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Full text of "Egyptian colloquial Arabic; a conversation grammar and reader"

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CORNELL 

UNIVERSLTY 

LIBRARY 




Gift of the 
CHARLES M. TAYLOR ESTATE 



DATE DUE 



"DEUT 



Itff? 



-jmj^Hs s rw^ "" 



Li±. 



-SEP 



g^f f^ o c 



•ifii^iil^i^ |*ill|iii«**!''^" 



PRINTED INU.S.A. 



Cornell University Library 
PJ 6779.G14 

Egyptian colloquial Arabic: 



3 1924 026 886 600 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924026886600 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



IN PREPARATION. 
AEABIC PRONTJNCIATION : A Practical Phonetic Handbook. 



EGYPTIAN 
COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

A CONVERSATION GRAMMAR 
AND READER 

BY 

W. H. T. GAIRDNER 

B.A. Oxon. ; Church Missionary Society, Egypt; 

Superintendent of Arabic Studies at 

the Cairo Study Centre 

ASSISTED BY 

SHEIKH KURAYYIM SALLAM 

(ij Je:x kurejjim sallaim) 



CAMBRIDGE 

W. HEFFER & SONS Ltd. 
1917 



ALUMNIS 

SCHOL^ CAHIRENSIS UBI REBUS ARABICIS STUDETUR, 

QUORUM IN CORPORIBUS MINIME VILIBUS 

FACTUM EST EXPERIMENTUM. 



"/S^SU^ 



CONTENTS 



CONVERSATION— GRAMMAR. 

Table of Egyptian-Arabic Sounds 

The Consonants, Vowels, Diphthongs . . 
Exercises in the Vowels and Consonants : I — Syllables 

■ Words 



PAGE 

I 

2 

6-7 



II 



Ex. 
I. 

II. 



The Masculine Noun 

The Demonstrative 
Feminine Noun 



Pronoun. The Directions. The 



III. Form of the Comparative. Prepositions. Dual . . 

IV. The Genitive. The Possessed and the Possessor . . 

V. The Possessive with Feminine Noun. . .with [bita:''] 

INTERMEZZO. Elision ; Addition of Vowels ; Change of 
Accent ; Loss of Length ; Quantity 

VI. The Pronoun. Pronouns of the Genitive (Conjunctive) 

Pronouns of the Nominative (Disjunctive) 

VII. " Have." The Disjunctive Pronouns with Negative 

VIII. For General Conversation. The Five Senses and their 

Organs. 
Polite Address. The Active Participle 
Table of Active and Passive Participles . . 

IX. For General Conversation. Common Actions. 

" Have " with negative. " Had," " Shall have " 

X. For General Conversation. The Dimensions. 

The Sound Triliteral Verb — Aorist and Imperative . . 

Appendix. The Verb " Was " 

Paradigms for Practising Imperative and Aorist 

XI. For General Conversation. What one does every Day. 

Aorist with Pronouns of the Object attached ; with " Was 

with Pronouns of the Dative . . 
For Conversational Verb-Drill 

XII. f'FoR General Conversation. Wh.4.t one did Yesterday. 

(i) The Past Tense Verb ; (2) The Aorist with Negative 

(3) Some Indefinite Pronouns 

Transition to the Arabic Reader . . 



14 

18 
22 

28 < 
32 ■ 

36 

40 I 
46 



50 
56-7 

58 

56 
70 

72-4 



76 
80-1 



84 
89 



CONTENTS 



XIII. (i) The Past Verb, with Negative, and with the Conjunctive 

Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . • • • • 9° 

(2) The Indefinite Singular ; the Dual ; the Plural . . . . 90 

(3) Exercise on Members of the Body . . . . . . . . 96-7 

For Conversational Verb-Drill . . . . . . . . . . 98-9 

XIV. For General Conversation. A Visit to the Pyramids. 

The Numerals from I to I o .. .. .. .. .. 100 

XV. For General Conversation. The Duties of the Cook. 

Moods (" can," " must," etc.) 
Dialogue between Master and Servant . . . . . . . . 108 

For Conversational Verb-Drill .. .. .. .. .. 11 2-3 

XVI. For General Conversation. The Duties of the Table- 

Servant. 
Ordinals. Colours. Deformities .. .. .. .. 114 

XVII. The Numerals above 10 .. .. .. .. .. 118 

XVIII. For General Conversation. The Duties of the [bawwaib]. 
(i) Frequentative ; (2) Future Perfect ; (3) Pluperfect ; 

(4) Continuative . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 

XIX. Verbs with 2nd and 3RD Radicals the Same. 

Dialogue between a Lady and her Servant .. .. .. 128 

For Conversational Verb-Drill and Analysis . . . . . . 130 

XX. Verbs whose ist Radical is [w] or [']. 

A Dervish-Zikr at the Fair .. .. .. .. .. 132 

For Verb-Drill. Verbs with ist Radical hamzated . . . . 138 

Verbs with ist Radical [w] . . . . . . 139 

XXI. Verbs with 2nd Radical [w] or [j]. 

The 1002nd Night — " Ye Ladye and ye Portere " . . . . 140 

For Conversational Verb-Drill . . . . . . . . . . 144 

XXII. Verbs with 3RD Radical [w] or [j]. 

Conclusion of " Ye Ladye and ye Portere " . . . . . . 146 

For Conversational Verb-Drill . . . . . . . . ..152-3 

XXIII. The " Increased " Verb. — Form II. 

Scenes on a Journey : A Dialogue . . . . . . . . 154 

For Conversational Verb-Drill . . . . . . . . . . 160-1 

XXIV. Verbs of " Form V." 

A Proposal for a Holiday . . .. .. .. .. .. 164 

For Conversational Verb-Drill . . . . . . . . . . 166-7 

XXV. Verbs of " Form VII " and " Form VIII." 

(a) The Appointment. (6) The Barrister 1 70 

(c) The Closed Bridge, (d) An Odd Incident 172 

For Conversational Verb-Drill . . . . . . . . . . 174-5 



CONTENTS 



Vll 



XXVI. Veres of " Form IV." 
The Messenger 

For Conversational Verb-Drill . . 

XXVII. Verbs of " Form X." 

Dialogue Between a Doctor and a Patient 
For Conversational Verb-Drill . . 

XXVIII. Verbs of " Forms III. and VI." 
Dialogue on the Courtesies of Debate . . 
For Conversational Verb-Drill . . 

XXIX. Verbs wtth two Objects. The Verb [idda] 

XXX. The Relative Pronoun. 
Story of the Clever Detective 
Additional Exercise in the Relative 

XXXI. Conditional Sentences. 

Dialogue about a Return from a Travel . . 

XXXII. Concessive Clauses. Indirect Questions. 
A Letter of Congratulation 



178 
180 



l»2 
188-9, 190 



192 
196-7, 198 

201 



204 
206 



SKELETON CONVERSATIONS. 




I . Summer H olidays . . 


. . 224 


2. Conversation with a Child 


■ ■ 225 


3. Sights of Cairo 


226 


4. Training of Children 


.. 227 


5. A House 


. . 228 


6. A Book 


229 



EGYPTIAN ARABIC READER. 

PART I.— ANECDOTES, DIALOGUES, AND STORIES. 

I — 10. Anecdotes. 

(i) The Green Policeman [Specimen Conversation Lesson, 230] ; 
(2) The Donkey-Defenders ; (3) I-e Paysan et le Gendarme ; (4) 
The Donkey whose Works Stopped ; (5) Thfe Grim Lion, the 
Indiscreet Wolf, and the Accommodating Fox ; (6) The Un- 
lettered Pohceman ; (7) The Runaway Meat ; (8) Minaret or 
Well ? ; (9) The Mild Fellaha's Rebuke ; (10) The Too-Sanguine 
Peasant -3o-7 



II — 21. Dialogues and Stories 

11. The Cabby and his Fare 

1 1 (fl) . The Bookseller and the Berberine 

12. A Model Lesson to a Class of Boys 



^37-54 
237 
239 
239 



CONTENTS 



13 
14 
15 
16, 

17 
18 

19 
20. 
21 



The Man who tried to please Everybody 

The Flat and the Sharp 

An Odd Incident ; Egypt, 19 15 

The Khalifa and Abu n Nawwas 

Bargaining between Shopman and Customer 

Egypt and the Egyptians 

Debate : " How can a young Egyptian best serve 

Some bad Coptic Customs 

Some bad Moslem Customs : the 7Av 



his Country ? 



PART II.— BIBLE AND OTHER PIECES. 



(A). Pieces from the Life of Christ. 

1 . The Birth of Christ, Luke 2:1 

2. Jesus and the Young Children, Lu. 18 : 15 

3. Jesus and Bartimaeus, Lu. 18 : 35 .. 

4. Jesus and the Son of the Widow of Nain, Lu. 7 

5. Jesus and Zacchaeus, Lu. 19:1 

6. Story of the Samaritan Woman 

(B). Some Parables of Christ. 

7. The Sower, Lu. 8:4.. 
The Good Samaritan, Lu. 10 : 30 
The Barren Fig-Tree, Lu. 13:6 
The Mustard-Seed, Lu. 13 : 18 
The Prodigal Son, Lu. 15:11 

12. Humility, Lu. 14 : 7 . . 

13. The Great Feast, Lu. 14 : 16 . . 

14. The Lost Sheep and the Lost Shilling, Lu. i 

15. The Prudent Steward, Lu. i5 : i 

16. The Unjust Judge, Lu. 18 : i . . 

17. The Sheikh and the Sinner, Lu. i 
The Evil Vinedressers, Lu. 10:9 

(C). Some Christian Beliefs. 

19. The Supposed Corruption of the Bible 

20. Repentance 

21. Forgiveness and Atonement . . 

22. The Holy Trinity 

VOCABULARY 

INSETS. 
Illustration. Home of Khalil, the Merchant 
The Genealogy of Ali and Fatima . . 
Verb Summaries . . . . . . -, . 



18 : 9 



PAGE 
240 
241 

242 

243 
243 
245 
247 

251 
252 



25+ 
255 
255 
255 
256 

256. 

257 

258 
258 
258 
258 

259 
259 

260 
260 

261 
261 

261 



262 

263 
263 
265 

267 



facing page 



29 

83 

200 



ANALYTIC-GRAMMAR INDEX 



WITH CHIEF ARABIC TECHNICAL TERMS. 



The Noun 


Lism {j>. asma) 




Masculine 


il muzakkdr 


14 


Feminine 


il mu' annas 


18 


Genitive, or Possessive 


il 'idsifa . . 


. 28, 32 


" The Construct State " 


il mudaif wi 1 mudaif 




?ile:h 


. 28, 32 


Singular 


il mufrad 


90 


Plural 


U gam'' . . 


90 


Dual 


it tasnija 


. 22, 90 


Indefinite — Definite 


in nakird wi 1 ma'^rifa 


90 


Numerals 


. il?a^da:d .. 


lOI 


The Adjective 


issifa (orinna'^t) . . 


. 14, 18 


Comparative 


ism it tafdiil 


22 


Ordinal Numerals 


a'^daid it tartiib . . 


115 


Colours 


alwa:n 


115 


Deformities 


'^ujuib 


'I5 


The Pronoun 


id dami:r {p. damaijir) 




Pronouns of Nom., disjunctive . 


damaijirirraf^ilmunfasila 40 


of Object., conjunctive . 


„ in nasb il muttasila 76 


of Possessive, 


,, il gdrr ,, 


40 


of Dative, 


„ il magruird bi la: 


m 76 


The Demonstrative 


ism il -"ijaird 


18 


Some Indefinite Pronouns 




86 


The Relative 


l_ismilmawsu:l. . 


224, 226 


The Verb 


. il fiq (p. af'ail) 




The Sound Triliteral Verb 


il fi'^l is sulaisi s sa:lim 




Past Tense 


il ma:di 


. 84 


Aorist 


il mudairi'' 


. 66, 86 


Imperative 


fiq il ?amr . . 


. 66, 90 


Active Paticiple 


ism il fai'^il 


51 


Passive Participle 


,, il ma5u:l . . 


56 


The verb " Was " (for 


fiq* ka:n 


70 


Imperf., Plupf., Fut. Pf.) 


78. 


124, 126 


Frequentative.Continuative . 




124, 126 


Moods 


. 


108 


The " Weak Verbs " 


ilJaf^ailUmu^alla 




Vbs.with2nd&3rdRad.aUke . 


il fi'^l il mudai'^af 


128 


with ist Rad. p] or [w] . 


fi'^l il misail . . 


132 


with 2nd Rad. [w] or [j] . 


il fiq il ?agwaf 


140 


with 3rd Rad. [w] or [j] . 


,, in naiqis 


146 



IX 



ANALYTIC-GRAMMAR INDEX 



The Verb {ctd.) 






PAGE 


The " Increased " Verb 


il fi"^! il maziid 




Form II. (fa«al) 


is si:(ja 1 'awwalamijj 


1 1.54 


III. (fa:";!!) 


t tanja 


192 


IV. (?af<;al) 


„ ttalta 


. 178 


V. (itfa«al) 


1 xamsa 


. 164 


VI. (itfa:";!!) 


s satta 


192 


VII. (infa'^al) 


s sab'-a 


170 


VIII. (ifta'^al) 


t tamna 


170 


X. (istaf^al) 


., I'^ajra 


182 


The Weak-Increased Verb 


il fi"^! il maziid il mu'^tal] 




Verbs governing two objects 


af^ail tansib ma5ule:n . 


201 


Adverbs (and 






Adverbial Expressions) . 


zumif {sing, zarf) . 




46, 58 


Prepositions 


huruif {sing, harf) . 




22 


Conjunctions 


huruif "^atf 




passim 


Conditional 


ijjart.. 




2X2 


Concessive 






220 




1 fi'^l wi fa:''il 






subject and predicate 


1 mubtada wi xabdr 


passim 


object 


maf'Uil . . 






negative 


nafj 




. 


prohibition 


nahj 






nom., put into the nom. 


raf^, mdrfu:"^ 






ace, put into the ace. 


nasb, mansuib . 




,, 


gen., put into the gen. 


gdrr, magruir 




i< 


active 


ma'^luim . . 






passive 


maghud . . 




II 


transitive 


mit''addi . . 




,, 


intransitive 


la:zim 




„ 


sentence 


gumla {p. gumar 




>> 



PREFACE 

Of all Arabic colloquial dialects, the best work, and the most 
work, has probably been done on Egyptian Arabic. What has 
been accomplished in this field by Spitta, Willmore, S. Spiro, and 
others, will certainly not be superseded. This being so, it is in- 
cumbent on the newcomer to justify his entrance into that field, 
by indicating the special need which he is attempting to meet. 
That need in the present case can be summed up by the word 
presentation. It seemed to the writer that an efiort should be made 
to apply to Egyptian Arabic some of the modern methods now used 
in teaching living languages ; that a book needed to be compiled 
which should have constantly in view the ensemble of teacher-and- 
pupil, and the oral conversational work in which they are supposed 
to be engaged. 

This, then, is what I have steadily held in view in writing the 
present book, with what success remains to be seen. I can at 
least say that it is the result of practical experience as least as 
much as linguistic theory. It embodies work done during the past 
four years with class after class of keen language students, during 
which time it was possible to see what was, and what was not, 
important in teaching Arabic to adults. No pains were spared to 
adapt the means to the end. A first draft, which represented a 
year's work, and which was far from having proved a failure, was 
cheerfully consigned to the waste-paper basket. An entirely new 
draft was prepared, which in turn has been so greatly supplemented, 
altered, and improved, that the present book represents in reality 
a, third improved and practically new version. 

Among the special features which have been included, the 
following may be mentioned : — 

(i). The abohtion of disconnected sentences, which are 
destitute of context, and whose reason for existence is to illustrate 
some grammar rule. With very few exceptions all the sentences 
in this book have a context, consisting either of objects, pictures, 
or actions which are immediately intelligible ; or of a definite 
subject-matter, the elements of which are intelKgibly connected 
inter se. 



Xll PREFACE 

(2). The abolition of the drj'-bone verb conjugations and 
paradigms. Each verb-unit is clothed in an appropriate sentence, 
and these sentences are arranged in dialogue form, thus giving 
living practice in the use of the various persons and attached 
pronouns. 

(3). The abolition of grammar rules preceding each exercise, 
and the substitution of leading questions which enable the student 
himself to deduce the grammar illustrated by the subject-matter 
of each section. Thus each student compiles an Arabic grammar 
for himself. 

(4). In dealing with so grammatical a language as Arabic, 
and in writing for students in whose minds grammatical categories 
are already formed,- 1 have not hesitated to make the main frame- 
work of the first part of the book a grammar frame-work. At the 
same time, I have (in the Reader and pieces " for general conver- 
sation ") crossed this method by another which turns on subject, 
and which therefore cuts right across grammar and grammar rules. 
The result is, to some extent, a compromise between two methods, 
which are often contrasted by their representatives in a hostile way. 
It remains to be seen whether this proceeding will earn the bene- 
diction or the wrath of both parties. 

(5). The medium of instruction is Arabic from the very outset, 
English being dispensed with. Even the insertion of the English 
parallel pages, for which I apprehend the censure of Reform Method 
enthusiasts (to whom I owe so much), is intended to accord with 
this aim ; for a glance at the English in print will save having to 
drag English into the conversation. (Moreover the English section 
will be useful for retranslation, which is so valuable a way of con- 
serving the results of each lesson). It must not be forgotten that 
in the east good language teachers are rare, not common ; and it 
would not therefore be safe to argue that, because trained language- 
teachers 'of the direct methods in the west can throughout and 
entirely refrain from calling in the aid of English, this will be the 
case when so difficult a language as Arabic is being taught b\ 
eastern teachers to Europeans. 

It remains to add a few words about the notation which has 
been used in this book. 

In regard to the use of a Romic rather than the Arabic system 
no apology at this time of day is needed. It is sufficient to saj' 
that all who have worked seriously at any Arabic Colloquial have 



PREFACE XIU 

found Arabic s3nnbo]s for it not only inconvenient, but utterly 
impracticable. So little does the use of Romic symbols interfere 
with the study of the Classical in the Arabic notation that the 
parallel use of the two has been found an advantage, in helping 
to keep the two forms ocularly, and mentally, distinct. But 
what kind of Romic ? It is unfortunate that all who have written 
on Arabic have employed systems more or less different from each 
other ; so that the introduction of yet another system — and so 
different a one — needs an apology, especially seeing that the Egyp- 
tian Government's recent adoption of one of the others (Willmore's) 
for the place-names in its maps and plans might seem to have 
gone some way to standardizing that system. 

The following considerations, however, determined the writer 
to abandon Willmore's system (followed in the first draft), and adopt 
that of the International Phonetic Association (with the necessary 
modifications). 

(i). The multiplicity of the diacritic points below the letters 
and the length-marks above ; the unsoundness, scientifically, of 
having so many marks above and below the eye's line of travel ; 
and the proved insufficiency of those marks to arrest the attention ; 
and to ensure correct habits of pronunciation. In the present 
book the diacritic marks have been introduced into the body of 
each letter, and the length-mark is now in the same line as the 
letters themselves. 

(2). The unsoundness of using two letters to indicate one 
sound, as Willmore's [sh] for [J], [gh] for [9]. This defect was still 
more apparent when the letters had to be doubled, and the clumsy 
groups [shsh], etc., were produced. S. Spiro correctly avoids this, 
but only at the cost of employing yet more diacritic signs. 

(3). The advisability of adopting a scientific phonetic notation 
which would be internationally valid, because internationally 
recognised. 

Only the International Phonetic Alphabet appeared to satisfy 
the necessary conditions ; and in consequence it was finally adopted 
for this work. Experience has shewn that there is no need whatso- 
ever to be alarmed by its apparent novelties. Students have 
experienced no difficulty in slipping into it from the very first 
lesson. 

My hearty thanks are due to my wife and to Miss H. M. Harrison 
for much help in the laborious work of copying in the formative 



XIV PREFACE 

stages of the book ; to MiJad Effendi Saleeb, AtoUa Effendi 
Athanasms, and Sheikh Ali Niih (all teachers of Arabic in the 
Cairo Study Centre), for pieces contributed to the Reader ; to 
Miss .fanet Lewis for the effective illustration which she so kindly 
executed at my request ; and most of all to my Arabic assistant. 
Sheikh Kurayyim Sallam, whose carefulness, patience and inven- 
tiveness were never found wanting. 

If this book aids any student to a surer and speedier acquisi- 
tion of a grammatical and idiomatic Arabic, I shall feel greatly 
rewarded. 



Cairo, 

Nov. 9, 1916. 



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2 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

CONSONANTS. 
Plosives. 

b Fully voiced, i.e. voice present from the beginning of the plosion, 

t Dental, W02! alveolar as the English [t]. Tongue-point consider- 
ably further forward. Aspirated. Lips away from teeth, 

d Fully voiced. Position, as [t]. 

t As [t] but with velarization.' Unaspirated. Lips conceal teeth. 

a As [t], voiced. 

k As English [k]. Well aspirated. 

g As English [g] in " gold."^ 

q Pronounce key, kah, koo, and [q] is one degree further back.^ 

? The sound made in a slight, hardly audible, cough. 

Nasals. 
IWith good nasal sonority.* 

Laterals. 

1 The whole of the front of tongue high and well forward, point 
and edges against upper front teeth ; and that, whatever 
vowel precedes or follows. Back of tongue down.' 

i Back of tongue raised.^ Point slightly retracted. 

Rolled. 

r Trilled more than an English, less than a Scottish [r].' Tongue 
forward, not retroverted and turned up as in American [r]. 

' Velarising is the raising of the back of the tongue towards the gu 
position. What one feels is as if the whole tongue was raised, and also ex- 
panded, in the mouth. 

^ In upper Egypt EngUsh g in gaol [dj] is substituted. 

3 Only in the word for koran (qur'am) in the colloquial. Otherwise 
? is substituted in and near Cairo, and g in most of the provinces. 

^ g (ng in EngUsh " king ") may occur, accidentally, when n is followed 
by unvowelled k or g: e.g. bar|k (" counting-house "), birjg ("chloroform "). 

5 Voiceless 1 is heard when unvowelled after a closed syllable, e.g. 
figl ("radish "). 

6 See Note i . Nominally only in the Arabic word for God (siiQih) ; 
but occurs also when 1 is influenced by a neighbouring velarised consonant : 
e.g. taiab ("request") for tslab. Scotch, American, and even English 
speakers must take great care to keep 1 and i quite distinct. 

7 Voiceless r is heard when unvowelled after a closed syllable, e.g. 
mitr (metre). 



egyptian colloquial arabic 3 

Fricatives. 

w Lips considerably more rounded and protruded than with 

Enghsh [w]. 
f As English [f]. 
s Point a little above the lower front teeth. Lips right away 

from teeth, which show. Stronger, more ringing hiss than 

in England, 
z Same, voiced, 
s Tongue-point as in [s] ; velarised.^ Lips nearly conceal teeth. 

Hiss duller than that of [s]. 
z Same, voiced.' 
J As Enghsh [sh], but with front part of tongue somewhat more 

raised. Lips slightly protruded, 
i As Enghsh [y]. 
9 As [ch] in Scotch " loch," voiced. Without uvular scrape. 

(As [g] in German "wagen".) 
X With uvular scrape. As [ch] in German " ach ! " 
h Passage just behind uvular narrowed. Hold thus while breath 

is puffed through. No uvular scrape must he heard. Unvoiced. 
'^ Voiced. Constriction of muscles still stronger than with [h], 

owing to the difficulty of voicing in this position. Tone 

of voice is as when one attempts to sing a note below one's 

lowest compass. 
h As English [h] ; but the voiced correlative [fi] is often heard.' 

' See p. 2, note i. 

^ E.g. dufin (" oil "), or duhn. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



VOWELS. 



[International Phonetic symbols are enclosed in square 
brackets. The sign : denotes the lengthening of the 
previous vowel. When this sign is placed in brackets 
it denotes an original long syllable which through 
position loses some or all of its length.] 

Narrow when lengthened, as in English " mj'en." When short, 

somewhat wider [i], as in Enghsh "hit". 
A pure vowel, not diphthongised as in English " detour." As 

French e. 
Almost exactly as English a in man, but with more open mouth. 

[ae]. In prolonging a:, be careful to hold tongue very steady, 

and not to diphthongise as in English "air," nor to get to the 

position of English " err," [a:]. 
As in English " father." Almost exclusively a long vowel 

in Arabic. 
An " obscure " variety of the above as the Enghsh u in bud, 

somewhere between a and the vowel in " err ". Almost 

exclusively a short vowel in Arabic, [a]. 
As a in English what, and o in lot. In prolonging, be careful 

not to tighten anything, nor to increase the rounding, as 

is done in English (contrast " wan " and " worn," — wan, 

wain), [o]. 
A pure vowel, not diphthongised as o is in English, e.g. "lo!". 

As Scotch " no," French " tdt." Lips well rounded. 
Narrow when long, as in English " rwde." Somewhat wider 

when short, as in English " iull " [u]. Lips well rounded. 
A very rapid "obscure" vowel, in short unaccented syllables, 
e.g. m'hammad ("Mohammed"). 



a to i. 

a to i. 

a to u. 

Q to u. 



DIPHTHONGS, 
i and u very narrow. Indeed j and w are often reached. 

ACCENT. 



The accent is denoted (when required) by the sign ' placed 
immediately before the accented syllable. 







cd cd 03 



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2 


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oj 

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cd 


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id 


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o 

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rQ+J-w'dlOpi^ CflCTr-. 



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a 
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High- 


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05 CT* rv* 


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^neuosuo^ ;o aureM 



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1 g ii 



•JlOBq o:^ :^^OJJ uioj} 'ssAisoid •stBS'B^[Bi3:).'B7:yp3nc 



1 


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JlOBq o:j n.nojj raojj 


'SaATlJ'BOUjI 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



EXERCISES IN THE VOWELS AND CONSONANTS. II. 

[For sound-driU and practice in reading only. Not for vocabulary 
or memorizing.] 

The kasra or i and e group. 









d 


di:' 


distress 


t 


tifp 


dregs 




fi:d 


overflow ! 




fitna 


seduction 


1 


U:f 


palm-fibre 


t 


tifp 


infant 




fid 


elephant 




fitna 


wisdom 


r 


ri:f 


country-side 


d 


diU 


guide! 




kiti:r 


much 


d 


dill 


shade 


s 


sim 


the letter S 


1 


liff 


go round ! 




tdxsiis 


^ making-worse 


r 


sirr 


secret 


s 


sim 


China 


s 


sidr' 


lote-tree 




tdxsiis 


specializing 




giss 


feel! 


z 


zi:d 


increase 


s 


sidr^ 


chest 




bari:z 


Paris 




liss 


thief 


z 


(2i:d) 




z 


zikr' 


dervish-prayer 




jigiiz 


he irritates 


z 


jiginn 


he supposes 


S 


him 


a time 


h 


jisigg 


he goes on pilgrimage 




riih'^i 


smell 


h 


jihigg 


he emigrates 




masiili 


Christ 


X 


xiem 


rival 


h 


tanbi:h 


notice 


9 


giJJ 


guile 


<; 


iid 


feast 


<; 


•Jibb 


breast-pocket 




wadi:'' 


meek 




"^inab 


grapes 






e: e 




li'^b 


play 


t 


te:s 


goat 




dir"; 


breast-plate 




tesna 


our goat 






i: 




belt 


house 


t 


tim 


figs 




betna 


our house 




milt 


a hundred 


t 


te:r 


bird 


t 


tim 


mud 




tema 


our bird 




jihiit 


surrounds 




he:t 


wall 


d 


di:k 


cock 




hetna 


our wall 




fi:d 


inform 1 


d 


de:l 


tail 




^ Notice the unvoiced 1. ] Thes 


e will not be 


distinguished by a sign 




2 Notice the unvoiced r. f h 


ereafter. 





EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



d 


de:f 


guest 


s 


self 


summer 




defna 


our guest 


z 


ze:t 


oU 




be:d 


eggs 


z 


(ge:t) 






bedha 


her eggs 


X 


xe:r 


well-being 


r 


de:r 


monastery 


<; 


■^em 


eye 




dema 


our monastery 




•^enha 


her ey^e 


s 


se:f 


sword 












The fatha 


or 


1 group. 




b 


bajbij 


ct 

he soaked 


b,t ba:t 


a: 
he passed the night 




Jabb 


a youth 




ta:b 


he repented 


t 


taff 


he spat 


d,k da:k 






fatt^ 


he broke small 




ka:d 


he nearly. . . 


d 


damm 


blood 


g 


ga:d 


he was generous 




madd^ 


he stretched 


? 


da:' 


he tasted 


k 


kalb 


dog 




ja:?a 


collar 




fakk 


he undid 


m 


mail 


he inclined 


? 


'aJJ 


straw 




daim 


it continued 




Ja" 


he spHt 


n 


na:s 


people 


m 


lamm 


he picked up 




bam 


it appeared 


n 


fann 


art 


1 


la: 


no 




bank {or 


bagk) office 




Ja:l 


he Ufted 




banga {or bagga) beetroot 


r 


ra:kib 


riding 


1 


laff 


he went round 




gairi 


running 




talg 


ice 


s 


sa:b 


he left 




ball 


he wetted 




ba:s 


he kissed 




nagl 


offspring 


z 


za:d 


he increased 


r 


kafr 


village 




fa:z 


he succeeded 


s 


sabb 


he abused 


h 


ha:n 


it was time 




bass 


only 




la:h 


it exhaled 


z 


zall 


he humbled 


? 


"^a:! 


fine! 




lazz 


it pleased 




ba:'; 


he sold 


h 


hadd 


anyone 




sa:'^a 


watch, hour 




fahm 


coal 


h 


ha:n 


it was easy 




lahh 


he insisted 




fa:h 


he uttered 


<; 


"^add 
naq 


he added 
sandal 








h 


hadd 
fahm 


he pulled down 
understanding 









' Carefully notice the forward position of the tongue-point. 



10 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



With 


a: 




With 

t following, natt he jumped 


r following, 


ta:r 


vengeance 


manti' logic 


t 


bait 


armpit 


basiit^ simple 




ba:til 


vain 


d preceding, damm he gathered 


a 


ba-^a 


some 


dall he was astray 




faidil 


excellent 


d following, fadd he dispersed 




ha:dir 


ready [ered 


s preceding, sabr patience 


s 


la:s he 


was bewild- 


sala prayer 


z 


ba:z he was ruined 


s following, bass he glanced 




d 




z preceding, ssann he supposed 


r 


mdrr 


he passed 


zaiat pebbles 




gdrd 


stock-taking 


z following, hazz good fortune 


9 


bdgl 


mule 


hafaz he kept 




ddgddg 


he crushed 


g preceding, gaJJ* he cheated 


X 


bdxt 


luck 


X ,, xaff* he got better 




?dx 


brother 


a: 




fdxx 


snare 


r ,, raid 5 he willed 




fdxr 


boast 


raigil man 


w 


wdgh' 


face 


i „ aiiaih'^ Allah, God 




Q 




t „ tail it was long 


r preceding 


rabb 


Lord 


d ,, dairib striking 




rattil 


he sang 


s „ sair he became 




rati 


lb. 


saifi clear 


t 


te?? 


it burst 


z ,, zaihir apparent 




tard 


parcel 


X ,. xais'' special 




telab^ 


request 


g ,, gaib' he was absent 



" Exceptionally. Usually w takes a. In wa't (time) and wajja 
(with) w exceptionally takes a. Also Juwajja (Uttle). 

^ With a tendency to be velarised throughout, into taiab. 

3 Etymologically this s is s. 

♦ In the colloquial x and g are often followed by a sound that is 
nearer d than a: e.g. xdll (vinegar), gdda (lunch). Exceptionally x 
is succeeded by a in xamsa (five) . 

5 In the colloquial rai is heard sometimes, if the succeeding consonants 
are forward ones, e.g. raikib (riding). 

^ With accent on final. But the h is hardly audible in colloquial. 
Frequently the accent is shifted to the first syllable, in which case the 
second loses its length ; thus, 'alia. 

5' In the colloquial x does not by itself take ai. For this the next 
consonant must be a velarised one, as here. If the next but one be 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



II 







The damma or 


and u group. 








o:, 


d 


duhr 


noon 


t 


to:b 


garment 




"^udd 


bite! 




tobha 


her garment 


q' 


■qur'am 


Koran 


i 


to:' 


neck-ring 


1 


kul, kull 


eat!, all 




to'ha 


her ring 


r 


durr 


peals 


d 


do:l 


these 


s 


summ 


poison 




'^oid 


return 




dust 


I trampled 




■^odha 


her return 


9 


summ 


deaf people 


a 


anadoil 


AnatoUa 




nuss 


half 




hold 


tank 


z 


zuU 


humiliation 


r 


do:r 


turn 


z 


2ulm 


injustice 




dorna 


our turn 


9 


gutt or gutt 


plunge ! 


s 


so:t 


lash 




lugd 


gullet 




sotna 


our lash 


h 


hurr 


free 


a 


so:t 


sound 




ruht 


I went 




sotna 


our sound 


? 


"^ugb 


conceit 




?o:s 


smearing 




gu^t 


I was hungry 


z 


zo:? 


good taste 


h 


fuht 


I uttered 




gozha 


her husband 




u: 




B 


(5o:') 




t 


tu:t 


mulberry 


9 


go:s 


plunging 




tu:l 


gauze 


X 


xo:x 


peaches 


t 


tu:l 


length 


h 


loih 


slab 


k 


ku:k T 


Cook & Sons 




loftna 


our slab 


r 


nu:r 


light 


c 


no:"; 


species 


s 


su:r 


city-wall 






u 


s 


su:r 


tyre 


t 


tumn 


police-station 


h 


hu:r 


Houris 




mutt 


thou didn't die 




ruiS 


Noah 


i 


tuzz 


pshaw ! 


h 


hu:r 


Hur 




nutt 


iump ! 




jifuih 


he utters 


d 


duhn 


oil 


<; 


■^uid 


lute 




rudd 


give back ! 




ku:*^ 
jasu:'! 


elbow 
Jesus 



velarised we get a:, e.g. xa:li&. If both are forward we get a:, e.g. 
xa:tim (ring). 

8 Similarly ga: is sometimes heard if the succeeding consonants are 
forward ones, e.g. ga:sil (washing). 



' Only in this word is this consonant pronounced true in the colloquial. 



12 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



Diphthongs ' ai, m. 


majja 


water 


taiha 


wandering 




au, aw. 


taija 


silly 


aw 


or 


daixa 


giddy 


taww 


just this moment 


dejj 


gleam 


daww 


gleam 


saiha 


travelling 


lau 


if 


sailla 


crying oat 


kakaw 


cocoa 


Ja:j 


tea 






Words {a) mith doubled consonants, 


[h) without. 


Stop Consonants. 


[a] 




{h) 


t fattah 


be open ! 


... fatah 


open 


t gatta 


cover up 


gata 


cover 


d maddid 


extend 


madad 


supply 


h ftaadarit 


she prepared 


hadarit 


be present 


k hakkim 


cause to rule 


hakim 


it so happens 


g nagga 


save 


nag a 


he was saved 


-> .fa"a 


suite of rooms 


Ja'a 


misery 


Continuative 
Consonants. 


[shine 






m lainma'^it 


she caused to 


lama'^it 


she shone 


n hanna 


congratulate 


hana 


joy 


1 kallim 


speak to 


kalima 


a word 


i 'aiia 


God 


taiab" 


a request 


r darrabit 


she mixed 


darabit 


she struck 


s fassahit 


she made room 


fasahit 


she made room 


s fassah 


make correct 


fasah 


be correct 


z gazzQir 


butcher 


gaza:ra 


butchery 


K nazzam 


organize 


nazam 


make verses 


I bajjdr 


evangelize 


bajdr 


mortals 


9 ndggaz 


prick often 


ndgaz 


prick 


X ddxxolit 


introduced 


ddxdlit 


entered 


h bahhar 


go north 


bahr 


sea 


<; ?a«ad 


seat (act.) 


'a-^ad 


sat 


h gahhiz 


prepare 


gahiz 


ready 


w sawwa 


smooth 


sawa 


together 


i hajja 


greet 


haja 


shame 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I3 

SUMMARY OF RULES FOR THE A-VOWELS. 

Without going into all the details, which would lead to too 
great intricacy, the following guiding principles for determining 
the character of the A-vowels may be mentioned. 

1. [q, q:] occur when [t, d, s, z, r, x, g] precede. The first four 

without any exception. The last three lose some or all 
of their modifying force when the succeeding consonants 
are non-modifying and are vowelled with [i]. At the 
end of words the vowel that succeeds [r, x] and [g] is 
nearer [a] than [a]. 

2. [a] occurs when [t, d, s, z] succeed. 

3. [a:] occurs when [t, d, s, z] and [r] succeed.' 

4. [d] occurs when [i,x, g] succeed. But when these consonants 

are vowelled with [i] then [a] will precede, unmodified. 

5. [a] occurs when none of the above seven modifying conson- 

ants are found in the positions mentioned above. Thus, 
twenty-one consonants do not modify at all. 

N.B. — In the succeeding pages we have decided to treat [''] 
as a non-modifying consonant. It is true that very often the ear 
seems clearly to hear ['■a, a'-, '■a:] rather than ['■a, a''] and ['■a:]. 
But if one listens intently or asks the teacher to pronounce the 
vowel very distinctly, one hears the [a] vowel clearly emerge at 
the last. This shows that the apparent [a] character of the vowel 
associated with "^ is really due to the passing from the [a] -timbre 
which is inherent in the consonant itself. 

^ a: when X and g succeed. 



14 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

EXERCISE No. I. 
The First Exercise. 

The Masculine Noun. 

1. What (is) this ?— A book ! That (is) a book. 

2. Say (it) again [lit. " from a second (time) "). 

3. Once again [lit. " also a time "). 

4. Still not perfect ( = " not yet perfect "). 

5. Now (it's) better. 

6. And what is this ? — This is a book also. 
And this ? — This is a handkerchief. 
And this, what is it ? — This is paper. 
See now, this is a white handkerchief. Do you know (the word) 

" white." ? . . See, this (is) paper, (is it) not so ? — -Yes, this 
is paper. 

10. Well, this is white. This is a handkerchief, eh ? Well, this 

is white too. This is a shirt, it is white too. The handker- 
chief is white ; the shirt is white ; the paper is white. 
Understood ? 
Understood perfectly [or not yet . . .). 

11. Well then, white means what ? — White means not black. 

12. This is a book. — This is a big book and this is a small book. 

Say that ! 

13. That is big; that is small: understood? Yes, understood: 

that is big, that small. 

14. (Is) that a big book ? — Yes, it is big. 

15. Correct! (Is) that a small book ? — Yes, it is small. 

16. (Is) that a small book ? — No, it is big. 

17. Correct ! Is that a big book ? — No, it is small. 

18. Look. That is a door : that is an open door. That is a shut 

door : understood ? — Understood ! That is, etc. 

19. That is a window. That is an open window and that is a shut 

window. Yes, that is, etc. 

20. Is the door (the window) open now ? — Yes, the door is open 

now. 

' i of kita:b elided, being unaccented and followed by a long accented 
syllable. 

- u loses its length before two consonants (Im). Orig. qu:l. 

3 Assimilated from kaman. 

•* The a loses its length, see note 2. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 15 

tamriin nimrit wa:hid. 
awwil tamrim. (it tamrim Lawwil.) 

l_ism_il m'zakkar. 
?eh da ?— kita;b ! da_kta:b/ 
''ul'' min tami [fem. 'uili, pi. 'uiluV 
kamain^ mdrra. ■? ' 
lissa muj tamam. 
dilwe't ahsan. 

wi ?eh da ? — da ktab'* kaman. 
wi da ? — da mandid. 
wi da 'eh huiwa ? — da wara'. 

Juf5 ba'a (/. Ju:fi, p. Ju:fu), da mandi:l_abjad. ti'^raf 
abjad ? * . . Ju:f, da wara', muJ kida ? — aiwa da wara?. 

10. aho d_abjad. da mandid, muJ kida ? aho d_abjad kaman. 

da 'amiis, hu:w(a)_abjaa kaman. il mandid 'abjad ; il 
-•amiis 'abjad ; il wara' 'abjad ; mafhu:m ? — ^mafhuim 
tamaim [or lissa muJ mafhu:m). 

11. ba'a, 'abjad ja'^ni e: ? — abjad ja'^ni mujjswid. 

12. da_kta:b. da kta:b kibiir, wi da kta:b sugajjdr. 'ul kida! 

13. da kbi:r, de_sg.ajjdr.'' mafhuim? — aiwa, mafhuim: da_kbi:r, 

da_sgajjdr. 

14. da_kta:b kibi:r ? — aiwa, hu:wa_kbi:r. 

15. tamam ! ; da_kta:b sugajjar ? — aiwa hu:wa_sgajjctr. 

16. da_ktab sugajjdr ? — la:, hu:wa_kbi:r. 

17. tamam ! ; da ktab kibi:r ? — la, hu:wa_sgajjdr. 

18. Juif ! da ba:b. da bab® maftuih. da bab ma'fud. maf- 

hu:m ? — mafhuim ! da ba:b, etc. 

19. da Jibbaik. da Jibbak' maftuih, wi da Jibbak ma'fud. — 

aiwa, da Jibbadc, etc. 

20. il bab da (ij Jibbak) maftu(:)h dilwa't ? — aiwajl bab (_J 

Jibbak) maftu(:)h dilwa't. 

5 Similarly the u loses length (orig. Ju:f). 

* 'abjad usually loses ' after a. consonant, but may retain it for 
emphasis. 

7 u elided. See note i. 

8 See note 2. 



l6 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

21. It is open now ? — No, not open now. Now it is shut. 

22. That is a big open book. 
That is a big shut book. 
That is a small open book. 
That is a small shut book. 

23. What is that ? — That is ink. 

24. Is it white ? — No, black. 

25. (Is) that a white book ? — No, it is a black book. 

26. Correct ! We say, it is black, it is not white. It is big, it is 

not small : it is open, it is not shut. 

27. What are these ? These (are) a book, and paper, and a hand- 

kerchief, and a window, and a door, {or) These are the book, 
and the paper, and the handkerchief, and the window, and 
the door. 

28. Very good. Say now, " These are a big book, and white 

paper, and a white handkerchief, and an open window, and 
a shut door, and a long pen." 

29. " Long," means what ? This is a long lesson, n'est-ce 

pas ? — Yes, it is very long. 



For Systematic Grammar. I. 

1. Deduce the rule for copulas " is " and " are, " etc, 

2. Deduce the rule for indefinite " a," " an." 

3. Deduce rule for attribution of adjective to an mdefinite noun. 

4. Deduce rule for attribution of two adjectives to an indefinite 

noun. 

5. Observe absence of interrogative particle : how then was in- 

terrogation denoted in above sentences ? 

^ 1 passing vowel to separate the three consonants 'th. 

^ mahuj = it (is) not ; shortened into muj, not. ma = ne; hu = il ; 
J hke pas. 

3 'il loses its hamza after the final consonant of the preceding word 
(unless it is separated from it by a stop. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 17 

21. huiwa maftuh dilws't ? — ^la:, muj maftuh dilwa't. dilwa't' ' 

huiwa ma'fu:!. 

22. da ktab kibi(:)r maftu*. 
da ktab kibi(:)r ma'fuil. 
da ktab sugajjdr maftuih. 
da ktab sugsjjar ma'fuil. 

23 . ? eh da ? — da hibr. 

24. hu:wa_bJQa ? —la:, da 'iswid. 

25. da kta:b_abjad ? — la:, hu:wajcta:bjswid. 

26. tama:m! bLn'u:l, hu:wa_swid, mahuj^_abjad. hu:wa kbi:r. 

mahuj" sugajjdr. hu:wa maftu:h, mahuj ma'fu:l. 

27. ?eh do:l ? — do:l kita:b, wi wara', wi mandi:l, wi Jibba:k, wi 

ba:b {or do:LiP kita:b, wi_l'* wara', wi_l mandi:I, wLJ' 
Jibba:k, wij ba:b). 

28. tajjib xa:lis! ?ul dilwa't "do:l kitab kibi:r, wi wara'_abjad, 

wi mandi:l_abjad, wi Jibbak maftu:h, wi bab ma'fu:l, wi 
''alam tawi:I. 

29. " tawi:l " ja'^ni 'eh ? da ddrs tawi:l, muJ kida ? — aiwa 

tawi:l 'awi ! 



4 If preceded by a final vowel, 'il loses its vowel also. 

5 If the preceding final consonant is J the 1 is assimilated to it. About 
half the consonants assimilate thus : viz. stops, t, t, d, d ; continuaiives, 
n, r, S, S, Z, Z, J, (Also, occasionally g, and, rarely, k.) 



l8 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

II. 

The Second Exercise. 

The Demonstrative Pronoun. The Directions. The Feminine Noun. 

I. Where is the pen ? — Void the pen ! 
[The handkerchief, the door, etc., etc.] 
Where is the window ? — Voici the window ! 
Where is the sky ? — Voila the sky above ! = *And where is the 
ceiHng ? — The ceihng is above too. 

4. Where is the sun ? — The sun is above too, Hke the rooif. 

5. And the earth, where is it ? — The earth is below. 
(^ Listen ! Where is the big book ? — Here is the big book ! 

And this, what is it ? — That is the small book. 

And this ? — It is the black ink. 

And this ? — It is the white paper. 

This envelope is open, n'est-ce pas ? — -Yes, this envelope is 

open. 
Is this window shut ? — No, this window is not shut, it is open. 

This big book is open, n'est-ce pas ? — 
Certainly,' this big book is open, it is not shut. 



9 
10 

II 

12 



13. Is this small book shut ? — Yes, this small book is shut, it is 

not open. 

14. This ink is black, not so ? — Yes, this ink is black ; it is black. 

15. Is not this white handkerchief clean ? — ■ Yes, that white 

handkerchief is very clean ; it is not dirty. 

16. Is this lesson nice ? — Yes, it is very nice. 

17. What is this ? — This is a pen-nib. 

18. Is this nib good ? — Yes, this nib is good. 

19. Is it very good ? — Yes, it is very good. 

20. Where is the good nib ? — Here is the good nib ! 

21. This pretty thing, what is it ? — This pretty thing is a picture. 

* This sign denotes a resumption by the first speaker. 
^ Lit. "known I" cp. German gewiss. 

^ Very short passing vowel to separate the three consonants 'ff. 
3 Lit. "she," for ?Qrd is feminine, though without the characteristic [a] 
of the feminine, see No. 17. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC IQ 

tamriin nimrit_itne:n. 
taini tamrim. (it tamriin it ta:ni.) 

ism il 'ijaira. il gihait. il ism il mu'annas. 

1. il 'alam fe:n ?— ?ahoJ ?alam ! (il ^aIam_aho(h) !) 
[il mandiil, il ba:b, etc., etc.] 

2. ij Jibbak fe:n ?— ?aho_J Jibbaik ! (ij Jibbaik aho(h) !) 

3. is sama fe:n ? — ?ahe s sama fo:' ! =*wjs sa'f fe:h ?— is 

sa'fi^ fo(:)' kaman. 

4. iJ Jams' fem ? — ijjams fo(:)? kaman, zejji_s_sa'f. 

5. wij ?erff fe(:)n hiija^ ?— il ?ardi taht. 

6. isma"; ! il kita:b_il kibi(:)r fem? — ?adij kita:b_il kibi:r ! 

{or il kita:b il kibiir aho !) 

7. wi da 'eh_hu:wa ? — da_l_kita:b_i9_sugajjdr. 

8. wi da ? — hu:wa_l hibr' Ijswid. 

9. wi da ? — hu:wa 1 ware' Labjsd. 

10. iz zarfi da maftuih, muj kida ? — 'aiwa, iz zarf da maftuih. 

(?aiwa_z_zarf. ..) 

11. iJ Jibbak da ma'fuil ? — la:, iJ Jibba(:)k da muJ ma'fuil, 

hu:wa maftu:h. {or la_J Jibbaik...) 

12. il kitaib il kibi(:)r da {or il kitab da 1 kibiir) maftuih, muJ 

kida ? — ma'^ lumi, il kita:b il kibiir da {or il kitaib da 1 kibiir) 
maftuih, mahuj ma''fuil. 

13. il kitaib_i9_eu9ajjdr da ma-'fuil ? — aiwa_l kitaib da s sugajjdr 

ma? full, mahuJ maftiiih. 

14. il hibr' da_swid,* muJ kida — aiwa 1 hibr' da_swid. huiwa_swid. 

15. il mandiil da Labjad nidiif ? — aiwa 1 mandiil da l_abjad 

nidiif kitiir, mahuJ wisix. 

16. id dars' da_kwajjis' ? — aiwa hiiiwa_kwaijis kitiir. 

17. 'eh dii ? — di riija. 

18. ir riiJa di naf^a ? — aiwa r riiJa di naf^a. 

19. hiija naf''a_kti:r ? — aiwa hiija naf''a_ktiir. 

20. ir riija_n naf-a fem ? — aidi_r_riija_n naf'^(a)_ahe ! 

21. il haigaj gamiila di 'eh_hiija ? — il haiga 1 gamiila di suira. 

■* For iswid. 

5 Full form kuwajjis (which, hke sugajjdr, is in the diminutive 
formation). Only women give this word its fuU articulation. Men usually 
pronounce it kwaijis, or even kwais. 



20 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

22. This long thing, what is it ? — This long thing is a table. 

23. Is this long table wide too ? — Yes, this long table is wide too. 

24. Is this long, wide table high too ? — Yes, this long, wide table 

is high too. 

25. Where are the books ? — Here are the books ! 

26. Are these books nice ? — ^Yes, they are very nice. 

27. Are these nice books open ? — Yes, these nice books are open. 

28. Is this a book or a nib ? — Neither (is) this a book nor a 

nib, but this is a pencil (or pen). 

29. Is this colour black or white ? — This colour is neither black, 

nor white, but red. 

30. Are these books big or small, — ^They are neither big nor small, 

but medium. 

31. Is this lesson medium or short ? — It is neither medium nor 

short, it is very long indeed. 



For Systematic Grammar. 

1. Deduce from the above the general rule for forming the fern. 

from masc. adjective. 

2. Deduce the regular masc. plural termination. (See No. 26.) 

3. Decline, from the above, the word for " this," in masc, fem. 

and plural. Also the more vivid [aho]. 

4. Deduce the rule for the adjective in agreement with a definite 

noun. And what if there is more than one adjective ? 

5. Notice that neuter plural nouns may be accompanied by 

feminine singular adjectives, etc. 

' Neuter plurals may be accompanied by feminine singular pronouns, 
adjectives, and verbs. Or alternatively, as here, by plural ditto. 

' humma kwajjisa would be also correct ; but not hi:ja kwajjisiin. 

3 Or la 'hu:wa_swid. 

^ Or il kutub do:l la hi_kbi:rQ, etc., or la humma_kbi:ra. 

5 For 'usajjar, also a diminutive formation. Compare the build of 

sugajjdr, kuwajjis, 'usajjdr. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 21 

22. il ha:ga dLt_tQwi:la 'eh_hi:ja ? — il ha:ga di_t_tewi:la 

terebe:za. 

23. it tersbeiza dLt_tQwi:la "^driida kaman ?— aiwa t tarebeizect 

tswiila di '^ariids kaman. 

24. it terabeiza di_t_tfewi:laj '^dn&et "^alja kaman ? — aiwa_t 

tarQbe:za_t tawiilaj "^ariida di hi:ja "^alja kaman ? 

25. il kutub fe:n ?— ?ahi ('ahumma)'J kutub (or il kutub ahum !). 

26. il kutub do:l kuwaj'jisa? (kuwajjisiin ?)* — aiwa hi:ja_kwajjisa 

(humma_kwajjisim)- xailis. 

27. il kutub do:l il kuwajjisa maftuiha? (kuwajjisim, maftu:hi:n). 

— 'aiwa_l kutub do:l, etc. 

28. da_ktaib walla ri:Ja ? — la da_kta:b wala ri:Ja, la:kin da 

'alam. 

29. il lo:n da_swid walla_bjed ? — il loin da la 'hu_swid3 wala_ 

bjad, laikin hu:wa_(a)hmar. 

30. il kutub do:l kibiira walla_sgajjarQ? — la hi_kbi:ra* wala_ 

sgajjdra, la:kin hiija mitwassata. 

31. id ddrs' da mitwassat walla_'sajjdr'? — la hu:wa^ mitwa&sat 

wala''_''sajjar, huiwa tawid 'awi xa:lis. 



6. Deduce the rule for " neither — nor — but " sentences. How 

does the Arabic for " nor " differ from "or." ? 

7. In clauses with " this " plus an adjective phis a noun (e.g. 

" this big door ") show that " this " [da] can be fitted in 
in two ways. 

N.B. — [da] may be translated "this" or "that." The 
special word for " that " [dukha], [dikha], [dukham], may only 
be used when the object has to be distinctly emphasised in 
comparison with a nearer one. 



« Or la hu. 

7 Notice that in all these " neither — nor " sentences, the second may 
be given the pronoun with J, e.g. wala huj ''usajjdr, " nor is it short." 
So in No. 28, wala hij rilja = "nor is it (/.) a nib." But in this case it is 
better to give the first clause J also, e.g. huiwa muj mitwassat (or ma 
huJ). 



22 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

III. 

The Third Exercise. 

Form of the Comparative. Prepositions. The Dual. 

1. Here are two books, one, two ! ; this book is bigger than 

that. And this book is smaller than that. Understood ? 
Good ! say (it) you 

2. This book is bigger than that one. This book is smaller than 

that one. 

3. This book is long and broad. It is longer and wider than that 

one : (this) means, it is long and broad beside' that. 

4. Here also are two books : three, four ! These two are bigger 

than those, and these two smaller than those. 

5. Which book is the biggest of (among) these two? This one 

or that ? — This is the biggest, or This is bigger than that. 

6. Which chair is the small(est) among these two ? — ^This is 

the smallest. 

7. Is this book the biggest of these three, or this one here ? — 

Neither (is) this one bigger, nor this one, but that one 
(there). 

8. Are these two books the biggest of these six, or these two ? — 

Neither these, nor these, but those two. 

9. Which two ? — This one and this. 

10. Is this table bigger than this, or smaller ? — This table is much 

bigger than that. 

11. This book is bigger than this, and this one is bigger than this, 

and this one is biggest of all. [And so, shortest, smallest, 
broadest.] 

12. Or we say, this is (the) big(gest) of all [and so, short(est), 

broad(est), small(est), etc.] 

13. The chair is high, the table is higher, and the cupboard is 

higher than them all {or highest of all). 

14. Which chair is the highest of these two ? — This chair is the 

higher. 

' Lit. " off," " away from." The two ways of expressing the comparative 
•will be observed ; the positive adjective with "^an, and the comparative with 
min. 

^ The suffixing of the dual termination em robs the previous syllable 
of accent, and so of length also. 

3 In da_kbi:r, da tewid, da '■arild, note that a resists elision more 
successfully than i (or u). 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 23 

taniriai nimrit talaita. 
ta:lit tamrim. (it tamrim it tailit.) 

si:gitJt_tQfdi:l. huru:f. it tasnija. 

1. hinajcta'bem/ wa:hid, itne:n ! il kitaib da^kbiir^ "^an 

dukha. wi 1 kitaib da_S9ajjdr "^an dukha. mafhu:m ? 
tajjib, qu:l inta. 

2. il kita:b d_akbar'* min dukha. il kitaib d_Qsgar min dukha. 

3. il kita:b da tawiiP wi "^ariid.^ hu:w_atwal w_a'^rQa min 

dukha, ja'^ni, hu:wa tawi:l wi "^arird "^an dukha. 

4. hina kaman kitabem ; talarta, arba'^a ! IJtnem doiLalkbcir 

min dukham, wi IJtnem doiLasgar min dukham. (a'^rad). 

5. anho_kta(:)b kibiir [akbar] fi IJtnem do:l, da walla da ?— 

da Lakbdr, d_akbdr min da. Or dajcbi:r "^an da. 

6. anho kursi sugajjar fi Litnem do:l ? — da Lasgar. 

7. il kitaib da Lakbdr fi t talaita doil, walla dahd?— la 'd_ 

akbar wala 'da, laikin dukha. 

8. il kita'bein do(:)l Lakbdr fi s sitta do:l, walla 1 itnein doil? 

— la doil wala doil, laikin 1 itnein dukham. 

9. 1 itnein_anhum ? — da wi da. ( = dawda). 

10. itjarabeiza di 'akbdr min dikha, walLasgar ? — ^it tarabeiza 

di 'akbdr min dikha_ktiir. 

11. il kitab d_akbdr min da, wi d_akbdr min da, wi d_akbdr il 

kulP [and so a'sar,^ Qsgar, a'^rad, etc.] 

12. walla_n''uil ; da_kbiir "^an il kuU [and so 'usajjar, '^drird, 

sugajjar, etc.] 

13. il kursi da "^aili, wi t tarabeiza ?a''la,'' wi d dulaib 'a'-la mil 

kuU {or 'a-^laj kuU). 

14. anho kursi La'^la fi IJtnem doil ? — il kursi daho La'^la. 



+ Full form 'akbdr ; but these comparatives usually lose their hamza. 

5 We might also have here akbar mil kuU, " bigger than all " (mil for 
minjl). 

* Comparative of qusajjdr (short). See II., note 9. 

' "^aili is for '^ailij. The length in ?a''lai represents this third radical. 
It is not sounded here because of loss of accent. 



24 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

15. Listen ! There is a book. And this is a book too, bigger than 

it. Well, where is the big book ? — The big book is under- 
neath. 

16. And the small one, where is it ? — The small one is above the 

big, meaning, the big one is beneath the small one. = Do 
you understand " above and beneath " ? — Yes, I understand 
fine. 

17. Where is the big one now ? — Now it is above. 

18. There are two chairs ; where is this one now ? — ^This is in 

front, and this behind. 

19. Here is a chair and a sofa : the chair is where ? and the sofa 

where ? — The chair is in front of the sofa, and the sofa 
behind the chair. 

20. Here is a sofa : these are chairs, one, two, three ; now, 

where are the chairs ? — -The chairs are now round the sofa. 

21. And where is the sofa now ? — It is between the two chairs 

(or in the midst of the chairs). 

22. Where is the biggest book of those books ? — The biggest 

book of those books is underneath all. And the smallest 
book of these books is on top of all. 

23. Show me the biggest one of those books. — There is the biggest 

one of those books, under the little books. 

24. Now these two books are on the table ; and now where is the 

big one ? — The big one is upon the small one. 

25. Good ! now where is it ? — Now the big one is by the side of 

the small one. 

26. Look ! the books are now beside one another. . . And now on 

top of one another, or below each other. . . And now behind, 
or in front of, each other. 

27. Where is the pen now ? — Now it is inside the book. 

28. Where is this house ? — In Cairo. 

29. Are we in the house or outside ? — ^We are in the house. 

30. And is the house in a street or in a native quarter ? — The 

house is in a street, not in a native quarter. 

31. Is this lesson hard ? — No, it is not very hard. 

I Fern, fahma p. fahmi:n (for faihima, faihimim). Lit. a participle, 
" understanding." 

^ Like aho, but less vivacious. 

3 Or il kita:b_iLakbar, il kita:b_il esgar. Similarly, ■• the highest 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 25 

35. isma"; ! ?adLkta:b. wa da_ktab kaman, akbdr minnu. 
ba'aj kita:b il kibi(:)r fern ?— il kita:b il kibi(:)r taht. 

16. wi s sugajjar fe(:)n hu:wa?— is sugajjar fo:?_il kibi:r, ja<^ni, 

il kibi:r tahtjs sugajjar. =fa:him' fo(:)' wi taht? — aiwa 
faihim 'awi ! 

17. il kibi:r fe:n hu:wa dilwa?t ?— dilwa'tjl kibi:r fo:'. 

18. adi kursijem ; da fe:n dilwa't ? — da 'uddaim, wi dukha 

wdra. 

19. 'adi'' kursi wi kanaba ; il kursi fe:n ? wi 1 kanaba fe:n ? — 

il kursi 'udda:m il kanaba, wi 1 kanaba wdra_l kursi. 

20. ?adi kanaba; do:l kara:si, wa:hid, itnem, talaita; dilwa'tjl 

karaisi fe:n ? — il kara:si dilwa'ti hawalem il kanaba. 

21. wi 1 kanaba fe:n dilwa't. hiija be:n_il kursijem {or fi wust 

il karaisi). 

22. akbdr kita(:)b3 fil kutub do:l fe(:)n hu:wa? — akbdr kita:b 

fil kutub do:l taht il kull. wi ?asgar kitaib' fil kutub 
do:l fo:' il kuU. 

23. wdrrimi 'akbdr waihid fi 1 kutub do:l ! — 'adi 'akbdr waihid 

fi 1 kutub do:l, tafit il kutub is sugajjdra. 

24. dilwa'ti_l kitabem dol '^at* tarabeiza wi dilwa'tjl kibiir 

fe:n ? — il kibiir '■as* sugajjdr. 

25. tajjib, dilwa'ti fern ? — dilwa'tij kibiir gamb is sugajjdr.' 

26. Juif, il kutub dilwa't' gamb' ba'^d. . .wi dilwa't' fo{i)' ba'^d, 

'au, taht' ba''d, ...wi dilwa't' wara ba''d, au, 'udda(i)m 
ba'Jrt. 

27. il 'alam fein dilwa't ? — dilwa't' huiwa guiwa 1 kitaib. 

28. il belt da fein ? — fi masr. 

29. ihna fi 1 beit walla bdrrd? — ihna fi 1 beit. 

30. wi 1 belt fi Jairi'' walla_f haira? — il beit fi Jairi'^ muj fi haira. 

31. id ddrs' da sa'^b ? — ^lai, huiwa muJ sa'^b'_ktiir. 



house," = 'a''la(l) belt or il beit_iLa''la(l). Compare, quite similarly, 
" the third exercise " = tailit tamriin or it tamriin it tailit. 

4 Contracted from '^ala_t, ''ala_S and so '^al for '^ala_l, cp. mil for 
min_il. 



26 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

32 



33 
34 
35 
36 
37 



Is it harder to-day or yesterday ? — Yes, to-day (is) a little 

harder than yesterday. 
Is it colder to-day or yesterday ? — To-day is colder (less cold) 

than yesterday. 
Are these less, or those ? — Naturally three is less than five, 

and five more than three ! 
Is there a lesson to-morrow ? — Yes, I hope so (lit. " if God 

will ") there is a lesson to-morrow. 
The lesson yesterday was good, the lesson to-day was better, 

and the lesson to-morrow wiU be best of all. 
Many thanks' ! — Not at all.^ Many thanks to you ! 



For Systematic Grammar. III. 

1. What is the form of the comparative adjective? — Show how, 

though the positive may differ in formation, that of every 
comparative is the same, provided that the three radicals 
are all different, and do not end in [i] or [u]. 

2. If the third radical is [i], how is the comparative formed?^ 

3. If the second and third radicals of the positive are the same, 

how is the comparative formed ? (See No. 33.) 

4. Decline the remoter ' that ' in Arabic. 

5. What are the ways of putting the expression " best of aU " 

in Arabic ? 



' Lit. " (May) God increase (kattdr) your welfare." 

2 Lit. "pardon ! " 

3 As already said, an adjective like '■aili (liigh) is for "^ailij, the 
three radicals being ''Ij. — An example of an adjective ending in u is hilu, 
for hilw, the three radicals being hlw, and the comparative being atlla(:) . 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC Zf 

32. hu:wa sa'^bjnnaharda walla_mba:rill ? — 'innahard_Qs'^ab 

JuwQJja* min„imba:rih. 
33- innahdrda bdrd' walla_inba;rili ?_— innahdrda bdrd'_kti:r 

Pali:l) '^anjmbairih, ja'^ni ?aktdr ('a'all') min imba:rill. 

34. do;l_a'all' walla do:l ? — tab'^an tala:t(a)_a'all' min xamsa, 

wi xamsa 'aktdr min tala:ta ! 

35. fi(:)h5 ddrsi bukra ?— ?aiwa, ?in Ja 'oiiah, fih ddrs' bukra. 

36. id ddrsjmbairih ka:n kuwajjis®, w id ddrs_innahdrda ka:n 

ahsan, wi d ddrs' bukra jikum ahsan il kull. 

37. kattdr xe:rak kiti:r ! — il "^afw ! kattdr xeirakjnta. 



6. What are the two ways of expressing phrases like " the biggest 

man " in Arabic ? Notice carefully the articles and the orcier. 

7. Give Arabic for " what ? " used alone. Ditto for " what ? " 

used as adjective. Decline the latter (m. f. p.). 

8. What are the two ways of expressing a comparative sentence ? 

Note difference of preposition. 

9. How is the dual formed from the sing, in Arabic ? {e.g. kita:b, 

kursi for [kursij]. 
10. Tabulate the prepositions of place exemplified in this exercise. 



+ Another diminutive, like kuwajjis. Exactly what was said about the 
latter in II., note 4, applies to this word. 

5 fi(:)h, lit. "in it." The h ("it") is often dropped. The expression 
= "il y a." 

^ It will be noted that kuwajjis has no comparative form ; its place 
is taken by ahsan, the positive of which (hasan) is not a colloquial word. 



28 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

IV. 

The Fourth Exercise. 

The Genitive.^ The Possessed^ and the Possessor.^ 

1. Here are two books. One and one make two, do they not ? — 

Yes, true, one and one make two. 

2. Exactly. And one plus two make how many ? — One plus 

two make three. 

3. And one and three are how much ? — One and three are four. 

4. And three and two are how much ? — Three and two are five. 

5 . And two by three (make) how much ? — Two times three make six. 

6. Good. Now look (at) this nice picture. It is a picture of a 

house. It is a picture of a house, not big, rather small. It 
is the house of a merchant : the name of that merchant is 
Khalil, he is not very rich, nor is he very poor, medium 
like! And here is a garden round that house. And in the 
house is a door, and several windows : here is the door of the 
house ! here are the windows of the house ! in every room 
of the house is a window, and in every window a pane of 
glass. The door of the house is high — here it is ! and the 
windows (are) high (also). Here is the description of the 
house, the description of the house of the merchant, the 
description of the house of Khalil. So say to me now : 

7. Whose is that house ? — That is the merchant's house. 

8. What is the name of that merchant ? — The name of the 

merchant is Khalil. 
q. That Khalil, is he rich {lit. " a rich one ") ? — No, he is not 
very rich. 

10. Well, then, he is poor ? — Neither is he poor, nor is he very 

rich [or he is not poor nor is he rich). 

11. Is the house of that Khalil big ? — No, it is not big, it is small. 

12. Shew me the door of Khalil's house. — Here is the door of 

Khalil's house. 

13. Show me the windows of the house. — Here are the windows of 

the house. 

'^ Lit. "annexation," "the thing annexed," "the thing annexed-to," 
because to the Arabs a phrase like " the book of the man " was simply the 
" annexing " of the first noun to the second, to form a single expression. 

^ Another form of this is ma huiwaj. 






/' 






/w 



f^J 



''^m'^\ 



yy s 






.^-^t»iL: 



\) 



:? 'site 



O 










-.^'^ 






£^=^ ^r^r^ 






••^•-■: fr- I 




EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 29 

tamriin nimrit drba'^a. rsibi'^ tamriin. 

il 'idaifa. il mudeif wi 1 mudaif luh 

1. hina ktabe:n itnem. wa:hid wi waihid jib?u_tne:n, muj 

kida ? — aiwa sshiih, waihid wi waihid jib'u_tnein. 

2. tamaim. wi waihid wi_tnein jib'u kam ? — ^waihid wi_tneiii 

jib'u talaita. 

3. wi wahid wi talaita jib'u kam? — waihid wi talaita jib'u 

"di-ba'^a. 

4. wi talaita wi^tnein jib'u kam? — talaita wi_tnein jib'u xamsa. 

5. wi_tnein fi talaita3(i) kam ? — itnein fi talaita^b sitta. 

6. tejjib. dilwa't^ Juif_is suire dij kuwajjisa ! hiija suirit 

belt, hiija suirit beit muJ kibiir, sugsjjdr Juwajja. huiwa 
belt waihid taigir ; ism_it_ta:gir da xaliil, mahuj^ 9cini_ 
ktiir, wala huj fa'iir 'awi, mitwassat' kida. wi di_ 
g(i)neina hawalein_il beit da. wi fi 1 beit baib, wi gumlit 
Jababiik. 'aho baib il beit ! 'ahi Jababiik il beit ! fi 
kuU' ?oida mil beit fih Jibbaik, wi_f kull' Jibbaik loih 'izaiz. 
baib el beit "^aili 'aho, wi J Jababiik "^alja*. 'aho wasf il belt, 
wQsf belt it taigir, wasf beit xdliil. fa 'ul li ba'a : 



7. bita"- miin il beit da ? — da beit it taigir. 

8. ism it taigir da ?eh huiwa ? — 'ism_it taigir xdliil. 

9. xaliil da waihid gdni ? — ^lai, mahuj gdni_ktiir. 

10. ba'a huiwa fa'iir ? — la hu fa'iir wa'la hu gdni 'awi {or 

mahuJ fa'iir wala huJ gdni). 

11. belt xdliil da_kbiir ? — lai, mahuJ kibiir, huiwa_sgajjdr. 

12. wdrriini bab beit xdliil. — 'aho da bab beit xdliil. 

13. wdrriini Jababiik il beit. — Jababiik il beit ahe ! 



3 Etymologically the second radical of this word is s, not s. But the 
reflex influence of the t causes a preparatory velarising, which turns the s 
into s. 

+ Or "^aljiin. 



30 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

14. Is there any garden in this picture ? — Yes, there is, here it is ! 

15. Is there any stable ? — No, there is none in that house. 

16. Every window in Khahl's house, (is there) in it a glass ? — Yes, 

of course, every window in Khalil's house has a glass. 

17. Is the glass of that window broken ? — No, the glass of that 

window is not broken. 

18. Is the ceiling of the sitting-room' in Khalil's house high or 

low ? — The ceiling of the sitting-room in Khalil's house is 
high, not low. 

19. Is the description of the house finished ? — No, still much 

remains : but no more talk about it now ! Enough surely ! 

20. Good ! Listen ! (Is it) understood the difference between 

" that is the house of the big (man) " ; " that house is 
big " ; and " that is the big house" ? 

21. Or thus : " the house is big," the house of the big (man) " ; 

" the big house." 



For Systematic Grammar. 
I. How is the genitive case expressed in Arabic as above ? {a) 
When the possessor is indefinite, as " the . . of a man," 
[b] when it is definite, as, " the . . of the man." Notice 
that in Arabic it is the thing possessed that is modified in a 
genitive construction.^ 



' Lit. " (the) room of the sitting.'' 

^ Western Arabists usually call this " the construct state,"' and say that 
the nouns are " in the construct state." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 3 1 

14. fi:h ginema fLs suire di ? — aiwa, fi:h, 'ahe. 

15. fiihjstabl ?— la, ma fi:J3 fi 1 be(:)t da. 

i6. kull* Jibba:k fi be:t xoliil fih 'iza:z ? — aiwa_mma:l, kuU' 
Jibba:k fi be:t xdli:l fih ?iza:z. 

17. 'izaiz il Jibbaik da maksuir ? — la:, ''iza:z ij Jibbaik da muj 

maksu:r. 

18. sa'f 'odt_il gulu:s fi be:t xdliil "^aili walla wa:ti ? — sa'P 

'odt il guluis fi be:t xdli:l hu:wa "^aili muJ wa:ti. 

19. xelais WQsf il be:t ? — la:, lissa fa:dil kiti:r, laikin balash 

kala:m fih dilwa't. bass' ba'a. 

20. tajjib. isma'' ; mafhu:m il far? be:n " da be:t il kibi:r," 

wi be:n "il be:t dajcbi:r," wi be:n "da_l be:t il kibi:r"? 

21. walla kida, "il be:t kibi:r," " be:t il kibi:r,"... ; " il be:t 

il kibi:r. . . " 



2. Supposing you prefixed [il] to the expression [be:t il kibiir], 

what change of sense would result ? 

3. Supposing from the clause [il be:t il kibi:r] you removed the 

second [il], what change of sense results ? 

4. How are a string of nouns m the possessive managed ? {" the — 

of the — of the — " ?) 



3 Or ma fihj. (ma = not, fi(:)=in, h = it, J is like the French pas, 
being shortened from Je: (thing)). It has been observed that the h in fi:h 
is often inaudible ; hence mafi: j as variant for ma fihJ. 



32 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

V. 

The Possessive with Feminine Noun. The Possessive with bita:*^. 

Is not that a picture of a house with a garden ? — Yes, tru(ly), 
that is a picture of a house in the midst of a garden. 

Good ! this is the garden of whom ? — This is the garden of 
the merchant [or of the owner of the house). 

3. Whose house is it ? — It is also the house of Khalil the merchant. 

4. And is not that the picture of a tree ? — Yes, of course, that is 

the picture of a tree. 
Whose tree is it ? — It is also Khalil's tree [or the merchant's 

tree). 
And is not this the picture of a woman, I mean, a certain 

lady ? Whose wife is she ? — She is the wife of Khalil. 
Tell me about that lady's name. — The name of the lady is 

Galila. 
And what is the name of Galila's husband ? — The name of 

Galila's husband is Khalil. 
We said just now, " that is the house of the man." 

Now we say again, " that is the house belonging to the man," 

and the garden belongs to whom ? — If ( = so long as) the 

house belongs to the man, the garden also belongs to the man. 

10. And whose are the things which are in the garden ? — The 

things which are in the garden are the man's also. 

11. Whose is the sunshade which is in the picture ? — It is the 

wife of Khalil's. 

12. We say, This is the tree of the man, Khalil's tree ; this is 

the man's garden, Khalil's garden. 

13. We also say, That is the man's house, that is Khalil's house; 

that is the man's property ; that is Khalil's property. 

14. Look at the big difference between "the garden (is) great"; 

and between " the great garden " ; and between " the 
garden of the great one." (/.) 



' For sQihib. 

^ Jagarit it demands elision of first i for euphony. 

3 For ism. 

♦ Or tawwina 'ulna. 

5 bita:'' originally meant " property," but now means no more than the 
genitive " of." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 33 

tamrim nimrit xamsa. xa:mis tamriin. 

il 'idaifa bi IJsmJl mu'annas. il ?ida:fa bi "^bita:";. 

1. muj di su:rit be:t bi g(i)ne:na? — ?aiwa, saWih, di su:rit be:t 

fi wustLgneina. 

2. tajjib ! dLgnemit mim ? — dLgnent it ta:gir {or di gne:nit 

sahb' il be:t). 

3. wi da be:t miin ? — ^huiwa ra:xar be:t xdlid it taigir. 

4. wi muJ di su:rit Jagdrd ? — 'aiwa_mma:l di su:rit Jagdrd. 

5. hi:ja Jagdrit mi:n ? — ^hi:ja ruxra Jagdrit xdliil {or Jagdrt 

it^ taigir). 

6. wi muJ di suirit hurma, jd'ni wahda sitt ? hi:ja zo:git mim ? {or 

hi:ja mara:t mi:n?) — hiija zo:git xdliil {or hiija marait xdliil). 

7. 'ul li '^dla_sm3_is_sitt' di ? — ism is sitt' di galiila. 

8. w_ism' goizjs sitt' galiila ?eih ? — ism' goiz is sitt* xdliil. 

9. ihna 'ulna min taww''* " da beit ir raigil (belt xdliil) ". ni'uil 

dilwa'ti kaman " da J beit bitai*^' {j- raigil (bita'^ xdliil)." 
wi g gineina bitai'^it miin? — ^ma daim il.beit bitai'^ ir raigil 
(bita"^* xdliil,) ig gineina ruxra bita''t° ir raigil (bitai'^it 
xdliil. 

10. wil hagait_illi fLg_gineina_b(i)tu''* miin ? — il hagait illi 

fi_g_gineina_btui'^_ir raigil ruxriin'' {or bitu"^ xdliil). 

11. ij J"amsijja_(i)lli fi_s suira di_btai'^it miin ? — bita'^t is sitti_ 

btai'^it xdliil. 

12. bi n'uil, di J" Jagdra bta'^t ir raigil. di J Jagdra bta'^it xdliil ; 

di g gineina_bta'^t ir raigil: di g gineina_btai''it xdliil. 

13. bi n'uil kaman, da 1 beit bitai''_ir raigil; da 1 beit bita*^ 

xdliil ; da 1 milk' btai'^jrjaigil ; da 1 milk' bta"^ xdliil. 

14. Juif n fdr"Jl kibiir bein " il gineina_kbiird " : 

wi bein, " il gineina J kibiird " ; 
wi bein, " ginent_il kibiird." 



^ bitai'', bitai'^it, bitui'' are all shortened when their position brings 
the long vowel before two consonants. 

7 See sentences 3 and 5, whence it appears that this word for " also " 
is declined {m.f. p.), as it means properly " the other." 



34 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

15. What is the name of that boy ? — His name is Ali, Khalil's son. 

16. What is the name of that girl 1- — Her name is Fatima, (the) 

daughter of Galila. 

17. Whose sister is Fatima then ? — She also is the daughter of 

Khalil, and so All's sister. 

18. And whose brother is Ali ? — Naturally (= of course), brother 

of Fatima. 

19. Who is Ah's father ? — AH's father is Khalil. 

20. And Ali's mother, who is she ? — ^Ali's mother is Galila. 



For Systematic Grammar. V. 

1. When the first of two nouns " in construct state " (see p. 30, 

n. 2) is a feminine, what does the [a] of the feminine termi- 
nation invariably become ? This is most important. 

2. Notice that when [bita:'' bitu:"^] are succeeded by a vowel, their 

long vowel is preserved ; when they are succeeded by a 
consonant it is shortened. Now observe the effect in the 
case of the feminine [bitai'^it]. Tabulate examples for these 
six possible cases. 

3. Notice the important difference in the two alternative ways 

of expressing the genitive : — 
belt ir raigil. 
il be:t bita:'' ir reigil. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 35 

15. il walad da_smu 'e:h ? {or ism il walad da 'e:h ?) — ismu 

■^alubni^ xali:l. 

16. wjsm il bint* di 'c.h ? (or il bint' di_smaha 'eih ?) — ^ismaha 

fatma^ bint' gali:la. 

17. ba'a fatma 'uxt' mi:n ? — hiija ruxra bint' xoliil, ja'^ni 'uxt' 

•^ali. 

18. wi "^ali 'axu^ mi:n ? — teb'-an, 'axu fatma ! 

19. ?abu "-ali mi:n hu:wa ? — 'abu^ '^ali hu:wa xoIiil. 

20. w_umm' '■ali mi:n hi:ja ? — 'umm' '■ali hi:ja gali:la. 

^ 'ibn invariably loses 'i after a vowel. 

2 For faitima. Pronounce between fa:tma and fatma. 

3 Originally axu: abu:. 



36 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

INTERMEZZO 

On the effect of words on each other in elision or addition of vowels ; 
change of accent ; loss of length. 

At this stage it will be well to explain the principle of certain 
phenomena which will already have been noticed. 

1. A long vowel loses length before two consonants : e.g. 

[kita:b], but [kitab kibi:r]. 

[bita:";], „ [bita'^na]. 

([a:] shortened before [bk, '■n]).' 

2. Short unaccented [i] (and also short [u]) is eUded between two 

more important syllables : e.g. 

[kita:b] but [da_kta:b]. 
[bita:<;] but [da.btai'^i]. 

3. As three consonants cannot stand together, a passing vowel 

is inserted after the second : e.g. 

[il hibr' fern ?] (to avoid [brf] ; the ['] is very short). 
[ibnuhum] (to avoid [bnh]). 

4. The very short passing vowel ['] may occasion the elision of a 

short vowel in the next word in the way described above (2). 
In this case it receives stress and becomes an ordinary short 
voweP : e.g. 

[hibri_kti:r] (for [hibr' kiti:r]). 

[il hibri_bta:';i]. 

5. If the elision of a short vowel causes a long vowel to be suc- 

ceeded by two consonants, the vowel loses length as described 
above (i) : e.g. 

[bitai'^iti] becomes [bitai'^ti], and so [Inta'^ti]. 

[tainija] becomes [tamja], and so [tanja]. 

6. Long vowels tend to lose their length when the syllable occurs 

in unstressed positions : e.g. 

[bita:'''itna] becomes [bita'''itna] 
owmg to the transference of accent from the [ta:] syllable 
to the one after. 



' It is sometimes left to the student to do this shortening when for 
etymological reasons it was preferable to give the word in its original form. 
Sometimes it depends on the speed of the speech, whether the shortening is 
partial or entire. 

' For etymological reasons ' is nevertheless left in the text. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 37 

7. Conversely length is restored when accent falls on the shortened 

syllable : e.g. 

['abu] (for ['abu:]) ; but [a'buihumj. 
['tami] (for ['ta:nii]) ; but [ta'ni:hum]. 

8. Initial [?] is usually omitted in the middle of a sentence. When 

this brings two vowels together (the final of one word and 
the first of the next) one of the vowels is eUded : e.g. 
['amji] but [b_amji], for [bi ^amji]. 

N.B. — Even the supplied passing vowel sometimes prevails 
over the vowel which loses initial [?] : e.g. 

[?anfa:r] " persons," but [drba';ti_nfa:r], for [arba'^t* ?anfa:r]. 
In [l_iswid] " the black," we have two elisions, for ['il 'iswid]. 

Note on " Accent." 

To give rules for the position of accent would be of doubtful 
utility. More important is it to note the following : It is doubtful 
whether accent in Egyptian Arabic is a matter of " stress " at all 
{i.e. increase of breath-pressure from the lungs). It is rather a 
matter of raised musical tone. Obviously, therefore, short syllables 
can be " accented " (toned) just as well as long. And in fact, 
so great is the partiality of Egyptian Arabic for accenting the 
penultimate, that it is constantly receiving the tone even when the 
vowel is intrinsically very unimportant (a mere passing vowel) and 
when the syllable before it is long' and prominent : e.g. 

[ib'nukum] " your son." 

[rsb'bina] " our Lord." 
Both these words have the following intonation curve : 



A very similar phenomena may be noticed in French, where a 
toned penultimate is exceedingly frequent : e.g. a word like " con- 
j«?ture," where ^ is very short and much raised in tone. 

The student must carefully practice this accentuation, re- 



' A long syllable need not necessarily contain a long vowel ; see next 
section. 



38 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

sisting the temptation to lengthen the accented syllable if it is a short 
one ; which may be difficult at first/ 

{Emotional " stressing " is quite a different question. Being 
occasional and exceptional it does not affect the above question, 
which is one of the normal accentuation of words.) 

In general it may be said that the intonation of Egyptian talk 
is a level one, much more so than Syrian talk for example. The 
general effect is monotonic. 

Note on " Quantity." 

It has already been indicated that a short-vowel syllable closed 
by a consonant equals in respect of length a syllable with open long- 
vowel. Let these two types of syllable = J ; e.g. [bak, ba:], then 
open short-vowel syllables will = P*" , e.g. ['^ali] | 

and passing vowels at the end of words = ^K , e.g. 
[il hibri fe:nj 

J J ."^ J .^ 

Final syllables are prolonged beyond the J length, e.g. 
rabb \ 
ba:b | 
hibr 

I ^ 

We may give the following examples to show both the length - 
values and the accentuation (toning) : 



' Though obviously in music the voice can and does rise on a short 
" up-beat " note just as easily as on a long " down-beat " one : e.g. on " shall " 



-s-l, 



p= 



3=^ 



-&^ (where the second note is short and on the 



'He shall come,'' etc. 
weak up-beat) just as easily as on " know " in 



m 



p= 



TJO 



^ 



" I know that my," etc. 
where the second note is long and on the strong down-beat. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



39 



^ 



:^^ 



^1 



3r 



3S3; 



^ 



ib-nu-kum 
rab-bi-na 



X 
'as-sim-tu-ha 

(" I have divided it ") 



makain 
(" place ") 



3= 



m M m ^ ^ 



il tiaiga di_t tawiila tarabeiza. (See II, 22.) 

(It should be observed that the divisions between words are a 
conventional guide to the eye, but not a phonetic fact. There 
is no more division between words in fluent speech than there is 
between syllables.) 

Lastly, if the above phrases were monotoned, toning, and con- 
sequently accentuation, would disappear, and, if we are correct 
in our belief that stress is either non-existent or weak in Arabic, 
the only prominent syllables would then be the long ones. Probably 
this quantitative prominence is often mistaken for stress. 



40 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

VI. 

The Sixth Exercise. 

The Pronoun. Pronouns of the Genitive {Conjunctive).^ 

Pronouns of the Nominative {Disjunctive).'^ 

I. Four and two make {lit. " become ") how much ? — Four and 

two are six. 
What is four times two ? — Four times two is eight. 
What do four and three make ? — Four and three are seven. 
How much do four and five make ? — Four and five are nine. 
What is twice five ? — Twice five is ten. 
Now look at the picture again ( = of a second (time)). This 

is the picture of Khahl and his children, n'est-ce pas ? 

Well then ! whose son is that boy ? — He is his son, and 

the girl is his girl (daughter) also. 
And who is that girl ? — She is his daughter. 
And whose (wife) is that lady ? — She is his wife. 



9 

10 

II 

12 



Whose is that house ? — It is his house. 

Whose is the garden which is round his house ? — It is his 
garden. 

And whose property are these things ?— They are his property. 

Has the lady, the wife of Khalil (any) children ? — Yes, of 
course, Khalil's children (are) her children, I mean Khalil's 
son is her son, and his daughter is her daughter. 

13. And is Khalil's house her house ? — Of course, Khalil's house 

is her house, and his garden is her garden, and his property 
is her property. 

14. Is his watch her's ? — No, his watch is not her's. 

15. And are his clothes her's ? — No, his clothes are not her's. 

16. And is his handkerchief her's? — No, his handkerchief is 

not her's. 

' i.e. Possessive pronouns. ^ i.e. Personal pronouns. 

3 For mdrait, zo:gitu. 

4 But not sittu, which means " his grandmother," or (if he is a servant) 
" his mistress." N.B. — All the otlier relationships must not be given this 
construction with bitai"^. 

5 The preposition li becomes la before ha (her) and lu before hum 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 4I 

tamriin nimrit sitta. sa:tit tamri:n. 

ad domiir. damai'ir il gdrr (il muttasila). 
damai'ir ir rsf^ (il munfasila). 

i.. arba'^a wi_tne:n jib'-'u kam ? — arba'^a wi tne:n jib?u sitta. 

2. arba'^a fi_tne:ii bi kam ? — drba'^a fi_tne:n bi tamanja. 

3. arba'^a wi tala:ta jib'u kam? — arba'^a wi tala:ta jib'u sab'^a. 

4. drba'^a wi xamsa jib'u kam ? — drba'^a wi xamsa jib?u tis'^a. 

5. itne:n fi xamsa_b kam ? — itnem fi xamsa3 '■ajdrd. 

6. dilwa't' bussi li_s su:ra min tami. di suirit xdliil w_iwla:du, 

muj kida ? ba'a_l walad da_bn' raim ? — hu:wa_bnu, wi 1 
bint' bintu kaman. 

7. wi 1 bint' di mi:n ? — hi:ja bintu. 

8. wi s sitt' di_bta:'^it mim? — hi;ja_mra:tu {or zogtu,^ or is sitt' 

bta'^tu).* 

9. il be:t da.bta'^ mim ? — hu:wa btai'^u {or hu:wa be:tu). 

10. il ginema Hi hawalem be:tu bitai'^it mim? — hi:ja gnentu {or 

hiija g ginema_bta'^fu). 

11. wil haga:t do:l milk' mim? — humma milku {or humma_btu:'^u). 

12. is sitti_nira(:)t xdlid laha5_wla:d ? — aiwa_mma:l, wila:d 

xdli:l wila(:)dha, ja'^ni^bn' xdli:l_ibnaha,^ wi bintu bintaha. 

13. wi be;t xdli:l betha ? — ma'^luim be:t xdliil betha, wi_gnent{i_ 

gne'nitha, wi milku milkaha. 

14. is sai'^a bta''tu_bta''^itha ? '' — la:, is sa:''a_bta''tu mij^ 

bita";itha. 

15. wi_hdu:mu hudumha ? — la: hudu:mu mij bitu'-ha {or mij" 

hudumha). 

16. wil mandiil bita:''U_bta'^lia ? — la: mandi:lu muJ mandilha 

{or muJ bita'^ha). 

(them) and ku(m) (you, p.). But liha is also heard. 

* Similarly the passing vowel is a before ha '(i is also heard), u before 
hum and ku(m), and i before na (us). 

7 N.B. — Now that the pronoun throws accent on the syllable '■it, the 
a: loses both accent and length. 

8 Feminine of muJ ; for ma hi J. 



42 egyptian colloquial arabic 

Conversation between Khalil, his Wife, and his Children. 

Kh. I am Khalil, and that is my house, and my garden, and 
my wife. 

Gal. Certainly you are Khalil, my husband, and I am your 
wife, and the house is your's, and the garden is your's, and the 
children are your's. 

Kh. I am pleased with you, oh lady ! You are very good. 
And my house is your's, and my garden is your's, and my chil- 
dren are your children. 

[E'nter{ed) a Guest at this moment.] 

Guest. Good day to you ! ' 

All. A good day and blessed ! ^ 

Guest. What Allah willed ! ^ The garden which is in your 
house, is it your's ? You are happy ! 

Ali. The merit is to God ! we are happy. Yes, this is our 
garden, this is the garden belonging to us. 

Guest (to Kh.). Ah says, " this is our's," does it belong to 
him ? 

Kh. Of course, he is my son, and our things are his things. 

Guest. So long as (he is) your son, then your house is his 
house, and your things are his, without any (further) word. 
[Fatima gets vexed.] 

Gal. Fatima is vexed ! Forsooth, the house of Ali is not her's 
too! 

Kh. No, away with vexation ! for all our things are her 
things. 

Gtiest. I am pleased with your visiting,* and wish to ask leave 
(to go). 

Kh. Oh wait a little : it is still early. 

Guest. Allow me ! I am not at leisure. 

' Lit. "Your day (be) fortunate ! " 

^ Lit. "Your day (be) fortunate and blessed." Or simply, nahairak 
mubairsk, " Your day be blessed." 

3 An expression of admiration which does not involve " the evil eye " 
because it represents the blessing (house, fine baby, etc., etc.) as willed by 
Allah. 

4 i.e. (My) visiting (of) you. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 43 

m^hawrct be:n xali:l wi_mra:tu wi_wla:du. 
xal. ?ana xdli:l wi da be:ti wLgnenti, wi s sitt' bta'^ti. 

gal. ma'^luim, ?inta xdli:l goizi, w_ana zogtak w il be:t 
bitai'^ak, w ig gineina^bta'^tak, w il wila:d bitui'^ak. 

xal. ana mabsuit minnik, ja sitt ! inti tajjiba 'awi. fa 1 
belt bita:''i_bta:'^ik. wi g gine:na_bta''ti_bta'^tik, wi_wla:di_wla:dik, 

[ddxal de:f fi I Sad.] 

de:f. nahdrku sa'^iid ja gamai'^a ! 

il kull. nahairak sa'^iid mubairalc. 

de:f. ma: Ja 'siia: ! ig gine:na_lli_f betkum, bita:''itkum ? 
intu mabsutiin ! 

"•ali. il fadU li_lla:h ! ihna mabsutim, ?aiwa, di gne'nitna ! 
di 9 gine:na_bta'^itna ! 

de:f (li xdliil). "^ali ji?u:l " di^btai^itna " ; hiija^bta'^tu ? 

xdlid. 'ummad hu:wa_bni, wi }iaga(:)tna hagaitu {or il 
hagait bitu'^na_btu:''u). 

de:f. ma da:m_ibnak, faj be:t bita'^kum bita:''ii. wi 1 ha(:)'ga:t 
bitu'ikum bitui'^u, min ge(:)r kala:m. 

[fatma zi'^ilit.] 

gal. fatma za'^lama ! (i)Jmi'^na'_l be:t bita'^ '^ali muj betha 
{or bita''ha) ? 

xdlid. la, balaj za'^al, '■alajan kull' hagatna hagatha ! 
{or bita''ha, or bita''^itha). 

de:f. ana mabsu:t min zija(:)ritkum, wi bidd_asta'zin. 

xdlid. ma^ tistanna Jwajja, lissa badri ! 
de:f. ismahu: li, maniij'' faidi. 

5 For e:J " what thing, mi'^na (is the) meaning of . . . " An expression for 
" why ? " which is used when the thing done or said is considered unfair, 
or inconsistent with something else. 

6 We have had ma = " not," and ma = "that which." Here it is a 
particle of vivacity, " why ! " 

7 For ma ana J (see p. 49). 



44 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Kh. Well, if you must ! [lit. deign (to go), without (being) 
ejected], (go) with peace {i.e. good-bye). 
Guest. God give you peace ! 

Exercise. — Go over this dialogue, substituting the construction 
with [bita:''] for the " construct state " and vice versa. 

17. Teacher. Now the conversation is finished. Let us speak a 

little together. Please ( = deign), say on. 

18. Is that my book ? — Yes, that is your (sing.) book. 

19. And is that my book ? — No, that is my book. 

20. Well, is that your (sing.) book ? — Yes, that is my book. 

21. And is that your (sing.) book ? — No, that is your book 

22. Is that your (pl.))book ? — Yes, that is our book. 

23. Is that your (pi.) book ? — No, that is your book. 

24. Is that our book ? — Yes, that is your book. 

25. Is that your (pi.) book ? — No, that is our book. 

26. Is that his book ? — No, that is his book. 

27. Is that her book ? — No, that is her book. 

28. Is that their book ? — No, that is their book. 



For Systematic Grammar. VI. 

1. Write out all the disjunctive personal pronouns of the nomi- 

native, i.e. "I," "thou," etc. 

2. Write out all the conjunctive pronouns of the possessive, 

i.e. " my," " thy," etc., not using bita:*^. 
[a) with [be:t], e.g. [be:ti, betna], etc., 
(6) with [sai'^a] (" watch "), e.g. [sa'^ti, sa"^itna], etc. 

3. Write out (a) and (6), using [bita:'']. 

4. How is emphasis on possessive pronouns managed ? (e.g. 

my book). Go through the possessives thus. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 45 

x<ili:l. itfeddol min geir mstruid. ma'^a_s sala:ma ! 
de:f. 'eiia jisal'limkuni ! {or ai'iah). 



17. il m^'^allim. dilwa't il m'hawra xilsit. nitkallim Juwejja 

ma"^ ba'^dina. — itfaddsl 'u:!. 

18. da_kta:bi ? — aiwa da_kta:bak. 

19. wi da_kta:bi ? — la: da_kta:bi 'ana. 

20. ba'a da_kta:bak ? — aiwa da_kta:bi. 

21. wi da_kta:bak ? — la:, da_kta:bak_inta. 

22. da_ktabkum ? — aiwa da_ktabna. 

23. da Jctabkum ? — la: da ktabkum_intu(m). 

24. dajitabna ? — 'aiwa da ktabku(m). 

25. da_ktabku{m) ? — la: da ktabnajina. 

26. da kta:bu ? — la: da kta:bu huiwa. 

27. da ktabha ? — la: da ktabha hi:ja. 

28. da ktabhum ? — la: da ktabhum humma. 



46 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

VII. 

" Have." The Disjunctive Pronouns^ with the Negative. 

1. Now there are before us three words, [lak] and ['■andak], and 

[ma''ak].^ (Is it) understood ? — Yes, I understand. 

2. Good ! hsten and take care, [lak] is for big possessions (s), 

and ['^andak] is for a medium tiling in the house, or in the 
room, or in the shop for example. As for [ma''ak] it is 
for a small thing, in the pocket, or in the hand ; understood ? 
— I understand ; only give me an example of them. 

3. On my eye and head ! [i.e. gladly !). You have a house, 

Khalil, in this town ? — Kh. Yes, I have, and I have also 
a shop of merchandise. 

4. And have you English cloth in your shop ? — Kh. Naturally ! 

and we have French too. 

5. Have you (on you) a match (that) I may light my cigarette ? — 

Kh. Yes, I have ; I have also tobacco (on me). 

6. Do you understand these examples ? — Of course ; I hear 

and understand. 

7. We understand now that Khalil has a house ; I mean, he 

possesses a house ; and that Khalil has English cloth in 
(the) shop, I mean, he has cloth, and that he has matches, 
I mean, he has on him matches. 

8. I know that ; and I know that the Sitt GalUa has possessions, 

and she has much furniture in her house, and she has a silk 
sunshade opened in her hand. [Have you, oh lady ! etc. ?] 

9. And Khalil's children and wife have money in the savings 

bank, and have expensive toys coming from abroad, and 
they have now the (some) of them (in their hands). 
10. You, family of Khalil, have you any lands in Egypt ? — Yes, 
we have. ^= And have you Egyptian servants ? — -Yes, 
we have. = And have you (on you) correct watches ? — 
Yes, we have 



' i.e. The Personal Pronouns. 

^ Meaning respectively "to you," " chez-vous, " and "on your person. 
All are translatable by " you have," lit. " (there is) to you," etc. 

3 g, etymologically. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 47 



tamrim nimrit sab'^a. saibi"; tamri:n. 

■^and. li. ma'^(ai). id damai'ir il minfasila bi n nafj. 

1. 'uddamna dilwsH' talat kilmait, " lak," wi " "^andak," 

wi " ma'^aik " ; mafhuim ? — aiwa_ana fa:him. 

2. tejjibjsma'^ wi xud ba:lak ! " lak " <;alaja:n_il milk il 

kibi:r; wi "andak" '^alajain ha:ga mitwassata^ fil be:t 
walla fil 'o:da, walla fid dukkain, masalan. ?amma " ma'^ak" 
fa di "^alajain liaga_s9ajiara fi g ge:b, walla fi 1 ?i;d; maf- 
hu:m? — ana faihim, bass_iddi:ni masal '■anhum. 

3. '^ala '^eini wi raisi ! lak be:t, ja xdliil fil ba'lad di ?^xal. 

'aiwa li:, wi li:ja dukkam tiga:rd kaman. 

4. wi "^andak ?uma:J_inkili:zi fi_d dukkam bitai'^ak ?— xal. 

teb'^an, wi '^andina firansa:wi kamam. 

5. ma''^ak kibriit awalla"; sigarti ? — aiwa_m(a)';a:ja,* wi_m(a)'^a:ja 

duxxam^ kamam. 

6. faihim il ?amsail di ? — ummail, saimi"^ wi faihim. 

7. ihna fahmiin dilwa't inn' li xctliil beit, ja'^ni luh beit, wjnn' 

'^andi xdliil ?umaij_inkihizi fi d dukkam, ja'^ni "^andu 
'umaijjnkihizii, w_inn' ma"^ xdliil kabriit, ja'^ni m'';a(i)h 
kabriit. 

8. ana '^airif kida, wi '^airif inn._is sitt' galiila laha ?amla:k, wi 

••andaha fdrj'_kti:r fi betha, wi_m'^'a:ha Jamsiija hdriir* 
mafruida f Jdha. [liik ja sitt ? . . . "^andik . . . ? ma'^aiki . . . ?] 

9. w_iwla:d xdliil wi mreitu, luhum filuis fi bank it tawfiir, wi 

■^anduhum li'^ab^ gslja gajjiin min bdrrd, wi_m'^aihum 
dilwa't' Jwajja minhum. 

10. intu ja gamai'^it xdliil lukum _atjam fi masr ? — aiwa, lina. 

= wi '■andukum xdddamim masrijjiin ?■ — aiwa, "^andina. 
==wi_m''^aiku sa'^ait mazbuita ? — aiwa^m'^aina. 



■* 'mi''i is also heard. 5 Almost duxxdin. 

6 Not " a sunshade of silk," which would be Jamsiljit hdriir ; bu 
a sunshade, silk " — in apposition. 

■? Plural of h'^ba. 



48 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

11. Right ! We have finished with [lak], and ["^andak], and 

[ma'^ak] ; now we shall say a little on the negative. 

12. I am an Egyptian ; are you an Egyptian too ? — No, I am not 

an Egyptian : I am just (an) English(man). 

13. Am I now English, since the Protectorate ? — No, you are not 

English, (you are) as before, Egyptian. 

14. So then, we are not the same since the Protectorate ! — No, 

we are not the same in race, only in things poUtical. 

15. Even so ! we are not English in race. — Yes, you are not 

(anything) but Egyptian in race. 

16. Say, are Khalil and his family Turks ? — They are not Turks, 

they are (in) their origin Egyptian. 



For Systematic Grammar. VII. 

1. Write out [li], [''and], [ma*-] with all the pronouns. 

2. What is the difference in meaning between [ma*-] and [li] 

and ["-and] with pronouns ? 

3. Write out " I am not, you are not," etc. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 49 

11. tsjjib xulusna min " lik," wi_'^andak," wi " ma'^ak," ni'uil 

dilwa'tLJwejja fi n nafj. 

12. ana mssri; tiddritak masrOita raixar ? — ^la ma'nish' masri, 

innama 'ana (i)ngili:zi.^ 

13. ana dilwa't_ingili:zi ba'^d il himaija ? — ^la 'mantashjngiliizi, 

bdrdak' masri. 

14. ba'ajina 'mahnash wailiid ba'^d il himaija ? — ^la, mahnash 

waihid fi 1 gins, bass' fil 'umu:r is sijasijja. 

15. bdrdu kida! ihna mahnash ingiliiz fi 1 gins?— aiwa, 'mantush 

ilia masrijjim fi 1 gins. 
i6. alia'* xctli:! wi '^eltu 'atraik ? — mahummaj atraik, humma 
'aeluhum mQsrijjim.^ 



' N.B. — mani]' = ma ana J", and = ?ana muj. 

'' Or amrikami, firansa:wi, almami, nimsaiwi. Fem. ingili(:)- 
zijja, etc. 

3 bdrdak, originally bi 'ardak, " on your ground," i.e. " still " or 
" also " ; cp. sentence 15. 

■<• An interrogative particle used to introduce a new subject, or aspect 
of subject. 

5 Add to this series mahuj, mahij, which have already frequently 
occurred. 



50 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

VIII. 

For General Conversation. 
[To Teacher and Pupil. 

These paragraphs "for general conversation " should be worked 
through without the help of any English whatever, The pupil should 
not even refer to the Arabic {for the most part) during the lesson, but 
should rely on hearing and watching only. The teacher will find that 
with the aid of objects and dumb-show it will be perfectly possible to 
demonstrate these lessons without any recourse to English {a remark 
which equally applies to what has preceded). 

These paragraphs are wholly independent of the grammatical 
lines of division which otherwise govern the sequence of the successive 
chapters.] 



Polite Address. 
The Present Partici-ple. {Lit. Noun of the Agent.) 

1. Goodday to you (pi.) {lit. may your day be happy !) May 

your (sing.) day be happy and blessed ! — How are you ? 
{lit. How is your Presence ?) 

2. God give you peace ! {or protect you). How are you ? — 

Praise (be) to God ! 

3. Mr. Khalil is in his writing-room.. .Enter to him a (certain) 

friend of his. . . Is (that) understood thus ? — Certainly it is 
understood. 

4. Well then, I am Khalil, and you are the friend. Then say 

to me : — 
Friend. Good morning, O Mr. Khalil. 

' This sign indicates the resumption of the conversation by the first 
speaker. 

^ Lit. "your Presence" (hddrd) : a very ordinary expression of polite 
address. 

3 Or jihfazak, " keep you." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 5 1 

tamrim nimrit tamanja. ta:min tamriin. 

li 1 m'hadsa I ''umumijja. 

di '^emi. ana b_aju:f bi '^emi. inta lik ';e(:)ne:n? — aiwa, 
ana lijja '^eneni, w_ana b_aj"u:f bi "^enajja. = " di manaxiiri, 
ana b^aJimmLb manaxi:ri, inta lik manaxi:r ? — aiwa, ana lijja 
manaxiir, w_ana b_ajimmi biiha. = da hanaki, ana b_aftatl (a'fil) 
hanaki 'aho, etc. da lisa:ni, Ju:f ! ana b_adu:? bijsaini, muj inta 
bi_tdu:' bi Isanak ? 

di widni, do:l widaini, w_ana b^.asma"^ bLwdami, etc 

b,.aju:f, b_ajimm, b_aftah, b_adu:' il fatha "^alajan "ana"; 

il be: alajan dilwa't_aho, au, tamalli. bukrd. . .h_aju:f, h ajimm, 
h aftah, h_adu:' 

di 'i:di, do:l 'idajja, muJ kida ? ba?a, ana b_almis bi 
'i:di, mafhuim? di rigli wi do:l riglajja, w ana b_amji_b riglajja, 
muf kida ? laikin il ?uttLb jimji_b rigleih w ide:h. niujjnta_b 
timj"i_b rigle:k ? aiwa etc. = ma'^luim bi timji_b rigleik wi_b 
tilmis b ide:k, wi bi_tju:f bi "^eneik, wi bi_tJimniLb manaxiirek, 
wi_b tiftah hanakak wi_b ti'filu, wi_b tisma'^ bi_wda:nak, wi 
bi_tdu:? bijsainak. it te: "^alajan " inta." fa 'ul li ba'a, " bi 
timji bi rigleik ? " etc., etc. 



ism il fai'^il. 

1. naharkum sa'^iid ! — nahairak sa'^iid mubairak, iz zejj' 

hddritak?^ 

2. 'tii'lah jisallimak,^ iz zejj' hddritak_inta ? — il hamdu* li 

lla:h ! 

3. hddrit xdliiLafandi f il maktab bitai'^u. . . .ga: lu waihid 

habi:bu. . . .mafhuim kida ? — ma''lu:m mafhuim. 

4. tejjib, 'ana xdlid, w_inta_l habiib, fa ?ul_li ba'a : — 
hab. sabaih il xe:r "^aleik,^ ja: si^ xdlid ! 

+ This U is the passing vowel of the nominative, adopted from the 
classical in this expression. 

5 Lit. "The morning of good (be) upon you ! " 

* Short for sajjid (lord), which is worn down to sild, sid (= Spanish 
" 9id "), and so si. 



52 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Kh. Good morning, welcome ! 

Friend. Welcome to you ! — How is Ali, your son ? Where 
is his honour ? 

Kh. Thanks to God ! He greets you. He is in the garden. 

Friend. And his sister, where is her honour ? 

Kh. With her brother in the garden. 

Friend. When will they come here ? 

Kh. They will come at 6 o'clock, I mean, at sunset. 

[At this moment enters Galila.] 

Friend. How is your honour ? 
Gal. In God's protection ! how are you ? 
Friend. We thank God in any case. And now, I desire to 
ask leave (to go). 

Kh. If you must ! 

Friend. I hope (lit. if God will) we shall see you another day. 

Kh. Greet for me the Messrs. children. 

Friend. May God keep your honour. [Exeunt.] 

5. Look, sir : I am now standing. — Yes, you are now standing. 

6. And you are now sitting. — Yes, I am now sitting. 

7. And the lady who is in this picture, is sitting. — True, she is 

sitting. 

8. I mean she is not standing ? — Yes, she is not standing. 

9. And we are now sitting ? — Yes, we are now sitting. 

10. Get up ! if you please. Now we are standing. True, now 

we are standing. 

11. Good ! Now, what am I holding ? — You are now holding 

the book and walking. 

12. Then I am holding it ? — Yes, you are holding it.. .Now you 

[Jem.) are holding it. — Yes, I [fern.) am holding it. . .So then, 
we are holding it. — Yes, we are holding it. 

13. What is the lady who is in this picture holding ? — She is 

holding a sunshade and spreading it, i.e. opening it. 

14. And I am spreading it, i.e. opening it. 

15. And they are spreading it, i.e. opening it. 

I Lit. light. 

^ These terminations are classical (accusative) : ahl, W. = " worthy" ; 
sahl = " easy." 

3 From the words '■ala kuU' hail, especially if uttered in a somewhat 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 53 

xdl. SQba:h in nu:r' "^aleik, ?ahlan wi sahlan.^ 

hab. 'ahlan wi sahlan bi:k ! iz zejj' '^ali.bnak, hadritu fe:n ? 

xal. il hamdu li lla:h, jibuss_ide:k, huiwa fi g gine:na. 

hab. w_uxtu_z_zejjaha ? — hddritha fern ? 

xdl. WQJj_axu:ha fi g gineina. 

hab. hddrithum jiigu hina 'emta ? 

xdl. jiigu_s sa'^a xamsa_w nuss, ja'^ni 1 mdgrib. 

[fil ha:l ddxdlit is sitt' gali.'la.J 

hab. iz zejji hddritik ? 

gal. fi ?ama:n illaih, iz zejj' hddritakjnta ? 

hab. nihmid qHq: "^ala kulli hail.^ w_ahibb_asta?zin. 

xdl. itfaddel min ge:r matruid !* 

hab. in Ja 'atie: nijuif hddritkum fi jo:m taini. 

xdl. sal'lim li "^ala hddrait Langail. 

hab. "alia jihfaz hddritkum ! [xaragu fi 1 hail]. 

5. Ju:f hddritak, ana dilwa't' wa:'if. — aiwa hddritak wai'if 

dilwa't. 

6. w.inta dilwa't' 'a:'^id. — aiw_ana 'ai'^id dilwa't. 

7. wi s sitt_illi fi s su:ra di ?a'^da. — sahi:h hiija ?a'^da. 

8. ja'^ni mahij wa'fa ? — aiwa mahij wa'fa. 

9. w_ihna dilwa't' ?a'^di:n. — aiwa_hna dilwa't* 'a'^dim. 

10. ?u:m min fadlak ; dilwa't_ihna wa'fiin. — sahi:h ihna 

dilwa^t' wa'fim. 

11. tajjib, 'ana dilwa't' ma:sik_'e:h ? — 'inta dilwa't' ma:sik_il 

kita:b wi maiji. 

12. ba'_ana masku ? — aiw_inta masku. . . .dilwa't_inti maska:(h)! 

— aiw_ana maska:(h).. . .ba'a_hna maskimu. — aiwajina 
maskimu. 

13. is sitt_illi fis suira di maska 'e:h? — hi:ja maska Jamsiija wi 

fdr'da:ha, ja'^ni fat'ha:ha. 

14. w_ana fa'ridha^ ja'^ni fa'tihha. 

15. wi humma fdr'dinhum ja'^ni fa'thinhum. 

resigned voire, it would be inferred that the friend was not very well. 

4 See p. 45. 

5 For ma(:)s(i)k. The verb means to seize or to retain. 

* For fa(:)'ridha, the loss of accent involving loss of length. 



54 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

i6. Is the lady who is in this picture walking (on her feet) ? — 
No, she is not walking, but she (is) sitting. 

17. When we say, " I am holding the pen, what are we saying of 

the pen ? — We say that the pen (is) " held." 

18. And when we say " the Sitt Galila is ' holding ' (' opening,' 

' spreading ') the sunshade," what do we say of the sunshade ? 
—We say that it is " held " (" opened," " spread "). 

19. In the same way we say that the things in my hand are held. . , 

and that the door is open(ed) . . , and that the window is shut. 

20. Do you understand the lesson well? — Yes, of course, I (we) 

understand it {lit. am (are) understanding it). 

21. Is all understood ?... Is every sentence in it understood?... 

Are all the points in it understood ? 



For Systematic Grammar. VIII. 

1. Given any three consonants, e.g. [t, r, k], show the arrangement 

of the vowels to form the active participle, masc, fem., plural. 

2. Show how the suffixing of the vowel and consonant pronouns 

affects the simple forms of this participle. 

3. Take the same three consonants and show what consonant 

and vowels are added to form the passive participle. 

4. Write out the polite [hddrit] with all the pronouns. Also with 

noun in sing, and plural, as, for example, [LL xdwaiga] ( = 
gentleman,) [is sitt] (= lady), [sittait] (= ladies). 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 55 

i6. is sitt illi fis su:ra di majja "^ala rigleiha ? — h., mahij majja 
"^ala rigleiha, laikinnaha 'a'^da. 

17. lammaji'u:! " 'ana maisik il ?alam," nPuil "^al ?alam ?e:h ? — 

nPu:l inn il 'alam " mamsu:k." 

18. wi lamma_n?u:l " is sitt* gali:la maska (fatha, fdrda) J Jamsiija 

ni'u:l "^aj' J"amsi:ja 'e:h ? — ni'u:l innaha mamsuika (maf- 
tu:ha, mafruida). 

19. "^ala kida ni?u:l inn il liagait iUi f_i:di mamsuikiin w_ 

inni 1 ba:b maftu:h w_inni J Jibbaik ma'fuil. 

20. inta faihim (/. fahma, p. fahmi:n) is darsi_kwaijis ? — aiwa_ 

mma:l ana fahmu (fahmaih. . .ihna fahmiinu). 

21. kuUu mafhu:m ? kulli gumla fi:h mafhuima ? kulli n 

nu'et"* iUi fiih mafhumiin ? 

' For ?ala ij. 
2 Plural of nu?ta. 



ACTIVE PARTICIPLE, Separately 
(Fill in the other triUteral verbs, according to 



Masc. Sing. 


Do. with Vowel'^ 
Pronouns. 


Do with Consonant Prons.' 


! Fem. Sing. 


Do. with Vowe\ 
Pronoun. 


'ma:sik 


'masku 


ma'sikha ma'sikna 


J 'maska 


mas'kaih 


( = seizing). 


for maisiku. 


for ma:sikha 


for ma:sika 




deirib 


seizing him. 


seizing her. seizing us. 


seizing (/.) 


seizing him. 


( = beating). 
te:hb 










( = asking for).! 
fa:him 










( = understanding) . 
ha:tit 










( = putting). 











Passive Participle. — mamsuik (= seized), /. mamsuika, pi. mamsu(:)kim ; madruib 
(= beaten); matluib (= asked for) ; mafhuim (= understood) ; mahtuTt 
Note. — These objective suffix-pronouns divide into two groups, according to; 
whether they begin with vowel or consonant. They may therefore be called the' 
vowel-pronouns : [-ak] you, m. ; [-ik] you, f. ; [-u(h)] him ; and the consonant- 
pronouns: [-ni(:)] me; [-na(:)] us; [ku(m)] you, ^. ; [hum] they. But after a vowd 
the three vowel-pronouns assume consonantal forms, viz. [-k, ki] and [-h] respec- 
tively. (The possessive pronouns are exactly the same, except that the consonant- 
pronoun [-ni(:)] (= me) is replaced by [i(:)] (= my) : [beiti] "my house," but 
[ma'sikni] "seizing me.") The important point is that members of same group are 
always combined exactly similarly. It is only necessary to observe how one 



' For explanation of these terms see the note. 

56 



AND WITH Pronouns. 
scheme. (See below, note.) 



Do. with Consonant Pronoun. 



Plural. 



Do. with Vowel 
Pronoun. 



Do. with Cons. 
Pronoun. 



mas'kaiki mas'ka:hum 

seizing you (/.) seizing them. 



mas'kim 
for ma:siki:n 
seizing {pi.) 



mas'kimik 
seizing you (/.) 



mas'kinha. 
seizing her. 



member of each group is treated, e.g. : Vowel pronouns, ['masku, 
'maskik] ; consonant pronouns, [ma'sikha, ma'sikni, ma'sikki, ma'sikku, 
ma'sikhum]. 

Points to notice in the two groups. The vowel-pronouns do not change 
the accent of the simple form of the active participle, e.g. ['maisik, 'masku] 
(but observe the elimination of [:] and of [i] in [ma:sik]). But the 
consonant-pronouns compel the accent to fall on the preceding syllable 
{i.e. are " enclitic "), which sometimes necessitates the shifting of the accent, 
e.g. ['ma:sik, ma'sikni]. The alterations of form observable in the above 
instances take place owing to the disappearance of length {a) before two 
consonants, and (6) when the long syllable has had the accent shifted from it : 
See p. 36. 



57 



58 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

IX. 

For General Conversation. 



" Have " with negative. " Had," " Shall have." 

1. Have you not any English coinage ? — No, I have none (of it). 

2. Have you not any in the house ? — No, I have none. 

3. Nor have you money, either, in the bank ? — I have not much 

in the bank. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 59 

tamiiin nimrit taisi"^. taisi"^ tamriin. 

li 1 m^hadsa 1 ■^umumijja. 

Ju:f il kitab da. Jimm il mandi{:)l da. du:' is sukkdr 
da. imji fi 1 ?o:da Jwejja. adi:ni b_amji wajjaik. xdllima nigri 
sawa. bass ! nu?'^ud ba'a. Ju:f ana b_Qareb bj:di ! — aiwa, 

inta_b tidrab = taijib iflrabni! muj "^awuz tidrabni ? — la 

muj '^awuz_ad'rabak. 

la:kin "^ali bi jidrab_uxtu, wi fa^ma b tidrab_axu:ha. wi 
•^ali bi_jju:f bi "^eneih wi bi jjimm, etc., etc. 

wi fatma bi tju:f, etc., etc. 

il je: "^alajan " hu:wa." it te: "^alajan " hi:ja " ; wi_t te: di 
ger it te: illi bi ma'^na "inta". 

ana ll_a:gi hina bukrd ? — -aiwa, inta ha ti:gi. . . . 

ba''a_lina l_itnem ha ni:gi. il mistir ha ji:gi ? il mis 
ha ti:gi? ba'a kuUina niigi. wi kuUina bi_nju:f bi '^eneina wi_b 
nilmis, etc., etc. in num ''alajan " ihna." 

ha_tru:h il kiniisa 'emta ? — ^h_aru:h jo:m il hadd. 

bi tru:h il kiniisa kull' jo(:)ni hadd ? wi xdliil, bi jniih il 
kini:sa walla g gaimi"^ ? — ma bi_jruhj il kiniisa "-alajan hu:wa 
muslim. bi_jru:h il gaimi*^. 

tihibb tiru:h il ga:mi'^ '^alajan tiju:f is sala^bta'^t il mus- 
limi:n ? — ma'^lu:m_ahibb_aru:h . . . ajuif . . . 

bi^thibb ij |a:j bi sukkdr walla min ge:r sukkdr? bi_thibb, 
etc., etc. 

Juif ! ana h dxrug mil ?o:da. — tajjib_uxrug. 

wi ba'^dim(a)_dxrug dxujji tami? — aiwa ba'^dima tuxrug, 
xuJJ. = Ju:f, ana h_atla'^ fo:' il kursi. ti'ddr titla*^ "^al kursi^ 
btai'^ak ? — ^ma'^luim a'ddr atla"^. = itla*^ ba'a. 

adi_hna IJtnem tili'^na "^al kara:si_btu'^na. xdllima ninzil 
ba'a. an_anzil min fo:' il kursi. 

tiMdr tinzil zajji: ? inzil ba'a. adihna Litnem nizilna. 



" li " wi " "^and " wi " ma"^ " bi n nafj, wi^b " kam " " jiku:n." 

1. ma.m'^akj' '^umla_ngilizi:ja ? — la, ma^m'^iij minha. 

2. ma "^andakji fj i ^eit ? — la ma '^andiij. 

3. wala lakj' filu:s kamam fi 1 bank? — ma li:J ?add' kida fi 1 

bank. (fern, wala likj, or walajki:j.) 



60 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

4. I also am like you, I have no English coin here, nor have I 

any in the house ; nor have I much (money) in the bank. — 
True, you have not, etc., etc. 

5. Then we are like each other, we have none here, nor have 

we any in the house, nor have we much in the bank. — True, 
we have not, etc., etc... 

6. The lady who is in the picture, has she no book in her hand ? — 

No, she has none. 

7. Has she none in the house ? — How should she have none ! 

8. Does she not own any at all ? — How could she be an educated 

woman and have none ? 

9. Has our friend Khalil got money (on him) ? — Perhaps he 

has, perhaps he has not. =^ Has he none in (his) cabinet ? — 
None in his cabinet, how so! He must have some. ^ Has 
he none in the bank ? — Of course ! How could he be a 
merchant, sir, if he had none ! 

\Enter{ed) guests.] 

ID. Khalil. I see that you have no tobacco on you. 

Guests. True, we have none. 

Kh. Have you none in the house either ? — No, we have none. 

Kh. A strange thing ! Have you no pleasure in it ? — No, 
we do not like smoking. 

[Exeunt guests.] 

Galila. Those guests had no tobacco on them ? 

Kh. No, they have none on them, nor have they any in the 
house, nor have they any pleasure in it whatever. 

Gal. Strange ! Would that you were like those folk, Khalil ! 

Kh. Yes, madam, would that I were like them ! It is a 
useless custom. 

All. No, it is a simple custom with no harm in it. 

Kh. And whose are these boxes of tobacco, you rascal ? 

All. Mine. But there is no tobacco in them. 

' Fern. ma_m''aki:J,(from ma raa''a:ki:J) wala "^andikj' wala 

likj (or wala lki:J). 

2 Contracted from wala_lna:J. 

3 When " how " is an expression of astonishment it is pronounced izzaij 
rather than izzejj. 

■t Or ma m'^uij. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 6l 

4. ana rsixar zejjak, ma m'^i:J hina '^umla_ngilizi:ja, wala 

■^andiij minha fi 1 be:t, wala li:J ?addi kida fi 1 bank.— sahi.'il, 
ma_m'^akji hina wala "^andakj' fi 1 be:t wala lakj' fi 1 bank/ 

5. ba?a hna zejji ba'^dina, ma_m'^ana:J hina, wala "^andinaj fi 1 

be:t, wala_nna:J- fil bankLkti:r sahiih, ma_m';ana:J. . . 

ma "^andinaij. . .ma_nna:J (= majnaij). 

6. is sitt illi fi s- su:ra di ma_m'^a'ha:J kita:b -f Jdha ? — ^la, ma_ 

m'^ahaij. 

7. ma "^andahaij fi 1 be:t ? — ma '^andahaij izzaij ! ' 

8. majha(:)j bi 1 mdrra? — tib'a sitt' mitrabbijja wi ma_lha:|_ 

izzaij ? 

9. s-ahibna xdliil ma"^a(:)h filu:s ? — jimkin ma'^aih wi jimkin 

ma.jn'^ahj,*- = ma "^anduij fi 1 xdzna ? — ^ma '^anduij fi 1 
xdzna_zza:j ! daruiri^ "^andu. = ma luij fi 1 bank ? — 
'urama:! jib'a taigir izza(i)j ja sidna, iza kan ma lu:J! 

[ddxolu duju:f.] 

10. xdlid. ana Ja(:)jif intu ma_m'^aku:J duxxam 

duju:f. sahiih, ma_m'^ana:J. 

xdl. alla_ntu ma "^andukuij" fi 1 be:t ? — la ma "^andinaij. 

xdl. Je gdri:b ! ma lku:J ke:f minnu ? — la:, ma_nna:J ke:f 
mid duxxam. 

[xaragu_d duju:f.] 

gali.'la. id dujuif dod ma kanj ma''a:hum duxxam ? 

xdl. la:, ma_m'^ahumj, wala '■anduhumj kaman fi 1 be:t 
wala IhumJ' ke:f minnu bi 1 mdrrd. 

gal. Je 9dri:b ! ja re:tak'' zejj in na(:)s do:l, ja xdli:l ! 

xdl. ?aiwa, ja sitti ! ja re:ti'' zejjuhum ! di '^a:da ma fiha(:)J 
fajda !' 

■^ali. la: ! di ''a:da basi:ta ma fihaj ha:ga. 

xdl. wi^btu*^ mi:n "^ilab id duxxa:n di, ja Ja'i ? 

•^ali. bitu:'^i, la:kin ma fihumj' duxxa:n. 

5 Or la:zim. 

^ re:t is an optative particle which is combined with nouns and pronouns 
{fern. re:tik, pi. re(:)tku. 

7 PL re(:)tna. 

8 Lit. "(there is) not in it use " ; i.e. " in which there is no use." 



62 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Gal. May Ali not become like you, Khalil ! 
Kh. May he not indeed ! And Fatima, may she not become 
the fashionable young lady [lit. the fashion) ! 

11. Was Khalil pleased with Ali in the matter of the drinking of 

tobacco {i.e. smoking) ? — No, he was not pleased with him. 

12. But was there tobacco in the boy's boxes ? — No, there was not. 

13. Had those guests unmade-up {lit. loose) tobacco ? — No, they 

had not. 

14. No cigarettes ? — No, they had no cigarettes. 

15. Had they at home ? — No, they had not at home. 

16. Perhaps they will have (some) later ? — Since they have no 

pleasure in it at all, they will never have it. 

17. We have finished the lesson. Will there be a lesson to-morrow? 

— To-morrow is Thursday. . . yes, there wiU be a lesson. 

18. On Sunday wiU there be a lesson ? — No, there won't be. 

That is a rest day, not a work-day. 



For Systematic Grammar. 

1. Write out complete tables of the negatives of [li, "^and] and 

[ma*^] with all the pronouns (equivalent to the present tense 
of " have not.") 

2. How are the past and future of "have" expressed, positive 

and negative ? 

3. Write out [fi(:)] with all the pronouns, positive and negative 

{e.g. ist person ['fi:ja, ma fi'jaij]. 

4. How are " il y a," " il y avait," " il y aura " expressed in 

Arabic, positively and negatively ? 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 63 

gal. ja re:t '^ali ma jib'aj zejjak ja xoli:! ! 

xal. ja re:tu ! wi fstma, ja retha ma tib'aj moida ! 

11. il m^'^allim. ka(:)n xoli:! mabsuit min '^ali fi "^ibairit Jurb id 

duxxam ? — ^la ma kanji mabsuit minnu. 

12. wa la:kin kan fih duxxa:n fi 1 "^ilab bitu:"; il walad ? — ^la:, ma 

kanji fi:h. 

13. kan ma'^a 6. dujuif do:l duxxain sa(:)jib ? — la:, ma kanJL 

m'^aihum. 

14. wala sigaijir ? — la ma kanj'jn'^aihum siga:jir. 

15. ka:n "^anduhum duxxam fi 1 be:t ? — la ma kanJi '^anduhum 

fi 1 be:t. 

16. jimkin jikum' ma'^aihum ba'^dem? — mada:m majhumj* ke:f 

minnu bi 1 mcirre, ma_jkunji ma'^aihum abadan. 

17. xilisna mid ddrs. jikum fih ddrs' bukra ? — bukra 1 xcimi:s, 

aiwa, jikum fih ddrs. 
18 fi jo:m il hadd' j (i)kum fih ddrs ? — ^la ma_jkunji fi:h. da jo:m 
raiha, mahuj jo:m Jugl. 



Future of kain " it was' 



64 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

X. 

For General Conversation. 

[To Pupil and Teacher. 
In most of the succeeding chapters it will suffice to treat the main 
exercise as a reading one, the object of which is to show how verbs 
illustrating the form under discussion occur in ordinary talk* Much 
more work should be put into the conversational verb-drills, 
which form an essential part of each chapter. On these the changes 
should be rung incessantly, in order to break the stiffness which 
all Europeans feel in using Arabic verbs, and using them correctly 
and readily.] 



* If the time available is insufficient, these exercises (headed " For 
Reading") may be omitted. 



EGYPTIAN .COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



65 



tamriin nimrit "^ajara. 

li 1 m'hadsa 1 '^umumijja. 



•^aijir tamriin. 



g 




•^andina hina m'rsbba'^, a-b-g-d. il m'- 
rabba"^ luh drba"^ wujuij" (hina wiJJ...). 
rn'rabba"^ w drba'^tLrkain (hina rukn...). il kitab 

da wi 1 'o:da di luhum wujuij" w drka:n. id 
d dajrd di mrabba'^a ? la:, hiija mdawwdrd, 
wi ma IhaJ wuju:j wal(a) drkam. laha mdrkaz wi muhi:t. il 
m'rebba'^ lu tu:l wi '^ard, wi kida kaman id 
dajrd. il kitab da lu tu:l wi '^ard wi kaman 
sumk (tuxn). hu:wa tewid wi "^ariid wi taxiin. 
il m'ka'-'^ab hu:w_illi lu tu:l wi "^ard wi tuxn. 
, il xatt' lu tu:l laikin ma 
lu:J "^ard wala tuxn. 
in nu'ta la_lha tu:l wala "^ard wala sumk. 
il xatt' [a — b) mista'iim. il xatt' da muj mista'iim, 
ba'a huiwa ma''wu:g (a'' wag m"^awwig). 
kull' xatt' lu tarfem {a — -b) . 
il wara? da msattah. it tarabeiza msattaha. w is sutu:h 
m^sattaha kaman. 

il wara' da dilwa't* muJ m^sattah, ba'a huiwa minhani 
(matni) . 

il wara'' kaman nai''im, muJ" xijin. il gild' nai''im. il hasiira 
xijna. 

il ''umaij" tari, muJ gaimid zejj_il xdjab. 
kuU il haga:t do:l najfim. il wara' da na:Jif. lamm ahuttu 
fi majja kidaho jib' a tari (mablud). 

is sukkdr abjad wi hilu. il lamuin mahuj abjad wala hilu 
la:kin asfdr wi haidi''. id dawa muJ hilu laikin murr ; masalan 
il kima murrd. 

fa I hittit is sukkdr di mka'^'^aba, ja'^ni laha tu:l wi '^ard wi 
tuxn. wi hiija hilwa wi beida wi gamda. wi laha wuju:]" w 
drkam. wi kull' wiJJ' fiiha mrabba*^ muJ m'dawwdr. wi kull' 
1 xutuit fi:ha mista'iima. 



66 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

FOR READING. 
The Sound Triliteral Verb — the Aovist and Imperative in [u]. 

A Visit of Ali and Fatima to their Grandparents. 
[First Scene.] 

A li and Fatima (together) . Good-day to you, (our) grandparents ! 

The Grandparents. Good-day to you, (our) grandchildren ! 
How is the health of your parents ? 

The Children. Praise to God ! Their health is fine ; they 
salute you. 

The Grandparents. God salute you ! Come ! Sit down ! 

Muhammed. Sit by me, my grandson ! 

Ali. I am sitting, sir. See ! 

Ayesha. Come, sit down by my side, my grand-daughter ! 

Fatima. Here I am sitting by you, madam. 

The Children. We are pleased when we sit by 5'ou [or are 
sitting). 

The Grandparents. And we are pleased when you sit beside us. 

Ali. I am very pleased when I sit by you, my grandfather ! 

Muh. And I am very happy when you sit by me, my grand- 
son. 

Ayesha. I am very happy when you sit by me, my grand- 
daughter. 

Fatima. And I am the happier when I sit by you, my grand- 
mother. 

Ali (to Muh.) Look ! how they are sitting side by side, so 
happily ! 

Fatima (to Ayesha). Look how they are sitting beside each 
other, happy ! 

^ From same root as talaita, the literary having passed over to t in 
some words and s in others (mostly those of a literary flavour) . 

^ i.e. With radicals free from the " weak " consonants w and j, which 
undergo transformation and omission. 

3 We consistently use " aorist " for this term, in spite of the fact that the 
word became associated with the preterite tense in Greek. On the contrary, 
the word means " undefined," which very well describes this mudairi'^ 
verb, for it is by itself quite vague, requiring the prefixing of particles 
before it is determined as present or future (tense), and cooperating 
with other verbs to express possibility, obligation etc. (mood). It is therefore 
little more than a vehicle for this cooperation of various particles and verbs 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 67 

li 1 'irsija. 
il fi4 is sula:si' s sahiih."— il mudairi" wi I 'amr bi 3 demima. 
zija:rit "^ali wi fatma Lagda(:)dhum. 
[awwil fasl.] 
"^ali wi fstma (ma'^an). naharku sa'^iid j_agdadna ! 
1 agdaid. naharku mubairak ja_wlad wila'dna. izzejji sillhit_ 
abbahatkum ? * 

il wila:d. il hamdu li llaih, sihhithum "^ail, bi_jsallimu '^aleikum. 

1 agda:d. aiiah jisal'limkum ! ta'^a:l(u)_u?'^udu ! ' 

muh. u'-^^ud gambi, ja_bn_ibni. 

•^ali. ana b_a''^ud^ ja si:d(i)_aho. 

"^eija. ta'^aili, u''^udi_f ri:hi ja bintjbni. 

fatma. adimi b_a''^ud fi riihik, ja sitti. 

il wilaid. ihna mabsutiin lamma nu^'^ud gambukum {or 
lamma_b nu'"^ud). 

1 agda:d. wjhna mabsutiin lamma tu^'^udu gambina (or 
lamma_b tu''^udu). 

■^ali. ana mabsuit ?awi '^andim(a)_a''^ud gambak ja giddi 
(or b_a'"'ud_). 

muh. w ana mabsu:t ?awi wa'tima tu^'^ud gambi, ja_ibn_ 
ibni. (or _b tu^'^ud.) 

•■eija. 'ana mabsu:te 'awi lamma tu^'^udi gambi ja bint_ 
ibni. (or _b tu?'^udi.) 

fat. w_ana mabsuite ktdr lamm a'"'ud gambik ja gidditi. 
(or b_a''^ud.) 

•^ali (li muh). Juf izzaj bi ju^'^udu gamb' ba'^d mabsutim ! 

fatma (li '■eija). Ju:fLzzaj bi ju''^udu_f ri:h ba'^d wi humma 
mabsutim ! 

to express all moods and tenses of the finite verbs except the preterite and 
the imperative. We therefore call it the " aorist," i.e. undefined. 

4 Or waldeiku (two) parents, for wailideiku. 

5 The imperative and the aorist are formed similarly. N.B. — The 
particular feature of the verbs which are illustrated in this section is this 
second u. The third one is merely the sign of the plural. The first may 
be alternatively i, e.g. here i'"'udu and in the next sentence i'"'ud, etc. 

6 In the first-singular alone a is obligatory (a worn-down ana). 
Neither i nor u would be permissible here. The b is for bi, the particle 
that makes the aorist definitely present-tense. It will be observed that par- 
ticiples {e.g. 'ai'^id) are very often substitutable for these aorists. 



68 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

[The Second Scene]. — Aorist and Imperative in [a]. 

Muh. You, Ahmad, come here ! 

Ah. (I am) ready sir. (Are you) wanting something ? 

Muh. Give the children milk that they may drink. 

Children. We are not wanting to drink milk. 

Muh. Well then, what will you drink ? 

Children. We would drink coloured-drinks preferably. 

Muh. Ahmad ! Listen while I speak to you. 

Ah. [returning) . Yes ! 

Muh. They are wishing to drink coloured drinks. Bring them 
to them. You, mother-of-Khalil, are you wishing to drink the 
same as them ? 

Ayesha. No, I don't wish to drink the same as them ; I 
will drink milk preferably. 

Muh. Well, Ahmad, bring her (with you) a glass of milk to drink. 
[Exit A. Re-enter A.] 

Muh. Let each one take his glass, and drink ! 

Fat. Take your glass AH, and drink first. 

Ali. No, you drink. 

Muh. The point is, drink, and no ceremony. 

Fat. Look, ma'am ! Ali is drinking without any manners. 

Ali. Don't say so, Fatima ! Shame on you ! 

[The Third Scene]. — Aorist and Imperative in [i]. 

Muh. Ahmad, come here ! Take away the tumblers, and 
bring the ball for the children, that they may play with it. 

Children. Delightful ! We love to play. 

Muh. Show them how to catch it, and how to throw it 

Ahmad [to the girl). Catch thus, girl, and throw this way. 

Fat. Look at me, Ali ! How I am catching and how I am 
throwing ! 

Ah. You are catching not badly, but you are throwing very 
badly. 

Fat. And you, Ali, are just catching and throwing worse than 
me. 

Ali. No, the truth is we catch and throw like one another. 

Ah. Yes, indeed, you are catching and throwing just alike. 

Muh. Ayesha ! I am pleased that they are catching and 
throwing it. 

' Lit. "the intended thing." ^ Or jil'^a'bu^bha. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 69 

[il fsel it ta:ni.] — il muasiri"; wil ?amr bi 1 fatha. 
muh. inta j_ahmad ta'^aila. 
ah. haidir, ja si:di. '^a(:)wuz fiaga ? 
muh. ?iddLl wilaid laban "^alajan jijrabu. 
awla:d. ma_hnaj "^awziin nijrab laban. 
muh. 'ummad tij'rabu 'e:h ? 
awtaid. nijrab Jarb'a:t_ahsan. 
muh. jajimad, isma''_amm_a'ul lak. 
ah (jirga'^). na'^am ! 

muh. humma '^awzin jij'rabu Jdrbait; hat'haj hum. ja_, 
(u)mmu xali:l, "^awza tij'rabi zejjuhum ? 

"^e.'Ja. la: manij" ''awza_(a)Jrab zejjuhum, ajrab laban_ahsan. 

muh. tajjib j ahmad,hatlahawajja:kkubba(:)jitlabantijrabha. 

[ahmad xarag. ahmad dax61 fi 1 ha:l.] 
muh. kuUi waihid jaixud kubbajtu jijrabha. 
fat. xud kubbajtak ja "^ali wjjrab il 'awwil. 
■■ali. la:, ijrabi_nti. 

muh. il ma'su:d'_ijrabu, wi balaj takli:f. 
fat. Ju:fi ja sitti, "^ali bi jijrab min 9e:r 'adab izza:j ! 
'^ali. ma t?uli:J kida ja fatma, '^e:b '^ale:ki ! 

[il fasl ii ta:lit.] il muda:ri'^ wi 1 ?amr bi 1 kasrd. 
muh. ta'^a:la j_ahmad ! Ji:l il kubbaja:t wi ha:t il ko:rci 
lil wila:d ''alajan jiFabu bi:ha.- 

wila:d. Je lati:f ! ihna_nhibb' niFab. 

muh. wdrri:hum jimsiku z zejj, wi jihdifu_zzejj. 

ah. (lil bint), im'siki kida ja bint, w_ih'difi kidaho. 

fat. Jufni ja '■ali, ana b_amsik izzejj, wi b_ahdif izzejj! 

^ali. inti_b timsiki muj batta:l, la:kin bi tihdifi wihij 'awi. 

fat. w_inta ja "^ali ma^^btimsik wi_b tihdif awhaj minni. 

•^ali. la:, il ha?', bi nimsik wi_b nihdif zejj' ba'-dina. 
ah. aiwa sahi:h bi timsiku wi_b tihdifu zejj' ba''dukum. 
muh. ja '^e:J"a ana mabsu:t innuhum bi jimsiku wLb jihdifu 
bi san''a. 

3 This is the vivacious ma of interest. 



70 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Ayesha. Yes, I see they are, for AH catches and throws 
to perfection, and Fatima catches and throws exactly Uke him. 
[Appendix]. For Conversation. The verb "was." 

1. Were you in Egypt last month ? — Yes, I was in Egypt. 

[you (f.) ... — I, you (p.) ... — ^we.J 

2. So then you were not in your own country ? — Of course I 

was not in my own country. 

[you (f.) ... — I, you (p.) ... — we.] 

3. How long then have you been in our country ? — I have been 

. . .in your country. 

4. How long will it he before you travel ? — It will be . . . before 

I travel. 

5. How long have you been here (lit. " from when did you come 

here ") ?■ — I have been here for about 10 minutes (25 minutes, 
a quarter of an hour, three-quarters of an hour, twenty 
minutes, forty minutes, forty-five minutes, forty minutes). 
(Lit. " I am here since an amount .... "); (or "There has 
become to me here something like. . .") 

6. How many months ago did you come to Egypt ? (How long 

have you been in Egypt ?) — I have been in Egypt for ... 
months past. 

7. Is this the first time you have been here ? — Yes, this is the first 

time I have been here (or no, I have been here once before) . 

8. When was that ? — It was two years ago (lit. before two years) 

. . . three years . . . eleven years ? 

9. Were you glad or sorry (on) the day that you came to Egypt 

for the first time ? — I was glad the day I came to Egypt for 

the first time, not sorry. 
ID. Was Fatima pleased or displeased (on) the day of the visit ? — - 

She was pleased, she was not displeased. 
II. So then all of them were pleased not displeased ? — Yes, they 

were all pleased, they were not displeased. 

' For kunt', kunti(:), kuntu. 

^ Lit. There has been to you how much ? If the word kam is used then 
the time-division must be specified, e.g. kam joim . . . gum'^a . . . Jahr, 
"how many days. . .weeks. . .months." See sentence. 

3 Participle of the same verb as in sentence 3 : lit. "(there is) remaining 
to you how much," (or '' kam jo:m," etc. These two sentences show the 
invariable way of rendering " how long," past and future. 

■• Lit. "And you travel." This wi is a subordinating not a coordinating 
particle. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 7I 

■^eija. aiwa, ana Jajfa:hum gid'^ain 'awi, "^alajan '^ali bi jimsik 
wi_b jihdif mazbu:*, wi fstma^b timsik wLb tihdif zejju tamaim. 
[tazjiil.] li 1 m^hadsa.— fi-;!! " ka:n." 

1. kutti'_f masr fi J Jahr Uli fa:t ?— aiwa kuttLf masr. 
[fem. kutti(:)'. .?— aiwa kutt'. ., plu. kuttu(:)'. .?— aiwa kunna. ..] 

2. ba'a ma 'kuttij fi_bladku ?— tab'^an ma 'kuttij fi_bladna. 
[fem. ma kut'ti:]" ?— ma 'kuttij 

plu. ma kut'tuij" ?— ma kun'na(:)J ] 

3. "^ala kida ba'?a: lak ?add_e:^ fi bladna ?— ba'?a li fi_ 

bladku. 

4. ba''i:3 lak ?add_e: wi_tsa:fir ? ■* — ba'i: li w_asa:fir. 

5. min_emta5 ge:t hina ? — ana hina min 'i:mit "^djdr da^'aiji'. 

(xamsa_w "^ijrim di'i:?a,® rub" sai'^a, talattjrba(:)'; sai'^a, 
tilt* sai'^a, tiltem sai'^a, sai'^a ilia mb'^, sai'^a iUa tilt.) 
Or ba'?a: li hina zejj' "^cijdr da'aiji', etc. 



6. ge:t masr' min muddif kam Jahr? — ge:t masr' min 

_ujhur fa:tit. 

7. wi di 'awwil mdrra lak hina? — aiwa di 'awwil mdrra lijja 

hina {or la, ge:t hina mdrra 'abl' di). 

8. ka:nit emta ? — ka:nit 'abl' sanatem . . . . 'talat sini:n. . . . 

hidaijar sana. 

9. kutt' fdrhain walla za'^lam jo:m ma^ ge:t biladna 'awwil' 

mdrrd? — kutt' fdrham jo:m ma ge:t biladku ?awwil mdrrd, 
ma kuttij za''lam. 

10. ka:nit fatma fdrhama walla za'^lama jo:m iz zija:ra? — kamit 

fdrhama ma ka(:VnitJi za'^lama. 

11. ba'a kuUuhum ka:n" fdrhaniin ma ka'nuij' za'-lanim ?^ 

aiwa kamu kulluhum fdrhanim ma ka'nuj za'^lanim. 

5 The phrase for " how long ? " if the interval is quite a brief one. But 
ba'i'a: lak (sentence 3) could also be u?ed. 

* Numerals above 10 take a singular noun. 

7 Lit. " You came to Cairo from an interval of . . . ? " 

^ This ma is exactly like the English " that," which combines with pre- 
positions to make conjunctions (and is often omitted) ; e.g. 'abl' ma ge:t, 
before (that) I came. 

9 For li ?awwil. 



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72 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 73 

How TO USE THESE CONVERSATIONAL VeRB-DRILL EXERCISES. 

The framework shows how any verb may be arranged for the 
purpose of practice. It is always best to add at least one word 
before or after the verb. The little sentence forms a natural 
matrix for the verb. It will probably be well for the first speaker 
always to put in vocatives like those in (2) and (4). 

The paradigm in the conventional order "I go," " Thou 
goest," etc., may be readily now deduced by those who are dependent 
on this. 

The paradigms should be practiced orally by three students 
(if possible), who should constantly change parts. 



Notes. 

(a). Throughout these [u-] aorists and imperatives, the 
first vowel may be [i] alternatively (always except the ist singular) ; 
e.g. [ixrug, itlub, tixrug, titlub], etc. 

(b). It will be found necessary to practice both the unelided 
and elided forms of [bi]. 

(c). The future p£(,rticle (= "going") has yet another form, 
namely, the full one from which those given in (5) have been worn 
down, viz. masc. [rajih], fern, [rejha], plu. [r«jSi:n]. 

{d). No. (i) shows how this [mudairi''] is sometimes more an 
infinitive than a finite tense : " (it is) necessary for you to go." It 
is by this means that moods are expressed in Arabic : e.g. [la:zim 
tutlub], " you must (or should) summon ; [ana '^a(:)wuz atlub], 
" I wish to summon " ; [jiguiz tutlub], " you may summon " ; 
[jimkin tutlub] (or [ti'dar tutlub]), " you can summon " ; [il 
waiqib tutlub], " you ought to summon " ; [jilzamak tutlub], 
" you must or shall summon." And so the imperfect tenses 
[kutf tutlub or [kuttLb tutlub], " you were summoning." Similarly 
the moods in past tense: e.g. [ka:n la:zim tutlub], "you must or 
should have summoned." ^See Ch. XV. and paradigms thereon.) 







— 


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74 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 75 

For Systematic Grammar. X. 

1. Examine exhaustively the verbs conjugated in this chapter 

and observe that the second vowel in the aorist and im- 
perative is [u, a] or [i]. All "sound" triliteral aorists corre- 
spond to these three types, and are classified according to 
these vowels. 

2. Deduce the first vowel, in the ist person sing., and in the 

other persons. 

3. Conjugate the tense " was," position and negative. 



yb EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XL 



For Reading. 

Aorist with Pronouns of the object attached ; with " was " [Imperfect 

Tense) ; with Pronouns of the Dative. 

And when the children had finished the game of ball. Ah said 
to his sister : " Let us play another game. Now I will hold you 
by your hand, and you hold me by my hand, and we'll run together. 
Hold me, girl ! " 

Fatima. I'll hold you, and Ahmad'll hold us by our hand(s). 
Hold on, Ahmad ! 

Ahmad. Yes, Fll catch hold of you. 

Grandparents (from the window). Ali, catch hold of him by 
his hand ! Catch hold of him by his hand, children. 

Ali. Why are you calling me names, Fatima ? 

Fat. I call you names, because you were running (so) fast. 

Ali. And I too will call you names, too, for tuppence [lit. 
" nor is there anything in it "). 

Ayesha (to Moh.). Do you see Ali ? He's always calling 
her names, I don't know why. 

Moh. And she calls him names too. [Moh. raises his voice.] 
Do be quiet, you wretches, or Fll call you names. 

' xdlli(:), "let" is in the second singular. When the verb, as here, is used 
like a mere imperative particle, it remains in the singular even when plural 
persons are addressed. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 77 

it tamriin 1 ihdaijdr. 
li 1 m'hadsa 1 "^umumijja. 

'ul li bi ti'^mil e: kull' jo:m ? — an_ana:m zejj js sar'^a 
•^ajara walla_fe(i)da:Jar, w_asha_s sai'^a sitta walla sab'^a. w_ 
a?u:m mis siri:r. wi ba'^d il hamma:m albis hudinmi wi gazmiti; 
w_is sai'^a sab';a_w nuss_QftQr, wi ba'^d il futuir abtidi fi d dars 
li hadd^id duhr, ja'^ni e subhijja kuUaha. wi ba'^di kid(a)_atgddda 
wi ba'^d il gdda astctrajjah Jwsjja, u ba'^dein ajrab Ja:j wi jimkin 
aikul Jwajjit baskawiit wejja J J'a:j. ba<;di kida ?a:xud fusha, aFab 
fiiha 1 koira wall(a)_drkab it trorawa:] li matreh ^alajan ajimm il 
hawa tajjib. u ba<;d il fus}i(a)_ajtigil [ajtdgdlj fi d ddrs li hadd 
il "^aja. wi ba''dim(a)_at'^ajja, a'ra Jwajja wall_atkallim wajj_ 
ashaibi, wi ba'^d' kid(a)_ana:m. [Do also with bi.] 

ba'a 'ul li, ana b_a'^miLeh kuU' jo:m? — bi tnaim zejji s sa'^a 
'^ajdrd, etc., etc. 



li 1 'ira:ja. 
il mudairi'^ bi damai'ir in nasb il muttasila ; wi b " kam " ; 
wi bi_d damai'ir il magru:ra bi 1 la:m. 
wi lamma xallasu I wila:d li'^b il koira ?a:l '^ali Luxtu, xdllima' 
nil'^ab li'^bi ge(:)r da. . .dilwa't_am'sikik min_i:dik, w inti timsi- 
'ki:ni minjidi, wi nigri sawa. imsikiini ja bint ! 

fatma. am'sikak, w ahmad jim'sikna min_idna; im'sikna 
j_ahmad ! 

ahmad. aiw_am'sikkum. 

agda.'d. (mi J Jibbaik). im'siku min i:du ja "-ali ! imsi- 
'ku:(h) min i:du ja_wla:d ! 

'^ali. bi tijtimimi le:h ja fatma ? 

fat. 'af'timak '■alajan kutt' tigri ?awi. 

?ali. w ana raxar^ajtimik wala fiha(:)J llaiga. 

■^eija (li muh). inta Ja(:)jif "^ali? — daiman bi^ jij'timha manij" 
■^drfa le:h ? 

muh. wi hi:ja ruxra ma_b^ tij'timu! [ji'^alli soitu*.] us'kutu 
ja Ju'aj wall (a) ajtimkum. 

^ Or tamallLb... 

3 ma, the vivacious particle (— "see"). 

+ SO:t. A very colloquial word for "voice" is hiss. 



78 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Ayesha. Yes, we'll call you names. 

Children. No ! We'll be quiet ! There's no need (that) you 
call us names. 

Muh. Why were you calling each other names? 
[On the Road.] 

Fat. When we were taking each other's hands, why were 
you calling me names, boy ? Shame on you ! 

AU. Well, then, why were you calling me names ? You are 
the first to blame {lit. in the wrong). 

Zaid. You are both to blame ! Why, you were playing 
together just now ! Why are you now calling each other names ? 

[Next day.] 

Now it chanced that one of the friends of the children's grand- 
father, called Zaki, saw them, when they were playing together, 
and catching the ball, and throwing it to each other. So Zaki 
Effendi said to his brother next day : — 

It was so pretty ! I saw Khahl's girl yesterday, catching 
the ball, and throwing it just Uke an expert (" one taught "). 

His Brother. And her brother Ali, wasn't he catching and 
throwing it like her ? 

Zaki. Yes, he was catching it well, but not throwing it 
properly (lit. like people). 

His Brother. Did not their grandparents catch it and throw it ? 

Zaki. No, how should they, grown-up people, play with it ! 

His Brother. Did you not hear Ali say anything to his sister ? 

Zaki. He said to her, " Show me how you catch it, and throw 
it...." Excuse me now {lit. permit to me), my dear fellow, I 
have an appointment. 

His Brother. I'll excuse you, but you (must) come again. 

Zaki's Wife (to his brother's wife). Excuse me, my dear ! 

Wife. We'll excuse you, but you must come again. 

Both (to their relations). Excuse us, for the time has gone. 

Servant. They'll excuse you, but you must come again. 

Teacher. Excuse me ! — Certainly, but come to-morrow ! 

* Or with the participle, kamit maska. 

' Notice the alternative way of rendering the negative-interrogative : 
e.g. muj kan bi jimsik ("is it not (the case) that he was catching ? "), or 
ma kanJLb jimsik ("was he not catching"). There is thus a shade of 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 79 

"^eija. aiwa nijtimkum. 

Uwla:d. la:! niskut ! wala fi:| luzu:m tijti'muma (tij- 

'timna. ..tijti'mima). 

muh. kutt^ub tijtimu ba'^d iz za:j ! 
[fi s sikka.] 

fet. lamma kunna_b nimsik idem ba'^d, kuttLb tij'timni 
leh ja walad ? "^eib '^ale:k ! 

■^ali. umma:l kutti_b tijtimimi leh? ?inti mah?u:'aj ?awwil. 

ze:d. intu 1 itnem ma}l'u:?i:n. ma kuttu_b tiFabu ta.ww^ ! 
leh bi tij'timn ba'^d' dilwe't ! 

[fil jo:m it ta:ni.] 

w_itsQ:dif inn' waihid min_ashaib gidd il wilaid ismu zaki 
Ja(:)fhum lamma kamu_b jiFabu, wi humma_b jimsikuj ko:ra 
wi b jihdifuiha li ba'^'duhum. fa ?a:l zak(i)_afandi l_axu:h fi 
taini jo:m : — 

'amma Je gami:l ! Juft bint^ xaliiljmbairill ; kamit bi 
timsik' 1 koira wi_b tihdifha zejj^ wa:hid mif^allim taimam ! 

axu:h. w axu:ha '^ali muj kan^ bi jim'sikha^ wi_b jiS'difha 
zejjaha ? 

zaki. na'^am kan bi jimsikha_kwajjis xa:lis ; la:kin ma 
kanJLb jihdifha zejj in na:s. 

axu:h. w_agdadhum ma ka'nu(:)J bi jimsikuiha'^ wi_b 
jihdifuiha ? 

zaki. lai, humma_il kubair jil'^abu biiha z za:j ! 

axuih. ma_smi'^tij" "^ali 'al l_uxtu ha:ga ? 

zaki. 'al laha " warri:ni_b timsikiiha wi_b tihdifiiha z zejj." 

is'mah li dilwa't ja habiibi, ''alajan "^andi mi "^ aid (or is'mah 
lina). 

axu:h. as'maS lak, la:kin ti:gi taini (or as'mah luku). 

mdrQ(:)t zaki (li_jnrQ:t_axu:h) . ismahi li ! (or ismaSLnna). 

mara:t axuih. nis'mah lik la:kin ti:gi tami (or nis'maS luku). 

1 itnein. (li 'ara'jibhum). ismahu(:)_nna, "^alajan il wa-'t' fait. 

il xaddaim. jismahu(i)_lku laikin tiigu taini. 

il m^'^allim. ' is'mah li ! — as'mah lak... laikin tiigi bukra ! 

difference in the sense. It follows that the muJ construction more distinctly 
' expects an answer yes ' than the other. 

3 Or ma'sikha. 

+ Or muJ kainu^b jimsikuiha. 



For Conversational 



I 


;t Speaker (AH's cousin or cousins). 


2nc 


Speaker (the cousins' friend). 


I 


bi tig'limni ja "^ali ! 


aiwa. 


bi tiz'limu, ''eib '^ale:k. 




(The same, with a girl-speaker) 


" 


bi tiz'hmha ,, 




bi tizh'mimi ja fatma ! 


_^ 


bi tizli'mirh, "^eib "^aleiki. 


(The same, with girl-speaker). 


•' 


bi tizli'miiha ,, 




bi tizli'mumi ja_wla:d ! 


,, 


bi tizli'muih [-'mu:ha]. 




bi tizli'muma ja_wla:d ! 


„ 


bi tizli'muihum 


2. 


kuttLb tid'rabni, ja "^ah ! 




kuttLb tidrabu 




kutti_b tidra'bimi ja fatma ! 


„ 


kuttLb tidrabiiha. 




kuttu_b tidra'bumi ja wla:d ! 




kuttu_b tidra'buih [-ha]. 




kuttu_b tidra'buina ja wla:d ! 


}) 


kuttu_b tidrabuihum. 


3- 


ma 'kuttij bi tij'timni, ja "^ali ? 


?u:l! 


ma kuttij bi tij'timu [-ha] ? 




ma kut'ti: j bi tijti'mimi, j a fatma ? 


?u:li ! 


ma kuttiij bi tijti'miih [-ha]? 




ma kut'tuij bi tijtimumi, jawlaid ? 


?u:lu 


ma kuttuij bi tijti'muih [-ha]? 


4- 


kutt' raikib il fdras imbairih ? 




— 




kuttirakbal „ „ ? 




— ■ 




kuttu rakbim il ,, ,, ? 




— 


5- 


if'tah h ja "^ah ! 


inta 


saimi"^ ? iftah lu hailan ! 




ifta'hi: U ja fatma ! 


inti sam'^a ? ifta'hiiTu [-hi_lha] ! 




if tah Hna ja "^ali. 


inta saimi*^ ? iftah luhum hadan ! 




iita'hi_nna ja fatma. 


inti sam'^a ? ifta'hijhum 




ifta'hu_nna ja_wla:d. 


intu sam'^iin ? ifta'hu Ihum „ 



:. Tense of present continuous (o»- momentary) action: " You are injuring 
me, Ali." " Yes, you are injuring him, shame ! " " Well yes, I am injuring you 
(him)." " In truth, he is injuring you (him)." [With negative, see on p. 107.] 

2. " Imperfect " tense ; i.e. past continuous [or momentary) action : " You 
were hitting me, Ali I " " Yes, you were hitting him." " Well yes, I was hitting 
you." " In truth, he was hitting you." 



80 



Verb-Drill. 



3rd speaker (Ali, Fatima). 


4th Speaker (All's friend). 


r b az'limak (to I.). ^. ^ (bi iiz'limak (to I.). 

ai na'^am , ,.. ,; ^^'. sahuti ,.■!.,,. ,; .^ ( 

b az limu (to II.). bi ^iz limu (to II.). 


b ag'limik 


rbi jiz'limik. 
\bi jiz'limha. 


lb az'limha. 


(h az'limak. 
lb az'limu 


rbi tiz'limak. 
Ibi tiz'limu. 


jb az'limik. 


rbi tiz'limik. 
Ibi tiz'limha. 


lb az'limha. 


("bi nig'limak [-ik]. 


rbi jizli'mu:k [-ki]. 
" Ibi jizli'muih [-ha]. 


1bi niz'limu [-ha]. 


bi niz'limku [-hum]. 


„ bi jizli'muiku [-hum]. 


kutt' b_QarQbak. 


„ kam bi jidrabak. 


kutt' b^adrabik. 


„ ka:nit bi tidrabik. 


kunna_b nid'rabak [-ik]. 


„ kamu_b jidrabu:k [-ki]. 


kunna_b nid'rabhum. 


„ kanu_b jidrabuiku. 


la: ! ma kuttij b_ajtimak [-ik]. sa 


Siih ma kanJLb jij'timu [-ha]. 


„ ma kuttij b^ajtimak [-ik]. 


, ma ka'nitJLb tij'timu [-ha]. 


„ ma kun'naj bi nijtimak [-ik]. 


ma ka'nu: J bi j ijti'mu:h [-ha] . 


la ma kuttij ra(:)'kibha. 


, ma kanji ra'kibha. 


,, ,, ,, rakbaiha. 


, ma ka'nitji rak'ba:ha. 


„ ,, kunnaj rak'binha. 


, ma kanuij rak'binha. 


muj mumkin af'tah lak ! [lik]. 


, muJ mumkin j if 'tah lu ? [laha] . 


aftah lak ! [lik]. 


tif'tah lu? [laha]. 


„ ,, af'tah luku ! 


j if tah luku? 


af'tah luhum ! 


tif'tah luhum ? 


„ „ nif'tah luhum! 


„ jifta'hujhum ? 


3. " Were you not abusing me, Ali ? 


' " Say, were you not," etc. 


4. " Open to me, Ali ! " " Do you he 


ar ? open to him at once ! " " Why 



should I open to you ? " " Certainly, why should he open to him ? " 

5. " Were you riding the mare yesterday ? " " No, I was not riding her." 
(With masc. object rakbu, rak'baih, rakbimu.) 



81 



82 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

For Systematic Grammar. XI. 

1. Notice that the accent of the aorist falls on the penultimate. 

But the suffixing of the pronouns causes the shifting of the 
accent forward. 

2. Notice that the dative pronouns are treated exactly like 

suffix pronouns, so that they cause the same shifting of the 
accent as the objective pronouns. 

3. The difference between [inta raikib il fdras] {partic.) and 

[inta_b tirkab il fdras] is very slight. The participle describes 
more the upshot of the action, the indicative more its move- 
ment'. The aorist without [bi] is too vague^. But note that 
not all verbs sound well with the participle construction : 
for this no rule can be given. 

4. The same difference comes out in the imperfect : (i) [kam 

ra:kib ij husam], (2) [ka:n bi jirkab il husam]. But here 
[ka:n jirkab] is admissible, and gives the same meaning as (2). 

5. Use or disuse of [bi] with the aorist and negative. 

(i) In prohibitions [bi] is not used. 

(2) In denials and negative questions which refer to 

present or habitual action [bi] should be used. 

(3) In denials and negative questions which refer to the 

future [bi] is not used. 

' In addition to this, the latter may also denote continuous or habitual 
actions. 

" The reason for this is that when used alone it more naturally suggests 
a future. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XL 



# 


nasab ';ali wi fotma. THE GENEALOGY OF ALI AND FATIMA. 




fahmi 


m^ammad 




1 


= 


fahi:ma 1 = <;e:Ja 


ibu:b 


1 1 
fari:d labi:ba 


I 1 1 1 
[galnla] = [xoli:!] ?asma <;abd il "^aziiz maJ 




= fariida 

1 


- labi:b = mazluim = kari:ma 

1 1 


= mahbuiba 


1 
ahmad 


II II 1 
xddi:ga ['■ali] [fstma] sa'^iid sa'^iida 








L [il 'ara:jib] [The blood-relations). 




I 


Father [ab. ] 


I. 


m^hammad ['abu] xali:! wi 'asma wi mahbuib. hu:w_a'bu:h . . . . abu:ha . . . 
xdlirl ji?u:l lijnhammad " j_abu:ja ! " 


. abuihum. wi 


2 


Mother 


2. 


''e:Ja hi:ja [umm'] xdli:l wi_(a)xwa:tu. hi:ja_mmu. . . ._mmaha. . . ._mmuhuni. wi xali:l | 








ji'u:! laha " ja_mmi ! " 




3 


4. Brother, Sister 


3- 


4. "^ali fax] li fatma. hu:wa ['axu] f«tma, a'xuiha. hi:ja t'u:l " j_axu:ja, 
Luxtu " ja_xti.'" 


"wi hu:wa j'uil 


5- 


Grandfather 


5- 


m^ammad \ \'^^^']y ^ali wi fatma. hu:wa | g^ddu. . . .giddaha. 
( [si(:)dj ) ( si:du sidha 


. . .gidduhum ) 
sidhum J 








*^ali ii'u:l lu "ia ^.' ,.*' 
1 si:di. 






6. 


Grandmother 


6. 


, , 1 [gidda] ],..,..., ... f gid'ditu qidditha ) 

■■eija - "-r .^^t"* r li ^ali wi fetma. hi:ia - ^. ., , 

( [sitt] J J 1 sittu ....sit'taha f 




7- 


Grandson 


7- 


<^ali ['ibn_ibni]_mhammad, w_[ibni bint'] fahmi. hu:wa bnjbnu (bintu). 
ji'ul lu " ja_bn_ibni. wi fahmi, " ja bn' binti." 


wi_nihamniad 


8. 


Granddaughter 


8. 


fatma [bint ibn'] mhammad, wi [bint' bint'] fahmi. hi:ja bint_ibnu (bintu). 
ji'ui lu " ja bint ibni." wi fahmi " ja bint' binti." 


wi mhammad 


9- 


Uncle (paternal) 


9- 


•^abd il "^azi.'z ["^amm] li ^bXy wi fatma. '^ah ji'ul lu ja "^ammi. 




10. 


Aunt 


10. 


'asma ["^amma] H "^ali wi fatma ; hiija"^ <^ammitu, ?ammitha. 




II. 


Uncle (maternal) 


II. 


fari:d [xa:l] li "^ali wi fatma. hu:wa xd:lu, xdlha. 




12. 


Aunt 


12. 


labiiba [xd:la] li "^ah wi fatma. hi:ja xdltu, xd'litha. "^ah ji'ul laha " ja xdlti." 1 


13- 


Nephew 
Niece 


13- 


■^ali 'ibn axu "^abd il ^aziz, wi fatma bint axu:h. bi ]>n\ luhum "ja_bn axu:ja, 
(ibn uxt "^abd il "^aziiz, etc., etc.) 


ja bint axu:ja. 


14. 


Cousins 


14- 


sa'^ixl wi sa'^i:da [wila:d '^ammit] "^ali wi fatma. humma wilaid <^am'mitu 

^ali wi fatma [wila:d xd:lit] ahmad wi xddi:ga. 

"^ah ji'^ud h sa'^iid " ja [bn' "^ammiti] ; wi li sa'^iida, " ja [binf "^ammiti]." 

sa'^i.-d ji'u:l U "^ali " ja [bn' xd:li] ; wi h fatma " ja [binf xd:li]." 

'^ali ji'ud 1 ahmad " ja [bn' xdlti] " ; wi h xddiiga " ja [bint' xdlti]." 


"■ammitha. wi 




(Plurals) 




(i) [abbahait], (2) [ummaha:t], (3) [dxwa:t], (4) [axdwa:t], (5) [agdaid], 
(10) ["^ammait], (11) [dxwad], (12) [xala:t]. 

IL [in nasa:jib] [The relations by marriage). 


(9) [ai^maim]. 


I. 


Son and D.-in-law 


I. 


m^hammad "^an galida, " hi:ja_[mra:t ibni] " ; wi "^an mazlu:m " huiwa [goz binti (a)'\." 


2. 


Father-in-law 


2. 


m^hammad [hama] li galida ; huiwa hamaiha. wi fahmi hama xdli:l. 




3- 


Mother-in-law 


3- 


■^eija [hama:t] li gali:la ; hi:ja hama(:)tha. wi fahi:ma hama:t xdli:l. 




4- 


Father and Mother- 
in-law [alternative) 


4. 


xalid ji'u:l h fahmi " j_[abu_mra:ti]," vfi mazlu:m ji'u:l li "^eija " [ja_min_imra:ti]." 


5- 


Husband's Brother 


5- 


mahbu:b jib'a [silf] li galida ; hu:wa silfaha wi hi:ja t'ul lu " ja silfi." 




6. 


Wife of Do. 


6. 


gali:la tib'a [silfa] li mahbu:ba ; hiija silfitha, wi t'ul laha " ja sUfiti." 




7- 


Brother-in-law 


7- 


xalid "^an mazluim, " hu:wa [go:z_uxti]." (b) 




8. 


Sister 


8. 


xdlid "^an kariima, " hiija [mra:t axu:ja] {or [zoigit axu:ja]). 




9- 


Wife's Sister's 

Husband 


9- 


mahbu:b wi maaluim jib?u kull' wa:hid minhum ["^adid] lit taini, wi i?u:l li.t ta 


L:ni"ja';adi:li." 


10. 


Uncle by Marriage 


10. 


''ali ji'ud li mazlu:m " ja goz "^ammiti," wij labi:b " ja goz xolti." 




II. 


Aunt by Marriage 


II. 


*^ali ji'ud li kariima " ja_mrQ:t '^ammi," wiJ fariida " jajurait xd:li." 






(a) Or 


sihri 


[sihr] (p. asha:r) is also used for sister's-husband. 






(i) Or 


sihri 


But only a brother uses this appellation ; not a sister for her sister's husband. 









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oi 

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rf 


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ai 
ol " 


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oi 


CO 


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MH 






w 

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O 
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pq 

CO 


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O 







84 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XII. 



(i.) The Past Tense Verb. (2). The Aorist with Negative. (3). Some 
Indefinite Pronouns. 
For Reading. (i). 

To-day I am Abdul Aziz, the uncle of the children, and you 
are Ali for instance. Now, then, say to me : — 

Abdul. What did you do when you were at your grandfather's 
to-day ? 

Ali. At first when (or as soon as) we went, I sat with my 
grandfather and my grandmother. 

Abdul. Did your sister sit with them ? 

Ali. Of course, she sat beside her grandmother, and I sat 
beside my grandfather. 

A bdul (to Fatima) . While you were sitting by your grandmother 
what did you do ? 

Fat. A little after we had sat, the drinks came, and we drank. 

Abdul. And you too, Ali, did you drink with them ? 

Ali. Of course ! As my sister drank, I drank too. 

Abdul. And after you drank, what did you do ? 

Ali. We went down from upstairs, and went into the garden, 
and took the ball. We went on throwing it to one another, and 
after we finished we were very tired. 

Abdul. Did you play alone, or did anybody play with you ? 

Ali. No, nobody played with us, only I played, and Fatima 
played, and, yes, the servant played with us too. 

' For ?a''adt. ' Only past tenses in i are thus elided. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 85 

it tamriin l_itna:Jdr. 
li 1 m^hadsa 1 '^umumijja. 

'ul li, inta '^amalt e:h imbaiiih ? — nimt wi_she:t 

wi 'umt. . .wi ruht il hamma:m. . .wijbist. . .wi ftirt. . .w ibtadeit 
fi d ddrs. . .w itgdddeit. . .vv istdrajjaht. . .wi Jribt. . .wi kalt. . . 
wi xdtt...wi Wbt (rikibt). . .wi Jammeit il hawa i tQJiib...w 
ijtdgdlt. . .wi ?are:t. . .w itkallimt. . .wi nimt. 

"^amalt^eh jo:m il hadd illi fa:t? — 'umt' min in no:m wi Ibist^ 
hudu:mi zejj il "^aida, wi ba'^dem ruht il kiniisa illi Ji Ja:ri'^. . . 

bi tibtidu s sa:<^a ka:m ? — bi nibtidi s sai'^a kaza, 

wi mi:n bi jsolli hinaik ? — il 'assiis. . .bi jsalli hina:k. 

hu:wa wa'^az kaman il hadd illi fait ? — ma'^luim wa'^az. 

wi ka:n bi jui'^iz bi_xsu:g e:h ? — wa"^2u kam "^an. . . 

it tamriin iLdrba'^taiJdr. 

(i). il fi'^l il maidi. (2). il mudGiri'^ bi n nafj. (3). ge:r, 'ajj, 

nafs, za:t, ba'-d. 

li 1 'iraija. (i). 

innahdrd_ana "^abd il "^aziiz "^amm' l_iwla:d, w inta "^ali masa- 

lan walla fatma, fa ?ul li ba'a : — 

''abd. "^amaltu ?e:h lamma kuttu "^and' giddukum_innahdrda? 

'^ali. awwilma ruhna 'a''^att*' wajja giddi wa sitti. 

'■abd. w uxtak '?a''adit wejja:kum ? 

"^ali. ummad di ''a'^adit gamb' sittaha, w_ana 'a'^att' gamb^ 
si:di. 

"^abd (li fatma). lamma 'a'''tti(:) gamb* sittik '^a'malti(:) 
?e:h? 

fat. ba'^dima ?a''^adna bi Jwaj ja hadarit ij Jdrbait wi_J(i)ribna.'^ 

•-abd. w inta raixar ja "^ali, Jiribt' wajjaihum ? 

"^ali. bi t tab"^ ma da:m_uxti 'jir(i)bit^ ana raixar Jiribt. 

'^abd. wi ba'^dima Jiribtu "^amaltu ?e: ? 

■^ali. ni'zilna min fo:' wi dd'xdlna 1 ginema wi_msikna 1 koira. 
fidilna nih'difha li ba'-dina, wi ba'^dima xilisna^ ti'^ibna 'awi. 

•^abd. li''ibtu_l wah'duku walla hadd' 'li''ib wajjaiku ? 
'^ali. la ma iladdij li''ib wajjama, bass_an'a_llijl'^ibt, wi 
fatma_lli li''bit. aiwa, wi 1 xadda(:)m li''ib wajjama kaman. 

3 Or xulusna. 



86 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Khalil {enters). Seeing that you have played so much to-day, 
Ali, don't play to-morrow. 

All. All right, father, I won't play to-morrow. 

Zeid. Of course he won't play, sir. 

Abdul. And you too, Fatima, don't play. 

Fat. All right, father, we'll neither of us play. 

Zeid. Don't be afraid, sir, they won't play. 
(2). [The next.] 

Khalil (looking from the window) . What are you doing there, you 
imps ? aren't you playing? Why I told you yesterday not to play to-day. 

Alt. No, father, we aren't playing. 

Abdul. And you, Fatima, are you not playing ? 

Fat. No, father, Fm not playing. 

Khalil. Very well. Mind you don't play or else (lest) I beat you. 
Just open your books and look sharp [" ma "], and don't sit there idle. 

(3). 

1. The Teacher. Do me a favour (and) hand me a book. — Here, 

please you, is a book. 

2. Please give me another book (= a book other than this). — 

Here you are, take another. 

3. Give me yet another. — Which one of these ? 

4. Any one of these, it doesn't matter. Thank you. Are all 

the books in this room your's ? — No, some of them are 
mine, some your's, and the rest belong to others. 

5. The person who steals what belongs to others, what do we 

call him ? — The person who steals what belongs to others 
we call him a thief. 

6. Does the thief love himself or others ? — Of course he loves 

others. The person who loves others is not a thief. 

7. Ought we not to love others as ourselves ? — Why yes, Christ 

Himself said so. ' 

8. I think the philosopher of China commanded the same com- 

mand {or this same command) ? — No, not the same, it is 
only like it {lit. resembles). 
g. And what is the difference between them ? — The Word of 
Christ was by way of (positive) command ; but the other, 
by way of (negative) prohibition. 
10. You mean, the meaning is not the same ? — No, the meaning 
is not the same. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 87 

xaliil (daxal). ma da:m li'^ibt'jitiirjnnahcirda ja "^ali ma 
til";abji bukra. 

"^ali. ma'^lehj j_abu:ja m^ar'^abj' bukra. 

ze:d. teb'^an ja si:di ma jil'^abj. 

xal. wjnti kaman ja fatma ma til'^a'biij. 

fet. ma'^lehji ma nil'^abjjhna IJtnem. 

ze:d. ma_txafj' ja siidi ma jiFabuiJ. 
(2). [tami jo:m.] 

xal. (jibusfii mij Jibba:k). bi' ti'^milu ?e ja '^afariit ? ma_b 
til'^abuij ? ma ?ult*Jkum imbairili ma tiFabu:J innaharda. 

■^ali. la: j_abu:ja ma_b niFabJ."^ 

xdl. w_inti ma_b til'^abiij ja fatma ? 

fat. la: j_abu:ja ma b_aFabJ. 

xal. tejjib. u:';u til'^abu l(a)3_QdrQbku. ma' tiftafeu kitab- 
ku wala tu'''udu:J kaslaniin ! 

(3). li 1 m'^hadsa. 

1. ilmu'^allim. i'^mil ma'^rmf, na'wilni kta:b. — 'itfQadQLa:dikta:b. 

2. min fadlak iddiini kta:b ge(:)r da.^xud; alio da_kta:b geiru. 

3. iddimi kaman wa:hid. — ajji wa:llid fi do:l? {or ?anho_f do:l). 

4. ajji wa:liid min do:l wi s sala:m. kattdr xe:rQk. alia 

kull il kutub illi fi 1 'o:da btu:'^ak? — la:, minhum JuwQJja_ 
btu:''i wi Jwajja btu'^ hddritak wi 1 ba:?! btu'' gema. 

5. illi jisra? bita'' ge:ru ni'ii:! '^ale:h_e:h ? — 'illi jisra' bita*^ 

ge:ru nisammiih }iara:mi. 

6. il hara:mi bi_jhibbi nafsu walla ge:ru ? — tab'^an jihibb* 

nafsu. illijhibbi ge:ru mahuj hara:mi. 

7. muj jilzamna_nhibb' gerna zejj* nafsina ? — 'umma:l nafs il 

masi:h ?al kida {or za:t il masi:Ii, .-or il masi:ll nafsu, or il 
masi:h za:tu). 

8. aftikir failasu:f is si:n talab nafs it talab {or za:t or '^e:n; 

or it talab da za:tu, or nafsu, or bi ''e:nu) ? — la muJ za:tu, 
bass* jij'bih lu. 

9. wi 1 far" benhum e:h ? — ka:n kala:m il masi:h bi tari:' il 

?amr, la:kin dukha_b tari:? in nahj. 
10. ja'^ni 1 ma'^na muJ wa:hid ? — la:, 'il ma'^na muJ zejji ba'^du. 

^ Not the negative ma, but the particle signifying livehness or peremp- 
toriness. ^ Contrast the meaning here (witli bi) witli m_aFabJ above. 
3 A particle meaning " for fear lest." 



























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EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 89 

For Systematic Grammar. XII. 

1. Analysing this past tense of the verb, what are the two 

vowels that characterise the tense ? 
N.B. — Practically all " sound " triliterals conform to one of 
those two types. (Only a very few in [u - u] are found.) 

2. Note the difference in the 3rd feminine singular and the 3rd 

plural between the [i] -verbs and the [a] -verbs, 

3. The accent in both tenses is uniformly penultimate,' so long 

as no pronoun or negative is attached. Except only in 
the 3rd s. f. and 3rd p., when it is pro-penultimate, ['darabit, 
'dsrabu — 'mis(i)kit, 'mis(i)ku]. 

4. Notice the shifting of the accent on to the last syllable, caused 

by the suffixing of the enclitic J. 

5. Distinguish carefully : 

['fatahu], "they opened," or "he opened it." 
[fata'hu:(h)], "they opened it." 

[ma fata'huij], "they did not open," 0;' "he did not open it." 
[ma fata'huhj], "they did not open it." 

6. Negative questions have a neat alternative construction : 

instead of [ma_b jihdarj?] (pres.), and [ma jihdarj ?] (fut.), 
we may say [muj bi jihdar ?] and [muj ha jihdar] {or [muj rah 
jihdar]) — " n'est-ce qu'il arrive, arrivera." 

Transition to the Arabic Reader. 

At this point the student should begin a parallel series of lessons in the 
Reader, alternating them with the present series, which is systematised according 
to grammar, while in the Reader the grammatical forms occur indiscriminately . 

Naturally verb-forms will be occurring in the Reader which have not yet been 
arrived at in this systematised series. But H is only an advantage, not a dis- 
advantage, to have come across these forms naturally, and to have imbibed them 
unconsciously , before studying them analytically . In general it may be said 
that such forms are characterised either by apparent omissions [e.g. Ja:f, Juft, 
where one of the three radicals seems to have disappeared), or by additions, such 
as it- or ist-. All these modifications are studied analytically and in detail in 
Chs. XX. to XXVII 

The " Reader " should not only be " read," but studied conversationally. 
A model lesson is given on p. 230, wherein it is shown that even at this early 
stage it is possible for such lessons to be given in Arabic without any use of English. 
The student must keep the teacher up to this. Great use must be made of short 
questions and answers based on the text. Later on, of course, the pace may and 
should be quickened. 

Section II. of the Reader {Bible and other pieces) should not be thought of as 
SUCCEEDING Section I, but as parallel to it. The Gospel extracts are as good 
to begin on as the Anecdotes, because of their simplicity and the familiarity of 
their subject-matter. The two sections may well be alternated. 

' Except da'rabt, which, however, is hardly an exception, as it is so 
often found with a terminal euphonic vowel da'rabt'. 



go EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XIII. 

(i). The Past Verb, with Negative, and with the Conjunctive Pronouns. 

[On the Third Day.] 

For Reading. 

Khalil. Tell me, All, did you play yesterday or not ? 

Ali. Father, I neither threw the ball nor caught it, nor did 
I play at all : but the lesson, I learned it. 

Khalil. But I saw you throw up your book and catch it 
just like ball ! 

Ali. That was not yesterday. Yesterday I neither threw up 
nor caught my book, and I didn't play at all. 

Kh. And you, you female-imp, did you neither throw up 
nor catch the ball (book) ? 

Fatima. No, father, we — my brother and I — neither threw 
nor caught the ball (book), and we didn't play at all. We just 
did our lessons. 

Kh. Angels truly ! You neither threw up the ball, nor caught 
it, nor played at all ! 

[Enter Zaid.] 

Kh. Is that true, Zaid? Did Ali not throw nor catch the 
ball nor play at all ? And the female-imp too, did she not throw 
the ball nor catch it nor play the whole day long ? 

Zaid. It's quite true, sir. They neither threw nor caught 
the ball nor played at all. 

Kh. Glorious ! The imps became angels in a single day. 

(2). The Indefinite Singular; the Dual; the Phiral. 
For Conversation. 
Teacher. Enough of these verbs to-day. Let us talk a 
little on some other topic. Let's talk on the word " one." 

Pupil. Why the word one (of all others). 
' hafadt. 

' Notice a delicate distinction between Juftak hadaft, " I saw you 
throw " (the completed action as such), and Juftak bi tihdif (maisik). 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 91 

it tamriin it talatta:Jar. 
(i). il fi*^! il maidi bi n nafj wi bi_d dama:?ir il muttasila. 
[fi 1 joim illi ba'^du.] 
11 1 'iraija. 
xal. ?ul li ja "^all, 114bt lmba:rih walla la ? 
■^ali. j abuija la hadaft il ko:ra wala^msik'taha, wala_ 
l''^ibtij bi 1 mdrrd ; amma d ddrs hsfattu." 

xdl. walaikin Juftak hadaft^ il kita:b wi_msiktu zejjjl 
ko:ra ! 

"^ali. da ma kanj imbairih. imba:rih la hadaft il kita:b 
\vala_msiktu walaj'^ibtij bi 1 mdrrd. 
xdl. wjnti ja '^afriita ma hadaftiij 

il ko:ra y j msik'tiiha ? 

il kita:b / '^^ ^ (^ msik'ti:h ? 
fst. la j_abuija, 'ana w_axu:ja ma hadaf'naij il ko:ra (il 
kita:b) wala msik'naiha (msikna:h), walaj'^ibnaj bi 1 mdrrd, 
bass' d ddrs' hafsdnaih. 

xdl. ba?a ntu malajka! la hadaftu 1 koira wala msiktu:ha 

wala Fibtuiji bi 1 mdrrd ! ( il kita:b msik'tuih). 

[ddxdl ze:d fi 1 hail.] 
xdl. sahi:ll kida ja ze:d? la hadaf *^ali 1 koira wala ra'sikha 
walaj'^ibji bi 1 mdrrd ? wi 1 "^afriita kaman, la 'hadafit il koira 
wala mis'kitha wala li'^'bitj' tu:l in nahair ? 

[il kita:b . . . . 'misku . . . . mis'kitu ('hadafu. . . .hada'fitu).] 
ze:d. tamam ja si:di la 'hadafu 1 koira wala mis'kuiha wala 
li'^buij' bil mdrra. 

[il kitaib, mis'kui(h) .... (llada'fui(h)).] 

xdliil. subhain aliaih! il '^afariit ba'u malajka fi joim 
waihid ! 

(2). in nakira bi 1 mufrad ; it tasnija ; il gam'^. 
li 1 m'^hadsa. 
il mu'^allim. bi_zjaida_l 'af^ail doil! innahdrda xallima 
nitkallipi Juwajja fi mawdui'^ ger kida. nitkallim fi lafzit' 
" waihid." 

it tilmiiz. ijmi''na'* Isfzit waihid ? 

" I saw you throwing (catching) " (the action going on). 
3 Or lafz, or kilmit. 
■^ See p. 43. 



92 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

2. So that you may know (how to) talk with it. 

3. I now give you a book. . .kindly take it ! — Now, how many 

books have you ? — I have just one book. 

4. And how many watches have you on you ? — I have one watch. 

5. That is, not two or three books ; nor two or three watches. 

6. When you want a cab, for example, what do you say to the 

servant ? — I say to the servant, " Fetch an arabiya." 

7. And when you want a plate ? — I say, " Fetch a plate." 

8. Just so, we don't say, " fetch one plate, one carriage, " because 

your request is (for) any carriage, i.e. a carriage not specified 
nor known : any plate, i.e. not specified, not known. 

9. Please look at the picture ; who is (the one) who is standing 

there? — That is a (certain)' gardener. 

10. Why have we used the word " one " here ? — Because he is 

specified. 

11. And we say too : " I saw a (certain) lady," i.e. a specific one. 

12. Well then, when I want a cab or a porter or a plate or a spoon 

what do I say ? — You say, " Fetch a cab. ..." 

13. Well, and when I want a cab, not two, a plate, not two, what 

do I say ? — You say, " Fetch one cab, one plate." 

14. We have finished the talk about the singular; let us talk 

about the dual. — Say on, please. 

15. Khalil in this picture, has he an eye ? — He has two eyes in his 

face. 

16. And where are my eyes ? — Your eyes are in your face. 

17. Yes, and your eyes are in your face and the eyes of the lady 

Galila are in her face, and the eyes of the little girl are also 
in her face, so that the eyes of us all are in our face(s). {And 
so, hands, feet.) 

18. How many are walking on their feet in the picture ? — There 

are two walking on their feet. 

19. Are the lady and the girl walking on their feet ? — No, the lady 

is not walking on her feet. 

20. Now let us say something about the plural. — Please do. = Here 

are four books, two of them big books, and two little books. 

' ginajni is, in fact, in apposition to wa:hid, which is here more a 
substantive than a numeral ; "I saw a (certain) one, a gardener." The 
word itself is for gina:jini, " A man of or belonging to gardens " (gina:jin). 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 93 

2. "^alajan inta ti'^raf titkallim bi:h kuwajjis. 

3. dilwQ't_addi: lak kita:b; 'itfaddaUmsik. ma"^ak dilwa^t^ 

kam kitaib ? — ma'^aija^^ktaib waihid bass. 

4. wi_ni";ak kam sai'^a ? — ma'^aija^ sai'^a waMa. 

5. ja'^ni mahuj kitabem wala talat kutub, wala sa'^tem wala 

talat sa'^a:t. 

6. lamma^f^uiz '^arabijja masalan, tPu:Le:h li 1 xdddaim? — 

a'u:l li 1 x6dda:m " hat "^arsbijja." 

7. wi lamma_t'^ii:z sahn ' — a'uil "hat sahn.'' 

8. sahiili, ma_n'ulj' " hat wa:hid sahn," "hat wahda "^arabijja," 

■^alajan talabak 'ajji "^arabiija, ja'^ni arabi:ja muj mdxsuisa 
wala ma'^luima ; 'aj ji sahn, ja'^ni muJ mdxsuis wala ma'^luim. 

9. min fadlak, buss' fis su:ra ; mi:n ill* wa:'if da ? — da waihid 

ginajni. 

10. 'ulna " waihid " leih ? — "^alajan huiwa mdxsuis. 

11. wi_n?uil kamain " Juft wahda sitt," ja'^ni wahda mdxsuisa. 

12. ba'a lamm_a'^uiz '^arabiija ?au Jajjail, 'au sahn, ?au ma'^la'a, 

a'uil eih ?— ti'uil " hat '^arabiija, hat Jajjail, hat sahn, 
hat ma'^la'a." 

13. wi lamm_a'^u:z ''arabijja, muJ "^arabijtein, sahn muJ sahnein, 

a?uil eih?— ti'uil "hat "^arabijja wahda, sahn waihid. 

14. xilisna mil kalaim fi 1 mufrad. ni'uil Juwajja fi t tasnija. — 

itfaddal 'uil. 

15. xdliil illi fis suira di luh "^ein ? — luh '^e(i)'nein fi wijju {or 

''"enein_itnein). 

16. w_ana ''enajja^ fein ? — "^eneik fi wijjak. 

17. sahiih w_inta '■eneik fi wiJJak, wi "^enein is sitt' gah:la_f 

wijjaha, w_il bint_is sugajjdra '^eneiha ruxra_f wijjaha, 
'■ala kida tib'a '■enema kuUina f wijjina. (wi kida, 'iid, 
idem, ideik, rigl, riglem, rigleik.) 

18. kam waihid fis suira maiji "^ala rigleih ?— fiiha_rba'^a majjiin 

■^ala rigleihum. 

19. is sitt' w_il bint maJjiin "^ala rigleihum? — ^lai, is sitt' mij 

majja '^ala rigleiha. 

20. ni'uil dilwa'^tLJwajja fil gam"^. — itfaddal 'uil. =hin(a) drba'' 

kutub, minhum kitabem kubair, wi_ktabein sugajjariin. 

^ Or 'mi'^ii. 

3 And so riglajja, "my feet (legs)," idajja, "my hands." 



^4 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

21. Show me the big ones from the small ones. — These here are 

the two big books, and these are the two little ones. 

22. Now one of us is Khalil and the other is one of his servants[: 

Kh. Fetch two spoons. — Here are the spoons. 
Kh. No, we want two spoons only. — Here are two spoons. 
Kh. Bring two big spoons, not little ones. — Here are two 
big spoons. 

Kh. Now take away these spoons, and fetch three little tea- 
spoons. — Here are three little tea-spoons. 
[And so : — plate, plates ; 

knive, knives ; 
fork, forks, ; 
chair, chairs ; 
porter, porters ; 
cook, cooks.] 
Kh. Fetch two hefty porters . . no, three hefty porters. — 
Right, sir. 



For Systematic Grammar. XUI. 

1. When is [wa:hid] placed before the substantive ? and when 

after ? and when is it a mistake to use it with an indefinite 
noun ? 

2. [itnem] may be used after a dual to emphasise the exact 

number. 

3. The adjective agreeing with the dual noun is plural, never dual. 

4. The adjective agreeing with plural may be plural or feminine 

singular (the latter provided that the substantive is not 
human). 

5. Pick out the sound plurals in the above sentences. 

6. Notice where sound plural occurs : (a) Names of trades : 

[Jajjad, Jajja(:)lim], cp. [xabba:z] baker, [llammair] donkey- 
boy, etc. Generalise this form, (b) Participles : e.g. [maisik, 
maskim]. (c) Some adjectives : cp. the diminutives : e.g. 
[sugGJjdrim]. 

7. N.B. — The [n] of the dual, e.g. in [riglein] is suppressed when 

constructed with pronouns. Write out [rigle:(n), '^ene:(n), 
ide(in)] {a) with a noun, and (b) with all the pronouns. 

8. N.B. — Parts of body, and near relations, never construct 

with [bita:';]. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 95 

21. warriini 1 kubair mis sugejjcirim. — ahum doil il kitabe:n 

il kuba:r, wi do:l il kitabem is sugajjarim. 

22. dilwQ^t' waihid minna xdli:I w it ta:ni waiftid min x6dda(:)- 

mi:nu. 
xal. hat ma'^la'tein. — ahumma_l ma'-aili'. 
xal. la: '^awzin ma'^la'tern_itne:n bass. — 'ahum ma'Jla'te:!!. 
xal. hat ma''la?tein kuba:r muj sugajjarim. — ahum 
ma'^la'tem kuba:r. 

xal. dilwa't' Ji:l_il ma'^aih? do:l il kuba:r, wi hat talat ma"^a:li? 
sugajjarim li J Ja:j'. — ahumma talat ma'^aili' sugajjarim li J Ja:j. 
[wi kida sahn, sahnem, suhum ; 

sikkima, sikkintem, sakakim ; 
Jo:ka, Joktem, Jiwak ; 
kursi, kursijem, karaisi ; 
Jajjail, Jajjalem, Jajjalim ;" 
tabbaix, tabbaxem, tabbaxim.] 
xal. hat Jajjalem itnem gamdim ; la:... hat talat Jajjali:n 
gamdi:n. — ^ha:air ja si:di. 



' This is called "the sound plural," gam*^ is sihha, because it merely 
adds to the singular, and does not change its form. Compare the English 
plural in -s. The plural that changes the form of the singular is called " the 
broken plural," gam'' it taksi:r. Compare English " man, men." 



(3). Exercise on the Members of the Body. 



1. ra:s ir ra:gil bi tiw'ga'^u. 
ra:si_b tiwga''ni. 

rasha b tiwga'^ha. 
ru(:)sna b tiwga'^na. 

2. Ja'^rak tewi:l, la:zim a'ussu. 

3. widami fiiha 'utn. 
widanna fi:ha ?utn. 
widni 1 jamim bi tiwga'^ni. 



1. The man's head pains him. 
I have headache. 

She has ,, 
We have ,, 

2 . Your hair is (too) long, I must cut it. 

3. My ears have cotton in them. 
Our „ „ „ „ „ 
My right ear aches. 



4- 


manaxi:ri fi:ha zuka:m. 


4- 


My nose has catarrh. 




manaxirhum fi:ha zukaim. 




Their 


5- 


iftah 'hanakak wi talla"^ Usamak. 


5- 


Open your mouth and put out 




fatahit ha'nakha wi talla'^it 




your tongue. 




[U'sanha. 




She opened, etc. 


6. 


ruh li haki:m is sinam ji^'la*^ 


6. 


Go to the teeth-doctor, he will 




lak id dirs (is sinna). 




puU out the molar {tooth) for you. 


7- 


il jai'a tustur ir ra'aba. 


7- 


The collar covers the neck. 




'ra'abit ir ra:gil fi:ha ja:'a. 




The man's neck has a collar. 




ra'a'bitha,, ,, 




Her neck 




ra'?abti ,, „ 




My „ 


8. 


zo:ri madbuih. — laizim jindi'^ik. 


8. 


My throat is sore. — It must be 




zorha 




Her throat, etc. [rubbed. 


9- 


Ji:l is sandu:' "^ala kitfak. 


9- 


Carry the box on your shoulder. 


ID. ma tittakkaij bi kui'^ak. 


10. Don't lean on your elhow. 


i: 


:. dira:''i matni. 


i: 


:. My arm is bent. 




dird'^ha mafru:d. 




Her arm is not bent. 




di'ri'^ti^ matniija. 




My arms are bent. 




diri''^itha mafruda. 




Her arms are not bent. 



96 



(3). tamrim fi 'a'^doj gasad. 



13. 


subai'^i fiiha xaitim. 
su'ba'^ha „ 


II. 


My finger has a ring. 
Her „ 




SQwa'bi'^ha ma%bu:?a. 
sa'wab'^ak^ 




Ker fingers are clenched. 
Your „ 




subar'^u 1 kibi:r maksuir. 




His thumb is broken. 


13- 


dufri tewiil la:zim a'ussu. 
da'wafri \ tewiila laizim 
dQwa'firhaJ a'ussaha. 


13- 


My fingernail is long, I must cut it. 
My fingernails are long, I must 
cut them. 


14. 


Ji:! il kita:b taht' bditak. 


14- 


Carry the book under your arm- 


,15- 


''andi bctrd fi eidri. 


13- 


I have a cold on the chest. [ pit. 


16. 


■^andi rndgas fi 1 mi'^da. 


16. 


I have stomach-a.che. 




mi'^'diti fi:ha rndgas. 
mi'^'ditha „ 




do. 
She has, etc. 


17- 


'albi^ ta'^bam. 


17- 


I feel ill in my inside. 


18. 


a'^saibi'* sajba (Jidiida). 


18. 


My nerves are unstrung (strong). 


19. 


'^urui'i^ mafihaj damm. 


19. 


My veins are bloodless. 


20. 


inkasarit rigli* bi rusaisa. 


20. 


My /(?!■ has been broken by a bullet 


21. 


darabni fi r rukba. 


21. 


He struck me in the knee. 




ruk'biti wdrma (rukbitha). 
'rukabi zejj illi fi:ha rami. 




My knee is swollen (her knee). 
My knees are tired (" are like 

those in which is sand "). 




ru'kabna raitldxlaxa. 




Our knees are shaky. 


22. 


sawaibi*^ rigle:h fiiha "^aiha. 


22. 


His toes are deformed. 




I Original form adrija, p. of dirai'^ 
^ For sawa:bi''ak. 

3 ?alb (heart) generally means the 

4 Sing, "^asab, " a nerve." '^asab 

5 Sing. "^ir?. 

^ Same word as for " foot." The spe 


' inside " vaguely. 
, " nervous." 

cial word sa:' is hardly used in colloquial. 



97 



For Conversational 



I. 

I. ma fa'taStiJ il ba:b ja zp:d ? 


Past Tense 


— 


ma fatah'tiij „ „ ze:nab ? 


— 


ma fatah'tuij ,, „ gid'^am. 


— 


2. ma^rkibtij i% tdre:m ja ze:d ? 


— 


ma_rkibti:J „ ,, ze:nab? 


— 


ma_rkibtu:J „ „ gid'^am ? 


— 




Past Tense with 


3. I. Ali's Cousins. 


II. Their friends. 


zalam'tini ja "^ali ! 


sahiift ja waJad za'lamtu ! 


{The same, female speaker.) 


„ ,, „ zalam'taha ! 


zedam'timi jafatma! 


,, j a bint zolam'tiih ! 


[The same, female speaker.) 


,j , „ zolam'tiiha ! 


zolam'tumi ja wlaid ! 


„ ja gid'am zolam'tuih [-ha] ! 


galam'tuina „ „ 


„ „ „ zalam'tuihum ! 




Past Tense with 


A [to C). 


B [to C). 


4. '^amal'ti li(:) ?ahawa, ja ze:d ? 


?u:l ! '^amal'ti lu ?ahawa ? 


[The same, female speaker.) 


„ "^amal'tijha „ ? 


^^amal'ti: li 'ahawa, ja zemab ? 


?uili, "^amal'ti: lu „ ? 


(The same, female speaker.) 


„ "Jamal'tijha „ ? 


"^amal'tu: li 'ahawa ja na:s ? 


'u:lu, "^amal'tu: lu (Jha) „ ? 



'^amal't\i_nna 'ahawa „ „ ? 



,, '■amal'tuj.hum „ ? 



* With negative, see on p. 107. 

1. " Have you not opened the door ? " 

2. " Did you not ride in the tram ? " 

98 



. . ." I have not yet,'' etc. 



Verb-Drill. 



WITH Negative. 




II. 


III. 


lissa ma fa'tahtij il ba:b. 


sahiili ma fa'tahj il ba:b. 


>> >• J) ), ,, 


„ „ fata'hitj „ 


lissa ma fatah'naij il ba:b. 


„ „ fata'huij „ 


la ma_rkibtij il tctraim. 


sahiih ma_rkibj it taraim. 


*t f t> }j 


„ ma rikbitj 


„ ma rkibinaij „ '„ 


„ ma rikbuij 


Suffix Pronouns.* 




III. Ali and Fatima. 


IV. Their Friends. 


r rza'lamtak {to I.) 

ai na'^am { ; ( 

Uq lamtu [to II.) 


^, ^ ,. f'zalamak {to I.) 

ma'^luim '^ah J., , ,, tt \ 

I zalamu {to II.). 


fza'lamtik. 


(■'zalamik. 


Iza'lamtaha. 


Iza'lamha. 


rza'lamtak. 
Iza'lamtu. 


^ , fzetla'mitak. 
latma ^ 


Uala'mitu. 


fza'lamtik. 


jzala'mitik. 
Izala'mitha. 


Iza'lamtu. 


rzalam'naik [-Id]. 
" lzalam'na:h [-ha]. 


fzala'muik [-ki]. 
„ humma-^ , , , n. n 
Uala mu:h [-ha]. 


,, zalam'na:ku [-hum]. 


zala'muikum [-hum]. 


Dative Pronouns (li..). 




C. 


D. 


r'^amal'ti lak 'ahawa {to A). 
^^^ I'^amal'ti lu „ {toB). 


f'^a'mal lak ?ahawa {to A). 
»a"^*« Va'mal lu „ {to B). 


r'^amal'ti lik 
" Vamal'tijha „ 


I'^a'mal lik 
" Ua'mal laha 


/'^amal'ti lak „ 
" Vamal'ti lu 


r'^ama'lit lak 
" Vama'lit lu 


(■^amal'ti lik 
" t'Jamal'tiJha „ 


(-"^ama'lit lik 
Uama'ht laha 


f'^a.ma.l'na. lak (lik). 
" ["Jamal'na lu (-Iha). 


r<;ama'lu: lak (lik) „ 
t'^ama'lu: lu (Jha) „ 


"^amal'najku (_lhum). 


„ "^ama'lujku ( Ihum) „ 



3. " You have been unfair to me, AU." 

4. (To illustrate that the dative pronoun is as enclitic as the objective): 
you made coffee for me, Zaid ? 

99 



' Have 



100 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XIV. 



10 



For Conversation. 
The Numerals from i to lo. 
Days of Week. Seasons. Months. 

The prayer of the Christians, on which day of the week is it ? — 

The Christians' prayer is on Sunday. 
And the day which is after Sunday, what is its name ? — 

What a question ! After Sunday is Monday. 
And after Monday, what ? — After Monday comes Tuesday. 
How many days are there from Sunday to Tuesday ? — From 

Sunday to Tuesday there are three days. 
How much do two piastres and one make ? — Two piastres and 

one make three piastres. 
How many Khalifas are there after Mohammed ? — ^Three 

"good" Khahfas, they being Abu Bakr, Omar, and Osman. 
What is this ! Is Ah not among them ? — Yes, true ! I am 

wrong. So, then, they become four Khahfas. 
How many piastres are there to the franc ? — There are four 

piastres to the franc. 
How many seasons are there in the year ? — (There are) in it 

four seasons. 
And every season of them, (there are) in it how many months ? 

— . ..three months. 

' Or aw ; but not walla. 

^ This word for prayer means properly liturgic prayer, whether public 
or private. 

3 Lit. " It happens you annoy." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC lOI 

it tamrim 1 drba'^taijdr. 
li 1 m'hadsa 1 "^umumijja. 
il waiRid lamma_jru:ll fusSa li 1 hdram bi ji'^mil e:, bidd 
afham, "^alajan ana kaman "^awuz aru:li. — Juif ja si:di. lamina 
tuxrug min be:tak taixud [tirkab] tramwaij il hdram, ja: mil i^ataba 
J xddra, ja:' min Ja:ri'; bula:?. wi ba'^d talattjrba:"; sa:';a tiwsal 
hina:k, wi Lahsan tina"i wa:liid mil "^drab illi wa?fi:n hina:k 
'alajan jiwdrri:k kulli ha:ga wi jliu:J "^annak il ba?ji:n. wi 
lamma_thibbi titla"^ fo:? il hdram walla_txujji gu:wa, la:zim 
ta:xud wajja:k tala:ta mil "^drab, muj a'all^ min tala:ta, bi 'amr 
il lluku:ma. u ba'^de:n ma tinsa:f titfdrrag '^al(a)_abu 1 ho:l wi 1 
biba:n illi gambu. 



li 1 m^hadsa. 

1 a''da:d min wa:hid li '■djdrd. 

ijja:m il gum'^a. il fusu:l. l_ujhur. 

1. is sala^ '^and il masi:hijji:n fLnhe jo:m mil gum'^a? — is sala 

■^and il masi:hijji:n tiku:n jo:m il hadd. 

2. w il jo:m illi ba'^d il haddjsmu ?e:h? — ha(:)kim inta_ 

mda:ji' ! ^ ba''d il hadd jo:mLitne:n. 

3. wi ba'^d' Litne:n_e:h ? — ba'^d' Litne:n jo:m it tala:t. 

4. mil hadd' Ht tala:t kam jo:m ? — mil hadd li_t_tala:t ta'latt 

ijja:m.* 

5. 'irje:n wi 'irj jib?u kam ? — 'irje:n wi 'irj jib'u ta'lat 'uru:J. 

6. kam xdli:fa ba''di_mhammad ? — ta'lat xulafa rajdi:n, wi^ 

hum 'abu bakr, wi "^umdr, wi '^usma:n. 

7. d_eh da ! wi "lali muJ wQJja:hum? — 'aiwa sahiih ana 9alta;n ! 

"■ala kida jib'u drba*- xulafa. 

8. Lafrank kam 'irj ? — 1 afrank drba'' ''uru:J. 

9. is Sana fi:ha kam fasl ? — fih(a) dr'ba'' fusu:l. 

10. wi kull' fasl' minhum kam Jahr? — kulli fasl' minhum talatt_ 
ujhur. 

'^ Or, one j is dropped and the word becomes i:ja:m, the i: being however 
only half-long. 

5 The translation shows that this wi is not the coordinating conjunc- 
tion " and," but a subordinating particle which maybe rendered variously 
by a participle, a, relative, or some conjunction like " while." 



102 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

II 



12 
13 
14 
15 
16, 

18 
19 



How many days are there between Sunday and Wednesday ? — 

. . .four days. 
How many persons wrote the gospels which (are) in the New 

Testament ? — They who wrote the gospels (are) four persons. 
How many piastres are there to the shilling ? — Five piastres 

go to the shilling. 
Between Monday and Friday how many days are there ? — 

. . . five days. 
How many months are there between January and May ? — 

. . . iive months. 
How many months are there in the half-year ? — . . . six months. 
Tell me their name(s), of your favour (= if you please). — 

Their name(s) are January, etc., and May, etc. 
How many piastres go to ij francs ? — Six piastres. 
Howmanydaj'scomebetweenSundayand Friday? — ...six days. 



20. How many days are there in the week ? — . . . seven days. 

21. Which is the last day of the seven ? — The last day of the 

week is Saturday. 

22. Four piastres plus three make how many ? — Seven piastres. 

23. How many piastres go to two francs ? — Eight piastres to 

two francs. 

24. How many months are there from January to ( = as far as) 

August ? — . . . eight months. 

25. TeU me about the last two of them. — The last two are July 

and August. 

26. Tell me the name(s) of the seasons of the year. — The first 

season of them is called spring, and the second of them is 
summer, etc., etc. 

27. How many people {or individuals) were there in the Ark ? — 

Eight people {or individuals). 

28. How many piastres are there in a shilling and a franc ? — In 

one shilhng and one franc there are nine piastres. 

29. And how many months are there from January to September ? 

— From January to September there are nine months. 

' This relative, which is indeclinable, may have an expressed or (as 
here) an unexpressed antecedent. 

* This plural, which is a common type, has a for its first vowel, ?anfair. 
But ' being lost in continuous speech, the previous passing vowel i prevEiils 
over the a. 3 ijhur may also be heard. ■♦ Unelided, ?uru:J". 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I03 

11. be:n il hadd' wi Ldrba"^ kam jo:m? — ^be:n il hadd' wi l_drba'^_ 

dr'ba'^tjjjaim. 

12. kam nafdr katabuj bijaijir illi fi 1 "^ahd il gidi:d ? — illi' 

katabu 1 bija:jir cir'ba'^t'jifair.'' 

13. ij Jillin kam ?irj" ? — ^ij Jillin xa'mas ?uru:J. 

14. bem 1 itne:n wi 1 gum'^a kam jo:m ? — be:n l_itnem wil gum'-a 

xa'mast_ijja:m. 

15. kam Jahr be:n janaijir wi maiju ? — bem jana:jir wi maiju 

xa'mast_ujhur.3 

16. nuss' s Sana kam Jahr ?: — nuss' sana sitt_ujhur. 

17. 'uLli '^ala_smuhum min fadlak. — janaijir, wi fibraijir, wi 

mdrs, wi'abri:!, wi ma:ju, wi junju. 

18. l_afrank wi nuss kam ?irj ? — 1 afronk wi nuss sitt'_''ru:J.'* 

19. wi bem il hadd wi 1 gum'^a kam jo:m ? — ^bem il hadd wi 1 

gum'^a sitt_ijja:m. 

20. il gum'^a fi:ha' kam jo:m ? — il gum'-a sa'ba'^t_ijja:m. 

21. a:xir jo:m fi:ha 'eh hu:wa ? — aixir jomi^ f il usbu:'' joim is 

sabt. 

22. cirba'' 'uruij wi talaita jib'u kam 'irj ? — saba'' 'uruij. 

23. Lafrankem kam 'irj ? — ^1 afrenkem taman 'uruij. 

24. kam Jahr min janaijir li tiadd_dgostus ? — min janaijir li 

lladd_dgostus taman't_ujhur. 
23. 'ul li "^ala litnein Ldxra'nijjiin' minhum. — litnein l_dxranijji:n 
julju w dgostus. 

26. ?ulj.i '^ala_sm' fusuil is_sana. — 'awwil fasl' minhum_lsmii_r 

rabii'', wi ta'niihum is seif, wi ta'lithum il xariif, wi 
ra'bi'-hum'' iJ Jita. 

27. kam fih kam Jdxs' fi 1 fulk ? — ta'mantLJxais.'" 

28. fih kam ?irj fi JiUin wi_frQnk ? — fi Jillin wi frank ti'sa"^ 

?uruij. 

29. wi kam Jahr min janaijir li_stimbir ? — min janaijir ILstimbir 

tisa'^t_ujhur. 



5 Or 1 usbui'^ fih. ^ Or il joim_il 'dxraini. 

7 Or ?a'xirhum, or il ?aixir minhum, or il 'dxraini minhum 
' the last of them." 

8 m. ^dx'rami, /. 'dxra'niija, p. 'dxrani'jiin. 

9 Or nafdr. " For ajxais or nfair (for anfair). 



104 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



30. 



31- 



32. 



33- 



34- 



35- 



36. 



Zl- 



Half a dollar (makes) how many piastres ? — Half a dollar 
ten piastres. 

From March to the end of the year is how many months? — 
From March to the end of the year is ten months. 

Please {lit. of your goodness) tell me the names of the four 
last of them. — The names of the four last of them are Septem- 
ber, and October, and November, and December. 

How long have you been in Egypt ? {or how many months, 
weeks, days). — I have been .... in Egypt. 

How long is it till your summer hohday ?— It is .... till my 
summer hohday. 

Tell me the names of the days of the week, all of them. — 
Sunday, and Monday, and Tuesday, and Wednesday, and 
Thursday, and Friday, and Saturday. 

How do we say the fraction ( = part) of each number ? — 
The (one) part of 10 we call a tenth. 



9 .. . 


, „ ninth. 




8 „ , 


an eighth. 




7 .. . 


a seventh. 




6 „ , 


„ sixth. 




5 ,. , 


„ fifth. 




4 .. 


„ fourth. 




3 .. , 


„ third. 




many 


half-sovereigns ?- 


-Three 



Three pounds make how many 
sovereigns make six halves. 

(And so, every (one) fraction of the fractions.) 







loths 


gths 


8ths 


7ths 


9- 


tisa'^t 


J'^Joir' 








8. 


ta'mant 


— i) 


Jtsa:*; 






7- 


sa'ba'^t 


~ „ 


_ „ 


_itma:n 




6. 


sitt 


•~' }} 


_ „ 


_ „ 


^isba:'' 


5. 


xa'mast 


~ „ 


- „ 


,, 


„ 


4- 


'dr'ba^ 


— j> 


'~ }> 


_ ,. 


_ „ 


3- 


ta'latt 


_ „ 


- „ • 


„ 


„ 


2. 




''ujrein 


tus'^ein 


tumnem 


sub'' em 



' The proper form of all these plurals is a'-Jair, atsa:'', etc. The a is 
elided after the passing vowel i, which properly belongs to the preceding 
word: thus, tamantLtsa:'!. ^ Or mdrs. 

3 Lit. " There has been to you how much {or how many months, etc) in 
Egypt ? " 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

30. nuss> rija:l kam 'irj ?— nuss' rijail "^ajar ?uru:J. 



105 



31. min ma:ris^ li 'aixir is sana kam Jahr? — ^min mams li'aixir 

is sana '^cij"dr't_ujhur. 

32. min fadlak '''ul li '^ala_sm_il_arba'^aj 'dxrenijja minhum? — 

ism_il_drba'^aj[ 'dxranijja minhum_istimbir, wi akto:bdr wi 
nuifimbir wi disimbir. 

33. ba''a: lak 'add_e: fi mesr P {or kam Jahr, kam gum'^a, kam 

jo:m). — ^ba'?a: li fi mesr. 

34. ba'?i: lak ?add_e ?abli fushit is se:f ? ♦— ba'?i:_ li 'aW 

fushit is se:f. 

35. ?ul li "Jala^smjjjaim Lusbu:'' kuUuhum. — U hadd, wi 1 itnein, 

wi t talait, wi Ldrba"^, wi_l xdmi:s, wi 1 gum'^a, wi s sabt. 

36. il guz' min kuU' "^adad ni'u:l '^aleih 'e:h ? — 

il guz min '■djdrd ni'uil '■aleih ''ujr. 

w il „ ,, tis''a ,, ,, tus"^. 

tamanja „ „ tumn. 

sab'^a „ ,, sub'', 

sitta ,, „ suds, 

xamsa „ „ xums. 

drba''a „ ,, rub'^. 

talaita „ „ tilt. 

37. ta'lat gineha.'t kam nuesLgneih ? — ta'lat gineha:t sittL 



nsQis. 



(wi kaza kull' kasr mil kusuir) 



6ths 


5ths 


4ths 


3rds 


halves 
_insQ:s 


isda:s 








" 


-* tt 


ixmais 






,, 


— ft 


— ,, 


irba:<: 




,, 


suttem 


xumsein 


rub'^ein 


tiltem 


nussein 



■t Lit. "There is remaining (bai^i) to you how much before. . .." 

5 Or, more technically, kasr. 

^ See preceding note : anSQiS is the original form. 

7 Or kull* wa:liid mil kusuir. 



I06 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

For Systematic Grammar. XIV. 

Observe the difference in the form of the numerals i to lo 
under three different circumstances : 

1. When alone, without a noun following. Collect these from 

heads of exercises. 

2. When followed by a (plural) noun beginning with a vowd : 

tabulate the numerals 3 to 10 with [ujhur] (= months). 

3. When followed by a (plural) noun beginning with a consonant : 

tabulate the numerals 3 — 10 with [rigga:la] (= men). 
Examples. — 

tis'-a ■ — ti'sa''t_infa:r — tisa'' riggaila. 

4. What is the " measure " of the Arabic fractions, singular and 

plural ? 

5. How is " how long " rendered in Arabic ? 

Note on i. — Sometimes this form is used, even when a noun 
does foUow. See Willmore's Colloquial Grammar, §35. 



en 

s 

o 
< 




'^ 








' — ' 


^ — > 


?S t_lj 


• ' '. *"~^ *— ^ 




^ 'TT' 


< — 1 


^ B 


•^^ 




y 


3^ 


?3 


-n^ 


^ s 


.§ .§ .§ 1 


.§ 


.6 .§ 


.§ 


M .§ 












•5 t« 


'^ 1« ■»! w 




tB vt« 


PW 


(N tfl 














S'-^ 






+-> -M 




'"'^ 


rt 


-*-.-, ^ 


^ 


-, 


., 


^ 


. P! 


" "* " "^ 


" 


" 


" 


" " 


> ^ 












l-H PI 












' 3 


^ « « -N 


■s 


X 


* 


■v 


























rt 












6 













'^ S 6 S S 

s ;3 a ;^ -5 

"^ S S S "s 

■^ V tS 

~ ) I ) ) 

^ JD ^ ^ ^ 

^- a a - - 



<s 



rO 



k, _. 



-« 

^ 















a 



S 



3"!^ 



-£3 



a 



• I— I 

• I— I 
ci 






■^ 
K 



2 a -^ 
a a a 



tM 


N) 






a 


rt 


Xi 




tri 


- 


a 




rt 




fl 




je 





ai 



pi 



pi 
P! 



% 






PI 

a 

■ 1—1 

*-4-" 

107 




„ a a 

oj n) rt 

tN £ tH 



a 



rt 3 3 






g i § i 

CO Cd rt ro 



0} 
W t« tH t« 



w — 

H 
tn 

< 

fin 



^ 



oi 



ni CI 



^ r^. 



to 




0-. 








A 












oj 
+-> 


0-. 

la 




M 
3 


1 

Hi 


id 


F 


a 


fi 




cd 

"0 




r5 

tM 




1 


" 


.^_, 




^ 


' 




s 




pi 


^ 


~ 


0. 

-4-> 




0. 


" 




ai 




CJ 




■^ 


a 




a 


" 


,^-^ 




^— V 






^ 


rv. 


^ 






-^ki 




^ 






-^ 


■ ^ 


•^ 


« — ) 


«— -J 


(S 


q 


« 




cd 


■^ 




■^ 


§ 


3 
pi 




^-J 








■s 


fi 


1i 


a 


F 


^ 


3 


!10 


OJ 


y 


^ 


® 


^ 


QJ 


m 




tN 




CH 


IN 




a 


g 


a 




» 






1 




-« 




:^ 






hi 


" 


t-H 


" 


" 



I08 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUJAI. ARABIC 

XV. 



Moods. {"Can," "Musi," etc.) 

(i). In the present tense. 

A Master of the House asks his Servant on the Subject 

OF A Party. 

FOR READING. 

1. Marcus. We want to have a party to-morrow, Girgis (George). 

2. Girgis. Why not ! There's no objection. 

3. M. Good ! can you wait at it alone ? 

4. G. No, it isn't possible for me to wait alone. 

5. M. Then we must get another one. 

6. G. Yes, we need another. 

7. M. Can you get him ? 

8. G. No, I can't get him, because I am not from here. When 

are the guests coming ? 

9. M. They will be here at noon exactly. 

10. G. Then we can't be finished with the cooking. 

11. M. If you get up early, why ever can't you finish ? 

12. G. Would it not be better to sweep the house to-day ? 

13. M. Very well, you shall sweep it to-day, because to-morrow 

you will not have time. 

14. G. All right, certainly, I am going to sweep right now. Is 

not the maid going to sweep with me ? 

15. M. No, the maid is going to sweep the ladies' room. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC lOQ 

it tamrimjs xamastaijdr. 

li 1 m'hadsa 1 "Jumumijja. 
[Jugl it tabbaix.] it tebbaix is subh' badri jirsttib il 
matbax wi ba'^d' kida jihaddsril 'akl, wi jxdddira "^aleih WQ'tima_ 
jkuin is sufragi bi jsallah 'uwad in no:m. wi ba'-d il futuir jarxud 
filu:s mil xdwaiga walla s sitt, jiruih is su:' "^alajan jijtiri lawaizim 
il gdda wi 1 "^aja. wi ba'^dima jijtiriihum jijidhum bi nafsu, 'aw 
jifajjilhum li Jajjad. u ba'^dima jirga'^ il be:t jibtidi jihsdaar 
il xudair wil haga:t it tanja, wi s sa:'^a_hda:J"ar jutbux, ''alajan il 
'akl jikuin mistiwi fi 1 mi'^aid. wi ba'^d il gdda jinaddaf is suhuin 
wi 1 hagait it tanja 1 wisxd, wi ba'^dem jitla'- fusRa, wala jirga"^! 
ta:ni 'ilia "^alajan jigahhiz il "^aja. u ba'^d il "^aja jihaisib il 
xdwaiga walla s sitt "^an illi sarafu, ja'^ni ji'ud lu "-al hisa:b 
'add^e:. [Do also with bi.] 



il 'af^a:! ji'ddr, jilzam, wi gerha. 

(i). fi 1 ha:]. 

saihib belt bi jis'al xddda'^mu fi mawdu:'^ '^uzuima. 

li 1 'iraija. 

1. mur'us. ''awzim ni'^mil '^uzuima bukrd ja girgis. 

2. girgis. wi 'ma: lu ! ma fij ma:ni'^. 

3. mur'us. tajjib, jimkin tixdim fi:haj wahdak ? 

4. girgis. la:, ma jimkinni:J dxdim li wahdi. 

5. mur'us. ba'a jilzamna_ngi:b wahid ta:ni. 

6. girgis. aiwa, jilzamna wahid ta:ni. 

7. mur'us. ti'ddr tigi:bu ? 

8. girgis. la m_aMdrJ agi:bu '^alajan manij min hina. id 

duju;f rahi:n ji:gu ?emta ? 

9. mur'us. jihdaru hina_d duhr tama:m. 

10. girgis. "^ala kida ma jimkinnaij nixlas mit tabi:x. 

11. mur'us. ma daim ti?u:mu badri, ma jimkinku:J tixlasu_zza:j ? 

12. girgis. muj rQhi:n niknis il be:t innarhdrdajisan ? [or 

muj" ha niknis ?) 

13. mur?us. bdrdu tiknis'u:h_innahdrda, "^alajan bukrd muJ 

ha_jku:n <;andukum waH. 

14. girgis. tajjib umma:l, h_aknis dilwQ?t_aho ! il xddda:ma 

mi J raj ha tiknis wajja:ja ? 

15. mur'us. la:, il xddda:ma ha tiknis odt il hariim. 



no EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

i6. G. Then I am to sweep, myself alone ? 
17. M. Just wait till she is done, and then she will sweep with 
you! 

(2) The same, past tense [or conditional]. 
(The numbers refer to those in the above Exercise.) 
[A. Indicative. B. Conditional.y 
i.jA. We wanted to have a party yesterday. 

[B. We should have liked to have a party yesterday. 
2. There was no objection. 
3- (A. Were you able to wait by yourself? 

\B. Would you have been able to wait by yourself? 
4. (A. No, I could not wait by myself. 

Is. No, I could not have waited by myself. 
5- (A. We had to bring another. 
\B. We should have had to bring another (or we ought to 
have brought another^). 
7-1 A. Were you able to bring him ? 
\b. Could you have brought him ? 
8. (A. No, I couldn't bring him. 

\B. No, I couldn't have brought him. 
g. They were to arrive, or were about to arrive, 
lo.y^. We could not get finished. 

\b. We should not have been able to finish. 
12. Were we not going to sweep (i.e. intending to sweep, or about 

to sweep) ? 
14. I was just about to sweep. 



' Nota bene, the Arabic is the same whether for A or B. Context decides 
■which meaning is intended. 

^ The double possibility in this case is due to the act in the colloquial 
there is only one verb for the " must " of compulsion, and the " must " of 
duty {= ought to) ; i.e. jilzam. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC III 

i6. girgis. 'ummal_ana reli_aknis li wahdi ? 

17. mur?us. ma^ tisbur lamma tuxlus, wi hi:ja tiknis wajja:k ! 



(2). il 'af^ail do:l nafsuhum bi 1 ma:di. 
T. kunna "^awzi:!! nimil ''uzuima mbairill. 

2. ma kanj fiji mami*^. 

3. kan jimkin tixdim fi:ha 1 wahdak ? {or kutti ti'dcir tixdim? 

or kan jimkinak. . . . ?) 

4. la: ma kan J* jimkinn(i) axdim li wahdi {or ma 'amkanniij). 

5. kan jilzamna nigiib waihid tami {or ka:n la:zim, kam jilzam)."* 



7. kutt' ti''ddr tigi:bu ? (or kutt' ti'^ref tigiibu ? or kam jimkinak 

tigiibu ?). 

8. la ma kuttij a'ddr agiibu {or dSi%.i) {or ma kanJ' jimkinni). 

9. kamu ha jihdaru {or rellim). 
10. ma kanji jimkinna nixlas. 

12. muj kunna rahim niknis ? 

14. kutti rafi^aknis fi sa'^itha. 



3 The ma introducing peremptory or lively command. 

4 These two alternatives are much better if " ought " is intended rather 
than " had to.'' N.B. — la:zim gibt means " I must have brought". 



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114 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XVI. 



Ordinals. Colours. Deformities. 

1. To-day I have ten questions on the subject of defects and 

colours. — If you please, say to us the questions, and the 
answers (wiU be) on us. 

2. The first question is on the colour of the Berberi, what is it ? — 

The first answer to this question (is) that the colour of the 
Berberi is brown, the Berberi woman is brown, and their 
children are aU brown. 

3. The second question is on the colour red ; namely, who is 

red ? — Among the Indians of America is the red man, and 
the red woman, and the red children. 

4. And, likewise, the third question is on the people of China, 

about yellow people. . . The fourth question (is) on the people 
of England (of) long ago, about blue people. . . The fifth 
question is on the people of Europe, about white people. . . 
The sixth question is on the people of the Soudan, about 
black people. 

5. A parenthetic question. Why did they call the "Ataba el 

Khadra " (" the Green Threshold ") by that name ? — It 
would seem that (it was) because there is nothing green there 
of any kind whatever ! 

6. Eighth question ; is the blue of the sky paler than the blue 

of the water of the salt sea, or darker ( = deeper) than it ? — 
No, the blue of the water of the salt sea is far deeper than 
the blue of the colour of the sky. 

' Or il kitaib Lawwilami, il gawa:b Lawwilami. And so we 
have the alternatives throughout, tami kitaib or il kitaib it ta:ni, etc., etc. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC II5 

it tamrim is sitta:J"dr. 
li 1 m'hadsa 1 '^umumijja. 
[Jugl is sufragi.] is sufragi awwilma ji:gi fis subh jinaffad 
il 'uwad, wi mdrra fi 1 gum'^a jigsil il balait wi jnaddaf ij 
Jababiik wi jimsall il 'izaiz. u ba'-d' kida jifiij is sufrd li 1 futu:r. 
wi_jhut*' lawaizim is sufrd. wi f wa't il futu:r ma jxdddimj, 
la:kin jirattib 'uwad in no:m, ja'^ni jijiil il majja 1 wisxd, wi jimsah 
il lawomainu, wi jhutt majja ndiifa, wi jsallah il fdrj (saraijir), 
wi_jji:l in namusijja, wi jiftah iJ Jababiik "^alajan jihawwi 1 'o:da. 
wi mdrrd fi 1 gum'^a jigajjdr il bajddait kuUaha. wi f wa't il 
gdda wi 1 'aja wi J J"a:j jilbis gallabijja_ndi:Ja wi jxdddim '^ala ■'akl 
il be:t. wi s sufragi_jxdlli ba:lu mil gdras wi jddxxdl id dujuif 
lamma jizu:ru 'ahl il be:t. [Do also with bi.] 

a'^daid it tdrtiib. 1 alwain. il '^uju:b. 

1. ''andi_nnahdrda ''ajdr 'as'ila fi maudu:'^_il "^ujuib wi l_alwa:n. 

— itfaddal 'u:l il ?as'ila, wi 1 'agwiba "^aleina. 

2. awwil su'a:r fi lo:n il bdrbari huiwa e:h? — awwil gawa:b' 

■^an is su'ail da 'inn' lo:n il bdrbari 'asmdr, wil bdrbarijja 
samrd, wi_wladhum kuUuhum sumr. 

3. tami su'a:l fi 1 lorn 1 ahmdr, wi hu:wa, mi:n ahmdr wi Samrd 

wi humr ? — -il hunuid Ijmrikam fi:hum ir raigU Lahmdr 
wi s sitt il hamrd, wi ljwla:d il humr. 

4. wi ha:kaza ta:lit su'ail '■an 'ahl is sim, fi: ?asfdr wi safrd 

wi sufr. . . .ra:bi''_su''a:l '■an aha:li_(i)ngilterra zamam, fi: 
'azra' wi zdr'a wi zur'. . . .xa:mis su''a:l '^an 'ahl' 'urubba, 
fi: 'abjad, wi be:da, wi bi:d. . . .sa:tit su'a:l "^an ?ahlLs 
su(:)da:n, fi: iswid wi so:da wi su:d. 

5. su'a:! mu'^tarad. '^alajan e: sammu 1 "^ataba 1 xadrd bi 

Lism' di ? — jizharjnnu ''alajan ma fihaj ha:ga xadrd wala 
Je: ?dxdar wala liaga:t xudr bi 1 mdrrd ! 

6. ta:min su'a:l, zara:' is sama fa:tih "^an zara:? majjit^ il bahr 

il ma:liR, walla ga:mi? "^annu ? — la:, zara:? majjit il bahr 
il ma:li}i ga:mi' "^an zara:' lo:n is sama -"awi. 



" majja (water) is contracted from the diminutive of the non-colloquial 
ma:?, i.e. muwajja (cp. the exx. of the diminutive form already given). 



ii6 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



10. 



II. 



12. 



And, thus, we say " the green of the grass; the red of this 
paint ; the brown of the hair ; the white and black of the 
(two) eyes." 
Ninth question is, (are) the deaf man, the deaf woman, the 
deaf people slighter (in) affliction, or the dumb man (woman, 
people) ?— I think that the deaf man (woman, people) 
is (are) much less afflicted than the dumb man. 
Is the blind man more afflicted, or the blind woman ? are the 
blind aU one degree ? — I think that blindness, deafness, 
dumbness, and lameness are more (in) affliction in the case 
of women. 
Here are ten books, hand me, please, 

the first book \ , rthe first book, 

the first of them /' I the first of them. 

And, thus, the second book . . the 2nd of them . . the 2nd book, 
the third book, .the 3rd of them, .the 3rd book. 
the tenth book, .the lothof them, .the lothbook. 
Here are ten papers, hand me, please, 

the first paper 'i rthe first paper, 

the first of them /' Ithe first of them. 



13. And thus, hand me please. 



/ 



the / 



paper. 



For Systematic Grammar 

I 



XVI. 



second 

third 

fourth 

fifth 

sixth 

seventh 

eighth 

ninth 

tenth 



and pi. of the chief colours 



Make tables of the masc, fern, 
and their corresponding abstracts {e.g. redness), and generalise 
the " measure " or grammatical form of the forms thus 
arrived at. 

2. Treat similarly the deformities. 

3. Write out the masc, and fem. of the ordinals. 

4. What are the two ways of translating " the fourth man " ? — 

What difference does the substitution of " woman " make ? 

5. What difference does the suffixing of [hum] make on the 

accent and form of (say) [ta:lit] ? 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



117 



9- 



10. 



wi kaza ni'uil " xadair il hajiij " ; " hamair il buija di ; 

sama:r if Ja'^r ; bajaid il "^enem wi sawa(:)dhum. 
ta:si'^ su'a:l ; ir raigil LatraJ, is sitt it terja, in na:s it turf, 

'axaffi balwa, walla Laxras (xarsa,xurs) ? — fikri inni Latraf 

(t tarfa, t turf) axdffi' balwa mil cixras (xcirsa, xurs) ?awi. 
1 a''ma (a)fadd''' balwa wallaj "^amja? walla 1 "^umj^ kulluhum 

daraga wahda ? — fikri 'inn il "^ama wi t taraf wi 1 xaras 

wi 1 "^drag afadd^ balwa fi s sittait. 
hina '■afdr kutub nawilni, min fadlak 



'awwil kita:b 

aw'wilhum 

il kita:b l_awwila:ni 

1 awwilami minhum 

11. wi kaza, 'ta:ni kita:b. 

'tadit kita:b. 
'•^aifir kita:b. 

12. hina '■afdr wdra'ait ; nawilni min fadlak 
_'awwil wdra'a* ^ /'awwil wdra'a. 



k — itfaddalxud 



.ta'ni:hum. , 
.ta'lithum. . 
.''a'firhum. 



awwil kita:b. 

awwilhum. 

il kita:b l_awwila:ni 

1 awwilami minhum. 

.il kitaib it tami. 

.il kitaib it tadit. 

.il kita:b il '■aifir. 



_awwilhum 

11 wdra'aj 'awwila'nijja 
il 'awwila'nijja'minhum. 
13. wi kaza. 



-itfaddal xud 



'awwilhum. 



[nijja. 



il wdra'aj 'awwila- 
il 'awwilanijja minhum. 

jt tanja {for tamija)* 
t talta {for tadita) 
r rab'^a {for raibi'^a) 
1 xamsa {for xaimisa) 
min fadlak nawilni il wara'a,.-^ s satta {for sa:tita) 

s sab'^a {for sa:bi''a) 
t tamna {for ta:mina) 
t tas'-a {for taisi'^a) 
1 '■afra {for "^aifira). 

' Comparative of xafilf. 

2 Comparative of fidild. Adjectives which cannot be given the com- 
parative form in Arabic are compared by placing af add (aktdr) " more," 
or axdff (a'all) "less," before the abstract noun, e.g. here, " severer (in) 
affliction," i.e. " more afflicted." But a positive with '^an may always be used. 

3 Alternative plural "^umjam. 

+ Note that when the ordinal precedes, it is the same for a masculine or 
a feminine noun, and that the noun is invariably anarthrous (without article) . 

5 PI. 'awwilanij'jiin. 

6 It has already been remarked that the ordinal that precedes the feminine 
noun is masculine invariably. 



Il8 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XVII. 

The Numerals above lo. 

For Conversation. 

We want to talk a little to-day about the numerals above ten ; 
so then tell me, 

1. How many do eleven piastres and one make? . . . .12 piastres. 

2. A piece of land whose length is three metres and breadth 

four, how many square metres will it be in extent ? — Its ex- 
tent will be 12 sq. metres. 

3. Eight parcels plus five make how many parcels? — -...13 

parcels. 

4. Seven miles by two make how much ? — . . . .14 miles. 

5. How many days are there in half April?.... 15 days. 

6. When we increase them (by) one how many do they make ? — 

16 days. 

7. Nineteen less two, how much is the remainder ?^I9 less 

two, leaves 17. 

8. A box the length and breadth of which are three metres and 

the height two, contains how many cubic metres ? — 18 
cubic metres. 

9. To-day is what (date) in the Arabic month ? — To-day is the 

2ist day of Rabi' Awwil (for example). 
10. What year is this of the Higra ? — This year is 1335 a.h. 

n. That corresponds to what year a.d. ? — It corresponds with 
the year 1917 a.d. 

12. Well then, the first year of the Higra corresponds with what 

year A.D. ? — The first year of the Higra corresponds to the 
year 622 a.d. 

13. How many years has the century ? — The century has 100 

years. 

14. How many years are there in two centuries ? — In two 

centuries, 200 years. 

' '•'ilu (for ''iluiw), the usual word for " depth." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC II9 

it tamriin is saba'^ta:J(!ir. 
La'^daid fo:' il '^ajdra. 

11 1 m'hadsa. 

biddina nitkallim Juwajja nnahirda fil a'^daid fo:? il '■ajdrci, 
fa 'ul li ba'a : 

1. "^ajdr 'uru:]" wi waiWd jib'u ka:m? — . . .jib'u h(i)da:J"dr 'irj. 

2. 'it'^it ?eard tudha talattjmta:r wi '^QrdQhd_rba'^a, tikuin 

misa(:)hitha kam mitr' mrabba'^ ? — misahitha_tku:n itnaijdr 
mitr' mrabba'^. 

3. taman tururd wi xamsa jib'u kam ietrd ?— jib'u tilat- 

taijdr tard. 

4. saba'^tjmja:! fi tne:n bi ka:m ? — b_arba'^ta:Jdr mi:l. 

5. nuss' Jdhr abrid kam jo:m ? — nuss' Jdhr abrid xamastaijdr 

jo:m. 

6. lamma_nzawwidhum wa:hid jib'u ka:m ? — jib'u sittaijdr 

jo:m. 

7. tisa'^tarjdr nai'is itnein il ba:?i ka:m ? — tisa'^taifar naiHs 

itnem il ba:'i saba'^taijar. 

8. sondu:? tudu wi "^ardu talattjmtar wi "^i'luiwu' mitrein 

kam mitr' mka'^'^ab ? — jiku:n tamantaijar mitr'jnka'^'^ab. 

9. innahcirda kam fi J Jahr il "^drabi ? — innahdrda jo:m wa:llid 

wi ''ijriin rabi:"^ 'awwil (masalan). 

10. is sa'na: di sanat' ka:m hagriija ? — is sa'na: di sanat' 'alf',. 

w tultimijja xamsa_w talatiin hagriija. 

11. tiwa:fi' sanat ka:m masi(:)hijja ?— tiwa:fi' sanat 'alfLw 

tus'^imi:ja_w saba''ta:Jar. 

12. ba'a, awwil sana hagriija tiwaifi' sanat ka:m masihijja ? 

— awwil sana hagri:ja tiwaifi? sanat suttimi:ja_tne:n 
wi '^ijrim masihiija. 

13. il gid fih kam sana ? — il gid fih mi:t sana. 

14. jib'a fil gilein kam sana ?— fil gilein mi(:)te:n sana. 



^ sana changes its feminine termination here because the succeeding 
expression is in the possessive case. 



120 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



15. And (in) 4 centuries 



? — There are 400 years. 



., „ 5 : ?— ,. .. 500 „ 

., 7 " ?— " .- 700 „ 

„ „ 8 „ ?— „ „ 800 „ 

„ „ 10 ,, ? — „ „ 1000 „ 

16. Now we must do a sum in multiplication. — What does multi- 

phcation mean ? I wish to know. 

17. Multiplication is the increasing of a number up to the number 

of times which (are) in another number, e.g. 5 times 6 is 
30; so the number 5 here has increased 6 times; i.e. 30 is 
more than 5 by 6-fold. 

18. Good. We want to multiply 3148 by 5. — We say thus : 

5 times 8 is 40, put down o and we have in hand {i.e. carry) 
4 ; 5 times 4 is 20, and we carry 4, which makes 24, put down 
4, and we carry 2 ; 5 times i is 5, and we carry 2, which 
makes 7, put down the 7 ; 5 times i is 5, put down the 5. 



19. Here what is the lower figure called ? — It is called the re- 

sultant of the multiplication. 

20. And how much is the resultant of the multiphcation in this 

sum ? — 5740. 

21. Now we must do another sum, this time subtraction. — ^And 

what is the definition of subtraction ? 

22. Subtraction is the taking away of a small number from a 

higher number than itself, e.g. we say 492 from 1500. We 
say thus : 2 from 10 is 8. 

9 „ 9 .. o. 

4 .. 4 .. o. 

o ,, I ,, I. 

23. Here the lowest number is called what ? — It is called the 

remainder. 

24. How much is the remainder of the subtraction in this sum ? — 

It is 1008. 

25. There remains for us to do a sum in division ; we'll do it 

and be done !— And what does division mean ? 

26. Dividing (or partitioning) a big number by a small one. 

For example, 10 by 5 is 2. The number 10 is the dividend 
and the 2 is the quotient of the division 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 121 

13. w iLArba'^tJgja:! ? — fiihum rub'^imiit sana. 
w il xamast_igia:l ? — fi:hum xumsimiit sana. 
w is saba'^t_igja:l ? — fiihum sub'^imiit sana. 
w it tamantjgjail ? — fiihum tumnimiit sana. 
w il '^ajartjgjail ? — fiihum 'alf sana. 

16. dilws'ti '^aleina ni'^mil hisba fi d darb. — id darb ja'^ni ?eih, 

bidd_a'^raf. 

17. id darb huiwa zijaidit "^adad 'add' 1 mdrrait illi_f "^adad 

taini. masalan, xamsa_f sitta_b talatiin, fa '^adad xamsa 

zaid hina sitt' mdrrait ; ja'^ni, talatin tiziid '^an xamsa 

sitta te(:)'ait {or it ta:' sitta). 

i8. tajjib, '^awziin nidrab talatt_ala:f wi miija tamanja w_drbi'^iin 

fi xamsa. ni'uil kida ; xamsa f tamanja b_drba'^i:n, 

1148 fiiha sifr wi_m'^ain(a)_drba'^a ; xamsa f_drba''a 

5 bi "^ijriin, wi_m'^ain(a)_cirba'^a, jib'_drba'^a wi '^ijriin, 

fiiha_rba''a wi_m'^aina_tnein ; xamsa_f waihid bi 

5740 xamsa wi m'^aina tnein, jib^u sab''a, fiiha s sab''a ; 
xamsa_f waihid bi xamsa, fiihaj xamsa. 

19. hinajl '^adad illi taht_ismu 'eih ? — ismu haisil id darb. 

20. wi haisil id darb illi fil hisba di kaim ? — il haisil xa'mast_alaif 

wi sub'^imijja w_drba'^i:n. 

21. dUwa'ti jilzamna ni'^mal hisba tanja fi t tarh_il mdr'rai di. — 

wi t tarh' ta'^riifu 'eih ? 

22. it tarh tanziil "^adad sugaj jdr min "^adad kibiir foi-'u ; masalan 

ni'uil, rub''imijja_tnein wi tis''iin min 'alfLw xumsi- 
mijja. ni'uil kida, itnein min '^ajdra tamanja; tis'-a 
"*" min tis'^a sifr; ^drba'^a min_drba'^a sifr; eifr' min 
1008 waihid waihid. 

23. hina 1 "^adad illi taht_ismu -'eih ? — ismu 1 bai'i. 

24. bai'i it tarh kaim fi 1 hisba di ? — huiwa 'alf'„w tamanja. 

25. faidil "^aleina hisba fi 1 ?isma ni'^milha wis salaim. — ^wil 'isma 

ja'^ni 'eih ? 

26. ta?siim' '^adad kibiir "^ala "^adad sugajjdr; masalan, '^ajdrd 

•^ala xamsa fiiha tnein. fa "^adad "^ajdra 'ismuj ma'suim 
''aleih, w itnein xairig il 'isma. 
' Or tagzii' . 



122 egyptian colloquial arabic 

Dialogue at the Post Office. 

Customer. I want eleven stamps at a '" white piastre " each 
( = small piastre) ; and 17 at a nikla ( = two milliemes) ; and 15 
at 3 miUifemes. That's enough now. What is your account ? 

Post-Agent. You have 11 stamps at a small piastre each, 
equals 5| piastres, I mean (= that is) 55 milliemes. And you have, 
too, 17 at a nikla, equal 34 milliemes, i.e. three piastres and four 
milliemes. That is 89 milliemes, i.e. 9 piastres less one milli^me. 
And you have 15 at three milliemes, = 45 milliemes,' i.e. 4 piastres 
and a half, and 4I plus the nine piastres less one mUlieme, makes 
the total price of the stamps 13 piastres and 4 milliemes, i.e. 134 
milUfemes. 

Customer. All right, take those 20 piastres and give me the 
change. 

Post-Agent. The 20 is 200 milliemes. Of those 134 are mine. 
Four from ten, six. Three from nine, six. One from one, nought. 
The change is 66 milliemes. Please take them. 



For Systematic Grammar. XVII. 

1. Tabulate the numerals from 11 upwards. 

2. What difference is noticeable between the number of the noun 

after numerals 3 — 10 and that after numerals 11 upwards ? 

3. Observe that to make a numeral positive you have simply 

to prefix [il] to the numeral: e.g. [il ''ajartjjjaim] "the ten 
days " ; [it tultimiija w_itne:n sana] " the 102 years." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 123 

m'hawra '^and il busta. 

zibu:n. 'ana "^aiwuz hidaijar wara'a min_abu 'irj"_abjad ; 
wi saba"^ta:J(!ir min_abu nikla, ia''ni itne:n malliim ; wi xamaste:Jdr 
mm_abu tala:ta malli:m. bi_zja:da ba'a. hisaibak kam ? 

waki:l il busta. inta ''andak ftidaijar wara'a min_abu 'irj^ 
abjad, bi xamsa sa:g wi nuss, ia''ni xamsa_w xamsiin malliim. — 
wi '^andak kamain saba'^taijdr fi nikla, b_drba'^a_w talati:n malliim, 
isL'^ni ta'lat 'uruij w_drba'^a malliim. jib'u tis'^a^w tamanim 
malliim, ja'^ni tisa"^ 'uruij 'ilia malliim. — wi "^andak xamastaijdr, 
fijjit talaita malliim, bi xamsa w^drba'^iin malliim, ia''ni 'ctrba*^ 
'uruij wi nuss. — w_drba'^a_w nuss "^at tis'^a 'ilia malliim, jikuin 
taman il wars' kuUu talattaijdr 'irj w_drba''a malliim, ja'^ni 
mijjd_rba''a_w talatiin malliim. 

zibuin. tajjib xud il ijriin 'irji doil, w iddiini 1 bai'i. 

wakiil. il "^iJriin bi mijtein malliim. lijja minhum mijjd_ 
rba''a_w talatiin. drba'^a min '^ajdru sitta. talaita min tis'^a 
sitta, waihid min waihid sifr, il bai'i sitta_w sittiin malliim, itfaddal. 



124 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XVIII. 



(i). Frequentative. (2). Future Perfect. (3). Pluperfect. 
(4) . Continuative. 

(I). 

1. Tell me, what do you do every day ? — I keep on working at 

Arabic. 

2. And what do / do ? — -You keep on working at these Arabic 

lessons. 

3. So then we both keep on working in the same subject. 

4. What does Miss X. do ? — She keeps on working at studjdng. 

5. What were you doing yesterday ? — I was keeping on at Arabic 

just the same. 

(2). 

6. Our lesson ends at — o'clock ; suppose one comes here after 

that time by half an hour, will he find me stiU here ? — 
No, you will have gone out. 

7. You mean he won't find me : will he find you ? — Perhaps he 

will, but it may be that I too will have gone out. 

8. Will one find Khalil the merchant in his office after working 

hours ? — Why no, he will have gone out. 

9. Can I meet anyone of those belonging to the Government 

Offices at 2 p.m. ? — Why no, at that hour they will have 
quite gone off. 

(3). 
10. That's why I went to the Finance, once, at a little before two, 
to see a friend of mine, and found he had gone. — Why he 
had gone off half an hour previously ! 

' Lit. : " doing much." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I25 

id ddrs it tamantaijar. 
li 1 m^hadsa. 
amma 1 bawwaib fa JuglituJ ba:b, wi muj laizim jisi:b 
il ba:b ilia "^alajan jim:h miJwa.T bi 'amr' mdxsu:s, masalan 
jigi:b lla:ga, waUa jwaddi gawabait il busta (1 kibiird) aw jirmiihum 
fi s sondu:?. wi muJ laizim jiddxxdl ajj' waihid wi s salaim, 
laikin jis'al kulli waihid "^an illi "^awzu, wi jutlub il kdrt milli 
ma jirafhumj, wi jSuiJ in nais illi ma IhumJ* Jugl. wi 1 bawwaib 
jiknis il hoij wi jimsah is salailim. 



(i). il mudairi'; bi " '^ammail." (2). il maidi bi " jikuin." 
(3). il maidi bi " kain." (4). il fiq bi " tann." 

(I)- 

1. 'ul li, bi ti'^mil eh kuU' joim ?— ana "^ammaiP ajtigil fi 1 "^arabi 

[fern, '^ammaila). 

2. w ana b_a'^mil eih ?— inta "^ammail tijtigil fi_d duruis il 

'^arabiija. 

3. ba'a_hna Litnein '^ammaliin nijtigil fLl madda zatha. 

4. wi 1 mis fulaina_b ti'^'mil eih ?— hiija '^ammaila tijtigil fi 1 

m^zakra kaman. 

5. kuttLb ti'^mil eih Jmbairih ?— kutt' '^ammaiLaJtigil fi 1 

•■arabi bardu. 

(2). 

6. ddrsina jintihi s sai'^a ; nifrid inn' waihid jiigi hina ba'^d' 

kida_b nuss' sai'^a, jila'iini lissa mawguid? — lai, tikuin 
xaragt {or rawwaht). 

7. ba?a ma_jla(i)?iniij ; jila(i)'iikjnta ? — gajiz jila'iini, laikin 

jimkin akuin ana kaman xaragt (rawwaht). 

8. il waihid jilai?i xdliil it taigir fi 1 bankLbtai'^u ba'^d mi'^aid 

ij Jugl ? — ^la, da_jkuin xarag. 

9. a'^raf a'aibiLajji waihid min bitui"^ id dawawiin is sai'^a tnein 

ba'^d id duhr ? — lai ! doil fi_l wa?t' da_jkuinu xaragu 
'awi ! 

(3). 
10. atariini^ ruht il malijja mdrra s sai'^a_tnein iUa Jwajj_ajuif 
waihid sahbi, la'eitu kain miji. — da kain miji 'abl' kida bi 
nuss' sai^a. 

^ Or igranni. The particles atairi and igrann express el discovered 
reason : " So of course. ...!"; " now we see why. . . . " ; " that's why. ..." 



126 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

11. Then why had the ushers not yet gone off? — ^They had not 

gone because the ushers are not like the employes. 

12. I passed by a mosque last Friday at 12.40 ; do you think 

the Moslems were still inside, or had departed ? — No, I 
think that the service had quite finished and they (had) all 
gone off. 

(4). 
I. 

13. tanneitak majgu:l_imba:rih li hadd' 'emta, ja "-ali ?' 
tanneitik majgu:la_mba:rih ,, „ ,, „ fatma ? 
tannetku majg.uli:n_imba:rih,, ,, „ „ na:s ? 

14. titannak tidrsb '■ali kida ja xoliil ?^ 
titannik tidrabi '■ali kida ja galida ? . . 
titannuku tidrsbu Uwla:d kida ja na:s ? 

15. tannak ma:Ji fi hadak ja walad ja "^afriit l^ 
tannik majja fi hailak ja bint ja '■afriita ! 
tannuku majjim fi hadak ja wla:d ja "^afariit ! 

FOR VERB-DRILL. 
Future Perfect. 
ijja:k tikum kanast il 'oida 'ablima ji:gu l''^ 
,, tikuini kanasti_l ,, „ „ ! 

„ tikuinu kanastuj „ „ „ ! 

Pluperfect. 
kutt' '■amalt' Juglak 'abl wusud id de:f P^ 
kutti '■amalti „ ,, ,, „ „ ? 
kuttu '■amaltu ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ? 



' " You continued busy yesterday till when, Ali ? " 

2 " Do you go on beating Ali so, Khalil ? " 

3 " Be right off with you, you little imp you I " 

4 " I hope you'll have swept the room before they come." 

5 " Had you finished your work before the arrival of the guest ? ' 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I27 

11. ijini"^na 1 hugga:b lissa ma kanuij xsrsgu ? — ma kanu:J 

xeragu "^alajan il huggaib muj zejji 1 mistaxdimi:n. 

12. ana futt* ''ala gaimi'^ il gum'^a Hi fa:tit is sai'^a wahda ?illa 

tilt, tiftikir kam il muslimiin lissa guiwa walla tiKu ? — 
la:, aftikir inn' s sala kamit xilsit 'awi, wi humma kuUuhum 
tiFu. 

(4). 

II. III. 

tannetni majguil li hadd id duhr sahi:h tannu (etc.) 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, tannaha „ 

tannetna majguliin ,, „ „ tannuhum „ 

aiw atann{i) edrabu mada:m jil'^ab ma'^luim jitannu {etc.) 

„ „ ,, ,, ,, „ titannaha ,, 

aiwa n(i)tanni nidrabhum madaim ,, jitannuhum „ 

[jiFabu 



FOR VERB-DRILL. 
Future. Perfect. 
in Ja 'aiia:h_aku:n kanas'taha la, ma jkunj' ka'nasha. 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, tkunj' kana'sitha. 

,, ,, ,, nikuin kanas'na:ha ,, ,, jkunuij kanasuiha. 

Pluperfect. 
aiwa kutti '^amaltu kadda:b ! ma kanj' '■amalu. 

,, ,, ,, kaddaiba! ma kanitji ''ama'litu. 

aiwa kunna '■amalnaih kaddabim! makanuij '^amaluih. 



For Systematic Grammar. XVIII. 

1. Decline ['^ammad] : what tense is it always succeeded by ? 

(Note absence of [bi].) 

2 . How are the future perfect and pluperfect expressed in Arabic ? 

Notice in No. 12 above that a distant auxiliary may turn a 
past into a pluperfect ([til''u], twice). 
To which verb does the negacive attach itself ? (See Verb-Drill.) 
J. The continuative [tann] is conjugated in a quite anomalous 
fashion. (The suffix pronoun appears to be a reflexive.) 
Observe that it is always followed by a participle or an 
aorist, one sounding best in some verbs, and in some the 
other. Occasionally conjugation is dropped, and [tann] 
with the suffixes alone will stand for a past, or a present. 



128 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XIX. 

Verbs with Second and Third Radicals the same. 

for reading. 
Dialogue Between a Lady and her Servant. 

Lady. Mahmoud, I want you to take up the whole of the 
furniture, and to wash down [lit. sprinkle) the house too. 

Mah. Well, let Mary take the furniture up with me. 

Lady. Certainly, take up the things with him, Mary, and 
wash down too. 

Mary. Here I am taking them up with him. 

Lady. Where are you putting the (moved) furniture, Mary. 

Mary. I am putting it in the guest-room. 

Lady. And where is Mahmoud putting it ? 

Mah. I am putting the furniture below. 

Lady. Are the cupboard and the table downstairs too ? 

Mah. No, the cupboard I am putting (it) in the passage and 
the table in the drawing-room. 

Lady. Have you taken up the mat, Mary ? (the knives — 
forks — spoons). 

Mary. Why I have taken it (them) up long ago. 

Lady. Did anybody take up the furniture with you last week ? 

Mah. Our neighbour's servant moved it with us and the 
maid also moved it : I mean both moved it together with us. 

Lady. And our other neighbours' servant and maid, didn't 
they take up too ? 

Mary. No they did not. Their masters are cross (stingy). 

Mah. Come along, let's put back the furniture into its place, 
Mary. 

Mary. No, I won't do so now, for the bell is near sormding 
for lunch. 

Lady. Have you put the furniture back into its place, Mahmoud ? 

Mah. No, I have not, for Mary has gone to ring the bell for 
lunch. 

Lady. Well then, when is the putting back of the furniture to be ? 

Mah. Its putting back (will be) before the sounding of the 
bell for supper. 

Lady. At any rate, I am pleased with your taking-up (of) 
the furniture in such good order. 

Mah. I hope that our putting it (back) will be (even) better 
than our taking it up ! 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I29 

it tamri:n it tisa'^taij'cir. 

il 'af^ail illij "^ein wi 1 ]a:m bitu'^hum wa:llid/ 

li 1 'irsija. 

m'hawra bem wahda sitt wi 1 xdddaim bita'^ha. 

sitt. ja mahmuid, ?ana '^awza_t(i)limm il '^afj' kuUu, wi, 
truJJ il belt kaman. 

mah. tejjib xalli mfirjim tilimmi wajjaij. 

sitt. ummail limmi(:) WQJja:h ja mdrjim, wi rujji kaman. 

mar. ana b_alimm wQJja:h_aho. 

sitt. inti bi thutti_l "^izad fe:n ja mcirjim ? 

mdr. ana b^ahuttu fi s salamlik. 

sitt. wi mahmuid bi^jftuttu fe:n ? 

mah. ana haitit il "^izad taht. 

sitt. wi d dula:b wi t tarabeiza ruxrim taht ? 

mah. la:, id dula:b_ana hsttu fi 1 majjaija, wi t tarabe:za 
ha'titha fi s sada. 

sitt. lamme:ti 1 busait^ ja mdrjim (. . .is sakakim wi J Jiwak). 

mdr. d_ana lam'maih min badri ! ( lam'maihum) (or 

da hna lammimu, lammi(:)nhum ). 

sitt. hadd' lamm_il "^izad wajjaiku ]_usbu:'^_illi fa:t ? 

mah. xdddaim gd(:)rna lamm' wajjaina, wi 1 xdddaima 
ruxra lammit, ja'^ni Litnem lammu wajjama sawa. 

sitt. wi 1 xddda:m bita'' gdrna_t_ta:ni wi xdddamtu ma 
lammuij ruxriin ? 

mdr. la:, ma lammuij wajja:na. do:l asjadhum^ najfin (buxala). 

mah. jaiia_nrudd il ''iza:l mat'rahu ja mdrjim. 

mdr. la:, m_aruddu:J dilwa't, "ialajan il gdras 'drrab jidu??i 
li 1 gdda. 

sitt. radde:t il '^iza:l matrahu ja mahmuid ? 

mah. la ma raddetj'*_''alajan mdrjim ra:hit tidu?' il gdras 
li 1 gdda. 

sitt. umma:l rah jiku:n redd^ il ''iza:l da ?emta ? 

mah. raddu jikuin 'abl' da" il gdras li 1 '■aja. 

sitt. '^ala. kull' ha:l ana mabsuita min lammukum^ il '■afj' 
bi t tdrtiib da. 

mah. in Ja 'aiia: jikuin hattina fi:h5_ahsan min lammina fi:h5 ! 

I Technically called il fi'^l il muda:'^af, " the doubled verb." 
"p. busat (mats). A carpet is sigga:da (p. sagagi:d). 
3 asja:d, ^^ of si:d (lord, master, grandfather). 4 e shortened before tj. 
5 This is the regular form of the infinitive of verbs of this class : cp. 
lamm, hatt, etc. For construction see Systematic Grammar 5. 



For Conversational Verb-Drill, and Analysis. 






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130 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 131 

as'ila "^al m^hawrct. — li 1 m'hadsa. 

"^alajan e:h is sitt' "^awza ?inn_alimad jilimm il "^afj ? 

talab mi:n jilimmi wijjaih ? 

marjim kamit bLthutt il "^iza:! fe:n ? 

wi mahmuid ? 

kam fih hadd' lammi wajjaihum, walla lammuj wah'duhum ? 

leh xdddamim gdrhum it ta:ni ma sa'^duhumj ? 

leh ma radduij il "^izad matrahu fi 1 ha:l ? 

tejjib ?emta raddu:h ? 



For Systematic Grammar. XIX. 

1. Notice that the vowelling of the past' tense is absolutely 

constant [a]. 

2. Notice that the aorist has [i] and [u] forms. 

3. To these add a rare [a] form : e.g. [sahh jisahh]," be correct " ; 

[ma j(i)sahhij], "it won't do." 

4. Notice that in this verb the first syllable of the aorist is an 

open one, contrary to that of the aorist of simple triliteral 
verb : [ti-limm, tid-rab]. Compare the different ways 
in which the particles combine with each : 
tilimm^ bi_tlimm~> inta bi_tlimm | ma_tlimmij'\ mab_alunmij) 
tidrab / bi tidrabj inta_b tidrab I ma tidrabj / ma b_adTabJ J 
The a:orists of all the forms still to be studied wiU be found to 
be classifiable under one or other head : and so the above 
ways of combining the particles will be found to be every- 
where typical. 

5. Notice how Arabic constructs the infinitive. If the object is a 

pronoun it is introduced by the preposition [fi], which has 
no meaning in itself. (The preposition [li] is similarly used, 
but is not so coUgquial.) If the object is a substantive, 
the preposition may or may not be used. 



132 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XX. 

The Verbs whose ist Radical is ['J or [w]. 

For Reading. 

One day the boy Ali said to his (paternal) uncle, Abdul Aziz, 
" Uncle, you promised me to take us to see the Dervishes at the 
fair (Birthday)." Then his uncle said to him, "I promised you, 
and I am going to take you too." Then said Ali to him, " Good, 
(do) promise us to go with you to the Birthday of the Sultan Abu 
Tla." Then his uncle said to him, " I promise you, if we are 
free." And when the appointed evening came, they started off, and 
walked, and went to the fair. And before they arrived, Fatima 
said to her uncle, " I am tired, have we not yet arrived ? " 
He said to her, " Never mind ! there's not much more ; only a 
little, and we'll be there." 

And after a little they got there, and went straight, making 
for the Dervishes, and stood behind the people. Then Ali said to 
his uncle, " I want to stand in front, so that I may see nicely." 
So his uncle said to him, " All right, you may stand in front ; 
go and stand, but look out that you don't stand crowded among 
the people." Then the girl said, " Then where am I to stand, 
uncle ? " Her uncle said, " What, are you a boy ! You shall 
not stand (anywhere) but behind ; stand by me here ! " 

And after the zikr was done, Ali went off and looked for his 
uncle and sister ; and after he had (some) trouble, he foimd them 
standing behind all the people. Then his sister began to ask him 
of what he had seen. So he said to them, " As soon as I went in, 
I found the Dervishes making a big circle, and performing the 
zikr." 

Uncle. Good ; (were) they sitting or standing ? 

Ali. They were standing, and some taking in their hands 
a piece of (an) iron like a sword, and hitting their neighbours with 
it ! And some were taking an iron chain, and hitting, hkewise, 
each other. 

' For wa''adtini. The verb means " to promise a person " or " to 
make an appointment with a person." 

2 A phrase. So xddt ba'^fli, " I went off," xdd ba'^du, " he. .," etc. 

3 Lit. " A grain." 

4 The verb has both the A and I forms, 

5 i.e. the suifi orders. 

^ Or u:'^a. And so, above, niwsal or nu:sal. 7 For li nafsak. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I33 

it tamrim il "^ijii:!!. 

il 'af^a:! illi 1 fe: bita(:)'^itliuni hamza walla waw. 

li 1 'irsija. 

fi jo:m mil 'ajjaim, il walad "^ali ?al li "^ammu '^abd il "^aziiz 

" ja "^ammi, 'inta wa'^attini' 'innak ta(:)'xudna tifdrragna ''ad 

ddr€twi:J fi 1 muilid." ?am '^ammu 'al lu, " ana wa'''attuku, wi 

rall_a(i)'xudku bdrdu." ?am '^ali ?al lu, " tejjib iw''idna_nra:h 

WQJjaik mudid is sultain abu 1 ''ila." 'am ?al lu '^ammu, " aw'^idak 

iza kunna fadjiin." 

wi lamma gat il ledaj maw'^uida, xddu ba'^duhum^ wi mijju 
■■dla rigleihum wi ra:hu ''al mudid. wi 'ablima jiwsalu 'adit 
fatma li ''ammaha, " ana ti'^ibt, 'ihna lissa ma wasalnaij ? " 'al 
laha " ma''lehj 1 ma fa(:)dilji kti:r, kullahajwajja wi niwsal." 

wi ba''di habba^ sgajjdrd, wislu* wi ''ala tud ra:liu 'asdi:n id 
ddrawiij,' wi wi'fu wdra n na:s. 'am '■ali 'al li ""ammu, "''aiwuz 
a'af 'uddaim, ''alajan aju:f kuwajjis." 'am '■ammu 'al lu, " ma'-lehj, 
inta ti'ddr tu'af 'uddaim; ruihj'af, bass_iw''a^_n nafsak^ ma 
tu''afj' mahju:r fi n na:s . 

'a:mit il bint' 'adit, "ummad an_a'af fem ja '■ammi." 'am 
•iammaha 'al laha "hu:wa_nti sabi ! 'inti ma tu'afiij ilia wdrd, 
'u'afi gambi hina." 

wi ba''dima xilis iz zikr^ till'' ''ali dawwdr ''ala ''ammu w_uxtu, 
wi ba''dima ti'-ib wa'gadhum wa'fim wdra n na:s kuUuhum. 'a:mit_ 
uxtu sa'a'litu ''an_illi Jaifu. 'am -'al luhum, " awwilma ddxdlt, 
wagatt id darawiij ''amlim hala'a_kbi:rd, wi_b juzkuru."' 



''amm. kwajis ! wi humma 'a''dim walla wa'fim ? 

''ali. dol wa'fim wi ba''duhum'° wa:xid f_i:du hittit lladiida 
zejji self wi_b jidrab bi:ha_lli_f riillu". wi fiihum wdxdim silsila" 
hadi:d, bdrdu jidrabu bi:ha ba''d. 



8 Lit. : "mentioning " (i.e. the Name of Allah) : the word is used for the 
ecstatic devotions of the suifi Orders. 

9 Lit. " making mention," and so " performing the zikr " (see note 3). 
1° This, even when followed by the singular, might refer to one or several 

persons. 

I' Lit. " the one who (is) in his wind (windward of him)." 
" Not silsilit, because in apposition to fiadild. 



134 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Uncle. And when they do hke that, do the blows not hurt 
them. 

All. No; why, more cunning than that (is) the one who takes 
fire in his hand and eats at it. 

Uncle. Do they not in that way get fever ? 

All. No ; they say (that they are) used to that. 

Uncle. Say, didn't any of them fall ? 

Ali. Why yes, one of them when he is spent, falls, and the 
others fall on the top of him ; and the one(s) who don't get spent 
don't fall. 

At this point Fatima got hungry, and said to her Uncle, "I'm 
hungry; I want (something) to eat." 

Uncle. And you too, Ali, will you eat ? 

A li. Just command me. Uncle, to get something ! What'U 
you take, Fatima ? 

Fat. Whatever you eat of, I'll eat of. 

And after (that) Ali brought the food, said his uncle to him, 
"Hullo, did I commission you to bring all that\ " 

Ali. You did not. But I brought it. 

Uncle. Well, eat, my girl, until you're satisfied. 

Fat. And you too, eat, Ali, until you fill your belly. 

Uncle. Eat and enjoy yourselves, with joy and health ! 
You aren't eating with appetite, why, Ali ? I guess you have eaten. 

Ali. I have already eaten. 

Uncle. Well, but Fatima has eaten just like you ; why then 
should she be eating with appetite ? 

Ali. I think we didn't eat as much as each other. 

Uncle. Apparently so, you didn't eat as much as each other. 

Now there still remained a little food over, so their uncle said, 
" Take care of what is over and take it with you." 

Ali. Take it, Fatima, for I am tired. 

Fat. No ! am I the one who isn't tired ? Take it yourself. 

Uncle. Give it me, / will take it, never mind. — Who has 
taken my handkerchief from here ? 

' Or iiwga''humj'. 

" A lively particle introducing a question. 

3 Or " commission " : so, ma'muir (a commissioner), ma''mu(:)rijja 
(a commission). 

4 A particle meaning, according to context, " I think," or " I hope," 
" I fear." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 135 

"Jam. wi lamma ji'^milu kida, ma juiga'^humj' id darb ? 

■•ali. la: da_l 'adha min kida illi wa:xid in na:r fi:du wi_b 
jatkul fi:ha ! 

'^am. "^ala kida ma jaxduij humma ? 

•^ali. la:, bi_j?u:lu wdxdi:n '^ala kida. 

■^amm. alla^ tiaddij minhum wi'l'^ ? 

•^ali. aho_l wa:}iid minhum lamma jibtel ji'a'^, wi t tanji:n 
ji-a<;u fo:?u ; w illi ma jibtelj (jibtalu:]") ma ji'a'JJ (ji?a'^u:J). 

wi hina fatma ga:''it wi 'a:lit li "^ammaha, "'ana gi(:)'^a:na, 
'^awz(a)_a:kul. 

•■amm. w mta ra:xQr ja "^ali ta:kul ? 

''ali. ma tu'murna^ ja ''ammi nigi:b ha:ga! takli 'e:h ja 
fetma ? 

fat. illi taklu minnu^ntu ?a:kul minnu. 

wi ba'^d ''ali ma ga:b il ?akl, "^amma 'al lu " hu:w ana 
'amdrtak tigi:b da kuUu ? " 

•^ali. ma 'amdrtini:f la:kin gibtu. 

•^am. tajjib, kuli(:) ja bint lamma tifba"^!. 

fat. w_inta ra:xar kul ja "^ali lamma timla batnak. 

"^amm. kulu "^ala ke(:)fkum bi 1 hana wi J fifa! inta ma_b 
ta'kulj bi nifs' le:li ja "^ali ? ijjak'* inta wa:kil.' 

"Jali. ana kalt' 'abl' dilwa't.^ 

•^amm. wi fatma ma'' kalit zejjak! umma:l bi ta:kul bi nafs' 
le:h? 

"^ali. aftikir ma kalna:J 'add' ba'-dina ! 

•^amm. iz ga:hir kida, ma kaltu:J 'add' ba'^duku. 

wi fidil mil 'aklLJwajja, 'am ''ammuhum 'al luhum, " xudu 
ba(:)lku^ milli' fa:dil wi xu'du:h wajja:ku. 

''ali. xu'di:h ja fatma, ikminn'°_ana ta'^ba:n. 

fat. la: ! anajli manij ta'^ba:na ! — xudu_nta ! 

■^amm. iddih li, 'an_axdu ma'-lehj. — mi:n xdd il mandi:l 
bita:''i min hina ? 



5 An isolated example of an active participle with past sense. 

S " Before now," the only expression for " already." 

7 A lively particle, " look you ! " 

^ Lit. " Your mind." 

9 =min illi. 

'° Or ahsan ana. 



136 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Alt. I didn't take it. Fatima is the one who took it. 
Fat. I took it ! ! I didn't even see it. 
Uncle. Ah ! then neither of you took it ! 
Both. No, we didn't take it. 

Uncle. Ah ! perhaps some imp took it— or a she-imp took it, 
eh. Fatima ? 



For Systematic Grammar. 

1. The verbs with first radical hamza are not very frequent, and 

present no irregularity (e.g. Pamar], " to command," 
[ju'mur, 'aimir, ma'muir]) : except the two verbs [kal] and 
[xad], for ['akal] and ['axad], which are apocopated in their 
past, and take on a [w] in the participle active. 

2. The verbs with first radical [w] present no irregularity [e.g. 

[waga"^] " to pain," [jiwga'^] with alternative form [juiga"^]) ; 
except the two verbs [wi'i''] and [wi^if], which are apocopated 
in their aorist, 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 137 

'■ali. ana ma xdttu:J. fQtma_lli xaditu. 
fat. ana_lli xdttu ! ! wala Juftu hatta ! 
'■amm. ba'a ma xdttuhjjntu litne:n. 
litnem. la: ma xddnahj. 

'■amm. eh! jimkin xddu "^afriit! walla xdditu "^afriita, 
w I J kida ja fatma ? 



as'ila. 

(i.) 'al 'e(:)h '■ali li '■ammu ? (2.) gawbu '■ammu bi 'e:h ? 
(3.) humma raihu fe:n? (4.) raihu rakbim walla zza:j ? (5.) 
mi:n ti'^ib 'ablima jiwsolu 1 muilid ? (6.) lamma wislu 1 mu:lid 
'asadu mim ? (7.) 'eh talab ' "^ali min <^ammu ? wi fatma 
talabit eih ? (8.) 'e:h kain gawa(i)b l_itne:n ? (9.) 'e:h illi 
Ja:fu "^ali ? (10.) id ddrawiij ka:nu_b ji''milu 'eh li bd'-d ? (11.) 
wi ba'^d* kida 'a:lit eh fatma? (12.) mi:n Ja:l il 'akl illi fidil? 
(13.) xabbama "^an iUi hisil fi '^iba:rit il mandiil. (14.) id darawiij 
ginsuhum eh, w_eh huiwa z zikr' bta'^hum ? 



The Verbs [pa)kal] and [('a)xad (ist Radical Hamzated). 



I. 


II. 


III. 


I. kalt, ja '^ali ? 


aiwa kalt. 


ma''lu:m kal. 


1 - kalti, ja bint ? 


t> tt 


kalit. 


Ikaltu, ja wla:d ? 


,, kalna. 


kalu. 


la. xdtt, etc. 


„ xdtt. 


xdd. 


2.^ |ta:kul emta ? 


aikul ba'^dem. 


ja:kul ha:lan aRsan. 


1 takli „ ? 


„ 


ta:kul „ 


^ Itaklu „ ? 


naikul ,, 


jaklu 


2a. taixud, etc. 


a:xud, etc. 


ja:xud, etc. 


3.^ /kul ja "^ali ! 


la:, ana wa:kil. 1 


[This active participle 
• has, quite uniquely, a 


a, kuli ja bint ! 

£ 1 


,, „ wakla. -1 


" (kulu ja wla:d ! 


,, , ihna wakli:n. 


past sense, see below.] 


^a. xud ja "^ali. 


adi:ni wa:xid. 




4. jbi 'taklu le:h. 


j'b aklu kida ! 


rma'^lu:m bi jaklu. 
\ „ bi j a'kulha. 


Ibi ta'kulha le:h. 


lb a'kulha „ ! 


fbi tak'lu:h le:h. 


rbi 'naklu ,, ! 
ibi na'kulha „ ! 


/ „ bi jak'lu:h. 
I ,, bijak'lu:ha. 


Ibi tak'lu:ha le:h. 


5. ma taklu: J ! 


m aklu(:)J le:h ? 


ma jaklu: J le:h ? 


ma taklihj ! 


? 


ma taklu:J le:h ? 


ma takul'ha:]" ! 


ma akulha:J ,, ? 


ma jakulha:Jle:h ? 


ma takluha:J ! 


ma nakulha:J „ ? 


ma jakluha:J le:h ? 


6. xdttu, ja '^ali ? 


la: ma xdttu:J. 


salli:h ma xddu:J. 


xdttiih, ja bint ? 


}> It 1' 


ma xdditu:J. 


xdttuih ja wla:d ? 


,, ma xddnahj. 


ma xdduhj. 


6a. kaltu, etc. 


,, ma kaltu: J, etc. 


ma kal J, etc. 


7. xdt'taha ja "^ali? 


,, ma xdttalia:J. 


ma xddhaij. 


xdttiihum ja bint ? 


,, ma xdttuhumj. 


maxddithumj. 


xdttuiha ja wlaid ? 


,, ma xddnaha:J. 


ma xdduha:J. 


ya. kal'taha, etc. 


,, ma kaltaha:J, etc. 


ma kalhaij, etc. 



Have you eaten " ? la 
" When will you eat ? " 
" Eat." — " No, I have eaten.' 
" Why are you eating it ? " — ' 
" Don't eat it." 



Have you taken ? " (for xadt). 

3a. " Take." — " Here, I am taking.'' 
Because I am ! " 

6, 7. " Have you taken it then." 
138 



The Verbs [wi?if] and [wi'i'^] — with First Radical [w]. 



I. 


II. 


III. 


From wPif. 






l.||Paf ja "^ali! 


a?af leih ? 


la:zim tu'af ! 


3^i?afi ja bint ! 


t) }i 


„ tu'afi. 


1 Pafu ja waild. 


nu'af ,, 


tu'afu. 


2. ma ti'afji ja '^ali. 


m a'afji le:h ? 


ma ju'afji le:h ! 


,, ti?afi:J, jafatma. 


„ 


„ tu?afji „ ! 


„ tPafu:J, ja wla:d. 


ma nu'afj' le:h ? 


,, ju'afu:J„ ! 


From wi?!";. 






S.^l'iw'^atPa'^ ! 


a'a'^_iz za:j ! 


ju'a'^jz za:j ! 


•8 H 


iw'^i tPa";! ! 


I 


tu'a"; „ 


1 


iw'^u tPa'^u ! 


nu'a"; „ ! 


ji'a'^u z zaij ! 


4. ma tPa'^^ ja wa:d. 


la:, m_a'a'^J ! 


ma'^luim ma ju'a'^J ! 


„ tPa^iJ ja bitt. 


}t t) 


„ tu?a';j ! 


„ tPa'^uiJ ja na:s. 


,, ma nu''a''J ! 


,. „ ji'a^uij! 


From wisil {or wasal). 






5. awsaLemta ? etc. 


tiwsal bukra. 


sahiih jiwsal bukra, 




or tuisal, etc. 


or ju:sal, etc. 



" stand up, Ali." 

" Don't stand up, AH." 

" Take care (lest) you fall " (iw'' a or wSs) . 

" Don't fall, boy." 

" When shall I arrive ? " — " You'll arrive to-morrow." 

t39 



140 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXI. 

Verbs with Second Radical [w] or []]. 

For Reading. 

From " The Thousand and Two Nights." 

The 1002nd night. — Story of ye Ladye and ye Portere. 

It is said there happened a story in the town of Bagdad, 
(which) I want to tell you to-day. Once upon a time, a certain 
lady went to a fruit-seller, and said to him, " I told your man to 
keep for me a few bananas." Then the seller answered her, " Yes, 
he told me, and we are keeping what you want." 

Lady. Good ; and what do you sell the oke at ? " 

Seller. We sell them as we sold them yesterday. 

Lady. Do / know how much you sold them at ? 

Seller. Just as everybody sells them. 

Lady. Everyone else sells them cheap. 

Seller. Do you mean, we seU. it dear ? Say, madam, just 
what you please [i.e. to pay). 

Lady. Is it / who sell ! You say ! 

Then they agreed, and the lady took her demand. 

Lady. I want you to get me a porter ; who wUl go and get 
me one ? 

Seller. Go, Omar, fetch her a porter. 

[Omar goes and gets one.] 

Omar. Here, we've got you a porter and brought him. 

Lady. Can you carry (for me) all those things ? 

Porter. I (can) carry more than them. 

{Porter carried them.] 

Lady. AU right ! Here he is carrying them, nor is he tired. 
Go along with you to the house, and look out that the string does 
not give way while you are on the way. Set off, good fellow ! 

Porter. Are you going to leave me to go alone. Don't leave me! 

Lady. Why should not I leave you ? Are you afraid ? 
Don't be afraid ! 

' The Arabic name for the middle letter of the triliteral, the first letter 
being fe: and the third la:m, because the verb fa''al (f^l), " to do," is 
taken as the norm. 

' For faikiha, p. fawa:kih. 

3 Lit. " That which you desire it." illi being an indeclinable article 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I41 

it tamriin il '-ijrim. 

il 'af^a:! illi_l '^e:n' bita'';ithum waw walla je:. 

li 1 'irs:ja. 

min kita:b 'alf le:la_w leltem. 

il leilaj ?alf'_w IJtnem.— hikaijit is sitt' wi J Jajjail. 

ji'u:lu, hasalit hikaija fi raadimit bugdaid, "^awzin ni?iilha_ 

n nahdrda. fi jo:m min do:l raihit wahda sitt' li wa:hid jibi:"^ 

fakha,^ 'a'lit lu, " ana hilt' 1 illi wajjaik jihu(:)J li Jwajjit mo:z." 

'am il bajja:"; ga'wibha, " aiwa hu:wa ?al li, w_ihna hajjim illi_nti 

"■awz'aih.''^ 

sitt. tejjib, bi_tbi:'^uj wi'?a_b ka:m ? 
bajja:"^. bi_nbi(:)';ha zejjima bi'^na_mba:rih. 
sitt. ana "^drfa bi'^'tuiha^ ka:m ? 
bajja:"^. zejjima bi_jbi''^u:ha_nna:s. 
sitt. gerku bi _jbi''u:ha_rxi:s. 

bajja:"^. ja'^ni hna bi_nbi'^ha gaili ? ■'uili ja sitt' zejjima_nti 
•■awza 'uili. 

sitt. hu:wa_ana b_abi:'^ ? ?ul inta ! 

wi ba''dem_ittafa'u wi xddit is sitt' tolabha. * 

sitt. '^awza_tju'fu: li Jajja:l. mi:n jiruili jigi(:)b li wa:hid ? 

bajja:*^. ruh ja "^umar Juf laha Jajjail. 

["■umar rah gab.] 
■^um. adi hna Juf'na: lik ij Jajjail wi gib'na.'h. 
sitt. ti'dar tiji:l {or ti'JiUi) il haga:t do:l kuUuhum ? 
Jajjail. ana JajLaktdr minhum. 

[J"a(:)lhum iJ Jajjail.] 
sitt. sahiili, ?aho Ja'jilhum wala huj ta'^bain. jsiid ruh "^al ' 
belt, wj[w'^a_r rubait jisiib minnak w_inta* ra(:)jih. 'uim ja gad'^a! 

Jajjail. rQha_tsi(i)'biini aruih li wahdi ? ma_tsibi'niij ! 
sitt. m asibakj' leih ? inta xa(:)jif ? ma^txafj ! 



(rather than a " relative pronoun ") is supplemented by a personal pro- 
noun, the case of which corresponds to that of the relative in the English. 
(See Ch. XXVIII.) 

4 This w(i) is not the conjunctive participle, but rather a subordinating 
particle to be translated " as," " while," or by participle. 



142 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Porter. I'm not afraid of anything for myself, only lest I 
lose my way, for formerly I did lose it. 

Lady. How should you lose your way ? Lots of porters have 
gone to our house, and none lost their way. It seems you are 
a bit of an idiot ; perhaps it will be better not to leave you. Off 
with you, go before me ! 

Then they went towards the house ; while they were going, the 
lady increased her pace ("stretched") and passed him. 

Then the porter said to her, " Are you going to leave me to 
walk alone. Don't leave me ! " 

Lady. Are you afraid of anything or are you such a coward ? 

Porter. I'm not afraid of anything in the world. So long as 
Allah is, why should I fear ? 

Lady. So long as you have repeated towards AUah, you are 
right not to fear. 

Porter. Was I doing anything (wrong) ? What should I be 
sorry for ? I've been sorry over everything wrong long ago, but 
just now I was hungry. 

Lady. AU right, when we get to the house, we'll give you 
tomething to eat. 

Porter. (ShaU I) have survived as far as the house ? 

Sitt. Get away with you, you wretch ! do you mean to tell 
me you're dying of hunger. This is no plea of a man who is (just) 
hungry. 

Porter. You mean, then, that you'U be glad when I die on the 
road ? 

Sitt. You won't die ; here's the house in front of us — here ! 

\To he continued, [lit. "the remainder is coming").] 



' Notice government of " fear " verbs ; min for the thing feared, "iala 
for the thing feared-for. 

^ A verb here used (without conjugation) for an adverb. 

3 Lit. " I ask Allah's help against you." A term of abhorrence. The 
termination is taken from the literary language. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I43 

Jaj. ana muj" xajif "^ala nafsi min Raga, bass_atu:h ; '^alajan 
saba'^ tuht. 

sitt. tituih izzaij ? fih Jajjali:n kitiir raihu betna wala 
haddij taih. — il bajjin innak '^dbiit Juwajja ! iLahsan bardu 
m_asibakf'. tejjib jaiia ruh ?uddami. 

wi ba'^dem re:hu "^al beit. wi humma rajhiiti 'a:mit is sitt 
maddit wi faititu. 

'am 'al lahaj Jajja:! : bi tfuti:n(i)_amji_l wahdi ? ma_ 
tfutiniij ! 

sitt. inta xuft' min haiga walla_nta kida xawwaif ! 

Jaj. ana ma b^axsfj' min ha:ga fi d dunja. ma da:m 
rabbuna mawguid, axa:f le:h ? 

sitt. ma dami tubt li_lla:h lik ha??' ma_txafj. 

Jaj. hu:w_ana kutt' b_a'^mil ha:g(a) atu:b "^anha ? ana 
ta(:)jib "^an kuU' Iia:ga battalia min zamam, bass' dilwa't' gu'''t. 

sitt. tajjib lamma_nru:h il be:t, ha_ngib lak haiga ta- 
'kulha. 

Jaj. ana "^iJtUli) haddjl be:t ! 

sitt. a'^uizu^ bi_lla:h minnak, ba'a_nta mutt' mil gu:"^ xa:lis ? 
mij higgit wa:hid gi'^ain ! 

Jaj. ja'^ni lamm_amu:t fi s sikka ji'^gibik ! 

sitt. ma_tmutj, il be:t aho ?uddamna ho ! 

[il ba:'i ga:j.] 



as'ila. 

(i.) hislit fern il hikaija di ? (2.) 'adit e:h is sitt' li 1 faka- 
ha:ni ? (3.) 'eh kam gawa:bu laha ? (4.) talabit e:h is silt' 
ba'^dima ttafa'u ? (5.) talabit e:h ba'^d' kida mil bajjai'^ ? (6.) 
'ailit e:h is sitt' h J Jaj jail wi 'eh ka:n gawaibu ? (7.) 'eh 'al ij 
Jajjad H s sitt ? wi 'eh kan gawabha ? (8.) kam xdjif le:h iJ 
Jajjad ? (9.) kamit is sitt' mabsuta min talab iJ Jajjad innalia 
ma tfutuij ? (10.) 'eh kan raddu '^ala kalamha ? (11.) 'eh 
kamit "^uzuimit is sitt' lu lamma wislu 1 be:t ? 



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EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I45 

Fny Systematic Grammar. 

1. It should be remembered that the roots of all these verbs 

have either [j] or [w] for their middle radical. The vowels 
[i] and [u], or the length [:], correspond to these weak 
letters. 

2. The [a, i] and [u] forms come out most clearly in the aorist. 

The [a] is found in very few verbs, but those ones common. 

3. The [i] and [u] forms come out clearly also in the past. But 

[a] -verbs sometimes make their past in [i] (e.g. [bitt] from 
[jiba:t]), sometimes in [u] [e.g. [xuft] from [jixaif]). 

4. The first syllable of the aorist being open, its vowel is hable 

to elision : e.g. [bi_thu:f, wi_tba:t]. 

5. The characteristic long vowel (into which the weak letter is 

transformed so often) is shortened before two consonants 
([Jilt] for [Jiilt], [tijilha] for [tijidha]). And also when it 
loses accent : jji'bii'^u] " they sell," but [jibi'''u:ha]. 

6. The true passive participle is (e.g) [mabi:'^] " sold " (for [j] 

verbs), and [mahud] "frightful" (for [w] verbs). But these 
forms are very rare, and other forms are requisitioned to re- 
place them. For example, the weak letter is restored and 
the participle becomes like an ordinary triliteral, e.g. 
[madjuin] (for [madim]) "indebted," [ma''wu:g] (for 
[ma''u:g]), "crooked." 



146 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXII. 

Verbs with Third Radical [w] or [j]. 

For Reading. 

[Conclusion of Story of ye Ladye and ye Portere.] 

And when they arrived at the house, tliey knocked at the door 
and the concierge opened to them, and the porter put down his 
load in the house. And the lady said to him, " What would happen 
if you stop the night chez-nous ? 

Porter. Nothing whatsoever, if I were disengaged. But 
people like me are never disengaged. 

Lady. Of course, all who are kings like you are not free. 

Porter. What has happened that you speak to me thus. Am 
I a king ? 

Lady. Yes, I have decided that you are to be a king. Take 
care lest you forget it later. 

Porter. If that be true I must comply and not disobey you. 

Lady. But then I'm afraid lest [la] you forget my kindness 
to you : for how many a one has forgotten my kindness to him, 
and how many a woman has forgotten ! 

Concierge. Exactly. Verily they aU forget. 

Porter. At first you called me a porter : did you find any 
harm in me ? 

Con. She found everything about you good, and therefore 
now has called you a king. 

Porter. Then we have fixed up that I am a king ? [Raising 
his voice and speaking with haughtiness.'] AU right, fill me a cup, 
Murgan ! 

Lady. How should he fill (it) for you ! What ! Before you 
put on your boots, would you begin (to walk) ! 

Porter. Seeing that you are a slave-girl, you'd better not get 
into a temper, lest I say to you, fill for me ! 

Lady. I beg your pardon, your majesty, the king! Murgan, 
give him to drink. 

I From Je:la, " a single) carrying," verbal noun of Ja:l. The termina- 
tion is the regular one to distinguish the infinitive Je:l (" carrying ") from the 
single act (Jeila, " a carrying," " a load "). 

'Distinguish giri, jigri, "run" from; g6rQ, jigra, "happen" 
(generally "inconveniently"). 

3 Or axaif. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I47 

it tamrim IJtnein wi "^ijriin. 

il 'af^ail illi 1 laim bitai'^ithum w walla j. 

li 1 'irsija. 

titimmit hikaijit is sitt' wi J" Jajja:l. 

wi lamma wislu 1 be:t xsbbatu '^al ba:b wi fa'tah luhum il 

bawwa:b, wi J Jaj jail nazzil Jeltu' fi 1 be:t, wi s sitt' ?alit lu," jigra'' 

?e:h iza bitt' "^andina 1 leila ? 

Jajj. ma jigraij ha:ga, lau kutti faidi. laikin illi zejji: ma 
jifdaij. 

sitt. bi i tab"; kull' 1 muluik illi zejjak ma jifduij. 

Jajj. gdra^ ?eh lamma bi_t?u'li: li kida ? hu:w_ana malik ? 

sitt. aiw(a)_ana hakamt innak tikum malik. iw''a ba'^dem 
ti'^sami. 

Jajj. iza kan sahi:li laizim drda wal(a)_a'^saki:J. 

sitt. laikin ba'^dem dxja' la tinsa fadli '^aleik, "^alajain kam 
wa:hid nisi fadlina "^aleih, wi kam wahda nisjit. 

il bawwaib. tamam ! ha'^a'* kulluhum nisju. 

Jajj . da'^e(:)timi fi 1 ?awwil Jajjail, la'eiti minni haiga battalia ? 

baw. la'at minnak kuUi Je: tajjib, wi '■alajain kida da''^atak 
dilwa'ti malik. 

Jajj. ba'a risima '^ala 'inni malik ? tajjib im'la: li ka:s 
ja murgain ! [rafa'' hissu w_itkallim mitkabbdr.] 

sitt. jim'la: lak izzaij ! ba'a 'ablima tihdi tibdi ? 

Jajj. mada:m inti mamluika' ma tiz'^aliij, ahsan a?ul lik^im'li: 
li_nti. 

sitt. arguik is simaih ja galadit il malik. is'?i:h, ja murgain.^ 



♦ The termination is a relic of the classical accusative, as is the termination 
-an in hailan and many other adverbs. 

5 Orgdrja. LJi. " possessed as property." The " Mameluks" (mamluik, 
p. mamalilk) were the nobles of Egypt with a slave origin which is recalled 
by their names. (N.B. — "^abd, a " black slave," mamluik, a " white slave." 

^ The word means " Coral " : fern, murgaina (Morgana) : a common 
name for male and female slaves. 



148 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

And when she had thus said to him, Murgan got up and walked 
away, to fetch a gold cup, and fill it with sherbet for him. Then 
the porter said to him, " Murgan, why have you walked away ? 
Who told you to go ? 

Lady. He is going to fill a cup with sherbet, and give it you 
to drink [or give you to drink). 

Porter. Do not go, nor fill (it), nor give me to drink until I 
tell you something before I forget. 

Lady. Your Majesty has forgotten something. What have 
you forgotten ? 

Porter. No, I have forgotten nothing important, it's only 
that he should bring with him a match-stick. 

And immediately he brought him the sherbet and gave him to 
drink, and after that the lady clapped her hands, and they knew 
nothing (more) ere there opened a panel of the wall, and (lo) 
coming down from it black slave-girls who run up and aU of them 
throw a salaam to the king. 

Porter. What has happened that these should come in front 
of me, and throw me a salaam ? 

Lady. Of course, everyone knowing you are a king will throw 
you a salaam. 

Porter. Well I never ! the world is verily not lacking in 
marvels ! The slaves know and I know not ! 

Lady. What ! You've forgotten, and do not know ! Your 
Majesty is forgetful. Here Morgana, give him to drink again, that 
he may be conscious of himself. 

And at once the eldest of the girls arose and gave him some 
water in which was a drug that puts to sleep And the porter 
forgot to look into the water before drinking it. And as soon as 
he had swallowed it Morgana put out the light, without anybody 
seeing her. And the porter slept the sleep as of the dead. 

Lady. Watch (him) ! let's hope the Lord guide him right, 
and he'll go to sleep. 

' Notice shifting of accent : 'jimla ; jim'laiha ; jimla'ha: lu. 

== jurb, " act of drinking " ; Jctrba, " a drink,'' p. Jdrbait (or, " a 
draught of medicine." p Jurab) ; Jdra:b, " syrup," " coloured drink," 
■• sherbet," p. (as here) Jdrbait ; Jurba, " soup." 

3 For nisiitj. 

4 An interjection to be variously translated. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I49 

wi lamma 'alit lu kida, 'am murga:n miji, "^alajan jigi:b 
kubbaija min dahab wi jimla'ha: lu' Jdrbait.^ ?am ?al lu_J 
Jajjail, " ja murgam inta mjiit le:h ? mi:n 'al lak timji ? " 

sitt. rail jimla kubba:jit Jarba:t wi jis'i'ha: lak (or "^alajain 
jis'iik). 

Jajj. ma timjiij wala timlaij wala tis'iniij amm^a'ul lak 
•"ala ha:ga 'ablim(a)_ansa. 

sitt. galaltak na:si ha:ga ? e:hjlli_n(i)si:tu ? 

Jajj. la ma_nsitJ3 ha:ga_mhimma, bassi "^alajan jib?a_jgib li 
•^uid kabriit wajjaih. 

wi fil ha:l gab lu_J Jdrbait wi sa'?a:h. wi ba^^d' kida sa'^afit 
is sitt, wi ma dirju 'ilia w_infatahit tai'a mil he:ta, wi nazliin 
minha guwa:r su:d, bi jigru wi kuUuhum bi jinnu sala:m li 1 malik. 



Jajj . gare 'e:h '■alajan do:l gum 'udda:mi wi ra'mu: li salaim ? 
sitt. bi t tab"" kull' min jidra innak malik jir'mi: lak salaim. 

Jajj. amma'* d dunja ma tixlaij^ min garajib! il guwa:r 
jidru, w ana m adra:J ! * 

sitt. ba'a_nta nsi:t wala tidraij! galaltak nassaij!^ ja 
murgama is'i(:)h tami, "^alajam jiw'^a_n^ nafsu. 

wi fi 1 had 'a:mit il kibiird fi 1 guwair wi sa'atu majja fiiha 
dawa jinawwim. wi sihi J Jajjad jibuss' fi 1 majja 'ablima jijrabha 
wi masa:fit ma bala'^ha, murgama tafat in nu:r min ge:r ma hadd' 
_jjufha. wi na:m ij Jajjad no:m zejjij 'amwait. 

is sitt. bussu, 'ijjak rabbina jihdi(:)h* wi jina:m. 



5 xala, jixla, "to be destitute of." 

6 The lorm expresses habituation ; cp. makkair, " habitual in deceit " 
(makr) ; or a trade, cp Jajjad (porter). 

7 For jiw''a li. wa'^a, jiw'^a, or ju:''a, " to look out," " to be ware " ; 
cp. the street-cry u:''a, " ware ! " 

^ hada, jihdi, " to lead aright " (always of God). 



150 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Mor. See there, the Lord has guided him right, and he has 
gone to sleep. 

Lady. All right, carry him away, but quietly, lest he wake. 

Mor. Don't be afraid. He will not wake. 

Sitt. Take him to his house, so that he may find himself in 
the morning in his lair. 

:{c :{: 9[c :{: :^ :): 

And when the porter woke, he found himself in his house ; 
he got up and went late to the vendor, bemused. 

Vendor. Abraham, why have you deserted us all this time ? 
Pray for us a prayer of good ! 

Porter. If you please, stand off from me ! Why, am I awake 
that I should pray for you ? Look you, I need someone to pray 
for me ! • 

Vendor. Abraham, what's the matter with you ? TeU me 
what happened to you ? 

Porter. Tell you, say to you, what? I am like one whose 
money got lost at market and he departed minus the beans. 



For Systematic Grammar. XXIL 

1. Notice the four possible vowel combinations as between past 

and aorist, viz.: [a a, i i, a i, ia]. No rule can be given; 
each verb must be noted as it occurs. 

2. Notice carefully the way the pasts in [i] differ from those in 

[a] ; namely 

(i) their third person feminine and plural ; 
(2) the liability of their first vowel to be elided. 

3. Notice the reduction of length wherever two consonants 

succeed a naturally long vowel. 



' Lit. " Why have you forgotten in our disinterest ? " Seeing the porter 
come so late and also so bemused, the vendor thinks he has had some super- 
natural experience, and so asks him to " pray a prayer of good" to secure 
some of the blessing. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 151 

murgama. 'aho rabbina ha'da(:)h wi na:m. 

sitt. tejjib Jiluih ba?a, bass' bijweij ahsan jisha. 
murgama. ma_txdfi:J ma jishaij. 

sitt. joiia wadduih "^ala beitu ''alajam jisbah jiPa nafsu_f 
mctr'adu. 

i|! * * * « He 

wi lamma sihi J Jajja:l la?a nafsu f be:tu. 'am ra:h badri 11 1 
bajja:'^ wi huiwa madhuij. 

il bajja:"^. inta_shi:t "^aleina le:h' ja^brahiim? id''^i_jina^ 
da'^wit xe:r ! 

Jajj. min fadlakjb'^id "^anni. hu:w(a)_ana SQ:Ii(i) ad'''i: 
lak ? d ana "^awuzjlli jid''^!: li. 

bajja:'^. ma: lak ja^brahiim ? ih'ki:li "^alli ga'ra: lak. 

Jajj. all'ki: lak a'ul lak e: ? aho ana zejj_illi da'^it fuluisu 
fi s su:' wi tili"^ minnu min ge:r fiummus. 



as'ila. 

(i.) "^alajan eh ?a:lit is sitt muj manzu:r jifSa ? (2.) 'eh 
kam garadha min tasmijjitu malik. (3.) 'e:h illi ?a:lu J Jajjad 
lamma risju '■ala ?innu malik ? (4.) le:h is sitt' samahit lu jikal- 
limha bi takabbur ? (5.) fassdr kala:m is sitt " 'ablima tihdi 
tibdi ? " (6.) murgam wi murgama mim humma wi 'ailit is 
sitt 'eh li murgam? (7.) iftakdr ij Jajjail '■ala tu:l innu maUk? 
(8.) hasal eh lamma sa"afit is sitt ? (9.) sa'atu 'e:h il kibiird 
fi 1 guwa:r ? (10.) is sitt' kamit xajfa min e:h ? (11.) 'ul lina 
•^an Uli hasal min ba''d iJ Jajjail ma Jirib id dawa li gaijit ma 'a:bil 
il bajja:'' tami jo:m? (12.) fassdr lina 1 masal illi darabu J Jajjail. 
(13.) ijmi''na 1 bajja:*^ sa'alu innu jid'^i: lu ? 

^ For id''i lina. The verb da'^a, jid''i [inf. du'^a) is the regular word 
for intercessory prayer, petition. The word sala (vb. salla, jisalli) is 
properly only for public or prescribed prayer. 

























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154 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXIII. 

The " Increased " Verb. 
Note. — These " increased " forms (II. to X.) (which are not 
taken in their usual order of numbering for expository reasons), 
are all applicable to both (a) the " sound " triliteral verb, (6) the 
" surd verb " (p. 130), and (c) the verbs weak in the ist, 2nd, or 3rd 
radicals. In the following pieces examples of all these applications 
will be given more or less indiscriminately. In the paradigms 
for verb-drill the strong form (a) is treated first, and (b) and (c) 
thereafter. 

[fa"al] AND [fa«il]. 

Scenes on a Journey A Dialogue. 

Verbs of Form II. 

FOR READING. 

[Packing.] 

1. I told you Mahmoud, to pack (make ready) the luggage, 

have you done so ? — No, ! haven't packed it yet. 

2. What has kept you from packing it till now ? Off and pack it, 

and look sharp ! — Patience, sir, I'll pack it immediately. 

3. Patience (is for) when we have plenty of time. — Well then, 

do get (me) somebody to arrange (things) with me ? 

4. There is no arranging that needs one to be with you. — All 

right, I'll do it as best may be. 

5. All right, only do finish it off, and take care not to forget any- 

thing ! — It's done, I've finished it off, nor forgotten anything. 

6. Here, you, Mahmoud, bring me a cab. — Please let someone 

else than me bring it. 

7. And why trouble someone else than you since j'om are here ? — 

Only that I have not yet got ready my own luggage, and 
I'm doing it now. 

8. And why were you not getting your luggage ready even (from) 

yesterday ? — Yesterda)- 1 was busy packing the house-things. 

9. All right, finish your luggage, and then fetch the carriage for us. 



' From waddab with the second radical doubled. Inf. tawdilb. Notice 
this form carefully ; it is the invariable and exceedingly common infinitive 
of the 2nd derived form of the verb. N.B. — All these derived forms have 
regular invariable infinitives, the infiniti^'es of the simple verb being on the 
contrary numerous and entirely without rule. The infinitives of the derived 
forms should therefore be mastered thoroughly. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I55 

il fi'^1 il maziid. 



is siige t tanja — fa'^'^al aw fa"^"^!!. 
muhawra fi?ahwa:l is safdr. 
li I 'ireija. 
[tawdiib' il "^afj.] 

1. ana 'ult' lak tiwaddab il "^afji ja mahmu:d, waddabtu ? — 

la lissa ma waddabtuij. 

2. e:h illi liaijak "^an tawdiibu li hadd' dilwa't ? — jaiid waddabu 

?awa:m ! — tawwil ba:lak ja xawa:ga an_awaddabu ha:lan. 

3. tatwid il ba:l lamma_jku:n '^andina wa''t' tewi:l. — tajjib, 

ma'*_t'gi(:)b li hadd' jirattib wijjaij ! 

4. ma fi:J tdrtiib ji'^uiz lu wa:hid wajjaik. — tajjib, drattibu 

zejjima_jkum. 

5. tajjib bass' tammim "^aleih, w_iw'^a tinsa ha:ga. — xala:s 

tammimt '■aleih wala_nsi(:)tji haiga. 

6. ja mahmu:d, had'dar li '^drabiija ! — i'^mil ma''ru:f xdlli Sadd* 

ge:ri jihad'darha. 

7. wi ''ala 'e takli:f geirak ma da:m_inta mawguid ?— bass' 

lissa ma gahhiztij '^izaili ?ana, wi b_agahhiz fi:h. 

8. wi le:h ma_tgali'liizs' ^ "^af Jak min imba:rili hatta ? — -ana 

majgud bi taghiiz "^afj il be:t min_imba:rih. 

9. tejib xallas '■afjak wi ba'^dem had'dar linaj. "^drabiqa. 

^ Not negative nor interrogative, but introducing a vivacious command. 

3 Verbs ending in a sibilant (s, z, s, z) and suffixed by J of the negative, 
greatly weaken the J so that it sounds hardly more than s. Make your 
teacher pronounce the following : ma tibhasj (" don't inquire ") ; ma_ 
tgahhizj (" don't prepare ") ; ma tixlasj (" you don't finish ") ; ma 
tihfazj {" don't keep "). 



156 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

[Bringing the cab.] 

10. Bridle the horses, cabman ! — I'll bridle them, (but just a 

minute) till I sort the harness on them. 

11. All right, I'll do the bridling, and you do the sorting of the 

harness. 

12. I've finished bridling ; have you done the sorting ? — I've 

done, get in please. 

13. Did you speak to him, Mahmoud, about the pay ?^No, I 

did not speak to him, I left the speaking to you, ma'am. 

14. How much will you drive us for, from here to the station, 

cabby ? — The drive from here to the station is a dollar ; 
get in please. 

15. No, that's too much ; if you make the fare so much we won't 

drive. — I can't make it less than that, because it's a long way. 

16. All right, get on and let the servant drive by your side. 

[To the station : at the station.] 

17. Cabby, think of a near(er) road by which to make a short cut ! — 

No, there's no shorter cut other than the one we are going by. 

18. I'm afraid we shan't catch (the train), touch up [lit. advise) 

the cattle a bit, and drive (hard) ! 

19. They are going without any touching up. 

20. Mahmoud, have you made the necessary arrangements for 

the expediting of the luggage ? — Yes, I did, but till now 
my arranging has failed. 

21. All right, get someone to help you in the weighing (-room) 

and in putting it into the luggage-van in the train. 

22. Here, Effendi ! give me a ticket to Port Said, first class, 

return (= going, coming). — No hurry. 

23. I've waited long, and the train is close on starting ; no hurry 

indeed ! 

24. Why, there are still two minutes till its starting, and there's 

the ticket. 

25. And give me too a second class one, (same) description as the 

previous. 

' For ja USta (any master workman). 

^ Sing, bahiima, " a beast of burden." 

3 The regular plural of all infinitives is the fern. pi. termination -a:t, 
as here. But some infinitives have a broken plural, e.g. tadbiir, tadabiir ; 
ta'^liim (teaching), ta'^aliim. From these two examples the form of the 
broken plural of the infinitive of Form II. may be deduced. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 157 

[m'giibit il '^arebiija.] 

10. laggim il xe:l ja_ste ! ' — alag'gimhum, bass' lamm_dsQllah 

it tQ?m "^aleih. 

11. teijib xdlli talgi(:)mhum "^alajja, wi tasliili it te'm "^aleik. 

12. ana xalais laggimt, inta SQllahtu xalais ? — xallast, jaiia_ 

rkab. 

13. kallimtu ja mahrauid "^ala 'ugra ? — ^la, ma kallimtuij, xalle:t 

il kalaim li hadritak. 

14. bi_trakkib min hina li 1 mdhatta_bka:m ja_ste ? — tdrki:bi 

min hina li 1 mdhatta bi rija:l, itfad:aalu_rkabu. 

15. la:, da_kti:r ; madaim bi_tkattdr fi 1 'ugra kida, nia_b nirkabj. 

— ma jimkinniij a'allil '■an kida '■alajan il masa:fa tawi:la. 

16. tajib jaiid, rakkib il xddda:m fi riiSak. 

{■^al mdhatta ; fi 1 mdhatta.] 

17. ja_sta fakkdr fi sikka 'urajjiba tixarram minha. — ma fi:J 

tdxriima ge:r illi_hna majjiin fiiha. 

18. ana xajif ma nilha'J, Jawwdr Juwajja '■al baha(:)jim/ wi 

su:? ! 

19. humma majjim min ge:r tajwiir. 

20. ja mahmuid "^amalt it tadbi(:)ra:t3 il lazma li Jahn il "^afj ? — 

ana dabbdrt, la:kin li haddi dilwa'ti tadbiiri xa:b. 

21. taijib Juf hadd' jisa'^dak fi 1 miza:n wi tanziilu fi 'odtj 

buda:''a fi 1 wabuir/ 

22. j_afandi, iddimi tazkdra li hadd' bur sa'^iid biriimo' rajih 

ga(:)j !* — tawwil badak Jwaija ! 

23. ana_stanne(:)t kiti:r wi 1 babu:r ?drrab ji?u:m! w_atawwil 

ba:li_zza:j ! 

24. da lissa faidil "^ala 'ijaimu di'i'tein.'' w_a:di t tazkdra. 

25. w iddimi kaman wahda sikundo* Jdrh illi faitit {or Jdrhu). 



+ P. waburait ; or ?atr, p. ?utura:t. 

5 Or ddraga ?u:la. 

6 Or zihaib w_ija:b. 

7 s. da?i:?a, p. da'a(:)ji?. 

8 Or ddraga tami. 



158 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

26. Here, porter, go before me, and look for an empty compartment. 

— When I find a compartment shall I put the luggage in ? — 
Yes, of course, and put up the big bag on the rack. 

To Illustrate the Weak Verbs of this Form (II.) 
A Conversation in the train. 

27. How is your Sultan getting on ? — God be thanked, it is a 

state of things which makes one quite happy. 

28. Yes, he is a good (kind) man, and likes to make (people) 

happy. Has he kept on the Khedive's people in the Abdeen ? 
or has he not kept them on ? — He's keeping on the honest 
people only. 

29. His keeping of them on is just because his nature is patience 

(because he is patient). 

30. I hear that he wants the Egyptians to bring up the girls (with) 

an education like that of Europe, because they do not bring 
them up properly. — Why yes, he wants to make them like 
the useful women of Europe, not Uke those who ignorantly 
ape Europeans. 

31. Well you have diverted me with this news ! — God keep you ! 

Is there remaining much till we reach Port Said ? 

32. Why, my brother, the interest (sweetness) of your talk 

has brought us there without our being sensible of the 
journey. 



' P. Junat. 
^ P. rufu:f. 

3 Lit. " In the name of God, that which God willed " ; formulae to mate 
compliments acceptable. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 159 

26. ja Jajjail, ruill 'udda:mi, dawwar "^ala diwain fa:di ! — lamm_ 

al'a diwain, adaxxal il "^afji fi:h ? — 'aiwa_uinma:l, wi 
talla'; ij Jenta" 1 kibiird '^sr mff/ 

tamsi:l li 1 'af^ail il mu'^talla min si:git fa"al. 
[m^'hadsa fi 1 ?atr.] 

27. izzej ji hail is sultem bita<^kum ?— bismil'laihi, ma: Ja 'aiiaih ^ ! 

di ?ahwa:l tisalli'* ?awi! 

28. aiwa huiwa wailiid latiif wLjhibb il xe:r li n na:s. xdlla 

na:s min bitu:<^ il xideiwi fi "^abdim, walla ma xdlla:J ? — 
m^xdlli n na:s il ?umana bass. 

29. taxliijitu fi:hum ikminn' tab'^u 1 hilm {or ikminnu tialirm). 

30. ana b_asma'^ innu "^aiwuzjl masrijim jirabbu 1 bana:t tdrbiija 

zejji tdrbi:jit_urubba, "^alajan ma hummaj m°rabbi:'jinhum 
tamaim. — ^maho' "^aijiz jixdlliihum zejji_is sitta:t in naFim 
fi 'urabba, muj zejj illi jitfarnagu^ bi gahluhum. 

31. ?amma hddritak salle(:)tni bi 1 xabdr da 'awi.- — aiiah jih- 

fazak''! fa:dil kitiir "^ala ma nu:sal bur sai'^id ? 

32. ja ?axi, di hala:wit hikajtak wassalitna min ge:r ma_nhiss, 

bi 1 mijwair. 



as'ila. 

(t.) e:h illi ?a:lu 1 xawaiga li mahmuid wi e:h kam il gawab ? 
(2.) talab e:li il xdddaim min siidu ? (3.) tatwid il bad jinfa'^ 
fi kuU il ahwail ? (4.) lamma 'amdru 1 xawa:ga jihaddar '■drabijja 
rah hadan ? . . .ummal ma rah J' le:h ? (5.) mahmuid ma gah'hizs' 
'^afju le:h ? (6.) 'ul Una hasal e: be:n il xdddaim wi 1 '■drbagi. 
(7.) 'eh keifijjit ittifa'hum '^al 'ugrd ? (8.) il "^drbagi '^agab 
il xawaiga fi 1 mijwair li 1 mahatta ? (9.) tadbiir mahmuid 
nigih bi xsuis Jahn il "^afj ? (10.) 'ul lina "^ala tdrtiib il "^afj il 
kibiir wi s sugajjdr wi 'at'' it tazaikir. (11.) talab e: mij Jajjail ? 
(12.) Idxxas lina madmum il m'hadsa Hi hislit fi 1 ?atr. 



■< The "word means " to divert," " amuse," " console." 

5 Short for ma huiwa. 

f" From the quadriliteral root frng (Frangi, Feringi, Frank, foreign). 

' The commonest reply to a compliment. 



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l62 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

For Systematic Grammar. XXIII. 

1. Notice that throughout this form, when the second vowel has 

on either side of it one of the consonants which modify [a] 
to [d] or [a], then that vowel is [a] [i.e. [fatha]). Other- 
wise it is [i] ([kasra]). And whichever of the two the vowel 
is, it persists throughout all the tenses. This is a very 
important rule : e.g. [nQad(Q)f, naff(Q)a, hdrr(a)f, ?aJJ(d)r], 
but [sabb(i)n]. The first vowel is [fatha] invariably. 

2. Notice that the quadriliteral is constructed exactly in the 

same measure, two different consonants merely replacing 
the doubled one: cp. [Idxbat — naddaf, kdrkib — laggim]. 
And rule (i) holds good for all quadriliterals also. 

3. Only in the infinitive is there divergence, e.g. [Idxbata — 

tandiif]. 

4. In the weak verbs of this form, only those weak in ist radical 

call for any remark. They are A I verbs, combining the 
features of [bana jibni] with those of this form. Their 
infinitives invariably take the feminine termination. (Con- 
trast [tandiif — taswijja] [for [taswija]). 

5. Significations for this form : e.g. 

[wi'i''] " to fall," [wa^'a''] " to fell." — Making an intransitive 

verb of first form transitive. 
[nidi:f] "clean," [naddaf] "make clean." — Making a transitive 

verb from an adjective. 
[liga:m] "bridle," [laggim] "to bridle." — Making a transitive 

verb from a substantive, 
['ibli] " south," ['abbil] " go south." — Making verb of action 

from an adjective, 
[segiir] "smaU," [saggar] "to make out small," "to demean." 

— Making out, considering, somebody something. 
[kibi:r] " big," [kabbdr] " to make out big," " exaggerate." — 

Making out, but wrongfully. 

N.B. — [naggis] (from [nigis] "unclean") well illustrates the 
difference between " making actually so " (No. 11) and " making 
out so " (No. 12). 



164 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXIV. 

Verbs of " Form V." [itfa«al, itfa"U]. 

FOR READING. 

A proposal for a holiday. 

A . I want to make an arrangement for you to spend a holiday 
at the Zoological Gardens. 

B. Fine idea ! I have long had a desire to see over the Zoo. 
By the way, will not somebody be necessary to show us all the 
animals ? 

A. No need : what, didn't you know the way about them 
yet ? But I'll tell you one thing ; if it is not practicable for me 
to go with you, take care that none of you get near to the cages 
of the monkeys, lest they preoccupy you and get you off your guard, 
and put out their paws suddenly and scratch you. 

B. Gracious, why we'U keep right away from them, and give 
up a visit-to-see them, even ! 

A. I don't tell you to avoid them altogether, only keep edged- 
off a bit from them. 

B. We know that you are looking to our good entirely, so, 
in any case, thank you very much. 



' Form II. fassah, " give (someone) a holiday." 

2 Inf. of raih (alternative form, rawaih) ; lit. " the-going-to-them." 

3 Form II., jassdr, "to make easy" (jasiir) : Form V., "to be made 
easy." 

■t Form II., 'drrab, " to make near." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 1 65 

it tamri:n il arba'^a_w "^ijiim. 

il 'af^ail illi min siigit " itfa«al " (aw " itfa"il "). 

li 1 'iraija. 

[Ptirsih "^alajan fusha.] 

A. ana "^awuz a'^mil lukum tdrtiib "^alajan titfas'sahu' fi 
_gnent il hajawana:t. 

B. fikr' gami:l ! "^alajan liija ke:f atfdrrag "^aleiha min 
zaman. — alia ma jilzamna:J wa:hid jifdrragna '•ala 1 hajawana:t 
kullaha ? 

A. muj" duruiri, hu:wa_ntu ma "^riftuij mirwahha^ lissa? 
walaikin an(a)_a'ul lak, in ma_tjassdr3 'li:J aruih wajjaikum, 
iw'^a hadd' minkum jit'drrab* min 'ifisit^ il ?uru:d, ahsan jilah- 
huiku wi jsahhu.'ku wi jtalla'^u 'ideihum "^ala gafla wi jxdrbijuiku. 

B. deh da! w_ihna ma nitba'^'^ad "^anhum wi balaj furga 
•■aleihum hatta ! 

A. ana muJ b_a'ul lukum titganni'bu:hum^ bi 1 mdrra, 
bass' txdlliikum'' mittarrafim* "^anhum Jwaija. 

B. ihna ni'^raf innak bi tunzur li salihna xa:lis, fa kattdr 
xe:rak kitiir '^ala kull' ha:l. 



as'ila. 

(i.) e:h iUi nta "^awuz ti'-milujina ? (2.) jilzam wa:hid 
jifdrregna '■al gineina waUa jgu:z niru:h li wah'dina ? (3.) inta 
bi_thazzdma min e:h ? (4.) '^alajan e:li ma_n''drrabji min 
'ifisit il 'uruid ? (5.) il xo:f da ji'tidi 'innina ma nruhj bi 1 
mdrrd ? (6.) ?e:h iUi nifhamu min tahzi:rak lina ? 



5 Sing. ?afes. 

^ Lit. " to make-yourselves-aside-(ganb)-from." 

7 Not tix€dlu:kum : the verb when combined with a reflexive pronoun 
is always in singular. 

8 Lit. " keep-yourselves-to-the-edge-(terf)-of." 



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l68 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

For Systematic Grammar. XXIV. 

1. " Sound " verb. Apart from the prefix [it] the rules given 

on p. 162, Nos. I and 2, apply to this form, and its corre- 
sponding quadriliteral, absolute^. 

2. The infinitive form [ta''allum, tasawwur], etc., is scarcely a 

colloquial form, the infinitive of Form II. [taf^iil] is usually 
borrowed and substituted for it. 

3. The only weak verb of this form calling for notice is the one 

exemplified in No. 9. But whereas the corresponding verb 
in Form II. is a A I verb (like [bana jibni]), in Form V. it 
is A A (like ['are ji'^re]). Contrast 
sawwa, jisaww[i]. 
itsawwa, jitsaww[a]. But partic. mitsaww[i]. 

4. Significations of form : 

(«) To do the action expressed in Form II. to oneself or in 
oneself : e.g. [it*^allim] " to teach oneself (have oneself 
taught)," and so " learn." Middle, or reflexive, of II. 
Apply this to [itfassah, issawwdr, ifaddim, it'oxxer, 
itldxbat], etc. 

(6) And so, " to make oneself out. ..." e.g. [itkabbdr] " to 
make oneself out great," " to be proud." 

(c) And so " to pretend to be. .," " to ape. .," e.g. [iddarwij] 

" to pretend to be a dervish," [itfcimag] " to ape foreigners." 

(d) Merely passive of II. [laggim] " to bridle," [itlaggim] 

" to be bridled." 
Notice the assimilation of the [tj m [issswwar, miggawwiz] 
and other consonants. 



lyo EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXV. 

Verbs of " Form VII " and " Form VIII." 

[infa^'al (it-) and ifta'^al.] 

FOR READING. 
[{a) The Appointment.] 

A. If it's possible for you, you must wait for [or expect) 
me to-morrow at your house, and I will be found there between 
three and four o'clock. 

B. Why I have an appointment with so-and-so at that time ; 
but just (wait) until I excuse myself to him. 

A . I think that however much you excuse yourself to him he 
won't accept the excuse. 

B. Oh come ! if he does not accept, that is his affair. 

A . Now then ! you must be sure not to vex him, seeing that 
you previously gave him an appointment. 

B. No ; that man annoys me and hinders me from my work. 
I only hope he will get vexed and give me up and have done with it. 

A. Considering you have a meeting (of a Society) once a 
week, where does this " giving up " come in ? 

B. The best thing is for me to leave the Society, since my 
inclination will not allow that he should meet with me, not even 
once a week. 

[(&) The barrister {advocate).] 

C. What is your opinion of that barrister, my dear friend. 

D. I think he's a man (who) works conscientiously. 

C. Well then, shall I rely on your word and get him to plead 
for me in my law-suit ? 

D. Even though I do praise him to you. let your rehance 
(leaning) nevertheless be on God (and then) youil succeed. 

C. Of course everyone who is relying on Him will never fail ; 
but you know what I mean ! . . . Hadn't we best direct ourselves to 
him in order to make conditions with him for his labour ? 

D. Do just wait, if only a moment, until I finish the thing 
I have in hand. 



^ The verb after a conditional tense is in the past tense, without the sense 
being past (cp. our " if I knew him, I would, etc." 
^ VIII., from nazar. 

3 Or anwigid. Both forms are VII. from wagad. 

+ Colloquial change of d into d ; root-word dajji' (narrow). 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I7I 

it tamrim il xamsa_w "^ijriin. 
11 ?aFa:l illi min siigit " infa'^al" (aw " itfa'^al") wi " ifta'^al." 

li 1 'iraija. 

[{a) il mi'^aid.] 

A. iza ka:n' mumkinak, laizim tinti'zirni^ bukra fi I be:t, 
w_an(a)_at'wigid3 <^andak be:n is sai'^a talaita w_cirba'^a. 

B. d_ana "^andi mi'^aid rai'^ fula:n fi 1 wa't' da, ummail 
amm a'^ti'zir lu. 

A. aftikir mahma_(i)'^ta'zdrt' lu ma ji'balj il "^uzr. 

B. deh da ! w_in ma_'bilj ji'^raf Juglu ! 

A. iz zaij ! madaim iddet lu mi''a:d ma^tza'^'-aluij abadan! 

B. la:..., da bi jda:ji?ni'* wi bi j'^attalni "^an 'ajgaili, ijjak 
jiz'^al wi jirtigi*^ "^anni wi s salaim ! 

A. mata kam' "^anduku gtima:'^ fi kull' 'usbu:"^ mdrrci, 1 
irtiga:'- ji:gi_mn_e:n ? 

B. ahsan Je:' an_atruk il gam'^iija he:s nafsi muj ?abla 
tigtimi'' wijja:j, wa law fi 1 gum'^a mdrrd. 

[{b) il m'haimi (1 abuka:tu).] 

C. fikrak fi 1 m''ha:mi da ?eh, ja habiibi ? 

D. aftikir innu ra:gil jijtigil bi zimma. 

C. ba'(a)_a'' 'timid '^ala kala:mak w axdlli:h jitra(:)'fi'^'' li 
fi_l 'adi:ja_bta'^ti ? {or drtikin). 

D. w in kutt' b_am'dah lak fi:h, la:kin xdll(i)_i'^tima:dak w 
irtikamak '■al aiia:h ting ah ! 

C. ma''lu:m kull' min jiku:n mi'-timid wi mirtikin "^aleih 
ma_jxibj_abadan. il ma''su:d'' ! . . . . muj ahsan Je nitwag'gih 
lu hadan "^alajan nijtirit wijjaih '^ala ^if^aibu ? 

D. ma tintizir wa law burha sgajjdra "-ala balma (a)xall95_ 
illi f i:di ! 

5 mata, " when " is treated like a conditional particle (cp. note (i). 

6 The " VI th form " of the verb, see XXVI. 

7 Lit. " the intended thing," used by itself like this to bring a discussion 
back to the point, or to cut short irrelevant objections. 



172 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

C. No, if we don't go to him now I fear he won't be found 
in to-day, and that would be something (which) would be a loss to me. 

D. My good man, don't be afraid, to-day or to-morrow are 
all the same, and loss there is not. 

C. If you please, either come with me now, or give it up, and 
I'll go to him by myself. 

D. Have it your own way ! Please yourself and go if you 
must. 

Weak Verbs of these Two Forms. 
[(c). The closed bridge.] 

A . The boats that were behind the bridge all passed through, 
all except two which were held up. 

B. Hard lines ! For that bridge only opens once a week, 
and the boat that gets held up must wait for the whole of that 
interval, and that is an interruption (in which) there is loss. 

A . Well, and if they need food during that time ? 

B. If there are villages all round them where does " need " 
come in ? There is even a village right adjoining the bridge, in 
which is everything. 

A. True, the adjoining of that village to the bridge is very 
useful to people like that. 

[{d). An odd incident.] 

I was awfully tired yesterday, and from my extreme weariness 
lay stretched the whole night on my bed like a corpse, and the 
paraffin of the lamp got exhausted and the lamp went out of itself. 
While I was sleeping, after the light went out, I felt someone enter 
the room and (heard him) groping in my desk. And in my fear of 
him I was perplexed what to do in order that the thief might go 
out of the room, and after a little I chose (made up my mind) to 
attack him, and attack I did indeed, and caught hold of him ; and 
in his fear of me he threw himself on to the ground, for he was 
(only) a poor hungry man who wanted a loaf of bread to eat, not a 
thief. And he was very advanced in age, a very old man. And 
had I been aware that the case was so, I needn't have been perplexed. 

^ Used in humorous expostulation, especially in objecting to over- 
rigorousness. 

^ Or ja ?imma. 3 Lit. " with your mind (or feeling)," xaitir. 

+ Lit. " (if) you go, you do go." 

5 So sikka nafda, " a thorough-fare" ; sikka muj nafda, " a bhnd 
alley " ; naffiz, " put through," " accomplish." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I73 

C. lai, iza ka:n ma nruh 'lu:J dilwa't, axa:f ma jinwigidj 
innaharda, wi da Je: jiku:n darar '^alajja. 

D. ja Jeix,' ma txafj", innahdrda wi bukrd zejji ba'^d, wala 
fi:J" darar. 

C. min fadlak, ja^ t'u:m wijjaija dilwa^t, ja balaj, w_an_aruh 
lu_l wahdi. 

D. bi xatrak^ ! <^ala keifak ; tiru:h, tiruih.* 

il 'af-a:! il mu''talla mis si(:)g.te:n do:l. 
[(c). il kubri 1 ma?fu:l.] 

A. il mara:kib_illi kainu wdra_l kubri nafadu' kulluhum, 
bassjltnein ill(i) inhaiju. 

B. BoSh "^aleihum! '-alajan il kubri ma jinfitihj ilia kuU' 
saba'''t,ijja:m mdrrct, wi 1 mdrkib illi tinha:J laizim tintizir il mudda 
di kuUaha, wi di '^atala fiiha xusaird. 

A. tejjib, w_in_ihta:gu fi 1 mud'dai di li 'akl ? 

B. iza kam hawaleihum bilaid, jikum "^anduhum ihtijaig 
izzarj ? hatta fih balad mittisla* bi 1 kubri tamam bi jinba:'' 
fi:ha kuUi haiga. 

A. sahi:h, ittisad il balad di bi 1 kubri bi jinfa'' na:s zejj' 
do:l kitiir. 

[(li). nadrd gdriiba.J 

amm_ana kutt' ta'^bam imbairih, wi min Jiddit ta*'abi_tmadde:t 
il le:la di "-as siriir zejj il 'ati:l, wi g ga:z xilis mil lamba w intefat 
li wahdaha. wi_f 'asna: ma kutt' na(:)jim ba''dima_ntafa n nu:r 
hasseit inni waihid dnxdl il 'oida wi bi jda'^bis fi 1 bure:(h). wi min 
xo:fi minnu 'umt^ihtdrt a'-mil izzejj, lagljl haraimi da jitla'^ 
mil ?o:da. wi ba'^d' Jwajja_xtdrt'' inn(i)_ahgim ''aleih, wi fi'^lan 
hagamt '■aleili, wi min xoifu minn(i) Jtrama fi 1 'ard, "-ajan innu 
kam ra:gil galba:n wi gi'^am, "^awuz ragiif jaklu, muj hdraimi. 
wi kam kibiir fi s sinn' ?awi, ja''ni ra:gil ixtija:r.^ wi law kutt_a''raf 
inn il ha:la kida, ma kanj' laizim afitair. 

6 From ittasal for iwtasal, VIII. of wasal. So, ittahad for 
iwtahad, ittafa' for iwtafa'- 

7 VIII. from root X j r ; for ixta(:)rt where the weak letter is represented 
by the length, which however is suppressed before the two consonants : 
3rd sing, ixtair. 

^ Inf. of the above, the weak letter reappearing. It is difficult to say- 
why " choosing " should mean a very old man. Perhaps a man who is 
allowed to do just what he likes. 



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176 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

For Systematic Grammar. XXV. 

1. Past vowels always [a]; aorist, regularly [i], but [a] is occa- 

sionally heard, e.g. [jintazar] ("he expects"), alongside of 
[jintizir]. 

2. Notice elision of unaccented [i] ([tin'bis(i)ti], just as in ['mis(i)- 

kit]). 

3. VIII., first radical [w], [ittahad] for [iwtaliad], etc. (Form 

VII. no irregularity.) 

4. VIII., second radical weak-; conjugated like [jinaim], e.g. 

[ihtaig, jihtaig]. (Form VII. similarly : e.g. [inSaiJ], " to 
be kept back," [jinha:J], but no infinitives. 

5. VIII., third radical weak; conjugated like [bana(:), jibni(:)], 

e.g. [ibtada, jibtidi]. Form VII. similarly, e.g. [intefa], "to 
be extinguished," [jintifi], infinitive (if any) [intifa(:)]. 

6. N.B. — Second and third radicals the same, conjugated like 

[sahh jisahh] {e.g. [imtadd jimtadd, indarr jindarr]). 
Form VIII. is one of the few in which a passive participle ap- 
pears in a few verbs : it is always in [a] : e.g. [muhtdram] ; 
second radical weak, [muxtair] (same as the active). 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC ^L^^ 

as'jla. 
(il mi'^aid.) 

(i.) ma jimkinakJLt'aggil il mi'^aid wejja fula:n ? (2.) 
haiga kbiird "^andak iza zi'^il ma'^aik ? (3.) ma tjufuij iz za:j, 
ma da:m ma'^ ba'^d fi 1 gam'^ijja? 

(il m'haimi.) 

(i.) fikrak e:h fi zimmit fulam il m'haimi ? (2.) '^alajan 
eh ti'aiwil waihid m'haimi ? (3.) '^ala mim laizim il 'insain 
ji'^timid wi jirtikin ? Li'"tima:d '^ala z za:t battail ? (4.) "^alajan 
e: bi tista''gil fi mirwaihak li 1 m'ha:mi ? 

(il kubri 1 ma'fuil.) 

(i.) gdra 'eh li 1 mara:kib illi wdra 1 kubri ? (2.) umma:l 
fih kida darar kibiir ? (3.) tajjib jidabbdni "^e'Jithum z zejj 
wa't' wu'uifhum ? 

(nadra gdriiba.) 

(i.) eh kamit ahwailak wa'tima ddxal "^aleik ir raigil? 
(2.) wi lamma ddxdl "^amal e: ? (3.) 'e:h kam sabab ihtijairak. 
(4.) 'axi:ran "^amalt e: wi Juft eh fi:h? 



178 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXVI. 

Verbs of " Form IV." 
FOR READING. 
[The Messenger.] 

A. I sent you a letter yesterdaj^ with your servant, why did 
you not inform me (about what I asked), though I said to you, 
inform me and send the answer with the messenger ? 

B. Is it my fault, if I order your messenger to wait a little 
just while I should write the message for him, and it does not 
please him to stop ? 

A . Say, didn't you show him that the message was essential 
(or your message to me) ? 

B. My good sir, I did so, hard, but he made it appear to me 
that he had no time. And it appears that you had not told him 
to wait for the answer. Moreover, I saw him signify that he was 
tired. 

A. You are right in what you say, for I should have obHged 
him to wait. My mind was occupied with an important affair, 
and that is what caused me to forget. 

B. But for (the fact that) you were careless, and if he had 
stayed, it would have saved me coming to you all this way. 

A. I do see that you have troubled yourself, and I beg you 
to forgive me. 

B. Don't mention it ! Just give me your " Arabic Com- 
position " though, for there is someone with us who knows how to 
write and wants to teach me how to do it. 

A. Is he the man who teaches you dictation ? 
•B. Yes, he is the one ; but he dictates to me very difficult 
sentences. 

A. Well, here's the book for you. 

B. Grateful and obliged ! 



' Or ?afadt. IV. of root f j d from ?afa:d. 

' IV., imperative of 'drsal. 

3 II., synonymous with ?awrQ(:) above (IV. with 3rd rad. weak). 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I79 

it tamrim il xamsa wi 1 '-ijrim. 

li 1 'iraija. 

il 'af^ail min si:git 'aFal. 

[il mirsa:l.] 

A. 'arsalt' lak gawaib imbairih ma'^a 1 xdddaim ma fidtiniij' 
leih, ma'^ inni ?ult' lak, fi(:)dni wJrsiP ir redd ma'^aj mirsail ? 

B. a'^'mil lak ei, iza kutt' ?amart' mirsailak jistanna Jwejja 
masaifit m„aktib lu 1 'ifaida, ma xallssuij jistanna ? 

A. alia ma 'awre(:)tu:J inn' 1 'ifa:da darurijja ? (or inn' 
'ifadtak liija). 

B. ja siidi wdrreitu^ ?awi, la:kin 'ez'hsr li 'innu ma '^anduij 
we't' 'abadan. wi ii?;har* iim' hadritak m_axbdrtu:J b innu 
jintizir ir radd. wi zijaida '■ala kida Juftu bi jizhir innu ta''bam 

A. lik ha?" f illi bi.t'udu, li'innu kam jilzamni 'al'zimu^ 
bi Lintiga:r...ka:n fikri majguil bi 'amr'_mhimm, hu:wa_lli 'ansami. 

B. lau la_nta 'ahmalt, -"au hu:wa_(i)stanna, kam 'ag'nami 
■■an* il migij li Iiaddi_hna. 

A. '■ala kuUi had 'af'abt' nafsak w arguik il m^samfta. 

B. il "^afw ! bass iddimi kta:b il ?inja_bta:'^ak. "^alajan 
fih wa:liid "^andina ji'-raf jinji "^awuz ji'^allimni Jwajja "^alajan a'^raf 
'anji. 

A. huwa r raigil dajli bi_jddr'ris lak ?imla ? 

B. aiwa hu:wa, laikin bi jimli "^alajja gumal sa'^bi ?awf. 

A . itfaddal adi J kitaib. 

B. mitjakkar wi mamnum. 



4 1st Form, " appear " ; this IVth form aorist, " causes to appear," 
would be jizhir (as in next sentence). 

5 These two words bear the same relation to each other as jizhar and 
jizhir. 

6 Lit. " made me rich from," i.e. " able to dispense with." 















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EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC l8l 

as'ila. 

(i.) e:h illi ?arsaltu lak imbairih ? (2.) ma'' mi:n ? (3.) 
leh ma 'afattiniij ? muj ana ?ult' lak tifiidni ? (4.) iza kutt 
'awreitu 'inn il 'ifa:da darurijja ummail ma stannaj" leih? (5.) 
saba' ana 'ult' lu jintizir ir radd? (6.) ijjak 'ihmaili fi 1 "^iba'ra: 
di ma_jkunj sabbib lak 'atela! (7.) ge:t mcixsuis "^alajan tiwaddi: 
li r radd walla "^andak Je ta:ni ? (8.) mi:n bi jddrris lak il 'inja ? 
(9.) hu:wa_b jimli "^aleik gumal sahla ? (10.) biddak tisaimihni 
•■an ta'xiiri iza kutt addi: lak tedabak ? 



For Systematic Grammar. 

1. The aorist is identical with that of I in [i]. But unhke I it 

takes [i] invariably. 

2. Distinguish [jilzam] (I.), "it is necessary," and [jilzim] (IV.), 

"he compels"; [jizhar] (I.), "he appears," and [jizhir] 
" he shows." 



l82 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXVII. 

Verbs of Form X. 

FOR READING. 

Dialogue between a Doctor and a Patient. 

Doc. From what village are you ? 

Pa. Bagur Menufiya. 

Doc. What's wrong with you ? 

Pa. I am ill in my inside. 

Doc. Since when have you felt bad like this ? 

Pa. I have felt ill like this for about two months. 

Doc. Upon my word, I am astonished at you, you fellaheen ! 
(To think that) one of you can feel ill, and be so careless aliout 
himself. 

Pa. No, doctor, I was not careless about myself. . .only — 
I was ill more than this, but felt the distance (to here) too far. 

Doc. Such considering-too-far should be in anything but 
health. No, the fact is you thought stopping at home did not 
matter, and rather preferred it (thought it nicer). 

Pa. No, I neither thought it did not matter nor preferred 
it ; but after I had asked to be directed to your place here, I came, 
as you see. 

Doc. I am surprised at you. What, does our place here 
need directing to ? Why, it's known to everybody. I'm afraid 
you're trying to gammon me ! 

Pa. Oh, doctor, how can you say such a thing ! You 
know everything, how could I try to gammon you ! 

Doc. Well, look out you don't. Tell me the real reason. 

Pa. If I told you, you might think me either a simpleton 
or an idiot even. 

Doc. Oh no I won't ; only do say. 

Pa. The reason that made me wait till now was the death 
of the grandmother of the wife of my maternal cousin. Allah rest 
her soul, she was a good woman [lit. saint). 

' For jitsa:hil, inf. tasaihul ; to be easy-going, tolerant. 
^ ru:h, a rather more intimate word for " self " than nafs or za:t ; 
e.g. 'irham ru:hak, " have mercy on your poor self." 
3 From hajjin (easy, light). 
+ " To consider sweet" (hilw). 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 183 

it tamriin is sab'^a wi "^ijriin. 
il 'af^a:! illi min siigit " istaf^al " aw " istaf^il." 
li 1 'irsija. 
m^hawre be:n haki:m wi fallaih. 
hak. inta_mn_inhi balad ? 
fal. ana mil bagu:r minufijia. 
h. "^ajaik 'eh hu:wa ? 
f. il marad bitai'^i^f batni. 
h. istaj'^art' bi 1 '^aja: da_mn_emta ? 
t. ana_(i)stahasse:t bu min mudda tigi Jahrem. 
S. ja sala:m, ana b^astagrab luku ja fallahim ! il wa:hid 
minku jib?a '^ajjam wi jissaihiP fi ru:hu^ m_a'^rafj' le:h. 

f. ja gana:b id dakto:r, ana ma_ssa(:)'hiltij fi ru:hi, bass' 
kutt' '^ajjain aktdr min kida wjstab'^adtjl masa:fa. 

h. Listib'^aid jiku:n fi lia:ga ge:r il mdrad. inta lli kutt* 
mistahwin' wi mistahli* 1 'a'' da fi 1 balad. 

f. la: ! la kutt' mistahwin il 'u'^aid fi 1 balad wala mistahliih ; 
innama lamma_stadalle:t' '^ala mafialluku 'adimi geit. 

h. ana b_asta''gib lak! huiwa mahallina ''a:wuz_iU-istidla:l ? 
da ma''ru:f li kulli wa:hid ; inta ?ijja:k bi tistaghilni'' ! 

f. la, il "^afw ja sa'^att id doktoir, inta_b ti'^raf kulli haiga, 
w_astaghilak izza:j ! 

h. tajjib, ma_b tistaghilniij. '?ul li "^ala ha?i:'it il 'amr. 

f. in 'ult' lak "^ala Iia'i:'it il ?amr jimkin tistdgjimni'' wi 
tista'^batni* kaman. 

h. la:, la:, la:, ma b_asta'^batakj, — bass' 'u:!. 

f. is sabab illi xdlla:n(i) astanna' li fiadd' dilwa't' mo:t 
sitt mdrQ:t ibn' xdlti. aiiah jirhamha ka:nit wili:ja'°_kwaijisa! 



5 1st Form dall, "to direct (a person) to C^ala)." 

6 From ga:hil, " a fool." 

7 From gdji:m, " an inexpert." 

8 From '^dbi:t, '' an idiot." 

9 For ista'anna. '° Lit. " saint " (Moslem). 



184 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Doc. Hullo ! why, according to that, you could claim (pre- 
tend) that all the people in the world are your relations. 

Pa. Now look here, do you want me to fetch you out a 
reason from below the earth ? 

Doc. No, but anyone who heard you teU that tale would 
reject it and disbelieve you. 

Pa. I can teU you the true causes, only please don't deride 
them. 

Doc. I call you to witness, you who are sitting, did we hear 
from him anything rational, and called it strange ? 

Bysitters. No, if he told us of anything rational, we should 
not call it improbable : {to the patient) For we have heard many 
stories from others and did not call them impossible. 

Pa. Well, it's beyond my power! — Since you are so domineer- 
ing, then, there's nothing in it more than the matter of Ramadan 
and the Feast. 

Doc. And why didn't you say so from the first, and it would 
have avoided all this trouble and waste of time for nothing. Enough 
of this. Used you to ask-to-be-given medicine at home ? 

Pa. I used, but I did not obtain any benefit from it. 

Doc. What ! didn't you ask advice of any doctor ? 

Pa. No, why should I consult any doctor while the druggists 
are to be found with us ? There is no need to consult (them). 

Doc. No wonder you too did not profit at all from the medicine 
you asked for. 

Pa. To come to the point, here we've come to you to see 
what you'll do to me. 

[Here the Doctor submits the patient to a thorough examination.] 

Doc. Off with you, strip off these dirty clothes, take a bath, 
put on clean clothes, and go into hospital, and I trust you'll wake 
in the morning feeling better. 

'For jidti''i, VIII. of da''a, "to call oneself," "pretend," "make 
claim" (da'^wa(:), p. da'^aiwi). 

' From ?abi:h, " vile." 

3 Or jikazzib, "belie," "deny," 'call false." sadda' is also pro- 
nounced sadda'. 

■* From gdrilb, "strange," "odd," "unlikely"; cp. istab''ad, with 
same meaning." 

5 Lit. " I ask for you as witness " (Jaihid). 

* Or ma_b jaddilj' hi:la ; often means " I can't, or couldn't, help it." 

7 " Making-yourselves-rulers " (haikim). 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 185 

h. deh da ! da_nta "^ala kida tPdar tiddi'^i' 'inni n na:s 
illi fi d dunja kullaha 'arejbak ! 

f. ummail inta '^aiwuz astax'rag lak sabab min taht il 'ard' 
ba'a? 

ti. la: bass' kull' min sim";ak tPuil il ka'lam da jista'bahu^ 
wala_jsQdda'J"3. 

f. an_a?dar_a?ul lak "^al ?asba:b is sahiiha, bass* ma 
tistdgrabhaij*. 

h. ana b^astaj'hidku' ja_lli ?a'^dim ! alla_hna_s(i)mi'^na minnu 
ha:ga ma'^'uda wjstctgrab'naiha ? 

il ■'aidin. la: ! lau 'al lina "^ala ha:ga ma'^a''u:la ma 
nistagrebha:J. (lil mari:^) '^alajan simi'^na min ge:rak liikaja:t 
kiti:ra 'awi wala stagrebnaha:J. 

f. ?eh! ma_b jaddi hiila!^ mada:m intu mit}iakkimi:n^ ?awi, 
fa mafij ha:ga ilia mas'alit ramad:a:n wi I '^i:d. 

h. wi leh ma 'ultij kida mil 'aw'wil, wi ka:n balaj it ta'^ab da 
kuUu wi deja:*^ il wa?t "^ala '?alla Je:* ? . . .ma "^aleina min da kullu ! ' 
inta kuttLb tista'^ta dawa fi 1 balad ? 

f. kutt' b_asta'^ta dawa,la:kin ma_stahsaltij minnu "^ala fajda. 

h. hu:wa_nta ma_stajartij'° wa:hid llaki:m ? 

f. la:, astaji:r wa:hid haki:m leh, mada:m il '^attari:n mawgu:- 
din "^andina ? mafi:J luzu:m li I_istija:ra {or li_stija'rithum) . 

h. atari:k" inta raxar ma_stafattij ha:ga mid dawa_ll_ 
ista'^te:tu ! 

f. il ma'suid^adiini getku 'amm_aju:f ha ti''milu: li e:. 

[hina 1 haki:m wa"a^ 1 kajf ij" Ja:fi "^al mariid.] 
h. jaiia ru:h_i?la'^ hudu:mak il wisxd di, w_istahamma,'^ 
w_ilbis hudu:m niai:fa, w_idxul il mistajfa, in Ja 'aiiah tisbah 
mitna'^wij. 

8 " The no-thing." 

9 Lit. " What is on us in all this ? " 

'° Ja:r, jiju:r C^ala) = " advise " ; Ja:wir or istaja:r, " ask advice," 
" consult " ; ij'ja:wir, " be consulted " ; Jo;ra or majwdrd, " advice " ; 
istija:ra, "consultation"; mustaja:r, " consulted-one," "adviser." 

" Or igrannak. 

" Take-a-bath (hamma:m ; distinguish hama:m " pigeons "). This 
is a variant of the Xth Form, combining its features with those of Form II. : 
istahamma, istahamme:t, jistahamma, mistahammi (no inf.), cp. 
istarajjah below. 



l86 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Pa. Why I hope to wake feehng well again, and with my 
strength quite come back to me again. 

Doc. Yes, I hope that after a week's time you will have quite 
recovered from this illness, and return home as fit as anything. 

Pa. I'm only afraid, Doctor, that when I go back home, this 
illness will come back on me again, and I get as pale (yellow) as I 
am to-day. 

Doc. Don't be afraid ! why did you get pale, for any reason 
except your having been ill so long? Come, my good fellow, in 
you go, and rest ; come then ! 

Pa. Oh thank you, thank you. Doctor ! Allah bless you in 
everything you set your hand to ! Allah keep to you your offspring, 
and preserve to you your life ! 

Doc. Thanks very much ! Attendant, bring on the next case. 
Only let it not be a chatterbox like this ! 



' rs:', lit. " be dear " ; fa:', '' recover," " get over (an illness)." 
^ Lit. " taking spoil." 

3 IXth Form, only for colours and deformities, e.g. ilimdrr, " blush,'' 
i''Wagg, " be crooked." The third radical is doubled. The aorist is jisjarr. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 187 

f. d_ana '^ajami inn_asbah m'farfij wi mailik heili 'awi ! 

h. aiwa, in Ja ?«iiiQh ba'^cLusbu:'^ tiru:' wi tfu:?' mil '■aja: 
da bi 1 mdrrdi wi tirga'' baladak sa:lim gainim.^ 

f. bass' ja sa'^att il baj hakiim ana xajif, lamm(a)_arQwwah 
jirtadd' '^alajja_l mdrsd tami, w_Qsfdrr' zejj' m_ana dilwa't. 

h. la:, ma_txQfJ, liu:wa_nta_(i)sfdrre:t3 ilia min tu:l il marad 
wajjaik ? itfaddal ja Rabi:bi_dxul gu:wa "^ajan tistdrajjahjtfaddal ! 

f. kattdr xeirak ja hddrit id doktoir. aiia jibai'rik lak fi 
kuUi Je: hatteit 'i:dak fi:h, wi jxdlli: lak_anga:lak/ wi jih'faz lak 
haja:tak ! 

h. rabbina jih'fazak!. . . .ja tamdrgi, ha:t illi ba'^du. bass' 
ma_jkunj gdlabaiwi kida ! 



as'ila. 
(i.) il mari:d hassLb ?e:h. . .min emta ? (2.) '^alajan e:h 
istdgrab il hakiim mil fallaliim ? (3.) "^alajan e:h ma rahj lil 
tiakiim awwil ma Ja''Qr bi 1 marad ? 'ul lina "^ala kulli_l 'a''za;r 
illi 1 fallaih 'ad'dimha. (4.) 'ibil id daktoir il 'a'^zair do:l ? 
\yalla gaiwib "^aleiha zzejj ? (5.) eh kam is sabab il fta'ii-'i fi 
komu t'dxxar ? (6.) "^alajan e: ma kanj istajair waihid hakiim 
fi baladu? (7.) 'al luj. hakiirn ji^'mil e: ba'^dima wa'^a'' 'aleih 
il kajf ? (8.) e:h ka:n "^ajam il fallaili ? w_e: kam xo:fu ? (9.) 
da'^a 1 falla:h li_l hakiim bi 'eih ? (10.) 'eh illi nif^allimu mil 
hikaija di ? 

Inf. isfirair. It has not been thought necessary to elaborate this very 
simple form in a verb-drill section. 

4 PI. of nagl, respectful word for " son." 



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EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC IQI 

For Systematic Grammar. (XXVII.) 

1 . The penultimate vowel is [a] throughout and invariably. The 

final vowel is [a] or [i] according to exactly the same rule as 
was laid down for Forms II. and V. (See pp. 160-166). 

2. In the verbs with second radical weak the infinitive takes on 

the feminine termination [-a], as did the corresponding 
verbs of Form IV. (cp. [ifa:da] with [istifaida]). And in 
other respects the two are parallel. 

3. The verbs with third radical weak are conjugated like ['ara 

ji'ra], not [bana jibni]. 

4. Signification of this form : (a) To consider a thing or person 

thus or thus (see above Nos. 8, 11). [b) To ask for the 
doing of such and such an action (see Nos. 4, 6). 

N.B. — -(2) may be reflexive : thus [ista'^gilt] may mean " I 
asked myself to hurry," i.e. "I hurried " ; or "I asked so-and-so 
to hurry," [ista'^gilt '^ali], " I hurried Ali up." 



192 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXVIII. 

FOR READING. 

Dialogue on the Courtesies of Debate. 

A. I want to have a discussion with you on the subject of 
reUgion. 

B. Please do ; only on the condition of our maintaining 
each other's dignity. 

A. I disputed with a man lately on a certain subject, and he 
contradicted me and did not maintain my dignity. 

B. He was wrong in contradicting you. Perhaps, though, 
you disputed more than was necessary. 

A . No. The man annoyed me much ; he would even inter- 
rupt me at every sentence. 

B. Well, truly, beyond all dispute, interruption of one's talk 
disturbs one's thought and contravenes the courtesies of discussion. 

A. Que voulez-vous ? Whoever mixes with fools merits this. 

B. I'd like to say, though, even if he did cross you, you 
must nevertheless condone him seeing he is ignorant. 

A . Oh, come now ! I have compliance and condoning in more 
(important things) than this ! 

B. I see that a man must observe the rules of debating, I 
mean, not to be (too) lax on the one hand, nor (too) strict on the 
other. 

A. I agree with you on this idea; I don't want to make con- 
cessions from truth on the one hand, nor to be dictatorial with 
whoever disputes with me on the other. 

B. Truly, when one of us controverts with another he shouldn't 
quarrel with him ; one must bar quarrelling in controversy. 

A. In that case the controversy should be conducted on 
a recognised order. 

' An elastic word (sing. ?adab), meaning " courtesies," " humanities," 
" ethiics." 

2 Form III. is direct', ana(:)'(i)Jak. The reflexive VI. needs the pre- 
position wajja. 

3 hafaz, " keep" ; III., " study to keep." 

t bahas "enquire," baihis, "discuss with." 
5 From galst, " a mistake." 
* The J is hardly more than a s : see p. 155, n. 

'' Originally from root dj^ " narrow " (VI., ana midda:ji', " I am an- 
noyed "). 

8 Or m=naz''a. 9 From nazar, a view or opiniou. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I93 

it tamriin it tamanja wi "^ijriin. 

m'hawra fi ''a(:)da:b' U m'na'Ja. 

li 1 'iraija. 

A. ahibb_atna:'ij" wajja:k^ fi mawdu:'^ id dim. 

B. itfaddol bass' taht' Jarti nhaifiz^ <;ala kdraimit ba'^dina. 

A. ana ba(:)Ilisti* wa:hid min 'urajjib fi mawdu:"^, wi 
gQ(:)'litni5 wala iia(:)fii5ji^ "^ala kdramti. 

B. ma lu:J ha"' fi_mgaltitak ; jimkin, ja 'axi, na'iftu 
zijaida '■an il luzu:m. 

A. la:, da daji'ni^ 'awi, hatta ka:n ji?a(:)ti'^ni f kull' 
gumla. 

B. amma min ge:r nizai''* faj. m''''Qt''a fil kalaim tijawwij "^al 
fikr wi_txa:lif ada:b il m'nazrd.' 

A. ahoJ.li_jxa:lit il guhala jistaha'''' kida. 

B. a'ul lak, w in kannu" ''^ardak," bdrdu jilzamak ti'samhu 
he:s innu gaihil. 

A. deh da, d ana "^andi tasaihul wi tasaimuh f_aktar min kida. 

B. an_aju:f innij wa:iiid laizim jirai'-i 1 'usu:!^^ fi 1 m'naard, 
ja'^ni ma jkunj missa:hil min giha wala mda"a?'* min giha. 

A. ana mwaf'ak '-al fik'ra: di, waLatiibbiJ atnaizil'^ "^an 
il ha?''' min giha waLathakkimJ'^ fi llLjga'dilni''' min giha. 

B. bdrdu, lammajl waihid minna_jga:dil it ta:ni muj la:zim 
jixdn^u'^; la:zim jimna"^ il m'xdn'a fi 1 m'gadla. {or xina:', gidail). 

A. '■ala kida tikuin il m^gadla bi tdrtiib ma'^luim. 



'° Also '■aijir, " to come into contact with." 

'' The complement of kam is the objective case in Arabic. This queer 
construction here appears to mean " If it be him (who) thwarted." 

" And so mami'', "thwart," "try to prevent," (mana"^). 

'3 Sing. ?asl, "root." 

'+ So, tad'i:'. "accuracy," or " over particularity." 

'5 And so in good sense, " to coBdescend." 

'^ Lit. "to make oneself a ruler" (haiklm). 

'7 The word means more distinctly "dispute" thaneithernai'ij, naiair, 
or ba:his. 

'8 Lit. " try to strangle " (xana'). 



194 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

B. Certainly ; namely, that everyone should wait for the 
other, so that he may answer him just as he expressed his thoughts 
without (the other) interrupting him. 

A . I say, my dear man, you may announce this rule to others, 
but not to Egyptians. Why, if you are in any gathering you find 
them aU putting each other out, so that you can't tell the one who 
is speaking from the one who is listening ; so that if you hailed 
any of them he would not hear your call ! 

B. In that case, the first thing we have to learn, if we want 
to get on, is forbearance, I mean that each should keep his temper 
with the other, untU he gets his right (s) in fuU, and takes his turn 
and finishes his speech. 

A. Excellent ! So then, do we want to debate together with 
a debate that conforms to these principles ? 

B. With much satisfaction ; agreed ! But the present 
moment does not enable us (to do) this. 

A. Well, let us wait untU a not-distant day. Good-day. 

B. Good-day to you. 



' From abda (IV.). 

^ Ile:s, " since " ; bi he:s, " in such a manner that " (the bi of 
manner). 

3 X., from root wfj, meaning " full," " complete.'' 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I95 

B. tab'^an, bi he:s kull* wa:llid jintizir it ta:ni hatta_jgawbu 
zejjima huwa_b jibdi' fikru min ge:r ma^j'at'^u. 

A. amm_a?ul lak ja 'axi ; il hukm' da tiMar tPu:lu li 
geir il masrijjiin ! da_nta, iza,nwagatti fi ?ajji galsa tila:'i 
kulluhum bi_jjawwiju '^ala ba'^d, ma ti'^rafj illi bi jikkallim milli 
_b jisma"; ; bi beis'' law nade:t "^ala 'ajji waittid ma jisma'^Ji nida:k. 

B. "^ala kida 'awwil Je: la:zim nif^allimu, iza kunna "^awzim 
nit'addim, hu:wa_t ta'anni, bi hes inni kull' wailiid jitawwil 
ba:lu li ge:ru hatta jistawfa^ ha"u wi ja:xud doiru wi_jtammim 
kalaimu. 

A. kwaijis xadis! izan-* nihibb* nitnai'ij m^na?Ja_mteb'a= 
li 1 maba:di<^ do:l ? 

B. bi kulli_rtija:h, ana_mwa:fi', la:kin il wa't' da ma_ 
jsa'^idnaij'' "^ala kida. 

A. tejib nintizir li jo:m ?urajjib. natiairak sa'^iid. 

B. nahairak m'ba:rak. 



as'ila. 

(i.) e:h awwil Jart li_lli jhibbu jina'Ju ba'd ? (2.) lina 
ha" fi mugaltit in na:s wi_mdaj^ithum ? (3.) ti'^mU e:h il 
m^'at'^a fi 1 kalaim ? (4.) iza ka:n waihid ga:hil ji'^ardak ti'^mil 
lu'e:h? (5.) nihfaz tari:'a mitwassata be:n e: wi ?e: fi 1 m'bahsa? 
(6.) e:h it tcirtiib illi laizim m^'ra'^aitu wa't il m^gadla ? (7.) 
eh wazi:fit saihib il kursi ? (8.) jimkin nitabba? il mabaidi 
di:jahi:ja "^al maerijjim ? (9.) e:h illi laizim ddrsu fi masr hatta 
tit'addim il balad it ta'addum il matluib wi 1 mdrgu:b? 



•♦ Or fa ?izan : elegant for " therefore," " well, then." 

5 The root means fold : cp. tabba' il mabaidi "^al "^amal, " he 
applied his principles to action " ; it tatbi:', the application. 

6 Sing, mabda. ' Lit. " help," the regular word for " enable.'' 



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EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC I99 

For Systematic Grammar. (Forms III. and VI.) 

1. Notice that the vowel scheme throughout these forms in all 

three parts is [ai i], except with third radical weak, when 
it is [a: a]. Form III. has two infinitives ; the one in [m] 
is much the commoner. The other is more of a noun than 
a verb. The infinitive of VI. can hardly be said to be a 
colloquial form at all. That of III. is substituted. The 
infinitive of III. with third radical weak is very rare, and 
that of VI. non-existent. 

2. The signification of III. is 

(a) to perform on a person, directly and with intent, the action 
suggested by a verb in Form I., by an adjective, or by a 
noun, e.g. 

[gaiwib], to perform on a person directly and with intent 
the action in [gawa:b] (" an answer "), viz. " to answer 
him." 
[sai'^id], to perform on a person directly and with intent 
the action in [sai'^ida] (" fore-arm "), viz. " to help him." 
[naizi*^], to perform on a person directly and with intent 
the action in [naza*^] (" to pull "), viz. " to strive with 
him." 
["^aimil], to perform on a person directly and with intent 
the action in ["^amal] (" do "), viz. "to deal with hi.m" 
and so {b) by an easy transition " to have intent to do an 
action on a person," = " to try to do it." 

['a:til], to try to do on a person the action of [''atal] 

(" kiU "), viz. " to fight him." 
[saibi'], to try to do on a person the action of [saba'] 
(" precede "), viz. " to race him." 

3. The signification of VI. is [a) reflexive of III., e.g. [iddaira] "he 

hid himself," [itsaibi'], " he raced himself with [wajja] ; 
and so (6) in the third plural the reciprocal motion already 
latent in III. is fully brought out ; e.g. [itsa(:)b{i)'u], " they 
raced together"; (c) passive of III., [mitsa:'^id], "helped"; 
{d) the combination of the conative sense of III. with the 
reflexive, produces the signification oi feigning : e.g. [itga:hil], 
" he ignored " ; [if-aima], " he turned the blind eye to "; 
[itnaisa], "he pretended to forget." 



VERB SUMMARIES. II.— THE " DER 



VERB-SUMMARIES. I.—" WEAK " VERBS. 





Vowel. 




Aorist 


Participles. 


Description of Verb. 


Key. 


Past Tense. 


and 








Pa. Aor. 




Imperat. 


Active. 


Passive. 


2nd and ^rd rads. 
the same 


A '. 


rAdd, rAddeit 


(ji)rudd 


rraidid 
Iradda 


mdrduid 


(" mudQi<^af ") 


ll 


lAmm, lAmmeit 


(ji)liinm 


I'laimim 
\lamma 


malmuim 












With \ 


u-vbs 


U U 


ha:J huJt 


(ji)hu:j 


ha(:)jij 
hajja 


See note i 


2nd rad. 
Weak 
("agwaf") , 


r i-vbs. 
a-vbs. 


I I 

I A3 


bai"; bi'^t 
nairu nimt'' 


{ji)bi:^ 
(ji)nA:m 


baioji-; 

baj''a 
na(:)jim 


See note 2 
None 










najma 




With 


A A 


'ArA, 'erat, 'arert 


(j)i'rA 


r'airi 
I'arja 


ma'ri 


Srd radical 


I I 


risi, risjit, risi:t 


(j)irsi 


jTaisi 
\rasja 




Weak 


A I 


bAnA, banat, baneit 


(i)ibni 


rbami 
Ibanja 


mabni 


'■ na:?is " 


I A 


fidi, fidjit, fidi:t 


(j)ifdA 


rfaidi 
Ifadja 




I. Usually borrows from the " 7th form " of the verb. 


!.g. minhaij. The classical form 


{e.g. mahu:l) very rare, (mulaim, "blamed," is by false 


analogy.) 




2. The classical form is found in mabi:'' ; but usua 


lly the "7th form" is 


borrowed. 


minba:'^. 






3. The original radical may be w or j in these A verbs. 


But this does not appear in con- | 


jugating. 






4. U is sometimes found, e.g. 


XUft, " I feared." 






[For 


the four 


irregular 


verbs of "first radical we 


ik" (misad 


see p. 1 39-] 



Description 

of 

Verb. 



2nd Rad. doubled 
{similarly Quadriliteral) 



No. 

of 

Form. 



II. 



Vowel Key. 



Past. Aor. 



Past Tense. 



Same with it- V. 

(similarly Quadriliteral) 



With ista- prefixed \ X. 



zst vowel prolonged 



Same with it- 



Ill. 



VI. 



With in- or it- prefixed VII. 



With t after 1st Rad. VIII. 



With ' prefixed 



IV. 



First vowel 
always A. 

Second 

Vowel 

A or I 

throughout, 

according as 

2nd or yd 

Rad. "heavy' 

or " light " 



saggAr (IdxbAt) 
•^allim (kdrkib) 



a: I 



throughout 



itsaggAr (itldxbAt) 
if^allim (itkdrkib) 



istasgAr 
ista''lim 



SAlbl' 



Aorist 

(similarly P 

and Imper; 



(Ji)5S99Ar, (ji 
(ii)^aUim, (ji): 



(j)itsacigAr, (j 
(j)it^aUim, (j) 



(j)istasgAr 
(j) ista''lim 



itsAibP 



(ji)sA:bi? 



(j)itsA:bi' 



inkASAr {or it- 



Past 

A A 



Aorist 
1 1 



ixtAbAr 



'AxbAr 



(j)inkisir {or j 



(j)ixtibir 



(j)ixblr 
{partic. muxbi 



NOTES. 

1. The form denoting colours and deformities (IX.) is thus : ilimArr, jihmArr. 

2. Passive participles are very few in these forms. III., V., VI., VII., none ; II., VIII., X 
m^baliAt, " tiled," m^'gallAd, "bound"; mu'^tAbAr, "considered"; mustab?Ad, "cc 
absurd " ; mustahsAn, " approved." IV. borrows the simple form, mat'uin, "finished," from 
malzuim, " compelled," from ■'alzam. 



-THE "DERIVED FORMS." 



Aorist 

(similarly Partic.) 

and Imperative. 


Significance. 


(ji)sag9Ar, (ji)ldxbAt 
(ii)'^allim, (ji)kdrkib 


To make a thing (or to make it out) so-and-so. 
Transitive of the simple verb. (The quadri- 
hteral has not this special significance). 


1 

(j)itsaci9Ar, (j)itldxbAti To make oneself, or make oneself out, so-and-so. 
(jjif^allim, (i)itkdrkib j Reflexive (" middle "), or sometimes simply 

passive) of the foregoing. 


(j)istQ&9Ar 
(j)ista''lim 


(i) To consider a thing so-and-so (or too 

much so). 
(2) To ask for so-and-so. 


(ji)sA:bi' 


To do the root-action directly on to a person 
with intention. And so sometimes to intend, try 
to do so-and-so to so-and-so (" conative "). 


(i)itsA:bi? 


" Middle " of the foregoing. In plural, re- 
ciprocal of the foregoing. 


(j)inkisir [or jit-) 


Passive of the simple form. 


(j)ixtibir 


" Middle " (reflexive) of the simple form, adds 
a subjective tinge. Sometimes simply pas- 
sive. 


(j)ixbir 
[partic. muxbir) 


Transitive of the simple form. 


ihmArr. 

one; II., VIII., X. in A as 

TlUStab''Ad, " considered 

"finished," from ^at'an; 


Vowel-key 

Form 

III. \ 

IV. 

VII. I a: as 

VIII. 

X. 

V. 

TA u as 

II. TA i: as 


for Infinitives. 

sibA:' [alternative form 

ixbAir m'sab'a) 

inkisAir 

ixtibAir 

isti'^lAim 

TA'addum 

TAha:mul 

TAsgnr, TA'^liim 



VERB SUMMARIES. III.— THE " WEAK-DERIVED " VERBS. 

The sign * signifies that the verb in question differs in no respect from a strong verb. 



Form. 


2nd & 3rd rads. 
the same. 


I St rad. [w]. 


2nd rad. [w] or [j]. 


3rd rad. [w] or [j]. 


II. 
III. 


* 

[rads. 

separated) 

None 


* 
* 

* 

[except infin. 
i(:)ga:b for 
iwga:b) 


* 


xdlla, jixdlli 
[like bana, jibni) 
inf. tdxlijja 


* 


na:da, jinaidi 

[like bana jibni), inf. 

m'nadijja (nida(:)) 


IV. 


None 


'afa:d, 'afadt jifi:d 
mufi:d, mufaid 

(participles) 
?ifa:da [inf) 
fi:d [imper.) 


'afta afte:ti/jfebana 

jifti ) jibni 

mufti 

ifta 

ifti 


V. 
VI. 


* 

[rads. 
separated) 


* 


* 


ithdrra ithdrreit 

j ithdrra 
[like ?ara, ji'ra) 
mitharri 
taharri [rare) 


None 

^ * 
[rads joined) 


* 


* 


it<;a:fa, it^a(:)fe:t 

jif^aifa 
[like 'ara, ji'ra) 

mif-aifi 

inf. wanting 


VII. 


* 


inha:J inhajt 

jinha:J 
inf. wanting 


intafa intafe:t 

jintifi 
[like bana jibni) 
inf. wanting 


VIII. 


* 
[rads. joined) 


ittasal, etc., 
for iwtasal, 
and so ittdxdz 
for i'tdxdz 


ihta:g ihtagt 

jihta:g 
inf ihtija:g 


ibtada ibtade:t 

jibtidi 
[like bana jibni) 
inf ib'tida(:) 


X. 


rads. joined 
or separated 
e.g. ista'all 
(jista'aU, mis- 
ta'all),ista?m 


* 

[except infin) 
isti(:)ha:J 
for istiwhaij 
i(rare) 


ista'a:m, ista'amt 

jista'iim 
inf. isti-'aima 


istahla, istahle:t 

jistahla 
[like 'ara ji'ra 

inf. wanting 


X.a 


None 


None 


ista'rajjah, istaraj'jaht 
jistarajjah 
no infin. 


istdxdbba istdxdbbe:t 

jistdxdbba 
[like 'ara, ji'ra) 
mistaxdbbi. No infin. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 201 

id ddrs it tis'^a wi 1 "Jijnin. — XXIX. 

" idda " (timassil il 'af'a.'l illi luhum maf''u{i)le:n. 

The verb [idda], representing verbs with two objects. 

It would be tedious to exhaust the possible combinations of pro- 
nouns in these verbs. The following specimens show sufficiently the 
grouping and accentuation of the pronouns, accusative and dative : 

1. Simple form (past). 'idda(:), 'iddat ; id'de:t ; etc., etc. 

(aorist). 'addi(:), 'jiddi, 'jiddu, etc. (imperat.). 'iddi(:), 'iddu 
(partic). 'middi(:), mid'dijja, middi'jim (No inf.). 

2. With nouns as objects, 'idda 1 kita:b li 1 walad. 

3. With direct pronominal object. id'da(:)h li 1 wala:d. 

4. With indirect pronominal object, id'da: lu_l kitab. 

5. With both objects pronominal. The indirect (with [1]) is placed 

second and throws the accent on to the immediately pre- 
ceding syllable : e.g. [iddat'ha: li]. The suf&xing of the 
negative [J] again shifts the accent on to the indirect object ; 
e.g. [ma ddafha 'liij]. 

6. Shifting of accent. Compare the following — 

'iddat ; id'datha ; iddat'ha: li ; ma_ddatha 'liij. 
id'de:t ; id'de(:)tha ; idde(:)t'ha: li ; ma_ddetha 'H:J 
'J. {a) Third masculine pronoun {direct). 

id'dah H ; ma_ddah'li:J" ; id'duh li ; ma_dduh 'U:J. 
idde'tuh li'(you {p.) gave it me) ; ma_d'de:tuh 'h:J.' 
idde'tu: li (you (s.) gave it me) ; ma_dde:tu li:J. 

(5) Third feminine pronoun {direct) . 

iddaha: li, ma ddaha 'U:J ; iddet'ha: li, ma dde:tha 'U:J. 
8. Treatment of indirect pronoun when dissyllabic, 
i.e. laha, Una, liki, lukum, luhum. 
{a) The first vowel gets eliminated after a vowel : e.g. 
iddat'hajkum, ma ddathaJ'ki:J ; 
idde'tujkum (I gave it to them); ma_d'deituj'humj. 
With [lina] the [n] then gets assimilated: e.g. [iddat'ha„nna], 
cp. [id'dujma 1 kita:b] for [Jna]. 

(6) But after a consonant no elimination takes place : e.g. [id- 

det'hum luhum, 'ma ddet'hum lu'humj].' 



' Where more than one accent appears to fall on a single word-group, 
it will be found that the last is the strongest, and the rest secondary. 



202 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

The hook . . . The napkin . . . 

I. Did I give it you (her), or not ? — No, you didn't give it me 
(her). 



2. Did he give it you, or not ? — No, he didn't give it me. 

3. Did she give it her, or not ? — No, she didn't give it her. 

4. Did we give it you, or not ? — No, you didn't give it me. 

5. Did they give it him, or not ? — No, they didn't give it him. 

6. Did they give it them, or not ? — No, they didn't give it them. 

7. Did you (/.) give it us, or not? — No, I didn't give it you. 

8. (a) Give it to me. Ah. — Why, I am giving it you (fn.f.). 

(b) Give it to me, Fatima. — Why, I am giving it you. 

(c) Give it to me, children. — Why, we are giving it you {m.f.). 

9. Will you give it us, or no ? — No, I won't give it you. 

10. Will you give them to him (her) ? — No, I won't give them him 
(her). 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



203 



1. idde'tu: lak 
iddet'ha: lak 
idde'tujha 
iddet'hajha 

2. id'dah lak 
idda'ha: lak 

3. idda'tujha 
iddat'ha_lha 

4. idde'nah lak 
iddeina'ha: lak 

5. id'duh lu 
iddu'ha: lu 

6. id'duh luhum 
iddu'hajhum 

7. idde'tih lina 
id'de:tiha_nna 
iddethum lina 



walla la ? — la:, 



la:. 



la:, I 



la:, 



— la:. 



ma_d'de:tu 'li:J 
ma_d'detha li:J 
ma_dde:tu_l'ha:J 
ma_d'detha_l'ha:J. 
ma_ddah 'li:J. 
ma_ddaha 'li:J. . 
'ma_ddatu_l'ha:J. 
ma_d'datha_J'ha:J. 
ma_dde:tuh li:J. 



\ ma_d'de:tuha 'li:J. 
r ma dduh lu:f. 
{ 



— la:, { 



la:. 



(a) 



j id'dih li, ja "^ali ! — m_ana 
I iddi'ha: li „ „ ! — 



. r iddi'ha li ja fatma !- 
^' I iddi'ha: li „ „ !- 

{o)[ 



idduh li ja wla:d ! 



10. 



idduha li 
tiddih lina 
tiddi'ha_nna 
tidduhum lu 
tidduhum laha 



'ma dduha 'lu:J. 

ma d'duh lu'humj. 

ma dduhajhumj. 

ma dde:tu_lku:J. 

ma ddethaJ.ku:J. 

ma ddethum lukumj. 
mid'dih lak. 
middi'ha lak (middihajki) . 

- ,, 'middi'jah lak. [_lki). 

- , , mid'dij j a'ha: lak (middij j aha- 
ma_hnamiddij'ji:nu lak. [Iki). 

, , middij j in'ha: lak (middij j inha 



walla la ? — la:, m ad'dih luku:J. 

. 1 , / ™a- niddihum 'lu:J. 
" " ' '' \ ma 'niddihum la'ha:J. 



204 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXX. 

Exercise in the Relative Pronoun. 
Story of the Clever Detective. 

The story which I shall relate to-day is concerned with the 
Relative Pronoun. Whoever wants to understand that, well, let 
him attend to the story. 
[A . Relative in nam. with copula {is, are); antecedent {a) indef. (6) def^ 

There is a certain one of my friends who is a detective, one of 
the cleverest and sharpest of men. Well, this detective, who is 
(so) clever and sharp, told me about an incident which happened 
to him, and which I think will please you when you hear of it. 
\B. Relative in nam., with verb: antecedent (c) indef., {d) def.] 

" One day I was walking in the street and saw a certain criminal, 
one of those under the observation of the pohce. The moment I 
saw him he got into a carriage and went off without seeing me. 
Immediately I hailed a disengaged carriage which was standing 
by the pavement, got in, and said to the driver, ' FoUow the 
carriage which started in front of us wherever it goes, and don't 
pull up till (when) it pulls up.' 
[C. Relative in accusative : antecedent {e) indef., (/) def.'] 

" It happened there passed by one whom I knew and whom I 
knew our friend in the carriage also knew. So I said to this man 
whom I met in the street, ' Did you see so-and-so who is in the 
carriage which is ahead ? ' He said, ' Yes, I did.' Then I said, 
' Well then, jump in beside me, for I want us to be together when 
we catch him up.' 
[D. Relative in genitive : antecedent (g) indef., (h) def.] 

"So in we got and went together right along until we arrived 
at a narrow street near the Faggala. Just then we saw the carriage 
in front of us come to stand at a house the owner of which was one 
of those known to the police for rascality and evil. So the man 
behind whom we had gone and whose carriage we had caught up 
got down opposite this house, and when he got down we also got 
down a little short of the house, so that he should not observe us. 



^ Lit. " the joined noun," for illi is not reckoned a pronoun in Arabic. 
It is indeclinable and is, indeed, no more than a longer form of the definite 
article. Case and number are expressed by a supplemental pronoun, as will 
be seen. ^ Or illi hi:ja 'uddaim. 

3 The a is intoned and prolonged to give the idea of distance, "all the way." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 205 

it tamrim it talatim. 

l_ism il mawsu:!/ 

hikaijit. il muxbir ij Jaitir. 

il hika:jajli h_allki:ha_nnahdrda muxtessa bi l_ism il 
mawsu:l. illi jhibb' jifhamu taijib jaixud ba:lu minha. 

A. 

fill waillid min dimn_Qsha:bi huiwa^"^ muxbir wi hu:wa min 
ajter il muxbiriin w_an'bahhum. wi 1 muxbir da^*^ Hi huiwa Ja:tir 
wi nabiih ?al li(:) '^ala nadrd hasa'lit lu, b aftikir innaha tibsitkum 
lamma tisma'^uiha. 'a:l. 

B. 

"fi jo:m min do:l kutt' ma:Ji fi s sikka, wi Juft' wa.'hid Ja?i 
milli humma tahtLmra'bit il buli:s. wi ?awwil ma Juftu rikib 
"^drabiija wi tannu ma:Ji min ger ma jjufni. wi fi 1 had na(:)de:t 
■^ala "^drabiija fadja<^'^ kamit wa?fa gamb ir rasi:f, wi_rkibt fi:ha wi 
'ult* li 1 <;cirbagi 'itba"^ il '^drabijja^'^Jli ?a:mit ?udda:m matrah 
ma_tru:h, wala ti?afj ill(a)_amma ti'af hi:ja.' 

C. 
"wi hakamit wi mdrr' "^alema wa:llid a'^rafu/^^ wi "^ draft inn^ 
sahibna dajli fi 1 "^drabiija "^drfu kaman. fa 'ult li r raigil da'^LUi 
^abiltu fi s sikka, 'intajuft fula:n illi fi 1 '^drabiijajli ?udda:m^?' 
'am ?al li, 'aiwa Juftu.' 'umt_ana ?ult' lu 'taijib, ta'^ald.rkab 
gambi, "^alajan ahibbLnkun sawa lamma nilha'u.' 

D. 
" fd_rkibna wi_mjina sawa lam'ma:^ wasalna Jairi*^ dajja?, 
'ariib mil faggaila, wi fi 1 lahza di JufnaJ "^drabiijajli 'uddamna 
wi'fit* '^and' beit*^^^ ka;n sahbu mil majhu(:)ri:n '■and il buli:s bi s 
sa'a.'la wi r razada. fa r raigil illi_mji:na waraih*^*-' wijhi'na '■ara- 
bijtu, nizil 'uba:P il be:t da, wi lamma nizil nizilna_hna 'abLil be:t 
bi Jwaija "^alajan ma jidriknaij. 



♦ An important point here. The English infinitive " come " is rendered 
in Arabic by a past verb because the observed action is momentary and is 
conceived as past as soon as observed. The aorist is only used when the 
observed action goes on for some time, or habitually occurs, e.g. jisallim ia 
the next paragraph. 5 Or ?usa:d. 



206 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

[E. Relative governed by a preposition : (i) antecedent indef., (j) def.] 
"The instant the man got down I saw someone greet him, of 
whom I was at once suspicious, though I did not know him. (This 
man of whom I was suspicious, when I afterwards enquired about 
him, I found had a hand in the affair of the robbery of X. Pasha, 
of which the whole country has heard tell.) 
[F. Relative preceded by preposition, being itself in the genitive.] 

"After they had greeted each other, I saw them whispering 
each other, and the one who had ridden in the carriage pointed 
the other to a house over whose door (there was) hung a lantern 
with red glass, (the house being) like a hotel. And immediately 
they both went to the house over whose door there was hung the 
red lamp, and knocked twice at the door, and there opened to them 
a woman on whose face appeared the marks of badness and crimi- 
nality. And they both went in, and the door was shut to. 

"Then I said to my companion, 'Go and knock at the house 
which these people entered, and request to meet the man between 
whom and 5'ourself there is acquaintance, and keep on talking to 
him until I come, and see he don't get out of your sight.' Off went 
my friend without a word. And then I spoke to the police-station 
of that locality on the telephone to send me a force of the police 
there, and barely on my just finishing the message, lo and behold 
comes a posse of police. I took them, raided the house, and ar- 
rested all in it. At the enquiry in the police-station we found them 
all to be revolutionaries dangerous to the public security. They 
were all sentenced to banishment, including the woman." 

ADDITIONAL EXERCISE IN THE RELATIVE. 

[The numbers correspond to those in the preceding story.'] 

A. [a) Among my friends is a certain lady who is one of the nicest 
and prettiest of women. 
Among my friends are people living in H., who are among 
the best of my acquaintance. 
(6) This lady who is travelling to Europe to-morrow is not 
returning. 
Beware of those persons who are under police-inspection. 

' See note on section D. The action of greeting being not a momentary 
one, it is not put into the past. 

^ Here, where the continuance of the action is emphasised, the verb is 
further strengthened by bi (contrast preceding note). 

3 In these three sentences the word which is nominally attached to the 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 207 

E. 

"wi f hal ma nizil ir rsigil Juft wa;hid jisallim' "^aleih, "^ala 
tu:lW ijtabaht' fi:h, ma'^ inni m^a'^rafiuj". (wi r raigil da^-'^J]„ 
ijtabaht* fi:h lamma_tharre(:)t '^annu ba'^dein, simi'^t_innu kan lu 
jadd' fi hadsit is sir'a^btai'^it fulam ba:Ja, <^^ illij 'utri kullu simi"; 
*^anha). 

F. 

"wi ba'^dima sallimu '■ala ba'^d, Juftuhum bi jwajwiju" ba'-d, 
w illi kan ra:kib il "^arebiija Jawwar li_t ta:ni <^ala be:t m^^alla' 
•■ala ba:bu fanuis^ bi_'za:z_alimar, jijbih lukanda. wi '■ala tu:l 
raihu Ijtnem '^al be:t illi mit'^alla'' ""ala ba:buj fa:nus Lahmar,^ 
wi xebbatu "^al ba:b mcirratein, wi fatahit luhum hurma ba:jin 
•■ala wijjaha '■alamait' il ?aba:ha wi J Ja'a:wa, wi daxolu l_itne:n 
wi_trQdd_il ba:b '■ala tu:l. 

" 'umt^ana 'ult' l_illi gih wajjaija, ' ruh xabbat '■al be:t illi 
daxaluih ig gamai'^a do:l, w_utlub m^'ablit ir raigil illi bemak wi 
be:nu ma'^rifa, wi tannak ithaddit wajjaih lamm_a'gi_lkum, w_iw''a 
jitxdbba'* minnak.' 'am sallibna ma kaddibj' xabdr wi ra:h "iala 
tu:l. 'umt ana kallimt il karakom illi fi_n nu'ta di bi_t tilifom 
jijaj'ja'^ Ji 'u:wa mil buli:s illi '■andu, wi ja do:b bijngdrrad ma 
kammilt il 'ijaira, Llla_w gih 'u:wa mil buliis, fa xattuhum- wi 
hagamt' "ial be:t wi zabatna_lli fi:h kulluhum. wi bi t tah'i:' 
ma''aihum fi 1 karakoin la'e'naihum kulluhum min bitu:'' is sawre, 
illij xilluj 'amn il '^a:m(m). fajiSakam "^aleihum bi n nafj' 
kulluhum hatta 1 mdrct kaman." 



tamrim ?ida:fi fi 1 ism il mawsuil. 

(«) min dimn ashaibi wahda sitt hi:ja min altef is sittait w_ 
agmalhum. 
min dimni habaibi na:s sakniin fi hilwam humma min afdel 
ma'^arfi. 
(b) is sitt' dijli hi:ja_msafrd bukra 'urubba mij rag'^a. 
iw''U min_na:s do:l illi humma tahtLmra'bit il buliis. 



antecedent (m'''alla' to belt) really agrees with a, subsequent noun 
in its own clause. The whole clause in fact is attached to the antecedent 
by means of the adjectival predicate, though it logically has nothing to do 
with the antecedent. 
4 Or jistaxdbba. 



208 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

B. (c) I hailed a lorry which was standing in this place, but it 

wouldn't come. 
I sent for two carriages which were standing at the stand, 

but they wouldn't come. 
(d) We caught the train which left at 5 yesterday, but only just. 
Catch up those folk who have just started ! 

C. (e) There passed a girl whom I didn't know, but whom my wife 

knew well. 
There walked in front of us a lady whom we had met 

casually before. 
We saw a person whom the people with us knew well. 
We saw an Italian woman whom I think you know quite well. 
We met a party of people whom I was wanting to see very 

much. 
We met a party whom Zeynab was wanting to see. 
(/) So we did see Mohammad whom you like so much! 

The person you met chez-nous to-day we met yesterday at 

the station. 

D. (g) We stopped at a palace whose late owner was one of the 

notables of the place. 
We saw a lot of prisoners whose clothes, poor fellows, were 

all in rags. 
(h) Where did the lady get down whose carriage we saw passing ? 
Where did those people, etc. . . . 

E. (i) There met me a female of whom I suspected straight-away 

that she was bad. 

I enteitained some people the day before yesterday of whom 
I had heard that they were the best sort possible. 
(j) Aren't you the ones of whom we heard that you were se- 
questered in Malta ? 

See, 1 am the one of whom you heard that I was sequestered 
in Malta. 

Aren't you the one we passed that day when you were sitting 
in Sidnaoui's shop ? 

F. I was dehghted with some houses in H. whose windows had 

fine balconies. 
Just look at that grand palace over whose gate a crocodile 
is hung. [Or "^ala kume:J il bawwa:ba bta'^itha . . . over 
the cornice of whose gates.] 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 209 

B. (c) na(:)de:t "^ala karro ka:n wai'if fi 1 hitta: di, wala^jdiij jiigi. 

talabt '^ctrbijtem ka:nu wa'fim fi 1 maw'af, walajduij jiigu. 

{d) lihi'na 1 'atr illi 'a:m mil mahatta s sa'5. . .imba:rih, laikin 
bi z zu:r. 
ilha' in na:s do:l illi 'a:mu taww' bass. 

C. (e) fa:tit "^aleina wahda sitt* ma kuttij" "^arifha, la:kin zogti 

"■arfaiha tamam. 
mijjit 'uddamna wahda sitt aftikir 'abilna:ha misahijja. 
Jufna wahda kam illi wajjama ji'^rafuiha 'awi. 
Jufna wahda taljaniija (a)ftikir innukum "^drfinha tajjib. 
?abilna gamai'^a kutt* ''aiwuz ajufhum 'awi. 
-•abilna gamai'^a kamit ze:nab '^awza_tjufhum. 

(/) [Repeat these six sentences {e), placing [il] before antecedent, 
and [illi] after.] 
adihna Jufna mhammad illi ntu bi_thibbu:(h). 
illjntu Juftuih^innaharda '^andina ''abilnaih imba:rih fi 1 
mahatta. 

D. (g) wi'ifna'^and' sdraija fkam il mdrhuim sahibha ) min 

■j kamit il mdrhuima sahbitha la'^jam 
ikamu 1 mdrhu(:)mim ashabha J il balad. 
Juffi gamai'^a 'usard (masakim !) hudumhum kuUuhum 
m'Jdrmata. 

{h) Make above {g) definite by supplying [il illi]. ' 

is sitt illi Jufna "^drbi'jitha fajta nizlit fem ? 
in na:s illi Jufna '■drbi'jithum fajta nizlu fem ? 

E. (») ?ablitni wahda zanneit fiiha '^ala tu:l innaha battada. 

dift' gama:''a '•andi ?a\vwil_awwil_imba:rih kuttLsmi''t 
•■anhum innuhum min ahsan ma_jkum. 

ij) Make above [i) definite. 

muj intum illi_,smi''na ''ankum innukum mahguzim fi maita ? 
aho ?ana_lli smi'^tu "^anni ?inni mahguiz fi maita ! 
muJJntiJJi futna "^aleiki di:k in naha:r w inti 'a'^da fi bank 
sidnaiwi ? 

F. '-agabitni buju:t fi hUmiija fi Jababikhum tarasinait '■ad. 

Ju:f is sdraija 1 'ubbaha_Jli_jn'^alla' "^ala bawwa(:)'bitha 
timsa:h ! 



210 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

as'ila. 

(i.) il hikaija di_smi'^taha min mim ? (2.) mim humma 
1 muxbiriin w e: Jugluhum ? (3.) '■amal e:h il muxbir lamma 
Ja:f ij Ja?i rikib il '■arabijja ? (4.) '■alajan e:h rakkib il muxbir 
sahbu fi 1 '■drabijja wajjaih ? (5.) '-drabijjit iJ Ja'i wi'fit fern 
wi '■and' be:t mim ? (6.) iwsaf Una 1 be:t. (7.) '■irif eh '^an 
ir ra:gil Uli Jtabah fi:h ba'^dima thdrra '■annu ? (8.) mim fatah 
luhum lamma xabbatu "^ala 1 ba:b ? (9.) ?al 'eih il muxbir li 
Hi kam wajja:h ? (10.) huiwa "^amal zejjima ?al lu ? (11.) wi 
1 muxbir "^amal 'e:h fi 1 ha:l ? (12.) "^amal e:h bi 1 'u:wa lli gat 
lu ? (13.) wi bLt taft-'i:' wajjaihum fi 1 kdrakom zethar e: ? 
(14.) inhakam '^aleihum bi 'e:. (15.) fikrak innjl 'imn il 
<^am mazbuit fi masr ? 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 211 

For Systematic Grammar. XXX. 

1. When it is grasped that [illi] is like an enlarged connective 

particle like the second [il] in [il be:t il kibi:r], it becomes 
clear why it is omitted after an indefinite antecedent. 

Juft il be:t il kibiir, " I saw the big house." 

Juft il belt illi (huiwa) kibiir, " I saw the house which is big." 

Juft be:t kibiir, " I saw a big house." 

Jujt be:t (huiwa) kbiir, " I saw a house which is big." 

2. Thus all sentences related to an indefinite antecedent seem 
to lack what we call a relative pronoun. 

N.B. — [kuH' wa:hid, ajji wa:hid] are reckoned as indefinite. 

So [kuU' waihid jitlub ji'bal] means " Every one who asks 

receives " ; not [kuU' waihid illi. . . .]. 
But in [kull_illi jitlub], etc., [illi] is in the genitive ("construct 

state"). Similarly [kuUi min....]. 

3. [illi] can be used by itself, " he who," " him who." 

4. [illi] being an indeclinable connecting link, the case of 

the relative " who," " whom," " whose," is determined by 
a personal pronoun (caUed [il "^ai'id], " the returner ") in 
the relative sentence [sila]i e.g. "who," [ir raigil illi misik 
il hagait. . .] where the nominative pronoun is concealed 
in [misik]: {"whom") [ir raigil illi miskuih il buUis...] 
where the objective pronoun is [h]: l^' whose"), [ir raigil illi 
beitu "^agabna. . .] where the possessive pronoun is [h]. 



212 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXXI. 

Conditional Sentences. 

A dialogue about a return from travel. 

I. 

{Condition alluding to a possible event in the past.] 

Anees. I heard to-day that our friend Marcus came back 
yesterday from Europe. 

Boktor. If he has come {or came) reaUj^ we must go and greet 
him. And (even) if he did not come, we (should) have lost nothing. 

Gindi. No, he came for certain, for I myself, too, saw him in 
the Muski. 

A. Well, if you really saw him, there is no dispute as to our 
going. But if you did not ascertain him perfectly we shall possibly 
have out trouble for nothing. 

(II.) 

[Condition a supposition which supposes a past event reversed, and 

is therefore impossible of fulfilment.] 

[Enter the house-servant with a letter in his hand.) 

A. Well, here is an odd and wonderful thing. Here is a 
letter from our friend Marcus, in which he says that he wiU come 
in October, and that the cause of his delay is something in which 
there is great advantage to himself. 

G. Since the letter is from him, I turn out mistaken in 
my view of the man whom I saw. 

B. But if he had already started from there, it would be 
better for him ; for it gets very stormy on the sea in October. 

A. But if he had not stopped on there, we should not have 
experienced the pleasure of the news about which he has told us 
in the letter. 



' Also iza, but not lau. 

" kam does not by itself signify the past in conditionals ; the past sense 
must be conveyed by a second verb in the past. 

3 Or in ma kanj' hadar. 

■t Also in. kam also possible for kutt' ( = "if it be that I aaw "). 

5 A very useful way of rendering the verbal-noun of any verb by means 
of the verbal-noun of kam (kom == " being "), " our being we-go,'' " oar 
going." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 213 

it tamriin il waihid wi t talatiin. 

gumal Jsrtijja. 

m'hawrit lluflu:r mis safar. 

I. 

ani:s. ana smi'^t innaharda inni seiiibna mur'us hadar 
imbairih min_urubba. 

bu'ter. in' ka:n gih^ wa la budd, jilzamna_nru:}i nisallim 
•^aleih. w in kan ma hadarji' ma xusumaij haiga. 

gindi. la:, hadar bi kull' ta'kid, ''alajan ana zaiti kaman 
Jnftu fi 1 muski. 

ani:s. tejjib iza'^kutt' Juftu tama:m mafij niza:'^ fi ko(:)nna_ 
nru:h.5 walaikin iza ma kuttij*^ ha"a'tu tama:m jimkin nif^ab 
min ger fajda. 

II. 

[wi fi 1 had ddxdl xddda:m il be:t f i:du gawaib.j 

aniis. amma Je gdri:b wi 'amr' "^agiib ! aho da gawarb 
min sahibna mur'us, bi_j?u:l fiihjnnu rah jihdar fi_ktoibdr, wi 
sabab ta'xiiru 'amr' fih fajda "^dziima lu. 

gindi. he:s il gawaib minnu, 'ab'(a)_ana galtam fi nazari 
f_illi Juftu. 

bu'tar. laikin lau ka:n 'am'' 'abl' dilwa't' min hina:k ka:n 
jikum ah'san lu '^alajan bi_jkum fih hawa_kti:r fi 1 bahr fijitoibdr. 

A. laikin lau** ma kanj' fidiP hinaik, ma kun'naj Jufna'° 1 
farah bi 1 xabar illi 'al lina ''ale(:)h fi 1 gawa:b. 



^ Or in. Alternatives : iza kutt' ma ha'-'a-'tuij, or iza kain ma 
ha'^a'tuij, or iza ma kanj' ha'-'a'tu. The two last less common. 

' lau much better than in or iza. If kam were omitted, the sentence 
would be more suppositional and less vivid, " If he were to have started." 
Not very good. 

8 Better than iza. in not correct. 

9 Or lau kam ma fidilj, or lau ma fidilj. 
'° Or ma kunnaj nijuif . 



214 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

G. In truth, but for our receiving this letter, I wotild not 
beHeve that he has not come. 

A. Aha, if we had believed, my dear fellow, we should have 
had all our trouble for nought. 

III. 
[Condition a supposition relating to the present. The sup- 
position may or may not be a feasible one.] 
G. If Marcus were here to-day, he would go with us to Giza 
according to our custom every Friday. 

B. I think, if our friend were to change his mind, and started 
from there with all despatch, it would be better for him. 

A. And if he did (does) not change his mind, what do you 
suppose would (will) happen to him ? 

B. I think his remaining is a danger to him, in consideration 
of this affair of the war. 

A. No ! If God will, He will protect until he comes safely ! 

IV. 
[Condition alluding to a possible event, in the present.] 
G. What is it that you think that Marcus is doing at this 
hour in which we are ? But first, three o'clock here corresponds 
to one o'clock and a little there. 

A. Reckoning so, if he is not still at table, he will just have 
risen from table, and gone to rest. 

B. And if he doesn't rest after his meal, what will he be doing ? 
G. If he doesn't rest after his meal, he'll be reading a little 

in a book, or something. 

V. 
Condition alluding to a future possibility , whether of a real or 
supposed event.] 
A. When Marcus comes from Europe do you think he'U 
get off at Alexandria or at Port Said ? 

' lau la ("but for") requires a noun. istilaim is verbal-noun of 
istalam. Other equivalents : lau ma kunnaj istalamna, or lau ma 
stalamna:J, or lau kunna ma_stalamna:J (rarer : lau ka:n. .. lau ma 
kanj...). 

^ Or ma kuttij sadda't, which means, however, " I should not have 
behaved." N.B. — sadda't often pronounced sadda't. 

i Lit. " the not-thing." 

•• lau, because the condition is impossible, in and iza would both sug- 
gest possibility. 

5 Omission of kam would make meaning = " he will go." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 215 

G. ha>'a lau la„stila(:)mna' 1 gawaib da, ma kuttij asadda''' 
innu ma ga:]". 

A. aho lau kunna eadda'na ja habi:bi kmma ti'^ibua ''ala 
'?alla3 Je. 



III. 

G. lau'^ kam mur'us hina_nnaharda kan' jiraill wajjama^g 
giiza hasab ''a(:)ditna kuU' jo:m gum'^a. 

B. 'aftikir lau gajjctr* sohibna fikru wi 'am min hinaik f 
a'rab fursa, jiku:n ah'san lu. 

A. w_in'' ma gajjdrj'^ fikru wala gaj, jig'ra: lu 'eh ja'^ni ? 

B. aftikir, u'^aidu xatar "^aleih naaaran li mawdu:'^ il Iiarb 
[nr bi n nisba li. . . .). 

A. la:, in Ja 'aiiah, rabbina jistur li haddima ji:gi bi s 
sala:ma. 

IV. 

G. illi tiftikni 'inn' mur'us bi ji'^mil e: fi s sai'^a di_lli_lina 
fi:ha? 'abl' kulU Je:, 'is sa:'^a talaita hina tiwa:fi' wi_tna:sib 
is sai'^a wahda wijwajja hina:k. 

A. '^ala kida in' ma kanj' lissa bi ja:kul, ja do:b jiku:n 'a:m 
mil 'akl' wi ra:h jina:m. 

B. w_in ka:n'° ma_b jinamj' ba'^d il 'akl, jiku:n bi ji'^mil e:h ? 
G. in ma kanji'° bi_jna:m ba'^d il 'akl jiku:n bi ji'ra Jwajja 

fi kta:b walla ha:ga. 



V. 

A. lamma ji:gi mur'us min urubba tifrikru jinzil '^ala_skindi- 
ri:ja walla "^ala bur sa''i:d ? 

* This condition not being inapossible we may have iza gajjdr or iza 
ka:n jigajjir. Also, lau ka:n jigajjdr. 
' Or lau, or iza. 

8 Or w in (w iza) ma kan J' jgajjdr fikru. .. , or w in (w iza) ka:n 
ma gajjdrj. But in these cases lau is not permissible because the meaning 
would then be, " if he had not changed." 

9 Or iza, but not lau. 

'° Or iza. Notice the alternative positions of the negative. The positive 
would be in (or iza) ka:n bi jna:m, "if he is (actually) sleeping." 



2l6 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

B. I think the probability is, as I suppose, that he'll get off 
at Alexandria, for his relations are there. 

A. If he really got off there, I'd go meet him at the harbour, 
for I shall be in Alexandria during October. But if he doesn't 
get off there I shan't go and meet him at Port Said, for it would 
be a most wearisome errand. 

B. If he does get off at Alexandria, he'll stop a few days at 
his relations ; so if you are to be found there at the time you will 
go to him. 

A . Of course, if I should be there, I go to him, that's certain. 
If I'm not, then it's not my fault. 

[Here, lo and behold, enters Marcus.] 

M. Good-day to you ! [All rise dumbfounded.'] 

A. What's this ! Marcus?? 

M. WeU, this is odd ! Why of course, is it his ghost ? 

B. Why, I said that I saw him himself in the Muski. 

G. Why, my dear feUow, there arrived only this moment a 
letter from you, that you were still in France, and were coming 
in October ! 

M. The will of Providence ordained that I should come at once, 
in consideration of the present state of things. And, in any case, 
I sent you a cable. 

A . In truth, had that cable reached us we should have spared 
ourselves all this argumentation. 

:je H( H^ 4= :{c 

The Reader. But in that case we should have missed a great 
lesson upon the conditional particles ! 



' Or iza. 

^ Or aruih a''ablu, " I will go and meet them." The other construction 
(ruht) is more hypothetical in meaning. Notice the complete absence of 
past significance in the " past " tenses in the sentence in nizil, ruht ; 
cp. the English " if he landed, I'd go," where " landed " is quite timeless, 
though past in form. Also possible : in kan jisahh' w jinzil, aru:Ii 
a'ablu ; here ruht is inadmissible. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 21'] 

B. aftikir il gailib "^ala zanni 'innu jinzil ''ala_skindiri:ja, 
"'alajan 'arajbu hinaik. 

A . in' sahhLw nizil '^ala hina:k ruht 'abiltu^ fi 1 mi:na. "^alajan 
rah^akum fi_skindiri:ja fi J JahrLkto:bdr. la:kin iza^ ma nizil JL 
hna:k m_aruhj a'ablu fi bur sa'^iid "^alajan jiku:n mijwair mut"^ib 
giddan. 

B. iza ka:n jinzil* "^ala skindiriija ha jifdal kam jo:m "^and' 
?arajbu, fa 'in' kutt' tinwigid^ hina:k wa'taha tib'a_t'ruh lu. 

A. bit tab*^, in''_inwagatt' hna:k rah't' lu. w_in ma_nwagat- 
tiJ^ ma_b jaddi hida^ ! 

[wi fil had illa_w mur'us xdjji ''aleihum.] 

mur'us. naharku sa'^iid ! [?a:mu kuUuhum mafgu(:)'i:n.] 
ani:s. d_eh da ! inta mur'us ? ! 

mur'us. amma "^agaijib wi gara:jib ! ummad xajadu ? ! 
bu'tar. ma 'ultijkum inni Juftu fi 1 muski_b za:tu ! 
gindi. ja 'axi, da_wsilna gawa:b minnak dilwa't* bass, 
innak lissa f firansa wi ga(:)j fi_kto:bar. 

mur'us. ira.'dit rabbuna hakamit '^alaij_a:gi hadan nazaran 
li 1 hada 1 hadrd. wi "^ala kull* had ba'^att'Jku talligraif. 

ani:s. ha"a lau wisilna_t talligra(:)f da kunna waffdrna "^ala 
nafsina 1 m^naz'^a di kuUaha .... 

-|C 5p *(C ^ ;|C 

il 'a:ri. walaikin fi 1 hal da kan rah minna_hna ddrsLkbiir 
fi mawdu:"^ 'adawait ij Jart ! 



3 Or in, or as in next sentence, see note (2). 

■» Or iza nizil, in nizil. s or iza. 

6 in inwagatt, iza_nwagatt. 

7 See note (3). 

8 Or w_in ma kuttij anwigid, or in kutt' m_anwigidj. (The 
constr. with kam not so good.) 

9 Or ma_b jaddilj' hida. Lit. " there is in my hand no device." 



2l8 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

as'ila. 

(i.) inta simi'^t e: "^an mur'us ? (2.) in ka:n badar sahi:h 
jilzamna ni'^mil e: ? (3.) iz zejj itha"a'tu innu lissa fi blad 
bdrrct ? (4.) eih illi 'a:lu mur'us fi gawaibu ? (5.) "^alajan 
'eh lau kam mur?us 'am min hinaik 'abl' dilwa't kam jikuin 
ah'san lu ? (6.) kuttu ti''milu 'e: lau kam mur'us ha:dir? (7.) 
is sai'^a talaita hina_twa:fi' kam fi 'urubba ? (8.) il gadib 
mur'us kam bi ji'-mil e: sa'^it ma kam asliaibu bi jikkallimu '^annu 
f masr ? (g.) e:h id dai'^i Hi juigibalc li_m''ablit mur'us aw 'illit 
m'?ablitu ? (10.) '^alafan e: istdgrab mur'us konkum ma 
kuttu: J mintizrimu ? (11.) lau kam it talligraij wisU, kunnajina 
stafadna ? 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 219 

For Systematic Grammar. XXXI. 

RULES FOR CONDITIONALS. 

1. The " if " particle must always be followed by a past,^ either 

the auxiliary [ka:n, kutt, etc.], or some other past. But 
this " past " does not express past time. 

2. If the thing to be expressed is 

{a) a supposed event in the past, [kam], etc., must be supple- 
mented by a verb in the past, [in, iza,J not [lau]). 

(&) a supposed event in the present, [ka:n], etc., must be supple- 
mented by an aorist with [bi]. ([in, iza] not [lau]). 

(c) a supposed event in the future, or a pure supposition, 
[kam], etc., must be supplemented by an aorist without 
[bi]. But here an alternative is possible : [kam], etc., 
may be dropped, and the verb in the apodosis be put into 
the timeless "past " tense, e.g. [iza (in) kuntu ti:gu, 
ni'abilkum, or iza (in) ge:tu, 'abilnaikum]. ([in, iza] ; 
for [lau], see note (3).) 

3. Only if the condition expresses a past impossibility does the 

past verb in itself convey a past meaning, e.g. [lau^ ra:h = 
" if he had gone." But as this might also mean present 
impossibility ("if he were to go"),^ it is better to add here 
also the auxiliary : [lau kam ra:h]. 

4. The answering clause to this may be either a past tense, or 

a past with [kam], etc., or [kam], etc., with aorist : e.g. 
[lau kam ra:h ruht ana kaman ("I should also have gone") 
{or kutt' ruht or kutt aru:h)]. 

5. When two verbs occur together the negative may be attached 

to either : e.g. [lau kutt' ma ruhtiij or lau ma kuttij" ruht]. 

6. [kam] may be used impersonally, e.g. [iza kam ruht] "if (it be 

that) I went." But with the negative this construction is 
to be avoided. 

■' Only lau is rarely found followed by an aorist. 

^ iza with auxiliary also possible ; but not in. Ex., iza kam ra:h, 
" if he had gone." 

3 lau raih suggests that he will not go — the hypothesis is improbable 
or impossible, in rQ:h (or iza) suggests that he might quite possibly go. 



220 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

XXXII. 

Concessive Clauses. Indirect Questions. 
A letter of congratulation from one friend to another on the occasion 
of his success in an examination. 
My dear Sa'd, 
Although my health is askew and does not enable me to perform 
any work whatever, still my love for you has incited me with regard 
to congratulating you on your success in the examination for the 
certificate of the Baccalaurea this year. I waited to hear of your 
success with impatience ; nor was I aware whether the result 
had appeared or no, nor, on the supposition of its having appeared, 
was I aware if you had passed or not. And over and above this I 
was not clear whether you had good hope of passing or no, because 
I heard that you had been very seedy while going through with 
the examination. And when I heard to-day that the result had 
appeared, I sent the servant to the Ministry, and bid him meet 
one of the employes whom I know, and say to him that I had 
heard that the list of names of the successful was complete, and 
that I was longing to hear whether so-and-so's name was among 
them. So forthwith the servant went and quickly returned with 
the news of your success, and that you passed the examination 
with all ease, in addition to your having got high marks in all the 
subjects. So it occurred to my mind, even though you had easied 
off in your study a bit during the year, you would all the same have 
passed. In special sort do I congratulate 5'ou on having succeeded 
so brilliantly, though you were ill during the examination. I beg 
you to inform me about your help, even though there is trouble 
for you (to do so). 

And may you remain. 

Your friend's 

Faheem Fahmi. 



^ Inf. of hanna. ^ mina(:)s(a)ba, inf. of III. 

3 Inf. of ?a:m. 

4 The termination is a classical relic denoting the genitive of an indefinite ; 
only found after ajj when followed by kam = ' whatever it be.'' 

5 Lit. " longing," see milta:' below. ^ Qj- kutt. 
7 The infinitive is xdstaka, " seediness." 

* Notice that in the Arabic the auxiliary kamit is dispensed with, as 
the pluperfect is fixed by the past " simi''t." 

9 Inj. of ni., 'a:bil, or amdrtu ii'a:bil. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 221 

it tamriin Litnem wi t talatiin. 

xiteib tahnijja' min habi:b li sadii'u hi mnasbit^ nagaihu 

f imtihain. 

■^aziizi sa'^d, 

ma'' ko:n sihhiti munharifa wala tsa:''idni:J "^al -"ijaim' bi ''ajji 
Juglin'^ ka:n, laikin ij Joi'^^ nahwak hamalni "-ala 'inni 'ahanniik 
bi nagaihak fi_mtiha:n Jiliaidit il bakaloiria s sa'na: di. ana 
ntazart asma'' bi nagaihak bi furu:g sabr, wala kuttij a'^lam iza 
ka:n in nati:ga zahdrit walla la:, wi '^ala fard' lau kamit zahdrit 
m_a''lamj iza ka:n^ nagaht' walla la:, wi ''ala:wa '^ala kida ma 
kuttij afham iza ka:n ''andak "^ajam bi n naga:ll, am la, he:s simi'^t 
innak kutt' mxdstik'' -"awi wa't' ta'dijjit_il_imtilia:n. wi lamma 
_smi'^t innahdrda inn in nati:ga zahdrit' ba'-att il xddda:m li n 
naga:ra wi 'amertu bi m'ablit' wa:hid mil mistdxdimi:n 'a''rafu, 
wi_jqul_lu inni smi'^t inn' kajf^asma n nagiii:n tamm, wjnni 
mijta:' asma"^ iza ka:n ism' fulain fi:hum. wi '^anha ra:h il xddda:m 
wi gih 'awa:m bi'° xabdr naga:}iak, w_innak mdrre:t fil_imtil5a:n 
bi kuU' suhu:la, fadlan "^an ko:nak" xdtt' nimdr" "^alja fi kull_il 
'^ulu:m. fa xatar bi ba:li hatta walau rajjaht' nafsak fi 1 m'zakrd 
Jwajja fi ?asna_s sana kutt' bdrdak nagaht. wi_b no(:)'^ xa:ss_ 
ahanni:k "^ala 'innak'^ nagaht in naga:h il ba:hir da ma'' innak'' 
kutt' ''ajja:n wa'tjljmtiha:n. w_argu:k tifi(:)dni ''an silihatak 
w_in'* ka:n fih kalaf ''ala hddritak, 

wi dumtum,'' 

li_mhibbak, 

fahi:m fahmi. 



'° This bi of accompaniment practically makes the intransitive " come " 
transitive ("bring"). 

"^ N.B. — The jm/. ko:n, (being) enables you to form teMse-infinitives : 
e.g. ko:nak xdtt, " your having taken " ; koinak bi ta:xud, " your : act 
of) taking (now) " ; ko:nak ha ta:xud, " your being about to take " ; 
ko:nak kutt' xdtt, " the fact that you had taken," etc. 

" Sing, nimrd, " a mark." 

'3 Or ko:nak ; and, conversely, in (2) we might say innak. 

'♦ Or walau. 

'5 An optative, the '' past " tense being here quite timeless. Optatives 
in the colloquial are more usually expressed by the aorist : e.g. 'alia 
jihfeieak, " may God keep you ! " where hafazak_alia:h is somewhat 
literary. 



223 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

Contrast 

1 . Will you stay, or go ? 

2. Either stay altogether, or go at once. 

3. I haven't heard whether you are staying or going. 

4. Whether you stav or go, I shall go on working. 



For Systematic Grammar. XXXII. 

Concessive Sentences. If the "though" clause concerns an 
actual event, [ma'' inn] or [ma'' kom], "in spite of the fact that," 
must be used. If it is a supposition, [w_in] or [walau], "even- 
if," are used. 

Indirect Sentences. When the introducing verb "he said, 
commanded, asked, etc.," is past, the tenses of succeeding verbs 
are not changed as in English: e.g. I said that I was (originally 
""am") longing: ['ult inni mujta:'] or [ajta:']. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 223 



1. biddak tistanna walla trawwah ? 

2. ja(:) tistanna "^ala tu:l, ja trewwah hailan. 

3. ma smi'^tij iza kutt' ha tistanna walla trswwafi. 

4. sawan kutt' tistanna aw tiru:ti, an_atann_ajtigil. 



1 . Where the alternatives are in doubt. 

2. Or ja 'imma. The second ja may be ja 'imma or walla or aw. 

For the presentation of mutually exclusive alternatives, one of which 
IS to be selected. 

3. Ordinary " indirect question," the subordinate clause being introduced 

by iza. 

4. sawan, Uterary sawai'un, " equally," which is also heard. 

Here the subordinate clause is disconnected from the principle one. 



224 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



SKELETON CONVERSATIONS. 

The following outlines for talks on specified themes are intended 
to help the student to break new ground in conversation for himself. 
This he should be always trying to do, as exclusive application to 
text-book work has a weakening effect. The themes must of 
course be talked through with the teacher. 

The vocabularies supplied are arranged according to a natural 
progress of thought. 

It would be easy for the student to multiply these sketches 
for himself. He has only to think out a conversation on some topic, 
write out the vocabulary which he foresees he wiU need, get his 
teacher to fill in the equivalents he does not know, and then start 
talking it through. 



I. Summer Holidays. 





[a) In 


Egypt. 


sea 


il bahr il madih 


pick up shell(s) lamm is sadafa, 


bathe 


istahamma 


(p. sadaf). 


a bathe 


subu:h 


expedition miJwa.T 


play in water 


issabbah 


Ramleh dr rami 


dip 


gates jigtas 


Raselbar ra(:)s il ba:r 


dipping 


gatsam 


Abukir abu ?i:r 


swim 


''aim ji'^uim 


tent(s) xe:ma xijaim 


a good swimmer 


"^awwaim 


mat-huts dirwa (oysi'iifasa'aijif,) 


current 


tajjair 


ma'^muila min hasiird 


deep water 


majja_tgarra' 


appetite Jahijja 


drown 


giri? jigra? 


coolness tera:wa 


rock 


saxrd suxuir 


damp rutuiba 


cliff 


garf guruif 


high temperature hdroird 


pool 


birka birak 


heat hcirr 


shore 


Jaiti 


hot (of weather) harr ; (of body) 


sand 


rami 


hdrram 


spade man' 


drd {p. mana:?ir) 


great heat Jdrd 


dig 


fahat jifhat 


bask in sun ijjammis 


pail 


gdrdal gdraidil 


reading m'tsl'^a 


castle ko: 


m kima:m (heap) 


novel(s) riwaija riwajait 
letter(s) xitaib xitabait 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



225 



quay 

harbour 

customs 

expedite 

steamer 

cabin 

sea-sickness 

be sea-sick 

calm 

storm 

horizon 

Switzerland 

climbing 



(b) Abroad. 

rasiif 

mi:na 

gumruk 

xqIIqs ''ala 

wabuir il bahr 

diwa:n dawawim 

doixd 

da:x jidu:x 

hawa ha:di 

hawa_Jdi:d 

ufu? 

suwisrd 

it tulu:'^ fo' il gabal 



fi blaid bdrrd. 

Austria bila:d in nimsa 

Italy italja 

Syria suriija, bdrr ij Ja:m 

Palestine falastiin 

Lebanon il libnam 

Jerusalem il 'uds 

Hebron il xdliil 

Jaffa [jaifa], Nazareth fin naisird], 

Jordan valley [il goir]. Salt Sea 

[bahr lu:t], Jericho [ariiha], Mt. 

of Olives [gabal iz ze(:)tu:n], 

Haifa [heifa], Bethlehem [be:t 

lahm]. 



2. Conversation with Child. 



I. Pupil{s) tilmiiz (talamza) 
school-year sanamadresijja 

boarding-school id ddxlijja 



day-school 


il xargijja 


class (es) 


fir' a fire' 


lesson hour(s) 


hissQ hisas 


class-room(s) 


maktab, makaitib 


playground (s) 


mal'^ab, malai'^ib 


keep order 


jihfaz in niza:m 


2. Daily routine at School. 


routine 


tdrti:b 


assembly 


tabu:r 


prayers 


is sala 


teacher(s) 


xo:ga xoga:t 


teach 


ddrras 


punishment (s) 


q?a:b(a:t) 


punish 


"^ai'ib 


interval 


fusha 


3. School Apparatus. 


apparatus 


adawa:t 


chalk 


tabaji:r 


blackboard(s) 


tdxta (tuxdt) 


easel 


kursi t tdxta 


bench (es) 


dikka dikak 



durg adraig 

xarta xurat 

rasm rusuma:t 

kdrrais kdrariis 



desk(s) 
map{s) 
chart (s) 

exercise book (s) 
4. Subjects. 
grammar (Ar.) in nahu wi s sarf 
grammar (Engl.) agrumijja 

writing xatt 

reading 'ira:ja 

arithmetic hisa:b 

Scripture kita:b mu'addas 

(tawra:) 
lesson in religion ddrs diini 

spelling higa:ja 

spell istahagga, jistahagga 

dictation 'imla 

dictate 'amla jimli 

put questions aPa (jiPi) as'ila 
answers agwiba 

learn by heart hafaz ge:ban 

sewing xijaita 

needlework tatriiz {from tarraz) 
cooking tsbiix tabx 

domestic economy tadbiir manzili 



226 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



5. Games. 


al<;a:b 


drill 


gumbaiz 


ball 


koira 


goal(s) 


go:l agwa:l 


forward (s) 


farwad farawiid 


backgammon 


tawla 


dominoes 


dumana 


draughts 


daima 


chess 


Jatreng 


6. Holidays 


m°samha:t 



7. Outings fusha fusali 

Zoo ginent il hajawanait 

desert il xala 

Barrage il 'anaitir (fumm il bahr) 
the Pyramid (s) il hdram 

Sphinx abu_l ho:l 

museum Lantikxama 

Sakkara is ss'^aird 

takes us jiwaddima 



3. Sights of Cairo, 
he shows you over . . . 

jifdrragak '^ala. .. 
you see over. . .titfdrrag ''ala. . . 
take a carriage . . . 

tirkab "-drabiija. . . 
go on foot. . . tiru:h "-ala rigleik. . . 
direct me to the station. . . 
"^arrafni tari:' (sikkit) il 

mahatta. . . 
I. Dragomans 
dragoman 



they cheat 
cheating 
pretend to j'ou 
to be on your 
side 



tdragma 
turgumain 

giJJ 

jiddi'-u '■aleik 

b_innuhum 

fi gihatak 



are in agreement with 

mittif-'iin wajja 
commission ''umuila 

shopkeepers bajja'^im 

ignorant about their job 

guhala fi kd(:)rhum (san''ithum) 



guide-book 
map, plan 

do without . . . 

inexperienced 

2. Bazaars 



dali:l, adilla 

rasm (rusuma:t) 

xarta (xurat) 

tistdgna "-an. . . 

9dji:m (gujm) 

il xam il xalidi 



ETC. manaizir masr. 
bargain with fa:sil 

you bargain with him tifaslu 
brass bazaar su:? in nahhasiin 
carving na'J 

silversmiths suj j aig (sing. sa(:)jig 
worker(s) ssnaj'^i (sanaj''ijja) 

tray(s) sanijja (sawaini) 

bowl(s) sultanijja {-a:t) 

flag-bazaar il xijamijja 

tent-maker xijami 

tent(s) xe:ma, xijam 

mushrabiya xdjab anti:ka 

cabinet-maker nagga:r di"i 

mufrabiya-worker naggairantiika 
carpenter nagga:r sawa:?i 

screen(s) haigiz (hawaigiz) 

carpet(s) siggaida (sagagi:d) 

perfumiers '^atta(:)rim 

perfume(s) "^itaira ("^itarait) 

3. Monuments asdrait 

(a). 
mosque(s) gamii'^ (gawaimi'^) 

chancel of do. liwam 

court of do. sahn ig gaimi'' 

pillar(s) "^amuid ("^awamiid) 

cornice kurneij 

arch(es) 'antara ('anaitir) 

niche mihraib pibla) 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



227 



ablution tank meida 


precentor 


<^ari:f 


ablutions wudu:' 


choir-boy (s) 


Jammais, Jamamsa 


ablute jitwadds? 


reform 


isla:h 


pulpit (s) mimbar mana:bir 


Patriarchate 


batrakxaina 


reading platform (s) dikka dikak 


Patriarch 


batri:k 


sermon xutba 


Bishop (s) 


us?uf (asa'fa) 


dome 'ubba 


Archbp(s) 


mutram (matarna) 


tomb-of-saint Je:x 


clergy 


'asi:s, 'usu:s 


hours of prayer mawa'^iid is sala 


endowments 


aw''a:f 


[il fagr w_id duhr wi 1 '^asr wi 1 


Church Council il maglis il mUli 


mdgrib wi Hija.] 




[d). 


(b). 


pyramid (s) 


hdram, ahraim 


city-wall (s) suir (aswa:r) 


Sphinx 


abu_l ho:l 


citadel ?al'^a 


temple 


biba:n 


Saladin salaih id dim 


hieroglyph 


hi:rogli:f 


tombs of Caliphs turab il xulafa 


dynasty 


■^eda (-a:t) 


court (of house) ho:J, dihliiz, fasaha 


tomb(s) 


mastaba, masa:tib 


balcony tdxtaboij 


Pharaoh (s) 


fir'^om fara'^na 


skylight-cupola Juxje:xa 


mummy 


su:rd 


banisters (railings) dsrabzim 


obelisk 


misalla 


reception-room salamlik, ^ai'^a 


shaft(s) 


bi:r (abjair) 


■(c). 


Irrigation 


ir rajj 


monastery(s) de:r, adjura 


The Barrage 


il 'anatir ilxeirijja 


sanctuary (chancel) heikal 


Assouan dam 


xazzam ?aswa:n 


ivory '^a:g 


Trunk canal 


rajjaih 


alabaster ruxa:m 


Canal(s) 


tir'^a tird<; 


mother-of-pearl sadaf 


Branch do. 


mis'a (masa:?i) 


the Mass il 'uddais 


smaller trench fahl (fuhu:l) 


h3nnn madi:h 


smallest do. 


'anaija (■'unj) 


chanting tdrtid 


drain (s) 


masraf (masamf) 


4. Training of Children, tdrbijjit' 


il 'awla:d. 


bring up rabba jirabbi 


manners 


ada:b 


be brought up jitrabba 


polite 


mit'addib 


general education tdrbijja 


civilization 


tamaddun 


education tahziib 


progress 


ta?addum 


morals axla:? 


be elevated 


itra'''a 



' The more classical 'tdrbija is quite commonly heard. 



228 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



elevation 


tarQ"i 


obedience 


tai'^a 


mothers of the future 


terrify 


xawwif 


ummahait il mista'bil 


threaten 


haddid 


influence of mother on her children 


threat (s) 


tahdiid (-a:t) 


ta'si:r il 'umm '^ala_wladha 


spoil (pet) 


dalla-^ 


enlightened 


mitnawwdr 


spoilt (petted) 


mMalla-^ 


enlightenment 


tanawwur 


thwart 


■^aikis 


principle (s) 


mabda' maba:di 


deceive 


^^\l jigiJI 


high (princ.) 


'^alja, ra'ja 


deception 


9iII 


low (,,) 


wet] a, safla 


(too) severe 


'a:si 


sound 


sahiiha 


severity 


'asa:wa 


bad 


xdsiisa 


evil habits "■ 


awajid mazmu:ma 


religious teaching ta'^liim di:ni 


bad words 


alfaiz 'abiiha 


moral teaching 


adabi 


swearing 


hilfain 


practical 


■^amali 


swear 


halaf jihlif 


theoretical 


nazari 


foulness 


'abaiha 


scientific 


"^ilmi 


purity 


taha:rd 


intellectual 


<;a?K 


fear 


xo:f 


application 


tatbi:' 


chastise 


?addib 


apply principles 


practically 


chastisement 


taMi:b 


jitabba? il maba:di '^al "^amal 


stick 


•^asaija 


good example 


?udwa hasana 


reward [vb.) 


ga:za jiga:zi 


The parents 


il waldem 


reward (noun) 


giza(:) 


mistake 


xata? 


favouritism 


muha'ba(:h), 


respect [vh.) 


ihtaram 




muhabijja 


respect (inf.) 


ihtira:m 


truth (fulness) 


sid> 


disrespect 


ihta^dr, ihti'air 


lying 


kidb 


disobedient 


"^aisi 


generosity 


kdram 


disobey 


'^asa ji'^SQ 


generous 


kari:m 


disobedience 


*^isjam 


stinginess 


buxl 


obey 


taiwi"^ 


stingy 


baxiil 


obedient 


m'taiwi'', muti:*^ 


selfishness 


mahabbit iz za:t 




5. A House. 




(«). The Architect il m'handis | quantities 


ma'adiir 


draws plans 


jirsim rusumait (&). The Builder il banna 


measurements 


misa:hd building '^nfin. 


) buna 


estimates 


ji^adddr 


bina 


estimate 


ta?di:r 




bina:ja 


materials 


mawa(:)dd 


building (subst. 


bina:ja, '^ima:ra 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



229 



buildings 

lay foundations 

(unworked) stone 

(worked) do. 

brick 

mortar 

cement 

plaster 

lime 

wall(s) 

roof 

corner(s) 



abniija, binaja:t 
wads'' ?asa:s, 

gada:r 

dabj 

hag or 

tu:b 

mu:na 

asmant 

gibs 

giir 

he:t (hetsm) 

sa'f, sutu:h 

zawja zawa:ja 



(c). After the 
painters 
colour-wash 
paint 
to paint 
woodwork 
furniture 



furnished 
furnishing {inf.) 



building 

na"a(:)Ji:n 

gi:r 

buija 

jin'uj, jidrab 

xajab 

farj 

^afj 

mobiljait 

'asais' 

mafru:J 

farJ, ta'si:s' 



6. A 
(a). The Composition it ta'liif 
the author il m^'allif 

compositions m°?allafa:t 

style uslu:b, inja 

inventive-faculty 'ari:ha 

imaginative faculty 

'u:wit il m'xajjila 
riwa:ja (-a:t) 



novel (s) 
article (s) 
magazine (s) 
newspaper(s) 

writer(s) 



ma'ada (-a:t) 
magalla (-a:t) 
gari:da garaijid 
gurnail garaniil 
ka:tib kutta:b 
(6). The printing it tab'' 

press matba'^a mataibi'' 

compositor gammi:'', saffiif 

machine-man tabbi:'' 

types huru:f 

24-point bunt arba*- wi ''ijrim 

proof(s) miswadda (-a:t) 

broiwa, broiva, bro:fa 



Book. 

correct sallah 

page(s) wiJJ wija:j 

sheet of 8 or 16 pp. 

malzama malaizim 
make-up tabba? 

stitch xajjat 

cover gata 

title ''inwam 

(c). The binding it tagliid 
binder m^'gallid 

cardboard, cloth, leather 

kartom, ''umaij, gild 
back ka''b 

[d). The distribution it tawzi:'' 



bookseller(s) 

colporteur 

profit 

commission 

reader (s) 

sale 



kutbi kutbiija 

m^wazza'' 

maksab 

''umuila 

'a:ri 'urra(:) 

mabi:'' 



' From classical root ?66, not 'ss. 



230 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

EGYPTIAN ARABIC READER. 

PART I.— ANECDOTES, DIALOGUES, AND STORIES. 



[A specimen conversation lesson on this first " anecdote " will he 
found below. It is intended to indicate to teacher and pupil the sort 
of way this Reader shoidd be used. It will thus he seen that lessons 
based on these pieces may he conducted entirely in Arabic, and the 
pieces themselves explained without the use of English, from a very 
early stage indeed.] 

A. The Teacher. B. The Pupil. 

A. Read the first anecdote. 

B. What does " anecdote " mean ? 

A. " Anecdote " means a story in which there is a humorous 
point (that) makes one laugh. 

B. And " humorous-point " means what ? 

A. Something odd (which) pleases the hearer. 

[The Pupil reads the Story of the Inexperienced Policeman.] 

A. " There was once a certain policeman " : " Once " means 
'' in the past time " ; "a certain policeman. . ." 

B. What does " policeman " mean ? 

A. Like those whom we see standing in the streets wearing 
the uniform of soldiers, to keep the order of the goers and comers 
in the street, — these are policemen (plural of policeman). Do you 
understand ? 

B. I now understand " policeman." 

A . Where did this policeman come from ? 

B. This policeman " came from the country." " Country " 
means what ? 

A. " Country " means the lands of the peasants; opposite 
of " big towns." — And this policeman, when he came from the 
country, where did he stay ? 

B. This policeman when he came from the country stayed 
in Cairo. 

A . Just so. Had he been there long ? 

B. No, he had not been there long : he " had come recently." 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 23! 

kita:b il 'iraija. 

guz waihid. — fukahait wi mhawrat wi hikajait. 

fukahait. 

I. 

kain mirrd waihid Jawi:J gih gidiid mil 'drja:f. wi lamma 
ka:n fi J Jugl' fU karakoin wa"afu:h "^at tilifom "^alajan ja:xud 
il 'ijarait. fa mdrrd mil mctrrait lamma da'-'J.l garas wada''_is 
samma:''a '■ala widnu wi 'al " mim ? " fa 'al lu " 'ana 1 hikimdair. " 
fa rama_s samma:''a min_i:du w_idda ta''zi:m, wi sa:b_il hikimdair 
min ge:r fajda. 

A. il m^'^allim. B. it tilmiiz. 

A. i'ra 1 fukaiha 1 ?awwilanijja. 

B. fuka:ha ja'^ni ei ? 

A. fukaiha ja'-ni hikaija fiiha nukta tdahhak. 

B. wi nukta ja'^ni e: ? 

A. Je gdriib jibsit is saimi"^. 

[it tilmi:z ji'ra hikaijit ij JawiiJ il gdji:m.] 

A. " ka:n mdrrd wa:hid JawiiJ." mdrrd ja'^ni, fi z zaman 
illi fait. " wa:Sid J"awi:J. . ." 

B. JawiiJ ja'^ni e: ? 

A. zejj illi bi njufhum wa?fi:n fi J Jawairi"^ labsiin libs il 
•^asaikir, "^alajan jihfazu tdrtiib illi raijili w illi ga:j fi J Jairi'^, do:l 
Jawi'Jijja, gam"^ JawiiJ. faihim ? 

B. ana dilwa'tLfhimt Jawi:J. 

A. iJ Jawi:J da gih min em ? 

B. iJ JawiiJ da " gih mil drjaif." drjaif ja'^ni ei ? 

A. 1 drjaif ja'^ni bilaid il fallahim, didd il mudun il kibiird. 
w iJ J"awi:f da lamma gih mil drja:f nizil "^ala fe:n ? 

B. iJ JawiiJ da lamma gih mil drjaif nizil "^ala masr. 

A. tamam. kain gih min zamain ? 

B. la ma kanj' gih min zaman, laikin gidiid. 



232 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

A. In other words, he was still inexperienced. And wheie 
was the place of his work ; in the streets, like as we said ? 

B. No, his place of work was not in the streets, it was " in 
the caracal." What does " caracol " mean ? 

A. The " caracol " is the police-station in each part of the 
town. Every district must have a " caracol " or police-office.' 

B. And who are in the caracol ? 

A. There is a chief, called the "Commissioner," and under 
him the "Adjutant " and the " Superintendent," and the constables. 
— So then, what was the work of this policeman at the station ? 

B. It says : " They stood him at the telephone." What does 
" they stood him " mean ? 

A . It means they ordered him, caused him, to stand. 

B. I still don't understand " they stood him." 

A. Listen. You are now sitting. Please stand up. See now 
I have " stood " you up. Please sit down — now I have " sat " you 
down, i.e. made you sit down. — Well then, where did they "stand" 
the new policeman ? At the (door of) the Commissioner's room ? 

B. No, they did not stand him at the room of the Commis- 
sioner. " They stood him at the telephone." 

A . They stood him at the telephone for what purpose ? 

B. They stood him at the telephone for the purpose " of 
taking the messages." What does " messages " mean ? 

A . All the requests and orders which come to the station by the 
telephone. — So then on one occasion when the bell rang [" he has 
rung, I rang, he rings, ring the bell, Ali "] what took place with him ? 

B. " He placed the receiver to his ear." Make me understand 
the meaning of "he placed." 

A. He " put " : as, " I placed the book on the table," i.e. 
" I put it on it." And the " receiver " is the thing by which you 
hear the voice of the person who is talking with you. — And what 
did the policeman say when he put this recei\'er to his ear ? 

B. He said " Who ? " i.e. " who is speaking ? 

A . Exactly ! and what did the owner of the voice say ? 

B. The owner of the voice said " I am the Chief Commissioner" . 
Explain to me that word. 

I Arabic "eighth," because of the original eight districts of Cairo city. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 233 

A. ja";!!! geijiim lissa. wi mhall' Jiiglu ka:n fe:n, fi J Jawairi"^ 
bdrdu ? 

B. la: mahall' Juglu ma kanji fi J Jawairi'^, kain " fi 1 karakoin." 
kardkoin ja''ni e: ? 

A. il kardkoin mahall il buli:s fi kull' guz mil madima. 
ja'^ni kulli giha la:zim jikum fiiha karakom aw tumn. 

B. wi 1 karakom fih mi:n wi mim ? 

A. fih wa:hid 'mjjis ismu 1 ma'mu:r, wi taht' minnu il m^'^a:- 
win wi 1 m'laihiz wi J Jawijijja. — tajjib, ij JawiiJ da kam Juglu 'eh 
fi t tumn ? wa"afu:h fern ? 

B. bi j'uil " wa"afu:h "^at tilifom." wa"af ja'^ni e:h ? 

A. ja'^ni, amdru:h ji'af, xallu:h ji'af. 

B. li hadd' dilwa't' ma_fhimtij wa"afu:h. 

A. isma'^. inta dilwa't' 'ai'^id; 'min fsdlak i'af. aho ?ana 
dilwa'ti wa''?aftak. tejjib, min fadlak_i?''ud ; aho ?ana dilwa't' 
'a'^"^adtak, ja'^ni xdlleitak ti''^ud. — tajjib humma wa'?afu J Jawi:J 
il gidiid da fem ? '^and 'o:dit il ma'mu:r ? 

B. la:, ma wa"a'fuhj' ''and 'o:dit il ma.''mu:r. "wa"a'fu:h 
■^at tilifo:n." 

A. wa"afu:h "^at tilifo:n bi xusu:s e: ? 

B. wa''''afu:h ''at tilifo:n bi xu&u:s innu ja:xud il ij6ra:t. 
iJ(IirQ:t ja'^ni e:. 

A. ja''ni kull it talaba:t wi 1 'awa:mir illi_b ti:gi li 1 kard:kon 
bi t tilifo:n. — fa mdrrd mil mdrra:t lamma da'? il gdras [da", 
da"e:t, jidu", du" il gdras ja ''ali] hasal minnu e: ? 

B. "wada"' is samma:''a ''ala widnu." fahhimni ma'^na 
wada''. 

A. ma'^na wada'' hatt. zejji wada'-t il kita:b '■ala t tarabe:za, 
ja'ini hatte:tu ''ale:ha. wi s samma:''a hi:ja 1 ha:ga_lli_b tisma'' 
bi:ha so:t illi bi_jkallimak. — wi J Jawi:J da 'al 'e: lamma hatt is 
samma:''a '■ala widnu. 

B. 'al " mi:n," ja''ni " mi:n illi_b jikkallim." 

A. tamam ! wi 'al lu 'e sa(:)hib is so:t. 

B. 'al lu sa(:)hib is so:t " ana 1 hikimda:r," fahhimni hikim- 
da:r ja'Jni e: ? 



234 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

A. It means the chief of all the police in Cairo; i.e. the 
biggest (possible) person in the estimation of that policeman. — 
When the policeman heard the voice of the Chief Commissioner, 
what did he do ? 

B. When the policeman heard the voice of the Chief Com- 
missioner he "flung down the receiver from his hand." — What is 
the meaning of " flung " ? 

A. The person who " throws (down) a thing and leaves it " 
is said to " fling it down." ["He flung, I flung, he flings, fling the 
letter into the post-box, Ali."] Well then, he flung the receiver 
from his hand " and saluted." 

B. What does "saluted" mean? 

A. Doesn't every policeman stand like this in front of his 
officer, and do like this with his hand ? WeU, that's what this 
policeman did. So then, why did he fling down the receiver ? 

B. He flung it down so that his hand might be free for the 
salute. 

A. And did the Chief Commissioner see him doing this ? 

B. No. The Chief Commissioner did not see him do this, 
because between him and the policeman was a big distance. 

A. Just so, and that is the amusing point of the story. And 
not only so, but he left the Chief Commissioner speaking to vacancy. 

B. I think the language of the Chief Commissioner was some- 
thing very grievous on that occasion. 

A. Goodness me, we must thank AUah that we did not hear 
it. — Well, and what do you think they did with that policeman ? 

B. I don't know ; 3'ou tell me. 

A. Perhaps they sent him to sweep stables. 'Twould be 
better for him. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 235 

A. ja'^ni 'rajjis kuUi 1 buli:s illi f masr ; ja'^ni akbdr waihid 
fi nazar ij Jawi:J da. — lamma_J JawiiJ simi'^ soit il hikimdair 
"-amal ?e:h ? 



B. lamma J JawiiJ simi'^ so:t il hakimdar " rama s sammai'^a 
min i:du."— ma'-na rama e:h. 

A. illi jiMif haiga wi jsi:bha 'ismu ramaiha. [rama, rame:t, 
jirmi, irmi 1 gawaib fi sandu:' il busta ja "^ali.J tejjib, rama s 
sammai'^a " w idda ta'^ziim." 

B. idda ta'^ziim ja''ni e: ? 

A. muj kulli JawiiJ ji'af ?adda:m iz zaibit bitai'^u kida, wi 
ji'-mil kida ? aho J JawiiJ da raixar '■amal kida. ba'a rama e 
samma:''a leih ? 

B. ra'ma:ha "^ajan i:du tikum fadja li t ta'^ziim. 

A. wi 1 hikimdair Ja:fu bi ji'^mil kida ? 

B. la, il hikimdair ma JafuiJ bi ji'-mil kida, "^alajan ka:n beinu 
wi be:n iJ JawiiJ masaifa %awi:la. 

A. tama:m, wi.hijja di_n nuktajli_tdahliak fi 1 hikaija. 
wi muJ kida bass, laikin sa:b il hikimdair bi jitkallim "^al fada. 

B. dzunn kalaim il hikimdar ka:n haiga sa'^ba giddan fi 1 
wa't' da ! 

A. ja salaim! laizim nijkur alia: illi ma smi''na'ha:J ! — alia 
tiftikir '■amalu fi J JawiiJ da 'e: ? 

B. ana muJ '■airif. ?ul li hddritak. 

A. rubbama wad'du(:)li jiknis taht il xe:l wi s sala:m ! ah'san 
III! 



236 • EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

K2. 

waihid hajjaij kan bi jidrsb humairu, fa Ja:fu wa:hid ingiliizi 
wi wadda:h_il kardkom, fa daffa'^uih m'xQlfa"^alaJan kam bi jista'^mil 
il ?asa:wa ma''a_l hiwam. fa lamma dafa*- il m^xalfa li_^ gaibit 
bsss' 1 humairu wi ?al lu, "d_ana ma kuttij "^airif innu li:k ^draijib 
hina jihaimu "-annak. ''u:! kattar xerhum kiti:r.'' 

3- 
bi_j''udu inn' waihid fallaih firansa:wi rsh bariiz wi ma kanj' 
saba? Jafha. wi lamma ka:n marj' fi Jairi"^ , illa_w Ja:f 'asr' 'ubbaha 
xa:lis wi waihid "^askari wa:'if "^aleih. wi 1 ''asr' da kan sdrajit 
naibli'jom. fa_l fallaih rah '^andjl "^askari wi sa'alu, " ?e:h il 
bina;ja di ja JawiiJ ? " fa gawbuj "-askari (wi huiwa Ja:jfu innu 
gajirm) "da wabu:r tihim ja siidi." fa 'al lu "fi baladna bi ju'af 
'udda:m il waburait himiir kitiir, wi hina wa:?if waihid bass ! " 

V- 4. 
waihid fallaih raih il muski wi kam ra:kib huma:ru. wi_ 
msadfa wi'if il humair 'udda:m dukkam wa:hid sa'^aiti. ■'am 'al 
lu_s sa''a:ti " ''a:wuz_eh ja raigil ? ruh min hina." 'am 'al lu 1 
fallaih, 'ana muj '■aiwuz ha:ga, bass il huma:r wi'if. ta''a:la_msahu 
wi_niddi: lak 'irjem ! " 

5- 
asad wi ta''lab wi di:b issahbu sawa. wi f jo:m min do:l 
xaragu li_s se:d, fa„sta:du human wi 'dmab wi gazad. fa 'aiLil 
'asad li_d di:b, " i'sim benna." 'am 'al lu_d di:b, " il humair 
li 1 'asad, wi 1 'drnab li_t ta''lab, wi 1 gazad lijja (a)na." 'am 
darabu 1 'asad fi 1 had wi mawwitu. wi ba'^dem bass' li_t ta''lab 
wi 'al lu "i'sim inta ja_zmidi." fa 'al lu, "il mas'ala basiita. il 
huma:r li ga'daik, wi 1 gazad li "^ajaik, wi 1 'drnab li J Ja:j bitai'-ak." 
'am 'al lu 1 'asad, " mim ''allimak il hikma di ? " fa 'al lu, " ra:s 
id di:b illi te:rit 'udda:mi dilwa'ti ho ! 

6. 
■■drabijja da:sit walad sugajjdr, wi 1 '^drbagi giri bi:ha xa(:)jif. 
wi kam Jafha waihid JawiiJ. fa lamma hidru li 1 kardkom '■alajan 
il mahdar sa'alu 1 m^'-aiwin, "fern il ''drbagi_lli da:su? " 'am 'a:l 
ij jawiij " ma giri j_afandim." " ma '■riftij' nim'ritu ? " "xdttaha 
j_afandim." "tajib hi:ja ka:m?" " hala'tem wi nabbuit!" 

V 7- 
waihid gadiil in'^azam "-and' waihid sahbu '■ala 1 gdda, fcU 
nbasat mil 'akl, fa talab min sahbu jiktib lu_zzej bi jutbuxuj 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 237 

'akli da. 'am sahbu katab lu_l wasfa, wi ra:h is su:' ijtard lalima. 
wi lamma kan ma:Ji fi s sikka ti'^ib, fa 'a'^ad "^alajan jistdrajjah, 
wi hatt_il_lahma gambu. illa_w kalb' xa'tafha wi giri, 'am 'al 
lu 1 ga:hil " manij middi: lak il wasfa ! amm_aju:f ha tit'buxha 
min geir wasfa zza:j ! " 

8. 
itnem gum masr mil 'drjaif gidiid, wi lamma kainu majjim 
fi s sikka Ja:fu madnit gaimi"^ '^alja ?awi. 'am 'al wa:hid minhum. 
Ju:f ja: 'axi burg* ba:bil "^aili 'add e: ! " 'am it tami 'al lu " la: t 
inta '^abi:t ! di bi:r 'alabuiha "^alajan jinajji'fu:ha fi 1 hawa." 

9- 
fi jo:m mil 'ajja:m kamit wahda fallaiha '■aguiza rajha l_ii 
ni:l "^alajan tigiib majja. wi kam wajja:ha_hma:r. wi lamma 
kamit maJja fi_s sikka 'a'bilha walad Ja'i. wi lamma Jafha 'al 
laha, "nahairik sa''i:d ja_(u)mm_ul huma:r." 'aimit il faUaiha 
'a'lit lu " naha:rak muba:rak ja_bni." wi lamina 1 walad simi'^ 
il gawab da miji maksuif. 

10. 

kan fih wa:hid fallaih fa'irr, wi ka:n, 'a:''id fi 'odtu jo;m min 
za:t il 'ajja:m jiftikir fi mista'bilu. 'am 'al fi nafsu " ana "^andi 
Jwajjit samn, dru:h abi''ha fi s su:', w ajtiri bi ta'manha na'^ga; 
wi lamma tudid in na'^ga ha_jkum "^andi gdnam kitiir. wi ba'-dein 
abi:*^ il gdnam w ajtiri ba'ar ; wi lamma jiktdr il ba'ar, aggawwiz; 
wi lamma_j'gi: li walad, a'gib lu m^'^allim ji'^allimu_l "^uluim kuUaha: 
wi ba''dem a''ul lu, " ja walad hat kaza," w_in ma smi'^J' w_aiia:hi 
h_ad'rabu bi 1 "^asaija di kida !...." wi fi_l had rafa"^ il "^asaija wL 
darab is samn illi kam '■ala r raff, wi xusur sahibna_s samn wi 
mista'balu sawa. 

m^hawrait wi hikajait. 

il ''drbagi w iz zibum. 

zi. fa:di ja_(u)sta ja '^drbagi ? 

•^dr. aiwa faidi ja si:di_tfaddal. 

zi. ta:xud kam min hina li 1 gizi:rd ? 

"^dr. '■ajrd sa:g, la:kin "^ajan xatrak tamanja. 

zi. la:, ana dajman b_adfa'' xamsa. 

•^dr. ma fiij takli:f itfaddal irkab ! 

zi. nazzil il kabu:d ja_sta. . . .a'ul lak irfa'^u tami "^ajan if 
JamsLktiir. . . .su:' bLJ-Jwe:!, '■ala mahlak ! ma tidrabj il xe:l 
kida, hara:m '^ale:k. 



238 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

"^dr. maho laizim nisu:' bi 1 ''agal "^ajan nillla' il kubri 'ablima 
jiftah. 

zi. lissa badri, nilha? bLr_ra:ha vSal milaff, inta "^aiwuz 

timawwitna ! 

"^dr. ma txafj ja beh !. . . .haisib ja gada*^ u:'^a riglak ! hasba 
ja hurma, u-M wijjik ! 

zi. wdra ja„ste ! 

■^dr. liaidir ja siidi !. . . .iw'^a dahrak ja raigil int_a'^ma ? 
hi:ja s sikka bta*^! abu:k ? 

zi. aho_l be:t, it tami "^alajmailak. . . ."^andak ja_ste 

xud (i)Lugrd. 

•^dr. d_eh da ! ! ! 

zi. zejj' ma_ttafa?na, xamas 'uruij sa:g. 

•^dr. m_axudj nai'is ''an tamanja malliim waillid ! 

zi. taixud il xamsa walla la ? balaj kalam kitiir. 

''dr [nizil]. inta muj" saimi'' kalaimi ? 

zi. jaiid_l karakom. 

wa:llid wa:?if. ma'^lehj ja xdwa:ga, iddi: In kaman ?irj. 

wailiid tami. "^izzinnak' saraftu taman fingam 'ahwa ! 

tailit. an_ad'fa'^u min ge:bi ! 

zi. ta''a:la ja JawiiJ ! 

Ja. xabdr_e: ja_stQ ? 

"^dr. Ju:f il xdwaiga da gajibni hina min a;xir id dinja wi 
*'a:wuz jiddimi xamsa saig. ! 

Ja. raikib min_e:n ja xwaiga ? 

zi. raikib min mahattit hilwam. 

Ja. tajib bi zijaida "^aleik Lugrd di ja_sta. 

"^dr (lil wa'fim). ja na:s intu muJ muslLmim ? muJ Jaifiin il 
bdrsiim gaili wi kull' haiga galja ? muJ lldraim "^aleik ja xwaiga ? 

zi. jaiid 1 kardkom ummail. 

"^dr. ma"^ lehj ! d_ana ra:gil maskim, wi galbain, wi sa-.llib 
''ijad kaman ! [il x. ma gawbu-.J] rabbina_jxdlli:k wLjtewwil 
■^umrak ! [ma fi:J gawaib] aiiah jixdlli: lak angailak bi gaihjln 
nabi ! [bdrdu mafi:J gawaib] . . . [m'bawwiz] ha:t il xamas ?uru:J. . . 
[wi huiwa rarkib] xdwaiga bi_l hamm ! ! jiruih jirkab himiir ! 
'mai lu wi ma J ''arabijjait ! 



' ''izzinn an anomalous word, meaning "you may reckon it . . . 
"it is just the same as if . . . " For example, if a man demanded payment 
for a special job done within his working hours, you say i''zinnak. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 239 

hika:jit il kutbi wi 1 barbari. 

ze:d (li "^ubeid). ana_sini'^t inn axuik bi_jta:gir fi 1 kutub. 
alia hu:wa_b jijtiri kutub ?adi:ma bi 'asd jibihha ta:ni ? 

•-ubeid. aiwa mmail, d^aktcir Juglu fi 1 hagait illi zejji di. 

ze:d. hu:wa bi jru:li jijtiriihum mil buju:t, walla bi_truh 
lu fi d dukkain ? 

"^ubeid. bi_truli lu fid dukkain. laikin amm_a'?ul lak "^ala 
nadrd sa'^ba giddan hssalit lu ^ursijib ! 

ze:d. minfadlak ?ulha_nnawalaufi:ha Jwaija '^aleikmin gihatna. 

'^ubeid. la ma fihaij lla:ga, an_a'ulha Ikurii bi kull_irtija:h ; 
"-alajan hi;ja sahiili sa'^ba la:kinnaha mudhika ?awi. 
hikaijit axu ''ubeid. 

ana kutt' 'ai'^id fi d dukkam wi 'gai li wa:hid barbari ma'^aih 
Juwaijit kutub ?adi:ma tagli(:)dha firangi, wi ''al li "ijtiri do:l 
minni." ?umt_ana 'ult' lu " eh do:l ja Jartir." ?a:m il barbari 
'al li "kutub ingilizijja firansawijja ana '^airij? ma tjufhum ? 
huiwa da Jugli ? " ?umt ana 'ulti lu " inta gajb il kutub do:l min 
e:n ? " 'am 'al li " w inta mailak, inta_b tijtiri wal]a_b tis'al? " 
wi min Jiddit kalaimu ?umt_ana_z'Jilt, wi ftakdrt' tamam innu 
sari^hum, fa nadaht' li J Jawi:J wi 'ult' lu "laizim tiwad'di: 
li da_l kardkom." -"aim il "^askari 'abad "^aleih wi rulina_hna_t 
talaita 1 kardkom sawa. laikin il ma'muir wi 1 m'^'-aiwin kamu 
rawwahu buju(:)tlium "^alajan jinaimu. u ba''dem ddxxolu 1 
barbari s sign'_l hadd is subh. wi lamma tili"^ in nahair wi geh il 
ma'muir 'am fatah mahdar li_l barbari wi sa'alu gajb il kutub di_ 
mn_em. 'am il barbari 'al lu "siidi middiha: li." 'am 'al lu 1 
ma'muir " il xdwaiga btai'^ak mi:n?" 'am 'al lu, " il 'assi:s 1 
ingli:zi_lli_f ba:b il lu:'." 'aim il ma'muir ba'^at li 1 'assiis illi 'ail 
"■aleih il barbari, wi gaibu wi sa'alu "-an il kutub iza kainit bita''tu 
walla la. 'am il 'assiis 'al lu "amma 1 kutub di bta''ti w_anajli 
middihum lu." 'aim il ma'muir 71*^11 ''alajja wi 'al li " ummail 
gajbu leh ja magnum ! " 'umt ana 'ulti lu " ma tiz'^alj sa'^attak, 
•^alajan Juft il kutub galja xailis wi lamma sa'altu hiija_mn_e:n 
ma gab liij siirit il 'assiis abadan! " 'am il ma'muir 'al li "taijib 
ja siidi, aho nta hmair il bi'-iid, wil barbari 'ahmar minnak il ab'-ad ! 
adi ntu "^attaltuina min ger fajda. itfaddalu_t]a'^u ! " 

12. 

XGiga_b jiddi ddrs li saff* talamza. 
u'afu b intizaim! sukuit taim(m) !. . . .ma taxudj il kitaib illi 
wi'i'' ja "^ali ! xdlliih dilwa't wi xdlliik wai'if !. . . .u'^'udu ! 



240 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

mim jitzakkdr mawdu:"^ id ddrs il maidi ? balaj titkallimu 
sawa, bass illi ji'^raf il gawa:b jirfa'' i:du wi jxdlli:h sa:kit ; wi ma 
haddij jigaiwib illa_lli 'as'^alu. . . .tajjib, inta ja girgis 'u:!. — 
intu ja tanjim nazzilu (i)de:kum ! ahibb' lamm(a)_as''al wa:hid, 
il ba-'jim jinazzilu (i)de:hum hailan. . . .'u:l dilwaH' ja girgis 

la:, ja girgis, inta bi^t'uil "^ala mawdu:'' id ddrs -"abLilli fa:t. 
?u:l inta, ja_lli_f ri:hu !. . . .ja girgis, U'"'ud_int_umma;l ! kull_illi 
ma_jgawibj' jui^-ud hadan vvala jistannaij wa^iij. ma jsahhij 
jikuin fi:h_itne:n wa'fiin fi wa't' wailiid. tajjib ja nagi:b, ■'ud 

tama:m ja nagiib; talxiisak fi mawdu:'' il ddrs_illi fa:t kwajis. 

t€tlla''U t tawra:. la:kin ma tiftaliuha:J lissa. 

intibhu dilwa'ti kullukum ; lau wa:liid xajjdrak be:n asad 
majjit, aw kalb' hajj, 'ajji wa:hid milj.tne:n tifaddal ? — aidi su'ad 
gdri:b, balaj gawa:b ''ale:h dilwa't, la:kin niju:f 'eh illi jPuil il 
kita:b bi_xsu:su. 

kuUi wa:Ilid jiftah it tawrs: fi l_asha:ll il "^ijrin min sifr' kaza, 
nimrit il wiJJ' kaza min taht. la'e:tu_l ?a:ja kullukum ? lissa 
ja girgis ! . . . . 'allib kaman saliifte:n. 

dilwa't' ni?ra_l fasl, kull' wa:hid ji-'ra '■adad bLd do:r. ibtidi 
ja "-abd ilmin'^im. 

''alii so:tak ! . . . . muj ?awi ! . . . . ifsih 'irajtak 

dilwe't' nijrah il fasl' da. bussu fi 1 "^adad it ta:ni ; eh 
m'nasbit il kala:m fi 1 "^adad da. . . .ja busxaruin, fa:him in nu'ta ? 

. . . .tajjib, nitalla'^ ?a:ja fi l_ingi:l tiwaddah lina_n nu'ta i''ra_ 

nnaj ?a:ja ja busxaru:n ; Jajif wagh_ij Jabah be:n il ajte:n ? . . . . 
tamam ! irga'^u dilwa't' li 1 ?a:ja 1 ?awwilani:ja. daj ja'^tu_l matrah ? 
ma tdajja''u:J il matrah lamma ttalla''U_J_Jawa:hid !. . . .il 'a:ja di 
mhimma, la:zim tit?ammilu:ha tajjib. 

e:h illi nif^allimu mil liika:ja di? nitabba' il hika:ja '^ala 
'ahwalna 1 hadrd wi '■ala hija(:)tna. 

nildxxas il ddrs f_drba'^t_awguh, di:ru balku fi:ha ''i:d 

xula:sit id ddrs ja gubrija:n. . . .ja '^ali, du''? U gdras. 

i'filu 1 kutub bijwe:j. huttu:ha fi l_adra:g. u'afu ! uxrugu 
b intiga:m. 

13- 

ir raigil illi sa'^a fi 'irda kulli_ii_na:s. 

il hika:ja_lli rah ahki'hajkum min mu'tadaiha innjl wa:hid 

ma jimkinj jirdi kulli_n na:s. kan fih ra:gil '^agu:z xarag ma'' 

ibnu wi xdd ma"^ah huma:r rakkib ibnu '^ale:h, wi miji hu:wa 

wara:h. ?a:mu_n_na:s lamma Ja'fuh kida ?a:lu " ja sala:m, 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 24I 

'amma 1 walad da ma '^anduij Jafa'a wala zo:', Ju:fu z zaj hu:wa 
ra:kib wi mxcill(i)_abu:h ir rdigil il '^aguiz maiji." 'aim il wa:d_ 
inkasaf wi nizil wi rokkib abu:h, wi miji hu:wa. fih gamai'^a 
fajti:n lamma Ja:fu_I manzar da ?a:lum ."'ma: Ja 'siiaih! Ju:fu_i 
'Qbb_illi ma "^anduij liinnijja_mxalli_bnu ma:j"i wi 'huiwa ra:kib ! " 
'aim ir rsigil wi_bnu rikbum il huma:r humma Litnein. wi lamma 
n na:s Jaifu kida 'a:lu, " Je '^agiib '^ala d dunja di, Juifu 1 itnem do:l 
illi ma jixtijuij rakbim il humair il maskim humma 1 itnem, ma 
fi:J fi 'albuhum rahma! ahsan ninabbih '■aleihum bitu:'' g.am''ijjit 
ir riP bi 1 hajawanait ! " ba'-dem a:xir ma gilib ir raigil 'al l_ibnu, 
"il 'ahsan bij 'ahsan nimji wi_nmajji 1 humair 'uddarrma ho." 
'a:mu_n na:s lamma Jafuihum bi J Jakl^ da 'a:lu, " 'amma garaijib 
■^ala Litnem do:l_il maganim majjim humma bi nafsuhum wi sajbim 
il huma:r fa:di min ge:r ruku:b ! " 'aim il 'abb' 'al, "saimi"^ 
ja3ni kalaimjn nais ? rikibt il humair wahdak, ma xallashumj. 
rikibt il humair ana wahdi, bdrdu ma '■agabhumj. rikibna hna 
Litnein, nasa'bu_nna 'asaiwa wi 'illit rahma wi rip. mijiina 
hna Litnein, istaxaffu "^a'lina, w ista'-batuina w_istagannuina. 
aidi hail id dinja! mahma '■amal il waihid mahuj xaiU mil malaima, 
hatta lau kunna JilnaJ humair wijnji'nai bu ! fa laizim il waihid 
ji'^mil il waigib illi "^aleih, wi ma jis'alj' fi kalaim in nais." 

14- 
il m'gdffal wi J Jaitir. </ 
kan fih waihid ma hiltuij haiga ger hittit humair jijiil "^aleih 
wi jif^ajjij minnu. wLr raigil da kan m'gaffal, ja'^ni '^dbiit li 
'aixir ddraga. wi f joim min doil kan maiji_f sikka w gairir humairu 
wdr'aih bi habl. 'am Jaifu waihid min wilaid il balad ij Juttair wi 
'al Lixwainujli wa'fiin wajjaih, "tihibbu 'a'xud lukum il humair 
mir raigil da min ger ma_jhiss' wala jidrd ? " 'a'lui lu " tajjib 
wdrriina." 'am 'drrab '■al humair wi fakk il habl' minnu bLJweiJ" 
wi hattu_f ra''abtu 'huiwa, w_idda 1 humair Lixwainu wi tannu 
maiJi wdra 1 m'gaffal Juwajjitem, w_jtwa"af '•an il majj. 'am il 
■^dbiit baes' wdraih wjtxadd' w if^afrat lamma la'a_nnu gairir 
ibn' 'aidam, wi 'al. "gara 'eih! 'inta miin! ! " 'al lu "gara xeir, 
'ana hmairak." 'ail " il kalam da 'eih ! 'izzaj ti'ul humairi wU 
hail innak 'insain? da Je "^agiib! " 'al lu, " d ana_hkajti 'a'^gab; 
wi hiija...nni fi 1 'asLibn' 'aidam wi lamma kutt'^sgejjdr kutt' 
Ja'i wi_f leila mil lajaili za''''alitni 'ummi, 'mnti darab'taha "^ala 
rasha. 'aimit da'^it "^alajja wi talabit min rabbina jimsdxni hmair; 
wi heis innaha wilijja salha rabbina simi*^ minha wi masaxni_hmair 



242 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

wi wa"a''ni taht iidak ; wi_fdi]t '■ala di 1 hail li haddima 'am il 
?awa:n w_itzakkdritni ?ummi s sanadi wi ridjit "^alajja w tslabit 
min^Qiiaih jiregga'^nij ''asli, w adimi ba?e:t insain, zejjima kutt' 
'abl." sahibna_l m'gsffal ddxdl il kalaim fi "^a'lu wi sadda'u wi 
'al lu " drguik ja 'axLtsamillni w tisfah '■aiini wi ma_ttaxizniij 
■^ala t ta''ab illi sabbib'tu: lak mid darb* wi 1 'azijja muddit xidmitak 
"^andi, w itfaddal ba'a min ge:r matruid rswwall Lummak, bass jw'^a 
tidrabha tami." 'al lu, " ajkurak '■ala ''ilisa(:)'sa:tak," wi xdd 
bd''du tannu ma:Ji, wi silkit il hi:la '■ala sahibna. 

ba''d' kida rawwall il m'gaffal "-ala be:tu, min ge:r il humair, 
wi lamma_inra:tu sa'a'litu '■an is sabab 'al laha_" skuti, inti mij 
"■drfa Ui gara 'eih ? " -"a'lit lu, " w izzaj ratL.a'^raf min ger ma 
haddi^j-'ul li ? hu:w_an_a''lam il ge:b ? " 'am hakajhaj. hikaija 
mil 'awwU li 1 'a:xir wi hi:ja L.uxra sadda'it il kalaim wi 'aiUt " ja 
tdra rabbina_.isamillna "-ala 1 gariima di ! " 

ba''d' kida 'a'^ad il ra:gil fi 1 be:t bala Jugl. 'armit maraitu 
'alit lu, " wi ba''de:n ja raigil Sa tifdal kida bairik fi 1 be:t ? la 
Jugla wala majgala? 'uim ijtiri: lak liumair ge:ru w_is''a "^ala 
hailak." 'am ra:li is sui' wijinaik la'a ftmairu za:tu bi jinba:"^. 
'am 'drrab minnu wi majjil '■aleih wi wajwiju f widnu wi 'al lu, 
" inta detrabt_ummak tami ? manij Jar'i:k il mdr'ra: di ! " 

15- 
hadsa gariiba. masr, 1915. 

min agrab il hikajait iUi_smi''taha 1 jomein do:l, innu di:k 
in naha:r kam fih majhad fa(:)jit min Jairi'' m'hammad '^ali "^ala 1 
'draifa nawaihi 1 'aFa, wi kan wdra n na"^! kabjit niswam bi j 
sawwatu wi b jindibu. wi ba'^dein waillid mil buli:s is sirri_Jtabali 
fi 1 'amr, wi fidil 'a{:)tirhum li ftaddima wislum li t turab wi gum 
jidfinu 1 majjit. fa kajaf in na'^J wi la'a fi:h 'aslilla wi liagait 
tifdr'a"^. wi "^ala kida zabat ir riggailajli kamu JajUm in na"^/ wi 
n niswam illi kamu bi jsawwatum, wi waddaihum kuUuhum ''al 
kardkom. 'a:m il ma'muir sa'al in niswam " ji'rab lukum e:h il 
majjit da ? " 'a'lu: lu, " la ji'rab lina wala ni'^rafu. bass_ir 
riggaila do:l nadahujina w idduma kam 'irj, wi 'alujina ta'^ailu 
sewwatu wara 1 majjit da, tiksabu sawa:b, lahsan huiwa gdriib 
wala lu:J hadd' fi 1 balad." 'am lamma J"a:f U ma'muir min^in 
niswam ma "^aleihumj* ha", sajjibhum. amma r riggaila habashimi 
kuUuhum. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 343 

l6. 

il xdli:fa w abu n nawwais. 
wa:hid mil xulafa kan lu nadiim nukatLsmu 'abu_n_nawwa:s, 
■wi_f le:la min laja:li J Jita 'al lu_l xdliifa, " aii_ahdi:k hidijja 
mu'^tabara, bi Jartjinnak tina:m_il le:la di "^as sutu:h min ge:r 
gata wala na:r tiddaffa '^aleiha." 'al " tajjib, 'ibilt," wi raS 
na:m bi 1 kefi:jja di, wi gih_is subh jigri "^al xdliifa jitelbu bi 1 
hidijja. 'am sa'alu "inta tammimt ij Juru:t?" 'al lu " mma:l 
ja malik iz zamain, nimt '^drjain fi "^izz il bdrd wi kutti Jajif na:r 
m'walla''a_f be:t bi'^iid ?awi wi -"add eh kutt_ajtihi adaffi git'titi 
•■aleiha ! " ?am il xdliifa 'al lu " fisdit iJ Juru:t, li 'innak madaim 
Juft' nair laizim iddaffeit "^aleiha wa lau Jwajja_sgQJjdrd xadis, 
wi ma tistaha''''ij_il hidijja ! " abu_n_nauwa:s xdd "^ala xatru 
w_inga:z fi nafsu, wi habb' jxallas gulbu. 'am ba'^d* kam jo:m 
"■azam il xdliifa '■al gdda fi 1 beit id duhr. 'am il xdliifa 'ibil il 
''uzuima w raih ; wi fait mi'^aid il gdda wi 1 'akl' ma gaij. 'am sa'al 
abuji_nawwais, wi 'al lu, " fein il 'akl ? " 'al lu, " lissa ma_ 
stawaij." fait 'iimit sai'^a kaman, wi 1 'akl ma hadarj, wi kuUima 
jis'al il xdliifa jigawbu 'abu_n nawwais zejji ma gaiwib fi 1 'awwil, 
li haddima zihi' il xdliifa, wi talab jijuif il 'akl fein bi jintibix. 
'am xddu 'abu_n_xiawwais '■ala Jagdrd, wi 'al lu, "aho_l 'akl' foi' 
iJ" Jagdrd, wi di n nair gamb' gidraha." 'am iltafat luj. xdliifa w 
'al " ja raigil ja magnum, iz zaj tintizir inn_il 'akl jistiwi bi 1 
keifijai di!" 'al lu " w_inta z zaj tintizir inni kutt_addaffa "^ala 
n nair illi Juftaha min bi''iid ? ahi wahda_b wahda." 'am il 
xdliifa fihim in nukta w mait mid dihk wi 'an'^am "^aleih bi_hdijja 
muftaxdrd. 

17- 
fisail bein taigir wi_z'buinu. i/ 

taigir. ahlan wa sahlan ! nahama zejj_il 'ijta. itfadded 
ja xawaiga. 

zibuin. "^andak sagagiid "^agami mil "^ail ? 

tai. ummail, '■andina kuU' haiga. itfsddetl istdrajjah. ha:t 
'ahwa ja walad. 

zi. wdrriini ^saggaida '■agami zejj' talatt_imtair fLtnein. 

tai. adi wahda bij. ma'ais da tamaim, nimrd waihid ! 

zi. lo(i)nha ji'^gibni, laikin il 'umaij wihij. 

tai. itfaddol wahda gerha he ! ma fiij uxtaha 'abadan ! 

zi. bi kam tibi''ha ? 



244 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

ta:. itkallim xslaisak. injaiia_t'u:l bi 'irj' waihid! be:n 
il baiji"^ wi J Jairi jiftah 'aiia. 

zi. la:, itkallim inta ! min bu''''ak_alila. 

ta:. dijb ''ajra_gne:h. innama '■alajan xatrak bi tamanja. 

zi. ja sala:m ! it taman da 9a:li 'awi. ma tiswa:J zija:da 
'^aii_drba'^a. 

ta:. dij. geirak bi tna:Jar ! di_rxi:sQ xa:lis. il 9a:li tamanu 
fi:h, '^ala ra? j_il masal " ja mistdrxas il lahm '■and il mdrd'a tindam ! " 

zi. di f nazari ma tiswaij aktdr min dr'ba'^a, aw bi_l kitiir 
arba''a_w nuss. 

ta:. itfaddetl xudha. an_addi'ha: lak min ger fLlu:s xa:li&. 

zi. il '^afw ja siidi kattdr xe:rak. 

[siktu habba sgajjdrd.] 
^ zi. Ju:f. ni'sim il balad nusse:n ; adfa"- xamsa gne:h. 

ta:. la:, kalam bi'^i:d, muj li_l bi:*^. 

zi. ja si:di ana tamalli b_ajtiri:ha_b xamsa. 

ta:. jigu:z ; bass' muJ mis sanf da. di_bda:'^a wa:rid 
biladha, in laffeit is su:' kuUu ma tla'i:J minha. v/i ma'^ za:lik ruh 
''abla_(i)s''al fi s su:' 'ablima tijtiri. 

zi. ma ti'^milj' zejj_il migla'wa:nijji:n ja Je:x ! ana muJ 
mis sawwalli:n. ana_bn il balad wi '^a:rif 1 atma:n wi 1 as''a:r zejjak 
tamam. wi kaman agib lak zaba:jin kiti:r. 

ta:. ahlan wa sahlan. bass' muJ bi t taman da. 

zi. ta:xud xamsa w nuss ? 

ta:. ja si:di balaj m'nakfa. hina kala:m wa:hid wi_t taman 
malldu:d zejj id dakaki:n il '^alja. 

zi. deh da ! . . . .a'ul lak, addi: lak sitta gne:h ilia rub"^. 

ta:. jizhar innak muJ Ja:ri. fisa;lak da ma jgibj' nuss it 
taman. w_ai'ia:h_il "^aziim di '^alajja b_aktdr min kida ! inta 
"^awuz tixassdrna. muJ hara:m ? 

zi. ma_tbi:'^ il be:'^a di ja Je:x ! id dinja wa'fa wi ?azma. 

ba. ikra:mak "^andi. addi'ha: lak bi tamanhaj 'asli wal_ 
aksabp minnak. ha:t sab''a_gne:h, a:di 1 fa(:)tu:rd he ! 

zi. Ju:f ; a:xir kala:m sitta_gne:h wal_azidj' malli:m wa:liid. 
xal'lasak walla la ? 

ta:. da nta ja si:di bi tijjattar ''ale:na ■'awi. ma jxallasni:J. 
[''a:m iz zibu:n jirawwah.] 

ta;. [ragga'^u] ta'^a:la t'^a:la ja xawa:ga, inta_z<^ilt ? 
[rigi'^ iz zibu:n]. 

zi. "^ajiz e: ja si:di. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 245 

ta:. tidfa'' sitta w nuss, walla la ? 

zi. ma 'ult' lak ja fe:x sitta gneih waLazidJ' 'irj' wailiid. 

ta:. [bi lahgit huzn wi wijju_mkajjdr] xud. ha:t il filu:s; 
wa lau inni xasrem. di bi:*^ wi Jird jizahha'. 

zi. la:, inta kasba:n kwaijis in Ja 'aiis:. 

ta:. [zeji' wa:hid mit-'assif 'awi] xud ja si:di. 
[ba'^d* mirwaill il xawa:ga.] 

it ta:gir [li Jariiku]. xud. adi hna ksibna ji:gi_tne:n gine:h. 
kattdr xe:r sshibna. 

Jari:ku. di ''a:mil ru:hu innu fa:hiin kuU' ha:ga. 
[fi t tarasiina bdrrd lu:kandit Jabat.J 

iz zibu:n. amma '^amalt' fisa:l kwaijis innahdrda fi 1 xa:n 
il xali:li. il bajja:'^ 'awwil kala:inu itna:Jar gine:h, wala:kin fa:siltu 
fisa:l sa''b' giddan, wi nazziltu gasbin "^annu, w intahe:na '■ala 
sitta gne:li, la:kin bi n nabbu:t. tanzi:l nuss' kala:mu ! ?eh fikrak ? 

sahbu. ma: Ja ?aiia: ! amma_nta mujtari Ja:tir ! 

iz zibu:n. il "^afw ; bass il wa:hid la:zim ji'^raf ji'^a:mil ig- 
gama:'^a do:l iz za:j . 

" i8. 
masr wi 1 masrijji:n. 

bi_j'u:lu inn' wa:}iid masri ka:n ga:j min bila:d bdrrd wi_tsQ:dif 
innu sta'-raf bi wa:hid mis_su(:)wa:li il ''imrika:n illi fi 1 mdrkib 
(wabu:r il baSr), wi ka:n ga:j li_bladna bi ''asd'_jju:f il ''antika:t 
il masrijja ('a(:)sa:r il fara'^na). 'am ''al is sawwa:ll li LafandiJ. 
masri " hu:wa hna wisilna li bur sa''i:d ? " 'am 'al luj. masri 
" na'^am, w_a:di 1 mi:na 'uddamna he ! m_antaj Ja'jifha ? " 

wi ba''d' Jwajja nizlu fij madi:na. ''a:m is sawwa:h 'al li 1 
masri " Juf libs_in na:s izza:j ! ginsuhum 'eh do:l ? 

masri. do:l il wQtQnijji:n bitu:'' il balad. 

sawwa:h. "^ism il libsLbta'^hum da 'e:h ? 

mas. ismu 1 gallabijja ; wallaj 'ufta:n. 

saw. wi leh ma jilbisu:J badla zejj' di ? 

mas. "^ ala Jan biladhum hdrr' 'awi, wi 1 badla_t'i:la, xusu:san 
f i s se:f . 

saw. tajj 'b wi fe:n il burne:ta ? 

mas. aho t tarbu:J bidalha. 

saw. wala:kin dajndirrLf wa't is se:f "^alajan ma fij ha:ga_ 
thu:J is sams zejj il burne:ta. 

mas. sahi:h, "^andak ha". wala:kin ikminnu 'asl_il libs' 
turki fa mij '^awzi:n jigajjdru:h. 



246 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

saw. 'eh "^ala'^ithum bi t turk' dilwa't' ba'^d illi hasal 
•^andukum ? 

mes. ja sajjidi, inta muj "^airifjnn' di:n it turk' huiwa 1 
'islaim. fa ma fi:J ha:ga 'ilia mas-'alit id di:n. 

saw. di:n masr' 'eh hu:wa ba'a ? 

mas. di:n masr' hu:wa 1 'islaim. 

saw. ummad fem il masirhijim bitu"^ masr_illi_smuhum 
l_a'ba:t ? 

mas. do:l_adadhum sugajjdr bi_n nisba li 1 muslimim wi 
'^ajan kida dim il huku:mcL_r rasmi huiwaj 'islaim. 

saw. ''add_e: "^adad il muslimim ? 

mas. "^adadhum ze]'j_ihda:Jdr miljom. wil 'ibat miljom 
ta'riiban. 

saw. ja salaim da kam '■adad l_a'ba:t kiti:r 'awi ! gdrajhum 
'e: hatta ba'u 'add' kida ? 

mas. hu:wa_nta ma 'dretj' '■an l_idtiha(:)da:t wi 1 mada:- 
bili illi hasalit luhum zamam, Juwajja mil 'drwa:m wi Jwajja mil 
muslimim ? wi_b Lixtisa:r kull' 'umma ti:gi masr tirkab ig 
gamai'-a L.a'ba:t il masakim. 

saw. alia '■awajid in na:s hina 'eh hiija ? 

mas. "-awuz ti''raf ''adaithum w_axla:'hum ? issawwdr 
'umma mu''zamhum fu'drd wi muJ mif-allimim, jikum halha_z 
zaij, in kam fi 1 'akl' 'au fi J Jurb' 'au fil libs ? tiftikir ji'^rafu zzaj 
jit'^matta'^u bi d dunja ? 

saw. kam fi 1 mi:ja mif^allimim ? 

mas. ti'ddr ti'uil bem tamanja wi "^ajdrd '^al 'aktdr. 

saw. da_hna ta'riiban miija ''ala miija au jimkin tis'-a wi t 
tis''im fi 1 mi:ja ! — w_afka:r ig gama''tem 'e: bLxsu:s_is sija:sa ? 
humma mittif'im walla la: ? 

mas. fi 1 ha'i:'a_lli muJ mif-assabim miLitnem bi jhibbu 
hukuima dustu(:)ri:ja naf-a. walaikin "^adad il gamai'^a do:l 
'ulajjilim, wi 'amma 1 ba:'i fa minhum sija'sithum inkilizijja, 
wi minhum sijasithum turkijja, wi minhum sijasithum Jdxsijja, 
wi di sijaisit gama:''a 1 kuba:r illi ma_bjijtiglu:j iUa "^alajan masla- 
'hithum ij Jdxsijja. 

saw. ja sajjidi, ma t'ulj' kida !. . . ."^eib ! da hddritak 

maeri ! 

mas. an_a'u:l il ha" wa law kam ''al(a)_abu:ja. ana lamma 
b aju:f riga:l il hukumait it tanja bLjJtiglu bi zimma wi 'amama 
li manfa'^it watanhum til'am(i)_anga:z fi nafsi, w a'u:l, " emta 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 247 

rabbina jiminn' '^aleina bi na:s ma tkunji luhum gsija 'ilia xidmit 
il'ummawilwQteui. ! " 

saw. Ju:f ja 'axi, kull' ?umma mahij mif^allima ma ti'^rafj 
titailib bi_h''u:''ha izzarj, wi "lalajan kida kubdrkum bi jiFabu^ku. 

mas. ba'a 'ul li min fadlak, ji'^mil e:hjl fallaih il maskiin 
illi bi jjtigil b^arba"^ 'uru:J il jo:m wi "^andu 'drba'^a mil "^ija:!, 
jiwakkilhum bi ?e:h, wi j'^allimhum bi 'e:h. 

saw. hu:wa_ntu ma "-andukuij midairis ibtida'ijja maggainan 
zejji kuUi 'umma ra'ja ? 

mas. gi:na_n nu'te sa'^ba. Ju:f ; ana saba' ■'ult' lak inn' 
nais fi huku:mit masr bi jjtiglu_n nafsuhum. wi muj mumkiii_ 
abadan jitnazlu ''an marakizhum wi jdabbdru majru:'' bi:h 
ji'-allimu 'awlaid il fallahim il masakim. doil badal kida '■awziin 
jidusuma bi 'idrabija(:)thum wi 'o:tomobila(:)thum. a'ul lak, 
rabbina mawgu:d ! 

saw. wi le:h_il 'dgnija ma_b ji'^miluij mada:ris, wLj'^aUimuJ 
'awlaidil fu'drd ? 

mas. a'ul lak_e:h ? do:l il 'agnija bi_jmu:tu '^ala fulushum 
wi xajfim ahsan jiPdru ; faj'udu fi nafsuhum, " wi hna 
majma jif'aUimu walla ma jif-allimuij ? injalia ma^f-allimu ! " 

saw. in Ja 'aiia: nit'aibil bukrd "-alajan as'alak fi mawddi:^ 
tanja ahibb astafhim minnak '■anha. 

mas. haidir, ana mista''idd, kull' haiga thibb' tistafhim 
"^anha, 'afiidak bi 'add^il 'imkain. ma'-a s salaima ! 

saw. 'alia jisallimak. 

19. 
m'nazrd. 
mawdu:'^ il m^nazra, e: 'aSsan Jugla ji'ddr il gada'' il masri jixdim 

bi:ha bilaidu. 

di:k in nahair kutt' ?a:''id wajja wa:hid narzir madrasa hurrd 
(ja'^ni ma hija:J mi:ri), w_itsa:dif innu ka:n "^andu saba'^ talamza 
min_illi xallasu '^ilmuhum wi '^awziin jijtdgdlu. 'am sa'al kull' 
wa:hid minhum '■an 'ahsan Jugla jihibb' jijtdgdl fi:ha "^alajan 
jinaffa"^ bila:du. w_ana_failt 'a:'^id asma*^ kalamhum, wi biddi 
dilwa't_ahki_lkum zejjima hasal. 

kala:m il muhibb' li z zirai'^a. 

ana bidd_axdim watani bi kom_aJtigil fi z zirai'^a, "^alajan 
masr bila:d zira'-ijja sirf, wi sabab ginaiha min iz zirai'^a bi n 
nisbaj wugu:d in ni:l is sa'^iid. wi 'ardaha xasiba 'awi jitla"^ 
fi:ha kull_asna;f ij Jagdr wi 1 xudair. wi sada' min 'a:l inn' 



248 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

tu'rabha dahab. w_il failaih il masri, wa law ?innu migtihid, 
la:kinnu ma ji'-rsfj it turu? ig gidi:da fi ka:r iz zira:''a. fa 
'iza_t 'wag adit in na:s il ixtisa(:)sijji:n fi z zirai'^a "^ajan jirjidu:h, 
tit'addim aliwailu wi_tzi:d amwadu. w adihna Jajfim il_af ang 
wi gerhum min illi dai-'u halaiwit iz zirai'-a wi makasibha 
ba''u min in na:s il gunaj, asha:b il mad wi s sdrwa, wi jsallifu 
1 fulu:s bi 1 fajiz. w illi jigiiz inn_il gad''a:n it taFiin mil 
mada:ris jihrabu wi jitfaju mij Jugl, wi jitlahhafu '■ala 'ajji Jugla 
ger di, wi_jru:liu ji'-milu 'abukatijja walla liukama, walla_mhandi- 
si:n walla kutaba ; wij had inn_il bila:d miStaiga xadis li_l 
m^'zar'^in. w_ana ma '■andiij Jakk_abadan fi 'inn' l_afandi min 
dod lawjn'ate'' li z zara:''a wi 'at'anha w_itfannin fi:ha wi darasha 
tamam, jib'a "^andu ''i(:)ra:d muhimm ma_j'illij '^an 'iraid U 
mistoxdim illLb ja:xud mahijja. fa le:h ma nihtammij ihna bi_z 
zirai'^a, wi nSassinha, wi nxdlliiha san'-a min_ajraf is sanaiji'' ? 
w a:di 1 'ard' ?uddamna was'^a wLJ hukuima '■andaha 'uluif mil 
fadadiin illi lissa mi J" mazrui'^a, mista'' adda li ta'gi(:)rha walla bi(:)''ha 
b_drxas taman. fa 'iza xddna balna mil 'amr' da, tit''ammdr il 
bila:d, wi niksab ihna wi_nkassib il 'umma kaman, wi nkattdr il 
mahsulait ; wi timji hdrakit il balad, fa tistdgna "^an il haga:t 
illi_b tiigi min bdrra, misl il fakha wi xilafha. f_ana (a)4i'id 
inn' kull' waiRid ji'-tini bi zirai'^a jikum xddam watanu xidma ma 
IhaJ nazi:r. 

kalaim il muhibb' li t tiga:rd. 

an_aju:f inn' t tigaird 'afjad Je: jimajji hdrakit il balad wi 
jrawwig ahwalha, wi jkassib sahibha iza ka:n mista'i:m wi "^andu 
zimma. wi t tiga:rd txdlli sa'hibha gani wi sa:hib kilma wi ma'aim, 
wi ti''tibiru n na:s wi 1 hukkaim, wi jid''u:h fi maga(:)lishum wi 
jdxdu fikni. w_an_aju:f innLbladna mit'dxxard '■alajan tdrakit 
it tiga:rd, li 'inn' ba'^d in na:s jista'^jibu J Jugl' fiiha, ma*^ innaha 
?ahsan Jugl tifiid il watan. wi he:s biladna zira''i:ja sirf, fa bi:*^ 
mahsu:l iz zirai'^a min ?utn wi ge:ru jisabbib it tiga:ra, illi jilzam 
laha bajja'-im wi Jdrrajim wi samasra wi gerhum. wi da bi t tab'' 
jiftah ba:b riz" li na:s kiti:r gerhum. wi t tigaird 'ahsan bi_kti:r 
milListixdaim li ?innaha Jugla hurrd, wi '■ala ra'j il masal "bi'' w 
ijtiri wala tinkiri." w_in rabbina fatah "^aleih w ittasa''it tigdrtu 
jiwakkil '^e:J li na:s kiti:r mil mijtiglim ''andu, wLb kida jikum 
xadam bilaidu xidma mu'^tabdrd bidum ma_jkum himl' '^ala ge:ru. 
kalaim illi jhibb il handasa. 

min gihati 'ana, a?n:\ inn' masr jin'asha 1 m^handisim, wiJJi 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 249 

^a:wuz jixdim watenu s€thi:h la:zim jijtigil m'handis '^alajan jisidd 
in ne's' da, li'innu ma da:m 'ahl' masr kulluhum jijrsbu wi jirwu 
1 'erd min_m_ni:l, fa jilzam li_l "-amal da m'handisim jiwaddabu 
tawsiil il majjaj mallalla(:)tha, wi_]'nazgQmu_t tira"^ wi 1 masairif, 
■wi ji''milu hisa:b 11 'ard il "^alja wi 1 watja, wi jrattibu tasri:f il majja 
wi tdx'zinha wi tdrkiib baburait il majja. wi b xila:f kida titba'-za' 
il majja wi_tdi:'' fajditha. wi lau la_l m^handisiin ma kanitj_ 
itbanat U bujuit wala_tnazzamit ij Jawairi*^. wi fajdit il m'handis 
innu jihcindis bina_l be:t, sawan kam kibi:r 'aw sugajjdr '-ala 'add' 
lla:l sahbu, bi he:s tidxulu J Jams, wa_jku:n hawa:h matlu:', '^ajan 
jimna"^ il amraid wi jxdlli n na:s titmatta"^ bi sihhithum wi tis- 
"tdgna '^an il hukama. wi kaman in na:s illi b jijtdgolu fi zirai'^a wi t 
ligaird jilzamhum makana:t wi waburait, wi 1 m'handis hu:w_illi_ 
jrakkibha wi jdawwdrha. wi lau la kida ju'af halhum wi tbuiz 
ajga(:)lhum. wi s sikkaj hadi:d min ge:r m''handisi:n ma timji:|. 
wi kuUi 1 ajgail illi fi:ha makanait zejj il mataibi"^ illi b titba*^ il 
■gdrani:! wil kutub, wi 1 waburait illi bi ttalla*- il majja wi tithan il 
'amh, wi makanait il xijaita, wi '■idad il kahraba, wi t talligraif, 
■wi_t tilifom, wi gerhum, ma timjiij min ge:r il m'handisim. fa_ 
"blaid zejj' masr mihtaiga xadis li 1 m'handisim wi_b tib'^at tigibhum 
min bilaid bdrra. f_in kunna nijtigil fi 1 hirfa di nikuin nafa'^na 
biladna nafa'^ ma jit'adddrj. 

kala:m il muhibb' li 1 hu'u:'. 

ana '^a:jiz axdim bilaidi bi kom(i) ajtdgdl muSamii walla 'a:di, 
-wi di 'ajraf Jugla li'innaha tibajjin iz zadim mil massluim, wi 1 ha'" 
Tail baitil, wi 1 bari mil mugriim. wi ma da:m masr bilaid zira'^ijja 
wi z zirai'^a tiddi li t tigaird, fa_t tigaird twassal li_l 'axd wi 1 "^ata, 
-wi_tkattdr il hdrdka wi_l m"^amla bem in na:s wi ba'^duhum. wi 
tieis innu fih na:s bdrdak ula:d il hdraim jihibbu jigijju w jizlumu 
wi zimmithum xarbama, kama 'innu fih na:s tajjibim asha:b zimma 
"wi ha"anijjim, fa bi_t tab'' jihsal bem it tarafem m°naz'^a:t wi 
xina'ait, wi_jkun fih xo:f '^ala daja:'^ il ha"' min jadd_asha:bu. 
fa jilzam wuguid 'a:di ji'di bi 1 "-adl' wi_J 'insaif, wi 'abukaitu 
jigarbil 1 'adijja wi jdawwdr "^al ha'aiji', wi jdaifi"^ '^an il mazluim 
wi_jrudd' lu ha"u ; wi da 'ahsan sawa:b jin'^imil, w afjad xidma 
ji'addi:ha_l waihid li watanu. 

kala:m il muhibb' li t tibb. 

ana ragbit(i) a'^mil hakiim li'inn_a'^ti'id tama:m il_i'^ti'a:d 
innaha 'ahsan &an"^a_tfi:d il balad ; wi da, li ko:n kull' Je fi d dunja 
jif^awwad ilia s sihha ma tif-awwadj. w iza kamjLinsam ma 



250 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

•^anduij sihha jistaSiil innu jiMdr jijtigil fi 'ajj' Juglin ka:n, la fi t 
tiga:ra wala gerha mil hiraf illi zakdruihum ixwanna, wala ji'dar 
hatta jitammim fard il "^ibaida zejji n na:s, wi jifdal tu:l "^umiu 
m^^aknin wi ru:hu_f manaxiiru, w a'all' haiga tza'-'^alu wi tdajja' 
xuPu. laikin lamma tkuin sihhitu tama:m jib^a mabsuit m^fdrfij, 
jistifiid wi jfiid geiru. fa ^ala kida jikuin il hukama lli jijtiglu fi 
hifg' sihhit in na:s bi jixdimu biladhum wi jinfa'^uiha xidma fo:' il 
hadd, "^alajan lau laj. hukama ka:nit ma:tit na:s kitiir; ma*" il '■ilni 
inn' kti:r mil ftukama maitu Juhada mit tagriba:t illi '^amaluiha 
'alajan jiktijfu turn? gidiida li 1 "^ilaig wi jixtir'^u 'adwija_gdi:da, 
xidma li 1 'insamijja wi 1 watan . 

kala:m il mullibb li t ta''li:m. 

amm ahsan Jugla sahiih tifi:d il waten wi_trawwig 'umuini 
hi:ja Jugl it ta'^liim wi 1 madairis, li 'innahaJL 'asa:s illi titbini "^aleih. 
kuU il_ajga:l. wi t ta'^liim hu:wa 1 migass illi bi:h jif'irif nagaitl il 
bilaid min "^adamu. w iza_t'ammilna fi liailit biladna mil wug'ha:. 
di, niju:f bi t ta'ki:d innaha mit'dxxard fi t teri:?a di bi n nazar U. 
konha muf'iba wi fi:ha_mja'?a wi mas''u(:)liija, wi nabhit -"alb 
wi nabhit zoir. laikin ma fi:J llalaiwa miti ge:r na:r, wi xidmit il 
watan mahij bi_s saihil ; wi J Jugla di nati(:)'githa laziiza, li 'inn iL 
m^'-aUim luh il fadl' '^ala 1 kuU, wi min talit_iidu jitla'' il kaitib wi 
t taigir wi 1 m^handis wi 1 kuU, wi lau laj. m^'^allim ma kanuif 
falahu wala ''amalu "^amal. wi 1 m^^allim luh ?agr il m^gaihidiin 
li'innu jif'ab ta'^ab fo:' il luzuim fi ta''li:m it talamza wi tdrbi- 
'jithum ; wi_jba:t jihlam biihum min majgulijjitu ''aleihum, 
li'lnnu ji'^raf inn_iwla:d il ]'o:m humma riggadit bukrd, fa jis''a IL 
komu ji'^allimhum kuUi Je "^alajan jixarraghum rigga:la,bi ma'-ana 
1 kala:m. wi mil ma'^luim innu kullima kitir it ta'^liim kullima 'aUit 
il hdramijja wi 1 mitjdrridim. fa_lli jhibbi jixdim masr tamaim 
ji:gi wajjaija wi jxuJJ' fi madrassit il m'"'allimim. 

kalaim il muhibb li xidmit id dim. 

ana gaijit munaija 'inn_aj'tdgdl "^aimil fi d dijamaj masihijja^ 
wi di ?ahsan Jugla lazma wi minha fajda lijja wi li n na:s. li'inn 
il ?insam min tabi''tu 'innu jinsa fadl' rabbina "^aleih wi jihwid '■an 
sikkit il ha?', fa jilzamu_lli_jnabbihu, wi jhawwilu min sikkit ij Jarr 
li sikkit il xe:r, wi jinjir kala:m rabbina wi ma'^rifit il xalais be:n illi 
ma ji'^rafuhj, wi_b kida jit'drrab Una migij malakuit aiiaih. wi 1 
'ajgail il ''ilmanijja zejji Juglit axima 1 abukaitu wi gerha, kullah{a) 
_ajga:l lazma li 1 balad, innama 'iza ma kanj il waihid minhum 
jimji_b xo:f rabbina fa'inn' Juglu jidirr aktdr ma jinfa'^. w illi 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 251 

jsamma'^hum il kalam da humma xaddamiin id dijaina, wi di Jugla 
ma jib'aij ajrsf minha 'abadan, li'innaJia ruihanijja jitwa"af 
•^aleiha xala:s il_drwa:h. wiJlLjrebbi r ru:h "^alajan ti'^raf xedi'ha 
luh 'agr, aktdr milli jrabbi 1 gism. IPinmi r ru:Ii ba'ja, laikin il 
gism' faini. wi di ga:jit 'ssdi wi s sala:m. 

kala:m il hakam wi hu:wa n naizir. 

ba'^da kida wi'if in naizir wi 'a:l : — 

amma braiwa "^aleikum ja wla:di ! tejjibtu xatri wi ha'^a'tu 
■^ajami fiikum, wi kulluku tkallimtu tajjib, wi kuU' waihid ma"^ah 
Ra'?* f_illi ?a:lu. w_an_ansahkum inn' kull' wa:hid jixta:r J Jugl 
illi_jmi:l lu, w illi ?albu fi:h, aw, bi 1 hari, illi jid'^iiii rabbu luh; 
li'inn da_J Jc ?il muhimm, inn' 1 waiftid ji'^mil iraidit alia: fi 
hajaitujli lii:ja 1 wahiida luh fi d dunja di, wi ma lu:J gerha. fa 
Jiddu heilku wi kuU' waihid jit^in san'^itu wi j?addi:ha bi 1 'amama 
wi z zimma, wi_b kida tikumu xadamtu masrina xidma ma ji''la:J 
•^aleiha, wi ma_jkunj fih tamji:z il wa:hid minku '^ala t ta:ni. wi 
1 mawla subhamu wi ta'-ada ji'adddrku '■ala % tajjib ! innu 
s sami:'' il mugi:b. 

20. 

ba'^d "-awajid La^bait iz zamiima. 
kuU' 'urama fi d dunja laha '■awajid mahbuiba wi '■awajid 
makru:ha, hatta fi 1 'umam ir ra'ja zejj_inkilterra wi faransa wi 
'amerka wi gerha. wi jigtihid il muslihim fi ?isla:h il ''a(:)da:t il 
makruiha wi t taxallus minha, walaikin igtiha(:)dhum wi ta'''abhum 
jintihi min ge:r fajda gumlit marra:t. wi "^andina hinajmahdrda 
'umma mil ?umam di wi laha "^awaijid musta-'baha; minha "^aidit 
il maitam, wi 1 ganazait. ja'^ni lamma_jmu:t wa:hid sugajjdr 
fi 1 ''cda, au raigil rabb' be:t au "^aru.'sa sugajjdrd, ji'^milu: 
lu gana:za_kbi;rd. w_ahjaman bi jisrifu '■ala 1 ganaiza fo' 
ta(:)''ithum, ja''ni jimkin jistilfu fluis kitiir min giranhum, 
'■alajan jigiibu 1 'usus wi J Jamamsa '■alajan jimju ?udda:m il 
ganaiza. wi Las'^ab min kida jigiibu "^arabijia wi sandu:? min 
sanf ga:li, ma"^ inn is sandu:? da raijih li t turaib, la_jfi:d il majjit 
wala geiru. wi kaman jigiibu '^arabijjait '■alajan il m^^azzijjim, 
ahjainan '■ajdrd 'au '^ijrim w_.aktdr kaman. wi da kuUu "^alajan 
jiftixru b_innuhum earafu kaza wi kaza "^ala majjithum. wi 
ba'^dima jidfinu:h jirga'-u 1 be:t wi jkum il fdrrajiin nasabu suwwam 
(au xe:ma) kibi:r walla_egajjdr hasab hadit il "^eila, wi ji^'^udum 
talatt_ijja:m '^alajan ji'ablu n nais il m^-azziijim, bi n naha:r 
■^alajari is sittait, wi bi 1 led "^alajan ir riggada. wi_f Sadit iza 



252 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

ka:n il mitwaffi Jabb' walla '^aru:sa, is sitta:t jigi:bu niswain 
ni'uil '■aleihum naddabim. wi n niswam do:l ji'uilu kala:m 
m^'assdr, "^alajan ahl il majjit jihzanu zija:da wi jibku buka_Jdi:d, 
wi iiltumu '■ala xududhum latm' sa'-b' giddan. wi kuU' da ma 
lu:J luzu:m wala huj m^'teibi? li_d dim il masi:hi_lli bi_j''u:lu 
•■aleh ?innu dimhum. w_an_aftikir inn' 1 "^aida di_twagadit min 
muddit sajjidna ju:sif is siddi:? lamma kam hazim "^ala mo:t abu:h 
ja'^'uib wi *'amal mana:ha_kbi:rd huiwa wi_l masrijjim illi kamu 
wajja:h '^ala ma 'arema fi t tawra:. ihna dQwa't' fi '■asr it 
tamaddun wi t ta'^liim, wi tiPa n na:s it tajjibim jiftLkru daiman fi 
tabtid il "^adait il mij ma?bu:la, zejj' il mas'ala_lli zakar'naiha wi 
gerha. 

fa:dil "^alema nitkallim bi Lixtisair fi "^aidit ig gawaiz. lamma 
JabbLjhibb' jiggawwiz jiruih jixtub wahda min abu:ha walla 
'ummaha, wi ma jkunj saba-* Jafha wala_''rifji Ila:ga "-an axla'ha 
wala tiba''ha wala 'awsafha. wi jimkin tikum sahbit '■aiha, 
wi ma ji^ddrji ji'-raf iza ka:nit ha_tnasbu walla la. fa di kaman 
min_aimn il '^ada:t il battalajli "^awza ?isla:ft. 

"^ala kull' bad ]amma_jzi:d '^adad il banait il mif'allimim wi 1 
mitrabijjim fi 1 mada:ris tdrbija tajjiba tiPa_l '■adait illi zejji di_ 
tru:h min nafsaha li^inn' sababha_l gahl, la ge:r. 

21. 

ba''d "-adait il muslimim iz zamiima. 
iz za:r. 
kam fih Jabba sugair "^um'raha jiigi '^ijriin sana, ja'^ni lissa 
•■aruisa, wi kamit ddxla matrah dalma 'aimit '■itrit w Lnkafat taht 
il '■ataba, wala IiaddiJ samma "^aleiha. fa tlabasit wi gismaha 
tlabbij wi gittitha_txajjibit, wi fidlit "-ajjama Jahrem talaita, wi 
'ahlaha gaibujha liukama_kti:r, wala "-arafuij laha tibb' wala 
dawa. wi ba'^dem gat '■ammitha.tzurhum, wi ■'adit Lummaha, 
" zawwdri:ha_l maja:jix, jimkin tikum itrajahit. 'aimit ma kad- 
dabitj' xabdr wi zawwdritha hddrit siidi nigm id dim talat mdrra:t, 
w_abu s su'^uid talat marrait. wi fi 1 mdrra 1 'dxranijja_tlabbijit, 
wi ''irfu 'ahlaha 'inn' "^aleiha '■afriit. wi '■ala tu:l ra:hu ga:bu J 
Je:xd lli_b ti'^mil iz zair, wi J Je:xa 'alit luhum " baddaru go:z 
hama:m, dakdr wi_n(i)ta:ja, wi go:z fira:x, di:k wi fdrxa, wi go:z 
batt' sudami, wi xaru:f ahmdr xadis, aw_abjad m'xdlxdl b_ 
ahmdr. wi ha:tu kaman talat Jam''a:t iskanddrami, m'lawwanim 
b_ahmar w_dxdar wi bamba wi labani w ssfdr; wi gahhizu wi'-'item 
nQ^l, go:z wi lo:z wi bundu' wi_zbi:b; wi Jtii-ujha bigaib 'alb, wi 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 253 

hgaib rais, wi "^u^'aid ILdra'^ha, wi go:z xawaitim bi bar', da^'a^. 
hga:zi, wi libba fedda, wi gallabijja beida, wi tarha beida kaman; 
wi jo:m l_itne:n il "^asr' 'aigi." wi_f jo:m 1 itne:n raihit ij Je:xd li 
be:t il minzaird, wi 'a'^adit wi walla''it habbit falim' baladi, wi 
tala'it il buxu:r illi kainit gajba:h wi 'hu:wa Jwajjit fasu:x wi hittit 
•^uid wi tu:rit mis'tika, wi bdxxdrit il ma'^aziim fi 1 'awwil, wi 
'a'^adit titabbil '-ala t tabla, wi talamzitha jitabbilu kuU' waSda 
"■ala ta:r, wi jgdnnu li 1 'iafriit, mdrrd gina ftgaizi, wi mdrrd sudaini, 
wi ta:ra rndgrabi, li haddima fa'dru 1 mdrjuihin. wi ba''de:n 
gaibit kursi ''aja wi hattit ''aleih iJ Jam"^' wi n nu'l' wi_s siiga 
^ta:"^!! il minsa:ba. wi lamina ddxdlit iJ JabbaJ ''ajjama bdx- 
xdritha J Jeixa, wi gdnnit &o:t higaizi wi so:t geiru, wi I minzaira 
lissa mitlabbija, wi ''afriitha lissa ma nata'J. wi ba'^dein if^ajju 
wi fidlu jidu^'u mil "^ija li hadd' nuss il led ; bdrdu ma nata'J il 
"^afriit. wi lamma ti''bu na:mu li haddima till'' in naha:r. wi 
"^amalu^d da"a kaman ba'^dima fitru, wi ga:bii 1 xaruif, wi rakkibu. 
1 "^aruisa "^aleih, wi laffifu:ha hawalem il kursi saba"^ mdrrait, wi 
ba'^dem dabahu:h taht' rigleiha, wi Idgmatu hudumha damm, wi 
'^aisu wijjaha kaman mid damm. wi kainit mitlabbij(a)_aktdr 
mil 'awwil. 'a:mu 'adu " jimkin ''afritha nusrami, fa du'^u. 
da"it in nasaird." wi fidlu jigdnnu wi j'udu. 
" id de:r_id de:r, ja dajjaird ! 
m_ahl(a)_awla:d_in nasaird ! 
ja: 'ami:r, ja3njl 'imdird ! 
w_e:J gaibak hdrtjn nasa:rd ! 
id de:r, id de:r, hanna_w girgis ! 
w_il 'od "^aleihum "^nssaird ! 
ddxdlt id de:r naha:r l_itne:n. 
la'e:t id de:r kullu nasaird! " 
. . . .wi fi 1 wa't' da nata' il "^afriit wi ?al '^ala_smu. wi ?a:mu 
zdgratu n niswam, wi firhu lamma 1 "-afriit ikkallim wi talab tala- 
baTtu. wi xddit iJ Je:xd 'ugritha wi n nu'u:t illi na?atu:ha bi:h_il 
ma'^aziim. wi xddit kaman ra(:)se:n talaita sukkdr, wi ratlem 
bunn, wi 1 bai-'i mij Jam"^' wi n nu?l. wi xddit fardit hamaim wi 
fdrxa wi rub"^ il xaru:f, wi sandu'em sagaijir, wi tannaha_mraw- 
'waha ''ala betha, wi kulli wahda mil ma'^aziim rawwahit beitha 
wi hiija madwu:xd zejj' 1 katkuit min kutr' ma kamit bi_tfa^?dr 
wi tittawwah Jimad wi_jmi:n wi tunkuj Ja'^raha v/i t'atta'^ fi 
hudumha wi ti'af Jo:t, wi tur'us Jo:t, wi titmdrmdg fi 1 'ard' 
Jo:t ; "^alajan il wahda minhum lamma jihdar "^afriitha ma tib'aij 



254 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

wa'^ja li ru:hha, w illi "^aleiha hu:w_illi ji'^mil kulU Saiga, wala_tliissij 
bi t ta'^ab ilia lamma jinfQcld_.iz za:r, wi gismaha jihmad. wi 

" tu:ta, tuita, 

firgit il hadduita. 

hilwa walla maltuita ? 

illi_j'ud hilwa. 

••aleih ginwa. 

w_illi j'ud maltuita. 

•■ale:!! hadduita ! 



PART IL— BIBLE AND OTHER PIECES. 

kitaib il 'ireija, guz itne:n. — fusud kita(:)bijja wi dirnijja. 

(A.) 

fusud min siirit sajjidna jasu:*^. 

I. 

wilaidit jasu:'' il masi:Ii. min ingid lui'a 2 ; i. 

wi fi 1 'ajjam dod tili*^ ■'amr' min agustus qsisar '^alajan jihsu 

n na:s illi fi d dinja kullaha. (wi da 'awwil 'ihsa hased fi zaman 

kiirinijius ha:kim suirijja.) fa rah kuUi n na:s "^alajan ji'ajjidu 

?as'ma:hum kuU' waihid fi baladu. 'am juisif kaman mil galid 

min baladjsmaha n naisira wi ra:li il jahudijja li madimit dawuid 

illi smaha be(:)t lahm, ikminnu ka:n min nasi' dawu:d ; '^alajan 

jit'ajjid ma'' mdrjim xati(:)btu wi hi:ja haimil. 

wi_f muddit wugu(:)dlium hinaik kamalit_ijja:m hamlaha, 
fa waladit ibnaha 1 bakri wi laffitu fi 1 'umait, wi najji''mitu_f mad- 
wid il ba'ha(:)jim tieis innu ma kanj' luhum mahall' fi 1 lukanda. 

wi kan fi 1 balad di ru'^jam ''a''di:n fi 1 getain hdrsiin gdnamhum 
bi 1 led. wi f hal ma kamu 'a'^dim illa_w malaik ir rabb' wai'if 
gambuhum wi magd_ir rabb'jnnawwdr hawaleihum, fa hasal 
luhum xo:f kibi:r. 'am 'al luhum il mala:k "ma txa'fuij, d_ana 
ga:j_abajjdrkum bijaird mufriha_l(i) kaffit in na:s, innu n naharda_ 
twalad lukum fi madimit dawuid waihid m'xallis wi hu:wa_s sajjid 
il masiih. wi 1 "^alaima "^ala kida — tiruihu tilti'u ''ajjil malfud 
fL'mait wi na:jim fi madwid baha:jim ! " wi fi 1 hada di zahar 
'■ala gafla gama:''a ma''a_l malaik min gcj is sama, bi_}sabbahu 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 255 

iis: wi bi_j'n:lu, " il magd' li_llaih fi 'a'-la s sama! wi '■al ?ard_is 
salaim wi li n na:s is suru:r ! " 

wi lamma reihit il maJajka min ''anduhum li s sama, 'ail ir 
ru'^jain li ba'^duhum " ta'^a:lu_nru:ft dilwa't' li hadd' bet laftm 
wi_nju:f il xebdr da_lli hasal illi simi'^na '^annu min eiia:." 
'aimu raihu w_ilta'u marjim wi ju:sif ''a''di:n, wi 1 "-ajjil naijim fi 1 
madwid. wi lamma Ja'fuih haku bi 1 kala:m iUi_t''a:l luhum "^an 
il walad. wi kuU' min simi*^ kala:m ir ru'^jain istdgrab wi_ndahaj" 
niin_illi ?a'lu:h. amma mdrjim ka:n '^andaha fiirsi mil kalam da 
wi fidlit tif'ammil fi:h fi 'albaha. wi rigi'^ il ru'^jam wi humma_ 
jmaggidu iia: wi_jsabbaliu:(h) "^ala kullijli sim'''u:(h) wi Jafu:(h). 

2. 
jasu:'^ wi 1 "^ijad is suga:r. lu : i8 ; 15. 

'addimu: lu bd''d_il wila:d is suga:r "^alajan jilmishum ; fa 
lamma Ja:f kida_t talamiiz Jdxatu fiihum. wala:kin jasu:'' nadah 
luhum "^andu wi 'a:l : " xdllu 1 wilaid is suga:r ji;gu "^andi, wala 
timna'^uihumj, li'innu min "^ajjinit do:l malaku:t_al}a:. il ha"_ 
a'uLlukum, illi ma ji'balj' malaku:t alia: zejj' walad sugajjdr, 
ma jidxuluij 'abadan. 

3- 
jasu:'' w_ibni tiima. 
lamma 'drrab min_ari:lia kam 'a'^ma 'ai'^id fi t tari:' jijhat. fa 
lamma simi"^ jn na:s_il mazhumim fajtim sa'al, eh ja tdra jikun da. 
'alu: lu inn* jasu:'^_in naisiri fajit. fa sarax wi 'a:l " ja: jasu:'' ja_bn' 
dawu:d_irhamni ! " fa Jdxatu fi:h_iUi kamu ?udda:m "^alajan jiskut, 
la:kin huiwa za'^'^a' zija:da 'awi wi ?a:l, "inta ja^bn* dawuidjrllam- 
ni." fa wi'if jasu:'^, wi 'amdr bi magajbu "^andu wi lamma 'drrab 
sa'alu, " ''awz_a'^'mil lak_eh ? " fa 'a:l, " ja si:di, "^aiwuz tinfitih 
•^enajja." fa ''al lu jasu:'^ " fattah ! i(:)mamak Jafa:k." wi 
hadanjnfatallit "^eneih, wi miji wdra:h wi hu:wa_jmaggid alia:, 
wi kuU_in na:s illi wajja:h lamma Ja'fu:(h) kida hamadujia:. 

4- 
jasui'^ jihji Ja:bbi majjit. lu : 7 ; 11. 
wi_f ta:ni jo:m rah balad_ismaha najim, wi rah wajjaih 
talamiizu wi na:s kitiir : fa lamma ?drrab min bawwaibitjl balad, 
iUa_w majjit mahmuil, wi hu:wa hi(:)lt_ummu wi hiija 'armala, wi 
wajjaiha na:s kitiir mil balad. fa lamma Jafha sajjidna, hann* 
•^aleiha wi 'aUaha " ma tibkiij." wi_t'addim wi lamas in na"^! 
fa wi'fu J Jajjalim. fa 'a:l li 1 majjit, " a'ul lak " ?u:m ! " fa 
?a'^adjlli ka:n majjit wi ba'a jithaddit; wi sal'limu Lummu. fa 



256 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

hasal li ] kuU' xo:f wi maggadujria:, wi 'a:lu: "zahsr fi wustina 
nabi '■aziim, w iftakdrjr rabb' ?ummitu." wi Ja:''_''annu_l xabdr 
da_f kuULl jahudi:ja wi kull'J bilaid il m^gawrd. 

5- 
jasu:'' wi s sarraif. lu : 19 ; i. 

wi ddxdl wi fa:t fi 'ariiha. illa_w ra:gil_ismu zakka wi hu:wa 
wa:hid min ru'asa s sajarfa wi kam gdni. habbLjJuif jcisu:'^ 
huiwa mim, wala^'dirj miz zahma li'innu ka:n 'usajjdr. fa girl 
li ?udda:m wi tili''_''ala Jagdrit gimmeiz '^alajan ji'Ju:fu, li'innu 
ka:n ha_jfu:t min hina:k. fa lamma gih jasu:'' li 1 matrah, bass' J. 
fo:', wi 'al lu " ja zakka_(i)sta'^gil w_inzil, li'innu la:zim_a'''ud_ 
innahdrda_f be:tak." fa_sta''gil wi 'nizU wi rahhab bu_b fdrah. 
fa lamma Ja:fu kida_tzammdru kuUuhum wi 'a:lu 'innu ddxdl 
"■alajan jibait "^and' ra:gil xa:ti. fa wi'if zakka wi 'al li_r rabb, 
ana 'a'diini ja rabb_a''ti(:) nuss' maili li 1 fu'drd, wjn kutt' xdtt' 
min haddi haiga bi tuhmit zu:r, arudda'ha_t ta:'_drba'^a." fa 
'al lu jasu:"^, " innahdrda hasal xedais li 1 be:t da ; '■ajan hu:wa 
kamarn ibn_ibrahi:m ; li?inn_ibn_iLinsa:n gih "^alajan jitlub 
wi_jx€Llla5_illi halak." 

6. 
hikaijit il mdra s sa:mirijja. 

ana biddi ahkijkum hikaija min_ahsan il hikajait, tihib'bu:ha 
in fa 'aiia: wi tinbistu minha_kti:r ; '^alajan hi:ja hasalit mis 
sajjid U masiih ibn' mdrjim, illi_hna_b nisma'' ''annu_f kull' wa't, 
ikminnu mazku:r kitiir xailis fi 1 'ingiil wi 1 qur'am. 

ka:n il masiih m^'saifir jo:m min za:t_il 'ajjaim wi nizil fLbla:d 
is saimirijjim, illi ka:nu_mxasmi:n il jahu:d wi_mxan'inhum. -"aimit 
'ablitu wahda sitt' min 'aha:li_l bi'lad di wi 'huiwa 'ai'^id '^ala hdrf 
bi:r jistdrajjah, wi kam ba'^at talami:zu_l balad jigiibu '■eij. 

wi kam il masiih garadu jizhir Jdxsu li s sitt' di, li ?innu kam 
"■adtu jihibb' 'islaih hail kuU' min 'ablu. wi heis inn' gajtu kida, 
fa ?al laha, " min fadlik^is'iini " ; wi fi_l wa't' nafsu, kam jid'^i_ 
lha_f sirru bi 'inn' rabbina jikjif laha_I ha-'ii^a. 

wi_f hail il hurma ma sim''it it talab da it''aggibit wLtkab- 
bdrit fi nafsaha wi 'ailit, " iza kainu 'ahlina ma_b jitkallimuij 
wajja ba''d, titlub minni majja_zzaij ! " 

?am sajjidna_l masiih itwaidi'' 'awi wi ?al laha " lau kutti ja 
sitt' fahma '■atijjit aiiai, kutti titlubi minni majjit il haja:.''ablim_ 
atlub minnik il maj'jai di." 

indahajit il hurma mil kilma di, wi 'alit li 1 masiih, " ja siidi 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 257 

iza ka:n majiwagadji wajjaik gdrdal wala habl, wi 1 bi:r gawiita, 
ummail tigi:b il majja: dLmn_e:n ? " 

"w_in kutt' "^aiwuz tigiib mQJj_ahsan min di, hu:wa_jita_a'^z€nn 
min_abu:na ja'^?u:b, illi fahat lina_l bir di, wi 'tana"^ biiha '^alajain 
nafsu wi "-alajanna kaman ? " 

faJlta'rQmhaJ masi:h fi 1 gawaib, '^alajain Jaf fikreha bi 
jijtigil, wi wa'fa muhtaira, wi 'al laha, " kull' waihid jijrab mil 
bir di ma jiftikirj jnnu jirwa "^ala tu:l ; la:kin illi jijrab mil majja_ 
bta'^ti ?ana, ma_jjufj' "^ataj abadan, "^alajan innaha_tkum fi ?albu 
zejji '■em majja zalad, ma tin-'iti'' J' bi 1 mdrrd, tir'wiih wi tirwi ge:ru 
kaman." 'aimit ?a'lit lu, "ma tiddimi mil majja_bta'^tak dij ! " 
?am 'al laha " ru:lii_stdhdari go:zik wi ta'^ai'li: li hina tami." 

'aimit 'alit lu, " astdhdar mi:n ? ! ana: li go:z_astdlidaru ? " 
?am 'al laha " ana_stahsint' kala:mik da, "^alajan ka:n liki xa'mastL 
gwa:z. w illi wajja:ki dilwa't' mahuj go:zik ; fa xabdrik da_f 
gaijit iz zabt." 

'aimit istdgrabit wi 'adit fi nafsaha " izza:ji hu:wa ji'^lam bi 1 
ahwad bita''ti_l mitxdbbijja ! " fa min xd'galha wi_ksufha_ 
hmdrrit w_itldxbatit afka(:)rha, wi fihmit innaha mistaha'^iijajli 
sim'^itu wi zijaida. wi 'axiiran ?alit lu, wi hiija bi hadit xufu:*^ 
kuUi, " il baj'jin li fi:k dilwa't_innak nabi ; wi ja re:t_astafta:k 
fi mas'ala 'ana mistas'^a'baiha "^ala ge:rak ! wi kaman '-andina 
masai'il kiti:rd_txuss id dim, "^awzin nistafta 1 masi:h '^anha lamma 
ji:gi..." 

'am 'al laha "ana bdrdu "^airif illi_ntu "^awzimu kuUu, w_ana 
hu:wa 1 masi:h ! 



(B.) 
bd''dJjLamsad li jasu:''_il masi:h. 

7- 
masal iz zairi*^ lu ; 8 ; 4. 
fa lamma_gtama'^ na:s kiti:r 'gu: lu min kuU' balad, 'al 
luhum masal. — " tili'^_iz zairi"^ jibdurjt ta'a:wi_bta'^tu, wi lamma 
kam bi jibddr wi''^it Juwajja gamb it tari:' fa_nda:sit. wi la'a'titu 
tujuir is sama. wi wi'l*" gerha '^al hagdr wi ba'^dima nabat, nijif, 
li'innu ma kanj' tahtu rutu:ba. wi wi'i'' gerhaj wust_ij Jo:k, fa 
nabat wajja:h_ij Jo:k wi xdna'u. wi wi'i"^ gerha fi 1 'ardLit tajjiba, 
wi nabat, wi ga:b mahsuil, it ta(:)' mijja. " wi lamma kam jikkallim 
kida na:da_w 'a:l " illi luh widam li s sam"^, xallih jisma"^ ! " 



258 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

8. 

masal is sa:niiri_t_tQijib. lu : 10 ; 30. 
?am jasu:'' ''a:l : " raigil ka(:)n na:zil min uru:Jali:m li 'ariiha, 
fa wi'i*^ fi wust_il hdrQmijja, fa '^dr'ra:(h) wi dQrQ'bu:(h), wi reihu 
wi sajji'buh ma be:n hajj* wi majjit. w_itsQ:dif inn* kaihin ka:n 
na:zil fi t tari:' di, wi '^andima Ja:fu, fa:t min 'usa:du ; wi kaman 
kida waihid laiwi, lamma wisil '^and_il_mQtrall wi Ja:f, fa:t min 
'?usQ;du. walaikin waihid sa:miri_msa:fir gih "^andu, wi lamma 
Jaifu hann* "^aleih, wi 'dr'rab lu wi rabat guruihu wi sabb' "^aleiha 
ze:t wi_nbi:t, wi rakkibu "^ala rukubtu, wi ga:bu li 1 lukanda 
wL'^ta'na: bu. wi_f tami jo:m talla'^ dina:rem w_idda:hum li 
saihib il lukanda, wi ?alju : "i'^tini: bu, wi kulLilli tisrifu zijaida 
w_ana raigi*^ ad'dih lak." fa mim tiftikir mit tala:ta do:l jikuin 
akhu_lli wi^i*^ fi wust il hdramijja ? " fa 'a:l " illi "^amal wajja:li_ir 
ralima." fa 'al lu jasu:'' "ruill, w_i'^mLLinta kaman kida ! " 

9- 
masal Jagdrit it tiin. lu : 13 ; 6. 

wi 'a:l il masal da : " kam li waillid Jagdrit ti:n mazrui'^a fL 
gnentu ; fa gih fifattij Ji:ha ''ala tim, maPaiJ. fa ?a:l li g ginajni, 
" a:di talat sinim w_an(a) a:gi 'adawwdr "^ala ti:n fi J Jagdrd di, 
wal_aPa:J". i'tahha ! leli_hi:ja_txdllij 'ard' kaman min ger 
fajda ? " 'am ?alju, " ja si:di, sibha_s sa'na: di kaman, "^alajain 
afhat hawaleiha w_asabbdxlia ; f_in gaibit tim ba'^dem, kam"* biha; 
w_in ma gabitj'. . . .ni'tahha ma'-lehj." 

10. 
masal Sabbit il xardal. lu : 13 ; 18. 
" malakuit is samawait jijbih e:h ? wLb ''e:h_ajabbihu ? 
jijbih Sabbit xardal xddha raigil wi zara'^ha fi_gnentu ; fa til4t 
wi ba'at Jagdrd, wi '^ajjijit tujuir is sama fLfru'^ha." wi ?al kaman : 
" bi ?e:h_ajabbili malaku:t_aiia: ? jijbih xdmiird xd'ditha wahda, 
wi xab'batha_f ta'lat ke(:)la:t di?i:?, li gaijit md^xtamdr kullu." 

II. 
masal Libn ij Jairid. lu : 15 ; 11. 
"kam fi raigil lu waladem, fa ?a:Lis eugajjdr minhum l_abu:h 
" j_abu:ja, iddimU hissaJlLtnu(:)bni mim madak"; fa ?asam 
luhum mailu. wi ba'^djjjaim mij kitiird, lammjl waladjs sugaj- 
jdr kulli ha:ga wi sa:fir ILblad bi'^i:da wi hina:k baddid mailu fi 
*^e:Ja talfama. fa lamma dajja'^ kull* ha:ga hasal gu:"^ Jidiid fi 1 
bi'lad di, fa btada jihtaig. fa rah wjstdxdim "^and^ waihid min 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 259 

'ahLil balad illi huiwa fi:ha, fa ba'-atu li geteinu re:''! ware xdna- 
ziiru. wi ka:n jitmanna jimla batnu mil xarruib illi ka:nit bi taklu_l 
xdnazi:r, wala kanj^ hadd' jiddi: lu. la:kin lamma rigi"^ li nafsu 
'ail "'add_eh na:s m'''aggdri:n '^and_abu:]a jifdal minhum il "^eij, 
w_an_amu:t mil gu:'^ ! a?u:m w_ani:ll l_abu:ja w_a?uUu : j_ 
abuija ! dxte:t li s sama wi -"uddaimak, wi muj mistalia'''_abadan 
ji'uilu ""alaija waladak. xdllimi zejji wa:llid min_na:s il m^''ag- 
gdrim "^andak." fa ■'aim wi rah Labu:h, wi lamma kam '■ala 
masa:fa_b''i:da Ja:fu ■'abuih fa hann' "^aleih, wi giri wi '■anna'u wi 
ba:su. fa 'ad luj. walad : " j_abu:ja, ■'dxteit li s sama wi 'udda:- 
mak, wi muJ mistaha'''_abadan ji'udu ''alajja waladak." fa ?a:l 
il 'abb' li "^abiidu " haitu ''awa:m_ahsan badla wi labbi'su:(h), wi 
huttu xaitim f_i:du wi gazma_f riglu. wi ha:tu.J "^igLil ma''lu:f 
wi_dbahu:, wi xdllima naikul wi nifrah. li'inn' waladi da ka:n 
majjit fa '■aij, wi kam ta:jih fa_twagad." 

12. 
it tawQidu"^. lu: 14 ; 7. 
wi darab li 1 ma''zumim masal wi hu:wa waixid badu min 
zahmithum '^ala 1 m''ta,:rili il 'awwilanijja, wi 'al luhum : " lamma 
wa:hid ji'^zimak fi farah, ma tgi:J il matrah_il 'awwilami ''ala tu:l 
wi t'U'"'d, ahsan jikuin waihid akbdr minnak ma'^zuim, fa ji:gi_lli 
•-azamak ji'ul lak " itfaddal hina " wi j''a''''ad il kibiir fi matrahak, 
wi tru:h wi tu'''ud inta f_awta mahall, hailit komak maxgud mak- 
su:f. la:kin lamma tin'^izim fa_'"'ud f_awta matrah, fa bi t tab'', 
lamma ji:gi_lli "^azamak, ji'ul lak " ja sahbi_tfaaaal li fo:?." fi 1 
wa't* da jihsal lak ij Jdraf fi nazar illi 'a'^dim li 1 'akl' wajjaik. 
li'inn* kulLilli_j''alli nafsu jiwattiiha, w illi jwatti nafsu ji'^alliiha. 

13- 

il '^uzu:ma_l kibiird. lu : 14 ; 16. 
kan fih rd:gil "^amal "^uzuima^kbiird wi "^azam na:s kuta:r. wi 
ba'-at '^abdu fi sai'^it il "^uzuima "^alajan ji?u:l li 1 ma'^zumim " ta'^adu 
fteis kull* haiga gihzit." 'a:mu ttafa'u kulluhum "^ala "^adam il 
huduir wi fidlu ji'^tizru. 'am 'al lu_l 'awwilami, " ana Jtareit 
ge:t wi malzuim aruih atfdrrag "^aleih ; argu:k ta'^fimi." wi 'al 
waihid tami " ana Jtare:t xamast_igwa:z ba'dr, w ana rah_agdr- 
rabhum ; argu:k ta''fi:ni." wi 'al waihid tami "ana miggawwiz 
gidiid, "^alajan kida m_a?ddrj dhdar. 'am rigi'^ il "^abd li siidu wi 
'al lu "^alli hasal. 'am zi'^il sallb Jl "^uzuima wi 'al li ''abdu, " itla"^ 
'awaim w_imji_f Jawairi"^ il balad wi tiaraitha wi hait hina_l fu'drd 
kulluhum wala tinsa:J il '^urg' wi 1 "^umj." 'am 'a:l il "^abd, "ja 



26o EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

si:di ana bdrdu "^amalt illi ^ul't' li "^aleih, wi lissa_l mahall' ]isa(:)'^ 
kitiir." fa 'ail is si:d li 1 "^abd " ru:h itla"^ fi s sikak illi hawalem il 
balad kullaha, w ilzimhum bi 1 mi'gij , hatta jimtili beiti; li'inn^a'ul 
lukum, muj mumkin inn' wailiid milli '■azamtuhum jidu:^ 'akU 
'^uzumti." 

14- 
il xaruif it taijih, wi 1 hitta_b xamsa A daj'^a. lu : 15 ; 3. 

''ajji raigil minkum *^andu mi:t xaruif wi dajja'' wa:hid min- 
hum, ma jsibj it tis'^a wi t tis*-!:!! fi 1 xala, wi_jdawwdr '■at taijih. 
lamma jir'a:!! ? w_in la'^aih jijiilu '■ala kitfu wi huiwa fdrhain. 
wi lamma jiwsol beitu jindah Lashaibu wi gira:nu wi_j?u:l luhum 
" ifrahu wajjaija li'inni la'eit xaru:fi_lli ka:n taijih." a^'ul lukum, 
zejj' da jkuin farah fi s sama bi xaiti waihid jituib, aktor min 
tis''a_w tis''iin sailih ma hummaj mihtagiin li t toiba. 

" au ''ajj' hurma '^andaha '^ajdr hitat bi xamsait, in dajja'^it 
hitta minhum ma_twalla'^J' lamba wi tiknis_il beit, wi tfattij b_ 
igtihaid li hadd' ma tiPaiha? wi lamma tiPaiha tindah 1 as'habha 
wi 1 girain, wi_t''uil " ifrahu wajjaija, ikminni la'eit il hitta_b 
xamsajli dai'-it minni." a'uil lukum, jib'a farah zejji da ''uddaim 
malajkit aiiai bi xaiti waihid jituib. 

15- 
il wakiil il '^ai'il. lu : 16 ; i. 

" kan fiih raigil gdni "^andu wakiil taha'muili_in nais b_innu 
jibaddid amwailu. ?am talabu wi 'al lu " ?eh da_Lli b_asma'^u 
•■annak ? 'addim hisaib il wairid w il masruif, heis innu muJ 
mumkin tikuin wakiil min dilwa^t'_w raijih. fa ?al il wakiil fi 
sirru, a'^mil 'eh dilwa't ? ma daim siidi ha jirfitni min wazifti, la 
"■audi 'uiwa 'a'-mil fai'-il wala liij wij|_ajhat. aiwa ! ^'irift_ill_a''mi]u, 
hatta lamm_atrifit min wazifti ji'baluini n nais fi_bjuthum." 
'am nadah li kull' waihid mil madjuniin bitu*^ siidu wi 'al li 1 
'awwilaini minhum " '■aleik 'add_e; li siidi ? " 'am 'al \xi " alajja 
milt bdrmiil zeit." 'am 'al lu " xud sa'nadhum_aho wi '"^ud 
'awaim wi ktibhum xamsiin." wi ba''dein 'al li geiru w inta "^aleik 
kaim ? " wi 'ail " miit_drdabbi 'amh." fa 'al lu " xud sa'nad- 
hum_aho wi ktibhum tamaniin." 'am saihib il milk madah_il 
wakiil_il XQijin heis innu_ssarraf fi xijantu bi '^a'l ; wi 1 wai'i'', 
inni 'awlaid "^ailam id dinja 'ajtar fi 'aw'athum min awlaid in nuir. 
w_an_a'ul lukum, iksi'bu_lkum ahibba bi wa(i)stit mail il "^ailam 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 261 

iz zailim da, hatta lamma jifna 1 ma:l da ji'ba'luikum fi 1 masa:kin 
il ba'ja." 

i6. 
il 'a:di % zadim. lu : i8 ; i. 
'ad luhum masal b innu waigib '^aleihum jisallu kull' wa't 
wala jizha'uij. ?ad ; " kam fi balad md bila:d waihid 'a:di ma 
jxafj aiia: wala jihtirimj in na:s.. wi kam fi 1 balad di wahda 
?drmala, wi kamit ti'gi: lu wi_t?ul lu " xal'las li ha^'i min xasmi." 
'am 'a'^ad mudda muj ra:di, laddn ba'^dem 'al fi sirru, " w in kutt' 
m_axafj alia: wal(a) ahtirimj in na:s, la:kin Ileis innjl 'arma'la: 
di_b tif^ibni axal'las laha ha'''aha, lahsan bi ti:gi tamalli tidwijni." 
(wi 'ad ir rabb) " isma"^u Hi 'adu 1 'aidi % zadim ! fa ma_jxalla9s_ 
alia: lia"_il muxta(:)rim bitui'^u, illi_b jinadu:h led wi_nlia:r, wi 
hu:wa_mtewwil badu "^aleihum ? a''ul lukum innu hajxal'las 
luhum ha"uhum hadan." 

17- 
il "-adim wi 2 zadim. 
(il farri:si wi s sarraif. lu : 18 ; 9.) 

wi 'al kaman li gama:''a mi'-ti'dim fi nafsuhum innuhum na;s 
salhim wi jihti'ru gerhum : — " kan fi:h_itnem ra:llu_l he:kal jisallu, 
wa:hid '^adim wi t tami zadim. il ""adim wi'if jisalli wi_j'ud fi 
sirru " ja: 'aiiaih ! ajkurak li'inni 'ana muJ zejj' ba:'i_n na:s il 
xettafim, il xajniin, ia zalmim, il fuggair, wala zejj'_2 zadim da. 
ana b_asu:m mdrratem fi 1 gum'^a wi b_azakki "^al fu'drd bi '^ujr' 
kull_ilLanjliku . ..." la:kin iz zadim wi'if min bi'^iid muJ '■awuz 
hatta jirfa"- '■emu li s sama, wi da'" b_i:du "^ala sidru, wi 'ad, " ja 
'aiia:h_irliamni 'ana 1 xa:ti ! " a'ud lukum inn' da rawwah 
be:tu wi huiwa xadis miz zunu:b bi_x(i)lad it tami. li'inn' kulLilli 
ji''alli nafsu jiwattiiha, willi_jwatti nafsu ji''alli:ha." 

18. 
il ginema wi g ginajnijjd r ruzala. lu : 10 ; 9. 

" kan fih waifiid zdra'^ ginemit "^inab wi sallimha li g ginajnijja 
w_itgarrab mudda tawida. wi fi 1 muisim ba'^at ''abd' li g ganaj- 
nijja '■ajan jid'du: lu min mahsud ig ginema. laikin ig ganajnijja 
darabuih wi taraduih faidi. fa rigi'' ba'^at "^abd' tami, fa darabuih 
kaman wi ha(:)nu:h wi taraduih fa:di. fa rigi"^ ba'^at wa:hid tadit 
fa gdrahuih kanian wi ramu:h bdrrd. 'am sa:hib ig ginema 'ad 
" a'^mil 'eh dilwa't ?. . . .ab'^at luhum_ibni_l "^aziiz' "^andi ; rub- 
'bama jihtir'mu:(h)." fa lamma Ja'fu:h_ig ganajnijja, ijjawru 
wajja bd'-a, wi 'adu, " aho da_l wa:ris, jaitd ni'tilu *^alajan jib'a 1 



262 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

mira:s lina." fa taraduih bdrra g ginema wi 'atalu:(h). fa 
ji'^miLeih sa.-hib g ginema wajja do:l ? muj ji:gi wi jihlik il 
ganajnijja do:l wi jiddi g ginema li gerhum ? a-'ul lukum, aiwa 
ji:gi ! " 

(C.) 

fusuil fi bd'^d' mu'^ta?ada:t id dim il masiihi. 

19. 
it tahriif il maznum fi 1 kita:b il m^'addas. 

bi_j?u:l ba'^a in na:s hina fi J Jdr? inn il kitaib il m^'addas 
mitgaijdr "^an 'aslu, ji'^ni ?innu sa:bu_t_tdgji:r wi t tahriij wi t 
tabdi:l wi z zija:da wi n nu'sam ; wi '^ala kida ma_]'guzsjnmna_ 
n'^awwil '^ale:h, bi n_nisba li komu muJ m'^aibi' li t tawraih il 
'aslijja lli nizlit '■ala mu:sa kaliim aiJa: bi 1 wahjjl ?ila:hi, wala 
li 1 ?ingi:l il ?asli_lli 'awha buh rabbina subhamahu wi t a'-aila "^al 
masiih. -"add e:h il mazhab da gdriib ! 

fa nis'al ig gamai'^a do:l ; "e(:)mta hasal it tala:''ub da_b 
?aja:t it tawra: wi 1 ?ingi:l ? ?abl' mhammad walla_f wa^tu walla 
ba'^d' wa'tu ? " iza kam ji'uilu " ?abl' mhammad," niga'wibhum 
inn'_mhammad '^ala kida kam m'saidi' "^ala kitab m'hdrraf, li?inn_il 
qur'am bi jistajhid bi t tawra:h wi 1 ingid kitiir xadis. wi di ha:ga 
mij ma''?u:la "-ala fard' tahriifhum. wi fadlan "^an kida, fih nusdx 
mdxtuita, rag''a li 1 '■usuir illi ''abl'_mliammad bi kam mi:t sana, wi 
kullaha_mtab''a li 1 kitaib il mawguid "-andina dilwa-'t' bi t tamaim, 
wala fiij ?asar 'abadan li 1 kitaib it taini da_l maznum. .wi "^alaiwa 
'^ala kida, kutr in nusdx doil jidill' '^ala 'inn^ 1 'ingiil kam mintijir 
kitiir XGilis fi kaffit il '■ailam mijait mis sinim 'ablijnhammad, wi 
ma'' zailik ma lammahJLmhammad 'adna talmiih inn' 1 masiihijjim 
fi 1 wa^t' da kamu_m'^awwiliin "^ala kitaib mafsuid. fa Li'-tiraid da 
muJ ma''''uil bi 1 nidrrd. 

w ithdrraf il kitaib " fi wa't' mhammad au ba'^du " z zaij ? wi 
huiwa kam mintijir fi kull il buldain, wi mahbuib wi muhtdram 
''and' '^umuim in nasaird ? muJ mitsawwdr inn_i masiihijiiin 
ittafa'u '^ala tabwiiz kull in nusdx il mawguida fi 1 '^ailam wi tabdil- 
ha bi_kta:b taini ! ummail raihit fein nusdx il kitaib il ?asli ? 
leih ma nla'iij luhum 'asdr innahdrda ? bai^it iz zaij, ma*^ 
wuguid nais kitiir kainit il m'hafza '^al kitaib is sahiih li sa'lilihum 
'awi ? w illi_jziid it tiin balla huiwa_nni_l fard' da ji'tidi_ttifai'* 
in nasaird wajja 1 jahuid '^ala tahriif il '^ahd il ?adiim (it tawrai), 
wi humma ''a'^da li bd'-duhum ! wi ji'tidi kaman ittifai^ it 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 263 

tewaijif il masi:hijja 1 mif^aidijia "^ala tahriif il ?ingi:l (il "^ahd il 
gidi:d) ! wi kuU' da mistahiil wi kala:ra fa:rig, ma jsallimj' buh il 
"■a'! is saliim. 

20. 

it to:ba. 
it toiba lafgQ gdrja "^aLalsinit in na:s kitiir. fa 1 waihid min- 
hum, in ka:n jihsal mij Je: 'illi "^amalu nitiiga sa'-ba, au haiga ma 
ti'^gibuij, ji'uil " tubt," bi ma'^ana " ja retni ma "^amaltij kida, 
•^alajan ana Jajif dilwa't inn' da ma kanji li salhi." ■ wi f gumlit 
mdrreit tif a:l il kil'ma: di min ger Ju'^uir wala tawbi:x damiir. 

walaikin it toiba fi "^urf id dijainaj masihijja lla:ga3''i:da 
■^an kida bu'^d is sama "^an il ^ard, wi hijja ge:r mu'^tabdrd ?illa ?iza 
kan titwaffdr fi:ha ba'^d ij Juruit, wi hijja. 

(i). laizim it to:ba tikum "^an za:t il xatijja_lli_t''amalit muj 

•^an in niti:ga_s sa'^baj hasla minha. 
(2). wi "^ala kida la:zim tikum bi 'ihsa:s hajj wi j'u'^uir ha'ii'i 

wi tawbi:x dami:r. 
(3). wi da ma jit?atta:J ilia ?iza kamit it to:ba li lla:h za:tu ; 
ja'^ni 1 wailiid la:zim jij'-ur innu rtakab iz zanb' da didd 
alia: nafsu, w uinu_b kida "^asa rabbu wi ham qadastu 
w_istdxdff' bijnhabbitu. 
(4). "^ala kida t to:ba_s sahiiha ti'tidi l_i''tira:f, ja'^ni t taijib 
ji'irri li 11a: bi saraiha bi 1 "^amaLilli damiiru ta'^bam 
minnu, min ger taMi:m a'^zair "^annu 'abadan. w_in kam 
jij''ur innu zetlam hadd' min_na:s, laizim jizi:d '■ala^ 
"■tiraifu li_lla: komu jiru:h li 1 mazluim ji'^ti'rif lu kaman 
bi kuU' saraiha w_ixlais, wi j''uil " ana mah-'ui'," wi 
jistasmahu, wi^j'-aw'wad lu kaman iza lizmit il hail. 
(5). wi mafhuim min kida inn_it taijib, "-andima jitlub U 
mdgfira min aiiai bi 1 keifijja di, jikuin '^andu nijja 
salha, wi 'asd' sahiih, wi "-azm* saibit, innu jitruk il "^amal 
da aw_il '^aida diija bi 1 kuUijja, wi ma jirga"^ lahaij, w 
innu ji-'aimin b_inn aiiai ji'ddr jitammim lu_l "^azm' d 
bi ni''mitu wi msa'^ditu, wi jxa'^su fi'^lan min 'uiwit il 
xatijja di. 

21. 

il mdgfird wi 1 kaffaird. 

rabbina lamma raid jigfdr xataija n nais Jaif inn' da ger 

mumkin mil wagh il 'adabi 'ilia 'iza kain juhkum '■ala 1 xataija 

doil wi jizhir li kaffit in nais ha'i(i)''itha wi 1 hukm il '^aidil '^aleiha. 



264 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

•^alajan mil ma'^luim inn' msamhit ij Jdxs illi mahuj darjam bi 
Sa'ii'it zanbu muj na:fi'^, wi rubbama jisabbitu fi 1 xatijja bta'^tu 
bass, wi iJagga"^ ge:ru "^ala rtika{:)bha. fa t tabjiir bi mdgfirit 
eiia: li "^umuim il xute: ?abl' 'izhair hukmu "^ala 1 xatijja 
kam mustahiil, li'innu fi 1 hada di ka:n ba:z in nizaim il ?adabij.li_ 
tbana '■aleih il "ialainiin. 

walaikin i'^lam il hukm "^ala 1 xetijja fi 1 xute; nafsuhum 
ma kanji mumkin, "^alajan lau ka:n aiia: (subhamu wi ta''ada) 
hammilna 1 'isa:s_illi hna mistaha"i;nu, ma kanj' xdllama nimid 
lu wala gazabnaij li t to:ba_s sadrd min ''alb' minkisir, wi hu:wa_l 
'amr il matluib. fa "^alajan kida (i)xta:r aiia:h_il qudduis Q 
muhibb innu ji'^lin fi najsu, aj fi kalimitu 1 mitgassida, hukm il 
xatijja wi niti:githa s sa'^ba, illi hi:ja 1 mo:t, — wi da muJ mo:t 
"■aidi laikin mo:t sa''b' giddan, masllu:b bi 'alam. wi '■azaib wi huzn 
wi dalma wi 'aliwad mur''iba. 

''ahoJJi '^amalu 1 masiili '^alajamia. ithammil id de(:)nu:na 
di bi n nijaiba '■anna, wi hers innu hu:wa zaitu kam bari wi damiiru 
ndi:f ma wassdxituij 'adna xatijja 'abadan, kamit tobtu '■an xateija 
(i)xwa:nu to:ba tamma kamla, bi tamaim 'abud hukm aiia: bi 1 
mo:t da, wi tama:m iJ Ju'-u.'r bjnn' xatijjit il "-adam mustawgi'ba:h. 
amma 1 xa:ti za:tu fa ma jimkinuij jituib it toiba t tamma di, wala 
jij''ur Ju''u:r 'add' da, li'inni dami:ru majjit, au nuss' majjit, wi 1 
ma''lu:m inn_as''ab nataijig il xatijja innaha_t''assi 'alb H xa:ti wi 
tmawwit damiiru wi thu:Ju ''an it toiba 1 kamla. 

amma Hi junzur li_l mo:t "^as &ali:b wi jiftikir fi:h tajjib, jit- 
ha"a' Janai'-it xatijjitu, wi jitha??a? qada:sit aiiaih eh hi:ja, wi f i 1 
wa-'t' nafsu jifham miMa:r mahabbit alia:, fa jirga"^ li rabbu 
maksuir il 'alb, wi huiwa jihkum "^ala nafsu hukm ai'iaih "^aleih, 
wi jtu:b to:bit il masi:h ; wi "^ala kida tib'a mdgfirit xata'jaih fi 
mahallaha wala fihj' darar fi komu jithassal "^ala rida rabbu wi 
jin'ibil bi sifat wa:hid ma si' it J' 'abadan fi 1 xatijja, ka'innu lissa_f 
hadit il bdrai'a ! wi ja li 1 "^agab ! 

wi fi'-lan illi_jkum ixtabdr il ixtiba(:)ra:t di kuUaha jib'a mit-, 
gaddid xadis, ma jiftikirj fi: ma ba'-d ilia ke:f jimkinu jutruk il 
xatijja bi 1 kuUijja, wi jit'addim fi 1 qadaisa, wi jitjabbih bi jasu:'^_il 
masi:h fadi:h, illi safak dammu '^alajamu w ijta'ra:h lLlla:h ; wi 
bi l_ixtisa:r, bi jitwilid il milaid it tami, wi 1 masi:h il hajjLb jiskun 
fi:h ruihijjan wi jgajjdru bi t tadri:g hatta_jsi:r zejju fi 1 med 
wJ 1 '■amal wi_f kull' Je:. 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 265 

22. 

is sa(:)luis il muqaddas. 

ihna 1 masi:hijji:n mVahhidiin eiia: zejj_il muslimiin wi 
zja:da kaman. bi_n'a:min inn eAi&h subhainu wi ta'^aila waihid, 
w_inn il xa:li' 'aijim bi nafsu, ge:r mahduid fi "^ilmu, m^naffiz irsdtu 
bi 'uiwitu 1 mutia'a. wi ninsib lu kaman sifatein '^ila.'wa '^qs sifait 
di_l mazku:ra, wi Jamlim luhum, ja'^ni 'sifat il qadaisa wi sifat il 
mahabba ; wi biji'uil inn aiia: quddu:s, w_innu_mhibb, hatta_ 
n'u:l innu kuUu mahabba. 

f iza kan rabbina sa:hib "^ilm' min ?adi:m il 'azal laizim jinwigid 
kaman Je ma'-luim, wi "-ala kida 1 muhibb ji'tidi wuguid Je mahbuib. 
summa wugu:d il ma''lu:m wi 1 mahbuib da laizim jikum ?adi:m 
■ger maxlu:', zejji wugu:d il "-adiim wi 1 muhibb, wi 'illajikuin 
hakamna inn aiia: subhamu wi ta'^aila mihta:g li Je jikammilu, 
wi da mustahid, '■alajan inn_aiia: laizim jikum fi gina "^an kuU' 
Je maxlu:', ger mihtaig li ha:ga_tkammilu ; fa ma jsahhij innina_ 
n'ud inn il ma'-luim aw il mahbuib da jikum maxlu:' mil maxlu'ait, 
hatta wala nafs il ko:n bi rummitu, lahsan nikuin nasabna li llaih 
il '^agzi wi n na's. fa '^ala kida laizim il ma'^luim il mahbuib da 
jikum mawguid fi za:tu ta'^ada, ger minfasetl "^annu min 'adiim il 
'azal ; wi_nsammi:h " il kalima," aj ibn' fik'ritu, aw " il ibn," aj 
ibni mahabbitu, wi hu:wa 1 'uqnuim it taini min aqaniim iz za:t. 
'amma 1 'uqnuim it tailit hu:wa ru:h il mahabba 1 mawguida tamalli 
bem il muhibb' wi 1 mahbuib. 

'^ala kida nju:f inn' wihdit aiia:(h) ma timna'^J inn' 1 wa:hid 
jikum m'sallas il 'aqaniim, ja'^ni 'inni 1 wihda_tkum fi talat 'aqaniim 
daixil iz zait il wahda, ger minfasla ''an ba'^daha wala minfasla "^an 
iz zait. wi muj laizim niftikir inn' min Juruit il wihda 'innaha_ 
tkuin wihda mgdrrada zejji nu'ta handasijja aw il waihid fi "^ilm 
il hisaib, w_innaha_mna''da lit ta'-addud fi hadd' zaitha ; laikin il 
wihda wi t ta''addud lazmiin li ba''d, m'^kammil il waihid li t tami, 
zejjima njuif fi i tabii'^a_f gumlit mdrrait, hatta 'innina bi njuif 
fi t tabii'-a inn il 'ajja kullima_tziid ta''addud wi tanawwu*^, kullima 
tkuin wihdith(a) atamm. • fa tanwii'^ in nabait id da(i)xli masalan 
aktdr min tanwii"^ il hagdr, wi huiw^atamm' minnu wihda. wi 
tanwii*^ il hajawain aktdr min tanwii*" in nabait, wi huiw_atamm' 
minnu wihda. wi tanwii*^ il 'insain aktdr min tanwii'' il hajawain, 
wi huiw_atamm' minnu wihda. wi_b Lixtisair, kullima titra'-'aj 
'ajja fi ddragait il wuguid nijuif wihdithum titimm bi_z(i)jaidit 
tanwi''hum. fa 'iza kainit il haila kida, eih_illi jimna''na '■an innina_ 



266 EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 

n?u:l inni za:t aiiaih subhainu wi ta'-aila tiku:n bi tanwi:'' da(:)xli, 
faiji' kuU' tasawwur, wi ma'' kida (aw ahsan nPu:l li sabab kida) 
wihditu_tku:n atamm' w_ajadd' min wihdit 'ajji Je ge:ru, hatta 
'innaha 1 wihda 1 walliida_]li tistaha"' ma'^na 1 lafza di ? fa t 
tanwi:'' id daxli da hu:wa 1 ■'aqaniim, wi humma mitmajjizim fi 
l_ism wi 1 waziifa, laikin wa:iiid fi 1 ha'ja: wi z za:t wi s sifa:t il 
muqdddasa. w iza samme:na_l 'uqnuimjl 'awwil " U 'abb " 
ikminnu mazdar il kull, wi 1 'u'nuim it tami " lj.bn," muj laizim 
abadan jinfihim min kida_l wila:da 1 ma''hu:da '■andina wala ha:ga 
zejjaha. bass_it tasmijja di tidill "-ala '■alai'a tifu:? it tasawwur be:n 
alia: wi kalimatu. zejjimaj. wa:hid minna bij'ud inn' kalaimu. 
" ibn' fikritu," wi hu:wa ma bi jmaijizs' bem kala:mu wi nafsu. 
fa ''ala kida tamam kalaim aiia:h ibn fikritu wi wastit ta''bi:ru 
"■anha, wi huiwa 'azali zejju, ger minfasal '-annu, li'Lnnu ma j- 
sahhij inninaji'uil inn alia: ka:n xaili min kalimatu lahza miz 
zamam min 'adiim il 'azal. wi min he:s il 'aqaniim mitmajjizim 
fi 1 waziifa, fa kam min waziifit il kalima innu jitgassid, lamma gih 
il wa't, bi ?u:wit aiia:h_il "^aziima ; ja''ni 'innu xad gasadna wi 
sa:r insam ka:mil, zejjina_f kull' haiga xila:f il xatijja ; wi ba''dima_ 
ddama numuizag kamad wi 'awrama sifait il insamijja 1 fta'i'ijja, 
dahha nafsu ''alajanna kaffaird, wi ma:t, wi 'aim wi sa'-ad li '■adam 
il geib, summa ba'^at lina ruihu, illi huiwa r ru:tl il qudus, rmh 
aiia:h_il hajj', wi '■ala kida fadama li_lla:h bi dammu, wi 'drrabna 
lijlaih bi ruihu, "^alajan nikum maskin li_lla:h fi d dunja wi 1 
'dxrd. w alia: jihdima li_s sawa:b. 



VOCABULARY 

OF THE CHIEF WORDS OCCURRING IN THE READER. 

Note. — The words are ranged under their respective roots, and 
the roots are arranged according to the order of the conventional 
Arabic alphabet, viz. : 



? 


\ 


s 


u~ 


q(=') 


3 


b 


-r' 


I 


cr* 


k 


J, 


t 


UU 


a 


U= 


1 


J 


g 


E 


a 


lF 


ra 


r 


h 


C 


t 


L 


n 


(J 


X 


t 


z 


k 


h 


A 


d 


a 


<; 


t 


w 


^ 


r 


; 


9 


t 


J 


l5 


z 


3 


f 


^ 







N.B.— Words which contain, etymologically, a [q] (^3) are in every 
case arranged as if they were written [q], not [?]. 



?bh 



'tj 



'ubbaha 



I. ?ata, ja:ti 
V. it'atta 



?ami:r, p. 'umdrd 
'iraaird 



grand(eur) 



come 
come about 



prince, noble 
nobility 



gr 



?agr, p. 'uguir 
?ugrd, p. ?ugdr 
II. 'aggdr 



reward 

wages 

let, hire, rent 



?a:xir 
/. 'axrd 
'aixir ma 
V. it''dxxQr 



latter, last 

the next (life) 

when finally 

be late, backward 

? X z (6) 

fll. ('')a:xiz [tr.) be vexed with 
inf. m'-'axza vexation 

ma_ttaxizni:f [for ma t'^axizniij 

excuse me 

ill 
II. 'dda, w/. ta'dijja render, pass 

?zl 



'azal 
?azali 



eternity (prior) 
eternal (prior) 



267 



268 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



I. [orig. IV.) 'azajPzi injure 

part, mi'zi iniurious 

%:h. noun 'aziija injury 

? s r (6) 
'asar, p. ?a(:)sa:r trace, remain{s) 

? s r (? e r) 



II. 'asscir C^ala or fi) touch, excite 
««/". ta'siir impression, emotion 



'asa:s, p. a:t 



'asaf 

V. it'assif 



? sf 



?sl 



foundation 



regret 
be very sorry 



'qsI, p. 'usuil origin ; root- 
principle ; beginning 
'asli original, " cost " 



?kd 



II. ?akkid 
bi t ta?ki:d 
V. it'akkid 



asseverate 

of a certainty 

be certain 



? kl 



II. wakkil (/;'.) give to eat 

Mm 



I. "^ilim, ji'^lam (bi) know 

in}, ''ilm (p. "-uluim) knowledge 

(branches of do.) 



' m r 

I. 'amcir, ju'mur ((if.) command, 

commission 
(j)art. pass.) ma^muir 

Commissioner 
affair, thing 
command 



'amr, p. 'umuir 
do. p. ?awa:mir 



?ml 

V. it-'ammil {tr., and with fi:) 

reflect on 



? 



m m 



'umma, p. umam 

? m n 



nation 



III. ?a:min, ji'aimin C^ala) 

believe on 

IV. {inf.) i(:)mam faith, belief 
part, mu'min believer 
?amama integrity 

? n s 



'insam {j>. na:s) man 

?insa(:)nijja humanity, 

humaneness 

?hl 



'ahl, p 'aha:U people 

?ahlan {from 'ahl " worthy ") 

welcome ! 



I. ?am 

'awam 



'aija, p. -a:t 



itbahtdr 



buxuir 
II. bdxxdr 



_11 

b 
bhtr 



came (duly) 
due time 



miracle, text 



bxr 



bdd 



be dispersed 



mcense 
cense 



II. baddid embezzle 

b d r (5) 
I. baddr, jibdur {or II.) scatter 



VOCABULARY 



269 



bdl 

II. baddil {tr. bi), inf. tabdi:l 
exchange, substitute 

(a thing for . . . . ) 
badla, ^. bidal suit ("change") 

of clothes 
bada(:)l instead of 



br' 

bars:' a 

ban (/orbari:?) 

brg 
burg,;!), abraig 

b r q p] 



innocence 
innocent 



tower 



bar? 



hghtning, gold fringe 
brk 



I. barak, jibrik kneel down 

III. ba:rik {tr. fi, '^ala) bless 

bareka blessing 



bdrsiim 



b r s m 



b s t {coll. s) 



clover 



I. basst, jibsit {tr.) please 
part. pass, mabsuit (min) pleased 
VII. imbasat {for inbasat) (min) 

be pleased (with) 

bfr 

II. bajjdr {tr.) bring good news to 
bijaird, p. bijaijir . good news ; 

Gospel 

b s s 



I. bass, jibuss {tr.) look, glance 

btt 
batt ducks 



btl 



I. bitil, iibtal 
part, baitil 



bu'^d 



b-^d 



b q r p] 



ba'ar 
lahm ba'cir 



be nullified 
vain, false 



distance 



cows, oxen 
beef 



b q q P '] 



bu" 



mouth 



. b q j pi 

ba'a or bi'i, jib-'a remain, be 

over, become, be 
part, bai^i, ba(:)'ijja remainder 

bkt 

II bakkit {tr.\ rebuke, prick 

bki 



I. baka, jibki, inf. buka weep 
bid 



balad, p. bilaid mhabited place 

(town, village, land) 
bila:d {collectively) , p. buldam 

country 



b n d q p] 



bundu' 



bunn 



nuts 



b n n 



b n i 



I. bana, iibni {tr.) 
tnf. bina, buna 
binaija, p. abniija 
VII. itbana 



coffee-beans 



build 

building 

a building 

be built 



b w 7: 



II. bawwiz 



pout, be sulky 



270 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



b W Z 

I. ba:2, jibuiz be nullified, spoiled 

II. bawwaz nullify, spoil 



bj^ 



I. ba:";, jibi:*; 
inf. hvS 
verh-noi-in be;''a 



sell 

belling 

a transaction 



b j n 



tli 



II. bajjin (ir.), inf. tibjam 



manifest 

t 

t q r 

I. (part.) ta:gir, p. tuggair 

merchant 



HI. ta:g'r (fi) 

trb 
turba, p. turab 

ti<; 

tir''a, p. iira.'- 

ti k 



deal (in) 



grave, 



soil 



canal 



I. tarak, jitruk [inf.] tdrk leave 

f^b 

I. ti'^ib, jif^ab be tired 

I. ta'^ab. jit<;ib ] 

II. ta«ab \{ty.) tire 
IV. of^ab, jif^ibj 

pari, muf^ib tiresome 

t q n PI 

IV. at'an, jit^in execute perfectly 
inf. it'a:n fine execution 

part, mafum finely executed 



t q w [?] 



ta'a:wi 



seed for sowing 



I. tilif, iitlif 
inf. talaf 
talfam 



spoil, ruin 

waste 

wasteful, wasted 



t m m 



I tamm, jitimm be perfect. 

be fulfilled 
part. ta:m(m) perfect 

II. tammim complete 

tamalm, comp. atamm complete, 

perfect 

t m n (6) 

taman, p. atmain 

t wt 



price 



tu:t, sing. tu:ta mulberr^'-trees 
t w r 



tu:rd 
ta:rd 



four-bits-of 
sometimes 



q 



gitta, p. gitat 



g 1 1 [g_e e] 

body, corpse 



gdd 
V. itgaddid be renewed, converted 

grb 

gdrrab try, tempt 

inf. tagriba, p. tagairib 

trial, temptation 
tagriiba, p. -a:t experiment 

g rll 

I. gdrah, jigraS [tr.) wound 
garh, p. guru:ll a wound 

g rd 

II. gdrrad [tr.) denude, abstract 
mugdrrad abstract ; bare 



VOCABULARY 



271 



g rdl 
garclal, p. gareidil 
qrr 



garr, ]igurr 



g rm 



pail 
drag 

crime 



gamma, p. garaijim 
IV. [part, only) mugrim 

criminal, guilty 



gin, ]ign run, run away 

inf. garj, garajam 

part, gairi running, current 



gara, jigra (li) 



gzb 



I. gazab, jigzib 
inf. gazb {tr.) 



befal 



draw 
attract 



gsd 

gasad, p. agsa:d body, flesh 

V. itgassid took flesh, became 

incarnate 



gss 



T. gass, jigiss 
migass 



test, touch 
test, touchstone 



II. gallid [tr.] 
inf. tagli.'d 



gld 



gls 



bind (book) 
binding 



I. galas, jiglis take one's seat 

vb. noim galsa a sitting 

maghs, p. magailis council 

gm'^ 



I. gama"^, jigma"; [tr.) collect 

inf. gam"^ collecting, addition 

gamai'^a, p. -a:t party, 

community 
gam'^ijja, p. -a:t a society 



g m 1 

gumla, p. gumsJ sentence ; 

total ; number 
gumlit mdrrait often 



g n s 



gins, *. agna:s 



race ; sort 



g n n 



I. gann, jiginn be mad 

{ori^. madden) 
^fl;'i. magnum, 7^. maganim mad 

II. gannin {tr.) madden 
V. itgannin get mad 
X. istagann {tr.) call mad 

ghd 

III. gaihid, inf. giha:d wage 

(holy) war, stiive 



gihiz 
11. gahhiz 



g h z 



qhl 



ready 
get ready 



I. gahal, jighal {ir. and intr.) 

be ignorant (of) 

inf. gall] folly 

part. act. ga:hil fool 

part. pass, maghud passive voice 

{lit. " unknown ") 

q w b 



III. na:wib Hr.) reply-to (a person) 

— "-ala reply to (question) 

— "^an reply about (thing) 
TV. ana:b, part, mugiib, giant 

request 

g w 7 (2 w g) 

gawaiz mairiage 

V. iqgawwiz {tr.) marry 

qo:z, -p. agwa:z pair ; husband; 

nuts 
zo:ga, p. zogait wife 



272 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



g jb 

ga:b, jigiib {orig. ga: bi) 
inf. magajb, magiiba 



ft 

ftbb 
habba, p. -art or hubu:b 

hbs 



bring 
bringing 



gram, 
htnebit 



I. haba=;, jihbis imprison 

inf. habs imprisoning, prison 



ftbl 



habi, p. ftiba:! 



rope, string 



hit 



hitta, hitat piece 

hitta_b xamsa 5 piastre piece 

hti 



hatta even 

— 'inn until, sothat.inorderthat 

hgb 

higaib, p. ahgiba amulet 

hdt (0) 

II. haddit (tr.) tell (storv) to [li] 
V. itftaddit chat, talk 

hadduitci, p. hawadiit story, talc 



hdd 



limit 



I. hadd, jihidd (tr.) 

lb. roun hadd, p. hudu:d 

limit, limitation 
I. part, mahduid limited, fixed 
fi hadd' za:tu in (thelimitof) 

itself 
IT. haddid {tr.) give limits to 



h d s (0) 

I. hadas, jihdas happen 

/. part, hadsa, p. ftawardis 

event, accident 

h r r 



harr {suhst. also used as adj.) 

heat, hot [oi things) 
hot 
hotness, temperature 

(of persons) 

free, non-governmental 

freedom 



ftdrr«m 
hdrarrd 



hurr 
hurrijia 



ft r s 



I. ftdres, juhrus [tr.) 
pass. part, mahruis 
il mahruisa 



guard 
child 
Cairo 



h r s 



IT. ftdrras ('■ala) 
inf. hirs 



be careful (of) 
carefulness 



hrf 

harf, p. hura:f edge ; lettei ; 

consonant 
II. hdiraf, ?'»/. taftriif alter text of 
ftirfa, p. hiraf profession 

h r m 



VIII. ihtdrom {tr.), in] 
part. pass. muhtdr«m 


^. ihtira:m 
honour 
honoured 


hdrarm 

hdrami, p. hdramijja 

fturma 


sm, wrong 

thief 

wonder 


hri 




(bi 1) hari 


or rather 



ft z n 



ftazi:n \ sorrowful, 

haznam j in mourning 



VOCABULARY 



273 



hsb 

I. hasab, jihsib reckon 

III. ha:sib (tr.) give an account to 
inf. hisa:b, p. -a:t account 

— C^ala) take care (of) 

h s s 



I. {orig. IV.) hass, jihiss feel 

inf. itisais {p. -a:t) feeling(s) 

h s n 



ahsan better 

II. hassin make better, improve 
««/.tahsim,^. -a:t " improvement 
X. istahsin (tr.) approve of, 

prefer to do 

hajiij (lit. " grass "), hachiche 
hajjaij [p. -i:n) hachiche-smoker 



hsl 



happen 
obtain 



crops 



I. hasal, jihsol 
— "-ala 
ifif. husu:l 
part, mahsu:!, p. -art 

II. hassal {tr.) collect (debt, tax) 
V. ithassol C^ala) {or X.) obtain 

h s j 

IV. ahsa, jihsi {tr.) count, 

take census of 
inf. ihsa(:) 

hdr 



census 



I hadar, juhdur be present 

inf. huduir being present, 

presence 
vb. noun hddra Presence 

II. hadder bring 

hdr 



X. istdhdar summon 

mdhdar, p. mdhaidir proces- 

verbal, minutes of meeting 



hfz 

hafaz, jihfaz {tr.), inf. hifz keep 
III. haifiz 'iala preserve ; take 

note of 

h q q [? ?] 



ha?? 

p. hu?u:? 

il ha?? "^aleik, lak 



right, truth 
rights, Law 
you are 
wrong, right 
ha?? ami righteous 

I. part. mah?u:? in the wrong 

II. ha??a? realise (i.e. cause 

to come true) 
inf. tah?i:? enquiry 

V. itha??a? realise (ascertain) 

X. istaha?? {tr.) be worthy of 
ma jistaha??ij it's not worth while 
ha?i:?a, ha?a:ji? fact, truth, reality 

h km 



I. hakam, juhkum judge, rule 
— ''ala condemn 

part, haikim, p. hukkaim ruler 
hakam umpire 

hikma, p. hikam wisdom 

huku:ma, p. -a:t government 



hlq[?] 



'hala?a 



circle, link 



hll 



mahall, ^. ait 
fi mahallu 



place 
in place, right 



him 

I. hilim, jihlam (bi) dream (of) 
inf. hilm dreaming, dream 



hi' 



halaiwa 



sweetness, sweet-stuff 
,h m r 



humair donkey 

ahmdr more of a donkey 

X. istdhmdr (<r.) consider a donkey 



274 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



hml 

hamal jifimil, 

inf. himl, p. ahmail 

fart, haimil 

hamla 

II. hammil {tr.] 



carry 

load 

pregnant 

pregnancy 

load 



V. itlianimil(i>'.) load oneself with 
VIII. ihtamal [and X.) bear, 

suffer, tolerate 



h m j 



III. ha:ma ('■an) 
part, m'haimi 



defend 
advocate 



h nn 



cp. Phcenician [hanniba'^al] 

(Hannibal) 
Hebrew [joftann] (John) 
hinnijja tenderness 

II. hannin ("^ala) have pity (on) 



h wd 



I. hawad, jihwid (or II.) 
h w 1 



turn 



hawalem round 

II. hawwil {tr.), inf. tahwiil turn 
X. [aor.) jistahiil C^ala) be 

impossible (for) 
part, mistahid impossible 

he:l strength, good health 

— "^ala heilak — your best 



VIII. ihtair. 


inf. ihtijair be 

perplexed 




hjs 


lie:s 
bi he:s 


since 
in respect of . . 




h j n 



hi:n, p. ahjam 
{ace.) ahjaman 



time 
sometimes 



hida, p. hijal 



trick; device; 

support 

I. hijj, jihja live 

haja: {before genit. hajait) life 
hajj, p. alija(:) living 



xb r 



VIII. ixtabctr {tr.), inf. ixtibair 

. experience 



X b j 



II. xabba {tr.) 
V. itxabba ~\ 



X6. istaxabbaj 

x t m 



hide 
hide oneself, 

be hid 



seal 

seal-ring 

seal 



I. xetam, jixtim {tr.) 
xaitim, p. xawaitim 
xitm, p. ctxtaim 

xgl 

I. xigil jixgal, inf. xdgal be 

ashamed 



xdd 
xddd, p. xudu:d 

x d m 



cheek 



I. xadam, jixdim serve 
inf. xidma, p. xidam service 

II. xdddim ('■ala) serve (at) 
X. istdxdim t ake (government) 

employment 



xr b 



xorbain 



nuned, broken 



VOCABULARY 



275 



xrg 

II. xarrag {tr.) pass one out 

(of a school) 

mitxarrag passed out, 

former pupil 

X r '' 



ixtarQ"-, inf. ixtira:"^ 
xs r 



invent 



I. xisir, jixsar lose 
inf. xusaird loss 

II. xQssar [tr.) cause-to-lose 
xesrain, p. -i:n, losing, out of 

pocket 

xjb 



11. xajjib 



xuju:"^ 
xujui'^i 



VIII. ixtaja 



xj' 



got stiff 



reverence, awe 
solemn 



X sm 



be shy; ashamed 
X z n 



II. xdzzan, inf. tdxzim dam up 

X s b 
XQsib fertile 



VIII. ixtaser abridge, do briefly 
inf. (bi 1_) ixtisair in short 

X s s 

xass, jixuss [tr.) belong to 

inf. xusuis belonging-to 

bi xsu:s apropos of 

xusuisan especially 

VIII. ixtsss (bi) have specially 

to do with 
inf. ixtisais specialization, 

purview 
ixtisa:si a specialist 



xasm, p. xusu:m 
III. xa:sim {tr.) 



adversary 
oppose 



xadd 



I. xadd, jixudd jolt, frighten 
VII. inxadd, itxadd get a 

shock, fright 



xuda:r 



x d r 



xff 



vegetables 



X. istaxaff (bi) beUttle, slight 
xtb 



I. xatab, jixtub {tr.) 
X t r 



betroth 



I. xatar, jixtur occur 

xa:tir mind ; heart ; liking 

xdd "-ala xatru took to heart 

xtt 



xatt, jixutt (hand) write ; 

draw line 
vh. noun xatt, p. xutuit 

handwriting ; line 
xitta, p. xitat line of action 

X t f ( = snatch) 

xataf, jixtaf {inf. xatf) filch 

xQtta:f filcher 

I. {part.) xaiti, xuta:(h) sinner 
IV. dxta, p. jixti commit sin 

xatijja, p. xata:ja sin 



xlxl 



m'xdlxdl 



striped 



276 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



xls 

xilis, jixlas be finished; be saved 
inf.xalais finishing; salvation 
i. xa:Us, finished ; saved ; 
free (from) ; entirely 

II. xaUas (tr.) save, finish, 

satisfy, retrieve 
■ — "^ala expedite luggage 

IV. (inf.) ixla:s sincerity 
(part.) muxlis sincere 

V. itxaUas (min) extricate oneself 
xilaisa abstract, summary 

xlf 

I. xalaf, jixlif (tr.) succeed 

xdliif (or xdli:fa), p. xulafa 

successor. Caliph 

III. xa:lif (tr.) differ from, 

contravene, disobey 
inf. m'xalfa contravention, 

disobedience 
inf. xila:f difference 

— or bi_xla:f except 

X 1 q P] 

I. xala', juxlu?, inf. xaP create 
xuP temper, disposition 

p. axla:' character 

xula'i " tempery," passionate 

I. xili, jixla (min) be destitute of 
partic. xadi destitute, empty 

II. xalla, inf. tdxlijja let, leave, 

cause 

xnqj?] 

I. xcina', juxnu' strangle 

III. xa:ni? (tr.), inf. xina:?, 

— m^'xan'a quarrel-with 



II. xajidr(/>'.) give-one-the-choice 



d 

d b h (5) 

dabah,iidbah slaughter, massacre 
madbah, p. madaibih altar 

madbaha, p. do. (a) massacre 

dbr 



II. dabbdr manage, arrange 

(inf.) tadbiir, p. tadabiiror-ait 

arrangement 

dxl 



I. ddxdl,judxul, w/. duxud enter 
partic. as prep. da:xil within 
rel. adj. ddxli interior 
ddxlijia boarding-school 

II. ddxxdl (tr.) put in 

drg 
II. inf. (bi_t) tadri:g by degrees 
durg,^. adraig drawer, desk 

d r j 



I. diri, jidra (bi) 
ddrjam (bi) 



know 
conscious (of) 



d '' w 

I. da'^a, jid'-i pray, intercede 

— li pray for 

— "^ala- pray against (curse) 
inf. da'^wa, p. -a:t or 'du'^a 

prayer 
VIII. idda'-a claim, pretend, sue 
da'' wa(:) , da'^aiwi claim, suit at law 

df; 



I. dafa*^, jidfa*^ (tr.), inf. daf' pay 

II. daffa'^ (tr.) make-to-pay 



dfn 
dafan, jidfin, inf. dafn 



bury 



VOCABULARY 



277 



dfj 



I. difi, jidfa 

II. daffa {tr.) 
V. iddaffa 
dafja:n 
dafa 



be warm 

warm 

warm oneself 

(feeling) warm 

warmth 



dqqjd??] 

I. da", jidu" {inf. da?') knock, 
work (gold) 
— {tr. and intr.) sound (bell) 

d k r (5) 

dakar, p. duku:r male 

dll 



I. dall.jidillC^ala) prove, indicate 
daliil, p. adilla proof 

dnj 

dani low ; mean 

comp. adna lowest ; least 

,, {fern.) dunja (id) the 
lower world, " here below " 

d w X 



I. da:x, jiduix be giddy, sea-sick 
d w r 



I. da:r, jidu:r go round 

II. dawwdr {tr.) turn round 
— "-ala search for 
IV. {notinpasttense) turn round, 

administer 
inf. idairct administration 

part. mudi:r administrator, Mudir 
imper. di:r ba:lak turn your 

mind, attend 

d w s 



I. da:s jidu:s {tr.), inf, do:s 

crush, trample on, run over 

d w q P] (6) 

I. da:', jidu:' {tr.) taste 

inf. doi' (zo:') taste (good taste) 



d j n 

I. dam, jidim, inf. de(:)numa 

judge, condemn 

djr 

de:r, p. adjurd monastery 

dajjaird • people of monastery 



ra'j 



opmion 



rbb 



rabb, p. drba:b Lord ; owner 

rbj 

II. rabba bring up ; educate 

inf. tdrbijja education, training 
rabaija bringing up 

rtb 

II. rattib {tr.), inf. tdrti:b 

arrange, set in order 

I. istdrga'' {tr.) ask to come, 

get back 

rg w 
I. raga, jdrgu'(i>'.) hope-from, beg 
' Borrowed from classical. 

r h m 
rafima 

r X s 
istdrxas {tr.) 



mercy 



demand-cheap 



r z q 



I. raza', jirzu' {tr.) provide for 
riz', p. drza:' provision, livelihood 



278 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



r z 1 (a) 



rdzirl, p. ruzala 
razada 



wicked 
wickedness 



rjd 



IV. 'arjad, inf. irja:d guide 

aright 



] 



I. ridi jirda be willing 

— ('■ala or '^an) give favour 

to, be pleased with 
inf. ride willingness, good 

favour 
IV. 'drds, jirdi {tr.) please 

inf. irds(:) 



rutuiba 



rtb 
moisture, damp, cold 
r'^b 



I. [for IV.) ra^ab, jir^ib 
part, mur'^ib 



terrify 
fearful 



] 



ra''a jir'^a {tr.) 
ra:''i, p. ru'^jam 



feed (animals) 
herdsman 



rgb 



I. ragab, jirgab 
rugba, p. -a:t 



rf f 



raff, p. rufu:f 



desire 
a desire 



shelf 



rfq^?] 
riP (bi) mercy, kindness (to, with) 

r q w P] 
I. {part.) rai'i elevated, advanced 

rqqP"] 

V. itra^'a, inf. tara'^i ascend, 

be promoted 



rkb 

I. rikib, jirkab ride 
inf. ruku:b a riding, being 

ridden 
rukuiba " mount " 

II. rakkab, inf. tdrkiib fix 

together 
VIII. irtakab {tr.) commit 

r k z 



mdrkaz, p. maraikiz centre, 

district, district-office, post 



rumma 
bi rummitu 



totality 
as a whole, entirely 



r m ] 
I. rama, jirmi {tr.) 

r n b 



throw down 



hare, rabbit 



dmab, p. drainib 

I. ra:g, jiru:g sell well 

II. rawwig {tr.) bring prosperity to 

r w h or r j h 

{pass, part.) mdrjuih 

possessed with a spirit 

I. ra:S go 

II. rawwah go away 

VII. inrajah become spirit- 

possessed 

VIII. irtaih be satisfied, take 

ease 
inf. irtijaih satisfaction 

Xa. istdrajjah rest 

ru:h, p. drwa:h spirit 

ruhami spiritual 

ruhijjari spiritually 



VOCABULARY 



279 



r w s or r j s {for r ? s) 

head 
sugar-loaf 



rais, p. ru:s 
— sukkdr 



r w m 



ar ruim 

ru:mi, p. arwa:m 



the Greeks 
Greek 



r w] 



I. rswa, jirwa have-thirst-slaked 
jirwi {tr.) water (tr.) 

I. {for IV.) raid, jiriid {tr.) 

wiU, wish 
willing, wUl 



inf. iraida 
ri:f, p. drjaif 



zibi:b 



country (opp. to 
" town " 



z 
zbb 

zh m 



currants 



I. zaham, jizhim {tr.) crowd on 
mazhu:m crowded 

zahma crowd, crush 



zr*; 



I. zard'', jizrd'' 
inf. zdr"^ 
zirei'^a 



plant, sow 
agriculture 



zgrt 



zdgrat 



shrill with joy 

z k r (8) 

zakdr, juzkur mention, 

perform the Zikr 
inf. zikr mentioning, Zikr 

V. itzakkdr {tr.) remember 



zala:l 



zimi:l, p. 



zU 



z ml 



sweet, fresh 



colleague 



z m m (8) 



I. zamm, jizimm censure 

zamiim blameworthy 

zimma honour, integrity 

z m j 



azma, p. -a:t (financial) crisis 

z wt 
za:t, p. azwa:t self, essence 

z w r 

I. za:r, jizuir, inf. zijaird visit 

II. zawwdr {tr.) cause to visit 
VII. inza:r have a [za:r] 

performed on one 

z h b (8) 

mazhab, mazaihib tenet, 

school of thought 

zhqP] 

I. zihi' or zuhu', jizha' (min) 

be sick of, get tir°d of 
inf. zaha.'^, adj. zah'^am 

II. zahha' {tr.) disgust 

s 
s?l 



sa'al, jis'al {tr.) ■ ask 

inf. su'ail, p. as'ila, su^alait 

question 
sa'al '■ala ask after 

ma jis'alj he doesn't care 

part. pass, mas'uil responsible 
mas'u(:)hjja responsibility 

mas'ala, p. masa:'il question, 

affair 



28o 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



sbb 



sabab, p. asbaib 
II. sabbib [tr., li) 



cause 
cause ... to 



s b t (9) 



I. sibit, jisbit be fixed 

I. (/or IV.) sabat, jisbit fix, prove 

II. sabbit fix, confirm 

sbh 



subham glory be .... ! 

s b q [s b ?] 

saba^ jisba? precede 

saba' {used adverbially) formerly 

sdd 



I. sadd, jisidd, inf. sadd 

fill up, stop 



s r r 



sirr, p. asra:r secret ; secret 

self ; mystery ; sacrament 



s r w (G) 



sr] 



saraqa 



s-^d 



wealth 



palace 



sa'^iid, p. su'^ada blessed, happy 
sa''a:da felicity 

sa'^adtak (-ttak) your Grace 



si*'r, p. as'^Qir 



s^j 



price 



I. sa'^a, jis'^a (fi) make effort, try 
inf. sa*^] effort 



s f r 



sifr, p. asfair 



book (of Bible) 



s qJP ] 
sa'a, jis'i {tr.) give drink to 

shb 



I. participles only : — 
act. SQihib, p. Gshaib 

companion, friend 
pass, mashuib (bi) possessor, 

accompanied (by) 
VI. itseihib (iss-). befriend- 

oneself (with) 

s 1 s {see tit; for Q\%) 

sa:lu:s Trinity 

II. Scdlis {tr.) declare to be a 

Trinity 
musaUas {jpart. pass.) trine 

slh 



sila:h, p. asliha arm(s) (military) 
slf 



II. saUif advance, lend 

VIII. istalaf {tr.) borrow 

slk 



I. silik, jisluk goon; behave; 
" go " ( = succeed) 



inf. sulu:k 



behaviour 



s 1 m 



II. saUim {tr.) deliver, surrender 

— bi admit 

— ""ala greet 
VIII. istalam {tr.) receive by 

deUvery 
sali:m sound 

s m h 



III. saimih {tr.) forgive 

inf. m'samha or simaih 

forgiveness 

X. istasmah {tr.) ask the for- 
giveness of 



VOCABULARY 



281 



s m s r 



simsair, p. samasrd 
s m "^ 



broker 



II. samma"^ {tr), inf. tasmi:'^ 

cause-to-hear 
samma:''a telephone-receiver 

s m m (9) 
summ, summa then, moreover 



I. simin, jisman be fat 
{subst.) samn fat 
{adj.) simi:n, p. suma:n fat 
N.B. samiin /row 9 m n precious 

smj 

II. samma, inf. tasmijja call, 

name 
— "lala say, the name of God 

over 

sn d ( = " support ") 
sanad, p. -a:t voucher 

shl 



I. sihil, jishal ("^ala) be easy (for) 
pari. sa:hil \ 



adj. sahl 



easy 



s w b (9) 



sawa:b charity, reward of charity 
s wh 



I. saih, jisuih travel about 

part, saijih,;^. su(i)wa:h\traveller, 
sawwaift, p. -i:n j tourist 



s ws 



I. sa:s, jisuis manage 

part. sa(:)jis groom 

inf. sijaisa diplomacy, politics 



s w q ['] 



I. sa:', jisu:? (tr.) 
sawwa:', p. -i:n 
su:?, p. Qswa:' 
sa:? 

sw j 



drive 

driver 

market 

trunk of tree 



I. sawa, jiswa (!!r.) be worth, 

equal to 
VIII. istawa be cooked, ripe, 

mature 
sawa together 

sawa sawa both (all) together 
sawan whether 



I. sa:r, jisiir 

inf. si:rd 
ga:b si:rit. . . 



walk, conduct 

oneself 
conduct 
bring. . .into 
the conversation 



s j 9 (/or s) 
saig., for eeig 



siiga 



sound ; current 
(gold), jewellry 



J 
Jbb 



young man 
young woman 



Jabb, p. Jubbam 
Jabba 

Jbh 

I. Jabah, jijbih similarity, 

resemble 

Jabah likeness 

V. itjabbah (bi) become like 

VIII. ijtabah (fi:) suspect 



Jrd 



I. Jared, jijrid 
V. irjdrrad 



be a runaway 
be a vagabond 



Jrr 



Jarr, p. Juruir 
Jirriir, p. ajrair 



evil (thing) 
evil (person) 



282 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



1^ 

part, majru:'', p. raajarii'^ or-a.it 

enterprise 

JrqP] 



Jdr? 
Jdr'i 



east 
oriental, eastern 



Jrj 



I. part, and aor. not used 
part. Jairi buyer 

inf. Jira buying 

VIII. ijtdra [tr.) buy 

part. pass, mujtdra {p. -ja:t) 

purchase (s) 

Jaitir, p. Juttair clever, cunning 

V. ijjattar C^ala) take advantage 

of, keep price up against 



r 



feel 
feeling 



I. Ja''ar, jij'^ur 
inf. Ju'^uir, p. -a:t 

111 
I. (but II. preferred) occupy, 

preoccupy 
part. majgu:l busy, preoccupied 
majg-ulijia busy-ness 

VIII. ijtdgdl work 

Jugl business, work 

majgala employment 



Jafa'a 



.ffqP] 



JqqP 



maja^a, p. -a:t 

I q i P] 



mercy 



trouble 



Ja'i, p. Ju'aj 
p. apija 



naughty 
wicked, criminal 



Jkl 



Jakl,^. ajkail sort, kind, condition 



Jms 

Jammais, p. Jamamsa deacon, 

acolyte 



Jam'^a 
Jam''ada:n 



Jm' 



Jml 



candle 
candle-stick 



I. Jamal, jijmil ('■ala) include 

part.^SLimU. inclusive, aU-embracing 



Janai'^a disgracefulness, vileness 

fhd 

Jihid, jijhad witness 

part. Jaihid, p. Juhuid a witness 
pi. Jawaihid proof-texts, 

references 
X. iftajhid (bi) cite 

Jahiid, p. Juhada martyr 

majhad, p. majaihid funeral- 
procession 

Jhw 

VIII. ijtaha (tr.) lust, long 

Jwr 

I. Ja:r C^ala), jiju:r advise 

III. Jaiwir (tr.) [or X.) consult 

IV. [inf.) ijaird, p. ijdrait 

signal, command 
VI. ij Jaiwir be consulted, 

consult together 

Jwt 

Jo:t [lit. " ramble ") " a spell " 

Jjx 

Je:x, p. Jujurx or majaijix 

sheikh ; tomb of sheikh 
Jeixd 



wise-woman 



IJ 



Je(:)?, p. 'ajja 



thing 



VOCABULARY 



283 







s 








s dr 




I. sadar 
masdar, 


, jisdur, inf. sudu:r 

take rise, issue forth 
p. masaidir origin, 

infinitive 






sdf 





sudfa, p. sudaf chance 

VI. itsa:dif, inf. tasa:duf 

it chanced 



e d q p] 



I. sada', jusdu' 

inf. sid' 

III. &a:di' '^ala 



tell truth 

truth (fulness) 

endorse 



shh 

eahh, jisahh be correct, right 

inf. sihha correctness, health 

sihhi healthy 

eshaih {j>. -a:t) chapter (of Bible) 

shf 



sahiifa, p. sahaijif or suhuf page 
s r h 



saraiha openness, plainness 

II. sarrdh (bi) say plainly 



sf f 



s r f 



spend 
tax- 
collector 
drain off 
drain 



I. saraf, jisrif 
earraif, p. -i:n ) 
sirri:f, p. sijdrfa / 

II. earraf, inf. tasri:f 
masraf, p. masairif 
V. issarraf fi: dispose freely of 
sirf behave, pure and simple 

sf h 

safah, jisfah C-an) pretermit, 

forgive 
inf. safh pretermission, forgive- 
ness 



saff, p. sufu:f 



row, class 



s-^b 



X. istas'^ab {tr.) C^ala) 

consider, difficult (for) 

s-^d 



I. sa'-ad, jus''ud, inf. su'-uid 

ascend 

sib 



I. salab, juslub, w/. sslb crucify 
saliib, p. sulbain cross 

slh 



sadih, good ; advantage 

II. sallah mend 

IV. aslaih, inf. islaih reform, 

amend 



san''a, p. sanaiji*^ craft, work 

sana(:)j''i, p. sanaj'-ijja workmen 



an f 

sanf, einf, p. asnaif 

s wb 



sort 



I. &e:b, jisirb be right 

sawaib right ; right reason 

— afflict, affect 

be afflicted 



VII. insarb 



II. sawwit 



e w t 



make a noise 



s w r 



V. issawwor, inf. tasawwdr 

imagine 
pass. part, mitsawwdr 

imagined, imaginable 



s wn 



suwwain 



marquee-tent 



284 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



S j d 

VIII. iste:d(/f.) hunt, proselytise 
se:d hunting, the chase 



I. &a:r, jisiir 



become 



s] r 

a 
dhk 



II. dahhak cause to laugh, amuse 
IV. [only in partic.) mudhik 

amusing, absurd 

dhj 



dehijja, /i. dshaija sacrifice 

II. dshha, inf. tedhijja [tr.) 

sacrifice 



didd 



ddd 



d r r 



I. derr, judurr {tr.) 
inf. darar 



d 1 m (8) 



dalma 



d m r 



dami:r, p. damaijir pronoun ; 

conscience 



d m n ( = include) 
min dimn 

dhd 



among 



VIII. idtahad, inf. idtihaid 

persecute 

I. da:'', jidi:'', inf. daja:"^ be lost 
JI. dajja'^ itr.) lose, causetobelost 

II. dajja"^ [ty.) lose 



tbb 



tibb 



art of medicine 



tbx 



I. tsbdx, jutbux {tr.) cook 
VII. intabdx be cooked 

^bqP] 

II. tabba' (z!r. "^ala) apply. .to 
inf. tatbi:? application 

III. ta:bi' consist with, 

correspond to 

tb"; 



I. taba"^, jitba"^, inf. tab"^ print 
bi_ttab'', tab'^an naturally 

tabii'^a, p. tabaiji'' nature 

tbl 



opposite-to 


tabla kettle-drum 




II. tabbil beat on drum 




I. tahan, jithan grind, mill 


m]ure 




injury 


t h n (to grind) 




tiSim flour 


darkness 


+ rti 



tarha, p. turah 



veil 



trf 



tarf , p. etraif end, edges, party 

trqP] 
tarii'a, /). taraiji' or turu' way 

I. tafaj, jitfaj 



escape 



tlb 



III. tadib {tr. with bi of the thing) 
demand of, dun 



VOCABULARY 



385 



II. t€iUa'^ take out, away ; 

" turn up " 

t lqP ] 

I. tetla?, jutlu' let free 

II. tella' divorce 
tela:? a divorce 

IV. Qtla', inf. itla:? leave 

absolutely free 
part. pass, mutla' absolute 

mutla'an or '^aPitla:-' absolutely 

t wh 



V. ittawwah fling oneself, totter 

t w q P] 

ta:?, p. -a:t fold, time 

te:', jiti:' {tr.) bear, find tolerable 
inf. tai'a ability 

t w 1 



II. tswwil prolong ; stay long 
tawwil ba:lak prolong your 

patience (mind) 
tu:lit bad patience 

tj b 
II. tsjjib {tr.) cure, do good to 

tair, jitiir fly, fly off, run away 

(horse) 



tjf 



tajfa, tewa:jif 



sect 



tin 



tim mud 

j izi:d it tim balla makes the mud 
wetter, i.e. make things worse 



z b t (S) 



I. zebat, juzbut {tr.) get exact ; 

arrest 
inf. zabt exact order 

part. act. za:bit of&cer 

part. pass. mazbu:t exact 

z 1 m (S) 

zalam, juzlum {tr.) be unjust to 
inf. zulm unfairness, injustice 



■■ibaida 



"^bd 
■^br 



worship 



II. '■abbdr C^an), inf. ta'^biir 

express 
VIII. i''tabar consider, honour 
pass. part. mu''tQbdr 

considerable, fine 

■^bt 



"■abiit, p. ''ubt or '■ubata idiot 

X. ista'^bat {tr.) call-an-idiot 



■■ataba 



''itir, ji'^tdr 



•^tb 



"^ t r (9) 



•^d- 



■■adu, p. a'^da(:) 

I. "^agab, ji'^gib {tr.) 



threshold 



stumble 



enemy 



please 



286 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



•^igiz, ji'-gaz to be feeble, blind, 

unable 
inf. "^agz feebleness, inability 

part. act. "^aigiz blind, unable 



'^aguiz, p. "-agaijiz 

gi 



"^agal 



<;dd 



aged 



speed 



I. "^add, ji'^idd count 

paH. ma'^duid limited 

V. if^addid, inf. ta'^addud 

be multiple 
X. ista'^add prepare 

inf. isti'^daid, p. -a:t 

preparation (s) 
•^adad, p. a'^daid number ; 

verse of Bible ( = ''a:ja) 
"^idda, ^. "^idad apparatus, machine 



<^adl 



■^dl 



"^dm 



justice 



"^adam absence of ; non-existence 

■^ d w 
VI. if-aida be mutually hostile 

"^rd 



VIII. i"; tared C^ala) 
inf. i'^tiraid, p. -a:t 

^rf 



object (to) 
objection 



I. "^irif, ji'^rsf [tr.) know 

VIII. i'-tdref (bi) confess 

X. ista'^raf (bi) get acquainted 

with 
"■urf usage, usual meaning 



!■] 



"-arjain 
II. '^drra 



naked 
strip 



•■azaib 



zb(a) 



zr(5) 



great pain 



I. '■azdr, ju'^zur {tr.) excuse 

part. ma''zu:r excused, excusable 
inf. ''uzr, p. a'^zair excuse 

VIII. ista'^zdr excuse oneself 



''izz 



height-of 



I. '^azam,ji'^zim(^?'.) invite, resolve 
inf. "^azm resolution 

part. ma''zu:m, p. ma'-aziim 

guest, invited out 
'^uzuima, p. '■azaijim party 

VII. in'^azam be invited 



z w 



II. "^azza, inf. ta'^zijja 
"^skr 



comfort 



soldier 



'^askari, p. "^asaikir 

"■ajam 

V. if^ajjim 

Hi 
"■ija late evening; evening-prayer 



hope, expectation 
hope 



^aja(:) 

II. ^ajja [tr.) 

V. it^ajja 



"■asr 

— p. ''usuir 



supper 

give supper to 

sup 



(late) afternoon 
age, epoch 



S] 



I. ''QSQ, ji''si [tr.) 
inf. ma''sija 
"■asaija 
''asa 



\ [P- ^usi I 
/ \'^usja:n / 



disobey 
disobedience 

stick 



VOCABULARY 



28y 



I. iplu. of part.) "^awaitif emotions 



II. ''attol {tr.), inf. ta'^ti:! spoil, 

waste time of 



Hi 

I. (/orlVO'^Qte, ji'^ti 
inf. ''Qta 
"^Qtijja, p. ''etQija 

'' z m 



give 

giving 

gift 



"■etziim, p. "^uzQim great, fine 

II. {inf.) ta''zi:m salute 

{lit. " magnif3dng ") 
V. if'azzQm magnify oneself, 

get stuck-up 
mu'^zam the greater part 



<;frt 



•^afriit, p. '^afariit 
if^afrat 



ghost, bogey 
be scared 



•Jfw 



I. "-afa, ji'^fi or ja'-fi pardon, 

exempt 
(m/.) il '■afw please don't 

mention it 

"^ q d ["^ ? d] 

VIII. i'^ta'ad believe 

w/. i''ti'ad conviction, article 

of faith 
'^u'-'aid bangles 

? q UW 1] 
<;a?l {p. <^u'u:l) 



ma'^'ud 



*Jaknin 



intellect, reason 
reasonable, rational 



•^ knn 



feel wretched 



Hi 

III. '■ailig manipulate, treat 

medically 
inf. m"^alga or "^ilaig treatment 

^ 1 q P ] 

''alar'a, p. -a:t or "^alaiji' 

connection 

Um 

I. "^ilim, ji'^lam (bi) know 

inf. ''ilm knowledge 

^. ''uluim branches of knowledge 
part, "^adim, p. ''ulama 

sheikh, savant 
V. if^allim (if.) learn 

mit''allim educated 

'' ala:ma, p. '■ alama:t mark, sign 
"■adam, p. -im world, universe 
"•ilmami lay, secular 

Un 



IV. 'a'' Ian {fr. and bi) publish, 

apprise 
inf. i''lam advertisement 



Ww 



I. "^ih, jiqa (<^ala) 
passive ji''la "^aleih 

II. ';alla(:) 
VI. ta-^ada 
"■Uaiwa '■ala 



rise (above) 
be tran- 
scended 
raise 
be exalted 
over and above 



V. if'ammdr increase in popu- 
lation 

•^ml 



I. '■amal, ji''mil (iy.) do 

III. "^aimii (tr) deal with, treat 
inf. m'amla treatment, dealing 
VII. in'^amal {f,t) be done 



288 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



"■ami (contd.) 



X. ista'^mil [tr.] 
inf. isti'-mail 



use 
usage 



n] 



VIII. i'^tana (bi) take care (of) 
ma''ana,/>.ma''a:ni sense, meaning 
ijmi''na what's the sense ? 

why on earth ? 
■^ahd, p. "^uhuid covenant 

"^hd 



I. [part, pass.) ma''hu:d 

familiarly known 

W'd 



I. "^aid, ji'^uid return 

I. {orig. IV.) ji''i:d repeat 

"■aida, p. '^a(:)da:t or '■awajid 

custom 
'^u:d, p. '^i(:)da:n stick of wood 



ws 



"■Qis, ji''u:s 



II. "^awwed {tr., U) make 

compensation for . . (to . . ) 
V. if-awwad get replaced 

•^wl 



II. "^awwil '■ala rely on, appeal to 

'' w n 



III. (part.) m=''^a:win Assistant 

(-Commissioner) 

'' wh 



•^aiha, p. -a.it physical defect 

•"Cib, p. "^ujuib fault, shame 

X. ista'^jab consider faulty, 

shameful 



<;i 



iJ 



V. if-ajjij (min) support oneself, 

Hve on 



'^ajjil, p. "^ija:! 



"■ajjma 



^jl 



jn 



child 



pattern 



grb 

gariib, p. gurb_guraba strange, 
stranger 
gari:ba, p. garaijib (a) wonder 

grbl 



garbil, inf. gsrbala 


sift 


911 




I- 9sII. JigiJI 


deceive 
deception 


gjm 




gdjiim, p. gujm 


inexperienced 


9li 





I- giJi- jigja faint 

{ad., or pass, with "^aleih) 
part. pass, mdgji '^aleih in a faint 

gtw 

gate cover, lid 

II. gatte, jigatti {tr.) cover 

111 
I. gafdr, jugfur forgive 

{tr. of thing ; li, of person) 
mdgfird forgiveness 



VOCABULARY 



28g 



ill 

I. gifil, jigfal dose, be headless 
gafla a dose, heedlessness 
"^ala gafla suddenly unawares 

II. gaffil call heedless, fooUsh 
fart. pass, m'gaffal fool, heedless 

olb 



I. golab, jiglib conquer 

passive gilib, jiglab be defeated 

inf. gulb defeat 

VII. ingalab be defeated 

gslbain miserable 

ill 
miglawaini putter-up-of-price 



gnm 



ganam 



sheep or goats 



an] 



I. gdna, jigni [for IV.) {tr.) 

enrich 

— [tr.) "^an enable, to do without 
gina richness, riches 

— "^an ability to do without 
gani, p. gunaj, dgnija rich 
— • '^an able to do without 
X. istdgna ''an dispense with 
ginja a song 

II. gonna sing 
for inf. gina, guna singing 

g w t 
gawiit, p. guwa:t deep 

gwj 

gaija, p. -a:t object, motive, 

arriere pensee 

■ gTb 

ge:b, jigi:b, inf. gijaib be absent 
il ge:b the Absent, i.e. Unseen 



II. gajjor {tr.) change 

inf. tdgjiir changing, a change 

91 g 

I. gaiz, jigi:z annoy 
inf. ge:z wrath 
VII. ingaiz be annoyed, angered 

f 
ftj 

II. fattij {tr.) search (a house 

or person) 
— "^ala search for, look for 

fgr 

faigir, p. fugga:r adulterer 

f tw 



fatwa legal decision 

IV. afta(i), inf. ifta(:) give a — 
X. istafta(:) {tr.) consult 



fht 



I. fahat, jifhat 



dig 



fhm 



f ahm (baladi) coal (charcoal) 

f xr 



VIII. iftdxar, inf. iftixa:r boast 
fdj 

I. fada, jifdi, inf. fida redeem 
fidja victim 

frd 



fdrd, fdrda single (of pair) 

frd 



farad, j if rid suppose 

— '■ala impose on 

fard, p. furuid supposition, 

ordinance 



290 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 







fr<; 


ar'^.p- 


furu:'' 


frfj 



branch 



fdrfij, inf. forfaja freshen up, 

revive 
itfdrfij, inf. taforfiij" be 

freshened up 
part, m'farfij freshened up, revived 



frq[?] 



far'a"; 



fasuix 



explode 



f sx 



kind of incense 



fsd 



I. fisid, jifsid iintr.), inf. fasaid 

be corrupt, spoiled 
fasad, jifsid (/or IV.) {tr.) corrupt 



fsh 
II. fass€Ji (kalaimu) 

fsl 



speak 
correctly 



III. fa:sil [tr.), inf. fisail 

bargain-with 
VII. infasol ('•an) be divided, 

separated (from) 
fasl, p. fusuil division, portion 



f dd 



I. fadd, jifudd 
VII. infadd 
fadda 



end off 

finish, be over 

silver 



fdl 

I. fidil.jifdal, remain, remain over 
fadla, p. fadlait surplus 

II. faddal {tr.) C^ala) prefer- (to) 

ftr 



I. fitir, jiftor breakfast 

fa(:)tu:ra, p. fawdtiir invoice 



fi^an 



fU 



fqrp] 



actually 



I. fi'ir, jiPdr (intr.) be poor 
inf. fu?r poverty 
fa' dr , j if? ir (ir . ,/oy I V. ) impoverish 

II. fa"dr nod sleepily 

fkr 



fakdr, jifkir {tr. and intr.) 

think, remember 
inf. fikr, p. afka:r thought 

fikrd a thought, suggestion 

VIII. iftakar {tr. or with fi:) 

think (of) 
part. pass, muftakdr memorable 



f kk 



I. fakk, jifukk 
inf. fakk 

f kh 

fukaiha (^. -a:t) 

flh 



undo, untie, 
take to bits 



anecdote 



I. falall or fUih, jiflah 
inf. fala:h 



prosper 



f nn 



fann, p. funum 
V. itfannin (fi) 



art or craft 
elaborate 



f n i ( = perish away) 

perishing 



I. {partic.) fa:ni 

fhm 



V. istafhim (min . . . '^an) 

enquire (of . . about) 
inf. istifhaim, p. -a:t enquiry(ies) 

f w q P] 

I. fa:', jifu:' {tr.) stirpass 

part. fa:ji' surpassing, 

transcendant 



VOCABULARY 



291 



IV. 'afaid {tr.), inf. ifa:da 

profit, inform 
X. istafaid (min) profit 

( = get profit) 
fajda, ^. fawaijid profit, 

information, edification 
afjad (comparat. o/mufiid) 

more or most useful 

fa(:)jiz, p. fawaijiz interest 

qP] 
qbh 

'abiih vUe 

X. {pass, part.) musta'bali 

detested, detestable 



qbd 



arrest 



I. 'ebad, ji'bQd C^ala) 
qbl 

I. 'ibil, ji'bal receive, accept 
inf. 'abuil acceptance 
III. ?a:bil, inf. m^'abla meet 
VI. it'aibil meet together 
X. ista'bU, inf. isti'bail receive 

visitors 
part, mista'bil future 

q d r 

II. ?adddr (tr.) determine, 

estimate 
V. it'addar be computed 

mi'dair, p. ma'adiir amount 

q ds 

?uddu:s Holy (God) 

'iddi:s, p. -im holy, saint 

qadarsa holiness 

II. 'addis sanctify 

pari. pass, mu'addas holy 



qdm 

II. 'addim (tr.) put forward, 

present 
V. it'addim go forward, progress 
?adi:m ancient, eternal 

qr b 

I. 'irib, ji'rab (li) be near, related 

II. -"drreb (min) draw near 

(tr.) bring near 

inf. ta'riiban nearly 

?ari:b 1 

5 .-■,,. J- near 

-"ursijib, p. -im j 

— adv. lately 

'ari:b, p. 'uraijib blood-relation 

qrr 

I. {for IV.) 'drr, ji'irr (bi) confess 
inf. i'rsir confession 

qrf 

'drsifa Moslem-cemetery 

qs m 

I. 'asam, ji'sim {tr.) divide 

'isma division 



'asa:wa 



?ijte 



q s w 

cruelty, hardness 

qjt 

cream 

q sd 

I. 'asad, ju'sud purpose, mean 
inf. 'asd purpose, meaning 

part. pass, ma'suid purpose, point 
'ueaid opposite, in front 

qsr 

'asr, p. ?usu:r palace, castle 

Lu'sur " The Palaces," Luxor 



qss 
III. 'a:sis, inf. 'isa:s 



punish 



292 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



qfl] 

VIII. i'tede imply, demand 

pass. part. mu''tada(:), 

p. mu'tadaja:t implication 
'adijja, p. 'adaija law-suit, affair 



q t r 



I. ?Qtar, ju^tur 



foUow up 



qt"^ 



VII. in'ate'' (li) be set entirely 

apart (for) 

qlb 

I. 'alab, ji'lib [or II.) overturn 
?alb, p. ?ulu:b inside, heart 



'al-^a (il) 



qn 



qll 



the Citadel 



q]S 



I. 'all, ji'iU be little, diminish 
?illa Httleness, absence (of) 

q nm 



uqnuim, p. aqaniim Person 

(of Trinity) 

qwl 

I. 'ad, ji'u:l, inf. 'oil say 

— "^ala tell of ; call 

VII. in'ail, it'a:l be said 

qwm 



I. 'aim (bi) perform ; consist of 
part. 'a(:)jim bi nafsu self- 
existent, independent 
ista'aim be upright 

inf. isti'aima integrity 

ma'a:m position 

'i:ma value, amount 



II. 'ajjid {tr.) 
V. it'ajjid 



qj d 

enter (in register) 
get entered 



I. 'a:s, ji'iis 




measure 


ma'a:s 


k 

k 


a measure 


ka [prep.) 

kama 

ka'inn 




hke, as 

Uke as 

as if 



kaman {for kama 'inn) likewise, 

also 



kabuid 



kabja ( = 



kbd 

hood of carriage 

kbj 



grasp ) 
k t r (6) 



handful 



I. kitir, jiktar be many, abound 
inf. kutr abundance 

II. kattdr [tr.) make-much, 

increase 

k d b (5) 

I. kidib, jikdib lie 

II. kaddib {tr.) give lie to, 

contradict 
ma kaddibj xabdr lost not a 

moment 



k r m 



kdram 



krh 



generosity 



I. kirih, jikrah, inf. kurh detest 
part, makruih unpraiseworthy 



r] 



I. kard, jikri 
VII. inkara 



hire 
be hired 



VOCABULARY 



293 



ksb 

I. kisib, jiksab gain, earn 

II. kassib {tr.) cause to profit 
maksab, makaisib profit(s) 

ksf 



I. kasafjiksif (<r.) make ashamed 
inf. kusu:f shame 

part. pass, maksuif ashamed 

VII. inkasaf get ashamed 



II. kajjdr 



kjr 



kjf 



frown 



I. kajaf, jikjif, inf. kajf uncover 
kajaf '■ala examine 

VIII. iktajaf, inf iktijaif {tr.) 

discover 

kfr 



kaffaird propitiation, atonement 
II. kaffdr ("^an) atone (for) 

kfj 

I. kafa, jikfi (tr.) suffice ; 

throw on to face 
VII. inkafa be thrown on to face 

klf 



II. kallif (tr.) cause-trouble-to 
inf. takliif trouble, ceremony 

kml 

II. kammil (tr.) perfect, 

supplement 
takmidi supplementary, 

useful-but-not-essential 



kahraba 



ka:r, p. -a:t 



khrb 

amber, electricity 
k wr 



trade, profession 



k wn 



I. kam, jiku:n, inf. ko:n be, exist 
kama biha weU ! let it be so 

il kom (inf.) the Universe 



kjf 



ke:f 
kefijja 



how ? how 
manner 



la 



.wala 



— (after vbs. of fearing) 

Ibb 
Hbba, p. libab 

lbs 



there is not 
neither. . .nor 
lest 



necklace 



I. libis, jilbis (tr.) put on ; 

possess (devil) 
Hbs {inf. and suhst.) dressing ; 

clothes 
malbuis possessed 

VIII. Utabas become possessed 



IbJ 



V. itlabbij 



I. latt, jiUtt 

lattait 

maltuit 



get confused 



Itt 



chatter 

chatterbox 

wordy, tedious 



IhqP] 

I. laha', jilha' reach, catch 

up, overtake 

Ixbt 



Idxbat, inf. Idxbata confuse. 

mess up 
itldxbat, inf. taldxbi:t get 

confused, make a mess 



294 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



II. laXQS 

inf. talxi.'s 



lazi:z 



I X s 



1 z z 



I'^b 



summanze 
summary 



interesting 



VI. {inf.) talai'^ub (bi) play 

about with 



lagmat 



Ig m t 



Itm 



smear 



I. latam, jiltem, inf. latm 
1ft 



slap 



VIII. iltafat (li) turn to, glance at 
Iff 



I. laff, jiHff [tr.) 
milaff 

II. laffif {tr.) 



go round, wrap 

turn, comer 

lead round 



Imh 

II. lammah(li) allude (indirectly) 
inf. talmiih {opp. o/tasriih) 

oblique allusion 



snatch 
snatch at 



tone, accent 





Ihf 


I. lahaf, jUhaf 
V. itlahhaf "Jala 




Ihg 


lahga 






1 wz 


loiz 






1 wm 



almonds 



I. la:m, jilu:m {tr.) blame 

pass. part, {by false analogy) 

mula:m blamed 
mala:m blame 



1 w n 
II. {pass, part.) m'lawwan 



coloured 



m 
ma(:) 



(i) ma interrogative what ? 

ma: lak what's the matter ? 
ma: lu wi li . . . what has 

he to do with . . . ? 

(2) ma negative not 

(3) ma prohibitive (do) not . . . 

(4) ma relative what, that which 

'ma: Ja 'Qiia:h (ma'jQHQ) 

what God willed 

(5) ma {for min ma) than what 

ahsan ma ka:n better 

than what it was 

(5) ma conjunctival 

(resulting from (4)) 
e.g. wa'tima when {lit. 

what time) 

(6) ma inter j actional (with subst.) 

ma (a)hla . . . how nice is ... ! 

(7) ma of interest why . . . ! 

e.g. m_ana ''a:rif why, I know 

(8) ma of command 

(resulting from (7)) just . . . ! 
ma_tru:h just go, do ! 

mihma(mahma) whatever, 

however much 



mt"; 

V. itmatta*; (bi) 

m d n 



enjoy 



V. {inf.) tamaddun civiUzation 

m d n (8) 

madna {originally ma'8ana) 
minaret {lit. " the place of 

giving leave " (for prayer) 



m r q [?] 



mara' 



gravy 



VOCABULARY 



295 



itmcinnag 



r 

mistika 



m s t k 



wallow 



gum-mastic 



m sh 



1 . masah, jimsah (tr.) clean wipe 
m s X 



I. masdx, jimsax, inf. masx 

transform (deform) 



m nn 



1. mann, jiminn ("^ala -bi) 

vouchsafe 
mamnum obliged 

m n j 



muna(:) a desire 

V. itmanna, inf. tamanni desire 



ma(:)hijja 



m h j 



m w t 



salary 



II. mawwit (<r.) put-to-death, kill 
majjit (p. -im) dead, corpse 

me:tam funeral-assembly 

m j z 

II. majjiz {tr. -"^an) 

distinguish (-from) 
V. itmajjiz be distinct, 

distinguished 



m j 1 

ma:l, jimi:l \ 
II. majjil / 
inf. me:l, p. amja:l 

m j n 



mi:na, p. mawaini or mijan 

harbour 



incline 
inclination 



n 
nbt 

nabait, p. -a:t plant 

nabbu:t, p. nababiit stave 

binnabbuit with utmost diiSculty 



nbh 



nabah, jinbah 



bark 



nbh 



II. nabbih (Ir.) notify 

inf. tanbiih notice, notification 
VIII. intabah (li) pay attention 



nita:ja 



ntj(e) 



ndb 



nadab, jindib, inf. nadb 
n d r 



female 



bewail 



I. naddr, jundur be rare 

part. na:dir rare 

/. nadrd, p. nawaidir "rarity," 
incident, awkward or amusing 

n d m 



I. nidim, jindam repeat 

nadiim boon-companion 



ndh 

I. nadah, jindah (li) 

n h w 



nahja, p. nawaihi 
n X s 



call (to) 
part, direct 



I. ndxds, junxus, inf. ndxs prick 

n z "^ 

I. naza"^, jinza"^ (tr.) take away 
III. naizi'' (tr,), inf. niza:"^, 

m^naz'^a strive-with 



296 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



n Z 1 

I. nizil, jinzil {tr.) descend 
inf. nuzu:l alight (j ourney) , reside 

II. nazzil (tr.) bring down 
tanzid reduction, inspiration 
VI. itnaizil C^&n) condescend 

(from), give up voluntarily 

n s b 



I. nasab, jinsib attribute 

inf. nisba attributing 

bi n nisba li in relation to, 

because of 
III. na:sib (tr.), inf. m'nasba suit 
bi mnasbit ... in connection 

with, on the occasion of 

n s X 



I. nasdx, jinsdx abrogate, copy 
inf. nasx abrogation, copying 

nusxa, p. nuscix copy 

I. najdr, junjur, inf. najr spread 

n Jr 
VIII. intajdr be broadcast 

njf 

I. nijif, jinjaf (intr.) dry up 

II. najjif (tr.) dry 

nfj(nP) 

naja (or IV. anja), jinji 

construct, compose 
inf. of IV. inja composition 

n s b 



I. nasab, junsub [tr.) erect 

n sh 



I. nasah, jinsah advise, exhort 
nasiiha, p. nasaijih exhortation 



n e r 

I. nasar, junsu:r (ir.) help to 

victory 

II. nassar (tr.) baptise, make 

Christian 
V. itnassar turn Christian 

nasrami, p. nasaird. Christian 

nsf 
IV. (inf.) insa:f equity 

n t q P] 
nata', juntu', inf. nut' utter 

n z r ( = see) 

I. netzar, junzur (fi) consider 

act. part, naizir head of 

department, school 
pass. part, manauir foreseen, 

expected 
nazar eyesight 

nezaran li considering 

III. na:zir [tr.) debate with 

(exchange- views-with) 
inf. m'nazrd 

VIII. intetzar [tr.) expect 

pass. part, muntazar expected 
naziir like, equal 

manzar, p. mdnaizir sight, view 

n g m 



nizaim system, order 

II. nazzetm, inf. tanzi:m organise 
V. itnazzam be organised 

VIII. inf. intizaim good order 

na'^ga {p. -a:t) she-goat 



n^J 



na^j 



bier 



VOCABULARY 



297 



n *■ m 



ni'^ma, p. ni'^am divine grace 

IV. an'^am('^ala..bi..) 

vouchsafe to. . .a thing 
pari, mun'^im, min'^im 

gracious (God) 

b f d (5) or n f z (9) 

I. nafad, jinfid go through 
pari. na:fid not a cul-de-sac 

II. naffiz [tr.) [cp. n f d) 

accomplish, put through 



f <; 



I. nafa"^, jinfa'^ 

II. naffa"; 
inf. naf^ 



](tr.) 
n q s (n ' s) 



benefit 
utility 



I. na'as, jin'as [tr.) be-lacking-to 
— [intr.) become less 

pari, nai'is lacking, defective, 

less, minus 
inf. na's lack, deficiency 

nqdj?) 

III.nai'ia(;y.) be contradictory of 

nqtP) 

nu^te, p. nu?at drop, point 

• — p. nu'uit contribution 

II. na^'ot {tr.) present 

(somebody) with [bi] 

nqiP] 

mixed dry fruit 
n q w P] 



nu'l 



II. na??a 



cleanse, choose 



nkt 



nukta, p. nukat 
nukati 



witticism 
a wit 



nkj 



I. nakaj", junkuj disorder, rumple 



nkf 

III. {inf.) m='nakfa chaffering 

n m z g 

numuizag, p. nama:zig 

pattern, ideal 



n m w 



VIII. intama (li) 

n wb 



belong to 



I. na:b, jinuib {tr.) fall to one's 

share 
partic. najib a share 

— '^an represent 

partic. najib, p. nuwwaib 

representative 

inf. nijaiba representation 

bi n nijaiba ("^an) representing 



n wh 



mana:ha 



lamentation 



n w "^ 
II. nawwa"^ {tr.) vary 

tanwi:"^ variety, complexity 

V. itnawwa"^, inf. tanawwu'^ 

be varied 



n w ] 



I. nawa, jinwi 
inf. nijja 



intend 
intention 



h 

hdj 

I. hada, jihdi {tr.), inf. 'huda 

guide -aright 
— {for IV.) {tr.) give pre sent to 
part, muhdi, inf. ihda 
hidi, jihda, inf. huduw {for hd') 
be quiet 

II. hadda {doubly tr.) give, 

present 
hadijja,/>.hada:ja(:) present, gift 



298 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



hrb 



I. harab, jihrab, inf. 


huru:b 




run away 


hlk 




J fhalak, jihlik [tr.) 
■\hilik, inf. hala:k 


destroy 
perish 


hm d 




I. himid, jihmad 


calm down 


h mm 





hamm, p. humu:m care, anxiety 
xawa:ga bi 1 hamm 

" a precious sort of gent " 
I. [for IV.) hamm, jihimm (tr.) 

interest, import 
part, muhimm important 

comparat. ahamm most do. 

nouv ahammijja importance 

VIII. ihtamm (bi) concern 

oneself (for) 



hn ds 



I. handis set out orderly 

part, m'handis architect, engineer 
m=handisxama Engineering 

School 
inf. handasa engineering 

handasi(:) geometrical, precise 



h w n 



I. {for IV.) ham, jihim [tr.) insult 
inf. ihama insult, dishonour 



hjg 

I. ha:g, jihi:g [intr.) 

II. hajjig (tr.) 



get excited 
excite 



wi 

(i) coordinating conjunction and 

(2) wi_ji and wa lau even if, ^ 

although 

(3) subordinating conj. as, since, 

when 

(4) preposition {only in woiia:., 'i 

wijja:) -with 

(5) preposition (in oaths) by ... ! 

wg b 

I. wagab, juigib ("^ala) be 

incumbent (on) 
part. (U) waigib duty 

X. istawgab necessitate, deserve 

w g d 

I. wagad, juigad find 

inf. wugurd existence 

part, mawguid existent, existing 
VII. inwagad (it-) exist, be found 

w g h 



wdgh \p. wugu:h or awgu:h 
wughaj (face), aspect 
giha direction, part 
min gihati for my part 




wh d 


wa:hid 


one ; a ; an 


il wa:hid 
II. wahhid 


one (French "on ") 
(tr.) caU or declare 


inf. tawhiid 
wihda 


God a unity 

declaring the \ 

Unity ; theology 

unite ; divine Unity 




w h j 



wahj plenary inspiration 

IV. awha C^ala. .bi. .) inspire 

(a person with . . ) 
part. pass. mu:ha (bi or '^ala.) 

inspired 



VOCABULARY 



299 



wd w 



II. wadda (tr.), inf. tawdijja 

cany, take, lead 

w r d 



I. wared, juirid arrive (letter), 

come in (income) 
part, wairid imported 

il wairid wi 1 masruif credit 

and debit 
IV. {inf.) i(:)ra:d income 

wr j 

II. , IV. wdrra, awrs show 

ware behind, " whip behind! " 



w s X 



II. wassdx (tr.) 



defile 



I. wasa'^, juisa"^ 

- iir.) 
VIII. ittasa': 



be spacious 

have room for 

expand 



w s ws 



waswis (tr.) whisper (to) 

inf. waswasa, p. wasaiwis whisper 

w s t {for s) 

wasta, p. wasaijit means, 

intermediary 

ws f 

I. wasaf, juisaf describe 

inf. wasf, p. awsaif description 
wasfa prescription, recipe 

verb, noun sifa, p. -a:t 

attribute, character 

w si 



II. wassal, inf. tawsid {tr.) conduct 



w t n 

watan native-country 

WQtani(j), p. ji:n native 

watanijja patriotism 

wdh 



II. waddeJi make clear, explain 
w d "^ 



I. wada*^, ju'.da'' or jiwda'', 

inf. wad'^ set down 
VI. itwaidi"-, inf. tawaidu'' 

be humble 

wz f 



waziifa, p. W€i2a:jif function, 

billet 

w '' d 



mi(:)''a:d {for miw'^aid), p. ma- 
wa''i:d appointment, time fixed 

w'' j 

I. wa'^a, ju:''a (h) be aware, 

take heed 
imp. ui'^a. beware ! look out ! 
part, wai'^i (h) aware of, 

conscious of 

w f r 



V. itwaffdr be economised ; 

be fulfilled 

w f q p] 



VIII. ittafa? 
inf. ittifa:', p. -a:t 


agree 
agreement 


wf j 




V. itwaffa 


die 


w q U?] 





I. wa'a"^ (wi'i*^), ju'a"^ fall, befal 
part, il wa'.'i'' fact 



300 



EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC 



w q f P] 

II. wa'-'af (tr.) cause to stand 
V. itwa'-'af brought himself 

up, stood stiU 
— "Jala depend on 



wl d 



I. walad, jiwlid or juiUd 

bring to birth 
inf. wila:da bringing-to-birth, 

birth 
„ mi(:)la:d birth, birthday 



'H 



II. waUa"; 



wilijja 
mawla(:) 



wl j 



kindle 



(female saint), woman 
Lord 



JaQ) 

ja O!, Ohi! 

ja (imma). .ja. . either. .or« 

ja tdra (or hantora) I wonder 



Prtntkd nv W. Hrffkr & Sons Ltd., Cambridge. England.