadofiHH- 


KpHJBi;6, H Bi. Toate cdMoe 
Bp^Ma pacxHni,ajin ea HMy- 
u^ecTBO. Ona ace npocAaa 
pa366fiHHKOBi, qT66H ee 
Htxi, OHa 9Toro He*3H4jia. 

Oh4 B3rj[aHyjia na BficijiHiiy 
H yB^A^jaBHcaniiaroHyaca. 

Bi TorAaraHee Bp^Ma 66- 
MopoKH 6ujni eme Hens- 

Remarks on the use op some pbonodkb. 185 

fl'fejiaiOT% JK^HmHOH? BicTHH Bl POCCIH Wb Tixt 

Kpyraxi. 66iii;ecTBa, bx 
KOTopHxt BpamajacB Ka- 

%o ate OHa bi laKOM-B Ofia Hanajra 6paHATb Ilyra- 
cjiynai CA'fejajia? ^eBa. 

A OHi ^To eft CKaaaji bi Ohi Bej4;ii yhhtb ciapyio 

OTBirt? B^ABMy, KaKt OHt BHpa- 

H KaKfiMTi ofipaaoM'b ynajtH Mojio3;6fi KasaKi y^dpHJi ee 
ee? ca6aero no rojroBi islkt,, 

^TO OHa MepTBaa yndja 
Ha CTyn^HH KpHJ[Bn;a, Be- 
symaro Bt ea c66cTBeH- 

HHS }S,OM-h. 



Kto and hto when followed by laKoii, xaKaa etc. 
correspond to what kind of a man, what kind of & 
thing, etc. : 

Kto oht. TaK6fi? What kind of a man is he? 

Kto oh4 TaicAa? What kind of a person is she? 

Ito TaK6e? What is that? 

a He 3Hiio, 1T0 Sto Taude. I do not know what such a 

thing is. 
HHKo^;^d ne y^a;^4eIUb, kto obh You will never guess who they 
TaKie. are. 

Kto . . . KTO and 9to . . . ^to correspond to the Eng- 
lish expressions the one . . . the other: 
Kto roBopflrb, kto inTaeTt. The one speaks, the other reads. 

KoMt r6pe, kom^ CMtxT.. The one suffers, the other laughs. 

Hto is sometimes used in the sense of as, why, and 
in interrogative sentences for is it not: 
Ito flo MeHji. As to me. 

Ito hs H^enib? Why dost thou not go? 

TpyflHO noH^Tb, qT6 .in? It is difficult to understand, is 

it not? 

^TO not unfrequently refers to persons: 
^eaoBiKt, ^TO npHXOflfijrt BTOpa. The man who came yesterday. 

After a conditional sentence, the pronoun to is 
often used to enforce the expression, even when the 
conditional particle is understood: 

186 Lesson 9. 

EcjihSm a ne SHaai, kto owb la- Did I not know who he is, I 
k68, to He nOBipHJit 61.1 eKf. would not believe him. 

ByjB a 3flop6Bi, to If I were in good health, I 

would . . . 

The negative expression ne to often has the signi- 
fication of unless, otherwise: 

VlnA CKOpie, He to om3}i,kemb. Make haste, lest you come too 


With the pronoun to the following idioms in com- 
mon use are fonned: 

KaKT. 6h to Hii-fiHJio. However it may be, at any rate. 

Pflt (Sbi TO Hfl-CiMO. Wherever it may be. 

Ito 6u to ud-6ujio. Whatever it may be. 

The adverbs ckoju-ko, ctojibko, HicKOJiKO, when used 
as pronouns, have an incomplete declension. In the 
singular their dative only is used with the preposition 
no ; in the plural they have in all cases the terminations 
of qualifying adjectives: 

Ho CKdatity? For how much each? 

CKdJtbEBX'b BU roBopfoe? Of how many do you speak? 

The indefinite pronoun one (French on, German 
man) has no equivalent in Russian. To render it, it is 
necessary to give another turn to the sentence: 
BcerAi HSJibait 6uTb hojioa^hi h One is not always young and 

KpaciiBUMi. handsome. 

TJ^^ua, Bcer^^a Ji^ime, H^aceJin bi> One is always better at home 

apyroMT. M'fecrfe. than elsewhere. 

Ho B^ineMy JIB^y afiflHO, mo bu One sees by your look that you 

BesAopdBU. are ill. 

It has been stated (page 57) that the possessive 
pronoun referring to the subject of the sentence is al- 
ways CBoii without any regard to person or number. 
This important rule is however sometimes disregarded 
for the sake of pointing out contrast or opposition: 
fl BsajT. M0i5 KHiiry, a th cBoib. I took my book and you (took) 


Some authors however, even in such instances, follow the, 
general rule. Thus Batyushkov: a CAeps&jii CBog cji6bo, csepz:ftTe CBoe. 


TURE. — Writing made its first appearance {asfiMCh) in 
Russia with the adoption of Christianity, in the ninth 
century. In consequence, the first Russian writers were 
ahnost exclusively churchmen, and the contents of 

Kemabeb on thk use op some pbokouks. 187 

their work exhibit a preeminently dogmatic and didactic 
character. — A Gospel, written about the middle of the 
eleventh century by the deacon Gregory of Novgorod for 
the Governor of Ostromir, is generally considered to 
be (cjivskAtb with Instr.) the most ancient monument 
of Russian hand-writing. Next to "Ostromir's Gospel" 
in point of time (no speHeHH) come "Svyatoslav's Col- 
lections" (1073 — 76) which contain a complete ency- 
clopsedia of varied information, drawn from Byzantine 

From the same sources originated (npoHsorajio) a 
great many other works of (ct) a similar general cha- 
racter, and even some poetical novels. But an indepen- 
dent national activity found its expression (siipaaHjiaeB) 
from the earliest times in an extensive cycle (bi 6o;!b- 
moH'b KOJifiqecTBi) of tales, songs, proverbs, enigmas etc. 
and above all in annals (a oc66eHHO vh skiouaca). Yet 
the names of the annalists have not come down to us ; 
the only name known is that of Nestor, a monk of 
Kiev who died in 1114. His annals, the so-called "Tales 
of contemporary years"- were for that time a remarkable 
work and served as the starting point of subsequent 
annalists. (To he continved.) 

CHepTK CTapOB^pa. — The Old-believer's death. 

Cpi;^6 ji4c6bt> KepmeHn;a paac^ano MH6ro o;i;h- 
H6KHX'fi Mor6jii; B-h hhxi. TJiiiOTi. k6cth CT&pn;eB'b, 
jnoAefi AP^BHflTO 6jiaroiecTia, h o6i> opfidwh h3i. la- 
s^csL-b CTapi^esi., — AhtAh*, — bi> ;^epeBHHXl> na Kep- 
atcHni paacKasEiBaioTt : 

CypoBHft xapaKTepoMt, 6or&THft MvatfiKi. AhtAhi. 
Jlfnes-b, ;^oat6Bl. bo rpix* MipcKOMt ;^o^aTHAecflTH 
a-hr-h, saffyMaacH KpiuKO, saTOCKOB^jii. flymofi h, 6p6- 
CHBi ceMBH), yraea-B bi. jiica. TaMi>, na Kpaib Kpyioro 
osp^a, OHi. cpy66ai. ce64 kcjibio h acHJit BOb nefi b6- 
coMB jtiTOb Kp^y H s^Hy H Jiixo, He ;^o^ycKaa k-b ce6i 
HHKoro : HH 3HaK6MBixi, HH po^H^bcrB CBoAxi. nop6io 
al&AH, safijiyAiiCB B-h Jiicf, cjiv^Mho ho;i;xoa6jih ki. 
ero Kejtb* h bh^^Jih AHT^na: ohx MOJiIiJica, ctoa na 
KOJii^Hsx'B y nopora e^. BBia-B on-h CTpAmeHi : nacoxi. 


Lebson 9. 

Bl. nOCTi H M0J[6TB'fe H BCCB, KaKt SB^pB, 06p6Ci BO- 

jiocaMH. SaBA;!,^!. qejiOB^Ka, ohi> iio;i;HHMajica Ha Ho- 
rn H, MOJiqa, KjaHSJica eny ;i;o aeusA. Ecjih ero cnpa- 

UIHBaJIH, KaKt BlifiTH H3i Jlica, OKI, 6e3i CflOBB yKa- 

SBiBaji'b pyKoio flop6ry, em,e KJiteaaca ^lejiOBiKy ^o 
SBMJiA H, yxo;i;ii bb cboi5 KeaBio, aannpajicfl bi> nefi. 3a 
BoceMB Jiixi. ero B6/i;ijTH uacTO, ho hhkto HHKor;i;a He 
CJiBixajii er6 roaoca. SKena h }s,%tt3. npaxoflfijiH kb 
HeMy; ohb npHHUMajii ot3> hhxi> uAmj h o^eat;i,y h, 
KaKB BcfeMB jiK)/i,^Mi., KjiaHaJica HMt 3eMHO, ho, KaKB 

BCfeMi S.lhURM'h, H HMi BO BpeMa HO/^B^aCHH^eCTBa CBOe- 

ro hh CiiOBa ne CKaaaa-B. (Eonmi 6ydemz) 

TiiiTh to be corrupted 
sasyMaiB to begin to reflect 
6pucET£ to abandon 
cpyfi^Ti to hew down 
Kpaiy one after another 
nop6ri threshold 
nocTi fast, penitence 
oAexAa coats 

X03iAti> to attain the age of 
saiocKOBaTB to grow sad 
OBpdr:E ravine 
KejiiH cell 
,j;onycK4Th to admit 
HacoxHyxt to dry up 
uannpdiB to shut 
iiojBfiaHH'iecTBo retirement. 


^Ito BH;^HO B% xicaxB 6jh3b 

^To 3a jhoah Tami atHByTB? 

Sa^ittt OHt SS.VUl'b BB OAH- 

KaKOBO 6hjo ero atfijrame? 

TaMB BHflHO MHoro o;i;hh6- 


tji4k)Tb kocth peBEfiTCJiefi 
SP^BHaro 6orocjiyaceHia. 

H^KOTopHe CTapoBipH, y^a- 
jHBfflieca OTh csiTa, aM^ffi- 
AY HHMH Awrawb JI^HeBB. 

]i,jia Toro iTofiH cnacTfi cbok) 
Ayuiy. jI,oacHBB bb rpixi 
MipcKOMB so ^flT<i;^ecaTH 

l-kTb, OKb 6p6cHJi CeMtK) 

H ymejii bt, aica. 
Ha KpaK) KpyToro OBpara 
owh cpySfiji-B ce64 k^^ibk), 

BB KOTOpOfi OHl. ffiHJl 

BoccMb ain, Kpaay h afimy 
H ji4to, He ;i,onycKas kb 
ce64 HHKoro. 



Ho poAHHe B^poflTHO noci- 
majH ero Hept^KO? 

HirB, OHt He xoxiai. ro- 
BopAit ;i,asKe ct hAmh; 

OHt npHHHMdji OTt EHXt 

nHnty h OAexAy, ne ro- 

h£[3E0 KjaHSACb. 



The total absence of such verbs in Russian, and 
their extremely frequent use in English render it im- 
possible to determine by rules how to express them. 
Their various significations can only be shown by 
examples, and by observing certain expressions. 

May, can (might, could). 
Cfl'ijiafiTe Sto, Scjih MdaceTe. You may do it, if you can. 

yMteie sa va roBopfiTt no ptcc- Can you speak Russian? 


%^JiaK) BaHT> SuTb CiaCTJI^BblHH! 
JUa. 6fn&rb 0HT> CllCTJIHBT.! 
SUIH U6]KH0 TaKl. CKaS^Tb. 

BuTb uds&evh om, Ten6pb yatS 

SI Be Mort He csasciTb BaMi>. 
P43Bt KanHT^BT. HB M6aceTb ce- 

^6;^H« y Hacb oC'IflaTt? 

ficjIH BH St^BTe XOfl^Tb TaKli 

6ji)&3ko kt, zaMkai, bu &!> Hee 

no3B6.iibTe sac* cnpocfiib, kt. Ka- 

KOHy Bbi saHjiTiK) cnoc66Bbi? 
He yiiflHo jiH BaM^ winiKy qaio? 
Bo3m6xho jib? 
IIo Bcefi BipoiJTHOCTn cajiATca 

TaKl, KaicL BU npeAcicaa&jiH. 

Shall (should), 
fl fiy^y npor^JiHBaTbca. 
Oh4 c^ijiaerb Sto ftJia Bac^. 
H nomgjri) 6u, ho mh* H^KorAa. 
Obt. p,6jixewh 6bijn> 6ti noixaTb 

wb PoccIk). 
Mh* CyAeTi Henpi^THO.. 6cjih oht. 

He saxdierb npifiTli. 
He acea^eTe jih nporyjuiTbca ne- 


I wish you may prosper! 
May he be happy! 
If I may say so. 
He may be dead now. 

I cannot help telling you. 
Can the captain not dine with 

us to-day? 
If you walk so near the ditch, 

you may fall in. 

May H ask you what you are 

able to do? 
May I offer you a cup of tea? 
Can that be true? 
It might possibly happen as you 

have predicted. 

must, onght. 

I shall take a walk. 
She shall, do it for you. 
I should go, but 1 have no time. 
He should go to Russia. 

I should be sorry, if he were 

not willing to come. 
Shall we take a short walk? 


LiESSON 10. 

Bu hosmbA noJiyq^Tb earpi^^y. 
Oin>, ffittXttd SuTb, roBop^;n> vb 

^■tO A<ijlKHO, TO A^JIBHO. 

Bu Be ]ipaxw& rosop^Tb 6toto. 
Bu noaxvA Ci^B BiiyiHTb ^to 

H sqepd fif>3m.6m, 6uxh aaniicdTb 

Bt MOCKB'^. 

You shall have a reward. 
He must have spoken to them. 

What must be, must. 

You must not say so. 

You ought to learn this by 

I ought to have written to Mos- 
cow yesterday. 

Will (would), 

Oht> fi^flen. paflTi er6 BfifltTt. 
Mu G-^f/sm, nhvsath Sjiaro^'i^jiBiA 

H fiyAeui 6jiaro;(&pBU. 
He xoTHTe jih bu ci BHirb roBO- 


He xotAto jih bu cTaE&Bi> nltea? 
SI js,3,irh 6u eai^ x^Ben, 6cau 6u 

He Sy^^BTe jih bi^ ia,Kb ;i(o6p£i 

o;^ojiHcdTb UH'6 CBofi oepoqdk- 

HUfi HdaCBKl? 

H Be uory ii03B6jiiiTb BaHi htt^ 

IlyCTb OHT) npHA^Tb, ^JIB OOH^- 

HycTb ociflJiS.ioTb JI6BIa;^b. 

Ykfifi.Te TlSTb E6HBaTU ! 
OcidBbTe MBB^ 0AE0r6. 

He yxo;^6Te. 

let, to leave. 

He will be glad to see him. 
We will remember benefits and 

be thankful. 
Will you speak to him? 

Will you have a glass of beer? 
I would give him the money, 

if I could. 
Would you be so kind as to 

lend me your penknife? 

I cannot let you go alone. 

Let him come, if he dare. 

Let the horse be saddled. 
Leave the room 1 
Let me be alone. 
Don't leave. 


Continuation.! — About a hundred years later 
we find the "Narrative of Igor's Expedition (Cjobo o 
UojKy HropeBi)" written in 1185, the only monument 
of ancient Russian profane poetry, relating the tinhappy 
march of the Novgorod prince Igor Svyatoslavich 
against the Polovs. — In the thirteenth century, Russia 
was submitted to a cruel calamity, the Tartar invasion 
(1224 — 1480) which struck terror into all hearts (noTpa- 
CJio Bcixi ;i;o vny^viuu. xymfi) and silenced all literary de- 
velopment. But in happier circiunstances, the priest 
Sylvester, the counsellor of Ivan the Terrible, composed 
the famous "Domostroy", a book of domestic economy, 
[consisting of] a series of familiar and agricultural 

See page 187. 


precepts, wherein the relations of life are given in 
strictly defined forms akin to Chinese immobility. 

About this time printing began at Moscow, and in 
the sixteenth century Peter Mohila, the metropolitan 
of Kiev, remodelled that academy on the plan of western 
universities. The chief branches of teaching in it were 
theology, philosophy and rhetorics ; among the ancient 
languages Latin was taught, and besides it Slavonic. 
In the year 1664 several scholars were transferred 
thence from Moscow and amongst them Simeon Po- 
lotski. This famous representative of modern times 
composed some tragedies, had them performed (pasu- 
rpkjiT, Hxi) in the presence of the Tsar Alexei Mikhai- 
lovich and endeavoured by every means to spread Eu- 
ropean learning in the imperial Dominions, but no Rus- 
sian literature in the proper sense of the word existed 
yet (eme h6 6ujio). (To be continued.) 


CHepTB C^apOB'Bpa. — The Old-Believer's death. 


yaep-h oHt BT. TOj^-h, KO^;^a pasop^aa ckAtbi, h 
CMepTB er6 thLuk TaKOsa: 

Ilpi^XaJIX Bi A^Ch HCnp&BHHKIb Ch KOMAH^IjOfi, H 

jBn}s,kna oh6, tito ctoAti. Awrdm, cpe;^H kbjibh Ha ko- 
jiiHaxi. H 6e3M6flBH0 MdJiHTca. 

— Tbi 1 — Kp^KHyjB eM^ HcnpaBHHKi. — yxoff6 1 
JIoM^TB 6y;i;eMi. TBOe jior6BHiij;e ! . . — Ho AhtAhi. He 
cjitiinaji'B er6 r6jioca. H ck6j[bko hh Kpjmka-h hc- 
npaBHHifB — HH cjiosa ne OTBiTHjnb eny CT&pen.t. 
To^;^a HcnpdBHHK-B npHKasajii B£iTani;HTB AHT^ua nsi. 
KejiBH. Ho Jtib^H, B^AH CTapua, KOToptifi, ne saMi^aa 


npe^t TBep;^0CTBH) er6 flyni6 h He nocaymajiHCb Hcnp&B- 
HHKa. Tor^a hchp&bhhkii npHKa34jii> hmi. JiOMaTt k^jibk), 
H ocTopoacHO, 6oflCB yAapfiTb MOjramaroGa, OHfi MOJina 
CT&JiH pasSnpiTb KptSony. 

CTy«AjiH Ha;i;i. rojiOBofl Am^na TOnopSi, Tpem;&JiH 
fl6cKH H na^aJiH na s^mjh), ryjiKoe ixo yflipoB'b nonec- 
jiocB no aicy, saMexdjracB bokp'^b k6jibh nT6ii;Er, 
BCTpeBoaceHHBra nifMOM'B, 3a;i;poataaa aHCXBa na ;^e- 


Lebbon 10. 

peBi>axi.. A CT^peni. Bce aoaAjica, kslkt, Sm ne B6;^H 
H He cjiiiina HHTier6 .. . . Ha^ksa pascK^TMBaTB b4h- 
i^ KejiBH, a xoaaHH'B e& see CTOHJiTb He^o;^B6acHo na 
s,OJi%sax'h. H JiHmB KOT]i,a. OTKaT6;iH bt. CTopony no- 
CJiifliHia 6peBHa h caMT> HcnpaBHHKt, no;i;ofi;];A kx cxap- 
i];y, Bsaat er6 aa bojioch, Aht^hb, BCKfiHyBt o^ch bi 
H^6o, Tfrxo CKasaat B6ry: 

— r6cno;i,H m^jeocthbhS . . . IIpocTA hxi.. H, 
yndBX HaBSHHiiB, ynepi.. rdphmii. 

paaopaxh to destroy 
Hcnp^BHUK'E chief of police 
36roBHiiie den, lair 
rjpjKifi sonorous 
.iiicTBd foliage 
BiH^m row of beams 
BCEHByxi to raise, to lift 

CEBTi hermitage 
6e3H6;iBB0 silently 
&CT0B0 sincerely, devoutly 
aaMer^TBca to fly about 
pascKaTHsaTb to roll out 
OTKaiiiB to drive away 
BiB3Haib backward. 


Bt KaKofi roAt yMept Cia- 

A KorAa 3T0 cjyqHJOCB? 

H KaKOBa 6HJia ero CMepTt? 

IIocjiyniajteH jth CTapoB-fep-L? 

Ito c^ijiaji'B Tor^a HcnpaB- 


A Ahthhi, hto ohx sani- 


Ho HTO CKaaaji'B HaKon^m 
HecqacTHHK CTapeit^,' Kor- 
Aa CTporifi HcnpaBHHKX 
rpySo BBAJB ero sa b6- 


Ohb yMep-B BB roAT., Korsa 
pasopajiH CKHTH, no npa- 
BHTe jfcCTBeHHOMy npuKaay. 

&T0 cjryqAjrocB npn EKaie- 

P^H't II. 

KaKoft-TO HcnpaBHHKinpi'fc- 
xajiB BB jricB ct KoiiaH- 
Aofl H BCJtijiB eMy yftTii 


Ohb npoAo.;iatajx cbom mo- 
JiHTBy, ne o6pain;aa HHKa- 
Koro BHHMaHia na uoxf- 
^eHHHft npHKa3B. 

Ohi npHKaaajiB jhoajimi jio- 

m4tB K^JtBK). 

OffB HH cjroBa He roBopfijii 

M^KAy TiMB, KaKB Tono- 

pu CTyqa jH naAB ero roao- 
Bofi H AOCKH H 6peBHa eh 
m^HLOWh naAajH Ha bcjutk). 
BcKHHyBS OHH Ha h66o, ohb 
tAxo CKasajpB: TocnoAH 


— H, yndsB HaBSHHit, 

Remarks on the use of prepositions with two cases. 193 



To what has been stated in the 8"" lesson of the 
First Part, concerning the use of those prepositions which 
are followed by two cases, may now be added that: 

a) The prepositional adverb m^acAj or mem.'h is in 
most cases indifferently followed by the genitive or the 
instrumental : 

Stott. T6f0Xb JieatiiTi> H^at^y This town is situated between 
(MeacT.) flByxT. ptKi. (or flsyMrf two rivers. 


b) When sa answers to the question wherefore ? it 
governs the accusative, and not the instrumental: 

Th 6uaT. HaK^aaffb aa mdjiooTb h Thou wast punished for thy 

jiiuocTb, a jiwb nojiyi^jFL Ha- prank and idleness, but he 

rp4sy 3a xop6iiiee noBefleaie h received a reward for his good 

npB;ie}K4Hie. behaviour and diligence. 

It is likewise followed by the accusative when ac- 
companied by an expression, of time, distance or price : 
3a nefltjiio Tony aaakni,. A week before. ' 

Mu atHBeMi. aa ipH sepcTii. We live three versts from here. 

3a Tiicaqy py6ji6fi. At the price of 1000 roubles. 

But 3a requires the instrumental when it means 
behind, through, by reason of: 

E6inKa aa ctoji6mii. The cat is behind the table. 

A He ycnijra> aa Hejoc^rOMi.. I could not finish througli. want 

of time. 

c) With inanimate and abstract objects, the prepo- 
sition n^pe;^^ or npe;(i. is more often used with the 
instrumental case, even when the verb of the sentence 
denotes motion or direction: 

OffB jiBfljica npe^7> r6poflOin>. He appeared before the town. 

d) The preposition Bt or bo with such verbs as 
indicate promotion, bestowal of rank or reward, re- 
quires the accusative plural, and that case must in such 
instances be like the normnative: 

IIpoH3BecT6 Bi 0({)H^6pH. To promoto to officer. 

IIow&jiOBaTb BT. noJiKdBHHKH. To appoint as colonel. 

IlepeHMeHOBdTb bt> KaHjHflATH. To receive the title of a candi- 
3anHc4TbCH bi. Kyni(6. To be inscribed among mer- 


Rusaian Conv.-Grammar. 

194 Lesson 11. 

Bt, is used with the accusative, when answering to 

the questions what time? what age? how long? how 
broad? how dear? etc. 

Bo BwipHHK'b. On Tuesday. , 

B-b ftowflb. During the rain. 

^OMt BT. TpH dtknta,. A house three storeys high. 

KoM^flifl BT. oflliffb aKTT.. A comedy in one act. 

CyKHo BT. TOTiipe pygjiji. Cloth at four roubles. 

e) The preposition o, o6i>, 660 governs the accusa- 
tive when answering to the questions: against what? 
on what ?, which is most frequently the case after verbs 
of striking f throwing, etc. : 

y;^S,pHTI. K^MeHb. To strike on a stone. 

OnepfeTbcfl 0(61.) CTOJii. To lean against a table. 

The accusative follows 06'b also in the following 
expressions : 

061. 6to Bp6Ma. Towards that time. 

O61. ^xy n6py. About that epoch. 

Hrrfi 66pyKy. To walk hand in hand. 

In all other cases 0, 06% may be said to govern 
the prepositional. No rules can be given on this subject 
and it will be sufficient to state that 0, o6i may 
correspond to almost all English prepositions, or to no 
preposition at all: 

He 6e3noK6fiTecb o tomi.. Do not trouble yourself about it. 

Hjiskh o GeSi! Mind your own business! 

Sto MBt HanoMHH^en. mo^xi. That reminds me of my early 

ibHMXT. flHflXT.. days. 

Oht. ropefi&jn. CM6pTH ftp'jra. He mourned over his friend's 

/ death. 

JljOHOC^Ti. xfifli fltjia. To inform as to the way things' 

are going on. 


Continuation. !■ — Literature, like every thing 
noble in Russia, owes its first impulse to Peter the Great. 
This glorious monarch, wishing at any rate (bo ^to 6u 
TO HH CTajio) that his nation should be in no respect 
inferior to any other, zeailously multiplied schools, 
libraries and printing-offices ; laid the foundations (is.aj.'h 
ocHOBdHie) of the Academy of Sciences and ordered 
many German, French and Dutch books to be translated 
into the Russian language ; in a word, he tried to create 

1 See page 191. 

Beharks on the use ov fbepobitions with two cases. 195 

in a short time a Russian Literature, just as (laKt sue 
Kasi) he had built towns and organized an army. He 
died however without seeing much (ne nojiyifiBi noiT6 
HH OAEor6) fruit of all his labours. 

The only talented author who embellished his 
reign, Prince Kantemir (1709 — 1744), composed nine 
satires aiM eleven letters on philosophic and moral 
subjects. The fact which he especially denounces (hbji6- 
Hie ocoOeHHO o(5jtHwuoe hm-b) is the following: The upper 
classes of society adopted European refinement and comfort 
of life, but in all else they abode by their (coxpaHfijiH) former 
ignorance, supersition, coarseness towards the com- 
mon people (rpy6oe o6pa]ii;4Hie ci ntsimm'b imaccoH'B na- 
poAa), disregard for science, in so far as no (6cjih hc) 
material improvement is forthcoming. For that reason 
he may be called the first writer of modem Russian 
literature. (To be continued.) 


OvenB H saiiopdseBaa Obtb. 

Ctciib ?%hi> A^Jidbe, TtMi> cxaHosdjiacB npenpac- 
Hte. Tor;i;4 secB ion., Bce to npocTp&HCTBO, Koxdpoe 
cocTaBfliexi. HZSra^mHioH) HoBopdcciio ;^o caiaaro ^ep- 
Haro M6pa, 66jio sejieHOio, ;^iBCTBeHHOIo nycTJiHeio. 
HHKor^a nayri ue npoxo^^fijtt no HeHSMip^BiBiMii boji- 
H^Hi> AiiKHXi pacTeniS; o;i;Hii t6jibeo Kdna, CKpuBaB- 

lUieCH Bl> HHXl, KaRl. B-B Jld^Cf, BHT&nXBIBaJIII 

hx:b. Ha^Td Bi npHp6;i;t h6 6^Jto Jiy^me hxi.. 
,Bca ^pHp6;^a npe;tCTaBaAjiacB aenSHO-aojiOT^M'B OKe- 
^HOMi, no KOTdpojiy fipIisHyjm MHflJii6HBi pasHBixt 
i^Bd&T6Bi. Cebosb T6HKie, BHcdSie ct66jih Tpas^ ckbo- 
36jih rojiy6tie, cAnie h jiHJi6BHe B0Ji6mKH; aEcejiTBifi 
;^poEi BMCE^nsajti Bsepxi. CBoeio nnpaMB;];4jiBH0H> 
BepxymKOH) ; 6ijiaa Kanma soHTHKO-ofipasHHMH in&nKa- 
MH uecrpina, na nOBepxHOCTH : saHeceHHuS EonsHdeTi 
OTK■^;^a Kdaocb nmeirimBi najiHBajicH b-l ryn^i. Hor-b h6- 
MH (t. e. TpiBaMH) niHBipijiH Kypon^TKH, BJirflHyBi. 
CBQift m^H, Bds^yxi 6uRi3 Han6jiHeHi> t^caqbh) p43- 
liBix^B niAuhsxTi cb6ctobi>. Ha H66t ae^o;^B6atHO cto- 
^JiH i^^aoH) Ty^eio ^CTpefisr, pacnaacxABi. cbo6 Kp^^Jita 
H Heno;i;B6acHO ycxpeM^si. cbo6 raasA bj, Tpasy. KpaK'B 
;^B6^aBraeflca bi CTOponi xy^n ;i;6KHXi rycefi ox;^a- 
B^jiCH Eori) sH&exi bi> EaKdMi p^kxbKewh dsepd^. H.s'h 



Lessok 11. 

TpaB£![ no^uMdJiacB m^phmmh ssMaxaHH iiMEa u po- 
CKomHO Kyn&aacB bi. cfenxi bojih^Ii B63;;yxa. Boht. 
0H& npon&Jia bi BHiiiHHi h meiaiik&rh t6jq.ko oahoio 
TOpHOK) T6qKOio; BOTB OHa ncpcBepHyjiacB KpiijIbaMH 
H SaecHyaa nepe;];i. c6iiHneMX. CT6nH, po^Hiita moA 
CT6nH, KaKi. BH XOpom6I (npodMOKinie^ e^enn.) 



H3X KaKoro co^hh^hm h3- 
Bjneiena ona? 


CTaTta, Ona nanficaHa ForojieMi, 

no KaKofi wpmiiwk Uossatk 
rnajiH BasaEOB'L? 

TCMi «e Forojib roBO- 
pfiTi Bi ctaTB-i Haraeft; 
CTapiaiaxi KceH;i,30BX? 

Hto TaKoe 6hj4 C^hb h sa- 
Koft iiap6;^'B 6iiXE. sano- 


yM^pmuMt JiiiTB naTb- 
flecHTB TOMy HaaaA'B. 
Hsi OAHOH HSB Jij^^mHXB ero 
nOBtcT^S: «Tapac'B ByjiB- 
6a», BB KOTOpOH owb onA- 
CHBaeTB roH^Bia Majo- 
pOCCffiCKHX-B EasasoBB 
nOJflKaHE B EaSHL H^- 


rj^BBOH) npH^AHOK) rOHCHifi 

6u;iH EceHA3U fuiH Eaxti- 
jifiiecKie cBameHBHKH h 
ie3yfiTH xoTisniie o6pa- 
TfiTB KaaaEOBi bb Eaio- 
jifiiecEyio Bipy, Ajh hxb 

06jaTUHHTB, EaKB BHpa- 

acajiHCB MajooSpasoBaH- 
Bue xasaEB. 
Hira, OH-B OHHCHBaeTB npe- 
ji^CTBHa Ma;iopoccigCEiH 
CT^HH H nyTem6cTBia Ta- 
paca ByjiBfiB, repoa noBi- 


Ci^B, ito6b npeAJioKHTb 
sanopoffiiiauB cbo6 e cbo- 

fiXl CHHOB^H VM]^™ 

3anop6atnu 6h.ih c6poj,B 
y^ajBDiOBi H He;;oBoJ!b- 

HHXB npaflfixejIBCTBOMB 
H3T. BCixX H4^ift, B0T6pHe 


laKi aTO< Cwit, B^poaTHO 
6^3q[uS H HeyrouoHuufi 

HoieMy-ate, OAHaKO? 

Ho Bi^t ^TO (JujH paafiofi- 


Buji6-jm J sanoposi^eBi 


CO^HpaJIHCIi Vh Giv, AJiA 

Tor6, vrfy&b mojios^toctbo- 

BaTb H SHTB Ha iOjA. 

^a. TaK6My Hapojty ne- 


B-B HameMi SjiaroycrpoeH- 
HOMT. CTOJiiTiH H Hi cTpaat 
ynpasjiiieMOH saEonaiiH. 
Ohii He npH3HaBa,iH HHEa- 


T6jn>K0 rpa6eaceHi> ; speua 
OHHi npoBOfl,fijH, noKy^a 
AeHbPH 6a:iivi bi Eapuavb, 


H B'B nnprnecTBaxi; ^cjih 
se ji^nen ne 6wiO, to ond 
Hana^ajiH hoa'b pasHUim 
npe;;jr6raHH Ha cociAeit 


Ha nojiaKOBi, TifpoKi, 
HJiaBajtH uo Hepflouy 
MopH), no AoHy, ,TjHaD, 
rpa6a Besui see, hto 
HaxoA&Ju. KorAa OHt 
HOjarajTH, ^to y hhx'b 


ea xBa'j'HTb B'bcEOiiopoe 
Bp^KA Ha HHpu H Ha 6pin- 

HH^eCTBO. TO BOSBpauid- 

y HHX'B nnpt ropom. 
KoH^^HO. DosTOHy a Bume 

CKaSaJEb, HTO HM'B B03- 

MoatHO 6hjo cymecTBO- 

BaTb TOJIBEO Wb T^ JlfitiS. 

E CUVTEEia BpeHeH&, bot6- 
piifl cjiyac^^H nepexoAOiFb 
OTh BapBapCTBa k-b h4- 
mcMy 6jiaroycTp6eHHOMy 


H'i^TB, oEift 66ju>nieK) qacxbio 
He 6ujiK HcenaTU, h x^a- 

198 LiissoK 12. 

B^HHU He. CH^jni ■ A^e 

T4, KOTopae hoaoCho By- 
Jib6'k TiTiijm isiewb, s6jh 

B'b EypeHbflX'b ±JIV CISiBfl- 

Aaxi, T. e. B-B flaCaxi h 
Aep^BBflxi, HaxoA^BinHxcji 
Bi 66;ibmeui> dJiH ueHb- 
nieui pascTOHHiH ox'b 



This can only be learnt by numerous examples. 
We subjoin here a great many in which the alphabetical 
order of English prepositions has befen followed: 

About, oKOJio, 0, etc. 

Biijio 6K0JI0 narfi ?ac6BT>. It was about five o'clock. 

Owb mi oCii ^Torb see CKnakm,. He told me all about it. 

EcTB KB y Bacii AiahtE ch co66k)? Have you any money about you? 

Pkp^cthocth JlaplaHca ^leHb Kpa- The country about Paris is veiy 

cABhi. beautiful. 

Oht. xorijTb roBop^Tb. He was about to speak. 

Oh& cofiHp&eTCfl ixaib wb Focciio. She is about to go to Russia. 

fl uautpeBii HTTfi. I am about to go away. 

nojfMaftTe, 1T0 Bhi s'fiJiaeTe! Mind what you are about! 

Mil cS^jiBCb cb Aop6rH cxiiaiH We missed the road and went 

06x611 no Kp&BBefi nipt vh at least seven versts round 

ceub sSpcrb. about. 

Sto 6qeHb 6ojibm<3fi o6k6X'b. This is very far about. 

Bfoepi. nepeMtofijicfl. The wind is come about me. 

Owb Bcer;(i coxpan^ieTb cnoKdfi- He always has his wits about 

CTBie ;ifxa. him. 

ApHi;i cocTOAJia npaCjiHsATeibBo The army consisted of about 

BSb secaTfi TiiCin* lejooiirb. ten thousand men. 

SI x-enka iToO'b oui ue BHima- 1 wish he would go about his 

B3,MH Bi uoe A'^Jio. business. 

Abore, Ha^i), Bume, 66xhme, etc. 
Oeii xBBeTii a&fifl mh6io, He lodges a story above me. 

Ha;^■b B&KH CKOnlijiHCb TtiH. The clouds, stood above our 




0;^AH^ cAji^'bjn, Bt'ime, a flpyr6fl 

Bdace MeHi. 
8to B^me er6 noHHM&HiJi. 
Mh TaMT> 6iSjiH Cdjiiine Tpexi. 

fl He Mor^ ocTaBeiTbCfl fibjiie q4ca. 
Ett 66irbe fl,i>a,}ifi,a.iA xiiv. 
EdJite Bcer6 g Benaa6xY Jioacb. 
Ilyme Bcer6 He 3a6MB4ftTe MSHji. 

Owb JttpeBOCXdflHTl. MeHrt bo BCSMTi. 

Ohi. eme xchbi. 

Mflt CtAerb HBTpyflHO npsBaoBTii 


BciiKoe Cji&ro uhcxoahtb CBi>ime. 
JI,aTb Bi npH^iqyi 

The one sat above, the other 

below me. 
It is above his comprehension. 
We were there above three 

I cannot remain above an hour. 
She is above twenty years. 
I detest lying above all things. 
Above all, don't forget me. 
He is above me in everything. 
He is still above ground. 
I shall easily get above them. 

All good comes from above. 
To give over and above the 

At, Bi, y, npH, Ha, 3a, etc. 

Bi lUTB qac6Bi>. 

y Moerd 6p&Ta. 

npH newb ba bu xorbxa fiuTb? 

Ha pascBiT'b. 

3a ctoji6mt>. 

H 3h4io qerd oui> ;(OMor4eTCA. 

JI6maAb haStb CK6pbiin> m&roH'b. 

H Be 3r4io, WTO u«b 0'CBrb^kTh. 

CBai^a n npBHd;ii> er6 sa sacb. 

^esa&h Tyrb ae CTpa^&jia jtoA 

qecTb, St 6bi c^'^JiaJii $to. 
A roTdfiii Ki B&mnifb yuitrain>. 
J^■6JIaTb Ha CBoft ci&ri.. 

By, HO, y, 

dia rpaHHd.THKa 6biJi& n^caaa 

fl npiixajiT. BOfl6io, cyxfiirb ny- 

Tbi npi'fixia.jii no weji'bsHoS flop6- 

Oht. CTOiSjTb y ei hoct^jiih. 
Mbi noiA^x^ ^^ HeTepO^prB 

qpeai Bepafini. 
fl ii/I^Xb KAKh coBffau npoDiJifi 


Mbi 6fnewb HasiA^ dKOJio qe- 

Tbipexi> qac6Bi>. 
IIoKi Bbi ^pH;^8Te, bc§ d'^fterb 

fl Baffl§jn> er6 cJiyqiftna 
dia sapr^Ha Pn^aiaa. 
K-h cticwo Mbi erd yBfifltjii. 

At five o'clock. 

At my brother's. 

What would you be at? 

At day-break. 

At table. 

I know what he aims at. 

The horse goes at a great rate. 

1 am at loss what to answer. 

At first I took him for you. 

If my honour were not at stake 

I would do it 
I am quite at your service. 
To be at the charge of a thing. 

u^HO, etc. 

This grammar was written by 

I came by water, by land. 

You came by rail. 

He stood by her bed. 

We shall go to St. Petersburg 

(via) by Berlin. 
I saw the soldiers pass by. 

We shall be back by four, 

By the time you come, every- 
thing shall be ready. 

I found him by chance. 

This painting is by Raphael. 

By good luck we saw him. 

200 Lesson 12. 

Mdao no ukay. Little by little. 

y Her6 ;^B6e fltT^fl on. nepearo He has two children by his first 

6p^Ba. marriage. 

Ohi npEpd^HbiS ^opaB&wb. He is a sobleman by birth. 

npaBOBiAi> DO npo(i)6cciH. A lawyer by profession. 

Ha HoUx'b ?aceixT> iBTiipe. It is four by my watch, 

fl ocTai&cb npH TOMT., iTO H CKi- I abide by what I have said. 

H30 SM Bi fleHB. Day by day. 

Hh 3a qio. By I no means. 

Bt. Teq^HiB cbmA atn.. By seven years. 

]lfik)ifl,a.Th (fyTOBT. BUfflHHii Ba naT- Twenty feet high by fifteen feet 

H^AUaTb mHpHHil. wide. 

Bo HpAEi h6^h or noji. noKpo- By the favour of night. 

BOHl h6<ih. 


Continuation.! — The Empress Elizabeth I con-/ 
tinued the work of Peter the Great and [with] Mikhail 
Lomonosov (1711—1775) begins (oTspHat) the list of the 
great Russian authors. To him belongs the glory of 
the separation of the Ancient Slavonic from the Rus- 
sian language [and of], having shown once for all the 
superiority of the latter as a literary idiom. But he is 
admired chiefly for his many patriotic songs and a 
heroic poem on Peter the Great called the Petriad; and 
another greater merit of his was that he wrote the first 
Russian Grammar and further because it is he who 
set the basis of the Theory of Literature, thus success- 
fully combining precept with example. 

In his comedies there is much liveliness and a,lso 
many hints about contemporary defects, so that (caiAOBa- 
TejibHo) they prove an abundant source for the study of 
the morals in his time. Therein consists Lomonosov's 
superiority over Kantemir, whose types are on a whole 
not Russian but rather cosmopolitan (fiojiie 66m,e-neso- 
B^iiecKie) About the same timeVaslli Trediakovski'intro- 
duced into the Russian language the tonic measure of 
versification, instead of the ancient foot-versifying; and 
his rival Alexander Sumarokov (1717—1777), with the 
assistance of some gifted actors founded the national 
theatre, which in imitation of the French theatre, followed 
at first the rules of the ancient classics. 

(To be continued.) 

1 See page 196. 



Crem h sanopOHCCKaa Ct^B. 


Hdma nyTemecTBeHHHKM na nicKoabKO MHHyTt 
TOJiBKO ocTaH^BJiHBajiHCB ;^JIfl o64;^a. IIpH qcMi. ixas- 
niifl c-h h6mh OTp^^i., H3t ^ecHTi4 KasaKdBt, cicfeaijnb 
ci ;ioma;i;efi, 0TB^3MBaJi:B ;i,epeBjiHHH£ 6aK;i^Kn Cb 
ropiaKOH) hsb t^kbh ynoTpe6jiieMHfl BuicTO cocy- 
;HOBi. "Bjih T6jn.K0 xa§6i> cb cAjtomte. (add CBHHiiMi), 
6jih Kopat6, n6jiH t6jibko no o;i,H6fi q4pK* e;i;i}HCTBeH- 
HO ;i;jia no^^Kpina^Hia, noTOMy ito Tapacb ByjiBSa 
HiiKor;i;a ne no^BOs.&n.i, HanstBaTbca bb ;(op6rb, h npo- 
;;0Jiac&JiH nyT& no Be^ep&MB. 

B^qepoMi Bca CTeirb coBepineHHO nepeM-bH^aacb 
Bee neerpoe upocTpdncTBo eA oxB^THsajocb nocjii^- 

EHMT) ^pKHMi 6T6jieCKOMT. c6jIHIi;a H n0CTen6HH0 TBM- 

Hiao, TaKi ^TO b^ho 6£iao, keki. T^Hb nepe6:br&Jia 


p^nia no/i;BiMajrHCB rfme; Kaac^Bifi i^BixdHB, K§iat;i;aa 
Tp^BKa HcnycKana AM6py, h Bca cienB Kyp6jracb 6jia- 
roBdHieMi.. Ho He6y, rojiyfio-reMHOMy, KaKB fiy^^TO 
HcnojiftncKOH) k^ctbio naatoaHH map^Kia noflocti h3t> 
posoBaro sojoth; dsp^AKa 6iA^3K EJiOBaHH aerKia npospdn- 
HBra o6jiaKA h cAmhS CBiacifi, oSojiBCT^TeaBHHfl, KaKa> 
MopcKfa B6aHBi, B4Tep6Ki e^Ba KOJibixijica no Bep- 
xyniKaM-b TpaBSi, m qyTb ^OTpdrHsajica Wh wfi^kwh. 
Bca MysHKa, HanoaniBniaa aghb, cxHxAjia h csii- 
H^JiacB Apyr6H>. IlepBua aspdacEn BunajisuBaju na^ 
Hop'b CBO^xi, ciaHOB^JtBCb Ha sdAHia MnKH, H orjamdjiB 
cxenB cbo6mi cb^ctomi,. Tpen];A.Hie KyaHe^HKOBt CTa- 
hob6jiocb cjiBiniHie. IlHorfld cj^majica h3i. KaK6ro- 
HH6y;^B ye^HHeHHaro 63epa KpHKi ae6e;i,a h, KaKB ce- 
pe6p6, 0T;i;aBanca bi B63;i,yxi. IlyTemecTBeHHHKH o- 
CTanaBJiHBaaHCb cpe;^6 nojt^fi, H36MpajiH HOU^r'B, pac- 
KjaAHBajtH oroBb, H CTaBHan na Her6 Koxejit, bb 
KOTopoM'b Bap6jiH ce6i Kyjifimi; napB oxffiarfaca n 
KOCBCHHO ;i;BiM6jica na B63;^yx'b. IIoyHCHHaBB, Ka3aK6 
joacJiaHCB cnaTB> nycT^BuiH no xpaBi cnyTaHHBixi> 
K0H6ft cBo6xB. Oh6 pacK^^^BreaancB na CBHTKaxi.. Ha 
KHX-b npiMO ^aa;^4JIH no^Htia 3b43;i;bi. Onii CJiiiniaJiH 

CBOfiMl ^XOM-B BeCB 6e3M6CJldHHBlfi MipB HaCiK6MBIXl>, 


Lesson 12. 

HanojiH^mHXi xpasy; secb hxi. TpecKi., cbhcti., KS,p- 
icaHBe, Bce 6to asyiHO pa3;i;aB4jiocB cpe;^6 h6?h, o^ih- 
majiocB Bt csiateMi. HO^HdMOb Bda^tyx* h ;l;oxo;^6JIO ;i;o 
cjiyxa viii-h-TO rapMonfiqecKHMi. Ecjih hcc KT0-HH6f ^ 
Hsi. HHXi-no;i,HHMAjica H BCTaB^jii Ha BpcMa, TO eMy 
npe/^CTaBJi^jiacb ctchb ycisHHOio 6jiecTiii^HMH 6cKpa- 
M0 CBiT^mHXca TiepBaK6Bi>. HHO^;^ft HO^nde ai6o b% 
pdaHBixB MicTaxi. ocB-hi^AjiocB nksBHuwh sapesoHi 
OTB BBiatHraeMaro no Jiyr^M-B h piKdMt cyxdro TpocT- 
hhkA h TeMHan Bepenliiia ae6e;i;4ft, JieT'^BinHX'B na 
ctBepi, BApynt ocBimliact cepefipaHopoaoBMiPB CBiioMi 
H TOPA^ KasajTOCB, HTO KpacHua njtofflEBt JCTajiH no tcm- 

HOMy H^6y. {IIpodoMiceme 6^dem%.) 

^peai fs^KJn) HacTB PoccIh OHi't npoisaajiH ^pes-B ibHf 

npcJ^sma^TH HaniH nyxe- 

TaKB KaKB 3Ta cTpaaa finjia 
mIio o6HTaeMa, to Bipo- 
aTHO, TaMB 6k}io uaoro 

\6jito Till ixa:iH aaniH ny- 
Tem&TBenHHKH ;^o CtlH? 

Fa'^ xe ocTaadBJiHBajiBCB 
ohA Ha nopori? CymecT- 
BOsdjtH ;iH Tor;i;d y»t<5 

TpaKTfipH H KOp^MU? 

ByB3 HaCTB PocdH, KOTO- 

paa cocTaBjiaeTB HHniin- 
HKH) HoBopocciK), Kor;i;a 
Bca cTpand aTa (SBUid no- 
KptiTa sejieaoH) fltscT- 
BeHHOio nycTUHeio. 

H Tea^pB CT^na HoBopoccia 
aaofifijiyroTB ji,inhia, lor^a 
ate ea 6HJid 6e3;(Ha, no;i;B 
EoauTaHH JiomaA^fi a^- 
max'B KasasoBB to iiibu- 
pflJiH KyponaTKB, b6th- 
aysB CBOtb m6», to BeciAcb 
aa;;* nxB rojoaaMa t^^h 
AHEBx-B rye^ft a jefie^eft, 
TO napfijiH BB Boa^yxi 
opjiu, BSuaxBBaa CBoaua 
mapoKBHB BpiijIBaMB. 

Oaii Bp66HjB BB ayiA obo- 
Jio Tpexj AHefi, 660 ae 
6j!ta3Ko 6njio otb hxi ;(6Ha 
Ao saaopoaccKoft C4^a. 

BiijB Tor^d yat^ a TpaKifipH 


6ua6 aesaaifiTejiBBO ; no 
3T0My KasaKH HoqcBaaa a 
o6tAaJia no^B otkputhmb 




Ho WKijifl. 6pa;iH onk CBofi 

r^i xe nyxem^cTBeHHBKH 


Ci?H 3anop6»itai[H? 

MHoroHftcjieHHU-JiH 6^h 

EasaB^ Boodni;^ aobojiectbo- 

Ba.IHCb HeilHOrHM'B ; oh6 

nfi;iH no oshoh TOpici 
b6;i;kh, noTOiry tto Tapaci 
By;ib6a He hosbomji Ha- 
nHBaTbca bi soport. IIpH - 
3T0MI Tapdct, ero chho- 


mifi 3a fi^MH H cocTOfln^iii 
H3i Aecaift KaaaKOBi, p^A- 
EO CTJksajiH c'B ^lomaA^S, 
H TOJBKo nepeKycHBaaH 
Ha cKopyB pyKy. 

Kor^a cojm^e caA^Jiocb, 
KOFAa yTHxajiH i^;i;huh 
nicHH HTHDii, TQr;i;4 Ta- 
p&CL ocraH&BJiHBajicA cb 
cbo6mh cnyTHHEcaMH cpeA<i 
nojE^S, H H36Hpaji-B ce6t 
MicTO Mfl Hoqji6ra; ohh 
pacoaAQBajtH TorA^.oroHB 
H sap^jiH ce6i Kamy.' 

IIoTOMy HTO JtHbnp'B o6pa- 
sycTB nopoFH, qpesi ko- 
Topae CTpcMHTCH ero bo- 
as, 3a 6thuh noporaHH, 
3aii;iini,aBmHHH B0A«HyK) 
Aop6ry Kb Ciib, sanopos- 
csie Ka3aKft BucrpoHja 
ceCi cBoio etoxkuj. 

Hirb, OHft h6 6hjh WHoro- 
HflcjeHHH, HXi Bcerj;^ 

6UJ0 H'fecKO.TbKO TUCfl^l, 

KOTopHe coCapdjiHCb, Kor- 
xi HasHaq&ica 66n^lfi no- 
XOA'B H BUcrynajiH noAt 
Ha^ajibCTBOiTB aTaHaHa, 
KOTopug Hasssajica ko- 


Lesson 13, 




For, 3a, 

Out. yMepi. 3a cnoe 0T6qecTB0. 
Ona cflijiaJia 4to flJiJj MeniS. 
9to CT£i;;HO fljui saci.. 
Oh& nocTpa;;ajia on. CBOerd Jierao- 

Oht. nji^Kaai on. pft;^ocTH. 
Oht. ytxajb Dt BpiiiTOHi. 
Jl He Mori. nofiTfi no He;^ocT4TEy 


MdxceTe jin bm Mnt ojtojiSKATb ^ly 

KBdry Ha H'icKOJibKO ^HeS? 
fl yjKe 3;^'b"cb jkhb^ natb jrfen.. 

Ji^iiio roBopAn. caM6 sa ceOji. 
Oht> St^en. Boe jiiio bt. otc"^t- 


fl naBtpHoe roBopiO, qio yBiiacy 

Baci B6iepoMT>. 
fl CTOib 3a TO, qT66bi nofirfi flOMofi;. 
Mb) saci. Xnewb. 
He ^eie jih bh 9er6-HB6^flt? 
Crap^icb npoc^jit hiijioctuuk). 

MiKBTe JIH BM ^TO oCtflCHfiTb? 

Hsi. ysax^Bis <ci. ciiny. 

Bu rji^no ;^'fe.'iaeTe, «to BipHxe 


Hinc&Ki. He Morf. 

TdJbBO nopdqBbiMi Jiib^^flMi. Hyac- 

HO GojfTbCfl CHdpTH. 

Pasi BaBcer^^. 

From, oTb, 

a nojiyq^i. nHCbM6 on. B&mefi 

H t^y H3i> Ah^phkh. 
H 6yAy nHcirb Bau^ hsi. H6b- 

Oh6 yoLii^ on. Menif 6<ieBb p4B0. 
nepeB^A^HO cb pyccicaro. 
Ohi cnajn. on> mevti qacds'b ao 


Ohi npeniiTCTBODajii. uwk 'IxaTb 
Bi. Tsepb. 

AJia, etc. 
He died for his country. 
She did it for me. 
It is a shame for you. 
She suffered for her credulity. 

He wept for joy. 

He set out for Brighton. 

I could not go for want of time. 

Can you lend me that book for 

a few days? 
I have been living here for these 

five years. 
The thing speaks for itself. 
He will be absent for the whole 

Take it for granted, I shall meet 

you to-night. 
I am for going home. 
We are waiting for you. 
Are you looking for anything? 
The old man begged for alms. 
Can you account for it? 
For the worthiness of his son. 
You are a fool for believing it. 

1 cannot the life of rae* 

It is for wicked men to dread 

Once for all. 

Hsi, ch, etc. 

I received a letter from your 

I come from America. 

I will write to you from Nov- 

They went from me very early. 

Translated from the Russian. 

He slept from six o'clock till 

He hindered me from going to 



HaA^iocb, mo iiecidcxbe Sy^eTi. 

0TBpaii;eH6 ort sact. 
HapncdBanBuii ci> naTypu. 

Co Bp^MCHH COTBOp^Hifl MJpa. 

'laci 6Tb qacy xyate. 

Orb liueBB Kopojik. 

Mh HeMT. iiHqer<3 He craxaJiH. 

CB6pxy or cBilme. 

Bail naaeKh. 






In, into, 

B'B MoCKBt. 

IIofifleMl BT> CTOJl6ByiO. 

IlOJIOW^ HOXl Bl> KapH&ITb. 

Oht. E03BpaTfiTca qepesTi Micani. 
Bnni'h 6paTT> bi> ^ddpoHt a/^opd- 


Bi> Taii6irb cjttqal) bu np&Bu. 
Ohi xopom6 3HaK6HT, ct> rp6qec- 

Kiun> asumdwh. 
Oni 6iijiB ndiJHaHBi na aicii 
Out. Dcer;^a bt> xop6iueMT) paciio- 

jioaceeiB At^^- 
H Cujix Bi canorAxT>. 
Kid 5Ta fl^Ma bt. Tpaypi? 
Cji'fc}(yfl ainiHMT. npHKaa^Hiajni, 
Bi> SHaiTb ;(pyjK6iii. 
HeMOinetrt lijioin., no Co^pi. fly- 


fl Be snaio na Kor« nojioHc^Tbca. 
OhIi nojiyiiJiH narp4;(y aeM-neio, 
(<;iH HaJi^iBbiMH ^esbraHH. 

Co flHJI h4 fleHB. 

Hh OflliHT. H3T. flecflxii. 


CHfiMOKI MaCJiaHUMH KpacitaMii. 

IlHe^Tb KapaHflaBioMi. 
Bet o6cTorfTejibCTBa fltaa. 

I hope the evil will he averted 

from you. 
Painted from nature. 
From the creation of the world. 
From bad to worse. 
From the king. 

We have not yet heard from him. 
From above. 
From afar. 
From behind. 
From beneath. 
From forth. 
From hence. 
From thence. 
From where. 
From within. 
From without. 

B'B, Kb, etc. 
In Moscow. 

Let us go info the dining-room. 
Put the knife into your pocket. 
He will return in a month. 
Your brother is in good health. 

In this case you are right. 
He is well versed in Greek. 

They were taken in the act. 
He is always in good humour. 

I was in boots. 

Who is that lady in mourning? 

In obedience to your commands. 

In token of friendship. 

Sick in body, but sound in mind. 

I know not in whom to trust. 
They received a reward either 

in laud or in cash. 
Day in day out. 
Not one in ten. 
In a low voice. 
A copy in oil. 
To write in pencil. 
The ins and outs of an affair. 

Of, H31, 0Tb, 0, etc. 

jifiui, M0fer6 APyra- The house of my friend. 

OHa MOJi p6flCTBeHHH^a. She is a relation of mine. 

CaKc6HCKoe KopdeBCTBO. The kingdom of Saxony. 

Mtcjmi. ii&Hb. The month of June. 


Lesson 13. 

FdpOA'b Mockb4. 

dro laeh iiAcTaco aojioTa. 

fl HBKOrxA He Meirftjn. o noA66- 


Bu ffixswSi GtiJiH 611 EandHHHTb 

eut er6 oGtn^&HiH. 
Mu y6ixABv& bt. er6 iSothocth. 
Mirb Sto He 6e3i>H3B'lcTHo. 
Onii topn&ieA CBo6in> ycn'lxoin.. 
Er6 Hasuiti, BHB6BHi>iin> trb noA- 

Ito fi^flerB CT. h4mh? 

9to npoBsomjd on; sdntefl He-> 


Bu xopoin6 CA^JiaJiB. 

Bu c^a Sto CA'bjiaJiH? 

K&wb HOry a cysiux o6% $toxi>? 

IIo np&sy. 




Corj&CHO oGfi'iaio. 


The city of Moscow. 

This is of pure gold. 

I never dreamt of such a thing. 

You ought to remind him of 

his promise.. 
We are convinced of his honesty. 
I am not ignorant of it 
They are proud of their success. 
He was found guilty of forgery. 

What will become of us? 
This came of your nei 

This is well done of you. 
Is it of your own making?. 
How can I judge of it? 
Of right. 
Of. necessity. 
Of course. 
Of old. 
Of custom. 
Of late. 


CoNTiMTJATioN.' — Catherine Uj author herself of a few 
comedies of no high merit, occupies nevertlieless an 
honourable place in the history of Russian Literature, 
as the foimdress (ocHOBanieiffB) of an Academy having 
for its object the perfecting of the national language, 
and also as the enlightened and real protectress of 
distinguished authors. To this period belong: tfae epic 
poet Kheraskov, the fabulist Khemnitser, the comic 
writers Von Wisin and Kapnist, and above all Hippolyte 
Bogdanovich (1749—1798), the famous author of tiie 
touching tale of Dushenka, and finally (hekoh^i^i) Der- 

Gavriil Derzhavin (1743—1816) was the first Rus- 
sian lyric poet and the first poet who made himself 
popular; Yet the characteristic features (K&iecTBa) of his 
genius were suck, that they served only to drive to its 
utmost limits the exclusive tendency of literature. Abroad 
he is especially known for his magnificent Ode to God, 
where ^e elevation of thought goes hand in hand (py- 
Ka 66i-pyKy) with the grandeur of its expression. Among 

1 See page 200. 


his best productions are also reckoned Felicia ($eJIfl^a) 
the Cascade, and the Great Courtier (Bejuioata), which 
are all considered as masterpieces. (To he continued.) 

CTem H sanopoauiKaa 06ml. 

HyTeiueCTBeHHHKH ixajiH 6e3T. bc^khx3> npHKaio- 
q^nifl. HHr;i;4 ne nonaflajtncB hm-b ;i;epeBi.a ; Bce Ta me 
6e8KOH6^Haa, BdjiBHaa, npeKpacnaa ctchb. IIo Bpene- 
hAm-b t6jibko Bi. CTopoH* CHHijiH BcpxyniKH OT;i,a;iieH- 
Haro jiica, TaHysmaroca no 6eper^M'B JIJHinpa. 0^6hi> 
T6JBito paai. Tap&ci> yKa3ajii> chhobb^mi. na M&JieHB- 
Kyio, lepHismyH) bi. ;i,ajiBHeft TpaBi T6iKy : cMOTpfiTe, 

fliTH, BOHl. CK&ieTl TaTipHH-B ! 

ManeHBKEia roji6BKa ch ycaMH ycTasHJia 63Aajm 
npiiMO Ha KHx-B yseHBKie rjias^ cbo6, noHibxajia b63- 
;^yxl>, KaKT. rdn^aa co6&Ka, h, KaKi. cepHa„ iiponajia, 
ysHfl^BniH, ^iTO KasaKOBi 6^jio TpHHa;i;n,aTB ^eaosiKi 

A Hy, ]s^i,'tTs., nonp66yflTe ;^orHdTB TaxapHHa ! ... 
H He np66yflTe, bo b4kh He nofiMiexe . . . . y nerd kohb 
6BicTpie caM0r6 ^opxa. 

OffHiKoati. ByjiB6a B3ajii. npe;i;ocTop6HtHOCTB, ona- 
caacB rfl*-HH6y^B CKp^mraefica za-ckp:,^. 0h6 npHCKa- 
KajiH E'B He6ojiBni6& p£?B^, HasBiB^Bmeiica TaxapKoio, 
Bnaft4H)n];eio bi. Jl^Hinpt, K^nyjiHCB E'B B6;i,y ci koh- 

&SSS. CBOHMH H ;^6jI^0 HjltijIH n6-Hefi, gT06l> CKptlTB. 

cjitfl^B CBOft, H Tor;^4 yace, B^6paBniHCB na 66peri., 
oh6 m^opfiarnkss. ;i;5,Ji'fee nyxB. 

^pesi. TpH AHa ndcjii Aroro oh6 6sijiH yace He;i;a- 
JieKd OTi. Micxa cjiyac^Bmaro npe;(MexoM5. hxi> noi3jj;- 
KH. Bi B63Ayx4 B;i;pyri noxojio;i;ijro, oh6 no^ysTBO- 
BajiH 6J1630CXB IHninpA. Boxi. oht. cnepKaext B;i;aji± 
H xeMHOK) nojiocoH) ox;i,*Ji6jica 0x1. ropHSOHxa. Ont 
Biait *xoji6ffHBiMH BOJiHaMH H pa3cxHJidjica 6ji6me, h 
HaKOH^i^i. o6xBax6jiT> nojiOB^Hy Bcefi noBepxHocxH seii- 
s&. 9x0 fiiiao xo m^cxo ^ninpA, r;i,4 OHi, ^oxojii cnep- 
TEtft nop6raMH, 6paJi'B naKOH^ni CBOe h myMtjrB, KaKt 
Hope, pasji^BmHCB na boji^, tk^ 6p6iiieHHBie b'b cpe;i£Hy 
er6 ocxpoB^, BBix-feCH^JiH; er6 eme ;^aJIie HSi fieperoBt, 
H BOJiHii erp cxjiAjracB no cdMofi seMJii, ne Bcxpt^aa: 
HH yxecoBi, HH B03BBmieHift. KasaK6 conuiA ci> KOH^ft 


Lesson 13. 

CB06xrb, B3oraji6 na napoMX h npesi, rpa ^aca naasa- 
sm 6Mjra yace y 6eper6Bi> 6cTpoBa X6pTHn;Bi, rj^i Cbiaa 
TO^;^a C§5b, laKB ^[acTO nepeMiH^Bmaa CBoe mnji^&nne.. 

(UpodoJUKeuie 6ydam.) 


nyTemecTBeDHHKaMH KaKfa 
HHfiyjjjB npHKJiioHeHia? 

SantMi 6Hjt T&wh TaTa- 


Kyj^a Bi n^i^Hi? 

TIosTOMy 3anop6a£iiiH, BamH- 
mda CT6nH npoTMB^ Ta- 
Tapi, npHHOcfijiH H noat- 


Hill, onfi AoixaaH lo Ci^ 

6631 BCflKHX-B npHMJD- 
H^Hifi. Pa3l, KaEl TO, 

TaTapHHi cKaita ji no ct6- 
hh; Tapaei cKaaajTB 6h;io 


RWh. a Hv-Ka soroHfiie 
ero! Ho.TaTapHH'B ycKa- 
Kajl BO BCK) npHTb. 
Ho CT^HH KOTOBajio Tor^a 
MHoro 6amE6p'B, KajiMU- 

KOBX, OHH naCjft T2iWi, 

CBo6 ciasa, h npn cjiyiai 


nyTem^cTBeuHHKOBi h yno- 

A^JIH UK'S Bt njI'j^H'b. 

E6;ii>nieK) nacTbio bi EpairB, 
OTK^Aa juiiHHHKH npo^a- 
BOHCB B% HeBO^no djtit Ha 
KaBK^ai 6jh bi Tjpuiiro. 

BojiBmyro nojiLsy, — onfi 
BOo6in;6 p^fccBHMi ne spe- 
SfiJiH, KaKB cboAm-b e^HHO- 
B^pi^aMi, aBoesajiHTOJibKO 
ch TypKaMH H nojiaKaMH, 
a 66pa3'B BoiiHiJ[ BtAi> 
Towa 6Hjrb poA'b pas- 

66fiHHqeCTBa, KaKlrMH bA- 

TorA^ nojyaHKHXi cipa- 

H^ixt, HO H B'B 6(iXke 

ofipasoBaHHOfi EBponi; 


y'atacH TpHAu;aTHJi4THeit 



Jl^ja Hero ohh 3to c^iJiajiH? 

He Hcnyrdjica ml Byjii.6a, HirB, ohi hb Hcnyrajca, 
yB^AiB'B TaTapHHa? ho AJa npejiidcTfipoat- 


KyK) pi^Ky, TaTapKy, no 
KOTopofi oni AOJiro wiAjm, 
n^pe^i TtMi KaKi pimd- 
jiHCb onaiL BufiT^ Ha (5e- 
]Ifiui Toro, TTofii TaTapij, 
wb cjiynat 6cjih 6h Ta- 
T^pHHi , KOTdparo oh& 

KOWb, H ^CJIH 6u ouk 3a- 
xoTiJn B-B 6o;ii>m6irE hhc- 
jit HanicTb Ha cbo^xi 
BcerA^mHHX'b Bpai obi, Ka- 
saKOBi, He viOTxh HafiT^ 
EX'S cjiifl.L 




On, npon, na, vb, 

Oh6 nexirb ea ctoj%. 
fl ncjiar&iocb Ea Baci>. 

Obi> Ha Epaib r^Gejiii. 

H 3a%A7 "I* BaiTb Scarpa. 

Mu HasicT&rb saci bo BTdpHBrb. 

Kto npHCJitacHBaert rocTrfni? 

Ha^^'tHbTe B&mH nepq^TKa. 

Bu XO'iiKB^ npo^oJisATi B&mH 

Onii p'buiijiti npo;td.T[> CBoe Bir6- 

Bu fiflsxEA noflYMaTb o (Sf^- 

n^psaro anptjifl. 

Russian ConT.-Craounar. 

Ki, CB^pxy, etc. 

It lies on ibe table. 

I depend upon yon. 

She is on a journey. 

He is on the verge of ruin. 

I shall call upon you to-morrow. 

We shall call upon you on Tues- 

Who is waiting on the guests? 

Put on your gloves. 

You must go on with your stu- 

They resolved on selling their 

You must reflect upon the future. 

On the first of April. 

On foot. 

On horseback. 

On purpose. 



Lesson 14. 



Over, HaA*, 

Bypa Hafli. hAmh. 

HMnep4Topt i;apcTCByenb Has'b 

CBO^Hl. Bapd^OHi. 
il nouiejiT. spesT) H6Bbi2 moctb. 
Ciyxt pacnpocTpaH^jicfl no r6po- 

Ohi jKHBBTb Ha Tosit oepery. 


Onk saspiiia By4;ibio. 

Bii npoJi^JiH E6({)e Ha Hoe n;iciTi>e. 

Ohii o;^epJKi;IH Sbafcjiifio no6'6fly 

Hafli BenpiJiTejieM'b. 
Ohi n6 yuiH to, Aomixb. 
Bee Mbxcerb nepeH'bHiiTiiCA at 


Bypa npoHecJiS.cb MiiMO. 
Mu npoiHTdjiH BHiiry. 
HeBa saHepsjia. 
Oht. nor^Ci OKOHMixejibHO. 
no BceHy CBtiv. 

On life. 
On seeing. 
On entering. 

qpeai, etc. 

A storm hangs over us. 

The Emperor reigns over his 

I went over the new bridge. 
The report spread over the town. 

He lives over the water. 
We stayed there over night 
She has a veil over her face. 
You have spilt the coffee over 

my gown. 
They gained a great victory 

over the enemy. 
He is over head and ears in debt. 
AH may change over night. 

The storm is over. 
We read the book over. 
The Neva is frozen over. 
It is all over with him. 
All over the world. 

To, Kt, B-h, 

Qra. KH^ra npuna^^jiex^rb HH'b. 
Boii> oTKpiijrb cBOib pdiao < 

He Bu JIB OT^i;!. ^TOro vauibqHKa? 
Moji leiKa KpeciHaa naib JTOfl 

Oht. SbiJii Apyrb fifeanbiXT.. 
KaKl ASa OTBdCBTCH Ki leTHpeHi, 

laKi lenipe «.% BocbiiA. 
SI noiifly b% TeaTpi.. 
Orb Ke.iibHa flo A6fian,Hra. 
Obi. HHKor;^a ue corjiactixca aa 

BaiUT. OTb'Bs;!,^. 

Mu flOJiMcuii cor.iiac6Tbca ct. 66- 
lUiiMi MHtHieiii>. 

Hsi H6ttti Bl AOHl. 

Ouii cpajKa.iiHCb bi pyKonauiHyio. 

CK6;iblC0 HHt BSB'&CTHO. 

CK6jn>K0 a Mory npimbMBaxb. 
J^Ba;^^aTb BpdTHBi 0flH0r6. 
Ipest Mtpy. 

Jifi CMSpTH. 

H4 npo;^4sicy. 

AO, Ha, CB, etc. 

This book belongs to me. 
Grod has revealed his will to man. 

Are you not father to this boy? 

My aunt is godmother to this 

He was a friend to the poor. 

As two to four, so is four to 

I shall go to the theatre. 

From Cologne to Leipzic. 

He will never consent to your 

We must yield to current opi- 

From door to doo^. 

They fought hand to hand. 

To my knowledge. 

To the best of my remembrance. 

Twenty to one. 

To excess. 

To death. 

To be sold. 



Up, BBepxi, 

no8;;@ui HaBepn>! 

Ohti x6j;H'n. B3asT> h snepesT. no 

Sact^anic napjianeHTa oic6HiieHo. 

KpOBb KHn^TL Bd HHt. 

y MeHji KeAOCTagn. TdjitKO oflHdfi. 
Uocjiipflsia qeiBepib (rofla) npo- 

Oi uoi%% lOHomecKHxi lirb. 
^0 uacToiiii;eu iiiuifTU. 

With, ct, 

fl nux flOBojreBt. 

Ohi> 6iii.i'i p&ueH'b H0K^u^. 

Ct. Bimero no3BOJi6Hifl. 


Ofla atHBen. y cBoero flt;;ymKH. 

dio y ueuji np^BHJio. 

OffB c6p;5HTCfl Ha BaCb. 

On. Bcer6 e&p^nst. 

Ohi> 6bijn> KaEt desyMHMii on> 

Ci. HaMH cjiyi^aocb Tdace caHoe. 
fl HamejTb dxo CJiyiifiHO. 
OhiI njiiiJiH no leq^Hiio. 

fl Bant AOBip^K) BCt CBOll T&fi- 

Ero f,tjili HAyTi> He xopomo. 
Obi> h8 ocTaBJi^eTB AypBii^i> 

Xcniji JIH GET. Bt ^TOMl ^('tat? 

Ha, no, etc. 

Let us go up stairs! 

He is walking up and down the 

The parliament is up. 
My blood is up. 
I want but one of up. 
The quarter is up. 

From my youth up. 

Up to the present moment. 

y, Ha, etc. 
I am satisfied with him. 
He was wounded with a knife. 
With your permission. 
With all possible speed. 
She lives with her grandfather. 
It is a rule with me. 
He is angry with you. 
With all my heart. 
He was mad with joy. 

It was the same with us. 
I met with it by chance. 
They swam with the stream^ 
I trust you with all my secrets. 

Things do not go well with him. 
He goes on with his vilainy. 

Did that business succeed with 

Without, 6631, BHi, etc. 

Offb HHKorfla He fiuBaen. ne- 

He roBopji ci hbui.. 
JlfiVb eto&Tb BHi rdpo^^a. 

Erd Hirb A<^Ha. 

Oht.- ^Toro hb cfl-fejiaeTi., noua bu 
BHy He cKiseie. 

He is never without an excuse. 

Without speaking to him. 

The house stands withput the 

He is without. 
He will not do it without you 

speak to him. 


Continuation. i — But though (^oih) poetry had, 
as if by enchantment (Tomio no BOJun^ScTsy) risen so 
rapidly to such a height, prose had required, as in al- 
most all other literatures, much more time to attain a 

See page 206. 


212 Lessok 14. 

similar perfection. The historical and moral treatises 
of Muraviev (1757 — 1807) show indeed a remarkable 
improvement; but it was only with Nicolai Karamzin 
(1765 — 1826) that prose Tvas to rise (;i;ojiatHa, fiuaa noff- 
HaTLca) to the height of modern literature. He made, 
himself known first by some elegant lyrical poems, and 
later by the Letters of a Russian Traveller fall of 
acute and witty remarks, and also by a series of h- 
terary articles in which he ridiculed the bombast and 
fallacious glitter of most Russian poets that had prece- 
ded him. 

He at last published his imposing History of the 
Russian Monarchy, which remains to the present day 
the greatest monument of its kind. Valuable from two 
points of view, historical and literary, this great work 
commands admiration for its noble style as well as for 
its combination of(HiEaK'Bo6pani;HKi.coeAHHeHia)livelmess 
with harmony, strehgth with simplicity. Yet his historic 
system which leads everything back to the history of 
the Monarchy, soon ceased to satisfy more lively (cBijKHxi) 
minds, who like Polevoy (1796—1846) already felt the ne- 
cessity of a History of the Russian People, (To be continued.) 


Cxenb H sanopoaccsafl O&hb. 

ityga Hap6;^y fipaH^aaci. na Sepery ch nepeBomn- 
KaMH. KaaaKfi onpaBHJiH KOHefi; Tap^ci npioc&HHaca, 
CTHHyjiii Ha ce64 noKpinie ir6HC3> h ^6p;^o npoBejii 
pyK6io no yc^Mi.; MOJio;i,6e chh6 er6 T6ate ocMOTpiJiH 
ceSji ch Hors ;i;o roaosA Ch KaK6M3>-T0 cxpaxoMi. H 
Heonpe^ijieHHHMi y;i,0B6jibCTBieM'B h Bci bm4ct* 
BiixajiH Bi npe;i;MicTBe, Haxoft^snieeca aa noasepcT^ 
OTb C4^H. HpH B-bia;!;*, nxt orayiuiijiH nsTB^ecATi) 
Kyanei^HXB mdjiOTOBi, y;i,apABniHXi bi> 25 Ky3HHiiaxi>, 

nOKp^THXt ^epHOMTb H /B^pMTHXi Bi 3eMJli. CAflBHUe 
KOaCeBHHKH CH^IjinH HO^l,!) HaBicOMt KpHJI^Hl. HB, fnHH- 

n;^ HL u&im cbo^mh ji^samas. pyK&MH 6£ra4in>H 
K6mH. KpaMapfi ch;i,4jih Cb KyiaMH KpeMH^fi, orfli- 
BaMH H nbpoxoMi. ApMaH^Hi pasBicHJii ;^opo^ie 
nnaTK^. TaTapHHi BopoH&jrt ua poatndxii ■snessA ct, 


TicTOMi. 3tH;i,i, B^CTaBHBt Bnepe^i> cboi5 rojioBy, 
T0i6i[x H3i> 66qKH ropijiKy. Ho n6pBHfi, kto nonauica 
HMt Ha BCTpi^y, dro 6hjii. 3anop6aceii;'i>, cndBinifi na 
c4uo3 cepe;;6H'fe ^opdrn, pacK^HyBi. pyKH h H6riL Ta- 
pacx Bya&fia He uor-h ne ocTanoBHTBca h ne nojno6o- 
B&Tbca Ha Hero. 

«9xi>, KaKi BaacHO pasBepn^yjica 1» $y th, KaK&a 
n6niHaa (j^ar^al roBOpAjit OHt, ocTaHOBABinH KOH^i. 

Bi c&MOMTb ^4^4, dTa KapT^Ha 6hji& ;i,ob6jibho 
cu'itjiaa. 3anop6aceii;i., KaKi acBi. pacTanyacH na ;i;o- 
pori. SaK^HyTBifi r6p;i;o qy6i> aaxBaTHBafli. na nojit- 
apnitoa somjiA. IIIapoBapBi anaro ;^opo^6^o cyKna 6ii- 
JiH sana^KaHH ^erxeMi. fljia noKasaHia n6.iHaro ki 
HHMt npespinia. 

noaio6oBaBmHCB, BjaB6a npo6pajica ji;aaie ck§3b 
TicHyK) yjiHii;y, KOTopaa 6hi3ik 3arpoMoat;i;eHa Macssse- 
poBSiMH, TyTi Hte OTHpaBJiiiBmHMH peMecJi6 CBoe, h 
aio;i,BM6 Bctxi Han;ifl, nanojiHjiBuiHxi. 6to npefljuicTie 
CiiH, KOT6poe b^Jio nox6ace Ha ^pMapKy h KOTopoe 
oftiBaao H KopMiao C'S'ib, yMiBinyio tojibko ryji^xB 
^a naji^TB h3i> pyaceft. 

HaK0H6n;% OHli MHHyaa npe;i;M4cTie h yB6;i,4aH ni- 
CKoaBKO paaopdcaHnHXi Kypesefi, noKpiiTBixi. ;^6p- 
HOMB 6aH no TarapcKH, boAjiokomb. Hnlie o6cTaBJie- 
HH 6-ikjivi nyniKaMH. Hnr;!;* ne b6«ho Ssiao 3a66pa, 
6jih TixB H^aeHBKHXB ;i,6mhkobb cb HaBicaMH HaH6- 
BeHBKHXt ;i,epeBjiHHBrxB CT6ji6HKaxB, KaKie fiitiH bb 
npe;i,MicTiH. (UpodoMKeHie Cydeim.) 


PascKaajfioie'MHi qT0-HM6yA£> DpiixaBmH kb ^Htnpy, ne- 


Ci^B? cjiisjiH CB jromaflefi cbo- 

Hxi) H Bsomjid Ha na- 


SaitMB 9T0? CiHb Haxoflfijra,CB Tor^a Ha 

OCTpOBi XopTHD^h. 

KaKB 3T0 TEKB? Pa3Bt HixB; 3anop6ffii;H h4ckojib 
C4?B He Bcerji;a 6HJia na kg pasB nepenocfijiH cto- 
TOMB ate M'feci'i? Jiimy cbok cb OAHoro Mi- 


Lessor 14. 

JifiB(idij-jm HX'B napoMi 
npfluo flo ropofla? 


lero Bi npe;i,M'fecTi.H 66- 
jTbme He noMimajiocb? 

PassiKasaE^t 6iLih oxothheh 
AO pasrptHofi a^BHH? 

cia Ha ffpyroe ; hto 66ao 
H He Tpy;i;HO, laEi EaEi 
Ohm, 6isjsi Cojiie noxoma 
Ha EO^^Bse, H6%e;iH na 
HacTOjan^yro CTOjrfii^. 

Hill, nepesoai Shji sa 
noOTepcTH OTi ^6po;^a, 
sfijoiafi npcAMicTta, r^i 
noH^n^ajiHCb h Eyanimu, 
Easi 9T0 MoacHO H ;(oc6;i']^ 
sAA'frrb Bi dojiBineft ^acTH 
p^ccEHxi ropo^B'B; Ey3- 



npesMicTBe 6hjio ToproBoro 
^acTBK) CiiH, Tyra npo- 
;i;aBaaHCi. h Epemn^ J^MSl 
pyaefl, h Hopoxi, h boo6- 
a,^ Lce, HTO HyaiHO 6iijio 


pofliy; TyTb 6hjh h Ea6a- 
e6 h xapH^BBA no^TOMy 
HaniH nyTem^cTBeHHHEH 
TOTHacB me yB6;^iJIH o6pa- 
niiHKH pasrf JbHOH atfisHH 

Jl,a, Bi;i;b sa'^cb coShpohci. 
ryjiiEH H31 Bcixi noiTfi 
CTpaei EBp6nH, oc66eHHO 
%e HSi c^tasHHCEaro ui'pa, 

a BijU, H3BtCTH0, HTO CJia- 

Bine Jiio6aTh atHTt napac- 
iiamtty. Ca,wb S,BTopi u6- 

BicTH, MajOpOCCiflHHHl H 

noTOMOKt EaaaKOBi, roBO- 

pHTb, HTO Oini. TOJTbKO 

H jiH)66ja HTO ryjflTb as. 
H3i pyatefl najiliTB. 



^TO cfttjaai Tapacx ch to- 

B&pHm;aHH? OcTaHOBfijEHCt 

xa oufi leb npeAuicTBH? 

KomeBoB, BtporiTHO, acHjn 
BO ABopn;i? 

A KaaaKH, Btpoarao, o6h- 
Ta;iH Bi HsCdxi? 

Hill, oh6 npoAoaatajiH nyrb.x 
MHHOBajiH npeffsricTbe h 
HanpaBHjiHGb k-b aiHJiHmy 

Hift, ero acHMme HHiiii'B 
He OTxs^kjioch oTh nowb- 
m^Hifi, npo^HX'B KaaaKOBi. 

Mxi 636h 6rjih BecbMa npo- 

CTji, 3T0 6kUH TEKt Ha3H- 

BaeiMHe Eyp6HH, noKpiixue 
flepHOM'B fiiH, no xaiap- 

CKOMy o6HqaiO, BOgjIOKOMl.. 
HhUK H31. HHXl 6mH 

o6cTaB;ieHH nyniKaMH. B% 
cjiyiai BHesanHaro Hana- 
A^Hk Taiapi, oth KypeHfi 
CJiy atfijH HXi B jantxejiaM^ 

ct>6pTaMH. BT. KOTOpHXl 

OH<i saiiiiHiQajiHCb, a xaKii 
KaKT. V TaTapi, npHCKa- 
KasniHX'B HajierK'b, b^ 6u- 
jio opysifli TO KasaEft, cb 
noMomifo nymcK^, noqiii 
Bcer^a buxoaujih noO't- 
jHTejaMH H 0T6HBaSH Ta- 



XoTrf ypdKT. 6ujn. tpyjifiwh, Ofl- 

h4ko a BJ^yvEaii ec6. 
XoTji BH He xoriTe npHBHiTiCii, 

oheIlko 4>3K'i^ b^ Hdxere ot- 


noSA&n>-JIH Om. ftjH HtTb, MH* 

BCS paBB6. 
Bbi M6»ceTe sasTb .idOo to, ;ii6o 

fl He hoBay Bi a,^ia,;^eMiKl bh ce- 

r6;^BH, EH s^iBTpa. 
Oua He yH'6eTi> hh iteiktb, hb 


Though the lesson was difficult, 

(yet) I have learnt it. 
Thongh you will not acknow 

ledge, yet you cannot deny 

the fact. 
Whether he will go or not, it 

is the same to me. 
You may take either this or that. 

I shall not go to the academy, 

either to day or to-morrow. 
She can neither read, nor write. 


Lesbon 15. 

fl cerdflHH He 6ua'h bt. yHHsepcH- 

T&rt, H S^BTpa T63Ke TaMT) He 

Ohi. h He doraie Meni. 

Ohi. tS,kt> ace npHa^MceHi., KaKt 

er6 Span.. 
Oht. He t4kt. npiiJi6ateH'b, KaKi 

er6 fipaTT.. 
Ero fiparb n^meTi. taKi. JKe, KaKi 

H 0H1>. 

Itapb 6iijn> TaKT. cHHCXOflHTeJiem., 

1T0 rOBOpfijIT) Cb BdHHOMTb. 

By;^bTe .TaKi> ;^o6pb'I HanaciTb 


EaKT> T6jibK0 OHI yBUfltjii ee, oHt 

fl Suai. Bfttcb, HO He roBop^jni c^ 


IIoMyniafiTe idabKO, KaKi ipoMi. 

fl TdjIbKO 1T0 er6 BBfltjI'b. 

Ona HOTepiSjia act cboU 3y6bi 

Kp6M% 0flH0r6. 
Oht. TdjibKO h fl^jiaerb, qio CMt- 

Kyntl iTiSCbi to Hfi Chjio, TOJbKO 

He TO. 

floMT) 6bun> hoitA pasp^meHi. 
fl HHKorflS. er6 He stey Gesi. to- 

r6, qioSbi He fl^Matb o MoeMt 

Ona He M63Kerb Bti;^'feTb cjiSai 

Ces'b Tor6, m6du caM6fi He njiS.- 

£cjiH 6bi He Bbi, Mu noTep^JiH 6bi 

Bce name cocTOjiHie. 
fl He Morf He jiroStob er6. 

I have not been at the uniyer- 
sity to-day, nor shall I be 
there to-morrow. 

Nor is he richer than I. 

He is as diligent as his brother. 

He is not so diligent as his 
brother. ! 

His brother writes like he does. 

The Emperor was so condescend.)' 

ing as to speak to the warrior. 

Be so kind as to write to me! 

No sooner had he seen 
than he ran away. 


I was here, but I did not spe^ 

to him. i 

Do but listen how it thunders. 

I have but just seen him. ', 
She lost all her teeth but cihe. 

He does nothing but laugh. 

Buy whatever (thou likest), but 

The house was all but destroyed. 
I never see him, but I think 

of my brother. 

She cannot look at tears without 
weeping herself. 

But for you, we should have 

lost all our fortune. 
I cannot but love him. 


Continuation.! — At that time, Shishkov (1754 
till 1841), the President of the Russian Academy, an 
enthusias for the ancient Slavonic language, endea- 
voured to show its superiority over the borrowings 
that Russian writers continually made from foreign 
languages and literatures, and he wrote a Dissertation 
on the Old and New Style. His patriotic work was not 
entirely useless and there was no lack of poets of the 

1 See page 212. 


new school. Ozerov (1770—1816) in his tragedies 
parted with pseudo-classicism and approached to ro- 

Soon after him, Ivan Dmitriev (1760—1837) com- 
posed Odes, Elegies and Tales full of charm, and an 
epic poem on the conquest of Siberia entitled Ermak. 
Tlie Apologue (HpaBoy?6TejQ>Haa i&eaa) was cultivated 
by IzmailoT and, with still greater success, by Ivan 
Krylov (1768 — 1844), the only European writer worthy 
of being [considered as a] rival of La Fontaine. His 
Fables, shining with grace and wit, have for a long 
time furnished excellent lessons of literature and morals 
to Russian school-boys. They are for the most part 
quite original and 'bear a stamp of nationality, which 
charms the foreign reader. (To le continued.) 

CTem H SanoposKCKaa Ct^B. 


He6ojii>ni6fl sajii h sacina, hs xpaH^Mue p-feiufi- 
TeaBHO HHKiMi, noKasHsajiH CTpamHyio fiesne^HocTt. 
HicKOJLBKO ;i;ibHCHxi> 3a^op6«^eBl., jEeaciBinHxi. ci> 
TpydKaHH Bi> 3y6Axi> na c&Mofi ;i;op6r*, nocMOxpijiH 
Ha HHXi ;^OB6jibHO paBHo;i;yraHO h ne aBfiHyjHCB ct 
Micxa. T4p4ci> ocTop6atHO npoixajri. ch CHHOBBJiMH 
Meatgy ehxib, CKaaaBmH : «3flpABCTByfi;Te, nanoBe 1» — 
«3;^p&BCTBy3Te h bh I» OTBi^^JiH 3anop6aci]pE>i. Ha npo- 
ciT^kaci'B^ HHTH BcpcTi OjfiiJiH pasfipdcaHH TOJinti Ha- 
p6fla. Oh6 BCi co6HpajiHCB btc. Hefiojiinia k^^kh. TaKi. 

BOT^b Oh4 Ci^b I BOTI. TO ^H■fe3;^6, OTKy^a BMJieT&IOTl. 

Bai* Ti r6p;i,He h KpinKie KaKi jibbhI Boti. OTKy;^a 
pasjiHsaeTca B6:ia h KasA^ecxBO na bcio YEpMny! 
llyTHHKH BiiixajE na ofim^pHyio nji6m;a;i;b, r;i;i 
o6EiKHOBeHHo coSapAjiacb pa;i;a. Ha 6ojibm6fi onpoK^- 
HyTOfl 66qK* cajs^in-h 3anop6acei^i> fieai. pySAiuKH ; oh-b 
;!;epataji'B ee bi. pyKaxt h Me^JieHHO saraHB^Jib na iiefi 
Ai^bi. Hut on^Tb neperopo;i;Ajia Aop6ry i];*JiaH xojina 


Moao;^63 3anop6»ei],'£, aaaoat^Bmn ^6pT0Mi> cboi& man- 
Ky H BCKAnyBmH pyKaMH. Ohb kph^Aji* t6jibko : «3Eh- 
bM HrpAfire, MysEEKtexHl He acaaifl, GoMa, ro- 


Lesson 15, 

pijiKH npaBOCiiaBHHMTEi I» H GoMa, ch no;i;66TBiMi> 
rJiasoMi, Mipajit 6e3i c^exy Kaat;^OMy npHCTaBasme- 
My no orpoMHMinefl KpyaK*. Okojio MOJIQ;^6^o sano- 
p6aKi];a ijeTiipe crapHxi, BHpa6aTHBaJiH ;i;ob6;ibho mbji- 


pony, hq^tA na roaoBy MysHKaHTaMi, B;i;pyri> onycT^- 
mncB HecjiAcB bi. npHci;i;Ky h 66jih Kpyxo h KpinKO 
CBO^MH cepeSpsHHMH noflK6BaMH njiOTHO ySfoyio scm- 
■HK). (Eomeivh 6ydeim.) 


Ho cjyqaro nacTHX'B Ha6^b- 
roBt Taiapi, KaaaKfi Bi- 

Bi nepBufi-jH pa3i Tapaci 
npitaatajii bi. C^hb? 

EoaTOMy y sero 6hjh 3;i4cb 

OcraHOBiijca-JiH Tapaci no- 
rOBOpfiTb Ch cboAmh TOBa- 


KaKoe 3T0 Cujio 3p4jiHiiiie? 

\&, TaMi Shjii He6ojibm6ft 
Bajii H sac^Ka, so ohh 
HHE^Mi He dujin xpaH^HQ, 
H 6uj[H.BB 6ojibm6Hrb sany- 
m^HiH ; Bce HOCHJio OTnena- 
TOKi SojBraofi 6e3neHH0- 
CTH. HHr^i He Bfi;tHO 6hjio 
3a66poBi; Bci h36h Sum 
OTKpHTH ;i;jia BcaKaro. 

Ero nocimieHie ne 6nj[o 

n^pBBIMi, HO CHHOBta efo . 

npiixajin Ty^^' Bnepsue. 

Jl,a, y Hero 6hjio mhofo 3Ha- 
Kommxt. TojiBKO 3ano- 
poaci^n ropA^JHCb t^itb, 
1T0 h6 ditiH pasroBop- 
IHBH, noOTOMy E npHfliT- 
ctbIh 6ujih BpaTsifl. 

HiTt, ero BHHManie 6[ijio 
npHBJieqeHO o^HfiiPb HSi 
Tix-b 3pibjiHni;i, KOTopua 


CiiH H BOoSme M6ffi;(y 
EaEoS-TO HOJOAoft EasaE'b, 
no Bceft BipoaTHOCTH bos- 
BpaTHBiniicH ci ;^o6tiHeI0 
Bi Ctib, npa3;iH0Baj'b 
CBoe BOSBpam^nie, OEpy- 

aieHBBd TOJinOE) MySHEiH- 

Remarks on consiruction. 


Txh ate nujiT, Moaosoft Ka- 
3aKi? Bi KaSaKi? 

MySHKaHTET? TaHl^OBaTb H BecejiHTBca 

He TaKi, KaRi. flpyrie na- 
poflu; anrjHiaHe, Hanpn- 
Mipi, Kor;ta HanbiOTca, 
flepvTca, (})paHn;y3H iny- 
wArh, a pyccKifi: nrpaerB 
xoTfl 6ei sa ^aJiajiafiB']^, 
TaniiyeTi fijra npocTO npH- 
TonuBaerB Horoio h noexi. 
HiTB, y 3anop6ati;eB'B Bce 
aijiajiocB OTEpHTo: ecjiH 
KaaaKy BSAyMaeTca TjJiAtb, 

OHl BeJlfiri BHKaTHTb 66- 

roByio njiomajib h flaBafi 
EHTb H ipyrAxi n6;i;HH- 
BaTb. TaK-b A'feJiajii h 
MOJOAofi aanopoaei^i: ohi 
njflcajii, saBiin. nHTb b6a- 
Ky BcaKOMy, eto xot4jii, 
no3TOMy H He y^HBHTejib- 
Ho, 1T0 Epyri HMcaBraHx-b 
yBejfiqHBajca pee 66;iie 
H 66j['Be. 

OhA TaHIlOBdjH TaKl Ha3H- 

BaeMEift EasaqSEi, Hai;io- 

Ha;ibH£I&, AOBOJIbHO A^Eifi 

TaHeitt, HO AJia BOToparo 
HyatHO 6HTb o^eHb -iob- 
KHMi, fi6o Tanen;* cocto- 
HTT. H31 npHciAanift na 

B6pT0<IKn H IipSSEOB^b 

^yrb :iH ne bi qeJiOB'fe- 
^ecEia pOCTTb. 



Though the Russian construction does not on the 
whole widely differ from English, yet there are a few 
rules which cannot be passed by in silence: 

Hto ace ohh njiacajTH? 

220 Lesson 16. 

The negative adverb He must be placed immediately 
before the word to which it refers: 
S. HHin^ He CTBx&MH, a np630». I do not -write- in verse, but in 

Ohi 6hjii h« ajtct, a Taui. He was not here, but there. 

It would not be at all correct to say : a ne nnmy 
CTHxaHH, a nposoK) ; oHi He 611J11' sa^cb, a Tarn. 

The same rule applies to all words used in the 
sense of adverbs: 

IIpamji^Te Mat xoxa (6h) tdJibKO Send me at least twenty-five 
AB&Kimn mm py6j6fi". roubles. 

The signification of the sentence would be greatly 
altered, were it to be written thus : npHmjiATe xotb tojl- 
BO mh4 ABaAil;aTb naTb pyfiji^fi. 

The conditional particle 6u must not be used more 
than once in the same proposition: 
ficJiB Oh a ram.. K6poTK0 He Had I not so* intimately kno^n 
3Hajii Bacb, TO ne nOBtpHai Oh you, I should not have beUev- 

BaMTi. ed youi 

It would be quite wrong to say : ecjiH 6u a tslkt, 

KopoTKO He sn&jch 6u Baci, to hc noBtpHJi 6h saMi. 

To merely express a number approximately, the 

numeral is sometimes placed after the substantive: 

Sia KHHra ctoAti py6ji6fi J^Ba- This book costs about twenty 

AH&Th. roubles. 

EmJ 6ti. posy jiiii ;^B&;i;i^aTb. He is twenty years old or there- 

Beside this, there are several inversions and a few 
other trifling deviations from the ordinary English con- 
struction which however cause no difficulty, inas- 
much as the inflections of the words sufficiently in- 
dicate their respective concord or dependence. 

Ancient authors exhibit however many peculiari- 
ties of style, as may be seen in the following example 
taken from Lomonossov (Reiff's Engl.-Russ. Grammar) : 
IIoBejifiTe.iib MHdrHXt a3HK6BT. a- The ilussian language, the pArent 
i^Kb poccittCKifl He TOJibKO o6- of many others, is superior 

mtipHOCTbK) MtcTb, rflt OET. TO- to all the languages of Europe 

c^6;^cTBye'n,, ho Kynno h c66- not only in the extent of the 
CTBeHHHMb cnotoi npocTpaHCT- countries where it is domin- 
BOM^ H fl0B6jibCTBieMi BBJifticb ant, but also in its own com- 
^ep6;^^ BctwH m> Eopdnt. .prehensiveness and richness. 
Kapai. V, Pi'iMCKifi inmepiTopx, Charles the Fifth, Emperor 

roB4pHBa», MTo Hcn^HCKHHi of the Romans, said that one 

azHKOHi cb B6roMi, 4ipaHi<Y3- ought to speak Spanish with 

CKHMi c^ ,!;py3b;iMn, HiMenKHMT> the Divinity, French to one's 

Remarks on oosaTRDCTiox. 221 

CT. HenpiiTejtaMH, HTaaijiHCKHin. friends, German to one's ene- 

CT. 3s;eHCKHMi> n6ji0Mi roBopliTt mies and Italian to ladies. But 

npiijiliqHo. Ho ec;iH 6h ght. had he been acquainted with 

pocciftoKOMy asHKy 6ujit hck^- Russian, he would assuredly 

CBHi., TO KOHeMHO in> TOMy npH- have added that one could 

coBOKynli.ii Oti, qra hmt. go speak it with each and all. 

Bciuu 6HHMH roBop^Tb npH- He would have discovered in 

CT6iiH0. H6o Hamejit 6h bt> it the majesty of the Spanish, 

HeMT. BejiHKOJi'fenie HcnaHCKaro, the vivacity of the French, the 

acriBOCTb (})paH^y3CKa^o, Kpi- strength of the German, the 

nocTb Htii^HKaro, HisKHOCTb sweetness of the Italian, and 

iirajBiiBeKaro. ceepxi Toro 60- in addition energetic conci- 

raTCTBo u cMJiBHyio BT. H3o6pa- seness in its imagery with the 

MvCHiaxT. KpaTicocTi rpeqecKaro richness (of the Greek and 

H jiailiHCKaro hshk^. Latin). 


Continuation. — Foremost in the Dramatic Art 
stands Shakhovskoy (1777 — 1846), a comic poet endo- 
wed more than any other with a fertile and humorous 
imagination, and Alexander Griboyedow (1784 — 1829), 
the author of a charming comedy, Sorrow [comes] from 
Wit, which soon became very popular and remains so 
to the present day. The comic irony (HacMtniKa) of 
Griboyedow, like that of his predecessors, confined itself 
to trifles at which it was very easy to laugh. 

Another great dramatic writer was Nicolai Gogol 
(1809 — 1852), who, in his biting comedy The Revisor, 
ridiculed the pilferings (BsaTOHHfiHecTEo) of small provincial 
towns and unveiled without mercy (oSjiHMaji'B) the cor- 
ruption of government officials. As a novelwriter Go- 
gol's name has become known beyond (nepenuro ^pesi), 
the frontier of Russia. In Tarass Bulba we find a faith- 
ful and attractive picture of the savage life and customs 
of the Cossacks ; and in Dead Souls, we see, not so much 
a novel, but rather (66jii.ine qiiii poiadHt) a remarkably 
bold psychological study and a pitiless denunciation 
(KpfiTHKy) of the imperfections of Russian society. 

(To be continued.) 

CTenB H 3anopd»ccBaa G^hb. 

3eMJii rayxo ry;i;'ijia na bck) OKpyry, h bi> B63;i;y- 
x* T6jibK0 OT;i,aBajiocB : Tpa xa ra, Tpa xa Ta I Tojina, 

1 See pagif 216. 

222 Lesbon 16. 

n±M% ^aate, pocjia ; ki. TaHii,yioii];HMi> npHCTasaaH flpy- 
rie, H Bca notiT6 nji6ii];a;i;B noKpliJiacB npHcb^iromHMH 
3anop6Hcii;aMH. 9to hm^jio bi. ce6§ ^to-to sapaaliTejib- 
HO-ysjieK^TejiBHoe. HejiB3^ 66jio 6es-h ;i;BHaceHia Bcefi 
f!jm& b^;i,4tb, Kaici BCii tojiii4 OT^yBdia T^neux, c4- 
MBiS B6aBHHft, c^MBig fiimeHHBlfi, KaK6ft t6jibko b±- 
;i;*jiB Kor;i;a jih6o Mipi. h K0T6pBifi no cbohmi m6ii;- 
HMWh H3o6p'feTiTejiaMB, h6cht3. HasBame Kaaa^Kd. 

TapacB ByjiBSa Kp^KHyaii otb HeiepniHiff h pfl- 
ca,f[fii, ^TO K©HB, Ha KOT6poMi) CH;^iJI^ OHB, M^maaB 
eiiy nycfr^TBca caMOMy. HH6e 66jih ipesBHHaSHO 
CMimiiii CB0610 BaatHOCTBH), ch KaK6K) oh6 paSoTajiH 
HoraMH. ^epesB-iypB ;i,pAxjiEie, npHCJioH^BiuHCB kb 
CT0Ji6y, Ki KOTdpoMy oduKHOBeHHO Ha Ciq6 npHBji- 
SHBanH npecT^nHHKa, TdnaJiH h nepeMHH^JiH hof^mh. 
Kp6KH H niCHH, KaKia rdjiBKO Mora6 npifrrfi bb r6jio- 
By qejiOBiKy bb paaryjiBHOMB BCcditH, pas/^aBajiHCB 

Tapaci BCK^p* bctp^thjib MH6acecTB0 snaKdMHXB 
jihd;b. OcTant h AH;i;pifi ca^maJiH TdaiBKO npHBfe- 
CTBia : «A, ^to th, neiep6n;a 1 3;i;p^BCTByfl, KoaojiyiiB ! 
OTKy;i,a BorB neceTB Te6&, Tap^CB? Tbi KaKB CIo;^a 
aaraeflB, ^oaoT6? SftpaBCTByfi, SacjeacKal JI^'^Maai 
an a B^fl^TB Te6a, PeiieHB ? I» W Btoaaa, co6paBinieca 
CO Bcero paaryaBnaro iripa BOCTO^Hofi Poccfn, v,iiio- 
BaaacB Bsa^MHO h lyTB nonecJificB Bonp6cBi: «A ^to 
KacB^HB? r;i;* Bopo^&BKa? ^to KoionepB? ^to 
IIh^C]^toeb ?» H cjiSiinaJiB to^bko bi. otb^tt. TapicB 
ByaBfia, «to Bopo;i;aBKa HOBimeHB bb Tojioh^h*, ^to 
CB EojEonepa co;^paJIH K6aty iro;i,i KHBHKpnMeHOMB, 
TITO IlHflc^TKOBa rojiOBa nocoaena bb 66?k4 h orapaB- 
jena bb c^MBifi I^apB-rpa^B. IIoHypHai rdaosy cxa- 
pBifi ByjiB6a h paa^yMiKBO roBop6ai>: «JI|6dpBie 66j[h 


TaKB KasaieKB hh ^to HHoe ^a,, npaca^iKa ohchb noxo- 
KaKB npHCflXKa? ata Ha KaaaTuta, ho Kasa- 

HCKB KpaefiBie, oc66eHHO 
Kor^a ero TaHii;yFOTi h 


Remakes on conbtructiok. 


Hto Ai^sun, Tapaci bi. to 
BpeMH, KaBi luflcaj'b sa- 

Oah4 JtH TOJibKO MOjro;teffiB 
npHHHMdjia ynacTie bi 

H Bce 3Td A^Jiajioct ny6;iii- 


HiTt, oni He, npnd&A&io'rai. 


o^eHB njiasHH h rpauiios- 
HH, oh4 ocTaioTca na m4- 


ynacTie bi, Tdsni. Oh4 
njiaBHO If THXO Ka^aiOTca 


pHH KOJiiimeTi B^Tept, 
B-b TO BpeMfl KaKi KaBa- 
jr6pt n'kjia.erb nepe^i h6- 
un padHue OTqaaHHue 
npaacKfi h eryviMTh Ka6jiy- 
KaMH, fiJH cep66paHHHMH 
nOAEOBaME, KaKlJI hoc^jch 

3anop6amH h BOo6in;e Ka- 


Ohi> HeTepnijHBo ;i;epraji'b 
jomaAb 3a noBOAba, TaKt 
HTO KOHb BCTaai Ha AH6ii, 
laKi Tapacy xoTijocb 
caMOMy noftTfi njiacaTb. 

Hirb, 6iijiH h CTapHKii h 
oh6 6u3m oieHb cMimHii 

TOpOK) OHd BHA'^lUBaJin 

CBOfi npH3KK& H -pa66Tajra 
HoraMH. "lepesi-qyp'b ^e 
XpAxjiuk, KOTopne ne mo- 
rjifi ynacTBOBaTb b% njiA- 

Ck4, yHHJIO CTOflJH, npH- 
CJrOHHBfflHCb Kl CT0J[6aM'b, 

TonajEH HoraMH h nepe- 


TaKi KaKi y aanopoatiteBt 

He 6a3LO HH CCMbA, HH 

ateffb, TO BC6 H npoHSBO- 
^IHJioci. ny6jiF[^H0; ohi'i bi. 
xaiax-b CBOHXi. He jkhjih 
H npHxosiiJiH Ty;i,a to^ibko 


Lesson 17. 

H laKt Tapaci. He cjiisi 
ct vi6nia;i,H? 

noTCM^ ate Hx-B TaK* ate- 


H4ti, owb yTepniat, CKOJit- 

KO Tpy^ 3T0 eM3? HH 

ct6h;io, ho Ohi> pascnpa- 
muBajii BUasowiXh o pas- 

OffB He Bfixbs'h BT, HXl 

^HMi. Tyrt ost bsaox- 
Hy-it, ycjuimafii, wo 


noBimeHi, hto cb spy- 
roro vh TSja.pb-Tpin'b eo- 
jtpdjiH Koaty, TOO TpiiMro 
nocaA^H Ha kojii h t. a- 
B'j^Aii ys6 He pasi 6£uio 
cK^saHO, ^TO KasaKft xk- 
jiajm BTopaceHk to bb 
Tj^pitiio, TO Bi noJiBmy, 
noBTOMy H TypKH H noJH- 
KH He cnycsajiH rbwb, 
EOTopue nonaA^JiHCb hifb 
B'B p^BH, H Tepsajia itx:b 

BC^^eCEHUH MysauH H 

npeAasliH hx-b JuoTigmeS 
cu6pTH. Tap&c:b,yc;iHx4Bi 
cd^ y^acTH pdsHUXi 10- 
BdpHmeft, rjiyfioKO bbaox- 
H^ji'B H noMssfjTb ma>, 
CEasaBuiH: «^66pHe 6tLiH 



Idioms are modes of speaking peculiar to a 
language, which cannot be literally translated into 
another. We give therefore a list of those which are 
most frequently used in English with their Russian 
equivalents : 

OcT&BbTe ero bi> noK6i Let him alone. 

Co&uoj&Ti. xasApim. To keep up appearances. 

HacE6AbK0 urt bsb^ctho «b npH- For aught I know. 



Om EM'lerb ctojii h KBapiApy y 


Om, cbjTb Ha napox6xi>. 
CtflHO OTnpaBji^aocb B^ MiisTy. 
dro ydberb er6 rdpeirb. 
'RoTf.k fijbao oGHapywiiJiocb. 


Co ep^ueHeirb. 

MB]iox6AOin>, ect&th. 

H saxoAJSjrb kt> BaMi> sqep^ ni- 

£c.<in dio TaicB. 
Stofo CyABTb socTiTomio. 

SI nOEdffqHJTb Cl RIlM'b. 

BbiTb Ha fleactpcTBi. 

IIoA&ATe HHb MeHib. 

OhA noT6ni4iDTca Ha;^^. HUMt. 

HrpaTb no 6ojibm6ii. 

ynepeib ci. MYweCTBOJrb. • 

Ohi> CKJidneiTb ki nbjJHCTBy. 

Bds&e M6fi! 

Oht. yqicTBOBajTb bt. $tomi. 

y Heii xop6mi9 n6qepirb. 

Oht. CTOjJ-iT. TaKt, ito Mort cjiCi- 

a nii'ierd ne MorJ c^'fejiaTb. 
CoGpdnie cocioiiTCfl na Cysymefl 

3aH0JiqiiTe-JiH bu? 
fl 6<iPHb cirtmy. 
JlfifAHTb napfi. 
Oht. lyib He yiOHyjn.. 

Obi> acnBerb co ?,nA Ek flfiEh. 
SL coBepniAHHO He^oyMtBiio. 

Ey'^^bT.e Kaicb jifina.. 

Oh6 TdKi> xe Gi^CTpo y6tai4jiii, 

nax'b a npHni;ili. 
B-b newb 
Bee pauH6. 

He saS^flbie npiiiTii flp oij'fe;;a. 
Mai oqeHb xfiieica c^ijia,Tb 5to. 
fl nepeM'i^H^jiii cBoe Hajarbpeme. 
B% HoiHdfi TnmBHt. 
Eh^ npHHijidcb 6op6TbM ne na 

pa.BHux'b ycjidbiarb. 

CT&BHTb B0np6CT>. 

Bm MeHj! Vb yM4 CBefleie. 
Russian Conv. -Grammar, 

He hoards and lodges with his 

He went on ioard a steamer. 
The vessel was bound for Malta. 
This will break his heart. 
When the transaction was 

brought to light. 
Go about yoTir btisinesa. 
By and by. 
By the by. 
I called at your house yesterday 

If that is the case. 
That will do. 
I have done with him. 
To be on duty. 

Let me have the bill of fare. 
They make fun of him. 
To play a deep game. 
To die game. 
He is given to drinking. 
Good gracious I 
He had a hand in it. 
She writes a good hand. 
He was within hearing. 

I cannot help it. 

A meeting will be held next 

Will you hold your tongue? 

1 am in a great hurry. 

To lay a wager. 

He had like to have been 

He lives from hand to mouth. 

I am quite at a Joes to under- 

Make yourself at home. 

They made away as fast as they 

To make up one's mind. 

What is the matter? 

No matter. 

Mind you come before dinner. 

I have a great mind to do it. 

I have changed my mind. 

In the dead of the night. 

He had to fight against great 

To put a question. 

You will drive me out of my 


226 LsBSOir 17. 

VcTpeMilTb T3ia,3k. To set eyes on. 

*ap(i)6poBii8 npiifiopi). A set of china. 

IIoacMeMt KPyrb ;tptry p^kh. Let us shaJce hands. 

Oht> ofiMaHyjca m> 080(4x1. ojkh- He came short of his expecta- 

fl^Hiflxi. tions. 

Ohi ySfaAjn. He tooi to his heels. 

]i,a,BR6 nop& ^TTfi. It is high ime to go. 

Ci. 5to8 t6ii£h aptaia. From this point of view. 

Ero oScTOMTeJitcTea xopomB. He is well off. 

OTq^cTH clkaoio H OMacTH x4- Wfea< with force, and 'what with 

TpocTbH). policy. 

HoaflpaBJidio Baei. ci. h6dhmt. r6- I vdsh you a happy New Year. 


Mnt orb *roro He xyate. I am not the worse for it. 

^TO 6hji6 6MeHi> Hexopomd ci er6 It was very wrong of him. 



Continuation. 1 — Heroic poetry, both original 
and imitative (EaE'b opHrHHajibHaa, xaKi h noApaacdTaxb- 
Haa) was successfully Cultivated by Gnedich (1784 — 
1833), who translated the Iliad, and by Ivan Kozlov 
(1774—1838), an imitator of Byron, but endowed with 
a more devout and fervent inspiration. This amiable 
poet made himself celebrated by his charming original 
poems, not less than by pretty translations from foreign 
authors, chiefly English. 

As a lyric poet Zhukovski (1783—1852) is parti- 
culary famous, but he was more appreciated as a 
translator than as an original poet ; it was through 
him that romanticism gained its (npo^wJi't ceSt) way 
into Russia. Among his translations are especially to 
be mentioned Gray's Elegy, Bi'irgers Lenore (JleHopa) 
and certain poems of Schiller, (ioethe, Uhland, Byron, 
Moore, Southey, Homer and of some ancient Indian 
authors. Among his original productions The Bard in 
the Camp of the Russian Warriors, and the Imperial 
Hymn ("God, save the Tsar!") are the most celebrated. 

(To be continued.) 


BociiHT&Hle OHtrsHa. 

OHirHHX, AofipuS Mofi npidxeab, 
Fojiwjica Ha dper^xi. HeB6, 

1 See page 221. 


Tf(% MoateTi. 6ht£, poji;6jihcb bh, 
Hjih 6jincT&jm, iiofi vnTwtejTbl 
T&wh H'£Eor;^a ryji^jn n a: 
Ho Bpefl;eHi) Cinepi ;i;jia iieuA. 
Cjiyat6Bt OTJi±q[HO, 6jiarop6;i;HO, 
JljojrraMH atHJii> er6 0x01^1, 
JljaB^HTb TpH 6aaa eKer6;i;H0, 
H npoMOT^Jica HaKOH^i^. 
Cy;i;b6a Esr^Hia xpan^Jia: 
CnepBa madame sa hhmi> xo^^jia, 
IIoTOMi. monsieur ee CMiHAai. 
PefieHOKi 6wji'i> pisoBi, ho mhjii.. 
Monsieur I'Abbe, (JipaHnj-^ai y66riB, 

^.TOG-h He HSMy^tHJIOCb flHTi, 

y^6jn> er6 BceMy rayr^. 

He ;^0Kyq&JIl) MopAaBio CTp6rofi, 

CjierKa sa mhaocTvi 6faa±s.'h, 

H Bt JliTHifi Cafl,!. ryji^B bo^Ajii.. 

Ko^;^4 ace i5hocth MaTeatHoft 

npHmx^ EBr§HiH> nopd,, 

Hop^ HaA&Kffi H rpfcTH HiacHofi, 

Monsieur oporH^uiH co ;i;Bop&. 

BoTi>,MoS Oh&<hhi> Ha cbo66a^; 

Ocrp^seHi no ^ocai;^Hefi m6a*; 

EaKi dandy JI6H;^0HCKifi oji/br'b, 

K naKOH^i^ob ys^^xi cb§ti>. 

Oh* no-<J)paHn;facKH coBepineHHo 

MoriE> H3i>acHitBca h hhc^Ii; 

JIerK6 MaafpKy xaHi^OBdni. 

H KJi4HaJica HenpHHyac^eHHO : 

^ero ati. saMi 66aBme? CBiT-B p-feim&jii, 

^TO OWb yMCHi H b^CHB MHaii. 

Mh bc* y^aacb noHeMH6ry, 

^CMt HHfifftB H KaK-B HH6y^ : 

TaB% BocnHT4HBeM3>, caasa .B6ry, 
y sach He MyApcHd 6jiecHfTB. 
OnirHHi. 6HaB, no MHiHBio MHornxB 
(Cy;^6ft pimfoejiBHBixi h crporHX'b), 
y^eHBifi M&iHfi, HO ^e;^AHTa>. 
TS.iiiii'h OH-B ciacTJHBBifi TaaaHTi 


228 Lessok 18. 

Besob npHHym^eHta B-h pasrosdp^, 
KocHyTBca no Bcer6 cjierK4; 

C-h y^eHHMl. B^OM^b SHETOKa 

XpaH^^B Mom&HBe bi> b&«homi> cn6p£, 
H B036fat;i;aTB y;i66Ky ^^aM-B 
OrHeM^B Hem;i,^HMxaE> suvtrpkuwh. 

JlaT^tHB H3^ m6abi B^iniJia h^h^: 
TaKi>, 6cflH np^B;i;y saiiTb CKa3S,TB, 
Oh^b snaa-B ;i;oB6aBHO no-JiaTiiH'fe 
^to6b 9nHrp4(J)Bi pasfinp^xB, 
HoTOJIKOBdTB o6'h K)BeHaji*, 
Bb KOHi^i DHCBMa nocTas^TB vale, 
J]|a ndMHnaB, xotb He 6e3B rpixa, 
n3i> 9ne6jija. jifia, CTHxa. 
Ohb p^bch He hm4ji5> oxotbi 
Bt xpoHOjrorA^ecKofi hhjiA 
BBiTonncama seMJiii; 
Ho ;i;Hefi mhh^bdihxb aHeKflOTH, 
Otb P6Myjia ;i;o naranxj. ftnefi, 
Xpan^jit OHB BB naMHTH CBoefi. 


flaa SB^KOBt ac63HH ne l^a;^6TB, 
He MOT% OHi. jiMfia otb xopea, 


EpaH^jiob PoMepa, OeoKpAxa, 
3a TO yjrrks.'h A^dMa Cn^Ta 
H 6hjib ray66Kifl bkohomi, 
To ecTB yyiisiy cy;i;6TB o TOMt, 
EaKi rocy^ApcTBO 6oraTieTi>, 

H ri±Wh WHBeTi, H HO^CMy 

He HfacHO 36jioto euf, 

Kor;a;& CBrp6fi npo^^KTB HMisTi. 

Ot^i^i. noHjiri. er6 He mofb 

Q s^MaH 0T;i;aB&a% bb sanori. nywsum. 



:&. great number of substantives are derived from 
other substantives, from adjectives and verbs, chiefly 
by means of terminations. 

Formation of russus words. , 229 

To form abstract nouns the terminalions ctbo, octb, 
MHa, are often used: 

jiia ^children jiiciBo childhood 

BOBHH new HOBOCTB Hovelty 

THxifi tranquil xHinHHi tranquillity. 

Names of tradesmen and icorlcers are formed with 

the suffixes aitt, apb, am,, SKt, api, hhki, 'imwh and 

piifia fish pafiaKi fisherman 

3B0B1 sound 3BoudpB bellringer 

Tpyfii trumpet ipyCiw trumpeter 

Mope sea aopas'B seaman 

crojn. table CTojiapi. cabinetmaker 

iiijB copper' ssisHBK'i. coppersmith 

iiepesoA^b translation nepeBdj'iBK'B translator 

o66h (plur.) tapestry c66iiiuEK:B upholsterer. 

A great many nouns arc derived from verhs by 

means of the suffixes Hie, Tie, Tte, Ka, 6a, CTsie, etc. : 

Tepn^Tb to tolerate TepiiiHJe patience 

ryjAii to walk ryjiaaie walk 

HHTB to drink nETi>e drinking 

p&iaTB to cut pisKa cutting 

iituHTB to ii{iw vAita, little saw 

npoc^TB to request np6cB6a request 

nyrem^cTBOBaTB to travel nyrcin^cTBie journey. 

Every Russian word, whether primitive or deriva- 
tive, simple or compound, is thus traceable to a root 
or reducible to certain radical letters or syllables, 
which become words by junction of other letters or 

The latter are by no means destitute of signifi- 
cation by themselves, and must be considered as auxi- 
liary roots.^ 

Let us take e. g. : the words podt race, podemao 
parentage and npupoda nature. It is evident that their 
common root is poj^ which has assumed various signi- 
fications by the addition of i, ctbo and npH. 

By means of derivation and composition a great 
many words are fonmed from one and Oie same root. 
Thus we see by the two following lists that around the 
root poA may be grouped 25 derivative and 80 com- 
pound words. 

1 Modem linguists iiave sufficiently demonstrated the truth 
of Uiis fact, which applies of course to all languages of the 
iiifJeclional type. 


Lesson- 18. 


poj^TB to engender 
po«HTem father 
poA^iejiB parents 
pojiAreihBBna, mother 
poAHT&ncEiH paternal 
pox&ieiBHH$ genitive 
poA^bHHUHB'b a lying in woman's 
po;iHJiBHHi(a a lying in woman 
poAiiMiiii native 
p6,iiHBa native country 
poA^u delivery, birth 
p6AU birth 

poaceHHiia a 

poanii a relative 

poAHdri german (of brothers) 

p6AHiiiii full-grown 

poxnii relation 

Poaob6h hereditary, patrimonial 

pdiCTseHBHRi kinsman 
. . . p6ACTBeHHi!i(a kinswoman 

pojcTBd parentage 

posAeHHBii born 

posA^nie birth 

poajecTB6 nativity, Christmas 

ponj(€cTBeHCKiK of Christmas 
lying in woman. 

Compound ivords. 

BpoA^Tb to influence 
bposaShbhK inborn 
BposA^nie inborn quality 
BuapoxAie^B restorer 
BospoA^Tkca to be restored 
BOispoxA^Bie revival 
BiipoAHTBca to degenerate 
BtipoAOEi hybrid 
6e3p6AHHH parentless 
Cespdiie orphanage 
6e3p6ACTB0 want of relations 
fiAaropdxBHi noble 
Ciarop^Aie nobility 
SxaropdACTBO nobleness, nobility 
(ijiaropoxASBBHii of noble birth 
EoropdAHiia God's mother 
BoropoBAeHRHJi God's son 
BoropoxA^aie Christmas 
BOAop6Ai> hydrogen 
3apoAi&TB to prodnce 
sapoA^Ttca to germinate 
sipoAOBi germ 

3ap6ABDIl » 

sapdAHinesi » 
sapoKA^Bie formation 
HBopdABufi foreign 
HBop6Aeit% a foreigner 
BHCAOpdAi oxygen 
MexAyBapdAMufi international 
Hap^At nation, people 
BapoAiiiB to produce 
napoA^TBca to be produced 
uapdAHiiil national 
napoxA^Bie birth, origin 
oeAopdAi a poor harvest 

HeAoposA&Ti) to produce little 
BOBopoacA^HBHH new-bom 
oTpoA^T&cfl to be born again 
oipoxASHHHt restored to life 
OTpoxA^uie regeneration 
0Tp6A0E'B sprout 
0Tp6Aie breed 
nepepoAHTfc to reanimate 
nepepoA^TbCA to revive 
iiepeposA^nie revival 
nopoAi^TB to breed 
nop6Aa origin, extraction 
nopoxA^Bie breed 
nopoAB^TicH to become relations 
nopdAHCTBifi thorough-bred 
opapdAa nature 
iipBpdABHt natural 
irpspoxA^BBufi innate 
iipapoAiiTeAi first father 
npapoA^xejiBCRifi the first father's 
poA^Tbca to be bom 
poAOAiJiaxeu the Creator 
poAonaidALRBKi family stock 
poAOCAdsb genealogist 
poAOCAtSsie genealogy 
poAOCidBBHfi genealogical 
poAocji6BHaA pedigree 
cpdAUHg of the same origin 
cp6abbk:b a relative 
cp6ACTBenBBKb kinsman 
cp6ACTBeBBEi;a kinswoman 
cp6AHB^ili a relative's . . . 
cpoACT86 relationship 
cp6AflBi;a a female relative 
yrjepdA'B carbon 

Forma- iON of Russian words. 231 

ypojame monster ypofffin to engender 

yp6w » ypoA^nca to be engendered 

yp6xBBa monstrous creature 7p6ajihboctb monstrosity 

yp(5AAEiBaii monstrous ypos^Heni a native (man) 

ypox^Bsa a native (woman). 

Many other compounds are certainly used or are 
permitted to be so. 

Learners may exercise themselves in tracing the 
following words to their roots: 
EcnoMoriTeabHuS. auxiliary 

sacBB^^'lTeJibCTBOBaHie: attestation. 

npeBocxoA^ejibCTBO. Excellency. 

They will likewise do well in trying to form as 
many words as possible with the following roots: 

ym (yn) wit 
vnn% (son) sight 
Aapi («ap) gift 
KMO Okix) affair. 


Continuation. 1 — After so many poets of un- 
questionable merit (6e3'B coua^Eia eh ;i:ocT6iiHCTBaHH), but 
not entirely original, there arose the gigantic figure 
of Alexander Pushkin (1799—1837), the greatest ho- 
nour and glory (Be^Hqafiinyio h qHcriamyn ai&Bj) of 
Russian Literature. He served in the Ministry of 
Foreign Afiairs, but having written an Ode to Liberty, 
he fell into disgrace and was sent to Bessarabia. Here 
he wrote a fine epic poem, Ruslan and Ludmila, in 
which he undertook to treat in the manner of the 
romantic school a subject drawn from the heroic times 
of Kiev. At a later period (Ilos^tHie) he wrote the 
Prisoner of the Caucasus the Fountain of Bakhchisa- 
rai', the Gipsies, and began the poetical novel Eugene 
Onegin, which he finishei? several years later, wherein 
he gives (npeACTaBjiaeTi) us a living picture of Russian 

Then he published in almost uninterrupted succes- 
sion (noiT6 o]!fiwb 3a spyr^Mi) the Brigand Brothers, 
Count Nulin, Poltava [which is] one of his best poems, 
many detached writings, some novels in prose, the best 
of which is the Captain's Daughter, and various tales. 

1 See page 226. 

232 Lesson 18. 

The most admired of his dramatic works is (Hsi ;ipa- 
MaTHqecKHXi ero npoHSBca^Hift oc66eHHO BHAaerea) Boris 
Godunov, a tragedy in prose mingled with verse, 
which his death did not permit him to finish. Received 
again into favour and appointed as Impferial Historian, he 
wrote the Rebellion of Pugachev, and was prepaiing a 
great History of Peter the Great, when he was killed in a 
duel. The general mourning following his death show«d in 
the best manner (jiy^me Bcero) his popularity. Though at 
one time an imitator of Byron and A. Chenier, Pushkin 
yet treated with great inspiration subjects purely na- 
tional, expressing in an admirable way the joy and 
grief, the glory and beauty of his country. Among the 
followers of Pushkin's school in poetry are reckoned 
Delvig, Baratynski and Yazykov. (To be continued.) 


BopHci ro^yHOBi. 

(Ho^i, KiihB vh ?yAOBOHi> MoHacTBpi, 1603 r. OT^qi. IlHMeHi.; 
TpHrdpiH ORaii(ifi.) 

Em;e o;i,h6, nocji§;i;Hee CKaaanBe — 
H jiiTOHHCB OKdn^ena Moji; 
HcnojiHeHi) fi^osr-b, sasimafiHHfi oti, Bora 
Mni rpiniHOMy. He ;>,apoMTb mhophx:!. Jifei. 
CBVLfl,-kTejieTA-h TocndflB uesA nocxasHJii. 
H KHiiacHOMy ncKyccTsy spasyu&n.'b: 
Kor;i,a-HH6y;i,B moh^x-b Tpy;i;ojiio66Bwfi 
HaflAexB Mofi Tpy;!;i. ycepAHBifl, 6e3fiM6HHBifl; 
SacBixHTi. 0H3>, KaKi a, cBOib jaMnafly 

H, HBIJIB B^KOBt OTi Xapxifi OTpSXHyBl, 

IIpaB;i,6BBia CKaa&HBs nepenBincTB, 
^a Bi;^aiOTi> noT6MKH npasocjiaBHBix'B 
3eMJi6 po;i,H6fi MHHyBiuyio cy^Bfi^, 
CboAx-b napefi bbjiIikhxi. domhh&iot'b 
3a HX'B Tpy;i,6, aa cjiaBy, 3a ;i,o6p6 — 
A 3a rpix^, 3a TeMHtia fi,±&iihK 
Cnacfoejia cmhp^hho yMOJi^iOTi). 
Ha CTapocTH a cEianoBa acHB^: 
MHHyBinee npoxdAHTi. npe^o mh6io1 
,HaBH6-jiB oh6 HecJi6cB co6£iTiit n6jiH0, 


BojiHyaca, KaKi M6pe-0KeaHi. ? 
Teuepfc OHO Ce3M6iiBHO h cnoKofiHO: 
He MBoro Jiini;'i> iih4 n^MaTi. coxpaH^aa, 
He MHoro cjiob'b j^oxofifiTh }sp Menji, 
A npo^ee nor66jro HeB03Bp§,TH0 ! . . . 
Ho hajksoK-h ffOHB, naMnafla ^oropaexi. 
Eiii;e o;i,h6 nocji4;^Hee CKaaaHte (itiimeTx). 

rpHropift (iipoOyacAfteTca). 
Bee TOT-b ate coHt I Bosmowho-jib ? st xperifl paai. ! 
IIpoKJjiTBifi coHii 1 ... A Bce nepe;n3> aaMna;i;oS 
CTap6Ki> CH^ATit ;i;a niivieT-b, a j^peudToii, 

3HaTB, BO BCK) HO^B OH-b HC CMMK^JIl. Ol^fl. 

KaKB fi jno6aib ero cnoKofisHfi bh;];t., 
Kor;^a, ;^yiii6fl Bt MHHyBmeMB norpyateHHBift 


S. yraR&TB xoTiaB, o newb owb nfiinexT. 
O tSmhomx-jih Bfla;^]^ecTB'6 Taxapi.? 
KaBHax-B-JiH CBHpinbix'b lo^Hna? 
6ypH6Mi.-jiH HOBorop6ffCKOM'B ■aiui? 
O ca^4-JiH OT^tiecTBa? Hanp&CHo! 
Hh Ha qejii BUcdKou-h, hh bo Bsopaxt 
HeJiBs^ npoi6cTb erc^ cOKpiiTbTXT. ayM-b ; 
Bee TOT-B Hte BH;^I> — cmhp^hhhH, BeaHHaBHii 
TaK-B T61HO ^BEKi), B3. npHKast nociftiJibiH, 
CnoKdftHO apuT-B na npaBBixi. h BHH6BHBtxi>, 
JIio6py H 3Jiy BHHM^ paBHo;i;yiuHO, 
He B^jsjasL hh hc&jiocth, hh rniBa. 

npocHyaca, dpax-B? 

r p H r 6 p i fi. 
BaarocjioB6 Menii, 
^ecTH6ft or^i^B. 

n 6 M e h 1. 

BaarocjioBA FocnoAB 
Te6& h ;a,HecB, h npiAcHO, h BOstKH. 

r.p H r 6 p i ft. 
Th Bce HHcaa-B h chom-b hc ii03a6iiJiCE , 
A Moft noK6fi fiicoBCKoe MeuTanbe 
TpeB6wHJio, H Bpar-B mgh^ MyT6.ii,: 
Mh* CH6aocB, 1T0 ji*ctHHi],a Kpyxaa 

234 Lesson 19. 

MeH^ sejia Ha 6&mmo; cl bhcot^ 
Mh* B^'kxa.Ch MocKB^, ^TO MypaBefiHHEt; 
Bhhsy Hapb^t Ha nji6ii;a;^H'h, 
M Ha MeH^ yB&suBajii co cm^xom'b; 
H CTii^HO MHi, H CTpamno CTaHOB^JiocB ; 
H, n4^as CTpeMra:4B'£, a npo6yatfl4jicfl . 
H Tpa pa34 MHi ch6jics toti> ate cohI). 
He q-^flHO-JiH? 

n fi M e h i. 
Maa^^ KpoBb HrpdeTi; 


^ chh tbo6 BH;^4Hift JierKHxi. S^^yTi. 
HcnoaHeHH. floHiitH*, 6cflH a 
HeBOJEbHOH) speMbrofi o6e3c6jieHi, 
He coTBopib moji6tbh ;i;6jirofl ki h6tih. — 
Mofl CT&pHft coHi. He T±xi> H He fiearpiraeHi; 
Mh* ^fflarcH TO nif mhhb nHp6. 

To paTHBlft CTaHIi, TO CXBaTKH fioeB^H, 

BesyMHHH norixH ibHtixt h^t-b I 

KaKi BeceJio nposeai. CBOib th nii&jsficiihl 
Th Boesdjii no?;^ 6&niHaMH KasAna, 
Th paTb JIhtb£i npn IHyfiCKOMi oxpaataJii, 
Th B^fifijii, ;i;Bop'B H pdcKOinb Io5,HHa! 
C^acTJitol>l A a oti dxpo^ecKHXi. aiTi. 
Ho KejiiaMt ckht^tocb 6iflH£ifi Ahoki.! 
3aiiiMi) H mh4 He TiniHTBca bi> 6oAxi., 
He HHpoB&Tb aa n;apcKOH) xpan^soft? 
ycnifli 6h a, KaKi th, na CT&pocTB ji4ti> 
Otb cyeTii, oti. Mipa, OTjioac6TBca, 
HpoHSHecTfi MOH&mecTBa ofeiTt 
H BB Tfocyw o6fiTejtb aaTBopliTbca. 

(TIpodoMKCHie 6^de»n.) 



As learners will have seen, it is impossible to write 
Russian correctly by the ear alone. In cases of doubt 
the following hints may prove useful: 

Remarks on orthography. 235 

Russian consonnnts are never doubled ; whenever a 
double consonant occurs, it must be considered as the 
result of derivation or of composition: 

P^ccKiS Russian from Pyci> Russian and CRiS a desinence 

6e33f6iii toothless » fieai without syfii tooth 

BBos^B to introduce » at into BonAn to lead. 

Foreign words are, of course, an exception to 

this rule: 

!i66i,Th an abbot; ueTijui a metal, etc. 

The two vowels which foreigners and natives most 
frequently confound are e and i. In order to know which 
of them ought to be used recourse must be had to the 
dictionary. It may however be observed that the letter 
4 is never used in words taken from foreign languages, 
except in Btaa, which is properly speaking a Slavonic 

The greatest attention is required not to confound 
the hard termination, t, with the soft one, b. We sub- 
join here an abridged list of words difiering only by 
their hard or soft terminations: 

6.IIH31 near 6jih3l proximity 

6Hn> condition ('mtii to be 

6paTi brother (ipaTi. to take 

BOBt begone! bobb stink 

B1131, elm-tree nnah morass 
Tii!in% hunger {obsolete for fo.ioa'b) r.iaji smooth place 

rpani grain - rpaeb side 

H.11 mud H-ib or 

Koat perch kojib if, when 

EOBi stake kohl horse 

spoBi roof KpoBi blood 

MaTB mast MaTb mother 

luioTb float of wood niotb flesh 

BHJTb flame niijb dust 

CTajii I began ciajt steel 

CTOJii table CTo.iib so much 

^roat corner yroab coal 

jBecTi perch mecTi six 

nim flail ntnb chain 

B^i poison mi nurture. 

To these must be added a great number of similar 
analogies resulting from substantival and verbal in- 
flections, such as 6vijTh I struck and 6vixjih a bill, 6iiJi'b 
I was and fiajb a fact, BsaTt taken and Bsaxi. to 
take, BjTh of the fetters an(J nyri. toay, etc. 

236 Lesson 19. 

The divisiop, of words into syllables is made accor- 
ding to the following rules which are based on ety- 
mology and use : 

Monosyllables, as cTpacit, s^npaBi cannot be se- 

In compound words their various parts are dis- 
jointed, as OT-p^a, o-Tp&Ba, pas-jMi, p^e-CKiii, D^apt- 
rpd;^, etc. 

For the rest, attention must be paid to carrying 
on regular syllables, as 6jia-rp-pa-3yM-HHfl, TO-jto-BBKi, 
ro-cy-Mpi, etc. 

One letter only of polysyllablic words cannot be 
transferred to the other line, as ap-uia, CBOa (not 
dpid-ji, CBO-a). > 


Continuation. 1 — Since the death of Pushkin, 
the most distinguished poet has been Mikhail Lermon- 
tov (1814 — 1841), who was likewise killed in a duel. 
[Being] an officer in the Guard, he was suddenly sent 
to the Caucasian army by order of the Emperor Nicho- 
las himself, for having written some biting verses asking 
vengeance for the death of Pushkin. Yet, some time 
after he was allowed returning to St. Petersburg, bui 
the self-loving, irritable and sarcastic poet could not 
live long with the world (ne yatftjica vb CBiii) and he 
voluntarily went again to the Caucasus. Like Pushkin, 
Lermontov hastened to draw his inspiration from the 
coimtry. He sang of the wild scenery [?fls,ym npHp6w) the 
warlike customs, the legends and popular traditions of 
the Caucasus. 

To his best poems, [which are] all marked with a 
sweet and profound melancholy, belong Izmail Bey, 
Valerik, Hadji Abrek, the Song about tiie Tsar Ivan 
Vasilievich, and above all the Demon. There is also 
a very interesting novel of his, a Hero off our Time. 
Here again the Caucasus provided him with a back- 
ground (nocjtyffifljit eMj^ 3a;i;HHMi njidHOHi.) for this com- 
position, which is affirmed to be a personal confession 
of the author and a protestation against the social con- 

1 See page 232. 

Rkiurks on oethooraphy. 237 

dition of his country. Lermontov exhibits a striking 
example (^jieHie) of a precocious maturity of mind. 
Before (He aocTfirHyBi) he was twenty-five, he had 
already attained in the eyes of the critic and the pubUc 
such a height as genius alone can attain. 

(To be continued.) 


BopAct ^o;^yH6B'^.. 

He cixyfi, 6paTt, ^ito paHO rpiniHHii CBirt 
HoKfiHyjit TM, TITO Majio HCKyinenifi 
HocaajETE. Te6i BceetinrHifi. BipB th mh*: 
Haci li3;i,ajiH njrfeHjiioTii cjiasa, pocKomt 
H atcHCKaa flyKisaa jiio66bb. 
SI ndiiTO MCHJit H MHorHMt Hac jaji,6;ics ; 
Ho ct T0& ndpu .iHint Bi;i;aio fiaaaeiiCTBo, 
Kaicx B-b MOHacTupt rocn6;i;b uenA npiiBe.ii. 
HoflyMaft, cbiHi, th o njapiixt seji^KHXi: 
Eto Biime iix-h? E;i;iiHbift Bovh. Kto CMcSex-b 
HpoTjiBy HHXB? Hhkto. a qxo ate? ^I&cto 
3jiaT6fl B'feH^i^'b TflHtejirb hmi. craHOBJ^.iCH : 
Onli er6 m^h^jih na KJiofiyK*. 
H^apb lokan-h HCKaji'b ycnoKo6Hba 
Bi. no;^66iH MonaniecKHx-b Tpy^i.dBt, 
Ero ?i,Bop&u,'h, JuofiAMnjeB-b rop^Hxt no^HMft. 

MoHaCTUpA BH«X HOBBlfl npHKHMin-b : 
EpOMiniHHKH Bi Ta(J)BjiXI. H BJiaCHH^I^aXl. 

HocayiuHbiMH aB.tjtJiHCb lepHenjSjuH, 

A rpOSHHft Ii;apB — Hr^MHOMt fiorOMOJBHHMl. 
fl Blifl'fijB 3A*CB, BOTi Bl> 3T0fi CaMOH KCJIbt 

(B-B Hcfi acHai Tor;^a KnplijiJK. MHorocTpa;i;aaBHHfi, 
MyacB npaBe;i;HBrft ; Tor;i,a ysKB h mchA 
Cno;t66HJii. Bori. ypaayMfeB HH^TOJKHOCTi. 
MipcKAxt cyeTT)), sfljicB B6;^*ai> a n;ap6, 
ycTaaaro otb rH^BHHXT. aYM^ h KasneS, 
Sa^fiPiHB'b, THX'B cap/bs.'b MeKB HaMH rp63HHfi; 
Mh n^pefli. sinM-b uepfi^Wivnio ctojIjih, 
H t6xo OHi 6eci;^y ci HaiiA seat. 
Oat roBop^jii. HryMHy h Bceft dpaTB*: 

238 Lesson 19. 

«OTu;ii Mo6, ateaaHHHfi ;^eHb nprnjifini, : 

IIpe/i;cTdHy 3;i;4cb ajiKaH»ra;iii cnaceHBfl. 

Til, EmKO^fiwh, TH, Ceprifi, th, KapAjiJit, 

Bbi bc4, oSiri npHM^re Mofi flyx6BHiii3: 

IIpi6/i;y K-h BaMB, npecTynHHKi, OEaiHHBifi:. 

H cxtoy 3;];±CB iiecTHyio BOcnpHMf, 

Eb CTonaMB tboJimi., cbht^S OTen;aE>, npHnd^niH.* 

TaKi roBop]&jM. ^epasdBHHfi ^ocyJ^dpB, 

H cjia;i;KO pi^B h33> ycxi er6 JiHJidca, 

H njiaKajiB ohb. A mbi bb caesaxB moji6jhcb, 

^a HHcnoniJieTB rocn6;i;B aK)66BB h MnpB 

Ero ^yini CTpa/i;aH)H];efl h 6ypHofl. 

A CBiHi. er6 Ge6;i;opB? Ha npecTOJi'fe 

Ohb B03/^HxaaB o m^phomb Mcfoin 

MonqajiBHHKa. Ohb ii;apcKie ^epTorn 

IIpeo6pa36ai> bb MoMTBeHnyio KeaBio. 

TaMi. xiacKia /i;epac&BHBia ne^^aa 

CBaxfifi Ay™:^ er6 He B03Mym;^aH. 

BorB B03flH)6lijiB CMHp^Hie ii,apii, 

H PyCB npn hcmb bo cjiasi 6e3Mflx6atHoii 

yxiniHjiacB ; a b%, er6 koh^Ahh 

Csepinfijioca HecjnixaHHoe ly^o: 

Kb ero o;i;py, n;ap^ e;i;6Hy spiiMHfi, 

SB^aca MyaKi Heo6Biii&SHO csixeai, 

H Ha^aat ci. HHMi 6ec4;^OBaxB Oeo^opB, 

H HasHB^xB sesAKviwb naxpidpxoMi . . , 

H Bct KpyrdMi. ofii^TH 66aH cxp&xoMi, 

ypa3yMiBB He6ecHoe BH^niHBe, 

3aH^ CBaxfifi BJia^ijflEKa npe;^i> iiiapeM^ 

Bo xpdMHH* Tor;^4 He Haxo;^6aca. 

Eor;ii;a ate ohi npecx^BHaca, najidxBi 

IIcnojiHHiiHCB CBax^iora. fijiaroyxdHBeMii, 

H jiBK-B er6, KaKB c6aH^e, npoci^Jti. 

YacB He BH^dxB xaK^ro naMi. i^ap^. 

0, cxpdtaHoe, HeB6;^aHHoe r6pe! 

nporH§BajiH MH B6ra, corptmAjiH : 

Baafl^KOK) cefii napeyfiifiqy 

Mil Ha:peKJl6. (nvodojmiuie 6ydmi.) 

The displacement of the tonic accent. 239 



The accentuation of polysyllabic Russian words is 
very variable, so that practice and the dictionary can 
alone enable foreigners to place the accent correctly. 

But the dictionary itself proves often insufficient, 
because many nouns, adjectives and verbs have a 
moveable accent. Such a displacement is however in 
most cases subjected to fixed laws, that learners will 
do well to commit to memory: 

Mascnline nonns, especially when polysyllablic, 
commonly preserve through all the cases both of the 
singular and plural, the accent of the nominative singu- 
lar, as dapasTb, JuicsmT,, etc. Yet the accented ter- 
ipinations aE-B, apb, aTb, eKx, hei, Hpi>, yHi, spb, wai,, 
mostly shift their accent on the inflections, as in ^- 
paKt, ;i;ypaEa, AypaE^, etc.; sboh^pb, sBOHapa, SBoaapE), etc.^ 

Feminine nouns in a and a which have the accent 
on the termination generally admit of a displacement 
in the nominative plural, to distinguish it from the 
genitive singular, as Boaata, seMja, etc. Among those 
in h, there are several which transfer the accent to the 
inflections, from the genitive plural downwards, as 
crpacTB, KHCTB, etc. 

In most polysyllabic neuter nouns, the accent 
serves to distinguish the nominative plural from the 
genitive singular, as m bhho, Mope, etc. 

Adjectives and participles witti full terminations 
retain the accentuation of the nominative mascuhne 
singular through all genders, cases and numbers, as 
SogpHfi, CAiJiaHHHfi, etc. — In the apocopated termi- 
nations, on the contrary, the accent is often shifted to 
the last syllable, sometimes only in the nominative 
feminine, as in hobi, and at other times in the neuter 
and in the plural, as in 64jrB or xopomi. 

In regular verbs the first person of the present 
generally takes the accent of the infinitive, as ^bt^tb, 

1 Here must be noted that in the substantival inflections, 
when the accent is once displaced, the change is, with a very 
few exceptions, retained in all subsequent cases. 

240 Lesson 20. 

JiijiaTB, etc. The other persons of the present generally 
preserve the accent of the first person, with the ex- 
ception of several verbs in htij, otb and ayrt accented 
on the last syllable, as jao6fiTb, KoaoTt, TaHyit, etc. The 
past tense most commonly retains the accentuation of 
the infinitive. . 

la many homonymous words the accent varies ac- 
cording to signification. A knowledge of those which 
are in most frequent use, is necessary to pirevent many 
an unpleasant mistake. They are: 

aijiaci atlas aiJiiCB satin 

6&rpwth to angle fiarpATb to purple 

B6spo fine weather Bejip6 pail 

B^pcTaTb harpoon BepciAxb to rejoin 

B^pxoMi above Bepx6)ii on horseback 

B6.iiBa wool BOJHd wave 

BiiKyiiaTB to bathe BUKyii&Tb to redeem 

x&pKoe hot xapc6e roast-meat 

skaoKt castle aaMoicB lock 

aacrfnaTi to fill up sacHiiATb to fall asleep 

Kfica she-cat khc4 purse 

Koiia slow-fellow Kon& heap 

Kpdiia loaf fiponii list 

M^jioBaib to pardon jiHJtoBiTb to caress 

jiy'Ka torment MyK& flour 

napHTb to steam napATb to soar 

ndaaib tax iiojATb to give 

np&BHxo rule npabiuo helm 

nycTufffl convent nycriiHa desert 

p&sa shrine paK& first-drawn brandy 

yrojibnidi coal yr6;iBiifi corner 

iH§rojb dandy si,ev6ii, gold-finch. 


Continuation. i — Among writers [endowed! with 
a less bold spirit, but v/ho also more or less escaped 
foreign influence, must be mentioned in the first place 
Constantine Batiushkov (1787 — 1855), whose elegies 
entitled the Dying Tasso and On the Ruins of a Castle 
in Sweden are remarkable for grace and tender simpli- 
city. Here must also be noticed the lyric poets Nikitin, 
Koltsov, Polezhayev and Khomiakov, the novel writers 
Dostoyevski and Goncharov, the ioumalist Hertzen, the 
critics and essayists Bielinski and ChernyshevsM, the 
satirist Saltykov and the dramatist Ostrovski. Contem- 

1 See page 237. 

The uispi.acemext of the tonic accent. 241 

porary Russian literature now rivals [allj other ancient 
and modern literatures both in the beauty and number 
of its master-pieces. It may now be said to be entirely 
independent; in every branch of science, in literature 
and in poetry Russia has her mighty representatives. 
But it is in novelists, good and bad, that Russia 
especiallv abounds. The best anions them are Ivan 
TurgeneV (1818—1883) and Count Leo Tolstoy (1827 till 
1910) The former's Memoirs of a^ Sportsman and his 
many novels have two merits: they exhibit excellent 
pictures of Russian scenery and introduce to us multi- 
farious original types of Russian society. The latter's 
War and Peace and Anna Karenina are known to every 
body in the whole civilized world. Towards the end of 
the nineteenth century became famous Anton Chekhov 
(1851 — 1904), the author of some charming sketches 
of citizen life, and Maxim Gorky, astonishing the reader' 
with the originality, and not seldom with the boldness 
of some tales drawn from popular life. We may then 
say that Tolstoy is the representative of the nobility, 
Chokhov of the middle class and Gorky of the proletariate. 


BopMCt roji;yH6Bt. 

r p H I 6 p i ii. 
flaBHO, xiecTHOH 0Tei];i>, 

XoT'iaOCB MHi TQdA CnpOCflTb O CMepTH 

J^HMiiTpifl-Il^apeBHiia ; bi. to speinH 
Tbi, roBopiTi), Sbijii. b'b 

n ]i M e H i. 
Oxi>, noMHK) ! 
IIpHBOJii MeHji Bori BliA*TB 3Ji6e ji^ino, 
KpoBaBBift rp^fexi. Tor;i;a a Bt ;;aJibHiH Yvji^ii, 
Ha niKoe 6bijii, ycjian-B nocjiymaHBe. 
Hpniuejii. s. -R-h HoiiB. HayTpo, b-b lacB o6ife;i,HH, 
B/];pyri. ciHiuy sbohi; y/i;apHJiii bi. Ha6aTi>; 
KpuKi., uiyMTb.' BiryTi na ^Bopx Ii;ap6n;bi. S. 
C'nimy ■vyp.k-s&'h, a TaMi. yace bccb ropo/i;'!.. 
PKaky: JieacliTi. sap'ifesaHHBift n;apeBHii.; 
li;ap6i];a-MaTB b'b eesnaMflTCTBi Ha/i;x hhmi., 

Russian Conv.-Grammar. 16 

242 Lessok 20. 

KopM6jiHi];a Bi OTq&iiHBH pH^&eTi; 

A TyTt-^apo;);!^ ocTepseH^CB, BoadyHTX 

Be366iKHyio npe;i;4TejiBHHii;y-MaMKy .... 

Bflpyri Meac;^y hhxi., CBHpini), OTt 3ji6cth 6fl'i&;^eHi, 

flsajieTca Iy;i;4-BHT^0BCKifi. 

«BoTi>, BOTi. 3JIo;^M!» Pa3;i;^j[ca 66iii;ifl bohjib, 

H 3MHr'B er6 ne crkno. TyTB napdA-b 

Bcatji;i> 6p6cHacfl 64acaBmHMB TpeMi y6i&Js,AM%; 

yKp^maxca 3J!io;^§eBB .?axBaTftjiH 

H npFBeaii ^pe;^i TenaHft Tpyni. MJia;i;6Hna, 

H ^y^o, - B;^py^^ MepTBen,* saTpencaJii. 

«IIoK4STeca 1» napd;!;!. hmb saBon^tJB. 

H BB ^atacfe, no;^rB Tonop6Mi>, 3Jio;;iH 

IIoKaajiHCB — H H&3BaaH Bop6ca. 

r p H r 6 p i fi. 
KaK±xi dHJiTj ji:feTB i^ap§BHiii y6i6HHBifl? 

n 6 M e H i>. 
Jl^a JiiTi ceuA; ewy 6h h^h* 66jio 
(ToMy npomji6 yas-B js^eca.T'h ji^tb H-feTX, 66flfcine : 

ji;BiH&flI],aTB JliTB) — OHl 6BIjm. 6h TBOg pOB^CHHKlb, 

H i^dpcTBOBajiB ; ho BorB cy}sfin.i> unde. 
Cefi ndBiCTBH) njiai6BH0& aaKJOo^y 
ff ji*TonHCB CBOI& ; CB T-fexi nopi. a M&ao 
Bhhk&jib bb ;i,4jia MipcKia. BpsfTi TpHrdpifil 
Th rpaMOTofi cboS paayMB npocstTfijii, 
Te6i CBofi Tpy;i;i nepe;i;aib. Bi. ^lacfSc 
CBo66^HHe OTB no^^BHTOBi ;i;yx6BHHXi>, 
OniicMBafi, He MyflpcTsya ayK&BO, 
Bee TO, TieMy CBH;i;iTejiB bb acAsHH dy;^efflB: 
BofiHy H MHpi., ynpaBy rocyfl;Apefl, 
yr6;^HHK0BB CBaT^a qy;^eca, 
IIpop6qecTBa h sH&MeHBa He66cHBi. 
A MH* nopd, nopa yacB eTfl,oxHyTB, 

H noracfoB JiaMna;i;y Ho SBOHJiTB 

Kb sayxpeH* BjiarocjiOB6, rocnd^b, 

Cbo^x-b pa66BB 1 T[o;i,k& koct6jib, PpHrdpifi. 

r p H r 6 p i fl. 

BopAcB, BopAcBl Bce npe;i,i> To66ft TpenemeTB, 
Hhkt6 Te6i ne CM'feeT'B h HandMHHTB 
JKpe6iH Hec^acTHaro MJia^^Hna; 


A M6at;^y TiMi OTin^jiiHHKi bi TCMHofi KejiB* 

3fl4cB Ha Te66 flOHdcB yat&CHHfl nMen, 

H He yfl;^em& tei 0TIl'cy;^4 MipcK6ro, 

KaKi. He vfiiteniB ot% E6KBHro cy;^4. nyiamm. 


OTHOctoe;iiiHo HCT6piu pyccKofi JiHTepaTtpu *. 
K^KOB^ nepsoSiiTHaA ffccSAa jiHTepaifpa? 
Kor;(4 fls^jiacb n^cb^eHEOCTb Ha Tjci, Bt EeT6poin> GT6jiiTin? 
^tMi> 6iijiH nSpBue p'^ccsie oec&t&ib, n icaK6fi xap&Krep-b 

upeACTasMeii coAepK^eie hxi. npoHSBeA^HiS? 
%o cjiywHTb ;y)6BHtfiiniiirb n&mnB'aKowb p-^ccKoH p^KonHCH? 
Kiwh RanticaHO EnARre.iie a aji« i;or6? 
Ito jioHBAk&tcii n6cjjb Eeanr^jiu? 
KaK6e co;(ep»cauic diuxi) c66pBHKOBi> Cbatocji^bobuxi? 
Otk'^A^ npoHaoniJid HadiEecTBo Torximiraxi npoEaseA^Bifi ? 
Bi leMD BfipaaiiJiacb cauocTOiiTeJibHafl napdABafl A^flTe;ibBOCTi>? 
JlnmBA jiH Ao naci nueei H^KOTopux'b irbrou&crsfisb h Kasia? 
KaKii HasuB&ercji ;r£TonHC.b H^ciopa? 

IltHl GujITi H6cTopi>? 

r^t OHi KEai H Kor^a obi '^Hep'b? 

KaEi HaauBieiCH nSpBUS n&agTHUn'b ApeBBeptccKott csiTCKoS 

Wto oh% H3o6pa]K&eirb? 
IIoieHy Bi) cjiinYvrnfiWh CToaiTiH h6 Gu^o jiBTepaTfpHaro 

Kto HanBC^'jrb sBaJieB^TUfi ^oHocTpdfi? 
Kaic6e coAepac^ie ^toB kh^fh? 
KorA^ H&qaJiocb KHflroneqiTaaie bi. MocuBi? 
%o cfltjiajii. KieBCEiii MaTponoJi^Tb IleTpT. Moriuia? 
Kto 6ujn> bi 1644 r. BiisBanii ust, KieBCKoi asaA^HiH ni Mockby? 
iIto c^'ijiajn. Cvueiwb n6;ioi;Kifi bt. MocKfii? 

KoM-f oCiiaaHa jmrepaTypa, bt. c66cTBeHHOirb CMiicat cadBa, 

n^pBUMl) CBOliMli TOJIMKdllli? 

1er6 atejiijrh IleTp^ Besissik a ito ohi coaftaBiirb? 

Bi/i,iJi-b JIH IleTpi. BeJi^Kifi nJiOAii CBoer6 TpjA*? 

Ito HanHcSji'b KHflat KaHxeMlipT.? 

^TO fiujii n^pBHin. anaiieB^TUM'b pycciufin. nac&TejieMT.? 

3H4eTe AH BU HtKOTopuH coiHB^Hia JIoMOHficoBa? Kaid«? 

'Ito CAiAaAT. BacftAifl TpeAbjiK6BCKifi? 

Kto n^pBufi cosA^'b Hai^oH^iHtift Te&xp'b? 

mii-b npio6p'feT4e'n> EuaTeptaa Il-aji noTOxnoe jiicTO bt. ucTdpin 

p-JccKofl jiBTepaifpu? 
KaKfe nHcaTGAH BbiCTynAiorb bo Bp6«a udpcTsoDaaiji P^aa-, 

Teptabi Il-ofi? 
KoTopufi nsT. HHXT. cAiflaACfl nonyArfpHUWT.? 
mm, JepKaBHHT. oc66eHBO HSBtcTeat? 
HaaoB^Te eme APyri* co^HHtoia JtepKasmia? 

1 These questions refer to the' contents of Translations 9—20. 


244 L«8soN 20. 

Kor;^S. xuji-b HaKOJiaS KapaH3£in>? 

lisM-b OHTj CTajI* HSBiCTeiTb? 

Ito nHcftjiT. KapaMsfiffb bti cBotixi> jiHTepaTypniixi CTaibaxi.? 

Ito HSflajiTb KapaMa^HT. HaKon6i;T.? 

IIoieMf ^TO ^poH3Be;^6Hie BUSHBien. H^me yflHBJi^nie? 

Korfl& JKHJIT. IIlHmKdBT.? 

Ito oht. CTapAjicfl flOKas^Ti)? 

Bujii, JIH er6 Tpy^i noji^aeffb iJjih h'Stb? 

KaKi'e no^Thi cji'tflOBa;iH aa hhmi? 

KorJ^ MCHjiT. H <no nncAjt 03epoBT>? 

"Ito cocTaBitjii Hsairb JtMflrpieBT.? 

KiiiT. 61JJ1S, o6pa66TaHa HpaBoyiflTeJibnaa CacHJi? 

^bHMT. C0n6pHHK0HT. Cujlt KphIJl6BT.? 

Ktui Chjit. JIa(j)0HT6H'b? 

Kto npoojidBH;icfl Bib ^paMaTAqeCKOBT. HCK'^ccTat? 

Korfl4 JKHJIt TpHfiO'tflOBT.? 

KaKT. HasHBdeTca nan^caHHaa hmt. KOMfiflia? 
Bt. KOTdpoMT. ro^iy yMept r6rojib? 
EaKT> oaarjiaBJieni er6 jiyimaa KOM^flia? 

^TO OCM'fejijn. OITi BT. ^TOS K0M6;^iH? 

Ito onHcaHO bt. «Tap4ct ByjibC'fcs? 

Ito mh naxdf.mi'h ui «MgpTSHxa ^ymaxi» ? 

Kto irepesejiT. Haia^y? 

Kto CwjiT. iiospaMcaTeJieMT. BAHpoHa? 

ItMt OTajb HSB'icTon'b Ko3j6bi>? 

KjbSuFO jtnpii'tecEaro noaTa bh udmete BSLSt&n ua'b? 

Bbijii. JH 3K.yK6BCKiii opirniH&jibHUjn. noSTOMi? 

KaS^Kl HHOCTp&BBBX'B DO3T0BI 0B% DepesSjl? 

KaKde c4Moe H3B*CTHoe npoBaBeA^Hie JKyKbBcicaro? 
Kotdpolt H3!b pyccKBX% DoaTOB'b iiB^iAerc^ BeAHHaHUiEicb yspa- 

mliiieM'b cBoeil crpasii? 
Kor;?& poflfijicji h Kor^a yMepi. AjieKcaajupi. IlymBHHT.? 
Ilpn KaitdMi MBBHCTepcTBi cjiyjKIijn. oht.? 
IIoieMy OHT. BnajiT. bt. neMrtJiocxb? 
Kyfla OHT. Shjti. c6cJiaHT.? 
Ito HanHCeijn. oht. bt. Beccap^SiH? 
OTS;ffla BasjTb OHT. cioateTT. «PycJiaHa 11 JIioflMfljiH»? 
Kor6 npeacTaBJiAeT'b naMi HymKHH'b 8i CBogMrB «EBr6Biii OBirBBi»? 
KaKi'fl no^Mbi Ba^ajiT. dht. ndcii't Oa'brBBa? 
KaK'b HasaB&eTca .ayimee ApaHaxH^ecsoe npoHSBeA^Bie DymRBHa? 
IloqeMy ob6 ne OKdHieno? 
KaK6K) CH^pTbio fueji-b II-^khht.? 

Kor^a acHJiT. JE^pmohtobt.? 

msMT. 6ujn. JI6pM0BT0BT.? 

3a iTo SujTb OBT. c6c;iaHT. Ha KaBKdar.?- 
HaaoBliTe uiKOTopufl h31 er6 Ji^qmaxT. ^poH3Be;^^Hifi ' 
Hto upeACTaBjijieT-i co(56h <rep61t a&niero Bp^aew*'? 
Bt. KaKdMT. B6apacTb yMepT. JI^pmobtobt.? 


KaKie H3T. pyccKHx^ poMaHltCTOBi. oc66eBHO npocjiiBHflHCb? 
Mto npe^cTasJuiioi'T. ouA bt. cbo^xt. poM&Haxi.? 

Kto CA'tjiaJICB H3B'6cTHbIMT> KT. KOHqt ^IX. B'^ica? 

Ka.K^fl pAsHHua M^at^y ToJicTb'iMK, <Iex6BbiHT> h r6pj.KHiiii? 

Additional exerciseb. 245 



The great calif Aaroun-al-Rashid begaii to suspect 
that his vizier Giafar was no longer deserving of (ne 
sacjiyaHBd'erB CoJiie) his confidence. The women of 
Aaroun, the courtiers and the dervishes bitterly {a 
ropeibio) censured the viaier. The calif loved Giafar, 
he wduld not condemn him upon the clamours of the 
city and the court: he visited his empire; everywhere 
he saw the ground well cultivated, the fields smiling 
(npiiixHua hb BSTjmA'b), the villages opulent (b^ H3o6fiaiH), 
the useful arts in honour, and youth full of gaiety (n6jHoe 
Bec^jiJi). He visited his fortresses and seaports; there 
he found numerous ships, which threafened the coast 
of Africa and Asia; he saw soldiers disciphned and 
content; these soldiers, the seamen and the inhabitants 
of the villages exclaimed: "0 God, pour thy blessings 
upon the faithful (6.iiaroc;iOBfi npaBOBtpiiuxi), by giving 
them a calif like Aaroun and a vizier like Giaiar". 
The calif affected by these exclamations, enters a 
mosque {vh ile^&rh), falls upon [his] knees and exclaims : 
"Great God, I thank thee; thou hast given nie a vizier 
whom my courtiers blame, and whom my people bless". 

The emperor Charles the Fifth, being once out 
hunting (aa ox6Tt), lost his way (safijiyAfiJica) in the 
forest, and having come to a house, entered it to refresh 
himself. There were [in it] four men (qeTBepo JCiOA^a), 
wno feigned to sleep (KasiaHCb cnriiUHMH). One of them 
rose and, approaching the emperor, told him: "I have 
dreamt (sni npHCHfijtoeb) 1 took your watch", and took 
it. Then another rose and told him that he had dreamt 
that Charles' surtout (c«)pT]fiii) fitted him wonderfully, 
and took it. The third took his purse. At laBt the fourth 
came up (npaSjifisHjrca) and told, him: "I hope you 
will not take it amiss (bh He pascepiiuiTeci), if I search 
you", and in doing it he perceived around (na) the 
emperor's neck a small gold chain, to which was atta- 

246 ADDtxibirAL. exercises. 

ched a whistle. The robber wished to take it, but the 
emperor told him : "My friend, before losing {mmAihca) 
this jewel, I must tell you its Virtue (cbohctbo)". Saying 
this he whistled. The attendants (jk)ah), who were al- 
ready seeking him, hastened to the house and were 
filled with astonishment to see his Majesty in such a 
state. But the emperor, seeing himself out of danger, 
said : "These men have (Botb Jik);tH, KOTopuui) dreamt 
all that they liked. I wish also to dream in my turn 
{vb CBOK) OTCpesb)", and after having mused a few minutes, 
he said-: "I have dreamt that you all four (act bu 
^6rBepo) deserved to be hanged", and this ,was no 
sooner spoken than executed (TaKi ae CE^po Hcn6i- 
HeHO KaEi H cKasaiio) 

Pearls are as much esteemed as precious stones. 
They are found in shells, which bear (HHiraTb) some 
resemblance to oysters. Each shell contains (in itself) 
a small animal, which when diseased has pearls ovei" 
all parts of its body. The most considerable pearl- 
fisheries are carried on (npoH3B$^HTcaLin the Pacific and 
Atlantic Ocean (m, Mopax'B oeiax-B HHAift). After [that 
of] mihing (paspafioTKa pyAuHKOBi) the pearl-fishery is 
the hardest and most periloi:^g trade. The persons who 
dive to the bottom of the sea to collect the pearl-oysters 
are called divers. They are taught from theii: infancy 
to hold in their breath. The nose and ears of the diver 
are stopped, round his waist a cord is fastened, the 
end of which is made fast (npHKp']^n;ieHi) to the boat, 
and to one of his feet is attached a weight of twenty 
or thirty pounds, to make (sacrdBHTB) him go to the 
bottom as fast as possible {c^b BOSMoacHO 66jiBmefi: cb6- 
pocTbK)). As soon as he has reached the bottom, he 
loosens with a knife the shells from the rocks and 
throws them ijito a basket. As soon as this is filled, 
or ii the diver sees that a shark is approaching, or that 
he has no longer breath enough to remain under the 
water, he unties the stone from, his foot, and ^akes 
the cord as a signal for the others to pull him up, 
which is done instantly and very qpiickly. The oysters 
are opened with a knife, or are allowed to putrify; then 

Additional exrkoises. 247 

they open of their own accord {caMii co66ft) and the 
pearls. are taken out. They are diSerent in size, form, 
colour and brilliancy; and it is according to this 
difference that various names and prices are given 
to them. 


One day a mail-coach full of travellers was prece- 
ding (ixSjfc) to York. They spoke much about high- 
waymen and robbers that were frequently met with on 
the way and on the best means of concealing one's 
money. Each [person] had his. secret, but no one 
thought of {pim&xca) telling it. One young lady of 
eighteen had not such prudence; Imagining no doubt 
to give a proof of her cleverness (noKas&Tb cboh) 
ji6BB0CTb), she said with great candour, that she had a 
draft for two hundred pounds which was her whole 
fortune, and that the thieves must be very clever, if 
they succeeded in finding (qTodi na^aTi. hck4ti>) this 
booty in her shoes, or rather (h Aaate) under the sole of 
her foot, as to find it, they would be obliged to rob 
her of her stockings (hm-b npHinjiocb 6u cBiiTh cb ahi hjavA) 

Soon afterwards the coach was stopped by a gang 
of robbers, who requested the frightened and trembling 
travellers to give them their money. The latter emptied 
their purses, well knowing that resistance would be of 
no use and even dangerous. But as the sum [thus 
produced] appeared too small, the robbers threatened 
to search all the luggage (bc* b6ib(h), if a hundred 
pounds at least were not given to them. 

"You will easily find ttiat sum and even twice as 
much (h A^se B^Boe", said an old gentleman 
from the corner (ast rjy6HHii) of the coach, "if you 
examine the shoes and stockings of that lady" The 
advice was very well taken, and ttie shoes and stockings 
being pulled oft (h cHflTHe daniHast h vyssk) the pro- 
mised treasure was discovered. The robbers humbly 
thanked the lady, paid her some compliments on her 
beautiful foot, and without waiting for her answer, 
thev wished a happy journey to the whole equipage 
which continued their way. Hardly were the robbers a 
few paces distant (E^Ba BopH yjtajifijHet Ha H^CKOJtKO 

248 Additional exebcisbb. 

niaroKb), when the const^riation of the travellers was 
changed into indignation. It would be impossible to ex- 
press with words the sorrow of the poor woman, or the 
resentment of the whole party against the betrayer. 

The strongest and eyen the most insulting epithets, 
and even those (Bpo^i) Qf rascal and accomplice of the 
robbers, were lavished on him by all (nocunajHCb Ha He- 
ro 0TOBCK)Ay); to all the marks. of the genpral indigna- 
tion, was added the threat of beating the informer, of 
throwing him out of the carriage, and of instituting legal 
proceedings against him (ofiBifflflTB ero) in short, all 
seemed to concur in forming schemes for taking exem- 
plary vengeance on the offender. But he remained 
perfectly unmoved and preserved his tranquillity, and 
only once tried to justify himself, saying that one could 
have nothing dearer to him than himself (nM. Kaat^iiaro, 
liMi ero c66cTBeHHaa oc66a); and when they reached 
the end of their journey, he suddenly disappeared, before 
his fellow travellers could accomplish any of their" in- 
tended measures. 

As to the unfortunate young person, it is easy to 
ixTiagine that she passed a most unhappy night, and 
that sleep did not shut her eyes; but what must have 
been her astonishment and joy, when she received the 
next morning the following letter: 

"Madam, — The man whom you must yesterday 
have hated as an informer sends you besides the sum 
you advanced him, as interest thereon (hi BflA^ npoD;6H- 
TOB'b), a trinket of at least the same cost to adorn your 
hair. — I hope this will be sufficient to silence your 
grief. — I will now in a few lines explain you the 
mystery of my conduct. — After having spent ten years 
in India, where I amassed a hundred thousand pounds, 
I was returning to rny native place loaded with drafts 
for that sum, when we were yesterday attacked by the 
robbers. — My savings must have inevitably been 
sacrificed, if the shabbiness of our fellow-travellers 
exposed us to a search on the part of the highwaymen. 
— Judge [for] yourself, if the idea of returning to India 
thoroughly empty-handed could be supportable (bosmojehoh) 
to me! Excuse me; if this consideration led me to betray 
your confidence and to sacrifice a small sum, though not 
belonging to me, rather than lose my whole fortune. 

AnomoKAL kxercises. 249 

The service yoi| rendered me is great, and'l would 
esteem myself happy to give you a proof of my grati- 
tude; consider as a mere trifle the feeble marks with 
which I hasten to assure you of it." 



A man who is accustomed to be always well, and 
has consequently cause to believe himself exempt from 
the ordinary ills that flesh is heir to, naturally feels 
aggrieved — as if some one had inflicted upon him an 
undeserved injury — when he suddenly finds himself 
ill. At first he refuses to believe the fact, and, as far 
as possible, takes no notice of the disagreeable symp- 

Such was my state of mind on being awakened 
early one morning by pecilliar s^ptoms which 1 had 
never before experienced. Unwilling to admit to myself 
the possibility of being ill, I got up, and endeavoured 
to dress as usual, but very soon discovered that I was 
unable to stand. There was no denying the fact: not 
only was I ill, but the malady surpassed my powers 
of diagnosis; and when the symptoms increased 
steadily all that day and the following night, I was 
constrained to take the humiliating decision of, asking 
for medical advice. To my inquiries whether there was 
a doctor in the neighbourhood, the old servant replied. 
"There is not exacQy a doctor, but there is a Feldsher 
in the village". 

"And what is a Feldsher?" 

"A Feldsher is .... is a Feldsher." 

"I am quite aware of that, but I should like to 
know what you mean by the word. What is this 

"He's an old soldier who dresses wounds and 
gives physic." 

The definition did not dispose me in favour of the 
mysterious personage, but as there was nothing better 
to be had I ordered him to be sent for, notwithstanding 
the strenuous opposition of the old servant, who evi- 
dently did not believe in Feldshers. 

In about half an hour a tall, broad-shouldered 
man entered, and stood bolt upright in the middle of 

250 Additional exebcibks. 

the room in the attitude which is designated in military- 
language by the word "Attention". His clean-shaven 
chin, long moustache and closely-cropped hair confir- 
med one part of the old servant's definition; he was 
unmistakably an old soldier. 

"You are a Feldsher", I said, making use of the 
word which I had recently added to my vocabulary; 

"Exactly so, your Nobility 1 ' These word.s, the 
ordinary form of affirmation used by soldiers to their 
officers, were pronounced in a loud, metallic, monoto- 
nous tone, as if the speaker had been an automaton 
at a distance of twenty yards. As soon as the words 
were pronounced the mouth of the machine closed 
spasmodically, and the head, which had been momen- 
tarily turned towards me, reverted to its former po- 
sition, as if it had received the order "Eyes front I" 

"Then please to sit down here, and L'll tell you 
what is the matter with me." Upon this, the figurfe 
took three paces to the fi;ont, wheeled to the right-about 
and sat down on the edge of the chair, retaining the 
position of "Attention" as nearly as the sitting posture 
would allow. Wheji the symptoms had been carefully 
described, he knitted his brows, and after some reflec- 
tion remarked, "I can give you a dose of . . .", here 
followed a long word which I did not understand. 

"1 don't wish you to give a dose of anything, till 
I know what is the matter with me. Though a bit 
of a doctor inayself, I have no idea what it is, and, 
pardon me, L think you are in the same position." 
Noticing a look of ruffled professional dignity on his 
face, I added, as a sedative, "It is evidently something 
very peculiar, so that if the first medical practitioner 
in tiie country were present he would probably be as 
much puzzled as ourselves". 

The sedative evidently had the desired effect. 
"Well, Sir, to tell you the truth", he said in a more 
human tone of voice, "I do not understand what it is." 

"Exactly; and therefore I think we had better 
leave the cure to Nature, and not interfere with her 
mode of treatment." 

"Perhaps it would be better." 

"And now since I am to lie here on my back and 

Additional exercises. 251 

feel rather lonely, I should like to have a talk with 
you. You are not in a hurry, I hope?" 

"Not at all. My assistant knows where I am, and 
will send for me if I am required." 

"So you have an assistant, have you?" 

"0 yes ; a very sharp young fellow, who has been 
two years in the Feldsher school, and has now come 
here to help me and learn more by practice. That is 
a new wa,y. I never was at a school of the kind myself, 
but had to pick up what I could when a servant in 
the hospital. There were, I believe, no such schools 
in my time! The one where my assistant learned was 
opened by the Zemstvo." 

"The Zemstvo is the new local administration, is 
it not?" 

"Exactly so. And I could not do without the 
assistant", continued my new acquaintance, gradually 
losing his rigidity, and showing himself, what he really 
was, a kindly, talkative man. "I have often to go to 
other villages, and almost every day a number of pea- 
sants come here. At first I had very little to do, for 
the people thought I was an official, and would make 
them pay dearly for what I should give them; but now 
they know that they don't require to pay, and come 
in great numbers. And everything I give them -t" 
though sometirnes I do not clearly understand what 
the matter is — seems to do them good. I believe that 
fa.ith does as much as physic." 

"In my country", I remarked, "there is a set of 
doctors who get the benefit of that principle. They 
give their patients two or three little balls no bigger 
than a pin's head, or a few drops of tasteless liquid, 
and liiey sometimes work wonderful cures." 

"That system would not do for us. The Russian 
peasant would have no faith if he swallowed merely 
things of that kind. What he believes in is something 
with a very bad taste, and lots of it. That is his idea 
of a medicine; and he thinks that the more he takes 
of a medicine, the better chance he has of getting well. 
When I wish to give a peasant several doses I make 
him come for each separate dose, for I know that if I 
did not, he would probably swallow the whole as soon 

252 Aduitiokal exercises. 

as he was out of sight. Butjhere ia not muiJi serious 
disease here — not like what I used la«8ffe on Oie 
Sheksna. You have been on the Sheksna? 

"Not yet, but I intend going there." The Sheksna 
is a river which falls into the Volga, and forms part 
of the great system of water-tonununication connecting 
the Volga with the Neva. 

"When you go there, yoil will see lots of diseases. 
If there is a hot summer, and plenty of barges passing, 
something is sure to break out — typhus, or black 
small-pox, Siberian plague^ or something of the kind. 
That Siberian plague is a curious thing. Whether it 
really comes from Siberia, God only knoWs. So soon 
as it breaks out the horses die by dozens, and some- 
times meq and women are attacked, though it is not 
properly a human disease. They gay that flies carry 
the poison from the dead borseS to the people. The 
sign cif it is a thing like a^bbil, with a daik coloured 
rim. If this is cut open in time the person may leoover, 
but if it is not the person dies. There is cholera, too, 

"What a delightful country", I said to mvself, "for 
a young doctor who wises to make discoveries! " 
The catalogue of diseases inhabiting this favotured re- 
gion was apparently not yet complete, hut it was cut 
short for the moment by the arrival o^ the assistant, 
with the announcement that the Feldsher was wanted. 

This first interview with Jhe Feldsher was, on the 
whole, satisfactory. He had not ren^dered me any me- 
dical assistance, but he bad helped me to pass an hour 
pleasantly, and had given me a little information of 
the kind I desired. My later interviews with him were 
equally agreeable. He was naturally an intelUgent, ob- 
servant man, who had seen a great deal of the world, 
and could describe what he had seen. ■Unfortunately, 
the horizontal position prevented me from notHig down 
at-the time the interesting things which he related to me. 



Of course, travelling in Russia is no longer what 
it was. During the last quarter of a century a vast 

Additiokal exercises. 253 

network of railways has been constructed, and one can 
now travel in a comfortable first-class c&j-riage from 
Berlin to St. Petersburg or Moscow, and thence to 
Odessa, Sebastopol, the Lower Volga, or even the foot 
of the Caucasus; and, on the whole, it must be admitted 
that the railways are tolerably comfortable. The car- 
riages are decidedly better than in England, and in 
winter they are kept warm by small iron stoves, such 
as we sometimes see in steamers, assisted by double 
windows and double doors — a very necessary pre- 
caution in a land where the thermometer often descends 
to 30" below zero. The trains never attain, it is true, 
a high rate of speed — so at least English and Ameri- 
cans think — but then we must remember that Russians 
are rarely in a hurry, and like to have frequent oppor- 
tunities of eating and drinking. In Russia time is not 
money; if it were, nearly all the subjects of the Tsar 
would always have a large stock of ready money on 
hand. In reality, be it parenthetically remarked, a 
Russian with a superabundance of ready money is a 
phenomenon rarely met with in real life. 

In conveying passengers at the rate of from fifteen 
to thirty miles an hour, the railway companies do at 
least all that they promise; but in one very important 
respect they do not strictly fulfil their engagements. 
The traveller takes a ticket for a certain town, and on 
arriving at what he imagines to be his destination, he 
may find merely a railway-station surrounded by fields. 
He finds, to his disappointment, that the station is by 
no means identical with the town bearing the same 
name, and that the railway has fallen several miles 
short of fulfiUing the bargain, as he understood the 
terms of the contract. Indeed, it might almost be said 
that, as a general rule, railways in Russia, like camel- 
drivers in certain Eastern countries, studiously avoid 
the towns. This seems at first a strange fact. It is 
possible to conceive that the Redouin is so enamoured 
of tent life and nomadic habits, that he shuns a town 
as he would a man-trap: but surely civil engineers 
and railway contractors have no such dread of brick 
and mortar. The true reason, I suspect, is that land 
within or immediately without the municipal baniei 

254 Additional rxercibkr. 

is relatively dear, and that the railways, being com- 
pletely beyond the invigolatiag intl'uence of healthy 
competition, can afford to look upon the comfort and 
convenience of passengers as a secondary consi- 

It is but fair to state that in one celebrafed. in- 
stance neither engineers nor railway contractors were 
to blame. From St. Petersburg to Moscow the loco- 
motive runs for a distance of 400 miles, almost as-the- 
crow flies, turning neither to the right hand nor to the 
left. For fifteen hours the passenger in the express 
train looks out on forest and morass, and rarely catches 
sight of human habitation. Only once he perceives in 
the distance what may be called a town; it is Tver, 
which has been thus favoured sunply because it happe- 
ned to be near the straight line. And why was tiie 
railway constructed in this extraordinary fashion? For 
the best of all reasons, because the Tsar so ordered it. 
When the preliminary sturvey was being made, Nicholas 
learned that the officers intrusted with the task (and 
the Minister of Ways and Roads in the number) were 
being influenced more by personal than by technical 
considerations, and he determined to cut the Grordian 
knot in true ImpeTial style. When the Minister laid 
before him the. map with the intention of explaining 
the proposed route, he took a ruler, drew a straight 
line from the one terminus to the other, and remarked 
in a tone that precluded all discussion. You will 
construct the line so". And the line was so constructed. 

Formerly this well-known incident was often cited 
in whispered philippics to illustrate the evils of the 
autocratic form of government. In recent years, ho- 
wever, a change seems to have taken place in public 
opinion, and some people now venture to assert that 
this so-called Imperial whim was an act of far-seeing 
policy. As by far the greater part of the goods and 
passengers are earned &e whole length of the line, it 
is well that the line should be as short as possible, and 
that branch lines should be constructed to the towns 
lying to the right and left. Apart from poUtical con- 
siderations, it must be admitted that a good deal may 
be said in support of this view 


The water communication has likewise in recent 
years been greatly unproved. On all the principal 
rivers are now tolerably good steamers. Unfortunsttely 
the climate puts serious obstructions in the way of 
navigation. For nearly half of the year the rivers are 
covered with ice, and during a great part of the open 
season navigation is difficult. When the ice and snow 
melt, the rivers overflow their banks and lay a great 
part of the low-lying country and many villages under 
water; but very soon the flood subsides, and the water 
falls so rapidly, that by midsummer the larger steamers 
have great difficulty in picking their way among the 
sandbanks. The Neva alone (that queen of northern 
rivers) has at all times a plentiful supply of water. 

Besides the Neva, the rivers commonly visited by 
the tourist are the Volga and the Don, which form 
part of what may be called the Russian grand tour. 
Strangers who wish to see something more than St. 
Petersburg and Moscow generally go by rail to Nizhni- 
Novgorod, where they visit the great fair, and then get 
on board one of the Volga steamers. For those who 
have mastered the important fact that there is no fine 
scenery In Russia, tiie voyage down the river is 
pleasant enough. The left bank is as flat as the banks 
of the Rhine below Cologne, but the right bank is high, 
occasionally well wooded and not devoid of a certain 
tame picturesqueness. Early on the second day the 
steamer reaches Kazan, once the capital of an 
independent Tartar khanate and still containing a con- 
siderable Tartar population. Several mosques with their 
diminutive minarets in the lower part of the town, show 
that Islam still survives, though the khanate was an- 
nexed to Russia more than l^ree centuries ago, but 
the town, as a whole, has a European rather than an 
Asiatic character. If any one visits it in the hope of 
getting "a glimpse of the East", he will be grievously 
disappointed, unless, indeed, he happens to be one of 
those imaginative tourists who always discover what 
they wish to see, especially when it can be made the 
subject of an effective chapter in their "Impressions de 
Voyage". And yet it must be admitted that, of all the 
towns on the route, Kazan is the most interesting. 

256 Additional exercises. 

Though not Oriental, it has a peculiar character of its 
own, whilst all the others — Simbirsk, Samara, Saratov 
— are as uninteresting as Russian provincial towns, 
commonly are. 

The deck of the steamer is generally much more 
interesting than the banks of the river. There one 
meets with curious travelling companions. The ma- 
jority of the passengers are probably Russian peasants, 
who are always ready to chat freely without demanding 
a formal introduction, and to relate to a new acquain- 
tance the simple story of their lives. Often I have thus 
whiled away the weary hours both pleasantly and 
profitably, and have always been impressed with the 
peasants homely common sense, good-natured kindli- 
ness, half-fatalistic resignation, and strong desire to 
learn something about foreign countries. This last pecu- 
liarity makes him question as well as communicate, 
and his questions, though sometimes apparently 
childish, are generally to the point. Among the pas- 
sengers are probably also some representatives of the 
various Finnish tribes inhabiting this part of the 
country; they may be interesting to the ethnologist 
who loves to study physiognomy, but they are far less 
sociable than the Russians. Nature seems to have 
made them silent and morose, whilst their conditions 
of life have made them shy and distrustful. The Tartar, 
on the other hand, is almost sure to be a lively and 
amusing companion. Most probably he is a pedlar or 
small trader of some kind. The bundle on which he 
reclines contains his stock-in-trade, composed, perhaps, 
of cotton printed goods and bright-coloured hand- 
kerchiefs. He himself is enveloped in a. capacious 
greasy dressing-gown and wears a fur cap, though the 
thermometer may be at 90" in the shade. The roguish 
twinckle in his small piercing eyes contrasts strongly 
with the sombre, stolid expression of the Finnish 
peasants sitting near him. He has much to relate about 
St. Petersburg, Moscow, and perhaps Astrakhan; but, 
like a genuine trader, he is very reticent regarding the 
mysteries of his own craft. Towards sunset he retires 
with his companions to some quiet spot on the deck to 

Additional exercises. 257 

recite the evening prayers. Here all the 'good Mahome- 
dans on board assemble and stroke tbeir beards, kneel 
on their little strips of carpet and prostrate themselves, 
all keeping time as if they were performing some new 
kind of drill under the eye of a severe drill-sergeant. 
If the voyage is made about the end of September, 
when the traders are returning home from the fair at 
Nizhni - Nowgorod, the ethnologist will have a still 
better opportunity of study. He will then find not only 
representatives of the Finnish and Tartar races, but 
also Armenians, Circassians, Persians, Bokhariots, and 
other Orientals — a motley and picturesque but deci- 
dedly unsavoury cargo. 

Railways and steamboats, even when their arrange- 
ments leave much to be desired, invariably eCect a 
salutary revolution in hotel accommodation; but this 
revolution is of necessity gradual. Foreign hotel-keepers 
must immigrate and give the example; suitable houses 
must be built; servants must be properly trained: 
and, above all the native travellers must learn the 
usages of civilized society. In Russia this revolution 
is only in progress, and is as yet by no means complete. 
The cities where foreigners mostly congregate — 
St. Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa — already possess 
hotels that will bear comparison with those of Western 
Europe, and some of the more important provincial 
towns can offer very respectable accommodation; but 
there is still much to be done before the West-European 
can travel with comfort even on the principal routes. 
Cleanliness, the first and most essential element of 
comfort, as we understand the term, is still a rare 
commodity, and often cannot be procured at any price. 

Even in good hotels, when they are of the genuine 
Russian type, there are certain peculiarities which, 
though not in themselves objectionable, strike a 
foreigner as peculiar Thus, when you alight at such 
an hotel, you are expected to examine a considerable 
number of rooms, and to inquire about the respective 
prices. When you have fixed upon a suitable apartment, 
you will do well, if you wish to practise economy, to 
propose to the landlord considerably less than he de- 

Russian Cony.-Giiiininar. 17 

258 Additional exercises. 

mands; and you will generally find, if you have a 
talent for bargaining, that the rooms may be hired for 
somewhat less liian the sum first stated. You must 
be careful, however, to leave no possibility of doubt 
as to the terms of the contract. Perhaps you may 
assume that, as in taking a cab a horse is always 
supplied witiiout special stipulation, so in hiring a 
bedroom the bargain includes a bed with the necessary 
appurtenences. Such an assumption will not always 
be justified. The landlord may perhaps give you a 
bedstead without extra-charge, but if he be uncorrupted 
by foreign notions, he will certainly not spontaneously 
supply you with bed-linen, pillows, blankets and towels. 
On the contrary he will assume that you carry all these 
articles with you, and if you do not, you must pay for 
those which you borrow from him. 

This ancient custom has produced among certain 
Russians a curious kind of fastidiousness to which we 
are strangers. They strongly dislike using sheets, 
blankets and towels which axe in a certain sense public 
property, just as we should strongly object to putting 
on clothes which had been already worn by other 
people. And the feeling may be developed in people not 
Russian by birth. For my own part, I confess to having 
been conscious of a certain disagreeable feeling on 
returning in this respect to the usages of so-called 
civilized Eiirope. Evidently fastidiousness is not an 
innate quality, but the result of the conditions to which 
we have been accustomed; and, as such, it may easily 
take very curious forms. Besides, the inconvenience 
of carrying about these essential articles of bedroom 
furniture is by no means so great as may at first sight 
be supposed. 





At the Frontier. 

Oncysa Bh i^teie? 

Hsi FepH^HiH 

Kaicdit Bu Eai^oH&jibBOCTH? 

noTpy;;6Teci> A^Tb uni Banrb 

BoTi Hofi n&ccnopn. 
Bu Ba^A^e tonn> n&cnoprb bi. 


ocMbxpa SA^cii? 


ItO Haul B]^XHO A^jaTB? 

UtTi-jra y BacTi >!er6-HH6yflb, sa 
qro cjiij[Yerb nniTirb n6iii;iH- 

y neuA 't6m-tx> B&m,ii Heo6xoA]&- 
mm UHt caHou-^. y MeH^ irbrb 

HHEaE^Xl. TOB&pOBl. 

Hto y Baci bi StoS sopd^Kt? 

Bon KJiioifi. A BOTb TaiuKe kjiio- 
qi£ orb BHCJi^aro saHK^ Moer6 
qeMOA^Ha, bi kot6pomi> bu nafl- 
;ieTe Asa npexH^Ta noxJiez&inie 
nom^BB'^, TO ecTb ^ettipe (|>j^aTa 
^aD H 6eojo TiiejiiH naaapdci. 

BoS^ATe Bi) B0HT6py, sanjiar^e 
c66pii;iiKy H cnpoc^e pacn^c- 

Mo& C&Tkm.'h npon^jTb. 

Tgk laM&KeBBali Ba^aBpiTejib? 

Tib qBH6BBBin>? 

r^t flooMdrpmHKi.? 

Where do you come from? 

From Germany. 

What is your nationality? 

I am an Englishman. 

Please to hand me your pass- 

Here is my passport. 

You will find your passport at 
the custom-house. 

Must ■we have our luggage exa- 
mined here? 


What must we do? 

Have you not anything that is 
liable to duty? 

I have only such things as are 
indispensable for myself. I 
have no merchandise at all. 

What have you in this box? 

Here are the keys. And there 
are also the keys of the pad- 
lock of my trunk, in which 
you will find two articles liahle 
to duty, that is four pounds 
of tea and about a thousand 

Go into the office, pay the re- 
ceiver and get a receipt. 

My luggage is lost. 
Where is the customs-inspector? 
Where is the (customs-; officer? 
Where is the customs-guard? 

Travelling by Railway. 

Hoc^JibiqBKi, BOSbM^Te iTHB^n^H? Porter, take these things I 
Tflt SBJi^BaH sicca? Where is the booking-office? 

Tui npiSm. Caraata? Where is the luggage-booking 





VA-i BiSflaia fiarassA? 

KaK6fi y BacB Cariaii? 

y ueEui ^Bfi iieuo^^ua, ^opdacButt 

wbm6«h H injiiinHufl (])yTJuSirb. 
Ck6ju>ko cJiiw^iT" CT> Meaii 3a 

CudjibKO cJiiflyen. ci Mend sa 

juifflHia CariMCTb? 
,54fiTO MH* CHfleTT. n^paaro (bto- 

p6ro, Tpfrrburo) KJiicca 40 Ile- 

JUiBTe MHt OiiJifrrb npaiidro coo6- 

u^iaifl Ao MocKBii. 
^afire HBi oCp^TBufi Onjiirb ao 

Ha cKd.ibKo ABeS A'blicTB£Te;ieB'i> 

Stoti Ch^iSti.? 
Fa* 34.1H? 
r^lt 6y4)6TT.? 

Ilopa aa caA^TbCH? 

CaA^Tecb no M'itcT&M'b, rocnoA^I 

IIOTOponfiTecb, nobsA''' ceiSiAci ot- 

OcTajiocb-flH eme crdjibKO Bp6- 

UeBH, qTOSl BblBBTb Kd^ie? 
M63KHO-:in sA'&cb Kjn^b kurmi- 

CKIA (itipaHi^fscKifl, utH^I^Kijl) 

raa^Tbi? ■ 
Pla KaK6it CT^uiB 6y(tieTi>? 

KorAa Mu npi'iAein. bt. Ileiep- 

CK6JibK0 c^r&AyeTii npHOJiaTliTb aa 

HicTO BX Ca^;ibHOM'b Bar6Bt? 

BaflAiiTe MB* APyr^e HicTO. 
r^i H^acHo nepec^uBaTbCfl? 
CnycTiiTe nowAjiyiiCTa, s^Baeicb. 
A^eti, noaaoJibTe uai aaspiiTb 


no;io»:liTe, noacd;iyficTa, qeuoAaei. 
IIo.'iowdTe nuuinbi a ii;ian;(fi Ha 

Bepxf Bt CiTKH. 

droTb Bar6Bi> A''" AaMi. 
dTOTb Bar6B'b A'SA BeKjfimnxt. 

JIOK0U0TI&B1> CBHCTiTb, Ubl A^^' 


noieMt MW 3AtCb OCXaHOB^JIHCt? 

Where can one get one's luggage 

What laggage have you? 

I have two portmanteaus, one 
travelling-bag and a hat-box. 

How ranch must I pay for my 

How mncb must I pay for over- 

Give me a first (second, third) 
class ticket for St. Petersburg 

Give me a through ticket to 

Give me a return ticket to 

For how many days is this 

ticket available? 
Where are the waiting-rooms? 
Where is the refreshmentroom? 
When does the train start? 
Is it time to take oar places? 
Take your seats, gentlemen! 
Make haste, the train is going 

to start immediately. 
Have 1 still time to drink my 

Can one get any English (French, 

G«rman) newspapers here? 

At which station is there a re- 
freshment-room ? 

When do we reach St Peters- 

How much has one to pay for 
a berth in the sleeping-car? 

Guard, all seats are taken, please 
procure me another place. 

Where do we change carriages? 

Please, lower the curtain. 

There is a draught, will you 
permit me to shut the win- 

Please, put the portmanteau 
under the seat. 

Put the hats and cloaks up in 
the net. 

This is a ladies' compartment 

This is a compartment where 
no smoking is allowed. / 

The engine is whistling, we are 

Why do we stop here? 



KaKM Sto ct&biva? 

JHfiWO JH CTOJITI. 3jtw n6t3Si.? 

Fat. y6/ipHaji? 

IIstccaxHpH Bi Pary Aujxuu SA'bcb 


Fflt HaqijibHHKT) CTftHaia? 

y HettA sbrb Caaera. a noiepAjtb 

y veEjl dRji^n. T^JLKO ;^o Kobbo. 
A OTnpaBJi^cb A^bine cb cjii- 

flyromiiMT. n6t3flOMi.. 


Bhji6tu nosKaayfiTe. rocno;;^! 
ApT^jib^HKii, BOTb lioA Gar&OKHaji 


Xopoin6, BOSbH^e nixny rim 

IIpHBec^Te MHi Hofl Gartob kt^ 

Mnt HeiocTa&n. em§ o^ndft sf mit. 
X.opom6'I CBeaA mchA bi ,ABraiji'' 

Mu upiixajB. 
CicdJibico CTdBTb iani ci> 6ar&- 

CxdJibEO sa K&xnoe itIcto? 

•iro net dwHb A6poro. 

IIoKaauiTe nEt Bimy laKcy (xa- 

Fopo^OBdfll HaBoqiiK'b np6cHTb 
3a npols^ti orb BOKs&Jia ^o $TOtt 
roc'r^BUHqu o^fim. pyfijib, 
CKdjibKO eMf cainjevb?- 

HtTb jiH y teoA uAftiH ci pyOjrf? 

HiifcAuT. Htrb, C3f;^apb. 

ily, TaKT. a pasMtHriio vh roortiH- 

BoTb BaMT. eme rpHBeBHBicb na 

What station is this? 
Does the train stop long here? 
Where is the W. C? 
Passengers for Riga must get oat 

Where is the station-master? 
I have no ticket, I have lost it. 

I have "a ticket for Kovno only. 
I will go on by the next train. 


Please, gentlemen, your tickets I 

Porter, here is my luggage- 

Very well, take a cab in the 

Bring my luggage after me to 
the cab. 

I still want one package. 

Weill Take me to the Hotel 

We have arrived. 

What does the drive and lug- 
gage cost? 

What must I pay for each 

That appears to me very dear. 

Show me your tariff. 

Policeman t . This cabman de- 
mands one rouble for the drive 
from the railway station to 
this hotel. How much am I 
to give him? 

Can you give me change for a 

No, Sir, I cannot. 

In that case I must get change 
in the hotel. 

Here you have ten kopecks more 
for vou. 

At the Hotel. 

EcTb-jSH y sacii Hduepi ci> Ofladft 

BOCT^JIbH) — Cb flByioi nocT6.M- 

EcTb BOMepi nosajiyliTe. 
HpBKa;icuTe apiiBecT^ uoi b6d;e. 
Jl-^qmaro Hirb? 

Have you a disengaged room 
with one — two beds? 

Yes, Sir, walk in, please. 
Have my things carried upstairs I 
Have you no better room than 



Ck6jii.eo cTiHTb Stoti Bdiiepi? 

9to 6>jeHb fl6poro. 

dra EdMHaTa na yjiHi^y. 

fl acejiiw ,nemeByio KdMHaiy bo 

flBopi, rflt a Man. 6h cnaTB 

]i,k&ie HBt ceHq&cb cotxefi bo;(£, 

HiijIO B nojiOT^Hiiie. - 

Jt^Jixe MHt qepH^jTB, nep<5 h 6y- 

Bt EOT6poMi lacy sa^cb o6ijii 

OcTaBbTe UH^ H'bOTO. 

^aftie HH* Mfiatfly rtin. <i4iiiKy 

E6<J)e — n6pi^iio laro. 
fl xoi^ Ten6pb noaiBTpawiTi — 

iroofiiAaiB — no^aiHHaTB. 
Bejiuie nocicopie no^aBaTb Bairb 

'^^SHEaTB, BaHi cnan zdieTCH. 
IIocT;iaHU-jiB nocT&iH? 
MEt B&AO AB'b noxtiQEH. 
nofliare cien>. 
fl ifly 3&BTpa frpoMTi. 
EasCyflfiTe toeHJiBi mecTt lacdBT.. 
r;^t iioAieuaaA Mam^aa? 

What is the charge for this 

That is very dear. 
It is a front-room. 
I want a cheap room in the 

back, where I can sleep 

Give me immediately some fresh 

water, a piece of soap and a 

Give me ink, pen and paper. 

At what o'clock do they have 

table d'hfite here? 
Keep one place for me. 
Give me in the meantime a cap 

of coffee — a portion of tea. 
I should like to breakfast now 

-^ to dine — to sup. 
Let us have our sapper quickly, 

as we wish to go to sleep. 
Are the beds made? 
I want two pillows. 
My bill, please. 
I start to-morrow morning. 
Call me at six o'clock. 
Where is the lift? 

Tflt sfi-pia? 

BOTL 0B&. 

^epen&miS oym>. 
FopbxoBufi cymb. 
Cym. CT> ;iamn6io. 
Cyni) JKi0Jib6HT>. 

XoAodHua (aaKycKu). 

JlAixuna, ^CTpBiTB. 

KycdEii fi,iaE. 

MapHHdaaHHbifi yropb. 

Cji^BOiHoe uicjo, 


IIaniT6n> h3t. ryc^Hofi neqeuEH. 


BapiBbH KOTJI^Ta. 


JKapeuaA CapaHBna. 

In an Eating-house. 

Where is the bill of fare? 
Here it is. Sir. 




Tnrtle-sonp. ^ 




Cabbage soup. 

Cold side-dishes. 
A dozen oysters. 
A slice of melon. 
Pickled eel. 
Goose-liver pie. 

Mutton chops. 
A cutlet. 


ffi^peHM TemtTHHa. 


^ymeHoe li^eo. 

Stewed meat. 

ElI(iiniT4KCl> (Cl> Bp6BI>K>). 

Beefsteak (underdone). 




A hen. 


A chicken. 

HCapenaA KfpBi^a. 

Roast fowl. 

JEipeBufi rycb. 

Roast goose. 


A pigeon. 


A capon. 




A snipe. 

;^fiKaa fraa. 

A wild duck. 

3^ui<u>e Hiico. 

A roasted hare. 


A pheasant. 


A partridge. 


A qiiail 

KjlSipcH jsarb A^qB. 

Croquettes of game. 

aCapEde K03f Abe. 

Roast venison. 

































Green peas or beans. 





Hfijta wb CHiiTKy. 

Boiled eggs. 

Utina. Ha 6jn&A^. 

Fried eggs. 

lUna, Ha CEOBopd;^. 

Poached eggs. 





ro;i;i&H;^CKifi cupi>. 

Dutch cheese. 

niBeSitipcKia cbipii, 

Gruyfere cheese. 

CafiBO<IBUfi Cbipi. 





A lemon. 


An oiange. 


















A water-melon. 





Ma;itiHa (sing.;. 







An ice, ice cream. 


A tart. 









PifiHCKoe bbh6. 

Rhine wine. 

niaHnaHCEoe sBBd. 



White wine. 

Kp&CBOe BBBd. 

Red wine. 









RpBHecdTe Hni iifoxtinY f crpHi^. 
^dfiro Hnt c6jiH a n6pi;y. 
drorb Bosci> hb zopomd p^acerb. 
IIpBHec^Te usb ii$jt6to nniCa,, 

^TOTb iSWb Be Hp&BflTCA. 

Obi> coBciin> qgpcTBufi. 
leiosiKi., ySepdre its Tap&iKBl 
J(&STe HH^ Ten^pb 6yjib6Hi>, h 

noT6in> ji6uTEin> bbtibh^. 
noA&fire MBt sicKOJiBKO sy6o<r£c- 


IIpHBecliTC UHt CB^nrr^ECb ex 

drorb (iB({)inT6Kci> cjniniEOM'b 

cupOK, yaec^Te er6! 
EcTb-AH y Bacb ffnb? 
npBHeciSTe isai xcipeayio Eypo- 

n&Ticy. . 

A&Sto HHi APyrtio Biftjocy h ^- 

cTyK) Tap^jmy. 
SI xoTijFb 6u nocHorp^Tb na s&p- 

Ty BHHl. 

Give me a dozen oysters. 
Give me some salt and pepper. 
This knife does not cut well. 
Bring me some other bread, 

this does not please me. 
It is too stale. 

Waiter, take these plates away I 
Give me now a cup of broth, 

and then a alice of ham. 
Bring me some tooth-picks. 

Bring me a beefsteak with po- 

This beefsteak is too raw, take 
it away I 

Have you any' game? 

Bring me a roasted partridge. 

Give me another fork and a 

clean plate. 
I should like to see the wine list. 



a. ;^ob6jd>ho im» a nnJn,. 
noA&Jtre ciSrb. 
Xopom6; BOTb Te6i. 

CoA^pxaTe-jB bu b naBcidm? 
CicdJibEO CT6Hn> y saci naa- 

M6KB0-JIH afioH^poBaTbca aa Ta- 

Ce6ai>eo cT6HTb a6oBeiidHn>? 
Il03OB6Te vst paao^JiLBaro, ro- 

Bopifii;aro no-AarJuacEB. 

Bring the dessert 

I have eaten and drunk enough. 

The bill, please. 

Very well; here is something 

for yourself. 
Do you board persons? 
What do you ask for board? 

Can one subscribe to attend table ^ 

What is the subscription-^jrice? 
Send me a messenger who can 

speak English. 

In a Coffeie-room. 

QejiOBiEii, /ifii q&mKB Koi^e h 

^i plOHKB EOBE.BE'i'. 

Borb OB'i. %e;i4eTe-jiH bu ci6- 


^afi cBHincH. 

^eaoBhsTb, naJk uni Tafiucb. 

TocnofliiHi., oirt saHjiri. 

Hy, faKi HjuiocTpHpdBaBHiiifl 

Mipi, nox&jyficra. 
H Bfttrb er6 cefi<i&ci> npenunb. 

BsBBEiTe, Gffifyte ^^fipu nbpen&n 
list MocK6BCEi« BiAOVocTH, 
EaKi t6;ii>eo Bu eohiht;? 

Cil& BBHfTy, MfclOCTHBufl TOCy- 

Xsn&Te cuTfAn o^pTiio bt> m&x- 

Bu BOSbuSie tiijibifl iijm qepHua? 

9to MHi Bce 

TpoHyxafl (jfttrjpi - ctirpaHHaxitR- 
rypa; Ba He vdxere nocrABBTb 
o6p&TBO Ha MicTO B&mero k6iui. 

Hy xaEi, inaxi Kopo.ifiBt u Typt! 

niax'b EopojiA! 

Bb uai xaxi^Te i>eB4Bm%. 

He c^aeH-b-jH mu napiifo Fb 


Ox6tho, ho »fe;^b aacT. t6jiko 

Mu ctirpaeirb ct. 6ojib4homi; 3to 

c&uaa HBrep^CHafl nipriA. 

Waiter, two cups of coffee and 

two glasses of cognac I 
There Uiey are. Will you take 

Bring us some matches. 
Waiter, give me the Times. 
It is in use, sir. 
Then, the mustrated World, if 

you please. 
I will send it immediately to 

you, sir. 
Beg pardon, sir, will you be so 

kind as to hand me the Mos. 

cow Gazette, when you have 

done with it? 
In a moment, sir. 

Will you play a game of chess? 


Will you take the white or the 

It is all the same to me. 
A piece touched is a {tiece 

played; you cannot put the 

knight back in his old placie. 
Well then, check to your queen 

and castle I 
Check to the king I 
You are going to give me my 

Are we going to have a game 

at whist? 
Willingly, but we are only three.. 

We will have a dummy; it is 
the mosf interesting game. 



^;^■t i^tmKK H atexoHH? 

Hrp4ein>-Jiz kh ;^BofiE6tt £jih npo- 

crdfi Tpmn.? 
KaKi xox^e. 

H npeAnoqHT&K) ;;BofiH6fi Tpan. 

Ohi> BCEpiurb 6y6Hii. 
BaMi> xo^t^Tb. 





Mu BiiHrpajiH. 

BoTb onjiiwai 6HJUii&pxi>. 

ficjiH xoTfire, MH curp&em nSip- 

Oi> yA0B6Ai>CTBieirk 
H Ba<mH&K>. 
Mu nofiAem Ha Tpa^^t^aTB KapaH- 

KaE6t KHECi! 
Ten6po uoA diepe^b. 
KaEdia Hecq&CTte! 
C;i4BBi>ifi ^tySji^Tb! 
9to cocTaBjrferB ;^6BJ^Tb oikobt.. 
fl e^aiticb Bain.. 
H Be ;;0B6jibB0 CHJieaii bi> St; 


/lajieE6-jiH OTCib^^a ndHATHEE% 

Ilerp^ BeJiAKaro? 
Bi KaEyK) CTdpoHy MHt ByxHO 

H^iiTe Bce npjiMu. 
CTyndfire no dTOity nepeyjiKy, ohi 

Bi^BCAerB Bact aa nji6ii;aAb. 
OqeHb BaHi CaaxonkpeEi,. 
He sa. vro. 

Ky^a Besen. dia yjiui;a? 
BipEO XB H Mi El Stomeuj 

He sHAere-jiH SA'^cb rocnoAtea 

H 3Eaio er6 6qeHb xopom6. 
He MdaceTe-jiH Mst cEaaixb, rui 

oHi) KEBerb? 
Ohii acBBerb Cnast HEEOJidescKa- 

ro ii6cTa. 

Where are the marks and 

Do we count each trick a single , 

or double point? 
As you please. 

I prefer to count double points. 
Be it so. 
Let us begin. 

He has turned up diamonds. 
It is your turn. 
A heart. 
Here is one. 

I cut (the cards). 
A trump. 
We have won. 
Here is an excellent billiaid- 

If you like we will have a game. 

With pleasure. 

I begin. 

We will go to thirty by cannons. 

What a lucky hit! 

It is now my turn. 

What a misfortune! 

Fine doublet! 

That makes nine points. 

I yield to you. 

I am no proficient at this same. 

the way. 

Is the monument of Peter the 

Great far from here? 
Which way must I go? 

Go straight along. 

Go along this lane, and it will 

lead you into the square. 
Thank you very much. 
Don't nrention it. 
Where does this street lead to? 
Am I going ri^t to the Winter- 

Do you know Jlr. N. of this 

I know him very well. 
Can you tell me where he lives? 

He lives near the Nicholas- 



Mdxere jor noEaa&Ti uai Aop6rf 

Sb er6 A6iiy? 
RuoKaxf B9Mi>,r^ OBi.acABeni. 
r^ Aop^a Ki BOES&Jiy? 
Ob Kasdro sosa^a an^Ho %zaTi> 

Bb MoCKBf? 

FffE ttovr&Mrb? 
r^ Tejierp&4>i? 

Can you direct me to his house? 

I will show you where he lives. 
Which is the way to the station? 
What is the station Xor Moscow? 

Where is the post-office? 
Where is the telegraph-office? 

At the post-office (telegraph, telephone). 

Ha Moe iiui? 
BoTb uoA E&proiEa. 
EcTb 3asa3H6e nHc&Kd naa Baci; 

BO BH /ifiaxtaSt npe^bflBArb 

Bam-b BB^i^b, qto&b nojiyq^Tb 

BoTb Ho3 n&cnopTb; HaAiiocb, 

<rro owb AOCT&TO?eBi naa jfp- 

Jt^ttre HB'fa DoqTdByio H&picy bi> 

A^caTb Eon^irb (ush Abtjoh). 
Fa* (iioqTdBuft) in^BEi? 
, KorA& OTxdflBTb nfiqra? 
Eor^A iipHxd;^rb n^cbva nsi. 

Kor^i BUHBM&iOTCji n^cbiia B3i> 

H&tie msi OTsp^Toe nHCbiid c% 
onjiiveHBUvb OTstTOirb. 

CE6.iibE0 v6cy Bi nBCbii^ (bi 

CK6jbEp ci ueH^ cjr§;;yeTb? 

IIoinjiiTe MH^, noacdjiylteia, ad 
npwBABnoM no 12ro no irony 
a^P^y nfebKa b% Bapm&By, ^o 

Fxi noiriii^eTCfl Teiierpi^'b, npa 
ndqri 6jui Ea BOKsiit? 

Obi sa'&cb. 

CKdjbKO CTdHTb dpocTis Aen^Bia? 

H6xH0-jia T&xerpa4>^0BaTb na 

jtasAtn uai yrdxBO asiai? 
Mory-Au aaiuaTiTb ceS<i&c% h sa 


CBo66AeBT.-jiH nyrb h (St;(eTb-jni 
uofl ;!(eQ^ina ceftiiicb onip^ 

r^t gjas^ifimaa Tejie({idHBa« 

Is there no letter paste restante 
for me ? 

Here is my card. 

Here is a registered letter for 
you; but you must be iden- 
tified, if I am to give it up 
to you. 

Here is my passport; I hope it 
will be a sufficient guaranty. 

Give me a ten kopeck stamp 
(for England). 

Where is the letter-box? 

When does the mail start? 

When does the mail arrive 
from England? 

When do they clear the letter- 

Give me a post card with reply 

What is the weight of this 
letter (of this wrapper}? 

How much must I pay? 

Please send all letters that come 
(for me), till the 12th inst to 
this address at Warsaw poate 

b the telegraph-office at the 
post-office, or at the railway- 

It is here, sir. 

How much does a single tele- 
gram cost? 

Can I telegraph in which , lan- 
guage I like best? 

Can I pay for the reply at once? 

is the telegraph at liberty, so 
that my telegram can go 
out at once? 

Where is the nearest telepho- 
nic station? 



BoTt crlLsn^. 

HyHepi irfTHfi (N. N.). 

roT6BT>, SBOH^e. 

Siasrb, npomy nosBOHfiTb qpesB 


a .H. H.; KTO roBopfin.? 

In an omnibns 

Tflt diHatAfifflaa CTaHi;ia kohho- 

se;i'£3Bofi Aop6rH'? 
OcTaHOBfire, noa^jiyScTa. 
KoHAtKTOpT., Kyfli Bbl ^^(eTe? 

9to He TorB 6MHn6yci., KOTopufi 

HaMT. HyKeH^. 
WbTb irtcTa. 
Sumiscb n6jiOHi>. 
BoTb flpyr6fl 6MHH6ycT>. 
Mh iflein. ua 0(j|)Hi;epcKyio i[Mi- 

Jt^fiTB Mrt oaji6rb ct. nepeciflEOW 

flo Bacc6flHofl. 
KoHflyKTopi., BiScajHTe uenri Ha 

yrjif rop6xoBOfi t.iHUU. 
Hflen.-jiH Itotb dMHHfiyci. no Afl- 

MHpajirfificKofi nji6ma;(H? 
no KaK^irb fjiHi;ain> npoaer^eTb 

Sra jrtHifl? 
Bi. KaKie nJpoiteKftKE orxd/^nrh 

6iiHH6ycBi OTCibAa /tf) Moce6b- 

CEaro BOESdJia? 
J^o Kordparo qaca B^iepa ot- 

xd^ATi 6]iBH6ycu? 
Bi> K0T6pQin> lacf yrpa ouh Ha- 

qBH4lOTT> OTXOflllTb? 

EtA^Te ocTopdxBu, crynSHbKa 

CK6jlI>8Ea« ! 


Adva-jiH rocnoA^Bt H.?' 

FocnoA^Bi H. seiieTb sacsBxi- 

TejiBCiBosaTb ewj csoe iioHT^aie. 
y Memt peKOKeBAaieabHoe nucbHo 

Kh Bevy. 
Boflflixe, noKiayficia. 
Htrb, er6 Htrb ^6Ma; oht. 

T6jbK0-qT0 BiimeaT.. 
Kor^^a B03BpaT^Tca roenoA^Bii H. 


Here is a station. 

Number five (N. N.J. 

Pleas«, call. , 

Occupied, call again within five 

minutes, please. 

I am N. N.; who is there? 

or tramway. 

Where is the nearest tramway 

Stop here, if you please. 
I say, conductor, where are you 

This is not the omnibus we 

There is no room. 
The omnibus is quite full. 
There is another omnibus. 
We are going to Officers' StreeL 

Give me a through-ticket for 
Basin Street. 

Conductor, put me down at the 
comer of Peas' Street. 

Does this omnibus go as far as 
the Place of the Admiralty? 

What streets does one pass in 
the drive? 

At which intervals do the om- 
nibuses drive from here to the 
Moscow Railway Station? 

How late in the evening do the 
omnibuses mn? 

When do the omnibuses begin 
in the morning to run? 

Take care, the step is slippery. 

a visit. 

Is Mr. N. at home? 

Yes, sir. 

Mr. N. wishes to present him 

his compliments. 
I have a letter of introduction 

to him. 
Come in, please. 
No, sir, he is not at home; he 

ha^ just gone out 
When does Mr. N. come home 

again ? 



ICcrfl4 Mort « Haetpuoe* SH^tTb 

rocnofliiHa N.? 
BoTb, oHT> ywe BoaBparAjicfl. 
KaKT> noMCHBiere? 
KaE-b Bauie 3Aop6Bbe? 
Bjiarojapif) sac^, h sAopoBt. 
A Bbi? 
I CaA^'iscb, HoxajiyScxa. 
0%Hb aK)6e3Ho, qxo Bh noflyMaJiH 

660 HH't. 

fl flaBHo ne hm^jt. y4OD6ji.0TBiff 
BacT. BiifltTb. 

H'£cKo;it>KO paaii ji 6bijiib y Baci>, 
HO Hii pasy He HM^.Tb yjifi- 
B6;n>CTBi« sacraTb BacB ;(OHa. 

Bain> BipojiTHO nepej^ijiii Moib 

Aa, B MH'I 6qeBb xcajik, qro hh 

p43y He Yf^i,ji6cb mh* Baci 


KaET. 3Aop6Bi>e Bimero 6d.TioniEH? 

,6oTi>, yu4 EtcKOJibKO ABeft, 'mo 
OBi> Be3Aop6Bi>,- owb npiiuyiK- 
Hewb ocTaB&Tbefl ^oua. 

MHt 6qeHb acajib. — Ha;^■t^ocb, 
qro 3to npoSA^TB. 

KaEx Bairii hp&bhtcji H&ma cto- 

OieHb flp&BHTCA; OBa BejiBEOJiin- 
vie napii»a h J[6Hi^osa. 

B^tJiH-jiHBu yx6 H^KOTdpuA a3i> 
AOCTonpnH'feii&TeJibHOCTeli ^TOro 

BecbHi HeMHoro, h(J a Cffly Bain. 
6?eBi> o6ii3aHi>, 6cjih Bu Haao- 
BeTe HBt c^ubie ^ocTonpHirl^- 
qi.TejibBbie npeflMeiH. 

II4MflTHHKi> neTp4 BediiiKaro, npo- 
asBe^^Hie aBajieE^Taro 4>ajibE0- 
H^ia; 3^HHiii ll,Bop&u.-h ct. 60- 
raiMniHirb cofipdnieiTb KapTliHi> 
H pi^^KOcreii bt> SpMnraKt; 
KyncTKaBiepa 6jih 3oojior6qec- 
Ki'S MyaeS, AKaA^uia Xy^o- 
aecTBT., JliTHifi Ca/(T. ir t. a 

KaitfK HSi i;epKB6fi sacjrvKH- 

C0(56pT. H^BCKOfi JISspM, BT. KO- 

Toro AjieKcaiAPS' H6BCKaro; Ita- 

When can I hope to see Mr. N. ? 

rjiere he comes already. 

Good morning, sir. 

How are you? 

How is your health? 

Thank you, very well. 

And you? 

Please to take a seat. 

You ' are very kind to have 

thought of me. 
It is long since I had the plea- 
sure of seeing you. 
I have called at your house 

several times, . but have not 

had the pleasure of finding 

you at home. 
They must have given you my 

Yes, and I much regret that I 

)Tas not at home to receive 

How is your father? 
He has been unwell for some 

days past; he is obliged to 

keep his room. 
I am very sorry for it — I hope 

it will be nothing. 
How do you like our capital? 

Very much ; it is more splendid 
than Paris and London. 

Have you ah-eady seen any of 
the curiosities of the place? 

Very few, but - which are the 
most remarkable objects? You 
will greatly oblige me by 
naming them. 

The monument of Peter the 
Great, a production of the 
celebrated Falconet; the Win- 
ter Palace and the rich col- 
lection of paintings and cu- 
riosities in the Hermitage; 
the Miiseun;^ or cabinet of Na- 
tural history; the Academy oc 
Arts, the Summer Garden, etc. 

Which of the churches are the 
most remarkable ? 

The church belonging to the 
Convent of St. Alexander 
Nevky, in which repose the 



3&HCKiii Cofi6pT>, BT. KOTdpOMl 

Tpoifi^H pj^ccsaro opj^zi^ ocisa- 

DTK n&HHTBHE'E 9eibHH&pmAt& 

K,Bi3B Kyx^soBa (Cvoi^HCEaro); 
a IIeTpoii&BjioBCK)i[ Co66pi bi 
KplinocTfl, r^i Bai6;(aTCfl rpo6- 
Bk^BI BcbTb PocciflcsHxi) Focy- 
H&peji, suvBBka on. KeTpi 

Bh Taicace ct. (SojibinAin. yjo- 
B6;ibCTBiein> ocudrpBTe orp6u- 
Buii BocnBTiTe:ibabifi ^oiii. 

Ba n6ci% Moxeie nosaasdMHTiCii 


cxe^ cto<^i(h; ci Qiinep^Top- 

CEEHH JliiailKB ^OpU^B Bl 

rtdpcKom Gexi, m neTepr6ij|)t, 

Oh OpauieaO&TMi, I armiai', 

OpiiiiHt, Pdnmi a t. j. 
H Bam. BeciMi 6Jiaro;^^peH% .3a 

3T6jibico noji63Buxi> yKasinifi ; 

Bh Mat oKaaiiH Soumoe oaoji- 

Bu Bi cknowb ;(tjit cji^mKom 

A Bi B0CT6prb, <rro Horb OuTb 

BaHi noji63BJban.. 
Mory JIB flpe;^jio»to BaHi> &a- 

rjiiflcKyK) CHT&py? 
Baarofl^pcTByio, a He Kypib. 
He yr6flH0-JiH Bajfb nooOiflaTb 

BH^CTt ct H&UB? 

Baaroflapib, s yatS ofiim^jTb ;^py• 

Mu coBepm^HBO o;;h£. 

Best qepeHoaifi. 

Bu yK6 xoT^ie yfixA? 

Bu mo-TO cntmfiTe. 

a eme n63i:siewb c;^'fcJlaTb HicKoat- 

KO BB3^T0B1>. 

Mni eme HtJKHo xoft^Tb no flt- 


QcEpenao 6jiaroxapib Bacb sa 

B4me noctn^eHie. 
}ifl cK6parc cbba^ia. 

remains of that saint; the Ka. 
zan Cathedral in which the tro- 
phies of the Rttssian arms 
overshadow the monument of 
Field marshal Prince Kutnzoff, 
of Saint Peter and Paul in 
the Fortress, which contains 
the tombs of the Russian 
soTereigus since Peter the 

Yon will also be gratified by 
visiting the vast establishment 
of the Foundling Hospital. 

You can then visit some of the 
environs of the capital; the 
Imperial summer residences 
of Tsarskoe-Sek), Peterhof, 
Oranienbanm, Gatchina, Strel- 
nya, Ropsha, etc. 

1 am much obliged to you for 
so much precious informa- 
tion; you have- done me a 
great favour. 

You are really too kind. 

I am delighted that I have been 

useful to you. 
May I offer you an English 

No, thank yoil, I do not smoke. 
Will you not stay and dine with 

I thank you; I am already en- 

We are quite alone. 

Without any ceremony. 

You want to leave us already? 

Yop are in a hurry. 

I have still some other 'visits to 


I have still some bnsmess to do. 

Thank you very much for your 

kind visit. 
Come again soon. 

Writing a letter. 

EcTb y Baci nowdBaa fiyulra? Have you any natepaper? 
noj^e MHt H KOHB^pTi, now4- Give me also an envelope, 
jiyflCTa. please. 



MhI Hiso6Ho HaoHcin miatoai- 

BO n^cem.. 
KoTopoe qHCJi6? 
fl HanHnr^. dro y Heni se npo- 

B&me Ci^TejftCTBo! 

npoc^Tb ay;(i6HipH y Bimeio 
npeBOczo^^irejacTBa, iidCu no- 
J[f^6Tb nosBOii^Hie Ha ... 

Ha^iacii, vto eri ap6ci>6a 6f- 
jijsvb H^ocTBBo np^ATa, Htiace- 
noAODCciBiziiycfl auterii <iecTj> 
6ixtb noEopjBtgniHH'b h iip^;(aH- 
BifiminrB cjiyr6fi B&mero Ilpe- 

N. N. 
M^jiocTHBufi FocyA&pb! 

MofiApyn> N.N. MHtyicaslrb na 
Bime noqi^BBoe fma, v&njh na 
npo(|)^ccopa pyocEaro aauica. 
IIo3ii6Ai>Te > Baci cnpocArB, 
KaKoe B&me oCuKBOs^HHoe bo3< 
Harpam^^^Hie h KaE^H qac^H 
Bu Horjid-Su pacnojiar&Tb. Bcjih 
se Bu iiH'& CA'i.iiaeTe OAOJix^Bie 
H coo6ii(^e, Bi EOTdpoiTb qacy 
a Horb-Qu bi BavB npifiT^ 34b- 
Tpa yipoHi, TO a (»;^Xy paA* 
iwao nosBaKduHTbCi ci B&mh. 

OcTaibcb ci> 6ojifciii^in> yBaacS- 
EieHi Banrz. Qp6AaHHiiS. 
N. N. 

I have some letters to write. 

What is the day of the month? 

I am going to write. I shall 
not be long abont it. 

The undersigned has the honour 
of soliciting an audience of 
your Excellency in order to 
obtain the permission to ... . 

Hoping that his request will be 
favourably received, the under- 
signed has the honour to be 
his Excellency the Counsellor 
of State's most humble and 
obedient servant 

n! n. 

Dear Sir, 

My friend N. N; has given me 
your respectable name as a 
Professor of Russian. I take 
the liberty of asking you 
what your usual charge is, 
and what hours you have 
free. If you will be so kind 
and let me also know at what 
o'clock I can call on you to- 
morrow morning. I shall he 
glad to make your acquain- 

I am with the utmost respect 

your obedient servant 

N. N. 

Jtopor6fi H0& spvn>! 

H Bacb xxy moSiAy ceroAHA, b 
Ha^'biofb 6brrb Ha croJibKO 
cqacTJii&BUirb, hto wmt6 Bam 
He noiriin&e'rb opnHjJTb Hoe 
npHraam^Hie. Bann. np6,naH- 
Hiifi. N. N. 

B&me nioO^SHoe npnrjiameHie ono- 
3fl4;io, Aopor6fl Hofi flpyn>; a 
ot/im^kxh cBEA&Hie no cirbniHo- 
Hy A^Jiy. H noTep;ix) o;^^!) 
mi, vafftx6.miTn> ;^He3 bi 
HoSft xAiWi. Bann> 

N. N. 

fl He aaSffly npiflrt no Bimeiiy 
iio663BOMy nparjiani^Hiio. Banrb 
ficspeHHia SPyrT"- 

N. N. 

My dear friend, 
expect you to dinner this eve- 
ning, and I hope that nothing 
will happen to prevent your 
accepting my invitation. 
Yours truly 

N. N. 
Your kind invitation arrived 
too late, my dear friend; I 
have an appointment for some 
important business. It will 
be one happy day less in 
my life. Yours 

N. N. 
I shall not fail to avail myself 
of your kind invitation. Yours 

N. N. 



^ejoB^m, oTHecAre $tb nficbiia. Waitex, take these letters to the 

Ba n6<ny. post-office. 

OTHec^re Sib nficbua no hxi llake these letters to their ad- 

iflpecy. - diess. 

With the lanndress. 

IIoaoBfiTe np&uy. 

BoTi. cn&coKb rpjfsHaro (5tjt.rf. 

Tpn pyCiniRH. 

IHecTb Qapii uaHzen. 


B6ceiit> napi) eock6bi>. 
Tlinb napi iiO/i,im&SBsiRO«b. 
TlaiBkun/Ltb njiaTR6Bi>. 
KorAa HtwHO npanecTfi Bain> 

Bi cy6d6Ty yrpojn., HenpeHiHoo. 

IIp6HeoflH-jm Bw MH'fc Moe e^jibc? 

^a. BoTb cieTb. 

liocHdipBirb, Bipewh-sis oht.? 


Mali s&xerca, vto dia pyG^tnica 

Be HO^. 

lisBHEiiTe, 0H& nouiqeaa Blmiui'b 

BopoTHUKii Be AOBi^°'i>BO Haspax- 


Bm HHt cKasliB, <iTO Bu He Jiii>- 

6HTe, qT66H BOpOIBHKi 6^u 

cji6niE0Ki> xecnsA. 
CedAJbEO a Bairb ^^AxeBii? 
BbceicbAecflTb narb Bon6eE%? 
dro He A<iporo; sorb 6&mH x^Bb- 



<lecTb Bxka Bant* kjiAbsHicji. 

Call the laundress. 

Here is my laundry-bilL 
3 shirts. 
6 pairs of cuffs. 

to collars. 
8 pairs of sodcs. 
5 pairs of pants. 

15 handkerchiefs. 

When must the linen be brought 

On Saturday morning, without 

You have brought me my linen? 

Yes, sir. Here is the bill. 

Let HE see if it is all right 

Look it over. 

It seems to me that this shin 
is hot mine. 

Beg your pardon, sir, it is mar- 
ked with your cipher. 

The collars are not starched 

You told me that you did not 
like your collars too stiff. 

How much do I owe you? 

Eighty-five copecks? 

This is not dear; here you bare 

your money. 
I haye the honour to wish you 

good day. 


XoT^Te-jiH BU nofiT^ CO ' hh6io B1> 

roCT^BHfi ^BOpi? 

Hto BU XQiim 3a Sto? 
dio cnAmxowb ^dporo. 
CKajK^e Kp^fiBiDio qiBy. 
Bi. wyr6in> tAeri Oiijio jeinSB- 

IIpHOUldTe itO HHi Ba AOHl CO 

AnrjiificKBrb Kfinrbysacb atn,? 

Will you go with me to the 
Great Bazau? 

What do you ask for this? 

It is too dear. 

Tell me your lowest price. 

I could have got it cheaper else- 

Send this home with my bill. 

Do you perhaps keep English 
books 7 



YliTb-jiB y BacT> KHiin. ;(jifl ler- 

Karo qrima? 
noAafire unt b^a>>> r6po;(a. 
fl xea&X) Hdooe Hs^ime. 
Htri JH y BacT> nyTeBo;<tiTejiH no 

EcTb ;iii y Bacb lOMopucT^qecKiA 

IIoKaxliTe MBi A'^tckIx Kii^rH. 

Ji,&iTe awk aoac&;iyacTa Baun> Ka- 

R xejilLio p^ccKyio rpaHM&TBicy 

HB&HOBa, 3Bi^HKJione;t6<iecEifi 

cjiOBipb KjiibqBHKODa e coib- 

HeaiA TypreBesa. 
HtTB-Jifl 3Atcb b6jib36 xopdmaro 

fl xorijii. 6i>i saKas^Tb canorfi 

(TflJtlJIH) Cb npOCTIiillll {jlfiO^B^- 

ub) Bo^^dmBaHB b eb h^sebkh 

(buc6kbub) KafijiyK&HB. 
Bon.. He y^6;^H0 jib hxt. ,bpb- 

BoTb KpnucA. 
OhCi ysKli Bi B^Tsi b bi> ooA'bg- 

ui; OBd yacacBO muyrb hb^ 

Bu CA'iJiaeTe Hat APyrie. 
Fflt acHBerb nopTB6tt? 
nponi"^ Baci> cBxib (n> veEji irfcp- 

Ky flJifl cropryicft. 
KaKT. BaMT> erd CfffeaaTb? 
CA^jiaitTO er6 no HOBtfimeHy (i>a- 

Baux yrd^HO T&K»e xaM&rb h 

Bapy fipioin.? 
KaKi> c^jiaTb Bain> xjiikti, ko- 

poTE6 Ajie aji^ho? 
no BOBifimefi Hd^i. 
He ;^'6jiafiTe uat CpibEB aim- 

UDHl "r^EBUB. 

KaEdro c6pTa b^bbi^u Bu xe- 

Toro ate cyEB4. 
Korfl4 Bu Bpa^eTe fljia npaiitpB- 

Hbcjii siBTpa. 

Xopomd. E'y'AbTe aEEypixHU. 
CwpryKT. a b^bcs ae Mory Ha- 


Russian Conr.-Grammar. 

Have you not any amusing books 
(light liteiature)? 

Give me some views of the town. 

I will have the last edition. 

Have yon no handbook of 
St. Petersburg? 

Have you any humorous writ- 

Show me some books for 

Give toe your catalogue, please. 

I want Ivanov's Russian Gram- 
mar, Kliuchnikov's Encyclo- 
paedic Dictionary and Turge- 
nev's Writings. 

Is there not a good shoemaker 
in this neighbourhood ? 

I want a pair of boots (slippers) 
with single (double) soles and 
low (high) heels. 

Here, sir. Will you try them 

Here are the boot-hooks. 
Tbey are too narrow in the heel 

and on the instep; they pinch 

me horribly. - 
You will make me another pair. 
Where does a tailor live? 
Please, measure me for a coat 

How will you have it made? 
Make it just according to the 

latest fashion. 
Do you wish also a waistcoat 

and a pair of trousers? 
How do you wish the waist 

coat, short or long? 
According to the latest fashion 
Do not make my trousers too 

What sort of buttons do you 

Qf the same stuff. 
When will you come and try 

them on? 
The day after to-morrow. 
Well. Be punctual. 
I cannot get into the coat. 




EpibEH (M^mKOMl EOpOTEli. 

Osi He DJidTBO npHsd^flTCfl. 
HCiu^TEa c:i:&mEoin> y3E&: 

The trousers pinch me. 
They do not close well. 
The waistcoat is too tight. 

With a horse-dealer. 

a Keji4jn.-dH EymiTb Xopdmaro 

He sejiaeie-jiH Bu 6ep6epificEaro 

Mti. Mwb EjsBsk xop6niaA 6.E- 

raiScKafl Jidma^b. 
MH'b ayxMi. sepxoB^ h EaSpio- 

ji^THaa ji6maflb. 
y ueEi eoTb 0flH4, E0T6paj} BaHi 

6^;^eTI> rofl^Tbca. Oh4 bt> ko- 

nocii6TpBM'b ufixne koeA vb eo- 

OHi 6qeHi> xysT>. Oht> cMfflEOin> 

uajn>. IIoEaac^e lut xpyr6ro. 
BiiBeAHTe erd aait EombniHH. 
CitdabKO eny jrfeTb? 
IIocM6TpHM'b y Her6 bo pxy. 
Oht> cMmEOMT. CTapi. 

Owb OJl6X0 A^pKHTCfl Ha HOr^Tb. 
dra HaCTb UHt He Hp^BHTCfl. 

BoTb ^a BopoHOfl ji6niaAb Bain>, 
u6xeTi> SbiTb, "fidjibme nonp^- 


y HejS atqmifl BHfli.. 

CAjif.'te-Ka, Ha nee. 

3acT&BbTe ee cnai&jia wit& mk- 

roHT.; nyCTfiie noiiirb ee p6- 

cbK) (raji6noin.). 
CE6jibE0 BH 3a Hee xoT^Te? 
He UyraiBaa-jiH ona? 
H noisacy ea eeu. 
Ee Tp'y;^HO y;^epK4Tb pyEiBH. 
He xpoM^erb-aH ohS.? 
fl Bacb yBipjiro, >!to onk 6e3T> ne- 

flocT&TEOBT. H Cesi BojiisHeft. 
Xopoin6! fl ee 6epy. 

I should like to buy a good 

Will you have a Barbary horse? 

No, I want a good English 

I want a horse fit for riding and 

I have one in the stable which 

will suit you well. 

First let us see the horse in 

the stable. 
He is very ugly. He is too 

little. Show me another. 
Bring him out of the stable. 
What age is he? 
Let me see his mouth. 
He is too old. 
He stands badly on his legs. 
This colour does not please me. 
This black one will 

suit you better. 

He looks better. 
Mount him. 

Walk him first, and then trot 
(gallop) him. 

What price do you ask for him? 

Is he not shy? 

Let me mount him. 

He is very heavy in hand. 

Is he not rather lame? 

I warrant him to you free from 

faults and disease. 
Wtill he is mine. 

Travelling by steamboat. 

Korjci OTXd^HTb napox6;i;b bt. 


Ho siKiwh fifiawbt 

CE6.iibK0 past Bi> jiicflD;!.? 

Fflt npficTaHb? 

Fflt K0HT6pa? 

KoTnk npHfiyfleiT) napox6;i> bt. 

When does the steamer start 

for London? 
On which days? 
How often monthly? 
Where is the landing-place? 
Where is the booking-office? 
When does the steamer reach 

London ? 

Commercial phraseology aud correspondence. 


CudjibKO DOJiar&ercfl deanjiiiHaro 

6arax4 xa 6hji4ti>? 
J(aibTB-Jia 6ar&WEyx> EBBT&ni^io? 
SafiH^Te uicTO ;(jui ueeji. 
OcTaeaBjiBBaeTCJi-jni dTorb napo- 

x6ai> Bi niTer^H'i? KaKi> 

M6acH0-jiH AOCT&Tb 6hji6th Ba 

H BOSLMf n^psato uicca Kaibxy. 


Tflt CT0Ji6Baa? 
M6pe 6e3O0E6fiBO. 
Mu AO''<KB^ jiaB^oeaTB. 

y MeH;i roaoBa Kpyatfirca; ueHd 


Ta3i>! 103%! 
3to npoSxeTb. 

BoTb Mu npHfiAHacaeHGfl e:i> 6Spe- 

What is the free allowance of 
luggage for every ticket? 

Do ttey give a luggage-receipt? 

Retain a' place for me, please. 

Does this steamer stop at Stet^ 
tin? How long? 

Can one get tickets on board? 

I take first class cabin. 

Can one have a special cabin? 

Where is the dining room? 

The sea is rough. 

We are obliged to proceed 

My head whirls; I am sick. 

Bring me a hand-basin I 
It wiU soon be over. 
Look, we are soon going to 
reach the shore. 


Acceptance, to accept. 

EjiaroBOJiiiTe npsjiar&euutt b6k- 
cejib aKi^enTOB^Tb n BOSBpax^Tb 

np6cHMi> Bacb noTp66oBaTb aK- 
^e^T4^i^ Ba npaJiar&eHue .... 

npH ceHT> HM^K) qecTb npeupo- 
BOA^Tb BaM-b aKi^enrdBaHHbie 
. . . ., KOidpbie nporay aacT. 
npHHjiTb wh Kiccy h noctS.Bi'Tb 

MH-fc Bl Kpe^fiTb. 

npB npeA'bXBJi^HiH B^EceiH aE- 
^e^TAHTb OTKasdjica njiaiAib, 
TTO npHH'yAHJio ueaA yronfiTb 
npHJiarisMbifi npor^crb. 

Please provide the enclosed draft 
with acceptance and return it 
to us. 

We beg you to get acceptance 
demanded for the enclosed ... 

Annexed I do myself the honour 
of handing you .... duly ac 
cepted, which please cash and 
pass to my credit. 

On presentation, the acceptor 
refused payment, which in- 
duced me to get the enclosed 
protest made. 

Acconnt, on account. 

BaMT. CqeTb Bit H^mBXli EHfi- 


OcHtjHBaeMca npocAib sacT. no- 
icp^Tb Bamii cieTb. 

ficjiii BU npeAOCTasHTe HaMT. npo- 
f,kXY Tor6 Ha Banrb cieTb, to 
Mil Hcn6jiHHMi 3to Dopyq^Hie 
laEi-ace, Kam. 6cjh6m TOB&pt 

fiHJrb H4,fflei0 c66CTBeBHOCTbK). 

It is with pleasure that we open 
to you an account in our 

We take the liberty of request- 
ing you to settle your account. 

If you entrust us with the sale 
of this for your account, we 
shall carry out the order as 
if the goods were our own. 




IIpdcBHi. Baci> ;];ocTaBiiTb Eain> 

El> CEdpOlTb Bp^HeHH H3BJiel]6- 

Hie Jfa-b cqSia, Tarn. Kaurt H&.- 
zna EuirH nostiAHMOHy HecoFJiic- 


Mu no3B6jiB;iH ce6% ipaCHpoB^Tb 

3a Bacb Bi. saqerL B4mero 

H6sra, h pascqi&TUBaeui Ha y- 
nskij no SiOMy B^Kcejiio. 

We beg you will send us an 
abstract of account shortly 
as our books apparently do 
not conform. 

We have to-dav taken the liberty 
of drawing upon you ... on 
account of our balance with 
you, and count on our draft 
being duly honoured. 

Advance, to advance. 

£cja6u Bu pbmiimcb wpBcstn 
Hairb ndpriio TOBdpa, to hu Su 
ox6tho n&xa Ba)n> snepe^ Ha 
66jrbe Asu x&wie A6Jirifl cpoKi> 
B'^XHyio Bain> c^MMy. 

IIpeAapiitTiA M0]&6iijiH 6u TaK6ro 
pd^a, qTO 8 !!,6xs,eKh 6u 6ujn> 
BUAas&Tb Sojibmifl cyiiuii bi> 

Bi. 6TB'fen> Ha B^e imcbud otl 
9ro c. H. yB't;;oHJMteirb Baci>, 
qxo c&uaji ^dju>mafl ccy^^a, so- 
Tdpyio MU B-b EacTOjiii;ee np^- 
HJi u6xeiii. f^a!rb, ecn 

If you can resolve on consigning 
us a cargo, we shall wilUngly 
advance you the sum you 
require at short or longer- 

Tike nature of my enieiprise 
would cause me to be from 
time to time with a pretty 
* large sum in advance. 

In reply to your letter of the 
9th instant we inform you 
herewith that the highest ad- 
vance we can grant at present 
is ... 

Advice, to advise. 

a npHA^pjKBBaiocb np^BHJia bh- 
Kor;;4 He npBHHM^Ti aflfiuad- 
aaHRHxi) BBKceji^fi, noik ne 
noayiy yBtxouATejbHaro nnci- 

Mbi aojikhu npoc^Tb sacL pasb 
EaBcer;^4 jtifflntaihb naci sa- 
p^Hte Bkmnxb na Haci> Tp&- 


It is a principle with me never 
to accept bills drawn as ad- 
vised, when such letter of ad- 
vice is wanting. 

We must once for all beg you 
to advise us betimes of dra^. 

Agency, agent. 

TiMomBiii ar^HTi. nami, r-nt 

nHc^i BaHii, qio bu rOTdsbi..,. 

Il03B6.U.Te MHt OCsiAOMBTbCa, CO- 

rji&cBU JIB Bbi Qepe^iTb uat aa 
s^iiiHift r6poA% ar^HTCTBO b4- 
mero 66mecTBa. 

Our agent in your place, Mr. ... 
has informed us thai you 
would be disposed to ... 

Permit me to ask if you would 
be inclined to confide to me 
the agency of your company 
in this towiJ. 

Agreement, to agree. 

a Be Hon> cofmcfiTbCfl cb r-srb 

. . . EaCtSTb Bp^lieHU nOCT&BEB. 

Do Hameiiy yroBdpy bh HMtere 
nocTaBHTb MBi CIOA& aa kiicTO, 

1 could not agree with Mr. ... 

with regard to the term of 

According to our agreement, 

you have to deliver the oil 



Rf DiieHHoe 7 Baci viuao, buAji,- 
CTBie nmd n nocT&BHjrb aa sanrt 
A^erb Ho6 asA^pKEH bi> c^m- 

bought of yon, here, freight 
free, on which account, I de- 
bited you for my expenses 
with ... 

Allowance, to allow. 

IIpH ynj&rb HaJidiBUHa im c^^t- On immediate payment we will 

jiaevb Bain> 'CK^AKy 5%. make an allowance of fio/o. 

H Be Hor^ corjiac^Tbcfl na Tasdfi I cannot allow such a ground- 

BecnpaeaAJi^Biifl Bi^ien. less deduction. 


HafiA>i >«»& ({'^KTypy b^pboB, no- 
ipyAArecb OKpeAHTOB&Tb iiofi 

eV&n CTdHHOCTfcIO TacoBdlt. 

PacxdAU KoA eocT&BjAtOTi . . ., 
KqTdpiiie norpyA^Tecb yojiaTiiTb 
3a Mo8 ci&rb r. r. ... vh Ti- 
ucmHeirb rdpo^i. 


HawSroccTb' coeraBJi^erb ^^Ba 
200/0 ; Tamb oto KpeAHTdpw, 
Be nojibsyion^iecff np^soHi n6p- 
BeBCTBa, DoaecfTb 6ojn>iuifl do- 

Mbi nepeA&JiH Bce n&me aajiAvioe 
uHtn^ecTBO Eyp&Topairb. 

Average, on 

IlaposdAi «Poccia!>, EaDiiT&Bi> 
ktovb, HHiBmifi aa rpfsi 100 
TioKdBi K64)e A'»^ BAc-b, npi- 
Cujtb CK)A& Bqep& ci> aeapieiv, 
B 20 tiok6bt> TOB&pa Giijiii c^a- 


Cp^AHBui qBCJi6in> ciOAi' npaxd- 
ABTb eacerdAHo 1000 cyfldBX. 

Scia Hbi BOSbueai. cp^AHioio A^- 
By, TO s6io oeofiflerca 

to amonut. 

Please credit me the amount of 
invoice in conformity, if found 

My expenses amount to ... which 
please pay Messrs. ... in your 
place for my account. 


The assets scarcely yield 20 "/o; 
non-privileged creditors will 
therefore suffer great losses. 

We have handed over all our 
assets to the assignees. 

an average. 

The steamer «Russia]>, captain 
Yatoff, which has 100 bags 
of coffee on board for you, put 
into port yesterday with aver- 
age, and 20 bags have been 
delivered in a damaged con- 

On an average 1000 vessels put 
into our port annually. 

If we calculate upon the average 
price, the kilogram will stand 
in at ... 

Bail, to be bail. 

Bu He CTiaere aa ueaii cepA^ibca 
H bsbbbAtb uea^, <ito a, no 
Btime npaBBAeaaofi npai^aik, ae 
Mort Bcn6jiBBTb Bdmero xexk- 
Eia H BSHTb aa ce6;S Tp66yeHOe 

ficjiH BH dToro Tp66y€Te, to mu 
noptiBuca sa Ber6. 

You will not feel offended and 
will excuse me if, from the 
reasons given, I cannot give 
the bail yon desirie. 

If you desire it, we will be bail 
for him. 



Hsi npe^^jieaciiDiaro Sajiinca bu 
yeflflHTe, vto bi cjif^ai eoh- 
Kypca Ba^Ss^a Ba 7;;oBjiieTBO- 
peme Kpe^HTdpoBi c&Maa luo- 

IIy6jiHEai;iA TOflpidw CaoiiBca 
Rcer;ta ;^'£jiaeTCA bii HaaSdjiie 
pacopocTpaBfiiinES'B ras^iaxib. 

HpiijidxeBuoK) npH cein> ctHuoio 
dJiaroBOji^Te noKp^Tb coAb;^!. 
Moer6 cqeia y saci., h yBt- 
;;OMHTi> ueBJi o tomi>. 

Bank, bank-shares 

yqpeacA^Hie ^Toro fia^Ea ;;aBHd 
qyBCTByeMaa norpSfiHOcn. h saa- 
^TSJUiHO nocjiyacBTii ei> oaH- 
BJi6Hiio sfliniHeft Topr^BJm. 

E4BK0BUH &Ki;iB ClOATb «b Ha- 

CTOin^ee speHfl 6nem, buc6eo h 
HeyA66EU fkim nowbmima Eann- 
Oc66a, KOTdpoftsu cnp&mflBae- 
Te, saHnH^GTca, Ep6irb cboM 
sHaq^TejibBoS ToprdBjiD m^p- 
ctbD, T&Bxe CanE^pcEBua one- 


E^EOB&ifi EanHTajTb fifixxewh co- 
OTBiTCTBOBaTb ^HpEyaJi^iH 64h- 


Balance, to balance. 

You will see from the balance 
that in case of bankraptcy the 

creditors 'have little chance of 
being satisfied. 

The piiblicatioD of the annual 
balance-sheet appears always 
in papers of wide circulation. 

With the inclosed sum be pha- 
sed to balance my account 
with you, under advice. 

, bank-notes, etc. 

The establishment of this bank 
ii a necessity which has long 
been felt and wliich will con- 
tribute greatly to the improve- 
ment of trade in this town. 

Bank-shares stand very high at 
present and are not suitable 
for investments. 

The gentleman in question trans- 
acts banking business besides 
dealing largely in the wool- 

The bank-funds must be ade- 
quate to the circulation of 

Banker, banking house. 

H Mea&x) BCTyn^Tb bi. CHomeme 
CB o^H^m 6aHK^oin> vb Bi,- 
mesn. rdpofli. 

IIpAuiaHEua aa,wb i^'^Haufl 6yM&- 
rn uu OTA^B noE^ Ba coxpan^- 
Hie OAHOMy e3i> animBjaro San- 
E^CEBXl noudBrb. 

I wish to enter into relations 
with one of the bankers of 
your city. 

We have deposited the securi- 
ties sent to us, provisionally, 
with a banking house in this 

Bankrupt, bankruptcy. 

Mr. .... has declared himself 

Messrs. ... are indicted for frau- 
dulent bankruptcy. 

r-HT> ... o6T.flBiijn. ceSji HecooTorf- 


r. r. ... ^o;^B6p^HyTH cyflfifiHOMy 
csrbjiflTBUO no sjidcTHOHy 6aB- 



SaKJiioqfrre Topn. HeuS^JieHHO h Conclude the bargain at once 
;^0CTdBbTe Mnt (j()aETypy. and send me the invoice. 

Commercial phbaseologt ahd corbespondence. 


Bh M6ateTe cinraTb ce6A ctoct- 
x&Bhon,, QTO Batn. y;iaji6ci> Gfjb- 
jiiTb TaK^ B^roflHyio noEfnEy. 

You may call yourself lacky for 
the good bargain you have 


noftiieah ^Toro iraebMa, v-wh ... The bearer of this Mr. ..., who 

nyieinfeCTBya no fltaiiTB, EaM%- is travelling on business and 

peHT. npofi^Tb HiKOTopoe Bp^MA thinks of staying for a short 

BT> B&raeMT. rdpo;;*. time in your place. 

Bill of exchange, of lading. 

We beg you will neither make 
payment on the bill (of ex- 
change) nor discount it. 

Though the bills (of exchange) 
were npt accepted, they will 
probably nevertheless be paid 
when due. 

This house tries to keep itself 
up by accommodation bills as 
well as it can. 

The bill of lading will follow 
in our next letter, and we 
shall at the same time give 
you the exact value of our 

Bottomry. ' 

Mbi cb j/ipiixbciBiewb y^iniim We learn with pleasure from 

IIpdcoMi Baoi He niaTtirb no 


XoTjf BBEcejui H h6 6i>i.iin aKi^en- 
TdBaHU, BO Bce TasA oeA u6- 
ryTB 6uTb ynji&qeHH npn npefli- 


QroTb flOMT. CTap4eTca noAnep- 
xkib ce6^ KaKVEBCtAi* QJiyrOB- 
CK6fi TpaccRpdBKoH BescejiSS. 

npn iiepBOMi Hdineiii ntiCBHi kt. 


KOHuocaHeBTb H no;i;: 66HyK> 
niBj D4mefi noc^jncE. 

Bsn> Bimero nncbH^ orb 15ro 
c. »., <n'o npe^B^^^BTCfl v6imaa 
BOSMdacBOCTb noaryii^Tb o6p&TBO 
qaCTb CTpaxDB^HiH Kopafiffii 
Jl^Tb A^Hbrn Bt 3aJi6n> na 0o;(- 

yours of the 15th insL, that 
there is every prospect of 
the money on the bottomry- 

To advance on bottomry. 

Broker, brokerage. 

fl yssi napYvAjTb M&Kiepy saiuiia- 
q^b A'^iio. 

CqHT&eiTb Bain. Vs'/o kohmhc- 
ci6HBbixi> z nptoima s^tcb 
KypT&acEUJi no 1 cb T^caqn. 

I have already engaged a broker 
to conclude the business. 

We charged you Vs"/* commis- 
sion and the brokerage custo- 
mary in this place of I per 


fluiio qecTb yaliAOHBTb Baci, qro I have the liononr of informing 

X ocHOB&jTb OTb Hoer6 tkesir you that I have established 

Topr6Boe npe^npijiTie Bb sxim- a business here under my 

netrh r6po^, EOT6poe Sfneni, name for traffic in the pro- 

sanmiiTbca o6op6TaHH c&sb- 

CKHTb npO^ttKTOBT.. 

ductions of the country. 



TaKT) KaKT> f^ink Moii Tp66yK)TB 

Moer6 q^cTaro OTC)'TCTBia ot- 

ci6fla, TO a eerdjifia flajii. flost- 

peHBocTb Moeii'^ MHoroatTHeMy 

coTptflHHKy, r-Hy . . .' 
fl Gy^y zaMWikTbca npeiiui^ii^ecT- 

fiJia H HST. PoCClH, HO He HCKJK)- 

lia flijTb 3a c66eTBeHHHfi cieTt. 

^ejiciHie pacm^pBTb uo)& Toprds- 

jno no6y;^;io Henii zcKdib h6- 

huxh CBa36fl, H noTOBif oeu'6- 

jiBBancb ... 
B-^flfiWh Ha;^■, ito Topr6BJia 

BeK6pt CH6Ba oxBB^ca. 

To bny, 

Mu BOKynaeid) TdJibKO hs'b n^p- 

BUXl PyKb, B nOTOllf HB h6- 
XeUl npHB^Tb BO BHBM^BiC Bk- 

mero jno663Haro npe;(jioac6Bifl. 
llponry sacib Kyn^b flja ueBrf ..., 

Kacb t6.!ii>ko iftHi ynaXeiii Ha 

... AaE Eixe. 
Ho nojiyi^BiH oer6, nponiy saci. 

Beu^A'iieBBO Kyn^Tb 3a hoS 

cwTT> no canoS ;];emeBofi i^tB^ 

. . . ptccBBXT. pyCjieBuxi accBr- 

Bdl^fi H ;(QCTiBBTIi MHi& 6Hua 

c-b npBJioacgHieir& no;iip6dHaro 

cqera B3pacx6AOBaBB0& b4uz 

CyMMH, K0>IMHCCi6HHXT. H np6- 

SBXt H3;^6pffieK^b. 
HaBi yfla.ii6cb HaK0B6^^> HafiTi 
noKynn;BK& Ha Bann> .... no 

Kp^Mefi Ha3Bd.qeBB0fi BaMB 


ji.ijlk Cb iTBWb TOBipOITb 6lijIH 

TaKi. Bijiu, ITO MU ae uor;id 
aaani noKynaTejia n&xe no ci- 

HUHl B^3EBin> I^'iH^l.. 


^ocT^TO^HUfi KanHTijn. h Tp66ye- Sufficient capital and the re- 

As Jbusiness calls me away fre- 
quently, I have, under date 
of to-day, invested Mr. ..., my 
assistant for some years past, 
with my procuration. 

I shall occupy myself principally 
with commission-business to 
and from Russia, . but shall 
not exclude transactions on 
my own account. 

The wish to extend my business 
has impelled me to seek out 
new connections, for which 
reason I take the liberty . . . 

We must hope that business will 
soon revive. 


We always buy at first hand 
only, and regret therefore to 
be obliged to refuse your kind 

I must request you to buy for 
me ..., as soon as the price 
has sunk to .i., or less. 

Be kind enough, immediately on 
receipt of this to buy at the 
cheapest possible rate to the 
debit of my account ... Rus- 
sian Paper-Roubles, and to 
send them to me with detailed 
note of your outlays for com- 
mission and all expenses. 

We have at last succeeded in 
finding a buyer for your ... 
at the price to which you limit 

Trade in this article was so dull 
that we could find no buy^ 
even with the lowest prices. 

Hoe 3H4Hie x^xb nanYTb HaHi 

BO3H6aCH0CTh yflOBJieTBOp^Tb 

Bciwb Tp66oBaHiaH'b. 
Mbi He MdKeMi corJiac^Tbca. no- 
HJisHTb npoueBTi h npeflnoqa- 
TaeMT> BsaTb o6p&THO KanHTirb. 

quisite business - knowledge 
will place us in a condition 
to answer all demands. 
We cannot agree to reduction 
of the rate of interest and 
therefore prefer to recall the 

Commercial fhraseologt and correspondence. 281 


Bu sojiWHiS npHroT6BHTb rpysi. kt. You must have the cargo ready 

KOBi^t uicsm.a., 'iTdOM Kop46jii> by the end of this month, so 

Mon. BcKbpt D6cjlt cEoer6 npn- that the ship can sail with it, 

SiiTifl OTnJ^Tb ci 6bumi> bi.... soon after its arrival, to ... 


Bi. HacTorfmyiD MHHyry a He npn I am very low in cash at pre- 

fl^Bwaxi H noTOM^ fl6jiateHT> no- sent and must beg you there- 

npoc^Tb BacT. noBpeMeHi&Tb eme fore to have patience still. 

Sob Bbi Bi> BacTOJfatyio mbb'^ty If you cannot command cash 

Be npB niBbTAX'b, TO a yfl0B6- at this moment, 1 shall be 

jiBCTByiocb B^KcejieHi. aa ^da- glad of bills at long date 

rifl cpoKi., KOTdpiifi 6u a Morb which I can get discounted. 


Ope ceHii, nocbiJi4K> BaHi. q^cTyio Enclosed I hand you the net 

BiipyiKy OTb MO^'S npoA^B 3a proceeds of my last month's 

EOcntxBiS u^cai^'b bi c^mh'6 ... sales of .... in cash, the 

Bajid^BbiMB A^BbraUB, npoc^ receipt of which please ack- 

Bacb yB't^OHBTb MCB^ Bojiy- nowledge. 

q^HlB TaKOBI^Xli. 

Certificate of origin. 

AojiXBii-jin TOB^pbi 6uTb cHaCxe- Must goods be accompanied by 

Ebi CBHA'^TejibGTBOM'b o Htciis a Certificate of origin on 

npoBcxoK^^^Bifl npB nepex6;('6 crossing the Russian frontier? 
qlpesii pyccicyio rpaBfii;y? 

Change, to change. 

PaauiHi) p^ccKBXT> flSnerb coe- The change of Russian money 

AbhSh^ Sfltcb CT. <ryBcTBtoejb- is attended here with con- 

Humi yCtiTKOMi. siderable loss, 

BurtEBBaTb cepe(!p6 6jib 6yMS,w- To change silver or notes for 

Hua A^HbrH Ha 3(5jioto. gold. 


Ho npBjar^eMOMy nepesdfly Ba Please to cash to my credit 

r-Ha .... BT. TaMouiHeiTb r6. the enclosed cheque payable 

poflt, BJiaTfiBOMy no npefl'b- at sight on Mr. ... of your 

ABj^Hiio, GaaroBoaflre nojiyqiiTb place. 
■ynjiiTy h BHeoTi Ba Bpefl^Tb sa 

HOfi CqSTb. 


a cjnimajrb, tto y Baoi bt. koh- A situation as a clerk has, I 

T6pt OTBpiJJiocb M-fecTO npBK^- have heaid, become vacant in 

mBKa; BDOTOMy no3B6JIbTe^pe;^- your counting-house; permit 

aoK^Tb BaMi MOH ycjiyrH. me to apply for it. 




Bt. ToprfiBJit 5to2 CTpaHtS saMiiT- 
Ha nocTOiiHHaa, xotjJ u ne 6ieH5 
66cTpaa, nepeMtna Ki jitime- 

fl Hjrtjii. lecTb nojiyifiTb Bann> 

^HpKyJUip^>, BT. KOT6pOMT> BH 

yBi;i,0M.ijieTe aeuA oSt yipew- 
fleniH Bimefi ToproBJH." 

Ceps^^HO djiaroflapji Bac* 3a Bd- 
niH ToprdBHa ytri/SfiMiiiEia, Hp6- 

CHMl BaCB GuTb TaKt JII0C63- 


HacTOJimee nHCbiad vwierb ni- 
jibw ocBi;^OMHTbCfl, pacnojiosBe- 
HU jin Bbi E Ha icaKlixi> ycji6- 

BiaXT> B3flTb Ha KOMMfocilO nsfli- 

jiifl Moefi (|)46pHicH. 
MH.jKeJieMT) Bcxyn^Tb ni, CHoni^- 


poMy Mbi Morjili 6u nopyitob 
coBepm^Bie H^nmx'b saK'^nOEi 
Bt, TaMoniHeirb rdpo;^']^. 


In the commerce of this coun- 
try, a steady if not very rapid 
improvement is taking place. 

I have had the honour to re- 
ceive your circular in which 
yon inform me of the forma- 
tion of your commercial esta- 

We tender our best thanks for 
the commercial reports you 
have sent us till now, and 
hope you will kindly continue 


The purport of the present is 
to inquire whether and on 
what terms you would be in- 
clined to undertake on com- 
mission the sale of my manu- 

We wish to enter into connec- 
tion with a commissioner for 
our purchases in your town. 


Jjia paapaCdTKH H-fecKOvibKHXi. pyfl- 
EHKOBi. oCpaaOBajiOci. b'b sflini- 
neMT. r6po;(i TonapnmecTBO 
(K0Mn5.Hia) Cb KanirrdjiOMT. bt. ... 

For the working of several mines 
a company has been formed 
here with a joint-stock capi- 
tal of ... . 


CoradcHO B4meMy yroBdpy, bm 

odiaaHbl AOCT&BBTb HaM-b .... 

According to contract you must 
deliver us .... 

Course of exchange. 

npnaaraeiTb Himy cerdflHamnioio We annex our to-day's course 

KypcoBtH) sanScKy h oatHfldein. of exchange and await further 

simBXi. flamH'fefimHXT. yBtflOM- directions. 

Credit, to credit, creditor. 

IIoaBOjjieMx ceOi oSpai^TbCii kt. We take the liberty of inquir- 
Bam. Cb BonpdcOMT., roT6BU .ih ing herewith, whether and on 

BH H Ha KaKfixT. ycadsiaxT. ot- what conditions you would be 
Kpi^rrb HaMT. C^hkobhS itpe- inclined to grant us an open 

Aivh Ha cyMMy credit to the amount of .... 



Mu %peffaoa&sn aa saim cqeTB 

.... Ha HafAiKb, Eordpufi bu 

(S^jfB TftBi JII0643HH nepesecT^ 

Ha Ha«rb, Cfc orOB6p£ofl yaji&'rai 

' TasoB^ixi..- 

Bi> nocjrlAHeHi co6p&BiB i^^^n- 
TdpoBi 6dA0 pibmeBd npoAOJi- 

S&TB IipOH3Bd;(CTBO T0pr6BXH. 

We have credited you with 

on Paris kindly remitted to 
us, reserving due payment. 

At the last meeting of credi- 
tors it was detirmined to 
continue the business. 

Cnstom-honse, customs. 

Mu* no.if *iHir^ aeatdu^S em,& bi> 
iax6s&ai sam-h TOB&pi. a do- 
CTyiuwi. cb Hmn> cofji&cho ek- 
meuy npe^imc^HiH). 

QaB^CTHoe noBum^me Tasidacen- 
Enncb n6m:iHHi> boiuji6 yac^ bi> 

We shall take in your goods 
still lying at the custom-house 
and proceed with them ac- 
cording to your directions. 

The known rise of customs has 
already entered into iotce. 


9t66u apBBji^Tb aocyn&Te^ieS, To attract customers one must 
ffijixno npo^^aB^TK no nemU- sell at cheap prices. 

BhBtb I^hIvIi. 

Damage, to damage. 

Bi TaK6ir& cjifiiai BaM* npHin- In this case you would have to 

jidcb 6ii Heei^ ySAnss. bear the damage. . 

nocTO^EBue jifixji^ HorjTb c^jiBEO The continuous rain must da- 

aoBpeA^nn> nocbBairb. mage ihe seeds greatly. 

DpficjiaBflufi TOfiapii, 6earb coh- 
B^Hia, xop6nT£, no oht, cjiAm- 
KOMTi ;i,6porb b Hawi. Sfflerb 
TpfflHO er6 iipo;niTt. 


The merchandise sent is cer- 
tainly fine, but much too dear; 
we shall have trouble in 
disposing of it. 

Mu yfit^p^JibHO iip6cian Baci> 

OqfiCTHra, HaK0H6lVb, 6T0Th /I,&.B- 

Bima Hs^ipacEH npomy sanBciib 
BT. fl^tfen. Moerb vieia, h ^o- 
ct4bhtb mh* npH cjrfiai h3- 

9T0T1. iMQXofi flOJiaiHABT. y?Ke 10 
MicaiieB'b 0Tap4eT&a npoBecii 
MeHJt oCimiHiiaH, a Tara sain. 
cs'injeTh onaciTBca, tto .... 

Debt, to debit, debtor. 

We urgently entreat you at 
length to settle this old 

For your outlay debit me, ad- 
^asing me at your leisure. 

This bad debtor has been try- 
ing to keep me off with pro- 
mises these 10 months past, 
and as there is reason to fear 
that .... 




H&iJAeHBUfi ^e^wifirb- 6ieEb 3Ha- The deficiency discovered is a 
nitexewb h cocTaBJirferi) cyMiiy very considerable one, reach- 
si .... ing the sum of ... . 


Mu Eeu^naa npHCT^nHMt K-b hc. 
nojiH^Huo Bamero nopyieHifl. 

Mu He udxewb corjiac^T&cs Ba 
fla.jiiH'ifimyio OTcpo'iKy; bu h- 
wkjiu ;hoctAtoiho Bp^MeHii, Tr6- 
Cbi no3a66TBTbvfl o E^meirb 

We will precede to execute your 
.order without del9.y. 

We will not agree to a further 
delay (respite); you have had 
time enough to satisfy us. 

Deduction, to dednct. 

IIpH ynji^Tt Haji^qBUMH uu c^i. 

jiaeMi. Basn. CK^flKy So/o; ho 

ecjiH BU TS.KMte BiSqTeTe homh- 

T4HHyio EOMM^cciio TO fl pa66- 

tuin, flipojTB. 
Ilpomv BacT. mSqecTB na (faKTypt 

HSA^psKH no ynaKdBKi. 

On immediate payment we will 
allow you a deduction of So/o ; 
but if you deduct also the 
commission I have charged, I 
have worked for nothing. 

Please deduct the charges for 
packages from, the invoice. 


npHKaacJiie saaTB TOB^pi. flo hc- 
Teq^HiJ! JibrdTiuiXT. SHcfi, <!t6- 
6u HaHi. He npBniJi6ci> njiar^Tb 
3a coxpan^Bie bi MarasiiHaxx. 

Have the goods removed before 
the expiration of the lay-days, 
so that the demurrage may be 
spared us. 

Deposit, to deposit. 

IIo nojiyq^BiH cer6 noTpyfltoecb 
Bili;^aTi> B3i Bamero aajidra ... 

AaBBoe BaM-b nopyi^nie na .... 
pydjiefi Bi. ptccicHxi. (jidHflaxi, 
HU HU'^JIH bo3m6xhocti> iicn6ji- 
HHTi no Ktpcy m, .... a coxpa- 
Eim-b 6nua cor.ii4cHo B5,nieuy 
npeanHciHiio Bnpeflb jo Bame- 
ro pacnopflSc^Hifl. 

Mh roTOBM BiiflaTt Ban* B^epe;^l> 
c^uMy BT, ..... 6cjiH BU ;i;a- 
/((ne BaMi> aa coxpaaeaie aip- 
Hua dyu^B piBBOfi TOMy ct<5b- 


noaaCoTbiecb o tomi, mt66h ira, 
cyMMa 6bua HeM^/iJieHHo BHece- 
Ba Bi sanrb GaBKU 

On receipt of this you will 
please dispose of . . . from our' 

We had the opportunity to-day 
of executing your order for ... 
roubles in Russian bonds at 
rate of .... and shall hold 
the same according to direc- 
tions in deposit at your dis- 

We are not disinclined to ad- 
vance you the sum of .... if 
you will deposit with us good 
securities for this sum. 

See that the amount be depo- 
sited in your bank without 

Commercial phraseology and correspondence. 


Discount, to 

rocyA&pcTBeHHH& 6aHKi noBHCHjrt 
Uneadwrh ct. 4 aa 50/0, mo, 
Bnp6qeui>, He tmiao 6ojibin6ro 
BJii^Hiff Ha nfbiik. 

Jijic&oBTh BT> ef MM* .... noTpy- 
j(-6.Tetb BBecT^ Ha nanrb Kpe- 

IIpuJiar^eHiaA Ha Mtatt,vayh 

HOTpysiiTecB aeJiiTh flacicoHTfi- 


Kts cojKa^TiHiK), fl p,6;ixewb coo6. 

n^^Tb BaHi, iTo n 6qeBb He^o. 

s6;ieHi> HcnciiH^Hieirb i^xoro no- 

Haui> Giijio 6qeBb BPnpi^iTHO ya- 

JiaTb, ITO BU BeA0B6jIbBbI Ha. 

mefi npHcili;iK0& ; bo bu, KaiKei. 
cfl. He saMiTHJiH, qio mh nocra- 

BHJIU Barn. H.'^^Bbl 3a BTOpdS 

a He nyuax), it66m a KorA&-./i66o 
flanT) BasTb n6B0;ii kt. Heyflo- 



The Imperial Bank raised the 
discount from 4 to 60/0, which 
however had but little in- 
fluence on the affairs. 

Be kind enough to credit us the 
discount with .... 

Please get discounted the ac- 
companying .... per Leipzig. 


I regret to be obliged to ex- 
press ray dissatisfaction at 
the manner' in which this 
order has l)eeii executed. 

We were sorry to learn that 
you are dissatisfied with ow 
consignment; you seem how- 
ever to have overlooked that 
we have charged for second 

I do not think ever to have 
givenj you cause for dissatis- 


AKiuoHepHoe TOBapHiuecTBo . . . 
Bi. Stomx Toxi He njiaTHTi ^h- 
BUH^Ena,, BCJi'iflCTBie lero aK- 
mou^pu ocTaHyTca hh npn 

The Joint-stock Company 

pays no dividends this year, 
so the share-holders get noth- 

Draft, to draw a bill. 

Mu OKaateMT. Siofi Tparfe xopomiii 

npieHl H DOCTiBHHT. oHyio Ba 

Baun. ^^fierb. 
Mbi Tpacc^poBajiH sa sacb cerd^- 
Hfl, fljifl DOKp£iTiB Bdmero flojira 
Ha BacT> .... coScTBeBHbifi 6p- 

We shall duly honour this draft 
to the debit of your account. 

We have drawn upon you this 
dav .... to our own order tO' 
balance our credit with you. 


fl HaAtocb, "JTO BW He OTKaateTe 
MB*' BT> Mo6fi npdcbfit jaTb WBi 
0Tcp6qKy bt> qewipe BeKiim flJia 

ynaiTH cpoKi> KoidpHMX 

e^flerb 30 ro c. m. 

I shall not request in vaiu, I 
hope, if I ask you to grant 
me 4 weeks respite for the 
pa'^ment of .... due on the 
30th of this month. 



Endorsement, to endorse, 

npdcHHi> sacT. cHa6,!;6TB npiaa- 
r&eHufi B^ECejib B^meio, en^e 
HeflocTai&meK), ^epe;^&T05H0K) 

BlLHUEChVa B BOSBpaT^Tb aa,wb 

dHufi cb n^pBOK) nd^Tofi. 
Mu npH^SpiKHBaeMca npciBZJia ne 
HH;;opcfipoBaTi> ^ojrocp6iflHXT. 


CeroflSfl CHpaca saKpiijiacb npE To-day's exchange closed with 
caMHXT. skjaixh itypcaxi; hho- the flattest rates; foieign 

CTp^HDbifl Bajn&TU mjiH Tyro. stocks were languid. 

We request you to provide the 
accompanying bill of exchange 
with you endcvsement which 
is still wanting, and send it 
back by return of post. 

To endorse bills at long date is. 
contrary to our principles. 

Exportation, export, 

B6B031. ^Toro TOBipa Beci>M4 sna- 

HAmn rjiaBHiftinie npe^M^TH Bii- 
E03a Hflyn. bt> AM6pHKy, kot6- 
paa, Cb CBo6a CTopoH^, flo- 
CTaBjieTb HaMT. Tafi^Bi z xji6- 

B^BOSi GTCi&A^' neHbK^ B jibHa He 
HesHaqfiiejieHT., ho P6ra HMterb 
pim^eJibEoe nSpBeHciBo no 
jthmt. CTaThJiin.. 

9KcnopTepbi ciiJibHO B03;^epacHBa- 
WTca, BCjiflCTBie qer6 66jio mA- 
Jio npeAJioac^Hifi. 

FjiaBHbifi npeflMfiTb BiSBoaa BSh 
CiBepHoa PoeciH ecTb h oot4- 
HBTCa j'ici>. 

exporter, to export. 

The export9.tion of this article 
is very considerable. 

Our most important export- 
goods go to America, which 
send; us in return tobacco 
and cotton. 

The export of hemp and flax 
from this place is not in- 
considerable, but Biga holds 
the first rank in these im- 
portant articles. 

The exporters show great re- 
luctance to bid, in consequence 
of which the bids were not 

The principal article which is 
exported from Northern Rus- 
sia, is and remains timber. 


r-HT. .... HasiipeHT. nociT^Tb At the next fair, our Mr. 
6i}s,Ym,yio ^pMapKy, h fiyflen. 
HM'tTb qecTb noKas^Tb bemi na- 
niB EOB'ISmie oSpAs^BKH. 

who thinks of visiting it, will 
do himself the honour of show- 
ing your our latest patterns. 


Mu MfisceMti T6.iibK0 CT> xopomeS 
CTopoHii peK0MeH;(0BaTb ynoMi- 
Hyiyio $^PMy- 

HeyfldiHtie 6nbiTH, c^'fejiaHHHe 
mh6k), sacTaBjiiioTb laeHji 6HTb 
0CTop6acBUhT. H jiflsitb Kpe^^fin. 

T6jn.K0 X0p0ffl6 H3B'6CTHHMT> MH* 


We can but recommend the 
firm in question to your fa- 
vourable notice. 

Experience has taught me to be 
prudent and oidy to grant 
credit to those firms with 
which I am well acquainted. 

Commercial phraseology and correspondence. 



BaptimHHKH Bce^;^a noprHJiH ;^t- 

Forestallers have always spoiled 
the trade. 

Freight, to freight. 

Bi HacTo;iii(ee BpeMA h6kho 6u 

BaHjiTb 3^CI> B'faCKOJIbKO pj^C- 

CKKxi Kopa6ji6fl no HfisKOMy 


HjAtj 3a npoBOST., bAhih HSAepm- 

Wi H KOMHBCcidHHLiJi A^HbrH no- 

ipyfliiTecb BiiiecTb Ha TOBapt. 

Russians ships might at the pre- 
sent moment be freighted here 
at a convenient rate. 

Be kind enough to charge for- 
ward on the goods the freight 
advanced with expenses and 
your commission. 

Funds, fnnded property. 

Bt. nocatflHie rb^u loproBJia 6y- 
H&rauH npaHJiJii 6ojn>iine pas- 
irlpu Ha sA^miieft 6^act. 

OdmeCTBO HM'feeTb BanHTSjTb BT. 

nojrfeii;eHHhi2 laCTbio no;i,'i.- 

rHHOT^KH, liCTbK) BT. B^pHblXT. 

rocyflipcTBeHHbiX'b 6yMdraxi>. 

Business in public funds has 
made of late years a great 
start on. the exchange of this 

The Company possesses a fun- 
ded property of which 

is invested partly in mort- 
gages, partly in safe consols. 


fl p'iniiiTejibHO He noHHMiio, KaKi. 

M6acH0 nposasiiTb ^toti. TOBapi. 

KaKi xop6mifi . h no rasiiHi 

BHC6KaiI% ivtB&Mi. 
nofloCHUii ^peB0cx6;^BH8 TOBapi. 

p%^w BCTp*'?4eTca TaKi. neme- 

BO aa piiHKt, B npa ooubTpt 

er6 BH yCtAiiTeeb, tto a KaKi. 

HBJbSJi jryqine Hcn<l.junjii. Bauie 


Importation, import, 

Bi PocciH npHB63T. npesocxd^mT. 
b6bo31 aa SHawiiejibHyio cyn- 

BaKHiSmie bbosbub TOBapB a-m 
H&mefi B'bcTHOCTH cyTb K6$e h 

HfisKHXT. coprdBT. aMepBit4HCKaro 
Ta6aKy66jio np6«aH0 HtCKOJib- 
KO napiifl, HO TbjBKO BCJrfeACTBie 
SHaiiTSJibHaro noHHK^HiH niwb 
CO CTopoBii BBOsfireaeft. 

Mbi BtinHcajiH 66jr6e 1000 Cdiein. 
(j)HHJiJiHACKaro ^erra. 

How any one can call such goods 
fine and can charge them at 
such high prices I cannot 

Such superior goods are seldom 
met with on the market at 
this cheap price; on seeing 
them you will be convinced 
that we have executed your 
order most carefully. 

importer, to import. 

In Russia the importation ex- 
ceeds the exportation by a 
considerable sum. 

The chief imports of our place 
are coffee and tea. 

Some sales were effected in in- 
ferior sorts of American to- 
bacco, but only in consequence 
of considerable reductions in 
price on the part of the im- 

We have imported above 1000 
tons of Finland Tar. 



Indemnity, to indemnify. 

Tp66yeHoe b^e BoaHarpaacA^eie 
npeBocx6flHTT> BC^Kyio Mipy, h 
HU Be Bi> cocTOiiBiH corjiac^Tbca 
Ba Her6. 

£cjiH Bu He B03Harpa;^£Te hob^ 
sa noBeceBBUfi jG^nom, to a 
6yay B^jxjifiWb npepBdTb ci> 
BiHa cHom^BiA. 

The indamiity you require is 
beyond all bounds; we cannot 
accede to ii 

If you will not indemnify me for 
the loss I have sustained, I 
must break off our connection. 

Insurance, to insure. 

CTdHHOCTb CTpaxoB^aiji OTnp&B- 
jiBBBurb Kb BaHi cer6;^E)i to- 
BipoBi cocTaBJuierb .... 

npomf BacB sacTpaxoB&Tb orb 
BWiKHSb oB&CBooTea ^Ty ctimy 

Cb B33' 

The sum for the insurance of 

tike goods sent to yon to^y 

amounts to ... 
I request you to insure against 

all risks this sum, including 



^po^6BTH on. Sthxi. 6yH&rb bu- 
nji&qBBaioTCfl nomecTHHioKBO 
no nocTo^HOuy Efpcy .... 

Et;;bTe yBtpesbi bi TOirb, <m) loi 
iS'^HeuT, coSffiOAiiTb B&my Btiro- 

The interest of these papers is 
payable half-yearly at the 
fixed rate of ... 

Rest assured that we shall keep 
your interests in view.. 


CyAB6 npoAaeTCA co BciiTb hh- 
BeBtapSHt, saKTi ob^ Hax6AHTca 
Bi RacToxmee ap^Hii vh 
CKoft r&BauH. 

EtAyiE a&BsiTb eserd^Boft bebbh- 
rfpoB, npomt sacB npecji&Tb 
Hffi Bb cs6poirb Bp^HeHH Banrb 
TeEfn^ifi ciSrb bo Ko^^ip. ne- 

Invoice, to 

ToB&pu, nccTisjieBBue Ha npaja- 
r&euoS ^aKTypi^, 0TnpiBjieBuin> 
BaHb cer6;(Hfl cb napox6AOin>; 

Kpe;^HTOBiTb Mofi.cqeTb. 

Ha Bd.mefi 4>aKTypt bu BEicTaBHJiH 
1000 ^fnTOBT., M&Kfly Tim. 
KaEi. a BOJiyqtei TdjibKO 500, 
noqejiY h nponiy aacb nonp&- 
BBTb dry offliCKy. 

The ship, with her full inven- 
tory, as she lies in the port 
of Odessa, is for sale. 

As I am occupied with my an- 
nual inventory, I request you 
to send me as soon as posffible 
account-current up to the end 
of December. 


The goods noted in the accom- 
panying invoice have been 
forwarded to you this day by 
steamer and you will please 
pass the amount to my credit 
in conformity. 

You invoice me 1000 pounds, 
whereas I have only received 
600, and must therefore beg 
you to rectify the error. 

Commercial phraseology and correspondence. 289 


CcKJiflCb Ha name siepamHee Referring to our letter of yeste'r- 

nncBMo, jvinottjiAewh Baci. hi5- day, we inform you herewith 

HtniBBMi, qio .... that ... 

HMtio ndBOfli. ^pe;^^OJIa^iTb, ito I presume that my letter of the 

nH0bM6 Moe otb 27 ro np. m. 27th of last month has come 

np66ujo Bcnp&BHO. duly to hand. 

yBiflOMjdeMT. BacTi, qio mm j^jih We inform you that we have 

r-ny bt> 3;^■tmHei^. rfipost provided Mr. ... of our place 

Kpe^^THoe niicbM6 Ha Baci. na with a letter of credit on you 

. . . py6ji6ft.. of roubles. 


EcjiH Bbi He corJiaciiTecb cfliaaTb If you do not grant me a pro- 
HHi cooTBiiCTBeHHOfi CEftSKH, H portionate abatement, I should 
fldjiateHT. CfnY npoflaib erd Cb have to sell it with loss. 



Mbi Beji^MT. npesT>flBfiTb bt. cpoKi. We shall have the bill presented 
njiaxeata, k bi cjif la,* iiKasa for payment at maturity, and 
yqHHCiMT. npoTecTb. in case of refusal shall raise 



a amy npHJieacHaro, xopomd peKO- I am on the look-ont for an 
MeH;^6BaHHaro pyccitaro npa- industrious well-recommended 
Kcin^BKa, HU'iioii^aro dnuTHOCTb Russian clerk possessing a 
no TOBapHofl q4cTH. good knowledge of merchan- 



KfhMsa ayxuBL bt. fl^Hbrarb na- The scarcity of money begins 

■jHHaeTb niaaibca qyacTBliTejib- to make itself perceptible; 

BOK), H BBCbu^ aceji^LTejibBO 6u it is to be hoped that it will 

fiiSjio, irdfiu obS. npeKpaiAJiacb. soon come to an end. 


3aji6rb ^6jixein> CuTb BiiKynaeHi. The mortgage must be redeem- 

;^o 20ro c. m., bt. npoTfeBoin. ed by the twentieth of this 

cayiat OHT. Oyflerb ciHTiTbca month, or it will be declared 

opocp6<ieHHUHT>. forfeited. 

Order, to order. 

EcjiH BamH aitcn6pTHHe tob^ph If your articles exported to this 

;^aflyTT. a^icb gapumd, to mii- plaee pay, there is every pio- 

eicfl Has^acfla cfliJiaTb saMT. spect of being able to give 

3HaiiiTe.ibHbie SaKisbr. you considerable orders. 

Russian Conv -Grammar. 19 



Mu udxeui) c;i,ijia,Tb Bain> anK&ait 

TdjIbKO Bl. TOMT. My^at, 6CJIH 
Bbl nOH^SQTe B^IQH ^'6HI>I. 

Ha saK^aBHuS HaMi> Tos^pi npe-, 
npoBoac^^&eui) Ha o6op6TEofi 
CTopoHi (j)a,KTypy Bt py6- 

We can only give you orders 
in case you reduce your prices. 

We append invoice of the goods 
kindly ordered of us amount 
ing to ... roubles. 


r-HT. .... HU'tBinia yat^ ;;6jiio bt> 
H^meii ivoprdBjrb, nocTynaen. 
1 ro ^Jicai 6tAyii;aro wiasna, 
TOBdpnn^eHi) Ha u^cto r-Ha ... 

^ecTb jarbem, yninoMwrh aaci., 
qTO Hanrb MHOroji'iTHiB cOTptA- 


r-wb BCTyn^jn. bt, H^my 

(Ji^pny xtflcTBtoejibHUMT. kom- 

Mr. ... who had a share in oui 
business already, enters as 
partner on the 1st of the 
coming month in the place 
of Mr. ... 

We have the honour of announc- 
ing to you that our assistant 
for many years and sleeping 
partner Mr. . . . has become 
active partner in our house 


Upz cem. noc^Jiaeirb BaHt pas- 
aiiBhie Kpac^ue oSp^qsKH 

JliTHHXT. Mai^pifl, H3T> K0t6- 

puxi H^KOTopue do CBoeuf 
B'^acHOHy pnc^Hsy, BipoiiTHO, 
ocdCeHEO nonp^flTca. 
9Ta apBcii.iiKa BfiniJia bo bcIxi 
OTHom^Hiaxi) seynkinon, n to- 
Bapt Bt OTHOm^HiH ;^o6poT^ 
Topisno BAsste o6pa3ii&, do koto- 
p6My Hu 3a.K&3UBajiz. 

Annexed we forward you several 
pretty 'patterns oi Summer 
stuffs, some of which will 
particularly please you in the 
delicacy of their designs. 

This consigimient proves un 
satisfactory in every respecl 
and is in quality far inferio) 
to the patterns upon whicl 
we gave our order. 

Payable, payment, to pay. 

Mh AOCTaKiAeHi jj^imili coprB 

jToro TOB&pa no He;(opordfi i^^- 

Ri BT. . . . ., CT. ynjiiTpK) (njia- 

T^HbiS) qpesi 3 wbeaisfl,. 
Bojibmi6 nia/iemi, Kordpae a jifia- 

aceHi cosepm^Tb bi Caaxkti- 

mewb Bp^MeHH, npBHy}K;(&io'n> 

Mend oOpaifiTbca ki Barb ct., 

np6cb6oK), TOO 

Post, post-office, post-office order. 

fl oacH^^&K) HsstoTiA cb D^pBOK) I expect news by return of post 

We can deliver you this article 
best quality, at the chea] 
price of .... payable in thre( 

Large payments, which I shal 
have to make shortly, forc( 
me to express you the wisl 
that .... 

Ct ceroflHflmHeio ndixoii mu ot- 

np&BBJH Kb BaMl> .... K0T6pbIJI 

noiptAHTecb ppo^^Tb KaKT. Mdac- 
Ho Bi^ro^Hte. 

We have sent you by,, to-day'i 

post which pl6ase nego 

ciate as advantageously a 

Commercial phhaseology and correspondence. 291 

B4fflH ttAcbua, Byflbie TaKX ftoCpii Please direct your letters to me 
a;i;pecoB4Tb iIh* noK& )ifi bo- for the present to be called 
CTp§6oBaHifl BT. BepjiABi>. for at the Berlin post-office. 

OcT&Tou Mor;i6 ;(6ara « buhijid I shall soon send the residue 
BBxi Bi ($4HS&SaieBr& Bp^neaH of what I owe you by post- 

no nd^rt. office order. 

Price, price-current. 

IIp^cjiaHHiie HaMT. no naKaaflndfl We can only take definitely the 

TOB&pBi HH HorJiA 6h BBATb Ha goods invoiced to us if you 

c66cTBeHHufi meTb T6jn>xo bt. lower the price considerably. 

TaKdvb cjit^a'6, ^cjih6u bu co- 

rjiac6.iiECb cA'bjiarb anaiifoeab- 

Ryn CE^A^y bi v.tni. 
Upasax&B npH c6mt> npeftci-sy- I recommend the annexed price- 

paHTb fljia B&fflero paacHOipli- current to your kind perusal. 


Receipt, on receipt. 

IIpii cgin. BH no;i^<iHTe KejiieMyio You will receive inclosed the 

pocnfiCKy Ha .... desired receipt for 

nojiyiflBT. CT6HM0CTb IIepeB6;^a, On receipt of the amount we 

Hbi pacnAmeHCfl Ha bnoui) h shall forward you the cheque 

AOcriBHUi) Basrb erd. receipted. 


OiHocliTejibHO cnp&BOEii, R0T6piiUi With regard to references re- 

Kdryrb noR&;^o6BTbbfl o B&meirb specting our firm, we are so 

ToproBOirb A6)rb, Hbi qean> Bsii- fortuikate as to be able to men- 

ewb yKaa^Tb Ha jifluk .... tion the foUovring houses .... 


HaandqbTe caMH Bp6Mfl B03Bpan;6- Determine for yourself the time 

Hia BannT&jia, bt. EOT6poin> uu for the reimbursement of the 

BH vb Kasdirb cjiyqat Be 6t- capital which we shall have 

;^eJ^> Hy3K;^4TbC}^ flo kohi^4 Sroro no need of at all before the 

^6;^a. end of this year. 

Responsible, responsibility. 

Mbi ;s,oxKwSi BOSJioau'iTb Ha BacB We must hold you responsible 

OTBiTCTBBHBOCTb 3a Bct nocJitA" for all the consequences that 

CTBia, Horymia nponaottrd OTb may arise from this over- 

StoB nocffiniBOCTH. haste. 


TaKT. KaKT> Bca nS-pxia TonJieHHaro As the whole lot of lard was 

cajia npi^aHa bt. posHimy, to sold by retail, it was im- 

MH hhkSkt. hb MorJi6 Hcn6jnnTfa possible for us to execute your 

Bamero nopyv^Hia KynfiTb ^-"^ order to buy 1000 kilogr. 
oact 1000 Kiijio. 




Return, to retnrn. 

Mat 6£ijio oieab npMiHO ysnaxs, 

qio BH HaMipeHH nodbT^Tb iie- 

Eii Ha BOsnpA.THOM'B nyTli. 

ficjiH Bbi He Mdaceie HafiiA yno- 

, Tpe6jr6Hia ^Jia Haxo;i,^eficfl y 

Bact 66qBn c4ro, to npoiu^ 

BaCT. npHCJIclTb MHt 6Hyio 06- 

I was glad to learn that you 
intend to pay me a xisit on ' 
your return (-journey). 

If you can make no use at all 
of the barrel of Sago stored 
up at your place, I must beg 
you to return it. 

Sale, to sell, seller. 

Bi HacTOjtmee Bp^tw He npe^- 
CTaBjjieTca QjiaronpijiTHaro 

cjiyiaji ;(Jifl npoj^asKn Bdmero 

PascitouBafire Ha to, ito mh He 
yn^CTHMT. HH o;^H0^6 yflofiHaro 
cjT^qaa, iit66m siiroflHO npo^^Tb 

BamH TOB^pbl. 

IIpoAasi^^ TpeSyioTb 6<ieHb bhc6- 
KHXT. ^'fcH^., B0JI'6;^cTBie lerd Ha- 
CTpo^Hie piiHKa ne d^eBb ojkii- 

At present there is no prospect 
for an advantageous sale of 
your tobacco. 

Rely upon our neglecting noth- 
ing that will tend to sell your 
goods to advantage. 

Sellers ask very high prices, in 
consequence of which the mar- 
ket is little animated. 

Satisfaction, satisfied. 

Mu MbaceuT. Baci yB'ipnTb, qio 
Bce C'yfleTT. CA^JiaHO ct. Hauiefl 
CTopoH6, qxdCu yflOBJieiBopiiTb 
Bacb, 660 HaiTb 6iiao Su OieHb 
J16CTHO BCTyntob BT. ToprdBbia 
CHomeHifl ct. TaKliMT> no'ieTHbiMi. 

CMiH) HafliHTbCfl, OTO BH OCT^He- 

Tecb ;if)B6j[huu h iiofl npHCEij- 

KOfi B BCKbpt B0306HOBliTe b4- 

mu aankau (npRKaaaBia). 

We beg to assure you that we 
shall do our utmost to give 
satisfaction in the hope of 
entering into connection with 
so respectable a house as 

I hope that you will be perfectly 
satisfied with this consigimient 
also and will soon renew your 

Security, to secure sure. 

Bm fifixxsA npe;^CTaBHTb HaHi> 
flocTiTO^Hoe py<iS.TejibCTBO (aa- 
ji6n.) BT. oSesnei^Hie Hcimero 
flfima, Ha naci.. 


nopyifeHigMbi ynpdqHMi. 3a co- 
ddio flOBipie Hamnxi. flpy36fi. 
Bu ifOweTe BnojiHi uonomiihca 
Ha TO, ITO o6'6maHHoe BaMi no- 
itptiTie « flOCTiBjiio fl,o nojfOB^- 
iihi fiyflymaro M'icflD(a. 

You must give us sufficient se- 
curity for the amount of our 

We shall secure the confidence 
of our friend by serving them 

You may be quite sure that 1 
shall make you the jjromised 
remittance by the middle of 
next month. 


Ship, to ship, shipment. 

Kop46jib «<I>HHJUlH4Ji»f HSD'ScTHiia The ship «Fiiilandia» known for 

cboAmt. HcnpiBHUirb h CKopuMi her prompt and quick voyage, 

naisaHiein., oinpaBHTCa bi m6- will put to sea within 10 days, 
pe BT. Tei'6Hie 10 ^Hefi. 

nOviOBAHa c66pa kop^hkh bt. rp6- The half of the currant yield 

^iH yaie OTDp^BJiena ndpeHi, of Greece has been shipped 

<ijiH npHroT6BjieHa ki. oinpas- already or is ready for ship- 

Ji^Hiio; spyraa Hax6;;HTCfl bt. ment; the other half is in firm 

TBep^MXt pynArE. hands. 

Signature, to sign. 

' Ofipam^eMca kt, BaMT> ci. np6cb- Have the goodness, to protect 

6oK) nopyqflTbca sa. ukmy n6s- our signature in case of need, 

HHCb BT. cji^^a'fe, 6cjih6m njia- should the drawee refuse ac- 

T^jitmaKT. OTKasaJica npHujlTS ceptance. 

HauiT. B^KCejII.. 

lecTb Biiiewb -jhijifltiwrb BacT., We have the honour of infonn- 

iiTO Hu np^HajiH cerd^Ha bt. ing you that we have this day 

TOBkpemfl no Toprdsjit r-aa ... taken into partnership Mr. .i. 

K0T6pHft /ifi CHXT. nopr. ^o;^^fi- who till now has signed for us 

cuBajica 3a aacT. no ^OBipea- by procuration. 


Smuggled, to smuggle. 

BoJibmaa qacTb itoro TOB&pa koh- The most of these goods are 

TpaS&a^a. smuggled. 

YnoHiSByTufi rocnoA^BT. npio- The gentleman named has gain- 

fipijiT. 66jn.niyio lacTb cBoer6 ed the greater part of his for- 

HMymecTsa KOHTpa64HflOio. tune by smuggling. 

Weight, to weigh. 

Mbi aaxd^BHT., ?to wkeb T0B&p9 We find that the gross weight 

Spyrro ae corJi&ceHT. cb Bftraa- does not correspond to your 

MB noKaadaiauH. statement. 

Up OTnpasji^aia G6mca airAjia 50 The cask weighed before send- 

Kiijio iiAcTaro B^ca, Tannin. 66- ing 60 kilogr. net weight, Bi/a 

pasoin. flexoCTaSn 61/2 k^jio. kilogr. are therefore wanting. 


Ea-b B4mefi nocaiABeft npac^JiKE Of both your last consignments 
vka 66jbmaa qacib emfi ae in tea I have still the greater 
npd^^aaa a aax6AUTcn bt> Hara- part unsold in my warehouse. 


Mu saBBU&eKca acujooq^eJibao We only do wholesale business 

OBTOBdK) Topr6Bfleio H noTOHy', and regret therefore to be un- 

ET> coscajiiaiK), ae u6xewb ac- able to execute vour order 

adjBBTb B^mero saB^sa aa ... for .... 

£cjiB BU aasB^qaie vat onToayio If you charge me the wholesale 

i^tat, TO a G'^xy BumiCbaiaTb price I shall take the ar. 

TOB^pii. tide. 

294 Appendix. 

1. Circular. 

JIemep6ypit, 23ro Imn 1898 toi4. . 
M^jiocTHBMfi rocy^apBl 

E[m4h) lecTB ysi/ijOMHTB Baci, ito a 0TKp6jii> 
3;i,4cB Toprosaio MaHy^jaKTfpHEiMH TOsapaMH. 

Ho ;i;ojiroji4THeS 6nBiTH0CTH, xopomo 3Rk& ^totb 
po/i;i> ToproBJiH, noJCBSyacB Cesynpe^HOfi penyTanjiefi 
H BJia^ia KanHTaa:oMX, cooTB§TCTByioiii;HMi> MoeMy 
iipe;i;npiiTiK), a Ha;i;iK)CB yji;0CT6HTBca Bainero /i;ob4- 
pia H oacHflaio tojibko CJiynaa onpaB^aTi ero na jifiiL-b. 

IXpoiny Baci aaMtTHTB moi& n6;i;nHCB h npHH^TB 
yBtpeiiie 3% Moewh 6cKpeHHeMi> no^TeHiH h npe;i;aH- 
HOCTfl. N. N. 

2. To begin a mercantile connection. 

Mocxad, Iro OeHTii6pa 1906 r. 
rocno;i,aMi N. N. bx BapniaB'fe. 
M6jiocTHBHe rocy;i;apH! 
YsskB-h BaineS no^TeHHofi (J)6pMi oti Hdmaxi 
66m,vix% flpysefi, rr. N. N., mbi nu%ewh ^ecTB npe^Jio- 
ik6tb BaMi HaniH ycayrH js,iie noK^nKH h npoji;datH 


Haii-B 6ii.iio 6m o^chb npijiTHO, bcjihSi naMi. y;i;a- 


Hia, B£iro;i;HBia kslki, ;i;jia Baci, TaKt h ;i,Jia nacB, npa 
leMi) MBI MbaceMi Baci ysipHTB, iito mHj no Mipi 
B03M6HtHOCTH, 6y;i,eMi> CTapaTBca npn BCjiKOMTj cayiai 
hm4tb bx BH;];y HHTepecti H^raiixi. nopyqiiTejiefi. 

YKdsBiBaa BaM3>, HaKOHen;! na HaatenpHBefleHHHa 
$6pMBi, y KOTopBixi BBi MoaccTe cnpaBHTBca Haci, 
MH roTOBBi npHcaaTB BSiWh, ecan BaMx yr6;i;H0, ycji6' 
bIh Hamefi (jf)IipMBi, KOTopBia bbi HaS/i,eTe KpafiHe yni- 
peHHBiMH. Bi) oacH;i;&HiH Bamero no^TeHHaro OTBiTa, 

MH HM'iieMi ^eCTB npe6HBS,TB CB liCKpeHHHMi no^Ter 

HieMi. H npe^aHHOCTiio. 

N. N. 
CnpaBHTBca y: 
Pr. N. N. BB Bapmasi. 
r. N. N. Bx neTepSypri. 

Models op commebcul ietters. 295 

3. Answer to the preceding letter. 

Bapiudea, 5ro CeHi^Cpa 1906 r. 
rocno;i;^Mt N. N. s-h Mockb*. 
M±jiocTHBHe rocy;i;^pHl 
Bi, OTB^TX Ha B^me yBaat^eMoe nHCBM6 oti. Iro 
c. M., MH HMiem qecTB 6jiaroffap6Ti. saci. sa c;^*JIaH- 
Hoe HaMi npe;i;jioac6^ie, h bb cay^ai Hd.flo6HOCTH mh 
He npeM±HeMi> BOcn6jtb30BaTBca BaniHMH ycatraMH. 

II0E& MM np6cnM'E> BacB coo6ii;^tb sa-wh BaniH 
Kpi&Hia nj^HBi, ;i,a6£i bi. cji;^qa'fe noTpe6jteHia Bamax-B 


IIpH ^ocII6;^CTByK)II];eMI. Ten6pB saTAraBH b:b Top- 
rdsoMi. Mip*, MBI He MdmeMOb ^pe;^CKa84TB Baui, n^a 
6i[HaiMniaro' Bp^Menn sna^iiTeJi&HBixi. a*Jii>> t4mi> ne 
M^Hie MBI o;i;HaKO Ha;i;ieMca, ^to bi He;i;aJieKOMTE. 6f- 
;nyiii;eM3> CHom^nia nAma paaoBBibxca k% ninieft 060- , 
ib^HOfi n6jiB3i. 

Bi. oa£H;i;aHiH Bamero no^T^HHaro OTsiTa, mh npe- 

fiHB&BMT. Ct 6CKpeHHHMl> HO^T^HieMl. 

N. N. 
4. Orders given. 

Bt^Ha, 9ro 0ETa6pa 1899 r. 
TocuofifiuY N. N. BB Office*. 


OSpam;^ BKHM^nie Bame na HfiHiniHifi ii,HpKy- 
jiipi MOtfi, H CJI4;^ya coB^Ty rr. N. N., K0T6pBie peKO- 
MeH;^OBaJIH mh4 kfqpeciy Bami, nponiy BacB npncJi^TB 
mh4 KaKi M6atH0 CKopie 

50 ^JBTOh'b jQfHmaro H&m, 
ecjiH BOSMoaiHO CB fijiHacdflniHMi. noia^oMi) aieji^BHofi 
flopora, npn ^Smb a Ha;^iH)CB, ^to Bh sa^TeTe mh* 
flemeByio ^iny. 

EcJiH SxoTt dnBiTi y;i;5,CTca, to MdatcTe 6bitb ysi- 
peHBij ^TO noay^HTC otb mbh^ 66ji4e 3Haq6TejiBHBie 

IIpHM^Te yBipenie bi raySoKOMii moSmi. no^TeniH. 

N. N. 

296 Affehdiz. 

5. Ordres executed. 

Odieea, 20ro Okts6ph 1899 t. 
rocno^fiHy N. N. at Bin*. 
MiijiocTHBufi rocy^&pBl 
IIoE6pHdk3ine 6jiaroAapl5 Baci sa saKAsaHHHe y 
MCHi 50 ^yHTOBi ?^, OTOpasji^Hie EOTdpuxi. coBep- 
ineH6 mh6k) HfmdkiQHflro ^racji^. 

IIpHJiaraH) Ki ceuf (|)aKTtpy Ha 6to ffijio ci no- 
KopHMmeH) np6cB6oio samiciTB hh^ bt, ]ipiix6/i;i> a6ji- 
2SH£ie fiaUH MHt sa ?afl 100 py6ji6fi cepe6p6Mi>. 

3 y64acfleHi, ^to Bh 6f ^eie aob6jibhbi He tojq.- 

KO SaiTCHHOfi Mh6h> BaHl ^tH6I0, HO H ;^o6poT6K) ^dfl, 

H jiBmycB no^TOMy Ha;^6acA0K», ^to Bh y;^0CT6HTe mc- 
Eii H snpeAB saE^saim, npoci nps tomb BacB 6bitb 
BHOJiHi yBipcHRHMi., ^TO Bcfe saK^SH BamH 6f;i;yTi>( 


IIoKdpHiflniifl Bami cjryra 

N. N. 

6. Sending money. 

BrittM, 12to Hoa6pi[ 1899 r. 
rocnofljtey N. N. bi> O^^cc*. 
MitjiocTHBBifi Pocy^^pB! 
OTOcaaHHBie ko mh* otb 20ro 0KT£6p^ 50 (Jjyn- 
TOBB q4E), H no;iym&Jiii bb CBoe BpSufl n sanncaji^b bb 

IIpH CeHl> HM^H) VeCTB HpHCJiaTB BauB dHJieiB 

rocy;i;jipcTBeHHaro EdHKa Bi 100 py6a6fi cepe6p6MB, 
H noKdpHifline npomf BacB §toh) cyMMOio noKdn- 

^HTB C^CTi MOfi. 

UpHM^Te ysip^Hie Bi ray66K0Mi. hocmb no^T^Hin. 

N. N. 

7. Receiying money. 

Odicca, ISto Hosfipa 1888 r. 
rocno;i;6Hy N. N. b:b Bini. 
MfijiocTHBHfi rocy;i;ipBl 
BMicT* ci DHCBMdMi BamHiTb OTB 12ro HOfldpa 
a nojiy^jiB cto py6ji6fi cepeSpdMB, sa ^to npHHOmf 

Models cp commjercul letters. 297 

BaiTB Mo^ qyBCTB^rejiBHyio 6flaro;i;§,pHOCTb h npns- 

H4H) C^eTTE> Hami. OKOHqeHHHMt. 

IlpH cejfB nocHJiaH) BaHi) Moft HOBBifi npeflCB-Ky- 
pdJSTi. H nponiy Baci> He ocTasHTb mbhA snpeftB sa- 
niHMH nopy^eniaMH. 

Bamx noK6pHBifi cayra 

N. N. 

8. Asking for information. 

reAi>eum0opei, Iro ^eiuitSpa 1888 r. 
Pocnofl&Hy N. N. bi> A6o. 
M6;iocthbhS rocy;i;apBl 
BnojiH^ B^pa BameS p,pY^6% uu np6ciiM^ BacB 
coo6m6TB HaMt h*ck6jii.ko csi^i.'feHifi o ]^6u% juonA- 
HyTOMi BHH3^ iSroro HHCBMi. Ohi ^ijiacTi. HaMi sa- 
KasrB Ha cyuMy okojio 2000 MapoKi>, ho, ne vaiiB% 
emje a'&jt'b Ch hhui>, mh Oienksiu. 6m snaxB Bame aai- 
me o HpaBCTBeHHHXi er6 K4^ecTBaxi> h o CTeneHK 
Tor6 ,n;oBtpia, Kauoro ohi. sacjiyacHBaeTi.. 

B3iSiTojt,a.pA aap^Hie sa Bce, tto Ban-B yr6;i;H0 6y- 
f^eTh coo6ii^6ti> naMt b-b 6tomi> OTHom^HiH, mei np6- 
CHMi Bax!b 6bitb Bnoani y6iacfteHHHMi, ^ito see ck&- 
saHHoe B&HH, no STOMy npe^M^ry, ocTdHeTcn HHKOiiy 


Ci 6CTHHHBIMI. noiiTeHieMi> HMieM-B ^ecTB Sbitb 
B&nra QOEdpHBie cjiypH 

N. N. 

9. Favoorable information. 

ASo, 3ro ;i;eKa6pfl 1888 r. 
^oc^o;^4Ml. N. N. bi> r6ju>CHHr(|)opci. 
MAjiocTHBHe ^ocy;^4pHI 

Hm4iO ^eCTB yB4;^0MHTB BaCl> Bi OTBiTl Ha nHCB- 

m6 saine ovb Iro c. m., ^to h c^Maro ay^maro MHi- 
Hia o ;^6m*, o KOTopoMi bh Tp66yeTe cirpiBOKi. Ohi 
Be;^eTI. cbo6 js^isk ch gaaropasyMieMi h ycnixoMt 
H HHKorft& He noTpeCyeTi Kpe;^6Ta, npeBHm&ion^aro 
er6 cpe;iiCTBa. 

298 Appendix. 

atea&H), qT66Br Sro Morji6 pyKOBo;^6TI> B^mHMH 
;^McTBiaMH; ho fiesi bc^koS rapaHTin, Bnp6^eMi ct 

M06fl CTOpOH^i. 

nM^H) qecTB fifiTTB, ch nocTO&ssoM'b yBaateHieMi 
BamHMt noKdpHBiMX cayroio 

N. N. 

10. Unfavonrable information. 

A6o, 3ro ;i;eKa(5pa 1888 r. 
rocno;i;aMi> N. N. b-b r6aBCHHr(|)opci. 
M^jiocTHBHe rocyflapn! 

fl ;i;yMaH), ^to ;i;6jiaceH5. saMi. nocoBiTOBaTB, bb 
B&mHXB cHomeHiaxB cb ^omomb, o kot6pomb bh 
cnpasa^eTecB, 6bitb 0CT0p6acHHMH, noTOMy iito' yac6 
HicEOJiBKO Micaii;eBi. ohb saMiTHO 3aTpy;i;H^eTca bbi- 
nojiHeHieMQb cbo6xb ;^eHe;KHBIXB o6a3aTeaBCTBB. 

9to cayatHTB otb4tomb na nncBMO B^me otb 
Iro c. M. H 6e3t Moero ^pe;^y^pe^Kff6Hia. 

Bam-B noK6pHBifi cjryra 
N. N. 

11. Asking for a letter of credit. 

JFoudoHi, 5ro ,Heria6pa 1906 r. 

^oc^o;^^MB N. N. bb napliacfe. 

MiijiocTHBlie rocy;i;apHl 

n6aB3yacB Bauiefl jiio6e3HOCTBio, mh HpocHMi BacB 
Kpe,a;6THoe hhcbmo bb pfi-b TEicaiH nsTBcdTB pySjiefi 
}s,3ia r-Ha N. N., h3b Hamero r6po;i;a, na BanrHX-B flpy- 
36fi Bi IteTepfi'^pri, MocKB'ife, P6r4, 0;^6cc'6 h Bap- 


Mbi pyq^eMca BaMOt. sa 6Ty cyMMy, h nocnim^MB 
ymtaT^TB hxb saMB cb H3;i;6p3KKaMH no npefi^-hsmjiemjo 
KBHT^HDjifi ^Toro rocno;i;±Ha. 

Ci coBepm^HHHMB nogTeHisMi. ocTaeMca. 

BdlDHMH nOKdpHBIMH cjiyr^MH ~ 


Models of commercial letters. 299 

12. Letter of introduction and credit. 

Hapioin, 6ro JljexaSpd 1906 t. 
rocno;i;4Mi N. N. st EeTepSfpr*. 

» N. N. » MocKB*. 

» N. N. ■» P6r*. 

rocno;i;6Hy N. N. » 0^,600*. » 

» N. N. » BapmaB'fe. 

M6jiocTHBHe rocyAapH! 
HacToAmjee nncBMd H^me mh Bpyiiemi. T-y. N. N., 
KOTopHfi BO Bp6Ma cBoer6 nyTem^cTBia, npeAnpfiHSTaro hmi 
Bi HaMipeHiH Y&exk^xrb spyri cBofcct CBas^fi, npeflno- 
jiaraeTi. ocTaHOBATtca na nicKOJiBKO ;i;Hefi bi> rdpo- 

no iSTOMy MH yc6p;i;HMffle np6cHMi. Baci, cxap^TB- 
ca no Mip-fe chjib BAnzHxt noM6^£ eiiy cosiTaMH b5,- 
lEHMH, TaKt KaKi BM^ Topr6BHe o6£it[aH BAmefl CTpa- 
Hfi eme HeHBBicTHH. 

EcaH eMf noHaflo6aTCfl ffeHBrii, to np6cHM'B b6- 
;^aTB CMV ;i;o ^st/ars m'6uiHH^ numucorm py&jieu Ha naniB 
c^eTB, H .Tpacc6poBaTB Ha Haci. seKceji^ Ha cyMMBi 

BSiflaHHHfl BaMH BMiCTt CB IipOIj;eHTaMH H T. A- 

ysipAa BacB BB TOMB, iTO BeKcejiji 3a npoH3Be- 
;^eHHBia b^mh B^a^iH, bb k6hxb pocni&CKH T-na N. N. 
BH 6jiaroBOji6Te s^CJiaTB k^ naMB, npfinaTH 6y;i;yTB 
CO BcerflaniHeio roTdBHOCTiio kb ynjiaTi, mh 6cKpeHH0 
6jiaroji;ap6MB sa BHHMame, KOTopoe bh OE^eTe naMH 

HaMi 6y;];eT'B secBMa npi^THO OKasaTB h saMB 
ycjiyra BC^itoro p6;i;a; h np6cHMB pacHoaar^TB naraHMB 


Ci rfly6og4firaHMB noiiT^nieMB. 

IIpe;i;^HHBie saMB 

N. N. 

13. Asking for money. 

EpecAdsMi, IOto S.m&^k 1889 r. 
^oc^o;^6Hy N. N. b3> MaTdB*. 
M6jiocTHBBifi rocy;i;apB! 
B^po^HO Bh KaKB HH6yflB no3a6:6jiH o mocmb 
c^eT* Ha 150 pyfijiefi, spy^enHOMB BaMB y3E6 ^Ba pasa. 
y MeHji HOflomejiB cpoKB ynn^TH no Btecejiio, h a ne 

300 Appendix. 

HMilO BI HaM^HOCTH n6jIH0fl CyMMH, HH&^e a H He 

CTaji5>-6H Bad 6o3noK6HTB HanoMHH^HieMrt. Ilpoinf 
Bac:b He sane^^JiHTB HcnojiHeHieMB Moe& jip6cb6h b He 
jiHni*iTB uenA BnpeftB B&max'h nopy^^nift. 

Cb 6cthhhbim3> no^xenieMi. Hiffeo gecTB 6htb 
• Banii noKopHBifi cjiyrd 

N. N. 

14. To an ill-intentioned debtor. 

Hdetopodh, 3ro ^espiia 1889 r. 
rocno;^6Hy N. N. bi. BopdHeaci. 
MajiocTHBuft rocy;i;apB! 
B6;^a, ^TO BBi saMeflJtAeTe CBOib pacnaary Ch h4mk 
H xpaH^Te RBycMfiitcjieHHoe srojraAHie, mbi ^pe;^Bap^eMB 
BacB, ^TO, aceji^H no;iyi6TB ;i;ojiri>, mbi piin^JiHCB noc- 
jiaTB KB BaHB HSBJieii^Hie hsb c^exa, no KOT6poMy Bu 
Hani cocTO^Te ;i;6jiacHBiM'B. Ha iSiy cyMMy mbi Bii;i;ajiH 
Ha Baci BCKcejiB, no HdiueMy npHK^ay, bb 8 ;i;Heft 
a dato. 

Mbi npoc^MB Baci npan^TB namy Tpaiy : bb npo- 
T^BHOMB cjiy^ai, MBI yBiS;i;HMB ce6A B:toyacfleHHBiMH 
npH^irnyTB kb saKdnaMB, h Bh caMH Ha ce6A ;i;ojiat- 
Hii ireHflTB, ecjH cjy^^Tca cb b&mh nT0-HH6yfl;B He- 

HMieMi ^ecTB 6bitb 

np6;i;aHHBie Bem'b 
N. N. 

15. Asking for a delay. 

Bopoueom, lOro $eBp4M 1889 r. 
rocno;i;aMB N. N. bi> H6Bropofli. 
M^aocTHBBte rocy;i;4pH! 
HecMOTp^HaBce Moe acejiaHie g6cTH0 pacnjiax^TB- 
ca Gi. b4mh, a HHKaKB He bi. coctoAhIh ^Toro hcdoj- 
HHTB B-h HacTO^miyH) MHHyTy, TaKX KaKi. MH6ria cyM- 
MBi, Ha K0T6p£ia a pasc^iixBiBajra., eme mh6h) hc no- 
ayqeHBt, a hsb Haafi^HBiXB CBOiixi. ;^eHe^B ne CMiio 
npoH3BOfl6TB ynaSTBi, onacaacB san^TaTB t4mi. cboA 

Models of cohhercial letters. 301 

IIo^TOMy, noKopnifime nporay sacB, MJijiocTHBHe 
rocy;i;&pH, OTcpo^HTB ynj&Ty moi5 na M^cflni, TaKi 
KaKt Kx ^Touy BpeMeHH UMiio noJiHoe ocHOBanie na- 
ji^iaThca Ha nojiygenie 03KH/i,aeMEixi> mh6h) cyMMi. IIpH 


;i,yioin,ie aa npoMefl;fl§Hie nponeHTii h ci y/i,0B6jii>cTBieMi 

HcnojiHeHieMi 5to3 Mo6ft BcenoKdpH'feflinefi npocB- 

6U BH TiyBCTB^TeflBHO 06^^616 TICJIOBiKa, K0T6pHfl 

AcKpeHHO ;i,opom6T'B siinHMX ftosipieMt h rop^o me- 
Mjii>-6ei coxpaH^TB Baine xopomee pacnoaoacenie Ha 
df;^yl^ee speMa. 

B'B Ha;!;^^^^* nojiy^^TB sdme corjiacie na mo^ 
.iip6cB6y, QMiro iiecxB 6eitb, irtjocTHBHe rocyaapH, 
BdniHMi noKopHiiMT. cayrdio 
N. N. 

16. Granting a delay. 

Hdetopodi, 12ro ^espfcia 1889 r. 
Tocno^Hy N. N. bb Bop6Heffii. 
M6aocTHBHft ^ocy;^&pBl 
CnimiiMi yB4;i;0MHTB BacB, B'B otb4ti> na Same 
nHCBUO OTi lOro vaiciik cer6 M4caii;a, ^to mbi coraacHH 
j[0}s,omjs,kTh jip lOro Mdpia ynaaTBi niineFO seKCeaa; 
HO fiepcMi. ce6i CMiaocTB Ha;i;iaTBca, ^to na ^toti. 
pasi Bh He 3aM6;^aHTe npoH3BecT6 ynaAiy bx cpoKt. 
Cx ^^BCTBaMH no^T6Hia h npe;i;aHHOCTH HMieiii 
qecTB 6bitb 

B^mn noK6pHHe cayrH 
N. N. 

17. Complaints respecting goods received. 

BuAiua, 14ro Anpiaa 1889 r. 
rocno/i,6Hy N. N. bi JI;pe3;^eH*. 
M6aocTHBHfl rocy;^apBl 
fl Hoay^ai otb Baci 20 khhi n6cqefl 6yMarH, 
HO, Kt coataa§HiK», ;i;6aaceHB saMixHTB Bau^b, ito Bca 
nApxia Hfiace noay^eHHBix'B mh6h) npo6i>, xaKi. tto a 
He HMiio B03M6atHOCTH BsaiB 3a ce6^ ^xy 6yMary, ecaa 
ToaBKO BaMB He yroflHO Syflex-B ycxynfoB MHi ee co 
ck6jikoh) 5 pydaefi sa K^ny np6xHBX HasnaqeHHofl Ba- 

MH I^iHEt. 

302 Appendix. 

HcKpeHHO orop^aiocB, tito nepBHfl onfiiTi. He on- 
T^asjsjkji'h MO^xt oatH^&Hifi h noTOMy He ocMiaiocB 6e3- 
noK6HTB Baci mo6mh nopyq^niaMH na 6f;i;ynj,ee BpeMs. 

Banii noKopHHfi csjrk 

N. N. 

18. Answer to the preceding letter. 

fykdem, 17ro Anpijia 1889 r. 
Pocnoji^iHy N. N. bi B^JibHi. 
MiiaocTHBHfi PocyA^pBl 
Hai hhcbmA Bamero ot-b 14ro vnca^ h ki orop- 

TChIh) MOeM^ ySHda-B, ^TO Bu He;^0B6JIBHBI Ka^eCTBOMt 

ndcaaHHofl BauB 6yM^H, h /^ym6BH0 acajtfeo, ^ito n6p: 
Boe fliao, kot6pbimi> a Ha;i;4ajica npio6picT6 Bdme 
flOBipie, OKbH^HJiocB TaKi Hey;i;a^Ho. 

dTO nponsomjib no HCBdjiBHog omM^^ npHK^m^- 
Ka, OTnycTfiBinaro BMicTO HaaH^^eHHaro BaKB iPOB^- 
pa, coBepm^HHO ;i,pyr6fi, yace piHBine 3a^p6;^aHHHa 
rocno;i;6Hy N. N. 

Cnimy hchp^bhtb diy oin66Ky h BficaaTB BaMi 
;i;pyrla 20 khhb 6yM&rH no MoeM^ Ji^qHOMy B]66opy. 
Hto KacaeTca jip xOBapa, noatqeHHaro B^mh npeat^e, 
TO 6aaroBoaATe er6 c^aTB rocno;i;6Hy N. N. KaKB eMy 
npHHa^Jieacdii^ifi, o ?eMi> mh6h) cji^ssiRO y^e h pac- 

npomf BacB hsbhhAtb mch^ bb cjiy^^BnieMca h 
o6^vs,kK> Ha 6yflyD[^ee Bp^Ma o6pan^aTB oc66eHHoe Moe 
BHHM&Hie Ha HCHOJiH^Hie BaniHXB saitdsoBi, xaKi. KaKB 
MHt BecBM^ Hpi^Ho coxpaHiTB AOB^pis ^ejiOB^Ea, 
KOTdparo ray66KO yBKaro. 


BamB noK6pHBifi cayrA 

N. N. 

19. Requesting a lawyer's assistance. 

XoptKOffs, 19ro M4a 1889 r. 
rocno;i;6Hy N. N. bb HeTepSypri. 
MliJiocTHBBig rocy;i;apBl 
HacToiinHMB HHCBMOMB Hpoiuf B^Hiero co;i,McT- 
Bia BB cjii/i,yioiii;eMB odcTOiiTejiBCTBi. 

Models of comhebcial letters. 303 

Kyn6n;i. N. N. cocto6ti> mh* jsfls.TEBMn'h 150 py- 
6ne3 sa np^HSTHfl ami, TQBapi>. HecMoxpA na Heo^nHO- 
Kp^THHfl iro6yac;i;6Hia s.'h yjuikrk, a jo CHXt nopi ne 
nojiyq^jn. oti> nerd hh kohMkh; Ha n^psHa nanoMH- 
HaHia OHi> npoc6jii CHHCxoatft^Hia, a noT6Mi> cobc^mi. 
nepecTaai OTsi'aaTb Ha n6cBMa. 

Tepninie Moe HCTom^jiocb, h a npomy Bact no- 
HHTaTBca, He sanji&THTt zw ohb no npnabateHHOMy 
npH ccMi no^nficaHHOMy er6 c^ctj c:b npoi^eHTaira sa 
18 MicaqeBx. Ha nojcyneHiH npoi^§HTOBTb a HacT^HsaTB 
He 6ff^Y '> T^KJKe He npdxHBi) Tor6, ecjiH Bh flafljiTe eny 
;i;ByxM§caTiHBiS cpoKt fl;jia ynJiaTH: MHi npiaTH§e no- 


EcaH ace non^xKH BdniB 6y;i,yTi 6e3noa63HH, to 
npomy Baei no;i;&TB na Hero ko BSBiCKaHiio; ;^OBipeH- 
HOCTB Ha HM)i Bflnie h no;i;ji6HHBia n6cBMa N. N. npa 
ceMi. npHJiaraio. 

Bi> oatH;i,&HiH HBBicTifi BamHxi o6ij ycnimnoMB 
x6;^'fe fl;4aa, HMiio icctb 6bitb cb 6cthhhhmi no^T6- 
HieM-B np6ffaHHBiS Bam 

N. N. 

20. Answer to the preceding letter. 

IIemep6ppii, 23ro MAa 1889 r. 
rocnonfiHy N. N. bb X&pBKQBi. 
M±JiocTHBHfi rocyfl;4p&! 

Cep;i;e^H0 coacaJi'ifeH), tto a hh^4mb ne Mort ycjiy- 
3k6tb BaMB KacaTembHO Tor6 ^iaa, o kot6pomb Bh 
npocAjffl MBH^ BB HHCBM* OTi. 19ro ^HCJia cero ni- 

Hhcbmo B4nie npHinjid' cjiAniKOMrB nds^HGi, hoto- 
My ^To rocTio;i;6Hi> N. N. yac6 sap^nie o6BaB6jii. ce- 
6A HecocTO^TejiBHBrMB, caiflOBaTejiBHO o KaKdMi. ji66o 
paac^eT* cb hemi h At^^a-Tt h^topo. JI mofb t6jibko 
npe^iaBlTB Bame Tp^SoBanie, viTo6i, oh6 na cny^afi 
KaK6fi Jia6o nepeMiHHi bb fl;ijiaxB Bsimero jsaivrbmbA, 
Morji6 HMiTb nepseHCTBO n6pe;i;i. np6^HMH nocTymfo- 
niHMH Ha Hero ssHCK^HiaMH. 

ficJiH Bh fflteaaeTB ynoTpe66TB ;i;ajiBHifiniee Moe 
nocpeflHHiecTBO no §T0My A^Jiy, to npomt Bact npH- 
cjratB MH* oc66eHHoe ynojiHOMO^e h 6htb yBipeHHH- 

304 Appendix. 

MH, ^TO a co6aiop,Y BaniH HHTepecH, KaKi 6h c66- 


HMiio lecTB 6hti> cb ^cthhhhm'b no^TenieMi, 

npe;i;aHHErfi BaMt 

N. N. 


1. Bills, notes of hand, etc. 

Htm-Iopm, lOro litis. 1899 r. 
BeKcejiB Ha 346 py6jiefi cep. 
^Ipesi. naTHaflUjaTb ;i,Hefi npomy sacb sannaT^TB 
no 6TOMy nepsoMy seKcejuo F-Hy N. N. cyMMy bb 
Tp6cTa copoK'B mecTB py6ae& cepeSpoMi., K0T6pBie a 
OTh Bacx HaJiAiiHBiMz ;i,6HBraMH cnoank itojiyii6iiB. 

N. N. 
JfocKsa, Iro SespaiA 1900 r. 
BeKceaB Ha 100 pySaefi cepe6p6MB. 
^epesB o;i;6h'b Micai];B noBiiHeHi. a no ceny Moe- 
My BeKceauo sanjiaTliTB T-ny N. N., 6jih KOMy ohb 
npHKaaccTB, cyMMy b^b cto pySneft cepe6p6MB, kot6- 
pBie a nojLY^Aji-h otb nero TOBapaMH cnojina. 

N. N. 
IIemep6yjpm, 3ro OKiaCpa 1904 r. 
SI, H6»eno;i,imcaBniiSca, nojiy^ifijii. oti. rocno;i;6Ha 
N. N. cjiiftyioiii;ee MH'fe bb ynH^xy sa naeMi Bi /i.dM'fe 
MoeMB KBapTfipH, Bcero cto nflTB;i;eci'rB py6jt6S cepe6p6Mi, 
Bi gcMi H ;i;ajii ciib pocnficKy. N. N. 

EdaeM, 4ro ABrycia 1905 r. 
a;, HfiacenoflnHcaBmiflca, nojryg6,TB otb Tt. N.N. 
BB 3;^iIUHeM^ ropo;];* no Kpe;i;6TH0My nncBMy Tr. N. N. 
B% nap6aci cyMMy bi. ^leTiipecTa pySaeft cepe6p6MB, 
Bi. qeMi. H CBH;i;iTejiBCTByH) B^iiBOflni, no ch o6H3a- 
TejiBCTBOMi na ojj^&s'h pasB. N. N. 

2. Invoices, account sales, etc. 

MocKsd, 26ro AsrycTa 1906 r. 
T-ni, N. N. Bx Bini ^djtacen'B. 
N. N. 
OTnpdBHJiH K-h BAWh corji&CHO BamcMy nopyie- 
niio, Ha BaniB CTpaxi. h cqexi,, no xejiisnofl flopori, 
cpoKOMx Ha MicanjB no^B pacn6cKy: 

Models of comuerciai, letters. 


X2 448/30. 

3 iniHKa h4d i;BiT6?Haro II^eeo 

3^428 6p. 82 ehxo. T&pa 5 shj6. 
B 429 „ 35 „ „ 5,5 „ 

„ 430 „ 37 „ „ 6 „ 

CpyTTO 104 Kfcio. Tipa 16,5 khji6. 

HicTaPt B*ci 87,5 Kfiao. 

no py6. 1,85 

40/0 CS^JUCH. 

CpOKOMt, SO'" H0fl6pA, PyccK. IliH 





EpcMem, Iro CeHiaCpfl 1906 r. 
CveTb Ha npofldmy 350 MiniKOBi KaMniflHaci ko- 
(j)e, nojiyq:eHHaro Ch napoxd^ijOMi. «I0n6Tepi» Kann- 
t4hi> N. N., oti> Tr. N. N. bi JIoHfliOHi h np6ffaHHaro 

3^*Cb 3a HX3. c^eTi. 


350 vimEdBi KaHnitnacb E6(f)e 

CpyxTo 21843 E^o, Tdpa 487 e^io 
21355Vs miLO 

' 109 „ CK^ jKa no '/>''/<' 

HHCTHii B.21246'/> e6jio no 85 (j) sa '/« eAjio 
Jificmdnrb l'/4''/o 


$paxTi> orb JoBAOHa ilf.498,45 

Maras^BHafl n6mjrHBa 78,65 

IIpHB63Baa nonuRBa 180,60 

10°/o ]i,o6i,uoiBovL ndoiABBii . . • 18,05 

KypT&ai. 301,00 

HsA^pxEH npH nuyi^BiE . . . 135,70 

EoKHHCcidHHiiB 2''/o 713,35 

licTaJi BipyHKa 31. 33 741,75. 








Biina, Iro CewmCpk 1906 r. 
Ha KynjieHHHii oti Baci h nojiy^eHHHa 3jsfbch OTt 
r-na N. N. 100 TocyAapcTBeH. meji§3HOAop6acH. 
AKi^ifi 621/720. Pygjiefl cep. 100.— 

B-h Hamy nojiBsy N. N. 

P-ny N. N. bi. sAimneMi. r6po;i;'fe. 

Russian Conv.-Grammar. 



3. Letters of Attorney, etc. 

Mudom, 8ro Maa 1906 r. 

Mbi, H^aceno^ipHcaBinieca, chmx ynoaHOMd^HBaejit 
Bnaflfoejia 5to3 ;^0B4peHH0CTH, H&mero noBipeHHaro 
r-Ha N. N., npHHHMaTB saKasH, nojiy^dTB ^^^hlfh e 
pacnicHBaTBCfl on. nimero 6MeHH bi. nojiy^6HiH Ta- 
KOB^EX'B, npHHHM^Tb TOBigH, npe^ocTaBJieHHHe Bi> pac- 
nopHaceHie h pacnopHffi&Tbca na c^eTt oheix'b, Tio;i,a- 
B&Tb Tp66oBaHia kg BSHCKamio b% Ha;i;jiemAm;ia npu- 
cyTCTBeHHHa Micra, Bbi;i;kBaTB Ha to ;i;oB4peHH0CTb, 
BOo6m6 npHKasbiBaTb h ncnojiHATb Bce, Morymee noji,- 
ftepatiTb HaniH B6ro;;bi. 

Bee, ^TO npe;i;np6MeT3> ua.m.'h ynoJiHOMd^eHHHfi 
Thi. N. N. mh npHSHacMi Kant 6h coBepmSBHoe najm 
caM^MH Bi c6jiy Hdinefi c66cTBeHHoS ndjsfmca. 


£e2MUHi, lOro MdpTa 1906 r. 
rocno;i,6Hy N. N. bi MocKsi. 
M6jiocTHBHfi rocy;i;^pb! 
P-feni^BHiHCB pacm^pHTb Topr6BHa cbo6 jifiaa, Bb 
npe^iaaxx PoccificKoS HimepiH, a chmi ynoAHOMO^H- 
Baio Bacb: 

1. HoKyn^Tb H npo;i;aBaTb otb Moer6 ^mchh ]s,b±- 
atHMoe H He;i;B6atHMoe HiiymecTBO h Bcfearo p6;i;a to- 
BdpH; OTHpaBJi^Tb sa rpaHiny h noayqaTb raKOB^ie 
0TTy;i,a ±30 Bcix-b pyccKHXi TaMbKeni; npoHSBOR^TB 
no BCfeMX Mo6Mi js^-bRkai, bi. Poccin OKOHiaTejibHHe 
H BC^Karo p6;^a ftpyrie pasc^eTbi; noayiaTb h ynaa- 
iiHBaTb no HHMb ;i;eHbrH. 

2. CoBepnr^Tb oti. Moer6 ^mchh Topr6BHa h p;py- 
ria BBLKdHOWb /i,onyn];eHHbia c;^4jikh; ;i;iaaTb ;^Jia nenA 
saftMM, BHAaBaiB oti. Moer6 ^mchh sciiKaro p6;i,a ^o- 
KyMCHTBi H oSasaTeflBCTBa ; OT;i;aBdTb sa npoD;eHTH npH- 
Ha;i,jieacan^ie mh4 KannT&JiH bx'h, KaKi to o6- 
n],6cTBeHHbiMi>, TidcTHBiMi. H npaBtoejEfaCTBCHEBiMi yu- 
peacfleHiaMi., TaKi. h ^eicthhmi. ji6n;aMi.. 

3. IIojryqaTb c% n6qTH h hsi. ,'i,pyr6xx npas^Tejib- 
CTBeHHbixi H o6n],ecTBeHHHX'B qacTHbixi. yqpeatftenifi 
a;i,pec6BaHHbia na Moe fina CTpaxoBfia nAcBiia ii fle- 
iieKHHH nocfijKH H pacn6cHBaTbca bi. hxi. noJiyTieHiH 

Models of commercl4l letters. 


4. HaHHMaTB h onpeflijijiTi. Ha pasHHS ;i,6aatHocTH 
cayacamHXi. no mo6mi> fifiaa.u'h, BUftaBATB hmi. OTt 
Moero ^MeHH saKOHHua ;i;0B']^peHH0CTH h Tpe6oBaTB 

0T1> HHXI. no TaKOBliMi BO BCeMl. OT^eTa. 

5. Bi. cjiyiiai Ha;i,o6HOCTH na^HHaTb nponeccH 
KaKt CTb o6m6cTBeHHiiMH, ^acTHHMH H npaB±Tejib- 
CTBeHHUMH yiipem;i;eHiaMH, TaKi> h cb ^acTHHMH jiA- 
ii;aMH ; ynojxHOMoiHBaTB a/iiBOKaTOBt, BBi;i;aBaa zmx ^o- 
B'fepeiiHOCTH Ha Be;;eHie fliji-B; nepenociiTB TaEOBdiH 
H3i> HiismHxi HHCTaH^ifi Bt B£iciniH ; no;i,aB4TB no HHMt 
npoiueHia h Bc;iKaro p6;i;a Apyria 6yMarH ; BBicjiyinH- 
BaTB cy^60H£ia pimenia; HSbaBJiATB no nawh yjs,o- 
B6jiBCTBie 6jih Hey^OBOJiBCTBie no BaineMy ycMOTpfeiio. 

Bo Bcix-B BsinieHSJt6HceHHHxi) cjiyiiaaxi> Bh aui- 
exe ndJiHoe h HeorpaH^ieHHoe npiso nocxynaTB, KaKi. 
BaMt 3a6JIa^opa3cy;^HTca h bo BceMi>, iito Bh b'b c6jty 
^Tofl ;i;oBipeHHOCTH saKdHHO c;i;ijiaeTe, a cn6pHTB h 
npeKOCJi6BHTB He 6ya,y. 

Ci. fiCTHHHHMTb uo^TemeuTb H coBepm^HHOH) npe- 
flaHHOCxiio hm4io ^cctb 6bitb 

RauiHM'B noK6pHHMi cayr6io 

N. N. 

IIeniep6^pn, 10 Anpijra 1899 r. 
S, H6ateno;!;nHcaBmifica, ;^ajii> cie CBH;i;iTejiBCTBO 

F-Hy N. N. Bl> TOMli, 1T0 OHi 6HJi MOAmB rJiaSHBTMI) 

npHK^HKOMi Bi xe^ieHie nax^ Jiixi), a liMeHHo ch 
Iro Anpijiff .... roAa. 

&T0 Bp^Ma sejii OHi ce6a npHMipno h Bci BOSJoateH- 
HHa Ha Hero nopy^^nia HcnojHajXE cb HcnpaBHOCXbio, ci 


4. Customs Declaration. 

HdatanojnHciBiDiSM ornpaBjAeTi fy N. N. ui HeiepOypri. 


Smcjio «j»c»»». 



U UtbKd. 



A. R. 
J6 75 

1 sm^tA. 

20 KHJO. 


TOBapi. Htua, 

py6j. 100. 

! 13 



5. Telegrams. 

90 to;HKOB'B ^kw, caierKa noBpeac^eHnaro, roflHa- 
ro ;^JIfl np^M-fecH, HMieTe ynoTpe6jieHie ? 

Bepy 40 ^idi,hkobi. ^epnaro; ^-feH^? 

30 tiok6bi> xa6nKa coBepmeHHO ^OBpeat;^eHSi ; sa- 
m^hAtb ±jih bshtb o6p4THO. 

Sau^Ha OTHJiEiBdeTi. cer6;^Ha; hhcbmS ca4;i;yeTi.. 
N. N. ^pe;^CT&BHJI'I. Kpefl^THoe nHCBM6 10000 py- 
6jieS. B&me ima, cyMiia hp^bhjibhbi? 

N. N. HCHSBicTeHi., 3a;^ep^KaTB nojsjs,i]a>mfls,a,. 
N. N. Ham'B Apyrx, Bli;i;afiTe Tpefiyewyio cfMMy. 


An Army. 

r^iiBHEUi KBapi^pa. 

The head-quarters. 

Bo^BHHtt mrafii. 

The staff. 


A marshal. 


A general in chief. 

n6;iBiiifi reHep&Jii. 

A general (Conraiander of a 


A. lieutenantgeneral. [corpsV 


A major-general. 
An adjutant-general. 

IIoaieBdfi reHepiji*. 

BpHriflHutt renepSai.. 

A brigadier-general. 


An aide-de-camp. 


A colonel. 


A lieutenantcolonel. 


A commissary of stores. 


A major. 


A captain. 


A staff-captain. 


A lieutenant. 


A sub-lieutenant. 


A quarter-master. 


A sergeant major. 


A non-commissioned officer. 


A sergeant (brigadier). 


A corporal. 


An officer. 


The colours. 


An ensign. 


A standard. 


A standard bearer, 


The infantry. 



^xceH^pmitt Eopnyci. 




















nojiKOBbii mTagi) Jiinapb. 

noxd^BBiB r6cnETa;ib. 


ntxdTBas pora. 






FjiSBHaJ! "jacTb. 


Pes^pBBbifi Kopnyct. 



KoBB6fi rocyflipa. 


JleT'^qifi otp4ai>- 




The cavalry. 

The artillery. 

The engineers. 

A soldier. 

A foot-soldier. 

A grenadier. 

A chasseur. 

A sapper. 

A drummer. 

A drum. 

X horseman. 

A dragoon. 

A lancer. 

A hussar. 

A cuirassier. 

An artillery-man. 

A cannoneer. 

A trumpeter. 

A trumpet. 

A kettle-drummer. 

A kettle-drum. 

A miner. 

A pioneer. 

A spy. 

A surgeon-major. 

A field-hospital. 

A platoon. 

A company of foot. 

A battalion. 

A squadron. 

A regiment. 

A brigade. 

The vanguard. 

The main body. 

The rear. 

A body of reserve, 

A detachment. 

The life-guatds. 

The imperial guards. 

A camp. 

A flying column. 

A post. 

A guard-house. 

A sentinel. 

A sentry box. 

The watch-word. 

The order. 

A scout. 

A patrol. 

A round. 

A recruit. 




PyjK^fiHHe npieMH. 



0(j[)imepcicifi KJiy6^. 




BapafiaHHHft Cofi. 


nepe;?OBiie nocnSt. 















^apafl^,' paaBOflt. 










MeflB'ijBbJi DianKa. 



An instructor. 

The drill. 

The manual exercise. 

The depot. 

The barracks 

.The mess. 

The call. 

The alarm. 

The tattoo. 

A general roll. 

A roll. 

An armament. 


A campaign. 

The advanced posts. 

The bivouac. 

The evolutions. 

A counter-march 

A halt. 

The charge. 

The attack. 

The battle. 

The victory. 

The retreat. 

The rout. 

A transport. 

A convoy. 

An ambuscade. 

A skirmish. 

The 'pillage. 


The ransooi. 

The review. 

The parade. 

The ranks. 

A truce. 

The disbanding 

A disarmament. 

A discharge. 

A deserter. 

The baggage. 

The provisions. 

The forage. 


The armour. 
The equipment. 
Tlie uniform. 
A grenadier's cap 
A cockade. 
A feather. 

For army and navy officers. 


KdacaBBaji iMyBAnia. 






Rojiq^t. ' 














CnycKOBi.1 CE66a. 

CBycEOB^ cofi&qica. 


3aTp&BoqBufi ndpoxi. 



HyaeB^e mani. 









OzdTBHiifi BOXl. 




ApTBJiaepIBcKiS o663t. 

The epaulets. 

A shoulder-belt. 

The belts. 

The cart4dge-box. 

A knapsack. 

A helmet 

A shield. 

A cuirass. 

A coat of mail. 

A bow. 

A cross-bow. 

A quiver. 

An arrow. 

The sling. 

A gun. 

A musket. 

A pistol. 

A rifle. 

The stock. 

The bntt-end. 

The baitel. 

The breech. 

The month. 

The caliber. 

The sighL 

The lock. 

The cock. 

The guard. 

The trigger. 

The pan. 

The touch-hole. 

The priming. 

The cartridge. 

The ball, the buUet 

The ramrod. 

The worm-screw. 

The charge. 

The firing. 

The bayonet. 

A battle-axe. 

A lance. 

A pike. 

A sword. 

A sabre. 

A poniard. 

A cutlass. 

A hanger. 

The hilt. 

The blade. 

The scabbard. 

The handle. 

A train o£ ordnance. 




EojieBiia opy;^ifl. 

lyrtHHaa nynjKa. 
Taace^oe opy^ie. 
n-ymeiHufi CTaHoicB. 


It^HHoe aflp6. 

IIlTi^KOBufi yA&pi>. 
yfl,kph mncirH. 
y^api. Konbji. 
Yniph CTp^jiiS. 
ITyuieiBaft BiiCTptjii. 
Pyac^iiubiii Biscipbjnj. 

A piece of ordnance. 

A field-piece. 

A cannon. 

A brass cannon. 

A heavy cannon. 

The carriage. 

The match. 

A cannon ball. 

A mortar. 

A howitzer. 

^ bomb. 

A cross bar shot. 


A thrust with a bayonet. 

A stroke of a sword. 

A siab with a lance. 

A stroke of an arrow. 

A cannon-shot. 

A musketshot. 


yKptDJieHHuii r6po,i,T>. 














VKp'tfljifiBie npe^b Kypiiinoio. 






OflycKB^a ptmeTKa. 

II'O^fbeHBIilS MOCTb. 
UjIOB^lifi MOCTb. 

A fortified town. 

A citadel. 

A castle. 

A fortress, a fort. 

The commander. 

The garrison. 

The arsenal. 

A bastion. 

A battery. 

A redoubt. 

The walls. 

The rampart. 

The battlements. 

A tower, a donjon. 

A platform. 

A parapet. 

A casemate. 

A horn-work. 

A crown-work. 

A curtain. 

A half-moon. 

An embrasure. 

A loop-hole, 

A raveline. 

A gate. 

A postern. 

A portcullis. 

A draw-bridge. 

A pontoon. 

A bridge of boats. 

For army and navy officers. 




BwbmHis yKptnjieBia. 


napdflHoe MicTO. 








MuiR CBom^Bia. 

I^BpKyHBajijai\i6Ei>ui .i^aiH. 



npiiKpi)Ti>i& ayTb. 












Cy;iBd, Kop&6jtB. 
AAUHpAlBCKiS EopiSjib. 
BoeHHufi KOfkCuh. 

vlHBefiHUS KOp&GjIb. 




BoM6ap;^HpcKoe cf;p6. 

KaBOB^pcKaA ji6;ps&. 


Kyn^qecKifi Kop&6jn>. 




Tp^BcnopTHoe cyAHo. 



Pii6oji6BBoe cyAB6. 



A ditch. 

The glacis. 

The outworks. 

The esplanade. 

The parade. 

A cheval de frise. 

An intrenchment. 

The fraises. 

A gabion. 

A fascine. 

A palisade. 

The lines. 

The lines of communication. 

The lines of circumvallation. 

A scarp. 

A counterscarp. 

The covered wav. 

A trench. 

A false trench. 

A mine. 

A siege. 

A blockade. 

A sally, sortie. 

A storm, assault. 

A breach. 

The besiegers. 

The besieged. 



A fleet. 

A squadron. 

A cruise. 

A ship. 

The admiral's ship. 

A man of war. 

A ship of the line. 

A frigate. 

A cutter. 

A caper. 

A bomb-keteh. 

A gun-boat. 

A fire-ship. 

A merchant-man. 

A sloop. 

A boat. 

A galley. 

A transport-ship. 

A packet-boat. 

A bark. 

A fishing boat. 

A ferry. 




A raft. 

X6i^Koe cyflHo. 

An express-boat. 


An oar. 


A rudder. 


An anchor. 


A sheet-anchor. 


A mast. 

*oi* ukvta,. 

The fore-mast. 

EHS&Bb M&ITa. 

The mizzen-mast. 


The bowsprit-mast. 


The top-mast. 

rpon. CTfinra. 

The main-top-mast. 

Bpasn. CT§Hra. 

The top-gallant-mast. 


The deck. 


The gun-deck. 


The stern, the poop. 


The prow. 


- The keel. 

ntmeqaaa nopn.. 

A port-hole. 


A shroud. 


The starboard. 


The larboard. 


The hold. 


The sails. 

IlapycA rpoTt. 

The main sail. 

HocoB6fi nipyoT.. 

The fore sail. 


The mizzen sail. 


The top-gallant sail. 


The main yard. 


The top. 


The rigging. 


A cable. 


The armament. 

Pyjft, pyMneJib. 

The helm. 


The pump. 


A sounding-lead. 


A sounding-line. 


The compass. 


A grapling. 


The flag. 


The pennants. 

A hammock. 

EoKOB^ KaiKa. 

The rolling. 


The wake. 




A cargo. 


The shipping. 


The landing. 


A descent. 


A shipwreck. 


A dock-yard. 


An admiral. 

For army and navy officers. 



KOHMHCcipi). , ■ 

JleflTeHiHTb. .'. 




IIpH6p^mi& ji6i;HaHi>. 








A vice-admiral. 

A rear^dmiral. 

A commodore. 

A commissioner. 

A captain 

A lieutenant. 

A mate. 

A midshipman. 

A boatswain; a master. 

A surgeon. 

A surgeon's mate. 

A pilot. 

A coasting pilot. 

A sailor. 

A waterman. 

A shipboy. 

The crew. 

An armateur. 

A cokswain. 

A passenger. 


OTBti^ii Ha M014 Bonpdcii! 
0TBi?4ft, ja im niti! 
Ceek^ T6jn>K0 iiBCJi6in>! 
OTB'bi&S ^eHeiTb irfecra! 
Beperlicb, ne spH! 
roBop^uii>-;iB TH no-&HrjiiScKH ? 


He OTrOB&pHBaJcJi! 

He 6dficA HB<ier6! 

Bvflb cnoK6eHT>! 

Sgaemb-jiH tu Eor6, eto roBopdii 

no-^BTJiificKB ! 
Cryn^ft aa hhui? 
UpaaetA erd cio;t&! 
CjAujA 3a hh6io! 
He Tp6raficfl ci> Hicra! 
Mnt EtSHO cb T066tt rOBop^ib. 
noBEHdeniB-jiH TU Heui? 
H He noHHUiio. 
noBTOp^ en^e pa3i>! 
ysaac^ n4jn>i;eu'B! 
YkhskA UBi vb saEdirb sanpa- 


Ef,A aa hh6io! 

Fflt xBBen> rocnoflto. ...? 

BeA^ vetiA n Bent I 

Answer my questions! 

Answer yes or no! 

Say only a number! 

Answer by a name of locality! 

Mind, don't lie! 

Do you speak English? French? 

Don't evade my question! 

Don't fear! 

Be quiet! 

Do you know any body that 

speaks English? 
Go and fetch him I 
Accompany him here! 
Follow me! 

Don't stir from this placet 
I most speak with yon. 
Do you understand me? 
I don't understand. 
Repeat once more! 
Show me with your finger! 
Show me in what direction! 

Come with me! 

Where does Mr live ? 

Accompany me to him! 



r^i Horn- Haij^JibBBKa pyccKHyt 

BOfiCKt ? 

Tfli pyccKifi jiirepi)? 

fl aHr;iH'i4HHm.. 

fl TBoii ApyrB. 


npiixo^ii qepesT) qaoT>? 

Ilphxoflfi B6qepoMT>? 

npHxo;^^ SciBTpa! 

fl 6y;(y jK^aii. leOa Ha l?JIH^■6. 

fl xoqy tcTt! 

fl xoqy BHTb! 

JlaM HE^ xjiiSa! 

/(aS UBt aAcul 

fla& MHt ciipy! 

^ag MHt CT&KkWb Bo;(ii! 

J^aS MHt BHn&! 

AoBdjibuo ! 

dro cji^iUKOHii undro. 

^aS HHt 66jibnie! 


noq^cTb uoib ji6ma;(b! 

Han6fi uoib ji6iiiaAb! 

HaKopH^ uoib jidma^^b! 

Be;^^ MOib ^dmnflf, Kh KysHcqy! 

OctAJi&it Hoib Ji6ma;^b. 
Pasct^^ji&fi HOib Ji6niaAb. 
BsBySA^a MOib admaAb. 
Pa3Hy3fl42 Moii) ji6ma;(b. 

Where are the lodgings of the 
commander of the Russian 

Where is the Russian camp? 

I am an Englishman. 

I am your friend. 

(Jo aWayl 

Come again within an hour I 

Come towards evening! 

Come to-morrow! 

I am waiting for you here. 

I shall wait for you in the street. 

I will have something to eat! 

I wish to drink! 

Give me some bread! 

Give me some meat! 

Give me some cheese! 

Give me a glass of water! 

Give me some wine I 

Enough ! 

It is too much. 

Give me morel 

I thank you. 

Clean my horse! 

Let my horse drink! 

Feed my horse! 

Accompany my horse to the 
blacksmith ! 

Saddle my horse! 

Unsaddle my horse! 

Bridle my horse I 

Unbridle my horse! 

To ascertain information. 

KaKib BejiBKo qncno ac^iejiefi dToro 

Bi> qeiTb cocTO^Tb er6 npouiiin- 


CKdjibKO Bu Mdaceie flpcjlmmb 

Rauii jomap^^S? 
CK6.iibK0 nafiK6Bt xri6a? 
CK6.!ibK0 n6pi(itt ujica? 
CKdJibKO bmbL? 
Ck6jieko n^Ba? 
3Aop6Ba-jiH Ata, CTpana? 
npiitiBa-Jia s^icb BecHi? 

?&CT0-2H SA^Cb (6llB&KIT'b) KOXAU? 

Oqesb-jiH acapKO jitTOMi? 

MH6ro-jiH 6o;ibBtix'b? 

MB6ro-jia jihxop&aokx otii 6o- 


How many inhabitants has this 

place ? 
What are its resources? 

How many horses can you 

supply ? 
How many rations of bread? 
How many portions of meat? 
How much wine? 
How much beer? 
Is this country healthy? 
Is spring agreeable here? 
Does it often rain? 
Is the heat in summer great? 
Are there many sick? 
Are the fevers caused by the 

marshes ? 

For ARm' and naty officers. 


He Bp6flHo ar HoqeB^xb Ha b63- 
X6JI0AHU JIH noqit? 

KOI'A^ 3;^■feCb HaiHH^eTCfl 3Hm4? 

OwBb-;in x6jIo;^HO ocenbio? 
KorA^ aaMepsaMTb sflicb piKH? 
Bo CB6jibK0 rp&^ycoBi. cp^ABifi 

KorA& HaiHBieTCA cy^^oxd^cTBO? 

KaKT. rayfidifb cWn. 3hij6io? 
MH6ro jiH BAtcb ji'fecy? 

ECTb-AH SA'bCb EiHeHHbiS frOJIb? 
EcTb-JIH TOp^T.? 

MdKere-jiu naHi. OTsecTfi KasAp- 

Eojibmde-Jiu iio s^^nie? 
HtTb-JiH ^;^■6 3S'fecb anirnin, kot6- 

poe 6bi Horji6 csiyac^Tb HaHi> Ka- 


CKOJIbKO u6acH0 nOH'bCTdTb Bl 

EeiTb jiwA^g (}iomsi^6tt)7 
BejiHKii-JiH rsiu-b KbuBaTu? 

EoTb-JlH Taut K0Jl6fle3b? 

Xopom&-jin ^Ta Bo;;d? 
He ctipo-jiH 6to ankme"? 
Csdnbso Bii HeHi. 3Ta»6fi? 

ECTb-jn TaHl KOBI&mHH? 

EcTb-jH TaMii cap^B una ij)yp4xa? 

Is it dangerous to sleep in the 

open air? 
Are the nights cold? 
When does winter begin here? 
Is it very cold in autumn? 
When do rivers freeze here? 
How many degrees does the 

thermometer sink? 
When does navigation begin 

again ? 
How high is the snow in winter? 
Is there much fuel (wood) here ? 
Is there any coal here? 
Is there any turf? 
Can you procure us barracks? 

Is this a spacious building? 
Is there not here some building 

that might anyhow serve as 

barracks ? 
How many men (horses) can be 

in it? 
Are its rooms spacious? 
Is there a kitchen foo? 
Is there a well? 
Is its water good? 
Is this building not damp? 
How many storeys has it? 
Is there a stable? 
Is there a room for placing 

forage ? 

Arriving at a town. 

Fflt sfltcb ropoABliiiil? 
OSiflBjuito BaiTb, qio BCKopi^ cio^^ 
npififl^Tb AB'6 TiScfliH cojiflirb. 

Tticflia BflTbcCTT. cojiA^Tb ntx6- 


IlHTbc6Ti> BasajiepiB. 

EcTb-jin y aacT. MtcTO fljw nxi> 

CojfliTbi CtflyTb KopufiTbca Ba 

cqgrb ac^Tejiefi. 
CoaflAn. nojif 1HTL xaiOi, mjJco h 

nlJBO AB^ P^^ B^ CyTBB. 
atCiieja we CtWTt AaB^Tb a 

Kopm jiomaA^uii. 
Hu 3an;i&TBin> sa hsa^pxkb. 

EcTb-jiB y Bacb BfieHBua ni 


Where is the mayor of this town ? 

I announce to you that two thou- 
sand men are going to arrive 

One thousand five hundred in- 

Five hundred cavalry. 

Have you convenient lodgings 
for them all? 

The inhabitants will lodge (and 
feed) the soldiers. 

Each soldier shall receive bread, 
and meat and beer twice a day. 

They shall give also forage to 
the horses. 

We shall then defray the ex- 

Is there a military bakehouse 
in this town? 



Bo CEdJU>EO nei^fi? 
Korfla neKyrb bt> hhxi? 
CsojibKO past El cyTKH nezfrb 

EcTB-jiH aanacHiie Maraa^HH? 

Bojiiin6a-.iH Bi HHX'b sanict? 
Cit6jibKo y BaoT. utrnKdEi. nmenii- 
HH? pacH? MyKfi? pircy? 

Jl^ooTiTOMO-jiH nxi na Miojin,i> Ha 
/^Ba;^^aTb TiicaTb lejioB'iirb? 

MoBEO-JIH synHTi Bl OKpysaocTB 

Kaic^ sAicb Mipa? 

Ho leai Mipa? 

Ffli sfltob m6jiiott. uyKy? 

XopdmiA-JIlI S^lsCb H&lbHBI^bl? 
Aa;ieK6-JIH S^tCb H^^IbHHI^U? 

Tf^t s^tcb ^ypaacmie cap&n? 
Mn^ro-aH TaMi) bi aanict co;i6iii)i, 
■ cina, OBci, aqHeHii? 
Xopomii-jin samn nzTeiiEbie no- 

How many ovens axe in it? 
When do Ihey bake there? 
How many times a day do they 

bake in it? 
Is there any magazine of pro- 

Visions ? 
Are there many provisions in it? 
How many sacks have you, of 

wheat? of rye? of flour? of 

Are there enough for twenty 

thousand men during a month? 
Is it possible to buy any com 

in the environs? 
What is the measure used here? 
How much does a measure cost? 
Where do they grind com? 
Are there good mills here? 
Are they far from here? 
Where is the forage magazine? 
Are there in good quantity straw, 

hay, oats and barley? 
Are your wine-cellars good? 

On reconnoitring. 

Kaicb EasbiB&eTCfl Sia Aop6ra? 

Ky^a ohA Be^erb? 

^pesi EaKi^ ^epesHB ona npojie- 

EcTb-jH B^ojb eji Aeptebfl? aa- 

Bcib^y-jiB OBa OAan&KOBOfi mnpa- 

PdBHaa jiH OB^ Bci&;(y? 

FopficTa-aH oh4? 

Mdryrb -JIH CBoOdAHO flBiSraTbca no 

Hefl ^yprdBM? 
HepeciiKieTca-jiH OHi rftt ptKdB? 
Kyuli. BeflCTb Sxa wejiaHaa ftop6- 

Ka.&'b BejiHK6 e;i npoTflm^Hie? 
^BofiH6ti-jiH Ha Hea ayTb? 

Kaifb HasbiBaiOTCii ra&BBusi ciaH- 

EcTb-;in Ha Heii Bar6Hbi SJifl nepe- 

iiosKH jiomaAfift H apTBjj^piH? 

OKOJibKO noteAdBi. mokho nycxHib 

no HBU B'b cyxKU? 

KaKT> HasMBdeTCfl ^to. ym^wiie? 

What is the name of this road? 

Where does it lead to? 

Through what villages does it 

Are there trees along it? are 
there hedges? 

Does it continue ' as broad as 
here all the way? 

Is it level all the way? 

Is it mountainous? 

Can carriages go on it without 

Is it cut by any river? 

Where does this railway-line 
lead to? 

How long is it? 

Is there a double line of rails 
on it? 

What are the names of the prin- 
cipal stations? 

Are there waggons for the trans- 
port of horse and artillery? 

How many trains a day run 
on it? 

What is the name of this pass? 

For army akd havy officers. 


MoJKeTb-jiH TaJTb npctxaTi ap- 
THajiepia h nasajiepia? 

Ky^4 oh6 Beflen>? 

yKp'fenjieH6-jiH off6? 

3aii:(iiii;eE6-jin ob6 KaK&ii-MSo 

KaKi ;(jiaHE^ dia nei^nji&n? 

M6BtH0-jiH ee npoiiii Sesi ipYA^f 

He liyajnO'jiH onac^Tbca HajiTi aa- 

KaKii HasuBaeTCfl Sto ceji^Hie? 
KaKi. HaauBdeTCfl dTa A^p^BBfl? 

CK6jIbK0 u6acHo nOMiCT^Tl Bl> Hefi 

jiiOA^S B jioniaA^fi? 
BoKpyTb flep^BHH ff6n>-jin OTjijiB- 

HHXi ^om6bt>? 
CEdJibKO wb TOHi> r6po;^i& aci&Te- 

Ecn-m Wb nem, (Sojibmis cipo^- 

Hia ^jui noirtn^^Hui cojia^ti? 

OlKpii'rb-aH Offb? 

EcTb-jin Bi. HeH> jia3ap6Ti>? 
He OKpyacSHVjiH oht> pBOin.? 

niBpOKB-JIH ■fjlBBfi7 

EcTb-JIB Bl BeBTb I^BTa;(^JIb? 

KaKi) Beji^Kii Bi) BCHi. rapBB- 

MH6ro-jiH TaMT. opyAifi? 
r^t pacBOjioxeBii DopoxoB6ft ua- 

Fflt pacBOJioKeai apceB&jcb? 
KaKi BbicoK4 oKpyacaioB^aB cvb- 


CyxH-ja psu? 

He BanojifleBH-jm psu bo;(6k),? 

Hirb-.w rflt Tajn> BOflaeMriMXi 


KiKb HasHBaeTCH Stotb jrici? 


MHoroBdsau-JiH obu? 
EoTb-JB CoJioTa? 
OOuiiipHhiaB ob4? 
B-b AH-Kowb OEi BanpaBjieHiu? 
KaKT. 30Byrb ^Ty r6py? 

Kpyia-Jiu oaa? 

KaKT. soByrb diy ptKy? 

rjiy6oK4-JiH Ofla? 

Can one pass it with artillery 

and iorse? 
Where does it lead to? 
Is it not forfified? 
It is defended by some forUets? 

How long is this defile? 

Can it be passed without great 

Is there no danger of an am- 
buscade ? 

What is the name of that village? 

What is the name of that 

How many soldiers and horses 
can be lodged there? 

Around the village are there 
any isolated houses? 

How ma'ny inhabitants are there 
in that town? 

Are there in it large edifices 
_ for the accommodation of sol- 
' diers? 

Is it an open city? 

Is there a lazaret? 

Is it not surroimded by a ditch? 

Are its streets broad? 

Is there a citadel? 

What- is the strength of its 
garrison ? 

Are there many guns? 

Where is the powder-magazine 
situated ? 

Where does the arsenal lie? 

How high is the wall that sur- 
rounds it? 

Are the ditches dry? 

Are the ditches full of water? 

Are there no underground 
mines ? 

What is the name of that forest? 

Are there any springs in that 
forest ? 

Do they abound in water? 

Are there any marshes? 

Are they extensive? 

In which direction are they? 

What is the name of this moun- 

Is .it steep? 

What is tiie name of this river? 

Is it deep? 



npffli6e-jiH eii Teq^sie? 
EiicTpoaH eii 7eq§Hie? 
Bcibfly-jia onk cyA0x6flHa? 
Bi> KaK^io n6py so^k Hejucd? 
M6»Ho-jiB nepefirti eS bi> tipoA'B? 
Tut GjiBac^fimifi 6po;ci>? 
PasjiBBaeTcJi-JiH oak BecH6io? 
J(6jiro-JiH npojiflxxkercn pasjiArie? 
KaKi> niBpoK6 npocTap^eTca na- 

J^o icaK6ro idiicTa? 
AicAcTU-SB eA 6eper&? 

BojioracTU-jH e^ 6eper4? 

MB6ro-jiB Ba nefi hoct6bi>? 

r^b fijIBSCiflmift MOCTb? 
KiMeHHtlfi-JIH 5tO MOCTb? 

JepeBjiBHufi-jB ^TO Mocrb? 
M6hcbo-;ib BaitT^ Haui. 6&pKB HJia 

r^t? CKdjbKO? 

Bi EaK'^K) A^Hy? 

EcTb-an MH6ro ocipoBdB'b Ba ^toB 

FAt- ob£ pacBOjroaceBil? 
r^t jieartiTX c5,Mua 6oJii.Bi6a 


M6:kho .SB Ba echt, doct^bhtii 

HioKOJitKO 6aTap6fi.? 
Coe;^BBeH^.-JIH obt. rfl't-HaSy^b 

JI0CT6M^ CT. 66peroMb? 

OfipatidTaBb-.iiB OBI? 
EcTb-jiB y BeBpiiJTeJin SaiapSs aa 
$epert dxcfi ptK6? 

KyAa Bna;;aerb dia pibica? 

ECTb-JIB s^tcb B6;iB3li Bap6Mi? 

Cic6jibKl) jiKifl6tt HbJKerb oa^ nepe- 

Bcct^ sapdai)? 
CKdjibKO aoIBa;^6ft? 
Cic6jibK0 ^0flB6;^'b? 

With a guide, a prisoner, a spy, etc. 

MoKBTe-jiB Bbi cnyac^Tb HaMi Can you serve us as a guide'.' 


SBaeTe-.iH Bh c&Buii 6j[63k\& Byrb Do you know the shortest way 

B^ ...? to...? 

Be;itiTe naci! Accompany us I 

Is its course straight? 

Is its current rapid? 

Is it navigable tbroughout? 

In which place is the water low ? 

Is it then to be forded? 

Where is the nearest ford? 

Does it swell in spring? 

Does the inundation last long? 

How far does the inundation 

extend? ' 

As far as to which placa? 
Are, its shores covered with 

Are its shores covered with 

morasses ? 
Are there many bridges over it? 
Where is the nearest bridge? 
Is it a stone-bridge? 
Is it a wooden bridge? 
Can we procure some barks for 

the passage? 
Where? How many-? 
At what price? 
Are there many islands in this 

river ? 
Where are they situated? 
Where is the largest island 

situated ? 
Is it possible to establish some 

batteries on it? 
Does it perhaps communicate 

with the shore by means of 

a bridge? 
Is it cultivated? 
Has the enemy any batteries 

placed on the shores of this 

river ? 
Where does this river discharge 

Is there a ferry in this neigh- 

bpurhood ? 
How many men can be ferried 

over at once? 
How many horses ? 
How many carriages? 

For army and kavt officers. 


BeA^ie Haci> Dpoce;iKOin> ! 
BeperAxecb oninfi^TbCfl ^opdroio! 
Bu nojiy<iETe xop6iiiyto n.i4Ty. 

£cjiH He udxere wni cb Bimv, 
TO fliilTe HasTB ;;pyr6ro atpna- 
ro npoDOARHEd. 

KaKi> Bejiliirb udpnyct, KordpuB 
Bqepd Gujrb a^icb? 

MH6ro-jiH y sact flesepTfipoBi.? 

Mgoro-jiH y Baci> GoJibH^iri? 

KaE6ro miaia coji;(4tu o soliHli? 

He steji&iorb-}i^ 0H1& e^i kohi^&? 
Mnbro-jH y Baci> soenHonJi'bH- 


KyA^ art OTCHJi&iOTb? 
MicTO-jR nepefi'br&io'rb e% eairb 

B&nia ASsepTiipu? 
*Ito cb B^n A'^jiatorb? 
FA'ii Banrt rji^Hufi mTa6i>? 
3HiieTe-jni Bb af^mmk Kpafi? 

Tu B^Ai) B^SiuB eb aBanndcTOB'b? 

Bffl'6ro B6piiyca? 

KaKdro nou^? 

OiE^Aa itpmaexb TBoft Gaia- 

r^t Ten^pb TBofi nojiKi? 
Csjisi MBi, KaKi> sejidiri) K6p- 

CE6jibK0 nixdiu? 
CsbjibKO KaBaji^piH? 
Cic6;ibK0 opyAifi? 

Accompany us through country 

roads I 
Pay attention that you do not 

mistake the wayl 
You shall then receive splen- 
did pay. 
If you cannot accompany us, 

then gire us another faithful 

How strong was the corps that 

was here yesterday? 
Have you many deserters? 
Have you many sick? 
What is the opinion of your 

troops concerning the war? 
Do they not wish tiiat it will be 

finished soon? 
Have you got many prisoners? 

Where do they send them to? 
Do you often see any deserters 

of ours? 
What do they do with them? 
Where are your head-quarters? 
Do you know this country? 
You are a deserter, are you not? 
You come from the advanced 

posts, do you not? 
To which corps do you belong? 
To which regiment? 
Where did your battalion come 

Where is your regiment now? 
Tell me, what is the strength 

of your corps? 
How many on foot? 
How many horses? 
How many guns? 

With a surgeon, a doctor, etc. 

fl 'paneiTb. 

!>* 4)6jibflinepB? 

r^t. jfeuapb (spaTb)? 

r^t cHxiica? 

IIpHHec^Te nepeB^sxH! 

OpHHecAre CB%»cefi soflii! 

Cxofl*re CT. Sthmb pen^nroin. bt> 

KosoB^Te HcnoB*flHHBa! 
fl CJiafi'b. 
fl ycxijrb. 
fl syBCTByio ce6/l ropasflo jiy^ine. 

Kusaian Conv.-Grammar. 

I am wounded. 

Where is the surgeon? 

Where is the physician? 

Where is the nurse? 

Bring some binding (bands) t 

Bring some fresh water I 

Go with this prescription to the 

apothecary's I 
Call the confessor I 
I am weak. 
I am tired. 
I feel much better. 



fl HO xopoui6 cnajit. 

y MeH;i KpyatJiTca roaoBi. 

y ueHjS jiBXopi^^Ka. 

y MeHii acejiyflOKTi He Fi nopd^Kt. 

fl "ifBCTByiO rOJIOBH^IO 60JIb. 

Mnt K4aceTCfl CfflTO npefli. rjia- 

3^H y ubeA sasica. 
SySiii 3acTaBjjix)Ti> MeBi yacacflo 

a ceSi nepejioMAai pysy. 
y MeHji Bce Tfejio pacn^zjio. 
IIpoTEBi uo^il fiojiisBH a'kfb n6- 


3ieHB 6to ahs a CTaBOB.iE)c& ciii,6ie. 
H yMBpaM ort qax6TKB. 
il yjmpaK). 

I did not sleep well. 

I am growing giddy. 

I have the fever. 

My stomach is not well. 

I have a head-ache. 

It seems to me as if I had a 
mist before my eyes. 

My teeth make me sxiffer dread- 

I have broken my arm. 

My whole body is swollen. 

In my illness there is no help. 

From day to day I get weaker. 
I am dying of consumption. 
I am dying. 

Expressions for the nse of the navy. 

EcTB-jH y saci c^nA, n^a Ba&n&l 

no3HaE6MbTe ueaft ci KaiiHTdHom ! 
Cne;^ATe mnA ki xoaiaHy! 
UiTb-jm 3;^'bcb HopHsdBi cnocAd- 

Hurb KT. ojiyacSt? 
He pu6aKfi-jiH oh6? 
He MaTp6cH-jiH ohA ci Topr6BH3n. 

Mnoroq^cjieHHU-JiH ohi&? 
SB&iorb-;!!! OH^ xopomd cbo@ xk- 


SHaKouo m hut> ^Spnoe (Ba.iTiit- 

CKoe) M6pe? 
AaBB<5 aa OBfl Ha cjt<fx6i? 

ICaKba rjySBHii TpeCyen, Baim. 

JlerKoe-jiH Sto cfflHOV 
H6Boe-;iB Sto cyflHO? 


Aijazo-iB oad 6oshmle nepeisAH? 
T6jibK0 Hefiojibmie nepetsAu? 
CK6.)ibE0 ufmeKh itdxerb mail 
BauTb KopiCjib ci coCdio? 

CK6jlbK0 rfflCpT.? 

H'i^i-b-jtB y Bac^ uopjiKCwb, Ha eo- 
i6pax'b Bu K6xeTe'nojiosHTbca? 
OTBtqieie-jK bh sa Haxi? 
rflt-MU Ten6pb? 
flaJieKa-;in on> nacT. seMJui? 
Be3on4cHbi-jiH 6eper4? 
H'ibrB JIB B6iimA r&BaHH? 
Bt. Jtaitdui HanpaBjefliH? 

Have you any boats to be 

Introduce me to the captain I 
Lead me to the owner t 
Are there no sailors fit for ser- 
Are they not fishermen? 
Are they not mercantile sailors? 

Are they numerous? 

Do they know how to manage 

it well? 
Are they acquainted with the 

Black (Baltic) sea? 
Have they beei^ serving a long 

What displacement does your 

ship reqpire? 
Is this boat light? 
Is this boat new? 
What journey did it usually make? 
Did it undertake long voyages? 
Or only short journeys? 
How many guns can your boat 

How many round balls? 
Have you not any sailors on 

whom you can surely rely? 
Do you answer for them? 
Where are we now? 
Are we distant from the shore? 
Are the shores not dangerous? 
Is there no harbour in proximity? 
In which direction? 

For army and navy officers. 


Mdaceut-jiH hu bi> hbS yKp^Ticfl? 
He 6ojiTBCfl-jiH HaMi fifpn? 
OTKtfla Btiepi.? 

EcTB-jin y sacb HopcE63 sdHnaci? 
He bctp4tbjih-jih bu r^t nepft- 


HoA'b EaiCJ^iTb ^nkrowb? 
BcTpiTHaH-aii BH pi^ocKift (Jiaon.? 
Bi) icaKbini EanpaBji^idH bu er6 


U,iiia.ii-Jiii TO AIIB63UI? 
KaE^ TO Cujia ;(iiB^3ia? 
M6seui-JH noAofliA 6e30B&CHO 

Kh 6et)er4iii? 
M6acK0-:iH npnSjiiisHTbcA desondc- 

Ho El Oxicci? 
HaS^gH'E-iH HH HEA^atBaro mi^f 

Maaa, Koi6pHfi Bseju-SH eacb 

B'i r&BaHi? 
fl. xo«t mxtpMaHa T^pxa ((fHB- 

ji^fHAUa, mB^AS')- 
jl He xoi^ ptecEaro nrrypuaHa. 

ficjiH BU npBHeceTe Hairb B^pnob 
B noAp66Hoe EaBtcxie, to nojiv- 
qHTC xop6myio lui&Ty. 


Baci pascipijuieMi. 

Can we take refuge in it? 
Is there no stoim to be feared? 
Whence blows the wind? 
Have you a sea-compass? 
Did you not meet any pirates? 

Under which flag? 

Did you meet the Russian fleet? 

In which direction did von meet 

with it? 
Was it a whole division? 
Which division was it? 
Can we safely approach to the 

shore ? 
Can we safely approach to 

Odessa ? 
Shall we find a trustworthy pilot 

to lead us into the harbour? 

I want a Turkish (Finnish, Swe- 
dish) pilot 

I will not trust to any Russian 

If you procure us sure and de- 
tailed information, you shall 
receive splendid pay. 

If you betray us, we shall have 
you shot 

CeBacT6noAB vb dsrycTt 1855 t6^& 

U^peA* caMHMi kohii;6mi o64sa CTapnqeKi, 6aTa- 
pe^HUH nncapb, somejE'B b'b soMnaxy Cb Tpeui saaeq^- 


Sfipy. <BorB dTorb BectMa nyatHHS, cefiiacb KasaKi 
npHses'B OTh HaHa.![i>HB£a apTZJiJiepm. » Bcl> 0({)Hj;^pu cf> 
HCTepnijiiBHMi oatH;i;aHie]ffB nocMOTpijiH Ha onHTHHe 3% 
9T0U'b A'kJi'k najiBii,u 6aTap6tHaro EOHaHA^a, CJauHBaBmie 
nenaTB KOHsepTa h ;i,ocTaBaBniie eecbMci up:myio ^yaary. 
<^.to §xo MOMO 6htb?» ji!ks&xb ce64 Eonpoci KaatAHfi. 
Morjo 6htb cobc4mi BHCTyna^me na otawxi. h3I CeBa- 
cTonojra, mooo 6htb sasHa^^Hie Bcefi Saxap^H Ha fiaciioHH. 

— Onaib! CKasajti 6axap6flHHfi KOManjuApi, cep^fiTo 
iHBHpHyBi Ha cioji'B oyMary. 

— HCMi, AnojuoHi CepriHTB? cnpocHjPB cxapmiS 


Tp^dyioii 0(|)Mi];6pa ci npncjiyrofi na KaK^-TO xairB 
MopxfipHyio daxap^Ki. 7 MeHfl h xaKi Bcero neiiipe h&io- 
BiKa 0(|)Hii6p0Bi H npHCjyi'H hojihoS B'B cxpoS He Biixo- 


324 . Appendix. 

KBTh^ Bop^ajii 6aTap6fiHHfi KOMaHftfipi: — a nyrb Tp6- 
6yK)YB eme. 

— OAHdKO, Ha;i,o KOMy-HHo;fxfc httS, rocnoA^, CKa- 
aajit OHi, noMoaiaBi neMHoro: npHKaaaso b* c^mb ^laeoBi 
6htb Ha por^TKi .... nocjaTb (|»ejitx(|>66ejra! Kowy ate 
HTTJi, rocno;ta? pimaSTe, noBTopajti oht>. 

— Jta BOTi OHfi emS marAi He-6iMH, CKaaajre lep- 
HOBfii^KiS, yKasHBaa Ha Boji6;i;h) (npanopn^HKa, tojibko qio 
npitxaBmaro H3i lleTep6ypra, no BunycKi HSt apTHMe- 
pfScEoS lUKOjm). 

— Jl^a, a seaajii 6h, CKaaajTB Boji6;i;a, ^^yBCTsya, itaKi 
xojt6;tHH& noTt BHCTynajii y Hero na cnHHi h mei. 

— Hirb, sa^iMil nepe6fiji'B KanuTani. — Pasy- 
M'keTca, HHKTO He OTKaseTca, ho e HanpamHBaTbca ne 
cjiifli; a Koafi Ahojijiohi Cepr'tH^i npeji,ocTaBJjieTi bto 
HaiPB, TO KHHyTB ffip^SiS, KaKi H TOTb pa3i fltjajIH. 

Bc4 coMacfijHH.. KpayT-B Hapisajii 6yMajKeKi, CKa- 
TajfB HX'b H namna.i'b m> (ftypiiKKy. KannTani myrnji's 
H Aaate pinrfrjca npn BTOMt cjj'iai npocHTt BHHa y noji- 
KOBHHsa, Kis. xpa6pocTH, KaiTB om> CBaaaji'b. ]i,aneaKo 
CHstji'b MpaHHufi, Bojiosa y.ra6a:iftfl leJiy-TO, ^epHOBHi(KiH 
Ysbpai'b, ^To HenpeM^HHO eMy flocTdHeTCH, Kpayrs Cujvb 
coBepni^HHO cnoKoeHi. 

Bojofli n6pB0My ^aan BHSnpaTb. Om, msuvh o^Hy 
6yMajBKy, KOTopaa 6wik noAJiMHHie, ho TyTi> eity npHnuo 
Bi rojiOBy nepeMiHfiTb, — Bsajit Apyr^ro, noM^Htnie h 
TOHbBie, H, pasBepnyBi, npoieji na neS: «HTrH». 

— Mni, cKaaaji'b ohi, B3;i;oxHyBTj. 

— Hy, H ci BoroMx. Boti bh h o6cTp4j[fleTecL 
cpasy, CEasM'b fiaTapeftHuft, c% ji66pot yjiH6KoS, rjiAm na 
CMyni;eHHoe JHn;6 npanopmHKa: — tojilko nocKopie co6h- 
pafiTecb. A htoSh BaMi Becej'fee 6rao, Bjanrt nofiflerb 
ci BaMH 3a cpy^iBHaro (|)eftepBepKepa. 

Bji&BTh 6h.tb 'ipesBU'iaflHo WBoaeH^ cboi'imi nasHa- 
^^HieiTb H at^BO uo6'kmajvh co6Hp4TbCH, h, oxiTHft, IipH- 
me.i'b noMoraxb BoaoA'h h bc6 yroBdpHBajii. ero BsaTb 
ch co66fi H KOHKy H niy6y, h cTiipwa "OxeHecTBeHMHa 
3anHCKH», H Ko^^fiHHKTj cHHpTOBHH, B ffpyri'a HeqyaiHHa 
B6ni,H. KanHTdH'b nocoB'tTOBaji'B Bojioa^ nponecTb cHaiaia 
no PyKOBdftCTBy' o CTp4jib6i h3i Mopinpi h BHHHcaTb 

' PyKOBdjCTBo AJa apiBjiepificKHxi oijinnepoBi, I'wflaiiHoe Beaa 


Fob army and navy officers. 325 

TOTi-Hac:B »e OTTy;i;a TSi6^±iifi. Bojeoah lorh-^&cb ace 
npHHflJica 3a ^ijijio h, ki jflHBJi^HiK) h paflocTH CBoeJB, aa- 
MiTHJii., ^To xoTji qyBCTBa cTp^xa onacHOCTH B emfi 66sbe' 
Toro, 1T0 OHi 6i;i.6T'h Tp^coMi, fiesnoKOHJiH ero HeuB6ro, 
HO AaJCKO He Bi TaKofi CT^neHH, sawb dio 6i!uo HaKaHyHi. 
Oiq^cTH npmfiHOH TOMy 6hjo BJiiaaie ma h AiaTejiBHOCTH, 
OT^acTH H, MaBHoe, TO, 1T0 CTpaxi, KaKx H Kaauoe dsb- 
Hoe qyBCTBO, He MoaceTi bi. o;i^6fi CT^ncHH npOAOJiataTca 
AOJiro. O^HHMi. cjiOBOMi, OHi yace ycnijii nepe6oflTBC«. 
HacoBi Bt ccMb, lojiBKO-^TO c6jiHn,e Ha^HHajo np^TaTBca 
3a HHKOJcaeBCKot KaaapMoft, (^ejihji,^e6ejih Borngjn ki Heny 
H o6iiiB6jii>, ^To muR roTOBH H xoatH;t4K)Tca. 

HejiOBiKt ;;Baxii,aTb apTHjuepificKHxi cojiflM'b, vh 
TOcaKaxTb 6e3% npHHaAJt^aiHOCTH, ctohjih sa yrjiOMi ^toMa. 

B0Jl6;i,i£ BM^CTi Ch BHKepOM'B nOJOmJIH Kl HHMl. «CKa- 

saTB jiH HiPb MajreHLEyio ptiB, hjth npoeio CKasaib: 3ao- 
poBO. pefiflTal HJfH HH^ero ne CKasaTb?* ncA^aJii ohi. 
— ^a-H-OTHcro-ati hb CKasaTb: <3Aop6BO, pefiiTa! §to 
jsflji^no Aaace!» M OHt cii^jro kp^ehjji'b CBoim SByHHiiu'b 
rojiocK6Mi: «3Aop6BO, pefiriia*. CosjsMti B^cejio OTOSBa- 
jr6cB: mojio;i;6h CBtatifi rojoct npijiTHO nposBy^aJi'B bi 
ymax'b sdiKAaro. BojioXh 66apo meji'B Bnepe;i;'B cojiABm, 
H xoTH c6pOTe y nero CTy^ajio tak-l, KaKX 6^flT0 offb 
npo64acaji'b B0-BecB-;tyx'b h^ckojibko Bepcxi, noxo^Ka y 
Hero 6HJia jterKaa h JrH^6 Becejroe. HoAxofla yx6 kt. 
caiBOMy MajraxoBy Kyprany, noAHHMaacB na-ropy, ohi 3a- 
M^THJn, ^TO BjiaHrB, HH-Ha-man ho OTCTaBaBmifi orb 
Hero H AOMa Ea3dBniificA TaKdM-b xpadpuu'b, deenpecxdHHO 
CTopoHHJca H HarH6aJi'b rojiOBy, KaKx fiy^TO Bci 66m6h h 
jiApa, yace otchb nacTO CBHCTtBmia Tyxt, JierajH npaao 
Ha Hero. HiKOTopue bs'b coaAaTBEOB'B ^JuiaJiB to ace a 
BOo6ui;^ Ha 66jibmeA nacTH axi, Ji^n'b oHrpasajiacb ecjia He 

6oi3Hb, TO fieSUOKOfiCTBO. &TH 06cT0aTejn.CTBa OEOH^^TeJIb- 

Ha MajaxoBOMi Kyprani, E0T6pHfi a BOo6paacaji'b b* 
Tucaiy pas* CTpaniHiel H a Mory htt<j ho KJtaHaacb 
aji;paMi, h Tpj'iny Mate ropas^o Meabme APyrfixil TaK-b 
a He Tpyci?> noayMajiTb om> ch HacJiaffifl^HieM'b h saaie 
niKOTopHMt BOCToproMt caMo;i;oB6jibCTBa. 

OAHaEO 3T0 qyBCTBO 6Hjro CEopo noKOj66jeHO 3p4- 
jiHin;eirb, na EOTopoe ohi naxKHyjica bi cyMepEaxi na 
KopHHJiOBCEOH 6aTap64, oxiicEHBaa HaTOJbHHEa fiacTiona. 

326 Appendix. 

leTHpe ^lejiOBiKa MaTpocoBi, okojio 6p;^CTBepa, sa-sor? 
H sa-pyKH flepffiajiH oKpoBaBjeHHHfi ipyni KaKoroTO lejio- 
Btea deat canoroBi h idhhmh h pacKaiHBajiH, acejiaa nepe- 
K^HyiL nepea^ fip^CTBepi. (Ha BTopoS ;;eHB 6oM6apJ^Hpo- 
BaHia He Besfli ycniBajH ySnpdTB lija Ha SacTioHaxx h 
BHKfisHBajTH Hxii Bt poBi, ht66h ohh hb M^fflajiH Ha 6aTa- 
, p6axi.) Bojionn cb ManyTy ocToaSeHi-ii, yBH^aBi, KaKt 
Tpyni y;i;apHJiCH o BcpinfiHy 6pycTBepa h aoTowh cKaiBfjica 
OTTyM Bi> KanaBy; ho Ha ero ciacTie, Tyrs see Ha^ajibHHKi 
fiacrioHa BCTpitHJica eir^, oiflM"^ npHKasania h ^ajii npo- 
Bo;tHHKa Ha daiap^io h bi 6jihhMjki, HasHaqeHHHg ;i;jra 
npHmra. He dy^eMi pascKasHBaTt CKoatKO ondcnocTefi, 
pasoqapoBaniH HCHHTajii Hami repofl bi toti Beqepi: 
KaKi bm4cto TaKoS cTpiaLffi, KOTopyi) dhi BH^jjiji. Ha 
BojKOBOMi nojii, npH Bcixi ycmBiaxi tohhocth h ho- 
pajKa, KOTopna ohi> Ha;^4aMa naflii 3ji,icb, ont nameax 
Sfii paadHTHa MopTfipKH, h3% kotqphxi oflHa fiajia CMJiTa 
ajpoMi Bt ayjii, H spyr^a CToaja Ha n];6nKaxi pasSHTofl 
naaT^opjiH, Kajti HH osHHt sapfl^'B He-6HjrB Toro Bica, 
KOTopHfi osHaqeni 6hjii bi «PyK0B6;i;cTBi», KaEi paHHJH 
flByxi cojAaTi ero KOMaHAH h naKi SBawaTt pasi ohi 
6Hai. Ha BOJiocKi oti cMepiH. Ho CTacTiio bx noMomB 
eiiy HaanaTCH'B 6h;ii orpoMnaro pocia KOMensopi., MopaKi, 
CHa^ajia oca^ti 6uBniiS npH uoprdpaxi u ydiA^Bniin ero 


BOAHBfflift ero H(5ibK) no Bceny 6acTi6Hy, to^ho KaKx no 
CBoemy oropo^y, h o64n;aBniiH ki s^BTpeMy Bce ycTpoHXi. 
BjHHAawT., Ki KOTopoMy npoBO^fiJii ei6 npoBOAHHKi, 6ujii 
BiipHTaa B% KaMeHHOMi rpynri, bi ab^ KydHTCCKia caatenH, 
HpoAO^roB^Taa jJMa, HaKpAiaa apinfiHHHMH AySoBHim 6pe- 
BHaMH. Bi H6fi-T0 owb uovAcikJicsi CO bc4mh cbohmh 
cojrsaTaMH. B^anri. uipBui, KaKi toibko yBHAajri vb 
aprnHHi) Bi^seHBKyio ABepB 6;Q[HAa»a, onp6jieTi>K), npem^^ 
Bcixi, B6iata.icb bi Hee h, ^tb He pasfiHBniHCb o ita- 
MGHHHfi noji, sa^fijrca bi yroai, H3i KOToparo yate ne 
BHxoA^ai 66jBme. Bojiofla ate, Kor^^ Bci co^m^m no- 
Mic.TfijHCB BAOJB Cxiffib Ha HOjy H niBOTopHe saKypHJiH 
Tpy6oHKH, pas^H^ii CBOK) KpoBaib BB yrjy, saatgri cB^HKy 
H, saKypfiBi namapocKy, jfirt na KoftKy. — Ha Apyrofi 
AeHb, 27i'o iHCja, nocjii AecaTH^acoBoro cna, BojioAa, 
CBifflifi, doApHH, paHo ^ipoMB BHHiejii Ha nop6ri 6jihh- 
Aaata. Bjanri Toate dHJio-BHJiisB BMicrfc cb hemi, ho 

For arht and natt ofpicebs. 327 

npH nepBoiFB ssfivb nyjB, CTpeiirjiaB'B, npo6HB£LH cefit 
rojiOBOH jopory, 6p6cHJicA Hasaj'B kb oTB^pcTie fijHHflaaa, 
upH odmeM^ x6xo:ri^ Tome 66jbmeK) toctIi;) noBimeflnraxt 
Ha BOSAyxt cojiflaTHKOB-b. TojBKO BjiaHTi), CTap^K'B (i)efiep- 
B^pKept H HicBOJiLKO ^^yTfo.'h BHxo^ifijiH pt;i;KO Bl TpaH- 
meio; ocTajibHux'b Heatsa 6hjio yji;epacaTB; Bch onfi noBu- 
canajH Ha CBiacift yTpeHHifi Boasyxt hs-b CMpa;i;Haro 6jihh- 
flaata h, HecMOTpa Ha ctojib ace chjibeoc, KaKi h HaKaHyni, 
6oM6apAHpoBaHie, pacnojoacfiiHCB okojo nopora, kto no^t* 
6pycTBepoM'B. M^jiBHHKOBi y«6 cb caMofi sopBKH npoH- 
jraBajrca no 6aTap6aMi, paBHo;iyniHO noMaAHsaa BBepxt. 
Oeojio nopora cha^-ih ABa cmpux'B h oa^h'b uo^ioAofi, 

nixOTH. COJA^Tl 9T0Tb, HO^IjHaB'B 0;^H^ HSl BajiaBfflHXftH 

nyjiB H ^epenKOMi pacnjiitCHyBt ee o KiMeHB, hokom'b 
iBuphsujiTy HSt Hea Kpecw. Ha Man^pi reoprieBCKaro ; 
Apyrie, pasroBapHBaa, CMOTpijH Ha ero pa66Ty. KpecT-B, 
'A^ScTB^TejBHO, beixo;i;6ji'b o^chb BpacHBi. 

— A ^TO, KaK-B eni;e nocTO^Mi 3a4cb, roBopHJi ofltai 

H31 HHXi: — TaK-B HO SaMHp^HiH Bcijll, B* OTCTd,BKy 
CpOKl BliflAeTl. 

— KaKffie! MHi h to Bcero ^erape ro^a j!,o oTCTaBKH 
ocTaBajiocB, a len^pB nai'B M'fecaneB'B npocToajii bi CeBa- 

— Ki OTcraBKi He CTHTaeica^ cjumiB, CKasaji'B ;tpyr6ft. 
Bx 3T0 BpcMa aflpo npocBHCTijio na^'B rojOBaMH 

roBopfiBniHXi H Bi apniHHi y^apHJiocL oarb MejiBHHKOBa, 
nojtxoflfiBfflaio k-b hem-b no TpaHm^i. 

— ^yTB He yQi&jro M^jBHHKOBa, CKaaaa-B oa^h'b. 

— He ySbe-Pb, oivh^ijpb Mcjibhhkobi. 

— BoTi Ha ate Te6'k KpecTb aa xpd6pocTB, CKaaajPB 
MOJiOAofi cojiAaTi, si^iaBHiifi KpecrB h 0T;(aBaa ero MejiB- 


— H'kTh, 6pai"B, Tyri., snaiHTi, jiican.'B aa roA* 
Ko BceMy ciHTaeTca — Ha to npHKasi 6hj'b. 

— KaK-B HH cyxH, desnpeittiHHO, no saMHpedin, c^t- 
jiaiOTi CMOTp-B napcKifi Bi OpniaBi, h koji6 ne OTCTaBKa, 
TaKi B-B deacpo^Hue BanycTaTi. 

Bi 9T0 Bp^Ma, BH3r:i6Baa, saniniBmaaca nyjiBKa 
npojeitja naai. caMBiMH tojiobAmh pasroBapHBftioniiHxi h 
y^apHJiacB o KaMOHB. 

328 Appendix. 

— CMOTpfi, em,^ J^o B^TOpa bi uucmym ^Aftjsfimh, 


n He TOJibKO AO B^wpa, HO ^^pesi ABa Hacd yat^ 
ABoe HS'B EHxi no;iyq6jiH ^Aesyro, a hatb 6uJin paHemj; 
HO ocTa-iBHiie rayrfiaH to^ho TaKi ae. ^igciBHTejtBHO, Kt 
^Tpy ;i;Bi MopTfipKH 6hjih npHBeflCHti bt, laKoe nojoae- 
Hie, HTO MoacHO 6hjo CTpiaaTb hsi hhxx. ^ac^ b-b ;i,ecji.- 
TOWh, no noji^HCHHOMy npHKaaamio oitb HanajiBHHBa 6a- 
fiTioHa, BojiOAa BH3Bajii cbok) KOManAy h ct h6io bm4ct4 
nomejii na SaTap^ro. 

Bi jiK>js,ssb HeaaMiTHO 6iim h KanjiH Toro nyBCiBa 
6ofl3HE, EOTopoe BHpa^a^iocb B^epa, EaKi> CKopo ohb npsHa- 
aicB 3a j^ijio. Tojibko Bjianri ne mof-b npeo;i;o;i4Ti> ce6a: 
npflTa-i&H, H rH]^jrcfl Bce TaKate, h BacHHi noTepaji wk- 
CKOJbKO CBoe cnoKoficTBiej cyeifijicH h npHct^ajit Seanpe- 
CTaHHO. BoJI6;^a ate Chjii bi> ^pesBH^afiHOMi BOCTopri; 
eMy He npHxo;tK[ja h mhcjub 06% onacHOCTH. Ph.hoctb, 
HTO owh HcnojHaeTi CBOio oSasaHHOCTb, ito oh% ne tojibko 
He Tpyci, HO Aaffie xpaCJpj, nyBCTBO KOMaHAOBania h npn- 
cyTCTBie flBaAii,affH HejOBSKi, KOTopne, ohi saaji, eh 
jDo6onuTCTBOMx CMOxptjiH Ha Hero, CAiJiajiH hsi Hero 
coBepmeHHaro Mojowa. Owb fliiate TmecjfdBHJica cbo68 

XpdSpOCTBK), (J)paHTHJti HepCffB COJAaXaMH, BHjtSMi Ha 

6aHKeTB H Hapo^HO pascTerayjii hihh^b, ht6(Sh ero 3a- 
H^TH'j^e 6iiJio. HaiajBHHKi. dacxioHa, odxoA^BmiS bi. 3to 
Bpewa CBoe xoshhctbo, KaKi oh-b Biipaatajica, KaKi He 
npHB^Ei b:b BoceMB uicai^eB'b ko bc^m'b poAaHi xpa6pocTH, 
He uorb He nojiodoBaTBca na otofo xopomeHBKaro mmb- 
"SHKa, Bt pa3CTerHyT0H niHHejH, asb-nofl'B KOTopot bhah^ 
6iija EpacHaa py6ainEa, o6xBaiU6aE)u;aa 6ijiysi, HiacHyia 
meio, Cb pasropiBHiHMca Jisoflw.'b a rjiasaMH, noxaonuBaio- 
ui,aro pyE^MH h 3B6HEHjrB rojiocEOM'B EOM^HJiyH)ni,aro: 
«IIepBoe, BT0p6e!», h B6ce;io Bdiraromaro hb 6|^feTBepi, 
vi,66u nocMOxp^TB, Ey^a ndjiaexi ero 66M6a. Bi nojio- 
Bfei flBina^iiaiaro cxpijiB^a c* oSinxi cxopoHi 3ax6xjia, 
H poBHO Bi j;BtHaOTaxB HacoBi Ha^iajica. mxypMi MajiA- 
xoBa Kyprana, 2ro, 3ro h 5ro fiaciioBia. 

Bojrofla aifma.ji'b CEasEy, Eoxopyio pascEasuBajii eMy 
BacHHi, KorAi saKpHiiiH: «4)paHHy3H HAyxi!» KpoBB 
npHJifija JirHOB^HHo ei c^pwy Bojio^h, h ohi no^yBcxBO- 
Baji, EaKCb noxojOAiJiH h iioSwiiAHiJiH ero in,&Ka. Ci 

For army and navy officers. 329 

cesyHAy OHt ocxaBaji&a HewHKfiM'B; ho, BarjaHyBt Kpy- 
roJPb, offiB jBtjiiM'h, TTo co«aTH AOBojBHo cnoKOHHO sa- 
CTgrHBajiH mHHejTH h Bwvksajm ofl^m, sa ;npyrftMi., — 
ojHHi Aaate — KAaceica M^atHHKOBi, myTJifiBO CKa- 

— «BHxoa6 ct xjitfioMi-cojiLio, pe6flTa!» 
Bojiofla BMicTi cb BjianroMi, KOTopHfi hh na mar* 
He OTCi&Biji'h OTh Hero, BJijiis'B h3i. OJHHsajKa h nodiKa.i'B 
na daiap^io. ApTHJLiepfftcKoft cipijiBfia; hh cb toh, hh 
CB jipyrofl CTopoHii coBepm6HHO h6 6iuo. He ctojibko bha'b 
cnoRoScTBifl cojiaaii, ckojibko BH^tt acajKofl, ne CKpHBaeMoft 
Tp^cocTH K)HKepa B036yAHJii ero. «Heyffi6j[H a mory 6htb 
noxoafB Ha nero?* noAyMajti oh-b h B^ce^io no^S'taiaai ki 
fip^CTBepy, OKOJio KOToparo CToajlH ero MopTKipH. Buy 
icHO 6hjio b6;i;ho, KaKi 4>paHii;y3H 6i,m,ijiu. npaMO Ha nero 
no HHCTOMy MicTy h k&ki, lojinii hxi, c% SjecTamHMH na 
c6jiHn,i HiTHKaMH, meBejfijiHCB bi> 6.iiHacafiniHXi Tpanmeaxi.. 
O^tflH'B, MajeHBKin, mnpoKonJi^qift, bi syaBCKOMi iiyHAHp'fe 
H CO ninarofi, fiimaji'B Bnepe^A h nepenpbirHBa:ii> ^^peat 
aMH. «CTpijaTB KapT^'iBK)!* KpfiKHyji Bojoflia, c6traa 
ci fiaHK^ia; ho yffi6 coj^aTH pacnopa^fiJiHCB 6e3i nero, 
H MeTajiJiHHecKifi SByKt BHnyni;eHH0H KapT^qn npocBHCTajn> 
HaA* ero rojiOB6fi, cna^ajra hs-b ojHoft, hotom-b hs-b Apyrofi 
MopTfipH. «n6pBaa, BTopaa!» KOMaHAOBaj-B Bojoja, nepe- 
6iiraa b-b AJHHHy oti oahoS MopTnpH ki Apyroft h coBep- 
m^HHO 3a6iiBi o6'b onacHOCTH. 0% 66kj cjiimajiacB 6jifl3Kaa 
TpecKOTHfl pyjKeS Hainero npHKpuTBa h cyexjiHBHe kphkh. 
BApyFB nopasHTejBHHfi KpHKt OTiaaHia, nOBTopeHHui 
HicKOJBKHMH TOjocai^H, HOcMmajiCH difla: «06x6j];a'rB! 
o6\6]i,aTh\> BoJOfla ooanyjica Ha KpHKi. ^e^iOB'feK'B ABa- 
AH,aTB (J)paHi;y30Bi noKasajiHCB caaAH. Ofl^wh hs^ ahx-b, 
ch ^epHOft 6opofl6S, KpacflBHfi MyatiiiHa, 6hj'b Bnepeaiii 
Bcixx, HO, AofiiataBi maroBib Hd-^ecaiB oti 6aTap6H, ocTa- 


nodtataji'B wh nemy. Ob ccKynAy Bojioah ctohjii OKaMe- 
ntjiHfi, H He B'tpH-i'B r;ia3aM'B cbohmi. Kor^a ohi> ohom- 
HHJca H orjanyjieH, Bnepesfi ero na fipycTsepi 6hjih cfinie 
MyHAHpu; A^ate ana (|)paHi;y3a bi secflTfi maraxi oti> 
Hero saKjenHBajiH nyniKy. KpyroMi. ero, Kpoai MejBHH- 
KOBa, y66Taro n^Jieio piAOM-B cb hhm-b, h B-ianra exBa- 
TfiBHiaro Bi pyKH xaHAinnyri h, cb apocTHHMi BbipaffiemeMi 
Mini, on^HieHHHMH 3paHEaMH, SpocHBHiaroca BnepeAi, hh- 

330 Appendix. 

Koro h6-6hj[0. «3a mhok, BaaAfimpi CeMeHHii! sa MHofil» 
EpH'iiLi'B OTiaaHHHi TQJLOVb BjiisFS,, xaH;^^I^y^OMl, Maxa- 
Bmaro na (|)paHn;^30B'B, aam^^quHxi caaAH. ^pocTHaa (J)h- 
Tfpa, lOHKepa osaAaqHja hxi. Oahopo, nepeAnaro, OHi 
yAapHJi no roaoBi, Apyrie hcbojibho npiociaHOBKiJiHCB, h 
B;iaHra npoAOjato'B orjiaAHBaTtca h OTmaHHO kphtotb: 
«3a MHoft, BjiaAtoipi CeMeHHH'B! hto bh ctoAtc? dirfiie!* 
nofiiacaa'B k-b TpaHin^'fe, Bi KOTopoft Jteaiajia Hama nixoxa, 
CTpijtaa no ^^pa^ni^yaaM*. Bckohhb'b b^ Tpanm^K), ohi 
CHOBa Bucynyjica nai Hea, ^t66h nocMOTptTt, 5T0 Ai-naept 
ero oSoacaeMHH npanopm;HKX. 1t6-to b-b mHHejrn hhikomi 
jieaiajo na tomt> Mtcri, ta^ CToajii BojioAa, h bcS 3to 
m4cto 6mo nanojiHeHO ^panniyaaMH, CTp'kiaBinHMH wh 

Bjanrt nanieji cboio 6aTap^i) na BTopoi o6opoHH- 

T&abHOft jAhIh. HSI HHCja ABaADiaTH COJIAaTB, Shbhihx'b 

na MopxiipHOii 6aTap^4, cnacjocB tojibko bocbmb. 

Bx AeaaTOMi nacy Be^epa Bjianrt cb fiaiap^ei, na 
napoxoA^ HanojneHHOMi cojAaTaMH, h nyniKaMH, JioniaABMft, 
paHeHHMH, nepenpaBjHJca na CiBepnyK). BacTptjiOBi 
HHrAi h6 6hjo. Sb^sah TaKate, EaK-B h Bt nponuyro hoib, 
apKO 6jecT'i:iH Ha-He6i; ho cmbbhS Btoepi KOJiHxajii 
Mope. Ha n^pBOMS h BTopoM'B fiacTionaxi BcnuxHBajiH no 
seujii mojihIh, BspuBU noTpaca:iiH bosajxi h ocB'£ni;ajH 
BOKpyr-B ce6a KEKie-TO nepHHe CTpaHHHe npeAM^ra h KaMHH, 
B3;ieTaBHiie na BOBAyxt. Itoto ropijo okojo aokobi, h 
KpacHoe njiaMa OTpaat^JiocB bt. boa4. Mocti, HanojneHHHS 
napoAOMi, ocBimjajrca oraeMx cb HnKOJiaeBCBoS daiapeH. 
BojiBmoe UJiiua. CToajo, nasajocB, naA'B boaoA na Aa-ieKOMi 
MHCK3^ AjieKcaHApoBCKoft 6aTap6H h ocBin^ajio hhs*, o6jiaKa 
AUMa, CTOHBniaro naA'B hhmi, h Ttate, KaKi h Biepd, 
cnoKofiHHe, A^psKie, AaJieKie ornfi SjiecT^jH bi. Mopi na 
HenpiaTejTBCKOMi. ^joii. Cuimvi Bfaepi K0jHxa;ii 6yxTy. 
Ilpn CBirh Bapesa noatapoBi bSahh 6mh MaHTH Hamnxi 
yionaromnx'B Kopa(iji^ft, KOTopue MCAJieHHO rjyfiate h rjiydme 
yxoAfiJiH B-B BOAj. FoBopa He cjiiimHO Shjio na naay64; 


H napa, cjumHO 6iiJ0, KaK't jomaAn (j|)upKajiH h TonaJiH 
Ha nia^raHAi, cjiiiniHU Smh KOManAHHa cjiOBa KanHTana h 
CTOHU paneHHX'B. Bjianrt, He iBmifi n;ijHft achb, AOCTajii 
zjc6k% xji46a hb-b KapMana h Haiajti atsBaTB, ho BApyri 

For army and navy officers. 331 

BcnoMHBB'b BojoA']^, sanjiasajirb TaKi rpoMKO, ^rro coji- 
A&TH, 6iiBmie 6EOJto Hero, ycjiwi&jm. 

— Bhiiil, caiTB xai6i icTB, a c&wb ujim&i'b, BMh- 
ra-xo Hamt, cKasaji^B BacHHi. 

— HyAHO, cKaaajPB flpyr6ft. 

— Banib, H HaniH Kas^paoi nosascrJiA, npoAOJisajti 
OHi BSflHx^: — H CKOJbKO TaM-B Hamcro 6paTa nponajio, 
a HH sa 1T0 (|»paHi;y3y Aocrajiaci.! 

— Ho EpddHOCTH c4mh acHB^e: h to cjiaBa Te, To- 
cnoAH, cusisijvh BacHH'b. 

— A Bce o6ftAHo! 

— ^& HTo 066AHO-TO? PasBi owh lyvb pasryj^eTca? 
KaKatel rjia^t, namH onAih oxfiep^Ti. Ymt CKOJbKO-fi'B 
H&niero 6paTa hh npondjio, a, KaKiE> Bori CBfln>, vexkn, 
HiuiepiTopi — H 0T<5epyTX. P^sBi Hama TaKi ocraBaT'B 
eu]^? KaKate! Hd aorb Te6'b rojiua ct^hu; a inaHii;bi to 
wA noB3opBa;iii .... He66cb, CBoi SHaneK^b Ha Eypr^H']^ 
nocTaBHJTb, a bt, ropoA* He cyfiTca. 

— EEoroA^, emS pascneTX 6yAeTi ci to66h HacToamit 
— AaS cpoK-b, BaKJiTonfuph ohi, o6paiiidacb kb 4)paHiiiy3aMi>. 

— H3b4ctho CjA&Th 1 CRasajTb Apyrofi ch y6'hxfl,emewb. 

lie Bceft Ji£[Hm cesacTonojiBCKflx^ ^acrioHOB'b, ctojibeo 
MlcflUeB'B KHnisiBHX'B neo6uEBOB^HHoS 9Bepr6?eeB0&.ac63- 

Hbt», CTOJIbRO TxbcHneWb BHAiBmHX-B CMiHaCMHX'b CM^pTbH), 

oxRifix'b 3a ApyrfiMH yHHpS.ioinHXi reposBi, h ctojbeo 
M4cai;eBt BOsdyjBAaBmHX'b cvpa.A.T,, H^naBncTb h HasoH^i^'b 
Bocxit^^Hie BparoB'b, Ha ceBacTonojrbCEHX'b 6acTi6Bax'b jx6 
HHrA* HHKoro h6-6hjo. Bee fiiijo mSptbo, a^ko, yatacHO, 
— HO He Tfixo : Bc6 eme paspym^ocb. Ho HspHTOft, cb^- 
KHMH BspuBaira o6ciinaBni6fica: scMJii BesAi Bajraaacb 
HCKOB^pKaHHHC ja(j)eTH, npHAaBdBmie ^ejOBtnecKie pj^ccEie 
H BpaatecKie ipynH, laatejiHa, sanoaEHyBmia naBcerAa ny- 
ryHHua nymKH, CTpamnoft cSjioS c6p6nteHHua Bi Amu h 
AO nojoBflHH saciinaHHHa seMj^ft, 66m6h, aApa, onaib 
ipynu, Him, oce6;ikh fipeseHi, 6jiHHAaaefl h onaTB moji- 
iMfiBHB TpynH BT> cipHxi H c^HHX'b niHH^jraxi.. Bee 
^0 HacTO coAporajiocb eni;e h ocBimajiocb fiarpoBHirb njra- 
MeneMi BspuBOBX, npoAOJiacaBniHx:b noTpacaxb BOSAyxi. 

Bpar6 BHAiJH, ^to ^to-to HenonaTHOe TBopaaocb b-b 
rposHOMi. CeBacT6no.!ii. Bspusu 3Th h MepTBoe MOJi^aHie 



Ha fiacrioHax'B, sacTaBaa-iH hxi co;(poraTBGa; ho OHfi He 
cm4jih BipHTB einfi uojvb B;iiaHieM% cfljBHaro cnoKofiHaro 
OTHopa AHa, 1x061 HCH^si. HXi nenoKoaeSfiMHg spara, h, 
MOJiia, He HxeBejacB, cb tp^hctom'b oxvlj^Lhh KOHn,a wpai- 


CeBacTonojiBEoe boScbo, xaK'B nope b'b 3u6jitBjsi 
MpaiHyro hohb, cjiHBaacB, paaaHBaacB a TpendatHO Tpenemd 
Bcefi CBO^fi Maccoft, KOJiHxaacB y 6;fxTH no MOCTy, h 
Ha CiBepHofi, M^AJtcHHO ABHrajocB, B'b HenpoHHHaeMoi 
TCMHOTi; npo^B oib Micxa, Ha KOTopoMi ctojbko oho 
ocTaBHJO xpafipHx-B dpdTBeBt — OT-B MicTa, Bcero o6jih- 
Taro ero KpoBBio — oxi. Mtcxa, 11th M4cjin;eBi OTCTan- 
Baeuaro oti. babob CHJEBHtflmaro Bpara h KOTopoe xen^pt 
Be;iiHO 6hUL0 ocxaBHiB fies-B 66a. 

BHXofla'Ha xy cxopony Mocxa, no^xfi Kaat^Hft co:i;i;aTB 
cnHMa:!!. manKy h Kpecxfijica. Ho 3a sxhitb lyBCXBOMi 
6iijio Apyroe, laatejioe, cocyni;ee h 66jii,e rjiy66Koe ^bcxbo: ■■ 
9X0 6hjo ^yBGXBO KaKi. 6yftxo noxoacee na pacKaanie, cihai 
H 3jr66y. IIoRxfi Ka»AHH cojraaxi, BaManyB-B ci CiBepnofi 
ciopoHH Ha ocxaBJieHHHS; CeBacxonojB, cb HeBHpasAMofi 
rope^BE) Bi. c6pAi;i BSAHxaji'B h rpoafljicfl BparaMi. 

Russian measures, 

weights and coins. 



BepciA =1166 yards 2 feet 
cax^Bb = 2 » 1 » 
apinHirb= 2 feet 4 inches 
BepmdKi. = — l'/4 » 
^yra = 1 foot — 

E^pKosen.'b = 361 pounds 
nyAi = 36 pounds 10 ounce 
(j)yHTi = 14Va » 

JIOTl = '/16 » 
SOJIOTB^Kl = '/48 » 

jBHMi = — 1 inch 
AecaiHBa = 2 acres 2 roods 
KyfiHHecKaji caatdab = 2'/io cords 
66qKa =109 gallons 1 quart 

&KKep0K% = 8 » *li » 

Besp6 = 2 » aVs » 
KpyaEa = 10 qipKH = 1 ». 

sola = '/se SOJOTHHEt. 


HMnepifiji = "/e 
^eps^aei^i = '/? 
pyOjib = 'Il 

nOJTHBBBEl = '/? 

^eTBepT&Bi = '/lo 

rP^BBBBBKl = '/« 

sonifiEa = I'/s farthings. 



The following vcc&bulai; to all the EogllshBossian exercises contained 
In the grammar Is complete in lo fai as the nonns, adjectives and verbs are 
concerned. The other words occurring In the exercises, If not given here, 
will Easily be found under the headings Of numerals, pronouns, prepositions, 
adverbs, conjunctions and inteijectionB. A BemicoUm separates the various 
meanings of the same word. Kx. decent npRJi^iEBii ; CEp6liIBll&. — Words 
as: well (suitably) zopoill6, and well (pit) ROlinesh; trunk (coffer) ejEfJKb 
and trunk (of a tree) CTBOJI'B have got separate articles. 

Abandon (to) ocTaBJutrb 

able cnocofiHbiii 

able (to be) Cmtb bt> cocTOjiHin 

about 6kojo, BOKpyrt 

above Hafli., na Bspxy 

abroad 3a rpaEdi;eio 

absence OTtstTCTBie 

absent oTcyTCTsyioiqiS 

abundance HsoS^jiie 

academy of arts xyfl6jKecTBeHHaa 

academy of sciences aKa^^uis 


accept (to) npHHRH^Tb 

accident Hec^acTie 
accidentally cjiyiiflno 
accommodation CHa6iK£Bie 
accompany (to) conpoBOWA^Tb , 
jiccomplice coyi^cTHBSi 
accomplish (to) HcnoaHjiTb [mit 
accomplished (polite) oSpaadsaH- 
accomplishment Hcnojra^aie 
accord corji&cie 
accord (to) corJiacoB^Tbca 
according to coraticHO ci 
accordingly cjrtflOBaTemHO 
accost (to) saroBop^Tb 
account ciStb 

account (on — of) no npnifirt 
account (to) cqHT4Tb 
account (to — for) OTsiqiTb sa 
accusation oOsHneBie 
accuse (to) ofiBiraJiTb 
accustom (to — one's self) npa- 


ache Com, 

achievement coBepni^Bie 

acknowledge (to) npnsBaB&Tb 

acorn a^eay;^b 

acquaintance seasdMCTBO 

acquainted 3BaE6Hufi 

acquire (to) npiofipiT&'tL 

acquisition npioCpiTeain 

across CKBOSb, nonepcKi) 

act A'^Jio; ,i(tSCTBie 

act (to) A'^fiCTB6BaTb 

action ;(ificTBie 

active ,i^iATeju.HuB 

actor aKTepi 

actual A'^ficTB^iejibHuS 

actually bi> c&uoin> A^jit 

acute 6oTpbia 

add (to/ npadaBji^Tb 

address (direction) 4flpecT>, e&h- 

address (skill) jidsKOCTb 
address (to) aflpecoBiTb; o6pa- 

adieu npon^4S; nponi&ftre 
adjoin (to) npHcoeABsiTb 
administration ynpasjiiBie 
admirable yAHBiiTe;ibHbifi 
admiralty a^Bpaorr^ficTBO 
admire (to) yi^HBJi^TbCA 
admit (to) npnYCKkTb 
adoption npaHltTie 
adorn (to) yxpamaTb 
advance npH(5JiHx6Eie 
advantage Bfiro^a, n6Ai>3a 
advantageous B^roABUS 



advantageously ct. B^roAHofi cto- 

adventure DpaEJUoq^Bie 
adversary npoTfiBHHKT. 
advertiser yicaaixeai. 
advice cob1itt> 
advise (to) coB'STOBaTb 
affair niao 
affected npHTBdpEufi 
affection npasjisaBHOCTb 
affectionate laoCismili, XK6su\iA 
affirm (to) yTsepscx^TB 
affirmatfon noTBepac^^Hie 
affliction oropq^Hie', neq^B 
afford (to) AOCTaBjiiTb 
affront (to) o6mcd.Ti>, ocEopSj^Tt 
afraid ooasniBhiA 
afraid (to be — of) fio^TBCfl 
Africa AffipBEa 
after ndcirb, cnycTji 
afternoon no nojiy;(HH 
afterwards noT6ui>, Bnoc;i'!iACTBin 
again oiiiiTb, CH6Ba 
against npinBBi. 
age BdapacTi 
agitate (to) BOjraoB^Tb 
agitation BOJiH'^Hie 
ago (since) tom^ H434;^^. 
ago (long) y»6 AaBH6 
agree (to) corjiaiu^TbCA 
agreeable DpijiTHufi 
ague jiHxopiflKa, rop;fiKa 
aid q6hou^i> 
aid (tol nnM6raTb 
aide-de-camp &f,T,m&,nTb 
air Bda^yxT. 
alarm xpesdra 
alasl yBii! 
ale n^BO 

alight (to) cjrfas&Tb 
alike oauh&kobo 
alive KHBdfi 

all BeCb, BCA, BCg 

alley afljfia 
alliance co^3% 
allow (tO; no3B0;iJiTb 
ally coibsHHK'b 
ally (to) coe;^HHiTb 
almost novT^ 
alone o/ifiEdsali 
along BAOJib 
aloud rpdHKO 

alphabet 436yKa 

already yac^ 

also TaESce, Tdace 

altar npecidjrb; ajiTipb 

alternately nonepeMiHHO 

although XOT^ 

altitude Bucotd, BbiniHH^ 

altogether coBciirb 

always BcerflA 

ambassador uoc6ji'h, noc;iiHHBK% 

ambition qecTOJubCie 

ambitious lecTomoC^Bbifi 

ambuscade aaakjifl, 

America Av^pHKa 

amiabl'e AiofiesHbitf, MAau& 

amid, amidst cpeflfi. Meatfly 

amiss (to take) npBHBH&Tb Wh 

xyflfio cmipony 
among, amongst H^ac^y 
amount c^uMa 
amount (to) cocTaB;irfTb 
ample oGm^pHbiii, ndJiEbiit 
amuse (to) saCasjiiTb 
anchor jiKopb 
ancient ^^beIS 
anciently BCTapHHy 
anecdote aBeKA6T'b 
angel inreon. 
anger rnlvB'b 
angle (comer) yrojn. 
angle (hook) y^floiica 
angry fe'IibhuB, cep^liTbiS 
animal xvB&rEuH 
animosity sjtdGa, sjiocTb 
annals jiTonBCb 
annoy (to) HaAotfl&Tb 
annoyance Henpi^THOCTb 
annual ro^OBdfi, eacerd^Eufi 
answer OTBfci. 
answer (to) OTBt^iTb 
ant HypaB^S 

anticipate (to) npe;^BdA'^Tb 
anticipation npeftq^BCTsie 
anvil BaKOB&jibHE 
anybody KTO-SHfifflb 
anything qT0-EH6yAb 
anywhere r,n'fe-HH6'j^flb 
apartment idMHaTa; Ksapxipa 
apologize (to) onpAB^biBaTb 
apparent oieB^^^EuS, liBEbifl 
apparently noBlijifmouy 
appear (to) EBJiJiTbca, Kas&Tbc« 



appearance napyacHOCTb 

apple jitSjiOKO 

apply (to — for) nouoTknoa 

appoint (to) nasHaqaTb 

appreciate (to) ^'fcHfiTb 

apprehend (to) onac4Tbca 

apprehension onac^Hle 

apprentice yqeH^icb 

approach (to) npnCjiHacaTbca 

approbation o;^6p6Hie 

approve (to) o^o6prfTb 

April' anpiib 

apron ne^iuBmrb 

Arabia Ap&sia 

Arabian apasHTiHEHi 

archbishop apxiendcKon'b 

ardour yc6p;ye 

arise (to) BCTao&Tb 

arm pyE&. 

arms' op^«ie, pyacbA 

army dpiiifl, b68cko 

around BOKpyn 

arrival npniinie, npi'ls^'B 

arrive (to) npH6fiB4Tb, n^piiax&n, 

art HCKfcCTBO 

artist Tjpfias.BnK'b 

as KaEi, TaiTb, Taici> sairb 

as if sani titAfo 

as much CT6jibKo; CK6.ibE0 

as to qTo KaoieTca jip 

Asia Asia 

ashamed (to be) aiajifirbaa 

ashes n^neivb 

ashore Ha Ceperf, na Mej^ 

aside m, CT^poHy 

ask (to) cnp&mHBaTb 

asleep cn^ii^S 

ass ocSjTb 

assault npiicxyirb 

assent (to) corJiain&TbCfl 

assistance ndHon^b 

association TOB&pHntecTBO 

assumption npacBO^Hie 

assure (to) yfliprfTb' 

astonishing YfifaiTe]a>Bhi& 

astonishment HaymifiHie 

Astrakhan AcrpaxaHb 

astray (to go) cGtiekTbca ci nyrt 

astrologer sBisAoieTi, acTpdjrori 

atrocity acecrdKOCTb 

attach (to) npHB;i3biBaTb 

attack HanaA^Hie 

attack (to) nana;(aTb 

attempt (to) nuT^Tbca 

attention BHrnn^Hle 

attest (to) sacBHfl'iTejibCTBOBaTb 

attitude nojio%6alc 

attract (to) npnajiBKiTb 

augment (to) yBejijSiHBaTb 

August iBrycTT. 

aunt TeTKa 

Austria AscTpia 

author ^BTOpT., coqan^Te^ib 

autocratic cauo^epacciBHbiii 

autumn 6ceHb 

auxiliary Bcnouor^TejibHufi 

avail (to — one's self) Bocndjib 

avaricious CKyn6& 
avow (to) npHSHaB^Tb 
a-wait (to) ac^aTb 
awake (to) faaS^^tfiib 
awake (to be) hb cnaTb 
aware (to be — of) 3HaTb 
awayl npoqbl boht.! 
axe TOodpii 

azure c^Hitt, jiasypeBbifi 
Back (backwards) naak/i^ 
bad xy;^6fi, Aypaifi 
badly fl'^pHO, njidxo 
bag KomejieE'b, irfain6Ki> 
baggage 6a,rkmb, noEJi^iEca 
bake (to) neqt 
baker ^yjioqEHKi) 
balance Bicii; paBHos'icie 
ball (dance) 6a.Tb 
ball (globe) unvb 
balloon (Bos^f mHbifi) mapt 
barber i^iipib;ibBHKi> 
bard irbB6m>y 6ap^ 
bargain noEfnEa 
bargain (into the) bao64boki> 
barge GkpssA 
bark 6&pKa 
bark (to) aknTb 
barley aqM§Hb 
barn acflTHHi(a, ryMH6 
barrack Eas&pua 
barren CeanjidflHbifi 
barrister ajBOEdrb 
base n6;i;n>ig 

Basil Island Bacd Jb^sCEiH-OcTpoB'b 
basket Eopsdua, KopsfiHKa 
bath B&HHa, 66Ma, Eyn4ju>Ha 



bathe (to) Kyn&TbCfl 

battle cpaacenie, 6ott, 6]^TBa 

bay (gulf) CyxTa, ryfia 

bean 6o6t> 

bear (to) uooiib 

beard 6opofl4 

bearer (of a letter etc.) nos^- 

beast 3Bi^pi>, acBBdiEoe 
beat (to) 6HTb, yflap^ib 
beautiful icpac^BuS, npeKp^CHufi 
beauty KpacoTa 
because noTOMy qio 
become (to) cftijiaTbca, cTaTt. 
bed (bedstead) nocT^jib, kpob&tb 
bed (flower-) i(B'feTHflKi 
bed-clothes npocn^HH 
bedlinen nocidjibHoe d'fejibe 
bedroom ch^jibha 
bee nqeji4 
beech fiyio. 
beef Bo;n> 

beefsteak 6vitn6sc'h 
beer niiso 

beer-shop nnsHda adsoqita 
before npefli., np6jKfle 
beg (to) npoc^Tb, uojitob 
beggar Hliii;iii 
begin (to) naiHHaTb 
beginning naqajio 
begone ! boht. ! yfinp&Sca ! 
behave (to) bbct^ ceBii 
behaviour ^0Be;^^Hie 
behind sa, no3a;i;<i 
behold CMOTp^Tb, yB^fl'feTb 
belief stpa 

believe (to) B'ipHTb; flyMaxb 
bell KdjiOKOjrb; K0Ji0K6jib<iHEi> 
belong (to) npHHaflJieaaTb 
beloved jiioS^iMbia 
below nofl'b, Hfiate 
belt n6ac:b 
bench CKaMbii 
bend (to) rnyTb, crHfi^Tb 
benefactor CjiarofliTeJib 
beside nbp^si, 063;!* 
besides cBepx'b, Kp6>r6 
besiege (to) ocaffiflaxb 
best Jitimifi, iianjiyqmifi 
betray (to) HSHtnjiTb 
better ji^qmiil 
between M^jKfly 

bid (to) BeriTb, npHKiauBaTb 

big 6o}ihm6S, ndJinaii, T6jicTtifl 

bill (of a bird) hoct> 

bill (account) cqerb 

bind (to) BHS^Tb, coe;i;HHfiTb 

bird nTfma 

birth poacfleHie, p6;^u 

bishop enticEoiH) 

bit BycoKT., Kyc6qeKi 

bite (to) KycaTb, Kyc^Tbca 

bitter rdpbKifl ; McecT6Kifi 

black qepHHii 

blacksmith Ky3B6i;i> 

blame (to) xyMii, nopaqaTb 

bless (to) tijiarocJiOBajtTb 

blessing fijiarocioij^me 

blind crindfi 

blindness ocatnaeHie 

blood KpOBb 

blossom ^B^>Tb 

blossom (to) i;BtcT6 

blow yuapb 

blow (to) AyTb, BinTb 

blue c^EiS, rojiy66fl 

blunder omfiGEa, np6Hax% 

blush (to) KpacHiTb 

board (on) Ha Ropa6x£ 

boarding school nancidHi) 

boast (to) XBacxaTb, XBicTaibtH 

boat jioAKa 

body rfjio ; TyjiOBHme 

boiler KOTejrb 

bold cutjibiB, A^psKifi 

bolster nofl^ms?, 

bolt CTptjItl 

bomb 6du6a; myui) 

bombardment 6oM6apAJ&poRaBie 

bondsman pa6i> 

bone KOCTb 

bonnet niji«na, mJixiisa 

book EuAra 

bookbinder nepenjieiqEEi 

bookseller fiyxrAjrepi 

bookseller KBHronpo^^asei^'b 

boot candn>, SoT^HKa 

boot-jack xjioneqi 

bootmaker candacBBicb 

booty ;;o6iSqa 

born poat;(eHBbiS 

born (to be) pojArbCfl 

both 66a, 66t, 66a 

both . . . and n . . . b 



bottle 6yTilAKa 

bottom flHo 

box (in a theater') ji6aca 

box (trunk) cyHj^si, iiiuaKi. 

boy HajibiHKi 

bracelet Cpacji^TT. 

branch cyKi>, simb 

brandy Bd^Ka 

brave xp&gpuS 

brazen Mi^xutf 

bread xjrfcfii 

breadth mupHBa 

breakfast s^BipaKT. 

breakfast (to) 3§.BTpaKaTb 

breast rpyflb, c6p^ne 

breath ^(HxaHie, ;(yxi. 

breathe (to) flbirndTb 

bred (well) BooniiTaflHutt 

breed (to) BocnHTHBaib 

bride Heo'tcTa 

bridegroom ateuAx-b 

bridge moctt. 

bright CB^TJibifi, ^pKig 

brilliant 6JlecTJiu^fi 

brim KpaS 

bring (to) npiiBOCiliTb 

broad mupdiciB 

brook pynia, pyqeein. 

broom MeTJii 

brother Cpart 

brow 6poBb, iiofii. 

bruise (to) ymaSaTb 

brush meTKa 

brush (to) BiiqHCTHTb (mexKOio) 

buck KoaejiT. 

build (to) cTp6HTb 

building crpoSHie 

bull fiblKT. 

bullet nfaa, aflp6 

'bundle CB43Ka 

burden 6p6BJi 

burdock penSB, aiara, 

burial noxop6BBi 

burn (to) ateqb 

bush KycTb 

business ;('6jio 

busy s&HflTufi, ;;'6flTejibHbift 

but a, HO, OflH^KO 

butcher MSCHiiKt 
butter M&cao (icop6Bbe) 
button nYroBHi<a 
button (to) sacierHBaTb 

Kusaian Conv.-Grammar. 

buy Cto) noKyn^Tb. Kynflib 

Cab sp6«KH, KdSi 

cabbage Kanycra 

cabman h3b6ii;hei> 

caU TejiSaoicb 

calif xajifi(|i'i> 

call (to) SBaxb; Hasua^Tb 

calm Tiixifi, cn6Ko£BbiS 

calm (to) yrimaTb, ycnoK6HBaT 

camel Bep6jii&Ai> 

camp ;i&repb, CTaai. 

can (1) H Mort 

candlestick noACs'iqBHE'b 

cane ipocTb; n4;iKa 

cannon ntmEa 

capable cnocdCabiS 

cape uucb 

captain KanHxaHT.; poTMAcTpi. 

capture BsiSxie 

care 3a66Ta; nonei^Hle . 

care (to take — ) 6ep6<n. 

carpenter nji6THBKT. 

carpet KOsSpii 

carriage KapSra, xeji'ira 

carry (to) nocATb, Becrfi 

cart-shed cap&fi 

cascade Bo^ioniji'b, Kacic4^T. 

case (event) cji^Mafi 

case (in the grammar) na;^6wb 

cask 6dqica 

cast (to) 6poc&Tb 

castle s^HOicb 

cat K6uiica 

catalogue Kaxajrdrb 

cattle cKOTb 

cause npRifiaa 

cavalry Kasajiepui 

celebrate (to) npocjasxiiTb 

celebrated Buaueai^TbiS 

cell K^JIbJI 

cellar ndrpeCi 
censure i^enaypa; nopBi^iBie 
censure (to) nopHi^STb 
centre neBrpi., cpeflOT6qie 
century cTOjrfeTie 
cer«mony uepeHdnifl 
certain BtpauS; BSBiciBbifi 
certainly kob£<ibo 
certainty BtpaocTb 
chain i;'6nb; i^ifldiKa 
chair CTyjrb 
chamber KbHHara 




chance cjr^afl 

change (to) aepeii'Jbu^Tb 

chapel iiac6BBJi 

chapter rjiaa^ 

charity u£;iocTb 

Charles Kap^i. 

charm (to) oiapoBaib 

charming npejifecTHwfi 

chat (to) 6oaT&Tt 

cheap nem&BU& 

cheat (to) o(SM4HUBa,Tb 

check (to) 3a;^6p«BBa■^> 

cheek mfiit& 

cheerful secejnafi, p^AOCTHijitt 

cheese cup's 

cherry b^iuihh 

chicken qunjieHOK'b 

chiefly npeBMyn^ecTBeHHO 

child ARTlt 

chimney KSMAm, 

chin noA6op6xoKi 

China KHTifi 

choice hiL6opb, nsCp^nie 

choose (to) Biii6Hp&Tb 

chop aoHOTi., Koraiia 

church i;6pK0Bb 

church-yard EJia^fi^^ 

circumstance oficToSTejibCTBO 

citizen rpa»A^B^'b 

city rdpoflT. 

civilisation npocBtm^Hie 

claim Tp^OBame 

class EJiaccb, paspjJAi- 

classic KJiaccdiecKifi 

clean ii^ctuS 

clean (to) ^ificTHTb 

clear jicnufl, q^eTbifi 

clergy ;^yxoB6HCTBO 

clerg3rman CBAn;6HHEKi> 

clever '^huS, ncKfcHufl 

climate laliHaTi. 

clock (what o' — is it ?) Kordpufi 

close (end) oKOHq^Bie 
close (shut) saTBdpeBBUfi 
close (to) saKpuBaxb, saTBopjiTb 
closely 6ji63ko 
cloth cyKH6, nojioTH6 

clothe (to) OfltB^Tb 

clothing o;(63Cfla, naaxbe 
cloud 66jiaKO 
club (stick) flySliHa 

club (circle) icjiyCi 
coachman Eyqepi 
coal troJib 
coarse rp^fiuS 
coast (HopcE6S) 6£peii 
coat S3,(^tkwb; cioprtEi 
cock abrix'b 
coffee s6(t>e(i) 
coffee-house ko(J)£3hii 
coffer cyH;^yK•I. 
coffin rpo6>b 
cold xojid;(Hbifi 
colonel nojiKdBBHK'b 
colony Kojdaia, nocejiSaie 
colour Bfiirb, KpacKa 
comb rpeCgBGa, rp£6cHb 
combat cpaaceBie, 66TBa, 6ofi 
come (to^ npBxo^^dTb, npifcatftTi 
come (to — in) Bxoflfiib 
come (to — up) Bcxo^firb 
come (to — down) cxo;^fiTb 
come (to — to pass) Cjiyq4Tbca 
comedy K0H6;^fl 
comfort yfl66eTB0, KOH^fipii 
comfortable yA^SHufi 
command (to) npHK&suBaTb 
commence (to) Ha<iHH&Tb 
commerce Toprbsaa 
commercial Toprdsufl 
commit (to) npenopyqS,Tb 
common dfiiqifi, Bced(>ii;iS 
commonly oSukbob^bbo 
communicate (to) coo6B;&Tb 
communication coo6n;6Bie 
community 66n^ecTB0 
companion TOBipniHT. 
company (society) 66mecTBO 
company (of soldiers) p6Ta 
compassion coiKaji'tBie 
compel (to) npHByw^^Ti 
compensate (to) EOSHarpaJKA&Tb. 
complain (to) wajoBaTbca 
complete nojuibiS 
compliment KOunjiBMCETb 
comply (to) corjiam&TbCfl 
compose (to) coCTaBadTb 
composition cocTaBJiSaie 
concert K0B^6pT'b 
conclusion aaKaioq^Bie 
concurrence CTeq^nie 
condemn (to) ocy»Cfl4Tb 
condition (state) cocTO^Bie 



condition (term) yejidsle 
confess (to) npBsnaB&Tbca 
confession Aenowiff. 
confide (to) sstp^Tb 
confidential OTEpoB^BHua 
confinement saKJuoq^nie 
conflagration aox&ph 
confusion CHyn^^Bie 
congratulate (to) nosApasji^Tb 
congratulation no3;ipaBji6Bie 
congregate (to) co6bp&ti>cji 
congregation eo(!p&vie 
connect (to) coeflOBJiTi 
connexion CBflSb 
connivance noredpoTBO 
conquer (to) sasoeBUBaTb 
conquest saooesdaie 
•conscience cdBtcTb 
consentment corJiam^Hie 
consequence cxknaiBie 
consider (to) pascii&TpiiBaTb 
consign (to) OTAaB&Tb 
consist (to) cocTOfe> 
console (to) yrfcmiTb 
conspiracy saroadpi 
constant nocTO^HBuii 
Constantinople KoBCTaBXBBd- 

nojib, I^apbipaAi 
construct (to) cipdHTb 
contain (to) coflepwATb 
content (to — one self) flOBdJit- 


contentment y^oBaeTBop6Bie 
contents co^epac&aie 
contest cnopi 
continent HarepfiEi 
continual nooTOJiBnutt 
continually nocTOJiHBO 
continue (to) npoflOJi»cATb(wi; 
contradiction npoTHBopime 
contrary npoT^BBuS 
convenience y;^66cTBo; npHJi^<]ie 
convent MOHaciiipb, o(5^ejrb 
conversation Cecifla, paaroBdpi. 
converse (to) fieciflOBaib 
conviction y6*afl6Bie 
convince (to) ySixAiTb 
cook-maid Kyx&pEa 
cook-man nbaapi 
cool npoxjidflBbift, xoa6f,mili 
copeck Kon6ftBa (xoniAKa) 
copper irt;;b 

copy (to) nepeniScbiBaTb 
cord BepgBKa 
cork npMKa 
comer ^ojn. 
correct (to) HcnpaBAiiTb 
correspondence nepen^cica 
correspondent KoppecnoBA^Hrb 
corresponding cooiB'bTCTBeEHuft 
corrupt (to) ndprarb 
corrupted BCUiipoteHHiiifi 

cost (to) CTdBTb 

cottage xAsBHa 
couch j6s(e; Kym^i^ 
cough K^mejib 
counsel coB'bQ^ie 
counsellor cOB'&TBHini 
count (nobleman) Tpiuijfb 
count (account) e?6rb 

count (to) CIHTiTb 

countess rpa^ina 

counterfeit (to) iio;v(^''n^BaTb 

country cxpaad 

country (native) OTfiieciBO 

country-house fliiqa 

course (of) pasyu'terca 

court (courtyard) flsopi. 

cousin ;^oi6poABiiifi Cparb 

cover (to) KpuTb, noKpuB^n. 

coverlet of;bAio 

cow Kop6Ba 

coward ipycb 

cream cattsEH 

Creator Teop^i^ii 

crew avMO&xi), saaka^fl, 

crime npeciynji^me 

cross EpecTb 

crow Bop6Ha 

crown Eop6Ha, Bto^i^t 

crown (tot ysta^iTb 

crucifix pacnjhie 

cruel secT6icifi, CBspinbiB 

cmelty CBBpiaocTb 

cry KpBKi> 

cry (to) KpB^Tb, na&KaTb 

ctdtivate (to) o6pa66TbiBaTb 

cup nlunna, 

cupboard araac^psa 

cure jrfc^^Bie 

cure (to) jrb^n> 

curiosity jnoComiTCTBO 

curious JQOfion^TBblS 

currants CHopd^BHa 




cuitain s&naBici 
curve cornyTOCTh 
cushion nofltniKa 
custom-house xaHdncEJi 
customer noityn^Tejib 
cut (to) piaan., paspisHBaTb 
Dagger KHHX&jrb 
daily exeAB^BHufi 
danger onacHOCTb 
dangerous odciceliS 
Danube /tyHifi 
Darius A&pifi 
dark TeuBuB, HpiiBufi 
darkness TeHEOT^ 
date qHCJi6, cpoKi. 
daughter floib 
day a/BBh 

day-break paacB^Tb 
day-light flHeaadi! CBiTT. 
dead uepTBuB 
deaf rjiyxdft 
dear ^opordS; uiaaH 
death CHeprb, E0H<i6Ba 
debt flOJin. 
December AeK46pb 
decency npaMqie 
decent npHMiBuB; CEp6HBuft 
.decision pim^aie 
declension cEjiOB^Bie 
deed niM, nocrJooKT. 
deep rjty66Eift 
defeat nopaac^nie 
defend (to) san^mi^&Tb 
deficiency He;^ocT&TOK'b 
deficient BeAocTi.TOiiHuS 
defy (to) DuauB&Tb ; Bpe3HpS,Tb 
degree cx^nenb 
deign (to) y;^ocT6HBaTb 
delay (to) saMefljuSib, 0Tjiar4Tb 
delicate h'IskbhB 
delight p^^ocTb 
delight (to) oSpa^^OBaib, socxn- 

delightful npeJi4'CTHbi& 
deliver (tp) BsSaBJuSTb, ocBo6oAdTb 
demand TpSfioBanie 
Denmark ^^biji 
denounce (to) ^(OBOofiTb 
dentist syGadfi epaqii 
deny (to) 0TpBi;aTb, OTKistieaTb 
depart (to) ornpanjuiTboa 
departure orBis^i 

depend (to) saBficliTb 
deposit (to) oaCTb 
deprive (to) jinm&Tb 
depth rjiyCBHd, 
deputy BiifiopHuft, ^eupkn, 
dervish ;^6pBBiin> 
descend (to) cxoflfiib 
describe (to) onBciwaTb 
description onacisie 
desert nycmiHa 
deserter fiirjiSi;!. 
deserve (to) BacjiyxasaTb 
design aaHipeaie 
desire aceji&aic 
desire (to) xeakn 
despair OTi&flBle 
despise (to) npesEp&Tb 
destine (to) aaaaai^Tb 
destination Hasaaq^Ble 
destiny cyAb64 
destruction paapym^Bie 
detest (to) BeaaB^^Tb 
devil TOprb, .i^bjiBOjrb 
devote (to) nocsani&Tb 
dew poc& 

dialogue pasroadpt 
diamond ajDi&s'b 
dictionary caOB&pb 
die (to) yuHp^Tb 
difference pi3nHi;a, pasMiie 
different p^BuB, paajiBmuft 
difficult TptflBbiB 
dignity ;i;oct6hbctbo 
diligent npnji^iKBufi 
dine (to) oCiflaib 
dinner oBtfl'b 
direct npaudti 
direction aanpasji^Bie 
directly TOT^^ct, cefiq&CT. 
dirt rpasb 
dirty rpjisabiB 
disagree (to) ccop^TbCA 
disagreeable aenpisiTBiiiB 
disappear (to) nmeskth 
disaster Beci&CTie, 6i?,a. 
discern (to) pasjiB^aib 
discontinue (to) nepecT&Tb 
discourse pt<ib, pasrosdpi 
discover (to) otkpub&tb 
discovery oreptoie 
discreet CKpduHuB 
discussion o6cys;^4Ble 



disease fiojiisHb 
diseased 6ojibB6ii 
disgrace HCHftjiacTb 
disgust 0TBpaiii;6Hie 
dish Sjn&AO; Kym^Hie 
disinterested fiesKop^CTHufi 
dislike OTBpamfiHie 
dismiss (to) ornycitilTB 
disobey (to) ocjitniHBaTbCfl 
disorder fiesnop^^OK'B 
displease (to) He wpiBBThca 
disposition pacnopflxSme 
disregard npeHe6per&Tb 
dissepsion necorjiicie, paajifipb 
dissuade (to) otroB&pBBaTb 
distance paacTOjiHie 
distant' ^aJieKifi, OT^^ajieRHufi 
distinction pasjiqie; bT^i^qie 
distinguish (to) , pa.sjani.tb 
distracted paacisHHufi 
distraction passaei^Bie 
distribution paa^^^a 
district yta^B 
disturb (to) (SesnoKOHTb 
ditch poB%, KaH&Ba 
diversity pasjiiiqie, p43H0CTb 
divide (t(^ pasfltjirfTb 
do (to) niaatb 

doctor Bpaiii, jrtKapb, jifiweopb 
dog co6&ica 
dog-days saH^Kyjiu 
domestic ^^OH^eiS 
dominion BJiaA'^Bie 
door ^eepb 
double ^^BofiHofi 
doubt coHBiBie 
doubtlessly 6e3T> CGMutHifl 

down BBH3J^ 

dozen A>^acHBa 

drama ;(p4Ha 

dramatic flpa«aTii>iecKi8 

drawing piictnoK'b 

drawing-room rocTiinaM 

dreadful CTp^mHuii 

dream coHi, cHOSHfl'fcHie 

dream (to) CHfiTbCfl 

dress njiS-Tbe 

dress (to) ofl*BaTb(cfl) 

drink Hanfixoirt 

drink (to) miTb 

drop Kinjfl 

drop (to) ypoH^Tb; ocTaBJirfTb 

drum 6apa6&Hi 

drunk (to be) 6nTb nbriHWHi. 

dry cyx6B 

duck f TKa 

duel ji^y^nh, noe^^BOK'B 

duke r6pi<ori> 

dull CK'fqBuii ' 

dumb B'feudii' 

dust nujib 

Dutch roJiJianiieirb, rojui^HACKiH 

duty (custom) ndmjinHa 

duty (obligation) oOdaaaBOCTb 

dwell (to) OfiHT&Tb; KHXb 

dwelling »iijiliii;e 

dying yHap&KiE^iS 

Each K&acAiJfi, BCjiKifi 

each other flpyra flpyra 

eagle opejii / 

ear yxo ' 

earl rpa({ii> 

early piao 

earth seHji^i 

easily yf/^EO, cnoK6i!BO 

lEast BOCTdKii 

eastern B0CT6<iaufi 

easy Ji§rEifi, yA66Huit 

eat (to) icTb, E^maTb 

editor peA&KTopii 

education Bocnirr&Bie 

effort ycdJiie 

egg s&Bfi 

either aii6o toti, ji^€o npytoH , 

either ... or Aaa . . . im 

elbow jdEOTb 

elder, eldest CTdpmifi 

electric ajieicTp^qecKifi 

electricity 3aeKTpfiqecTB0 

elegance EsiSii^ecTBO 

elegant HsiiiqHuB 

elegy 3Ji6rifl 

element cthxIb 

elephant cjiobi 

elevate (to) jioswirnktb 

elevated Buc6siii 

elevation B03Bbiin6Bic 

Elizabeth EjiBsaB&ra 

eloquence icpacHop'tiie 

else liHaie; HHofi 

elsewhere bi ;5pyr6jn> Mtcrfe 

embellish (to) yBpamdTb 

emblem auhniua, 

embroider (to) BbimHB&Tb 



emperor BHaep^iopi; i^pb 

empire niin£pifl, BJiacTE 

employ (to'^ ynoTpeCjuiTb 

employment saHiiTie, Hilcro 

empress HunepaTpiiiiia; i^ap^i^a 

empty nycTdfi 

emulator coaepHHEii 

enclose (to) BKJiio<ii,Tb 

encumbered (strewn) suBdieHHSS 

end EOHem; coiPiDHa 

end (to) icoH«&Ti>(cfl) 

endowed o^apSHBUt 

enemy sparb, Benpi^Tejib 

energy an&pna, cAaa, 

engage (to) yroB&pHBaTt> 

engine offf^e, Hamtea 

En^and AnrjaH 

English dHTJiificKifi 

Englishman aBTJms&HHHi 

engraving rpaBtbpa 

enjoy uacaaxf^ibca 

enlighten (to) ocBin^ATb 

enormous orpdMBuM 

enough AOsdjibRO 

enter (to) Bxa/ifitb, BCTyaiTb 

enterprise npeAnpiirie 

entertain (to) coffipB&tb 

entertainment coAcpaanie 

enthusiasm B0CT6prb 

entire i^i^uButt; coBepm^HUft 

entrance bzoaii 

envious saBticTJiBButt 

envoy ttocJi&HBBm 

envy 3&bbctb 

envy (to) sasAAOBaTi. 

epic sn^qeotcitt 

epoch 9D6xa 

equally pasad 

err (to) omHtSaTbCA, (SjiyHC^^Tb 

error omdSKa, saSjiys^^nie 

especially oc66eHHO 

essay 6iiun> 

essential cyn^^TBeBBijfi 

estate EHiHie, mi)i4ecTB0 

esteem (to) yBa]E4Ti> 

4tat-major pji^bhuH mTa(h> 

eternal BiiBuH 

eternally siqao, bb^ki. 

eternity siqaocTb 

Europe EBp6na 

European eBponSScKiS 

European Espon^eui 

even (also) nkxe 
even (smooth) pdeSHfi, Ti&ntifi 
evening B^iepi) 
ever BcerA& 
every Bctficiit, ii&Mjifi& 
everybody, -one ikx/ifili 
everything Bce 
everywhere Bea^t 
evidence AOKaa&fejibCTBo 
evidently oqeBft;;HO 
evil 3A0; Soah 
exactly T6qH0 
example upaHipii 
exceedingly qpeauipao 
excellence npeBocxb^CTBO 
excellency npeBocxo^^ejbCTBO 
excellent DpeBocxdXBufi 
except, excepting Sipditi 
exception BCK;no<i£flie 
exc«ssive qpesirbpHufi 
exchange (building) OApaca 
exchange (to) jrbH^Tb 
excitement BOJiB^aie 
exclamation BOcOHH^SJlie 
excursion nporfJiKa, sGOKf pcia ' 
excuse aaBBB^Bie 
execute (to) ncnojB^Ti 
execution BcnciB^aie 
executioner naji&<rfc 
exercise ynpaKB^aie 
exhibition BiiCTaBica 
exist (to) Curb, cyii;ecTB0B4'n> 
existence cya^ecTBOB&aie 
expect (to) acAB'ii), oxflA&Tb 
expense HSA^pKsa, pa«x6Ai> 
explanation o^'bacadaie 
expose (to^ BucTasjuiTb 
express-train Kypb^pcKifi nots;;^ 
expression Bnpais^trie 
extensive oGmtipauS 
exterior, external BapyacBuft 
extraordinary ipesBUq&fiBHfi 
extremity Bpafl, Kp&8B0CTb 
eye rjiasi, 6ko 
eyebrow 6poBb 
eyelash pica^a 
Fable 6&cba 
fabulist l5acB0DAceip> 
face jiBi(6 
fact A'^jio 

factory ^&6pHKa, sSiBdnt, 
faint cM6utt 



fair (market) ipHapica 
fair (beautiful) npeepicHbiS 
fair (it is but — to state) cnpa- 
BefljiHBocTb Tp^fiyeTTi ysaakTb 
faith B'bpa 
faithful BifBU& 
fall (to) n^AaTb 
fall (to — short) o6MaH^TbCJi 
fallacious Jiteaufi, ofiic&HqHBufi 
family cbh^Sctbo 
famine r6jio;^i>; roji6Auoe sp^iui 
famous anaMewd'oiik, cji^bhu^ 
fan B'te.pi 

far A^JieKiit, A^jtuufi; !!.a,:ieK6 
far (by) Top&aup 
far-seeing Aa^JH-Hoaopsiii 
farmer (ffipMepi. 
farther A^bme 
farthest ^kiame acerd - 
fashionable it6nBu& 
fast EpiuKiB, CE6pbi& 
fasten (to) npaicpinjirfTb 
fat Tdjicmit, KcApHbiB 
fate eyj(b6a 
father ot6i;t. 

fatigue ycT4;iocTb, yiOKjiSHie 
fault onififiKa 
favour MfljiocTb, ycjitra 
favour (to) 6jiaronpijiTCTBOBaTb 
favourable 6jiarociui6HHbifi 
favourite aK)6At^e^•h 
fear GojisBb, cTpaxi 
fear (to) fio^TbCfl 
feast npa3ABHEi> 
feather nep6 
February 4>eBp&Jib 
feeble cjiaduS 

feed (to) KopMiiTb, nHTixb, nacifi 
feel (to) qyBOTBOsaTb 
feign (to) npHTBOp^TbCH 

fellow TOBdpHlUT. 

female, feminine ac^HCBifl 

ferocious sBipcKiii, -tAtuS 

fetch (to) npHHOCliTb 

fever mxopkfi,Ka., roprfiiea 

few ^euHdrie, Hajio 

field n6jie 

fierce cBapiinitt 

fight (to) cpaataTbca, flpiTbCfl 

figure (j)Hrypa; i;fiij>pa 

fill (to) nanojiB^Tb, flonoaajiTb 

final OKonq^TeJibHHa 

find (to) HaxoA^Tb 

fine npeKp^cHufi, Kpae^Buii 

finger ndjiei^i 

finish (to) OK^HqHBaTb 

Finland ^HHAiiHAiji 

fire or6Hb 

first (at) ciiepB^ 

firstly BnepBiie 

fish pii6a 

fish (to) aoBJiTb pii6y 

fist KjakK'h 

fit (adapted) cno(}66Hufi 

flag aukuH 

flame hji^hji 

flee (to) yfitrilTb, yflajidTbCfl 

flesh Hjico 

float (to) njiuTb, BcnjiUBaTb 

floor nojTb, axdjEii 

flour MyK4 

flower I\B'6Tb, ^B'feTOIC^l 

flute ^aiAta, 
fly Mfxa 
fly (to) aeT^Tb 
foal jKepefieBOKi. 
foam B'&Ha 
fog tyukwh 

fold (to) CKJl4flHBaTb 

follow (to) oaiflOBaTb 
following catflyiomifl 
food nfima 

fool ;^yp4Kl., rjiynfiiiB 
foot ^imb) Hori 
footman aaK^S, cjiyr& 
forbidden sanpemeHBuB 
force c6.ia 
foreliead jioSt 
foreign HBOCTp^Hiibiii 
foreigner iinocipaHeuT. 
forest jricT. 
forget (to) saSuBaTb 
forgive (lo) npomaib 
fork BfijiKa 
former npexcniii 
formerly np^SBAO, Biicorfla 
fortifics^tion (J>bpTiiij)HK4itiJi 
fortnight flB't HestJiH 
fortress KptnooTb 
forward (to) oinpaBJiOTb 
found (to) ocH6BHBaTb 
foundation ocROB&Hie 
fowl K^paua 
fox Aneina, 



France $p4Hitifl 

Francis *paHHT. 

frank oTKpoceHHUft 

fraud odMaHi 

free CBoGbAHUfi, BdjibBbiii 

freely OTKpoBeHHO 

French 4>paHuy3CKifi 

Frenchman ())paHny3i 

frequently q^cTO 

fresh CBiacift 

friar MOHaxi 

Friday luiTHHua 

friend npijiTeJib, apyn. 

friendly ^ipywecKiii 

friendship flpywfia 

frighten (to) Hcnyrari 

front (forehead) >ieji6, jihh6 

front (of a building) ^a.ckjp> 

front (to) CtiTb HacynpoTHBT. 

frontier rpaHdna 

froth nifla 

frozen saMepsmifi 

fruit tuiosT. 

fry (to) aApHTb 

frying-pan CKOBopofla 

fulfil (to) HcnojiniTt 

full ndJiRufi 

fun myTB, m^TKa, 3a64Ba 

fund, funds ^6n^i 

funeral noxop6Hi>i 

fur mySa, H'bxi> 

furniture juiSeirb, yTsapi. 

future 6f Aymift 

Gallant xpWpuii 

gallows BHcijini^a 

garden ca^t. 

gardener ca^dBBBKii 

garland BinbEii 

garlic lecHfiKt 

gate BopoTJi (plw.) 

gather (to) co6Hp4Tb 

general 66u;ifi 

generous BejinKosyraHaft 

gentleman rocno;((iHT. 

German H^Hem 

German fl^6i^Kifi 

Germany repH&HiH 

get (to) flocTaBftTb, c;^'6JIaTbCfl 

get rto — a cold) npocTyflUTica 

get (to — away) yaajirfTb(ca) 

get (to — rid of) pasBflsSTLCH 

OCBOfiojliTtCfl (OTl) 

ghost npHBBA'&Bie; ^yxi. 
girdle, girth ndaci 
girl A^BO^Ka 
give (to) ;^aBdTb, ;^aTb 
give (to — up) OTBasHBaTbCfl 
glad paAi>, A0B6jibHbiJi 
gla^s (pane of) CTeoo 
glass (drinking) CTaK^Hi 
glitter 6jiecKi>, cijinie 
globe mapi, r;i66ycT. 
glorious cji^BBbifi 
glory cjiasa 
glove nepiaTKa 

go (to) BTTft, XOfl<iTb, txaTb 

go (to — away) yfla,iirfTbCH 

go (to — on) npoflOJiK&Tb 

goat K03a, Kosejii) 

God bonb 

goddess 6ovkaz 

gold sdjiOTO 

golden 30^0T6tt 

good ^ddpufi; xop6miS 

good-natured ;(o6po;(ymHbiii 

goods TOD^pU 

goose Tycb 

gospel eBanrejiie 

government npaB^TejibCTBO 

grace HOjiocTb, MiiJioci^pAie 

gradually oocTen^HBO 

grain sepBd 

grammar rpauH&THKa 

grandfather A*fli>) ;^^Ay^IKa 

grandmother 6&6ymKa 

grapes BBHorp&;(i> 

grass Tpasi 

grave (tomb) Hortijia 

great BCJi^Kifi, 6ojibm6S 

greatly dqeHb, (Sdjibmeio licTbio 

greatness BejiAve, B^SKHOCTb 

Greece rp^i^ia 

Greek rpesi 

Greek rp6<iecEi)i 

green aejiSeufi 

grind (to) H0Ji6Tb, TOiUib 

grow (to) pacTfi , 

guard (to) 6ep6<n>, samnmaTb 

guess (to) yr&flUBaTb 

guest rocTb 

guest (to) rocTiiTb 

guide nyTeBOfll?rejib 

guilty BBBdBBbli! 

gun (fusil) pyjKte 



gun (cannon) nymica 

Habitual oQukhob^hhuS 

hail rpanTj 

hails (iQ Tpi^b Bji^BTb 

hair bojiocm (plur.) 

half aojioBiiHa, nojiy . . 

hand pysa 

handkerchief (HocoB6fl) njiaioKi. 

handsome EpaciiBBiii, n3doi,ubiii 

happen (to) cjiyqfiTbca 

happiness ciAcrie, yflSiia 

happy ciacTJi^Bua 

harbour r^Banb, nopTL 

hard TBep^^uC upkaaiA 

hardly ct. Tpy^fiirb, e/ifik 

hare 3&ai;i> 

harm speji., sjip 

harsh jsecTKiiS, rpt6uii 

harvest ac&TBa, 

haste cirbxt, nocnimHOCTb 

hat m;uSna, m^nKa 

hate (to) HeeaBii^'&Tb 

haughty rfipflblft, Hasa^HHHlfl 

have (to) meiib 

hazard cji^qaS 

hazel-nut opixi. 

head rojiosi; rjias^ 

health SAopdate 

healthy s^^opdBuit 

hear (to) cMmaTb, cjifnian. 

heart c&pfiflfi 

heart (by) Haaa^CTb 

heat snaph, aujn> 

heaven h66o, pait 

heavy MMcejiHft, TjimKifi 

height BbtcoT^ BbimBHa 

heir Hacj'6;^HBK'b 

hell a^i 

help nMon^b 

help (to) noHor^Tb 

hen K^pHi^a 

herb Tpasi, 36jibe 

herd CTi^o 

here Sfltcb 

hero rep6fi 

high Biiic6Kifi, BejiliKifi 

highwayman pa3<36SHiim> 

hill xojorb 

hint HaH@Ki 

hire naeHi 

Tiire (to) HanHM&Tb 

historical HCTopfiqecKift 

history HCT6pifl 

hit (to) ysapjiTb 

hold (to) flepMcaTb 

holy CBflT6fl 

Holy Virgin BoroMiTepb 

home nowb, ssnx&nifi 

honest q^cTHuit, npaB^ABug 

honey Me;i;T. 

honour qecTb; noqieme 

hook KpiOKT., KpSieR'b 

hope Ha^^ac^a 

hope (to) Hafliaibca 

horn pon. pi. pora 

horrible CTpAmnbift, ywiCHbiiS 

horse KOHb, Jidma^b 

horseback (on) BepxaMT) 

hospital rdcnnrajib 

hospitality rocxfenpiflMCTBO 

hot acapKiit, roprfqifi 

hotel rocT(iHHHi;a 

hour qacb 

house Aoui, SHji^e 

how KaKT. 

how much CKbjIbKO 

humble noK6pBUtt, CKpdHBufi 

hunchbacked roptiiiufi 

Hungary B^Hrpia 

hunger rdjofli. 

hungry rojid^Butt 

hungry ito be — ) fiaxb roidAHUMt 

hunter oxdrnHBi. 

husband Mysfb, cynpyrb 

husbandry seMJie^ijiie 

hymn rBUB'b 

Ice 3ef^ 

idea hA^h, MucJib 

idle ji'^H^Bbifi 

idleness JitHb, np&SAHOCTb 

ill (sick) 6»jibH6S 

ill (badly) x-^pfi 

illness fiojrIsHb 

illustrated ajjmcTpnpusaBRiiii 

illustrious suaHeHUTbifi 

image (sacred) HE6Ha 

imagine (to) Boo6pasc&Tb 

imitate (to) nOApax&Tb 

imitator no;^paac&.Tejib 

immediately Beii^Ai^BHO 

immense ofim^HbiS, orpdUHbiS 

imminent ^peflCToto^ia 

immobile Eeno;^BdKHEifl 

immortal fiescH^pTHuS 



impatient HeTepntji^Buii 
important b^hchuS 
impossible ueB03M6»CHbiJ< 
impostor oQMaHiuiiii'b 
improvement ycn-fex'b 
imjiulse noCyacfleHif, tojimokt. 
inaugurate (to) OTKpuuaTb 
incapable HcrnocofiHuB 
incessantly (JeanpecxaBBO 
indeed bt> caMOMb A'tJi't 
independent HeaaBlicHMbiit 
India Hb^lh 
Indian HHAieifb 
Indian HH^iicKiii 
indicate (to) yKaausaTb 
indifference paBHo;(yinie 
indifferently pasBo^^ymuo 
indulgence yrox^^^Hie 
indulgent cuHcxoA^TejibHiiiS 
industry npOHiimjieHHOCTb 
infamous Seaq^CTBbilt 
infancy fliTCTBO 
inferior B^amifi 
infinite CesnpeA'bjibHbifi 
influence (to) EH'^Tb BjiijiHie na 
inform (to) yB'bso«-i^Tb 
information iraBtateBie; aob6ci> 
informer A0B0c1iTejn> 
ingratitude He(5;iaroA&pBOCTb 
inhabitant Kdrejib, oCBT^iejib 
ink qepalijia 
inkstand qepB^AbBBi^a 
inn roctAHBHqa 
innocent BeB^HHUfi 
innumerable 6e3qicJieBBbifi 
inquiry Bonpbcb, Hscji^^OBaBie 
inscription nk^nvcb 
insect BactK6Hoe 
insensible tieaqfBCTBeBHufi 
insist (to) BacT^HBaTb 
inspect (to) ocH&TpHBaTb 
inspector aaASHp&Tejib, peBB36pi> 
inspiration B^^uxaBie 
inspire (to — one's self) a^^oxa^b 
instance npBM^pi 
instant (moment) urBOB^Bie 
instant (this month) cerd 

instantly HeH6;(jieHB0 
instead BvicTO 
instinctively ho HHCT^BKiy 
institution yiipesA^aie 

instruct (to) HacxaBjiHTi, 
instruction HacraBJieHie , iipocBt 

insult (to) ofilifltTb, ocKop6juiTb 
intelligent yMHwii 
intend (to) uaMtpcBaTbCfl 
intercourse coofim^Hie 
interesting saHBMaiejibHbiii 
interfere (to) BH'feniHBaTbc« 
internal BuyrpeuBiS 
interrogate (to) ;^o^pa^^HBaTb 
interview csHX^ie 
intolerable Becfl6cBbiS 
introduction BseA^Bie 
inundation BaBO^u^Bie 
invade (to) aan^CTb 
invalid HHBaJiIiAi> 
invention HsoBpixeBie 
invitation nparjiamaTb 
iron xeaiao 
irregular Benp^BHAbUbiH 
irritation paa^paw^Hie 
Islamism nejUMAstn,, hcji&h'b 
island 6cTpoB'b 
issue B^xo;;!! 

Italian HTaJiiflReicb, feni. -una, 
Italian HTajidacicifi 
Italy HTci'jiij; 
ivory cjioBdBaa Kocxb 
Jacket KfpxKa 
jail TiopbH^ 
James Heobi 
January flBsdpb 
jealousy p^BBOCXb 
Jew esp^tt 

jewel j^paroi;%HBbifi K^Hesb 
join (to) coeAHBiixb 
joiner cxcjuSpi) 
journal lEypH&jrb 
journey noia^^Ba, nyxem^oxsie 
joy pi.A0cxb 
judge cyflbij 
judge (to) cy;(fixb 
judgment cy^T., paacfflOKT. 
July iib» ^ 
jump (to) npiiiraTb 
June iiiBh 

just now i6qB0 Ten6pi> 
justice npaBoctAic; cnpaBe^Jiii- 


justify (to) onp&B;^HBaTb 
Kazan Kas&Bb 



keep (to) Aepac&Tb 

keeper xpaBdi«a& 

key zmoTb 

Khanate xAhctbo 

kick TOjniAn. (Bor6n) 

kick (to) tOM&Tb (Bor6io} 

kill (to) yMepii(B;iiT&, yfira^Tb 

kind (sort) poAi, coprb 

kind (good) j(<3<Spuft, ji^ckobuS 

king KopdJD), i^pi. 

kitchen spcBX 

kitten BoreHon 

knee kojt&ho 

kneel (to) npexjiOHjfTb 

knife hoki, a6xEin> 

knock YA&pi 

knock (to) CTyqiTb 

knot fsejTb, riaarb 

know (to) sHaTb 

knowledge 8H&Bie 

known hsbIcthuB 

Lad i(&jn>qHBi>, Ibnoffla 

ladder jrbcTBHi;a 

lad; rocno»4 

lake 63epo 

lamb arHenoK'B 

lamp ji^na, jiaiiBi;^ 

land acMji^ cTpan^ 

land (to) exo;)liTb Ha tiepen 

landlady zosflisa 

landlord xosiisKh 

language fl3^in> 

lantern (|)oii&p& 

large 6ojibiii6tt; nuip6Eifi 

last aocjti/iflii. 

last (at) HauoH^i;'!) 

late (dead) noKdfiautt 

late (not soon) n63AH0 

lately neA^BBO 

lattnr nocJiiXBifl 

laugh (to) cirMTbCfl 

laundress npiqsa 

law aasda-b 

lawyer npriCTb 

lay (to^ KJiicTb, noAos6Ti> 

laziness ji^BocTb, jrfeBb 

lazy jrbaliBtiS. Tiiacejiuft 

lead cbhb6ii> 

lead (to) BeciA, pyBOBo;<4T6 

leaf jHCTb 

lean 3cy;{6fi, cyxdfi 

leap (to) cxaE&Tfc, npCiraTb 

learn' (to) yq6Ti)(oa) 

learned yiienuS 

least (at) no cp&BBeft uipt 

least (not in the) BHCicdjibKO 

leather icdaca 

leave bmycEb 

leave (to) noEHA^Tb; saatmiTb 

leech niiaica 

leg aor4 

legacy aacjiiACtao 

legation aocdjibCTBO 

legend CE^sEa, jier^BAa 

lend (to) Aaa&Tb asiflHu 

Lent nocTb 

less xeB'ie 

lesson ypdEi, jiSEaia 

let (to; aycK^Tb, nosBOJuiTb 

letter nacbH6 

level '^pOBBBb 

liar Bpajib, aryai., jateni. 

librarian 6a6jiioT6Eapb 

library GaCtjaoT^Ea 

lie Jioxb, aenp&B^^a 

lie (to — down) jieataTb, jio- 


life KHSHb 

light nsiTi, cuiaie 

lighten (to) ocabn^^Tb 

lightning Hojiain 

like noA^Saufi; Easi 

like (I) MB% npaBHTca 

likely atpo^TBO 

likewise noAdCao, rkane 

lint) qjieai 

limit (to) orpaa^qHBaTb 

line Mma 

linen 6ija>e, no.iOTao 

lion jiBBi 

lip ry64 

liquor (KpinKiS) aan^TOKt 

listen (to) cjivmaTb 

literary jiHTeDaTvpaufi 

literature jiBTepaTfpa 

little Hlmft, aeCojibmoii 

little (a) ui^no, aeMa6ro 

live (to) KBTB 

lively WHBOfi, Becejiuii 
living «BB^itt 
loaded aarpyxeHatifi 
loan saeirb, ccf^ 
lock 3a,u6m> 
locomotive aaposds'b 



lodgings KsapTiipa 

log 6peBH6 

long fi^a&nBtiS, pfijinU 

long (to — for) ToeKOB&Tb 

longtime /ifijiro, Aa'BB6 

look snxh, Bsrjifl^ 

look (to) Oafl'feTb, CMOTpixb 
look out (to be on the — ) 6htb 

ea CTop6xt 
Lord (our) rocn6;;b, Bori 
lose (to) leprfTb 
lot (destiny) cy;^b6a 
loud rpdHKifi; rp6HK0 
love jix)66Bb 

low HliSKifi 

lower nfiacnlB 

loyal qfiCTHMS 

Inck M&CTie, cjiyqaB 

luggage ^araacb 

lunch saictcEa 

luxury p6cKorab 

lyric, lyrical jinpfiiecKfi 

Mad cyHacmSAinifi 

madam rocnoMcd, cy^apiiHa 

magnificient BeAZKOJiinBiiii 

magpie copdKa 

mahogajiy Kpiceoe ^^peso 

Mahomedan iiaroMeT&HHH'b 

maid fl'feBymica 

maid-servant cjiyw^Hica 

mail n67ra 

mail-coach ABJiHWdacb 

majesty BeafiqecTBO 

major xaidpii 

mai:e (to) fl,iiia,Tb 

mankind qejiOBi^ediBO 

man qeJiOB^Ki; men jnb^u 

manner cndco6'b 

mantle njian^ii, iimn^jib, Mierifl 

many UHdrie 

map E&pra 

March uaprt 

march (to) zoai^tb, HapmnpoB^Tb 

mare sofi^Jia 

market pfjEOKi. 

marriage fipaKi., cskjifiGa, 

marry (to take a woman) ate- 


marry (to take a man) Buxo^fiTb 


mask jiEq^Ba 
mason K&HeBbn^BR'L 

master xos^hb'b, 6apwa-b 
master-piece o6pa3^6Boe npoHS- 

matches cnAiKH 
material uaT^pia; HaTepi&abuut 
matter (no) Bce pasHd 
May MaS 

may be 6uTb udKcerb 
meadow Jiyr* 

mean (to) ^tMaxb; SBaiHTb 
meaning aaaiSBie 
means cp6;^CTB0 
means (by no) BHCKdJibKO 
meantime (in the) MfoBsy rtMi. 
measure uipa; uipsa 
meat luico 

medical man Bpa<n>, ji^K&pb 
mediocrity nocp6;(CTBeHBocTb 
meet (to) BCTp*q4'n>(ca) 
meeting Bcip^qa, CBH^iBie 
member qjieni. 
mend (to) HcnpaBjirfTb 
merchant syn^n, Topron^i^i 
mercy HBJiocSpAie 
merely T6;ibK0, es^CTBeBBO 
merry Bec§jn>iB 
messenger b'Icthhe'b 
metal ueT&Jun 
middle cpe^iiHa; cpS^xiS 
midnight n6jiBoqb 
might BortmecTBO 
mild KpdTRifi, lutrsifl 
mile vixH 
military bo^bbuS 
milk U0JI0E6 
mill H^jibEBi^a 
miller K&sbnms.'b 
milliner HO^IicTEa 
mind y»n>; Aym&; flyxi. 
mind (to) 3a66TBTbCfl 
mingle (to) uimiTb 
minister HSHlicTp'L 
minute HBH^Ta 
miracle qyflo 
mirror s^pKajio 
miser cicpjira, csyndS 
miserable Hecq&CTBuS 
misery 6'bACTBie, EBU^eT^ 
misfortune Hecq&CTie, Bey^^qa 
mistake onniCKa 
mistress (school) yqfrrejibHHi(a 
mob toiittk 



mock (to) oofbuBaTb 
mode dCpasi, cn6co6% 
model oCpaa^n'b ; iiptnr]bpi> 
modem H^B'fcmHin, Hdeufi 
modest CKpdMHutt 
molest (to) 6e3noK6HTb 
moment MTBOB^Hie, HBHtTa 
Monda; noEeA^AbBHKi) 
money n^Bbni, Hos^a 
monkey o6e3i>kHa 
monster nj^6smnfi 
month wbcsnij 
monthly ii'£cfl<mi>ifi; exeHicxq- 


monument niiurrsHKi 

moon jiyni, wheim.'b 

moral Bp&.BCTBeBBi>ifi 

moniing fTpo 

morrow (to-) s&Brpa 

mortal ch^pthuS 

Moscow Mockb4 

mosque iieq^Tb 

most 66jrbe Bcerd, secbM^ 

mostly no 6djn>mefi nictn 

mother HaTi> 

mother-in-law cseipdHb 

motive npH^i^a, ndBOH-b 

mount rop^ 

mountain rop& 

mouse luuDh 

month port 

move (to) ;i^BliraTi>; ipdraTt 

much Ha6ro, 6qeBb, rop^^o 

mud rpasb 

mule nyjin, aomkKb 

multitude MH6wecTB0 

murderer yfiffii^a 

music Htsuica 

musician uysuE&BTi) 

must (I) a fldjimeBT- 

mutton 6a,p&,wb 

mystery T^Saa 

Nail (finger-) B6roTb 

nail (iron-) reosAb 

name jShji; ^aisAnui 

name (to) HaairaaTb 

namely i^MeBBO 

napkin caji()>^Ka 

narrate (to) paaoitAsHBaTb 

narrative pascKisi. 

narrow f sKifi, TicHbift 

natural ecTScTBeBBHB 

nature npEp6;(a 
naval uopcs6fl 
navigable cy^oxdABbitt 
navigate (to) nji&saTb 
navigation nji^saaie, Hopexb^- 


navy ijfaoTh 

near GxAbkiA; bCjiusA 

necessary neoCxofifiia^, B^KHbii 

neck m&i 

necklace osep^Me 

needle Hr6jiEa 

neighbour cod^v^ 

neiOier . . . nor bb ... hh 

nephew njieHiiiiBBK'b 

nest Tsfbsfif) 

Neva Hesi 

never bhkota& 

nevertheless rtin. Be H^B'be 

new BdBbifi 

newly BeA&BBO 

news BdsocTb, BSB'bcTie 

newspaper B^AOHOCTb, ras^ra 

next cjt'bAyioQ^iS, 6t;iyn^iS 

nice xop6mifi, Epacteufi 

niece njieiuiBBBAa 

night EOib 

nightingale cojiob6B 

no wbTb 

noble 6;iarop6ABbifi 

nobleman ABopflHiiR'b 

nobody BBEid 

noise myin> 

none BBKaE6S, bb 0A<iHi> 

noon abJifleBb 

North ciflepi, BOpffb 

northern dBepRuS 

nose HOCb 

not Be 

note OTHiTKa; san^CKa; 6H.i6rb 

nothing BBierd 

notwithstanding BecMoipjl Ba 

nourishment niSiqa 

novel poM^Bt 

novelist, novelwriter pouaBAcrb 

November BOjifipb 

now TeB6pb, BtiB* 

number <ibcji6 

numerous MBoroificjieaBbifl 

nurse (of a child) HjiBB 

nurse (of a sick) CBA'^.mca 

nut optxi 



Oak flyCi 

obey (to) nociyniaTb 

object npe/ifiiTb; n'bjih 

objection BOspa^Bie 

oblige (to) npHHyxAaTb 

oblivion saSsdBie 

observe (to) BaSjito^^Tii, asmfkikTh 

obtain (to) nojiyvAxb 

occasion cjit^ait, DdBo^'b 

occupy (to) 3aHHM4Tb(ca) 

October OBi^ifipfc 

ode 6;^a 

Odessa 0;;6cca 

odious BeaaBiicTHuft 

offence o6fl;^a; npecrynji^aie 

offer npefljioJKdnie 

office K0BT6pa 

officer 0({iHi^6p'b 

official 'IHBdBBHK'b 

oft, often q&CTO 

oil M^cjio (pacT^rejiBoe) 

old CT&pu9; AP^BBifi 

omit (to) onycBixb 

once (one day) oah&sah, BisorAa 

once (at) pisom 

only e^BCTBeBflbiiS ; t6jii>ko 

open OTKpiiiTIitt; OTKpOB^BBUfi 

opinion MBtaie 
opposite Banp6TBBi> 
optician 6nTHici> 
opulence CoraTCTBO 
orchard oropdAi> 
order (regularity) BopJi;^OK^> 
order (to) npBic43uiBaTb 
order (in — to) qrdSbi 
ordinary oSbiKBOB^BBufi 
origin mankiK), npoHCXoxc^^nie 
original CBoeoCip^Hbig 
ornament yKpam6Bie 
ornament (to) yKpamaTb 
orphan CHpoxd 
other flpyr6ft, BBdft 
otherwise mslne 
ought ^1) fl ;^6ji3KeB'b Cbijrb 6bi 
out Bail, BB^,- Ba ^Bop% 
overcoat najibT6 
overladen ofipeMeHeHHbift 
overlook (to) o6o3p%B4Tb 
overshoe raji6nia 
overwhelm o6peMeB^Tb 
owe (to) 5biTb BT> ;^0JI^"^ 
own c66cTBeBUMii 

owner coOctb^bhidci 

ox BOjrb 

oyster •fCTpwaja, 

Pack CB^sa 

pack (to — up) yiui&AbiBaTb 

packet naxi&Tb 

painter »HBon£eei^ 

painting icaprfiBa 

pair B&pa, nejk 

palace ;pop6i^> 

pale GjAjifoiS 

pane CTeKJi6 

paper Cjukri; rasera 

paradise paS 

parasol adBnurb 

parcel (packet) ■i^effb 

pardon (to) npoo^&Tb, b3BHbAti> 

parents po^^TejiH , 

Paris Uifixb 

parish npBx6;(i> 

part qacTb 

particularly oc66eHBO 

partridge Kyponinsa 

party CTopoB4, vkpnui 

pass (to) npoxo^t^, npotsac&Tb 

passenger naccasfipi 

passion crpacTb 

passport n&cnopTb 

pastune yBeceji^nie 

path ciesjS, nyrb 

patience Tepniflie 

patient xepirbjtiBufl'; na^i^arb 

patriotic naTpioT^ecidS 

pause ocTaHdBEa 

pay (to — money) oiaT^ii 

pay (to — a visit) nociii^Tb 

peace HHpi 

peaceful cH^Hbifi, tiai& 

peacock naan^Hi) 

pear rpfma 

pearl xevifxbBi 

pearl-fishery abJUJi 3icemfsBHi> 

peasant RpecTbdHBBi> 

peculiar cBdfiCTBeHHBift 

pelisse niy6a 

pen nep6 

pencil Kapas^cinrb 

penknife (nepoq^BBUfi) h6sbki 

pension n^Bcln, nencidHi 

people Bap6Ai>, JUbAB 

pepper n^pei^'b 

perceive (to) ycHiipHBaTb 



perfect coBepm^HHuil 
perhaps udKerb SuTb 
peril on&cHocTb, ODacSaio 
perilous onicHuft 
periodical neplo^qecEifi 
perish (to) norHfiiTb 
permission nosBoji^me 
permit (to) no3Bo.ii]iTB 
Persia nSpcifl 
Persian nepcisRHBi 
Persian nepcfiflCKiii 
person oc(36a, qejiOBirb 
perspective npocnesTb 
persnade (to) yWacflari. 
persuasion ySteflSHie 
Peter the Great IXerpi BejiriKiit 
Petersburg (Saint) (CaHBTb) lie- 

petition npom^Bie, npdcbCa 
Petriad Ilexpi^Aa 
petticoat ib6a& 
phenomenon ASJi^aie 
philosopher <j)hji6co({ii> 
philosophy $B;ioc6j)ia 
physic jrticApcTBo 
physician spaqi, JiiKaps 
physics (jftoiiRa, 
pick (to — up) no^HHHii* 
picket sojTb, CTOJ161. 
picture Kapr^Ha, siiBonHCb 
picturesque acHson^cHuii 
piece Kyc6icT>, lacn. 
pilgrim nHjiHrpliu'b 
pillow no;(ymKa 
pillow-slip HiBOJioiKa 
pin 6yji4BKa 
pincers n^sin^ 
pinch (to) mnn^Tii 
pipe TpyfiKa 
pistol niicTOJieTB 
pit (well) KOJi6Ae3b 
pit (in a theatre) napT^pt 
pity cowajAnie; ataab 
place M%CTO 

plain (level ground) pasBiiBa 
plain (dear) jfcHufl, npocT6ii 
plant pacTdHie 
plaster rnnci, njiicTHpb 
plate Tapejnca 
play (game) mpi 
play (to) wpiTb; ^pe;^CTaBlITt 
pleasant npi^THbiii, secejiHil 

please (to) HpisBTbCH 

please (if you — ) noK^jij'ficTa 

pleasure yA0B6jibcTBie 

plenty E30(S^jiie; 8^630 Jb 

plot 3&roBopi; HBTplira 

plough njiyn. 

plum cjidBa 

pocket KapM^HTb 

poem no^Ha 

poet no^Tb 

poetical noaiiSqecKifi 

poetry noSaia 

point TdRKa; nyHKn. 

poison fl^i. 

policy, politics nojrfTmta 

polite yqT^Bufl 

polity npaBji^Hie 

poniard KHHjKaJii 

poor fiiaaua 

pope nina 

popular noiryjiiipEbifi 

populous MHOrOJlbAHblfi 

populonsness uaorojn&ACTBO 

porcelain ^ap({)6pi> 

port risajn, Doprb 

portrait noprp^Tb 

Portugal XIopTyr&ma 

position nojioac^Hie 

possess (to) HM^Tb, oSjiafl^Tb 

possession BirfcBie 

possibility B03H6acBocTb 

possible B03M6wBbifi 

post-office iioiT&urb, ndqra 

potato EapT6^e;n> 

power BMCTb, cfijia 

powerful cto>Bufi, Hortn^ecTBea- 

practice npixTHKa 
praise (to) XBajifiib 
pray (to) npocATb; MOJiiiTbCfl 
prayer MOjiiTBa 
preceding npefliiflyniia 
precept np^BHJio, npe^inBC&Bie 
precious ^pa^o^'feBHbIft 
precisely t6iho 
prefer (to) npe;inoiBT4Tb 
preference npeflnoTr^Bie 
prejudice npeflpascyftOKi. 
prejudicial Bp6;^Bu3 
prematurely npeacfleBpfiMBHiio 
prepare (to) roTdBiiTB 



piescription npeAUBcaue ; pe- 

presence npHctTCTBie 
present (not absent) DpHcyrcT- 

present (to) mP^tb; npeflcta- 


presently Tcwici, cefl?&ci 
press (to) rtcflfiTtca 
presume (to) npeflnojiarin. 
pretty in&aaili, KpacAeufi 
previous np^HiS 
previously, npfiwfle 
price ^tHa 
pride r6pfl0CTi> 
priest caaii;6uuiiKi>; noni 
prince khjisb; npiiHi;i> 
princess KiuirliHa; npiiHi^ecca 
principal rji^BHufi 
print (to) neqiTATb 
prison TeuHlii^a, TK)pi>M& 
prisoner ^Ar^HHK'b 
probable B'&poiiTUiiS 
procure (to) flOCiaBaiiTb 
produce (to) npoHSBOAiftTb 
production npoHapeAeHie 
profession sBiuie 
professor npO({)6ccop'b 
profit (to) B0cn6jib30Ba'rbCfl 
profitaMe BiiroAHbifi 
profound rjiyGdKiit 
profusion H3o6dffle 
progress ycntxi. 
project npo^KTb 
promise oCtu^aHie 
promise (to) oiijuktb 
pronoun MicTOiui^Bie 
pronounce (to) npoHSHOcftTb 
pronunciation upoHSHOui^uie 
proof ^OKasaxejibCTBO 
properly c66eTBeHflo 
proposal npe;^jio»c6flle 
propose (to) npefljiar^Tb 
proprietor noH^iqnE'b 
prose npdsa 

prosperity CjiarococTOiiHie 
protect (to) 3ail;Hii;&Tb 
proud r6pAM!t 
prove (to) flOKisHBaTb 
proverb nocA6BBi;a 
provided £cjih TdjibKO 
Providence IIpoBHfl-iHie 

province (Russ.) ryCepHia 
provisions san&cb, sanac^aie 
provoke (to) pasApaMciTb 
Prussia Ilptccia 
Prussian npjccsiS, npyc^Ki 
public nyCMqBufi 
public (the) ny6;iiiBa 
publisher mf^krem, 
pun icajiaM6^pi> 
punctual Td^Hbifi 
punctuality T6iH0CTb 
punish (to) BaEasbiBaTb 
pupil (scholar) yqeHtisii 
purchase noKynKa 
purchase (to) noBynaib, KynaTb 
purchaser noKynaiSJib 
pure qiicTbiS; HesliHHbiS 
purely iflcTO; TdJibKO 
purpose (for that) flJia Tor6 
purpose (on) Hap6ifflo 
purpose (to) HaMtpeBaxbCH 
purse KomejieKi>; H'biuoK'b 

push (to) TOJIK^Tb 

put (to) oacTb; CTaBBTb 
puzzle (to) CMyiu,4Tb, flpasufiib 
Quadruped leTBepouoriti 
quality K&iecTBO 
quantity KOjUJiecTBO 
quarrel cc6pa 
quarrel (to) co6pBTbca 
quarter iSiBepTb 
quarters KBapiiApa 
quay H^6epe»Baa 
queen KopoaeBa 
question Bonpdcb 
. question (to) cnpanwBa'i'b 
quick CK6pbifi, acHsdli 
quickly CK6po, fiilicipo, jkUbo 
quiet (to) ociaBJuiTb 
quill nep6 (rycliHoe) 
quit T<ixiS, cnoK6fiiibiit 
quit (to) noBiSuyTb 
quite coBepmeHBO, cODciui) 
quite aware (to be) xopoiu6 snaTb 
Race (tribe) nji^Mfl, noKOJitnie 
rag Tpjiaka 
lage jipocTb 
rail p^jibcb 
railroad, railway acejiisHaa flo- 

railway-station B0K3&;rb 
rain aoihab 



rainiow pA^yra 

rains (it) floac;5b H^ert 

rainy flO)K;^JIl^BHft 

raise (to) B03BHm4Tt 

range paftii 

rank paHn. 

rapid 66cTpHfi 

rare p'iflKift 

rash HeocTop6acHMfi 

rat Kp^ca 

rate (at any) Kain. 6i>i to h6 6ujio 

raven BipoH-b 

raw cup68 

ray Jiyii 

read (to) inTaTi. 

reader qHT^Tejb 

ready roidBuii 

reality A*2cTBiiTejn.Hocra 

really bi> ckmwb nixb 

reap (to) acaxb (« xny). 

reaper WEeicb 

reason (faculty) pa3ct;;oBT. 

reason (cause) np84iiHa 

reasonable paayMHuS 

rebel mht^khhki 

rebellion HaiMCb, CyHn. 

recent HeA^Bsifi, BacToAniiH 

recently ne^^Ho 

recite (to) cKiauBaTb 

reckon (to) cvnTkn 

recognize (to) ysHas^Tb 

recollect (to) ndMHHTb 

recollection BOcnoHUH^Eie 

reconcile (to) npmiHpjiTb 

red KpAcHbiti 

refer (to) OTHOc^b 

reflect (to) oipastiTb 

reflection oipajK^Hie 

reform npeoCpaaoB^Bie 

refrain (to) y;;6pKHBaTbCfl 

refresh (to) ocBtae&Tb 

refreshment 0CB%ateHie 

refuge yoiwHme 

regard yBaaefeBie, noMfeirie 

regard (to) yBSSKdib, cmotp^tb 

regiment hojikt. 

region crpaHi, 66jiacTb 

registered (letter) 3aKa3H6e 

regret (to) aajfexb 

regular ap4BB;ibBbitt 

regulation pacnopaK^nie 

reign i;S.pcTBOBaHie 

Bussian Gonv.-Onmmar. 

reign (to) ^4pcTB0BaTb 
rein yani 

reject (to) OTsepriTt 
rejoice (to) pAflOBaTtca 
relate (to) pasitasuBaTb 
relationship po^CTBd 
relatively OTHOcfiiejibHO 
reliance ^tOB^pie 
relinquish (to) ocraBJuiTb 
reluctance oiBpain^nie 
remain (to) ooTaB4TbCfl 
remark saMiq^Hle 
remark (to) saMtiiTb 
remedy ;ieiidpcTBO 
remember (to) ndHnarb 
remind (to) EanoHZB&Tb 
remote OTflajieBBHfl 
remove (to) yflajuJTb 
renew (to) BosofiBOBjisTb 
renown cjraB 
renowned cji^BBbiB 
repair (to) nonpasj^iTb 
repay (to) 0TiuiS.qHBaTb 
repeat (to) noBiopjiTb 
repent (to) pacKiJiTbca 
repentance pacK&^Ble 
reply (to) oiBti^Tb 
report cjiyx'B 

represent (to) npeflCTasjuiTb 
reproach (to) ynpeic&Tb 
repulse (rp^fibifl) otk&31 
reputation penyT4i;ifl 
request np6cb6a 
request (to) npocftTb 
require (to) TpfiSoBaib 
reserve (to) c6eper4Tb 
residence npedusiBie 
resist (to) coupoTBBjuiTbCfl 
resolute pim^TejibBufi 
resolution pim^nie, paRptm^Bie 
resource cp6;^cTB0 
respect yBax^Bie 
respect (to) yBaJBiib 
respectable noqi^HBufl 
respectively OTBOcliTeabBO 
respiration jifmisie 
rest (repose) drflux* 
rest (remainder) octAtoici 
rest (to) OT^^xdTb 
resuh pesyjbT&TL 
retain (to) yflfipMBBaxb 
return s03Bpaii^6Bie 




return (in) bi. yn-iaTV 

rettim (to) BOSspam^Tb 

revenge (to) mcthtb, OTOMm^Tb 

revenue flox6ftT> 

review nepeoMbxpi 

revolve (to) spam&TB, oSpan^aTb 

reward Ha^pA;^a, Harpa:Ks6Hie 

reward (to) HarpaoBflaTb 

Rhine Pe8Hi> 

ribbon a^HTa 

rich fior^Tufi 

riches fioriTCTBo 

ride (to) iaflHib (BepxoMi.) 

ridicule cMintBde 

ridicule (to) ocuinBaTb 

rifle pyJKli6 

right (justice) np&BO 

right (just) Bipeufi 

rigorous cipdrift, cyp6Bbifi 

ring Koabi(6 

ring (to) 3B0HHTB, SBOriTb, 3Byq&TL 

ripe apijiHfi 

ripen (to) coapiBiTt 

rise (to) BCTaBS.Tb, 800x0^*11* 

rival con^pEHKi 

river p^Kt 

rivulet pyq^fi 

road flop6ra, nyib 

roast Kapicde 

roast (to) K&paTb, sapi&Tb 

robber pasCdfiaHKi 

romantic pOHaHT&qecicifi 

roof Kpdma, KpoBi) 

room EdMHaia, noK6ft 

rope BspeBEa 

rose p63a 

rough cyp6Bbiii 

round Kpfrjiuii 

routine v&bsri, 

royal KopoA^BCKifi 

rude rpffiutt 

rug ROBepi, c&paca 

ruin (to) pasopin 

ruins passdJiEHbt 

rule (precept) np&BBJio 

ruler npaB^Tejb 

run (to) Cteiib; levb 

rush (to) fipoc^TbCfl 

Russia PoccIh 

Russian poccioHEH'B, pycciUH 

rustic c&ibCKifi, ;^epeB6HCIeifl 

Sabre c^Sjih 

sacred cBan^dHHiiS, cBflxda 

sacrifice acepTsa 
sacrifice (to) acepTOsaTb 
sad neakibBU^ 
safe 6c30ii^cBbiii 
sail n^pyci 

sail (to) OTCJIblDaTb 

sailor uaTpdCB 

sake (for the — of) p4flH 

sale apon&x& 

salt cojib 

salutary 6aaroTB6pHu& 

salutation couji6H'b 

salute (to) KakEaThca 

same eSutaH 

same (it is the — to me) mh* 

Bce paBH6 
sand necdKi 
sand-box iiec6<iEui^a 
satire caitipa 
satiate BacbiiqaTb 
satisfactory yflOBjierBopiiTeabHbift 
satined ;(0B6jibHbitt 
satisfy (to) y;^OBJeTBop^Tb 
Saturday cy666Ta 
savage ji;6s3&, CBBp4iibifi 
save (to) cnac&TB, coxpaBaTb 
say (to) cxM&Tb, roBop^Tb 
scarce pi^Kifi; He;^ocT4TO'}HbIS 
scarcely 6^8^, TdjrbKO ito 
scatter (to) pasdHBan 
scene ci;eBa; QdnprnD^e 
scenery bb;;!); nesofinfii 
scheme Bpo^BTL, cxiiia 
scholar (school-boy) yqea^Ei 
scholar (learned man) yqeaufi 
school yq^jiBnte 
school-fellow coyqeB^K'b 
school-master y<ii&Teju> 
school-mistress y^iejibSBi^a 
science Ha-f ica 
scissors H6xBBAbi 
scold (to) Cpaa^Tb 
scream (to) BpaiiTb 

screw BBHTb 

sea M6pe 

seal neqiib, oineiiTOBi 
seal (to) saneq&TUBaTB 
sealing-wax cyprfii 
seaman Hop^Ki 
seamstress mseit 
seaport npBMdpcKifi BopTi> 
season bp^hh rd^a 



seasonable Cjiarosp^HeHBufi 
seat (country) noiracTbe 
seated (fo be) casftrbca, CHfttTb 
Sebastopoi CeBacv^nojib 
second vtof6tt, flpyr6g 
secret Tdfina, ceKp6n> 
secretary oespeTipb 

see (to) Bfifl^TB, CHOTp'bTb 

seed aiua 

seek (to) nasAih 

seem (to) sasiTbca 

seize (to) oaia^^'bTb 

seldom pijifco 

sell (to) npoAas&Tb 

send (to) nocwi^Tb 

send (to — back) BOSBpan^&Tb 

sense ^fscTBo; yMt 

sense (common) 3;Q)&Biiifi cuHcib 

sensibility lyBCTsiiTejibHocTb 

sensible iiyBcrstoejibUbifi 

sentiment ifscTBO 

sentimental ceBTBMeHT&jibmifi 

separate OTX^JiBHult 

separation pasjitica 

September oeHT^Qpb 

serpent sirbif 

servant cjiyr& 

servaatmaid CJiyK&Bica, 

serve (to) cjryaflTb 

service exiXo^; ycJifra 

settlement noceji6Bie 

serveral p&sBHe, iradrie 

severe CTp6riB, sectdRiS 

sew (to) mHTb 

shade, ^ladow TbBb 

shall (I) X pfiJtxeKb 

shape Mpasi, (j)6piia 

sharp 6cTpiifi, p'lsKifl 

shave (to) Opaib 

shear (to) cTpmb 

shed osp&l 

sheep OBiMt 

sheet (bedlinen) npocTUBii 

sheet (of paper) jiHcn. 

shelter noEpdmKa 

shepherd nacTfxfc 

shift pyCS&nnca (s^HCKaJi) 

shine (to) cijlro, CaecrtTb 

ship wofiSn, otXBp 

shipwreck sopatbteqiyindBie 

shirt pyC&mKa (vyan^) 

shiver (to) Apoa&Tt 

shock (to) noTpflc^Tb 

shocking ocEopfifoejibBuii 

shoe SamH^Ki. 

shoemaker 6amH4qBHK% 

shop ji&BKa 

shore 6£perb 

short Eop6Ticiil 

shortly BCE6pt 

shot B^CTpi^jn. 

should (I) a A^^KeHi 6am. Ou 

shouldei nAeii6 

shont (to) itfrnktb 

show (to) noKisuBaTb 

shrewd dOTpfiill 

shun (to) BsGtr&Tb 

shut (to) saTBopjiTb, sanapftTb 

shy CTU^^jQiBbifi, sacrfeBiiHBbifi 

Siberia CH66pb 

sick 6ojibH6fi 

sickness Cojib, fiojiianb 

side 6oKi, CToposi 

siege oc&A^ 

sigh BSflOxi. 

sigh (to) BSflOXH^Tb, CTOB&TI, 

sight sptnie, saopi; bbat.' 

sight (out of — ) 031 BHAt 

sign sHaKi, nptamvia 
signification SHaq^aie 
signify (to) 03Haq&Tb 
silence HOJi<!&Hie 
silk mgjnrb 
silken mfe'jiEoBufi 
silver cepetipb 
similar no^dCHKA 
simple npocTdft 
simplicity npocTori 
since ca> rtn> nopi 

sing (to) lATb 

single e,MaieTBeHBbitt 

Sir ctxapt 

sister cecrpti 

sit (to — down) oa^^flrfcc^, 


situated (to be) EaxdAHTbCfl 

situation vbcTonoios&de 

skate kohSki 

sketch MepKii, Bcctob 

skill cnoc6C!Bocn>, a&asoen, 

skin Bdxa 

sky E^ 

slander (to) BJieBeT&Tb 




slave paCi. 

Slavonic crapocJiaBiiHCKifi 

slay (to) ydHB^Ti 

sleep (to) cnaTB 

sleeve pyK4Bi> 

slender TdnsiS, tUSsUl 

slice ji0M6Tb, KycdKii 

slight jierKifi 

slowly M^fljieHHO 

slumber ^peM0T4, coht. 

sly iiiTpbifi, jiyK&BHfl 

small H^uiua, M^jiKia 

smaU-pox 6cna 

smile (to) yjiH64TbO« 

smith Ky3H6iii> 

smoke jiwfb 

smoke (to — cigars) itypfirb 

smooth rji^AKiS 

snake anii 

snow cEin 

snows (it) cirfcPL H^grb 

snuff B^xaTejbHuB Ta6ain> 

snuff-box Ta6aK6pKa 

so TaEi, TaK^ifb '66pa30in> 

soap Hiijio 

socialist coi(iaji6cTi> 

society 66mecTBO 

soft MirKift, aiMmi& 

softly thx6hi>ico h^eo 

soil ndqsa, aeujut 

sojourn npefiuB^Hie 

soldier coJI;^4Tb 

sole (only) e^liHCTBeHEuft 

solitude yenBB&tde 

some eiKOTopbiS; nicEOJibEO 

somebody irfeitTO 

somethinp h'6'ito, wo-HH6tflb 

sometimes nRor^^ 

somewhat riiTO, Kde-iro 

somewhere r,ni-TO, r^^i-HHS^flb 

song nicaa 

soon cic6po, p4E0 

sorrow nei&jib, rdpe 

sorry cep^^TUfl; neq&JibHuS 

sorry (to be — ) jKaaiTb 

soul ^ymk 

sound (noise) ssyKit 

sound (to)3ByqS.Tb 

soup cyni, noxjgSsa 

sour kAcauS 

source HCTdlHHKl, lunoTb 

south ran. 

southern ibsHuS 

space npocTp&HCTBO 

spacious o6iii6pHbi& 

Spain Hcn&Hiii 

Spaniard Hcaftaeiti 

Spanish Hcn&BCKifi 

sparrow Bopo66tt 

speak (to) roaop^Tb 

specimen oSpas^ifb, o6pianmsrb 

spectacle sp^jiHiitB 

spectacles omiA 

spectator ipAiesb 

speech p%qb 

speed 6ucTpoT4, nodrbmBOCTb 

speed (at fall — ) bo Bcn npuTb 

speedily citdpo, nocntniHO 

spill (to^ iipo;iHB4Tb 

spin Oo) npacTb 

spiritual ;(ykdBBbiS 

spile (in — of) BonpeEi 

splendid BeAHKOAinHutt 

splendour fijiecirb, Bejuacaainie 

spoil (to) n6pTETb; rp&SiiTb 

spoon ^idSKa 

sport oxdra, Erp4 

sportsman ox6thhex 

spot (place) MicTO 

spread (to) pacT^frHBaib 

spring (season) BecB4 

spring (to) np^raTb 

square (place), njidn^aAb 

squeeze (to) KaTb (XMy) 

stable soBefflKa; xjiisi 

staff (stick) nlnca 

stag oJi^Bb 

stain BflTB6 

stair CTyn^Bb 

stake (sum) cr^BKa 

standard (banner) 3h&h« 

standard (exemplary) uaccfiqec- 

star sBtsA^ 

stare (to) (npteTamHo) CMorp^Tb 
start (to) ornpasji^TbCB 
starve roaoflifb, yiiBp&Tb c* r6- 

state (condition) cocroMe 
state (nation) roc7;t&pcTBO 
state (to) onpe^t^Tb; BRiACBiib 
station ct^Lb, vibcTO 
statue CTiTya 
stay npeCuB&Bie 



stay (to) oCTasiTBca 
stead (in) bm'^cto 
steal (to) KpacTb, noxBni&TB 
Steamboat, steamer napoxdAt 
steam-engine napoB&ji Hamfoa 
Steel CTajiL 
step man>, xo^b 
step (to — in) BXo;;flTi. 
stick ir4jiBa, nyfitaa 
still (yet) eme; 0flH4K0 
stii: (to) ftBfiraTi(cfl), wbm&.Tb 
stirrup CTp6Ma 
stock in trade TOBftpa 
stocking qyabirb, hoc6ki> 
stomach steit^noKTi 
stone u&HeBb 

stoop (to) rarftbca; yHnmaTica 
store san^cb, Hsofidaie 
storm 6ypfl 
story (floor) 3T4an> 
story (tale) ck^m. 
■ stove neib, neqKa 
straight npjiMQ 

stranger qyMc62 HHOCTpinei;!. 
straw coa6Ma 
street -^jiana 
strength cAjia, TBSpJ^ocTb 
stretch (of a way) TpaKPb 
strictly T6qH0 
strike (to) Shtb, yflapAn. 
string BepeBM, mnypdin. 
strive (to) ciapATbca 
stroke yaipT>; nrrfica 
strong Kpiracifi, ciabBufi 
student 0Tyfl6Hn. 
study yi6nie; CTap^nie 
study (to) yqliTbca 
stupid rjr^miS 
style CTMb; cjion>, 66pa3T. 
subject (to) no^epriTb 
subscribe (to) noflnficMBaTb 
subscribtion n6^iiHCb, noflnHcA- 

substance cfmHOCTb, semecTBO 
subtle xArpufi, T6HBifl 
suburb npe^MjioTbe 
succeed (to follow) nocaiflosaTb 
succeed (to be able) ycirfeBiTb 
success ycntxT., y^^ia 
successful ycirtniHUft 
successfully ycntmHO 
successive ^oc.Tfe;^OBaTeJ^bHufl 

successor Hacfl'tflHHKT. 
such TaicdB 
suddenly Baes^iiEO 
suffer (to) crpafliTb 

suffice (to) 6bITb SOCTaTOIHHM'b 

sufficient soctAtoihuB 

sufficiently ftOCTiToiHO 

sugar c&xapi 

suicide caHo;6illCTB0 ; caHor6ifiBa 

suitable npHJiHiHufi, coofipasHUH 

sum cttoia, RTdrb 

summer skto 

sun c6JtBi;e 

Sunday socKpec^Hbe 

sunrise Bocxoa;;6Hie c6JiHi;a 

sunset aaxoBA^Hie cdJiHi^a 

sunshine cojiH^iBoe ci)SHie 

sup -(to) "iXBEiTb 

superb sejiHKOJrbnaBiB 

superior Bficmifi, npeBocx6AHu8 

superstition cyesipie 

supper -fKHHi. 

supply (to) joGTasfljiTb, cHaCatiTb 

support now^pMCKa 

supportable BbiHoctoufi 

suppose (to) npeflnojiar^Tb 

supposition npeflno;ioK6Bie 

suppress (to) yHHqTOKS.Tb; ocia- 


sure sipHua, Seaon&CHbift 
surely HaBipno 
surface noB6pxHOCW> 
surpass (to) npeBOOxoflfe'b 
surprise yflHBa^Hie 
surprise (to) jumxith 
surprised (to be) yAHBJWJTica 
surrender (to) csaBiTb(ca) 
surround (to) oipywATb 
survive (to) nepeKHBiib 

suspect (to) n0fl03ptBfi.Tb 

suspicion nojoaptaie 
swallow aicTOiBa 
swallow (to) noraOT^TB 
swear (to) npHcar^TB, KJiiicTbca 
Swede niBexK 
Sweden IIlBSi^a 
Swedish nm^flCKifi 
. sweep (to) Mecni 
sweet cii&AKiS 
swift <56cTptifl 
swim (to) njiisaTb 
Switzerland inBe8i;apia 



sword ueiTB 

sympathetica! cnunaT^iecKiS 

sympathy coitBCTBie, CHMtidTia 

system cHCT^ua 

Table CTOjn> 

table-doth CKdiepib 

tail XBOCTb 

tailor nopTHdfi 

take (to) 6paTb, BSSTb, no^^Tb 
take (to — a seat) cicTt 
take (to — care) CepSqbca 
tale CK&3Ea, paxK&si; ndatcTb 
talent TaJl^nrb, lapoB&Rie 
talented oAapeHHuS 
talk (to) paaroBapiiBaTb 
talkative roBopjiiteufi 

tall BbIC6KiS (pOCTOlTfc) 

tap (aSricifl) yfl^pt 

tapestry o66h (plur.) 

Tartar TaT^pHSK 

taste BKyci> 

taste (to) Aonp66oBaTb 

tavern S3,6&«b 

tea qaft 

teach (to) yq^Tb 

teacher yqi^Tejib 

tear caesft. 

tear (to) paaTb 

tedious CK^iHiiiS 

tell (to) CKka&Tb; pascKaauBaTb 

temper (to) ju/bpArb 

tempest Cfpa 

temple xpain> 

temporary sp^MeHHuS 

tendency CTpeiu6Bie 

term (condition) yca6Bie 

term (end) eoh^i^ 

term (time) cpoEir 

term (word) cji66o 

terminate (to) osdaqiiTb 

terminus BOKS&jn> 

terrible ym&CBbift, CTpamRbilt 

terror t^^aci, cipajTb 

Thames tiuaa, 

than <rtin>, sixejin 

thank (to) SMTOHi^fetb 

thankful GjiaroA^HuJi 

thanks 6iaro;^&pHocTb 

that TOTv; ito 

theatre Te&Tpt 

theft sp&ffla 

then TorA&i nortsn. 

thence owyfla 

there TaiTB 

there is Borb 

therefore C;iiXoBaTejf&HO, ii03Touy 

thick (big) ToauTUH 

thief Bopb 

thin (fine) Tdnsia 

thin (lean) xy;^6it 

thing A'^Jio, BBii^b 

think (to) xtvaib 

thirst xkxna, 

thirsty ncaxj^yn^ti 

thoroughly cOBciui), coBepmeuHO 

though xoTjf, oah4ko 

thousan T^cava 

thought HblCJIb 

thread (to sew) b^tkh 

threat yrpdaa 

threaten (to) yrpoatiib 

threshold nopdra, BXo;^'b 

throat r6pjio 

throne iipecid.rb 

through qgpesi, CEB03b 

throughout noBci)xy 

thunder rpoHii 

Thursday TOTB^pnt 

thus TasAiTb 6Spaso)n. 

ticket 6ej!i6ti> 

tie (to) CBjisbiBaib 

tiger THrpT. 

till ffi, aoKk. 

time (duration) speHA 

time (repetition) pas-b 

times (at) BaoTfjk 

timidity 6ofl3JiiteocTb 

tin 6JI0B0 

tire (to) yroMJUfTb 

tired (to be) ycTasaib 

tissue TsaBb 

toast Tocw. 

tobacco Tafi^Ei 

tobacco-pipe Tpy6Ea 

to-day cer6AHa 

together Buivrb 

told (to be) cji^inaTb 

tolerate (to) cHOctob, xepniTb 

tomb Kortjia 

to-morrow sastpa 

tone BByKi, tohi 

tongs iqHni^ 

tongue as^f> 

too T&Ese, i6xe 



too much cjijuiKosrt 

tooth 3j6-b 

top sepoEiBa 

torment M^ica, Myq^Hie 

torment (to) Mfqa^b 

touch (to) Tp6raTB 

touching KacS-TejiMio 

towards Kt, dKOjio 

towel nojiOTeHi^e 

tower 64niBfl 

town ropoflT. 

train n&bsji,!, 

tranquil cnoK6fiHi>i& 

tranquillity cnoK6floTBie 

translate (to) nepeBOfl^ib 

translation nepeB6;t'i> 

transport (to) nepeBos&Tb 

travel nyTsm^CTBOBaTi 

trareller nyTemScTBeBHHK'L 

treacherous npeA&TejiBCEiS 

treachery, treason IIpe;^iHie, h3- 

treasure coEp6BHn^e; Easna 
treasurer EasHaq^fl 
tree ^ipeso 
tremble (to) .Apox&Tb 
trifle 6e3A%JIB^a 
trip QoisxKa 
trouble Tpyfli, safioia 
trouble (to) fiesnoEO^Tb 
troublesome saTpynH^Te^bHuS 
trousers niTaB^, naBTaji6HJU 
true Blpaufi, npaB^^bifi 

truly BVpHO, ^CTBBBO 

trumpet Tpy6i 
trunk (of a tree) cTsojit 
trunk (coffer) cyHflf Et 
trust (to) noJiar&TbCA 
truth iqpi&B;^a, Actbba. 
try (to) np66oBaTb, acm^TbiBaTB 
Tuesday bt6phheti 
tulip •mahiAwb 
tunnel TyHH^Jtb 
turbulent CffiBuii, inyuBua 
Turk cjFpoEi 
Turkey TfpiUfl 
iurkey-cock hbai&et. 
Turkish Typ6ABi8 
turn (Siepesb; nepeMina 
turn (to) BcpTiTbfca) 
.turn (to — round) oBepHtrbca 
turnpike (in. a custom-house) 

twice flBaiKAU 
twilight c^MepKH 
type TBUfc 
Udder b^ma 

ugliness 6e3o5p43ie; rAflooTb 
ugly rdflKifi, wPHoii 
umbrella s6bthkx 
unable Becnoc66nufi 
unacquainted nesHaicoMbifi 
uncle ^AnH 

uncommon Beoi5uKBOBeHHbiii 
undergo (to) npeTepirfesiTb 
understand (to) noKHMatb 
understanding yui,, pisyMt 
undertake (to) BpeflnpHEHMaxb 
undertaking npe^npijiTie 
undoubtedly HecoMHiHHO 
unequal BepaBBuii 
unexpected HeoacliflaHBbiJi 
unfit BecQ0c6CBi>i& 
unfold (to) pacEpHsaTb 
unfortunate BeciiCTBblS 
unhappy Becq&cTHua 
unitonn (equal) OAH0o(ip&3BU)< 
uniform (regimentals) M■yH;^5p. 
uninteresting EeBBTepdcBuS 
uninterrupted SesnpepfiBRbifi . 
unite (to) coeflHHjiTJ. 
unity efl^HCTBO; corjiicie 
universal BceuipBufi; BCe6dmiii 
universe BcejieHHaa 
university yHHBepcHTfiii. 
unknown BeHaBicTflufi 
unless 6cJiH He; pAsB'fe 
unluckily no Heci4cTiio 
unlucky BeciacTJi^HH 
unmoved Beno^^BAacBuii 
unnoticed BeaaH^qeHHbiK 
unpleasant nenpijiBBuii' 
unquestionably Beocnop^o 
unreasonable CeapasctAHUii 
linsavonry neBi^eBiifi 
unseen aeB^BHuii 
until Ao, noici 
unusual BeoGusHOBeBBbiS 
unwell BesKopdB'b 
unwilling BeoxdTBbiii 
unworthy neflocT4Toqabi2 
upholsterer oS6fiii^BEi> 
Ujion which ndcjrt 5er6 
upright npfludfi, iScthuS 
Use ynoTpefiji^Hie, n6jn>3a 
use (to) npiiBbiEiTb; ynoTpe6;iHTb 



useful iioj63B]>ifi 

usually o6kkhob6hbo 

utterly eoBepm^HBo, p'binfoejibHo 

Vagabond 6fQ/i/tri 

vain (proud) TOiecji&BBuS 

rain (ui^less) EanpicHuS, ae- 

yarn (in) aanp&CHO 
valley pfixAEa, 
valour xp&CpocTb 
vanqidsh (to) iio6'bs;^iTi. 
variable nepeniBBUtt 
variety pasaooCp&sie 
vary (to) mufba^n 
real TeiJiTBHa 
reget^Ies bBon^n 
vein acA'jia, adaa 
vengeance HniSBie, uecTb 
Venice Ben^l^iA 
venture (to) ocirbJiHBaTBCfl 
rerb rjiar6jrE> 
vfirify (to) yiBepKA^Ti 
rerse cthxi> 
verst Bepcfd 

very dvesb, BecbM4, ropisflo 
vice nop6Ki> 
vicious nop6<iBufi, sjioS 
victim s^pTBa 
victory jLoGij^ 
Vienntt B'tna 
view BHAi), Bsrjui;^ 
view (to) roBfibTb, ocH&TpnBaTb 
rigour c^a 

viUage (with a church) ceji6 
village (without a church) ^e- 


vine BHHorp&A'b 
vinegar fKcyci 
violence aacAjne 
violent c&ibHufl, CBBp'tnufi 
violet iffikMA 
violin CEp^mca 
virtue ;no6po;t'6Tejib 
virtuous ^.oOpofl'iTejibBHfi 
visible oieB^AB^'^ 
vision BH;^'£Hie 
visit noctiit^Hie 
visit (to) nocfem^Tb 
vizier BB3lipb 
vocabulary CJiOB4pb 
voice rdaoeii 
Volga Bd^ira 

volume (book) KBiira 

voyage nyrein&jTBie (M6peifb) 

Wafer oCjiiiTBa 

wager napA, aaxjikni, 

waggon Barijbi, Tejrira 

waistcoat scbji^ 

wait (to) KflaTb, flOJBB^iTb 

waiter cjyac^Tejb, qejiOB^Eit 

waiting-room (cTaBi46BBaH) sa-jia 

wake (to) npoSyatA^Tboa 

waken (to) pasfiy^iiTb 

walk nportjnta, ryjufaie 

walk (to) ryarfTL, zo^^Arb 

wall-paper o66h (plur.y 

Walnut op'&xi 

want He;^ocTATOIl^b 

want (to) Bya;;4Tbca, ateJiiTb 

war BoSai 

ware TOBipi 

^arm teuiai& 

waiin (to), rpiib, Toa^fb 

warmth Tenji0T&, acapi. 

wash (to) itam, o^mtekTb 

washerwoman lip&<iEa 

washstand pyK0H6fiHiiin> 

watch (clock) qac£i 

watch (to) BaCjuoAftTb 

water bojs,^, 

water-communicatio^ taHiBsa 

wave BOJIH& 

wax BOCEl 

way nyra, Aop6ra 

weak cji&6bift 

wealth Sor^TCTBO, HufmecTEO 

weapon optacie 

weather nor6sa 

wedding CB4si>6a 

Wednesday cpeA& 

week Hefttaa 

weekly eweHefl'tjibBHfi 

weep (to) BjidKaTb 

weigh (to) B^CHTb 

weight B^cb; Tjfxecxb 

welcome 1 m^jiocth npdCBUil 

well (pit) K0JI6;^e3b 

well (suitably) xopoiD6 . 

west s&naA'b 

wet udEpuB; ^ajiim, 

what aio; eAeoA; to ^to 

whatever wo 6u hh 

wheel K0Jiec6 

when EorA& 



whence OTKtsa 

whenever BC^Kifi pa3T> 

where rui 

wherever ^;^■t BR^YHb j 

whether jih^ K0T6pi>ia h3t> jifiyxb 

which KOTdpufi, e^koS, ito 

while (during) bt. to epeuA Kaict. 

while (time) bp^ha 

whim Kanp^i 


whisUe CBHCTdEii 

white <iixa& 

who KTO 

whole i^sai, aecb 

whole (on the) cosc'&H'b 

wholly coBepm6HHO 

why noieict, s&vbu-b 

wicked ajioB, SesSdiKHUfi 

wide nrapdicifi 

wide-spread pacnDOCTpaHeHmll 

widow b;i;ob^ 

widower baob'^i^b 

wife xenk, cynpfra 

wild A^Kifi 

will (desire) Bdaa, ^ji^nie 

will (testament) ;^yx^BHaH 

will (I) a xoif (xortTi), 

willingly ox6tho 

willow iaa. 

wind BiTept 

window okh6 

wine BHu6 

wing (of a bird) Kpujid 

wing (of a palace, an army) 

wink (to) HHT^Tb 

winter shm^ 

Winter-palace 3iiMHifi Ji;Bop6i;i> 

wire (to) TeJierpa4i6poBaTb 

wisdom MtflpocTb 

wise Mf;g)ua, funu^ 

wish ace;iaHie 

wit yjn., ocTpotirie 

witch siflbMa, KOjifltHi-Ji 

withdraw (to) y«ajijiTb(ca) 

without 6e3l>; bh* 

witness csnA'AieifB, 'CSHxireibCTBO 
witness (to) CBUj4Te;ibCTB0BaTi> 
witty ocTpotuHufi 
woe rope, r6peCTb 

wolf BOJIEl. 

woman aceHd, xeHn^BHa 

wont (to be) Hirfeib npHsCiqEy 

wood (forest) xkcb 

wood (fuel) fpoBi. 

wood-cutter flpoBOctKi. 

wool mepcTb 

word cjidBO 

work pa66Ta; co^mSHie 

work (to) pa66TaTb 

worknum pa66TBBEi> 

world Hipi, CBiTb 

worm qepB^Et 

worse xtace 

worship o6<iecn>, noui&Hie 

worship (to) ofioac&Tb 

worth cTdmocTb, i^Bocib 

worthy ^ocTdlSEbitt 

wound pkaa, 

wrath TWbBTj 

wrest (to) Bbi;^eprHBaTb 

write (to) nnc^Tb 

writer DHcdTeJib 

writings co<iHBeBifl 

wrong (injustice) BecnpaBeflji^- 


wrong (unjust) Benp^ufi 

Yard (courtyard) flBopi 

year roAT> 

yellow sgxrufi 

yes na. 

yesterday Bqep4 

yet eii;e, o^b^ko 

York lopErb 

young H0JI0A6&, adsbifl 

youth HdoOXOCTb, lOHOCTb 

youth (young man) ^aoma 
2^al yc^xte, pB^Hie 
zealous jeipfflHi 
zero Hyjib 




a [a], and; but 
fisrycra ['avgust], August 
djmksb [ai'maz], diamond 
amS&pi [am'bar], warehouse 
kmeai, ['ang,el], angel 
aHriH?&HHHi [angl,i't/anin], Eng- 
&BTJiiBcKi3 ['angl,iskii], English 
Anrjiia [' nnglia], England 
aiipiiib [a'pr,elj, April 
apnraHi [ar/in], yard, arsheen 
<>4cBa ['basnia], fable, tale 
tdisscaiiKb [ba/'mak], shoe 
6aii[u4«HHE'& [ba/°'niay)iik], shoe- 
C&iDHa ['ba/nia], tower 
desnpecT&BHO [b,ezpr,e'8tanno], in- 

Cesi [b,ez], without 
gesnosdHTfc [b,ezp'B'kott], to trouble 
6i:pen ['b.ereg], shore, coast 
6btb [b,it,i, to beat 
Ciaroxap^CB [blageda',], to 

6iaropdAHHfi [Uag^'rodnil], noble 
6xarocioBxiT& [,], to 

di^slB ['blizkil], near 
CiijKBak ['bl,ednif), pale 
6drtoifi [b'sgatii], rich 
Sortea {bv'gin.aj, goddess 
Bori [box], Sod 
6oJu [bol,], pain, ache 
fioiiBdi ibul/noi], sick, ill 
€6jame [bolje], more 
ittiiMbi. [b^iybi], great, large 
(SoJiisBi [b«'l,eznj, illness 
fopoxi [bvrs'da], beard 
(S6na Cbpt/ba], tub, barrel 
(SoiibCJi [bvlot^a], to fear 
6paB£ [bretk^ marriage 
(Span^ [blBt], brother 
fipaifc [bratj, to take 
Gp^Hfl r'br,em,a], burden 
6pHTB [britj, to sh»ve 
(ipoc4T& fbtB'sat,], to throw 
C^W'^'* L'budu/t/il], future 
fi^jionHCb l^'bnlii/hik], baker 
6pi&i<a {1>u maga], paper 
6^pji ['bar,tt], storm, tempest 

6hei [b'ik], bull 
Sura [bit], to be 
SiABnii [ b,edn'a], poor 
6ix&ih [b.e'jatj, to run 
6i.iH& ['b.elii], white 
Ttkssm. [ vagnii], important 
BBis:& [v,ek], for ever and ever 
BSOBi [vdB'va], widow 
baob6i(& {vd'eVets], widower 
B^pyii [Tdmg], all at once 
Beaai [vez'd,^, everywhere 
Bex^fi [ve'likil], great 
sejiBsoJi'&DBHB [veliko'I,epnii], 

sepeBsa [ve'r.ovka], rope 
Becgjinfi [ve's,olii], joyful 
BecB4 [ves'na], spring (season) 
Eec& [v.esj, ail, whole 
BeciA [v,e'st,ii to lead 
BecBui [v,esma], much, very 
B^'qepi ['vet/er], evening 
senw. [v,e/t/,], thing 
Bsopi [vzor], glance, look 
BB^li [v,id], face, air, shape 
b6j4tb ['vid,et,], to see 
■BfasA ['vilka], fork 
bbb6 [vino], wine 
sitmas. ['vi/ cherry , 
BuicTo ['Tm,e8to]j instead of 
BMicTi ['vm,«8t,e], together 
BBes&UBo [vne'zapno], suddenly 
BHBsy [vni'zu], downstairs 
BBBv^Bie [Tni'man,ie], attention 
B0s4 [vB'da], water 
BOAitB [vB'd,it,], to lead 
B6RKa ['vodka], brandy 
BOSBpaiqiTBca [rezvra ftfai,sii\, to 

B63jiyxt ['vDzdnx], air 
Bdsjrib- [vozl.e], beside 
b03h63ebh& [voz'mojnil], possible 
BoBB&.fvorna], war 
b6hbi Tvain], warrior 
b69cko fvotsko], army 
BOsa&iitvBk W], station, terminus 
BoiKi [T;^k], wolf 
B0JIB& [vrf'not], wave 
B620C11 ['vDlosi], hair 
Boat [vol], ox 
B6;ia ['vol,a], will; desire 



BOHi [von], away 

soo6va.6 [vBDb7t/e]( generally 

B0iip6ci [vB'pros], qaestion 

B6poHx fvoron], raven 

BopoT^ [Ti^ns'ta], gate 

Bopi [vor], thief 

BOCEpec^B&e [vBskr.e's.snie], Sun- 

poemn&Bxe [T'Bsp,i'tan,e], edacar 

boct6ei [Tfis'tok], East 

Bnep@A'& [vpe'r,od], forward 

Bpara [vrag], enemy 

BpaiL [vralj, liar 

spaiB [vrat,], to lie, to tell 

B^vii, [vrat/], physician, doctor 

BpeAHTB [vr,e'dit,], to damage 

sp^AHHfi ['vT,edn!i], hurtful 

BpeAi [Tr,sd], damage 

Bp6u« ['Tr,em,a], time 

BcerA& [vs^ex'do], always 

Bcer6 [T8,e to], on the whole; of alt 

BceHipHiiii [T8,e'm,irnil], universal 

Bce-TasH ['v8;otakil, notwithstan- 

BCnouHH&Ti [fspemi'natj, to re- 

BCTasaiB [vstaVatJ, to get up, 
to rise 

BCrpi^&TB [v8tr,e't/a^ ^ i°cst^ 

BT6pHHsi ['vtorn,ik], Tuesday 

Bieia& [vt/e'ra], yesterday 

xb [v], in, into 

Biiro^a ['viged'B], advantage 

BHArpuBaTb ['vlgilvat,], to win, 
to gain 

BiiKyni ['vlkup], ransom 

BscdEifi [vf sakif], high 

BHC0T& [vlsc'ta], height 

BHCTdsKa [vi'stavka], exhibition 

BiiracTZTB ['Tlt/istitj, to clsan 

BiiizaiB ['viiexatj, to ride out; 
to start 

b4h6i('b [v.e'n.ets], crown 

B^BdEi [v,e'nok], garland 

Bipa [vera], faith 

BlpsTB [V.erit,], to believe 

BipHHi ['v,srnil], faithful 

BixBB t^.et,], branch 

siTepi I'v.eter], wind 

Bi^HHft fve/nfl], eternal 

rj* [gd,e],, where 
repdft [ge'rol], bero 
rjraaii [gloz], eye 
rjiy66K& [glu'bokifj, deep 
rij^mift ['ginpil], stupid 
ijiyz6& [glu'xol], deaf 
TH^ffb [gnev], rage, anger 
roBopiiiTB (jfBVB'ritJ, to speak 
loxb [god], year 
rojioB^ [gvlv'va], head 
rdiOAi [golBd], hunger 
rdaocB ['golos], voice 
i62y6b ['gotubj, pigeon 
rop4 [ge'ia], mountain 
rdpAOcn ['gordostj, pride 
r6pABH ['gordn], proud 
r6po;rB fgorod], town 
rogdzi [ge'roz], peas 
TopmdBi [gcr'/ak], pot 
rdpBBiii ['gvr.kil], bitter 
ropiiB [gB'r,etJ, tft burn 
ropi^iH [gB'r.ot/'fll hot 
TocnoAtei [gvsps'a^in], gentleman 
rocBoq^ [gBipe'^a], lady 
TociiHBBiui [gBB't,in,itsa], inn,hotel 
rocTB [gostj, guest 
rocyfl&pcTBoigBsu'darstvo], empire 
roT^BBfi [gB'tov!!], ready 
rpaji [grad], hail 
rpaxAaHiiTB [grafda'n,in], citizen 
rpaniaa [gra'n.itB^]) frontier, 

rpaij|>iaB .[gra'fin,a], countess 
rpajti [graf), count, earl 
Tp66eHB ['gr,eb,enj, comb 
Tpinia ['gr sts.a], Greece 
rp^MCKifl ['gr,«t/eskil], Greek 
Tpo6i [grob], coffin 
ipoH'B [grom], thunder 
rpyjB [^dj, chest 
rp^ma [gru/a], pear 
rpixi [gr.ex], sin 
ryjiaiB feu'l,atj, to walk 
rycB [gusj, goose 
;^a [d»], yes 
AaB&TB [da'vat,], to give 
H&xe ['daje], even, also 
nafl, ni&ie [dafj, give 
xaieEiB [da'l,oki!f], distant 
xipoMi ['darom], free of cost 
jBepB [dv_,Br,], door 
SB^raTB [dvigat,], to move 



^^opi [dvor], court, yard 
AeniSpt [de'kabr,], December 
jSHB [d.EuJ, day 
j^Hirn ['d,en,gi], money 
^ep^BHa [de'r.evn.a], village 
A^peso ['d,er,evo], tree 
jepac^Ti [d|er'jat,], to keep 
AemeBHH [d,e7bviLi], cheap 
S^KiB ['dikiJ], savage, wild 

*jHTa [d.i't.a], child 
fljHHHHii ['dl.innSI], long 
SJifl [AM, for 

jofipofliiejiB [dobro'd,et,el,], virtue 
A66pHfi ['dobrli], good 
SoSiiqa [do'bli/a], prey 
AOb6jbho [dB'], enough 
A0B6jBHEift [d's'vol.nlT], satisfied 
HoxAi [dajdj, rain 
AOEas&TeABCiBO [deka'zat,el,8tTo], 

ffisiii ['dalgif], long 
jojrtaa [dc'lina], valley 
HOAVb [dolgj, debt 
;i6;iseHi, a ['dolmen], I must 
«OMi [dom], house ^ 

Aop6ra [d^'roga], way 
;(opor6fi [dBrw'gol], dear 
jOCB5ftHBfi [dB'stoinSi], worthy 
joHi [dot/"], daughter 
jtpdsBiz [ dr,evnii], ancient 
ApoBi [dre'va], wood 

AposaTB [dr^'jatj, to tremble 

jpyrdS [dru'goi], other 

jpypi [drag], friend 

Hj6t [dub], oak 

j^MaTb ['dumatl to believe 

;iyp4Ri [du'rak], fool 

Sypafifi [dur'noi], bad 

syina [du'/a], soul 

SHKB [dim], smoke 

AiBymsa ['d evu/ka];. girl 

xiaaTB ['d,ejatj, to do, to make 

aiio ['d,slo], business; thing 

fMx ['d,ixd,ai, uncle 

er6 [Ie'vD],.of him; his; him 

eAsd [led'va], scarcely, hardly 

6cjiB t'lesU], if, whether 

emS [le/t/o], still, yet 

xix3,a, ['jajda], thirst 

xaj^TB [j!a'l,BtJ, to pity, to regret 

»&pBTi> ['jar.itj, to roast, to fry 

sapsde [;arkaio], roast meat 

xes&vb [jelatj, to wish 

xex^ffltrb [ze'ludok], stomach 

x&iTiifi ['joiifl], yellow 

zeiisHaii Aopdra [;e'l,eznala de- 
'roga], railway 

zeji&so [ze'l,ezo], iron 

seB4 [;e na], wife 

s^BiUHHa ['j,en/t/ina], woman 

X^pTsa ['j ertva], victim 

sBsdraoe ki'votnote], animal ' 

sB;^6BKa [^i dovka], Jewess 

EBAt [jid], jew 

K^Te;i£ ['zit,elj, inhabitant 

ffiHTB [jitj, to live 

sa [zQt], for; behind 

safidTHTBCJ) [za'b3tit,Ba], to care 

saSuB&TB [zabl'vatj, to forget 

sdBTpaKaifc ['zdvtrakatj, to break- 

3&BTpa ['zotvtra], to-morrow 

saanr&Tb [za^'goctj, to light 

sasdBi [za'koo], law 

sAmoei ['zamok], castle 

savdKi [za'mok], lock 

saHBM&TBca [zaii,i'mat,8a}, to . oc- 
cupy oneself 

3&naAi ['zapad], West 

sanpeni&iB [zapr,e'/t/ot,], to pro- 

sacjj^aBBaTB [za slu^vatj, to de- 

saniBin&TB fza/t/'i'yt/atj, to protect 

a4»i(i ['zaiats], hare 

3Biaf,k [zv,e'zda], star 

SBtpfc [zv,er,], beast 

3Aop6BBe [zdB'rov,e], health 

BAop6Riift [zd'B'rovQ], healthy 

sjici [zd.esj, here 

3ejieBii& [z,e'l,ann], green 

aemi [z,Bm'l,a], earth 

s^pxajio ['z.crkalo], looking-glass 

SBnk [zi'ma], winter 

32oj^ifi [zte'd el], rascal 

3Mt« [zm,e'Ia], snake 

3BaEi [znak], sign, mark 

SEkua ['znam,a] flag 

snaTB [znatj, to know 

s6i0T0 ['zofBto], gold 

36BTHK1 ['zontik], parasol; nm'- 

Bp^iiS [zr.elli], ripe 

syfii [zub], tooth 



■ [f|, and 

Brfijiita [i'golka], needle 

HppATB [i'grat,], to play 

BsSHp&Tb [izb.i'ratj, to choose 

B3i [iz], out, from 

iiB ['il,i], or 
; BKoepiTop'B [imp,e'rotor], emperor 

BMnepaTp^a (imp,Bra'tritsa], em- 

wAn [i'm etj, to have, to possess 

iua ['im.aj, name 

BBorsi [inv'gda], sometimes 

HHOcTp&BBHfi [iu's'strannif], fo- 

BCE&TB [i'slcatj, to look for 

iespa, ['iskra], spark 

AcspeHBiH ['iskr,ennii], sincere 

BcsyccTBo [i'bkustvo], art 

Bcidpin [i'8tar,Ta], history 

BCTd^BBKi [i'st3/n,ik], source 

Bcies&Tii [ist/e'zat,], to disappear 

tbsh [ilul,], July 

iiiBi [itunj, June 

K&XAHfi [ Kaxdiil], each, eyery 

Baa&T&ca [], to seem 

sasBa^^H [kazna't/el], treasurer 

KaKdfi [ka kol], which 

EaKi [knk], how, as, like 

K&iieBb ['kame,nj, stone 

EapaBX&ini [karan'da/], lead- 

EapM&B'B [karman], pocket 

EapT^a [kar't,inal picture 

Kiasia. {ka'pl.a], drop 

E&iecTBo ['kat/estro], quality 

K&meu ['kti/el,}, cough 

Kx&aaThca [kla'], to bow, 
to salute 

MDwh [kl,ut/], key 

EBiia ['kn,iga], book 

KBBronpoxiBeqi [kn.igapra'da- 
T.etsJ, bookseller 

KBarAB& [kn,a'gin,a], princess 

EHB3& [kn,azj, prince 

K6xa ['ka^aX skin 

E0iec6 [kfll.e'so], wheel 

Boidxeab [k«'iod,ezJ, well, pit 

Kojiud [lrel,'«/o], Ting 

B6icBaTa ['kamnata], room 

KOBeKi [ko'n.Dk], skate 

KOB^i^B [kB'n.sta], end 

KOBB [konj, horse 

soBiMBBB [ko'n,n/n,a3, stable 
Kop&(5ju> [ke'rab], ship 
K6peBb ['kor.enj, root 
nopsARBA [k«r'z,inka], basket 
Eopoj^sa [k«r«l,eva], q^ieen 
Eop6;i£ [ksVol,], king 
' sopdrsiS [kii'rstkii], short 
EocTB [kastj, bone 
BOTdpufi [ke'torH], which, that 
B6(j)e ['kof.c], coffee 
K6iirea ['ko/"ka], cat 
EpacHopi^ie [krasnB'], elo 

Ep&CBHfi ['krasnlt], red 
EpacTi> [krastj, to steal 
Epaii [kral], border; region 
EpecTb [kr,est], eioss 
EpBBoii [kri'vDl], crook i-d 
spHH&TB [kri't/at], to cry 
EpoB&Tb [krc'vatj, bedstead 
EpoBi [krov], rdof, shelter 
KpoBB [krovj, blood 
EpdHt ['kr3m,e], besides 
Ep^rjuii ['kru^], round 
Epiiina ['kri/a], roof, cover 
EpiaEiB ['kr,epkn], siroug 
EpinocTB ['kr,epostJ, fortress 
KTO [xto], who 

KT0-Hii6^AB [xton.i'bud J, somebody 
Ey^B^iTB [kuz'n.cts], blacksmith 
Kyn&TBCa [ku'i)at,8a], to bathe 
Byri^H'B [ku'p,eis], merchant 
Eycds'B [ku'bok], piece 
RfxsD ['kiixn.a], kitchen 
jl^Miia ['tampal lamp 
tevb [l,ef, l,Df], lion 
sSlBEa, i'lafka], shop 
ji6rEifl [^l.Dxkil], easy 
iers6 [l.ex'ko], easily 
x%wb [l.oil]. ice 
les&TB [l.e'gatj to lie 
jeE&pcTsn [l,e'kar8tvo], medicine 
serkih [l,e'tal,], to fly 
jiBc^qa [l.i'siiaa], fox 
jBCTb -[1,181], leaf 
mnf) [l,i'isD], face 
ji6!KEa ['tozka], spoon 
aoM&TB P" DiatJ, to break 
i6inasb ['lo/ed,], horse 
iyn> [lug], meadow 
jiyH^ [lii'na], moon 



.iiioBHTb [l,u'b,it,], to love 

3iD66Bi O.u'bof,], love 

jH)6oniiTHHa [l,ubE'pttO"]) curious 

liBnk ['l,evH], left 

jiKapb ['l,ekar}, doctor, physician 

lisiawk [l,e'ii,iTK], lazy, idle 

aJ&BB [l,enj, idleness 

AciRana. [lean^itsa], ladder 

lAcT, [l,es], forest, wood 

;i^T0 t'l.sto], summer 

Mail [mat], May 

MaJio ['majo], little (adv.) 

M4;ieHBKiS ['mal,enkil], small 

HaJiHfi ['malli], little (adj.) 

w&sbvta,!, ['mal.t/ik], boy 

Maprt [mart], March 

h4cjio ['masio], oil; butter 

■aa.iepisb [mate'r,ik], continent 

MaiB [motj, mother 

uejiBijB [m,ed'v,ed,], bear 

M&Ksy ['mraduj, between 

vievh [m,Et/J, sword 

jifipi [m,ir], peace 

Mip^B [m,ir], world 

HH6ro ['mnogo],,much; many 

MHoroji)scTBO [mnogo'l.udstvo], 

UH6seCTBo ['mnozestTo], multitude 
HHime ['mn,en,e], opinion 
HOiHia [mo'giia], tomb 
Mor^mecTBO [m'B'gu/t/estvoJ.power 
uoaceiB 6iiTj> [' mojet bit,], perhaps 
h6sho ['mojno], (it is) possible 
h6eph& ['makria], wet, damp 
HOji^TBa [mB'l,itva], prayer 
ubxeas ['motnTa], lightning 
Tioionfm [mvt's'doi], young 
'iiojioe6 [mnlc'ko], milk 
MoaH&Tb [mBl't/otJi to be silent 
M6pe ['mor,e], sea 
iiocn [most], bridge 
MOTO [mot/j, to be able 
MCTHT* [mst,it,], to revenge 
vixpavL ['mndrii], wise 
Hys^:b [mu,;ik], peasant 
TsjjsMvaa, ['mnji/ina], man 
nyxh [muj], husband 
H^SHsa ['muzlka], music 
wfisA [mu'ka], flour 
M^xa ['muxa], fly 
Kaasb [miEsI,], thought 
MHTb [mitj, to wash 

Muon [mi/], mouse ' 

Mijb [m.ed,], copper 
H^pa [m era], measure 
Mtbcai^s [m,es,ets], month; moon . 
Micio ['m,esto], place, spot 
H'fiCTOnoJtozc^Hie [m,estop«ti3 ;e- 

nie], situation 
Tcbrnkn [mieYat,], to prevent 
uimfsEh [m,e/3k], purse 
KirsiS ['m,axkii], soft, tender 
M^co ['m.aso], meat 
Ha [na], on, upon 
HaBipHo [na'v,erno], certainly 
narpasAaib [nagraj'datj, to re* 

H&AUHCL ['nadpisj, inscription 
h&ao6ho ['nadobno], it is necessary 
Ha^^s^fa [na'd.tgda], hope 
Baji [nad], above 
Haff&iibca [na-d,eiat,sa], to hope 
uSkskjih [na'zad], back; ago 
HasKB^TB [nazlfvat,], to call 
BaE^HsaTB [nan^azivat,], to pu- 
HaiiipeHie [na'm,er,snle], intention 
HanpicHo [na'jHraano], in vain 
HapoA'B [na'rad], people, nation 
v&ciAjKBOXb [na'8l,edn,ik], heir, 

BaxoA^tB [naxc'diitj, to find 
aa^^jio [na't/alo], beginning 
Ha^HH^TB [nat/i'nat,], to begin 
He [n,e], not, no 
h66o ['n,ebo], heaven; Sky 
aeB03H6sHiiS [n.evnz'mojnil], im- 
Hejijia [n,ed'el,a], week 
BenoAB^XHHfi [n,epBd'vijnll], im- 
BenpiireiB [n e'priat,e1J, enemy 
Benpi^THnii [n,e'prIat,i^T|, dis- 
HecpasH^HBHa [n,e6rav'n,*iu>n]i io' 

H^ssiB ['n,izkil], low, inferior 
HHBorA& [n,ikBx'da], never 
HHETd [n,i'xto], nobody 
Haier6 [n,it/e'vo], nothing 
H^miii [n,i/t/"il], beggar 
HO [no], no 
B6Biift ['navii], new 
Hor4 [n^'ga], foot; leg 



BomAta, (nepo^HHHa) [ne'^ik (p e- 
re'tyinnii)], pen-knife 

BOKi [noj], knife 

Hops^ria [nBr'v,egia], Norway 

Boci [nos], nose 

HOHB [not/j, night 

Hoci&Tb [no s,it,], to bring, to carry, 
to wear 

HoA6pB [uBtabrJ, November 

HpdBHTLCa ['], to please; 
to like 

vj3sf.6.Th0K [nng'], to want 

KfxMaJa ['nujniri, necessary 

BSBs ['n,an,a], nurse 

BtH^ifEiS [n,e'm,etskil], German 

Biueo,i ['nem,ets], German 

HtodH [n,e msl], mute, dumb 

lATh [n,et], not; it is not 

4(6a ['aba], both 

o6e3B^a ['Bb,e''z,ana], monkey, ape 

o6HX&Tfc [sbi'^at,], to offend 

66iaBo ['obtako], cloud 

o6K&H£iBaii>[ob'manIrat,], to cheat, 
to deceive 

oCdn [e'ba!], tapestry 

oddSimntt [«'boy t/ik], upholsterer 

66ii(eciB0 ['ob/t/estvol society, 

66ii(ifi ['obyi/ifl, common 

o6HBHOB4Bie [Bbifkn«'v,enie], habit 

o<!hsbob6bho [cblkn'B'r.enno], 

o6B8H0B^BHHt [sblkn'B-vennot], 

oG^AaTL [«'b,edatj, to dine 

o6iKb [v'], dinner, 

oG^mioh [«b,e/t/atj, to promise 

ofiisaHBocTB [v'b.azannoBtJ, obli- 
gation, duty 

0BII& ['Bv'tBct], sheep 

ordHb ['B'gonj, fire 

0R*B4Ti [Bd,e'vat,], to dress 

otsxnikTb [Bji'datJ, to wait, to 

osepo ['ozfiio], lake 

OE&BHHBaTb [s'kant/ivatj, to finish 

okh6 [«k'no], window 

6K0JIO ['okBlol round, about; 

oup^CTHOCTB [■B'kr.estnostJ, envi- 

oBTiCpB [Bk't,abr,], October 

oi^HL [B'l,En,], stag 
on&CHOCTL [B'pasnost,], danger 
on&CHHH [B'pasniTI, dangerous 
onaiB [B'p.otJ, again 
opiiT, [b r.aljT eagle 
opysie [c'ruzle], weapon 
opixi [B'r,exj, nut, walnut 

0CB060SA4tb [BSVBbBj'dat,], to 


ocBtm&TB [Bsve'/t/atj, to promise 

oc@jFB [e's.ol], ass, donkey 

6ceBB ['o8,enj, autumn 

ocM^jrasaiBca [vB'miel.ivatiBa], to 

oc66eBBo['B'83b,enno], particularly 

ociaBjaTB [Bsta',! to aban- 
don, to leave 

ocTisHTB [B'stav.itJ, to abandon, 
to quit 

ocTaiiBdH [BBtaI,'n3if|, remaining 

ocTop6sHHt [Bsta'rojnii], carefS 

ocrpoB^b ['ostrof], island 

6cipHS ['ostrH], sharp 

OTB [ot], from, out 

OTfloxB^TB [■BtdBx'nutJ, to rest, 
to repose 

0T6n,-b [B'tirts], father 

oT^secTBo [B'tiBt/estvo], native 

otkphb4tb [etkr'i'vatj, to open, 
to discover 

ox6tbhbi [B'xotnik], sportsman 

ox6tbo [B'sotno], willingly 

6^eBB ['ot/en], very much, greatly 

dTOpe^B ['ot/er,ed,], turn 

ohkA [ot/'ki], spectacles 

ornHfisa [B'/ibka], mistake 

ndJteui ['pal,et8], finger 

B^2Ka ['pal:ka], stick 

n4MaiHHE'B['pam atnik],monument 

n^MATB ['pam,at,], memory 

ndpa ['para], pair, couple 

napozbAi [para'xod], steamer 

napi [par], steam 

nacxyxi [pa'stux], shepherd 

n^aent ['p,ep,el], ashes 

n^pBHfi ['p,ervif], first 

nepeBoj6TB[p,er,evB'd,itJ, to trans- 

nSpesi ['p,er,ed], before 

nep6 (jp,eK>], pen; feather 

necdsi [p.e'sok], sand 


ne?4zb [pfi'tfaX], sorrow 
ni^ML ['p,et/kaj, stove 
new [p,et/,], to bake 
ii4bo [ pivo], beer, ale 
nBC&Tfc [p.i'sat,], to write 
nHc&H6 [pis/mo], letter 
DHTL [p,it J, to drink 
DjiaBaTfc [ ptavat,], to swim 
na&KaTB ['plakatj, to weep, to cry 
nji&aa ['p}am,a], flame 
njiarATi [pla'titj, to pay 
nji&Tie ['plat,e], dress 
DJi^Ma ['pl,em,a], tribe 
iLieiiflHiiBi^a [pl,e'iii,aniiit8a], niece 
vnoKb [piod], fruit 
nJToxo ['ploxo], hardly; badly 
MomajB [\)ioft/ed], place, square 
no [po], after; by; out of; about 
ndsapi ['povar], cook 
noBHHOB&Tbca [pisviDB'], to 

noBTopsTB [pBft'B'r.atJ, to repeat 
nor6Aa [p^'godaj, weather 
noeAiHOKi. [p^ie'diinok], duel 
BOffiajiyacTa [pB'jaluista], if you 

nosBoaiiTB [pBZVc'l.atJ, to allow 
n6$AHo ['pszno], late 
iioEisHBaTB [pc'kaz'ivat,], to show 
BospHB^Tb [p^kri'vatj, to cover 
noKyn^Tb [pBku'patJ, to buy 
noajeHB ['pold.en,], noon 
n6M ['pol.t-], field 
noa^auHH [pB'l,eznH], useful 
nojioB^Ha [p«lB'v,iDa], half 
noJiy^dTL [pBlu't/at,], to receive 
noMoriib [p'Bm'B'gatJ, to help, to 

iidMomt ['pomo/t/], assistance 
nouejijibHHK'i [pBn,e'd,el,n,ikj, 

noHHii4Tb [pBu^i'mot,], to under- 
nonpaBj^Tb [pBpra'vl^atJ, to cor- 
rect, lo mend 
jiooB [pop], priest 
nopa«aTb [pBra'jat,], to surprise 
nopEuirb [pBri't/alJ, to blame 
nop6xa [pc'roda], kind, species 
nopoKi [pB'rok], vice 

nopTH6fi [pBrt'noI], tailor 
nopJxoEi [pc'radok], order 
nopy^iTb [pBru't/atJ. to commit, 

to charge 
nocjii^Hift [pB'slieilnn], last 
n6c;iJ6 ['pasle], after 
n6cji*-34BTpa ['posl.e 'zaftra], the 

day after to morrow 
nocdjbCTBo [p«.'sol,8tvo], embassy 
nocoai [pB'sol], anibassarlor ' 
nocT^Jib [pE'si.el,]. bedstead 
nocimiTb [pBs,e/i/at,], to visit 
nocim^Hie [pBs.e'/i/enie], visit 
nociuaTb [p'Bsi'latJ, to send, 
jioiep^TB [p'Btfi'T^a.i^], to lose ^ 
noTOM;f-?io [pBtB'uiu-/lo], why; 

noxdux [pB'tom], then, afterwards 
noxdacift [pB'xojil], like, similar 
noiTH [pB't/ti], nearly 
ndisi'B i'polezd], train 
TipiBBJiLHHH ['pravil^nlii], regular 
npfcijHHKi [prozn.ik], festival ■ 
npeftiar^Tb [pr,eilla'gatj, to offer 
iip^ffiAe [ pi',^3!(,e]> before, sooner 
npe3Bp4Tb [pr,ez,i'rat,], to despise, 

to reffard with contempt 
BpeBiff^mecTBo [prei'mu/i/estvo], 

npeapicHHB [pr|e'krasnu], beau- 
DpecT64i [pr.e'stoij, throne 
npB [pr,i], at, near, on, by 
npnCjiHatdTBca [pr,ibli'3at,sa], to 

npBfiHTB [pr.i'bitj, to arrive 
DpHBii?Ka [pr,i'vit/ka], custom, 

npBrOTOBjaTB [pr,igBtB'vl,at,], to 

npBji^jKHufi [pr,i'l,e^nii], diligent 
npBMipi [pr,i'ii',er], example 
npBHOc^TB [priin^'Siit,], to bring 
npHxojfiTB [pr^ixB'ditj, to come 
npaiBHa [pr,i't/ina]. cause, reason 
iipitxaxb [pr,i iexatj, to arrive 
npiArem [pri'at|el,], friend 
npiaTBsfi [pil'atiiil], agreeable 
irp660BaTb ['probuvat,], to try 
npoAaBaTb [priBda'vai J, to- sell 
npocBTB [prTj's.itJ, to beg 



npocidfi [prB'stoit], simple 

npdTHBi. ['prot,ifl, against 

npontfi,™ [pre'/t/at,], to pardon 

npysi [prnd], pond 

^TA^a ['pt,it8a], bird 

nycK&Ti [pus'kotj, to let, to let go 

nycTfit fpus'toJ], empty 

nyci'iHa [pns'tiin.a], desert 

nyrem^cTBeBBHKi [put,e'/e8tv,en- 
n,ik], traveller 

nyTemicTBosaiB [put,e'/estvovatJ, 
to travel 

mesi, [p/e'la], bee 

BhkBS& ['p,anli], drank 

lATpa, [pe'tux], cock 

uiib [p.eij, to Sing 

niTBHua ['^.atnitsa], Friday 

pa66Ta [ra botaj, work 

pa4{6TaTB [ra'botatj, to work 

pa66TBHEi [ra'botn,ik], workman 

paBB^Ba [rav'n,ina], plain, level 

p&AOBaTica ['radflvatiSa], to re- 
joice, to be glad 

P&XOCTL ['radostj, joy 

p»A%.[rod], glad 

pasB&iHBa [raz'valina], rain 

■piaai ['razv,e], perhaps, tben 

pasroB&pHBaTfc [razge'varivatj, 
to dlDsuade 

paaroBdpi [razgB'var], dialogue, 

pasji&MHBaiB [raz'tamSvatJ, to 
break, to smash 

fiaasiaas& [raz'], differient, 

piiiHBua ['t«tzn,it8a], difference 

p43BHH [' raznil], different 

paasop^Ble [raz2«'r,cnle], destmc- 
tion, overthrow 

pascKto [raz'skaz], tale, narra- 

pascEdaBsaTB [raz'skozlvatj, to 
tell, to relate 

paacK^TpHBaii [raz'matr,iTatJ, to 
view, to contemplate 

pa3CiiOTpiaie[raz'8m'Btr,anIe], exa- 

pass [raz], time; once 

pAna ['rana], wound 

p4H0 ['mno], soon 

pacsaiTtc« [raBk«,at,8a], to repent 

pacnpocTpaHXTB [raspmstra'n.atj, 

to extend 
pacT^Bie [ra8't,enle], plant 
pBaiB [rvatj, to tear, to rend 
ptenaft ['roynSi], even 
pora frag], horn 

p6j(nu ['rad.ina], native country 
poxiieiH [rB'dit,el,i], parents 
p6xcTBeHHua L'rodstv.ennik], re- 
lation, relative 
poxB Trod], gender 
po»x4TBca [rej'], to be bom 
PoaMecTB6[raitd,est'voi, Christmas 
pojKA^Bie [raj'd,enie], birth 
poaB [rogj, rye 
p63a 'roza], rose 
pocS [re'sa], dew 
poTi [rot], mouth 
pyo&mA [ru'ba/ka], shirt 
pyakS [ru'jo], gun, rifle 
pyE& [ru'kaj, hand; arm 
pyH6» [ru't/efli brook; rivulet 
piifia [ rsba], fish 
piifidsi [rii'bak], fisherman 
piAKit rr,sdkiTl rare, seldom 
pisaTB ['r,f/at,], to cut 
pitti [r.e'ka], river 
pim&TB [r.e'/otj, to decide 
pim^aie [r.e/snie], decision 
pi)UKa ['r,umka], small glass 
pji»i [r,od], row, tier 
caA^TBca [sa'], to sit down 
caji.dBBBt'b [sa'dovn.ik], gardener 
csLXb [sold], garden [same 

cawB, ciwift [sam, 'aamfiTj, self, 
candri [sa'p3|], boot 
can6sHHra[Ba po;n,ik], shoemaker 
c&sapB ['saxar], sugar 
CBH^CBTeiB [8v,i'd,8t,el,], witness 
cBBB^m [svi'n.ets], lead 
cbxhbA [8vi'n,o], swine, pig 
CBoCdja [8V«'b3da], ireedom, li- 
CBo66j[Biifi [sV«'bodnn], free 
CBirAABHS'B [sv,e't,il,ii,ik], candle- 
cabn, [], light; world 
CBi^& [sv.e't/oi]) candle 
CBissa fsv.ozka], tie 
CBJIT6& [svytsX], holy, saint 
cjtiianca t'6d,slit,B»], to become, 
to get 

BoMUn Oonv.-6)runmai. 




cer6xHa [s.e'TodnitJ, to-day 
cefi^ici [s^rt/as], directly 
cei6 [afi'io], village 
cen^ficTBO [8,e'm,el8tTo], family 
ceHTsOpb [8,en't abr,], September 
c^pjme ['s.crds.e], heart 
cepe6p6 [8,er,ebro], silver 
cepbSsHHft [B,e'r,oznn], serious 
cepT^Ki ['tuk], coat 
cecTpi r8,e'8tra], sister 
CHAVTi. [8,i'd,ttJ, to sit 
cAia r^iiia], strength 
ciuMuA ['sflfitQ, strong 
ciaiSi ['s.inifl, blue 
CKAH&Ti [ska'zatj, to tell, to say 
CEaEan [ska'katj, to jump 
caaja [ska'ta], rock 
CKaM^fisa [ska'm,stka], bpoch 
CE6po ['iikoro], soon, quickly 
CE6pbiH ['skorn], quick 
CEon [skot], lieasit; cattle 
CEpdMuiiS ['skromoit], modest 
cEpuB&TB Tskrl'vat,], to hide 
ci&fiHR ['sfabli], weak 
c24Ba [Mava], glory, renown 
ci&AKit ['stadkiii], sweet 
01034 [-le'za], tear 
cjioB&pb [st^'var,], dictionary 
cji6bo ['sloToJ, word 
cjiyr4 [slu'ga], sfrrant, footman 
esjAkuM [slu'ganka], maid- 
ciyziTb [stu'iitj, to serve 
CJiyiai ['sfait/al], Accident, case 
ciy^Tbca [tAn't/atfia], to happen 
cAyi&TbCH l.8la't/at,sa], to h« 
cxinatih ['sll/atj, to hear 
ciiAOBaib ['8l,edBvat,], to follow 
cjifljBmiR ,['sl,edulu/t/il], follow- 
ciin6fi [8l,e'pon, blind 
cHi;iHfi ['sm^diQ, bold 
cHtaibca [sm,e'lfat,sa], to laugh 
CHom^nie [aws'/enie], intercourse 
CHiri [sn,eg], snow 
cofidsa [s'B'baka], dog 
coSHp^Tb [sBbi'ratJ, to collect 
co66p'E'[sB'bor], cathedral 
co6paHie [s'e'branle], collection, 

coBiTEHKi [s'B'v,etn,ik], counsellor 
coBtTt [se'v,et], advice 

coJA&Ti [mi'iai], soldier 
coib [solj, salt 
c6iHi(e ['8olts,e], sun 
couBlHie [88m'n,cnle], doubt 
coHi [son], sleep 
conpoBOXA&TB [sBprevcf'datJ, to 

conpoTHBjij(T&CB [s«prBtiv'lat,sa], 

to oppose, to resist 
cocToiBie [sBstB'ionie], property, 

cociffB [s«,c,ed], neighbour 
cnaTb [spatj, to sleep 
cnnE& [sp.i'na], back 
caoE6tiHBfi [sp's'kolnil], quite 
cnoc66Bii£ [spe'sobni^, able 
cnpinmsaib [ spra'yivatj, to ask, 

to inquire 
cpax&TbCA [8ra';;at,8a], to fight 
cpe^ [sre'dal Wednesday 
cpexHHd [sr,ea,i'na], middle 
cp 'jcTBo ['si-,Ed8tvo], means 
cc6pa ['ssora], quarrel 
CTaK^Hi [sta'kan], drinking-prlass 
CTap^TbCfl [sta'rat,8a], to endea- 
CTapAnt [sta'r.ik], old man 
CTdpocTa ['starosta], headman 
ciapjDiKa [sta'ru/ka], old woman 
CT^puS ['stam], old, ancient 
CTOEjio [8t,ek'lD], glass (pane of) 
CTOJTb [stot], table 
CTOJap'b [stB'l ar], joiner 
CTOpoH^ [sfBrB'na], side 
crpaHa [stra'na], country, region 
CTp&mimg ['stra/nii], terrible, 

CTp6i'iH ['strogilj, rigorous ' 
cipoHTb ['strait,], to build 
ciyji [stul], chair 
ciy^^TB [stu't/at,], to knock 
CTBjATbCH [8tu'dlt|Sa], to be 

cxini [8t,e'na], wall 
cyfi66Ta [sub'bota], Saturday 
cjnha [su'rta], judge 
cyx6ii [su'xol], dry 
c^acTJiHBBi) [st/est'l.ivii], happy, 

ci&CTbe ['st/ast,e], happiness, luck 
ciHT&Tb [st/i'tot,], to count 
cHH-b [sin], son 
cb [s], with; from 



ctBepi ['8,8T,er], North 

ciMfl ['s.em a], send 

cAho ['8,8no], hay 

littHHB ['taMI]. secret 

T&Rxe ['takje], also, too 

Tasdii [ta'kol], such 

TaK'b [tak], thus 

TaMi [tarn], there 

TapiiiKa [ta'r.elka], plate 

TsepAHH ['tv.ordff), hard 

leixpi [t.e'otr], theatre 

TejeHOEi [t,e'l,onok], calf 

■teitmri ['tflmnU], dark 

Ten^pfc [t,e'p,erj, now 

Tenaiifl ['t^plilj, warm, lukewarm 

TepniHie [t,er'p,tnle], patieoce 

TCTaa [t,otka], aoot 

i6jcTiiS ['tantQL f*t; big, thick, 

' stout 

Tdnso rtol,k(^ only 

TdHftie [ tonkiu thin 

T0ii6p> [t'B'por], batchet 

Toprj6Bja [t'Br gOTl,a], trade 

TOT& [tot], that 

TdiEa.Ctot/ka], point 

t6iho i'tot/no], exactly 

Tpai4 [tra va], herb, grass 

Tp^6oBaT]> ['tr.ebevatj, to require, 

to ask . 
rp^Tifi rtr,et,il], third 
Tp^TB^ro XHS r'tr,et,avo dufil the 

day before yesterday 
Tpyj(BH& ['trudnil], difficult 
vpyAi [trud], work, pains 
TpdniTb ['trogatj, to touch 
TyM&Bi [tu'mttnj, fog, mist 
T^joBHiKe ['tufasTi/t/eJ, body, rump 
ifcio ['t.rfo], body 
T^HB [i,cnj, shadow 
T^nyTb [t,a'nut,], to pull, to draw 
Taae,iHii [t.a'zolll], heavy 
yS^Ti [u'b.itj, to kill 
y^HTOKi [u'bltofc], advantage 
y6'kx&th [uhe'gatj, to run away 
yslxoiuiTB [UT,edc'inl,atJ, to in- 
jtipim, [nv.e'r.Bt,], to assure 
yroB&pHsaTB [ugB'»or,ivat,], to 

yrdJB [u'gol], corner 
yroiB ['ugalj, charcoal 
yrpo«aTB [ugr«'jatj, to threaten 

yxai«TB [uda'], to remove 
yXBBj^Hie [ud,iv'l|enie], astonish- 
yxuBJisTBcx [nd,iv'ljat,8a],to wonder 
yAOBdjiBCTiie [nds vol.stvie], plea- 
yx,6 [u'je], already 
^SHHaTB [' njinat,], to sup 
ysHHi ['n{in], snpper 
ysKifi ['uzkiT], narrow 
yjBQa ['uI,itBa], street 
yup&TB [um,i'TatJ, to die 
ynoTpe6iiTB[npotr,e'bl,at J,to want 
yp6ia [n'rak], lesson 
yc^pxie [u's srdle], zeal 
ycjOBie [u'slovie], condition 
ycnftxi [n'], improvement; 

fita, ['utka], duck 
^po i'utro], morning 
yilniTB [ut,eyatj, to console 
^0 ['uxo], ear 

yieH^i [ut/e'n,ik], pupil, scholar 
y^imtb [u't/bnll], scholar, lear- 
ned man 
y^^Hme [u'yil,iA/e], school 
yiAreiB [u't/it,el J, teacher, master 
y^^ejBHBiMi [u't/it,el,D,itsa], 

yrtiB [n't/"it,]. to teach 
yiATBca [u't/it,sa], to learn 
iffaxiuda [fa'm,illa], family 
lesp&JB [fe'vralj, February 
ij)i£gTa ['fl elta], flute 
$p&Enii ['frantsia], Frauce 
i{)paBiiy3CKiB [fran'tsuzkii], French 
(i)paBuy3B [fran'tsuz], Frenchman 
xsaj^TB [xva'l,it,], to praise 
x^TpHH ['xitriTJi sly 
xjt&B [zl,cb], bread 
zoji^TB [xs'dit^], to go 
xosiAsa [xB z,aika], mistress, 

xoo^HiTB [xs'z aln],master, landlord 
xo^iMi [xohnj, hill 
xo<6AHfii£ [xo'iodnli], cold 
xoxixB [xB't.ctJ, to be willing, 

to wish 
xoii [xv\a.], although 
xpoM6ii [xrv'mal], lame 
Kyx6fi [xuMoI], bad 
qsicT^ [tsv,e'8t,i], to flourish 



i^iTdKi [tsv,e'tok], flower 

UB^n [t8v,et], coloar 

i^^pEoiB ['t8,erkof,], church 

i^'^Hfi [t8,elia], whole, entire 

niisb [ts,el], aim, end 

^iEi, [ts.ena], price 

^ail [t/afl, tea 

^4cTo ['t/ostoj, often 

^acTB [t/astj, part 

^acii [t/e'si], watch 

laci [tfas], hour 

u&BCTBo ['t/Vnstvo], vanity 

leJOBiEi [tfete'vfik], man 

qesosiiecTBO [t/dB'v,et/estvo], 

nepBi [t/erv,], worm 

H6pe3t ['t/er,ez], through 

^epHHJia [t/er'nila], ink 

^epB^iHHua [t/er'n,il,D;it8a], ink- 

TtgpHHH ['t/,ornii], black 

MecTi [tAstJ, honour 

qeiBepra [t/et'v,erg], Thursday 

iHHOBHHK'B [t/i'nDVij,ik], official, 

TOcio [t/islo], Dumher; date 

^HCTHft ['t/ist'ii], clean 

HHT&Tb [t/i'tat,], to read 
TiopTB [t/brt], devil 
MO [t/o], that; which; what 
^t66h ['/tobi], in order that 
TTO-Hno^flB [/to-n,i'bud,], some- 
lyBCTBOBaTB ['/ttivsvBvatJ, to feel 
vjno ['t/udo], wonder 
^iui, [t/em], than 
mapi [far], ball, globe 
m6a r/E,TaJ, neck 
jnapoKit r/i'rakii], broad 
nuaoa ['yi,apaj, hat 
BiyMi [/um], noise 
BiyiAii [/u't,it,], to joke 
ii(eTKa ['/t/otka], brush 
fajS. [Je'zda], drive 
■fesjfiTB pez'd,itj, to drive, to go 
icis [iestj, to eat 
ixaii ['lexatj, to ride, to go 
Kfb [iub], South 
hCjioko [lablBko], apple 
asji^Hie [Ia'vl,eD!{e], phenomenon 
asiis'^ [le'zik], language 
BBB&pb pan'varj, January 
kcHHB ['tosnll], clear 
aSn6 pai'tso], egg. 

Printed by C. F. Winter, Dannatadt. 


Julius Groos, Publisher 


The educational works and class-books — Method Gaspey- 
Otto-Sauer — for the study of modern languages are in use all 
over Germany and abroad and have, within the last ten years, 
acquired a universal reputation, which increases in proportion 
as the knowledge of living languages becomes a necessity of 
modern life. Their chief advantages, by which — apart from 
their low price and attractive appearance — they compare 
favorably with hundreds of other educational works, are the 
following: — 

From the beginning the whole subject is offered to the 
pupil in the easiest and most clearly arranged form possible 

— the work of a great number of learned men and authors 
thoroughly acquainted with practical teaching. An easy com- 
prehensibility is efficiently helped by especially elaborated tables 
and plans, as well as by the use of varied styles of type to 
impress the subject upon the mind when reading. 

Quite methodically and carefully in the real sense of the 
, expression 'gradually', the pupil proceeds from known to 
unknown subjects without becoming aware of any difficulty. 
What the pupil has learnt he is enabled to fix permanently in 
his mind by constant repetitions always in close connexion 
with the respective previous chapters. 

The natural consequence of this easy comprenensibility, 
clearly arranged form and methodical treatment of the subject 

aOCO XI. '"^ Jnllus Groos, Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey - Otto - Sauer 

for tbe study of modern lanpages. 

is shown in the rapidity with which the student's fixed 
purpose is attained. 

With reference to these works an eminent pedagogue has 
said: 'In the schools the books after the Method Qaspey-Otto-j 
Sauer proved to be most useful ; for private and self-tuition 
they are simply indispensable. It is astonishing what pro- 
gress can be made by this method in six to twelve months. 

After only a few lessons, the pupil finds the foreign 
language, as it is offered by the 'LitUe Grammar' or the 
'Conversational Grammar', to be something 'living' and 
'practical'. He not only finds that he is able, but feels impelled 
to invent dialogues by himself. 

In this way the pupil is soon able to speak the language; 

of course within certain limits at first, but always grammati- 
cally right by means of the grammar proper, the rules and 
their practical use being explained by numerous examples and 

By the use of the 'Conversational Exercise' at the end 
of each lesson the pupil is enabled to test his knowledge 
and estimate the extent of his progress; for these 'Conver- 
sational Exercises' are arranged as if the teacher himself were 
standing before the pupil and beginning a dialogue in order 
to ascertain how far the pupil has really and fully grasped, 
the contents of the lesson. 

The independence aimed at from the very beginning gives 
courage and confidence to the pupil and awakes in him instinct- 
ively the desire to continue his successful studies; these 
studies at the same time, and without special efforts, make him 
acquaintedli'ith the land and people, their history, condition, 
manners and customs. 

Julius Groos, Ueidellierg. 

Method Gaspey - Otto - Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

As the best effect of the 
=^= Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

the independent use of the foreign language results quite 
naturally; the necessary skill and fluency are acquired by 
degrees, and at the same time, helpless groping and an imper- 
fect use of the foreign idiom are avoided. 

In these manuals 'writing exercises' are in close connexion 
with exercises for the verbal use of the language. 

By a systematic, distinct, but at the same time easy 
method the pupil learns in this way not only to translate 
correctly single phrases and whole texts in writing, but also 
to write comparatively soon a short composition on familiar 
or prepared subjects, or to compose a letter, and this in 
good, standard idiom. 

From the beginning the pupil is taught the idiomatic, 
spoken foreign language, not conventionally prepared, but 
showing all the characteristics of an immediate utterance. 

in the same exact way, too, the Method Gaspey-Otto- 
Sauer teaches a correct pronunciation of the foreign idiom. 
For this purpose the publisher has spared no expense in 
order to introduce in his class-books the 'Pronunciation 
marks of the World's Union of Phoneticians' (the method of 
transcription of the 'Association Phonetique Internationale'), as 
this is the best and most widespread of all existing phonetical 
transcription systems and offers the best and most accurate 
tiarks of pronunciation imaginable. 

In consequence of these prominent advantages of the 

- - Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer, = 

acknowledged from their first inception by critical authorities, 
it is quite a matter of course that these class-books, which, 

JuUus Groos, Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern langaages. 

as well as the additional Keys, Reading and Conversation Books 
(Connor) are in their new editions constantly improved and 
brought up to date, are recommended 'from mouth to mouth' 
and are to be found in millions of copies in all parts of the 
globe, in innumerable schools of all kinds, and are specially 
suitable and in use for 

== Self-tuition. ' 

Julius Groos, Heidelberg. 

Bankers: Rheinische Creditbank (Heidelberg Branch). 


Julius (Jroos, Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey - Otto - Sauer 

for the study of modern laingnages. 

Knsnisli Editions*. 

Arabic Grammar by Thatcher. 2. Ed .... 

Key to the Arabic Grammar by Thatcher. 2. Ed. . . . . . 

Arabic Chrestomatliy by Harder 

Danit^h Conversation -Grammar by Thomas. 2. Ed 

Key to the Danish Conversation - Grammar by Thomas. 2. Ed. . . : . 

Dutch Conversation-Grammar by Valette. 3. Ed 

Key to the Dutch Coovers. -Grammar by Valette . ... ... 

Dutch Reader by Valette. 2. Ed ... 

Frencll Conversation-Grammar by Otto-Onions. 17. Ed. . . . 
Key to the French Convera. -Grammar by Otto-Onions. 10. Ed. . 

Elementary French Grammar by Wright. 6. Ed 

French Reader by Onions 

Materials for French Prose Composition by Otto-Onions. 5. Ed. 
French Dialogues by Otto-Corkran (out of print) .... . . 

German Conversation-Grammar by Otto. 32. Ed 

Key to the German ConverB. -Grammar by Otto. 2i. Ed, . .... 

Elementary German Grammar by Otto. 10. Ed 

First German Book by Otto. 10. Ed 

German Reader I. 8. Ed. (out of print) .... 

> » n. 5. Ed., III. 2. Ed. by Otto, (out of print) . .' 

Materials for translating English into German by Otto-Wright. 7. Ed. 

Key to the Mater, f. tr. Engl. 1. Germ, by Otto. 3. Ed . . 

German Dialogues by Otto. b. Ed. (out of print) 

Accidence of the German language by Otto- Wright. 2. Ed. . 

German and English Idioms by Lange . . 

A list of German verbs by Tebbitt . . 

German Language by Becker 


Hindustani Conversation -Grammar by St. Clair-Tisdall 
Key to the Hindustani Convers.- Grammar by St. Clair-Tisdall 
Italian Conversation-Grammar by Sauer-de Arteaga. 11. Ed. 
Key to the Italian Convers.-Grammar by Sauer-de Arteaga. lO. Ed. 

Elementary Italian Grammar by Motti. 5. Ed 

Italian Reader by Cattaneo. 2. Ed. . . . . • 

Le Bellezze d'ltalia, Beautiful Italy. I. Part: Rom, Naples, Sicily 

(with 20 Illustrations) by Severino • • 

Italian Dialogues by Motti 

Japanese Conversation-Grammar by Plaut. 2 Ed 

Key to the Japaneee Oon-vers. -Grammar by Plant. 2. Ed. 

Elementary Kiswaheli Grammar by Reichart-K-iisters . . . 
Key to it by Reichflrt-Kusters ..... 
Elementary Hlodern Armenian Grammar by Gulian 
Modern Greels Grammar by Rouse 

llodern Persian Convers.-Gramm. by St. Clair-Tisdall. 3. Ed. 
Key to the Mod. Persian Convers.-Grammar by St. Clair-TiadaU. 2. Ed. . . 

Elementary Polish Grammar by Ssymank ... 

Key to the Elementary Polish Grammar by Ssymank ... . . 

Jolins Groos, Heidelberg, 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

Eng-lislx Editions. 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar by Ey. 2. Ed 

Key to the PortugueBe Convers.-Grammar by By. 2. Ed. 

Roumanian Conversation-Grammar by Hughes 

Key to the Roumanian Conversation-Grammar by HuglieB . . 

Russian Conversation-Grammar by Motti. 4. Ed 

Key to the Russian Convers. -Grammar by Mottl. 4. Ed 

Elementary Eussian Grammar by Motti. 4. Ed. 

Key to the Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. i. Ed. . 

Russian Reader by Werkhaupt and Roller 

Servian Conversation-Grammar by Petrovitch 

Key to the Servian Oonvers.-Grammar by Petrovitch . . . • • .-^ 

Spanisb. Conversation-Grammar by Sauer - de Artea,ga. 9. Ed. . 
Key to the Spanish Oonvers.-Grammar by Sauer -deArteaga. 7. Ed. . 

Elementary Spanish Grammar by Pavia. 3. Ed 

Spanish Reader by Arteaga 

Spanish Dialogues by Sauer-Corkran • 

Spanish Commercial Correspondence by Arteaga y Pereira . . 

Elementary Swedish Grammar by Fort. 3. Ed 

Key to the Elementary Swedish Grammar by Fort, 2. Ed. ... 

Ottoman-Turkish Conversation- Grammar by Hagopian .... 
Key to the Turkish Oonvers.-Grammar by Hagopian 

Ai-a.t>ic EcLition. 
Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fvir Araber von Hartmann . . . 

A-rmeioiaia Edition. 
Elementary Eng^Iish Grammar for Armenians by Gulian . . . 

OTilgrar-ian Editions. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fiir Bulgaren von Gawriysky. 4. Aufl. 
Schliissel dazu von Gawriysky ... ... . ... 

Elementary English Grammar for Bulgarians by Gawriysky. 2. Ed. 
Key to the Elem. English Grammar for Bulgarians by Gawriysky 

EleinefranaBfisischeSprachlehref. Bulgaren v. Gawriysky. 2. Aufl. 
Schlussel dazu von Gawriysky .... . ... . . . 

Lectures frangaises par Otto-Seitz. 12. ^d 

Italienische Grammatik fiir Bulgaren von Nurigianoff . . . 
Schlussel dazu von Nurigianoff . 

Kleine russische Sprachlehre fiir Bulgaren von Gawriysky . . 

I>anisli Edition. 
Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fiir Danen von Sorensen . . . . 

JulinB GrooB, HeidelberB. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

I>ntcli Editions. 

Kleine Engelsche Spraakkunst door Coster 

Kleine Fransche Spraakkunst door Welbergen 
Lectures fran(;aises par Otto-Seitz. 12. ed. . . . 

Kleine Hoogdnitsche Spraakkuust door Valette. 
Sleutel blj de kleine hoogdt. Spraakk. door Valette . . . . 

3. Dr. 

Leerboek der Italiaaiisohe taal dooc van Binsbergen . . . 
Sleutel bij de leerboek der Italiaansche taal door van Binsbergen . 

Kleine Portugeesche Spraakkunst door Ey-Paardekooper . . 
Sleutel bij de kleine portugeescbe Spraakkunst door Ey-Paardekooper 

Kleine Spaansche Spraakkunst door van Haaff. 2. Dr. . 
Sleutel bij de kleine spaansche Spraakkunst door van Haafif. 2. Dr. 

Fr-enchi Editions. 

Grammaire allemande par Otto-Supfle. 20. ■^d 

CorrlgS des themes de la Grammaire allemande par Otto-Stipfle. S.^d. 
Petite grammaire allemande par Otto-Siipfle. 13. Ed. .... 
Corrlg^ des themes de la Petite grammaire allemande par Siipfle 
Erstes deutsches Lesebuch von Verrier. 2. Aufl. . . . . 

Lectures allemandes 1. par Otto. 8. ^i 

, , II. 5. :^d,, III. 2. id. (out of print) . 

Conversations allemandes par Otto-Siipfle. 7. Ed 

Langue allemande par Becker . . ... 

L'aliemand idiomatique (Recueil de Germanismes, de Locutions 
Proverbiales et d'Expressions Pamilieres) par Hennig .... 

Grammaire anglaise par Mauron-Verrier. 14. 'ii 

Carrig6 des themes de la Grammaire anglalse par Manron-Verrier. 7. ^d. 

Petite grammaire anglaise par Mauron. 8. Ed 

Lectures anglaises par Mauron. 4. Ed . . 

Conversations anglaises par Corkran. 3. ^d 

Correspondance commercials anglaise par Carpenter 

Grammaire arabe par Armez 

Corrig6 des themes de la Grammaire arabe par Armez 

Chrestomatbie arabe par Harder 

La langae congolaise par Seidel-Struyf 

Le Danois parle par Porchhammer 

Grammaire espagnole par Saner-Serrano. 9. ^d. . . . 
Corrlg^ des thimea de la Gramm, espagn. par Sauer-Serrano. 8. £d. . 

Petite grammaire espagnole par Tanty. 4. Ed 

Lectures espagnoles par Arteaga 

Correspondance commerciale espagnole par Arteaga y Pereira 

Grammaire grecqne par Capos 

I Oorrlgd des th^ifies de la Grammaire greoqne par Capos 

Petite grammaire hongroise par Kont. 2. Ed 

Corrigi des themes de la Petite grammaire hongrolse par Kent 
Cbreatomatbie hongroise par Kont 

Method Gaspey- Otto - Sauer 

for the stndy of modern languages. 

I R.M. Pfg 

French Editions. 

Grammaire italienne par Sauer. 13. Ed. ■ • •. 

OorrlgA des thfemes de la Grammalre Italienne par Sauer. 9. Ed, 
Petite grammaire italienne par Motti. 7. Ed. . . 
Chrestomatliie italienne par Cattaneo. 3. Ed. ... 

Conversations italiennes par Motti. 2. Ed ■ • 

Grammaire japonaise par Plant 

Corrlge dea thimes de la Grammaire japonaise par Plant ... 

Grammaire neerlandaise par Valette. 4. Ed. • • • • ■ 
Corrlge des thfemes de la Grammaire n^erlandalse par Valette. 2 Ed. 
Lectures neerlandaises par Valette. 2. Ed .... 

Petite grammaire polonaise par Ssymank 

CorrigS de la petite grammaire polonaise par Ssymank . . . . 

Grammaire portngaise par By-Nogueira 

Corrigi des thfemes de la Grammaire portngalse par Ey-Noguelra . . . 

Grammaire ronmaine par Lovera. 2. Ed 

Oorrig6 des thfemes de la Grammaire ronmaine par Lovera. 2. £d. ... 
Lectures ronmaines par Tagliavini 

Grammaire msse par Fuohs-Nicolas. 6. Ed 

Corrlgi des tbimes de la Grammaire russe par Fucbs-Nloolas. 6. ^d. . 

Petite grammaire russe par Motti. 3. Ed . 

Corrlgi dea thimes de la Petite grammaire msae par Motti. 3. £d. . '. 
Lectures russes par Werkhaupt et Roller 

Grammaire serbe par Petrovitch. 2. Ed 

Ooxrlg^ des fh^mes de la Grammaire serbe par Petrovitoh. 2. Ed. 

Petite grammaire snedoise par Port (out of print) 

Grammaire tcheqne par Maschner . . . , 

Corrlge des thfemes de la Grammaire tcheque par Mascbner ... ... 

O-erman Etiitions. 

Arabische Grammatik v. Harder. 3. Anfl 

ScblUaael daza v. Harder. 3. Aufl. ... ... 

Kleine arabisclie Sprachlehre v. Harder. 2. Aufl 

Arabische Chrestomathie v. Harder 

Deutseh-arabischeg Tasohenworterbuch von Harder . . . . 

Arabiscb-deutsciies Tasohenworterbuch von Harder 

Der islamiscbe Orient v. Beck-Salabeddin. Arabische Reihe. II. C. 

Bd. I./IV.: Die Erzahlung von der Sklavin Tawaddud . . . 

Arabische Reihe: II. E. Band: I./III. : Die abbassidische Perle . . 

finlgarisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Gawriyaky. 2. Aufl. . 
Scbliissel dazu v. Gawriyaky. 2, Aufl. 

Gbineisisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Seidel. 2. Aufl. . . 

Scbliissel dazu v. Seidel. 2. Aufl. . 

Kleine chinesische Sprachlehre v. Seidel 

Scbliissel dazu v. Seidel , 

Danisclie Konversations-Grammatik y. Wied. 5. Aufl 

ScblUasel dazu v. Wied. 5. Aufl . . . 

Danischer Sprachfiihrer von Eorchhammer 

Julius tiroes, Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey - Otto - Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

Grerman Editions. 

Eiohtig Deutscll durcli Selbstunterricht von Stipfle ... 
Die riohtige Auasprache d. Musterdeutschen v. E. Dannheisser . 
Zusammengesetzte Zeitworter der deutsohen Sprache von Bauer 
Umrifi der deutschen Literatur v. Schmidt . 

Duala-Sprachlehre und Worterbuch v. Seidel .... 

Unglische Konv.-Gramm. von Gaspey. 29. Aufl. . 
Dazu gehorig: Worterbucli von Gaspey . . . . 

Schliissel zur Engl. Konv.-i-iramm. von Gaspey. 8. Aufl. 
Englisclies KonTersations-Lesebuob v. Gaspey. 7. Aufl. . . 
Kleine englisohe Sprachlebre v. Otto-Runge. 13. Aufl. . . 

SchluBSel dazu v. Runge, 3. Aufl 

Hauptschwierigkeiten d. englischen Spiacbe v. Mellin . . . 
Englisches tJbungsbuch. (mit Uuckilbersetzung) von Mellin . 
Handbucli engliscber und deutscher Idioms v.Lange . . . 

Englische Geaprache v. Bunge. 4. Aufl 

English, as it is spoken v. Crump. 16. Aufl 

Schliissel dazu v. Crump. 13. Aufl. .... .... 

Englische Handelskorrespondenz v. Carpenter. 3. Aufl. . . 

Worterbuch der englischen Abkiirzungen, MaOe, Gewicjhte und 

von Szana . . . 


E^Fhe-Sprachlehre und WSrterbuch v. Seidel 

Kleine flnnische Sprachlehre v. Neuhaus. 2. Aufl. . . 

FranaBdsische Konv.-Gramm. v. Otto-Siipfle. 83. Aufl. . 
Dazu gehorie: Worterbuch von Otto-Siipfle ....... 

' Schliissel zur Franzosischen Konv.-Gramm. von Stipfle. 8. Aufl. . 
Franzosisches Konv.-Lesebuch v. Otto-Seitz 12. Aufl. . . . 

Franzosische Literaturauswahl I : Prosa v. Seitz 
Pranzosische Literaturauswahl 11: Poesie v. Seitz . . 
Kleine t'ranzosische Sprachlehre v. Otto-Siipfle. 13. Aufl. . 

Sohlussel dazu v. Otto-Siipfle. B. Aufl. 

Franzosische Aufsatzilbungen von Seitz . . .... 

Hauptschwierigkeiten der franzSsisohen Sprache von Seitz . 
Franzosische Verbalformen zum Selbstabfragen v. Stipfle I 

Franzosisches tjbungsbuch (mit Rtickiibersetzung) _von Seitz . 
Kurze franzosische Stilschule v. Depta . . . . 

Kurze franzosische Grammatik v. Eunge .... 
Franzosische Gesprache v. Otto-Siipfle. 10. Aufl. . . . 

Die franzosische Sprache im Munde der Belgier vcn Hennig . 
Neue franzosische Lekttire, herausgegeben v. Stipfle: Band I: 

Dozin, La vie franfaise ... .... .... 

Franzosische Handelskorrespondenz von Le Bourgeois ... 
Franzosische Sprachlehre fiir Handelsschulen v. E. Dannheisser, 

Ktiffner u. Offenmuller . . 

I Pranzosische Gesprachs- und tjbungsstoflfe fur Handelsscnulen und 

Kaufleute von Le Bourgeois 

tJbersicht der franz6sischen Literatur v. Schmidt 

Method Gaspey - Otto - Sauer 

for tbe study of modern languages. 

Grerman EcHtionsa. 

Maussa-Sprachlehre und Worterbuch von Seidel . . . . 

•f apanische Konversations-Grrammatik v. Plaut ... 

Schliiseel dazu v. Plant .... . . .... 

Itallenisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Sauer. 17. Aufl. . 

Schljlasel dazu v. Cattaneo. 8. Aufl . . 

Italienisohes Lesebuoh v. E. Olscliki-Keins ...... ... 

Sette secoli dipoesia italiana von Gutkind 

Kleine italienische Spraohlehre v. Sauer. 15. Aufl 

Sohlussel dazu v. Oattaueo. 5. Aufl. \ , .... 

Italienische Gesprache v. Sauer-Motti. 7. Aufl 

II oorrettore italiano (Sprachschnitzer der Deutschen beim Italieniscb- 

Spreohen) v. di Mayo-Gelati . . 

Italienische Kaufin. Korresp.-Gramm. v. C. Dannheisser u. Sauer. 2. Aufl. 

SchlUssel dazu v. Dannheisser ... . . 

Dante, LaDivinaCommedia,herausgegebenv.L.01schki, 2.Aufl.: 

Dunndruokausgabe (Pappband) ... 

Diinndruckausgabe (biegs. Leinenband) 

Vorzagsausgabe auf dickem Papier (Halbleder) . . .... 

Vasari, Vite de' pid celebri pittori, soaltori e architetti, in Aus- 

wahl (mit 30 Abbildungen) herausgegeben von E. Olachki . . . 
-Neuere italienische Schriftsteller, herausgegeben v. di Mayo-Gelati: 

Band I: Leopardi R.M. 3.— 

II: Serao . . , 3. — 

III: Giaooaa . , 3.— 

IV: D'Annunzio , 3. — 

Y: San Giusto , 3.— 

VI: Rapisardi . , 3. — 

VII: Bracoo . . „ 3.— 

VIII: Giusti . . „ 3.- 

IX: Verga . . „ 8. — 

X: De Amicis , 3. — 

Band XI: Manzoni 

XII: Poscolo .... 
, XIII: Carducci . . . 

, XIV: Ojetti 

, XV: Le Bellezze d' Italia, 
(die Sohonheit Italiens, mit 20 
Abbildg., I. Teil: Rom, Neapel, 

Band XVI: Pirandello .... 

Koreaniiiclie Konversations-Grammatik von Eckardt . 
Schliissel dazu von Eckardt . . ... 

Marokkanische Sprachlehre v. Seidel 

Nengrlechische Konversations-Grammatik v. Petraris. 

Petraris . . 

^ V. Jfetraris. 3. Aufl. 

SchlUssel dazu v. Petraris. 3. Aufl. 
Lehrbuch der neugrieohischtn Volkssprache v. 

ITeupersische Konversations-Grammatik v. Beck . . . 
Schliissel dazu v. Beck 

N iederlandistche Konversations-Grammatik v. Valette. 

Schliissel dazu v. Valette, 6. Aufl 

Niederlandisches Lesebuoh v. Valette. 3. Aufl 

Kleine niederlandische Sprachlehre v. Valette. 7. Aufl. 
Schliissel dazu v. Valette 3. Aufl 

X^olnische Konversations-Grammatik v. Wicherkiewicz. 7. 
■ Scbltlssel dazu v. Wicherkiewicz. 7, Aufl. 

Polnisches Lesebuch von Legowski 

Kleine polnische Sprachlehre v. Ssymank. 4. Aufl. 

Schliissel dazu v. Ssymank. 4. Aufl 

6. Aufl. 



Julius tiroes, Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

Grerman Ed-itioxis. 

^OrtngiesiSClie Konversationa-Grrammatik v. Ey. 4. Aufl. . . 

jjcbltlssel dazu v. Ey. 4. Aufl ... 

Kleine portugiesische Spractlehre v. Ey. 8. Aufl 

SchlUssel dazu v. Ey 2 Aufl 

Portugiesische Gespraclie von Schonfelder 

Brasileiro, Lehr- u. Lesebuch d. portug. Sprache f. Kaufleute mit be- 

sonderer Jierucksichtigung Braailiens v. Eilers. 2. Aufl 

Schlussel dazu von Hieber 

Neuere portugiesische Schriftsteller, herausgegeben v. .L. Ey : 

R.M. 3.— 

Bd. V: De Assis 
„ VI: Volk.Poesieu.mod.Lyrik 
VII: De Queiroz . . . 

4. Aufl. 

Bd. I: Coelho 

, 11: Junqueiro , 3 

, III: Dantas . , 3 

, IV: d'Oliveira , 3 

Bnniftnisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Lovera. 
Schlussel dazu v. Lovera. 4. Aufl. ...... . . . . . . 

BiUmanisches Lesebuch von Tagliavini .... 

Bnssische Konversations-Grammatik v. Fuchs. 9. Aufl 

SchlUssel dazu v. Fuchs. 9. Aufl 

Russisches Lesebuch v. Bubnoff . . . 

Kleiue russische Sprachlehre v. Motti-v. Bubnoff. 6. Aufl 

Schldssel dazu v. Motti-v. BubnoEf 6. Aufl 

-*reuere russische Schriftsteller, heraupgegeben voo v. Bubnoff u.Nefiler: 

Band IV: Puschkin 
V: Tschechow 

Band I: Lermontow R.M. 3. — 
„ ' II : Turgenjew , 3. — 

,111: A. Tolstoj . , 3.- 

^wch'wed.iscli.e Konv.-Gramm. v. Walter(-Lund). 4. Aufl 

SchlflsBel dazu v. Walter(-Lund), 4. Aufl. 

Elaine schvredische Sprachlehre v. Fort. 5. Aufl 

Schlttssel dazu v. Fori. 3. Aufl 

Serbisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Petrovitoh. 2. Aufl. . . 
Bchlflsael dazu V. Petrovitch. 2. Aufl. 

Serbokroatisches Gesprachsbuch von GopCevic 

Spanische Konv.-Gramm. v. Sauer-Ruppert. 16 Aufl. . 1 

Dazu gehorig: Worterbuch von Sauer-Ruppert J 

Schlttssel zur Span. Konv.-Gramm v. Kuppert. 8. Aufl 

Spanisches Lesebuch v. Arteaga. 2. Aufl 

E[leine spanische Sprachlehre v. Sauer-Ruppert. 12. Aufl 

Schlussel dazu v. Sauer-Ruppert. 6. Aufl. . . 

Spanische Gesprache v. Sauer. 5. Aufl 

Die chwierigen Zeitworter der spanischen Sprache von Lergetporer 

Spanische Rektionsliste v. Sauer-Kordgien 

Spanische Handelskorrespondem: v. Arteaga y Pereira. 2. Aufl. . . 
Kleines spanisches Lesebuch f. Handelsschulen v. Ferrades und 

Langeheldt ... 

tybersicht der spanischen Literatur von Schmidt 

JiTeuere spanische Schriftsteller, herausgegeben von Ruppert: 

Band I: Alarcdn . R.M. 3. — I Band^Ip Mesonero Romanes , 
■' II: Moratin . , 3.— | „ IV: Samaniego .... 

Method Gaspey - Otto - Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

Grerman Editions. 


Scbliissel dazu v. Seldel 

Suahili-Worterbucli v. Seidel . . . 


Tschecliisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Maschner. 7. Aufl 
Schlussel dazn v. Maschner. 7, Aufl. ... 

Tiirkisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Jehlitsohka .... 
Dazu : Umschreib. d. tiirk. tjbungsstuoke in Lateinschrift v. Helmling . 
Sctaliissel zur Tttrklschen Konv.-Grammatik v. Jehlitsohka .... 

Kleine tiirkisclie Sprachlehre v. Horten ... 

Scbliissel dazu v. Horten ...... 

Tflrkische Gespraehe v. Salaheddin 

tJbersicht der turkiscben Literatur v. Schmidt 

Der islamische Orient v. Beck-Salaheddin. Tiirkiscbe Reihe: 

Bd. (f) Abmeds Gliick 

, II/IlT: Cangi dilawar R.M. 2.50: Bd. IV. Rauber und Richter 

llngariische Konversations-Grammatik v. Nagy. 2. Auil. . . . 

Schltlssel dazu v. Nagy. 2. Aufl . . ... 

Kleine UDgariBohe Sprachlehre v. Nagy. 4. Aufl. ... ... 

Schltissel dazu v. Nagy. 2. Aufl, . 

TJngarische Chrestomathie v. Kont . . . . 

Sprichworterschatz in 4 Sprachen: Dentsch-Engliscli-Fran- 
zosisch-ltalieniscli v. Schwabhauser 

Kleine Parallel- Worterbiicher von Betzinger: 

I. Germanisch R.M. 2. — 11. Romaniach R.M. 2. — III. Slavisch 

T<ander- und Volkcrknnde Jngoslawiens von Szana . 
IJberseeisclie Anewanderung von Steppan . . ... 

Dante, Die JBlnme (fjbeisetzt von A. Bassermann) Pappbard 


GJ-reeli EZditiorts. 

Kleine dentsche Sprachlehre f. Griechen v. Maltoa. 3. Aufl. 

Deutsches Lesebuch fur Griechen v. Maltos 

Deutsche Gespraehe fur Griechec v. Maltos 

Ji^leine englische Sprachlehre fiir Griechen v. Deffner . . 

Kleine franzoisisclie Sprachlehre fiir Griechen von Maltos 
Lectures fran(;aiees par Otto-Seitz. 12. 6d 

Kleine rnssische Sprachlehre fiir Griechen v. Maltos . . 

Hrmg-ai-iaii Editio n. 

Dentsche Konv.-Grammatik fur Ungarn v. Philipp. 2. Aufl. . 
Schltissel dazu v. Philipp. 2. Aufl. . ... .... 

Ita.lia,xi Editions. 

Grammatica elementare albanese di Leotti 

.luliiiN (ilroos^ Hoidetber^. 

Method Gaspey - Otto - Sauer 

for the stndy of modern languages. 

Italian Editions. 

Grammatica araba di Farina 

Ghiave della grammatica araba di Farina 

Grammatica francese di Motti. 6. Ed 

Ghiave della grammatica francese di Motti. 5. Ed. 

Grammatica elementare francese di Sauer-Motti. 6. Ed. . . 

Letture francesi di Le Boucher 

Conversazioni francesi di Motti 

Grammatica del ©reco volgare di Palumbo 

Grammatica inglese di Pavia. 8. Ed 

Ghiave della grammatica inglese di Pavia. i, Ed. ... . . 

Grammatica elementare inglese di Pavia. 4. Ed 

Letture inglesi di Le Boucher 

Grammatica elementare portoghese di Palumbo .... 

Grammatica rumena di Tagliavini 

Chlave della gramatica rumena di Tagliavini ... ... 

Antologia ramena di Tagliavini . . 

Grammatica russa di Motti. 2. Ed. . 

Ghiave della grammatica russa di Motti. 2. Ed 

Grammatica spagnola di Pavia. 5. Ed 

Ghiave della grammatica spagnola di Pavia. 4. £d 

Grammatica elementare spagnola di Motti. 4. Ed 

Grammatica elementare svedese di Pereira 

Grammatica tedeisca di Sauer-Ferrari. 10. Ed. . , . . 

CSilave della grammatica tedeaca di Sauer-Ferrari. 5. Ed. ... 

Grammatica elementare tedeaca di Otto. 9. Ed 

Ghiave della grammatica elementare tedesca di Otto 

Letture tedesche di Otto. 6. Ed 

Antologia tedesca di Verdaro 2. Ed 

Conversazioni tedesche di Motti. 3. Ed. . . 

Verbi Composti della lingua tedesca di Bauer 

Lithuanian Editions. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fiir Litauer v. Vilimas. 2. Aufl. 
, Sohlussel dazu v. Vilimas. 2. Aufl. 

feleine engliaclie Sprachlehre fur Litauer von Jakubenas . 
Schliissel dazu von Jakubenas 

I*olisli Editions. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fiir Polen v. Paulus-Legowski. 3. Aufl. 
Schltissel dazu v. Paulus-Legowekl. 2. Aufl 

Kleine russische Sprachlehre fiir Polen v. Legowski . . . . 
Sohlussel dazu v. Legowski 

Julias Groos, Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey - Otto - Sauer 
for the study of modern languages. 

For-ttigro-ese EditioMsg. 

Gramdtioa alema por Prev6t. 4. Ed 

Chave da GramAHca alema por Otto-Pr4v5t. 2. Ed. . . . 
GramStica elementar alema por Pr^v6t-Pereira. 4. Ed. 
Erstes deutsches Lesebuch v. Verrier. 2. Aufl. . . . 
Gramatioa francesa por Tanty-Vasconcellos. 3. Ed. 

Chave da Gram&Uca francesa por Tanty-Vaaconoellos. 3. Ed. 
Livro de leitura francesa por Le Boucher 

Gramatica inglesa por Ey 

Livro de leitura inglesa por Le Boucher 

GramAtica elementar gneca por Pereira .... 

It,oi3.mai[iian Editions. 

Elemente de gramatica engleza de Waltuck . . 
Conversatiuni engleze de Waltuck 

Gramaticfi, francesa de Leist (out of print) . . . 
Clieea gramatlcli fraucese de Leist (out of print) .... 
Elemente de gramaticS francesa de Leist. 3. Ed. 
Conversajiunl franceze de Leist. 5. Ed 

GramaticS germana de Leist. 2. Ed 

CSheea gramaticli germane de Leist. 2. Sd. .... 
Elemente de gramatica germana de Leist. 3. Ed. 
Conversatiuni germane de Leist. 3. Ed 

li-ussian Editions. 

JDentsche Eonversations-Grammatik f. Russen von Hauff. 7. Aufl. 

Schliissel dazu von Hnuff. 7. Aufl. 

Deutscher Sprachfiihrer fiir Eussen von Bauer 

Englisohe Konversations-Grammatik f. Russen von Hauff. 5. Aufl. 
Schliissel dazu von Hauff". 4. 'Aufl. . . . ... 

Franzosisclie Konv.-Grammatik f. Russen von Malkiel. 6. Aufl. 

Schliissel dazu von Malkiel. 6 Aufl. 

Lectures frangaises par Otto-Seitz. 12. 6d 

Italienisclie Kon.-Grammatik fiir Eussen von Mozejko. 2. Aufl. 
Sctliissel dazu Ton Mozejko. 2. Aufl 

Japanisclie Konv.-Grammatik fiir Eusson von Plaut-Issacovitch 
Schliissel dazu von Plaut-Issacovitch 

Kl. sclnvedisclie SpracUehre f. Euss. v. Fort-Issaoovitch (out of pr.) 


Julius (Jroos, Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey - Otto - Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

Sei-vian Editions. 

Kleine dentisclie Sprachlehre f. Serben v. Petrovitch. 2. Aufl. 
Kleine englische Sprachlehre fur Serben von Petrovitch. 2. Aufl 
Kleine franzosisctae Sprachlehre f. Serben von Petrovitch. 2. Aufl 

Lectures fran^aises par Otto-Seitz. 12. 6d 

Kleine italienische Sprachlehre f. Serben v. Petrovitch. 2. Aufl. 

Kleine mssische Sprachlehre fur Serben von Petrovitch . . 
Schlussel dazu von Petrovitch . . . .... 

Spaniish Kclitionss. 

Gram&tica alemana por Euppert. 6. Ed 

Clave de la Qram&tica alemana por Rnppert. 5. £ld. . 

Granx^tica elemental alemana por Otto-Euppert. 9. Ed. . . . 

Lengna alemana de Becker 

Gram^tica francesa por Tanty-de Arteaga. 3. Ed. . . . 
Clave de la Gram&tlca francesa por Tanty-de Arteaga. 3. Kd. . 

Libro de lectura francesa por Le Boucher 

GramAtica sucinta de la lengua francesa por Otto. 6. Ed. 

Gramatica inglesa por Pavia. 5. Ed 

Clave de la Gram&tica Inglesa por Pavia. 5. Ed. ... 

Libro de lectura inglesa por Le Boucher 

Gramitica sucinta de la lengua inglesa por Pavia. 6. Ed. . 
Correspondencia comercial inglesa por Carpenter 

Gramatica sucinta de la lengua italiana por Pavia. 6. Ed. 

Gram&tica sucinta portngnesa por Carrillo 

Gram&tica sucinta de la lengua rnsa por d'Arcais .... 

Olave de la Gramatica sucinta msa por d'Arcais . . 

S"weclisli Edition. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre f. Schweden v. Walter. 2. Aufl. 

Tchech Editions. 

Kleine dentsche Sprachlehre fiir Tschechen von Maschner. 4. Aufl 
Schlussel dazu von Maschner. 2. Aufl. . . ... 

Englische Konv.-Grammatik fiir Tschechen von Maschner 
Schliissel dazu von Maschner. 2. A\ifl. . . , , 

Franzosische Konv.-Grammatik f. Tschechen v. Maschner. 4. Aufl. 
SchliiSBel dazu von Maschner. 4. Aufl. . ... 

Lectures francjaises par Otto-Seitz. .12. 6d. . . ... 

Ttir-bishi Editions. 

Kleine dentsche Sprachlehre f.Tiirken v. Wely Bey-BoUand. 2. Aufl. 

Schlussel dazu von Wely Bey-BoUand . . 

Deutsches Lesebuoh fiir Tiirken von Wely Bey-BoUand . . . . 


Julios Groos, Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey - Otto - Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

Conversation-Books by Connor 


16. Ed 

English- German- French 

Italian. 4. Ed. . . 
English-German. 4. Ed. 
English-French. 4. Ed 
. English-Swedish 
Deutsch-Danisoh. 2. 
Deutsch-Eeperanto . . 
Deutsch-Franzosisch. 5. A 
Deutsoh-Italienisch. 3. A 

3. Ed. 
2. Ed. 

2. Ed. 


K.M. 4. — 

, 5- 

. , 3.— 

. B.- 

, 3.- 


, „ 3.-' 

• 7. 3. — 
. „ 4.- 

• , 3.— 

■ ' ,?•- 
'. I 3.- 

Deutsch-Poinisoh .... 
Deutsch-Portugiesisch. 2. Aufl 
Deutsch-Rumanisch 2. Aufl. . 
Deutsch-Russisch. 3. Aufl. . 
Deutsch-Sohwedisch . . . 
Deutsch-Spanisch. 2. Aufl. . 
Deutsch-Tscheohisch ... 
Deutsch-Turkisch. 2. Aufl. . 
Deutech-Ungarisch .... 
FranzQsisch-ltalienisch. S. Aufl, 
Franzosisch-Russisoh. 2. Aufl. 
Franzosisch-Spanisoh. 2. Aufl. 
Itahenisch-Spanisch .... 

The Traveller's Companion by Motti. 

1. for Germans: 

a. , 

3. , 

,4. . 

5. , 

6. , 

7. . 

8. , 

9. , 

10. , 

11. , 

22. , 

23. , 

24. , 

25. , 

26. , 

27. , 


42. „ , 

43. . , 

44. , , 

45. , , 

46. , 

Englisch . 

Franzos. 2. 


Russisch . 


Spanisch . 




Polnisch . 


Deutsch. 2. A, 



Russisch . 


Spanisch . 


Deutsch. 3. A. 

Englisch . 
Russisch . 
Spanisch . 





61. for Italians: Deutsch. 2. A. 

62. , , Englisch . 

63. , , Franzosisch 

64. „ „ Russisch . 

65. , „ Niederland. 

66. , , Spanisch . 

67. , , Portugiesisoh 

81. for Russians: Deutsch . . 

82. , , Englisch . 

83. , , Franzosisch '. 

84. , , Italienisch . ; 

101. for Dutchmen: Deutsch . 

102. , , Englisch . 

103. , , Franzosisch 

104. , , Italienisch 

121. for Spaniards: Deutsch . 

122. , , Englisch . 

123. , , Franzosisch 

124. , , Italienisch 

141. for Portuguese: Deutsch . 

142. , , Englisch . 
148. , , Franzosisch 


Julivs Groos, Heidelberg.