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AS 3 5 




Henrig W. Sage 


Aiio^n mpifi:.. 

Cornell University Library 
PJ 2533.E92 

Somall-Enallsh and EnaNsh-Somali dictio 

3 1924 026 888 820 





Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 












Paternosteu House, Chaeing Caosa Eoad. 

-^ P 


ST. John's house, olbreenwell, e.o. 


The few books published on the Somali language being in- 
sufficient for anyone wishing to learn it, we, in order to have a 
basis for a further and thorough study of it, have committed 
to print this Somali-English and English-Somali Dictionary, 
although it is not as yet perfect and complete. 

For writing Somali phonetically we have employed, firstly, 
the Eoman characters with their Latin pronunciation ; secondly, 
some signs used in the Syrian alphabet (S. J. Beyrouth) for the 
transliteration of Arabic into Eoman characters, and letter d, as 
explained in the following alphabetical table : — 

















as ch in 


( sh 

































as in English. 








ie 1 e-ay 








^ Sounded 




'ii' '00' 

(■ as with s 








) J 

i.rabio. 1 

The letters a, e, i, o, u, w, are vowels ; ai, ei, au, aw, ow are 


diphthongs; w, however, is only a vowel when following the 
letters a and o, forming with them the diphthongs aw and ow. 
All the other letters are consonants. 


Peonunciation of the Vowels. 
Simple Vowels. 

is either long or short : 

when long it is pronounced as in English " father." 

„ short „ „ „ "cat, mat." 


has the sound of a in such words as " face, space " ; but when 
this vowel stands before a consonant ending a syllable, it has 
nearly the sound of a in the word "care." Ex. ader, "paternal 
uncle," pronounced ah-dare. 

is either long or short. 

When long it is pronounced as i in " ravine." 

„ short „ „ " spin." 

When i is either preceded or followed by h, or when marked 

with ' ('i and 1') it has nearly the sound of e. 

is sounded like o in the word " tone," when it is long. 
„ „ ,, "Tom" „ short. 

Ex. sor, " food," pronounced sore ; kol, " time," pronounced holl. 


has the sound of oo in the word " pool" when long, and that of 
u in the word "pull" when short. Ex. giir, "marriage," pro- 
nounced goore; gur, "pick up," pronounced goor. When u is 
either preceded or followed by hard consonants, as h, h, it is 
sometimes pronounced nearly ^s u in " tusk." 

c ('ain) 

The Arabic guttural sound of c (the pronunciation of which 
can be learnt only from a native) being of frequent occurrence 
in the Somali language, the vowels a, e, i, o, u when having that 
sound are marked with a reversed comma ('), either on their 
right or their left, as shown in the table. 

Pronunciation q/ the Diphthongs. 


is pronounced by some as i in the word "Bible," and as ai in the 
word " paint " by others. 

In a few words these two letters must be sounded separately ; 
in that case the letter 1 will be marked with two dots (i). 


has the sound of ei in the English "feign." 

is sounded as ow in the word " cow." 

has the same sound as au, but is used to represent that sound 
in words where other vowels follow, and also in attributive verbs. 



This diplithong has a kind of hollow sound like that of oh-oo 
pronounced in an empty cask. 


is sounded as in English " baby," but more forcibly and with a 
sort of jj sound. 

has a clear and distinct sound as in the English " did." 


is the cerebral d of the Sanscrit. Some Somal pronounce this 
consonant nearly as rd in English " hard," " card " ; its proper 
pronunciation can be attained only by practice. There is, 
however, not very much difference between the pronunciation 
of d and d at the commencement and at the end of words. In 
pronouncing d the tongue is allowed to appear between the teeth, 
whereas to pronounce d the tongue must be somewhat curved 
against the front of the palate. 


as in English " for," " if." 


is invariably hard, as in English "gamble," "give," "get." 


is an aspirate strongly breathed out from the chest, like the 
Arabic 9- " ha." 



as in English " hare." 


represents the sounds of the three Arabic letters ?- (3 f • 
Most Somal pronounce any one of those sounds like the German 
ch as pronounced in Switzerland in the words "chirurg," 
" hochzeit," " loch," the guttural pronunciation not being the 
same everywhere. In order to avoid confusion and multipli- 
cation of sounds we have adopted this sign, although we know 
that nearly two-thirds of these words commence with the 
Arabic J. 

as in English " kite " ; it is interchangeable with g. 

as in English "jump," "lily." 

m, n 
as in English " mammon," " noon." 


This consonant is generally strongly sounded, like rr in 
" parrot." There are a few exceptions where it is sounded 
nearly as cerebral d. 

is a strong sibilant resembling ss in English " hiss." 

as in English " shore." 



is sounded as in English "tattoo," and is interchangeable with d. 


as in English " walk." 


as in English " yes," " York." In some words this letter is 
pronounced like th in the English " loathe." Ex. maya, "no," 
pronounced matha. 

The consonants p, v, and z do not exist in the Somali 
alphabet as separate letters, but their sounds have a reciprocal 
correspondence to those of the letters b, f b, and s^p to b, v to 
f and b, z to s. 

With a view to economize space, indefinite nouns to which 
either the definite article or the endings of indefinite plural is 
added, will be represented by the sign ( — ). When there is no 
possibility of confusion, the word at the head of an article is also 
represented by the sign ( — ) in the phrases and locutions ex- 
plained, as also in compound words formed from it by the addi- 
tion of a syllable, particle, or another word when they follow in 
the same paragraph. 

In Somali, for a great number of nouns, the gender is quite 
arbitrary, as in French, aild can be known only by the definite 
singular article ; therefore, with each noun, except with those 
ending in o (which are mostly of feminine gender, and in taking 
the article di change final o into a), we indicate the article, as 
wil, m.n., " a boy," — ki. gabad, f.71., " a girl," — di. 


Polysyllabic or dissyllabic nouns ending with a con'sonant 
generally form their indefinite plural by adding o ; those ending 
in i by adding yo ; those ending in a, ai, and eh by adding yal ; 
feminine monosyllabic nouns by adding o ; and dissyllabic or 
polysyllabic feminine nouns ending in o by adding in. Mas- 
culine monosyllabic nouns form their plural by repeating the 
final consonant preceded by the vowel a. Ex. der, " gazelle " ; 
derar, "gazelles." 

For all nouns not following the rules given above, the d^f. 
art. and ]jlur. will be indicated thus : 

gabad,/.w., "a girl"; — di, gabdo (plur.) 
ilig, m.n., " a tooth " ; — gi, ilko (plur.) 

The root or simplest form of the Somali verb being the second 
person singular of the imperative, all the verbs will be given 
in that form, to which we add the forms of the second person 
plural of the imperative and that of the aorist when they are 
not regularly formed according to the abridged rules below ; for 
from these three forms the other principal tenses of the verb 
may be formed by the addition of terminations [see Gram.). 


1st. Verbs ending with a consonant generally form the 
second person plural of the imperative by adding a, and the 
aorist by adding i, to the root. 

Ex. abur, " create," " produce (thou) " ; —a, " create (ye 
or you) " ; wan — i, " I will create." 


2nd. Verbs ending in i, ai, ei, form the second person plural of 
the imperative by adding ya to the root, and the aorist by 
adding n. 

Ex. badi, " increase " ; — ya, " increase (ye or you) " ; wan 
— n, " I will increase." 
adai, " clean " ; — ya, " clean (ye or you) " ; wan — n, 
" I will clean." 

3rd. Verbs ending in o, aw, ow, form the second person plural 
of imperative in ada, and the aorist in an. 

Ex. hubso, "meditate"; hubsada, "meditate (ye or you)"; 
wan hubsan, " I vcill meditate." 
wanaksanaw, " be (thou) good " ; wanaksanada, " be 
(ye or you) good " ; wan wanaksanan, " I will 
be good." 
humow, " be (thou) bad '' ; humada, " be (ye or you) 
bad " ; wan human, " I will be bad." 

N.B. Exceptions to the above rules will be indicated as 
follows : — i.e., the whole word given when there is any change 
in the root, and the root represented by the sign ( — ) when 
there is none. 

Ex. tag, " go " ; — a ; wan tegi. 

madow, " be black " ; — ba ; wan — bi. 
sido, " take and carry " ; sita ; wan sidan. 
dahamow, " be chilly " ; dahamoda ; wan dahamon. 
'ai, "curse," "abuse"; —a, or 'aitama; wan 'ai. 

Somals have taken a great number of words from the Arabic. 
These words they use with their own article, particles, and pro- 
nouns as real Somali words. Ex. albab, " the door " in Arabic 


is used by Somals in this way: albab, "a door"; albabyo, 
"doors"; albabki, "the door "; albabyadi, "the doors." They 
do the same with any words which they adopt from other 

The character of the Somali language being so very different 
from that of the English, we give one or more examples in 
the case of words which present some difficulty. 

Article, demonstrative and possessive adjectives and pro- 
nouns, personal pronouns, and particles are given at the com- 
mencement of their appropriate letters. 

Somali is an accentuated language. As for its pronunciatipn 
it is of great importance to know, upon what vowel or syllable 
the stress of the voice is to be laid, we mark those vowels with 
an accent ('). Vowels which of themselves are long are 
marked with the sign (—). As a general rule the accent falls 
on the penultimate syllable ; consequently words which follow 
this rule are not marked. 

The Somali words are here given as they are used and pro- 
nounced in Berberah. We indicate first the root or chief word, 
and afterwards the derivatives, without paying any attention 
to alphabetical sequence ; and this in order to facilitate the 
study of the language. In the Alphabetical Table the letter k 
immediately follows h, because their sounds are nearly alike. 

We give in a Supplement the new Somali words used in 
the English-Somali part, because we have found them after 
having sent the Somali-English part to press. 

For some words in very common use, we have given as many 
sentences as possible, that the student may be able to find out 
either what word or sentence he has to use for expressing his idea. 



. def. 

Pronoun reflexive . . . 



. indef. 

„ relative... 

.. p.rel. 




.. V. 



„ transitive . . . 




„ intransitive . . . 




„ passive 

.. v.p. 



„ causative 

.. v.c. 


. sing. 

„ reflexive 

.. v.r. 



,, attributive ... 

.. v.att. 


. a. 

„ impersonal ... 

.. v.imp. 

,, possessive 

. a. p. 

„ defective 

.. v.def. 

,, demonstrative 



.. adv. 

,, verbal 

. a.v. 


.. prp. 

Numeral cardinal 



.. conj. 

,, ordinal 

. n.o. 


.. int. 

„ indefinite 

. n.i. 


.. part. 

,, distributive .. 

. n.d. 

„ interrogative 


. prn. 

„ negative ... 

. .part.neg 

,, personal 

. p.pers. 


... aff. 

„ demonstrative 



... eh. 

„ possessive 

. pos.prn. 


... gram. 

„ interrogative . 

. int. prn. 


... see. 


Part I. — Somali-English. 


1 Bead anign, adigu, ainu, instead of auigo, adigo, aino. 
3 „ abud, instead of abud. 

3 Under 'ad, read 'ad'ad, 'ad'adki, instead of 'adad, 'adadki. 
5 ,, afimad, read ba wa ladnabai, instead of ba wa lad- 

7 „ 'ala'al, read 'ala'alkisi bu i siyai, instead of 'ala'al- 

kisi bu i syiai. 
10 ,, ardab, the article must be — gi, instead of — hi. 

22 „ bobun, read nef an, instead of nefan, 

25 „ dabbalo, read wan dabbalan, instead of wan dabbahan. 

30 „ danan, read far£(ska danana, instead of faraska danan. 

35 Bead digrin, instead of di grin. 
47 Under fofi, read holihi ban so fofiyai, instead of holihi ban 

so fofai. 
51 „ so gelis, read wilka so geliskisu, instead of wilka so 

gelis kisu. 
57 Bead gududonni, instead of gududouni. 
63 Under hal, read wa rttn o wah bun ban kugu falai, lakin 
iminka hal ban ka sinaya, instead of wa rnn o 
wah hun ban kugu falaiyai, lakin iminka hal 
ban ka siyai. 
63 Bead haUau, instead of hallan. 

67 In the examples given under hebel, read 'unai, instead of unai. 
71 For hog,, 'extort,' read hog, instead of hog. 


74 In the examples given under habo, read i la habo, instead of 
ila babo. 

76 Under haib, ad., ' well,' read ' tell me, him, us, all well,' in- 

stead of ' tell me, him, us, all is well.' 

77 „ hamis, f.n., ' Thursday,' read hamista dambe, instead 

of hamista dambe. 
81 „ horin, read inanka horinkisu ..., instead of inanka 

fartisu .... 
83 ,, ma karo, read hadi kari wah, instead of hudi kari 

86 ,, kibis, read kibis habow, instead of kibis habow. 

90 „ idlow, read dauga Bulahar ..., instead of danga Bu- 

lahar .... 

91 Eead ka 'il hel, instead of ka 'il bel, 

96 Under jer, 'time,' read sadeh jer, instead of sadehjer. 
98 Eead kaga jirihi, instead of kaga jirihi. 
102 Under ma'anaiso, read sunkorta hawahha ku ma'anaiso, in- 
stead of sunkorta hawahha knma'auaiso. 
105 „ malin, read malintan todobadkeda, instead of malin- 

tau todobad keda. 

105 Bead manto leili, instead of manto laili. 

106 Under mari, read darka birrta marl, instead of darka birrta, 

'iron the clothes.' 
113 Bead nolan, instead of nolau. 
1 27 Under sibrar, read shagul, instead of chagul. 
133 „ tiri, read mid mid u, instead of midmidu. 

139 Bead la wah, instead of lah wah. 
143 ,, wetrweir, instead of weiweir. 


Part. II. — English-Somali. 

Careful as we have been in revising the proofs, there are nevertheless 
some words not quite correct, especially in the use of the letters d or 
d, and h., h, h, and sometimes the sign ' before the vowels. But the 
reader will, either by the help of the Dictionary itself or by the 
context, easily detect these mistakes. 

Here, therefore, we give only the most important corrections. 


150 Under about, read sidi hore lo yidi, instead of ... idi. 

151 ,, absolutely, read haib, instead of haib. 

154 „ aftm; read beri dambe, instead of beri beri dambe. 

155 ,, alive, read nol, jira, instead of nol jira. 

156 „ altar, read madbah, instead of masbah. 

157 ,, awMse, read jalbebo, — bebta, instead of jalbebo, bebta, 

158 „ approach, read u — , ku dowai, instead of u ku dowai. 
160 ,, as, read sidu u hodmai, instead of ... odmai. 

160 „ asleep, read badna wa so jedai, instead of ba dna .... 

165 „ harh, read mai'dah, instead of maidah. 

168 „ Serae^cewi, read' deb badan, instead of deh badan. 

173 ,, breali, read ka dangalahsi instead of dangalasM. 

175 „ broiose, read adigi wa ..., instead of adigi .... 

175 „ bucMe, read hadabo, instead of hadabo. 

175 „ bugalow, read hanjad, instead of hanyad. 

178 „ care, read ilali, jir, instead of ilali jir. 

180 „ cheat, read h (hayano), instead of h. 

182 „ clamour, read sawahan, instead of sawahan. 

185 „ commit, read shubulkas adan kugu, instead of . . . hugu. 

193 „ deprive, read da'anaw, ba laga feado, instead of da'anaw 
ha laga .... 


194 Under difference, read maha idin dehaiya, instead of ... dehaiga. 

196 ,, dog, do not read hymna alone, but liymna dog. 

199 „ earth, read if, — ki, instead of 11, — ki. 

206 „ flm, read maskahdenu, instead of mas ka'denu. 

216 „ go, read hagga u ka', instead of hagga' u ka'. 

225 „ hunger, read hahad, instead of harhad. 

227 ,, inhospitability, read marti hadis, instead of morti .... 

229 „ issued, read bah, instead of bah. 

232 „ law, read haul, instead, of haul. 

237 „ male, read hod, — di, instead of hododi. 

241 „ mystification, read luggoyo, instead of uggoyo. 

246 ,, participate, read haibso, instead of haibso. 

249 „ plain, read mel wasa'ah, doho, instead of . . . wasa'ah doho. 

253 „ ;proverh, read mahmah, instead of mahmah. 

254 „ race, read holo, instead of holo. 

272 „ straight, read hiyas and humi, instead of hiyas, humi. 

Part I. 




a,, the, {aff.) used with its 

ib, ad., this, that, {aff.) used with 

its support. 
^i «/'•> pointing out indefinite- 
, ness. 
ai, a, aya (ayo), a.p., my, thy, 

ours (aff.). 
an (ana), ani, aniga (anigo), 

p.pers., I or me. 
ad (ada), adi, adiga (adigo), 

p.pers., thou or thee. 
ai, p.pers., she and they. 
anno (aino), annaga, p.pers., we 

or us. 
aidin, or adin, p.pers., you (»/".). 
a'al, orahal, /.ra., slime or viscous 

matter mixed with blood (in 

dysentery). — sM. 
'ab,, drink (this verb is used 

for any liquid except milk. 

co£Fee, and broth); biyaha 'ab, 

drink water ; dawada 'ab, 

drink the medicine ; biyo 'ab 

hamri iss ka da, drink water 

and not wine ; biyaha la 'ab, 

the water is drunk. 

'absi, v.c, cause or give to drink ; 
i 'absi, make me or give me to 

'abad, m.n., camel's grunting 
(while its burden is fastened 
on). — ki; aur 'abadked ma 
je'li, I do not like the camel's 

abah, m.n., time of birth.— hi; 
hasM nerig bai abahha kn 
dashai or dalatai, the she- 
camel brought forth her young 

abaho, f.n., coupling of camels. 

abah, m.n., lean animal. — hi ; 
aurkasi wa geli abahah, that 
camel is lean. 

abah, v.i., be lean ; wu abihi, he 
will be lean, 

abihi, v.c, cause to be lean. 

'abai,, load a gun ; bunduha 
'abai, load the gun. 

abal, m.n., gratitude, acknow- 
ledgment, remuneration, re- 
quital. — ki; abalka an ku (p7. 
idin) habo or haiyo weligi wu 
jiri, my gratitude for you will 
last for ever; hadiyadda an ku 
so diro wa abalkan ku haba 



6r haiya, the gift I send you 
is an acknowledgment ; wa 
abalka, it is your requital ; 
abal u hab, be grateful ; abal 
ban ad ugu habai or abal ada 
y an u habai, I was very grateful 
to liim; wahhasi wa abalkai, 
it is for my gratitude. 

abalgiid, m.n., reward. — ki. 

(u) abalgud,, reward ; i 
abalgfud, reward me ; wan ku 
abalsrudai, I rewarded you. 

abilg'udi,, reward (only used 
by some, especially by people 
"trom the west). 

abalgudah or abalgadleh, a., 

abalmari,,'be grateful, thank, 
reward.— ya or abalmarsha, 
wan — n; aniga abbaha abal- 
mariyai, I was grateful to the 

abar, f.n., drought, sterility, 
famine. — ti ; bilad somalied 
abar ba ka da'dai or bilad 
somalied o dami abar wa 
lehyahai, there is everywhere 
drought in the Somali country ; 
wa abar, there is famine ; 
abarta mesbas ka da'dai ad 
ba lo ogyahai, the sterility of 
that place is well known. 

abar,, famish, kill, starve. 

abba, m.n., father. — hi ; aiya 
abba, or abbai, or abbo ! my 

abban, m.n.f friend, protector, 
guide, condtictor. — ki; (guest 
and host are abban;) abban 
£ulai, m.7i., chief, leader. 

abbanso, v.r., become friend 
witli ; ninkas abbanso, put 
yourself under the protection 
of that man, or become friend 
with that man. 

'abbar, m.n., moment, short time, 
a while. — ki; 'abbar jog, wait 
a moment ; 'abbar la hadso, 
sit a moment with him. 

abeiso, f.n., kind of (short) 
jioisonous snake. 

abguri, f.n., kind of (large) 
poisonous snake. — di, 

abhad, f.n., small box made with 
the bark of trees tacked to- 
gether. — di, 

abhi, v.i., preach, scold. 

abho, f.n., fruit of a thorny tree 
called huda', of which sheep 
and goats are very fond. 

abid and abki, ad., never (these 
words are never employed alone 
as given, but inflected according 
to the person speaking orspoken 
of (s. gram.). 

abodi, m.n., large bird of prey, 
having a red beak and red 
lejjs. — gi 

abor, m.n., Bpeoies of white ants 
making their hills or houses in 
the desert. — ki. 

'absi, f.n., fear, danger, peril, un- 
safety. — di. 

'absi,, frighten, deter, 

'abso, v.i., be afraid or frightened. 
— da, wan — n. 

'absila, a., fearless, without 

'absileh, a., dangerous, perilous; 



war ! mel 'absileh ina gei, 

take us to a dangerous place. 

abti, m.n., maternal uncle. — gi ; 
or lioyada walalked, the 
mother's brother. 

abtiri, v.i., give the genealogy. 

abtirso, v.i., give your genealogy. 

abtirsinyo, m.n., genealogy. — M; 
'Issa abtirsiuyiMsi, the genea- 
logy of Jesus. 

•abud,, adore ; ha lagu 
'abudo, be thou adored. 

'abudnin, f.n., adoration, worship, 
— ti. 

abud,, shut, close (employed 
lor small boxes), cork a bottle ; 
abhadda abud, shut or close 
the box ; haruradda abud. 

'abud,, sufibcate ('abudi is 
also used by some). 

'abudan, v.p., be suffocated ; 
'abudma, wan 'abudmi. 

abur, m. or f.n., behaviour, con- 
duct, temper. — ^ki or — ti; 
aburkisu wa side? how dees 
he behave 1 aburkisu wa sida, 
he behaves so ; abur fi'an, 
good temper ; abur huu, bad 

abur,, produce, create. 

aburan, v.p., be produced, created; 
aburma, wan abtirmi, wan a- 
burmai, I was created. 

abureh, m.n., creator. — M. 

aburan, m.n., creation. — ki; a- 
bumin. — ti, f.n., is also used. 

abiiran, a.v., created ; wah a- 
bUran, a created thing. 

ad, a. and ad., well, nioej good, 
loud, strong (this word is an 

adverb when u is added to it. 
Ex. kitabkas wa ad, that book 
is nice ; ad u tol, sew well ; 
ad u hadal, speak well or 
loudly ; ad u adkai, make it 
strongly ;• ad u dis, build welL 

'ad, m.n., piece of meat, flesh. 
— ki (the plural 'adad is not 
used by all) ; 'adki i dib, give 
me the piece of meat ; 'adki i 
wada ken or 'adadki i ken, 
bring me the pieces of meat. 

'ad, a., white. 

'adai,, brighten, clean, polish, 

'adan, m. and /.«., whiteness, 
fairness. — ki or — ti. 

'adaw, v.att., be, become white 
(no imperative) ; wan 'adan. 
(When this verb is used in the 
imperative it is a kind of 

'adaisnaw, v.att., remain or be 
white, clean ; distigu wa 
'adaisanyahai, the kettle is 
ni.ide white or cleansed. 

maro 'adaisan, clean linen. 

'adaisnan, fn., cleanliness. — ti. 

'adab, f.n., hell. — ti. ; 'adab yar, 

dab 'adabed, m.n., hell fire. — ki. 

'adab or 'adib,, torment, 
torture; 'adab means also con- 
demn to hell. 

'adad, fn., kind of acacia tree 
with stiff and bended .thornsy 
gum-tree. — di. 

adad, m.n., excresence of flesh in 
a sore. — ki. 





'adadi, m.«., cash (of brass money). 

— gi- 

'adadi,, press. (In tiie jungle 
Somals, when making their en- 
closure or fence round their 
huts, press together the trees 
cut for that purpose, in order 
that the branches may be 
straight, so as to form a close 
and tough hedge.) 

'adadis, m.n., pressing. — ki. 

adag, a., dear (price), fast^ firm, 
hard, strong, light, tough, per- 
manent. (This word is used for 
things only.) 

adkai,, fasten, strengthen, 
tighten, make strong. 

ha lagu adka, v.p., be fastened. 

adkaw, v.att., be firm, strong, 

ka adkaw, v.a., overcome him, 
her; ka adka, he overcomes, 
overcame him ; ka adkatai, 
she overcomes, overcame ; wa 
laga adka, adkadai, he, she is 

adah., f.n., spine or backbone 
ridge. — di. 

adai, m.n., arak tree (Capparis so- 
data), small stick used by So- 
mals for cleaning their teeth. — gi. 


'adanyo, f.n., itching, irritation. 

'adanyo or 'adanyod, v.i., have an 
itching. — da, wan — n. 

'adar, m.n., wandering clouds. — ki. 

'adar, m.m., haziness, hazy weather, 
drizzling rain. — ki (no plur.) ; 
'adar da, it drizzles or drizzling 
rain is falling. 

adar, m.n., earthen pot with two 
handles in which food is cooked. 
— ki. 

'addo, f.n., itch, nettle-rash. 

'addo, /.«., moonlight (no plur.). 

'ad'ed, /.«., rays of the sun, sun. 
— di; eg! 'ad'eddi da'dai, 
look! the sun is setting; war! 
'ad'eddi so bahdai, iaa keua, 
mesha ka so'onai, the rays of 
the sun appear, let us go away 
from the place. — di. 

ader, m.n., paternal uncle. — ki. 

aderyo, /.«., female koodoo ante- 
lope {Utrepsieeros imberbis). 

aderyo 'ari, lesser koodoo antelope 
(used for both genders). 

N.B. Somals generally make 
no difference between aderyo 
and aderyo 'ari. They call 
the males godir, and the females 

adi, m.n., goats and sheep (herd 
of).— gi. 

adi hal, m.n., butcher. — ki. 

adi jir, m.n., shepherd.^ — ki. 

adin, m.n., limb, member. — ki. 

adin,, call to prayer ; adima, 
wan adimi. 

adimad, f.n., calling to the prayer. 
— di. 

'ado,/.M., anger, indignation, rage, 
wrath (no plur.). 

'ado, v.i., rage. — da, wan — n. 

u 'ado,, rage against. 

'adaisan, a.v., angry. 

'adaisnaw, v.att., be angry. 

'adaisi, with ka, v.c, provoke, 
make him angry, enrage. 

adon, m.n., negro, slave.— ki. 



adon, f.n., negress, slave, concu- 
bine. — ti, 

'adow, a. and m.n., cruel, ia- 

'adownimo, f.n., cruelty (no plur.). 

af, m.n., mouth, language, dialect, 
edge. — ki. 

afayen, m.n., interpreter. 

af badan, a., sharp ; mindi af 
badan, a sharp knife. 

af badnan, _/!«., sharpness. — ti. 

af daran, «., blunt; miadidi afka 
daraid i ken, bring me the blunt 

af daran, f.n., bluntness. — ti. 

afdub,, close the mouth, gag: 

afdub, m.n., closing of the mouth 
to prevent a man from crying 
out when they rob his cattle 
and sheep. — ki ; ninkas afdub- 
kisi mid ad u aha, the gagging 
of that man was good. 

af'eli,, interpret (this verb is 
used with uga, ka, or u ka la); 
wan u ka la af'elin, I interpret 
or I will interpret. 

af'elis, m.n., interpreter. — ki, yo. 

afhnii, a., insolent. 

aftiro,, wipe your lips ; af- 
tirta, wan aftiran. Somals also 
use aftiro for "take some 
afyahan, m.n. and a., eloquent, 
eloquent man, tame. — ki; aniga 
afyahan miihi, I am not elo- 
quent, O'- not an eloquent man ; 
faras afyahan, a tame horse ; 
dlnnad aftahan, a tame cat ; 
dinnaddi afkatihin, the tame 

afarr, n.c, four. — ti; afarr nagod, 
four women. 

afarrtan, n.c, forty. — ki. 

a&ad, W.C.O., fourth; ki a&ad(m.), 
the fourth. 

afarr iyo tobnad, n.c.o., four- 
teenth, a fortnight ; afarr iyo 
tobnadki, the fortnight. 

'affi,, forgive, pardon. 

'affi, m.n., forgiveness, pardon. — 
gi. . 

war ! iss 'afSya, v.r., pardon each 
other {plur.) 

afimad, m.n., health. — ki; ma 
afimad habta ? are you in good 
health? ha wa laduahai, ye-s 
I am. 

afimad, v.i., be in health. 

afo, f.n., woman, lady; afada 
serkalka, the wife of the go- 

afuf,, blow (with the mouth). 

afar, m.n., a small meal taken at 
about six o'clock in the even- 
ing during the time of fasting, 
while the muezzin is calling 
Mussulmans to prayer. The 
other meal, taken from 12 p.m. 
to 4 a.m. is called suhur. 

afur, v.i., breakfast (take your 

afuro, f.n., breakfast, 

'ag, f.n., foot. — ti. 

'agta'ad, f.n., foot-sole; agti 'a- 
daid, the sole of the foot. 

ag, ad., near (this word is never 
used alone) ; agta, agtaida ka- 
lai, come near (me) ; agtisi 
tag, go near (to him). 

agan, f.n., bark vessel (shaped 



like a double cone, and pro- 
tected by a light framework of 
wood called sab). — ti. 

agon, m.n., orphan boy. — ki (the 
}/lur. for both sexes is agonadi). 

ag5n, /.«., orphan girl. — ti (this 
word is also used for both 
sexes) ; Berberah agonadu wa 
ku badanyihin, or Berberah 
agontu wa ku badantahai, or 
war ! Berber! wa agon badan- 
tahai, there are many orphans 
in Berberah. 

ah, (;root) v., he (often used as an 
affix; scarcely ever alone). 

ahaw, v.i.fhe; ahada, wan ahan. 

La ahato, or ha ahatai e, loc 
meaning nevertheless, never 
mind, be it so. 

ahad, f.n., Sunday. — di. 

ahan, m.n., gift left, bequest. — 

ahdi, m.n., oath, swearing, al- 
liance, treaty made by an oath. 
— gi ; ahdi Ebbahai inan ka 
kausin, 1 swear by God that I 
will kill you. 

ahdi,, swear, make a treaty, 
an alliance grounded upon an 
oath ; wa la iss ahdiyai o 
dagal ma jiro, I made a treaty 
that we may not fight ; kal 
here yainu iss ahdinai lakin 
ahdigi wa adigi beinaiyai, last 
year we made a treaty, but you 
perjured yourself, or you did 
not remain faithful to it. 

ahal, m.n., house, dwelling, room, 
home. — ki. 

ahal horti, m.n. fa9ade, house- 

front. — ki ; ahalka hortisi bai 
jogan, or wa ku joga, they are 
before, or in front of, the 

ahbal, or ka ahbal,, accept, 
listen to, receive (in addressing 
ourselves to God); Ilahow naga 
ahbal, O God, hear us ; Ilahhai 
dua'daida ha iga ahbalo, or 
dua'daida Ilah ha iga ahbalo, 
may God hear our prayers. 

ahbal, with kaga,, kill ; 
ninki kaga ahbal, kill the man 
(used especially in quarrelling 
and fighting). 

ahil, m.n., Somali chief, sage, 
respectable man. — ki ; ahilki 
Sarin yan arkai shalai, yester- 
day I saw the chief of Karara ; 
ahilo, or uhul, or uhal are also 
used. — ki; — shi; — shi. 

ahir, f.n., end. — ti. 

ahli, m.n., intellect, understand- 
ing, wit. — gi. 

ahri,, read. — ya, wan — ^yi. 

'ai, f.n., cursingj abuse. — di. 

'aiah, a.e., cursed; eraigi <ai'da- 
aha, the cursed word. 

'ai,, curse, abuse. — a, wan 'ai', 
wan 'aitamaya or wan 'aiaya, 
I am cursing, abusing him. 

'aid, f.n., poor man (haying no- 
thing at all). — di. 

a'imad, m.n., tame beast flying, 
running away. — ki. (They call 
so a camel which is not yet 
accustomed to carry loads, and 
is afraid.) 

'a'in, f.n., wood, forest. — ti, 

'ain, m.n., kind, sort. — ki. 



'ain, m.n., belly-baTicl for camels. 

— ki; 'a:ima,n (plur.). 
a'iiiab, m.n., whitish-grey horse. 

— ki. 
aiya ! int., used in the place of 
warya ! in speaking to the 
parents or other respectable 
persons ; aiya abba, abbe, or 
abbo ! father ! aiya hoyo ! 
or ai hoyo ! mother ! 
'ajeb, with la, v.i., wonder at. 
'ajeb, m.n., wonder, astonishment. 

— ki; 'ajayib (plur.). 
'ajebi, v.c, astonish, cause to 

'ajibi,, please, make glad 

somebody, consent to. 
'ajin, f.n., dough. — ^tL 
'ajin,, knead, bake; 'ajima, 

waa 'ajimi. 
'ajinleh, m.n., baker. — ^hL 
'ajis, (m.) 'ajisad (/.), n. and a., 
indolent, lazy. — ki ; 'ajisin 
{plur.), 'ajis, or 'ajisad ban 
abai, I am lazy. 
'ajisnimo, /.»., laziness, sloth. 
ajurad,/w., burnt brick, tile. — di, 
'al, or ma'al, f.n., dew-lap (also 

used for Somali sheep). 
'ala'al, or 'alaan'al, m.n., regret, 
sorrow (also the expression of 
regret you feel at being unable 
to help someone), 'ala'alkisi 
bu i sjiai, he expressed to 
me his regret; inanka 'alaan- 
'alkisi ba ku fogadai o la 
talin kari wainai, the sorrow 
of that child was so deep that 
we could not console him. 
fala'al, withu, v.i., regret, repent; 

dembigaigi yan ad iyo ad ugm 

'ala'alsanabai, 1 repent heartily 

of my sins. 
'ala'al and 'ala'alsanaw, v.att^^ 

be repentant. 
'ala'alsan, a., repentant. 
'ala'al, or 'alaan'al, f.n., palm of 

the hand. — shi. 
'ala'al, m.n., a person deprived of 

all his goods and fortune. — ki 
'ala'al, v.i., be deprived of, lo-ie; 

bai ! bai ! 'ala'alaieb ho gai o 

ho gai ! exclamation of sorrow, 

the crying of women whea 

beaten, I lost all ! 
alabo, f.n., baggage, furniture, 

goods, luggage. 
alah,, hang; iss — , hang 

'alal, m.n., rag. — ki ; means also 

'alali,, chew. 
'alalis, m.n., chewing. — ki. 
'alasho, v.r., chew (yourself). 
'alalnahsi, m.n , cud - chewing, 

ruminant. — gi. 
'alalnahso, v.i., chew the cud, 

alan(OT.)andalanad(/.) «., cripple 

(congenital). — ki and — di. 
'alan, m.n., flag, ensign.— ki; hori 

'alan, flagstaff. 
albab, m.n., door, gate. — ki, — yo. 
alel, f.n., shell. — sM. 
'alen, f.n., leaf, leaves (also used 

for tea).— ti. 
'alid, I'.i., fester, grow virulent ; 
hontisn malin walba wa si 

'alidaisa, his sore is growing 
more virulent every day. (For 




a sore becoming worse, see Aid. 
When there is an excresence 
of flesh they say adad.) 

alif, m.n., badge, stripe (from 
Arabic I ; animals are ordinarily 
marked with that sign). — kL. 

alif or sumad ku jid,, stripe 
or mark the sheep (one only). 

alifiyai,, stripe or mark the 
sheep (for several). 

allkut, or alakiit, m.n., clipp- 
springer (with long and some- 
what stiff hair). — M. 

alol, m.n., roller-blind (made of 
reeds or bamboos). — ki. 

'alol, f.n., belly, stomach (gener- 
ally used also for heart). — sM. 

'alol ingegan, a., constipated. 

'alol ingeg^an, f.n., constipation. 
— ti. 

'alosha'ad {see hai'd). 

alowsho, f.n., forgetfulness (see 

alyo, f.n., saliva. 

alya'elis, m.n., cud. — ki. 

amah, f.n., loan. — di. 

amahi,, lend. 

amaho, v.r., borrow. 

'amal, m.n., character, temper. 
— ki. 

amamad, f.n., turban. — di; (see 

aman,, praise, glorify; ILah. 
ban amani, I praise God. 

aman, /.w,., praise, glory. — ti. 

amana aJlali ! int., farewell ! 
good bye ! last adieu before 

aman,, confide, intrust. 

amano, f.n., deposit. 

amano u dib,, intrust; a- 
manan (for amano an) n dibi 
or ku dibi, I entrust him or 
thee ; amano iuo or idin dibai, 
he intrusted us or you. 

amanaiso,, commit, com- 
mand ; amanaista, wan ama- 
naisan; Ebbahai neftada ku 
amanaiso, commit, comimand 
your soul to God. 

amar, m.n., haughtiness, pride. 
— ki ; amar ba ku dili, or 
amar bad u diman, pride will 
kill you. 

amar, m.n., Almighty will, great- 
ness of God. — ki; amarM Eb- 
bahai, the greatness of God. 

amar wein or amarsan, a., proud, 

amar weinan, /.«., pride. — ti. 

amarhadur, m.n., summons, cita- 
tion. — M. 

amarhadur u sar,, cite, sum- 

ambi,, lose, get rid of ; wilka 
ambi, lose the boy in the 
jungle (i.e. to get rid of him) ; 
la'agta wan ambin, I shall lose 
the money. 

ambo, v.p., be lost ; wllku wu 
amban, the boy will be lost ; 
wilM wa iga ambadai, I have 
lo«t the boy. 

'ameiti, or hameiti, f.n., gall- 
bladder, bile. — di. 

amin,, believe. 

amin, f.n., belief.- ti. 

(nin) aminah, m.n., believer. 

amin, /. and m.n., time, weather 
(used for the past). — ti and 



— ki; aminti ainu Bulahar 
ka nimi humaida, the weather 
was bad when we came from 
Bulahar; aminti yan tu|f arkai, 
the time I saw the robber. 

aminka, or iminka, «. and ad., 
now ; iminkada, the present 
time; aminka dabaded, here- 
after ; aminkada, just now. 

amin, m.n. and a., careful, honest. 
— ki. 

aminahaw, v.att., be careful, 

aminimo,/.w., carefulness, honesty. 

amild, f.n., sand, earth. — di. 

amus, v.i., be quiet, silent. 

amusan, a., quiet, silent, civil, 

amusnaw, v.att. ,\>&, remain, quiet, 
sileat ; sadeh sa'adod amus- 
naw, be, remain three hours 

amusnan, f.n., quietness, silence. 
— ti. 

amusi, v,e., cause to be quiet, 

amusla, a., never silent (is used 
for a small child always crying). 

an, part.neg. (combined with pro- 

an, conj., that. 

'an, m.n., cheek. — ki ; 'aman 

■anbur, a., chubby cheek. 

anahnb, f.n., porcupine. — ti. 

'anbar, m.n., ambergris. — ki. 

'anbar, f.n., herpes, tetter-scurf. 
— ti. 

£ndader, m. and f.n., spotted 
hyaena, glutton. — ki and — ti. 

'ando, f.n., udder (of cows, goats). 

'anduf, f.n., spittle. — adi, — O, or 
— oin. 

anhokib, f.n., Acacia vera. — ti. 

'ano, m.n., milk. — hi. 

ged 'anod, m.n., small-pox. — ki 
(specially usfd for animals). 

anhau, m.n., ankle. — gi, — yo. 

'antug,«.<r.,takea mouthful, gulp. 

'antugo, f.n., mouthful, gulp. 

'antuji,, give (him) a mouth- 

ar, m.n., male lion. — ki. 

'ar ! int., used either to excite, to 
entice curiosity, or as a provo- 
cation to fight (for boys) ; 'ar ! 
'ar ! i dil ! you cannot beat me ! 
'ar, yel ! work ! 

aradub, m.w., kind of spear. — ^ki, 
— yo. 

arag,, behold, perceive, see ; 

arka, wan arki. 
la arka, a., visible ; markabki 

hatan wa la arka, the ship is 

now visible. 
la ma arko, a., invisible ; mar- 
kabki lama arko, the ship is 

arag, m.n., sight. — gi ; araggaigu 

wa hunyahai, my sight is bad ; 

hatan araggi iga huma, my 

sight is bad now. 
'arar, v.i., fly, run ; shalai ninki 

'ararai, the man fled away 

yesterday ; 'arar, he fled away ; 

'ararai, they tied away. 
'arar, m.n., flight, speed. — ki. 
arbaha, f.n., Wednesday. — di. 
'arbi,, make tame, subdue, 





la 'arbiyai, a., tame ; wa libah 
la 'arbiyai, a tame lion. 

'arbun, f.n., security, caution, 
pledge. — ti. 

ardah., m.n., kind of verandah. — 
M (a small place before the hut, 
surrounded by a fence, where 
strangers may sleep) ; ardahga 
seho, sleep in the verandah. 

ardai, m.n., scholar. — gi (learning 
how to read the Ooran for be- 
coming a Wadad). 

ardal, m.n., country. — ki. 

ardal hal, m.n., petition, request 
(of the people). — ki. 

ardiad, m.n., ground-rent. — ki. 

ardi, J'.n., one pie (the smallest 
of the Indian brass money). — 

'ari, m. and f.n., low tide, ebb. — 
gi and — ti. 

'ari, or 'arid, v.imp., retire, ebb; 
wai 'arii; bad yahai'ari, thou, 
sea, retire ; baddu berri wai 
'arii, to-morrow the sea will ebb ; 
baddi 'aridai, the sea has re- 
tired ; imiiika baddu wa 'ari, 
(he sea is ebbing now. 

arim'ad, m.n., hunting chittah. — 

arin, f.n., suit, sentence. — ti ; 
arinti damatai, or dantahai, 
the suit is finished, or the sen- 
tence is pronounced. 

aiji, m.n., petition, application. 
— gi; arji i hor, write an ap- 
plication for me. 

'armali, f.n., widow.— di; Ber- 
beri wa 'armali badantahai, 
there are many widows in Ber- 

berah; 'armaliyaha badan e 
Berberi 'aid weina, the nume- 
rous widows of Eerberah are 
very poor. 
'anno,/.»., grape, creeper clinging 
to trees (good food for ele- 
phants), berries which are red, 
sometimes eaten by men, and 
also the boiled leaves. 

'aro, f.n., spider. 

'aro, f.n., end, point (the highest 
part of a thing) ; 'arada wa- 
ranku wa fihantabai, the point 
of the spear is sharp. 

aror,, (1) go to drink, water 
(cattle and sheep) ; (2) take 
and carry water (when the 
flock does not go to the well) ; 
(3) go to the well (boy), remain 
there and watch over the flock ; 
war ! orda arora ! ye men, go 
and drink ; shalai wa gorti 
holaha la arori jirai, maha la 
aroria wahyai? yesterday was 
the time of watering the flocks, 
why have they not been watered 1 

arori,, go and take the flock 
to the watering-place. — ya; or 
arorsba, wan — n ; sbalai iyado 
ai gorti holaha la arorin jirai 
tahai or ai tahai yannu Ubah 
arag^nai, yesterday we saw a 
lion when we were taking the 
flock to the watering-place. 

aror, m.n., the watering of the 
cattle. — ki. 

aror, m.n., declivity, ledge, slope. 
— ki ; arorka si mar o gurada 
tag or u bah, walk along the 
slope and go to the top. 




aror, /.n., morning. — ti, — yo. 

ardryo, f.n., break of day, early 
morning (this word is the in- 
definite plur. of aror). 

aros, m.n., (1) newly - married 
young man; (2) the name of 
the house in which the marriage 
takes place; (3) bridal.— ki, 
— yo ; Hassan wa aros, Hassan 
is a newly-married young man; 
aroska an tagno, let us go to 
the house of the new-married 
couple ; aroska an tag^o, let 
us go to the bridal, or nuptials. 

arosad, f.n., a newly-married girl. 
— di. 

'arrab, m.n., tongue. — ki, — yo. 

•arrabla, a., dumb. 

'arrablaan, f.n., dumbness. — ti. 

'arrab iyo dega ba la, o., dumb 
and deaf. 

arrin, m. and/.n., affair, concern. 
— ki and — ti; wa arrintisi, 
it is his affair. 

'arro, f.n., soil, earth (also salted 
sand given to the sheep). 

arsahad, f.n.. Godsend, piece of 
luck. — di ; Ebbahai arsahad 
wanaksan bu i sin, God will 
make me find a good piece of 

'arsi,, take to the shore. 

aror, m. and /. pl.n., child, igno- 
rant.— ki and — ti^ ninkasi 
wa arur o wahba garan mayo, 
that man is ignorant, and he 
understands nothing. 

arumimo, /.«., childhood. 

aruiui,, make kneel down 
(the camel). 

arun, v.def., kneel down (speak- 
ing to a camel) ; see tu. 
as,, bury, thrust (a stake into 

the ground); gor dow bainu asi, 

we will bury him soon (in a 

short time), 
asnin, f.n., burial (not much used). 

— ti. 
'as, a., red ; dar 'as, red linen ; 

maro 'as, red clothes. 
'asai,, redden. 
'asan, m.n., redness. — ki. 
'asal, m.n., bark of a tree pro- 
ducing red die. — ki. 
asalba, ad., generally, habitually; 

asalba nia hun ba tabai, you 

are habitually bad. 
asarar, m.n., contradiction, denial. 

— ki. 
asarar,, contradict, deny, 
(nin) asarar wein, or asarar mi- 

danah, m.n., contradictor. 
ashab, v.i., woo ; wai iss asbahen, 

they are courting each other. 
ashkar, or asbkir, m.n., red horse. 

— M. 
askari, m.n., a policeman, soldier, 

sepoy. — gi, askar, — ti {plur.). 
'asbo, f.n., day (of 24 hours) ; 

'asbo waba jirai, there was a 

'asbo, f.n., supper. 
'asbai, v.i., take your supper. 
asbtako, f.n., complaint, 
ashtakai, v.i., complain, appeal. 
asbtako, «.r., appeal (for yourself); 

asbtakoda, wan asbtakon. 
'ashur,/.ra., duty, tax. — ti; 'asbur- 

tisi ma bibiu, he has not paid 

his tax. 




'asi, v.i., rebel, revolt. — ya, wan 
— yi. 

•asi, m.n., disobedient, rebel. 

— gi. 

asli, m.n., amber (the substance 

itself). — gi. 
aslub, f.n., conduct, behaviour. 

— ti ; wa aslub hun, it is bad 

asliiban, with si, ad., well, in a 

good way, manner ; si asluban 

U habo, make it well. 
asliibuaw, v.att., be of good 

'asr, or 'asar, m.n. and ad., even- 
ing (from half-past three to 

the sunset). — ki. 
astan, f.n., mark. — ti ; masar- 

kaiga astautisu wa balladan- 

tahai, the mark on my hand- 
kerchief is large. 
'asus, f.n , reddish colour. — ti. 
'asusleh, a., reddish, light brown ; 

tirao 'asusleh, reddish hair. 
'ato, f.n., fatigue, leanness, 
'ataisi, v.c, cause him to be tired, 
'ataisan, a., tired, fatigued. 
'atow, v.r., be fatigued, tired ; 

'atoba, wan 'atobi. 
'ataisnaw, v.att., be fatigued, 

au, f.n., leaves of the palm-tree 

prepared for making mats. — 

di, awo (plur.). 
aud,, shut, close. 
'aal, m. and f.7i.. gazelle (Gazella 

Soemmeringi). — ki and — sM, 
auliad, f.n., saint. — di. 
aur. TO. andy.ra., camel. — ki {sing. 

and plur.).— ii {plur.); aurki 

ma yimi? has the camelcome 1 

aurtimatimi? have the camels 

'aus, m.n., grass (green or dried), 

stubble. — ki. 
'aus salol, m.n., kind of white reed 

used for thatching and making 

mats, and also the mat made 

of.— ki. 
'awa, ad., to-night; 'awa yan ku 

iman, I will come this night. 
'awaisin, ?».«., time of supper, end 

of twilight. — ki. 
awal or awel, ad., ago, before ; 

awel hag-gad jirtai, where 

were you before 1 (This word 

is not much used.) 
awawi, m.n., nightmare. — gi. 
awawi, v.L, talk in sleep. — 

ya— yi. 

'awar, m.n., one-eyed person. — 
ki ; means also a wound, a 
hurt accidentally received. 

'awar,, hurt (him). 

'awaran, a., one-eyed; wil 'awa- 
ran, a one-eyed boy. 

'awaran, v.r., hurt yourself, or 
be hurt ; 'awarma, wan 'a- 

'awarnaw, v.att., be, remain one- 
eyed, hurt ; 'awaranada, wan 
'awaran ; 'awarnaw e naga 
tag, be one-eyed {or hurt) and 
leave us (kind of curse). 

'awi, with la,, help, assist ; 
war i la 'awi, help me ; or 
'awin, 'awima, wan 'awimi. 

'awimad, f.n., help, assistance. — 
di ; 'awin. — ti, is also used. 

'awis, m.n., helper. — ki. 




awo, /.«., interest, welfare, for 
your sake, on your behalf. — di ; 
awadada yad ahalka ku jog- 
ta, to remain at home is to 
your interest. 

awada^ prp., for. 

'a,wo, f.n., Godsend, piece of 
luck. — di; means also the fourth 
finger, girl's name. 

awow, or awowai, ♦».«., grand- 

aya?, who? ay^ tahai? 
who are yon? or of what tribe? 
aya ku dilai ? who beat you ? 

ayo?, who? ayo? who? 
ma aniga? I? 

ayo ! int., what ! 

ayah, m.n., locust. — hi, — yo; 
ayah weiua eh, there is a 
great quantity of locusts. 

ayai ! int., hop ! (for inciting 
animals) ; means also yes. 

ayaiyo, f.n., grandmother. 

ayan, m.n., destiny, fate, fortune, 
luck.— ki ; ayajikaiga yan ku 
helai, I found my destiny. 

ayanleh, a., lucky. 

ayanla, a., unlucky. 

ayau, f.n., day, holiday, feast- 
day. — ti; manta wa ayan ma? 
what day is it to-day ? wa 
ahad, it is Sunday ; wa ayan- 
taidi, it is my holiday, my 

ayar, ad., slosrly, in a low voice; 
ayar hadal, speak slowly. 

'ayar, v.i., play, dance. 

ayo, f.n., stepmother, wife of my 
paternal or maternal uncle (but 
they add to the word ayai the 

names of abbai, ader, abti, and 
say ayai abbai, ayai ader, 
ayai abti. 


b, second letter of the Somali 
alphabet. It is prefixed to the 
p.pers. in their simple form,, 
and forms ban, I; bad, thou; 
bu, he ; bai, she, they ; and to 
the letter a, forming ba, either 
used as a pronoun or as for the 
verb of existence. 

ba, part. It is added (1) to a 
noun to show that it is the 
subject, aur ba jirai, there was 
a camel ; (2) to a negative vt-rb 
to give it more strength, ha ba 
*unin, do not eat ; aniga 'uni 
ba mayo, I will not eat at all ; 
ha tegin ba, do not go (I fur- 

ba', f.n., crack, clap. — di, 

ba, v.i., be unhappy ; — a, wan 
bii ; war ! ba e iga tag, or iga 
tag ba e, oh ! be unhappy and 
go away from me ; Buniyow 
ba, oh ! Booni be unhappy ! 
A father will say to his bad 
son, ba ! be unhappy (kind of 
curse) ; hebel ba baai, such a 
one is unhappy ; kua 'adabta 
ku jira ba baai, those who are 
in hell are unhappy ; kal hore 
wa la i biiyai, last year I was 

baan, a., quarrelsome, wicked. 




babah, a., empty, nothing, no- 
thing more ; — v.i., be nothing ; 
gortumaujaddubabahdo, when 
the waves retire. 

baba'o, f.n., palm of the hand. 

babii,, blot out, efface, ah- 

babiis, or babiin, m.n., abroga- 
tion — ki, or — ti. 

bad, f.n., sea, ocean. — di; baddu 
halai wa buhdai, this night 
the sea was full (high tide). 

bad furan, m.n., monsoon, N.E. 
— ki. 

bad hidan, m.n., monsoon, S.W. 
— ki. 

bad, half.— ki. 

badah, m.n., mixture of milk and 
water. — hi. 

badah,, mix milk and water; 
— a, wan badihi; 'anaha shalai 
ban badahai, yesterday 1 mixed 
the milk with water. 

bad,, look for, search, seek ; 
mahad ahalkaiga ka badaisa ? 
what are you looking for in 
my room ? 

badad, m.n., contentment, joy. 
— ki, — yo ; badadka jannada, 
the bliss of heaven. 

badad, v.i., cheer up. 

kaga badadi, or badadsi,, 
rejoice, make joyful. 

badadah, a., wealthy ; nin ba- 
dadah, a wealthy man. 

badadsan, glad, happy, joyful. 

badadsanaw, v.att., be glad. 

badaddo, /.w., potato. 

badag, m.n., goose.— gi (most 
web-footed birds are called so). 

badi,, augment, increase ; 
i badi, give me more ; u badi, 
give him, her more. 
badan, a., much, many, abundant; 
ka badan, more ; ka wada 
badan, or ngu badan, most. 
badnaw, v.att., be abundant, full 
of; aniga wa run badnahai, 
I am full of truth, truthful, 
badnai, v.i., increase. 
badso, v.i., abound. 
badnan, f.n., abounding. — ti, 
badbadi,, lead ; ninka inda- 
hala badbadi, lead the blind 
man ; ka — , lead from, pre- 
serve from ; adiga bahalka ka 
badbadi, preserve the sheep 
from the wild beasts. 
badi, f.n.; tail-fat, arse, breech, 
grease obtained in melting the 
fat of the tail of a Somali 
baf ! int., noise made by some- 
thing cracking. 
baga, loeut., it is my will, I have 

done it purposely (s. husM), 
bagad, m.n., hook or staff of a 

boat. — di. 
bagaf, m.n., kind of spear. — ki, 

bah, v.i., go out, get out, set out, 
flow, leak, grow, spring up. — a, 
wan bihi ; biyihi baldigai ka 
bahayan, the water flows out 
of the bucket, or the bucket 
leaks; war! bahalki muhu ba- 
hai, oh! how the radish has 
grown; iss ka — , get-out, away; 
adiga kolleh iss ka bah, you, 
by all means, must get out, 




away ; u — , go to j burta 
dusheda u bah, go to the top 
of the mountain ; dibadda u 
bah, go outside ; u — , go at 
him (for fighting) ; wan u bihi, 
I will go to him ; shalai ban' u 
bahai o ka adkadai, yesterday 
I went to him (for fighting) 
and I overcame him; iss — , 
independent; wil iss bah, an 
independent boy; iss bah e 
naga tag, may your word fall 
upon you, but leave us quiet 
(it is the answer to a man 
speaking badly or cursing. 
Arabs say so to the Somals 
who go them too early in the 
morning) ; SO — , come out with 
me (from the house) ; ka so — , 
get out from; SO baha, grow up, 
out from (a man having sown 
something, may say so to the 
seed thrown on the earth : it is 
only a wish, but God has the 
power of speaking so) ; U so 
— , come for ; wah u so bah, 
come out for something ; i so 
— , come to me (for fighting), 
thfe answer will be ku so ba- 
hai, 1 have come. 

bah, past participle of the verb 
bah, issued; Isman wa bah 
Hadio, Ismau issued from 

bahsi, m.n., boy, tall boy. — gi; 
inanki Warsama wa side ? 
how is the son of Warsama 1 
wa bahsi, he is a tall boy 
(already a young man) ; bah- 
sigi me ? where is the boy ! 

(This word is mostly used for 
boys not yet adult.) 

bahso, v.i., escape, fly away ; war ! 
bahso, or war ! iss ka bahso, 
escape, or oh ! fly immediately. 

bahsad, m.w., escape. — ki. 

u bahso, v.i., run to, for; ser- 
kalka a bahso, run to the 
governor, i.e., to request his 

bahri, m.n., sailor. — gi. 

bahsan, a., flne, nice, beautiful. 

baho, f.n., gift (this word is 
used for the act of giving 
something to a man deprived 
of his goods by misfortune ; 
everybody of his caste is obliged 
to give him a gift); u so bahi 
or bahai, give, bring something 
to. him (to the man in want). 

u baho, v.r., be in want. 

(nin) bahan, a., wanting, a man 
in want ; war ! nin bahan, 
wan u so bahin, I will bring 
something to the man in want. 

bahai, m.n,, animal, wild beast, 
cruel. — ki ; ninkasi wa bahai, 
that man is cruel. 

bahai, m. and f.n., thing. — ki, 
— shi. (This word is often 
used when the name of the 
thing is not known or not 
said. ) 

bahai hosai, f.n., reptile. — shi 

bahi, f.n,, appetite. — di; bahi- 
daidu wa wanaksantahai, my 
appetite is good. 

bah, v.i., fear, be afraid, flee from, 
funk (this verb has the same 




meaninfr as 'abso ; meshas ka 
bah libah bai leMahai, flee 
from that place, there is a 

baho, v.r., fear, fly (lest you be 
overcome); bahda, wan bahan, 

laga baho, a., fiaiful, frightful. 

bahdin, or bahnin, /.«., peril, 
risk, clanger, dread, fright, 
terror. — ti. 

baji, V.C., cause him to be afraid. 

bajis, m.n., cowardice. — ki. 

bah, m..n., hint, signal, a call, a 
whistling, a fire or any ' other 
sign used by the Somals to 
recognise themselves in the 
jungle. — hi ; the watchword 
also would be called bah. 

bah, a., this name is given to the 
milk when, the water and the 
caseous part being separated, it 
is said to be turned or spoiled ; 
the Somals throw it away, only 
beggars drink it ; 'anahasi wa 
bah, this milk is turned, spoiled ; 
'anaha bahai, the milk has 

bahail, m.n., miser. — ki ; ninkasi 
bahail waiyai, that man is a 
mister ; ninkas wa nin ba- 
hailah, that man is a miser. 

bahallad, f.n., miser (/.) ; nag 

bahailad, f.n., hurricane, storm. 
— di; war ! wa bahailad e sehi- 
madnhu ha yai ina ka burbn- 
rin, oh ! there is a storm, do not 
let the boats be broken (to us). 

bahaiya, m.n., eagle. — ihi. 

bahlad, f.n., mule. — di; bahlad 

lab, he-mule ; bahlad didig, 

bahal, m.n., radish.— ki. 
bahaiya, m.n., species of hawk 

(small vulture). — hi. 
bahbah, m.n., gum (of a blackish 

colour) —hi, — yo. 
balilad,/.«., large boat, buggalow. 

— di. 
bahti, m.n., corpse (especially 

used for animals). — gi (this 

word means also death of an 

bahti, v.i., die, extinguish, blow 

out. — ya, wan — yi. 
bakaila, or bakailai, m.n., hare, 

rabbit.— hi. 
ba'id, f.n., strap, fastening the 

camel's pack-saddle under the 

chest.— di. 
baidbaid, m.n., zigzag. — ^ki. 
baidbaid, v.i., walk like a snake 

(making zigzags). 
bal, m n., feather, wing, fins (of 

a fish), page of a book. — ki ; 

balka kitabka rog, turn the 

page of the book. 
bal, part, of a very common use 

in Somali ; bal tag, go ; bal 

kalai, come ; bal i sug, wait 

for me, 
bal an, part., let me, us (this 

word is ordinarily used with 

the imperative for asking a 

permission) ; bal an imado, 

let me come ; bal an tago, let 

me go. 
bal in, conj., if (this word is 

ordinarily used in sentences 

expressing some doubt (indirect 




questions); weidi bal inai fog- 
tahai, ask if it is far. 

balaf, m.n., dislike of food. — ki. 

balfi,, refuse the food. 

balag,/.w., prepuce, foreskin. — li. 

balagta ka go,, circumcise. 

baMnbalis, /./«., butterfly. — ti. 

balango, /.«., kind of antelope 

balbalo, /«., shelter, shed (this 
shelter or shed is ordinarily in 
front of the hut or tent to pro- 
tect it from the rays of the sun ; 
the tumals (smiths) have a bal- 
balo or shed in front of their 
huts and work under it in order 
to enjoy the breeze. 

balbalai,, make the shed. 

bildi, m.n., bucket, ewer.— gi. 

ball, m.n., old (only used for 
tilings).— gi. 

ballad, m.n., breadth, also blow 
given' with the flat of a spenr. 
— ki; ballad bu igu duftai, 
he beat me with the flat of his 

balladi,, enlarge, widen. 

balladan, v.p., be enlarged; bal- 
ladma, wan balladmi. 

balladan, a.v., broad, large, wide, 

ballan, m.n., promise, stipulation, 
treaty.— ki. 

ballan,, fix (a day, a time); 
ballama, wanballami, malinta 
baUan, fix the day; la ~, 
promise, treat with him ; i la 
ballan, promise to me ; an la 
ballanno, let us treat ; ka — , 
stipulate, state positively, ex- 

actly; faraska gana'disa ka 
ballan, state, say exactly the 
price of the house. 

ballami,, affiance. 

balli, m.n., a low place, hole, ex- 
cavation (forming during the 
time of rain, pools or wells). 

— gi- 

ballub, m.n., adult, nubile. — m. 

ban, m.n., level ground, plain. 
— ki ; banka Berberi wa bal- 
ladanyahai, the plain of Ber- 
berah is large. 

banan, m,.n., collective noun, has 
the same meaning as ban.— ki. 

banan, a., open {s. fiiran), 

banai,, level, make even, 

bana'ei, m.n., bellowing and low- 
ing of bulls and cows. — gi. 

bangad, or bankad,/.ra., punkah, 
large fan. — di. 

bar,, educate, instruct, teach. 

baro, v.r., learn, study ; barta 
wan baran. 

bara, m.n., instructor, teacher, 

barad, m.n., pupil, scholar. — ki, 
— yo. 

barnin, f.n., instruction, educa- 
tion, teaching, learning. — ti. 

bar, f.n., blot, spot, stain.— ti ; 
baraba 'ad, white spots ; barbar, 
some spots. 

baraleh, a., spotted ; sbabel wa 
baraleh, the leopard is spotted. 

bar'as, m.n., leprosy.---ki. 

bar'asleh, m.n., leper.- liM. 

baraf, m.n., ice, snow. — ki. 

barah, m,.n., ease, peacg.-^hi; 




barah ba lo yal, they are living 
in peace ; barah u fadista, sit 
at your ease, or sit down on 
the ground ; kursiga barah 
ugu fadiso, sit down on the 

barahad, /.»., a plain surface. 
— di. 

barakad, m.n., blessing, benedic- 
tion. — di, — yo. 

barakadai,, bless; wahan 
idinku barakadainaya, I bless 

barakadaisan, a.v., blessed. 

barakadaisnaw, v.att., be blessed. 

barambaro, /.«., blatta indica 
(in French, cancrelas). 

barar, m.n., lamb. — ki (generally 
used for a lamb of one year old, 
occasionally, however, applied 
to lambs up to two or three 
years. "When the female sheep 
is about to bring forth she is 
called sabein). 

barar, m.ra., swelling. — ki. 

bararshai, m.n., dropsy. — hi. 

bararleh, a. and v., dropsical 
person; Don bararleh, an hy- 
dropic man. 

bararug, v.r., rouse (yourself), 

bararug, m.n., glassware, brace- 
lets for women. — gi. 

barbar, m.n., young man, youth, 
time of youth. — ki ; anigu 
weli barbar ban ahai, I am 
siill a young man ; ninkas 
barbarkisi mid hun bu aha, 
lhat man's youth was bad. 

barbar, m.n., side. — ^ki, — yo. 

barhab, v. tr., male camel (stallion). 

— ki, — yo. 
barhi,, graze (cattle and 

sheep) before the milking. 
barhin, or barhad, or barho, /.«., 

forenoon (from 9 to 1 2 o'clock). 

— ti, or — di, or — adi. 
bari, m.n., east; — gi; bariuka', 

go to the east. 
bari,, beg, beseech, pray. 

— ya, wan — yi. 
bariyo, /.«., begging. 
bari, v.i., be safe. — ya, wan — yi; 

ma barideni are you safe? 

(salutation used in the morn- 
ing) ; ha barinai, yes, we are 

baris, or beris, or barid, m.n., 

rice. — ki, — ^yo. 
barjin, m.n., stool with three 

legs. — ^ki (s. gambad). 
barki, m,n , wooden pillow (having 

the form of a cresent) . — gi. 
barkimo,/w., pillow. 
barmil, m.n., barrel, cask. — ^ki. 
barmil yar, m.n., bucket.— ki; 
band, f.n., clean and nice dates, 

the stones of which are small. 

— di. 
baro, f.n., pumpkin, very large 

vessel for ghee. 
baror, f.n., lamentation, crying 

(only used for women). — ^ti. 
baroro, v.i., lament, scream ; ba- 

rorta, wan baroran. 
ka, or kaga barori, v.c, cause to 

scream, to lament. 
barosin, m.n., anchor. — ki. 
bartih, m.n., melon, pumpkin. 

—hi, — yo. 




barad, /.w., powder, gunpowder. 
— di. 

bariir, f.n., fat, suet, tallow. — di. 

barwah.0, f.n., fertility, plenty ; 
magaladas barwahadeda wa 
la la yaba, the fertility of this 
country is wonderful. 

barwahaisan, a.v., fertile. 

bas, ad., enough. 

bas, a., bad, wicked, repulsive ; 
wahba bas bainu araguai, we 
have seen somethiDg bad. 

bas, m.n., ticket (for a passage), 
letter for re-entering a town 
after having been for a time 
expelled from it. — ki. 

basal, /.»., onion. — sM. 

basbas, or bisbas, m.n., pimento. 
— kL 

basba, m.n., pasha. — ^hi. 

bassar, m.n., manner, way. — ki. 

bassarhtm, o., awkward, impolite. 

baya musMari, m.n., trader, 
merchant. — gi. 

baiina, m.n., kind of badger. 
— M. 

bed, ad., well (this word is not 
used alone, and seems to be 
employed only for " well " when 
speaking of health ; ma bed 
habta ? are you well \ wan bed 
haba ilah mahdi, I am well, 
thanks to'God;'ma bed habo, 
I am not well. 

bedel,, change, adulterate, 

bedelad, /.«., change, adultera- 
tion, sophistication. — di. 

beid, m.n., egg.— ki; albeid! 
albeid ! cry of egg-sellers. 

b'e'id, m.n., antelope, oryx. — ^ki 

(«. b'i'id). 
bei'di, or bihidi, m.n., kind of 

spear. — gfi, 
bein, /.»., falseness, lie, perjury, 

untruth. — ti. 
beinaleb, or beinawas, m.n., liar, 

impostor.^ — hi, — ki, — yo. 
beiuai,, contradict (not to 

keep to his promise). 
beini, v.i., disprove, prove false. 
bein ku daro, v.r., perjure. 
bein sheg,, lie (tell a lie, an 

beir,, cultivate, sow. 
beir, f.n., cultivation, garden. — • 

ti ; beirti Dubahar, the garden 

of Dubar. 
beir, f.n., tree, plant, vegetable 

(in a garden). — ti. 
beira, f.n., musk-deer living in 

the mountains (seems to be the 

same as bair). — di. 
beirda, or beirdai, m.n., banian- 
tree (tree and fruit, a kind of 

fig). — hi, — yal, or berdoin 

beji,, examine, try. 
bejis, m.n., experiment, trial. — - 

ki, — yo ; gel bejiskisu ma 

wanaksana, the trial of the 

camels was not good. 
bel,, be deprived of, lo«ie. 
belbel, m.n., blaze, flame. — ki. 
belbelli, v.i., inflame, set on tire. 
bello, f.n., wicked, bad thing, b d 

state, condition ; ninka bello 

ya so gasbai, the man has 

turned out badlv. 
ber, m.v,., liver. — ki. 

c 2 




Mryaro, /.w., spleen ; berjrarada 
i hanuiiaisa, 1 am sutt'eriug 
from spleen. 

Mrka dulka sar,, prostrate ; 
berka duLka ti sar, prostrate 

Berkad, or berked, f.n., cistern, 
tank. — di. 

beri, m.n. and ad., past time 
(division of), once. — gi ; beri 
wahha jirai . . ., it was once . . . 

beri doweid, ad., lately; beri 
doweid ba abbahai diiitai, my 
fathec died lately. 

waberi, ad., early morning ; wa- 
beri bainu tosnai, we got up 
in the early morning. 

berri, m.n., earth, land (opposed 
to water). — gi, 

berri, f.n., morrow, next day. — 

berri, or berrito, ad, to-morrow. 

beski, see buksi. 

beyo, f.n., frankincense. 

bibileh, m.n., flute, flageolet, per- 
son playing these instruments. 
— M. 

bida, or bidai, m.n., slave. — hi, 
. — yal, or bided (plur.). 

bidad, f.n., slave (fern.). — di. 

bidar, f.n , baldness. — ti. 

bidarleh, a., bald. 

bideh, f.n., left hand. — di; bi- 
dehda u jeso, turn to the left. 

bigil, or bikel, m.n., bugle, trum- 
pet, or sound of ...-^ki; bi- 
gilki lagu dufai, the trumpet 
has sounded. 

bihi (often used with n),, 
give, stretch (out), set free, ex- 

pend, spend (for), pay; war! 
wah. bihi, give something (they 
say so to an avaricious man) ; 
ga'anta u bihi, stretch out your 
hand ; war ! ninka bihi, set 
the man free ; abbahai bohol 
rubod ban u bihiyai, 1 spent 
(gave to the poor) 100 rupees 
(at the death of) for my father ; 
war ! nimanka la'agtoda bihi, 
pay the man, or give tht-m 
their money ; iss ka — , fiive, 
pay ; war! iminka badriga 
la'agtisi iss ka bihi, pay now 
the njoney of the father ; so 
— , stretch forth, give ; kan i 
SO bihi, give that to me ; ka 
SO — , extract, draw out, get 
from, sjive ; war! ninka biyaha 
ka so bihi, draw out, save the 
mail from the water; dagahha 
'idda ka so bihi or ruji, ex- 
tract that stone trom the earth ; 
n — , give a name to, call ; 
wahhan u bihin Abdi, I will 
cal I him Abdi. 

ha bihin, (negative form of 
the verb bihi), save (money); 
la'agtada ha bihin, save your 

behis, m.n., expense. — ^ki, — yo 
{aef. haraj). 

behnia, f.n., defence. — ^ti; 'oll- 
ki wa fara or faro badna o 
magalada behnintedi la ma 
kar nohotai, the enemies were 
so numerous that the defence 
of the town was impossible. 

biMmbih, m.n., sigh (of a iioy), 
sliam crying. -^hi, — yo. 




bihlo, or bihlai, m.n., kick (of a 

Jiorse, mule), — ^hi. 
bii,, blot out, efface, destroy, 
disgrace ; dinta bii, destroy re- 
ligion ; dinti bai magaladi ku 
biiyen, they have destroyed re- 
ligion in the country ; ka — , 
corrupt, spoil (in giviiii; bad 
example) ; nafta inanka ka bii, 
corrupt that boy (the soul of) ; 
isaga nafta inanka biiyai or 
bashai, he has corrupted,spoi]ed 
the soul of that boy. 

b'i'id, «. b'e'id. 

bii, /.«., month, quarter of the 
moon. — sM. 

bishi, ad., monthly;. bisM (or 
bii walba) Adan ba taga, I go 
to Aden everv month ; imisa 
bilod bad Adan fadidai (or 
jogtai) 1 how many months 
have you been in Aden? imisa 
bilod badmiyi ka so mahnaid? 
how many months have you 
been absent from the jungle ? 

bilad, m.n., country. — ^ki, — ^yo ; 
wa biladkayaga, or dulka- 
yaga, it is my country. 

bUada, or biladaya, m.n., mirror. 
— hL 

bilawa, or bilawai, m.n., dagger, 
sword. — ^M. 

bilig, or biligbilig, f.n., spark, 
sparkle, glenm. — ti ; baddu wa 
biligbilig leMahai, the sea is 
covered with phosphorescent 
gleams; dabku wa biligbilig 
lebyahai, the tire is sparkling. 

biligbiligleh, a., sparkling; eg! 
awa hedignbu wa wada bilig- 

bilig lebyiMn, look ! how all 
the stars are sparkling ! 

birr, f.n., iron. — ti ; birraha na 
si, give us the irons ; birr ba 
lagu hedai, they have Hu- 
chained; nin ba birrku hedan, 
a man in chains ; birrta darka 
la mariyo i ken, bring me the 

birrhab, m.n., pincers, iron for 
markingsheep. — ^ki, — ^yo; birr- 
hab ku jid, mark the sht-ep. 

bisbas {s. basbas), m.n., pimento. 
— kL 

bishil, m.n., wedge. — ki. 

bisil, a., ripe, cooked ; midkasi 
wa bisil yahai, that fruit is 
ripe ; basasbasi wa bisishahai, 
that onion is cooked ; bilibka 
bisil i ken, bring me the cookoil 
meat ; bilib ki bisla ban siyai, 
I gave the cooked meat ; ba- 
sasM bislaid, the cooked onion. 

bislai,, cook (not boil), ripen ; 
ngahanta bislai, cook the eggs. 

bissad, f.n., cat. — di. 

biyo, m.n. pi., water. — ^M; biya ! 
biya! or biyaha! the cry of 
women selling water ; biyo da- 
nan (or hadad), sour, sailed 
water ; biyo durdur ban 'aba, 
I drink river- water ; biyo 'el 
bainu 'abna, we drink well- 
water; biyo maan, fresh, sweet 
water ; biyo 'usboah, salt water ; 
biyo rob, rain-water ; biya gar- 
bada ka so dulai, cascade, 
waterfall; biya iss ku ware- 
gaya, whirlpool ; biyaleh, a 
woman selling water. 




biyow, v.imp., Tiecome water; 
biyoda (or biyoba) wu biyon 
(or biyobi) ; ga'anti wa i bi- 
yotai, I have blisters on my 
hand. (This verb is used for 
blisters, dropsy...) 

bo', w.ra., windpipe. — hi; bo'han 
kugu dufan, I will strike you 
on the throat (a Somal would 
say so to a boy). 

bob, m.n., robbery, plunder, pil- 
lage, booty. — ki. 

bob,, rob, plunder; wa holo 
la bobayo, an haibsano, it is 
the booty, let us share. 

bod, v.i., hop, jump, leap. 

bodo, or bodin, or botin, /!»., 
jumping.^di or — ti; botinta 
libahhu wa la yaba, the jump- 
ing of the lion is wonderful. 

bog,y.n., ulcer, ulcerated wound, 
sore. — ti. 

bogaleh, m.n., person having a 
sore. — hi, — yal ; bogalaha so 
galai, or yimi, or yimid, or 
kui bogalaJia ya yimid, the 
person having the sore has 

bohol, f.n., a deep cleft between 
two rocks ; a hole made in a 
plain by heavy rain and over- 
grown with grass ; a deep 
valley between two plains or 
table-lands (as the valley of 
Sodom). — sni. 

bohiin, a., impotent, sterile (not 
much used) ; nefan dali karin 
is the loc. ordinarily used. 

bohol, n.c, hundred.— ki or — 

bohol sanadod, n.m., century ; 
iaba, sadeh boholo, two, three 

bohor, m.n., king. — ki. (When 
a new chief is selected, each 
tribesman takes a handful of 
leaves and spreads them over 
the new chief ; after that, he 
is called bohor.) 

bohor,, make him king ; 
bohra, wan bohri. 

bohomimo, ./:»., roynlty ; wilkasi 
bohomimu bu dashai, that boy 
was born a king. 

bohortiris, m.n., aide-de-camp of 
a king, of a leader, of a chief. 
— M, yo. 

bohor, m.n., woman's belt. 

boU, f.n., booty taken from the 
enemies. — di ; shola — , silver 

boli, f.n., a bush growing near 
water, having large green leaves. 
— di. 

boran, f.n.; deep hole in the 
earth, den, cavern offering a 
dwelling to wild beasts, as 
foxes, wolves. . ., ditch surround- 
ing the rer, or village, when 
there is no wood for making a 
fence. — ti. 

bo'shirad, f.n., trade, commerce. 
— di. 

botin («. bodo); war hebel botin 
dera, such a one (a certain) can 
jump far. 

bowdo, f.n., thigh. 

bu, v.i., boast, praise yourself ; 
war! mahad la bHaisa, why 
do you boast 1 ninkasi gor iyo 




galab wa buaya, that man 
always praises himself. 

bu, /.w., pnpil of the eye. — di; 
isha budeda, the pupil of the 

bu'a'ad, plant, with a whitish 
stem, large round green leaves, 
exudes a milky fluid, grows in 
river-beds. — di. 

bu'amadow, f.n., castor plant 
(virtues not known by Somals), 
grows in river-beds, has large 
green leaves shaped as fig- 
leaves, which are poisonous 
when green, but camels eat 
them when they turn whitish. 
— di. 

bub (root), v.imp., flee away (only 
used for animals); anrteni sha- 
lai bubtai, or buben, yesterday 
our camels fled away. 

bubal, f.n., a tame beast become 
wild. — sM. 

bud, m.n., club, short thick stick 
used in fighting. — ki. 

budai,, beat, knock down 
with a club. 

budli,, grind, pound. 

bufl, v.i., blow (with the bellows). 

bufimo, f.n., bellows. 

biig, m.n., belly, stomachj gizzard. 

— gi- 
wah buga ku so'oda, reptile {i.e., 

a thing walking on his stomach). 
bug {root),, approve, applaud 

(used with the pers. pr.). 
buh, m.n., high tide. — M; manta 

wa buhbi, it is high tide to-day. 
buhi,, fill ; barmilka wa 

buha, the barrel is fuU, 

buhsan, v.i., be filled ; buhsama, 
wan buhsami. 

btthso, v.r.', fill for yourself ; ka — , 
fill with, get full of ; dassa- 
dada biyaha ka buhso, fill the 
cup with water. 

buh, v.i., clamour, make a great 

buh, m.n., crowd. — ^hi; war! bal 
buhha dai, look at that 

buhuji,, suffocate (with a 
pillow or in a crowd) ; wa inan- 
ka, buUia la buhujiyai, the 
boy was suffocated in the crowd. 

buhbuhod, /re., milk and butter- 
milk mixed together. — di. 

buhbuhodi,, mix together 
milk and buttermilk. 

buk (root), meaning be sick, re- 
main sick ; wan buki, I will 
remain sick. 

buka and bukai, a., sick, ill. 

bukow, v.i., be sick; bukoda, wan 

bukaisi, v.e., cause to be sick. 

bukan, m.n., sickness, malady. 
— ki. 

buksis, — ki, buksin, — ti, biiski, 
— gi, n., cure, healing; hontada 
bf^sintedi wa la la yaba, the 
cure of the wound is won- 

biiksi,, heal, cure ; bogaha, 
or bog walba daimabas yan 
ku buksiya, I heal every 
wound with that medicine. 

bnkso, or bokso, v.i., be cured. 

bul, m.n., nest, shed, Somali hut. 




bulal, m.n. {plur. of bul), hamlet, 
small village. — ki. 

bul'aro, /.ra., cobweb. 

bulhan, m. and f.n., clamour ; 
— ki and — ti for the past. 

bulsbo, fn., men and black cattle 
(without either goats or sheep). 

bun, m.n., coffee, berry. — ^ki. 

bunduh, m.n., gun. — hi, — yo. 

bur, f.n., mount, mountain. — ti; 
bur yar, hill. 

burow, v.i., grow stout, be or be- 
come thick. 

buran, a., thick, stout; ninburan, 
a stout man; niman burburan, 
stout men, means aho a long 
time, space ; wa buran ba, it 
is a long time ; in buran bai u 
jirta, it is very far. 

bur,, fasten. 

bur, m.n., flour. — ki. 

bur'ad, m.n., butter. — ki. 

burbiir, m.n., kind of infectious 
disease producing dangerous 
boils ; animals when havitig 
that sickness are killed im- 
mediately. — M. 

burbur, m.n., potsherd. — ki. 

burburi,, break (in pieces). 

burbur, v.p., be broken, smashed. 

burburan, a.v., broken, smashed. 

bururi,, burst, break. 

burur, v.p., be burst, broken. 

buri, m.n., tobacco. — gi. 

buro, f.n., wen (kind of tumour). 

burobabalad, f.n., wart. — di. 

buryo, f.n.. membrum virile ; 
buryada ka go, circumcise. 

bushin, f.n., lip. — ti (s. debin). 

busta, m.n., blanket. — hi. 

D. D. 

da, di, du, fart., the (aff). 

da, dan, das, der, di, . do, d.a., 
this, that, that yonder. 

dai, daida,, my. 

da, dada,, thy. 

deda,, her. 

dena,, our. 

dina,, your. 

doda,, tlieir. 

da (for dai),, leave, abandon. 
— ya, wan dein; inanka da, 
leave the boy ; iss ka — , de- 
sist, leave ; ta (or wahha) iss 
ka da, leave that ; si — , let go 
(from me to a place) ; so — , 
let go, come (to me). 

da, f.n., age, life, lifetime. — di ; 
da ma tahai, what i.s your ajre ? 
how old are you ? dadenu wa 
gabantahai, our life is short ; 
— yar, childhood, infant, small 
child ; — wein, old age, aged, 
old man. 

da',, fall, rob, plunder, cheat ; 
da'a, wan di'i; shalai ban 
ged ka so da'ai, yesterday I 
fell from a tree ; wa la i da'ai, 
they have robbed me ; ninkasi 
wa i da'ai, that man has cheatpd 
me ; so da'da', come down 
(from the tree) ; ku — , fall in, 
on, plunge ; badda ku da', 
plunge into the sea ; ninka ku 
da', fall on that man ; la — , 
beat repeatedly. This verb 
has also the meaning of "under- 
standing" ; amioka ma ku da'- 




dai ? have you understood t 
(literally, have you fallen in 1) 
i, no da'dai, I, we have under- 

da'anaw, or da'an, v.att., be 
robbed ; wan da'anahai, or 
wan da'ami (the verb da' in 
the passive voice with la, lag^, 
has the same meaning). 

da'an, m.n., damage. — ki. 

da', v.i., belch ; da'a, wan da'i. 

da'o, f.n., belch, belching. 

da'an, f.n., felled tree used by 
Somals for shutting the en- 
trance of their enclosure. — ti. 

da'al, m.n., fringe (of clothes). — 

da'ar, f.n., bile ; aloe about three 
feet high, red and orange varie- 
ties, broad spiked fleshy leaves, 
spreading out from the ground ; 
is a favourite food of elephants. 
The variety da'ar budnh is use- 
ful ; it is chewed when water 
is wanting, and allays thirst. — 
ti; da'ar badan ba ka timi, 
or da'arti ka timi, he vomited 
bile (lit. abundant bile has come 

da'araisan, a., bilious; ninkasu 
wa da'araisanyahai, this man 
is bilious. 

dab, m.n., Are. — ki ; labtaida dab 
laga shidaya, my chest is burn- 

dab,, snare, insnare, hunt. 

dabad, m.n., hunter, trapper. — 
ki, — yo. 

dabin, or debin, m.n., snare, trap. 
— ^ki, — mo. 

dabnin, m.n., action of malting 
or placing a snare, a trap. — ki. 

dab, m.n., handle, hilt. — ki. 

dab,, fix, set, stick, pitch. 

daba', or taba', m.n., seal. — hi, 
— yo. 

daba',, seal, print. — a ; wan 

daba'an, a.v., sealed, printed. 

dabah, m.n., cover (for jowaree, 
rice, grain ...). — M, — yo. 

dabail, f.n., wind, air, breezp, 
weather. — shi ; dabail wanak- 
san, good wind, tine weather ; 
dabail hun, bad wind, weather; 
dabail habow, cold wind, 

dab'al, m.n., miser. — ^ki. 

dabal, m.n., post, post-office. — ki. 

dabaldeg, m.n., fantasia on horses 
or camels (as Arabs do on feast- 
days).— gi. 

dabaldeg, v.i., play a fantasia or 
participate in it ; war ! an da- 
baldegno, or dabaldeg an hab- 
sanno, let us play a fantasia. 

daban, m.n., cheek. — ki, — no. 

dabar, m.n., fetters (for cattle, 
horses, camels ... at the fore- 
legs). — ki. 

dabdabar,, fetter ; dabda- 
bra, wan dabdabri, aurta 
dabdabra, fetter (ye) the 

dabar, m.n., hack. — ki. 

dabbal, f.n., swimming. — sM. 

dabbalo, v.i., swim, iloat ; dab- 
basha, wan dabbahan; horigi 
wa dabbalaya, the woud is 




dabatag, /.»., antelope, Clarke's 
roebuck. — ti. 

dabeir, or dameir, m.n., ass. — ki. 

dabib, m.n., purge, purgation. 
— -ki, — yo. 

dabib, v.i., purge. 

dabo, /.w., backside, breech, tail. 

dabada, dabaded, ad., after, after- 
wards (s. haddow). 

daba dig, f.n., dysentery. 

daba haMyf.n., diarrhoea. — di. 

daba halloh, m.n., scorpion. — M. 

daba galla, m.n., squirrel. — hi 
(earth squirrel living in holes), 

dabagelis, m.n., crupper of a 
camel's saddle. — ki, yo. 

dabol, m.n., lid, cover (for any- 
thing). — ^ki ; — deri, cover of a 

dabol,, cover, shut. 

dabolaw,, be covered. 

dabolan, a.v., covered, shut. 

dabsi, v.L, (1) separate a young 
animal from its mother that it 
may not suck during the day ; 
(2) exchange two sucklings 
(especially camels) ; (3) throw 
a child (in order to get rid of). 

dabsin, f.n., action of separating 
..., exchanging ..., throwing ... 
(a mother throwing away her 
child is also called dabsin). — 

dabsis, m.n., suckling. — ki, — yo. 

dad, m.n., people, mankind, in- 
habitant. — ki; dadki gabow- 
bai, the old people ; — hun, 
m.n., ferocity. — ki, — mo. 

dadhal, and dad'uu, m.n., canni- 
bal. — ki (m.). 

dadhalato, f.n., cannibal. 

dad, m.n., deluge, inundation. — 

dadi, v.i., flow, leak, pour out ; 
baldigu bihuhu dadiya, the 
ewer {or bucket) leaks ; bi- 
yaha dadi, pour out the water. 

ka dadi,, spill, throw down, 
overthrow (for all liquids) ; 
'aniM la dadi, the milk is 
poured out, spilt. 

ku dadi,, sow. 

dadsan, a.v., thrown. 

dadis, m.n., shedding. — ki, — yo. 

dada', m,.n., stride. — hi, — yo. 

dada', v.L, stride, bestride. — a ; 
wan dadi'i. 

dadab, m.n., dream. — ki, — yo. 

dadab, v.i., dream. 

dadab, f.n., a big stone. — ti. 

dadan, m.n., taste, flavour. — ki ; 
hardadkaigi dadankisi wa 
hunyahai, I have a bad taste 
in my mouth. 

dadami,, taste. 

daf, v.i., go down, descend (in a 
well, pit) ; 'elka u daf, descend, 
go down into the pit. 

daf, f.n., bottom, below. — ti ; 'el- 
ka daftisi ban gadai, I have 
reached the bottom of the 

daf, v.i., pass, pass through, pass 
by (without taking any notice) ; 
magalada yan dafai, I passe<l 
through the country ; anigu 
badrigi ban so dafai, I passed 
by the father; war! i daf, na 
daf, pass, go away, let me or us 
be quiet. 




dafi,, change, exchange, give 
for; darka aurkaiga i dafi, 
give me clothing for my camel. 

dafso, v.r., barter, change (for 

dafsasho, f.n.,ox dafsis. — ki, m.n., 

dafarur, f.n., tree and its fruit (a 
kind of beri-y). — ti. 

dafor, m.n., temples (of the head). 
— ki. 

dag, v.i., keep, hold in false se- 
curity, cause to be careless (us 
Satan does to sinners) ; dadka 
Shaitan ba daga, Satan causes 
people to be careless. 

dagan, a.v., deceived. 

dagnin, f.n., false security. — ti. 

dagag, m.n., beggar.— gi, — yo; 
nin dagagah, a poor man. 

dagah, m.n., stone. — M, — an, or 
— nyo {plur.). 

dagah. dined, m.n., pebble. 

dagah gfubtai, m.n., quick-lime. 

dagah. madow, m.n., flint, fire- 

dagah rob, m.n., hail, hail-stone. 

dagah wein, m.n., rock; dagahnyo 
wawein, rocks. 

dagal,, scold, grumble, fight. 

dagal, m.n., scolding, battle, com- 
i)at, fight. — ki. 

dagalan, m.n., fight.— ki. 

dagalan, v.i., assail, attack, fight ; 
dagalama, wan dagalami. 

dagalai, or degalai, f.n., javelin. 
— di. 

dah, v.imp., rain, it rain^ ; 'erki 
dah, or 'erku wa dahaya, it 

dahab, m.n., gold. — ki, — yo. 

dahal, f.n., ear-lap. — shi. 

dah, rn.n., door of a Somali hut 
(kind of screen or mat hung 
before the entrance of the hut) ; 
dahha lal, lift up, or open the 
door ; dahha so da', or so rida, 
let fall down the screen, or 
shut the door. 

dah, v.i., travel.— a, wan dihi; 
so — , come to (in travelling) ; 
si — , go to (in travelling) ; 
imisad so dahdai, or imisa so 
dahden, plur., how mauy days 
have you travelled ? ashoin 
badan ban so dahai, 1 travelled 
many days. 

dahal, m.n., inheritance. — ^ki. 

dahal,, inherit; abbahai ban 
kan dahalai, I have inherited 
this from my father. 

dahan, f.n., cold, fever. — ti; da- 
han shalai ban hadai, I caught 
a cold, fever yesterday. 

dahamow, v.i., catch cold, be 
chilly ; dahamoda, wan daha- 

dahb, m.n., honeycomb. — ki ; 
dahb madan, an empty honey- 
comb ; dahb bnha, a full honey- 

dah,, save, economise, lay 
aside. — a, wan dihi. 

daho, v.r., lay aside (for yourself). 
— da, wan dahan. 

dahasho, f.n., savings, 

dah, v.imp., brovvse, graze ; lo'du 
wa dahda, or lo'di wa dahaisa, 
the cows browse, graze. 

U da^gei,, take to graze. 

DA. J 



daji,, graze, feed (cattle) ; 
so — , take to graze. 

dahad, f.n., window. — di, 

dahaji, melt, stir. 

dahal, m.n., mast. — ki. 

dahar, m.n., every wound received 
111 the head. — ki. 

dahar,, break his head; 
dahra, wan dahri. 

dahdahah, m.n., movement (slight, 
nearly imperceptible). — M. 

dahdahah, v.i., mo\e; ha dahda- 
hahin, do not move at all. 

dahdar, m.n., doctor, surgeon. 
— ^kL 

dahir, f.n., flour. — di. 

dahso, v.i., be quick, make haste ; 
dahsada, wan dahsan. 

dahso u, ad., quickly; dahso u 
tag, go quickly. 

dakab, m.n., rock, big stone. — ^ki. 

dako, f.n., upper part of a skull. 

daka'ad, a bald head. 

dai, f.n., fresh milk. — di. 

dai (wiih so), v.i.., look ; so — ya, 
wan so — yi. 

daimo, f.n., glance. 

daihi, m.n., small thorn tree, yel- 
lowish stem, very hard wood, 
used for spear shafts and bows, 
frames of vessels lor liquids. 

— gi- 
dai'mo, /.ra. [s. dawo). 
dairi,, disinherit, disown, 

dairis, m.n., disinhpritance. — ki. 
dairsan, a.v., disinherited, exiled; 

nin dairsan, a disinherited, 

exiled man. 
dal, m.n., fatigue, weariness. — ^ki. 

dal, or so dal, v.i., be fatigued, 

tired ; inai^an galabta ban 

ku dalai, this evening I am 

tired with that boy. 
dalan, or dashan, a.v., weary, 

dali,, annoy, tease, trouble, 

weary ; wai iss dalinayan, 

they tease each other. 
dal, m.n., limit, boundary. — ki. 
daldalasho, f.n., a camel's ha.f- 

day journey (as Irom Berberah 

to Dubar). 
dal,, bear, beget, create, pro- 
create, give birth, bring forth. 
dalo, v.i., come to birth, be creatncl 

(God alone can say so) ; wu 

dalan, he will come to birth ; 

ashadan dashai, the day I was 

dalin, f.n., birth. — ^ti. 
dalinyar, m.n., young man. — ki, 
dalinyaro, f.n., youth, young 

dal badan, a., prolific ; nagti 

dalka badnaid, the prolitic 

woman. (This word is used 

for all females.) 
ma dalais, a., barren (man or 

dal, m.n., young one, suckling 

(man or animal). 
dalasho, f.n., fecundity. 
dalab, w.<r.,beg earnestly, humbly. 
dalbo, v.r., apply, ask for you. 
dalal, v.i., shine, glitter, circulate 

(as blood); diggu wa dalala, 

the blood circulates. 
dalal, m.n.. brightness.— ki. 
kaga dalali, v.i., brighten. 




dalali,, melt (wax, butter) ; 
ku — , melt in. 

dalbo, m.n., crookedness of the 
legs. — hi. 

(nin) dalboleh, m.n., a crook- 
legged man. 

uagti dalbailahaid, f.n., the 
crook-legged woman. 

daldal,, gather the things 
and take them to another 

daldalasho, f.n., taking of things 
to another place. 

dalfo, /.«., gland, fleshy kernel. 

dalin, or dalinbilad, m.n., high- 
wayman, bandit. — ki. 

dallayad, f.n., umbrella. — di. 

dal'O, f.n., heat coming from the 
rays of the sun at his rising ; 
dal'adan iss u digaya, I warm 
myself in the rays of the suii. 

dalol, m.n., hole. — ki. 

daloli,, make a hole, bore. 

dama', m..n., design, intention, 
purpose, covetousness. — M, — 

dama', v.i., determine, intend, 
purpose, covet; dama'a, wan 

dama'san, a.v., determined. 

damad, m.n., sleepy or benambed 
person. — ki. 

damadsan, a.v., sleepy or be- 
numbed; gabaddas wa da- 
madsantahai, that girl is sleepy, 

damas, or damal, m.n., timbpr 
tree. — ki, — yo; ged damalah, 
every large tree (name known 
or unknown). 

dambas, m.n., ashes. — ^ki ; — ku- 
lul, embers. 

dambe, or dambai, or dambow, 
ad., after (these words are not 
used alone) ; gelin dambe, 
afternoon ; kolka, or marka 
dambe, future ; sa dambe, the 
day after to-niorrow ; hadda 
ka dambow, hereafter, from 
that time. 

dambai, v.i., remain behind ; 
ninki ka dambaiya, the man 
who is after him, i.e., the suc- 
cessor ; ninki ka dambayai, 
the man who was after him ; 
wa ki ugu dambaiyai (m.), wa 
ti ugu dambaisai (/:), it is the 
la»t ; wa neifti ugu dkmbaisai, 
it is the last breath. 

ugii dambais, f.n., last breath. 
— ti; wa ugu dambaistisi, it 
is his last breath. 

dambaisi,, leave behind ; 
ninki ka dambaisi, leave the 
man behind the others ; nin iss 
ka dambaisi, choose a succe^isor. 

dambais, m.n., the remainintt 
after, succession. — ^ki ; ninkas 
dambaiskisi 'absileh bu aha, 
the succession of that man was 

dambabid, or bud, m.n., kick (of 
a horse, a mule, an ass...) — ki. 

dameir, or dabeir, m.n., ass, 
donkey. — ki; dameir yar, a 
young ass, foal ; dameir di- 
baded, wild ass. 

dameir, f.n., she-ass. — ti. 

dameiro, m.n., ass (general name). 




damin, f.n., security for, pledge. 
— ti. 

damino,, be security or re- 
sponsible for, bail ; damina, 
wan daminan ; eg ! ninkas 
Warsama damintai, that man 
is responsible for Warsama. 

damoh, m.n., plaster, poultice. 
— M. 

ku damoh, v.i., put on a plaster, 

dan, m.n., jaw-bone, chin. — ki; 
timilii damanka, whiskers, or 
the hair of the jawbone, 

dangalah, m.n., palate, roof of 
th« mouth. — hi, — ^yo. 

dangalahsi (with ka,), break 
the mouth or the head. 

dan, f.n., condition, state, busi- 
ness, want, huiTy. — li; ninkas 
dantisu wa huntahai, the con- 
dition of that man is bad ; dan 
mahad lehdahai? what busi- 
ness have you ? dantaidu wa 
halkan joniadaha bariskah so 
gui', my business is, or I am 
in a hurry to bring all the bags 
of rice here ; ana dan u leh, I 
want to see him. 

dan daran, a.v., deprived of all, 
bad state. 

dan daro, f.n., poverty (extreme). 

dan, num. and a., all, entire, fit, 
ready; hilibka wa danyahai, 
the meat is ready. 

daman, ind. num. and a., all, per- 
fect, ready ; imlsa sa'adod ya 
sorta daman donta? at what 
o'clock will the food be ready? 
sortu gor dow yai daman 

donta, the dinner will be soon 

damai,, accomplish, com- 
plete, finish. 

damaiso, v.r., finish (for yourself ;) 
damaista, wan damaisan. 

ku damaw, v.i., abut, reach to. 

dama, a.v., finished. 

dama (»».), danta (/.), ad., better; 
falnin hadal ba dama, doing 
is better than talking. 

damad. — ki, or daman. — ^ti, «., 
accomplishment, perfection. 

dan, m.n., direction, side. — ki; 
daman [pi.) ; magalada dan- 
keda shishe, the other side of 
the town. 

dan,, drink (milk, ghee) ; 
dama, wan dami. 

dansi, o.c, cause to drink ; arurta 
dansi, give or make the child 
drin k (ordinarily they say anaha 
si, give milk). 

so dami,, fill ; kussada bi- 
yaha ku so dami, fill the water- 

dan, m.n., camel (water-bearer). 
— ki. 

danab, m.n., flash of lightning, 
— ki. 

danan, m.n., horse's neighing. — 
ki,— yo. 

danan, v.imp., neighs, chinks ; 
faraska danan, the horse 
neighs ; ka', ka' ! faraski ba 
dananai, get up, the horse has 
neighed; la'agtu wa dalasha 
dananta, money shines and 

danan, a., salted, sour; hilib 




danan, salted meat ; lin danan, 
lemon, citron. 

dandansid or -sis, m.n., challenge. 
— ki, 

dandanso,, challenge. 

dandul, f.n., skin pail used in 
digsing wells. — shi. 

dar, f.n., stone house. — ti. 

dar,, dip, fill in dipping (dip 
a pen). 

ku dar,, add to, appoint, settle. 

iss ku dar,, join, mix. (This 
verb is also used for the join- 
ing of letters and sentences.) 

iss ku daran, v.ip., be joined, 

iss ku daran, m.n., joining (of 
the flocks), joining, junction 
(of things). 

dar, root. 

ka si dar, v.i., become worse ; 
adigu wa ka si daraisa, you are 
getting worse ; gidigin wa ka 
si daraisa e wa side ? you are 
all getting worse, how is this ? 

daran, a. (This word expresses 
the privation of some goods or 
quality, and is never used 
alone.) mindi 'af daran, a 
blunt knife, i.e. a knife whose 
mouth ('af ) is deprived of the 
power of cutting. 

N.B. — The word dar in ka 
si dar may be considered as 
the root of daran, meaning de- 
prived of something. 

dar, f.n., oath, faith, fidelity. 
— ti. 

dar so mari,, affirm upon an 
oath, asseverate. 

daro, v.i., swear ; darta, wan 

dari, v.c, make him swear. 

dar, m.n., cloth, clothes (general 
name), dress. — ki. 

darka gasho, v.i., dress yourself. 

darka iss ka dig, v.i., undress. 

dar hassal, m.n., washerman. 

dar tol, m.n., tailor. — ki, — yo. 

dar samai,, weave; 

dar samais, m.n., weaver, — ki, 
— ti, — yo. 

darab, m.n., dew. — ki, yo. 

darabsan, a., dewy ; saka dulka 
wa darabsana, this morning 
the earth is dewy. 

darad,, interest (for the), sake 
(for the — of). — di ; daraddai, 
for me... 

kan daraddi, c, on account of 
that, therefore. 

daraf, f.n., border of a cloth, 
corners (of the loin-cloth). — ti, 
— yo; d!arafta so digo an hoga 
barisah kugu shubai, prepare 
the corner of your loin-cloth, I 
will put some rice in it. 

daragad,y^ra., during the time of 
rain theSomal prepares branches 
and boughs in the interior of 
his hut, so that if the water 
enters it, he may nevertheless 
sleep in it without being in- 
commoded by the water. This 
kind of bed or interior upper 
floor is called daragad, — di. 

darai, m.n., very large fig-tree, 
one of the largest trees in 
Somaliland. — gi. 

daraj, m.n.^ means. — ki. 




daran,y!M., a kind of sour shrub 
eaten by camels in the jungle. 
— ti. 

darar,/.ra., day (the twelve hours 
of light). — ^ti. 

dararta, ad., to-day. 

darar mal, m.n., a [lerson milking 
during the day. (It is shame- 
ful for a Somal to do so.) 

dararo, v.i., dine. 

dararad, m.n., dinner, or meal 
taken during the day. — ^ki, 

darbah,, slap. 

darbaho,^?!., slap. 

dardarau, m.n., legacy, bequest, 
last words of a dying father. 
— ki. 

dardaran, v.i., bequeath, leave to; 
dardarma, wan dardarmi. 

dareir, m.n., saliva, spittle. — ki, 

— yo. 

daremOj/re., short and close grass, 
very good pasture, stubble. 

darer, m.n , cattle. — ki. 

dareri, s. fofi. 

dareyo,/ra., chalk. 

darkain, m.n., kind of cactus, 
grows in dark groves, its bole 
has a reddish bark that peels off 
in diamond-shaped flakes. — ki. 

darih, m.n., street, road, way. 
—id, — yo. 

darman, m.n., colt, foal. — ^ki. 

dannaii,/n., filly. — ti. 

darur, _/!«., cloud. — ^ti, 

daruran, a., cloudy ; 'irku wa 
daruranyahai, or darur bu 
lehyahai, the sky is cloudy. 

darur, m.n., border, edge, selvedge 
added to the Isorder of the 

Somali leather dress or sandals 
in order to make them strong. 
— ki. 

darur,, filter, strain. 

darur, y.ra., filter, colander. — ti. 

das, m.n., inn, shop, stall. — ki. 

dasad, f.n., jug, pot, empty tin 
pot. — di. 

dastur, f.n., custom, habit, esta- 
blished manner. — ti. 

dau, m.n., way, path. — gi, — yo. 

daudar, m.n., chatting, babbling. 
— ki. 

daudar, v.i., chat, babble. 

(nin) daudarah, m.n., babbler, 

daudaula, m.n., kind of wood- 
pecker. — ki. 

daulad, or dowlad, f.n., judge, 
authority. — di. 

dauli, or dowli,, draw water 
from a well. 

da'un, m re., cholera — ^ki; da'uuki 
ba dilai, cholera killed him 

daiir, m.n., a certain number. — ki. 

daur, v.i., await, behold, have 

iss ka daur, v.i., be attentive, 
mind yourself, keep away from. 

dawa, m.n., pan. — M. 

dawa', m.n , male fox. — ki. 

dawa'0,y.ra., fox (general name), 

dawad, j'^.n., inkstand. — di. 

dawad,/.re., suit, process. — di. 

dawah, v.i., scream, shout, shriek. 

dawah, m.n , noise, scream. — M, 

— yo. 

dawan, m.n., small bell. — ^ki. 
dawar, m.n., machine. — ki. 
dawaro, f.n., alms. 




dawarsi, m.n., begsirg (of alms). 

dawarso, or dawirso, v.i., beg 
(for alms). 

dawo, or dai'mo, f.n., medicine, 
pkysic, medicament. 

dawai, v tr., give medicine, prac- 
tise physic. 

dawOj/.w., association, company ; 
dawannu lehnahai, we have 
an association. 

la dawaiso, v.r., associate thyself 
with him ; dawaista, associate 

daya',, lose ; daya'a, wan 

dayah, m.n.,rs\oor\, crescent. — ^ha; 
dayah 'usub, new moon ; da- 
yah badki, half-moon ; dayah 
dan, full moon. 

dayan, or diyan, m.n., echo. — ^ki. 

dayan, or diyan, v.i.., be echoing, 
echo ; dayama, or diyama, wan 
dayami; burti wa dayamaisa, 
the hill is echoing. 

dayi, m.n., fat, tallow under the 
belly of sheep. — gi. 

dayimis, or dayiman, m.n., eter- 
nity. — ki. 

dayim, or dayimanah, a., eternal, 
everlasting ; Ilah wa dayim, 
God is eternal. 

de'an, or da'an, m.n., juice, gravy, 
pus, matter, or any humour com- 
ing out from a living body. — ki; 
de'an ba bogtaida ka yimi, pus 
comes out from my wound; 
de'anka afka maska ka yi- 
mada wa urgnmo, the humour 
coming out from the mouth of 
the serpent is a venom (poison). 

deb'i,, loose, loosen, slacken. 
debi'san, a.v., loose, loosened, 

debin,/w.,lip. — ^ti; debno {plur.). 
ded,, cover him with his 

• sheet (garment). 

def, f.n., recompense, reward, 
salary.— ti. 

deg, v.i., alight, descend, disem- 
bark, land, campf unload ; ku 
— , adhere, stick to, catch hold 

deji,, land, disembark; war ! 
alabadoda deji, land, disem- 
bark your goods ; so — , go and 
land; ku — , apply (colours), 
lay to (one thing to another) . 

SO deg, v.i., descend (towards 
rae) ; ka — , get down from ; 
ku — , adhere, stick to, catch 
hold of. 

degdeg, int., be quick. (This 
word is sometimes used as a 
kind of curse, meaning "hasten 
to die.") 

deg, /!?!., ear. — ^ti. 

degaiso, v.i., hear, listen to ; fle- 
gaista, wan degaisan. 

dega, int. of surprise, meaning 
" see ! " " hear ! " 

degala, a., deaf. 

dega nugul, a., obedient. 

dega adag, a., disobedient. 

dega nuglow, v i., be obedient. 

dega nuglan,y!»., obedience. — ^ti; 

. dega nugail. — ki also is used. 

degahad, or digahad, m.n., bit of 
wood used as a broom. — ^ki. 

degsar, m.n., armful. — M. 

deh,/.w., centre, middle — dL 




deMa, ad., amidst, among, be- 
dahai, v.L, be in the middle; 

u — , go in tlie middle ; so — , 

come between. 
deh gal, v.i., intercede, negotiate, 

sah dehe, ad., midnight. 
deh,, say (see odo). 
deh, f.n., generosity. — di. 
dehsi, m.n., generous man. — gi. 
dehsi ahaw, or dehsi noho, v.att., 

be generous. 
deh daran, a., ungenerous. 
deked, f.n., harbour, pier, wharf. 

— di. 
dein, m.n., taking, buying at 

credit. — ^ki. 
dein had, m.n., merchant, bor- 
rower. — ^ki, — yo, 
dein, w.n., kind of fig-tree, variety 

of the darai. — ki. 
deir, m.n., dyke, butt (made 

around a Somali hut to protect 

it against water). — ki. 
deldel,, hang. 
dembi, m.n., sin.— gi. 
dad dembigaleh, m.n., sinner. 
denged,/.K., rod used for flogging. 

— di. 
dengadai,, flog, scourge, 
der, a., deep, high, long, tall. 
derai,, lengthen, prolong. 
flerer, m.n., depth, length, height. 

— ki, — yo. 
dereri,, lengthen ; iss ku — , 

lengthen (in adding something 

der, m.n,, he-gazelle.— ki. 
dero, f.n., gazelle (male and 

female in general), ganella 

derbi, m.n., wall, stone wall. — gi. 

derder,, take possession of 
(a devil); shaitan ba derderai, 
he was possessed of a devil. 

derderan, a.v., possessed (of a 

derderan, v.p., be possessed of a 
devil; derderma,wan derdermi. 

dereb, f.n., two skins sewn to- 
gether ; used to carry children. 
— ti. 

dereg, m.n., satiety, affluence, 

dereg, v.i., abound ; derga, wan 

• dergi. 

dergi,, make him abound. 

deregsan, a.v., satiated. 

deregsanaw, v.att., be satiated. 

deri, m.n., earthenware pot used 
as a boiler. 

deris, neighbour, inhabitant, sub- 
ject.— ki, — yo. 

derisnimo,y;M., neighbourhood. 

derji, m.n., tailor. — gi. 

dermo, /.M., mat. 

deyib, f.n., Somali pine, moun- 
tain cedar. — ti. 

dhobi, m.n,, washerman. — gi. 

diafad, /.n., banquet. — di. 

dib, ad., back, behind ; kasi dib 
bu u hadai, that one remained 

dibad, f.n., back, out, hind part ; 
dibadda, outside ; ninkas dib- 
baddu, or dabaddu ka bahaya, 
this man is discharging from 
behind, or has diarrhoea. 

dib n had, v.i., remain behind. 




dib u jogso, v.i., retire, shrink ; 

dib ban u, or uga jogsan, I 

will retire from. 
dib u si,, give back, rptum. 
dib, m.n., tail of a goat. — ki. 
dib hallow, m.n., scorpion. — ^hi, 

— yo. 
dib (with xi),, give, bestow ; 

u dib, give to him. 
diba, m.n., giver. — ^hi. 
dibniii,/.«., delivery, giving. — ^ti; 

alabadaidi dibnintedi wa igu 

humaid, the delivery of mj 

goods was very difficult. 
VL dibo, i!.tr., intrust ; amauadas 

yan ku diban, I will intrust 

to you that deposit. 
dibin, or debia, f.n., lip. — ^ti; 

dibno (plur.). 
dibi, m.n., ox. — gi. 
dibi yar, m.n., bullock. 
dibi',/ra., drop, speck, spray. — di. 
dibow, m.n., kind of euphorbia 

(as abush) , milky sap. — gi, — yo. 
dibtan, m.n., hard-working man. 

— ki, — yo. 
dibtan, v.i., work hard ; dibtama, 

wan dibtami. 
did, v.i., deny, disobey, refuse, 

forbid ; Ilahhai dembi did, 

God forbids sin. 
didsan, a.v., disobedient, refusing ; 

wil didsan, a disobedient boy ; 

la didsanyahai, it is refused. 
u did,, forbid, prevent ; wah- 

hasi wa wah la iss u didai, 

that thing is forbidden. 
didnin,/.n., disobedience, refusal. 

— ti. 

did, m.n., cancerous wound, rot- 
ten reddish flesh in a wound. — 
ki; hontasi did bai lehdahai, 
that wound is cancerous. 

didar,_/!re., striped hysena. — ki. 

didhin, m.n., myrrh-tree. — ki. 

didib, m.n., peg. — ki, — yo. 

didib,, peg, put a peg. 

didid, m.n., sweat. — ki, — yo. 

didid, v.i., sweat. 

didig, m.n., female. — ki, — yo, 

difo, or dufo,, jerk, pull, 
snatch, take by force ; ka - 
take by force from; ku — , 
fall on, knock, strike; SO — , 
take from him to you. 

dig, m.n., blood, menses. — gi 
diggu ma ka yimada 1 are the 
menses regular 1 

dig bah, v.i., bleed ; — a, wan — 

dig ka si da,, let blood; dig 
ban ka si dein, I will let blood. 

dig bah, m.n., bleeding. — hi. 

dig, m.n., cock. — gi, — ag, 

digag, m.n., cock and hen (gener 
ral name). — gi. 

digaga, f.n., hen. — di. 

dig.rin ('as or madow), m.n., 
guinea-fowl. — ki. 

dig (with u or ku),, warn, 

dignin,y^n., warning. — ti. 

dignin dir,, send a warning. 

dig,, place, set, prepare; 
miska dig, prepare the table. 

ka dig, v.i., make of, from. 

digo,, keep for you, lay aside, 

ku dig,, write ; warhadda 
D 2 




ku aig, write the letter ; war- 
hadda ku digai, I have written 
the letter. 

u dig,, teach. 

dig, f.n., bent sticks used for 
making the frame of a Somali 
hut. — ^ti. 

digdoho, f.n., thorn-tree, hori- 
zontal sticks of which huts are 
made, first' stick placed when 
making a hut. 

dig lola, f.n., small boughs or 
sticks tied together with 
leathern strings, crossing the 
T)ent sticks (or digo) on which 
tliey are placed and fastened. 

digsi, m.n., kettle, boiler. — gi 
(see disti). 

dih,y.?i., dry torrent, bed of a river. 

dihah, m.n., a woman with child, 
pregnant. — hi. 

dihal, m.n., starvation. — ki. 

dihali, v.i., make him starve. 

dihalan, a.v., starving. 

dihalanaw, v.att., be starving. 

iihi,f.n., grass. — di. 

dihsi, m.n., fly. — gi. 

dikri, m.n., bush growing near 
river-beds, smells like a ripe 
black currant bush ; its leaves 
are boiled with meat and grease 
for sick people. 

dil,, hesit, strike, kill ; iss — , 
commit suicide. 

dilan, v.p., be killed; dilma, wan 

ail,, peel, rind. 

dil, f.n., kind of jar made of the 
fibres of a certain wood first 
passed through the fire. — shi, 

dila', v.imp., become worse (this 
verb is used for sores) ; bog- 
taidi wa dila'dai, my sore has 
become worse. 

dila', v.i., be torn, burst. 

dila'i,, tear (cloth, paper). 

dilal, m.n., broker. — ki. 

dilal, or dilal noho, v.i., broke. 

dilif, or daba dilif, m.n., sheep's 
tail below the fat. — ki. 

dilin, f.n., line.— ti, — ^mo, or 
dilimoin (plur.). 

dillai, m.n., adulterer. — gi. 

dillo, f.n., adultress, prostitute, 

diUaiiimo,/?i., adultery. 

din,, diminish, lessen, reduce; 
dima, wan dimi. 

diman, a.v , deficient, less; la'ag- 
tu wa dunantahai, there is not 
money eno\igh ; la'agti wa 
dinaid, the money was not 

dimad, m.n., death. — ki, — yo ; 
dimasho-adi is also used for 

dimo, v.i., die ; dinta, wan di- 

dinsan, a.v., mortally wounded. 

din, f.n., religion. — ti, —mo; 
dimo badan ba jira, mid ke- 
liah se hagagsan, tjiere ma 
many religions, but only one 
good ; din islamed, Moha- 
medan religion. 

din, m.n., tortoise. — ki. 

din baded, m.n., turtle. — ki, 
.— yo, 

dinad,/.n., cat.— di; dinad yar, 




dinad habishi,/?i., wild cat {felis 
cerval). — di. 

dinbil, f.n., spark, sparkle. — shi. 

dir,, send, despatch ; la dir, 
he has been sent; i so dir, 
send to me ; u dir, send to. 

dir, m.n., bark of a tree, a peel, 
a rind. — ki. 

dir,, peelj bark, abrade. 

dirau, a.v., peeled, stripped, 
balked ; gedkasi wa diranya- 
hai, that tree is barked ; wan 
kufai wai i dirantai, I fell 
down and barked myself. 

dirau, m.n., abrasion.^ — ki ; dir- 
anka igu yal bog ban ka 
hadai, my abrasion has turned 
into a sore. 

diria, m.n., peeling. — ki. 

dirindir, f.n., caterpillar. — ^ti. 

dir, f.n., trees (always used in 
the plur). — ti. 

dirad, f.n., compass. — dL 

dirah, or dnrah, one of the 
divisions of the seasons. 

dirM, m.n., worm, larva.— gi. 

diri,, heat, warm. 

diran, v. p., be healed, warmed; 
dirma, wan dirmL 

dirir,, assail, fight. 

dirir, /.»., assault, fight, battle, 
quarrel, conflict. — ^ti. 

dis,, press, squeeze, push hard. 

disan, a.v., pressed, squeezed ; 
burigi disan, the pressed to- 

disin,/!7i., pressing, squeeze. — ti. 

dis, V tr., build ; U dis, build for. 

diso, v.r., build for yourself ; 
dista, wan disan. 

disin, or disnin, m. and f.n., buikl- 
inef, construction. — ki or — ti. 

U dis,, give in marriage ; 
gabaddadu ma i disaisa ? will 
you give me your daughter in 
marriage 1 

disti, m.n., kettle, boiler. — gi. 

ditahab, or digtab, m.n., tioe of 
which spear-shafts are made. 
— ki. 

diyan (s^e dayan). 

diyar garai, v.L, make ready 
(especially used for giving 

diyar, a., ready; ninki wa diyar, 
the man is ready. 

d'oai, or d'uai,, pray, bless ; 
inankaga u d'oai, bless your 
son ; Ilah ha ku d'oaiyo, may 
God bless you ; i d'uai, pray 
for me, bless me. 

d'oo, or d'UO,/"™., prayer, blessing. 

d'oaiso, v.r., pray for you ; Ilah- 
how wan d'oaisauaya e iga 
abbal, my God, I pray lo 
thee, listen to me. 

dob, f.n., sign of a camel's anger 
(a kind of fleshy ball hanging 
out of its mouth). — ti. 

dobleh, a., angry camel (having 
the sign) ; aurtasi wa aur dob- 
leh, that camel is angry. 

dobla, a., not angry camel. 

dob, m.n., bachelor, unmarried 

person. — kL 
dof, m.n., sea-voyage, travel, em- 
barkation. — ki ; — af, or — yo 
dof, v.i., sail ; gonnad dofi, or 
dofaisa ? when will you sail 1 




dofi,, hoist (a sail, a flag). 

— v.i., embark, travel by sea. 
dofsi,, embark, cause to 

voyage, send by sea ; adigaig^ 

baa dofsiu, I will embark my 

dofar, m.n., pig, boar, hog, wart- 
hog. — ki. 
dog, f.n.^ green grass. — ti. 
dog'ob, m.n., log, a big but short 

dogor, f.n., fleece, wool, hair (of 

goats, cows, horses) ; always 

plur. — ti. 
dogor rugmad, m.n., name of a 

disease (sheep and goats) which 

makes the fleece become poor 

and scanty. — ki. 
dogor rugmad, or dogorgois, m.n., 

doh,, disembowel (open the 

dohnin, f.n., rupture, opening of 

the belly (in cutting).- — ti. 
doh, m.n., bed of a river, dry 

river. — hi. 
dohana, or dohanai, m.n., kind of 

dohbo, /.w., clay, mud, bog, 
dohba h.aredad,/.»., lime, plaster, 

— di. 
dohb, , plaster (either with 

mud or lime). 
dohbai,, defile, pollute, soil, 

sully.— dembi naftu dohbaiya, 

sin defiles the soul. 
doho, f.n., field, large plain or 

valley covered with grass, 

stream of water. 
doh.oii,n!.n.,blockhead,8tupid. — ki. 

don,, wish, desire, purpose, 
seek, search, want, betroth. 
(This verb is also used as an 
auxiliary to form certain tenses 
of the verb ; see Gram.) 

done, v.r., look for yourself ; 
donta, wan donan. 

donin, f.n., wish, desire, research, 
— ti. 

donin, m.n., betrothing. — ki. 

donan, a.v., betrothed. 

doni, f.n., large boat. — di. 

dor, m.n., a bunch of hair left on 
the top of the head of small 
boys. — ki. 

dor, a., nice. 

dor, m.n., choice. — ki; wa dor, it 
is chosen. 

dori,, barter, change, choose; 
i dori, change with me ; mida- 
has mid iga dori, choose one 
of these fruits for me. 

doro, v.r., choose for yourself ; 
dorta, wan doran ; ka — , 
choose from amongst. 

dorasho, /n., choice. 

dorsan, a v., chosen. 

dorsanaw, v.att., be chosen. 

iss dori, v.r., disguise yourself. 

dorso,, exchange. 

dora, m.n., cock, fowl ; — M — 
doroin (plur.). 

doro, /.«., fowls in general. 

doro, word meaning dirt formed on 
the sexual parts of the body ; doro 
weinai naga tag, dirty boy, go 
away. (This expression is a foul 
cursing used amongst Somalis, 
and having the shameful mean- 
ing of eating the dirt formed.) 




dorrad,/.n., the day before yester- 
day.— di; dorrad dawan ku 
siyai, the day before yesterday 
I gave you medicine. 

flow, a., near, adjacent, recently ; 
wa i dowyahai, he is near me. 

iiowai (with so), v.c, cause to ap- 
proach; iss ML, or ku — , put 
roar each other. 

U dowow, v.i., be near, go near ; 
u dowada, wan dowan. 

so dowow, or dowo, v.i., come 
near, approach ; isagu wa so 
dowa, kolki kui kaleh 'araren, 
he had come near to me when 
the others iied away. 
' dowan, f.n., proximity, nearness. 
— ti. 

dowdowlai, v.i., shout, bawl. 

dowdowleh, m.n., shouter, bawler. 

dowli (with so),, draw (water) ; 
biyo so dowliya, (ye) draw 
water ; biyo si dowli, draw 
water (when I am out). 

dowlis, m.n., rope and pail used 
for drawing water. 

druan, m.n., peg-top. -ki. 

du, m.n., skin garment worn by 
women in the jungle.— gi. 

dub, m.n., human skin. — ki; dub- 
ka ka bihi, skin. 

dub,, fold, roll up, cover the 
head ; dudub, fold {intensive 

dubnin, m.n., fold, plait, wrinkle, 
crease. — ki. 

dub,, roast on the fire, toast, 

dubo, t'.r., roast (for you). 

duban, a.v., broiled, roasted; hilib 
duban, roasted meat. 

flub, m.n., second bark of trees 
(used for making ropes) . — ki. 

flub,, point, make acute some- 
thing ; i flub, point that for 

dubalad, f.n., wick. — di. 

dubbai, or dubba, m.n., hammer. 

dubba, or dubbo,/.«., gourd, kind 
of pumpkin. — di. 

dud, v.i., pout. (This verb is also 
used for a wife having been 
beaten by her husband ; in this 
case it has two meanings at the 
same time, of pouting and of 
running away ; nagti wa du- 
daisa, the wife is pouting, and 
will run away ; nagti wa du- 
dai, the woman pouted and 
fled away. 

dudmo, f.n., pout. 

dud, m.n., mound, embankment. 
— ki. 

dud, f.n., wood, forest. — di. 

fluduu, m.n., fore-arm, wrist, 
cubit, shank (of camels). — ki. 

fluflumi,, measure. 

duf, m.n., humour, mucous of the 
nose {see sin). — ^ki. 

duf, m.n., covering of a Somali 
hut. — ki. 

dufan, m.n., castration. — ki. 

dufan,, castrate, emasculate. 

(nin) dufanan, m.n., eunuch. — ki. 

dufo {see difo and jid). 

dufi,, allure, attract, entice. 

dufso,, attract, entice to evil. 

dufan, m.n., food or grease re- 




maining round the mouth after 
meal. — ki ; war ! dufanka iss 
ka bihi, clean you? lips (mouth). 

dug,, ruh, shampoo ; iss ku 
— , beat with. 

dug, or dog, f.n., place where 
water is found after rain (a kind 
of pond). — ^ti. 

dug, or tog, f.n., aim, aiming at 
(in shooting). 

(nin) dug or tog badan, a., a man 
skilful in aiming. 

la dugo, or la togo,, aim at ; 
la dugta, wan la dugan. 

dugag, m.ra., animal, beast (general 
name). — gi; dad iyo dugag, 
men and animals. 

dugagad, f.n., bracelet (general 
name), bangle of glass. — di. 

flub, m.n., marrow. — hi, — yo. 

dubul, f.n., coal. — sM; — nol, 
Kving, or burning oal ; — 
dableh, or — dambasleb, fire- 
brand ; duhusha ! cry of coal- 

duhul ku reb, m.n., black ant. — 
ki. (After the Ijiting of this 
ant, a pain resembling that 
produced by a burning coal 
remains in the place it has 

duhur, m.n., noon. — ^ki ; duhurka 
dabadisa, the afternoon. 

dub, a., aged man, person ; nin- 
kasi wa dub, that man is old. 

dub, f.n., old age. — di. 

dug, a., old (only used for things); 
darkasi wa dug, that garment 
is old. 

dub, /.«., game (play), — di; dub. 

ba ku jirta, or ku la jirta, or 
dub ban kugu lehyabai, or dub 
ban ka badiyai, you have lost 
a game ; dub ban ku derabai, 
I have gained one game more 
than you. 

dubfid, m. and f.n., last play or 
play just before dark. — ki and 
di ; duhfidki ban ka elai, or 
ka badiyai, I have gained the 
last play. 

dub, f.n., vagina. — di. 

dub, m.n., fornication. — hi. 

dub, v.i., fornicate. 

dub, v.i., put the finger in grease or 
in any other liquid and lick it. 

dukan, m.n., shop, public house. 
— ki. 

dukis, a., walking slowly, 
stealthily, as a lame man, a 

dukus, v.i., go stealthily, crouch. 

duksi, m.n., shelter against the 
cold, the wind, feeling warm. 

— P- 

duksi, v.i., warm in the sun, pre- 
pare a warm place, make the 
place warm (by shutting the 
door or windows). 

duksiso, v.r., warm yourself. 

dul, f.n., top, point, surface. — shi. 

dul, ad., above, over, up. 

dusha, dushi, prp., on, iipon, 
above ; dusha sarai, higher in 
place; dusha gestedi, upwards. 

duled, m.n., outside (of a house) 
— di ; isagu duled ku joga, he 
is outside. 

dul, f.n , back (especially used 
for camels). — shi. 




d'il, v.i., fly (birds). 

dul,, attack (another tribe). 

dul, m.n., nostril. — ki. 

dul, m.n., earth, ground, floor. — ki. 

dul garir, m.n., earthquake. — ki. 

dulam, or dulum, m.n., tyrant, 

tyranny. — ki. 
dulan, or dulun, v.i., govern as a 

tyrant ; dulama, wan dulami. 
dilldul, m.n., splash, bespattering. 

— ^ki. 
dilldul, v.i., bespatter, splash. 
dulhado, v.i., be patient ; u — , 

.•support, be patient with him. 
dulhadsho, f.n., patience ; wa nin 

dulhadasho badan, he is a vury 

patient man. 
duUah, m.n., abscess, boil. — hi, 

— yo. 
dubnadow, f.n., jackal. — di ; da- 

wa'o dulmadowais also used. 
dululuh, m.n., pimples covering 

the skin of goats after rain. — 

dulun,, cheat ; dulma, wan 

dulun, m.n., cheating. — ki. 
(nin) dulunah, a., a cheating man ; 

nin dulman, a cheated man. 
dumar, m.n., womankind, harem. 

— ^ki; dumaro is used when 

speaking of women in general. 
dumashi, f.n., sister-in-law. — di. 
dumi,, overthrow, put down, 

demolish ; ahalkaiga dumi, de- 
molish my house. 
dumi,, hide, conceal. 
dumo, v.r., hide yourself ; dunta, 

wan duman. 
dumasho, /.n., hiding. 

dun,/.7i., pJur., thread, forefathers. 
— ti ; wa duntaidi, it is my 
forefather ; wa duntl rer he- 
bel, they are the forefathers of 
such a family. 

dundumo, f.n., white ants' hill in 
the desert. 

duni, or duniyada, f.n., world. 
— di ; war ! duniyada 'iddina 
ku had! maiso, or duniyada 
'iddina weliged ma jiri dona, 
nobody will always remain in 
the world. 

dunyo, /.«., wealth. 

dunkal, f.n., poisonous plant, 
poison. — shi. 

dunkal si,, poison, give him. 

dunko, v.i., kiss. 

dunkad, or dunkasho, n., kiss, 
kisse.'!. — ki, — yo (m. plur.) ; 
— adi. 

dunyalai, m.n., small mosquito. 

dur, m.n., grass growing in thick 
and high feathery clumps, from 
six to eight feet, excellent pas- 
ture when young. — ki. 

dura, m.n., vessel with a handle, 
used for taking soup or water. 

durai, m.n., catarrh, cold. — gi ; 
durai ha i haiya, I caught a 

durai had, v.i., get a cold ; — a 
wan durihyi. 

durhan, m.n., drum. — ^ki. 

durdur, m.n., river, stream. — ki, 

durma, f.n., curb (part of a 
bridle). — di. 




dubsin, /.ra., taking oiit of liquid 
gum from the bole of a tree, as 
small boys do in the jungle. 
— ti. 

duhso, v.i., take out the liquid 

durug, v.i., move, remove ; durka, 
wan durki ; u — , go near to 
him; ka — , go away from ; 
si — , go farther on ; SO — , 

durki, v.t., bring forwards, ad- 
vance, approach. 

durwa, m.n., spotted hysena (name 
used by the Dhulbahanti. — gi. 

duryo, f.n., kite (bird). 

dus (with ka), v.i., sink. 

dusi,, thiust in. 

dus, v.i., fart, foist. 

duso, f.n., fart, foist. 

dushin, or dusin, f.n., ground, 
floor. — ti. 

duti, v.i., limp, go lame. 

dutiyai, m.n., lame man. — hi. 

dutiso, f.n., lame woman. 

du'un, f.n., flint stone. 

du'un dableh, f.n., steel (of a 
tinder box). — ti. 


e, int. part., -whutl ■wherel (This 
letter is afExed either to article, 

e, rel. pr., who, which. 

e, con^., and. 

Ehba, m.n., God. (This word is 
generally used with the pass. 

pron. in the same way as abba 
— hi {which see). 

ed, f.n., cause, motive, reason. — 
di ; dirirta eddedi wa aurti la 
hadai, the cause of the attack 
was the robbery of camels. 

ed,, suffer a lo-ss, have a bad 
result in a bargain, in changing, 
in taking a medicine which pro- 
duces a contrary effect to one's 
expectation. A robber caught 
whilst stealing and punished, 
the unrepentant sinner in hell, 
will say, wan edai, I have been 

edis, f.n., bad result, reverse, con- 
trary. — ti. 

edai,, accuse (generally used 
in the sense of accusing falsely) ; 
ku — , accuse him falsely ; ha 
1 edain wahba ma an haditi, 
do not accuse me, I have taken 

edan, m.n., prayer call (used 
among Mussulojans). — ki ; e- 
danki ma mahashai, have you 
heard the call. 

edib, f.n., politeness. — ^ti. 

edbi, v.i., cause to be polite ; war ! 
iuamada edbi, teach the boys 
to be polite. 

edibsan, a., polite. 

edibsanaw, v.att., be polite. 

eddo, f.n., paternal aunt. 

'edib, or 'idib, f.n., heel.— ti ; 
'edbo (plur.). 

'edidi, or 'idJidi, a. and m.n., 
narrow, strait : kursigu wa igu 
'edidi, the ciiair is narrow for 
me; 'edidiga nin ba mari 




kara, a man may pass through 
that narrow place. 

'edidsan, a., narrow ; mel 'edid- 
saa, a narrow place. 

'edidi, v.i., make it narrow. 

'edin, «., raw, unripe, not cooked ; 
midkasi wa edin, that fruit is 
not ripe. 

'edin, m.n., rawness. — ki; baris 
'edinah, uncooked rice. 

eg! ega! erya! int., behold! look! 

eg,, behold, look, see ; ber- 
rito barisba la keni, wan egi 
inu wanaksanyahai, to-morrow 
they will bring rice ; 1 will see 
if it is good. 

bal eg,, look at ; bal an ego, 
markabka la shegayo, let me 
look at the ship they are speak- 
in? of ; bal i eg, look at me ; 
bal na eg, loik at us; an so 
durko, inan bal egi karo, let 
me come near, that I may look 
at it. 

iss ka eg, v.i., take care, be at- 
tentive. (This word is also 
used as an interjection, mean- 
ing : attention ! behold ! hark I 
hist I lo ! war ! siradka iss ka 
eg! be attentive, that you may 
not break the lamp. 

u eg, v.i., look for him (in the 
place of, instead of) ; i eg, 
look for me ; ino eg, look foe 
us ; warhaddas i eg, or i si eg, 
look at that paper for me. 

i eg, v., look at me ; ad i eg, 
look well at me. 

igu eg, look at me with; hobadda 
igu eg, look at me with the 

spy glass. (This verb is also 
used for reproving a man for 
his not helping another in a. 
moment of danger; mahad 
ninki igu egaisai? why did 
you look at the man, instead of 
helping me 1) 

so eg,, go and look ; war ! i, 
ino so eg, go and look for me, iis. 

leb eg, V. imp., it suits; hamisku 
wa i, kn, ina lebegyabai, the 
shirt suits me, you, us ; i eg 
bal in darkani i lebegyahai, 
look if thuse clothes suit me. 

iss leb eg, a., alike, the same,; 
labada kitab wa iss leb eg- 
3ribin, the two books are alike. 

iss u eg,, assimilate, com- 

u ekow,, resemble ; abbihi, 
boyadi, bu u egyabai, u eka, 
U ekadai, he resembles, resem 
bleii, resembled his father, his 
mother ; the past form, eka, 
denotes a rpsemblauce quitu 
past, and ekadai a lasting state 
of resemblance which already 
formerly existed ; wa iss u eg- 
nabai, we resemble each other. 

u ekaisi,, assimilatp, make 
like ; usbatan tan kaleb u e- 
kaisi, make this stick like the 

egmo, f.n., look, glance. 

'eho (with ka), v.i., be partial, fa- 
vour ; wa naga 'ebanaya, be is 
partial to us; ninki wa laga 
'ebadai, the man is under tiie 
oppression of an unjust sen- 
tence ; ninki laga 'ebadai Adan 




bu ka ashtakain oi ashtakon, 
the man oppressed will appeal 
to Aden. 

gar 'elio,/.Ji., partial, wrong sen- 
tence ; gar 'ehaai nagta di- 
shai, a partial (unjust) sentence 
killed this woman. 

'ehasho, /.?»., partiality,oppression. 

ei, m.a., dog. — gi. 

eiyad, /.«., bitch. — di. 

'ei, or 'i, v.imp., cry, bark, bray, 
cackle (is used for the cry of 
any animal) ; WU 'iyi. 

'eisi (with kaga), v.i., cause to cry, 

'eib, f.n., loss of reputation, 
blemish incurred through de- 
famation, defamation. — ti. 

'eibai,, defame, blemish. 

'el, m.n., well. — ^ki. 

'el gun fog, m.n., abyss; 'elki 
gunta foga, the abyss. 

'elal jog, or 'elal jogjog, f.n., 
bustard, dweller at wells (see 

'eli,, give back, return (a 
thing) ; ka — , defend, protect. 

iss ka 'eli,, return, restore 
(a stolen thing). 

so 'eli,, bring back (as an 
answer to a letter), restore, re- 
establish, call again ; dinta ku 
so 'eli, re-establish religion. 

u 'eli,, bring back to him, 

kala 'eli,, separate, set apart. 

'esllO,, take back again ; ka — , 
do not give (keep for yourself). 

'elmi, or 'ihni, m.n., written book 
of religion, as Bible, Gospel, 

Coran ; 'elmi bai ahriyahan, 

they are reading the written 
book ; 'elmigi bai hayan, they 
have the knowledge of the 
written book. 

'emri, m.n., course of life, life ; 
'emrigagu ha rago, may your 
life be prolonged ; 'emrigisi 
bu lastai, his life is finished 
(is said of an old man, and also 
of a young one whose health is 

erai, m.n., word. — gi. 

eri,, defeat, drive away, dis- 
miss, discharge, pursue ; — ya, 
wan — yi ; ka eri, drive ; 
musmar ku eri, drive a nail; 
ka eri, drive out. 

ergo, f.n., ambassador of peace. 

'eyo, or 'iow, m.n., small owl. 

fad, m.n., cloud. — ^ki; fadka hal- 
ka ka so bahai, look at that 
cloud rising up there. 

fad,, hollow out. 

fadanfad, m.n., mole. — ^ki. 

fadi, v.i., sit, stay, abide, dwpll, 
inhabit, reside : — ^ya, wan fad 
yi ; Adan bu fa^ya, he is at 
Aden (abides, dwells, resides). 

fadi, m.n., abiding. — gi. 

fadisi (see farob),, congeal 
milk, curdle ; 'anaha fadisi, 
curdle the milk ; 'anihi fadi- 
siyai, T have congealed, curdled 
the milk. 




fadiso, v.i., sit, sit down, curdle ; 
fadista, wan fadisan; 'auihi 
wa fadisanayan, the milk 

fadi, m.n., large herd of horses. 
— gi ; fadi ban lehyahai, I have 
a large herd of horses. 

fah, m.n., consultation, secret 
word. — M, — ah; fah goniah 
bannn lehnahai, naga tag, we 
have a secret word, a consulta- 
tion, leave us, go away. 

fajas,, strike (for breaking or 
splitting), break, split. (This 
■word is principallj used in 
fighting with a sword and for 
the wound received with a club. 

fajaso, f.n., stab of a sword ; eg ! 
fajasada igu da'dai, look what 
a stab I have received. 

fal,, act, cause, do. 

falnin, m. and f.n., action, deed. 
— ^ki and — ^ti ; ninkas falnin- 
tisu wa wada huntahai, the 
deeds of that man are all bad. 

fal, v.t., enchant, make incantation. 

fal, m.n., incantation, charm, spell. 

wah fal, a. and m.n., incantator, 
magician, sorcerer ; nin wah 
fala, a sorcerer; ninki wah fall 
jirai, the sorcerer; nag wah 
fasha, a sorceress ; nagti wah 
faU jirtai, the sorceress ; anigu 
wah ban fala, I am a magician. 

falag,' ?//..«., plaiting (of mats). — 
gi ; falko [plur.). 

falki, v.ti ., plait (mats). 

falah, m.n., pride. — hi. 

falah, m.n., a proud (man). — hi. 

(ninj falahah, a., piouJ (man). 

faUad, f.n., arrow. — di. 

fallad kulul, f.n., Ijigh fever ; 

ninkas fallad kulul ba haisa, 

this man has high fever, 
fallad hun, f.n., very strong, 

violent fever ; ninkasi wa 

faUad hun yahai, that m<ju 

has a violent lev er. 
falladaha horahda, f.n., sun- 
fallad, num., one-eighth. 
falti, f.n., cowdung (when liquid, 

also that of camels when so). — 

fan,, m.n., croup, horse's back. — 

— ki. 
fan, V i., boast. 
fan, m.n., boasting. — ^ki; fanka 

iss ka da, leave off your l>oastiiig. 
fanah, m.n., knuckle. — ^hi, — ^yo. 
fanah, m.n., gap in the tront 

teeth. — hi. 
fandal, m.n., spoon. — ki. 
fandal faroleh, m.n., fork {i.e., 

lit. spoon having fingers). 
fanto, f.n., dung (of horses, cows, 

fanto, f.n., small pox. 
fax, f.n., finger, handwriting. — tii 
fardoho, f.n., middle finger. _ 
faryar, f.n., small finger. — ti. 
farogorgor, m.n., slap (with the 

b.iok of the hand). — ^ki. 
farabadan, a., numerous, 
far, f.n., valley, dale. — ti; labada 

burod far ba u dahaisa, there 

is a valley (small) between the 

two hills. 
farahal, m.n., washing of the 

hands. — ki. 




farahal,, wash the hands ; i 

farahal, wash my hands for me. 
farahalo,, wash your hands ; 

farahasha, wan farahashan. 
far, 7n.n., dry curd, chefse. — ki. 
farob, v.i., curdle; faroba, wan 

farah, or farhad, m.n., delight, 

joy. — M; farahha jannada, 

heavenly delight. 
farhi, v.i., delight, rejoice. 
farahahaw, v.att., be joyful. 
farahau, a. and m.n., joyful, 

pliasing, charming, joyfulness. 

— ki. 
farahsan, a., agreeable. 
farah,m.?j., fringe, edge. — hi, — yo. 
faral, m.n., standing up (during 

the Mussulman prayer). — ki. 
faram,, ballast ; fanna, wan 

fanni, m.n., ballast. — gi. 
faras, m.n., horse. — ki, fardo 

fardo, m.n., general name for 

horse, and also herd of horses. 

fardoleh, /.«., cavalry. — di. 
farasjir, m.n., groom, horse-dealer. 

— ki. 
farid, a. and m.n., clever (boy), 

man (of wisdom), cleverness, 

prudence; ninkasu, wilkasu 

wa farid, this man, this boy 

is clever; ninka faridkaah, 

ninki faridkaaha, the man of 

farsamo, /.«., ability, cleverness, 

skilfuliieifsin all kinds of work; 

ninkas farsamadisi wa la yab- 

sanyahai, the skilfulness of 
that man is wonderful. — badan, 
very clever ; nimankasi wa 
farsamo badanyihin, these 
men are very clever. 

farow, m.n., zebra. — gi. 

farur, /.«., lip (of certain animals 
whose lips are like those of the 
hare). — ti, — yo. 

faruran, a., hare-lipped; ninka 
faruran, ninki farura, tne 
hare-lipped man. 

fasah., m.n., leave, leisure, per- 
mission. — hi, — yo. 

fasah, v.i., give leave, allow. 

fasah hado, v.i., get leave ; ba- 
driga ka fasah hata, get per- 
mission from the father. 

fatal, m.n., bawd. — ki. 

fatalad, /.«., bawd {fern.). — di. 

fatari, m.n., marblos (to pky 
with). — gi; fatatir. — ti, also 
is used. 

fayido, f.n., advantage, gain, pro- 
fit ; fayido ma an helin, I got 
no proht. 

fed,, comb (used with the 
pron. i, ku, ...). 

fedo, v.r., cumb yourself; fedta, 
wan fedan; iss u — , comb 
yourself; adiga ma ku feda? 
shall I comb you t maya, ha i 
fedin, no, do not comb me. 

feid, f.n., rib. — di. 

feno and fenfeno,, gnaw ; 
fenta, wan fenan ; lafta hado 
feno, or fenfeno, take "that 
bone and gnaw it. 

feyig, foyig, or fojig, a., wary, 




fojigla, a., carelsss. 
fojiglaan, f.n., carelessness. — ti. 
feyigan, /.«., attention, prudence. 
feyigow, or nin fojiganahaw, v.i., 

fi', m.n. and a., clever boy, man ; 
inankasi wa fi', that boy is 
clever; fi'hasa abalki horai 
helai, that clever boy gained 
the first prize. 
fi'an, a., clever, discreet, good, 
wise, acute, pointed ; nin fi'an, 
a clever man ; niman fi'fl'an, 
clever man ; ninki fi'ana, the 
clever man; nagti fl'anaid, 
the clever woman ; kasi wa 
halim fi'an, that is a sharp pen. 
fi'nan, /.n., skill, cleverness. — ti. 
fi'anaw, v.att., be clever, good. 
fidin, m.n., man's comb (either a 

single stick or trident).— ki. 
fidmer, f.n., bat. — ti. 
fidnad, or fidmad, m.n., fire-l'rand. 
nin fidniad wa leh, or nin fidnad 
badan, fire-brand (in speaking 
of a man inflaming the passions 
of others). 
fill,, point, make acute, sweep ; 

horiga flh, point that wood: 
fihan, a.v., pointed, acute, swept; 
meshi fihnaid, the swept place. 
fihi, m.n., schoolmaster. — gi (this 
word is especially used for 
persons teaching religion). 
fihsi, or fuhsi, m.n., sip, sup. — gi. 
fihso, v.t}\, sip, sup, suck up. 
fikir, m.n., thought. — ki. 
fil, m.n. and a. (used for very old 
persons) ; iss ku fil bannu na- 
hai, we are of the same age. 

filow, v.imp., be sufficient; wai 

ku fllan, it will be sufiicient ; 

ku filantahai, it is sufficient. 

filan (with ku), a.v., .sufficient, 

enough ; igu filan, kugu filan, 

sufficient for me, thee ; ku filan, 

sufficient for him, her, them ; 

nagu filan, sufficient for us; 

idin ku filan, sufficient for you. 

filfil, f.n., pepper. — shi. 

fin, f.n., small bird living on ants 

and insects. — ti. 
fin, m.n., pimple, stye. — ki. 
findi'il, m.n., remaining of food 

in the teeth. — ki. 
flndi'ilo, v.r., pick off the remains 

of food , findi'islia, wan 

findi'ilasho, f.n., act of picking 
out the remains of food from 
the teeth. 
findi'ilgura or ai, m.n., tooth- 
finjan, or fujan, m.n., cup, bowl. 

— ^ki. 
firash, m.n., carpet. — ^ki. 
firid, m.n., scattering, spreading 

over, propagation. — ^ki. 
firdi,, scatter, propagate. — 

ku — , scatter on. 
firdisan, firdadan, or firdadsan, 

a.v., scattered. 
fod, f.n., forehead, brow, hole 
used as a window in the So- 
mali hut. — di ; ahalka foddisa 
lab, shut the hole. 
fof, m.n., noise made by herds of 
cattle when on the move. — ki. 
fofi,, let go, or take the cattle 
to graze ; holihi ban so fofai. 




I let go, or took the cattle to 

fog, a., distant, far ; mel fog, a 

distant place ; mesM fogaid, 

the far place ; ka — , farther, 

more distant ; ka wada — , the 

fogai,, remove, avert ; naga 

fogai, remove, avert from us. 
fogOW, v.i., be, or go far ; si — , 

go farther. 
fogan, f.n., distance. — ti. 
foji,, remove, separate ; kala 

— , open, disjoin, separate. 
foh, m.n., incense burnt in a room 

where people are assembled. — hi. 
fol, m.n., front tooth. — ki. 
fol marodi, m.n., ivory; folka 

marodiga yan haista, I have 

foldah, or foldahasho, m. andy^«., 

was-liing of the face. — hi. 
foldah,, wash the face ; i 

foldah., wash my face; u foldah, 

wash his face. 
foldaho, v.r., wash your own face, 
forar, or foror, m.n., bowing, 

bending, stooping. — ^ki, — yo. 
forari, or forori,, bow, re- 
verse, turn upside down. 
forarso, or fororso, v.i., stoop. 
fori, f.n., hiss, whistle. — di. 
fori, v.i., hiss, whistle ; — ^ya, wan 


frausis, m.n.. Frenchman. — ki, 
frenji, m.n., European (in general). 

— gi- 
fiid, m.n., broth (of meat, rice ...), 
soup. — ^ki; fudka 'ab, drink the 

fiid,, drink (coffee, soup), 

smoke (cigar, pipe). 
fiid, f.n., a liquid thing (or nearly 

liquid) become or made dry j — 

'araah, clod of earth. 
fudaid, m.n., lightness, meanness, 

contempt. — ^ki, -^yo; ninkas 

fiidaidkisi wahba i la ma aha, 

that man's contempt is nothing 

to me. 
fadud, a., light, not heavy, mean, 

contemptible, base. 
fududai,, make like, con- 
temn, despise. 
fudfudud, a., agile, active, 
fiidfudaid, m.n., agility, activity. 

— ki. 
fuduh, or funih, m.n., dislocation. 
fudnl, f.n., curiosity. — sha. 
fuduli, m.n., curious man. — gi. 
fudul badan, or faduliah, a., 

ful, v.i., mount, ride, embark. 
fuli, V.C., cause to mount, ride, 
fulan, m.n., riding. — ki. 
fulanbadan, a.,agood riding man. 
fiilai, or fiila, a. and m.n., cowaid, 

bashful. — hi, 
fulanimo, f.n., cowardice. 
fulul, m.n., dung (of cows, goats, 

sheep, camels). — ^ki. 
fur,, attest, open, develop, 

unload, divorce; mahad furta? 

what do you attest ? wahan 

fura, I attest, I certify ; u — , 

attest, certify to ; ku — , attest 

furfur,, unfold, unload. 
furan, a.v., open, free, divorced 

(only used for women). 




furnin, /.«., opening, divorce. — 

fur, m.n., small lid, cork (of a 
bottle). — ki. 

furai,, sHut, close, cork. 

farad, m.n., two skins sewn to- 
gether and used for carrying 
children. — ki, — yo; see dereb. 

faruh, m.n., smaU-pox.— hi. 

furuhdan, m.n., pock-mark. — ^ki, 

— yo. 

furhan, Goran. 

furo,, disarm; furta, wan 

, fuxan. 

fato, f.n., anus. 


ga, gi, gu, def. art., the {off). 

gan, gas, ga, go, dem. a. prn., 
this, that ; yon, yonder (of.)- 

gai, ga, gis, ged, gen, and gaya, 
gin, god, 2^oss. a. prn., my, thy, 
his, her, our, your, their (aff.). 

ga'al, m.n., relations (parents). — 
ki; so ga'al na ma lihid? 
have you not any relations ? 

ga'an, f.n., arm (the whole mem- 
ber), hand. — ti. 

ga'an, m.n., elephant'strunk. — ki. 

ga'an badan, a., benevolent ; 
ninkasi wa ga'an badan ya- 
hai, that man is benevolent. 

ga'anbaded, m.n., arm of the 
sea. — ki. 

ga'angeli, v.i., interfere.^ 

gab, m.7t., shortness, — ki. 

gab, v.i., be short, delay, be slow. 

gabi,, abridge, shorten, cause 
a person to be late. 

gaban, a,, short; ul gaban, a 
short stick ; ulo gagaban, short 

gabnin, f.n., shortness. — ti. 

gabis, m.n., abridgment. — ki. 

gabad, f.n., girl, maid, daughter. 
— di; gabdo ^m\ hablo (plur.); 
gabaddi walalkai, my niece ; 
gabaddi walalkis, his niece. 

gabadano, /.ra. and a., cold (se- 
vere) ; gabadanadi kol here 
dad badan o Somaliah ku din- 
tai, the severe cold killed many 
Somal last year. 

gabai, m.n., poem, song, verse. — 

gabai, v.i., sing, versify. 

gabaya, m.n.,- poet, singer, min- 
strel. — gi. 

gabalajif, f.n., last quarter of the 
moon. — ti. 

gaban, or sa'gabanah, m.n., milch 
cow. — ki. 

gabati, m.n., first present offered 
to a father after he has con- 
sented to give his daughter in 
marriage. — gi. 

gabbal, m.n., light of the day. — 
ki ; — so bah, dawn ; gabbal- 
ki so beh, the dawn ; — da', 
twilight; gabbalki de', the 

gabo, v.r., cover yourself with the 

gabasho, f.n., covering with the 

gabariel, m.n. , shield-maker. — ki; 
.see gashan samais. 




gabow, a. and m.n., ancient, old 

(man, thing). — gi. 
gabow, v.i., be, become old ; 

gabowba, wan gabowbi. 
gabowbai, a., old; kitabki ga- 

bowbai i ken, bring me the 

old book. 
gaboyai, m.n., bow, arrows and 

quiver (as a whole). — gi. 
gaboyaileb, m.n., bow-shooter. — 

gad, W.Z., arrive, reach; SO — , come 

to him ; i SO gad, come to me. 
gadsi,, reach, make reach, 

arrive ; i gadsi, make me reach, 
gadnin, f.n., reaching. — ti. 
gad, m..n., beard, — ki. 
gadleb, a., bearded. 
gadla, a., beardless. 
gad ma lehitai or -laliita, a. and 

m,.n., beardless. 
gad fed, m.n., comb (for the 

beard ; it is the same as sahaf, 
\ woman's comb). — M.. 
■gad madowbai or madowba, a., 

a man in his prime, or a blaek- 

bearded man. 
gad,, catch, assail, attack 

unexpectedly (from an ambush). 
gadnin, f.n., going on softly. 
gadi, or gari, m.«.,. carriage, cart. 

gadiwaleh, m.n., coachman. — ii. 

faras gadi jidab, m.n., coaoh- 
horse; faraski gadigi jidi jirai, 
the coach-horsB. 

gadid, m.n., fbe two camels each 
Snmal must have to go from 
one place to another. — ^ki ; wa 
gadidla yahai or-^adid joa leh, 

he has not even the two camels 
(i.e. he is a poor man). 

gadodj.OT.M,, curdled milk. — ki. 

gadod, v.i., curdle ; 'anihi wa 
gadodayan, the milk curdles. 

gadodi,, curdle ; 'anaba ga- 
dodi, curdle the milt. 

gafanai, m.n., camel's tick. — hi. 

gafur, m.n., snout, muzzle, nose 
(for all animals). — ki. 

gagab, m.n., falling of a man 
knocked down by the blow of 
a club on his neck. — ki. 

gagabi,, thump, knock down. 

gajo, f.n., hunger. 

gajahun, f.n., a fit of hunger ; 
gajadi humaid, the hunger-lit. 

gajo, v.i., be hungry. 

gajaisan, a., hungry. 

gajaisnaw, v.att., become, remain 

gal, v.i., enter, penetrate ; gela, 
wan gelin ; so — , come in ; u 
so — , enter for some purpose ; 
ahalkisa u so gal, enter into 
his house for . . . ; so — , sur- 
render ; no so gal or gala 
(phir.), surrender to us (you 
cannot fight any longer). 

ma galo, a. and v. imp., unfit, he 
is nn&t, he cannot ; anign ma 
:galo, I am unfit ; ninkasi da- 
galkas ma galo, that man can- 
not go to that battle. 

so gal, m.n., entrance. — ki. 

deh gal (with the prn. na), v.i., 
negotiate, intercede ; ha na deh 
gasho, let her negotiate ; wan 
idin deh geli, I will intercede 
for you. 




biya gal, or biyo galen, m.n., 
pond, lake, place where there 
is always water,— ki. 

gal, m.n., sheath, scabbard, case. 
— ki. 

gashan, m.n., shield. — ki, 

gashamo samais, m.n., shield- 
maker. — ki. 

gashan had, m.n., a young man 
able to wear a. shield and to 
get married. — ki, 

gashan, f.n., a girl able to get 

gahno, f.n., coition. 

geli,, cause to enter, put in 
(this word is very often used 
in a bad sense, as abbaha inta 
geli; igeli; wankugelinaya); 
so — , admit, let enter. 

so gelis or gelin, m.n., admission. 
— ki ; wUka so gelis kisu wa 
ino huma, the admission of 
that boy was bad for us. 

nabad gal, v.i., be in peace ; — , 
wan geli ; ma nabad gashai ? 
were you in peace ? ha nabad 
galai, yes, I was in peace ; 
nabad geliyo, go, be in peace. 

gasho, v., clothe (yourself), to get 
into a coat, trousers. (This 
word cannot be used for Somali 
dresses, but only for European 

gashi, m.n., credit, debt. — gi. 

ninka gashiga kngu leh, m.n., 

gashiyaisan, a. and m.n., debtor; 
ninki gashiyaisna, the debtor. 

gal, m.n., infidel.— ki (used for 
all men not Mussulmans), 

galo, f.n., ptur. of gal. (This 
word is used by Mussulmans 
either for the generality of 
people not having their belief, 
or for only one country ; as, 
habashi o dami wa g^lo, all 
the Abyssinians are infidels.) 

galab, f.n., evening. — ti ; galbo 
( plur.). 

galbed, m.n., west. — ki. 

galabso,, merit. 

galabsi, v.c, cause to merit. 

galabildan, or garabildan, m.n., 
phosphorescent gleams of the 
sea at night. — ki. 

galah, m.n., breaking. — hi. 

galahsi, v.c, cause to break. 

galas, m.n., glass. — ki, — yo. 

galgalo, v.i., wallow. 

galgalasho, f.n., wallowing. 

gelgelin,/.M., place trodden by ca- 
mels or other animals, in which 
they Avallow andformahole.— ti, 

gelgelin biyaha, f.n., stagnant 
water (water remaining in low 
places after rain). 

galsho, /.«., hole made to receive 
tl^e remaining water, so that for 
some days more they may have 
clear water when the balli or 
gelgelin biyaha is finished (see- 

ga'anta biyo badan ba i galai, 
this sentence means blister on 
the hand. 

gali, m.n., kitchen. — gi. 

galib, or dameira galib, m.n., 
gad-fly, horse-fly. — ki, 

galof, a. and f.n., barren (for all 
females). — ti, 



galol, W.W., fibrous tree producing 
red dye and very hard wood. — 

gallow, m.n., bustard (small one). 

— gi. -yo- 

gama', v.i., sleep ; a, wan gam'i. 

gama', m.n., sleep.— hi ; war ! 
gama'hi bu i dilai, sleep has 
killed (discouraged) him. 

gama'san, a.v., sleeping, sleepy; 
nin gama'san ban so maxai, I 
passed by a sleeping man. 

gami' wah, a., sleepless, wakeful, 
in want of sleep ; ninkasi 
garni' wah, he is a sleepless 
man ; ninka buka garni' wah- 
yai, the sick man cannot sleep ; 
nia buka ma gam'o, a sick 
man cannot .sleep. 

gambad, m.n., three-legged stool. 

gambo, /.«., coiffure of Somali 
women (a black linen). 

gambo, f.n., anna (silver money). 

gamello, f.n., hair of the tail and 
mane (of horses, camels, ...). 

gan,, aim at (used when 
hunting with bow and arrows) . 

ganad, m.n., man aiming at. — 

ganasho, f.n., aiming. 

gan, a. and m.n., old, aged, being 
in age ; ninkasi gan bu joga, 
that man is old ; ninkas gan- 
kisi wa inta, the age of that 
man is such. — ki. 

gana', f.n., cost, price, value. — 
di ; faraskas gana'disu wa 
konton rubiadod, the price of 
that horse is 50 rupees. 

62 GAR 

gana' adag, a., dear, valuable ; 
hilibki an so ibiyai wa gana' 
adka, the meat I bought is dear. 

gana' jebi,, cheapen. 

gana' jaban, a., cheap. 

gana' jabnan, f.n., abatement, 
lowering of the price. — ti. 

gandafil, f.n., callousness.— shi. 

gandafilow, v.i., be callous ; gan- 
dafilpba, wan gandafilobi. 

gando, f.n., bell ; gandadi kani- 
sada, the bell of the church. 

gango,/.?i., snuffling, nasal twang. 

gangaleh, m.n., man having a 
nasal twang, snuffler. — hi. 

gar, f.n., justice, sentence, claim, 
plaint, suit. — ^ti. 

gar daro, f.n., injustice ; gar 
daradasi 'adabta yai ku ka- 
hain or bai ku gein, that in- 
justice will lead you to hell; 
war ! gar darada iss ka da, 
desist from that injustice. 

gar daran, a., unjust. 

(nin) gar leh, a., (a man) having 
gained a suit ; ninki garta 
laha, the man who gained the 

(nin) gar la, a., (a man) who lost 
the ; ninki garta laa, the 
man who lost the suit. 

gar eho, f.n., wrong or partial 

gar goi,, judge, give judg- 

gar mari, v.i., give the thing he 
claimed. (This word can only 
be used after the sentence.) 

gar si, v.i., give to him ... (said 
by someone to the man con- 




demned in order to press him 
to give the thing claimed); 
gar i si, give the goods I claim. 
gar shego, v.i., complain ; wa 
nin gar sheganaya, it is a man 
gar u shego, v.i., complain against; 
gar ban U shegan, I will com- 
plain against; nin ban gar u 
sheganaya, I am a man com- 
plaining against. . (The interro- 
gation of the judge will be, 
mahad shegatai? what do you 
say, complain of ? So for a 
suit only.) 
garai,, prove ; garai deh, 
prove it then; la garai, it is 
ku garai, v.i., prove against (re- 
fute the accusation) ; wa ku 
gar, it is proved against. 
garan, v.i., make a complaint 
to the governor ; garama, wan 
garami ; i garan; make the 
complaint for me ; la garan, 
make known the complaint to ; 
serkalki i la garan, lay the 
matter before the governor for 
garansi, v.c, cause the litigants 
to give or pay what they have 
been sentenced to pay. 
garo, v.i., comprehend, know, 
understand, guess ; mahad 
ga'antaida ku hayo 'ar garo, 
guess, look what I have in my 
hand ; mahad ku garanaisa ? 
how do you know ? kala — ,, distinguish. 
garasho, f.n., understanding. 

(wah) an la garan, a., unintelli- 
gible ; eraigas wa erai an la 
garan or an la karin, that 
word is unintelligible ; ma ga- 
ranaisa ? do you understand ? 
ma garatai ? did you under- 
stand ? garan mayo, or ma ga- 
ran, I do not understand. 

garad, m.n., good sense, wisdom, 
age of discretion. — ki. 

garadleh, a., sensible. 

garadyelo, v.i., have good sense, 
attain discretion^ years of dis- 

garad, m.n., chief, king. — ki, — 
yo ; ninkasi wa garad, that 
man is a chief, a king. 

gar, m.n., knot by means of 
which Somali women tie their 
garments on the right shoulder, 
ropes with which the small 
boughs of the Somali huts are 
tied together. — ki. 

garai (with the prn. i, ku, u), 
make the knot. 

garaiso, v.i., make the knot ; 
na ! garaiso, Oh ! woman, girl ! 
make your knot. 

garab, m.ra., shoulder. — ^ki; garbo 
(plur.) ; laf — , shoulder-blade; 
iss — , sboulder to shoulder, by 
the side. 

garba galai or gala, m.n., coat, 
shirt. — hi ; garba galayashini 
gashada or hata, take your 
garbo, m.n., part before the camel's 
hump, cataract(waterfall), range 
of mountains ; burta garboho- 
da, the range of mountains. 




gara dubleh, m.n., small grey 

squirrel living in holes tinder 

ground. — hi. 
gara', m.n., illegitimate, bastard. 

—hi, — yo. 
gara',, beat repeatedly, 
garanug, f.n., Gazella walleri. — 

gargar,, help ; war ! ninka 

gargar. Oh! help the man; 

rag wa ki iss gargara, men, 

help each other. 
gargor, m.n., stubble or thatch 

used for making a kind of 

thick mats or carpets with 

which Somali huts are covered. 

— ki, — yo. 
garir, m.n., shivering, ague. — ki. 
garir, v.i., shiver, tremble. 
kaga garirsi or gariri, v.c, cause 

him to shiver, tremble. 
gashan, see gal. 
gasirad, /.w., island. — di. 
gatannr,, sow slowly. 
gaulalo, f.n., tree the bark of 

which produces red dye. 
gebni, m.n., gad-fly, horse-fly; 

see galib. 
ged, m.n., tree, thing. — ki. 
ged'ad, f.n., bush with a white 

flannel-like leaf. — di. 
gedo, m.n., pasture, grass, any 

kind of food for animals. — hi. 
ged'anod, m.n., small-pox.^— ki. 
geda goiyai, m.n., astrologer, 

dealing with the devil. — hi. 
geda goiyo, f.n., astrology, the 

spell itself. 
ged hajin, m.n., nettle. — ki. 
ged ma'an, a. and m.n., sweet. 

good ; sweet thing (as fruits, 
sugar, or liquors of which 
they do not know the name). 
— ki. 

geddo, _/!«., horse's brisket. 

gedi, m.n., camel's journey (of 
one day). — -gi. 

gegi, gagi, or gego, f.n., level 
ground. — di. 

gei,, take to, lead ; i gei, 
take me to or take for me to 
such a place ; U — ,, take 
or bring to him, her, them ; 
wan u, ku gein, I will bring 
to him, to thee ; wad i, no 
keni, thou wilt bring to me, to 
us ; (gei is used to express a 
tendency from me to ..., and 
ken for a tendency from a place 
to me ;) iss u — ,, add, , 
join, assemble ; war — ,, 
proclaim, publish, bring news. 

gel, m. and f.n., camel (geli, 
plur. ; gelal, plur., is rarely 
used); war! gelal ma yima- 
den? have the camels come? 
ha, gelasheni yimadai, yes, 
our, camels have come. 

gelka'abadis, f.n., kind of lizard. 
— ti. 

gelin, m.n., time, division of the 
day. — ki ; — dambe, after- 
noon ; — here, forenoon ; — 
dehe, midnight. 

gembissa, f.n., house made of 
wood and mud or cow-dung. — 

gemo, m.n., horse's mane. — hi. 

geniyo, f.n., mare. 

gerar, m.n., poem which is sung 




on horseback. — ki, — yo (other 
songs may also be so called). 

geri, f.n., death (for men only). 
— di. 

gerri, m.n., giraffe. 

ges, f.n., direction, side. — ti. 

gesta, prp., beside. 

ges, m.n., horn, antler. — ki; — 
as or geso {plur.}. 

gesi, a. and m.n., brave, bold, 
courageous, warrior, soldier. — 
gi; nin gesiah., a courageous 
man ; nuikasi wa gesi, that 
man is a soldier. 

gesinimo, f.n., boldness, courage. 

gibin or gaban, m.n., age. — ki 
(this word is also used for 
children and small boys, and 
for small divisions of time) ; wil 
gibinah or gabauah, a small 
boy ; ia gibinah or gabanah 
halka jog, wait a little while 

gidi, num., all, whole (inflected 
with the poss. prn.). 

girgir, or jirjir, m.n., rim, edge, 
brim. — ki, — yo ; 'elka gir- 
girkisa ha dowan, do not go 
near the edge of the well. 

giringir, f.n., wheel, hoop. — ti. 

go, v.i., be cut, die ; go, he is 

goai, a. and m.n., dead ; nin 
goai, a dead man ; nag godai, 
a dead woman; dadki dinta, 
the dead men; (a man exhausted 
by work will say : wa goai, I 
am dead). 
go,, cut (generally used for 
goi) ; iss — , cut yourself. 

go, m.n., half part (of a fruit), 

loin-cloth. — hi. 
gogo,, cut into many parts, 
pieces ; basashi i gogo, cut the 
onion ; kala — has the same 
meaning as gogo. 
gogoso,, cut into parts for 
you ; gogosta, wan gogosan ; 
kala gosta,, partake with. 
kala goi, or kala go,, cut 
into parts (meat, paper ... ), 
violate, open a girl before 
her marriage, deflower ; la- 
bada melod u kala goi, cut 
into two parts ; ha kala goin, 
do not violate, open . . . 
gob, m.n., respectable man.^ki. 
(This name is generally given 
to all Somals except to the 
Tumals, Midgans, and Yibirs, 
who are called sab). 
gob, m.n., very large gnarled 
tree growing in river-beds to 
height of 50 to 70 feet, leafy, 
small thorns, and stringy bark. 
— ki. 
gobiyahan, m.n., a small red bird 
with white spots on the wings, 
a crest on the head, a kind of 
parrot. — ki. 
gobo, f.n., circle. 
gobai,, make a circle. 
gobabi,, make a circle, a 
round, mark the place for a 
g^babin, f.n., circle, round made 
to mark the place for a tent 
and also its size. — ti; horahdu 
wa gobabin, the sun is round 
(a circle). 




golaban, a., circular, round, 
gobais, m.n., wooden tube used 

for puffing at the fire, kind of 

clarionet, fife. — ki, — yo. 
god, m.n., hole (in the earth), 

pit, den, cavern, burrow. — ki. 
sogod,, bend ; hanso sogod, 

bend a bow. 
godgod, m.n., undulation of the 

land. — ki, — yo. 
godi, m.n., border. — gfi. 
godir, m.n., male koodoo antelope 

{Strepsiceros kudu). — ki, 
gof, m.n., dry well, dry bed of a 

river, orbit of the eye. — ki. 
gog, m.n., large jar made of 

camel's skin for ghee. — M. 
gogol, f.n., bed (complete), bed or 

mat and blanket. — sH. 
gogol,, prepare the bed; 

gogla, wan gogli. 
gol, f.n., lioness. — shi. 
gel, f.n., slope, declivity. — shi. 
gol, m.n., castrated camel. — ki. 
gola, m.n., stable for horses. 

golab,, sift. 
golab, m.n., sieve. — ^ki, — yo. 
golli, or dawa dulmadow, /. and 

m.n., jackal (with a black 

back). — di, — ki. 
goUi warabais, golla waraba, 

kind of fox. 
golmud, m.n., whey. — ki. 
gomod, f.n., camel's hoof. — di. 
gomod, m.n., chafe. — ^ki. 
gomod, v.i., chafe, be galled by 

gomodi,, chafe, warm by 


gOni, a. and f.n., single, alone, 

goniab. (mel), f.n., solitude, soli- 
tary place ; meshi gonidahaa- 
haid, the solitude ; mel goniah 
ban tegi, I will go into soli- 
tude (solitary place). 

gor, f.n., time. — ^ti ; gor, gorah 
kalai or gor wanaksan kalai, 
come in due time. 

gorta, cnj., when. 

gortas, ad., then (that time), 

halkiyo gorti, ad., since; hal- 
kiyo gorti iss ugu ken dam- 
baisai, or an ku arkai, amrti 
dami iga wada damatai, 
since we met last time, or the 
last time I saw you, I have 
lost all my children. 

gor badan, or daur gor, ad., 
. often. 

gor dow, ad., soon; gor dow 
kalai, come soon. 

gor walba, or gor iyo galab, ad., 
always, every time. 

tan iyo gortan, or had iyo intan, 
ad., till ; jog tan iyo gortan, 
or bad iyo intan imauayo, 
wait till I come. 

laba, sadeh ... gor, ad., twice, 

gorma? ad., when? 

gorna and gorra, ad., at no 

gora ■ mohor, m.n., very large 
gnarled thorn tree, stringy 
bark, dark brown flat top. 

gora yar, m.n., small thorn tree, 
stringy bark, and long white 




gorai, m.n., male ostrich (see 
halda). — gi; gorayo (p/wr.). 

gorayo, /.«., ostrich (general 

gorgor, m.n., large Hack vulture 
(species of). — ki. 

gorof, m.n., skin pail used in 
digging wells, lid having the 
same form and use as a hadub. 
— ki, — yo. 

gorof leged, m.n., callousness of 
the camel's hind legs. 

goror, m.n., bleeding of the nose. 
— ki. 

goror, v.i., bleed from the nose. 

gossorad, f.n., bag of dates. — di. 

gowra',, behead, slaughter. 

gowra', m.n., beheadings slaugh- 

gows, m.n., molar tooth. — ki. 

gu, m.n., year, age, winter, rain 
during winter. — gi. 

gub,, burn, brand, scorch. 

gubo, v.i., burn, be consumed, 
jealous; muhu u gubanaya? 
what is he burning for 1 or why- 
is he so angry or jealous 1 

gttban, a.v., burnt. 

giid, ad. and m.n., above, over ; 
gudka tag, go up, over. 

gUdaha, prp., in, within. 

gudiM, m.n., the inside, interior ; 
ahalka gfldihisi ban ku jira, 
I am inside the house. 

gud, m.n., horse's mane. — ki. 

gud, v.i., travel during night, at 

gudhur, a. and m.n., dark, dark- 
ness (when the moon is not 
shining). — ki. 

gud,, circumcise. 

gudan, a.v., circumcised; nin 
gudan, a circumcised man ; 
gabad gudan, a girl circum- 
cised (sewn). 

gudnin, f.n., circumcision. — ti. 

gudi, f.n., speaker in a secret 
meeting, vice-chief, taking the 
place of the chief when he is 
absent. — di. 

gud, v.i., be weaned; arurtasi 
gudai, that child was weaned ; 
afarrta nagod nasM ka gud, 
these four women have their 
breasts dried up. 

gudi, with ka,, wean, sever; 
(a mother will say) wan iss 
ka gpidin, I will wean, sever 
from me ; la — , be weaned, 

gudimo, or gudumo, f.n., axe 
(crooked one). 

gudubsi, v.i., look for a ford. 

gudubsino, f.n., ford. 

gudnd, a., crimson, scarlet, red. 

gududouni or a, m.n., lynx. — gi. 

guh, v.i., buzz, whisper, growl. 

gugubod, m.n., medicinal tree. — • 
ki, — yo. 

gugnlah, m.n., cuckoo. — hi. 

gula, f.n., curiosity. — di. 

gulawa, m.n., a curious man. — 

gulai, f.n., hoopoe. — di (common 

g^ulf, m.n., army. — ki, • — yo. 

guluf,, attack; gulf a, wan 
gulfi (gulfa is generally used, 
for the singular ku guluf is 
used) ; ka — , get up and run 




away ; iss ka — , defend your- 

gumar, m.n., abdomen. — ki. • 

gumbur, f.n., rock, rising ground, 
mound. — ti. 

gumburi, m.n., wild ass. — gi. 

gun (or gUn for the fern.), a., 
advanced in age, old ; gun bad 
tahai, you are old. 

gumais, f.n., man or woman ad- 
vanced in age, contemptible 
person. — ti. 

gumais, f.n., kind of cuckoo. 

gun, f.n., bottom, root (of a tree), 
abyss. — ti. 

'el gun fog, f.n., abyss; 'elki 
gunla foga or dera, the abyss. 

gun ma leh, a., bottomless. 

gunud, v.i., knot (make a knot) ; 
gunta, wan gunti. 

guntin, f.n., knot, bundle.— ti. 

gunti, m.n., knot made for tying 
the loin-cloth. 

gunti (with the pm.), gird with 
the loin-cloth ; wan u guntin, 
I will gird him with the loin- 
cloth; sunka guntiga igu hegi, 
fasten my loin-cloth with the 

gunus, m.n., murmur, grumbling. 
— ki, — yo. 

gunus, v.i., murmur, grumble. 

giir, v.i., depart, migrate, trans- 
port (with a caravan). 
giirnin, m.n., departure. 
gurguro, v.i., walk on hands and 

feet, on all fours; gurgurta. 
gurgurasho, f.n., the walking on 

hands and feet. 
gur,, pick up, take away; 

i gur, pick up, take away for 
me ; so gur,, bring here 
(towards me) ; kala — , select. 

guro and gurguro, v.r., pick up 
for yourself; gurata, wan 
guran; so — ,, go and pick 

mido la iss u gurai, a gathering 
of fruits. 

giir, m.n., marriage, matrimony. 
— ki. 

u guri,, give in marriage. 

iss u guri,, marry (them), it 
is said so to the khadi. 

gurso, v.i., marry ; gursada, wan 
gursan ; wa nag la gnrsadai, 
or wa nag nin leh, she is a 
married woman; nagti ninka 
lahaid, the married women ; 
ninki nagta laha, the married 

gura', m.n., wrongness. — hi. 

gura'an, a., wrong. 

gurai, a. and m.n., left-handed. 

gurgur, m.n., room made in a 
Somali hut {see hoUad). — ^ki. 

gurgur, m.n., general name for 
all Somali vessels. — ki; ahalka 
gurgurkisa had or gur, take 
all the vessels of the house. 

gurhan, m.n., clamour, shout. — 

guri, m.n., hut, house, large en- 
closure in which huts are built. 

— ffi- 
gus, m.n., membrum virile. — ki. 
guto, f.n., assembly (of men), 

gu'unso, f.n., ball, any round 





H, H. 

ha, hi, hu, art.m., the (aff.). 
ha, han, has, ho,, this, 

that, yon, yonder (of'.). 
hai, haiga,, my, mine. 

ha, haga,, thy, thine 

hi, his, hisa,, his (aff.). 

hei,, her, hers (aff.). 

haya, hayaga, ), our, 

hen, hena, j ours. 

hin, hina,, your, yours. 

hod, hoda,, their, theirs. 

ha, acf.j yes. 

ha, part., meaning "that"; eonj. 
used in the Imperative mood 
3rd pers. m. and f. sing, and 
plur., and in the 2nd pers. sing. 
and plur. negative form. 

ha ! int., sigh when feeling pain. 

hab,, find your food in the 
bazaar, streets, anywhere. 
(Most Somals say so to their 
small hoys ; when they are 
about 6 or 6 years old, they 
leave them either in Aden, 
Berberah, or in any other town 
on the sea-coast and go to their 
own affairs in the jungle, and 
their sons grow up thieves and 
beggars.) 'orod suhha hab, go 

. in the bazaar and find your food. 
hab, m.n., the finding of food 

somewhere. — ki. 
habab, ni.n., loss of a person (in 
the way)j missing the way. — 

habab, v.i., be lost, go astray; 

ilmiJii habab, the child is lost. 
hababi,, lose (in the way), 

cause to go astray, bewilder, 
hababsan, a.v., lost, gone astray, 

bewildered ; wilki hababsana, 

the lost boy. 
habad, /.«., syphilis. — di. 
habag, f.n., gum, glue. — ti ; 

habko (plur.). 
habaghadi, m.n., false myrrh 

tree. — gi. 
habal, m.n., conception. — ki. 
habal, f.n., grave, tomb. — shi; 

uin walba habal ba haisata, 

there is a grave for every man. 
habalo, m.n., cemetery. — hi. 
habal furai, m.n., striped hyaena. 

— hi. 
habar,, curse. 
habaran, or habar haba, a.v., 

habar, f.n., old woman. — ti ; 

habro (plur.). 
habaryar, f.n., maternal aunt. 

— ti. 
habas, m.n., dust. — ki. 
habeib, f.n., aphony, loss of voice. 

■ — ti. 

habein, m.n., night. — ki ; habein 

bad, midnight. 
habeinimo, or hurda habeinimo, 

f.n., night watch. 
habeiio,/.M., short sight, privation 

of sight at night. 
habeno haba, a.v., short sighted; 

ninkasi habena haba, that man 

is short sighted. 
habhab, m.n., water-melon. — ki, 

■ — yo. 




haMo, f.n.plur., young girls. 

habo, f.n., combustible, fuel, fire- 

habsi, or habis, m.n., prison, jail. 
— gi, — ki. 

had, f.n., time. — di. 

baddaba, ad., consequently, now, 
therefore; haddaba iga tag, 
therefore leave us. 

haddeh, eonj., because. 

badder, or baddada, or badda- 
datan, ad., just now, imme- 

hadma ? ad., when 1 

baddai, ad.,-ao-w; baddai i da'dai, 
now I understand. 

badow, ad., after, after a time. 

badowto, ad., after, afterwards. 

badba,, such a one. 

bad, m.n., midday, noon. — ki. 

badimo, f.n., meal (ordinarily 
taken before noon). 

bad, m.n., shade, shadow. — ki. 

badai,, shade. 

hadaisan, a.v., shady. 

bad, v.i., remain, stand, stop. 

hadnin, or badis, f.n., act of re- 
maining. — ti. 

bad, m.n., remainder, balance. — 
ki ; badki badai, the re- 
mainder ; la'agti so badai ma 
dama, the balance of the 
money is not right ; wabba 
ma badin, nothing remains. 

had,, steal. 

hadnin, m.n., theft, stealing. — ki, 

had,, sweep. 

dul had, m.n., sweeper. — ki, 

had, f.n., fowl, poultry, birds 
(gen. name). — di. 

had, m.n., bird, fowl.^-ki. _ 

hadkaadag, f.n., hawk. — ti. 

had, f.n., down (of birds) . — di, 

had, v.i., fly, expire ; ka — , fly 
from, expire (used for agony) ; 
ka hadai, he h&,s expired; 
ninki wa ka si badaisa, the 
man is expiring. 

kaga badi, v.i., cause to fly, to 

had, m.n., coward {see fulai). — 

badai, m.n., speech, talk, dis- 
course, deposition, dialogue, 
discussion. — ki. 

hal, m.n., word. — hi, — al (con- 
traction of badai) ; sadeh, 
afarr hal ban lehyahai, I have 
to tell you three or four words. 

hadal, v.i., speak, talk ; hadla, 
wan hadli; la — , answer, 

hadal harson, m.n., secret; ha- 
dalki harsona, the secret. 

hadato, f.n., tickling. 

hadatai,, tickle. 

hadei,«.ifr.,bless (used of the bless- 
ing of God only) ; Ilahhow i, 
na hadei, God bless me, us ; 
Ilahhi wa ku hadein; God 
will bless you ; Ilahhi ku 
hadeiyai, God has blessed you. 

badi, conj., if, whether, although, 

hadi ... iyo hadikaleh, conj., 
whether or not ; hadi magaladu 
'absilehdahai iyo ha£kaleh 
ba anigu wa tegi, whether the 
country be dangerous or not, 
I will go. 




hadikaleh, conj., otherwise ; 
aruxtaidi yai, wanaksanada, 
hadikaleh se, jedalkau idin 
la di'i, my children, be good, 
otherwise I will beat you with 
the stick. 

hadiad, /.«., gift, present. — di. 

hadig, m.n., rope, string, cable, 
means also artifice, cheating, 
fraud, relation. — gi ; hadko 
Xplur.); hadig haimu iss ku 
lehnahai, we are relations ; — 
holad, ropes niadei of sinews ; 
— badan, artful, cheating ; 
niaki hadigga badna, the 
artful man. 

hadil,, copy. 

hadilad, f.n., copy. — di. 

hadis, m.n., reading or exposition 
of the Goran, homily. — ^ki. 

hadub, m.n., lid covering the jar 
called dil, and which is used 
■ to milk sheep and goats ; when 
used for milking she-camels 
and cows, it is called hadub 

hadud, or harnd, m.n., jowari. — 

hafad, f.n., place assigned in a 
town to each tribe, district, 
quarter. — di ; haffada safarka, 
the place (ward) of the cara- 

hafar,, calumniate; ha&a, 
wan hafri. 

hafar, m.n., calumny. — ki. 

hafi,, drown; iss — , drown 

hofo, v.i., be drowned. 

hafln, or hafis, f.n., drowning. — 

ti ; ninka hafintisi, the drown- 
ing of the man. 

hafis, m.n., office (as custom- 
house ...). — ki, — yo, 

dabalhafis, m.n., post-office. 

hag, m.n., place. — gi, 

haggan, ad., here. 

hagga, haggas, ad., there. 

hagge ? ad., where % whence ? ■ 

haggi, prp., tp. 

haga, m.n., hot season. — gi, — 


hagaf, m.n., gardener. — ^ki, — yo. 

hagaf, v.i., garden (to). 

hagag, or hagag u so', v.i., be 
uprightj simple, go straight ; 
halka ku hagag, go straight 

hagag, m.n., uprightness, face, 

hagagsan, a.v., upright, just, 
proper, convenient. 

hagagsanaw, v.attr., be upright, 

hagaji, v.i., make right, well, 
arrange, settle ; hisabta ha- 
gaji, settle the accounts ; kala 
— , arrange all well ; wah 
walba i kala hagaji, put 
everything in order for me. 

hagajiso, v.i,, arrange yourself. 

hagajis, m.n., arrangement. — ki. 

hagal, f.n., pit or back of the 
knee, the arm. — shi. 

hagag, f.n., stammering. — ti. 

hagagleh (nin), stammering (man) 

hago,, scrape, scratch; iss 
— , scratch yourself. 

haghago,, scratch in fight- 
ing; iss haghagta, scratch 

HA a 



yourselves. (This verb with 

iss is used for women when 

hagog, f.n., covering of the head 

and face with the large linen 

sheet used as a dress by Somalis, 

linen serving for covering. — ti. 
u hagog, or u hagoji,, cover 

the face. 
hagogo, v.i., cover your head and 

hah, a., just ; Ebbahai wa hah, 

God is just. 
hahai, m.n., salary^ what is due 

to me ; hahaiga i si, give me 

my salary. 
hahlei, m.n., disease of lambs (a 

kind of suffocation). — hi. 
hahleh, m.n., see dau'n. 
hahuh, m.n., polish (of a stone). 

hakamad, f.n., court-house. 

— di ; see mahakamad. 
hakmai or ma, m.n., bridle, rein, 

bit (for horses). — hi. 
hakim, m.n., doctor. — ki. 
hakin, m.n., governorj chief or 

manager of any government 

office, judge, a good and truthful 

man.- — ki. 
hako, f.n., large spawl (as in the 

case of a catarrh), glaire. 
hai, m.n., white horse. — gi. 
hai,, have, keep, possess. 
haiso,, have, keep for your- 
haisi, m.n., act of keeping. — gi. 
hais, f.n., container, receptacle. — 

halbai, or ha'iba, m.n., tree of 

which rosary beads are made. . 

haid, f.n., tallow (grease obtained 

from the fat around the kidneys 

and intestines). — di; isha hai'd- 

deda, the cornea of the eye ; 

indaha haiddoda, the cornea 

of the eyes. 
haid alolo, f.n., epiploon (large 

one). — di. 
haid mindi'iro, f.n., epiploon 

(small one). 
hail, m.n., menses. — ki. 
hail, m.n., kind of spices. — ki. 
haimboro, f.n., wooden bracelet 

or bangle. 
haj, m.n., pilgrimage. — ki. 
haji, m.n., pilgrim. — gi. 
haji, v.i., make a pilgrimage ; 

hajiya, wan hajiyi. 
hajin, f.n., nettle-rash, itch, 

prickly heats. — ^ti. 
hajo, v.i., prove your right; ha- 

joda, wan hajon ; ila hajo, 

prove against me. 
hai, root, place. 
halkan, ad., here, 
halka, halkas, ad., there. 
halko, ad., down yonder, up 

halkiyo berri or berrito, ad., 

until to-morrow ; halkiyo berri 

halkan igu sug, wait here tor 

me until to-morrow. 
hai! int., used in Somali songs 

when on horseback ; it is said 

also either by the hearers or 

by the singer himself after 

each sentence, in the same 

manner as the word kow which 




is used in conversation to give 
more force to the sentence. 

hal, VIM., amber (the two big 
pieces of amber fashionable 
8omals tie to their neck. — ^ki, 
— al. 

hal, /!>!., she-camel. — shi. 

hal,, clean, wash. 

hal, rn.n., asking (for what is 
due), petition, pardon, repara- 
tion, making amends for any 
fault committed, mischief done 
to anyone either by acts or in 
speaking ; wa run wah hun 
ban kugu falaiyai, lakin 
iminka hal ban ka siyai, it is 
true, I have done you an injury, 
but now I make you amends ; 
or iminka wa ka hal marl- 
naya, but now I am asking 
your pardon ; — weidiso, ask 

ardal hal, m.n., petition of the 
people, country. — ki. 

halmari, v.i., make reparation, or 
give what you owe ; so — , go 
and make peace; iss halmariya 
iss daya, make peace and 
leave each other. 

haladun, m.n., adventure. — ki. 

halai, ad., last night. 

halal, a. and f.n., lawful, lawful- 
ness ; wa halal, it is lawful. 

halalai,, make lawful, cir- 

halbanleh, m.n., artery. — hi ; 
halbanlihi wa goal, the artery 
was cut. 

halda, m.n., male ostrich. — gi. 

halgerri, f.n.—di ; see gerri. 

hallai,, lose (especially used 
for animals and things). 

hallan, m.n., loss. — gi, — yo. 

haUan, v.i., be lost; hallaba, 
wan hallabi ; wahhasi wa iga 
hallabi, that thing will be lost 
for me. 

hallow, a.v., lost or is lost ; wilki 
hallow, the lost boy, or the boy 
is lost; gabbaddi hallowdai, 
the girl is lost. 

hallowsan, a.v., lost, defiled, cor- 
rupted; naftu wa hallowsan- 
tahai, the soul is lost. 

hallavi, f.n., clean and nice dates 
(see barni). — di. 

hallow, m.n., flame, blaze. — gi ; 
hallowga 'adabed kulail o dan 
bu ugu saraiya, the flames of 
hell surpass all heat. 

halus, m.n., womb, matrix. — ^ki. 

halwad, f.n., kind of Arabic 
cake, the size of a large and 
thick loaf. — di. 

hamal, m.n., coolie, burden- 
carrier, porter. — ^ki; hamaUin 

hamil, m.n„ burden. — ki ; nagtas 
hamilkedu wa 'ulusyahai, the 
burden of that woman is heavy. 

hamil had, m.n., strong camel 
able to carry heavy loads. — ki. 

hamam, m.n., pigeon. — ki. 

hamansi, m.n., gasp, gasping. — 
gi; hamansi ugu dambaiyai, 
agony, last gasp. 

hamanso, v.i., gasp. 

hamar, m.n., chestnut horse. — ki; 
hamar i so ibi, buy a chestnut 
horse for me. 




hamar, f.n., tamarind (tree and 

fruit).— ti. 
hambar,, carry (a child). 
hambaro, v.i., carry (thy child); 

hambarta, wan hambaran. 
hambarsan, f.n., carrying (of a 

child).— ti. 
hambarsanaw, v.att., be carrying 

(the child). 
hambaro, f.n., heavy fall. 
hambarow, v.L, fall heavily ; 

hambaroba, wan hambarobi. 
hambarai, v.c, make him fall 

hambo, f.n., remainder of food, 
'remnant, food left by the man 

for his wife. 
hamum, or hamun, f.n., distress 

caused by want of tobacco. — ti. 
hamunsan (nin), a., a man in 

want of tobacco ; ninki ha- 

mnnsana, the man in want of 

hamunsanaw, v.att., be in want 

of tobacco. 
hamiimi, m.n., kind of tobacco 

used in the pipe called hobble- 
bobble. — gi. 
haiif f.n., jar made of bark (for 

water and milk). — ti. 
ban, f.n., calumny, backbiting, 

slander. — ti. 
hano, v.i., slander (for calumny 

and backbiting); hanta, wan 

hanan, m.n., bush. — ^ki. 
itandaraf, m.n., gallop (full speed). 

— ki. 
handaraf, v.i., gallop. 
hanfaf, m.n., chip. — ki. 

hanfi, m.n., hot weather. — gi; 
manta wa hanfi, it is hot to- 

hangarara, or hangaraleh, m.n., 
scorpion. — hi. 

hangol, m.n., wooden hook or 
crooked wood used for making 
the fence. round the rer. — ^ki. 

hanib,, blame, accuse, mark 
on the neck. 

hanjad, vi.n., backbone. — ki. 

hanjid, f.n., cut or burning (inade 
on the heads of sheep when 
sick). — di. 

hanjo, f.n., incense, wax, kind of 

hanshar, m.n., chip, small piece 
of wood. — ki. 

hantobo, f.n., handful ; hantobo. 
barisah, a handful of rice. 

haniui, m.n., ache, ailment, pain. 

■ — ki, — yo. 

hannn, v.imp., feel pain, it pains ; 
wa i hanunaya, it pains me. 

hannni, v.c, cause sufl'ering, make 
him feel pain, punish, chastise 
(by beating) ; wa i hannninaya 
{mas.), wa i hanuninaisa(/em.), 
it pains me. 

hanunso,, suffer, feel a pain ; 
weli ma hamuisan, he has 
never felt a pain. 

hanunsan, a.v., afflicted, suffering. 

hannji, v.c, cause him pain, cor- 
rect by striking; hontaidu i 
hanujinaisa, my sore causes nie 
pain ; iss — , cause yourself a 
pain, regret, repent. 

har, m.n., excrement (of men 
especially, also of animals when 




no other name for it exists). — 

har, v.i., purgare ventrem; harai, 
1 have gone to the privy. 

ahal harka, m.n., privy. 

har gur, m.n., sweeper, giobberti. 
— ki. 

har walwal, m.n., beetle, scara- 
bsBus (the stinking black one). 
— ^ki. 

harad, m.n., thirst. — ki. 

harad, v.i., be thirsty. 

haradsan, a., thirsty. 

haradsanaw, v.att., be, remain 

harad,, carve, engrave ; har- 
da, wan hardi. 

harad, m.n., carving, engraving. 

■ — ki. 

hardan, a.v., carved, engraved. 

haraf, m.n., letter of the alpha- 
bet. — ^ki, — yo ; huruf, hurufti 
(plur.Ar.); huruf ellija, alpha- 

harag, m.n., skin, leather (hide of 
goats and sheep). — gi; har go 
{phcr. haragga) ka bi'hi, skin ; 
haraggan ka bi'hiu, I will 

haraidis, m.n., howl. — ki. 

haraidi, v.imp., howl ; gollidu 
wa haraidinaisa, the jackal 

haran, a. and f.n., unlawful, un- 
just ; wa haran, it is unlawful, 

haranta ka go,, circumcise. 

harami, m.n., rogue, cheat.. — 
gi ; harami waiyai, it is a 

(nin) haramiah, a., cheating man ; 
ninki haramigaaha, the cheat- 
ing man. 

harar, m.n., mat (made with grass 
and stubble, used for covering 
the Somali hut, and to put on 
camels instead of saddles). — ki. 

harar, f.n., precipice, a place out 
of reach. — ti. 

hararad, f.n., prickly-heat. — di. 

harash, m.n., public sale, auction. 

■ — ki. 

harati, f.n., kick (of a camel). — 

harbi, m.ji., battle, fight. — gi. 

harbi, v.i., fight. 

hardad, m.n., palate (also used 
for animals).— ki, — yo. 

hardaf, v.i., canter, gallop. 

hardafl, v.c, make (the horse) 

hardaf, m.n., galloping, gallnp. — 
ki, — yo ; faraska hardafkisa, 
the gallop of the horse. 

hared, /.«., rain-water. — di; bal- 
diga hared ino ka buhi, fill 
the ewer (bucket) with rain- 

barer, /.M., side. — ti. 

harero (plur. r/fharer), around, 
on all sides ; Berbera harere- 
heda yan so marai, I have 
gone all around Berberah. 

harih,/!K., scribble, scribbling. — 

harih, or harharih, v.i., scribble. 

harir, f.n., silk. — ti. 

haro, v.r., mark yourself with the 
biith sign ; harta, wan haran. 
(When a woman has given birth 




to a child, the seventh day after, 
coals are ground and mixed with 
water. This mixture is given 
to the mother, who traces on 
her forehead a sign in form of 
a cross, commencing with the 
horizontal line ; the vertical 
one is afterwards traced down 
to the extremity of the nose. 
Then all say, wai haratai, she 
gave (has given) birth.) 

harasho, f.n., hirth-sign. — di ; 
Fadiuuan harashadi ku arkai, 
I have seen the hirth-sign of 

harrago, v.r., dress yourself with 
your nicest clothes, array. 

harrago,/.?i., fashion, fashionable 
manner. — di ; harragadaya- 
du wa 'ainka, it is our fashion. 

harud (see hadud), jowari. 

harun, or harei, or har, «., white 
ant. — ti, — hi, — ki. 

harakad, m.n., accent, sign. — ki. 

has, m.n., family. — ki. 

hasaw, v.i., converse ; ayan (for 
a.yo ban) la hasawa ? with 
whom must I converse ? wa 
hasawaina, we converse. 

hasawi, v.c, make him con- 

hasawai or wa, m.n., conversation. 

hasau, f.n., iron wire. — di. 

Aashin, f.n., skin bag (of two 
hides sewn together) used for 
putting all kinds of things into. 
— ti, 

hashin, a. and f.n., incapable of 
lighting,— ti ; nin, hof hashi- 

nah, a man, a person incapable 
of fighting. 

hashish, m.n., grass. — ^ki. 

hasid, v.i., feel, be jealous, rebel. 

hasid, a. and m.n., disobedient, 
rebel, envious jealous man, slan- 
derous tongue. — ki, — yo; wil- 
ki hasidkaaha, the disobedient 

hadsidnimo, f.n., envy, jealousy. 
— di. 

hatan, ad., now, now-a-days. 

hatati, m.n., ambush, ambuscade. 

— gi. 

ku hatati,, place in ambush ; 
ku hatatiya, wan ku hatatiyi, 
iss — , place yourself in am- 

hau, f.n., noise produced in the 
body either by wind, indiges- 
tion, vomiting ... — di. 

baud, m.n., impenetrability (of a 
forest). — ki ; meshasi wa baud, 
that place is impenetrable. 

haud,, close, shut, fill ; da- 
losha haud, shut, fill the hole. 

haud, m.n., ^tick, rod. 

iiaudi,, beat with a stick, 

■ flog. 

haul, f.n., affair, business, labour, 
occupation, work, employment. 
— shi. 

(nin) haulaisan, a.v., busy man ; 
ninki haulaisna, the busy man ; 
wa nin haushodai, he is a busy 

(nin) haulla, a., unemployed man: 
ninki haushalaa, the unem- 
ployed man. 

(nin) haulbadan, a., a man in a 




hurry ; niaki hausha badna, 

the man in a hurry. 
(nin) hauled, a., an energetic, 

active, diligent man ; nmki 

hauled, the ... 
hanlyar, a., easy work ; haushi 

yaraid, the easy work. 
haulyari, /.«., ease, comfort. — 

di; — ku jir, v.i., he at ease ; 

haulyari ban ku jira, I am at 

my ease. 
haul habo, v.i., serve, work ; hau- 

shada habo, do, execute the 

work; haushada habso, occupy 

hausho, v.i., try, endeavour, make 

an effort, work ; inad wanak- 

sanato u hausho or u haushod, 

endeavour to be good. 
haurarsan ! int., well ! all right ! 
hautan, m.n., gush, gushing. — ki. 
hautan, v.i., gush ; diggu wa 

hautamaya, the blood gushes. 
ka hautami, v.c, cause to gush. 
hawaj, m.n., curry-stuiF. — ^ki; ha- 

wajki me ? where is the curry- 

hawal, f.n., a calm at sea. — shi>, 
hawaldar, m.n., sergeant. — ki. 
hawo, f.n., air (the fluid in which 

we mbve and breathe). 
hayaiya ! hayaiya ! int. (A man 

on horseback exclaims thus 

to his companions, who answer 

in the same manner, hai ! hai ! 

jawis ! When they are near 

the enemies, in front of them, 

they cry altogether, jawis garo 

ho ! ho ! hobo ! hobo ! oh ! — 

oh! oh! jawaisa! 

haye ! int.-, yes, all is right I 

heb, /!«., shore, sea-shore, coast. 
— ti ; hebta seho, sleep ashore. 

heb, f.n., a bad word. — ti. 

hebel, n. and a., certain, such, 
such a one ; hebel ba yimi, a 
certain man has come ; rer 
hebel, a certain village ; rerki 
hebel or hebelaha la gub, such 
a village has been burnt ; nillki 
hebel or hebelaha me ? where 
is such a one (man) 1 uagti 
hebelayo medai ? where is such 
a woman 1 haski hebel libah 
ba unai, a lion devoured such 
a family. 

hedo, f.n., wooden platter, dish ; 

— sibidi, f.n., funnel-shaped 
wooden bowl ; — samai,, 
make wooden plates ; — sa- 
mais, m. and f.n., wooden 
plate maker. — ki, — ti. 

hedid, or hidid, m.n., pulse-vein, 
kindred, kinsman. — ^ki, — ^yo^ 
— 0. 

la hedid, v.i., become kin with; 
holada la hedid, become kins- 
man with this tribe ; wainu 
hedidnai, we are kindred. 

hedig, or hidig, f.n., star, hedge- 
hog (so called by the Somal 
because they believe it to be a 
star fallen from heaven). — ti ; 

— aroryo, morning star; — 
wa beri, morning star ; — 
jahha, pole star. 

urur' hedigaah, m.n., constella- 
tion'; ururki hedigaaha, the 

hedigiyai, m.n., astronomer. — hi. 

F 2 




hedin heto, f.n., a whitish-grey 
bird resembling the lark. 

hekmad, /.»., Providence. — di; 
Ebbahai hekmaddisa, the pro- 
■vidence of God. 

heji,, hold fast, take strongly. 

hel,, acquire, attain, gain, 
find, get, obtain. 

helhel, v.i. (poor parents having 
nothing to give their child to 
eat send it out, saying, helhel, 
which means) may God make 
you find something to eat. 

dama' hel, v.i., succeed (in getting 
...), to be successful; isaga 
dama' helai, he has succeeded 
or he has been successful, 

ka hel,, conquer, gain, 

U hel,,, procure for ; wan u 
helai, I procured (found) a 
good punishment for him ; sprta 
manta abbaha u hel, to-day 
procure the food for your father. 

laga hel, v.pass., is deprived of, 
he has lost, is not successful ; 
niiiki holihi laga hel, the mau 
is deprived of his property ; 
nimaiika laga helai, this man 
■was not successful. 

helin, m..n., gain, — ki; ninkas 
helinkisi, the gain of that 
heli, or so heli,, return, re- 
store, give back, 
hells, or helin, m.n., restitution. 

— ^ki, — ti. 
helad, f.n., cheating, pretence, 
excuse. — di ; ninka dukanka- 
lihi helad bu yahan, the shop- 
ieeper is a cheat. 

(nin) heladleh, a., cheated, a man 
vyho has always some excuse 
to give, a swindler ; ninki 
heladdalaha, the cheat, the 

heli, m.n., weather. — gi. 

hensai, m.n., harness. — hi. 

hensarar, m.n., forked stake 
thrust in the ground and form- 
ing the basis for a Somali hut. 
— ki. 

her, v.i., go round, around. 

herai,, surround. 

hersan, a.v., circular, round. 

her, m.n., dyke, dam (to stop 
water). — ki. 

hero, f.n., enclosure (zereba or 
zariba) ; this enclosure is made 
either of trees or of big branches 
close together, so as to make a 
fence protecting the tent built 
within its circuit, and the stable 
for cattle and sheep. 

hero hodajileh, f.n., enclosure 
made of thorny trees, zereba of 

hero od,, make an enclosure; 
heran odi, I will make an en- 
mahal herrais, f.n., evening star, 
time for taking the young 
animals into the enclosure, 
her, m.n., transgression of Somali 
customs or laws, a case of justice 
on account of customs or laws. 
— kij labada sultan herkodi 
ya dagalkasi ka dahai, the 
transgression of customs caused 
that war between the two sul- 




heral), m.n., keel (of a ship).^ki. 
iierar, m.n., crown of hair left on 

the heads of small girls.— ki. 
heriyo, f.n., camel's pack-saddle. 
(Somals put upon the wooden 
frame of the saddle kebed, 
harar, and aus salol, and all 
those things form the pack- 
herrib, f.n., wisdom. — ti. 
(nin) berribleli, a., wise man; 
TiiTiki herribtalaba, the wise 
lierro, or herriyo, f.n., lines of 

the palm of the hand. 
hes, v.i., sing (also used for birds). 
hes, f.n., singing, song, hymn, 
music— ti; hesta somalida, the 
Somali singing. 
hesM, v.i., make peace, be recon- 
ciled ; ku — , agree upon. 
hesMs, m.n.,_ peace, agreement, 

accord. — ^ki. 
hesMsi,, reconcile; labadas 
jal shalai ban heshisiyai, yes- 
terday I reconciled these two 
friends ; so — , arbitrate, settle. 
hid (pronounced nearly as bed),, bind, fasten, shut, tie, 
confine ; iss ku — , join (two 
things with thread, rope, wire). 
iss ku hidhid,, tie the 
camels one to the tail of the 
other ; eg aurtas iss ku hid- 
hidan, look, these camels tied 
one to the tail of the other, 
(nin.) hidan, a. and n., bound, 
prisoner ; ninki hidna, the 
hidnan, f.n., imprisonment.— ti. 

hido, v.r., tie (yourself), do the 
work (yourself) ; hidta, wan 

hidmo, f.n., bale, bundle, parcel ; 

— habaha, faggot. 

hidmo", m.n., long intestine. — ^hi ; 

— abahha, a lean animal. 

hidig (see'hedig),/.w., star.— ti. 

hig, v.i., be near or next to, re- 
lated to; aurka hig, be next 
to the camel ; holadasan higa, 
I am related to that family; 
holadasanu iss higna, that 
Tamiiy and I are related. 

higal, m.n., relation, caste. — ^ki. 
iiggo, f.n., hiccough. 
higmad,/.M., device, stratagem. — 

hijad, f.n., veil of Arab women 

for hiding their faces. — di. 
Ml, m.n., help, assistance. — ki 

(this word is especially used 

in the case of a battle). 
hili,, aid, assist, help, relieve, 

support. . 

hiliya, m.n., assistant. — hi ; hili- 

yiheni bu aha, he was our 

hilhad, f.n., earring, curb (of 

horses). — di. 
hil, m.n., shame,8hyness, modesty, 

abuse.— ki ; wa gabad hil 

badan, she is a very modest 

hil,, abuse, make ashamed ; 

wah hilai, an abusive thing. 
hisho," 'v.i., be modest, shy, 

ashamed; ka — , be ashamed 

of, dare not. 
hishod, m.n., shame. — ki. 




hishodla, a., shameless, immodest; 
ninki hishodkalaa, the shame- 
less man. 

hishodleh, a., modest. 

tila, m,n., lightning. — ^hi, — yo. 

Mia, v.imp., it lightens ; or 'erku 
wa hilai. 

hilib, TO.n., flesh, meat. — ki ; 
hilbo (plur.) ; — idad, mut- 
ton ; hilibki idaha, the mut- 
ton ; — riad, goat's flesh; 
hilibki riaha, the goat's flesh ; 
— gel, camel's flesh ; hilibka 
gela, the camel's flesh ; — 
karsan, boiled meat; hilibki 
karsana, the boiled meat ; — 
shilan, roast meat (in a pan 
or kettle) ; hilibki shilla, the 
roast meat ; — duban, large 
pieces of meat roasted on the 
fire itself ; hilibki dubna, the 
masted meat. 

hilibdalhai, m.n., uvula; hilib- 
dalhihi, the uvula. 

hilin, m.n., road, trace, way. — 

hin, v-imp., hums, buzzes. 
hiudi, m.n., Indian (native of 

India). — gi; ard el — , India 

hindis,, invent, find out. 
huidisad, f.n., invention. — di. 
hindis, v.i., sneeze. 
hinin, f.n., testicle. — ti, — yo. 
hinji,, lift, lift up. 
hinrag, m.n., shortness of breath, 

_ sigh, pufiing.— gi. 
hinrag, v.i., puff, pant, sigh, 
(u) hir, 'y.?!r., shave ; lo hir, it is 


hiro, v.r., shave yourself ; hirta, 
wan hiran. 

hiran, a.v., shaved; hiranyahai, 
it is shaved. 

hirib, f.n., eyelash, eyelid, the 
inside of the eyelid. — ti ; — 
sarai — hosai, eyelids. 

hirid, m.n., gum (mouth). — ki. 

hirsi, f.n., charm (kind of amu- 
let).— di. 

hisab, f.n., account, arithmetic, 
judfjment of God. — ^ti ; Ilah 
hisabtisa, the judgment of 

hisab,, judge (used for God 
only) ; Ilah ba hisabi, God 
■will judge him. 

hisabi,, count, account. 

hisabso, v.c, count yourself. 

histi, m.n., mischievous trick. — 

gi. . 

u histi, v.i., trick, defraud. 

ho, (kind of int. meaning) take, 

lay hold of (stretching out 

the hand) ; war ! ho ! take ; 

wan hoi, I will take (for all 

the other tenses the verb had 

is ordinarily used) . 
hod, v.i., fall ofi", come off ; timihi 

iga so hodai, all my hair came 

hodi, v.i., prepare the skin (take 

off the hair) ; haraggi dogorti 

ka hodiyai, the skin is stripped 

of its fleece. 
hod gudub, f.n., half of the 

Somali dress. — ti. 
hodan, m.n., rich man. — ^ki. 
hof, f.n., junction of the ribs. — 





hog, m.n., hole. — gi, 

hog,, extort, get by force. 

hog, m.n., shin (tibia), strength, 
might, force, violence. — g^. 

hog hadan, or hog wein, a., 
strong (in fighting and work- 

(u) hogso,, earn, work for 
your living ; naftada u hogso, 
earn your living ; naftaidan u 
hogsadai, adigu na naftada u 
hogso, I have worked for my 
living, you also earn yours. 

hoji, v.i., labour, work. 

hoga, num., few, little (used with 
wa or o) ; war ! ohogagaiga 
i da, oh ! leave to me my 
little, the little I have ; wa 
hoga biyaah, a little water. 

hogan, m.n., halter (of a camel). 
— ki. 

hohob, f.n., jujube tree and fruit 
{see gob). — ti. 

hoh,, scratch, abrade. 

hohad, f.n., spy-glass, telescope. 
— di. 

hoi ! ho ! hoa ! int., halloo ! hollo ! 
ho ! (used alone with war, man, 
and na, woman) ; war ! war 
hoi ! hollo, man ! na ! na hoi ! 
hollo, woman ! 

hoio, v.i., halt (at night), pass 
the night in a place, go home 
(this last meaning is only used 
when speaking to small chil- 
dren) ; galabta Wager bainu 
u hoian, we will halt at Wager 
this night. 

holo,, property, riches (in 
a general sense), affluencCj 

wealth ; — nol, living pro- 
perty, cattle ; — badan, rich 

hola ba la ima yahan, expression 
meaning everybody knows that 
I have nothing. 

holob, f.n., scar in the skull, 
pellicles. — ti, — ^yo. 

hololiya, or hololawa,/.w., cradle. 
— di. 

homadai, m.n., vulture(speciesof) . 

hor, f.n., ad., prp., beginning, 
front, opposite, in front of, 
before, first (inflected with the 
pers.prn.); dnniyada hortedi, 
the beginning of the world; 
ariir o dan nolanta hortedi 
oidai, or wa oida, at the be- 
ginning of life every child cries ; 
hortaidu jogai, he was in front 
of me; ahalka ahalkena ka 
so hor jeda, the house which 
stands in front of ours, or 
which is opposite to ours ; 
war !. horta kan an habto, 
oh ! let me do this first ; halkas 
tol horta, sew that first. 

hor u so'o, v.i., continue, go on ; 
hor u so'oda, horan u so'on. 

horai, v.i., go first, advance ; ka 
— , go before him ; iga, naga, 
ka horai, go before me, us, 
him, them ; U — , be first ; nin 
— , a superior. 

horaisi,, put before. 

hdrai, or hore, a., first, before, 
previous, forward ; ki hore, the 
first; marki — ,ac^.,ago; kolki, 
or beri, ad., once, formerly; 
sanaddi, or kal — , last year. 




hor, throw; ku — ., throw 

hor, m.n., camel's milk (when 
very fresh). — ki. 

hor, m.n , kind of badger (honey- 
eater), has a white tuft at the 
end of its tail. — ki. 

hor, m,.n.. jackal (with a white 
tail). — ki. (Somals call hor a 
number of Hniiuals and even 
birds, when they have either 
white tails or white spots on 

hor, m.n , calao having a crescent- 
shaped crest. — ^ki. 

horgumo, /.«., panther. 

horor,/.M., hysena, glutton (spotted 
hy»na, see waraba). 

hos, m.n., shadow, shade. — ki. 

hos, f.n., ad. and prp., below, 
down, under. — ti," hosta tag, 
go down ; misku hos u yal, it 
is under the table ; — U habo, 
or — 11 hai, hold lower ; — u 
hadal, whisper, do not cry; hos 
ban u la hadlai, 1 whispered 
to him. 

hosai, v.i., go low, be under, be 
last ; berigi hore wilashan u 
hosaiyai, hatan se ana u 
horaiya, or saraiya, formerly 
I was the last of the boys, 
but now I am the first ; ba- 
hal — , reptile ; nin — , an 

hosaisi,, put under, let down, 
abase, abate ; isaga U hosaisi, 
let him down. 

hosaisis, m.n., abasement, humi- 
liation. — ki. 

hosis, m.n., eclipse oi the sun, 
sun obscured by clouds. — ki. 

hoyo, f.n., mother ; ber — , the 
heart of a mother ; ja'ail — , 
maternal love. 

hoyanimo, f.n., maternity. 

hub, rn.n., arm, weapon (general 
name). — ki. 

hubhad, m.n., armed man, warrior. 
— ki, — yo. 

hUbka ka had,, disarm. 

(nin) hubleh, a., armed (man). 

(nin) hnbla, a., unarmed, dis- 
armed (man). 

hiibkisa u damai,, arm. 

hub, v.i., be certain ; ma la huba? 
is it certain ? wa la huba, it is 
• certain. 

hubso,, consider, examine, 
investigate, meditate. 

hubsad, m.n., meditation, investi- 
gation. — kL 

hdbsan, a.v., meditating. 

hub, m.n., film of the brain. — ^ki. 

hubin, f.n., knuckle, joint, piece. 

■ — ti. 

hudai, or huda, a. and n., can- 
cerous, cancer, scrofula, king's 
evil; hontasi wa hudai, that 
sore is cancerous. 

hudel, m.n., hotel, inn. — ki. 

hudud, f.n., hind part of the arm. 
— dL 

hudun, or hudin, f.n., umbilical 
cord. — ti. 

huf,, winnow, blow. 

huffi,, tempt, deceive ; la — , 
be tempted ; wa la i huflB, I 
.shall be tempted. 

huffin, f.n., temptation. — ti. 




hugmi Allah hadai nohoto, ex- 
pression meaning if it is the 
will of God, or God willing. 

huko, f.n., grease of the camel's 

hukum, m.n., judgment, govern- 
ment, authority. — ki. 

hukum,, administer, govern, 
judge, condemn, order, com- 
mand; la iss ka hukumai, 
forbidden ; wahas wa la iss 
ka hukumai. 

hujad, f.n., crime, guilt, case of 
justice. — di. 

hujad leh, a., guilty. 

hujadla, a., not guilty, innocent. 

hul,, go round, through; SO 
— , go through and come back ; 
si — , go through when I am off. 

hulad, or hulod, m.n., tree felled 
by means of fire. — ki. 

hulo, and ka hulo,, choose 

humbo, f.n., foam, froth, bubbles. 

kaga humbaisi, v.c, make foam. 

hun, a., bad, ugly, wicked ; niii 
hun, niman hunhun, bad man, 
men; ninki huma, the bad 
man ; nagti humaid, the bad 

ka hun, a., worse (comparative of 

ka wada, or ngu wada hun, a., 
worst (superlHtive of hun). 

humai,, make badly (what 
you have to do) ; si — , aggra- 
vate ; u — ,, trouble, afflict, 
hurt him; wilkasi wu ino 
iumain, that boy will afflict 
us ; iss — , afflict yourself. 

humo, a., bad (not used alone). 

ayanhumo, f.n., bad luck, mis- 
fortune, calamity. 

ayanhun, a., unlucky. 

ayan humow, v.i., be unlucky. 

humaw, v.att., be bad, ill. 

human, f.n., affliction, adversity, 
evil, trouble. — ti. 

hundur, f.n., navel. — ti. 

hunguri, m.n., throat. — gi (gene- 
ral name); — 'ad {see bo'), 
windpipe, or larynx); — ma- 
dow, throat, pharynx ; hun- 
guri wein, greedy, glutton. 

hunguri weinan, f.n., gluttony. 
— ti. 

hunha',, vomit. 

hunha'o, f.n., vomiting. 

hunsho, _/:re., vulture (species of), 
the white one and the black 

hunug, m.n., bleeding of the nose. 

— gi- 

hunug, vi., bleed (nose); hunga, 
wan hungi. 

hur, m.n., heat. — ki. 

huri, v.c, cause him to be warm, 
cover his head to warm it ; iss 
— , cover yourself (with your 
sheet or dress to get warm). 

hur wein, a., hot, very warm. 

(nin) hursan, a., perspiring, feel- 
ing warm. 

hurdan, or hurdun, m.n., kick 
with the heel (in playing). — 

hurdan, v.i., kick with the heel ; 
hurdama, wan hurdami. 

hurguf,, shake off, dust ; la 
hurguf, it is shaken off. 




huri, m.n., piroque. — gi. 

huri, m.n., male cat. — gi. 

hliro, f.n., tartar of the teeth. 

hurud, v.i., sleep; liurda, wan 
hurdi ; iss ka — , remain sleep- 

(nin) Iiurda, a., sleeping (man), 

Inirdo, f.n., sleep ; hurdadi haben- 
ka wa wanaksana, the sleep 
of that night was a good one. 

Irnruf, m.n., frown, sour look. — 

huruf,, frown, rebuke ; nin- 
ka huruf, rebuke that man. 

hurunsho, f.n., a burnt thing 
(burnt to ashes). 

hunmshai,, h\icn to ashes. 

huryo, f.n., a black bird with 
yellow beak and feet, the size 
of a turtle dove, living on 
larvse and camel ticks. 

husal, m.n., elbow. — ki. 

h.usus, f.n., memory, remem- 
brance. — ti. 

hususi,, remind. 

fiususo,, remember; hususta, 
wan hususan. 

hususnaw, w.aii., keep in memory, 

huwi,, cover, clothe. 

huwo, v.r., cover, clothe yourself. 


h, 10th letter of the Somali al- 
phabet, used for the Arabic 
sounds oi t, i3, t- 

hab,, have, take ; ninkas 
la'ag^isi ana haba, I have the 
money of that man ; nabad — , 
be in peace, be safe ; war — , 
a man who receives news, mes- 

babo,, catch, hold, keep, 
seize ; habta, wan haban ; ka 
— , take from ; iga habo, take 
from me ; kaga — , begin ; ku 
— , catch with ; labatan kalnn 
ban shabaggi ku habtai, I 
caught twenty fishes with the 
net; la — , aid, assist; ila 
babo, assist me ; so — , go and 
catch, run after ; ad u — , 
make it well; ad ban u haban, 
I will make it well ; haul — , 
occupy yourself, serve, work ; 
il iss ku — , or indaha iss ku 
— , expression meaning wink, 
shut your eyes, i.e. do not look 
at a bad thing, turn aside from 
a bad place or thing ; ninkasi 
hishod yu indihi iss ngu hab- 
tai, that man through shame 
shut his eyes ; hadi u wahha 
ku siyo, il iss ku habo, or il 
jebi, if be gives you that, wink 
to me, or give me a wink. 

il iss ku habasho, f.n., a man 
shutting his eyes (out of shame) 
when he goes to beg at a house, 

habasho, f.n., catching, seizing ; 
ninka shuhul habatsi, employ 
that man. 

habso,, employ, engage, catch 
hold of, comprehend ; eraigas 
habso, employ that word ; nin- 




ka hebel habso, engage such a 
man ; marada li,abso, catch 
hold of your loin-cloth ; hadad 
dinta ad u habsatid bad wa- 
naksanan, if you well observe 
religion, you will be good ; ka 
— , catch from, get from. 

-wahba iga habsadai, expression 
meaning some misfortune has 
overtaken me. 

hab, and habhab, /.«., noise. — 
ti ; habhabta an mahlayo, the 
noise I hear. 

allah. habai, m.n., an abject, 
cursed man. — gi, 

habal, m.n., large oval wooden 
pan or basin, crib, manger. — ki. 

habas, m,n., calumniator, tale- 
bearer. — ki. 

habasnimo, /.«., calumny. 

habbas, m.n., baker. — ^ki. 

habil, v.i., support, resist, be 
strong ; habili maisid, you 
cannot do it, i.e. you are not 
strong enough to do it., 

habilo, f.n., nation. 

habow, m.n., cold. — gi; habowga 
saka dadki o dan ya hadhad- 
aya, on account of the cold of 

, this morning, all people were 

habow, a., cool, gentle, meek, 
mild ; nin, niman habow, 
gentle man, men ; ninki ha- 
bowba, the mild man ; ni- 
manki habhabowba, the mild 
men. I 

habow, v.i., be cool, gentle, meek, 
mild ; haboba, wan habobi. 

habowji,, appease, cool. 

haboTVJiso, v.r., appease, cool 
yourself, bathe ; badda ku so 
habowjiso, bathe (take a bath 
in the sea). 

habri, m.n., grave. — gi. 

habur, f.n., cemetery. — ti. 

habsin, or ga'na', — hi, m.n., 
great gut (intestine). — ki. 

had,, take, assume, bear, 
lift, raise ; la had, it is lifted 
up ; robki had, the rain is 
over ; ka — , take from ; la — , 
carry, raise with, help, assist ; 
laga — , be deprived of ; af 
kala — , or af kala hais, m.n., 
yawn, yawning. — ki; af kala 
— , v.i., yawn ; so — , fetch, 
bring ; kor u — , or sarai u — , 
lift up, raise ; la iss ka — , a., 
infectious ; udurkasu wa la iss 
ka had, that sickness is infec- 
tious ; dein — , m.n., debtor. — 
ki; hub — , m.n., warrior. — 
ki, — yo; nafta ka — ,, 
kill; naftan ka hadi, I will 
kill ; war — , m.n., messenger. 
— ki, — yo. 

hadi,, omit, leave ; wilka 
hadi, leave that boy ; ka — , 
leave aside, do not care. 

hado,, take for you, endure, 
support, confess, avow, ac- 
knowledge; hata, wan hadan ; 
'ndurkaga hado, or u samir, 
endure, support your sickness ; 
riinta sheg o hado, tell the 
truth and confess ; tugadada 
hado, acknowledge thy theft ; 
ho — , or ho — , take and 




hadaT)0, /.«., buckle. 

had, m.n., ink. — ^ki, 

had, m.n., noise produced by a 

blow. — ki. 
hadhad, m.n., ague, pressing 

hunger.- — ki. 
hadhadiyo,y!»i., cold fit, shivering. 
hadhad, v.L, shiver. 
hadab, m.n., fruit, every kind of 

vegetable. — ^ki, — yo. 
hadabaiso, v.i., eat fruit, vege- 
hadabaisato, or nin hadabaisa- 

taah, or arah donato, f.n., 

eater of fruits, vegetables. 
hadad, m.n., pit below the skull. 
" — ki. 

hadad, m.n., bitterness, sourness. 
" — ki. 
hadad, a., sour, bitter ; mido 

hadad, sour fruits ; midihi 

hadada, the sour fruits. 
hadafi, or harafi, m.n., wooden 

sandal. — ki. 
hadai, v.i., dine. 
hadaisi, or ashaisi, v.i., give 

dinner to someone. 
hadan, m.n., servant. — ki, 
hadari, m.n., estimate (of any 

work). — gi. 
hadari,, listen to, confide in ; 

ninka hadalkisa ban hadarin, 

I will confide in, listen to what 

that man says. 
hadas, m.n., mass (holy sacrifice). 

— ki. 
hadon, f.n., tree the bark of which 

produces red dye. — ti. 
hadon, f.n., kind of frankincense. 
' — ti. 

haflla, or hafilo, f.n., caravan. 

haho, f.n., asthma, consumption 
(means also chest, long breath- 
ing); war! hofku haha weina, 
oh ! how long that man is able 
to speak, i.e. what a chest 
(lit. what a breathing) he has. 

hahwa, f.n., coffee (ready for 
drinking); ibhiha hahwaah, 

haib, ad., well, completely ; haib 
igu, ugu, nogu, sheg, tell me, 
him, us, all is well ; isagu 
haibu kugu shegi, he will tell 
you well, nicely, strongly. 

haib, f.n., share, portion, divi- 
sion. — ti. 

haibi (generally with u),, 
distribute, divide ; inamada u 
haibi, distribute to the boys ; 
ku — , appoint, give ; ninka 
shuhulka ku haibi, give that 
work to this man. 

haibso (with la in the singular), 
v.r., partake with. 

haid, m.n., rule, law, command- 
ment. — ^ki. 

haid, m.n., loin-cloth (see maha- 
wis). — ki. 

haUi, v.i., cry, scream, shout, 

hailo, f.n., noise, tumult, shout ; 
hailada iss ka da, cease that 

hailo, or haila gel,, go for 
help (when fighting and near 
to be overcome, they say so). 

haili, m.n., large coloured Somali 
linen dress (.iheet). — gi. 

hair Allah ha ku siyo, expression 




meaning may God give you a 

hairan, m.n., skin garment for 
men. — ^ki, — yo. 

hajeila, ad., often. 

hal, m.n., vinegar. — ki. 

hal,, cut meat into pieces, 
slices, butclier ; adi — , m.n., 
butcher; dad — , m.n., cannibal. 

halab, m.n., baggage. — ki. 

halad, m.n., mixture. — ^ki. 

halad,, huddle, throw into 
confusion ; iss ku — , mix. 

halaf, v.invp., become coarse, 
thick, rough, hard ; haraggu 
wu halafl, the skin will be- 
come rough. 

halafi, V.C., cause to become 
coarse, thick, rough, hard. 

halafsan, a.v., coarse, thick, rough, 

halalan, a., dry; wa habo ha- 
lalan, it is dry fire-wood ; maro 
halalan, dry linen. 

halali, or halaji,, dry. 

halalif, f.n., boast, humbug, brag. 

" — ti. 

halalif ka shub, v.i., boast, hum- 
bug, brag. 

halbi, m.n., heart. — gi. 

halhal,, allure, engage in a 
bad way, deceive by sophisms 
or enticements ; (fanatic Mus- 
sulmans say of the Catholic 
missionaries,) badriintu or 
badriyadu wa ina halhalaisa 
or halhalayaii, the fathers will 
deceive us. 

halhal, m.n., allurement, deceit. 

" -Iki. 

^alhalan, a.v., allured, deceived. 

nin muhalhalah, m.n., impostor. 

u halhal,, begin, commence, 
do quickly ; shuhulka hor u 
halhal, do your work quickly. 
(This word means done dis- 
orderly, in a bustle.) 

halas,, finish. 

halas, a.v., finished ; halas wai- 
yai, it is finished. 

halhala, or halhalo, m.n., sack, 
saddle-bag. — ^M. 

halib, v.i., wish him good luck ; 
wan ku haUbi, I wish you good 

haliban, «.«., fortunate, good luck ; 
wahhasiwa halibanyahai, that 
is fortunate, lucky. 

halim, m.n., pen. — ki. 

halin, f.n., heifer, young she- 
camel. — ^ti; habno {plur). 

haUoh, or halhalloh, m.n., curv- 
ing, bending, bent. — hi, — yo ; 
daba — , scorpion. 

hallohi,, bend. 

hallohan, a.v., crooked, bent, 
indirect, awry ; ul hallohan, a 
crooked stick ; nUo h'alhal- 
lohna, crooked, bent sticks ; 
usM hallohanaid, the crooked, 
bent stick. 

hamar, m.n., gambling. — ki, — yo. 

hamar, v.i., gamble. 

hamis, f.n., Thursday. — ti; ha- 
mista dambe, the next Thurs- 

hamis, m.n., long Arab shirt (see 
garba galai) ; Somals use this 
word lor every kind of shirt 




and even coats. — ki, — yo; 

hamsan, hamsanti (plural 

nearly always used). 
hamir, m.w., yeast, leaven. — ki. 
hamiti, m.n., malevolent, malig- 
nant man. — g^. 
hamidnimo, /.«., malevolence, 

han, m.n., foal (camel, horse, ass, 

cow). — ki. 
han,/.ra., debt. — ti ; — geli,, 

indebt (him), ctiuse him to enter 

into debt, 
(nin) hamaisan, a.v., indebted 

man, debtor ; ninki hamaisna, 

the debtor ; wan hamaisnahai, 

I am indebted. 
hanan,, claim, ask for ; ha- 

nama, wan hanami. 
hanam, m n., claim. — ki, — yo. 
hanan, f.n., lifting up of the tail, 

when horses, cows are running. 

— ti ; eg ! faras ki wa ka 

dabadi hananta ka digai, look ! 

there is the horse which has 

raised his tail. 
hando, f.n., sudden fit of burning 

fever; hando ku dishai, may 

that burning fit kill you (very 

bad curse). 
hangad, m.n., adult. — ki, — yo. 
hanjad, f.n., large boat {see doni). 
" — di. 
hanjaful, or hanjafil, f.n., hoof 

of goats. — shi. 
hanjid, m.n., sinew, tendon of the 

neck, thigh. — ki. 
h.anjidai,2;.«wp.,beraw, not cooked 

(not \ised for meat); baris han- 

jidai, the rice is not cooked. 

hanjidsan, a.v., unripe, raw, not 

hanjidi,, pinch, nip. 
hanjido, f.n., pinch, nip. 
hani, m.n., hold (of a ship). — gi 

(Arabs say han); adiga haniga 

ku gura, put the sheep in the 

hanin,, bite. 
haniyo, f.n., bite, biting, sting 

(in general). 
hanso, f.n., bow (for shooting), 
hanun, or hainun, m.n., rule, law 

canon. — ^ki. 
har, num., several, some. — ^ki, 
har, m.n., mountain range. — ki 
har hore, m.n., ahead or afore, 

top ; markabka harkisa hore, 

the forepart of the ship. 
har dambe, m.n., stern, abaft, 

end ; har hore iyo har dambe, 

afore and abaft. 
haraf, m.n., match. — ki, — yo, 
harah, a., burst; mufti'hi harah, 

the burst cannon. 
harah, m.n., explosion. — ^hi. 
harah, v.i., burst ; distigi ba 

harhai, the kettle burst. 
harai, or hara, m.n., cudgel, heavy 

stick. — hi. 
haraj, m.n., expenses. — ki ; bi- 

shatan haraj ku wa badan- 

yahai, this month the expenses 

are great. 
hardas,/!^., amulet, charm. — ^ti. 
haren, m.n., affinity. — ki. 
la harenso, or u haren noho, or 

iss harensada, ~v.i., be in affi- 

harendi, m.n., badger. — gi, — di 




harfa, f.n., cinnamon. — di. 
harhad, /.»., clout, rag. — di. 
harharsi, m.n., rope tying down 

a camel's head to his foreleg 

to prevent it from getting up. 

— gi. 
hari,, conceal, hide, 
haris, m.n., hiding. — ki, — yo. 
harso, v.r., hide yourself. 
harson, a.v., concealed, unseen, 

secret ; hadal harson, a secret ; 

mel harson, a hiding-place. 
hariyan, m. and /.»., astrologer, 

sorcerer. -^ki, — ti. 
haro,/.ra., thickness; hori, horiyo 

haroleh, hard wood. 
harshi, m.n., thaler, dollar. — gi ; 

nus harsM, half-dollar. 
harurad, f.n., tottle. — di. 
hasa'ad, /.?}., snuff-box (of Arabs). 

— di. 
hasab, or kasab, m.n., jowaree 

plant and its seed. — ki. 
hasab,, force, oblige ; hasba, 

wan hasbi. 
hasab, m.n., violence, force. — ki. 
hasaro, f.n., useless expenses, 

hashar, or hashir, m.n., coffee 

hasirad, f.n., fine, penalty. — di. 
hasir,, fine, 
hata ! int. of alarm. 
hatahata, or badahata, m.n., 

name given to the Yibir caste, 

and meaning sorcerer. — hi. 
hatal,, mislead, blunder, 

debauch, delude. 
hatalad, f.n., blunder, fault, mis- 
take. — di. 

hatalan, v.i., be misled, mistaken, 

err, blunder ; hatalma, wan 

hau ! hau ! int. indicating a noise 

made in striking repeatedly. 
haul, m.n., will, word (of God), 

law. — ki. 
haw, /.w., brag, deceit. — di. 
hawai, v.i., be deceived, make a 

hawaisi,, deceive, betray, 

hawayad, f.n., brag, temptation, 

hawad, m.n., bawd (mas.). — ^ki. 
hawadad, f.n., bawd (fern.). — di. 
hawaja, m.n., gentleman (ordi- 
narily said of Europeans). — gi. 
hawi,, bare, strip, denude, 
(nin) hawan, a.v., naked (man) ; 

ninki hawana, the naked man. 
hawanan, f.n., nakedness. — ti. 
hayahayai, v.i., flatter, fawn 

(upon someone to get money). 
hayohayo,/.«. , flattering, fawning. 
hayohayo, f.n., game in which 

women dance and strike their 

chest with their hands. 
hih, m.n., smoke. — hi ; hih. ba ka 

bihi, it smokes. 
hih, I'.imp., it smokes ; dabki wa 

hihaya, the fire smokes, 
himad,/".™., barracks. — di. 
hir, f.n., acknowledgment, avowal. 

— ti. 
hiro,, acknowledge, avowj 

hirta, wan hiran. 
Msas, f.n., retaliation, revenge. — 

ti; hisasta naga si, give us 

our revenge. 




hisas, v.i., pay the retaliation; 
Myan, or Myano, m. orf.n., cun- 

ningness, cheating, deceit. — ki, 

— di; some also say haiyau, 

or haiyano. 
hiyanieli, hiyanoleh, haiyanoleh, 

a., cunning. 
hiyanai,,, deceive. 
hiyar, m.n., cucumber. — ki. 
hiyas, v.i., take the measure (for 

hiyas, f.n. and a., straight, size, 

target ; wa hiyas, it is straight ; 

hiyas ka dig, make it straight. 
hob, m.n., hoof (horse, mule ...). 
" — ki. 
hobad, f.n., small Somali dish, 

porringer. — di. 
hod,^M., bold man, male. — di. 
hod,, dig ; gedka hod o so 

rid, dig up the tree. 
hodnin, m.n., digging. — ki. 
hodah,/M., thorn. — di; hodahnyo 

hodahleh, a., thorny. 
hodo, m.n., genitals. — ^hi. 
hodob, m.n., tacking together. — 
" ki. 
hodobt, baste, tack together; 

hodba, wan hodbi; kabta i 

hodob, mend my sandals, i e. 

put on a piece, or sew ; iss ku — , 

join two pieces with nails, 

sew, mend small holes in the 

hodub, or hudub, m.n. — ki, or 

hoto,/.ra., South. 
hodns, m.n., sanctity (of God). — 

ki ; nin hodiisah, a saint, a 

saintly man. 

hodyehedo, kind of M. express- 
ing a strong affirmation, as 
truly, just, exactly; hodyehedo 
wa kowdi, it is exactly one 
o'clock ; hadanan hodyehedo 
ku la dagalamin, nin ba mihi, 
truly, if I do not fight with 
you I am not a man. 

hof, m.n., person, individual (used 
for one). — ^ki. 

hofal, m.n., fetters. — ki. 

hofal,, fetter. 

hoh, v.imp., it froths. 

hohob, m.n., a hut not built in 
an enclosure as they are, built 
in each hafad. — ki. 

hoi, or ho,, moisten, soak, 
wet ; yar hoi, moisten a little. 

hoiyan, a., damp, moist, wet ; 
wan hoiyanahai, I am wet ; 
maradaidu wa hoiyantahai, 
my garment is wet. 

hois, m.n., a hut surrounded by 
an enclosure ; when the in- 
terior is separated by a kind 
of screen called Uihed they 
call the rooms hollad or gur- 

hollad, /ra., room. — di ; ninkas 
holladisi wa balladantahai, 
the room of that man is large. 

hoUi, f.n., turtle-dove. — di. 

holo, f.7i., tribe, caste, descen- 
dants, relations. 

holof, f.n., scale, cod, husk. — ^ti; 
holfo {plur.). 

hon, /m., hurt, sore, wound. — ti; 
homo {plur.); hon gibinah, a 
small wound ; honti buksatai, 
the cured wound, the scar. 




ilmalia ka hou, v.i., cause to 
miscarry ; ilmaha wan homi 
or ka homi, I will cause abor- 

ilmaha iss ka hon, v.i., miscarry; 
ilmaha wan iss ka homi, I 
will miscarry ; ilmaha ka homi, 
she will miscarry ; ilmaha ka 
homai, she miscarried ; ilma 
laga homi, they will make her 
miscarry ; ilma laga homai, 
they made her miscarry. 

ilma ka homan, f.n., abortion, 
miscarriage. — ^ti. 

honsi, honsid, or honsimad, m.n., 
discussion, dispute, quarrel, 
discord. — di. 

^onso, v.i., resent, feel against. 

(u) homamai, v.i., be contrite, 

homamais,m.ra., contrition, regret. 

" — ki. 

hor, f.n., neck. — ti. 

horhid, m.n., necklace (especially 
for horses). — ki, 

hor,, write, record, register, 
means also mend (a pen), clean 
up (a stick), sharpen (a pencil), 
adapt, cut (a stone). 

hora, m.n., writer. — gi, — yo. 

horan, a.v., written ; wah wa 
horau, it is written. 

horin. — ki, or far. — ti, writing, 
handwriting ; inanka fartisu 
wa wanaksantahai, that boy's 
handwriting is good. 

hornin,/.?!., mending (of a pen); 
sharpening (of a pencil). — ti. 

hori, m.n., wood. — gi, — yo 
(general name). 

horiah, or hori laga samaiyai, a., 
wooden ; abhadda horigaah, 
the wooden box. 

hori dableh, m.n., fire-brand. 

horah, f.n., sun, sunshine. — di ; 
— so bah, sunrise ; — subah, 
sun in the morning ; — da', 
sunset ; — galbed, sun in the 

horato, f.n., lizard (small one). 

horud, m.n., semen (in general); 
biyo bah, semen (pro hmnine). 

hosh,, mix, mingle, stir, 

hosol, m.n., laugh, laughter, smile, 
grin. — ki. 

hosol, v.i., laugh, smile ; hosla, 
wan hosli ; ku — , v,tr., mock 
at, ridicule ; ninki lagu hosol, 
everyone mocks at him ; wa la 
igu wada hoslai, they all 
laughed at me. 

hoton, m.n., straigbtness. — ki 
(position of a jar placed in a 
hole to keep it straight). 

hoton, v.i., be placed straight; 
wa hotami, it will be placed 

hotomi,, place straight. 

hub,, spill, squander, waste ; 
la<agta,idi wan hubai, I ha\ e 
squandered my money. 

hud, m.n., eel. — ki. 

hud, a., sole, single ; nin hudiah, 
a single man. 

U hud,, be inclined to give ; 
ku hudi mayo, I cannot give 
to you. 

hud, m..n., looking at (a man 
while he is eating, iii order to 




get some food by that impor- 

hud, v.i., look at ; mahad naga 
hudaisa, why are you looking 
at us? 

hudaiyo, or hundanyo, f.n., ant 
(very black one). 

hudda, m.n., large wooden spoon, 
ladlp, skimmer. 

hudhudi,, swallow (water), 
clip (words). 

hudhudis, m.n., swallowing. — ki. 

hudrad, f.n., vegetables. — di. 

hudun, m.n., putrefaction, rotten- 
ness. — ki. 

hudun, v.i., putrefy ; hudma, 
wan hudmi ; miyidki hudun, 
the corpse is putrefied, 

hudmi, V.C., cause to putrefy, 

hudunsan, a., rotten ; midki 
hudusana, the rotten fruit. 

hudmun, m.n., stench. — ki. 

hudmun ahaw, v.att., stink, be of 
bad smell. 

ur hudmun, f.n., stench ; urti 
hudmunahaid, the stench. 

hudunhuto, or hudhuto, f.n., bird 
(with a long neck and a beak 
like a horn). 

hufa', m.n., cough.' — hi. 

hufa', v.i., cough. 

huful, m.n., lock. — ki. 

hulhulad, f.n., troublesomeness. 
— di ; — badan, a., trouble- 
huliyad, f.n., fairy. — di (some 
also say huliyad for a nice- 
looking person). 

hulub, m.n., sadness, gloom, sul- 

lenuess, dejection. — ki. 
hulub, v.i., be sad ; hulba, wan 
" hulbi. 
hulubsi, or ka hulbi,, make 

sad. melanchuJic. 
hulubsan, a., sad, gloomy. 
hulubsanaw, v.att., be gloomv, 

humba, or humbo, f.n., large skin 

jar for ghee. 
hun, a., direct, straight. 
hun, v.i., be straight ; huma, wan 

hun (U so'O), ad., directly, straight 

hun yar, ad., slow, slowly, a 

little ; hun yar so'o, \Yalk 

humi,, make straight. 
humanahaw, v.att., be straight. 
humati, m.n., straightness, up- 
rightness. — gi. 
humati u, ad., straight ; miska 

humati u dig, place the table 

hunhani, m.n., drone. — gi. 
hunud, f.n., litany. — di. 
hunudda mari, v.i., recite the 

hurdan, or jan, m.n., upper part 

of the ear-lobe. — ki. 
huri, v.i., snore. 
huro, f.n., snoring. 
huroh, f.n., beauty.— di. 
h"urhi,, make beautiful, nice, 

hurhiso, v.r., make beautiful for 

huroh badan, huroh wanaksan, 




or hurohsan, a.v., beaiitiful, 

nice ; faraski hurohda badna, 

the beautiful horse. 
hururoh, m.n., pebbles, gravel. — 
" hi. ■ 

hurunful, m.n., cloves, 
hus, v.i., dive. 

husi,, duck, make him plunge, 
hushash, m.n., sweepings, rub- 

hisl), chips. — ki, — yo. 
hushashad, /.»., rheumatism. — 
- di. 
hushl, m.n,, free will, wish, on 

purpose ; husliigai, my will. 
huso, or iss ka huso, v.i., despair ; 

husta, wan husau. 
husad, m.n., despair. — kL 
hushu', f.n., applause. — di. 
hushu', v.i., be applauded, be 

u hushu'i,, applaud, 
husur, a. and m.n., deep, depth, 

deepness. — ki ; baddi wa liu- 

sur, the sea is deep. 
huwad, f-n., power. — di. 
huwadleh, a., powerful. 


ka, ki, ku, art., the {aff.). 

ka, ki, ker,, this or 

that ; 
kan, kas, this or that ; 
kuer, kuas, these or those ; 
kuan, kuakan, these ; 

kui, kui, kuas, those ; 

ko, kuo, that, those, yon, yonder. 

kai, kaiga, kaigi,, 

my, mine; wa kaigi, it is mine. 
ka, kaga, kagi, thy, thine, 
k', kis, kisa, kisi, his. 
ked, keda, kedi, her, hers. 
kaya, kayaga, kayagi, our, ours 

(mine and theirs). 
ken, kena, keni, our, ours (yours 

and mine). 
kin, kina, kini, your, yours. 
kod, koda, kodi, their, theirs. 
ke? keba? kuma? kuama? int. 

prn., who? what? nioke? what 

ku, pers.pi-n., thee, to him, her, 

them, by him, her, them. 
ku, kugu, pers.pi-n., to thee, l)y 

ku, prp., to, in, at, for, on, 

ka, pen.prn.., from thee, you, him, 

her, them ; ka, ad., than ; ka, 

prp., against, from. 
ka', v.i., awake, wake, get up, 

rise; ka'a, wan ke'i; sara — 

and so — , get up ; u ka', get 

up for, go to. 
ke'i,, wake, awake ; ka — , 

awake them all. 
kab, f.n,, sandal, shoe, bootj 

slipper. — ti, 
kab,, mend, repair (is used 

for all things). 
kabahala, o., bare-footed ; ninki 

kabahalaa, the bare - footed 

kabatol, m.n., shoemaker. — ki, 

— yo. 

G 2 




kaba tolai, m.n., shoemaker, 
means also aw], gimlet. — hi. 

(nin) kabo wein, a., large-fouted 
man ; ninki kabaha weina. 

kabo weinan, f.n., lnrgeness of 
feet or of shoes. — ti ; kaba 
weinanta na^aha Somalied 
eg ! look ! how large the So- 
mali women's sandals are. 

kabaasaya, vi.n., tree producing 
red dye. — M. 

kabad, m.n., stool with three legs 
(see gambad). — ki. 

kabad, m.n., cupboard. — ^ki; ka- 
badka ku gur, put in the cup- 

kabadai, m.n., traveller, peddler. 
— M; nin kabadaab, a man 
travelling alone in the jungle. 

kabadai, v.i., travel. 

kabal, m.n., one of the two poles 
used for making the entrance 
of a Somali hut. — ki. 

kaballo, f.n. (plur. of kabal), the 
two poles (or dig doho) tied 
together thus X> to be put on 
the camel. 

kabtan, m.n., captain of a ship, 
steamer. — ki. 

kabubiyo, f.n., cramp, numbness. 

kadalob, w.n., sitting on the 
heels, squatting. — ki. 

kadalob, v.i., be squat. 

kadalobso, v.r., squat. 

(u) kadi, v.i., wait for; i kadi, 
wait for me ; u kadi, wait for 

kadsi, m.n., patience, waiting. — 

kadsileb, a., patient. 

kadso, v.i., have patience. 

(nin) kadsanla, a., impatient; 
ninkasi wa kadsanlayahai, 
that man is impatient. 

kadi, /.»., urine. — di. 

kadi, v.i., piss ; kadsha, wan 
kadshi ; so — , go to .... 

kadshahais, f.n., bladder. — ti. 

kadin, m.n.. flock, herd. — ^ki ; 
kadin fardaah, lo'ah, gelah, 
a herd of horses, cows, caniels. 

ka'din, f.n., gallop (at full speed). 
— ti. 

ka'dlai, v.i., trot. 

ka'dlo, f.n., trot. 

kafan, f.n., coffin, white sheet in 
which Somals tie up their dead. 
— ti. 

kafir, or koM, m.n., apostate. — ■ 

kafar, v.i., apostatize ; ka&a, 
wan kafri. 

kii&an, f.n., apostaey. — ti. 

kaftan, m.n., joke, jest, wit, fun. 
— ki. 

kaftan, v.i., joke, amuse, fun ; 
kaftama, wan kaftami. 

kahai,, lead, take to (a place, 
a person); so — , take, bring 
(towards me); kala — , sepa- 
rate, detach ; labada nin e 
dagalamaya kala kahai, sepa- 
rate the two men who are 

kal {root), time, year ; — dambe, 
next year ; — bore, last year. 

kala, ad., apart (this word is used 
for pointing out division, sepii- 
ration) ; laba wil o kala amu- 
san, two sulky boys ; kas iyo 




kan kalana, tliat and tlie 
kalad, f.n., tusk of the wild hog. 

— di. 
kalah, m.n., wooden water-cup, 

mug. — ^hi, — ^yo. 
kalai, v.i., come (used as a call) ; 
kalaiya («ee imo, come) ; ka 
daba — , vir., follow ; la — , 
bring, fetch (only used in the 
imperative) ; see ken, bring. 
kaleh, a., other ; ka — , ki — , 
ku — , the other ; mid — , 
another ; mar — and gor — , 
a<i;ain, another time ; mar kaleh. 
fleh, repeat, say again ; o — , 
the same, like ; kursigas o 
kaleh i ken, bring me a chair 
the same as that one, or like 
that one ; ku kaleh o la midah 
i ken, or ku kaleh o 'aiukasah 
i ken, bring me another of the 
same kind. 
kalil, f.n., hot weather before the 

S.W. monsoon. — shi. 
kalshin, f.n. — ^ti (see galsho). 
kalun, m.n., Ush. — ^ki. 
kalumaisato, f.n., fishing-boat. 
kane'o, f.n., mosquito, gnats, 


kanun, m.n. — ^ki (see hanun, rule). 

kar, v.i. and auxil.verb, (be) able; 

wahhad samain kartid samai, 

or intad kartid samai, do wiiat 

you can. 

ma karO; n.v., I am unable, I 

cannot ; ma kartid, thou art 

unable, thou canst not ; isagu 

ma karo, he is unable; kari 

wahyai, 1 cannot, I could not 

(they say so only after having 
tried to do a thing and having 
failed) ; kari wah, he cannot, 
he could not ; hudi kari wah, 
he could not carry. 

wah an la karin, a., impossible, 
unintelligible, means also mi- 
racle ; etaigas wa wah an la 
karin, that word is unintelli- 

la ma kar, a., impossible; wa la 
ma kar, it is impossible. 

la ma karo, a., impossible (to be 
done); wahhas la ma karo, 
that cannot be done. 

kamin, f.n., ability, capacity, 
power. — ^tl. 

kar, m.n., boiling. — kL 

kar, v.imp., it boils ; gor dow 
biyuhu wai kari, after a while 
the water will boil ; 'anaha 
or 'anuhu wa kari donan, the 
milk will boil ; imiuka 'anihi 
or 'antihu wa karayan, now 
the milk is boiling ; 'auahi, 
biyihi karai, the milk, the 
water is boiled. 

kari,, boil, cook. 

karsan, a.v., boiled. 

deriya karis, or sor karis, m.n., 
coik (man). — ki, — yo. 

kar,, mend, patch ; marada 
kar, mend the clothes. 

karrin, f.n., patch (piece of cloth 
or linen for mending clothes). 
— ^ti; karrintasa hadai, that 
piece remains. 

karamad, f.n., grace. — di. 

karani, m.n., clerk (in some 
office). — gL 




karau,, defend, protect, mas- 
ter ; kareba, wan karebi ; 
inankasi dasturta htm karau, 
master the evil habits of that 
boy ; iss — , defend yourself. 

karbask, w,.n., scourging, flagel- 
lation. — ki. 

karur, f.n., camel's milk become 
.'our. — ti. 

kashif,, defame. 

kashif, m.n., defamation. — ki. 

ka'si, m.n., masturbation. — gi. 

ka'si, v.i., masturbate. 

ka'so, v.r., masturbate yourself. 

kasta, num., every (has the same 
meaning as walba, but has a 
more affirmative sense). 

katun, m.n., ring. — ki. 

kau, f.n., killing, or knocking 
down with a club. — di. 

ka kausi,, kill at once. 

kaudek, v.i., die suddenly (used 
as a curse) ; kau ban odan, I 
will die suddenly ; kau bu 
yidi, he died suddenly ; h.a 
kau yidaMo, let him die sud- 

kawir,, launch ; sahemada 
kawira, take (ye) the boat to 
the sea. 

kebed, f.n., kind of carpet used 
by Somals for covering their 
huts, and as pack saddles for 
their camels. 

kebrid, f.n., match (lucifer), sul- 
phur. — di, — yo. 

kelbad, f.n., hinge (of a door). — 

keli, num., single, alone. — gi, — 
di, inflected with the poss.prn. ; 

wa kelidi, he is a solitary man ; 
nin keliab, a single man. 

kelli, f.n., kidney. — di, 

kellyaleh, or kellya badan, m.n., 
a clever, courageous, brave man. 

ken,, bring, fetch (see geij ; 
i ken, bring me ; war — , in- 
form, bring news ; ka war — , 
bring news from, ascertain ; 
inna kena, inna mariya, inna 
marsba, inna wada, inna ke- 
haiya, (all these expressions 
mean) let us go. 

kibir, v.i., be proud ; kibra, wan 

kibir, m.n., pride, vanity. — M. 

kibirsan, a.v., proud, vain; adigu 
wa Mbirsantabai, thuu ait 

kibis,/.n., bread, loaf, unleavened 
bread. — ti; some say kimis. — 
ti; kibis diran,new bread, breiid 
still warm ; kibis kulid, hut 
bread ; kiljis babow, stale 

kidar, m,.n., unleavened bread 
made of jowaree flour. — ^ki. 

kilkilo, f.n., arm-pit, arm-hole. 

kintob, m.n., hemorrhoids, piles. 
— ki, — yo. 

kiro, f.n., rent, hire (of a house). 

kirai,, hire, let. 

kiraiso, v.r., hire (for yourself). 

kish, m.n., pocket, bag, puvsi^, 
money-case (of linen), envelope. 
— ki. 

kisbad, f.n., leathern purse (as 
Somals ordinarily use). — di, 

kitab, m.n., book. — ki, — yo or 




kobi, m.n., cabbage. — gi. 

kobo', a., chubby ; iMahas wa 
kobo', thnt is a chubby child ; 
'ilma kobai', a chubby ehikl 
able to sit down- and stand. 

kod, m.n., eye-brow (hair and 
bone). — ki. 

kol, m.n., time, once. — ki. 

kolka, conj., when. 

kolma? ad., when? 

kolki hore, ad., formerly. 

kolkol, ad., sometimes. 

kol badan, ad., often, many 

kol walba, ad., always^ daily. 

kol kaleb, ad., twice, another 

koUeh, and kollehba, ad., by all 
means, absolutely, by no means ; 
kolleh. tag, you have to eo, 
you must go ; kolleb. Adan 
tegi maisid, by no means are 
you to go to Aden (refusal) . 

kolla, ad., never. 

kolai, m.n., basket. — gi. 

kolombai, or kulambai, m.n., a 
kind of tufted, crested eagle. — 

konton, num., fifty. — ki. 

kontomad, num., fiftieth. 

konton madafto, f.n., phalanx. 

kor, prp., over, up ; kor u had, 
lift up, take up. 

kor, v.i., climb, mount, be edu- 
cated, grow, grow up ; burta 
kor, climb up the mountain. 
kor jir, or kor jog, m.n., guard, 
outpost, sentinel, watchman. — 
ki, — gi, — yo. 
la kor, v.i., be brought up, be 

educated with ; inanki sul- 
danka wan la korai, I have 
been brought up with the 
sultan's son. 

kori,, educate, bring up, 
adopt ,; inankas kori, adopt 
that boy. 

la koriyai, a., adoptive. 

la kori,, help him to edu- 
cate ; i la kori, help me to 

koris, m.n., education, training. 
— ki. 

korod, m.n., gain, profit, augment. 
ki, — yo. 

kordi,, augment, benefit, in- 
crease, give or put more ; i 
kordi, give me more ; bariska 
i kordi, give me more rice. 

kordiso, vr., gain (for yourself) ; 
kordista, wan kordisan. 

kordis, m.n., augmentation, gain, 
increase. — ki. 

korubodo, f.n., kind of game 
(nearly the same as draughts). 

korai, or kora, m.n., saddle. — hi, 

korai,, saddle ; faraska i 
korai, saddle the horse for 

kormai, or korma, m.n., male 
horse, stallion. — hi. 

koron, m.n., big, large or fat 
camel (castrated one), eunuch. 
— ki, 

koron koro, f.n,, field cricket, 
locust, grasshopper. 

kow, num., one. 

kowad, num., first; ki — , the 

kristan, m.n., Christian. — ki. 




kub, m.n., parb of the leg (below 

the knee). — ki. 
kubad, or hubad, f.n., cupola, 

ball.— di. " 
kubo, f.n., caecum, blind gut. 
kad, m.n., plague, pest. — ki. 
kud, v.i., may you die (of pest). 
kud, m.n., sodomy. — ki. 
kud, v.i., practise sodomy ; iuan- 

ka kud. 
kud ! int., used in driving sheep 

and other animals. 
kudkudai or da, m.n., camel's 

tick, sand-bug. — hi. 
kuf, v.i., fall, tumble ; aurkaigi 

ba kufai, or iga kufai, my 

camel fell ; dagah ban ku ku- 
fai, I fell against, on a stone. 
kufi, V.C., make him fall, 
kufnin, f.n., fall.— ti. 
kufso,, violate, break, ravish ; 

kufsada, wan kufsan ; gabad- 

das wa la kufsadai, that girl 

was violated. 
kufsan, a.v., violated. 
kuflad, or kofiad, f.n., hat, cap. 

— di. 
kug, fn., upper part of the skull. 

— ti {see dalo). 
kul, m.n., heat. — ki. 
kulul, or kulaiL, a., warm, hot ; 

wan kululahai, I feel warm ; 

wa kulail, it is hot. 
kulal, V.T., warm yourself. 
kulalai,, heat, make warm, 

inda kul, f.n., antimony, colly- 

rinm. — shi. 
kul, f.n., kind of necklace of the 

Somali women. — shi. 

kulan, f.n., kind of tree and its 

fruit. — ti. 
kulan, m.n., meeting (act of). — 

la kulan,, meet ; la kulma, 

wan la kulmi; hebel ba la 

kulmai, I met such a one. 
kulli, num., all (see gidi). 
kumbis, m.n., piece of fat meat 

roasted a little in the deri.— ^ 

ki, — yo. 
kumbul, m.n., blanket. — ki. 
kun, num., thousand. — ki. 
kur, f.n., hill. — ti ; kurtan u 

sarai, I took him to the hill. 
kurai, m.n., boy (big). — gi. 
ku yar, m.n., small boy ; ku yar- 

yar, small boys ; ki yara, the 

small boy. 
kurankur, f.n., ankle-bone, knee- 
kurbo, v.i., shiver, shudder. 
kurbad, m.n., shivering, shudder. 

— ki. 
kured, m.n., very hard stone used 

for hammering and driving 

stakes into the ground, and 

also for sharpening knives and 

axes. — ki. 
kuriyai, v.i., fold sheep and 

cattle, arrange something in 

the form of a ball. 
kuriyaisan, a.v., spherical. 
kuriyaisnan, f.n., sphere. 
kurun, f.n., hill, rising ground. 

— ti. 
kurundalo, f.n., uneven route, 

kurus, m.n., camel's hump. — ^ki, 

— yo. 

ktiruska ! int., cry of sellers in 

the streets. 
kiirsi, m.n., chair. — gi ; kurasi 

{plur. Arabic used by some 

kus, v.i., fold something in the 

form of a ball. 
kus, m.n., lump, mass. — ki (see 

kusad, f.n., water-jug. — di. 
kutan, f.n., bug. — ti. 

89 IBS 

i, used with its appropriate con- 
sonant as an affix for art. "the " ; 

dem. a., "this, that," and^os*. 

a.prn. " his," and with nouns 

to express generality, 
i, pers.prn., me, to me. 
igu, pers.prn., to me, by me. 
iga, pers.prn., from me. 
isagu, isaga, pers.prn., he, him ; 

isagu isaga wa u tegi dona, 

he will go to him. 
iyo, iyadu, iyada, pers.prn., she, 

innagu, iimaga, pers.prn., we, 

idin, idinku, edinka, pers.prn., 

iyo, iyagu, iyaga, pers.prn., 

they, them, from them. 
'i, v.i., cry, bark, cackle {see 


'i, f.n., crying, barking, cry of 
nearly all animals. 

lb ! lb ! ib ! iro ! int., loud shout 
(in playing). 

ib, f.n., nipple, teat, spring (of 
water), canal of urine. — ti. 

ib, m.n., buying, sale, price. — ki 
(there is a great difference be- 
tween gana' (price) and ib 
(price), gana' ma laha having 
no price, in the sense of being 
useless, or worth nothing); ib 
ma laha, invaluable ; Ebbahai 
abalgudkisu ib ma laka, God's 
reward is invaluable (i.e. can- 
not be paid for). 

ibi,, buy and sell. — ya or 
ibsha ; faras ibi, buy a horse ; 
faraskaga ibi, sell your horse; 
faraskaiga ma ibin ? will you 
buy my horse ? faraskaga ma 
ibin ? will you sell your horse ? 
SO — ,, go and buy, go and 
sell ; faraskas so ibi, go and 
buy that horse ; ushaida had 
so ibi, take my stick and go 
to sell it ; basal so ibi, go and 
buy onions ; faraskisa ma so 
ibin ? will you go and buy, or 
will you go and sell his horse ; 
warmahas ma ibinaisa? are 
you buying, or are you selling 
those spears. 

ibso,, buy, sell (for yourself) ; 
kitab ibso, buy a book ; ki- 
tabkas ibso, sell that book (the 
money will be for you) ; sar- 
rirtatan ma ibsanaisa ? will 
you sell this bed % mindiyahas 
ma ibsanaisa? will you buy 




those knives 1 so — , go and 
Luy, or sell (for you) ; abal- 
gudkagi sarrirtatam u hado o 
so ibso, for your reward take 
this bed and sell it. 

ibsan, v. imp., be sold ; wai ib- 
sami, it will be sold. 

ibsan, a.v., bought, sold ; wa la 
ibsan, it is bought, sold ; fa- 
raskaigi wa faras ibsan, e 
mid an so hadai maha, my 
horse is a bought horse, and 
not a stolen one. 

ma ibsana, a.v., unsold. 

ibsanaw, v.att., be bought or sold. 

nin wah ibiya or ibsha, a seller ; 
ninki wah ibiya, the seller. 

ibadad, f.n., devotion, piety. — 

(nin) ibadad ja'el, or ibadad 
badan, devout, fervent man ; 
ninki ibadadda ja'la or badna, 
the devout, fervent man. 

ibrih, m.n., pot, vessel. — hi. 

'id, f.n., individual, person, any- 
body, anyone. — di ; 'id ma 
timi ? has anybody come 1 'id 
ma iman, or 'iddi ma iman, 
or 'iddina ma iman, nobody 
came; 'iddina ma jogto, no- 
body is here. 

'idla, a., desert, uninhabited, un- 
occupied ; burtas wa 'idla, 
that mountain is desert, un- 

'idla, or 'idla 'ir sila, f.n., jungle, 
desert, or calm, tranquillity of 
the desert. — di; 'idladi bahal 
ba ka buhai, the jungle is full 
of wild beasts. 

'id, f.n., sand. — di. 

'id,, celebrate (a feast). 

'id, f.n., feast (holiday). — di. 

idan, m.n., censer, vase in which 
incense is burnt for perfuming. 
— ki. 

'idan, m.n., helper, coming to the 
rescue of combatants. — ki. 

'idami,, go, run to the re.«icne. 

'idib, f.n., heel. — ^ti {see 'edib). 

idil, a., complete, all, entire ; dad 
badan idll, the entire popula- 
tion ; malin o idil, or malin 
idil, all day long ; shalo idil, 
all yesterday. 

idlai,, abolish, accomplish, 
complete, finish, waste (money); 
dinta idlai, abolish the reli- 
gion ; shuhulka idlai, fini.«h 
your work ; la'agtada idlai, 
waste your money. 

idlow, v.i., abut, finish ; danga 
Bnlahar ku idlada, the way 
ends at Bnlahar. 

idlan, or idlain, f.n., abolish- 
ment, finishing.— ti. 

an idlan la hain, or an idlan ha 
lahain, endless. 

idin, f.n., tanned skin of an 
antelope or gazelle, used for 
making charms or amulets. — 

u idin,, authorize, empower ; 
idma, wan idmi ; ha la idmo, 
let him be authorized. 

ido, m.n., sheep ; hilib idad, 
mutton (flesh). 

if, m.n., light, earth. — ki. 

iftin, m.n., light. — ki, — yo ; if- 
tinki horahda, the sunlight. 




iftimi,, light. 

'ifrid, m.n., devil, evil spirit. — 

il, f.n., eye, fountain, sprins; (of 
water).— shi; indo (plur.). 

ilia, a., one-eyed ; nin ilia, a one- 
eyed man ; ninki ishalaa, the 
one-eyed raan. 

isha balkeda sarai, and isha 
balkeda hosai, the eyelash 
■ (upper and lower). 

isha bo^ ku leh, eyesore. 

isha buhdeda, iris of the eye ; 
indaha buhdoda, the iris of 
the eyes. 

isha inankeda, or isha wilkeda, 
the pupil of the eye, eye-ball. 

il yaro, f.n., fistula lacrymalig. 

(nin) indala, a., blind ; ninki 
indalaa, the blind man ; nagti 
indalaid, the blind woman. 

indalaan, f.n., blindness. — ti. 

(nin) il der, a., long-sighted. 

il deran, f.n., long sight. — ti. 

(nin) inda flhan, a good-sighted 

(nin) indo iss dafsan, a squint- 
eyed man. 

indo haUohan, a wry eye. 

il ma halul, squinting. 

ashharah, one-eyed, squint-eyed, 
or goggle-eyed. 

indaha ashhar, v.i., goggle ; wil- 
kasi indiihu ashhari dona, 
that boy will goggle ; ninkasi 
induhu ashharaiya, thut man 

il daran, short-sighted, myope, 
means also a dying man, i.e. who 
has already his eyes veiled. 

indai,, observe, look at 
them ; halaito hedigihi ban 
indaiyai, last night I observed 
the stars. 

indo (eyes), m.n., observation. — 
hi; indahaigi, or ishaidi, my 
observation ; ishayadi, our ob- 

isha ku 'adai, or isha or indo ku 
tol, v.i., stare, gaze, look aC 

il jebi, v.i., make known the 
things, wink. 

'il, m.n., anger, wrath. — ki ; — U 
hab, v.i., be angry ; — • U SU- 
run, v.i., be angry, huif, svvell 
with anger, rage. 

'il,, make angry; 'ila, wan 
'ila ; wad i 'ilaisa, thuu 
niakest me angry. 

ka 'il bel, v.i., satisfy your anger, 
take your revenge (until you 
are satisKed). 

'ilan, or 'ishan, a.v., angry ; nin- 
ki 'ilia or 'ishana, the angry 

'ilow, or 'isho, or u 'isho, v.i., be 
angry, abhor ; 'ishoda, wan 
'ishon; wan ku 'ishon, T will 
be angry with you ; halaito 
ban u 'ishodai, last night I 
was angry with him. 

Ila, or Ilah, m.n., God (inflected 
with the poss.adj.prn.) ; Ilah- 
hai, my God. 

ila, or ilama, prp., till, up tn ; 
ila halkas, till there ; orod 
ilama burta g^adeda, run up 
to the top of the mountain. 

ilahtan, v.i,, quarrel. 




ilais, m.n., fire-light, night-lamp. 

— ki, — yo. 
ilali,, take care, protect ; 

inanka ilali, take care of the 

child ; so — , go and take care ; 

si — , continue to take care, to 

ilalo, f.n., care, protection, vigi- 

ilalo, f.n., watchman, guard, 

sentinel, spy ; — dir, send a 

spy ; ilalan diri, or ilalo ban 

diri, I wiJl send a spy. 
so ilalai, or ilalo tag, v.i., scont, 

reconnoitre, spy. 
ilaw, or How,, forget ; ha 

Uowbin, do not forget. 
ilowsho, f.n., forgetfulness. 
ilhad, f.n., silver earring=, latch 

(of a door). — di ; albahka il- 

haddisa, the latch of the door. 
ilig, m.n., tooth. — gi; ilko(j)lur.). 
'ilin, m.n., dwarf. — ^ki. 
'ilimad, f.n., dwarf (/.). — di. 
ilUhid, m.n., screen (anything 

used in a hut as a separation). 

ki, — yo. 
iUia, m.n., entrance, gate, door of 

an enclosure, a stable.— ki. 
iUo, v.r., shoe (yourself), put 

your feet in shoes, sandals. 
'ilmi, m.n., knowledge of the 

written book (Coran). — gi. 
ilmo, f.n., tear; eg! ilmo indi- 

Msa ka imanaisa or ka oraisa 

or dareiraisa or ka da'aisa, 

look ! a tear flows from his 

ilmo, mn., child, hahy. — ^hi ; — 

ayal, or ilmayaw (plur.). 

ilma abti, cousin (from maternal 

uncle) ; Uma aljti ya bannu 

uahai, we are cousins. 
ilma ader, cousin (from paternnl 

uncle) ; ilma ader ya bannu 

nahai, we are cousins. 
ina abtigai, or ina aderkai, my 

cousin ; ilma abtiyashai, or 

ilma; aderadai, my cousins ; 

ilma abtiyashai, or aderadai 

ban so egaya, 1 wish to go and 

see my cousins, 
ilma nasaha jaha, sucking child. 
ilma koba'ai, chubby chdd. 
ilma dalinah or dalimah, spoiled, 

teasing child. 
ilma hnn, spoiled, corrupted 

ina, m.and/.«., son, daughter; ina 

Abdul, Abdul's son cn-daughter; 

— walalkai, nephew, niecR ; 

— ader, cousin ; walalkai ba 
dalai, my nephew; walashai 
ba dashai, my niece. 

inan, m.n., son, pupil, boy. — ki. 

inan, f.n., daughter, girl, lady 
(young).— ti. 

imamad, f.n., turban. — di. 

imamad,, arrange his turban 
(used with the pronouns) ; wan 
u, ku imamadi, I will arrange 
his, your turban. 

iman, f.n., oath, swearing. — ti. 

imansi, v.i., swear (used with the 
pronouns); iman ban ku sin, 
I swear to you. 

iman, m.n., leader of the Mussul- 
man prayer. — ki. 

imin. — ka, — ki, ad., now (see 




iminkada, nA., just now. 

imisa, oi' imsa ? ad., how much % 
how many ? imisa jix bad ta- 
hai ? what is your age ? 

imo, ?;.«., come (kalai is ordinarily 
vised in the 2nd pers. sing, of 
the imperative mood instead 
of imo, not commonly used); 
haddada imo, come at that 

imatin, m.n., coming. — ki. 

imad, m.n., arrival. — ki. 

in, conj., that ; inan tago, that 
I go ; bal — , if ; bal an ego 
in Fara so so'odo, I will see, 
or let me see if Fara is coming. 

in, /.n., part, piece, bit, some ; 
in i si, give me some. 

in yar, /.m., little piece, particle ; 
inti yaraid, the particle. 

inta, ad., as much, so much, 
until ; tagno intan imanaya, 
m ila intan imanaya, renjain 
st-aiiiling until I come ; intasan 
haista, I have so much ; wa 
inta, it is so much ; inta leh. 
eg, like, of that size ; mid inta 
leh eg, one of that size, or one 
like I hat; intada in leh eg 
ban haista, or intad o kalan 
baista, I have as much as you; 
intas kaleh ma haisata, 
have you as much? intas 
kalan haista, I have so much. 

intan u, ad., before ; intan u ku 
odan, before he told them. 

indal, /.«., thons;. — shi. 

indolai, m.n., (all the) skull. — hi. 

ingeg, v.i., be or become dry, 
wither ; bertasi wa ingegaisa, 

that tree becomes dry, or is 

ingegan, a.v., dry. 

(nin) alol ingeganleh, a., a con- 
stipated man, 

alol ingegnan, /.«., constipation. 
— ti. 

ingeji,, dry ; darka ingeji, 
dry the clothes. 

ingris, m.n., English. — ki; ninki 
ingriskaaha teg, the English- 
man lias gone. 

inkar, f.n., malediction, abomi- 
nation. — ti; Ilah inkartisi ba 
ku da'dai, the malediction of 
God fell upon him. 

(nin) inkaran, or inkarsan, or 
inkar haba, a., a cursed, aho- 
minable man ; Kain inkar bu 
habai, Cain was cursed. 

inkar,, malediction, curse. 

inkir,, refuse. 

inin, f.n., seed, grain. 

injil, m.n.. Gospel. — ki ; torad 
iyo injil, Bible and Gospel. 

injir, f.n., louse. — ti. 

injirbodo, f.n., flea. 

'iow, f.n., small owl. — di. 

'ir, m.n., sky, heaven. — ki. 

'ir sila,/.?i., calm, tranquillity. — 
di; habenka 'ir siladisi ba 
ina bajisai, the calm of the 
night frightened us. 

'ir, f.n., food contained in the 
stomach. — ti; — wein, greedy, 
gluttonous ; ninki 'irta wei- 
naid, the greedy man ; — yar, 
abstemious, temperatn. 

'ir weini, or 'ir weinan, f.n., 
greediness, gluttony. — di, — ti. 




ir, /.«., buttermilk, whey. — ti. 

irmaii, m.n., milch cow. — ki. 

irbad, f.n , needle, pin. — di. 

'iro, f.n., fog, mist, sand-storm. 

'iraisan, a., foggy, misty ; burti 
'irasnaid, the foggy nioun- 

'irro, f.n., -white, grey beard, 
grf-y hair. 

'ishai, m.n., fifth time of prayer, 
at about 7 o'clock in the even- 
ing. — M. 

islan, m.n., old man. — ki. 

islan, f.n., wife, old woman. — 

isnin, f.n., Monday. — ti. 

iss, reflex.prn., self (this word is 
also used as a noun, iss — • ki 
ninkasu iss kisu u so'onaya, 
that man is walking of his own 
accord, but it is especially used 
with the verb and preposition 
ka); — la, the same; issla 
magaladi, the same town, 

Issa, Jesus. 

ital, m.n., strength. — ki ; Hah 
ba ital u yeli or ital sin, God 
will give strength ; ital u yel, 
give him strength ; Hah ba 
ital leh, the strength belong.s 
to God ; italkaiga wah ba ka 
da'a, my strength decays ; 
italka runta, the force of 

iinyo, word used by children in 
refusing (is the same as ma 
dono, I will not). 

iyo, conj., and. 


ja'ail, m.n., affection, charity, 
love. — ki; ja'ailkan Ebbahai 
u habo, the love I have for God. 

ja'alaw,, love, like, prefer. 

ha ja'alan,, do not love, 
dislike ; anigu ma ja'ali, I do 
not like. 

ja'alan, or ja'lan, f.n., affection, 
friendship, kindness. — ti. 

iss ja'alan, f.n., self-love, selfish- 
ness.— ti ; iss ja'alantu, or 
ja'alantisa iss u habo, wa la 
yahan, or ad ba lo yahan, his 
selfishness, or the love he has 
for himself is well kTiown ; 
ja'alantan iss u habo, my 

ma ja'alan, f.n., dislike, aversion, 
— ti. 

(nin) dagal ja'el, a., warlike, 

(nin) 'ibadad ja'el, a., devout, 
fervent, pious. 

iss ja'el, a., selfish ; wai iss ja'el- 
yihin, they are selfish. 

ja'elnimo, f.n., friendship. 

jal, m.n., friend, associate. — ki. 

jab, and ka jab, and jajab,, 
be, broken, cheap ; lug ban ka 
jabai, or lug ba i jabtai, I 
have broken my leg. (As a 
kind of curse they use the fol- 
lowing expression : ga'an or 
lug ka jab, Ebbaliai ban ku 
bariyai or bariyaya, I pray 
God that your hand or foot 
may be broken.) 




jabau, «.«., broken, cheap ; ga- 
rabkisu wa jabau yabai, his 
shoulder is broken ; barisku 
wa jabanyabai, rice is cliaap; 
bariski jeb, riue became cheap. 

jab, jajab, m.n,, potsherd. — ki, 
— ab, — yo. 

jebi, jejebi,, break, and 
lireak iu pieces. 

jabnin, /.M., fracture. — ti. 

gana' jabau, a., cheap. 

gana' jebi,, cheapen. 

jabti, /.«., gonorrhoea. — dii 

jab, m.n,, forehead, visage, coun- 
tenance. — ^hi, — yo. 

jahhaururi, or jahhur, vd.,im-wn. 

jab, m.n., North pole-star. 

jab, or jeb, half ; gambo iyo jab 
or jeb, one anna and a half. 

jahas, f.n., crocodile. — ti. 

jab, v.i., suck (said of children 
and animals). 

jaha, m.n., sucking. — ^hi; inanka 
jahibisa eg ! see ! the child is 

jableh, m.n., disease of kids and 
lambs. — ^hi. 

jalabad, f.n., pitcher. — di. 

jalalah,, attack, plunder. 

jalalaha, m.n., attack, plunder. — 
hi. " 

jalbeb, f.n., amusement, play. 

jalbebi, or jalbebsi,, amuse, 

jalbebo, v.i., play, amuse your- 
self; jalbebta. 

jalilad, f.n., bullet. — di. 

jama', m.n , congregation of 
])e(iple assembled for prayer. — 

jamadar, m.n., chief of police. — 

jainala, m.n., earthpn Arab coffee- 
pot {see jemelad). 

jan, m.n., a plain of dry mud in 
which there is no sand, burn- 
ing of the feet (in passing on 
that plain when heated by the 
sun). — ^ki. 

jan, f.n., sound of footsteps, old 
and bad shoes or sandals, any 
piece of leather used for mend- 
ing the soles of shoes and 
sandals. — ti. 

jangeli, or jingili, m.n., country- 
man, churl. — gi. 

janjed, m.n., irregularity of a line. 
— ki ; kursiga wa janjedah, 
the chair is not straight (is 
awry) . 

janjed, v.i., be awry. 

janjedi,, put awry. 

janno, f.n., heaven, paradise. 

jar,, cut, saw, abrogate, 

jar, m.n., brink of a mountain, 
cliff, equilibrium of weighing 
scales. — ^ki. 

jar ka da', v.i., lose the equili- 
brium, come into trouble. 

jara', m.n., reed, bamboo. — hi, 

— yo. 

jarrai, or jarra, m.n., halter (of 

hor.=es). — ^bi. 
jarra bar, v.i., master a horse, 
jawab, f.n., answer. — ti. 
jed,, wait to look at (root); 

u — , look at, await, expect ; 

ninka u jed, look at that man; 

haggad u jeda? what are you 




looking at 1 means also where 
are y i u going 1 wahhan. u jeda, 
I look at something ; mel ban 
u jeda, I go somewhere, 
so jed, v.i, waken, remain awake; 

wan so jeda, I am awake. 
jedi,, turn, distract ; ina- 
mada jedi, distract the boy 
(thit he may not see); san- 
duhha liagga u jedi, turn the 
Lox to that side ; SO — , turn 
(towards me); inanka so jedi, 
turn the boy to my side ; si — , 
turn to a place opposite to 

jedso,, look at (for yourself); 
hagga u jedso, look there. 

jeso, v.i., turn (yourself) ; jesta, 
wan jesan ; u — , turn to ; so 
■ — , turn towards me, us ; si ■ — , 
turn away from me. 

jedal, m.n., whip, lash (flogging). 
ki (used for women and horses). 

jedal, v.U:, flog, whip, scourge; 
jedla, wan jedli. 

jedal, f.n., flogging, scourging. — 

jedali,, behold. 

jegan, f.n., rainbow. — ti. 

jeh,, rend, tear. 

jeh, m.n., tearing, cleft, split, 
crack. — M. 

jehjeh,, tear into pieces. 

jehan, a.v., torn, split, ...; ma- 
radi wa jehantahai, the cloth 
i~ torn. 

jelelo, or jalelo, f.n., the senna 

jemelad, f.n., earthen Arab coffee- 
pot. — di. 

jeni, m.n., foreleg(for all animals). 

— gi. 

jeni hor, m.n., gallop. — ki (lit. 
throwing the foreleg). 

jer, root, time ; imisa jer ? how 
many times 1 laba, sadeh. jer, 
two, three times. 

jer, m.n., hippopotamus. — ki. 

jes, m.n., hut (one family). — ki, 
— as. (The plural jesas is used 
for many families living near 
each other, but not agglome- 

jibad, f.n., lion's roar. — di. 

jibad, v.imp., roar. 

jid, m.n., body, flesh, lean of 
meat. — ^ki. 

jid, m.n., path, road, way. — ^ki. 

jidyaban, f.n., guide. — ^ti ; nin 
jidka yahan i ken, bring me a 

jid,, draw, pull, row, put 
up, on ; markabki jidai, the 
steamer is far off, away ; so — , 
pull (towards me) ; si — , pull 
from me to ; la si — adna, you 
also pull, draw with, help ; iss 
— , come into collision with, 
run into, against ; labada nia 
ba iss so jidai, the two men 
ran one against another. 

jido, v.i., run quick ; jita, wan 

jif, f.n., top of stiff ascent. — ^ti. 
jif, or iss ka jif, v.i., rest, remain 

.. lying, sleeping. 

jifi, v.c, cause him to rest, 

jifso, v.i., go and sleep, lie down 
and sleep. 




jih, m.n,, a tree the bark of which 

is black. — hi. 
jila', or jilai', m.n., fragility, 

brittleness. — hi. 
jilai'san, a.v., brittle, soft ; galas 

wa jilai'san, glass is brittle; 

ninkasi wa arab jilai'san 

yahai, that man is eloquent, 

jilal, m.n., dry season. — ^ki. 
jUbad, /.»., heavy silver necklace 

(for women). — di. 
jilbis, m.n., viper, adder. — ki, 

jilib, or jilab, m.?i., hook (for 
fishing). — ki. This last word 
is used by some for the rope 
or string. 

jilab, v.i., fish ; orod o so jilab, 
go to fish. 

jilabo, v.i., &sh. (for yourself). 

jilabasho, f.n., fishing. 

jilib, m.n., knee, tribe. — ^ki, — ^yo, 
or jilbo ; Hussein iss ku jilib 
bannu nahai, Hoosein and I 
are of the same tribe. 

jilba jog, v.i., remain on your 

jilba jog, m.n., genuflexion. — hi. 

jilba yaradig, v.i., kneel a little, 
remain on your knees resting 
with the back on your heels 

jilibka dig, v.i., bend the knee. 

jilba jogso, v.i., kneel. 

jilif, or jidif,/.«., bark, husk. — ti; 
bunka jiliftisa wa hashir, the 
coffee husks are called hashir. 

jima', jimai', or juma', m.n., 
Friday. — ^hi. 

jimid, m.n., meat, flesh. — ki. 
jina', m.n., big black ant (the 

stinking one). — ^M, — yo. 
jini, or jimi, m.n., genius, demon. 

jir, v.i. (used for the verb of ex- 
istence, " be, live," and also as 
an auxiliary verb, and for the 
division of time into years, 
age ;) Adan jir, or Adaniss ka 
jir, live at Aden; shalai aiirba- 

jirai there was a camel 

yesterday ; hebelba Bulahar 
jogi jirai, a certain man was 
living at Bulahar ; adign imi- 
sad jirtai, or imisa jir ba 
tahai ? how old are you ? la- 
batan jir ban ahai, I am 
twenty years old ; ma jiro and 
ma jirto, there is not ; erai- 
gasi ma jiro, that word does 
not exist ; manta wahba ma 
jiran, there is or there was 
nothing to-day. 

jir,, take care of, protect 
(for cattle and sheep) ; war ! 
adiga ra' o ad n jir, hallo ! 
(shepherd), go with the sheep 
and take good care of them ; 
manta hoUM ma u jiro, he 
does not take care of the cattle 
to-day ; iss — , take care of 
yourself (body and soul); iss 
ka — , mind (yourself), take 
care of yourself (from some- 
thing) ; llbahha ad issa ga jir, 
mind yourself, beware of the 

la jir,, serve, attend. 

haulyari ku jir, v.i., be at your 




ease ; haulyari ma ku jirta ? 

are you at your ease 1 ha, 
haulyari ban ku jira, yes, I 
am at my ease. 

jir, m.n., rat. — ki ; jir yar, a 
small rat. 

jirab, m.n., skin bag. — ki, — yo 
(a kind of clothes-bag). 

jirid, f.n., root of trees and 
plants, trunk, stem, stock, log 
of wood. — ^di, — 0, or jixdo 

jiriha, m.n., cricket (insect). — g^i. 

jirihsi, m.n., gnashing. — g^. 

jirihso,, gnash. 

kaga jiribi, v.c, make him gnash. 

jirjir, m.n., back of the hand, of 
a blade, of a man. 

jirjirad, m.n., all the back. — ki ; 
jirjir ad ka iss u rog, turn 
yourself on your back ; jirjirad 
bu u sebadai, he is sleeping 
stretched out full length on his 

jirjirolai, m.n., cameleon. — hi. 

ji'sin, m.n., provisions made for 
travelling, or for one's main- 
tenance at home. — ki, 

joborad, f.n., gem. — di. 

jog, m.n., abiding, remaining, 
staying.— gi. 

sojog, m.n., air, appearance, coun- 
tenance of a man. — gi, 

jog, v.i., used for the verb of ex- 
istence, be, live, remain, stay, 
stop ; la — , remain with ; ka 
— , hesitate. 

ninka la joga, m.n., the servant; 
tag ninki i la jogai u yed, 
go and call my servant. 

jogso, v.i., halt, remain, wait, do 
not go on in your bad way, 
choke ; wah ba i jogsadai, 
something choked me ; wabba 
kas jogsadai, something choked 
him ; ku — , tread, tread upon, 
trample ; mahad 'agta iga ga 
jogsanaisa? why do you tread 
upon my foot. 

ku jogjogso, v.i., shampoo with 
the feet (upon the back); da- 
barkai hanuni e igu jogjogso, 
my back pains me, shampoo it. 

jogjogsi, m.n., shampooing with 
the feet (on the back). — gi. 

joji,, detain, impede, inter- 
cept, stop ; ku — , strike him, 
fix a handle ; iss ku — , strike 
yourself, add together. 

joniad, f.n., bag. — di. 

jubula, m.n., ignorant. — hi. 

juh ha odau, do not say a word. 

la, particle used for forming the 
the passive voice ; lo, contrac- 
tion of la and u. 

la, prp., with, along with. 

laan, prp. and n., without. — ti ; 
isaga laanti tag, go without 
him. This word is also used 
as follows : dan laan bai no- 
hotai, that happened by his 
own fault. 

la, for lai',, beat, strike 
(this word is used when many 
people are beaten ; for a single 




person dil is used) ; — ya, wan 
lain ; inamada la, beat the 
boys ; wilka dil, beat the boy. 

la'af, /.«., bait. — ti. 

la'ag, /.ra., money, silver. — ^ti. 

lab, male (particle added to 
names of animals to denote the 
male sex) ; libah lab, a male 

labod, m.n., male. — ki. 

lab, a., brave, bold ; ninkasi wa 
nin lab, this man is brave, 

lab, f.n., breast, chest, bosom. — 

(nin) labia, a., stammering; wil- 
kasi wa wil labia, that boy is 

lab,, fold (one thing). This 
word is also used for " bend " : 
jilibka, or rugga so lab, bend 
the knee ; hunyar lab, or so 
lab, bend a little. 

lablab,, fold (many things). 

laba, nrnn., two ; — di, both, the 
two, the pair ; labada nia i so 
kahai, lead to me both men.' 

labad, num.ord., second; kan, 
ki labad, the second. 

labatan, num., twenty. — ki. 

laba gor, or jer, ad., twice. 

labai,, double. 

laban (with ku),, make again 
something, return, repeat; lab- 
ma, wan ku labmi ; so — , v.i., 
come back. 

laban, m.n., sprain, bruise. — ki. 

laban, a., sprained, bruised, 
curved ; 'ag^a wa labantahai, 
the foot is bruised. 

laben, f.n., cream. — ti. 

lad, m.n., kick (of a man). — ki, 

lad,, kick. 

ladan, a., in a good state, better, 
well, wealthy, comfortable ; iss 
ka warran, lit. give news from 
you, or how are you 1 wa lad- 
nahai, I am (I feel) better ; 
abbaha ka warran, or abbaba 
wa side ? how is your father ? 
wa ladanyabai, he is better. 

ladnaw, v.att., be in a good state, 

ladnan, f.n., comfort, ease, rest. 
— ti. 

laf, f.n., bone, stone (of fruits), 
husk. — ti ; lafta dabarka, the 
backbone ; lafta gadka, the 

lafo, m.n., dice, huckle-bones, 
osselets. — hi. 

lah, f.n., ewe. — di. 

labad, m.n., limb. — ki ; lahad- 
yada o dan go, cut off all the 

lahadla, a., cripple. 

lahau, m.n., phthisis, consump- 
tion. — gi. 

labau habo, a., phthisical, con- 
sumptive; wa nin labau haba. 

lak, a lakh, or 100,000 Eupees; 
lak rubod, 100,000 Eupees. 

laili, m.n., a young camel not 
accustomed to carry loads and 
afraid. — gi. 

laili, v.i., quail, tame, master the 
camel ; lai'Uya, wan lailiyi. 

laji, or lajo, m. or /.«., small 
shells with which Somals adorn 
their vessels. — gi, — di ; kus- 





sadda laji ku samai, adorn the 
water-jug witli shells. 

lal,, lift up, throw upon 
(this word is especially used 
for a mat used as a door in a 
Somali hut); dahha lal, lift 
up or open the door ; ahalka 
dusMsa mindida ku lal, throw 
the knife upon the house. 

lalad, v.p. and i., hang, be sus- 
pended ; ninki gedku ka la- 
ladai, the man was hung on 
the tree ; modku madahhainTi 
ka so lalada, death hangs 
over our heads. 

lamai,, flog, scourge ; ha 
lagni — > v.p., be flogged ; wa 
la lamiyai, he is flogged. 

Ian, f.n., branch, bough, stem. — 

laso,, finish ; sorta or sor- 
tada laso, finish your food; 
emrigisi yu lastai, the course 
of his life is finished. 

layan, m.n., malefactor, a man of 
a savage or violent temper, 
highwayman, bloody man. — 

leb, m.n., shaft of an arrow, 
wooden arrow used by small 
boys. — ki, — yo. 

leben, m.n., brick (not burnt). 
— ^ki ; see ajurad. 

Ifif,, lick. 

leg, m.n., upper part of the belly. 

— gi- 
legdan, v.i., wrestle ; legdama, 

wan legdami ; la — , wrestle 

with him. 
legdan, m.n., wrestling. — ki. 

leged,, fell (a tree), make 
him or it fall. 

leh, root, possessed of (this word 
is very often used as an affix). 

lahaw, v.att., be possessed of. 

leh, num., six. — di ; lehad, or 
lihad, sixth ; lehdan, sixty. 

lehoj, turn ; war ! leho, oh ! 
turn yourself ; so — , turn to 
(towards me) ; u — , turn to 
him ; ka — , turn from. 

lei', or lai', root not used ; lei'da, 
die you (this verb seems to be 
used only with plural or col- 
lective nouns); berri rag badan 
ba lai'an or lei'an, to-morrow 
many men (people) will die ; 
geli iga wada lai'ai, all my 
camels died ; ragi rerkasi 
wada lai'ai, all the people of 
that rer died ; fardihi wa 
lai'den, the horses died; far- 
dihi lai'dai, the dead horses. 

leil, a., complete, entire ; shalai 
leil, or shalai 'o leil, or shalo 
leil, or shalaito leili, all day 
yesterday ; shalaito o leili 
yan merai, I went round all 
day yesterday. 

libah, m.n., lion (gen. name), 
—hi, — yo ; libah dadig, a 

libid, v.i., disappear ; libda^ wan 
libdi. Parents use this word 
in cursing their children. 

lid, m.n., leathern strap used for 
fastening charms around the 
neck. — ki. 

lif, m.n., quoit (game). — ki, 

lig, m.r. male gafanug. — gi. 




lih, m.w., flexibility (of a thing). 

' — M. 
lihah, a., flexible ; nl lihah, a 

flexible stick. 
lih,,, swallow, drain off 

water; biyaha lih, drain off 

the water, 
(nin) lihsan, a. , a drnnken man. 
lilah (see Hah), m.n., God.— hi. 
lilahi, f.n.,' truth. — di ; wa 

lilahi, by God, it is true; 

lilahi u so'o, by God, tell the 

truth ; nin lUahiah, a truthful 

lin, f.n., — ma'an, orange ; — 

danan, lemon. — ti. 
lis, sharpen ; mindida lis, 

sharpen the knife. 
lissan, a.v., sharp ; mindida wa 

lissantahai, the knife is sharp. 
lissin, m.n., grindstone, whet- 
stone. — M. 
liss,, milk, stroke ; hash! 

ban lissai, I have milked the 

lo', y.n., cow, herd, flock of neat 

cattle. — di, la'yan (plur.), — 

loh, m.n., board, plank. — ^hi, 

— yo, or halwah, — di {plur.) ; 

halwahda ahalka ku sarab, 

floor the house. 
los, m.n., arachis, earth-nut. 

— ki. 
luf, in.n., slice. — ki, — af; lufaf ki 

kibista i ken, bring me the 

slices of bread. 
lug, f.n., leg, hind leg of animals. 

— ti. 
(nin, nag) lugla, a., one-legged 

fman, woman) ; nagti lugla 

laida, the one-legged woman. 
luglawai, m.w., one-legged person. 

lug laan, a., cripple (legless), 
lugo, v.p., be disappointed, 
luggo,, disappoint, play, 

luggoyo, f.n., disappointment, 

prank, trick. 
luh, f.n., voice. — di. 
luhluho, v.i., gargle. 
Inhluhasho, /.«., gargle, gargling. 
luhmad, f.n., bit, mouthful of 

food.— di. 
luhuf, m.n., mockery. — ki. 
luhufl, or luhfi,, moek at. 
luki, f.n., hen. — di. 
lul, m.n., peail, — M. 
im, v.i., move, toss, shake milk 

to and fro to make butter. 
lulan, v.p., be tossed; lolma, wan 

lulmi ; gor walba dirtu. wa 

lulanta, the trees are always 

tossed to and fro. 
luUn,. f.n., shake,^ shaking, toss, 

— ti. 
1h1(^ f.n., sleepiness ; — leh or 

— badan, sleepy ; lulo i haisa, 

I am sleepy. 
lulmo, vd.f be sleepy. 
lun, m.n., parehedness (caused by 

thirst). — ^ki. 
liin, v.p., be lost ; luma, wan 

liuni; had! an raga ra'o la- 

'agtaidu wai lumi, if I go with 

these men, my money will be 

lumi,, lavish, squander, an 





(wil, nin) Imnai, a., prodigal. 

lumiyai, m.n., debauchee, profli- 
gate, corrupter. — hi. 

lunlumai, m.n., larvse of gnats. — 


ma, neg. part, (used with verbs 
and meaning) not ; so ma aha, 
it is not. 

ma, interr. part, (often changed 
into mi and mu) ; ma 1 what 1 
nin ma ? what man ? so ma 
aha ? is it not ? (this last ex- 
pression is often used in con- 
versation for asking the hearer 
if he has well understood). 

ma'al, /.»., dewlap (Somali sheep 
have a dewlap). — shi, 

ma'alul, f.n., starvation. — shi ; 
ninkasi ma'alul bu n hahtiya, 
that man is dying of starvation. 

ma'an, a., fresh, sweet; biyo 
ma'an, sweet water (see ged 

ma'anaiso,, make sweet, 
sweeten ; sunkorta hawahha 
kiuna'anaiso, sweeten the cof- 
fee with sugar. 

ma'ash, m.n., brokerage. — ki. 

ma'ash,, gain, obtain. 

ma'awinad, f.n., help. — di; ma'a- 
winaddi u ka', go for help. 

madad, m.n., inkstand. — ki, — yo. 

madad, m.n,,a, kind of long thin 
bag used for loading camels 
with rice, jowaree, .... when 
going into the jungle. — ^ki. 

madag, f.n., the two pieces of 
wood Somals rub one against 
the other for getting fire in the 
desert. — ti. 

madah, m.n., head. — hi, — yo. 

madah adai, m.n., bald head. — 

madah ahaw,, be the head, 
the superior, the chief ; ana U 
madahah, I am the head, the 
chief ; ninki u madahah ma 
jogo or teg, the superior, chief 
is not here or is gone. 

madah hanun, m.n., headache. — 

madah wareir, m.n., vertigo, 
dizziness. — ki. 

madar, v.i., cry, shout loudly. 

maded, m.n., underwood tree and 
its fruit (as the bean-tree berry). 
— ki, — yo. 

madi,, empty, 

mado, v.i., be empty ; madda, 
wan madan. 

madan, a.v., empty, void, hollow. 

madar, m.n., water-closet. — ki. 

madfa', m.n., big gun, cannon. — 

madow, a. audi m.n., black. 

madowbai,, blacken. 

madow'adan, a. and m.n., blue. 

madrasad, f.n., college, school. — 

madun, m.n., soot. — ki. 

mafallah, a., extravagant. 

ma'fo, f.n., kind of charm tied 
to a leathern necklace (some 
wear it round the head and 
others round the neck). 

mag, m.n., attack. — gi. 




mag,, attack ; Ebbahai ba 
ku la magai, God has decreed 
that upon you. (This word, as 
shown by this example, seems 
also to mean the decree of 

maga', m.n., name. — hi, — yo ; 
maga'ba? or maga'hagu wa 
mahai ? what is your name 1 
ninka magi'hisa wa la yahan, 
or ad ba lo yahan, the name 
of that man is renowned. 

magalo, f.n., town, country. 

magarafad', /.»., hoe. — di. 

magol, m,.n., green trees and 
grass. — ki^ (This word is used 
either when the trees are co- 
vered with leaves, or when all 
is green after rain.) 

maha (contraction of ma aha), 

mahae, or mahe (contraction of 
ma aha e) ; kas mahae wa 
kan, it is not that, it is this ; 
ka mahae, adiga kaleh o dan 
wada kahaiso, except that one, 
take for yourself all the sheep. 

mahabis, f.pJ.n., prisoners. — ti ;■ 
mid mahabistaah, one prisoner. 

mahai ? int.prn., what 1 wa ma- 
hai ? what is i 

mahai (with u before the verb), 
ad., why ? mahad (for mahai 
bad) u tagtaii why did you 
mahad, f.n., thanks. — di; nin 
nolba wa u mahad: this ex- 
pression, very often used, seems 
to mean, a man still living 
must be thankful for his life, or- 

I am still alive, never mind my 

mahadi,, thank. 

mahad u or ugu nah,, thank 
him ; mahad ban kugu nahai, 
I thank you. 

mahadda n nah, v.i., say (read) 
the compliment, thanks; ma^ 
haddi u nahai, I have said 
(read) the compliment. 

mahad, m,.n., big needle (used for- 
sewing mats and bags). — di. 

mahakamad, f.n., court-house. — 
di (some say hafcamad). 

mahawis, or mahawis, f.n., loin- 
cloth. — ti. 

mahmah, f.n., maxim, proverb,, 
saying, . aphorism. ^ — di ; wa 
mahmahda wa yelka, it is the 
maxim of the ancients. 

mahadin, or mahadam, m.n.., 
master, overseer. — ki. 

mahai, m.n., hearing. — ki, 

mahai;, hear, heed, listen,, 
obey ; mahla, wan mahli ;. 
maan mahai, or ma mahai,,! 
did not hear ; ha mahlin, do 
not listen to, disobey ; ku 
mahli ma dono, he will not 
listen to you. 

mahashi,, cause to hear ; 
na mahashi, I'et us hear. 

mahal,/.»i., young (of goats and 
sheep) ; means also- children- 
brought up together, as those 
in orphanages and' seminaries.. 
— shi ; wa mahai' badri, it is 
a boy of the Padri. 
mahaldadi m.n^pl.^ small feoys^ — 




mahaldunyo, f.n., children and 

mahal herais, m. or f.n., fold, 
enclosure for kids and lambs, 
evening star, time for putting 
kids and lambs into the en- 
closure. — ki or — ^ti. 

mahal herai,, fold kids and 

mahan, a., absent; wa mahan- 
yahai, he is absent. 

mahnaw, v.i., be absent ; todoba 
'asho ba mahnaw e iga tag, 
be absent for a week and go 

mahnan, f.n., absence. — ti. 

mahar, m.n., skin of a dead calf 
ordinarily filled with grass or 
anything else ; this figure, at 
the time of milking, is placed 
beside a cow (the calf of which 
is dead) in order to make her 
give her milk. — ki. 

maharsar, m.n., skin of a dead 
young camel, used for a similar 
purpose as that of the calf. — ^ki. 

mahar ku mal,, milk (by 
taking the skin ...). 

mahari, m.n., tree from which 
spear-shafts are made. — gi. 

mahayad, f.n., coifee-shop. — di. 

mahahwi, m.n. , coffee-shop keeper. 

mahnud, m.n., sodomy, sodomite. 

— ki. 
mahnudnimo, f.n., sodomy. 
mahrib, m.n., evening (sunset). 

— ki. 
mahsin, m.n., apartment, room. — 


makawi, m.n., amber. — gi. 

maid,, wash, clean (with 
water) ; SO — , go and wash ; 
si — , continue to wash ; darka 
si mai'd intau imanayo, con- 
tinue to wash the clothes till I 
come back. 

maido, v.r., wash yourself ; 
ma'idta, wan maidan. 

mai'dan, a.v., washed, cleansed. 

maidan, v.p., be washed; maid- 
ma, wan ma'idmi. 

maidasho, f.n., washing. 

mai'dah, f.n., second bark of the- 
trees used for making ropes. — 

maidal, m.n., grey horse. — ki. 

maido, f.n., wild date. 

ma'ilin, m.n., measure. — ki. 

mal,, milk ; so — , go to 

'ana mal, m.n., day (of 24 hours). 
— ki. 

mal, m.n., living property. — ki. 

mal, f.n.,- scrofula, king's evil. — 

mala, m.n., thought, doubt. — hi. 

malaha, ad., perhaps, probably. 

malai, v.i., doubt, guess, suppose, 
suspect, think. 

malaisan, a.v., doubtful, sus- 
pected ; markabka imatinkisa 
manta wa malaisanyahai, for 
to-day, the arrival of the ship 
is doubtful. 

malab, m.n., honey. — ki. 

malah, f.n., pus, matter. — di. 

mala'iko, f.n., angel. 

malas, f.n., chalk.— li. 

malan, m.n., lizzard. — ki. 




malhamad, /.«., veil, large ker- 
chief the women sometimes put 
on their head. — di. 

malkad, m.n., mortar. — ^ki. 

malik, m.n., king ; maliggi, the 

malikad, f.n., queen. — di. 

malin, f.n., day (12 hours of 
light). — ti, malmo (plur.); ma- 
Imtan todobad keda, this day 
week ; malin daf, every other 
day^ dawada malin daf 'ab, 
drink (take) the medicine every 
other day. 

mamus or namus, m. or f.n., repu- 
tation, respect. — ti, — ^ki. 

(nin) mamusleh, a. (man) of a 
good reputation. 

(nin) mamusla, a. (maji) of bad 

mamus,, respect, honour; 
abbaha iyo hoyada mamus, 
honour thy father and mother. 

mamus jab, m.n., defamation, 
ignominy, shame. — ki. 

mamus jebi,, defame, break 
the reputation. 

man, m.n., bud (of a flower), 
flowers of trees not bringing 
forth edible fruits. — ^ki. 

man (root), day. 

manta, ad., to-day. 

manto laili, ad., all day long. 

manafa'ad, m.n., utility. — ki. 

ma'nai, m.n., meaning, significa- 
tion. — hi ; eraiga ma'nihisi 
wa mahai ? what is the mean- 
ing of that letter 1 

njandil or madil, /.w., penknife, 
razor. — shi. 

manhas, m,n., scissors. — ki. 

mantag, v.i., vomit. 

mantag, m.n., vomiting, retching. 

mantag^, v.e., cause to vomit. 

mar, m.n., time. — ^ki. 

mar, ad., once. 

marmar, ad., sometimes. 

marka, eonj., when. 

marma? ad., when. 

markiba, ad., immediately, sud- 
denly, at once ; markiba ban 
iman, I come at once. 

mar badan, ad., often. 

marra, for mama, ad., at any 
time, whensoever. 

marki hore, ad., the first time ; 
marki hore e an arkai ba 
dilai, the first time I saw him, 
I killed him. 

mar dambe, ad., a second time ; 
marki dambe, the second time. 

mar hore, ad., ago, long ago. 

mar kaleh, ad., again, another 
time; marka ki kaleh, the 
other time. 

mar, v.i., pass, walk on ; halka 
mar, pass here ; hebta — , 
walk on the shore ; deh — . 
pass through, across ; dul — , 
go beyond, surpass ; si — , 
pass (away from me) ; surinka 
si mar, pass by that street ; 
ges — , pass by on one side ; 
war ! ges mar, ana an gesta 
kaleh maro, pass by on one 
side, and let me pass by on 
the other ; ges ka — , pass by 
(near) ; ahalkan ges ka mari, 
I will pass by the house 




mar o hel, v.i., succeed, go and 
find if you can, get rid of 
somebody; war! u mar o 
heli maisid, oh ! you cannot 
succeed ; wan u mar o helai, 
I succeeded. 

mari,, rub, splash, smoothe; 
darka sabunta — , soap the 
linen ; darka birrta, iron the 

marso, v.i., splash (yourself), 
coat, plaster ; dohhada timaha 
marso, splash or coat your 
hair with clay. 

marin, m.n., narrow, small way, 
path. — ki. 

mar,, tie the she-camel's 
teats (that the young may not 
suck) ; hasha ka agmar, tie 
one side, i.e., two teats. 

marah, m.n., tow used for closing 
the she-camel's teats. — ^M, — yo. 

marahsar, m.n., part behind the 
camel's hump. — ki. 

marawahad, /.«., fan. — di. 

marabi, /.w., tame beast. — di. 

mardaban, m.n., jar for water. — 

marhati, /.«., witness, proof, evi- 
dence, testimony. — di. 

marhati ku fur,, certify, 
testify, prove. 

markab, »!.«.. ship,vessel, steamer. 
— ki, — ^yo or marakib ijilur.). 

markab harbiha, m.n., man-of- 
war; markabki harbigaaba, 
the man-of-war. 

maro,./!B., large Somali linen dress 
in which they wrap themselves ; 
mara adag, thick cloth. 

marodi, m.n., elephant. — gi; fol 
marodi, ivory. 

maroh, or moroh, /.«., tree used 
for making ropes and baskets. 
— di, — yo. 

maroji and marori,, curl, 
wring, twist ; timaha maroji, 
curl your hair ; ku — ,, 
squeeze (by placing a rope or 
linen around the neck and 
wringing it), bore (with a borer 
or a drill). 

marorsan, a.v., curled, bored. 

marrin, m.n., brown colour. 

marti, f.n., guest, visitor, stranger. 
— di. 

marti hadis, m.n., inhospitality. 
— ki. 

ma'ruf (nin), a. and m.n., well 
known. — ki; nin ma'rufah, 
a well-known man. 

mas, m.n., serpent, snake. — ki. 

masaf, m.n., funnel. — ki. 

masabid,, blame, impute 

masabid, m.n., blamer. — ki ; nin. 
la masabido, a., blaming. 

masabidnimo, f.n., blame. 

masafiri,, expel, drive away. 

masafiris, m,.n., expulsion.— ki. 

masajid, or masjid, m.n., mosque.. 
— ki. 

masala,. or masalei, m.n., a skin. 
Somals bear on their shoulders 
and use for kneeling on while- 

masalo, f.n., discussion, debate, 
religious discourse ; masalo 
badan bannu iss ku habanai^ 
we had a great discussion.. 




masbah, m.n., altar. — hi. 

ma'shar, m.n., lesson. — ki. 

maskah, /.«., brain. — di. 

masibo, /.«., misfortune. 

masso, or monso, f.n., a kind of 
big lizard. (Somals say that 
this lizard bleats as a young 
lamb and so deceives the ewe, 
drinks her milk, and some say 
also that it kills the young 

masruf, see musruf. 

masug, m.n., miser (avaricious 
man).— gi, — yo. 

matan, m.n., twin (m.). — ki. 

matan, /.M., twin (/,). — ^ti. 

mathal, m.n., allegory, fable, 
apologue. — ki. 

mati, coll.f.n., children, boys, 
cattle, sheep, all that cannot 
go to fight. — di; mati o dan 
kalaya o wihina gashaa had 
kaihi halka u so baha, come 
all ye people and beasts which 
are unable to bear a shield and 
stand here by my side. 

maujad,/.w., flux, wave.— di. 

maulid, or mowlid, m.n., prayer 
for the dead. — ki. 

maya, ad., no (in this word y is 
pronounced in a manner which 
can be learnt only from a 

mayad, f.n., tide. — di. 

mayai, or ma'ai, m.n., rain (last- 
ing one). — hi. 

me and meyai? ad., where? 
(w.) ; ninki me ? where is 
the man? dibigi meyai? 
where is the ox ? 

medai ? ad., where? {fem.), ho- 

yadisi medai? where is his- 

mother ? 
mel, f.n., place. — shi. 
meshan, mesha, ad., here, 
meshes, ad., there. 
mesha, or mesho, ad., there, 

melma ? ad., where 1 
mel walba, or mel kasta, ad., 

everywhere, wherever. 
lamelnoho,, hold with (one), 

side with, take the part of. 
meigag, m.n., tree having a black 

mer,, go round. 
meri, or mermeri, v.c, make him 

go round. 
meraiso, v.r., go (you) round. 
mersan, a., round, around. 
mersanaw, v.atL, staiid, be about, 

mereg, or murug, m.n., entangle- 
ment.— gi. 
iss ku mergi, or iss ku mireg 

v.i., be entangled. 
mergi, m.n., muscles. — gi. 
mera, m.n., camel's hide. — ^hi. 
merid, or mirid, m.n., rust. 
messego and massego, f.n., grain 

(perhaps wheat). 
mid, num., one, single. — ki {m.), 

-di (/.). 
mid kaleh, num., another. 
midka, — ki kaleh, num., the 

other one (m.). 
midda, — di kaleh, num., the 

other one (/.). 
midmid, num.distr., one by one. 
midla, num., less one. 




iss ku mid, a., alike, equal, 

kala mid, or iss ku mid maaha, 
a., unlike, unequal, different, 
or not alike ; wa kala mid ; 
labadatan ulod wa kala mid, 
or iss ku mid maaha, these 
two sticks are not alike. 

kala mid, /.«., variety. — di; 
ubah kalamidda or ubahyada 
kalamiddoda yab bai habau, 
the variety of flowers is won- 

midna, a., neither (either), none ; 
inamada middina wah ma 
barto, none of the boys learns. 

mid, m.n., fruit. — ki. 

midab, m.m., colour, figure, quality, 
shape, form, sample. — ^ki. 

midab u yel,, figure, shape, 

midan (seems to be) a mixture; 
dahdarka dawadisu wa biyo 
midan, or wa wabayo midan, 
the medicine of the doctor is 
pure water, or is pure poison. 

midgan, m.n., name of a Somali 
low caste.— ki; midgo {plur.), 
midgayal (int. plur.). Mid- 
gans make bows, arrows, saddles, 
spoons . . . ; they also possess the 
secret for the preparation of the 
wabayo, poison for arrows. 
They form, so to speak, a sepa- 
rate caste, never touching the 
things of the other Somals, nor 
do others eat or drink from the 
vessel of a Midgan. Some cere- 
monies, e.g., the circumcision 
of girls, can be performed only 
by a Midgan woman. 

midhin, m.n., stone used for 

grinding the curry-stuff. — ki, 
mididin, m.n., attendant, servant. 

— ki, 
midig, /.«., right hand.— ti, 
midigta, ad., to the right. 
mih, m.n., thread taken from the 

loin-cloth ; they use this thread 

for sewing. — ^hi, 
vaL%f.n., eye-tooth, tusk. — di, 
milei', m,n., heat and brightness 

of the sun. — M. 
milih, m.n., salt. — hi. 
min, m.n., bag of dates. — ^ki ; 

min goM, half a bag. 
miu, a., each. 
mindah, a., perhaps. This word 

means probability, uncertainty. 

When asking for a thing and 

they are not sure it belongs to 

them, they use this word with 

the verb in the inter, negative 

form : mindah kaigi ma aha ? 

is it not mine ? maya, ma aha, 

no, it is not yours. 
mindi,/.«., knife. — di, 
mindi i'risdab, disease (in the 

belly) of sheep ; they burn 

them near the navel, otherwise 

they would soon die. 
minfih, /.ra., broom.— di. 
minid, m.n., minute. — ki, — yo, 
minshar, m.n., saw. — ki, 
mir,, clear, cleanse, filter ; 

biyaha mir, clear, filter the 

miran, a.v., clear, cleansed. 
miran, v.imp., be clear; wai 

mirmi, it will be clear. 
miri, f.n., sum given monthly to 




the Somali chiefs and their 
tribes. — di ; miridi na si la- 
'agtu baunu douaina, give us 
our monthly money, we are in 
want of it. 

mirr, m.n., grazing of horses at 
night. — ki, — ^ti. 

so mirr, v.i., graze the horses. 

mis, tn.n., table. — ki. 

mis (pron. miz),, weigh. 

misan, m.n,., weight, scales, ba- 
lance. — ^ki, 

misan,, weigh ; misama, 
wan misami. 

misaua, or misua, ad., again. 

miskin, m.n., beggar. — ki; ma- 
sakin {plur.). 

mismar, or musmar, m.n., nail. 
— ki. 

musmar,, nail. 

mise, mase, ama or amase, conj., 
or, else. 

missig, /.«., haunch. — ti. 

miyi, m.n., desert, jungle, country. 
— gi. This word, even when 
definite, is often used without 
the article. 

miyid, m.n., pi. and «., corpse 
(used for men only). — ki. 

mijrir, m.n., intellect, reason, 
prudence, fancy. — ^ki. 

miyirsan, a., wise, prudent. 

miyirla, a., stupid, foolish. 

miyirlaan, f.n., stupidity, foolish- 
ness. — ti. 

miyir hab, v.i., be prudent, 

miyir haba, a., intelligent, pru- 

mod, v.i., think, appear. 

wah la mod, v.imp., seem, ap- 
pear; hadi an Adan tago, or 
u ko'o ranba wahba la modi, 

if I go to Aden, truth will ap- 

mod, m.n., merchandise, property. 
— ^ki. 

mog, moga, a., negligent, igno- 
rant (they call a man so who 
does not know news which 
everybody knows ; this word 
must be a contraction of ma 
ogain, I did not know). 

moji (contraction of ma ogi), I 
do not know. 

mohoar madow, m.n., B. Carterii 
frankincense tre6. — gi. 

moharad, f.n., Boswellia Bhan 
Dajiana frankincense tree. — di. 

mos, v.i., heap, pile up the sand 
around the hut to preserve it 
from the water. 

mos, m.n., bank or hill made 
around the hut. — ki. 

mot! i'wi., salutation given when 
on horseback, to a king, a 
chief, a governor ; exclamation 
for inciting the horse, and to 
continue a song. 

moyai, or moya, m.n., wooden 
mortar. — hi. 

moyaitumai, m.n., pestle, stamper. 

mu ? ad., why 1 mu dar i keno ? 
why does he not bring me a 
coat ? 

mu, m.n.j time. — gi. 

muadin, m.n., muezzin. — ki. 

mu'alim, m.n., schoolmaster. — ki. 

mud,, prick, sting, stitch. 

mudnin, f.n., pricking, stitching. 




muda', m.n., fork. — M, — ^yo. 

The Somali fork has only one 

prongs it is used as a bodkin 

in sewing. 
muda'l, m.n., plantiff. — gi. 
mudali, f.n., defendant. — di. 
miidal, m.n., miser, hard-h.earted 

man. — ki. 
muda'nyo, or mida'nyo, f.n., 

kind of tree and its berry. 
mudad, f.n., period of time. — di 

(some tribes say, madal. — ki). 
mudakar, m.n., adult, young 

man. — ki. 
mudaya', m.n., spendthrift.— hi, 

— yo. 

mudayo, or murayo, f.n., gum 
tree and its fruit. 

mudhi,, strip off, skin. 

mudso,, suck (fruits, sweets, 

mufo, f.n., oven, hearth, furnace. 

mnfai,, bake. 

mufta, vi.n., key. — hi. 

mugi, or mugis, half (a glass, a 

pot, a boiler ); hadiih 

'anaha mugi i ken, bring me 
half a vessel of milk. 

muhuyo, or muhayo, f.n., grand- 

muh,m.ra., discovery, vision, sight, 

mnhad, or muhasho, f.n., appari- 
tion, appearance, vision (the 
thing seen). — ki, — di, 

muho, v.i., appear, seem ; miihda, 
wan mnhan ; n muho, appear 
to him ; wa i, ku, u, no, idin 
muhata, it appears, seems to 
me, thee, him, us, you ; wa 

muhda or muhata, it is visible, 

apparent, evident, explained ; 

ninta wa muhata, the truth is 

muhalhalah, m.n., impostor. — hi. 
muhbasad, f.n., unleavened bread 

(as Arabs and Somals eat). — di. 
muhmad, f.n., fresh meat cut into 

pieces, dried in the sun, and 

afterwards fried vrith ghee and 

served in the hubo. 
muhuni,, force, oblige, impel. 
muhuuo, f.n., violence, extortion, 

muhur, v.i., dive, 
muhuri, v.i., duck, bathe, 
muhurasho, f.n., bath. 
muji,, expose for sale, dis- 
play, show, point, explain ; i, 

u, no muji, explain to me, 

him, us; darka i muji, show 

the clothes to me. 
mujnin, or mujis, f.n., exposure 

of goods, explanation. — ti, or 

— ki. 
miimin, m.n., believer. — ki; nin 

muminah, a believer. 
murayad, f.n., looking-glass, 

mirror. — di. 
murku'i,, cause to sprain. 
murko'o, v.r., sprain yourself (in 

sliding ...). 
murkuasho, f.n., sprain", strain, 

murjan, f.n., coral. — ^ti (the red 

kind, with which they make 

collars, bracelets ...). 
murjo', ormujo', m.n., infant. — hi. 
murud, m.n., sauce remaining in 

the plate or boiler. — ^ki. 




murdi, v.i., take with the fore- 
finger the remains of sauce 
or food in a kettle or dish and 
lick it up. 

murdiso, or miirudsato, or mu- 
ruksato, f.n., forefinger. 

muruh, m.n., calf (of the leg), 
thick part of the arm. — hi. 

murwad, f.n,, esteem, respect. — 

murwad,, esteem, respect. 

mus, m.n., razor. — IsL 

musanow, v.i., lament, cry, calling 
for the tribe (tolai ! tolai) ; 
Musauow'ba, wan musanowbi. 
This verb is only used when 
speaking of men. 

mushaliaro, f.n., wages. 

(baya) mushtari, trader, mer- 
chant (see baya ...). 

mushrik, m.n., two associates, 
partners; mushriggi, the ... 
... (generally Somals will use 

muslim, m.n., Mohamedan. — ki. 

musruf, or masruf, m.n., food 
which a father procures for his 
family. — ki. 

musruf, or masruf, v.i., feed your 

na, pers.prn., us ; naga, from us ; 

no, to us ; nogu, by or near us. 
na, ad., also. 
na ! int. of calling ; na hoi ! ho 

woman ! na ya Fadumo ! or 

na ya hoi ! a father at a dis- 
tance from his daughter Fatma 
will so call her. 

na',, abandon, hate, reject, 
be disgusted ; wan ni'i. 

ne'ban, f.n., hatred. — ti. 

ne'baw,, hate ; wa iss ne'b- 
yihin, they hate each other; 
wa'bnahai, we hate each 

na'alad or na'lad, some also say 
na'adal or na'dal. — shi, curse, 
bad, injurious word ; Allah ku 
na'lado, may God curse you ; 
Ebbahai na'laddisu ha kugu 
dado, may God's curse (or 
malediction) fall upon you. 

na'dal,, curse. 

na'al, m.n., horse-shoe, the thick 
piece of leather they nail to 
the heel of the sandals when 
they are stitched. — ki. 

nabad, f.n., accord, conciliation, 
good news, peace. — di, nabdo 
(plur.); nabad gala (plur.), 
enter, be in peace ; nabad gel- 
yo, good-bye, farewell ; nabad 
hab, be safe ; nabad hado, 
hata, make truce; Badri ma 
nabad ba ? is there peace. 
Father ? ha, wa nabad, yes, 
there is peace (common salu- 
tation) ; war ya Warsamow I 
nabad or nabaddi ma jirta? 
oh ! "Warsama, is there peace ? 
ha, Ilah mahadi, yes, thanks 
to God. 

nabdi,, pacify. 

nabar, m.n., blow, hurt, scar, 
stroke, wound. — ki, — yo. 




nafl, m.n., leathern bucket used 
for watering cattle. 

nadi, m.n., a tree (in the jungle) 
of which they make their 
riding whips. — gi. 

nadif, /.w., cleanness. — ^ti, 

nadifi, or nadif ka dig, vdr., 
make clean. 

nadifah, a., clean. 

nadur, /.»., slime, lime. — ti. 

naf, /.w., soul, Uf e. — ti ; nafi ma 
ku jirto, there is no life (a 
doctor says so when he declares 
that someone is dead). 

nafta ka had,, kill ; nafti wa 
ku wareigaisa, he is in agony. 

naftu ha ka bahdo, v.i., agonize. 

nafo, a. and m.n., lifelessness. — 
ahi ; adinka nafahaah go, cut 
ofif that lifeless member; lug- 
taidi nafahaahaid, my lifeless 
leg; ga'antisu wa uafo, his 
arm is lifeless. 

naf, rejiex.pers.prn., inflected with 
poss.prn. ; naftada u shahaiso, 
work for yourself; naftaidan 
u shahaista, I work for myself. 

nag, f.n., woman, wife. — ti. 

nagnimo, f.n., womanhood. 

nah, v.i., become fat. 

nahsan, a.v., fat; ninki nah- 
sana, the fat man. 

nahi,, fatten. 

nah, v.i., start, shrink, be as- 
tounded, stunned ; wan nihi. 

nihi (with ka'ga),, stun, "as- 
tound, startle, affright, alarm ; 
wan kaga nehin shekagaiga 
kaga nihin, my story will 
astound him. 

nahadin, f.n., astonishment, grief 

felt on receiving the news of 

some heavy loss, starting, 

shrinking. — ti. 
nah, v.i., be merciful, charitable ; 

wan nihi ; iga nah, be merci- 
ful to me. 
nahadin, /.ra., clemency, charity, 

mercy, pity. — ti. 
naharis, fn., mercy, pity (es- 
pecially attributed to God), 
naharis (with u), v.i., have mercy; 

no nahariso, have mercy on us. 
naharisla, a., unkind, or nahar- 

isba ma yahan, who does not 

know pity. 
nahas, /.»., brass, copper. — ti. 
nahwi, m.n., grammar. — gi. 
nai,, read ; wan nihi, 
nahso, v.r., read for yourself. 
nahuda, m.n., captain (of a ship, 

a buggalow). — hi. ' 
nahwa, a.v., chosen ; mid nah- 

waali i ken, bring me a chosen 

nahai (with ka),, choose 

for me. 
ka nahaiso,, choose. 
najar, carpenter (see nijar). 
nail,/;^., she-lamb. 
nana, m.n., sweets, sugar-plums, 

&c.— hi. 
nanais, f.n,, epithet, nickname. 

— ti. 
nar, fn., hell. — ti ; dabka narta, 

naijin, narajin, or narjil, fn., 

cocoa-nut. — ti, 
nas, m.n., breast (of women), 

bosom (for both sexes). — ki. 




na's, m.n., blookliead, stupid, 
foolish, simpleton. — ki, — yo. 

nasab, m.n., a generous man 
(giving -willingly). — ki. 

nasab, m.n., pedigree (of horses 
only). — ki. 

nasi, V.C., make him rest. 

naso, v.i., rest, take rest. 

nasad, or nasasbo, m.n., rest, 
nap. — ki, — di. 

nasib, m.n., luck. — ki ; Abdi wa 
hof nasib hun, Abdi is a person 
of bad luck. 

nashng, m.n., quid, snufT. — gi. 

so nawil,, give, deliver, bring 
the cargo from the ship; ka 
nawil hebta, bring the cargo 
from the shore. 

si nawil, v.i., carry your cargo to 
the ship. 

ne'au, f.n., air, breeze. — di ; ne- 
'auda an u babno, let us go in 
the air, breeze. 

ne'awi,, aerate. 

nebi, m.n., prophet, saint. — gi. 

nef, m.n., animal, quadruped. — ki. 

neijf, f.n., breath. — ti. 

neifso, v.i., breathe. 

nejis, a. and m.n., cunning. — ki, 
— yo. This word is also some- 
times used for immodest, im- 

nejisnimo, f.n., cunningness. 

nidar, v.i., vow ; nidra, wan 

nijar, or najar, m.n., carpenter. 
— ki. 

nijas, or nejis. — ki, f.n., filthi- 
ness. — ti ; nin nijasah, a filthy 

nimmer, m.n., Arabic name of the 

nin, m.n., man. — ki. 
nin un, somebody, any man ; nin 

nn igu yed, call me a man, 

ninnim.0, f.n., manhood. 
nin rerod, m.n., foreigner ; ninki 

rerod, the foreigner (only wo- 
men and children use this virord 

for foreigner). 
nirig, m.n., young camel. — gi ; 

nirgo (plur.). 
nobad, or nobiad, f.n., tower. — 

di ; nobad fol marodi laga sa- 

maiyai, a tower of ivory. 
noho, v.i., go back, happen, occur; 

noMa, wan nohon ; wahhai 

nohotai, it happened. 
so noh.0, v.i., come liack, return ; 

la — , go back with it ; la so 

— , come back with it. 
so nohod, m.n., return. — ki. 
nol, a., living, existing ; beir nol, 

a living tree. 
nolai,, animate, resuscitate. 
nolaw, v.i., revive. 
nolau, f.n., life. — ti ; nolanta 

ahiro, the next life (next 

nug,, absorb, suck (especially 

used for children). 
nuji,, make him suck ; inan- 

ka naska nuji, make the child 

'ana nujis, m.n., lactation. — ki. 
nugail, m.n., cows which must 

be watered immediately after 

having been milked. 
dega nugul, a., obedient. 




dega nuglow, v.i., be obedient. 
dega nuglan, or dega nugail. — 

ki, obedience. 
nugul, m.7i., sliivering man. 
nurad, /.«., lime, mortar, chunam. 
nusked, nisked, or neski, half. 


6 (nsed as a dem.prn. with its 
appropriate consonant), yon, 

0, conj., and. Contraction of iyo ; 
it is used for joining sentences 
and parts of sentences : abbaha 
iyo hoyada ba yimadai o na 
la fadistai, your father and 
mother came and remained 
with us. 

6d,, obstruct, make a fence, 
an enclosure. 

od, f.n., hedge, fence, enclosure 
made of trees cut in the jungle. 
— di. 

odan, a.v., shut, obstructed ; 
dauga wa odanyahai, the road 
is obstructed. 

o'd, m.n., voice. — ^ki. 

odai, m.n., old man. — gi. 

odo (root, not used in the impera- 
tive mood, they commonly use 
deh), say, tell ; wan odan, I will 
say, tell. 

odrogad, m.n., a small distance 
(a ramble, a walk). — ki. 

ofai, f.n., sea-gull. — di. 

ofiio, m.n., coupling of neat cat- 
tle ; wa oftai, she has been 
og, f.n., fire (of houses being 
burnt).— ti ; dai ogta maga- 
ladi ka bahaisa, look ! the fire 
in the town is extending. 
og [root), v., know ; wa la ogya- 
hai, it is known ; ya og ? or 
ya yahan ? who ]?nows. 
Ogow,, know, beware of, 
remind ; wahhas ad u ogow 
(some say) wahhas ad u oho, 
be well aware of, remind well ; 
iss — , take care of yourself. 
ogan, a., wilfully, expressly ; 
ogan ban u falai, I did that 
ogaisi,, communicate, let 
him know, tell, remind, ac- 
quaint, discover; i, no ogaisi, 
tell me, us. 
Oggol, m.n., will, willing, know- 
ing, complying. — ki. 
oggolai, v.i., assent, consent. 
oggolaisi, V.C., make him consent. 
oggolan, f.n., acceptance, com- 
pliance, knowledge animals 
have of those who feed them 
and that of small children for 
their parents. — ti. 
iss oggolan, f.n., accordance, 

agreement with. — ti. 
oggolaw, v,i., accept, comply, be 
willing ; nefkasi wa i oggol- 
yahai, that animal knows me ; 
nef oggol, a tame animal. 
ohon (for ohaw),, know ; wa 
la yahan, it is known ; ninkas 
ad lo yahan i so kahai, lead 




that ■well-known man to me 
(some use the Arabic word 
ma'ruf, well known ; ninki 
ma'rufkaaha iga yed, call me 
the well-known man). 

ohon, /.re., knowledge, science. — 

ohonlaan, jf.n., ignorance. — ^ti. 

ohonin, m.n., acquaiutrmce. — ki, 
"— yo. 

ohousi, V.C., make him know, be 
acquainted with. 

ohonso,, get acquainted with. 

ohli, m.n., bag. — gi. 

oi, v.i., cry, weep ; oiya, wan 
oiyi ; mahal ruhba oiyaya, 
heiirJ a spirit crying. 

kaga oi, v.c, make him cry. 

oin, /.«., sigh, cry, weeping. — ti. 

oil, v.i., be lying, remain quie- 
scent, live. 

'oil, m.n., adversary, army, enemy. 
— ki; 'oil ahada, be enemies; 
'oil bainu nahai, we are ene- 
mies ; wa 'oU, or wa iss u 'oil, 
they are enemies. 

'ollow (with la), v.i., become ene- 
mies with ; — 'olloba, become 
(ye) enemies ; wai 'ollobi, they 
will become enemies. 

'oUad, f.n., enmity, dispute, feud, 
levenge, vengeance. — di, 

'olladi, v.i., revenge, take ven- 

olol, v.i., growl ; gelu wa olola, 
tlie camel growls. 

olol, or oM, m.n., flame, blaze. — 

ki, — yo. 
ololi,, inflame, light s dabka 
ololi, light the fire. 

on, m.n.. thirst. — ki. 

omanaw, v.att., be thirsty ; iss 
on tir, or iss harad ttr, quinch 
your thirst. 

onkod, rn.n., thunder. — ki, — yo, 

'o'ob, m.n., hole between two 
hides covering a Somali hut in 
which they can place or con- 
ceal something.-^ki. 

Orgi, m.n., he-goat. — gi. 

orjujiui, m.n., cripple. — ki ; or- 
jujun ban aha, I was a cripple. 

orod, v.i., run ; orda, wan ordi ; 
— tag, go away ; so — , coui>< 

orod, m.n., running, speed. — ^ki. 

orr, m.n., cry, shout. 

orri, v.i., cry, shout. 

osob, m.n., spring, verdure. — ki ; 
miyi wa osob, the jungle is 

owlaled, a., neutral tint, green. 

owlan, a., brnwn, reddish. 

OW (sKB yohow), affix meaning 
you ; abbihisow kalai, you, 
his father, come ; abbabaiow 
kalai, you, my father, come. 


ra',, accompany, go along 

with ; iss — , go together ; 

wainu iss ra'i, we go together ; 

so — , come with him. 
rab,, wish ; mahad rabta ? 

>> hat do yotr wish 1 
rabsi; m.n., chewing. — gi. 
T •■? 




rabso,, chew ; mahad rabsa- 

naisa ? what are you chewing 1 
rabrad, or rarad, /.«., coffin, 

bier. — di. 
rtbiih, Wednesday {see arbaha). 
rad, m.n., footstep, trace. — ki ; 

rad go, lose the trace ; so rad 

radi,, follow, trace, track, 
radis, m.n., follower — ki, 
rad gur, a man who traces an- 
other ; radkisa gur, trace him ; 

radkayaga gur, follow our 

ra'do, f.n., pursuit (of enemies, 

ra'dai,, pursue. 
ra'da reb, f.n., those who remain 

behind to resist the pursuers. 

— ti. 
radah, or rahad,, grind ; 

radha, wan radhi. 
radi, a., wishing, willing ; radi 

ban ku ahai, I am willing. 
raf, m.n., sheep's or goat's hoof 

(for one separately). — ki, 
rag, m.n., masculine sex, men. — 

gi (when this word is taken in 

a general sense, they say ragi, 

men, people). 
nin ragah, a brave man, fearing 

God and telling the truth. 
ragnimo,/!?!., magnaminity, men, 

rag, v.i., delay, be late, long ; 

mahad ku ragtai ? why have 

you been so late 1 
ragsan, a.v., late. 
raji,, adjourn, delay. 
ragnin,/!«., delay, slowness. — ti. 

rag'ad, m.n., at the finishing of 
the Mussulman prayers, when 
on their knees, they touch the 
ground with their heads, and 
this stooping is called rag'ad. 
In the morning they have two 
rag'adod, at noon four, and at 
about 3 or 4 p.m. four ; after 
sunset they have three rag- 
'adod, at ishai (about 7 p.m.) 

rah, m.n., frog, toad. — hi. 

raha, raho, or rahad, f.n., con- 
tentment, plentitude of satis- 
f 11 ctinn, happiness. — di; rahad 
ban ku haista, or rahaddi ban 
haista, I have the happiness ; 
raho yu ku jira, he is in hap- 
piness ; nin Ebbahai raho u 
aburai, (iod has created man 
for happiness. 

rahaisi, v.c, cause him to be 

rahaisan, a.v., happy. 

rahaiso, v.i., be satisfied ; ra- 
haista, wan rahaisan, 

rahmad, f.n., mercy, charity. — 

rahim, m.n., charitable man. — ki 
(nin rahimah is also used). 

rahan,, pawn (give as secu- 
rity) ; rahma, wan rahmi, 

rahmad, f.n., pawn, security. — 

rahan, fn., flock of quadrupeds, 
assembly of men. — ti ; rahanti 
meshi bal inai jogto dai,'look 
if there is an assembly of men. 

rah, V.I., bend, stoop for drinking 
water, lap. 




fah, /.«., corpse, cadaver. — di. 

rakal), m.n., passenger. — ki. 

rakab, or rakakab, m.n., stirrup, 
brave man, warrior. — ^ki, — yo. 

rako', f.n., a profound inclination 
made in. praying.-^di. 

rako', v.i., make a profound in- 

rai and rairai, v.i., rejoice, cheer ; 
iss ka — , be glad, rejoice. 

rairaisi,, cheer, rejoice ; 
kaga — , make him rejoice. 

rain, f.n., joy, gladness. — ^ti. 

rai's, m.n., barber, shaver. — ki. 

rais, m.n., wet land, wet soil 
found in digging and turning 
over the ground. — ki. 

ra'is, m.n., prime, the first. — ki. 

rais magado, f.n., bridge of the 
foot, sole. 

rajai, m.n., orphan. — gi (used 
especially for one bereaved of 

ramash, m.n., fertile place, covered 
with grass (well watered). — ki, 

ran, f.n., ringlet of hair. — ^ti ; 
rantayuhudda, the curl of hair 
the Jews have on each side. 

rani, f.n., queen at cards. — di, 

raniyad, f.n., queen {see mali- 
kad),— di. 

ranji, m.n., colour. — gi. 

ranji,, paint ; wan ranjiyi. 

rar,, load. 

rar, m.n., load. — ^ki. 

raran, a.v., laden. 

rar, f.n., room (in a house), a 
place upon a tree where rob- 
bers hide the stolen things. — 

rar, v.i., prepare a place in a 
house, on a tree 

raran, a.v., ready, prepared ; 
mesha wa rarantahai, the 
place is ready, prepared. 

rarab, f.n., hand-barrow used for 
carrying dead bodies. — ti. 

raran, m.n., embers, sand heated 
by the sun.— ki. 

ras and ras gura, m.n., ant-hill 
(of hndanjo). — ki, — gi. 

rasas, f.n., lead. — ^ti, 

rash, m.n., shot. — ki. 

rasi, m.n., cape. — gi, 

rasai,, heap up, accumulate. 

rasaisan, a.v., accumulated. 

rasais, m.n., accumulation. — ki. 

rasul, m.n., apostle. — ki. 

rati, m.n., he-camel. — gi, 

rawi, m.n., wealthy. — gi ; nin 
rawiah, a wealthy man. 

reb,, leave, lay aside, away ; 
wan kugu rebi, I will leave it 
ior you ; ku reb, leave out. 

rer, m.n., assemblage of Somali 
huts within -an enclosure, vil- 
lage, family. — ki ; rer kani wa 
rerma? or rer ma tihin? or 
war ! rerku wa rerma ? wiiose 
rer is this 1 A Somal in the 
jungle, wishing to speak po- 
litely to the inhabitants of a 
rer he does not know, asks one 
of the above three questions. 

rer miyi, m.7i., a countryman. — gi. 

rer magala, f.n., people oi a 
town. — di, 

ri, f.n., she-goat. — di. 

riyo, m.n., goat (general name). 
— hi. 




nyoi, OT riyo, m.n., dream. — ki; 

wa riyod, it is a dream. 
riyo, v.i., dream. 
rial, m.n., thaler, dollar. — ki (see 

rid,, pitch, throw, upset ; 

ku — , put in, throw in, aim 

at ; wan ku ridai o la wahyai, 

I aimed at it and missed it ; 

kaga — , shoot ; waraba ma- 

dahha kaga rid, shoot that 

hyteiia in the head ; ka — , 

rif,, phime or pluck (a bird, 

a fowl). 
rifii, m.n., a bold and headstrong 

man. — M. 
rifakal, in.n., a bold man, taking 

the part or party of the rifai. 
rih,, push, shove. 
rih, m.n., push, pusljing. — M. 
rima', or rimai', fraction \. 
rimai, m.n., matiix, womb. — gi. 

This word is not habitually 

used in speakiiii; of women, 

although it is the true word 

tor matrix. 
rcb, m.n., rain. — ki ; biyiH 'ar- 

rada rogai, deluge. 
rodol, m.n., pound (weight). — 

r'g,, reverse, turn, set upside 

down, spill, take ashore, land ; 

war alabadada rog, land your 

yoods ; SO — , bring ashore. 
rdgan, a.v., upside down ; distigi 

wa roganyahai, the kettle is 

upside down. 
rogan. v.i., be troubled ; wan 


rcgmo, v.i., be set upside down ; 
kolka dunidu rogmato, when 
the world will be set upside 
down, or destroyed. 

rog^n, f.n., abashment, spolia- 
tion, landing. — ti. 

ron, a., good, generous ; wa ron, 
it is good ;• ka ron tahai, it is 
better than, or it is more ; 
Yusuf Musa ka ron, Joseph is 
better than Moses ; ina ka ahli 
ron, he is more intelligent than 
we are. 

ror, v.i., run, palpitate. 

ror, m.n., kind of lizard. — ki. 

riibab, m.n., marsh. — ki, — yo. 

rubad, m.n., life. — ^ki, — yo. 

rubad, f.n., the place below the 
throat, just above the middle 
of the chest, the thyroid body, 

rubiad, f.n., rupee. — di ; rubabi 
(plur.). In counting, Simials 
employ the contraction rubod, 
instead of rubiadod. 

rubi, m.n., 1 shilling, 8 annas. 

rug, f.n., abode, dwelling, resi- 
dence, tent. — ti. 

rugajso, v.i., live, dwell. 

rug, m.n., knee, callousness of the 
knees. — gi, — yo. 

rug,, break the bone in 
gnawiig it. 

ruh and ruhruh,, shake, 

ruho, v.i., be .shaken, tossed ; 
dabaisM ya i ruhdai, I was 
tossed by the wind. 

ruVian, a.v., shaken, tossed. 

ruhnin, f.n., shake, shaking. — ti. 




ruhan, v.p., be crushed down, 
downcast, exhausted ; ruhma, 
wan ruhmi; wa si ruhmi, I 
shall be exhausted (in going) ; 
wa so rnhmai, I was exhausted 
in coming. 

ruhsad, f.n,, permission. — di ; 
mhsad i si, give me permission. 

rukun, m.n., leg (of a chair, a 
table, a bed). — ^ki. 

raji,, eradicate, uproot; 

riijin, or rujis, f.n., eradication. 
— ti, — ki. 

rum, Turkey. 

rumi, m.n., Turk. — gi. 

rumai, m.n., toothbrush, tooth- 
stick. — gi. 

run, f.n., truth, certainty. — ti ; 
wa run, wa runtis, wa run- 
ted, wa runtod, it is true. 

rumai,, ascertain, confirm 
the truth. 

rumaiso,, believe, take the 
truth for certain. 

rumaisad, m.n., belief. — ki. 

rushai, v.i., besprinkle water in 
front of the house after sweep- 
ing in order to get fresh air ; 
u rushai, water for him. 

rushaiso, v.r., water for yourself. 

S, Sh. 

sa, contr. for sida, so ; war ! sa 
fal, oh! do so; sa berri an 
falo, let me do so to-morrow. 

sa (root), meaning a portion of 

time ; saka, this morning ; sa 
dambe, the day after to-morrow ; 
sakab, or sakun, the day after 
the day after to-morrow. 

sa', m.n., cow ; sa'ha, si'hi, the 
cow ; sa'yaw, cows (plur.). 

sa'ab, m.n., Somali dance (men 
and women dance together 
striking their hands), palm of 
the hand ; sa'abka ku 'un, eat 
with the hand. 

sa'ad, f.n., hour, clock, watch. — 
di ; sa'ad badked, half-an- 

sab, f.n., general name given to 
the three Somali castes, Tumal, 
Midgan, Yibir; Tumal wa sab. 

sab, m.n., light wooden basket- 
work surrounding the jars of 
ghee and butter, lid used for a 
deri, or disti. 

sabab, f.n., cause, reason, risk 
(success as well as failure is 
called sabab). — ti ; wahhas 
sababtisi mahai ahaid ? what 
was the cause of that 1 sababti 
wahhai ahaid, the cause was 

sabab,, risk ; la'ag^ada 
wahha ku sabab, risk your 
money in that atiair. 

sababo, v.i., adventure, dare. 

sabai, v.i., float ; miyidku wa 
sabainaya, the corpse is float- 

sabais, m.n., floating. — ki, 

sabbar, m.n., food. — ki. 

sabbar,, feed, nourish. 

sabbaro,, feed, maintain 
(your children). 




sabkah, or sadkah, f.n., fruit 
wrapped up in a pod or husk 
covered with prickles. — di. 

sabein, /.)?., she-lamb. — ti. 

Hsabir, m.m., patience, perseve- 
rance. — ^ki (see samir). 

sabo, f.ti., wet place becoming 
muddy by the trampling of 
camels, clean place made dirty, 
contagious sickness. — di. 

sabol, OT.w., poor man or woman 
having just what is necessary 
for a living ; nin, nag sabolah, 
a poor man, woman ; ninki 
sabolkaaha, nagti sabolka- 
ahaid, the poor man, woman. 

sabti, /!«., Saturday. — di. 

sabur, m.n., psalms. — ki, 

sadaho ! int., cry of the poor 
when asking for alms. 

sadahad, f.n., alms. — di ; sadahad 
ban ku sin, I will give you 

sadahadai (with ku),, give 

sadahaiso, «.?•., give alms (for 
yourself, for your good). 

sadar, m.n., row, line. — ki ; sadar 
U jogsada, arrange yourself, 
sit in a row, line. 

sadeh, num., three. — di ; sadeb. 
hai ban ku lehyahai, I have 
to tell you three words. 

sadehad, num.ord., third, thrice. 

sado, f.n., privilege. 

safai,, clean. 

safaisan, a.v., clean, cleansed. 

safan, or daba safan, m.n., kind 
of fish. — ki. 

safan, f.n., chaps (of the heel), 

especially due to walking on 
wet gras"!. — ti. 

(nin) safanleh, m.n., traveller. — 
hi; safanlayashi ba yimadai, 
tlie travellers have come. 

safar, m.n., caravan, journey 
(made with a caravan). — ki ; 
sa&o (plur.) ; annaga o sa- 
farah, our caravan. 

safar, v.i., travel with a caravan ; 
safra, wan safri ; safarka bore 
ka so had o ka dambe ra', 
leave the first caravan and go 
with the second. 

nin safarah, a traveller with a 

saflri, or masifiri,, expel, 
banish ; la masafiri, he is ex- 

safirsan, a.v., expelled ; ninki 
safirsana, the expelled man. 

safli, m.n., hide adorned or embel- 
lished with rows of shells. — gi, 

sagal, num., nine. 

sagalad, num.ord., ninth. 

sagashan, num., ninety. 

sagan madon, f.n., nape. — ti. 

sagaro, or saiaro, f.n., sand 

sahai, provisions either for main- 
tenance at home or for travel. 
— di. 

sahal,, bless {see sal). 

sahal,, render easy, ease. 

saharad, f.n., wooden box, case. 
— di. * 

saharo, f.n., fecal matters, urine. 

saharo, or saharod, v.i., purga 
ventrem ; so — , go and purga 




saheb, m.n., master, sir. — ki. 
sahib, m.n., companion, friend. — 

saheh, m.n., signature. — hi. 
sahima, sehimad, or sihimad, 

f.n., boat. — di. 
sah, f.n., night (time of sleeping). 

sah dehe, f.n., midnight ; sahda 

dehe tos, arise at midnight. 
sah, m.n., two annas. — hi. 
sahaf, m.n., roof. — ki. 
sahaf, f.n., woman's comb (with 

ten or twelve teeth).- — ti. 
sahran, v.i., be drunk ; sahrama, 

wan sahrami. 
(nin) sahransan, a.v., drunk. 
kaga sahrami, v.c, make him, 

cause him to be drunk ; war ! 

igaga sahrami, oh ! you will 

make me drunk. 
Sakar, m.n., sternum, breast-bone. 

— ki. 
sai'd,, asperse, sprinkle ; iss 

ka — , throw ; ku — , sprinkle 

on him, them ; uagu said, be- 
sprinkle us ; ahalka hortisa 

biyaha ku sai'd, sprinkle water 

in front of the house, 
saim, m.n., a fasting man. — ki ; 

saimin (plur.). 
sain, f.n., hair of a horse's tail, 

mane of a horse. — ti. 
sal, m.n., breech, bottom of a 

vessel, foundation, groundwork. 
* — ki ; salka dig, sit down. 
sal, a., true ; wa sal, it is true ; 

Eraiga Ilahhi wa sal, the word 

of God is true ; eraigasi wa 

sal, that word is true. 

sal (see sahal),, bless. 

salad, f.n., prayer. — di. 

salah, m.n., deck of a ship. — hi. 

salah,, pat, stroke, soothe, 

salahid, f.n., caress, pat, smooth- 
ing. — di. 

salahnodleh, m.n., bustard (large 
one). — hi. 

salam,, salute, hail. 

salam, salutation, hail ! salam ale- 
kum, salutation to a stranger. 

salamad, f.n., salutation, farewell 
(be in safety). — di, 

salasa, f.n., Tuesday.— di. 

salid, f.n., oil. — di. 

salib, m.n., cross. — ki, — ^yo (see 
iss ku talab), 

sallado, f.n., kind of spear. 

sallah, m.n., place prepared in a 
boat for passengers. — ^hi, 

sallan, m.n., staircase, ladder. — • 

salo, f.n., dung (of camels, sheep, 

salol, m.n., jowaree. — ^ki. 

samah, f.n., pardon. — di. 

samah,, pardon, forgive, ex- 
cuse ; wan samihi ; i samah, 
excuse me ; issa samaha, par- 
don each other ; manta wan 
ku samahaya e mar kaleh ha 
u nohon, I pardon you to-day, 
do not do it again, 

samai,, do, make, construct, 
repair ; dunidu wahba laga 
ma samain, the world is made 
out of nothing ; la — , transact, 
act with. 

samaisan, a.v., made. 




samaisnaw, v.att, be made. 

samaisan, v.pass., te made ; sa- 
maisma, wan samaismi ; ka 
samaisma, is made of, from. 

samain, /.)(., making, construc- 
tinn. — ti. 

samais, m.n., maker of every- 
thing, constructor. — ^ki, ■ — yo. 

iss ku samai,, join with 
thread, rope, nail. 

iss ku samais, m.n., joining ; iss 
ku samaiski, the joining. 

dar samai,, weave. 

saman, m.n., goods, things. — ki ; 
samanki o dan laga so rog 
markabka, all the goods have 
been brought from the ship. 

saniar (with ka), v.i., give up for 
lost (it is the word used at the 
announcement of a death). 

sa'maran, f.n., nice dates. — ti. 

sambab, m.n., lungs. — ki, — yo. 

sambil, m.n., basket. — ki. 

samir, m.n., patience, perseve- 
rance. — ki. 

samir, v.i., be patient, perseve- 
ring, endure with patience ; 
samra, wan samri. 

san, aff., used with wah ; wa 
wahsan, it is good, well. 

san, m.n., nose. — ^ki ; san balla- 
dan, a flat nose. 

sanharor, m.n., bridge of the 
nose. — ki, 

sanho, f.n., channel of the nose, 

sanholeh, m.n., snuffer, a man 
hMving a twang. — M. 

san, f.n.', hide of camels and of 
neat cattle.— ti. 

santa ka bihi,, skin, flay. 

Sana', m.n., conjuror. — hi, 

sana'ad, f.n., conjuration. — di. 

sana'h.0, f.n., charm given to a 
sick person, or words pro- 
nounced to conjure his evil, 
bad spirits. 

sanad, f.n., year. — di ; sanaddi 
hore, the past year, ago (even 
long ago) ; sanaddi dowed, 
past year (not long ago) ; sa- 
naddan so so'ota, this coming 

sanam, m.n., idol. — ^ki, — ^yo. 

sanduh, m.n., box, chest, trunk. 
— M, — yo. 

sanga, or sangai, m.n., stallion. 

sanhad, f.n., noise, sound, sound 
in the desert. — di ; degaiso ! 
sanhad ban mahlaya, hark ! 
I hear a sound. 

kaga sanhadi, v.i., make a noise 
(with something). 

saniinad, f.n., curry. — di. 

sar,, place, put on, set on ; 
so — , bring away, make go out. 

saran, a.v., placed ; wah mel 
saran, a thing put in a place. 

sarrai, v.i., be (plaged) first, go 
at the head of, before ; ina- 
mada u sarrai, be the first of 
tlie boys ; ugu sarrai, be the 
first of all, go belore ; nagu 
sarrai, go before us ; ka — , 
be over the others, command, 

sarraisi (with ugu),, appoint. 

sarsar, v.i., put one over the 




sara ka', v.i., get up, rise. 

sara ka', m.n., a getting up, re- 
surrection. — M. 

sar,, cut, incise. 

sarsar, v.t?:, vaccinate, cut the 

sarsar, m.n., vaccination, cutting 
of tlie skin. — ki. Somals have 
the hahit of cutting the skin 
ot their children when they are 
sick and especially when they 
are pot-bellied. 

sarmo, f.n., cut, gash, incision. 

saro, v.i., copulate, coire ; sarta, 
wan saran. 

sarab, m.n., row. — ki. 

sarab (with ku), v.ti:, put in rows 
and join ; lohyada ahalka ku 
sarab, floor the ropm (cover 
with planks) ; alwahda sarab- 
keda, the flooring. 

saran, f.n., groin (of the body). 

sarar and dina', fillet (the loins 
of a horse, an ox ...). — ti, and 
— M. 

saren, m.n., corn, flour of wheat. 

sarir, f.n., bed. — ti. 

sarrah, v.i., go free. 

sarrahi, v.c, set free (cause to be 

sarrif, m.n., change of money. — 

sarrif,, change ; rubiadda i 
sarrif, cliange me the rupee ; 
SO — , go and change. 

sarmh, m.n., bandit, highway- 
man. — hi. 

sasab,, induce, persuade; wa 
la sasabai, he is persuaded. 

sasabo,, fl itter. 

sasab, or sasabnin, m.n., persua- 
sion, enticement. — ki, — ti. 

sawahan, m.n., clamour, outcry. 
— ki. 

sawaheli, m.n., negro, slave.: — gi. 

sawir, m.n., drawing, image, pic- 
ture, photograph. — ki, 

sawir,, draw, picture. 

sawirau, a.i'., pictured, repro- 
duced in picture, photo, ... 

sayad, m.n., fisherman. — ki. 

sayah, m.n., dew. — M. 

sayahsan, a., dewy ; dulku wa 
sayahsanyahai, the earth is 

sayah, m.n., goldsmith. — hi. 

se, coiij., but (never used at the 
beginning of a sentence). 

seb, m.n., oar. — ki. 

sebiyan, m.n., servant. — ki; se- 
biyan ba lehyahai, he has a 

sefari, m.n., string, twine. — gi. 

seh.0, v.i., sleep ; so — , go to 

sehi, v.i., make (him) sleep, blow, 
put out ; ilmaha sehi, make 
the baby sleep ; siradka sehi, 
blow out the lamp. 

sehasho, f.n., sleep. 

seid, f.n., sinew, tendon. — di. 

seif, f.n., sword. — ^ti. 

sem,, touch (in playing). 

se'ni, or su'un, m.n., plate, dish. 
— gi, or — ti, — yo. 

sergad, or sergan, f.n., flogging, 
scoui-ging. — di, — ti. 

serkal, m.n., authority, govern- 
ment. — ki. 




serkal sarai, m.n., governor ; 

serkalki sarai, the governor, 
serkal, m.n., gentleman ; sara- 

kishi, the gentleman. 
serji, m.n,., brink, hem. — gi. 
serwan, f.n., rod, stick. — ti. 
serwanai,,, flog, scourge, 
sesa, or sisa, f.n., dust, sand 

(raised up by the galloping of 

horses), whirlwind or gusty 

wind. — di. 
setto, f.n., fetters (for a camel's 

sha'ab, m.n., coral. — ^ki. Sha'ab 

is the proper name of the place 

where the residency of Ber- 

berah is built. 
shabak, m.n., net. — gi, — yo. 
shabel, m.n., leopard, panther 

(hunting leopard).^ki. 
shabuk, m.n., whip. — gi. 
shaf, m.n., callousness of the 

camel's chest. — ki. 
shafi'i, one of the Mohamedan 

.sects. Sonials are of the sha- 

fi'i creed. 
shag, m.n., wheel of a carriage. 

snab, /.ra., a game which Somals 
are very fond of. It consists 
in three squares unequal in 
size, one inside the other, and 
joined by perpendiculars pass- 
ing through the middle of 
each side ; each of the two 
players has twelve stones or 
shells, which are either of a 
different colour or kind from 
those of his opponent, so that 
they may recognise them easily. 

shah, m.n., tea. — hi, 

shahi, m.n., labourer, workman. 
— gi ; uiuki shahigaaha, a 

shahai, v.i., work. 

shahaisi, v.i., make him work. 

shahaiso, v.i., work for yourself. 

shuhul, m.n., labour, work, busi- 
ness. — ki, 

shakal, or shekal, m.n., fetters 
(for horses, mules). — ki. 

shekal,, fetter, put on fet- 

shakamad, f.n., leathern halter. 
— di. 

shaitan, or shaidan, m.n., Satan, 
devil, demon.— ki, 

shalai and shalaito, ad., yester- 

shama', or shimai', m.n., wax, 

shambel, m.n., wild beast about 
the size of a fox. 

shan, num., five. 

shanad, num.ord., fifth. — ki, — di, 

shan iyo tobnad, m.n., a fort- 
night. — ki; shan iyo tobnad- 
kas dan yu ina ka mahna, 
all this fortnight he was absent 
(from us) . 

shansho, f.n., part of the leg 
under the knee. 

shar, m.n., evil. — ki. 

sharad, m.n., bet. — ^ki, — yo. 

la sharatan, v.i., bet ; la shara- 
tama, wan la sharatami. 

sharer, m.n., forest.— ki. 

shareri, v.t7\, make a forest, 

mel shareran, a forest. 

sharub, f.n., mustachio. — ti. 




i, m.n., fringe. — ^ki. 

shausliuga, m.n., greyish red 
mongoose. — hi. 

sheg,, say, relate, tell ; u — , 
communicate, tell him ; bein 
— , tell, say a lie, be untruth- 
ful ; wah — , foretell, predict ; 
wah ban shegi, I will foretell. 

shego,, demand, claim. 

sheko, f.n., history, tale, tradi- 

sheko u mari, v.i., narrate, tell a 

shehmad, or shehnad,, load, 

shehnadan, a.v., loaded, laden. 

shehnad, f.n., cargo, loading. — di. 

sheklad, f.n., public house (stew). 
— di. 

sheih, m.n., sheik, chief, Musul- 
man saint. — hi. 

shid,, inflame, light, kindle ; 
dabka shid, light the lire. 

shidan, a.v., inflamed, lit. 

shid,, stone. 

shid, m.n., stoning. — ki. 

shido, f.n., feast in which a goat 
is killed. 

shido, f.n., hurly-burly, bustle, 
row, clatter. 

shidai, v.i., make a noise, cater- 

shil,, fry. 

shilan, a.v., fried ; shilan yahai, 
it is fried. 

shilo, v.r., fry (for yourself) ; 

deriya shil, m.n., a man frying. 
— ki. 

shilato, f.n., a woman frying. 

shilis, a., fat, stout ; ninki, ni- 
manki shishla, stout man, 
men ; uagti shishlaid, the 
stout, fat woman ; nagihi 
shishla, the fat women. 

shishlai,, make fat. 

shishlow, v.i., become fat. 

shilin, f.n., tick (the flat one), in- 
sect, camel's louse. — ti. When 
this louse bites other animals 
it causes them to be sick. 

shimbir, f.n., bird. — ti. 

shimbir libah, f.n., owl. — di. 

shin, m.n., the nine months of 
pregnancy. — ki ; shinki ma 
aha, he has not the time ; — 
dal, one who is born in his time. 

shini, f.n., bee. — di. 

shir, m.n., assembly, rendezvous, 
council, assembly of men in 
the house of a chief. — ki. 

shirka tag, v.i., go to the council, 
meeting ; sMrkan tegi, I will 
go to the meeting. 

so shira, v.i., have an a.=isembly, 
assemble ; waiau so shiri, we 
will have an assembly, a meet- 

shirsi,-, reunite. 

shira', or shirah, m.n., sail of a, 
ship. — ^hi, — yo. 

shishai, f.n., prp. and a., distant, 
beyond, the following, the last ; 
halka shishai, that di^^tant 
place ; nohadda shishadedu 
jogo, he is beyond the tower ; 
kau maaha, wa ka shishai, 
it is not this, it is the next, 
the following ; adigu u shishai, 
be the last of all. 




shoi, f.n., a tree and its fruit, 
which is like a cherry. — di. 

sholaboli,/.M., cash (silver money), 
two anna piece. 

shub,, put in, spill, melt, 
pour out ; so — , pour out to- 
■\varfls me ; si — , conHnue to 
snill ; ku — , put in ; buradka 
shub, melt the butter ; 'anihi 
hanti ku shubai, I put the 
milk in the jar; wahad igu 
shubaisid, garan mayo, 1 do 
not understand what you tell 
me ; wa biyaha la shubayo, 
it is spilt watpr. 

shubo, ku shubo, v.r., put in, 
liour in (for yourself). 

shuban, ax., melted ; bur'ad 
shuban ban'aba, I drink 
melted butter. 

shuban, v.yi., be molted, lie 
purged ; shubma, wan shubmi; 
bur'adku ba skubmo, let the 
Gutter be melted ; dabada ka 
sbuban, take a purge (lit. be 
purged from the back). 

shuban, m.n., effect of a purga- 
tive. — ki. 

shuban, a., straight, nicp. ; ul 
shuban i so ibi, buy a straight 
stick for me ; nin shuban, a 
nice man (tall and of a straight 

shuh, m.ii., hazj' weather. — hi, 

shukan, f.n., lielm. — ti. 

si, f.n., manner, mode. — di, 

sida, sidas, sidan, ad., thus, so ; 
sidas ma tahai ? is it so ? or 
arp you so f wa sidas, it is so ; 
sidan u samai, do so (as I say). 

sidai, conj., as. 

side, ad., how ? wa side ? how is 
itf sidan (for side) ban u gala? 
how can 1 do that % 

si un, ad., somehow ; si un u gal 
iss kaga tag, do it somehow 
(in any manner whatever) and 
sro away. 

si kasta, conj., however, 

si, 'particle. This particle is often 
used before the verb to point 
out either a tendency from me' 
to a place, or the continuity of 
the action expressed by the 
verb : si da, let go ; si mar, 
pass by (from me to ...) ; si 
da', continue to plunder ; si 
shahai, continue to work. 
When this particle is added to 
the verb it gives to it a causa- 
tive sense : shahai, work ; 
shahaisi, cause to work. 

si,, give, bestow: si — , dis- 
tribute ; so — , give to him, 
briy, take and bring to me ; i 
so si, take and bring to me ; 
wan ku so sin, I will buy for 
you ; — SO, buy for vonr^elf ; 
sista, wan sisan ; orod o basal 
sisQ, go and buj' onions for 
yourself; orod basal so si, 
go and buy onions f )r me. 

siya, w.n., giver. — hi ; ninki,fi 
wa siya, basha, diba, densi, 
this man is a giver, geueroUs-;, 

sin, f.n., gift, present. 

sibah, m.n., dye. — hi ; sibah ma- 
dow 'adan, indigo. 

sibah,, dye. 




(nin) sibahah, m.n., dyer. — M. 
sibibah, /.«., a rleclivity, slope. — 
di ; mel sibibahab, a sloping 
sibibaho, v.i., sl'de. 

sibrar, m.n., leatliern water-bag, 
cbagul. — ki. 

sid,, carry, bring ; war san 
ban ku sida, I bring to you 
good news. 

sido, v.r., take and carry for 
yourself; sita ; sorta sido, or 
iss ka sido, take ynur food. 

sided, num., eight. — di. 

sidehtan, num., eighty. — ki. 

sidedad, num.ord., eighth. — ki, 
— di. 

si'g, m..n., hartebrest or Coke's 
antelope. — gi. 

sigo, /.«., sand on the road, sand- 
storm [see sesa). 

sihin, f.n., melted hiitter. — ti. 

sil, m.n., vagina.— ki. 

silei', m.n., suffering, torment, 
torture. — hi. 

silei', v.p., be tortured. 

sili'i,, torment, torture, per- 

sila'n, a., dull ; sbuhul sila'n, 
dull work. 

(nin) sila'san, a.v., tortured man. 

silsilad, f.n., chain. — di. 

silsiladai,, fetter, enchain. 

simbiririho, v.i., slide, slip. 

simbiririho, f.n., slide, slip. 

simbiririM, v.c, cause him to 
slide, slip. 

simid, m.n., cement. — ki. 

sin, or iss kn sin,, flatten, 
level ; sima, wan simi. 

simanjfl.t)., plain, smooth, straicrht, 
parallel ; dilimihi wa siman- 
yihin, the lines are parallel ; 
iss ku simanyihin, they are 
siman, or sinin, m.n., plane, sur- 
face, — ki, — ti. 
sin, m.n., mucus discharged from 
the nose. — fci. 

sinso, v.i., wipe your nose. 

sin, f.n., hip. — ti ; sino or simo 

sino, f.n., adultery. 

sinaiso, v.i., commit adultery. 

sinaisi, v.c, cause to commit 

sindi, m.n., bracelet, armlet (of 

singal, m.n., client, a man who 
comes under the protection of 
a powerful man. — ki. 

sinif,, intrnduce, produce ; 
erai 'usub sinif, create a new 

sinjibil, f.n., ginger. — sM. 

sirad, m.n., lamp. — ki, — yo. 

sirad,, light ; siradka sirad, 
light the lamp. 

siradan, a.v., lit, lighted ; sirad- 
ka siradan i ken, bring me a 
lighted lamp, 

siriri,, choke, strangle. 

siririn, or siriris, m.n., strangu- 
lation. — ti, — ki. 

sisa, or sesa, f.n., dust, sand- 
storm. — di. 

sisib, f.n., sliding on a stone. — 
ti. ■ 

sisibi, v.c, canse to slide. 

sisibo, v.i., slide,- slip. 




sitah, m.n., necklace or garland 
(for horses). — hi, — yo. 

siyahad, f.n., ornaments for wo- 
men, bracelets, necklaces of 
silver and of precious metals 
or stones. — di. 

siyar, vA., make a feast ; nin la 
la sahiro ba tahal, you are a 
man to feast with us. 

siyaro, or siyarad, f.n., feast. — 

so, particle, used either after or 
before the verb. "When after 
the verb, it gives to it a kind 
of reflective sense ; when be- 
fore the verb, it points out 
either a movement in the ac- 
tion expressed by the verb with 
a sense of coming back, or a 
tendency towards me: U so dib, 
give him to bring home ; so 
heli, bring back to me ; so 
durug', come near. 

so', or kala so', « tr., distinguish, 
separate ; midahas kala so', 
peparate those fruits; iuamada 
AMI wan ka so' or ka deh 
so'i, I will separate Abdi from 
the boys. 

so'an, a.v., distinct ; sadehda hof 
ba kala wa so'an tabai o Hah. 
keliah iss ku yihin, the three 
Persons are distinct one from 
the other and are only One 

so'din, f.n., separation, distinc- 
tion, division. — ti. 

sod'al, m.n., journey, travel, tra- 
veller. — ki; ninka sod'alkisi 
wah absileh bu aha, the tra- 

vel, journey of that man was 
dangerous ; ninka wein e ad 
arkaisa wa sod'al, the big 
man you see is a traveller. 

(nin) sod'alah, m.n., traveller ; 
ninki sod'alkaaha, the tra- 

soda'l, vd., travel. 

soddog, m.n., father-in-law. — gi, 
— yo. 

soddoh, f.n., mother-in-law. — di. 

sodon, num., thirty. 

sofa, m.n., file. — hi. 

sofai,, file, sharpen. 

sogsog, f.n., fibrous tree with 
curved thorns. — ti. 

sog^, m.n., red mongoose. — ki. 

soh,, carl, twist. 

sohan, a.v., curled, twisted. 

sokai, a., near; mel sokai, a near 

sol,, broil, grill. 

solai, m.n., gridiron. — gi, Somals 
use a stick in the place of iron. 

son, m.n., fast, fasting. — ki. 

(nin) soman, m.n., fasting, hungry 
man ; ninki somana, the fast- 
ing man. 

SO'O, v.i., go on, move, proceed, 
walk ; so — , come to me ; si 
— , continue to go on ; U so'o, 
go, walk for. 

so'od, m.n., walk. — ki, 

SO'odsi,, advam-e, set for- 
ward; sa'adda so'odsi, put 
the clock on. 

sor, f.n., food. — ti. 

soryo,/w., food given to a stranger 
on the first day, hospitality. 

soryai, v.i., give hospitality. 




SOW and show, particles exprcss- 
inc; some doubt, perhaps; sow 
sida ma aha ? is it not so 1 
show wa sidas, perhaps it is 
so; SOW markabka ma yimado, 
pei'haps the ship will- not come? 
show manta yimadai, perhaps 
p]ie has come to-dav ; SOW sa- 
'addu tobamki maaha? is it not 
ten o'clock t show sa'addu wa 
tobanki, perhaps it is ten. 

sual,, ask, question. 

sual, f.n., question. — shi. 

subag, m.n., ghee (general name 
for all melted fat). — gi. 

subah, m. andy!«., morning. — hi, 
— di, — yo. 

Eubaihi, m.n., police, policeman. 
— gi ; subaihin (plur.). 

suf, m.n., rag. — ^ki. 

sufur, m.n., brass. — ki. 

sufur, f.n., dust made by camels 
on the march. — ti. 

SUg, v.i., wait, have patience, 
Jiope. — ti. 

sugnin, f.n., waiting, patience, 
hope. — ^ti. 

sugninleh, a., patient. 

sugninla, a., impatient. 

SUg, v.i., suffer, beat hard. 

sugan, a.v., suffering, beaten hard, 
severely ; nin sugan, a suffering 
man ; wil sugan, a boy severely 

suh, v.i., faint, swoon. 

suhsan, a.v., fainted ; ninki suh- 
sana ban arkai, I saw ihe man 
in a faint. 

suhdin, f.n., fainting, sw^on, 
epilepsy. — ti. 

suhur, f.n., meal taken durin'::; 
Kamadan, between midnight 
and four o'clock. At midnight 
a man cries in the streets : su- 
hur ya saimin! suhur ya 
saimin! eat (meal) you lasting 

suhuro, v.i., take your meil. 

suh, m.n., bazaar, market. — ^hi, 

sujud, f.7i., profound inclination, 

consisting in kneeling down 

and touching the grounl witli 

the forehead. — di. 
sujud, v.i., make the inclination. 
sul, m.n., thumb, toe. — ki. 
suldan, m.n., sultan. — ki. 
sulub, 7ii.n., soft iron used for 

making spears.— ki. 
sumad, f.n., mark, sign, emblem. 

— di.' 
sumad,, mark, sign. 
sun, m.n., poison. — ki. 
siin, m.n., man's belt, waist-band. 

— ki ; suman {plur.). 
sunkor or sonkor, f.n., sugar. — ti. 
surin, f.n., street. — ki. 
surual, m.n., trousers, pantaloons. 

— ki; sarawU (pZMr.). 
suryo,/;w., noose, a running knot. 
suryo, v.i., noose, make a i-unning 


ta, ti, tu, f.m-t., the. 
tX, ti, tan, tana, A , « 
tani,tanu,tas, 7'^«"*^7f/""" 

tasa,tasi, tasu, r*Ktli^t^y°"' 
ter, tg, 






tai, taida, taidi, taidu, poss.f. 

a/JJ.prn., my, mine. 
t:, tida, tadi, tadu, posi'.f.adj. 

prn., tliy, tliine. 
tis, tisa, tisiftisvi, poss.w.adj ._prn., 

liis, liis own. 
ted, teda, tedi, tedu, poss.f. adj. 

p)rn., lior, hers. 
taya, tayada, tayadi, tayadu, 

pos'<.a.prn., our, ours (mine 

and thuiip). 
ten, tena, teni, terni, posn.a.prn., 

our, ours (youis nnd mine). 
tin, tina, tini, thm,, 

your, yours. 
tod, toda, todi, todu, poss.a.prn., 

te ? int.fem.prn., what '! which ? 

teba? which of you'? 
tuma? int.fem.pyn., who'! wa 

tuma? who is 1 
tab, /.«., a kind of play, especially 

in wrestling. — ti. 
ta'ab, m.n., torment, pnin, suffer- 
ing. — ki ; ta'abka 'adabtu wa 

dambaiya hadainan wanak- 

sanain, the torments of hell 

are Ijereafter if we are not 

tabo,, touch, fes'l. 
tabsi, v.<:., make him touch, feel. 
tabasho, f.n., touch, feeling ; ta- 

bashadada ban garanaya, I 

feel your touching. 
ku taba',, aspire after, fight 

for; wan tabe'i. 
tababar,, correct, break a 

horse, subdue. 
tabahad or dababad, f.n., hulk 

or carcass of a ship. — di. 

tabalo, f.n., a thing wanted at 
once and earnestly desired. 

tabalaisnaw,, long for ; la- 
'agtaida wan u tabalaisnahai, 
I want to have my money. 

tabalaisan, a.v., in want of, 
wanting ; ninki tabalaisna, 
tlie man in want. 

tadbir, f.n., plan. — ti. 

tag, ».«., go; wantegi; teg, he 
is gone ; wilkl teg, the boy is 
gone ; nagti tagtai, the woman 
is gone ; iss ka — , go away ; 
U — . go to him ; si — , go first, 
I will come after. 

tegnin, m.n., departing, going. — 

tag,/n., strength. — ti. 

tag,, fi.'c (a stake firm and 
straight) ; iss ■ — , halt, stop ; 
ku — , prop, shore up. 

tagan, a.v., fixed, firm, straight, 

tagnow, v.i., stand, be standing 

tagog or tagogo, yin., fore-arm. 

tab, v.i., groan, moan. 

tab, m.n., groan, moan. — M, — JO. 

tah,, put in line, in rows ; 
wan tihi ; alelhaha tah or iss 
kutah, arrange, put these shells 
in a line ; si tah, continue to 

tahsir or taksir, f.n., off'cnee, 
guilt, punishment. — ti. 

tahsirleh, a., guilty. 

tahsirla, a., nut guilty, innocent; 
ninkasi wa nin tahsirla, or 
tahsir ma leh, or tahsir mo, 
laha, that man is iijnoccnt. 




takar, m.n., gad fly. — ki. 

takfi or tafki, m n., flea.— gi. 

tako, /.«., span. 

tal, root. 

tali (with ku),, arrange, 
settle, arbitrate ; wahlia ku 
tali, settle that ; la — , ad- 
duce, manage with him, sug- 
gest ; iss la — , settle for 
yourself; so — , go and settle; 
u — , manage, educate ; arur- 
tada u tali, educate your chil- 
dren ; u si — , manage, settle 
for; shuhulkisa u si tali, 
direct his work or put the 
work (in place) for him ; 
holada u si tali, settle the 
aflair of that tribe ([ say so to 
a man I send for -that purpose). 

taUya, m.n., manager, arbitrator. 
— hi. 

talo, /.«., management, decision, 
arrangement, determination, re- 
solution, token, settlement; ta- 
lada 'aloshaida ku jirta wa 
adagtahai, the decision of my 
heart is firm ; iss ku — , having 
the same manners, feelings ; iss 
ku talainu (for talo yainu na- 
hai), we have the same feeling? ; 
labada nia wa iss ku talo, these 
two men have the same manners. 

tx ku talo, v.i., take your re- 
venge, suifer in your mind, 

ur«ku talo, /.»., revenge, feeling 
of hatred, sufleiing in the mind, 

tasho,, think of (what you 
have to do, either good or bad). 

examine, consider; war! horta 
tasho, oh ! think of, consider 
before doing ; so — , go and 
think of, consider, examine ; 
la — , think of with; 'aloshada 
la tasho, consider, think of it 
within yourself ; 'aloshisii la 
tashanaya, he is tliinking in 
his heart. 

tasM, m.n., thought. — gi. 

iss ku talo, f.n., arm-bones (the 
two parts of the arms united 
to the hand and shoulder), also 
the bones of forelegs. 

talab, v.i., take a step, a pace. 

talabi, v.c, cause to march, step, 
carry over. 

talabo, f.n., pace, step, gait. 

ka talab,, cross, pass through. 

iss ku talab, f.n , cross. — ti ; 
iss ku talabti, Issa Ebbehen 
wa 'ulus bai ahaid, the cross 
of Jesus our Lord was heavy ; 
iss ku talab samai, make a 

tamanta, m.n., speaking during 
sleep, dream. — hi {iee awawi,. 

tamashlai, m.w., walk. — hi. 

tamashlai, v.i., wt Ik, take a walk ; 
so — , go to walk ; si — , con- 
tinue to walk. 

tamuh, f.n., level ground, quick- 
sand. — di. 

tanag, m.n., tin box, the metal 
itself. — gi. 

tantomo, /.ra., fist. 

tauton,, fist, box, bang; taa- 
toma, wan tantomi. 

tar,, render a service, oblige, 
war ! i tar, render me a service, 




■ or oblige me (in putting this 
on your camel) ; wan ku tari, 
I will render you service, oblige 

■wah tar, m.n., use, utility. — ki. 

wah. tar, v.i., be of use, useful ; 
kitabkasu wah ba taraya, that 
book is useful ; nin wah tara 
ahaw, be a man of us^e ; nag 
wah tarta ahaw, be a useful 
woman ; wahba ha tarin, be 
of no uBe. 

wah ma tarai, m.n., useless man. 
—hi; wahba an ma taro, 1 
am of no use, or nin wah ma 
taraiah ban ahai, I am a use- 
less man. 

an wahba tarain, a., useless (for 

tar,, incrpase, multiply, get 
more ; iss ku — , increase, get 
more strength, size ; mahad iss 
ku taraisa ? why do you in- 
crease y GUI self 1 or why are you 
boasting of yourself ? 

taran, v.i., be multiplied, in- 
creased ; tarma, wan tarmi. 

tarin, m.n., multiplication, multi- 
plying.— ki. 

tar, m.n., telegraph. — ki. 

tarih, m.n., era, date. — hi, 

tarshad, j^w., wave. — di. 

taurad or torad iyo injil, m.n., 
hitile. — ki iyo, ki. 

taubad or tobad, /.«., penance. 
— di. 

taubad or tobad ken, m.n., peni- 
tent, doing penance. — ki. 

taubad or tobad ken or yelo, 
v.i., do penance, atone for ; 

Ilahhen Issa dembigaini u 

taubad kenai, Jesus our God 

did penance for (atoned for) 

our sins. 
tebed, /.«., vessel for ghee (made 

of camel's leather ; it is larger 

than the vessel called ubo). — di. 
tebeda dara, m.n., ladle, used for 

soup and ghee. — ^hi. 
teh or tih, m.n., shower of rain. 

—hi. ■ 
tehteh or tihtih, v.imp., shower ; 

wa tehtehaya, it showers. 
teri, m.n., kind of big and heavy 

spear (used by the Gadabursi). 
.— gi. 

tib, /.«., wooden pestle. — ti. 
tidi',, tress, plait (hair, 

ropes ...); tida'a, wan tidi'i. 
tido'O, v.i., tress, braid your hair. 
tida'an, a.v., braided. 
tida'sho, /.«., braid, texture, 
tidei', m.n., plait of hair (as 

Somali girls have). — hi. 
tifih, /.«., drop. — di; tifih bi- 

yaha, a drop of water. 
tiked, m.n., ticket, stamp (ticket 

of a passenger). — ki. 
tikso,, stretch out. 
tiksi, m.n., stretching out. — gi. 
timir, /.«., dates. — ti. 
tin, OT.ra., hair. — ki; timo (plur.); 
_ timaha damanka, whiskers. 
tuunod, m.n., hair remaining in 

the comb. 
tir, v./r., blot out, clean ; iss-ka 

— , clean yourself; sinka iss 

ka tir, wipe your nose. 
'ada tir,, appease, calm the 





tiri,, account, calculate, 

count ; ku — , add to ; mid- 

midu — , enumerate. 
tiriya, m.n., accountant. — hi. 
tiro, f.n., account, calculation, 

sum, means also hundred ; 

tira adiga au lehyahai, I 

have one hundred sheep and 

tirso, v.r., count for yourself; ku 

— , account with, add to. 
tiro badan, a.v., numerous. 
tir, m.n., column, pier. — ^ki. 
tiri,, prop, underpin ; ku — , 

lean against something, bend, 

incline, stoop, recline. 
tirso, v.r., lean yourself ; ku — , 

lean upon, lounge, stroll ; ha 

ku tirsan, do not lounge, 

tob,, cup, apply a cupping- 
tobin, m.n., cupping-horn (used 

instead of a glass). — ki. 
tdbnin, f.n., cupping. — ti. 
niu wah toba, nag wah tobta, a 

tobad {see taubad). 
toban, num., ten. — ki. 
tobnad, num.ord., tenth. — ki or 

— di. 
todoba, num., seven. — di. 
todobad, num.ord., seventh. — ^ki 

or di. 
todobatan, num., seventy. — ^ki. 
tog, la togo, (nin) tog badan, 

see dug, la dugo, dug badan. 
tohob, f.n., pellicles (of the head 

especially). — ti. 
tol,, sew, tack ; ad u — , 

sew well ; iss ku — , join, sew 

dar tol, m.n., tailor. 
kaba tol, m.n., shoemaker. 
kaba tolai, m.n., awl, bodkin ... 

tools of a shoemaker. 
tolnin, f.n., sewing, seam. — ^ti. 
tol, m.n., tribe, caste, nation, race, 

kind, sort. — ki ; iss ku — , of 

the same tribe, of the same 

kind, sort ; iss ku tol bannu 

nahai, we are of the same 

tribe ; bahalahasi wa iss ku 

tol, those beasts are of the 

same kind, 
tolmon, a., good, virtuous ; ninki 

tolmona, the virtuous man. 
tolimo, f.n., goodness, charity. 
tolmonow, v.i., be good. 
tolmonai,, make good; wilka 

tolmonai, make the boy good. 
ton, f.n., garlic. — ti. 
torog, m.n., giant, stout man. — 

gi, — yo ; torogga dai, look at 

that giant. 
tos, v.i., arise, get up. 
tosi,, awake, raise. 
tosnin, /;«., rising, getting up. — ti. 
tosnow, v.i., be right. 
tos, a., right ; was tos, it is 

right; eragasi wa tos, that 

word is righc. 
tos, m.n., straightness. — ki. 
tosan, a., straight, upright; ushasi 

wa tosantahai, that stick is 

tu, v.i., kneel down (addressing 

a camel). 
tui', v.i., make the camel kneel 





tud (with u),, soften, soothe, 

alleviate, allay. 
tudad or tudnin, f.n., alleviation, 
tuf, vd., spit. 
tufiiin, f.n., spitting. 
tag, m.n., thief, robber, rascal, 

rogue, scoundrel, vagabond. — 


tngo, f.n., robbery, theft, knavery. 

tulmii, m.n., suspicion, accusation 
based only onsome probabilities. 
— ki. 

tuhun,, suspect, accuse ; tu- 
hiima, wan tuhtuni; nin, ninki 
la tuhinai, a suspected man ; 
Abdi wa un la tuhmai, Abdi 
only was accused. 

tulmnsan, a.v., suspicious. 

tuka or tukai, m.n., crow^, raven, 

tuko, v.i., pray; SO — , go to 
pray ; si — , continue to pray ; 
u — , pray for; la — , pray 

tukasho, f.n., prayer. 

tukub, v.i., stagger, walk with 
difficulty (it is said of an old 
man or of a sick one); iss ka 
si — , continue to ... ; ku — , 
walk with ; ho, usha ku tukub, 
take a walk with a stick. 

tukabai, m.n., bandy, crutch, 
stick. — hi. 

tujad or tijad, m.n., hen. — ki. 

tuji or tuki, v.i., be the leader in 
prayer. — ki. (The leader in 
jjrayer, or he who stands in 
front of the Moliamedans, is 
called Iman.) 

tuji,, touch in pressing; 

darka tuji, press the clothes 
(for washing them). This word 
is often used in a bad sense as 
in naska tuji; iss ku — , press 
on ; iss — or iss tutuji, touch 
yourself ; ga'antada iss ku 
tuji, touch yourself with your 

tul,, heap, accumulate. 

tumujad, f.n., revolver, pistol. — 
— di. 

tumujai,, thump, box, bang. 

tumujo, /.w., blow, bang, box. 

tumuu, m.n., four annas, j of a 

tun,, forge, grind (with a 
pestle) ; tuma, wan tumi ; ku 
— , strike upon. 

tuman, a.v., forged ; waranku 
wa tumanyahai, the spear is 

tumal, m.n,, smith, blacksmith 
(name of a low Somali caste). 

tuman, m.n., eunuch, see dufa- 

ugad tuman, m.n., gelding. 

tur,, cast, throw ; iss ka — , 
throw ; ku — , throw at, on ; 
iss u turtura, throw at each 

turonturo, v.i., stumble. 

turonturo, f.n., stumble, trip. 

tur, f.n., hump, hunch. — ti. 

tiirleh, a., hunchbacked. 

turjuman, m.n., dragoman, inter- 
preter. — ^ki. 

turub, m.n., s. and pi., cards (a 
set of). — ki. 

turub ayar, v.i., play at cards. 




tus,, point out, show ; so 
— , go and show ; si — , show 
(when you are going). 

tusbah, m.n., rosary, chaplet. — 
hi, — yo ; ninkasi tusbah iyo 
massala iyo weiso yu sita, 
that man carries a chaplet, a 
prayer-skin, and a vessel fur 
washing himself (these three 
things are required fur being 
a saint amoiig.-.t the Somals). 

tutuwai, kind of corrosive medi- 
cine (as far as I could make 
out, it is sulphate of copper 
mixed with something, I could 
not find out what). 


U, with its appropriate consonant,, the. 
U, usagii, wa, bu, yu, pers.prn., 

u, pers.prn., to him. 
ugu, pers.prn., to him ; kolkad 

halka ugu tagto, when yuu go 

to that place to him» 
Uga, from him. 
U, prp., to, for ; is also used in 

forming adverbs. 
ubah, m.n., flowers of the tree.s 

hearing edible fruits.- — ^hi, — 


ubahaiso or uboho, v.i,, flouri h, 

ubo, f.n., vessel for ghee, gnurd. 
'udad, f.n., anvil.— di ; 'udaddi 

yaraid, the small anvil, hand 


'udal, f.n., surety, security, 

pledge. — shi; 'udal i si, give 

a security, pledge. 
udgon, m.n., perfume, scent. — kL 
udgon, a., aromatic. 
udgouai,, perfume ; iss — , 

perlume yourself ; la — , it is 

ugonow, v.i., be perfumed. 
udub, m.n., frame, prop (the. two 

props forming the frame of a 

yomali tent door). — ki, — yo. 
'udud, f.n., back part of the arm. 

— di'. 
'udur, m.n., sickness. — ^ki; wa 

nia 'udur haba, it is a sicic 

'udur had, v.i., l>e sick. 
Ugadsi, m.n., chase, hunting. — 

ugadso,, chase, hunt. 
Ugad, f.n., game, every kind of 

wdd animal good fur eating. 

— di. 

egg. — ^hi ; ugahhan 

chief, king. — ki, — 
, virgin, girl, maid. 

ugah, m.n. 

Ugas, m.n., 

Ugub, m.n. 

— ki, — yo. 
ugubod, m.n., general name fur 

all maids. — ki. 
'ukad,/.M., skin not cut (as they 

are sold in Berberah). — di. 
ul, f.n., stick. — shi. 
ulai,, flog. 
ulais, m.n., flagellation.^ — ^ki. 
ululi, v.i., stitch aci oss (a bad word, 

meaning: enter in vagina); ho- 

yadl ululi is a very bad curse. 




ula'ul, /.M., leecli. — shi. 

uiimo, see ardai, /.«., reunion, 
congiegation of wadads. 

'Tllus, a., heavy, important; uinki 
'usla, the important njan. 

'ulais or 'ulusnimo, f.n., heavi- 
ness, importance. — ki, — di. 

umi,, warm, perfume a room 
liy hurning incense in the vase 
called idan ; iss — , perfume 

unco, v.r., perfume yourself with 

unsi, m.n., act of perfuming. — 


umi, m.n., vapour clinging to the 
lui of a k el tie when the water 
1 oils. — gi., m.n., steam, vapour, 
waimth. — ki. 

umul, f.n., a pregnant woman 
. near her deliverance. — sM. 

Timul, v.i., give birth (used only 
when the time of deliverance 
is near); wan umuli, I will 
f^ive birth (a inothir alone can 
sjieak so). 

umuli (with ka),, attend to 
(a woman during her confine- 
ment) ; kalai oka umuli, come 
to attend to; iss ka — , attend 
10 myself. 

umulisso,y.?!., midwife, nurse. 

umur, f.n., wonder, every as- 
tiiLishing thing, jirodigy.' — ti. 

uitur, f.n., will ; umurta Ebba- 
hai oggolaw, submit to the 
will 01 God. 

'umur, m.n., age. — ki. 

tin, dr., create (for God alone) ; 

Ilah ba nafo usub Umi dona, 

God will create new souls ; 
'asho walba Ilah ba uma, God 
creates every day ; Ilah. ba du- 
niyada iimai, God haJ created 
tlie world. 

uman, a.v., created ; dadku wa 
uman yahai, man is created ; 
nafti wa umantahai, jidki se 
wa dashai, the soul is createu, 
but the body is generated. 

Umanow, v.i., be created. 

un. m.n., creature. — ^ki ; dadku 
wa iin, man is a creature ; 
nnka o dan wa la hisabi 
dona, all the creatures will 
be judged. 

un, a.v., only, soever; wu un nol 
yahai, be only is living ; war ! 
Jama un igu yed, call me only 

nin un,, whosoever, 

wah un,,, anything, what- 

mel un, ad., somewhere. 

gor un, ad., any time soever. 

'un,, eat ; la — , it is eaten ; 
lagu — , be eaten ; hadu ma- 
galada tago, wa la 'uni, if he 
goes to the ccjuutiy, he will be 
eaten ; wa la 'uni, I shall I.e 
eaten ; wa nai la 'uni, we shall 
be eaten. 

'una, m.n., throat. — hi; 'unaha 
hado, catch him by the throat; 
'una habatai, .strangle ; wan 
ku 'una habatain, 1 ^jill 
strangle you. 

'Tinno, f.n., food, meal, dinner ; 




'unnadi wa samaisantaliai, 

the dinner is ready, 

una'as, /.«., quail. — ti. 

unun, ni.M., wildwater-melon(very 
sour and eaten by goats). — ki. 

ur, m.n., smell, smelling, odour, 

ursi,, make him smell. 

urso,^ smell, snufif. 

ur hudmun, a., stinking. 

ur, m.n., belly, womb, foetus.— ki; 
iir bai lelidahai, she is preg- 
nant ; 'udur urka laga haya, 
she has a sickness in the womb. 

ur hanuu or 'alol hanun, m.n., 
belly-ache, colic. — ^ki. 

ur hiuno,/.??!, resentment, rancour. 

<urad, m.n., eldest son. — ki. 

'urad higai, m.n., younger son, 
cadet.— hi; gar u dambais 
has the same meaning. 

'urdan, m.n., spray, bud, shoot, 
the fruit remaining after the 
fall of the flowers. — ki. 

urgumo, f.n., venom, venomous 
liquid, poisonous substance, pus, 

'uri, m.n., wife, woman, lady. 
— di. 

'urian, m.n., palsy. — ki, 

(nin) 'urianah, a. , paralytic, knock- 
kneed ; ninki 'urianaba, the 
paralytic ; nimanki 'urianaba 
or 'uriamadaaha, the paralytic 

urur, m.n,, assembly, concourse, 
crowd, mobj meeting. — ^ki. 

urur, v.i., be assembled, flock. 

ururi,, assemble, accumulate, 
collect, combine, gather; so — , 

assemble, gather together ; ni- 
. mankas balka ku so ururi, 

assemble these men here. 
ururis, m.n., gathering. — ki. 
urursau, a.v., assembled, gathered ; 

midibi wa urursanyibin, the 

fruits are gathered, 
urursanow, v.i., be gathered. 
'ur'ur, m.n., wrist. — ki. 
us, m.n., dung, excrement. — ^ki, 
uslabais, f.n., entrails, intestines. 

— ti, 
uslaho or uslobo, /.re.pZ., bowels, 

US ! interj., be quiet ! silence ! 

(abbreviation of amus), 
'usbob, m.n., salt. — hi, 
uskag, m.n., dirt. — gi. 
uskagleh, «., dirty; wUkasi uskag 

bu lehyahai, that boy is dirty. 
uskagai,, dirt, defile, 
uskagaisan, a.v., dirtied, defiled. 
'uski, v.i., make him lean, incline, 

'usko, v.r., incline (yourself), lean, 

'uskis, m.n., leaning, stooping. 

— ki, 
'usub, a., new; maradaida wa 

'usubtahai, my cloth is new. 
'usub, a., clouded, cloudy (before 

rain) ; 'irku wa 'usubyahai, 

the sky is cloudy. 


W, this letter united to the 
pers. prn. in its simple form 
forms other pronouns of very 




frequent occurrence ; wan, I ; 
wad, thou ; wu, he ; wai, 
she, ... 

wa, particle very often used in 
the Somali language to assist 
either the subject or the verb 
in different tenses. Sometimes, 
also, it performs the office of a 
pronoun, sometimes that of the 
verb of existence ; wa ayo, 
who is ? wa mahai, what is 1 
horahdu wa so bahdai, the 
sun is up. 

wa, tn.n., time, once. — gi ; wa 
wah jirai, or wahba wa jirai, 
there was once ; wa hore, 
wagi hore, formerly, the past 
time ; wa dambe, wagi dambe, 
afterwards, the time following; 
wagi dambe, ninki dintai, the 
man died afterwards. 

wa', /.«., noise produced bv a 
sudden blow or thump. — di. 

wa'al or 

illegitimate child. — ki, 

wa'an, good ; wilki wa'ana, 
wilashi wawa'ana, the good 
boy, boys. 

wab, /.«., hovel, shed (as that 
of the tumals).— ti, 

wabayo, /.n., poison, venom. 

wabayai,, poison ; falladda 
wabayai, poison the arrow. 

wad,, row, pull, go on, go 
before a camel leading it with 
the rope tied to its head, go 
along with sheep, leading them ; 
sehimmadda wad, row the 
boat ; adiga wad, lead the 
herd of sheep and goats ; ina 

we'd, m.n., natural, 

kala wad, go away from us ; 
so wad, pull towards me. 

wada, ind.num., all ; wada yi- 
madai, all came ; wada tagai, 
all went ; ka wada, all from ; 
wada habo, take, catch all ; (this 
adjective is often used with an- 
other adjective meaning all) 
kulligod wada habo, take, 
catch all. 

wadad, m.n., old man, Musulman 
monk or priest, a man who has 
passed through al 1 th e stand ards 
into which the Goran is divided 
for the students. — ki. 

wadaf, m.n., sling. — ki, — yo. 

wadfi,, sling, throw with a 

la wadag, v.i., take part, eat from 
the same dish. 

vraAkVL, f.n., leathern bucket, pail 
for drawing water. -^ti. 

wadi, m.n., river. — gi. 

wadna or wadnai, m.n., heart. — 

(nin) wadnala, a., heartless; nin- 
ki wadnahalaa, the heartless 

wah, v.i., do not find; wahya, 
wan wahyi (the past tense of 
this verb, when used as an 
auxiliary, gives to the principal 
verb a past signification, and 
points out either a want of 
will or a want of power, abilitv, 
and opportunity) ; tegi wah- 
yai, I would not go (I refused) ; 
ana meshi tegi wahyai o ka so 
nohdai, 1 was not willing to go 
to that place, and I came back ; 




tegi kari wahyai, I could not 

' wah, Mnd of imp.v., meaning he 
has not found, he did not find ; 
Ilah ban bariyai e wah, I have 
prayed to God, and that man 
has not found what he was 
looking for; Ali meshi lo dirai 
wah, Ali did not find iho place 
he was sent to. 

lah wah, v.imp., it is not found, 
it could not be found. 

iss ugu wahan, expression 
meaning have what you de- 
served, merited ; ana iss ngn 
wahan, I have what I have 
merited ; isaga iss ugu wahna, 
he had what he deserved ; im- 
inka edinku iss ugu wahna, 
now you have what you 
merited ; ada iss ugu wahan, 
you have what you deserve ; 
innagu iss ugu wahnain, we 
have what we merited. All 
these expressions are used 
when a man happens to be 
disgraced or punished by his 
own fault. 

wah, m.n., thing, some, any. — ^hi; 
wahhan, this thiny ; wahha, 
wahhas, that ; wahho, wahhoi, 
that yonder ; wahho wa ma'hai ? 
what is that thing yonder ? 

wah, particle united to the simple 
pers. prn. in the conjugation of 
some verbs ; wahan, I ; wahad, 
thou ; wuhu, he ; wahai, she, 
they; wah'ainu, we; wahaidin, 

wah un, a., anything whatsoever. 

wah bug ku so'oda, m.n., reptile, 

any animal crawling along on 

its belly ; wihhi bugga ku so- 

'odai, the reptile. 
wah u 'eU,, answer, reply, 

render him somtthing; wah 

ban u 'elin. 
wah sheg,, foretell, predict. 
wah sheg, or nin wah shega, 

m.n., foreteller, prophet, pre- 
diction, prophecy. — gi, — yo, 
wah yel,, abuse, do some 

mischief, injure. 
wah yel, m.n., mischievous, 

malicious person. — ki. 
wah yelo, f.n., mischief, abuse, 

injury. — di; ninka wah yela» 

disa eg, look at the mischief 

of that man. 
wah,/.re.,^, a quarter. — di; mid- 

k'a wahdisi medai ? where is 

the quarter of that fruit ? 
waha'd,_/.w., association, company. 

— di. 
la waha'd hado, or la waha'san, 

v.i., associate. 
wahai,,, make, do ; la wahai, 

it is made ; so — , go and do. 
wahan, v.i., be in a gloomy state 

of mind, melancholic, pensive; 

wahama, wan wahami. 
wahan, m.n., melancholy, pen- 

siveness. — ki. 
wahar, f.n., kid. — ti. 
wahsi, m.n., idleness, sloth. — gi. 
wahso, v.i., be idle, lazy, 
wahsan, a.v., idle, lazy ; wilki 

wahsan, the idle boy. 
wahfi, m.n., bracelet (of silver). 

— gi- 




wahhabar, m.n., galaxy, milky 
way. — ki. (Bomals call so the 
white tinge appearing in the 
sky at night, and they say that 
it is produced by the garment 
of a Somal's mother, whom he 
has been condemned to drag 
along the sky.) 
• wahti, m.n., season, weather, time. 

waiyai or weiyei, inf. and a., 

so it happened, indeed ! yes, 

it is ; halas waiyai, it is 

waladi, m.n., kind of soup made 

of pieces of meat. — gi. 
walah,, stir, move. 
walah, m.n., stirring, movement. 

walal, m.n., brother. — ki. 
walal, J'.n., sister. — sM. 
walba, ind.ntim., every ; gor 

walba, every time ; mel walba, 

everywhere; kol walba, always, 
waliba, ind.num., each ; mid 

waliba, each one; mid waliba 

markisa ha so boho, let each 

one come at his turn. 
walid, m.n., parents and other 

relations. — ki, — yo. 
walli, /.«., madness, lunacy. — di. 
wallo, v.i., become foolish, mad ; 

washa, wan wallan. 
iss walwal, m.n., folly. — ki ; iss 

walwalka dimida, the follies 

of the world, 
iss walwal, v.r., make yourself a 


wallan, a., idiot, lunatic, mad ; 
ninki walla, the mad man ; 

nagti wallaid, the mad woman ; 

wu or wa wallanyahai, he is 

walo, f.n., kind of kangaroo rat 

with a trunk. 
walo, f.n., kind of Somali game. 

(They sit down in two rows 

with their faces opposite to 

one another, strike first their 

own hands and chest saying 

jawo, and then they strike the 

hand of the person opposite.) 
walaisi, v.c, make play. 
walais (with la, in the sing.), v.r., 

wan, m.n., ram. — ^ki. 
wan bararah, m.n., he-lamb ; 

wanki bararkaaba, the he- 
wanag, m.n., goodness, kindness, 

niceness. — gi. 
wanaji,, make nicely, arrange 

well in order. 
wanajiso, v.r., arrange (yourself), 

make ... 
wanaksan, a., good, nice, kind ; 

ka wanaksan, better; ka wada 

wanaksan or ugu wanaksan, 

the best. 
wanaksanaw, v.att, be good, 
u wanaksanow, v.i., be good 

wani,, advise, admonish, 

preach, teach. 
wane, f.n., advice, counsel, 

war ! int. of calling, ho I hallo ! 

man ! boy I war boi ! war ya! 

war ya hoi! (sing.) ; ho ! hallo ! 

man ! boy ! war yaryahein ka- 




laiya! {plur.) hallo! come (ye) 
meu ! boys ! 

war, m.n., news, communication, 
information, message. — ^ki. 

war gei,, proclaim, publish. 

warhad, f.n., paper, letter, mes- 
senger. — di. 

war ken, v.i., bring news ; ka 
war ken, bring news from, as- 

war kena, m,n., informant, mes- 
senger. — hi. 

warran,, announce, inform, 
acquaint ; warrama, wan war- 
ami; wahhas wan uga war- 
rami, I will inform him of that; 
n — , communicate ; iss ka — , 
inform of yourself, or (better) 
how are you ? 

warsi,, communicate. 

waraiso or warso, v.c, ask the 
news of him (means let him 
tell you from whence he comes, 
and who he is) ; waraista, 
wan waraisan, or warsada, 
wan warsan. 

war (root). 

waren,, pierce ; warema, 
wan ku waremi. 

waren, v.i., penetrate into (used 
as a foul word). 

warmo, f.n., intercourse, copula- 

waran, m.n., spear, javelin. — ki. 

waraba and wera, m.n., spotted 
hysena (Hyiena crocuta). — M 
(Somals believe the hysena to 
be a hermaphrodite). 

warabi,, water, give water 
to drink ; i warabi, give me 

to drink ; faraska, aurka 

warabi, water the horse, 

warah,/.n., papers, letters (either 

exposed on a table or tied to- 

gi-ther). — di. 
warah, m.n., whining, sigh. — hi, 

— yo. 

waranus, m.n., big lizard (Abys- 
sinian). — ^ki. 

wareg or iss ka wareg,, 
turn ; ku — , turn by ; ahalka 
ku wareg, turn by the house ; 
ku so — , go round, take a 

wareji, v.c, cause to turn, wind 
up, revolve, spin. 

warwareg and so warwareg, v.i., 
wander about, stroll, go to and 

warwareji and so warwareji, 
v.c, cause to wander about, 
make go to and fro. 

warwareg, yn.n., ramble, ram- 
bling. — gi. 

waregaiso, v.i., move round. 

warer, m.n., whirl, giddiness. — 
ki; madah warer, m.n., vertigo. 

warer, v.i., whirl. 

wareri, v.c, cause to whirl, to 
get giddy. 

warersan, a.v., giddy ; nin warer- 
san, a giddy man. 

warik,/.«., mushroom. — ti, — ^yo; 
wa warik, it is a mushroom. 

was, v.i., commit impurity, for- 
nication, adultery, incest ; ab- 
baha was, filthy expression 
very often heard amongst the 




wasmo, /.»., impurity. 

wasah or wisih, m.n., dirt, filth. 

wasahai,. «.<?■., dir.ty. 

wasahaisan, a.v., dirty j ninki 
wasahaisua, the dirty man ; 
wil yow wasahaisni, iga tag, 
you dirty boy, go away. 

Wasaa', m.n., large plain. — M. 

wasiad, f.n., commandment of 
God.— di. 

wayel, m.n., old, grown up. — ki 
(this word is used for a man 
in his prime, and sometimes 
for women, girls and. small 
boys not doing any house- 

wayo ? ad., why ? 

wed, m.n., our fate or destiny, 
God's appointed time, and 
especially the time of death, as 
is sentenced by God, according 
to the Musnlman doctrine (or 
fatalism).— ki ; wedkisi ba ga- 
lai, it was his time. 

wegered, m.n., girth (for saddle), 
belly-band (for hoises, mules, 
asses ...). — ki, — yo. 

wegered 'ad and madow, m.n., 
kind of tree, high, without 
thorns, and having a white 
bark.— ki. 

wehel, m.n., companion, friend, 
adherent, accomplice, means 
also a man that knows the 
Goran perfectly. — ki. 

weheli,, attend, accompany. 

wehesho, v.i., become friend, ac- 
company, iss weheshada, wan 

wehel, m.n., God. — ki. 

wei'd or weidnimo,/.??., leanness, 

wei'dai, v.c, make lean. 

wei'dow, v.i., be lean, faint- 
hearted; wei'doba, wan wei'- 

weidsan, a.v., faint-hearted, 
feeble, lean ; ninki weidsana^ 
the faint-hearted man. 

Weidi,, ask, enquire, consult; 
iss — , reflect, ask yourself. 

weidis, m.n., demand, request, 
desire. — ki. 

weidiso, v.r., apply, ask, demand 
(for yourself). 

weidar, m.n., large and flat 
Somali spear. — ^ki. 

weidaro, v.i., pass by; weidarta, 
wan weidaran ; wa iss weida- 
ranai, we crossed each other, 

weidari, v.c, cause it to pass. 

iss weidari,, turn round, tie 
an animal (by crossing the 
rope); faraska iss weidari, 
turn the horse round, tie the 

iss weidar, m.n., crossing one an- 
other without seeing or finding. 
— ki. 

iss weidar, m.n., fetters tying th(i 
right foreleg of an animal to 
it«i left one. 

weiji, m.n., face. — gi ; weiji 
bannu iss ku lehnahai, we 
are acquainted with each 

weU, m.n., calf. — ki. 

weil, f.n., heifer. — sM, 

weilo,, calves (general 
name). — ^hi. 




wexLdiO, f.n., milk and butter-milk 
mixed together. 

weilalis, f.n., skins sewed to- 
gether and forming a mat. — 

wein, a., hia;, great, large, im- 
mense ; ka wein, Mgrger, 
greater ; ka wada wein or 
ugu wein, the greatest ... ; 
ninki weina, the big man. 

weinow, v.i., be great, big. 

weinai,, make big ... ; so 
— , take and make it big. 

weinan, f.n., greatness, stoutness. 
— ti. 

Weiweir, m.n., aiBiction, anxiety, 
discontent. — ki. 

weirweir or weilweil, v.i., be 
anxious, afflicted, discontented. 

weirweirsan, o.i;., afflicted; nebi 
Job wa nin weirweir sana, the 
Patriarch Job was afflicted. 

weiso, f.n., vessel containing 
water for ablutions before 

wel, m.n., vessel (general name 
for utensils or sets of pots, 
jars). — ki. 

weli, ad., yet ; weli ma halas, 
not yet finished. 

weliba, ad., still, over again, 
more; Weliba i si, give me 
still more. 

weliga, weligi, ad., ever, always, 
never; weliga wad buki, you 
will always remain sick. 

weli, m.n., saint. — gi {?ee auliad). 

werar, m.n., attack, assault. — ^ki. 

werar,, assail, assault ; wah. 
ka — . fijiht with. 

lagu werar, v. pass., be attacked; 
wa la i werari, I shall be at- 
tacked ; wa lagu werari, thou 
wilt be attacked. 

weyer, m.n., water (of a well). 
— ^ki. 

wil, m.7i., boy, lad. — ki. 

wiyil, f.n., rhinoceros. — sM. 

Wob, m.n., yellow colour. — ki. 


y, this letter, united to the pers. 
prn. in its simple form gives 
the forms yan, I ; yad, thou ; 
yu, he ; yai, she ; yainu, we 
(I and you); yannu, we (I and 
he) ; yaidiii, you ; yai, they. 

ya, pers.prn., 2nd pers.sing., tViou 
(used for vocative of address) ; 
war ya ! oh ! thou man ! na . 
ya ! oh ! thou woman ! for the 
plur. they say waryayahein ! 
oh ! you men ! or wary a ehein! 
maha donaisan ? oh! you men, 
what do you want, wish? war- 
yaehein! nimanyohow! wah- 
ha hun iss ka daya, hallo ! you 
men, leave the bad thing. 

ya, particle used as wa and ba. 

ya, particle used for the verb of 

ya, int.prn., who 1 contraction of 
aya ? and ya ? what 1 

ya — da, this word expresses 
present time in a relation, and 
means then, and is nsed fur 
iyado o ; yado ai koiki tuka- 




shada tahai ya na la werarai, 

when it was the time of prayer, 
then we were attacked. 

ya', m.n., flight,, escape, running 
away. — ^hi ; ya'ha dai, look at 
that flight. 

ya'a, v.i., fly, run away, escape 
(only used in the plur.) ; wainii 
ya'i, we will escape, run away, 
wainu ya'anai, we fled ; so 
— , fly (ye) towards me. 

ya'ai, <m.n,, boughs put upon and 
around the hensarer to pre- 
.■serve the huts from the sand. 

yah, m.n., admiration, marvel, 

^ wonder, extraordinary thing. 
— ki. 

yab,, admire ; hadi dadku 
wah la ma kara arko, wa yabi, 
if the people see a miracle, they 
will wonder, admire. 

yabi,, astonish, amaze. 

la yab, m.n., amazement, admira- 
tion, astoni-hment. 

la yab, v.i., be astonished, sur- 
prised at, wonder. 

yaban, yabsan or la yabsan, a., 
wonderful, admirable, extrn- 
ordinary ; wahhasan la yab- 
sana, this thing is or was 

la yabsanaw, v.att., wonder at. 

yag'ar, m.n., B. frereana gum 
niaieti treo. 

yahan (see ohon), wa lugu ya- 
han, you are known. 

af yahaiij a., eloquent, tame. 

jid yahan, m.n., guide. 

ya'ni, expression meaning that is, 
that means. 

yar, a., small, little; nin yar, a 
small man ; niman yaryar, 
small men ; nagti yaraid, tiie 
small woman; ka yar, smaller; 
ka wada or ugu yar, the 
smallest, the least. 

yarai,, lessen, diminish, 
shorten, abate. 

yaraiso, v.r., lessen, diminish (for 
yourself) ; sorta yaraiso, do 
not take so much food. 

yaran, /.«., childhood, littleness, 

yarad, m.n., second and last pre- 
sent given by a young man to 
the father of a girl he is about 
to marry (this present is given 
at the moment of marriage). — 
ki ; yaradki ban hatai, I have 
received the gift. 

yed,, call, cry after, aloud ; 
ugu — , name, call. 

yed and yednin, m.n., call, answer 
to a call. — ki, — ti. 

Tl yed,, call for, invite; 
ninki lo yed, the man is 

ka yed, v.i., call aloud from; la 
yed, call, cry with; wilka la 
yed, cry with the boy. 

lagu yed, v.jiass., be called ; wa 
la i yedi, 1 will be called ; wa 
nailo yedi, we will be called. 

yel, v.i., yield, obey, listen to, 
do ; wahha abbalia ku dirayo 
yel or abbaha wuhu ku dirayo 
yel, do what your father scut 
you for ; abbalia hadalkisa 
ban yeli, I will listen to the 
word of the fatlier; wa nin 




hadalkisa la yela, he is a man 
whose word is obeyed ; iss — , 
obey yourself ; iss yel, iss yel- 
yel, do what you like, do your 
will ; iss yelyelah, or iss yel- 
yelah badan, opposite, contrary. 

yelyel ! int. do quick and all. 

hon or nabar yel,, harm, 
hurt, wound. 

wah yel,, injure ; wa nin 
mel wah laga yelai, he is a 
man who has received some 
harm, who has been injured. 

wah yello, /.«., injury. 

yel, m.n., affair, concern (of no 
consequence, or to which you 
do not pay any attention) ; yel- 
kisa, it is his affair, never 
mind ; yelkeda (/em.), yelkisa 
naga da, yelka, it is your 

yelo,, bear, beget, bring 
forth, produce. 

yel, f.n., strap for fastening on 
the load of a camel. — shi. 

yel, v.i., sew the sandal-straps ; 
kabahd. i yel, sew my sandal- 
straps ; kabahas imisad igu 
yell? how much must I pay 
for sewing my sandal-straps ? 

yelo, v.i., take your concern in 
hand; la'ag so yelo, borrow 
money; la'ag ban so yelan, I 
will borrow money. 

yesho, v.r., confide in, have trust 
(in yourself) ; anigu wad ye- 
shou karta ; you may confide 
in me ; ku — , trust him 

yeshod, m.n., confidence. — ki. 

yeyi, f.n., hysena dog. — di. 

yibir, m. and f.n., lowest Somali 
caste, sorcerer, sorceress (giving 
medicine and amulets). — ki, — 
ti ; yibro {plur.). 

yihihsi, m.n., disgust. — gi ; yi- 
Mhsiga i haya, I am disgusted. 

yihihsi (with kaga),, dis- 

yihihso, v.i., be disgusted. 

yihihsau, a.v., disgusting, loath- 

yi'ib, f.n., almond, almond tree, 
pistachio. — ti, 

yilih, f.n., flue, fur. 

yohow, particle, thou, you ; nin- 
yohow, thou man ; ragyohow, 
you men; Ilahha yohow, thou 

yubai, m.n., kind of tree with 
thorns curved like hooks. — 

ynhndi, m.n., a Jew. — gi; yuhud 
Jews ; yiihuddi, the Jews. 

yuhudiyad, f.n., Jewess.— di. 

yur ! int., get away ! 

yurub, m.n., spray. — ^ki. 

yusur, m.n., amber beads. — ki. 

Part II. 



L 2 



a ; there is no indefinite article 

in Somali. 
Aaron, p.n., Aran. 
abandon, vJr., da, iss ka da, na' ; 

— all, wah kasta ka kalai ; do 

you abandon me 1 ma i na'- 

abandoned, a.v., la dayai, la 

na'ai ; wilki la dayai, the 

abandoned boy. 
abandoner, n., hof iss ka dayai 

or na'ai. 
abandonment, abandoning, f.n., 

dein, — ti. 
abase,, hosaisi. 
abasement, m.n., hosaisis, — ^ki. 
abash,, rog. 
abashed, a.v., rogmai, rogmadai ; 

nin rog^ai, an abashed man. 
abashment, f.n., rognin, — ti. 
abate,, din, hosaisi, joji, 

yarai, yaraisi, gana' jebi. 
abatement, /.ra.,yaran, — ti, gana' 

jabnan, — ^ti. 
abbreviate,, din, gabi, yarai. 

abbreviation, m. and f.n., gabnin, 
— ti, gabis, — ki. 

abdomen, n., (lower part of the 
belly) gumar, — ^ki. 

abed, ad. ; he is abed, wa hurda, 
wa jifa. 

abhor,, 'il u hab, u 'isho, 

abhorrence, n., 'il, — ki, ma 
ja'alan, — ti, ne'ban, — ^ti; ma 
ja'alantan dembigaiga u habo 
wa wein tahai, the abhor- 
rence I have of my sins is 

abide, v.i., fadi, fadiso, jir, jog, 

abiding, n., fadi, — gi, jog, — gi, 
rug,— ti. 

ability, «., farsamo, — di, kamin, 
— ti. 

abject, a., bas, aUah habai, — 

able, a., kara; (skilful) farsamo 

badan, wah haban eg. 
abjure,, dinta did, or iss ka 

abjuration, n., didnin dintaah ; 

didninti dinta, the abjuration. 




abnegate, v.r., iss na'. 
abnegation, n., iss ne'ban, — ti. 
abode, n., fadi, — gi, jog, — gi, 

abolish,, babii, bii, jar, ka 

abolishment, abolition, n., babiis, 
— ki, idlain or idlan, — ti. 

abominable, a., inkaran, inkar- 

abominate,, '11 u hab, 'ilow, 
'isho, na*. 

abomination, n., (the object of 
aversion) inkar, — ^ti. 

abort, v.i., see miscarry. 

abortion, n., lima ka homan, — ki. 

abound,, badnaw, badso, 

abounding, n., badin, — ^ti, bad- 
nan, — ti, dereg, — gi. 

about, prp. ; the soldiers were — 
him, askarti wa ku hertai ; it 
was — night, habenkl wa 
dowa ; when I saw him, he was 
— to die, markan arkai inu 
dinto yu u dowa ; I have no 
money — me, anigu la'ag 
ma sito ; he is somewhere — 
the house, ahalku mel ka 
joga ; it is — the house, abal- 
kai mel ka tal ; all — , mel 
walba, or mel kasta ; look — 
and — , melaba eg, or ka dai ; 
I visited all the country round 
— , magalada o dan ku so 
waregai ; I am — to go away, 
anigu inan iss ka tago ban n 
dowahai ; look — you, war ! 
iss jir. 

about, ad. ; for three leagues round 

— there is no game, 
sa'adod e horai ugaddi ma 
jogto, or ugad arki maisid; 
do you know a short cut — % 
dau yar mesha ma ka ogta- 
hai % is there a long (i.e. round- 
about) way — % dau wein 
mesha maleMahai? drink — , 
mid waliba markisa ha 'abo ; 
a tree of — seven cubits round, 
ged todoba dudunab. 

above, ad., dul, dusha, gudka 
as — said, sidi bore lo idi. 

above, p\y. ; the one sat — and 
the other below me, midina 
wa i dul fadistai ki kaleb na 
i bos jogai. 

abrade,, hahub, hob. 

abrasion, «., (the act of rubbing 
ofP) hohnin, — ^ti. 

abridge,, din, gabi, yarai. 

abridgment, «., gabnin, — ^ti; ga- 
bis, — ki. 

abroad, ad., dibadda, mel fog, 
dul kaleb ; he is — , dul kaleb 
yu jira ; to-morrow I will go 
— , berri ban mel fog u so'o- 
naya or tegi dona. 

abrogate, w.^r., babii, bii, idlai, jar. 

abrogation, n., babiis, — ki, ba- 
biin, — ti, idlan, — ^ti. 

abscess, n., dullah, — hi. 

abscond, v.i.r., dumo. 

absconding, n., dumasho, — adi. 

absence, n., mahnan, — ti. 

absent, a., mahan ; be — , mah- 
naw ; long — , soon forgotten ; 
nin mahan gor dow ba la 
ilow, a long — man is soon 




absolve,, 'aflS, ka 'afS, bii, 
ka bii, far. 

absolution, n., (an acquittal or dis- 
charge) furnin, — ^ki ; (an eccle- 
siastical term) 'affi, — gi. 

absorb,, lih, 'ab. 

absolutely, ad., baib ; I told him 
— all, haib ban ugu wada 

abstain, v.i., ha 'unin, ha 'abin, 

abstaining, abstinence, w., 'ir ya- 
ran, — ti, son, — ki. 

abstemious, abstinent, a., 'ir 

abundance, n., dereg, — gi, badin, 
— ^ti,badnan, — ti, dunyo, — adi. 

abundant, a., badan. 

abuse, n., (an affront) 'ai, — di, 
wahyelo, — adi ; (bad custom) 
hil,— ki. 

abuse,, 'ai' ; v.c, 'aisi, hil. 

abusive, a., (wah) hilai. 

abut upon, v.i., (terminate) da- 
maw, idlaw. 

abutment, n., idlan, — ti. 

abyss, n., gun, — ti, 'el gun fog, 
'elki gunta foga. 

acacia vera, n., anhokib, — ti; (a 
kind of) 'adad, — di. 

accent, n., (a sign) hasakab, — ki. 

accept,, ho, hado, ahbal, ka 
ahbal, oggolaw. 

accepting, acceptance, w., oggo- 
lan, — ti. 

accident, «., (hazard) ayan, — ti. 

acclaim^, bog, u bog. 

acclamation, n., bog, — gi. 

accommodate,, (manage) U 
tali ; — with, u dig, si. 

accommodate to, v.i., la heshi, 

heshiya (plur.). 
accommodated, a.v., (nin) bara- 

hah ; (well — man) ladan. 
accommodation, n., heshis, — ^ki, 

barah, — ^hi, ladnan, — ^ti. 
accomplice, «., wehel, — ki. 
accomplish,, damai, idlai. 
accomplishment, n., damad, — ki, 

daman, — ^ti, idlan, — ti. 
accord, accordance, n., heshis, — 

ki, nabad, — di. 
according to, prp., 'ainka ; 'ainka 

u samaiyai u samai, do it — 

what I did; Injilka 'ai'mada 

or 'ai'nka rasiil Matheos u 

horai, — the Gospel of the 

Evangelist St. Matthew, 
accouchment, n., umusho, — adi. 
account, »., hisab, — ti, tiro, — 

account,, hisabi, tiri ; — 

with, ku tiri ; v.r., tirso, ku 

accountant, n., tiriya, — ^hi. 
account (on your), prp., awada, 

daradd^ ; in every way you 

are guilty, kolleiba ada hujad- 

leh ; on no — , sina. 
accumulate,, tul, rasai, 

accumulated, a.v., tnlan, rasai- 

san, urursan. 
accumulation, n., tul, — ki, ra- 

sais, — ki, nrur, — ki. 
accurse,, habar, inkar, na- 

accursed, a.v., habaran, habar 

haba, inkaran, inkar haba. 
accusation, n., ashtako, — adi. 




accuse,, ashtakai ; — falsely, 

accustom,, bar ; arurta g^or 
horai wah bar, inai shuhul- 
koda ad u habtan, or wanag u 
babtan, children must be ac- 
customed early to do their 
work well. 

acerb, a., hadad, danan. 

ache, aching, n., harnin, — ^ti. 

ache (be in pain), v.i., haniuiso ; 
v.imp., wu hanuni, it pains ; 
wa i hammaisa, it pains me ; 
V.C., hanuni. 

achieve,, damai, halas, idlai. 

achievement, n., damad, — ki, id- 
lain, — ti. 

acid, a., hadad, hadada. 

acknowledge,, (confess, avow) 
hado, biro ; (be grateful) abal- 
gud, ababnari. 

acknowledgment, n., hir, — ti, 
abal, — ki, abalgud, — ^ki. 

acolyte, n., shanunas, sham'a- 

acquaint with,, bar, ogaisi, 
war gei, warran. 

acquaintance, n., ohonin, — ki, 
ohon, — ti. 

acquainted, a.v., he is — with, 
wa ogyahai, wa yahan. 

get acquainted with,, iss bar, 
baro, ohonso, ohonsada(pfer.); 
V.C., ohonsi, 

acquiesce, v.i., oggolaw, yel. 

acquiescence, n., Oggolan, — ti. 

acquire,, hel. 

acquirement, acquiring, acquisi- 
tion, n., helin, — ki; (of in- 
struction) barasho, — di. 

acquit,, fiir, si da ; — your 

debt, bantada iss ka bibi. 
acquitted, a.v., la fur, garta laba. 
acquitment, acquittal, «., fumiu, 

— ti. 
across, prp., pass — the country, 

— the river, magalada deb 

mar, durdurka ka talab. 
act, n., falnin, — ti, 
act,, fal. 
active, a., hauled (nin), fudfii- 

acute, a., (subtle) fi'an; (pointed) 

fihan ; make — , fib, dub. 
adamant, n., mas or almas, dai- 

man, — ki. 
adapt (a stone),, hor. 
add to,, ku dar, iss ku dar, 

iss u gei, iss ku joji, ku 

adder, n., jilbis, — ki. 
addition, «., tiro, — di. 
address,, u dir. 
adduce, , la tali, 
adhere, v.i., ku deg. 
adherent (partisan), n., webel, — • 

adhesive, a., ku dega, ku degta ; 

the leech is an — animal, 'ula- 

'usbu wa bahal ku degta. 
adieu ! intj., amana Allah. 
adjacent, a., dow. 
adjoin,, la dawaisi, iss u 

gei, ku tiri. 
adjourn,, iss ka da, raji, U 

adjure,, dari ; I — you in 

the name of God to tell us, 

magaba Ebbahai ban ku dari- 

naya e no sbeg. 




administer,, hukum, U tali, 
administration, n., hukiuu, — ki, 

talo, — di. 
administrator, «., hakim, — ki, 

taliya, — ^hi. 
admirable, a., yaban, yabsan, la 

yabsan, yab haba. 
admiration, n., yab, — ^ki. 
admire,, yab, la yab; v.i., 

la yabsanaw. 
admission, «., so gelin, — ^ti, so 

gelis, — ki. 
admit,, so geli. 
admonish,, wani, so wani. 
admonishing, admonition, n., 

wano, — 6i. 
adolescence, n., arurnimo, — di. 
adopt,, kori. 
adoptive, a., la koriyai. 
adorable, a., la 'abuda ; God 

alone is — , Ilah keliah la 

adoration, n., 'abudnin, — ^ti. 
adorej, 'abud; be adored, 

v.p., ha lagu 'abudo. 
adulate,, hayahayai, sasabo. 
adulation, n., hayahayo, — di, 

sasabnin, — ti. 
adult, n., baluh, — hi, hangad, — 

ki, mudakar, — ki. 
adulterate,, (sophisticate) 

adulterer, n., dillai, — gfi. 
adulteress, n., dillo, — di. 
adultery, »,, dUlanimo, — di. 
advance, n., horan, — ti. 
advance,, durki, horaisi, 

horo u dig, so'odsi. 
advance, v.i., durug, horai, so'o. 

hor u so'o, wad. 

advantage, n., fayido, — di, helin, 
— ^ki, korod, — ki. 

advantageous, a., fayidoleh. 

advent, n., imatin, — ^ki. 

adventure, n., haladun, — ki, sa- 
bab, — ^ti. 

adventure,, sabab; v.i., sa- 

adversary, n., 'oil, — ^ki. 

adverse, a., (contrary) asarar 
wein; (afflictive) sili'iya, ha- 

adversity, n., human, — ^ti, ayan 
humo, — di. 

advertise,, u dig, waui, 

advertisement, «., diguin, — ti, 
wano, — di, war, — ki. 

advice, n., (counsel) wano, — di, 
(notice) war, — ki, dignin,— -ti. 

advise,, wani, warran, dig- 
nin dir. 

advise -with (consider, consult), 
v.i., hubso, la fah. 

advised, a.v., feig, fl'an, herribleh, 
miyirsan, miyir hab. 

advocate, n., Mariam wa hof 
innaga awaden u hadasha, lit. 
Mary is a person who speaks 
in our interest, or Mary is our 
advocate ; janiiadi 'IssaKristos 
ba iuuaga awaden u hadla, in 
heaven Jesus Christ is our ad- 

sera (epoch), n., ayan,— ti, aya- 
mo, — di, tar^, — ^hi (com- 
mencement of a computation of 

afar, ad., mel fog ; it is far, wa 




affability, n., wanag, — gi. 
affable, a., wanaksan, habow. 
affair, n., (concern) arrin, — ki, 

yel, — ^ki; it is bis — , yelkisa; 
• (business) haiil, — sM. 
affect, ; ninka iJimashadisi 

alol humo ayan ku haba, tbe 

deatb of this man gives me pain, 

or affects me. 
affection, n., ja'ail, — ^ki, ja'alan, 

— ti. 
affiance, n., donanan, — ti, do- 

nin, — ki, 
affiance,, don, la ballan ; 

affiance the two, labada bal- 

lami, iss u don. 
affinity, n., haren, — ki. 
be in affinity, v.i., la harenso, iss 

harensada (plur.), u haren 

affirm,, rumai, dabai. 
affirmation, n., dabain, — ti, ru- 

maisi, — gi. 
afflict,, u humai, hanuji, 

hanuni, sili'i, weirweiri; v.r., 

iss hanuji. 
afflicted, a., hanunsan, sila'san, 

weirweirsan; be — , w.i.r., weir- 
weir, iss hnmai. 
affliction, n., human, — ti, weir- 
weir, — ki, sUei', sili'hi. 
affluence, n., dereg, — gi, hole, 

— ihi. 
afford,, (produce, give) bihi ; 

the earth produces fruits and 

plants, dulkn mido iyo inino 

y*a bihiya. 
affranchise,, (to set free) 

affray, re!, dirir, — ti. 

affright,, 'absi, baji, kaga 

affront, n., nahadin, — ti. 

afore, abaft, ad., har here iyo 
har dambe. 

afraid, a., 'absonaya, bahaya. 

Africa, n., Africa. 

after, ad., dabaded, dambe, dam- 
bow, haddow ; look — (search 
for, take care of), don, ilali, 
jir ; (prp.) — Sunday, ahadda 
dabadeda ; some while — , 'ab- 
bar ka dambow; he delays 
day — day, malin ka malin bu 
u raga ; go — him, ka daba 
tag ; — ages, — times, beri 
beri dambe, beri ka dambow ; 
— supper, awaisin, — ki (from 
7 p.m.) ; — to-moiTow, sa 
dambe ; — noon, geUn dambe, 
duhnrka dabadisa, 'asar, — ki 
(from 3 p.m. to sunset) ; after 
I had gone to the ship, markan 
markabka dofaya fulai. 

afterwards, ad., dabadedba, bad- 
dowto, wa, — gi dambe. 

again, ad., mar, gor, kol kaleh, 
misana, misna ; give me as 
much — , inti in leh eg i si. 

against, ^rp., ka. 

age, n., (duration of life, years, 
interval since birth) da, — di, 
jir,— ti, gu,— gi; (for aged 
persons) fil, iss ku fil, gan, 
— ki, gumais, — ti; (tender age) 
da yar, gaban, — ki, gibin, — 
ki, yar an, — ^ti; (old age) da 
wein, dadi weinaid, diA, — 

aged, a., (person) hof da wein, 




dnh.ali; (advanced in age) gun, 

aggravate,, si humai. 

aggregate,win,isskiidar, souniri. 

aghast, ad. ; he was — , ad bu u 

aggrieve,, sili'i. 

agile, a., fiidfiidud. 

agility, n., fudfudaid, — ^ki. 

agitate,, ruh, ruhruh, lul, 

ago, ad., awal or awel; long — , 
beri hore ; a while — , gor 
dowaid ; some years — , sa- 
nado dowa. 

agonize, v.i., (die) naftu ha ka 
bahdo, or naftu ha kugu wa- 
regto, or tadi dambai waiyai 
e ku dagalan. 

agony, n. (dying); he is in — , 
nafti wa ka si bahaisa, or 
nafti wa ku waregaisa, or 
nafti ninka or ninki waduihi 
bai kaga jirta or jogta, or 
wadnihi bai ninki kaga jirta, 
or ninki wa ka hadaisa, or 
ninki wa ka si hadaisa. 

agree with, v.i., la heshi, heshiya 
(plur.); — upon, in, ku heshi; 
V.O., heshisi ; iyagu sida dinad 
iyo ei bai u heshiyan, they 
agree with one another as a 
cat and a dog. 

agreeable, a., bahsan. 

agreed, a. ; it is — , lagu heshi. 

agreement, n., heshis, — ki. 

ague (intermittent fever), n., ga- 
rir, — ^ki, hadhad, — ki. 

ahead, astern, ad., har hore iyo 
har dambe. 

aid, n., 'awinad, — di, 'awin, — ^ti, 
gargar,— ti, Ml,— ki. 

aid,, 'awi, gargar, la habo, 
la had, hili. 

ail, ailment, n., hanun, — ki. 

ail,, hanuni, hanuji; what 
ails you? maha ku hanuji- 
naya ? 

aim, n., hiyas, — ti, dug, — ti, 
tog, — ti, togasho, — adi; (in- 
tention) dama', — hi, 

aim at, v.i., la dugo, la togo, 
gan, ku rid; be aiming at, 

aimer (skilful), «., nin dug badan, 
togasho badan; (ganad, — ^ki, 
ganasho, — adi, the aiming). 

air, «., (one of the four elements) 
hawo, — di, dabail, — ^shi, ne- 
'aw, — di ; (countenance, fea- 
tures) so jog,— gi, jah,— hi, 
weiji,— gi. 

air,, (aerate) ne'awi. 

akin, a., hig. 

alarm, n., nahadin ; (cry by which 
men are summoned) hata! hata ! 

alarm,, baji, u haUi, kaga 

alight, v.i., ka deg, ka so deg. 

alike, a., iss leh eg, iss ku mid; 
not — , kala mid, iss ku mid 
ma aha, iss ma leh eka, kan 
kaleh u ma eka. 

aliment, n., sor, — ta. 

alive, a., nol jira; he is yet — , 
wa jira well. 

Alkoran, n., furhan, — ki. 

all, num. or ad., dan, daman, — ti, 
gidi, — gi, kulli, — gi, wada; 
— men, dadka o dan, or dadki 




aami, or o wada dan; — the 
world is bad now, dunida o 
dan or o dami wa huntaliai 
hatan ; God will judge — and 
every one, Ilahhai ba dadka 

dan mid walba gonidi n 
hisabi; is that — 1 ma inta 
keliah ? by — means, kollei ; 
reputation is — in — , mamus- 
kena holo o dan ino dama; 

1 was not at — afraid, sina 
uga ma bahan ; nowhere at — , 
mela ma jogo, mela ma yal; 
— the better, wa wanag ; — 
the worse, wa human ; — 
powerful, huwadleh. 

allegory, »., mathal, — ki. 
alleviate, allay,, tud; — my 

pain, hanunka i tud or iga tud, 
alleviation, n., tudad, — di, tud- 

nin, — ki. 
alliance, »., ahdi, — gi. 
allow,, fasah. 
allowance, n., fasah, — hi. 
allure,, halhal, sasab, hatal. 
allurement, K.,halhal, — ki, sasab, 

— ki. 
almighty, a., huwadleh, wah 

walba kara. 
almond, n., yi'ib, — ti. 
alms, n., sadahad, — di ; give — , 

sadahadai, sadahad si, ku 

sadahadai; give and ask for 

— , f.r., sadahadaiso ; sadaho ! 

cry of poor people when asking 

for alms, 
aloes-plant, n., da'ar, — ti. 
alone, a., goni, — di, keli, — gi or 

— di. 
along, prp. ; — the shore,- hebta 

dusheda; — the boat, mar- 
kabka harertisa (mar) ; go — 
with, la so'o, la tag, ra'. 

alongside, ad., barbar. 

aloud, loud, ad. ; speak — , ad u 

alphabet, n., huruf el hija'. 

already, ad., gorti ba, kolki ba 

also, ad., na. 

altar, n., masbah, — hi. 

alter,, bedel. 

although, c. ; — you be not good, 
ya banad wanaksananei ; — 
a big boy, you are not good, 
wU weina wa tahai, mana 
(ma se) wanaksanid. 

altitude, n., derer, — ki. 

altogether, ad., gidi. 

always, ad., gor walba, kol 
walba, gor iyo galab. 

amaze,, yabi. 

amazement, n., la yab, — ki. 

amber, n., asU, — gi ; the two 
pieces of — they tie to their 
neck, hal, — ki, makawi, — gi. 

ambergris, n., 'anbar, — ki. 

ambuscade, ambush, n., hatati, 
— gi ; place in — , ku hatati. 

amen, ad., amin, ha lo sida no 
yel, ha sida ahato. 

amend, n., (fine) hasirad, — di ; 
make amends, hal mari. 

amend,, (correct) wanaji; 
v.r., wanajiso;, iss wa- 

amiable, a., farahanah (m.), fa- 
rahanada (/.). " 

amid, amidst, among, amongst, 
ad., deh, dehda. 




amount, w., hisab, — ti, tiro, — adi. 
amuse,, (divert) 'ayarsi, 

jalbebi; v.i., 'ayar, jalbebo, 

amusement, n., 'ayar, — ti, jalbeb, 

— ti. 
anathema, w., inkar, — ti. 
ancestors, n., dun, — ti. 
ancbor, n., barosin, — ^ki. 
ancient, n., uin gabowba, duhah. 
and, c, iyo, 0, e. 
anecdote, «., sheko, — adi. 
angel, n. , malai'ko, — adi. 
anger, n., 'ado, — adi. 
angry, a., 'adaisan, 'ilan; be — , 

adai'snaw, 'ilow, 'il u hab, 

anguish, n., silei', — hi. 
animal, n., dugag, — gi, bahal, 

— ki, nef, — ki ; a lean — , 

bidmo abahah, ueif weidsau. 
animate,, nolai; kindle the 

fire, dabka nolai. 
ankle, n., anhau, — gi ; ankle- 
bone, kurankur, — ti. 
anna (Indian money), n., gambo, 

— adi ; two — , sah, — hi; 

four — , tumim, — ki; eight — , 

rubi, — gi. 
annihilate,, bii, lumi. 
announce,, war gei, war 

ken, warran. 
annoy,, dali. 
annoyance, »., dal, — ki, dalnin, 

— ti. 
annual, a., gu walba wa mar; 

this annual feast, 'iddasi gu 

walba wa mar, or gu ba wa 

annunciate,, nabad u gei. 

annunciation, n., uabad, — di. 

anoint, v.ti:, salidda, udgonka 

anonymous, a., hebel, nin bebel, 
nin ba. 

another, a., mid kaleh ; we love 
one — , wa iss ja'el nahai. 

answer, n., jawab, — ^ti ; — to a 
call, yed, — ki, yednin, — ti. 

answer,, deh, u'eU, la hadal. 

ant, n., (a black kind) ^udanyo 
or hudanjo, — adi ; (another 
kind) duhul ku reb, — ki; (a 
black kind, big and stinking) 
jina', — 'ihi; (a kind of white 
— ) abor, — ki ; (another kind) 
harun, — ti, or narei, — iM, or 
bar, — hi ; (name of their nests 
or hills in the desert) dundumo, 

ant-hill, n., ras, — ki; rasgura, 

— gi- 

anterior, a., horai (m.), horaisai 

anthropophagus, n., dadhal, — ki 
(»».), dadhalato,— adi (/.). 

antichrist, n., antikristos. 

anticipate,, horaisi. 

anus, n., futo, — adi. 

anvil, n., 'udad, — di ; hand — , 
'udad yar, — di yaraid. 

anxiety, «., weirweir or weilweil, 
— ki. 

anxious, a., weirweirsan ; be — , 
v.i., weirweir ; be — -, v.e., 

any, a. ai prn., 'id, wab; — body, 
'id kasta; — thing, 'id kasta, 
walba ; — thing soever, wah 
uel; in — place, mel kasta'; 




— ^how, si kasta; — body but 

you, adiga mahae nin walba ; 

not — , 'id na ; will you go — 

further? ma yar dafi? I will 

not put you off — longer, mar 

dambe ku rajin mayo; Have 

you — more to say 1 hadal ma 

u nohou? or hadal ma ku 

hadai ? 
apart, ad., kala ; set — , kala 

apartment, n., mabsiu, — ki, 
aphony, n., babeib, — ti. 
aphorism, n., mahmah, — di. 
apologue, w., mathal, — ki, hala- 

Uf,— ki. 
apostaoy, n., tarak, — gi, kufran, 

— ti, juhud addin (Ar.). 
apostate, n., jahid, — ki, kafir, 

— ki, kufar (plur.), kafarad, 

— di (/.), tarik,— gi. 
apostatize, v.i., tarak, kafar, 

diuta, jahad. 
apostle, n., rasul,— ki. 
apostolic, apostolical, a., rasuli, 

— gi ; the Apostolic religion, 

dinta rasuligaah, dinta rasul- 

apothecary, n., bodikeri, — gi. 
apparent, a., la arka, muhda (rre.), 

muhata (/.). 
apparition, n., muhad, — ki, mu- 

hasho, — di. 
appeal, n., ashtako, — adi ; v.i., 

ashtako, ashtakai. 
appear (become visible), v.i., 

it appears, v.imp., wah la moda, 

wahai la tahai; — to me, 

wahai i la tahai. 

appearance (outside show, figure), 

n., muh, — hi; a fair — ^, mxA 

appease,, habo'wii, 'ada tir. 
appetite, n., bahi, — gi, 
applaud,, u bog, u hushu'i; 

be applauded, hushu'. 
applause, n., bog, — gi, hiishu', 

— di. 
application, n., arji, — gi. 
apply,,, (lay one thing against 

another) sar, ku deji, mari; 

(address to) dalbo, weidiso. 
appoint,, (e.stablish) ku dar, 

ku haibi, ugu sarraisi; (fix) 

appointed, a. ; ninki lagu hai- 

biyai, the — man; the time 

— , gorti la ballamai ba jogta. 
appointment, n., mushaharo,— 

apprehend,, (seize) habo, ku 

deg ; (fear) ka' abso,"ka bah ; 

(conceive) garo ; this I — not, 

tasi i ma di'in. 
apprehension, n., habasho, — adi, 

bahdin, — ti, garasho,— adi. 
approach, v.i., dowow, so dowow, 

so durug;, dowai, u ku 

dowai durki ; — me, so dowai, 

so durug. 
approbation, n., bog, — gi. 
approve,, u bog, 'ajibi. 
Arab, p.n., Arab. 
Arabian, Arabic, a. ; nin arbed, 

af arbed, Arabic language ; 

afka arabta, the ... 
arak-tree, n., adai, — gi. 
arbiter, arbitrator, n., taliya, — 





archangel, n., malaiko ra'isah; 
the — , malaikada ra'iskaah. 

ardent, a., knlail, kulul. 

argil (potter's clay), n., dohbo, 
— adi. 

argue,, (press) 'adadi; (de- 
hate any question) iss ka heji. 

arise, v.i., ka', sara ka', tos. 

arithmetic, «., hisab, — ti. 

arm, n., (all the limb) ga'an, — ^ti; 
fore — , dudun, — ^ki, tagog, 
— ti or tagogo, — adi ; hind — , 
hudlld ; fore — joined to the 
upper one, iss ku taladi hore ; 
the upper part of the — joined 
to the shoulder, iss ku taladi 
damhe ; the thick part of the 
— , mnruh, — ki. 

armful, n., degsar, — ki. 

arm-pit,arm-hole, n., kilkilo, — adi. 

arm of the sea, n., ga'an baded. 

armlet (bracelet of silver), n., 
sindi, — gi. 

arm (weapon), n., hiib, — ki. 

arm,, hubkisa u damai. 

armed, a., hubleh ; — man, 
hubhad, — ki. 

army, n., guluf, — ki, guto, — adi, 
'oU,— ki. 

aroma, n., udgon,— ki. 

aromatic, a., udgon ; an — flower, 
ubah udgon. 

aromatize,, udgonai. 

around, a(^., her; prp., harero, 
— ^rihi. 

arouse,, ke'i, kake'i, tosi. 

arrange,, hagaji, kala ha- 
gaji, wanaji, tali. 

arrangement, n., hagajis, — ^ki, 
talo, — adi. 

array,, (attire) harrago. 

arrest, n., (arrestation) habasho, 
— adi; (judgment) hukun,— 

arrival, «., imad, — ki, so so'od, 
— ki. 

arrive, v.i., gad, kalai; — at 
that time, gorta imo, 

arrogance, n., amar weiuan, — 

arrogant, ad., amarsan, amar 

arrow, n., (shaft) fallad, — di, 
gautal, — sM; a poisonous — , 
hamis, — ki ; when the arrow 
is poisonous they call it hamis, 
kolka falladdu dohbantahai, 
wahha la yidahda liamis. 

arse, n., badi, — gi. 

artful, a., hadig badan, hikmado 

artifice, n., hadig, — gi, higmad, 
— di, or hikmad, — di.' 

as, c, sidi, sida {past) ; I live — 
I did ... , sidaidi horai an leu 
nolabai, or sidan fali jirai 
an ... ; — you please, sidad 
donto or rabtid, or sidi had 
ba ku 'ajibisa; — I am an 
honest man, sidau nin aminah 
u ahai ; mad — I was, sidan 
u waUa ; thou good old man, 
benevolent — wise, odaiyohow 
dehsiga ihi e herribtaliM (tol- 
moni e faridka ihi) ; — sweet 
— honey, u ma'an sida ma- 
labka ; he is — good — she, 
wa wanaksanyahai sideda o 
kaleh ; I treated him — if he 
had been my brother, sida wa- 




lalkai o kaleh u hayai ; — the 
Lord gave to every man, sida 
Ebbahai nin walba u siyai ; 
the history is — follows, she- 
kadu wa sida an wado or she- 
gayo ; do — I bid you, sidan 
ku idahdo fal or yel; he is — 
a father to me, isagu wa i 
abbai ; it were — a play, sida 
'ayar o kaleb ; I will see you 

— I go by, sidan ku marayan 
ban ku arki ; rich — he 
is I do not fear him, sidu u 
odmai ninka ba ka ma baho ; 
many — they are I do not 
fear, in kasta ka abaden ka 
bihi mayo ; — well — I love 
you, do not think I shall do 
that, sidan ku ja'labai, or si 
kasta an ku ja'labai, kolla ba 
modin inan wahba fali dono ; 

— sure — it is good that you 
become a Christian, sida wah- 
ha la bubo o u fayido u leh- 
yahai, inad Kristan nohoto 
damadai ; — much — you 
please, had ba inta dontid, or 
had ba intad bihin kartid; — 
few — , wah yar u dib ; Abdi 
is — good — Ali, Abdi sida 
Ali uwanaksanyabai; he runs 

— well — you, sidadu o kalu u 
orda ; all such — were chosen, 
inti la wada dortai ba serkalki 
radai; I took such — I pleased, 
wahan batai bad ba kui i 
'ajibiyai ; such — it is, had ba 
sidai tahai; — is the begin- 
ning, so is the end, sidai kolka 
bore tabai bai kolka dambana 

tabai, or sida horanta ba da- 
manti na tabai ; — for me it 
is nothing, anigu wabba i la 
maaba ; — soon — I can I 
will come back, wahban so 
nobon bad ba kolkan karo. 

ascend,, kor. 

ascension, n., korrin, — ti. 

ascertain,, (assure) rumai ; 
(fix) dabai. 

ascetic, a., (nin) du'a ka ragab ; 
ra., du'a ku rag, — gi. 

ashamed, a., bisbod badan; be 
— , hisbo ; you make me — , 
adigii wa i hilaisa. 

ashore, ad., bebta ; go — , deg, 
hebta u deg ; get — , v.i., 'ari, 
so 'ari; get — ,, 'arsi; 
a ship — , markab 'arsan or 

aside, ad., goni ; lay — , goni u 
dig, dab, daho; he took him 
— , goni u kahaiyai. 

ask,, weidi, weidiso, sual; 
— , v.r., iss weidi ; — for, 
hanan ; — from, waraiso, 

asleep, a., burda ; half — and 
half awake, badna wa burdai, 
ba dna wa so jedai; he is 
fast — , burda wein bu ku 

aspect, n., muh, — hi ; at the — 
of his master, he is out of 
countenance, kolka muhha 
sabebki u arko, yu bahda/ 

aspersion, n., saidis, — ki. 

aspirate,, neifso. 

aspire (to or after),,, dama', 
ku taba'. 




aspire to or after,, dama', 
ku taba'. 

ass_, »., (in general) dameiro, — 
ihi ; he — , dameir, — ki ; she 
— , dameir, — ^ti ; young — 
(ass's foal), dameir yar ; wild 
— , dabeir dibaded, — ki, or 
gumburi, — gi. 

assail,, dagalan, dirir, we- 
rar ; — unexpectedly, gad. 

assassin, n., layan, — ki. 

assault, w., dirir, — ti, werar, — ki. 

assemblage, n., iss ku daran, — 
ki ; — of tents, rer, — ki. 

assemble,, iss ku dar, iss u 
gei, ururi. 

assembled, a., urursan ; be — , 
urur, urursanada. 

assembly, n., uruT, — ki, kulan, 
— ki, shir, — ki, guto, — adi ; 
— of men, rahan, — ti ; — for 
prayer, jama', — ha; have an 
— , shira, so shira ; go to the 
— , shirka tag. 

assent, «., heshis, — ki, oggolan, 
— ti. 

assent, v.i., la hesM, ku heshi, 
oggolai, oggolaw ; — , v.c, 
heshishi, oggolaisi. 

assert,, (affirm) dabai; he 
asserts his history with such a 
boldness that everyone believes 
it, shekadisi sidu u dabainaya, 
dadki o dami or dan ba ru- 

assertion, w. ; this may suffice to 
vindicate my assertion, wahau 
ku fila hadalkaiga o an ru- 
maiuaya, or in hadalkaigu run 
nohda, or rtin idin ku muhda. 

asseverate,, so daro, dar so 

mari; asseverate that you have 

not done that, inanad wahha 

falin so daro. 
assimilate,, (make like) u 

ekaisi ; (compare) iss u eg. 
assist,, la 'awi, 'awin, la 

habo, la had, u gargar; (in 

the fight) hili. 
assistance, n., 'awin, — ti, 'awi- 

mad, — di, hil, — ki. 
assistant, n., 'awis, — ki, hiliya, 

— hi. 
associate, n., jal, — ki, mushrik, 

— gi- 

associate with,, la dawaiso, 
(dawaista), la wah'atan, (wah- 
'atama), la wah'ad hado. 

association, n., dawo, — adi, wah- 
'ad, — di. 

assume,, had {plur. hada), 
hado {plur, hata); (arrogate), 
he assumes too much to him- 
self, isagu wa iss ku tara. 

assurance, n., (certitude) dab,^ti; 
(firmness) adkan, — ti. 

assure,, (assert) dabai, ru- 
mai ; (be sure) v.i., hub. 

astern, ad., markabka harkisa 

asthma, n., haho, — adi. 

astonish,, yabi; be — , yab- 
sanaw, la yabsanaw. 

astonishing, astonished, a., ya- 
ban, yabsan, la yabsan, yab 

astonishment, n., la yab, — ki. 
astound,, kaga nihi ; be — , 

astray, ad., halloh ; go — , ambo, 




habab ; lead — , ambi, hababi ; 

they -were led — from the 
right -worship of God, 'abud- 
ninti Ilabhai e tosnaid ba 
iyaga laga ambiyai, 
astrologer, n., geda goiyai, — M 
(m. and/.), hariyan, — ki {m), 

-ti (/.)■ 
astrology, n., geda goiyo, — adi. 
astronomer, n., hedigiyai, — hi. 
asunder, ad., kala; put it — , 

kas iss ka dig. 
at, prp., ku ; — sea, baddu ku 

so jira or baddu so so'oda ; 

— home, ahalki bu joga, — 
your house, ahalkagi bu joga ; 

— hand, dowyahai ; — leisure, 
gortanan haul kaleb lahain; 

— ease, barah ; — a stand, 
wan weirweir'sanahai ; — a 
loss, wan ragsanahai ; we are 

— odds, 'oil bannu nahai, or 
her bannu lehnahai, or wannu 
iss honsana, or honsimad ba 
na deh. yal ; — this moment, 
iminkadan, gortan, haddatan, 
gortatan o kaleh ; — this day, 
malintan, darartan o kaleh, 
'ana malkan; — that time, 
gortasa, kolkasa ; — one 
time or other, mar ama mar 
kaleh; — that time or the 
other, gorta ama gortedahan ; 

— no time, kolla, koMa, had- 
na, gorna ; — last, kolki dam- 
be se ; — first, kolki horai ; 

— the very first, gorti ugu 
horaisai ; — the first coming 
of the governor, serkalka 
imadkisi horai ; — once, mar 

keliah ; all things are ordered 
— the will of God, wah wa- 
liba haulka Ebbahai bai ku 
so'odan or ba hagajiya. 

atheist, n., gal, — ki. 

atmosphere, n., ne'aw, — di, da- 
bail, — shi. 

atone,, (reconcile) ; Jesus 
atoned us to God, 'Issa Ebbe- 
hen ino geiyai or heshisiyai. 

atone for, v.i. ; if you wish to be 
in peace atone for your sins, 
hadad donaisid inad uabad 
gashid dembigagi hanun iss 
kaga bii or ka tobad ken. 

atonement, «., tobad, — di. 

attack, n., dagal, — ^ki, dagalan, 
— ki, dirir, — ti, werar, — ki, 
mag, — gi, jalalaha, — hi; — 
of another tribe, dulan, — ^ki; 
unexpected — , gadnin, — ^ti, 

attack,, dagalan, dirir, 
werar, mag, jalalah, diU, gad, 
ku guluf (gulfa, plur.). 

attain,, hel ; v.i., (arrive at) 
is he wise who hopes to — the 
end without the means ? ma 
miyirsan yahai kan iss lihi 
inu ahirtauka darajalaan ku 
heli dona ? 

attend,, (serve) 'awi, la jir, la 
jog ; (wait for, accompany) 
weheli, sug, ra' ; (yield, give 
attention) v.i., yel; yield to 
his saying, hadalkisa yel; — a 
woman during her confinement,, ka umuli; v.i., iss ka 

attendance, w,, sugnin, — ti ; give 
attendance to your master, 




sahebka sugnin n habo or 

ninka ku taliya yel. 
attendant, n., hadan, — ki, midi- 

din, — ki, nin la joga, sebiyan, 

— ^ki. 
attention, n., feyigan, or foyigan, 

or fojigan, — ti. 
attentive, a., feyig, foyig or fojig ; 

be — , foyigow; be an — 

man, nin fojiganahaw. 
attest,, (certify) dabai, far, 

marhati ku fur ; — to, u fur ; 

— against, ku fur. 
attestation, n., marhati, — gi. 
attract,, ku kahai, ku jido ; 

(allure) sasab, halhal, dufso; 

bad actions or deeds attract 

youth to bad, falnin hun, or 

humi dalinyaro wah hun bai 

ku jidata, or jar bu ku 

tura ; good deeds attract youth 

to good, falnin wanaksani 

dalinyaro wah wanaksan bu 

ku jita. 
attractive, a., wah dufsanaisa. 
attribute, n., (quality adherent) 

as mamus, reputation, respect, 
attribute, v.i., (suppose) u malai, 

ku sheg. 
auction, n., (open sale) harash, 

— ki. 
augment and augmentation, «., 

korod, — ki, kordis, — ki. 
augment,, badni, badnai, 

kordi, kordiso. 
aunt, n., (paternal) eddo, — adi; 

maternal — , habaryar, — ti. 
aurora, n., aroriyo, — adi, aroriyo 

authority, a., hukum, — ki, 

authorize,, idin; be author- 
ized, ha lag^ idmo. 
of no avail, «., wa wah an wahba 

avoid,, (keep away from) iss 

ka daur; he avoids me, wa 

iss ka ka i dauraya. 
avow,, (confess) hado, hiro. 
avowal, n., hir, — ti. 
await,, daur, u jed. 
awake, v.i., ka', sara ka', tos; 

remain — , so jed, 'awai. 
awake, awaken,, ke'i, tosi, 

ka ke'i. 
awaking, n., tosnin, — ti. 
be aware of ^ v.i., foyigow or foji- 

gow, ogow. 
away (with this), prp., la tag 

kan, — ^kas ; they went — , wa 

mahan yihin. 
awkward, a., bassar hun. 
awry, a., hallohan, janjedah; 

ad., halloh, janjed; be — , 

janjed; put — , janjedi. 
axe, «., (crooked one) gudumo or 

gudimo, — adi. 
azure^ «., madow 'adan. 


babble, babbling, n., daudar, — ^ki. 

babble, v.i., daudar. 

babbler, «., nin daudarah, — ki; 
ninki daudarkaaha, the bab- 

M 2 




babe, baby, «., ilmo, — hi, jaha, 
ihi, murjo', H. 

bachelor, n., (unmarried man) 
dob, — ki. 

back, «., dabar, — ki (gen. name), 
jirjir, — ki (this word is es- 
pecially used for the back of 
man and generally for desig- 
nating the hinder part of any- 
thing) ; all the — , jiijir'ad, — 
ki ; fall on your — , jirjira'dka 
U da' ; carry a person on your 
— , dabarka ku sid; — of 
animals, dul, — shi; — behind 
the camel's hump, marahsar, — 

back, ad., dabarka, dabada, dib; 
be — , noh.0 ; at one o'clock I 
will be back in the office, kow- 
dan hafiska ku nohon; come 
— , so noho ; give — to, u'eli ; 
go — , dib u noho; keep ■ — , 
dib u joji or hai ; pull — , da- 
bada, or dabarka, or dib n 
jid ; send — , dib u dir ; 
take — to you, 'esho. 

backbite,, hauo. 

backbiting, n., han, — ti, hama- 
sho, — adi. 

backbiter, «., nin han badan. 

backbone, n., laf dabar, — ^ti, 
— ka. 

backside, n., dabo, — adi. 

backslide,, (in religion) dinta 
jahad, kafar, tarak. 

backslider, n., (an apostate) kafir, 
— ki, tarik, — gi. 

backward, — s, ad., dib ; go — , 
dibuso'o; go — and forwards, 
hore iyo diba u so'o, 

bad, a., hun, bas, darran ; be — , 
hxunaw; do — to, u humai; 
make (him, it) — , hiiinai. 

bad state, bad thing, «., belo, — 

badge, n., alif, — ki, astan, — ki. 

badger, n., (a kind of) bauna, — 
hi ; (honey-eater) hor,^ki ; 
(kind of small pig living under 
ground ) harendi, — di. 

bag, n., joniad, — di ; — made of 
skins, hashin, — ti, jirab, — ki, 
ohli, — gi ; — of dates, min, — 
ki, gosarad, — di; half a bag 
of dates, min gohi; (purse) 
kish, — ki; long — used to 
go into tlie country, madad, 
— ki ; (of cows, udder) 'ando, 
— adi. 

baggage, n., alabo, — di, halab, — 

bail, n., (surety) 'arbun, — ti, 
damin, — ti, 'udal, — shi. 

bail,, (be surety for some 
one) damino, rahan. 

bait,, (a lure to entice fish ...) 
la'af, — ti. 

bake,, bislai, mnfai. 

baker, n., 'ajinleh, — ihi, habbas, 
— ki. 

bakery, n., muhbasad, — di. 

balance, n., (scales) misan, — ki. 

balance,, (weigh) mis. 

bald, a., (without hair) bidarleh, 
nin bidarleh; — head, da- 
ka'ad ; dakadi 'adaid, the 
bald head. 

baldness, n., bidar, — ti. 

bale, n., (of goods) hidmo ala- 
boah, — ma£. 




ball, n., (any round "body) kubad, 

— di, gu'unso, — di. 
ballast, n., farmi, — gi. 
ballast,, faram. 
bamboo, n,, jara', — i'M. 
band, n., (a tie) bohor, — ki; 

belly — for camels or other 

animals, hain or 'ain,^ — ti ; for 

horses, wegered, — ki. 
bandit, «., (highwayman) dalin, 

— ki, dalin bilad,— ki, saruh, 

— hi. 
bandy, n., tukubai, — ihi. 
bandy, a., halloh. 
bane, n., (poison) dunkal, — shi, 

wabayo, — adi. 
bane,, dunkal si, waba- 

baneful, a., wabayaisan. 
bang,, (thump, beat) tanton, 

bang, re., tantomo, — adi. 
banish,, safiri, masafiri. 
banishment, re., safiris, — ki, ma- 

safiris, — ki. 
bank, ?;,., (hillock) gumbTir, — ti, 

bur, — ti ; (shore) heb, — ti. 
banquet, n., diafad, — di. 
barber, n., rais, — ki. 
bare, a., bawau. 

barefoot, a., kabala ; the bare- 
footed man, ninki kababalaa. 
bareness, re., hawanan, — ti. 
bare,, hawi. 
bargain, «., baya'ad, — di; a — 

is a — , baya'adba baya'adah. 
hark, n., (riudof a tree) dir, — ki; 

2nd — used for making ropes, 

dub, — ki, maidah, — di ; — 

producing red dye, asal, — ki. 

bark,, (take oif the bark) dil» 

bark, v.i., (to bay) 'ei or 'i. 
barking, n., 'i, — di. 
barmj «., (yeast) bamir, — ki. 
barrack, «., himad, — di. 
barrel, n., (cask) barmil, — ki. 
barren, a., ma dalais,— ki (m.), 

— ti (/.) ; for ail females, 

galof, — ti. 
barrow, «,, (hand-barrow) rarab, 

— ti. 
barter,, flafi, dafso, dori, 

barter, bartering, re., dafsasbo, — 

di, dafsis, — ki. 
base, a., fudud. 
baseness, re., fadaid, — ki. 
bashful, a., (shy) Maah, fulai, 

— ihi (also re.), 
bashfulncss, n., folauimo, — ■ 

basin, re., hedo, — adi ; large oval 

— , habal, — ki. 
bask,, (warm) diri, kululai ; 

— in the sun, duksi. 
bask, v.i., iss diri ; — yourself in 

the sun, duksiso. 
basket, n., kolai,— gi, sambil, — 

ki ; — used for carrying rub- 
bish, alol, — ki. 
bastard, n., gara', — ri'hi, wa'al 

or we'el,— ki. 
baste,, (to beat) ul la da' ; 

(to sew slightly) hodob, iss ku 

bat, n., (flitter mouse) iidmer, — 

bate,, (lessen) din, iga 





hateful, a., hori daWeh. 
bath, n., muhuraslio, — adi. 
bathe, v.i., muhuri, badda bi- 

yaha ku so babojiso. 
batten,, (fatten) shishlai, 

nabi; (to grow fat) v.i., sMsh- 

low, uah. 
battle, n., dagal, — ki, dirir, — ti, 

werar, — ^ki, harbi, — gi. 
bawd, n., (a procuier) fatal, — 

ki (»!.), fatalad,— di (/.), ha- 

wad, — ki (m.), hawadad, — 

di (/.)• 
bawl, v.i., (cry loudly) dowdow- 


bawler, n., dowdowleh, — hi. 

bay, n., jori. 

bazaar, 71., sub, — hi. 

be, v.i., ah (affix), ahaw (see 
Gram.) ; what is it to me ? 
aniga mahai i la tahai? he is 
to be killed, in la dila bu 
lehyahai ; you are to speak, 
hadalka ada leh or inad ha- 
dasha bad lehdahai ; it is day, 
wa darar, malin ; it was night, 
habein bai ahaid; it is over, 
damatai ; how is it with you ? 
simai, side ku la tahai ? it is 
so with me, sidasai i la tahai 
or aniga wa i la sida ; what is 
the matter 1 wa side ? so it is, 
wa sida ; let it be so, sida u 
da ; so he it, sida ha ahato ; 
I am to go thither, halkasan 
inan tago lehahai ; it is good 
being here, wa wanag in hal- 
kan la jogo; it was better 
being there, ti ba tan ka 
wanaksanaid, or ti ba tan 

dantai, or halko ba si wanak- 
sanaid; there is, there are, 
there was, there will be, wah 
jira (sinff. and plur), wah 
jirai, wah jiri dona ; there are 
many men, niman badan ba 
jira or niman badni wa jiran ; 
here he is, haiku joga; there 
is one, wa mid ; this is the 
reason why I did it, eddi 
an wahha ku samaiyai 
wa ta. 

bead, n., mid, — di. 

beam, «., (wood) dogob, — ki. 

beams, n., (of the sun) falladaha 
horahda, — ihi horahda. 

bear,, (carry) had, sid ; (bring 
forth) dal, bihi, yelo. 

beard, n., gad, — ki ; bearded, 
gadleh; beardless, gad la or 
gad ma lahita. 

hearer, w., (porter) hamal, — ki, 
nin wah hada or sida. 

beast, -n., dugag, — gi ; wild — , 
bahal, — ki; wild — good for 
eating, ugad, — di ; tame — , 
marabi, — di ; tame — become 
wild, bubal, — shi; tame — 
flying away, a'imad, — ki. 

beat,, dil, la, ku dufo, ku 
dug; — hard, sug; — re- 
peatedly, la da', gara', ul la 

beaten, a., la dilai, sugan. 

beautiful, a., bahsan, hurohsan, 
huroh badan, huroh wanak- 

beautify,, hurhi ; v.r., hur- 

beauty, n., huroh, — di. 




because, c, haddeh. 

become, v.i., (be made) noho ; 

what will — of me? tolow! 

maha i dambain ? 

bed, n., sarir, — ^ti, gogol, — shi; 
go to — , hurda dono or tag ; 
be is a — , wajifa, wahtirda; 
he lies sick a — , bukau or hauim 
bu la jifa; put him out of his 
— , sarirtisa ka tosi ; he is on 
his death — , wa ugu dambais- 
tisi; — side, sarirti gesteda; 
he that goes to — thirsty rises 
healthy, ninki harad ku se- 
hada, afimad bu ku so tosa; 
it is — time, hurda jogta; 
— stead, horiyo sarired. 

bed (of a river), «., dei' or dih, 

— di, dob, — hi ; dry — of a 

river, gof, — ki. 
bedding, n., gogol, — shi ; prepare 

the — , gogoshi gogol. 
bedew,, (moisten gently) yar 

ho, yar hoi. 

bee, n., shiii, — di. 

beef, «., hilib lo'ad, hilibki 

beetle (coleopterous insect), n. ; 
the stinking black one, har 
walwal, — ki. 

befall (to happen to), v.i. ; it 
befell me, wah ba igu da'ai ; 
the worst that can — me is to 
die, but I do not fear, wahha 
ugu hun e igu da'a (or di'i 
dona) wa mot, ka se bihi 

before, pi-p., hore, horai, horta ; 
— noon, duhurka hortisa; I 
will die — I behave so, wah 

ban diman intanan aslubta 
yelan ; — and behind you, 
hortada iyo dabadada ba ; — 
the face of the whole town he 
was hanged, dadki magalada 
jogai hortodi ba lugu del- 
delai; I love you — myself, 
anigu adan ka ja'lahai ; ad., 
awal or awel ; long — , beri 

beg,, bari ; — earnestly, da- 
lab, dalbo ; — for alms, da- 
wirso; they — for peace, iyagu 
heshis (nabad) bai raban, or 
iyagu bari yai raban. 

beget,, flal, yelo. 

beggar, n., dagag, — gi, nin daga- 
gah, dawaro, — di, miskin, — 
ki {m.), miskinad, — di (/.) 

begging, n., bariyo, — di, dawarsi, 

begin,, kaga habo ; — 

quick, dahso ugaga habo, u 

beginning, n., horan, — ti ; the — 

of the world, dunida horan- 

begone ! int., (go away!) tag! iss 

ka tag! iss ka bah! iga or 

naga tag ! 
beguile,, (delude) dufso, hal- 
behalf, n., awo, — adi, darad, — 

di ; on my — , awadai, darad- 

behave (well), v.i., aslubnaw; he 

behaves ill, wa aslub hun ya- 

behaviour, n., abur, — ki, aslub, 

— ti. 




behead,, gowra'. 

beheading, n., gowra', — i'hi. 

behind, ad. and prp., dib ; leave 
— , dambaisi ; go — , ka dam- 
bai ; remain — , dambai, dib u 
had ; ride — , aga dambai ka 
fill ; she came — , dibai u so 
ka'dai ; he came — , dibu u so 
ka'ai ; before and — , hor iyo 
dabo ; is there yet anything 
— ? weli dabada wah ma 

behold,, (look) arag, dai, 
daur, eg, jedali. 

being, n., (a creature) un, — ki. 

belay,, (place in ambush) ku 
hatati, dumi. 

belch, n., da'o, — di. 

belch, v.i., da'. 

belief, n., amin, — ti, rumaisad, 
— ki. 

believe, , amin, rumaiso. 

believer, n., nia amina, or amina 

hell, n., gando,— adi; little — , 
dawan, — ^ki. 

bellow, v.i., 'ei or i'. 

bellowing, n., bana'ei, — gi. 

bellows, n., buffimo, — adi. 

belly, n., 'alol, shi, nr, — ki; 
upper part of the — , leg, — gi ; 
under part of the — , gumar, 
— ki; — ache, alol hanun, or 
ur hanun, — ki ; my — aches, 
alosha i hanunaisa ; open the 
— , doh. ; opening of the — , 
dohninj — ti. 

belong, v.i.; the word leh ordi- 
narily expresses the meaning of 
"belong": I — to God, Ilak- 

hai ba i leh ; it belongs to me, 
to him, ana leh, isaga leh. 

beloved, a. ; God has sent to us 
his beloved son, Ebbehen 
wuhu ino so dirai inankisi u 

below, ad. and prp., daf, dafta, 
hos, hosta ; is he — ? dafta or 
hosta ma jira ? 

belt, n., (man's) sun, — ki ; (wo- 
man's) bohor, — ki. 

bend,, (make crooked) hal- 
lohi ; — a bow, hanso so god ; 
— ' the body, jidka forori ; — 
the knee, rugga so lab, or ji- 
libka dig ; ■ — the stick against 
the wall, usha derbiga ku tiri, 

— the brow, huruf ; — your- 
self, bow, v.i., fororso, tirso; 

— on, ku tirso ; — to drink 
water, rah. 

bending, n., forar or foror, — ^ki ; 

(being off the perpendicular) 

halloh, — ^hi; — of the brow, 

huruf, — ki. 
beneath, ad., daf, hosta; put — , 

benediction, «., barakad, — di, 

du'o, — adi; he has been blessed, 

du'adi ku da'dai. 
benefactor, n. ; it is my — , wa 

nin i dehsiah; it is our — , 

wa nin no ron, or ninkasi wa 

no tolmon yahai, or wa nin 

wah no tara. 
beneficence, n., deh, — di. 
beneficent, benevolent, a., deh 

badan, ga'an badan, 
benefit, n , (profit) fayido, — adi, 

helin, — ki. 




bent, a., hallohan, forarsan, fo- 

benumbed (person), n., damad, 

benumbed, a., damadsan. 

bequeath,, (leave by will) 

bequeathmont, bequest, n., dar- 
daran, — ^ki. 

beseech,, (implore) bari, 
dalbo ; I — you, sir, pardon 
me, sab, bari yan ka dalbadai 
e i 'afB, or wahan ka bariyai 
e i 'afB.; I — your attention, 
fojigantadan weidisanaya, or 
ka bariyaya. 

beside, besides, pi'p., ges, gesta, 
ag, — ta, dow ; sit — him, ag 
or ges fadi or fadiso. 

besmear,, uskagai, wasa- 

bespatter,,, dulduli. 

bespattering, n., duldiil, — ki. 

besprinkle,, rushai, ku said. 

best, a. ; this is the best, wah- 
kasa ka wada wanaksan or 
ugu wanaksan; it is the — 
for you, adiga sidasa ku wada 
danta, or adiga sidasa lagu 
hatai ; I will do the — 1 can, 
inta tagtai takai ban yeli or 
ban samain or ban tari. 

bestow,, u dib, si. 

bestride,, dada'. 

bet, n., sharad, — ^ki. 

bet,, la sharatan. 

betray,, hawaisi, dag. 

betrothe,, (affiance) don, la 

betrothed, a., donan. 

betrothing, n., donin, — ki, do- 
nanan, — ti. 

better, a., dama (m.), danta (/.), 
ka ron, ka wanaksan ; he, she 
is — than you, isagu wa ku 
dama, iyadu wa ku danta; 
make — , wanaji; grow — , 
si wanaksan u bah or noko,; 
he grows — in health, wa afi- 

between, prp., deh, dehda; go 
— , deh gal ; come — , so deh 
gal, so dahai. 

bevy, n., (flock of birds) shir, 
— ki, shirkoda. 

beware, v.i., (be cautious) feyi- 
gaw or fojigow. 

bewilder,, (to lose in pathless 
places) hababi, ambi ; v.i., ha- 
bab, ambo. 

beyond, prp., shishai, — di. 

Bible, n., torad iyo injil, toradka 
iyo injilka. 

bid, v.; do as you are bid, fal 
sida lugu lehyakai or dega 
nuglow (obey); when we are 
bidden to great feasts, we must 
take our fine clothes, marka 
'id wein naUo ku yedo, dar 
wanaksan an so huwano or 
an so harragono ; I bade him 
go home, ahalki habo ban ku 
idi ; — him come in, ahalka 
hor u so mar ku deh or so gal 
ku deh ; 1 am bidding you fare- 
well, nabad geliyo ayan ku 

bier, «., (wooden frame to carry 
a dead body) rarab, — ti. 

big, a., wein ; make — , weinai. 




bile, n., da'ar, — ti. 

bilious, a., da'araisan. 

bill, n. (any -written paper) war- 
had, — di ; — of goods, hisab, 
— ti; here is the — , wa ta 
hisabti ; — of passage, tiked, 
— ki. 

billet, n., (log of wood) hulad or 
hulod, — ki. 

bind,, (tie) hid; he was 
bound hand and foot, ga'an 
iyo lug ba wa ka hidna ; — 
yourself by promise, ballan iss 
ku hid or ku tasho. 

bird, «., shimbir, — ti; birds in 
general, had, — di; (fowls) doro, 
— adi ; kinds : dorei, — di, fin, 
— ti, gallow, — gi ... (seeSom.- 
Eng. Voc). 

birth, m., dalniii, — ti; give — , 
dal, iimul ; come to — , dalo. 

biscuit, n., biskut, — ki. 

bison antelope, n., bi"id, — ki. 

bit, «., (small piece) in yar ; — 
of a bridle, hakamai, — mihi, 
hilhad {see curb). 

bitch, n., eiyad, — di. 

bite, biting, n., haninyo, — adi. 

bite,, hanin; v.r., iss ha- 

bitter, a., hadad, danan. 

bitterness, ?j.,hadad, — ki, danan, 
— ki. 

black, 11., madow, — gi; a., ma- 
dow, madowba. 

blacken,, madowbai. 

blacksmith, n., tumal, — ki. 

bladder, n., kadsha hais, — ti. 

blade-bone or shoulder-bone, n., 
laf garab, — ti, — ^ki. 

blame, n., masabidnimo, — adi. 
blame,, masabid, hanib. 
blameable, a. ; he is — , nin la 

masabido waiyai ; thou art — , 

wa tahai. 

blamer, n., masabid, — ^ki. 
blanket, «., busta, — hi, kiunbul, 

— ki. 
blaspheme, w.^r. and «;.i.,Ilah 'ai, 

Ilah inkar. 
blasphemer, n., nin Ilah 'aia. 
blaze, n. (flame) belbel, — ki, hal- 
low, — gi, olol, — ki. 
blaze, v.i., olol. 
bleed, v.i., (lose blood) dig bah ; 

my wound is bleeding, hon- 

taida dig ka bahaya or ka 

bleed,, (let blood) dig ka 

si da. 
bleeding, n., dig bah or bihi; — 

of the nose, goror, — ^ki. * 
blemish, n., 'eib, — ti. 
blemish,, (stain) 'eibai. 
bless,, barakadai, du'ai, 

hadei, sahal. 
blessed, a., barakadaisan, du'a 

blessing, n., barakad, — di, du'o, 

— afi, hair, — ki. 
blessedness, bliss, n., raho, — adi, 

rahad, — di. 
blind (roller), n., alol, — ki. 
blind, a., indala, 
blindness, n., indalaan, — ti. 
blister, n., ga'anti biyo i galai, 

'agti wa i biyotai. 
block,M.(stem of a tree) dogob, — ki. 
blockhead, n., dohon, — ki, na's, 

— ki. 




blood, n., aig, — gi. 

bloody, a., digleh; a — man, nin 

bloom, blossom, n., ubah, — bihi, 
man, — ki. 

blot, n., (obliteration) babiis, — 

blot out,^ babii, bii, ka bii, 
tir, ka tir. 

blow, m., (stroke) nabar, — ki ; — 
with the flat of a sword, ballad, 
— ki ; — with the fist, tantomo, 
— adi, tumujo, — adi ; — with 
the hand, darbah, — ^hi. 

blow, v.i., (to move with a current 
of air) dabaishi wa da'aisa, or 
dabail ba ina haisa ; — with 
the mouth,, afaf ; — with 
bellows, bufi ; — your nose, iss 
ka simi or sinso, or sinka iss 
ka tir; (winnow) huf ; — out 
the lamp, siradka bahti or 

blue (colour), «., madow 'adan, 
— ki. 

blunder, «., hatalad, — di. 

blunder,, hatal ; v.i., hata- 
lan, iss hatal. 

blunt, a,, af darran. 

boar, n., dofar,— ki, dofar lab, 
dofar ki lab. 

board, n., (plank) loh, — hi. 

boast, v.i., bu, fan. 

boast, boasting, n., fan, — ka. 

boat, «., (a small one) sehimad 
or sihimad, — di ; (a large one) 
doni,— di, bahlad,— di. 
boat-hook, boat-staff, /?., bagad, 

— ki. 
boatman, «., bahri, — gi. 

body, w., jid, — ki; a dead — , 

miyid, — ki. 
bog, n., dohbo, — adi. 
boil, ra., (ambury) dullah, — lihhi. 
boil,, kari; (to be agitated 

by heat) v.i., it boils, kar, 

distigi kar; the water boils, 

biyihi wa karayan. 
boiled, a., karsau; give me the 

— water, biyaha karsan i si ; 

— meat, hilib karsan. 
boiler, «., (a kettle) digsi,— gi, 

disti, — gi, deri, — gi, adar, — 

boiling, n., kar, — ^ki; a., give me 

boiling water, biya karaya i si. 
bold, a., gesiah, hodah, lab ; n., 

gesi, — gi, rifai, — fihi, rifakal 

boldness, ra., gesinimo, — adi. 
bonej «., laf, — ti. 
book, «., kitab, — ki ; the written 

or sacred — , 'ihni, — gi. 
boot, n., kab, — ti. 
booty, n., (plunder) bob, — ki, 

boli, — gi. 
border, «., (a selvage added to 

a skin dress) damr, — ki ; — of 

cloth, daraf, — ti, godi, — gi. 
bore, «., (hole made by boring) 

dalol, — ki. 
bore,, daloli, ku maroji. 
born, a., dashai; a new — boy, 

wil dowan dashai ; be — , dalo. 
borrow, borrowing, n., amah, — 

borrow,, amaho, so yelo. 
borrower, n., dein had, — ki. 
bosom, n., lab, — ti, nas, — ki. 
botch, n., (ulcer) bog, — ti; (a 




piece of cloth stitched to old 

clothes) karin, — ti. 
botch,, (mend clumsily) 

both, prn., labada ba; on — 

sides, labada gesod ba. 
bother,, dali, 
bottle, ra., barurad, — di. 
bottle, ; — the wine, haru- 

radaba bamri ka bnbbuhi. 
bottom, «., daf, — ti, gun, — ti; 

— of a vessel, sal, — ki. 
bottomless, a., gun ma leh. 
bough, n., (large shoot of a tree) 

Ian, — ti. 
bought, a., ibsan; be — , ibsanaw; 

not — , ma ibsana. 
bounce, v.i., (leap) bod. 
bouncing, n., bodo, — adi, botin, 

— ti. 
bound, boundary, n., dal, — ki 
bound, a., hidan, nin hidan. 
bounteous, a., dehsiah, nin deh- 

bounty, n., deh, — di. 
bow, n., (act of reverence) forar 

or foror, — ki, rako', — di, sujud, 

— di. 
bow, ra., (weapon) hanso, — adi. 
bow,, (bend) halloH ; — 

your knees, jilba dig ; — your 

head, madahbaga forori; — 

your body, jidkaga ^allobi or 

bow, bow down, v.i., iss forori, 

bowel,, uslahada ka so bihi 

or difo or jid or gur, 
bowels, M.,uslabo, — adi, uslahais, 

— ti. 

bowl, n., (vessel for drinking) 
fujan or fijan, — ki. 

box, n. , (of bark or a small one of 
wood ...) abhad, — di; (wooden) 
saharad, — di, sanduh, — hi. 

box, n., (blow given with the 
hand) tantomo, — adi, tumujo, 
— adi, darbaho, — adi. 

box,, tumujai, darbah, fa- 

boy, n., wil, — ki, inan, — ki, ku- 
rai, — gi, mudakar, — ki; little 
— , ilmo, — ihi, ku yar, ki yara ; 
boys, small boys, inamo, — adi, 
'aruT, — ti, mahal, — shi, ma- 
baldad,— ki. 

bracelet,?!., dugagad, — di; wooden 
— , haimboro, — adi ; — of sil- 
ver, sindi, — gi, wahfi, — gi. 

brag, n., (boast) hawayad, — di, 
halalif, — ti. 

brag, v.i., hawaisi ;, halalif 
ku shub ; v.c, halalif ka 

braid (of hair), n., tidei', — di'hi; 
(a texture) tida'sho, — adi. 

braid,, (weave together) tidi'; 
v.r., tido'o. 

braided, a., tida'an ; the — 
hair, timaha tida'an, timahi 

brain, n., maskah, — di. 

brambles, n., (in a valley beside 
a dry river) hid. 

branch, n., Ian, — ^ti ; branches put 
in a tent during the time of 
rain, daragad, — di. 

brand, n., hori dableh, horiga 
dabkaleh; the — , duhul da- 
bleh, duhul dambasleh. 




brand,, (mark with abranding- 
iron) gub. 

brandy, n., brandi, — gi. 

brass, »., nahas, — ti, sufur, — 

brave, a., (nin) gesiah, gesi, — gi, 
hodah, lab, (nin) ragah. 

bray (as asses), v.i., % madar; 
the ass brays, dameirku wa 

bread, n., kibis or kimis ; hot — , 
kibis kuM; new — , kibis 
diran ; stale — , kibis habow. 

breadth, n., ballad, — di. 

break,, burburi, bururi, jebi, 
jejebi; — the stick, the glass, 
usha, galaska jebi; — the 
bottles, ^aruradaha jejebi; — 
your neck, horta iss jebi; — 
silence, wa badli kartan; — 
the wall down, derbiga bur- 
buri; — the eggs, ngabban 
bururi; — the eyes, isha ka 
bururi; — the picture, sawirka 
bururi ; — ■ open the door, al- 
babka burburiya or burbur- 
sba or jida or iss ka jida or 
ku dufta; — the prison, bab- 
siga jebi ; — (quell) that 
horse, faraska i tababar or 
jarra bar; — his back, da- 
bada ka la da' ; — the head, 
dahar, ka dangalashi; (violate) 

break, v.i., (burst) burbur, burur, 
jejeb, jab, ka jab; the ice 
breaks, barafku wa burbura 
or jajaba ; the ice broke, ba- 
rafki jejeb ; the glass broke, 
galaski jejeb or burbur ; when 

the wave breaks, kolka maw- 
jaddu burburto; I broke my 
leg, lug ban ka jabai (}it. I was 
broken of my leg) ; — your 
leg, lug ka jab ; my eye burst, 
il ba i bururtai. 

break (of the day), n., aroryo, 
— adi. 

breakfast, ?i., afuro, — adi. 

breakfast, v.i., afar. 

breaking, «., jab, — ki, jabnin, 
— ti. 

breast, n., lab, — ti. 

breath, n., nejf, — ti ; last — , ugu 
dambais, — ti ; shortness of — , 
hinrag, — gi. 

breathe, v.i., neifso. 

breech, n., dabo, — adi, sal, — - 

breed,, (produce) yelo, dal ; 
that child is cutting teeth, 
inanka ilkiMsi ba u so ba- 
haya ; (bring up) kori, 

breeding, n., koris, — ki. 

breeze, n., ne'aw, — di. 

brew,, (to prepare, as a li- 
quor, from several ingredients) 
bosk, iss ku hosh, iss ku 

brick, «., (baked) ajurad, — di; 
(not baked) leben, — ki. 

bridal, n., (wedding) aros, — ki. 

bride, «., (newly-married woman) 
arosad, — di. 

bridegroom, w., aros, — ki. 

bridge, «., (of the nose) sanbaror, 
— ki; (of the sole) rai's ma- 
gado, — adi. 

bridle, n., bakamai or bakama, 
— ihi. 




bright, a., dalalaya (m.), dala- 
laisa (/.). 

brighten,, 'adai, kaga da- 
lali, iftimi. 

brightness, n., dalal, — ki. 

brim, n., (edge) girgir or jirjir, 
— ki. 

brimstone, w., (sulphur) kebrid, 
— ki. 

bring,, (fetch) ken, ka ken, 
gei, la kalai ; — to me, — to 
us, i ken, no ken or i, no la 
kalai; — to him, her, them, 
u gei, or u la tag; — me a 
coach, gadi i ken ; — Ali with 
you, All so kahai ; — to light, 
dal, yelo ; she brought a child 
into the worid, inan bai ifka 
kentai ; — him into debt, han 
geli ; — into danger, 'absi 
geli ; — him to do it, ha falai 
e wahhas u gei ; — back or 
again," so 'eli; — back to, u 
eU ; — to life again, nolai, 
nolaisi ; — away, si had, so 
sar, ka so sar; — the boy 
down, wilka dafta u so rog ; 
or so deji ; — forward, horo u 
ken, horo u jid, horo u so jid; 

— in, so geli ; — here, halka 
ken, la kalai, so gur ; — ■ out, 
tus, dibadda u sar; — out 
your story, shekadada so sar ; 

— that man out of trouble, 
war ! ninka humanta ka bihi; 
he was brought forth before 
the time, sMnku dalad ma aha, 
or sMnki ma dalan, or shinki 
ma gadin ; he was brought 
forth at his time, shinki ku 

dalan; the she-camel brought 
forth a young one, hashi nerig 
bai abah ku dashai or dala- 
tai or dalisai ; — up (educate 
. . .) kori ; help to — up, la kori ; 
be brought up, kor ; be brought 
up with, la kor; your bad con- 
duct will — mischief upon 
you, aslubtada humi mel dar- 
ran bai ka ridi or ka turi. 

brink, m., (edge) fih, — hi; — of 
a mountain, jar, — ki; — of a 
river, dan, — ki. 

brisket, «., (of a horse) geddo, 
— adi. 

brittle, a., jilai'san. 

brittleness, n., jila' or jilai', — 

broad, a., balladan. 

broaden,, balladi. 

broil,, (dress meat on coals) 
dub, sol. 

broken, a., burbursan; be — , 
burbur, jab, jajab ; a — lan- 
guage, af burbursan, af ki bur- 

broke, v.i., (contract business for 
others) dilal, dilal noho. 

broker, n., dilal, — ^ki. 

brokerage, n., (fee for promoting 
bargains) ma'ash, — ^ki. 

broom, n., minfih, — di; (a piece 
of wood used as a broom) diga- 
had, — ki. 

broth, n., fiid, — ki. 

brother, n., walal, — ki. 

brotherhood, n., walalnimo,— 

brow, M., kod, — ki ; (forehead) 
fod,— di. 




brown (colour), n. and a., marrin, 

— ki; light — , 'asusleh, ow- 

browse, v.i., dah; the cow browses, 

lodi wa dahaisa; the sheep 

browse, adigi wa dahaya. 
bruise, n., (contusion) laban, — 

bruised, a., laban. 
brush, n., burush, — ki. 
brushwood, n., (brambles) hanan, 

— ki. 
brutal, a., bahalah. 
brute, n. and a., bahal, — ki. 
bubble, n., humbo, — adi. 
bucket, n., baldi, — gi, barmil 

yar; leathern — , nad, — ki, 

wadau, — ti ; rope and — for 

drawing water, dowlis. 
buckle, 11., (a ring with a tongue) 

hadabo, — adi. 
buffet, n., (a blow with the hand) 

dirbaho or darbaho, — adi. 
buffet,, dirbah. 
bug, n., kutan, — ti, 
bugbear,, (frighten) baji. 
bugalow, n., (large boat) bahlad, 

— di, doni, — di, hanyad, — di. 
build,, dis, diso; — for, 

u dis, ahalka u samai. 
building, n., disnin, — ti, samain, 

— ti, 
built, a., disan. 
bull, n., dibi, — gi, 
bullet, n., jalilad, — di. 
bullock, n., dibi yar, 
bum, «., (the buttocks) sal, — 

bump (bunch), n. ; (a hard lump) 

tur, — ^ti. 

bunch (bundle), n.; (a number 

of things tied together) guntin, 

— ti, hidmo, — adi. 
bunch, n., (of hair) dor, — ^ki. 
buoy, n., boyad, — di. 
burden, n., hamil, — ki, rar, — ^ki, 

rarmo, — adi. 
burial, n., asnin, — ti. 
burn, n., (heat caused by fire) 

gubnin, — ti; — made on sheep 

(brand) hanjid, — di. 
burn,, gfub ; v.r., gubo ; — 

him alive, nolanta ku gub; 

— to ashes or carbonize, hu- 
runshai; v.i., gubo; he burns 
like fire, dab o kalu u guba- 

burnt, a., guban; a — thing, 

hurunslio, — adi. 
burr, n., (the round kotob of horn 

next the deer's head) kod, — ki ; 

— of the ear (lobe), dahal, — 
shi ; (upper part of the lobe) 
hurdan, — ki. 

burrow, «., (hole made in the 

ground by rabbits) god, — ki. 
burst, v.i., harah, burur, dila' ;, bururi. 
bury,, as. 
bush, n., (thick shrub) hauau, — 

ki ; a sour — , daran, — ti ; a 

kind of — with a milky sap, 

dibow, — gi. 
business, n., baul, — sM, dan, — ti. 
bustard, n., 'elal jog or jog jog, 

— ti, salalmodleh, — lihi. 
busy, a., haul badan, haulaisan, 

but, c, lakin, se (used as an 





butclier, n., adi hal, — ki. 
butcher,, gowra', hal. 
butler, n., (servant in charge of 

liquorSj head servant) buder, 

— ki or ninka sorta frenjiga 

u diga. 
butt, n., (mark to shoot at) My as, 

— ti, dug, — ti ; the — end or 

extremity of a thing, 'aro, — 

butter, ■«., bur'ad, — ^ki; melted 

— , sihin, — ti; — milk, ir, — 

butterfly, n., balanbalis, — ti. 
buttock, n., sal, — ki. 
button, n., badan, — ki. 
buy,, ibi, so ibi, ibso, so 

ibso, sosi, siso, ka ibi. 
buzz, v.i., (hum) guh, bin. 
by, prp., agta, gesta; — my 

side, agtaidi, gestaidi. 


c, third letter of the English 

cabbage, n., kobi, — gi. 
cable, n., hadig weia, — i — a. 
cackle^ n., (of fowls) 'i, — di. 
cackle, v.i., 'i. 
cadaver, n., bahti, — gi, miyid, — 

ki, rah, — di. 
cage, n., (for birds) sab, — ki. 
cake, «., (Arab one) halwad, — 

calculate,, tiri, tirso, hisab. 

calculation, n., tiro, — adi, hisab, 

calf, n., (young of a cow) well, — 
ki; (in general) weilo, — ihi; 
(flesliy part of the leg behind, 
below the knee) muruh, — ki. 

call, n., (vocal address) yed, — ki, 
yediiin, — ti. 

call,, (to name) u bihi, ugu 
yed; (to invite) u yed; call 
after him, ad u yed ; — again 
or back, so'eli; — aloud from, 
ka yed; — him aside, goni 
ugu yed ; — him out, away, 
dibada u sar ; — at that place, 
mesha si mar; — back your 
word, hadalkagi ku noho ; the 
governor calls for you, serkalki 
ba ku yedaya or douaya ; do 
you — for drink ? ma wahad 
'abtid bad donaisa? — for 
dinner, sorta hagaji or sorta 
kala hagaji ; — forth, u yed ; 
— in, so geli; — in your 
money, la'agtada ha ku so 
gasho ; — him ofif from that 
bad thing, ninka wahha hun 
or dauga hun uga yed; lam 
called off from my studies, 
barashadaidi ba la iga yedai ; 
— • on, — to, — unto, — upon, 
bari, dalbo; — him to help, 
'awimad ugu yed ; — over the 
names of the assembly, nin 
walba magihisa ugu yed ; — 
him to witness, marhati ugu 
yed ; — to remembrance, hus 
usi; — together, iss u ka- 
lada ; — him up in the morn- 
ing, arorta hore so tos. 




call to prayer,, adin. 

calling to prayer, »., adimad, — 
di, edan, — ^ki. 

caller, n., (the man calling to 
prayer) muadin, — ki, nin adi- 

callousness, n., gandafll, — shi ; 
— of the camel's hind legs, 
gorof leged, — ki; — of the 
camel's chest, shaf, — ki. 

be callous, v.i., gaudafilow ; my 
hand will become callous, ga- 
<anti i gandafilodai. 

calm, n., (at sea) hawal,^ — shi, 

calm,, habowji. 

calamniate,, edai, ku edai, 
hafar, hano. 

caluimiiator, n., nin ed badan, 
hafar badan, habas, — ki. 

calumny, n., hafar, — ki, han, — 
ti, habasnimo, — adi. 

camel, n., gel, — i, gelal, — sM 
(plur. com. gen.), anr — ki(m.«.), 
aur — ti (plur. com. gen.), rati, 
— gi (m.), hal,— shi (f.) ; (stal- 
lion) barhab, — ki ; castrated 
— , gol, — ki; a kind of large — , 
koron, — ki; young — , nirig, 
gi (to.) — ti_ if.) ; young she 
— , haUn, — ^ti ; — water-bearer, 
dan, — ki; — not tamed, aimad, 
— ki, laili, — gi; — without 
load, adai'simo, — adi; — ac- 
oustomed to carry loads, hamil 

camelopard, n., gerri, — gi, hal- 
gerri, — di. 

camp, v.i., deg, hoio. 

camphire, camphor, n., kanfor, 
— ki. 

can, v.i., (be able) {defective and 
auxiliary verb) iax ; he — read 
and write; wa ahri kara o 
hori kara ; I will do it if I — , 
wan samain hadan karo; he 
does all he — , wuhu kara bu 
fala ; I cannot, ma' karo, kari 
mayo ; he cannot come, ma 
iman karo. 

cancel,, (efface) babihi. 

cancer, canker, n., hudai or huda, 
— ihi. 

cancerous, a., hudai. 

candle, n., shimai' or shama', — 

cane, n., (kind of reed) diir, — ki. 

canine tooth, «., mi'i, — di. 

cannibal, n., •dadhal, — ki (m.), 
dadhalato, — adi (/.), 

cannon, n., (gun) madfa', — i'hi, 

canon, n., (rule, law) hainun, — 

canter, v.i., (gallop gently) har- 

cap, n., kofiad, — di. 

capable, a., kara ; be — , kar. 

capablenesSj capability, n., kamin, 
— ti. 

cape, n., (a headland) rasi, — gi. 

captive, n., (a prisoner of war) 
ninki dagal ba lagu habtai ; 
nagti wai la haden or nag- 
tasu wa la habtai; (a slavn) 
adon, — ki, bidai, — ^hi, bidad, 
— di. 

caravan, n., hafila, — di, safar, — 

cards, n., turub, — ki (sing, and 
plur.) ; play at — , turub 




care, n., (solicitude, heed) foyigan 

or fojigan, — ti, ilalo, — adi ; 

take — , iss ka eg, ilali jir, 

ogow ; v.r., iss jir, iss ka jir, 

iss ogow. 
care, v.i., (be anxious) ; what — 

you ? mahad u dan ledahai or 

mahad u fojigantahai ? he 

cares for nobodj^ nin na dan 

n ma leh. 
careful, a., aminah, foyig, feyig 

or fojig ; be — , aminahaw. 
carefulness, n., aminimo, — adi. 
careless, a., (nin) fojigla, mu- 

daya', — i'M. 
carelessness, »., fojiglaan, — ti. 
caress, n., salahid, -di, 
caress,, salah. 
cargo, ra.,nial, — ki, shehnad, — di; 

bring your — , so nawil, sheh- 

nadda nawUa. 
carpenter, n., najar, — ki or nijar, 

— ki. 
carpet, to., firash, — ki ; a Somali 

— , kebed, — di. 
carriage, n., gadi or gari, — gi. 
carried, a., (nin) la sido. 
carrier, n., (porter) hamal, — ^ki. 
carry,, (convey) had, sid, 

sido; — for, u had, u sid; 

— a child, hambar ; — thy 
child, hambaro ; — yourself 
well, si wanaksan u so'o ; he 
carries himself well, aslub tol- 
mon or wahan bu lehyahai; 

— about you, sido ; — away, 
la tag, dibada u la bah; 

— away by force, ka difo ; 

— back, dii) u 'eli ; — down, 
hosta gei ; — out your design, 

dama'haga or dantada wado ; 

— over the child, inanka dur- 
durka ka talabi. 

cart, car, «., gawadi, — ;di. 

cartouche, cartridge, to., rasas, 
— ti. 

carve,, (to cut wood) harad. 

carved, a., hardan. 

carving, to., harad, — ki. 

cascade, cataract, n., biya gar- 
baha ka so dulai, garbo, — ihi. 

case, TO., (box) abhad, saharad, 
— di ; judicial — , hujad, 
— di ; — of complaint derived 
from any transgression of the 
Somali customs or traditions, 
her,— ki. 

cash (ready money), n. ; (of silver) 
shola boli, — di; (of brass) 'a- 
dadi, — di. 

cask, n., (a vessel) barmil, — ki. 

cast,, (throw) tur, rid ; 

— a spear, waranka rid; — 
yourself at his feet, hortisa iss 
ku tur ; — away, hor ; — be- 
hind, dambaisi, daba joji; — 
down, hosaisi; — headlongj 
madahha u tur, so weidafi. 

castaway, n., (rejected) nin in- 

karan, nin la na'ai. 
caste, TO., higal, — ki, holo, — adi, 

tol, — ki ; the high castes, gob, 

— ki ; the low castes, sab, — ti ; 

the three low castes : tumal, 

— ki, midgan,— ki, yibir,— ki. 
castor-plant, to., bu'a'ad, bu'a- 

castrate,, dufan, tun, 
castrated, «., dufanan, tuman ; a 

gelded animal, dugag tuman, 




castration, n., dufan, — ki. 

cat, n., bissad, — di, dinad,- di ; 
male — , huri, — gi; wild — , 
dinad habishi ; civet — , dinad 
sabad, — di; small — , dinad 

cataplasm, n., (a poultice) damoh, 
— hi ; apply a — , damoh. 

catarrh, n., durai, — gi. 

catch,, (hold on to) habo, 
habso, heji; — hold of, ka 
habo, ka habso ; — with, ku 
habso ; — the truth, mnta 
hab ; the wood will — fire, 
habadu wai guban; he has 
caught a distemper, udur bu 
hadai or habsadai or wu bu- 

catching, n., habasho. 

caterpillar, n., dirindir, — ti, 

caterwaul, n., (of cats) shiddo, 
— adi. 

caterwaul, v.i., shiddai. 

Catholic, a., katholik, — gi, nin 

cattle, n., holo nol, — ki, fof, — ki, 
darer, — ^ki, sof, — ki; neat or 
black — , lo', — di. 

cause, n., (reason ...) ed, — di, 
sabab, — ti. 

cause, v.c. ; this is expressed by 
using the causative form of the 
verb [see Gram.). 

cauterise,, gub. 

cautery, n., (burning application) 
dab, — ^ki. 

caution, n., (sponsion) damin, 
— ti. 

cautious, a., foyig; he—, fojigow. 

cavalry, n., fardoleh, — di. 

cave, cavern, «., boran, — ti, god, 
— ki. 

caw, v.i., (cry as the rook) 'ei or 'i. 

cease,, (discontinue) da, iss 
ka da. 

celebrate,,, (praise) aman; 
(solemnise) 'id. 

cement, «., simid, — ki. 

cemetery, n., habalo, — lihi, ha- 
bur, — ti, hawal, — shi. 

censure,, (blame) hanib. 

centre, n., deh, — di. 

century, n., bbhol sanadod. 

certain, a., (sure) la huba; — 
news, war la huba ; it is — , 
wa dab, wa run, wa la huba ; 
be — , hub; make — , dabai, 
kaga dabai, rumai, run la 
huba sheg. 

certain, a., (some one) hebel, wah 

certainty, certitude, n., dab, — ti, 
run, — ^ti. 

certify,, (assure) dabai, fur, 
marhati ku fur, rumai. 

chafe, n.', (heat caused by rubbing) 
gomod, — ki; (rage, fury) 'ado, 
— adi. 

chafe,, (make hot) kululai ; 
(make angry) kaga 'adaisi; 
(make warm by rubbing) go- 

chafe, v.i., (rage) 'ado; (to be 
sore or galled by riding) gomod. 

chain, n., silsilad ; — of moun- 
tains, buro iss ku yal, buraha 
iss ku yal, buraha garbohoda. 

chain,, (tie with chains) sil- 
silad ku hid or ku jebi. 

chair, n., kiirsi, — gi. 

N 2 




clialk, n., malas,-ti, dareyo,-adi. 

challenge, n., (invitation to fight) 

dandansid or dandansis, — ki ; 
. (a demand for something due) 

dignin, — ti, hanan,— ki. 
challenge,, (call to fight) 

dandanso; (claim) hanan, ninki 

dignin u dir. 
chamber, n., (apartment) hoUad, 

— di. 
chameleon, n., jirjiroleh, — lihi. 
champ, and v.i., (chow, bite) 

'alash.0; the horse champs his 

bit, farasku hakamihi yu 'ala- 

ch'ince, n., (luck) ayan, — ki. 
chan(!e, n., (alteration, novelty) 

bedalad, — di; — of money, 

sarrif, — ki. 
change (a thing), ; (barter, 

exchange) dafi, iss dafi, dafso, 

dori, dorso; — money, sarrif; 

— your shirt, hamiskaga iss 
ka dig mid kaleh gasho or 
huwo; — ynur hal with mine, 
kofladada taida i daflor igu dori 

channel, n., (canal) doh, — hi. 
chant, n., (vocal music) hes, — ti. 
chant, and v.i., (sing) hes. 
chap, «., (chink, clef t) dila', — hi; 

— of the ground, bohol, — shi ; 

— of the skin, safan, — ki. 
chaplet, n., (garland, string of 

beads) tusbah, — hi. 

chapter, n., surad, — di. 

character, n., (mark) sumad, — di ; 
an indelible — , sumad an we- 
liged bihia; (personal qualities, 
particular constitution of mind) 
'amal, — ki. 

charcoal, w., duhul, — shi. 
charge, «., (custody, care) ilalo, 

— adi ; (burden) haniil,^ki, 

rar, — ki, rarmo, — adi. 
charitable, a., nahsan. 
charity, n., (lo^e) ja'ail, — ki ; 

(mercy) nahadin, — ti. 
charm, n., (words or characters 

imagined to have some magical 

power) fal, — ki ; (amulet) 

hirsi, — di, hardas, — ti, ma'fo, 

charm,, ("enchant) fal. 
chase, n., (hunting) ugadsi, — gi, 

dabnin, — ti. 
chase,, (hunt) ngadso, dab, 

chastise,, (punish) hanuji, 

chat, chatter, chattering, n., dau- 

dar, — ki. 
chat, v.i., (babble) daudar. 
chatterer, «., nin dandarah, 
cheap, a., (at a low rate) jaban, 

gana' jaban ; rice is — , baris- 

ki jeb ; sell — ,, gana' 

jaban, or yar si, or ku ibi; 

buy — , gana' jaban so si, or 

ku ibi. 
cheapen,, (lessen) gana' jebi. 
cheat, n.. (deceit, fraud) hadig, — 

gi, dxaun,— ki, helad, — di, hi- 

yan, — ki, hayano, — adi. 
cheat,, (defraud) da', dulun, 

hayanai, hiyanai. 
cheater, n., nitt dulunah, hafiig 

badan, hiyanah, hayano leh. 
cheek, n., 'an,— ki, daban,— ki ; 

chubby ^, 'an bur, — ki. 
cheer, n., (entertainment) diafad, 




— di ; (cheerfulness, gaiety) 
badad, — ki, rain, — ^ti. 

cheer,, (make cheerful) kaga 
badadi, kaga rairaisi, kaga 
badbadadi ; (grow cheerful) 
v.i., badad, rai, rairai. 

cheerful, a., badadsau. 

cheese, n., (dry curd) far, — ki. 

chest, n., (a wooden box) saha- 
rad, — di, sanduh, — hi; (breast) 
lab, — ti. 

chew,, (masticate) 'alali, 
'alasho, rabso; — the cud, v.l, 
(ruminate) 'alalnahso. 

chewing, n., 'alal, — ki, alalis, — 
ki, rabsi, — gi; — cud, alal- 
nahsi,— gi. 

chide,, (rebuke) dagal. 

chief, n., (a commander) ahU or 
ahal, — ^ki, garad, — ki, ngas, 
— ki ; (chieftain, leader) ab- 
ban dulai, — lihi ; — in a 
government office, taliya, — 
yihi, hakin, — ki ; vice — , 
gudi,— di, — gi. 

child, n., arur, — ti, dalan,— ki 
{sinff. and plur.), da yar, — di, 
— aid, ku yar, ki yara, ilmo, — 
ihi; chubby — , ilma koba'ai; 
sucking — , ilma nasaha jaha; 
spoiled — . ilma dalimah. ; 
corrupted — , Uma hun. 

childhood, »., arurnimo, — adi, 
da yar, yaran,— ti. 

chill, chilly, a., dahamodai, niu 
dahamodai ; be — , dahamow, 
or dahamod. 

cbin,.m., dan, — ki, lafta gadka. 

chink, n., (crevice) dila', — hi. 

chink, v.i; (to sound by striking 

each other) danan ; the money 

shines and chiuks, la'agtu wa 

dalasha o dananta. 
chip, n., (a small piece of wood) 

hanfaf, — ki, . hanshar, — ki, 

hushash, — ki. 
chip and chop,, (cut into. 

small pieces) gogo, jarjar. 
chirp, n., (the voice of birds) 'ei 

or 'i, — di. 
chirp, v.i., 'i; the bird chirps, 

shimbirtu wa 'ida. 
chita, «., (hunting one) arim'ad, 

— ki. 
choice, «., dor, — ki, dorasho, — 

adi ; T leave it to your choice, 

wa adigi iyo dorashada ; it is 

in my choice, aniga dorashada 

leh, or aniga dorashada ban 

choice, chosen, a., dorsan, nahwa. 
choke,, (suffocate) 'abUd, 

siriri; v.r., jogso; be choked, 

choking, «., siririn, — ti, siriris, 

— ki. 
cholera, n., da'un, — ki, hahleh, 

choose,, dori, doro, ka doro, 

ka nahai, ka nahaiso, ka hulo. 
chowter, v.i., (grumble) giinns ; 

that child does nothing but — , 

wilkasi wah kaleh ku arki 

maisid an gunus ahain. 
Christ (the Saviour of the world), 

n., Eristos. 
christian, n., kristan, — ki. 
church, n., kinisad, — di. 
churl, n., (rustic man) jingeli or 

jangali,— gi. 




cicatrice, n., (scar) nabar, — ki, 
dahar, — ki. 

cigar, n., sigarad, shirud or shu- 
rud,— ki. 

cinnamon, w., harfa or karfa, — 

circle, n., gobo, — adi, gobabin, 
— ^ti ; make a — , gobai, go- 

circular, a., gobaban, hersan. 

circulate, v.i., ku wareg ; the 
blood circulates, diggu wa 
dalala, money should — , la- 
'agtu or la'agi wa waregi 

circumcise,, gUd, balag^a ka 
go, baranta ka go, buryada 
ka go, halalai. 

circumcision, n., gUdnin, — ^ti. 

circumcised, a., gUdau. 

circumstances, n., (state, condi- 
tion) dan, — ti ; I am in better 
— , dantaidi bore ka ron yan 
wa ta. 

cistern, n., (a reservoir) berked 
or berkad, — di. 

cite,, (summon) amarhadur 
u sar. 

citation, n., amarhadur, — ki. 

city, n., magalo, — adi. 

civil, a., (polite) amusan, waye- 

claim, m., gar, — ti, hanan, — ki. 

claim,, gar 11 shego, hanan 
shego ; give the things he 
claims, gar mari, gar si, 

clamour, n., (bustle) but, — M, 
bulhan, — ^ki, — ti(tor the past), 
gurhan, — ki, sawahan, — ki, 
dawah, — M, haUo, — adi. 

clamour,, bub, dawah, haili. 
clang, «., (a sharp noise) bikel or 

bigil, — ki. 
clap (your hands),, saabada 

iss ku difo or dufo, dirbah. 
clap, re., darbaho or dirbaho, — 

adi, saab, — ki; (crack) ba', — 

clash, v.i., (strike one against 

another) iss tun, iss jid. 
clatter, clattering, «., sbido, — 

clatter, v.i., (make noise) sMdai. 
claw, n., 'iddi, — di. 
clay, n., dohbo, — adi. 
clay,, (cover with clay) dohb, 

dohbai, dohbo ku dohb. 
cleani a., 'adaisan, safaisan, sa- 

fiab, maidan, miran, nadifsan. 
clean, cleanse,, 'adai, safai, 

hal, maid, ma'ido, tir, ka tir, 

iss ka tir, nadifi, nadif ka dig ; 

— up, hor. 
cleanness, n., nadif, — ti, safi, — 

clear, a., miran, safiah. ; a — day, 
wa darar dalalaisa. 

clear,, (make bright) 'adai, 
mix ; — a business, difficulty, 
hagaji, wanaji ; — the ac- 
count, hisabta hagaji ; be — , 

cleft, n., (a crevice) bohol, — sM, 
dila', — ^hi, jeh, — hi. 

clement, a., nahsan; be — , nah. 

clemency, n., nahdin, — ^ti, naha- 
ris, — ki. 

clever, a., wah yahan, fi'an, fa- 
ridah, farsamo badan, farid, 
— ki, fi', — hi ; be — , fi'anaw. 




cleverness, n., farsamo, — adi, fi'- 

nan, — ^ti. 
client (of a man in power), n., 

singal, — ^ki, dens, — ki. 
cliff, n., (a steep rock) jar, — ^ki. 
climb, and v.i., (ascend) fal, 

kor, dusha u bah, ka bah, 

burta ka bah. 
clinch,, (hold fast) hejL 
clip, v.i., (to swallow words) hud- 

hudi ; you swallow the words, 

adigu hadalkaga wa hndhu- 

clippspringer, n., ba'ir, — ^ki, — ti. 
clock, n., sa'ad, — dL 
clod, n., (a lump of earth) fad 

'arraah, — ^ki, 'arradaaha. 
close, n., (an enclosure) hero, — 

adi, od, — di. 
close,, (shut) abud, hid ; — 

in, ku hid, 
close, a., abudan, hidan. 
close to, ad., u dow. 
closet (water-), n., ahal har, — ^M, 

kakus, — ^ki, madax, — ^ki. 
cloth, clothes, n., dar, — ka ; here 

I have meat, clothes and drink, 

halkan ku haista 'lumadi iyo 

darki iyo biyihi ba. 
clothe,, huwi, wah u geli ; 

v.r., huwo, gasho. 
cloud, n., darur, — ^ti ; roving 

clouds, 'adar, — ^ki. 
cloudy, a., daniran, 'usub. 
clout, «., harhad, — di. 
clove, n., (spice) hurunful,— ki. 
club, n., (a heavy stick) bud, — 

clutch,, (hold in the hand) 

ka difo. 

coach, n., gadi, — gi ; — horse, 
faras gadi jida, — ki, gadigi 
jedi jirai ; — man, gadiwa- 
leh, — hi. 

coagulate,, fadisi. 

coal, n., duhul, — shi ; live or 
burning — ', duhul nol. 

coarse, a., (rude) halafsau ; be — , 

coast, «., heb, — ^ti. 

coat, n., garba galai, — ^ihi. 

cobweb, n., bul'aro, — adi. 

cock, n., dig,— gi, digag,— gi, 
dora, — ihi (both genders). 

cocoanut, n., naijin, — ti, nara- 
jin, — ^ti, narjil, — shi. 

cod, n., (husk) holof, — ti, jilif, — 

coffee, n., (berry) bun, — ki ; — 
husks, hashir or hashar, — ki, 
hawa, — ihi; — pot, ibrihha 
hahwaah ; Arabic — , jemelad, 
— di; — shop, mahayad, — di; 
— house keeper, mahawi, — 

coffin, n., kafan, — ^ti. 

cohabit, v.i., (ninka) la jog; wa- 
da joga (plur.) ; we cohabit, 
wannu wada jogna. 

coiii'ure (of Somali women), n., 
gambo, — adi, 

coition, «., (copulation) galmo, — 
adi, warmo. 

cold, coldness, n., dahau, — ti, 
habow, — gi ; severe — , gaba- 
dano, — adi ; disease caused by 
— , durai, — gi; — fit, had- 
hadyo, — di ; take or catch a 
— , dahamow, dahan had ; I 
caught a — , durai ban ihadai, 




cold, a., habow, gabadano wein. 

colic, 11., alol hamm, ur hanun, 
— ki. 

collect,, iss u gei, iss u ken, 
uniri, ku so gur. 

college, n., madrasad, — di. 

collyrium, n., inda kul, — shi. 

colour, ?i., ranji, — gi, midab,^ — 

colt, «., (suckling) dal, — ki, dar- 
man, — ki. 

column, n., tir, — ki. 

comb, n., (man's) fidin, — ki ; — 
for the beard, gad fed, — ki ; 
■woman's — , sahaf, — ti. 

comb,, fed, fedo, iss u fedo. 

combat, and v.i., dagalan, 

combat, n., dagal, — ki, werar, — 

combustible, n., habo, — adi. 

come, v.i., imo, (commonly) kalai; 
how comes that? war! wahas 
maha sidas ka digai ? or war ! 
wa side sasi ? — about, ku so 
wareg ; — again, back, so 
noho, so laban ; — after, radi, 
rad gur ; — along, so ra' ; — 
along the shore, hebta so ra' ; 

— away, ka SO bah, ina ken ; 

— by, so mar ; — down, so 
deg, hosta kalai, so dada ; — 
down from, ka so deg; — for, 
u kalai ; — ■ forth, so bah ; — 
forwprd, wad ; — from, ka 
kalai ; — in, so gal ; — in for, 
u so gal ; — into, ka da' ; — 
into trouble, jar ka da' ; — 
near, so dowow, SO durug ; — 
next, ku hig ; that comes of 

my doing, wahhasi wahai 
wahha ku nohden wa wah 
anigu an samaiyai, or kasu 
wa shuhulkaigi ; how did you 
— off % war ! side u so bah- 
satai? do you think to — off 
so % war ! ninyohow sida ku 
bahsan maisid ha modin, or 
ma u malainaisa inad sida ku 
bahsatid? my hair comes off, 
tiniihi iga so hodai ; the moon 
comes out, dayihhi wa ka so 
bahaya; — to, so so'o, so gad, 
gad; — to me, i so gad or 
bah. ; he came to a shameful 
end, si bun bu dintai ; it came 
to pass, wahai nohotai ; — to 
and fro, SO noho, si noho ; — 
together, issa so ra'a ; — 
with, so ra' ; — life, — death, 
I will go alnne, ama an dinto, 
ama an nolado, keligai ban 
so 'on ; — between, so dahai, 
no dahai, so na deh gal; — 
quick, ' so dahso, so orod ; — 
up, so kor, dusha u kalai, 
dusha u so bah ; let — , so da ; 
when old age comes upon you, 
you cannot do anything, mar- 
kad da wein gadid, or markad 
odaiowdid wahba ma kari 

coming, n., imatin, — ki. 

comfort, n., (ease) haulyari, — di, 
ladnan, — ^ti. 

comfortable, a., ladan. 

command, commandment, «., hu- 
kun, — ki, hainun, — ki, haul, 
— ki, wasiad, — di. 

command,, (order) hukun, — 




ki; v.i., (have fhe supreme 
authority) ka sarrai. 

commend,, (piaiae) aman ; 
everybody commends him, nin 
waliba wa amana; (commit) 
aman ; — your siiirit to God, 
naftada Ilahhai ku aman or 

commerce, n., bo'shirad or bo'- 
slmrad, — di. 

commit,, (intrust) aman, 
amanaiso, amano u dib ; I 
committed that business to 
you, shuhulkas adan hugu 
amanaistai ; (do, perpetrate) 

communicate,, la hadal, 
ogaisi, u sheg, warsi, u war- 

communication, n., war, — ^ki. 

communion, n., (union in the 
common worship or faith) iss 
ku daran, — ki; (participating 
in. the blessed sacrament) ta- 
naul, — ki. 

companion, n., sahib, — ^ki, wehel, 
— ki. 

company, n., dawo, — adi, wa- 
ba'd, — di. 

compare,, iss u eg. 

compass, n., dirad, — di. 

compassion, n., (pity) nabdin, — 

compensation, n., domin, — ti. 

compendium, n., gabnin, — ki. 

complain, v.i., (lament) baroro, 
hasuso, mnsanaw ; — in law, 
asbtakai, ashtako, gar shego, 
gar u shego, garan, la ga- 

complaint, n., (a lament) baror, 
— ^ti, hasus, — ti, musanaw, — 
gi ; — in law, ashtako, — di, 
gar,— ti. 

complete,, damai, idlai. 

complete, a., dan, dami, damaid, 
idil, idli, leil, leili. 

completely, ad., haib. 

completion, n., damad, — ki, da- 
man, — ti. 

complexion, n., 'amal, — ki, mi- 
dab, — ^ki. 

compliance, «., oggolan, — ^ti. 

comply, v.i., oggolaw. 

comprehend,, (comprise) 
garo, habso. 

comprehensive, a., eraigas wa la 
garan kara. 

comprehension, «., garasho,— 

compress,, (force into a 
narrow compass) dis, ku dis, 

compunction, n., (repentance) 
ala'al, — ^ki, taubad, — di. 

conceal,, dnmi, hari ; v.r , 

concealment, n., dumasho, — adi, 
haris, — ki. 

conceive, and v.i., (be preg- 
nant) dal, yelo. 

conception, «., habal, — ki (Ara- 

concern, n., arrin, — ki, — ti, yel, 
— ki. 

concession, n., (grant) dibnin, — • 

conciliate,, heshisi, 

conclude,, (make an end) 
damai, idlai. 




concord, «., (agreement) nabad, 

— di, heshis, — ki. 
concubine^ n., ad5ll, — ^ti, 
concupiscence, n., shahwad, — di. 
condemn,, (ninka) u tali ; 

tbe judge condemned me, nin- 

ki dauladed ba igu garaiyai ; 

God will — you, Ebbahai wu 

ku 'adabi. 
condition, w., (state) dan, — ti. 
conduce, v.L, ka rid, gei, kahai. 
conduct, n., (management) talo, 

— adi; (behaviour) abur, — ^ki, 

aslub, — ti. 
confess,, (avow) hiro, bado. 
confession, n., Mr, — ti. 
confide in,, aman, yesbo, 

confidence, n., yeshod, — ^ki. 
confine, v.i., (limit); Somaliland 

confines Abys-inia, dul Soma' 

lied, dul AbasMed bu ku yal 

or ku idlada ;, (shut up) 

confinement, n., hidnan, — ti. 
confirm,, (put past doubt) 

dabai, rumai ; (strengthen) 

conflict, n., dirir, — ^ti. 
conflict,, dirir. 
confluence, «., (concourse) bub, — 

hi, urur, — ki. 
conform with, v.i., Oggolaw ; — 

to the will of God, talada Eb- 

bahai oggolaw. 
congeal,, fadisi ; v.i., the 

milk congeals, 'aniM fadistai. 
congratulate,, I came to — 

you, inan adiga kaga bada- 

diyo yau u imi. 

congrefrate,, ururi, so ururi, 
iss ugu ken, iss ugu gain. 

congregation, re., jama', — M. 

conjuration, n., fal, — ^ki. 

conjure,, dalbo, ka don, ka 
dono ; — up, fal ; (exorcise) 
ka sar, eri. 

conjurer, n., nin wah fala. 

conquer,, ka had, ka hel. 

consecrate,, hodus ka samai 
or ka dig. 

consent, n., oggolan, — ^ti. 

consent to, v.i., Oggolaw, 'ajibi. 

consequence, n., dog, — ti. 

consequently, ad., haddaba, 

consider,, (examine) hubso, 
tasho, aloshada la tasho. 

consideration, n., hubsad, — ki, 
tashi, — gi. 

consist, v.i., (subsist) ; God is be- 
fore all things, and by him all 
things — , Ilah ba walba ugu 
horaiya, o wah waliba isaga 
ku noUyihin ; our life consists 
in the union betwixt the body 
and the soul, nolantenu wa 
jidkena iyo naftena iss ku 
yal ; the land consists of 
plains, valleys and mountains, 
berrigu wa banan iyo faro iyo 

consolidate,, adkai, tag, ad 
u tag. 

constancy, n., adkan, — ti, samir, 
— ki. 

constellation, n., urur hidigaah. 

constipation, n., 'alol ingeg^an, 
— ti. 

constipated, a., 'alol ingegan, 
nin 'alol ingegan leh. 




eonstruct,, dis, samai. 
construction, n., ilisnin, — ki, — 

ti, ahal samais, — ki. 
consult, and v.i., la fah, 

weidi, weidiso ; — your 

strength, italkaga la tasho. 
consultation, n., fah, — hi. 
consume,, babihi, lumi ; 

time consumes everything, gor 

ba wah walba babihisa. 
consumption, n., (disease) haho, 

— adi, lahaw, — gi. 
contemn,, fududai. 
contempt, %., fndaid, — ^ki. 
contemptible, a.,fudud, gun; — 

person, gumais,^ — ti. 
content, contentment, n., badad, 

— ki, raho, — adi. 
contest, and v.i., (dispute) ha 

la heshin, ha heshinina {plur.) ; 

we will — , iimagu heshiii 

continue, and v.i., hor u so'o, 

contract,, (shorten) gabi, 

yarai, yaraisi ; get or — a 

disease, 'udur ba kugu di'i; 

— a bad habit, aslub hun ba 

kugu di'i. 
contradict, v.i., (not to keep your 

word) hadalkaga beinai ; (op- 
pose verbally) asarar. 
contradiction, n., asarar, — ki. 
contradictor, n., (niu) asarar ba- 

dau, asarar weiu, asarar mi- 

contrary, «., (reverse) edis, — 

contrite (be),, homamai. 
contrition, n., homamais, — ^ki. 

contrivance, w,, (device) higmad 

or hikmad, — di. 
contumacy, it., (a wilful disobe- 
dience to any summons) didnin, 

— ti. 
canvalescence, n., ladnan, — ti. 
conversation, n., hasawai, — ihi. 
converse, v.i., hasaw. 
convey,, (carry) SO had, SO 

convict,, (prove guilty) ku 

garai ; be convicted, ka gar 

hel, garow. 
convoke, convocate, , so urori ; 

— to that place, meshas iss ugu 

gei, rag o dan n yed. 
convulsion, n., (spasm in children) 

abodi, — gi. 
cook, n., deriya karis, sor karis, 

— ki. 
cook,, bislai. 
cooked, a , bisil ; not — , ma 

bisla, 'edin, 'edinah. 
cool, a., habow. 
cool,, (make cool) habowji; 

v.i., (grow cool) habow; v.r., 

copper, n., nahas, — ^ti. 
copulation, n., (coupling) galmo, 

— adi, warmo, — adi ; — of 

camels, abaho, — adi ; — ■ of 

neat cattle, ofiio, — ihi. 
copulate,, (couple) u kahai 

ha ofiyaie ; v.i., saro, 
copy, n.., (a transcript) hadilad, 

— di. 
copy,, hadil. 
coral, n., (white) sha'ab or sha'b, 

— ki. 
cord, re., hadig, — ^gi. 




cork, n., for. 

cork,, (stop with, a cork) 

corn, n., (wheat) Sareiii — ki, mes- 

sego, — adi. 
cornea, n., indaha 'aloshada'ad, 

haid, — di ; — of the eye, isha 

corporal, n., (of police) 'awaldar, 

— ^ki, kabtil, — ki. 
corpse, n., bahti, — gi, miyidj — ^ki, 

rah, — di. 
correct,, tababar. 
corrupt,, (spoil) hudmi, ka 

bii, dilj u humai ; (become 

rotten) v.i., hudun. 
corrupted, a., hudimsaii) hud- 

corruption, n., huduiij — ki. 
cost, n., (price of a thing) gana', 

— di. 
cotton, n., udbi, — gi. 
cough, n., hufa', — fi'hij durai. 
cough, v.i., hufa'. 
council, n., shir, — ki ; go to the 

— , shirka tag. 
counsel, n., talo, — adi) wano, — 

count,, hisabij hisabo, tiri, 

countenance, n., jah, — hi. 
country, n., miyi, — gi, magalo, 

— adi, bilad, — ki, ardal, — 

courage, «., gesinimOj — adi, bUi, 

courageous (man), a., gesi, — gfi, 
gesiah, kelliya badan, kelliya 
leh, bilUeh, 

course of lile, n., 'emri, — gi. 

court-house, n., hakamad or ma" 

hakamad, — di. 
cousin, n., (paternal) ina ader, 

-'— ki ; (maternal) ina abti. 
covenant, n., (contract) ahdi,— gi. 
cover,, (overspread) huwi ; 

i).r., huwo, dabol ; — with the 

sheet, ded ; — the head to 

warm him, hiiri ; — the face 

to hide him, u hagog, u hagoji; 

■y.?-., u hagogo ; — with the 

shield, gabo. 
cover, n., (anything used to cover) 

dabol, — ki; • — of a boiler, 

dabol deri, sabj — ^ki. 
covered, a., dabolan. 
covet, v.i., dama'. 
covetous, a., dama'san. 
covetousness, n., dama', — ^hi, 
cow. n., sa', — hi ; herd ot cows, 

loS — di; a miloh — , irman, 

— ki; gaban, — ki, sa' gaba- 

nah ; — no longer milked, 

han, — ki. 
cow,, (dispirit) baji. 
coward, w., fulai or fula, — ihi, 

had, — ki. 
cowardice, n., bajis, — ki, fula- 

nimo, — adi. 
crab, n., (crustaceous fish) 'ar- 

sanyo, — adi. 
crack, n., ba', — di. 
crack, v.i., (burst, split) burur, 

dila', harah. 
cramp, n., (spa^m or contraction 

of the nerves) kabuliyo, — 

crawl, v.i., (creep) berka ku so'o, 

bogga ku so'o. 
cream, 7i,, laben, — ti. 




create, «ir.,abiir, un; be created, 
aburan, umanow. 

created, a., aburan, uman. 

creation, n., abumin, — ti. 

creature, n., un, — ki. 

credit, re., (belief; amin, — ki ; 
(reputation) mamus or namus, 
— ^ti ; taking on — , dein, — ki. 

creditor, n., nuika gasbiga kugu 

creed, n., (faith) amin, — ki, ami- 
nad, — di ; (rulw of faith) hai- 
nunka aminadda; the Apos- 
tles' Creed, ^ainunka rassnl- 

crepnscle, n., fid, — ki. mahrib, 
— ki, gabbal da', — di'hi, 

crescent, re., bil, — sM. 

crib, re., (manger) habal, — ki. 

crier (public), re., haraBh, — ki. 

crime, n., hujad,— di, hujad bun, 
dembi, — gi, 

criminal, a., hujadleb, bujad ba 

crimson, n., gudud, gududan. 

cripple, re., (per.=on) orjujun, — ki, 
lahad la, — ki — a, lug laan ; 
coiit,'enital — , alan, — ki, ala- 
nad, — di ; — by accident or, 'uriyan, — ki, 'uriiya- 
nad, — di. 

crocodile, n., jabas, — ti. 

crook, re., (any crooked instru- 
uient) hangol, — ki. 

crooked, a., hallohan; a man 
with — legs, nin luga hallo- 
ban, or nin dalba leh, I have 
seen the woman with - — Ipgs, 
nagti dalbaha lahaid ban 

crookedness, «., haUoh, halhalloh, 

— hi ; — of the legs, dalbo, 

— ^ibi. 
crop, n., (craw of fowls) 'alal, 

— ki. 
cross, re., salib, — ki, iss ku talab, 

— ti ; make a — , iss ku talab 

samai., a., (peevish) iss ku talabsan, 

hun, wah yela badan. 
cross,, (lay, or go across) ki 

talab, deh mar, weidaro; v.c, 

weidari ; why do you — me 

thus % mahad sidas iga hanuu- 

jinaisa ? 
croup, re., (buttocks of a horse) 

fan, — ki. 
crouch, v.i., (stoop low) dukus. 
crow, n., (bird) tukai or tuka,^ 

crowd, «., (multitude) bub, — hi, 

urur, — ki. 
crown, re., (of hair, left on girls) 

herar, — ki. 
crucify,, salibka ku mus- 

crude, a., (raw) 'edinah, 'edin. 
cruel, a., 'adow,— gi, bahal, — ki, 

cruelty, re., 'adownimo, — adi. 
crupper, re., (for a camel's saddle) 

daba gelis, — ki.,, (squeeze) burburi, 
crutch, re., (for a cripple) tuku- 

bai, — bihi. 
cry, re., (clamour) dawah, — hi, 

hailo,— adi, 'i,— di, orr,— ki; 

(lamentation) baror, — ^ti, mu- 

sanow,— gi, oin, — ki. 
cry, cry out, cry aloud, v.i., haili, 




'i, dawah, orri, yed; (weep) 
baroro, musanow, oi ; v.c, 
kag^a barori, kaga oi ; — 
the auction of the CHmels, 
ibka gela la ibinayo ku da- 

cubit, n., (measure) dudon, — ki. 

cuckoo, n., (a bird) guguleb, — 
lihi, gumais, — ti. 

cucumber, n., biyar, — ki, 

cud, n., (of ruminants) 'alal- 
nahsi, — gi, alya 'elis, — ^ki. 

cudgel, n., (a heavy stick) harai 
or hara, — IM. 

cultivate,, beir. 

cultivation, n., beir, — ti. 

cunning, a., hiyanah, hiyana leh, 
nejis, — ki. 

cunningness, «., Myau, — ki, lie- 
jisnimo, — adi. 

cup, «., (a small drinking vessel) 
fujan or flnjan, — ki. 

cup,, (to bleed by scarifica- 
tion and a cupping-glass) tob, 
cupping, tobnin, — ti. 
cupping-glass, or the horn 
(cornet) used in the place of it, 
tobin, — ki. 

cupper, nin wah toba, nag 
wah tobta ; the cupper, ninki 
wah tobijirai, nagti wah tobi 

cupboard, n., kabad, — ki. 

curbj n., (part of a bridle) dUT- 
madj^di, hilhad, — di. 

curd, n., (coagulated part of milk) 
gadod, — ki. 

curdle, and v.i., fadisi, ga- 

cure, w,, (restoration to health) 

boksis, — ki, boksin, — ti, bos- 
ki,— gi. 

cure,, (restore to health) 

boksi ; be cured, bokso ; he is 

cured, boksadai. 
curiosity, n., fudul, — shi, gnlad, 

— di. 
curifMis, a., gulawa, — ihi, fudul 

badan, faduliah, faduli, — gi. 
curl, «., (a ringlet of hair) suna- 

rad, — di, 
curl,, (form into ringlets) 

maroji, marori, soh. 
curled, a., marorsan, sohan. 
curry,, (dress leather) yel 

nah ; (a kind of sauce used in 

India) Bantmad, — di (see 

kahri in Suppt.). 
curse, n., habar, — ki, inkar, — ti, 

na'lad, — di or na'dal, — shi. 
curse,, habar, inkar, na'dal; 

v.i., Ilah 'ai, Ilah inkar. 
cursed, a., habaran, habar haba, 

inkaran, inkar haba, na'lad 

custom, n., (habit) dastur,— ti ; 

(tax) 'ashur, — ti. 
cut, «., (a gash) sarmo, — adi, 

sarsar, — ki. 
cut,, go, jar ; — into two 

parts, kala go or goi ; — into 

many parts, gogo, kala gogo ; 

— into small pieces (chop), 
kidif; — the skin, sar, sarsar; 

— meat, hal; v.r., iss go ; — 
for yourself, goso, gogoso ; be 
— , go. 




dabble, v.i., (in water) galgalo. 
dagger, n., (short sword) bilawa 

or bilawai, — ihi. 
daily, ad., gor or kol walba; 

every day, 'asho or malin 

dale, n., (a valley) far, — ti. 
dam, n., (a mole, a bank) deir, — 

ki, her, — ki. 
damnge, n., da'an, — ki, hasaro, 

— adi. 
damn,, (condemn to eternal 

torments in the future world) 

'adab ; a damned man, nin la 

damp, a., (wet) hoiyan. 
damp,, (moisten) hoi or ho. 
dance, n., 'ayar, — ti ; a kind of 

— , sa'ab, — ki. 
dance, v.i., (move with measured 

steps) 'ayar; v.c, 'ayarsi. 
danger, n., 'absi, — di, shil, — ki. 
dangerous, a., 'absileh ; not — , 

'absila, shilla. 
dare, v.i., (be not afraid of) ha 

bihin, sababo ; do not — , ka 

hisho, bah. 
dark, darkness, n., gudhur, — ki. 
dark, a., gudhur, gudhiirah, ma- 

dart, n., (javelin) waran, — ki. 
date, n., (time of an event) ayan, 

— ti ; (the fruit of the — tree) 

timir, — ti ; nice and clean — , 

bami,— di, hallawi,— gi, sa'- 

maran, — ^ti ; wild dates, mai- 

do, — adi. 

daughter, n., inan, — ti ; the — 
of Ali, ina Ali. 

dawn, n., (tlie break of day) aror- 
yo, — adi, gabbal so bah, — ki 
so beh. 

day, ?i.,' 'asho, — adi, ayan, — ti, 
darar, — ti, malin, — ti, 'ana 
mal, — ki, manta ; — and 
night, haben iyo darar ; make 
that in the — , dararti wahha 
fal ; a holiday, ayan, — ^ti ; 
Sunday is not a work — , 
ahaddi ayan hauled ma aha ; 
— by — , malin walba ; the 
next — , the following — , 
malinta dambe, malintan so 
so'ota ; the third — , or the — 
after to-morrow, sa dambe ; 
every other — , malin daf ; to- 
day, this — , manta, dararta, 
malinta ; all the — long, 
manto leili ; the — before 
yesterday, dorrad ; this many 
a — , beri hore waha jiraij 
this — week, malintan toto- 
badkeda ; the — after the — 
after to-morrow, sakub or sa- 

day-break, «., aroryo, — adi; — 
light, gabbal, — ki. 

dead, a., nin goai, nag godai; 
he is — , go ; the — men, 
dadki dintai. 

deaf, a., degala. 

deafness, n., degalaan, — ^ti. 

dear, a., (costly) adag, gana' 

death, n., dimad, — ki, dimasho, 
— adi, geri, — di, mot, — ^ki ; 
(for beasts) bahti, — gi. 




debauch,, (corrapt) hiimai, 

hatal, luini. 
debauchee, n., nin ain\)abai or 

lumai 01 Itmsan oi iss lumi- 

debaucher, n., liuniyai, — yihi. 
debt, n., gasM, — gi, han, — ti. 
debtor, «., nin gasMyaisan or 

decalogue, n., tobanka wasiadod. 
decapitation, n. (see beheading), 
decay, v.i., (decline); his strength 

decays, italkisa wahba ka 

deceit, n., (fraud) Myan, — ki, M- 

yano, — adi, hayan, — ki, hal- 

hal, — ^ki, hawayad, — ki. 
deceitful, a., hiyanah, hiyanaleh. 
deceive,, hiyanai, hayanai, 

hawiiisi, halhal, hatal, dufi, 

deceived, a., (man) nin la haya- 

naiyai, halhalan ; be — , v.i., 

hawai, hatalan. 
deceiver, n., (misleader) mahawi, 

— gi- 

decide,,, (determine) da'wad- 

da no mari ; — our dispute, 

honsigayaga ku tali. 
decision, n., talo, — adi. 
deck (of a ship), n., salah, — M. 
declivity, n., (slope) aror, — ki, 

babah, — hi, gol, — shi, sibi- 

bah, — di. 
decollate, (see behead), 
decrease,, din, hosaisi, ya- 

rai ; (grow less) diman. 
decree, n., (edict) hukun, — ki; 

what God has decreed, we 

must submit to, wahha Ebba- 

hai ina yidahdo inainu yella 

bainu lehnahai. 
deed, w., (action) falnin, — ki, or 

— ti. 
deep, a., der, husur. 
deepen,, si derai, 
defamation, n., 'eib, — ti, kashif, 

— ki. 
defame,, 'eibai, kashif, ma- 

mus jebi, 
defeat,, eri. 
defence, n., behnin, — ti. 
defend,, (protect) ka 'eli, ka- 

raw; v.r., iss karaw, iss ka 

defendant, n., (in law) mudali, 

— gi- 

defer, ?;.tr., (refer to) gabi, raji ; 

v.i., gab, rag, 
defile,, (make foul) dohbai, 

uskagai, wasahai. 
defiled, a., uskagaisan, wasahai- 

san, hallawsan. 
defraud, (nee cheat), 
defy,, (challenge) dandanso ; 

you must never — a fool, nin 

wallan ha dandansan. 
deject,, (cast down) ka hul- 

bi, hulubsi; be dejected, wa- 

han, hulub, hulubsanaw. 
dejected, a., hulubsan, nin wa- 

hamai or rnhmai. 
dejection, n., (melancholy) hulub, 

— ki, wahan, — ki. 
delation, n., dignin, — ti. 
delay, n., (deferring) ragnin, — ti. 
delay, v.i., rag, gab ;, raji, 

delectation, n., farhad,^ — di, raho, 

— adi. 




delegate,, (send) dir. 
delight, n., farah, — M, farhad, 

— di, raho, — adi. 
delight,, (please) ka farhi, 

rahaisi, rairaisi ; vA., (take — 

in) farhi, raho, rahaiso, rai- 

rai, badad. 
delightful, a., farahsan. 
deliver,, (give) bihi ; (set 

free) iss ka si da ; — up, ma- 

galada iss ka bihi. 
delivery, deliverance, n., (of goods) 

dibnin,— ti ; (birth of a child) 

umusho, — adi. 
delude,, dufi, dufso, halhal, 

deluge, «., dad, — ki, biyihi 'ar- 

rada rogai. 
demand,, (ask) sual, weidi, 

weidiso ; (claim) hanan, shego. 
demand, n., (question) sual, — ki, 

weidis, — ki ; (claim) ^anan, — 

demon, n., (a spirit) jiai or jinni, 

— gi; (the devil) shaidan, — 

demoniac, n., nin derderan. 
demonstrate,, rumai, tus. 
den, n., (cavern) boran, — ti, god, 

— ki. 
denial, «., (negation, refusal) da- 

firad, — di, didnin, — ti ; self- 

— , iss ne'ban, — ti. 
denigrate,, hano, 'eibai. 
denominate, vtr.. maga' u bihi. 
denounce,, dein ka tur. 
denouncer, delator, denunciator, 

n., dein ka tur, — ki. 
denudate,, hawi. 
denunciation, n., dignin,— ti. 

deny,, dafir, did, ha la he- 
shin, ha yelin ; he denied his 
God, Ilahhisu dafirai. 

depart, v.i., tag, ka tag, gur ; 
v?hen he departed, gortu gu- 
rai or tagai, 

depart, departure, departing, n., 
gumin,— ki, tegnin,— ki. 

deposit, n., amano, — adi. 

deposit,, aman, amano u 
dib, amano ku reb. 

deposition, »,, (in law) marhati, 

— gi- 

deprive,, (take off) ka had, 

farhad iss u did ; be deprived, 

'ala'al, da'anaw ha laga hado, 

bel. " 

depth, n., derer,— ki, deran,— 

descend, v.i., deg, so deg, ka so 

descent, w., (coming dov?n) deg- 

nin, — ti; (process of lineage) 

holo, — adi. 
desert, n., 'idla, — di, 'idla'irsUa, 

— di, miyi,— gi; a., <idla, 'id- 

design, n., (a purpose) dama',— 

design,, (purpose) dama'. 
desire, «., donin, — ti, weidis, — 

desire,, don, rab. 
desist, v.i., da, iss ka da. 
despair, n., (loss of hope) husad, 

— ki ; v.i., huso, iss ka huso. 
desperate, ??., nin iss ka hustai. 
despatch,, (send) dir, dahso 

u dir. 
despise,, fududai. 




despoil,, ka had, ka had, 

despoliation, n., rognin, — ti. 

despond, n. (see despair). 

destiny, n., (fate) ayan, — ki, 
wed, — ki. 

destitute, a., nin la na'ai. 

destroy,, babihi, bii. 

destruction, n., babiis,- — ki. 

detach,, kala kahai. 

detain,, (stop, keep) joji ; — 
him prisoner, ninka habsiga 
ku raji ; (hinder) u dib. 

deter,, 'absi, baji. 

determine,, (decide) (wah- 
has) ku tali; (influence the 
choice) ugu tali ; v.i., dama'. 

determinate, a., nin dama'san, — 
ki, dama'sana. 

determination, n., talo, — adi. 

detest,, (hate) na'. 

detestation, «., ne'ban, — ti. 

detraction, n., han, — ti. 

devastate,, rog. 

devastation, «., rognin, — ti. 

develop,, fiir. 

deviate, v.i. ; reason often de- 
viates, miyirku hajeila dauga 
wanaksan bu ka dua. 

device (see contrivance). 

devil, «., (evil spirit) shaidan, — 
ki, 'ifrid, — ki. 

devotion, n., 'ibadad, — di. 

devout, a., 'ibadad ja'el, 'ibadad 

dew, «., darab, — ki, sayah, — hi. 

dewy, a., darabsan, sayahsan. 

dewlap, n., (flesh hanging down 
from the throat of oxen) 'al, — 
shi or 'ad, — di, ma'al,— shi. 

dialect, n., af, — ki. 
dialogue, n., hadal, — ki. 
diamond, n., almas, — ki, deman, 

— ki. 
diarrhoea, n., dabahau, — di ; 

man has — , ninkasi dabaddu 

ka bahaya. 
dice, «., lafo, — ihi, 
die, v.i., (lose life) dimo, go, 

difference, w., (disparity) kala 

mid, — di; (dispute), what is the 

— 1 maha idin dehaiga ? 
different, a., kala mid. 
dig, dig up,, hod. 
digging, n., hoduin, — ki. 
dik-dik, n., (sand antelope) sa- 

karo or sagaro, — adi. 
dike, n., (mound) deir, — ki, her, 

— ki. 
dilacerate,, dila'i. 
dilapidate,, lumi. 
diligent, a., hauled. 
diminish,, din, gabi, yarai, 

yaraisi, yaraiso. 
dine,, dararo, hadai. 
dinner, n., dararad, — ki, hadimo, 

— adi, 'unno, — adi. 
dip,, (immerge) husi, dar, 

so dar ; (wet) hoi. 
direct, a., (straight) human, to- 

direct,, tos u wad, tos u 

kahai; — that letter to the 

governor, warhadda serkalka 

u gei or ku tosi. 
direction, n., (line of motion) 

ges,— ti, dan,— ki. 
dirge, «., (funeral song) dikri, — 





dirt, n., uskag, — gi, wasah, — M, 
nijas, — ti, saboh, — di, doro, 
— adi ; — of the teeth, huro, 
— adi. 

dirt, dirty,, (foul) uskagai, 
wasahai, sabai. 

dirty, a., uskagleh, uskagaisan, 
wasahaisan, nijasah, doro 
wein, saboh badan. 

disagree, v.i., did. 

disappear, v.i., libid. 

disappoint,, luggo. 

disappointed, a., txa. lugoai; be 

— ' liigo- 

disappointmeiit,n. ,ltiggoyo, — adi. 

disarm,, ftiro, ninka furo, 

hubka ka had. 
discern, v.i. ; — between truth 

and falsehood, run iyo bein 

kala so'o. 
discharge,, (unload) fur, ka 

so gur, ka so rog ; v.r., ka 

bah ; (dismiss) eri. _ 
disciple, n., radis, — ^ki. 
discipline, n., hainun, — ki. 
discontent, a., weirweirsan ; be 

discontented, weirweir ;, 

discontent, discontentment, «., 

weirweir, — ki. 
discontinue,, da, reb._ 
discord, n., honsimad,— ki. 
discourage,, (dispirit) hulub- 

si, ka hulbi; be discouraged, 

discoiiragement, n., huluB, — ki, 

wahan, — ki. 
discourse, n., hadal,— ki, hasa- 

wai,— ihi ; religious — , ma- 

salo, — adi. 

discover,, (disclose) fiir, ka 
had, dabolka ka had; (make 
known) ogaisi; (tind out) hel. 

discovery, n.. muh, — hi. 

discreet, a., fi'an, fojig. 

discretion, n., fi'nan, — ti, foji- 
gan, — ti ; age of — , garad, — 

discussion, n., (debate) masalo, — 
adi ; an aggressive — , honsi, 

— gi- 

disease, n., bukan, — ki, 'udur,-— 

ki ; contagious — , saboh, — di 
— of cows, sambab, — ki ; — 
of sheep, mindi 'iris dab ; — 
of lambs, hahlei ; — of kids, 
jahleh; — of sheep and goats, 
dogor rugmad, — ki. 

disembowel,, doh. 

disembark, v.i., deg, so dada' ;, deji, ka so deji, rog, ka 
so rog, ka so dadi'i, ka so 

disgrace, discredit, dishonour, n., 
hishod, — ki;, 'eibai, Ml. 

disguise,, midab dori or 
rog ; v.r., iss dori. 

disgust, n., yihyihsi,— gi, balaf, 
— ki ;, kaga yihyihsi. 

disgusted, a., yihyihsodai ; be 
— , yihyihso, na'. 

disgusting, a., yihyihsan. 

dish, n., (a vessel) wel, — ki, 
se'ni, — gi; — of wood, hedo, 
— adi ; large — , hedo balla- 
dan ; small — , hobad, — di. 

dishonest, a., hayanoleh, hi- 

disherit, disinherit,, dairi. 

disjoin,, faji, kala ftiji. 
o 2 




dislike, n., ma ja'alan, — ti; — 

of food, balaf, — ki;, ha 

ja'alan, balfi. 
dismay, n., (flight) bahdin, — ti, 

nahadin, — ti;, baji, kaga 

dismiss,, eri. 
dismount, v.i., (alight) deg. 
disohedience, /(., dega adkan, — 

ti, asi, — gi. 
disobedient, a., dega adag, 

disobey,, 'asi, did, ha mah- 

lin, ha yelin. 
disperse,, firdi. 
display,, (exhibit to sight or 

mind) tus, ogaisi, muji. 
disprove,, (confute) beinta 

ku rumai, beini. 
dispute, n. {see discussion), 
disrespectful, a., amus darran. 
disseminate,, firdi, iss ka 

dissension, disunion, «., honsi- 

mad, — di. 
dissdJve,, (melt) dahaji, da- 

lali; v.i., dalal. 
dissuade,, ka du. 
distance, n., fogan, — ti ; a short 

— , odrogad, — ki. 
distant, a., fog, shishai ; a — 

place, mel fog. 
distinct, a., so'an, kala so'an, 

kala mid. 
distinction, n., sa'din, — ti. 
distinguish,, kala garo, kala 

distract,, jedi. 
distress, n., (calamity) ayan 

humo, — adi. 

distribute,, haibi, u haibi, 

distribution, n., haib, — ti. 
district, n., (a quarter) hafad, — 

disturb,, dali. 
ditch, n., (a trench) hatah, — di, 

boran, — ti, 
dive, v.i., hus, muhur. 
divert,, (entertain) ayarsi, 

jalbebi; v.r'., jalbebo. 
divide,, kala go, haibi, 
divine, a., hodusah, 
division, ■«., haib, — ti. 
divorce, n., farniii, — ti ;, 

divorced, a., furan; a — ■woman, 

nag furan. 
dizziness, n., (whirl in the head) 

madah wareir, — ki. 
dizzy, a., hof maduhhu ware- 

rayo ; (make giddy) wareri. 
do,, fal, samai, yel; all is 

done, gidi damadai ; I know 

not what to — with them, 

anigu wahan ku falo garan 

doctor, n., (in physic) hakim, — 

ki, dahdar, — ki, 
doctrine, n., dabta, — hi. 
dog, n., ei,— gi; hyaena, yeyi, 

dogma, n., dab, — ti. 
dolour, n., hanun, — ki. 
dome, n., kubad,— di. 
domestic (see servant), 
doom, n., hisab, — ti. 
door, n., albab, — ki, illin, — k 

dah,— hi. 
double,, labai. 




doubt, n., mala, — iM, wiswis, — 
ki;, malai. 

doubtful, a., malaisan. 

dough, «., 'ajin, — ti. 

dove, n., hamam, — ^ki ; turtle — , 
feolli,— di. 

down, «., (of birds) Md, — di. 

down, prp. and ad., daf, — ta, 
hos, — ta ; fall — , ku da' ; go 
— the hill, burta hos uga Aeg, 
or burta daf, or burta hos u 
daf; go — the stream, dur- 
durka si ra' ; come — , so deg, 
ka so deg ; lie — , jifso ; sit 
— , fadiso ; the wind is — , 
dabaishi da'dai; the moon is 
— , dayihhi de' ; the sun is — , 
horahdi da'dai ; up and — , 
dul iyo hos, dushiyo hosta ba 
warwareg ; get — , dada' ; 
make him get — , so dadi'i. 

downcast, a., (dejected) nin ruh- 
mai ; be — , ruhan. 

dozen, n., derjin, — ki; a — of 
eggs, derjin ugahhanah. 

draff, w., (sweepings) hushash, — 

drag,, (draw) SO jid. 

dragon, n., mas dula,- mas la- 

dram,, (draw off water) bi- 
yaha gudi or go or lih. 

draught, n., (drinking at once) 
antugo, — adi ; I drank it at 
a — , antugo kelian ku lihai. 

draw,, (pull) jid, jidjid, so 
or si jid, so jidjid, ka so bihi ; 
— up water, dowli ; — back, 
dib u 'eli, dib u noho ; the 
night draws on, habenki wa 

so so'oda ; my fate draws nigh, ' 
geridaidi wa so so'ota or 
dowdahai ; (represent by pic- 
ture) sawir. 

drawing, n., sawir, — ki. 

dread, dreadfulness, n., bahdin 
or bahnin, — ti. 

dread, dreadful, a., 'absileh, laga 
'abso, laga boho. 

dream, «., dadab, — ki, riyo,- - 
adi, riyod, — ki, tamanta,— 
ihi; v.i., dadab, riyo. 

dress, ra., (cloth) dar, — ki ; So- 
mali — , maro, — adi, haiH, — 
gi ;, hnwi, hamiska u 
geli ; — yourself, hnwo, gas- 

drink,, 'ab, dan, fiid; v.c, 
'absi, dansi ; — liquors, wine, 
iss ku dufo ; do you — wine ? 
ma iss ku dufata ? 

drive,, (guide) jid ; — away, 
off, eri ; (compel) ku eri ; — 
the nail in the table, musmar- 
ka miska ku eri ; — out, ka 

drizzle, drizzling rain, n., 'adar, 
— ki ; it drizzles, 'adar dah, or 
'irku wa 'adar dahaya. 

drogman, n., af ayen, — ki. 

drone, ra., (male bee) hunhani, — 

drop, n., dibi', — di, tifih ; a — 
of water, tifih biyaah. 

dropsy, n., (sickness) bararshai, 

drought, ra., abar, — ti. 

drown,, hafi ; v.r., iss hafi ; 
Ije drowned, hafo. 

drowning, ra., hafin, — ti. 




drowsy (sleepy), a., (nin) hurda, 
damadsan, gama'san, lulo ba- 

drowsiness, n., lulo, — adi. 

drum, 11., durban, — ki. 

drunk, a., sahransan, lihsan ; be 
— , sahran ; make him — , 
kaga sahrami; make yourself 
— , iss ku dufo. 

dry, a., halalan, ingegan ; be — , 
halal, ingeg ;, halaji, ha- 
lali, ingeji. 

duck, ra., badag, — gi;, (im- 
merse) husi, muhuri. 

ducking, n., muhuraslio, — adi. 

due, a. ; it is money — , la'agtan 
amah ba la ig^ lehyahai ; 
come in — time, gor gorah 
kalai, or gor wanaksan kalai ; 
that letter is written in — 
form, warhadas si wanaksan 
ba la horai ; n., give everyone 
his — , nin walba wahhisa ha 
la siyo ; we must give the 
devil his — , shaidaaka wuh- 
hu lehyahai an sino. 

dug, w., (udder, nipple) 'ando, — 

dull, a., hulabsan, dohon, — ki, 
sUa'n (lor work) ; to make 
dictionaries is a — work ; iss 
ku daranka eraiyada wa shu- 
hul sUa'n. 

dumb, a., (mute) 'arrabla ; deaf 
and — , 'arrab iyo dega ba la, 
or 'arrab lo dega la. 

dumbness, n., 'arrablaan, — ti. 

dung, n., (excrement) har, — ki, 
saharo, — adi, us, — ki ; of ca- 
mels, horses and cattle, fanto, 

— adi, fulul, — ki (when dry) 

and falti, — di (when liquid) ; 

— of camels, sheep and goats, 

salo, — adi. 
dust, n., amud, — di, habas, — ki, 

sesa or sisa, — di, sigo, — adi, 

sufur, — ti. 
duty, n., (tax) 'ashur, — ti. 
dwarf, n., 'ilin, — ki {mas), 'Ui- 

mad, — di (Jem.). 
dwell, v.i., fadi, jir, jog, rugaiso. 
dwelling, «., rug, — ti, fadi, — gi, 

guri,— gi, jog,— gi. 
dye, n., sibah, — hi;, sibah. 
dyer, n., nin sibahah. 
dying, a., (expiring) nin dima- 

naya ; he is in a — state, wa 

nin hai ka si bahaisa. 
dysentery, n., dabadig, — ti, hun- 

dur, — ti ; — of horses and 

cattle, darfa', 'ihi. 


each, a.prn., walba, waliba ; — 

one, mid waliba, middiba, 

eager, a., dahso badan. 
eagle, n., bahaiya, — ihi ; (a kind 

of) kolambai, — badi. 
ear, n., deg, — ti ; — lap, dahal, 

— shi. 
early morning, ad., wa beri. 
earn,, hogso ; — your bread, 

naftada u hogso. 
earnest, a., hog badan. 
earring, «., Uhad, — di. 




earth, n., amud, — di, 'arro, — adi, 

'id,— di, dul,— ki, il,— ki, 

dimy®, — adi, duni, — di, berri, 

— gi ; — quake, dul garir, — 

earthen, «., 'id laga samaiyai ; 

an — pot, adar, — kL 
ease, w., Tiaulyari, — di, ladnan, 

— ti, barah, — hi ; live at — , 

haulyari ku jir ; take your — , 

l)arah u fadi ; give him some 

— , inu naso u fasah. 
ease,, (relieve) sahal; this 

will — you, tan wa ku tadna- 

easy, a., sahalan. 
east, n., bari, — ^gL 
eat,, 'un; be eaten, Itigu 

'un ; it is eaten, la 'TUi, 
ebb, n., (low tide) 'ari, — di ; v.i., 

'ari ; the sea ebbs, baddi 'ari- 

echo, n., dayan or diyan, — ^ki ; 

v.i., diyan or dayan. 
eclipse (of the sun), n., hosis or 

hosas, — ^ki 
economize,, dah, daho. 
edge, n., (cutting part of any 

instrument) af, — ^ki ; (brink) 

girgir or jitjir, — ^ki, dartir, — 

ki, farah, — hi 
educate,, bar, kori, u tali ; 

be educated, kor ; educated 

with, la kor, 
education, n., barnin, — ti, koris, 

— ki 
eel, n., (a fish) hud, — ki. 
efface,, hahihi, bii. 
egg, n., beid,— ki, ugah, — hi, 

ngahan,— ti 

eight, num., sided, — di; eighth, 
sidedad; one-eighth (|), fal- 
lad, rima'. 

eighteen, num., sided iyo toban, 
— ki. 

eighty, num., sidehtan, — ki. 

either, prn., ama ; either ... or 
not, hadi ... iyo hadikaleh, 

elbow, n., husul, — ki 

elder, a., ka wein, kan kaleh ka 

eldest, a. and «., (tirst-boin) 
'urad, — ki. 

elephant, n., marodi,— gi. 

eleven, num., kowb iyo toban, — • 
ki ; eleventh, kowb iyo tob- 
nad, — ^ki, — ti. 

eloquent, a., af yahan, — ki, nin 
af yahanaL 

else, a. ; Hassan or any one — , 
Hassan ama nin kasta; no- 
body — will come, nin kaleh 
iman mayo, or nin kaleh o 
dami . . . ; he did that when he 
had nothing — to do, wuhu 
falai koiku wuhu habto o dan 
wahyai ; nowhere — , mel ka- 
leh dan tegi mayo ; ad., 
ama, hadikaleh se; go your 
ways, or — I will beat you, 
daugaga habso, hadikaleh se 
ban usha ku la do'o. 

emasculate,, dufan. 

embark, v.i., dof, ful;, dfifi, 
dofsi, full. 

embarkation, n., dof, — ki. 

embassador (of peace), n., ergo, 
— adi ; embassy, ergo, — adi 

embers, «., dambas kidul, raran, 
— ki. 




emlDlem, n., sumad, — di. 

embrace,, (take a lull hand) 
ka buhso. 

emetic, n., dawada ka mantajisa. 

eDiploy,^ (for work) niuka 
sliiiiul u habo, shuhiil si. 

employment, n., haill, — shi; un- 
employed, haul la, shuhul la. 

empty, a., babah, madan ; be — , 
mado ;, madi. 

enchant,, fal. 

enchanter, n., nin wah fal, nag 
wah fasba (Jem). 

enchantment, m., fel, — ki. 

enclose,, od. 

enclosure, n., hero, — adi ; small 
— , mahal herais, — ki, — ti ; 
make an — , hero od. 

encourafie,, la tosi, la hagaji, 
gesiuimo u yel. 

end, n., ahir, — ki, idlan, — ti; 
last — or breath (death), Ugu 
dambais, — ti; the — of the 
year, sanadda ahirkedi or id- 
lanti ; go to the further — of 
the street, surinku meshu ku 
go tag ; he draws towards his 
— , ugu dambaistisi bu dow- 
yahai ; the ultimate — is 
death, judgment, heaven or 
hell, kolki ugu dambaisai, or 
dugta ugu dambaisa wa gerri, 
iyo hisab, iyo janno ama' 

endeavour, v.i., hausho, haul gal. 

endless, a., an idlan lahain, an 

idlan ahain. 
endure,, (support) hado, U 

enemy, n., 'adow, — gi, 'oil, — ^ki ; 

become, be — with, la 'ollow 

{sing.), 'oUoba (plur.). 
energetic, a., nin haiiled, hog 

engage,, (stake as a pledge) 

u dibo, rahaji; (employ, enlist) 

habso ; — in a bad way, hal- 

hal, hatal. 
English, a., ingris, — ki ; an 

Englishman, nin ingrisah ; — 

language, af ingris. 
engrave,, harad. 
enlarge,, balladi, weinai. 
enlighten,, iftimi, shid, si- 

rad, dabka bihi. 
enmity, «., 'ollad, — di. 
enough, ad., bas ; that is — , 

intasa ku fllan ; — for me, 

aniga igu filan ; — for us, 

annaga nogu filan ; not — , 

diman, nag^ ma filla. 
enquire,, weidi. 
enrage,, (provoke) kaga 

ensign, «., 'alan, — ki ; — staff, 

hori 'alan, — ki. 
enslave,, bidai ka dig. 
entangle,, iss ku mergi ; be 

entangled, iss ku mereg. 
entanglement, n., mereg, — gi. 
enter, v.i., (come or go in) gal, 

SO gal ; — for, u so gal ; v.c, 

geli, so geli. 
entertain,, (converse) ha- 

sawi ; (treat at table) hadaisi ; 

(amuse) jalbebi. 
entertainment, n., hasawai, — ihi; 

diafad, — di, jalbeb, — ^ti. 
entice,, dufso, halhal, hatal, 




enticement, n., dufsasho, — adi, 

halhal, — ki, sasabaslio, — adi. 
entire, a., daman, dan, dami, 

idil, leil. 
entrails, n., uslaho or usloho, — 

adi, uslahais, — ti. 
entrance, n., (entry) illin, — ki. 
entrap,, (ensnare) dab. 
entreat,, (solicit) bari. 
enumerate,, midmid u tiri. 
envelop,, dudub. 
envplope, n., [a cover, wrapper) 

kish, — ki. 
envious, a., hasid, — ki. 
envy, n., hasidnimo, — adi, histi, 

epilepsy, n., siihdin, — ti ; have a 
fit of — , suh. 

epiploon, n., ha'id alolo, — adi, 
haid mindi'iro, — adi. 

epithet, n., nanais, — ti. 

epoch, epocha, n., ayamo, — iM, 
tarih, — hi. 

equal, a., iss ku mid, iss ku si- 
man, iss leh eg ; not — , iss 
ku mid ma aha, iss ma leh 

eradicate,, ruji. 

eradication, n., rujin, — ti, nijis, 
— ki. 

eremite (hermit), n., nin goniah, 
'idla fadiya, 'idla degah, 

err, v.i., hatalan, iss hatal, ^a- 

error, n., hatalad, — di. 

escape, n., bahsad, — ^ki, ya', — hi;, ka bahso ; v/e cannot — 
temptation, huffinta ka bahsan 
kari maino ; v.i., bahso, ya'a 
(used in the plur). 

espouse,, gurso. 

espousals, n., gur, — ki, g;ursad, 

espy, and v.i., so ilalai, ilalo 

establish,, ka SO sar ; — the 

true religion, dinta rnntaah 

ka so sar. 
esteem, n., murwad, — di ;, 

estimate, n., (value set) hadari, 

— gi- 

eternal, a., had iyo gor, dayim. 

eternity, n., dayiman or dayimis, 
— ki. 

European, n., frenji, — gi. 

eunuch, n., nin dufanam, koron, 
— ki. 

evaporate, and y.t.,'galibihi; 
the sun evaporates water, ho- 
rahdu biyaha wa galibihisa ; 
the fire evaporates water, dab- 
ku biyaha wa galibihiya or 

evaporation, n., galibah, — ihi. 

evening, n., galab, — ti, 'asar, — 
ki, mahrib, — ki ; come at — , 
galab or galabta kalai. 

ever, a., weli. 

everlasting {see eternal). 

every, a., kasta, walba ; every- 
where, mel kasta, mel walba. 

evidence, n., marhati, — gi. 

evident, a., muhda, muhata 

evil, n., human, — ti, shar, — ki ; 
— doer, layan, — ki ; do — to 
him, u humai ; what — have 
I done to you ^ mahan kugu 
humaiyai ? 




ewe, «., lah, — di, sabein, — ti. 
examine,, beji, hubso, taslio, 

so tasho, si tasbo. 
except, j3?73., mabae, mabe. 
exchange, »., dafsasbo, — adi, 

dafsis, — ki;, dafl, dafso, 

dori, dorso. 
excoriatioD, n., dirail, — ki ; ex- 
coriated, diran. 
excrement, n., US, — ki, 
excrescence, n., (of flesh in a sore) 

adad, — ki. 
excuse, /i., samab, — ibi, hal, 

— ki; (pardon), 'affi, sar 

exhaust,, (drain) gudi, madi; 

be exhausted, ruhan. 
exhibition, n., tusnin, — ti, muj- 

nia, — tL 
exile,, dairi; re., dairis, — ki; 

exiled, dairsan. 
exist, v.i., jir ; the soul is certain 

of her existence, naftu wa 

bubta inai jirto. 
existing, a., nol. 
expect,, (wait for) sug, u 

jed, u kadi, u jog, u jogso, 

ninka daur. 
expectation, re., SUgnin, — ti. 
expel,, (drive away) eri, 

safiri or masafiri, ka sar ; ex- 
pelled, safirsan. 
expend,, bihi. 
expense, re., bihis, — ki, haraj, 

— ki ; useless — , basaro, — 

experience, n., ahli, — gi. 
experiment, re., bejis, — ki. 
expiate {see atone), 
expiation, n., tobad ken, — ki. 

expire, iKtr., ugu dambaistada 

explain,, muji. 

explaining, explanation, n., muj- 

explicate,, (disentangle) fur- 

explorator, n., nin magalada so 
deb mara o ilalaiya, or uin 
magalada ilalaiya. 

explore,, ilali, so ilalai. 

explosion, re., harah, — ihi. 

export,, magalada ka sar o 
Aden u sar. 

exportation and importation, n., 
wahha magalada so gala iyo 
wabka magalada ka baha. 

expose,, (show) muji, tus; 
■ — a child, dabsi ; — your life, 
naftada ku sabab. 

exposure, re., (of goods) mujis, — 

express,, u sbeg. 

expressly, ad., ogan u ; I did that 
— , ogan ban u falai. 

expulse [see expel). 

expulsion, re., masafiris, — ^ki. 

extend,, (stretch out) SO 
bibi, tikso ; (enlarge) weinai ; 
v.i., gad ; the SoiDali country 
extends as far as the Abyssi- 
nian, dulka Somalida kan 
Abshantu gada. 

exterior, re., dibad, — di. 

extinction, re., idlau, — ti, babiis, 
— ki. 

extinguish,, bahti, babii, 

extort,, ka dufo, ka had, ka 
bog, muhuni. 




extortion, n., muhimo, — adi. 
extract,, ka SO bihi, 
extraordinary, a., yaban, yabsan, 

yableh, yab haba. 
eye, n., il, — sM; eyes, indo, — 
ihi ; — ball, the pupil, isha 
inankeda, or isha wilkeda, 
indaha wilkoda (pl.ur.) ; — 
beam, glance, daimo, — adi, 
egmo, — adi ; — brow, kod, — 
ki ; — drop, ilmo, — adi. 

black-eyed, a., nin. inda 
madow ; pink-eyed, nin inda 
yaryar; grey-eyed, nin inda 
owlan ; one-ej ed, hof awaran, 

one-eyed person, n., 'awar, 
— ki. 

be one-eyed, v.i., 'awarnaw, 
'awarahaw, 'awaran, 'awar 

eye-lash, n., isha balkedi, 
indaha balkoda (plur.). 

eye-lid, n., hirib, — ti; Tapper 
— , hirib sarai, — ti; lower — , 
hirib hosai. 

eye-sight, n., arag, — gi. 

eye-sore, a., isha bog ku 

eye-tooth, n., mi'i, — di ; — 
teeth, mi'iyo, mi'iyihi. 

iris of the eye, «., buh, — di, 
isha buhdeda, indaha bnh- 

cornea of the eye, to., isha 
'alosheda 'ad, indaha 'alo- 
shoda 'ad (plur.). 


face, re., weiji,— gi, hagag,— gi, 

jah, — hi, fayo, — ihi. 
facile, a., jilai'san, shuhul jilai'- 

san, sahalan. 
fagot, «., hidmo habaah, — adi, 

habaha ahaid. 
fact, re., falnin, — ti, wah la 

falai ; take him in the — (act), 

runta ku habo ; matter of — , 

dab, — ti ; it is a matter of — , 

wa dabti. 
fail, v.i. ; he has failed to do his 

duty, he must, be dismis.sed, 

wah hun bu falai e shuhulka 

ha laga saro ; the day begins 

to — , darartu wa damanaisa 

or libdaisa, 
faint, a., suhsan, weidsan ; v.i., 

weidow, suh. 
fainting, n., weld, — ki ; — fit, 

suhdin, — ti. 
fair, a., bahsan, hurohsan, shu- 

ban ; — sex, dnmar, — ki. 
fairness, re., 'adan, — ti, — ki. 
fairy, n., huliad, — di. 
faith, n., (belief) amin, — ki, din, 

• — ta ; (fidelity) dar, — ti. 
faithful, a., amiaa, — ihi, nin 

faithless, a., dar jid, — ^ki. 
fakir, faquir, re., fakir, — ki ; go 

and beg always for the same 

thing, ku si fakirow. 
fall, n.. ku&in, — ti; heavy — , 

hambaro, — adi ; he is dead of 

his — , kufnintisi bu u dintai ;, da', kuf ; — on the 




ground, flulka ku da'; — for- 
ward, hor u kuf ; — backward, 
dib u kuf ; — headlong, ina- 
dah u or ku kuf; — from, ku 
so da' ; that fell into his mind, 
wahhasi u da'dai ; ^ in, on, 
ku da', ku dufo ; — heavily, 
hambarow; v.c, kufi leged» 
ku rid, bambarai. 

fallacious, a., hiyano leh. 

falling, n., (of the fleece or hair 
of animals) dogor rugmad) — 
ki ; (of a man knocked down) 
gagab, — ki. 

fallow beast, w., ugad, — di. 

false, a., beinah ; prove — , beini. 

falsehood, falseness, n., bein, — ti, 
halalif, — ti, hawayad, — di. 

falter {see stammer). 

family, n., has, — ki, rer, — ki. 

famine, «., abar, — ti, dihal,— ki. 

famish,, (starve) abarai, 
dihali ; v.i., (die of hiinger) 
abar or abarow, dihalanow. 

fan, n., marawahad, — di ; (m- 
strurapnt for winnowing grain) 
masaf, — ki. 

fancy, «., husus, — ti, miyir, — ki. 

fang, ■«., (tusk) mi'i, — di. 

fantasia, n., dabaldeg, — gi. 

far, ad., fog, mel fog ; farther, 
ka fog ; farthest, ugu fog ; go 
so — , sidas u fogow ; you 
must learn so — , sidas u baro ; 
so — as I can gueas, sidas U 
malain karo ; how — 1 intai 
jirta? how — is it thither 1 
mesbasi intai ino jirta 1 do 
you know how — he has gone 
away ? intu fogadai ma gara- 

naisa? go — , fogow; go far- 
ther, si fogow; — off, away, 

farewell ! int., amana Allah ! na- 
bad gelyo ! salamad ! 

fart, n., duso, — adi ; v.i., dus. 

fashion, n., dastur, — ti ; this is 
our — , baragadayada wa 

fast, n., (fasting) sOn, — ki ; v.i., 
son ; a., (firm) adag ; as — as 
a mountain, sida bur kale- 
hab u adag ; (speedy) dahso u 
so'o ; a ^ — or deep sleep, burdo 
Wein ; he is in a — sleep, bur- 
do wein bu ku jira ; ad., hold 
— , heji, ad u heji ; boil — , 
ad u kari ; do not write so — , 
dahso ha u horin. 

fasten,, adkai, hid. 

fastening, fastness, n., adkan* — ti. 

faster, n., (a fasting man) saim, 
— ki, nin saimah, nin soman. 

fat, a., shilis, buran, nahsan; 
become — , nah ; «., bar'ur, — 
ti ; dayi, — gi ; the — of the 
tail, badi, — di. 

fate, n., (destiny) ayan, — ki, 
wed, — ki. 

father, n., abba, — ihi ; (for 
religious or priests) badri, — 
gi ; — in-law, soddog, — gi. 

fatigue, n., 'ato, — adi, dal, — ki. 

fatigued, a,, 'ataisan, dalan, da- 
shan ; be — , 'atow, dal. 

fault, 11., hatalad, — di, tahsir, — 
ti, dembi, — gi, 

favour, n., (partiality) eho, — adi, 
ehasho, — adi ;, (be partial) 
eho, ka eho. 




fawn upon,, hayahayai. 

fawning, «., (flattery) hayohayo, 
— adi. 

fear, n., (dread) 'absi, — di, bah- 
din, — ti ; v.i., (be afraid) 'abso, 
bah;, (frijrhten) 'absi, ka 
baho or boho, baji, 

fearless, a., 'absila. 

feast, n., 'id, — di, siyaro, — adi, 
siyarad, — di ; make a — , 'id, 

feather, n., bal, — ki. 

feature {see face). 

fecal matters, n., saharo, — adi, 
har, — ki, 

fecundity, n., dalasho, — adi. 

feed, »., (food) sor, — ti, sabbar, 
— ki, soryo, — adi, masruf or 
musriif, — ki ;, sor, sab- 
bar, sabbaro ; — the cattle, 
dahgei, daji ; — your family, 
masruf; «.«'., he lives on fruits, 
mido bu ku nolyahai ; he lives 
like a Somali, sida dadka So- 
malied bu u 'tiua. 

feel, v.i., tabo ; v.c, tabsi ;, 
I — a great pain, hanuu hun 
ba i haya, or ad ban u hanun- 
sanaya ; how do you — your- 
self '! or how do you do ? sidad 
tahail mahad jogta? mahad 

feeling, n., tabasho, — adi ; hav- 
ing the same feelings, iss ku 
talo ; have a had — against, 
felicitate [see congratulate), 
felicity, n., farah, — ibM, rabo, — 

adi, rahad, — ^di. 
fell,, (cut down) go, jifi, leged. 

fellow, n., wehel, — ki. 
female, n., didig or dadig, — gi 

a., didig. 
fence, n., hero, — adi, od, — di, (inclose) od. 
ferment, n., hamir, — ki, 
ferocious, a., dadhunah. 
ferocity, n., dadhun, — ki. 
fertile, a., barwahaisau ; fertile 

place, ramash, — ki. 
fertility, «., barwaho,— adi. 
fervent, a., kulul, 'ibadad badan. 
fester, v.i., (grow virulent) 'alid 

or 'alir. 
fetch, «., (device) hikmad, — di ;, so had, la kalai, ken, 

fetid, a., hudmun, ur hudmun. 
fetter,, (bind) siisiladai, sil- 

silad ku jebi, heg, dabdabar, 

shekal, hofali, iss weidari, 

fetters, «., (trammels) hofal, — ki, 

dabar, — ki, heg, — gi, shekal 

or shakal, — ki, setto, — adi, 

iss weidar, — ki. 
feud, «., diiir, — ^ti, honsi, — gi, 

'ollad, — di. 
fever, n., dahan, — ti ; a violent 

or burning — , fallad hun oc 

kulul ; fit of — , hadhaiiyo, — 

field, n., doho, — adi, hahlad, — di, 
fifind, n., (devil) 'iftid, — ki. 
fierce, a., dad'una ; a — camel, 

rati dad'unah, — gi, dad 'unka 

fife, n., bibileb, — iM. 
fifteen, num., shan iyo toban, — 





fifth, 7!um., shanad, — ki, — di. 
fifty, num., konton, — ki ; fiftieth, 

kontomad, — ki, — di. 
fig, n., berde or berda, — ihl, 

darai, — gi. 
fight, n., dagal,— ki, dirir, we- 

rar, — ki, harbi, — gi; v. tr. and 

v.i., dirir, dagalan, Werar, 

harbi, la dirir, la dagalan, la 

harbi wah ka werar ; — for, 

ku taba'. 
figure, «., (shape) surrad, — di, 

midab, — ki ; — of a calf, ma- 

har, — ki ; — ^ of a camel, ma- 

harsar, — ki ;, (form into 

a shape) midab u yel. 
file, n., (tool) sofa, — ihi;, 

fill,, buhi, buhso, so dami, 

dar, so dar. 
filled, a., buhsan ; be — , buhsan, 

filiy, n., darman, — ti. 
film, n., (of the brain) hub, — ki ; 

our brain is hidden by a thin 

pellicle, mas ka'denu hub bai 

ku harsoutabai. 
filter, n., (strainer) darur, — ti ;, darur. 
filth (see dirt), 
fin, n., bal, — ki. 
find,, hel ; do not — , wah ; 

— out thy food, helhel, tab. 
fine, a., bahsan, hurohsan, hu- 

rohbadan ; n., (penalty) hasir, 

— ki ;, set a — upon, 

finger, n., far, — ti ; the fore — , 

murdiso or murudsato, — adi ; 

middle — , far doho, — adi ; 

ring — , 'awo, — adi, fadumo, 
—adi ; little — , far yaro, — 

finish,, damai, damaiso, 
idlai, halas, laso. 

finished, a., dama, daman, halas 

fire, n., dab, — ki; a great — , og, 
— ti ; — brand, hori dableh, 
duhul dambasleh ; light of the 
— , ilais, — ki ;, set on — , 
dabka shid ; — that housp, 
ahalka gub ; set on — , dabka 
belbelli or ololi or nolai. 

fire-stone, n., dardar, — ki ; the 
three stones on which they 
place the boiler are called, 
dardaro, — adi. 

fire-tongs, n., birrhab, — ki. 

firm, a., adag, tagan ; be — , 
tagnow, a^aw, iss adkai. 

firmness, «., adkan, — ti, tag, — 

firmament, n., 'ir, — ki. 

first, num., kowad, — ki, — di, 
horai, kan horai ; the — cove- 
nant, ahdigi horai ; the — 
man of the town, ninka maga- 
lada ugu horaiya ; be the — , 
ugu or u horai ; go — , horai ; 
ad., horta, hor, gorti horai ; 
go — , hor u so'o ; — begot, or 
— begotten, <urad, — ki, ki u 
hor dashai. 

fish, n., kalun, — ki; saw — , 
daba safan, — ki;, catch 
— , jilab, so jilab, jilabo ; 
where did you catch that — \ 
haggad ka so jilabatai ta ? 

fisher, fisherman, n., sayad, — ki. 

fishing, »., jilabasho, — adi. 




fishing-boat, n., kalumaisato, — 

fist, w., tantomo, — adi, tumujo, 
— adi ;, tanton, tumujai. 

fistula Jacrymalis, n., il yaro, — 

fit, a. ; he is — for that employ- 
ment, isagii hausha wa haban. 
kara ; it is not — for you to 
speak so, adigu inad sida u 
hadasMd ku ma eka ; he is — 
for war, dagal wa ka adag' 
yahai;, (suit); that shirt 
fits me very well, hamiskasi wa 
i leh egyahai ; «,, sudden — 
of burning fever, hando, — adi. 

five, num.,, — ti. 

fix,, (make fast) dab, tag; 
— a day, malin ballan ; — 
your dwelling there, fadigaga 
halka ka d's or ka sar ; — a 
handle, dab ku joji. 

fixity, »., tag, — ti. 

flag, «., 'alan, — ^ki; — staff, hori 
'alan, — ki. 

flagellation, n., karbash, — ki, 
ulais, — ki, sergad, — di, gara- 
'is, — ki. 

flageolet, n., bibileh, — lihi. 

flake, n., (flock of wool) rifan, — 
ki ; — of fire, diabil, — shi, 
bilig,— ti. 

flame {see blaze). 

flash (of lightning), n., danab, — ki. 

flask, n., (kind of bottle) weiso, 
— adi. 

flat, flatten,, banai, sin, iss 
ku sin ; a., banan, siman. 

flatter,, sasab, sasabo, hayar 

flattery, n., sasab, — ki; sasaba- 

sho, — adi. 
flavour, n., dadan, — ki. 
flay,, (strip off) dubka ka 

bihi, haragg^ or santa ka 

flea, n., injirbodo, — adi, takfi,— 


flee, v.i., (to fly) bah. 
fleece, n., dogor, — ti. 
flesh, n., Mlib, — ki, 'ad, — ^ki, 

jid, — ki, jimid, — ki. 
flexibility, n., lih, — hi. 
flexible, a., lihah.; a — stick, «1 

flier, n., nin 'araraya, nin bah- 

Sight, n., 'arar, — ki, bahsi, — gi, 
ya',— hi. 

fling,, rid, rido, ku rid. 

flint (silex), n., dagah madow, 
— gi, du'un, — ti. 

float, v.i., sabai ; floating, n., 
sabais, — ki. 

flock, n., (of people) g^to, — adi, 
uruT, — ki, fadi, — gi ; a — of 
horses, fadi fardaah, or kadin 
fardaah; a — of cows, neat 
cattle, fadi lo'ah, or kadin 
lo'ah; (they say a 'so for) a 

— of horses, fardo, — ihi; a 

— of cows, lo', — di ; a — of 
goats and sheep, adi, — gi; a 

— of wild or fallow beasts, 
rahan, — ti; a junction of flocks, 
iss ku daran, — ki; a — of young 
sheep, mahal, — shi; — of wool, 
rifan, — ki ; v.i., (gather into 
flocks) urur, iss urur. 

flog (beat),, dengadai, hawdi, 




karbasli, haisaramai, serwanai, 
jedal, lamai sergadai, ulai. 

flogging, 11., denged, — ki, hawdis, 
— ki, karbash, — ki, j edal, — ki, 
sergad, — ki, sergan, — ti. 

flood, n., dad,— ki. 

floor,, lohyada ahalka ku 

flooring, n., alwahda sarabkeda. 

flour, re., bur, — ki, dahir, — di, 
saren, — ki. 

flourish (bloom, blossom), v.i., 
ubakaiso, uboho; this tiee is 
blooming, gedkasi wa ubah- 

flow, v.i., bah, dadi ; the bucket 
flows (leaks), baldigi wa da- 
dinaya ; the tears — , ilma ka 
boraisa or ka dareiraisa or 
ka da'aisa; the tide flow.s and 
ebbs, mayaddu wa buhsanta 

flower, M., ubah, — ihi, man, — ki. 

flue (soft down or fur), re., yilih, 
— di. 

flux and reflux, re., maujad, — di, 
mayad, — di 

fly, re., (an insect) dihsl, — gi ; 
v.i., (flee, run away) 'arar, baho, 
bahso, ya'a {plur.) ; (for beasts) 
bub ;, sleep flies the 
wretched, hurdo dad hun wa 
daaisa ; he was fain to — the 
Somali land, wa la muhurun- 
sbai iuu bilad Somalied ka 

foal, re., (of horses) darman,— ki 
or — ti ; (of cows and camels) 
ban, — ki. 

foam (froth), re., bumbo, — adi, 

abur, — ki ; v.i., the camel 
toarus, aurku abur bu ke'i- 
naya or ke'iya ; make — , 
kaga humbaisi. 

fog, «., 'iro, — adi. 

foggy, a., 'iraisan. 

foist, n., duso, — adi ; v.i., dus, 

fold, «., (enclosure for sheep) 
hero, — adi ; sinall — , edeg, — 
gi ; (a plait) labnin, — ti, dub- 
niii, — ti ;, (double, plait) 
dub, lab, lablab ; (gather sheep 
into the — ) kuriyai ; — in 
foim of a ball, kus. 

folk or folks, re., dad,— ki. 

follow,, ra', so ra', radi, 
ninka radkisa gur ; v.i., daba 
so'o, ka dabakalai, ka dambai. 

follower, re., radis, — ki. 

following, a., dambai. 

folly, re., walli,— di, iss walwal, 
— ki ; the follies of the woild, 
iss walwalka dunida. 

food, re., sor, — ti, 'uuno, — adi, 
sabbar, — ki, masruf, — ki, ham- 
bo, — adi, soryo, — adi. 

fool, re., looiish, a., nin wallan, 
washa, walwaUan, dohon, — ki, 
na's, — ki, misrirla. 

foolishness, re,, miyirlaan, — ti ; 
he plays the fooi, wa iss wal- 

foot, re., 'ag, — ti ; from head to 
— , ~'agti Ua madahha; he 
walks barefooted, kabalaan bu 
ku so'oda ; go on — , 'aga ku 
so'o ; — by — , talabo-talabo ; 
at tJiH — , 'agta ; put your feet 
in, illo; the — of the moun- 
tain, burta 'agteda; broad- 




footed, nin 'aga wein ; — path, 
n., dau, — gi, jid, — ^ki, marin, 
— ki ; sole of the — , n., 'agta 
'ad, 'agti <adaid; — step, «., 
rad, — ki ; sound of the steps, 
jan, — ti. 
for, prp., u ; — your sake, da- 
radda, awada ; — us, daradden, 
awaden ; — fear, he did not 
do that, bahdin bu wah la 
haban wahyai ; — the present 
we have enough, haddadan 
jogta nagu filan; — ever, gor 
iyo galab, weligi; they left 
him — dead, inu dintai ba 
la modal, o la iss kaga yimi ; 
how much did you sell it — 1 
imisad sisai? whom are you 

— ? kuma or aya ku leh? 
conj., do not meddle with him, 
for he is a cheat, ha ra'in 
niiika, wa nin hiyanahah. 

forbear, v.i., (abstain) iss ka da ; 

— to swear, iss ka da darta, 
forbearance, n., (patience) dulha- 

dasho, — adi. 

forbid,, u did. 

forbidden, a., wah la iss u didai, 
wah la iss ka hukumai. 

force, n., (vigour) adkan, — ti, 
tag, — ti; (violence) hog, — gi, 
hasab, — ti, muhimb, — adi ; 
(power) ital, — ki; the — of 
truth, italka runta ;, 
(oblige) hasab, muhuni ; obtain 
by — , dufo, so dufo ; — down, 
hos u muhuni ; — out, ka mu- 

ford, n., gudubsino, — adi; look 
for a — , gudubsi. 

fore-arm, n., dudun, — ^ki. 

forebode {see foretell). 

forefather, n., abbayal, — shi. 

fore-finger {see finger). 

foregoing, a., horai. 

forehead, «., fed, — di, jah, — hi. 

foreigner, n., marti, — di, nin 
rerod, — ki, shishaiyai, — ihi, 
nin shishaiyaiah. 

fore-leg, n., jeni, — gi. 

forenoon, n., barhin, — ti, bar- 
had, — di, barho, — adi, gelin 

forepart, n., bar, — ki, or barki 

foresaid, a., horai lo yidi. 

forest, n., dud,^ — di, sharer, — ki, 
mel shareran, meshi share- 
raid ; plant a — , shareri. 

foretell,, wah sheg, fall, 

foreteller, n., wah sheg, — gi, nin 
wah shega. 

foretelling, n., wah sheg, — gi. 

forfeit,, hallai ; that girl has 
forfeited her honour, gabad- 
dasi namuskedi hallaisai. 

forge,, tun ; forged, tu- 

forget,, Uaw, Uow. 

forgetfulness, «., ilowsho, — ihi. 

forgive,, 'affi, samah. 

forgiveness, n., 'affi, — gi", samah, 
— di, or samhad, — £. 

fork, n., mud'a', — 'ihi, faudal 

forlorn, a., la na'ai. 

form, n., (shape) midab, — ki ; 
(way, manner) si, — di. 

form,, (frame) samai. 

former, a., tore, horai. 




formerly, ad., beri horai, kolki 
horai, wa hore. 

formula, n., (form of prayer) 
ayad, — di. 

fornicate, v.i., ka siuaiso, was. 

forsake,, (leave, depart from) 
dairi ; lie forsook his word, 
hadalkisi bu na'ai. 

forsaker, w.,(of God) ninllah na'ai. 

forswear,, dafir ; lie forswore 
his religion, dintisi bu dafirai ; 
w.i., (swear falsely) bein ku daro. 

fort, fortification, n., 'alhad, — di. 

forth, forward, ad., hor ; step — , 
hor u so'o; bring — , bor u 
ken, bor u la kalai, bor u la 
so'o ; come — , so bah ; go — , 
dibada n bah ; and so — , o 
sida u wad. 

fortify,, adkai, ital u yel, 
gesinimo a yel. 

fortitude, n., adkan, — ti, gesi- 
nimo, — adi. 

fortnight, n., afarr iyo tobnad, 
— ki ; shan iyo tobnad, — ki, 

fortune, «., ayan, — ^ki ; ill — , 
ayan htuno, — adi; — teller, 
tawila," — ihi. 

forty, num., afarrtan, — ki. 

forward, ad., hor, horai ; the man 
who does not go — , goes back- 
ward, ninki an horai u so'o- 
nini, dibu u so'oda ; from this 
time — , gortan inta ka dam- 

foul (see dirty). 

foulness, n., doro, — adi. 

found,, (establish) ka dis. 

foundation, n., (basis) sal, — ki. 

founder, v.i., (stumble as a horse) 

turonturo ;, 'ataisi ; faras- 
ka ha 'ataisin, do not founder 
the horse. 

fountain, n., ib, — ti, il, — shi. 

four, num., afarr, — ti ; fourth, 
afrad, — ki, — di. 

fourteen, num., afarr iyo toban, 
— ki ; fourteenth, afarr iyo 
tobnad, — ki, — di. 

fowl, n., doro, — adi, had, — di. 

fox, n., dawa'o, — a 'adi ; male — , 
dawa', — hi ; a kind of — , 
golla waraba. 

fracture, n., jabnin, — ti. 

fragile, a., jUai'san. 

fragility, n., jila' or jilai', — U'hi. 

fragrance, n., udgon, — ki. 

fragrant, a., udgon. 

frame, n. The frame of a Somali 
tent is composed of two udub 
or kaballo of a dig doho, of 
some digo, and of dig lola 
crossing the digo. 

frankincense, n., beyo, — adi. 

fraternity, n., walalnimo, — adi. 

fraud [see cheat). 

free, a., furan; I am — , an iyo 
naftaida, or aniga iyo naf- 
taidu ; thou art — , adiga iyo 
naftada ; he is — , isagi iyo 
naftisi, or wa nin iyo nafti ;, (set at liberty) sarrahi. 

free-will, n., hushi, — gi, 

freeze, and v.i., baraf ka 

dig ; cold freezes the water, 

gabadanadu biyaha baraf bai 

■ ka digta ; water freezes, biyu- 

hu baraf bai nohdan. 

freight, »., mal, — ki;, (load a 
ship) shehnad or shehmad. 




French, a., fransis, — ki, nin 

frenzy, n., walli, — di. 

fresh, a., lj.abow, ma'an, 'usub. 

fret,, (wear away by rubbing) 
ho^, ha^uh; v.L, (be angry) 

Friday, n., jima' or jimai', — i'M. 

friend, n., abban, — ki, jal, — ki, 
sahib, — ki, wehel, — ki ; be- 
come — , abbanso, webesho. 

fright, n., bahdin, — ti, 'absi, — di> 

frighten,, 'absi, baji. 

frightful, a., laga 'absado, laga 

fringe, n., da'al, — ki, daraf, — ti, 
sbash, — ki ; — of silk, farah, 

fro, ad. ; go to and — , hore iyo 
dib u so'o, toss to and — , M. 

frog, n., rah,rihhi (the frog). 

from, prp., ka; go — him, ka 
tag ; he comes — the jungle, 
miyi bu ka so galaya or ka 
imanaya ; — time to time I 
take fever, gor ka gor da'anti 
igii da'da ; — the creation of 
the world, halki iyo malinti 
dunida la umai ; — my child- 
hood, halkiyo arumimadaidi ; 

— top to toe, kugta ila sulka ; 
do not speak — above, dusha 
ha ka hadlin ; they brought it 

— afar, mel fog ba laga kenai; 
they caught him — amidst the 
crowd, buhhi ba lugu deh 
habtai ; they come — behind, 
wa iga daba yimaden ; I hear 
a voice — beneath, 'od ban 
hosta ka mahlaya; — beyond. 

mel ka shishaisai ; — whence 
do you come? hagge bad ka 

front, n., hor, — ti ; — to — , wa 
iss hor jogan, or wa iss ega- 
yan ; in — of, horta ; — tooth, 
fol,— ki. 

frontier, n., dal, — ki. 

frost, n., gabadauo, — adi. 

froth, v.i., dobi, hoh ; that camel 
froths, aurkasi wa dobinaya 
or wa hohaya; n., humbo, — 

frown, v.i., jahha ururi, jahhiir. 

fructify, v.i., mido yelo (yesha, 
plur), so bah. 

frugal, a., 'ir yar. 

fruit, n., mid, — ki, hadab, — ki, 
arah ; eat fruits, hadabaiso ; 
a — eater, hadabaisato, — adi, 
nin ^adabaisatoah ; a seeker 
of fruits, arah douato, — adi. 

fruitless, a., ma dalai, an dalin, 
fayidala ; a fruitless labour, 
haul fayida la. 

frustrate {see disappoint). 

fry,, shil, shilo ; fried, shi- 
lan ; frying man, deriya shil, 
— ki ; a woman . . . , sMlato, — 
adi ; frying pan, dawa, — ihi. 

fuel, n., habo, — adi. 

fugitive, n., hof 'ararai, hof ka 

fulfil,, damai, shuhulkisi 

fulfilment, w., damad, — ki. 

fulgency, fulgor, n., dalal, — ki. 

full, a., buha, buhai. 

fun, n., kaftan, — ki. 

funeral feast, n., ahan, — ki. 

p 2 




funk, v.i., bah ; cause to — , baji. 

funnel, n., masaf, — ki. 

fur, n., yilih, — di, dogor, — ti. 

furnace, «., milfo, — adi. 

furniture, n., alabo, — adi. 

further, ad., shishai ; go — , si 
fogow ; the — side, gesta shi- 

furthest, ad., ugu fog, ugu shi- 
shai ; go to the — part of the 
world, dunida halka ugu fog 

furuncle, n., (ambury) dullah, — 
hi, mal, mashi, ka so bah, — 

fury, n., 'ado, 'adadi (the ...). 

future, re., kolka dambe, marka 

fy ! int., maga'ha be ! 


gabble, n., (loud talk) daudar, — 

gad fly, re., dameira galib, — ki, 

gebni, — gi, takar,— ti. 
gag,, af dub ; gagging, n., af 

dub, — ki. 
gain, re., (profit) fayido, — adi, 

helin, — ki, kordis, — ki, korod, 

— ki, ma'ash. 
gait, re., (manner of walking) ta- 

labo, — adi. 
galaxy, n., (milky way) wah ha- 

bar,— ki. 
gale, n., dabail, — shi. 

gall, w., (bile) 'ameiti, — di ; (ran- 
cour) ur humo, — adi, honsi- 

mad, — ki. ' 
gall,, (hurt by fretting the 

skin) hoh, gomodi. 
gallop, re., hardaf, — ki ; — at 

full speed, ka'din, — ti, jeni 

hor, — ki ; v.i., hardaf ; v.c, 

gamble, v.i., hamar ; — with, la 

gambling, re., hamar, — ki. 
game, re., 'ayar, — ti, jalbeb,— ti; 

kind of — , kor u bodo, — adi, 

shah, — di. 
gangrene, «., hudai, — ihi. 
gap, n., (deep, between two rocks) 

bohol, — shi ; (an opening) di- 

la', — hi ; — in the front teeth, 

fanah, — hi. 
gape, v.i., (yawn) afka kala had, 

af ka kala hai. 
gapins, n., af kala had, — ki, af 

kala hais, — ki. 
garden, re., beir, — ti, bustan, — 

ki ; v.i., hagaf 
gardener, re., hagaf, — ki, nin 

beirta hagafaya. 
gargle, gargarism, re., luhluhasho, 

— adi ; — , gargarize, v.t?:, 

garland, re., (for horses) sitah, — hi. 
garlic, n., ton, — ^ti. 
garment, «., dar, — ki ; skin — 

for men, hair an, — ki ; — for 

women, du, — gi. 
gash, re., sarmo, — adi. 
gasp, re., hamansi, — gi ; the last 

— , hainansigi ugu dambai- 

yai ; v.i., hamanso. 




gate, n., albab, — ki, illin, — ki, 

dah, — hi. 
gather,, iss ku dar, ururi, 

so ururi, iss u gei, kuriyai, 

iss u ken, iss u gur ; v.i., iss 

u urura, iss u taga ; the clouds 

— , daruruhu iss u ururayan ; 

they gathered together, wa iss 

u ururen. 
gathered, a., urursan, la iss u 

gurai ; — fruits, mido la iss 

u gurai. 
gathering, n., ururis, — ki. 
gaunt, a., (lean) weidsan, weida. 
gay, a., nin farahah. 
gaze, n., eg^mo, — adi ; v.i., (stare) 

isha ku 'adai, indo ku tol. 
gazelle, n., dero, — adi ; he — , 

der, — ki ; Semmeringe's — , 

'aul, — ^ki, — shi. 
geld {see castrate), 
gem, n., (precious stone) jokorad, 

— di. 
gender, w., (sort) 'ain, — ki, tol, 

— ki. 
genealogy, n., abtirsinyo, — yiH ; 

give thy — , abtirso ; give a — , 

generally, ad., asalba. 
generate,, dal, yelo. 
generation, n., dalasho, — adi. 
generosity, n., dell, — di. 
generous man, a., dehsi, — gi, nin 

dehsiah, nasab, — ^ki, ron. 
genital, a., hod, — di. 
genitals, n., hodo, — dihi. 
genius, n., (bad spirit) jini or 

jinni,— gi. 
gentile, n., (heathen) gal, — ki ; 

the gentiles, galo, — adi. 

gentle, a., habow. 

gentleman, n., feawaja, — ihi, ser- 
kal, — ki. 

genuflexion, n., jilba jog, — gi. 

get,, hel ; — your bread, 
kibistada hogso ; — your par- 
don, samhaddada weidiso ; — 
a wife, nag dono ; — a cold, 
dahan had ; — a place, shuhul 
dono ; — an ill habit, dastur 
hun baro ; — money of him, 
la'ag hado ; he gets the praise 
of all the world, isagu aman dad 
dan bu lehyahai ; we must be 
contented with such as we can 
— , hadba wahainu lehnahai 
an ku farahno ; he got a good 
servant, hadan wanaksan bu 
lehyahai; I could not — him 
to come, ninki inu yimado ka 
wahyai ; — it made, u samaisi, u 
damaisi ; I will — a spear made 
for you, waran dan wad iga 
heli ; I got her to go, eriyai ; 

— you gone, iss ka tag ; — 
ready, diar ha ahato, diar 
garai ; — yourself ready, diar 
ahaw ; — more, iss ku tar ; 

— abroad, dibada u so sar, 
eri, war gei ; — the news, 
warki wa la baranaya ; — 
away, ; — the boys away 
from my room, ahalkaiga ina- 
mada dibadda uga sar ; — the 
box away, sanduhha la tag ; 
-^ away, v.i., yur ! he gets 
away, wa tagaya, wa si so- 
'oda ; — yourself back, noho ; 

— down, so deg ; — down 
the stairs, salanka so deg ; — 




down from, ka deg, ka so deg ; 

— from,, ka so bihi, ka 
had ; I could not — from him, 
v.i., ka tegi kari wahai; — 
in,, so geli ; — your 
money in, la'agtada so geli ; 
v.i., SO gal ; they got into Ber- 
berah, Berberah galai ; — off, 

— him off from jail, habsiga 
ka SO sar ; he could not — 
off, v.i., bahsan kari wah ; — 
off from your horse, faraskaga 
ka deg ; — out,, dibadda 
u sar ; — out that naU, nrns- 
markas ka so bihi ; — out, 
v.i., dibadda tag,' dibadda u 
bah ; — out from, ka so bah ; 

— to the shore, hebta u deg ; 

— to the top of the hill, burta 
fihheda gad; — together all 
the pieces, inaha o dan iss n 
ken. ; — in that place, halkas 
iss ugu gei ; — up, ; — 
up the wood, horiga had ; — 
him up, ke'i, tosi; v.i., ka', 
sara ka', so ka', tos ; it is time 
to — up, wa gorti la ke'i jirai; 

— up the stairs, sallanka kor ; 

— up again, sallanka kor 
misna ; — up again, v.i., ka' 
misna ; — up to your father, 
ka' abbaha u tag ; his rage 
gets above your anger, 'adadisu 
tada ka htm ; he gets before 
him, isagii wa dnlmaraya ; he 
gets well again, wa boksanaya 

ghost, n., naf, — ti, ruh,— hi. 
Holy Ghost, the, w., ruhha ho- 

giant, n., ran. der, ninki dera 

(the ...), torog,— gi. 
giddiness, n., warer, — ^ki, madah 

warer, — ki ; be troubled with 

— , v.i., warer ; v.c, wareri, 

madah wareri. 
giddy, a., warersan. 
gift, n., hadiad, — di, sin, — ^ti; 

— by will, ahan, — ^ki ; first — 
before the marriage, gabati, — 
gi; the second — ..., yarad, 
— ki. 

gild,, (cover with gold) biyo 

dahabah mari. 
gimlet, n., (awl) kaba tola or to- 

lai, — ihi. 
ginger, n., sinjibil, — shi. 
gingerly, ad.; go gingerly ,_ gad. 
gingerness, n., gadnin, — ti. 
giobberti, n., (sweeper) har gur, 

— ki. 
giraffe, n., gerri, — gi, halgerri, 

— di. 
gird,, (bind round) gunti ; 

v.r., gunto, snnka Mdo. 
girdle, n., sun, — ki, bohor, — ki, 

gunti,— gi. 
girl, n., gabad, — di, inan, — ti, 

ugub, — ^ti ; girls in general, 

hablo, — ihi, ugubod, — ki. 
girth, n., (strap for a saddle) we- 

gered, — ki. 
give,, si, u dib, bihi ; — 

him the lie, ninka beini ; — 

thanks, mahadi, mahad u nah; 

— answer, jawab, u 'eli ; — 
to everyone his due, nin walba 
wihhisa si, or wuhhu lehya- 
hai si ; — evidence, marhati 
ku for ; — a good and faithful 




account, hisab wanaksan o 
aminah. si ; God gives me grace 
so to do, Ilahhai ba i la ha- 
banaya, or Ilahhai hair i siyai 
inan sida ku yelo ; I gave him 
credit, wan rumaistai ; — the 
oath, daro ; — trouble, dali ; 
the boys — me trouble, arurtu 
"wa i dalisa ; — hopes, la bal- 
lan ; — a call, yed, ha'ili ; — 
a guess, malai, garo ; — joy, 
war, kaga badbadi or badba- 
dadi ; — leave, fasah ; — 
judgment, hukum ; — ground, 
durug, ka durug ; — place, u 
banai, ka bai'd ; — ; notice, 
dignia dir, ogaisi; — heed, 
iss ka eg, ilali, ogow; — 
challenge, dandanso ; — to 
suck, nuji ; — a look, so arag ; 
I gave way to his wise proposal, 
tranadisi fi'anaid ban degais- 
tai ; he gave way to melan- 
choly, iss hulbiyai ; the ground 
gave way under my feet, 
amuddi 'agtaida hosteda ka 
diistai ; — away, na' ; he gives 
all away, wa wada na'aya 
gidi ; I gave up my money 
for lost, la'agtaida wan ka 
samra ; they gave him up for 
dead, ka hustai ; — back 
again, 'eli, so 'eli, u 'eli, dib 
u si ; ^ — into his mind, tala- 
disa ra' ; — for, dafi ; do not 
— , ka 'esho, u did ; — off, 
— out, — over, iss ka da, 
giver, n., basha, — ihi, diba, — ihi, 
dehsi, — gi, siya,— yihi. 

giving, n., dibnin, — ti, dibasho, 

— adi. 
gizzard, n., bog, — gi. 
glad, (2., badadan, badadsan; be 

— , badadsanaw, iss ka rai, 

glaire, n., hako, — adi. 
glance, «., dai'mo, — adi, egmo, 

— adi. 
glass, n., galas, — ki. 
gleam, n., (phosphorescent) gala- 

bildan or garabildan, — ki. 
glean, v.t?:, gur. 
gleet, n., (venereal disease) jabti, 

— di. 
glisten, glister, glitter, v.i., dalal. 
globe, n., kuriyaisnan, — ti. 
gloom, n., wahan, — ki, hidub, — 

ki; v.i., (be sad) wahan, hu- 

gloomy, a., hulubsan ; be — , 

glorify,, aman ; — yourself, 

glory, n., aman, — ti. 
glow, n., (shining heat) olol, — ^ki ; 

v.i., olol ; glowing irons, bir 

glue, n., habag, — ti ;, ku 

glutton, n., 'anda der, — ^ki, hun- 

guri wein, 'ir wein. 
gluttony, n., hunguri weinan, — 

ti, 'ir weinan, — ^ti. 
gnash, v.i., jirihso; v.c, kaga 

gnashing, n., jirihsi, — gi, 

gnat, n., kane'o, — adi, dnnyalai, 

— ihi. 
gnaw,, feno, fenfeno, rug. 




gnawing, «., fenfenasho, — adi, 
fenfenad, — ^ki. 

go, v.i., tag, so'o, baid ; — to- 
gether, iss ra'a ; let us — to- 
gether, an iss ra'auo ; I cannot 
— , ma tegi karo ; he is gone, 
teg ; they are gone, tagai ; • — 
that way, hagga' u ka', dauga 
habso ; — on foot, lug ku 
so'o ; he has gone a journey, 
wa sod'alai ; how goes your 
health ? afimadkaga ka war- 
ran ? so the world goes, dunida 
sidasah, or diinidu wa sida; 
how — your concerns ? iss ka 
warran ? so the report goes, 
warku wa sida ; he went un- 
punished, hasirad laan bu ku 
tagai ; let — , si da ; let — the 
anchor, barosinka si da; — 
about, wareg so wareg, so war- 
wareg ; — about the world, 
dunida so wareg ; I shall — 
about it, wan kaga haban ; 
— about your business, orod 
sbuhulkaga habso ; such a re- 
port goes abroad, warkas mel 
walba gadaya or ka bahaya ; 
thou art able to — against him, 
ninka wa iss ka 'adadin karta 
or wa habili karta ; — along, 
mar ; — along the house, 
ahalka daf, or ahalka hor 
mar ; — along with ..., ninka 
si ra' ; he goes aside, ges bu u 
baidaya, or dauga hun bu 
habsanaya ; he goes astray, 
wa iss haliainaya ; they — 
asunder, wa kala so'odan or 
so'onayan ; — away, tag, iss 

ka tag, iss ka bah, gur, ina 
kala wad ; he went away with 
a thing, wah bu la tagai ; — 
back, noho ; — back with, la 
noho ; he goes back from his 
word, hadalkisi bu asararaya 
or dafiraya ; — backward, dib 
u noho, dib u so'o ; — before, 
hor so'o, hor u mar, ka horai 

— behind, dambai, ka dambai 

— between, deh gal ; I went 
between them, anigu wa deh 
galai ; — beyond, ka shishai'; 

— beyond the hill, burta shi- 
shadeda mar ; they went be- 
yond my hopes, intan sugayai 
yai i dulmartai; — by, ag 
mar ; I will see the prisoners 

— by, mahabisti o i ag ma- 
raisa arki dona ; the time goes 
by, gortu dahso u so'onaisa; 
the wind goes contrary to us, 
dabaishi ba ina haisa ; — 
down, hosta u deg, hosta tag, 
u daf ; — down the stairs, 
sallanka si mar, sallanka ka 
so deg ; — down again, deg 
mar kaleh ; no meat will — 
down with him, midna or 
wahba ka degi mayo ; the 
sun goes down, horahdi wa 
da'aisa ; — first, horai, hor u 
so'o, si tag, si so'o ; — for, u 
ka' ; — for help, hai'la gei, or 
ma'awinad u ka' ; — for the 
governor, serkalka don or u 
yed ; he goes for a robber, tug 
ba la moda ; that goes for 
nothing, wahba ku ma flla; 
he went forth, tamashlai teg ; 




the news went forth yesterday, 
shala lugu warramai ; he went 
forth last week, todobadki bu 
flashai ; — forward, horo n 
wad. ; he goes forward in learn- 
ing, barashadisi wa wadanaya ; 

— from, ka tag ; he goes from 
the service (work), shuhulki 
bu ka tagaya ; — in, gal, u 
daf ; — near, u duTUg, ag tag, 
u dowai ; I went near to be 
devoured, in la igu liho ban u 
dowadai ; he went off yester- 
day, shalai bu dintai; these 
goods will never — off, hola- 
hasi kolleli ibsami mayan ; 
hear the great guns — off, ma- 
hal ! madafi'adi la rid ; — on, 
so'o, wad; he goes on an em- 
bassy, ergu u ka'aya ; — on 
your way, dantada ra' ; — on 
board the ship, markabka fal ; 

— on as you have begun, sidad 
ugaga habatai u wad; how 
does your business — on 1 
danta or bausha ka warran ? 

— over the river, durdurka ka 
talab ; he goes out of the way, 
daugi bu ka baidaya, daugi 
an tosnain bu maraya ; the 
fire goes out, dabki wa bahti- 
yaya ; — through the crowd, 
buhha deh mar ; he went 
through many dangers, 'absi 
badan bu si deh marai ; — 
through the town, magalada 
hul or so hul ; — round, her, 
iner, so mer, ku so wareg, 
meraiso ; make him — round, 
meri, mermeri ; — to, tag, u 

tag, u bah, gad, u ka', u so'o; 
— to Bulahar, Bulahar habo ; 
I shall not — to that price, 
gana'da gadi mayo ; — up, 
sarai u bah, dusha tag; — 
up and down, dul iyo bos ba 
mar ; — upon him, amin ; — 
with, ra'. 

goat, n., riyo, — ihi (gen. name) ; 
a he — , orgi, — gi ; a she — , 
ri, — di. 

gob, M., (small quantity of food) 
antugo, — adi. 

God, «., ebba or ebbai, — ihi, 
ilah, Allah, webel, — ki, rabbi, 
— gi, lilah, — hi ; — bless you, 
hair Allah ha ku siyo ; — 
save you, Ilahhai ha ku sa- 
halo ; thanks to — , mahad 
Allah ; he makes a' — of his 
belly, 'aloshisi bu Ebba ka 
digaya ; — willing, I shall 
come back next week, hadi 
Allah idmo todobadka dam- 
ban so nohon ; — helping, 
badi Ilah i gargaro, or hadi 
Ilahhai i la habto ; — forbid ! 
— ■ avert ! Ilahhow naga hai ! 
Ilabbow ba no kenin ! 

Godsend, n., 'awo, — adi. 

goggle, v.i, indaba ashhar ; — 
eyed, ashharah, ashhar, — ki. 

going, «., tegnin, — ^ki. 

gold, n., dahab, — ki. 

goldsmith, w., sayah, — hi. 

gonorrhoea, «., jabti, — di. 

good, a., wanaksan, fi'an, ron, 
tolmon, wa'an, san, ad ; be — , 
wanaksanaw, tolmonow, ro- 
naw, fi'anaw, samo ; be — , 




v.c, ronaw, tolmonai, wanaji, 

hagaji ; depart from evil and 

do — , wahha hun ka durug, 

wah san fal ; for your — , 

awada, daradda. 
good bye ! int., amana Allah. 
goodness, n., wanag, — gi, tolimo, 

— adi. 
goods, n., alabo, — adi, holo, — 

iM, saman, — ^ki. 
goose, M., badag, — gi. 
gospel, «., injil, — ki. 
gourd, «., dubbo, — IM, ubo, — 

govern,, hukum. 
government, n., hukum, — ki, ser- 

kal, — ki. 
governor, n., hakin, — ki, serkal 

grace, n., karamad, — di. 
grain, n., inin, — ti, messego, — 

grammar, «., uahwi, — gi. 
grandfather, n., awowor awowai, 

— iM. This word is also used 

for grandson and daughter, 
grandmother, »., ayaiyo, — adi, 

muhuyo or muhayo, — adi. 

Also used for grandson and 

grant, n., dibnin, — ti. 
grape, «., 'armo, — adi. 
grasp, n., habasho, — adi ;, 

(hold in the hand) heji, habso. 
grass, n., gedo, — ihi, 'aus, — ^ki, 

dihi, — di, daremo, — adi, dog, 

— ti, — gi. 
grateful, a., abalgudah ; he — , 

abal u hab, u abalgud, abal- 


gratefulness, gratitude, n., abal, 

— ki. 
grave, «., habal, — shi, habri, — 

gravel, w., hururoh, — hi. 

gravy, n., (juice) da'an or de'an, 
— ^ki. 

gray, grey, a., 'irroleh ; — heard 
and hair, n., 'irro, — di ; — 
horse, ma'idal, — ki; whitish 
— horse, 'ainab, — ki. 

graze,, dahgei, daji, barhi ; 
take to — , fofi, so fofi ; — the 
horses at night, so mirr ; v.i., 

grazing, n., dahnin, — ki, — ti, 
mirr, — ki, — ti. 

grease, n., suba'g, — gi, dufan, — 
ki, haid, — di, huko, — adi, 
badi,— di. 

great, a., der, wein ; a — city, 
magalo baUadan ; a — multi- 
tude, rag badan ; a — wind, 
dabail wein ; a — deal, wah 
badan ; be — , weinow ; make 
— , weinai, so weinai ; greater, 
ka wein ; greatest, ka wada, 
or ugu wein. 

greatness, n., weinan, — ti ; — of 
God, amar,— ki. 

greedy {see glutton and gluttony). 

green, a., owlaled ; — trees and 
grass, magol, — ^ki. 

greet,, (salute) baridi, salam. 

grey {see gray). 

gridiron, n., (stick used instead of) 
solai, — gi. 

grief, n., weirweir, — ki, human, 
— ti, hulub, — ki, sile'i, i'hi. 

grieve,, ka hulbi, weirweri; 




that grieves me, wahliasi wa 
iga hulbinaya ; v.i., hulub, 

grill,, (broil) sol, dub. 

grind,, budli, tun, rahad. 

grindstone, w., lissin, — ki/ 

groan, v.i., tab. 

groaning, n., tab, — bi. 

groin, n., sar'an, — ti. 

groom, n., farasjir, — ki. 

gross, a., (thick) halafsan. 

ground, n., dul,— ki, 'arro, — adi; 
what — have you for believing 
that 1 inad wahba ku rumai- 
satid sal mad u baisata ? it is 
the — I went upon, wa ka 
salki au ku fadistai; I did 
not send him away without — , 
aniga gar darro ku ma eriyin; 
rising — , gumbur, — ^ti, bur, 
— ^ti ; — *vork, sal, — ki ; — 
rent, ardiad, — ki. 

grow, v.i., bah, so bah ; the 
grass grows, geduhuwa'bahan; 
that boy grows bigger every 
day, inau^asi malin walba 
wa koraya ; — in grace, kara- 
mad ku kor ; I shall — here, 
if I stay longer, halkan wan 
ku kori, hadi an si jogo or 
fadiyo or hadi an ku si rago ; 
the tree grows again, gedku wa 
si bahaya ; he grows better, 
wa si wanaksanaya, or wil 
wanaksan bu nobonaya ; he 
grows big, wa koraya ; he 
grows childish, wa arurow- 
baya ; the water grows cold, 
biyuhu wa habowbayan ; the 
rice grows dear, baris ku wa 

gana' adkanaya; I — easy, 
haulyari ban haba ; that boy 
grows fat in flesh, inankasi wa 
shishlanaya ; that small girl 
grows handsome, gabadda yari 
wa huroh badnanaisa ; he 
grows lazy, 'ajis bu nohonaya ; 
it grows late, wa ragaisa ; he 
grows lean, wa weidowbaya ; 
the money grows less, la'agti 
wa dinmaisa ; you — old, wa 
gabowbaisa ; we — poor, wa 
dagagowbaina ; that man 
grows rich, ninkasi bodanow- 
baya ; that boil grows ripe, 
dullahhasi wa bislanaya ; the 
days — short, dararubu wa 
dinmayan ; — long, wa dera- 
nayau ; that boy grows sleepy, 
wilkasi wa lulonaya; he grows 
stupid, dohon bu nohonaya, or 
wa dohonowbaya, or doho- 
minu ku koraya ; he grows 
strong, wa hogaisanaya or 
italaisanaya ; the lion grows 
tame, libahhu af yahan bu 
nohonaya ; he grows ugly, wil- 
ki wa fol humanaya ; I — 
weary with the boys, inamada 
wa ku dalaya ; he grows well, 
wa buksanaya ; the fire goes 
out, 5gti wa bahaisa ; that 
cloth goes out of use, darkasi 
wa idlanaisa ; — up, bah. 

growing, «., korrin, — ki. 

growl, v.i., olol ; the camel growls, 
gelu wa olala. 

grub,, (dig up) hod o so rid. 

grudge, «., 'ollad, — di. 

grumble, v.i., (gruntle) gunus. 




grumbling, n., (grunt) gimus, — 

grunting, n., (of a camel) 'abad, 

— ki. 
guard, «., kor jir, — ki, kor jog, 

— gi, ilalo, — adi;, ilali, 

guess, «., (conjecture) malais, — 
ki ;, malai, garo. 

guest, «., abban, — ki, marti, — di. 

guide, n., abban, — ki, jid yahan. 

guile [see cheat). 

guilt, n., hujad, — di, tahsir, — ti, 

guilty, a.,' gar darran, hujadleh, 
hujad wein, tahsir leb. 

guinea fowl, n., digirin, — ki, di- 
girin 'as, digirin madow, — ki 

gullet, n., (the food pipe) hun- 
guri madow, — gi. 

gully, v.i., fahfahso. 

gulp, n., 'antugo, — adi ;, 
(swallow eagerly) 'antug. 

gum, n., (the hard, fleshy sub- 
stance covering the jaws and 
investing the teeth) hirid, — ki; 
(the vegetable secretion of trees 
and plants) habag, — ^ti ; black 
— , bahbah, — ^hi ; a kind of — , 
hanjo, — adi; liquid — , duh- 
sin, — ti ; take the liquid — , 
duhso ; a — tree, mudayo or 
murayo, — adi. 

gun, n., bnnduh, — hi ; — powder, 
barud, — di. 

gush, gushing, n., hautan, — ki. 

gush, v.i., (flow out) hautan ; 
the blood gushed from my 
wound, diggi nabarki ka 

gust, n., (taste) dadan, — ^ki ; (a 
blast) seso, sisa, sigo, — adi. 

gut, «., uslaho, — adi ; the small 
— , mindi'ir, — ki ; the great 
— , gana', — ihi, habsin, — ki;, (to eviscerate) doh. 


habit, habitude, n., dastur, — ti ; 

(dress) dar, — ki. 
habitation, n., fadi, — gi, rug, — 

haft, n., (a handle) dab, — ki ;, dabka ku deji. 
hail, n., (frozen rain) dagah rob, 

robka dagihisi (the ); 

(health !) salam ! — to you ! 

salam alekum ! war afimad ! 
hair, n., tin, — ki, timo, — ihi ; 

— of animals, dogor, — ti ; — 

of the tail, gamello, — adi. 
half (I), n., bad, — ki, jeh ; (part) 

go, — hi ; — a glass, a pot, 

halloo ! int., 'ar ! 'ar ! war ! war 

hoi! ... 
hallow,, (make holy) hodus 

u samai, hodus ka dig ; be 

hallowed, samo. 
halt, n., (a stop during a march) 

jog,— gi; «;./?■., jog, jogso ; — 

at night, hoio. 
halter, n., (of a camel) hogan, — 

ki ; (of a horse) jarrai, — ihi, 

shakamad, — di. 
hamlet, n., bulal, — shi. 




hammer, n., dubbai, — iM. 

hand, n., ga'an, — ^ti; the right 
— , midigta ; the left — , bi- 
dehda ; he has a — in it, ga'an 
bu ku la jira ; ray — is in, 
ga'an ban ku la jira ; my — 
is out, ga'an ku la ma jiro ; 
he is my right — , wa ga'an- 
taida midig ; the two men go 

— in — , labada nin wa iss 
ku ga'an; — writing, far, — 

hand,, (give) u dib ; you 
handle the oar well, sebka ad 
bad u wadda. 

hand-barrow, n., rarab, — ^ti. 

handful, «., hantobo, — adi. 

handkerchief, n., masar,— ki. 

handle, n., dab, — ki. 

handsome, a., huroh badan, or 
huroh wanaksau, bahsau, 

hang,, deldel, alah ; v.i., (be 
suspended) lalad, ka lalad. 

happen, v.i., noho ; it happens, 
wahai nohota ; so it happened, 
sidasai nohotai. 

happy, a., badadsan, rahaisan, 
ayan leh. 

happiness, n., raho, — adi, far- 
had, — di, badad, — ki. 

harbour, «., deked, — di. 

iard, a., adag, hog badan, kulul ; 

— working men have — skins, 
nimanka shuhiyintaihi wa 
dub adag yihin ; ad., it grows 
— , wa adkanaisa ; strike him 
— , si adag ugu dufo ; the 
wind blows — , dabaishu ad 
bai u da'aisa. 

harden,, (make hard) adkai. 
hardness, n., adkan, — ^ti. 
hard-hearted (man), a., nin 'alol 
adag, ninki 'alosha adka (the 

hard-working (man), n., dibtan, 

— ki. 
hare, n., bakaila, — ihi ; — lipped 

man, nin faruran. 
harlot, n., dillo, — adi. 
harem, n., dumar, — ki. 
hark ! int., mahal ! degaiso ! 
harm, n., wah yello, — adi;, 

u humai, hon yel. 
harness, n., hensai, — sihi. 
harsh, a., bun. 
hartebrest, n., (cow antelope) si'g, 

— gi- 

haste ! (be quick !), dahso ! 

hasten, v.i., dahso, degdeg. 

hat, n., kofiad, — di. 

hate, hatred, n., ne'ban, — tij 

feeling of — , ur ku talo, — adi. 
hate,, na', ne'baw. 
haughtiness, n., amar, — ki, amar 

weinan, — ti. 
haughty, a., amarsan, amar 

haunch, n., missig, — ti, sin, — ti. 
have,, hai, haiso, hab. 
hawk, n., hadka adag, — ^^ti ; 

species of — , bahalya, — yiM. 
hay, «., gedo,— -ihi, 'aus,— ki. 
hazard, n., nasib, — ^ki. 
haze, haziness, n., shuh, — M, 

shululu' ; the sky is hazy, 

'irku wa shululu'aya. 
he, prn., isagu, wu, bu, yu. 
head, n., madah, — hi; — ache, 
I madah hanun, — ki ; the — of 




the bed, sarrirta madahheda ; 

be the — , u madahahaw. 
heal,, buksi, u buksi or 

boksi ; be healed, bukso. 
healing, «., boksls, — ki, boksin, 

— ti. 
health, n., afimad, — di. 
healthy, a., nin afimad haba, 

ninki afimadka habai. 
heap, «., tul, — ki, rasais, — ki;, tul, rasai, mos. 
heapy, a., tulau, rasaisan. 
hear, and v.i., degaiso, ma- 

hal, abbal, ka ahbal ; v.c., 

hearing, n., mabal, — ki. 
heart, n., wadna or wadnai, — ^ihi, 

halbi, — gi, 'alol, — shi. 
hard-hearted man, «., mudal, — 

heartless, a., wadnala. 
hearten,, (animate) gesinimo 

hearth, n., mufo, — adi. 
heat, n., bur, — ki, kul, — ki ;, (make warm) kulnlai. 
heathen, n., (gentiles) galo, — adi. 
heave,, (lift up) sarai u had, 

lal ; v.i., (pant) ninrag. 
heaven, n., janno, — adi, 'ir, — ki. 
heavy, a., 'ulus, 'usla. 
heaviness, n., 'ulais, — ki, 'ulus- 

nimo, — adi. 
hedge, n., od, — di. 
hedge-hog, n., hidig, — ti. 
heed, n., fojigan, — ti. 
heel, «., 'idib, — ti. 
heifer, n., halia, — ti, weU, — shi. 
height, n., derer, — ki. 
heighten,, derai, dereri. 

heir, n., nin dahalah, ninki da- 

balka aha (the ...). 
hell, n., 'adab, — ti, nar, — ^ti; — 

fire, dab 'adabed, dab nared. 
helm, n., shukan, — ti. 
help, n., 'awin, — ti, 'awimad, — 

di, gargar,— ki, hil, — ki ;, la 'awi, 'awin, gargar, 

u hili, la habo ; God — you, 

Ebbahai ha ka 'awino ; it is a 

thing we cannot — , wa wa- 

hainan iss ka karain ; go for 

— , hailo, haila gei, ma 'awi- 

nad u ka'. 
helper, n., 'awis, — ki, hiUya, — 

yiM, 'idan, — ki. 
hem, n., damr, — ki, serji, — gi. 
hemorrhage, n., diggi hawtankisi. 
hen, n., digaga, — di, luki, — di, 

tujad or tijad, — ki. 
henceforth, henceforward, ad., 

manta dabaded. 
her (see Grammar), 
herb, n., ged, — ki. 
herd (see flock), 
here, ad., haggan, halkan, me- 

hereafter, ad., aminka dabadded, 

badda ka dambow. 
heritage, n., dahal, — ki. 
hermit (see eremite), 
hero, n., nin diran; be a — , di- 

herpes, n., (tetters) 'ambar, — ^ti. 
hesitate, v.i., ka jog. 
hiccough, n., higgo, — adi, 
hide, n., (skin) • harag, — gi; — 

of camels, mera, — ^ihi ; — of 

neat cattle, san, — ti ; — of 

antelope, idin, — ti. 




hide,, (conceal) dumi, hari, 

harsp ; v.r., dumo, iss hari. 
hidden, a., harson. 
hiding, w,, dumasho, — adi, haris, 

— ^ki; — place, mel harson, 

meshi harsonaid. 
high, a., der; — water, baddi 

wa buhda. 
highwayman, n., layan, — ki. 
hill, w., bur yar, — ti —aid, ka- 

rin, — ti, kur, — ti, kurun, — ti, 

mos, — ki ;, (heap up) 

hilt, «., dab, — ki. 
hind, n., (part of the arm) 'udud, 

— di; — leg, lug,— ti. 
hinder,, u did ; you — me, 

wahtigaigi ba i didaisa. 
hinge, n., (of a door) kelbad, — 

hint, n., (signal) bah, — hi. 
hip, M., (haunch) sin, — ti. 
hippopotamus, n., jer, — ki. 
hire, »., kiro, — afi;, kirai. 
his {see Grammar), 
hiss, n., fori, — di ; and v.i., 

fori, u fori. 
history, n., sheko, — adi ; tell a 

— , shekai, sheko u mari. 
hit, «., (strike) nabar, — ki. 
hit,, ku dufo ; — the mark, 
• la dugo, la togo. 
hither, ad., halkan; hitherto, ila 

hive, «., (cell of bees) dahb, — ki ; 

empty — , dahb madan ; full 

— , dahb buha. 
ho ! hoa ! int., war hoi ! na hoi ! 
hoarse, a., habeibsan. 
hobble, v.i., (go lamely) duti. 

hoe, n., (an instrument) magara- 
fad, — di. 

hog, wart hog, n., dofar, — ^ki. 

hoist,, (raise up on high) 

hold, »., habasho, — adi ; — of a 
ship, hani, — gi ; he let go his 
— , ninku wa deinaya ; get — , 
habso ; they could not take — 
of his words, hadalkisi hejin 
kari wahyai. 

hold,, (keep in the hand) ho, 
heji, habo ; — him fast, ad u 
heji ; he held the dagger to his 
throat, isaga o bilawM horta 
kaga haya ; I — him but a 
fool, ana haya hof wallan ban 
se u ahan ; v.i., (stand, adhere) 
ku deg ; — up, sarrai u tag ; 
— in false security, dag. 

hole, n., boran, — ti, dalol, — ki, 
god,— ki, hog,— gi, galsho,— 

hohday, «., ayan, — ti. 

holiness, n., hodus, — ki. 

holla! int., war! na! war ya! 
war hoi ! na hoi ! war ya hoi ! 

hollow, n., (a cavity) bohol, — shi ; 
a., madan. 

holy, a., hodusah. 

homage {see honour). 

home, n., ahalka, guri, — gi ; go 
— , ahalka habo, hoio. 

homicide, ».', £l, — ki. 

homily, n., hadis, — ki. 

honest, a., amin, — ki, anunah; 
be — , aminahaw. 

honesty, «., aminimo, — adi. 

honey, n., malab, — ki ; — comb, 
dahb, — ki. 




honour, ra., mamus, — ^ki, — ti, 
murwad,— di ;, mamus, 
murwad, murwai. 

hoof, n., (of camels) gomod, — di ; 
(of horses, asses, oxen ...) 
hob, — ki; (of goats or sheep) 
hanjaful, raf, — ki. 

hook, «., (wooden one) hangol, — 
ki ; a fishing — , jilib or jilab, 
— ki. 

hoop, «., giringir, — ti. 

hoopoe, «., gulai, — di. 

hoot, n., (clamour) ^ailo, — adi, 
buh, — hi. 

hop, ».«., (jump) bod. 

hop! hop! mi., ayai! ayai! 

hope, n., sugnin, — ti ; my — 
is in God alone, sugnintaidu 
Ilahhai keliah ku tal;, 
sug ; I — in God, Ilahhai ban 

horizon, n., mesha 'irka iyo dul- 
ku i$s ka hayan or iss kaga 
yalin or iss ka kala hayan. 

horn, n., ges, — ki, gesas, — ki, or 
geso, — ihi (plur.). 

hornet, «., (male bee) imir, — ki. 

horror, n., nahadin, — ti ; the — 
of hell, narta nahadinteda. 

horse, «., faras, — ki, fardo, — ihi ; 
male — , sanga or sangai, — 
ihi ; (stallion) korma or kor- 
mai,— ihi, or faras hod habah ; 
herd of horses, fadifardaah; 
white — , hai, — gi ; red — , 
ashkar, or ashkir, — ki ; black 
— , tukai, — ihi ; chestnut — , 
hamar, — ki; grey — , maidal, 
— ki ; whitish-grey ■^, a'inab, 
— ki ; — back, adah, — di ; — 

croup, fan, — ki ; — boy, sebi- 
yan, — ki ; — dealer, faras jir, 
— ^ki ; — shoe, na'al, — ki ; — 
tail, hanan, — ti. 
hospitable, a., dehsiah, dehsi, — 


hospitality, n., soryo, — adi ; keep 

— , soryai. 
host, n., abban, — ki, ninki i sor- 

hot, a., kulul, kulail, hiir wein ; 

cause to be — , huri ; feeling 

— , hursan; — sand, raran, 

— ki. 
hotel, re., hudel, — ki. 
hour, n., sa'ad, — di ; half an — , 

sa'ad badked ; a quarter of an 

— , sa'ad wahded. 
house, n., ahal, — ki ; stone — , 

dar, — ti; wooden— ,gembissa, 

— di; coffee — , mahayad, — 

di ; public — , dukan, — ki ; 

— front, ahal horti, 

hovel, n., (shed) wab, — ti, bul, 

— ki. 
how? ad., side? — do you do? 

sidad tahai ? iss ka warran ? 

— goes the world 1 dunida ka 
warran ? he gave us an account 

— it was, sidai ahaid yu noga 
warramai ; you see — I love 
you, wad arkaisa sidan ku 
ja'lahai ; — many fools there 
are in the world ! imisa wah 
wallan dunida joga ! or Ebbo- 
how maha wah wallan dunida 
joga ! — far ?' halkai jirtai ? 
intai fogtahai or jirta ? — old 
is he ? wa imisa jir ? — far is 
it thither ? halka ila halkoi 




imisai iss u jiran ? — far it is 
thither ! halkasi foga ! — long 
have you been here ? imisad 
halkan jogtai? — long will 
you abuse my patience 1 imisan 
ku daft ? — is that ? wahhasi 
wa side? tell me — I 'may 
speak to him ? i sheg si an u 
la hadlo? God knows — to 
deliver us, Ilahhai ba og si 
ainnu ku bahsano or si u ino- 
gu sahalo. 

however, ad., si kasta ; — it be, 
si kastai ahato or nohoto ; — 
he be, mid un or mid kasta ha 

howl, v.i., (cry as a wolf) haraidi. 

howling, n., haraidis, — ki. 

hoy {see bugalow).- 

huddle,, (throw in confusion) 
halad, iss ku halad. 

huff, v.i., (swell with anger) 'il u 

hulk, n., '(careen) tabahad, — di, 
or dabahad markabka. 

hull, n., (husk) holof, — ti, jidif 
or jilif, — ^ti, laf, — ti. 

hum, v.i., (buzz) hin, guh. 

humanity, n., ninnimo, — adi. 

humble, a., amusan. 

humbug, w., (sham) halalif, — ti ;, halalif ka shub. 

humectate,, yar ho. 

humour, n., (of tbe body) de'an, 
— ki ; (of the nose) duf, — ki, 
sin, — ki; (temper) abur, — ki, 
— ti. 

hump, hunch, n., tur, — ^ti ; — 
backed, turleh, niiiki turta- 
laha; — of camels, kurus, — ki. 

hunch, n., (a knock with the fist) 
tantomo, tumujo, — adi;, 
(push) rih. 

hunger, n.,' gajo, — adi ; — fit, 
gaja hun, — di humaid, bar- 
had, — di. 

hungry, a., gajaisan, ninki ga- 
jaisna ; hu is always — , had 
iyo gor wa gajaisanyahai ; 
be — , gajo ; I am — , wan 
gajonaisa or gaja i haisa ; I 
teel a — fit, gaja bun ya i 

hundred, mtm., bohol, — ki, tiro, 

— adi. 
hunt,, dab, ugadso. 
hunting, n., dabad, — ki, ugadsi, 

— gi^ 
hunter, n., dabad, — ki, 
hurl, hurly-burly, n., shiddo, — adi. 
hurrah ! int., hirro ! hino ! 
hurricane, «., bahaUad or mahal'- 

lad, — di, 
Imrrj-, n., haul badan ; the man is 

in a — , ninki hausha badna ;, degdeg u habo ; v.i., 

hurt, »., 'awar, — ^ki, hon, — ti, 

nabar, — ki;, 'awar, ha- 

nuni, hon yel; v.r., hon 'iss 

yel ; a., 'awaran ; be — , 

'awaran or 'awamaw. 
husband, n., nin ahalleh, 
hush ! int., (silence !) amus ! 

amusa ! 
husk (see hull), 
hut, n., bul, — ki ; — of one 

family, jes, — ki; — of several 

families not agglomerated, je- 

sas, — ki. 




hysena, n. ; striped — , didar, — 
ki, habal farai, — ^riM ; spotted 
— , 'andader, — ki, — ^ti, dur- 
wa, — gi, horor, — ki, waraba, 

• — ilii, wera, — ihi. 

hydropic, hydropical, a., barar- 
leh, (nin) bararsau. 

hymn, n., hes, — ti. 


I (see Grammar). 

ice, «., baraf, — ^ki. 

idea, n., ogan, — ti. 

idiot, «., dohou, — ki, bahahim. 

idle, a., 'ajis, — ki, 'ajisah, wah- 

san ; be — , 'ajisnaw, wahso. 
idleness, n., 'ajisnimo, — adi, 

wahsi, — gi. 
idol, n., sanam, — ki. 
if, conj., hadi, bal in. 
ignominy, v., mamus jab, — ki. 
ignorance, n., ohon laau, — ti, 

arumimo, — adi". 
ignorant, a., ohon darran, ohonla, 

arur, — ti, juhula, — ihi. 
ill, a., (bad) hnn ; (sick) buka ; 

be — , humaw ; n., that boy 

returns — (bad) for good, inan- 

kasi sharku wanag u 'esha; 

he speaks — of everyone, isa- 

gu nin walba wa hil leh bu 

ka shega. 
illness, n., bukan, — ti. 
illegal, a., gar la. 
illegitimate, n., gara', — i'M. 
image, n,, sawir, — ki ; (figure) 

snrrad, — di. 

imitate,, (copy) mid u eg 

samai ; (endeavour to resemble) 

isaga kaleh noho. 
immediately, ad., aminkada, 

iminkada, markiba, haddada, 

immense, a., wein. 
immerse,, husi. 
immodest, a., hishodla. 
immortal, a., au diman karin. 
impatient, a.,kadsanla, sugninla. 
impede,, (hinder) joji. 
impel,, (force) mnhuni. 
impenetrable, a., haud. 
impenetrability of a forest, «., 

hand, — ki. 
impenitence, n., taubad or tobad 

laan, — ti. 
imperfect, a., an damain. 
impertinent, a., amusla. 
implore,, bari ; — for us, 

noga had. 
importunity, n., (looking at some 

one when eating) hud, — ki. 
impose,, sar ; — a fine, ^a- 

sir ; — taxes, ashur sar. 
impossilile, fl-., la ma kar, lama 

karo ; it is — , wah wa la ma 

imposture, n., bein, — ti. 
impostor, n., beina leh, or beina 

was, — ki, nin muhalhalah. 
impotent, a., an dali karin. 
impure, a. and n., mahnud, — ki. 
impurity, n., mahnudiumo, — adi, 

wasmo, — adi; commit — , was. 
in, prp., ku, gudihi. 
incalculable, a., la ma tirin karo. 
incantation, »., fal, — ki ; make 

an — , fil. 




inoantator, n., nin wah fala, nag 

wah l^sha. 
incapable, n., (of fighting) hashin, 

— ti, nin hashinah. 
incense, n., hanjo, — adi, foh, — 

hi, ha', — ^hi. 
incise,,, sar, sarsar. 
incision, w., sarsar, — ki, sarmo, 

— adi. 
inclination, «., foror, — ki, 'uskis, 

— ki; profound — , rako', — 

di, sujud, — di. 
incline,, forori, 'uski ; — on, 

ku tiri. 
incline, v.i., fororso, 'usko, tirso; 

— on, upon, ku tirso, rako' ; 

inclined tn evil, nin waliba 

wah him bu u jeda. 
include,, ku hid. 
incomplete, a., an damaiu. 
incomprehensible, a., an la garan. 
incorruptible, a., ma hudmm. 
increase,, badi, badnai, kor- 

di ; v.i., badnaw. 
increase, n., (augmentation) kor- 

dis, — ki. 
incur, v.t7\, galabso. 
Indebt,, han geli. 
indebted, a., hamaisan. 
indeed, ad., waiyai or weiyei. 
indelible, a., (sumad) an la babiin 

independent, a., iss bah. 
indigent, a., 'aid, — di. 
indignant, a., 'adaisan. 

dignation, n., 'ado, — adi. 
indignity, «., 'ai, — di. 
indigo, TO., sibah madow 'adanah. 
indirect, a., hallohan, jidki hal- 

individual, n., hof, — ki, 'id,— di. 
India, n., ard al hindi. 
Indian, n., hindi, — gi. 
indocile, a., 'asi, — gi, 'asiah. 
indolence, re., 'ajisnimo, — adi. 
indolent, a., 'ajis, — ki. 
induce,, sasab. 
indulge,, 'amalkis hun bu 

indurate,, adkai, 
inebriate,, kaga sahrami. 
ineffable, a., la ma hadli karo. 
infallible, a., ma beinain karo, 

bein ma shegi karo, ma ha- 

talmi karo. 
infamous, a., mamus la. 
infamy, n., mamus jab, — ^ki. 
infancy, re., arurnimo, — adi. 
infant, n., ilmo, — ihi, muijo', — hi. 
infectious, a., (contagious) la iss 

ka had, saboh. 
inferior, a., nin hosai, in hosai. 
infidel, «., gal, — ki. 
infidels or infidelity, n., galo, — 

inflame,, belbelli, ololi, shid. 
inflict,, u sar. 
inform,, war gei, war ken, 

warran, ogaisi; r.r., iss ka 

informant, n., war kena, — ihi. 
information, n., war, — ki. 
ingratitude, «., abal darri, — di. 
inhabit, v.i., fadi, jog. 
inhabitant, n., deris, — ki, 
inheritance, n., dahal, — ki. 
inherit,, dahal. 
inhospitablcj a., bahail, — ^ki. 
inhospitability, re., morti hadis, 

— ki. 

Q 2 




inhuman, «., adow, — gi. 
inhumanity, »., adownimo, — adi, 
injure,, 'ai, bii, wah yel. 
injurious, a., wah yellaleh., (erai) 

an la iss odan. 
injury, n., 'ai, — di, wah yello, 

— (3i, na'dal, — shi. 
injustice, n., gar darri, — di. 
ink, n., had, — ki, 
inkstand, «., dawad, — di, madad, 

— ki. 
inn, n., das, — ki. 
innocence, n., hujad laan, — ti, 

tahsir laan, — ti. 
innocent, a., hujadla, tahsir la, 

an tahsir lahain. 
inoffensive, a., (wa bunduh) an 

'idna wah yeUn. 
inquietude, n., weirweir, — ki. 
inquire, , weidi, don. 
inscribe,, ku hor, warahda 

ku dig. 
insert,, ku rid. 
inside, n., gudaha, gudihi. 
insnare,, dab. 
insolence, n., amar weinan, — ti. 
insolent, a., af hun, amusila. 
instant, n., 'abbar, — ki. 
instep, n., bohon horai. 
instruct,, bar, wani. 
instruction, n., bamin, — ^ti, ba- 

rasho, — adi. 
instructor, n., bara, — ihi. 
insult {see injure), 
intangible, a., an la taban karin. 
integral, a., daman. 
intellect, intelligence, n., ahli, — 

gi, garasho, — adi, miyir, — ki, 
intelligent, a., 'arrab jila'san, 

miyirsan, miyir haba. 

intend,, dama'; what do you 

— to do, mahad dama'santa- 

intention, n., dama', — hi. 
intercede, v.L, deh gal, u ga'an 

intercept,, joji. 
intercourse, n., warmo, — adi. 
interest, n., awo, — adi, darad, — 

interfere,, (interpose) ga'an 

interior, a., gudahaah. 
interjection (of inticing), 'ar! 'ar! 

(of pain) ha ! (of calling) war 

hoi ! na hoi ! (for parents) aiya 

abbe ! aiya hoyo ! 
interpret,, ka af'eli, u kala 

interpretation, n. ; that — is 

not good, kala af'eliskasi ma 

interpreter, n., afayen, — ^ki, af- 

'elis, — ki, ttirjuman, — ki. 
interrogate,, weidi, sual. 
interrogation, n., sual, — shi, wei- 

dis, — ki. 
interrogative (particle), ma ? e ? 

(as an affix), 
interrupt,, hulhuladai. 
intervene, v.i., deh gal, la tali, 
intervention, n., talo, — adi. 
intervert,, gesta kaleh u dig 

or u rog. 
intestine, n., uslahais, — ^ti, us- 

laho or usloho, — adi ; long — , 

hidmo, — ^ihi, mindi'ir, — ki. 
intiiriat.e, n., (a familiar friend) 

sahib runah or sahib dabah. 
into, prp., ku. 




intoxicate,, kaga sahrami. 
intrepid, a., 'absila, bilileh, gesi, 

— gi, ragah. 
intrepidity, n., bill, — gi, gesl- 

nimo, — adi. 
introduce,, geli, ku kahai, 

abur, sinif. 
intrust,, aman, amanaiso, u 

inundation, n., dad, — ki, biyihi 

'arrada rogai. 
inutile, a., an wahba tarain, wah 

ma tarai. 
invade,, dul, so da', 
invaluable, a., ib ma laha. 
invariable, a., an rogman karin. 
invent,, hindis. 
invention, n., hindisad, — di. 
investigate,, hubso, 
investigation, n., hubsad, — ki. 
invidious, a., hasid, — ki. 
invincible, a., an laga adkan 

invisible, a., la ma arko, an la 
arki karin; God is — , Ilah 
wa wah an la arki karin. 
invite,, u yed. 
iris of the eye, n., isha buh- 

iron, n., birr, — ti, sulub, — ki; 
— wire, hasaii, — di ;, 
(smooth the clothes with) birr- 
ta mari. 
irregular, a., janjedah ; make — , 

irregularity, n., janjed, — ki. 
Islam, Islamism, n., nin islamed, 

dinti islamed. 
island, isle, 72., gashirad, — di. 
issue, v.i., bah; issued, bah. 

itch, itching, n., 'addo, — adi, 
'adanyo, — adi; v.L, 'adanyo. 

ivory, n., fol marodi, folki ma- 
rodi, the ... 


jabber {see babble, chatter), 
jackal, n., dawa' dulmadowah, 

golli, — di, golli warabais, — 

ki, hor, — ki. 
jail, n., habsi, — gi. 
jar, «., (vessel) dS, — shi, gog, — 

gi, han, — ti, humbo, — adi, 

mardaban, — ki. 
javelin, n., dagalai or degelai, — 

di, waran, — ki. 
jaw, «., dan,^ — ki. 
jealous, a., hasid, — ki ; be —, 

hasid, gubb. 
jealousy, n., hasidnimo, — adi. 
jeer, n., (scoff) luhuf, — ki ; 

and v.i., luhufl or luhfi, ku 

hosol; mahad i luhufinaisa? 

why are you (laughing or) jeer- 
ing at me? 
jeerer, n., luhufi, — gi, nin luhu- 

jerk-,, ruhruh, tur. 
jest, «., ayar, — ti, kaftan, — ;ki. 
Jesus, n., 'Issa. 
Jew, n., ynhudi, — gi; jnihud, — 

di (plur.). 
Jewess, n., yuhudiyad, — di. 
job, n., haul, — shi, shuhul, — ki. 
join,, iss ku dar, iss u gei, 

iss ku hid, iss ku hodob, iss 

ku samai, iss ku tol. 




joiuing, n., iss ku daran, — ^ki, iss 
ku samais, — ki. 

joint, n., hubin, — ti, fanah, — ^M ; 
he has put his arm out of — , 
g^a'antisi wa fiiduhdai. 

joke, ??., kaftan, — ^ki; v.i., kaf- 
tan, 'ayar. 

journey, n., kabadai, — ihi, sod'al, 
— ki ; hnlf day's — , daldala- 
sho, — adi ; camel day's — , 
gedi, — gi ; v.i., kabadai, so- 

joy, joyfulness, «., badad, — ki, 
rain, — ti, farahan, — ^ki, far- 
had, — di, raho,— adi. 

joyful, joyous, a., badadan, ba- 
dadsan, rahaisan, farahanah. 

joyousness, jubilation, n., badad, 

— ^ki ... ; give joy, kaga bad- 

badi or badbadadi. 
judge, «., daulad, — di, nin dau- 

laded, hakin, — ki;, hisab 

hukum, gar goi. 
judgment, «., gar, — ti, hukum, 

— ki, hisab, — ti. 
jug, n., (vessel) kusad, — di. 
juggler, n., mahawi, — gi. 
juice, n., de'an, — ki. 
jujube, n., gob, — ki, hohob, — ^ti. 
jump, 11., bodo, — adi, botin, — ti; 

v.i., bod. 
junction, n., iss ku daran, — ^ki. 
jungle, n., (desert) 'idla, — di, 

'idla'ir sila, — di, miyi, — gi. 
just, a., hagagsan, hah, tagan, 

human, ragah, tolmon. 
just now, ad., aminkada, imiu- 

kada, haddadatan. 
justice, n., gar, — ^ti. 

jowari or jowaree, n., (kind of corn) 
hadud or harud, — ^ki; — plant, 
kassab, hassab, — ki, salol, — 


kahri or curry, n., sanunad, — di;; 

— stuff, hawaj,— ki ; make 
the — , sanunadda samai; mix 

— with rice, sanunadai. 
keel, n., (of a ship) herab, — ki. 
keep,, ho, hai, haiso, habo ;■ 

— for you, digo, hado ; — 
your promise, hadalkaga daso- 
or hejiso ; — asunder, kala 
bai'di ; — away, off, fogai, ka 
fogai ; — back, dib u 'eli ; — 
down, hos u hai; — under 
your temper, amalkaga iss ka 
hosaisi ; — where you are, 
halkad jogtid jog ; — off, du,, 
naga du. 

keeping, n., (act of) haisi, — gi. 
kerchief, n., malhamad, — di. 
kettle, n., digsi or disti, — gi,, 

deri, — gi, adar, — ^ki. 
key, n., mufta, — hi, 
kick, n. ; — of man, lad, — ^kL ;: 

— in a kind of game, hurdun, 
— ki ; — of a horse, ass, mule 
..., bihlai or bihlo, — ihi, dam- 
babud or dambabid, — ki; — 
of a camel, harati, — di ; 
lad, hurdan. 

kid, «., wahar, — ti. 
kidney, «., kelli, — gi. 




kOl,, dil, nafta ka had, kaga 
'ahbal, ka kausi, ka kudi. 

kiln, n., mufo, — adi. 

kind, a., (good) wanaksan, tol- 
mon; w., (sort) al'n, — ki, tol, — 
ki ; of the same — , iss ku tol, 

kindness, n., ja'lan, — ti, wanag, 
— gi, tolimo, — adi. 

kindle,, sMd. 

kindred, w., (kin) hidid, — ki; 
become — , la Mdid. 

king, n., bohor, — ki, malik, — gi, 
suldan, — ki, ugas, — ki. 

king's evil, n., hudai or huda, — 
IM, mal, — sM. 

kingdom, n., mulki, — gi, 

kiss, n., dunkad, — ki, dunkasho, 
— adi ;, dunko. 

kitchen, «., gali, — gi. 

kite, 11., (a bird) duryo, — adi ; (a 
toy) diyarad, — di. 

kitten, n., dinad yar, — di, — aid. 

klipspringer,.w., alakud or alikud, 
— di. 

knave, w., harami, — gi, tug, — gi, 
niu karamiah. 

knead,, 'ajin, hosh. 

knee, «., jilib,— ki, rug,-gi; 
— pan, kurankur, — ti; bend 
the — , jilibka dig. 

kneel, v.i., jilba jogso ; remain 
kneeling, jilba jog, jilba yara 
dig ; — and make the pro- 
found inclination, sujud ; — 
(in speaking to the camel), 
arun, tu ; make the camel — , 
animi, tui. 

kneeling, n., (genuflexion) jilba 
jog,— gi. 

knife, «., mindi, — di. 

knock, n., (at the door) gara', — 
hi ; — with a club, gagab, — 
gi, kau, — di ;, gara' ; — 
down, btdai, ka dufo, gagabi, 
ka kausi. 

knot, n., guntin, — ti, gunti, — gi, 
gar, — ^ki;, gunud, garai, 

know,, garo, ogow, ohon, 
og ; I do not — , moji ; v.o., 

knowledge, n., ohon, — ti, 'ilmi, 

— gi- 

known, a., la yahan ; well — , 
ma'ruf, — ki ; a well — man, 
nin ma'ruf ah. 

knuckle, n., fanah,— hi, hubin, 
— ti. 

kooiloo, n., (antelope in general) 
aderyo, — adi ; lesser — , ader- 
yo 'ari, — gi ; male — , godir, 
— ki. 

koran, «., (alcoran) furhau, — ^ki. 


labour, n., haul, — shi, shuhul, — 

ki;, shahai, haul habo, 

hausho, hoji. 
labourer, n'., shahi, — gi, nin sha- 

]abori9us, a., hauled, haushoda, 

hog wein. 
lac, n., (100,000 rupees, in India) 

lak, bohol kun o rubod, lak ' 

lactation, n., 'ana nujis, — ki. 




lad, n., inan, — ki, wil, — ki. 

ladder, «., sallan, — ki. 

lade (see load). 

laden, a., raran. 

ladle [or a vessel with a handle), 

n., dura, hudda, — ihi, tebeda 

dara, — ihi. 
lady, n., afo, — adi, nag, — ti, uri, 

— di. 
lag, y i., (stay hehiad) dambai, 

lamb, n., barar, — ki ; she — , 

nail, — shi ; he — , wan bara- 

lame (of one leg), n., dutiyai, 

--yiM; — woman, dutiso, — 

adi ; go — , duti. 
lament, n., baror, — ti, musanow, 

— gi, oin, — ti ; v.i., baroro, oi, 

musanow ; v.c, ka barori. 
lake, «., biyo gal, — ki, biyo ga- 

len,— ki. 
lamp, «., (lantern) sirad, — ki ; 

night — , ilais, - ki. 
lance, n., (long spear) waran, — 

land, 11., berri, — gi, dul, — ^ki. 
land, v.i., (put ashore) deg;, 

deji, rog, so rog, alabadada 

landing, n., degnin, — ti, rognin, 

— ti. 
language, «., af, — ki. 
languid, a., ataisan, weidsan. 
languish, v.i., 'atow, weidow. 
languor, n., 'ato, — di, weidnimo, 

— adi. 
lantern, n., fanus, — ki. 
lap, n., dab, — ti. 
lap,, (lick up) rah. 

lapidate,, shid. 
lapidation, n., shid, — ki. 
large, a., balladan, wein ; 

footed, kabo wein. 
largeness, n., ballad, — ki,weinan, 

— ti; — of feet or sandals, 

kabo weinan. 
lark, n., hedin heto, — adi. 
larva, n., dirhi,- — gi ; — of gnats, 

lunlumai,— ihi. 
lash (see fiog, flogging), 
lass, «., gabad, — di. 
lassitude, n., dal, — ki. 
last, a., (utmost) ugu dambaiyai, 

ugu dambaisai; at — , ahir- 

last, v.i., (endure) rag. 
lasting, a., adag. 
latch, 71., albabka ilhadisa.' 
late, a., ragsan; (deceased) din- 

tai (ot.), dimatai (/.) ; be — , 

rag ; was it so — i. ma sidasai 

u ragen ? he cam-e — , wa so 

lately, ad., beri dowed. 
latitude, n., (breadth) ballad, — 

lattice-work, «., sab, — ki. 
laugh, laughter, n., hosol, — ki. 
laugh, v.i., hosol ; — at, ku hosol. 
launch,, (to force a ship into 

the sea) kawir, 
launderer, n., dhobi, — gi, dar 

hasal, — ki. 
lavish, a., (prodigal) lumai, nin 

lumai ;, lumi. 
law, n., haul, — ki, hainun, — ki, 

hai'd, — ki. 
lawful, a., halal ; make him — , 





lawfulness, «., halal, — shi. 
lawsuit, n., da'wadf — di. 
lay,, (place) dig; — aside, 
dah, daho, digo; — away, reb; 

— before, open out, muji, tus ; 

— over, dusha ka sar ; — on, 
ku reb ; — down, u dibo ; — 
hold of, ho. 

laziness, n., ajisnimo, — adi,wahsi, 

— &i- 
lazy, a., 'ajis, — ki, 'ajisah, wah- 

san ; be — , 'ajisnow, wahso. 
lead, «., (a metal) rasas, — ti. 
lead,, (guide) badbadi, ka- 

hai ; — from, out of, ka bad- 

tadi ; — to, u kahai ; — the 

dance, 'ayarta hagaji ; — the 

prayer, ina tuki or tuji. 
leader, «., (of the prayer) imau, 

— ki. 
leaf, n., 'alen, — ti ; — of a palm- 
tree, au, — di. 
leak, ?i., dalol, — ki; v.i., dalol; 

the kettle leaks, distigi wa 

lean, n., (of meat) jid, — ki, jimid, 

— ki. 
lean (animal), m., abah, — hi ; a., 

abahah ; be - — , abah ; v.c, 

lean, a., 'ataisan, weidsan; be 

— , 'atow, weidow; v.c, wei- 

lean,, (incline) tiri, 'uski ; 

v.i., tirso, 'usko; — upon, ku 

tiri, ku tirso. 
leanness, w., 'ato, — adi, weid- 

nimo, — adi. 
leap, v.i., (jump) bod; n., bodo, 

—adi, botin, — ti. 

learn,, baro, digo. 
learning, «., bamin, — ^ti. 
least, a., ka wada yar, ugu yar. 
leather, n., hod, — ki, jan, — ti, 

harag, — gi". 
leave, n., (permission) fasah, — 

leave,, (let go) da, na' ; — 

aside, mel digo; — out, ka 

hadi; — behind, dambaisi; 

— on, ku reb ; v.i., iss ka da, 

iss ka reb. 
leaven, n., hamir, — ki. 
lecture, n., hadis, — ki. 
ledge, n., aror, — ^ki. 
leech, n., 'ula'ul, — shi. 
leer, «., (an oblique look) gatin, 

— ti. 
left (hand), n., bideh, — di; to 

the — , bidehda; — handed, 

gurai,— gi. 
leg, hind-leg, n., lug, — ti; fore — , 

jeni, — gi ; — below the knee, 

kub, — ki, shansho, — adi; — 

of a chair, rukun, — ki. 
one-fegged man, n., nin. lugla, 

luglawai, — ihi. 
legacy, n., dardaran, — ki. 
legal {see lawful), 
legumen, «., hudrad, — di. 
leisure, n., haulyari, — di. 
lemon, n., lin danan, — ti — aid. 
lend,, amahi. 
lending, n., amah, — di. 
length, n., derer, — ki. 
lengthen,, derai, dereri; — 

by adding to, iss ku dereri. 
Lent, n., wahtega sonka. 
leopard, M., shabel, — ki, horgumo, 

— adi, nimmer, — ki. 




leper, n., bar'asleh, — iM. 

leprosy, n., bar'as, — ^ki. 

less, a., diman, ka yar. 

lessen,, din, yarai, yaraiso. 

lesson, n., ma'shar, — ki. 

let, v.i., da; — me alone, i da; 
— me go out, dibadda i si da ; 
why do you — him come in 1 
mahad gudaha ugu so dai- 
naisa ? — the boys sleep, arur- 
ta da ha sehatai ; — down, ho- 
saisi; — in, into, so geli, so 
da ; — Kr>, si da, so da ; — 
me see, bal an arko ; — him 
speak, ha hadlo ; — it be so, 
ha ahato, sida ha ahato ; I 
have let a house, ahal ban 

letter, n., (of alphabet) haraf, — 
ki ; (an epistle) warhad, — di. 

level,, banai, sin, iss ku sin. 

level ground, n., ban, — ki, gegi, 
— di, tamuh, — di, mel tamu- 

liar, «., beinaleh, — ihi, beina- 
was, — ki. 

lieense,«., (permission) fasah, — hi. 

lick,, lef. 

lid, n., dabol, — ki, hadub, — ki, 
hadub gal, — ki, gorof, — ki, 
dabah, — hi. 

lie, n., bein, — ti, halalif, — ta. 

lie, v.i., (tell a lie) bein shag. 

lie, v.i., (rest) jif, jifso, oil; he 
lies alons upon the ground, 
dnlku yal, dulku yil. 

life, n., nolan, — ti, rubad, — ki, 
naf, — ti; — time, 'emri, — gi; 
next — , nolanta ahiro or no- 
lanta dambai. 

lifelessness, n., nafo, — ahi. 

lift,, hinji, kor or sarai u 

light, n., if, — ki, iftin, — ^ki, ilais, 

— ^ki; — of the day, gabal, — 

ki;, iftiini, sirad, sMd, 

light, a., (bi ight) dalalaya ; (not 

heavy) fadud. 
lighten,, iftimi ; it lightens, 

'irku wa hilaaya. 
lightning, n., hila, — hi. 
like, a., (resembling) leh eg, intas 

kaleh, intas leh eg ; — father 

— son, abbaha inanknna u eg 
yahai ; make — , n ekaisi ; in 

— manner, sidi kaleh, 
like,, (love) ja'alaw ; do you 

— his advice? taladisa ma 
ja'ashahai? do you — it? ma 
ja'ashahai or je'eshahai? 

likely, ad., (probably) malaha; 
he is — to die of hunger, ma- 
laha gaja dili donta; we are 

— to have war, dagal bainu 

likeness, n., ekan, — ti. 

liking, n., (inclination) ; having 

the same — , iss ku talo. 
limb, n., adin, — ^ki, lahad, — ^ki. 
lime, n., daxeyo, — adi, malas, — 

ti ; quick — , dagah gubtai. 
limit, n., dal, — ki. 
limp, v.i., duti; n., dukis, — 

limpid, a., (clear) miran. 
line, n., dilin, — ti, sadar, — ki, 

tah, tLhhi ; the — , lines of the 

hand, herro or herriyo, — adi ; 

range in — , tah, iss ku tah. 




linen, n., dar, — ki. 

linger, v.i., rag. 

lion, «., libah, — hi ; male — , ar, 

— ki ; female — , gol, — shi. 
lip, n., bushin, — ti, ^bin, — ti, 

famr, — ti. 
listen, v.i., degaiso, mahal, yel ; 

— to, ahbal, ka ahbal. 
lit, a., siradan, sMdan. 
little, a., yar, gabanah, gibinah, 

gaban ; wl., wah hoga or wuh 

hoga or wohhoga, yar, him- 

litany, n., huniid, — di ; recite the 

— , himudda mari. 
live, v.i., (be alive) nolaw, jir; 

(dwell) fadi, jir, jog, oil, ru- 

• liver, n., ber, — ti ; — of camels, 

waslado, — ihi. 
living, a., (alive) nol ; — property, 

holo nol, — ^ibi, — a. 
lizard, n., horato, — adi, gelka 

abadis, ror, — ^ki, masso or 

monso, — adi. 
lo ! int., eg ! ega ! 
load,, rar, shehnad, 'abai; 

n., hamil, — ki, rar,— ki, rarmo, 

— adi. 
loading, n., (freight) sbehnad, — 

— di. 
loaded, laden, a., raran, 'abaisan, 

sbehnadan, buha. 
loaf, n., kibis, — ti. 
loan, «., (a thing lent) amah, — di. 
loathe,, (abhor) na'; he 

loathes every meat, hHib walba 

wa ka yihyihsanaya ; v.i., 

(create disgust) jdhyihsi. 
loathsome, a., yihyihsan. 

lobe, n., (of the ear) dahal, — shi, 
degta dahasheda; upper part 
of — , htirdan or huijan, — ^ki. 

lock, «., huful, — ki. 

locust, n., ayah, — ^hi, koronkoro, 
— adi. 

log of wond, 11., dogob, — ki, 
jirid, — di. 

loin, n., (reins) kelli, — di ; — 
cloth, mahawis, — ^ki, go, — hi, 
haid, — ki'. 

loll, v.i., ku tirso. 

loni;, a., der; — in prayer, du'a 
ku rag, — gi; — disease, udur 
ragai ; you are very — in 
coming, wad ragta ; — after, 
ad., gor dambow; how — is 
it since? imisa ka dambayai 
or dambaisal? 

long, ad., — ago, beri horai ; not 
Jong before, ayamo dowed ; ere 
long, gor dowba ; I will come 
ere long, gor dowba wa iman 
dona ; as long as I live, inta 
an nolahai ; as long as he is 
virtuous lie will be admired, 
intas u wanaksanyahai wa la 
la yabi ; all my life long, intan 
jirai o dan, or intan nola o 
dan, or intan nola o idil; all 
day long, malin o idil. 

long,, (desire earnestly) ka 
rag; I — to see him, araggagi 
ban ka ragsanahai, or inan 
arko wan donaya; — for, 
tabalaisnaw ; he longs for this 
place, meshatanu u tabalaisan< 

look, n., egmo, — adi, arag, — gi, 
dai'mo, — adi. 




look, v.i. ; he looks very well, 
wa afimad haba; that looks 
well, wa wanaksanyahai or 
wanaksantahai; — about you, 
iss eg, iss jir ; — after, to the 
boy, inanka eg or ilali or jix ; 

— at, dai, bal eg ; — out, — 
for, don, bad ; wliat do you — 
for^ mahad donaisa, or mahad 
radinaisa ? I have long looked 
for him, in badan ban sugayai ; 

— into, over, hubso ; — there, 
at, u jed, u jeso, bagga u jeso ; 
let me — at the ship they 
speak of, bal an ego markabka 
la shegayo ; — at a man eat- 
ing, hud; looking at a man 
when eating, w., hud, — ki. 

look,, arag, eg, dai, jedali, 

looking-glass, n., murayad, — di. 
loose, loosen,, deb'i ; a., deb- 

lord, n., saheb, — ki. 
lose,, hor, ambi, hababi, 

hallai, luini, bel; v.i.. ala'al, 

ambo, habab, hallaw, lun. 
loss, n., hallau, — gi; suffer a — , 

ed; suffering of a — , edis,— 

ki ; — of a person, habab, — ki, 
lost, a., hababsan, hallabai. 
lounge, v.i., (to idle) ku tirso ; 

do not — , ha ku tirsan. 
louse, n., injir, — ^ti. 
love, n. ja'ail, — ki, ja'alan, — ti ;, ja'alaw ; do not — , ha 

low, a., hosai ; be — , hosai ; ad., 

hos, hosta ; speak — , hos u 


lower,, (bring low) hos u 

habo, hos u hai. 
lowing, n., (of cows) bana'ei, — 

luck, n., ayan, — ki, nasib, — ^ki; 

good — , 'awo, — adi ; bad — , 

ayan humo ; wish him good 

— , haiib. 
lucky, a., ayanleh, haliban. 
luggage, «., alabo,^ — adi. 
hA\,, sehi. 
lump, n., (a mass) fud, — ki, kus, 

— ki ; a — of sugar, fud sun- 

lunacy, n., walli, — di, 
lunatic, a., wallan, walla. 
lungs, n., sambab, — ^ki, 
lure [see allure). 

luxation, «., fuduh or furuh, — hi. 
lynx, n., gududona, — gi. 


machine, n., dawar,— ki. 

mad, a., wallan ; become — , 

madden, and v.i., wal, iss 

madness, n., walli, — di. 
magician, n., nin wah fala, nag 

wah fasha. 
magistrate, n,, daulad or dowlad, 

— di. 
magnanimity, n., raganimo, — 

Mahometan, n., muslim, — ki. 




maid, n., gabad, — di, ugub, — ^ki, 

gashan, — ti. 
maim,, adin go ; a., adin 

make,, samai, wahai ; — 

well, ad u habo or sainai ; — 

again, ku laban. 
made, a., la wahai, samaisan ; 

— of, ka samaismai ; be — , 

samaisan, samaisnaw. 
maker, n., samais, — ki. 
making, n., samain,— ti. 
male, n., labod, — ^ki, hododi ; a., 

lab, hodah. 
maledict, malediction (see curse). 
malefactor, n., layan, — ki. 
malevolent, malignant, a., hamiti, 

— gi, hamitiah, hamitigaha. 
malevolence, malignancy, n., ha- 

midnimo, — adi. 
mallet, n., (.wooden hammer) hori 

malice, n., histi, — gi. 
man, n., nin, — ki, rag, — gi ; he 

is grown a — , wa gad madow- 

bai ; — of prudence, wisdom, 

farid, — ki, nin faridah ; — of 

war, markab harbiah. 
manage,, tali, ku tali ; — 

that office, hafiska u tali, 
management, manage, n., talo, — 

manager, «., taliya, — yihi, hakin, 

— ki. 
manducation, «., 'alal, — ki, rabsi, 

— si- 
mane, n., (of a horse) gud, — ki ; 

hair of the — , sain,— ti. 

manhood, n., ninnimo, — adi, ra- 

ganimo, —adi. 

mangouste (greyish-red), n., shau- 

shuga, — ^ihi; (red) sogur, — ki^ 
manlfind, «., dad, — ki, 
manliness, «., raganimo, — adi. 
manner, n., si,— di, bassar, — ki; 

in this — , sidan; do in the 

same — , sidi lo samaiyai u 

samai; in what — % side? 

(custom) dastnr, — ti; having 

the same manners, iss ku talo. 
many, a., badan, tiro badan. 
map, 11., warhadda dunidu ku 

marble (for playing), n., fatari; 

— gi; fatatir, — ^ti (^Zm?-.). 
march, v.i., so'o, talab, baid ; v.c, 

so'odsi, talabi; n., so'od, — ^ki; 

talabo, — adi. 
mare, n., genyo, — adi. 
mark, «., 'alan, — ki, astan, — ti, 

sumad, — di, hanjid, — di;, 

'alamadi, sumad. 
market, n., suh, — ^hi. 
marriage, «., gur, — ^ki, giirsad, 

— ^ki, aros, — ki. 
married, a., gUrsadai ; a — man, 

nag la gursadai ; a — woman, 

nag ninleh; a new man, 

aros, — ki. 
marrow, n., duh, — hi. 
marry,, u guri, u dis, iss u 

guri, meri ; — your daughter 

to me, gabaddada i meri ; 

t!.j.,gurso; w.r., merso; marry 

your sister-in-law in a second 

marriage, dumal. 
marsh, n., rubad, — ki. 
marvel, n., yab, — ^ki. 
marvellous, a., yaban, yableh, la 





masculine, «., (sex) rag, — gfi. 

mason, n., bani, — gi. 

mass, n., (lump) fud, — ki ; (heap) 

tul, — ^ki. 
Mass, «., (holy sacrifice) haddas, 

— ki. 
mast, «., dahal, — ^ki. 
master, n., sakeb, — ki, mahadin, 

— ki ; school , mu'alim, — 

ki, fihi, — gi, bara,— iM. 
master,, u tali ; (subdue) 

jar'a bar, laili, dastur him 

masticate,, 'alali, rabso. 
mastication, n., 'alal, — ki, 'alalis, 

— ki, rabsi, — gi. 
masturb,, ka'si ; v.r., ka'so. 
masturbation, n., ka'si, — gi. 
mat, n., dermo, — adi, harar, — ki, 

kebed, — di. 
match, «., (lucifer) haraf, — ki, 

kebrid, — di. 
mate, «., (companion) wehel, — ki. 
maternity, «., hoyanimo, — adi, 
matrice, n., (womb) rimai, — gi, 

ur, — ^ki. 
matrimony, n., gur, — ki. 
matter, »., (pus) de'an, — ki, ma- 

lah, — di ; (cause) sabab, — ^ti, 

ed', — di; what is the — 1 eddu 

wamahai? ormahadlehdabai? 

I make no — of it, yelkisa ! 
maturate,, bislai. 
mature, a., bisil. 
maturity, n., bisail, — ki ; age of 

— , gan, — ki ; the man at the 

age of — , gad. madowbai. 
maw, n., (stomach of birds) bog, 

— gi. 
maxim, n., mahmah, — di. 

may, aux.v., kar ; you — if you 

wish, badad rabtid wa karta ; 

if it — be, hadai jiri karto ; 

if I ^ — say so, hadan sida odan 

karayo ; as much as — be, 

intad kartid. 
meadow, n., doh.0, — adi. 
meal, n., 'lumo,— adi, hadimo, — 

adi, suhur, — ti, afur, — ki ; 

take your — , suhuro. 
mean, a., (ba*e) fadud. 
meaning, n., ma'nai, — iM; what 

is the — of this word ? eraiga 

ma'nihisu wa mahai ? 
meanness, «., fiidaid, — ki.J 
means, n. ; by all — , kolleb ; by 

no — , sina. 
measure, «., gedka lugu Myaso, 

mailin, — ki; take the — , hi- 

yas ;, dudumi, dira'. 
meat, n., Mlib, — ki, jimid, — ki, 

'ad, — ki, mnhmad, — di, kum- 

bis, — ki, jid,— ki; fat of — , 

barur, — ^ti. 
meddle,, ga'an geli. 
mediate,, ga'an geli, heshisi, 

mediation, »., beskis, — ti, talo, 

— adi. 
mediator, n., taliya, — ihi. 
medicament, n., daimo, — adi. 
medicine, n., dawo, — adi, sa- 

naho, — adi ; give — , dawai. 
medicinal tree, «., gugubod, — ki. 
meditate, v.i., bubso. 
meditation, n., hubsad, — ^ki. 
medley, n., iss ku daran, — ki, 
meek, mild, a., habow. 
meet,, la kulan ; o.i., iss 





meeting, n., kulan,— ki, shir, — 

ki, urur,— ki; have a — , shira, 

so shira. 
m elan chol y,w., wahan, — ki,hulub, 

— ki. 
melancholic, a., hulubsan; be — , 

wahan, hulub. 
melon, n., bartih, — hi; water , 

habhab, — ki ; wild — , unun, 

— ki". 
melt,, dalali, dahaji; — in, 

ku dalali. 
melted, a., shuban. 
member, n., adin, — ki, lahad, — 

membrum virile, n., gus, — ki, 

hodo, — ihi, buryb, — adi. 
memory, n., husus,^ — ti, fahmad, 

— di. 
mend,, (repair) kar, hor, 

kab, hodob. 
metises, n,, dig, — gi, hail, — ki. 
mentioDj, sheg ; do not — , 

ha ba shegia. 
merchandise, n.,alabo, — adi, holo, 

— ihi, mod, — ki, saman, — ki. 
merchaiit, «., baya mnshtari, — 

gi, dilal, — ki. 
merciful, a., naharisleh, rahim, 

— ki, nin rahijmah. 
mercy, n., nahadin, — ti, naharis, 

— ti, rahmad, — di ; have — , 

nah, uahariso. 
merit,, galabso ; v.e., ga- 

merry, a., badadsan, farahanah. 
mesh, n., god, hog; there was 

plenty of tish in the meshes ot 

the net, godadka shabagga 

kalun badan ba kn jirai. 

message, n., war, — ki. 

messenger, n., war had, — di, war 
kena, — ihi. 

Messiah, n., elmessieh, Kristos, 
'Issa el messieh. 

method, n., hagajis, — ki. 

mewing, ?»., dogor rugmad,- 

mid-day, n., had, — di, duhur, — 

middle, midst, n., deh, — di ; go 
in the — , u dahai. ' 

midwife, n., umiiliso, — adi. 

might, n., hog,— gi, ital, — ki ; 
anx.v., kari laha. 

mighty, a., hog wein, huwad 

migrate, v.i., gur. 

migration, n., gurnin, — ki. 

milk, n., 'ano, — ihi ; fresh — , 
dai, — di ; — of ewe, 'ana 
idad ; — of goat, 'ana riad ; 
fresh camel's — , hor, — ki ; 
sour — , 'ano danan ; sour — 
of camels, karur, — ti ; turned 
— , bah ; the — has turned, 
'anaha bahai ; curdle — , ga- 
dod, — ki; butter — , ir, — ti; 
— and vvater mixed, badah, — 
hi ; — and butter — mixed, 
buhbnhod,— ki, weildo, — adi. 

milk,, liss, so liss, mal, so 
mal, mahar ku mal, darar 

million, nmn., toban bohol o kun. 

mind {see intellect). 

mind,, hubso, foyigow; — 
well what I say, wahan ku 
lehahai ad u hubso ; — your 
busintss, dantada foyigow ; 




— your health, afimadka daiir ; 

I shall — the boy, wilkan jiri; 

v.r., iss ka daur, iss ka eg, iss 

ka jir, nin fojigan ahaw;, 

(put in — ) husTisi. 
mine {see Grammar), 
mingle,, (mix) iss ku dar, 

hosh, walah. 
minute, n., minit,— ki. 
. miracle, n. , wah. an la karin. 
mire, n., (mud) dohbo, — adi. 
mirror, n., biladaya, — ihi, mura- 

yad, — di. 
misadventure, n., ayan hmno, — 

misbehave, v.i., abur humaw. 
misbehaviour, n., abur hull. 
misbelief, n., amin hlUl. 
miscarriage, n., ilma ka homan, 

— ki. 
miscarry, v.i., ilma iss ka hon ; 

V.C., Uma ka hon. 
mischief, n., histi, — gi, wah 

yello, — adi ; do some — , wah 

mischievous, a., wah yellaleh ; 

n., wah yel, — ki. 
miser, n.', bahail, — ki, bahailad, 

— di, dabhal, — ki, masug, — 

gi, mndal,— ki. 
misfortune, n., ayan humo, — 

mislead,, hatal, halhal ; be 

misled, hatalan. 
misleader, n., mahawi, — gi. 
mist, n., 'iro, — adi. 
misty, a., 'iraisan. 
mistake, n., hatalad, — di, Uow- 

sho, — ihi ; be mistaken, hata- 

misunderstand,, si hun 

mix,, halad, iss ku halad. 
mixture, n., halad, — ki. 
moan, n., tah, — hi ; v.i., tah. 
mob, n., buh, — hi. 
mock,, luhufi or luhfi, ku 

hosol; mockery, n., luhuf, — ki. 
mode, n., si, — di. 
modest, a., hil or hishod badan ; 

be — , hisho. 
modesty, n., hishod, — ki, hil, — 

modify,, bedel. 
moist, a., hoiyan. 
moisten,, hoi. 
molar tooth, n., gows, — ki. 
molest,, dali, kaga 'eisi, ha- 

moment, n., 'abbar, — ki. 
Monday, n., isnin, — ti. 
money, n., la'ag, — ti ; — box, 

case, or linen — bag, kish, — 

ki; leathern purse, kishad, — di. 
monition, n., wano, — adi. 
monk, n., wadad, — ki. 
monkey, n., dayer, — ki, 
monsoon (N.E.), n., bad fnran, 

— ki; (S.W.) bad hidan,— ki. 
month, n., bil, bishi, the ... 
monthly, ad., bil walba ; I go to 

Aden — , bishi ba mar ban 

Aden taga. 
moon, n., dayah, — hi ; — light, 

'addo, — adi; 'half — , dayah 

badki ; full — , dayah dan, 

dayihhidama; new — ,' dayah 

'usub ; quarter of the — , bil, 

— shi. 
moor, n., (marsh) rubad,— ki. 




more, a., ka badan, ka ron ; will 
you have — ? ma ka badsa- 
naisa? ad., once — , mar kaleh; 
no — , never — , in, iuta ka 

moreover, ad., well ba. 

morning, n., aror, — ti, subah, — 
ihhi ; this — , saka ; early — , 
aroryo, — adi. 

morning star, n., hidag aroryo, 
Mdigti wa beri. 

morrow, n., berri, — di ; to — , 
ad; berri, berrito ; until to — , 
halkiyo berri. 

mortal, a., nafta dila. 

mortar, n., (to grind in) malkad, 
— ki; — of wood, moya or 
moyai, — ihi; (lime and sand 
mixed) nurad, — di. 

mosquito, n., kane'o, — adi. 

most, a., ka wada badan, ugu 

mother, n., boyo, — adi ; in- 
law, soddoh, — di. 

motive, n., ed, — di, sabab, — ti. 

moulting (see mewing). 

mound, n., dud,— ki,gn"nbiir,— ti. 

mount, mountain, n., bur, — ti. 

mount, v.i., (go up) kor, fill. 

mourn, mourning [see Inment). 

mouse, n., jir yar,— ki, — a; a 
small — , bara dubleh. 

moustache, n., sharub, — ti. 

mouth, n., af, — ki. 

mouthful, n., 'antugo,— adi, luji- 
mad, — di ; give a — , 'antuji. 

move, and v.i., dahdahah, 
baid, du, durug, so'o, lul, 
walah ; — from, off, ka baid, 
ka diirug, ka du, ka so'o. 

movement, n., dahdahah, — hi, 

walah, — hi. 
much, a.., badan ; as — , so — , 

inta, intas, inta o kaleh. 
mud, n., dohbo, — adi, dohbo ha- 

muddy, a., dohbo badan, saboh ; 

— place, didi, — gi. 
mug, n., kalah, — ^hi. 
mule, n., bahlad, — di ; he — , 

bahlad lab. 
multiplication, n., tarin, — ki. 
multiply,, tar; be multiplied, 

multitudp, n., dad badan, buh, — 

hi, urur, — ki. 
murder,, dil. 
murderer, n., dila, — ihi. 
murmur, mumble, v.i., gunus,. 

hos u guh ; n., gunus, — ki. 
muscle, n., merji, — gi. 
mushroom, n., warik, — ^ti. 
music, «., hes, — ti. 
musk deer, n., beira, — ihi. 
musulman, n., muslim, — ki. 
mute (see dumb), 
mutton, n., hilib idad, — ki, idaha. 
muzzle, «., gafur, — ki, afiif, — ti;, aftif ; (only tying) gauaf. 
myope, a., arag darran, ima^ 

mowsan ; be — , imamowsan. 
myopy, n., imamowsi, — gi. 
myrrh, «., malmal, — ki; — tree, 

didhin, — ki ; false — tree, ha- 

baghadi, — gi. 
my, p.prn. (see Grammar), 
mystery, n., wah an la garan, 

wah an la karin. 
mystification, n. uggoyo, — adi. 





nail, n., (of the finger) 'iddi, — di; 

iron — , mismar or musmar, — 

nail,, musmar, 
naked, a., hawan. 
nakedness, n., hawanan, — ^ti. 
name, ?i., maga', — hi ;, u 

MM, ugu yed. 
nape, n., (joint of the neck) sa- 

gan-madon, — ti. 
narrate,, sheko u mari, u 

narrative, n., sheko, — adi. 
narrow, a., 'edidi. 
narrowness, n., 'edidi, — gi. 
nasty (see dirty), 
nation, n., habUo, — adi. 
nativity, n., dalnin, — ti. 
natural child, n., wa'al, — ki. 
nature, n., dunyo, — adi; (temper) 

abur, — ^ki, — ^ti. 
naughty, a., hun. 
nausea, n., yihyihsi, — gi. 
navel, n., hunduT, — ti ; — string, 

hudun,— ti. 
navigate, v.i., dof. 
navigation, n., dof, — ki, dofiiin, 

— ti. 
nay word, n., (refusal) dafirad, — 

near, ad. a.nAprp., ag, agta, dow, 

sokai, higta ; be — , dowow, 

big ; come — , so dowow, so 

durug; go — , u dowow, u 

durug ; put — , so dowai, u 

dowai, iss ku dowai. 
nearness, «., dowan, — ti. 
neat, a., sbuban. 

neck, TC., hor, — ti. 

necklace, »., horhid, — ki, kul, — 

shi, jilbad, — di. 
need, ra., (want) dan., — ti, tabalo, 

— adi ; (poverty) baho, — adi. 
needy (man), a., (nin) 'aidah, 

'aid, — ki. 
needle, n., irbad, — di ; big — , 

mahad, — ^ki. 
negligence, n., fojiglaan, — ti. 
negligent, a., mog, mogai. 
negotiate,, deh-gal. 
negro, »., sawahili, — gi, adon, — 

ki, — ti, bidai, — ihi. 
neigh, v.i., danan ; neighing, n., 

danan, — ki. 
neighbour, «., deris, — ki. 
neighbouriiood, n., derisnimo, — 

neither, ad., midna. 
nephew, n., inanki or ina walal- 

kai, walalkai ba dalai, wala- 

shai ba dashai. 
nest, «., bul, — ki, 
net, 11., shabak, — gi. 
nettle, n., ged hajin, — ki. 
nettle-rash, n., addo,- — adi, hajin, 

— ti. 
neutral tint, a., owlaled. 
never, ad., abadan, abkai, abid- 

kaiaa, weligai ; — mind, yel- 

kisa, yelkeda. 
nevertheless, c, ha ahato, ha 

new, a., 'usub, 'usba. 
news, 11., war, — ^ki ; good — , 

nabad, — di ; bring — , war gei 

or ken ; bring — from, ka war 

ken ; a man receiving — , war- 

hab, — ki. 




next, a., dow, sokai, Mga ; tlie 
— house, ahalka sokai or dow 
or Mga ; the — month, bisha 
danibe ; the — day, berri ; 
tell me the — word, eraiga ka 
sMshaiya i shag ; I will do 
better — time, mar dambe wan 
ka wanagi ; be — to, hig, 

nib, n., 'aro, — adi. 

nice, a., bahsan, ad, dor, shuban, 

nicely (make),, horhi, horoh 
u yel, wanaji, hagaji! 

niceness, n., wanag, — gi. 

nickname, n., nanais,^ — ti. 

niece, n., (my) gabaddi or inanti 
walalkai or walashai. 

night, 11., habein, — ^ki ;. (time of 
sleeping) sah,— di ; mid — , 
sah dehe; to — , 'awa; last 
— , halai ; go at — , gud. 

nightmare, n., awawi, — gi. 

nine, num., sagal, — ki. 

nineteen, num., sagal iyo toban, 
— ki. 

ninety, num., sagashau, — ki. 

ninth, num., sagalad, — ^ki, — di. 

nip, «.., (pinch) hanjido, — adi;, hanjidi. 

nipple, ra.,(teat of the breast) ib,-ti. 

no, ad., maya, maha. 

nobody, n., 'iddina. 

noise, «., sanhad, — di, hab or 
habhab,— ti^ had, wa',— di, 
ban, — di, baf! fof, — ki; make 
a — , kaga sanhadi. 

nomad, ad. and «., rer gura, — 
gi ; Somals are a — people, 
dadka Somalied wa dad an 
mel la ku badin. 

none, prn., midna, middina. 
noon, n., duhur, — ki, bad, — di ; 

after — , duhurka dabaddisa. 
noose, «., (running knot) STiryo, 

— adi. 
noose,, suryai. 
north, «., jab, — hi. 
nose, n., sail, — ki ; flat — , san 

baUadan ; wipe your — , sinso, 

iss ka tir, iss ka simi. 
nostril, n., dul, — ^ki. 
not, ad., an, ma ; there is — , ma 

jiro ; is it — ? so ma aha ? 
nothing, ad., babab, wabba. 
notice, «., war, — ki. 
notify,, ogaisi, warran. 
nourish,, sabbar, sorsi, sab- 

now, ad., aminka, iminka, had- 

dai, badder; — a-days, hatan; 

just — ,imiiikada, haddadatan. 
now, c, haddaba, haddeb. 
number, n. , (mark) siimad, — ^ki ; 

(sum) tiro, — adi ; a certain — , 

daur, — ^ki. 
numbness, «., kabubiyo, — adi. 
numerous, a., badan, tiro badan. 
nuptial, n., aros, — ki. 
nurse, ra., umuliso, — adi. 
nut, n., (cocoa-nut) narajin, — ti ; 

earth — (arachis), los, — ki. 

oar, «., seb, — ki. 
oath, n., dar, — ti, iman, — ti, ah- 
di,— gi. 

E 2 




obedience, n., dega nugail, — ki, 

dega nuglan, — ti. 
obedient, a., dega nugul. 
obey,, (be obedient) dega 

nuglow, degaiso, yel. 
objurgation, n., masabidnimo, — 

oblige, vJr., (compel) hasab, mu- 

oblique, a., hallohan, ma tosna, 

ma sbubna. 
obliterate,, babibi. 
oblivion, n., ilowsho, — ihi. 
observe,, indai. 
observation, w., indo, — ibi. 
obstruct,, 6d. 
obstructed, a., odan. 
obtain,, hel, ma'ash. 
Occident, «., galbed, — ki. 
occupation, n., haul, — sbi, sbu- 

hul, — ki. 
occupy,, sbahaisi; v.r., hau- 

shada babso. 
occur, v.i., nobo ; it occurs, wah- 

bai nobotai. 
ocean, n., bad, — di. 
odor, «., ur, — ti. 
odoriferous, a., udgon. 
of, off {see Grammar), 
offence, n., tahsir, — ti, dembi, — 


offend,, 'ai. 

offer,, u bihi. 

offering, n., sadahad, sadabad 

Ebbahai lo gubai. 
office, n., (place, ) hafis, — 

often, ad., gor, kol, mar badau, 

daur gor, bajaila, yala. 
oil, «., salid, — di. 

old, a., gabow, dubab, dugab; 

— man, odai, — gi, islan, — ki, 
wadad, — ki, wayel, — ki; — 
woman, babar, — ti, islan, — ti, 
wadadad, — di ; — age, da 
wein, gabow, — gi ; — people, 
dad gabowbai, nin da wein, 
dub, — di ; — thing, dug; 
grow, be — , v.i., gabow ; — 
times, beriyihi horai. 

omen, n., fal, — ki. 

omit,, iss ka da, ka hadi; 
be omitted, ka had. 

omnipotence, n., huwad, — di. 

on, prp., ku, dul, dusha. 

onager, n., (wild ass) gumburi, — 

once, a., (one time) mar ; (for- 
merly) beri, — gi, wa, — gi, 
beri horai, wa horai, kolki 
horai, kolki ; it was — , beri 
or wa wahha jirai. 

one, num., kow, — di, mid, — ki, 
— di ; — by — , mid mid ; less 
— , mid la ; it is all — , gidi 
wa iss ku wada mid ; it is all 

— to me, gidi wa iss ugu kai 
mid ; it is all — as if you tliii-'w 
your money into the river, gidi 
wa mid sidad la'agtadi dnr- 
durka ku ridai ; every — , mid 
walba ; they eat — another, 
wa iss 'unan ; — handed, gar 
'an keliab leh. 

onion, w., basal, — sbi. 

only, a., (single) keliab ; ad., 

open,, fur ; a., banan, fa- 

opening, n., fumin, — ti. 




opinion, n., talo, — adi, tashi, — 

opposite, a., hor, horti, 
opposition, re., asarar, — ki, did- 

nin, — ti. 
oppression, n., 'eho, — adi, 'eha- 

sho, — adi. 
opulent, a., hodanah, holo ba- 

OT, c, ama, amase, mase, mise. 
orange, w., lin ma'an, — ti, — aid. 
orrler, n., (command) hukum, — 

ki ; (regular disposition) haga- 

jis, — ^ki ;, (command) u 

dir ; (regulate) hagaji, wanaji, 

hagajiso, wanajiso. 
orient, w., bari, — gi. 
origin, w., horau, — ti. 
ornaments, w., (for women) siya- 

had, — di. 
orphan, «., agon, — ki (mas.), — 

.ti(/m.), rajai,— gi. 
oryx, w., (beisa antelope) bi"id, 

— ki. 
ostrich, n., gorayo, — adi ; male 

— , gorai,— gi, halda,— gi. 
other, a., kaleh ; the — , ki ka- 

leh, kau kaleh ; another, mid 

otherwise, c, hadikaleh. 
our (see Grammar), 
out, 'prp., dibad, dibadda. 
outcast, a., dairsan, la na'ai. 
outcry, n., dawah, — ^hi, hailo, — 

adi, sawahan, — ki. 
outside, ad., dibadda; n. andac?., 

duled,— ki; he is — , isagu 

duledku joga. 
oven, «., mufo, — adi. 
over, prp., dul, dusha, gud, gud- 

ka, kor ; — again, weliba ; be 

— , ka sarrai. 
overcome,, ka adkaw, dul- 

overseer, «., mukadam or maha- 

dinij — ki. 
overtake,, gad. 
overthrow,, dumi, ka dadi. 
owe, ; I — you money, la'ag 

bad igu lehdahai. 
owl,M., shimbir libah, — di; small 

— , 'iow, — di. 
own,, hire ; a., {see Gram.), 
owner, n., nin ahalka leh. 
ox, «., dibi, — gi. 

pace, v.i., (step) talab ; n., tala- 

bo, — adi. 
pacha, n., basha, — ihi. 
pacific, o., habow, nabdiya. 
pacify,, nabdi. 
pack,, hid ; (packet) hidmo, 

— adi. 
pack-saddle, n., (camel's) heriyo, 

— adi. 
pagan, n., gal, — ki. 
page, «., (of a book) bal, — ki. 
pail, w., baldi, — gi ; — of skin, 

dandul, — sM, dowlis,— ki, go- 

rof, — ki, wadan, — ti. 
pain, w., (penalty) tahsirad, — di; 

(ache) hanun, — ki, silei', — hi, 

ta'ab,— ki. 
pain,, (afflict) hanuni, ^a- 

nuji, sUi'i; v.imp., hanun. 




painful, «., hanunsan, silei'san. 
paint,, ranji ; m., (colour) 

ranji,— gi. 
pair, n., laba, labada, — di. 
palate, n., danhanag, — gi, dan- 

galah, — hi, liardad, — ^ki. 
palm, «., (of the hand) baba'o, — 

adi, ala'al or ala'anal, — shi, 

saab, — ^ki. 
palpitate, v.i., ror. 
palsy, «., 'urian, — ki. 
pan, n., dawa, — iM, 
panca, n., bankad, — di. 
pant, v.i., Mnrag. 
panting, n., Mnrag, — gi. 
panther, n., shabel, — ki, borgu- 

mo, —adi, nimmer, — ki. 
pap, n., (nipple) ib, — ti. 
paper, n., warhad, — di, warah, 

— di. 
parable, w., mathal, — ki. 
paradise, n., janno, — adi. 
parallel, a., siman ; they are — , 

bai iss u wada jirau. 
paralytic, a., 'urianah. 
parasol, n., dallayad, — di, 
parcel, n., Mdmo, — adi. 
parchedness, »., (of the mouth) 

lun, — ^ki. 
pardon, n., samab, — di, 'affi, — 

gi;, samah, 'affi'; — each 

other, iss 'affiya. 
parent, n., walid, — ki. 
park, «., (zariba) saribad, — di. 
parricide, n., walad-inkar, — ki. 
part, n., in, — ti, haib, — ^ti; (half) 

go, — M ; (party), take his — , 

la mel nobo. 
part,, (partake) haib, kala 

go ; — -with, kala gosta. 

part, v.i., (quit) tag, ka tag ; we 
must — , an tagno, an kala 

partial, v.i., (be) ka 'eho ; — sen- 
tence, gar 'eho, — ti, 'ehada- 

partiality, «., 'eho, — ;adi, 'eha^ 
sho, — adi. 

participate,, ha'ibso. 

particle, m., in yar, — ti, — aid. 

partner, n., mnshrik, — gi. 

party, n., (faction) holo, — adi. 

pasha, n., basha, — ihi. 

pass, v.i., daf, mar ; he passed by 
our door, albabkayagu marai ; 
— away, daf; — along the 
shore, hebta si mar ;, — 
the river, durdurka ka talab j 
we shall — the winter in the 
town, guga an magalada ku 
hadno ; — near, ag mar, iss 
ku du ; — by the side, ges ka 
mar ; — across, deh mar. 

passage, n., (on bdard ship) dof, 
— ki. 

passenger, «., rakab, — ki. 

pat,, salah ; n., (light blow) 
salahid, — di. 

patch,, kar; «., karrin, — ^ti, 

paten, n., se'ni, — gi. 

path, n., dau, — gi, jid, — ki, mar 
rin, — ^ki. 

patience, n., dulhadasho, — adi, 
kadsi, — gi, sabir or samir,^ 
ki, sugnin, — ti ; have — , or 
be patient, daur, sug, samir, 
dulbado, kadso. 

patient, a., dulhadasho badan, 

kadsileh, sugiunleh. 
patriarch, n., batriyark, — gi. 




patron, n., abban, — ki. 

pause, n., nasad, — ^ki. 

paw, ra., baba'o, — adi. 

pawn, n., dibasho, — adi, rahmad, 
— di; rahan. 

pay,, bihi ; «., (payment) 
def, — ti, ha^ai, — gi, musha- 
baro, — adi. 

peace, w., nabad, — di ; heshis, — 
ki, barah, — hi ; be in — , na- 
bad gal,' nabad hab, nabad 
geliyo ; they are living in — , 
barah ba lo yal ; make — , v.i., 
heshi, la heshi ; make — be- 
tween them,, nabad hado, 
heshisi, nabdi. 

peak, n., 'aro, — adi, fih, — hi. 

pearl, n., lul, — ki. 

peasant, n., rer miyi, — gi. 

pebble, n., dagah dihed, — ki, 
hnniroh, — hi. 

pedler, n., kabadai, — ihi. 

peel, n., (rind) dir, — ki ;, 
dil, dir ; the act of peeling, di- 
rin, — ki. 

peeled, a., diran, 

peevish, a., hun. 

peg,, (fasten with a peg) 
d&dib; n., didib, — ^ki. 

peg-top, n., druan, — ki. 

pellicle, m.,holob, — ti, tohob, — ti. 

pen, n., halim, — ki. 

pencil, n., halim rasased. 

penance, n., tobad or taubad, — 
di; make — , tobad ken, to- 
bad yelo. 

penetrate, v.i., gal ; — into, 
waren, geli. 

penknife, n., mandil or madil, — 

penitence, n., tobad, — di, ala'al, 

— ki. 
penitent, n., tobad-ken, — ki, ala- 

pensive (be), v.i., wahan. 
pensiveness, n., wahan, — ki. 
penury, n., 'aidnimo, — adi. 
people, n., dad, — ki. 
pepper, n., filfil. — shi. 
perceive,, arag, daren. 
perfect, a., dan; the — work, 

shuhulki dama. 
perfection, n., damad, — ki. 
perfidious, a., mahawiah, dadka 

perforate,, daloli, ku maroji. 
perform,, fal; he performs 

his duties, dantisa ad bu 

perfume, n., udgon, — ki ; act of 

perfuming, unsi, — gi; — of 

incense, umis, — ki;, nd- 

gonai, nmi; v.r., iss udgonai, 

nnso ; be perfumed, udgonow ; 

it is perfumed, la udgonai. 
perhaps, ad., malaha, mindah, 

sow, show. 
peril, «., 'absi,— di, bahdin, — ti. 
perilous, a., 'absileh. 
period, n., (of time) mudad, — di, 

madal, — ki. 
perish, v.i., bahti ; I — with 

hunger, gajan la bahtiaya. 
perjure (yourself),, bein ku 

perjurer, n., dar jid, — ki. 
perjury, m., bein, — ti. 
permanent, a., adag. 
permission, «., fasah, — ^hi, ruhsad, 

— di. 




permit,, fasah, ruhsad si, 
permute,, iss dafi, la iss dafi. 
perpendicular, a., humatia}!. 
.perpetrate,, fal. 
perpetual, a., weligi damanain, 

weligi idlanain. 
persecute,, sili'i. 
persecution, n., silei', — ihi. 
perseverance, n., sabir or samir, 

— ki. 
persevere, v.i., sabir or samir. 
persist, v.i., adkaw, si adag u 

person, n., hof, — ki, 'id, — di, 

hud, — di ; a nice aud good — , 

hulyad, — di. 
perspective, n., muh, — hi. 
perspicacity, n., nejisnimo, — adi. 
perspiration, «., didid, — ki ; being 

in — , hursan, dididsan. 
perspire, v.i., didid. 
persuade,, sasab. 
persuasion, «., sasab, — ki, sasab- 

nin, — ti. 
pertinacious, a., (obstinate) dega 

adag, rifaiah. 
perverse, a., hun. 
pest, pestilence, n., kud, — ki. 
pestle, n., moyai-tumai, — ihi ; 

wooden — , tib, — ti. 
petition, n., arji, — gi, ardal hal, 

— ki. 
phalanx, n., konton madafto, — 

phantasma, n., muhasho, — adi. 
phenomenon, n., umur, — ti, yah, 

phosphorescent gleams of the sea, 

n., galabildau or garabildan, 

— ki. 

photograph, n., sawir, — ki. 
phthisic or phthysis, n., haho, — 

adi, lahau,— gi ; — of cattle. 

sambab, — ki, 
phthisic, phthisical, a., nin lahau 

physic, ra., (medicine) dawo, — adi, 

da'imo, — adi ; practice — , da- 

physician, n.,dahdar, — ki, hakim, 

— ^ki, sanah, — hi. 
physiognomy, n., weiji,— gi, jah, 

pice (money=4 pies), n., beisad, 

— di. 
pick, pick up,, gur ; — for, 

u gur ; — for yourself, guro, 

pick-tooth, n., findi'il gfura,— ihi, 
picture, «., sawir, — ki ;, sa- 
pictured, a., sawiran. 
pie (Indian money), «., ardi, — gi, 

aradi, — di {plur.). 
piece, n., in, — ti, hubin,— ti ; 

little — , in yar ; — of cloth, 

karrin, — ti ; — of meat, 'ad, 

— ki, 
piece,, (mend) kar, kab. 
pier, n., (a column) tir, — ki ; 

(mole) deked, — di. 
pierce,, daloU, ku maroji. 

ku joji, waren. 
piety, n., 'ibadad, — di. 
pig, n., dofar, — ki. 
pigeon, «., hamam, — ^ki. 
pile, n., tir, — ki. 
pUes, n., (hemorrhoids) kintob, 

— ki. 
pilgrim, n., haji,— gi. 




pilgrimage, n., haj, — ki ; make a 

— , haji, so haji. 
pillage, «., bot, — ki, da', di'hi 

(the pillage), 
pillow, w., barkimo, — adi ; a 

wooden — , barki, — gi. 
pimento, «., basbas or bisbas, — 

pimple, n., fin, — ki, dnluluh, — 

pin, «., irbad, — di ; hair — , har- 

pincers, «., birrhab, — ki. 
pinch,, hanjidi ; «., hanjido, 

— adi. 
pine,w.i., (languish) wei'dow;, 

wei'dai ; v.r., iss weidai. 
pipe(of wood, usedfor blowing), n., 

gobais, — ki. 
pirogue, n., hnri, — gpi. 
piss, v.i; (urinate) kadi, so kadi ; 

n., kadi, — di. 
pistol, m., tumujad, — di. 
pit, n., gun, — ^ti, 'el, — ki, gof, 

— ki, god, — ki; — of the 

stomach, labho, — adi ; — of 

the knee, hagal, — shi ; — of 

the arm, kilkilo, — adi. 
pitch,, (fix) dab, rid. 
pitcher, n., jalabad, — rdi, kussad, 

— di. 
pith, w., (marrow) duh, — M. 
pitiful, a., uahsan ; be — , nah. 
pity, n., nabadin, — ti, naharis, 

— ti ; have — , nahariso. 
place, n., mel, — shi, hal, — ki, 

hag, — gi ; in another — , mel 

kaleh ; put everything in its 

right — , wah walba meshisa 

hagagsan dig ; there is no — 

for them, mel u ma haiuo ; in 
all places, mel walba ; in some 
— , mel un ; the first — is due 
to him, meshu ugu sarraisa 
isaga leh ; a — trodden by 
camels, gelgelin ; a — out of 
reach, harar, — ^ti; a — r in 
which to hide stolen articles, 
rar, — ti ; — in a boat, saUah, 
— ihhi ; a clean — become 
dirty, sabo, — di ; a — prepared 
on a camel for small children, 
guro, — adi. 
place,, dig ; — on, sar, rar; 

— for yourself, digo. 
plague, n., kud, — ki. 

plain, n., ban, — ki, banan, — ki, 
gegi, — di, wasa'a, — hi, mel 
wasa'ah doho, — adi, jan, — ki; 

— surface, barahad, — di; a., 
banan, siman;, banai, ba- 
nanai, sin, iss kn sin. 

plaint, II., (in justice) gar, — ti, 

ashtako, — adi ; make a — , 

gar u shego. 
plait, n., (a fold) dubnin, — ti; — 

of hair, tidei', — ihi; plaiting 

(mats), falag, — gi;, dub; 

(weave) faM, tidi'. 
plan, n., tadbir, — ti. 
plane, n., (surface) siman, — ki, 

sinin, — ti. 
plank, n., loh, — hi, alwah, — di. 
plant, n., b'eir, — ti, ge'd, — ki;, beir. 
plaster,, nurad mari. 
plate, «., se'ni, — ^^gi, su'un,— ti. 
platter, n., (wooden) hedo, — adi, 

hedo sibidi ; make a — , hedo 





play, w., 'ayar, — ti, jalbeb, — ^ti ; 

kind of — , sar, — ^ki, sa'ab, — 

ki, walo, — adi. 
play, v.i., 'ayar, jalbebo ; — at 

cards, turub 'ayar, la walaiso ;, (make play) 'ayarsi, jal- 

bebi, walaisi. 
pleasant, a., farahan, farahah. 
please,, 'ajibi. 
pleasure {see delight), 
pledge,, (pawn) amano u dib, 

rahan; w., amano, — adi, rah- 

mad, — di, dibasho, — adi. 
plentiful, a., barwahaisan. 
plenty, n., barwaho, — adi. 
pliable, a., (flexible) lilaisa ; the 

— stick, usM lUaisai. 
pluck,, (pull with force) SO 

jid ; — off the feathers, plume 

a bird, rif. 
plunder, n., bob, — ki, da', — di'M, 

jalalaha, — ihi;, bob, da', 

plunge,m.,husid, — di, muhurasho, 

— adi; v.i., ku da', bus, muhur;, husi, muhuri. 
pock, n., furuh. ; — hole, — mark, 

furuhdon, — ki. 
pocket, n., kishad, — di. 
poem, poesy, n., gabai, — gi. 
poet, n., gabaya, — gi. 
point, n., 'aro, — adi, fih, — M, 

dul, — sbi. 
point,, (sharpen) dub, flh. ; 

— out, tus, muji. 
pointed, a., flhan. 

poison, ra.,duiikal, — shi, sun, — ki, 
urgumo, — adi, wabayo, — adi. 

poisonous plant, «., waba or wa- 
bai,— gi. 

pole-star, n., hedig jah, — ti, 

— ha. 
police-station, n., tsboki, — gi. 
policeman, n., askari, — gfi, su- 

baihi, — gi. 
polish,, 'adai, hob. 
polite, a., edibsan, amusan, bas- 

sar wauaksan, (nin) wayelah; 

he — , edibsauaw ; cause to be 

— , edbi. 
politeness, n., edib, — ti, amus- 

nan, — ti, 
poll, n., (head of a tree) bar, — ^ki. 
pollute {see defile), 
polygamist, «., nin hilo badan. 
pondj pool, n., balli, — gi, dog, 

— ti, biya gal, — ^Lhi, biya ga- 

len. — ki. 
poop, n., bar dambai, — ki. 
poor, a. and n., aid, — di, dagag, 

— gi, dawaro, — adi, sabol, — 

ki, nin dan darran, nin bar 

ma leh. 
porcupine, n., 'anabub, — ti. 
pork, n., dofar, — ki. 
porringer, n., hobad, — di. 
port, n., (harbour) dekad or de- 

ked, — di. 
porter, n., hamal, — ki. 
portion, n., haib, — ti. 
possess,, bai, haiso, labaw; 

I — , ana leb. 
possession, n., lahan, — ti. 
possible, a., (wahhasi) wa nohon 

or wa jiri kara. 
post, n., dabal, — ki ; — office, 

dabal hafis, — ki ; — man, bar 

diwaleh, — ihi. 
posterior, a., wah gor dambe 

di'i dona. 




posterity, n., holo, — adi, 
postscript, n., warhadda wah ku 

pot, n., wel, — ki, dasad, — di, 

deri, — gi, adar, — ki. 
potato, TO., badaddo, — adi. 
pot-bellied, a., alol wein, 
potsherd, n., burbur, — ki, jab, — 

ki, jajab, — ki. 
potter, n., derya samais, — ki. 
poultice {see cataplasm), 
poultry, n., (fowls) had, — di. 
pound, n., (weight) rodol, — ki ; 

(money) gmni, — gi. 
pound,, (grind) budli, tun. 
pour,, shub, hub ; — in, 

ku shub ; — water on the 

boy's head, iuauka madahha 

biyo kaga shub. 
pout, TO., (a bird) una'as. — ti. 
pout, v.i., (look sullen) dud ; 

pouter, nin dudma badau. 
pouting, «., dudmo, — adi. 
poverty, to., dan darro, — adi, 

sabol, — ki. 
powder, to., (gunpowder) barud, 

— di. 
power, TO., huwad, — di. 
powerful, a., huwad leh. 
pox, TO., (small- or chicken-pox) 

ged 'anod, — ki, fanto, — adi, 

furuh, — ^hi. 
praise,, aman; to., aman, — 

prank, ra., luggoyo,— adi ; play a 

— , luggo. 
prate, prattle {see babble), 
pray,, bari, do'ai or du'ai, 

du'aiso, tuko, so tuko ; — for, 

u tuko. 

prayer, to., bariyo, — adi, du'p, — 

adi, salad, — di, tukasho, — 

preach,, wani, abhi; v.r„ 

iss abhi. 
preaching, to., wano, — adi, hadis, 

— ki. 
precede,, horai, naga horai. 
precept, w., haul, — ki. 
precipice, to., harar, — ^ti, jar, — ^ki. 
precipitate,, ka tur. 
predecessor, n., ka horaiyai. 
predication, n., wano, — adi. 
predict,, fali, wah sheg. 
prediction, w., wah sheg, — gi. 
predictor, n., wah-sheg, — gi, nin 

wah shega. 
prefer,, ja'alaw. 
pregnant, a., vac leh. 
prepare,, kala hagaji, dig. 
prepuce, to., (foreskin) balag, — ti. 
prerogative, to., (privilege) sado, 

— adi. 
presbyte, a., il der. 
presbyopy, n., il deran, — ti. 
presence, n., jog, — gi. 
present, a., joga, hadir ; God is 

— everywhere, Ebbahai mel 

walba wa joga or wa ku hadir. 
present, n., (time) aminka, iminka; 

(gift) hadiad, — di, sin, — ti. 
present,, (offer) si, U dib, U 

preserve,, (save) dah, daho, 

ka badbadi. 
preside,, u sarrai, u tali, 
president, to., taliya shirka. 
press,, 'adadi, dis, tuji, iss 

ku tuji. 
pressed, a., disan. 




pressing, n., 'adadis, — ki, disin, 

— ti. 
presume,, (be confident) iss 

presumption, n., fan, — ki, amar 

weinan, — ti. 
presumptuous, a., fan badan, 

amar wein. 
pretence, n., (false excuse) helad, 

— di. 
pretty, a., bahsan, fayo wanak- 

san, horisho wanaksan. 
prevail,, ka adkaw. 
prevent,, (hinder) u did. 
previous, a., horai. 
price, n., gana', — di, ib, — ^ki. 
prick,, mud. 
pricking, n., mudnin, — ti. 
prickly heat, n., hararad, — di, 

hajin, — ti. 
pride, n., amar, — ki, amar wei- 
nan, — ^ti, falah, — ^hi, kibir, — 

prince, «., amir, — ki, ugas, — ki. 
print, n., (mark) astan, — ti, su- 

mad, — di. 
print,, daba'. 
printed, a., daba'an. 
printing, n., daba', — i'M. 
prison, n., habsi, — gi, habis, — 

prisoner, n., nin hidan, mid ma- 

habistaah ; prisoners, mahabis, 

— ti. 
private, a., harson ; talk in — , 

prize, n., def, — ti, abal, — ki. 
probably, ad., malaba. 
proceed, v.i., so'o, hor u so'o. 
process, n., (suit) arin, — ti. 

proclaim,, war gei, ogaisi. 
procreate,, dal, yelo. 
procure,, u hel. 
prodigal, a., Inmai, nin lumai. 
prodigy, n., iimur, — ti, yab,— ki. 
produce,, abnr, yelo, dal, 

profess,, (declare openly) hiro. 
profit, n., fayido, — adi, korod, — 

profligate, a., Inmiyai, 
profouiid (reverence), n., sujud, — 

di, rako', — a'di. 
profundity, n., husnr, — ki, husur- 

nimo, — adi. 
prohibit,, u did, ka bukuu. 
prolific, a., dal badan, 
prolong,, derai, dereri. 
promise,, ballan. 
prompt, a., (quick) fudfadud. 
promulgate,, Ogaisi. 
prone, a. ; we are — to evil, star 

bainn higna. 
prong, n., (fork) muda', — hi. 
pronounce,, deb. 
proof, n., marhati, — di. 
prop, n., (support) tir, — ki, udub, 

— ^ki. 
propagate,, firdi. 
propagated, a., firdisan. 
propagation, n., Arid, — ki. 
propel,, horo u wad, hor u 

proper, a., hagagsan. 
property, n., holo, — ihi, mal, — 

ki, mod,— ki ; living — , holo 

nol, — ihi, — a. 
prophecy, n., nubnwad, — di. 
prophesy,, fali, wah sheg. 
prophet, »., nebi, — gi. 




propitiate,, heshisi, 'ada tir; 

— for, tobad ken. 
propitiator, n., hof heshisiya. 
prostitute, «., dillo, — adi, haha- 

bad, — di; hahabo, — Tia.{plur.);, dillo or' hahabad ka dig. 
prostrate,, berka dulka u 

protect,, ilali, jir, karaw. 
protection, «., ilalo, — adi. 
protector, n., abban, — ki. 
protract, v.i., (delay) rag. 
protuberance, n., ka-so-bah, — ihi. 
proud, a., amarsan, amar wein, 

falahah, kibirsan ; be — , 

prove,, garai, marhati ku 

fur ; — against, ku garai. 
proverb, n., mahmah, — di. 
provide,, masruf, sabbar. 
providence, n., hekmad, — di. 
provision, n., ji'sin, — ki, sahai, 

— di. 
provocation to fight, int., 'ar! 'ar! 

provoke,, ka 'adaisi. 
prow, n., (forepart of a ship) bar 

borai, — ki. 
prudence, n., foyigan, — ti, miyir, 

— ki. 
prudent, a., foyig, miyirsan, 

miyir haba. 
pruriency, n., hajin, — ti. 
psalm, n., sabur, — ^ki. 
puberty, n., baluhnimo,— adi. 
public house, n., (stew) sheklad, 

— di. 
publish,, war gei, ogaisi. 
puddle, n. , (muddy standing water) 

didi, — gi, dirih, — di. 

pufif,, (blow) afuf, bufi; (pant) 

v.i., Mnrag. 
puffing, n., (short breathing) hin- 

rag,— gi. 
pull,, difo or dufo, jid, jid- 

jid, wad ; — to me, so jid, so 

wad ; — from me to . . ., si jid ; 

— up, kor u jid. 
pulsation, n., dahdahah, — ^hi. 
pulse, «., hidid. 
pulverize,, budli. 
pumpkin, «., dabbai, — ihi; (ves- 
sel) bare, — adi. 
punish, v.ti:, tahsir, hanuui. 
punishment, n., tahsir, — ti. 
pupU, n., (scholar) barad, — ki; 

the — of the eye, isha inan- 

keda or wilkeda. 
purchase {see buy). 
pure, a., miran. 
purgation, «., dabib, — ki; effect 

of a — , shuban, — ^ki. 
purge,, dabib; v.i., shuban 

or dabada ku shuban. 
purgatory, n., 'adab yar, — ^ti, 

— aid. 
purpose, n., dama', — hi; pur- 
posely, baga, hushi ;, 

dama', don. 
purse, n., kish, — ^ki ; leathern — , 

kishad, — di. 
pursue,, eri, ra'dai. 
pursuit, n., ra'do,— adi. 
pus (of a sore), «., de'an, — ki, 

did, malah, — di. 
push, jjushing, »., rih, — hi;, 

rih ; — back, dib u rih ; — 

hard, dis. 
put,, dig ; — aside, digo, 

dah, daho ; — out, away, eri ; 




— before, horaisi, horta dig ; 

— after, dambaisi, dabadda 
dig ; — between, dehdoda dig ; 

— in, g^daha geli, ku shub, 
ku rid ; — down, hosta dig, 
dumi ; — on, upon, sar ; — 
more, kordi ; — one over the 
other, sarsar; — out (extin- 
guish), bahti, sehi ; — up, 
dusha sar. 

putrefaction, n., hudun, — ki. 
putrify,, hudini ; v.i., hudun. 


quadruped, w., nef, — ki; a herd 

of quadrupeds, rahan,— ti ; 

kadin, — ^ki. 
quail, n., (a bird) una'as, — ti. 
quake, v.i., (shiver) garir. 
quality, n., aslub, — ti. 
quarrel, «., dagal, — ki, dirir, — 

ti, housi, — gi, housimad, — ki, 

ilah, — ti; v.i., dirir, dagalan, 

u honso, ilahtan. 
quarrelsome, a., baan. 
quarter (J), num., wah, — di ; — 

of the moon, bil, — bisM. 
quarter, n., (of a town) hafad, — 

queen, n., malikad, — di, rani- 

yad, — di; — at cards, rani, 

— di. 
quell,, (subdue) taba bar, 

jarra bar, laili, dastur hnn 

quench (your thirst), v.r., iss 

harad tir, iss on tir. 

question, n., (query) sual, — shi ;, sual. 
quick (be), v.att., dahso, deg deg ; 

— to fight, baan ; a., deraiyai. 
quid, «., (of tobacco) noshug, — 

quiescent (lie, remain), v.i., oil. 
quiet, a., amusan; be — , amus, 

amusnaw; v.c, amusi. 
quietness, n., amusnan, — ti. 
quietude, n., nasasho, — adi. 
quill, n., bal, — ki. 
quit,, da, na'. 
quiver, n., (for arrows) gaboyai, 

— ihi. 
quoit, n., (palet) lif or luf, — ki ; 

play at — , luf, lif la ayar. 


rabbit, n., bakaila or — lai, — iH. 

race, n., has, — ki, holo, — adi, 
jilib, — ki, rer, — ki, tol, — ki; 
(running) baratan, — ki. 

racket, n., buh, — ^hi. 

radiance, radiancy, n., dalal, — ki. 

radish, n., bahal, — ki. 

rag, n., 'alal, — ^ki, harhad, — di, 
suf, — ki. 

rage, 71., 'ado, — adi, 'il, — ^ki; v.i., 
'ado, 'adaisnaw, 'ilow, 'is ho, 
'il u hab, 'il u surun ; — 
against, u 'ado, u 'isho. 

raillery, n., luhuf,— ki. 

rain, n., rob, — ki; long and last- 
ing — , mayai or ma'ai,— gi; 
— water, hared, — di ; — is 




over, robki had; v.L, dah; it 

rains, dah, 'irki dah. 
rainbow, n., daigan, — ti, jegan, 

— ^ti. 
raise,, kor u had, sarai u 

had, sara ke'i, tosi. 
ram, n., wan, — ki. 
ramble, v.i., warwareg, so war- 

wareg; v.c, warwariji; w., 

warwareg, — gi. 
rancour, «., ur humo, — adi. 
range, n., (of mountains) har, — 

ki, buro iss ku yal, buraha 

range (see arrange), 
rank,, tah, iss ku tah. 
rap,, (snatch, away) da', ka 

had, ka difo. 
rapid, a., deraiyai; a — man, 

horse, nin, faras deraiyai. 
rascal, «., tug, — gi, nejis, — ^ki, 

nin hayano leh, harami, — gi. 
rat, «., jir, — ki; a small — , jir 

rate, m., gana', — i'hi. 
rattan, n., haisaran,— ti. 
ravage,, da', ka da'. 
rave, v.i., wallo. 
raven, n., tuka or tukai, — ihi. 
ravenous (see glutton), 
ravish,, (take away) kufso. 
raw, a., 'edin, 'edinah; a — fruit, 

gaha'id, gahair, — ^ki. 
rawness, n., 'edin, — ki. 
rays, n., (of the sun) 'ad'ed, — di. 
razor, n., mandil or madil,— shi, 

mus, — ki. 
reach, n., gadnin,— ti;, gad, 

so gad ; make — , gadsi. 
read,, ahri, nah, nahso. 

ready, a., dan, daman; make — , 

diyar garai ; get — for, u 

reality, n., run, — ti ; it is real, 

wa runti. 
realize,, abur, samai. 
reap,, ururi. 
rear, n., dambais, — ^ki, gutada 

dabadeda ; (raise up) dis ; 

(educate) kori. 
reason, n., (faculty) miyir, — ki ; 

(cause) ed, — di, sabab, — ti. 
reasonable, ad., miyirsan, miyir 

haba ; be — , miyir hab. 
rebel, n., hasid, — ki ; v.i., hasid, 

rebound, v.i., dib u bod. 
rebuke,, huruf. 
receive,, ahbal, ka ahbal, 

ka habo, ka hado. 
recent, a., (new) 'usub ; recently, 

ad., gor dowed. 
recess, n., mel harson. 
reckon,, tiri. 
recline, v.i. and, ku tiri, ku 

recognize,, hiro, hususo. 
recollect, w.^r., hususo; — every 

day the things seen, heard and 

read, wihhi ad aragtai, ama 

mahashai ama ahridai 'asho 

walba aloshada ka la tasho. 
recompense, n., def, — ti, abal- 

gud, — di, abal, — ki, ajar or 

ajir, — ^ki ;, u abalgud, 

abalmari, abal u hab. 
reconcile,, heshisi, nabdi. 
reconciliation, n., heshis, — ki. 
reconnoitre,, so ilalai. 
record,, hor. 




recover,, mar kaleh hel or 

don ; v.i., bokso. 
recreate,, 'ayarsi, jelbebi. 
recreation, n., jelbeb, — ti. 
rectify,, humati u aig, ba- 

rectitude, Ji., bagag^, — gi. 
red, a., 'as, gudud. 
redden,, 'asai. 
reddish, a., 'asusleh, owlan; — 

colour, 'asus, — ^ti. 
redness, «., 'asan, — ^ki. 
reduce,, din, yarai ; (to bring 

to a state or condition) ka dig, 

ka samai. 
reed, 71., dur, — ki, — ti; a white 

— , 'aus salol, — ^ki, jara', — 

re-establish,, so 'eli, ku so 

refection, n., afar, — ki. 
refine,, (purify) mir. 
reflect,, hnbso, alosbada la 

tasbo, iss weidi. 
reflexion, n., bubsad, — ki, 
reflux, n., 'ari, — di. 
reform, , aburta bun bagaji 

or tosi. 
refrain,, (repress) jarra bar, 

tababar, amal bun iss karaw. 
refresh,, habowji. 
refusal, n., didnin, — ^ti, dafirad, 

— di, inkirad, — di, 
refuse,, dafir, did, inkir. 
refute,, beini, 
regard, n., (respect) mamas or 

namus, — ki, — ti, murwad, — 

di ; he does not — what you 

say, isagu hadalkaga ma de- 

gaisto or yelo. 

regret, n., 'ala'al, — ki, homa- 
mais, — ki, ur ku talo, — adi;, u 'ala'al, iss hanuji, 
bomamai, nr ku talo. 

regular, a., bun. 

reign,, hukun. 

rein, n., hakamai, — ibi, 'ainan, 
— ki. 

reiterate,, hadalka ku nobo. 

reject,, eri, na', iss ka na', 
iss ka tur. 

rejoice (see cheer). 

relapse, v.i., (fall back) baddana 
ku kuf. 

relate,, (tell) sheg, u sheg, 
ka sbekai. 

be related to, v.i., big. 

relation, relative, n., higal,— ki, 
ga'al, — ^ki, higfto,— adi, holo, 
— adi. 

relax,, debi'. 

release,, so furo. 

relegate,, masafiri. 

relegation, n., masafiris, — ki, 

relent, v.i., diman; the heat re- 
lents, hurki wa dinmaya, 

relief, n.. Ml, — ki. 

relieve^, hili, 'awin. 

religion, n., din, — ti. 

relish, n., dadan, — ^ki ;, da- 

rely upon, v.i., iss ku balai. 

remain, v.i., had, jog, jogso ; — 
behind, dambai; — with, la 
bad, la jog ; v.c, joji, iss ka 
reb ; act of remaining, badnin, 
— ti; tlie remaining behind, 
dambais, — ^ki; the remaining 
part, badki hadai (sing.), ba- 
dadki hadai {plur.}. 




remainder, n., had, — ki. 
remedy, n., da'imo, — adi or dal'- 

mai, — ihi. 
remember, v.i., hususo, husus- 

naw, ogow. 
remind,, hususi, ogaisi. 
remission, remit [see forgive and 

remnants, n., (of food around the 

montli) dnfan, — ki ; (in the 

teeth) findi'il, — ki ; picls: off 

the — , findi'ilo. 
5?emove,, diirki, du, ka du, 

fogai, shuhulkisa ka liad ; 

v.i., durug, gur, ka baid, ka 

remuneration (see recompense), 
rend,, dUa'i, jeh; — into 

pieces, jehjeh. 
Tendezvous, n., shir, — ki ; go to 

the — , shirka tag. 
lenounce (see forsake), 
lenowned, a., (famous) lo ya- 

rent, n., (laceration) dila', — hi; 

(revenue) — of a house, kiro, 

— adi ; — of ground, ardiad, 

— ki. 
repair,, (an injury) halmari, 

so halmari ; (mend) samai. 
reparation, n., hal, — ki. 
repeat,, niar kaleh deh, ku 

repel,, (drive back) dib u 

'eli, dib u eri. 
repent, v.r., iss hanuji, u ala'al, 

repentant, a., ala'alsan. 
repine, v.i., gubo. 
reply,, wah u 'eli. 

report, n., (account) shati, — gi ;, u sheg. 
reprehend, reprimand, reproach,, dagal, hanib, masabid. 
represent,, (exhibit) muji. 
reprimand, n., masabidnimo, — 

reprobate, a., inkaran, inkarsan, 

nin la 'adabai ;, 'adab, 

reprove (see reprehend), 
reptile, n., bahal hosai, wahha 

bog ku so'da. 
repugnance, n., (of food) balaf, — 

ki, yihyihsi,— gi. 
repulse,, durki, huruf, eri. 
repulsive, a., bas. 
reputation, »., mamus, — ki, — ti, 

namus, — ti, — ki ; of good — , 

request, n., weidis, — ki, aiji, — 

gi ; — of a country, ardal hal, 

— ki ;, weidi weidiso, 

bari, dalbo, ka dalbo. 
require,, don. 
requital (see recompense), 
rescind (see abrogate), 
resemblance, n., ekan, — ti. 
resemble,, u ekow; — each 

other, iss u ekada, iss leh 

residence (see dwelling), 
resign,, da, na'. 
resist,, iss ka 'eli, habil, iss 

karaw, u adkaiso. 
resolution, «., talo, — adi. 
resound,, diyan. 
respect, m., namus, — ti, murwad, 

— di ;, mamus, murwad, 
respectable, n., (man) gob, — ki. 





respiration, n.. neif, — ti. 

respire, v.i., neiftiro, naso, neifso. 

respite, n., ragnin, — ti. 

respond for, v.i., damino. 

respondent, n., damin, — ti. 

rest, «., nasad, — ki, nasasho, — 
adi ; v.i., jif, iss ka jif, naso, 
neiftiro ; make him — , nasi, 

restitution, n., helis, — ki, helin, 

— ti. 
restore,, so 'eli, ku so 'eli, 

heli, so heli. 
restrain (see refrain), 
result, v., dog or dug, — ti ; bad 

— , edis, — ti. 
resurrection (the), n., sarraka'ha 

jidka, sarraki'hi jidki, tos- 

ninta jidka. 
resuscitate,, nolai, nolaisi. 
retain,, hai, haiso. 
retaliate,, hisas. 
retaliation, n., Msas, — ti. 
retard (see delay). 
retch, v.i., hunha' ; n., hnnha'o, 

— adi. 
retire, v.i., dib u jogso, ka tag, 

'ari ; — from business, danta 

ka tag ;, (take from) ka 

retract,, 'esho ; — your 

words, hadalkaga 'esho. 
retribution (see recompense), 
return, n., so nohod, — ki ; v.i., 

so noho, so laban, ku laban ;, dib u si, 'eli, iss ka 'eli, 

heli, so heli. 
reunion {see assembly), 
reunite,, nmri, iss ku dar. 
revenge,?!., hisas, — ti, 'ollad, — di, 

nr ku talo, — adi;, hisas^ 

'olladi, ur ku talo. 
revere,, murwad. 
reverse,, forori, rog. 
review, n., hadiris, — ki. 
revindicate,, mar kaleh ha- 

revive,, nolaisi ; — those 

exhausted men, dadka goai so 

nolaisi or so tosi ; v.i., (return 

to life) so nolaw. 
revolt (see rebe'). 

revolve,, wareji; v.i., wareg.. 
revolver, n., tumnjad,— di. 
reward (see recompense), 
rheumatism, n., hushashad, — di, 
rhinoceros, n., wiyil, — ^ki. 
rib, «., feid, — di. 
rice, n., baris or beris or barid, 

— ki. 
rich, »., (man) hodan, — ^ki, ho- 

danah, holo badan. 
riches, n., duyo, — adi, 
rid,, ka eri, ka badbadi^ 

get — of a boy, ambi. 
ride, v.i., ful; v.c, fuli. 
ride, riding, n , fulimad, — di. 
ridge, n., adah, — di, 
rifle, n., see gun;, (ransack) 

see plunder, 
rift [see cleft), 
rig, «., (top of a mountain) jar, — 

right, a., (not left) midig ; — 

hand, midig, — ti ; — side, 

gesta midig. 
right, a., (not ci'ooked) humati, 

human, tosan, shuban; (up- 
right) hagagsan, tagan, wa- 

naksan ; be upright, hagag. 




hagagsanaw, tosnaw, huma- 

naw ; make — , hagaji, humi, 

tosi ; all — ! or all is — ! hau- 

rarsan ! hayai ! it is — , wa 

tos, wa run. 
rigid, a., (severe) ^albi adag. 
rim, n., (margin) girgir or jirjir, 

— ki ; — of a glass, harhar, — 

rind, n., (bark) dir, — ki, jilif, — 

ti, holof, — ti ;, dil, dir. 
ring, n., (for a finger) katun, — ki. 
ring,, (to sound, as a bell) 

gara', ku dnfo ; — the bell, 

gandadi gara' or ku dufo, 
ringlet, re., (of hair) ran, — ^ti, su- 

narad, — di. 
rip,, (tear, lacerate) dila'i, 

jeh, jehjeh. 
ripe, a., bisil. 
ripen, ripe,, bislai ; the fruit 

ripens or grows ripe, midki 

rise, v.L, ka', sarra ka', tos. 
rise, rising, n., tosnin, — ti, 
risk,, sasab ; n., bahdin, — 

ti, sasab, — ti. 
river, «., durdur,— ki, wadi, — gi; 

dry — , doh,— M, tog,— gi. 
road, «., darih, — M, Mlin, — ki, 

jid,— ki. 
roam [see ramble), 
roar, n., (of the lion) jibad, — di ; 

v.i., u jibad. 
roast,, dub, dubo, sMl. 
roasted, a., duban. 
rob,, had, bob, da' ; be 

robbed, da'an, da'anaw. 
robber, «., tug, — gi. 
robbery, m.,tugo,— adi, bob, — ki. 

rock, n., dagah wein, dagihhi 

weina, dakab, — ki, gumbiir, 

— ti. 
rod, n., ul, — sM, Ian, — ti, den- 

ged, — di, sergad, — ki. 
roebuck, n., (Clarke's) dabatag, 

— ti. 
rogue, n., harami, — gi, nin hara- 

miah, tiig, — gi. 
roll,, giringiri ; — up, dub^ 

roller-blind, n., alol, — ki. 
roof, n., sahaf,— ki. 
room, n., ahal, — ki, mahsin, — ^ki, 

gurgur, — ki, hollad, — di, rar, 

— ti. 
root, n., jirid, — di, gun, — ti, hi- 

did, — ki. 
rope, n., hadig, — gi; — for 

fastening a camel's neck and 

leg, harharsi, — gi. 
rosary, n., tusbah, — ^hi. 
rot, v.i., (grow putrid) hudun ;, 

V.C., (cause to — ) hudmi. 
rotten, a., hudunsan. 
rottenness, n., hudun, — ki. 
rough, a., amal hun, baan, hun,, 

round, a., hersan, kuriyaisan,, 

gobaban ; make — , gobabi, 

round, n., gobabin, — ti, gobo, — 

adi, kuriyaisnan, — ti ; ad., 

harero, — aha ; move — , ku 

wareg, waregaiso ; go — , ku 

so wareg ; prp., harero, — ihi ; 

go — the world, dunida ku so 

wareg ; I went — the world, 

dunida harereheda yan so 

marai ; surround,, herai. 

s 2 




rouse,, {see raise); v.i., bara- 
rug, tos. 

rove {see ramble). 

roving clouds, n., 'adar, — ^fci. 

row, n., (a line) sadar, — ki, tah, 
tihhi; n., (tumult) sMddo, — 
adi, buh, — hi ; make a — , 

row,, (impel a boat) wad. 

rub,, dug, mari ; — off the 
skin, hago, haghago. 

rubbish, «., hushash. 

rude, a., halafsan. 

ruin, n., jajab, — ki, rognin, — 

rule, 11., haimin, — ki. 

ruminant, n., alalnahsi, — gi. 

ruminate {see chew). 

rump (see croup). 

run, v.i., 'arar, orod, ror; whither 
do you — so fast ? baggad 
dahsaba ugu ordaisa ? he lan 
upon me, igu so 'ararai ; — 
to his help, orod ou bili ; the 
river runs by the mountain, 
durdurku burtu so mara ; 
time runs insensibly, wahtigu 
bun yar bu so'oda ; his tongue 
runs perpetually, gor iyo galab 
af ka iss ku dari mayo ; — 
away, ka 'arar, ya'a ; — after, 
ka daba tag, radi. 

rupee, n., rubiad, — di, rubad, — 
di; half — , rubi, — gi. 

rupture, n., (hernia) dobnin, — 

rust, n., merid or mirid, — ki. 

rustic, n., badow, — gi, nin ba- 


Sabbath, n., sabti, — di. 

sack, n., (bag) joniad, — di ; lea- 
thern — , halhala, — ihi; (pil- 
lage) da'nin, — ti. 

sad, a., hulubsan; grow — , bu- 
lub, wahan ; be — , hulubsa^ 
naw; make — , hulbi, hulubsi. 

sadness, n., hulub, — ki, wabau, 
— ki. 

saddle, v.t'f., korai ; n., kora or 
korai, — ihi ; — bag, halhala, 
— ihi ; camel's pack — , heriyo, 

safe, a., 'absila, shilla, amiuah ; 
be — , bari ; are you — ? ma 
bariden ? be — , nabad hab. 

saffran {see turmeric). 

sagacious, a., fi'an, faridah, foyig. 

sage, n., ahil, — ki, nin ahilah, 
nin herribleh. 

sailor, n., bahri, — gi. 

sail, n., shira', — hi, shirah, — hi ; 
v.i., dof. 

saint, n., nebi, — gi, weli, — gi, 
anliad, — di {fem.). 

sake, n., awo, — adi, darad, — di ; 
for the — of, daradda, awada. 

salary, n., def, — ti, bahai, — gi. 

sale, n., (by auction) harash, — ^ki. 

saliva, n., alyo, — adi, dareir,— 
ki ; thickness of — , Inn, — ki. 

salt, M., 'usboh, — di, milih, — ^hi;, 'usbai; a., 'nsbaisan, 

salutation, n., salamad, — di; kind 
of — , mot ! mot ! 

salute,, salam, baridi. 




same, a., iss leh eg, o kaleh, iss 

la, iss ku mid. 
sample, n., midal), — ki. 
sanctify,, hodus ka dig ; be 

sanctified, samo ; hallowed be, 

ha samado. 
sanctity, n., hodus, — ki. 
sand, n., amud, — di, 'id, — di; 

salted — , 'arro,— adi; — 

storm, 'iro, — adi, sesa, sisa, 

sigo, — adi. 
sandal, n., kab, — ti; old and bad 

— , jan, — ti ; wooden — , ha- 

dafi',— hi. 
sane, a., (healthy) (mel) afimad 

sap, w., de'an, — ki. 
sash, n., (girdle) gunti, — gi. 
Satan, ra., shaidan, — ki, 'ifrid, — 

satiate,, dergi; be satiated, 

dereg, deregsanaw. 
satiate, satiated, a., deregsan. 
satiety, n., dereg, — gi. 
satisfaction, n., raho, — adi, rahad, 

— di. 
satisfactory, a., (suflScient) filan. 
satisfy,, (content) rahaisi ; 

(reward) u abalgud ; (make 

payment) tohad ken. 
Saturday, n., sabti, — di. 
sauce, M., (remaining in ...) mu- 

rud, — ki ; lick up the ..., 

savage, a., baan, bahal. 
save,, (preserve) bihi, ka so 

bihi; God — you, Ilah ku 

badbadiyo ; I saved your life, 
naftada ana badbadiyai ; 

(spare) dah, daho, digo; (do 

not spend) ha bihin, ha ku 

saving, «., dahasho, — adi. 
savour, n., dadan, — ki. 
saw, m., (tool) minshar, — ki;^ 

jar, go. 
say, v.i. and, odo (commonly) 

deh, sheg, u sheg. 
saying, n., mahmah, — di. 
scab, w., holof, — ti. 
scabbard, m., gal,— ki. 
scald, w., (burning) gubnin, — ti; 

— head, madah 'adai. 
scale, n., (balance) misan, — ki. 
scanty, a., (narrow) 'edidi. 
scar, ra., nabar, — ki, dahar boksa- 

dai, hon boksatai. 
scarabeeus, n., (black and stink- 
ing one) harwalwal, — ki. 
scarce, a., yar. 

scare,, (frighten) 'absi, baji. 
scarlet, a., gudud, gududan. 
scatter,, firdi; — on, ku 

scattered, a., firdisan. 
scent, m., udgon, — ki, ur, — ti. 
scent,, (perfume) udgonai, 

schism, »., kago, — lii. 
scholar, m., barad, — ki, ardai, — 

school, n., ma'lamad, — di. 
schoolmaster, n., bara, — ihi, fihi, 

gi, mu'alim, — ki. 
science, «., ohon, — ti. 
scissors, M., manhas, — ki. 
scoff (see mock), 
scold,, dagal. 
scold, n., (a brawler) hof dagal 





scolding, n., dagal, — ki, 

scope, 11 , (aim, end) dama', — hi, 

dug,— ti. 
scorch,, gub ; v.i., gubo. 
scorn (see contempt), 
scorpion, n., hangarara, — ihi, 

hangaraleb, — ihi, dib halloh, 

—hi. " ■ 

scoundrel (see rascal), 
scourge [see flog), 
scout, v.i., Ualo tag, so ilalai. 
scowl (see pout, pouting), 
scrag (see lean), 
scrape,, hoh ; — off the skin, 

ka hoh ; — out a word, babii. 
Bciatch,, hago, haghago ; 

v.r., iss hago. 
scream, v.i, dawah, haili; n., 

dawah, — hi, hailo, — adi. 
screen, n., ilihid, — ki. 
scribe, n.,.karaui, — gi. 
soibble, scribbling, n., harih, — 

di ; v.i., harih, harharih. 
scripture, n., horin, — ti, horin 

scrotula, n , hudai or huda, — 

ihi, mal,— shi. 
scrub, v./r., ad u dug, ad u hoh. 
scud, v.i., (run away) 'arar. 
scuffle, n., (for women) iss ku 

bod,— ki; (for men) dirtr, — ti. 
sculpture,, harad. 
scurf, n., (dry mealy scab) 'anbar, 

— ti. 
sea, '/(., bad, — di. 
sea-gull, n., 'ofai, — di. 
seal, v.t?'., daba' ; ??,., daba', — 

sealed, a., daba'an. 
seam, n., tolnin, — ti. 

search,, bad, don ; ?i., donin, 

— ti. 
season, n., heli, — gi, wahti, — gi ; 

hot — , haga, — gi ; dry — , 

jilal,— ki'; cold — , gu,— gi; 

the beginning of cold — , dair, 

— ti; — before the S.W. mon- 
soon, kalil, — shi. 
second, num., labad, kan ki 

secrecy, n., fah goniah, mel 'idla 

secret word, n., fah goniah, hadal 

sect, n., (Mohamedan one) shafi'i, 

— gi. 
secure, a., (safe) shilla. 
security, n., (caution) 'arbun, — 

ti, rahmad, — ^ki, 'udal, — shi; 

give for — , rahan; hold in 

false — , dag; false — , dagnin, 

— ti. 
sedition, n., hasidnimo, — adi. 
seduce (see deceive), 
see,, arag, eg, dai, dugo, 

jedali; let him — , da ha 

seed, n., inin, — ti. 
seek,, bad, don. 
seem, v.i., mod; it seems, wa la 

moda, wa muhata. 
see-saw, v.i., (play at) iss misan. 
seethe, seether (see boil and boiler), 
segregate (see separate), 
seize,, habo. 
seizing, n., habasho, — adi. 
select (see choose), 
self, refl.p., iss, iss, — ^ki ; n., naf, 

— ^ti, hud, — di. 
selfish, a., iss ja'el. 




selfishness, «., iss ja'alan, — ti. 
sell,, ibi, so ibi, ibso, so ibso. 
seller, »., nin wah ibiya or ibsha. 
selvage, selvedge, n., darur, — ki. 
semen, w., horud,— ki, biya bah, 

sempiternal, a., dayim, silei' 

send,, dir ; — • to, u dir ; — 

to me, i so dir. 
senna-plant, re., jelelo or jalelo, 

— adi. 
sensation, n., daren, — ^ki. 
sense, n., (good) garad, — ^ki; a 

man of — , garadleh; (meaning) 

ma'nai, — ihi. 
sentence, re., (judgment) arin, — ti, 

gar,— ti. 
sentinel, re., kor jir,— ki, kor 

jog,— gi, ilalo,— adi. 
separate,, faji, kala fuji, 

kala kahai, kala 'eli, so', kala 

so', dabsi. 
separation, re., so'din, — ti, dabsin, 

— ti. 
sepoy, n., subaihi, — gi; subai- 

hin,— ti (plur.) ; askari,— gi ; 

askar, — ti {ylur.). 
sepulchre (see grave), 
sepulture (see burial). 
Serjeant, n., (of police) hawaldar, 

— ki. 
sermon, n., wano, — adi. 
serpent, «., mas, — ki. 
servant, re., mididin, — ki, 'idan, 

— ki, hadam, — ki, sebiyan,— 

ki, nin la joga. 
serve,, haul habo ; — God, 

Ilah'abud; v.i., la jir. 
service, v.i., (render a) tar. 

servitude, re., adonimo, — adi. 

set,, dig, sar, ku deji; — 
in order, hagaji, wanaji ; — 
a fine, hasir ; — a price, himad 
ku sheg ; — on shore, deji, 
rog ; — aside, ges u dig ; — 
pen to paper, — down, hor, 
warhadda ku dig; — the 
house on fire, ahalka dab geU; 
he cannot — one foot' before 
another, so 'on kari mayo; — 
a time, ballan; — the bone, 
lafta tosi; — abroad, ogaisi; 
he had — my mind against 
you, isagu wa igu ka 'adaisi ; 

— apart, goni u dig; — ■ 
aside, dah, doho ; — at work, 
shahaisi; — away, la tag; 

— forward, horo u kahai, 
horo u rih, horo u wad; — on, 
sar ; (tix) dab, 'as ; (fall below 
the horizon) v.i., the sun sets, 
horahdu wa dahaisa ; — out, 
bah ; — upside down, rog ; 
be — upside down, rogan, 
rogmo; a., saran. 

settle,, tali, ku tali, heshisi, 

u si tali, ku dar, iss la tali. 
settlement, re., talo, — adi, heshis, 

— ki. 
seven, num., todoba, — di. 
seventeen, num., todob iyo toban, 

— ki. 
seventh, num., todobad,-;— di. 
seventy, num., todobatan. 
several, ad., har, — ki, daur, — ki. 
severe, a., (nin) hadad. 
sew,, tol ; — slowly, gata- 

nur ; — the sandal ties, yel. 
sewing, n., toLnin, — ^ti. 




shade, shadow,, hadai; n., 

had, — ^ki; evening — , had 

hodal, — ki. 
shady, shadowy, a., hadaisan. 
shaft, n., (an arrow) fallad, — di, 

gautal, — shi; (the wooden part 

of an arrow) gamun, ki, leb, — 

ki; a poisonous — , hands, — ki. 
shagged, shaggy, a., halableh 

shaggedness, n., halab, — ti. 
shake, shaking, n., luliu, — ti, 

ruhnin, — ti. 
shakeoff, w.<r., hurguf; — to and 

fro, lul, ruh. 
shake, v.i., ruho, garir ; his head 

is shaking, madihhisa gariraya 

or ruhanaya. 
shaken, a., ruhan. 
sham (see deceit) ; — crying, 

shame,, Ml ; n., hU, — ^ki. 
shampoo,, dug; — with the 

feet, ku jogjogso. 
shampooing, n., jogjogsi,— gi. 
shank, n., shansho, — adi ; — of 

camels, dudim, — ki. 
shape, n., midab,^ki (see figure) ;, midab u yel; — a pencil, 

shaping, «., homin, — ^ti. 
share, «., haib, — ti;, u 

haibi, kalago, sisi; v.i., la 

haibso ; you shall — with me 

in my riches, holahaiga yad 

ila haibsau. 
sharer, n., haibiya or hai'bsa- 

shark, ?i., libah baded, — hi baded. 
sharp, a., af badan, lissan, fihan. 

sharpen,, lis, sofai, fih, dub. 
sharpness, n., af badnan, — ti^ 

fihnan, — ti. 
shave,, u Mr. 
shaved, shaven, a., hiran. 
shaver, n., rais, — ^ki. 
she, pers. prn. {see Grammar), 
sheaf, n., (of arrows) Mdmo gan- 

sheath, n., gal, — ki. 
shed, «., (a hovel) balballo, — adi, 

wab, — ti, bul, — ki; make the 

— , balballai. 
shed,, (pour out) dadi, hub. 
shedding, «., dadis, — ki. 
sheep, n., ido, — ihi. 
sheer, a., (pure) miran, safaisan^ 

sheet, n., (of paper) bal, — ki; 

winding — , kafan, — ti. 
sheU, «., alel, — sM, laji, — gi or 

lajo, — adi. 
shelter, n. {see shed) ; — against 

cold, duksi, — gi. 
shepherd, n., adi jir, — ki. 
shepherdess, n., adi jir, — ti. 
shield, n., gashau, — ki ; — • 

maker, gabariyel, — ki, gasha- 

mo samai's, — ki. 
shift, n., hikmad, — di. 
shin, n., hog, — gi. 
shine, v.i., dalal ; shining, «., 

dalal, — ki. 
ship, n., markab, — M ; (a hoat) 

sehimad, — di. 
shipping, n., dof, — ki. 
shipwreck, n., hashwad, — di. 
shirt, n., garba galai, — iM, 

hamis, — ki {sing.) ; hamsan, — 





shiver, v.l, garir, hadhaa, kurbo. 
shivering, n., kurbad, — ki ; a — 

fit, hadhadiyo, — adi. 
shock, «., (conflict) hardi, — gi;, hardi. 
shoe, «., kab, — ti; horse — , 

na'al, — ki. 
shoot, n., (branch) Ian, — ti, dara- 

gad, — di, ya'ai, — gi, 'urdan, 

— ki. 
shoot,, (oast forth) kaga rid. 
shop, n., das, — ki, dukan, — ki. 
shore, sea-shore, n., heb, — ti. 
short, a., gaban, yar. 
shorten,, gabi, yarai, ya- 

shortness, n., gab, — ki, gabnin, 

— ti. 
shot, «., hururuh, — hi, rash, — ki. 
shoulder, n., garab, — ki; — 

hlade, laf garab, — ta — ka. 
shout, v.i., haili, madar, orri; 

n., dawah, — hi, gurhan, — ki, 

orr, — ki, hailo, — adi. 
shove (see push), 
show,, tus, so tus, muji; 

n., tusnin, — ti, mujis, — ki, 

nmjnin, — ti. 
shriek, v.i., (shrill) dawah; n., 

dawah, — hi. 
shrink, v.i., dib u jogso, nah. 
shrub, »., hanan, — ki, daran, — 

shudder {see shiver), 
shut, a., dabolan, hidan, odan;, hid, abud,' dabol; — 
your eyes, il iss ku habo. 
shy, a., hil badan ; be — , hisho. 
sick, a., buka, 'udur haba; be — , 
bukow, 'udur had. 

sicken,, bukaisi. 

sickness, n., hukan, — ki, 'udur,, 

— ki. 
side, n., barbar, — ki, dan, — ki,. 

ges, — ti, barer, — ti; on all 

sides, harero, — ihi ; by the — ^ 

iss garab. 
sieve, n., golab, — ki. 
sift,, golab. 
sigh, v.i., hinrag, warah, oi, mu- 

sanow; n., hinrag, — gi, oin, 

— ti, warah, — hi, musanow,, 

— ^gi, bihimbih, — ^hi. 
sight, w,.,arag,—gi; (show)muh, 

— hi; short — , habenno, — 

adi ; long — , il deran, — ti. 
sighted, a. ; good — , il fihan ; 

long — , il der. 
sign, «., bar, — ti, sumad, — di,. 

'alamad, — di; — - of the camel's 

anger, dob, — ti;, (mark) 

'alamadi, sumad; (ratify by 

hand) saheh. 
signal, n., bah, — hi. 
signature, «., saheh, hi. 
signification {see meaning), 
silence,, amusi; n., amusnan, 

— ti; int., us! amus! amusa! 
silent, a., amusan ; be — , amus, 

silex, n., (flint) du'un, — ti. 
silk, n., harir, — ^ti. 
silly, a., (simpleton) na's, — ^ki {n.),. 
silver, n., la'ag, — ti, fiddad or 

foddad,— di. 
similitude, n., ekan, — ti. 
simple, a., (sincere) hagagsan;. 

be — , hagag, 
sin, n., dembi, — gi. 
since, adv. and c, halkiyo gorti;. 




— yoii saw him, halkiyo gor- 

tad aragtai. 
sinful, a., dembileL 
sinner, n., dad dembileh, dadka 

sincere, a., lilahiah, aminah. 
sinew, ra., seid, — di, bohon, — ti, 

bohon hore, bohon dambe, 

hanjid, — ki. 
sing, and v.i., gabai, hes. 
singer, n., gabaya, — ihi. 
singing, n., hes, — ti. 
single, ffl., (sole) goniah, keliah, 

hud, hudah. 
sink, v.i., deg, dus, ka dus;, 

deji, ka dusi. 
sip,, fihso ; n., fihsi or fuhsi, 

— gi. 
sir, 11., saheb, — ki. 
sister, n., walal, — shi ; — in-law, 

dumashi, — di. 
sisterhood, n., walalnimo, — adi. 
sit, v.i., (down) fadiso, salka dig, 

fadi ; — still, si fadi. 
sitting, n., fadi, — gi. 
six, num., leh, — di ; — fold, leh 

jer min lehah, or leh jer o 

leh wada ah.' 
sixteen, num., lehiyotoban, — ki. 
sixth, num., lehad, kan. lehad. 
sixty, num., lehdan, — ki. 
size, n., hiyas, — ti, dumo', — di. 
skilful, a., fl'an, farsamo badau, 

wah haban eg. 
skill, n., farsamo, — adi, fi', — hi, 

fi'nan, — ti. 
•skim,, usarka ka safai. 
skimmer, n., hudda, — ihi. 
skin, n., dub, — ki, harag, — gi, 

san, — ti ; — sewn to carry 

children, dereb, — ti, farad, — 

ki ; — sewn to make a couch, 

weilalis, — ti ; — placed for a 

shed, gibU, — shi. 
skin,, (flay) dubka or harag- 

ga or santa ka bihi or ka 

skull, n., indolai, — ^ihi ; upper 

part of the — , dako, — adi, 

kugj^ti ; each side of the — , 

ges,— ti. 
sky, n., 'ir, — ki. 
slab, n., (a puddle) dirih, — di, 

didi, — gi. 
slabber,, (smear with spittle) 

alyo muruh ku dadi ; v.i., 

(drivel, slaver) alyo muruh iss 

ka buhi. 
slabberer, n., niu alyo muruh 

wein leh, — ki, weina. 

slack,, (unlaend) deb'i ; a., 

(loose) deb'isan. 
slake,, (extinguish) bahti; 

(quench) iss harad tir, iss on 

slander,, 'eibai, hano, hafar; 

n., han, — ti, 'eib,~ti. 
slap,, darbah ; n., daorbaho, 

— adi, faragorgor,— ki. 
slate, n., (used in school) loh, — 

slaughter,, gowra', kaga 

kudi, ka kausi, kaga hawi, 

dil ; «., gowra', — ihi. 
slave, n., adon, — ki (mas.), adon, 

— ti ifem.), bida or bidai, — 

ihi (mas.), bidad, — di [fern.), 

sawahiU, — gi. 
slavery, n., adonimo, — adi. 
slay [see slaughter). 




■sleep, v.i., hurud, iss ka hurud, 
seho, so seho, gama', jifso ; 
v.c, sehi, jifi; n., hurdo, — 
adi, gama',^ — hi, sehasho, — 

sleeper, n., nin hurda, nin gama'- 

sleepless, a., garni' wah. 

■sleepy, a. and n., (drowsy) da- 
madsan, luloleh, damad, — ki. 

sleepiness, n., lulo, — adi, 

slice, «., liif, — ki. 

slide, v.i., (slip) simbiririho, si- 
sibo, sibiboho ; n., mel sibiba- 

slight,, (disregard) fududai ; 
a., fadud, weidsan. 

slightness, n., fadaid, — ki, wei'd, 
— di. 

•slime, n., (glaire) dareir, — ki, 
alyomuruh, — hi ; — mixed 
■with blood in dysentery, a'al, 
— shi. 

sling,, wadfi; n., wadaf, — ki. 

slink, v.i., (sneak) 'arar, bahso; 
she slank, shinki ma ai dalin. 

slip, v.i., {see slide); v.c, (cause 
to — ) sibibihi, sisibi, simbiri- 
rihi ; n., (act of slipping) sim- 
biririho, — adi, sisib, — ti, sibi- 
boho, — adi. 

slipper, n., kab, — ti. 

slippery, a., sibibahah. 

«lit,, jehjeh, 'dildila'i ; v.i., 
dila', dildila''; a., dila'san, 
jehan ; n., (a narrow opening) 
dila', — hi, jeh, — hi. 

slope, n., (declivity) didib, — ti, 
aror, — ^ki, sibibah,— di, ba- 
bah, — hi. 

sloth {see laziness). 

slouch, n., (a clumsy boy) hoga- 
sho, — adi ; v.i., (have a down- 
cast look) hogo. 

slough, n., (a deep, miry place) 
limad, — ki ; (of a snake) hub, 
— ki. 

sloven {see dirty). 

slow, a., raga, ragi jirai. 

slowly, ad., ayar or adyar, hun- 
yar ; walking — , dukis. 

slowness, n., ragnin, — ^ti. 

sly, a., (cunning) nejis, — ki, ne- 

small, a., gaban, gibin, yar. 

smallness, n., gab, — ^ki, gabnin, 
— ti, yaran, — ti. 

small-pox (see pox). 

smash,, burburi. 

smell, n., ur, — ^ti, udgon, — ki; 
bad — , ur hudmun ;, 
urso ; v.c, ursi ; v.i., ur ; the 
meat smells, hilibku wa uraya. 

smile, v.i., hosol; n., hosol, — ^ki. 

smite,, (strike) tun ; v.i., 
kurbo ; my knees — together, 
jilbahaigu wa kurbanaya. 

smith, n., tumal, — ki. 

smoke, ?i., hih, — hi; where there 
is — there is fire, meshi hih 
lihi dab bai lehdahai; v.i., 
dabku wa hihaya, or hih ba 
ka bahaya ; (use tobacco) fiid, 
'ab ;, (dry in — ) gawadi ; 
— meat, hilibka gawadi ; — 
dried, la gawadiyai. 

smooth,, mari, salah, iss ku 
sin; a., salahan, siman. 

smother (see suffocate). 

smuggle,, hayanai. 




smut {see dirt). 

snake, n., mas, — ki ; kind of — , 

'abeiso,^adi, abguri, — di. 
snare, n., debin, — ki ; the making 

or placing of a — , dabuiu, — 

snarl,, (entangle) iss ku 

merji ; v.i., (growl) abad ; the 

camel is snarling, aiirki wa 

snatch,, dufo or difo. 
sneak, v.i., (creep) bogga ku so'O. 
sneer, v.i., (laugh with contempt) 

hubihi ; m., huhub, — ^ki. 
sneeze, v.i., hindis. 
sniff, and v.i., sin 'esbo, sa- 

snore, snort, v.i., hilri; snorting, 

huro, — adi. 
snot, «., (mucus of the nose) duf, 

— ki. 
snout, «., gafur, — ki. 
snuff, n., ( powdered tobacco) na- 

shug,— gi, buri,— gi; —box, 

hasa'ad, — di ;, (to draw 

in with the breath) urso. 
snuiHe, v.i., (speak through the 

nose) sanhada ka hadal. 
snuffler, n., nin sanholeb. 
so, a., sida, sidas, sidi, sa. 
soak,, hoi. 
soap, n., sabiin, — ^ti;, sa- 

bunta mari. 
sob, n., (convulsive sigh) Mhlai, 

— ihi ; v.i., hihlai. 
socket, n., (any hollow) gof, — ki ; 

the — of the eye, isha gof- 

sodomy, n., kud, — ki, mahnud- 

iiimo,^adi ; commit — , kud. 

sodomite, n., mahnud, — ^ki. 
soft, a., jilai'san, habow. 
soften,, jilai'i or jili'i, ir. 

tud, salah ; v.i., jilai'. 
soil, n., (earth) <arro, — adi, 'id,. 

— di;, (stain, liesmear...) 

sojourn, v.i., hoio. 
solace, n., tudad, — di, tuduin, — 

solder or soder,, iss ku deji,. 

iss ku nab. 
sold, a., ibsan; be — , ibsanaw;: 

not — , ma ibsana. 
sole, n., (of the foot) 'agta 'ad. 
solicit,, bari, dalbo. 
solicitude, n., aminimo, — adi. 
solid, a., adag. 
solitary, a., goniah, keliah. 
solitude, n., mel goniah, 'idla. 

'irsila, — di. 
some, a., in, — ta, wah, wahhoga, 

har, — ^ki ; — body, nin un ;■ 

— how, si un ; — thing, wak 

un; — times, kolkol, marmar; 

— ^where, mel un. 
son, n., ina, inan, — ki, wil, — ki; 

sons, arur, — ti, dalan, — ^ki. 
song, n., gabai, — gi, gerar, — ^ki,^ 

hes, — ti ; — or elegy of lamen- 

tion, digri, — gi. 
soon, ad., gor dow ; it is too — j 

wad so dahsatai. 
soot, n., madun, — ki. 
soothe (see soften), 
sophisticate,, bedel. 
soporitic, a., sehiya. 
sorcerer, n., niu wah fala, hari- 

yan, — ^ki, hadahata or hata- 

hata,— ihi, yibir, — ki. 




«ore, n., bog, — ti, hon, — ti; a 
small — , hon gibina ; — be- 
coming worse, dila' ; a person 
having a — , bogaleh, — ihi. 

sorrow, n., 'ala'al or alaana'l, — 
ki, human, — ti, weirweir, — 
ki, hulub, — ki, wahan, — ki; 
v.i., weirweir, hulub, ala'al, 

sorrowful, a., hulubsan, ala'alsan, 

sort, n., (species) 'ai'n, — ki, tol, 
— ^ki. 

sot, a., na'asah. 

soul, n., naf, — ti. 

sound, v.i., (make a noise) kaga 
sanhadi; n., sanhad, — di. 

soup, n., fud, — ki. 

sour, a., danan, hadad. 

sourness, n., hadad, — ki. 

source, «., (spring) ib, — ti, il, — 

south, n., hodub or hudub, — ^ki. 

sow,, (scatter seed) inlnaha 
ku dadi or firdi or ku firdi. 

space, n., hawo, — adi. 

span, n., dako, — adi. 

spare,, daur, ha ku ayarin, 
dah, doho; — something for 
the poor, masakinta wah u 

spark, sparkle, n., bilig, — ti, 
biligbilig, — ti, dinbil, — shi. 

sparkling, a., biligbiligleh. 

spatter,, duldul. 

spawl, v.i., tuf; n., anduf or 
andufo, — adi, hako. 

speak, v.i., hadal; vtr, deh, 
sheg ; v.i., — in sleep, awa- 

speaking, n., (in sleep) awawi,— 
gi, tamanta, — ihi. 

speaker, n., (in a meeting) gudi, 
— di. 

spear, «., waran, — ki; different 
kinds of spears, 'aradub, — ^ki, 
bagaf, — ki, be'idi or bihidi, — 
gi, dohana, — ihi, sallado, — 
adi, teri,— gi, weidar,— ki. 

species {see sort). 

speck, n., (spot) dibi', — di. 

spectacles, n., ohad, — di. 

spectre, n., muh, — hi. 

speech, n., hadal, — ki. 

speed, «., 'arar, — ki, orod,— ki. 

spell, «.^r., (charm) gedago; (read 
by naming letters singly) haraf- 
ka walba goni u deh, or haraf- 
yadan mid ba gonidis u deh ; 
n., (a charm) gedagoiyo, — adi. 

spend,, bihi ; (waste) lumi, 

spendthrift, n., mudaya',— hi. 

spew, v.i., (vomit) hunha. 

sphere, n., kuriyaisnan, — ti. 

spherical, a., kuriyaisan. 

spider, n., 'aro, — adi. 

spike, n., hudum, — ki. 

spill,, hub, dadi, ku dadi, 

spilt, a., dadsan, shuban, rogan. 

spin, vtr., wareji ; v.i., wareg. 

spine, n., (backbone) adah, — di. 

spirit, n., (breath) neif, — ti ; (an 
immaterial substance) ruh, — ^hi. 

spit, v.i , (spawl) tuf. 

spite, n., (malevolence) hamidni- 
mo,— adi. 

spittle, n., tufiiiu, — ti, andufo, — 
adi, alyomuruh, dareir, — ki. 




splash, n., duldul, — ki ;, 

dulduli, nab, mari, marso. 
spleen, n., (milt) ber yaro, — 

split [see slit). 
spoil, M., (robbery) tugo, — adi, 

bob, — ki ; (corruption) hudun, 

— ki; t'.fr., (see rob); (corrupt) 

see corrupt, 
spoon, n., fandal, — ki. 
sport, w., 'ayar, — ti, jalbeb,— ti. 
spot, «., (a blot) bar, — ti, dibi', — 

di ; some spots, barbar ; (a 

place) mel, — sM;, bar u 

spotted, a., baraleh. 
sprain,, murku'i, nmrku'o ; 

n., murku'aslio, — adi, laban, 

— ki. 
sprained, a., laban. 
spray, n., dibi', — di, 'urdan, — ki, 

yurub, — ki. 
spread,, firdi; a., firdisan, 

firdadsan, firdadan. 
spreading, n,, firid, — ki, firdis, 

— ki. 
spring {see fountain), 
spring up, v.i., bah. 
sprinkle,,, sai'd ; — over, ku 

sprinkling, n., saidis, — ki. 
spurn, n., (a kick) lad, — ki. 
spy,, (watch) SO ilalai; n., 

ilalo, — adi ; send a — , Ualo 

dir ; — glass, hohad, — di. 
squander,, hub, Ivuni. 
squanderer, n., mudaya', i'hi, 

liuniyai, — ihi. 
squat, v.i., (sit upon the heels) 

kadalob, kadalobso. 

squatting, n., kadalob, — ki. 
squeamish, a., yihyihsan, 
squeeze,, dis, ku marojif 

tuji ; n., disitt, — ti. 
squint, «., 'awar, — ^ki; — eyed, 

il mahalub, ashharab; v.i.y 

indaha ashhar. 
squirrel, n., earth — , daba galla, 

— ihi ; rock — , walo, — adi. 
stab, n., (of a sword) fajaso, — 

adi; — with the flat of a 

sword, ballad, — ki;, fajas.^ 
stable, n., hero, — adi, gola, — ihi. 
stack (see heap), 
staff, n., ul, — shi, hori, — gi; — 

of a spear, samai, — di; — of 

an arrow, gamun, — ki, leb, — 

ki; bended staves used for 

making a Somali hut, dig, — ^ti, 

dig doho, — adi, dig lolah, — 

ihi, kabal, — ki, kaballo, — adi, 

lol, — ^ki, lau, — ti. 
stagger, v.i., (reel) tukub. 
stagnant water, n., gelgelin bi- 

stain, n., dibi', — di, bar, — ti;, 

(maculate) see corrupt, 
stair, staircase, n., sallan, — ki. 
stake, «., udub, — ki, hensarar, — 

stale, a., (old) gabow, dug. 
stalk (see staff), 
stammer, v.i., haghago. 
stammerer, n., nia haghagleh, 

nin labia. 
stammering, n., haghag. 
stamp, n., (for letters) tiked, — 

stanch (stop), joji; stanch 

the blood, digga joji. 




stand, «., jog,— gi, nasad,— ki; 
make a — , jog, naso. 

stand, v.i., tagnow, hagag, hagag 
u jogso ; — still, ha dahdaha- 
hin; my watch stands still, 
sa'adaidi wa jogsanaisa; the 
haryain stands, baya'addi wa 
jogta or weliba tagan tahai ; 
this house stands very well, 
a^alka mel wanaksau bu ka 
disanyahai; a great many 
people — abuut him, dad 
badan ba ku mersan, or dad 
badni wa ku mersanyahai ; 

— against, iss ka heji, iss 
karaw; God will — by iis, 
Ebbehena wa ina karebi; I 
stood by when Ali killed the 
man, anigu wa so jogai kolki 
Ali ninka dilai ; I — for that 
ofiSce, anigu hafiskasan u 
joga; God stands for u-;, 
Ebbebeu iimagu ina la jira ; 
that letter stands for ..., haraf- 
kasi ... bu u jira ; I — )n 
need of a camel, aur ban u 
dan lehabai ; you — in my 
light, iffcinkaigi bad iga fa- 
dida ; — off, dib u jogso ; — 
out (resist), habil, u adkaiso ; 

— out of the way, dauga ka 
ba'id; — out of my sight, 
araggaiga ka libid; — to 
your word, hadalkaga hejiso ; 

— up, tagnaw; — with, la 

stand,, habil, u samir. 
standing, a., tagan; n., — up 

(during Mahomedan prayers), 

faral, — ki. 

standard, n., (flag, ensign) 'alan,. 

— ki. 
star, n., hidig, — ti. 
stare, «. , (a fixed look) eg^o, — adi ; 

v.i., isha ku 'adai, indo ku tol. 
start, n., nahadin, — ti; v.i., nah, 

dib u nah; (begin to run) ka 

gur, ka so'o. 
startle,, kaga nihi, baji. 
starvation, «., dihal, — ki, ma'alul,, 

— shi. 
starve, v.i., dlhalanaw, abah;, dihali, abihi. 
starving, a., dihalan, abahah. 
starveling, n., (thin and weak 

animal) abah, — hi. 
state, n., (condition) dan, — ti ;. 

bad — , dan darran, — adi; 

good — , ladnan, — ti; vtr., 

{see settle), 
statement, n., talo, — adi. 
stay, n., fadi,— gi, jog,-gi, rug,. 

— ti; (delay) ragnin, — ti; v.i., 

fadi, jog, rugaiso, rag; v.h-., 

(delay) raji. 
steady, a., adag, tagan. 
steal,, (rob) had. 
stealth, re., (act of stealing) had- 

nin, — ti. 
stealthily, v.i., (go) u dukus. 
steam, «., (vapour) umis, — ki. 
steel, n., birr, — ti ; — of a tinder 

box, du'un dableh. 
steep, n., (precipice) harar, — ti,. 

jar, — ki; a., mel sibibahah;, (soak) hoi. 
stem, n., jirid, — di, Ian, — ti. 
stench, n., hudmun, — ki, ur hud- 

mun;, (make to stink) 





stenching, a., ur hudmun. 

step, n., talabo, — adi; sound of 

the — , jan, — ti ; v.i., (make a 

— ) talabso, so talab ; — over, 

out, ka talab, ka talabso ; 

cause to — , talabi. 
step-mother, n., ayo, — adi. 
sterile, a., ma dalais, (ged) an 

mido labain. 
stern, n., (of a ship) bar dambe. 
sternutation, n., huidisad, — di. 
stick, n., ul, — sM, Ian, — ti (see 

rod);, ku dab, ku mud, 

ku deji; (pierce) waren, ku 

joji; yi., kudeg. 
stitf, a., adag, halafsan. 
stiffen,, balafi ; v.i., halaf. 
stifle (see suffocate), 
still, a., amusan ; ad., ila iminka ; 

— more, weliba. 
sting, n., (a sharp point) 'aro, — 

adi ;, mud, hanin. 
stinging, n., mudnin, — ti, hanin- 

yo, — adi. 
stink, n., (bad smell) hudmun, — ki, 

ur hudmun; v.i., hudmunahaw. 
stinking, a., ur hudmun. 
stipulate,, ka ballan, 
stipulation, n., ballan, — ki. 
stir,, dahaji, walah ; v.i., 

stirring, n., walah, — hi. 
stirrup, n., rakab, — ki. 
stitch, n., mudnin, — ti ;, 

mud, tol. 
stock, «., (body of a plant) jirid, 

— di; (store) jawan, — ki;, 

(store) si dig, si hado. 
stomach, n., 'alol, — shi ; pit of 

the — , labho, — adi. 

stone, n., dagah, — ihhi ; big — , 
dakab, — ^ki, "dadab, — ti; fire 
— , dagah madow ; a very hard 
— , kured, — ki ; — used to 
grind corn ..., midhin; grind- 
stone, lissin, — ki ; — of fruits, 
laf, — ti ; the three stones on 
which they put the boiler, dar- 
dar, — ki ;, (lapidate) shid, 

stool, n., barjin, — ^ki, gambad, — 
ki, kabad, — ki. 

stoop, stooping, n., foror, — ki, 
'uskis, — ki; v.i., fororso, 'us- 
ko ;, forori, 'uski. 

stop, n., jog, — gi, ragasho, — adi; 
(end) see end ; v.i., jog, jogso, 
sug, iss tag, kadi;, joji; 

— thief, tugga joji; — the 
bottle, haruradda furai or abud. 

store (see stock). 

storm, n., dabail wein, — shi, — 

aid, bahailad, — di, duf, — ^ki. 
story, n., (history) sheko, — adi; 

(iiction) halalif, — ti. 
stout, a., buran, shilis, hogwein; 

— man, torog, — gi. 
stoutness, n., hog, — gi, adkan, — 

ti, gesinimb, — adi, bili, — gi, 
ital, — ki, tag, — ^ti. 

strabism (see squinting). 

straggle (see ramble). 

straight, a., hiyas, hun, humati, 
shuban, tosan ; be placed — , 
hoton; put it — , humati u 
tag ; make it — , hiyas ka dig, 
humi ; place it — , hotomi ; be 
— , humanaw. 

strain, n., (a sprain) murkuasho, 
— adi;, (filter) darur. 




strainer, n., (filter) aarur,— ti. 
strait, n., (a narrow pass) 'edidi, 

— gi ; a., 'edidi, 'edidsan. 
straiten,, 'edidi. 
strange, a., yaban,yab haba, yab- 

stranger, re., marti, — di (see 

strangle, «;.!;?-.,siriri, 'unahabatai. 
strangulation, «., siririn, — ^ti, si- 

riris, — ki. 
strap, n., yel, — shi, bai'd, — di, 

lid,— ki. 
stratagem, w., higmad, — di. 
straw, re., 'aus. 
stream, re., doho, — adi, durdur, 

— ki. 
street, re., darih, — hi, surin, — ki, 
strength, n., hog, — gi, adkan, — 

ti, ital, — ki, tag, — ti ; give — , 

ital u yel. 
strengthen,, adkai, tag. 
stretch out,, bihi, so bihi, 

tikso, horanso ; the birds — 

their wings, hadi ba iss kala 

jida ; — your legs, didibso. 
stretching out, re., tiksi, — gi. 
strew (with),, firdi, ku firdi. 
stride, re., dada', — hi ; v.i.,, 

dada', ka dada'. 
strife (see quarrel), 
strike,, dil, ku dufo, la; 

— down, ka dangalahsi, bn- 
dai; — upon, ku tun; — to 
break, fajas. 

string, re., hadig yar, hadig 

dumo' yar, safari, — gi. 
strip,, (make naked) hawi ; 

— off, dir, mudhi. 
stripped, stript, a., diran, hawan. 

stripe, re., alif, — ki, dilin, — ti;, alif ku jid, aliflyai, dili- 

mo u yel. 
strive, v.i., hausho, haul gal. 
stroke, n., (blow) nabar, — ^ki; 

rub gently,, salah, 
stroll (see ramble), 
stroller, n., nin warwareg badan. 
strong, a., adag, hog wain, hog 

badan ; be — , adkaw, habil. 
struggle, v.i., hausho, hogso, iss 

stubble, re., 'aus, — ki, gargor, — 

ki, 'aus salol, — ki. 
stubborn, re., (strong-headed) 'asi, 

— gi, rifai, — ihi. 
study, 11., barasho, hubsad, — ki;, baro. 
stumble, re., turonturo, — adi; v.i., 

stump, re., (of a tooth) fallid, — 

ki; — of a tree, jirid, — di, 

kurtun, — ki. 
stun,, kaga nihi; be stunned, 

stunning, n., nahadin, — ti, hau, 

— di. 
stupefaction [see astonishment), 
stupid, a., (sluggish) dohou, — ki, 

na's, — ki, miyirla, bahahim. 
stupidity, re., miyirlaan, — ti. 
stutter (see stammer), 
sty, re., (inflamed tumour) fin, — ki. 
subdue,, iss ka hosaisi, taba 

bar, dasturtada hun iss karaw. 
subject, «., daris, — ki, nin hosai. 
submit,, {see subdue and sub- 
ject); v.i., yel, degaiso. 
subterfuge, n., halad, — di. 
succeed, v.i., (prosper) dama' hel. 




mar o liel; (follow) meshisa 

succession, n., dambais, — ki. 

successor, n., ninki ka dambaiya. 

succour, n., {gee help) ; v.t7\, 
•idami {see help). 

succourer, «., 'idan, — ^ki. 

such, prn., kas o kalebah, hebel. 

suck, suckling, n., jaha, — ihi, 
nujis, — ki ;, nug, mudso, 
jah ; sucking child, lima na- 
saba jaha ; — up, fihso. 

suckle,, nujl. 

suddenly, ad., marki ba. 

suet, n., barur, — ^ti. 

suffer,, (permit) u samir, 
fasah. ; — a loss, ed ; v.i., ha- 
nunso, silei', ta'ab; — in 
mind, ur ku talo ; — for, u 
hanunso, ka tobad ken ; cause 
to — , hamini, haimji, sili'i, 
sug, hanuu. 

suffering, n., hanvin, — ki, silei', — 
hi, ta'ab, — ki ; — of the soul 
and of the body, 'araraf, — ^ki. 

suffering, a., nin sila'sam, sugan, 

suffice, v.i., (be sufficient) filow, 
ku filow. 

sufficient, a., ku filan. 

suffocate,, 'abudi, 'abud, 
buhuji, 'iji; be suffocated, 
abudan, abudnaw, 'ihsaaaw; 
suffocated, 'abudan, 'ihsan. 

suffocation, n., 'ih, — di. 

sugar, n., sonkor or sunkor,— ti. 

suicide, v.i., (commit ...) iss dil. 

suit,, (be fitted to) leh eg; 
it suits me, wa i lehegyabai ; 
it suits you, wa ku lebegya- 

hai ; n., — at law, arin, — ti,. 
gar, — ti ; a man gaining the 
— , nin gar leh ; a man losing 
the — , nin gar la. 

sulky {see pout). 

sullen, a., hiilubsan, dudma ba- 
dan; be — , wahan, hulub. 

sullenne.os, n., waban, — ki, hu- 
lub, — ^ki. 

sully,, dohbai, wasahai, 

sulphur, «., kebrid, — ki. 

sultan, n., suldan, — ki. 

sum, n., hisab, — ti, tiro, — adij 
— given monthly to the Somali 
chiefs, miri, — di. 

summit, «., aror, — ki. 

summon,, (cite) amarhadur 
u sar. 

summons, n., amarhadur, — ki. 

sun, n., horah, — di', 'ad'ed, — di; 
morning — , horah subah ; 
evening — , horah galbed. 

sunbeam, n., 'ad'ed. 

Sunday, n., ahad, — di. 

sunless, a., mel an horah lahain, 
horah la. 

sunny, a., horah leh, mesha ho- 
rah ba kugu haisa. 

sunrise, n., horah so bah, — ^bihi. 

sunset, n., horah da',— dl'hi. 

sunshine, n., milei', — ihi, sudi', 

— gi- 

sup, n., fihsi, — gi ;, fihso. 
superior, «., nin u madahah, nin 

horai, nin sarrai. 
supine, a., (lying on the back) 

supper, ?!., 'asho, — adi; take your 

— , 'ashai. 




supply, n., (maintenance) masnif, 

— ki ;, (maintain) musnif. 
supplice, n,, silei', — hi, ta'ab, — 

support, «., (prop)tir, — ^ki, udud, 

— ki; (help) Ml,— ki;,-a. 

dulh.ado, hili, habil. 
suppose,,, (think) malai, 
supposition, w., mala, — IM. 
sure, a., huba ; be — , hub. 
surety, n., (security) 'arbun, — ti, 

'udal, — shi. 
surface, n., barahad, — di, dul, — 

surpass,, dul mar. 
surprise,, gad. 
surrender, v.i., so baho, u so gal. 
surround,, hera'i, mermeri, 

ka buhso. 
suspect,, malai, tuhun. 
suspected, a., la tuhmai (nin). 
suspicion, n., tuhuii, — ki. 
suspicious, a., tuhunsau. 
sustain,, (bear) had, sid, 

tiri ; (maintain) sabbar, sab- 

baro ; (suffer) ed, u samir. 
swad, n., (for babies) dereb, — ti. 
swallow,, lih, hudhudi. 
swallowing, n., hudhudis, — ki. 
sway,, (rule) ka sarrai. 
swear, v.i., daro, iman si, ahdi. 
swearing, n., (oath) ahdi, — gi. 
sweat, v.i., didid ; n., didid, — ^ki. 
sweep,, flh, had. 
sweepings, n., hushash, — ki. 
swept, a., fihau. 
sweet, a., ma'an ; — thing, ged 

sweeten,, ma'anaiso. 
sweets, n., nana, — ihi. 

swell, v.i., barar; cause to — ,. 

swelling, «., barar, — ki. 
swim, v.i., dabbalo ; — over, ka 

swimming, n., dabbal, — shi. 
swine, n., dofar, — ki. 
swing, n., mhan,— ki, lalad,— 

ki, ruhnin',— ti;, ruh,^ 

ruhruh ; v.i., ruho, lalad. 
swoon, v.i., suh, wei'dow; n., 

suhdin, — ti. 
sword, «., bilawa or bilawai, — 

ihi, aeif, — ti. 
syphilis, «., habad. 

tabernacle, n., balballo, — adi, 
bul,— ki, rug,— ti, guri, — gi. 

table, n., mis, — ki. 

tabour, n., (drum) durban, — ki. 

tack,, hodob, iss ku hodob,. 
iss ku tol. 

tail, n., date, — adi ; — of goats, 
dib, — ki ; — of sheep, dUif, — 
ki ; fat — of the sheep, badi, 
— di; lifting up the — , hanan, 
— ti. 

tailor, «., dar tol, — ^ki, derji, — 

take,, ho, hai, haiso, hab, 
habo, had, hado, habso"; I 
took the, cup at his hand, fn- 
janki ga'antisan ka hadai; 
— that malefactor, layanka 
habso ; they took the town, 
T 2 




magaladi hatai; if I can — 
him, hadan hadan karo; — 
the meat out of the pot, 'adka 
ka so bihi distiga; — that 
physic, dawada hado ; it has 
taken root, hididai lehdahai; 

— hold of that, wahhas habso 
or hejiso ; — a snuff, nashug 
urso ; we took the longest way, 
daugi ugu dera bannu hab- 
sanai or ra'nai; — the shortest 
way, dauga ugu gaban habso; 

— care, heed, iss karaw, foji- 
gow, iss ka eg, iss ka daur ; 

— you no care of that, dan 
adigu ha u gelin; let your 
friends — part with you, U da 
sahibyadadu ha ku la wada- 
genai; he took alarm at the 
noise, sanhaddi bu ku nahai ; 

— a good resolution, tala ada 
hado ; I — you at your word, 
hadalkagan ku dainaya; — 
that word in good part, hadalka 
i.a honsan ; — him in a lie, 
bein ku habo; — in a bad 
deed, falnin hun ku habo ; — 
pity on him, u nahariso ; I 
took a great affection to him, 
ja'ail wanaksau ban u habai ; 
I. shall — ib as a great favour, 
sidi sado wanaksan ban kaga 
ahbali ; I will — that affair at 
my own peril, haushas sabab- 
taidu ku hadan dona; what 
course shall I — nowl dau 
ma an habsanaya? ; I — it to 
be the best way, sidi ugu wa- 
naksanaid ban u wada or u 
sida ; he took offence at that. 

wahhasi 'ai u hatai; — an 

account of the suit, arinti war 
noga ken ; — my word for it, 
hadalkaiga rumaiso ; — time, 
wahti hado, dulhado ; — and 
keep, ho hado ; — again, 
mar kaleh hado; — back 
again, 'esho ; — him along 
with you, si kahaiso ; — that 
asunder, baidi; — away, me- 
sha ka had, ninka ka kahai 
or ka sar ; — away his flock, 
adigisa kala tag; — that 
down, wahhas deji ; — him 
down, iss ka hosaisi, iss ka 
joji ; I shall — his pride 
down, amarkisa wan jebin or 
bassarin ; I took him for 
another, nin kalan modai ; — 
from, ka dufo, ka habo, ka 
had, so dufo ; — of, la tag ; — 
off the skin, haragga or dubka 
iss ka jar or go ; — off your 
hat, kofiadda iss ka dig; — 
him off from his work, shuhul- 
kisa ka sar; — out that tooth, 
Uigga so bihi or so jid ; — to 
pieces, jehje'h; — to, kahai, 
so kahai ; — up arms, hub 
hata ; that will — up a good 
deal of time, haul badan ba 
igaga bihi donta; — up the 
book, kitabka had. 
tale, n., (story) sheko, — adi; he 
is always telling stories (tales), 
halalif bu ka shekanaya; 
(oral report) dirandiro, — adi; 

— bearer, nin hamasho badan; 

— bearing, hamasho, — adi, 
dirandiro, — adi. 




talisman, w., hardas, — ti, hajolad, 

— di. 
talk, v.i.,, hadal, hasaw ; 

— with, la hadal, la hasaw; 
n., hadal, — ^ki, hasawai, — ihi. 

tall, a., der. 

tallow, «., (suet) barur, — ti, dayi, 

— gi, haid, — di, 
tamarind, n., hamar, — ti, gedad 

tame, a., af yahan, la 'arbiyai ; 

— beast, marabi, — di ; — 
beast flying away, bubal, — shi;, 'arbi. 

tank, n., berkad, — di. 

tar, n., danrnr, — ki ;, damur 

taste, w., dadan, — ki; v.t}\, da- 

tatter, n., (rag) suf, — ki. 
tattle {see babble), 
taunt, M., 'ai, — di;, 'ai; 

why do you — • him? mahad 

u 'aiaisa or 'ai'tamaisa ? 
taw, «., (a marble to play with) 

fatari, — gi. 
tax, n., 'ashur, — ti ;, dadka 

tea, «., shah, — hi, 'alen, — ti. 
teach,, bar, u dig, wani. 
teacher, «., bara, — ihi, 
tear, «., ibno, — adi; (rent) dila', 

— hi, jeh, — hi ;, (lacerate) 

dila'i, jeh, jehjeh, kidif, 
tease,, dali, 
teat, n., ib, — ti. 
telegraph, n., tar, — ki. 
telescope, n., hohad, — di. 
tell,, de'h (odo), u sheg, 


temper, n., abur, — ki or — ti, 

'amal, — ki. 
temperance, n., 'ir yaran, — ti. 
temperate, a., 'ir yar. 
temperature, n., wahti, — gi. 
tempest, n., duf, — ki, dabaH 

temples, n.. (of the head) dafor, 

— ki. 
tempt,, hiiffi. 
temptation, n., hufSn, — ti, ha- 

wayad, — di. 
tempter, «., mahawi, — gi. 
ten, ra.c, toban, — ki. 
tenth, n.o., tobnad,— ki. 
tend,, (watch) ilali, jir, la jog. 
tendon, n., (sinew) seid, — di, 

hanjid, — ^ki, bohon, — ti. 
tent, 71., (for travel) balballo, — 

adi; (in an enclosure) hois, — 

ki ; (not in an enclosure) ho- 

hob, — ^ki ; (an abode) rug, — ti, 

bul, — ki, guri, — gi. 
term, n., (limit) dal,— ki; (a word) 

erai, — gi. 
terminate,, damai, idlai. 
terrible, a., laga 'absado, laga 

terror, 11., bahdin, — ti. 
testicle, «., hinin, — ti. 
testify,', rumai, marhati ku 

testimony, n., marhati, — di. 
tetter, n., (white blight) 'alibar, 

— ti. 
than, c, ka. 

thank,, mahadi, mahad u nah. 
thanks, n., mahad, — di. 
that, a. and prn. (see Grammar); 

c, an, in, bal an, ha. 




thatch, 11., 'aussalol, — ^ki, 

the, art. {see Grammar). 

theft (see thief). 

their, they, pos.prn. {see Gram.). 

then, ad., gortas, gorti ; c, had- 

there, ad., hagga, haggas, halka, 

therefore, c, haddaba. 
these, dem.prn. {see Grammar), 
thick, a., adag, buran, halafsan, 

bara wein. 
thicken,, adkaisi, halafi. 
thickness, n., baro, — adi. 
thief, «., tug, — gi; theft, tugo, 

— adi, hadnin, — ti. 
thieve,, had. 
thigh, n., baiido or bowdo, — adi. 
thin, a., jilai'san, wei'dsan, du- 

mo' yar. 
thine, pos.prn. {see Grammar), 
thing, n., ged,— ki, babal, — ki, 

— sbi, wah, — ^hi. 
think, v.i., tasbo, malai ; — of, 

ka tasbo ;• — well, alosbada la 

tasbo, malai, mod. 
third, num., sadebad, — ^ki ; one 

— (^), salol, — ^ki. 
thirst, n., harad, — ^ki, on, — ^ki. 
thirst, v.i., (be thirsty) barad, 

thirsty, a., baradsan. 
thirteen, num., sadeh iyo toban, 

thirteenth, n.o., sadeb iyo tobnad. 
-thirty, num., sodon, — ki. 
this, a., {see Grammar), 
thither, ad., balka. 
thong, «., (string of leather) in- 

dal, — sbi. 

thorn, «., hodah, — di. 
thorny, a., hodab leh. 
those, dem.a. {see Grammar), 
thou, pers.prn. {see Grammar), 
thought, n., tasbi, — gi, fikir,— 

ki, mala, — ibi. 
thousand, num., kun, — ^ki. 
thread, «., dun, — ^ti, mih, — ^bi. 
three, num., sadeb, — di. 
throat, «., bunguri, — gi, 'una, — 

ibi, bo',— M ; the thyroid 

body or kernel, rubad, — di. 
throng {see crowd), 
throttle, n., (wind-pipe) bo', — ^bi, 
through, prp., dehdis, dehdeda. 
throughout, prp., dan. 
throw,, hor, rid, tur, iss ka 

said ; — away, tur, iss ka tur ; 

— down, bosta u hor, bosta u 
tur, ka dadi ; — ■' in, at him, 
ku rid, ku hor, ku tur; 

— upon, lal, ku lal ; — the 
child, dabsi. 

throwing down, «., (at once) da- 
dis, — ^ki. 

thrown, a., la tur, dadsan. 

thrust in,, (a nail) ka rid, ka 

thumb, n., sul, — ki. 

thump, -y.ifn, tumujai; ra., tumu- 
jo, — adi, tantomo, — a,dii. 

thunder, ?i., onkod, — ki; it thun- 
ders, wa onkodaisa. 

thunderbolt, n., bila, — bi. 

Thursday, «., hands, — ki. 

thus, ad., sida, sidas, sidi. 

thy, pos.prn. {see Grammar). 

tick, n., (insect) gafanai, — ibi, 
sbilin, — ^ti. 

ticket, n., bas, — ki, tiked, — ^ki. 




tickle,, hadatai, kilkilai. 

tickling, n., liadato, — adi. 

tide, n., (time, season) wahti, — 
gi, heli, — gi ; (ebb and flow of 
the sea) mayad, — di ; high — , 
buh, — M ; low ■ — , 'ari, — gi, 
— di. 

tidings, n., (news) war,— ki. 

tie,, hid, hido ; — the ehe- 
camel's teats, mar ; — one side, 
hasha ka agmar. 

tight, a., adag. 

tile, n., ajurad, — di. 

till,^j-^., c, tan iyo gortan, had 
iyo lutan, ila, Uama. 

timber, n,, (every large tree) da- 
mas, — ki, damal,-^shi, ged 

time, n., amin, — ki, — ti, gor, — 
ti, had, — di, kol, — ki, jir, jer, 
mar, — ki, da, — di, mu, — gi, 
sa,— ki, wa,— gi, ya,— di, ge- 
lin, — ki ; a short — , 'abbar, 
— ki, ia gibinah ; after a — , 
hadow, hadowto ; a long — , 
buran, heli, — gi, wahti, — gi, 
gu, — gi ; — past, awal ; the 
present — , gortan jogta ; the 
— to come, kolka dambe ; ap- 
point a fixed — , ballan. 

timid, «., (wil) folaah. 

tin, «., tanag, — gi; — pot, da- 
sad, — di. 

tip, n., {pi the ear) degta daha- 

tire,, (make weary) dali; v.i., 
(fall with weariness) dal, 'atow, 

tired, a., 'ataisan, dalan, dashan. 

iiO, prp., u. 

toad, n., rah, rihi (the ...). 

toast,, dub. 

tobacco, n., buri, — gi ; a kind of 
— , hammni,^gi; a man in 
want of — , hamunsan ; be in 
want of — , iamunsanaw. 

toe, n., sul, — ki, far, — ti. 

toil,, hoji, hogso. 

tomb, n., habal,— sM. 

tongue, n., 'arrab,— ki. 

tooth, n., ilig, — gi ; — stick or 
brush, adai, — gi, rmnai, — gi ; 

— pick, findi'el gura, — ihi. 
top, n., (highest part of a thing) 

'aro, — adi, aror, — ki, dul, — 
shi, guro, — adi, jif, — ti; — 
of the head, dalo, — adi, kug, 
— ti ; peg — , druan, — ^ki. 

torment, «., silei' — i'hi, ta'ab, — 
ti;, 'adab, 'adib, kaga- 

tormented, a., silei'san. 

torrent, n., (dry) tog, — gi. 

tortoise, n., din, — ki. 

torture [see torment). 

toss,, (agitate) lul, ruh ; be 
tossed, Man, — ruho. 

tossed, a., Man, ruhan. 

touch, n., tabasho, — adi;, 
tabo ; make him — , tabsi ; — 
in pressing, tuji. 

tough, a., (stiff) halafsan. 

tow, n., hig, — gi, haskul, — shi ; 

— used for closing the camel's 
teats, marah, — hi. 

tower, n., nobab or nobiad, — di. 

town n., magalo, — adi. 

trace, track, n., rad, — ki ;, 

radi, radkisa gur; lose the 

— , rad go. 




trade, n., boshirad or boshurad, 

— di. 
trader, n., ba'ya mushtari, — gi. 
tradition, n., sheko, — adi. 
train up (see educate), 
tramp, trample,, ku jogso. 
tranquil, a., amusan, habow. 
transact,, la samai, wanaji. 
transfix,, ka mud bihi, da- 

loli, musmar ku daloli. 
transform,, midab kaleh u 

translate,, (transfer) ka ka- 

hai, ka gur ; (interpret) u kala 

af 'eli. 
transmigrate, v.i.; that family 

transmigrated from his town 

into another, haskasi magala- 

disa ka taga o magalo kaleh 

u ka'a. 
transport,, gur, u sid. 
trap, n., (a snare) dabiu, — ki ;, dab. 
trapper, m., dabad, — ki. 
travel, v.i., dah, SO dah, sod'al, 

safar; w., sod'al, — ki, dof, — ki. 
traveller, n., kabadai, — ihi, sa- 

fanleh, — ihi, nin sod'alah. 
traverse, , ka talab, mar. 
tread upon,, ku jogso. 
treasure, m., hasauad, — di. 
treat,, ballan ; — with, la 

treaty, n., ballan, — ki, ahdi, — 

tree, «., beir, — ti, ged, — ki ; (in 

general) dir, — ti ; — used to 

shut the enclosure, da'an, — ti. 
tremble, v.i., garir, kurbo ; (fear) 

bah, baho. 

trespass, «., dembi, — gi, hujad,. 
— di. 

tresses, «., tidei', — hi. 

tress,, tidi', tido'o. 

trial, n., bejis, — ki. 

tribe, m., toll, — ki, holo, — adi, 
jilib, — ki, 

tribulation, n., human, — ti, weir- 
weir, — ki. 

tribunal, n., hakamad, — di. 

tribute, n., bad, — di ; pay the — , 
badda bihi. 

trick, n., (mischievous) histi, — gi 
(see cheat) ; — in game, sir, — 
ki ; play a — ,, u histi. 

trickle, v.i., tifihso. r"^ "" 

trip, n., (in wrestling) honof, — ^ki; 
(a stumble) turonturo, — adi; 
(a journey) kabadai, — ihi; take 
a — , ku so wareg. 

trot, «., kadlo, — adi; v.i., kadlai. 

trouble, n., dal, — ki, human, — ti, 
weirweir, — ki ;, dali, 
hulhuladai, weirweiri, rog. 

troublesome, a., hulhulad badan. 

troublesomeness, n., hulhulad, — 

trousers, it., surual, — ki. 

true, a., sal, wa sal, wa run, wa 
runtis, wa runted. 

trunk, n., (of a tree) jirid, — ^ki ; 
(a box) sanduh, — hi ; (ele- 
phant's) ga'an, — ti. 

trust, w., yeshod, — ki, amano, — 
adi;, amano udib, aman, 
amanaiso ; v.i., yesho, ku ye- 

truth, n., run,^ — ti, Ulahi, — di, 
dab, — ti; confiim the — , ru- 




truthful, a., lilaMah. 

try,, beji, iss beji ; v.i., (en- 
deavour) hausho. 

tube, n., (wooden) gobais, — ki. 

Tuesday, n., salasa, — di. 

tumble, n., (a fall) .hambaro, — 
adi, kuf, — ki; v.i., hambarow, 

tumult, n., hailo, — adi; dawah, 

turban, n., imamad or amamad, 
— di ; arrange his — , u ima- 

turd, M., us, — ki ; int., bus ! 

Turk, n., tukri, — gi, rumi, — gi. 

Turkey, n., rum, 

turmeric, n., (Indian safran) bu- 
rud, — di. 

turn, n., wareg, — gi ;, rog, 
jedi, wareji ; — upside down, 
forori, rog ; v.i., jeso, so jeso, 
wareg, iss ka wareg; — back, 
dib u jeso, dib u noho ; — by, 
ku wareg ; — aside from, il 
iss ku habo. 

turtle, n., (sea tortoise) din baded, 
— ki ; — dove, holli,— di. 

tusk, n., mi'i, — di; — of the 
wart hog, kalad, — di. 

twang, n., gango, — adi, sanho, 
— adi. 

twelve, num., lab iyo toban, — 
ki ; twelfth, lab iyo tobnad, 
— ^ki, — di. 

twenty, num., labatan, — ki ; 
twentieth, labatanad, — ki, or 
— di. 

twice, num., laba gor. 

twilight, n., gabal da', — di'hi, 
fid, — ki, mahrib, — ki. 

twin, n., matan, — ki i^ai), — ti 

twine, «., safari, — gi. 
twink, twinkle (see glance), 
twist, n., {see string) ;, ma- 

roji or marori, soh, tidi'. 
twisted, a., marorsan, soban, ti- 

twitch, n., (a quick pull) difad or 

dufad, — ki; «;.<r., dufo, jid. 
two, num., laba, — di. 
tyranny, n., dulam, — ki, 


udder, n., 'ando, — adi. 

ugly, a., hun. 

ulcer, n., bog, — ti. 

umbilical string, n., hudun, — ti. 

umbrella, n., dallayad, — di. 

unable, a., ma karo. 

unarmed, a., hubla. 

uncle, n., (paternal) ader, — ki ; 

(maternal) abti, — gi. 
under, prp., daf, dafta, bos, bosta; 

be — , bosai ; put — , hosaisi ; 

go — , bos gal, bos u gal. 
understand,, garo ; do you 

— ? ma ku da'dai ? I — , 1 

understanding, n., ahli, — gi, ga- 

rasho, — adi. 
undress,, darka iss ka dig 

or iss ka bihi. 
undulation, n., godgod, — ki. 
unemployed, a., haulla, shuhulla. 
unequal, a., kala mid, iss ku mid 





unfit, a., ma galo. 
unfold,, furfur. 
unfortunate, a., ayan hun ; be — , 

ayan hiiinaw. 
ungenerous, a., deh. darran. 
ungratefulness, n., abaldarri, — 

unhappy (be), v.i., ba. 
uninhabited, a., 'idla. 
unintelligible, a., an la garan, 

wah an la karin. 
union, n., iss ku darran, — ki. 
unit, «., mid, — ^ki. 
universe, n., diini, — di, dunyo, — 

unjust, a., gar darran. 
unjustice, n., gar darro, — adi. 
unkind, a., naharis la, naharis 

(ba) ma yahan. 
unlawful, a., haran. 
unlawfulness, «., haran, — ti. 
unleavened bread, «., kibis, — ti, 

kidar, — ki, muhbasad, — di. 
unload,, deji, fur. 
unlucky, a., ayan bun. 
unripe, a., 'edin. 
unsafe, a., 'absileh, sbilleh. 
unsafety, n., 'absi, — di, sMl, — ki. 
unseen, a., harson. 
unsheath,, ka bihi. 
until, prp., inta, ila inta. 
untruth, n., bein, — ti. 
up, prp., dul, dusha, gud, gudka, 

kor ; — to, ila, ilama. 
upon, prp., dusha, gudka, ku, 

sarai u. 
Tippev, prp., dusha sarai. 
upright, a., hagagsan, tagan, 

tosan, humati ; be — , hagag- 

sanaw, hagag u so'o, humati 

u so'o, tagnow ; make — , ha- 
gaji, tosi, humati u tag. 

uprightness, n., hagag, — gi, hu- 
mati,— gi, tag,— gi, — ti. 

uproar, n., hailo, — adi, dawah, 

uproot,, ruji, fuji, so fuji ; 
— this tree, gedka fuji. 

upset,, forori, rid, rog. 

upside down, a., rogan, fororsan. 

upwards, ad., dusha gestedi. 

urethra, n., ib, — ti. 

urge,, muhuni. 

urine, n., kadi, — di ; v.i., kadi, 
so kadi. 

us, 2>rn., {see Grammar). 

usage, n., dastur, — ti. 

use, n., wah tar, — ki ; be of — , 
wah tar ; of no — , ma taro. 

useful, a., wah tara (mas.), wah 
tarta (fern.)'. 

useless, a., wah ma tarai. 

uselessness, n., wah ma tarai,— 

utensil, n., wel, — ki. 

utility, n., wah tar, — ki. 

utter,, deh, hadal yedi. 

uvula, n., hilib dalhai, — hihi. 

vaccinate,, sarsar. 

vaccination, n., sarsarmo, — adi. 

vagina, «., sil, — ki. 

vale, n., far, — ti. 

valley, n., bohol, — shi, doho,- 

value, n., gana', — di. 




■Valuable, a., gana' adag. 

van, n., (fan) masaf, — ^ti. 

vanity, n., falah, — hi, kibir, — ^ki. 

vanquish, ».<r.,'ka adkaw. 

vapor, n., umis, — ki ; — clinging 
to the lid, umi, — gi. 

variety, «., kala mid, — di. 

vase, n., (vessel) wel, — ki ; — in 
which incense is burnt, idan, 
— ki. 

vast, a., balladan. 

vegetable, n., hudrad, — di. 

veil, n., hijad, — di, malhamad, 
— di. 

vein, «., hidid, — ki. 

vengeance, n., 'ollad, — di; take 
— , 'olladi. 

venom, n., sun,— ki, urgumo, — 
adi, wabayo, — adi. 

venomous, n., (liquid) urgumo, — 

venture,, sasab. 

veranda, n., ardah, — gi. 

verdant, a., osob. 

verdure, n., osob, — ki. 

verse, versiiication, n., gabai, — gi. 

versify, v.i.,, gabai. 

vertigo {see giddiness). 

very, ad., badan. 

vessel, n., (utensil) wel, — ki, gur- 
gur, — ki ; earthen — used for 
cooking, deri, — gi; bark — , 
agau, — ti; — made of a large 
gourd, baro, — adi, dubbo, — 
adi, ubo, — adi ; — made of a 
camel's skin, tebed, — di ; — 
wiih a handle, hudda, — ihi, 
tebeda dara, — ihi; — used 
for ablutions before prayer, 
■weiso, — adi. 

vex,, kaga 'eisi or 'isi, kaga 

vice-chief, n., gudi, — di. 
victory, n., adkan, — ti. 
view, w., muh,— hi. 
vigilance, «., ilalo, — adi. 
vigour, n., ital, — ki, hog, — gi. 
vile (see abject), 
village, n., rer, — ki. 
vinegar, n„ hal, — ^ki. 
violate,, kufso ; violated, 

violent, a., fallad hun, 
violence, n., hog, — gi, muhuno, 

— adi. 
viper, n., jilbis, — ki. 
virgin, n., ugub, — ki; (in general) 

ugubod, — ki. 
virile (membrum), n., gus, — 

virtuous, a., tolmon ; be — , tol- 

visage, n., weiji,— gi, jah,— hi, 

fayo, — ihi. 
viscous mattsrs mixed with blood 

in dysentery, n., ahal, — shi. 
\isible, a., la arka, iauhda (m.), 

muhata (/.). 
vision, 11., (actual sight) muhj — 

hi ; (the thing seen) muhad, — 

ki, muhasho, — adi. 
visit,, ka war don, inu na- 

bad habo so dai. 
visitor, n., marti, — di. 
voice, n., luh, — di, 'od, — ^ki. 
void, a., madan. 
vomit,, hunha', mantag. 
vomiting, ?«., hunha'o, — adi^ man- 
tag,— gi. 
vowel, n., haraf, — ki. 




voyage, n., dof, — ki ; v.i., dof ; 

v.c, dofi, dofsi. 
valture, n., gorgor, — ki, homa- 

dai, — ihi, Eunsho, — adi. 


wages, n., mushaharo, — adi. 
waist, 11., deh, — di; — band, 

sun, — ki. 
wait, v.i.,, jog, jogso, daur, 

sug ; — for, u kadi ; — a 

moment, 'abbar jog. 
waiting, n., egmo, — adi. 
wake, waken, v.i., bararug, ka', 

sara ka', so ka', so jed. 
wakeful, a., garni' wah. 
walk, v.i., so'o, talab, baid ; 

take a — , tamashlai; — on, 

mar; — on all fours, gurguro; 

— on the breech, kurkurso ; 

— with difficulty, tukub ; 
n., so'od, — ki, tamashlai, — 
ihi ; — on all fours, gurgura- 
sho, — adi ; — on the breech, 
kurkuris, — ki. 

wall, n., derbi, — gi, gidar, — ki. 

wallow, v.i., galgalo; n., galga- 
lasho, — adi. 

wander, v.i., ku so wareg; — 
about, warwareg, so warwa- 
reg ; n.c, warwareji, so war- 
war ejr. 

wanderer, «., nin warwarega. 

wandering, n., warwareg, — gi. 

want, n., tabalo, — adi, sabol, — 
ki ; a man in — , nin bahan or 
nin wah u bahan; v.i., (be 

deficient) tabalaisnaw; (wish 
for) don. 

wanty, n., wegered, — ki. 

war, n., dagal, — ki, 'oUad, — di. 

ward, n., (a division of a town) 
hafad, — di; ?>.<?•., (guard) ilali, 

warlike, a., dagal ja'el. 

warm, a., (wa) kuM, kulail; 
feeling — , hursan ;, diri, 
kululai; — yourself, kul^, 
duksiso ; — at the sun or 
prepare a warm place, duksi ; 

— at the fire, ku dalal. 
warmth, n., (of the sun's rays) 

dalo', — a'di. 
warn,, dig (with, u or ku). 
warning, n., dignin, — ti ; send" a 

— , dignia dir. 
warrior, n., gashan had, — ^ki, 

hub had, gesi,^gi, rakab, — 

wart, n., burobahalad, — di. 
wary, a., (prudent) foyig or fojig. 
wash,, hal, hasal, maid, 

so maid, 'adai; v.r., maido; 

— the hands, farahal ; — the 
face, foldah; — hands, face, 
v.r., farahalo, foldoho. 

washed, a., maidan. 
washerman, n., dar hasal, — ki,. 

dhobi, — gi. 
washing, n., mai'dasho, — adi; — 

of the hands, farahal, — ^ki; 

— of the face, foldah, — dihhi. 
waste,, ku 'ayar, lumi; — 

money, 'idlai ; do not waste, 
ha ku 'ayarin ; (expend need- 
lessly) hor, hub. 
watch, n., ilalo, — adi ; — word. 




bah, — hi ; (pocket timepiece) 

sa'ad, — di. 
■water, n., biyo, — ihi {plur. n.) ; 

fresh — , biyo ma'an; sour 

— , biyo danan or biyo hadad; 

salt — , biyo 'usbaah; rain — , 

biyo rob or hared, — di; well 

— , weyer, — ki; river — , biyo 

durdur ; — course, tog, — gi ; 

— fall, biyo garbada ka so 

dulai; — bag, sibrar, — ki;, warabi; — the flock, 

aror, arori; — before the 

house, rushai. 
watering, n., aror, — ki. 
wave, «., maujad, — di, tarshad, 

— di. 
wax, n., haujo, — adi, shama' or 

shimai', — ihi. 
way, n., dau,^gi, jid, — ki, ma- 

rin, — ki, hUin, — ki, darih, — 

weak, a., (feeble) weidsan, 'atai- 

weakness, n., wei'd, — di. 
we (see Grammar), 
wealth, «., dunyo, — adi, holo, — 

wealthy, a., holo badan, rawi, — 

gi, rawiah, badadah. 
wean,, ka gudi ; be weaned, 

gud, ha laga gudiyo. 
weapon, n., hub, — ki. 
wear,, sid, sido. 
weary, a., dalan, dashan ; be — , 

dal, dalanaw;, dali. 
weariness, n., dal, — ki. 
weather, n., dabail, — shi, heli, 

— gi; bad — , dabail hun; 

cold — , dabail habow ; ' fair 

or fine — , dabail wanaksan ; 

hot — , haufi, — gi, kalil, — shi. 
weave,, dar samai. 
weaver, »., dar samais, — ki. 
web-footed birds, n., badag, — gi. 
wedding, n., aros, — ki, 'ayar, ti. 
wedge, n., bishil, — ki. 
Wednesday, n., arbaha,— di, ra- 

buh,— M. 
week, n., todobad, — ki. 
weep, v.i., oi. 
weeping, n., oin, — ti. 
weigh,, mis, misan. 
weight, «., misan, — ki. 
weighty, a., 'ulus. 
welfare, «., awo, — adi, darad, — 

well, «., 'el,— ki, gof,— ki; a., 

ladan, bed haba, wahsau; 

ad., ad (with u), haurarsan, 

wa wahsan. 
welt [see border), 
wen, n., buro, — adi. 
went (past of ' to go'), v.i., teg. 
west, n., galbed, — ki. 
wet, a., hoiyan ; be — , hoiya- 

naw; — land, rais, — ki;, hoi. 
whale, n., nibiri, — gi. 
wharf, n., deked, — di. 
■vrhdLt? prn., ya? (see Grammar), 
whatsoever, a., wah un. 
wheat, 11., saren, — ki. 
wheel, n., giringir, — ti, shag, — 

when, c, gorta, kolka, marka ; 

interrog. ad., gorma ? hadma 1 

kolma? marma? 
whence, ad., halka, hagga (with 

ka) ; int., hagge ? halke ? 




whenever, ad., gor kasta, gor 

where ? ad., haggel me? meyai? 

(mas.), medai ? {fern.}. 
wherever, a., mel kasta, mel 

whet,, (sharpen by friction) 

lis, afai. 
whetstone, n., lissin, — ki. 
whether {see Grammar), 
whey, n., ir, — ti. 
which (see Grammar), 
while, 71., gor, — ti, kol, — ki; (a 

short time) 'abbar, — ki ; ad., 

whine, v.i., warah ; n., warah, 

whip, n., jedal, — ^ki ;, jedal. 
whir], v.i., wareg. 
whirlppol, n., biya iss ku ware- 

whirlwind, n., sisa, sigo, — adi. 
whisper, v.i., hos u hadal ; — to 

him, hos u la hadal. 
whistle, v.i., , fori ; «., fori, 

— di. 
white, a., 'ad ; be — , 'adaw ; 

remain — , 'adaisnaw. 
whiten,, 'adai. 
whiteness, n., 'adan, — ki, — ti. 
who ? int.prn., ayo? aya? ya? 
whosoever, whomsoever, ^rra., 

nin un. 
whole, a., dan, gidi ; n., daman, 

— ti. 
wholesome, a., wanaksan. 
why ? ad., mahai u, mu ? wayo ? 
wick, n., dubalad, — di. 
wicked, a., him, baan, bas. 
wide, a., balladan. 

widen,, balladi. 
wideness, width, n., ballad, — ki. 
widow, n., 'armali, — di. 
wife, ?*., afo, — adi, nag, — ti, is- 
Ian, — ti, tiri, — di, Mo, — iM; 

— of the father (stepmother), 

— of a paternal or maternal 
uncle, ayo, — adi. 

wild beast, n,, bahal, — ki, bu- 
bal, — shi. 

wilful, a., oganah. 

wilfully, ad., ogan u. 

wilfulness, n., ogan, — ti. 

will, n., hushi, — gi, ogan, — ^ti,. 
haul, — ki, umur, — ti, oggolan, 
— ^ti ; it is my — , baga ! hu- 

willing, a., oggol; be — , oggo- 

win, v.i;, ka adkaw, duL 

wind, n.. dabail, — shi; windless, 
dabail laan. 

windpipe, n., bo', — hi, hunguri^ 

wind up,, wareji. 
winding, n., wareg, — gi. 
window, n., dahad, — di ; (of a 

Somali hut, a kind of hole) 

fod, — ki. 
wine, n., hamri,— gi. . 
wing, n., bal, — ^ki. 
wink, v.i., il iss ku habo ; n., il. 

iss ku habasho, — adi. 
winnow, y tr., huf. 
winter, n., (or time of rain) gu,. 

— gi- 

wipe, w.^?-., kabihi; — yourlips> 

wire, n., hasau, — di. 




■wisdom, w., garad, — ki, herrib, 

— ti, miyir, — ki. 
wise, a., fi'an, garadleh, herrib- 

leh, miyirleh, 
wish,, don, rab; «., donin, 

— ti. 
whiskers, n., timihi damanka. 
wit, n., ahli, — gi, kaftan, — ki. 
witch, w., nag wah. fasha, nag 

fal tahan, nagti falka tihia 

(the ...) ;, (bewitch) S,l. 
with, prp., ku, la. 
wither, v.i., ingeg. 
within, ^rp., g^daha. 
without, ^rp., laan, laan, — ti. 
witness, w., marhati, — gi;, 

(give testimony) fur, marhati 

woman, «., nag, — ti. 
womankind, n., dumar, — ki, nag- 

nimo, — adi. 
womb, «., halus,— ki, rimai,— 

gi, ur,— ki. 
wonder, «., 'ajeb, — ti, yab, — ki, 

la yab,— ki, umur, — ti ; v. 

(wonder at) la 'ajeb, yab, la 

yab, la yabsanaw ; cause to 

— , 'ajebi, yabi. 
wonderful, a., yaban, yab haba, 

yab leh, yabsan, la yabsan. 
woo,, ashah. 
wood, n., hori,— gi; fire — , habo, 

— adi, hatab, — ki; hard — , 

hori haroleh. 
wooden," a., horiah, hori laga 

woodpecker, «., daudaula, — ihi. 
wool, n., dogor,— ti. 
word, fe., erai,— gi, haul,— ki; 

bad — , heb,— ti. 

work, ra., shuhul, — ki, shahi,— gi. 

haul, — shi; hard — , dibtan, 

— ki;, haul habo, hausho, 

hoji, shahai; — hard, dibtan; 

w.c, shahaisi; — for yourself, 

workman, ?i., shahi, — gi, nin 

shahiah ; hard-working man, 

dibtan, — ^ki. 
world, »., duni, — di, dunyo, — 

worm, TC., dirhi, — gi. 
worry,, dali. 
worse, a., ka hun; become — , 

ka si dar. 
worship, m., 'abudnin, — ^ti. 
worst, a., ka wada hun, ugu hun. 
worth, «., gana', — di. 
wound, m., nabar, — ki, dahar, — 

ki, hon, — ti, awar, — ^M; a 

new — , dahar 'usub, daharki 

'usba (the ...);, dahar, 

hon, nabar yel. 
wounded, a., daharleh, honleh, 

nabarleh; mortally — , dinsan. 
wrap,, lablab, dudub. 
wrath, n., 'ado, — adi, 'il,— ki. 
wreck, m., hashwad, — di. 
wrestle, n., legdan, — ki, tab, — 

ti; v.i., legdan; — with, la 

wretch, «., lumiyai, — ihi, Allah 

habai, — gi, nin Allah habaiah. 
wring,, maroji or marori. 
wrinkle, n., dubnin, — ki, godgod, 

— ki. 
wrist, n., 'ur'ur, — ki, dudun, — 

— ki. 
write,, hor, warhadda ku 




■written, a., horan. 

writer, n., hora, — gi. 

writing, n., horin, — ki; hand — , 

far, — ti. 
wrong, a., gura'an, gura'na, 

wrongness, «., gura', — i'hi. 


yawn, v.i., afka kala had, afka 
kala hai. 

yawning, n., af kala had, — ki, af 
kala hai's, — ki. 

yea, ad., ha, waiyai. 

yean,, yelo, dal. 

year, n., sanad, — di, gu, — gi, 
kal,^ — ki ; last — , kal horai, 
sanad horai; next — , kal 
dambe, gu dambe ; past — , 
sanad dowed ; the coming — , 
sanadda so so'ota ; the being 
in years, gan, — ki, han, — ki. 

yearn, v.i., tabalaisnaw. 

yeast, n., hamir, — ki. 

yellow, «., wob, — ki. 

yes, ad., ha. 

yesterday, ad., shalai, shalaito ; 
the day before — dorad ; — 
night, halai. 

yet, a., well. 

yield,, (produce) yel ; (grant) 
bihi, si; v.i, oggolaw. 

yon, yonder, ad., halka, halko, 
mesha, mesho, shishai, u shi- 
shai (the farthest). 

you, ye, pers.prn., {see Grammar), 
ow, yow (used as affixes). 

young man, n., bahsi, — gfi, 
barbar, — ki, dalinyaro, — adi, 
mudakar, — ki ; younger son, 
'uradhigai, — ^ihi ; the youngest, 
kan ugu yar, gar u dambais. 

youngling, n., dal, — ki. 

your, pos.prn. (see Grammar). 

youth, n., da yar, — di, — aid, 
dalinyaro, — adi, barbar, — ki. 


zariba or zereba, «., hero, — adi ; 

— of thorns, hero hodahleh ; 

make a — , hero od. 
zeal, n., kul, — ki. 
zebra, «., farow, — gfi. 
zero, n., gobabin, — ti. 
zigzag, «., ba'idbaid, — ki ; walk 

in — (as a snake), v.i., bai'd- 








'abid, f.n., drinking. — di {see 'ab, 

abar, v.i., aim at, go straight to. 

abarai,, famish, starve (se« 
abar, drought). 

abarow, v.i., starve, die of hun- 

abardaur, /.«., a fertile place, 
neither wet nor dry. — ti. 

Abbaha, n., the Father (first 
Person of the blessed Trinity). 

abbayal, n.^l., forefathers. — shi. 

abbarihi, ad., about ; abbarihi 
lab iyo tobanki yu no yimi, he 
came to us at about 12 o'clock. 

abur, m.n., foam, froth. — ^ki. 

'adabai, a.; nin la 'adabai, a 
damned man, reprobate (see 
'adab, heU). 

'adib, m.n., torment. — ^ki, 

'adiban, v.-p., be tormented. 

u adkaiso,, resist. 

adkan, f.n., firmness, hardness, 
victory, Confirmation (sacra- 
ment of). — ti. 

'adawad, f.n., enmity.— di. 
ahal, f.n., viscous matter mixed 

with blood in dysentery. — shi. 
ahan, m.n., funereal feast. — ki. 
'ainan, m.n., rein, kidney. — ki. 
ajar, m.n., indulgence. — ki. 
'ala'al, m.n., remorse. — ki. 
'alal, m.n., crop (the first stomach 

of a fowl). — ki. 
'alamad, f.n., sign, mark. — di. 
'alamadi,, mark. 
alhad, f.n., fort, fortification. — 

AUah habai, m.n., reprobate, ab- 
ject man, wretch. — gi; nin 

AUab habaiah. 
almas, m.n., diamond. — ^ki. 
aluhiyad, /.M., divinity. — di. 
alwah, f.n. (jflur. of loh), planks. 

— di ; alwahda sarabkeda, 

alyo murtih, m.n., slaver or spittle 

drivelling from the mouth. — M 

(see alyo, saliva). 
alyo mumh iss ka buhi, v.i., 

slabber, slaver, drivel, besmear 

with saliva. 




alyo muruh ku dadi,, slab- 
ber, smear or wet with saliva. 

(nin) alyo muruh weinleh, m.ra., 
slabberer; ninki alyo muruh 
weiua, the slabberer. 

ambabai (nin), a.v., a debauchee. 

aminad, f.n., belief, creed, faith. 
— di. 

amir, /.«., prince, chief. — ki. 

arah donato, /.«., a seeker of 
fruits in the jungle. 

'araraf, m.n., affliction, suffering. 
— ki. This word is used when 
the pain of the soul or of the 
body is so intense that it would 
be preferable to die. 

a'taraf, m.n., confession. — ki. 

a'tarafo, v.r., confess yourself. 

'awai, v.i., do not sleep, remain 
awake and chat. — ya, wan — n. 

'awais, m.n., time from B p.m. to 
midnight. — ^ki. 

'awaldar, m.n., sergeant or cor- 
poral (of the police). — ki. 

ayad, /.«., formula, form of 
prayer. — di. 

ayanta Issa, n., Christmas. 

ayanta 'ided, n., holiday, solem- 
nity (j)lur. ayamaha 'ided). 

adyar {see ayar), ad., slowly; ad- 
yar iyo adyar, little by little. 


bad, f.n., tribute. — di. 
badag, m.n., duck. — gi. 
kaga badbadi or badbadadi, v.c, 
cheer, rejoice. 

badiwaleh, m.n., postman. — hi. 

badow, m. and/.w., rustic (coming 
directly from the jungle). — gi,, 
— di; nin, nag badowah, a 
rustic man, woman. 

ka so bah, m.n., a protuberance. 
—hi. ■ 

bahahin, m.n., idiot. — ki. 

bahbah, m.n., blackish gum. — hi. 

ba'ld [root), walk, march, go ; ka 
— , give place ... 

bair, m.n., clippspringer (with 
long ears but smooth hair of 
the same colour as those of a 
gazelle). — ^ki. 

u banai, v.i., give place for, to. 

bar ma leh, a., poor (without any 
money); ninkasi bar ma laha, 
this man is quite poor. 

bar, m.n., top, head, poll of a tree, 
— ki ; dirta barkoda. 

bar or barka sarai, m.n., fore- 

bara dubleh, m.n., small mouse 
(a kind of kangaroo rat). 

(nin) barahah, a., accommodated. 

barar, v.i.^ swell. 

barari,, swell, dilate. 

baratan, m.n., race (running). — 

baridi,, greet, salute {see 
bari, be safe). 

baya'ad, f.n., bargain. — di. 

bedelan, v.p., be changed; be- 
delma, wan bedelmi, 

bohon, f.n., the great sinew over 
the heel. — ti; — horai, in- 

boyad, /.ra., buoy. — di. 

bog, m.n., acclamation. — gi. 




■burambur,, sing (used only 

for women). 
buro', m.ra., a mound of sand; 

buro iss ku yal, m.n., a range of 

mountains; burihi iss ku yil 

(plur.), the ... 
1)urush, m.n., brush. — ki. 


da'iiin, /.«., sack (of a town), pil- 
lage. — ti. 

dab, f.n., lap. — ti. 

flab, f.n., certainly. — ti. 

flabai,, aiErm, assure ; kaga 
— , make certain. 

flabain, f.n., affirmation. — ti. 

dabah,, sacrifice. 

dabihad, f.n., sacrifice, victim. — 

dad'unah, a., fierce, wild. 

dadki dintai, m.n., the dead. 

daghi or dagihi,, lapidate, 

daha, ad., often. 

an dal lahain, locution, without 

flalan,, children. — ki. 

dalah, f.n., divorce (see fur). — di. 

dalah,, divorce ; sadehda 
dalahod bad igaga fnraisan- 
tahai (a kind of swearing by 
which they pledge themselves 
to divorce). 

dalo, f.n., top of the head. 

dalol, m.n., (numeral) one-third. 

damoh (see ku damoh),, put 
on a plaster, poultice. 

damoh, m.n., cataplasm, poultice. 
— hi. 

damur, m.n., tar, pitch. — ki. 

dan (.see Part I.); wa dantisi, 
or wa isagi iyo danti, it is his 
concern ; aya dan leh ? who 
has anything to say ? ana dan 
leh, I have something to say ; 
nin dan u ma lihi, I care for 

dardar, m.n., the three stones on 
which they put their boiler. — 

daren,, perceive ; darema, 
wan daremi. 

daren, f.n., perception, sensation. 
— ti. 

darfa', m.n., dysentery (in horses 
and cattle). — i'hi. 

wa debai, locution, he has com- 
mitted fornication, adultery ; 
wa i debai, he has committed 
adultery with me. These ex- 
pressions are used ia the Oga- 
den, and by the Dulbanteh and 

deg (see Part I.); ku dega, ku 
degta, a., adhesive. 

degta dahasheda, locution, the 
tip of the ear. 

dein, f.n., omission, leaving. — ti. 

dein ka tur, m.n., delator, denun- 

deman, m.n., diamond. — ki. 

dembab, v.i., sin, commit a sin. 

dembabi, v.c, make him sin. 

si derai,, deepen (sink far 
below the surfaoe). 




derai, v.i., run quick (as a 

deraiyai, a.v., rapid, swift, quick 

in running. 
dergi,, satiate, make him 

abound, give him as much as 

he wishes. 
derjin, m.n., a dozen. — ki. 
didi, m.n., muddy place. — gi. 
didi, m.n., the getting angry, wild 

in playing.— gi. 
didi, v.i., get angry; didiya, wan 

didib, f.n., declivity, slope (so 

abrupt that it is impossible to 

stand on). — ti. 
didibso, v.i., stretch out the legs. 
didibsan, a., having the legs ex- 
tended, stretched out. 
dif, num., few, a little. 
difad or dufad, m.n., a twitch, a 

quick pull. — ki. 
dignin, f.n., denunciation. — ti. 
digri, m.n., elegy, song of lamen- 
tation. — gi. 
dilid, f.n., murder. — di; or dil, 

m.n., homicide. — ki. 
dillo ka dig,, prostitute. 
diman, v.i., decrease, grow less ; 

dinma, wan dinmi. 
(nin) dimanaya, a., dying man. 
an diman karin, a., immortal. 
dina', m.n., fillet (the loins of 

oxen, horses, &c. — ki, — yo 

(see sarar), 
dira',, measure; a., wan — i, 
diran (nin), a., a hero, a man 

never afraid; ninki dirana, 

the hero. 
diranaw, v.att., be a hero. 

dirandiro, f.n., oral report about 

somebody. '*" '"(j 

dirih, f.n., puddle or muddy 

standing water. — di. 
dog, f.n., consequence. — ti, 
dol, f.n., the second tooth (upper 

and under one). — sM, — o. 
iss u don,, affiance, betroth. 
donanan,/.H., affiance, betrothing. 

— ti. 
du,, remove, keep ofE ; — a, 

wan — i; ka — , keep from, 

duban, a., long, acute {see der) ; 

san duban, a long nose ; sanki 

dubna, the ... 
duf, m.n., storm, tempest. — ki ; 

duf ba dabaya, there is a storm, 
iss ku dnfo,, drink liquors, 

wine, make yourself drunk {lit. 

beat yourself). '&P.''X3^\ 

ku dug,, beat. 
dugo, v.i., look ; dugta, wan du-, 

dugtan, v.p., be aiming at ; dug- 

tama, wan dugtami. 
dUl mar,, win, overcome. 
dumal,, marry your sister-in- 
law, marry a second time. 
dumo', f.n., size. — di ; — wein, 

big ; — ya-r, thin, small. 


edeg, m.n., a small fold for lambs 
and kids (within the enclosure).^ 
— gi- 




ekan, /.«., likeness, resemblance. 
— ti. 

ku eri (see Dictionary),, drive 
into ; musmar ku eri, drive in 
a nail ; ka eri, drive out. 

ergo (see Dictionary), /.«., em- 


fadilad, /.«., virtue. — di. 

fadi (see Dictionary); fadi far- 
daah, a herd of horses ; fadi 
lo'ah, a herd of neat cattle. 

fag,, take ofE the warp or 
the vyoof of cloth to make 

fahmad, f.n., memory. — di. 

fakir, m.n., a Mussulman fakir. — 

fakirow,, beg (alms) ; si — , 
beg always ; nmkasi wa fakir- 
auyahai, this man is always 
doing the same work. 

falahnimo,/.?i., pride. 

falau, m.n., means. — gi. 

fali, w.^r., foretell, predict; uinki 
ba i faliyai inan gor flow 
dimanaya, the man foretold 
me that I was to die soon. 

fallid, m.n., stump of a tooth. — ki. 

iss fani, v.i., presume of yourself, 

fanah gara'is, m.n., beating re- 
peatedly on the knuckles. — ki. 

farrin, f.n., the word said. — ti; 
farrin igu gei, go and tell him 
what I said to you. 

fayo,, features, face. — ihi; 

fayo wanaksan, nice features ; 

fayihi wanaksana, the ... (see 

feirfenad or fenfenasho, m.n., f.n., 

gnawing. — ki, — di. 
fid, m.n., first part of the night, 

from sunset to 8 o'clock. 
fihnan, f.n., sharpness, acuteness. 

— ti. 
fuhsi, m.n., drinking. — gi. 
fuhfuhso, v.i., gully, make noise 

with the lips in drinking (see 

fuji or so fitji,, separate, take 

out [see ruji) ; kala — , sepa- 
rate (two things joined). 


gabU, f.n., a skin of a cow or a 
camel used to shade children 
when on camels. — shi. 

gahaid or gahai'r, m.n., raw fruit. 
— ki. 

galibah, m.n., evaporation. — hi. 

galibihi,, v.i., evaporate. 

gamod, m.n., water coming from 
the gadod, curdled millc. — ki. 

gamun, m.n., stick of an arrow, 
— ki. 

gaua', m.n., the great gut. — ^i'hi. 

gantal, f.n., arrow. — sM. (When 
the stick and the arrow are 
joined they form the arrow, 
which is called fallad, gantal, 




ka gar hel or garow, v.p., be 

gara'is, m.n., flagellation. — ki. 

gawafli, /.«., cart, car. — di. 

geiso {see gel), v.r., bring your 

gidilian, indef. num., general. 

giringiri,, roll up. 

guuauad, m.n., agony, last mo- 
ments. — ki. 

guro, f.n., a place prepared on 
camels for small children. 


hab,, clean a plate by eating 

what remains on it. 
habeibsan, a., hoarse. 
habo,, gather fuel, firewood. 
nafl hodal, m.n., evening shadow. 

— ki. 
hadir, a., present ; wa ku hadir, 

he is present. 
hadiri,, pass the review. 
hadiris, m.n., review. — ki. 
iag Ebbehen or Ebbahai, locu- 
tion, towards God, for the sake 

of God. 
haga or hagi, ad., all right ; wa 

hagi, it is all right, good, well, 

it is so. 
baghago, v.i., stammer ; hag- 

b-ahnimOj/.M., justice. 
hajolad, f.n., talisman (made of 

silver, and ordinarily tied to 

the upper part of the arm). — 


iss ku halai, v.r., rely upon. 

baleil,, catch, reach. 

hamasho,/M., backbiting. — di. 

haugarara, m.n., a kind of centi- 
pede. — IM (see Dictionary). 

haransau; wah waliba iga ba- 
ransan, an oath often used by 
the Somalis. (By this oath they J 
bind themselves to a divorce.) , 

hardi, m.n., shock. — gi. 

hardi,, shock. — ya ; wan 

hasakab, m.«., accent (sign). — ki. 

hashwad, /.»., wreck, shipwreck. 
— di. 

haskul, /.M., tow (made from the, 
bark of trees). — sM. 

kaga hawi,, slay, beat with- 
out mercy. 

hig, m.n., tow. — gi (see haskul). 

higto, /.«., relation. — adi. 

hihlai, m.n., sob, convulsive sigh. 
— M. 

bihlai, v.i., sob. 

hisbod,m.w.(seeDictionary); means 
also disgrace, discredit, dis- 

bilo, m.n. sing, and pi., wife, 
wives. — hi; hilaaigu wa sa- 
dehdi dalabadod inaiyau 
ahalka ku jirahain, I divorce 
you by three divorces (oath 
having the same meaning as 
that of the word dalah, which 
hilo badau, a., polygamist. 

hogo, v.L, slouch; bogta, wan 

hogasho,y!w., slouch. — adi. 
bub, m.n., slough of a' snake. — ki. 




hubal, a., certain, sure. 
huiidiir,/.»., dysentery. — ti. 
iunguriyai,, envy. — ya, — n. 


ha, m.w., incense. — hi. 

habil, m.n., skins sewn together 

and used as cradles for babies. 

— ki. 
hahabad,/.?i., prostitute. — di; ha- 

habo, — ihi (pZwr.), prostitutes. 
hahabad ka dig,, prostitute. 
hado, /.n., dinner. 
haibai, a., adulterated; wa ru- 

biad haibaiah or haibaah, this 

rupee is adulterated, is false. 
haisaran, f.n., ratan (cane). — ti. 
haisaramai,, flog. 
halab, /.m., shagginess. — ti. 
halab leh, a., shagged, shaggy, 

hairy, rough, having long hair. 
hamir, m.n., ferment, yeast. — ki. 
^amis, m.n., poisonous arrow ; 

kolka faUaddu dohbautahai 

wahha la yidahda haiuis, when 

the arrow is poisoned they call 

it hamis. 
hamri, m.n., liquor, wine. — gi. 
hasanad, f.n., treasure. — di. 
hodus ka dig, ka samai,, 

sanctify, consecrate. 
hon,, wound, hurt. 
boranso,, stretch out. 
horis ho, m.n.fl., features. — ihi. 
hud, f.n., person, nature, self. — 

' di. 
^udtun, m.n., spike, stake. — ki. 

huhub, m.n., sneer, ludicrous 

scorn. — ki. 
hubihi,, sneer, scorn. 
humbaho, v.i., fall sick again; 

humbahda, wan hnmbahau. 



ka'anut, m.n., holy order.- 

kabo, v.i., gully. 

kabul, m.n., corporal (of police). 
— ki. 

kanfnr, m.n., camphor. — ki. 

katholik, m.n.. Catholic. — gi ; 
katholigaah, a Catholic. 

kidif,, tear or cut into small 
pieces ; kidfa, wan kidfi. 

kilkilai,, tickle. 

korban, m.n., Eucharist, Com- 
munion. — ki. 

Kristos, p?-qp.m., Christ. 

kudmo, f.n., sodomy (wsec? alw 
for fornication ; see wasmo). 

kiirtun, m.n., stump of a tree 
become dry. 

idan, m.n., authority, dominion. 

— ki. 
idan or u idin (see u idin in 

ifharistiya, m.n., Eucharist. — ihi. 
ih, f.n., suffocation, smothering, 
"— di. 
ihsan, a.v., suffocated. 




ihsanaw, v.att., be suffocated. 
'iji,, suffocate, smother. 
ilah, f.n., quarrel, strife. — ^ti. 
luanka, — i, — ^u, n., the Son 

(Second Person of the Blessed 

ina, a., any [see in, part, piece). 


jawan, /'.«., stock, store. — ^ti. 

ha i ged or jed min, do not dis- 
tract me. 

dinta jahad,, backslide (in 
religion), apostatize. 

jidhadasho, f.n., incarnation. 

jirso, v.i., be old; wilkasu todoba 
jirsai or jirsadai, this boy is 
seven years old ; so — , take 
shelter ; ahalka so jirso. 

ioxi, f.n., bay.— di. 

junub, f.n., pollution during 
sleep. — ti; iss ku — , have a 
pollution during sleep. 


labho, f.n., pit of the stomach. 

lalad, m.n., a swing. — ki. 

lilah, m.n. (see Dictionary), God. 
— ^hi. This word means espe- 
cially ' .the truth.' 

limad, m.n., slough, a deep miry 
place. — ki. 

liturgiyad, f.n., liturgy. — di. 

lol, v.i., play. 

loli,, amuse,, cause tojplay. 
lol, m.n., boughs used in making 

the Somali hut {see dig lola). 

— ki. 
lul, v.i., hang. 



madal, m.n., a measure 
cooked rice. — ki. 

madowbow, v.p., be black. 

mahawi, m.n., tempter, misleader 
(in religion only).' — gi. 

maid, {see Dictionary), bap- 

maidasho, f.n., baptism. 

mairun, m.n., chrism. — ki. 

masar, m.n., handkerchief. — ki. 

mashad, f.n., ointment, unction. 
— di ; mashadda ahirah or 
mashadda dadka buka, Ex- 
treme Unction. 

ma'shar, m.n., lesson. — ki, 

meri,, marry. 

merso, v.r., marry (yourself). 

mestira, m.n., mystery. — M. 

midmid u tiri,, enumerate. 

midnimo, f.n., unity. 

minda 1 part. int. neg., is it not ? 

miran, a.v., clear, limpid. 

iss misan, v.i., swing, see-saw. 

miskinad, f.n., beggar (woman). 
— di. 

salibka ku mismar, «.«r., crucify. 

mot, m.n., death. — ^ki. 

mud, m.n., the place after the 
shaf in the camel's chest. — ki. 

ka mud bidi,, transfix. 




muhallis, m.n.. Saviour. — ^ki. 
mulk, m.n., throne. — gi. 
mulki, m.n., kingdom. — gi. 
murwai,, honour, respect. 


iss na', v.r. {see na', Dictionary), 

abnegate, renounce yourself. 
iss ne'bahan, /.»., abnegation. 

— ti. 
nab,, splash; timaha nab, 

splash your hair flat with lime 

or mud ; ku — , glue. 
nabar yel,, wound, hurt. 
nabid or nebid, m.n., wine. — ki. 
nahsan, a.v., charitable, merciful. 
dab nared, m.n., hell-fire. — ki. 
niyed, /.«., conscience. — di. 
nolol, f.n., life. — sM. 


ohon daran or ohon la, a.,ignorant. 
ori or 'iiri,/.«., wife, lady, woman. 
— di. 


Rabbi, m.n., God. — gi. This word 
means especially ' the Lord.' 

ra'id, f.n., the accompanying, 
going along with. 

du'a ku rag, m.n., ascetic, pray- 
ing a long time. — gi {see rag, 
delay ...). 

rash, m.n., shot (any kind of 
, shot, as dust-shot ...). — ki. 

rassul, m.n.. Apostolic— gi ; 
djnta rassuligaah, the Apos- 
tolic religion. 

raya, ad., right. 

rido, v.r., pitch, throw, upset 
yourself ; ridda, wan ridan. 

biyihi 'arrada rogai, locution, 
the Deluge (see dad). 

(nin) rogmai, a., abashed. 

u ronaw,, benefit, do good to. , 

ruh, m.n., spirit, mind. — hi, 

ruiiha hoduskaah, prop. «., the 
Holy "Ghost (Third Person of 
the Blessed Trinity). 

rumaisi, m.n., affirmation.— gi. 

rutbab, m.n., ceremony, rite. — hi ; 
rutab. — ti (phir.). 


Sadehmidnimada, — i, prop, n., 

the Trinity (of God). 
sahalan, a.v., easy. 
seg,, miss, omit ; saladdi 

ban segai, I omitted, missed 

the prayer. 
segasho.yin., omission. 
sbahawad, f.n., passion (of the 

soul). — di. 
shirud or shurud, m.n., cigar. — ki. 
sig or la wah,, miss in 

aiming at. 




sigarad, m.n., cigar, cigarette. — 

sir,, cheat, deceive, trick 
, (in playing). 
sir, f.n., a cheating in a game, 

trick. — ti. 
sirra, m.n., sacrament. — hi, — yal. 
simarad, f.n., curl (a ringlet of 

hair). — di. 
siirad,y!w., chapter. — di. 

tegid, /.M., the going ... — di {see 
tag, go). 

tahadiska dabihadda, n., con- 
secration (at Mass). 

iss ku talabsau, a.v., crossed, 
lying across. 

tambnk, m.n., tent (of Europeans). 

— gi. 
tarak, v.t7'., apostatize, backslide 

(in religion). 
tarik, m.n., apostate, backslider. 

— gi- 
tarbiyad, f.n., operation. — di ; 

tarbiyad hun, awkwardness. 
taubadlaan, f.n., impenitence. — 

tawila, m.n., fortune-teller. — hi. 
a tosi,, encourage {see tos, 

tulan, a.v., accumulated, heaped, 
iss tun {see tun, forge), v.i., clash; 

ku tun, strike upon. 
tumin, f.n., show, exposure. — ti. 


udbi, m.n., cotton. — gi. 

ugadsi, m.n., chase, hunting. — gi. 

ugadso,, hunt. 

ulaka', f.n., will. — di ; ninka 
ulaka'disu wa mid baan, the 
will of that man is a bad one. 

ulaka' ... u, ad., wilfully. 

ulaka'ah, a., wilful. 

umaslio, f.n., creation. 

'unid, f.n., eating. — di. 

ur, v.i., smell. — a, wan — i. 

urur hidigaah, m.n., constella- 
tion. — ^hi. 

usar, m.n., scum. — ki; usarka 
ka safai, skim. 


wabayaisan, a.v., baneful, poi- 

wado {see wad), v.r., go on (for 

wadi',, preach ; — ya, wan 

wahtiga sonka, locution, Lent, 
the quadragesimal fast. 

wajib. This word means ' must,' 
'obliged,' 'necessary'; it is 
used as follows : 1st pers., igtt 
wajib, I must, I am obliged, it 
is necessary for me ; 2nd pers., 
kugu wajib ; 3rd pers. sing, and 
plur., ku wajib ; 1st pers. plur., 
iaa ku wajib ; 2nd pers. plur., 
idin ku wajib. 




wal {root),, v.i., madden, to 
become mad. 

walah, f.n., thing. — di. This 
word is especially used for in- 
visible things. 

tobanka wasiyadod, decalogue. 

waslado, m.n., liver (of camels). 
— hi. 

weidafi,, throw, cast head- 
long ; so — , iss — , throw 

weisweis,, distract. 

weisweis, m.n,, distraction. — -ki. 

wer, m.n., a linen surrounding 
the head (emblem of mourn- 
ing). — ki. 

wer,, surround the head ... 

on account of mourning. 
wero, v.r., surround your head . . . ; 

werta, wan weran. 
wah ka werar,, fight with. 
wiswis, m.n., doubt, uncertainty. 
wiswislaan, f.n., without any 

doubt, certainty. 


yala, ad., often {see ya). 
yel nah,, curry (dress tanned 



ST. John's HoiraTi, clerkknwbll, e.o.