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CHICAGO, 1893. 

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The original of tliis bool< is in 
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the United States on the use of the text. 














Re-arranged, condensed, and edited, 



Fellow of the Uoyal Society of New South Wales;. 

Associate of the Victoria Institute of Great Sritain ; 

DeUgue Giniral fpour VOc&anie) de I'Allianee Scientifique de Paris; 

Hon. Con . Member of the Celtic Socitty of Montreal ; 

Author of 


^Siims : 

1892. "^ 


This volume is issued by the G-overnment of ISTew Soutli "Wales, 
as a record of the language of native tribes that are rapidly dis- 
appearing from the coasts of Eastern Australia. Presentation 
copies will be sent to the chief learned societies at home and 
abroad. The indigenes of the Sydney district are gone long ago, 
and some of the inland tribes are represented now only by a few 
families of wanderers. In all New South Wales, there are only 
five thousand full-blood blacks ; only four or five hundred in 
Victoria ; and in Tasmania the native race became extinct xa 
1876. They have decayed and are decaying in spite of tlie 
fostering care of our Colonial Grovernments. 

A considerable portion of this volume consists of Mr. Threl- 
keld's acquisitions in the dialect which I have called the Awabakal, 
from Awaba, the native name for Lake Macquarie — his sphere of 
labour. But we have now come to know that this dialect was 
essentially the same as that spoken by the sub-tribes occupying 
the land where Sydney now stands, and that they all formed 
parts of one great tribe, the Kuriggai. 

In an Appendix I have collected several Grammars and 
Vocabularies as a contribution to a comparative knowledge of 
the dialects. The map and other illustrations are new, and were 
prepared for this work. 

The G-ospel by St. Luke herein is now of no practical value, 
except to a linguist ; but it is unique, and it shows the structural 
system of the language. 


May, 1892. 



Part I. — The Grammar and the Key 

Grammar of the Awabakal Dialect 

Vocabulary of the Awabakal Dialect 

The Key to the Structure of the Awabakal 
Dialect ... 


xi — Ixiv 

I — 46 


Part II. — Translation of the Gospel by St. Luke izS-k 

Part III. — The Lexicon to the Gospel by St. 


Part IV. — The Appendix 

(A.) Grammar and Vocabulary of the 

Minyung Dialect ... ... ... 3 — 27 

(B.) Grammar of the Narrinyeri and other 

Dialects of South Australia ... ... 28 — 47 

(C.) Grammar of a Dialect in Western 

Australia ... ... ... ... 48 — 56 

(D.) Grammar and Vocabulary of the 

Wiradhari Dialect in New South Wales 56-120 

(E.) Prayers in the Awabakal Dialect ... 120-127 

(F.) Sentences in the Kamalarai Dialect 127-131 

(G.) The Earliest Specimen of an Aus- 
tralian Language ... ... ... 131-148 



For ' sine ' read ' shine.' 

JPor gatoa read bag. 

Let Nom. 1 and Nom. 2 change places, so that 
bag and its line shall be Nom. 1. 

J^et Nom. 1 and Nom. 2 change places, so that 
bag and its line shall be Nom. 1. 

Zet Nom. 1 and Nom. 2 change places, so that 
unni and its line shall be Nom. 1. 

S'or bag (bis) read bag t(Jis). 

The ivord gatun seems to have dropped out 
of the manuscript at * * * 

Page 4, adfinem, This\ recurs in the same sense on pp. 13, 14, 16. 
„ 30, ,, For appendix read volume. 

rage 6, 

line 28. 

„ 11, 

„ 25. 

„ 17, 

„ *• 

„ 18, 

„ 33. 

„ 19, 

„ 26. 

„ 37, 

„ 16. 

„ 137, 

„ 29. 



1. Map of New South "Wales as occupied bx the native 
TEIBES ... ... ... ... ... ... Frontispiece 

This map is the issue of ten years' thought and inquiry on the location 
of our native tribes ; nothing of the kind has been attempted before. The 
basis of the whole is the boundaries of the Kamalarai tribe, which were 
marked out for me by a friend ivho knew the tribe well fifty years ago ; his 
information I have tested and extended by answers I got from others, who 
also knew the tribe about that time. The Walarai dialect differs only a 
little from the Kamalarai proper ; so also the Wailwun, spoken by the 
Ngaiamba blacks ; for this reason, and because they have the classification 
of the Kamalarai, these are regarded as only subdivisions of the great Ka- 
malarai tribe. The Walarai dialect extends into Queensland. 

The next great tribe is the Kuringgai on the sea coast. Their ' taurai ' 
(hunting ground or territory) is known to extend north to the Macleay 
Eiver, and I found that southwards it reached the Hawkesbury. Then, 
by examining the remains of the language of the natives about Sydney and 
southwards, and by other tests, I assured myself that the country there- 
about was occupied by sub-tribes of the Kurringgai. 

In a similar manner, I determined the territory of the Murrinjari on the 
south-east coast. 

The boundaries of the Wiradhari tribe have long been known. Probably 
they did not extend quite to the Murray, but that river is their natural 
limit on the south. 

From Moulamein westwards, as shown on the map, or from a line drawn 
from the Murrmnbidgee to the Murray somewhat farther east than that, 
and on both sides of the Murray, there is a patch of associated tribes whose 
dialects are called Yerry-yerry, Marrawarra, Yuyu, Tataty, Watty-watty, 
&c., all from the local words for ' no.' Their position in fragments there is 
curious, and may be the result of some displacement from above by the in- 
coming of stronger tribes, such as the Wiradhari. 

The Bakanji is another strong tribe whose locality is well defined on the 
east by the Wiradhari. A sub-tribe of it is the Berriait, bordering on the 
Lachlan River and the Wiradhari frontier. A small portion of the north- 
west of New South Wales and much more of the adjoining territory in 
Queensland and South Australia has a tribe which some call the Kornu, 
but I am not sure that that is the correct name for it. 

The boundaries of the Paikalyung tribe were given me by the Rev. H. 
Livingstone, who knows it well. Its territory runs along the coast up 
nearly to Brisbane. 

The next tribe (I have called it Wachigari) has its ' taurai ' limited by 
the Paikalyung on the north and the Kuringgai on the south. 

The Yakkajari speak the Pikambal dialect, and extend across our border 
some distance into Queensland. 


The New England tribe, the Yunggai, has caused me much perplexity. 
There are scarcely any blacks of that territory now surviving _; but the 
tribal language is quite different in its words from those around it ; I also 
know for certain that the table-land of New England did not belong either 
to the Kamalarai or the Walarai. I have, therefore, called this tribe the 
Yung-gai, from Yung— the name which the coast tribes give to New- 

The Ngarego tribe belongs rather to Victoria than to New South Wales. 

Of these tribes, the Kamalarai, Walarai, Ngaiamba, Bakanji, Wiradhari, 
the Associated Tribes, the Ngarego, the Kuringgai, are names already estab- 
lished and in use ; and most of them are formed from the local word for 
' no,' and thus describe more the speech than the people. The names, 
Murrinjari, Wachigari, Paikalyung, Yakkajari, I have made ; for these 
tribes have no general name for themselves. Wachi-gari and Yakka-jari 
are legitimate formations from the local words for 'no'; Murrin-jari and 
Paikal-yung mean the 'men,' which also is the meaning of the native 
tribe-name Kuringgai — all from their distinctive tribal- words for ' man. 
Tribes of aborigines, in many parts of the world, call themselves ' the men. 

2. POETEAIT OP BlEABAN ... ... ... ... FogB 88 

This is the intelligent aboriginal who was so useful to Mr. Threlkeld. 
The illustration is reproduced from the pencil sketch which was made by 
Mr. Agate. 

3. PoETRAiT OF " Old Maegaeet '' — an ' Awabakalin,' or 

woman of the Lake Macquarie sub-tribe ... Fage 196 

' Old Margaret ' is the last survivor of tlie Awabakal. She is now living 
in her slab-hat on a piece of land near Lake Macquarie Heads, and supports 
herself by her own industry. She had the advantage of early training in 
an EngUsh home in the district ; she is respectable and respected. 

Her features, as compared with those of other natives, show how much 
the type varies ; and yet she is an Australian of pure origin. She was born 
at Waiong, near the Hawkesbury River, and is now about 65 years of age. 

4. BiTNTiMAi — 'A Messengee' ^age 212 

This blackfellow is evidently on an errand which requires despatch. 
The 'possum cloak, the hair, and the general cast of the figure are true to 
nature, but the calves of the legs are stouter than usual. 


I. The Gbammaes. 

No large effort has jet teen made to master the difficulties that 
present themselves in the study of the comparative grammar of 
the Australian languages. The only thing in this direction, that 
is known to me, is a paper on the "Position of the Australian Lan- 
guages, by W. H. J. Bleek, Esq., Ph.D.," publishedin L871. Dr. 
Bleek was a philologist who, in 1858, assisted in cataloguing the 
Library of His Excellency Sir Geo. Grey, K.O.B., then Governor 
of Cape Colony. Twenty years previously, Sir George (then 
Captain Grey), as leader of an expedition into the interior of our 
continent, had excellent opportunities of seeing the native tribes 
in their original condition ; and the knowledge thus gained was 
enlarged by him and matured, while he was Governor of South 
Australia. The records of the knowledge of so intelligent an 
observer as Sir George Grey are sure to be valuable. These 
records are now in the South African Public Library, Cape Town, 
having been presented to that Library by him, along with his col- 
lection of books and other manuscripts. 

The catalogue of Sir George Grey's Library was published by 
Triibner & Co., London, and Dr. Bleek devotes a portion of the 
second volume to the philology of the Australian languages.* 

The earliest of individual efforts to deal with any single lan- 
guage of the Australian group was made by the Eev. L. E. 
Threlkeld, who, for many years, was engaged as a missionary 
among the blacks of the Lake Macquarie district, near Newcastle, 
New South Wales. His Grammar of their language was printed 
in Sydney in 1834, at the " Herald Office, Lower George Street." 
A few years previously, Mr. Threlkeld had translated the Gospel 
by St. Luke into the same language. This translation remained 
in manuscript and had disappeared ; recently I discovered that 
it still exists, and is now in the Public Library of Auckland. This 
" Grammar " and the " Key " and the " Gospel," and some smaller 
fruits of Mr. Threlkeld's labours on that language, are now pub- 
lished in a collected form in the present volume. But Threlkeld's 
Grammar deals with only one dialect, and, for the purposes of 
comparative grammar, more languages than one are required. 

* Throughout this Introduction I say "languages," although, in fact, there 
is but one Australian language with many dialects ; I also use the word 
" language" instead of dialect, wherever the meaning is clear. 


In looking about for another Grammar, I remembered that Mr. 
Horatio Hale, the philologist of the United States' Exploring Ex- 
pedition, had, in his volume on the Ethnography and Philology 
of the Expedition*, made a short synopsis of two of our dialects. 
"When in this colony, he got access to the Eev. "Willi^am "Watson, 
then missionary to the aborigines at " "Wellington Valley," who 
drew up for him "an account of the most important peculiarities 
of the Wiraduri language, modelled as nearly as possible on 
the Grammar of Mr. Threlkeld, for the purpose of comparison." 
Purther search disclosed the fact that, as early as 1835, a 
Dictionary and a Grammar had been prepared there, and the 
Gospel by St. Luke had beea translated. How valuable these 
materials would now be, to illustrate the Awabakal of Lake 
Macquarie ! but Mr. "Watson had no relatives in this colony, and 
on his death his manuscripts were sold as waste paper ; so I am 
told. Fortunately, the late Archdeacon Giinther, of Mudgee, 
wrote a Grammar of the "Wiradhari and collected a copious 
Yocabulary about the year 1838. The Vocabulary I found to be 
in the hands of his son, the present Archdeacon of Camden, and 
it is here published, along with a short introductory Grammar 
which forms part of the manuscript "\"ocabulary. A longer 
Grammar was, many years ago, sent to the home country, and 
I fear that it cannot now be recovered. 

The next labourers in the field of Australian grammar were the 
Lutheran Missionaries, Messrs. Teichelmann (E. G.) and Schiir- 
mann (C. W.) In 1840 they published a " Grammar, Vocabulary, 
and Phrase-book" ofthe aboriginal language of the Adelaide tribe. 
Then, in 1856, appeared the primer, " Gurre Kamilaroi," by the 
liev. W. Ridley. Mr. Eidley, who was a man of rare devotedness 
and self-denial, went among the aborigines of Liverpool Plains and 
shared the privations of their wandering life, in order that he 
might learn their languase, and so be able to tell them the message 
of the Gospel. In 1866 (2nd edition, 1875), our Government 
Printing Office issued his book on the " Kamilaroi, Dippil, and 
Turrubul languages." 

A Grammar of some of the dialects spoken in South Australia 
is contained in Taplin's " Eolk Lore," which was published in 
1879. This Grammar is given here in a condensed form. 

11. Mb. Threlkeld. 
Lancelot Edward Threlkeld, the pioneer in the field of Aus- 
tralian language, died in Sydney on the morning of the 10th 
October, 1859, having on the previous day preached twice in his 
own church — the church of the Bethel Union there. 

* See pp. 479-531 of " United States' Exploring E.\peclitioii during the 

years 1838-42, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. VI 

Ethnography and Ethnology ; By Horatio Hale, philologist of the Expedi- 
tion. PAiiarfc/^j/iM ■■ Lea and Blanchard. 1846." 


Mr. Threlkeld's birthplace was Hatlierleigh, in Devon, but the 
family belonged originally to the county of Cumberland, and there 
to the village of Threlkeld, which either had its name from them 
or gave its name to them. In " Burke's Peerage," we read of 
Threlkeld of Threlkeld in the time of Edward I. That family 
became extinct in the male line in the reign of Edward IV, but 
the name was continued through a younger branch, Threlkeld of 
Melmerly, in the same county. 

A romantic story from the Wars of the Roses connects itself 
with a Sir Lancelot Threlkeld by his marriage with the widow of 
Lord Clifford. Clifford had much power in Yorkshire, where 
his estates were, but, although related to the House of York, he 
was a keen supporter of the Lancastrians, and with his own hand 
he killed the youngest son of the Duke of York in cold blood after 
the battle of Sandal, in revenge for an injury he had received 
The sanguinary conduct of Lord Clifford on this occasion is com- 
memorated by our poet, Drayton, in his ' Polyolbion,' in the lines 
beginning : — 

" \Vhere York himself before his castle gate, 

Mangled with wounds, on his own earth lay dead, 
Upon whose body Clifford down him sate, 
Stabbing the corpse, and, cutting off his head, 
Crowned it with paper, and, to wreak his teene. 
Presents it so to his victorious Queeue. " 

Three months after this, Clifford was himself shot through with 
an arrow in the battle of Towton, and the Yorkists, being now 
victorious, stripped the Clifford family of all their estates and 
possessions; this happened in the year 1470. The heir to Lord 
Clifford's name and fame was a little boy then six years old. His 
mother feared that the House of York would seek to avenge on 
him the murder of their own boy, the young Earl of Rutland ; 
she had now no powerful friends to protect her and her son, and 
she knew that her movements were watched ; in these circum- 
stances she resolved, for safety, to commit her boy to the care of 
her faithful retainers, and have him brought up as a shepherd on 
his own estates. Meanwhile, the report was spread that he had 
been sent to Holland and had died there. When he had reached 
the age of twelve years, his widowed mother married Sir Lancelot 
Threlkeld. This was a fortunate thing for the lad, for it led 
to his removal from the neighbourhood of his own home to places 
of greater security among the mountains of Cumberland ; and his 
new father, being entrusted with the secret, faithfully assisted in 
watching over the life of the orphan heir. To avert suspicion, it 
-was still found necessary to continue his disguise ; but, although 
he was thus left without education, and could neither read nor 
write till happier days had come, yet the culture of his race showed 


itself in his natural intelligence and his personal demeanour. He 
grew up a tall and handsome youth, with the features and com- 
manding mien of his grandfather, who had been much loved 
and regretted. While still living in obscurity as a shei^herd, he 
gained such a knowledge of astronomy as made him a wonder to 
many in later years, and his gentle manners so shone through 
rustic attire that he secured the affection of a lady of rank, well 
known at that time as the " nut-brown maid " — the daughter of 
Sir John St. John ; her he married. When the " Wars of the 
Roses " were ended by the accession of Henry VII., and peace was 
again come, the young Lord Clifford, now 32 years of age, asserted 
his right to the Londesborough estates, and, on petition to the 
King, was restored to his title and his lands. The men of the time 
called him the " Shepherd Earl." In addition to Londesborough, 
the place of his birth, he was owner of Brougham and Skipton, 
but he usually resided near Bolton, and there, after many years, 
he died, and was buried in the choir of the Abbey. His son was 
created Earl of Cumberland ; and a grandson was a naval com- 
mander in Elizabeth's reign. In 1742 the heiress of the Cliffords 
married an ancestor of the present Duke of Devonshire, and with 
her the estates in Yorkshire passed over to that family. 

This incident has only a remote connection with the Threlkeld 
family, but I have given it here as an interesting glimpse into the 
private history of noble families in those troublous times. 

Our author was born in 1788 at the village of Hatherleigh, 
and, while still a boy, he experienced deep religious convictions 
under the ministry of the vicar of the parish. This ultimately led 
to his offering himself to the London Missionary Society for work 
in the foreign field, and so, after several years of instruction and 
training at Gosport under Mr. Bogue, he was ordained, along with 
Mr. Ellis, on the 8th November, 1815, and appointed to labour at 
Rai-at^a, in the ' Society ' group of the South Seas. Towards the 
end of that month he embarked in a government vessel, the 
" Atlas," which was about to proceed to Sydney. At Bio de 
Janeiro, his wife fell ill, and for nearly a year he had to remain there, 
all the while acting as the first Protestant minister -whom the 
English residents at Eio ever had. On 22nd January, 1817, he 
sailed again, along with Messrs. John Williams, Darling, Bourne, 
and Piatt, all bound for missionary work in the islands of the 
South Seas. 

After a short stay at Hobart, they reached Sydney on the 11th 
May, 1817, and Mr. Threlkeld proceeded to Raiatea soon after. 
The death of his wife led him to return to Sydney in 1824. 
Next year, the London Missionary Society established a mission 
to our native blacks at Lake Macquarie under the care of 
Threlkeld, and there, with assistance subsequently from the 


Government of the Colony of New South Wales, the mission 
was maintained till December 31, 1841, when the number 
of the natives there had so declined that it had to be 
abandoned. It was during those seventeen years of labour that 
Mr. Threlkeld acquired so much experience in the use of the 
native dialect of the tribe, that he was enabled to prepare the 
works which form the bulk of this volume. The year 1842 and 
the surrounding years were a time of terrible commercial distress 
in the colony, and, when the mission station was abandoned, Mr. 
Threlkeld lost all his property there. But, in 1845, he was 
appointed minister of the Mariners' Church, Sydney, and in that 
office he continued till his death. By his first wife he had one 
son and three daughters ; by his second wife — a daughter of Dr. 
Arndell, the Colonial surgeon of the time — he had two sons and 
three daughters. Those of his children who still survive occupy 
honourable positions in this colony. 

The following is believed to be a complete list of Mr. Threlkeld's 
labours in the dialect which T have called the * Awabakal ' : — 

1827. — "Specimens of the Aboriginal Language"; printed then. 

1829. — First draft of the Translation of the Gospel by St. Luke. 

1832. — Translation of Prayers for Morning and Evening Service 
from the Ritual of the Church of England ; these were selected 
by Archdeacon Broughton. 

1834.— "The Australian Grammar" published. Mr. Threlkeld's 
memoranda show that at the beginning of this year the follow- 
ing subjects were occupying his attention : — 

1. Specimens of the Language. 

2. The Australian Grammar. 

3. The Gospel by St. Luke, under revisal. 

5. The Gospel by St. Mark, in preparation. The first rough 
translation was completed in 1837. 

5. The Gospel by St. Matthew, just commenced. 

6. The instruction of two native youths in writing and read- 

ing their own language. 

7. Beading lessons selected from the Old Testament. 

8. An Australian Spelling Book. 
1836.— "The Spelling Book" printed. 

1850. — " The Key to the Aboriginal Language" published. 

1859. — At the time of his death he was engaged in completing 
the translation of the four Gospels ; and was proceeding with 
the " Lexicon to the Gospel by St. Luke." Thus our author's 
life closed in the midst of ' labours many.' 

svi iiTTEOiiTJcrioi!'. 


The position of our Australian dialects in their relation to the 
great families of language has not yet been determined. That 
task demands leisure, labour, and skill. A collection of carefully- 
prepared Grammars and Vocabularies would make the task much 
easier ; but where are these to be had ? With the exception of 
those that I have named, I know of none. Australian Vocabu- 
laries have been collected in abundance, but, for the most part, 
these are quite useless to the philologist ; they consist of dialect- 
names for native customs and weapons, for the birds of the air, 
the beasts of the field, and the trees of the forest. All this is 
mistaken labour which yields no fruit. "What we want is to get 
from each dialect a sufficient number of words expressing the 
ideas essential to a language, in the form of substantive, adjec- 
tive or verb, and a sufficient number of simple sentences ; this 
would enable the philologist to ascertain what is the structure of 
its grammar and its vocables. 

The Australian languages are subject to a principle of change 
which it is worth our pains to consider here. The native tribes 
name their children from any ordinary occurrence, which may 
have taken place at the birth or soon after it. Por instance, if 
a kangaroo-rat were seen to run into a hollow log at that time, 
the child would be named by some modification of the word for 
kangaroo-rat. At a later period of the boy's life, that name might 
be changed for another, taken from some trivial circumstance in his 
experience; just as our own boys get by-names at school. "When 
a man or woman dies, his family and the other members of the 
tribe, as far as possible, never mention his name again, and dis- 
continue the use of those ordinary words which formed part of 
his name ; other words are substituted for those common ones, 
and become permanently established in the daily language of the 
clan or sub-tribe to which the deceased belonged.* In this war 
new words arise to designate those familiar objects, the previous 
names for which have been cast aside ; and these new words are 
formed regularly from other root-words, that describe probably 
another quality inherent in the thiug in question. Let me illus- 
trate this matter by examples. A man or a woman may get a 
name from some peculiar physical feature, such as a large mouth, 
or chin, or head ; or a name taken from an animal or tree, or 
any similar object, animate or inanimate, which had some relation 
to his birth. A Tasmanian woman was called TJamanalu, ' little 
gull,' because a gull flew by at the time of the child's birth. 
After her death, the word rama would never be used again for 
' a gull '; a new name for ' gull ' would be invented, formed, it 

* It is possible that the discarded word resumes its place in the language 
after a while ; this point I have not ascertained ; at all events, the adopted 
v^ord remains. 

IjStteodtjctiok. xvii 

may be, from a root-word meaning ' white,' because of the white- 
ness of the bird. This new word would be used by all the 
kindred and acquaintances of the deceased, and would ere long 
establish itself in the language of that portion of the tribe as the 
right name for ' gull' Again, a boy of the Dungog tribe of 
blacks, in our own colony, was receiving instruction from the old 
men of the tribe ; he was required to make a spear, and was sent 
into the bush to select a, suitable piece of wood ; he cut off and 
brought to them a piece of the ' cockspur ' tree ; this choice was 
so absurd, that forthwith his instructors dubbed him Bobin- 
kat, and that was his name ever after. "When he died, the 
word bobin would disappear, and some other name be found 
for the cockspur tree. And the operation of this principle is not 
confined to Australia ; it is found also in Polynesia ; but there 
it has respect to the living, not the dead. High chiefs there 
are regarded as so esalted personages, that common people must 
not make use of any portion of their names in ordinary talk, 
for fear of giving offence. If, for example, a chief's name con- 
tains the word p e'a, ' bat,' the tribe calls the ' bat,' not p e'a, but 
manu-o-le-lagi, 'bird of the sky.' In languages wliich are 
not subject to these influences, the derivation of such a word is 
usually very plain; the Latin vespertilio, ' bat,' for instance, 
bears its origin on its very face ; but if a philologist, not knowing 
the history of the word manu-o-le-lagi, were to find it to mean 
a ' bat ' in a Polynesian tongue, he would be puzzled to explain 
how it is that a creature so peculiar as the ' bat,' should have 
been named by a word having so indefinite a meaning as the ' bird 
of the sky.' Any one who may have had the curiosity to look 
into lists of names for common things in Australian vocabularies, 
must have been surprised to see how diverse are these names 
in the various tribes, but your wonder ceases to be wonder when 
the cause is known. In fact, we do find that among conter- 
minous tribes, and even in the sub-sections of the same tribe, these 
words vary greatly; for the presence of death from time to time 
in the encampments kept up a frequent lapse of words. 

To show how much a native language may be effected by this 
cause of change, I quote here a few sentences from Taplin, who, 
for many years, was in daily contact with the black natives of 
South Australia. In his Vocabulary he says : — 

"T her to, 'head'; obsolete on account of death. Koninto, 'stomach'; 
obsolete on account of death. Muna, ' hand '; not used on account of 
the death of a native of that name. When any one dies, named after 
anything, the name of t iat thing is at once changed. For instance, the 
name for ' water ' was changed nine times in about five years on accoant of 
the death of eight men who bore the name of ' water.' The reason of this 
is that the name of the departed is never mentioned because of a super- 
stitious notion that bis spirit would immediately appear, if mentioned in 
any way." 


It may possibly be asked wby our blackfellows had so strong a 
disinclination to mention the name of a friend who had died. 
We ourselves have a feeling of the same kind. "We speak of our 
friend as ' the deceased,' ' the departed,' 'him who has gone ' ; and 
if we must mention his name, we apologise for it by saying ' poor ' 
Mr. So-and-so, and seem afraid to use the simple word ' dead.' 
But our indigenes have a stronger reason than that. They believe 
that the spirit of a man, especially if he is killed by 
excessively uncomfortable after death, and malicious, and in its 
fretfulness ready to take offence at anything, and so pour out its 
wrath on the living. Even the mention of the dead man's name 
would offend, and bring vengeance on them in the night time. 
Our blacks seem also to have the idea that the deceased, for a 
certain number of days after death, has not yet got his spiritual 
body, which slowly grows upon him, and that, while in this un- 
developed state, he is like a child, and is specially querulous and 

lY. Tests in Examining Languages. 

I now proceed to show some results which may be obtained 
even from our Australian words, by comparing them with others 
elsewhere. It is agreed among philologists, that there is no surer 
test of the affinity of different languages than that which comes 
through the identification of their pronouns, numerals*, and, to a 
less extent, their prepositions. To this I would add, in our present 
inquiry, the identity of such common words as 'eye, foot, hand, 
tire, sun, moon,' and the like ; for these words cannot have 
been used much in the names of individuals, and are therefore 
not likely to have suffered from the fluctuations which I have 
already explained. It is true that, in all languages, the pronouns 
and the numerals are subject to abrasion and decay, from the 
frequency and rapidity with which they are pronounced, and from 
a natural tendency everywhere to shorten the words which are 
most in use. But it is the function of the philologist, not only to 
understand these causes of decay, but to show the process by 
which the words fell away, and to restore them to their original 
forms for the purpose of identification. 

It is agreed, then, that the numerals, the pronouns, and, to 
some extent, the prepositions, are a strong test of the affinity of 
languages. On this principle, such languages as the Sanskrit, the 
Greek, the Latin, the German and Gothic, the Lithuanian, the 
Keltic, have been tested and proved to be so much akin that they 
are grouped as a well-defined family of languages — the Aryan. 
Some anthropologists, especially when they are not linguists them- 
selves, sneer at the labours of philology as deceptive and liable to 

* Bopp saya that the lowest numerals can never be introduced into any 
country by foreigners. 


serious error; so are all sciences, if not managed witli care and 
ability. A student in chemical analysis amd synthesis may get 
results which are clearly erroneous ; instead of declaring the pre- 
scribed methods to be faulty or his materials to be bad, he ought 
to blame only his own want of skill in manipulation. As to the 
utility of philology, I would only remark that it was by the study 
of languages that the place of Sanskrit (and consequently of the 
Hindu race) was determined in its relation to the other members 
of the family I have named, and it was philology alone that 
settled the claim of the Keltic, and consequently of the Kelts, to be 
regarded as one of the most ancient members of the Aryan family. 
In the case of the cuneiform inscriptions, the services which 
philology has rendered are inestimable. And it is quite possible 
that, amid the conilicting opinions as to the origin of our 
Australian race, the via prima salutis, the first dawn of a sure 
daylight, may in the future arise from a careful examination of 
their language. 

As is well known, the Australian numeral system is very limited 
in its range; our natives say 'one,' 'two' ; sometimes 'three'; 
occasionally 'hand' for'five'; all else is 'many,' ' a great number.' 
It was alleged by Sir John Lubbock, and has since been repeated 
by everybody, that their having separate words only for ' one ' and 
' two ' is a proof that Australians possess very limited mental 
powers, since they cannot count higher than 'two.' Every colonist, 
who has been much in contact with the blacks, can adduce proofs 
to show that their mental powers are not so limited, and that, 
when our indigenes are taken out of their adverse environment 
and encouraged to cultivate their intellectual faculties, they 
readily develope a decided capacity for improvement. A friend 
of mine, fifty years ago, taught two young black boys to play 
chess ; they soon acquired a liking for the game, and learned 
to play with caution and skill, and even with success. If it 
were possible to surround the blacks with favourable influences 
continued from generation to generation, I have no doubt that 
their whole position would be altered ; but any final separation 
from their ancestral habits would lead to their speedy extinction 
a,s a race ; this was the issue that was rapidly, approaching after 
the last remnants of the Tasmanians were removed to [Flinders' 
Island. But, for many hundreds of years, no one can tell how 
many, the Australian race has lived in the midst of adverse 
surroundings, tribe warring against tribe, each tribe restricted 
to its own boundaries, the supply of food in our precarious 
climate often scanty, the paralysing terror produced by their 
strong belief in the supernatural power of demons and of their 
own wizards, the ravages of waves of disease and death sweeping 
over them from time to time ; all these and other causes com- 
pelled them to think only of their daily subsistence and the 


preservation of their lives, fixed aud deepened their degradation, 
and prevented even the possibility of amelioration and elevation. 
The natives of the South Sea islands, whose lot has been a fairer 
one, have had many yams and cocoa-nuts and bananas and other 
things to count, and so have developed a wide system of 
numbers ; but our poor blactfellows, whose only personal 
property is a few spears or so, have not felt it necessary to speak 
of more than ' one,' ' two,' or ' three ' objects at once. Then, as 
to the linguistic question on which Sir John Lubbock builds his 
charge, I think it could be shown that even the Aryan system of 
numbers — the most highly developed system of any — is founded 
on the words for ' one,' ' two,' ' three,' and no more, all the rest 
being combinations of these by addition or by multiplication. 
Further, the Aryans have singular and dual forms for nouns and 
pronouns, that is, they have number-forms for ' one ' and ' two,' 
but all the rest beyond that is included in the general name of 
plural, that is 'more'; indeed the Sanskrit uses its word for 
' four ' in a general way to mean a considerable number, exactly 
as to our blackfellows all else beyond two or three is bula, 
' many.' For these reasons I think that this charge against our 
blackfellows ought to be laid on better ground than that afforded 
by their numerals. 

V. The Austealian I^umeeals. 

If Bopp's dictum is well founded, the numerals ' one,' ' two,' 
' three,' when tested, may tell us something about the origin of 
our Australian blacks. I, therefore, now proceed to examine 
these numerals. And here I may be permitted to say that I alone 
am responsible for the arguments drawn from the evidence pro- 
duced in this inquiry. So far as I know, these arguments have 
never been advanced previously ; indeed, I am convinced that 
no one has ever discussed these numerals before, for it is com- 
monly alleged that it is impossible to give any account of them. 

1. The Numeral 'One.' 

(a.) Of the words for ' one,' T take up first that which is least 
common, pir, ' one.' It is used in the Walarai country (see map). 
It must be an old and genuine word, for I know that, in another 
dialect, the word piriwal means 'chief,' and pir seems to me to 
bear the same relation to piriwal that the Latin primus, 
'first,' bears to princeps, ' chief,' ' first,' or the Latin preposi- 
tion pro, ' before,' to proceres, ' chiefs,' or our English word 
'first 'to the German fiirst, 'a prince.' In fact, I regard pro 
and pir as the same word originally. 

Now, do not mistake me here ; ibr I do not assert that the 
languages spoken by our Australians are uterine brothers to the 
Latin and the Greek ; but I do assert that all languages have 


one common, although ancient, origin, and t^^at, in the essential 
words of these languages, there are proofs of that common origin. 
Pir, then, as allied to pro, means the number which comes 
' before ' all others in the row, the one that comes ' first.' The 
Latin primus is for pri-imus {cf. Sk. pra-thamas, 'first'), in 
which the root pri, not unlike pir, is the same as the Latin pro 
andprae. In the Aryan family, the nearest approach to the 
Australian pir is the Lithuanian pir-mas, 'first,' and pir-m (a 
preposition), 'before'; other remote kinsmen are the Greek 
pro-tos,' first,' pru-tanis,'aprince,"a president' (c/! piriwal), 
prin, 'before'; the Gothic fru-ma, 'first'; the Aryan prefixes 
pra, fra, pro, pru, prae, pre, and fore as in our English 
'fore-ordain.' The Keltic languages drop the initial p or f, 
and say ro, ru, air, ari, to mean ' before.' In the Malay region 
ar-ung is a 'chief,' and in Polynesia ari-ki is 'a chief,' which 
the Samoans change into ali'i ; these words, I would say, come 
from eastern forms corresponding to the Keltic ro, air, 'before.' 
In Samoau i lu-ma means ' in front,' and in Malay de-alu-wan ; 
these are like ru ; in Aneityum, a Papuan island of the New 
Hebrides, a ' chief is called natimi arid, where natimi means 
'man,' and arid is 'high,' 'exalted,' doubtless from the same 
root as ariki; and arid is to ariki as the Latin procerus, 
' tall,' to proccres, ' chiefs.' Prom the abraded from ru I take 
the New Britain* word lua (Samoan lua'i), ' first.' 

In the Dravidian languages of India, from which quarter, as I 
suppose, our Australian languages have come, there is a close 
parallel to our word pir, for pir a means 'before,' and pir an 
is ' a lord.' Dravidian scholars themselves acknowledge that 
pir an comes from the Sanskrit preposition pra, ' before'; this 
corroborates my derivation of the Australian word piriwal and 
the Maori ariki. The Aroma dialect of New Guinea says pira- 
na, 'face'; and in my opinion this pirana bears the same rela- 
tion to the Dravidian pira that the Latin frons has to the pre- 
position pro, the Samoan mua-ulu to mua, 'first,' and the 
English fore-head, to be-fore. The Motu dialect says vaira 
for ' face, front'; I take this to be a metathesis of pira, for the 
Motu also says vaira-nai, 'before'; another dialect says' vari ; 
with this compare pro, para, and frons. The negroes, to the 
west of Khartoum, also say ber, bera, for ' one.' 

The Australian postposition bir-ung, 'away from,' seems to be 
connected with this root in the same way as the G-reek para. 
The dictionary meanings of the Sanskrit preposition pra are 
' before,' ' away,' 'begirning'; now, if these three meanings were 

* New Britain and New Ireland are two tolerably large islands lyiug to the 
east of New Guinea, and Duke of York Island — a name corrupted by the 
natives into Tukiok — is a small island in the straits between these two. 
The natives of all these are Papuans. 

sxii iNTEorrcTioiT. 

carried to Australia throug'h tlie Dravidian form pira, tliey 
abundantly justify my arguments as to the origin of the Austra- 
lian word pir, ' one,' and birung, ' away from.' In New Britain 
pirai means 'odd," not a "round" number' (r/. the game_ ot 
'odds and evens '), and this sense must be from a numeral meaning 
'one.' In the Ebudan* language of Efate, 'a voice came from 
teaven' is nafisan sikei i milu elagi mai, in^which milu 
elagi signifies ' away from (direction from) the sty.' Here milu 
is identical in form and meaning with the Awabakal birung. 
Purther, in New Britain and in the Duke of York Is. (IMelanes- 
ian), ka, kan mean ' from,' kapi, with verbs of motion, implies 
'motion from,' and kabira means 'on account of.' These cor- 
respond very well with the forms and uses of the Awabakal post- 
positions kai, ka-birung, kin-birung. The simple form biru 
is therefore cognate to the Sanskrit para, Gr., para, 'from.' 

Som3 further light on this point may be got from_ another 
quarter. The Hebrew preposition corresponding to birung is 
min, or, without the n, mi, ma ; in form this is not far removed 
from the bi of birung. Min, originally, is a noun meaning a 
' part,' and, in its use as a preposition, it answers first to the 
partitive genitive or the preposition ex in the classic languages ; 
then, from this primary notion, it is used to signify a 'departing 
from' anyplace, 'distance from,' 'proceeding or 'receding from'; 
in these respects it corresponds exactly with the Australian 
birung. Now, man, (minj, ' a part,' comes from the Seh.TOot 
manah, ' to divide.' But, in Dravidian, the verb ' to divide ' is 
per, pir i, and that also is a close approximation to our Australian 
birung. In the chief Dravidian dialects, 'a part', 'a portion' is 
pal; this again brings us to the Shemitic pala, parash, and 
many other forms of that verb, meaning 'to share,' ' to separate,' 
<&c., and to the Sanskrit phal, 'to divide,' Gr. meiromai, 'I 
share,' meros, 'apart,' Lat. pars, and a host of words from 
these. Now, if birung be the Dravidian piri, per, and if piri, 
per be the same word as the Sanskrit pal imd the Seb. pala, and 
if these are all original root- words belonging to a common stock, 
I cannot see how it is possible for anyone to avoid the force of 
the argument from this that our Australian indigenes have a 
share in a common ancestry, and that, in language, their imme- 
diate ancestors are the Dravidians of India. 

SesuUs in this Section are: — Preposition forms to mean 'before' 
are, in the primitive languages, pro, pri, pro, prae, pru ; other 
forms a,re par-a, par-OS, pur-as ; modes of all these axe,fra, fru, 
vor, fore, and, without the initial letter, ro, ru, air ; the Lithu- 

* I have made the word ' Ebudan ' (Lat. Ebudes inxulae), and use it as 
more convenient to handle tlian ' New Hebridean.' The languages spoken 
on New Britain, New Ireland, Duke of York Island, Solomon Islands, 
Santa Cruz, and Banks Islands I call ' Albannio ' (c/. Lat. Albion), and any 
root-words which arc found in the ilalay, Melanesian, and Polynesian 
languages I call ' Sporadic' 


anian has pir, and with this correspond the Dravidian pir-a, 
' before,' the Australian pir, ' one,' and the Turkic, hir, ' one.' In 
Sanskrit, the old ablative form pura .means ' formerly,' ' first '; 
cognates are the GT.paros, ' before,' and the Zend^ara, 'before.' 

(S). But the. most common word for 'one' in New South 
Wales is wiikul. In fact, it is our Sydney word for ' one,' and 
there can be no doubt of its genuineness, for it is noted by 
Lieut. -Colonel Collins as a Port Jackson word in his book on the 
Colony, published 1802; he spells it wogul. At Newcastle it 
waswakol; in the Williams Eiver district, wakul-bo, and on 
the Manning, wakul. Prom my manuscript notes I write 
down the various forms which this word assumes, beginning 
with Tasmania and passing northwards to the Timor Sea: — 
Tasmania, mara-i, mara-wa ; in Victoria, bur ; on the Murray 
Eiver near Wentworth and Euston, mo, mata, mada, meta-ta; 
on the middle course of the Darling, waichola ; on the Upper 
Murray, mala; on Monero Plains, yalla; at Moruya, med- 
endal ; in the Murrumbidgee district, mit-ong ; at Jervis Bay, 
met-ann; on Goulburn Plains, met-ong; in the lUawarra 
district, mit-ung; at Appin, wogul; at Sydney and north- 
wards to the Manning River and the Hastings, wakul; on 
Liverpool Plains, mal; at Wellington, mal-anda ; in southern 
Queensland, byada, muray, baja, byaya; in the Northern 
Territory of South Australia, mo-tu, wa-rat, wa-dat. 

Besides these, some other words for the number ' one' are used 
in various parts of Australia, but those that I have given all pro- 
ceed from the original root, which it will be our duty now to 
discover. And I notice, first of all, that one word in the list 
stretches along the whole extent of seaboard from the Illawarra 
district to the Hastings — the word wakul — and this fact affords 
the presumption that all that coast line was occupied by the 
same tribe, or by tribes closely akin; for the tribes a little 
inland say mal and mal-anda for ' one.' Wakul, then, was 
the word used by the Svdney blacks, as Collins testifies. If a 
chemist has a compound substance handed to him for analysis, 
he experiments on it, and tests it in order to discover its elements. 
Let us do. so with wakul ; it is a compound, for simple roots are 
usually monosyllables ; but are its parts wa-fkul orwak-|-ul? 
Here I remember that, in the same region where wakul exists, 
there is a word kara-kal, ' a wizard,' 'a doctor or medicine-man,' 
but inland he is called kara-ji. This satisfies me as proof that 
the-kul is merely a formative syllable, and that the root is wa. 
And this conviction is strengthened when I cast my eye over the 
above list of words ; for they all begin with the syllable ma or 
some modification of it, the rest of each word consisting of 
various formative syllables. As I have now got hold of a clue 
to a solution, I reflect that the initial labial of a root-word may 


assume various forms ; thus, p, S, m may interchange, and may 
easily become/, tvh, v, w. There can be no doubt, for instance, 
that the Latin pater, the German vater, and the English 
father are the same word ; there^=/=«; and in one district 
in Scotland the people always say fat for what and far for 
where ; so also the Maori whatu is the Samoan f atu ; that is 
f—wh ; h and m also are interchangeable, in Oriental languages 
especially, for m is only the sound of the letter h modified by the 
emission of a breathing through the nose ; m is therefore re- 
garded as a 6 nasalized. I note also that the words under con- 
sideration all begin with the cognate sound of m, h, or w, except 
yalla; and this example 1 think must have been at onetime 
walla, that is, uala, of which the u has obtained the sound of 
i (y); or wa-la may come from the same root as wa-kul, the 
difference lying only in the termination. The other vowels of 
root word are o, u, e, i, ai, all of which in Australian are modi- 
fications of the original sound a. 

Having now discovered the root-germ from which our Sydney 
friend wakul proceeded, and having noted the various guises 
which he has assumed in these colonies, we must next ask where 
he came from, and see if he has any kinsmen in other lands ; for, 
when by searching we find that out, we may perhaps be justified 
in saying that the Australians brought the root-word with them 
from those lands. Before setting out on this quest, I observe 
that when a number of men are arranged in a row, he who is 
number one is (1) 'before' all the others, and 'in front' of them; 
he is thereby (2) 'first or foremost'; he has (3) the 'pre-eminence' 
in honour or authority, and (4) he may be regarded as the ' begin- 
ning or origin' of all the others.* We may therefore reasonably 
expect that words for 'one' will be akin to other words, bearing 
some one or other of these four meanings. I have already shown 
that the Kamalarai numeral pir, 'one,' is related to Aryan pre- 
positions meaning 'before,' and to the Maori word ariki (Samoan 
ali'i), 'a chief,' as one having authority and eminencet ; I shall 
now show that the kindred of wakul have the other meanings as 
well. And, first, I note that the word bokol is used for 'one' in 
the island of Santo, one of the New Hebrides. Bokol is so like 
w o gul, the Port Jackson word, that I cannot doubt their identity; 
and yet it is impossible to suppose that the one word can be 
borrowed from the other. The islanders of Santo can never have 
had any intercourse with the blacks of Sydney ; nor, if they had 
in any past time, can we believe that either language was so 

* Of. the Heb. ahadh, kedam, rosh, aftl or yaal, for these meanings. 

+ The Insular-Keltic words for 'chief,' 'principal,' are priomh, ard, 
araid; and roimh is 'before.' It is evident that these are only cor- 
ruptions of the root pri, pro, prae, pra, 'before.' In Ku, a Dravidian 
dialect, 'one' or 'first' is ra (r/. Sk. pra) and in Duke of York Island 
(New Britain Group), 'one' is ra, re. 


miserably poor as to be without a word of its own for ' one.' The 
blacks of Santo are a frizzly-haired negroid race ; I therefore argne, 
from the evidence of this word, that these blacks and our blacks' 
have, in some way, one common origin. 

I next take you to another Papuan region having a negroid 
population — a group of islands off the east end of New Guinea 
and consisting of New Britain, New Ireland, and some others. 
Inthe Duke of York Island there, I find the following words, all 
akin to wakul, viz., makala, ' for the ' first ' time' mara, ma- 
ra-kam, 'forthe 'first' time,' marua, ' to bear fruit for the ' first ' 
time, to enter on a new course, to begin,' mara, 100 (= the 
'beginning' of anew reckoning), muka, 'first,' muka-na, 'first-' 
born son,' muka-tai, 'first,' mun, 'to go first.'* In all these, the 
rootis ma, mu, as in Australia, and the abundance of these derived 
forms in this Tukiok language proves that the root is indigenous, 
not borrowed. Among them I observe mara, 'forthe 'first' time,' 
and mara, 100, and this is exactly the Tasmanian word (mara- 
wa) for 'one'; another of them is muka, 'first,' and this word, by 
dropping the k, which is neverf sounded in Samoan, becomes the 
Samoan mua, 'first,' and mua-ulu, 'the fore-head.' J Mua also is 
very common in Samoan (as in foe-mua, 'the 'first' or stroke oar,' 
a-fua, 'to begin'), and thus proves itself to be native to the 
language. Further, you may have observer! that some of the 
Australian words for 'one' are mo, mat a. With mo compare the 
Santo word mo-ig , 'to begin,' — another proof that the Santoans 
and the Australians are kinsmen; with mata compare the Motu 
word mata-ma, 'abeginning,' and mata-mata, 'new,' 'fresh'; 
theFijian matai, 'first,' and tau-mada 'before-hand'; theMaori 
ti-mata, 'to begin'; the Samoan a-mata, 'to begin'; the New 
Britain a-ma-na, 'before, in front,' mata-na, 'the front,' biti-na 
'the commencement'; the Motu badi-na, 'origin,' andtheAneit- 
yumese ni-mti-din, 'the front'; with mu compare the Fijian 
vuna, 'to begin,' and the New Britain wa-vuna, 'to begin,' and 
the Santo mul, 'a chief,' as being the 'first' man. All these I 

* Compare with this the Tamil postposition mun, 'before.' 
+ The one solitary exception is puke, 'catch you'! — a child's play -word. 
J An uncommon form of the root ba is va; and from it the Mangaians 
(Hervey Islands) say va-ri, 'a beginning'; but in the Koiari dialect of 
New Guinea this same word means ' the forehead,' ' the face.' This word 
thus illustrates the procession of meanings from the root pra (para), 
pro, 'before'; for vari is equivalent to 'that which is before,' hence 'a 
beginning,' 'the forehead' as the 'front' part of the human body, 'the 
face ' ; it also throws some light on the derivation of frons, which has 
so puzzled Latin etymologists that some of them derive it from the Greek 
ophrus, 'the eyebrow'! The Motumotu dialect of New Guinea says 
hali, instead of vari, for 'forehead'; several other dialects there say 
i-piri-ti, paru, para-na, pira-na, for 'face'; these are all connected 
with the Dravidian pira, 'before.' The Brahui of Afghanistan says mun, 
' the face,' which is the same word as the Tamil, mun, ' before.' 


have noticed in the course of my reading, but I believe tbere are 
many other words in tlaese islands which are of the same origin 
as our Australian word wakul.* I pray you to remember that, 
with the exception of Samoa and New Zealand, these words all 
come from Papuan regions and afford indirect evidence that our 
Australians are allied to the Papuans. 

As to the Maori and Samoan congeners that T have quoted, it 
is commonly alleged that these races are Malayo-Polynesians, on 
the theory that their languages are of Malay origin f; but let us 
look at this theory in the light of our present inquiry. It is 
said that the Polynesians are Malays. Well, let us see. If the 
8amoans are Malays, then the Duke of York Islanders are 
Malays; for the word mu a, which is essential to the Samoan 
language, is the same word as the Tukiok muka; therefore the 
Papuans of that island also are Malays ! But the corresponding 
Malay word is mu la, 'in front,' ' foremost,' 'at first,' and it is 
certain that muka can never be formed from mil la ; for, while 
h may become Z, the letter Z, when once established in a word, 
cannot revert to k. Thus the Malay language might be said to 
have come from the Duke of York Island, as least so far as the 
evidence of this word goes ! Eut I acknowledge that they may 
both be taken from one common' source, and this, I believe, is the 
true solution of the question. Where shall we find that common 
source? The root-form of mula, muka, mua, and of all the 
others, is ma, mu, and if we can find that root, it will be easy to 
understand how all these words have been formed independently 
from that original root ; and it will then be unnecessary to say 
that the Samoan language is of Malay origin, or that the 
Papuans of the New Britain isles are using a JMalay language. I 
now take you to Southecn India, to a group of languages called 
the Dravidian, occupying the mountains of the Dekkan, and the 
coasts both to the east and the west of that. Some of these 
Dravidian tribes are considered by the best authorities to be 
certainly negroid, and, in England, Prof. Piower, from an exami- 
nation of their crania, has classed them as kinsmen of the 
Australians. One of the most cultivated languages of the group 
is the Tamil, and tlie Tamilians are known to have cla?s-marriage 
laws similar to those in Fiji and Australia. Now for ' first' the 
Tamil says mudal, and this mudal is a verbal noun meaning ' a 
beginning,' ' priority ' in time or place. The root is mu, and dal 
is a formative syllable. The mu is, without doubt, our Australian 

* These and all other words from the New Britain and Duke of York 
Islands I quote from manuscript dictionaries of these languages, prepared 
by the missionaries there. 

t The name and authority of. K. Wilhelm von Humboldt first gave this 
theory £>■ standing ; but we have now much fuller materials ou which to 
form an independent j adgment. 


root ma, mo, mu. The late Bishop Caldwell says* — "Mudal is 
connected with the Tamil postposition miin, ' before '; mudal is 
used as the root of a new verb ' to begin.' Mu evidently signifies 
' priority,' and may be the same as the Tamil m u, 'to be old,' 
mudu, ' antiquity.' " I think there is a better derivation than 
that. The Sanskrit mula means 'origin, cause, commencement,' 
and is the same word as the Malay mula already referred to, 
and both of these I take from the Sanskrit root-word bhu, ' to 
begin to be, to become, to be,' with which is connected the Latin 
fore (fuere), 'to be about to be,' fui, &c. From bhu come 
such Sanskrit words as bhava, 'birth, origin,' bhavana, 'caus- 
ing to be,' b huvanyu, ' a master or lord ' (c/! piran, &c.), and 
many other words in the Aryan languages. At all events, 
wakul and these other Australian words for ' one ' are assuredly 
from the same root as the Dravidian mu-dal, 'first,' ' a begin- 
nig.' I, for one, cannot believe that words so much alike both in 
root and meaning should have sprung up by accident over so vast 
an area as India, Malaya, New Gruinea, J?iji, Samoa, and back 
again to the New Hebrides and Australia. The only rational 
explanation seems to me to be that these races were all at one 
time part of a common stock, that in their dispersion they carried 
with them the root-words of the parent languages, and that in 
their new habitations they dressed out these root-words with 
prefixes and affixes by a process of development, just as circum- 
stances required. 

Results. — The root in its simplest form is la, ' to begin to be,' 
'to begin'; other forms are bo, bu, bi ; ma, mo, mu; fa,fu,, vu ; 
iva. The nearest approach to the Australian «« a A; j«Z, 'one,' is 
the Ebudan boTcol, 'one,' and the Tukiok mahal-a, 'for the 
first time,' but many other cognate words are found all over the 
South Seas in the sense of 'first,' 'begin.' The Tasmanian 
mara-wa, 'one,' is the same as the Tukiok mar a, 'for the first 
time,' and mar a, 100; and in New South Wales, mara-gai 
means ' first ' in the Mudgee dialect. 

2. The Numeral Two. 

Almost the only other Australian numeral is b ul a, ' two.' It is 
true that several tribes have a distinct word for ' three,' and a few 
have a word for ' five ' takea from the word ' hand,' but in most 
parts of Australia the number ' three ' is expressed by ' two-one,' 
four ' by ' two-two,' ' five ' by ' two-two-one ' and so on. But the 
worebulais universal; with various changes of termination, it 
exists from Tasmania in the extreme south, right on to the Gulf 

*A11 my knowledge of the Dravidian race and language comes from Dr. 
Caldwell's ' ' Comparative Dictionary of the Dravidian or South Indian 
Family of Languages ; second edition ; London : Trubner and Co. , 1875. " In 
this Introduction, I quote from the notes which I made when I read the 
book some years ago, and now I cannot always tell whether I am quoting 
his words or only my own statement of them. 


of Carpentaria. If you ask me why there is only one word for 
' two,' while the words for ' one ' are so numerous and different, 
I reply that, in other languages, and especially in those of the 
Turanian family, there is a similar diversity in the words for 
' one ' ; and the reason is this, that, wherever there is a con- 
siderable number of words for ' origin,' ' commencement,' 
' before,' &c., there will be a similar variety in the words for 
' one,' which are formed from them. But the range of ideas for 
' two ' is somewhat limited ; the only ideas possible are ' repe- 
tition,' or 'following,' or something similar. Let me show you 
this by a few examples. The Hebrew shenaim, ' two,' is a dual 
form, and is connected with the verb shanah, ' to repeat;' the 
Latins also say 'vigesimo altero anno' to mean in the 
' twenty second year ;' but alter is 'the other of two,' and in 
French and English it means to 'change;' and secundus in 
Latin comes from sequor, 'I follow.' Thus we shall find that 
words for 'two' are the same as words for ' follow,' ' repeat,' 
' another,' ' again,' ' also,' ' and,' and the like ; and most of these 
ideas are usually expressed by forms of the same root-word. 

As to the form of the word bula*, we have here no friendly 
kar4ji to tell us whether the -la is radical or not. I think that 
the -la is formative. The Tasmanian bu-ali (Milligan writes 
itpooalih) is probably the nearest approach to the original 
form, the bu being the root and the -ali the alBx. In the 
Tasmanian pia-wa, the pia seems to me to be only a dialect form 
of bula, for the liquid I easily drops out, and in the Aryan 
languages a modified u approaches very nearly to the sound of i 
(cf. Eng., sir) ; in the Polynesian, i often takes the place of u. 
Thus bula would become bu-a, bi-a, pia. The syllable tva in 
pia-wa, as in marawa, 'one,' is only a suffix, the same as ba 
in our colony. All the other words for ' two ' are only lengthened 
forms of bula. 

As to the kindred of bula, I find that, in the Papuanisland of 
Aneityum (New Hebrides), the word in-mul is 'twins'; there, 
in is the common prefix used to form nouns ; the mul that 

* In my manuscript notes I have the following forms : — From Tasmania, 
bura, pooali, piawah ; Victoria, bulum, pollit; South Australia, 
bulait, purlaitye ; New South Wales, blula, buloara, bul^oara-bo ; 
Southern Queensland, bular, pubul, bularre, bulae; Northern Queens- 
land, bularoo. It is evident that some of these words have been written 
down by men who were not aoquaiuted with the phonology of languages, 
and that the spelling does not adequately represent the real sounds. This 
is generally the case in vocabularies of Australian words, and is a source of 
much perplexity to linguists. One of the commonest mistakes is bular for 
bula. In pronouncing that word, our blackfellows let the voice dwell ou 
the final a, and an observer is apt to think that this is the sound of ar ; 
just as a Cockney will say ' idear ' for ' idea,' ' mar ' for ' ma,' or ' planer ' 
for 'piano.' In one vocabulary that I have seen almost every word 
terminates with r on this principle ! 

iNTEODrcTioif. xxix 

remains is bul, 'two'; there also um, for mu. is ' and'; in the 
other islands it is ma, mo. In New Britain, bal-et is 'again,' 
bul-ug, ' again,' ' also,' ' another,' mule, 'again,' bula, ' another,' 
'an additional one' {cf. ma, 'and'), bula, ka-bila, 'also' (with 
-bilae/Tasm. pia), muru, 'to follow.' In Samoan, muli is 
'tofollow,' f o'i is ' also,' ulu-ga (for fulu-) is a ' couple.' The 
Kjian has tau-muri, 'behind ' in the sense of ' following,' just 
astau-madain Fijian means 'first' or 'before.' The Malay- 
has ulang, 'to repeat,' and pula, 'again, too, likewise.' In 
some of the Himalayan regions, to which a portion of the 
aboriginal inhabitants of India was driven by the Aryan invasion, 
buli, pli, bli means ' four,' that is, as I suppose, ' two-twos,' — a 
daal form of ' two.' 

It seems to me that the Dravidian words maru, 'to change,' 
muru, 'to turn,' muri, 'to break in two,' are from the same 
root as bula, and that root is to be found in Aryan words also, 
such as Lat. mu-to, mu-tu-us; for there is a Sk. root ma, ' to 
change.' It is known that the Sanskrit dvi, dva, 'two,' gives 
the Greek dis (for dvis), 'twice,' and the adjective diss os, 
'double,' and that dvis gives the Latin bis; but the Sk. dva 
also gives the G-othic twa, ' other,' ' different,' and the Eng. 
twain, 'two,' as well as words for 'two' in many languages. 
Hence I think that our root b u, b a, gives the Samoan vae-ga 
'a division,' vaega-lemu, ' the half,' and other words ; because 
when people are ' at one ' on any subject they are agreed, but 
■when they are at 'twos and threes ' they are divided in opinion ; 
and in the same sense sense I would connect the Lat. divido 
■with the Sk. root dvi. Probably the Latin varius and the 
English variance are connected with the root ba in that same 

I would only add a line to say that our blackfellows use the 
■word bula also to mean 'many.' I do not believe that this is 
the same word as bula, 'two.' I consider it to come from the 
same root as the Sanskrit pulu, puru, 'many,' and that root, 
under the form of par, pla, pie, plu, has ramifications all 
through the Aryan languages in the sense of ' fill, full, much, 
more,' &c. The eastern form of this root gives, in New Britain, 
bula, 'more,' mag, 'many,' buka, 'full'; in Motu, bad a is 'much,' 
and hutu-ma, 'many,' 'multitude'; in Aneityum, a-lup-as 
(lup=plu), ' much'; in Fiji, vu-ga, ' many'; in Duke of York 
Island, bu-nui, 'to increase.' In Dravidian, pal is 'many,' 
pal-gu, ' to become many, to multiply, to increase.' It thus ap- 
pears that the Australian bula, 'many,' has kindred, not only in 
Melanesia and the Dekkan, but also all through the Aryan region. 

Results. — The root is lu, which denotes ' repetition,' ' change,' 
and this is the idea which resides in the Hebrew numeral ' two,' 
and in the Latin alter, ' second '; another, but cognate, idea for 


'two' or 'second ' is 'that wliicli/oZ/oio«'; of the root iu other 
forms are bu, bi, pi, ma, mo, mu, fu, fo, and u; from m.a, mil, 
come Dravidian words meaning ' to turn,' ' to change '; and from 
the same root-forms there are, in the New Hebrides, New Britain, 
and Polynesia, numerous words in the sense of 'follow,' 'again, 
'another,' 'acouple,' 'also.' The Melanesian word ww-Ze, 'again,' 
and the MsdsLj pu-la, 'again,' connect themselves, not only with 
the Dravidian ma-ru, mu-ru, hut also with the Sanskrit word 
•pu-nar, 'back,' 'again,' and also with the Greek ^a-^M, 'again.' 

YI. Othee Test-woeds. 
Words fir ' Water,' 'Blind; 'Ilye: 

(a) . In dealing with the Australian words for ' water,' ' fire,' 
'san,' 'eye,' &c., I must use brevity. All these can be proved to 
have their roots in India, and to have stems and branches from 
these roots in Aryan Europe, in Malay lands, and in the islands 
of the South Seas. "First, let us«take up the word for 'water.' 

Collins quotes bado as the Port Jackson word for 'water'; 
others write it badu ; it is found in various parts of our colony 
and in Western Australia. The root is ba, ma, and the du is a 
suffix ; du is also in Dravidian a formative to neuter nouns. The 
root ma means 'to be liquid,' 'to flow.' It is a very old word; 
for the Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions have mami, 'waters,' 
and this is a plural by reduplication; the Hebrew has mo, ma(i), 
'water,' mo a, 'to flow'; the ancient Egyptian has mo, 'water,' 
whence, according to some, the name Moses ; the Sanskrit has 
ambu (am /or ma, by metathesis), 'water;' the Keltic has 
amhainn, abhuinn, 'a river,' whence comes the river-name, 
'Avon.' From ma come the words wai and vai which are so 
common for 'water' in the New Hebrides and in the Polynesian 
islands, and from the same root, in a sense known to the Arabs, 
by an appropriate euphemism, as 'the water of the feet,' come the 
Melanesian and Polynesian words mi, mim, mimi, miaga, &c., 
the Sanskrit mih and the Keltic miin. Prom am (— ab=:ap) 
comes the Sanskrit plural form apas, 'water,' while from ma 
may come the Latin mad-id us, 'wet.' We found that wa-kul, 
'one,' comes from root ba, ma; so, from the root of ba-du, comes 
the Australian word wa-la, which means 'rain,' and in some 
places, ' water.' 

As to the kindred of our Sydney badu, I would remind you 
that ' water,' ' rain,' ' sea,' and ' wave,' are cognate ideas ; hence 
the Samangs, who are the Negritos of the peninsula of Malacca, 
say bat-eao for 'water'; the Motu of New G-uinea say medu, 
'rain,' batu-gu, 'shower'; the Aneityumese in-cau-pda,* 'rain'; 

» Cau is the Fijian tau, 'to fall as rain,' and -pda is the same as the 
New Britain word bata, 'rain'; au in Samoan is 'a current.' 


New Britain says bata, 'to rain,' ta-va, 'sea,' and tlie Maori say 
awa, 'water.' As a coincidence, it is remarkable that the old 
tigli Q-erman word awa (c/. the Ger. wasser, Eng. water) 
means 'water,' and bedu is.quoted as an old Phrygio-Macedonian 
word meaning ' water.' 

Some observers have remarked that our blacks soon master tie 
dialects spoken by other tribes, and have ascribed this to a natural 
readiness in learning languages. But the present inquiry shows 
that there is another cause for this. A man or woman of the 
Sydney tribe, which said b a-du for 'water,' would easily recognize 
ba-na in an adjacent tribe as the same word, the termination 
only being different, just as it is not hard for Englishmen to re- 
member that the German wasser is water, and that brennen 
means burn. So also, a Kamalarai black, who says mu-ga, would 
soon know the Wiradhari mu-pai; and elsewhere mat a, 'one,' is 
not much different from meta and matata for 'one,' or even 
from the Tasmanian mar a. 

Sesults. — Ba, ma, mo, am, ap are forms of an original root 
meaning 'water,' 'that which is liquid and flows'; derived forma 
are mi, me, iva; from ha comes the Sydney word ha-du, 'water'; 
the du here is a suffix iu Dravidian also, and exists in the 'New 
Guinea word ba-tu, elsewhere ha-ta; the Samang Negritos say lat- 
eao ; the old- language of Java has hanu, 'water,' where the n has 
the liquid sound of gn, and takes the place of d in the suffix du. 
Erom all this it is clear that our Australian ha-du is of good and 
ancient lineage. 

(6.) In the Maitland district of New South Wales a ' blind ' 
man is called boko; in Polynesia poko is 'blind,' or, more 
fully, mata-poko, mata-po, 'eyes-blind.' As there can be no 
suspicion of borrowing here, how is so striking a resemblance 
to be accounted for? Do you say that it is a mere coincidence? 
"Well, if so, let us examine the matter. In the Kamalarai region, 
(see map) mu-ga means 'blind,' and in the Mudgee district, 
mu-pai is 'dumb'; in Santo (New Hebrides), mog-moga is 
'deaf; in Erromanga, another island of that group, bus a is 
'dumb'; in Eiji, bo-bo is 'blind'; in Duke of York Island, ba-ba 
is 'deaf; inSanskrit, mu-ka is 'dumb'; in Greek, mu-dos, mu-tis 
is 'dumb,' Lat. mut-us. In Keltic, bann is 'to bind, tie,' 
balbh is 'dumb,' and bodhar is 'deaf.' Now, there can be little 
doubt that in all these words the root is the same (mu, mo ; ba, 
bo, bu; po), and yet these words e:5tend over a very wide area 
indeed, from Tahiti ri<:;ht across through India to Greece, Italy, 
and even to John o' Groat's. The meanings are ' blind,' ' deaf,' 
' dumb,' and yet the root is the same. The general root-meaning 
which suits them all is 'to close,' ' to bind' ; this meaning shows 
itself in the Greek verb mu-o — from which mudos comes — 
' to close the eyes or mouth,' and in the Sanskrit mu, 'to bind'; 


similarly the Hebrew (a) illam, ' dumb,' comes from the verb 
alam, 'to bind,' 'to be silent'; in the Grospels, the blind man's 
eyes were ' opened,' and Zacharias, who had been for a time 
dumb, had ' his mouth opened and his tongue loosed.' The root 
of our Australian words boko, muga, is therefore the same as 
the Sanskrit mu, 'to bind.' Prom the same source come the 
Samoan pu-puni, 'to shut,' po, 'night'; the Aneityumese 
at-apn-es (apn=pan), 'to shut,' na-poi, 'dark clouds'; the 
New Britain bog, 'clouded,' and the Tukiok bog, 'to cover 
up'; c/! the Sanskrit bhuka, 'darkness.' In Aneityum, a-pat 
is 'dark,' 'deaf,' and po-p is 'dumb.' In Malay, puk-kah 
(c/! mu-ga) is 'deaf,' and bu-ta is 'blind'; ba-bat {cf. ba-ba, 
bo-bo) is to ' bind '; Fiji has bu-ki-a, ' to tie,' ' to fasten '; New 
Zealand has pu-pu, 'to tie in bundles,' pu, ' a tribe,' 'bunch,' 
'bundle.' It is even possible that our English words bind, 
bunch, bundle, come, through the Anglo-Saxon, from this 
same root, ba, bu, mu. 

I suppose that these examples will suffice to prove that the 
similarity between the Australian boko and the Polynesian 
poko is not a mere coincidence. Where have we room now for 
the theory that the natives of the South Sea Islands are of Malay 
origin ? I might, with equal justice, say that they came from 
the Hunter Eiver district in Australia, if I were to look only at 
the words boko and poko ! 

Results. — The ideas ' blind,' ' deaf,' ' dumb,' may be reduced 
to the simple idea 'bound' — the eyes, ears, mouth, or tongue 
' closed, bound, tied.' This idea is, in the Aryan languages, 
expressed mostly by mu, but, in our Eastern languages, by ha, 
ho; mu, mo ; pu, po ; all these root-forms are identical, and are 
the basis of cognate words spreading from the region of ' ultima 
Tliule' across the world to Tahiti. Can this be the result of 
accident, or of the spontaneous creation of language in several 
different centres ? Is it not rather proof of a common origin ? 
Even in the development of the root, there is a singular corres- 
pondence; for the Sanskrit adds -k a, and so do the Malay, the 
Kamalarai, the Santoan, and the Polynesian ; others use t for Jc. 

(c.) The word for ' eye ' also may be useful as a sample test-word, 
for it is not likely to be subject to the influences of change to 
which I have already referred. In Tasmania a word for ' eye ' is 
mongtena, and the common word in all Australia is mi or. mil, 
or some other simple derived form from the root mi. Mongtena 
is in Milligan's "Vocabulary of the Dialects of the Aboriginal 
Tiibes of Tasmania," but I have never found that Vocabulary to 
be satisfactory either as to its phonetics or its critical sagacitv. I 
therefore suppose that the real form is ma-ag-ta-ua ; for mono--ta- 
linna is there the word for 'eyelash,' and mong-to-ne is 'to see'- 
at all events, I consider ma to be its original stem, while the 


Australian stem is mi, although there are, in various parts of the 
continent, words with the ma stem. The Australian words for 
' eye,' then, are mi, mia, mikal, miki, rair, mil, mial, mina, 
Ttiintik, miko, mirang; maal, mail; meur, mobara. These 
words extend from Port Darwin right across to Bass's Straits. 
Several words formed from the same root mean the ' face,' and 
compound words are : — wirtin-mirnu, 'eyelid,' turna-mirnu, 
'lower eyelid,' wicin-mir, 'eye-lash,' genin-mir, 'eye-brow,' 
krdjimring, 'white of the eye,' daami-mir, 'the temples,' 
katen-mirnu, ' a tear.' 

Now, it is evident that all these words for ' eye ' come from the 
root ma, mi, me, mo, and that those formed from mi are the 
most common. This ma is quite sporadic ; for, in Samoan, which 
I take to be original and typical Polynesian, ma means 'clean,' 
'pure,' 'bright-red,' maina is ' to shine,' said of fire ; ma-lama 
means either ' the moon' or 'a light'; va-ai is ' to see,' and so on ; 
the Ebudan ma is ' to see'; in New Britain me-me is 'scarlet,' 
'bright-red,' and with the meaning of 'red' the Ebudan has 
me-me-a, miel, miala; in Samoan, mu-mu is 'to burn brightly,' 
aud mu-mii is 'red,' and the Aneityumese ama-mud is 'to burn ' 
transitively; the Maori has ,ma-hana, 'warm'; Papuan for 'eye ' 
is mata, mara, maka, mana; the Malay has mata, 'eye,' and 
this is the sporadic word used everywhere for ' eye.' 

From all these words, it appears that ' see,' ' clear, ' shine,' 
' eye,' 'burn,' 'fire,' ' red,' are allied terms, and that the root-idea 
from' which they all proceed is that of ' shining brightly.' Now, 
so far as the eye is concerned, that is an appropriate designation for 
it ; and this appropriateness is elsewhere confirmed by language ; 
for the Sanskrit akshi, ' eye,' Latin oculus, and the Latin acer, 
' sharp,' are founded on the root ak, meaning ' keenly bright' or 
' sharp,' and the English word ' sheen' is, in Lowland Scotch, ap- 
plied to the 'bright' part of the eye. Now, I find that meaning 
in the Sanskrit bhii, 'to shine,' which is just our root ma. 
Sanskrit derivatives from this bha are bha, 'a star' (with which 
compare the Australian mirri, 'the stars'), bhaga, 'the sun,' 
and bha, 'light,' bhauu, bhama, 'light,' 'the sun," passion.' 
The Greek phai-no is from the same root. 

The Dravidian language, like the Australian, seems to prefer 
the form mi ; it has min, 'to glitter,' and hence mina is ' a fish,' 
so called from its phosphorescent scales. 

A Samoan word 'to glisten,' 'to shine,' is ila-ila, applied to 
the eyes, and in the Papuan of Tagula (south-east cost of New 
Guinea) ira is 'bright'; at Port Essington (north coast o^ 
Australia) ira is the ' eye,' and in some parts of New South 
Wales ire, yir-oka is the 'sun.' In the Wiradhari dialect, 
iraduis'day,'and the Ebudan of Erromanga has ire, 'to-day. 
Further, a common word for ' eye' in Queensland is dilli ; and 


I have no doubt that this is the same Dravidian termination 
-illi which we shall find in ta-killi-ko and in many other Awa- 
bakal words, but here added on to the same root which we find in 
the Sanskrit di(p), ' to shine.' 

The Ebudan of Baki has sembi to mean 'fire'; now sembu 
in Dravidian means 'red.' In Australia, a very general word for 
'fire' is wi, win ; in the north-west of Tasmania it is win-alia ; 
these I take to be from the same root as our mil, 'the eye,' and 
the Dravidian min. In Tasmania also, tintya means 'red'; 
to which cognates are the Sanskrit damh, dah, 'to burn,' dams, 
dam^, 'to bite,' 'to see'; in Tamil tind-u, is 'to kindle,' tittu, 
'to whet'; cf. Anglo-Saxon tendan, 'to kindle,' English tinder. 

Besides mata, the Maoris have another word for 'eye,' kanohi, 
which much resembles the Dravidian kan, 'the eye,' k an, 'to 
see '; and the root of kan may be the same syllable as in Sanskrit 
ak-shi, ' eye,' the ak being by metathesis changed into ka. At 
all events, the root kan is abundantly prevalent in the sporadic 
languages; for the Maori itself has kana, 'to stare wildly,' that 
is, ' to look keenly'; ka, 'to burn'; ka-ka, 'red-hot'; kana-pa, 
'bright,' 'shining'; kana-ku, 'fire'; and cognate Potynesian 
dialects have kano-i-mata, 'the pupil (i.e., 'the sheen') of the 
eye'; 'a'ano, certain 'red berries,' 'the flesh of animals,' from its 
redness; ka-napa-napa, 'to glitter'; ka-n a pa, 'lightning.' The 
simple root ka gives la, ra, 'the sun,' and all the Polynesian 
words connected with these forms. 

Nor is this root-word ka, kan confined to Polynesian dialects ; 
in Ebudan, ' fire ' is in-oap, kapi, kapu, gapu, av, avi; and 
the Papuan dialects have for 'fire,' kova, kai-wa ; for ' burn,' 
ogabu, igabi. And kai-o in Greek is ' I Journ.' 

It is interesting to know, also, that in the states which form 
the Himalayan boundary of India the words for 'eye' are mi, 
mik, mighi, mak, mo, mak, mo; and, farther east, in Cochin- 
China and Tonkin, mot, mok, mu. It thus appears that, on the 
whole our common word mi], 'the eye,' is more akin to the non- 
Aryan races of India — the representatives of its earlier population. 

In closing tliis section of my subject, I presume I need scarcely 
say that the evidence before us drawn from the words for ' water ' 
' blind,' and ' eye,' fully justifies the opinion that the Australian 
languages are not isolated, but that, in their essential root-words, 
they have a close relation to the languages of the Southern Seas 
and to similar root- words in the languages of the great peninsula of 
India. I cannot conceive it to be possible that our blackfellows 
should have, by chance, invented words which, when analysed, 
show the underlying ideas exjiressed by them to be the same as 
those root-words spread overso vast an area elsewhere. 


VII. MiscEHAinEOTJS Test "Woeds. 

(a.) There are just two or three other words which I would 
glance at very rapidly. The Malay kutu means ' louse '; in all 
Polynesia also that word means 'louse'; therefore, as some 
persons say, the South Sea Islanders must be Malay-Polynesians. 
Put I find that in Aneityum also, a Papuan region, in-ket is 
'louse,' and in South Australia kiita, and in other parts of 
Australia, kii-lo, gullun. To complete the analogy, these per- 
8ons should now say that the Papuans of the New Hebrides and 
the blacks of South Australia are Malay. This looks like a 
reductio ad ahsurdum. 

(b.) The word kutu reminds me that there are some very un- 
savoury words, which are a strong proof of identity of origin, 
among races ; for, if these words have not come from one common 
source, it is scarcely possible to imagine how they are so much 
alike. Por instance, gu-nung here means stercus liominis aut 
hesiiae ; in Sanskrit the root-verb is gu. In Samoan, (k)i-no is 
' excrement,' the same word as gu-nung. Among our Port 
Stephens blacks, the worst of the evil spirits is called gunuug- 
dhakia=' s^erciis e(^e«s.' In Hebrew, a variant for the name 
Beelzebub is Beelzebtil, which means dominus stercoris. 
Again, kak is an Aryan root-verb; in Kew G-uinea it becomes 
tage {t for h, as is common) ; in New Britain, tak ; in Samoa, 
ta'e; in Aneityum, no-hok and na-heh. The Sanskrit bhaga, 
which I need not translate, is in Piji maga; and in Tasmania 
maga; and pi, mi, as I have already shown, is as old as the 

(c.) The Tasmanian word for ' sun ' is pugganubrana or 
pukkanebrena or pallanubrana or panubraua, according 
to Milligan's list. Of these, the first is clearly the original form, 
for the la;st is merely a contraction of it, and the third substitutes 
lioTg. The last syllable -n a is formative, and is exceedingly 
common in Tasmanian words ; it is, I may observe in passing, 
exactly the same syllable which is used as a common sufSx to 
form nouns in New Gruinea and in the Albannic group, and 
in a slightly different way also in Aneityum. The remainder of 
the Tasmanian word is pugg a and nubra. Now, nubra or 
nub re in Tasmanian is 'the eye,' but the vocabularies of that 
language do not enlighten me as to the meaning of pugga. I 
would write it biig-a, and connect it with the New Britain word 
bug (pronounced bung), which means ' day'; thus biiganubra 
would mean ' the eye of day,' that is, ' the sun '; and that is 
exactly the meaning of mata-ari, the Malay word for the ' sun.* 
The Ebudan of Santo has bog, ' day,' and the Fijian for ' sun' 
is mata-ni-senga. Bug is allied to the Dravidian pag-al, 
' day.' B ii g I take from the Sk. bh a, 'to shine '; with this com- 
pare the derivation of the English word ' day.' 


(d.) In the Kamalarai dialect (N.S.W.), kagal means ' bad,' 
' no good'; the -gal here, as elsewhere, is formative, and ka is 
the root. Now ka is a Sk. prefix meaning ' bad '; in Piji, 'bad' is 
ca, and in the New Hebrides, sa ; in New Britain it is a-ka-ina. 

(e.) The Awabakal word for ' good ' is murrarag ; in Wirad- 
hari, it is marang ; in Kamalarai, it is murraba; the Port 
Jackson tribe at Sydney called it bujari. The root is ma, mu, 
bu ; Mr. Threlkeld's spelling should thus have been ma-ra-rag, 
that is, ma-ra with the last syllable reduplicated and -ag added ; 
and murraba should be ma-ra-ba ; inbu-jari, the-jari is a very 
common formative. Analogues to these are: — Albahnic, bo-ina, 
'good'; Ebudan (Aneityum), up-ene (up/orbu) ; Malay, ba-ikj 
Papuan, mage, bo-ena, na-mo, na-ma. The Sanskrit bha-dra 
means 'best,' 'happy,' 'well'; and the insular Keltic ma-th is 
' good,' ' wholesome,' 'happy.' I believe that the Latin bonus 
(of which Latin etymologists cannot trace the origin) is connected 
with these ancient roots; for the Keltic ma-th, z'.e., mad, would 
easily give bon-us. 

(_/) The Wiradhari balun, 'dead,' seems to be the same word 
as the Dravidian ma-1, 'to die,' and of the same origin as the 
Polynesian ma-te, ' dead,' and the Malay ma-ti, mang-kat, 'dead.' 
The old Assyrian has maatu, 'to die,' and the Sanskrit mri 
(mar), the Malay mi-ta, the Hebrew miith, math, are all cognate 
verbs. The Keltic has bath, bas, ' death.' 

(g.) Korien is an Awabakal negative. If it were an Ebudan 
word, its form in -en would make it a verbal noun equivalent to 
' the denying.' Now, it happens that, in the Motu dialect of New 
Guinea, gorea means 'to deny,' and the Maori ha-hore or hore 
means 'no' (A for k), and whaka-kore-kore, 'to deny.' The 
Ebudan of Efate has koro, 'to deny.' Another Awabakal nega- 
tive is kya-wai, where the kya is for ka. The Maori ka-ua 
(imperative or optative) also means 'not.' 

(ii.) Wiyalli is to 'speak.' The Sanskrit vad, vac, 'to 
spei'.k,' would give the wiy a, and the -alii is the usual verbal form. 
Thc^ Albannic has veti, ' speak.' Fiji has va-ka, ' to say,' and 
veiwali, 'to joke,' where veils a reciprocal. The Awabakal wi- 
ya means ' say,' ' tell'; New Britain has wi, ' to tell, to inform.' 

(ic.) The Awabakal bun means 'to strike,' 'to beat,' 'toliill.' 
With this compare the Malay buiioh, 'to kill'; the Albannic 
bua-tari, 'to destroy,' and we-umi, 'to fight,' 'to kill,' of which 
the we is reciprocal. 

(Z.) For an adult ' woman,' the Wiradhari says inar ; the Port 
Jackson (Sydney) sub-tribe said din or dhin* ; other localities say 
yinan, ina ; thus the d is radical. Several districts, far apart, in 

*Henoe comes the word jin — so commonly used in Australia to mean 
the 'wife' of ablack man (kuri). 


British New Guinea say ina-gu, 'my mother,' ia ina-na, 'his 
mother,' in e, 'mother,' where the ina is our Australian word; 
and, in Samoa, tina is 'mother.' Are these languages not akin^ 
Is it possible that the Papuans, the Polynesians, and the Australians 
could have borrowed from one another so essential a word as 
'woman,' 'mother "i Moreover, in Tamil, inu means 'to bring 
forth young' {cf. Eng. yean), and in Malay induis a word for 
'mother.' Are these, too, not akin to our Australian word ? 

VIII. The Peonouns as Test Woeds. 

There are few ]anguages in which the pronouns of the first and 
the second persons are declined throughout by the inflexion of the 
same base-stem. In the Aryan family, there are at least two 
bases for each of them, and these are often so disguised by the 
inflexions that it is difiicult to detect them. In English, for 
instance, there does not seem to be any etymological connection 
between / and me and we, and a similar diversity exists in the 
Latin effo, mihi and nos, tu and vos ; in the Greek ego, mou, noi, 
hemeis ; in the Sanskrit aliam, Tnam, vayam, or tvad and yush- 
mad. In Melanesian regions, the corresponding Papuan, Albannic 
and Ebudan pronouns are apparently considered so volatile and 
evanescent that a strong demonstrative is added as a backbone 
for their support, and thus the pronoun itself almost disappears 
from view. But many of these Melanesian pronouns usually have 
two forms — a longer and a shorter; the longer and stronger is used 
for emphasis-and can stand alone ; the shorter is sufiixed to verbs 
and nouns, and it commonly shows the stem of the pronoun in its 
primary state. In Latin and Greek, we are already familiar with 
the strengthening use of demonstratives as regards these two 
personal pronouns, for we know that ego-ipse, ego-met, vos-met- 
ipsi, ego-ge, and the like, are used. As examples of the shorter 
Melanesian forms, I cite the Aneityumese etma-k, 'my father,' 
etma-m, 'thy father,' etma-n, 'his father,' where the k, m, and 
n represent the three pronouns of which the longer possessives are 
unyak, unyum, o un; corresponding sufiixes are seen in the 
Papuan (Murua Is.) nima-gu ' my hand,' nima-mu, 'thy hand,' 
nima-na, 'his hand.' In Melanesian languages generally, either 
the separable possessive or its sufiix form is used with nouns, 
although the one and the other use convey a slightly difierent shade 
of meaning; thus, the Tukiok dialect says either a nug ruma 
or SI, ruma-ig, 'my house,' and the Fijian something similar; but 
the Papuans say ia nima-na, 'his hand,' ina-gu, 'my mother.' 

Each dialect in this volume has some peculiarity ; for the 
Wiradhari has something which looks like suffixed pronouns,* 

* See girugal-rfw on page HI of this Appendix, gaddal-rfion page 112, 
and other instances in the same section. 


and the Awabakal has a 'conjoined dual'; yet they all have long 
forms of the first and the second pronouns to be used alone or 
for the sake of emphasis, -while other short forms always go with 
a verb as its subject. I add a list of the pronouns found in 
the whole of the Australian, Papuan, and Melanesian regions, 
so far as they are as yet known to linguists ; for, although I shall 
make only a limited use of this list at present, yet ic may be 
useful to students of language in Britain and elsewhere, especially 
as the sources from which I have compiled it are not generally 

Australian Pkonouns. 

The Awabakal pronouns are : — 

Singular. DimI. Plural. 

1st. — G-atoa, bag, eijimo-ug, tia Bali, gali Geen, gear-un 

2nd. — G-into, bi, giro-ug Bula Nura 

3rd. Masc. — Niuwoa, noa, gi- ~\ 
ko-ug, bon I 

3rd. Fem.-Boun-toa, boun- f ^"^°^>"^ ^^^'^ 



For the purpose of comparison, I give the forms of these two 
pronouns as found in other parts of Australia : — 

New South Wales. 

1st Pronoun. 

Sing. — Graiya, ga, gaan, gai, iya, gata, gaiagug ; gadthu, nathu, 
nathuna, athu, addu, thu, athol ; mi, mina, mitua, motto; imigdu, 
ganna, nanna ; gera ; maiyai ; iaka ; giamba ; gulagi. 

2nd Pronoun. 
Sing.—Qmd-a., (-u), yind-a, (-u), ind-a, (-p, -o, -u), nind-a, (-u); idno ; 

numba; wonda; nindrua, natrua ; yindigi, indiga ; youra; beai, 

bubla ; wiya, walbo ; gin ; imiba ; gindigug ; nagdu ; gulaga. 
3rd Pro. ; Sing. — Grenna, noa, niuoa ; PZm.— G-arma, bara. 

1st Pronoun. 
Sing.—<ja.Mo, nadtha, gio, gaiu, gatuk; Avaan, aan, winnak; yatti, 

yanga, yandog, nitte ; naik, naic, niak, ge, gen ; wokok, yer- 

rowik, woliinyek, tiarmek ; burdop. 

2nd Pronoun. 
Sing. — Gind-a, (-e_, -i,- o, -u), gindiik ; nind-i, (-e); ginna, ginya; nin, 

nindo, ninan, niam, winnin; yerrowin; tiarmin; waar, waanyen; 

wolanig; nutiik, utiik; mirambina; gulum ; yerally. 
3rd Pro.; .S'mp'.— Nunthi, munniger, kiga; Plu.. Murra-milla,kinyet. 

iirTEOBTrcTiojr. xxxix 


1st Pro.; Sing. — Mina, mana, mena. 2nd Pro.; Sing. — Nina. 

Central and South Australia. 

1st Pronoun. 

Sing. — ^Gai, gann-a, (-i), ginyi, onye, yiga, yimia, ini, unnyi ; 
gapp-a, (-u), gaap, appa, aupa ; gatto, attlio, attu, autu, altliu ; 
guca; ti; iyie. 

2nd Pronoun. 

Sing. — G-ina, nia, nini, nina, yina; gimba, hnba, umpu, unga, 
unni, yinyi ; nindo, yundo ; tidni, yidni, yandru, andru,gundru ; 
wuru, nuru, nuni ; canna. 

3rd Pro.; Sing. — Nulla, kitye, pa, panna, ninni; Ph<,. — Kinna(r), 
ka(r), pa(r)na, nana, ya(r)dna. 

Weslern Australia. 

1st Pronoun. 

Sing. — Gatlia, gatuko, natto, gadjo, ajjo, ganya, guanga, ganga, 
gana, gonya, nanya, nunna ; garmi, geit ; gi, gida, gika, gig. 

2nd Pronoun. 

Sing. — G-inda, ginna, yinda, yinna, nini, ninya, niya ; gindiik, 
yinnuk, nonduk, nundu, niinda, nunak; janna. Phwal — Nural. 
3rd Pro.; Sing. — Bal ; Flu. — Balgun, buUalel. 


1st Pronoun. 

Sing. — Gaia, gia, gio, nigo ; ganga, ongya, unca ; nutta, utttu, 
uda ; yundu, giba, ipa ; nia, ia, niu, iu, iuwa, yo ; biirko ; 
kuronya; gungiil. 

2nd Pronoun. 

Sing. — Ninda, inda, imba; yinda, (-i), ind-a, (-i); yindua, yiindu, 
indu; innu, iu ; inknu, ingowa, enowa, nowa ; nine; nay on ; 
noniiin ; yuniir ; tini ; wologa. 

3rd Pro.; Sing. — Ugda, unda ; Plu. — Ganna. 

Witli these Australian Pronouns, compare the 

Deavidian Pronouns. 
1st Pronoun. 
Sing. — Tamil — Nan, yin, en, en ; Canarese — an, yan, na, nanu, en, 
fine ; Tulu — yan, yen, e ; Malayalam — alam, nan, &i, en, ena, eni, 
ini ; Telugu — nfinu, n6, enu, 6, na, nu, ni ; Tuda — an, en, eni, 
ini ; K6ta — ane, en, eni, ini ; G6nd — ann&, nd, an, na ; Ku — 
anu, na, in, e; Rdjmahal — en; Oraon — enan. 
Plu. — Memu, am^t, yam, am, amu, nam, nangal, navu, avu. 

xl INTEODrCTlOir. 

find Pronoun. 
Sing. — Tamil — Ni, nin, nun, ei, i, ay, oy ; Canarese — ^nln, ni, 
ninu, nin, ay, e, iye, i, i ; Tulu, }, nin, ni ; Malayalam — ni, nin. ; 
Telugu — nivu, ivu, ni, nin, vu, vi; Tiida — m, nin, i; K6ta — ni, 
nin, i; G6nd — imma, ni, i; Ku — inu, ni, i; Oraon — nien; Rajma- 
hal — nin. The Scythic of tlie Behistun tables has ni ; the Brahui 
of Affghanistan has ni, na. Plu. — Miru, imat, nir, nivu, iru. 

With these compare corresponding pronouns from several places 
in British New Guinea, thus : — ■ 

Papuan Peonoui<'s. 

Sing. — G-ai, mou, da, yau, ye-gu, ndu, nana, ara ; Dual — Gaba- 
gaba, ni-mo-to, noni, kaditei, vagewu ; Plu. — Ga-1-pa-ga-l-pa, 
'we three,' ni-mo, 'we,' no-kaki, kita, ya-kaimi, ita. 

Sing. — Gido, gi, rou, koa, ya-kom, oa, goi, oi ; Dual — Gipel, ni- 
go-to, ka-mitei ; Plu. — Gita, nigo, yana, komiu, ya-kamiyi, um- 


Sing. — la, goi, nou, au-kaki, tenem ; Plu. — lamo, tana, nei, ya- 
buia, sia, idia, ila, ira, isi. 

Possessive forms are : — 


Sing. — Lau-apu, gau, moro, dai-ero, yo-gu, ge-gu, egu ; Plu. — Lai 
emai-apumai, ga-l-pan, yo-da, la-nambo. 


Sing. — la-apuga, eke-ero, apui-ero, li-nambo, gninu, oi-amu; Plu. — 
Komiai, gita-munu, yai-ero, amui, ami, gami. 

Ebudan Pronouns. 
Corresponding Ebudan pronouns are : — 

Sing. — E-nau, iau, na-gku, avau, ain-yak ; slwrt forms, na, a, ku 
ne, iya, k ; Plu. — Endra, hida, riti, kito, a-kity, a-kaija, 


Sing.— Eg-Vo, e-nico, jau, aiko, yik, aiek ; PZtf.— Kamim, hamdi, 
ituma, akaua, aijaua. 



Possessive forms are — 


Sing. — No-ku, his-ug, kana-ku, kona-gku, rahak, tio-ku, unyak ; 
Plu. — No-ra, isa-riti, kana-dro, kona-ra, otea, uja. 

Sing. — No-m, Msa-m, kana-mo, kona-mi, raha-m, o unj Plu. — 
No-nim, isa-hamdi, kana-miu, kona-munu, aua, un-yimia. 

Fijian Pronouns. 
Pijian pronouns are : — 

Singular. Binal. Ternal. Plural. 


Nom. — Koi-a-Tx\ 
Poss. — -nku 
Obj. — Au 

Nom. — Ko-i-\o 

Poss. mu 

Obj. — Iko 

Nom. — Ko-koya 
Poss. — I-keya; -na 
Obj. — Koya. 

inclu. Koi-h-e-di&vxjL 

exclu. -^oj-keirau 

inclu. /-^e-daru 

exclu. /-keirau 

inclu. Kedaru 

exclu. Keirau 


I-rau ; drau 



















^o-iratou Ko-i-ra, 

I-ratou ; dratou I-ra ; dra 
I-ratou I-ra. 

t Those syllables which are printed in italics may be dropped off in succession for various 
uses of the pronouns. 

Demonstratives are : — 

O guo, ' this, these ' ; o koya o guo, {sing.) ' this ' ; o ira o guo, 
'these.' O gori, 'that, those'; o koya o gori (sing.), 'that'; 
o ira o gori (plu.), 'those.' 

Albannic Pronouns. 
In the Albannic (Tukiok) dialect, the pronouns are : — ■ 


1st — lau, io, yo 

2nd — U or ui 
3rd — la or i 












inclu. da-ra 
exclu. mi-ra 



This is a long list, and yet it may be useful, as showing how- 
great a variety there is in the pronominal forms of the Australian 
and Melanesian languages. But these forms, if subjected to 
analysis and comparison, will be found to resolve themselves into 
a few simple elements. In examining the Australian pronouns 
now given, we must bear in mind that they are subject to some 

* I prefer .SmaZ and Ternal, because they signify 'two (three) each time.' 


degree of error, v/hicli affects also many other lists of Australian 
"words. Australian vocabularies are made often by Englislimen, 
■who, in writing the words, follow the sounds of the vowels as used 
in English, and sometimes even their own vices of pronunciation ; 
for instance, kinner is written down for kinna, and i-ya for 
ai-ya. Again, a blackfellow, when asked to give the equivalents 
for English words, sometimes fails to understand, and so puts one 
word for another ; thus, in some lists that I have seen, the word 
for ' I ' is set down as meaning ' thou '; and even in printing mis- 
takes occur ; for, in Mr. Taplin's list of South Australian dialects 
' we 'is gun, and ' you ' is gun also ; the former should probably 
be g^n ; and kambiyanna is made to mean both 'your father' 
and 'his father.' 

The First Pronoun. — Making all due allo-wauce for such defects, 
I proceed to examine the Australian pronouns, an;l I find that, 
notwithstanding the multitude of their dialect-forms, they have 
only a very few bases. These are, for the first pronoun — G-a-ad, 
ga-ta, ga-ad-du, ba, mi, mo ; and, for the second pronoun — 
G-in, gin-da, gin-du, bi, bu, gula. I leave the demonstrative 
or third pronoun out of account, as it is not of so much importance 
to our inquiry. Now, the existence of the base ga-ad is proved 
by the forms (given above), ga-an, ga-na ; the base ga-ta recurs 
in gatha, ga-ya, ni-te; ga-ad-du, in gad-thu, na-thu, a-thu, 
ga-tu-ko, (fee. ; ba gives wa-an, a-an, and, in South Australia, ga- 
pa, ga-ap, a-pa; mo and mi are merely softened forms of ba, and 
are found in mo-to, wo-kok, mi-na, wi-nak, ga-mi. Even so 
unpromising a form as un-ca (Queensland) connects itself with the 
base ga-ta through gu-6a (South Australia); for some Melanesian 
dialects prefer to begin words with a vowel, and so transpose 
the ^letters of an initial dissyllable; thus, un-6a is for ug-ca= 
gu-ca=gd-ta.* Most of the dialect forms of this pronoun given 
above arise from the interchange of ng, n, and y ; the Wiradhari 
dialect, for example, has gaddu, naddu, yaddu, 'I,' and these 
become more liquid still in yallu, -ladu.f Let us observe here, 
also, that the Tasmanian forms ma-na, mi-na, ' I,' come from the 
base m a, mi. I have above given six bases for the first pronoim in 
Australian, and yet there are only two— ad or ta and ba ; for mi 
and mo are only ba differently vocalised, and, in the other three, 
ga- is a prefix, as will be shown further on, ^^•hile the -du of ga- 
ad-du is an emphatic suffix. 

* Tlie Aneityumese (Ebudan) language is so fond of an initial voM'el that 
it constantly dislocates a coiisouant in favour of a vowel. Our lustrilian 
Vocabularies m this volume have very few words beginning with' vowels 

t See Appendix, page 60. Dr. Caldwell was led into ei?or by the form 
gadlu, which an authority told him meant ' we ' iu South Australia T'oerl 
alone, it is only 'I,' for gaddu. 


Here comes in a most important question. Are these bases ta 
and b a exclusively Australian? Emphatically I say, No; for I 
know that, in Samoan, ta is the pronoun ' I,' and ta (for ta-ua) 
is 'wetwo,' 'itais 'me,' and ta-tou is 'we'; la'u (i.e., ta-ku, I 
for d) is ' my.' I quote the Samoan as the representative of the 
Polynesian dialects. And yet the Maori pronouns of the first 
and second pronouns present some interesting features. They 
are : — 

' I,' ' me ' — Ahau, au, awau. 

' We two ' — Taua, maua. 

' We ' — Tatou, matou, niatau. 

' My ' — Taku, toku, aku, oku, ahaku. 

' Thou ' — Koe ; dual, korua, phc, koutou. 

' Your ' — Tau, tou, au, on, takorua, takoutou. 
Herein 'we two,' 'we,'and 'my,' I see both of our Australian base- 
forms ta and ma; in 'my' I find the Australian possessive genitive 
suflEix ku, gu* ; and in ' we ' I take the -tou to bo for tolu the 
Polynesian for 'three,' three being used in an indefinite way to mean 
any number beyond two.f Then, in Fiji, I find that ' I,' ' me ' is 
au, which may be for ta-u, for the binal form of it is -da-ru (i.e., 
da-(-rua, 'two'), the ternal is -da-tou (i.e., da-Htolu, 'three'), 
and the plural is da. In the Motu dialect of New Guinea, ' I ' is 
la-u, of which the plural is (inclusive) ai (for ta-i?) and (exclusk:e) 
i-ta. In other parts of New Guinea, 'I ' is da, ya-u, n4-u, na-na, 
la-u, and, for the plural, ki-ta, i-ta (cf. Samoan). Ebudan parallels 
are — 'I,'e-nau, iau, ain-ya-k; for the plural, hi-d a, ki-to, a-kity ; 
possessive forms are tio-ku, otea, u-ja. The Tukiok forms iau, 
io, yo ; da-ra, da-tul, dat, correspond mainly with the Fijian, 
and are all from the root da, ta. 

I think that I have thus proved that our Australian base ta is 
not local, but sporadic, and that, so far as this evidence has any 
weight, the brown Polynesians have something in common with 
the Melanesian race. 

My next inquiry is this — Has this base, ta, da, ad, any connec- 
tion with the other race-languages 1 And at once I remember 
that the old Persian for 'I' is ad-am, and this corresponds with 
the Sanskrit ah-am, of which the stem is agh-, as seen in the 
Grseco-Latin ego and the Germanic ich. I assume an earlier 
form of this base to have been ak-, but, whether this Indian ak- 
or the Iranian ad- is the older, I cannot say. At all events, the 
change of ak into at and then into ad, and conversely, is a com- 
mon phonetic change, and is at this moment going on copiously in 
Polynesia. The ak is now in present use in the Malay aku, ' I.' 

*The possessive termination for persons in Awabakal is -u m b a ; tliis I 
take to be for gu-mba, the gu being the possessive formative in Wiradhari ; 
it corresponds to the Ebudan ki, which is used in the same way. 

^Of. Singular, Dual, and (all else) Plural. 

xliv IlfTEODUCTIOjr. 

The other Australian base-form of the first pronoun is ba, and 
this, in the forms of ma, me, mi, mo, is so common in all 
languages that I need scarcely quote more than Sanskrit mad (the 
base), 'I'; the Grseco-Latin emou, mou ; mihi, me; and the 
English, 'we.' This base, ba, gives us the Awabakal simple nomi- 
native iDag (for ba-ag), -ag being one of the most common of 
Australian formatives. Then, of the possessive form, emmo-ug, 
which I would write emo-ug, I take the e to be merely enuncia- 
tive, the -ug being a possessive formation ; the mo that remains is 
the same as in the Australian mo-to, wo-kok, 'I,' the Papuan, 
mou, 'I.' The Awabakal ba-li, 'we two ' (both being present), 
is ba + li, where the -li is probably a dual form. 

The Awabakal accusative of the first pronoun is tia, or, as I 
would write it, tya or ca ; cf. guea and line 4. This tia appears 
again in the vocative ka-tio-u, and is, I think, only a phonetic 
form of the ta which I have already examined. 

I think, also, that the Hebrew pronoun an-oki, ' I,' is connected 
with our root ak, at, ta ; for it seems to be pretty well assured 
that the an- there is merely a demonstrative particle placed before 
the real root-form -ok-i ; for the Egyptian pronouns of the first 
and second persons have it (-an, -ant, -ent) also. And this quite 
corresponds with our Awabakal pronouns of the first and second 
persons, ga-toa and gin-toa; for, in my view, they both begin 
with a demonstrative ga, which exists also in Polynesian as a pro- 
thetic nga, nge.* In Awabakal, I see it in ga-li, 'this,' ga-la, 
'that,' and in the interrogative gan, 'who'? for interrogatives 
come from a demonstrative or indefinite base (cf. the word 
minyug on page 3 of the Appendix). Here again, in the Awa- 
bakal word gan, ' who ' ? we are brought into contact with Aryan 
equivalents ; for, if gan is for k4-an, as seems likely, then it leads 
us to the Sanskrit ka-s, 'who'1 Zend, cvaiit = Latin quan-tus? 
Latin, quod, ubi, itc, Gothic, hvan = English, 'when'? Lithua- 
nian, ka-s, 'who'? Irish, can, 'whence'? Kymric, pa, 'who'? 
Greek, pos, ' how '? po-then, ' whence '? 

In the Australian plural forms geanni, geen, we have again the 
prefix demonstrative ga, but now softened into ge (f/!the Maori pre- 
fix nge) because of the short vowel that follows. The next syllable, 
an, is a liquid form of ad, ta, ' I,' and the ni may be a pluralising 
addition — the same as in the Papuan ni-mo. It should here be 
remembered, however, that the Australian languages seldom have 
special forms for the plural ; for ta may mean either ' I ' or ' we'; 
to indicate the plural number some pluralising word must be added 
to ta ; thus in Western Australia 'we' is gala-ta, literally 'all- 
I.' Some pronouns, however, seem to have absorbed these suffix 

*In Maori, this nge is used as a prefix to tlie pronouns au and onaj 
tlius, nge-au is exactly equivalent to the Australian ngatoa. 


pluralising words, whatever they were, and thus to have acquired 
plural terminations ; of this our geanni is an instance ; in western 
Victoria, ' we ' is expressed by ga-ta-en, that is, gata, ' I,' with 
the suffix -en — the same as the -ni of geanni. The Awabakal 
' we ' is g6en. Such plurals are very old, for they are found in 
the Babylonian syllabaries ; there the second pronoun is zu ; its 
pluraliszu enan,thatis, 'thou-they' = ye ; therealso, 'I ' is mu ; 
with which compare ba, ma. 

The Second Pronoun. — There are only two base-forms for the 
second pronoun, bi or bu and gin. The latter is strengthened by 
the addition of -da, which may also be -de, -di, -do, -du, and these 
vocalic changes support my contention, that this syllable proceeds 
from the demonstrative ta, for if the original is da or ta, all the 
others may proceed from that, but it is not likely that, conversely, 
any one of them would change into -da. The -to a in the Awa- 
bakal gin-toa is the same as in g^l^toa, and the initial g is the 
same as ga, ge. But what is the body of the word — the -in ? I 
can only say with certainty that it is the base-form of the second 
pronoun, for I can give no further account of it. Possibly, it is 
for bin with the 6 (v) abraded ; for the other base-form, although 
it now appears as bi, may have been originally bin — the same as 
the accusative ; and yet, in the accusative dual, we have gali-n 
and bulu-n, and in the singular bon for bo-un, where the n seems 
to be a case-sign. If the -in of gintoa is for bin, then we get 
back to bi as the only base-form of the second Australian pronoun, 
and bi gives the forms wi-y e, we, i-mi-ba, win-in, c/.v. The other 
base-form of bi is bu, and this is attested in Australian by bub la, 
wuru, nuro, nuni, q.v. ; the n'yurag in South Australia shows 
how the initial n has come in, for that plural is equivalent to 
gvurag, from bu; it also shows the origin of the Awabakal plural 
nu-ra. The -ra there is certainly a plural form ; for we have it 
in ta-ra, 'those,' from the singular demonstrative ta, and in ba-ra, 
' they,' from ba. In the genitive gear-unba, ' of us,' the -ar may 
be this -ra, but it may also be simply the -an of the nominative. 
This same -r a is a pluralising suffix in Melanesia. In many parts 
of Melanesia, likewise, this mu — often when used as a verbal 
suffix — is the pronoun ' thou.' 

I may here venture the conjecture, without adding any weight 
to it, that, as the Sanskrit dva, ' two,' gives the Latin bis, bi, so, 
on the same principle, the Sanskrit tva, ' thou,' may be the old 
form to which our bi, bu is allied. 

As to the prefix ga, I know that, in New Britain, ngo is 'this,' 
in Aneityum, nai, naico, i-naico is 'that.' This nga, also, as 
a prefix, occurs in a considerable number of words in Samoan; for 
instance, tasi is 'one,' and tusa is 'alike,' solo is 'swift'; an in- 
tensive meaning of each is expressed by ga-tasi, ga-tusa, ga-solo ; 

ilvi iKTEOiiuoTroi<r. 

tlie numeral 'ten' is ga-fulu which I take to mean 'the whole ' 
(sc. fingers). In Teutonic, it seems to have sometimes a collective 
force, as in ge-birge, ' mountains,' and sometimes an intensive, as 
in Gothic, ga-bigs", from Sanskrit bhaga, the 'sun.' In Latin the 
suffix c in sic is supijosed to be the remains of a demonstrative. 

G-Jitoa, then, is to me made up of ga + ad + do, the -do being 
the same sufiix particle of emphasis which is elsewhere in Australia 
written -du, and the -do is extended into -to a, also for emphasis, 
as in the Wiradhari yama, yamoa, and other Australian words. 
It is quite possible that this -do also is only the demonstrative ta 
— so often used in composition in Awabakal — changed into -to, 
-do, according to the rules on pages 10 and 11 of this volume. 

Prom the lists of pronouns given above, it will be seen that 
Fijian also prefixes a demonstrative ko, ko-i to its first and second 
pronouns. This same particle, ko, o is also prefixed to nouns, 
and especially to proper names. In Samoan, 'o, that is, ko, is 
placed before nouns and pronouns when they are used as the sub- 
ject of a proposition — this, also, for emphasis, to direct attention 
to the agent, like the agent-nominative case in Awabakal. 

In the Ebudan and Papuan pronouns, a similar prothetic demon- 
strative is found ; there it has the forms of na, a in, en, a, ka, ha, 
ya, ye; in many of the Ebudan dialects, — the Aneityumese, for 
instance — the demonstrative in, ni, elsewhere na, is prefixed to 
almost every word that is used as a noun. In other parts of 
Melanesia, the na is a sufiSx. 

Finally, I placed the Dravidian pronouns in my list in order to 
compare them with the Australian. And the comparison is in- 
structive. They are, chiefly, nan, yan, for the first person, and 
nin, nt for the second. Dr. Caldwell himself considers the 
initial n in each case to be not radical, and the base forms to be 
an and in. This is a close approximation to our Australian 
bases ; for we have the three forms, gad-du, nad-du, yad-du, in 
which the n and the y proceed from the original nasal-guttural g, 
and that g, as I have shown, is only a demonstrative prefix. The 
d of ndd and ydd may easily pass into its liquid n, thereby 
giving the Dravidian nan and yan ; and the Australian forms 
are older, for while d will give n, ii, when established in a word, 
will not revert lo d. So also, the Dravidian nln will come from 
the earlier gin, which we find in the Australian gin da. 

IX. The Formation of Words. 

Any one who examines the Yocabularies of the Awabakal and 
the Wiradhari dialects will see how readily the Australian 
language can form derivative words from simple roots, and how 
expressive those words may become, The language is specially 


rich in verb-forms. As an illustration of this, let us take from the 
Wiradhari dialect the root verb bauga, of -which the original 
meaning is that of 'breaking,' 'dividing,' 'separating.' Prom 
that root are formed — bang-dna, 'to break' {intrans.), bang- 
ara, 'to break' (trans.), banga-mdra, 'to (make to) break,' and, 
with various other adaptations of the root-meaning, banga-bira, 
banga-dira, banga-nira, banga-naringa, banga-dara, banga- 
gatnbira, banga-dambira, banga-durmanbira, bang-al-gara. 
It is true that these varying formatives resolve' themselves into a 
few simple elements, but they certainly convey different shades of 
meaning ; else, why should they exist in the language 1 Nor is 
the root banga the only one on which such changes are made; for 
the "Wiradhari vocabulary contains numerous instances of similar 

Then the modes of a verb are also usually abundant and precise. 
In the Indicative mood, the Awabakal dialect has nine different 
tenses, and the Wiradhari has one more, the future perfect. Our 
Australian ' verb thus rivals and excels the Greek and the San- 
skrit, for it thus has four futures, and, for time past, it has three 
forms, marking the past time as instant, proximate, and remote. 
Corresponding to these tenses, there are nine participles, each of 
which may be used as a finite verb. Be.sides an Imperative mood 
and a Subjunctive mood, there are reflexive and reciprocal forms, 
forms of negation, forms to express continuance, iteration, immi- 
nence, and contemporary circumstances. Now, as the Australian 
language is agglutinative, not inflexional, the verb acquires all 
these modifications by adding on to its root-forra various independ- 
ent piartioles, which, if we could trace them to their soiirce, would 
be found to be nouns or verbs originally, and to contain the 
various shades of meaning expressed by these modes of the verb. 
The Fijian verb — in a Melanesian region — is also I'ich in forms ; 
for it lias verbs intransitive, transitive, passive, and, with prefixes, 
intensive, causative, reciprocal, and reciprocal-causative. And 
among the mountains of the Dekkan of India — also a black region 
— the verb, as used by the Tudas and Gonds, is much richer than 
that of the Tamil, the most cultivated dialect of the same race. 

And, in Australian, this copiousness of diction is not confined to 
the verbs ; it shows itself also in the building up of other words. 
On page 102 of this volume, a sample is given of the manner in 
which common nouns may be formed by the adding on of particles. 
Mr. Hale, whom I have already named, gives other instances, 
doubtless derived from his converse with Mr. Threlkeld at Lake 
Macquarie, and, although some of the words ho quotes are used 
for ideas quite unknown to a blackfellow in his native state,, yet 
they are a proof of the facility of expression which is inherent in 
the language. I quote Mr. Hale's examples : — 


, 1 



1— 1 

, 1 

1 1 















. — 1 





•— H 






















CC ^ 

•A --^ ;::j ;3 .^ .i e3 n 13 g 

rtS S g c3 gab -§1=1 


3 ^ ^ I 

O =3 ii cS 

? ^ : ui -^ ;i. ^ ^ ."5 -^ --^ 5 5 o o 3 o 3 ^ 

e '"7 


O © © © O 

. T S ' 1 I I - rH ', I 1 "7 I ' ' I ' I I . _L ' _i 

fe| =i ^ O =i 3 O i5 .fcl .S a & &: L^ ;- kP '^ 

^ ^ .^ h & >. ^ ^ -i -a ^ ^■ 

-Tj &1 rM >r a ..i -V "S '^ -^ "T* -7 

K] -S ^ ^ d d O iS •- -5 a ," s- f^ ^;^ t^ ra 

^13 ^a.'^^-'c'^^SSsSj^lSl 

-d ^ o d 3 o i5 .t3 .£ a & IS -^r ■>" ;? ^ 





a -7 



•A rQ 



C3 g 






If we follow the numbers on the columns, and remember that 
the word in column No. 1 always denotes the person who does the 
action of the verb, the meanings which these words bear — all 
springing from the verbal root-form and meaning — may be shown 
thus : — 

Biin-ki-lli — 2. a boxer ; 3. a cudgel ; 4. a blow ; 5. the smiting ; 

6. a pugilistic ring; root-meaning, 'smite.' 
G-akuya-Ui — 2. a liar ; .3. a jjretenoe ; 4. deceit ; 5. the deceiving ; 

6. a gambling-house ; rt.m., ' deceive.' 
Goloma-Ui — 2. a saviour ; 3. a safeguard ; 4. protection ; 5. the 

protecting ; 6. a fortress ; rt.m., ' protect.' 
Gu-ki-lli — 2. an almoner ; 3. a shop ; 4. liberality ; 5. the giving 

of a thing ; 6. a market ; rt.m., ' give.' 
Gura-lli — 2. a listener ; 3. an ear-trumpet ; 4. attention ; 5. the 

act of hearing; 6. a news-room ; rt.m., 'hear.' 
Ko-ri-lli — 2. a porter ; 3. a yoke ; 4. a carriage ; 5. the carrying ; 

6. a wharf ; rt.m., 'carry.' 
Man-ki-lli — 2. a thief ; 3. a trap ; 4. a grasp ; 5. the taking ; 6. a 

bank ; rt.m., 'take.' 
Pirri-ki-Ui — 2. a sluggard ; 3. a couch ; 4. rest ; 5. the reclining ; 

6. a bedroom ; rt.m., 'recline.' 
Tiwa-lli — 2. a searcher ; 3. a drag ; 4. search ; 5. the seeking ; 

6. the woods; rt.m., 'seek.' 
Uma-lli — 2. an artisan ; 3. a tool ; 4. work ; 5. the doing ; 6. a 

manufactory ; rt.m., ' do.' 
XJpa-lli — 2. a writer ; 3. a pen ; 4. performance ; 5. the per- 
forming; 6. a desk; rt.m., 'perform.' 
Uwa-Ui — 2. a wanderer ; 3. a coach ; 4. a journey ; 5. the 

walking ; 6. a parade ground ; rt.m., ' walk.' 
Wiroba-lli — 2. a disciple ; 3. a portmanteau ; 4. pursuit ; 5. the act 

of following; 6. the barracks; rt.m., 'follow.' 
"Wiya-lli ■ — 2. a commander; 3. a book; 4. speech; 5. the speak- 
ing ; 6. a pulpit ; rt.m., 'speak.' 
Wun-ki-lli — 2. a magistrate; 3. a watch-house; 4. resignation; 

5. the leaving; 6. the jail ; rt.m., 'leave.' 
Yallawa-lli — 2. an idler ; 3. a seat ; 4. a session ; 5. the act of 

sitting ; 6. a pew ; rt.m., ' sit.' 
As to the origin of these formatives, I think that kan equals 
k -I- an, the -an being a personal suffix from the same source as 
the demonstrative un-ni, 'this'; in Wiradhari it is -dain, that 
is d4-ain, the -ain being th-e same as -an. "We shall find further 
on that k, d, t, q and other consonants are used in this language 
merely to tack on the suffix. Similarly, in Fijian and Samoan, 


there is a great variety of consonants in use for this purpose. The 
-kanne seems to be a softer form of -kannai or -kanmai, the 
-mai being a common formative. The -ta of number 5 is a de- 
monstrative which is used abundantly in the language as a 
strengthening particle ; and the -to is the agent-nominative form 
(see pp. 10, 11) of -ta. The -geil of number 6, or, as I write 
it, -gel, seems to me to be of the same origin as the sufE.x -kal 
(see page 18) ; a corresponding word in Dravidian is kal, 'a place.' 
The -y6 of number 2 denotes a continued action, and may be the 
same as the imperative form -ia, that is -iya. 

In the list given above, 'a magistrate' is called wunkiye be- 
cause he ' commits' the culprit to jail, and 'the watch-house' or jail 
is therefore wunkilligel. The wirroballikan are the 'light- 
horse,' who act as an escort to the Governor of the colony, and the 
place where they are housed is therefore wirrobiilligel. In the 
Gospel, the disciples of Christ are called wirroballikan, and their 
following of Him for instruction — their discipleship — is wirro- 
balli-kanne-ta. Bunkillikanne maybe a 'musket,' because 
it ' strikes ' with a ball, or it may be a ' hammer,' a ' mallet,' which 
gives 'blows.' 

The reader has observed that all the verbals in the first column 
above contain the syllable -illi, and, as that table has given us 
examples of synthesis, it may be profitable now to examine the 
formation of Australian words by employing etymological analysis. 
With this view, I take up the Awabakal verb takilliko, ' to eat,' 
and I take this word, because the idea expressed by it is so 
essential to a language, that it is impossible that the word should 
be a loan-word. Now, the verb ' to eat ' has, in Australian, many 
forms, such as thalli, dalli, thaldinna, thilala, dira, chakol, 
taka, tala, and, in Tasmania, tuggara, tuglili, te-ganna. Of 
all these, the simplest is taka, which is used by the northern 
portion of the Kuriggai tribe (see map) in IST. S. Wales. On com- 
paring taka and tala, it is evident that the simple root is ta, 
and all the others come from this; chakol, for instance, is ta 
palatalized into ca, with -kal added; di-ra has the suffix -ra added 
onto the root ta, vocalized into di ; and dira gives the universal 
Australian word for the ' teeth,' just as the Sanskrit dant, 'a tooth ' 
(c/. Lat. dens), is a participial form of the verb ad, 'to eat.' 
The Tasmanian words, which I have here re.stored to something 
like a rational mode of spelling, are clearly the same as the Aus- 
tralian. Nor is the root ta confined to Australia ; it is spread all 
over the East as ta or ka. In Samoa (Polynesian), it is toit-te, 
toM-mafa, and 'ai, that is (k)ai; in Aneityum (Melanesian), it is 
caig; in Efate, kani ; in Duke of York Island, ani, wa-gan ; in 
Motu (New Guinea), ania ; in New Britain, an, van. The Dravi- 
dian is un, and the Sanskrit is ad and khad. Our English word 


eat, Gothic ita, Latin edo, are from the same loot. The Malay 
is ma-kan, of which the ma is also pa, ba, and with this corres- 
ponds the Melanesian (Efate) ba-mi, 'to eat.' Now, it seems to 
me likely that in primitive speech there were, alongside of each 
other, three root-forms, ba, ad, and kad, of which ba and ad 
passed to the West and produced the Greek pha-go, and e(sJthio, 
the Latin edo, the English eat, while kad spread to the East 
apd is the source of all the other words ; b a in a less degree accom- 
panied it, and gives bami (Efate), -ma-fa (Samoa), and the Malay 
ma-kan. This root ba seems also to exist in Australia, for one 
dialect has has a-balli, ' to eat.' 

In the Samoan tau-te (a chief's word), the tau is an intensive 
and therefore, in this case, honorific, prefix, and the te is our root 
ta ; it thus corresponds with the Tasmanian te-ganna. 

In various parts of British New Guinea, words for ' eat ' are 
bai, uai, mo-ana, kani-kani, an-an, ye-kai; and for 'food,' 
kai, kan, ani-ani, ai-ai, mala-m, ala, wa-la. All these come 
from the roots ba and ka, kan; with an-an (an for kan) com- 
pare the Dra vidian un, 'to eat.' 

Thus I dispose of the Awabakal root ta,- ' to eat '; and, if the 
analogies given above are well founded, then I am sure that our 
Australian blacks have a share with the rest of the world in a 
common heritage of language. 

"When the radical syllable, ta, is removed, the remainder of our 
sample word is -killi-ko, and both of these are formative. On 
comparing ta-killi-ko with other Awabakal verbs, such as um- 
ulli-ko, wi-yelli-ko, um-olli-ko, and with the Wiradhari verbs 
and verbals da-alli, d-illi-ga, b-illi-ga, it is obvious that the 
essential portion of the affix is -illi or -alii, the consonants before 
it being merely euphonic. In the Dravidian languages, similar 
consonants, v, y, m, oi, d, t, g, are inserted to prevent hiatus, and 
in Fiji and Samoa there is also a great variety of consonants used 
to introduce suffixes. Then, as to the -illi or -alii, I find exactly 
the same formative in Gond — an uncultured dialect of the 
Dravidian ; there the infinitive of a verb has -al^ or -116 ; and in 
Tamil, the verbal noun in -al, with the dative sign -ku added, is 
used as an infinitive ; in Canarese the -al is an infinitive without 
the -ku. In all this we have a close parallel to the Awabakal 
infinitive in -alli-ko, -illi-ko, for some of our dialects have the 
dative in -ol, -al.* Our formative, when attached to a verb-root, 
makes it a verbal noun, as bun-killi, 'the act of smiting '; hence 
the appropriateness of the suflS.x -k u, ' to,' a post-position. 

The -ko in ta-killi-ko is equivalent to the English 'to' with 
verbs, except that it is used as a post-position in Awabakal, where 
it is the common dative sign. It also resembles, both in form and 

*See page 49 of Appendix. 


use, the Latin supine in -turn. This Sanskrit -turn is the accusa- 
tive of the suffix -tu to express agency, and may thus correspond 
■with our Australian suffix -to, -du, which is used in a similar 
manner. In the Diyeri dialect* the infinitive ends in m i, which 
means 'to'; in Aneityumese imi means 'to.' Now, in all the 
Dra vidian dialects, the sign of the dative case is ku, ki, ge; 
in Plindi it is ko, in Bengali k6 ; other forms in India are 
kh&, -ghai, -gai; with this -gai compare the Minyung dative 
in -gai*. In the Kota dialect of the Dravidian, the dative sign 
is ke, and the locative is -ol-ge; the infinitive ends in -alik, 
probaijly a compound of ali and ke; the Aneityumese infinitive 
in -aliek is very like that. A close parallel to our Awahakal 
infinitive in -ko is the Dravidian infinitive in -gu ; as, kuru, 
'short,' kuru-gu, 'to diminish.' In the Malay languages, tran- 
sitive verbs are formed by prefixes and affixes ; of the latter, the 
most common is kan, which may be the preposition ka, 'to.' 

In the Ebudan languages, ki is a genitive and a dative sign, and 
in one of them, Malekiilan, bi, ' to,' makes an infinitive (cf. the 
South Australian mi), and this same bi is used like the Latin ut, 
' in order that '; with this compare the Awabakal koa (page 75, 
et al.) — a lengthened form of -ko. In Fijian, some transitive verbs 
take ki, 'to,' after them, but a common termination for the infini- 
tive is -ka, and the 'i (sometimes ' o) of many verbs in Samoan 
may be the same termination. 

Our infinitive denotes the ' end ' or ' purpose ' for which any- 
thing is done ; hence the dative sign ; so also in Sanskrit, it would 
be correct to use the dative in -ana .of the verbal noun. In the 
Wiradhari dialect, -ana is a very common termination for in- 
finitives ; but I do not know that it has any relation to the 
Sanskrit -ana. 

I have taken this verb takilliko as an example of the form- 
ation of an infinitive in Awabakal ; all other infinitives in that 
dialect are formed in the same way; the variations -uUi-ko, 
olli-ko, elli-ko proceed from -alii, which I would write -alii, so as 
to include the vowel changes all in one sign. In other dialects, 
there are many other forms for the infinitive, but this one in -illi 
is not confined to the Kuriggai tribe, but is found also in Victoria. 

Another similar and very important verb in the Awabakal is 
kakilliko, the verb 'to be.' On the same principles, as shown 
above, the -killiko here is terminational and the root is ka. 
Here again the Dravidian dialects assist us to trace the word ; 
for the Tamil has a--gu, 'to become,' the Telugu has ka, the 
Canarese agal, and the Gond a3r-alg. Our Wiradhari dialect 
says ginya (for gi-ga), 'to become.' It is possible that these forms 
have a parallel, but independent, relation to the Sanskrit roots 
gan and ga, 'to come into being,' Greek gigno-mai, gino-mai. 

*See pp. 13 and 45 of Appendix. 

iNTKOBUCTioif. liii 


The consideration of the grammatical forms and the syntax of 
a language} is a very important part of comparative grammar, and 
is a more potent proof of identity of origin than mere words can 
be ; for, while words may be abundantly introduced from abroad, 
as the history of our English language testifies, yet the essential 
structure of allied languages is as little liable to change as the 
cranial character of a race. As none of the dialects spoken in 
Australia has had the chance of becoming fixed by being reduced 
to writing, the materials available for comparing them with 
themselves and with other languages are in a state of flux and 
decay, and any effort to determine their grammar will be only 
provisional at present, and subject to errors arising from the 
imperfect state of our information about them. Nevertheless, 
allowance being made for this source of imperfection and error, 
several of their features may be regarded as well-determined ; 
and it will here be convenient to arrange these in numbered 

1. The Australian languages are in the agglutinative stage ; 
the relations which words and ideas bear to each other in a 
sentence are shown by independent words, often monosyllables, 
which do not lose their identity when attached to the word which 
they thus qualify. For example, 'he is the son of a good (native) 
man,' in Awabakal, is noa yinal mararag ko ba kiiri ko 
ba, where the monosyllables ko and ba express the relation of 
yinal to kiiri, and are otherwise in common use as distinct 
words; they can be combined and fastened on to kuri so that 
the whole may be pronounced as one word, kurikoba, but they 
d.0 not thus become lost as case-endings. These particles ko-ba, 
when thus united, may be also treated as an independent word, 
even as a verb, for koba-toara is a verbal form, meaning 'a 
thing that is in possession, gotten, acquired.' 

Similarly, the tenses of the verb are indicated byparticles added 
on to the stem; as, bum-mara-biin-bill-ai-koa bag, 'that I 
may permit the one to bo struck by the other ' ; here bun is the 
root-form, 'strike,' which may be almost any part of speech; ma- 
ra is an independent stem meaning 'make' (ma); bun is 
another verb conveying the idea of ' permission ' ; it is not used 
as a separate word, but it appears to be only a derived form of 
the verb ba, (ma), 'to make,' 'to let'; the rest of our sample 
word is bill-ai-koa; of these, koa is a lengthened form of the 
preposition ko, ' to,' and is equivalent to the Latin conjunction 
ut; the -ai has a reciprocal force, andb-illi is the same forma- 
tive which we found in ta-killi-ko, q.v. Thus our sample-word 
is made up of three verbs, a formative (illi), which, perhaps, is 
of the nature of a demonstrative, a particle, and the infinitive 
post-position, which, as to its origin, may have been a verb. 


2. Nevertheless, several dialects have forms which show the 
agglutinative words on the way to become inflexional. In the 
dialect of Western Australia, 'the woman's staff is yago-ak 
wanna, in which the -ak has lost its independence, and is as 
much a case-ending as the «, i, or is of the Latin genitive. So also 
in Awabakal ; the -limba of kokara emoumba, 'my house,' 
may be regarded as inflexional ; for, although the -ba can be de- 
tached and used as a separate word, not so the -lim. I believe 
the -"limba to be a weathering for gu-mba, the gu being a. 
dialect form of the post-position ko, as in Wiradhari; yet the 
-u cannot stand alone ; the m belongs to the ba. 

3. As to the Gases of nouns and pronouns, they are shown by 
separable post-positions which are themselves nouns, adjectives, 
or verbs. The post-position birung, for example, meaning 'away 
from,' is an adjective in the Wiradhari dialect, and means 'far 
distant,' while birandi, another form from the same root, is the 
post-position, 'from.' The other post-positions in the paradigm 
on page IG are all taken from the monosyllables ka and ko. 
Of these, I take ko to be a root-verb, implying ' motion to,' and 
ka another, meaning ' to be ' in a certain state or place ; but of 
their origin I can give no account, unless ka be related to the 
Dravidian verb agu, already noticed, and ko be a moditied form 
of k a. These two roots, variously combined, become the post- 
positions kai, kin-ko, ka-ko, kin-ba, ka-ba, ka-birung, kin- 
birung on page 16 ; by the influence of the final consonant of 
the words to which they are joined, the initial k of these becomes 
t, I, or r. 

A similar account of the post-positions in the Narrinyeri, the 
Diyeri, and other distant dialects could, no doubt, be given, but 
from the scantiness of our knowledge, that is at present im- 

4. As to the Gender of nouns, that is either implied in the 
meaning of the word or to be guessed from the context. In 
Eijian, a word is added to mark the gender ; for example, gone 
is ' child,' and, from it, a gone tagane is ' a boy,' but a gone 
alewa is 'a girl.' The Samoans say ull po'a aiid uli fafine 
to mean a ' male dog ' and a ' female dog,' and the Ebudans 
something similar. Our Australians have no such devices, but 
they have some words in which the gender is clearly distinguished 
by an ending added on, or by a change of the vowel sound of the 
final syllable of the word. Themostcommonfemininesufilxis -gun; 
as, mobi, 'a blind man,' mobi-gun, 'a blind woman'; yinal, 'a 
son,' yinal-kun, 'a daughter'; another suffix is -in; as, Awaba- 
kal, 'amanof Awaba,' Awaba-kal-in, 'a womanof Awaba '; ma- 
koro-ban, makoro-bin, 'afisher-man,' ' a fisher-woman,' show a 
change in the vowel sound. I think that, in proportion to the 
extent of the language, instances of this kind — the expression of 


gender hj change of termination — are quite as common in 
Australian as they are in English. To this extent, therefore, the 
Australian dialects are sex-denoting. 

The -ban in makoro-ban seems to be a masculine suffix; in 
the Minyung dialect, yerrubil is ' a song,' yerrubil-gin, 'a 
singer,' and yerrubil-gin-gun is a 'songstress.' The Wiradhari 
-dain in birbal-dain, 'a baker,' from birbara, 'to bake,' and 
in many other words, is also a masculine termination. 

5. As to JSfumler of nouns and pronouns, the same word, and 
the same form of it, does duty both as singular and plural ; the 
context shows which is m.oant ; e.g., kuri is ' a (native) man,' but 
kiiriis also 'men'; if the speaker wishes to say, 'a man came 
home,' that would be wakal kuri, 'one man' — the numeral 
being used just in the same way as our Saxon ' an,' ' ano ' — but 
"■ the men' would be bara kiiri, ' they-man,' not kviri bara, 
as the Aryan arrangement of the words would be. Hence the 
pronoun ngaddu, ngadlu may mean either 'I' or ' we'; to mark 
the number some pluralising word must be added to nouns and 
pronouns, such as in the gala-ta, 'we,' of Western Australia, 
where the gala is equivalent to 'they,' or perhaps 'all.' In 
Wiradhari, galang is added on to form plurals. Nevertheless, 
there are, among the pronouns, terminations which appear to be 
plural forms, as, nge-an-ni, 'we,' nu-ra, 'you,' which I have 
already considered in the section on the Australian pronoims. 

The declension of yago, ' a woman ' (page 49 of Appendix), is 
an example of a termination added on to form the plural of a 
noun, and shows how much akin our Australian language 
is to the Dravidian and other branches of the Turanian family. 
Yago takes -man as a plural ending, and to that affixes the 
signs of case which are used for the singular number. As 
a parallel, I cite the Turanian of Hungary; there, ur is ' master,' 
ur-am is 'my master,' ur-aim, 'my masters,' ur-am-nak, 
' to my master,' ur-aim-nak, ' to my masters.' The Dravidian 
has not, in general, post-fixed possessives, but our Narrinyeri 
dialect has them, and they are quite common in the Papuan and 
Ebudan languages. In Eijian, the possessives, with nouns of 
relationship or members of the body or parts of a thing, are 
always post-fixed. And in Dravidian, when a noun denotes a 
rational being, the pronominal termination is suffixed. 

6. The Minyung dialect (page 4, Appendix) makes a distinc- 
tion between life-nouns and nou-life nouns, and varies the end- 
ings of its adjectives accordingly. Something similar exists in 
Dravidian ; for it has special forms for epicene plurals and for 
rational plurals and for neuter plurals ; and, of course, in the 
classic languages the a of the neuter plural is distinctive. But 
in Eijian, the Minyung principle is carried out more fully, for 
possessives vary their radical form according as the nouns to 

Ivi rNTEODiTCTioir. 

■which they are joined denote things to he held merely in possess- 
ion, or to be eaten, or to be drunk. In Samoan there is a some- 
what similar use of lona and lana, ' his.' 

7. In the Awahakal dialect (see the G-ospel passim), a main 
feature is the use of the demonstrative ta as a sufBx ; it is added 
to nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and adverbs, and always has the 
effect of strengthening the word to which it is joined ; as, unni 
ta kuri, 'this man,' wakal-la purredng, ' one day'; its plural 
is ta-ra; another form, apparently a plural, is tai, as in 
mararang-tai, ' the good'; the singular form tarai means 
'some one,' 'another.' Ta is simply a demonstrative particle, 
and may be related to the Sanskrit tad, 'this,' 'that.' Ta is 
always a suffix, and I consider it the same word as the demon- 
strative -na, which is so common as a suffix to nouns in all 
Melanesia, and sometimes in Polynesia. Some Ebudan dialects 
nse it as a prefix, na, ni, in. In Telugu, ni and na are attached 
to certain classes of nouns before adding the case signs, as 
da-ni-ki, ' to that.' This ta is probahly the same as the Dra- 
vidian da of inda, 'this,' anda, 'that.' 

8. In Awahakal, a noun or adjective, when nsed as the sub- 
ject of a proposition, takes ko (to, lo) as a suffix; so also in 
Fijian and Samoan, ko, 'oasa prefix. In Awahakal, this k o must 
be attached to all the words that are leading parts of the subject; 
as, tarai-to bulun kinbirug-ko, 'some one from among them.' 

In Awahakal, there seems to be no definite arrangement of 
words in a simple sentence except that required by expression 
and emphasis ; but an adjective precedes its noun and a pro- 
noun in the possessive may either follow its noun or go before 
it. In Dravidian also, the adjective precedes its substantive ; 
hut the possessive pronouns are prefixed to the nouns. 

These comparisons are general ; those that now follow com- 
pare the Australian with the Dravidian. 

9. In G-ond and Tamil, the instrumental case-ending is -al. 
With this compare the IS'arrinyeri ahlative in -il, and the -al 
of Western Australia (pp. 29, 32, 49 of Appendix). 

10. The Tuda dialect alone in the Dekkan has the sound of 
/ and the hard th of the English 'thin'; in Australia the 

IS'arrinyeri has the th of ' thin,' but there is no /anywhere. 

11. The Tamil inserts a euphonic m before b ; this is also 
exceedingly common in Anstraha. The Canarese dialect hardens 
miiru, ' three,' into mundru. Some of the dialects of Australia 
have a similar practice, and the Eijians do the same. 

^12. In Tamil, the conjunctive-ablative case has odu, dialect 
toda,' together with,' supposed to come from the verb to-dar, 
'to join on.' The corresponding Awahakal word is katoa for 
tata (page IG). 

IlfTEODrCTIOX. lyii 

13. In Dravidiati, the 2nd singular of tlie Imperative is the 
crude form of the verb ; so also in Australian. 

14. In Tamil, the accusative case is the same as the nomina- 
tive ; so also with common nouns in Australian. 

15. In Dravidian, there is no case ending for the vocative ; 
some sign of emphasis is used to call attention ; in Tamil, this is 
e. In Av^abakal, ela is used for the same purpose, and in Wira- 
dhari y a. In Samoan e is used, but it usually comes after its 

16. In Dravidian, there are compound case-signs. So also in 
Australian (see pages 16, 17, and of Appendix, pages 30, 33, 58). 

17. In Dravidian, comparison is expressed by using some ad- 
verb with the adjective ; as, ' this indeed is good,' rfor ' this is 
very good.' There are no adjective terminations there to show 
comparison, but some Australian dialects seem to have them 
(see pages 45 and 5 1 of Appendix) . Usually the Australian and 
the Melanesian languages are like the Dravidian in this matter. 

18. In Turanian, the ma of the first pronoun often adds an 
obscure nasal making it something like mang. "With this com- 
pare the Awabakal bang. 

19. Por the second pronoun, the Tamil has ay, oy, er. With 
these compare the Papuan second pronoun on page si. of this 

20. In the Dravidian pronoun nin, ' thou,' the initial n is 
merely a nasalisation, for it disappears in the verbal forms. "With 
this compare my analysis of the Awabakal pronoun gintoa. 

2L. In Dravidian generally, the pluralising particles are added 
on to the pronouns ; but in Telugu these signs are prefixed, as in 
mi-ru. With tiiis compare the Papuan ni-mo (page xl. of this 
Introduction), and the Awabakal ba-ra, nu-ra, and the like. 

22. In almost all the Dravidian dialects, the first pronoun 
plural has both an inclusive and an exclusive form. This is so 
also in the Melanesian languages, especially those of the New 
Hebrides and Piji. 

23. The Canarese formative of adverbs is ?, as in ill i, alii, elli, 
'here,' 'there,' 'where'; in Grond, ale, ile are the verb-endings. 
In Awabakal, these are the f ormatives of verbal nouns, as I have 
shown in another section. Now, it is an easy thing in language 
for a noun to be used adverbially, and hence the Canarese and 
Grond formatives may really be nouns. This would bring them 
closer to the Awabakal. 

24. In the chief Dravidian dialects, the infinitive ends in -ku, 
a post-preposition, ' to.' So also in Awabakal, as has been already 
shown. I may add here that the Zulu infinitive ends -ku. 

25. The Dravidian verb may be compounded with a noun, but 
never with a preposition. So also the Australian verb. 


26. The Dravidian verb is agglutinative ; particles are added 
on to the stem in order to express mood, tense, causation, 
negation, &c., no change being made ,on the stem. Tulu and 
G-ond — both uncultured dialects — are exceptionally rich in 
moods and tenses. All this applies to the Australian, the 
Ebndan, and the Fijian verbs. 

27. In Dravidian, there are no relative pronouns. So in 
Australian ; for ' this is the book -which you gave me,' a native 
would say ' this is the book ; you gave it me.' 

28. In Canarese, kodu, 'to give,' is used as a permissive. In 
Awabakal, bun is the permissive, and appears to be formed 
from ba, a root-form meaning 'to make.' In English, the 
conditional conjunction 'if is for ' gif,' ' give.' 

29. The Dravidian verb has no passive, nor has the Australian. 
Por ' it was broken,' our natives would say ' broken by me (you, 
&c.) '; a Dravida would say, ' it became broken through me.' 

30. In Dravidian there are two futures — (I) a conditional 
future, and (2) a sort of indeterminate aorist future. Eor the 
latter, the Malayalam adds -um to the verbal noun which is the 
base of the future. In Awabakal there are three futures ; the 
third is an aorist future and adds -niin to the verbal stem in 
-illi (see pages 25, 28 adfinem). This -niin is probably equi- 
valent to a formative -un with n interposed between the vowels 
to prevent hiatus. In Tamil also n (for d) is similarly inserted 
in verbs ; as, padi(ra)an, ' I sang.' 

XI. Tub Oei&in or the Austealiak Eace. 

From these analogies and from the general scope of my argu- 
ment in this Introduction, the reader perceives that I wish to 
prove a kinship between the Dravidian race and the Australian. 
This opinion I expressed in print more than ten years ago when 
it was not so generally held as it is now. Some of the very 
highest authorities have formed the same opinion from evi- 
dence other than that of language. But a theory and arguments 
thereon must be shown to be antecedently possible or even pro- 
bable before it can be accepted ; and to furnish such a basis of 
acceptance, one must go to the domain of history. This I now do. 

In my opinion the ultimate home of origin of the negroid 
population of Australia is Babylonia. There, as history tells 
us, mankind first began to congregate in great numbers, and 
among them the Hamites, the progenitors of the negro races. 
It seems to have been those Hamites who were the first to try 
to break down the love-law of universal brotherhood and equality; 
for Nimrod was of their race, and wished to establish dominion 
over his fellows, and to raise an everlasting memorial of his 
power, like those which his kindred afterwards reared in Egypt. 
This attempt was frustrated by the ' Confusion of tongues,' at 


Babel ; and here begins, as I tbink, tbe first moTCment of the 
negro race towards India and consequently towards Austraba. 
Here comes in also the ' Toldoth Bene Noah' of Genesis x. 

Accordingly, tbe position of the Hamite or blact races at the 
opening of history is, in G-enesis x. 6, indicated ethnically by the 
names Kush and Mizraim and Phut and Canaan, which geogra- 
phically are the countries we call Ethiopia and Egypt and Nubia 
and Palestine. The Kushites, however, were not confined to 
Africa, but were spread in force along the whole northern shores 
of the Arabian sea ; they were specially numerous on the lower 
courses of the Euphrates and Tigris, their original seats, and 
there formed the first germ whence came the great empire of 
Babylonia. The Akkadians were Turanian in speech, and, it may 
be, black in ' colour.' In this sense, the later Greek tradition 
(Odyssey 1-23-24) speaks of both an eastern and a western nation 
of Ethiopians. And Herodotus tells us (VH-70) that in the 
army of Xerxes, when he invaded Greece, " the Ethiopians from 
the sun-rise (for two kinds served in the expedition) were mar- 
shalled with the Indians, and did not at all differ from the others 
in appearance, but only in their language and their hair. Eor 
the eastern Ethopians are straight-haired, but those of Libya 
have hair more curly than that of any other people." 

It is clear, therefore, that the black races, many centuries 
before the Trojan war, had spread themselves from the banks of 
the Indus on the east right across to the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, while towards the south-west they occupied the whole of 
Egypt and the Abyssinian highlands. Thus they held two noble 
coigns of vantage, likely to give them a commanding influence in 
the making of the history of mankind — the valley of the Nile, 
which, through all these ages to the present hour, has never 
lost its importance — and the luxuriant flat lands of Mesopotamia. 
A mighty destiny seemed to await them, and already it had 
begun to show itself ; for the Kushites not only made the earliest 
advances towards civilisation, but under Nimrod, ' that mighty 
hunter,' smitten with the love of dominion, they threatened at 
one time to establish a universal empire with Babel as its chief 
seat. And not without reason ; for the Kushite tribes were 
stalwart in stature and physique, in disposition vigorous and en- 
ergetic, eager for war and conquest, and with a capacity and lust 
for great things both in peace and war. But a time of disaster 
came which carried them into the remotest parts of the earth — 
into Central Africa, into the mountains of Southern India, 
whence, after a while, another impulse sent them onwards to- 
wards our own island-continent ; hither they came, as I think, 
many centuries before the Christian era, pressed on and on from 
their original seats by the waves of tribal migration which were 
so common in those early days. Similar was the experience of 


the Kelts, a very ancient tribe ; soon after their first arrival in 
Europe, we find them occupying Thrace and the countries about 
the mouth of the Danube ; but fresh immigration from the Cau- 
casus plateau pushed them up the Danube, then into Belgium 
and i'rance, thence into Britain, and last of all the invading 
Saxons drove them westwards into Ireland, and into the moun- 
tains of Wales and Scotland. So the successive steps of the 
Kushite displacement, in my opinion, were these : — first into the 
valley of the Granges, where they were the original inhabitants, 
then into the Dekkan and into Further India, then into Ceylon, 
the Andaman Islands, and the Sunda Islands, and thence into 
Australia. These stages I will examine presently more in detail. 
But, meanwhile, let us look at the old Babylonian kingdom. 
Its ethnic basis was Kushite ; its ruling dynasty continued to be 
Kushite probably down to the time of the birth of Abraham, 
about 2000 B.C. But before that date, the Babylonian population 
had been materially changed. Nimrod had conquered Erech and 
Accad and Calneh in the land of Shinar ; an Akkadian or Turanian 
element was thus incorporated with his empire ; he had built 
ISTineveh and Behoboth and Calah and Eesen (Genesis x. 11) ; a 
Shemite element was thus or in some other way superadded ; other 
Turanians and Shemites and Japhetian Aryans too, perhaps at- 
tracted by the easy luxuriance of life on these fertile plains, had 
all assembled in Chaldsea and Babylonia. In consequence, we 
find that, about twenty centuries B.C., the Kushite kingdom had 
become a mixed conglomerate of four essentially different races — 
Ilamite, Turanian, Shemite, and Japhetian — which on the in- 
scriptions are called Kiprat-arlat, ' the four quarters.' Then, as 
the Babylonian worship of Mulitta demanded free intercourse as 
a religious duty, a strange mixture of physical types must have 
been developed among the children of these races, the Ethiopian, 
Scythic, Shemitic, and Iranian all blending — a rare study to the 
eye of a physiologist, who would have seen sometimes the one type 
sometimes the other predominating in the child. This Chalda'an 
monarchy — the first of the five great monarchies of ancient 
history — was overthrown by an irruption of Arab (Shemitic) 
tribes about the year 1500 B.C. And now, as I think, another 
wave of population began to move towards our shores ; for these 
Arabs were pure monotheists, and in their religious zeal must 
have dashed to pieces the polytheistic and sensual fabric which, 
the Babylonian conquests had extended from the confines of 
India westwards to the Mediterranean (c/. Chedorlaomer's expedi- 
tion. Genesis siv. 9). Those portions of the Chaldapo-Babylonian 
people that were unable to escape from the dominion of the Arabs 
were absorbed in the new empire, just as many of the Keltic 
Britons were in the sixth and seventh centuries merged in the 
newly-formed Saxon kingdoms. But the rupture of the Babylo- 


nian State and tlie proscription of its worsliip must have been so 
complete as to drive forth, from their native seats thousands of 
the people of the four tongues and force them westwards into 
Africa, or eastwards through the mountain passes into the table- 
land of Panjab, and thence into the G-angetic Plain. Here, I 
imagine, were already located the pure Hamites of the Dispersion; 
but finding these to be guilty of a skin not exactly coloured like 
their own, and not understanding their language, these latter 
Kushites of mixed extraction regarded them as enemies and drove 
them before them into the mountains of the Dekkan, where, to this 
hour, the Dravidians aod Kolarians are black-skinned and savage 
races. Ere long, these Babylonian Kushites were themselves dis- 
placed and ejected from the Granges valley by a fair-skinned race, 
the Aryans, another and the Jast ethnic stream of invaders from 
the north-west. These Aryans, in religion and habits irrecon- 
cilably opposed to the earlier races of India, waged on them a 
relentless war. Hemmed up in the triangle of southern India, the 
earlier Hamites could escape only by sea ; the Babylonian 
Kushites, on the other hand, could not seek safety in the moun- 
tains of the Dekkan, as these were already occupied ; they must 
therefore have been pushed down the Ganges into Further India 
and the Malayan peninsula; thence they passed at a later time 
into Borneo, and the Sunda Islands, and Papua, and afterwards 
across the sea of Timor into Australia, or eastwards into Mela- 
nesia, driven onwards now by the Turanian tribes, which had 
come down from Central Asia into China and the Peninsula and 
islands of the Bast Indies. 

Many arguments could be advanced in favour of this view of 
the origin of the Australian race, but the discussion would be a 
lengthy one, and this is scarcely the place for it. I may, how- 
ever, be permitted to add here a simple incident in my own 
experience. A few months ago, I was staying for a while with a 
friend in the bush, far from the main roads of the colony and 
from towns and villages. One day, when out of doors and alone, 
I saw a black man approaching ; his curly hair, his features, his 
colour, and his general physique, all said that he was an Austra- 
lian, but his gait did not correspond. I was on the point of 
addressing him as he drew near, but he anticipated me and spoke 
first ; the tones of his voice showed me that I was mistaken. I 
at once suspected him to be a Kalinga from the Presidency of 
Madras. And he was a Kalinga. This incident tells its own 
tale. In short, it appears to me that the Dravidians and some 
tribes among the Himalayas are the representatives of the ancient 
Dasyus, who resisted the Aryan invasion of India, and whom the 
Puranas describe as akin to beasts. The existence, also, of 
Cyclopean remains in Ponape of the Caroline Islands, and else- 
where onward through the Pacific Ocean, even as far as Easter 


Island in the extreme east — all these acknowledged by Polyne- 
sians to be the work of a previous race, which tradition, in various 
parts, declares to have been black — points out one of the routes 
by which the black race spread itself abroad into the eastern 
isles ; while the presence of Negrillo tribes in detached portions 
nearer to India — like islands left uncovered by the floods of 
stronger races pouring in — the Mincopies in the Andaman 
Islands, the Samangs in the Malay Peninsula, and the Aetas in 
the interior of Borneo, with the wild remnants of a black race 
in the heart of many of the larger islands of the Malay Archi- 
pelago — all this seems to me to show that the primitive Dasyus, 
driven from India, passed into Purther India' and thence — being 
still impelled by race movements — into our own continent and 
into the islands to the north and east of it. But this question 
must be left for separate investigation. 

Thus, in my view, our island first received its native population, 
in two different streams, the one from the north, and the other 
from the north-west. Many known facts favour this view : — 

(1.) Ethnologists recognise two pre- Aryan races in India. The 
earlier had not attained to the use of metals and used only polished 
flint axes and implements of stone ; the later had no written 
records, and made grave mounds over their dead. The Vedas 
call them ' noseless,' ' gross feeders on flesh,' ' raw eaters,' ' not 
sacrificing,' ' without gods,' ' without rites ' ; they adorned the 
bodies of the dead with gifts and raiment and ornaments. All 
this suits our aboriginals ; they are noseless, for they have very 
flat and depressed noses, as contrasted with the straight and 
prominent noses of the Vedic Aryans ; they have no gods and no 
religious rites such as the Yedas demand. 

(2.) The Kolarian and Dravidian languages have inclusive and 
exclusive forms for the plural of the first person. So also have 
many of the languages of Melanesia and Polynesia. 

(3.) The native boomerang of Australia is used on the south- 
east of India, and can be traced to Egypt — both of them Hamite 

(4.) In the Kamalarai dialect, the four class-names form their 
feminines in -tlia ; as, Kubbi {masc), Kubbi-tha (fern.); and 
that is a Shemitic formative. 8o also in the Hamitic Babylo- 
nian, Mul (masc.) gives Muli-tta (fern.), and Enu (masc), Enii-ta 
(fern.) . Although this formative is not common in the Austra- 
lian languages, yet its unmistakable presence in Kamalarai may 
mean that our native population has in it the same mixed elements 
as existed in the old Babylonian empire. To the same efi'ect is 
the fact that some tribes practise circumcision, while contiguous 
tribes do not ; in many places the natives, in considerable num- 
bers, have distinctly Shemite features ; some have as regular 
Caucasian features as any of us ; others, again, are purely negroid. 


(5.) In Chaldsea, the dead were not interred ; tliey were laid 
on mats in a brick vault or on a platform of sun-dried bricks, 
and over this a huge earthenware dish-cover, or in a long earthen 
jar in two pieces fitting into each other. Our blackfellows also, 
even when they do inter, are careful not to let the body touch 
the earth ; in some places, they erect stages for the dead^the 
Parsee "towers of silence"; elsewhere, they place the dead body 
in a hollow tree ; in South Australia, the corpse is desiccated by 
Are and smoke, then carried about for a while, and finally exposed 
on a stage. A.11 this corresponds with the Persian religious belief 
in the sacredness of the earth, which must not be contaminated 
by so foul a thing as a putrifying human body. And it shows 
also how diverse are our tribal customs in important matters. 

(6.) The Dravidian tribes, though homogeneous, have twelve 
varying dialects. The Australian dialects are a parallel to that. 

(7.) There is nothing improbable in the supposition that the 
first inhabitants of Australia came from the north-west, that is, 
from Hindostan or from Further India. Eor the native tradi- 
tions of the Polynesians all point to the west or north-west as 
the quarter from which their ancestors first came. So also the 
Indias are to the north-west of our island. 

(8.) I now quote Dr. Caldwell; in diverse places, he says : — 

" The Puranas speak of the Nishadas as ' beings of the com- 
plexion of a charred stick, with flattened features, and of dwarfish 
tature'; 'as black as a crow'; 'having projecting chin, broad ands 
flat nose, red eyes, and tawny hair, wide mouth, large ears, and 
a protuberant belly.' These Nishadas are the Kolarian tribes, such 
as the Kols and the Santals. But the Dravidians of the South 
have always been called Kalingas and Pandyas, not Nishadas." 

" The Tudasof the Dekkan are a fine, manly, athletic race, with 
European features, Roman noses, hazel eyes, and great physical 
strength ; they have wavy or curly hair, while the people of the 
plains are straight haired, have black eyes, and aquiline noses. 
The skin of the Tudas, although they are mountaineers, is darker 
than that of the natives of the Malabar coast. The physical type 
of the Gonds is Mongolian, that of the other Dravidians is Aryan." 

" In Shamanism, there is no regular priesthood. The father of 
the family is the priest and magician ; but the ofiice can be taken 
by any one who pleases, and laid aside ; so also in Southern India. 
The Shamanites acknowledge a Supreme God, but oSer him no 
worship, for he is too good to do them harm. So also the 
Dravidian demonolators. Neither the Shamanites nor the Dra- 
vidians believe in metempsychosis. The Shamanites worship 
only cruel demons, with bloody sacrifices and wild dances. The 
Tudas exclude women from worship, even from the temples ; 
they perform their rites in the deep gloom of groves. They have 
a supreme god, Usuru Swdmi ; his manifestation is ' light/ not 

Ixiv iNTRODUCTioisr. 

' fire.' They have no circumcision. They have no forms of prayer. 
They believe in witchcraft and the worlj of demons. After the 
death of the body, the soul still likes and requires food." 

" Dr. Logan thought that the Dravidians have a strong Melane- 
sian or Indo-Afric element, and says that a negro race overspread 
India before both the Scythians and the Aryans. De Quatrefages 
agrees with him, and says that, long before the historical period, 
India was inhabited by a black race resembling the Australians, 
and also, before history began, a yellow race came from the north- 
east. Of the Tamilians Dr. Logan says : — ' Some are exceedingly 
Iranian, more are Semitico-Iranian ; some are Semitic, others 
Australian; some remind us of Egyptians, while others agaiii 
have Malayo-Polynesian and even Semang and Papuan features.' 
Professor Max Miiller found in the Gonds and other non- Aryan 
Dravidians traces of a race closely resembling the negro. Sir 
George Campbell thinks that the race in occupation of India 
before the Aryans was Negrito. Even in the seventh century of 
our era, a Brahman grammarian calls the Tamil and Telugu 
people Mlechchas, that is, aboriginals. Dr. Muir thinks that the 
Aryan wave of conquest must have been broken on the "Vindhya 
mountains, the northern barrier of the Dekkan." 


In this discussion, I have endeavoured to show the origin of 
our Australian numerals, the composition and derivation of the 
chief personal pronouns, and of a number of typical words for 
common things, and of these many more could be cited and ex- 
amined in the same way. I have shown, so far as I can, that 
these pronouns, and numerals, and test-words, and, incidentally, 
one of the postpositions, are connected with root-words, which 
must be as old as the origin of the language ; for such ideas as 
' before,' ' begin,' ' first,' ' another,' ' follow,' ' change,' ' many,' 
seem to be essential to the existence of any language. I think I 
may safely say the same thing about the root-words for ' water,' 
' dumb,' and ' eye.' It thus appears, from the present investigatioh, 
that our Australians have a common heritage, along with the rest 
of the world, in these root-words; for, if these blacks are a separate 
creation and so have no kindred elsewhere, or were never in con- 
tact with the other races of mankind, I cannot conceive how they 
have come to possess primitive words so like those in use over a 
very wide area of the globe. I therefore argue that they are an 
integral portion of the human race. If so, what is their origin 1 
On this point, our present discussion may have thrown some light. 




J 2a 69—90 A 




















In the year 1S26, the writer printed a few copies entitled 
"Specimens of a dialect of the Aborigines of New South Wales," 
in which the English sounds of the vowels were adopted. Sub- 
sequently it was found that many inconveniences arose in the 
orthography, which could only be overcome by adopting anotner 
system. Many plans were proposed and attempted, but none 
appeared so well adapted to meet the numerous difficulties which 
arose, as the one in iise for many years in the Islands of the 
South Seas,* wherein the elementary sounds of the vowels do not 
accord with the English pronunciation. This, however, does not 
meet all the difficulties, because there is a material difference in 
the idioms of the languages. Por instance, in the Tahitian dialect^ 
the vowels always retain their elementary sound, because a con- 
sonant never ends a syllable or word ; in the Australian language, 
a consonant often ends a syllable or a word, and therefore its 
coalition with the sound of the vowels affects that sound and 
consequently shortens it; while, in many instances, the elementary 
sound of the vowel is retained when dosed hi/ a consonant, as well 
as when the syllable or word is ended by the vowel. To meet 
this, an accent will be placed over the vowel when the elementary 
sound is retained, but without such accent the sound is to be 
shortened. For example, the Australian words tun, hun, tin, tin, 
will be sounded as the English liun, loon, tin, teen. 

A set of characters cast expressly for the various sounds of the 
vowels would be the most complete in forming speech into a 
written language, but in the present instance that could not be 
accomplished. The present orthography is therefore adopted, 
not because it is considered perfect, but from the following 
reasons, viz. : — 

1. It appears, upon consideration, impossible so to express the 
sounds of any language to the eye, as to enable a stranger to 
pronounce it without oral instruction. The principal object, 
therefore, is to aim at simplicity, so far as may be consistent 
with clearness. 

2. There appears to be a certain propriety in adopting uni- 
versally, if possible, the same character to express the same 
sounds used in countries which are adjacent, as Polynesia and 
Australia, even though the languages be not akin ; especially when 
those characters have been adopted upon mature consideration, 
and confirmed by actual experience in the Islands of the South 

* Mr. Threlkeld was, for a time, a missionary at Raiatea, in the Society 
Islands. — Ed. 


Having resided for many years in the island of Eaiatea, and 
having been in the constant habit of conversing with and preach- 
ing to the natives in their own tongue, I am enabled to trace the 
similarity of languages used in the South Seas, one with another, 
proving they are but different dialects, although the natives them- 
selves, and we also, at the first interview, could not understand 
the people of neighbouring islands, who speak radically the same 
tongue ! 

In the Australian tongues there appears to exist a very great 
similarity of idiom, as respects the dual number and the use of 
the form expressive of negation ; and yet it is observed by a 
writer in the article on ' G-reok language,' JSees's Cyclopcedia, that, 
" The dual numher is Sy no means necessary in language, though 
it may enable the Greek to express the number ' two ' or ' pair ' with 
more emphasis and precision." But this assertion is not at all 
borne out by facts ; because, in this part of the hemisphere, all the 
languages of the South Seas, in common with New South Wales, 
possess a dual number, and so essential is it to the languages that 
conversation could not be carried on, if they had it not. There is, 
however, a peculiarity in the dual of the Australian tongue which 
does not exist in the islands, namely, a conjoined case in the dual 
pronouns, by which the nominative and accusative are blended, as 
shown in the pronouns*, whilst the verb sustains ro change, 
excepting when reflexive, or reciprocal, or continuative. But 
in the Islands there are dual verbs. The modes of interrogation 
and replication are very much alike in the idiom of both languages, 
and so peculiar as hardly possible to be illustrated in the English 
language; for they scarcely ever give a direct answer, but in such 
a manner as leaves much to be implied. The aborigines of this 
colony are far more definite in the use of the tenses than the 
Islanders, who have nothing peculiar in the use of the tenses. 
The subject of tenses caused me much perplexity and diligent 
examination. Nor did the observations of eminent writers on 
the theory of language tend to elucidate the matter ; because the 
facts existing in the language of the aborigines of New Holland 
are in direct contradiction to a note to the article ' G-rammar ' in the 
-Enoyclopaidia Britannica-\ , where certaiu tenses are represented 
as " peculiar to the Greek, and have nothing corresponding to 
them in other tongues, we need not scruple to overlook them as 
superfluous." Now, our aborigines use the tenses of the verb and 
the participle variously, to denote time past in general; or time past 
in particular, as, ' this morning only;' or time past remote, that is, 
at some former period, as, ' when I was in England,' or, ' when I was 
a boy.' The future time of the verb and of the participle is also 
modified in a similar manner, specifically, either now, or to-morrow 

* See page 17.— Ed. t Of that day.— Ed. 

THE authob's peeface. vii 

morning, or generally as in futurity; and besides this, there is 
another curious fact opposed to the conclusion of the writer's 
note, which reads thus : " Of the paulo-post-f uturum of the 
Greeks, we have taken no notice, because it is found only in the 
passive voice ; to which if it were necessary, it is obvious that it 
would be necessary in all voices, as a man may le about to act, as 
well as to suffer, immediately." Now, such is the very idiom of this 
language, as will be seen in the conjugation of the participle; for 
the pronoun, being used either objectively or nominatively, will 
plfice the phrase either in the one sense or the other, such change 
in the pronoun constituting the equivalent to the passive voice 
or the active voice. The most particular attention is necessary 
to the tense of the participle as well as that of the verb, each 
tense being confined to its own particular period, as shown in the 
conjugation of the verbs. The various dialects of the blacks 
may yet prove, as is already ascertained in the Islands, to be a 
difiiculty more apparent than real ; but when one dialect becomes 
known, it will assist materially in obtaining a speedier knowledge 
of any other that may be attempted, than if no such assistance 
had been rendered. 

Although tribes within 100 miles do not, at the iirst interview, 
understand each other, yet I have observed that after a very 
short space of time they are able to converse freely, which could 
not be the case were the language, as many suppose it to be, 
radically distinct. The number of different names for one sub- 
stantive may occasion this idea. Por instance, ' water ' has at 
least five names, and ' fire ' has more ; the ' moon' has four names, 
according to her phases, and the kangaroo has distinct names 
for either sex, or according to size, or different places of haunt ; 
so that two persons would seldom obtain the same name for a 
kangaroo, if met wild in the woods, unless every circumstantial 
was precisely alike to both inquirers.* The quality of a thing is 
another source from which a name is given, as well as its habit 
or manner of operation. Thus, one man would call a musket 
' a thing that strikes fire ;' another would describe it as ' a thing 
that strikes,' because it hits an object ; whilst a third would 
name it ' a thing that makes a loud noise ;' and a fourth would 
designate it 'a piercer,' if the bayonet was fixed. Hence arises 
the diiSculty to persons unacquainted with the language in 
obtaining the correct name of that which is desired. For 
instance, a visitor one day requested the name of a native cat 
from M'Grill, my aboriginal, who replied minnaring; the 
person was about to write down the word minnaring, 'a 
native cat,' when I prevented the naturalist, observing that the 
word was not the name of the native cat, but a question, namely, 

* There are other reasons for this diversity of language. — Ed. 


' "What' (is it yo li say ? being understood) , the blackman not under- 
standing what was asked. Thus arise many of the mistakes in 
vocabularies published by transient visitors from foreign parts.* 
In a "Description of the Natives of King George's Sound (Swan 
Eiver Colony)," which was written by Mr. Scott Nind, communi- 
cated by E. Brown, Esq., P.R.S., and read before the Eoyal 
G-eographical Society, &c., 14th February, 1831, there is an 
interesting account of the natives, and also a vocabulary, not 
one word of which appears to be used or understood by the 
natives in this district ; and yet, from a passage at page 24, the 
following circumstance leads to the supposition that the language 
is formed oa the same principles, and is perhaps radically the same 
tongue ; the writer observes : " It once occurred to me to he out 
shooting, accompanied by Mawcurrie, the native spoken of, and 
five or six of his tribe, when we heard the cry, coowhie, 
coowhiecaca, upon which my companion stopped short, and 
said that strange blackmen were coming." Now in this part of 
the colony, under the same circumstances, a party of blacks 
would halloo, k a ai, kaai, kai, kai; which, allowing for the 
difference in orthography, would convey nearly, if not precisely, 
the same sound ; the meaning is ' halloo, halloo, approach, 
approach.' Also, at page 20, the same word, used by the natives 
here in hunting and dancing, is mentioned as spoken by those 
aborigines in the same sort of sports, viz., wow, which in this 
work is spelt w u a; it means ' move.' Also, at page 28, the phrase 
'absent, at a distance' is rendered bocun, and 'let us go 
away 'by bocun oola, or w at oola; here the natives would 
say waita wolla; see the locomotive verb, in the conjugation 
of which a similarity of use will be perceived. At Wellington 
Valley, the names of the things are the same in many instances 
with those of this part, although 300 miles distant ; and, in a 
small vocabulary with which I wa? favoured, the very barbarisms 
are marked as such, whilst mistaken names are written, the 
natural result of partial knowledge; for instance, kiwung is 
put down as the ' moon,' whereas it means the ' new moon,' 
yellenna being the 'moon.' In the higher districts of 
Hunter's Eiver, my son was lately conversing with a tribe, but 
only one man could reply ; and he, it appears, had a few years 
back been in this part, and ttius acquired the dialect. Time 
and intercourse will hereafter ascertain the facts of the ease. 

* Many mistakes of this kind have been made by collectors of vocabu- 
laries ; even the word 'kangaroo,' which has now established itself in 
Australasia, does not seem to be native ; it is not found in any of the early 
lists of words. The settlers in Western Australia, when they first came 
into contact with the blacks there, tried to conciliate them by offering them 
bread, saying it was 'very good.' So, for a long time there, 'very good' 
was the blackman's name for bread ! — Ed. 


The arrangement of tte grammar now adopted is formed on 
the natural principles of the language, and not constrained to 
accord with any known grammar of the dead or living languages, 
the peculiarities of its structure being such as totally to prevent 
the adoption of any one of these as a model. There is much of 
the Hebrew form in the conjugation ; it has also the dual of the 
G-reek and the deponent of the Latin. However, these terms 
are not introduced, excepting the dual, the various modifications 
of the verb and participle exemplifying the sense in which they 
are used. 

The peculiarity of the reciprocal dual may be illustrated by 
reference to a custom of the aborigines ; when a companv meet 
to dance, each lady and gentleman sit down opposite to one 
another, and reciprocally paint each other's cheek with a red 
pigment ; or, if there is not a sufficiency of females, the males, 
perform the reciprocal operation. Also, in duelling, a practice 
they have in common with other barbarous nations, the ^haUeiige 
is expressed in the reciprocal form. The terms I have adopted 
to characterise the various modifications of the verb may not 
ultimately prove the best adapted to convey the various ideas 
contained in the respective forms, but at present it is presumed 
they are sufficiently explicit. Many are the difficulties which 
have been encountered, arising, principally, from the want of 
association with the blacks, whose wandering habits, in search 
of game, prevent the advantages enjoyed in the Islands of being 
surrounded by the natives in daily conversation. It would be 
the highest presumption to offer the present work as perfect, but, 
so far as opportunity and pains could conduce to render it 
complete, exertion has not been spared. 


It is necessary to notice certain barbarisms which have crept 
into use, introduced by sailors, stockmen, and others, who have 
paid no attention to the aboriginal tongue, in the use of which 
both blacks and whites labour under the mistaken idea that each 
one is conversing in the other's language. The following list 
contains the most common in use in these parts : — 

Meaning. Aboriginal proper word, 

Boojery,* good, murrorong. 

Bail, no, keawai. 

Bogy, to hathe, nurongkilliko. 

Bimble, earth, purrai. 

Boomiring, a weapon, turrama [the ' boomerang'.] 

Budgel, sickness, munni. 

* Captain John Hunter (1793) gives Udgeree, " good," and Lieut-Col. 
Collins (1802) gives hoodjem "good," both at Port Jackson. Some of the 
other words condemned here as barbarisms are used in local dialects. — Ed. 







a stone, 


a spear, 


a hut. 


a shield, 


a wife. 




an animal. 












to speak. 






a C2id()el, 


a weapon. 

kuttul, lit.,* smoke. 








karai, and various names. 


mitti ; warea. 


muraiai ; also, kauwul-kauwul. 




kiinto, vegetable provisions. 


yakirri ; nsed to throw the spear. 

* Used for literally, throughout, 
t See note, page viii. — Ed. 



Pbonijnciatios' is the right expression of the sounds of the 
words of a language. 

"Words are composed of syllables, and syllables of letters. 
The letters of- the language of the aborigines of New South 
"Wales are these: — * 


Wote. — It is very doubtful if d belongs to their alphabet ; the 
natives generally use the t. 


A is pronounced as in the English words 'are,' 'far,' 'tart.* 
E is pronounced as slender a in ' fate,' or e in ' where.' I ia 
pronounced as the short i in 'thin,' 'tin,' 'virgin,' or e in 
' England.' O is pronounced as in the English ' no.' U is pro- 
nounced as 00 in the words ' cool,' ' cuckoo.' 

"When two vowels meet together they must be pronounced 
distinctly; as, noa, niuwoa, the pronoun 'he'; bo unto a, 
'she;' so also when, double vowels are used in the word; as, 
wi y e e n, ' have spoken.' 

A diphthong is the union of two vowels to form one sound : as, 

1. fli, as in kiil-ai, ' wood'; wai-tawan, ' the large mullet.'' 

2. aw, as in nau- wai, ' a canoe' ; tan- wil, ' that. ..may eat,' 
8. iu, as in niu-woa, the pronoun 'he'; paipiu-wil, 'that 

it may appear.' 

JVoie. — ai is sounded as in the English word ' eye' ; au as in 
' cow' ; iu as in ' pew.' 


Gr is sounded hard, but it often has also a soft guttural sound ; 
ff and Jc are interchangeable, as also k and t. 

Ng is peculiar to the language, and sounds as in 'ring,' 'bung,' 
whether at the beginning, middle, or end of a word. 

K, as heard in ' rogue,' ' rough ' ; whenever used, it cannot be 
pronounced too roughly; when double, each letter must be heard 

• See Phosology, page 3.— Ed. 


The other consonants are sounded as in English. 

Europeans often confound <?with t, because of a middle sound 
which the natives use in speaking quickly ; so also they confound 
i with y, from the same cause. 


The language requires but one marked accent, which serves 
for the prolongation of the syllable; as, bon, 'him' ; biin, the 
root of ' to smite.' The primitive sound is thus retained of the 
vowel, which otherwise would be affected by the closing consonant ; 
as, bun, the root of the verb 'to be ' accidental, rhymes with 
the English word 'bun,' but biin, 'to smite,' rhymes with 
' boon.' 


In forming syllables, every consonant may be taken separately 
and be joined to each vowel. A consonant between two vowels 
must go to the latter ; and two consonants coming together miist 
be divided. The only exception is Ng, which is adopted for want 
of another character to express the peculiar nasal sound, as heard 
in hanger, and, consequently, is never divided. The following 
are general rules : — 

1. A single consonant between two vowels must be joined to the 

latter; as, ku-ri, 'man'; yu-rig, 'away'; wai-ta, 'depart.' 

2. Two consonants coming together must always be divided; 

as, tet-ti, 'to be dead,' ' death' ; bug-gai, 'new.' 

3. Two or more vowels are divided, excepting the dipthongs ; as, 

gato-a, 'it is I'; yu-aip a, 'thrust out.' A hyphen is the 
mark when the dipthong is divided ; as, ka-uwa, 'may it 
be ' (a wish) ; k a-am a, 'to collect together, to assemble.' 

4. A vowel in a root-syllable must have its elementary sound ; 

as, bunkilli, 'the action of smiting'; ta, the root-form 
of the verb, ' to eat.' 


In general, dissyllables and trisyllables accent the first syllable ; 
as, pun timai,' a messenger ' ; piriwal, ' a chief or king.' 

Compound derivative words, being descriptive nouns, have the 
accent universally on the last syllable ; as, w i y e 1 1 i k a n, ' one 
who speaks,' from wiyelli, 'the action of speaking'; so also, 
from the same root, wiyelli-gel, 'a place of speaking,' such 
as, ' a pulpit, the stage, a reading desk.' 

Verbs in the present and the past tenses have their accent on 
thosp parts of the verb which are significant of these tenses ; as, 
tatan, 'eats'; wiyan, 'speaks'; wiya, 'hath told.' This 
must be particularly attended to; else a mere affirmation will 
become an imperative, and so on; as, ka-uwa, 'be it so, 
(a wish) ; k a-u w a, ' so it is ' (an aifirmation). 


In the future tenses, the accent is always on the last syllable 
but one, whether the word consists of two syllables or of more ; 
as, taniin, ' shall or will eat' ; wiyaniin, ' shall or will speak'; 
biinkillinun, 'shall or will be in the action of smiting'; 
bunnun, 'shall or will smite.' Present participles have the 
accent on the last syllable ; as, b ii n k i 1 1 i n, ' now in the action 
of smiting'; wiyellin, 'now in the action of talking, speak- 
ing.' Past participles have their accent on the last syllable 
but one ;as, bunkilliala, ' smote and continued to smite,' 
which, with a pronoun added, means ' they fought.' But the 
participial particle, denoting the state or condition of a person or 
thing, has the accent on the antepenultimate ; as, b li n 1 6 a r a, 
' that which is struck, smitten, beaten.' Thus, there are two 
accents — one the radical accent, the other the shifting one which 
belongs to the particles. 


The aborigines always lay particular stress upon the particles 
in all their various combinations, whether added to substantives 
to denote the cases, or to verbs to denote the moods or tenses. 
But, when attention is particularly commanded, the emphasis is 
thrown on the last syllable, often changing the termination 
into -o li ; as, w a 11a- w a 11 a, the imperative, 'move,' or 'be 
quick' ; but to urgently command would bewalla-wall-ou, 
dwelling double the time on the - o li. To emphatically charge 
a person with anything, the emphasis is placed on the particle 
of agency ; as, g a t 6 a, ' it is I ; ' g i n t d a, ' it is thou.' 

[The PnoNOLOGT or the ArsTEALiAN Langitages. 

Of late years increasing attention has been given to the con- 
sideration of the Australian languages, and numerous vocabu- 
laries have been collected. But it is somewhat unfortunate that 
these collections of words have been made, in most instances, by 
those who did not appreciate the principles of phonology ; often 
the spelling of the words does not adequately represent the 
sounds to be conveyed. Enough, however, is now known to 
permit a general estimate to be made of the sounds in the 
languages or rather dialects, for — notwithstanding many tribal 
variations in vocables and grammar — the Australian language is 
essentially one. 

Geneeal Eeatuees. 

Looking at the language as a whole, and examining its features, 
we at once observe the prominence of the long vowels, a and u, 
and the frequency of the guttural and nasal sounds ; the letter r 
with a deeper trill than in English, is also a common sound. 



The essential vowels are a, i, u, all pronounced with a full and 
open voice ; a as in the English word ' father ' ; j as in ' seen ' ; and 
u as 00 in ' moon.' The Australian a long is, in fact, a guttural 
sound, and is so deceptive to the ear that in many vocabularies 
the syllable ba is written bak, or even bar ; this a has a strong 
sympathy for the letter r, which is nearly a guttural in Australia, 
and when the two come together, as in mar, the sound of both is 
deepened, and so mat^ is pronounced something like mah-rr. 
This guttural combination of a and r has hitherto been repre- 
sented by arr, as in the word bundarra ; but, as both the sounds 
are normal, I prefer to write bundara, especially as the accent 
in such a word always falls on the penult. Our blacks also are 
Orientals in this respect, that, while in English there is a ten- 
dency to hurry over the open vowels in a word, they dwell on 
them, and say bd-bd, where we say pa-pa, or even pa-pa. 

The Australian i is ee long ; sometimes the sound of it is pro- 
longed, and then resembles the sound of e in ' scene ' ; this sound 
of i is represented by i in this volume. 

In Australian names and words, the sound of u long is com- 
monly indicated by oo. This is quite unnecessary ; for the sound 
of u, as it is in 'pull,' is its natural sound. I will, therefore, make 
it a rule that u, before a single consonant, stands for that sound. 

There are two more long vowels, e and o ; these come from a 
combhiation and modification of the sounds of a, i, and u ; e 
comes from the union of a and i, as in the English ' sail ' ; o from 
a and u, as in the French ' faute,' or perhaps from a direct. 
Wherever necessary, an accent has been placed on e and o (thus, 
e, o), to show that they are the long vowels. 

Besides these, there are the short vowels, a, e, i, 6, u. As a 
matter of convenience, it has been usual to indicate the short 
sound of these vowels, wherever they occur in Australian words, 
by doubling the consonant which iEollows them ; thus also, in 
English, we have 'manner,' and, in French, 'bonne,' ' mienne.' 
This plan seems unobjectionable, and has been followed here ; 
Buch a word, then, as bukka will have the short sound of a; and 
such words as bundara, where the u is followed by a hardened 
consonant, or by two different consonants, will have the u short, 
unless marked otherwise. If any one of those vowels which are 
usually short be followed by a single consonant, the vowel may 
then be pronounced long ; as ella, Ua ; but the short sound of 
jf, in such a position, will be marked by li in this volume. In 
the declension of the verbs, our author writes -mulla, -kulli, 
and the like ; this spelling I have allowed to stand, although I 
think that it should have been -malla, -kalli. 


Besides these ten, there is in Australian a peculiar vowel sound 
which appears only in a closed syllable, and chiefly before the 
nasal ng ; it takes the short sound of either a^ e, i, o, or u. For 
instance, we have the word for ' tongue ' set down as t a 1 1 a n g, 
talleng, tulling, tallun, and the word for 'hand' as 
mat a, met a, mita; and so also with other examples. I regard 
these variations as proceeding from an obscure utterance of a, 
the same dulled a which appears in English in the word ' vocal,' 
and is represented by other vowels in the English ' her,' ' sir,' 
'son.' I have introduced a as the sign for this sound ; a, there- 
fore, as in the syllables of talag, &c., will mean a dull, volatile 
sound of a, which, in the various dialects, may have any one of 
the other short vowels substituted for it. In the Malay language 
similarly, the a — that is, the letter ain, not gliain — takes the 
sound of any one of the short vowels. 

These six paragraphs seem to contain all that is noticeable in 
the long and short sounds of the vowels a, e, i, o, u. 

Then, we have the diphthongs ; ai, as in ' eyo' ; oi, as in ' coin ' ; 
aM, as in 'cow'; iu, as in 'new'; but aj is apt to become oi,and 
sometimes, though rarely, ei. 

The summary of the vowel sounds will thus be : — 
Vowfls — a, i, u ; i ; 5, o ; a, S, i, o ; u ; a (volatile). 
Semi-vowels — w, y. 
Dipltthongs — ai, oi, au, iu. 

I have admitted w and y, because they are already established 
in Australian words. I consider w, as a vowel, to be entirely 
redundant in 'our alphabet; y may be useful at the end of an 
open syllable to represent the softened sound of i. Even when w 
or y stands as ah initial letter in such words as wata, yuring, 
they are both superfluous, for wata might as well be written 
uata, and yuring as luring. But in words such as wa-kal, 
'one,' the w stands I'or an original J, and is therefore a consonant ; 
and, similarly, in yarro, 'an egg,' the y probably represents a 
primitive h. In such cases, w and y are consonants. 


The gutturals are Ic, g, h, ng. The ^ is a much more frequent 
sound in Australian than its softer brother g ; indeed, I am 
inclined to think that we could safely regard k as the native 
sound of this guttural, and set down g as merely a dialect variety 
of it. Eor the reasons given above, I discard the use of h at the 
end of an open syllable ; as an initial, h occurs in only a few 
words, such as hilaman, 'a shield ' ; but the guttural- 
nasal ng is one of the distinctive sounds of the Australian 
alphabet, and is the same sound as the ng in the English word, 
' sing.' It appears both as an initial and as a final ; its use at 
the beginning of a syllable severs the Australian language from 
the Aryan family, and gives it kinship with the African. 


In Samoari and in other Polynesian dialects, ng is very common 
as an initial, and as a final too'in the whole of Melanesia. In this 
respect the Polynesian and the Melanesian languages are akm 
to the Australian. The Malay also uses ng both as an initial 
a.nd as a final. Some Australian dialects nasalise the Ic, as in the 
English word ' ink '; to this there are parallels in the Melanesian 
languages, and there the sound is represented by 7c or q. 

In Tamil, one of the Dravidian languages of India, with which 
our Australian language is supposed to be connected, one forma- 
tive sufilx is gu, nasalised into ngv, ; it is used as the initial sound 
of a syllable, as in m-ngu, 'to quit' ; to this extent it corresponds 
with our ng. 

Our author, in his edition of 1834, has in some words a doubled 
guttural-nasal, as in b u n g n g a i. As the second of these is 
only a g attracted by the nasal that precedes it, I have written 
such words with g-g. In fact, the double sound proceeds from 
the one nasal, as in our English word ' finger.' Some of the 
Melanesian languages have this double sound both with g and 
with Tc. 

But in both of its uses, initial and final, the Australian ng arises 
from the nasalisation of the guttural g ; it is a simple sound, and 
should therefore be represented by only one letter, not by the 
digraph ng. In Sanskrit, the symbol for it as a final, for there 
it is never used as an initial and seldom as a final, is n- ; but, as 
the Australian ng comes from g, I prefer to use g as its symbol. 
If we compare the Dravidian pag-al, ' a day,' with the Melane- 
sian bung, 'a day,' it is clear that the ng proceeds from a g, for 
the original root of both words is the verb bha, 'to sine.' 
Eurther examination may, perhaps, show that our ng is, in some 
cases, a modification of the sound of «, as in the French 'bon,' 
' bien,' or even of a final vowel, but at present that does not 
seem to me at all likely. 

Besides 7ig, there are the two subdued nasal sounds of n and 
m — that is, n before d, and m before h ; these harden the eon- 
sonant that follows, and produce such sounds as nda, mha. The 
same sounds are common in Eiji — a Melanesian region — but not 
in Polynesia. 

Of the palatals, the language has cli, as in the English word 
'church,' and y, as in 'jam'; to these may be added the conso- 
nant y. The ch and the ,/ sounds are, in some vocabularies, 
printed as tch and clj ; that is quite unnecessary. I have adopted 
6 as the symbol for ch, because it is a simple sound. 

The only cerebral that we have is r, although the sound of it 
is often so asperated as to resemble the Dravidian rough and 
hard r. Our r is neither the Arabic vibrating gTiv, nor the 
Northumbrian hiirr, but is more like the rolled r of the Parisians. 


The dentals are t, d, n, I. As in. the Case of the gutturals k 
and ff, so with the dentals t and d; it is often difficult to decide 
whether a native, in pronouncing a word, is using the one or the 
other ; so also with p and b in the next paragraph. The liquids 
n and I are really dentals, their sound heing produced by the 
morement of the tongue on the teeth. In connection with the 
dentals t and d, it would be interesting to know if our natives ever 
cerebralise them in pronunciation ; for, if they do, that would be 
another link to connect them with the Dravidians; but the differ- 
ence of sound is too minute to be detected by an ordinary observer. 

A variant of t is th, for our blacks say both Ippatha and 
Ippata; the th has the same sound as in the English words, 
' thin,' ' breath.' It is possible that, in Australian, this th some- 
times takes the place of the absent s. In the Melanesian region 
also this sound of tli is common, and is represented often by d. 
Some Australian tribes have also th sonant, as in the English 
words 'this,' 'that'; the Melanesians have a corresponding sound 
which is represented in Eijian by c. If we could revive the 
Anglo-Saxon characters for these simple sounds, such anomalies 
would cease. 

The labials are p, b, and m ; the ni, as in other languages, is 
only a b sound with the breathing allowed to escape through the 
nose. Some collectors of words have set down the sounds of f 
and V as existing in Queensland, but I cannot admit them without 
further evidence ; they are not found in New South Wales ; the 
natives here say TJebiny for "Waverley. 

In addition to these elementary sounds, there are the conjunct 
sounds obtained by adding the aspirate Ji to some of the con- 
sonants. These are ph, bk, th, dh, hh, gh, and in each of them 
the aspirate is separated, in pronouncing it, from the consonant 
to which it is attached, as in Sanskrit, or as in the English words, 
-ap-hi]]., dqy-7iOU8e, &c. Some of these combined sounds I have 
heard distinctly from the lips of a native, and I have no doubt 
that the others also exist. 

The sibilants have no place in Australia. One vocabulary gives 
stha as an initial syllable, but that must be a mistake ; another 
gives dtha ; that also must be a mistake. 

It ought to be noted here that in many Australian tribes, when 
a young man passes through the Bora ceremonies of initiation, 
one or two of his upper front teeth are knocked out, and this is a 
portion of the accustomed rites. The loss of these teeth must 
have had an important influence on the utterance of the dentals 
and sibilants in past time, and so on the language itself 
• Pectjliaeities. 

In some dialects, there is a tendency to insert the sound of 2^ 
after t and Ic; as, tyala, 'to eat,' instead of tala._ So also m 
English we sometimes hea.T ffijarden for gar den and kyind for land. 


Some dialects say kedlu, for which the usual form would 
be k ellu. But it is possible that the d here is radical, and so 
maintains its place. 

In the Dieyerie tribe, near Cooper's Creek, South Australia, 
many words have in them the peculiar sound ndr, as mu«. (7ru, 
'two,' which is also the Tamil word for 'three.' The Tamil is 
fond of this sound, and so is the language of Madagascar ; the 
Rjian prefises the sound of n to d, so that dua is pronounced 
ndua. The sound of ndr comes by accretions from a single r, 
and so the simpler forms of the Tamil mundru are muru, 

The dialect of King George's Sound, "Western Australia, has 
this peculiarity, that it delights inclosed syllables ; for there the 
twonga of the inland tribes is pronounced twonk, and katta 
is kat. 


The consonants, then, may be thus arranged : — 

Gutturals — k kh g gli g h- 

Palatals — c ... j ... ... y. 

Cerebrals — ? ... ... ... ... r. 

Dentals — ■ t th d dh n 1. 

Lahials — p ph b bh m 

Jjiquids — n 1. 

The vowels are Jive in number. If we reckon the guttural- 
nasal y as a separate sound (which, considering its place in the 
language, we may justly do), but omit the nasalised k as un- 
common, and count n and I as dentals only, the simple conso- 
nant sounds are fifteen in number. To these add the two 
sounds of til, and iv and y as consonants ; but omit the six 
aspirated consonants, for they are not simple sounds. The 
Australian alphabet thus consists of twenty-four simple ele- 
mentary sounds. — Ed.] 




Op the Substitute toe the Auticle. 
The general meaning; of a noun is expressed by using its 
simple form; as, m akor o, 'a fish' or 'fishes'; t ibbin, a 'bird' 
or ' birds,' in a general sense ; k u 1 ai, ' wood,' or ' a stick.' To 
make these plural, the plural pronoun would be attached ; as, 
unni maker o, tara ma k ore, 'this fish,' ' these fishes,' 
meaning that they are here present ; to express ' the fish' as an 
active agent we must say gali makoro, 'this fish,' sc, did some 
action. And so also with respect to all nouns, as will be explained 
under the head of pronouns. 

Of Substantives. 

Nouns are the ' names of persons, things, actions, and places.' 
They are Proper, when used as the name of any individual person 
or thing ; Common and Collective, when denoting the names of 
things singly or together; as, kiiri, 'man' or 'mankind'; karai, 
' kangaroo ' ; makoro,' fish.' A pronoun attached shows the 
number, whether singular or plural. Nouns which describe par- 
ticular applications of the meaning of the verb are formed from 
the roots of their verbs ; e.y., wi, the root of the verb 'speak,' gives 
wiyellikan, ' one who speaks,' ' a speaker'; wiy aiy e, ' one 
who always talks,' 'a talker,' 'chatterer.' When names of things 
are appropriated to a person so as to be the person's name, that 
name must be declined in the first declension of nouns, to show 
it is the name of a person and not of the thing ; e.n., tinti g 
' a crab,' belongs to the third declension, and the genitive would 
be tintig-koba, ' belonging to a crab'; but when it is the 
name of a person, its genitive would betintig-iimba, ' belong- 
ing to Crab,' — Mr. or Mrs., according to the context. There 
are a few terminations of gender in certain nouns, but not 
generally; as, por i-b ai, 'a husband'; porikiin-bai, 'a wife'; 
yinal, 'a son'; yinalkun, 'a daughter'; but piriwal, 
means a 'king' or 'queen,' according to the gender of the pro- 
noun attached. To animals, in most instances, there are different 


words used for the male and for tlie female ; as, w a r i k a 1, 
' a he-dog' ; t i n k o, 'a she-dog.' Names of places are generally 
descriptive, as, puntei, the ' narrow ' place ; bill war a, the 
'high' place; tirabinba, the 'toothed' place; biinkilli-gel, 
'the place for fighting,'the field of battle. Names of countries have 
a declension peculiar to place, and in the genitive have a feminine 
and a masculine termination; e.y., Englandkal, means 'English- 
man,' the termination being masculine ; but Englandkalin, 
means 'Englishwoman,' the termination being feminine; so also, 
untikal, 'of this place,' masculine; untikalin, 'of this 
place,' feminine. A noun is an adjective, a verb, or an adverb, 

m u r r a r a g, ' good' ; murraragtai, ' the good,' sc, person ; 
murrarag uma, ' good done,' ' well done,' ' properly done.' 

Op -THE Declensiom' oe Notrifs, etc. 

There are seven declensions of nouns, according to which all 
adjectives and participles, as well as nouns, are declined. 

Nouns are declined according to their use and termination. 
When used for the name of an individual person, they axe de- 
clined in the first declension, whatever may be the termination 
of the word ; but when used as the names of places, they follow 
the declension of place-names. Common nouns are declined in 
the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth declensions, according 
to their respective terminations. 

Of the two nominative cases, the one is simply declarative, 
and in it the subject is inactive; as, 'this is a bird,' unni ta 
t i b b i n ; the second nominative is used when the subject is 
represented as doing something; as, tibbinto tat an, 'the 
bird eats' ; in which case the particles ending in o are afilxed, to 
denote the agent, according to the terminations of the respective 
nouns* ; hence the following general rules for the use of the 
particles of agency : — 

1. Nouns or participles ending in i or n affix -to; as, 
K i k o i , 'a native cat,' k i k o i - 1 o , ' the cat ' f ; 
Grurrulli, the active participle, or the infinitive, 'to hear, 

believe, obey,' gurrulli-to, 'faith, belief .' 

2. Nouns ending in nff, a, e, o, v, require -ko; as, 
Maiya, 'a snake,' maiya-ko, ' the snake '; 
K u r i , 'a man,' k u r i - k o , ' the man ' ; 

"W o i y o , ' grass,' w o i y o - k o , ' the grass .' 

But when r precedes o, the noun belongs to the fifth declension. 

* See ' Age7it-nominative case,' page 11. 

t Supply here, and wlierever the space occurs, some transitive predicate, as 
' did, does, or will do, something.' 

THE an.VMMAE. '11 

3. Nouns ending in I require - ? o to be annexed ; as, 
Punnal, 'the sun,' pu n n al - 1 o , ' the sun ': 
r i n a 1 , 'a son,' y i n a 1 - 1 o , ' the son .' 

4. ]\^ouns of three syllables ending in r o require the accent to 

be shifted to the o ; as, 
M a k o r o , ' fish ,' m a k o r - 6, ' the fish .' 

5. Nouns of three syllables ending in r a change the a into 6 ; as, 
Kokera, ' a hut, house ,' koker-6, ' the house " .' 
Mattara, 'the hand,' mattar-d, 'the hand .' 

6. Nouns of four syllables ending in r require r 6 to be added ; as, 
Kulmotiur, ' a woman's name ,' Kulmotiur-rd 
Note. —The participle form of the verb in the passive voice, 

when used as an agent, changes the last syllable into r 6 ; as, 
B u n 1 a r a , ' that which is struck ,' 

btintoar-d, ' that which is struck ' ; 

Tellawaitoara, ' that which sits, squats,' 

yella\vaitoar-6, ' that which sits .' 

Of the Cases op Nouns and PBONOtrNS. 

It is by the particles that the whole progress of the mind 
of the sjjeaker is shown, and only by- the right use of them 
may we expect to fender ourselves correctly intelligible to the 
aborigines. The following are used in the declension of nouns 
and pronouns, according to the terminations and cases of these : — 

1. The Simple-nominative case merely declares the person or 
thing, or the quality, and has no particle added ; as, g a t o a, 'I' ; 
kuri, 'man'; kiilai, 'wood'; kekal, 'sweet'; murrarag, 
' good.' But particles are used to form nouns ; as, b li n k i y e, 
' a smiter,' from the root bun, 'to smite' ; k e k a 1 k e, ' sweet- 
ness' ; or, are used to transform the noun into a verb, which 
merely declares the abstract action ; as, b li n k i 1 1 i, ' the action 
of smiting.' 

2. The Agent-nominative case denotes the person who operates, 
and is always known by the addition of the particle o ; but this 
particle of agency is preceded by a servile consonant, or is 
accented according to the last syllable of the noun. The personal 
and instrumental interrogatives, to? 'who?' ko? 'what thing?' 
are unchangeable; the particles of agency thus attached to the 
noun are -to,-ko,-lo,-o,-ro. 

3. The Oenitioe case shows the relation of one thing con- 
sidered as belonging, in some manner, to another ; in the inter- 
rogative 'who,' and in the names of persons, it requires - li m b a ; 
as, gan-umba? 'whose?' Threlkeld-umba, ' Threlkeld's' ; 
piriwal-umba, ' the king's ' ; but things and persons require 
-koba; as, minarig-koba? ' belonging to what thing ? ' 
kiiri-koba, 'belonging toman.' The dual, the plural, and the 
singular feminine pronouns form the genitive by affixing -ba 


to the accusative; as, galin-'ba, 'belonging to us two'; 
gearun-ba, 'belonging to us,' 'ours'; bounnoun-ba, 
' belonging to her,' ' hers ' The other singular pronouns add the 
particles to a variant form of the root-word ; as, e m m o -u m b a, 
'belonging to me,' 'mine'; giro-umba, ' belonging to thee,' 
'thine.' But time and place require -kal, and -k a 1 in; as, 
buggai-ka], 'belonging to the present ' period of time now 
becoming; E n gl an d-kal, 'a man belonging to England,' 'an 
Englishman'; England -kalin, 'a woman belonging to Eng- 
land,' 'an Englishwoman'; untikal, 'hereof,' ' belonging to this 

4. The Dative case shows the ultimate object to which an action 
tends; as, for a person to possess and use a thing iji any way ; it 
is expre.'ised by adding - n u g to the interrogative pronoun and to 
names of persons only, but -ko to all other nouns, and to the 
abstract action, which is thereby formed into a supine or a con- 
struct infinitive ; as, b ii. n k i 1 1 i k o, ' for-to smite.'* But motion 
towards a person or thing, as opposed to motion from the place 
where the person or thing is, requires the following particles 
according to the various terminations of the nouns ; viz., - 1 a k o, 
-kako, -lako, -ako, -rako; that is, the particle - k o, pre- 
ceded by a syllable, the consonant of which varies according to 
the termination of the noun to which it is affixed ; the personal 
pronoun requires -kinko, and place takes -kako; see table 
of declensions. 

5. The Accusative case, which marks direct action on the person, 
not merely towards the person, is the object of a transitive verb. 
The personal j)ronounshave distinct particles ; see their declension. 
But names of persons have the terminating particle -nug 
added; po also the interrogatives of person, place, and thing ; as, 
gan-nu g? 'whom?' or 'who is the direct object?' won -nug? 
' where ?' or ' where at?' m i n - n u g? ' what ?' or ' what object?' 
so also, Threlkeld-nug is the objective or accusative case. 
All other common substantives, not derivatives, are placed before 
the active verb without any change from the simple nominative ; 
nor can error arise therefrom ; because when they are used as 
agents, the sign of that case will be attached ; as, k a r a i b li w a, 
'smite the kangaroo; butkaraito tia biinkulla, 'the kan- 
garoo struck me,' equivalent to, ' I was struck by the kangaroo.' 

(!. In the Vocative case, the particle a - 1 a or e - 1 a, calling for 
attention, is prefixed to the form of the nominative, not the 
agent-nominative, case ; as, ala piriwal! 'Oking!' equivalent 
to 'May it please your majesty.' 

7. Ablative case. Certain postpositions are used to indicate 
this case; as, (1) kai, meaning 'from,' 'concerning,' 'about,' 'on 
account of,' used only to proper names and pronouns ; but for 

* See footnote, page 24. 


common nouns, -t in, -li n, -in, - r in, 'from,' 'on account of,' 
the consonant varying accordiug to the termination of the word 
to which it is attached ; (2) k i n - b i r u g, meaning 'from,' used 
only to pronouns, is opposed to the dative of ' motion towards '; 
proper names, whether of persons or places, require k a - b i r u g ; 
but common nouns require, according to their terminations] 
-ta-birug, -ka-birug, -la-birug, -a-birug, -ra-birug, 
to mark 'motion from,' as opposed to the dative; (3)katoa, 
meaning to be ' with ' as an agent, is affixed to personal pronouns 
and proper names of persons only ; but persons, things, and 
places annex, according to their respective terminations, -t o a, 
-koa, -loa, -oa, -roa, meaning 'by,' 'through,' 'with,' 'near'; 
no causative effects are implied in any of these particles ; (4) 
ka-ba, meaning 'at' or 'on,' and kin-ba, present 'with' a 
person at his place, are locative. 

Por nouns, these postpositions are annexed mostly to the 
form of the simple nominative ; for pronouns, commonly to the 
first dative form. 

Of Adjectives asd Paeticiples. 

Adjectives have no distinctive endings ; it depends entirely on 
their situation, or on the particle's used, whether words are nouns, 
adjectives, verbs, or adverbs. Por instance, if murrarag, 
'good,' yarakai, 'bad,' and konein, 'pretty,' be declined 
according to their terminations, with the particles of agency 
affixed, they would then become agents, and consequently nouns ; 
as, murraragko, ' the good,' yarakaito, 'tliebad or evil,' 
koneinto, 'thepretty' or'thebeauty,' respectively, . . . . ;* 
but participles in the passive voice terminate always in the com- 
pound paiticle -toara; the root of the verb is prefixed either 
with or without the causative particles, according to the sense 
required ; as, from k i y u, the verb ' to roast with fire, to scorch, 
to broil,' comes kiyuba-toara, 'that which is roasted'; 
kiyuba-tdara bag, 'I am roasted '; kiyuba-toaro, ' that 
which is roasted '*. 

Adjectives denoting abundance are often formed by a redupli- 
cation; as, murrarag, 'good'; murrar ag-murr ar ag, 
'excellent, abundance of good'; kauwal, 'great, large, big'; 
kauwal-kauwal, ' many, abundant.' 

Adjectives denoting want are expressed by affixing a negative 
word; as, murr ara g-ko ri en, 'worthless,' lit., 'good-not.' 

Adjectives denoting resemblance require the particle -kiloa, 
'like,' to be affixed; as, wonnai-kilo a, 'child-like,' 'likea 
child ' ; but, if they denote habit, the particle - k e i is affixed ; as, 
wonnai-kei, 'childish.' 

* See footnote, page 10. 


Adjectives denoting character, manner, or habit, are formed 
from the roots of verbs, and have the particles ye or k e i added ; 
e.y., biin, the root of the verb 'to smite,' gives biinkiye, 'a 
smiter'; whereas biinkilli-kan would be 'one who smites'; 
wogkal 'to be a fool'; wogkal-kei, 'foolish'; so also 
gura-kei 'wise, skilf ul' ; b u k k a-k e i, ' ferocious, _ savage'; 
kekal-kei, ' sweet, nice, pleasant.' Derived forms of the verb 
also give nouns in -ye; as w i y - a i - y e, 'a talker.' 

Of Compaeatites akd S€"peelatites. 

The following are the methods used in comparison, there being 
no particles to express degrees of quality : — 

1. The comparative of equality is formed thus : — 

K e k a 1-k ei unni yanti unno a-k ilea, ' sweet this as that- 
like,' i.e., 'this is as sweet as that.' 

2. The comparative of inferiority is formed by putting the 
negative particle korien after the adjective ; thus: — 
KekaJ-korien unni yanti unno a-k i 1 o a, ' sweet-not this 

as that-like,' i.e , ' this is not so sweet as that.' 

3. The comparative of superiority is formed by the use of the 
word kau wal-kau w al, a reduplication of 'great,' and the 
particle of negation added to that which is inferior ; as : — 
Kekal-kei unni kau w al-kau w al keawai unno a, 

'sweet this great-great, not that,' i.e., 'this is most sweet.' 

Op "Woeds denotixu yusiBEE. 

Numerals are only cardinal ; they are declined as nouns, so 
far as they extend ; namely, wakal, 'one'; bula, buldara, 
'two'; goro, 'three'; waran, 'four'; beyond this there are 
no further numbers, but the general term kau w al-kau w a 1, 
■' much or many' is used. The interrogative of quantity or number, 
minnan? ' which present ?', means 'how many?'; the answer 
would be given by any of the above numbers ; or by k a u w a 1- 
kauwal kiiri, ' many men ' ; or by w a r e a k u r i, ' few men.' 
Ordinal numbers can be expressed only by declioing the noun to 
which they may be attached, the ordinal adjective being also 
subject to declension, according its own termination, indepen- 
dently of the termination of the noun ; as : — 

Purreag-ka goro-ka, ' the third day ' ; kiilai-toa goro- 
k o a, ' by, beside the third tree.' B u 1 6 a r a is used in the dual, 
and is of the sixth declension. 

There are also two other expressions which may be noticed 
here ; namely, w i n t a, equivalent to ' a part or portion of, 
some of; also, yantin, equivalent to 'the whole or all'; as, 
unti-bo winta kuri, 'here be part of the men,' 'some of 
the men are here ' ; unti-bo yantin k li r i, ' here be all the 
men,' ' all the men are here.' 



The personal pronouns of the first, second, and third persons 
singular, have two forms, the one used with the verb as a subject 
to it, the other used absolutely in answer to an interrogative, or 
with the verbfor the sake of emphasis. The latter form, when 
used as a subject, precedes the predicate, and always calls atten- 
tion to the person and not to the verb. These forms will there- 
fore be designated Personal-nominative pronouns, and marked as 
such ; thus, Nom. 1 means Personal-nominative ; but the personal 
pronouns used as the nominative to verbs and never by them- 
selves, nor in answer to interrogatives, will be marked Nom. 2, 
to denote Verbal-nominative, as the verb is then the prominent 
feature to which attention is called, and not the person ; these 
always follow the verb. The strictest attention must be given 
to the use of the pronouns in all their persons, numbers, and 
cases ; for by them the singular, dual, and plural numbers arc 
known ; by them the active, the passive, the reciprocal, and re- 
flexive states of the verb ; as will be exemplified in the conjugation 
of the verbs, as well as in the declension of the pronouns. The 
plural personal pronouns have only one nominative form to 
each person ; so also, the singular feminine pronoun, which is only 
of one description. The dual number also has but one pronoun in 
the nominative case ; but it has a case peculiar to this language 
— a nominative and an accusative case conjoined in one word; 
just as if such English pronouns as I and thee, thou and him, 
could become I-thee, thou-him. This will be called the Conjoined- 
dual form. 


[The declension of the nouns and pronouns 'is effected by 
means of postpositions, as has been already explained in this 
chapter. The focms of the ablative case may be indefinitely 
multiplied in number by using other postpositions than those 
shown in the following paradigms.* — En.] 

[* In the paradigms of the pronouns and the nouns, Nom. 1 is the nomin- 
ative case in its simple form, used absolutely ; Nom. 2 is the form used as 
the nominative of the agent or instrument ; the Gen. means, as usual, ' of,' 
or 'belonging to' ; Dat. 1 is the dative of ' possession' or 'use,' = ' for' (him, 
her, it), to have and to use ; Dat. 2 is a sort of locative case ' towards ' 
(him, &c. ) ; the Ace. is the ' object' form of the word ; the Voc. is used in 
'calling'; Abl. 1 denotes 'from,' 'on account of,' as a cause; Ail. 2, 
'from,' ' away from,' 'procession from' ; Abl. 3, 'with,' 'in company with' ; 
Abl. 4, 'being with,' 'remaining with,' 'at'; occasionally there is an 
Ahl, 5, which means merely place where, ' at.' — Ed.] 




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All Nouns, whatever may be their original signification, when 
used as proper names of places, are of this declension, if they 
end in a. 

M u 1 u b i n b a, the site of ' Newcastle.' 

Nom. Mulubinba, the name of the place, M 

6?eK. 1 Mulubinba-kob a, any thing belonging to If. . . 

2 Mulubinba- kal, a male belonging to Ji" . . . . 

3 Mulubinba-kalin, a female belonging to M . . . 

Dat. 1 M u 1 u b i n b a - k a k o, for Jfcf . . , — to remain there. 
2Mulubinba-kolag, tojf . ., to proceed to Jf. . 

Ace. 1 Barun Mulubinba-kal, them (ma«c.) of -3f . . . 

2 Barun Mulubinba-kalin, them (/em.) oi M . . 

3 Barun yantin Mulubinb a- kal, them allof Jf . . 

Foe. Tapallun Mulubinba-kal, alas! people of Jf. . , 

All. 1 Mulubinba-tin, from, on account of -3f 

2 Mulubinba-kabirug, from, away from ilf . . . 

3 Mulubinba-koa, by, by way of, through Jf . . . 

4 Mulubinba-kaba, at, on, in M 

Note 1. — To form the Ace. singular or dual here, put their 
pronouns in the place of barun. 

2. — The interrogative pronoun signifying place is w o n t a ? 
'where is it?' and this may be substituted for Mulubinba; 
the example would then become interrogative ; as, wontakal? 
'belonging to what place?' wontakaba? 'where is it at?' 
' at what place is it ?' &c. 


The cases of the three personal pronouns and the manner of 
using them are similar to those of the nouns. Thus, for the first 
pronoun : — 

Norn. 1. Gato a, I. — This form is used in answer to an inter- 
rogative of personal agency; as, G-anto wiyan? 
'Who speaks?' The answer would be ga to a, 'it is I 
who,' the verb being understood. The next form, 
bag, would simply declare what I do. 

2. Bag, I, — is used in answer to an interrogative of the 
act ; as, Minnug ballin bi? ' What art thou 
doing now ?' t atan b a g, ' I eat ;' ba g must be used, 
and not the personal-nominative, g a t o a. 

'j'HE ghammae. 19 

Gen. E m m o - 11 in b a, My or mine,-~h used with a noun, or 
with a substantive verb ; the noun always precedes ; 
as, k o k e r a e m m o a m b a, ' my house '; but 
emmoumba ta, 'it is mine.' 

Dat. 1. Emmo-ug, Forme, — personally to receive or use. 

2. Emmo-ug-kin-ko, To me, — to the place where I am. 

Ace. Ti-a, Me, — governed by transitive verbs. This pronoun is 
used to form the equivalent for the passive voice ; as, 
buntan bag, 'I strike;' but biintan tia, 'I 
am struck,' lit., ' strikes me.' 

Vac. Ka-ti-ou, — merely an exclamation ; as, Oh me! Ah me ! 

AM. 1. Emmo-ug-kai, From me, — through me, about me. 

2. Emm o-u g-kin-biru g, From me, — awayfromme. 

3. Emmo-u g-ka-t oa, With me, — in company with me. 

4. Etamo-ug-kin-ba, With me, — at my place. 

These case-endings have the same force for the second and the 
third pronouns also. 


These are so compound in their signification as to include the 
demonstrative and the relative; e.ff. — 1. gali is equivalent to 
-* this is that who or which,' — the person or thing spoken of being 
here present; 2. gala, 'that is that who or which,' — being at 
hand; 3. galoa, 'that is that who or which,' — being beside 
the person addressed, or not far off. They are thus declined : — - 

Instant. Proximate. Remote. 

T^r CI. Ga-li G-a-la Ga-loa. 

l\om. 1 2. Un-ni Un-noa Iln-toa. 

Gen. Gali-ko-ba Grala-ko-ba 6aloa-ko-ba. 

Tj , f 1. G-ali-ko Gala-ko Galoa-ko. 

(^2. Un-ti-ko Un-ta-ko Un-toa-ko. 

Ace. Un-ni Un-noa Un-toa. 

G-ali-tin Un-ta-tin Galoa-tin. 

Un-ti-birug Un-ta-birug Un-toa-birug. 

The pronouns attached to these demonstratives determine 
their number, whether they are to be singular or plural; as, 
gali-noa, 'this is he who'; gali-bara, ' these are they who' ; 
gali-ta, 'it is this that'; gali-tara, 'these are they that.' 
Other combinations are gali-noa, ' this is he who,' as an 
agent; unni-noa, ' this is he,' the subject. Gali-koba bdn, 
' this belongs to him,' an idiom ; galoa-koba bon, ' this is that 
which belongs to him'; these and the other similar genitives, 
are always followed by the accusative case. 

AM. [I- 


Eecipeocal PfioiTorifs. 
Gatoa-bo, 'Imyself ; gintoa-bo, ' thou tiyself '; niu-woa- 
bo, 'he himself; bali-bo, ' our two selves,' and so on. The 
ho here attached is merely an intensive particle. 

Possessive PEOKorsrs. 

These are the genitive cases of the personal pronouns, and 
are used thus: — emmoumba ta, 'mine it is'; unni ta em- 
moumba kokera, ' this is my house' ; unnoata giroumba, 
'that is thine'; tararan giroumba korien, ' it is not thine,' 
lit., 'not thine not,' for the idiom of the language requires 
two negatives here. 

Indefinite Pkonouns. 

Titurrabii], 'some one,' ' some person or persons', is declined 
like the fourth declension of nouns ; tar ai, ' other,' like the second 

Absolute Peosotjns. 

Ta, 'it is,' from the substantive verb ; tar a, 'they are,' is of 
the fifth declension; unni tara, 'these are they which,' as a sub- 
ject ; gali taro, 'these are they which,' as agents ; yantin, 
'all,' 'the whole,' is of the second declension; yantin-to, 'all 
who,' as agents ; wakallo, ' one only,' as an agent. 

Tnteeeogatite Peonouks. 

The interrogative pronouns are, — gan, ' who ? '; min (neut.}, 
'which? what?'; won, 'where?'; ya-koai, 'how? in what man- 
ner?'; ya-kounta, 'when? at what time ? ' 


The Interrogative, Gan-? who ? 

Nom. 1 G-an-ke? who is ? 

2 G a n - 1 ? who is the agent ? 
Oen. Gan-umba? whose? 
Dat. 1 Gan-niig? for whom ? — to possess or use. 

2 Gan-kin-ko? to whom ? — towards whom ? 
Ace. Gan-nug? whom ? or who is the object ? 


Ahl. 1 Gan-kai? from whom ? on account of whom ? 

2 Gan-kin-birug? from, away from whom ? 

3 Gan-katoa? in company with whom ? 

4 with whom? remaining with whom? 


Tte Interrogative, Min-? what? which.?, 
applied to things only. 

Min-arig? what? as, minarig ke unni? whatisthis? 

M i n-n a n ? what are ? i.e., how many ? 

Min-arig-ko? what ? — as the agent or iustrument. 

Min-arig-koba? belonging to what ? 

Min-arig-kolag? towards what ? 

M i n-n u g ? what ? — the object of the verb. 

M i n-a r i g - 1 i n ? from what cause ? why ? wherefore ? 

Min-arig-birug? from what? of what? out of what ? 

Min-ari g-kiloa? like what? 

M i n-a r i g- k a ? with what ? together with what ? 

M i n-a rig- k aba? on what ? 

The Interrogative of place, 
Won-? what place ? where ? 

W o n-t a ? where is the place ? what place ? — definite. 

"W n-n e i n ? where ? which place ? — indefinite. 

W n-t a - k a 1 ? masc. , belonging to what country or place ? 

W o n-t a-kalin? fern., belonging to what country ? 

"W" o n-t a - k o 1 a g ? towards what place ? 

"W o n-t a r i g ? to what place ? whither ? 

"W o n-n u g ? what place ? where ? — the object of a verb. 

"W" u-t a-tinto? from what place ? (causative) ; where at ? 

W o n-t a-birug? from what place ? out of what place ? 

Wo n-t a-k o a ? through what place ? by what place ? 

Tj. J.' J T, fTakoai? how ? in what manner ? 

Interrogative adverbs, ^-xri j.oi,oj.i,j-j.- o 

•= (xakounta.'' when t at what time ! 

All these particles are used strictly according to the meanings 
shown above, and cannot be used loosely like some interrogatives 
in English ; for example, y a k o a i ? ' how ? ' cannot be used to 
to ask the question ' how many?' for it is an adverb of manner ; 
' how many ' must be m i n n a n. 




The verbs undergo no cliangs to indicate either number or 
person, but the stem-forms vary in respect to the sort of agency 
employed, whether personal or instramental, and also according 
to the manner of doing or being ; as, (a) when I do anything to 
myself, or (b) to another ; or (c) I do anything to another and 
he reciprocally does it to me ; or (d) when I continue to be or 
to do ; or (e) when the action is doing again, or (_/) when per- 
mitted to be done by this or that agent ; or (y) by another 
agent ; or (Ji) when a thing acts as an agent, or (i) is used as 
an instrument. Verbs are reduplicated to denote an increase of 
the state or action. All verbs are declined by particles, each of 
which particles contains in its root the accident attributed to the 
verb in its various modifications ; as, assertion, aflirmation, nega- 
tion, privation, tendency, existence, cause, permission, desire, 
purpose ; thus are formed moods, tenses, and participles. The 
participles are formed after the manner of their respective tenses, 
and are declined either as verbal nouns or as verbal adjectives. 

Op the KiiTDS OF Veetjs. 
Yerbs are either Transitive or Intransitive, both of which are 
subject to the following accidents, viz. : — 

1. Active-transitive, or those which denote an action that 
passes from the agent to some external object ; as, 'I strike him,' 
biintan bon bag. This constitutes the active «;o?ce, which 
states what an agent does to another, or, what another agent does 
to him, in which latter case it is equivalent to the English passive 
voice; e.y., biintan bon (literally, 'strikes him,') implies that 
some agent now strikes him, and means ' he is now struck,' the 
nominative pronoun being omitted in order to call attention to 
the object. But when this accusative or object is omitted, the 
attention is then called to the act which the agent performs ; 
as, biintan bag, ' I strike,' expressed often by 'I do strike.' 

2. Active-intransitive, or those which express an action which 
has no effect upon any external object except the agent or agents 
themselves ; that is, the agent is also the object of his own act ; 
consequently the verb is necessarily reflexive ; as, bunkilleun 
bag, 'I struck myself.' This constitutes the ' reflexive ' modifica- 
tion of the verb. 


3. Active-transitioe-reciprocal, or those verbs that denote au 
action that passes from the agent to some external object, which 
object returns the action to the agent who then becomes the 
object, and thus they act reciprocally one towards the other. 
Consequently the dual and plural numbers are always the subject 
to this form of the verb; as, bun kill an ball, 'thou and I 
strike' each other reciprocally; biinkillan bar a, 'they 
strike ' each one the other reciprocally, or they fight with blows. 
This constitutes the ' reciprocal ' modification of the verb. 

4. Continuative ; as when the state continues, or the action is, 
was, or will be, continued without interruption; as, bilnkil- 
lilin bag, 'I am now continuing in the action of making 
blows', such as thrashing or beating. This is called the ' con- 
tinuative ' modification of the verb. 

5. Causative (1) by permission, or, with a negative, proTiihifive ; 
as, when we do or do not permit a person to do the act, or 
another to do tlie act to him; as, biimmunbilla bon, 'let 
him strike,' biimmarabunbilla bdn, 'cause some one to 
strike him,'' equivalent to, 'let him be struck'; biimmarabun- 
b i y i k o r a bon, ' let no one strike him.' 

6. Causative (2) by personal agency, denoting the exertion of 
personal energy to produce the effect upon the object ; as tiir 
ta unni, 'this is broken'; tiir bug-ga unni also means 
' this is broken,' but then personal agency is understood, for the 
phrase is equivalent to ' some person has broken this,' or- ' this is 
broken by some one.' 

7. Causative (3) by instrumental agency, denoting an effect 
produced by means of some instrument; as, tiir bur r ea unui, 
'this is broken,' sc, by means of something. 

8. ^Effective, or those which denote an immediate effect pro- 
duced by the agent on the object ; as, uma bag unni, 'I 
made this'; pital bag, 'I am glad'; pitalma bon bag, 
' I made him glad.' 

9. Neuter verbs, or those which describe the quality, state, or 
existence of a thing; as, kekal lag unni, 'this is sweet'; 
tetti lag unni, ' this is dead '; wonnug ke noa? ' where 
is he?' unui ta, 'this is it'; moron noa katan, 'he is 
alive '; unnug noa ye, ' there he is.' In these the particles, 
lag, k e, t a, katan, ye, are rendered into English by the 
neuter verb is. 

10. Reduplicate, or those which denote an increase of the state, 
quality, or energy ; ai, pi t a 1 noa, ' he is glad ' ; p i t a 1-p i t a 1 
noa, ' he is very glad '; tetti bara, ' they are dead ' ; tetti- 
tettei bara,' they are dead-dead,' or ' a great death is among 
them'; kauwal, 'great'; k au wal-k au w al, ' very great '; 
tauwa, 'eat'; tauwa-tauwa, ' eat heartily.' 


11. Privative, or those which denote the absence of some pro- 
perty. Affirmatively, uman bag unni, ' I make this,' or '1 
do this '; upan bag unni, 'I do this,' not directly, but with 
something or by means of something else ; e.g., ' I write on this 
paper with a quill' would be upan bag unni yirigko 
wiyelliko, lit., 'I make this quill for-to speak or communi- 
cate ' ; whereas uman bag unni yirig pen kakilliko 
would mean ' I make this quill for-to* be a pen.' Negatively, 
when it is implied that the act itself has not taken place, the expres- 
sion would beuma pa bag ba, ' had I made ' ; again, if the act 
existed, but no effect produced by the action were implied, it 
would be expressed thus, umai-ga bag unni, 'I had almost 
done this.' 

12. Imminent, or those which denote a readiness to be or to 
do; as piriwal katea kun koa bag, ' les-t I should be 
king'; biintea kun koa bon bag, 'lest I should strike 

13. Inceptive, or those which describe the state as actually 
about to exist, or the action as going to put forth its energy at 
thetimespokenof ; as, kakilli kolag bali, ' we two are now 
going to live reciprocally together'; bunkilli kolag bag, 
' I am now going to strike.' 

14. Iterative, or those which denote a repetition of the state 
or action; as, moron kat6a kanun, 'shall live again'; 
biintea kaniin, ' will strike again.' 

15. Spontaneous, or those which denote an act done of the 
agent's own accord ; as, tiir kullin unni, 'this is breaking 
of its own accord ' — not by external violence {cf. No. 6) ; por 
kulleun no a, ' he has just been born,' lit., ' he has dropped 

Or THE Moods. 
There are three moods, the Indicative, the Subjunctive, and the 

1. The Indicative, which simply declares a thing ; as, b li n t a n 
bag, 'I strike'; unni ta, 'thisisit', the subject; gali noa 
'this is he,' the agent. 

2. The Subjunctive, which subjoins something to the meaning 
of the verb, such as a wish, a desire, a purpose ; as, b u w i 1 b a g, 
' I wish to strike,' b u u w a bag, 'I desire to strike,' or ' I 
want now to strike'; tanan ba uwa biinkilliko, 'had I 
come hither for-to strike.' 

* This form of the verb, as will afterwards he shown, denotes purpose ; 
our author expresses that everywhere by for-to. I have allowed that pre- 
positional form to stand, — Ed. 


3. The Imperative, which expresses command ; as, h li w a b i, 
' do thou strike' ; but in b u m m u n b i 1 1 a, ' let strike,' the per- 
son or persons addressed are desired to permit the person named 
to strike; in biimmarabunbilla, 'let strike,' the person 
addressed is desired to permit any one to strike thfe person named ; 
in buntea-ka, 'strike again,' the person or persons addressed 
are desired to repeat the action. The imperative form is often 
used with the first and the third personal pronouns ; in this sense 
it denotes the desire of the agent to do the act at the time spoken 
of ; as, b u w a b a n u g, 'I want to strike thee' ; b u w a b i 1 o a, 
' he wants to strike thee.' 

Note. — The equivalent, in many instances, to the English 
infinitive mood is the construct form of the verb which denotes 
the purpose of the subject; as, Minarig ko unni? What 
is this for ? biinkilliko, is the answer, ' for-to strike.' 

Of the Tenses. 

1. The Present, which asserts the present existence of the 
action or being of the verb, at the time in which the assertion is 
made. The signs of this tense are the following affixed particles, 
of which the first consonant is varied by the terminations of the 
respective conjugations of the verbs, viz., -an to the simple verb, 
-Ian to the reciprocal verb, and -lin to the participle; as, 
bun tan, 'strikes' now; bun kill an, now 'reciprocally strike 
one another'; biinkillin, now 'striking'; bunkillilin, now 
'continuing in the act of striking.' 

2. The Perfect-definite, which asserts the act as having been 
completed in a past period of the present day ; as, biinkeun, 
'has struck,' sc, this morning; biinkilleunbag, 'I have 
struck myself,' so., this day. 

3. The Perfect-past-aorist, which asserts the act as completed, 
without reference to any particular period in past time ; as, 
b u n k u 1 1 a, ' struck.' This is not the participle. 

4. The Pluperfect, which asserts the act as completed prior to 
some other past circumstance. It is formed by the affirmative 
particle, t a, afiixed to the past aorist, and is equivalent only to 
the English pluperfect ; as, b u n k u 11 a t a, ' had struck.' 

5. The Future-dffi.nite, which asserts the act as taking place 
at a certain definite period, future to the time at which the act 
is spoken of ; as, biinkiD, ' shall or will strike,' sc, to-morrow 

6. The Future-aorist, which asserts the mere future existence 
of the act, without reference to any other circumstance, in some 
indefinite time to come; as, bunniin bag, 'I shall strike'; 
biinnun no a, 'he will strike.' 


Of the PAETicirLES. 

1. The Frrsenf. This Las already been described ; but it may be 
net-essary to mention, that the present ])articiple can be used only 
with reference to present time, not to the past and future, as is 
the case in English; as, biinkilli d, 'striking' now. 

2. The Imperfect-definite^ which represents tbe action as being 
in progress at some definite past period ; as, biinkillikeiin, 
' striking,' sc, this morning. 

3. The Jmperfect-past-aorist, which represents the action as 
teing in progress at any recent time; as, biinkilliela noa, 
,he was striking.' 

4. The Fast-present-aorist, whicb asserts the action as having 
been engaged in and completed at some former period; as, b lin- 
talla bag, wonnai bag ba, 'I struck when I was a child'; 
wiyalla bag wonnai-kiloa, wonnai bag ba, 'I 
spoke as a child when I vi'as a child.' 

5. The Pluperfect, which indicates the action as having been 
completed prior to some other past event mentioned ; as, b li n- 
killiela ta, 'had struck,' sc, prior to something. 

6. The Inceptive-future, which asserts that the action is now 
about to be pursued; as, biinkilli kolag bag, 'lam going 
to strike,' or 'I am going a-striking ' ; makoro kolag bag, 
' I am going a-fishing.' 

7. Future-definite, which asserts the action as about to be 
engaged in at some future definite period; as, bunkillikin 
bag, 'I am going to strike,' sc, to-morrow morning. 

8. The Future-aorist, which asserts that the action will exist at 
some future undefined period; as, bunkilliniin bag, 'lam 
going to strike,' sc, at some time or other, hereafter. 


The Tenses of the verb and their meanings, as given above, 
may be concisely expressed thus : — 

Indicative Mood and Participles. 

Tense. Meaning. 

1. Present tense, I am or do — now. 

2. Imperfect-definite, I was or was doing — this morning. 

3. First-aorist, I was or was doing— recently. 

4. Second-aorist, I was or did — at some former period. 

5. P erf ect-d( finite, I have been or done — this morning. 

6. Pluperfect, I had been or done — before some event. 

7. Inceptive-future, I am going to or shall, be or do— now. 

8. Future-dffinite, I am going to or shall, be or do — to- 

morrow morning. 

9. Future-aorist, I am going to or shall, be or do — at 

some time hereafter. 


Subjunctive Mood. 

Our author tas four Aorists in this Mood, namely: — 
]0a. Past aorut, I had almost been or done. 

b. Aorist of the past. Had I been or done. 

c. „ „ I wish I had been or done. 

d. ,, „ negatively, I have not been or done. 
The Moods have various mode-forms, thus : — 

In the Indicative. 

JteeAprocal mode. We {_e-g-, strike] one another. 

Reflexive mode, I [strike] myself. 

In the Subjunctive. 

Iteration mode, I [strike] again. 

Imminence, Lfst I should [strike]. 

Contemporary circumstance. While I or when I [strike]. 

Implied negation of actual ie-") a in 

coming or of actual effect, ) 
Implied negation ofheing or action. See 10 b., c, d. 

In the Participles. 

Gontinuative mode, Continuing to be or to do. 

Reflexive mode. Doing to one's self. 

Reciprocal mode. Doing to one another. 

It is clear that the native language recognises three varieties 
of time and place. The pronouns gali, gala, galoa (j.«j.) 
show these variations as to "place ; and so the principal tenses of 
the indicative mood, as abo\e, mark time (1) present, (2) recent, 
(3) remote. English and other languages show the same dis- 
tinctions in such words as \ere, there, yonder. — *Bd.] 


[^g" The reader will remember that the tense-form of the 
verb is always constant, and is therefore not affected by its sub- 
ject. The subject shown in the declension of the verb is the 
pronoun bag, 'I,' and the direct object with a transitive verb is 
bon, 'him'; but any other suitable pronouns may be substituted 
for these ; for the pronouns that are thus used as subjects, see 
note on next page ; their objective cases are shown in the paradigm 
of the pronouns. Each tense may thus be declined in full, as in 
English, by using in succession the pronouns of the first, second, 
and third persons as the subject of the verb. The shades of 
meaning conveyed by the tenses are given in the paradigm above, 
and are applicable to all verbs. The numbers, affixed to the 
various tenses in the declension of the verbs, correspond with the 
numbers on that paradigm of tenses, and the T. stands for 
Tense. — En.] 



Kakilliko, 'to be,' ' to exist,' 'to remain.' 

JSxample of the Declension of a Verl in the Present Tense of the 
Indicative Mood. 

A.-aj Tense may be declined in full in a similar manner. 

T. 1. Sing. Unnibot bag* ka-tan, I am here. 

„ bi „ Thou art here. 

,, noa ,, He is here. 

Dual. „ ball* ,, Wetwo (inclusive) urehere. 

„ balinoa „ Wetwo (excfesj>e)arehere. 

„ bula ,, Tou two are here. 

,, buloara „ They two are here. 

Flu. „ geen, „ We are here. 

,, nura „ Tou are here. 

„ bara „ They are here. 


Dual. Unnibo ball* ka-MU-an, "Wetwoare,or live, here to- 

Phi. „ geen* „ "We are, or live, here to- 


* Or, such other nominative cases of pronouns of the singular, dual, and 
plural, as the sense may require ; e.g., for the sing., bang, /; bi, thou ; 
n o a, 7je ; b o ii n t o a, nhe ; ta,, if ; n g a 1 i, Ms (here) ; n g a 1 a, that (near 
me) ; n g a 1 o a, that (near you) ; for the dual, b a 1 i, thoti and I ; ball 
noa, he and /;bali bo unto a, she and / ; b u 1 a, ye two ; bulo- 
ara, they two ; for the plu. , n g 6 e n, toe ; nura, you ; bar a, they. 

fl/if., this-self -same-place I am 

Indicative Mood. 

T. 1. *Bag ka-tan T. 6. *Bag ka-kulla-ta 

4. „ ka^kulla 8. „ ka-kin 

5. ,, ka-keun 9. „ ka-uun. 

Aorist participle — kan ; as, kinta kan bag, ' afraid being I.' 

[*Throughout the verb 'to te,' both in this Declarative form and in the 
Permissive, a predicative adverb, ' unnibo,' or any other suitable word, 
may be inserted here in all the tenses. — Ed.] 


T. 1. Bag ka-killin T. 6. Bag ka-killi-ela-ta 

2. „ ka-killi-keun 7. „ ka-killi-kolag 

4. „ ka-tala 8. „ ka-killi-kin 

T. 9. Bag ka-killi-nuu. 



T. 1. Bag ka-killi-lin T. 3. Bag ka-killi-li-ela. 


T. 1. Kan bag bo. 


T. 1. Bali ka-kill-au* T. 6. Bali ka-kill-ala-ta 

4. „ ka-kill-ala 7. „ ka-kill-ai-kolag 

5. „ ka-kill-ai-keun 8. „ ka-kill-ai-kin 

T. 9. Bali ka-killa-nun. 
* = 'We two are living together, the one with the other, now.' 

Subjunctive Mood. 

1. The construct verb, denoting picrpose. 

T. 10. 

Ka-killi-ko, ' to be, exist, remain.' 
Ka-killi-koa, ' to continue to be or live. ' 
Ka-kill-ai-koa, ' to live one with, another.' 

2. The construct verh, denoting the immediate purpose of the 
action in the preceding clause ; when no clause precedes, the form 
of the verh denotes a loish. 

T. 10. Ka-Tiwil-koa bag, ' that I may or might be,' ' I wish to be.' 


T. 1. Ka-tea-kan bag T. 9. Ka-tea-ka-niin bag 


T. 9. Ka-tea-kiin-koa bag. 

Contemporary circumstance. • 

T. 1. Ka-tanbagba* T. 3. Ka-killi-ela ba g ba 

T. 9. Ka-niin bag ba. 
* The whole of the indicative mood may be thus declined with ha. 

Implied negation of actual iecoming. 

T. 10a. Ka-mai ga bag 
Implied negation of entity or heing. 

T. 10b. Ka-pa bag ba T. 10c. Ka-pa-ta bag ba 

T. lOd. Keawaran* bag ka-pa 
*Keawaran is a negative. 

Imperative Mood. 
Ka-uwa bi, 'be thou.' 

Ka-kiJl-ia bi, ' continue thou to be, live, remain.' 
Ka-uwa bi gintoa bo, ' be thou thyself.' 
Ka-killa bula (dual and plural only), ' be ye two.' 
Ka-tea-ka bi, ' be thou again.' 



Ka-mun-billiko ' to permit to be, exist, renjain.' 

Indicatite Mood. 
T. 1. Ka-mun-bin bon bag* T. 6. Kamun-bin-bia-tabdnbag 

4. „ -bin-bia „ ' „ 8. „ -bi-kin „ „ 

5. „ -bi-keiia „ „ 9. ,, -bi-niia „ „ 

* = ' I permit him to be.' 

T. 1. Ka-miiii-bill-in T. 6. Ka-miia-billi-ela-ta 

3. „ -billi-ela 7. „ -kolag 

4. „ -bi-ala 8. „ -kin 

5. „ -billi-keiiu 9. „ -nun. 


T. 1. Ka-mun-bill-aa t T. G. Ka-miin-bill-ala-ta f 

4. „ -bi]l-ala „ 7. „ -bill-ai-kolag „ 

5. „ -bill-ai-keiia ,, 8. „ -bill-ai-kin ,, 

T. 9. Ka-mua-billa-nun bulun bag. 

t Here insert in each tense ' biilun bang,' or any other suitable worrls, as 
subject and personal object. T. 1. is equivalent to ' I permit them to live to- 

SuBJrKCTiTE Mood. 

1. To express 'purpose. 

T. 10. Ka-mua-billa-ko, 'to permit to be'. 

„ -billa-koa, ' to permit to be together, 
the one with the other'. 

2. To express immediate purpose. 

T. 10. Ka-mua-bin-uwil-koa, 'that ... may or might permit to 
be together.' 

T. 1. Ka-muQ-bea-kan bon bag T.9. Ka-miin-bea-ka-nun bon bag* 
* = ' I shall again permit hun to be.' 

T. 9. Ka-miia-bea-kua-koa biloa,t 'lest he permit thee to be.' 
Contemporary circumstance. 

T. 1. Ka-mua-bin bon bag ba T. 3. Ka-mun-billi-elabinugt ba 

T. 9. Ka-mim-bi-nua bitiaf ba 

•j- Por banuDg, biloa, bitia, binung, see paradigm of Pronouns. 


Implied negation of actual hecoming. 
T. 10 a. Ka-mai-ga bon bag 

Implied negation of entity or being. 

T. 10 b. Ka-miin-bi-pa bag ba T. 10 c. Ka-miin-bi-pa-ta bag ba 

T. 10 d. Keawaran* bag miin-bi-pa 

* Keawaran is a negative. 

Imperative Mood. 
Ka-miin-billa * 'permit * to' . . . . 
Ka-mun-bill-a „ 'permit „ self to continue to ' . , , 
Ka-mun-bea-ka „ ' permit „ again to ' . . . . 
* Insert here the pronoun in the Ace. 



Bun-killi-ko, ' to strike '. 


T. 1. Sing., Buntanbag.f Z)Ma!Z, Biintan bali.f 

Plu., Biintan geen.f 

Conjoined Dual, Buntan bamig-f 

t Or any other suitable pronoun as a subject. Tlie personal object must be 
placed after the verb, but the neuter object after the subject. 

Indicative Mood. 

T. 1. Buntan bdti bag* T. 6. Bdn-kulla-ta bdn bag 

4. Biin-killa „ „ 8. ,, -kin bdn bag 

5. „ -keiin „ „ 9. „ -niin „ „ 


T. 1. Biin-killin bdn bag T. 6. Biin-killi-ela-ta bdn bag 

2. „ -killi-keiiu „ „ 7. „ „ -kolag „ „ 

3. „ -killi-ela „ „ 8. „ „ -kin „ „ 

4. „ -tala „ „ 9. „ „ -nun „ „ 


T. 1. Bun-killi-linbdnbag* T. 3. Biin-killi-li-ela bdn bag 

*= 'I am striking with many blows, now.' 


T. 5., Buu-kill-eiia bag, ' I have struck myself.' 



T. 1. Bim-killan tali T. 6. Biin-kill-ala-ta bali 

4. „ -kill-ala „ 7. „ -kill-ai-kolag ,, 

5. „ -kill-ai-keiin ,, 8. „ -kill-ai-kin „ 

T. 9. Biin-killa-nun bali 

SiTBJtrNCTiTE Mood. 

1. To express purpose. 


Biin-killi-ko, ' to strike,' ' for the purpose of striking.' 

Bim-killi-koa, ' to strike continually,' ' to beat,' ' to tbrasb.' 

Bun-kill-ai-koa, ' to strike each one the other,' ' to fight.' 

2. To express immediate purpose. 

T. 10. Bun-wil or bii-wil-koa bon bag, ' that I might strike him.' 

3. Iteration. 

T. 1. Biin-tea-kan bon bag T. 9. Bim-tea-ka-nun bag 

4. Imminence. 

T. 9. Biin-tea-kun-koa bon bag 

5. Contemporary circumstance. 

T. 1. Biia-tan bon bag ba T. 3. Biin-killi-ela bon noa ba 

T. 9. Biin-niin bon bag ba 

6. Implied negation of actual effect. 

T. 10a. Biim-mai ga bon bag 

7. Implied negation of action or entity. 

T. 10b. Biim-pa bon bag ba T. 10c. Bxim-pa-ta bon bag ba 

T. lOd. Xeawaran bon bag biim-pa 

Impeeatite Mood. 
Bii-wa bi, ' strike thou' ; biiwa-biiwa bi, ' continue thou to strike. 
Biin-killa bula, ' strike on, ye two, the one with the other.' 
Biin-kill-ia, ' strike on,' ' be striking self.' 
Bim-tea-ka bi, ' strike again ' ; biin-kea., ' strike instantly.' 

Note. — This imperative, if written in full, with a subject and an 
object, would be : — 

Bii-wa bi {or bula, or nura) tia; instead of tia, any other 
object may be used ; such as, unni, ' this,' uunoa, ' that,' and the 
accusative cases of all the pronouns. 

Biin-killi-lia bi (bula, nura) tia, &e., as above. 
Reflexive. SmpJiatic. Seciprocal. 

Bun-kill-ia bi kotti, Bu-wa bi gintoa, Biin-killa bula 

• strilse thou thine own ' strike thoii tliyaelf.' ' strike ye two, the one the 
self.' other.' 



Bum-mara-bun-billiko to permit (some other) to strike.' 


1. Form to be used for the Active Voice. 

Indicative Mood. 

T. 1. Sing. Bum-mun-biu bit tia,t ' thou permittest me to strike,' 

or ' I am permitted to 

Impeeatite Mood. 

1. F resent ; 2. Oontinuative ; 3. Beflexive ; 4. Emphatic; 
5. Reciprocal. 

1. Biim-mun-billa bit tia,t 'permit thou me to strike,' 

or ' let me strike.' 

2. „ -billi-lia bi tia ' permit me to continue in 


3. „ -bill-ia bi kotti, ' permit thyself to strike thine 

own self.' 

4. „ -billa bi gintoa bdn, ' do thou thyself permit him 

to strike.' 

5. „ -billa bula, ' permit ye two, the one the 

other, to strike one 

2. Form to be used for the Passive Voice. 

Indicatite Mood. 
1. Present; 2. Oontinuative; Q. Beflexive ; i. Reciprocal. 

1. Biim-mara-bun-bin bit tia,t 'thou permittest (any one) 

to strike me,' or 'I am 
permitted to be struck.' 

2. „ bun-billi-lia, • continue thou to permit (any 

one) to be struck.' 

3. „ bun-bill-iatia 'I myself permit myself to 

gatoa bo, be struck.' 

4. „ biin-billa bulun, 'permit, the one the other, to 

be struck.' 
t Any otker suitable pronouns may be placed here. 


Declension of this Verb, 

■when it is used so as to have the meaning of a passive voice. 

Indicatite Mood. 

T. 1. Biim-mara-bun-'blnboti bag 4. Bum-mara-bun-biabdnbag 
T. 9. Bum-mara-biin-bi-nun bon bag 


!F. 1. Bum-mara-bun-bill-in T. 4i. Bum-mara-bun-bi-ala 

T. 9. Butn-mara-bun-billi-niin 


T. 1. Bum-mara-bun-billan T. 4. Bum-tnara-bun-bill-ala 

T. 9. Bum-mara-bun-bil]a-nun 


T. 10. 
Biim-mara-bun-billi-ko, ' to permit (somebody) to be 

-bun-bill-ai-koa, 'to permit the one to be 

struck by the other.' 
-biin-bi-uwil-koa, ' that...migbt permit. be 

-bim-bia-kiin-koa, 'lest (somebody) should be 

permitted to be struck.' 
-buQ-bi-niin bon bag ba, ' when I permit (any person) 

to be struck.' 
-biin-bai-ga bon bag, ' I had almost permitted him 

to be struck.' 
-bun-bi-pa bon bagba, 'had I permitted him to he 


ImPek.itite Mood. 
Biim-mara-b lin-billa bi tia. 


UmuUiko, 'to do,' personally, ' to make," to create.' 

Indtcatite Mood. 

T. 1. Uman bag unni T. 6. Uma-ta bag unni 

4. Uma „ 8. IJma-kin 

5. Uma-keiin „ 9. ITma niia 

THE GEAiniAE. 35 


T. 1. Umull-in bag unni T. 4. Umala bag unni 

2. IJmulli-keua ,, 6. Umulli-ela-ta 

3. Umulli-ela „ 7. Umulli-kolag „ 

T. 9. "Umulli-nua bag unni 

T. 1. Umulli-lin bag unni T. 3. Umulli-li-ela bag unni 

T- 5. Umull-eun bag unni 


T. 1. Umull-an bali unni T. 6. Umun-ala-ia bali unni 

4. Umull-ala „ „ 7. TJinull-ai-kolag „ „ 

5. UmuU-ai-keiin „ „ 8. Umull-ai-kiu „ „ 

T. 9. UmuUa-niiii bali unni 


1. To express pitrpose. 

T. 10. 

TJmulli-ko, 'to do, make, create.' 
Umulli-koa, 'to continue to do.' 
Umull-ai-koa, 'to do reciprocally.' 

2. To express immediate purpose. 
T. 10. Uma-uwil-koa bag unni, 'that I may or might make this.' 

T. 1. Umea kan bag unni T. 9. TJmea La-niiu bag unni 

T. 9. Umea kiin koa bag unni 

Contemporary eircitmstanne. 
T. 1. Uman bag ba unni T. 3. Umulli-ela bag ba unni 

T. 9. Uma-niin noa bag unni 

Implied negation of actual effect. 
T. 10a. Umai-gi bag unni 

Implied negation of action or entity. 

T. 10b. Uma-pa bag unni T. 10c. Uma-pa-ta bag unni 

T. lOd. Keawaran bag utna-pa unni 

36 an arstealiaju- language, 

Impeeatite Mood. 

UmuUa bi, ' make thou.' 

TJmau-umulla bi, (reduplication) ' make tbou diligently.' 

TJmulla bula, ' make ye two' (reciprocally). 

IlmuU-ia bi, ' make thou thyself (reflexire) . 

Umea-ka, ' make again' ; uma-kea, ' make instantly.' 

Uma-b lin-billa bon unni, ' permit him to make this.' 

Umara-biin-billa unni, 'permit this to be made.' 


Upulliko 'to do,' 'to perform,' 'to use in action.' 

Indicative Mood. 

T. 1. Upan bag gali ko T. 4. TTpa bag gali ko 

T. 9. Upa-nun bag gali ko. 


T. 1. TJpullin bag gali ko T. 4. Upala bag gali ko 

3. TJpulli-ela „ „ „ 7. Upulli-kolag „ „ „ 

T. 9. TJpuUi-nun bag gali ko 

T. 1. Upulli-lin bag gali ko T. 3. Fpulli-li-ela bag gali ko 

T. 5. Upull-eua bag gali ko 


T. 1 . TJpull-an ball gali ko 

SrBjrNCTiVE Mood. 

T. 10. 

TJpulli-ko, ' to do, to use in action.' 

Upulli-koa, 'to continue to do,' as, 'to work with.' 

Upan-uwil-koa bag, ' that I ifiight do.' 

Upea-kun-koa bag, 'lest I should do.' 

TTpa-niin bi ba, ' when thou doest,' or ' if thou do.' 

Upai-ga bag, ' I had almost done.' 

TJpa-pa bag ba, ' had I done,' or ' if I had done.' 

Impeeatite Mood. 
Upulla, ' do,' ' use ' in action. 


by personal agency. 

Tiir-bung-guUiko, ' to break ' by personal agency, 
not by instrumental means. 

Indicatite Mood. 

T. 1. Tiir-bug-gan bagunni T. 4. Tiir-bug-ga bag unni 
T. 9. Tiir-bug-ga-nun bag unni 


T. 1. Tiir-bug-gullm bag t -E 4. Tiir-bug-ga;lla bag t 

3. Tiir-bug-gulli-ela „ ,, 7. Tiir-bug-gulli-kolag „ „ 

T. 9. Tiir-bug-gulli-nun bag unni 
t Here insert ' unni ' or any other neuter object. 

T. 1. Tiir-bug-gulli-lin bag T. 3. Tiir-bug-gulli-li-ela bag f 

T. 5. Tiir-bug-gull-eiin bag unni 

T. 1. Tiir-bug-gull-an bali unni 


2'. 10. 

Tiir-bug-gulli-ko, 'to break' (sometbing). 
Tiir-bug-ga-uwil-koa, 'that ... may or might break.' 
Tiir-bug-gea-kiin-koa, 'lest ... should break.' 
Tiir-bug-ga-nun bag ba, ' when I break,' or ' if I break.' 
Tiir-bug-gai-ga bag, ' I had almost brolten.' 
Tiir-bug-ga-pa bag ba, 'had I broken,' or 'if I had broken.' 

by instrumental agency. 

Tiirburrilliko, ' to break.' by instrumental, not by personal, 


Indicative Mood. 

T. 1. Tiir-bur-rin bag unni T. 4. Tiir-bur-rea bag unni 
T. 9. Tiir-bur-ri-niin bag unni 




T. 1. Tiir-bur-rill-in bag f T. 4. Tiir-bur-rala bag f 

3. „ -bur-rilli-ela „ „ 7. Tiir-bur-rilli-kolag „ „ 

T. 9. Tiir-bur-rilli-niia bag unni 


T. 1. Tiir-bur-rilli-lin bag t T. 3. Tiir-bur-rilli-li-ela bag t 

f Here insert ' unni ' or any other neuter object. 


T. 2. Tiir-bur-rill-eiin bag unDi 

T. 1. Tiir-bur-rill-an bali uuni 

SuBJtrifCTiTE Mood. 

T. 10. 

Tiir-bur-rilli-lso, 'to break' by means of some instrument. 
Tiir-burr-uwil-koa, ' that... may or might break.' 
Tiir-bur-rea-kua-koa, 'lest ... should break.' 
Tiir-bur-ri-uuii bag ba, ' when I break', or 'if I break.' 
Tiir-bur-ri-pa bag ba, ' had I broken', or 'if I had broken.' 


Wiyelliko, ' to speak, say^ talk, converse, communicate.' 

Indicative Mood, 
T. 1. Wiyan bdn bag* T. G. Wiya-ta bon bag 

4. AViya „ „ 8. AViya-kin ,, „ 

5. "Wiya-keiia „ „ 9. AViya-nun „ „ 

* = 'I tell him." 

T. 1. A\riyellin bon bag T. 6. AVivelli-ela-ta bdn bag 

2. AVivelli-kcun „ „ 7. Wivelli-kolag „ „ 

3. AViyelli-ela „ • „ 8. AA'iyelli-kin „ „ 

4. AViyala „ „ 9. AVlyelli-nim „ „ 


T. 1. A^iyelli-liQ T. 3. A\^iyelli-li-ela 


T. 5. Wiyel-leuu bag= ' I talked to myself .' 

THE aEAsriiAE. 39 


T. 1. Wiyell-an bara* T. 6. Wiyell-ala-ta bara 

4. "Wiyell-ala „ 7. "Wiyell-ai-kolag ,, 

5. "Wiyell-ai-keiin ,, 8. Wiy ell-ai-kin „ 

T. 9. Wiyena-nun bara 
* =: ' They say to one another.' 

1. To express purpose. 

T. 10. 

Wiyelli-ko, 'to tell, say.' 
"\Viyelli-koa, ' to continue to tell or preach.' 
Wiyell-ai-koa (reciprocal), ' to talk, 
the one with the other.' 

2. To express immediate purpose. 

T. 10. Wiyan-uwil-koa bag 

T. 1. Wiyea kan bag T. 9. Wiyea ka-nun bag 

T. 10. Wiyea kiin-koa bag 

Contemporary circumstance. 

T. 1. Wiyan noa ba T. S. Wiyelli-ela noa ba 

T. 9. "Wiya-nua noa ba 

Implied negation of actual effect. 
T. 10a. Wiyai-ga bon bag 

Implied negation of action or entity. 

jf. 10b. Wiya-pa bdn bag ba T. 10c. Wiya-pa-ta bonbag 

T. lOd. Keawarant bdn bag wiya-pa 

+ Keawaran is the negative. 

lM:i?EBATiTE Mood. 

"Wiya,, ' say, will you ?' (interrogative). 

Wiyella, ' speak, tell.' 

Wiya-wiyella (reduplication), 'speak! be quick !' 

Wiyella, 'speak' reciprocally. 

Wiyell-ia, 'continue to aak.' 

Wiya-wiyall-ia, ' ask urgently.' 

Wiyea-ka, ' tell again,' ' repeat.' 

Wiya-kea, 'speak presently.' 

Wiya-bua-billabdn, ' permit him to speak.' 




UwoUiko, 'to go, come, walk, tend, move.' 

Indicative Mood. 

T. 1. Uwan bag T. 4. Uwa bag 

T. 9. TJwa-nua bag 


T. 1. Uwoll-in bag T. 4. Uwala bag 

3. UwoUi-ela bag 9. Uwolli-niiii bag 

T. 1. r wolli-lin bag T. 3. Uwolli-li-ela bag 

T. 5. Uwoll-eun bag 

T. 1. UwolLan bara T. 4. UwoU-ala bara 

T. 9. Uwolli-nua bara 

T. 10. 

UwoUi-ko, ' to come,' ' to go away' (according to 

the meaning of the adverb with it). 
TJwa-uwil-koa, ' that I may or might come or go.' 
TJwea-kiin-koa, 'lest . . should come or go.' 
Uwa-niin bag ba, ' when I go or come.' 
Uwai-ga bag ba, 'I had almost come or gone.' 
L"wa-pa bag ba, ' had I come or gone.' 

Impeeatite Mood. 

Tanan uwolla, ' come hither.' 
Waita uwolla, ' go away.' 
Wolla-wolla, ' come or go quickly.' 
Uwolla, 'depart each.' 
Uwoll-ia, 'come or go' (of self). 
Uwea-ka, ' come or go.' 
Uwa-biin-billa, ' permit to come or go.' 
Uwa-kea, ' come or go,' «c., in the morning. 



Tiirkulliko, * to break' spontaneously. 

Tiir ran unni, 'this is broken' spontaneously. 

T. 1. Tiir-kuU-in unni T. 5. Tiir-kuU-eiin unni 

2. „ -kuUi-keiin unni 6. „ -kulli-ela-ta unni. 

3. „ -kuUi-ela unni 7. „ -kulli-kolag unni 

4. ,, -kull-ala unni 8. ,, -kuUi-kin unni 

T. 9. Tiir-kulli-niin unni 


T. 1. Tilr-kuUi-lin unni T. 3. Tiir-kuUi-li-ela unni 

Stjbjunctite Mood. 

T. 10. 
Tiir-kulli-ko, ' to break of its own accord.' 
Tiir-kulli-koa unni, 'that this may or might break.' 
Tiir-kull-ea-kun-koa, 'lest . . . should break.' 
Tiir-kulli-niin unnibo, 'when or if this breaks.' 
Tiir-ka-ga-leun unni, 'this had almost broken.' 
Tiir-kuUi-ba-pa unni, ' had this broken.' 

Impeeatite Mood. 

Tiir-kull-ia unni, ' I wish this to break of itself.' 
Tiir-kuU-ea-ka unni, 'I wish this to break of itself again.' 
Eamunbilla unni tiir-kulli-koa, ' let this break spontaneously.' 


Tetti buUiko, ' to be in the act of dying-,' to die'. 

Indicatite Mood. 

T. 1. Tetti ban noa T. 6. Tetti ba-ta noa 

4. „ ba noa 8. „ ba-kin noa 

5. ,, ba-keun noa 9. „ ba-nun noa 


T. 1. Tetti bullin noa T. 4. Tetti bala noa 

2. , „ bulli-keiin noa 7. „ bulli-kin noa 

3. „ buUi.ela noa 9. „ bulli-niin noa 

T. 1. Tetti bulli-lin noa T. 3. Tetti buUi-li-ela noa 


SuBJTJifCTtTE Mood. 

T. 10. 

Tetti bulli.ko, ' to die.' 

Tetti ba-uwil-koa noa, 'in order that he might die.' 

Tetti bea-kiin-koa noa, ' lest he should die.' 

Tetti fca-niin noa ba, ' when he dies,' ' if he should die.' 

Tetti bai-ga noa, ' he had almost died.' 

Tetti ba-pa noa, ' had he died,' ' if he had died.' 

Impebatite Mood. 

Tetti ba-uwa, ' proceed to die' (optatively). 
Tetti biia-billa bdn, ' permit^him to die.' 
Tetti bea-ka, ' die again.' 

PARTICLES used instead of the VERB 'TO BE.' 

\. The verb, with a substantive attribute: ta, 'itis'; tararan, 
'it is not.' 

2. The verb, with an adjective attribute: lag, 'itis'; kora 
lag, 'it is not.' 

3. The verb, with a personal attribute: (1) bo, is 'self; (2) 
gali, 'this ' is the agent who. 

JExamples of 1,2, and 3 : — 

TJnnibo bag, 'this is I' (the subject of the verb); 
gatoa bo unni, ' this is I myself (the personal 
agent), who' . . ; unni t a, 'this is' (the subject); 
unni bo t a, ' this is itself ' (the subject) ; gali noa 
wiya, 'this is he who spoke.' 

P u 1 1 i , ' salt ' (a subst.) ; p u 1 1 i t a, ' it is salt ' (a subst.) ; 
pulli lag, 'itissalt' (an ac^'.) ; pulli kora lag, 
' it is not salt' (an ct(//.) ; tararan* p ul li korien, 
' it is not salt ' (a subst.) 

* There are two negatiTes here, as usual, but the former of them may be 

4. The verb, with an attribute of manner : y a n t i , ' it is so ' ; 
y a, n t i bo t a, ' it is so itself ; imperative : y a n 6 a, ' let be as 
it is'; ya-ai (used negatively), 'lee it not be so.' 

Example : — 

Taai, biinki yikora, ' let it not be so, strike not.' 

5. The verb, expressing tenrlency : wal, 'is,' 'shall,' 'will' 
(denoting tendency of the mind or thing) ; imperative : wiya, 
' say,' ' declare what you wish.' 

^Examples : — 

Tiir wal unni, 'this is broken'; wiya, unni mur- 
rarag.'say, is this good?' 


6. The verb, expressing being or existence : k e , ' be,' ' is.' 

Example : — 

Minarig te unni? ' what (thing) is this ? ' 

[Note. — I am not sure that all these particles are used as 
substitutes for the verb ' to be.' — Ed.] 


Indicative Mood. 
Affirmatively. Negatively. 

T.\. Kaiiwit, bun-tan boQ bag. Keawaran, boa bag bun korien. 
' Yps, I strike him.' ' No, I strike liim not.' 

5. Bun-keiia bon bag. Keawai, bdn bag bun-ki-pa. 

' I have struck him.' ' No, I have not struck him.' 

6. Bun-kulla bon bag. Keawaran, bon bag bum-pa. 

' I hari struck him.' ' No, I had not struck him.' 

8. Biin-kiQ bon bag. Keawai, bon bag biin-kin. 

' I shall strike him.' ' No, I shall not strike him.' 

9. Bun-niia wal bonbag. Keawai, wal bon bag bun korien, 

' I shall strike him.' ' No, I shall not strike him.' 


1. Bun-kill-in bon bag. Keawaran, bon bag biin-killi korien. 

' I am striking him.' ' No, I am not striking him.' 

3. Bun-killi-ela boa bag. Keawaran,b6abagbun-killikorakal. 

' I was striking him.' ' No, I was not going to strike him.' 

9. Bun-killi-niin bonbag. Keawai, boa bag biin-killi kora ke. 
' I am going to strike him.' ' No, I am not going to strike him.' 

Impeeatite Mood. 

Mandatory — 

Biiwa bon, 'strike him.' Ma, biiwa bdn, ' do, strike him.' 
Tanoa, biin-ki yikora bon, ' let be, strike him not.' 
Bun-killa, 'strike on,' ' continue to strike.' 
Yanoa, biin-killa-ban kora, 'let be, cease striking.' 
Bum-mara-biin-billa bdu, 'permit him to be struck.' 
Tari, bdn bi biim-mara-bun-bi yikora, 'hold! let him not 
be struck.' 

Entreaty — 

Bum-mun-billa-bdn, ' permit him to strike.' 
Yanoa, bum-miin-bi yikora bdn, ' let be, permit him not to 


Interrogative — 

Minarig-tin binug biin-kulla? 'why did'st thou strike him?' 
Kora koa binug biim-pa ? ' why hast thou not struck him ?' 



Wiwi, ' be quiet,' 'do not what you tend to do.' 

Taai, 'refrain,' ' do not,' ' cease acting,' 'hold'! ' let not.' 

Tari, yanoa, ' let be,' ' let alone,' ' do not.' 


The use of the word determines whether it should be called 
a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. A word used with the 
particle of agency would be considered a noun ; but the same 
word, if attached to a noun, would be an adjective ; used with a 
verb, it would be an adverb; as, pdrrol, 'heavy'; porrol 
ta unni, ' this is heavy ' ; porrol noa wiyan, 'he speaks 
heavily.' Adverbs are classed in the following manner : — 

1. Of Nmnher. 

"Wabal bo ta, ' once only.' Buloara bo ta, ' twice only.' 

]S"g6ro bo ta, ' thrice only.' 

2. Of Order. 

Bonen, 'the first to be done.' Kurri-kurri,' the beginning, the 
Ganka, 'the first,' or 'before.' first.' 

Willug, 'the last,' or 'behind,' 

3. Of Place. 

TJnti, 'here.' Bara-kolag, 'downtrards.' 

Unnug, 'there.' Muriug-kolag, 'forwards.' 

"Wonnug? 'where?' Willug-kolag, 'backwards.' 

Wonta-kolag, 'whither' ? "Wonta-birug? 'whence? from 
Ilnti-kolag, ' hither.' what place ?' 

Untoa-kolag, 'thither.' Unta-birug, 'thence.' [time. 

Wokka-kolag, ' upwards.' Unti-birug, ' hence'; place or 

4. Of Time. 

Ba, 'when ; at the time that' ; Keawai-wal, 'never, not at any 

gai-ya, 'then,' must always time'; ' no, never.' 

be after it. Kiim-ba, 'yesterday' (when the 

Bug-gai, 'this present period, verb is in a past tense) ; 'to- 

now, to-day'; 'the time now morrow' (when used with a 

passing.' verb in the future tense). 

Bug-gai-kal, 'of the present Kum-ba ken ta, ' the day after 

period; fresh, new, recently.' to-morrow.' 

Gai-ya, 'then, at that time' ; Muni-ai, ' sometimes.' 

it is governed by the par- Murrin-murrin, 'often, repeat- 
tide ba. edly, frequently.' 

Kabo, 'presently.' Taga, 'before, prior to.' 

Kabo ka ta, 'presently it is,' Tanoa-nug bo, 'soon.' 

for 'not yet.' Toan-ta, 'afterwards.' 


Unnug bo, 'hitherto.' Takoun-ta ? 'at what time? 

Wakal-wakal, ' once-once,' — an when ?' 

idiom/or' seldom.' Tanti-kat-ai, 'henceforward,' 

Taki-ta, 'now'; at the time 'for ever'; ZiY., 'thus always.' 

spoken of. Tuki-ta, 'afterwards.' 

Taki-ta bo, 'instantly'; at the Turaki, 'long since, formerly, 

selfsame moment spoken of. long ago.' 

Note. — Iteration is expressed by a particular form of the verb ; as, 
Biint^a-kanun, ' will strike again. ' 

6. Of Quantity. 

Butti, 'more' ; meaning, 'con- Minnan ? 'what quantity? how 
tinue the action.' much ? how many?' 

Kauwal-lag, ' largely, much, Tantoa, 'enough, sufficiently.' 

abundantly.' "Warea-Mg, ' little, sparingly.' 

Kirun, ' all.' "Winta, ' a part, a portion.' 

6. Of Quality or Manner. 

Kara, 'slowly, deliberately.' P6r-r61, ' heavily' ; cf por-rol. 

Kurra-kai, 'quickly' ; also equi- "Wir-wir, 'cheerfully, lightly' ; 
valent to the phrase 'make cf. wir, as a verb, 'to fly like 

haste.' the down of a bird.' 

Wogkal-lag, 'foolishly'; cf. wogkal, 'deaf, stupid, foolish.' 

7. Of Doubt. 
Mirka, ' perhaps.' Mirka-ta, ' perhaps so, possibly.' 

8. Of Affirmation. 

E-e, 'yes.' Tanti bo ta, 'yes, just as it is.' 

Kau-wa, 'yea.' Tuna bo ta, 'verily, certainly, 

Tokdl bo ta, ' truly, in truth really ' ; lit., ' there it is 

itself ' ; cf tokol, 'straight.' itself.' 

9. Of Negation. 

Kea-wai, ' nay.' Ta-raran, ' it is not,' sc, the 

Kea-wa-ran,'no.' thing affirmed. 

Tikora, kora, korien, ' no, not.' 

10. Of Interrogation. 
Kora-koa? 'why not?' Tako-ai? 'how?' meaning 'in 

Minarig-tin ? 'why? where- what manner?' answer, yan- 

fore?' ti, 'thus.' 

Wonnen? 'how? which way?' answer, gia-kai, 'this way.' 

Note. — Other modifications Vi'ill be better understood from the Illustra- 
tive sentences. 



Ba, 'of — denoting possession, Katoa, 'with, in company 

when used with the personal with,' — not instrumental. 

pronouns. Ko, -lo, -o, -ro, -to, — particles 

Birug, 'of, out of, from'; op- denoting agency or instru- 

posed to ko-lag. mentality.* 

Ka, ' in,' or 'at' such a period; Ko-ba, 'of — the same as ' ba,' 

as, tarai-ta yellanna-ka, ' in but used only with nouns. 

another moon.' Ko-lag, 'to, towards, tendency 

Ka-ba, 'in, on, at' — a place; as, towards,' — opposed to birug. 

Sydney-ka-ba, 'at Sydney.' Murrarig, 'into.' 

Kai, — the same meaning as tin ; Murrug, 'within.' 

only this is used to personal Tin, ' from, on account of, for, . 

pronouns, but ' tin ' goes because of, in consequence 

with nouns. of.' 

Kal, ' part of ' ; as, unti-kal, Warrai, ' outside, without,' — 

'of this, part of this, hereof.' opposed to 'within.' 

' Expressed by witl',, by, for, but only when instrumental. 


The idiom of the language is such, that sentences connect with 
sentences without the aid of conjunctions, the subjunctive mood 
answering all these purposes. The dual number also does away 
with the necessity of using connectives to unite two expressions. 
The following are the principal conjunctions, viz., gatun, 
'and'; k nil a, 'because, for '; gali-tin, ' therefore, on account 
of this.' But the particles ' lest,' ' unless,' ' that,' and the disjunc- 
tives, are expressed by modifications of the verb in the subjunctive 
mood, as will be shown in the Illustrative sentences. 


Note. — The following are used under the ciromnstances mentioned. 
A, ' hearken ! lo ! behold!' Katio-katia,of pain, anguish. 

Ela-beara, of wonder, surprise, Wau, ' attention ! ' a call to 

astonishment. attend. 

Ginoa, of salutation at parting; Wi-wi, of aversion. 

as, 'farewell.' Tapallun, of sorrow ; 'alas!' 





Gakon; kurima; m.* bones put through. the septum of the 
nose for ornament, 

G6rro; pummeri; yonei, m., varieties of grass-tree. Ta 
form the native spears, pieces of the flower-stalks of this ara 
cemented together at the ends by a resinous substance which 
exudes from the root ; they are made from eight to twelve 
feet long ; a piece of hard wood forms the last joint, on which 
is cemented a splinter of pointed bone, ag a barb. A deadly 
weapon this is ; thrown by means of a lever nearly four feet 
long, cf. 'wommara', which is held in the hand, and on it 
the poisoned spear. 

Koin, Tippakal, Porrag are names of an imaginary mala 
being, who has now, and has always had, the appearance of a 
black ; he resides in thick brushes or jungles ; he is seen occas- 
ionally by day, but mostly at night. In general, he precedes; 
the coming of the natives from distant parts, when they assemble 
to celebrate certain of their ceremonies, as the knocking out of 
tooth in the mystic ring, or when they are performing soma 
dance. He appears painted with pipe-clay, and carries a fire- 
stick in his hand; but generally it is the doctors, a kind of 
magicians, who alone perceive him, and to whom he says, ' Fear 
not; come and talk.' ' At other times he comes when the blacks 
are asleep, and takes them up, as an eagle his prey, and carries 
them away for a time. The shout of the surrounding party often 
makes him drop his burden; otherwise, he conveys them to his. 
fire-place in the bush, where, close to the fire, he deposits his. 
load. The person carried off tries to cry out, but cannot, feelinc^ 
almost choked ; at daylight Koin disappears, and the black 
finds himself conveyed safely to his own fire-side. 

Koyorowen, the name of another imaginary being, whose 
trill in the bush frequently alarms the blacks in the night. 
When he overtakes a native, he commands him to exchange 
cudgels, giving his own which is extremely large, and desiring 
the black to take a first blow at his head, which he holds down 
for that purposef ; after this he smites and kills the person 
with one blow, skewers him with the cudgel, carries him off, 
roasts, and then eats him. 

* The m, throughout, stands for meaning. 
f This is a coinmou mode of duelling among the blacks. — Ed. 


Kurriwilban, the name of his wife ; she has a long horn on 
each shoulder, growing upwards, with which she pierces the 
aborigines, and then shakes herself until they are impaled on 
her shoulders, when she carries them to a deep valley, roasts, 
and eats her victims. She does not kill the women, for they are 
always taken by her husband for himself. Y a h o has, by 
some means, come to be used by the blacks as a name for this 

Miir r am ai, TO., the name of a round ball, about the size of a 
cricket-ball, which the aborigines carry in a small net sus- 
pended from their girdles of opossum yarn. The women are 
not allowed to see the internal part of the ball. It is used 
as a talisman against sickness, and it is sent from tribe to 
tribe for hundreds of miles, on the sea-coast and in the interior. 
One is now here from Moreton Bay, the interior of which a 
black showed me privately in my study, betraying consider- 
able anxiety lest any female should see the contents. After 
he had unrolled many yards of woollen cord, made from the 
fur of the opossum, the contents proved to be a quartz-like 
substance of the size of a pigeon's egg. He allowed me to 
break it and retain a part. It is transparent, like white 
sugar-candy. The natives swallow any small crystalline particles 
that crumble off, as a preventive of sickness. It scratches glass, 
and does not effervesce with acids. Prom another specimen, 
the stone appears to be agate, of a milky hue, semi-pellucid, 
and it strikes fire. The vein from which it appears to have 
been broken off is one and a quarter inch thick. A third 
specimen contained a portion of carnelian partially crystallised, 
a fragment of chalcedony, and a fragment of a crystal of white 

Murrokun, m., the name of a mysterious magical bone, which 
is obtained by the k a r a k a 1 s, q.v. Three of these sleep on 
the grave of a recently interred corpse ; in the night, during 
their sleep, the dead person inserts a mysterious bone into 
each thigh of the three ' doctors,' who feel the puncture not 
more severe than that of the sting of an ant. The bones 
remain in the ilesh of the doctors, without any inconvenience 
to them, until they wish to kill any person, when by magical 
power, it is said and believed, they destroy their ill-fated 
victim, causing the mysterious bone to enter into his body, 
and so occasion death. 

Nauwai, OT.,acanoe; p u p a, w., bark, a canoe. The canoes 
are made of one sheet of bark, taken whole from the tree and 
softened with fire, and then tied up in a folded point at each 
end. A quantity of earth forms a hearth, on which the natives" 
roast their bait and fish, when fishing. 


N u g - g 11 n, on., a song. There are poets among tie tribes, wlio 
compose songs ; these are sung and danced to by their own 
tribe in the first place, after which other tribes learn the song 
and dance; and so the thing itinerates from tribe to tribe 
throughout the country, until, from change of dialect, the very 
words are not understood correctly by distant blacks. 

P d r b u g, the name of a mystic ring, in which certain cere- 
monies of initiation are performed ; from p 6 r, ' to drop down, 
to be born.' 

Puntimai, ot., a messenger, an ambassador. These men are 
generally decorated with the down of the swan or of the 
hawk on their heads, when on an embassy. They arrange the 
time, place, and manner of preparations for a battle or for the 
punishing of a supposed offender or real aggressor. They 
bring intelligence of the movements of hostile tribes, or the 
last new song and dance (cf. n u g - g u n) . When they travel at 
night, a fire-stick is always carried by them as a protection 
against the powers of darkness, the evil spirits, of which they 
are in continual dread. 

Puttikan, another imaginary being, like a horse, having a 
large mane and a tail sharp like a cutlass ; whenever he meets 
the blacks, they go towards him and draw up their lips to show 
that the tooth is knocked out * ; then he will not injure them ; 
but should the tooth be still there, he runs after them, and kills 
and eats them. He does not walk, but bounds like a kangaroo, 
and the noise of his leaps on the ground is as the report of a gun ; 
he calls out as he advances, 'Pirrolog, Pirrolog.' 

T i 1 m u n, ««., a small bird of the size of a thrush. It is supposed 
by the women to be the first maker of women ; or to be 
a woman transformed after death into the bird ; it runs up 
trees like a woodpecker. These birds are held in veneration 
by the women only. The bat, kolug-kolug, is held in 
veneration on the same ground by the men, who suppose the 
animal a mere transformation. 

Tippakalin, Mailkun, and B i m p 6 i n, are names of the 
wife of K o i n, ^.v. She is a much more terrific being than her 
husband ; him the blacks do not dread, because he does not kill 
them; but this female being not only carries off the natives in a 
large bag-net and drags them beneath the earth, but she spears 
the children through the temples ; she thus kill them, and no 
one ever sees again those whom she obtains. 

Turrama, m., an instrument of war, called by Europeans a 
'boomerang.' It is of a half-moon shape ; when thrown 
in the air it revolves on its own centre and returns, forming 

• This 13 a proof that the black man hag been duly initiated at the ceremonies of the 
Bora. See s.v. Yarro.— Ed. 


a curve m its orbit from and to the thrower; to effect this, it is 
thrown against the wind; but in war it is thrown against the 
ground ; it then rebounds apparently with double violence, and 
strikes some distant object, and wounds severely with its 
sharpened extremities. 

T ar r o, m., an egg. But, used in a mystic sense, to the initiated 
ones it means 'fire or water.' And by the use of this term in 
asking for either element, the fraternity can discover them- 
selves to each other. The men, after the tooth is knocked out 
in the Bora rites,, call women k u n n a i k a r a, and themselves 
J i r a b a i ; previous to which the men are styled, k oro m u n. 
The ceremony of initiation takes place every three or four years 
as young lads arrive at the age of puberty ; mystic rings are 
made in the woods, and numerous ceremonies are gone through 
before the operation of displacing a tooth from the upper 
jaw ; this is effected by three steady blows with a stout piece 
of hard wood, in shape like a punch, from the hand of the 
karakal; after that, the youth may seize a woman ; he becomes 
a member of the tribe and engages in their fights. 

Y u 1 u g, the name of the ring in which the tooth is knocked 
out. The trees are marked near the ring with rude repre- 
sentation of locusts, serpents, and other things, on the bark ; 
these are chopped with an axe ; and copies of the nests of 
various quadrupeds are formed on the ground near the spot. 
The celebrants dance for several days every morning and 
evening, continuing the whole of the night; no women are 
allowed to join in the ceremony. 


A w a b a, Lake Macquarie ; the word means ' a plain surface.' 
Bi wo gkula, theplaceofred ti-trees; from biwo g, 'redti-tree.' 
B i k d n li m b a, a place of ferns ; from b o i k 6 n, ' fern.' 
53 o u n, the site of Wallis's Plains ; from a bird of that name. 
B li 1 b a, an island ; any place surrounded with water. 
B u 1 k a r a, any mountain ; from b u 1 k a, ' the back ' of a man 

or a beast. 
B u 1 1 a b a, the name of a hiH on the margin of the Lake, 
tjrarawantara, any plain, a flat. 

Ci-oloyauwe, a point of land on the south side of the Lake. 
'G-drroinba, the female-emu place; from gorroin, 'the 

female emu ' ; ' the male emu ' is kdgkordg, from his cry. 
€r u r r a n b a, a place of brambles ; from g u r r a n, an inferior 

sort of ' bramble.' 
K a i 4 r a b a, a place of ' sea-weeds.' 

Karakunba, aplaee of 'swamp-oaks,' which is a species of pine, 
lieel-keelba, a place of ' grass-tree.' 


Kintiirrabin, the name of a small extinct volcano oq the 
^sea-coast, near lied Head, north-east of Lake Macquarie. 

Koikaligba, a place of brambles; frota koikalig, a sort 
of ' bramble,' bearing a berry like a raspberry. 

K o i y d g, the site of any native camp. 

Kona-konaba, the name of tbe place where the stone called 
kona-kona is found. Tbere are veins in the stone, which 
contain a yellow substance used for paint in warlike expedi- 
tions. It is the name of a large mountain, at the northern 
extremity of Lake Macquarie. 

Eopurraba, the name of the place from which the blacks 
obtain thekopurra, a yellowish earth, which they wet, 
mould up into balls, and then burn in a strong fire ; the iire 
makes it change into a brilliant red, something like red ochre ; 
the men and women paint themselves with it, after mixin» it 
with the kidney fat of the kangaroo ; this paint they use 
always at their dances. 

Kurra-kurran, the name of a place in which there is almost 
a forest of petrifactions of wood, of various sizes, extremely 
well defined. It is in a bay at the north-western extremity of 
Lake Macquarie. The tradition of the aborigines is, that for- 
merly it was one large rock which fell from the heavens and 
killed a number of blacks who were assembled there ; they 
had gathered themselves together in that spot by command 
of an immense iguana, which came down from heaven for that 
purpose ; the iguana was angry at their havin" killed lice 
by roasting them in the fire ; those who had killed the vermin 
by cracking them, had been previously speared to death by 
him with a long reed from heaven ! ' At that remote period, the 
moon was a man named Pontobug; and hence the moon is 
called he to the present day; but the sun, being formerly a 
woman, retains the feminine pronoun she. "When the iguana 
saw all the men were killed by the fall of the stone, he ascended 
up into heaven, where he is supposed to be now. 

K uttai, the site of Sydney Light-house ; any peninsiila. 

Mulubinba, the name of the site of Newcastle, from an 
indigenous ' fern ' named m u 1 u b i n. 

Mullug-bula, the name of two upright rocks about nine feet 
high, springing up from the side of a bluff head on the margin 
of the Lake. The blacks affirm, from tradition, that they are 
two women who were transformed into rocks, in consequence 
of.their being beaten to death by a black man. Beneath the 
mountain on which the two pillars stand, a seam of common coal 
is seen, many feet thick, from which Eeid obtained a cargo of 
coals when he mistook the entrance of this lake for Newcastle. 
A portion of a wharf built by him still exists at this place, 
which is still called Eeid's Mistake ; {i.e., in 1834]. 


Munug-gurraba, the place to wHeh ' sea-snipe _' resort. 

Miinukanis the name of a point, under which is a seam of 
cannel coal, and beneath that is a thick seam of superior common 
coal, and both jut into the sea betwixt three and four 
fathoms of water. The government mineral surveyor found, 
on examination, that the two veins were nearly nine feet in 
thickness, and the coal of excellent quality; [i.e., in 1834]. 

Nikkinba, a place of coals, from n i k k i n, ' coal.' The whole 
Lake, twenty -one miles long by eight broad, abounds with coal. 

Niritiba, the name of the island at the entrance of the lake; 
from n i r i t i, the ' mutton bird,' which abounds there. 

P i t o b a, a place of pipe clay ; from p i t o, ' pipe clay,' which is 
used at a death by the deceased's relatives to paint their whole 
body, in token of mourning. 

P u n t e i, a ' narrow ' place ; the name of any narrow point of land. 

Purribagba, the ' ant's-nest place ' ; from within these nests 
a yellow dusty substance is collected, and used by the blacks 
as a paint for their bodies, called purribag. The ants gather 
the substance for some unknown purpose. 

Tirabeenba, a tooth -like point of land ; from t i r a, 'a tooth.' 

T u 1 k a b a, the soft ti-tree place ; from t u 1 k a, ' ti-tree.' 

Tulkiriba, a place of brambles ; from t u 1 k i r i, 'a bramble.' 

Tumpoaba, a clayey place ; from t u m p o a, ' clay.' 

W arawallug, the name of a high mountain to the west of Lake 
Macquarie. This has been partly cleared of timber, by order 
of the Surveyor- Greneral ; as a land-mark it is seen from a 
considerable distance. The name is derived from w a 1 1 u g, 
the ' human head,' from its appearance. 

"Wauwaran, the name of a hole of fresh water in the vicinity of 
Lake Macquarie, betwixt it and the mountains westerly ; said 
by the blacks to be bottomless, and inhabited by a monster of 
a fish much larger than a shark, called vv a u w a i ; it frequents 
the contiguous swamp and kills the aborigines ! There is 
another resort for these fish near an island in Lake Macquarie 
named b o r o j i r 6 g, from the clifBs of which if stones be 
thrown down into the sea beneath, the ti-tree bark floats up, 
and then the monster is seen gradually arising from the deep ; 
if any natives are at hand, he overturns their canoe, swallows 
the crew alive, and then the entire canoe, after which he 
descends to his resort in the depths below ! 

Yirannalai, the name of a place near Newcastle on the sea 
beach, beneath a high cliff; it is said that if any persons speak 
there, the stones fall down from the high arched rocks above ; 
for the crumbling state of these is such that the concussions of 
air from the voice cause the pieces of the loose rock to come 
down ; this once occurred to myself when I was in company 
with some blacks here. 





Baibai, m.* an axe. 
Bai_yag-baiyag, ot,, a butterfly. 
Bato, m., water ; cf. gapoi 
Berabukkan, «?., sperm whale; 

the natives do not eat this ; 

cf. torog-giii]. 
Biggai, «?., an elder brother. 
Biatunkin, m., a father. 
Birraba, m., a small shell fish. 
Biyug, OT., 'father,' addressive. 
Biyugbai, m., a father. 
Boaliig, m., mangrove seed. 
Boarrig, m., misty rain. 
Boata, TO., the cat-fish. 
Boawal, m., the curlew. 
Bugkin, m., vermin, as fleas. 
Bukkai, m., the bark of a tree ; 

the skin of animals. 
Bulbug, in., a small species of 

Bunkun, m., a red sea-slug 

which adheres to the rocks, 

and is known to Europeans 

as ' kunjewai.' 
Biirug, TO., hair on the head. 

Wurun, TO., hair on the body. 

Ivitug, TO., the short hair of 

Yirrig, to., the fur of the 
opossum tribe. 
Buttikag, »«., any beast. 

Girrinbai, to., first-born female. 

"Wug-gunbai, youngest „ 
Golokonug, TO., a large kind of 

Grorokan, to., the morning dawn 
&araki,TO.,oneinitiated; hence, 

a wise person. 


Kan ; kurriwirara ; to., a brown 
diamond suake. 
Maiya, m., the general name 
for snakes. 
Kanin, to., a fresh-water eel. 
Karai, in., flesh of any sort, 
but chiefly of the kangaroo. 
Karakal, in., a wizard, doctor, 

Karoburra, to., a large whiting. 
Karog-karog, to., a pelican. 
Kearapai, to., the white cock- 

Waiila,OT.,theblack cockatoo ; 
its breeding place is un- 
known to the blacks. 
Keilai, to., urine. 
Kikoi, TO., a native cat; is very 

destructive to poultry. 
Kinnun, to., the women's nets ; 

used as bags. 
Kipai. TO., fat, grease, &c. 
Kira-kira; kiineta; to,, the male 

and the female king-parrot. 
Kirika and korunnag, to., two 
kinds of native honey. 
Mipparai,TO.,the honey-comb. 
Kukkug, m., the small sting- 
less bee of this country. 
Mikal, TO., the honey in the 
blossoms of the honey- 
suckle tree. 
Karaka, to., the honey in the 
blossom of the grass-tree. 

* Tiie m, throughout, stands lor meaiimg ; it is inserted merely to divide th« native 
word from its signification. — Ed. 


TO., a concubine, 
gaiyuwa, gatdg, 

water ; 



TO., names for fresh 

cf. kokoin, bato, and yarro. 

Garawan,m., a plain flat place. 

Gardg-gardg, to., arough place. 

Garo-geen, m., an old woman. 

Garo-mbai, to , an old man. 

Gauwo, TO., a sea-gull. 



Kirrin, m., pain. 

Kogka, m., a reed. 

Kog korog, 711 . , an emu ; from the 
noise it makes. 

Koiwon, m., rain. 

Koiyog, m., a native camp. 

"Koiyug, m., fire. 

Kokabai, m., a wild yam. 

Kokei; wimbi; winnug; m., na- 
tive vessels made oi: the bark 
of trees, and used as baskets 
or bowls. 

Kokera, in., a native hut. 

Kokoin, in., \Yater ; c/'., gapoi 

Kdkug, m., frogs ; are so called 
from the noise they make. 

Komirra, m., a shadovi'. 

Konug ; kintarig ; m., dung. 

Konug-gai, m., a Eool. 

Koreil, w., a shield. 

Koropun, ot., fog, mist, haze. 

Korowa-talag, m., a cuttle fish ; 
lit., ' wave-tongue.' 

Korro, m., the wind-pipe. 

Kotara, m., a club, a waddj. 

Kotumag, m., the land tortoise. 

Kiilai, m., trees, wood, timber. 

Kullara, m., a fish- spear. 

Kullearig, m., the throat. 

Kullig, m., a shell. 

Kulligtiella, ni., a knife. 

Kullo, m., the cheeks. 

Kumara, ni., blood. 

Kumba, m., to-morrow. 

Kumbal, m., a younger brother. 

Kunbul, m., the black swan. 

Kiiri, m., man, mankind. 

Kurrabag;murrin; OT.,thebody. 

Kurrabun, m., a murderer. 

Kurraka, m., the mouth. 

Kurrakog, on., the eldest male. 
Taiyol, m., the youngest male. 

Kurra-koiyog, m., a shark. 

Kurrugkun; muttaura; m.,i\iQ 

Kuttal, 111., the smoke of a fire; 
tobacco ; cf. poito. 

Koun, m., the mangrove bush. 


Makoro, m., the general name 
for fish. 

Malama, pirig-gun, pinkun, and 
wdttol, m., lightning. 

Marai, in., the soul, the spirit ; 
' the same as the wind, we 
cannot see him,' was the 
definition given by a black. 

Meini, in., sand-flies. 

Minmai, in., the gigantic lily. 

Miroma, m., a saviour. 

Moani, m., the kangaroo. 

Mokoi, m., mud oysters. 

Molakan, in., the season of the 
wane of the moon. 

Moto, m., a black-snake. 

Miila, m., a boil. 

Mulo, m., thunder. 

Mumuya, m., a corpse, a ghost. 

Munbonkan, OT.,thc rock oyster. 

Munni, m., sickness. 

Muraban,«z., blossom, flowers. 

Murrakin, in., young maidens. 

Muriin, m., the body. 

Murri-nauwai, in., a ship, boat. 


Xukug, m., a woman, women. 

Nulka ; anulka ; m., iron ; this 
is a kind of iron-stone, which 
abounds on the sea-coast. 
There is a vein of iron ore 
running over coal at the sea 
entrance of Lake Macquarie. 


Paiyabara, m., the large ti-tree. 
Pillapai, m., a valley or hollow. 



Pimpi, m., ashes. 

Pippita, m., a small hawk ; so 

called from its cry. 
Pirama and wommarakan, m., a 

wild duck and drake. 
Piriwal, m., a chief or king. 
Pirrita, m., an oyster which 

grows on the mangrove tree. 
Pittdg ; talowai ; m., two kinds 

of roots of the arum species ; 

the taro of Tahiti. 
Poito, m., the smoke of a fire. 
Pono, m., dust. 
Poribai, m., a hushand. 
Porikunbai, m., a wife. 
Porowi, m., an eagle. 
Porun, m., a dream nr vision. 

Porun-witilliko, m., to dream.. 
Pukko, m., a stone axe. 
PuUi, m., salt. 
Pulli, m., voice, language. 
Puna, m., sea sand. 
Punbug, m., sea-slug, blubber. 
Punnal, m.,the sun. 
Piirai, m., earth, land, the world. 
Purreag, m., day. 
Purramai, m., a cockle. 
Purramaiban, m., an animal 

like a ferret, but amphibious ; 

it lives on» cockles. 
Purrimunkan, m., a sea-salmon. 


Taiyol, m., the youngest male. 
Tembiribeen, m., a death adder. 

The aborigines, when bitten, 

usually suck the wound, as a 

Tibbin, m., a bird. 
Tibiin, m , a bone. 
Tigko, m., a bitch. 
Tiral, m., a bough of a tree. 
Tirriki, m., the flame of fire ; 

the colour red. 

Tirril, m., the tick, a venomous 
insect in this country that 
enters the skin of young dogs, 
pigs, lambs, cats, and ia fatal, 
but not to man ; it is exactly 
similar in size and shape to 
the English tick, but its 
effects are soon discovered ; 
for tlie animal becomes para- 
lyzed in its hind quarters, 
sickness comes on, and death 
follows in two or three days 
after the paralysis has taken 

Tokoi, m., night. 

Topig, m., a mosquito. 

Torog-gun, m., the black whale ; 
this the blacks eat, whilst the 
sperfli whale is not eaten. 

Tukkara, m., winter. 

TuUokan, m., property, riches. 

Tulmun, m., a grave. 

Tulun, m., a mouse. 

Tunk4n, m., a mother, a dam. 

Tunug, m., a rock, a stone. 

Tupea-tarawog and ninag, m., 
names of the flat-head fish. 

Turea, m., a bream-fish. 


Wairai, m., the spear for battle, 

or for hunting. 

Motig, m., the spear for fish. 
Waiyog, m , a sort of yam. 
Wakun, m., a crow ; from its 

cry, wak-wak-wak. 
Warikal, m., a dog ; the species. 
Warikal and waiyi, m., the male 

and female tame dog. 

Tuki and mirri, in., the male 
and female native dog. 

Murrogkai, m., the wild dog 
"Waroi, m., the hornet. 
"Waropara, m., the honeysuckle. 



Willai, m., an opossum. 

Wimbi, m., a bowl ; generally 
made from tbe knot of a 

"Wippi or wibbi, m., the wind. 

Wirripag, m., the large eagle- 
hawk, which devours young 
kangaroos, lambs, &c. 

Woiyo, m., grass. 

"Wombal, m., the sea-beach. 

Wommara, m., the instrument 
used as a lever for throwing 
the spear ; cf. gorro. 

"Wonnai, m., a child, children. 

"Woropil, m., a blanket, clothes. 

Worowai, m., a battle, a fight. 

Worowan, m., a kangaroo-skin 

"Wattawan, m., a large mullet. 

Wuggurrapin, m., young lads. 

Wuggurrabula, m., ye two lads. 
Wunal,»t., Slimmer. 
Wurunkan, m., flies. 

Tapug, m., a path, a broad way. 
Tarea, m., the evening. 
Tareil and yura, m., the clouds. 
Tilen, m., bait. 
Tinal, m., a son. 
Tinalkun, m., a daughter. 
Yirra, m., a wooden sword. 
Tirrig, m., a quill, a pen. 
Tulo, m., a footstep, a track. 
Tunug, m., a turtle. 
Yuroin, m,, a bream-fish. 


The Head. 

Kittug, m., the hair of the head. 
Wallug, m., the head. 
Kappara, m., the skull. 
Kumborokan, m., the brain. 
Tintirri ; golo ; m., the forehead. 
Tukkal, m., the temples. 
Grureug; turrakurri; ot., the ear. 
Yulkara, m., the eye-brows. 
Woipin, m,, the eye-lashes. 
Gaikug ; porowug ; m., the eye. 
Tarkin ; goara; m., the face. 
Nukoro, m., the nose. 

Kullo, m., the cheeks. 
Tumbiri ; wilUg ; m., the lips. 
Kurraka, m , the mouth. 
Gunturra ; tirra ; m., the teeth. 
Tallag, m., the tongue. 
Wattan, m., the chin. 
Yarrei, m., the beard. 
TJntag, m., the lower jaw. 
KuUeug, m., the neck ; it is also 

called ' wuroka.' 
KuUearig, m , the throat. 
Koro, m., the windpipe. 

Kurrabag, m., the body. 
Murrin, m., the body. 
Mumurrakun ) m., the eollar- 
Milka-milka, j bone. 

The Trunk. 

Mirrug, m., the shoulder. 
Kopa, m., the upper arm. 
Turrug, m., the lower arm. 
Gruna, m., the elbow. 

The Sands and Feet. 

Mattara, m., the hand. 
Tunkanbeen, m., the thumb : 
lit., the mother or dam. 

Numba, m., the first finger. 
Purrokulkun, in., the second ,, 
Kotan, in., the third 



Garakonbi, m., the little finger. 
Tirri; tirreil ; ro., the nails pf 

the fingers and toes. 
AVara, m., the palm of the hand; 

cf. warapal, ?»., level, plain. 
Tiig kag keri, to., the right hand. 
Wuntokeri, m., the left hand. 
Bulka, m., the back ; either of 

the hand or of the body. 
Paiyil, m., the breasts. 

Gr.ipug, m., the nipple. 
Wapara, m., the chest, breasts. 
Nura, m., the ribs. 
Kuriatag, wi., the side or body. 

Turouu, m., the right side. 

Croraon, m., the left side. 
Parra or warra, m., the belly. 
Parra, m , the bosom. 
AVinnal, »!., the loins. 
G.ikag, m. the hips. 

The Limh?. 

Biiloinkoro, m., the thighs. 
AYoloma or lara, m,, the calf of 

the leg. 
Gari, m., the shins. 
Warombug, m., the knees. 

Tinna, m., the toes ; the foot. 
The Infestines. 

Papinan, kordg-gai, and mokul- 

mokul, m., the knee-pan. 
Wirngkag, m., theauKles. 
Mukko ; monug ; m., the heels. 
Yiillo, in., the sole of the foot. 

Biilbul, m., the heart. 
Purramai, m., the kidney ; also 

a cockle, from its shape. 
Munug, m., the liver. 
Yok61,.OT., the lungs. 
Konarig; konug; »i., thebovcels. 
Purring; puttara; m., the fl.esh. 
Meya, m., the sinews. 

Gordg, m.. 

Turrakil, m., the veins. 
T6g-t6g, m., the marrow. 
Tibiin, m., the bone. 
Moika, m.,the fatty substance 

betwixt the joints. 
Bukkai, in., the skin. 
Wurun, m., the downy hair on 

the skin, 
the blood. 

(5) TEEBS. 


Beelmulliko, m., to mock, to 
deride, to make sport. 

Birrikilliko, m., to lie along, 
to lie down so as to sleep. 

BoibiiUiko, m., to know car- 

Boinkulliko, m., to kiss. 

Bombilliko, m., to blow with 
the mouth. 

Boug-bug-guUiko, to., to cause 
another to arise, to compel 
to arise. 

Boug-gulliko, TO., to raise one's 
self up, to arise. 

Bug-bug, TO., to salute. 
Bukfca, TO., to be wrathful, to be 

Bulp6r-bug-gulHko, «., to cause 

to be lost property, to lose. 
Bum-bug-guUiko, to., to cause to 

be loose, to open a door. 
Bummarabunbilliko, to., to per- 
mit another to be struck. 
Bummilliko, to., to find. 
Biimmunbilliko, m., to permit 

another to strike. 
Bunkilliko,OT., to strike, smite; 

to aim a blow with a weapon. 
Buubilliko, m., to permit, to 

let ; this is an auxiliary verb. 



Bunmulliko, m., to rob, to take 
by violence, to snatch. 

Bur-bug-guUiko, m., to cause 
to be light or well, to cure. 

Burkulliko, m., to be light as 
a bird, to fly; to be convales- 

Burug-bug-gulliko, TO., to cause 
to be loose, to set at liberty. 


Grakilliko, m., to see, to look, 
to observe with the eye. 

Gra.kombilliko, in., to deceive, to 

Gakontibunbilliko, m., to dis- 
regard, not to mind. 

Gakoyelliko, m.,to lie, to tell a 

Gamaigulliko, ot., to see, to 
look, but not to notice. 

Garabo, m., to sleep. 

Garawatilliko, m., to lose one's 

Garbug-gulliko, m., to convert 
into, to cause to become. 

Gari-gari, in., to pant. 

Garo-garo, m., to fall down. 

Garokilliko, m., to stand upon 
the feet. 

Garokinbilliko, in., to stand up. 

Gimilliko, m., to know by the 
eye, as a person or place. 

Giratimulliko, in., to feed, to 
give food. 

Girulliko, m., to tie. 

Goitig, in., to be short. 

Goloin, in., to be complete or 

Gukilliko, in., to give, to pre- 

Gumaigulliko, in., to offer. 

Gupaiyiko, m., to give back, 
to pay, to return in exchange. 

Guraki, ■»«., to be wise, skilful. 

Gurra-konen, m., not to hear. 

Gurramag, m., to be initiated, 

Gurramaigulliko, m., to hear, 
but not to obey. 

Gurrara, in., to pity. 

Gurrawatilliko, vi., for remem- 
brance to pass away, to for- 
get any place, or road ; cf. 

Gurrayelliko, m., to hearken, to 
be obedient, to believe. 

Gurrulliko, m., to hear, to obey, 
to understand with the ear. 

Gurrunborburrilliko, m., to let 
fall tears, to weep, to shed 


Ka-amulliko, m., to cause to 
be assembled together, to 

KaipuUiko, m., to call out, to 
cry aloud. 

Kaiyu, OT.jto be able, powerful, 
^ mighty. 

Kakilli-ban-kora, m., do not be. 

Kakilliko, m., to be, to exist 
in any state. 

Kaki-yikora, m., be not. 

Kapirri, m., to be hungry. 

Kapulliko, in., to do ; without 
the idea of effect upon any 

KarabuUiko, m., to spill. 

Karakai, m., to be active, to be 
quick, to hasten. 

Karakal-umuUiko, in., to cure, 
to make well ; a compound 
of ' karakai,' a doctor, and 
'umulliko,' to do, to make. 

Kardl, m., to be hot, to perspire 
from the heat of the sun. 

Kauwal, in., to be large, great. 

Kekal, in., to be sweet, plea- 
sant, nice, delightful. 

Kia-kia, in., to be courageous, 
strong, powerful; to conquer. 



Kilbug-gulliko, in., to compel 

to snap. 
Kilburrilliko, m., to snap at by 

means of something, as a 

hook is snapped at by a fish. 
Kilknlliko, in., to snap asun- 
der, as a cord of itself. 
Killibinbin, to., to shine, to be 

bright, to be glorious. 
Kimulliko, in., to wring, to 

squeeze as a sponge, to milk. 
KimmuUiko, in., to broil meat 

on coals of fire. 
Kinta, in., to be afraid. 
Kintai; kintelliko; «!., to laugh. 
Kimikinari, m., to be wet. 
Kirabarawirrilliko, in., to twirl 

tlie stem of grass-tree until 

it ignites. 
Kirilliko, m., to lade out, 

to bail a canoe or boat. 
Kiroapulliko, m., to pour out 

water, to empty water. 
Kirrai-kirrai, m., to revolve, to 

go round. 
Kirrawi, m., to be lengthy, to be 

long; c/". 'goitig,' in., to be 

sliort in length. 
Kirrin, m., to pain. 
Kitelliko, m., to chew. 
Kiunurig, to., to be wet. 
Ko, m., to be, to come into ex- 
Koakilliko, in., to rebuke, to 

scold, to quarrel. 
Koinomulliko, in., to cough. 
Koipulliko, m., to smell. 
Koitta, m., to stink. 
Koiyubulliko, in., to burn with 

Koiyun, to., to be ashamed. 
Kolayelliko, in., to keep secret, 

not to tell, not to disclose. 
Kdlbi, m., to sound, as the 

wind or sea in a storm. 
"Kdlbuntilliko, m., to chop with 

an axe or scythe, to mow. 

Kollabilllko, in., to fish with a 
line. The line is held in the 

Kdllamulliko, m., to make se- 
cret, to conceal anything told. 

Konein, m., to be handsome, 

Kdntimulliko, in., to wear as 
a dress. 

Korawalliko, m , to Avatch, to 
stay by a thing. 

Korien , «? . , n ot to be ; the nega- 
tive form of ' ko.' 

Korokal, in., to be worn out, 

Korokdn, in., to roar, as the 
wind or sea ; cf. kdlbi. 

Korun, m., to be silent, to be 

Korunpaiyelliko, in., to remain 

Kotabunbinla, in., to permit to 
think, to remember. 

Kotelliko, in., to think. 

Kdttan, to., to be wet and chilly, 
from rain. 

Kugun, m., to be muddy. 

Kulbilliko, in., to lean, to re- 

Kulbun-kulbun, in., to be very 
handsome, elegant. 

Kulwun, m., to be stiff, clay- 
cold, as a corpse. 

Kum-bara-paiyelliko, in., to be 
troublesome, to give one a 
headache by noise. 

Kumbaro, in., to be giddy, to 
have a headache from dizzi- 

Kunbiin, in. ,io be rotten, as a 
skin or cloth. 

Kunbuntilliko, m., to cut with 
a knife. 

Kuuna, m., to be burned. 

Kurkulliko, m., to spring up, 
to jump, to leap. 

Kur-kur, m., to be cold. 



Eurmiir, m., to be rotten, as 

wood ; cf., kunbiin. 
Kurra, m., to be slow. 
Kurragkopilliko, in., to spit. 
Kurral, m., to be disabled, to 

be wounded. 
Kurrilliko, in., to carry. 
Kuttawaiko, m., to be satisfied 

with food, satiated, drunk. 


Ma, m., to challenge, to dare; 
to command to do. 

Mankilliko, m., to take, to ac- 
cept, to take hold of. 

Maamunbilliko, in., to cause to 
take, to. let take, to let have. 

Marogkoiyelliko, m., to pro- 
claim, to make known. 

Matelliko, in., to be gluttonous. 

MeapuUiko, m., to plant. 

MimuUiko, m., to detain, to 
compel to wait. 

Itlinki, m., to sorrow, to sym- 

Minkilliko, m., to remain, to 

MiromuUiko, m., to beep. 

Mirral, m., to be without, to 
be poor, miserable ; a desert 

Mirrilliko, m., to sharpen into 
a point, as a spear. 

Mirrinupulliko, m., to cause to 
be sharp. 

Mitti, m., to be small. 

Mittilliko, m., to wait, to stay, 
to remain. 

Mitug, in., to be cut, wounded, 

Morilliko, in., to wind up as a 

Moron, m., to be alive. 

Moroun, m., to be tame, quiet, 
docile, patient. 

Mottilliko, m., to pound with a 
stone, like pestle and mortar. 

Mulamulliko, m., to vomit. 
Miimbilliko, m., to borrow, to 

Munni, m., to be sick, ill, or to 

be diseased. 
Muntilliko, m., to be benighted, 

to be overtaken with dark- 
Mupai, m., to fast; to keep the 

mouth closed ; to be silent, 

Mupaikaiyelliko, m., to remain 

silent, to continue dumb. 
Murralliko, m., to run. 
Murraiag, m., to be good, ex.. 

cellent, valuable. 

Neilpaiyelliko,m., to shout; the 
noise of war or ]^la.y. 

NiguUiko, OT., to plajr, to sport. 

Nilian-nillan, m., to be smashed 
into pieces. 

NimuUiko, m., to pinch. 

Ninmilliko, m., to seize, to 

Niuwara, m., to be angry, dis- 

Nug-gurrawolliko, m., to nieet. 

Kugkilliko, TO., to be success- 
ful, fortunate ; to obtain. 

Kummulliko, m., to press, to 
force down. 

Numulliko, m., to touch with 
the hand. 

Xupulliko, in., to try, to learn, 
to attempt. 

Kurilliko, in., to throw the 
' boomerang.' 


Paikulliko, in., to act of its own 
power, to act of itself. 

Paikulliko, m., to show one's 
self spontaneously. 

Paipilliko, m., to appear, to be- 
come visible. 



Paipillilco, m., to act ; excluding 

the idea oi cause. 
Palpal, TO., to vibrate, to swing, 

as in a swing. 
Papai, m., to be close at hand. 
Peakulliko, m., to fetch water. 
Pillatoro, m.,io set; as the sun, 

moon, and stars. 
Pillobuntilliko, m., to be sunk, 

PillokuUiko, m., to sink. 
Pinkurkulliko, w., to burst as a 

bladder, of itself. 
Pinnilliko, m , to dig. 
Pintakilliko, m , to float. 

Watpulliko, m., to swim. 
Pintilliko, m., to knock down, 

as with an axe ; to shock, as 

with electricity. 
Pipahunbilliko, in., to permit 

to stride, to let stride. 
Pipelliko, m., to stride, straddle. 
Pirra, m., to be tired. 
Pirral-mulliko, m., tq urge. 
Pirriko, m., to be deep. 
Pirriral, m., to be hard, strong ; 

cf. kunbon, m., to be soft. 
Pirun-kakilliko, m., to be glad, 

to be pleased. 
Pital-kakilliko, in., to he glad, 

to be pleased, to be happy. 
Pital-muUiko, m., to cause joy, 

to make happy. 
Pittabunbilliko, in., to permit 

to drink, to let drink. 
Pittalliko, in., to drink. 
PittamuUiko, in., to make to 

drink, to cause to drink. 
Poaibug-gulliko, m., to compel 

to grow. 
Poai-buntilliko, m., to cause to 

Poai-kulliko, m., to grow up of 

Poiyeakulliko, m., to be suspen- 
ded, to hang on ; to infect. 
Poiyelliko,OT.,to beg, to entreat. 

Pdnkdg, m., to he short. 
Pdr-bug-guiliko, m., to compel 

to drop. 
Pdrburrilliko, m., to cause to 

drop by means of something. 
Porei, m., to be tall. 
Pdr-kakilliko, m., to he drop- 
ped, to be born. 
Porobulliko,M., to smooth. 
Pordgkal, in., to be globular, 

to be round. 
Porrdl, m., to be heavy ; to be 

Pdrunwitilliko, m., to dream a 

Potobuntilliko, m., to cause a 

hole, to bleed a person. 
Potoburrilliko, m., to burst a 

hole with something. 
Potopaijaoun-wal m , will burst. 
Pulluntara, m.,to shine, as with 

Puldg-kuUiko, m., to enter, to 

go or come into. 
Puliil-puliil, m., to shake with 

cold, to tremble. 
Punta, m., to be mistaken in 

Puntimulliijo, m., to cause to 

fall, to throw down. 
PurkuUiko, m., to fly. 
PuromuUiko, m., to lift up, 
Puto, m., to be black. 
Puttilliko, m., to bite. 


Ta-killiko, m., to eat. 
Taleamulliko, m., to catch any 

thing thrown. 
Talig-kakilliko, m.,tobe across. 
Ta-munbilliko, m., to permit to 

eat, to let eat. 
Tanan, m., to approach. 
Tardgkamulliko, in., to cause to 

mix, to mingle. 
Tetti, in. to be dead. 



Tetti-ba-bunbilliko, m., to per- 
mit to die, to let die. 
Tetti-ba-bun-burrilliko, m., to 

permit to be put to death by 

some means. 
Tetti-bug-gu]liko, m., to compel 

to be dead, to kill, to murder. 
Tetti-bulliko, ot., to die, to be in 

the act of dying. 
Tetti-biinkuUiko, m., to smite 

dead, to strike dead. 
Tetti-burrilliko, m., to cause to 

die by some means, as poison. 
Tetti-kakilliko, m., to be dead, 

to be in that state. 
Tiir-bug-ga-bunbilliko, m., to 

let break. 
Tiir-bug-guUiko, m., to compel 

to break. 
Tiirburribunbilliko, m., to per- 
mit to break by means of . . . . 
Tiirburrilliko, m., to break by 

means of something. 
Tiirkullibunbilliko,OT., to allow 

to break of itself. 
Tiirkulliko, m., to break of its 

own itself, as wood. 
Tirag-kakilliko,OT., tobeawake. 
Tirriki, in., to be red hot ; the 

colour red. 
Tittilliko, m., to pluck. 
Tiwolliko, m., to seek, to search. 
Tiyumbilliko, m., to send any 

kind of property, ef., yukul- 

Tokol, m., to be true ; the truth; 

this takes 'bo ta' with it. 
Tolog-tolog, TO., to separate. 
Tolomulliko, m., to shake any 

Torololal, m., to be slippery, 

Tdttog and tottorig ; m,, to be 

naked. This word must be 

carefully distinguished from 

'totog,' news, intelligence. 

Tiig-gunbilliko, ra., to show. 

Tugkamulliko, m., to find; lit., 
to make to appear. 

Tiigkilliko, m., to cry, to bewail. 

Tuirkulliko, m., to drag along, 
to draw. 

Tukin-umuiliko, m.,to preserve, 
to keep, to take care of. 

Tukkara, m., to be cold. 

Tulbulliko, m., to run fast, to 

TullamuUiko, m., to hold by the 

Tulla-tullai, m., to be in a rage. 

Tuloin, m., to be narrow. 

Tulutilliko, m., to kick. 

Tiinbilliko, m., to exchange. 

Tunbamabunbilliko, m., to per- 
mit to string together. 

Tunbamulliko, m., to string to- 

Turabunbilliko, m., to permit to 

Turakaiyelliko, m.,to convince, 

Turinwiyelliko, m.,to swear the 
truth, to adjure to speak the 

Turol, m., to be in a state of 
healing, to be well ; as a cut 
or wound. 

Turoupiri, in., to suffer hunger. 

Turral, m., to split. 

Turral-bug-gulliko, to., to cause 
to split, to make to split. 

TurramuUiko, m., to throw a 

Turrug, m., to be close together. 

Turukdnbilliko, m., to punish. 

Turukilliko, in., to grow up, to 
shoot up. 

Tiirulliko, m., to pierce, prick, 
stab, sting, lance, spear. 

Tiitog, in., to be stunned, in- 
sensible, apparently dead. 




TJmulliko, m., to do, to make, 

to create. 
TJumulliko, m., to make afraid, 
^ to affright, to startle. 
tJntelliko, m., to dance. 
TJpulliko, «., to do with, to use, 

to work with. 
Uwolliko, TO., to come or go ; to 

walk, to pass, &c. 


Waipilliko, in., to wrestle. 

Waipulliko, m., to hunt. 

'Waita,OT.,to depart, to be away. 

Wamulliko, in., to hark a tree, 
to skin. 

"Wamunbilliko, ni., to permit to 
go, to let go away. 

Warakarig, in., to be full, to be 

"WarekuUiko, m., to put away, 
to cast away ; to forgive. 

"Warin-warin, m., to be crooked. 

■Wari-wari-kuUiko, m., to strew, 
to scatter about, to sow seed. 

Waran, m., to be flat or level, 
to be plain. 

"Waruwai, m., to battle, to en- 
gage in fighting. 

"Watpulliko, m., to swim, to 
stretch the hands to swim. 

Wattawalliko, in., to tread, to 
stamp with the foot or feet. 

"Wauwibunbilliko, m., to per- 
mit to float, to let float. 

"Wauwilliko, m., to float ; as a 
cork or feather. 

"Weilkorilliko, m., to flog, whip, 

Weir-weir, m., to be lame. 

"Willug, willuntin, in., to be be- 
hind, to come after, to be last. 

Willugbo, willug, m., to return. 
"Winelliko, in., to burn with 

fire, to scorch. 
Wirabakilliko, m., to heat, to be 

becoming hot. 
Wirakakilliko, in., to be hot, 
Wirrigbakilliko, m., to close 

up, to shut a door. 
Wirrilliko, m., to wind up, as 

a ball of string. 
WirrobullikOjOT.jtofollow after. 
Witelliko, m., to smoke a pipe. 
Wittilliko, m., to sing. 
Wittimulliko, m., to fall, to be 

thrown down. 
Wiyelliko, m., to speak, to say, 

to tell, to command, to ask. 

"Wiyabunbilliko, m., to per- 
mit to speak, to let speak. 

Wiya-lei-illiko,* m., to talk 
and walk. 

Wiyayelliko, m., to speak in 
reply, to answer. 

Wiyayimulliko, m., to accuse. 

Wiyea, in., to s.ay again, to 
"Woatelliko, in., to lick. 
Wogkal, in., to be foolish, not 

clever, stupid. 
Woguntilliko, m., to forget any 

thing told ; cf., garrawatil 

Woro-woro, m., to swell. 
"Wotara, m., to be shallow. 
Wiinkilliko, m., to leave. 
Wiinmarabunbilliko, in., to per- 
mit to be left, to let be left. 
"Wuno, in., to stoop or bend in 

Wupilliko, TO., to put, to place. 
"Wurunbarig, m., to be hairy; 

as an animal. 
"Wutilliko, in., to cover, to put 

on clothes. 

* Note. — Other verbs also take this foi-m whenever the act is conjoined with 
walking ; as, ta-tei-illiko, ' to eat and walk.' 




Yarakai, m., to be bad, evil. 
Yaialkulliko, m., to move away, 

as tbe clouds. 
Tarigkulliko, m., to laugh. 
Tellawa-bug-gulliko, m., to 

compel to sit, to force to 

Tellawa-bunbilliko, in., to per- 
mit to sit down. 
Tellawolliko, m., to cross legs 

down on the ground ; to sit, 

to remain, to rest. 
Temmamulliko, in., to lead ; as 

by the hand, or as a horse 

by a rope. 
TiirkuUiko, m., to tear of itself, 

as cloth ; to break. 

Tiirkahunbilliko, m., to per- 
mit to tear, to let tear. 

Tiirburririlliko, m., to tear, 
by means of something. 

Tiirburri-bun-billiko, m., to 
permit to tear, by means 
of something. 

Tiirbug-gnlliko, in., to com- 
pel to tear. 

Yiirbug-ga-bunbilliko, in., to 

permit compulsively to 


Timulliko, m., to make light, 

as fur is caused to lie lightly 

before the blacks twist it into 

cord; to encourage, to cheer 

Tinbilliko, m., to kindle a fire. 
Tiremba, m., to bark ; as a dog. 
Titelliko, »?., to nibble or bite; 

as a fish the bait. 
Tuaipilliko, m., to push away, 

to thrust out. 
Tukulliko, m., to send, as a 

messenger, to send property ; 

rf., tiyumbilliko. 
Tuntilliko, in., to cause pain, 

to hurt. 
Turig, m., to go away. 
Turogkilliko, in., to dive. 
TuropuUiko, m., to conceal 

from view, to hide 
Turru g-gun, «i. , to be faint with 

Tutilliko, m., to guide, to show 

the way by guiding. 
Tiitpilliko, m., to pulsate, to 

beat, to throb. 




Aboriginal sentences literally rendered into English.* 

G-anke bi? gatoa, Bonni; »«., who are you? it is I, Bonni. 

Who be thou? I, „ 

Gran ke unni, unnoa, unnug? m., wlio is this, that, 
Who be this? ^ that? there? there? 

Kiiri unnij.nukug unnoa, wonnai unnug; 
Man this, woman that, child there. 

in., this is a man ; that is a woman ; there is a child. 
Minarig ke unni? warai ta unni; m., what is this ? it is 

What be this? spear it is this. a spear. 

Minarig-ko ke unnoa? turulliko; ot., what is that for? 
What - for be that ? for-to-spear. to spear with. 


Gan-to bin wiya? niuwoa tia wiya; «?., who told you ? 

Who thee told ? he me told. he told me. 

G-ali-noa, gali -boun t o a, tia wiya; m., this man, this 

This-he this-she, me told; woman, toldme. 

Gali-noa unni uma; m., this is the man who made this. 

This-he this made. 

M i n a r i g-k o bon biinkulla tetti?; m.. what smote him 

What him struck dead ? dead ? 

Nukug-ko, piriwallo, puntimaito; 
The woman — , the king — , the messenger — . 
m., the woman — , the king — , the messenger — , so, smote him. 
Wakun-to minarig tatan?;^., what does the crow eat ? 

Crow what eats ? 

M i n a r i g-k o w a k u n t a t a n ? ; m., what eats the crow ? 

What crow eats ? 

Nagiin-to tia pital-mau; «., the song rejoices me. 

Song me joy-does. 

Kulai-to tia biinkulla wokk a-tin-t o ; 
Stick 'me struck up-from. 

m-, the stick fell from above and struck me. 

*Noa'B. — The line under the native words is a literal translation of them ; 
that which follows the m is the equivalent English. — Ed. 



Gan-iimba noaunni yinal? m., whose son is this ? 

Whom-belonging-to he this son? 

Emmoumba ta;gali-ko-ba bon; m., it is mine; this be- 

Mine it is ; this-belongs him. longs to him. 

Biraban-umba, gikoumba wonnai; in., Biraban's, his 
BirabAn-belonging-to, his child. child. 

Minarig-ko-baunni? gali-ko-ba bdn; m., what does this 

What-belongs tliis ? this-belongs him. belong to ? 

"Wonta-kal bara? England-kal bar a? 

What-place-of ('mas. ^ they ? England of they. 

m., what country are they of? they are Englishmen. 
Wonta-kalin bara? England-kalin bara? 

What-place-of (fem.Jtliey? England of they. 

m., what countrywomen are they ? they are Englishwomen. 
Bug-gai-kal; m., to-day ; lit., belonging to the present period. 

Makoro-ko-ba ta unni gorrdg; m., this is the blood of a 

Fish-belonging-to it is this blood. fig^i, 

G-overnor- kai-kal b ag ; ot., I belong to the Grover- 
Governor - place-belongiug-to I. nor's place 

Governor-iimba bag; «., I am the Grovernor's, sc, man. 

Governor-belonging-to I. 

Murrarag-ko-ba kuri-ko-ba; m., a good man's. 

Good-belonging-to man-belonging-to 


Makoro bi guwa; gan-nug? give the fish; to whom? 

Fish thou give ; whom-for ? 

Piriwal-ko? Keawai; giroug bo; m., to the chief? no ■ 

Chief-for? no, for-thee self. for yourself . ' 

Karai tia guwa emmoug takilliko ; m., givemefleshto 
Flesh me give for-me for-to-eat. eat. 

Turig bi wolla; gikou g-kin-ko; m., be ofi"; goto him 
Away _ thou go him-to. 

G-an-kin-ko? piriwal-la-ko ; kokera-ko; 
Whom-to? chief-to; house-to. 

m., to whom ? to the chief; to the house. 
"Wontarig? untarig; untoarig; 
To-what-place ? that-place ; that-place-there. 

OT., to what place ? to that place; to that place there 

Mulubmba-ka-ko; En gland-ka-ko ; m., to Newcastle ; to 

To Newcastle ; England to. England. 


G-an-to b6u biinkulla tetti kulwun? »«., who smote him 

Who him smote dead stiff. dead '^ 

Gannug? B i r ab ann u g; »?., whom ? Biraban 
Whom ? Biraban. 


Gatoa bon tura; tura bdn bag; ot., itis I who speared 

I him speared ; speared him I. him ; I speared him. 

Kaibulla bounnoun; ganrnig? m., call her ; which ? 

Call her ; which ? 

Unnug-yog unnoanug niikug; w., that woman there. 
• There-there that woman. 

Manki yikora unnoanug; ot., do not take that. 

Take not that. 

Mara bi unnoanug; m., take that ; take it. 
.Take thou that. 

Mara bi unti-kal, unto a-kal, m., take some ofthia, of that. 
Take thou hereof, there-of. 

Makoro tia guwa; giinun banug; to., give me a fish ; I 

Fish me give. give-will I-thee will give thee. 

Puntiman tia baran; to., I am thrown down. 

Throws me down. 
Makoro bi turulla warai-to; to., spear the fish with the 

Fish thou pierce spear-with. spear. 

Tibbinbibuwamusketto; m., shoot the bird with the 

Bird thou smite musket-with. musket. 

Wiyella bon; wiyella binug; «., tell him; you tell him. 

Tell him ; tell thou-him. 

Biinkulla tia; wonne?; to., I am struck ; where ? 

Smote me ; where ? 

Wallug tia noa wirea; to., he hit me on the head. 

Head me he struck, 
Minarig bo bali wiyella? to., what shall you and I say ? 

What self thou-I say. 
G a n-t o bounnoun turaniin? m., who will spear her ? 
Who her pierce-will ? 

Granto unnoanug um a-n ii n? to., who will make it? 
Who that- there make- will ? 


E 1 a ! k a a i, t a n a n u n t i-k o ; to., I say, come hither. 
Hallo ! come, approach this-place-for. 

Wau! kaai, kaai, karakai; to., I say, come, make haste. 
Hallo ! come, come, be quick. 

Bougkalinii n-w al bag waita biyugbai-tako 
Arise-self-will I depart Father-to 

emmo u g-ka-ta-ko, gatun wiy a-nun-wal, Biyug, 
my- to and say- will. Father, 

yjirakai bag uma mikan ta morokoka gatun 

evil I made, presence-at heaven-at and 

girou g-kin; 
m., I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father 
I have sinned against heaven, and before thee. 



Koalsillan bara; gan-kai? gan-kai-kan; 
Quarrelling-now they ; whom-from ? whom-from-being ? 

m., they are now quarrelling; about whom ? 
Bounnoun-kai ; Taipamearin; m., about her; about T — . 

Her-frqm, Taipamear-from. 

Minarig-tin? minari g-tin-k an ; m., about what? don't 

What-lrom ? what-from-being. know. 

Makorrin gatun kii ri-t in ; m., about the fish andthe men. 

Fiah-from and men-from. 

Gran-kin-bir u g unni puntimai? m., from whom came 

Whom-from this messenger ? this messenger ? 

J e h V a-k a-b irug Piriwal-1 a-b irug, m., from Jehovah the 

Jehovah-from _ King-from. King. 

W o n t a-k a-b irug uoa? m., from what place did he come ? 

What-place-from he ? 

Wokka-ka-biru g moroko-ka-birug; )?!., from heaven above. 

Up-from heaven-from. 

Sydney-ka-birug ; Mulu-biuba-ka-birug; ot., from Sydnev; 
Sydney-from ; Newcastle-from. from JSJ'ewcastle. 

Min ari g-b ir u g unnoa uma? in., what is that made of? 
What-from that made ? 

Kiilai-birug; bras s-b irug; in., of wood ; of brass. 
Wood-from ; brass-from. 

Copper-birug garabug-ga brass; m., brass is made 

Copper-from converted brass. of copper. 

Turig bi wolla emmoug-kin-birug; to., go away from me. 

Away thou move me-from. 

Telia wolla bi emmoug-katoa; m., sit with me. 

Sit thou me-with. 

Gan-katoa bountoa? Tibbin-katoa ba; 
Whom- with she ? Tibbin-with. 

m., with whom is she? with Tibbm. 
Minarig-koa noa uwa? m., how did he go ? 

What-by he go ? 

M u r r i n w a i-t o a ; p u r r a i-k o a ; ??i., on board a ship ; by land . 

Large-canoe-by ; land-by. 

W o n t a-k a 1-1 o a ? k o r u g-k o a ; m., which way ? through the 

What-place-by ? bush-by. bush. 

Kokeroa bag uwa; m., I came by the house. 

House-by I came. 

"Wonnug ke wurubil? Biraban-kin-ba; 
AV'.ere-at be skin-eloak ? Birabau-at 

m., where is the blanket? at Biraban's. 
Wonnoug ke noa? 8yd ne y-k a-b a noa; 
Where-at be he? Sydney'-at he. 

m., where is he ? . he is at Sydney. 
Wonta-wontii-ka-ba kokera? m., whereabouts is the house? 
Where-where-at house ? 


P a p a i-t a-b a Mulubinb a-ka-ba ; m., close to Newcastle. 

Close-at Newoastle-at 

Broken-bay-tin-to* natan Sydney-lieads ; 
Broken-Bay-from see Sydney-heads. 

m., at Broken Bay is seen Sydney Heads. 
W o n t a-t i n-t o ? u n t i-t i n-t o ; u n t a-t i n-t o ; 
VVhat-place-from ? this-plaoe-from ; that-place-from. 
m,, at wLat place ? at this place ; at tbat place. 


Minnan kiiri tanan-ba? ot., how many men are now coming? 

What men approach ? 
Wakal-bo ta noa tanan-ba; m., one man only is coming. 

One-self it is he approaches. 
B Ti 1 o a r a-b ota bulatananuwajm., only the two came. 

Two-self it is two approach came. 

K 6 1 b i r a n-b o ta bar a nukug; m., only a few women. 

Few-self it is they women. 

T i b b i n-t o noa tatan; m., the bird eats. 

Bird he eats. 

Grali-noa tibbin-to pittan; m., this is the bird which drinks. 

This-he bird drinks. 

T i b b i n-t o noa unnug; m., that is a bird. 

Bird he there. 

Unni-tara tibbin bi biinkulla tetti; ot., these are the birds 

These birds thou smotest dead. you killed. 

Gintoa-bo ta unnoa kuri; to., thou art tlie man. 

Thou-self it is that man. 

Maiya-ko putti-niin tetti koa kauwil kuri; 
Snake bite-will dead «Ji+ may-be man. 

m., the snake will bite in order to kill the man. 
Tira-ko gikoumba-ko; »«., with his teeth. 

Teeth his-with. 

Tetti bdn horse-ko witti-ma; «?., the horse threw him, 
Dead him horse violence-made. and killed him. 


Wibbi unni kauwal katan; m., this is a high wind. 

Wind this great it exists. 

Kauwau, kauwal lag unni; m., yes, very powerful. 

So it is, great acts this. 

Kapirra bag kakilliela, katan; 7»., I was, lam, hungry. 

Hungry I was-being, am. 

Gan unti katan ? m., who lives here? 
Who this-place exists ? 
Bara-bo unti katan; in., they themselves dwell here. 

They-self this-place exist. 

* Note — Here Broken Bay is spoken of both as the cause and the agent, So that the 
meaning is — on account of Broken Bay being the agent, you see Sydney Heads. The 
particle tin, * from,' ' on account of,' denotes the cause, and to iko) marks the agency. 

t The English expression ' in order that ' is too long to stand under and correspond with 
* koa ' in the above. I have, therefore, substituted for it, throughout, the Latin ' ut. 


Kiakia bag kakeiin unni gorokan; to., I was conquer&r 
Conqueror I was this morning this morning. 

B u k k a bag k a k u 1 1 a ; m., I was veiy angry. 

Rage I was. 

Biintoara noa tetti kakulla; ot., heis tbemanwho 

Tliat-whioh-is-smote he dead was. was killed. 

Kakulla-ta bag Sydney-ka taga bi ba kakulla unta; 
Was I Sydney-at before thou wast at-that-plaoe 

m., I was at Bvdney before ever you were there. 
Kutnba bag kakeiin Sydney-ka; ot„ to-morrow I shall be 
To-morrow I shall-be Sydney-in. in Sydney. 

Kanun-ta unni murrarag; ot., it will be good, this. 

Be-will this good. 

M i r k a noa tetti k a n u n ; m., perhaps he will be dead. 
Perhaps he dead be-will. 
Gan-ke kiakia kanun? ot., who will bo the victor ? 

Who conqueror be-will ? 
Piriwal kaniin-wal bi; ot., you will certainly be king. 

Chief be-wilt thou. 

Kabo bag kaniin Sydney-ka; m., by and by I shall be 
By and by I be-will Sydney-at. at Sydney. 

Kaniin bag tarai ta yellenna-ka; m., in another 
Be-will I another it is moon-at. month I shall. 

Kaiyu kan bag; kaiyu korien bag; 
Able being I ; able not I. 

m,, I am powerful ; I am not powerful. 
"VVirrobulli-kan bara gikoumba; m, they are his fol- 

FoUowers they his. lowers. 

Tulbulleun bag kinta kan; ot., I escaped, being afraid. 

Escaped I fear being. 

Pirra-pirra.bara kakillin lintelli-tin; m., the dancing 
Fatigued they becoming dance-from. jg tiring them. 

"Wunal unni kakillin; ot., the summer is coming on. 

Hot-season this becoming. 
Store-ba kakillin bountoa; m., she is now living near 

Store existing she. the store. 

S t o r e-k a-b a kakillin bountoa; m., she is now living at 

Store at existing she. the store. 

Musket tia katala Awaba-ka; m., I had a musket at 

Musket me existed Awaba-at. Lake Macquarie. 

Kinta bag katala, yakita keawai; OT.,Iusedto be afraid, 

Afraid I existed, now not. but now I am not. 

Katala bag Eaiatea-ka; m„I used to live at Eaiatea. 

Existed I E,aiatea-at. 

Unta bag katala yuraki M — ka; m., I lived formerly 

There I existed formerly M— at. at M . 

Piriwal bag kakilli-kolag; m., I am now going to be 

Chief 1 to-be-towards kin". 

Korien kakilli-niin yantikatai; vi., I will not be so for 
Not be-will so for ever. ever. 


Moron noa kakilli-nun tetti korien; 
Live he be-will dead not. 

m., tie is going to live for ever and never die. 
Wibbi kakillilm war ea ; »j., the wind is lessening. 

Wind now-continuing-to-be less. 
Oatoa-bo, yaki-ta-bo, unti-bo; 

I myself, instantly, this self same place. 

m., 1 myself, at this very place and instant. 
Kakillan baii-bountoa; to., she and I live togetber. 
Live-together we two-she. 

<jintoa-bo ka-pa piriwal kakilliko; ««., you ought to 
Thou-thyself oughtest chief to be. be chief. 

Takoai bag tetti kaiaiinbin-nun bdn?; 

In-what-manner I dead let-be- will him? 

m., how shall I cause his death ? 
Kakillai koa bali muroi; m., I wish you and me to 
To-oontinue-to-be ut we two quiet ; continue at peace. 

Kau wil-koa-pore goro yards; m., I want it three yards long. 
That-may-be long three ,, ; 

Munninoa katea k an ; m., he is sick again. 

Sick he is-become again. 

Tanoa;munni koa noa kat ea-kiin; Hi.,donot; lest hebe 

Do-not ; sick lest he should-be. sick. 

Munni kanim bag ba; ?«., ifl should be sick. 

Sick be-will I if. 

Gan-ke tetti kamai-ga? «»., who had almost been dead? 

Who dead like-to-have-become? 
Tetti bag kamai-ga; ot., I was almost dead. 

Dead I had-like-to-have-been. 

Piriwal bi ba-ka-p a p i t al gaiya bag ka-pa; 
Chief thou if-hadst-been joy then I had-had. 

«i., if you had been king, I should have been glad. 
Ka-pa bi ba unta gorokan-ta, na pa gaiya banug; 
Hadst-been thou if there this-moming, seen had then I-thee. 

m., if you had been there this morning, 1 should have seen you. 
Korun kauwa, tiinki yikora; «i., be still, do not cry. 

Quiet be wail not. 

Kauwa, bi tetti kakilliko; m., yes, you are to die. 

Yes, thou dead for-to-be. 
Kakilla nura pital kakilliko; m., beat peace one with 

Be ye peace for-to-be. the other. 

Moron bdn ka-miinbilla; ot., let him live. 

Alive him permit-to-be. 

Ka-miinbi-niin banug piriwal kakilliko; 
Permit-will I-thee chief for-to-be. 

m., I will let you be king. 

Piriwal bi katea-ka; w., be king again. 
Chief thou be-again. 

Piriwal bdn ka-mun bi yikora; m., present his being 
Chief him permit-to-be thou not. chief. 



Gannug biinkulla? unni bon ye; m., who was beaten ? 

Whom struck ? this him be. this is he. 

Minarig-tin biloa gala bunkulla?; m., why did that 
What-from he-thee that struck? person beat you ? 

TJnni bulun biinkulla noa; ot., thesearethetwohe struck. 
These them-two struck he. 

Tanan tia, wolla-wolla; biintan tia butti kirrin-kirrin! 
Approach me, move-move, beats me more pain pain. 

m., come to me, make haste ; I am beaten more and in pain. 
6an-to bin bunkulla? wiyella bi tia; mupai yikora; 
Who thee struck ? tell thou me ; secret not. 

m., who beat you ? tell me ; do not conceal it. 
Gali-noa tia bunkulla; «i., this is he who struck me. 

This-he jne struck. 

Minarig-ko biloa bunkulla? to., with what did he strike 

What-with he-thee struck ? yOU ? 

Mattarrd gikoumba-ko; ot., with his hand. 
Hand-with his-with. 

Kotarro noa tia biinkulla; »«., he struck me with a cudgel. 
Cudgel-with he me struck. 

Kora koa binug biim-ba? m., you ought to have beaten him. 

Not ut thou-him struck had. 
Biiwil koa bon, kaiyu korien bag; 

That-might-strike ut hira, able not I. 

m., I wish to beat him, but am unable. 
Kotara bi tia guwa buwil koa bon bag; 
Cudgel thou me give to-strike ut him I. 

«!., give me a cudgel that I may beat him. 

Biim-ba bo ta bon bag, wonto bag-ba kinta kan kakulla; 

Struck-had surely him I, but I fear being was. 

TO., I should certaialy have struck him, but I was .afraid. 

Biinkeiin bon bag; «z.,I have beaten him, sc, this morning. 

Struck-have him I. 

Biinniin bon bag k a-b o ; m., I will beat him by-and-by. 
Strike-will him I by-and-by. 

Biinkillaiban kora nura; in., do not be striking one 
Striking-be not ye. another. 

Biinkillin bon bara yakita ;>?!., they are strikinghimnow. 

Are-striking him they now. 
Biinkilliela bon bag, tanan bi ba uwa; 
Was-striking him I, approach thou came. 
m., I was striking him when you came. 
Biintala tia bara wonnai bagba; 
Struck me they child I 

m., they beat me when I was a child. 
"Waita-kolag noa bun kill i-kolag; ?w., he is £;one a- 
Bepart-towards he to-strike-towards. fightinc. 

Bunkillilin noa wheat; m., he is thrashing wheat 
Is-continuing-to-strike he wheat. 


Biinkillilia binug; m., beat him; thrasb it. 
Continue-to-strike thou-him. 

Gran-bo nura biinkillan? m., who are fighting with yon ? 
Who-self ye strike-reciprocally ? 
Biinkillala bara-bo bara-bo ; m., they fought amongst 

Fought they-self they-aelf. themselres. 

Bunkillala bali-noa Bulai wonnai bali-noa ba; 
Struck-reoiprocally -we-two-he Bulai children we-two-be when. 
m., when Bulai and I were children, we fought with one another. 
Biinkilla-niin bula; m., the two are going to fight. 
Strike-reciprocally -will the-two. 
Tanoa; bunkillai ban kora; cease fighting. 

Let be ; striking-reoiproeally be not. 
Tanoa; biinki yikora; m., do not strike. 

Let be ; strike not. 

Biinkillai-kin bali-noa kiimba; «»., to-morrow he and I 

Strike-each-will we-two-he to-morrow will fight a duel. 

Takounta-ke bara bunkilla-nun? »?., when will they fight? 
At-what-time they fight-will ? 

k ti m b a-k e n-t a ; »re., the day after to-morrow. 
Wait a-ko lag bag biinkilliko musket- to; 
Depart-towards I for-to-strike musket-with. 

m., I am now going to shoot with a musket. 
Takoai tia buwil koa bon bag; «?., take care that I 

How me may-strike ut him I. may beat him. 

"Wiyella bon buwil koa bon; «?., command him to beat 

Tell him strike ut him. him. 

Buwil bag Pattynug; m.,1 wish to beat Patty. 
May-beat I Patty. 

Tari bi niiti-nun, biintoa-kun koa bin; 
Do-not thou wait-will, should-strike lest thee. 

m., do not wait lest you be struck. 
Biin-nun noa tia ba turulla gaiya binug; 
Strike-will he me if pierce then thou-him. 

m., when he strikes me, then spear him ; or, if he, &c. 
Biimmai-ga tia, wonto bag ba murra; 
Struck-has-nigh me, but 1 ran. 

m., I should have been struck, but I ran away. 
Keawaran tia biim-ba-ka-pa bag-ba unti bo; 

Not me struck-had-been I-if at this self same place. 

m., I should not have been struck, had I remained here. 
G-ali-ta tia tetti biim-ba; «»., this might have killed me. 

This me dead struck-had. 
Turig, binug biinkeayakita; «»., go, strike him again now. 

Away thou-him strike-again now. 
Wiya, bon bag bum-ba, biim-ba gaiya bi-tia; 
Say him I struck-had, struck-had then thou -me ; 

m., if I had struck him, then you would have struck me. 
Tari bon biintea kaniin, «j.,preventhisbeingbeatenagain. 
Prevent him strike-again be-will. 


B u m m li n b i a b i - 1 i a ; ot., you permitted, me to be beaten. 

Permitted-to-atrike thou-me. 

Bummunbillin boa bag; m., I am permitting him to strike. 
To-strike-permitting him I. 

B li m m li n b i y i k o r a b 6 n ; m., do not permit him to strike. 
To-strike-permit not him. 

Biimmiinbilla bi-tia bdn; m.,\et me strike him. 
To-atrike-permit thou-me him. 

Kamulla bi-tia b limmarabii nbia-kii n koa tia; 
T6-be-cause thou-me some-one-should-strike lest me ; 

m., protect me, lest anyone should beat me. 
B li n k i 1 1 a n u r a ; m., fight on. 
Continue-to-strike ye. 

"Walcallo binug buwa, ma biintea-ka tia; 
Ouce thou-hini strike, do strike-again me. 

m., smite him once, smite me again. 
Biimmiinbilla binug, buwil koanoa tia, 
Permit-to-strike thou-him, may-strike ut he me. 

m., permit him to strike, that I may be beaten by him. 
Takoai, biiwil koa barun bag; m., take care that I beat 

Mind, may-strike ut them I. them. 

Kinta kora bi; keawaran bin biin-niin; 
Fear not thou ; not tliee strike-will. 

m., fear not ; thou shalt not be beaten. 
Kora koa bi-tia biintan? m., why do not you beat me ? 

Not ut thou-me strike ? 
M a, b li w a bi-tia, b i n u g (a challenge] ; m., do strike me, him. 

Do, strike thou-me, thou-hini. 
Biinkia binug; m., strike him, sc, to-morrow morning. 

Strike thou-him. 
B li n k i 1 1 i - 1 i n n o a m u r r a ; «»., he ran away because of the 

Striking-from he ran. fightinff. 

Biinkillai bara yanti katai; m., they are always fighting 

Striking they then for ever. amongst themselves. 

Kauwal unnoa bun k illi-kan-n e ; ot., thatisagreatthing 

Great that striking-thing. to strike with. 

TJnnoa-ta noa biinkilli-kan; m., that is the striker. 

That he striking-being. 

<3-ali-noa b lin k il li- k a n-t o tia biinkulla; 
This he striking-being me struck. 

m., this is the striker who struck me. 
Biinki-ye bara unnoa kiiri; «., they are the fio-hters. 

Fighter they those men. ° 

Waita-kolag bag biinkillai-gel-kolag; 
Depart about I striking-place-towards. 

m., I am going to the field of battle. 
Buntoara bag gali-birug bon; m., I was struck by 

That-which-is-struck I this - from him. Jjim 

Biinkilli-tin bag katau u n t i ;«, I remain here because 
Stnking-from I remain here. gf the fifht. 


M u n n i g o e n k a p a i y i n b u n k i 1 ] i - b i r u g ; 
Sick we suffering striking-from. 

m., we are ill through lighting. 

G-ali tia noa biintoarobiinkulla; m., this is the wounded 

This me he the-wounded struck. man who strucli; me. 

"Wonnug-ke bara buntoara? «., where are those who 

Where they that-be-struck. Were struck ? 

]3untoa];in bara tetti kakulla; m., they died of their 
Wounded-from they dead were. wounds. 


Mi n a rig bi uman? warai? wi., what thing do you make? 

What thou makest ? spear. a spear F 

G-4n-tounniuma? gali; m., who made this ? this person 

Who this made ? this. did 

Gan-to tia moron uma-niin? m., who will save me alive? 

Who me alive make-will? 

Gan-to unnoa punnal uma? Jehova-ko; 
Who that sun made ? Jehovah. 

TO., who made the sun ? Jehovah did. 
Mumin winta kakulla, uma noabarun nakilli-kan; 
Blind some were, made he them seers ; 

m., some were blind, he made them to see. 

TJmabiinbi yikora, tetti koa noa katea-kun; 
Permit-to-do not, dead lest he become ; 

m., do not let him do it, lest be die. 

TJmai-ga-ta bag unni yarakai;OT.,T had almost spoiled 
Like-to-have-done I this bad. this. 

Wiyellabdn uma-uwilkoa u n noa; m., tell him to make it. 
Tell him may-do tit that. 

Wi yella bon upa-uwil koa unnoa; 
Tell him to-do ut that ; 

m., tell him to use it; or, to make it act. 

Soap umatoara kipai-birug; m., soap is made of fat. 
Soap made fat-from. 

XIpulli-gel kiilai-t a-biru g; wi., the acting place of wood ; 
Doing-place wood-from. a wooden table. 

Warai bag u m u 11 i n ; m.,1 am making a spear. 
Spear I am-now-making. 

Mirrin bag upullin; ?»., I am sharpening or putting a 
Point I am-now-doing. point. 

"Wonnug-ke mirrin wirritoara? ?»., where is that which 
Where be point that-which-is-done ? is pointed. 

Umatoara kiimba-birug; m., that which was made 
That-which-is-done yesterday-from. yesterday. 



"Wonta-kolag bi uwan? Sydney-kolag. 
Whither-towards thou movest? Sydney- towards, 

m., where are you going? to Sydney. 
Wontarig bi uwan? untarig; Sydney-ka-ko. 
To-what-place thou movest 1 to that place ; Sydney-for 

m., to what place do you go ? to that place ; to Sydney. 
Wontabirugbi nwa? ot., from what place didyou come? 
What-place from thou movedst ? 
Koiyog-tin bag uwa; m., I started from the camp. 

Camp-from I moved. 

Kaiyog-birug bag uwa, m., I came out from the camp. 

Camp-from I moved. 

Wiya, bag uwa-niin? ot., may I go? 

Say, I move-will ? 

Keawaran wal bi uwa-niin; m., you shall not go. 
Not shalt thou move-wilt. 

Tanoa, uwa yikora; to., do not go. 

Let be, move not. 
Wiya, bi tanan uwa-niin? ot., will you come ? 

Say, thou approach move-will? 
Wiya, bi waita uwa-niin? m., will you go ? 

Say, thou depart move-will ? 
Wiya, bi waita uwolla? 5)z., do you wish to go ? 

Say, thou depart move ? 
Wiya, bi tanan uwolla? m., do you wish to come? 

Say, thou approach move ? 
Wiya, bali uwolla; to., let us, you and me, go. 

Say, thou-I move ? 

Waita geen uwolla wit timulli-k ol ag ; OT.,letusgoa 

Depart we move to-hunt-about. huntin". 

Wonnen geen uwolla? giakai; m., which way shall we 

Which-way we move ? this way. go ? this way. 

Wonnen kan? «?., don't know; or, which way can it be ? 

Which-way being ? 

Wa-uwil bali Pakai kab o ; wz,, I want you to go mth 
Move-may I-thou Pakai by-and-by. me to Pakai by-and-by. 

Tanoa; uwa-nim bo-ta bag; m., no; I will go bv myself. 
Let be ; move-will self I ~ J • 

Wiya, b a 1 i-b a g wa-uwil; m., I wish you to go with me. 

Say, we-two-I move-may. 

E-e, waita bali; waita-lag bara; 
Yes, depart we-two-I ; departed they. 

m., yes, I will go with you ; they are gone. 

Turig bula uwolla, garabo ka-ko bag waita; 

Away ye-two move, sleep for- to-be I depart; 

m., go away you two ; I am going to sleep. 

Waita ka-ba bountoa parkai; m., she is gone to the 
Departed is she southward. southward. 


Waita-wal bag uwa-nuii; m., I am determined I will go. 

Depart-shall I move-will. 

Waitakoabag; mimai y ikora; «i., I must go; do not 
Depart ut I ; detain not. detain me. 

"Winta bara waita uwa-niin; »j., some of them will go. 

Part they depart move-will. 

"Waita * w a-n lin noa ba, waita gaiya geen; 
Depart move-will he if, • depart then we. 
m., wben he goe.s, we will go. 
"Wonta punnal kakulla, uwa gaiya nura ba? 
Where sun was come then ye? 

OT., what time was it when you came ? 

Uwolliela noa b a, nugurrurwa gaiya bonnoa; 

Moving-was he_ met then him he. 

m., while he was walking, he met him. 

■Wiy a, bi uwa-keun koiydg-kolag? m., have you been 

Say, thou moved-hast camp-towards ? to the camp ? 

Keawai, kumba bag waita wokkin; m., I have not, but 

No, to-morrow I depart move. to-morrow I shall. 

Kabo, waita wa-nim bag; m., by-and-by I shall go. 
By-and-by, depart move-will I. 

Kurrikai - kur rikai-ta katan uwolliko gaol- 
Quick it is for-to-move gaol - 

kolag, keawaran willug-ko; 

towards not for-to-return. 

in., it is very easy to go to goal, but not so easy to get out again. 

"Waita bag uw a-n lin tottog gurrulliko. 
To-depart I move-will news for-to-hear. 

m., I will go and hear the news. 

Pital ma-pa bi-tia ba, keawai gaiya bag wa-pa; 
Joy done-had thon-me, not then I moved-had. 

m., if you had loved me, I would not have gone." 

Wa-miinbilla tia Sydney-iolag; m , permit me to goto 
Permit-to-move me Sydney-towards. Sydney. 

"Wa-miinbi-nun banug; «i., I will let you go. 
Permit-to-move-will I-thee. 

Yari bi wa-niin, turea-kiin-koa bin kuri-ko bara; 

Do-not thou move-wilt, pierce-should-lest thee men they. 

m., do not go, lest you should be speared by the men. 

Keawai banug wa-munbi-niin; m., I will not permit 
Not I-thee permit-to-move-will. you to go. 

Uwa-ta noa yanti-ta punnal ba polo g-k a 1 1 e li n ; 
Came he at-the-time sun sinking-was. 

in., he came just as the sun was setting. 

^' Note. — The u is often omitted when another verb ttikes the government, forming it 
into an auxiliary ; Ijut as a principal verb the u is generally retained. 


Keawaran noa wa-pa yanti-ta punnal-ba pdlog- 
Not he moved-had at-the-time sun sinkihg- 

k alleiiu ; 
in., lie had not come, when the sun was setting. 
Tanan bi wolla yanti-ta punnal-bapolog-kalliniini; 
Approach thou move at-the-tune sun sinking will-he. 

in., come at sunset. 


Kurrawan unni yiirkullin; to., the weather is 

Clear this breaking (as the clouds). clearing up. 

Por-kalleiin tia wonnai emmoumba: m., unto me my 

Dropped-has me child mine. child is born. 

Tiirran unni; minnug? m., that is broken; what is? 

Broken this ; what. 

Tiir-bug-ga unni; ganto unni tiir-hug-ga? 
Broken this ; who this broken ? 

m., this is broken by some person ; who broke it ? 
Tiirburrea unni; yakoai? wibbi-ko; 
Broken this ; how ? wind-for. 

m., this is broken ; how? hy the wind. 
Wibbi-ko tia porburrea hat emmoumba; 
Wind me dropped hat my. 

m., the wind has blown ofi' my hat. 
"Wiwi, tiirkullea-kiin-koa spade; «;., mind, lest the 
Mind, break-should-lest spade. spade break. 

Wiwi, tiir-b u g- gea-kun-koa bi unnoa spade; 
Mind, break-shouldst-lest thou that spade. 

m., mind, lest you break that spade. 
Wiwi, tiirburrea-kun-koa bi unnoa spade gall 
Mind, break-shouldst-lest thou that spade that 

kiilai- to ; m., mind, lest you break the spade with that stick, 
Tiir-bug-ga-pa bag ba, minnug baniin gaiya bara-tia? 
Broken-liad I, what act-will then they-me? 

m., had I broken it, what would they have done to me ? 
Minnug ballinbi? wiyellin bag; 
What about-doing thou ? talking I. 

m., -what are you doing ? I am talking. 
Minnug ba bin? m., what is the matter with you ? 

What do-to thee? 
Minnug baniin gaiy a b il o a? ot., what willhedo toyou? 

What do-will then he-tliee ? 

Minnug b a n u n b i b u g-g a i ? m., what will you do to-day ? 

What do-will thou to-day ? 

Minnug baniin? gatog; m., I don't know; nothing (an idiom). 

What do-will ? nothing. 
Pital bali kakillan; m., we two rejoice together. 
Joy we-two are-being. 


Minnug balli-ka-ke? w., of what use is it? of wliat profit? 

What do-for- to-be ? 

Minnug talli-kolag noa uwa-niin? m., what is he 

What to-be-about-to-do she move- will ? going about ?■ 

Na-niin bountoa biyugbai bounnounba; m., to see 

See-will she father her. her father.. 

Kati! katia! tetti-ba-b unbea tia ; ?n., alas ! alas ! lam 

Alas ! alas ! to-die-permitted me. left to die. 

Tetti ba biinbilla bon; m. , leihim (iie; (Jrans.verh). 

Dead permit him. 

Tetti biig-gulla bon; gan-to? m., kill him; who shall? 

Dead force him ; who ? 

Tetti ba bunbi-niin banug; m. I will let you die. 

Dead permit-will I-thee. 

Tetti burri-niin banug m.,1 will cause you to die, as by 

Dead cause-will I-thee. poison, &c. 

Tetti bug-ganiin banug; m., I will compel you to die ; 

Dead force-will I-thee. murder you. 

Minnug b a- uwil koa ball bon? m., what shall you 

What may-do ut thou-I him ? and I do to him ? 

Tanoa, te tti-b ea -kiin-k o a no a, «., let alone, lest he die. 

Let be, die-should lest he. 

Birrikillia noa untoa tetti bauwil koa noa; 
Lie he at-that-place dead may-be ut he. 

OT., he may (I wish him to) lie there until he dies. 
Tetti burrilleiin b a g; m., I have destroyed myself ; I have 

Dead cause-self I. killed myself. 


Ganto wiyan? galiko, gali-tard; ot., who speaks ? this 
Who speaks ? this, these. man does ; these. 

"Wiyan gali clock-ko; m., the clock strikes. 
Speaks this clock. 

"Wiyan kuri-ko; wiyan tibbin-to; ot., the man speaks ; 
Speaks man ; speaks bird. the bird sings. 

"Wiyan bulloc k-k o ; ot., the bullock roars. 

Speaks bullock. 

"Wiya-uwil bitia yakoai bara-ba wiya bin; 
Tell-may thou-me how they told thee. 

OT., I wish you to tell me how they spoke to you. 
"Wiya gaiya gearun bara yanti; ma; «., they spoke ta 
Told then them they so ; do. us in bravado. 

Gra binug wiya? wiya bon b a g; wi., did you tell him? 
Is it thou-him told ? told him I. I told him. 

Ganto bin wiya? yitarabiillo ti'a wiya; 
Who thee told ? such-a-one me told. 

■m., who told you? that man did. 


Gan unnug wiyellin yog? m., who is talking out there ? 

Who there talking there ? 

G-annug bi wiyan? to., whom do you tell? to whom do you 

Whom thou speakest ? speak ? 

Emmoug? galin? barun? m., me ? us two ? them ? 

Me ? US-two ? them ? 

K u r i-k o-b a wiyellabitia;«i., speak to me in the black's 
Man-belonging-to speak thou-me. language. 

"Wiyea-ka bitia; kara tia wiyella; m., tell me again ; 
Speak-again thou-me ; slowly me tell. speak distinctly. 

"Wonnug borin ball wiyella? ot., what shall we two 

Where first thou-I speak ? first talk about ? 

Kabo-kabo, wiya-wiyelli koa b a g; to., stay, stay, that I 
Presently, talk-talk-may ut I. may have some talk. 

"Wonnen bagwiyanun ujini yitara? to., how am I to 
Which-way I speak-will this name ? call this? 

Yakounta biloa wiyaPm., when did he tell you ? 
At- what- time he -thee told ? 
"Wiyan banug gar okilli-ko ; ot., I command thee to arise. 

Tell I-thee for-to-ariae. 

Unta bali-bi wiyellalayuraki;OT., this is where we 
There thou-I conversed formerly. conversed together. 

Kaiyalleun gali clock wiy elli-biru g; to., theelockhas 
Ceased-has this clock talking-from. done striking. 

Takoun-ta ke binug wiya-nun; when will you tell 
At-what-time be thou-him tell-will ? him ? 

"Wiya-nun binug ba, wiya-nun gaiyatia; 
Tell-will thou-him when, tell-will then me. 

TO., when you tell him, let me know. 


Patin gali koiwon-to; to., it is raining. 

Drop this rain. 

Kabo-ka-ta tura-niin gaiya bin; m., by-and-by you will 

By-and-by pierce-will then thee be speared. 

Bulka-ka ba no a b u ttik an-ka-ba; TO.,he is on horseback. 

Back he beast at. 

K e a w a i k o 1 a g _b a g g u t a n ; m.,la.m not going to give. 

Not towards I give. 

Gukilla bali unn o a ; to., let you and me give one 

Give-reciprocally thou-I that another, i.e., exchange. 

Kora koa napal uwan kuri-katoa? to., why do not women 

Not ut women move men with ? go with the men ? 

Tanoa, yirriyirri ka-ke; to., because it is a sacred concern. 

Let-be, sacred is. 

Pita] korien bag shoe-tin; m., I am displeased with the 

Joy ^ not I shoe-from. shoe. 

Pulli gowi-ko-ba; m., a strange language; a foreign tono-ue. 
Voice strange-belonging-to. ° 


Minarig-tin bi kdttan untoa-tin? «i., what think you 

What-from thou thinkest that-from? of that? 

Kottalliela bag tokoi-ta tetti bag ba ka-pa; 
Thinking-was I last-night dead I should-have-been. 
m., I thought I should have died last night. 
Tirag bag katan; Mz.,Iam awake. 
Awake I remain. 

Tirag bug-gulla bon bougkulli koa noa; 
Awake compel him to-arise ut he. 

>»., make him awake and get up. 
Kon^in-ta unni uakilli-ko, m., this is pretty to look at. 

Pretty this for-to-see. 

Turi wiyelli-ko; OT.,to swear the truth; to speak convincingly. 
Truth for-to-speak. 
Tuna bo ta bag wiyaniin tuloa; to.,I will certainly speak 

Certain I speak- will straight. the truth. 

Minarig-tin nuratiabukka buggan? m., why do ye 
What-from ye me to-rage compel ? enrage me ? 

Minarig-tin nura tia bukka katan? «?., whyareyeen- 
What-from ye me to-rage remain ? raged at me ? 
Kamullala noa yantin-birug umulli-birug; 
Ceased he all-from doing-from 
m., he rested from all his work. 
Kauwa, wiyalleiin bag gat o a-b o ; to., yes, I was talking 

Yes, talked-reflexively I I-self. to myself. 

Grintoa-bo b a ; to., do as you like ; (an idiom). 

Thou-thyself act. 
Nauwa wirroban bountoa-tia ba; to., look while she fol 

Look follows she-me. lows me. 

Nakillan bali; «i,, we two are looking one at the other. 
Look-reciprocally thou-I. 

Nakilleiin baggatoa-bo nakalli-gel-la ; 
Saw-reciprocally I my-self looking-plaoe-at. 

TO., I saw myself in the looking-glass. 
Minarig-tin bon bunkulla? kulla noa bukka barig; 
What-from him struck ? because he angry always. 

in., why was he beaten? because he is always angry. 
Yanti, ban kora; to., do not do so. 
Just so, act not. 

Miimbilla tia galea; miimbitoara unni; 
Lend me that ; that-which-is-lent this. 

TO., lend me that ; it is lent. 
Miimbea bag tarai-kan; to., I have lent it to another. 
Lent-have I another-being. 

Gumai-ga bin unni wonto bi ba keawai man-ba*; 
Given-had thee this where thou not taken-hadst. 

m., it would have been given you, but you would not have it. 

* Note. — It is extremely difficult to ascertain whether this particle should be spelt Pa or 
Ba ; in the conjug:atioiis of the verb it is spelled Pa. But many natives say it should be 
Ba, whilst others affirm that it ought to be Pa. 


Tunug unni Turke y-ko-ba ; wi., this is a Turkey stone. 

Stoiie this Turkey-belonging-to. 

Kuri unni Turkey-kal; m., this is a Turkish, man, a Turk. 

Man this Turkey-of. 

Tirriki-ko tia winna; ot., the flame burns me. 

Red me burns. 

Makoro guwa, gatun karai, gatun tibbin, gatun 
Fish give and flesli, and fowl, and 

kokoin, ta-uwil koa bag pitta-uwil koa bag; 
water eat-may ut I drink-may zit I. 

m., give fish, flesh, fowl, and water, that I may eat and drink. 
























This work was intended to be a paper for the Ethnological 
Society of London, to accompany some very interesting researches 
and observations made by a friend, relative to the customs and 
language of the aborigines of this colony. Through his making 
an inquiry respecting the meaning and difference of the words 
ha and lea, either of which can only be rendered into our 
language by the verb to he in some one or other of its modifica- 
tions, I was led to the tracing out of the various meanings of 
many particles of a similar description, so that the work swelled 
to a size much larger than wasj anticipated. It was, therefore, 
thought advisable to print the work in its present form, especi- 
ally as a public announcement asks for " A book, printed with 
colonial type, filled with colonial matter, and bound and orna- 
mented with colonial materials," for presentation at the Eoyal 
National Exhibition, London, 1851. 

The subject is purely colonial matter, namely, the language of 
the aborigines, now all but extinct ; and the other conditions 
have been strictly attended to, as far as the circumstances of the 
colony would allow, the paper alone being of English manufac- 
ture. The author was the first to trace out the language of the 
aborigines, and to ascertain its natural rules ; his " Australian 
Grammar" was published here in the year 1834, under the aus- 
pices of his late Majesty's Government, by the Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge, which generously carried the work 
through the press free of expense. His late Majesty King William 
IV. was graciously pleased to accept a copy of the book, and direct 
it to be placed in his library. Copies were likewise forwarded to 
several public institutions in England and elsewhere, where, it 
is presumed, they may still be found, — a testimony against the 
contemptible notion entertained by too many, who flatter them- 
selves that they are of a higher order of created beings than the 
aborigines of this land, whom they represent as " mere baboons, 
having no language but that in common with the brutes !"; and 
who say, further, that the blacks have " an innate deficiency of 
intellect, and consequently are incapable of instruction." But if 
the glorious light of the blessed Gospel of God our Saviour had 
never shed its divine lustre around the British Crown, or never 
penetrated the hearts of the people with its vivifying power, the 
aborigines of Albion's shores might still have remained in the 
state described by the eloquent Cicero, in one of his epistles to his 
friend Atticus, the Eoman orator ; for he says, " Do not obtain 
your slaves from Britain, because they are so stupid and utterly 
incapahle qfheing taught that they are not Jit to form a part of 
the household of Atticus ! " 


JReminiscences of Biraban. 

An aboriginal of this part of the colony was my almost daily companion for 
many years, and to his intelligence I am principally indebted for much of 
my knowledge respecting the structure of the language. Biraban was his 
native name, meaning 'an eagle-hawk,' but the English called him M'Gill. 
His likeness was taken at my residence. Lake Macquarie, in 1839, by Mr. 
Agate, and will be found in the "Narrative of the United States' Exploring 
Expedition," commanded by Charles Wilkes, U.S.N". The "Narrative," 
vol. II, page 253, says :— " At Mr. Threlkeld's, Mr. Hale saw M'Gill, who 
was reputed to be one of the most intelligent natives ; and his portrait was 
taken by Mr. Agate. His physiognomy was more agreeable than that of 
the other blacks, being less strongly marked with the peculiarities of his 
race ; he was about the middle size, of a dark-chocolate colour, with fine 
glossy black hair and whiskers, a good forehead, eyes not deeply set, a 
nose that might be described as aquiline, although depressed and broad at 
the base. It was very evident that M'Gill was accustomed to teach his 
native language, for when he was asked the name of anything he pro- 
nounced the word very distinctly, syllable by syllable, so that it was 
impossible to mistake it. Though he is acquainted with the doctrines of 
Christianity and all the comforts and advantages of civilization, it was 
impossible for him to overcome his attachment to the customs of his people, 
and he is always a leader in the corrobborees and other assemblies." 

Both himself and Patty, his wife, were living evidences that there was 
no " innate deficiency of intellect " in either of them. He had been brought 
up from his childhood in the Military Barracks, Sydney, and he under- 
stood and spoke the English language well. He was much attached to us, 
and faithful to a chivalrous extreme. We never were under apprehensions 
of liostile attacks when M'Gill and his tribe encamped nigh our dwelling. 
A miirderous black, named 'Bumble-foot,' from his infirmity, and 'Devil- 
devil,' from his propensities, had attempted to murder a European by 
chopping off the man's head with a tomahawk, and had nearly efi'ected this : 
but the man recovered, and I had to appear at a Court of Justice as a 
witness; this displeased 'Bumble-foot,' and he avowed openly, in the 
usual manner, that he would slay me in the bush at the first opportunity ; 
this came to the ears of M 'Gill, who immediately applied to me for the loan 
of a fowling-piece ' to go and shoot that fellow for his threat'; this was, 
of course, refused. M'Gill was once present with me at the Criminal 
Court, Sydney, assisting as interpreter, when he was closely examined by 
Judges Burton and Willis, in open Court, on bhe trial of an aboriginal 
for murder, 1834, in order that 11 'Gill might be sworn as interpreter in the 
case ; but, though his answers were satisfactory to the general questions 
proposed to him by the Judges, yet, not understanding the nature of our 
oath in a Court of Justice, he could not be sworn. Patty, his wife, was 
pleasing in her person, "black but comely, " kind and affectionate in her 
disposition, and evidenced as strong a faculty of shrewdness in the exercise 
of her intellectual powers over Jl'Gill as many of the fairer daughters of 
Eve, who, without appearing to trespass on the high prerogative of their 
acknowledged lords, manage their husbands according to their own 
sovereign will ; this might perhaps have arisen from the circumstance that 
M'Gill, once, when intoxicated, had shot at his wife, although he deeply 
deplored this when he became sober ; the injury sustained was not much but 
ever afterwards he treated her with much affection, which appeared to be 
reciprocal. It was a romantic scene to behold the happy pair, together 


B I R A B A N 


This Portrait of McGill was taken in Pencil er Mr. Agate of the 
U. S. Exploring Expepition in 1839. 


THE EEr. 89 

with many others, on a moonlight night, under the blue canopy of heaven, 
preparing for the midnight ball to be held on the green sward, with no 
other covert than a growing bush, with none other blaze than that from the 
numerous fires kindled around the mystic ring in which to trip the light 
fantastic toe. Then they might be seen reciprocally rouging each other's 
cheek with pigment of their own preparing, and imparting fairness to their 
sable skin on the neck and forehead with the purest pipeclay, until their 
coimtenances beamed with rapturous delight at each other's charms. The 
cumbrous garments of the day were laid aside, and in all the majesty of 
nature they danced as Britons did in days of old. 

On points of aboriginal honor M'Gill was exceedingly sensitive. "I 
must go," said he one day, " to stand my punishment as a man of honor, 
though I have done no .wrong." The hostile message had been duly sent, 
and faithfully delivered by the seconds ; one of these was an elderly female, 
who made her verbal communication with all the accustomed vituperation 
of daring challenge to the offended party ; it was duly accepted ; the 
weapons named, the cudgel, shield, and spear ; the time was appointed, 
a certain day when the sun was one quarter high ; the place, a plain in 
a certain well-known vicinity attached to our dwelling. Messengers were 
despatched to gather in the distant tribes, and on the mountain-tops were 
seen the signal-fires announcing their approach to witness the affair of 
honor. When the tribes had assembled, a mutual explanation ensued 
betwixt the parties, and the evening dance and supper of game peacefully 
terminated the business of the day. The course usually pursued when 
matters take a hostile form is this : the offending party is the first to stoop 
and offer his head for liis antagonist to strike with his weapon ; and, if not 
disabled or killed by the blow, he rises from his bending posture, shaking 
the streaming blood from his bushy hair, and then his opponent fairly and 
honorably bends forward his head, and presents it in return to receive his 
blow; and so this reciprocally continues until the assembled parties and the 
combatants themselves are satisfied. But should either strike dishonorably 
on the temple, thus Showing an intention to kill, or in any other way tlian 
on the fairly offered cranium of his antagonist, a shower of well-directed 
spears would instantly be 'sent against the cowardly assailant, who should 
dare to be guilty of such a breach of the laws of honor. M'Gill informed 
me that formerly it was a custom amongst certain of the northern tribes 
that, when the first blow actually killed the person, the spectators would 
roast and eat the body of him who so nobly fell in the cause of honor, if ha 
were a young man in good condition of body ; as a matter of taste, M 'Gill 
expressed himself dissatisfied with the custom, and stated that he thought 
it had fallen into desuetude, as it tended to no good purpose but to check 
the spirit of duelling. 

Picturesque or alarming as in many instances these scenes were, all have 
for ever passed away, and the once numerous actors, who used to cause the 
woods to echo with their din, now lie mingled with the dust, save some few 
solitary beings who here and there still stalk abroad, soon, like their 
ancestors, to become as " a tale that is told." 




An Analysis op the Particles used as Affixes. 

At tlie time when my " Australian Grrammar " was publisLed in 
Sydney, in the year 1834, circumstances did not allow me a 
sufficient opportunity to test the accuracy of the supposition 
that every sound forms a root, and, consequently, that every 
character which represents those sounds becomes, likewise, a 
visible root, so that every letter of the alphabet of the language is 
in reality a root, conveying an abstract idea of certain prominent 
powers which are essential to it.* 

My present object is, therefore, to demonstrate the correctness 
of this supposition by explanation and illustration, and to place 
on record, along with the first attempt to form the aboriginal 
tongue into a written language, my last remarks on the speech 
of tribes, which, in this portion of Australia, vpiU soon become 
extinct ! Death has triumphed over these aborigines ; for no 
rising generation remains to succeed them in their place, save 
that generation of whom it is written, " G-od shall enlarge 
Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem." 

In attempting to show the natural structure and peculiarities 
of the language, I hope that the philologist may here find some 
assistance in his researches, as well as any others who may be 
endeavouring to acquire a knowledge of barbarous languages, 
in which there are difficulties unsuspected, because they are not 
commonly found in the languages of Europe. 

I cannot too strongly recommend to those who are en- 
deavouring to attain a knowledge of the language of savage 
nations, the necessity of dismissing from the mind the trammels 
of European schools, and simply to follow out the natural rules 
of languages which have not been sophisticated by art. The 
almost sovereign contempt with which the aboriginal language 
of New South Wales has been treated in this colony, and the 
indifference shown toward the attempts to gain information on 
the subject, are not highly indicative of the love of science in 
this part of the globe; for this it is difficult to account, except 
on the ground of that universal engagement in so many various 
employments incidental to a new colony, where every individual 
must be dependent on his own exertions for the necessaries and 
the comforts of life. 

* I hope that, in reprinting " The Key," I shall not be held as supporting 
this theory. — Ed. 

THE KEY. 91 

In tracing analogies witli tliis aboriginal language, I find that 
the Indians of JSTorth America have a ' transitive conjugation,' 
which expresses the conjoined idea both of the persons acting 
and acted upon ; ' the form has excited much astonishment and 
attracted the attention of the learned in different parts of the 
world.' _ The aborigines of this colony have a similar form of 
expression, as is explained fully in my " Australian G-rammar" ;* 
this I have denominated therein ' active-transitive-reciprocal '; 
with the dual and the plural number, it constitutes ' the reciprocal 
modification'; as, bun-kil-lan ball, 'thou and I strike one 
another' reciprocally, or 'we-two fight'; which phrase would be 
thus analysed : — biin, the root, ' to strike '; -k i 1, the sign of the 
infinitive, 'to be, to exist'; -Ian denotes the present time and 
that the action is reciprocal ; ball is the dual pronoun ' we-two.' 
'I fight with him' would be expressed by bun-kil-lan bali- 
uoa, in which the noa means 'he '; v. page 17 ; but to say 'he 
and I fight another' would be biin-tan bali-noa. 

The Cherokees use no distinct word for the articles a and the ; 
but, when required, they use a word equivalent to the numeral 
one, and the demonstrative pronouns tliis and tliat, agreeably to 
the original use and nature of the words which we call articles ; 
so likewise the aborigines of this colony ; they too use wakal for 
a, and for the the pronoun demonstrative both of thing and of 
place; as, unni, ' this here'; unnug, 'thatthere.' TheDelaware 
dialect, according to Mr. Du Ponceau's notes in Elliot's Grammar, 
possesses an article wo or m', which is used for a and tlie, but 
not frequently, because these words are sufficiently understood 
without it. The Tahitians possess a deflnitfe article te, used for 
our the; but they express a by tehoe, 'one.' The American 
Indians have, in common with the Tahitians, an extra plural denot- 
ing we, including the party addressed. But this peculiarity the 
aborigines of New South "Wales have not in their language, 
though they have, in common with the American Indians and 
the Tahitians, a dual of that kind ; beside which, they have an 
extra dual denoting the object and the agent conjoined. 

The Use of the Personal Pronouns. 

The following are examples of the way in which these pronouns 
are used in our aboriginal dialect: — 

Examples: — 1. Pital balinoa kakillan, 'we-two love one 
another '; lit., ' he and I are joyful (i.e., live peaceably) with one an- 
other.' 2. Bunniin binug, 'thou wilt beat him'; bunniin bino- 
un, 'thou wilt beat her'; bunniin banug, 'I shall beat thee.' 

* See pages 23 and 32 of this volume. — Ed. 


Analysis.— 1. Pital* is 'joy, peace, delight'; bali is the dual 
pronoun, ' we two'; kakillan, which is the verb 'to be' instate 
of continuation, consists of three parts — -ka, the root of the verb 
' to be, to exist'; -ki, the sign of the infinitive, -]an, the sign of 
continuation at the present time. 

The negative form of this example would be keawaran bal- 
pital korien, 'we do not love one another,' or ' we do not agree 
the one with the other.' Here keawaran is the denial in the 
present tense, from keawai, the negative infinitive; the impera- 
tive negative iskora; as, pital ban kora, ' do not be peace- 
able', where ban is the present tense of the verb 'to be doing'; 
the last word, korien, in the aboriginal sentence, is the negative 
adverb 'not'; thus, in this sentence there are two negatives, both 
of which are essential to express the negation. 

2. The aboriginal phrase bunniinbanug, 'I shall smite thee,' 
shows at once the similarity of construction of this Australian 
language with that of the Indians of America ; for, though I 
may write it separately, as biinniin banug, because I know the 
words to be the verb and the conjoined dual pronoun, yet it is 
pronounced as one word, and would be so considered by a 
stranger. If 'determination' is to be expressed, the particle wal 
must be inserted; as, biinniin wal banug, 'I shall and wiU 
smite thee'; this would be thus analysed : — biin, the root of the 
verb 'to smite'; -nun, the particle denoting futurity; wal denotes 
determination ; ba, is part of the verbal pronoun bag, 'I', while 
the personal pronoun is gatoa, 'I'; bi is the verbal pronoun 
' thou '; -nu g is the pronoun ' him' in the objective case ; and the 
termination -noun in the next example is part of bounnoun, 
the femiaine pronoun 'her,' in the objective case. Thus, our 
blacks carry out the dual beyond any known language in the 
world, whether ancient or modern ; and they also complete their 
dual by carrying it out to the feminine in the conjoined dual 
case, which the American Indians do not in the " second personal 

Nug is pronounced niig when applied to a person, but niig 
when applied to a thing. So likewise, bun, 'to smite,' is accented, 
and is pronounced like the English word boon, 'a gift'; but biin, 
'to permit to be,' is unaccented, and rhymes with the English 
word bun, ' a little cake.' 

Our blacks say waita bali for ' I go with thee,' or ' we two 
go now together'; but waita bag would mean ' I go by myself '; 
waita bali no a, 'he and I go together'; waita bali bountoa, 
' she and I go together '; to say ' I go,' emphatically, meaning no 
otherbut myself, would be gatoa waita uwaniin; which would 
be construed thus: — gatoa is the personal pronoun 'I' ; waita 

* I'ital in this language is the nearest word to express love. 

THE KEY. 93 

is 'to go or depart'; uwanun is the future tense of the verb of 
motion, 'to come' or 'to go,' according as the word waita, 'to go,' 
or tanan, 'to come,' is attached to it. The Tahitians have a 
similarity of form in the expression haere^ ' to come ' or ' to go,' 
according as the particle m a i or atu' is attached ; thus, haere 
mai, 'come,' haere atu, 'go.' 

Mr. Elliot,inhis Grammar, shows that the Massachusetts dialect 
has numerous conjugations of its verbs ; and Mr. Eeisberger has 
divided the Delaware language into eight conjugations of verbs. 
In my Grammar, also, I have traced out eight modifications of 
the Australian verb as spoken at Lake Macquarie ; and its tenses 
are not confined simply to the past, present, and future, but have 
various modifications of each time ; for instance, they have a 
present with the termination -anfortheverb^and -lin forthepar- 
"ticiple; as, wiy-anbag, 'I speak' now; wiyel-lin, 'speaking' 
now; a definite past tense has the particle -keiin; as, wiya-keiin, 
'have spoken' this morning; wiy-elli-keiin, 'have been speak- 
ing ' this morning ; and an indefinite past is wiya, 'told or spoke', 
and wiyelli-ela, 'spake,' both terminating in a. There are three 
yarieties of the future; as, wiyelli kolag, 'to be about to speak'; 
where wiyelli is the bare form of the infinitive wiyelliko, 
' to speak,' and kolag is 'towards '; then there is also a definite 
future ; as, wiya-kin, 'shall or will speak' to-morrow morning ; 
and besides, an indefinite future, wiyanun, ' shall or will speak ' 
some time or other. These peculiar tenses are not noticed in the 
Indian Grammars, and, therefore, it is presumed that they are 
peculiar to the languages of the aborigines of this land. • 

The South Sea Islanders make no change in the endings of the 
,verb; neither do the aborigines of Australia; for each tense-form 
of the verb may be made available to any person, according to the 
pronoun substituted. The change of person is seen only in the 
English translation, and not in the Australian word ; thus, from 
wiyelliko, 'to speak,' 'to communicate by speech or sound' — 
applied to the speech of man, the crowing of a cock, or the 
striking of a clock — come wiyan bag, 'I speak'; wiyan bi, ' thou 
speakest'; wiyannoa, 'he speaks'; wiyan bountoa, 'she 
speaks'; wiyan gali, ' this speaks'; wiyan geen, 'we speak'; 
wiyan banug, ' I speak to thee'; wiyan ball bulun, ' we two 
speak to you two '; wiyellin bag, 'I am speaking'; wiyellin 
banug, 'I am speaking to thee'; wiyellan bag, 'I speak 
and continue to speak,' 'I tell'; wiyellan banug, 'I tell 
thee'; wiyellan bali, ' we two tell one another,' 'we converse'; 
wiyellilin bag, 'I am speaking and continue to speak,' 'I 
am talking'; wiyan gali-ko clock-ko, 'the clock strikes.' 
Muk-ka-ka tibbin,-to wiyan, 'the cockcrows'; here muk- 
kaka is the nearest sound to express the cackling of fowls; 
literally the sentence is, 'the bird says mukkaka.' 



The affixes used in the language of the ahorigines of this 
colony show the nature of the verb, whether causative, declarative, 
or active; whether personal, instrumental, self-active, or loco- 
motive ; and whether negative, affirmative, privative, apparent, 
or actual. It is only by a strict attention to the root-meaning 
of the affixes, that they can be properly applied to express the 
modiiied uses of the principal word to which they are joined, 
whether that principal be a verb, a proper name of a person or 
place, or a common substantive. 

Illustrative Sentences* 

to show tlie force of the variations of the conso- 
nants in the sufS.x-forms of the verb. 


1. ■^-illi-Tco ; TO.., for the purpose of- — the root-meaning 

of the verb. 

jExamples : — 1. Gratun tunbilliela noa barun talokan, 
and he divided unto them the property.' 2. Tiigun-billia 
nura, 'show yourselves.' 3. Kapirro wirri ban-billin, 'I 
am perishing with hunger.' 

Analysis: — 1. Gatun, 'and'; tun, therootof the verb 'to ap- 
portion, divide, separate, count'; -billiela, the past participle 
of billiko ; noa, 'he,' the verbal-nominative form of the pro- 
noun; barun, 'them'; talokan, ' property, goods.' 

2. Tiigun, as a verb, 'to show'; as a noun, 'a mark for a sign,' 
'a chop on a tree to show the road,' 

3. Kapirri, 'hunger'; the o makes the word an instrumental 
case; wirri is the root of the verb wirrilliko, 'for motion to 
act,' as an instrument ; ban, 'doing, acting'; -billin is theform 
of the present participle of that verb. 

2. -\)-VLlli-Jco ; m., to he doing effectively what the verh 


JE^a;.;— Minnug ballin bi? ' what object art thou effecting ? 
what are you doing ? what are you about' ? Tetti ballin bag, 
' I am dying.' 

* I have here omitted twelve pages of " The Key "; in them our author 
sets forth his theory that the vowels and consonants of the suffix-forms of 
verbs and pronouns have each of them a determinate and essential meaning ; 
a portion of this theory appears in the headings of the twenty sections of 
" Illustrative Sentences " -which now follow. These Illustrative Sentences I 
print for the sake of the examples of analysis which they contain ; and yet 
I do not think that that analysis is in every instance correct. — Ed. 

THE KEY. 93 

-p-TiZZi-/i;o ; m., to he doing what the verb implies, 
without the idea of effect. 

&.: — Up-ullin bag yirrigko wiyelliko, 'I am writing'; 
lit., ' I am using the quill fop-to * communicate, speak, say.' 

Anal: — Tirrig, 'a quill'; yirrigko, 'the quill as an agent' ; 
um-ullin bag yirrigko pen kakilliko, 'I am making a pen'; 
lit., ' I am causing the quill to become a pen.' 

3. -ii-illi-ko ; m., to become, to come to he in some state. 
Hx.: — 1. Tetti kakulla noa, wonto ba yakita moron 
noa katea kan, 'he was dead, whereas now he is alive again.' 

2. "Wunal unni kakillin, ' this is summer season,' or 'this is- 
becoming (now) warm.' 

Anal.: — 1. Tetti, 'dead, or death'; kakulla, 'was' in that 
state; noa, the inseparable verbal pronoun 'he'; wontoba, 
'whereas it is'; yakita, 'at this time'; moron, 'alive'; 
katea-kan, 'one who exists again'; tetti kaba noa, 'he is 
actually dead': lit., ' he (died and so he) is in a state of death.' 

3. Wunal means 'warm'; the aborigines have no word for time 
in the abstract ; unni, 'this'; kakillin, ' a state of being,' the 
present participle form of the verb kakilliko, g^.v. Wunal 
unni kakullin, 'the summer is now coming '; lit., 'the warmth- 
is of its own power becoming to be in the present state '; a re- 
duplicate form of the participle kakullin, 'becoming,' is kakul- 
lilin, 'becoming and continuing to become'; cf. next paragraph 
for the difference in meaning between kakillan and kakullin. 

4. -k-uZZj-^o; m., to Iring into being any act done hy 
one's own power. 

^oc.: — 1. Boug-kulleiin yuna bo ta Piriwal to, gatun 
pai-kulleun Thimon-kin, 'the Lord hath risen indeed, and 
hath appeared unto Simon.' Each of these acts is of the Lord's 
ownpower. 2. Punnal ba polo g-kulli-gel, is 'the west'. 

3. Por-kullitoara means 'that which is born '; lit., 'thatwhich 
has dropped itself of its own power,' ' that which has fallen of 
itself.' 4. Poai-kulleiin ba, 'as soon as it sprung up.' 5. Pai- 
kul-linun bara ba, ' when they will shoot forth.' 

Anal. ! — 2. Punnal, 'the sun'; ba, 'is being', a verbal particle ; 
polog, 'to sink'; -kulli, 'of his own power '; -gel, 'the place 
of the action.' This phrase then means ' the place of the sun's 
sinking of his own power.' 

4. Poai, 'to shoot up, to grow up, to spring up as grass'; 
-kulleiin, ' has... of its own power '; ba, equivalent to 'when.' 

5. Pai, 'appear'; -kulliniin, 'willoftheirown power'; bara, 
' they '; ba, equivalent to ' when.' 

• Occasionally I still allow this phrase to stand. — See note, page 24. — Ed. 


5. -1-i^o; vn.jfor tJte purpose of initiating the action of 

the verb. 
Moc.: — Tetti kolag bag, 'I am about to die'; waita kolag 
bag, 'I am about to depart'; piriwal kolag no a, 'lie is 
about to be king '; worowai kolag bara, ' tbey are about to 
figlit'; tanan bag wiyelliko, ' I come to speak,' 'I am come 
for the purpose of speaking'; tanan bag wiya-uwil koa 
banug, ' I am come in order to speak to thee,' ' I am come that 
I may speak to thee '; wiya-uwil koa banug, 'I wish to speak 
to thee '; gurrulli ta, 'it is the act of hearing'; gurrulliko, 
' for the purpose of the act of hearing '; ' to hear, to hearken.' 

6. .■^.\Ui-ko ; m., for the purpose of the initiation of 

the act of causation. 
Ex.: — Kai, umillia tia, ' come and help me '; ZjY., 'come 
exercise causative power on me '; umillia bi tia, 'help thou 
me, assist me'; i.e., ' cause the exercise of power to me.' 

7. -m-uZZi-^o ; ra., for causation and effective poiver. 

Ex. : — Tarig ka-mul.Uko, 'to mix'; lit., 'for-to cause to be 
across and across'; gurra-mulla bon, 'cause him to hear 
or know'; ka-mullala noa yantin-birug umulli-birug, 
'he rested from all the work'; lit., 'he caused himself to be 
from all, from the act of causation and effective power.' 

Uma noa yantin tara, 'he made all things'; uman bag 
unni, 'I make this'; nu-mulliko, ' to make a personal effort, 
to try, to attempt'; pirral-mulla bon, 'urge him, constrain 
him'; lit., 'be hard at him'; pirral umulla bon, 'make him 
hard, cause him to be hard'; pirriral-mullin bon, 'strengthen- 
ing him'; na-miinbilliko tia umulla, ' cause me to be per- 
mitted to see'; kamiinbilla bin nakilliko, 'let it be per- 
mitted to cause thee to see'; equivalent to, 'receive thy sight.' 

8. -n ; m., present time. 
Hx. — Unni, 'this' present; unnoa, 'that' present; untoa, 
'that other' present; unnug, 'that,' as an object, present there; 
unti, ' this present place ' here ; unta, 'that place' spoken of; 
pital kaniin bi, 'thou wilt be joyful'; pital banun bi, 
' thou wilt rejoice.' 

9. .g.ulli-ko ; TO.., for one to act with effective power. 
JEx. — Bug-bug-gulla, 'kiss,' that is, ' effect a kiss'; bug- 
bug-kamiinbilla bon, 'let him kiss'; bug-bug gatoa,' it 
is I who kiss'; bug-bug-gan bag, 'I kiss'; bug-bug-gatoara, 
' that which is kissed'; tetti bug-gulliko, ' to effect death by 
personal power'; 'to kill'; tetti bug-ga bon, 'he is killed'; lit., 
'some person hath killed him'; tetti bug-ga bon bag, 'Ihave 
killed him.' 

THE KEY. 97 

10. -p-iZZJ-^o; m., to act, excluding the idea of causation. 

JEoc. — TJp-illiko, ' to exercise personal power,' without causa- 
tion ; up-ai-ga, ' to exercise personal power,' without comple- 
tion ; pai-pilliko, 'to seem,' ' to appear'; pai-pilliko marai- 
to, 'for the spirit to appear'; pai-pea noa Eliath, ' Elias 
he appeared'; pai-p6a bon a gel o, ' an angel appeared to him.' 

11. -p-uZZj-7fo; m., to exercise power, hut excluding the 

idea of effect. 

Tlx. — 1. TJp-uUiko, 'to exercise personal power,' exclusive 
of effect; upan bag unni, 'I do this'; upan bag gali-ko, 'I 
use this' ; upullin bag gali-ko broom-ko, '1 am sweeping 
with the broom'; lit., 'I am exercising personal power with the 
broom,' exclusive of effect ; in gali-ko broom-ko upullin 
murrarag, 'the broom is sweeping well,' the broom is the 
instrumental agent; upullin bag gatoa-bo kipai-to, 'I 
am anointing myself with ointment'; lit., 'I am doing myself 
with grease,' or 'lam greasing myself .' 2. Upulla binoun 
kopurro kouein kakilliko, ' paint her with-red to be pretty.' 
3. Konein ta upatoara bountoa, 'she is prettily done'; lit., 
'she is pretty that which isdone.' 4. Kabo-kabo galitinupa- 
toarin kopurrin, ' stay, stay, on account of the painting red.' 

Anal. : — 2. Upulla, the imperative, ' do ' ; binoun, the con- 
joined dual pronoun, 'thou-her'; kopurro, 'red,' •with the 
instrumental sign o affixed; konein, 'pretty'; kakilliko, the 
verb ' to be,' ' for the purpose of being.' The sentence then 
means, ' do thou her with red, that she may be pretty.' 

3. Konein t a, 'it is pretty'; upatoara is a compound of the 
verb, and means ' that which is done ' ; bountoa, the emphatic 
personal pronoun, 'she it is who,' 'she who' is emphatically so. 

4. Kabo-kabo, equivalent to 'stay'; gali-tin and the two 
words following it are all in the ablative case and mean, ' on ac- 
count of this, on account of the doing, on account of the red.' 

12. -rj ra., negation. 

lEx. — Murrarag ta unni, ' this is good'; keawai, murra- 
rag korien, 'no, it is not good'; kipai ta unni, 'this is 
actually fat'; tararan, 'it is not'; Ihis is used as the negation 
of a thing, but not of a quality. Keawaran bag murrarag 
korien, 'I am not comfortable.' 

Anal.: — Keawaran, the present tense of the verb 'to be,' in 
the state of negation ; bag, the verbal pronoun 'I'; murrarag 
'good'; korien, the aorist of negation of the verb 'to be 
not.' The sentence thus means, ' I am not in a state of being 
good.' The two negatives here are essential and govern one 
another ; they do not destroy each other, as in , English ; 
this arises from the very nature of the language, which can ex- 
press actuality, negation of actuality, and negation absolutely; 


hence tlie variety of the forms of verbs ' to be ' ; for instance, 
natan bag means 'I see'; na korien bag, 'I see not'; 
naknlla bag, 'I saw'; na pa korien bag, '1 saw not.' This 
last cannot be written nakullakorie.n bag, 'I saw not,' 
because the -k n 1 1 a would affirm that the agent actually of his 
own power did whatsoever the root affirms ; and the root-form n a 
implies that the thing is actually seen, while the - k u 1 1 a added 
makes the meaning to be that it presents itself before you, and 
you must see it, unless you are blind or do not exercise the 
faculty of sight; hence the privative affix, pa, must be used 
instead, to show that, althougb the object spoken of was there, 
I could not see it, because it was not presented to my sight. 

^x. — Tanoa, na-mai-ga yikora. This is a peculiar but 
common phraseology throughout all verbs, and is hardly translate- 
able into English; the nearest phrase would be ' do not be seeing 
and yet perceive not,' or ' do not in your manner be looking with- 
out causing yourself to exercise your faculty of sight.' In this 
there is an affirmation of the abstract action performed by the 
agent, but a suspension of effect ; the whole is something similar 
to the phrase ' you look but you will not see', that is, 'you are 
determined not to see.' But, on the other hand, yanoa, naki 
yikora means 'do not look'; yanoa, nakilli-ban yikora, 
' do not thou be looking'; and yari bi naniin, 'thou must not 
look'; -niin is the sign of the future tense, for prohibition re- 
quires the future. 

Gran ke unnoa kuri? 'who is that man'? to this, gannug? 
is the answer, if you do not know the person; lit., 'whom'? a 
question in reply. To express 'I do not know,' would be gurra 
korien bag; but this would really mean 'I do not know what 
is said,' or ' I do not perceive by the ear what is spoken.' To 
know personally anyone is gimilli; thus, gimilli bon bag, 
' I know him personally'; keawaran bag nurun gimilli 
korien, 'I personally know you not.' To deny that you have 
the knowledge of a person whom you really do know is expressed 
by the peculiar form gan? 'who'? thus gan-bulliko means 
' to be who -ing ' interrogatively, that is, asking who the person 
is when he is already known, with the intention of denying a 
knowledge of the person. Wonto ba niuwoa gan-bullinun 
tia emmoug mikan-ta kiiri-ka, gan-bulliniin wal bon 
mikan-ta agelo-ka Eloi-koba-ka; 'whereas he who will 
be 'who-ing' of me in the presence of men, certainly I will be 
'who-ing' of him in the presence of angels belonging to Eloi,' 
i.e., Grod ; this is an aboriginal translation of the words " But he 
that denieth me before men, shall be denied before the angels 
of God." Emmoug means 'concerning me,' whilst tia means 
'me,' the object; the passive form of the English verb is always 
expressed by the active form of the Australian. 

THE KEY. 99 

13. -Tc-illi-lco; nx., for instrumentality to he in some act. 

-Er. — Gratun welkorinun wal bara bon, gatun tetti wal 
bon wirrinun, 'and they sball scourge bim and put him to 

Anal. — Gatun, 'and'; welkorinun, 'will instrumentally wale' 
him. The wel is from the English word wale, 'a mark in the 
flesh '; - k o is the usual affix of agency ; -r i - n li n is the future tense 
of instrumental action; wal is the certainty thereof; bara, 
'they'; bon, 'him'; tetti, 'death'; wirrinun, the future tense 
of instrumental violence; cf. wirrin wibbi-ko, the 'wind 
moves,' sc, it. 

14. -x-vdli-ho ; ra., for instrumentality to act of itself . 

Hx. — 1. Turullin tia topig-ko, ' the mosquito is stinging, 
piercing me'; tura bon warai-to, 'the spear speared, pierced, 
him'; turanun banug lancet-o, 'I will pierce thee with the 
lancet'; turanun, 'will pierce'; banug, conjoined dual case, 
'I-thee' ; lancet-o, the English word 'lancet' with o the 
affixof agency. 2. Niuwoa ba gurreug-kan gurrulliko, 
gurrabunbilla bon, 'he who hath ears to hear, let him hear.' 
Here the ear is the instrument that perceives of its own power. 

Anal. — 2. Niuwoa, the emphatic personal pronoun, 'he'; ba, 
a particle; gurreug, 'the ear'; -kan, a personal particle; 
gurreugkan therefore means 'a person who is eared, who has 
ears' ; gurrabunbilla, the imperative, 'permit to hear' ; bon, 
'him' ; gurrulliko, ' to hear'. 

15. -X-^lli-ho ; va..,for the thing to act, as a verbal noun. 

JEx. — Poai-biintiniin koiwon to, 'the rain will cause it to 

Anal. — Poai, the bare form of the verb 'to grow'; bun, is the 
active permissive form of the verb ' to suffer or permit the act,' 
'to let actively'; -tinun, the future-tense form of the verb; 
koiwon, 'rain ' ; -to, an affix, to show that the word to which it 
is affixed is the agent that purposes to act. In the sentence 
koiwon-to ba tin, 'it rains,' the ba is the aorist of the verb 
'to be doing' some act ; tin, is the present tense of tilliko, and 
when used as a preposition means ' from, on account of it'; e.y., 
tetti-tin, 'on account of death'; gali-tin, 'on account of 
this'; but ' from, ».e., out of,' isbirug; as, Thydney-birug, 
'from Sydney' ; London-birug, ' from London'. 

16. -t-elli-ko ; m., to indicate itself, as a verbal noun. 

Hx.: — 1. Xantin bara piriwal buntelliko, 'for all who 
exalt themselves.' 2. Moron ta katea-kanun tetti kabirug, 
' the resurrection from the dead.' 

Anal.: — l.Tantin, 'all'; bara, 'they'; piriwal, 'chief; bun, 
' to permit' actively ; t e 1 1 i k o, ' for it to be ' as indicated. Moron, 


'life'; ta, 'it is'; ka, 'is'; -tea, the past tense of telliko, 'it 
actually was ' as indicated ; ka-niin, ' will be' in the state men- 
tioned ; tetti, 'death'; ka, 'is'; birug, 'from, out of.' The 
sentence thus means ' the future becoming alive again from the 
dead'; cf. yanoa, tetti katea kun, 'let be, lest it become 
dead'; yanoa, tetti burrea kiin, 'let be, lest it die.' Tanoa 
is prohibitory of the manner of being. 

17. .■\f!.\lli-'ko; m., to he in motion to ; to tend towards; 

to incline towards. 

Ex. : — Uwil koa bag, 'I wish to move, I tend towards, I in- 
cline towards' ; ta-uwil koa bag, 'I wish to eat'; taisfrom 
ta-killiko, 'for-to eat'; waitawa-uwilkoabag, 'I now wish 
to depart'; ' I intend to depart'; tanan bi wolla waita, koa 
bag uwa-uwil, 'I wish to go'; lit., 'approach thou or come, in 
orderthat I may depart'; wiya-uwil koa bon bag, 'I wish to 
tell him'; wiya is from wiyelliko, 'to speak, to utter a 
Sound,' &c. 

18. -wir-ri^^''-^o ; m., to act with instrumental motion; 

as, to hnoclc with, anything ; to whip or flog with any- 
thing ; to smite with the fist ; to stir with a stick ; 
to do any act of motion hy any instrumental means. 

Ex.: — -Wirrilleiin bar a wapara, 'they smote their 
breasts'; wirrilliauiin wirrillikanne-to, 'will sweep with 
the sweeper', ' will swab with a swab'; ZzY., 'will knock away with 
that which knocks away'; because, when the blacks sweep, they 
knock the ground with boughs, and so remove the rubbish. 

19. -w-oUi-ko ; m., to act and move of purpose. 

Ex. : — Uwollik 0, ' to come, to go, to move away '; lit., ' to be 
in a state of motion and action,' with power of purpose to effect 
change of place ; waita wa-niin bag England kolag, ' I will 
depart and will go to England'; tanan noa uwollin Eng- 
land kabirug, 'he approaches coming from England'; 'he is 
coming from England'; uwea kaniin bag, 'I will come again' 
(tanan, understood); uwea kanitu bag, 'I will go again' 
(waita, understood) ; yanoa, uwa yikora, 'do notgo'; uwolli 
ban kora, 'do not be moving away,' sc, hither or thither. 

20. -Y-elli-Ico ; TO.., to be in a certain manner of action. 

Ex. : — 1. Gakoiyelliko, 'to act in a certain manner of per- 
sonification'; 'to feign to be another person'; gakoiyellikan, 
'one who feigns to be another'; 'a spy, a deceiver'; wonta 
noa ba gurra gakoiva barunba, 'but he perceived their 
craftiness'; lit., ' whereas he knew their deception,' their feigning 
to be just men ; yanti bi wiyella, 'thou shalt say thus', in 

THE KEY. 101 

this manner; yanti bag wiya, 'I said so'; yakoai bin 
wiyan, 'bow, i.e., in wbat manner, is it told to thee'? giakai 
bag wiya bon yanti, 'this is that which I actually told him'; 
lit., ' thus I told him thus'; mupai kaiyelliko, ' to be silent'; 
lit., 'for-to be in manner dumb'; ' to be really dumb ' would be 
mupai-kan, ' one who is dumb.' 

JSx.: — 2. Kaiyelleun clock -ko wiyelli-birug, 'the clock 
has ceased to strike'; lit., 'the clock has' been and continues in the 
state and manner of being now ' ceased' from a certain manner of 
motion, i.e., 'from talking'; wiyelli-kan, 'one who speaks'; 
wiyai-ye, 'a talker,' one in the habit of talking, one whose 
manner is to continue to speak; wiyelliko, ' to utter a sound '; 
'to speak'; wiya-bunbilliko, 'to permit to speak'; wiyai- 
yelliko, 'to say on, to reply, to answer'; wiya-yimulliko, 
'to make accusation, to accuse'; wiya-pai-yelliko, 'to de- 
mand'; wiyella bon, 'speak to him'; vviyellin noa, 'he is 
talking'; wiyellan ball, ' we two are conversing '; wiyan bag, 
'I speak'; wiyan clock-ko, ' the clock strikes '; wiya, 'say'; 
this is used to ask a person if he will be or do ; e.g., wiya, 
bali wiyelliniin? 'say, shall we two converse? 

The Formation of Words. 

Tarr is a word which the aborigines now use in imitation of 
the sound made by a saw in sawing ; with the verbal formative- 
affix -b u Hi ko, it becomes yarr-bulliko, ' to be in the act of 
causing by its own act the sound of yarr'; or, in English, 'to 
saw.' Yag is another introduced word, formed from the 
imitation of the sound of the sharpening of a saw. 

Prom these roots come the following derivatives: — Tarr- 
bulliko, 'to saw'; yarr-bulli kolag, 'to be about to saw'; 
yarr-bulli korien, 'not to saw'; yarr-bulli yikora, 'saw 
not'; yarr-bulli ban kora, 'be not sawing'; yarr-bulli-kan, 
'one who does sawing'; 'asawyer'; yarr-buUi-kanne, 'that 
which saws'; 'a saw '; yarr-bulli-gel, ' the sawing-place '; 'a 
saw-pit'; yarr-ba-toara, 'that which is sawn'; 'a plank'; yarr- 
ba-uwa, 'saw' (optative), 'dosaw'; yarr-bulla, 'saw (manda- 
tory), 'do saw'; yarr-bulli-bug-gulla, ' compel to saw'; 
yarr-bulli-bug-gulliko, 'to compel to saw'; this last form 
may undergo all the changes given above for yarr-bulliko; 
and so of every verb in the infinitive form. 

Tag-ko-bulliko, 'to sharpen a saw'; yag-ko-bulli-ta, 'the 
sharpening of the saw'; yag-ko-bulli-kan, 'one who shar- 
pens the saw'; yag-ko-bulli-kanne, 'that which sharpens 
the saw '; ' a file '; and so on. 



[The common root-words of the language also give forth Terbal 
derivatives in a similar way. If we take the verb ' to strike ' as 
an example, the f ormatives and their meanings may be arranged 
thus, a verbal suffix always intervening between the root and 
the formative : — 

Moot + Suff. + Formative. Meaning. 

1." ,, „ ye a continual striker. 

2. „ „ to-ara the person or thing that is struck. 

3. „ „ kan the person who strikes. 

4. „ ,, kan-ne the thing which strikes. 

5. „ „ to the action, as an agent. 

6. „ ,, ta the action, as a subject. 

7. „ „ gel the place where the action is done.- 

Moot. — SuUf ' strihe. ' 

1. Bun-ki-ye, ' a fighting man.' 

2. Biin-to-ara, ' a wounded man." 

3. Bun-killi-kan, ' a striker.' 

4. Bun-killi-kan-ne, 'a Cudgel.' 

5. Biin-killi-to, ' the stroke.' 

6. Bun-killi-ta, 'the striking.' 

7. Biin-killi-gel, ' a pugilistic ring.' 

Moot. — XTm-a^ ^-mnke.^ 

1. Um-ai-ye, ' a tradesman.' 

2. TJm-ulli-to-ara, ' anything made.' 

3. TJm-ulli-kan, 'a worker.' 

4. Um-ulli-kan-ne, ' a tool.' 

5. Um-ulli-to, 'the work.' 

6. Um-ulli-ta, ' the working." 

7. Um-ulli-gel, ' a workshop.' 

Moot — XJp-1, ' do, use in action.' 

1. Up-ai-ye, ' a cobbler, a mason,' &c. 

2. TJp-ulli-to-ara, ' a piece of work.' 

3. Up-ulli-kan, ' a worker.' 

4. Up-ulli-kan-ne, 'a spade, an awl.' 

5. Up-ulli-to, ' the operation.' 

6. TJp-ulli-ta, ' the operating.' 

7. Up-ulli-gel, ' a operating-room.' ■ 

The difference in the use of the fifth and sixth forms may 
be illustrated by such sentences in English, as, — The stroke 
lulled him ; the striking of the iron heats it ; the work was done, 
but the working of the machine went on ; the operation did no 
harm, for the operating was in skilful hands.] 

THE KEY. ,103 

Analysis of the name Biraban. 

1. Declension of ' Biraban,^ as a common noun. 
The word is formed from bira, the ci'y of the bird which we 
call the ' eagle-hawk.' The -ban postfixed denotes the one who 
does the action. As applied to M'Gill, the name may have been 
given to him from sopie circumstance in his infancy, perhaps his 
infantile cry.* 
Mom. 1. Konein ta biraban ta, 'the hawk is pretty.' 

2. Biraban towiyan, '^the hawk cries,' ZiY., speaks. 
Oen. Tarro unni biraban koba, ' this egg; is the hawk's.' 
Dat. 1. Unni ta biraban to takilliko, ' this is for the hawk 

to eat.' 
2. "Waita bag biraban tako, ' I depart to the hawk,' 

i.e., to where the hawk is. 
Ace. Tura bon biraban unnug, 'spear him, the hawk there.' 
Voc. Alaorela biraban! ' hawk '! 
Ahl. 1. Minarig tin tetti noa? biraban tin; 'from what 

cause. is he dead' ? 'from the hawk,' as a cause. 

2. Tul-bulleiin noa tibbin biraban ka tabirug, 
'he, the bird, hath escaped from the hawk.' 

3. Buloara bula biraban toa, 'the two are in company 
with the hawk.' 

4. Tibbin ta biraban taba, 'the bird is with the hawk.' 

5. Wonnug ke noa katan? biraban kinba, 'where 
does he exist '? 'at the hawk's place.' 

Minarig unnoa tibbin? 'what is that bird'? tibbin ta 
unnoa bukka-kan, 'it is a savage bird that.' 

Takoai unnoa ta yitara wiya? 'how is that such-a-one 
spoken'? equivalent to 'what is its name'? giakai unnoa 
yitara biraban wiya, 'this way, that such-a-one is spoken 
or called biraban.' 

Minarig tin yitara biraban wiya? ' from-what-caase is 
such-a-one spoken or called biraban'? gali tin wiyelli tin 
bira-bira tin, 'from this, from speaking, from bira-bira '; 
i.e., because he says 'bira.' 

2. Declension of ' Biraban,' as a proper name. 

Nam. 1. Gan ke bi? gatoa Biraban, 'who artthou'? 'itisi, 
Biraban'; yakoai bi yitara wiya? giakai bag 
yitara Biraban, 'in what manner art thou such-a- 
one spoken '? ' thus am I such-a-one, Biraban,' sc, called. 

* ' Eagle-hawk ' may have been his totem or family name ; or, as our 
blackfellowa name their children from some trivial incident at the time 
of birth, he may have been called Biraban, because an ' eagle-hawk ' was 
seen or heard then. —Ed. 


2. Gantobontura? Biraban tobontura, 'who did 
spear him'? ' Biraban speared him.' 
Oen. G-an-iimbaunni wonnai? Biraban-iimba unni^won- 

nai, 'whose child is this'? ' Biraban's, this child.' 
Dat. 1. G-annug unni? Birabannug, 'for whom this'? {i.e., 
who is to have this?) 'for Biraban' to have personally 
or to use. 
2. Kurrilla unni Biraban kinko, ' carrythis to Bira- 
ban,' locally. 
Ace. Gannug tura? Birabannug, 'whom speared '? (mean- 
ing, who is speared ?) ' Biraban.' 
Yoc. Ala Biraban gurrulla! ' O Biraban, hearken.' 
All. 1. Gan kai kaokillai bara? Biraban kai, 'concern- 
ing whom are they quarrelling '? ' about Biraban.' 

2. Wonta birug bi ? Biraban kabirug, 'whence dost 
thou come '? ' from Biraban.' 

3. Gan katoa bountoa? Biraban katoa, 'with whom 
is she '? ' with Biraban'; that is, in company mth him. 

4. Gan kinba? Biraban kinba, 'with whom is she'? 
' with Biraban '; that is, living with him. 

Wontakal noa Biraban? Mulubinbakal, 'ofwhatplace 

is he, Biraban'? ' Of Newcastle.'* 
"Wontakalin bountoa Patty? Mulubinbakalin, 'of what 

place is she, Patty '? ' Of Newcastle.' 

Selections from the Scriptures.t 

WINTA. 1. 

1. Tantin kokera wittima tarai to kuri ko ; wonto ba noa yan- 
tin wittima, Eloi ta noa. — Heb., iii. 4. 

2. "Wakal noa Eloi ta. — Gal, iii. 20. 

3. Eloita pital noa. — 1 John, iv. 8. Eloi ta marai noa. — John, 
iv. 24. 

4. Gearunba Eloi ta winullikan koiyugkan. — Heb., xii. 29. 

5. TJnnug ta noa wakal bo ta Eloi ta. — Mark, xii. 32. 

* See page 18 of this volume. 

t As the sufBx- forms of the nouns, verbs, and other parts of speech have 
been fully shown in the previous part of this volume by the use of hyphens, 
I do not think it so necessary now to continue that aid. All postpositions 
will now be detached from their nouns and pronouns, and every compound 
postposition will be printed as one word. Those suffix particles which are 
used as enclitics, and the inseparable case-endings, will be attached to their 
words. The tense-forms of the verbs will be printed as shown on pages 28 
to 41, but without the use of the hyphens. In the Analysis of the selections 
which now follow, the hyphens are sometimes retained to show the compo- 
sition of the words. — Ed. 


6. Keawai wal wakal tarai ta, murrarag ta walsal bo ta Eloi 
ta. — Luke, xviii. 19. 

7. Gatun gearunba wakal bo ta Eloi ta, Biyugbai ta, gikoug 
kai yantin ta, gatun geen gikoug kinba; gatun wakal bo ta 
Piriwal, letbu Kritht, gikoug kinbirug yantin ta, gatun geen 
gikoug kinbirug. — 1 Cor., viii. 6. 


8. Eloi ta kaibug noa ; gatun keawai wal gikoug kinba tokoi 
korien. — 1 John, i. 5. 

9. Tuna bo ta, keawai wal taraito kuriko na pa korien bon, 
Eloinug.— 1 John, iv. 12. 

10. Tugunbilleun noa Eloi puttarakan. — 1 Tim., iii. 16. 

11. Niuwara noa Eloi ta katan yantin ta purreag ka yarakai 
ko. — Psalm, vii. 11. 

12. Kauwalkan noa Eloi ta, warea ta gearunba biilbiil, gatun 
gurran noa yantin minnugbo minnugbo. — 1 John, iii. 20. 

13. Kaiyukau noa Eloito yantin ko minnugbo minnugbo ko. — 
Matt., xix. 26. 


1. Eloi ta Piriwal ta noa. — Psalm, cxviii. 27. 

2. lethu Kritht Piriwal ta noa yantin koba. — Acts, x. 36. 

3. Piriwalto Eloi ta gearunba wakal bo ta Piriwal ta. — Mark, 
xii. 29. 

4. -GurruUa nura yanti Piriwal ta noa Eloi ta noa ; niuwoa 
ta gearun uma, keawai wal geenbo umuUi pa ; geen ta gikoumba 
kuri, gatun cipu takilligel koba gikoumba. — Psalm, c. 3. 

5. Piriwal gintoa ta Eloi ta, gintoa ta moroko uma, gatun 
purrai, gatun wombul, gatun yantin gali koba. — Acts, iv. 24. 

6. Piriwal ta noa Eloi kauwalkan ta. — Psalm, xst. 3. 

7. Piriwal ta noa murrarag ta. — -Psalm, c. 5. 

8. Guraki noa Eloi ta Piriwal ta, upin noa umuUi tin gearun- 
ba tin. — 1 Sam. ii., 3. 

"WINTA 4. 

9. Piriwal ta noa Eloi tuloakan ta, niuwoa ta Eloi moron ka- 
killikan ta, gatun Piriwal kauwal yanti katai kakilHko ; pulul- 
pulul wal purrai kaniin bukka tin gikoumba tin, gatun yantin 
bara konara kaiyu korien wal bara katan niuwarin gikoumba 
tin. — Jerem. x. 10. 

10. Bapai ta ba noa Piriwal katan barun yantin ko wiyan bon 
ba.-r-Psalm, cxlv. 18. 

11. Kalog ka ba noa Piriwal kakillin barun kai yarakai tin. 
— Prov., XV. 29. 

12. Piriwal ta noa wirrillikan ta emmoumba ; keawai wal bag 
mirral kanun. — Psalm, xxiii. 1. 

13. Gurrarakan noa Piriwal kauwal katan, gatun gurraramulli 
kan noa. — James, v. 11. 



I. IJnnug goro ta kakilli wokka kaba moroko kaba, Biyug- 
bai ta, Wiyellikan ta, gatun Marai ta yirriyirri lag; gatun unni 
ta goro ta wakal bo ta. — 1 Jobn, t. 7. 

■ 2. Biyugbaito yuka bon yinal miromuUikan noa kakilliko, yan- 
tin purrai ko.—l Jobn, iv. 14. 

3. Eloito noa pital ma yantin kiiri, gakulla ta noa 
wakai bo ta yinal gikoumba, gali ko yantinto ba' gurran gikoug 
kin, keawai wal bara tetti kaniiii, kulla wal yanti katai barunba 
feakilliniin moron. — John, iii. 1(5. 

4. PuUi ta noa Eloito upea barun Itharaeliimba, wiyelliliko pi- 
talmulliko letbu ko Kritbt to ; niuwoa bo Piriwal katan yantin 
ko.— Acts, X, 36. 

5. letbu Kritbt yinal noa Biyugbai koba. — 2 Jobn, 3. 

6. Gdarunba katan Wiyellikan, lethu Kritbt, Biyugbai toa ba 
katan. — 1 John, ii. 1. 


7. Eloi ta Marai noa. — John, iv. 24. 

8. Piriwal ta unnoa ta Marai. — 2 Cor., iii. 17. 

• 9. Maraito yirriyirri lag ko wiyanun wal nurun. — Luke, sii. 12. 
10. Murrin nurunba kokera yirriyirri ta Marai yirriyirri lag 
koba. — 1 Cor., vi. 19. 

II. Wakaiia murrin, gatun wakalla Marai, yanti nurun wiya 
wakalla kotulli ta nurunba wiyatoara ; wakalla Piri-w al, wakalla 
gurrulli ko, wakalla kurrimuUi ko ; wakalla Eloi ta Biyugbai ta 
yantin koba ; wokka kaba noa yantin ko, gatun noa yantin koa, 
gatuu murrug kaba nurun kinba. — Ephes., It. 4, 5, 6. 

12. Yantin barun yemmaman Marai to Eloi koba ko, wonnai ta 
.bara Eloi koba. — Eom., viii. 14. 

13. Niuwara bug-ga kora bon Marai yirriyirri lag Eloi ko- 
ba. — Ephes., iv. 30. 

14. Ganto ba yarakai wij aniin gikoug yinal tiiri koba, ka- 
munbiniia wal bon ; wonto noa ba yarakai vviyaniin gikoug Marai 
■yirriyirri lag, keawai wal bon kamuabiniin. — Luke, xii. 10. 

LuEE, ii. 9-14. 

9. Gatun noa agelo Tehoa-iimba tanan uwa barun kin, gatun 
killaburra Tehda-iimba kaltuUa barun katoa ; kinta gaiya bara 

10. Gatun noa ageloko wiya barun, Kinta kora ; kulla nurun 
bag wiyan totcg murraragkakilliko pital ko, kakilliko yantin ko 
kdri ko. 


11. KuUa nurunba porkulleun unni purrcag kokera Dabid- 
timba ka, Q-olomullikan ta, noa Kritht ta Pirin al ta. 

12. G-atun unui tiiga kanun nurunba ; naniin nura bobogaug 
gimatoara kirrikin taba, kakillin ba takilligel laba. 

13. Gratun tanoa-kal-bo paipea konara morokokal glkoug katoa 
agelo katoa, murrarag wiyellin bon Eloinug, giakai, 

14. Wiyabuabilla bon murrarag Eloinug wokka kaba moroko 
kaba, gatun kamiinbilla pital purrai tako, murrarag umatoara. 


1. Eloito noa gurrara ma korien barun agelo yarakai umuUi- 
kan, wonto ba wareka noa barun baran koiyug kako, tartaro ka- 
ko. — 2 Peter, ii. 4. 

2. "Wiyatoara ta yantin kiiri ko wakalla tetti bnlliko, gatun yu- 
kita gaiya gurrulli ko. — Heb., ix. 27. 

3. Takoaikan bag moron kaniia ? Gurrulla bon Piriwalnug le- 
ttunug Kjithtnug, moron gaiya bi kaniin. — Acts, xvi. 30, 31. 

4. G-atun kirrikin ta temple kako, yiir-kulleiin bulwa koa wak- 
ka kabirug unta ko baran tako. — Mark, xv. 38. 

The preceding eight Wintas or ' Portions,' are taken from an 
" Australian Spelling Book, in the Language spoken by the 
Aborigines," published by the author in 1 826. In the following 
translation, the Section figures are those of the paragraphs in the 
"Wintas, and the words, as they become translated and explained, 
are not again referred to. 

Analysis of fhe foregoing Wintas. 

"WINTA 1.— Paet 1. 

Section 1. 

"Winta, 'a part, a portion.' 

Eloi, ' Grod,' a word taken from Elohim, is introduced into 

the language of the aborigines, because Koin, the name of the 

being whom they dread, is a word of an equivocal character.* 
Tantin, 'all, every,' is singular or plural, according to the 

number of the noun or pronoun used with it. 
Kokera, 'a covert, shelter, habitation, hut, house, palace, 

Wittima, 'built'; hence wittimulliko, 'to build' in anyway; 

to- prepare a place for habitation by removing obstacles'; to put 

up a shelter of bushes or bark. 

* See page 47.— Ed, 


Tarai, 'some one, another, otier', is singular; but tara, 'others,' 
is plural. 

Taraito is tarai, with the particle of agency postfixed. 

Kuri, 'man, men,' according to the singular or plural idea 
expressed or understood in the context. 

Kiiriko is kuri, with the particle of agency postfixed. 

Wonto ba, 'whereas,' a compound phrase; from won, 'where'? 
the interrogative adverb of place. 

"Wonto ba-ba, 'is as '; the ba is a particle which verbalizes the 
word to which it is aiSxed. 

No a, the inseparable verbal pronoun, 'he '; the separable em- 
phatic pronoun 'he' is niuwoa. 

Eloita; for Eloi, see above; ta'is the substantive verb, 'it 
is actually'; this phrase affirms that it is God who is the agent. 

Section 2. 

Wakal, 'one'; buloara, 'two'; goro, 'three'; wara, 'four'; 
beyond which the aborigines have no word to express higher 
numbers. For ' five ' they hold up one hand and say y antin, 
'all,' i.e., all the five fingers; or both hands with a part of the 
fingers up to describe the numbers 6, 7, 8, 9 ; for 10 they hold 
all the fingers up and say yantin ; or they double both hands 
and say kauwal-kauwal, a ' great many,' and repeat the same 
as often as required, to give some idea of the greatness of the 

Section 3. 

Pital, 'joy, peace, gladness, happiness, love.' 

Marai, ' spirit '; not the ' ghost ' of a departed person, which is 

Section 4. 

Gearun,'us'; geen, 'we'; gearunba, 'onr,' 'belonging to us'; 
see pronouns. 

Win u Hi, 'to burn,' to consume by fire only, and not in any 
other way ; hence winulliko, 'to consume,' 'to burn.' 

Winullikan means ' one who consumes or burns.' The particle 
-kan means ' the person who,' and is equivalent to the English 
particle -er, affixed to verbs to form the substantive person, as 
lover, consumer. To express the thing, the particle -ne is 
postfixed ; as, winullikanne, 'the burning thing which con- 

Koiyug, 'fire'; the particle -kan, in the text, is affixed to show 
that the 'fire' is to be construed with the preceding word, 
by which it is thus connected and governed. 

Section 5. 
TJnnug, 'there.' Bo ta, ' only,' a compound of bo, 'self,' and 
ta, ' it is '; meaning it is ' that selfsame thing only' to which it 
is affixed; as, wakol bo ta, 'one only, one by itself, one alone.' 


Section 6. 

Keawai is the Terb 'to be' in the negative form, with korien, 
understood; it is equivalent to 'there be not,' a universal 
denial; wal positively affirms the assertion w^hether negative 
or affirmative; keawai wal wakal, ' there be certainly not 

Murrarag, 'good, well.' 

Section 7. 

Gatun, 'and.' 

Biyug-bai, ' father.' The address to a father or elderly person 
is biyug; to a brother or equal, big-gai. 

G-ikoug, 'hitn,' the separable emphatic pronoun; the objective 
pronoun is bon, 'him.' 

G-ikoug kai, ' on account of him, for him.' 

Geen, 'we,' v. page 17. There is only this one form in the 
nominative ease plural; gearun, 'us,' is the objective case, 
from which all the oblique cases are formed by the addition of 
particles; as, gearun-ba, 'ours'; gearun kai, 'on account 
of us'; geen-bois'we ourselves.' 

Gikoug-kinba, 'with him'; 'remaining with him.' 

Piriwal, ' chief, lord, king.' 

Birug, 'from, outof '; tin, 'from, on account of.' 

WINTA 2.— Paet 2. 

Section 8. 

Kaibug, 'light,' as opposed to darkness. 
Tokoi, ' darkness, night,' as opposed to day. 

Section 9. 

Na, 'see'; hence na-killiko, 'to see,' 'to perceive by the eye.' 
The negative of this is formed by affixing the negative particle, 
korien, to the principal verb, divested of the verbal affix 
-killiko; as, na-korien, 'see not.' 

Bon, ' him,' is the verbal pronoun in the objective case ; gikou g 
is the emphatic form, ' him,' when governed by particles ; -n u g 
is the suffixed particle that denotes the object, as, Eloi-nug. 
Eloi is here the object spoken of, and so is in the objective 
case along with the pronoun, to show that both are under the 
same government of the verb na-korien. 

Section 10. 

Tugun-billeiin, 'was manifested, shown'; from tiigun-billi- 
ko, 'to show as a mark shows'; 'to manifest of itself or of 

Puttdra-kan, 'a flesh-being,' one who is flesh; fromputtara, 
' flesh.' 


Section 11. 

-Niuwara, 'anger'; cf. bukka, ' wrath, rage, fury.' 
Katan, 'is,' the present tense of kakilliko, 'to be' in a state. 
Purreag, 'day.' 

Yarakai, 'evil, bad'; opposed to murrarag, 'good.' 
Tarakai kinko, 'on account of the wicked.' 

Election 12. 

Kauwal, 'great'; kauwal-kauwal, 'very great.' The com- 
parison is drawn always by what the one is and the other is 
not; hence, kauwal kan noa, 'he is great'; Eloi ta, 'God 
is'; warea ta gearunba bulbul, 'little it is our hearts.' 

"Warea, ' little,' in size. 

Bulbul, ' heart' of animals and man ; not ' heart ' of oak or the 

Gurran, 'knows'; the present tense of gurrulliko, 'to know, 
to perceive by the ear, to understand,' but not in any other 
sense; to know a person by sight is gi-milliko; to know 
a thing by sight, na-killiko; to know carnally, boi-bulliko; 
and to know by the touch, nn-mulliko. 

Minnug, as a question, means ' what thing ' is the object ? The 
reduplication, with the particle bo affixed, means ' everything 
itself' as an object. 

Section 13. 

Kaiyu, 'able, powerful, mighty'; kaiyu-kan, 'one who is 
able'; noa, 'he'; Eloi ta, ' God is ' ; yanti-ko, 'for all'; 
minnug-bo minnug-bo-ko, 'for every thing.' 

WINTA 3.— Paet 3. 

Section 2. 

Tan tin koba, ' of all'; koba is the genitive particle used with 
things, whUe -umba is used with person; as, gan-timba? 
'whose'? 'belonging to what person'? mi narig koba? 'belong- 
ing to what thing '? makoro koba, 'belonging to the fish'; 
emmo-iimba, 'mine', 'belonging to me'; Threlkeld-iimba; 
' belonging to Threlkeld.' 

Section 4. 

Gurrulla, imperative, ' know, hearken, listen.' 

Nura, the personal plural nominative pronoun, 'ye '; the objec- 
tive case is nurun, 'you'; nurunb a, 'belonging to you.' 

Tanti, ' thus, in this manner.' 

Niuwoa, the emphatic separable personal pronoun, 'he,' 'it is he'; 
the inseparable verbal pronoun is noa, ' he '; the inseparable 
verbal pronoun in the objective is bon, ' him ', and the separable 
oblique case is gikoug, 'him'; gikoug ko means 'for him'; 
gikoug kai, ' on account of him.' 


Gearun, ' us,' the objective case of geen, ' we.' 

TJma, 'made,' theaoristof the verb 'to make'; hence umulliko, 
'to make, create, do '; 'to cause power, to effect.' In this sentence 
the use of the two forms of the pronoun, 'he,' is seen ; niu- 
woa ta, 'it is he,' emphatically; noa, he,' verbally; gearun, 
' us'; uma, ' made'; the whole means, 'it is he, he us made.' 

Keawai-wal, a universal, absolute denial. 

Geen- bo, 'we ourselves.' 

UmuUi-pa, 'made,' excluding reality of effect; this is expressed 
by the particle, pa, posttixed, along with the negative kea- 

Giko-umba, 'his,' ' belonging to him.' 

Kuri, 'man,' individually or collectively, or 'people,' according 
as the pronoun with it is singular, dual, or plural ; gali kiiri, 
'this man,' as an agent; unni kiiri, 'this man,' as a subject; 
bara kiiri, ' they the men,' 'they the people'; buloara kiiri, 

, ' the two men.' 

Cipu, an adopted word, from the English, 'sheep.' 

Takilli, the act of 'eating'; hence takilliko, 'to be in the act 
of eating'; 'to eat.' 

Gel, the inseparable verbal particle denoting place, 'the place of '; 
takilligel, 'the pasture, the eating-place, the feeding-place '; 
gikoumba, ' belonging to him,' 'his.' 

Section 5. 

Gintoa, the emphatic separable personal nominative pronoun, 

' thou,' 'it is thou who '; ta, ' it is.' 
Gintoa ta, ' it is thou who dost, didst, wilt do,' according to 

the tense of the verb, which in this case is uma, and that, 

being a past aorist, renders it 'didst make,' without reference 

to any particular past time. 
Moroko, 'heaven,' the visible Heavens, the sky, the space above 

our heads. 
Purrai, 'the earth, the land, the ground.' 
Wombul, ' the sea.' 
Tantin gali koba, 'all belonging to these'; yantin, 'all,' 

pluralizes the emphatic demonstrative pronoun gali, 'this'; 

yantin gali, 'all these'; yantin gala, 'all those.' 

Section 8. 

Guraki, 'skilful, wise.' 

TJpin, the present tense of upilliko, 'to exert power,' exclusive 
of the idea of effect upon the object ; as, to put a thing any- 

Tin, ' from, on account of; ' therefore ' as a cause, ' because ,of '; 
umulli tin, 'on account of doing'; gearunba tin, 'on ac- 
count of our.' 


WINTA 4— Paet 4. 

Section 9. 

Tulo a, 'straight,' opposed tocrooked'; 'upright' as to character ; 

'truth' as to expression, opposed to falsehood ; tulo a kan ta, 

' one who is straight, upright, true.' 
Moron, 'life,' opposed to death ; animal, not vegetable, life. 
Kakilli-kan ta, 'it is one who remains, who is, who exists'; 

kakilli from kakilliko, 'to be' in some state. 
Kauwal, 'great'; piriwal kauwal, 'lord or king,' lit., 'great 

chief; kauwal-kauwal, 'great-great,' ' very great.' 
Tanti katai kakilliko, ' thus to be always,' 'to be for ever.' 
Pulul-pulul, 'trembling, shaking.' Kaniin, 'will be.' 
Bukka, 'wrath, rage, fury '; bukka tin, 'onaccountof wrath'- 

gikoumbatin, 'on account of his.' 
Konara, 'a flock, herd, an assembly, a mob, a nation'; yantin 

b ara konara, ' all they, the assemblies or nations.' 
Niuwarin, the causative case of niu war a, 'anger'; niuwarin, 

'because of anger'; 'from or on account of anger,' as a cause. 

Section 10. 
Bapai, ' nigh at hand, close to '; bapai ta ba, 'it is nigh to.' 

Section 11. 

Wiyan, the present tense of wiyelliko, 'to communicate by 
sound, to speak, tell, say, call out '; yantinko wiyanbonba, 
' all when they call on him.' The verbalizing particle, ba, is 
equivalent to ' when,' or ' at the time when ' th0 verbal act or 
state shall be or was, according to the tense of the verb. 

Kalog, 'afar off, distant.' 

Kakillin, ' continuestobe,"is now being'; the present participle 
of the verb kakilliko, 'to be ' in some state. 

Barun kai, 'from, on account of them,' sc, persons. 

Tarakai tin, 'from, on account of the evil,' sc, thing. 

Section 12. 

Wirrilli; hence wirrilliko, ' to wind up as a ball of string.' 
The blacks do this to their long fishing-lines, and opossum-fur 
cords, to take care of them, to preserve them ; hence the verb 
means ' to take care of, to preserve, to keep together, to guide,' 
as a flock of sheep ; wirrilli -kan, ' one who takes care of by 
some act of locomotion, as a watchman going his round. 

Mirral, ' desert, desolate, miserable '; ' a state of want '; mirral 
taunni, 'this is a desert place'; mirral-lag unni, ' this is 
desolate or miserable,' because in a desert there is nothing to 
eat or drink; mirral katan, 'is now at present in a miserable 
or desolate state, in a state of want '; keawai, 'not to be.' 

Keawai wal, 'certainly shall not be '; equivalent therefore tp 
' shall not' ; mirral kaniin, ' shall be in want.' 


Section 13. 

Gurrara-kan, ' one who personally attends to'; gurrarakan 

kauwal, ' one who is yery pitiful.' 
Gurrara-mulli-kan, 'one who causes or exercises attention,' 

' one who does attend to '; the phrase means ' he is a merciful 


WINTA 5.— Paet 5. 
Section 1. 

Goro, 'three'; see page 108. 

Kakilli, 'state of being'; hence kakilliko, ' to be, to exist ' in 
some state; we cannot express 'is dead' by tetti katan, 
because katan implies existence, though we may say moron 
katan, 'is alive,' because existence is implied; 'is dead ' must 
be tetti ka ba, which means 'is in the state of the dead ' 
generally the blacks say kulwon, 'stiff, rigid' for 'dead' 
thus tetti ka ba kulwon is equivalent to 'dead and stiff, 
in opposition to ' a swoon,' which might be the meaning, 
unless circumstances led to another conclusion. 

Wokka, an adverb, 'up,' opposed to bara, 'down'; wokka 
kaba moroko kaba, ' are up in heaven.' 

Biyugbai ta, 'the father it is.' 

Wiyelli-kan ta, 'the one who speaks it is' ; this is the form 
of the word when applied to a person; to a thing, it would 
be wiyellikanne, 

Marai ta, ' the spirit it is,' in opposition to corporeal substance; 
but kurrabag is 'the body,' and mamuya is 'a ghost" 
murrin is another word for 'the body.' 

Tirriyirri, 'sacred, reverend, holy'; not to be regarded but 
with awe, as is the place marked out for mystic rites; a separate 
place not to be profaned by common use, hence holy ; a person 
reverend, to be held in reverence, sacred. Native heralds and 
messengers pass as sacred persons ; they are held in reverence, 
and are unmolested by hostile parties, when on embassies of 
war or peace; yirriyirri-lag means 'one who acts sacredly,' 
one who is holy, separate by privilege of being held sacred or 
in reverence. In the South Sea Islands, a pig devoted to the 
god Oro, in former times, was made sacred by having a red 
feather thrust through and fastened to its ear, and thus the 
reverend pig was privileged to feed anywhere unmolested, as 
being sacred ; nor M'as he confined to a tithe of the produce if 
he broke through into any plantation, but was permitted to eat 
his fill, not, however, without a murmur at the sacred intru- 

Unni, 'this,' as subject or object ; gali, 'this,' as agent; unni 
ta goro ta, 'this it is, the three it is'; wakal bo ta, 'one it is, 
one-self only it is.' 


Section 2. 

Yuka, 'sent'; hence yukulliko, 'to send ' a personj but to 
send property is tiyumbilliko. Tinal, 'son.' 

Kakilliko, ' for-to be'; here the infinitive form, as usual, denotes 
the purpose. 

Miromulli-kan means 'one who keeps or takes care of ; from 
miromulliko, 'to keep with care'; miromullikan noa 
kakilliko means ' he is for-to-be one who keeps with care,' 
hence a 'Saviour.' Fropi the same root, miroma also is a 
'Saviour.' 'A deliverer' would be mankilli-kan, 'one who 
takes hold of ' ; but then the evil must be expressed out of 
which the person is taken or to be taken. 

Tantin purrai ko, 'for all lands'; 'for all the earth'; 'for the 
whole world.' 

Section 3. 

Uloi-to noa, 'God he,' as a personal agent; pital ma kauwal, 
' causes great joy,' sc, towards. 

Tantin kuri, 'all men.' 

Gukulla ta noa, 'it is he gave'; from gukilliko, 'to give'; 
the ta, 'it is,' affirms the act. 

"Wakal bo ta, ' only one '; ZiY., 'one-self only.' 

G-ali ko, 'for this purpose'; gali, the emphatic pronoun, 'this'; 
gala, 'that'; galea, 'the other'; the demonstrative pronouns 
are unni, ' this '; unnoa, ' that ' ; untoa, ' the other.' 

Tantin-to ba, 'that all who' ; the particle, to, denotes agency, 
and ba verbalizes. 

<jrurran, 'believe,' the present tense of gurrilliko, ' to hear, 
to believe.' 

G-ikoug kin, 'on account of him,' as a cause; for, if he speaks, 
you hear ; he is therefore the cause of your hearing, and if you 
assent to that which he says, you continue to hear; if not, you 
do not hearken to him, or else you only pretend to hear him ; 
the verbal objective pronoun 'him' is bon; gurran bon is 
the present tense, 'hear him,' but has no reference to the effect 
of that hearing, whereas the use of the other pronoun gikoug 
kin implies that they hear him so as to attend to what he says 
and believe. 

Keawai wal bara tetti kaniin, ' they certainly shall not be 
in a state of death.' 

Kulla wal, 'but certainly' shall, or 'because certainly' they 

Tanti katai, 'in this manner always.' 

Barunba, ' belonging to them,' 'theirs.' 

KakillinuQ, 'will be and continue to be'; from kakilliko, 'to 
be, to exist' in some state. 

Moron, 'life'; kakillinun moron means 'a future state of 
being, and continuing to be, alive.' 


Section 4>. 
Pulli, 'voice.' 

IJpea, 'put forth'; from upilliko, 'to exert power.' 
Itharael-iimba; Israelis the propername, introduced ; -umha, 

the particle denoting 'belonging to ' a person only; 'belonging 
•to'_ a thing is koba; 'belonging to a place' is -kal (masc), 

-kalin (fern.). 
Wiyelliko, 'to speak.' 

Pital-mulliko, 'to cause peace, joy, gladness.' 
I6thu-ko Kritht-ko, 'Jesus Christ,' as the agent; the particle 

ko, denoting agency, must be added to each word, to show 

that both are in the same relation to the verb. 
Niuwoa-bo, 'himself it is who is,' emphatic. 

Section 6. 

Gearunba katan, 'is belonging to us' and remains so; equi- 
valent to, ' for we have.' 
"Wiyelli-kan, ' one who speaks '; 'an advocate.' 
Biyugbai toa ba katan, 'it remains with the Father.' 

WINTA 6.— Paet 6. 

Section 10. 

Murrin, 'body' of a person; murrin.nurunba, 'your body.' 
Kokera yirriyirri ta, ' it is a sacred house,' 'a temple.' 
Marai yirriyirri koba, 'belonging to the sacred Spirit.' 
"Wakalla murrin, ' one body is.' 

Section 11. 

Tanti nurun wiya, 'in the manner as called you'; equivalent 
to, 'you are called '; nurun is in the objective case. 

Kotelli ta, 'in the thinking.' 

Nurunba, 'belonging to you,' '-your'; 'of you.' 

"Wiyatoara, 'that which is said.' 

"Wakalla Piriwal, 'one Lord is'; wakalla Marai, 'one 
' Spirit is.' 

Wakalla gurrulliko, ' one is for-to hear or obey.' 

Wakalla kurrimulliko, 'one is for-to cleanse' with water. 

Wakalla Eloi ta, 'one is Grod it is.' 

Biyugbai ta yantin koba, 'father it is of all.' 

Wokka-kaba noa yantin ko, 'up above he is for all.' 

G-atun noa yantin koa, 'and he all with.' 

(a-atun murrug kaba nurun kinba, 'and within you,' «c., all; 
murrug, 'within^ inside.' 

Section 12. 

Tantin barun yemmaman marai-to Eloi koba ko, 'all 
them lead the spirit does,' belonging-to-Q-od does,' equivalent 
to the passive ; the t o and k o are only signs of agency g,nd ijot 


the verb 'to do'; in the translation the verb 'does' is onlyused 
to show the effect of the particles; no reason can be assigned 
why the particles may not be used indiscrimiQately the one for 
the other, excepting euphony, because the agency is in the o, 
which denotes purpose. 

Temmamulliko, 'to lead as by the hand'; the to in the textis 
added to INIarai, because that is the subject of the verb, and 
the ko (=to) is added to Eloi koba, because that, too, is an 
essential portion of the subject. ,^ j , 

Wonnai ta bara Eloi koba, 'children it is they of G-od.' 

Section 13. 
Niuwara bug-ga kora bon, ' angry purposely cause not him.' 
Marai yirriyirri-lag Eloi koba, 'Spirit sacred of G-od.' 

Section 14. 
G-an-to ba yarakai wiyanun gikoug, ' whosoever-there-be 

evil will-speak concerning him.' 
Tinal kuri koba, 'the son belonging-to man'; 'the son of man.' 
Kamiinbinun wal bon, ' suffered-to-be shall-certainly-be he.'* 
"Wonta noa ba yarakai wiyanun gikoug marai yirri- 
yirri-lag, 'whereas he evil 'will-speak concerning-him, the 
spirit sacred.' 
Keawai wal bon kamiinbinun, 'not certainly he shall-be- 
suffered-to-be,' or remain, or exist; according to the idea of 
punishment which the speaker wishes to convey.* 

WINTA 7.— Paet 7. 

LrEE, ii. 9-14. 

Verse 9. 

Gatun noa agelo Tehda-umba, 'and he the angel belong- 

Tananuwanoabarun-kin, 'approached them'; 'came to them.* 
Gatun killiburra Tehda-iimba, 'and shining belonging- 
to-Jehovah'; from killibinbin, ' to be bright ; for the verbal 
form burra, see page 37. 
Kakulla barun katoa, ' was them with.' 
Kinta gaiya bara kakulla, 'fear then they were-in-a-state-of.' 

Verse 10. 
Gatun ageloko noa wiya barun, 'and he the angel told them.' 
Kinta kora, 'fear not.' 

Kulla nurun bag wiyan, 'because you I tell.' 
Totog murrarag kakilliko pitalko, 'news good, for-to-be 

Kakilliko yantin ko kuri ko, 'to-be all-for men-for.' 

* Bon is here in the objective ; for the reason why, see pages 22 and 30. 


Verse 11. 

Kulla nurunba porkulleun unnipurreag, 'because beloBg- 

ing-to-you born-of-itselE-is this day.' 
Kokera Dabid-iimba ka, 'house-at belonging-to-David-at '; 

the -ra of kokera is an ablatiye form ; see page 16. 
Golomullikan ta noa, Kritht ta Piriwal ta, 'one-who- 

saves (by personal causation) it-is he, Christ it-is, the Chief 

or Lord it-is.' 

Verse 12. 

Gatun unni tiigakaniin nurunba, 'and this mark will-be 

Naniin nura bpbogaug, 'see-will ye the-babe.' 

Gamatoara kirrikin taba, ' that- wnich-is-wrapped in-the gar- 
ment,' i.e., 'soft raiment.' 

Kakillin ba takilligel laba, 'remaining-atthe-eating-place-at.' 

Verse 13. 

Gatun tanoa-kal-bo, ' and at-that-self-same-instant.' 
Paipea konara moroko-kal gikoug katoa agelo katoa, 

' appeared host Heayen-of him-with angel-with.' 
Murrarag wiyellinbon Eloinug giakai, 'good, telling him, 

God (the object), thus'; equivalent to, 'praising God, and 


Verse 14. 

Wiyabunbilla bon murrarag Eloinug, ' let him speak well 
God ' (the object) ; i.e., ' let persons speak good or well o£ 
God.' This is the native way of expressing our passive voice, 
' let God be praised '. 

Wokka kaba moroko kaba, 'up-in Heaven-in. 

Gatun kamiinbilla pital purrai take, 'and let-there-be- 
caused- to-be peace earth for.' 

Murrarag umatoara kiiri ko, ' good what-is-done men-for.' 

"WINTA 8.— Paet 8. 
Section 1. 
Eloi-to noa gurrara-ma korien barun agelo yarakai 
umullikan, ' God he regarded not them angels evil who-do.' 
Wonto bawareka noa barun bara koiyug kako tarta- 
ro kako, ' whereas cast-away he them down fire for tartarus 
for ' ; ' tartarus ' is a word introduced. 

Section 2. 
Wiyatoara ta yantin kuri-ko wakalla tetti bulliko, 

'that-which-is-said it-is all men-for once dead to become.' 
Gatun yukita gaiya gurrulliko, 'and afterwards then to-per- 

ceive-by-the ear,' sc, the sentence. 


Section 3. 
Takoai-kan bag moron kauun? ' m-what-mannner-of -being 

I life mll-be-in-a-state-of '? i.e., ' how can I be alive.' 
G-urrulla bon Piriwalnug, lethunug Knthtnug, 'hear 

him, the Lord Jesus Christ.' . 

Moron gaiya bi kanim, ' life then thou wilt-be-m-a-state-ot. 
Gatun kirrikin ta tempel kako, 'and the-veil it-is the 

temple-at.' . 

Tiir-kulleiin bulwa koa, 'rent-of -its-own-power m-the-midst, 

Wokka-kabirug unta-ko baran-tako, ' from the top thence 

to the bottom '; lit , 'up-from there-to down-to.' 

^°The peculiarity of the verbal form of yiir, ' a rent,'— so 
called from the noise of a piece of cloth when tearing,— is shewn 
in the following specimen: — 

Tiir-kulleiin, ' rent,' 'has rent' of itself, of its own power. 
Yiir-bug-ga, 'rent,' some person has. 
Tiir-burrea, 'rent,' some instrument has. 
Yiir-lag, 'rent,' is declaratively. 
Tiir-wirrea, 'rent,' some motion has rent ; as when a flag, or 

a sail of a ship flapping in the wind, is rent. 

Thus, without a clear idea of the nature of the roots of the 
affixes, no one could understand the difference of the five kinds 
of 'rendino;.' 

Compound Words. 

Like the North American Indians, although to a less extent, 
'Dur aborigines have long composite words in their language. 
Eor instance, to express the abstract idea contained in the Englis'.i 
■n-ord 'lust,' they would say kotilliyarakaigearunba, 'our 
evil thinking '; and for the contrary idea, kotillimurrarag- 
geariinba, 'our good thinking.' Now, either of these words, 
when pronounced, appears to be but one word, whereas each con- 
iaius three words combined, namely: — 

(L) Kotilli (from simple root kot), ' the act of thinking'; 
(2.) geariinba, 'belonging to us '; (3.) 3-arakai, ' evil '; mur- 
rarag, 'good.' From the root kot come the forms, kotilliko, 
infill., 'to think,' kotan, jjiTs. indie. ,\.oi\n\xw, fat. iMrfic.,kotta, 
2)ast indie., kotillin, i^'es. part., kotilliela, past partieiple. 

Again, such a word as tiirburroabiinbilliko, ' to permit to 

be torn,' is made up ' of tiir, a root which expresses the idea of 

tearing, -bur re a, the verbal particle of instrumental agency, 

-bun, 'permit,' -illi, the formative of a verbal noun, and -ko, 

for the purpose of.' And so also with other examples. 




1. Eastern Australia {T\iveVi.e\(L) ; 2. South Western Australia 
(Captain Grey's Vocabulary); 3. South Australia (TeicheJmann). 

I (emphatic) — 1. Gratoa; 2. G-anya ; Nadjo; Q-aii. 

Thou — 1. G-intoa ; 2. G-innei; 3. JSTinna. 

"We— 1. G-een; 2. Gancel; 3. G-adlu. 

Ye— 1. Nura; 2. Nurag ; 3. Na. 

They — 1. Bara ; 2. Balgim ; 3. Barna. 

"We two (dual)— 1. Bali; 2. ; 3. G-adlukurla. 

Te two — 1. Bula; 2. Bulala; 3. Niwadlukurla. 

This (emphatic)— 1. Gali; 2. Gali ; 3. G-adlu. 

That (emphatic) — 1. Gala; 2. Gala; 3. Parla. 

Who?— 1. Gan?; 2. Gan ? ; 3. Gamia? 

Who (is the agent)— 1. Ganto ?; 2. Gando ?; 3. Ganto ? 

Whose?— 1. Gannug?; 2. Gannog?; 3. Gaityurlo ? 

To strike (imperative) — 1. Buwa; 2. Buma; 3. Bumandi. 

To be wroth — 1. Bukka; 2. Bukkan; 3. Tagkarro. 

Tes (assent)— 1. E-e ; 2. B-ee ; 3. Ne. 

On account of? — 1. -tinke?; 2. -gin ge ? ; 3. birra. 

Cold — 1. Kurkur; 2. Grurgal; 3. Manyapaianna. 

Heat— 1. Karrol; 2. Kallarruk ; 3. Wottita. 

Where?— 1. Wonti?; 2. Winji ? ; 3. "Wanti? 

To tear {pres!) — 1. Yiiran ; 2. Jiran; 3. Tarurendi. 

Presently — 1. Kabo; 2. Kaabo ; 3. Gaiinni ; Tagadti. 

To take (imperative) — 1. Mara; 2. Mara; 3. Marrar. 

More— 1. Bati; 2. Mate; 3. Muinmo. 

Q-o quickly — 1. "Wollawollag ; 2. Welawellag ; 3. Warruanna. 

To see— 1. JSTakilli; 2. Nago ; 3. Nakkondi. 

To blow (i.e., puff) — 1. Bombilli; 2. Bobon ; 3. Biintondi. 

To fly— 1. Burkilli; 2. Burdag; 3. 

To speak — 1. Wiyelli; 2. Wagon; 3. AVagondi. 

Water (fresh) — 1. Kokoin;Bato; 2. Kowin; Badto; 3. Kowi. 

Dung (excrement) — 1. Konug; 2. Konug; 3. Kudna. 

The tongue— 1. Tullun; 2. Tallug; 3. Tadlaga. 

The throwing stick — 1. "Wommara ; 2. Meera ; 3. Meedla. 

Smoke — 1. Poito ; 2. Buyu; 3. Poiyu. 

Wood— 1. Kulai; 2. Kalla ; 3. Karla. 

The hand— 1. Matlara; 2. Mara; 3. Murra. 

The ribs — 1. Narra ; 2. Narra; 3. Tinninya. 

The toes— 1. Tinna ; 2. Tjenna; 3. Tidna. 

A crow (from its cry)— 1. "Wakun , 2. Quaggun ; 3. Kui. 

The wind— 1. Wibbi ; "Wippi; 2. 3. Waitpi. 


The Loed's Peatee, 
In tte language of tte Aborigines of Lake Macquarie. 

Biyugbai gearunba wokka kaba moroko kaba katan; 

Father our up in heaven in art; 

kamunbilla yitirra giroumba yirriyirri kakilliko; 
let-caused-to-be name thy sacred for-to-be ; 

paipibunbilla Piriwal koba giroumba; gurrabunbilla 

let-to-appear King-belonging-to thy ; _ let-to-obey _ 

wiyellikanne giroumba; yanti purrai, yanti ta 

word thy ; as earth in as 

moroko kaba, guwa gearun purreag ka yanti katai 
heaven in ; give to-us day at aa always 

takilliko; gatun warekulla gearunba yarakai 

for-to-eat ; and cast-way our . _ evil 

umatoara yanti ta geen wareka yantin ta wiyapaiyeen 
that-is-done as we cast-away all spokeu-but- not-done 

gearunba ; gatun yuti yikora gearun yarakai 
belonging-to-us ; and guide not us evil 

umulli-kan kolag ; miromulla gearun yarakai 

one-who-caases-to-do towards ; cause-to-deliver us evil 

tabirug; kulla ta giroumba ta Piriwal koba gatun 
from ; because thine King-belonging-to and 

killibinbin yanti katai. Amen. 

bright-shining thus always. Amen. 

Tbe Author trusts tbat he has now placed on permanent record 
the language of the aborigines of this part of the colony, before 
the speakers themselves become totally extinct ; and if, in his 
endeavour to aid the purpose of scientific enquiry, his work may 
seem to fall short, and so disappoint the expectations of those 
who take an interest in ethnological pursuits, he can only state 
that, in the midst of attention to manifold engagements in other 
paramount duties, no pains have been spared on the subject, 
and therefore his only apology is, that with slender means he 
has done his best. 


Sydney, New South Wales, 

November 26, 1850. 















It is a matter of fact that the aborigines of these colonies and 
of the numerous islands of the Pacific Ocean are rapidly becoming 
extinct. The cause of their extinction is mysterious. Does it 
arise from the iniquity of this portion of the human race having 
become full ? — or, that the times of these Gentiles are fulfilled ?— 
or, is it but the natural efiects of iniquity producing its conse- 
quent ruin to the workers thereof in accordance with the natural 
order of God's government of the universe ? Whatever may be 
the result of speculative theories in answer to these queries, 
there remains one grand question incontrovertible, " Shall not the 
Judge of all the Earth do right ?" 

The providence of God has permitted ancient nations, together 
with their languages, and numerous tribes, with their various 
tongues, to pass away and others to take possession of and dwell 
in their tents, just as we in New South Wales and the neigh- 
bouring colonies now do, in the place of the original inhabitants 
of the land. 

The numbers of the aborigines, both in Australia and the South 
Sea Islands, have always been overrated, and the efibrts that have 
been made, on Christian principles, to ameliorate their condition, 
have been more abundant in proportion to the number of these 
aborigines, than have ever been any similar efibrts towards the 
hundreds of millions of heathens in other parts of the world. 

My own attempt in favour of the aborigines of New South 
Wales was commenced in the year 1824, under the auspices of 
the London Missionary Society, at the request of the deputation 
from that Institution sent out for the purpose of establishing 
Missions in the East, and urged likewise by the solicitations of 
the local Government of this colony. The British Government 
sanctioned the project by authorizing a grant of 10,000 acres of 
land, at Lake Macquarie, in trust for the said purpose, at the 
recommendation of Sir Thomas Brisbane, the then Governor of 
the Australian Colonies. 

In 1839, the London Missionary Society abandoned the mission, 
broke faith with me, and left me to seek such resources as the 
providence of God might provide, after fifteen years' service in 
their employ. The Colonial Government, being perfectly acquainted 
with all the circumstances of the case, stepped in and enabled me 
to continue in my attempt to obtain a knowledge of the aboriginal 
language, and the British Government subsequently confirmed 
the new arrangement. 

126 THE auihok's preface. 

Circumstances, which no human power could control, brought 
the mission to a final termination on December 31, 1841, when the 
mission ceased, not from any want of support from the Govern- 
ment, nor from any inclination on my own part to retire from the 
work, but solely from the sad fact that the aborigines themselves 
had then become almost extinct, for I had actually outlived a very 
large majority of the blacks, more especially of those with whom 
I had been associated for seventeen years. The extinction of the 
aborigines is still progressing throughout these colonies. The 
last man of the tribe which formerly occupied the site of Sydney 
may now be seen sitting by the way side, a paralytic, soliciting 
alms from passers by, and this he does from choice, rather than 
enter the Benevolent Asylum. Those who drive by in their 
carriages along the South Head Eoad often throw him a sixpence 
or so, and thus he is bountifully provided for in his native and 
beloved stale of freedom. 

Under such circumstances, the translation of the Gospel by St. 
Luke can only be now a work of curiosity,*- — a record of the 
language of a tribe that once existed, and would have, otherwise, 
been numbered with those nations and their forgotten languages, 
and peoples with their unknown tongue.s, who have passed away 
from this globe and are buried in oblivion. 

Elliot, the missionary to the North American Indians, made a 
translation of the Scriptures into their language, which has recently 
been published ; but only one Indian now remains who knows 
that dialect. 

This translation of the Gospel of Luke into the language of the 
aborigines, was made by me with the assistance of the intelligent 
aboriginal, M'Gill, whose history is attached, f Thrice I wrote it, 
and he and I went through it sentence by sentence, and word 
for word, while I explained to him carefully the meaning as we 
proceeded. M'Gill spoke the English language fluently. The 
third revisal was completed in 1831. I then proceeded with the 
Gospel of Mark, a selection of prayers from the Book of Common 
Prayer, with which to commence public worship with the few sur- 
viving blacks ; I prepared a Spelling book ; I had also commenced 
the Gospel of Matthew, when the mission was brought to its final 

Not long ago, I accidentally found at a book-stall a copy of the 
first specimens of an Australian language, which I published some 

* Our author did not know that his Awabakal blacks were only a sub- 
tribe, and that their brethren, for some hundreds of miles along the coast 
to the north and south of Lake Macquarie, spoke a language which is 
essentially the same. Northwards from the Hunter River to the Macleay, 
this language is still spoken. — Ed. 

t See page 88.— Ed. 


time in 1826 ; this was done to satisfy my friends of the impro- 
priety of introducing the English sound of the vowels instead of 
those of the Continent, which are also in use in the South Sea 

This present copy of the Gospel by Luke is the fourth re-written 
revisal of the work, and yet it is not offered as a perfect transla- 
tion ; it can only be regarded by posterity as a specimen of the 
language of the aborigines of New Holland, or, as a simple monu- 
mental tablet, on which might be truthfully inscribed, as regards 
the unprofitable servant who attempted to ameliorate the pitiable 
condition of the aborigines and attain a knowledge of their lan- 
guage : — " He has done what he could." 


Sydney, New South Wales, 

15th August, 1857. 

[Note. — The original manuscript was illuminated for Sir George Grey 
by Annie Layard, daughter of Sir A. H. Layard, the explorer of Nineveh. 

The original title page is this : — 





Translated into the language of the aborigines, located in the 
vicinity of Hunter's Eiver, Lake Macquarie, <fec., New South 
Wales, in the year 1831, and further revised by the translator, 
L. E. Threlkeld, Minister, 1857.— Ed.] 



WoNTO ba kauwallo mankuUa unnoa tara tugunbilliko gurrAnto 
g6en kinba, 

2. Yanti bo gearun kin bara gukuUa, unnoa tara nakillikan 
kurri-kurri kabirug gatun mankillikan wiyellikanne koba. 

3. Murrarag tia katan yantibo, koito bag ba tuig ko giroug, 
Teopolo murrarag ta, 

4. Grurra-uwil koa bi tuloa, unnoa tara wiyatoara banug ba. 

5. Yanti-kalai ta Herod noa kakulla, Piriwal noa kakuUa lu- 
daia ka, kakulla noa tarai f hiereu Dhakaria yitirra, Abia-umba ko- 
nara : gatun nukug gikoumba yin41kun koba Aaron-umba, giakai 
bountoa yitirra Elidhabet. 

6. Buloara bula kakulla murrarag Eloi kin, mikan ta gurrai- 
yell^iin bula Yehoa-ko noa ba wiyellikanne yarakai ma korien. 

7. Keawaran bula wonnai korien kuUa, bountoa Elidhabet gur- 
rauwai ; gatun bula ba garrogbai kakulla. 

8. G-atun yakita kakulla, umulliela noa ba Eloi kin makan ta, 
yirrug ka gikoug kin fhiereu koba, 

9. Yanti kiloa f hiereu koba uman, yirrug ka gikoumba ta upulli- 
ko bon poraporakoiyug ko uwa noaba fnao koba Yehoa kai koba. 

10. Gatun yanti bo yantinto konara kiiri wiyelliela warai ta 
yakita winelliela ba porapora. 

11. Gatun paip6a noa fagelo Yehoa-umba gikoug kin, garokil- 
liela noa tugkagkirri ka koiyug kon ta porapora ka. 

12. Gatun nakulla bon noa ba Dhakaria ko, unma bon noa ba, 
kinta gaiya noa ba kakulla. 

13. Wonto ba agelo wiya noa, Kinta kora bi kauwa, Dhakaria; 
kulla gurra ta wiyellikanne giroumba, gatun nukug ko giroumba 
ko wonnai kanun giroumba, gatun wiy aniin bi giakai yitirra loanne. 

14. Gatun pital bi kaniin, pital kauwalkan kanun p6rkullinun 
gikoug kinbirug. 

15. Kauwal wal noa kaniin, mikan ta Yehoa kin, gatun keawai 
wal noa f wain pitaniin, keawai tarere, gatun warakag wal noa wit- 
ellinun Marai yirriyirri kan birug ko, waraka birug tunk^ ta birug. 

16. Gatun noa wiyaniin wal barunkauwal-kauwal wonnai Itha- 
rael-umba Yehoa-kin ko Eloi ta barilnba. 

+ This mark is placed before all common nouns which are adapted from 
Greek, Latin, or English ; whichever equivalent word in these languages 
snits the aboriginal tongue best, that word I have introduced into the text. 
In the original text, many of the borrowed words, and especially the proper 
names, could not be pronounced by a native black. — Ed. 


17. Gatun wal noa uwaniin gikoug kin mikan ta kaiyu ka 
Marai ta Elia-timba, warbuggulliko bulbul biyugbai tara koba 
wonnai kolag, gatim barun kinko tuloa kako; uma-uwil koa barun 
kiiri kurrikurri Yehoa kinko. 

18. Gratun noa Dhakariako wiya bon agelonug, Yakoai kan bag 
gurraniin uimil kulla bag gurrogbai, gatun nukug emmoiimba 
gurrog geen. 

19. Gatun noa ageloto wiya bon, Gatoa Gabriel, gakillin Eloi 
kin mikan ta ; gatun yuka tia wiyelliko giroug, gatun ttigun- 
billiko gali tara ko pitalmullikanne ko. 

20. A ! gurrulla bi, g6g ko wal bi kaniin, gatun kaiyu korien 
wal bi kanun wiyelli ta, yaki-kalai tako purreag kako unni tara 
kanua ba, kulla bi ba gurra korien wiyellikanne emmoumba, kabo 
kaniin wal unni tara. 

21. Gatun bara kiiri ko mittia Dhakarianug, gatun kotelliela 
minnug-bulliela noa tunk^a noa fnao ka. 

22. Gatun noa ba paikull^ua warrai ta, kaiyu korien noa wiyelli 
ko barun ; gatun bara gurra Marai noa nakulla fnao ba; kulla noa 
wauwal-wauwal uma barun gatun, garokilliela noa gog ko. 

23. Gatun kirun kabulla purreag gikoiimba umullikanne, waita 
gaiya noa uwi kokera ko gikoug ka tako. 

24. Gatun yukita purreag ka Elidhabet gikoumba nukug wara- 
kag bountoa, gatun yuropulleiin bountoa war^n yellenna ka, wiyel- 
liela bountoa, 

25. Yanti noa tia Yehdako um4 nakulla noa tia ba purreag 
ka, mankilliko barun ba b6elmullitin kiiri tin. 

26. Tarai ta yellenna ka fbek ka, Gabriel ta agelo ta puntimai 
ta wiyabunbia bon Eloi kinbirug uwoUiko, purrai kolag Galilaia 
koba, giakai Nadharet, 

27. Mirral lako wiyatoara ko, kiiri kako Yotbep kinko yitirra 
ko, wonnai taro noa Dabidiimba ; gatun mii-ral giakai yitirra Mari. 

28. Gatun noa agelo uwa bounnoun kin, gatun wiyelliela, A ! 
murrarag umatoara bi Yeli6a katan giroug katoa ba ; murrarag 
umatoara bi nukug ka. 

29. Gatun bountoa ba nakulla bon, kinta bountoa kakulla wi- 
yellita gikoug kin, gatun kotelliela bountoa minarig unni totog 

30. Gatun ageloko wiya bounnoun, Kinta kora bi, Mari : kulla 
bin pitalmatoara Eloito noa. 

31. A, gurralia bi, warak^g bi kaniin, wonnai kan giroug kin 
pika ka, gatun yinal p6rkullinun, gatun bi giakai yitirra lETHU. 

32. Gatun wal noa kauwal kanun, gatun wal bon wiyaniin gia 
kai Yinal ta wokka ka ko ; gatun noa Yeb6ako Eloito guniin wa. 
bon yellawollikanne biyugbai koba Dabidumba gikoumba : 

33. Gatun noa wiyanun wal yanti-katai barun Yakobumba; ga- 
tun gikoumba piriwalkanne keawai wal kaniin wirto. 


34. Wiya gaiya bountoa bon agelonug Mariko, Yakoai ke unni 
kaniin, kuUa bag kiiri korien 1 

35. G-atun noa ageloko wiya bounnoun, Tanan wal noa uwanun 
Maraikan murraragkan giroug kinko, gatun kaiyuko wokka tinto 
wutinim wal giroug, koito ba unnoa ta murrarag porkulliniin gir- 
oug kin; wiyanun giakaiyinal ta Eloi koba. 

36. A, gurralia, giroumba wuggunbai Elidhabet, warakag boun- 
toa yinai gurrogeen koba bounnoun ba ; gatun unni ta yellenna 
fhek ta bounnoun-kai-kan wiyatoara gurra-uvai. 

37. KuUa gurakito ke noa Eloito kaiyukanto ke. 

38. G-atun bountoa Mariko wiya, Kauwa yanti kamunbilla tia 
wiya bi ba ; gatoa mankillikan Yeboa-iimba. G-atun noa agelo piin- 
tirkull^iin bounnoun kinbirug. 

39. Gatun bountoa Mari bugkuU^un unti-tara purreag ka, gatun 
uwa bountoa karakai bulkara kolag, kokerd ko Yuda kako ; 

40. Gatun bountoa uwa kokera ko Dhakaria-iimba kako, gatun 
bugbug ka bounnoun Elidhabetnug. 

41. Gatun yakita gaiya gurr^ bountoa ba Elidbabetto pulli Mari- 
limba, tulutilleun gaiya wonnai bounnoun kin pika ka; gatun 
warapal bounnoun ba Elidhabet kin Maraikanto murrarigko : 

42. Gatun bountoa wiyell^iin pulli wokka wiyelliela, murrarag 
umatoara bi nukug ba; gatun murrarag uniatoara peU giroumba 
pika koba. 

43. Gatun minarig tin tia unni, tanan uwa tunkan jairiwal koba 
eramoumba ? 

44. Kullii bag ba gurni pulli giroumba gurreug ka emmoug 
kin, wonnai gaiya tia tulutilleun emmoug kin pika ka pital ko. 

45. Gatun murrarag umatoara bountoa gurra; kulla unnoa 
tara kaniin umatoara, wiyatoara bounnoun kin Yehoa kinbirug. 

46. Gatun Mariko bountoa wiya, " Maraito emmoiiraba ko wi- 
yan murrai bon Yebdanug, 

47. Gatun maraito emmoiimba ko pital \imulleun Eloi kinMiro- 
ma emmoiimba. 

48. Kulla noa nakulla mirral bountoa ba umuUikan gikoumba; 
A, unti birug yantinto tia wiyanun murrarag upatoara. 

49. Kulla noa tia kaiyukanto unnoa tara kauwal uma; gatun 
yitirroa gikoumba murrarag upatoara katan. 

50. Gatun murrai gikoumba barun kinba kintakan bon katau 
willuggel kiiri kabirug tarai kiiri kabirug. 

51. Tugunbilleiin noa kaiyukan turrug gikoumba ; wupea noa 
barun garug gara yaroyaro billbiil ban kotellikanne. 

52. Upea noa baran parran kaiyukan yellawollig^l labirug bar- 
iinba, gatun wupea noa barun mirral wokka lag. 

53. Gukulla noa kapirrikan ko murrarag ta ; gatun noa barun 
]iar61kan yuka mirral ko. 

54. Umulleiin noa gikoumba umuUikan Itharaelnug, gurrulli li- 
rug gikoug kinbirug murrai ta gikoumba; 


55.^ Yanti wiya noa ba barun biyugbai to gearunba, Abaram- 
nug, gatun barun wonnai tara gikoumba yanti katai." 

56. G-atun Mari bountoa kakulla bounnoun katoa goro ka yellen- 
naka, gatun willugbagaiy a bountoa bounnoun ka tako kokera ko. 

57. Yakita gaiya Elidhabetumba kakulla wonnai p6rkullinua; 
gatun yinal bounnoun ba porkull^iin. 

58. G-atun gurra bara kotita ko bounnoun bako, yanti Yeboa- 
ko noa ba murrarag uma bounnoun kin; gatun bara pital kakulla 
gatun bountoa. 

59. G-atun yakita gaiya purreag ka, uwa gaiya bara kulla- 
buUiko -wonnai ko; gatun bara wiya bon giakai Dhakaria, biyugbai 
tin yitirra tin. 

60. G-atun tunkanto wiya bountoa, Yanoa ; kulla bon wiyanun 
giakai loanne. 

61. G-atun bara bounnoun wiya, Keawaran girofimba kotita wi- 
ya ba gialtai unni yitirra. 

62. Gatun bara tuga umulleun bon biyugbai ko gikoumba ko, 
wonn^n noa bon yitirra wiyiinun 1 

63. G-atun noa wiya upulligel ko, gatun noa upa wiyelliela, 
Yitirra noa giakai loanne. Gatun bara- yantinto kota. 

64. Gatun tanoa-kal-bo kurraka bugkulleiin gikoumba, gatun 
bon gikoumba tallag balbal kakulla, gatun noa wiya, gatun noa 
wiya murrai Eloinug. 

65. Gatun bara kinta kakulla yantin ta untakal ; gatun unni tara 
wiyellikanne tot6g kakulla yantin ta kalog kpa bulkaroa Yuda ka. 

66. Gatun bara yantin to unnoa tara gurra wunkuUa barun kin 
bulbil la, wiyelliela, Yakoai unni ta wonnai kaniin ! Gatun matt ara 
Yehoa-umba gikoug kin katan. 

67. Gatun noa Dhakaria ko biyugbai gikoumba, warapal bon 
wup^a Marai to yirriyirri to, gatun noa wiyelliela giakai, 

68. " Kamunbilla bon Yelioanug Eloinug Itbarael koba pilal- 
liko ; kulla noa uwa barun nakilliko, gatun wirrilliko kiiri ko 
gikoug kaiko. 

69. Gatun bougbugga noa nulka^-nulka golomullikan gearun, 
kokerd Dabid-iimba ka gikoumba mankillikan ; 

70. Yanti noa ba wiya kurraka ko fpropet koba ko yirriyirri- 
kan to yantin to, puri-ai yantin kurrikurri kabirug : 

71. Goloma-uwil koa gearun gearunba bukka tukulla biriig, 
gatun mattara birug barun kinbirug yantin tabirug yarakai wil- 
ing kabirug, 

72. TJmulliko murrai ko wiyatoara barun kin biyugbai ko 
gearunba, gatun gurrulliko gikoumba wiyatoara yirriyirri ta ; 

73. Pirral-man noa gali wiyelliela bon Abaramnug biyugbai ge- 

74. Giiwil koa gearun noa, mankilliko gearun mattara birug 
bukkakan tabirug gearunba, gurra-uwil koa geen bon kinta kc- 
rien ko, 


75. Yirriyirrikan gatun murraragkanmitanta gikoug kin, yan- 
tin ta purreag ka moron gearunba. 

76. Gatun gintoa, wonnai ta, wiyatiiin bin yitirrafpropet ta 
■wokka kako ; kuUabi uwauiin ganka mikan ta Yeboa kin, upulliko 
yapug ko gikoumba ; 

77. Gukilliko gurruUiko moron ko gikoug kaiko kiiri ko, ware- 
warekan yarakai barunba, 

78. Murrai tin kauwollin Eloi koba tin gearunba, gurrakan 
wolfka kabirug tanan uwa gearun kinko, 

79. Grukilliko purreag barun ko yellawolli ta ba ko gorogori 
ba ko, gatun komirra kaba tetti koba, yutilliko tinna ko gearunba 
ko yapug koa pital koba koa. 

80. Cratun wonnai poaikull^un, gatun guraki noa maraikan ko, 
kulla noa korug koa yakita ko purreag kako paip6a noa ba Itharael 


Yakita purreag ka, wiya noa Kaithariko Augutoko, upa-uwil koa 
bara yantin kuri murrapulliko. 

2. Gratun unni murrapuUikanne una yakita Kurinio noa ba fko- 
bana kakulla Thuria ka. 

3. Gratun yantin bara uwa murrapulliko barun ka tako. 

4. Gatun noa Yothep uwa wokka-lag Galilaia kabirug, kokeri 
birug Nadharet tabirug, ludaia kolag, kokerd kolag Dabidumba 
kolag, glakai yitirra Bethlehem ; (kulla noa kokera koba gatun 
kotita koba Dabidumba ;) 

5. Murrapulliko bon gatun Mari bounnoun katoa, wiyatoara 
nukug gikoumba, wonnai kan bountoa warakag. 

6. Gatun yakita kakulla, kakulla bara ba unta, purreag ka 
katan p6rkulli koa bountoa ba wonnai. 

7. Gatun bountoa p6rbuggull6un kurri-kurri yinal, gatun boun- 
toa muggama bon kirikin to, gatun bon wunkuUa takilligella butti- 
kag koba ka ; kulla wal tantullan kokera takilligel. 

8. Gatun bara fcipu-kal untoa kakulleun, tumimillin wirral ba- 
run ba tokoi ta. 

9. Gatun noa agelo Yeh6a-umba tanan uwa barun kin, gatun 
kullaburra Yehoa-umba kakulla barun katoa; kinta gaiya bara ka- 

10. Gatun noa ageloko wiya barun, Kinta kora ; kulla nurun 
bag wiyan murrarag totog kakilliko pital ko, kakilliko yantin ko 
kiiii ko. 

11. Kulla nurunba porkulleiin unni purreag, kokeri Dabid- 
umba ka, Golomullikan ta, noa Kritht ta Piriwal ta. 

12. Gatun unni tuga kaniin nurunba; nanun nura bobognug 
gamatoara kirikin taba, kakillin ba takilligel laba. 

13. Gatun tanoa kal bo paip^a konara morokokal gikoug katoa 
agelo katoa, murrarag wiyellin bon Eloinug, giakai, 


14. WiyaLiinbilla bon murrarag Eloinug wokka kaba moroko 
kaba, gatun kamunbilla pital purrai tako, murrarag umatoara ba- 
run kuri ko. 

15. Gratun kakulla ba, waita uwa bara ba, agelo barun kinbirug 
moroko kolag, wiyellan bara fcipu-kal taraikan-taraikan, Waita 
geen yakita Bethlehem kolag, na-uwil koa iinnug tara kakulla ba, 
gala Yehoako noa wiya gearun. 

16. G-atun bara uwa kurrakai, gatun nakulla Marinug, gatun 
bobog pirikilliela takillig^l laba. 

17. G-atun nakulla bara ba, wiyabunb6a bara yantin ta purrai 
ta unnoa wiyellikanne wiyatoara barun wonnai tin. 

18. G-atun bara yantinto gurra, kotelliela unnug tara, -wiya ba- 
run bara fcipu-kal-lo. 

19. Wonto ba bountoa Mariko miromA unni tara, gatun kota 
bountoa minki ka btilbiil-la bounnoun kin. 

20. Gatun bara -fcipu-kal -vvillug ba kakulla, murrarag wiyellin 
gatun pitalmullin bon Eloinug gala birug natoara birug gurra- 
toara birug bara yantita -wiyatoara ba barun kai. 

21. Gatun purreag fet ta kakulla ba, k\illintiela ko tuga--witia 
wonnai, giakai bon wiya lethu, gala ba wiya noa ageloko kurri- 
kurri noa ba pika ka kakulla kunto ka. 

22. Gatun purreag ka goloin ta killibinbin bounnoun ba, yanti 
Mothe-ko noa ba wiya, mankulla bara bon fHierothalem kolag, gu- 
killiko bon Yehoa kin ; 

23. (Yanti wupa ba wiyellikanne ta Yeh6a-umba giakai, Yantin 
kiiri tara ganka-ganka pika kabirug yirri-yirri walkanun j'itirroa 
Yehoa koba ;) 

24. Gatun gukilliko gutoara, gala wupa ba wiyellikanne taba 
Yeh6a-umba, giakai, Buloara purrougkan ga keawai wurogbuloara 

25. A ! gatun kakulla noa tarai kuri fHierothalem kaba, giakai 
noa yitirra Thimeon; gatun unnoa kiiri wiyellikan tuloakan, gatun 
gurrullikan, mittillin pital ko Itharael-umba ko ; gatun Maraiyir- 
ri-yirri-kan kakulla gikoug kin. 

26. Gatun bon wiyatoara Maraito yirri-yirri-kan-to, keawai noa 
naniin tettibullikanne, na-uwil koa noa Krithtnug YehcSa-iimba. 

27. G-atun noa uwa Marai toa f hieron kako : gatun bula ba pori- 
kuUaito puruma wonnai lethu kin, umulliko bon yanti ko upato- 
ara ko wiyellikanne tako, 

28. Mankulla gaiya bon noa gikoug kin turrug ka, gatun pital- 
ma noa bon Eloinug, gatun wiyelliela, 

29. "Wamiinbilla bi tia Yeh6a yakita pitalkan, yanti wiya bi 

30. Kulla bag nakulla gaikug ko golomullikan girodmba, 

31. G-ali ko kakilliko gintoa yantin ko kiiri ko mikan tako ; 

32. Kaibug kakilliko barun fethan^kal ko, gatun pital kakilliko 
kdri ko Itharael giroumba ko." 


33. Gratun bula Yothep gatun Mari kotelliela unnoa wiyatoara 
gikong kai. 

34. Gatun Thimeon ta noa pit alma barun, gatun wiyelliela Ma- 
rirnig tunkan gikoumba, "A ! katan noa unni wonnai kakilliko 
puntimulliko, gatun bougkulliko kauwal-kau-wal barunba Itharael 
koba ; gatun tuga ko wiy^a kaniin ; 

35. (Kauwa, yirrako bin turaniin wal marai giroumba k6ti,) 
paipi-uwil koa kotatoara biilbiil labirug kau-n al-kauwal labirug." 

36. G-atun kakulla wakal Anna, fpropetkun, yindlkun Panuel 
koba, konara koba Ather koba; bountoa tagurrogeen gagkakalin, 
gatun kakulla bountoa poribai ta wunalla fbepta ta, murrakin ta- 
birug bountoa katalla ; 

37. Gatun bountoa mabogun kukuUa wunal la f 6ty-wara yanti- 
kalai tabirug, waita uwa korien bountoa fhieron kabirug, wonto 
ba gurrulliela Eloinug bon purreag ka gatun tokoi ta ta-korien. 

38. Gatun bountoa uwoUiela tanoa-kal-bo, wiyapaiyeunbon Ye- 
hoanug, gatun wiyelliela yantin barun gikoug kin barun, nakilli- 
kan gupaiyiko fHierothalem kako. 

39. Gatun up4 bara ba unni tara yanti wiyatoara Yeh6a koba, 
willugbo gaiya bara kakulla Galilaia kako, barun ka tako k6ti kako 
Nadharet tako. 

40. Gatun wonnai poaikulleiin guraki noa maraikan katan ; ga- 
tun pitalmatoara bon Eloi koba. 

41. Waita u wa bula gikoumba tunkan gatun biyugbai Hierotha- 
lem kolag yanti-katai wunal la takilligel lako kaiwitoara wokka 

42. Gatun noa ba wunal la fdodeka ka, waita gaiya uwa bara 
fHierothalem kolag wirikai ko takilli ko. 

43. Gatun kirun kakulla purreag, willugbo bara ba, wonnai 
letbu noa minka willug ka fHierothalem ka ; gatun noa Yothep- 
ko gatun tunkanto gurra korien bula. 

44. Wonto bara ba punta bon barun kin konara, uwa purreag 
ka wak al la ; gatun bara bon tiwa k6ti ta ka. 

45. Gatun bara na korien bon ba, willugbo gaiya bara kateakiin 
fHierothalem kolag tiwoUiko bon. 

46. Gatun purreag ka goro kulla, nakuUa gaiya bara bon mur- 
rug ka fhieron ka, yellawolliela willi ka barun kin fdidathkaloi 
ka, gurrulliela barun, gatun wiyelliela barun wiyellikanne pulli. 

47. Gatun yantinto bara bon gurra, kotelliela bara bon guraki 
gatun wiyatoara gikoumba. 

48. Gatun nakulla barabonba, unma gaiya barun ; gatun tunkan- 
to gikoiimba-ko wiya bon, Nai, minarig tin bi kakulla gearun kai 1 
a 1 biyug ta uwa bali, tiwolliela ball bin, minki-kan-to. 

49. Gatun noa wiya barun, Minarig tin nura tia tiwolliela? 
keawai nura ba gurran-upa-uwil koa bag pintunumba-kan wiya 
noa tia ba 1 

50. Gatun bara gurra korien unnOa wiyelli ta wiya noa ba barun. 


51. Gratun noa uwa barun katoa bardn Nadharet tako, gatun 
gurruUikan noa kakulla barun kin : wonto bountoa ba tunkan 
to gLkoiimba miromi unni tara wiyellikanne murrug ka bulbul 
la bounnoun kin. 

52. G-atun noa lethuko poaiku)leun guraki kakilliko, gatun kau- 
wal kakilliko, gatun pitalmulliko bon Eloito gatun kiiriko. 


Yakita kakulla -wunal la tpipatinta piriwal koba Tiberio Kaithar 
koba, tkobana noa Pontio Pilato ludaia ka, gatun tetrdk noa Herod 
Galilaia ka, gatun gikoiimba koti Pilip tetr^k noa Itur6a ka, gatun 
yantin tako Trakoniti ka, gatun Luthanio tetrdk noa Abilene ka, 

2. Annath gatun Kaiapath fbiereu piriwal bula kakulla, wiyel- 
likanne Eloi koba uwa loanne kinko bon, yinal Dhakaria koba, 
korug kaba. 

3. 6-atun noa uwa yantin toa purrai toa loradan toa, wiyelliela 
korimulliko kanumaiko, warekuUiko yarakai ; 

4. Yanti wupaitoara f biblion ka wiyellikanne Ethaia koba tpro- 
pet koba, giakai, Pulli wakal koba wiyelleun korug kaba, Yapug 
Yehoa koba murrarag umulla nura,tuloa kakillikoyapuggikotimba. 

5. Yantin ta pilabai warapal upiniin, gatun yantin ta bulkara 
umaniin puntig ; gatun warin-warin ta utnaaun tuloa, gatun yapug 
yarakai wollugbiara uuianun poitog; 

6. G-atun yantinto naniin wal golomullikanne Eloi koba. 

7. Wiya gaiya noa barun konara uwa bara korimulliko gikoug 
kinko, Ela beara ! konara maiya kiloa nura ! ganto nurun wiya 
murralliko bukka tin tanan ba uwaniin? 

8. Koito nura ba umuUia murrarag minki kabirug; gatun ko- 
ta yikora nura koti ka minki ka nurun kin wiyelliko, Abaram 
gearun noa geariinba biyugbai ; kulla bag wiyan nurun, Eloi noa 
kaiyukan kacan umulliko unti tara birug tunug kabirug wonnai 
kakilliko Abaram kinko. 

9. Gatun yakita baibai wunkulla kulai ta wirr4 ka ; koito ba 
yantin kiilai keawai katan murrarag k61buntillanua wal bar^n, 
warekuUiko koiyug kako. 

10. Gatun kiiriko bon wiya, wiyelliela, Minnug baniin gaiya g^en? 

11. Wiya noa barun, wiyelliela, Niuwoa fkot-kan buloarakan 
gikoiimba, gumunbilla bon keawai ko; gatun niuwoa kuntokan gu- 
miinbilla bon yanti kiloa. 

12. Uwa gaiya bara ftel6n6 korimulliko, gatun wiya bon, Piri- 
wal, minnug baniiu geen ? 

1 3. Gatun noa wiya barun, Manki yikora untoa-kal unnoabo 
mara wiyatoara nuriinba. 

14. Gatun bara tarrpy-kanko wiya bon wiyelliela, Minnug baniin 
geen? gatun noa wiya barun, Bukkamai yikora yantin kiiri, gatun 
wiy^a-yemmai yikora gakoyellaikan yantin kiiri; gatun murrai 
kauwa nura galoakan gutoarakan nurunba. 


15. Gratun bara ba kiiri kotelliela, gatun yantinto kiiriko ko- 
telliela rnurrug ka ba ko, bulbul la ba ko barun kin ba ko gik6- 
ug loannenug, minarig noa Kritht ta, mirka keawaran. 

16. loanneto noa wiya barun yantin ta, wiyelliela, Korimulliko 
bag katan nurun bato ko ; wonto ba wakal kaiyukan kauwal-kau- 
"walkan gatoa kiloa uwanun, murrarag korien bag porugbuggulli- 
ko tiigganug ko glkoiimba ko ; niuwoa ta korimaniin nurun Marai 
to yirri-yirri ko gatun koiyug ko : 

17. fPituon gikoiimba mankillin mattara ba, gatun murkun noa 
umaniin biinkilligel laba gikoumba, gatun noa ka-umaniin fwiet 
gikoiimba tako kokeri ko ; wonto ba tirri koiyug-baniin wal noa 
koiyug ka talokuUi korien ta. 

18. Tarai ta yantin kauwal-kauwal wiya noa: gatun wiyelli ta 
ba ko barun kiiri. 

19. Wonto noa ba Herodnug ftetraknug pira'ma bon, noa boun" 
noun kin Herodia kin nukug ka Pilip-umba gikoumba k6ti koba, 
gatun yantin yarakai noa ba uma Herodto, 

20. Yanti unni uma, wirrigbakulla bon noa loannenug tjail ka. 

21. Yakita barunbo karima yantin kiiri, kakuUa gaiya kori- 
mulliela bon letliunug, gatun wiyelliela, moroko gaiya warugkal- 

22. Gratun uwa baran Maraikan yirri-yirrikan murrin kiloa pur- 
rougkan kiloa, glkoug kin; gatun wakal puUi kakulla moroko 
tin, wiyelliela, G-intoa ta emmoiimba yinal pitalmullikanne ; pital- 
man bag giroug. 

23. Gratun niuwoa bo Kthu kakilliliela wunal la f triakontaka gi- 
ko-umba, puntelliela bon yinal Yothepumba, wonto yinal EU-umba; 

(fee, &c., 
38. Wonto yinal Enoth-iimba, wonto yinal Thet-umba, wonto 
yinal Adam-umba, wonto yinal Eloi-umba. 


GrATUN noa lethu warapalkan Maraikan yirri-yirri-kan, willugbo 
kakulla loradan tabirug, gatun bon yutea Maraito korug kolag, 

2. Nupitoara bon purreag ka f tettarakonta ka fdiaboUo. G-atun 
unta tara purreag ka keawai noa ta ba : gatun goloin ba unta 
tara kakulla, kapirri gaiya noa kakulla. 

3. Gratun noa fdiabollo wiya bon, Wiya, bi ba yinal Eloi koba, 
wiyellia unni tunug ka-uwil koa kunto. 

4. G-atun noa lethuko bon wiya, wiyelliela, Wupatoara ta, Kea- 
wai kiiri kaniin moron kunto kabirug, wonto ba Eloi koba puUi 

5. Gratun noa fdiabollo yut^a bon waita bulkara ko, nanunbea 
bon yantin piriwal koba purrai ta ba tanoa-kal-bo kurrakai. 

G. Gatun noa fdiabollo wiya bon, yantin kaiyu kako gunun bag 
giroug, gatun pitalmulliko gali tara ko ; koito ba gukulla tia em- 
moug ; gatun bag gutan gamimbo pital bag ba katan. 


7. Gintoa ba wiyanun tia, kaniin bin yantin girotimba. 

8. Gatuu noa lethuko wiya bon, Kauwa bi, Thdtan, willug ka 
emmoug kin ; koito ba wupatoara, Wiyanun wal bi Yehoanug giro- 
umba Eloinug, gatun gikoug bo gurraniin wal bi. 

9. Gatun noa bon yut6a fHierothalem kolag, gatun wunkuUa bon 
bulwarra ka fhieron ka, gatun wiya bon, Yinalla bi ba unni Eloi- 
koba, warekulla bi unti birug bar^n ; 

10. Kulla ba wupatoara ta, Wiyanun noa barun agelo ko nakilli- 
ko giroug, golomulliko giroug; 

11. G-atun bara bin maniin mattarro wokka lag, tinna koa gi- 
roug pultea-kun tunug ko yantin ta. 

12. Gatun lethuko, \\iyelliela, wiya bon, Wiyatoara ta, Yanoa 
wal bi numa yikora bon Yeh6anug Eloinug giroumba. 

13. Gatun noa fdiabollo goloin kakulla unni tara nupatoara, 
waita gaiya noa uwa gikoug kinbirug yakita ko. 

14. Gatun noa I^tliuko willug ko kakulla, kaiyukan Maraikan, 
Galilaia kako : gatun tot6g bon kakulla yantin ta purrai karig ka. 

15. Gatun noa wiyelliela tthunag6g ka barun ka ta, pital wiya- 
toara bon yantinto. 

16. Gatun noa uwa Nadharet tako, kakulla noa poaikuHeiin unta; 
gatun, yanti katai noa ba, uwa noa fthunagog kako purreag ka 
thabbat, gatun garok^a wokka lag wiyelliko. 

17. Gatun gukulla bon fbiblion ta tpropet koba Ethaia koba : 
gatun bugbugga noa ba fbiblion, nakulla gaiya noa giakai upatoara, 

18. Marai ta unni Yeh6a koba emmoug kinba, kulla noa tia putia 
wiyelliko Euagelion barun kin mirral la; yuka noa tia turon umulli- 
ko minkikan ko, wiyelliko barun wuntoara ko wamunbilliko, gatun 
na-uwil koa bara munmin to, burugbuggulliko barun biintoara, 

19. Wiyelliko * * * gurrabunbilliko wunal la pitalmullikanne 
Yeh6a koba. 

20. Gatun noa wirrig-bugga fbiblion, gatun noa gutea kan bon 
umullikan ko, gatun yellawa bar^n. Gatun bara bon pimilliela 
gaikug ko, yantin f thunag6g ka ba ko. 

21. Gatun noa barun tanoa bo wiya, Turin-pai-bea unni wiya 
upatoara nurun kin gurr^ug ka unti purreag ka. 

22. Gatun yantinto bara gurrulliela bon, gatun kota bara pulli 
murrai kurraka kabirug gikoug kinbirug. Gatun bara wiya, Wiya, 
unni ta Yothepumba yinal 1 

23. Gatun noa barun wiya, Nura ta wiyanun tia unni wiyelli- 
kanne, Kardkal, turon bi umulla gintoa bo ; gurra g6en ba umatoara 
Kapernaum ka, umulla bi unti yantin ta purrai ta giroumba ka. 

24. Gatun noa wiya, Tuloa nurun bag wiyan, keawai fpropet 
gurrd korien gikoug ka ta purrai ta k6ti ka. 

25. Wonto bag ba nurun wiyan tuloa, kauwal-kauwal ta mabo- 
gun Itharael kuU^iin purreag ka Elia-timba ka, yakita wirrigba- 
kulla moroko ta wunal ta goro gatun yellenna f hek ta, tara-wara, 
kakulla yantin ta purrai karig ka ; 


26. Keawai Elianug ynka ba barun kinko, wonto ba Tbarepta 
kako Thidoni kako nukug kako mabogun tako. 

27. G-atun kau-wal-kauwalkan fleprokan Itharael ka, yaki-kalai 
Elicu koba f propet koba ; keawaran watal barun kinbirug turon 
umatoara, wonto ba noa ISTaaman Thuriakal. 

28. Gatun yantin bara kakuUa ftbunagog ka, gurra bara unni 
tara, bukka kauMal kakuUa, 

29. G-atun bougkulltiin, gatun yipa bon koker^ birug, gatun bon 
yut6a pita kako bulkard ko kokera ko wittitoara ko, wareka-uwil 
■koa bara bon walhiggon bar4n. 

30. Wonto noa ba uwolliela willi koa barun katoa, waita uwa. 

' 31. Gatun noa uwa bar4n Kapernaum kako, koker4 ko Gali- 
laia kako, gatun wiyelliela barun puri'eag ka thabbat ka. 

32. Gdtun bara kota wiyellikanne tin gikoiimba tin ; kulla giko- 
uniba puUi kaiyukan. 

33. Gatun kakulla wakal kiiri ttbunag6g ka, gikoug kin minki 
ka marai kakulla j-diabol koba yarakai koba, gatun noa kaipulleun 

3-1:. Wiyelliela, Kamunbilla gearun; minnug baniia geen bin gin- 
toa lethu Nadharetkal? uwa bi gearun tetti-umulli kolag ? gimillin 
banug giutoa ta ; wakal bo ta yirri-yirri-kan Eloi koba. 

35. Gatun bon lethuko koakuUa, wiyelliela, Kaiyellla bi, gatun 
paikullea gikoug kinbirug. Gatun bon ba wareka willi ka tdiabol- 
lo, paikubeun noa gikoug kinbirug, gatun keawai bon tetti bun- 
tima ba. 

36. Gatun bara yantinto kota, gatun wiyelliela barabo-barabo, 
Minarig unni wiyellikanne ! kulla noa wiya kaiyu-kan-to barun 
tdiabolnug yarakaikan, gatun barun paikull^in warrai tako. 

37. Gatun totog gikoumba kakulla yantin toa purrai karig koa. 

38. Gatun noa uwa ftbunagog kabirug, gatun pologkulleiin Thi- 
mon kinko kokera ko. G-atun tunkan Thimontimba nukug koba 
munni kakulla karinkan; gatun bon bara wiya bounnoun kai kolag. 

39. Gatun noa garokea bounnoun kin turrug ka, gatun noakoa- 
kulla karin ; gatun wareka gaiya bounnoun karinto; gatun bountoa 
bougkullein tanoa-kal-bo, gatun umulliela barun kaiko. 

40. Gatun punnal ba pul6g-kullil6un, yantin bara mankulla mun- 
ni-munni-kan gikoug kinko ; gatun noa wupillein barun kin mat- 
tara yantin ta, gatun turon uuia barun. 

41. Gatun tdiahol kau^^ al-kau-w al paikull^un kau-wal-kauwal la- 
birug, kaibulliela, Gintoa ta Kritht ta, yinal ta Eloi-koba. Gatun 
noa harun koakulla wiya korien ; kulla wal bara gimilleiin bon 
Kritht ta noa unnoa. 

42. Gatun purri ag ba kakulla, waita noa uwa korarig ; gatun 
bara kiiriko tiwa bon, gatun uwa gikoug kin, gatun mima bara 
bon, keawai noa waita wapa barun kinbirug. 

43. Gatun noa wiya barun, Wiyanun bo ta wal bag piriwalg^l 
la Eloi koba taraikan ta kokera ; kulla wal tia galiko yuka. 


G-ATPN yakita kakulla, warapa bon ba bara kuriko, gurrulliko wiyel- 
likanne Eloi koba, garokea noa pitta ka waraka Gennetharet ta, 

2. Gratun nakulla buloaramurrinauwai kakilliela wara ka; "won- 
to ba bara makoroban waita uwa murrinauwai tabirug, gatuu bara 
umulliela pika mirkun. 

3. Gatun noa uwa wakal la murrinauwai ta Thimon koba ka, 
gatun wiya bon y6gy6g umullia purrai tabirug. G-atun noa yell- 
awa barto, gatun wiyelliella barun kuri murrinauwai kabirug. 

4. G-atun goloin noa ba wiya, wiya noa Thimonnug bon, Tuir- 
kullia pirriko kako, gatun wura pika nuriinba mankilliko. 

5. Gatun Thimonto, wiyelliela, wiya bon, Piri\^al, uma geento- 
koi ta yanti-katai, gatun man korien ; kulla bi wiydn wupiniin wal 
bag barcin pika. 

6. Gatun uma bara ba unni, kokoi-kokoi bara uma makoro katai 
kal ; gatun pika kilpaiya. 

7. Gatun bara wokkaimull6iin barunba tarai taba murrinauwai 
taba ; wa-uwil koa barun wintamulliko. Gatun bara uwa, gatun 
warapAl bara wup^a buloara murrinauwai, pillukulliela gaiya bara. 

8. Nakulla noa ba Thira6nto Peterko, puntimulleiin noa I6thu 
kin warombug ka, wiyelliela, Ela Piriwal ! yurig bi woUa emmo- 
ug kinbirug ; kulla bag yarakairan kuri katan. 

9. Kulla noa kota, gatun yantin bara gikoug katoa ba, kauwal- 
lin makorrin mankulla bara ba. 

10. Gatun yantibo bara Yakobo gatun loanne, yinal ta Lebedaio 
koba, mankillai bula ba Thimon katoa. Gatun I^tbuko noa wiya 
bon Thim6nnug, Kinta kora bi; yakita birugmanim wal bi barun 

11. Gatun mankulla bara ba murrinauwai baran purrai tako^ 
wtinkixlla bara yantin, wirroba bon bara. 

12. Gatun yakita kakulla, kakulla noa ba tarai ta kokera, a ! 
wakal kiiri kauwal fleprokan ; nakilliela noa lethunug puntimul- 
l^iin goarr4 ko, gatun wiya bon, wiyelliela, Piriwal, wiya, bi ba 
kaiyukan kaniin, umaniin bi tia turon. 

13. Gatun noa bon wupilleiin mattara gikoug kin, wiyelliela, 
Kauw^ ; turon bi kauwa. Gatun tanoa-kal-bo fleprota wareka gi- 
koug kinbirug ko. 

14. Gatun noa bon wiya, wiy^akiin koa noa barun kiiri ; won to 
ba yirug uwa tiigunbilliko gintoa bo fhiereu kinko, gatun giiwa 
kulla bi turon umatoara, yanti to Moth6 ka noa ba wiya, gur- 
rulliko kakilliko barun. 

15. Wonta ba yantin kakulla tot(3g gikoug yantin toa purrai 
toa : gatun kau-walko naro uwa gurrulliko, gatun turon kakilliko 
barun munni-munni gikoug kinbirug ko. 

16. Gatun noa uwa korug kako, gatun wiyelliela. 

17. Yakita kakulla tarai ta purreag ka, wiyelliela noa ba, 
yellawa ba Parithaioi gatun fdidathkaloi wiyellikanne koba, yantin 


tabirug koker4 birug Galilaia kabirug, gatun ludaia kabirug, 
gatun fHierothalem kabirug ; gatun kaiyuto Yeh6a-iimba kakulla 
turon umuUiko barun. 

18. A! gatun bara kiiri wakal kiiri kurrea pirrikilligel la munni- 
kan kariU; gatun numa bara bon kurrilliko kokerd kolag, gatun 
■wiinkOliko bon gikoug kinko mikan tako. 

1 9. Gratun keawai bara napa wonn^n kurrilliko murrug kolag 
konara tin, uwa bara wokka lag kokera bulwarra ka, gatun wupea 
bon bardn kulla koa willi-willi kako pirrikilligelkan lethu kin mi- 
kan ta. 

20. Gratun nakulla noa ba kotellikanne barunba, wiya noa bon, 
Ela kiiri, yarakai giroumba wareka giroug kinbirug. 

21. Gatun bara tgarammateu gatun Parithaioi kota, wiyelliela, 
Gan-ke unni wiyan ba yarakai ? Ganto kaiyu-kan-to warekulliko 
yarakai, wonto ba wakallo Eloito ? 

22. "Wonto noa ba lethuko gurra kotatoara barunba, niuwoa 
"wiya wiyelliela barun, Minarig tin nura kotelliela biilbiil lako 
nurun kin ba ko. 

23. Wonnen murrarag wiyelliko, Giroumba ko yarakaito ware- 
ka giroug kinbirug ; ga wiyelliko, BougkuUia gatun uwolliko? 

24. Wonto ba gurra-uwil koa nura kaiyukan noa yinal kiiri 
koba purrai taba yarakai warekulliko (wiya noa munni karAI), 
Wiyan banug, bougkullia gatun mara giroumba pirrikilligel, gatun 
waita unwolla giroug ka tako koker4 ko. 

25. Gatun tanoa-kal-bo bou guile un noa barun kin mikan ta, 
gatun mdnkulla unnug gikoumba pirrik^a noa ba, gatun waita uwa 
gikoug ka tako kokera ko koti kako, pitalmulliela bon Eloinug. 

26. Gatun yantin bara kotelliela, gatun bara gaiya pitalma bon 
Eloinug, gatun kinta lag bara kauwal, katan wiyelliela, Nakulla 
geen minarig konein buggai. 

27. Gatun yakita yukita waita uwa noa, gatun nakulla wakal 
"fteldntoug, giakai yitirra Lebi, yellawoUin wunkilligel la ; gatuu 
noa wiya bon, Yettiwolla tia. 

28. Gatun noa wiinkulla yanti bo bougkulleiin, gatun noa bon 

29. Gatun Lebiko bon noa upea kauwal takillikanne gikoug 
ka ta koti ka kokera : gatun kauwal kakulla konara telonai ko 
gatun tarai to yellawa barun katoa, 

30. Wonto ba barunba tgarammateu gatun Parithaioi koakillan 
bara barun wirrobullikan gikoumba, wiyelliela, Minarig tin nura 
tatan gatun pittan barun katoa f telonai koa gatun yarakai toal 

31. Gatun noa I6tliuko wiya barun, wiyelliela, Bara ba moron 
tai katan keawai bara wiyan karakal ; wonto ba bara munni 

32. Uwa bag wiya korien ko murrog taiko, wonto ba yarakai 
willug ko minki kakilliko. 

33. Gatun wiya bon bara, Minarig tin bara mupai katan mur- 


rinmurrfn wirrobuUikan loanne-iimba, gatuii wiyan, 
gatun yantibo bara Parithaioi koba ; wonto ba giroumba ko tatan 
gatun pittan ? 

34. &atun noa wiya barun, Wiya, nura kaiyukan mupai umul- 
liko barun wonnai kakillaikanne, yakita-kalai poribai ba katan 
barun katoa ba 1 

35. "Wonto ba purreag kanun wal, manun wal bon ba poribai 
barun kinbirug, gatun yakita gaiya bara mupai-kakillinun pur- 
reag ka unta tara. 

36. G-atun wiya noa barun wakal f parabol giakai : Keawai kuri 
ko wupilliniin buggaikal korokal la ; ga ba, yanti buggaikal yiir- 
bugganiin gaiya wal, gatun pontol buggaikal labirug keawai koro- 
kal kiloa katan. 

37. Gatun keawai kiiri ko wupiniin buggaikal fwain pika ka ko- 
rokal la; kulla buggaikallo potopai-yanun wal pika ka, gatun kiroa- 
bulliniin, gatun pika kanun yarakai. 

38. Wonto ba buggaikal twain wunun wal buggaikal la pika ka; 
gatun buloara murrarag katan. 

39. Gatun keawai kiiri koba pittaniin korokal fwain keawai 
noa maniin buggaikal fwain, kulla noa wiyan korokal ta murrarag. 


Gatun yakita thabbat ka buloara, yukita thabbat ka kurri-kurri, 
uwa gaiya noa murrug koa yeaigil loa ; gatun bara wirrobulli-kan- 
to gikoug ka to tittia wollug yeai, gatun takulla mirro-mirroma 
mattara barun kin. 

2. Gatun taraikanto Parithaioi koba wiya barun, Minarig tin nu- 
ra uman iinnoa keawaran murrarag umulliko unti tara purreag ka 
thabbat ka 1 

3. Gatun noa I6thuko wiya, wiyelliela, Wiya nura, wiya nura, 
wiya ba unni, Dabid-to noa ba upa, niuwoabo ba kapirri kakilla 
gatun bara gikoug katoa ; 

4. Uwa noa ba kokera kai Eloi koba, gatun mankuUa takulla 
nulai nakillikanne, gatun gukulla barun gikoug katoa ba ko, kea- 
waran murrarag takilliko, wonto ba barunba ko fhiereu koba t 

5. Gatun noa barun wiya, Tinal ta kuri koba, piriwal noa ka- 
tan yantin ko thabbat ko. 

6. Gatun yakita kakulla tarai ta thabbat ta, uwa gaiya noa 
fthunagog ka gatun wiyelliela : gatun wakal kuri unta kakulla, 
mattara gikoumba tiigkagkeri tirrai kakulla. 

7. Gatun bara f garammateuko gatun Parithaioiko tumimea bon, 
wiya bon noa ba turon umuUa purreag ka thabbat ta ; wiyayem- 
ma-uwil koa bara bon. 

8. Wonto noa ba kota barunba gurrulliela, wiya bon noa mat- 
tarakan tirraikan, Bougkullia, gatun garokilla willi ka. Gatun 
noa bougkuU^iin, gatun garokea. 

9. Wiya gaiya noa lethuko barun, Wiyaniin wal bag nurun 


unni ; wiya tuloa ta umuUiko, miirrarag ga yarakai umuUiko pur- 
reag ka thabbat ta 1 moron umulliko, ga warekulliko 1 

10. Gatun nakilliela kari-kari yantin barun, wiya bon noa, Tu- 
tuUia bi mattara giroumba. Gatun upulleun gaiya noa, gatun mat- 
tara gaiya bon turon uma yanti tarai ba. 

11. Gratun bara warapalkan bukkakan kakuUa; gatun murrarag 
wiyellan barabo-baiabo, minnug baniin bara bon ba I6tliunug. 

12. Yakita unta purreag ka, uwa noa bulkara kolag wiyeUiko, 
yanti-katai noa tokoi ta wiyelliela bon Eloi-nug. 

13. Gatun yakita purreag ta, kaai ba noa barun wirrobullikan 
gikoiimba; girimuUeiin noa barun kinbirug fdodeka niuwoa, barun 
wiya giakai yitirra fapothol ; 

14. Thimdnnug (wiya noa giakai yitirra Petemug), gatun giko- 
-timba kurrak6g Andrea, gatun Yakobo gatun loanne, gatun Pilip 
- gatun BAtolomai, 

15. Mattaio gatun Thoma, gatun Yakobo Alpai-timba, gatun 
Tliimon giakai wiya yitirra Dhelote, 

16. G-atun ludath kurrakdg ta Yakobo-iimba, gatun ludath 
Ithakariot, niuwoa gakoiyaye noa. 

17. Gatun noa uwa baran barun katoa, gatun garawan tako 
garokea noa, gatun konard wirrobullikan gikoiimba, gatun kauwal 
konara kiiri ludaiakal, gatun fHierothalemkal, gatun korowdtari 
Turokal gatun Thidonikal, uwa bara gurrulliko bon, gatun turon 
umulliko barun ba munni ; 

18. Gatun bara wonkalman yarakai to marai to : gatun barun 
uma turon. 

19. Gatun yantinto konaro numuUa bon bara ; kulla murrarag 
paibea gikoug kinbirug, gatun noa turon uma yantin barun. 

20. Gatun noa wokkalan nakulla gaikug ko gikoumba wirro- 
bullikan, gatun wiya, Murrarag umatoara mirralko ; kulla nurun 
ba piriwalgel la Eloi koba. 

21. Murrarag umatoara nura kapirrikan yakita : kulla nura wa- 
rapan wal kakilliko. Murrarag umatoara nura tunkillin yakita, 
kulla nura kintellinun wal. 

22. Murrarag umatoara nura, yarakai umanun gaiya nurun 
-kiiri ko, gatun warekanun nurun, gatun yarakai wiyaniin nurun, 

gatun warekanim yitirra nuriinba yanti yarakai ba, gikoug kin 
birug yinal kiiri koba kabirug. 

23. Pitil nura kauwa gatun untellia unta purreag ka ; kulla 
nuriinba gukillikanne kauwal katan moroko kaba; yanti uma bara 
biyugbai tako barun ka to barun tpropetnug. 

24. Yapal nura porolkan kiitan ! kulla nura mankuUa ta pital 

25. Yapal nura warakan ! kulla nura kapirrikaniin. Yapal nura 
kintoUan yakita ! kulla nura girellinun gatun tunkilliniin. 

26. Yapal nura, murrarag wiyaniin ba yantinto kuriko nurun ! 
yantibo bariinba biyugbai ta ko barun gakoyaye fpropetnug. 


27. Giakai bag wiyan nurun gurrullikan, Pitalumulla barun ya- 
rakai willug nurunba ; murrarag umulla barun yarakai nuriinba 

28. Murrarag barun wiyella koatan nurunba ; gatun wiyella bon 
Eloinug wiyella barun yarakai nurunba uman. 

29. G-atun bunnun ba wakal gan kuUo tarai to, tarai gukillia ; 
gatun niuwoa man in wurabil giroiimba, wiya yikora wiwi man- 
ki yikora unni doan. 

30. G-uwa barun yantin ko wiyelliniin ba giroug kin ; gatun 
niuwoa ba mankulla tullokiln giroiimba wiya yikora kari bon. 

31. Gratun unnoa la kotan nura la murrarag umulliko barun 
kiiri nnrun, umulla nura yantibo ta barun. 

32. Kulla nura pitalman barun pitalman nurun, minarigko-ke 
unnoa ? kulla bara yarakai-kan-to yantibo uman. 

33 Gatun murrarag nura umanun ba barun gali murrarag nurun 
uman, minarigko-ke unnoa? kulla bara yarakai-kan-to yantibo 

34. Gatun mumbiniin nura ba barun kotan nura willugbo lipil- 
liko barun, minarigko-ke unnoa 1 kulla bara yarakai wUlug mum- 
billan barun willugbo upilliko yantibo. 

35. Wonto ba nura pitalumulla barun yarakai willug nurunba ; 
gatun murrarag umulla, gatun mumbilla kotan keawai willugbo 
upulliko ; gatun gutoara kauwal kanun nurunba, gatun nura won- 
nai kaniin wokkakoba ; kulla noa murrarag uman barun wiyapaiye 
korien gatun barun yarakai. 

36. Kauwa nura minkikan, yantibo Biyugbai nurunba minki ka- 

37. Kota yikora yarakai, gatun keawai nurun kotaniin yarakai : 
pirriralmai yikora nura, gatun keawai nurun pirriralmanun : ware- 
killa nura, gatun nurunba warekaniin. 

38. Guwa, gatun gunun wal-nurun ; warapal, upulla barAn, ga- 
tun tolomuUa kaumulliko, gatun kiroabullin bardn, gunim wal 
kuri nurun gielkag ka nurun kin. Kulla yantibo upitoara nura 
upullin, up6a kaniin nurun. 

39. Gatun noa wiya barun wakal fparabol; wiya, munminto yu- 
tinun tarai munmin? wiya, wal bula-buloarabo warakulliniin bar4n 
kirun tako t 

40. Wirrobullikan ta keawaran noa kauwal korien gikoug kin 
piriwal la ; wonto ba tuloa katan, kanun noa yanti piriwal ba gi- 
koug ba. 

41. Gatun minarig tin bi natan morig giroug ka ta ba gaikug 
kaba kurrikog kaba, wonto ba na korien bi tulkirri gaikug kaba 
giroug kinba koti kaba? 

42. Ga, yakoai bi wiyan bon kurrik6g giroug ba, Biggai, ya- 
koai tia porugbuggabunbilla morig giroug kinba gaikug kaba, 
keawai bi ba nakillin tulkirri giroug kaba? Gintoa gakoiyaye ! 
burugbug- gala kurri-kurri tulkirri gaikug kaba giroug kinba koti 



kaba, gatun nanun gaiya bi murra-murrarag umulliko morig gai- 
kug kaba kurrikog kaba giroug ka ta ba. 

43. Kulla ba kiilai murrarag ta katan, keawai yeai yarakai 
upin ; ga keawai kiUai yarakai ta katan, yeai murrarag upin. 

44. Wonto ba yantin kiilai gimilliko koti tin yeai tin ; kulla 
bara kiiri mA,n korien kokug tulkirri-tulkirri tin, ga titi korien 
bara fbotru maro tin. 

45. Murraragko noa kiiriko wupillin noa murrarag wunkilligel 
labirug minki kabirug bulbiil labirug gikoug kinbirug ; gatun noa 
yarakai wupuUin noa yarakai wunkilligel labirug yarakai ta.birug 
minki kabirug biilbiil labirug gikoug kinbirug ; kulla gikoumba 
ko kurraka ko wiyan kauwal labirug ko bulbiil labirug ko. 

46. Gratun minarig tin nura tia wiyan, Piriwal, Piriwal, gatun 
uwa korien nura unnoa tara wiyan nurun bag ba. 

47. Gan tia ba uwaniin emmoug kin, gatun gurran wiyellita em- 
moumba, gatun galoa uman, tiigunbiniin bag nurun gan kiloa noa : 

48. Niuwoa ba wakal yanti kiiri kiloa, wittia noa kokera gatun 
pinnia pirriko, gatun wupea tugga tunug ka ; gatun poaikulleun ba 
tunta-tunta, wainmbul murr4 koribibi kokeroa, gatun geawai tolo- 
m4 pa ; kulla wal wittia tunug ka. 

49. Wonto ba gurran gatun uma korien, kiiri kiloa noa wittia 
kokera tugga korien purrai ta : waiumbul murr4 koribibi gali, gatun 
warakull6 lin tanoa-kal-bo ; kauwalla unnoa warakullin kokera koba. 


WiYA noa ba goloin gikoumba wiyellikanne, mikan ta yantiii ta 
kilri ka, uw4 noa Kapernaun kako. 

2. Gatun tarai koba fkapatin koba umullikan munni kakUliela, 
mulugkilliliela tetti, pital umatoara noa gikoumba. 

3. Gatun, gurra noa ba lethunug, wiyabunbea noa barun garo- 
kal Hebaraioi koba, wiyelliela bon uwa-uwil koa noa pirbuggulliko 
gikoumba ko umullikan ko. 

4. Gatun uwa bara ba lethu kin, wiya gaiya bon bara tanoa-kal- 
bo, wiyelliela, Murrarag noa uma-uwil koa noa bon yanti : 

5. Kulla noa pitalman geariinba kiiri, gatun noa wittia gearun 

6. Uwa gaiya noa I(5thu barun katoa. Gatun kalog korien ta 
noa ba kakulla kokerd kolag, yuka noa barun fkapatinto k6ti ta 
gikoug kin, wiyelliela bon, Piriwal, yanoa bi ; kulla bag keawaran 
murrarag korien uwa-uwil koa bi emmoug kin kokera : 

7. Yaki tin bag kota murrarag korien bag uwolliko giroug kin- 
ko ; wonto ba wiyella wakal wiyellikanne, gatun emmoumba umul- 
likan pirkullinim wal. 

8. Kulla bag ba kaiyukan wiyelliko, emmoug kinba bara ka- 
killin tarmy-kan ; gatun bag wiya wakal, Yurig, gatun waita gai- 
ya noa uwa ; gatun tarai, Kaai, gatun noa uwa tanan ; gatun em- 
moumba umullikan, XTmulla unni, gatun uma gaiya noa. 


9. Ktliuko noa ba gurrii unni tara, kotelliela noa gikoug, gatun 
waiTakuIl^un noa, wiya gaiya noa barun wirroba bon ba, Wiyan 
bag nurun, keawaran bag na pa yanti gurrullikanne kauwal, kea- 
■vvai yanti Itharael la katan. 

10. Gatun bara yukatoara, willugbo uwolliela koker4 kolag, 
nakuUa bon umullikan munni birug pirbuggatoara. 

11. &atun yakita purreag ka yukita, uwa noa kokeroa, giakai 
yitirra Nain ; gatun kauwal uwa gikoumba wirrobullikan gatun 
taraikan kiiri gikoug katoa. 

12. Gatun uwa noa ba papai pulogkullig^l la kokeri kolag, ga, 
tetti kulwon kurrilliela kiiri warai kolag, wakal bo ta yinal tunkan 
koba bounnoun ba, gatun mabogun bountoa, gatun kauwil-kau- 
wal kiiri koker4 birug uwa bounnoun katoa. 

13. Gatun nakuUa bounnoun noa ba Piriwallo, gurrirra boun- 
noun noa kakulla, gatun wiya gaiya noa bounnoun, Tugki yikora. 

14. Gatun uwa gaiya noa, numa kurrilligel ; gatun bara kurria 
bon ba gak^a korun. Gatun noa wiya, Wuggurra, wiyan banug, 

15. Gatun niuwoa tetti kabirug yellawa, gatun tanoa-kal-bo wi- 
ya. Gatun willugbo bon noa gukulla bounnoun kin gikoumba ka 
tunkan ta. 

16. Gatun bara kakulla kinta yantin ; gatun bara bon pitalman 
Eloinug, wiyelliela, Kauwal tpropet ta paipea gearun kin, gatun 
noa Eloito nakulla gikoumba kuri. 

17. Gatun unni tot6g gikoumba kakulla yantin to ludaia koa, 
gatun yantin toa purrai karig koa. 

18. Gatun loanne-umba-ko wirrobullikanto wiya bon unni tara. 

19. Gatun noa loanneto wiya bulun wirrobullikan gikoumba, 
yuka bulun letbu kinko, wiyelliko, Gintoa ta uwaniin 1 ga, na-tea 
kaniin g6en taraikan ? 

20. Uwa bara ba kiiri gikoug kinko wiya bara, loanneto kori- 
mullikanto gearun yuk^ giroug kinko, wiyelliko, Gintoa ta uwa- 
nun 1 ga, na-t^a kaniin taraikan ? 

21. Gatun tanoa-kal-bo fhora ka pirbugga noa kauwal-kauwal 
munni-munni, gatun marai yarakaikan; gatun kauwal-kauwal mun- 
min uma noa barun nakilliko. 

22. "Wiya gaiya noa barun lethu, wiyelliela, Waita lag nura, 
gatun wiyella bon loannenug unni tara nakulla nura ba gatun 
gurra ; munmin-tabirug-ko natan, wiirwiir-birug-ko uwan, wamun- 
wataun-tabirug turon kakulla, wogkal-labirug gurran, tetci-kabirug 
bougkuUeiin, barun mirral ko wiyan ta Euagelion. 

23. Gatun pital-umatoara yantinto niuwara korien kaniin em- 
moug kin. 

24. Gatun waita ka ba bara ba puntimai loanne-umba, wiya 
gaiya noa barun kiiri loannenug bon, MinS,rig tin nura korug 
kolag nakilliko? kogka toloman wibbi ko ? 


25. Minarig ko nura uwa korug kolag nakilliko 1 wakal upul- 
leiin kiiri poitog korikin to? A! bara upull^in kon^in to gatun 
bara murrarag katan takilliko, yellawa bara piriwalg^l la. 

26. Minarig ko nura uwa korug kolag nakilliko? wakal fpropet? 
Kauwa, wiyan nurun bag kauwallan noa ba fpropet kiloa. 

27. (jrali noa wiyatoara upa unni, A! yukan bag puntimai em- 
moiimba giroug kin mikan ta, umanun wal noa yapug giroug. 

28. Kulla bag wiyan nurun, Keawai fpropet kau wal katan yanti 
loanne noa ba korimullikan porkullitoara nukug labirug : niu- 
woa warea ta katan piriwalgel la Eloi koba ka, kau wal noa katan 
niuwoa kiloa. 

29. Gatun yantinto kiiriko gurrabon, gatun bara f tel6nai, pital- 
ma bon Eloi-nug, korimatoara katan bara loanne kaibirug kari- 
muUi birug. 

30. Wonto ba bara Paritbaioi gatun bara f nomikoi gurramaiga 
wiyellikanne Eloi koba barun kin, keawai korimatoara korien 
loanne kai. 

31. Gatun noa Piriwallo wiya, Yakoai kiloa bara kiiri untikal 
willugg^l 1 gatun minarig kiloa bara? 

32. Bara yanti wonnai kiloa yellawollin gukilligel la, gatun 
kaipuUin taraikan, gatun wiyellin, Tirkima geen nurun, gatun 
keawai nura untelli korion ; minki g6en kakuUa nurun, gatun 
keawai nura tugkilli korien. 

33. Kulla noa loanne korimullikan uwa, keawai kunto ta pa 
ga f wain keawai pitta pa ; gatun nura wiyan, fdiahol noa gikoug 
katoa ba. 

34. Yinal ta kiiri koba uwa takilliko gatun pittelliko, gatun 
nura wiyan, A ! mataye kiiri unni, gatun f wain pittaye, kdti ta 
f telonai koba gatun yarakai willug koba ! 

35. Wonto ba yantinto wonnai to guraki kuba ko piralman bon 

36. Gatun wakallo Parithaioi koba ko wiya bon ta-uwil koa noa 
gikoug katoa. Gatun uwa noa kokera Parithaio koba, gatun yella- 
wa noa bariin takilliko. 

37. Gatun, a ! gapal wakal yarakaikun bountoa gurrd bountoa ba 
lithunug bon yellawai takilli taba kokera Parithaio koba ka, man- 
kuUa bountoa wiinkilligel alabathro putillikanne, 

38. Gatun garok^a bountoa tinna ka bulka ka gikoung kin, 
ttijlkillin, gatUn bountoa puntia bounnoun ka to gurrun to tinna 
gikoiimba, gatun pirrip?, bounnoun ka to kittug ko wollug koba 
ko bounnoun ka to, gatun btigbiigka bon tinna gikoumba, gatun 
putia bon putilligel lo. 

39. Yakita nakulla noa ba unni gali Parithaio, wiya bon ba, 
wiyelleun gaiya noa niuwoabo minki ka, wiyelliela, Unni kiiri fpro- 
pet ba noa gurra pa noa wonta-kan-to ka gapallo numa bon; kulla 
bountoa yaraikan. 


40. Gratun lethuko noa wiyayelMun, wiyelliela bon, Thimon, 
■wiya-uwil koa banug. Gatun noa wiya, Piriwal, wiyellia. 

41. Tarai ta kakulla gukillikan wakiil buloara mumbitoara giko- 
umba ; wakallo noa mumbill6 in fpentakothioi fdenari, gatun tarai 
ta f pentekonta mumbilleun. 

42. Gatun keawai bula gupaiye pa ba yarug ka bon, warekA gaiya 
noa bulun ba. Wonta kin bulun kinbirug pitalmaniln kauwal bon ! 

43. Thimonto noa wiya, wiyelliella, Mirka gikoug wareka noa 
ba kauwal. Gatun noa wiya bon, Kota bi tuloa. 

44. Glatun noa warrakull^un gapal ko, gatun wiya Thimonnug 
Natan bi unni gapal 1 uwa bag kokera ko giroug ka ta ko, keawai 
bi tia gupa bato tinna ko ; wonto bountoa ba puntia tia tinna 
bounnoun ka to gurrun to, gatun watia bounnoun ka to woUug 
kabirug ko kittug ko. 

45. Keawai bi tia biigbiig ka pa ; wonto ba unni gapal, bug- 
biig-kulliela tia tinna yakita birug uwa bag ba. 

46. Keawai bi puti pa emmoumba woUug kipai to, wonto ba 
unni gapal putia emmoumba tinna kipai to. 

47. Giakai tin banug wiyan, Yarakai umatoara bounnoim ba 
kauwal ta warekatoara bounnoun ba ; kulla bounnoun pital-ma 
kauwal : kulla barunba warekatoara warea, pital-ma bara warea. 

48. Gatun noa bounnoun wiya, Warek4 umatoara giroiimba yara- 

49. Gatun bara yellawan gikoug kinba takilli taba, bara bo 
wiyatan minki ka, Gan-ke unni warekan noa yarakai. 

50. Gatun noa bounnoun wiya, Gurrulli ta birug giroiimba 
moron bi kiitan; yurug bi pital kakilliko. 


Gatun yakita yukita uwa noa yantin toa puiTai toa kokera, wiyel- 
liela gatun tugunbilliela totog pitalmullikanne fbathileia koba 
Eloi koba : gatun bara tdodeka ta gikoug katoa ba. 

2. Gatun bara nukug taraikan, turon umatoara marai yarakai 
tabirug gatun munni kabirug, Mari yitirra giakai Magdalakalin, 
bounnoun kinbirug paip6a f diabol fhepta ta, 

3. Gatun loanna porikunbai Kutha-umba, Herod-umba umulli- 
kan, gatun Thuhanna, gatun taraikan kauwal, gala bara gukulla 
bon untakal tuUokan ba birug barun kai. 

4. Gatun uwittillin bara ba kiiri kauwal-kauwal, gatun uwa gi- 
koug kinko, yantin tabirug kokerd birug, wiya noa unni fparabol : 

5. TJpillikan noa uwa yeai ko upuUiko gikotimba ko ; gatun 
upulliela noa ba, winta porkuUeun kaiyinkon ta yapug ka ; gatun 
waita-wa bar^n, gatun tibbinto takulla moroko tinto. 

6. Gatun winta porkulMan tunug ka ; gatun poaikuUe an ba 
wokka lag tetti gaiya kakulla, koito ba bato korien ta. 

7. Gatun winta porkull^iin tulkirri-tulkirr4 ; gatun poaikullean 
tulkirri-tulkirri matti, gatun murrugkama. 


8. Gatun tarai ta porkulleun purrai murrarag purrai ta, gatun 
poaikuUeiin wokka lag, gatun yeai kurria fhekaton ta. Cratun 
noa ba wiya unni tara, kaaipulleun gaiya noa, Niuwoa ba gurreug 
kan kitan gurruUiko gurrunbunbilla bon. 

9. Gratun wirrobulli-kan-to gikoumba ko wiya bon, wiyelliela, 
Minarig ke unni fparabol ? 

10. Gatun noa wiya, Gutan gurrulliko nurun pirriral fbathileia 
koba Eloi-iimba ; wonto barun tarai ta fparabol la ; natan bara 
keawai bara na pa, gatun gurran bara keawai bara gimilli pa. 

11. Giakai ta unni fparabol : Yeai ta wiyellikanne ta Eloi koba. 

12. Bara kaiyinkon taba yapug kaba gurrullikan bara; uwa 
gaiya noa f diabol, gatun mankuUa wiyellikanne barun ba minki 
kabirug biilbiil labirug, gurrea-kun koa bara gatun moron koa bara 

1 3. Bara tunug kaba gurra bara ba wiyellikanne pitalkan to ; 
gatun unni tara wirra korien katan, kota bara warea ba, gatun 
yakita numuUikanne ta waraka gaiya bara. 

11. Gatun unnoa tara porkulleun tulkirri-tulkirri, bara ba 
gurra, waita uwa gaiya, gatun murrugkama umullikanneto gatun 
porollo gatun pirunto moron koba, gatun yeai kurri korien mur- 
rarag kakilliko. 

15. Wonto ba unnoa murrarag kaba purrai taba, bara ba gurra 
wiyellikanne, tuloakan gatun murraragkan bulbiilkan, tuman bara, 
gatun yeai kurrin murroi to. 

16. Keawai kiiriko wirrogbaniin kaibug, wutiniin gaiya tenti 
ko, ga wutiniin bara ka pinkilligella ; wonto ba wupinun kaibug- 
gel la, na-uwil koa bara uwollita ba ko kaibug. 

17. Kulla yantin ta getti birug gurraniin wal kakilliko ; gatun 
yantin ta yuropatoara birug gui-raniin wal kakilliko, gatun paipi- 
niin wal. 

18. Yakoai nura gurruUa ; kulla gikoug kiiiba gunun wal giko- 
ug kin ; gatun keawai noa ka korien, mantillinim wal bon gikoug 
kinbirug unnoa ta paipitoara gikoug kinba. 

19. Gatun tunkan gikoug kinko gatun bara kfSti ta gikoumba 
xiwa, gatun keawai bara wa pa gikoug kinko konarrin, kulla 
kauwal waitawollan. 

20. Wintako bon wiya giakai, Garokillin bara warrai taba giko- 
umba tunkan gatun k6ti ta, na-uwil koa bara giroug. 

21. Gatun noa wiyayelleun barun, wiyelliela, Unni tara tia ka- 
tan emmoumba tunkan gatun k6ti ta, gurrullikan wiyellikanne 
Eloi koba gatun umullikan. 

22. G-atun yakita tarai ta purreag ka, uwa noa murrinauwai ta 
ko gikoug katoa wirrobullikan tea gikoumba ; gatun noa barun 
wiya, "Waita geen waiga-uwil kaiyin kolag wara kolag. Gatun bara 
tolka mureug kolag. 

2.3. "Wonto ba bara uwolliela, pirrikea noa k(5g(5g; gafcun wibbi ka- 
uwal kakulla wara ka; gatun bara warapal, gatun kinta kakilliela. 


24. Gatun bara uwa gikoug kin, bougbugga gaiya bon, wiyel- 
lielia, Piriwal, piriwal, tetti kolag g^en ! Bougkull6an gaiya noa, 
gatun wiya noa wibbi, gatun tulkun wombul koba ; gatun korun 
kakulla, gatun yurag gaiya kakulla. 

25. G-atun noa wiya barun, Wonnug-ke nurun kotellita ? Gatun 
bara kinta kakulla, kotelliela, wiyalan taraikan-taraikan, Wonta- 
kan unni kuri ! kulla noa wiyan wibbi gatun bato, gatun gurra 
gaiya bon, 

26. Gatun bara uwa purrai tako Gadaren tako, kaiyin taba Gali- 
laia kaba. 

27. Gatun noa ba yankulleun purrai tako, nuggurrawa bon 
wakallo kuriko kokera birug ko, fdiabolkan noa katalla yuraki, 
gatun keawai noa upillipa kirrikin to, keawai noa katan kokera, 
nikki ka noa kakulla. 

28. Nakulla noa ba lethunug, kaaibull6in gaiya noa, gatun 
puntimulleiin gikoug kin mikan ta, gatun wokka wiyell6iin wiyel- 
liela, Minnug banun ke bi tia, lethu, Yinal ta Eloi koba wokka 
kaba koba t Yanoa bi tia piralmai yikora. 

29. (Kulla noa wiya marai yarakaikan paikulliko kuri kabirug. 
Kulla bon mankulla murrin-murrin ; gatun wirria bon tibon ko j 
gatun noa tiirbugga tibon, gatun yuaip^a bon fdiaboUo korug 

30. Gatun lethuko noa wiya bon, wiyelliela, Wonneii bi yitirra ? 
Gatun noa wiya, fL^jun bag ; kulla kauwal-kauwal fdiabol uwa 
murrarig gikoug kinko minki kako. 

31. Gatun bara bon wiya, Yanoa, wiya yikora gearun bi pirriko 
kolag kakilliko. 

32. Gatun kakulla untakal wirrul takilliela bulkara ba ko ; gatxm 
bara wiya bon pulogkulliko barun minki kako tporak kako. Gatun 
noa wamunb^a barun. 

33. Uwa gaiya bara waita fdiabol minki tabirug kuri kabirug, 
gatun pul(5gkull6ijn tporak ka koiro ka; gatnn wirrul murra baran 
karakai pirriko koba wara kako, kurrin to gaiya bara. 

34. Nakulla bara ba tamunb^a unuoa tara umatoara, murra 
gaiya bara, gatun waita uwa koker4 kolag, gatun gorug kolag ; 
wiya gaiya galoa. 

35. Uwa gaiya bara, nakilliko umatoara ko ; gatun uwa I6tliu 
kin, gatun nakiilla bara bon unnoa kuri, paipitoara birug bara 
waita uwa, yellawolliela I6thu ka ta tinna ka, kirrikinkan gatun 
tuloa gurrullikan ; gatun kinta bara kakulla. 

36. Yantinto nakulla unnoa wiya barun, yanti bon ba turon 
uma fdiabolkan kauwalkan. 

37. Gatun yantinto konaro purrai tako Gadaren tako wiya 
gaiya bon waita uwolliko barun kinbirug ; kulla bara kintakan 
kauwal kakulla. Gatun noa uwa murrinauwai tako, gatun wul- 
luabo kakulla. 


38. Gatvm unnoa kuri kabirug fdiabol bara waita uwa, wiya 
bon ka-uwil koa noa gikoug katoa : wonto noa lethuko yuka bon 
waita, wiyelliela, 

39. Willugbo bi wolla giroug ka tako kokera ko, gatun gurra- 
bunbilliko unnoa tara uma noa ba Eloito giroug. Gatun noa 
waita uwa, gatun wiya yantin toa. kokeroa, yanti I^tliuko noa 
uma bon. 

40. Gatun yakita kakulla, willugbo noa ba lethu kakulla, pital 
tara kakilliela kiiri, kuUa bara bon mittilliela yantinto. 

41. Gatun yakita uwa wakal kiiri tanan, giakai yitirra Yaeiro, 
wiyellikan noa ftiiunagog kako ; gatun noa puntimulleun lethu 
kin tinna ka, gatun wiya uwolliko gikoug kinko kokera ko ; 

42. KuUa bon wakal yinalkun kakulla, fdodeka wunal taboun- 
noun ba, gatun bountoa pirrikilliela tetti kakilliela. Gatun uwa 
gaiya noa, kiriko bon muiTugkama. 

•a 43. Gatun wakal nukug, kumarakan fdodeka wunal ta boun- 
noun ba, gukilleun bountoa kirun tuUokan bounnounba kardkal ko, 
keawai bara bounnoun turon unaa pa, 

44. Uwa bountoa bulka kako, gatun numa pita gikoumba kir- 
rikin : gatun tanoa-kal-bo kumara gaiya kakulla korun. 

4.5. Gatun noa letliuko wiya gaiya, Ganto tia numa 1 Yantin- 
to wiya keawai, wiya gaiya noa Peterko gatun bara gikoug katoa, 
Piriwal, konaro bin murrugkama gatun waita wa, gatun bi wi- 
yan, Ganto tia numa 1 

46. Gatun noa letkuko wiya, "Wakallo ta tia numa : kulla bag 
gurran waita ka ba kaiyu emmoug kinbirug. 

47. Gatun bountoa ba nukugko nakulla yuropa korien boun- 
toa, uwa bountoa pulul-pulul, gatun puntimulleun gikoug kin 
niikan ta, wiya bon bountoa mikan ta yantin ta kiiri ka, minarig 
tin bountoa numa bon, gatun tanoa-kal-bo bountoa kakulla turon. 

48. Gatun noa bounnoun wiya, Yinalkun, kauwa bi pital ; 
gurruUito giroumba-ko turon bin uma ; yurig waita pital kakilliko. 

49. Gatun wiyelliela noa ba, tanan uwa wakallo wiyellikan ta 
"birug kokera birug, wiyelliela bon, Giroumba yinalkun tetti kakul- 
la ; yanoa, Piriwal pirriralmai yikora bon. 

5J3. Wonto noa ba letliuko gurra, wiyayelleiin noa bon wiyel- 
liela, Kinta kora bi ; gurrulla wal bi, gatun turon gaiya wal boun- 
toa kaniin. 

.51. Gatun noa ba uwa kokera ko ba murrarig, keawai noa tarai 
kan wommumbi pa gikoug kin, wonto ba Peternug gatun Yako- 
bonug, gatun loannenug, gatun biyugbai gatun tunkan murrakin 

52. Gatun yantin tugkill6un gatun minki kakulla bounnoun kai : 
wonto noa ba wiya, Tugki yikora ; keawaran bountoa tetti korien, 
wonto ba garabo kakillin. 

53. Gatun bara bon beelma, nakilliela tetti bountoa kakulla. 


54. Gatun noa kirun bariin yipa warai tako, gatun noa man- 
kuUa bounnoun muttarrin, gatun 'vviya, Murrakin, bougkullia. 

55. Gatun bounnoun ba marai kateakan, gatun bountoa boug- 
kulleiin tanoa-kal-bo : gatun noa wiya bounnoun takilliko. 

56. Gatun kintakan biyugbai gatun tunkan bounnoun ba : 
wonto noa ba wiya barun, yanoa wiya yikora taraikan kiiri unni 


Wiya gaiya noa barun fdodeka ta gikoiimba kaumulliko, gatun 
gukulla barun kaiyu liakilliko gatun wiyellikan kjakilliko yantiii 
ko fdiabol ko, gatun turon umulliko yantin munnikan ko. 

2. Gatun noa barun yuka wiyelliko fbathileia Eloi koba, gatun 
turon umulliko munni ko. 

3. Gatun noa wiya banin, Manki yikora waita kolag, keawai 
tupa-tupa maniin, keawai yinug, keawai kunto, keawai fmoney, 
keawai buloara maniin kirrikin taraiko-taraiko. 

4. Gatun uwanun nura ba tarai ta kokera, tanoa kauwa, gatun 
waita uwolla untoa birug. 

5. Gatun bara keawai nurun wommunbi korien, waita nura ba 
uwanun untoa birug kokera birug, tirri-tirrillia yullo kabirug 
morig tinna kabirug nurun kinbirug, tiiga kakilliko barun kinko. 

6. Gatun waita bara uwa, gatun uwa kokeroa willi koa, wiyel- 
liela Euagelion, gatun turon umuUiela yantin ta purrai ta. 

7. Gatun noa Herodto tetrdkko gurra unni tara uma noa ba ; 
gatun kotelliela niuwoa bo, kulla wiyatoara tarai-kan-to loanne 
noa bougkullia tetti kabirug ; 

8. Gatun winta ka, paipea noa Elia ; gatun tarai-kan-to, wakal 
gagka-kal fpropet tabirug bougkall^un. 

9. Gatun noa Herod wiya, Kolbuntia bag bon laonnenug wol- 
lug ; gan-ke unni gurran bag unni tara ? gatun noa na-uwil koa 

10. Gatun bara fapothollo willugbo bara ba kakulla, wiya gaiya 
bon yantin unni tara iima bara ba. Gatun noa barun yutea, gatun 
kara uwa mirrulla ko, kokera ko yitirra Betatliaida kako. 

11. Gatun bara kuri gurra baraba, wirropa bara bon; garokea 
noa wiyelliko barun fbathileia Eloi koba, gatun uma barun turon 
kakilliko munnikan. 

12. Gatun purreag kakilliela yareakal, uwa gaiya bara fdodeka 
ta, gatun wiya bon, Yukulla barun konara waita lag, uwa-uwil 
koa bara yantin toa purrai karig koa, yellawolliko, gatun takil- 
liko ; kulla g^en katan unti mirrul la. 

13. Wonto noa ba barun wiya, Guwa barun galoa ko takilliko. 
Gatun bara wiya, Keawai geariinba kulla unni tpente kunto ga- 
tun buloara makoro ; wiya g^en wirrilla barun gali ko takilliko 
yantin ko kiiri ko. 


14. Kulla wal kiiri kauwal tpentakikilioi ta. Gatun noa wiya 
barun wiri-obullikan, Yellawabunbilla barun konara kakilliko fpen- 
tekonta tarai taba kakilliko. 

15. Gratun unia gaiya bara yanti, gatun yellawabunbea barun 
yantin baran. 

16. Mankulla gaiya noa unnoa tara kanto tpente gatun makoro 
buloara ; gatun nakilliela wokka lag moroko koba, murroi wiyel- 
liela unni tara, gatun yiirbugga, gatun gukulla barun wirrobul- 
likan ko wunkilliko barun kin mikan ta konara. 

17. Gatun takulla bara, gatun warakan gaiya bara kuttawan 
yantin ; gatun mankulla bara wanan fdodeka ka wimbi ka wunta- 
wai birug barun kai. 

18. Gatun yakita wiyelliela noa ba niuwoa-bo piinbai, gikoiimba 
wiiTobuUikan gikoug katoa ; gatun noa wiya barun, wiyelliela, 
Gannug wiyan kuri ko gan bag ba. 

19. Wiyayelleiin bara, wiyelliela, Joanne ta bi korirauUikan ; 
wonto ba taraito wiyan ElJa ta ba ; gatun taraito wiyan wakal 
gagka-kal tpropet koba, bougkulliakan katea-kiin. 

20. Wiya noa barun, Ganto tia nura wiyan gan bag ba? 
Peterko noa wiyayelleun, wiyelliela, Kritht ta bi Eloi-iimba. 

21. Gatun noa barun piralma, wiy^a-kiin koa bara unnoa tara 
tarai ko kiiri ko ; 

22. Wiyelliela, Yinal ta kiri koba yarakai kauwal wal bon 
umanin, gatun warekaniin wal bon bara gagkakal gatun bara 
thiereukan piriwal, gatun bara tgarammateukan, gatun biinniin 
wal tetti, gatun bougginun gaiya bon tarai ta purreag goro ka. 

23. Gatun wiya noa barun yantin, Waniin tia ba taraikan 
kiiri uwamin, gurrullia noa niuwoa-bo, gatun mara-uwil koa noa 
taligkal)illikanne gikoiimba yantin ta purreag ka, gatun wirro- 
bulla tia. 

24. Ganto ba miroman in moron gikoiimba, warekanin wal uoa ? 
kulla noa warekanun moron gikoumba emmoug kin, galoa noa 
moron umanun. 

25. Wonnug-ke murrarag kiiri ko, mankilliko purrai karig ko, 
gatun noa tetti wal gaiya kanim niuwoa-bo, ga warekanun wal? 

26. Gan tia ba koiyun kanim emmoug kai, gatun wiyellikanne 
emmoiimba, Yinal kiiri koba koiyun gikoug kai, uwanin noa ba 
killibinbinkan koti gikoug kinba, gatun Biyugbai koba, gatun 
agelo yirri-yirri-kan koba bariinba. 

27. Kulla bag wiyan nurun tuloa, unni winta garokeiin ba, 
keawai bara tetti kantin, kabo na-uwilkoa bara fbathileia-nug Eloi 

28. Gatun yakita kakulla purreag ka fet ta yurika-ta unni tara 
wiyellikanne, yutea noa barun Peternug, gatun loannenug, gatun 
Yakobonug, gatun uwa wok'ka lag bulkara kolag wiyelliko. 

29. Gatun noa ba wiyelliela, takin bon tarai warrakull^iin, ga- 
tun gikoumba kirrikin purrul kakulla, gatun killibinbin kakulla. 


30. Gratun wiyelliela bon kiiriko Moth^ko gatiin Eliako : 

31. Paipea bula killibinbin, gatun wiya bula gikoiimba tfevii 
tin ka-uwil koa fHierothalem ko. 

32. Wonto ba Peter noa gatun bara gikoug katoa porrolkan 
bara birik^a kogog ; gatun bara' kakuUa tirag, nakulla bara giko- 
iimba killibinbin, gatun buloara bula kiiri garok^a gikoug katoa. 

33. G-atun kakulla yakita bula ba waita uwolliela gikoug kin- 
birug, Peterko noa wiya bon I6thunug, A! Piriwal, murrariig gea- 
run unti ko kakilliko ; gatun umabunbilla goro kokera ; wakal 
bin, gatun wakal Mothenug, gatun wakal Elianug, gurra korien 
minarig noa wiya. 

34. Wiyelliela noa ba, yareil kakulla, gatun wut6a barun ; 
gatun bara kinta kakulla, waita bara ba woUiela murrarig yareil la. 

35. Gatun pulli kakulla yareil labirug, wiyelliela, Unni ta 
emmoumba k6ti yinal pitalmullikan ; gurrulla bon. 

36. Gatun pulli ba kakulla korun, letliu noa' kakilliela puiibai. 
Keawai bara unni tara wiya pa untatoara, natoara purreag ka ta- 
raikan ta. 

37. Gatun yakita kakulla purreag ka tarai ta unta, uwa bara 
ba bardn buikara birug, kauwallo kiiriko nuggurra wa bon. 

38. A! gatun wakal kiiri konara koba kaaibulleiin, wiyelliela, 
Piriwal, kai bi, na-uwillia yinal emmoumba; kuUa noa emmoumba 
wakal wonnai. 

39. A! gatun niaraito bon mankulla, gatun gaiya noa kaaibul- 
leiin wokka ; gatun yiirbugga bon, gatun kurragtoanbugga ; gatun 
biintoara noa, waita gaiya gikoug kinbirug uwa. 

40. Gatun bag wiya barun wirrobuUikan giroumba warekulliko 
bon ; keawai bara kaiyu korien. 

41. Gatun noa letbuko wiya, wiyelliela, A! gurra korien gatun 
pirriral unni willug-gel ! Yakounta-lag bag kiiniin nurun kin, 
gatun wal bag kamunbiniin nurun 1 Mara bon tanan giroiiniba 
yinal unti ko. 

42. Gatun uwolliela noa ba tanan fdiabollo bon puntima baran 
gatun yiiryiir uma. Gatun noa lethuko koakulla bon marai yara- 
kai ka, gatun bon wonnai turon uma, gatun guteakan gaiya bon 
biyugbai ta gikoumba tin. 

43. Gatun yantin bara kinta kakulla kaiyu tin kauwal lin Eloi 
koba tin ; gatun kotelliela bara ba yantin unni tara I^thuko noa 
ba uma, wiya gaiya noa barun wirrobuUikan gikoumba, 

44. Kamunbilla unni tara wiyellikanne murrarig gurr^ug kako 
nurun kin ; kulla noa Yinal kiiri koba wupiniin wal bon mattaia 
kiiri ka. 

45. Keawai bara gurra pa unni wiyellikanne, gatun yuropa 
gali barun kinbirug, keawai bara gimilli korien ; gatun bara kinta 
kakulla wiyelliko bon gali tin wiyellikanne tin. 

46. Yakita gaiya bara wiyellan barabo-baraTao, gan-ke kanin 
kauwal piriwal barun kinbirug. 


47. Gatun lethuko noa gimilleun kotatoara biilbul labirug barun 
kinbirug mankulla noa wonnai, gatun yellawabunbea bon gikoug 
kin tarug ka, 

48. Gatun noa barun wiya, Ganto ba unni wonnai pitalmaniin 
kinba, pital manun gaiya tia ; gatun ganto ba tia pitalmanun, 
pitalmaniin bon gala yuka tia ba ; gatun niuwoa katan warea 
nurun kinba yantin taba, yantibo ta wal noa kauwal kiniin. 

49. Gatun noa loanneto wiya, wiyelliela, Piriwal, nakulla geen 
wakallo paibugguUiela barun fdiabol giroug katoa birug yitirra 
birug ; wiya geen bon yanoa, koito ba keawai noa wa pa gearun 

50. Gatun noa lethuko bon wiya, Wiwi yikora ; koito noa ba 
keawai bukka korien gearun, niuwoa gearun katoa ba. 

51. Gatun yakita kakulla purreag maniin bon ba wokka kolag, 
pirral noa kakilliela waita fHierotlialem kolag, 

52. Gatun noa yuka barun puntiraai gikoumba ganka ; gatun 
bara uwa koker4 kolag Thamaria kako, umulliko gikoug. 

53. Gatun bara bon keawai pitalma pa, kuUa noa pirral kakulla 
wa pa tHierothalem kolag. 

54. Gatun bula wirrobullikan gikoumba, Yakobo gatun Joanne, 
nakulla bula unni, wiya bula, Piriwal, wiya bi, wiya-uwil koa geen 
koiyug koa kauwal bardn moroko kabirug wina-uwil koa barun, 
yanti Elia noa ba unnoa 1 

55. Wonto noa ba wakulleiin, koakulla gaiya barun noa, gatun 
wiya, Keawaran nura gimilli korien nurunba k6ti biilbul. 

56. Koito ba noa yinal kiiri koba keawaran noa tanan wa pa, 
bunkilliko kiiri ko barun, wonto ba murrin umulliko. Gatun bara 
uwa tarai tako kokera ko. 

57. Gatun yakita kakulla, uwolliela bara ba yurig yapug koa, 
taraito bon wiya, Piriwal, wirrobugbinun banug, wontarig bi ba 

58. Gatun noa letliuko bon wiya, Murrog-kai-ko kumiri bariin- 
ba, gatun tibbin moroko ka koba kunta baninba, wonto ba yinal 
kuri koba keawaran bon gikoumba birrikilli-gel wallug ko giko- 
umba ko. 

59. Gatun noa tarai vviya, Wirrobulla tia. Wonta noa ba wiya, 
Piriwal, wamunbilla tia ganka bapa-viwil koa bag emmoiimba bi- 

60. Wiya bon noa lethuko, Bapabunbilla barun tetti-tetti barun- 
ba ; gintoa yurig bi wolla wiyelliko piriwal koba Eloi koba. 

61. Gatun taraito wiya, Piriwal, wirrobaniin banug; wamunbUla 
tia ganka wiyellikoa barun bag unni emmoug kinba kokera ba. 

62. Gatun noa I6thuko bon wiya, Keawai tarai-kan-to upilli- 
niin mattara purrai-g61 lo, gatun willug-wuminun, keawaran noa 
murrarag korien kakilliko piriwal ko Eloi koba ko. 



Yakita gaiya kakulla unni tara, Piriwallo noa gearimuUeiin -jtlie 
benty taraikan ta, gatun yuka barun buloara-buloara gikoug kiu 
mikaii ta, yantin tako kokera ko uwanun noa ba niuwoa-bo. 

2. Gatun noa barun wiya, Kauwal-lan unni nulai katan, keawai 
bo katillikan kuri kauwilkul ; gali tin wiyella nura bon, Piriwal 
nulai-gel Icoba yuka-uwii koa noa barun katillikan nulai ko katil- 
liko gikoug kaiko. 

3. Waita nura yurig wolla : A ! yukan nurun bag waita kolag 
yanti kiloa war(5a ta cipu barun kin murrog ka ta. 

4. Kurri yikora yanoa raunnigdl, gatun yinug, keawai tug- 
ganug ; gatun yanoa wiya yikora yapug koa taraikan kiiri. 

5. Gratun uwanun nura ba kokera ko taraikan tako, wiyella 
kurri giakai, Pital kauwa unni kokera ba. 

6. Gatun ba yinal koba pital koba kanun unta, nuriinba pital 
kaniin gaiya unta ; keawai ba nurun kin katea kaniin willugbo. 

7. Gatun yellawaniin nura unta kokera, takilliko gatun pittel- 
liko, gunun bara ba nurun ; kulla noa umulli-kan-to man ba gu- 
toara gikoumba. Uwai yikora kokera kolag kokera kolag. 

8. Gatun uwanun nura ba yantin ta kokeroa, gatun bara nurun 
pitalmanun, ta-uwa untoa tai'a wuniin ba mikan ta nurun kin. 

9. Gatun turon barun umuUa unta tara ; gatun wiyella barun, 
Piriwal koba Eloi koba papai uwa nurun kinba. 

10. Uwanun nura ba tarai ta kokeroa, gatun bara keawai pital- 
ma korien nurun, uw6a ka nura warai tako yapug kako, gatun 

11. Umulleiin gten punul untikal gearun kinba nurun kin; A! 
kotellia nura unni ta uwan ta papai katan nurun kin piriwal koba 
Eloi koba. 

12. Wiyan nurun bag, murrarag kanun unta ta tarai ta purreag, 
ka Thodom kako, keawaran gala ko kokera ko. 

13. Yapallun bi Koradhin ! yapallun bi Betathaida ! kulla uma- 
toara ba kauwal-kauwal kaiyu birug ka pa Turo ka gatun Thidoni 
ka uma giroug kin, minki bara ka pa yuraki, yellawa pa bara 
pirral la kirrikin ta gatun bonog ka. 

14. Murrarag buloara kaniin Turo gatun Thidoni unta purreag 
wiyellaikanne ta keawaran bi. 

15. Gatun gintoa, Kapernaum, wunkulla wokka lag moroko ka, 
yuaipinun wal bardn pirri kako. 

16. Niuwoa gurran nurun ba, gurran ta noa tia ; gatun niuwoa 
waitiman nurun ba, waitiman noa tia ; gatun niuwoa tia waitiman, 
waitiman noa bon yuka noa tia ba. 

"17. Gatun bara fthebenty ta willugbo kakulla pitalkan, wiyel- 
liela, A Piriwal ! gurruUikan bara f diabollo gearun giroug katoa 


18. Gratun noa barun wiya, Nakulla bon bag Thatannug punti- 
mulleun baran moroko tin yanti mdlma kiloa. 

19. A ! gutan bag nuran kaiyu 'waitawolliko maiya ko gatun 
wuarai ko, gatun yantin ko kaiyu bukkakan ko ; gatun keawai 
wal nurun yarakai umulliko. 

20. Pital-mai yikora nura-nura, gali tin gurullikan tin bara 
marai nurun ba ; unti birug pitalma nura, kulla yitirra nurtinba 
upatoara moroko ka ba. 

21. Yakita ta noa pital-lan kakulla marai ta, gatun wiyelliela, 
Kauwa tia yanti, Biyug, Piriwal ta moroko koba gatun purrai 
koba, kulla bi ba unnoa tara yuropa gali unti birug guraki ta 
birug, gatun bi tugkaiya unnoa tara barun bobog ko ; kauwa 
yanti, Biyug, koito ba murrarag ta giroug kin katan mikan ta. 

22. Yantin ta tia wupea emmoug kinko Biyugbaito ; gatun 
keawai k iriko bon yinal gimilli pa, wonto ba Biyugbaito ; gatun 
Biyugbai yinallo gimilleun, gatun niuwoa yinallo tiigunbinun bon 

23. G-atun noa willarig kakulla gikoug kai koba, wirrobullikan 
koba, gatun wiyelliela kara, Kauwa yanti murrarag ta natan gai- 
kug ko unni tara natan nura ba : 

24. Kulla bag nurun wiyan, kauwallo tpropetto gatun piriwallo 
na pa unni tara natan nura ba, gatun bara keawai na korien ; ga- 
tun gurra pa unni tara gurran nura ba, gatun keawai gurra korien. 

25. A ! tarai wakal fnomiko garokea wokka lag, gatun wiya 
bon, wiyelliela, Piriwal, minnug banun bag moron kakilliko yanti- 
katai ? 

26. Wiya bon noa, Minarig upa wiyellikanne 1 yakoai bi wiyan ? 

27. G-atun noa wiyayelWiin, wiyelliela, Pital kakilliko bi Piri- 
wal ko Eloi ko giroumba ko yantin to biilbiil lo giroumba ko, 
gatun yantin to marai to giroumba ko, gatun yantin to kaiyu ko 
giroumba ko, gatun yantin to kotellitd giroumba ko ; gatun k6ti 
ta giroumba yanti gintoa bo ba. 

28. Gatun noa wiya bon, Gintoa wiyayelleiin tuloa ; unni ta 
umuUa gatun moron koa bi kauwal 

29. Wonto noa ba kotelliela tuloa ko niuwoa bo, wiya bon noa 
I^thnnug, G-an-ke tia k6ti ta emmoumba 1 

30. Gatun noa lethuko wiya, Taraikan waita uwa barin fHi- 
erothalem kabii-ug Jeriko kako, gatun nuggurrawa mankiye, man- 
tilleun bon kirrikin, gatun bunkulla, gatun bara waita uwa wareka 
gaiya bon biintoara. 

31. Yakita gati uwa wakal thiereu barin yapug koa ; gatun na- 
kulla bon noa ba, uwa noa tarug koa kaiyin ta koa. 

32. Ganti yanti kiloa wakal Lebikan kakulla noa ba unta, 
uwa nakulla gaiya bon, gatun noa uwa tarug koa kaiyin ta koa. 

33. Wonto ba wakal kiiri Tliamariakal uwolliela ba, uwa yapa- 
rig kakilliela noa ba ; gatun nakulla bon noa ba, minki bon noa 
kakulla gikoug kai, 


34. Gratun uwa gitoug kai koba, gatun gira bon biiiitoara 
gikoumba, kiroabulliela kipai gatun twain, gatun yellawabunbf^a 
bon gikoug ka ta k6ti ka buttikag, gatun yut6a bon takillig^l lako, 
gatun miroma bon. 

35. G-atun tarai ta purreag ka wakal la waita noa ba uwa, man- 
kuUa gaiya noa buloara fdenari, gatun gukuUa kokeratin ko, 
gatun bon wiya, Grolomulla bon ; kirun biba upinun, uwea kaniin 
bag ba willugbo, gutea kanijn gaiya banug. 

36. Wonnug-ke k6ti ta gikoumba nuggurrawa mankiye unti 
birug goro kabirug kuri kabirug, kotella bi 1 

37. G-atun noa wiya, Niuwoa golomabon. Wiya noa bon letbu 
ko, Yurig, yanti kiloa umulla bi. 

38. G-atun yakita kakuUa, u-wa bara ba, u^wa noa murrug koa 
kokeroa ; gatun taraito nukugko, Marathako yitirra, -wamunb^a 
bon bounnoun kin kokera. 

39. Wuggunbai bounnoun ba gaiya kai, yitirra Mari, yella-wa 
bountoa I6thu kin yullo ka, gatun gurra bon wiyellita 

40. Wonto ba Maratba kamullan buntoa marai-marai umuUita, 
gatun uwa bountoa gikoug kin, gatun wiya, Piriwil, kora bi 
natan tia -wareka tia wuggunbai emmoiimba umuUiko wakallo ? 
■wiyella bounnoun umulli koa bountoa tia. 

41. G-atun noa I^thuko wiyelleiin, gatun wiya bounnoun, Elal 
Maratha, Maratha, gintoa kamullan marai-marai minnambo-min- 
nambo ka ; 

42. Wonto ba wakal murrarag katan : gatun Mariko bountoa 
geremull^un unnoa murraragbo, keawai wal mantillinijn boun- 
noun kinbirug. 


G-ATUN yakita kakulla, wiyelliela noa ba tarai ta purrai ta, kaiul- 
leun noa ba wiyelli ta, wakallo bon wiya gikoug-ka-to wirrobulli- 
kanto, Piriwal, wiyella gearun bi wiyelliko, yanti kiloa loanne- 
to noa wiya barun gikoumba wirrobullikan. 

2. Gatun noa wiya barun, wiyaniin nura ba, giakai nura wiya- 
nijn nura, Biyugbai gearumba wokka ka ba moroko ka ba katan, 
Kamunbilla yitirra giroumba yirri-yirri kakilliko. Paipibunbilla 
Piriwal koba giroumba. Gurrabunbilla wiyellikanne giroumba, 
yanti moroko ka ba, yanti ta purrai ta ba. 

3. G-uwoa gearun purreag ka takilliko. 

4. Gatun warekilla geariinba yarakai umatoara, kuUa geen 
yanti ta wareka yanti ta wiyapaiyeian geariinba. G-atun yuti 
yikora gearun yarakai umullikan kolag ; miromuUa gearun yara- 
kai tabirug. 

5. Gatun noa barun wiya, Gan nurun kinbirug k6ti gikoumba, 
gatun uwaniin gikoug kin tokoi ta, gatun bon wiyanun, Ela ! k6ti, 
mumbilla tia wokkai to goro ko ; 


6. Kulla noa emmoumba koti uwa kalog tin emmoug kinko, ga- 
tun keawai bag wiin korien gikoug kin mikan ta takilliko ? 

7. Niuwoa murrug ka ba ko wijanun, Wai tia wiyellan ; kulla 
unni kurraka wirrigbakulla, kulla wonnai tara emmoiimba em- 
moug katoa ba birrikilligel laba ; keawaran bag bougkulli korien 
gukilliko giroug. 

8. Wiyan nurun bag, Keawai noa bougkulli korien guUiko bon, 
kulla noa ba gikoumba k6ti ; kulla wal noa bon pirriral-muUi tin 
bougkullinun gaiya noa gulliko bon wiyellinun noa ba. 

9. Gatun nurun bag wiyan, Wiyella, gatun gnniin gaiya nurun ; 
gatun tiwolla, gatun karawollinun gaiya nura; wirrillia, gatun uma- 
nun gaiya nurun. 

10. Yantin ba wiyellinun, manun wal ; gatun noa tiwoUiniin, 
karawollinun gaiya noa ; gatun gikoug wirrillinun noa ba, uma- 
niin gaiya wal. 

11. Yinallo ba wiyaniin nulai yantin ta nurun kin, biyugbai ta 
ba, wiya, noa guniin tunug 1 ga makoro, wiya, noa maiya gunun 
makoro 1 

12. G-a ba wiyellan noa ba yarro, wiya, noa bon gupaiyinun wu- 
arai ? 

13. Nura ba yarakaikan katan, gukilliko gutoara murrarag 
wonnai ko nuriinba ko ; kauwa yanti gunun noa Biyugbaito mo- 
roko ka ba ko Marai murrarag barun wiya bon ba ? 

14. G-atun noa ba paibuggulliela wakal fdiabol, gatun noa gogo. 
Gatun yakita gaiya kakulla, waita ba uwa fdiabol, wiya gaiya noa 
gogo kabirug ko ; gatun bara kiiri kotelliela. 

15. Wonto ba tarai-kan-to wiya, Paibugga noa barun fdiabol 
Beeldhebul katan birug, piriwalloa birug fdiabol koba ko. 

16. Gatun tarai-kan-to wiyelliela, wiya bon tuga moroko tin. 

17. Wonto noa ba gimilleiin barunba kotellikanne, wiya barun, 
Yantin piriwal koba garuggara umulla barabo tetti bara kanun; 
gatun kokera koba barabo warakullia bara. 

18. Tliatan noa ba garuggara kaniin niuwoa-bo, yakoai giko- 
imiba piriwal koba kanun? kulla nura wiyan paibugga bag ba 
barun fdiabol Beeldhebul katoa birug. 

19. Gatun gatoabapaibugganunbarunfdiabol Beeldhebul birug, 
gan katoa birug nurilnba-ko yinal-lo paibugga ? 

20. Gatoa paibugganun mattarroa birug Eloi koba ko barun 
fdiabol, kauwa tuloa uwa gaiya piriwal koba Eloi koba nurun 
kin ba. 

21. Golomanun noj, ba tarai kijri mokal porrol gikoug kin ko- 
kera, gikoumba tullokan murroi katan. 

22. Wonto ba tanan uwanun tarai mokal porrolkan kauwal 
kan gikoug kin, gatun keakea-ma noa bon, mantillinun gaiya wal 
bon kirun mokal gikoumba pirriral-matoara ; gatun gutillinun noa 
mokal gikoumba. 


23. Niuwoa keawai emmoug katoa, iiiuwoa katan koti korien ; 
gatun. noa keawai boa-ma korien emmoug katoa, ware-ware-kan. 

24. Paikullinun ba marai yarakai kiiri kabirug, uwan noa yu- 
rig puiToi toa tarawaroa, nakilliko korilliko ; gatun noa keawai 
na korien, wiyan noa, Willugbaniin wal bag willugbo kokera ko 
emmoug ka ta ko, unta birug uwa bag ba. 

25. Gratun uwaniin noa ba, nakuUa gaiya noa ba wirea kiriiri 
gatun kon^in. 

26. Uwan gaiya noa gatun yut^a taraikan tthebenta marai ya- 
rakai kauwal yanti niuwoa ba ; gatun bara uwa murrarig gatun 
kakuUa gaiya bara unta ; gatun yarakai kauwal noa unnoa katan 
yakita, kakulla noa ba kurri-kurri. 

27. Gatun yakita kakulla, wiyelliela noa ba, kaaibull^im tarai 
nukug gali koba konara koba, gatun wiya bon bountoa, Murrarig 
kauwa yanti pika kurr^a bon ba, gatun paiyU pitta bi ba. 

28. Wonto noa bo wiya, Kauwa yanti, murrarag kauwal katan 
bara gurrullikan wiyellikanne Eloi koba, gatun mirromuUi-ko. 

29. Gatun yakita kakulla, wittillan bara ba kiiri, wiya noa 
kurri-kurri, Unni ta yarakai katan willugg^l ; nakillin bara tuga ; 
keawai wal barun gunun, unni bo ta wal tiiga Ipna-umba tpropet 

30. Yanti kiloa lona tuga kakulla noa barun kuri Ninebi ka, 
yanti bo ta wal kaniin noa yinal kiiri koba barun gali ko willuggel 

31. Bougkullinun wal piriwal kirin pakai birug purreag ka 
wiyellig^l la kiiri koa untikal loa willuggel loa, gatun pirralmaniin 
barun ; kuUa bountoa uwa kalog kabirug purrai tabirug wiran 
tabirug gurruUi bon guraki ko Tholomon ko ; A ! kauwal katan 
Tholomcin kiloa unnibo. 

32. Bougkullinun wal bara kiiri Ninebikal purreag ka wiyelli- 
gel la kiiri koa untikal loa willuggel loa, gatun pirral-maniin barun; 
kulla bara minki kakulla wiyelli ta lona-iimba ka ; A ! kauwal ka- 
tan lona kiloa unnibo. 

33. Keawai kiiriko tarai-kan-to wirroug bugginiin kaibug wu- 
niin gaiya gati ta, keawai bara ka wimbi ka, wonto ba kaibuggel 
la, bara ba uwaniin na-uwil koa bara kaibug. 

34. Kaibug ta murrin koba gaikug ; wonto ba giroumba gaikug 
tuloa katan, yantin bin katan murrin kaibugkan ; wonto bin ba 
gaikug yarakai, kaniin mtirrin bin warapa tokoi to. 

35. Yakoai bi, mirka unnoanug kaibug giroug kinba tokoi taba 

36. Kulla ba yantin ta giroumba murrin ta ba warapan kaibug 
ko, keawai taraikan tokoi, kaniin yantinbo ta wal warapan kaibug 
ko, yanti kaibug koba wupin gatun binkirreun. 

37. Gatun wiyelliela noa ba, taraito Parithaioko wiya bon ta- 
uwil koa noa gikoug katoa ; gatun noa uwa murrarig gatun yel- 
lawa takilliko. 


38. G-atun noa ba Parithaioko nakulla, umuUi korien noa bato 
ka kurri-kurri takilli kolag, kotelliela noa. , 

39. Gatun bon noa Piiiwallo "wiya, Yakita nura Parithaioiko 
umuUia inirkun karai-gon tunti gatun pikirri ; wonto ba nurun- 
ba murrin warapan willir6 gatun yarakai to. 

40. Wogkil nura ! yan ta noa uma unnoa yanti unnoa ba warrai 
ta ba, yantibo uma noa murrug ka ba? 

41. Gruwa nura untoaktil nurun kinbirug, gatun yantin nurun 
ba tuloa ka katan. 

42. Yapal nura Parithaioi ! kulla nura gukillan wintakal tmen- 
tha tabirug, gatun f ruta tabirug, gatun yaki tara, gatun gurra- 
maigan tuloa gatun pitilumuUikanne Eloi koba : unni tara nura 
uma pa, gatun keawai taraikan wareka pa uma korien. 

43. Yapal nura Parithaioi ! kulla nura pitalman yellawollikanne 
wokka kaba fthunagdg kaba, gatun umullikanne gukilligel lako. 

44. Yapal nura tgai'ammateu gatun Parithaioi, gakoiyaye ! kulla 
nura yanti tulmun kiloa paipi korien, gatun bara kiiri uwan 
wokka lag tulmun toa, kea,waran bara na korien. 

45. Wiyayellein gaiya wakallo f nomiko-ko wiyelliela bon, Piri- 
■wal, giakai bi "wiyan, pirralnaan bi gearun. 

46. Gatun noa wiya, Yapal nura fnomikoi yantinbo ! kulla nura 
■wuntankiiri ka porrol ta lo kauwaj porrol kurrilliko, gatun kea- 
wai nura unnoa porrol numa korien nurun ka to mtittarr6. 

47. Yapal nura ! kulla nura ba wittiman tulmun barunba fpro- 
pet koba, gatun biyugbaito nuriinba-ko bunkulla barun tetti kul- 

48. Kauwa tuloa ta pirralman nura umatoara biyugbai koba 
nurunba ; kulla bara yuna bo ta barun bunkulla tetti, gatun nura 
wittillin tulmun barunba. 

49. Yaki tin wiya gurakita Eloi koba ko, Yukanun wal bag 
barun fpropet gatun fapothol barun kin, gatun winta barun kin- 
birug biinnin wal bara gatun yarakai umanun; 

50. Wiya-uwil koa gorog yantin koba fpropet koba kiroaba- 
toara yaki tabirug kurri-kurri tabirug purrai tabirug, unni barun 

51. Gorog kabirug Abelumba kabirug, gorog kako Dhakaria- 
umba kako biintoara willi ka fbdmo ta gatun fhieron ; kauwa 
tuloa to wiyan nurun bag, wiya-uwil koa unni barun willuggel. 

52. Yapal nura fnomikoi ! kulla nura mankulla wirrigbakilli- 
g61 gurakita koba ; keawai nura wa pa, gatun nura miya barun 
uwa bara ba. 

53. Gatun wiya noa ba unni tara barun, pirriralma bon bara 
garammateuto gatun Parithaioiko, wiya-uwil koa noa minnambo 
wiyelliko ; 

54. Mittillin bara bon, gatun nakillin gurrulliko gikoug kin ba 
ko kurraka ba ko, wiyayean koa bara bon. 



Yakita kakulla, ■wittillan bara ba yantibo konara kiiri, wata-wata- 
woUan barabo, wiya noa kurri-kurri barun wirrobullikan gikoumba, 
Yakoai nura flebben barunba Parithaioi koba, gakoiyaye ta unnoa. 

2. Yantin ba wutea ta tugunbinin gaiya wal ; gatun yantin 
yuropa ta namunbinun gaiya wal. 

3. Yaki tin, wiyellan nura tokoi ta gurrabunbiniin wal kaibug 
ka ; gatun unni ta wiya nura ba gurr^ug ka waiyakan ta, wiyel- 
liniin wal wokka ka kokera. 

4. Gatun bag nurun wiyan k6ti ta emmoumba, Kinta kora nura 
barun kin biinkillikan tin murrin tin, gatun yukita tantoa bo ta 
wal bara kaiyukanto baniin. 

5. Tugunbiniin wal bag nurun gan-kai nura kinta wal kanin : 
Kinta bon kauwa gikoug kai, yukita noa ba bunkulla kaiyukan 
noa warekuUiko koiyug kako pirriko kako ; kauwa wiyan bag 
nurun, Kinta bon kauwa gikoug kai. 

6. Wiya, fpente tibbin warea ta gupaiye ko buloara fassari, ga- 
tun keawai wakal unti birug woggunti korien gikoug kin Eloi kin ? 

7. KuUa yantin woUug kaba kittug murrapatoara katan. Kinta 
kora nura gali tin ; kulla nura murrarag kauwalkan katan, kea- 
waran gali tarako tibbinko warea-ta-ko kauwal-kauwal-ko. 

8. Unni ta nurun bag wiyan, Yantinto emmoug wiyaniin mikan 
ta kiiri ka, gikoug wiyan in noa Yinal kiiri koba mikan ta agelo 
ka Eloi koba ko. 

9. Wonto ba niuwoa ganbulliniin tia emmoug mikan ta kiiri 
ka, ganbullinun wal bon mikan ta agelo ka Eloi koba ka. 

10. Gratun ganto ba yarakai wiyaniin gikoug Yinal kiiri koba, 
kamunbinun wal bon ; wonto bon ba yarakai wiyellikan Maraikan 
yirri-yirri-kan, keawai bon kamunbiniin. 

11. G-atun maniin nurun bara fthunagdg kako gatun wiyelli- 
kan tako, gatun kaiyukan tako, kota yikora nura wonnug nura ba 
wiyayellinin, ga minnug nura wiyaniin. 

12. Kulla nurun Marai-kan-to yirri-yirri-kan-to wiyaniin wal 
yakita bo gaiya minnug wal nura wiyaniin. 

13. G-atun wiya bon wakallo konara birug ko, Piriwal, wiyella 
emmoumba biggainug, gukulli koa noa purrai emmoug kai. 

14 Gatun noa bon wiya, Kuri, ganto tia uma wiyellikan, ga 
gukillikan giroug kin 1 

15. Gatun noa barun wiya, Yakoai gatun murroi kauwa williri 
koba ; kulla moron kiiri koba ka korien ta kauwal-kauwal la tul 
lokan ka, gikoug ka ta. 

16. Gatun noa wiya barun unni fparabol, wiyelliela, Purrai ta 
porrdlkan koba poaikulMiin kauwal : 

17. Gatun noa kotell^un niuwoabo, wiyelliela, Minnug baniin 
bag, kulla wal unni tuntan uwa, wiya wal bag wonta wura-uwU 
unni tara emmoumba 1 


18. G-atun noa wiya, Unni bag umiiniin ; umanuii wal bag bar^n 
wunkilligel emmoumba, gatun wittia kunun kauwal ; gatun unta 
bag wuniiii yantin emmoumba nulai gatun tullokan. 

19. Gatun bag wiy^nun emmoumba marai, A marai! kauwal 
tullokan giroiimba wiinkulla kauwal lako wunal lako; yellawoUa 
murroi bi, tauwa, pittella, gatun pitil kauwa. 

20. Wonto ba Eloito bon wiya, Wogkal-lan bi ! unti tokoi ta 
giroiimba marai mantillinun wal giroug kinbirug ; ganto gaiya 
unnoa tara tullokan manun tuigko bi ba uma ? 

21. Yanti niuwoa ba wupeakan tullokan gikoiimba ko, gatun 
keawai porrol korien Eloi kai koba. 

22. Gatun noa wiya barun wirrobullikan, Yaki tin wiyan bag 
nurun, Yanoa, kota yikora nuriinba moron takilliko ; ga keawai 
murrin ko wupulliko. 

23. Moron ta kauwal katan murrarag takillikanne keawaran, 
gatun murrin ta kauwal katan murrarag kirrikin keawaran. 

24. Kotella wdkun barun ; koito bara ba keawai wupa korien, 
gatun keawai kol bunti korien ; keawai bariinba tuigko wupilli- 
gdl, keawai bariinba kokera ; gatun noa Eloito giratiman barun ; 
kauwal-kauwal nura katan murrarag tibbin bara keawaran. 

25. G-atun gan nurun kinbirug kotellita kuniin, umea kinun 
moron gikoiimba warea ka kakilliko fkubit kako 1 

26. Wiya nura ba kaiyu korien to umulliko unni warea, min- 
arig tin nura kotellin unnoa tara ? 

27. Kotella nura kenukiin turukin bara ba ; keawai bara uma 
korien, wupi korien bara ; gatun bag wiyan nurun, Tholomon noa 
ba, kon&nkan, keawai bon wupa korien yanti kiloa wakal unti 
tara birug. 

28. Upaniin noa ba Eloito woiyo yanti, yakita purreag ka unta 
ba purrai ta katan, gatun kumba warekakin murrug ka wollo ka ; 
wiya, nurun noa upiinun, A ! nura gurrullikan wareakan ? 

29. Gatun na-ki yikora nura minarig nuriinba takUliko gatun 
pittelliko, ga kota yikora nura minki ko. 

30. Koito ba bara yantinto purrai ta ba ko natan yantin unni 
tara ; gatun nuriinba-to Biyugbai-to gurran unni tara gukillikanne 
nurun ba murrarag kakilliko. 

31. Wonto ba nura nauvva piriwal koba Eloi koba, gatun yantin 
unni rara gunun nurun kin. 

32. Kintakora, wirrul warea ; kulla pitulman bon Biyugbai nu- 
riinba gukilliko piriwal-gel ta nurun kin. 

33. Gukillea nuriinba, gatun guwa gukillikanne : umuUa nura 
yinug nuriinba, keawai koa korokal kat6a-kun, porr61kan ta moroko 
ka ba kakilliko ka korien kakilliko, keawai ba unta ko uwa korien 
mankiye, gatun keawai ba yarakai puntaye. 

34. Wonnun ta nuriinba tullokan, untabo kiiuun nuriinba biil- 
biil yantibo. 


35. G-irullia nura winnal nurunba, gatun. nuriinba kaibug wina- 
bunbilla ; 

36. Gatun nurabo yanti kiloa kuri ba mittillin barunba ko Piri- 
wal ko, willug.ban^ji ^q^ ^jg^ mankilligel labirug ; uwanuri noa ba 
ba tanan gatun wirrillinun, umanun gaiya bon tanoa-kal-bo. 

37. Pitalniatoara kanun bara unnoa tara mankillikan, yakita 
Piriwal noa ba uwanun, noa ba barun kin naniin noa ba barun 
nakilli ta ; wiyan bag tuloa nurun, girulliniin noa k6tibo, gatun 
yellawabumbea barun takilli kolag, gatun uwanun noa gukilliko 

38. Gatun tanan uwanun noa ba, yakita buloara nakillikan ta, 
yakita goro ka nakillikan ta, gatun nanun barun yantibo nakilli 
ta, pitalmatoara bara unnoa tara mankillikan. 

39. Gatun gurrulla unni, wiya noa ba kokera-tin-to gurra pa, 
yakounta ba uwa pa mankiye na pa noa, keawai gaiya kokera 
gikoiitnba potobunti pa. 

40. Yanti tin kauwa nura nakilliko ; kulla noa Yinal kuri koba 
uWaniin yakita kota korien nura ba. 

41. Wiya gaiya noa bon Peterko, Piriwal, wiyan bi unni fpara- 
bol gearunbo, ga gearun yantin t 

42. Gatun noa Piriwallo wiya, Gan-ke noa mankillikan murra- 
rag gatun guraki, piriwallo noa umaniin bon wiyellikan kakilliko 
kokera ko gikoug ka ta ko, gu-uwil koa noa takilliko yakita gukil- 
ligel la ? 

43. Pitalmatoara katan unnoa mankillikan, umaniin noa ba gi- 
koiimba piriwal nanun gaiya noa bon umuUi ta yanti. 

44. Wiyan bag tuloa, umaniin bon noa wiyellikan kakilliko 
yantin tako. 

45. Wonto noa ba wiyanun gala mankilli-kan-to, bulbul la, Em- 
moumba piriwal minkin uwa korien ; gatun gaiya noa biinkilli 
kolag barun kiiri mankillikan gatun gapal, gatun takilli kolag, 
gatun pittelli kolag, gatun kuttawai kolag ; 

46. Piriwal gala koba mankillikan koba uwanun wal noa pur- 
reag ka na korien ta, gatun yakita gaiya kota korien ta bon, 
gatun biinniin bon buloarakan, gatun guniin bon winta gikoug 
kai barun kin gurra korien ta. 

47. Gatun unnoa mankillikan gurran noa kotelli ta piriwal 
koba gikoiimba, gatun keawai uma korien, keawai noa uma pa 
yanti kotelli ta gikoiimba, bunniin wal gaiya bon kauwal-kauwal. 

48. Wonto noa ba niuwoa gurra korien, gatun yarakai umatoara 
yaki tin biin ba bon, bunniin wal war6a. Kulla bon gupa kauwal, 
wiyapaiyanun wal kauwal gikoug kinbirug ; gatun kiiriko gu- 
kulla kauwal, wiyellia kanim bara gaiya kauwal-kauwal gikoug 

49. Uwan ta bag unni yukulliko koiyug ko purrai ta ko ; min- 
nug-bullinun bag kauwa ba tanoa-kal-bo wirrog-kull^a ? 


50. Kulla tia korimullikanne emmoug kinba korimulliko; gatun 
yakoai bag katan goloin koa ka-uwil kakilliko ! 

.51. Kotan nura, uwa bag bapital gukilliko purrai ta ko 1 wiyaii 
bag ba, keawai ; wonto ba gurruggurra kakilliko ; 

32. Knlla wal unti birug kinun kakilliko f pente kokera wakal 
la, gurruggurra birug, goro bulun kinbirug, gatun buloara goro 

53. Biyugbai gurruggurra kanun yinal labirug, gatun yinal 
biyugbai tabirug ; gatun tunkan yinilkun tabirug, gatun yin£- 
kun tunkan tabirug, tiingaikun bounnoun ba kurrinanbai tabirug, 
gatun kurrinanbai bounnoun ba tiingaikun tabirug. 

54. Gatun noa barun kuri wiya, Nanun nura ba yareil wokka 
lag punnil ba pulogkullig^l lin, wiyanun gaiya nura koiwon ta- 
nan ba ; gatun kauwa yanti. 

55. G-atun kareawug ba kanun, wiyelliniin gaiya nura, karol 
kanim ; gatun yanti gaiya kaniin. 

56. A nura nakoiyaye ! natan nura tarkin moroko koba gatun 
purrai koba ; minarig tin koa nura na korien unti yakita 1 

57. Kauwa, kora koa nura kota ba nurun kinbirug tuloa 1 

58. Uwanun bi ba gikoug katoa bukkakan toa gikoug kinko 
wiyellikan tako, yapug koa nuiyellia bi bon, wamunbi-uwil koa 
biloa murroi kakilliko gikoug kinbirug ; yutea-kiin koa biloa wi- 
yellikan kauwal lako, gatun wiyellikanto kauwallo wamunbiniin 
biloa yarakan tako, gatun yarakanto wupinun bUoa tjail kako. 

59. Wiyan banug, keawai bi waita uwa korien unta birug, gu- 
killinun bi ba flepton ta kirun warea ta. 


Kakulla bara unta yakita taraikan, wiya bon barun Galilaiakal, 
gorog barunba tarogkama Pilato-to ftliuhia barun barunba. 

2. G-atun noa lethuko wiyayelleiin, wiyelliela noa barun, Wiya, 
nura kotellin unnoa tara Galilaiakal yarakai bara kakulla kau- 
wal barun kinbirug Galilaiakal labirug, kulla barun ba mankulla 
unnoa tara 1 

3. Wiyan nurun bag, Keawai ; kulla nura keawai minki katan, 
yantin gaiya nura tetti tetti kanun. . 

4. Ga barun fetin ta wunkulleun kokera bar;in, gatun tetti-tetti 
barun wirria, wiya, nura kotellin barun yarakai bara ba kakulla 
kauwal barun kiiri kabirug kakillin fHierothalem ka ] 

5. Wiyan nurun bag, Keawai ; kulla nura keawai minki katan, 
yantin gaiya .nura tetti-tetti kaniin. 

6. Wiya noa uiini yanti fparabol : Taraikan ta kariko wup^a 
yirriwilbin purrai ta gikoug ka ta ; gatun noa uwa yeai ko nakil- 
liko, gatun noa keawai gaiya na pa. 

7. Wiya gaiya noa bon upullikan, Ela! goro ka wunal la unti, 
nwa bag nakilliko yeai ko unti birug ko yirriwiltabin tako, gatun 


keawai gaiya bag na pa ; kdlbtintilla unnoa baran ; minarig tin 
unnoa katan purrai ta ? 

8. Gatun noa wiyayelleun, wiyelliela bon, Piriwal, kaniunbilla 
unnoa unti wunal la, pinni-uwil koa bag uatoakal ko, gatun koiiug 
koa bag -wiipi-uwil ; 

9. &atun yeai ba kanun, muiTarag gaiya kaniin ; gatun ka 
korien ba, gatun yukita gaiya k61buutinun wal bi uiini baran. 

10. Gatun noa wiyelliela wakil la ftbunagog ka purreag ka 
thabbat ka. 

11. Gatun, a! kakulla unta wakal nukug munni-lan bountoa ba 
kauwal-kauwal wunal t^tin ta, gatun woinu bountoa, gatun kea- 
wai bountoa kaiyu korien wokka-Ian kakilliko. 

12. Gatun nakulla noa ba Kthuko boitnnoun, kaaipa bounno- 
un noa, gatun wiyelliela bounnoun, Nukug, gintoa burug-kulleiin 
woinu kabirug giroug kinbirug. 

13. Gatun noa upilleiin mattara bounnoun kin ; gatun tanoa- 
kal-bo bounnoun tuloa uma, gatun bountoa pitalma bon Eloinug. 

14. Gatun piriwallo ttb-unagog kako wiyayell6un bukka-kan-to, 
kuUa noa lethuko turon uma purreag ka tliabbat ka, gatun wiya 
barun kiiri, f Hek ta purreag ka umilliko kiiri ko ; unti tara pur- 
reag ka tanan uwoUa turon umulliko, gatun keawai thabbat ta 
purreag ka. 

15. Piriwallo noa bon wiyayelleun gatun wiyelliela, Gintoa 
gakoiyaye ! wiya, yantinto nura burugbuggan gikoumba fboo ga- 
tun fatkino, purreag ka tliabbat ka, unta birug kokera biriig, 
yemmama-uwil koa kokoin kolag pittelliko? 

16. Gatun keawai wal vmni gapal, yinalkun ta Abaramumba, 
giratoara bounnoun Thatanto noa unni tara fetin ta wunal la, 
burugbuggulliko yanti birug, unti tliabbat ta purreag ka 1 

17. Gatun wiya noa ba unni tara, koiyi-in bara gaiya katan 
yantin bukkamaiye gikoug kai ; gatun yantin kiiri pital kakulla- 
yantin tin umatoarrin kauwal lin gikoug birug. 

18. Wiya gaiya noa, Minarig kiloa Piriwal koba Eloikoba? ga- 
tun yakoai kiloa paggunbiniin ? 

19. Yanti kiloa ta yeai ba fniutard koba, niankulla kuriko, ga- 
tun meapa purrai ta gikoug kai ta ; gatnn boaikulMiin wokka lag, 
gatun kakulla kauwal kulai ; gatun tibbin moroko tin yellawa wi- 
ran ta. 

20. Gatun noa wiyea-kun, Yakoai kiloa bag tugunbiniin piriwal 
koba Eloi koba 1 

21. Yanti flebben kiloa, mankulla gapallo gatun yuropa goro 
ka gukilligel la nulai ta, kakulla wal yantibo flebben kiloa. 

22. Gatun noa uwa kokeroa gatun kauwal loa kokeroa, wiyatin, 
gatun uwoUin f Hierothalem kolag. 

23. Wiya gaiya bon wakallo, Piriwal, wiya, vfarai moron ka- 
killiko 1 Gatun noa wiya barun. 


24. NuwoUa pulogkuUi kolag tuloa tin yapug tin : kulla bag 
nurun wiyan, kauwal-kauwallo nuwanun murrarig puldgkuUi ko- 
lag gatun keawai wal kaiyu korien. 

25. Bougkullinun noa ba kokeratin wokka lag, gatun wirrig- 
bakulla pulogkuUigel, gatun nura garok6a warrai ta, gatun wirril- 
leiin toto pul6gkulligel, wiyellin, Piriwal, Piriwal, timulla gearun ; 
gatun noa wiyayellinun gatun wiyanun, Keawaran bag nurun gi- 
milli korien wonta birug wal nura : 

26. Wiyanun gaiya wal nura, Takeiin geen gatun pittakeun gi- 
roug kin mikan ta, gatun gintoa wiyakeun gearun kin yapug ka. 

27. Wonto wal noa ba wiyanun, Wiyan bag nurun, keawaran 
bag nurun gimilli korien, wonta birug wal nura ; yurig tia uwoUa 
emmoug kinbirug, yantin nura yarakai umullikan. 

28. Unta ta wal tugkillinun gatun tii'ra-gatpuntulliniin, naniiu 
gaiya nura ba barun, Abaramnug, gatun Ith^knug, gatun Yac8b- 
nug, gatun yantin tpropetnug, kakillin bara ba piriwal koba ka 
Eloi koba, gatun nurunbo yuaipea -warrai tako. 

29. G-atun bara uwanun muriug tin, gatun krai tin, gatun kum- 
mari tin, gatun pakai tin, gatun yellawanun wal piriwal koba ka 
Eloi koba ka. 

30. G-atun, a ! bara willug katan, kabo wal bara ganka kanim 
gatun bara ganka katan, kabo wal bara willug kaniin. 

31. TJnta purreag ka winta uwa Parithaioi kabirug -wiyellin bon, 
Yurig ba waita wolla unta birug, kulla noa Herodto biloa biinnun 

32. G-atun noa barun wiya, Yurig nura wolla, -\viya-uwil koa bon 
unnoa faldpek, A ! paibuggan bag barun fdiabol, gatun turon bag 
uman buggai gatun kiimba, gatun kumba-ken-ta wal goloin tia ka- 

33. Yantin tin uwanun wal bag buggai gatun kumba, gatun 
kiimba-ken-ta ; kulla wal keawaran wal wakal fpropet ka korien 
tetti fHierotlialem kabirug. 

34. Yapallun fHierotbalem, Hierothalem ! bunkiye tetti wirri- 
ye barun fpropet, gatun pintia barun tunug ko yupitoara giroug 
kinko; murrin-murrin bag kauma pa bag barun wonnai tara giro- 
limba, yanti kiloa tibbinto ba kauma-u-ndl yirrig ka bara ka boun- 
noun ba warea tara, gatun kea-waran nura kauma korien. 

35. A ! uuriinba kokera kakillin mirral kakilliko : gatun bag 
wiyan tuloa nurun, Keawai nura tia naniin, yakita ko kaniin ba 
wiyanun wal nura ba, Pitalkiimunbilla bon viwan noa ba j'itirroa 
Piriwal koba koa. 


G-ATUN yakita kakuUa, uwa noa ba murrarig kokei'a piriwal koba 
ka Parithaioi koba takilliko nulai ko purreag ka tkabbat ka, tumi- 
mea gaiya bon bara. 

2. G-atun, a! garoka ba kakulla wakal kiiri kokoin-kan -warakag. 


3. &atun I^thuko noa -wiyayelleun wiya barun fnomikoinug ga- 
tun Parithaioinug, wiyelliela, Wiya, murrarag turon UBiulIiko pur- 
reag ka thabbat ka ? 

4. Gatun bara tuUama pulli. G-atun noa bon turon uma, gatun 
wamunb^a bon ; 

5. Gatun wiyayelleun noa barun, wiyelliela, Ganto nurun kin- 
birug-ko puntimanun buttikag ba fathino ba ga fboo ba nurunba 
kirai ta, gatun keawai gaiya bon manun wokka lag purreag ka 
thabbat ka 1 

6. G-atun keawai bara bon wiyayelli pa unni tara. 

7. Gatun noa wiya wakal fparabol barun gala ko wiyatora ko, 
nakulla noa ba girim^a bara naurrarag waiyakan ; wiyelliela barun, 

8. Wiyanun bin ba taraito kuriko uwa-uwil koa bi mankilli ko- 
lag nukug kolag, yellawa yikora wokka waiyakanto, mirka ta tarai 
kiu'i piriwal wiyatoara ta ; 

9. Gatun noa niuwoa wiya biloa gatun gikoug tanan uwolliko 
gatun wiyelliko bin, Guwa bon gali ko ; gatun gintoa koiyun bi ba 
kanun waita uwanun waiyakan kolag bar4 ka bo. 

10. Wonto ba bin wiyanun ba, yurig bi yellawolli ta ka bar4 
kako waiyakan kako ; gatun uwanun noa ba wiya biloa ba wiya- 
nun biloa, K6ti, yurig wokka lag uwolla : yakita gaiya pitalmanun 
bin mikan ta barun kin tanun ba kunto giroug katoa. 

11. Gan umuUinun niuwoa bo wokka kako, umanun wal bon 
bara kako ; gatun niuwoa umiillinun niuwoa ba bara kako, umul- 
linun wal wokka kako. 

12. Wiya gaiya noa gala wiya bon noa ba, Guniin bi ba takil- 
liko biilwdra ka ga yar^a ka, wiya yikora bi giroiimba koti, ga 
kotita, ga porr61kan; wiy6a kanun bin ba bara, gatun gupaiyea ka- 
niin bin yarug ka. 

1 3. Wonto bi ba umanun takilliko, wiyella barun mirral-mirral- 
kan, gatun munni-munni-kan, gatun wiir-wiirkan, gatun munmin- 
kan : 

14. Gatun bin pitalmanun ; kuUa bara keawai gupaiye korien 
yarug ka ; kulla bin gupaiyea kanun yarug ka, yakita ba moron 
kanun murrarag-tai tetti-tetti kabirug. 

15. Gatun wakal barun kinbirug yellawa gikoug kin takilliela, 
gurra noa ba unni tara, wiya bon noa, Pitalmatoara noa tanun wal 
kunto piriwal lako Eloi koba ka. 

16. Wiya gaiya noa bon, Taraito kuriko wupea kauwal takil- 
liko yar^a ka, gatun wiya barun kauwal-kauwal kiiri : 

17. Gatun yar6a ka yuka noa bon gikoumba mankillikan, wiyel- 
liko barun wiyatoara ko, Tanan ; kulla yantin unnug tara wupea 

18. Gatun bara yantin wiyellan wakal-wakal gakoiyellan. Kur- 
ri-kurrito wakallo wiya gikoug, Gukill^iin bag winta purrai, gatun 
waita wal bag uwanun nakilliko gala ko ; wiyan biloa wamunbil- 
liko tia. 


19. Gatun taraito wiya, Gukilleun bag fpente tumba fboo butti- 
tag, gatun bag waita uwan numuUiko barun ; -wiyan biloa waniun- 
billiko tia. 

20. Gatun taraito wiya, Mankulla bag nukug emmoumba, yaki 
tin keawai bag uwa korien. 

21. Uwa gaiya noa unni mankillikan, gatun wiya bon piriwiil 
gikoumba iinni tara. Wiya bon gaiya noa kokeratinto bukka-kan- 
to gikoumba mankillikan, Yurig wolla kurrakai yapug koa koke- 
roa, gatun yutilla barun tanan untiko mirral-mirral-kai, gatun 
munni-niunni-kai, gatun wiir-wiir-kai, gatun munmin-kai. 

22. Gatun noa mankillikanto wiya, Piriwal, upatoara ta yanti 
bi ba wiya, gatun kauwal-kauwal lako ka untiko. 

23. Gatun noa bon piiiwallo wiya mankillikan, Yurig uwoUa 
yapug koa gatun korug koa, gatun pirriralmnlla barun tanan 
uwolliko, emmoumba koa kokera warapa-uwil. 

24. Kulla bag wiyan nurun, Keawai wal bara untoakallo wiya- 
toara nutunun emmoumba kunto. 

25. Gatun kuri kauwal-kauwal uwa gikoug katoa : gatun noa 
willarig warkuUeiin, gatun wiya gaiya barun, 

26. Uwaniin tia ba taraikan kuri emmoug kin, gatun wareka 
korien gikoumba biyugbai gatun tunkan, gatun nukug, gatui? 
wonnai tara, gatun k6ti tara, gatun wuggunbai, kauwa, gikoiimb<i 
kata moron, keawai noa kanun emmoumba wirrobullikan. 

27. Ganto-bo ba kurri korien gikoumba talig-kabillikanne, gatun 
u wolla emmoug katoa, keawai noa kaniin emmoumba wirrobulli- 

28. Ganto nurun kinbirug-ko, kotellin wittimnlliko kokera, wi- 
ya, noa yellawanim km-ri-kurri, gatun tuigko umulliko, mirka kea- 
wai goloin witti korien ? 

29. Mirroma, yukita wupea noa ba tugga, gatun keawai noa 
kaiyu korien goloin wittilliko, j^antinto ba nanun beelmanun iaiya 

30. Wiyellinun, Gali kuriko nutea wittimnlliko, gatun kaiyu 
korien noa goloin wittimulliko. 

31. Ga, gan piriwal uwanun noa ba wuruwai kolag tarai ko 
piriwal ko, yellawa noa kurri-kurri, gatun kotelliela, wiya, noa ba 
kaiyukan uwa-uwil koa fdekem-millia to nuggurrawa-uwil koa bon 
taimin to ke tbith-dekem-millia to ? 

32. Ga ba, kalog ka ba noa piriwal taraito, yuka noa wakal 
puntimai wiyelliko pital koa kakillai. 

33. Yanti kiloa, yantinto nurun kinbirug-ko wareka korien noa 
yantin gikoumba, keawai noa kanun emmoumba wirrobullikan. 

34. Pulli ta unni murrarag ; wonto ba pulli ka korien, yakoai 
kiinun upilliko ! 

35. Keawai murrarag korien ta purrai ko, ga ba konuggel ko ; 
wareka gaiya kuriko. Niuwoabo gurrougkan gurrulliko, gurrabilla 



Papai gai}-a bara uwa gikoug kin yantin ffcelonai gatun yarakai- 
willug guiTulliko bon. 

2. Gatun koiya bara Parithaioiko gatun tgarammateuko, wiyel- 
liela, Unni kiiri murrarag korien, noa uman barun yarakai-willug 
gatun tatan noa barun katoa. 

3. G-atun noa wiya barun unni tparabol, wiyelliela, 

4. Gan kiiri nurun kinbirug, fhekaton ta fcipu gikoumba, wa- 
kiil noa ba yurea umaniin barun kinbirug, wiya, noa wuniin barun 
fnainty-nain ta korug ka, gatun waita noa uwanun na-uwil koa 
noa yurea-matoara, kara-uwilli koa noa 1 

5. Gatun karawoll6un noa ba, wunkilleiin gaiya noa ba mirrug 
ka gikoug kin, pitallo ba. 

G. Gatun uwa noa ba gura kako, wiya noa barun kotita gatun 
taraikan, wiyellin barun, Pitallia kauwa emmoug katoa ; kulla bag 
karawolleiin fcipu ta emmoumba tinni, yurea ba kakulla. 

7. Wiyan bag nurun, yanti kiloa pital kanun kauwallan moroko 
ka ba minki noa ba wakal yarakaikan, keawai barun kai murrarag- 
tai tin fnainty-nain ta tin, minki korien. 

8. Ga wonnug-lve n^ikug piindol f arguro f ten ta bouunoun kin- 
ba, yurea bountoa ba umanun wakal piindol, wiya, bountoa wirrog- 
baniin kaipug, gatun wirrillinun wiri-illikanneto kii'ra-kirra-uwilli 
koa bovmtoa ? 

9. Gatun karawolleiin bountoa ba, wiya gaiya bountoa ba k6ti- 
ta gatun taraikan tuigko, ■n'iyellin, Pitallia kauwa emmoug katoa ; 
kulla bag karawolleiin yurea bag ba uma. 

10. Yanti kiloa, wiyan bag nurun, unnug ta pital katan mikan 
ta agelo ka Eloi koba wakal lin ba yarakai-willug minki kaniin. 

11. Gatun noa wiya, Taraito kiiriko yinal bula-buloara giko- 
umba : 

1'2. Gatun mittiko bulun kinbirug-ko wiya bon biyugbai giko- 
umba, Biyug, guwa tia winta tullokan ka-uwil koa emmoumba. Ga- 
tun tiinbilliela noa bulun tullokan. 

13. Gatun keawai kauwal-kauwal korien ta purreag ka yukita, 
kau-ma noa mittiko yinallo, gatun waita noa uwa kalog koba, ga- 
tun imta noa wari-wareka tullokan gikoumba pittelligel la. 

14. Gatun wari-wareka noa ba kirun, kauwal kakulla unta kun- 
to korien ; gatun tanoa-kal-bo kakulla gaiya noa kapirrikan. 

15. Gatun uwa gaiya noa umuUiko kiiri kako unta ko purrai 
ta ko ; gatun noa bon yuka gikoug ka tako purrai tako girati- 
mulliko buttikag ko f porak ko. 

16. Pitiil gaiya noa kakulla takilliko, ta-uwil ba buttikagko : ga- 
tun keawai kuriko bon gupa. 

17. Gatun noa kakilliela baniuwoabo, wiyelliela gaiya noa, Ka- 
uwiil-kauwalla umullikan biyugbai koba eramovimba koba kun- 


to kauwal bariiiiba takilliko gatun gukilliko, gatun gatoa kapirro 
wirribanbillin ! 

18. Bougkullinun "wal bag, waita biyugbai tako, gatun wiyaniin 
wal bon, Biyug, yarakai bag uma niikan ta nioroko ka, gatun gi- 
roug kin, 

19. Gatun keawai bag muiTarag korien wiya-uwil koa tia giro- 
umba yinal yitirra : iimuUa tia wakal yanti umullikan giroiimba. 

20. Gatun noa bougkulleiin, uwa gaiya noa biyugbai tako. 
Wonto noa ba kalog ka kauwal kakulla, nakulla noa bon biyugbai- 
to gikoiimba-ko, minki gaiya noa kakulla, murr4 gaiya noa, pun- 
timulMun gaiya noa gikoug kin wuroka, gatun bumbtimbea-kan- 
gaiya bon. 

21. Gatun noa bon yinallo wiya, Biyug, yarakai bag umulleun 
niikan ta moroko ka gatun giroug kin, keawai bag murrarag 
korien wiya-uwil koa tia giroumba yinal yitirra. 

22. Wonto noa ba biyugbaito wiya barun mankillikan giro- 
iimba, Mara unnoa-unnug upilligel, gatun upilla bon konein kako, 
gatun upilla frig gikoug kin mattara, gatun upilla bon tugganog 
yulo ka gikoug kin : 

23. Gatun niara tanan untiko buttikag fitalo giratimatoara 
kipai, gatun turulla; tamunbilla gearun, gatun pital koa geen kau- 
wal : 

24. Koito ba unni emmoumba yinal tetti kakulla, yakita gaiya 
noa moron katan : garawatilleiin noa, gatun yakita bummilleun gai- 
ya bon. Gatun pital bara kakilli kolag. 

25. Unta ta garro gikotimba kakilliela upuUigel la jjurrai ta ; 
gatun uwolliela noa ba papai kokera koba, gurra noa tekki gatun 
untelli ta. 

26. Gatun noa kaaipa wakal mankillikan, gatun wiya minnug- 
ban gali tara minarig tin. 

27. Gatun wiya bon noa, Unni ta uwan giroumba biggai ; gatun 
giroumba-ko biyugbaito tura giratimatoara buttikag fitalo kipai 
ta, kuUa wal pital noa gikoug kai moron tin katan. 

28. Gatun noa niuwara kakulla, keawai noa murrug kolag uwa 
pa; yaki tin noa biyugbai gikoiimba uwa gatun pirriralma bon. 

29. Gatun noa bon wiyayelliela gikoumba biyugbai, Ela! kau- 
wal-kauwalla wunalla umala bag giroug ; keawai bag giroumba 
wiyellikanne uma korien ; gatun keawai bi tia gupa warea butti- 
kag f kid, pital koa tia ka-uwil bara emmoumba kotita : 

30. Wonto ba tanoa-bo giroumba yinal uwa gali, wari-wareka 
giroumba tullokan yarakai-willug koa ko gapal loa, tura gaiya bi 
gikoug buttikag fitalo giratimatoara. 

31. Gatun noa wiya bon, Yinal, yellawan biemmougkin yanti- 
katai, gatun yantin unni tara emmoumba giroug kin kanun. 

32. Murrarag ta kakulla takilliko gatun pittelliko ; koito ba 
\inni giroumba umbeara-k6g tetti kakulla, gatun moron kateakan; 
gatun garawatilleiin, gatun bummilleiin bon yakita. 



Gatun noa wiya barun gikoiimba wirrobullikan, Untoa ta tarai ta 
wakal kuri tullokan porr61kan, mankillan piriwiil gikoiimba ; gatun 
wiyayema boii gikoug wareka noa gikoiimba tullokan. 

2. Gatun noa wiya bon, wiyelliela, Yakoabag gurra giroug kin- 
ba ? wiyella bi tia minarig bi ba iimulliela ; keawai bi kara kanun 

3. Wiyelleun gaiya noa mankillikan niuwoabo, Minnug banun 
bag 1 kuUa wal lia piriwallo emmoiimba ko mantilleun keawai 
bag mankillikan kaniin ; keawai bag pinninun ; koiyun bag poi- 

4c. Gali wal bag umul]iko, yipanun tia ba emmoiimba mankil- 
ligel labirug, wamunbi-uwil koa tia bara koti ko kokera ko. 

0. Yanti ba wiya noa barun wiyatoara piriwal koba gikoiimba, 
gatun noa wiya wakal kurri-kurri ka, Minnan ba wiyapaiyeim em- 
moiimba piriwal koba 1 

6. Gatun noa wiya, fHekaton ta wimbi ka karauwa. Gatun 
noa wiya bon, Mara bi unni, yellawa kurrakai, upulla fpentekonta 
koa ka-uwil. 

7. Wiya gaiya noa tarai, Minnan bi wiyapaiyeim jjiriwal koba? 
Gatun noa wiya, fHekaton ta wimbi fwiet. Gatun bon noa wiy4, 
Mara bi unni, upulla fety koa ka-uwil. 

8. Gatun noa piriwallo miii-rarag bon wiya unnoa mankillikan 
yarakai ka, kulla noa uma gurakito ; kuUa bara wonnai tara unti 
ko purrai tako barunba willuggel koba guraki bara, keawai bara 
wonnai kaibug koba. 

9. Gatun gatoa nurun wiyan, UmuUa nura bo kotita Icakilliko 
tullo-yarakai tabirug ; tetti nura ba kaniin, waraunbilla gaiya nu- 
run kokera yuraki ba katan yanti-katai. 

10. Niuwoa miroman gali war6a ta, yanti miroman noa kauwal 
gali ta ; gatun niuwoa yarakai-maye gali warea ta, yanti yarakai- 
maye gali kauwal ta. 

il. Yaki tin keawai nura ba miroma pa tuUo yarakai ta, ganto 
wal nurun gunun tullo tuloa ta miromulliko ? 

12. Gatun keawai nura ba miroma pa tarai koba, ganto wal gu- 
nun nuriinba koti tako ? 

13. Keawai wal mankillikanto umaniin buloara-bulun piriwal 
bula ; kulla noa yarakai umaniin wakal bon, gatun murrarag uma- 
nun tarai ; ga ba kaniin noa wakalla, gatun beelmaniin bon tarai. 
Keawai nura kaiyu korien umulliko Eloi ko gatun tullokan ko 
yarakai ko. 

14. Gatun unni tara bara gurra Paritliaioiko, willirrikan bara 
katan, gatun bon bara beelma. 

15. Gatun noa barun wiyA, Kauwa murrarag koa nura ka-uwil 
mikan ta barun kin kuri ka ; wonto noa ba Eloito gurran nuriin- 
ba biilbiil la ba ; kulla unni tara murrarag ta katan barun kinba 
kuri ko, yakaran ta katan mikan ta Eloi kin. 


16. Wiyellikaime-ta gatun bara fpropet kakuUa loaime noa ba 
paipea ; yaki tabirug piriwal koba Eloi koba wiyabuiibea, gatun 
yantiii kiiri waita--vvaitawolleuii murrug kolag. 

17. Gatun moroko ta gatun purrai ta kaiyukan kanun waita 
kolag, keawai warea ta wiyellikanne koba ka korien kakiUiko. 

18. G-anto ba warekullinun porikunbai gikoiimba gatun tarai 
bumbea ka, yarakai bumbea noa : gatun ganto ba bumbinun ware- 
katoara poribai tabirug, yarakai biimbea noa. 

19. KakuUa ta noa wakal porrolkan, upulleun noa gorog-gorog 
ko gatun murrarag ko karigkareug ko, gatun bon kakulla min- 
nugbo-minnugbo kauwal takilliko gatun pittelliko yantin ta pur- 
eag ka: 

20. Gatun kakulla ta wakal poiyaye giakai yitin-a Ladliaro, 
wimkulla bon ba yapuggel gikoug ka ta, warapal mita-mitag, 

21. Gatun wiya bon ba niutug ko takilliko gikoug kaiporr61bin 
tin takilligel labirug ; gatun warikal uwa bara, woata gaiya bon 

22. Yakita-kalai tetti kakulla poiyaye, gatun kurria bara bon 
agelo-ko Abaram kinko pawag kako : tetti gaiya noa porrolkan 
kakulla, gatun bon niilka. 

23. Gatun noa unta koiyug ka fhell ka bougkulleim gikoumba 
gaikug, kakilliela tirriki ka, gatun nakilliela bon Abaramnug ka- 
log ka, gatun noa Ladliaro parrag ka kakilliela Abaram kin. 

24. Gatun noa kaaibuUeun, wiyelliela, Biyug Abaram, gurrara 
tia kauwa, gatun yukulla bon LacUiaronug, kurrinuilli koa noa 
kokoin to, gatun moiya koa tia tiillag wupi-uwil ; kulla wal bag 
kirrin katan unti tirriki ka koiyug ka. 

2-'"). Wonto noa ba Abaramko wiya, Yinal, gurruUa gintoa ya- 
kita moron ta mantala murrarag-tai giroumba, wonto noa ba 
Ladliaro yakaran mantala ; gatun noa yakita pital katan, wonto 
bi ba kirrin katan. 

26. Gatun yanti unni ba, gearun kinba willika ba pirriko wun- 
kulla ; keawai uwaiiiin untiki'il untoa kolag : keawai bara unta 
l)irug uwanvin untiko gearun kinko. 

27. Wiya gaiya noa, Wiyan banug, Biyug, yuka-uwil koa bon 
bintun kinko kokera kolag ; 

28. Kulla wal lia emmoiimba kotita fpente ; wiya-uwil koa noa 
barun, yanoa bara ba tanan uwaniin unti kolag tirriki-tirriki kako. 

29. Abaramko noa wiya bon, Motbe noa gatun bara fpropet ba- 
run katoa ba ; gurrabunbilla barun. 

30. Gatun noa wiya, Keawaraii, biyug Abaram ; wakal ba uwol- 
la barun kin unta birug tetti kabirug, gurraniin gaiya wal bara. 

31. Gatun noa bon wiya, Keawai bara ba gurraniin bon MotW- 
nug gatun barun tpropetnug, keawai wal bara gurraniin wakal ba 
paikuUinun moron tetti kabirug. 



WiYA gaiya noa bamn -win'obuUikan gikoumba, Kauwa yanti ka- 
n'un bo ta wal yarakai ; yapalla noa gikoug kinbirug yarakai ta- 
birug ! 

2. Mun'iii ka ba noa gira-uwil koa kulleug koa bon tunug, gatun 
wai'eka-uwil koa bon korowa ka, unni noa yanoa yarakai umabunbi 
yikora unti tara birug wakal wonnai tara birug. 

3. Yakoai nura kauwa : Kotiko ba giroug yarakai umaniin gi- 
roug ka to, wiyella bon ; gatun minki noa ba kiinim, kamunbilla 

4. G-atun Itauwal-kauwal-la biloa ba yarakai umiinun wakal la 
purreag ka, gatun kauwal-kauwal-la biloa willarig noa kanun wa- 
kal la purreag ka, wiyellinun biloa, Minki bag katan ; kamun- 
biniin wal binug. 

5. G-atun bon bara fapotliol wiya, Piriwal, kauwal koa geariinba 
gurrulli-ta ka-uwil kakilliko. 

6. Gatun noa Piriwallo wiya, Ka ba nurunba gurrulli-ta yanti 
kiloa mitti yeai fmutard koba, wiyella wal nura ba unni kulai 
ttliukamm, Wokka lag bi kauwa wirrakan-bo, gatun meapullia bi 
korowa ka ; gatun gala nurun gurriinun gaiya wal. 

7. Gan nurun kinbirug-ko upuUin purrai nurun ka to mankilli- 
kan-to, ga tamunbin buttikag, wiyiinun bon kabo, uwi'miin noa ba 
upulliggel labirug, Yurig bi woUa, yellawolliko ta-uwil koa 1 

8. G-atun wiya bon noa wiyanun, Kurrakai umulla ta-uwil koa 
bag, gatun girullia bi gintoabo, gatun mara-uwil koa bi tia ta-uwil 
koa bag gatun pitta-uwil ; gatun willug gaiya bi tanun gatun pit- 
tanun ? 

9. Wiya noa, wiyapaiyeim bon mankillikan, koito noa ba uiaa, 
unni tara wiya bon ba ? Kotan bag kearan. 

10. Yanti nura wiyella, umanun nura ba yantin unni tai'a 
wiyatoara nurun, UmuUikan geen murrarag korien katan ; uma ta 
geen unni wiyatoara umulliko gearun. 

11. Gatun yakita kakulla, uwolliela noa ba fHierotlialem kolag, 
uwa willi koa noa Thamaria koa gatun Galilaia koa. 

12. Gatun noa uwolliela ba tarai toa kokeroa, nuggarawa bon 
bara kuri ften ta purrul-wommun-wommun, garokea kalog ka ; 

13. Gatun bara paibugga pullf, gatun wiya letliu, Piriwal, gur- 
raramuUa gearun. , 

14. Gatun nakulla noa barun, wiya barun noa, Yurig nura wolla, 
tugunbillia nura barun kin fhiereu ko. Gatun yakita kakulla, 
uwolliela bara ba, turon bara kakulla tanoa-kal-bo. 

15. G-atun wakallo barun kinbirug-ko, nakilleiin noa ba turon 
noa kakulla, willugbo noa uwa, gatun kaaipulleun noa wokka, pi- 
talmuUiela bon Eloinug, 

16. Gatun puntimull6un noa baran goara ko gikoug kin tinna 
ka, murrarag noa bon wiyelleun- ; gatun noa Thamaria-kal. 


17. Gatun noa lethuko wiyayelleun, wiyelliela, Wiya, ften ta 
turon kakulla t ga wonnug-ke bara taraikan fnain ta 1 

18. Keawai bara willug pa ba pitalmulliko bon Eloinug, wakal 
ba noa unni gowikan ko. 

19. Gatun noa wiya bon, BougkuUia, yurig bi wolla; girougka 
ba ko gurrulli birug ko turon bi katan. 

20. Gatun wiya bon ba Parithaioiko, yakounta-ke paipinun piri- 
wal koba Eloi koba, wiyayelleiin noa barun, wiyelliela, Tanan 
uwan piriwal koba Eloi koba keawai na korien. 

21. Keawai bara wiyaniin wal, A unni ta ! gauntata! kulla, a ! 
piriwal koba Eloi koba murrug kaba katan nurun kinba. 

22. Gatun noa wiya barun wirrobuUikan, A! purreag ta wal 
kaniin, na-uwil koa nura wakal purreag Yinal koba kuri koba, 
gatun keawai wal nura naniin. 

23. Gatun bara nurun wiyaniin wal, Na-uwa unni ; ga, na-uwa 
unnug : yanoa barun uwa yikora, wirroba yikora. 

24. Yanti kiloa pirruggun-to uwan tarai tabirug ko moroko 
birug ko, tarai ta kako moroko kako ; kauwa yanti kiloa wal ka- 
nun Yinal kuri koba purreag ka gikoug ka ta. 

25. Gatun kurri-kurri ta bon umanun minnugbo-minnugbo, 
gatun warekatea wal bon gali koba willuggel koba. 

26. Gatun yakita ba kakulla purreag ka Noe-umba ka, yanti 
bo ta wal kanun purreag ka Yinal koba kuri koba. 

27. Takillala bara, pittellala bara, biimbillala bara nukug, gukil- 
lala bumbilli ka, yakita purreag ka kakulla noa ba Noe uwa mur- 
rarig murrinauwai ka, gatun tunta-tunta kakulla, gatun kirun gai- 
pa barun nuropa. 

28. Gatun yanti yakita ba kakulla purreag ka Lot-iimba, ta- 
killala bara, pittellala bara, wirrilliala bara, gukillala bara, meapala 
bara, wittiala bara ; 

29. Wonto ba yakita unta purreag ka Lot noa uwa Thodom ka- 
birug, patea gaiya koiyug-ko gatun fbrimton-ko wokka tin moroko 
tin, gatun kiyupa barun yantin kirun tetti-tetti. 

30. Yanti kiloa kanun yakita purreag ka paipinun noa ba 
Yinal kiiri koba. 

31. Unta yakita purreag ka katan noa ba wokka kokera, gatun 
gikoumba tullokan murrug kaba kokera ba, keawai bon uwabunbi 
yikora baran mankilliko tullokan ko ; gatun ki'itan noa ba upulli- 
gel laba, keawai bon uwabunbi yikora willug kolag. 

32. Kotella bounnoun kai nukug Lot-iimba tin. 

33. Ganto ba gikoumba moron miromanun moron kakilliko, wo- 
guntinun wal noa ; gatun ganto ba wogimtinun gikoumba moron, 
kanun wal moron kakilliko. 

34. Wiya nurun bag, yakita unta-unta tokoi ta buloara ta ka- 
nun birrikilligel la wakal la ; manuu wal waka), gatun tarai gaiya 


35. Buloara umullinun bula; manun wal wakal, gatun tarai gai- 
ya wunun. 

36. Buloara katea-kiinun upuUigel la; maniin wal wakal, gatun 
tarai gaiya wunun. 

37. Gatun wiyelleun bon bara, wiyelliela, Piriwal, wonnug-ke ? 
Gatun noa wiya baran, TJnta wonto ba katea-kanun muriin ta, 
unta kolag ba kautillinun bara porowi. 


Gatun noa wiya barun wakal fparabol, wiya-uwil koa bon bara 
kuriko Eloinug, gatun yari koa bara kaiyalea-kun ; 

2. Wiyelliela, Unta ta kokera tarai ta wakal wiyellikan piriwal 
kakulla, kinta korien kakulla noa bon Eloi kai, gatun keawai noa 
tuma korien barun kiiri : 

3. Gatun kakulla wakal mabogun unta kokera ; gatun bountoa 
uwa gikong kin, wiyelliela, Timbai kakillia tia emmoumba bukka^ 

4. Gatun keawai wal noa gurra pa kabo kakuUai tako ; wonto 
noa ba yukita wiya gikoug kinko minki ka, Keawai bag kinta 
korien bon Eloi kai katan, ga keawai kiiri tuman korien ; 

5. KuUa bountoa tia unni mabogunto pirralman, gatoa timbai 
kanun bounnoun kin, murrin-murrin koa bountoa tia uwa-uwil 
kumburrobawan bountoa tia. 

6. Gatun noa Piriwallo wiya, Gurrulla bon unni yarakai wiyel- 
likan piriwal wiyan ba. 

7. Gatun wiya noa Eloito timbai katilliniin barun gikoumba 
girimatoara, bara wiyan bon jDurreag ka gatun tokoi ta, gurralin 
noa barun wiyelli-ta kalog tinto 1 

8. Wiyan nurun bag, timbai wal noa katillinun barun kurrakai. 
Wonto noa ba uwanun wal Yinal kiiri koba tanan, wiya, noa na- 
nun gurruUikanne purrai taba ? 

9. Gatun noa wiya barun unni fparabol tarai tako kotelleun 
bara ba murrarag-tai barabo, gatun yarakai bara kotellin taraikan : 

10. Buloara-bula kuri uwa fliieron kolag wiyelliko : wakal la 
noa Parithaio gatun tarai ta fteldne ; 

11. Garokea noa Parithaio gatun noa yanti wiyelliela niuwoabo 
giakai : A Eloi ! pitalman bag giroug, kulla bag ka korien yanti 
tarai ba katan, bara kau-maye, tuloa uma korien mankiye nukug 
ka, ga ka korien bag yanti unni noa ba fteWne : 

12. Ta korien bag buloarakal katan wakal la thabbat birug 
ka, gutan bag winta untikal emmoug kai yantin tabirug. 

13. Gatun noa tteWne garokilliela ba kalog ka, keawai noa 
gaikug ka wokka lag na pa moroko koba, wonto noa ba minki 
motilliela wiyelliela ba, A Eloi ! miromulla bi tia, yarakai bag ba 

14. Wiyan nurun bag, unni noa kuri uwa baran kokera koba 
gikoug ka tako gurramatoara, keawai tarai ta : kulla yantin bara 


piriwal-buntelliko, kanun wal bara koiyuii-bar4toaro ; gatun niu- 
woa bo koai-koai korien bon, umanun kauwal bon kakilliko. 

15. Gatun mankulla bara gikoug kinko wonnai tara numa-uwil 
koa barun noa : wonto ba nakulla bara ba wirrobuliikanto, yipa 
bara barun. 

IG. Wonto ba noa I6thuko wiya barun, wiyelliela, Wamunbilla 
barun wonnai tara emmoug kinko, gatun yanoa barun yipai yiko- 
ra ; kuUa barun-kai-kal kat6a-kanun piriwal koba Eloi koba. 

17. Wiyan bag tuloa nurun, Ganto ba gurra korien pii'iwal koba 
Eloi li:oba yanti wonnai warea ba, keawai wal noa pulogkullinun 
unta kolag. 

18. Gatun taraito umuUikanto piriwallo wiya bon, wiyelliela, 
Piriwal murriirag-tai, minnug-bullinun bag moron kakilliko yanti- 
katai 1 

19. Gatun noa lethuko wiya bon, Minarig tin bi tia wiyan mur- 
•rarag-tai emmoug ? keawai wal wakal murrarag-tai, wonto noa ba 
wakalbo, Eloi ta. 

20. Gurran bi yantin wiyellikanne, Yanoa manki yikoranukug 
taraikan koba, Yanoa biinki yikora tetti, Yanoa manki yikora, 
Yanoa nakoiya yikora, Gurulla bon biyugbai gatun tunkan giro- 

21. Gatun noa wiy4, Gurra bag unni tara wiyellikanne yaki- 
kalai tabirug, wonnai bag ba kakuUa. 

22. Gatun yakita gurra noa ba lethuko unnoa tara, wiya bon 
noa, Wakal unnoa-unnug uma korien bi ba; gukillia yantin tuUo- 
kan giroumba, gu-uwil koa barun mirral ko, gatun tullokan giro- 
limba kanun wal wokka ka moroko ka ; gatun kaai, wirroba-uwil 
koa bi tia. 

23. Gatun gurra noa ba unni, minki noakakulla kauwal ; kulla 
noa porrol kakuUa kauwalkan. 

24. Gatun noa ba I^tkuko nakulla bon minki noa ba kakulla 
kauwal-lan, wiya gaiya noa,Pirral ta pulogkulliko bara tullokan 
ta ba piriwal koba kako Eloi koba kako ! 

25. tKamel noa kaiyukan katan pulogkakilliko tigkugkoa ko 
taku lako, keawai porrolkan pulogkakilliko piriwal koba kako 
Eloi koba kako. 

26. Gatun bara ba gurra, wiya bara, Gan-ke wal moron kanun 
kakilliko ? 

27. Gatun noa wiya, Unni tara kaiyu korien kuri ko umulliko, 
kaiyu-kan-to Eloito noa umulliko. 

2i^. Gatun Peterko noa wiyii, Ela ! wunkulla goen yantin ta, 
gatun wirroba g^en bin. 

29. Gatun noa wiya barun, Wiyaniin bag tuloa, Niuwoa wareka 
kokera gikoiimba, ga biyugbai, ga tunkan, ga gapal, ga wonnai, 
gikoug kinko piriwal koba tin Eloi koba tin, 

■"O.- Manun wal noa kauwal unti yakita, gatun untoa tarai ta 
purrai ta tanan kakilliko, moron noa kanim yanti-katai. 


31. Mankulla gaiya noa barun fdodeka ta wirrobullikan, gatun 
wiya barun, A ' waita geeii wokka kolag fHierothalem kolag, ga- 
tun yantin tara wiyatoara tpropet to gikoug kai Yinal lin kuri 
koba tin kanun wal vimatoara kakilliko. 

32. G-atun bon gimun wal barun kin fethanekal kinko, gatun 
bon bukka-manitn wal, gatun karagkobinun : 

33. Gatun welkorinun wal bara bon, gatun wal bon wirrinun ; 
gatun kiimba-ken-ta bougkuUiiiun gaiya noa willugbo. 

Si. Gatun keawai bara gurrapa unni tara wiyatoara : g.itun 
unni wiyellikanne yuropa barun kai, keawai bara gurrapa unni 
tara wiyatoara. 

35. G-atun yakita kakulla, uwolliela noa ba papai Yeriko ka, 
wakal munmin kuri yellawolliela yapug ka bitta ka, poiyelliela : 

36. Gatun gurruUiela noa barun konara yapug koa, wiya noa 
minarig unni ? 

37. Gatun bara bon wiya, TJwan noa letliu Nadharet-kal. 

38. Gatun noa liaaipulleiin, wiyelliela, Ela I6thu ' yinal Dabid- 
limba, gurrara-mulla bi tia. 

39. Gatun bara uwa ganka, wiya bon koiyelli koa noa : wonto 
noa ba butti paiyelleim, Yinal Dabidumba gintoa, gurrara-mulla 
bi tia. 

40. Gatun garokea noa lethu, gatun wiya bon yutilliko bon 
gikoug kinko ; gatun uwa noa ba papai, wiya bon noa, 

41. Wiyelliela, Minnug-buUiko bi tia wiyan 1 Gatun noa wiyan, 
Piriwal, namunbillilco tia umuUa. 

42. Gatun noa lethuko wiya bon, Kamunbilla bin nakilliko ; 
girodiMba tin gurrulli tin moron uma. 

43. Gatvm noa tanoa-kal-bo nakulla, gatun bon noa wirropa, 
pitalmulliela bon Eloinug ; gatun yantin unni kiiri nakulla bara 
ba, pitiilma bon Eloinug. 


1. G-ATUN noa I6tliu uwa willi koa Yei-iko koa. 

2. Gatun kakulla untakal wakal kiiri giakai Dliakke yitirra, 
piriwal fteldnekal noa kakulla, gatun noa porr6Ikan. 

3. Gatun noa num^a nakilliko lethunug, gan noa ba; gatun 
noa keawai, kulla konaro niintima, Iculla noa warea goiyog. 

4. Gatun noa murra ganka, gatun noa kulliwa wokka-lag kulai 
tin nakilliko bon, IcuUa noa unta kolag uwoUi kolag. 

•5. Gatun I6thu noa ba uwa untako, nakulla noa wokka-lag, 
gatun bon nakulla, gatun bon wiya, Ela Dhakke ! tanan kurrakai 
tirabulla, kulla buggai koa bag yellawaniin giroug ka ta kokera. 

6. G-atun tiraba noa kui-rakai bariin, gatun pital raa-uwa bon. 

7. G-atun nakulla bara ba, wiyellan niuwarakan bara yantinto, 
wiyelliela, Waita noa uwa yarakai toa koti kakilliko. 

8. Gatun noa Dhakke garokea, gatun wiya bon Piriwilnug, 
Ela Piriwal ! winta bag gutan emmoiimba tullokan kabirug mirral 


kai ko ; gatun mankulla bag ba tullokan taraikan tabirug yaki tin 
gakoiyaye tin, wupinun gaiya bon bag willugbo waran tako. 

9. Gatun noa I^thuko bon wiyt'i, Tanan uwa moron unti buggai 
purreag ka iinti ko kokera ko, kulla noa katan yinal ta Abaram- 

10. Kulla Yinal kiiri koba uwa tiwolliko gatun tumulliko wo- 
guntitoara ko. 

11. G-atun gurra bara ba unni tara, wiyeakan butti noa gatun 
wiya wakal fparabol, kulla noa papai ta ba fHierothalem ka, gatun 
kulla bara kota paipilliniin piriwal koba Eloi koba tanoa-kal-bo. 

12. Yaki tin noa wiyA, Tarai ta piriwal uwa tarai tako purrai 
tako kalog kako, mankilliko gikougbo piriwalkanne-ta, gatun wil- 

13. Gatun wiya noa barun gikoiimba mankillikan ften ta, gatun 
gukuUa noa barun kin fmina ta ften ta, gatun wiya barun, Miro- 
mulla uwaniin bag ba willugbo. 

14. Wonto ba gikoumba-ko konara niuwama bon, gatun yuka 
bon puntimai gikoug, wiyelliela, Keawai wal noa unni piriwal ka- 
tillinun gearun. 

15. Gatun kakulla yakita, willug ba noa ba, mantoara piriwal- 
koba, wiya gaiya noa barun umioa mankillikan gan kin noa ba 
gukulla fmoney, tanan gikoug kin, gurra-uwil koa noa mimian 
barun kinba gutoara gukilli tabirug. 

16. Tanan gaiya uwa kurri-kurri wakal, wiyelliela, Ela Piriwal! 
giroumba ta fmina unni wittia kauwal ften fmina ta. 

17. Gatun bon noa wiya, Kauwa yanti, gintoa mankillikan 
murrarag ; kulla bi miroma tmnoa war6a ta, kaiyukan bi kauwa 
ften ta kokera. 

18. Gatun tarai uwa, wiyelliela, Ela Piriwal ! giroumba ta fmi- 
na unni wittia kauwal fpente fmina ta. 

19. Gatun noa wiya gaiya bon, Kauwa bi kaiyukan fpente ta 

20. Gatun tarai uwa, wiyelliela, Ela Piriwal ! na-uwa unni ta 
fmina giroumba, wunkuUa bag ba koroka wurobilla : 

21. Kulla bag kinta kakulla giroug kai, kulla bi bukka kauwal ; 
mantan bi wokka-lag keawai bi ba wunpa baran, gatun kolbiintia 
bi unnoa keawai bi ba meapa ba. 

22. Gatun noa bon wiya, Giroug kinbirug koti ko kurraka ko 
wiyan pirriral-manun banug, gintoa ta mankillikan yarakai. 
Gurra bi tia bukka kauwal bag ; mantilliii wokka-lag keawai bag 
wunpa bariin, gatun k61buntillin unnoa keawai bag ba meapa ba: 

23. Kora koa bi gupa emmoiimba fmoney gukilligel lako, mara- 
uwil koa bag emmoiimba k6ti gatun kopatoara ta, emmoug ka ta 
uwolli ta 1 

24. Gatun noa wiya barun garokilliela bara ba tarug ka, Man- 
tillia unnoa fmina unti birug bon, gatun guwa bon gala ko ften- 
kan ko gikoug. 


25. (G-atun bara wiya bon, Piriwal, ftenta tmina mantan noa). 

26. Wiyan nurun bag, Yantinko barun mantan bara ba gunun 
wal butti ; gatun keawaran noa ba, unnoa ta mantan noa ba man- 
tillinun wal bon gikoug kinbirug. 

27. Kulla bara unnoa emmoumba niuwa-maye, keawai bara 
emmoug kanun bi ba piriwal barun, mara barun, bii-uwil koa barun 
emmoug kin mikan ta. 

28. Gatun wiya noa ba unnoa, waita gaiya noa ganka uwa 
wokka-lag fHierothalem kolag. 

29. Gatun kakulla yakita, uwa noa ba papai Bethabage tako 
gatun Bethany tako, bulkara ta giakai yitirra tElai6n ka la, 
yakunb^a noa buloara-bulun gikoumba wirrobullikan, 

30. Wiyelliela, Yuiig nura woUa kokera ko kaiyin tako ; uwol- 
linim nura ba untarig, naniin gaiya nura wirritoara warea butti- 
kag, keawai yellawa pa kiiri bulka ka : burugbuggulla unnoa, 
gatun yemmamulla untiko. 

31. Gatun tarai-kan-to ba wiyanun, Minarig tin nura unnoa ta 
burugbuggan ? giakai nura wiyella bon, Kulla noa Piriwallo wiya. 

32. Gatun bara ba yukatoara, waita uwa, gatun nakulla gaiya 
bara yanti noa ba wiya barun ba. 

33. Gatun burugbuggulliela bara ba unnoa war6a buttikag, gi- 
koiimba-ko wiya barun, Minarig tin nura burugbuggan unni war6a 
buttikag 1 

34. Gatun bara wiya, Piriwallo noa wiya gala. 

35. Gatun bara yemmama bon kinko : gatun bara wupea barun 
ba kirrikin bulka ka buttikag ka, gatun wupea bon bara letliunug 
wokka ka. 

36. Gatun uwolliela noa ba, wupea bara yapug ka kirrikinkan 

37. Gatun uwa noa ba papai, bard ka jElaidn ka ba koba bul- 
«kara koba, yantin konara wirrobullikan pital gaiya kakulla, gatun 
pitalmulliela bon Eloinug kauwal lo pullf to, yantin tin kauwal 
lin uma ba nakulla bara ba ; 

38. Wiyelliela, Pitalmabunbilla bon Piriwal ta uwan noa ba 
Yeh6a-umba koa yitirroa : pital-kamunbilla moroko ka, gatun kil- 
libinbin kamunbilla wokka ka. 

39. Gatun winta-ko Parithaioi kabirug konara birug wiya bon, 
Piriwal, koawa bi barun giroiimba wirrobullikan. 

40. Gatun noa wiyayelleiin barun, wiyelliela, Wiyan nurun bag, 
wiya, bara ba kaiyellinim mupai, kaibullinim wal gaiya unni tara 
tunug tanoa-kal-bo. 

41. Gatun uwa noa ba papai, nakulla noa kokera karig, gatun 
noa tugkillimill6un galoa rin, 

42. Wiyelliela, Gurrapa bi ba, gintoa ta, unti purreag ka gi- 
roug ka ta unni tara pital-kakilliko giroiimba ko ! wonto ba yaki- 
ta yuropa ta giroug kai nakilli tin gaikug tin. 

43. Kulla purreag ta kanim giroug kin, bukka-kan-to giroug 


wirrinun wal bara kirrai karai-karai giroug, gatun karai-karai 
wirrinun giroug, gatun mirramanun bin willi ka yantin ta kai- 
yinkaiyin ta, 

44. Gatun pirikibunpiniin bin purrai ta, gatun giroiimba wonnai 
tara murrug kaba giroug kinba ; gatun keawai bara wupinun 
tunug tarai ta wokka I^a ; kulla keawai bi ba gurra jDa yakita 
natala ba giroiimb.i. 

45. Gatun noa uwa raurrarig kolag, gatun yipa gaiya noa barun 
gukiliikan, gatun barun mankillikan unta birug ; 

46. Wiyelliela barun, Upatoara unni, Emmoiimba kokera ta 
wiyelligel kokera ; wonto ba nura uma unni -wollo kakilliko barun 

47. Gatun wiyelliela noa jjurreig ka yantin ta murrug ka 
tliieron ka. Wonto ba piriwal thicreu, gatun bara garammateu, 
gatun bara piriwal kuri koba, numa bara bon bunkilli kolag ; 

48. Yakoai bara ba urauUiko gatun keawai bara, kulla yantin 
ta kuri pital kakilliela gurruUiko bon. 

Gatus yakita kakiilla, waki'il la tarai ta purreag ka, wiyelliela 
noa ba barun kuri ka, gatun wiyelliela euagelion, uwa gaiya bon 
bara piriwal gatun bara fgarammateu gatun bara fparethbuteroi, 

2. Gatun wiya bon, wiyelliela, Wiyella gearun, minarig tin kaiyu 
tin umullia bi unni tava 1 ga ganto-ke noa bin unni ta kaiyu gu- 
kuUa giroug ? 

3. Gatun noa wiyayellcim, gatun wiyelliela barun, Gatoa wiyi- 
niin nurun unni ta wakal ; gatun wiyaycllea tia; 

4. Korimullikanne-ta loanne-umba, wiya, ta moroko kabirug, 
ga kiiri koba ? . 

5. Gatun bara wiyatan baraljo, wiyelliela, Wiyanun geen ba, 
Moroko kabirug ta ; wiyanun gaiya noa, Kora koa nura gurrapa 
bon "i 

6. Kulla geen wiyanun ba, Kiiri koba ta; yantinto gaiya gearun 
kui'iko pintinun tunug ko : kulla bara kotan bon loannenug 
tpropet ta kakuUa. 

7. Gatun bara wiy;i, keawai bara gurrajia wonta bii'Ug ta. 

8. Gatun noa barun lethuko wiya, Keawai bag wiyanun nurun 
minarig tin kaiyu tin uman bag unni tara. 

9. Gatun potopaiya gaiya noa barun kiiri wiyelliko unni-ta 
tparabol : Taraito kuriko nieapa fwain-gel la, gatun wunkulla ba- 
run kin npullikan ta, gatun iiwa gaij'a noa kalog kolag, yuraki. 

10. Gatun yakita poaikulleun ba, yuka noa bon wakal umul- 
likan barun kin upullikan ta, gu-uwil koa bara bon yeai fwaingel 
labirug ; wonto bara ba bunkulla bon, gatun yuka bara bon waita 
yeai korien. 

11. Gatvm noa toanta yukea-kan tarai umullikan : gatun bara 
bon bi'intea-kan yantibo, gatun yarakai uma bai'a bon, gatun bon 
bara yuka waita yeai korien. 


12. Gatuii iioa toanta yukea-Iain goro-ta, gatun bara bon mu- 
lar6a-kan, gatun wareka bara bon warrai tako. 

13. Wiya gaiya noa pirhvallo fwain-gel koba, Minnug banun 
kan bag? Yukaniin wal bag emmoumba yinal pitalmatoara; niir- 
ka bara bon gurranun, nanun bon bara ba. 

14. Wonto bara ba upijUi-kan-to nakulla bon ba, barabo gaiya 
wiyellan, wiyelliela, Unni ta wugguvra piriwal : kaai geen biiwil 
bon, purrai koa ka-uwil gearunba. 

1.5. Yanti bon bara wareka fwain-gel labirug, gatun biinkulla 
gaiya bon tetti. Minnug banun noa barun piriwallo fwain-gel kobp 

16. Uwaniin wal noa tanan biinkilliko barun upillikan-ko, ga- 
tun gunun wal f wain-g61 taraikan ko. Gatun gurra bara ba unni, 
wiya gaiya bai'a, Kamunbi yikora Eloito. 

17. Gatun noa barun nakilliela, gatun wiya, Minarig-ke unni 
upatoara yanti, Tunug ta wareka wittilli-kan-to, unnoa ta katea- 
kanun wokka ka waiyakan ta wollug 1 

15. Gan-ba pnntimullinun untoa tunug ka tiirpuntimullinun, 
wal ; gan kinba puntimullinun, minbinun wal bon niuta-mutan. 

19. Gatun tanoa-kal-bo kotabara piriwallo fhiereuko gatun fga- 
ranunateuko mankilliko bon ; gatun bara kinta kakulla konarsi 
tin ; kulla bara gurra, wiya noa ba unni f parabol barun kin. 

20. Gatun bara bon tuniimea, gatun yuka barun gakoiyellikan, 
gakogkilliko barunbo kiiri murrarag-tai, gurra-uwil koa bara gi- 
koiimba wiyellikanne, yaki tin mara-uwil koa bara bon kaiyu 
kabo f kobana kinko. 

21. Gatun wiya bon bara, wiyelliela, Piriwiil, giirran geen wi- 
yan bi ba tuloa, kinta kora bi kauwa taraikan tin kuri kurrig tin, 
wonto bi ba wiyan tuloa wiyellikanne Eloi koba : 

22. Wiya tuloa ta gukilliko gearun tuUokan gikoug kin f Kai- 
thari kin, ga keawai ? 

23. Wonto noa ba gurra gakoiya Isaninba, gatun wiya barun, 
Yakoai nura tia numan 1 

24. Tiigunbilla tia wakal f denari. Gan kiloa unnoa goara ga- 
tun upatoara unni ta 1 Wiyayelleun iDon bara gatun wiyelliela, 
f Kaitliariimba ta. 

2.5. Gatun noa wiya barun, Koito f Kaithari kinko guwa f Kai- 
tharumba ta, gatun Eloi kinko unnoa tara Eloi-umba ta. 

26. Gatun keawai bara man pa gikoiimba wiyelli-ta mikan ta 
barun kin kuri ka : gatun mupai kakulla bara. 

27. IJwa gaiya taraikan barun kinbirug Thadukaioi kabirug, 
bara gurramaigaye moron ta katea-kanun tetti kabirug; gatun ba- 
ra bon wiya, 

28. Wiyelliela, Ela Piriwal! Motheto noa upa gearun, Tarai- 
kan koba ba k6ti tetti. kanun ba porikunbai gikoiimba ta, gatun 
tetti noa ba kanun, wonnai korien, mara-uwil koa gikoumba koti 


bouiinoun gikoiimba porikunbai ka-uwil koa womiai gikoumba 
koti koba. 

29. Yakita gaiya waran kakulla k6tita ftheben ta: gatun kurri 
birug ko biimb^a porikunbai kakilliko, gatim tetti kakulla, won- 
nai korieii. 

30. G-atun willi-kaba-ko fdeutero-to bumb^a boumioun porikun- 
bai kakilliko, gatun tetti noa kakulla, wonnai korien. 

31. Gatun willi-kaba-ko ftrito-to bumbea bounnoun porikunbai 
kakilliko; gatun yaki-bo fthebento; gatun bara keawai wimba won- 
nai, gatun tetti bara kakulla. 

32. Willug ta tetti ba bountoa nukug. 

33. Ganumba barun kinba unnoa porikunbai kanun kakilliko 
moron ba kat6a-kanun tetti kabirug 1 kuUa bara ftliebento boun- 
noun bumbea porikunbai kakilliko. 

34. Gatun noa lethuko wiyayelleiin, wiyelliela bavun, Wonnai 
ta untikal bumbillan porikunbai gatun gukillaiko biimbilliko : 

35. Wonto ba bara murrarag-tai kanun uwolliko unta kolag 
tanai tako purrai tako, gatun moron kakilliko tetti kabirug, kea- 
wai bara bumbumbillan, keawai gukitan biimbilliko : 

36. Keawai wal bara tetti banun yukita ; kuUa bara yanti ki- 
tan fagelo kiloa ; gatun wonnai tara katan Eloi-iimba, katan bara 
wonnai tara gali koba moron kanun tetti kabirug. 

37. Gatun Motli6ko noa ba tiigaiya wakal la kulai ta, boug- 
bugga barun tetti-tetti kabirug, wiya noa ba bon Yeli6anug, Eloi 
ta Abaramumba, gatun Eloi ta Itliakumba, gatun Eloi ta Yacob- 

38. Keawai noa Eloi ta bariinba tetti-tetti koba, wonto ba ba- 
riidba moron koba ; kulla yantin moron katan gikoug kin. 

39. Taraito bara tgsirammateukallo wiya gaiya, Piriwal, murra 
rag bi wiyan. 

40. Gatun yukita keawai bara bon wiya pa kinta-kan-to. 

41. Gatun noa barun wiya, Yakoai bara wiya Kritlit ta yinal ta 
Dabidumba ? 

42. Gatun Dabidto noa niuwoabo wiya, tl>iblion kaba ttebillim 
koba, Yehdako noa wiya bon Piriwal emmoumba, Yellawolla bi 
tiigkagkeri ka emmoug kin, 

43. Uma-uwil koa bag barun bukkakan gikoumba yulogfl ko 
kakilliko gikoug. 

44. Dabidto noa ba wiya bon Piriwal yitirra, yakoai gaiya noa 
yinal ta gikoumba t 

45. Wiya gaiya noa barun gikoumba wirrobullikan mikan ta 
yantin ta kuri ka, 

46. Yakoai nura barun kai tgarammateu tin, pital koa bara 
uwa-uwil kurrawitaikan, gatun umuUiko gukillig^l laba ko, gatun 
yellawolliga la wokka ka fthunagog ka, gatun piriwal-gfl takil- 
lig61 laba ; 


47. Maiitaii bara kokera ba mabogun koba, gatun umanun 
wiyellikanne-ta kurra-uwai tiigunbilliko : yaki tin bara kaniin kau- 
wal tetti kakilliko. 

Gatun noa nakulla wokkarlag, gatun nakulla barnn porrolkan 
wuhkilliela gutoara barunba wunkilligel la. 

2. Gatun noa nakulla tarai mabogun mirralkan wunkilliela 
bountoa flepto buloara unta ko tarog kako. 

3. Gatun noa wiya barun, Wiyan bag nurun tuloa, gali mabo- 
gunto mirrallo wdnkuUa kauwal ta bara yantin kearan. 

4. Kulla yantin gali wiinkulla bara tuUokan barunba kauwal 
labirug gutoara Eloi koba ko : wonto bountoa ba bounnouu kin- 
birug mirral koba wiinkulla yantin tullokan bounnounba. 

5. Gatun winta koba wiyelliela fhieron tin, umatoara unni ko- 
rien tunug ko murrarag ko gatun gutoara, wiya noa, 

6. Unni tara natan nura ba, uwanun ta purreag karig ka, 
koriengaiyaba wakal tunug wokka-ka-wokka-ka, yantin wal ware- 
kullinun bariin. 

7. Gatun bara bon wiyd, wiyelliela, Piriwal, yakounta-ke unni 
tara kanun? gatun minarig tiiga kanun unni taraba gaiya kanun? 

8. Gatun noa wiyA, Yakoai nura, gakoiya kora koa nura ka-uwil ; 
kulla kauwal-kauwallo tanan uwanun emmoug kin yitirra, wiyel- 
Jinun, Gatoa ta (Kritht ta) ; gatun papai ta kakillin ; yanoa uwa 
yikora nura barun. 

9. Gurranun gaiya nura ba wuruwai kauwal gatun koakillai 
ta ba, kinta kora nura : kulla unni tara kaniin wal kurri-kurri , 
kulla wiran keawai kanun kabo. 

10. Wiya gaiya noa barun, Bara kuriko wuruwai wal kanun 
barun kiiriko, gatun bara piriwal koba barun piriwal koba ko : 

11. Gatun purrai tako pulululu kakilliko winta kabo, gatun 
kunto korien ta ko, gatun munni kauwalkan ; gatun kinta nakilli 
tara gatun kauwal kaniin tiiga niorok6 kabirug. 

12. Wonto ba kurri-kurri ka unni tara ba kaniin, maniin wal 
bara mattarro nurun, gatun yarakai nurun umaniin, gumuliiniin 
nurun ftliunagog kako, gatun tjail ko, mantoaro nurun mikau ta 
ko piriwal lako, gatun wiyellikan tako emmoug kinko yitirra ko. 

13. Gatun unni ta kaniin nurun tiiga kakilliko. 

14. Yanoa nura kota yikora minki ko, minarig nura wiyayel- 

15. Kulla bag gunun nurun kurraka gatun guraki kakilliko, 
keawai wal yantin bara nuriinba bukka-kan-to kaiyu kaniin wiya- 
yelliko ga pirriral umulliko. 

16. Gatun nura gakoiyelliniin wal nurun biyugbaito gatun k6ti 
tako karig ko, gatun winta nurun kinbirug biinnun wal tetti 
barun kai. 

17. Gatun nurun yarakai umaniin yantinto, emmoumba tin 
yitirra tin. 


18. Wonto ba keawai wal wakal kittug gikougkinbirug woUug 
kabirug tetti kanun. 

19. Murrai kakillikanne nuninba ka, miromuUa iiura marai uu- 
riinba 1 

20. Gatiin naiiun nura ba fHierothalem kirrai-kirrai ta ba ko- 
nara ba, gurrulla papai ta ba gaiya wari-warekuUi ta ba unnug. 

21. Murrabmibilla gaiya barun ludaia kaba waita bulkai'i'i ko- 
lag; gatun viwabunbilla bai'un willikaba waita v-^arai tako ; gatun 
viwabunbi yikora barun tanan korug kaba untako. 

22. Kulla yakita unti tara purreag ka bukka kakillikanne, ka-- 
uwil koa yantin upatoara kaniin wal kakilliko. 

23. Yapalluii bara wonnaikun gatun bara pittaliikun, yakita gai- 
ya purreag ka ! kulla wal kanun kauwal yarakai purrai ta, gatun 
liukka unti yantin ta kiiri ka. 

2i. G-atun bara tetti kapaiyiniin yirra birug, gatun barun yuti- 
niin wal mantoara kakilliko yantin tako purrai karig kako : gatun 
fHierothalem wattawanun baran bara tetkanekal-lo, yakita kalai 
tako barunba koba goloin kaniin fetlianekal. 

25. Gatun gaiya kanun wal tiiga punnal la, gatun yellana ka, 
gatun mirri ka ; gatun purrai taba yarakai ta barun kin kiiri 
ka, gatun kinta kauwiil ; korowa ta gatun bokkalog kolbilag- 
bullin ; 

26. Kuri koba bulbiillo kotan kinta-kan-to, gatun nakilli ta- 
birug galoa tara kotanan ba uwaniin purrai kolag ; kulla wal 
barun tolonianiin wal kaiyukan ta moroko koba. 

27. Gatun yakita gaiya wal naniin Yinal ta kuri koba tanan 
uwolliniin yareil loa kaiyu koa, gatun killibinbin koa kauwal loa. 

28. Gatun kanun ba unni tara paipiwin, na^uwa wokfca-lag, 
gatun wokka-lag kauwa kia-kia nuninba wollug ; kulla tanan 
uwanun paipai nuriinba wommunbillikanne-ta. 

29. Gatun noa wiya barun wakal fparabol ; Na-uwa kokug tn, 
gatun yantin kulai ta ; 

30. PaikuUiniin bara ba, naniin nura gatun gurraniin nura nu- 
run kinbirug wunal katan paipai taba. 

31. Yaki kiloa nura, naniin nura ba unni tara paikulliko, gur- 
rulla gaiya nura piriwal koba Eloi koba katan papai taba. 

32. Wiyan tuloa nurun bag, Keawai unni willuggel tetti-tetti 
kanun, yakita-ko goloin ba kanun. 

33. Moroko ta gatun purrai ta kaniin wal waita uwanun, won- 
to ba keawai wal eramoiimba wiyellikanne unni tara keawai wal 
waita uwaniin. 

31. Gatun yakoai nura nurabo, kauwa ba yantin ta miruuba 
Ijiilbiil matayei koa katea-kiin gatun kuttawaiban koa katea-kuu, 
gatun umillikeiin koa katea-kiin gali koba moron koba, gatuii 
yantita purreag ka paipiniin gati nurun kin. 

35. Kulla pika kiloa yanti uwanun untoa purreag ka barun 
kin yellawan yantin ta yaki tin purrai ta. 


36. Tumimilla mira, gatun wiyellia yanti-katai to, ka-uwil koa 
nura murrarag kakilliko moron ko unti tara birug paikullinun 
wal, gatun garokilliko mikan tako yinal lako kuri koba ko. 

37. Gatun purreag ka wiyelliela noa murrug ka f hieron la ; 
gatnn noa nwa waita tokoi ta, gatun yellawa noa bulkara giakai 
yitirra fElaion ka la. 

38. Gatun yantin bara kuri uwa gorokaii ta gikoug kinko tliie- 
ron lako, gurrulliko bon. 


Yakita kakulla papai takillikanne nulai flebben korien koba, 
giakai yittira fPathak. 

2. Gatun bara piriwal fhiereuko gatun garammateuko nukilliela 
bunkilli kolag bon tetti win-illiko ; kulla bara kinta kakulla kuri 

3. PulogkuUeun noa Thatdnto murrug ka bon ludatbkin, tarai 
yitirra giakai Ithakariot, wakal noa f dodeka kabirug. 

4. Gatun noa waita uw4, gatun wiyelliela barun piriwal fhiereu- 
nug gatun barun fkapatin, yakoai noa ba gakoyanun bon barvm 

5. Gatun pital kakulla, gatun bara wiya gukilliko bon farguro. 

6. Gatun noa wiyai, gatun mittilliela noa gakomulliko bon 
barun kin, yakita bara ba konara waita gaiya uwa. 

7. Kakulla gaiya purreag nulai flebben korien ta, yakita fPa- 
thak biinnun wal ba tetti. 

8. Gatun noa yuka Peternug gatun loannenug, wiyelliela, Yurig 
uwolla uniulliko f Pathak ta, ta-uwil koa g6en. 

9. Gatun bara bon wiya, Wonta-ke gten umaniin "? 

10. Gatun noa barun wiyd. A! nauwa nura, yakita uwanun 
nura ba kokerd karig ka, unta gaiya nurun wakallo kuriko wim- 
bi-kaba-kan-to kokoin-kan-to nuggurra uwanun nurun ; wirrobulla 
bula bon murrug kolag kokera kolag unta-ko jDulogkullinun noa 

11. Gatun wiyaniin nura bon kokeratin, Piriwallo wiyan bin, 
Wonnug waiyakan takillig^l, untoa bag ba taniin f Pathak ta em- 
moiimba katoa wirrobullikan toa ? 

12. Gatun nurun tugkaiyanun wal noa kauwal ta waiyakan 
wokka kaba wupitoara ; unnug umulla. 

13. Gatan bara waita uwa, gatun nakullabara unni tnra yantin 
ba wiya barun : gatun bara upea f Patliak ta. 

14. Gatun yakita kakulla fhora ba, yellawa noa baran, gatun 
f dodeka ta f apothol ta gikoug katoa. 

15. Gatun noa barun "viiyA, Kauwal ta emmoumba kotatoara 
takilliko unni fPathak ta nurun katoa, ta-uwil koa kurri-kurri 
tetti kolag ke bag : 

16. Kulla bag wiyan nurun, Keawai wal bag taniin unta-kal 
kabo ba kanim piriwal koba ka Eloi koba. 


17. Gatun noa mankulla wimbi, gatun pi talma gaiyaiioa, wiyel- 
liela, Mara unni gukillai koa nurabo : 

18. Kulla bag wiyan nurun, Keawai wal bag pittanun yeai 
tabirug fampelo tabirug, kabo koa uwa-uwil piriwal koba Eloi 
koba -tanan. 

19. G-atun noa mankulla farto ta, gatun pitalma gaiya noa, ga- 
tun yiirbugga, gatun gukulla barun, wiyelliela, Unni ta emmo- 
uraba murrin gutoara nurun kin : umulla unni yanti gurrulliko tia. 

20. Yantibo wimbi takilli birug yarea ka, wiyelliela, Unni wim- 
bi ta wiyatoara ta buggaikal emmoug kinbirug gorog kiroapa nu- 
run kai. 

21. A! na-uwa, unni ta mattara gikoumba gakoyelli-kan-to tia, 
emmoug katoa ba takilligel laba. 

22. Yuna bo ta wal noa uwaniin Yinal kuri koba, yanti wiya- 
toara ; yapallun unnoa kuri gakoyelli-kan-to bon ba ! 

23. Gatun bava wiyellan barabo, gan-to barun kinbirug-ko uma- 
nun ta unni. 

24. Gatun koakillan bara barabo, gan-ke kanun piriwal baruu 

2.5. Gatun noa wiya barun, Bara ta piriwal ethanekal koba ka- 
tilleim bara ; gatun bara ta katillikan giakai yitirra murrog-tai. 

26. "Wonto nura ba keawai yanti kanun ; wonto noa kurrikog 
nurun kinba, kamunbilla bon yanti mitti ; gatun noa piriwal ka- 
tan, yanti umullikan ta. 

27. Wonnug-ke kauwal unnug, niuwoa yellaw"an noa ba takilli 
ta, niuwoa umanim noa ba 1 wiya, unni ta noa yellawollin ba ta- 
killi taba 1 wonto bag ba katan nurun kinba yanti niuwoa ba 
umullikan ta. 

28. Nura ta emmoug kin minkea emmoug ka ta numatoara : 

29. Gatun gutan nurun bag kakilliko piriwalgel lako, yanti tia 
emmoiiraba Biyugbaito gukulla tia ; 

30. Ta-uwil koa nvira gatun pitta-uwil emmoug ka ta takilligel la 
emmoug ka ta piriwalgel la, gatun yellawa-uwil yellawolligel la 
piriwal koba ka, wiyellin barun konara fdodeka ta Ttliarael koba. 

31. Gatun noa piriwallo wiya, Ela Thimon, Thimon! gurruUa, 
Thantanto noa wiyan bin mankilliko kirrai-kirrai koa biloa uma- 
uwil yanti t"^Tiet kiloa : 

32. Wonto bag ba wiyelleun giroug kai gurra-uwil koa bi ; 
gatun minki bi ba kanun, pirralmulla gaiya barun bi kdti ta giro- 

33. Gatun noa wiya bon, Piriwal, katan bag unni niirigil uwol- 
li kolag gikoug katoa ko tjail kolag gatun tetti kakilli kolag. 

34. Gatun noa wiya, Wiyan banug, Peter, keawai wal mukkaka 
ko tibbinto wiyanun unti purreag ka, kurri-kurri ka bi ba gako- 
yanun tia goro-ka gimillin bi tia ba. 

35. Gatun noa wiya barun, Yuka nurun bag ba yinug korien, 


gatun pika korien, gatiin tuggandg korien, wiya, nura minarig lol 
gatun bara wiysl, Keawai. 

36. Wiya gaiya noa barun, Wonto ba yakita unti, niuwoa ba 
yinugkan, mamunbilla bon unnoa, gatun yanti pika ; gatun niu- 
woa yirra korien, gumunbilla kirrikin gikoumba, wakal koa noa 
gukilli ko. 

37. Wonto bag ba wiyan nurun, unni ta upatoara ka-uwil koa 
emmoug kin kakilliko giakai, Tumbitoara noa barun kin yarakai 
wiling ka : kulla unni tara emmoug kin ba kakillinun goloin ko. 

38. G-atun bara \viy4, Piriwal, na-uwa unni tuloa buloara yirra. 
Gatun noa wiya barun, Tantoa-bo-ta. 

39. Gatun noa uwa warrai koba, gatun waita uwa uwolli kolag 
bulkara kolag fElaion ko la kako ; gatun gikoumba wirrobulli- 
kan wirroba bon. 

40. Gatun uwa noa ba unta, wiya gaiya noa baruu, Wiyella, 
keawai koa nura puWgkulli korien yarakai kolag. 

41. Gatun noa waita uwa barun kinbirug yanti kiloa tunug 
koba pintia, gatun warogbugko upullin baran, gatun wiya, 

42. Wiyelliela, Biyug, wiya bi unni wimbi manun emmoug kin- 
birug : yanoa emmoiimba kotellikanne giroumba ta kamunbilla, 

43. Gatun paipea wakal agelo moroko kabirug pirriralmullin 

44. Gatun kirrinkan noa kauwalkan, wiyelliela noa pirriral 
butti ; gatun gikoumba kurrol upuU^iin baran purrai kolag yanti 
kiloa komonba kauwal gorog koba. 

45. Gatun bougkull6un noa ba wiyelli tabirug, gatun uwa gi- 
koumba tako wirrobullikan tako, nakulla gaiya noa barun birriki 
birriki minkikan, 

46. Gatun noa wiya barun, Minarig tin nura birrikin 1 Boug- 
kullia gatun wiyella, uwea-kun koa nura yarakai kolag. 

47. Gatun yakita wiyelliela noa ba, a! konara, gatun noa yi- 
tiiTa giakai ludath, wakil ta fdodeka kabirug, uwa ganka barun 
kin, gatun uwa gaiya noa papai lethu kin, biimbumkakilliko. 

48. Wonto noa hi lethuko bon wiya, Ela ludath ! gakoman bi- 
nug Yinal kuri koba bumbugguUito 1 

49. Nakulla bara ba gikoug kinba minnug-buUi kolag, wiya- 
bon bara, Ela piviwal ! wiya, geen biintan yirra ko 1 

50. Gatun wakal barun kinbirug kunbuntea wakal umuUikan 
fhiereu koba piriwal koba, gatun kunbuntea bon tugkag-keri 

51.' Gatun lethuko noa wiyayelleim, gatun wiyelliela, Kamun- 
billa nura unni. Gatun bon noa numa gurreug gatun turon bon 

52. Wiya gaiya lethuko barun piriwal fhiereu koba, gatun ba- 
run fkapatin fhieron koba, gatun barun garrokal, uwa bara gi- 


koug kin, Wiya, nura tia uwan 3'anti mankiye ko yarakaikan ta, 
yirrakan gatuii kotarakan ? 

53. Kakulla Lag ba iiurun kin yanti-katai purreag ka fliieron 
ka., keawai nura tia manpa miittarro : wonto ba unni yakita ta ka- 
tan nuriinba gatun kaiyukan tokoi tako. 

5-i. Mankulla gaiya bara bon, gatun yutea bon, mankulla gaiya 
bon kokera ko piriwal koba kako fhiereu koba kako. Gatun Pe- 
terko noa wirroba kalog kolag. 

55. Gatun upilleun bara ba koiyug ko willi ka kokera, gatun 
yellawa yantin, Peter gaiya noa yellawa barun kin. 

56. Gatun taraito murrakinto nakulla bon, yellawa noa ba koi- 
yug ka, gatun pimmilliela bon pirrallo, gatun wiyei, Unni noa kuri 
kakulla gikoug katoa. 

57. Gatun noa gakoiya bon, wiyelliela, Ela murrakin! keawai 
bon bag gimilli korien. 

58. Gatun toanta taraito bon nakulla, gatun wiyelliela, Gintoa 
ta yanti bo barunba. Gatun noa Peterko wiyii, Kiiri, keawaran 

59. Gatun, yakita toanta, wakal fliora ta yukita, taraito wiya 
pirralma wiyelliela, Yuna bo ta unni kuri kakulla gikoug katoa ; 
kulla noa Galilaiakal. 

60. Gatun noa Peterko wiya, Ela kiiri! keawai bag gurran 
yakoai bi ba wiyan. Gatun wiyelliela noa ba, tanoa-kal-bo muk- 
kaka-ko gaiya wiya tibbinto. 

61. Gatun noa Piriwal warkuUeun, gatun uakilleun boa Peter- 
nug. Gatun Peterko noa gurra wiyellita Piriwal koba, wiya bon 
noa ba giakai, Gikoyiinun wal bi tia kurri-kurri tibbinto mukkaka 
ko wiyuniin goro-ka. 

62. Gatun Peter noa,uwa warrai koba, gatun tiigkilleun gaiya 
noa kauwiil. 

63. Gatun bara kiiriko mankulla bon lethunug beelma bon, 
gatun bunkulla bon. 

64. Gatun munmin bara ba upea bon, bunkulla gaiya bon bara 
goara, gatun wiya bon, wiyelliela, Wivolla bi, ganto-ke bin bun- 

_ 65. Gatun kauwal-kauwal taraikan yarakai wiya bara gikoug 

66. Gatun purreag ba kakulla, kau-umuUan gaiya bara garrotai 
kiu-i koba, gatun bara piriwal tkiereu koba, gatun bara garam- 
mateu, gixtun yutea gaiya bon kau-umullig61 lako barunba tako, 

67. Wiyelliela, Kritlit ta bi unni? wiyella gearun. Gatun noa 
wiya barun, Wiyanun nurun bag ba, keawai gaiya wal nura -gur- 

_ 68. _ Gatun wiyanun nurun bag ba, keawai wal nura wiyaiyelli- 
nun tia, keawai wal nura tia wamunbiniin. 

69. Kabo noa Yinal kiiri koba yellawanim tugkag ka kaiyukan 
ta Eloi koba ka. 


70. Wiya gaiya Lara yantinto, Yinal tti bi uiini Eloi koba ? Ga- 
tun noa wiya bariui, Wiyaia nura gatoa ta unni. 

71. Gatun bara wiya taiitoa ta, Yanoa gcarun kiu gurrullikanto 
taraito? kuUa g^en gurra geenbo kui'raka kabirug gikoug kin- 
birug k(5ti kabirug. 


(jATUN bara yantin konara bougkulleun, gatun yutea bou Pilato kin. 

2. Gatun bon bara pirralma, wiyelliela, Gurra geen bon unni ga- 
koyelliela noa ba barun kuri willuggel, gatun wiyelliela, yanoa 
guki yikora tullokan Kaitliarinug, wiyelliela, niuwoa-bo-ta Kritht 
ta wakal ta Piriwal. 

3. Gatun Pilato-to wiya bon, wiyelliela, Ga gintoa ta Piriwal ka- 
tan barunba ludaioi koba ? Gatun noa wiyayelleim bon, gatun 
wiya, Gintoa ta wiyan. 

4. Wiya gaiya noa Pilato-to barun piriwal fbiereu gatun barun 
kuri, Keawai bag gurra ])a yarakai unti kuri Isa. 

5. Gatun bara bukka-buttibugk^a, wiyelliela, Pirralman noa ba- 
run kuri, wiyellin, yantin ta ludaia ka, Galilaia tinto unti kolag. 

6. Gurra noa ba Pilato-to Ualilaia ka, wiya noa, Unni kiiri Gali- 
laiakal 1 

7. Gatun gurra noa ba Herodumba-kan noa wottaikan, yuka bou 
noa Herod kinko, yakita gaiya niuwoabo kakulla fHierothalem ka. 

8. Gatun nakulla bon noa ba Herodto letliunug, pital gaiya 
noa katan kauwal, kulla noa natelli ba bon yuraki tabirug, kulla 
noa gurra kauwallan gikoug kinba ; gatun nakilliko tarai uma- 
toara gikoug kai. 

9. Wiya gaiya bon noa v\ iyellikanne kauwal-kauwal ; wonto 
noa ba keawai wiyelli pa bon. 

10. Gatun bara piriwal fhiereu gatun Lara garanimateu garo- 
killiela, gatun pirralmulliela bon kauwal. 

11. Gatun Herod katoa ba bara wuruwai koba gurramaiga bon 
bara, gatun beelma bon, gatun wuda bon konein to kirrikin to, 
gatun yukea-kan bon Pilato kinko. 

12. Gatun unta purreag ka wakal la, Pilato gatun Herod koti 
bula umuUan : yakita unta kakillan bula bnkkakan bula-bo. 

13. Gatun Pilato-to noa kau-wiya noa ba liarun jiiriwal fbiereu, 
gatun barun jsiriwal, gatun barun kiiri, 

14. Wiya gaiya barun, Mankulla nura bon unni kiiri emmoug 
kinko, yanti wakal noa gakoya-uwil ba kiiri ; gatun,' a! gurulla, 
nuiya ta bon bag unni mikan ta nuvun kin keawai bag gurrapa 
yarakai gikoug kin, ginoa-tara tin pirralma bon nura : 

15. Keawaran, keawai Herodto : kulla bag yuka nurun gikoug 
kin; gatun, nauwa, keawai gali tin tetti korien noa kanun. 

16. W^lkorinun wal bon bag, gatun wamunbinun gaiya bon. 

17. (Kulla noa burugbugginun wal wakal yakita ta takillikan- 
ne ta.) 


1 8. Gatun bara kaaibuU^un wakalla purawai, wiyelliela, Yurig 
iinni kuri; gatun burugbuggulla bon Barabbaiiug gearuii kinko: 

19. (Gali noa wakal wuruwai tin kokera gatun bunkilli tin tet- 
ti tin, wiinkulla bon tjail ka.) 

20. Koito noa ba Pilato-to kotelliela burugbuggulliko bon lethu- 
nug, wiyea ka barun. 

21. Wonto bara ba wiya, wiyelliela, Buwa bon tetti, buwa bon 

22. Gatun noa barun wiya yukita goro-ka, Minarig tin 1 mina- 
rig noa yarakai uma ? keawai bag gurrapa taraikan gikoug kin 
galoa ko]ag bunkilli kolag tetti wirrilliko ; welkoriniin wal bon 
bag, gatun wamunbinun bon. 

23. Gatun bara tanoa-kal-bo pulli kakulla kauwal, wiyelliela, 
buwil koa bon tetti. Gatun pulli barunba gatun barunba piriwal 
fhiereu pirral kakulla. 

24. Gatun Pilato-to noa wiya, ka-uwil koa yanti wiya bara ba. 
2.5. Gatun noa bon burugbugga barun kin unni bon wuruwai 

tin gatun bunkilli tin tetti tin wunkulla bon f^idl ka wiyatoara 
barunba ; gatun noa bon letliunug wamunbea barun kin. 

26. Gatun yutea bon bara ba yurig, mankulla gaiya bara wakal 
Thimonnug Kureniakal ta, tanan uwolliela korug tin, gatun wu- 
pea bara gikoug kin taligkabillikanne, kurri-uwil koa noa willug 
tin lethu katoa. 

27. Gatun wirroba bon bara kauwallo konaro, gatun bara nu- 
kug-ko, tugkilliela gatun minki kakilliela gikoug kai. 

28. Wonto noa ba letliu warkulleiin barun kai koba, wiya, Yi- 
nalkun fHierothalemkalin, tugki yikora emmoug kai, wonto ba 
tiigkillia nura nurunbo, gatun nurun kaiko wonnai tara ko. 

29. A! na-uwa, purreag karig tanan uwolliniin, yakita unta wi- 
yanun bara ba, Murrarag bara wonnai korien, gatun unnug tara 
pika keawai porkuUi korien, gatun paiyil keawai pittelliko. 

30. Yakita gaiya bara wiyellan bulkara karig, Puntimullia 
gearun kin, gatun yiinko ko, Wutilla gearun. 

31. Gatun uwullinun bara ba unni tara kiilai ta kirug ka, min- 
nug baniin wal kiilai ta turril la ? 

32. Gatun unnug bula taraikan yarakai willug, yutea gikoug 
katoa wiinkilliko tetti wirrilliko. 

33. Gatun uwa bara ba unta ko, giakai yitirra Kalabary, unta 
gaiya bara bunkulla bon gatun bulun yarakai bula, wakal ta tug- 
kag-keri ka gatun tarai ta wunto-keri ka. 

34. Wiya gaiya noa I(5tbuko, Biyug, kamunbilla barun, kulla 
bara keawai gurra korien umuUi ta. Gatun toinbillan bara kirri- 
kin gikoumba, gatun wupillan woiyo. 

3.5. Gatun bara nakilliela garokito. Gatun bara piriwal yantibo 
barun katoa beelmulliela, wiyelliela, Mironia noa taraikan; miro- 
mabunbillfa bon gikoug koti, wiya noa ba Kritlit ta, girimatoara 


36. Gatun bara fmilitiko beelma bon, uwolliela gikoug kin, ga- 
tun nupilliela bon faket, 

37. G-atun wiyelliela, Wiya bi ba iDiriwal ludaioi koba, miro- 
muUla bi gintoabo k(5ti. 

38. Gatun upuUiun wakal upatoava wokka ka gikoug kin pul- 
li jHellenik koba, gatun Latin koba, gatun Hebaraio koba, gia- 
kai, ITnni ta Piriwal ludaioi koba. 

39. Gatun wakallo yarakai bulun kinbirug-ko, kakilliela ba kii- 
lai ta, beelmuUiela bon, wiyelliela, Wiya bi ba Kritlit ta, miro- 
mullia bi gintoabo gatun gearun. 

40. Wonto ba taraito wiyayelleiin, koakilliela bon, wiyelliela, 
Keawai bi kinta korien Eloi kai, gatun gintoa ta katan wakal la 
umatoara ? 

41. Gatun galin yakita murrarag uma ; yaki tin galin kai uma- 
toara tin : wonto noa ba gali kuriko, keawai noa yarakai uma pa. 

42. Gatun noa wiya lethunug, Piriwal, gurrulla bi tia, uwanun 
gaiya bi ba piriwalgel lako giroug ka tako. 

43. Gatun noa letliiiko wiya bon, Yuna bo ta wal bag wiyan 
giroug, Unti buggai purreag ka kaniin bi tia emmoug katoa Pa- 
radeitli ka tako. 

44. Gatun yakita kakulla fliora ka jhekto ta, tokoi ta kakuUa 
yaiitin ta purrai ta katea ka flidra kako fnain tako. 

45. Gatun punnal ta tokoi kakulla, gatun kirrikin ta fhieron 
kako yiirkuUeun bulwa koa. 

46. Gatun noa ba Tetbuko kaaibulleun wokka wiya noa, Biyug, 
wunun bag emmoiimba marai giroug kin mattara ; gatun wiyel- 
leun noa ba unni, wunkuUa gaiya noa marai. 

47. Yakita gaiya noa ba kenturionko nakulla unni umatoara, 
pitalma noa Eloinug, wiyelliela, Yuna bo ta wal murrarag unni 

48. Gatun bara yantin kuri uwa nakilliko gala ko umatoara ko, 
wirrilleun bara wapara, gatun willugbo bara uwa. 

49. Gatun yantin gikoumba koti ta, gatun bara nukug wirroba 
bon Galilaia kabirug, garok^a kalog ka, nakilliela unni tara. 

50. Gatun kakulla wakal kuri, giakai yitirra Yothep, wiyellikan 
katan; murrarag kakillikan, gatun tuloa kakillikan : 

51. Gali keawai noa pital korien barunba ko wiyellikanne ko 
gatun bariinba umatoara ko ; Arimatheakal noa, wakal ta kokera 
ludaioi koba ; niuwoa ba mittilliela piriwal lako Eloi koba kako. 

52. Unni noa uwa Pilato kin, bon wiyelliko murrin ko I^tliu 
koba ko. 

53. Gatun noa mankulla baran, gatun muggama kirrikin ta, ga- 
tun wiinkuUa tulmun ta umatoara tuiiug ta; keawai ba unta kuri 
wuntelli ta. 

54. Gatun unta purreag ka tupoi-tupoi-kanne-ta, gatun papai 
kakulla thabbat ta. 


55. Cratun bara nukug uwa gikoug katoa Galilaia kabirug wir- 
roba yukita, gatun nakulla tulmun, yakoai ba wunkuUa murrin. 

56." Gatun bara willugbo, gatun mankulla faromata gatun fmii- 
ra ; gatun koriSa purreag ka thabbat ta, yaki tin -wiyatoara tin. 


Yakita kakuUa purreag ka yukita tliabbat birug ka, goiokan ta, 
uwa bara unti ko tulmun tako, mankillin fai'omata uma bara ba, 
gatun taraikan uwa barun katoa. 

2. Gratun bara nakulla tunug vimatoara kurrai-kurrai birug kur- 
raka ko tulmun tabirug. 

3. G-atun bara uwa murrarig, gatun keawai bara na korien 
murrin ta Piriwal koba lethu koba. 

4. G-atun yakita kakulla, kotelliela bara ba ge tin, a ! buloara 
kuri bula garokte barun kin killibinbin kaba kirrikin taba , 

5. Gatun bara ba kinta kakilliela, gatun wunkulliela barunba 
goara baran purrai tako, wiya bula barun, Minarig tin nui'a nakil- 
lin moron-kan ta unti tetti-tetti ka ? 

6. Keawai noa unti, kulla noa waita ka ba bougkuUeiin : gur- 
rulla nura yanti wiya nurun noa ba, yakita noa ba kakulla Gali- 
laia ka, 

7. Wiyelliela, Yinal ta kuri koba wunun wal bon mattara yara- 
kai-willug koba ka, gatun bunnun wal tetti, gatun purreag ka 
tarai ka kumba-ken bougkullia kanun noa. 

8. Gatun gaiya bara kotelliela gikoumba wiyelli tara, 

9. Gatun willugbo bara uwa tulmun tabirug, gatun wiya unni 
tara barun kin fd^ideka ta, gatun barun yantin ta. 

10. Gala bountoa Mari-ko Magdalakalin-to, gatmibountoa loan- 
na-ko, gatun bountoa Mari-ko tunkan-to Yac6bo-umba-ko, gatun 
taraikan-to bara nukug-ko barun katoa, wiya unni tara barun fap- 

11. Gatun bara ba wiyelli tara kakulla barun kin yanti kiloa 
gakoyelli tara, gatun bara keawai gurraiyelli pa barun. 

1 2. Peter gaiya noa garok^a, gatun murra tulmun tako ; gatun 
woinkulliela barAn, nakulla noa kirrikin wuntoara pitaka, gatun 
waita noa uwa, kotelliela unni tara katan ba. 

13. Gatun yakita purreag ka yantibo, buloara-bula barun kin- 
birug uwa kokera kolag, giakai yitirra Emmaou, yakita kalog 
tHierothalem kabirug purlog fbek^konta ta. 

14. Gatun bara wiyellan unni tara kakulla ba. 

15. Gatun yakita kakulla, wiyelliela ba, gatun kotelliela bara 
ba, Tetliu noa niuwoabo uwa papal barun kin, gatun uwa barun 

16. Wonto ba gaikug barunba tullaniii, gimilli korien koa bara 

17. Gatun noa wiya barun, Minarig nura unni tara wiyellan, 
uwollin nura ba, gatun minki katan ? 


18. Gatun wakal bulun kinbirug, giakai noa yitirra Kleopa, 
wiyayell6un, wiyelliela bon, Grintoa bo ta wakal gowikaii fHiero- 
thalemkal, gatun keawai unni tara gurrapa kakulla ba iinti tara 
purreag ka 1 

19. Gratun noa wiya barun, Minarig-ke unni wonnug? Gratun 
bon bara wiya, (Jikoug kin lethu kin Kadliaretkal unni kakulla 
tpropet ta kaiyukan umuUiko gatun wiyelliko mikan ta Eloi koba 
kin, gatun yantin ta barun kin kuri ka : 

20. Gatun yakoai bara ba iiiriwal fhiereu, gatun gearunba piri- 
wal karig wunkulla bon wiyayelliko tetti kolag, gatun bara bon 
bunkulla tetti. 

21. Wonto geen ba kota niuwoa niiromulliko Itharaelnug : ga- 
tun yantin unni tara ba, unni buggai kiimba-ken-ta katan unnoa 
tara uniatoara birug. 

22. Kauwa, tarai bara nukug gearunba konara birug kota bun- 
bea bara gearun, bara goiokeen katan tulmun ta : 

23. Gatun keawai bara ba na pa gikoumba niurrin, uwa gaiya 
bara, wiyelliela, nakeiin bara natoara jagelo karig koba wiya mo- 
ron noa kakulla. 

Si. Gatun taraikan bariinba gearun kinba uwa tulmun kolag, 
gatun nakulla yanti bara nukugko wiya ; keawai bon bara na 

25. Wiya gaiya noa barun, A! wogkal nura, , gatun pirrival bii- 
biil guri'uUiko yantin ta wiyatoara bara ba f propet to ! 

26. Keawai noa Kritht kamiuiginbia ta umatoara ba unni tara, 
gatun uwolliko kirrikin kolag gikoug ka tako ? 

27. Gatun kurri-kurri Mothe ko noa ba wiya, gatun yantin to 
tpropet karig ko, gurrabunbea gaiya noa barun unnoa tara upato- 
ara birug gikoug kai. 

28. Gatun bava papai uwa unta kolag kokera kolag, unta kolag 
bara : gatun noa puntelliela kalog kolag. 

29. Wonto bara ba pirralma bon, wiyelliela, Kauwa gearun ka- 
toa ; kulla wal yarea ka,killilin, gatun purreag. ta waita uwollilin. 
Gatun noa uwa murrarig kakilliko barun katoa. 

30. Gatun yakita kakulla, yellawa barun katoa takilliko, 
mankulla noa farto, gatun pitalma noa, gatun yiirbugga, gatun 
gukulla gaiya barun. 

31. Gatoingaikug bariinba bugkuUeun, gatun gimiUeun gaiya 
bara bon; noa gati kakulla barun kinbirug. 

32. Gatun bara wiyellan barabo, Wiya, gearunba bulbiil winna 
ba gearun kinba ko murrug kaba ko, wiyellil6un noa ba gearun 
katoa, gatun gurrabunbeun noa' ba gearun upatoara ta? 

33. Gatun bougkuUeun tanoa-kal-bo gatun willug ba kakulla 
tHierotbalem kolag, gatun nakuUa barun fhencleka ta, gatun ba- 
run taraikan barun katoa, 

34. Wiyelliela, BougkuUeun bo ta yuna Piriwal ta, gat'.m pai- 
kulleun Thinion kir. 


35. Cratun bara wiya unni tara upatoara yapig koa, gatun gi- 
milleun bara bon yiirbuggulliela noa ba tarto. 

36. Gatun bara ba -wiyelliela, I^thuko noa niuwoabo garok^a 
Willi ka barun kin, gatun wiya barun noa, Pital nura kauwa. 

37. Wonto bara ba pulul-pulul kakulla gatun kinta-kan, gatun 
kotelliela bara marai ta bara nakulla. 

38. G-atun noa wiya barun, Minarig tin nura kinta katan ? ga- 
tun minarig tin nurunba bulbiillo kotan 1 

39. Nauwa tia mattara emmoumba, gatun yulo emmoumba, Ga- 
toa bo : numuUa tia, gatun nauwa ; kuUa keawai marai koba 
purriiig korien gatun tibun korien, yanti nakulla nura tia ba em- 

40. Gatun wiya noa ba unni, tugumbea barun noa gikoiimba 
mattara gatun yulo. 

41. Gatun keawai bara ba gurra pital ko, gatun kotelliko, wiya 
noa barun, Wiya, nurunba kunto unti 1 

42. Gatun bara bon gukulla pundol koiyubatoara makoro birug, 
gatun pundol nuparai kabirug. 

43. Gatun noa mankulla, gatun takulla barun kin mikan ta. 

44. Gatun noa wiya barun, Unni tara wiyelJikanne-ta wiya nu- 
run bag ba, kakulla bag ba nurun katoa, yantin koa ka-uwil kakil- 
liko upatoara wiyellikanne-ta Mothe-iimba, gatun barun ba tpro- 
pet koba, gatun ftehillim kaba, emmoug kai. 

45. Gurrabunbea gaiya noa barun, gurra-uwil koa bara upa- 
toara ta ; 

46. Gatun wiya noa barun, Yaki upatoara, gatun yaki murra- 
rag ta Kritht ko gikoug kakilliko tetti ko, gatun bougkulliko kum- 
ba-ken-ta purreag ka tetti kabirug : 

47. Gatun wiyabunbi-uwil koa minkikanne-ta gatun warekulli- 
kanne-ta yarakai umullikan ko gikoug katoa bii'ug yitirra birug 
yantin ta konara, kurri-kurri kabirug fHierothalem kabirug. 

48. Gatun nura nakillikan katan gali tara ko. 

49. Gatun, gurrulla, wupin bag nurun kin wiyatoara emmoum- 
ba koba Biyugbai koba : wonto nura ba minkea kokera fHiero- 
thalem ka, kaiyu koa nurun kauwal biilwdra tin. 

50. Gatun yutea noa barun kalog kolag Bethany ka bo, gatun noa 
wupilleun mattara gikoumba wokka-lag, gatun pitalma noa barun. 

51. Gatun yakita kakulla, yaki pitalmulliela noa ba barun, man- 
till6un gaiya bon barun kinbirug, gatun kurrea bon wokka-lag 
moroko kako. 

52. Gatun bara bon murrarag koiyelliela, gatun willug ba ka- 
kulla fHierothalem kolag kaviwal-kan pital-kan : 

53. Gatun kakilliela murrug fl^i^ron ka, murrarag wiyelliela 
gatun pitalmulliela bon Eloinug. 













It was during the year 1827, being tlie third year after the com- 
mencement of my mission to the aborigines, that the first work of 
this kind was produced — the result of my researches, assisted by 
M'Gill. The work was entitled " Specimens of the Language of 
the Aborigines of New South Wales," and was printed in Sydney, 
the only attempt that had then been made by anyone to obtain a 
thorough grammatical knowledge of the aboriginal language of 
Australia, in any of its various dialects, and to render it into a 
written form. 

In 1834, on the recommendation of the Rev, W. G. Broughton, 
the then Arch-Ueacon of New South Wales, the Colonial Govern- 
ment, and the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, 
London, conjointly advanced sufficient funds to enable me to 
to publish a small edition, now out of print, of " An Australian 
Grammar of the Language as spoken by the Aborigines in the 
Vicinity of Lake Macquarie, New South Wales." In 1850, I 
published, on my own account, " A Key to the Structure of the 
Aboriginal Language, being an Analysis of the Particles used as 
Affixes, to form the various modifications of the Verbs, showing 
the essential powers, abstract roots, and other peculiarities of the 
language." Both of these works were presented to, and exhibited 
at, the Royal National Exhibition, London, 1851. 

This Lexicon will contain only those words which are used in 
the Gospel by Saint Luke. Eor the exemplification of such tenses 
and cases as may not be used therein, reference must be made to 
the " Australian Grammar," and to the " Key to the Structure 
of the Aboriginal Language." 

A few illustrative sentences will be found at the end of the 
Lexicon, showing the mode in which certain forms of English 
phraseology are expressed in the aboriginal language. 

As a tribute of respect to the departed worth of M'Gill, the 
intelligent aboriginal, whose valuable assistance enabled me to 
overcome very -many difficulties in the language much sooner 
than otherwise could have been accomplished, his likeness is also 
attached to this work. 



New South Wales, 





interr. for interrogative. 




LaL , 

, Latin. 





, literally. 




mand. , 

. mandatory. 



refer to. 

mass. , 

, masculine. 




neg. , 

, negative. 




OJlt. , 

, optative. 




p)art. , 

, |jartjcipfe. 





, perfect. 




plu. , 

, plural. 




prep. , 

, postpiosition. 




pres. , 

, present. 




piriv. , 

, privative. 




p>r.n. , 

, proper noun. 




proh. , 

, prohibitory. 

imper. or 

M7y;. „ 


pron. , 

, pronoun. 




sing. , 

, singular. 



the same as. 

subj, , 

, siiijunctive. 




subst. , 

, substantive. 


TAjs z'i 

a reference tc 

the foot-note on 2 

lage 204. 

awabakal-j:nglish lexicon 


GOSPEL- acco:rding to SAINT LUKE. 

The letters in the Englisli alphabet, with some modifications, are 
here used to convey the sounds of letters and words in the ab- 
original lainguage. The meaning of the verb is given in the third 
person singular only, but it should be remembered that the verb, 
when rendered into English, must be made to agree with its 
subject, whether singular, plural, or dual — first, second, or third 
person, as the case may require; for example, — biintan, 'smites,' 
may have to be translated ' I smite,' ' thou smitest,' ' he, she, or it 
smites,' ' we, ye, or they (chial and plibral) smite '; cf, Grammar, 
p. 31. So likewise with respect to nouns ; for they are singular, 
dual, or plural, according to the particle attached to show the 
number; as, kiiri, 'man'; kiiri ta, 'the man'; kiiri tara, 'the 
men'; yantin kuri, 'all manner of men '; ' all men '; 'all people'; 
' all mankind.' 
[Hyphens are used to show the composition of some of the words. — Ed. ] 

A — the sound of this letter is 
the same as heard in Jlng. ah ! 

A — retains the long sound, es- 
pecially when .accented as in 
b4n ; a sounds shorter than a. 
See 'Phonology,' page 5. 

A ! — a call of attention .; hark ! 

Aaron — jyTM., Aaron. 

Aaranumba — belonging to A. 

Abaram — pr-n., Abraham. 

Abaramumba — belonging to A. 

Abaram kinko — to be with A. ; 
dat. 2. 

Abaramnug — for A. to have ar 
possess ; dat. 1. 

Abaramnug — A. as the object, 

Abfil — ■pr.Th., Abel. 

Abelumba — belonging to A. 

Abelnug — Abel ; the ace. case. 

Abia— j3?'.re., Abia. 
Abia-timba — belonging to A. 
Abilene — fTr.n., Abilene. 
Agelo — Gt., an angel. 
Ai — sounds as i in Eng. 'nigh. 
Aketo — Lat., vinegar. 
Aku — Lat, a needle. 
AlabathrD— ^(?r., alabaster. 
Alpai — Or., pr.n., Aliiheus. 
Altar — see bomo. 
Andrea — pr.n., Andrew. 
Apothol — Gr., an apostle. 
Arguro — Gr., silver. 
Army — Eng., army. 
Army-kan — Eiig., a soldier. 
Arto — Gr., bread, a loaf. 
Atthari — Or., a farthing. 
Ath-er — pr.n., Asher. 
Athino — Lat., an ass. 




B — is sounded as in Eny. ' be.' 
In many instances it is diffi- 
cult to ascertain wliether the 
sound be 6 or ^j, or a com- 
pound sound of both letters. 

Ba — sounds as Eng. ' bah ' ! 

Ba — when, as if ; postfixed to 
pronouns, it forms the poss. * 

Bag — the verbal pron., I. 

Bai — is sounded as Eng. ' by.' 

Baibai — a stone-axe ; an axe. 

Bal, ban — are sounded as Eng. 
' marl, barn,' omitting the r. 

Ban — a suffix to certain nouns ; 
as, makoro, ' fish'; makoroban, 
' one who fishes,' ' a fisher- 
man '; makorobin, ' a fisher- 

Banug — the conj. dual, I-tliee ; 
the first persoji nom., and the 
second person ace. 

Bapai — nigh, near, close at hand. 

Bapabunbilliko — inf., tqletbury. 

Bapabunbilla — imi)., permit to 

Bapa-uwil — opt., (a wish) that 
...may bury. 

Bapa-uwii koa — suhj., (a pur- 
pose) in order to bury ; that 
may... bury. 

Bapilliko — to bury, to inter. 

Bar4 — down ; below. 

Barabba — pr.n., Barabbas. 

Barabbanug — B. ; in the ace. 

Bara kako — actually down. 

Bar4 kolag — tending down. 

Bara — they. 

Barabo — they themselves, 

Barabo-barabo — recip., they ( do 
it) themselves, one to another. 

Bariin — down ; now is down. 

Barun — them ; ace. case. 

Barunba — belonging to them ; 

their ; theirs ; ge7i. case. 
Barun kai, barun kaiko — from 

them, as a cause ; on account 

of them ; abl. 1. 
Barun kinbirug — locally away 

from them; out of them ; 

from amongs them. 
Barun kakO' — with them locally. 
Barun katoa — in company with 

them ; with them. 
Bathileia — Gr., kingdom. 
Bathileu — Gr., a king. 
B4tolomai — pr.n., Bartholomew. 
Bato — fresh-water ; cf. kokoin. 
Batoto — with water, as agent. 
Bato kabirug — out of the water ; 

from the water, locally. 
Bau — sounded as Eng. ' bough.' 
Ba-uwil — ojjt, a wish as to the 

action of the verb to which it 

is joined. 
Ba-uwil koa — sicb., in order that 

Be — is sounded as Eng. ' bay.' 
Beelidhebul — pr.n., Beelzebub. 
Beelma — mocked ; did mock. 
B6elmanun — will mock. 
Beelmulliko — to mock, deride, 

despise ; to make game of. 
BeelmuUi tin — because of the 

Beelmulliela — mocked and con- 
tinued to mock ; was mocking. 
Beelmullinun — will be mocking. 
Bethany — pir.n., Bethany. 
Bethany kolag — towards B. 
Bethlehem — pr.n., Bethlehem. 
Bethapage — ptr.n., Bethphage. 
Bethahaida — pr.n., Bethsaida. 
Bi — is sounded as Eng. ' bee.' 
Bi — thou ; the verbal 'iioin. 
Biblion — Gr., book, cf., book. 

*For all personal pronouns, and for the case-endiugs of nouns, see pp. 16, 
17 of the Grammar. — Ed. 



Biggai — the affectionate address 

to a brother ; brother ! 
Biloa — he-thee ; conj. dual. 
Bin — thee ; ace. case. 
Bin tun — a male parent; a father. 
Binug — thou-him ; conj. dual. 
Bir — sounds as in ^ng'. 'bird.' 
Birrik^a — slept ; was asleep. 
Birriki-birriki — sound asleep. 
Birrikil]ig61 — the lying (resting, 

sleeping) place; a bedroom, &c. 
Birrikilliko — to lie along; to 

take rest, as by lying down 

to sleep. 
Birrikin — pres. part., sleeping; 

being asleep. 
Birug — from ; apart from ; out of. 
Bith-dekem-millia— Xffli., 20,000. 
Bitta — the edge or sides. 
Biu — rhymes with Eng. 'pew.' 
Bi-uwil — auxiliary sign of the 

optative mood. 
Bi-uwil koa — auxiliary sign of 

the subjunctive mood. 
Biyug — the affectionate address 

to a male parent ; father ! 
Biyugbai — a father ; the male 

Biyugbai-nug — -ace, the father, 

as the object. ' 
Biyugbai-ta — the father, as the 

subject; it is the father. 
Biyug-ta-uwa ball — dual ; both 

father and I have 

Biyugbai-to — the father, acting 

as an agent or as the subject 

to an active verb. 
Eo — the self -same ; as, gatoa-bo, 

'I myself; unti-bo, 'this self- 
same place.' 
Boaikull^iin — grew, of itself. 
Boaikulliko — to grow or shoot 

up, of itself. 
Boa-ma — gathered together, col- 
BoamA korien — did not gather 


Boamulliko — to gather together, 

to collect. 
Bobog — a babe ; an infant. 
Bokatog — the surf of the sea ; 

a wave. 
Bomo — Gr., an altar. 
Bon — ace, the pronoun 'him.' 
Bonig — ashes. 
Boo — Gr., an ox. 
Book (fbiblion, Gr.)—E'ng., hook. 
Book kaba — in (on) the book. 
Bo-ta — itself ; it itself. 
Botru — Gr., grapes. 
Bougbuggd — has caused to arise; 

did cause to arise ; arose. 
Bougbugganiin — will cause to 

arise by pex'sonal agency ; will 

be made to rise ; shall be. 

raised up. 
BougbugguUiko — to cause to 

arise by personal agency ; to 

raise up. 
Bougkatea-kanun — will be raisedl, 

again by command ; will again 

stand up. 
Bougkulleun — arose, got up. 
Bougkullia — imp., arise, get up. 
Bougkullia kan — one who has 

arisen by command. 
Bougkullia-kan-katea-kan — one 

who has arisen again by com- 
BougkuUiko — to arise, to get, 

up, to stand up. 
Bougkulli korien — not to arise. 
Bougkullinun — will rise. 
Bougkullinun-wal — shall arise ;. 

will certainly rise. 
BougkulHa-kanun — will arise by- 
Bounnoun — ace, her. 
Bounnoiinba — belonging to her. 
Bounnoun kai — because of her. 
Bounnoun kinbirug — from her ; 

away from (apart from) her. 
Bountoa — she. 
Bredd (farto, Gr.) — Eng., Dread. 



Bredd ta — tlie bread, as a sub- 
ject; it is bread. 
Bredd-to — the bread, as agent. 
Brimt6n — Eng., brimstone. 
Bu — sounds as Eng. ' bull '; cf* 
-bug — sounds as Eng. ' bung.' 
-bug — as an auxiliary particle, 

postfixed to the verb, denotes 

personal and causative agency. 
-bugguUiko — to act effectually by 

personal agency ; to cause to. 
Bug — sounds as in Eng. 'boon,' 

but with the strong nasal ng 

instead of the n ; cf.*. 
Biigbug — to salute. 
Bugbuggi'i — unloosed; did open. 
Bugbuggulliko — to act upon so 

as to unloose; to open a book. 
Bugbug-ka — saluted, did salute 

with a kiss. 
BugbugkuUiko— to salute with 

a kiss. 
Buggai — now ; to-day ; present 

BuggaikcU — of to-day; belonging 

to the present period ; of this 

time ; new ; fresh. 
Bugkulleun — did become. 
Bugkulliko — to cause to be, by 

its own power ; to become. 
Bukk — sounds as Eng. 'buck.' 
Bukka— anger ; ferociousness. 
Bukka^butti-bugkea — the more 

wrathful (angry, enraged). 
Bukka-ka-ke — to be in an angry, 

wrathful, savage state ; to be 

an avenger. 
Bukka-kakilli-kanne — anything 

which is in a state of anger ; 

wrath ; enmity. 

Bukka-kakilliko — to be in a 
state of anger (wrath, rage, 

Bukka-kan — one who is angry j 
being angry ; an enemy. 

Bukka-kan-to — one who is angry 
(or an enemy) acting as agent. 

Bukka-kan-toa — the angry one, 
as an agent ; the adversary ; 
the enemy. 

Bukka kauwal — great anger. 

Bukka-mai-ye — one who is habit- 
ually angry. 

Bukka-mai yikora — mjijj. wet/., be 
not angry. 

Bukka maniin — will do angrily. 

Bukka-ta-kal — in a state of rage. 

Bula — dual, ye two. 

Bui — for its sound cf.*. 

Bui — sounds as Eng. 'bull.' 

Biilbiil — the heart. 

Bulbiil la — in the heart. 

Bulbul-lo — the heart, as agent. 

Biilbiil labirug— out of the heart 

Bulka — the back of the hand or 
body ; any hill or mountain ; 
a protuberance. 

Bulka kako — at or on the back. 

Bulkard — to (unto) the back, &c. 

Bulkara karig — all the moun- 
tains or hills. 

Bulkard kolag — towards the hill. 

Bulkara-ta — it is the mountain ; 
the mountain. 

Bulkaroa — throughout the back 
(or hill, mountain). 

Buloara — two. 

Buloara-bula — dual, they two ; 
the two ; both. 

Buloara-buloara — two and two. 

*NoTE. — u always, and u before a single consonant, are sounded 
like M in Eng. ' bull.' 

li alwa,ys, and u before tivo consonants, are sounded as u in 
Eng. ' hull.' See page 4. 

Throughout the Lexicon, reference to this Note is made by cf.* 
— Ed. 



Bulun — dual ace, item two. 
Bulun kinbirug — from (apart 

from) them two. 
Bulun-kinbirug-ko — from them 

two, as an agent. 
Bulwdra — high, lofty. 
Biilw^ra ka — at the height ; on 

high ; noon ; high noon. 
Biilwarai tin — on account of the 

height; on .high. 
Biim — for its sound cf*. 
Bum — is sounded as .£'■«(/. 'boom.' 
Bumb6a — was and is married. 
Biimbea-ka — is in the married 

BumbiUala — did marry at some 

deiinite time past. 
Biimbillan — do or does marry. 
Bumbilli-ka — was in the act of 

marrying at some indefinite 

time past. 
Bumbilliko — to marry ; to take 

a wife ; to kiss reciprocally. 
Biimbinun — fut., will marry. 
Biimbuggulliko — to take a kiss 

by force. 
Bumbuggulliko — to cause to be 

loose ; to open a door. 
BumbugguUi-to — the kiss given, 

as agent ; with or by a kiss. 
Bum-biim — kisses ; kissing. 
Bdmbiim-ka — was kissed. 
Biimbiim kakilliko— to be in .a 

state of kissing ; to kiss. 
Biimbum-ka-pa — did not kiss. 
Bumbum-kulUela — did continue 

to kiss. 
Bumbiim-kullielliko — to con- 
tinue to kiss. 
Bummill6'jn — found; did find. 
Bummilliko — to find. 
Bun — is sounded as Eng. 'boon.' 
Biin — for its sound c/.*. 
Bun — permissive, let ; permit. 
Biinbd — smitten ; smote. 
Bunb6a — did permit ; did let. 
Bunbilla — imp., permit ; let. 

Biinbilliko — to permit ; to let. 

Bunbin — pres., permits. 

'Bunbiniin—fuL, will j>ermit. 

Bun-bi-uwil — ojji., wish to let. 

Biin-bi-uwil koa — subj., in order 
to peraiit ; that. . .might lot. 

Bunkilligfl — tlie place of smit- 
ing ; the threshing floor ; the 
pugilistic ring ; the field of 

Bunkilli-kan — one who smites. 

Biinkilli-kan tin — from (on ac- 
count of) him who smites. 

Biinliilliko — to smite or strike ; 
to make a blow ; cf.*. 

Biinkilli kolag — towards smit- 
ing ; about to smite. 

Biinkilliko tetti — to smite dead ; 
to kill with a blow. 

Biinkilli tin — froni (on account 
of) the smiting. 

Bunkiye tetti wirriye — one who 
habitually smites to death ; 
one who kills with blows ; a 

Biinki yikora — -jjro/t., smite not ; 
strike not ; must not strike. 

Biinkulla — smote ; did beat. 

Biinniin wal — shall smite ; will 
cei-tainly smite. 

Bunnun-wal-ba — when . . .should 
smite; if... should smite. 

Biintan — pres., strikes. 

Buntimai — a messenger; an am- 
ba,ssador ; a herald ; 6=p. 

Biintoara — that -which is smit- 
ten or struck. 

Burrilliko — to do a thing spoken 
of by some -violent instrumen- 
tal means ; cf. tetti-burrilliko. 

Burroug — ^^a dove. 

Burugbugga — did set at liberty; 
unloosed, released, unbound. 

Burugbuggan — does set at liber- 
ty (release, unbind). 

Burugbugganun — will set loose. 



Burugbuggulla — mand., set at 
liberty ; set loose. 

Buru gbugguUiela — was causing 
to be set at liberty ; was un- 
loosing or releasing. 

Burugbuggullielaba — while (as, 
when) . . .was setting at liberty. 

Burugbuggulliko — to cause to 
be set at liberty ; to unloose ; 
to release ; to unbind. 

Buru gkull6un — did set at liberty, 
unloosed (of itself). 

BurugkuUiko — to set itself at 
liberty of its own power ; to 
unloose itself ; to unbind it- 
self ; to go off spontaneously. 

Butti — more ; to do more ; to 
continue the action. 

Butti-butti — mand., more more ; 
go on, go on. 

Buttikag — any animal ; ass, ox. 

Buttikag ba — when (if) an ani- 
mal ..., as an ox. 

Bu-uwil — opt., wish to smite. 

Bu-uwil koa — subj., in order to 
smite ; that. . .might smite ; on 
purpose to strike. 

Buwa — mand., smite ; strike. 


There is no sibilant sound in 
the language, consequently there 
is no c soft, or s, or s in the 
native alphabet. These letters, 
therefore, occur only in woi'ds of 
foreign origin introduced into 
the aboriginal tongue. The hard 
sound of c, as in JUng. ' cubit,' 
would be represented by the 
letter 7c. The letter 6 (C) repre- 
sents the sound of ch. , as in En(/. 
' church.' 

Cipu — £!ng., sheep. 
K4f(titalo, Gr.)—Eng., 


Kalabary — pr.n.. Calvary. 

Kenturion — a centurion. 

Kenturion-ko — the centurion, as 
an agent. 

Kubit — Mng., a cubit. 

Kurenia — pr.n., Cyrenia. 

Kurenia-kal — belonging to Cy- 
renia ; a Cyrenian (niasc). 

Kurenia-kalin — belonging to Cy- 
renia ; a Cyrenian (fern.). 


D has a middle sound betwixt 
t and d ; it often confounds the 
sounds of d and t. D is used in 
foreign words, while t belongs 
to the language. The aborigines 
do not pronounce the Eng. v or 
/, generally substituting h for 
V, and p torf. 

Dabid — David. 

Dabid-to — David, as the agent 

Dabidiimba — belonging to D. 

Debbil (fdiabol, (r'c. )■ -devil. 

Debbil-debbil — intensive ; a term 
used for an evil being of whom 
the aborigines are much afraid. 

Dekem-millia— Za;., 10,000. 

Denari— -Za<., a penny. 

Deutero — Gr., second. 

Dhakaria — pr.n., Zacharias. 

Dhakke — pr.n., Zacchaeus. 

Dhelot — Gr., a zealot. 

Diabol-lo or diabol-to — the devil, 
as an agent. 

Diabol-kan — one having a devil. 

Didathkalo (-oi) — Gr., teacher. 

Dodeka — Gr., twelve. 

E — sounds as a in Etig. ' may.' 
Ela or ala! — exclam., ho! hallo! 



Ela-beara ! — emphatic exclam. of 
astonishment or surprise ; oh, 
dear ! dear me ! well ! 

Elai6n— (?r., Mount of Olives. 

Elebben — see hendeka. 

Elebben-ta — eleven it is ; eleven. 

Elia — pr.n., Elias. 

Ella-umba — belonging to Elias. 

Elidhabet — pr.n., Elizabeth. 

Elitheu — pr.n , Eliseus. 

Eloi — Hehriw Elohim, God. 

Eloi kai — on account of Eloi. 

Eloi kai koba — on account of 
and belonging to God. 

Eloi kin — in place before Eloi ; 
before (in presence of) God. 

Eloi kinko — for or to Eloi. 

Eloi koba — belonging to Eloi ; 
belonging to God, as proj)erty. 

Eloi-ta — Eloi it is, as the sub- 

Eloi-to — Eloi, as the agent; God. 

Eloi-umba — belonging to Eloi, 
personally ; God's. 

Eloi-iimba-ta — belonging to Eloi 
it is ; it is of God ; it is God's. 

Emmaou — pr.n., Emmaus. 

Emmaou kolag — towards E. 

Emmoug — ace, me. 

Emmoug kai — from me ; on ac- 
count of me ; about me. 

Emmoug katoa — with (in com- 
pany with, together with) me. 

Emmoug kin — at me ; with me. 

Emmoug kinbirug — from me ; 
away from me. 

Emmoug-ta — it is mine ; mine. 

Emmoumba — my, mine, belong- 
ing to me. Also, Emmoemba. 

Emmoumba katoa — with (in 
company with) my. 

Emmoumba koba — belonging to 
my ; of my. 

Emmoumba tin — from mine ; on 
account of mine, as a cause. 

Et {it)—Eng., eight. 

Ethaia — pr.n., Esaias. 

Ethan6 — Or., nations. 
Ethan6-kal — Gr. and aboriginal, 

the Gentiles. See Gentail. 
Etfn (6tin) — Eng., eighteen. 
Etin-ta — the eighteen it is, as a 

Ety-wara — Eng. and aboriginal, 

Ety koa — in order to be eighty. 
Euagelion — Or., the gospel. 


The sound of /is not found in the 
native language ; when it is in- 
troduced by foreign words, the 
aborigines pronounce it p. 

Parthig — Eng., farthing. 

Pente — Or., five. 

Pente-ta — five it is ; the five. 

Pentaki-kilioi— (?r., 5,000. 

Pentakothioi— ffr., 500. 

Pent^konta — Or., fifty. 

Pipatin — Eng., fifteen. 

Pipaty — see pent^konta. 

Pipaty koa — in order that it 
may be fifty. 

Pipaty koa ka-uwil — in order 
that there may be fifty. 

Pok (tal6p6k, Or.)— Eng., fox. 

Purlog — Eng., furlong. 

Purlog hikty — Eng., sixty fur- 

Purlog hikty -ta — sixty furlongs 
it is ; three-score furlongs. 


G is always the English g hard. 
Gabriel— pr. 71., Gabriel. 
Gabriel-ta— Gabriel it is. 
Gabrielumba — belonging to G. 
Gadara— ^r-.n., Gadara. 
Gadara-kal — a woman of G. 
Gadaren— pr.w., Gadarene. 



Galilaia^y;r.7i., Galilee. 
Galilaia kaba — at Galilee. 
Galilaia kabirug — out of G. 
Galilaia-kiil — {niasc. ) - belonging 

to Galilee ; a Galilean. 
Galilaia-kilin — (feni.) belong- 
ing to Galilee ; a Galilean. 
Galilaia tin — from (on account 

of) Galilee. 
Galilaia tin-to — on account of 

Galilee, as an agent. 
Garammateu — Gr., scribes. 
Garammateu-kiil — belonging to 

the scribes. 
Garammateu-kal-lo — belonging 

to the scribes, acting as agents. 
Gfiraramateu-kan — he "vvho is a 

Garammateu ko — for the scribes. 
Garammateunug — the scribes, as 

the object. 
Garammateu tin — on account of 

the scribes ; from the scribes, 

as a cause. 
Garammateu-to — the scribes, as 

Garejj (tbotru,(?r.) — ^ng"., grape. 
Gennetharet — -pr.TO., Gennesaret. 
Gentail (fethane-kal) — Gentiles. 
Gentail kinko — for (unto) the G. 
Gentail koba — belonging to G. 
Gentail-to — G., as the agents. 


G sounds as ng in Eng. ' Taung '; 
it has the nasal sound of ng 
in the English alphabet. Tlie 
sound is invariably the same 
whether at the beginning, the 
middle, or the end of a word, 
and cannot be too strongly- 

Ga — or ; or it is. 

Ga 1— is it ? 

Ga !— lo ! behold ! 

Ga ba — or as ; it is as ; while as. 

Ga wiya ? — or say? or is it not 1 

Gagga, gagka — see ganka. 

Gai — rhymes with Ung. ' nigh.' 

Gaikug — the eye; the eyes. 

Gaikug birug — -from (awayfrom, 
out of) the eye. 

Gaikug tin — because of the eye. 

Gaiya — then ; at that time or 
period spoken of. It is used 
as a correlative to yakounta? 
' when '? in the reply, ' gaiya ' 
follows the word that indi- 
cates the time when ; as, kum- 
ba gaiya, 'to-morrow then.' 

Gakea — stood ; did stand. 

Gakilliko — to stand upright. 

Gakillilin — now standing and 
continuing to stand. 

Gakilliu — standing upright. 

Gakogkilliko — to feign ; to sham 
or pretend. 

Gakoiman — deceives ; betrays. 

^^This and the word-forms be- 
low may be written either 
gakoi- or gako-. 

GakoimuUiko — to cause decep- 
tion ; to deceive ; to betray. 

Gakoiyci — deceived ; denied ; be- 
trayed ; perverted. 

Gakoiya — deception ;iiypocrisy; 
deceit; betrayal. 

Gakoiyanun — will make believe 
OJ'sham; will deceive or deny. 

Gakoiya-uwil — opi.,- wish to de- 
ceive or betray. 

Gakoiya-uwil ba — :as... might de- 

Gakoiya-uwil koa — suhj., that... 
might deceive or betray. 

Gakoiya-uwilliko — to wish to de- 

Gakoiyaye — habitual deception. 

Gakoiyaye tin — on account of 
habitual deception ; from 
hypocrisy or deceit. 



Gakoiya yikoTa — mand., beware 
of deception. 

Gakoiyellan — does now deceive. 

Gakoiyelliela — was deceiving or 

G^koiyelli-kan — one who lies or 
deceives or acta the traitor. 

Gakoiyelli-kau-to — one who de- 
ceives, acting as the agent. 

G-akoiyelliko — to act in such a 
way as to deceive ; to betray; 
tCT feign ; to lie ; to act the 

Grakoiyellilin — now deceiving. 

&akoi3'ellinun — will beti-ay. 

Gakoiyelli-ta — {sing.) the decep- 
tion ; the deceiving. 

Gakoiyelli-tara — {plu.) the de- 
ceptions ; the dcceivings. 

Gala — that (demonstrative). 

Gala ko — for that ; to that. 

Gali — this (demonstrative). 

Gali birug — from (out of) this. 

Gali koba — ^belonginff to this. 

Gali noa — this is he who. 

Gali-ta — this is it that ; this is 
that which. 

Gali-tara — these are they which. 

Gali tin — from (on account of) 
this, as a cause. 

Galea — that (there at hand.) 

Galoa-ko — that there, spoken of 
as an agent. 

Galea kolag — towai-ds that. 

Galoa-rin — from (on account of) 
that, as a cause. 

Gan ! — interr. who ? 

Gan-ba — ^who as ; whoever. — who is (he)? 

Ganbulliko — (a peculiar idiom, 
lit, to be ' whoing ' a person 
when you know who he is ; 
hence,) to deny all knowledge 
of a person when at the same 
time you know him ; to deny 
a person ; to deny personal 

-having been be- 

Ganbullinin — will be 'whoing'; 

will deny. 
Ganbullinun wal — will certainly 

be ' whoing '; shall deny. 
Ganka — first ; before ; foremost ; 

prior ; elder; i.q. gag-ga or -ka. 
Ganka — before ; in presence of. 
Ganka-ganka — the very first. 
Ganka kakilliko— to be before ; 

to be the first. 
Ganka-kal — relating to the first 

or the elder. 
Ganka- kalleun- 

before or first. 
Ganka kanun — ^will be first. 
Ganke? — personal interr., who 

is the person 1 who 1 who is ? 
Gan kiloa? — whom like ? 
Gan kiloa unnoa — like whom is: 

that 1 
Gan kin ? — upon whom 1 locally. 
Gan kinba — upon whomsoever, 

Gannug 1 — ace, who is the per- 
sonal object? whom? 
Gan-to? — who did or does? who 

is the personal agent ? 
Gan-to ba — whosoever shall act 

as a personal agent ; whoso- 
ever does or will do. 
Ganto-bo ba — whosoever may be 

the selfsame personal agent ; 

whosoever will. 
Ganto-ko % — who is the personal 

agent ? who is he that does ? 
Ganiim ? — to whom (to have or 

to possess) ? 
Gamimba ? — whose ? to whom 

Ganiim-bo — whosoever hath. 
Gapal — a woman, a concubine. 
Gapal toa— with (in company 

with) a woman or women. 
Gar — rhymes with the Eng. 

' far,' pronouncing the r very 

Garabo — sleep ; repose. 



Garabo-kakilliko — to be in a 
state of repose ; to sleep. 

Garabo kakillin — present part., 
sleeping ; reposing. 

G-araka — the entrance or mouth 
of anything ; i.q. kurraka. 

Garaka-ko — the entrance, as the 

Garawalliko — to lose one self. 

Garawallill^iin — lost ; did lose. 

Garawan — a plain ; a fiat place; 
a level j i.q. gararawan. 

Garo — the eldest son ; the iirst 
born son ; cf. kurri atzd koro. 

Garogeen — an elderly woman ; 
an old woman. 

Garokal — aged ; elder ; old. 

Garokea — stood up ; arose. 

Garokeun — stood up, at some 
definite time past. 

Garokilla — mand., stand up. 

Garokillea — mand., stand up and 
continue to stand. 

Garokilliela — past, part., con- 
tinued to stand ; stood. 

Garokilliko — to stand upright 
on the feet ; to be in a stand- 
ing position. 

Garokilli korien — neg., not to 
be standing upright ; not to 

Garokillin — jires. j^a^i-t stand- 
ing ; now standing upright. 

Garombai — an elderly man; an 
old man. 

Garkulleiin — turned round. 

Garkulliko — to revolve of itself; 
to turn one's self round. 

Garug — rough ; rugged. 

Garuggara — rugged ; proud. 

Gati — happened of itself ; acci- 
dental ; perchance ; unawares ; 
without cause ; secret ; unre- 

Gati — nothing ; nought ; not. 

Gati kakilliko — to be nothing. 

Gati kakulla — was not ; evan- 
ished ; disappeared. 

Gati-ta — the secret place. 

Gatoa — emphatic, I who ; it is I. 

Gatoa-ta — emphatic, it is I who. 

Gatoa-bo — einph., it was (is) I 
myself who. 

Gatun — conj., and. 

Ge — rhymes with the jE'^i^r. 'nay,' 
sounding strongly the nasal 
ng at the beginning. 

Gearimulleiin — choose ; elected. 

GearimuUiko — to pick out ; to 
choose ; to cull ; to elect, 

Gearun — pton., we. 

\Incovfiplete : see note at the 

end of the Lexicon. — Ed.] 


The aborigines seldom sound h as 
an initial aspirate ; consequently 
the letter h is not muob used in 
the language, save in words of 
foreign extraction. 

Hebaraio — pr.n., a Hebrew. 
Hebaraioi-umba — belonging to 

the Hebrews. 
Hek — Gr., six. 
Hekaton — Gr., a hundred. 
Hek^konta — Gr., sixty. 
Hellenik — Gr., Greek. 
Hendeka — Gr., eleven. 
Hepta — Gr., seven. 
Herod — pr.n., Herod. 
Herodiath — pr.n., Herodias. 
Herod katoa — with (in company 

with) Herod. 
Herodnug — H., as the object. 
Herod-to — Herod, as the agent. 
Herodiimba — belonging to H. 
Herodiimba-kan — being H's. 
Hiereu — GV., a priest; priests. 
Hiereu-kan — one who is a priest. 
Hiereu-ko — the priest, as agent. 



Hiei-eu-nug— tlie priest or priests, 

as the object. 
Hieron — Gr., temple. 
Hieron ka — at the temple. 
Hieron tin — from (on account of) 

the temple. 
Hierothalem — Gr., Jerusalem. 
Hierothalem ka — at or in J. 
Hierothalem kabirug — out of J.; 

from (away from) J. 
Hierothalem-kiil — belonging to 

Jerusalem (masc.) ; a man of 

Hierothalem-kalin — belonging 

to Jerusalem (fern.); a woman 

of Jerusalem. 
Hour (fhora, Gr.) — Eng., hour. 
Hour ba — when (at) the hour. 
Hour ka — was at the hour. 
Hour-ka-ta — it was at the hour. 
Hundared — see hekaton. 
Hundared-ta — hundred it is; the 



I (i) — sounds as e in Eng. 'eat.' 
I (i) — sounds as ee in Eng. 'e'en.' 
laeiro (Yaeiro) — Gr., Jairus. 
lakob (Yakob) — j^^-""-' Jacob, 
"lakobnug — Jacob, as the object, 
lakobiimba — belonging to Jacob 
Iak6bo (Yak6bo) — Gr., James. 
Iak6bo-umba — of or belonging to 

James ; James's. 
lak6bo-umba-ko — belonging to 

J., as the agent. 
Yehoa — Heb. pr.n., Jehovah. 
Yehoanug — J., as the object. 
Yehoa kin — to Jehovah. 
Yehoa-ko — J., as the agent. 
Yehoa-umba — belonging to J. 
lithn — Gr. pr.n., Jesus. 
I6thu katoa — with (in company 

with) Jesus. 
I6thu kin — to Jesus, locally, [is. 

lethu kinko — to Jesus, where he 
I6thu-ko — Jesus, as the agent. 
l6thunug — Jesus, as the object, 
loanna — pr.n., Joanna, 
loanna-ko — Joanna, as an agent, 
loanne — Gr. pr.n., John, 
loannenug — J., as the object, 
loanne-umba — of or belonging to 

John ; John's, 
lona — Gr., Jonas, 
loradan — pr.n., Jordan, 
lothep (Yothep) — pr.n., Joseph. 
Yothep kinko — to Joseph. 
Yothepiimba — belonging to J. 
Italo — Gr., a calf. 
Ith4k — pr.n., Isaac. 
Ithdknug — Isaac, as the object. 
IthAkiimba — belonging to I. 
Ithakariot — pr.n., Iscariot. 
Itharael — pr.n., Israel. 
Itharaelnug — Is., as the object. 
Itharael koba — belonging to Is. 
Iturea — pr.n., Iturea. 
ludaia — Gr. pr.n., Judea. 
ludaio (-oi) —, a Jew. 
ludaio koba — of or belonging to 

a Jew or Jews. 
ludath — pr.n., Judas, 
ludath kin — to Judas, 
ludath kinko — to Judas (for him 

to have). 

[Other tribal dialects have the 
palatals j and 6, but this Awaba- 
kal has not ; in it j occurs only 
in imported words. — Ed.] 

Jail — Eng., jail. 
Jeriko — pr.n., Jericho. 
Jerusalem — see Hierothalem. 


K is sounded as in E^ig. 'Kate.' 



Ka is sounded as in Eng. 'cart.' 

Ka korien — ivig., not ; am not. 

Kaai — a call, here ! come hither ! 

Kaaiballiko. — to cry out ; to call 
aloud ; to ' kaai '; because the 
blacks use that word as we do 
hallo ! ho7 ! 

Kaaibullinun — will cry .out. 

Ka ba — to be in such a state or 
condition (as mentioned). 

Ka ba (at the beginning of a 
sentence) — ^if it is (as stated). 

Kabirug — from ; out of ; away 
from; apart from. 

Kabo — presently; by-and-by. 

Kabo koa — in company with by- 
and-by ; in order to be by- 
and-by ; until. 

Kai — rhymes with Eng. 'eye,' 

Kai — imp., be (an entreaty). 

Kaiapath — pr.n., Caiaphas. 

Kai-ba — cried out ; called. The 
word ' kai ' is used, as well as 
' kaai,' to call attention. 

Kaibug — a light (of any kind) ; 
a lamp or candle. 

Kaibug-gel — the place of a light, 
as the candlestick. 

Kaibulla — imp., call; cry aloud. 

Kaibullein — cried out ; did cry 
out ; did shout aloud. 

Kaibullia — imp., call out and 
continue to call. 

Kaibulliela — was lifting up the 
voice ; was shouting. 

KaibuUiko — to cry out ; to. lift 
up the voice; to call aloud; to 
shout. Also, KaipuUiko. 

KaibuUiniin — will call; will cry 
out ; will shout aloud. 

KaibuUiniin wal — certainly will 
call or shout ; shall call. 

Kain — sounds as Eng. ' kine.' 

Kain — in possession of ; having. 

Kaithar — Lat. pr.n., Cffisar. 

Kaithar kinko^for (to) Osesar. 

Kaithnri-ka — C, as the agent. 

Kaitharnug — Cmsar, as the ob- 
ject, ace. ; to Caesar, dat. 

Kaithariimba — Caesar's. 

Kaitharumba-ta — it is what be- 
longs to Csesar ; that which is 

Kaiull6un — ceased; ended. 

KaiuUiko — to cease ; to finislL 

Kaiwitoara (fPathak) — passed 
over ; the Passover. 

Kaiyallea — i/mp., be silent ; be 
mute ; cease ; leave off. 

Kaiyalleakiin — again t'o cease or 
leave, off. 

Kaiyellia — imiier., be silent or 
mute ; cease. 

Kaiyelliko — to be silent or mute'; 
to cease. 

Kaiyelliniin — will cease. 

Kaiyin — an edge; the other side. 

Kaiyin-kaiyin — (phi.) all sides ; 
every side. . 

Kaiyin kolag — over towards the 
other side. 

Kaiyinkon — the side or edge. 

Kaiyinkon taba — at or on the 
other side or edge. 

Kaiyin tako — to be over against 
en the other side. 

Kaiyu — -power, ability; power- 
ful, able. 

Kaiyu kako — unto the power. 

Kaiyu-kan — being powerful; be- 
ing able ; one having power; 
one having ability. 

Kaiyn-kan kanun — will be able. 

Kaiyu-kan-to — a person having 
pov/er, as agent. 

Kaiyu koa — with (in company 
with) power ; accompanied by 

Kaiyu korien — not powerful or 
able ; unable; 

Kaiyu-korien-to — unable to act, 
as an agent. 

Kaiyu tin — from (on account of) 
the-: power. 

J" ""S^ -V-.Jk^ ^ -I ,J, I 

BuNTiMAi — ' A Messenger. ' 



Ka-kean — finite tense, it was 
(early m the morning) this 
day or of the day spoken of. 

Kakillai — being and continuing 
to be. 

Kakillan — did remain in a state 
of (whatever is spoken of). 

Kakillieliko — to be and to con- 
tinue to be. 

.Kakilli-kan — one who is and 
continues to be. 

Kakilliliela — was being and con- 
tinuing to bs (in such a state). 

KakiUiko — to be. 

Kakillin — being now actually 
(in such a state). 

Ka korien kakilliko — not to be ; 
to fail to be. 

KakuUa — was (in such a state). 

Kaknllai — to be awhile ; to be 
for a season. 

Kakullai-ta — it is for awhile ; 
it endures for a season. 

-kil— (wiasc.) belonging to a time 
07- place ; in a state of ; a man 
of such a place. 

-kalin — (fern.) belonging to a 
place ; a female of such a place. 

BLalog — afar off] far ; distant. 

Kalog ka — at a distance. 

Kalog kaba — being afar off or 
at a distance. 

Kalog-kolag — towards afar off; 
to a distance. 

Kamel — Eny., camel. 

Kiimunbilla — imp., forgive; let 
be ; permit to be. 

Kamunbilla kakilliko — to per- 
mit to be in any state or con- 

- dition. 

K-imunbiiliko — to cause to let 
be ; to permit to be. 

Kumunbinin — will cause to let 
be; will permit to be. 

Kamunbinin wal — will cer- 
tainly cause to permit to be ; 
shall cause to let be. 

Kimunbi yikora — iinji. prohib., 
let not be permitted to be ; 
forbid permission to be ; let 
not be ; forbid to be. 

Kan — is sounded slh Ungi. 'can.' 

Kan-kan — pi'es. tense of tlie verb 
to be (in any state); suhst., one 
who is (whatever is stated). 

Kanumaiko — to repent. 

Kanim — -fiU. i)ifZe/,will be; e.g., 
tetti kunun, ' will be dead,' will 
be in a state of death. 

Kaniin kakilliko — to be in such 
a state ; will be ; will become ;, 
will come to pass. 

K-inun wal kakilliko — shall cer- 
tainly come to pass. 

Ka-pa — a particle which implies 
a denial ; ' if it had been.' 

Kapaiyinun — will become. 

Kapatin — Ung., a captain. 

Kapatin-to — a captain, as agent. 

Kapernaum — pr.n., Caj^ernaum. 

Kapirri — hunger. 

Kapirri-kan — one who hungers; 
being hungry. 

Kiirii — private; secret ; adv., pri- 
vately ; secretly. 

Kara — the negat. of being in 
such a state ; equivalent to 
' no longer to be.' 

Karag — spittl e. 

Karag-kabilliko — to do spittle ; 
to spit spittle ; to spit. 

Karai-karai — round about ; all 

Karaigon — suhst., the outside ; 
adv., outside. 

Karaka — the mouth ; an entrance 
gate or door ; i.q. kurraka. 

Karakai — quick ; iinp.,he quick; 
make haste ; i.q. kurrakai. 

Karakai — one who pretends to 
cure by charms ; a medicine- 
man ; a sorcerer ; a doctor. 

Karal — trembling ; shaking ; the 



Karauwa — oil. 

Kara-uwilliko — to seek care- 
fully with a wish to find. 

Kara-uwilli-koa — that ... might 
find ; in order to find. 

Karawoll6un — aorist, found ; 
shall have found. 

Karawolliko — to find. 

Karawollinun — fut, will find. 

Kai-eawug — the south wind. 

Kari — the first ; i.q. kurri. 

Kari-kiiri — a reduplication de- 
noting intensity o?- plurality ; 
the very first. 

Karig — all through; throughout 
the whole. 

Karig-kareug — fine raiment. 

Karig-kareug-ko — fine dress, as 
the agent. 

Karin — pain. 

Karin-kan — one who is in pain. 

Karol — heat of any kind ; hot. 

Katai — always ; to be always ; 
for ever ; ever. 

Kataikal — of every sort. 

Ka tako — to be with. 

Katalla — had been ; had lived ; 
had existed. 

KatAn — (present tense of kakilli- 
ko, ' to be in any state ') am ; 
art ; is ; are ; it is used with 
singular, dual, and plural pro- 

Katea — to be again. 

Kat6a ka — to be until. 

Kat6a-kan — one who is again ; 
being again. 

Kat^a-kinun — will be again. 

Kat6a-kanun wokka ka — will be- 
come again up ; will be again. 

Kat^a-kiin — subj., may be again. 

Katilli-kan — one who is the thing 
spoken of and acts as such ; 
one who is... 

Katilliko — to be (substantively) 
the thing spoken of ; to be in 
any state or condition. 

Katillin — (substantively) 
ing as ; if preceded by piri- 
wal, 'chief,lord,king,' it means 
— does exercise lordship. 

Katilliniin — will be (substan- 
tively), as above. 

Kau — sounds as Ji!n(/, 'cow.' 

Kau-ka-uwil — opt., would wish 
to be. 

Kau-ka-uwil koa — sub., in order 
to be... ; that might be... 

Kau-ma — gathered together ; as- 

Kau-ma korien — did not assem- 
ble together. 

Kau-ma pa — priv., would ha^e 
gathered together, but 

Kau-maniin — will cause to come 
together- will gather together. 

Kau-ma-uwil — opt., wished to 
gather together ; would ga- 
ther together. 

Kau-ma-ye — one who habitually 
causes to assemble or collect 
together ; a collector. 

Kau-mullan — did assemble to- 
ther ; did take council. 

Kau-mulli-g61 — the place where 
the gatheringtogetheris made; 
the place of assembly; the 
council chamber ; the parlia- 
ment house. 

Kau-mullig61 lako — dat., to the 
place of assembly ; to the 

Kau-mulliko — to cause to gather 
together; to collect; to gather 
together, as quails their young 
or a hen her chickens. 

Kau-tilliko — to assemble or col- 
lect together, of themselves. 

Kau-tillinun — will of themselves 
assemble together. 

Kauwa — imp., be ; be in such a 
state. Also, Ka-wa. 

Kauwa ba — be it so ; let it be in 
this manner. 



Kauwal — great ; large ; big. 

Kauwal kakilliko — to be great. 

Kauwal kakulla — was great. 

Kauwal-kan — one who is great ; 
being great. 

Kauwal-kauwal — a great many ; 
intensely great ; very great. 

Kaiiwiil-kauwal-la — the many, 
as the subjects. 

Kauwal-kauwal-lo — very many, 
as the agents. 

Kauwal koa — with (in company 
with) the great... 

Kauwal-la — great, as the sub- 
ject ; much ; abundance. 

Kauwal-lag — is great, large, or 
abundant ; a great deal. 

Kauwallan — does greatly... 

Kauwal-lo — great, as an agent. 

Kauwal loa — through the many 
or great. 

Kauwal loa kokeroa — through 
the many houses ; through the 
village, town, or city. 

Kauwal-lo konaro — a great mul- 
titude (as agents) did, does, or 
will... (according to the tense 
of the verb.) 

Kauwa yanti — be it so ; be it in 
this manner ; be it thus. 

Ka-uwil koa yanti — in order to 
be thus ; that . . . might be in 
this manner. 

Kau-wiyelliko — to command by 
word of mouth to assemble 
together ; to call a council ; to 
summon a congregation. 

Ke — sounds as ca in &ig. ' care.' 

-ke? — an interrogative particle. 

Kea-kea— courageous, victorious. 
Also, Kia-kia. 

Kea-kea-m^ — did cause to con- 
quer ; has conquered. 

Kearan — pres. tense neg., no, not. 

Keawai — simple negation, nay ; 
no ; not. 

Keawai wun-ba — did not leave. 

Keawai wal — determinate nega- 
tion, stall not; certainly shall 

Keawaran — pres. tense of nega., 
no, it is not ; no; not. 

Keawaran bag — denial, not T ; 
I am not. 

Keawaran-keawai — no ; nor. 

Kenukun — the large white rock 
lily ; a lily. 

Kerun — complete; i.q. kirun. 

Ki — sounds as Eng. ' key.' 

Kia-kia — upright ; this denotes 
conquest, victory; because one 
left standing upright after a 
combat or battle is the victor. 

'K.idi^Erig., a kid. 

-kil — a particle used in the infi- 
nitive form of the verb 'to be.' 

-killi — particle used as the aux- 
iliary sign of the verb 'to be.' 

-killiko — 'to be,' as an auxiliary, 
to indicate tlie initiation of 
the action implied by the verb 
to which it is joined; e.g., 
biinkilliko — to proceed to 
smite ; from the root biin, ' a 

Kilbuggulliko — to cause to snap 
by personal agency ; to snap, 
as a piece of rope ; to break, 
as a cable. 

Kilburrilliko — to cause to snap 
by an instrument. 

Kilkulliko — to snap of itself ; to 

Killibinbin — clear ; unspotted ; 
bright; shining; pure ; glori- 

Killibinbin kaba — in a state of 
shining glory ; in a pure, un- 
spotted, glorious condition. 

Killibinbin kakilliko — to be in 
a bright, glorious state. 

Killibinbin kamunbilla — imper.', 
let there be brightness, splend- 
our, glory ; glory be. 



Killibinbin koa — -with (in com- 
pany with) glory ; acc'ompanied 

■with splendour or glory. 
Kiloa — like ; likeness ; resemble ; 

KilpaiyA — did snap as a cord ; 

broke as a rope breaks. 
Kilpaiyelliko — to snap, as a cord 

snaps when it breaks. 
Kin — jrrep., to ; to a person. 
Kin-ba — with; at; is at; locally. 
Kinta — fear. 
Kinta kakilliela — was afraid ; 

feared and did fear ; feared. 
Kinta kakilliko — to be in a 

state of fear ; to fear ; to be 

Kinta kakulla — was in a state 

of fear ; was afraid. 
Kinta-kau — being afraid ; one 

who is afraid ; a coward. 
Kinta^kan-to — one who fears, 

as an agent. 
Kinta kora — imp., fear not. 
Kinta korien — not to fear ; no 

Kinta-lag — does now fear ; is 

now afraid. 
Kinta nakilliko — fearful to see. 
Kinta nakilli-ta — {sing.) it is 

fearful seeing ; a frightful 

Kinta nakilli-tara — (plu.) fear- 
ful sights. 
Kintelleun — did laugh. 
Kintelliko — to laugh. 
Kintellinun ■ — fut., will laugh. 
Kintelliniin wal — will certainly 

laugh ; shall laugh. 
Kipai — fat ; ointment ; unction. 
Kirai — a ditch ; canal. 
Kirin — queen; cf., piriwal. 
Kiroabatoara — that which is 

poured out or spilled. 
•KiroabuUiela — did pour out. 
KiroabuUielliko — to continue to 

pour out; to continue .spilling. 

Kiroabulliko — to pour out all ; 
to spill. Also, KiropuUiko. 

Kiroabullin — now spilling. 

Kiroabullinun — will pour out. 

Kiroa-pa — shed; is shed or spilt. 

Kirrii — gently, carefully. 

Kirrai — see krai. 

Kirrai-kirrai — round about. 

Kirrai-kirrai ta ba — surrounded. 

Kirrai-kirrai-umulliko — to cause 
to go round about or revolve, 
as a windmill ; to sift grain, 
as with a sieve ; to bring the 
chaiF to the toi>. 

Kirra-uwolliko — to seek wishing 
to find ; i.q. kara-uwilliko. 

Kirrar-uwoUi koa — in order to 
seek diligently ; that... might 
seek diligently. 

KirrawoUiko — to move care- 
fully ; to seek diligentlj-. 

Kirrikin — clothing ; a garment 
of any kind; cloak; veil; cur- 
tain ; covering. 

Kirrikin-ta — it is the garment. 

Kirrikin taba — with the raiment 

Kirrikin-to — clothing (raiment, 
robe), as an agent. 

Kirrikin-wuntoara — the raiment 
or clothes which were left. 

Kirrln — light; as, daylight. 

Kirriii — pain ; fever ; agony. 

Kirrin kakilliko — to bein a state 
of pain (fever, agony). 

Kirrin-kan — one being in pain 
or suffering agony. 

Kirrin-kan noa — he being in an 

Kirrin katan — is in pain ; is in 
a state of anguish or agony. 

Kirul — green, as a j'oung tree. 

Kirun — all ; the whole. 

Kirunta— a creek ; a ditch. 

Kittug — hair (of the head only). 

Kiyubanun — will do with fire. 

Kiyubatoara — that which isdone 
with tire (roasted, broiled). 



KiyubuUiko — to do with fire ; to 
roast or broil. 

Kiyu-pa-ba — done or destroyed 
by tire ; roasted ; burned. 

Kleopa — ^^jr.w., Cleopas. 

Ko — jjarticle, for the purpose of. 

Koa — in order to ; that . . . might. 

Koai-koai-kakilliko — to be strut- 
ting like a turkey-cock ; to be 
lifted up or proud. 

Koai-koai-kan — being proud j 
one who is proud. 

Koai-koai korien — not proud. 

Koai-koai-umulliko — to make 

Koakillai-ta — contention ; any 
strife of words. 

Koalrillan — strives with words ; 
does quarrel or rebuke. 

Koakilleun — did rebidce, itc. 

Koakilliela — did rebuke. 

Koakilliko — to scold ; to quarrel ; 
to contend ; to rebuke. 

KoakuUa — rebuked. 

Koatan — swears at. [at. 

Koatelliko — to curse ; to swear 

Koawa — ivip., chide; i-ebuke. 

Koba — of or belonging to any 
thine/ ; -umba — of or belong- 
ing to any person. 

Kobana — Eng., governor. 

Kobina kinko — dat. 2, to the 

Ivoba-toara — that which is in 
possession ; that which is ob- 

Koiro — an herb. 

Koito — therefore; for; because ; 

Koito-ba — therefore as ; because 
it is so. 

Koito noa ba— for as he... ; for 
when he. . . ; because he. . . . 

Koiwon — rain. 

Koiwon tandn ba — as the rain 

Koiyd — murmured ; repined. 

Koiyelliko — to murmur ; to re- 
pine ; to rebuke. 

Koiyelli koa — in order to re- 
buke ; that. . .might rebuke. 

Koiyug — fire. 

Koiyug ka — in the fire ; is in 
the fire. 

Koiyug kako — in (into) the fire. 

Koiyug-ko — fire, as an agent. 

Koiyiin — shyness ; shame. 

Koiyun-bara-toaro — down ash- 
amed ; to be abased. 

Koiyiin-batoara — that which is 
become ashamed. 

Koiyun kakilliko — to be in a 
state of shame ; to be ashamed. 

Koiyunkanun — willbe ashamed. 

Kokera — habitation ; hut ; shel- 
ter ; tent ; tabernacle; house; 
palace ; temple. 

KokerA — dat., at or in the house, 
temple, ko,. 

Koker4 birug — away from out 
of) the house. 

Kokera ka — dat. 1, to the house. 

Kokeril kolag — dat. 2, towards 
the house. 

Kokera karig — all the houses ; 
the whole of the houses ; the 
^'illage, town, city. 

Kokerd kolag koker4 kolag — to- 
wards the houses ; from house 
to house. 

Kokeratin — the master (owner, 
landlord) of the house. 

Kokeratin-to — the master of the 
house, as an agent. 

Kokeroa — through the house. 

Kokerrin — from (on account of) 
the house. 

Kokoi-kokoi — surrounded; in- 

Kokoin — fresh water ; cf. bato. 

Kokoin-kan — one having water; 
possessing water ; dropsical. . 

Kokoin-kan-to — a dropsical per- 
son, as an agent. 



Kokoin-kan warakag — one filled 

with water ; one having the 

Kokoin kolag — to (towards) the 

water ; going to water. 
Kokug — an indigenous fig; a fig. 
Kolag^-towards ; now about to. 
Kolbi — sound ; noise ; roar. 
K61bi-Iag-biilliko — to make a 

sound or noise ; to roar. 
Kolbi-lag-buUin — now making a 

noise or sounding; roaring as 

the wind or sea. 
Kolbiinti korien — not to chop. 
Kolbuntia — chopped ; reaped. 
Kolbvintilla — imp., cut down. 
Kolbuntilliko — to chop, as with 

an axe ; to hew ; to mow ; to 

reap with a hook or any other 

thing that cuts or chops ; to 

cut with a sword. 
Kdlbiintillin — pres. part, chopi- 

ping ; hewing ; reaping. 
Kolbuntillinun — will chop, &c. 
K61buntinun — will chop, &c. 
Kolbuntinun-wal — shall cut ; 

will certainly chop. 
Koli — water; cf. kori cmc? bato. 
Komarra — shade ; a shadow. 
Kom6nba — a drop or clot. 
K6g — sounds as the .ft'jip'. 'gong,' 

but with the o long. 
K6gka — a reed. 
K6gg6g, k6g(ig — the noise made 

by any person sound asleep ; 

hence, to be overpowered with 

K6g6g-kan — being sleepy ; one 

who sleeps. 
K6g6g-kan-to — one who sleeps, 

being the agent. 
Kon — sounds s.sthe Eng. 'cone,' 

but rather longer, laying the 

accent on the o. 
Konara — tribe ; host; company ; 

assemblage ; family ; army ; 

herd ; nation. 

Konarrin — from the tribe, as a 
cause ; because of the tribe, 
company, assemblage, &c. 

Konein — -good to look at; pretty; 
handsome ; noble in appear- 

Kon6in kakilliko — to be in a 
beautiful state ; to be pretty; 
to be handsome ; to be gar- 

Konein kako — to being pretty. 

Konein-kan — one who is pretty ; 
being handsome. 

Konein-ta — it is jjretty, &c. 

Konein-tara — the pretty things. 

Konein-tar6 — the pretty (per- 
sons or things), as agents. 

Konein-to — pretty, as an agent. 

Koin — an unknown being of 
great power, of whom the ab- 
origines are very much afraid. 

K6n-ta — that person, as an agent. 

K6n-to-ka — that person as an 
agent is... 

Konug — dung ; excrement. 

Konug-gel — the place of dung ; 
a dunghill. 

Konug-g61ko — for the dunghill. 

Kora — a mmidatory proliihition; 
e.g., kinta kora, ' fear not.' 

Koradhin — pr.n., Chorazin. 

Korakal — see korokal. 

Kora koa — interrogative of nega- 
tion, why not? 

Korarig — a lonely place. 

Kor6a — ceased action ; rested. 

Koribibi — strong, rushing, vio- 
lent ; as a stream of water or 
the tide of the sea. 

Korien — denial, not. 

Korilliko — to cease action ; to 
rest ; to be still. 

Korim4 — did cleanse ; baptisied. 

Korimanun — will use water to 
cleanse ; will baptise. 

Korimulliela — being cleansed 
or baptised. 



Korimulli-kan — one who cleanses 
with water ; a baptist. 

Korimullikanne — baptism. 

Koriniullikan-ta — the baptism. 

Korimulliko — to use water in 
any way ; cleanse with water ; 
cf. kori, koli, ' water '; mulliko 
means ' to do with ' ; hence 
korimulliko is used to mean 
' to baptize,' in any form. 

KorimuUi koa — that . . . might 
cleanse with water ; that . . . 
might baptise. 

Koro-ka— concealed; washidden. 

Korokal — old, worn out ; said of 
clothes or property, not of 

Koro-kakilliko — to be in a state 
of concealment ; to hide one's 
self ; to be concealed. 

Korokal la — dat., to the old. 

Korokul katea-kanun — will be 
again old. 

Korowa — the sea ; the waves of 
the sea. 

Korowa tarig — the sea coast ; 
the seaside ; the coast. 

Korug — the inland part of the 
country ; the interior ; the 
bush ; the wilderness. 

Korug-ka— in the wilderness; 
in the bush ; in the interior. 

Korug kabirug — from (out of, 
away from) the bush ; from 
the country ; from the in- 

Korug tin — from (on account of) 
the wilderness, as a cause. 

Korun — still; silent; calm. 

K6t — Eng., coat. 

K6t-kan — one having a coat. 

Koti — thought ; did think. 

Kota ba — when (if)... did think. 

Kota-ban kora — mand. (partici- 
pial form), cease thinking. 

Kota-bumbilliko — to permit to 
cause to think ; to let think. 

Kota-bunbea — allowed to cause 
thought ; did astonish ; made 

Kota korien — thought not. 

Kotan — thinks ; does think. 

Kotinun — -fiit., will think. 

Kotatoara — thought ; the thing 
which is thought. 

Kotayikora — mand. (the verbal 
form) do not think ; think not; 
take no thought. 

Kotara — an aboriginal instru- 
ment of war called by the 
Europeans 'a waddy '; a cud- 
gel, made of iron wood, stout 
in the middle but tapering tu 
a point. 

Kotara-kan — one having a cud- 

Kotai'6 — the cudgel, as an 
agent; with or by the cudgel. 

Kotella — viandatory (the verbal 
form), do think ; remember ; 

Kotellan — does think. 

Kotelleun — aor., did, does, will 
think ; thought ; thinks. 

Kotellia — mand. (the participial, 
form), think; be thinking; re- 
member ; reflect ; meditate. 

Kotelliela — thought ; did think ;, 
was thinking. 

Kotellielliko — to think and con- 
tinue to think ; to be thinking.. 

Kotellikanne — the thing which 
is thought ; imagination ; idea. 

Kotelliko— to think ; to be in 

Kotellin — part, ^yres., the action 
of thought; thinking. 

Kotelli-ta — the thought. 

Koti — a kinsman or a neighbour; 
a friend ; a guest. 

Koti — personally belonging to 
self ; own-self ; e.g'., giroiimba 
koti, ' thine own-self.' 



Koti bula nmullan — the two be- 
came friends again ; lit., the 
two were caused to be alcin. 

Kuti kabirug — from (out of) the 
the self-same. 

K6ti kakilliko — to be near of 
kin ; a kinsman, friend, neigh- 

K6ti-ta — {sing.) the kinsman or 
neighbour; friend; guest. 

K6ti-tara — (plu.) the kinsfolk; 
kinsmen; neighbours; friends. 

Krai — the west; westward; in- 
land ; i.q. kirrai. [west. 

Krai tin — from (because of) the 

Kritht — pr.n., Christ. 

Kritht-ta — it is the Christ ; the 
Christ, emphatic. 

-kiil — particle masc, belonging 
to any locality ; i.q. -kal. 

-kijlm — ^;;art. fern., belonging to 
any locality ; i.q. -kalin. 

Kulai — wood ; timber ; a tree of 
any kind. 

Kulla — because, for. 

-kuUa — postfix particle, the sign 
of an aorist tense ; e.g., ka, 'to 
be'; ka-kulla, ' was.' 

KuUabulliko — to cut round ; to 

Kullaburra — shining ; glorious ; 
bright ; resplendent ; glory. 

Kulla Aval — because certainly ; 

KuUa-wal-lea — because certainly 
...has or did. 

Kulleug, kulliug — the neck. 

Kulligtiela — cut ; did cut. 

Kulligtielliko — to cut, as with a 
knife or some such cutting 

Kullimulliko — to make use of 
the toe ; hence, to climb ; be- 
cause the blacks cut notches 
in the bark, and, to ascend 
the trunk of a tree, place the 
toe therein. 

Kulliwa — climbed ; did climb. 

KuUo — cheek. 

Kulwon — stifF, as a corpse. 

Kum— soundsasiiKji. 'come'; cf.* 

Kumara — blood. 

Kumara-kan — a bloody person. 

Kumba — to-morrow. 

Kumba-ken-ta — the period of 
time after to-morrow ; the day 
after to-morrow ; the third day. 

Kumbarapaiyelliko — to be trou- 
blesome, clamoroiis, noisy. 

Kumbarawan — does trouble, as 
by some movement or bustle. 

Kumbarawilliko — to trouble or 
tease ; to worry. 

Kumiri — a shady place ; a hole 
in a rock ; a cave. 

Kummari — northward ; north. 

Kummari tin — from the north. 

KiimmuUiko — to cause trouble, 
anxiety ; to be anxious. 

Kummullan — troubled; anxious. 

Klin — for its sound cf.*. 

Kunbiintea — did smite with a 
knife or a sword; cut ; smote. 

Kunbiintilliko — to cut with a 
knife ; to smite with a sword 
or any similar edged instru- 
ment, [be. 

Kun koa — lest. . .should or might 

Kunta — nest ; the nest of a bird. 

Kunto — food ; vegetable food, as 
bread, but not animal food. 

Kunto-kan — one having food ; 
one possessed of food. 

Kuri — man ; mankind ; men. 

Kuri koba — belonging to men ; 
of mankind '; of man (sing, or 

Kuri koba ko — daf., to man's. 

Kurinio — Gr. pr.n., C'yrenius. 

Kuri tin — from man, as a cause ; 
on account of man. 

Kiiri willag-gel — the men of this 
place ; those of this genera- 



Kurr — sounds as Eng. ' cur.' 
Kurrag — froth ; foam. 
Kurrag-to — froth, as an agent. 
Kurragtoanbu gguUiko — to cause 

by personal agency to foam. 
Kurragtoanbuggii — was caused 

to foam ; foamed. 
Kurrai-kurrai — to turn round ; 

to go round about ; to roll. 
Kurraka — the mouth; entrance; 

doorway ; gateway. 
Kurraka birug — from (out of) 

the mouth, &c. 
Kurrarakai — be quick; haste ye; 

i.q. karakai. 
Kurrauwai — long ; length. 
Kurrawitai-kan — being clothed 

with long raiment ; robed. 
Kurr6a — carried ; did carry. 
Kurri — first ; ef. kara. 
Kurri birug ko — from (out of) 

the first ; from the first. 
Kurrig — any. 
Kurrig tin — from (on account 

of) any. 
Kurrikog — the first-born male ; 

cf. karakdg, the elder brother. 
Kurri korien — not to carry ; 

carries not ; bears not. 
Kurri-kurri — intensive ^ the very 

first ; the beginning. 
Kurri-kurri ka — is the first. 
Kurri-kurri kabirug — ^from the 

first ; from the beginning. 
Kurri-kurri-to — the first, as an 

Kirrilliela — bore ; was carrying. 
Kurrilli-gel — the place of carry- 
ing; the carrying places, as the 

Kurrilliko — to carry ; to bear. 
Kurrin — choked ; suffocated ; 

stifled ; drowned. 
Kurrin — carries, bears, brings 

forth ; cf. karin. 
Kurrinanbai — daughter-in-law. 

Kurri-uwil koa — in order that. . . 
might carry. 

Kurriwulliko — to carry away ; 
to bear away. 

Kurri yikora — viand., carry not. 

Kurrol — perspiration ; sweat. 

Kutha — jir.n., 

Kuttawai — satiety ; intoxica- 
tion ; drunkenness ; gluttony ; 

Kuttawai-ban~one who satiates ; 
a glutton ; a drunkard. 

Kuttawai-kan — one who i.s in a 
state of satiety. 

Kuttawaiko — to be satiated with 
food or drink ; drunkenness ; 

Kuttawai kolag — to be about to 
satiate with food or drink. 

Kuttawaiye — one whose manner 
is habitually that of being 
satiated ; one habitually a 
drunkard or a glutton. 

Kuttawan — satiated. 

L — pronounced as Eng, ' ell.' 
La — is sounded as in^mp'. 'large.' 
Ladharo — iir.n., Lazarus. 
Latin — pr.n., Latin. 
Latinumba — belonging to the 

Latin people or language. 
Le — rhymes with I'Aig. ' lay.' 
Lebben — Eng., leaven. 
Lebben kiloa — like leaven. 
Lebben korien koba — not having 

leaven ; unleavened. 
Lebi — ]or.n., Levi. 
Lebi-kal — a Levite. 
Lebi-ko — Levi, as the agent. 
L^jui^ — Eng., legion. 
Lepro — Eng., leprosy. 
Lepro-kan — one being in a state 

of leprosy ; leprous ; a leper. 
Lepro-ta- — leprosy, as a subject; 

the leprosy. 



Lepton — Gr., a small coin ; a 

Lepton-ta' — a mite ; it is a mite. 
Lo — sounds as Eng. 'lo'! 
Lot — pr.n., Lot. 
Lotumba — belonging to Lot. 
Luka — Gr. pr.n., Luke. 
Luka-iimba — belonging to Luke. 
Luthania — pr.n., Lysanias. 


Ma — iinp., do (a challenge). 

-ma — an auxil. particle denoting 
the perf. past aorist, did; done 

-ma korien — did not ; not done, 

Mabogun — a widow. 

Mabogun koba — belonging to a 
widow ; a widow's. 

Magdala-kalin — [fern.), awoman 
of Magdala ; Magdalene. 

Mai — sounds as Sng. 'my.' 

Maiya — a snake ; a serpent (the 

Makoro-ban — one who fishes ; a 

Makoro — fish (the genus). 

Makor6 — fish, as an agent. 

Makor6 birug — away from fish ; 
a piece of a fish. 

Makorrin — from fish, as a cause; 
on account of fish. 

Malma — lightning. 

Mamuya — a ghost, the spirit of a 
departed person ; not the spirit 
of a living person, which is ma- 
rai ; cf. Marai (not mamuya) 
Yirri-yirri ' the Holy Ghost.' 

Man — sounds as Eng., 'man.' 

-man — as a particle, denotes the 
present tense of the verb cau- 

Mankilli-g61 — the place of tak- 
ing or receiving, as the counter 
of a shop ; the bank ; the 

Mankilli-kan — one who takes in 
hand ; a doer ; a servant. 

Mankilliko — to take in hand ; to 
do ; to receive. 

Mankilli kolag — about to take 
in hand. 

Mankillin — now taking ; hold- 
ing ; doing ; receiving. 

Manki-ye — one who is a habittial 
taker ; a thief. 

Mankiye-ko — to (against) a thief. 

Mankiye nukug-ka — a taker of 
women ; a woman stealer ; an 

Manki yikora — j,foMb. imp., do 
not steal ; do not take. 

Man korien — iteg., did not take. 

Mankulla — have taken in hand ; 
did take ; took. 

Man pa — pjrivative of effect, un- 
able to take ; could not ac- 
complish the taking hold of. 

Mantala — did take, at some 
former period. 

Mantan — does take hold of. 

Mantillea — imp., take it. 

Mantilliko — to take ; to receive. 

Mantillin — now receiving. 

Mantillinim wal — will certainly 
take; it shall be taken. 

Mantoara — that which is taken, 
received or held ; the deposit ; 
the theft. 

Manumbilla — imp., permit to" 
take ; let take. 

Manumbilliko — to allowto take ; 
to let take. 

Manim — ftit., will take. 

Maniin wal — will certainly take ; 
shall take. 

Mara — imp., take; do take ; take 
hold ; receive. 

Marai — spirit ; soul of aliving be- 
ing not a ghost ; which is ma- 

Marai-kan — one who is a spirit ; 
having a spirit. 



Marai-kan-to — one possessing a 

spirit, acting as an agent. 
Marai koba — belonging to the 

spirit or soul ; of the spirit. 
Marai-marai — actively engaged 

doing something; busy; busily 

Marai nurunba — spirits belong- 
ing to you ; your spirits; your 

Marai-to — the spirit, as an agent. 
Marai yirri-yirri — the spirit sa- 
cred ; the Holy Spirit. 
Marallia — i;?ijo.j continue to take; 

Maratha — pr.n., Martha. 
Mara-uwil — opt., that may 

Mara-uwil koa — subj., in order 

that... might take or receive. 
Mari — pr.n., Mary. 
Maro — an indigenous thorn ; a 

thorny bush ; a bramble. 
Mata-ye — one habitually given 

to greediness ; a glutton. Also, 

Mataye-koa-katea-kiin — lest any 

greediness (gluttony, surfeit- 
ing) should be. 
Mattara — the hand. 
Mattarrin — from (on account) of 

the hand ; by the hand, as an 

Mattar5 — the hand, as the agent; 

with the hand. 
Mattaroa — with (accompanied 

with or thi-ough) the hand, as 

an instrument. 
Matti — dual, acts together; did 

-mau — rhymes with Eng. ' cow.' 
-ma-u — the causative particle in 

the optative and subjunctive 

form of the verb. 
Meapa — recently cultivated or 


Meapala — aor. def., jjlanted, at 
some certain time past. 

Meapulla — planted ; did plant. 

MeapuUia — imjj., plant ; do 

Meapulliko — to plant, set, cul- 

Me — sounds as inEng. ' may.' 

Mentha — Lat., mint. 

Mi — is sounded as E^ig. ' me.' 

Mikan — presence ; fronting ; in 
the face of ; before. 

Mikan-ta — the presence. 

Mikan take — in the jjresence of ; 

Mimii — did cause to .stay. 

MimuUiko — to detain ; to urge 
to stay. 

Min — sounds as Eng. 'mien.' 

Minn — sounds as in Eng. 'mint.' 

Mina — Gr., a pound. 

Minarig ? — what 1 

Minarig-bo 1 — what very thing 1 

Minarigbo — any selfsame thing ; 

Minarig-ke? — what isl what ai'e'i 

Minarig tin 1 — what from, as a 
cause ? wherefore 1 from what 
cause 1 why 1 

Minbilliko — to crush ; to grind. 

Minbinim — will grind. 

Minbiniin wal — will certainly 
crush or grind ; shall grind. 

Minka — imp., wait. 

Minkea — remained; waited. 

Minki — any mental or moral 
feeling ; the feeling of sym- 
pathy ; sorrow ; compassion ; 
penitence ; patience ; repent- 
ance; pondering. 

Minki kabirug — ^from (out of) 
such a feeling. 

Minki kakilliela — was sympath- 

Minki kakilliliela — was and con- 
tinued to sympathise or feel 
penitent, &c. 



3Iinki kakilliko — to be in a state 
of inward feeling ; to sym- 
pathise; to sorrow ; to mourn; 
to be penitent. 

llinki kaknlla — sympathised ; 
have sympathised. 

]Minki-kan — one who sympatli- 
ises or feels sorry and repents. 

ISIinki-kanne — sympathy ; any 
inward feeling ; repentance. 

Minki-kanne-ta- — sjTupathy it is; 
the sympathy. 

Minki kiuiLin — will sympathise 
(sorrow, reper.t). 

jlinki kitan — sympathises ; re- 

Minki korien — without feeling. 

Minki-lag — sympathises ; feels 
sorrow ; repents. 

Minkilliko — to wait (stay, dwell) 

j\Iinkin — waits ; dwells ; delays. 

j\Iinn;in ! — what are actually pre- 
sent 1 how many 1 how much ? 

Minnug 1 — what things, as the 
object 1 

Minnng-ban 1 — what thing now 
about (I, we, you, &c.) 

Minnug-banun 1 — what will. . . 
do 1 what will be done 1 

Minnug-baniin-kan? — what now 
will some one do ? 

3Iinnug-banun wal 1 — what will 
. . .certainly do 1 what shall be 
done ? 

Minnugbo or minnambo — some- 
thing ; anything ; somewhat. 

Minnugbo - minnugbo — many 
things ; everything ; all things. 

Minnug-bulliela 1 — what was go- 
ing on 1 what was doing ? 

Minnug-bulliko — (an interroga- 
tive form of the verb) what 
is doing ? what is going on % 

Minnug-bulli l^olag — about to do 

Minnug-bullinun? — what will be 
going on or doing. 

Mipparai — honeycomb. 

Mipparai kabirug — ^from (outof) 

Mirka — perhaps ; i.q. murka. 

Mirka-ta — perhaps it is. 

Mirkin — virginity ; purity. 

Mirkun — pure ; clean. 

Mirobunbillia — i?7!pe}-. and per- 
missive, permit to continue to 
take care of or save. 

Mii-oma — took care of ; did 
keep ; did save. 

Miroma-bunbilla — imp. , permit 
to take care of or save. 

Miromaniin — will take care of; 
will save ; will occupy. 

Miroma pa — privative, did (not) 
take care of ; without care of. 

Miromulla — imp>., take charge 
of, if necessary. 

MiromuUia — imp., continue to 
take care of ; save and con- 
tinue to save. 

Miromulli-kan — one who takes 
charge of (watches over, saves 
from harm) ; a saviour. 

Miromulliko — to take charge of; 
to take care of; to watch over; 
to keep ; to save from hai'm. 

Mirral — desolate ; unproductive ; 
barren ; j^oor. 

Mirralla, muruUa — a maid; hav- 
ing no husband; barren; poor. 

Mirral kaiko — for the miserable. 

Mirral-lo— the poor and destitute, 
as agents. 

Mirriil-mirral-kan — one who is in 
a miserable state ; poor ; des- 

Mirrigil — ready ; prepared to 

remove or to go a journey. 
Mirro-mirroma — rubbedandcon- 

continued to rub. 
Mirromulliko — to rub. 
Mirug — the shoulder. 
Mirug ka — on the shoulder. 
Mita — a sore. 



Mita-mitag — sores ; full of sores. 
Mittea — waited ; did wait. 
Mitti — small; little; a little one; 

the youngest child. 
Mitti — the youngest son. 
Mitti-ko — the youngest son, as 

the agent. 
Mittilliela — waited and con- 
tinued to wait ; was waiting ; 

waited ; stayed ; remained. 
Mittilliko — to wait or remain. 
Mittillin — now waiting. 
Mijk — hindered ; prevented. 
Miyelliko — to hinder. 
Moiya — cool. 
Moiya koa — in order to cool ; 

that... might cool. [fare. 

Mokal — arms ; weapons of war- 
Money — Eng., money. 
Moni-g61— ; a jDurse ; 

a bank. 
Moni-ko — money, as the agent. 
Morig — a particle ; a very small 

bit ; a mote ; dust. 
Moroko — the sky ; the visible 

heavens ; heaven. 
Moroko kaba — is in heaven. 
Moroko kabirug — from (away 

from) the sky ; from heaven. 
Moroko kako — in or to heaven. 
Moroko koba — belonging to the 

. sky or heaven. 
Moroko lin — from (on account) 

of heaven, as a cause ; from 

heaven ; of heaven. 
Moron — life. 

Moron-ba — lives ; is alive. 
Moron-ba-katea-kaniin — will be 

alive again ; will live again. 
Moron kakilliko — to be in a liv- 
ing state ; to be alive ; to live. 
Moron-kan ta — they (he) who 

are alive ; the living. 
Moron kanun — will be alive ; 

will live. 
Moi'on katan — • is in the state 

of living ; is alive ; lives. 

Moron ko — for life. 

Moron koa katua-kiin — lest ... 
should be alive again ; lest 
...should be saved alive. 

Moron-ta kat6a-k;inun — life will 
be again ; the life is to be 
again. [life. 

Moron tin — from (on account of) 

Moron tin kiitaii — from (on ac- 
count of) being alive. 

Mot — sounds as Eng. ' mote.' 

Moth6 — ijr.n., Moses. 

Moth6-ko — ]Moses, as the agent. 

Motli(5-to — Moses, as the agent. 

Moth6-to noa — Moses he, as thet 

Mothe-umba — belonging to M 

Motilliela — did smite on the 

Motilliko — to smite the breast. 

Mu — sounds as in E^ig. 'moon.' 

M u g — rhymes with Eng. ' bung. ' 

Muggarnii'i — did wrap up. 

MuggOr-ma-toara — that which is 
wrapped up or swaddled. 

Muggamulliko--to cause to be 
covered ; to vrrap up in soft 
' ti '-tree bark as clothing ; to 
swaddle ; to swathe. 

Mukkaka — the noise which a 
bird utters; to cackle; to crow. 

Mukkakaka tibbinto — the crow 
of a cock. 

Mukkin — the form of address to 
a young female ; maid ! 

Mularea-kan — one wounded by 
an instrument ; one caused to 
become wounded by an in- 

Mulug — close by ; nigh at hand. 

Mulug kakilliela— was and con- 
tinued to be close by. 

Mulug kakilliko — to be near. 

Mum — for its sound cf. *. 

Mumbilla — imp., lend ; do lend. 

Mumbillan — does lend. 

MumbilMin — lent ; did lend. 



Mumbilliko — to lend. 
Mumbinim — -will lend. 
Munibitoara — thatwliich is lent; 

the loan ; the debt. 
Mupai — fast, shut, silent, dumb. 
Mu2:)ai kakilliko — to be fast, as 

the mouth ; to be silent or 

dumb ; to hold your peace. 
Mupai kakillinun — will be fast 

or dumb; will be silent. 
Mupai kakulla — was fast ; was 

silent ; held their peace. 
Mvipai umulliko — to cause to be 

silent or dumb. 
Mur — sounds as mur in Ung. 

' murder,' but the r is rougher. 
Mur — soundsas.E'Mg'. 'moor'; cf* 
Marka — see mirka. 
Murkun — pure ; clean ; free of 

sviperfiuity ; cf. mirkun. 
Muron — ointment. 
Murra — I'an ; did run. 
Murra — to run ; to flee away. 
Murrabunbilliko — to let run. 
Murrabunbilla — imj)., let run. 
Murrai — good ; well ; patient ; 

in a general sense ; cf. mur- 

roi and murrarag. 
Murrai-kakillikanne — the thing 

which is in a state of well- 
being; happy, if in prosperity ; 

patient, if in adversity. 
Murrai-kakilliko — to be good ; 

to be well pleased; to be happy. 
Murrakin — a young female ; 

maiden ; virgin ; cf. mukkin. 
Murrakin-to — a young female, as 

the agent. 
Murrapatoara — that which is run 

out ; anything numbered. 
Murrapullikanne — the taxation; 

the thing that counts or num- 
Murrapulliko — to run out ; to 

number ; to tax each one. 
Murrarag — good ; right ; just ; 


Murra-murrarag — intens., very 
good ; excellent. 

Murrarag kakilli-kan — one who 
is and continues to be in a good 
state ; one who is righteous ; 
a righteous one. 

Murrarag kakillikanne — any- 
thingthat is good or righteous ; 

Murrarag kakilliko — to be in a 
good state ; to be well off or 

Murrarag koiyelliela — worship- 

Murrarag koiyelliko — to be good, 
in manner ; to worship. 

Murrarag-tai — the good, indefi- 
nitely; the just; the righteous. 

Murrarag-ta — a good thing. 

Murrarog-tara — good things. 

Murrarag wiyelliela — was say- 
ing good; was praising. 

Murrarag wiyelliko — to speak 
good ; to praise. 

Murrarig — within ; into ; inside. 

Murriug — forward ; onward. 

Murriug kolag — about to go for- 

Murrin — the body ; cf. maiai 
— the soul ; the spirit. 

Murrinauwai — a floating vessel ; 
canoe ; boat ; ship ; the ark. 

Murrin kiloa — like a body. 

Murrin ko — for the body. 

Murrin tin — from (on account 
of) the body, as an instru- 
mental cause. 

Murrin-murrin — frequent ; very 
often ; often-times. 

Murrog-kai — a sort of wild dog, 
like a fox. 

Murroi — peaceful ; at his ease ; 
in peace ; i.q. murrai ; cf. 
also murrarag. 

Murrulliko — to run away ; to 

Murrug — within ; in ; locally. 



Murrug ka — is within; is inside. 

Murrug ka temple la — is inside 
or within the temple. 

Murrug-ka-m^ — pressed upon. 

Murrug-kamulliko — to cause to 
let be overcome, as water runs 
within and overcomes ; to let 
be choked or drowned. 

Murrug-ka-ma — was caused to 
let be overcome or smothered ; 
was choked. 

Murrug kolag — about to go in. 

Muta-mutAn — powder ; dust. 

Mutard — Eng., mustard. 

Mutug — a crumb; a srnall piece; 
a bit ; a mote. 

Note. — This Lexicon is iricomplete ; the author ivas working 
I, it at the time of his death. — Ed. 

PART ly. 






on the north-east coast of New South Wales. 
(By the Sev. H. Livingstone, Wi'^K-'nn-^TO; Victoria. *) 


The Minyug dialect is spoken at Byron Bay and on the Bruns- 
wick River. The natives on the Richmond River have a sister 
dialect called the Nyug ; those on the Tweed call their own 
Q-ando or Q-andowal, but the Minyug they call Q-endo. The 
words minyug and nyug mean 'what'? or 'something,' for 
they are used either interrogatively or assertively. Similarly, the 
words gando and gendo mean 'who'1 or 'somebody.' These 
three dialects are so closely related that they may be regarded as 
one language ; it is understood from the Clarence River in New 
South "Wales northward to the Logan in Queensland. For this 
language the aborigines have no general name. 

It is well known that the Australian dialects are agglutinative, 
everything in the nature of inflection being obtained by sufiEixes. 
To this, the Minyug is no exception ; so that, if I give an account 
of its suffixes, that is nearly equivalent to giving an exposition of 
its grammar. It will, therefore, be convenient to take, first, such 
suffixes as are used with the noun and its equivalents, and, after- 
wards, those that may be regarded as verbal suffixes. The words 
that take what may be called the noun-suffixes are (1) Nouns, 
(2) Adjectives, and (3) Pronouns. 

As the same general principles apply to both nouns and adjec- 
tives, these may be examined together as to (1) Classification, 

(2) Numb er, (3) Gender, (4) Suffixes. 

* Written for this volume at my request. — Ed. 

i as austkalian language. 

1. Classification. 
Nouns in Minyug may be arranged tliu.s : — 

(1.) Persons (»iase.) ; all proper and common names of males. 
(2.) IPersons {/em.); all proper and common names of females. 
(.3.) Animals ; all other living creatures. 

Non-life nouns. 
(1.) Names of things. (2.) Names of places. 

I divide them into life-nouns or nouns denoting living beinp;s, 
and non-life nouns or names of things and places, because the 
former often join the suffixes to lengthened forms of the nouns, 
while the non-life nouns have the sutfixes attached to the simple 
nominative form. Again, subordinate divisions of both of these 
classes is necessary, because the adjectives and pronouns often vary 
in form according as they are used to qualify names of human 
beings, or animals, or things. 

A few examples will make this plainer. If a man who speaks 
Minyug is asked what is the n-ati"ve word for 'big' or 'large,' he 
replies, kumai. This kumai is the plain or vocabulary form, 
which may be used on all occasions to qualify any kind of word. 
But if a native is speaking of a 'large spear,' he will usually say 
kuminna cuan. Either kumai or kuminna will suit, but the 
longer form is more common ; kuminna is used only to qualify 
such things as spears, canoes, and logs, and never to qualify persons 
and places. If a native is speaking of a ' big man,' while he 
might say kumai paigal, the usual form is kumai -bin, which 
is then a noun ; but since all nouns can also be used as adjectives, the 
longer form kumai-bin paigal is also correct. To express, in 
Minyug, 'that boy is big,' we might say either kully kumai- 
bin cub bo, or cubbo kumai. The feminine form of kumai 
is kumai-na-gun, which is only the sufEx -gxin added to the 
form in -na ; like kumai-bin, this is either a noun, when it 
means ' a big woman,' or an adjective used to qualify a feminine 
noun. The sufEx -gun is sometimes added to the plain form ; as, 
mobi, 'blind,' mobi-gun, fern. ; sometimes to the masculine 
form; as, balig-gal, 'new,' 'young,' balig-gal-gur, fern.; and 
sometimes to the form in -na ; as, kumai-na-gun. Some adjec- 
tives have only two forms, while others have three, four, and even 
five. In some cases different words are used, instead of different 
forms of the same word. The principal suffixes used for the mas- 
culine are, -bin, -gin, -jara, -rim, -ri, -li, -gari, -gal. The 
table given below, for ordinary adjectives, adjective pronouns, 
and numerals, illustrates these uses. Forms rarely used have a t 
after them. 




ri c3 

>> a 3 . A ;S o 3 

r so 



d !? 
o '3 

3 c3 

MpqMp MkM M 


S W 


i . 



•W) .^ -^ 

r3 f- . O 



1 i 



<S 3 




a w 




=2 a 


-1-^ ri 

= so 
M g 

^ 13 



^ -.rpo rt 77; ^'S 0^ o s 

=3 '3 


ri . . -S -d 



<M- -1 :s -2 -g ^o.g -s, . .^ 



3 '3 

c3 c 



g M 











A bn 

1 — I 



«■• ^- S 

.S g 




6C « 5P +a O 

•:3 s- 


2 g 

• ^ S ^ "^O - 

.. rCi 

,'^^ ffl 



' SOS ^iSr^L:". ri!'^ ce 


° 3 



§ 3 g S >p-S';3 p; -5 SP S 

|J-r ? 

3 3"^ 


^ ' ^ L.5 

3 cS 3 

MfflMfflt>,WmMgM R. 


§ M fe 



The adjective dukkai, 'dead/ takes numerous forms; thus : — 
2, dukkai, dukkai-binf; 3. touara-gun, dukkai-gunf, dukkai-bin- 
gunt, dukkai-guu-binf; 4. dukkai, dukkai-binf. 

2. Number. 

Nouns and adjectives do not change their form to denote number. 
The word paigal may mean one ' man,' or any number of ' men.' 
With regard to the pronouns, some of them are singular, some 
dual, some plural, and some of them indefinite so far as number is 
concerned. The number of a noun is generally known by the use 
in the same sentence, or in the context, of a singular, dual, or 
plural pronoun, or by the scope of the sentence or other surround- 
ing circumstances. 

3. Gendek. 

There are two ways by which the feminine is distinguished from 
the masculine — either by a different word or by adding the ter- 
mination -gun, of which the u is always short ; as : — 

Masculine. Feminine. 

Mobi, 'a blind man.' Mobi-gun, ' a blind woman.' 

Y6rubilgin, 'a male singer.' Yerubilgin-gun, 'a female singer.' 

Kicom, 'old man.' Merrug, ' old woman.' 

(iubbo, 'boy.' Yagari, 'girl.' 

Koroman, male 'kangaroo.' Imarra, female 'kangaroo.' 

These are : — (1) Personal pronouns, (2) Demonstratives, (3) 
Indefinite pronouns, (4) Numerals, and 5) Interrogatives. 

Personal lyronouns. 

Singular. Gai, 'I.' We, 'thou.' Nyuly, 'he'; nyan, 'she.' 

Plural. Q-ully, 'we.' Buly, ' you.' (iannaby, 'they.' 

The Minyug has no simple dual, although there are compound 
terms and phrases denoting the dual number; such as, gulliwe, 
gullibula, 'we two'; we gerrig, 'you two,' 'you and another.' 
The personal forms of bula are sometimes used as dual pro- 
nouns; as, bulaily, 'they two,' »iasc., and buiaili-gun, 'they 
two, fern. ; and even such phrases as w6 gerrig bulaily and we 
gerrig bulaili-gun, ' you two,' are used. 


Besides these, there is a peculiar class of words, which may be 
called demonstratives. When used as predicates, they have the 
general meaning of 'here,' 'there,' or 'yonder.' They are often 
used as demonstrative adjectives, and then mean this,' ' that 


'these,' 'those.' As such, they usually agree iii foiin with the nouns 
which they qualify, that is, they take similar suffixes. Often, 
however, the noun is omitted, and then they become true personal 
pronouns, retaining whatever suffix they would have if the noun 
were used. For example, the word kully, used as a predicate, 
means 'here'; as, paigal kully, 'a man is here'; but paigal kully 
yilyul means 'this man is sick'; and, omitting paigal, kully 
yilyul means 'he is sick'; kully thus means 'here'; 'this'; 'the'; 
'he here'; 'she here'; and 'it here.' 

Such words are real demonstratives, and must be carefully dis- 
distinguished from ordinary adverljs of place ; for, often an adverb 
of place is, as it were, promoted to the rank of a demonstrative, 
and in this way it may come to take the jjlace of a personal pro- 
noun. This may account for the fact that the third personal 
pronouns are so numerous, and have little or no etymological con- 
nection in Australian dialects. These demonstratives are kully, 
mully, killy, kunde, kanyo, miin, kam, kaka, ka, and kaba. 
As these are sometimes doubled or reduplicated and have some other 
variations in form, the following scheme may be convenient : — 

Singular. Plural. 

I.— Kully, kii-kully, 'this'; 'the'; 

'he (she, it) here '; 'this here.' 1 Munyo • 

II. — Kulla-na-gun, ' this ';' she here.' ' ■^ ' 

III. — Konno, ko-konno, 'this'; 'it here,' 
IV. — Kully, kii-kully ; kukai ; 

kuUai, ku-kullai ; 'here.' 

I. — Mully mu-mully, 'that'; 'the'; 
TT ^^'n'^'^^''*^*.w^->' , .1 . ) K^mo, ka-k^mo;, 
III. — Monno, ' it there.' ( ^^^^ 

IV.— Mully, mu-mully; 

mullai, mii-mullai ; 'there.' 

I.— Killy, ki-killy, 'yon'; 'he'; 
' he (she, it) yonder.' 
II.— Killa-na-gun, 'yon ';' she yonder.' \ j^^j^^ 

III— Kundy, 'it there'; 'it.' 

Kanyo, ka-kanyo, 'this'; 'it near.' 
IV. — Kanyo, ka-kanyo, 'here.' 

I. is the common masculine form used as an adjective or pro- 
noun. II. is the feminine form so used. III. is the neuter form 
so used. IV. is used as a predicate for masculine, feminine, and 

Demonstratives used either as singular or plural are — ka, ' it '; 
2)lu., 'they in that place there '; kaba, 'it'; ^Zit., 'they there.' 



Tlic Nyug dialect, instead of kully and niully, has mugga 

lius : — 

Singular. Plural. 

and kugga; thus 

Masculine. Feminine. 

iMugga. Muggun. Maka. 

Kugga. Kuggun. Kaka. 

K a k a is tkus a recent addition to the M i n y u g dialect. It is at 
present almost exclusively used instead of cannaby. Maka is 
sometimes used for mully, but always as a singular. Kugga is 
used in the sense of ' lie out there.' So it is evident that ka is the 
root form of all the demonstratives beginning with k, and ma 
of those beginning with m. Most of the plural demonstratives 
are formed from ka and ma; thus, k am a consists of ka + ma, 
maka of ma + ka, and kaka of ka + ka; yet there are many 
doubled forms that are singular. Ma, however, is used, but not as 
a demonstrative. Ka, ma, ly, ba, and nyo are all root-forms. 

Indefinite iironouns. 

There are four indefinite pronouns: — Kurralbo, 'all'; kaiby, 
' another'; unduru, unduru-gun, unduru-na, 'some'; and ger- 
rig, 'both'; to these maybe added the adjective kumai, which is 
sometimes used in the sense of 'much' or 'many.' 

Kurralbo has but one form, viz., kurral, but it is never used 
without the addition of the ornamental particles, -bo or -jug. The 
four forms of kaiby have been given already. Gerrig has but 
one form. 


Strictly speaking, the language has only two words, yaburu and 
bula, that can be called numerals. Yet, by doubling and repeat- 
ing these, counting can be carried on to a limited extent ; as, 
Yaburu, ' one.' Bula-bula, ' four.' 

Bula, 'two.' Bula-bulai-yaburu, 'five.' 

Bulai-yaburu, 'three.' Bula-bula-bula, 'six'; &c. 

Yaburugin, and yaburu-gin-gun are sometimes used for the 
singular personal pronouns, and bulaily and bulaili-gun for the 
dual. Other uses of these numerals may be seen in — yaburugin 
yunbully, 'go alone' (said to a male) ; yaburugingun yun- 
bully, 'go alone' (said to a female) ; yaburu-min-ba, 'at once,' 
or 'with one blow,' 'with one act'; bula-nden, 'halves'; bula-n- 
dai, bula-ndai-gun, 'twins.' 


In Mi nyug, the difference between an interrogative sentence 
and an assertive one consists, not in any different arrangement 
of the words, but simply in the tone of the voice. Therefore the 


words -whicli we call interrogatives have also assertivG meanings. 
For example, the expression gen kuggallen, taken as an assertive, 
means ' somebody calling,' but, as an interrogation, ' who is call- 
ing'? thus, gen represents 'who'? or 'somebody'; it is used like 
the life-nouns and personal pronouns. In the same way, minya, 
minyug, minj'ugbo, mean 'what'? or 'something.' There is also 
inji, winjit, which means 'where'? or 'somewhere.' Another 
word of the same kind is yilly, 'in what place'? and 'in some 
j)lace.' Such words are the connecting links between the nouns 
and the verbs. 

4 {a). Suffixes to Nouks. 
The suffixes used with nouns are the following : — 

1. -0. 

This is usually said to be the sign of the agent-nominative case, 
but it also denotes an instrumental case ; e.g., human gaio wany e 
murrunduggo, ' I will beat you loith-cc-cluh.' Here the words 
for / and for the c?2t6 both have this suffix. Yogiim gai yuggan 
bumbumbo, 'I cannot go loith-simllen-feet.' Here the word, 
'swollenfeet,' has this form. 

2. -nye, -ne, -e, -ge. 

This may be called the accusative suffix. It usually follows the 
use of such transitive verbs asbuma, 'beat'; na, 'see'; igga, 'bite'; 
wia, 'give to'; bura, 'take out.' As a general rule, only life- 
nouns and personal pronouns take this suffix. Non-life nouns 
retain their plain nominative form. Since adjectives and adjective 
pronouns agree in form with the nouns they qualify, it follows 
that they have a twofold declension. The accusative form of 
'that man' is mullanye paigannye; of ' that tomahawk,' the 
accusative is mully bundan. 

Examples of its use are :-— Mullaio gunye yilyulman, 'he 
will make me sick.' Waiiye yilyulman mullaio, 'he will make 
thee sick.' Craio mullanye yilyulman, ' I will make him sick.' 

Sometimes either the form in -o or in -nye is omitted. 

This is used to denote the genitives; as, paiganna koggara, 'a 
man's head'; taieumma jennug, 'a boy'sfoot.' This formin-na 
belongs only to life-noUns and words connected with them. It is 
the same that is used with adjectives qualifying things ; so that 
unduruna cuan may mean either 'some spear' or 'somebody's 
spear.' There are also other forms to denote possession. When 
followed by this case, the interrogative minyug takes the sense 
of 'how many'? as, minyugbo kittomma nogiim ? 'how many 
dogs has the old man '? 


4. -go, -go-by, -gai. 

The meaning of these is 'to, of, for.' The by may be taken as 
a variation of bo, and, like bo, very little more than an ornament 
of speech. Go is suffixed to all kinds of nouns to denote 'to,' -go- 
by and sometimes -go to non-life nouns, in the sense of 'for,' and 
gai to life-nouns, in the same sense. 

Examples of its use are : — Yilly cubbulgun killagoby kun- 
dalg6by, 'where is the paddle of that canoe'? Graio kindan 
junag bundango, 'I will make a handle for the tomahawk.' 
Gaio cuan kinan cubbogai biaggai gerriggai, 'I will make 
spears for both the boy and the father.' 

5. -gal, -jil, -gal-lo, -na-gal, -na-jil. 

The suffixes -go and -gal correspond to one another in the 
sense of 'to' and 'from.' Inji-go we means 'where are you going 
to'? inji-gal we is 'where are you coming from'? gai kamgal, 
' I come from there.' Jil is a variant-form seldom used. The 
life-nouns add -gal or -jil to the form in -na; as, paiganna-gal, 
'from the man.' Sometimes -gal takes the form gal-lo, and then 
has the meaning, of 'in coming' or 'when coming,' This is appar- 
ently the agent-nominative added to a strengthened form in -gal. 

6. -ba. 

Ba is simply a locative form. Probably there is some connec- 
tion between it and -bo and -by, which may be regarded as 
little more than ornaments. It is sometimes found as a termina- 
tion to names of places. Its principal use as a noun-suffix is to 
strengthen the simple forms of life-nouns, and thus form a new 
base for the addition of the suffixes. 

7. -ma, -bai-ma. 

Ma is rarely used as a noun-suffix, but, when so used, it has the 
meaning of 'in'; e.y., walo dulbagga ballunma, 'you jump 
in the river '; the longer form is used with life-nouns ; as, warre 
paigal-baima konno, ' carry this with the man.' 

8. -a, -bai-a. 

This takes the meaning of 'from,' 'out of.' Examples of its use : — 
bura junag bundanda, ' pull the handle out of the Lomaiiawk '; 
bura monno cuan pagalbaia, ' pull that spear out of the man.' 
It often denotes possession ; as, gaiabaia cuan, ' I have a spear.' 

9. -e, -ai, -ji, -bai 

This is the converse of the particle -a ; it means 'into.' Ji is 
used with nouns ending in -in ; as, umbin -j i, ' in the house.' Ba-i 
has the i added to the strengthening suffix ba ; as, pagalbai, ' in 
the man.' 


10. -no, -ba-no. 

This is used after certain verbs of motion; as, koroally we 
bon-no, 'go round the camp'; but koroally paigal-bano, 'go 
round the man.' It is also used in such sentences as kagga 
kiig ballunno, ' carry water from the river.' Its meaning may 
be given as ' from,' ' around,' ' apart,' and the like. 

11. -urrugan. 

This means 'with.' It may be regarded as a kind of possessive; 
e.g., yilly nogiim-urrugan paigal may be translated, 'where 
is the dog's master '? or ' where is the man with the dog '? There 
is a phrase walugara, 'you also,' which has some connection with 
this ; the g is intrusive between vowels to prevent hiatus. 

12. -jiim. 

Jiim means ' witliout.' Yilly nogiim jiim paigal? 'where 
is the dog without a master "? This is one of the verbal suffixes. 

1 3. -gerry. 

The peculiarity of this suffix is that, whilst it follows the rules 
of the noun-suffixes, it has a verbal meaning. For instance, 
kwag-gerry gai, ' I wish it would rain'; nyan minyug-gerry 
kiig, 'she wants some water'; gai killa-gerry umbin-gerry, 
' I would like to have that house'; yogiim gai mulla-gerry 
culgun-gerry, 'I do not like that woman.' 

Many of these are merely additions to the simple nominative 
case, and are not used for inflection. To these may be added the 
suffix -bil, which is used to turn some nouns into adjectives ; as, 
woram, 'sleep,' woram-bil, 'sleepy.' All terms for relatives are 
usually strengthened by -jara and -jar-gun; e.g., 

,r- 'i ^. ■• > a 'malecousin.' -j,-. , ^?P. >a 'female cousin.' 

Yirabug-jara J Yirabug-jar-gun J 

Adjectives generally agree in termination with the nouns they 
qualify ; but it should be noticed they do not follow any hard and 
fast rule. The suffix may be dropped from the adjective ; more 
frequently it is dropped from the noun and retained with the 
adjective ; and rarely, when the sentence can be understood with- 
out it, it is dropped from them both. On the other hand, this 
rule is carried out to an extent that surprises us. For instance, 
nubug and nubug-gun mean 'husband' and 'wife,' but the 
longer form of nubug-gunisnubug-jar-gun. Now, Kibbinbaia 
means ' Kibbin has,' and to say ' Kibbin has a wife,' would 
usually be Kibbinbaiagun nubugjargun. Again, bura jin 
gaiabaia mia would mean 'take the speck out of my eye'; 
where gaiabaia and mia agree in termination, yet mia has the 
shorter non-life form and gaiabaia has the longer life form. 


Suffixes as Verbal Interrogatives. 

The interrogatives seem to be the connecting link between the 
nouns and the verbs. This arises from the fact that they take 
both the noun and the verbal suffixes. Por instance, while inji 
'when'? takes, at times, the forms inji-go and inji-gal, it also 
becomes inji-gun and inji-gun-ga, and these last terminations 
are verbal suffixes. The word minyug 'what'? may also take 
such forms as these: — minyugallela? 'what are you doing'? 
minyugen? 'what is the matter'? minyngoro? ' what isdone'? 
In form, there is really no distinction between interrogative and 
assertive sentences ; hence any interrogative may have also an 
assertive meaning; minyugallela gai, therefore, may mean 'I 
am doing something.' In this dialect, there is a grammatical 
distinction between the imperative, the affirmative, and the nega- 
tive forms of speech; but all these forms may be made interrogative 
by the tone of the voice. 

Suffix-2')ost2')ositions used wiili Kouns and Pronouns. 

It may be as well to ask, at this stage, if there are any pre- 
positions in Minyug. There is a large number of words denoting 
place ; most of them are simple adverbs, and some of them demon- 
stratives, and some occasionally have such a relationship to the 
noun that they can only be regarded as fulfilling the office of 
prepositions. They are not always placed before the noun, the 
Minyug having the greatest freedom with respect to the collo- 
cation of words. The word kam, which is among the demon- 
stratives, may also be regarded at times as a preposition. When 
a native says walo kam kubbal kyua, which is, literally, 'you 
to scrub go,' why should not kam be called a preposition? In 
the same way, kagga kubbal means 'out to the scrub.' 

There are a few words of this kind that have a limited inflec- 
tion ; e.j/., balli or ballia means ' under '; juy, jua, junno are 
'down,"into'; bundagal, bundagally, bundagklla, 'near.' Of 
these, the particular form used is that which agrees in termination 
with the noun qualified. 

Every word in Minyug ends either with a vowel or a liquid, 
and there are certain euphonic rules to be followed in connecting 
the suffixes with each kind of ending. In the following tables 
examples will be given of each kind. In Table I., all the inflecting 
suffixes will be joined to mully. In Table II. will be found the 
singular personal pronouns, which contain some ii-regularities, 
and a life-noun ending in I, in, n, ng, ra, or o. It will, however, 
be unnecessary to give in full the declension of these. 

In Table III., four non-life nouns are chosen, endino- in -I, -n 
-in, and -ra, and the terminations given are those numbered 1, 8, 9, 
From these examples, all other forms can be understood. 






















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4 (6). Suffixes to Verbs. 

Imperative and Affirmative Forms. 

The imperative, in the Minyug dialect, is the simplest form of 

the verb ; it will therefore be quoted as the stem of the verb. In 

true verbs, it ends in -a or -e ; as, kulga, ' cut,' bugge, ' fall.' If 

the -a or -e is cut off, there remains the root of the verb, and to it 

the verbal suffixes are attached. These are very numerous, and 

appear, at first sight, to be very complicated ; but the whole may 

be simplified by taking them in the following order ; — (1) Final 

suffixes ; (2) Internal strengthening particles or letters ; and (3) 

Separable demonstrative particles. The usual final suffixes are : — 

1. -a, -6, used in giving a command or in expressing a wish. 

2. -ala, -ela, denoting present action. 

3. -an, denoting future action. 

4. -anne, -inne, -unne, denoting unfinished past action. 

5. -oro, denoting finished action. 

6. -en, the historical past tense ; often an aorist participle. 

7. -inna, used, but rarely, as a participle. 

8. -ian, past time ; with passive sense, when required. 

9. -ia, -e, -aia, when used with a leading verb, has a future 
meaning, but it is generally the infinitive or noun form to express 
verbal action. 

10. -ai, may be called the subjunctive, but the verb does not 
take this form in all positions where we might expect a sub- 
junctive to be used. 

11. -enden, -unden, -anden, is probably derived from kinda, 
the sixth form of which is kinden. It adds the idea of ' made ' 
or ' did ' to the root idea of the verb. It is sometimes equivalent 
to the passive, and at times it becomes the foundation of another 
verb, so that there are such forms -endene, -endeloro, &c. It some- 
times takes, between it and the root, the strengthening particles 
of the next paragraph. 

12. The internal strengthening particles are (1) le, I, r, re, (2) 
g, ng-g, ing-g, and (3) b. These are inserted between the root and 
and the final suffix, and are sometimes compounded together, so 
that there are such form as galle and halle. These particles add 
but little to the meaning. It may be that le or re gives a sense 
of continuance to the action, so that while ala is a simple present, 
while alela may be a progressive present. This, however, is very 
doubtful. In fact, it may be stated, once for all, that while there 
is an abundance of forms, the aborigines do not seem to make 
very exact distinctions in meaning between one form and another. 



If it is desired to give emphasis to tlie idea that the action is con- 
tinuative, a separate word is used to denote this. Thus alen, 
which is the strengthened form of en, is purely a participle with- 
out distinction of time. The forms in r, re are simple variations of 
Ic, and seldom used. The forms in g, ng-g, are from ga, 'to go on,' 
and those in b from ba, ' to make,' ' cause to be.' The following 
table will show the various possible forms in which a verb may 
be found. The separable demonstrative particles inserted in the 
table are : — he, Jof, yu-n, de, ji. Bo and be seem to add nothing 
to the meaning ; yun means ' there'; cU or ji means ' to ' or 'at.' 

y/w Suffixes as attached to the root-form of Verbs. 
To the forma in italics, the separable demonstrative particles are added. 


—Simple ^ 

-a, -e, -ade. 

r ^ 




























































7. -inna ; 8. -ian ; 9. -ia, -aia, -e ; compound, -alia ; 10. -ai ; 
compound, -bai; 11. -enden ; compound, -genden, -ggenden ; -bun- 

*The numbers indicate the Moods and Tenses ; thus, 1 is fhe. Imperative 
Mood ; 2, The Present Tense ; .3, TlieFutm-e Tense ; 4, 7'he Past {unfinished) ; 
5, The Past [Jinislied) ; 6, A Participle form (oft/in past) ; 7, A Participle 
form (generally present) ; 8, A Participle form [often pa~ssire) ; 9, A Noun 
form of Verbal action (the infnilive) ; 10, The Siihjtnictire, i.e., the form 
which the verb takes when compouniled icith Auxilia.ry Verbs ; 11, jl Participle 
form (generallij passive.) 2, 3, 4, and 5 are of the Indicative Mood. 

Besides these, there are some other compound verbal suffixes 
which are formed from inda and ma, and from b and ba, as shown 
below. These are sometimes attached, not to the simple stem-form 
of the verb, but to specially lengthened forms. 


Kinda, ' make.' 

Thw, as a. principal verb, has all the forms of the simple suffixes 
except No. 11, and many of the compound ones ; as, kinda-bulela, 
kinda-galoroby, <tG. It sometimes takes the form, though rarely, 
of kigge, and, as such, enters into composition with other verbs ; 
but the usual method of compounding it with verbs is to omit the 
Ic, and use only the tei-minations ; as, bo-ale, ' be great,' bo-iiidal6, 
'be made great.' In the Minyug dialect, when two words are 
brought together, it is common for the second to lose its initial 
consonant. Kinda itself is a derivative from da, which is in use 
to turn nouns and adjectives into verbs; as, umbin, 'a house,' 
nmbin-da, ' make a house.' 

Ba, 'cause to be.' 

Ba, as a locative, is also a noun-suffix, but, like da, it helps to 
convert other words into verbs ; as, kirriba, ' awake.' As already 
noticed, it enters into composition with verbs, lengthening their 
forms, at times, without adding to or altering their meaning. As 
part of a principal verb, it generally has the meaning of ' cause to 
be '; as, ny arry, ' a name,' nyarri-ba, ' give a name ' 07- ' cause to 
have a name.' It is also attached to the past tense, and is often 
used when a secondary verb is in a sentence ; e.g., monno webaro 
kunjillinneban nobo, 'that fire will be lighted' (made to burn) 

Ma, ' make,' ' cause to be there,' ' cause ' generally. 

This is one of the most important verbal suffixes in the language.- 
As a noun-suffix, it has the sense of 'in,' and many of its derivative- 
words have the idea of ' rest in a place,' and not of causation. 
Maia means 'in a place,' while Icaia means 'go to a place.' Wai- 
maia means 'it is above'; waikaia, 'go above.' It is evident 
that ma originally meant both ' there ' and ' cause to be ' generally. 
But, after all, there is nothing strange in this. Even now, with 
all the variation of forms, a good deal of the moaning of a speaker 
depends upon the tone of the voice or the gesture of the hand. 
We can conceive of a demonstrative as meaning (1) 'there,' (2) 'go 
there,' (3) 'be there,' (4) 'cause to be there,' according to the tone of 
voice and the subject of conversation. Any adjective can take this 
suffix; as, yilyul, 'sick,' yilyiil-ma, 'cause to be sick'; dukkai, 
'dead,' dukai-ma, 'to kill.' It enters into composition v^ith adverbs 
of place as well ; as, with wai, ' above,' and kully, kundy, q.v., it 
gives waikalkullima, 'put crosswise,' waikundima, 'put on.' 

It sometimes follows adjectives ; as, bunyarra-ma yerrubil, 
'make a good song'; and sometimes pronouns; as, kaibi-ma 
junag, 'make another handle.' With verbs, it is sometimes 
attached to the imperative form ; as, kory, 'run,' kori-ma, 'make 



to run'; sometimes it takes the particle bin between it and the 
root form or the imperative form ; as, dugbin-ma, 'cause to lie 
down.' Very often it is attached to a form in -illi ; as, dug- 
gilli-ma, 'make to cry,' minjilli-ma, ' make to laugh.' Some- 
times it is attached to two words ; as, bunyarra-ma warrim-ma, 
' to make well by doctoring,' and each of these can take all the 
forms in agreement; as, (future) bunyarraman warrimman; 
{past) bunyarramunne warrimmunne. 

Gerry, 'wish,' ' like to.' 
This was placed amongst the noun-suifixes, because, although it 
has a verbal meaning, it follows the rules of the noun-sui£ses. 
It also has a place as a verbal-suffix. ' It never changes its form, 
and is always the final suffix. It is generally attached to the 
subjunctive; as, yunai-gerry gai, 'I should like to lie dow^n'; 
often to the formin-bai; as, yiinbai-gerry gai, 'I should like to 
go on'; and sometimes it is attached to the form in -illi; as, 
kunjilli-gerry, 'desire to burn.' 

Negation. — Jiim, ' without.' 

Jum is another of the noun-suffixes, and is used in negative 
sentences. It is often attached to the imperative form, sometimes 
to the simple subjimctive form, and sometimes to the subjunctive 
form in -bed. It is the negative of the present. Wanye kun- 
lela gai means ' I know you'; but wanye kunlejiim gai, 'I 
do not know you,' or ' I am without knowledge of you.' Na is 
'look'; naijiim gai or nabaijiim gai is 'I do not see.' 

Yogiim is another negative. It is a word distinct from jiim, 
and its use turns any sentence into a negation. Yogiim and 
jiim, when both are used, do not cancel one another; on the 
contrary, they strengthen the negation. Wana is the negative 
of the imperative. It means ' leave it alone '; e.g., wana yiin- 
bai, ' do not go.' It has all the usual forms of a verb ; as, gai 
wanalen, 'I left it alone.' Kingilga, 'that will do,' kingi- 
lanna, 'go away, numo6, ' stop,' also help to form negations. 

Some Idioms in the Minyung Dialect. 

The following sentences show some of the aboriginal idioms :— 
1 . Rest in a place. 

Kukully gai, 'I am here'; mumully w6, • you are there'; 
kukaibo, 'stay here'; kokonno, 'it is here'; yilly nyan? 
' where is she '; mully nyan, 'she is there'; killy Kibbin, 'there 
IS Kibbin'; webena killy wai, 'the camp is above'; killy iuy 
webena 'the camp is below.' 

These sentences illustrate the use of the demonstratives as pre- 
dicates. We can either say that they are used without the verb 


' to be ' as a copula, or that they themselves are used as neuter 
verbs in the present tense. The latter view is more in accord- 
ance with the idiom of the language. There is, however, in the 
language, a general absence of connecting words ; there is no word 
for ' and,' the nearest word to it being virru or urrugan, ' with,' 
which is sometimes attached to words used as personal pronouns 
in the sense of ' also'; as, mullagurru, 'he also,' There are no 
relative pronouns, and we may almost say there is no verb 'to be,' 
used as a copula. 

2. Adjectives as predicates. 

Adjectives follow the same rules as demonstratives; for instance, 
yilyul gai, ' I am sick '; killy dukkai, ' he over there is dead '; 
monno bundan bunyarra, 'this tomahawk is good.' 

3. The use of y li n a. 

But we can say kukulliyen gai, for ' I was here '; and killy 
dukkaien, ' he was dead.' We can also say dukkaianna, ' may 
you die,' or 'may you go to death'; dukkaiyuggan gai, 'I will 
kill myself,' or ' I will go to death.' These endings are from the 
verb y li na, which means 'to go.' The rule may be expressed thus : — 
Any word which is an adjective may be used in its plain form as a 
predicate in the present tense, and may, by adding the forms of the 
verb yiina, be turned into a true verb with all the tense-forms of a 
verb. The y of yiina is often omitted, and the forms ungan, unna 
are used ; also en or yen , as if the original root was ya. Yuna 
means not only ' to go,' but ' to live,' ' to move,' and ' to be.' 
The language has three verbs closely allied in form, yiina 'to go,' 
yiina 'to lie down,' and y ana 'to sit down.' The first of these 
has the derived forms yugga, yiinbal6; the second, yunal6; and 
the third, yangal6. 

4. Verbs of Motion and Adverbs of Place. 
Verbs of motion are very numerous, and so are adverbs of 
place; thus, speakers of the Minyug can be very exact in direct- 
ing others to go here or there. Bukkora goa, 'go past'; bunda- 
gal boa, 'go near'; duloa, 'go down'; wande, 'go up'; kaie, 
'go in'; wombin kwe, 'come here'; kaga, 'come down'; 
dukkan kyua, 'go over'; kankyua junimba, 'keep to 
the right'; kankyua worrembil, 'keep to the left.' 

5. Time. 
The language can be very exact in the expression of time. N um- 
gerry is ' daylight'; karamba, ' mid-day '; vAn, ' sunset '; nobo, 
' yesterday ' or ' to-morrow.' The particles -bo and -jug are also 
used to distinguish former time from latter; so that nobo-bo is 
'yesterday,' and nobo-jug 'tomorrow.' 

20 AX atjSXEalian language. 

6. Manner. 

There is a class of words that fulfil the duty of qualifying 
action as adverbs of manner, but they have the forms of verbs ; 
so that they may be called qualifying verbs. They agree in final 
termination with the verbs they qualify. Karaia or karoe is 
'to do anything in a groat manner.' In the participal form it is 
used thus :— gibbuni" karandallen, ' full moon'; karandallen 
kwog, 'heavy rain'; karandallen vvibara, 'the fire is hot'; 
karaggen wurrig, 'very cold.' With verbs it is used in a 
different form ; as, wemully karaielly, ' speak loudly.' 

Gumo6 is 'in a small way'; as, gumundallen gibbiim, 'little 
moon'; wemully gumoelly, 'speak gently.' Magoe means 'to 
continue'; as, magoale wemully, 'continue speaking.' Boc is 
'to speak by oneself; as, boelly wemully, 'speak by yourself,' 
or ' speak alone.' Others are, — karaharai-elly dugga, ' cry very 
loudly '; nunnoelly dugga, 'cry very gently'; nugummanna 
dugga, 'cry quickly'; niganna dugga 'stop crying.' 

7. Affections of the inind. 

'Doubt' is expressed by wunye, which sometimes takes the 
form of bunye. Gaio wanye human, nobo wunye, 'I will 
beat you, perhaps to-morrow.' 'Hope' is expressed by jiin ; as, 
mullaijun kulgai wibara, ' it is hoped that he will cut wood.' 
'Fear' is expressed by the word twin; as, gaio twiggalla webara 
kulgai, 'I am afraid to cut wood.' 'Pity' and 'sympathy' are 
often expressed hj idioms meaning literally, ' smelling a bad or a 
good smell'; e.g., gai mullagai kunlunny bogon, 'I for him 
smell a bad smell,' or ' I pity him.' 

8. ^/te iwe q/bunyarra. 

Bunyarra, 'good,' means not only 'good,' but anything 'great.' 
It sometimes means ' very '; as bunyarra jug, ' very bad.' 

9. The use o/karaban. 
Eeciprocal action is expressed by karaban; e.g., gully kara- 
ban bummalle, 'let us paint one another.' 

10. ComiJarison. 

G-ai koren karaialen, wunnanden wanye, ' I run fast, you 
slowly'; that is, '1 am faster than j'ou '; gai wanye gulug 
paigal, ' I am a man before you '; that is, ' I am older than you. 
The pronoun (wanye or any other) is always in the accusative. 
11. Government of Yerhs. 

Sometimes the infinitive form in -ia, and sometimes the form in 
-hai or -ai, which may be called the subjunctive, is used to show 
dependence on another verb ; but often the two \-erbs agree in 
having the same final suffix. Examples are:— wana yiinbai, 
or wana yiina, ' do not go'; wana cubbai, ' do not eat '; wana 



mullanye cubbinmai, ' do not feed him '; yiina gully oullum 
kaggale moans 'let us go to catch fish '; lit., ' let us go, let us 
catch fish'; both verbs are in the imperativ3. Kia mullanye 
bumalia, 'ask him to fight'; this is the more common form ; but 
walo kia mullanye w6bara kundia, or walo mullanye kia 
\v6bara kunjeba, 'you ask him to light a fire '; here the endings 
of "the verbs will agree in all the tenses ; as, (im2)er.) kia kunjeba; 
(;3«si) kianne kunjebunne; {fut.) kiau kunjeban. 

Examples of the Foemation of. the Texses of Verbs. 
The numbers hero are the Tenses as on page 16 of this Appendix. 

Buma, ' to fight, beat, kill.' 

1. Buma, bumale, bumga, bumgale ; 2. Bumala, biimalela, bum- 
gala, bumgalela ; 3. Bnman, bumgan ; 4. Bumannp, bumalinne, 
bumganne, buminne ; 5. Buraaloro, bumgaloro, bumaloroby ; 6. 
Bumen, bumallen, bumgallen; 7. Buniixana; 8. Bumian, bumalian ; 
9. Bumalia; 10. Bumai; 11. Bumenden. Compound forms are : — 

Bumaigerry, ' wish to fight '; bumejiim {imper. tieg.), 'fight 
not'; karaban huraixU {imper. recipirocal), 'fight one another '; 
bumille-ma, 'cause to fight,' which also, as above, may change 
ma into -mala, -malela, -man; -munne, -men ; -ma-ia, &c. 

Kinda, 'make.' 
1. Kinda, kindabal^; 2. Kindalela, kindabulela; 3. Kindan ; 4. 
Kindinne; 5. Kindaloro, kindabuloro; 6. Kinden, kindabulen, &c. 
Kinda does not take the forms in -ga; nor buma those in ba. 


A blackf calls a/ai/jer's brother 
„ is called in return 

A blackf calls a mother's sister. 
,, is called in return 

A blackf calls a mother's brother 

„ is called in return . , 

A blackf calls & father's sister 

,, is called in return . , 

* Biag also means 'father,' and waijug ' mother.' 
The child of biag or of waijug is 'brother (sister)' to moiiim ; 
andachild of kag or narriin is cousin to burr ijug andnyogon. 
f Male or female. J For brevity, I make nepos= nephew, niece. — En. 


Native words. 


ir. . biag*. . . 

pater, patruus. 

. . . moiiim . 

illius fli-us, -a ; 

hujus iiepios.X 

T. . waijug . 

mater, matertera. 

. . . moium . 

illius fili-us, -a ; 

hujus nepos. X 

ther k^og . . . 


. . . burrijug 

ejus nejjos.i 

• . . narrim . 


. . . ny6gon . 

ejus nepos. X 




Native words, 

A man calls an elder brother . . . kagog . 

„ is called in return bunam 

A man calls a younger brother . . bunam 

,, is called in return kagog . 

A man calls any sister nunnag 

„ is called in return bunam 

A woman calls any brother .... bunam 

„ is called in return . . . nunnag 

A woman calls an elder sister . . . nunnag 

„ is called in return . . . yirgag . 

A woman calls a yoimger sister . yirgag. 

„ is called in return . . . nunnag 


elder brother, 
younger brother. 

elder brother, 

elder sister, 
younger sister. 

elder sister. 

A blacky calls a nude cousin . . yirabiig or kiijarug. ^ 

,, „ a,femcde ,, .. yirabiig-gun or kujarug-gun. j^ g 

she is called in return yirabiig-gun or kiijarug-gun. 

he ,, ,, yirabug or kiijarug. 

Grand relationships. 

A grandohildt calls a grandfather, and is called by him naijog. 
„ ,, father's mother, „ „ her kummi. 

,, „ mother's „ „ ,, ,, baibug. 

+ Whether male or female. 


A man calls his ivife, his icife's sister, and some others . nubuggun. 

,, is called by them in return nubug. 

A man calls his wife's father women. 

„ calls his ivife's mother bogai. 

„ is called by them in return w6men. 

Other terms for relations-in-law are — weog, cumbug, yamburu. 
Such relationships are very complicated, and require to be specially 


When there is no specific term for a relationship, the terms for 
'brother' and 'sister' are used ; for instance — a great-grandfather 
is called kagog, 'elder brother,' and in reply to a male he says 
bunam, 'younger brother.' 



Words, Phrases, and Sentences used by the Minyung Tribe. 

1. Words and Pheases. 
(The verbs are given in their sliortest form, the imperative. ) 

Berrin — the south, the south people ; e.g., berrinba — to the south; 
cf. kokin — the north, the north people ; e.g., kokingal — from 
the north. The aborigines on the Richmond River call the 
Clarence River 'Berrin,' and the Tweed 'Kokin'; but, to 
those on the Tweed River, the Richmond is 'Berrin,' and the 
Logan is ' Kokin.' 

Binnug — an ear ; e.g., binnugma — make to hear ; tell ; answer. 

Birra — to cast through. 

Birre — iiy away; e.g., birryalen garrig — crossed over. 

Bugge — fall ; it is sometimes equivalent to 'gone away ' or ' dis- 
appeared'; as, inji buggeloro mibin kurralbo wairabo? 
' where have all the blacks been this long time '? If the im- 
perative ends in a (as bugga), the word means 'kick,' ' stamp,' 
' leave a mark,' as a foot-print. In the Pirripai dialect, spoken 
by the natives on the Hastings River, buggen means 'killed,' 
for they say bunno butan buggen, 'he killed a black snake. 
In Minyug, nyugga bukkoyen means 'the sun has risen,' 
nyugga buggen, 'the sun has set'; but with this compare the 
Brisbane dialect, which says piki bog, 'the sun is dead.' 

Buggo — (1) a native shield ; (2) the tree from which it is made. 

Bajabuyai — a swallow. Bujarebin — a daisy. Bujagun — a quiet 
girl. Bujaro — quiet ; e.g., yiran bujaro, ' whip-snakes (are) 

Bujarii, Bujar4bo — morning. 

Bujare, Bujaro-bujaro — this morning, just before daybreak. 

Buji, biijin — a little piece; bujigan — into little pieces. 

Buma or bumga — strike, beat, fight, kill by fighting. 

This is probably a derivative from bugge, just as w^g, the 
noun for ' work,' becomes wanima, the verb ' to work.' 

Burre — the top of a tree; with this compare culle, 'the barrel' or 
' trunk' of a tree ; waian, ' the root '; cerrug, ' the branches '; 
kunyal, ' theleaves.' Culle is also a general name for a 'tree.' 
It often means 'logs' lying down, and 'firewood'; e.g., kulga. 
culle w^baragai, ' out wood for the fire.' Cerrug, besides, is, 
' the open palm of the hand,' ' a bird's claw,' or ' the paw of an 
animal,' and it is the name of a constellation. Kunyal, 'leaf,' 
may be allied to with kuggal, 'an arm' or 'wing.' Waian 
also means 'a road.' When a tree is cut down, the stump is 
called gunun. 


Dukkai— dead ; a dead man ; 'a dead woman' is touaragun. 
The word tabuUen is often used to mean 'dead,' instead of 
dukkai and touaragun. It is a participle from some verb not 
at present used. In some dialects, duggai, probably the same 
word, means a kind of ' fish '; in the Turrubul dialect it means 
'man.' This may have given rise to the idea that some of the 
aborigines believe that, when they die, they become fishes. 

Duggerrigai — white man; duggerrigaigun — white Per- 
haps this word comes from dukkai, 'dead,' but it does not mean 
'ghost' or 'spirit.' For 'spirit,' there are two terms, guru and 
w4gai. After a man dies, he is spoken of as guru wanden, 
'a spirit up above.' All the guru go to waijog (from wai, 
'above'), where they live on murrabil, a kind of celestial 
food. Murrabil is from the Kamilaroi word murra'ba, 'good.' 
G-uru in some dialects means 'dark' or 'night,' and a word 
derived from it means 'emu.' Dawson, in his "Australian 
Aborigines " (page 51), states, that, if a native " is to dje from 
the bite of a snake, he sees his wraith in the sun ; but, in this 
case, it takes the form of an emu." Yfagai means 'shadow,' and 
has a more superstitious use than guru. When a person is ill, 
the warrima, 'wizard,' is sent for to throw on him a good spell, 
called bunyarama warrima. The warrima takes something 
like a rope out of his stomach (!), and climbs up to waijog to 
have an interview with the wdgai. On his return, if the man 
is to recover, he says, 'Your wdgai has come back and you will 
soon be well'; but if he is to die, he says, 'I could not get your 
wagai.' The sick man is sure to die then. The v/agai are also 
the spirits consulted, when anyone dies suddenly, to discover by 
whose nieans ihe death was brought about. Yiralle is another 
name used by the ISTyug people for 'white man'; it means, the 
' one who has come.' 

Garre — dance ; cf., yerrube — sing. 

Gulug, ■ gulugbo — first; before; e.g., gai minjen gulugbo, 'I 
laughed first,' i.e., before you. Gulug-gerry is 'immediately '; 
nyugga bukkoyen gulug-gerry, ' the sun will be up imme- 
diately '; gulugga we, or we gulugga buna means ' 'go thou 
first'; waire gurrugin, or waire guluggurrugin are those 
men in a tribe whom the colonists call 'kings'; each of these 
gets a brass plate with a suitable inscription, to wear on his 
breast, as an emblem of his rank. 

Gumma — teat, Gummabil — milk. 

Kibbara — (1) white or yellow ; (2) a half-caste, a yellow man or 
woman; whence kibbargun, a half-caste girl; kibbarim, a 
half-caste male ; (3) fig., anything young, small, or light; as, 
kibbara pailela, which may either mean, 'light rain fallino,' 
or ' young lads fighting '; (4) a stringy -bark tree ; this word, iir 
the Kamilaroi dialect, is kuburu, a 'black-box tree'; (.3) the 


ceremony of man-makiiig ; possibly tLe name bora may come 
from this, by dropping the initial syllable, as nyug is for 
minyug; or, bora may be connected with the Minyugword 
bul or bule, 'a ring'; (6) 'a made-man,' that is, one who 
has passed the kippara; and in this sense it is used in many 
of the coast dialects. The names given to a male, at different 
stages of his life, are — taicum, ' a baby '; balun, balungai, 'a 
'aboy'; cubbo, cubboyil, 'a youth'; murrawon, 'a lad' who 
is getting whiskers and has all his berrug or prescribed ' scars 
on his back'; kumban-gorry, a lad who has received his 
kumban or 'scars on his breast'; kibbara, 'one who had 
been made a man'; paigal or mibin, 'a man'; kicom or 
mo beg, 'an old man.' 

Kuji — (1) a bee ; (2) honey ; (3) red ; cf. kujin — red. 

Kunle — know, hear, feci, smell; e.g., gaikunlejum, 'I don't know.' 

Moiiim, (1) a child, a son or daughter ; (2) the black cockatoo 
with yellow feathers in its tail. The black cockatoo with red 
feathers is called gar err a, and the white cockatoo, k6ra. ' 

Nyugga — (1) the regent bird; (2) the sun. Nyuggal-gerry — • 
summer ; cf. wurrig — cold ; wurrigbil — winter. 

Ca — eat; e.g., walo ox, i;ai yo, ' you eat (now), I (will eat) by-and-by.' 

Cubbinma — feed. (5 ukka — drink. 

Webara — (1) a fire; (2) firewood; (3) a camp. Examples: — (1) 
' kunji webara, 'light a fire'; kunji, by itself, would mean 
1 ' make it burn ' (bobbinda means 'make a light'; culloma, 
' make smoke,' i.e., ' make a fire '; palloma, ' put out the fire'); 
'\2) kulga webara, ' cut firewood'; this has the same meaning 
£B kulga cuUo ; (3) gai yiinbulela webara ' I am going to 
tie camp '; lit., ' I am going to the fire.' The guny as or ' wind- 
slelters' are gumbin; and a largo building like a church is 
caled kumai gumbin, which words, however, may mean, a 
collection of houses, as a ' town ' or ' village.' The blankets 
whih are given to the aborigines on Queen's Birthday are 
calle;! gumbin, and so is a rag tied round the foot. A sock is 
gumbin, but a boot is bonumbil. In some dialects a 'sheet 
of baik,' ' a gunya,' and ' a canoe ' have the same name, but 
in theMinyug dialect ' a sheet of bark ' is bagul, and ' a canoe ' 
is kuudal or kulgerry. 

Woriim — ^leep ; woriimbil — sleepy; e.g., wor^m bitna, 'go to 
sleep.' \A mother will say to her child, wordm-woriim btina, 
but to hfirself, gai wordm yunan, 'I will lie down and sleep.' 

Yaraba — m»^rry ; e.g., nanna yaraba, 'marry my sister.' 

Yerrube — siig ; yerrubil — song; yerrubil-gin-gun — a singer (fern.). 

Youara (also kirrin and wogoyia) — a 'karabari.'* Youara- 
gurrugin — a maker of kardbari songs. 

*This I takt to be the correct spelling, not ' oorrobboree. ' — Ed. 


26 an australian language. 

2. Sentences. 

Minyugalela we — 'what are you doing'? Yogum gai unduru- 
muUela — ' I am doing nothing '. Minyugaloro we nobo 1 — 
' what did you do yesterday '? Graio kaggaloro cullum Noggug- 
gai — ' I caught fish for Noggug.' 
Gaio wanye bundan wianje, kulga cully gaia — ' I to you a toma- 
hawk will give, (if) you cut down a tree for me ; or, cut down a 
tree for me, (and) I will give you a tomahawk.' Yile bundan? 
— ' where (is) the tomahawk '? Kunde bukkora — ' over there.' 
Kulga culle koranna — 'cut down that high tree.' Yile walo 
kulgajumgerry, wana — " if you do not like to cut it down, 
leave it alone.' Gaio kulgunne kaba ouUe wia baijum bibbo 
— 'I cut down that tree before you came.' Gaio wanye naienne 
kulgabulenne — ' I saw you cutting (it). 
Gaio wanye monno webara gaia kunjilligerry — ' I would like 
you to light that fire for me.' Walo kia mulianye kunjeba 
^'you ask him to light (it).' Gaio mulianye nobo kianne 
kunjebunne — ' I asked him to light it yesterday.' Munno 
w6bara kunjillorobo — ' the fire is lighted.' Munno webara 
kunjillinneban nobo — ' that fire will be lighted to-morrow. ' 
Gen kuggalela 1 — ' who is calling "1 Kera kuggalela — ' a whitf 
cockatoo is calling.' Mully kera mibin kialela — ' that cockatoj 
speaks like a man.' Paian-jug gun — ' it is warm to-day.' 
Kubberry gai paian — 'I am hungry to-day.' Wia kunlume 
bogon gai — ' I am sorry for you.' Walo ca, bunyarra-d-unds — 
'you eat, (you) will be all right.' 
Gaio naienne kurrunnebo manne, kenne; gaio bumimie urdur- 
runebyu ; undurr berranne. — 'I saw a number of ducks and 
white cockatoos ; I killed some ; some flew away.' 
Loganda, cannabigy gaio naienne webarabo. (5annabf yer- 
rubilloro webarabo. Yaburugen gaiaba kyuamre. Yabirugen 
gullawonne, ' injeo we "I Gaio kiallen ' Brisbane-gobullen. Gaio 
naienne nogumme kakaba. (^annaby bikbullen. {5aniuby ko- 
wallen nogumme webanno — ' On the Logan, I saw then in the 
camp {lit., at the fire). They were singing in the canp. One 
came to me. One asked me where I was going. I replied, 
'Going to Brisbane.' I saw dogs there. They wen barking. 
They called them into the camp.' 

Gaio nan cuan bowan, ' I will see (one who) vvill throw a 
spear.' Gaio nan cuan bowalen, 'I will see a ^Jear thrown.' 
Gaio nan cuan bougunneban nobo, 'I will see (that) a spear 
shall be thrown to-morrow.' Gaio naienne yiinbulela undu- 
runne poiolgo, 'I saw somebody going up the kll.' Gaio nai- 
enne k amy cuan war re bulenne, 'I saw him carrying spears.' 


G-aio kunleoro kamy yerriibiloroby, 'I heard them singing. 
Gaio kunlan kamy mendi6, 'I will hearthem laughing.' Gaio 
kunlunne kamy minjenne, 'I heard them laughing'; if the 
act of laughing is finished, this sentence would be, gaio kun- 
lunne minjeloroby. Q-aio kunlela wemullenyun, 'I hear 
speaking there.' Gaio naienne korenyun taicumme, ' I saw 
children running away.' Gaio kunloigerry yerrtibil kamy, 'I 
like to hear them sing.' Wog wia bunyarra, 'working is good 
foryou.' Waggo wia gowenyen, 'working is making you tired.' 
Paigal wammullen wallenyun, 'the man working is gone.' 

3. Mythology. , 

Berrugen korillabo, gerrig Momm6m, Yabur6g. — ' Berrug came 
long long ago, with Mommom (and) Yabur6g.' 

Thus begins a Minyung Legend to the following effect : — 

Long ago, Berrug, with his two brothers, Mommom and Yabu- 
rog, came to this land. They came with their wives and children 
in a great canoe, from an island across the sea. As they came 
near the shore, a woman on the land made a song that raised a 
storm which broke the canoe in pieces, but all the occupants, after 
battling with the waves, managed to swim ashore. This is how 
' the men,' the paigal black race, came to this land. The pieces of 
the canoe are to be seen to this day. If any one will throw a stone 
and strike a piece of the canoe, a storm will arise, and the voices 
of Berrug and his boys will be heard calling to one another, 
amidst the roaring elements. The pieces of the canoe are certain 
rocks in the sea. At Ballina, Berrug looked around and said, 
nyug? and all the paigal about there say nyug to the present 
day, that is, they speak the Nyug dialect. Going north to the 
Brunswick, he said, minyug, and the Brunswick Eiver paigal 
say minyug to the present day. On the Tweed he said, gando? 
and the Tweed paigal say gando to the present day. This is how 
the blacks came to have different dialects. Berrug and his 
brothers came back to the Brunswick River, where he made a 
fire, and showed the paigal how to make fire. He taught them 
their laws abont the kippara, and about marriage and food. After 
a time, a quarrel arose, and the brothers fought and separated, 
Mommom going south, Yaburog west, and Berrug keeping along 
the coast. This is how the paigal were separated into tribes. 

NoTK. — Each brother has his own ' kar^bari,' for there is the 
youara Berrugna, the girran Momm6mna, and the wogo- 
yia Yabur6gna). 







(Jjy the late Itev. G. Taplln, Aborigines' Missionary, Point Madeay, 
South Australia.) 

[This Grammar of the Narrinyeri dialect is to be found in a book en- 
titled " The Folklore, Manners, Customs, and Languages of the South 
Australian Aborigines ; Adelaide, 1879." I have re-arranged and condensed 
the matori-al of the Grammar, and adapted the whole to the system fol- 
lowed in this present volume. — Ed.] 

The Narrinyeri aborigines occupy a portion of the coast of South 
Australia, near Adelaide. Their territory includes the shores of 
Encounter Bay, Lakes Alexandrina and Albert, and the country 
to the east of the Murray, for about 20 miles from its mouth. 
The first attempt to master aiid commit to writing the grammar 
of this language was made in 1843 by the Rev. H. E. Meyer, a 
Lutheran Missionar}^ His sketch of the grammar is not free 
from blunders. Nor can the present effort expect to be faultless, 
but it is approximately correct, being founded on a practical ac- 
quaintance with the language. 

1. Letters. 

The Narrinyeri have not the sounds olf, v, s, z, but they have 
the sonant sound of th (here written dli), as in the English words 
'this,' 'thine,' 'breathe,' and the surd th, as in 'thin,' 'breath.' 

2. General Principles. 

There is no article, but the numeral ' one ' is used as a sort of 
indefinite article. Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are declined 
by the use of affixes, and have forms for the singular, dual, and 
plural numbers. 

Number is indicated by a change of termination ; for example : — 

'Man.' 'Man: 


'Lip: 'Ear: 

Sing. May-u. Komi. 
Dual May-ula. Korn-egk. 
Plu. May-una. Korn-ar. 




Mun-a. Yur-e. 
Mun-agge. Ynr-illa. 


' Eyehrov:.' 

' Trov.ser: 

Sing. Pil-i. 
Dual Pil-agge. 




In the declension of nouns tlie affixes used as case-endings may 
be regarded as post-positions. There is no distinction of gender 
in nouns and adjectives, but, for some words, there is a change of 
termination to indicate the feminine ; as, yiiga, ' brother,'. yiigd- 
ta, 'sister.' Tliis dialect likes to end its -words with a vowel, es- 
pecially the short i, which is here represented by y. 

3. Nouns. 

Their Declension. — There are two declensions of nouns, the one 
used for words denoting human relationships, and the other for 
all nouns else. 

(a.) Common Nouns. 

Tlieir cases. — For common nouns, the case-endings of the singu- 
lar number are : — 

The Genitive takes the affix -aid meaning ' of,' but, with place- 
names, 'at,' 'in,' 'upon.' This affix is also used as a separate 
word, with the sense of 'belonging to.' 

The Dative 1. takes -amby, which may be translated 'for,' 'for 
the purpose of,' ' for the use of.'' 

Ihe Dative 2. takes -agk, ' to,' ' by,' and -ugai, ' on,' ' by '; but 
these two terminations seem to bo interchangeable. The English 
for this case is, 'to,' 'with,' 'by,' 'on,' 'at' — either locative or 

2Vie Ablative 1. has the affix -il; as, kornil mempir napagk, 
' the man struck his wife '; from k or ni, 'man,' mempin, 'strik- 
ing,' napy, 'wife'. This case means 'by,' 'through,' 'because of 
■ — either instrumental or causative. 

The Ablative 2., if used to signify 'place from,' takes -anmant; 
as, guk perk-anmant, 'water from the well '; but, when it relates 
to persons or things, it takes -inend; as, gum-anyir-inend pil-i- 
nend, ' from your eye.' The English for this case is ' from.' 

Another case-ending in the singular is -anyir; this I shall call 
Ablative 6. It denotes ' from,' expressing a cause and a result ; 
but with pronominal adjectives, it stands for the Genitive form. 

These are the principal cases, but the number of them may be 
multiplied indefinitely by the use of any of the foUowuig : — 

4. Post-Positions. 
Amby, 'for.' Moru, 'down.' 

Gugkura, 'before.' Taragk, 'between.' 

Grurn-kwar, 'outside.' Tepagk, 'close to.' 

Loru, 'up.' Tuntagk, 'between two.' 

Mare-muntunt, 'beneath.' Tunti, ' in the middle.' 

Ugul, ugunel, ugunai, 'in front of.' 

Some of these, when used as post-positions to nouns, are con- 
stant ; others vary their form when affixed to the dual or the plural. 



Paradigm of the Declension op Common Nouns. 

Komi, ' a man.' 





. 1. 

* Korn-i 









1 Kom-agk 






















Porly, ' a child.' 







* Porl-y 









j Porl-agk 
\ Porl-ugar 




















(h.) Nouns of Relationship. 
For nouns of relationship, the case-endings are :- 

Ace, Gen. 



Bative 1. 



Bative 2. 






Ablative 6. 

' from ' 


fThat is, -in or -an preceded by the euphonic y. 

For nouns of this kind there are also special terminations to 
express the nature of the relationship, whether 'mine,' 'yours,' or 
' his '; thus : — 

Nag-gai, 'father,' 'my father.' 

Yiko-wally, 'his father.' Gai-uwy, ' your father.' 
Nag-ku-owy, 'mother,' 'my mother.' 

Nagku-wally, ' his mother.' Nagku-uwy, • your mother.' 
Kelan-owy, ' my (elder) brother.' 

Kelan-wally, 'his brother.' Kelan-uwy, ' your bi'other.' 

*See foot note, p. 15 of appendix. 


Naggai, 'my father,' is tlius declined : — 
xVoTO. Naggai, 'my father.' 
Gen. Naggai-yin, 'of my father.' 
Dat. 1. Naggai-yin-amby, 'for my father.' 
Dat. 2. Naggai-yin-agk, 'to my father.' 
Ace. Naggai-yiii, 'my father.' 
Caus. Naggai-yin-inda, 'by my father.' 
Abl. 6. Naggai-yin-anyir, ' from my father.' 

All the other terms of relationship, with their possessive ad- 
juncts, may be declined by adding these case-endings. But some- 
times the Genitive of relationship puts the -aid of ordinary nouns 
before its own ending; as, tart-ald-an, ' of my (younger) brother.' 

5. Derivatives fkom Nouns, ifcc. 

Derivatives are formed from nouns by adding to them such 
terminations as : — 

1. -inyeri, 'belonging to'; as, kurl-inyeri, ' a hat,' from 
kurly, 'head'; turn-inyeri, 'a boot,' from turny, 'foot'; 
kurr-inyer-egk, ' a pair of trousers,' from kurregk (dual) ' the 
shins.' Such a derivative word, when declined, is treated as a 
common noun, and the post-position is added to the adjective 
termination; as, kurl-inyer-ald, 'of a hat,' kurr-inyer-egkal, 
' of a pair of trousers.' 

2. -urumi or -urmi, which is added to the stem of a verb to 
denote ' the instrument ' with which the action expressed by the 
verb is done, or a thing which is used for some particular- pur- 
pose ; as, tyety-urumi, 'oil, ointment,' from tyetyin, 'anoint- 
ing'; kunk-urumi, 'pills,' from kunkun,' swallowing'; mutt- 
urmi, 'a drink,' from muttun, 'drinking'; kalt-urmi, 'a spade,' 
from kalt, 'to dig'; drek-uj-mi, ' a tomahawk,' from drek, 'to 
cut or chip.' Here also the post-position is affixed to the form- 
ative for the purposes of declension. 

3. -amaldy, which is added to the stem of a verb, to denote 
the agent or person who does the action; as, pett-amaldy, 'a 
thief,' from pett, 'to steal'; yelpul-amaldy, 'a liar,' froui 
yelpul, ' to tell a lie. ' Here also the post-position is placed at 
the end of the word. 

4. -watyeri means ' full of '; as, plogge-watyeri, 'possessed 
of sorcery' ; tuni-watyeri, 'full of sand.' 

5. "When yandy, 'old,' 'useless,' is used with a noun, it 
modifies the form of the noun, and attaches the case-ending to 
itself; as, yandy or n (for korn), 'an old man,' yant-ald orn 
'of an old man'; yandy imin (for miiainj), 'an old woman,' 
yant-ald min, 'of an old woman.' 

32 an australian language. 

6. Pkonouns. 
(a.) Personal Pronouns. 
The personal pronouns have two forms in , the nominative, the 
accusative, and the causative (Abl. 1) cases, as shovm in the para- 
digm below ; the second form is used only as an affix to nouns, or 
in rapid speaking. The third pronoun is of all genders. 

Paradigm op the Declension op the Personal Pronouns. 













L V; 


Gape, ap 
Gan, an 


Ginte, inde, ind 
Gum, um 
Ginta, inda 
Ginte, inde 


Kitye, itye, atye 




Kin, in, ityanian 

Gaty, attyt 


Gel, agel 
Lam, alam 

KH, il 




Gur!, ugurl 
Lom, olom 
Guria, ula 
Gurl, ugurl 



Kegk, egk 
Ke|-gun, eg-gun 

Gel, agelf 

Kegk, egk 






Gurn, arn 
Nam, anam 


Gun, ugiin 
Nom, onom 
Guna, una 
Gun, ligun 

iiiiive form in -auwe 


Kar, ar 

Kan, an 

Gurn, arnt 

ariant for the ye, 

Kar, ar 


is -auwurle. 

t This is the case which onr author calls the Causalive-Ahlatire ; I 
have entered it in the paradigms as Abl. 1. ; it is equivalent to Threllield's 
A geiU-Nomhiative [Norn. 2), for which see page 11. — Ed. 


An adjective or a possessive pronoun, when used as an attribute 
to a noun, is declined with the noun, and has its own case-endings; 
thus : — 

Wuudi kinauwe, ' his spear.' Wiindi nung-gari, ' good spear.' 


Nom. Wundi kin-auwe (nuggari) 
Gen. Wund-ald kin-anyir-ald (nuggar-ald). 
Dat. 2. Wund-agk kin-anyir-agk (n"Uggar-ugar). 
Ace. Wund kin-auwe (nuggari). 

Abl. 1. Wund-il kin-anyir-il (nuggar-il). 
2. Wund-inend kin-anyir-inend. 


Nom. Wund-egk keggun-auwurle (nuggar-egk). 
Gen, Wund-eggal keggim-anyii'-ald (nuggar-egkal). 
Dat. 2. Wund-ugegun keggun-anyir-agk (nuggar-ugegun). 
Ace. Wund-egk keggun-auwe (nuggar-egk). 
Abl. 1. Wund-eggul keggun-anyir-il (nujgar-ugegul). 
2. Wund-ugegun keggun-anyir-inend. 


Nom. Wund-ar kan-auwe (nuggar-ar). 
Gen. Wund-an kan-anyir-ald (nuggar-an). 
Dat. 2. Wund-ugar kan-anyir-eggun (nuggar-ugar). 
Ace. Wund-ar kan-aviwe (nuggar-ar). 
Ahl. 1. Wund-ar kan-anyir-il (nuggar-ar). 
2. Wund-ugar kan-anyir-inend. 

Komar ngruwar, ' many men.' 


Nom. Korn-ar gruwar. 
Gen. Korn-an grunt-ugar. 
Dat. Korn-ugar grunt-ugar. 
Ace. Korn-ar gruwar 
Voc. Korn-una gruwun. 
Abl. 1. Korn-ar grunt-ar. 

2. Korn-ugar grunt-inend. 

Peculiarities in the syntax of the pronouns are shown in such 
sentences as : — gaty mempir kin-anyir-agk {not kin-auwe) 
kurly, ' I struck his head '; here apparently the object of a transi- 
tive verb is in the dative case; kil pleppin keggun-auwe, 
pilar, ' he touched the eyes of these two '; but here the accusative 
case is used. 


(6.) Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns. 

The demonstrative pronouns are: — liik-kai, hik-ke, 'this'; 
hitye-katye, 'this one' (emphatic) ; and nai-ye, 'that.' They 
are thus declined : — 



B emote. 











Hityene katye 




















The interrogative pronouns are gagke, ' who'? minj-e, 
Tliey are thus declined ; — 


Ngang-ke, ' who">. 

Minye, ' vhat''t 





Nauwe, nauwurle 


Dat. 1. 




Nak (siny.) 
Nak-an-agk (phi.) 

Al,l 1. 


Mengye, ' how' 

Otlier forms of the interrogative minye are : — minvandai, 
' how often ' {lit , ' what times '?) minyurti, ' what sort "I minyai 
orminyarai, ' what number '? minde, 'why? for what reason ' ? 
murel, ' with what intention '? 

7. Verbs. 

[n the Narrinyeri dialect, the form of the verb is often parti- 
cipial, and is closely allied to the adjective. 

If we take the root-form lak, 'to spear,' as the example of a 
transitive \'erb, the moods and tenses with their meanings may be 
shown thus : — 


Indicative Mood. 

Tense. Meaning. 

1. Present tense, I spear him. 

2. Past tense, I speared him. 

3. Remote jjast tense, I did spear him. 
4 First (sim2}le) future, I will spear him. 

5. Second (intention) future, I will (i.e., intend to) spear him. 

6. Third (predictive) future, I will spear him. 

7. Repetitive tense. I spear again. 

Reflexive Mood. 

I speared myself. 

Reciprocal Mood. 

Let us two spear each other. 

Imperative Mood. 

1. Simple imperative, Do thou spear. 

2. Prohibitive imperative, Spear not. 

3. Compidsory imperative. Thou must spear. 

Optative Mood. 

1 . Present optative, I may spear him. 

2. Imperfect optative. I could or would spear him. 

Infinitive Mood. 

To spear. 


Spearing ; speared. 

Passive Voice. 

I am speared. 


In the declension of the moods and tenses of the Transitive 
and Intransitive Verbs, five sets of modified forms of Personal 
Pronouns are used as the subjects to the verb. They are : — 

/. Thou. 

\^'ith Transitive Verbs. 




Gate (or gaty) kile 
Atte (or atty) il 

With Intransitive Verbs. 




Ap inde 
Ap inde 
Gap gint 




We {two). 

You ftvjoj. 
Witli Transitive Verbs. 

They (two). 

1. Gel 



2. Agel 

With Intransitive Verbs. 


3. Gel 



4 Agel 



5. Gel 




1. Gurn 

2. Ugurn 

3. Ugurn 

4. Arn 

5. Gurn 

AVith Transitive Verbs. 


With Intransitive Verbs. 









' Lak, ' to spear.' 

JE,xam2}le of the Declension of a Transitive Verb in the 

Present Tense of the Indicative Jlood. 

Any Tense may be decUned in full in the same manner. 

T. 1. Sing. 












yan lakkin 

I spear liim. 
Thou spearest him. 
He spears him. 
We two spear him. 
You two spear him. 
They two spear him. 
"We spear him. 
You spear him. 
They spear him. 

[■'Note.— Yan, 'him,' is for ityau, an accusative form of the pronoun 
itye, kitye, ' he.' Instead of yan, any pronoun or noun in the accusative 
case may be used as the direct object of the transitive verb ; and to 
decline the tenses of the Indicative and other Moods, five sets of pronouns 
are used, as shown above ; the particular set which ought to be used with 
each tense is indicated by the ' superior ' numeral put after the subject in 
the following paradigm of declension. Also, T. 1, 2, 3, &o. indicates the 
lenses as shown on the previous page. — Ed.] 

the nareinteei dialect. 37 

Indicative mood. 

T, 1. G-ate' yan lakkin. T. 4. Gate' yan lak-kaiii. 

2. G-ate' yaii lakkir. 5. Gate' lak-el ityan. 

3. Gate' yan lak-emb. 6. Lakkin-el atte* ityan. 

T, 1. Gate lak-uganye. 
Otlicr forms of the future are : — 
Ginte el our ityan lak, ' tliou must spear him.' 
Lak amb el ityan, ' shall I spear him "I 

Tarno lak amb ityan, ' shall I not spear him'? 


T. 2. Gap' anagk laggelir. 


T. 1. GeP anagk laggel-amb. 

Optative oe Potential Mood. 

T. 1. Gate' in-anyara lakkin T. 2. Lak-ilde atte^ ityan 

Imperative Mood. 

Sincjular. Dual and Plural, 

T. 1. Lak war intl G-el' war lakkin 

II war lak Gurn' war lakkin 

T. 2. Lak 6 (ityan, ' him.') Tauo lak ityan. 

T. 3. Laggel-el our (or war) apl 

Infinitive Mood. 

Lak, ' to spear 'j lak uramb, ' for the purpose of spearing.' 


Laggelin, ' spearing '; laggelir, ' speared. 

Passive Voice. 

Indicative Mood. 

Sinrfular. Dual. Plural. 

T. 1, Gan lakkir Lam lakkir Nam lakkir 

Guni lakkir Lom lakkir Nom lakkir 

Kin lakkir Keggun lakkir Kan lakkir 

[Note. — This is not a real Passive Toice, but only a substitute for it ; 
see page 33 of tliia volume. The pronoun forms used witli lakkir show 
this, for they are in the accusative. — Ed.] 


Ngai, ' to come.' 

Indicative Mood. 
T. 1. (Jai-iii ap^. T. 2, Puntir ap*. T. 3. Gai-el ap*. 

38 an australian language. 

Imperative Mood. 

Koh, ' come '; gai war, 'do come'; gai akhi, ' come here.' 

Optative or Potential Mood. 

T. 1. Gap" inanye gai. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Gai, ' to come.' 


Puntin, ' coming '; puntani, ' about to come.' 

8. Observations on the use of the Verbs. 

1. Lakkiii properly signifies 'piercing'; gate lakliin itye 
koye means 'Imal!:e a basket,' lit, 'I jjierce that basket,' by 
piercing througli and tlirough the rushes of wliich it is made ; 
but the word is mostly used to mean the casting of any missile, 
as a spear, a dart, a stone. 

2. 'The intransitive verbs take the simple nominative form of 
the pronouns as their subject ; the transitive verbs take the 
causative form. 

3. There appear to be two conjugations for verbs in the 
Narrinyeri language :^(1.) those in which the form for the 
present indicative is the same as the present participle ; as, 
merippin, 'cutting,' gate yan merippin, ' I cut it '; (2.) those 
that have another form for the present participle ; as, dretulun, 
'chipping,' gate yan dre kin, 'I chip it.' Of the former class 
aremempin, 'striking'; penipin, 'giving'; morokkin,' seizing.' 
To the latter belong pornun, 'die,' pornelin, 'dying'; nam- 
pulum, 'hide,' nampundelin, 'hiding'; nyrippin, 'wash,' 
nyribbelin, 'washing.' 

4. Some intransitive verbs become transitive by changing the 
sonant ^ into the surd k, or by adding -undun to the root ; as, 
pigkin ap, 'I fall,' piggeii atte ityan, 'I throw it down'; 
yelkulum ap, ' I move,' yelkundun atte ityan, 'I move it '; 
nampulun ap, 'I hide,' nampundun atte ityan, 'I hide it.' 

5. A. causative meaning is given to verbal adjectives by adding 
-mindin to them; as, guldaraulun, 'tired,' guldamulmindin, 
' causing to be tired,' ' making tired.' 

6. The most common auxiliary verbs are wallin, 'being,' and 
warin, 'making' or 'causing.' Examples of these are: — nug- 
gari, 'good', nugga-wallin, 'being good,' nunga-warin, ma- 
king good '; piltegi, 'strong,' pilteg-wallin, 'being strong,' 
pilteg-warin, 'making strong '; wirrag-wallin, 'being bad" 
wirrag-warin, 'making bad.' 

tunku-wallin, 'play- 


ing'; yuntu-wallin, ' crowding ; (3.) verbs ending in -warin, 
'causing,' 'making'; as, nunku-warin, ' doing right '; wirrag- 
warin, ' doing wrong '; wurtu-warin, 'saturating with water'; 
(4.) verbs ending in -m in din ; as, kildei-mindin, 'fetching.' 

8. The word elliii means ' being,' 'state of being,' and some- 
times 'doing'; but ennin is the proper word for 'doing'; el 
appears to mean 'intention or tendency towards'; as, Ink ap 
atye ellir, 'thus I it did,' 'I did so'; gate yan ellani, 'I (em- 
phatic) will do it'; gate yan ennani, ' I will do it '; en al yan, 
' do with it,' i.e., ' do it '; kunitye ellir, ' enough he has been,' 
i.e., ' he is dead.' The following are the meanings which belong 
to ellin and ennin: — ellin, 'doing'; ellir, 'done'; ellani, 
'abouttodo'; ellin, 'having'; ellin, 'being'; ellir, ' has been '; 
ennin, 'doing'; ennir, 'done'; ennani, 'will do.' 

9. The stem of the word warin is used with the imperatives 
and interrogations; as, kug war, 'do hear'; nak war, 'do see'; 
gai war, 'do come'; ginte wara, 'get out of the way,' lit., 
'do thou'; gint war,' do thou '(so., it); mant wai-, 'do slowly '; 
murrumil war, 'make haste'; yelkul war, 'do more'; mint 
war, 'give me a bit,' lit., 'do to me thou'; k4kin wara, 'put 
it here'; yag wari, ' where do you go.' 

10. There are idiomatic expressions in which the words 'go' 
and 'come' are omitted; as, loldu el itye, or loru' el ityc, 'up 
will he,' i.e., ' he will go'; mare el itye, ' down will he,' i.e., ' he 
will come'; loldan an, 'up it,' i.e., ' fetch it '; moru an, 'down 
him,' i.e., 'he has gone down'; mare itye, 'down he,' i.e., 'he 
has come '; moru el ap, ' down will I,' i.e., 'I will go down.' 

Loru and loldu both mean 'up'; mare and moru, ' down.' 
9. Adjectives. 

(1) Simple adjectives are nuggari, 'good'; wirragi, bad'; 
and others ; some of these are declined like nouns. (2) Verbal 
adjectives; as, talin, ' heavy'; b alp in, 'white'; kin em in, 'dirty'; 
kinpin, 'sweet'; prittyin, 'strong.' Some adjectives have 
both forms ; as, balpe, balpin, ' white.' 

The mode of declining adjectives has already been shown in- 
connection with the nouns. 

Adjectives have no degrees of comparison, but the diminutive 
particle -ol — used both -with adjectives and nouns — is sometimes. 
added to the positive; as, m'urralappi, 'small '; murralappi-ol, 
'very small.' 

The numeral adjectives are : — yammalai or yammalaitye, 
'one'; niggegk, ' two ', neppaldar, 'three'; beyond that, all 
numbers else are gruwar, 'many.' Gunkar means 'first.' Some 
adjectives are formed from adverbs; as, karlo-inyeri, 'of to-day,' 
'new,' from karlo,' to-day '; kaldan-inyeri, ' old,' from kaldan, 
';a long time'; kogk-inyeri, 'alone,' ' by itself,' from kogk, 
' away.' 

40 an australian language. 

10. Adverbs. 
There are numerous adverbs in the language, but the most 
common are : — 

Advirhs of Time. 
Grekkald, ' to-morrow.' Palli, ' while,' ' by-and-by.' 

Gurintand, ' often.' Eauwul, ' a long time ago.' 

Hik, ' now.' Ugunuk, ' when ' (relative). 

Kaldau, 'a long time.' Wataggrau, 'yesterday.' 

Karlo, ' to-day.' Yaral, ' when ' (interrogative). 

Yun, 'by-and-by.' 

Adverbs of Negation. 

Nowaiye, 'none.' Tarnalo, 'no more'; 'never.'' 

Nowaiye ellin, ' no more.' Tarno, ' no '; ' not.' 

Tarnalin, ' not yet.' Tauo, ' don't ' (imperative). 

Tarno el, ' don't' (do it). 

Adverbs of Place. 

Aiau, ' by (at) that place.' Yak, yauo, ' where to.' 

Akhi, alye, alyikke, 'here.' Yagi, 'where'? 

Alyenik, ' this place here.' Yagalli, 'where is he'? 

Kiuau, 'where' (relative). Yarnd, 'whence'? 

Ku-un, ' far off.' Yarnd inde, 'whence thou'? 

Ondu, ' over there.' Yarnd ande, ' whither thou'? 

Examples of the use of Adverbs. 

Yak al inde tantani, ' where will you sleep '; gurlug aiau, 
' at-the-place-where the hill' (is); manti kiuau tantani ap, 
' the hut where I shall sleep'; gap tagulun ku-un, 'I stand far 
■off'; kegk tagulun ku-u, 'they two stand far oiF'; kar 
tagulun kuar-un, 'they stand far off.' 

The word wunye, ' then,' usually coalesces with the pronoun 
or verb-sign which follows it ; as, wunyap, 'then I'; wunyar, 
' then they '; wunyel itye, ' then wUi he.' 

The words uk, ukke, luk, lun, 'so,' 'thus,' denote resemblance; 
asjluk wor lun u, 'so,' 'thus'; luk itye yarnin, 'thus he speaks'; 
lun ellin, 'so being,' i.e., 'like'; lukugge, 'like this one'; 
hikkai ukke, ' this way '; hil amb uk, ' for this way,' i.e., 'be- 
ecause '; lun uk, ' thus '; go uk ap, ' I go so.' 

The word amby may be translated either 'instead of (prepo- 
sition) or 'because' (conjunction) ; as, kaldau amb, 'for a long 
time'; hil amb uk, 'because'; pinyatowe aid amb anaipel- 
berri means 'sugar for my tea.' 

11. HoTES ON Syntax. 
1. The form of the verb is constant in its mood and tenses ; 
only the pronoun-subjects vary. 


2. The postpositional suffixes to pronouns are always attached 
to the accusative case ; as, kan-agk, 'to them.' 

3. Pronominal adjectives are always declined with their nouns ; 
as, kin-anyir-agk taldumand-agk, 'to his house'; and so also 
hikkai korn, 'this man,' harnakar kornar, 'these men'; 
ornagk nuggugai, ' in that day.' 

4. Ths diminutive is placed after the case-ending of the noun ; 
as, porl-ald-ol, ' of a little child '; porl-ar-ol, ' of little children.' 

5. When an adjective and its noun are declined together, the 
case-ending is attached only to the adjective; nuggai--ald korn, 
' of a good man.' 

6. The post-position -uramb, 'for the of,' is always 
attached to any verb which is j)ut in the infinitive by another 
verb ; as, pempir il anagk nakkari tak-uramb, 'he gave me 
a duck to eat.' 

12. FoRMATioisr OF Words. 

This is effected by adding on various terminations, some of which 
have already been noticed : — 

(1) -wallin, 'being'; as, pilgeru-wallin, 'greedy.' 

(2) -warin, 'making'; as, kogk-u-warin, 'sending away from,' 
from kogk, 'apart'; anagk-warin,. 'preparing,' 'getting ready' 
(/i<.,, ' making towards it'), from anagk, kanagk, ityanagk, the 
dative of the pronoun itye. 

(3) -atyeri, 'belonging to '; as, lamm-atyeri, 'wood for afire,' 
from lammin, ' carrying on the back.' 

13. List op Peepositions, Adverbs, (fee. 

The prepositions are used as post-positions ; those words which 
in this list are preceded by a hyphen are used as affixes. 

Above — kerau, kiath. 

After — ug. 

Again — kagulandai. 


Agent — . -urmi, -amaldy. 
Ago, long time — kaldau, klauo. 
Ah ! — yakkai ! takant'i ! 
Almost — gak. 
Alone — naityi, -knotyerai. 
Also — inye, -inyin. 
Always — kaldau-amp. 
Apart — yinbaikulun. 
As — luk. 
At — warre. 

Away from here andek. 

,, from anywhere kogk. 

„ apart — kogkinyeri. 
Be off — loru, lolden, gopwar. 
Because — marnd, hil-amb-uk. 
Before (of time) — ugunai, ugul. 

,, (in front of) — guguragk. 

,, — gunkura. [wan. 

Behind — yarewar, waiag, karlo- 
Below — moru. 
Beneath — maremuntunt. 
Between — taragk. 
Besides — ^kamanye, -anye. 
By itself — kogkinyeri. 
By— il, ile. 



By-and-by — yun, palli, yuwu- 


-Can inyuva. 

Close by tiee — mug-gai. 
Close (near to) — tapagk. 
Day, ' this day ' — hikkai nngge. 

,, after — kinagkurnugk. 
Day before yesterday — kagulun 

Down (in) — nioru, loldu. 
Don't — tauo. 
Down — wald, mujjgau. 
Eh !— ke ! keh ! 
Enough — kunye, yikkowun. 
Ever — kaldau-amp. 
Far off — ku-utyun. 
East (quickly) — tiwi-warin. 
First — kagulandai. 
Five — kuk-kuk-ki, keyakki, 

For amby, ardmi, -urumi. 

„ -urumi (for-to). 
,, them — an -anyiril. 
Formerly — kaldau. 
For — kuk, kuko. 
From, out of nend. 

,, (because) — mare, marnd, 
(place) anmant. 

,, (causative) anyir. 

Gently — mant. 
Go away — thrugkun, taiyin. 
Go (i?7iper.) — gowalwar. 
Half — galluk, narluk, mirimp. 
Hark ! — kugwar. 

Hence andi, -nend. [hi. 

Here — kalyan, alye, alyalle, ak- 
Here (this here) — alyenik, hik- 
kai alye. 
Here (that here) — anailyalye. 

,, (close by) — ak-in-ik. 
Hereafter' — pallai, yun. 
!Eow 1 — megye, yarild ? 
How often ? — minyandai ? 
How many 1 — minyai, minyarai ? 
If — ugun. 
Immediately — hikkai, hik, karlo. 

In ugai. 

In that — muggan. 

In there — muggar. 

Into — agk. 

Is— el. 

It, that is it — anailyaly.e. [lo. 

Just now — y ikkigge, hikkai, kar- 

Like — (similar) luk, lun. 

,, (similar to) glalin 
Long time ago — rande, ranwul. 
Long ago — gulli. [war. 

Make haste — murrunmil, tyiwe- 
Many times — gurintand, 
Many (too many) — multu-warin. 
May (optative) — ur. 

,, (verbal affix), -inanyura. 

,, (postfix) urmi, -uramb. 

Might (postfix) ant. 

Morrow (to-) — grekkald. 
JMuch — gruwar. 
Much more — gruinyerar. 
Much (too much) — multu-warin. 

Must war or -our. 

Near — muggau. 

Near thee — tapagk. 

Near me — hik alye (-nik), hikak. 

Never — tarnalo. 

No — tarno. 

No (imper. neg.) — tauo. 

Not — tarno, tauo, nowaiye. 

Once more — kagulandai. 

One more — yammalel. 

One — yammalaitye. 

Only on, -ai. 

On the other side — laremuntunt. 
Out of the way — nent-wara. 
Outside — gurukwar. 
Over there — wara. 

Perhaps ant. 

Quick — murrunmilin, tyiwewar. 

Round about — laldilald. 

Second — wyag, karlowan. 

Single — yammalaitye, -ai. 

So — lun. 

Still (ar/i-.)— thortuld. 

Thanks — an-ugune. 

That there — naiye uwe. 

That way — gauwok. 

Then — wanye, wunye. 



Then one — inna. 

Then two — yikkuk. 

There (being down) — oldau. 

„ (up there) — walde, warre. 

„ (over there) — naiyuwe. 

,, (from there) — ondu. 

„ (in there) — muggar. 

,, — naiye uwe, muggau. 
This way (road) — hikkai-yarluk. 
„ (manner) — hikkai-ukke. 
Three — neppaldar. 
Thus — luku. 
Time, a long time ago — kaldau. 

,, a short time ago — karlo. 
To (into)— agk. 
„ (towards)— ugai. 
To-day — hikkai nugge. . 
To-morrow — grekkald. 
Too far in — tumutyun. 

Together — yunt. 
Truly— katyil. 
Two — nigkaiegk, pullatye. 
Up above — kerau. 
Up — loru, war, mari. 
Up there — erouke, naiyewarre. 
Upside down — laremuntunt. 
Very — pek. 
Very near — gake. 
Well — golde, guide. 
While — pallai. 

Whither — yauo ande. [anyir. 
Why 1 — megye, mind, mindin- 
With (a material) — ugai, ugar. 
,, (instrument) — in agk ai. 
With — aid, al, ugai. 
Within — maremu ntunt. 
Without — indau . 
Yes (truly) — katyil. 


The Diy6ri tribe occupies the region about Cooper's Creek, in 
the heart of South Australia, about 630 miles north of Adelaide. 
Eor comparison, their system of pronouns may be given here, as 
furnished by the Eev. E. Homann, Lutheran Missionary : — 

Personal Pronouns. 




Masc. Fern. 





Nanya Nania 




Nulia Nandruya 




Nunkani ISTankani 




Nunkagu Nankagu 




Nanya Nania 



- --^ 



Nali, naliena 








Nalina, naldrani 





naldragu Yudlagu 




naldrana Yudlana 









Nom. 1. 

Naiana, naiani 

















The possessive pronouns, which are the personal pronouns of 
the genitive case, are declined also like substantives ; thus :— 

Nom. 1. — Nakani, 'my'; Nom. 2. — Nakanali; Gen. — 'S&- 
kanaia; Z)ai. ^Nakanani; Ace. — Nakani; Voc. — ^Nakanaia, 

Mr. Gason, "who is well acquainted with another portion of the 
Diyeri tribe, gives their pronouns thus : — 

Peesonal Peonouns. 

First Pronoun. 

Novi. 1. Althu 
2. Athu 
Gen. Ni 
Dat. Akuga 
Ace. Ani 

Second Pronoun. 

Nom. 2. Yondru 




Nom. 1. Janana, uldra 
Gen. Janani, uldrani 
Ace. Ali 


Nom.. 1. Yini 
Gen. Yinkani 

Third Pronoun. 

Singular. , 

Masc. , Fem. > Neut. 


■ 2' > Nulla Naniya, nundroya Ninna Thana 

Gen. Niinkani Nankani Thanani 

■Of'*' Wirri, wurra. 

Ace. Nulu Nania, nandruya Thaniya, gundru 

Other pronouns are : — Ninna, ninnea, 'this'; ninna, 'that'; 
thaniya, gundru, 'those'; warana, 'who"! wurni, 'whose'? wur- 
oga, 'whom'? whi, wodau, 'what'? 




Nouns are declined, as usual, by affixes; after the following 
manner : — 



Kurna undru 

Man relatiiig-to. 

Apa - n - undru 

Water relating-to. 

Kurna - thulka 

Man relating-to. 

Yinkani - ku 


The Verb. 

The Diyeri verbs, as in other Australian languages, have their 
tense-forms based on the forms of the imperative and the present 
participle, as shown in the paradigm below. The numbers indi- 
cate the tenses quoted, which are; — 1. Infinitive Present; 2. 
Participle Present ; 3. Participle Past ; 4. Participle Eeciprocal ; 
5. Indicative, Perfect Definite ; 6. Indicative, Pluperfect ; 7. Indi- 
cative, Future ; 8. Imperative, Singular ; 9. Imperative, Plural. 

' Grow.' ' AnJc' 






Biinkuna Acana 



Bunkanaorit Acanaori 



Biinkanawonthi Acanawonthi 






Bunka Acea 



' Cover, hunj,' 









Numpuna wonthi 




Nii or nihi 



*The post-position mi means 'to.' fTo decline any tense, 
prefix the causative form of the personal pronouns as the subject. 

Some adjectives are participal in their form ; as, muncuruna, 
' sick '; mundathuruna, 'lazy'; kukutharkuna, ' unlevel'; kun- 
kuna, 'lame'; mulluna, 'alike.' 

Some adjectives seem to have forms of comparison ; as, wordu, 
'short,' wordu-murla, 'shorter,' wordu-m.uthu, 'shortest'; 
umu, 'good, umu-murla, 'better'; nuru, 'quick,' nuru-pina, 
'very quick'; moa, 'hungry,' moa-pina, ' very hungry.' 



(From Dr. Moorhouse's Grammar. ) 


Erom Manum to Overland Corner, on the River Murray, and 
thirteen miles back from the river on each side ; Blanchetown is 
their head-quarters. 

Declension of Nouns. 

Nguilpo, ' child. ' 

























Guil-kakulla main- 

Guil-yara mainmudl 


Guil-knlla manno 





—Ahl. 2 means 'from'; Ahl. 4, 'at,' 'with' 

(a locative form) ; Ahl. 

6 is the Causative, and may be translated ' by. ' 

Declension of the Personal Pronouns. 

Ahl. 6. 














— Singular- 






— Plural 













-There are no abbreviated forms of the pronouns, and no gender 

Declension of the Verb. 

The verbs parldkun, ' strike ' and terrin, ' stand,' may be ta- 
ken as examples ; in form, both of these are Present Participles. 








Aorist 1. 




Aorist 2. 




















f Parldkulmun- 
( nainmudl 











Past Participle 



Note. — The meanings are : — No. 2, ' didstrike '; No. 3, 'struck '; No. 6., 
'would strike'; No. 7, 'strike not'; No. 8, 'tliat...may not strike'; No. 
9, 'may strike'; No. 10, ' for-to strike '; No. 11, 'having struck.' And 
similarly for the verb terrin. 


System of kinship found amongst the Maroura tribe. 

The Maroura inhabit the country at the junction of the River 
Darling with the River Murray, and a considerable distance up 
the Darling. 

In the names for relationship, there are different terminations 
for those that are ' mine,' ' yours,' ' hers '; e.g., 

Kambiya, ' my father.' Gammugiyi, ' my mother.' 

Kambiyauna, 'your father.' G-ammugammu, 'your mother.' 

Kambiyanna, ' his father.' Kittha gammu, ' his mother.' 

These Marouras are the tribe which descended the Darling 
between the years 1831 and 1836 {cf "Mitchell's Expedition"). 
The Narrinyeri have a tradition that they came down the Darling 
and then across the desert to the head of Lake Albert. 



We two 
You two 
You (lolu.) 
He, she, it 
They two 


1.* 2. 







Pa, padlo 
































*NoTE. — The numbers indicate the localities where the words are used ; 
1. is the Adelaide dialect, 2. is Encounter Bay, 3. is Pomuuda, 4. is the 
dialect spoken to the west of Lake Alexandrina. 



Two heads 






1. 2. 













j Pui-laitye-pur- ) kukar-kukar 
\ laitye j 







f kiggarug or 
\ kukar-kar 





[Tliis short sketch of the Grammar of the language of Western Australia 
is the only one that I can find anywhere. It is in " The Western Aus- 
tralian Almanac for 1842," and is printed there as an appendix, ' com- 
piled by Chas. Symmons, Protector of the Aborigines, from material 
furnished by Mr. Francis F. Armstrong, the native interpreter.' Some 
portions of it are taken ' from the preface to Captain (Sir George) Grey's 
vocabulary. ' I have abridged the material of the Grammar, and adapted 
it to present uses. — Ed.] 

1. Nouns. 

The cases are indicated by inilections, (lius : — 

The Genitive takes the suffix -ik, which means 'of or 'belonsfinsr 
to ; some districts say -a g instead of -ak. EoMinples : — Kalla, 
'fire,' kalla-r-ak, 'hot'; miki, 'moon,' mik-ag, 'moonlight'; 
dta, 'mouth,' dta-lag, 'tongue'; gabbi, 'water,' gabbi- 
lag, 'belonging to water'; budjor, 'ground,' budjor-lag, 
'belonging to the ground'; mammarapak gidji, 'a man's 
spear'; yagoak boka, 'a woman's cloak.' 

The Dative; its sign is -a 1, sometimes -ak; as, gadjo allija gulag- 
alyogaga, ' I gave it to the child '; Perth-ak bard'iu, 'going 
to Perth.' 

The Accusative ends, i-n. -\\\; as, gadjo yan-gorin gau-gau bru, 
* I do not see the kangaroo.' 

The Ablative affixes -al to the nominative case; as, gadjo boat-al 
Pcrth-ak bardaga, ' I went in a boat to Perth '; galata kai- 
bra-al watto bardaga, ' we went away in a ship'; balgun- 
al bumaga, 'she was killed by a gun '; durda cart-al bar- 
duk bardaga, ' the dog went away with the cart.' 



The Plural number is indicated by adding the numerals, but all 
beyond three are bula, ' much,' ' many.' The words for human 
beings add -man, or -arra, or -garra to form the plural ; man 
is an abbreviated form of man-da, 'altogether,' 'collectively.' 
Words ending with a vowel take -man; those ending with a 
consonant take -giirra; as, kardo, 'a husband or -wife,,' plu., 
kardo-man; yago, 'a woman,' p^u., yago-man; djuko, 
'sister,' plu., djuko-mim; mammul, ' son,' plu., mammul- 
garra; gulag, '■ & clulA,' plu., gulag-garra. 

Declension of 




Yago, ' a wo 











Yag-ol or Yago-al 








The Ablative means ' with,' ' by means of.' 

Examples: — Yago maiak-al yugau bardaga, 'a woman 
came to the house'; n'yagga yago-ak wanna, 'that is a woman's 
staff'; gadjo marain yago-al yogaga, 'I gave flour to a 
woman'; gadjo yago-in djinnag-ga, ' Isa-v? awoman'; budjor 
yago-al bianaga, 'the ground was dug by a woman.' 

The commonest and most useful nouns are : — 

Time, Weather, &c. 

Cloud — m ar-gabbi. 

Comet (meteor) — binnar. 

Darkness — maiart. 

Dawn — waxilu. 

Daylight — birait. 

Lightning — babbag-win^ 

Mid-day — malyarak. 

Moon — miki. 

Moonlight — mika g. 

Kain — gabbi ; moko. 

Sky — gudjait. 

Stars — gan-gar. 

Sun — gan-ga. 

Sunshine — monak. 

Thunder — m algar . 

To-day — aiyi. 

To-morrow — morogoto ; binag. 

Yesterday — mairh-ruk. 


Air (wind) — mar. 
Earth — budj or. 
Fire — kalla. 
"Water — gabbi. 


Spring — jilba. 
Summer — birok. 
Autumn — burnuro. 
Winter — mag-goro. 


A man — mammarap. 

An old man — windo. 

A young man — gulambiddi. 

A w.oman — yago. 

An old woman — windc. 

A young woman — mandiggara. 



A child — gulag. 
An infant — gudja. 


Ancestors — n'yettin-gal. 
Aunt — man-gat. 
Brother — gundu. 

, , (eldest) — guban ; boran. 
„ (middle) — kardijit. 
„ (youngest) — guloain. 
„ -in-law — deni. 
Daughter — gwoairat. 
Father — mamman. 

„ -in-law — kan-gun. 
Husband, wife — kardo. 
Mother — gan-gan. 

„ -in-law — man-gat. 
Nephew — maiur. 
Niece — gambart. 
Sister — djuko. 

(eldest) — jindam. 
(middle) — kauat. 
(youngest) — giil oain. 
(married) — mairak. 
-in-law — deni. 
Son — mammal. 
Uncle — kan-gun. 

Parts of the body. 

Arm (upper) — wan-go. 

„ (lower — marga. 

,, (right) — gunman. 

,, (left) — d'yu-ro. 
Back — bogal. 
Beard — gan-ga. 
Blood — gubo. 
Bone — kotye. 
Bowels — konag. 
Breast (male) — mingo. 

„ (female) — bibi. 
Chin — gan-ga. 

Countenance — dtamel ; minait. 
Ear — ton-ka. 
Elbow — nogait. 
Excrement — kona g. 
Eye — mel. 
„ -brow — mimbat. 

Eye-l ash — mel-kambar. 
„ -lids — mel-nalyak. 

Elesh — ilain. 

Eoot — -jina. 

Forehead — bigaic. 

Hair of head — kattamangarra. 

Hand — raarhra. 

Head — katta. 

Heel — gardo. 

Knee — bonnit. 

Leg — matta. 

Liver — maierri. 

Mouth — dta. 

Neck — wardo. 

Nose — mulya. 

Side — garril. 

Stomach — kobbalo. 

Tear — mingalya. 

Teeth — nalgo. 

„ (upper) — gardak-yugauin, 
,, (lower) — ira-yugauin. 

Temples — yaba. 

Thumb — marhra- gan-gan. 

Tongue — dtalag. 

Animals, Birds, kc. 

Bat — bambi. 
Bird (a) — jida. 
Crow — wardag. 
Dog — durda. 
Flea, louse — kolo. 
Fly — nurdo. 
Lizard — jina-ara. 
Pig — m a ggor o g. 
Snake — wan-gal. 


Bark (of tree) — mabo. 
Egg — nurdo. 

Food (of all sorts) — dadja. 
Grass — bobo. 
Grave (a) — bogol. 
Hill (a)— katta. 
House (a) — maia. 
Lake (large) — mulur. 
,, (small) — gu-ra. 
River — bilo. 



Rock, stone — buyi. 
Sand — goyarra. 
Sea — odern. 
Stick (wood) — garba. 
„ (fire-) — kalla-matta. 

Tree — burnu. 
Water — gabbi. 

Water (fresh) — gabbi dji-kap. 
„ (stream)— gabbi gurjait. 
Young (animal) — noba. 

2. Adjectives. 

The adjectives most commonly 

Alive — won-gin, dordak 
Angry— girrag 
Arm (left) — n'yar'io. 

„ (right) — gun-man. 
Bad — djul. 
Big — gomon. 
Bitter — djallam. 
Black — moan. 
Clear (as water) — karrail. 
Cold — nagga. 
Dead — wonnaga. 
Dry (not wet) — ilar. 
Far away — urar. 
Pat — boain-gadak. 
Fresh — milgar. 
Good — gwabba. 
Green — gerip-gerip. 
Hard — mui-doen. 
Health (in) — barra-barra. 
High — iragan. 

ui use are : — 

Hot — kallag. 
Like (similar) — mogin. 
Little — n'yu-map. 
Long, length — walaiadi. 
Low — gar-dak. 
Narrow — nulu. 
Near — barduk. 
Old — windo. 
Red — wilgila g. 
Short — gorad (-da). 
Sick — mendaik. 
Slow — dabbiik. 
Soft — gunyak. 
Sweet — mulyit. 
Tall— urri. 
Thin — kotyelarra. 
True — bundo. 
Wet — balyan. 
White — wilban. 
Wild — waii-waii. 

A substantive acquires an adjective meaning by taking such 
suffixes as -gadak, 'having, possessing,' -bru, 'without,' "which 
corresponds to the English suffix 'less'; as,jigala-gadak, 'having 
horns,' 'a cow'; kardo-gadak, 'having a husband or wife,' 
'married'; boka-bru, 'cloak-less'; gabbi-brii, ' without water.' 

Comparison of Adjectives. 

Some adjectives add jin for the comparative; as, from dabbak, 
'slow,' dabbak-jin, 'slower'; gwidjir, 'sharp,' gwidjir-jin 
' sharper'; yerrak, 'high,' yerrak-jin, 'higher.' But usually a 
reduplication makes the comparative, and -jil is added to the 
base for the superlative; as, gwabba, 'good,' gwabba-gwabba, 
'better'; gwabba-jil, 'best.' This intensive particle -jil, equiva- 
lent to ' verily,' may be added to other parts of speech ; as, 
kardo-jil, 'one who is in the direct line for marrying with 
another'; dadja-jil, 'it is certainly meat'; kannah-jil, 'is it 
indeed so'? The English 'very' is rendered by a reduplication; 
as, mulyit-mulyit, 'very sweet.' 



four,' gud- 


'One,' gain; 'two,' gudjal ; ' three,' warli-rag ; 
jal-gudjal; 'five' is marh-jin baga, 'half the hands'; 
is belli-bellimarhjin baga, 'the hand on either side.' 

In reckoning time the natives say 'sleeps' for days, and 
' summers and winters ' for years. There is no Article. 

3. Pkonouns. 

The pronouns must be carefully used, for a very slight change 
in the termination of any one of them will alter altogether the 
force and meaning of a sentence. 

ThB personal pronouns are : — 



Gadjo or ganya, ' I. 

Gala-ta, ' we.' 

N'yundo or ginni, ' 

thou.' N 

yurag, ' ye. 


, ' he, she, it.' 

Balgun, 'they.' 

They are thus declined : 







r G-adjo 
( G-anya 

f N'yundo 
I Ginni 










A ecu. 




















G-annil (-in) 







There are thus two forms for the Sing. Nom. of the first and 
second pronouns ; gadjoand n'yundo seem to be used with an 
active sense of the verb, but ganya and ginni with a passive 
sense; for there is no passive /or )?i of the verb, and there is no 
verb 'to be'; ganya and ginni are always used with a parti- 
ciple or an adjective; gadjo and n'yundo are never so used. 
Examples of their use: — Gadjo djinnag, 'I see,' but ganya 
bardin, 'I am going '; gadjo dtan, 'I pierce,' but ganya gan- 
nauin, ' I am eating,'; gadjo burno dendagaga, ' I climbed a 
tree,' but ganya waugalal bukkanaga, 'I was bitten by a 
snake'; ganya windo, 'I am old'; ganya garrag, 'I am 
angry.' Similarly for the second pronouns ; as, n'yundo kattidj, 
'do you understand'? but y an ginni wan-gauin, 'what are 














you talking about'? n'yundo naitjak gabbi ganna gagau- 
bru, ' \v]iy do you not fetch me water'? but ginni naitjak 
balin bumawin, 'why are you beating me'?; ginni djul, 
'you are wicked'; ginni goradda, ' you are short.' 

Worn. 1. 

Another form of gannik is gannana. 

The forms marked nom. 1 are used by brothers and sisters or 
two friends closely related; nom. 2., by parent and child or by 
nej)hew and uncle; nom. 3., by husband and wife or by two 
persons of diiferent sexes affectionately attached, or (gannana) 
by two brothers-in-law. 

The Possessive Pronouns are : — 

G-anna, 'my,' gannaiak, 'mine'; n'yunna, 'thy,' n'yun- 
nalak, n'yunnalag, 'thine'; balak, bal'alak, 'his, her, its,' 
gannilak, 'our or ours'; n'yuragak, 'your or yours'; balgunak, 
' their or theirs.' The Demonstrative Pronouns are: — IST'yagga, 
'that,' 'those'; nidja, ' this,' 'these.' Th& Interrogative Pronouns 
Jire: — Ganni, 'who'? i.e., 'who are you'? gando, 'who'? i.e., 
' who did that ' ? gannog, 'whose'? 

4. Veees. 

The verbs in most common use are : — 

Arise — irabin Fight — bakadju 

Beat — buma Fly — bardag 

Become — abbin Go — bardo; watto 

Bite^bakkan Go away — kolbardo 

Break— takkan Hear — kattidj 

Bring; carry off; take Pain — bakkan 

away — barrag Pierce — dtan 

Marry — kardo barrag See — djinnag ; gan-gau 

Burn (fire) — burrarap Sit — ginnau 

Bury — bianan Speak — wan-gau 

Carry — gagau Spear — gidjil 

Cook — dukun Stand — yugau 

Cry — mirag Take^ — gagau 

Cry out — mirau Tear — jeran 

Dig — bian Throw — gwardo 

Eat, drink — ganno ; nalgo. Tie — yutarn 

Pear — waien Understand — kattidj 
"Walk— gannau. 


Imperatives are : — 

Come here — kowa-kowa, yual Leave it alone — bal or wanja 

Go on — gatti Listen — nah-nah 

Get up — irap Take care — garrodjin 

Go away — watto Stay, remain — nannip 


1. Indie. 2^resent. — For this, use either the infinitive or the form 
of the present participle ; as, gad jo djinnag, 'I see'j but 
ganya bumawin, 'I am beating.' 

2. Indie, preterite. — Use the past participle, or add -ga to the in- 
finitive ; the relative distance of the past periods of time is 
indicated by prefixing to the tense the words gori, 'just now,', 
karamb, ' a short time since,' gorah, ' a long time ago.' 

3. Indie, future. — Here the first and second personal pronouns 
singular become gadjul and n'yundul, ' I will,' ' you will.' 
The distance of the future time is indicated by placing before 
the verb the adverbs burda, 'presently,' and mila for any 
more remote time. 

4. Imperative mood. — Lay emphasis on the last vowel of the 
present indicative. 

5. Partieiple present. — -Add -in or -win to the infinitive. 

„ past. — Add -ga to the infinitive. 

6. Passive voice. — Here the form of the sentence is elliptical ; 
therefore ganya, ginni are used with the past participle and 
the ablative of the instrument or cause. 


Buma, 'to heat,' 'kill,' 'blow as a flower.' 

Infinite — Buma. Part. pres. — Bumawin. 

Part. past. — Bumaga. 
Tense 1. *bumawin. 1\ 2. *gori bumiga. T. 3. fburda buma. 
T. 4. buma. 
These numbers indicate tlie Tenses as shown above. 
*The pronouns to be used here are : — Sinff. ganya, ginni, 
bal; Plur. galata, n'yurag, balgun ; but instead of ganya 
and ginni, T. 2. takes gadjo and nyundo ; there use the forms 
gadjul, n'yundul. 

Passive Voice. — For the passive voice, use the same tense-forms 
as in the active voice, that is, buma for the ^ires. and thefut, 
and bumaga for the past, but prefix to them the accusative cases 
of the personal pronouns ; thus, ganya-in gori bumiga, 'I was 


beaten lately '; Zii., ' (some one) beat me lately.' But the ablative 
of the cause or instrument may also be used to form a passive 
voice; thus, ganya gidjial dtannaga, 'I am pierced by a 

The substantive verb. — There does not appear to be any 
copula; it is certainly not used in such sentences as ganya 
yulap, 'I am hungry^; ginni kotyel'ara, 'thou art thin'; bal 
windo, 'he is old'; galata gwabba, 'we are good'; n'yurag 
djul, 'you are wicked'; balgun mindait, 'they are sick.' 

5. Adveebs. 

The adverb is placed before the verb ; useful adverbs are : — 

After (behind) — golan-ga Never — yuatjil 

Again — garro No — yuada 

Already — gori Not — bart; bru; yuada 

Always — dowir Now — yaii 

Before (in front) — gwaicagit Perhaps — gabbain 

Close to ; near — barduk So — winnirak 

Continually — kalyagal So many — winnir 

Enough — belak That way — wunno 

Formerly — karamb Then — garro 

Here — n'yal There (prox.) — yellinya 

How many — namman „ (remote) — boko ; bokoja 

Immediately — gwaic; ilak Where — winji; winjal; yan 

Thus — wanno-ic Yes — qua 

More — gatti-gatti Yonder — bokoja 

6. Pkepositions. 
These are few in number : — 

After {dat.) — golag On (upon) — gadja 

Among (partitive) — manda To ak or -al 

„ , (mixed with) — kardagor With (in company with) — 

By (affix) al „ gambarn (takes the ace.) ; 

In (within) — bura „ barduk (takes the dat.) 

Of— -ak Without — bru 

In use, they are all post-positions, and are always placed after 
the noun or pronoun. Gradj a is used of one thing lying on another, 
but never of anything lying on the ground. 

7. Inteerogation, Affirmation, Negation. 
A question is asked by putting kannah at the end of the sen- 
tence ; as, n'yundo tonka, kannah, 'do you hear'? An answer 
may be given by qua, ' yes,' or by affixing -ba k to the word used 
in reply ; as, yallanait, 'what is that'? burnu-bak, 'it is a 
tree.' If the reply is negative, put bart or bru after verbs, and 
yuada after adjectives. 


8. Conjunctions. 

Gudjir, ' and'; m in nig, 'if; ka, 'or.' There is no word for 
' wlien,' but minnig and ka are used in its stead ; for instance, 
'when I see you to-morrow ' will be expressed by 'if I see you 
to-morrow'; and ' when did you come to Perth '? will be 'did you 
come to Perth to-day or yesterday "I 

9. Interjections. 

Jfah — ah ! so ! (to indicate that a person is listening to what is 
related), and n'y6n — 'alas'! 





[The Wirradhuri dialect, or, as I call it, the Wiridhari, covers the whole 
heart of N. S. Wales ; its limits are shown on the map of the native tribes. 
I consider myself fortunate in having secured the publication of the 
Grammar and Vocabulary of so important a tribe. The following manu- 
script was written about fifty years ago by the late Archdeacon Gunther, 
and is specially reliable because of its author's character and experience, 
and because, at that time, the tribe had not yet begun to decay, and its 
language was entire. He was educated for the Ministry at Basle, in 
Switzerland, attending lectures there at the University and the Missionary 
College ; sulisequently he prosecuted his studies at the C. M. Society's 
College, Islington, London. 

In 1837, he commenced his missionary work among the aborigines of the 
Wiridhari tribe at "Wellington Valley," now Wellington, in New South 
Wales. Here he compiled this Grammar and Vocabulary ; he also trans- 
lated the Gospel by St. Luke and portions of the Prayer Book for the use 
of the tribes on the Maequarie River and the neighbouring country. His 
efforts and those of the mission party, in ameliorating the condition of the 
natives and teaching them, met with considerable success. After the 
mission was abandoned by the authorities, he was induced by Bishop 
Broughton to accept the parish of Mudgee, where he laboured for many 
years, and died in December, 1879. 

These MSS. are the property of the late Mr. Giinther's son, the present 
Archdeacon of Camden, New South Wales, who has kindly lent them to 
me for this purpose. In editing them, I have retained the author's mode 
of spelling the native words, and have made only some slight alterations in 
the form of the matter of the Grammar and the Vocabulary, with the view 
of securing greater symmetry throiighout. — Ed.] 



1. The Declension op Nouns. 
There is, properly speaking, only one primary declension, but the 
principle of assimilation, to which the language has a strong 
tendency, sometimes produces sligVit variations of the termin- 
ations of the nouns before the case-endings ; similarly, when the 
last letter but one of the stem is i. 

In order to cover all these variations, the number of the de- 
clensions will amount to eight. It must, however, be observed 
that here the formation of cases differs materially from the modes 
used in other languages, at least from that of the Latin and 
Greek. The simple or nominative form undergoes no alteration, 
but, to form the cases, it takes additions by means of postfixes. 
The only apparent exception to this rule is that where the letter 
i is cast out. The number of cases cannot easily be fixed, since 
almost every relation iii which a noun may be placed is signified 
by some postfix or other ; those given in the examples below in- 
clude the most common and essential relations. 

A strange peculiarity of this language is the existence of two 
nominative-forms — the one the simple nominative or nominative- 
declarative, corresponding to the question ' who or what is it '? 
and the other the nominative active, when the thing or person 
spoken of is considered as an agent ; this answers to the question, 
' who m- what does it "\ The genitive and the dative are alike ; 
the accusative is the same as the simple nominative ; the vocative 
is known by tl^ie exclamatory word 'ya' put before the simple 
nominative, or by its termination, which is like that of the genitive. 
The case-endings and their meanings may be shown thus :^ 

the simple form, 
the agent form, 
'of; ' belonging to.' 
'to,' 'for,' 'towards.' 
the direct object. 

place from which. 
' together with.' 
'in,' 'on,' 'at.' 
' by means of.' 

The numbering of the cases corresponds with that shown on the Paradigm. 

The same word is both singular and plural without change ; 

only when the idea of plurality is to be conveyed, the noun adds 

the word galag and is then declined like walla g of the paradigm. 






Nom. agent. 

-du, -dyu, -gu, lu. 










the same- as nom. 




prefixes ya to noin. 1. 



-dyi, -li, -ri 



-durai or -durei 



-da, -dya, -ya, -la, 






XS AT7STEAMA:S iangttage. 

M . 










-a ^ -ci 

f"* 1—1 






rr^ nj '^ '-^ 




s -3 - 


cq m w 




I I I I 

^ ^ s 

S 2 ^ "^ 






































































aj _a 

'73 nj =a 

.S p= 

C3 — ^ -J "- ^^ •■-I J 

"il pq pq pq p; 


S c Ph — 

60 Sj 

a. ^ 

-a a 
a o 

.- 60 


S c3 
^ S-t 










-a t< 









P is" .S p 



































s s i^ a 

•SSSVQ i-i 




a s 






-a cs 





The examples given above show that the variations in declension 
arise from assimilation. Thus, when r or Z is the last sound of the 
word, these letters assimilate the initial consonant of the postfix. 
If the vowel of the last syllable is i, either ending the word or 
syllable or followed by n, euphony adds the sound of y to the a 
of the postfix ; thus, dya, dyu, dyi appear instead of da, du, di. 
When i is ejected, this rule does not apply. The ejection of i pre- 
ceded by a takes place in the N'om. 2 and in the Locative. 

If the possessive pronoun is put before its noun, it is declined 
with the same termination as the noun. But the more common 
practice is to put the pronoun behind it in an abbreviated form as 
a postfix; as, buraigundi, ' to my boy'; buraigunu, ' to your 
boy'; buraigugula, 'to his boy.' ' To my boy,' with the posses- 
sive pronoun detached, would be gaddigu buraigu. 

2. The Comparison op Adjectives. 

There is no comparative form of the adjective, nor, properly 
speaking, a superlative, though certain terminations, such as bag 
'very,' bambilag 'exceedingly,' express a superlative or a very 
high quality of the thing. Hence the comparisons on things are 
expressed in an indistinct manner. To say, ' this is better than 
that,' would be ginna marog, wirai gannalla ; lit., ' this is 
good, not that '; nila garambag, gainguagual, lit., 'this Yery 
good, that also.' But to say, 'this is the best of all,' would be nila 
marogbangan, wirai igianna ginnallal; lit, 'this is good 
indeed, these are not like it.' Adjectives may be declined like 
nouns, but in syntax they are not always declined. 

3. The Verb. 

The study of the verb is attended with some difficulty on ac- 
count of its many tenses and modifications ; it is, however, con- 
jugated in a very regular manner, and, excepting the imperative, 
it is non-inflexional throughout all its tenses, all the persons, both 
singular and plural, having the same form. The conjugations 
may be reduced to about five, nor do these vary much, and, so far 
as they do vary, they follow strict rules according to the ter- 
mination of the last syllable and the vowel preceding it. 

The verbs, then, are arranged in conjugations according to the 
terminations of the present tense of the indicative ; thus : — 

Terminations of Conjugations. 

1. -4nna or -ana ; 2. -unna; 3. -inga ; 4. -arra ; 5. -irra. 

The vowel of the penultimate syllable may be said to terminate 
the radical part of the verb, which is retained in all the tenses 
and modifications, whilst the remainder is liable to be thrown ofi". 
Those tenses where a becomes ai are only apparent exceptions to 
the rule. 


In the formation of the tenses and modifications, the letter r 
is changed into its relative liquid I, and n, for the sake of euphony, 
is changed into m by assimilation. Euphony also requires an a 
terminating the root to be modified into the diphthong ai ; and 
tid, on account of the influence of the preceding i, becomes ndy. 

The Tenses. 

There are no fewer than ten tenses in the language; besides 
those common to most languages, some are peculiar tenses which 
have an adverbial signification. 

The following shows the conjugation of a simple verb : — ■ 
Buma, ' beat.' 
Indicative Mood. 
T. 1. {Present Tense). 

Sing. 1. Gaddu* bumarra I beat. 

2. (rindu* bumarra Thou beatest. 

3. Gruin* bumarra He, she, beats. 

Dual. Galli bumarra We (two) beat. 

G-alligu bumarra He and I beat. 

Plu. 1. G-eanni bumarra We beat. 

2. G-indugir bumarra You beat. 

3. Guaingulia bumarra They beat. 

T. 2. G-addu bumalgarrin T. 6. G-addn bumalinni 

3. Gaddu Lumalgurranni 7. Gaddu bumalgivri 

4. G-addu bumae 8. G-addu bumalgarriawagirri 

5. Gaddu bumalguan 9. G-addu bumalgarrigirri 

T. 10. [Fut.-perf.) G-addu bumalyigirri. 
The T. numbers here indicate the Tenses as on page 26 of this volume. 


Bumalli, 'to beat.' 


Sing. 1. Bumallidyu, ' let me beat.' 

2. Bumalla (fbuma), 'beat thou.' 

3. Bumallaguin barri, ' let him beat.' :[ 

Dual Galli bumalli, ' let us two beat.' 

Gulagalligunna bumalli, ' let him and me beat.' 
Plu. 1. Bumalli geanni, ' let us beat.' 

2. Gindugir bumalla (fbuma), ' beat you.' 

3. Bumalla guaingulia barri, ' let them beat.' 

*For emphasis use liere — Sing. 1. yallu or balidu, or yalludu ; 2. 
balundu ; 3. balaguin. t This abbreviated form is often used. :|: The 
verbs ending in -ana or -anna diifer from this in Imp. simj. 1, 2, 3. 





Veebal Noun. 

Bumalgidyal (bnmagidyal), ' beating.' 

This form, being a verbal noun, can never be used as a participle, 
the Greek language and the German, the infinitive serves as a verbal r 
so also the Latin supine and gerundice. 

The forms which supply our participles are classed with the 
modifications of the verb. The subjunctive is formed with mal- 
1 ag, the optative with bag ; for there are no real subjunctive or 
potential forms. Sentences of that description are expressed by a 
kind of auxiliary, such as garra or mallag; or by the future 
tense, with the conditional conjunction yandu attached : — 

Yandnndu dalgirri, 'if I should eat.' 

G-addu garra dalgirri, 'I can or would eat.' 

Graddu mallag de, 'I would or should eat' (or have eaten). 

Yandundu mallag de, 'if you did eat' (or would eat). 

Mallag here is not a verb but a mere subjunctive particle. 

Nor is there a form for the passive. A. kind of passive is some- 
times expressed by putting the subject in the accusative, along 
with the active form of the verb ; but the source whence comes 
the action is not named, for that can only be put in the agent- 
nominative case. Hence, it must be that this is not in reality a 
passive, but an active sentence ; only, for the sake of laying more 
emphasis on the action done, the agent is omitted. 

T.4.BLE OF Conjugations, Principal Tenses, and Moods. 




Yan-nan (i.e., -naan) 






























Bad alia 





This table contains all 

the principal 

tenses — those in which 

different conjugations vary. The other tenses of each conjugation 
follow the model given for the verb bumarra. Of course, not 
every verb is used in all the tenses; thus, yunne, the imper- 
fect, is not used. The numbers indicate the conjugations. 

* The imperative is often shortened; as, nada, na; galla, ga; malla, ma. 


The conjugations of certain letters may occasionally, but rarely, 
cause the general rules to be violated for the sake of euphony ; 
thus, the verb mugana has in the perfect tense mugaiguan, not, 
as might be expected, mugaguan, no doubt, on account of two 
' g's' being so near each other. 

4. Modifications of the Verb. 

A characteristic feature and peculiarity of this aboriginal dia- 
lect is the use of numerous postfixes. By means of these, the 
noun shows an unusual number of cases, which supply in a certain 
measure the absence of our prepositions. In a similar manner, the 
verb takes additions or changes of its form, by which new forms 
it expresses its modified significations according to the various 
relations in which the simple verb may be placed. These tend to 
enrich the language considerably, since the modified ideas im- 
plied in them often produce quite a new kind of word or signifi- 
cation. As new verbs, they may be adjusted to some one or other 
of the examples .already given, agreeably to their terminations. 
Hence they can never be supposed to be merely conjugations. 

For the sake of convenience, I shall carry one verb through 
the modifications, though it cannot be expected that all verbs are 
used or needed in every modification. I will take the root-form 
buma, 'beat,'" as the chief example of these modifications, but 
another suitable one will be always added. 

Some of the postfixes in those examples have doubtless lost or 
changed their original signification in certain verbs. 

Examples of the use of Suffixes to modify the meaning of Verbs. 

1. Bianna, 'a constancy of action'; as, bumal-bianna, 'to 
be always beating '; ga-bianna, ' to be always looking. 

2. Gunnanna, ' a present continuance of action '; as, bumal- 
gvinnanna, ' to be now beating '; ga-gunnanna, 'now looking 

Both of these are used for our participle, but in a definite and indicative 
way ; but as, like other verbs, they are conjugated, and never employed as 
adjectives, they cannot be considered as participial forms, but only as 
modifications of the verbs. 

3. Awaigunnanna, ' a long continuance '; as, bumal-awai- 
gunnanna, 'to be beating a longtime'; gagawaigunnanna, 
' to be looking on long.' This does not much differ from No. 2. 

4. G-arrimana, ' a continuance of all day long'; bumal-gar- 
rimana, 'to be beating all daylong'; bunba-garrimana, 'to 
run about all day long.' 

5. Guabianna, 'a continuance for the night'; bumallai- 
guabianna, ' to beat (fight) all the night '; winai-guabianna, 
' to sit up all night.' 

6. DiUinga (^reflexive); as, bumangi-dillinga, 'to beat one's 
self; mirama-dillinga, 'to defend one's self.' 


7. Lanna (reciprocal) ; as, bumal-lanna,'to beat eact other,' 
'to fight '; nurungamil-lanna, 'to love each other.' 

8. Alinga (reiterative); as, bumal-alinga, 'to beat again'; 
yannai-alinga, 'to go again.' 

9. Numinga implies that an action is to last for a little time 
only before another ; as, bumal-numinga, 'to beat previously'; 
ganuminga, 'to see beforehand.' 

10. Mambirra is causative and permissive; as, bumali-mam- 
birra, 'to let beat'; yal-mambirra, 'to cause one to speak,' 
'to teach.' 

11. Gambirra, instrumental; meaning that a thing has been 
done by means of an instrument, tool, or weapon; as, bumal- 
gambirra (not used) ; bangal-gambirra, ' to break by throw- 
ing at (or hitting) with something.' 

12. Billing a, submissive; expressive of obedience to a com- 
mand; as, buma-billinga, 'to beat when told or ordered'; 
yanna-billinga, ' to go when ordered off.' 

■ 13. Eilinga implies a vicarious action — an action done on 
behalf of, or instead of, another; as, bum-eilinga, 'to beat in- 
stead of another'; barram-eilinga, 'to get or provide for 

14. Duringa seems to intimate a change of action, the turning 
of one's attention from one thing to another, or to do a thing 
well and thoroughly ; as, bumal-duringa, 'to leave of the pre- 
sent act of beating '; winnanga-duringa, 'to forget,' ' to think 
of something else '; ' to reflect.' 

15. Wanna probably signifies an aim ac or a purpose to do a 
thing ; or rather, to act in a kind of series of doings, one after 
another, going all round, or to be just in the act of doing ; as, 
bumalla-wanna, 'to beat one after another '; yannaia-wanna, 
' to walk away,' ' to walk from one place to another.' 

16. Danna means the resuming of an action after having 
taken refreshment; as, bumaWanna, 'to beat again' after 
eating; bumba-danna, 'to run off again' after a little refresh- 

17. G-ilanna indicates a kind of dual action; as, bumalu- 
gilanna, 'two to beat together at once'; bumban-gilanna, 'two 
to run together.' 

18. Yarra is the verb ' to speak'; it can be put or joined to any 
verb as a postfix, and is then expressive of a command ; ' ba ' is 
put between as a uniting syllable; thus, yanna-ba-yarra, 'to 
order to go', ' to s€nd away '; bumal-ba-garra, ' to tell to beat.' 

19. Birra, nirra, dirra, banirra, bamarra, bunmarra; 
these particles, when joined to a neuter or an intransitive verb, 
give it a transitive and causative signification ; thus, from 
gannarra, 'to burn,' is formed gannal-birra, 'to set on fire'; 
ballunna, 'to die' gives ballubunirra, 'to kill'; banganna, 


to break' (of itself), banga-dirra, 'to chop, smash'; yannanna 
'to go,' yannabanirra, 'to make go,' 'to drive,' and yann^- 
bunmarra, ' to cause to go away '; from mab-binga, 'to stay, 
stop' comes mabbi-bamarra, 'to make one stay.' Bunmarra 
is a verb by itself sigxufiying ' to make, to do.' 

20. Maranua implies a reference to a previous action, on 
■which the action of the verb is dependent ; as, bum al-mar anna, 
'to beat after' having caught one; dal-maranna, 'to eat after' 
having picked it up. 

21. Nana implies the adverb 'after'; as, bumal-nana, 'to 
beat after another '; bunban-nana, ' to run after another '; gan- 
nana, ' look after one.' 

22. Einga implies ' precedent, before '; as, bumal-einga, ' to 
beat first,' i.e., before another; golleng-einga, 'to return first.' 

■23. Naringa, joined to a few verbs, implies that the action is 
done by ' falling '; also figuratively, it is expressive of a rest after 
moving; as, (1.) banga-naringa, 'to break by falling'; dalba- 
naringa, 'to be dashed by falling'; (2.) wi-naringa, 'to settle 
down'; warran-naringa, ' to make a call and stay a little.' 

24. Bilana or balana is always preceded by m even after 
I. It implies the idea of ' moving on' or going along, and gradual- 
ly getting into, whilst engaged in an action; as, ya-mbilana, 'to 
cry whilst going along'; d6-mbilana, 'to eat whilst walking '; 
gu-mbilana, 'to become or get gradually.' 

25. Buoanna implies both coming back and giving back ; as, 
buogal-buoanna, 'to come back'; yanna-mbuoanna, ' to go 
back'; gu-mbuoanna, 'to give back'; nanna-mbuoanna,' to 
throw back.' 

There are also some words that attach themselves to verbs as 
auxiliaries ; as, — 

1. Garra, ' to be,' used only with the present indicative. Its 
abbreviation, ga, is used interrogatively. 

2. Warre goes with present and future time. Its abbrevia- 
tion is wa — also used interrogatively. 

3. Bala, 'to be,' or ba, is more affirmative ; in its shorter form, 
ba, it strengthens pronouns ; as, baladu, 'I am.' 

4r. Yamma is an interrogative word, like the English 'do'; 
it is most commonly joined to pronouns. None of these auxili- 
aries has any effect on the structure of the sentence. 

In the passive use of the verb, the subject is merely put in the 
accusative, and the verb remains unaltered. < 

5. EoEMATioif OP Words. 
Derivatives are formed from the roots of verbs by adding 
various terminations. Thus, -dain denotes the agent who dos 
the action expressed by the verb ; as, birbara, 'to bake,' birba 


dain, 'a baker.' The word -gidyal forms participial nouns ; 
as, kabinga, 'to begin,' kabiu-gidyal, 'a beginning'; winan- 
ganna, 'to know,' winan-gidyal, ' the knowing,' 'knowledge.' 

The terminations -mubag and -miigu denote the absence of 
some quality; as, uda, 'ear,' uda-miigu, 'deaf; marong, 
'good' marom-mubang, 'bad,' lit., 'good-less.' 

Adjectives are formed from nouns by reduplication, or by 
suffixes; as, wallang, 'stone,' walla-wallang, 'stony'; win, 
'fire,' wi-win, 'hot'; ngarru, 'honey,' ngarru-ngarru, 
'sweet.' Terminatives are, -durai; as, wallan-durai, 'having 
stone,' 'stony'; -bang; as, win-munnilbang 'hollow fire- 
wood,' from munnil, 'a hole ' ; -bang also signifies increase or 
multitude and thus has a collective force; as, gibbir, 'man,' 
gibbir-ban^, 'many men,' 'mankind'; ingel, 'ill,' ingel- 
bang, 'very ill.' Durai, as a suffix to a verb-stem, implies 
ability to perform the action of the verb ; as, bambinga, 'to 
swim,' bambi-durai, 'able to swim'; yanna, 'to walk,' 
yannaidurai, ' able to walk ' ; with nouns it also denotes the 
possession of the thing ; as, yamandu daluban-durai, 'have 
you a soul,' lit., ' are you soul-havirig or soul-with?' 

Marra, 'to do,' 'to make,' joined to another verb, or, oftener, 
to nouns and adjectives, answers exactly to the Latin facio ; as, 
giwai, 'sharp,' giwai-marra, 'to sharpen'; giw a, 'wet, moist,' 
giwa-marra, 'to moisten'; gullai, ' net;' gullai-marra, 'to net, 
to make a net.' Hence the natives join -marra to English verbs ; 
as, grind-marra, 'to grind'; ring-marra, ' to ring the bell.' 

6. Conjunctions and Adtebbs. 

Wargu, widdyua, 'what for,' 'why'? widdyung, 'which 
way'? widdyugguor, 'which side (direction)'? widdyuggu, 
'when'? widdyuggaga, ' I don't know when'; minyangan, 
'how many'? minyanganga, 'I don't know how many'; 
minyanganda, 'how many times'? minyangandaga, 'I 
don't know how many times'; warban (used with yamma- 
garra), ' how much'? 

Da (the d being sounded very soft) signifies locality ; as, 
daga, 'where'? dagu, 'of what place'? dagu, 'to what 
place'? dagannibangalla, 'in what place'? dadibaggalli, 
dadilabaggalli, 'whence'? dadiurruinbaggalli, 'through 
what place'? dadibaggallingirriage, 'by what place did 
he come' ? Each of these by the addition of -ga may become 
an answer, equivalent to '1 don't know where,' &c._ Other 
adverbs of place are:— dain, 'this way,' 'hither'; yain, 'that 
way,' 'thither'; ngidyi, 'here'; nganniain, 'over there.' 

7. ]N"lJMEEAlS. 

Ngunbai,'one'; bula, 'two'; bulangunbai, 'three'; bungu, 
'four' o^'many'; murrugai, 'first'; umbai, 'last.' 



1. The Verb. 
Dara, 'to eat.' 

The Tense numbers here are the same as on page 2G of this volume. 

Indicative Mood. 

1. Dara 6. Deinni 

2. De 7. DalgiiTi 

3. Dalgurranni 8. Wari dalgarriawagirri 

4. 9. Dalgarrigirri 

5. Dalgaaan 10. {Fut.-Perf.) Degirri 

Impeeatite Mood. 


Dalla, ' eat thou ' Dallidyu, ' let me eat ' 

Dallaguin barri, ' let him eat.' 

GuUaligunnanna barri dalla, or ngaguala dalla barri, or gula- 

ngalligunna dalli, ' let him and me eat together.' 
Grula barri dalla bulagu, or dalla guain bulagu barri, ' let tbem 

two eat together.' 
ISTgallibul dalla, or ngindu bula dalla, ' you two eat.' 


Dalla ngeanni, ' let us eat.' Ngindugir dalla, ' eat you.' 

Dalla guaingulia barri, ' let them eat.' 
Grulagalangundugir dalla, ' let me and many eat together.' 


These moods are frequently expressed by the future tense with 
yandundu, 'if,' 'when,' added; by the auxiliary verb garra, and 
especially by the word mallang ; see page Gl of this appendix. 


These are declined like verbs in all the tenses and moods. 
There are two participles; the one ends in -bianna, and the 
other in -gunnanna; the former seems to imply a longer con- 
tinuance of time than the other. 


1. Dalgunnana (or dalbianna), 'I am eating.' 

2. Dalgunnani, ' I was eating.' 

5. Dalguain, ' I have been eating.' 

the ■wieadhaei dialect. 67 

Eeflexite Mood. 

1. Dalgydyillinga 6. Deingidyillin 

2. Dalgidyillingarrinni 7. D^lligidyilligirri [girri. 

3. Dalgidyillingurranni 8. Wari dalligidyillingarriawa- 

4. Dalgidyillinyi 9. "Wari dalligidyillingarri 

5. Dalgidyillin 10. "Wari deingidyillingirri 

By using other verbs from the Wiradhari Vocabulary, addi- 
tional examples of the formation of tenses in the Indicative are : — ■ 
Pres. Dara — Tanna. P^rf- Bumalguaan — Tanndan. 

Imperf. Ngunne — Tunne. Fluperf. Mindallanni — Tannanni, 

Incep.fut. Widyalgirri — ^Tannigirri. 

Indef. fiof. Talgarrigirri — Tanngarrigirri. 

Fut. Ferf. Gurragamegirri — Tannegirri. 

Def.past (a). Badalgurranni — Yangurranni. 
„ (5). Giwalgarrin — Tangarrin. 

Def. fut. Bangamalgarriawagirri — Tangarriawagirri. 

2. The 'Pronouns. 

The numbering of the oases here is the same as for the nouns. 
Singular. Flural. 

2. Gaddu, ' I ' 1. & 2. Geanni 

3. Gaddi or gaddigu 3. 

4. Geannigingut 

4. GanundaJ GeannigingunnagaJ . 

5. Ganiial 5. Geannigingunna 
1. Gaddidyi 7. Geannigindyi 

8. Gannundurai 8. Geannigindurai 

y. Gannunda milanda, ('near) 9. Geannigindya milanda 
Garmundi, ('from') Geanniginbai 

2. Gindu, 'thou' 

1. & 2. Gindugir 

3, Ginnu 

3. Ginnugir 

4. GinyundaJ 

4. Ginnundugir 

5. Ginyal 

5. Ginyalgir 

8. Ginnundigirdurai 

Flu. 9. Ginnundugira milanda 


2. Guin, gu, 'he' 1. & 2. Guin- (or -guain) gulia 

3. Guggula or 3. Guinguliagu or 
Guaguwan Guingulialla 

4. Guan, gagguan 4. Gaggu-lia (or -lialla)t 

Gannigu-lia {or -lialla)J 

5. Ginyal 5. Gannaiagulialla 
Flu. 7. Gannain-gulialla JZa.S. Gannigulialladurai 

* This portion of Mr. Gttnther's manuscript is so imperfect that I cannot 
say that tlie cases of these pronouns are all correct. — Ed. 

t An ethical dative, as in 'give to me.' J Asortoflocative,asin 'oometome.* 


Dual pronouns are : — 

iVToOT.— (1) ISTgalli, 'thou and I'; (2) ngean-ngalligunna, 
'he and I'; (3) ngindubula, 'you two'; (4) ngainbula, 
'they two'; (5) bulagual, 'the other two'; (6) nginnabula, 
'these two'; (7) ngilla bula, 'those two'; (8) ngalliguyuu- 
ganba, ' our two selves.' 

Of these, the inflexions of (3) are:— yeM.,ngindubulagu; dat. 
{local), nginyunda bulagu; of (4) :— yera. and cZa^., ngaggu- 
wanbulagu; ace, ngannainbula; ablatives, ngainbulabar, 
('about'); ngaddainbuladi ('from'); ngannainbulaga, 
(^in'); the inflexions of (8) are: — ffen., guyungangalligin- 
bul; rfa^., ngalligingunnabul; ncc, ngallibulguyungan; 
ahl., ngalligingunnabuli ('from'). 

Reflexive pronouns are : — 

Ngadduguyuuganbul.'Imyself; nginduguyunganbul, 
' thou thyself ; giilaguinguyunganbul, ' he himself '; nga- 
lliguyunganbul, 'we (two) ourselves'; ngeanniginya- 
ngagul, ' we ourselves.' 

Fossessive JPronouns are : — 

Ngaddiguyungan, 'my own'; nginnuguyungan, 'thy 
own'; gulaguinguyungan, ' his own'; ngeannigirnindin- 
guyungan, 'our own'; nginnugiminguyungan, 'your 
own'; ngaggualanindin, ' their own.' 

Demonstratives are : — 

Nginna, nganna, ngunnalla, nilla, dilla, 'this here'; 
ngaggualla, 'that one'; ngaggu, ' that.' The declension is : — 
nam., nginna; gen., nginnagu, nginnalagu, 'belonging to 
this'; dat. (local), nginni, ' to this place'; occ, nginna, 'this'; 
ablatives, ngirinal-la (-da), 'at this,' nginnal-li (-di), 'from 
this'; nginnadurai, ' with this.' 

Indefinite pronouns are : — 

Ngunbaimarrang, 'some'; gulbir, 'partof, 'some'; ngun- 
bai, 'one'; ngunbaigual, 'another'; -gual (apostfix) 'other'; 
biambul, 'all,' 'the whole'; bianggallambul, ' all,' ' every- 
body'; minyam-minyambul, 'everything'; bulagual, 'the 
other two'; murrimurrri, ' each.' 

All the pronouns on this page are declined like nouns. 

Interrogatives are: — 

iVbwi. l.,n g and i,' who (is)'? ?!oot. 2., ngandu ' who (does)'? 
gen., ngangu, 'whose'? dat., ngandigu, 'to or for whom'? 
nganngun (local); ablatives, ngangundi, 'from whom'? 
ngangundi bi r audi, ' away from whom'? ngangundidurai, 
'with whom'? ngangundila, 'from whom'? ngangurgu, 
' towards whom ' ? 



Nom. 1. Minyanganna, minyaggarranna, 'what (is it)'? 
nom. 2., minyallu, 'what (does it)'? gen., minyangu or 
minyagguba, ' belonging to what ' ? dat., minyaggu, ^ to or 
for what'? ace, minyang, ' what ' ? ablatives, vain j&gguvgu, 
'towards what'? minyalla, 'in or on what'? minyalalia, 
'on what'? minyalli, 'from what'? minyandurada, 'with 
what'? minyagguliadhi, 'like what'? minyagguor, min- 
ya ggarra, ' in what place ' ' where ' ? 


Words, Phrases, and Sentences in the Wirddhari dialect. 


[In this Vocabulary, cly=j ; ng=either the nasal g or n-g in separate 
syllables ; -nga final of the verbals, if preceded by i, may be pronounced 
-nya from the influence of the i ; p and t are so like 6 and d in sound that 
the author has not given a separate place to them. Words marked with + 
have come in from other dialects. The verbs are given in the present Indi- 
cative ; to form the Infinitive, gu, ' to,' is added on after the verb-stem. 
There are probably some mistakes still in this Vocabulary, although much 
labour has been spent in getting its contents made fit for the press. — Ed.] 


Ba — frost ; a cold winter. 

Babang- — winter. 

Babannirra — to mate or to be 

very hot. 
Babbildain — a singer. 
Babbilla — a wild cat. 
Babbimubang — fatherless. 
Babbin — father. 
Babbir — large. 

Babbirbambarra-to sing a song. 
B abbirbang^slender . 
Babbirra — to sing. 
Babin — a nettle. 
Badanin — the gum of the ' tur- 

rajong' tree. 
Badda — a bite. 

Badda — the bank of the river. 
Baddabaddambul — very soon. 
Baddabaddarra — to scrape and 

then use the teeth like a dog. 

Baddabaddagijillinga — to gnash 

the teeth together. 
Baddal — a kind of hair plaiting ; 

the hair made into a bunch. 
Baddambirra — to catch fish. 
Baddan — sooner, before, ere. 
Baddang — a cloak, a blanket. 
Baddangal— a long-marriedman 
Baddanni — the gum of a tree. 
Baddarbaddar — a native bird. 
Baddarra — to bite. 
tBaddawal — the native weapon 

known as the ' bumarang '; cf. 

' bargan.' 
Baddawar — a weapon like the 

' bargan,' but with a knob at 

one end. 
Baddawaral — a dry plain. 
Baddiang — -nonsense. 
Badding — an edible root. 



Baddul — a little bird. 
Badin — grandmother; arelative. 
Badinbadin — water weeds. 
Badyan — the little finger. 
Badyar — a black ant. 
Baggabin — a beautiful bluish 

flower, like a hyacinth. 
Baggadirrar— very thin. 
Baggai — a shell ; a spoon. 
Baggaidyarrar — anything that 

is thin or light ; a little stone. 
Baggaigang — a small shell. 
Baggaimarra — to take out of a 

pod, as peas. 
Baggai — a venomous snake. 
Baggandar; bawadar— a shoe. 
Baggandar — a sore which has 

the skin off. 
Baggar — meat. 

Baggaraibang — restored, com- 
forted, healthy, comfortable. 
Baggarbuawarra — to stand on 

a dangerous precipice. 
Baggarran — a dry well. 
Baggin — a bad spirit ; it enters 

into the natives, but may be 

driven out by their doctors. 
Baggin — a wound, a sore. 
Baggirngan — an uncle ; a cousin. 
Baggirngun — a female who has 

become a mother. 
Bagguang — water weeds, [arm. 
Baggur — the back part of the 
Baggurain — refreshed after a 

faiut ; strengthened by food ; 

strong for work, industrious. 
Baggurainbaug — one that is 

Baggurbannia — a string tied 

round the arm. 
Baggurgan — a young man in the 

second stage of initiation. 
Bagurra: — blossom of the 'yam- 

magang ' tree, q.v. 
Bai — a footmark left. 
Baiamai — a great god ; he lives 

in the east. 
Baibadi — venereal. 

Baibian — ^twin. 

Baien — semen animalis. 

Baigur — ear ornaments. 

Baigurbaigur — water weeds. 

Baimur — any kind of female. 

Bainbain- — empty. 

Bainbanna — unable to reach. 

Baingarra — to hold to the wind, 
as in winnowing wheat. 

Bainguang — stupid, bad. 

Bairgain — leeches. 

Baiyai — a meeting place of two 
parties ; a tryst. 

Ba-la or simpli/ ba — to be ; is 
always joined to pronouns. 

Balbu — akindof 'kangaroo-rat.' 

Balburranna — to tumble ; to fall 
down headlong. 

Balgabalgar — chief, ruler, king, 

Balgagang — barren, desolate. 

Balgal — sound, noise. 

Balgang — barren. [as fleas. 

Balganna — to kill on the nails, 

Balgar — noon. 

Balgargal — sunlight ; the glory 
where Baiamai (q.v.) lives. 

Balgarra — to emit sparks. 

Balguranna — to slip (roll down). 

Balgurei — little spots of clouds. 

Ballaballamanna — to move, lift 
softly or slowly. [to slap. 

Ballaballanirra — to beat a little, 

Ballaballayallanna — to whisper ; 
to talk in each other's ear. 

Ballaballelinga — to whisper. 

Balladi — a saw ; adj., serrated. 

Ballagirin — an old opossum (m.) 

Ballagun — an old woman. 

Ballanda — ^long ago ; at the first; 
in the beginning. 

Ballandallabadin-a kind of reed. 

Ballandunnang — thick-bead ; a 
term of reproach. 

Ballang— the head. [flower. 

Ballaggarang — the top bud of a 

Ballangimarra — to wring any- 
thing by squeezing and pres- 
sing at one end. 


Ballanguan — a pillow 
Ballanguang — a mizzling rain. 
Ballarra — the hooks at the end 

of the spear. 
Ballaurong — a cap. 
Ballawaggur — a kind of lizard. 
Balleballea — silence of night. 
Balli — a very young baby. 
Ballima — very far off, distant. 
Ballinballin — a whip. 
Ballnuronna — to take to flight. 
Balluballungin — almost dead. 
Ballubangarra — to extinguish ; 

also ballubiarra. 
Ballubundambirra — to cause to 

be dead, to kill. [teeth. 

Ballubundarra — to kill with the 
Ballubungabillanna — recip., to 

kill each other. 
Bdllubiinildain — a murderer. 
Ballubunirra — to kill, murder. 
BaUubunningidyillinga — to kill 

one's self. 
Ballubuolin — dead altogether. 
Ballubuyarra — to tell to die. 
Ballumballang — a native flower. 
Ballumbambal — the dead ones; 

the ancients. 
Balludai — cold. 
Balludarra — to feel cold. 
Balluga — fire gone out ; dark. 
Eallugan — that which lives in 

the fields ; beasts. 
Ballugirbang — the dead ones. 
Ballun — dead. 

Balliinna — to die. [very feeble. 
Ballunginbar — almost a-dying ; 
Ballunumminga — to die before. 
Balluolinga — to be pregnant. 
Balmang — empty. 
Balmang — soft, smooth. 
Balwandara — to swim, to float. 
Bambangang — a wish, a desire. 
Bambawanna — to be busy with, 
. to be industrious. 
Bambinga — to swim. 
Bambung — -the little toe. 
Bamirman — a long water-hole. 

Bammal — a relation by mar- 

Banbal^ — the place where the 
native men meet first in the 
morning ; a place of assembly. 

Banban — little waves raised by 
the wind; the motion of the 
water whenanythingis thrown 
into it. 

Bandaibanna — to climb a tree 
by putting the toes into the 
cuts ; to climb. 

Bandain — the band around the 
loins ; a girdle. 

Bandal — a. species of grub. 

Bandalong — joining, junction. 

Bandanbandan — a buudle. 

Bandar — a kangaroo. 

Bandarra — to tie. 

Bandhe — ill ; thin. 

Bandung — a large blood-suck- 
ing fly ; its bite is very sharp. 

Bandung — soot, vegetable black. 

Bandyabandya — pain. [pain. 

Bandyabandyabirra — to cause 

Bandyaban jirra — sore, painful. 

Bangabilbangabil — a cutting 

Bangabildain — a cutter. 

Bangabirra — to cut, shear. 

Bangadirra — to cut, split, chop. 

Bangaduolinga — to stop raining. 

Bangaduringa — to flnish and to 
leave off when finished, [ing. 

Bangadarra — to destroy by bit- 

Bangainbangain — broken, torn, 
ragged. _ 

Bangaiyelinga — to interfere, to 
dissuade, to intercede. 

Bangal — time, (or rather) place. 

Bangalbuorei — the country all 
over ; the whole earth. 

Bangalgualbang — belonging to 
another place. 

Bang-galgambirra — to break off 
or cut ; to maim by throwing. 

Bangal-gara-gara — every place ; 
all over the world. 



Bangalla — a low hill. 
Bangamallanna — to part atnong. 
Bangatnanna — to ward off. 
Bangamarra — to break. 
Bangalmu — square. 
Bangan — an assertive particle -jit 

is so ; indeed ; truly. 
Banganalbirra — to burn. 
Banganarinbirra — to break tim- 
ber witb the hand without an 

Banganna — to break; to break 

into rain. 
Bangarra — to make fire. 
Bangawadillinga — to be tired. 
Banganaringa — to break by 

Banganbilang — broken in pieces 
Bangawarra — to break anything 

by trampling on it. 
Bangayadillinga — to dislike ; to 

be disinclined ; to be offended. 
Bangayalinga — to break again. 
Bangayarra — to dissuade from 

fighting ; to reconcile. 
Banggil — -a crack, a split. 
Banggo — a kind of root. 
Bangin — a kind of berry. 
Bangolong — the autumn ; lit., 

the fore-part of the winter. 
Bangu — a kind of squirrel. 
Banna — verily, truly; '/.g'. banyan 
Bannambannang — to lend or 

exchange wives. 
Bannang — lean flesh. 
Banne — an inter. particle; like 

Lat. ' an,' ' anne.' 
Bannirra — to beat two stones 

together to make fire. 
Bara — a step ; v., to tread upon. 
Bararwarra — to tear. 
Barbai — a small kangaroo. 
Barbar — deep. 

Bardain — a black rat (mouse). 
Bardang — bitter; nasty in smell 

or taste ; s., a bug. 
Bargan — a native weapon ; the 

' bumarang.' 

Barganbargan — the moon when 

forming a sicltle. 
Barguranna — to fall, slip down. 
Bari — long, tall. 
Barinma — attendants and mes- 
sengers of the monster "Wawe. 
Barla — a footstep. 
Barlabaral — poison. 
Barrabal — the dark middle part 

of the eye. 
Barrabarra — to crackle. 
Barrabarra — very white. 
Barrabarrai ! — quick ! empJiatic. 
Barrabarrama — a handle ; any- 
thing to lay hold of. 
Barrabarrandin — old (said of 

clothes), ragged, worn out. 
Barrabirra — to strike against, 

as little splinters when wood 

is chopped. 
Barraburrun — a kind of quail. 
Barradambang — a bright star. 
Barraggana — to get out of the 

Barrai ! — quick ! make haste ! 
Barraibirra — to accelerate. 
Barraiawanna — to get up. 
Barrain — ' schambedeckung.' 
Barraiyalinga — to rise again ; 

said of the resurrection. 
Barramai — the thumb. 
Barramallang — cohabitation. 
Barramarra — to take, lay hold of. 
Barramalbillinga — to fetch or 

take when bidden. 
Barramalinga — convalescent. 
Barrambamarra — to rouse up, 

to make get up. 
Barrambarang — a mushroom. 
Barrambiyarra — to tell to get 

up; to awaken. 
Barramelinga — to get, provide, 

procure for another. 
Barraminga — to recover. 
Barrandang — a native monkey. 
Barrandarra — to gnaw. 
Barrandirra — to cut. 
Barrang — white. 



BarraBganna — to make a noise 
as by sounding the letter r-r. 

Barraggara — to rise, to get up. 

Barranmarra — to tear. 

Barranna — to fly. 

Barranna — to roast. 

Barrarbarrar — a rusLing noise; 
v., to make a rushing noise. 

Barrawarrainbirra — to be full- 
fledged ; said of birds. 

Barrawidyain — one that always 
wanders about ; a hunter. 

Barrawinga — to hunt; to camp. 

Barruomanna — to run fast, to 

Barre — no ! 

Barreidyal — a bird like a robin. 

Barrima — a musket. 

Barrimarra — to get fire by rub- 
bing two pieces of wood. 

Barrinan — a little shrub. 

Barrigngia — let it alone! never 
mind ! 

Barru — a rabbit-like rat. 

Barrudang — a juicefrom a tree; 
' manna.' 

Bawalganna — to hatch. 

Bawamarra — to relate news ; to 

Bawau — a white stone, said to 
belong t6 "Wandong, q.v. 

Bawan ! — no, no ! by no means ! 

Bawar — a prepared skin ; leather 

Bawarnguor — inside. 

Bi — the fore part of the arm. 

Biagga — often, many times. 

Bial — emph. particle ; up, high. 

Bialbial — very high, a-top. 

Bialgambirra — to hang; trans. 

Bialganna — to hang ; intrans. 

Biambul — all. 

Biamburruwallanna — to govern, 
to rule over. 

Biang — many. 

Biangarra — to take out, dig out, 
as from a hole. 

Biangulalinga — to dig out again, 
e.g., when buried. 

Bibanna — to crouch down ; to be 

in a sitting position. 
Bibarra — to tease. 
Bibbidya — a kind of fish-hawk. 
Biddirbung — a challenge word ; 

as much as to say ' I am not 

afraid of you.' 
Bidyaidya — a mother's sister. 
Bidyaingarra — to poke the fire. 
Bidyar — any male. 
Bidyur — pointing up, very high. 
Biembai — a hook, a fish-hook. 
Biggun — a water-mole. 
Bildur-' fat-hen,' an edible herb. 
Bilinmarra — to strip long pieces 

of bark. 
Bilunmarra — to split. 
Billa — a river. 
Billabang — the Milky Way. 
Billadurra — a water-mole. 
Billagal — down a mountain to- 
wards a river. 
Billar — a river ' swamp-oak.' 
Billawir — a hoe. 
Billili — herbage like dock-leaf. 
Billimarra — to push near to. 
Billinbalgambirra — to recede, to 

go back ; try to escape, avoid. 
Billinga — ^to go backwards. 
Billingarra — to take care. 
Billingaya — going backwards. 
Billir — a black cockatoo. 
Balliriin — the silence of night, 

when all are asleep. 
Billuan — a kind of parrot. 
Bilundarra — to chap the skin, 

as frost does. 
Bimbai — a spot where the grass 

has been burnt. [fire. 

Bimbarra — to set the grass on 
Bimbil — a kind of tree. 
Bimbin — a native bird. 
Bimirr — an end or point. 
Bin — high, tall. 
Binbin — silent. 
Binbin — the belly. 
Bindugai — a small shell. 
Bindugan — shellfish. 



Bindurgarra — to move along, as 

children before they can walk. 
Biudyabindyalganna — an itch. 
Biudyarra — to crack. 
Bindyilduringa — to cut into a 

tree to get opossums out. 
Bindyinga — to stumble. 
Biudyirra — to dig with a hoe. 
Bindyulbarra — to sink under 

the feet, as the ground. 
Bindyurmai — very warm. 
Bingal — a needle. 
Bingumbarra — to hear a fall. 
Binnal — the eldest. 
Binnalbang — the greatest, the 

highest ; a name applied to 

some heavenly being. 
Binualbirra — to light. 
Binya ; binna — to dig, to cut. 
Binyalbarra — to make fire. 
Binyalbirra — to make a light. 
Binyalgarna — lumpy. 
Biran — a boy ; cf. birrain. 
Biranbiran — steep, downhill. 
Birandi — from. 
Biraggal — a step's distance. 
Birbaldain — a baker. 
Birbarra — to bake. 
Birbi — a flea. 
Birbir — extremely cold. 
Birdaebirdae — downhill. 
Birdain — ironbark-tree blossom 
Birdi — a cut. 
Birdirra — to cut. 
Birdyulong — an old scar. 
Biruainbarra — to kick against, 
Birgauanna — to carve meat. 
Birganbirra — to plough. 
Birgang — a ground-grub. 
Biru;anna — to scratch. 
Birgilli ; birgillibang — scorched 

by fire. 
Birgu — shrubs, thickets. 
Birgun— a bird like a duck ; its 

appearance portends rain. 
Biriiig — the breast. 
Biringa — a scar; a scratch ,■ y. to 

make a scar. 

Birombailinga — to take and go 

away with. 
Biromballanna — to throw at 

each other. 
Birombanirra — to drive away. 
Birombanna — to go away to a 

distance. [tance. 

Birombarra — to throw to a dis- 
Birong — far-distant ; high. 
Birra — tired, fatigued. 
Birrabang — up, above, outside. 
Birrabirra — to be tired. 
Birrabuadillinga — to be tired. 
Birrabiang — poor, thin. 
Birra-bildain ; -bidyan — poor. 
Birrabinabirra — to move gently ; 

to whisper. 
Birrabirrawainbul — downhill. 
Birrabuoanna — to come back. 
Birradan — the straight scars on 

the back. 
Birragumbil — back bent, as in 

old age ; reclining. 
Birrag-guor — behind. 
Birramal — the bush. 
Birrain — the navel. 
Birrain — a young male. 
Birrai]idyong — a little boy. 
Birramanman— long-backed. 
Birrambang — a 'kangaroo-rat.' 
Birran — stiif, cold ; as in death. 
Birrawanna — to descend. 
Birrenelinga — to run away with. 
Blrrha — the back. 
Birri — the ' bos-tree.' 
Birrian — a grub found in trees. 
Birribirrimarra — to meet. 
Birrimannar — sitting in a circle ; 

walking in a row. 
Birrinallai — ' box-tree' blossom. 
Birrindaimarra — to meet each 

Birrirra — to scratch. 
Bomarra — to take away, 
-bu — and, also ; a postfix. 
Buabuowanna — a lump. 
Buadambirra — to overfiU the 




Buadarra — to fill tlie moutli. 
Buarbang — tame, quiet, orderly. 
Buardang — scabby. 
Bubaibunnanna — to get small, 

to lessen ; to boil in. 
tBubal — a boy. 
Bubbadagung — a little fellow. 
Bubbadang — anything little. 
Bubbai — little. 
Bubbaidyong — very little. 
Bubbil — a wing ; feathers. 
Bubu — that august being who is 

said to preside at the 'burban- 

digana ' and there 'makes' the 

young men. He is said to be 

as big as a rock or mountain. 
Buddabarra — to smoke. 
Buddainbuddain — a species of 

mint, ' pennyroyal.' 
Buddang — dark in colour, black. 
Buddanna — to smell. [other. 
Buddarballanna — to kiss each 
Buddarbanna — to kiss. 
Buddarong — a 'flying-squirrel.' 
Buddawaral — a dry place where 

no water is. 
Budde — a small narrow passage ; 

a small island. 
Buddi — a corner. 
Buddima — inside in the house. 
Buddin — a sunbeam. 
Buddu — stars. 
Buddulbiiddul — far off; high; 

the bluish air at a distance. 
Buddumbuddain — a fragrant 

water herb. 
Buddurbuddur — a smell. 
Budyabudya — moth, butterfly. 
Bugang — beads ; a necklace. 
Bugga — meat when tainted. 
Buggabanna — to bo struck by 

flies, as meat. 
Buggabugga — black. 
Buggal — a plant with an edible 

root and grass-like seeds. 
Buggamiu — eatables that have 

improved by keeping. 
Buggang^the 'gum-tree' flower. 

Buggaran — a dry well. 

Buggarnan — a bad smell. 

Bugguainbang— fruitful. 

Buggulong — a native shrub. 

Buggiunbarrhiil — the time after 
sunset ; twilight. 

Buguin — grass. 

Bula — two. 

Bula-bial-yallaigunnanna — two 
to speak together and a third 

Bulabinga — to be in couples. 

Bulabulamanna — to pace to- 
gether ; said of two. 

Bulami — having two wives. 

Bula-ngunbai — three. 

Bulbaggurain — a native bird. 

Bulbin — a whirlwind . 

Balduraidurai— a Icind of owl. 

Bulinbijlin — bald-headed ; any 
part of animals bare of hair. 

BuUambuUang — a wave. 

Bulliang — a' kangaroo-rat ';_/?«., 
a bad run-about female. 

BullinbuUin — a water bird. 

BuUudyan — a rag. 

BuUun — a large bird. 

Bumadillinga — to row. 

Bumallana — recip., to beat each 
other ; to fight. [self. 

Bumangidyillinga — tobeat one's 

Bumanna — to move the wings. 

Bumarra — to beat, to strike. 

Bumbain — a bunch. 

Bumbanna — to smoke; intrans. 

Bumbanumminga — to outrun, to 
run before. 

Bumibarramanna — to rush into. 

Bumbinna — to smoke ; trans. 

Bumbir — greasy. 

Bumburgalbian — a shrub re- 
sembling the ' swamp-oak.' 

Bumeilinga — to run to another 
for assistance. 

Bammabumarra — to knosk. 

Bummalbummal — a stick used 
as a hammer ; a hammer stick. 

Bammalgal — the right hand. 



Bunbabillinga — to escape ; to 

run away when beaten. 
Bunbaimarranna — to long for, 

to wish for ; to be anxious. 
Bunbabanirra — to set a running 
Bunbambirra — to cause to run ; 

to roll ; to move a wheel. 
Bunbangarrimanna — to bustle 

Bunbanna — to run. 
Bunbananna — to run after. 
Bunbea — a grasshopper. 
Bunbinga — to sit down, to rest ; 

to be tired ; tired of. 
Bundalganna — to suspend ; to 

be hanging. 
Bunbun — a locust, grasshopper. 
Bunburribal — ground ;o/.dagun. 
Bundadillinga — to expectorate 

Bundalganna — to lean to one 

Bundalinga — to hang ; to hang 

with the hands or arms slung 

round something. 
Bundambirra — to fasten. 
Bundang — a kind of grub. 
Biindang — a blackish butterfly. 
Bundanna — to draw. [freeze. 
Bundarra — to feel very cold, to 
Bundi — a war- weapon; a cudgel 

with a thick knob at its end. 
Bundibanirra — to knock down. 
Bundibumarra — to cause to fall. 
Bundibundinga — to tumble, to 

Bundibundingin — ready to fall; 

(of a plan) dangerous, unsafe. 
Bundilanna — to fall over each 

Bundin — the hair-bands hang- 
ing down the neck. 
Bundimambirra — to let fall. 
Bundinga — to fall. 
Bungadillinga — to be pleased. 
Bungain — a gift, a present. 
Bungalbungal — a broom, any- 
thing to sweep with. 

Bungambirra — to make smooth 

or soften ; to iron ; to sweep. 
Bungany — the knee. 
Bungannabanna — to comb the 

Bung-arra, -ambirra — to sweep. 
Bungimarra — to wag the tail. 
Bungirra — to swing. 
Biingu — four ; many; an inde- 
finite number. 
Bungubungu — every thing ; a 

great many. 
Bungul — short; s., a little man. 
Bung ulgal — sh ort . 
Bunhia — a ' wild-oak' tree. 
Bunin; biininganna— to breathe. 
Bunmabunmarra — to assist. 
Bunnanna — to burn. 
Bunnabunnanga — abundance of 

food; adj., sumptuous. 
Bun-ngan — made by another. 
Bunmarra — to make. 
Bunnallanna — to take another 

mail's wife. 
Bunnan — ashes. 
Biinnarra ; imperf., bunnai — to 

take away ; to take back. 
Bunnebunne, or bungebunge — 

warm; oppressively hot winds. 
Bunnidyillinga — to beat. 
Bunninganna — to breathe. 
Bunnumeilinga — to go from one 

place to another, to remove. 
Buobarra — to be like the parent. 
Buoda — a kind of opossum (/".) ; 

often used as a nickname. 
Buogain — an edible root. 
Buogalbumarra — to drive out. 
Buogalbuonanna — to return. 
Buogau-anna, -arra — to follow. 
Buoganumminga — to be before. 
Buogarra — to come. 
Buonung — some grass-seeds. 
Buorgarra — to pull up. 
Buowaibannanna — to boil. 
Buoyabialngidyal — a command, 

a law ; betrayal, exposure. 
Buoyal — a mother-in-law. 



Buoyarra — to bid or advise ; to 
to tell to do ; to instigate. 

Burai — a child, a boy. 

Buralgang — a large native bird 
called Native's Companion. 

Burambabirra — to divide, to dis- 
tribute, [arms. 

Burambirra — to stretch out the 

Burambungambirra — to be dry ; 
trans , to make dry. 

Burambunganna — to get dry. 

Buramburambaug — very dry. 

Buran — a tendril ; v., to twine. 

Burang — drought. 

Burang — dry branches or leaves. 

Burbandiganna — to initiate the 
young men of the tribe. 

Burbang — round; a round heap, 
a circle. 

Burbirra — to beat the time and 
sing, like the women beating 
on their bundled cloaks. 

Burbirra — to do carpenterwork. 

Burbirra — to scrape, to scratch ; 
to smooth ; make smooth, as 
the carpenter does the wood. 

Burddn — large, wide. 

Burguin — a hatchet, tomahawk. 

Burguinmudil — a blacksmith. 

Burimbirra — to empty, to wring 
out, drink all. 

Burrabanna — to make one ill, as 
Wandong does ; to be ill ; to 
have a swelling. [fire. 

Burrabannalbirra — to light a 

Burraburrabana — to have sores 
or wounds. [wounds. 

Burraburrabul — full of sores or 

Burraddar — ^the pine tree. 

Burradirra — to cut down. 

Burragambirra — to kn ock doi ra . 

Burragallannsf — to leap all to- 
gether in play. . 

Burrain — a fragment. 

Burral — a bed. 

Burramagang — the shoulders, 
together with the upper part 
of the back. 

Btirrambal — a native game of 
jumping over the rope. 

Burrambian — a term applied to 
the god Baiamai, q.v. 

Burrambin — a term first applied 
to white people by the blacks. 

Burrambin — eternal. 

Burrambinga — to be eternal. 

Burramarra — to loosen or take 
off. [in a row. 

Burrar — a row ; a line of things 

Burrawi — a tree on fire. 

Burrawirra — to set fire to a tree. 

Burre — breaking wind. 

Burrigal — a kind of wood. 

Burrimal — a fly. 

Burru — bottom ; the testicles. 

Burruarra — to make a stir with 
the feet ; to fly, as dust. 

Burrubinga — to jump, to leap. 

Burrubialinga — to jump again. 

Burrudarra — the dim appear- 
ance of a distant object. 

Burruganna — to rub against, to 

Burrugurra — a tuberous plant. 

Burrumbal — round, like a globe. 

Burrunbi — in si d e. 

Burundang — dark, very dark. 

Burrundi — black (inside). 

Burrunmarra — to pick, choose. 

Burruira — the sap of the ' apple- 

Burrurgian — a large black bird. 

Burrunganna — to thunder. 

Buyabarra — to give orders. 

Buyabialdain — onewho givesor- 
ders, a commandant, a magis- 
trate, a governor. 

Buyabianna — to speak good of; 
to praise, flatter; to please. 

Buyabiyarra — to give orders. 

Buyamaldain — a beggai'. 

Buyamanna — to beg, to pray. 

Buyamarra — to beg. 

Biiyu — the thigh, the leg. 

Buyuma — the foot of a hill. 

Buyuwari — loug-legged. 



Dalial — a bone. 

Dabbarmallang — mob of natives 
Dabbugarra — to bury ; to plant. 
Dabbungung — a father. 
Dabburaug — pipe-clay. 
Dabbuyarra muron — to give or 

bestow life. 
Dabuan — a smallkindofleeches. 
Daddirra — to be filled, to have 

enough, to be satisfied. 
Daddur — curdled, as milk. 
Dagagualbirang — belonging to 

another place ; a stranger. 
Daggal — the cheeks. 
Daggalbuddi — bushy whiskers. 
Daggan — sticking fast, like bark 

when. not splitting well. 
Daggarang — a wood-worm. 
Dagu — dung, dirt. 
Dagui — a shadow.. 
Dagun — ground, soil. 
Dagun — when ? 
Dagunbil — a dirty fellow. 
Dagunbilmarra — to make dirty. 
Dagundu — where to ? 
Dagunmar — a grave. 
Daiangun — forward, 
Daiba — voluptuous. 
Daimarra — to dispute. 
Daimiangarra — to dash in, as 

rain driven by wind. 
Dainbunninga — to come back 

after being driven ofii. 
Daindu — here ! 
Daingamallanna — to outdo, to 

excel. [ing. 

Daingamarra — to vie in throw- 
Dalaimbang — sharp, as a toma- 
Dalain — tbe tongue. 
Dalaingaldain — one that doubts; 

an unbeliever. 
Dalaingarra — to misbelieve, to 

Dalalinga — to eat again. 
Daliira — snow. 

Dalbadambirra — to crush to 

atoms, to grind. 
Dalbagarra — to tear asunder, to 

put apart, to open. 
Dalban-dalbannirra — to bruise, 

to pound. 
Dalbanna — :to be bruised. 
Dalbar — the shoulder bone. 
Dalbarra — to be wet. 
Dalbinga — to tarn upside down. 
Dalbirra^ — to strike thetimewith 
the ' bargan,' as the native 
men do in singing. 
Dalga — gum in the eye. 
Dalgang — very crooked; subst., 

a bent bough. 
Dalia — a species of iguana. 
Dallabadarra — to split. 
Dallabadirra — to split with an 

Dallabalga — 'schambedeckung.' 
Dallabalganna — to part; as the 

parting of the hair. 
Dallabanna — to go to ruin ; to 

Dallabumarra — to destroy, to 

break in pieces. 
Dalladallabunna — to split. 
Dallagarra — to avoid; to try to 

Dallai — angry. 

Dallaimarra — to be angry with. 
Dallain — root of the 'pear-tree.' 
Dallamarra — to break, break in 

pieces ; to destroy. 
Dallambul — very soon. 
Dalian — soon. 
Dallangir — fresh, new. 
Dallawang — ran ' apple-tree.' 
Dallunarong — a young man still 

Dallungal — a fine fellow. 
Dalmambirra-;— to feed (a baby). 
Dalman — a place of plenty. 
Dalgi — transgression. [long. 
Dalgarrimanna — to eat all day. 
Dalnumminga — to eat before. 
Damalieu — sweet, pleasant. 



Dambaddmba — soft; very soft. 
Dambai — a kind of wiry grass. 
Dambulbang — late in the night. 
Damburdambur — a curl, a fold ; 

like a snake when curled. 
Damburmadillinga^ — to wrap all 

round close from the cold, as 

with a cloak. 
Damburmarra — to wrap round, 

to fold up. 
Damburra — to put into, wrap up. 
Dammal — the wrist ; the inside 

of the fore part of the arm. 
Dammin — a venomous snake. 
Dan — too many orders at once ; 

Danba — ripo. 
Danbang — green, alive (said of 

plants) ; fresh, strong, [rat.' 
Danbur — a kind of ' kangaroo- 
Dandambirra — to feel cold, to be 

Dandain — a frog. 
Dandalla — a hailstone. 
Dandan — scattered all about in 

Dandang — cold ; s., a cold wind. 
Bandar — pretty, nice. 
Dandarang — very cold. 
Dandarbang — very pretty. 
Dandarra — to be cold. 
Dandu — wet. 
Dandudarra — to be wet. 
Dang — ^long edible roots. 
Dangai — rainwater; old water. 
Dangal — a shelter, a covering. 
Dan gang — the heel. 
Dangang — bread made by the 

natives from seeds. 
Dangarin— shellfish. 
Dangarumanna — to dance. 
Dangung — bread, food. 
Dangur — a species of fish. 
Danna — to net or knit. 
Danna-danna — small-pox. 
Dannal — the fist. 
Dannamai — a corpse. 
Dannamandan — a knot in string. 

Dannambandanna-to be knotty. 

Dannang — fore-arm ; the wrist. 

Dannaggang — a wart. 

Danni — gum, honeycomb, wax. 

Dara — to eat. 

Darga — honeycomb. 

Dargimbirra — to lay across. 

Dargin — across. 

Dargin — a kind of meal made of 

' gullu ' grass seeds. 
Darimumbinga — to be a whore ; 

to give one's self up. 
Darnan — very tough, not break- 
Darngidyal — one who begets ; a 

progenitor ; a father. 
Darrabang — having many wives 
Darrabanna — to sit cross-legged 

or with the knees flat. 
Darrabunda — maggots in meat. 
Darrad abal — bones . 
Darraiwarra — to struggle with 

death ; to be dying. 
DarrAlanganna — to be restless, 

to move about. 
Darrambal — foot-marks, a road- 
Darrambalgarra — to take by 

surprise ; to frighten. 
Darrambin — a little bird. 
Darrambirra — to frighten. 
Darramial — a shallow place like 

a basin. 
Darranderang — an avenger. 
Darrandurai — a corner. 
Darrang — the thigh. 
Darrang — a little creek. 
Darrangagain — walking with 

the knees much bent. 
Darrangarbanna — to walk to 

and fro. 
Darrar — a rib. 

Darrawarrambirra — to throw 
away '; to throw the ' bargan ' 
along the ground. 
Darrawarranna — to lie with the 

knees bending upwards. 
Darrawildung — thin-legged. 



Darri — old stumps of grass. 

Darrial — a bed. 

Darribal — ^the return of the 

' bargan ' when thrown. 
Darribun — a queen bee. 
Darrilanna — to cohabit. 
Darrawirgal — thenameof oneof 

the native gods; he lives down 

the river ; he sent the small- 
D arruan — tough . 
Darrubanna — to leap over. 
Darriibarra — to rush on and tear 

up the ground, as water does. 
Darruin — a handle. 
Dawa — very fat. 
Dawai — the lair of the sorcerer 

or of his ' wandong,' q.v. 
Dawarang — a native dog. 
Dawin — a hatchet. 
Dhin — this, that. 
Dibanna— to hiss, accompanied 

with clapping of the hands. 
Dibbillain — birds. 
Dibbin — a bird. 
Dibbindibbin — the hollow part 

underneath the breastbone. 
Dibbong — nails, spikes. 
Diggal — a fishbone. 
Diggar — a sneezing. 
Diggarra — to sneeze. 
Diggu — the small 'blackwood.' 
Digun — top-knot of a cockatoo. 
Dilbaimananna — to come slyly 

upon one. 
Dilbana — to tread softly, to walk 

on the toes. 
Dilgaindilgain—thehair combed. 
Dilganna — to comb the hair. 
Dilgar — a spliuter of wood. 
Dilman — silent, quiet. 
Dillabirra — to scatter, to sow. 
Dillabirra — to draw. 
Dilladillabirra — to throw about, 

to cause confusion. 
Dilladillan-garra — to. shake. 
Dillagar — a native berry-fruit. 
Dillaggarra — to shake. 

Dillang — a brother. 
Dilledille — rotten. 
Dillidilli — small wood. 
Dillirbunia — imp., smash, dash 

against; s'.^'. dillirbunnarrabin 
Dimbanna — to make a whizzing 

noise, as greenwood in theflre. 
Din — meat, flesh. 
Din — the inner rind of the ' yam- 

magang'; the natives suck it. 
Dinbain — any sharp and pointed 

steel instrument fit to make 

native weapons, especially the 

' bargan.' 
Dinbana — to buzz (like flies). 
Dinbuorin — a native lark. 
Dindabarra — to take the rough- 
ness off, as a carpenter does. 
Dindadinda — work left rough. 
Dindar — bald-headed. 
Dindarra — to bite off, make ill, 

as "Wandong does. 
Dindima — the Pleiades. 
Dingai — a walking stick. 
Dingandingan — flat, even. 
Dinganna — to walk with a stick. 
Dingarra — to sweep, to pull up, 
Dingelinga — to make smooth. 
Dingurbarra — to sharpen. 
Dinmanna — to pick the nose. 
Dinme — war, battle. 
Dinmirr — an eyebrow. 
Dinna — honeycomb, wax. 
Dinnang — the foot. 
Dinnawan — an emu. 
Diragambirra — to raise. 
Diramadillinga — to be proud. 
Diramarra — to speak well of, to 

Diran — a mountain or hill. 
Diranbang — noon; when the sun 

is in the zenith. 
Dirangalbang — high, exalted ; 

entrusted with authority. 
Diran-garan-garan — many hills 

or mountains. 
Direu-direng — red. 

-to rise, like the dough. 



Dironbirong — ^the red streams 

of clouds in the evening; adj., 

red, said of white men. 
Dirradambinga — to dress the 

Dirradirrawarra — to shoot up 

like mushrooms. 
Dirradirrawanna — an herb. 
Dirragarra — to dig deep. 
Dirraggalbang — ^haughty ; also 

Dirraibang — a brother. 
Dirraiawanna — to get up. 
Dirrainamgarra^ — to disarrange ; 

to move about everything in 

seeking for a thing. 
Dirral — a little bird. 
Dirramai — an edible herb. 
Dirramananna — to boil over. 
Dirramarra — to the left. 
Dirramarra — to lift, to take off, 

to lift off (as from the fire) . 
Dirrangal — one that is superior 

to work ; a lazy gentleman. 
Dirrawan — uneven, clumsy. 
Dirri — grey hair. 
Dirribang — an old man . 
Dirridirri — a little bird. 
Dirrige — gorse ; a prickly and 

stinging stuff inside the native 

' munga,' g^.v. 
Dirril — a bulrush. 
Dirrinan-^an edible plant. 
Dirru — a 'kangaroo-rat.' 
Diwil — any colliection of small 

particles ; as sawdust, sif tings. 
Diwingil — a spark. 
Diyan — soft, loose. 
Dombar — the mist that precedes 

rain ; the sight of rain far off. 
tDombock — sheep. 
Don — tail {eUam sig. penis) . 
Dondo-mirin-mirinmal — a snail. 
Dondu — a swan. 
Duaduamirra — to have fancies; 

to be delirious, talk nonsense, 
Duambian — a little plant with 

a pink flower, and edible root. 


Dubbi — a grub with wings ; a 

Dubbu — a kind of frog or toad. 

Dubo — a net cap. 

Duddarra — to suck. 

Duddu — the female breast; as 
a call to infants. 

Dudduwarranna — to rush down, 
as water. 

Duganna — to draw water. 

Duggeillinga — ^to fetch for an- 

Duggiu — shade. 

Dugginga — to hang (like fruits 
on the tree). 

Dugguaibalbinga — to be on a 
dying bed ; beyond recovery. 

Dugguaibul-altogether "wholly. 

Dugguarra — to overtake. 

Duggumbirra— tobenot greedy, 

Duggumi — glad, fond of. 

Dugguwai-buoanna — to come 
back ; to reach home. 

Dugguwarra — to overtake. 

Duguinbirra — to give always, to 
give freely, to be generous. 

Dulba — a drop. 

Dulbagal — a monstrous birth. 

Dulbaganbirra — to crack. 

Dulbamanna — to drop. 

Dulbibalganna — to hang down 
the head. 

Dulbibannirra — to bow down ; 
to turn upside down ; to be 

Dulbinbirra— to lie prone on the 

Dulbinga — to bend low ; to wor- 
ship, [bends. 

Dulbunbunmaldaiu — one that 

Dulbunbuumarra — to bend, bow 

Dullaidullai — staggering from 

DuUar — a red bird. 

DuUin — a kind of lizard. 

DullonduUong — sinking, ex- 
hausted, ready to tumble. 



Dullu — a spear. 

Dullubang — the soul. 

Dullubanna — to split. 

DuUubi — marrow. 

DuUubi — a little sbrub. 

Dullubin — very straight. 

Dullubul — straight. 

Dulludullu^big logs of wood. 

Dullugal — the ijortli wind. 

Dullugang — a little spear. 

Dullugarra — to find guilty ; to be 

Dullugudanna — to spear. 

-Dulluwarai — straight. 

Dulmarra — to press together, to 

Dulwarra — to press out water 
or juice. [mony. 

Dumbal — proof, evidence, testi- 

Dumbaldain — one that shows, 
a director. 

D umbalmai — a witness, testifier. 

Dumbalmaldain — one that gives 
proof or testimony. 

Dumbalmarra — to bear witness 
or indict ; to accuse, betray. 

Dumbangidyal — a pointing out. 

Dumbanna — to point, to show. 

-Dumbi — a blush. 

Dumbirra — to spit. 

Dummirra — to carry. 

D unban — ^little ants. 

Dunbur — some kind of wood. 

Dundilai — walking in single file. 

Dundilaimallanna — to walk in a 
row or line one after another. 

Dunduma — the 'badawal,' q.v. 

Dundumbirra — to suck out, as 
marrow from a bone. 

Dung — mud, dirt. 

Dungain — a kind of parrot. 

Dungal — a post, pillar, support. 

Dungardungar — tall, long. 

Dungin — a sleeping ground be- 
tween two fires. 

Dungindain — a kind of water- 
mole, [gularly. 

Dunguwarranna — to stand irre- 

Dunma — a bow, an arch. 
Dunna — to spear ; to write. 
Dunnai — a tall, long fellow. 
Dunnang — a knot. 
Dural — a hollow tree set on 

fire at the bottom and smoke 

coming out at the top. 
Diirang — the bark. 
Durbarra — to chip or smooth, as 

with the ' dinbain.' 
Durdain — a writer. 
Durgung — a cuckoo. 
Durgunnanna — to pick. 
Durian — news ;' a message. 
Duriangarra — to deliver a mes- 
Duriduringa — to be ill. 
D ur il gai — fruitful. 
Durimambirra — to make iU ; to 

cause to be ill ; as "Wandong 

Durin — wound. 
Durinda — to spear, to prick. 
During — a snake. 
Durmanbirra — to aim at.' 
Duronggargar — a glow-worm, a 

common worm. 
Dururbuolin — always, ever. 
Dururdururbuolin — ever, emp'h. 
Durrabarra — to drive the bad 

spirit away by blowing. 
Durrain — a long white cloud. 
Durraggarang — a bee. 
Durranme — sorcery, a sorcerer. 
Durrawal — the piece of bark 

used as a bier. 
Durri — birth. 

Durri — alluvial soil, rubbish. 
Durribil — muddy. [forth. 

Durrirra — to be born; to bring 
Durrubanna — to tear up soil, as 

water does. 
Durrudurrugarra — to follow. 
Durrugarra — to track, to trace. 
Durrui — ants. 
Durruibil — full of ants. 
Durrulbarra — to burst. 
Durrulgarra — to hide. 



•Durrumang — a young snake. 
Durrumbal— some water weeds. 
Durrumbin — a caterpillar. 
Duyon — fat ; subst., fat meat. 
Duyul — a hill ; adj., hilly, un- 
even, rough. 


G-abban — a father-in-law ; a re- 
lative in general. 

Gabbargahbar — green; s., grass. 

G-abbilga — a head-band made 
of a native dog's tail. 

G-abbuga — an egg ; brains. 

Gabbuug — a species of moths 
or butterflies. 

G-abburgabbur — anything rot- 
ten or broken. 

G-abirra^to eat with the mouth 
hanging over the vessel, to eat 
in a nasty way. 

G-abura — a cap of white down. 

G-adarra — to erase ; to rinse. 

G-adda — supposing ; perhaps. 

Gaddagadda or gaddawirra — a 
bad woman, a prostitute. 

G-addagadda — heard it myself; 
an eye-witness. 

G-addagadda — a swollen sore. 

G-addai — the throat. 

G-addal — smoke, tobacco. 

Graddalbar — the smoke-like ap- 
pearance of rain at a distance. 

G-addaldurai — a young man. 

G-addalumarra — to be annoyed 
by smoke. 

Graddambidyillinga — to wash 
one's self. 

G-addambillannininga — to wash 

G-addambinga — to wash. 

G-addambirra — to rinse. 

G-addang — glad, happy. 

Gaddang — a little lizard. 

Gaddangeillinga — to be pleased 
with; to rejoice over one. 

Gaddangillinga — to please. 

Gaddar — the back of the thigh. 

Gaddaraibunninga — to over- 
come, humble, frighten. 

Gaddawirra — to be mischievous. 

Gadderai — frightened, sorry, 
penitent; the disposition not 
to do evil again after having 
suffered for evil-doing. 

Gaddi — a snake. 

Gaddirbarra — to make a creak- 
ing noise, as new shoes. 

Gaddirbuodalin — a creaking. 

Gaddul — congealed blood. 

Gaddun — raw, uncooked. 

Gadyal — ^hollow. 

Gagamin — a younger brother. 

Gagamanna — to lead astray, to 

G^gang — the eldest brother. 

Gai !— ah ! 

Gain — like, similar. 

Gairgair — meat which smells. 

Gal — string ; any tie. 

Galbar — little, some, not all. 

Galdang — a rushing noise. 

Galga — empty; hungry. 

Galgan — the husk. 

Galgang — a shrub. 

Galge — seeds. 

Galgura — a little bird. 

Gallabarra — to halve. 

Gallaganbarra — to wipe. 

Gallaggabang — very many. 

Gallar-barra, -banna — to rattle, 
to make a noise. 

Galliainbal — uphill. 

Galliarbang — glad, pleased. 

Gallua — a kind of lizard. 

Gamambirra — to draw out, to 
fetch out. 

Gambai — yesterday. 

Gambain — a white head-band. 

Gambai — a wild turkey. 

Gamban — weak, thin. 

Gambang — a brother, [thing. 

Gambilana — to carry or hold a 

Gambu — the groin. 

Gambuananna — to bring back. 



Graml)uiigan'g — tliin, little, small 
Game — to seduce; «., strongvo- 

luptuous desires and practices 
Gramma — a kind of spear. 
Q-ammagamma — a kind of bird. 
G-ammandi — a pillow. 
Gammang — unwilling to -work ; 

lazy; sticking fast, as bark 

when not stripping well. 
'Gimmar — a storm, a tempest. 
Gammarra — to awaken. 
Gammayan — from behind. 
Gananna — to burn, to smoke. 
Ganarra — to smoke, as when 

the smoke descends. 
Ganaurda — fainting, exhausted. 
Ganbanna — to wipe ; rf. murru. 
Ganbanna — to blot out. 
Ganda — the bend of the- leg 

under the knee. 
Gandaiwarra — to grow long. 
Gandalgandal — to be of unequal 

length ; unlike. 
' Gandalmambirra — to drive a 

spear through, to out through. 
Gandamai — hard, difficult. 
Gandarra — to pass by. 
Gandarra — to push or roll along 

the ground. 
Gandiaggulang — a mountain. 
Gangan — surface, top. 
Gangar — a spider. 
Ganggar — a little shadow ; the 

small thread of a spider's web. 
Ganginmarra — to tell a lie. 
Gangul — sloping, steep. 
tGani — a tree on fire. 
Ganna — to bring, to carry. 
Ganna — the shoulder. 
Gannabarra — to carry on the 

shoulder ; also, gannabunna. 
Gannagallanbial — shoulder, all 

over the shoulder. 
Ganuai — z, woman's stick. 
Gannalduringa — to burn a hole 

into a tree so as to drive out 

the opossum. 
Gannal-birra, -dirra — to burn. 

Gannambang — the palm of the 
hand ; the sole of the foot. 

Gannambaldain — one that is in- 
trusive, troublesome. 

Gannambarra— to do the work 
for another. 

Gannang — warm. 

Gannanna — to burn. 

Gannandu — near, at hand. 

Gannardang — very hungry. 

Gannawardarra — to want food, 
to feel hungry. 

Ganne — a particle ; I suppose. 

Gannung — the liver. 

Gannur — the red kangaroo. 

Ganur — a kind of 'kangaroo- 

Garabuoangarra-to have abun- 
dance of water. 

Garai — stern, grave in aspect. 

Garandarra — to eat forbidden 

Garang — liberal, generous. 

Garba — the waist. 

Garbangandu — stout, large. 

Gardagarda — having cramp in 
the limbs, stiff. 

Gardar — stiff, as in death. 

Gargumarra — to embrace. 

Garibawallanna — to run over. 

Gariwan — a black wood, much 
used for making weapons. 

Gariwang — a cold east wind. 

Garngan — very strong. 

Garwal — withered. 

-garra — to be ; a postfix. 

Garra — to cough. 

Garrabaral — very thirsty. 

Garrage — another, not the one 

Garrage — yes. it is so ! 

Garraigal-r-palm of the hand. 

Garrain — raw, underdone. 

Garrainjang — a survivor, in re- 
ference to another brother. 

Garraiwarra — to seek, look out. 

Garraiyarra — to- slander ; to 
speak ill of any one. 



Gtoan — a little hook to take 

out gruts with. 
G-arran — horn. 
Garrang — the gum of the pine 

tree, used for binding spears. 
Garrangarran — a thorn. 
Garro — a marsh. [cut. 

Garriimarra — ^to break down, to 
Garrunmanna — to slip, to slip 

out of the hands. 
Gaumaran — an emu. 
Gaunang — moonlight. 
Gaundirra — to call; to appoint. 
Gaurandu — a green beetle. 
Gaurei — the down of birds. 
Gawa — continued a long time. 
Gawai — come here ! 
Gawaimbanna — to welcome, to 

tell to come. 
Gawal — a plat, a valley- 
Ga walla — a road. 
Gawalma — sloping, not steep. 
Giiwan — white ; a white man. 
Gawang — a fit ; apoplexy. 
Ga wan-gawang — stupid, foolish . 
Gawier — a hut, a house. 
Gawimarra — to gather, pick up. 
Gawir — podex ; ef. muggun. 
Gayamian— foam, saliva. 
Gayamian — any thick kind of 

fluid, as paste ; adj., sticky. 
Gayang — gristle. 
Gayir — a bad smell, as of flesh 

when tainted. 
Gayuwal — after a loug time. 
Gedur — a kind of wood. 
Gial — shame ; adj., ashamed. 
Gialang — saliva. 
Gialdain — onethatis frightened, 

a coward. 
Gialdungiaya — to be ashamed. 
Gialgigijillinga — to be ashamed 

of one's self. 
Gialmambirra — to frighten. 
GialombuoliU' — saliva. 
Gialong — a suffix to name of a 

native tribe ; as, Dubo-gialog, 

the ' Dubbo tribe.' 

Gialwambirra — to threaten. 
Gialwarra — to be chaste. 
Giandadclang — an escape. 
Giarra — to be afraid. 
Gibainbirra — to barter, to buy, 

to exchange. 
Gibba — a white crystal wbicti, 

as the natives believe, comes 

from Wandong, who puts it 

in their body to make them ill. 
Gibban or gibbain — retribation, 

Gibaiinirra — to punish. 
Gibbir — man. 
Gibbirbang — mankind. 
Gibbirgin — the Pleiades. 
Gidya — a little tree. 
Gidyaggijang — a kind of crane. 
Gidyang — hair of animals, wool. 
Gidyanguor — outside; the hairy 

side of the opossum skin. 
Gidyar — a kind of lobster. 
Gidyauruin — very much afraid, 

overcome with fear. 
Gidyubarra — to tickle. 
Gidyumbang — skin very hairy. 
Gieil — an adulterer, adulteress ; 

a run-away wife. 
Gienge — the thin skin cast off 

by snakes. 
Gige — eaten enough. 
Giggal — an itching disease. 
Gil— gall. 

Gilgaldain — a nurse. 
Gilgarra — to nurse. 
Gilgil — a species of butterfly. 
Gilgin— arm-pit; the hair under 

the arm ; the fins of fish. 
Gilinga — to make water. 
Gilluban — to poke the fire. 
Gillubarra — to pick or get out, 

as the marrow from bones. 
Gillun — sharp-edged. 
Gillunbang — sharp-pointed. 
Gillungillun — a dangerousplac© 

to pass. 
Gimang — a ' kangaroo-rat.' 
Gimarra — to milk. 



Grii„mami — a spot in the eye, 
caused by an injury. 

Grimmang — a species of 'kanga- 

Gim'bir-;-spTing, well, fountain. 

Grin — the heart. 

Gin ; gen — a kind of gum-tree. 

Ginanna — to melt. 

Ginarginar — light, not heavy. 

Ginbayanna — to be anxious for; 
to desire much. 

Ginbinginbin — scabby. 

Ginbirra — to itch ; bite as fleas. 

Gindadalla — a kind of large 
beads, made of water reeds. 

Gindyal — griping in the bowels. 

Gindyang — a state of diarrhoea. 

Gindyarra — to have the bowels 

Gindyarra — to drink \Yater like 
dogs, to lap. 

Gindyiren — cramp. 

Gindyung — marrow. 

Ginma — a caterpillar. 

GInnan — subsf., a sudden sur- 
prise ; adj., astonished. 

Ginnar — tough; strong. [self. 

Ginnemadilinga — to lead one's 

Ginnemaldain — a leader. 

Ginne-manna, -marra — to lead. 

Ginnirmarra — to scrape a iish, 
to scrape the scales off. 

Gion — a centipede. 

Giraggan — the red appearance 
of the sky at sunset. 

Giralang — the stars. 

Girambanna — to feel the fire, 
to feel too hot. [warm. 

Girambannanua — to cause to be 

Girambirra — to be ill. 

Girang — a leaf. 

Girang — a native club. 

Girangiran — poorly ; ill. 

Girar — wind. 

Girarumaira — to blow, as wind. 

Girgungan — a mushroom. 

Giring-giring — froth, sweat. 

Girinya — to play. 

Girinyallanna — to converse to- 

Girong — perspiration. 

Girragirra — well, healthy, hap- 
py, merry, lively. 

Girragirrabang — happy, com- 
fortable, [burnt. 

Girramanna — to feel hot, to be 

Girrambayarra — to have nothing 
to offer in excuse ; to stand 

Girfambiyarra — to scold, speak 
with anger. 

Girraran — pipeclay. 

Girrawarra — to take unawares. 

Girredambirra — to make secure; 
to lock. 

Girrenil — a door-lock. 

Girring-girring — luke-warm. 

Girrugal — hun gry . 

Girrugalbang — very hungry. 

Girua — a long-tailed iguana. 

Girwarra — to disturb, to drive' 
away, to frighten off. 

Giwa — moist, soft, asthe ground 
after rain. 

Giwai — a sharpening stone; a 

Giwaldain — a cook. 

Giwaimarra — to sharpen, [wet. 

Giwamarra — to make moist or 

Giwambang — moonlight. 

Giwammaldain — a bad woman ;' 
adj., saucy, wicked. 

Giwang — the moon. 

Giwangabbung — a kind of grub. 

Giwarra — to roast, to cook. 

Godth — a kind of shield. 

Gon — flint. 

Gonin — very old. 

Gonnguor — sultry dull weather. 

Gonnu — implies dislike ; as, 
gonnu or wiraidu gonnu — I 
don't like it. 

-guabianna — a j)ostfix\ lasting 
all night ; as, yubannai-guabi- 
anna — to rain all the night. 

Guabin — cool. 



Gruabinga — to rest, to sit. 
Gruaiman — a native herb. 
Guainbalgarra — to fetch blood ; 

also, guainbummaiina. 
Gruainginma — a black fly. 
Grual — a shadow. 
Griiaii — ^blood. 
Gruanbilan — the menses. 
Gr-uandang — a native berry. 
Gruandubang — reddish. 
Gruang — inist, fog. 
Guarian — a cockatoo, a parrot. 
Gruarra — to fetch, to fetch back. 
Gruarraguarra — eye blood-shot. 
Gruayo — after some time, after- 
wards, by-and-by. 
Grubbagubbarra — to imitate. 
Grubbaimanna — to wish to be 

with one, to follow. 
Grubbalduringa — to drive off the 

enemy: to conquer. 
Griibbar — red stone, red paint. 
Grabbarduringa — to follow; also 
- gulbalduringa. 
Grubbargubbarbirra — ■ to make 

red ; to paint red. 
Grubbarra — to run after. 
Grubbir — a kind of fish. 
Griidarra — to shine like metals 

or polish. 
Griidarra — s., a current of wind. 
Grudarra — v., to feel cold; to feel 

a draught; to refresh. 
Gruddagudda — brightness ; adj., 

shining; s., a noisy night- 
P I bird. . [very soft. 

Gruddalguddal — even, smooth ; 
Gruddawirra — to be glad; to 

boast ; to be showy. [songs. 
Gruddingan — a composer of 
Gruddiyarra — to be silent. 
Gruddu — the cracking of the 

joints of the fingers. 
Grudin — a dead man. 
Grudyugang — a kind of tassel. 
Grudyuru — a small club thrown. 
Grudyurumarra — to throw along 

the ground. 

Gruggabang — anything cooked; 

Grugga-barra, -banna — to boil. 

Gruggaidyalang — an infant that 
begins to crawl about. 

Gruggan — a kind of caterpillar. 

Gugganguggamillanna — to walk 
with the back bent. 

Grugganna — to creep, to crawl. 

Gugge — any kind of vessel. 

Guggin — near, at hand. 

Guggin gu — near. 

Guggubal — a kind of codfish. 

Gugguma — a stump. 

Guggun — lame, unable to walk. 

Guggur — the knee. 

Guggurmin — a very dark place 
in the Milky AVay, supposed 
by natives to be like an emu. 

Giigu — water. 

Guibanbirra — to spread to dry. 

Guibanna — to be warm. 

Guibarra — to roast. 

Guin — pron., he. 

Guingal — a stone used by the 
natives to cut with. 

Guingunnungal — ■ a kind of 

Guinguyung — himself, self. 

Gulagallang or gallang — a good 

Gulamiang— sought in vain, no- 
thing found, disappointment. 

Gular — a belt round the loins; 
the thread or worsted is spun 
by the natives. 

Gulbal — a kernel or little blad- 
der inside a fish. 

Gulbaldain — one that under- 
stands well ; ^dj., intelligent. 

Gulballanna — to be at peace ; 
to have no fighting. 

Guibarra— to understand. 

Gulbi — smoke or mist in the air 

Gulbigulbir— partly. 

Gulbir — some, part of. 

Gulbirmarra — to make parts, to 
divide. [place) . 

Gulgandowa — before (of time or 



Grulgarra — to bark. 
Gulgog-gulgog — marks or scars, 

such as are left by small-pox. 
G-ulgong — the top of the head. 
GulgoBg — a little hole, a pit. 
tGrulgong — a ditch or gully; a 

gap in a mountain range. 
Gulgurringa — to sing with a 

low voice, 
-gulia — like, similar (a postfix). 
Grulla — a net. 

Grullabirra — to refuse, reject. 
GruUadarra — to taste. 
Grullai — a crossing-place, bridge. 
G-uUai — netting ; a net bag. 
G-uUaigan — the second. 
Gullaingain — the second child. 
GuUaimarra — to net. 
Grullainan — younger, born later. 
GuUamarra — to open. 
GruUamillanna — to be alone. 
Gruilaminga — to be or pass over, 

to delay ; to be detained. 
G-ullamirra — to seek in vain. 
GruUu — ^herb-seeds ground by 

the natives to make bread of. 
Gulluin — distant, far off. 
Grulluman — a wood for making 

a dish ; the dish itself. 
Gullun — lice. [together. 

GtuIIqu yananna — to go away al- 
G-ullung — a native badger. 
G-uUungirrin — lice, fleas ; any 

kind of troublesome insect. 
Grulmain — a younger brother. 
Grumba — raw, not done enough. 
Grumba — not ripe, green. 
Gumba — a native fruit. 
Gumbadda — m etal. 
Gumbal — a brother. 
Gumbalang — a kind of seeds. 
Gumban — a kind of herbage on 

which horses and cattle graze. 
Gumbil — uneven, not straight ; 

bunchy, hump-backed. 
Gumbilbirra — to walk with a 

bowing or bent back. 
Gumbinbirra — to sprinkle. 

Gumbinga — to wash, to bathe. 
Gumbu — the crown of the head. 
Gumbugal — honey-dew, found 

on the leaves of trees. 
Gumil — a belt, a girdle. 
Gummig-gulgong — a thistle. 
Gummil — thread from opossum 

Gunanna — to have the bowels 

Gunargunar — a white butterfly. 
Gundadeyannallinga — to go or 

come from behind. 
Gundai — behind. 
Giindai — a ' stringy -bark ' tree. 
Gundai — a shelter, as when hid 

behind something. 
Gundaibian — the blossom of the 

'stringy-bark' tree. 
Gundaimadillinga — to shelter 

one's self. [tect. 

Gundaimarra — to shelter, pro- 
Gundain — this one ; this way. 
Gundalla — someone, somebody. 
Gundiwai — shade. 
Gunduringa — to give a daughter 

Gundyar — a fictitious deity that 

makes natives die ; he sees 

and knows everything. 
Gungalang — a frog. 
Gtingambirra — to harrow or 

Gun-ngang — little streams; i.e., 

traces of small water-courses. 
Gungan — a running stream. 
Guggan — a flood. 
Gungarra — to comb. 
Gungil — dew. 
Gunguari — a halo, a circle round 

the moon. 
Gungun — a piece of bark that 

serves for a dish. 
Gunnabunbinga — to sit down 

tired ; to take rest. 
Gunnaggunnag — yellow ochre. 
Gunnaggalong — a long way off, 




Gunnama — hailstones. 

Grunnama — a black ant. 

Gunnamain — a kind of quail. 

GunnamlDarra — to depend on 
another either for work or for 
food; to be troublesome or in- 

Gunnang — another, besides, 

Gunnawi — the side of the body. 

Gunne — a mother. 

Gunnigalang — plain ground. 

Gunnigal — a plain ; a valley. 

Gunnigalgarral — a plain where 
there are no trees. 

Gunnigalla — plain, flat; a valley. 

Gunnilmarranna — to groan, as 
under a heavy burden. 

Gunnimar — hooks at the end 

. of spears. 

Gunnimbang — a mother. 

Gunnin — thumb ; lit, mother. 

Gunnindyang — motherless. 

Gunnirra — ^to exert one's self, 
or labour with groaning. 

Gunnirra — to squeeze. 

Gunno — tired, lazy. 

Gunnog-gunnong — a cough. 

Gunnubiyarra — to be loath to 

Gunnug-gulang — very distant. 

Gunnuggurrau — a rainbow. 

Gunnugilanna — to be tired of ; 
to dislike ; cf. gonnu. 

Gunnundurai — a constellation 
of three stars, one of which 
is very bright in the eastern 

- horizon soon after sunset. 

Gunnungadillinga — to excuse 
one's self. [denies. 

Gunnungaldain — a liar, one that 

Gunnungarra — to deny. 

Giirai — fat. 

Gurai — a voice, a groan. 

Guraimarrabirra — to sigh. 

Guralong — the liver. 
Gurawin — a flower. 
Giirba — the fork in a tree. 

Gurbigang — a grub in the yam. 

Gurda — cool; smSs^., the cool of 
the evening.' 

G'urgagurga — a joint. 

Gurgur — very deaf. 

Gurian — a lake or large lagoon. 

Guril — a smooth bluish stone 
somewhat resembling flint. 

Giirilgang ■ — marks, as on an 

Gurilmarra — to mark the skin. 

Gurin — charcoal. 

Guringurin — soot; adj., sooty. 

Guron — foolish, stupid. 

Gurra — a plate, a dish. 

Gurrabang — the knee-cap. 

Gurragarlan — finished, all done. 

Gurragalang — ^bitter; medicine. 

Gurragalgambirra — to finish. 

Gurragalgarra — to finish. 

Gurragallagali — a son of Baia- 
mai, q.v. 

Gurragamanna — to do fully, to 
^^ finish ; to go all away. 
^Uurragang — the knee-cap. 

Gurragurragang — the knee. 

Gurraggarang — a kind of frog ; 
said to indicate rain. 

Gurrai — refreshment ; change. 

Gurrai — ^ dimly visible, indis- 
tinct, small. 

Gurraibunminga — to see indis- 

Gurraibunmirra — to be weak- 

Gurraimuggumuggu — in dis- 
tress ; suffering. 

Gurraingumminyu — to be dim, 
without light enough to dis- 

Gurramarra: — to push. 

Gurriabal — -tired of a place. 

Gurriabarra — -to be tired of a 

Gurriban — ^a noisy night bird. 

Gurrigurriabal — wretched. 

Gurril — flint. 

Gurrubar — reddish ; stone 



Grurrugadarra — to eat all, finish 

Grurrugamarra — to finish. 
Grurrugamhirra — to cover over ; 

also, gumburgambirra. 
Gurrugandyillinga — to cover 

one's self. 
Grurruganna — to cover, put on, 

to dress. 
Gurruganna — to cover ; to hang 

all over. [ii^g. 

Gurrugayarra — to finish speak- 
Gurruggarra — to butt. [cow. 
Gurrugonbulong — bullock and 
Gurrugurru — the rump or loins 

just above the podex. 
Gurriilgan — the fictitious being 

that causes thunder. 
Gurruman — a shadow. 
Gurrumarra — to draw the fire 

Gurrumbaldain — a mimic. 
Gurrumbarra — to mimic, to re- 
peat, to imitate. 
Gurrumbinga — to turn aside, to 

go out of the way, to go back. 
Gurrunbirra — to make a noise 

indicating disgust or dislike. 
Gurrundar — a wrinlile on the 

Gurrundirra — to lean upon each 

other, like things in a row. 
Gurruwai — night time. 
Gurruwir — sad news. 
Gurunbirra — to make sport of. 
GuruHg — the claw of animals, 

as of the lobster 
Gurungulumbinga — • to delay ; 

to stop long. 
Gurwaldain — deliverer, saviour. 
Gurwarra — to deliver, to save. 
Guwa — the taking shelter under 

a tree. 
Guya — fish. [man. 

Guyabadambildain — a fisher- 
Guyabadambirra — to fish. 
Guyal — drv. 
Guyang — fire. 

Guyo-nganmadillin — myself. 

Guyulgang — very strong, en- 

Guyuugan — of himself, itself; 


Nga ; ngadan — here then ! very 
well ! have it ! you may ! 

Ngabinbirra — to measure by 
spanning ; i.q. ngabin-dirra, 

ISTgabinga — to try, attempt, ex- 

ISfgabin-gidyal — examination. 

Ngadarra — to taste. [hair. 

Ngaddangaddung — dishevelled 

Ngaddeguor — on the other side. 

Ngaddigallila — belonging to me. 

Ngaddiwal — up here. 

Ngaddu— I. 

Ngadigallilabul — a long time. 

Ngadin-balgaddilin — belonging 
to myself ; my property. 

Ngaduringa — to tend, care for. 

Ngadyang — water. 

Ngagarra — to ask. 

]Xgaguaingual — altogether. 

Kgai — particle of emphasis; but, 

Ngaiwari — used to. 

ISTgal — a large hollow in a tree 
where one can stand upright. 

Ngal an— light. [light. 

Ngalanbamarra — to make a 

Ngalar — clear, clean, white. 

Ngalgambirra — to try the 'bar- 
gan ' by throwing it. 

Ngalgarra — to shine, give light. 

Ngag-guaiwala — above. 

Ngal-gal-marra — to feel loath- 
ing, like a sick stomach. 

Ngalguamma — on high, above. 

Ngalla — the underneath part of 
a tree or leg or pillar ; the 
thick end of a thing. 

Ngallaiman — very near, almost. 



N'gallain — a kind of white crys- 
tal quartz. 

Ngallanbamirra — to kindle. 

Ngallanbirra — to make a light. 

Ngallanguranna — to give a 
bright light. 

Ngalliman — nearly, almost. 

Ngall uai — perspiration . 

Ngalluggan — a little mouse. 

Ngama — indeed ! ah ! [for. 

Ngamangamarra — to feel about 

Ngamagilla — to be sure! it is so! 

JSTgamanna — to feel, to touch. 

Ngamarra — to feel, to touch. 

NgamarranAna — to feel the loss 
of a wife. 

ISTgambaingarra — to gape. 

Ngambalngambal — giddy, ready 
tp tumble, intoxicated. 

Ngambar — curious, inquisitive, 
wanting to know everything. 

Ngambarang — a little boy. 

Ngambargana — to be covetous. 

Ngameiligan — a hole where the 
tortoise lays its eggs. 

ISTgaminya — to be able to see. 

Ngamma — alump; a (//.,. swollen. 

Ngammaia — an edible root. 

Ngamon — milk. 

Ngamonna — ^to suck. 

!Ngamondurai — a marriageable 

Ngamor — a daughter. 

Ngamorgang — the breast. 

Nga-muban g — blind . 

Ngan — the brim. 

Ngan — the mouth. 

Nganbinga — to lean, lean upon. 

Nganbirra — to lean upon ; trans. 

Ngandabirra — to be dry, thirsty. 

Ngandargang — the epiglottis. 

Ngandi ? — who ? 

Ngandir — deep. 

IN'gandugual ? — who else ? 

Ngangana — to look after ; to re- 
gard, care for. 

JSFgangijillinga — to see one's self. 

Ngan-girra — to meet, assemble. 

ISTganna — to see. 
Nganna — there. 
Ngannabul — over there, behind. 
Ngannadar — down, underneath. 
Ngannadarngura — underneath. 
Ngannadarrain — downwards. 
Ngannadwallain — upwards. 
Ngannagan — one that steals a 

wife, not being a near relative 

to the husband. 
Ngannagunnuggualla — the day 

after to-morrow. 
Ngannaigurai — sorry, distress- 
ed, thoughtful. 
Ngannaingarri — there ; here. 
Ngannain gulia — they. 
Ngannaiwal — up, above. 
Ngannal — me. 
Ngannalla — that one. 
Nganna- ngannadar — low. 
Ngannanguor — behind there. 
Ngannanguorma — behind . 
Ngannawal — up above (in the 

sky). _ 
Nganniain — all about, all over. 
N gannidyarg uor — underneath . 
Ngannigunnug-guala — another 

time. [foot. 

Ngannudarguor — the sole of the 
Ngannuguor — the other side. 
Ngaradan — a bat. 
Ngarai mbang — sharp . 
Ngargundurei — to be with child ; 

adj., pregnant. 
Ngararbang — apoor fellow; adj., 

Ngararbarra — to pity. 
Ngargan — break of day. [dog. 
Ngaringaribarra — to pant like a 
Ngarra — the corners of the 

Ngarradan — a bat. 
Ngarrai — steep. 
Ngarraingarri — an edible berry 

resembling the gooseberry. 
Ngarrama — the loins, the rump. 
Ngarran — hungry. 
Ngarrang — a species of iguana. 



]N"garranga — after. 

Ngarrangarambang — arriving 
too late. 

Ngarran-garran-garang — a fine 
blue-bell flower. 

ISTgarrangbain — the little finger. 

ISFgarrannarra — to pity. 

ISTgarrar — sorry. 

Ngarrarmadillinga — to distress 
one's self; to feel sorry; also 

ISTgarrarmarra — to feel sorry, to 
be penitent ; to pity. 

Ngarre-ngarre — out of breath., 

Ngarridyumarra — to look side- 
ways; to view slyly. 

ISTgarriman — the native 'manna.' 

Wgarringarri — breathing hard, 
resting, languishing, 

I^garringurribalgianna — pant- 
ing for water, as a dog. 

]N'garrogayamil — a star seen by 
the natives, as they say, in 
the zenith in the day time. 

ISTgarru — honey ; sweet ; a bee. 

Ngarrung — decayed. 

jSTgarrungarra — sweet. 

Ngarrurian — a white hawk. 

Wgaumbin-gidyal — showing, de- 
monstration, proof. 

Ngaumbirra — to show. 

Wgawa — yes. 

JNgawang — a little shrub. 

Ngawar — the marsupial bag of 
kangaroos and opossums. 

Ifgawarra — to tread upon. 

ISTgawillan — very high. 

ISTgayamadain — one that asks ; 
an examiner, a judge. 

ISTgayalduringa — to be asked ; to 
examine closely. 

K^gayamanna^to ask, examine, 


Ngayangijillinga — to ask one's 

self ; to examine one's self. 
Ngayur — warm . 
Ngeanni — we ; also ngianni. 
Ngelidyain — greedy. 

K'gelinga — to take part in, to 
interfere ; to keep in posses- 

Ngellengal — a face- likeness to 
some one. 

Ngiabinya — to do again. 

Ngiadyanna— to get or catch (a 
disease) ; to be aiflicted with. 

Ngiag-garang — speech, address. 

Ngiag-garang — the beginning 
of conversation in the morn- 
ing to awaken others. 

Ngiaggir — clever, wise. 

ISTgiaginga — to revive. 

Ngiambalgananna — to converse 

Ngiambalgarra — to speak to- 
gether, to converse, to reply. 

Ngiambanang — braggadocio. 

Ngiambangan — truth ; a fact. 

Ngiamildain — an overseer. 

Ngiamirra — to supervise. 

Ngiamugga — deaf, speechless. 

jSTgiang — a word. 

Ngiangarra — to look upward. 

Ngiawaigunnanna-to be (exist) 

Ngiar — an eyebrow. 

Ngiaran — a black-swan. 

Ngidye — here ; there. 

Ngidyegallila — here ; emph. 

Xgidyigallila — this day, to-day. 

Ngidyiguor — on this side. 

Ngimambirra — to wait for. 

Ngimbilanna — ^to make progress 
or get into gradually. 

Nginalla — these (plu.). 

Ngindi — implies want (neither 
declined nor conjugated). 

Ngindu — thou. 

Ngindugir — you, ye. 

Nginga — to be. 

Ngingarimage — all day long. 

Ngingurain — yesterday. 

Ngolong — the forehead or face. 

Ngologgaibuoanna — to return, 
to come back. 

Ngologgairin — a red head-band. 



Ngologgambilatina — -to be re- 
turning home. 

Ngologganna^-to return. 

Ngologgurrundar — distorted 

Ngong — a rut ; a mark left. 

N guan ; ngualla — that one. 

Nguanda — a long time ago. 

Nguhan — a husband. 

Nguggog — a kind of cuckoo-owl. 

Nguiyar (gibba) — the white 
crystal which, as the natives 
believe, comes from "Wandog ; , 
he or some bad native sends 
it into another man's belly to 
make him ill ; the native doc- 
tors pretend to draw it out. 

TfguUuai — meeting each other. 

ISfguUarimarra — to do quickly. 

Ngulburnan — a waterhole. 

Wgullubal — the evening place of 

NguUuman — a large waterhole ; 
a watercourse down-hill. 

NguUumuggu — the end, edge, 
border; the outside of a thing. 

IS'gumambinga — to trust to for 

Ngumambirra — to send. 

Ngumbangillanna — to hold up 
the hands pretending to fight 
(said of two persons). 

Ngumbanna — to be ready to hit. 

ISTgumbarrang — a bug. 

Ngumbuoanna — to give back. 

Ngumbuor — closed,wrappedup. 

ISfgumburbarra — to howl, as the 
wind. [away. 

Ngummalgang — ^refuse thrown 

ISTgummambillanna — to borrow. 

Ngunanna — to scorch. 

Ngunba — sometimes. 

iSTgunbadal — union. 

ISTgunbadalngillanna — united. 

Ngunbai — one. 

Ngunbaidyil — in one place, all 

iNgunbaigual— ^another. 

Ifgunbaimarrfing — some. 

N g unb ai-ng unb ai — few . 

Ngunbarra — to shut the door. 

Ngundaigal — generous, liberal. 

fNgundanni — -any. 

Ngundan-ngillanna — to distri- 
bute to all, to be generous. 

Ngungandain — a little farther. 

Ngungiladanna — to give to an- 

Ngungilanna — ^to give to each 
other, to exchange. 

Ngungiyarra — to make a pro- 
mise, to agree to. 

N"gunmal — a fence. 

Ngunna — the elbow. 

Ngunna — to give. 

Ngunnadar-guor — underneath 
the earth. 

Ngunnagan — a friend. 

Ngunnamilbarda — one related 
ij marriage ; a brother-in-law. 

Ngunnuinguor — beyond, on the 
other side. 

Ngunnuminga — to lend. 

-nguor — side; towards {postfix). 

Ngurambal — ^deep. 

TVgurambalgal — high, chief. 

Ngurambalbang — very deep. 

Ngurangbang — country. 

Nguragganna — to roll about on 
the ground. 

Ngurain — an emu. 

Ngurambirang — a friend. 

Ngurang — camp, nest. 

Ngurangurang — nobody at the 
camp ; a deserted camp. 

Ngurbirra — to kill by frost. 

Nguringurian — an edible berry. 

Ngurombang — evening, night. 

Ngiiroggal — morning (early). 

Nguroggalangal — very early in 
the morning. _ [dark. 

Ngurog-ginga — to be getting 

Ngurragaundil — a small beetle. 

Ngurrambirrang — a hole used 
as a sleeping place (warmed 
by a previous fire). 



Ngurrawang— a nest like that 
of some birds, or of an op- 

IN^gurrigal — surprise, wonder. 

Ngurrigelang — vain, proud; s., 
showy dress. 

Ngurru — water weeds. 

Ngurruai — choice, fancy. 

K'gurruarra — to claim as one's 

Wgurruigarra — to see new or 
strange things ; to wonder, to 
be surprised. 

Ngurrulganna — to snore. 

Ngurrumirgang — blue, as the 

Wgurrumurdin — very dark. 

Ngurrurganna — to snore. 

Ngurui — the belly. 

Nguruin-dinnag-garag — emu's 
feet ; Baiamai {q-v.) has such 

Nguri^mbi — winter ; frost. 

Nguyargir — a native doctor. 

Nguyog-guyamilag — beautiful. 

Ibbai — an eagle-hawk. 
Ibbir-ibbir — little marks. 
Ibbuga — a nephew ; a relative. 
Ibirmanna — to paint, ornament. 
Iddangin-gidyiliinga — to hurt 

one's self. 
Iddarra — to hurt, to injure. 
Idya — the little finger. 
Igge — ripe. 

, Iggebirra — to get ripe. 
Iggebuananna — to make ripe. 
lUi — dry, withered ; like brown 

withered leaves. 
Illigidyang — of a faded colour. 
Illibirra — to wither, to dry. 
Illilbamarra — to make a rattling 

Ilware — little hailstones. 
Inar — a woman, a female. 

Inarginbidyal — one that is fond 

of women. 
Inargung — a -girl. 
Inarmubang — without a wife. 
Indyamarra — to be gentle, po- 
lite ; to honour, respect; to do 

Indyambildain — a childish man. 
Indyambirra — to act childishly, 

to be silly. 
Indyang — slow, soft ; slowly. 
Ingamarra — to unloose, take off. 
Ingang — a species of locust. 
Inganna — to give way ; to slip ; 

as the ground. 
Ingar — a lobster or crayfish. 
Ingel — ill, sick. 
Ingelbang — very ill. 
Ingian — like, similar. 
Ingiananna — to resemble. 
Ingianbirra — to make similar. 
Ira — the gills. 
Iraddu — day. 
Iraga — spring. 

Iragunnanna — to pick the teeth. 
Iragiir — bitter, unpleasant to the 

taste ; sour ; said of unripe 

Iraidurai — the morning star. 
Iramangamanna — to pick the 

Irambang — steep, mountainous, 

dangerous ; a big mountain. 
Irambang — seeds of herbs. 
Irambarranna — to grin, to show 

the teeth. 
Irambannang — toothless. 
Irambin — kangaroo teeth. 
Iramir — a precipice, a steep bank 

at the river. 
Iramir-ngarang — precipitous ; 

also irangarang. 
Irarauggu— not sharp, blunt; 

without teeth. 
Iramurrun — a tallish boy. 
Irang — teeth. 
Iraroarala — red-hot, very hot ; 




Jrawari — a large thick cloud, a 
"" thunder cloud." 

Irhadarra — to eat or drink all; 
to consume, exhaus t,finish. 

Irbagarra — to emtpy, to take all. 

Irbaamnna — to go away, leave; 
to go to the bush. [all. 

Irbamarra — to empty, draw out 

Tre — the sun. 

Irebang — summer. 

Ireirimbananna — to feel com- 
fortable (well, happy). 

Ireirirabang — happy, comforted 

Iremillan — the dawning of day, 

Iren — skin attached to bones. 

Irgarra — to be empty ; to be ex- 
hausted ; to cease. 

Iribadarra— to tremble, [hole. 

Irimbanna-^— to peep through a 

Irin — trembling. 

Irin — the scales of a fish. 

Irin — clear ; s., the light of day. 

Iringa — to tremble. 

Irinirin — a cold west wind. 

Irinmarra — to cause to tremble. 

Irribin — a swallow. 

Irubar — deep, high, steep. 


Kabbibada — limestone. 
Kabingidyal — a beginning. 
Eabin-ya, -birra ; kabinkabinga 

■ — to begin fighting ; to begin. 
Kaiya — a spade. 
Kaiyai — lustful. 
.Kaiyaibirra — to be lustful. 
Kaiyang — sinew, a thread. 
Kaldigar — a kind of tree ; also 

the white people. 
Kaliaibalgambirra — to drive up. 
Kaliainbal— an uphill ascent. 
Kaliambirra — to let go up. 
Kalianna — to ascend, climb up. 
Kalianummiga — to get up again ; 

to make sport of one. 

Kalimbang — rainy weather. 
Kaling — water. 

Kalig-balgag-balgag — an Insect. 
Kaliggal — a knife. 
Kalindyi — an island. 
Kalindyuor — wet. 
Kalinginbanga — a dry desert; a 

place without water. 
Kalinkaling — wet. 
Kallaganbanna — to rub o:ffi dirt 

from or wipe the feet. 
Kallagang — an edible root. 
Kalleibumarra — to draw up. 
Kallindulein — a black snake. 
Kalmaldain — a composer, a poet. 
Kalmarra — to compose (songs). 
Kalmarra — to fasten. 
Kannan — shallow, not deep. 
Karamarra — water. 
Karba (bula) — a fork. 
Karbabandain — a girdle, a belt. 
Karbarra — to sew. 
Karbumma — a fork, a gallows. 
Kari — truth. 

Karia — neg. interj., do not ! 
fKariadal — no ! by no means ! 
Kariadiil — no ! do not say so ! 

no ! hope not ! is it possible ? 
tKarigarra — to he true. 
Kariggarra — ^to pour out, spill. 
Karinbul — not yet ! wait a bit ! 
Karingale — a native dog. 
Karingun — a granddaughter. 
Kariwang — a leaf. 
Karrai — land. 
Karraimarra — to turn round in 

the hand, as the 'bargan.' 
Karraingarra — to send. 
Karraiwarra— to seek, to find. 
Karraiyarbarra — to cry aloud. 
Karralgarra — to pour out. 
Karramaldain — a thief. 
Karramanna — to sneak away. 
Karramarra — to steal, [other. 
Karrameilinga — to steal for an- 
Karrandarang — a paper, a book. 
Karrang — poisonous wax-like 

stuff on the point of spears. 



Karrari — a net. [work. 

Karrariwibirra — to make net- 
Karri-karri-darra — extremely 

cold, frosty. 
KarrindutalunLil . — a beetle 

found in wood. 
Karro — a magpie. 
Kiudai — play ; adj., playful. 
Kindaiawanna — to laugh, smile. 
Kindaigallanna — to laugh at 

each other. [another. 

Kindaigarra — to make sport of 
Kindaiguldanna — to make sport 

of any one. [sister. 

Kindaimaldain — a playmate, a 
Kindaimanna — to play. 
Xindaimarra — to make laugh. 
Kindaimilanna — to laugh whilst 

walking along. 
Kindain — a ring-tailed opossum 
Kindaiwaruar-always laughing. 
Kindanna — to laugh. 
Kinnambang — very kind. 
Kinnan — kind, gracious. 


Mabbinhirra — to cause one to 

Mabbinga — to stop, to wait. 

Mabbirra — to spill ; to pour out. 

Mabbon — a messenger. 

Mabbuorda — the cracking noise 
of crossing branches on trees 
caused by the wind. 

Mabi — a wild cat. 

Maddamadda — narrow. 

Madarra — to suck, to chew. 

Maddan — wood ; tree. 

Maddang — lying down, sick. 

Maddang — thick; thick-headed, 
obstinate ; cf. ballamaddang. 

Maddeilinga — to chew for an- 
other, [self. 

Maddilinga — to chew for one's 

Maddo — heavy, strong. 

Maddu — one that intends to 
fight ; an enemy. 

Maganna — to. refuse to do a 

thing when ordered ; to dis- 
Magarra — to be bright, to look 

Maggadalla — red soil. [cup. 
Maggambirra — to have the hic- 
Magganna — to drown, to choke. 
Maggar — ' iron-bark' wood. 
Magge — all the day. 
Magguar — happy. 
Maggumanna — to sit with the 

knees erect. 
Maibal — a ' grass-tree.' 
Maibanmarra — to bore through, 

as a gimlet. 
Maigang — a widow. 
Mailgan — death. 
Main — a native. 
Maindaldaiu — ^a man-eater. 
Maingarra — to paint red. 
Maingualbang — a stranger. 
Maingulia — native-like. 
Malbillinga — to do when bidden 
Malburdung — one that turns 

the feet inwards in walking. 
Maldain — a maker. 
Maldanna — to get ; to provide. 
Maldhan — workmanship, work. 
Malduringa — to dig roots. 
Malgian — barren. 
Malgianna — to dig out roots. 
Mallaiar — friend, acquaintance. 
Mallaidyin — feeble, infirm, ill. 
Mallangguu — a little girl. 
Mallu — lazy. 
Mallungan — a young woman ; a 

Mamarra — to paste on, to make 

Mambar — a native fruit. 
Mambarra — a native tree-fruit. 
Mambuar — very hot, oppressed 

with heat, exhausted. 
Mambuar — poorly, unwell. 
Mammabba — a grandfather, an 

Mammadin — a husband or wife. 



Mammaibanirra — to cause to 

cleave together ; also, mam- 

Mammaibumarra-to hold down, 

Mammal — a mixture. [with. 
Mammalbamarra — to mingle 
Mammallanna — to pay a visit, as 

when strangers arrive. 
Mammandarra — not to know 

exactly ; to forget. 
Mam-marra, -manna — to cleave 

to, to be sticky, to adhere. 
Mammurrain — a native root. 
Manar — underdone. 
Mandai — the rind ; thin bark. 
Mandang — a sort of wood. 
Mandang — thankful, happy. 
Mandarra — to be closed up; to 

have no air. 
Mandiabba — an opossum. 
Mandirra — to hit (strike, beat) 

suiEciently so as to break it. 
Mandu — else ; besides. 
Mandumbillanna — to refuse to 

come when sent for. 
Mandur — quiet or undisturbed, 

not meddled with. 
Mangai — sore. 
Mangamangan — a wind-shelter 

of boughs at the camp. 
Mangar — a sling. 
Manginga — to lean against. 
Mannanbil — -muddy. 
Mannang — dirt, ground, soil. 
Mannanna — to be half-raw. 
Mannara — wide. 
Mannarganna — to be wide. 
Mannar girang — very wide. 
Mannarra — to spread ; to make 

Mannarwirrimbirra — to spread. 
Manngar — a wound, a sore. 
-Mannirra — to be too heavy to 

be carried. 
Mannung — a kind of spear. 
Mar — the small of the back. 
Marambang — very good. 


Marambagbillang — exceedingly 

good ; cf. marang. 
Marambir — better. 
Marammubang — bad. 
Marang — good ; also marong. 
Maragaginga — to be good. 
Marbarmarbar — marked with 

diverse colours, striped. 
Marbildain — ^a flogger. 
Marbilduringa — to beat out, to 

beat thoroughly. 
Marbirra — to flog. 
Marga — a native shield. 
Margamanna — to shield, defend. 
Margon — the ankles. 
Marinmarra — to clear off. 
Maromb unge — refreshment. 
Maronirra — to make good or 

Marra — the hand. 
Marra — to do, to make. 
Marrabadambirra — to be scat- 
tered about. [hands. 
Marrabinga — to stretch out the 
Marradir — a very large rock. 
Marradul — a long time ago ; 

long since. 
Marragarra — to hold fast. 
Marragayamirra — to shield the 

eyes against the sun with the 

Marragir — naked; s., a widower. 
Marragungang — a widow. 
Marraibirang — very old. 
Marraldirra — to frighten. 
Marramaldain — an artificer. 
Marre manna — to make haste. 
Marramarrang — haste, hurry. 
Marrambirra — to hasten. 
Marramin — a kind of lobster. 
Marramurgang — the fist. 
Marran — a lung. 
Mar rang — little ants. 
Marran garra — to be convicted 

of murder. 
Marrangungan — a large spider. 
Marranmarran — raw, not done 

enough, not ripe. 



Marrar — a tarantula spider. 

Marrawir — to go to the bush 
without wives. 

Marrayagal — very old. 

Marria — a relation by marriage. 

Marrin — the body. [rect. 

Marrombul — good, right, cor- 

Marrommanna — to be bright. 

Marromtnarra — to do, to create, 
to make. 

Marruanna — to make, to form. 

Marunbunmirra — to be kind to, 
to love. 

Mawambul — all met together. 

Mawang — altogether. 

Mawarrar — a pod of grass seed. 

Mayal — some kind of weeds. 

Mayol — a wild blackfellow. 

Memmang — very short ; a short 

Menar — very hot. 

Mennu — lice. 

Merri — a native dog. 

Merribinga — to be very greedy. 

Merrimborainga — very angry. 

Merrimerrimal — a kind of grass- 

Merrin — angry. 

Merringan — dog-like, thievish, 

Merringin-gin — a bellyful. 

Mian — one that provides and 
cares for another. 

Miadyambarra — to look sharp. 

Mibar — a butterfly when in its 

Middang — alone, one, single. 

Midyur — sharp, pointed. 

Migganma — an arch, a bow. 

Migganmiggan — edge, corner. 

Migge — lightning. 

Migge — a marriageable young 

Miggemana — to flash, to lighten. 

Mil— the eye. 

Milbang — snot from the nose. 

Milbarra — to beat softly and re- 
gularly, like a watch. 

Milbi — a hole ; a well. 
Milbomgarra — to stare, wonder, 

be astonished ; also milbom- 

Milbuun — dimness of the eyes. 
Mildong — a handle, as of the 

'marga,' q.v. 
Milgain — openly ; face to face. 
Milge — large drops of rain. 
Milgurai — a dim sight. 
Millalmillal — awake ; wakeful. 
Millang — the hip. 
Millangul — very near. 
Millangun — sidewards. 
Milwarranna — to open the eyes. 
Millawelang — a native shrub. 
Millumarra — to wink. 
Mimarra — to pull, to pull from 

or back, to hold fast. 
Minbanna — to beg, to pray. 
Mindyambinsa — to stretch. 
Mindyarra — to be fast ; fixed. 
Mindyui — a needle ; of. bingal. 
Mingan — the eldest sister. 
Minganna — to prop, as a pillar. 
Mingarra — to be wrong, mis- 
Minngar — an edible root. 
Minni — a sister. 
Minyambal — something. 
Minyambung — a bad dream. 
Minyang — what ? 
Minyagga — what is it ?=I know 

not what (as a reply). 
Minyangan — how many ? 
Mirga — the woman's shield. 
Mirganna — to protect with the 

' mirga,' as the women do. 
Mi r il m ir il — n o strils . 
Mirol — pipeclay. 
Mirra — the left hand. 
Mirra — left ; s., the left arm. 
Mirral-birra — to be afraid ; s., 

Mirrhal — greedy. 
Mirrimbulbul — dejected, dull. 
Mirrimirringarra — to be very 




Mirrlnmarra — to drag along tte 

Moildain — a backbiter. 

Mombal — a native shrub. 

Mombanna — to cry ; especially 
tbe cry of mourning. 

Mondarra — to pick. 

Mondu — the upper lip. 

Mondudiranna — to look stern. 

Monnubang — lousy-headed. 

-mubang — destitute of, without ; 
a fosffix ; cf. ISng. -less. 

Muddai — content, satisfied. 

Muddaingindanna — to be satis- 

Muddamuddag — an acacia- tree. 

Muddirra-to beat out, to gather 
(fruit); to thrash. 

Muge — an owl. 

Muggaindyal — worn out, old. 

Muggamarru — to make a knot. 

Mugganna — to pick up. 

Muggen — a mosquito. 

Muggi — a species of eaglehawk. 

Muggin — blind. 

Mugginga — to close the eyes. 

Muggomma — inside (the hut). 

Muggommagga — thepalate ; the 
inside of the mouth. 

Muggon — podex. 

Muggu — void of, without (as a 
postfix) ; v., to stop up. 

Mugguar — quiet, silent. 

Mugguarbang — quiet, peaceful. 

Muggaiga wanna — to go to sleep. 

Muggugalurgarra — to conceal, 
to keep secret. 

Mugguinbabbirra — to give any- 
thing readily so as to avoid 
being teased longer. 

Muggulun — a grub in wood. 

Muggumandan — a knot caused 
by tying. 

Muggumnoa — in ; internally. 

Muin — swampy black soil. 

Muin — a kind of ground-spider. 

Mulba — very short ; a little man; 

Mulgabirra — to give all. 

Mulgamarra — to span. 

Mulgamarra — to take hold of 
to grasp, to lay hold of bodily 

Mulgunmadillinga — to wrap u 
one's self. 

Mulgunmarra — to wrap up or 
roll round. 

MuUagdirra — to be sick, vomit. 

MuUaimirra — to lie in wait, to 
watch for. 

MullamuUang — very sick. 

MuUan — part of. 

Mullang — sick. 

Mullangual — another part. 

Mullanna — sick, ready to vomit. 

Mullarmullar — slippery. 

Mullawar — ' opossum-grass.' 

Mullen— a little bird. 

Mullian — an eagle hawk. 

Mulludin — the moustache. 

Mulludyin — a kind of whiskers 
round a fish called ' dangur.' 

Mullunma — inside, within. 

Mumang — short ; cf. bergul. 

Mumarra — to rub between the 

Mumbir — a mark ; a scar. 

Mumbirraarra — to marlc. 

Mumbuar — a thoughtful or dis- 
tressed look; quiet, unassum- 
ing, humble. 

Mundubang — a hatchet. 

Mundyambarra — to smack the 
lips when eating. 

Munga — a native fruit. 

Munga — a little infant. 

Miingallana — to get the mastery 
of, to conquer. 

Mungar — a kidney. 

Mungimanna- — to rub the eyes. 

Mungo — the calf of the leg. 

Munguma — a lump, a piece. 

Mungur — straight, stiff. [leg. 

Mungurmarra — to break one's 

Munil — a hole. 

Munilbunmara — to make a hole. 

Munirgallanna — to scold, find 
fault with. 



Muogamarra — to keep in reserve 

for future use. 
Muogan — a younger sister. 
Muogelang — a species of wood. 
Muomadi — a term of reproacli. 
Muoyarra — to tell behind the 

back ; to speak secretly. 
Mural — anything (as dust, sand, 

dirt) that gets into the eye. 
Murannanna — to make or feel 

Murgambanna — to cranch, as in 

biting a hard crust. [sort. 
Murigual — different ; of another 
Muro — the entrails of a grub. 
Munmanna — to stiile the cough; 

to hold the hand before the 

mouth while coughing. 
Munnaingubildain — deceitful . 
Munnaigubirra — to make sport 

of, to disappoint, to tantalise. 
Munnalwe — greedy, voracious. 
Munnarra — an afternoon visit. 
Munnirganna — to be jealous. 
Munnuin — a sharp end or point ; 

the point of a spear. 
Munnuu — big, much. [tree.' 
Muogalambin — a kind of ' box- 
Muogallan — a kind of tree. 
Murrabialinga — to get worse or 

sick again, to have a relapse; 

also, murrabinga. [asleep. 
Murrabinda — to be ill, to be fast 
Murrabirra — to throw down. 
Murradambirra — to make fast. 
Murradirra — to hit, to kick. 
Murra-gan-gan — having many 

fingers or legs, like spiders. 
Murrai — soft. 
Murraidyung — very soft. 
Murrain — the white cockatoo. 
Murralmurral — slippery. 
Murrai — something in the eye. 
Murramirra — to stare or look at 

with surprise. 
Murramurrabirra — to part for 

ever, never to see again ; to 

neglect, to forsake. 

Murr an al — blind . 
Murrandan — a little rat. 
Murrang — mud . 
Murranillanna — to fight much, 
Murrawal — much, great. 
Murrawalgiran — a stout, large 

Murrawarra — to stand fast. 
Murrayallalinga — to raise the 

Murrayarra — to speak out, to 

speak loud. 
Murredyang — curious, strange. 
Murrhum-murrhung — • smiling, 

ready to laugh. 
Murri — a sort, a kind. 
Miirri — a stranger. 
Murriang — the place where the 

ocean ceases at the end of the 

world ; there Baiamai lives. 
Murrigual — another sort. 
Murrigualbang — different ones, 

M-jirrimurri — each, of each sort. 
Murrin — no. 
Murrdg-garra — to leap, as in 

Murron — life ; a3j., alive. 
Murrongialinga — to come to 

life again, to revive. 
Murronginga — to live. 
Murru — a road. 
Murru — nose. 
Murrua — the west wind. 
Murruban — the first. 
Murruberai — thunder. 
Murruberaigarra — to thunder. 
Murrudadain — a native bird. 
Murrudalain — thorns. 
Murru diuelinga — to turn up the 

nose at; to treat with con- 
Murrudirra — to speak through 

the nose. 
Murrudirran — a protuberance ; 

projecting and hanging over. 
Murrugai — first. 
Murrugal — to read. 



MuiTugian — tlie tone worn in 
the nose. 

Murrumarra — to hold fast, to 
sift seeds in a piece of bark, 
to rub between the hands. 

Murrumbain — the firstborn. 

Murrumbir — sky, firmament. 

Murrumbirrhe — a loud sound 
heard in the air by the natives. 

Murrumurrung — laughable; s., 
one that is always laughing. 

Murrung — a kind of grass- 

Murrungayarra — to say always. 

Murrungelinga — to surround, to 
encompass, to inclose. 

Murug-gamirra-to like or fancy 
a thing. 

Muruidarra — ^to make a noise 
when eating. 


]S'amniunmanna — to hold the 
hand to the mouth. 

Nammundambinga — to shut up ; 
to tie up, as clothes. 

Wan — the neck. 

Nauan — quick, fast-running. 

Nandirang — bent, like a hook. 

Nangan — putrified meat. 

Nangundarra — to trespass by 
eating things forbidden. 

I^angunmarra — to trespass, in- 
trude, to do wrong. 

Nannaibirra — to be in a hurry ; 
to be very eager. 

Nannaibungarra — to waste. 

Nannaigan — poor, miserable. 

tNannaigur — poorly, unwell. 

Nannaigure — miserable, un- 

Nannainia — very steep. 

Nannaimarra — to spill, to waste. 

Nannainannaibina — to be very 

Naranmarra — to strip off. 

Narbang — a woman's bag ; the 
pouch of an animal. 

Narguaima — round. 

!N"arrannanangerang — a flower. 

Narrarwarra — to slip backwards 

Narrawai — the smoky appear- 
ance of the air caused by 
great heat. 

Narriar — hot. 

Narrin — ^the hip-bone. 

Narro — a man's bag. 

Narruldirra — to escape. 

Narrundirra — to kick. 

Naruin — fresh skin. 

Narvvarra — to slip. 

Nigganagga — very hot, oppres- 
sive ; said of the sun. 

Nilla — he, she, it (pron.). 

Nimmadillinga — to pinch one's- 
self ; also nimma-gidyillinga. 

Nimuggang — a little rat. 

Nin — one's own. 

Ninganna — to come begging in 
a sly manner. 

Ninirwara — to search minutely. 

Nirgian — sulky, peevish. 

Nirin — an edge. 

Nirmarra — to break one's arm. 

Nuggadang — reddish gum from 
the ' gum-tree.' 

Nugganirra — to beat regularly ; 
as the heart. 

Nuggur — loathing food ; not in- 
clined for eating. 

Nulang — mist ascending. 

Nulang — the mist-like appear- 
ance of the atmosphere in 
summer indicative of great 
heat ; Germ., hohenrauch. 

Nullabang — many. 

Nullari — -hurry, haste. 

Nulluimarra — to turn upside 
down, to tilt. 

Nulluimbinga — to be folded 

Nulluinbibaddi — folded up. 

Nulluiu-marra,-manna-to spill 

Numbanna — to blow the nose 



Nunnumarra — to take away 

Nurra-uurra-bul — always, con- 

Nurrurdarra — to suck, as the 
jaice out of a bone. 


TJ — anything airy or open, such 

as a pipe. 
TJba — a native rat. 
TJbbuginga — to go under the 

water, to dive. 
TJbbur — full, swollen; s., a lump 
Ubu — a kind of frog-stool. 
TJda — an ear. 
TJdabarrambang — the thick end 

(knob) of the 'bundi' cudgel. 
Udadurai — clever, intelligent. 
Udagarbinga — to listen. 
TJdagual — a different purpose ; 

lit., another ear. 
TJdag-garag-garra — to know a 

great deal, to be intelligent. 
TJdamiigga — deaf; lit., ear-shut. 
TJddagarragarra — whirling as a 

leaf in falling. 
TJgal — a young man. 
Uganguang — rotten, decayed;*., 

corruption (in the grave) . 
Ugil — heat, warmth, hot wind. 
TJlbundarra — to draw out, as a 

native doctor draws out a 

charm-stone from the belly 

of a sick person, as they say. 
Ulbundinga — to pull off, cause 

to fall off. 
Ulbunmalalinga — to pull again. 
TJldumbarra-to get unfastened ; 

Ulinga — to fly. 

TJlinga — to lie down, go to sleep. 
Ulla — voice, sound ; a call. 
TJllabarra — to have a rolling 

noise inside the bowels. 
UUauna — to call. 

Ullawaranna — to howl, shriek. 
Ulleilinga — to call for some one. 
TJllui — rubbish. 
Ullumma — the calf of the leg. 
Umbai (u) — the last. [off. 

Umbanna — to get loose, to come 
Umirra — to peep. [light. 

Undirra — to stand in one's own 
Uran — hair. 
Uranbai — very hairy. 
Urganba — a thing to open with, 

a key. 
Urganna — anything that is in- 
side ; as maggots in meat. 
Urgarra — to put in. 
TJriabare — never mind ! 
Urimbirra — to take care of, to 

keep, preserve. 
Urong — leaiiess . 
Urommarra — to take out, to 

take from underneai,h. 
TJrra — weak, feeble; very thin. 
Urragarra — to make a noise. 
Urranna — to enter. 
Urrembillinga ■ — to come in 

when told. 
Urraurramarra — to feel acute 

Urrubirra — to swallow. 
Urrugan — a fastening, a tie. 
Urrugarban — unable to breathe 

well, hoarse, unable to talk. 
Urrugurrai — hoarse ; s., a sore 

Urrungillanna — to encompass. 
Urruumarra — to pull, to draw; 

to open like a beast when 

slaughtered ; atsoulbutmarra. 
Urrur — full; v., to be satisfied. 
Urrurbanna — to rush upon ; to 

TJrrurbana — to be full, to be 

Urrurgirrin — a very bad sore. 
Urrurubil — the throat. 
Uru — the neck. 
Urumbanninga — to get through 




TTrumbumarra — to push through 

or into. 
TJrung — a bow, a branch. 
Urungambirra — to put on (into) 


"Wabba — a wild pigeon. 
"Wabban — a spy. [tree. 

Wadda— the ashes of a burnt 
Waddag-gallanua — to talk to- 
gether, to dispute, to scold. 
Waddagganna — to be angry ; to 

scold, to use bad language ; to 

grumble, to be dissatisfied. 
"Waddaguug — a wild rabbit-rat. 
"Waddanganna — to be angry or 

Waddawadda — ^the ankle bone ; 

an edge ; adj., uneven. 
"Wadyargal — the hinder part of 

the back of a fish. 
Waerawi — any fancy, a dream. 
"Waggawagga — reeling, like a 

drunlfen man. 
"Waggadain — a dancer. 
Waggai — a little child. 
Waggambirra — to play, to dance 

Waggan — a black crow. 
Wagganna — ^to dance. 
Waggara — a spade. 
Wagge — a species of ants. 
Waggura — a crow ; a different 

sort from ' wagan.' 
Waibar — to the left. 
"Waibarma — the left hand. 
Waiyamarra — to turn over, to 

turn round. 
"Waiyarang — teachable, clever. 
"Waiyuberai — bent, crooked. 
WalauUon — a kind of limestone. 
Walbai — crooked. 
Walbang — thin bark, rind. 
"Walgar — the projecting bone in 

the upper front parr of the 

arm ; the collar-bone. 

"Walgawalga — marks, as on the 

trees near a native grave. 
"Walgun — anything crosswise ; 

"Walgun walgun — going to and 

fro (once crosswise). 
"Wallagai — the bare part of a 

tree where the bark has been 

stripped off. 
Wallagagag — not strong, weak. 
Wallagarra — to strip. [skin. 
Wallagur — scars burnt on the 
"VVallamatinayalinga — to take 

care of till strong ; to train a 

Wallau — strong. 
Wallanbang — very strong. 
Wallanbangan — strong,mighty, 

possessed of authority. 
Wallang — a stone. 
Wallanrnarra — to make strong. 
Wallar — a waterhole in rocks 
"Wallar — flat, even, smooth. 
"Wallaru — a small kangaroo. 
Wallawallang — stony. 
Walliwalli — crooked ; cf. bargan 
Wallui or walluigang — a young 

"Walluin — good, well, healthy. 
Wallumarra — to be a guardian, 

to protect. 
Wallunmanna — to sit still as 

unwilling to go. 
Wallun-ginga — to be good. 
Wallunbuoyarra — to forbid to 

tell a thing. 
"Walgun — ignorant, barbarous. 
"Wamarra — to skin. 
"Wambad — a badger. 
"Wambadar — the lights next the 

"Wambalwamballa-hilly, rugged 
"Wambinga — to support. 
"Wambong — a constellation. 
"Wambuainbang^a duck ; alio 

the name of a constellation. 
"Wambuan — mixture. 
"Wambuanbunmarra — to mix. 



Wambun — subst., covetousness ; 

adj., covetous. 
Wambunbunmaldain — a covet- 
ous person. 
"Wambunbunmarra — to make or 

be covetous or greedy. 
Wammal — a native weapon, i.e., 

a little sharp-pointed stick. 
Wammang — wrong, not right ; 

not straight, out of the road. 
Wammar — the hand-stick with 

which the spear is thrown ; 

the ' wommara.' 
Wammarra — to build. 
"Wamu — fat. 

Wanarra — to mark a skin. 
Waubang — the mound of earth 

on a grave. 
Wanbuan — a kind of kangaroo. 
"Wandaiyalle — a porcupine. 
Wandong — the bad spirit. 
"Wandyu — a crow ; i.c[. wagan. 
"Wangaduringa — to be lost. 
Wangai — a large species of ant. 
"Wangaidyung — astray, lost. 
"Wangal — hair matted together. 
"Wan gan — clo tted . 
Wanganna — to lose. 
"Wangar — idle, lazy. 
Wangarra — to cry like a crow. 
"Wangi — a night-owl. [the fire. 
"Wangian — to sit at the back of 
Wannabanna — to leave behind, 

to forsake. 
Wannaggarra — to throw away ; 

also wannag-gilarra. 
"Wannaggilgan — single, i.e., un- 
Wannamambilcina — to separate 

from each other, to part. 
Wannamindyarra — to neglect, 

to be careless ; to care for no 

longer ; to forgive. 
Wannangijillinga — to abandon 

one's self ; to despair. 
"Wannanna — to throw. 
Wannarra — to dig with a stick, 

as native women do. 

"Wannal — one that is under the 
restriction of tribal law with 
respect to food ; a lad not 
yet fully initiated. 

"Wannamarra — to do, to finish. 

Wannamarradanna — to leave 
alone ; not to meddle "ndth. 

"Wannawanna — to scratch. 

Wannunduringa — to cease, to 
discontinue, to throw away. 

Wanyanna — to scratch. 

Wanyannadillinga — to scratch 
one's self. 

"Wanyarra — to mark. 

Warbanna — to blow hard ; as 
when wind unroofs houses ; 
to destroy. 

Wargu — wherefore ? why ? 

Warngandarra — to be trouble- 
some, quarrelsome. 

Warngangi — tiresome, trouble- 
some, quarrelsome, bad. 

Warnganna — to disturb. 

Wawe — a monstrous water 

Warra — the edge or hemming ; 
the end ; the brim. 

Warrabamarra — to stop, to im- 
pede ; to cause to cease. 

Warrabarra — to make a noise. 

Warrabinga — to look about, to 
seek for what is lost. 

Warradagang — a yellow stone ; 
adj., yellow. 

Warradannang — quarrelsome, 
warlike, wicked. 

Warraga — under there, down- 

"Warragianna — to stand over or 
before the fire, to warm one's 

"VVarragu — limestone. 

Warrai — a kind of iguana. 

Warraingarra — to hurry away, 
to lead astray, to lead into 

"Warral — stiff, unbending, 

Warralag — a long brown snake. 



"Warralginga — to stretch one's 

Warramba — a turtle. [again. 

"Warrambilalinga — to put down 

"Warrambinga-to put on (a cap). 

Warrambirra — to put down. 

Warrandbain — a peevish, crying 
, fellow. [foreign. 

Warrangan — difficult, strange, 

"Warranna — to stand. 

"Warrarang — oppressively hot. 

"Warraur — string, a band. 

Warrawcinage ! — let us go ! get 
ready ! 

"Warrawarra — to shout. 

Warrawarrada — standing as if 
ready to go. 

Warrhul — an echo ; a loud sound 
sometimes heard by the natives 
as an intimation of death. 

"Warriwarri (diran)-a long chain 
of hills. 

"Warria — a pup ; the little toe. 

Warrian — a kind of ' kangaroo- 
rat '; wirong is another kind. 

"Warro — a kind of small fly. 

"Warrubalbal — a large hornet. 

"Warrugaldain — a helper. 

Warrugang — red. 

Warrugarra — to help. 

"Warrul — honey. 

"Warruyarra — ^to count, number. 

"Waur — steam. . 

Wawai — a large water-snake. 

"Wawal — barren. 

"Wawalgang — a kind of tassel. 

Wawina— to move the wings, fly. 

"Wawirra — to clean. 

"Wayadan — a relative. 

Wayal — a kangaroo skin. 

Wayambinga — to turn round. 

Wayamilbuoanna — to lookback. 

"Wayamirra — to look back. 

"Wayan — out of sight, lost. 

Wayandi — all round. 

Wayangarra — to turn round, to 
go round the corner ; to stir, 
as food in the pot. 

"Wayanmarra — to get out of 

sight, to be lost to view. 
"Wayarang — possessing much 

property ; rich. 
"Wayawayambinga — to revolve, 

to turn round ; also wirbunba. 
Wayawayanga — encompassing. 
Wayunmarra — to wind up, to 

wring out. 
Wayuwayuanbinga — to swing, 

to turn to and fro. 
Weddingan — a man that has left 

his brother. 
Wiang — the part of the fore- 
head just behind the temples. 
Wiargualin — fog. [detain. 

Wibaiyarra — to tell to stay, to 
Wibianna — to sit down. 
Wibirra — to spin. 
Widyalang — a child not yet 

Widyua — what for ? what ? 
Widyunga — when ? 
Widyugguor — -which way ? 
"Widyulainmallang — victory. 
Widyung — which way ? 
Wigawanna — to sit watching. 
Wigge — bread, vegetable. 
"Wiggilgil — worms in wood. 
"Wiggarrinil — one that sits all 

day. [night. 

"Wigurabianna — to sit up all 
Wilban — a cave. 
Wilbanna — to whistle. 
"Wilbur — a branch, a twig. 
Willaidul — curious, strange. 
"Willaimarra — to do mischief. 
"Willaiyarra — to use bad words. 
"Willei — an opossum. 
Willidya — standing or lying in 

the way; «., an obstacle. 
"Willigain — the flrstborn. 
Willima — middle, midst. 
Willin — the under lip. 
"Willinga-willinga — part of the 

beard close to the under lip. 
Willurain — fluid honey. 
WUlurding — slender, small. 



Willurei — ^very sweet. [self. 
Wiman-gijilliga — to rub one's 
"Wim-anna, -arra — to anoint. 
Win — fire, fuel, wood. 
Winbangarra — to make a fire. 
Winbangelinga — to make a fire 

for another. 
"VVindil— grease, gravy, fat. 
"Windimanna — to wait for, to 

be meddlesome, to trouble. 
Winga — to sit down, to live. 
Wingaddan — a woman that has 

become a mother. [egg- 

Wiugambang — the yolk of an 
"Wingarang — a poor man, i.e., 

one having no wife, lit., ' no 

"Winingarra — to pick out. 
Winnaggabillinga — to believe. 
Winnaggadillinga — to know 

one's self ; to feel. 
Winnaggaduringa — to know 

(empJi.) ; to reflect, meditate. 
Winnangadain — a clever man ; 

adj., intelligent. 
"VVinnaggal ang — clever. 
"Winnanga-gi-gillanua — to care 

for each other. 
Winnan ga-garra-garra — kno w- 

ing everything. 
"Winnagganna — to know, think. 
Winnaggarra — to hear. 
"Winnangibillang — clever, in- 

"Winnawinnang — an insect. 
Winnummia wanna — to stay a 

short time. 
Winnumminga — to sit down 

again, to wait. [water. 

Wiuyu — a waterhole without 
"Wir — the air, heaven, sky. 
Wirai — no. [all ! 

Wiraibul — by no means ! not at 
Wiraigualman — nothing more. 
"Wirain — not level, slopiiag up, 

Wirbingal — a very tall man. 
Wirbunba — lame. 

Wirbunba — aflame of fireburst- 
ing forth. 

Wirgain — in the air. 

Wirgal — the tree, in the form 
of a rainbow, which grows 
out of Darrawirgal's thigh. 

Wirgaldain — a carpenter. 

Wirganna — to be lame, to halt. 

Wirgarang — weeds. 

Wirgarra^to make smooth, to 
scrape off. 

Wirrhan — sloping. [care of. 

Wirimbirra — to preserve, take 

Wirong — the north wind. 

Wirradil- — a nail. 

Wirradirra — to nail. 

Wirragal — poisonous black wax 
put on the points of spears. 

"Wirriaganna — see wirringanna. 

Wirriawannag — to lie down, to 
go to sleep. 

Wirribang — destitute of vege- 

Wirrimbildana — to leave a por- 
tion, as of food'. 

Wirrimbirra — to lay up, keep, 

Wirrindanna — to roast. 

"Wirringa — to lie down to sleep. 

AVirringanna — to sing as the 
natives do at ' karabaris ' with 
the strong sound of »•-;•. 

Wirringillanna — to cohabit. 

Wirrirmarra — to detain. 

Wirurngar — meat when tainted 
and smelling badly. 

"Wiwin — hot. 

Wiyc — the hinder part or back ; 
little sticks. 

Wuye — shavings of wood. 

"Wuyong — a bird like the crow. 


Ya.—ea;clam., oh ! 

Tabba — a diamond snake. 

Tabbaibang — all round. 



Tabbaibang — voluptuous. 

Tabbain — a prize for which two 
or more contest. 

Tabbaug — ^behind. 

Tabbang — vestiges ; a footpath. 

Tadarra — to be too narrow. 

Taddang — ^well, right; because. 

Taddar — a dream. 

Tadillinga — to be ready to go. 

Taddu — I -jfor ngaddu. 

Taggailia — a term of reproach. 

Taggar — an edible lettuce-like 
grass eaten by the natives. 

Tain — that way ! so ! 

Taindyibul — all round. 

Yaingalmallabul — that's all. 

Taingalman — so many ; the per- 
son showing the number with 
the hands. 

Taingambirra — to assist. 

Taingayaingarra — to help. 

Take ! — exclamation of pain. 

Tala — that way ! 

Yalaiyarrhagillantia — to speak 
well of one, to praise. 

Yalbillinga — to speak when bid- 
den; to learn. 

Yalduringa — to confess. 

Yalgar — hard, dried up. 

Yalgarbunbirra — to make dry. 

Yalgu — dry ; s., a leafless tree. 

Yallabal — generous always ; 

Yallabarra (birrhaga) — to carry 
on the back. 

Yalu — yes, that will do ! 

Yalladanna — to scold. 

Tallai-yallai — a flap ; hanging 
down, like a dog's ears. 

Yallalinga — to speak again. 

Tallanna — to speak to one an- 
other ; to scold each other. 

Yallaradang — gum oozing from 

Yallaraingarra — to let go down. 

Yallaranna — to hiss, as a snake. 

YaUar-anna, -ambirra — to fall 
down headlong ; to let down. 

Yalle — the soft part between 

the rib and hip. 
Yallul — always . 
Yalmambirra — to teach. 
Yama — interrog., as much as ; 

joined to pronouns. 
Yamaiamaldain — a helper. 
Yamandirra — to carry fire. 
Yambadarra — to shrink from. 
Yambinya — to stay or live with, 

as a man with a woman. 
Yambiyambidyal — one that can 

get no husband, an old maid. 
Yambiyambinga — to imitate, to 

do like another. 
Yambiyambinga — to help, assist. 
Yambuan — any or every thing. 
Yambul — nothing, nonsense, a 

lie, mere talk. 
Yambulgarrambin — anything 

.that roams about, but is not 

seen. [pear' tree. 

Yamma ; yammagang — the ' wild 
Yammadain — a companion. 
Yammadi — a dog ; Jig., a sen- 
Yammaiamarra — to help, assist. 
Yammanna — to go along with. 
Yamoa — why ? what for ? 
Yanbarra — to exchange wives. 
Yandammulla — the name of one 

of the two wives of Baiamai. 
Yandandu — if, when. 
Yandambullan — Darrawirgal's 

Yandangarang — a false beard, 

a mask. 
Yandarra — to mess together. 
Yandayanbarra — to eat for the 

sake of company. 
Yandiandirra — to laugh after 

Yandu — yet, at that time, then. 
Yandul — now, at the present. 
Yandulabul — at one and the 

same time. 
Yandyima — all over, all round. 
Yangan — common property. 



Tan-gamia, -garra-seeyunganna 
Yangarra — to grind seeds in the 

native way; to rub on a stone; 

to clean by rubbing, as knives. 
Tange — drought. [woman. 

Tangerang — a run-about, a bad 
Tangerang — all along, all about. 
Tangerangbuolia — all round. 
Tanguainbanna — to stumble, to 

Tangumbi — always, along time. 
Tangumbinga — to leap over. 
Tannabayarra — to send, to tell 

to go. 
Tannabillinga — i;o go when told. 
Tannabuoananna — to go with 

exertion. [wanderer. 

Tannadarrambal — a stroller, a 
Tannagagi — a walk, v. and s. 
Tanuaidurai — an infant begin- 
ning to walk ; any walker. 
Tannamambirra — to let go. 
Tannamanna — to pursue. 
Tannamarra — to go quickly. 
Tannambabirra — to come for 

something to eat. 
Tannangarimanna — to go about 

all day long. 
Tannanna — to go, to walk. 
Tannanuwal — go on ! 
Tannarra — a long fishing spear. 
Tannaurar — smooth, nicely 

Tannemaingarrin — having gone 

in vain. 
Tanniyanirra — to come to one's 

Tannulabul — at the same time. 
Tannumbilanna — to walk. 
Tara — a 'gum-tree.' 
Taran — the chin ; the beard. 
Tarbarra — to dig, scrape with 

the spade. 
Tarbimma — round. 
Tariwan — as sensual as a brute. 
Tarmanna — to seek all about. 
Tarmarra — to move about and 

scratch or bite, like fleas. 

Tarngun — the root of a tree. 
Tarra — to speak. 
Tarradamarra — to dream. 
Tarradunna ■ — • to beat on the 

' bargan,' q.v. 
Yarraga — spring. 
Yarraibarra — to make a hissing 

noise, like the 'bargan' vrhen 

Yarrain — a native shrub. 
Yarrainbadanna — to gnash the 

teeth together. 
Yarraiyannanna-^-to go about. 
Yarraman — a horse. 
Yarran — a kind of gi-ub. 
Yarran — a grub found in trees. 
Yarrandang — a dream. 
Yarran g — splinters . 
Yarranna — to make an angry 

noise, like dogs when ready 

to seize on an object. 
Yarrarbai — creaking, as shoes. 
Yarrarbarra — to creak. 
YarrawuUai — the blossom of the 

' gum-tree.' 
Yarre — raw, underdone. 
Yarridyundain — strong, as raw 

Yarringan — clear, transparent, 

like clear water. 
Yarriwan — voracious. 
Yarrudag-ginga — to dream. 
Yarruwalla — very strong, very 

Yaryan-buolia — everywhere. 
Yaung — a small shadow. 
Yawai ; yungi — stones used for 

grinding or sharpening. 
Yawaima — round; subsi., a ring. 
Yawaingar — a cockroach. 
Yawaldain — one that watches, 

a watchman. 
Yawallanna— to watch one an- 
Yawandyilllnga — to take care 

of one's self. 
Yawannayallinga — to care for, 

as a mother a child. 



Tawarra — to watch or take care. 

Tawarrang — a kind of fish. 

Tawillawillawil-cooling breeze. 

Tayallanna — to assist to talk. 

Telinga — to reprove, find fault 

Yuambanna — to frighten away- 
evil spirits by a hissing noise. 

Tuar — hungry. 

Tuar — a kind of ' gum-tree.' 

Tuarbin — theblossom of 'yuar.' 

Tubanirra — to cause to rain. 

Tubarra — to rain. 

Yuddillanna — to touch. 

Tuddinga — to hit against, to 
touch ; also yudirra. 

Yuganna — to move. [self. 

Yuggan-gijillinga — to stir one's 

Yuggawai — a sleeping place. 

Yuggawanna — to select a place 
where to sleep. 

Yugongbirra — to turn back. 

Yugge — a fierce native dog. 

Yuggubul — this one.thisfellow. 

Yugguggirra — to look from un- 
derneath, to peep. 

Yuggui — having no water, dry. 

Yuin — a name. 

Yuinballai — one who is respec- 
ted, famous. 

Yuinbarra — to tell the name. 

Yuinbir — this way ! 

Yulain — si? in. 

Yulung ; yulumban — a kind of 

YuUa — nails on fingers and toes. 

YuUai-yuUai — shaking, stagger- 

YuUang — a little shrub. 

Yullawanna — to stretch out the 
arms; to lie straight. 

YuUawarra — to stretch. 

Yullubirgen — a rainbow. 

YuUugayan-anna — to go on the 

Yullugur — a part of the throat. 

Yulluma — a kind of kangaroo. 

Yumambirra — to cause to cry. 

Yumarradinga — to cry whilst 

Yumbalgarra — to pass from 

playing into crying. 
Yumbanidyillinga — to be sorry 

for having made one cry. 
Yumbanirra — to cause to cry. 
Yumbi — a species of pine. 
Yumbiyumbidyang — a servant, 

an assistant. 
Yumbul — that way! 
Yung — scars. 
Yungaddain — a stroller. 
Yungaibarra — to cry out, shout. 
Yunganna — to groan, to cry, to 

make much a-do at work. 
Yungarang — illegal cohabita- 
Yungbunmarra — to push back 
Yungerang — very noisy. 
Yungir — a crier. 
Yungun — backwards. 
Yurai — sleep ; adj., sleepy. 
Yuranna — to grow. 
Yurbai — a kind of seed. 
Yurbarra — to nod in sleep, to 

be sleepy. 
Yurbayurba — sleepy. 
Yureu — a scratch, scar, sore. 
Yuron — convalescent. 
Yurong — a cloud. 
Yurraibulbul — very sleepy. 
Yurrubang — very tall and big. 
Yurruga — the sun. 
Yurrugai — thistle. 
Yurrugaidyurai — name of the 

mountain near my home. 
Yurrumbainarra — to rear, to 

bring up. 
Yurrumbannayalinga — to take 

care of another's child. 
Yurumbawal — an old man who 

has seen much ; one who has 

seen his children's children ; 

a very old man. 
Yurummullo — a dull sultry day. 
Yuyui — no water : a dry plain. 
Yuyung — backwards . 

110 an a'ustealian language. 

2. Sentences. 

[The spelling and the -vvord-forms here should be received with caution. 
I have corrected some errors ; but all our Australian Vocabularies need 
critical examination before they can be declared thoroughly reliable. — Ed.] 

Grula dain yannabiye — he told him to come here. 
Ngadduiiu dilmangu -wibaiye — I tell you to be quiet. 
Widyunga main dain huogalgirri P^when do the men* come here ? 
Biambul main yannaan dirangu — all the men went to the hills. 
Ngandunu nilla karrandarang ngunne ? — who gave you the paper ? 
Baimbul main bunbangarrimanna diranda — all the natives are 

running about on the mountains the whole day. o 

Main ngolonggai-buoanna dirandi — now the natives are coming 

back from the mountains. 
Tndyangga yanna ! — walk slowly ! Barrai yanna — go quickly. 
Minyandu (o?' minyang ngindu) yarra? — what do you say? 
Tama ngindu (or yamandu) balludarra ? — do you feel cold ? 
Talu, wari — yes, it is so. Iradu ngalgarra — the sun shines. 
Maindyu dain gaan — a native brought it. 
Gruin ngurandi wirrigirri — he will sleep at the camp. 
Tamanu babbia muroa ginya ?^is your father alive ? 
Ngindu durgunnanna nurra,nurrabul — you are always vrriting 
Karia durriladda — do not spear one another 
Ivarbaga bundinya yawanna — to commit adultery. 
Wirai nurranurrabul, ngunbangunbadda — not always, sometimes. 
Gruin ngurongga mallang dunni — he was to spear him that night. 
IS'golong burrabadde — he sunk the hatchet in his face. 
Tamandu ngannal winnangganna ? — do you know me ? 
"AVargundu ngannal dallaimarra ? — why are you angry with me ? 
Tamandu ngannal ngannumminye? — have you seen me before ? 
Bainba ngaddu — I cannot reach it. 
Birramalgu yannaan — gone to the bush. 
Xgundunu nilla ngunne ? — who gave you that ? 
Dagundu yannanna ? — ^where are you going ? 
Ganggunnanna giwaldaindu — the cook fetches things. 
Dagunnu ngurambang ? — where is your country ? 
Daindu dain buoge ? — where did you come from ? 
Gruin kalianna madandi — he is climbing up the tree. 
Gruin duUugdurada (kmne — he killed with the spear. 
G-uin bargundurada bindye — he killed with the hatchet. 
Ngaddu wime gurindyurada maingulia — I made a man's likeness 

with charcoal. 
Ngaddu winai-guabianna — I was sitting up all night. 
Ngindu yallabul wibiagirri — you shall sit down always. 
Ngaddu Dgabinbilgirri — I will try. 

* In these sentences, the word main means 'men,' 'natives,' 'black- 
fellows. ' 


"Wiraldu malgirri — I shall not do it. 

Kaling ngindi baidyu — I want water. 

"Wirai-du girugal — I am not hungry. Grirugal-du — -I am hungry. 

Karia bumalladda— do not fight. 

"Wiraidu winnanganna — don't know. 

Ngannal giramhannanna iradu — the sun makes me very warm. 

Ngannal murrawal balludarra — I feel very cold. 

Wiraidu giarra — I am not afraid. 

Grialngingidyillidya — be ashamed of yourself. 

Ngunna guindu, yaddandi guin yalmambi — I give it to him be- 
cause he taught me. 

"Wirai durrambaranna — the bark will not strip. 

Wiraidyi gaddal — I have no tobacco. 

Karia warraba — dp not make a noise. 

Miuyanduradundu bume ? — what did you kill him with ? 

Widyunggandu wannabaan Dubo ? — -when did you leave Dubbo ? 

"WidyungganduyannagirriDubogu? — when will you go to Dubbo? 

Widyungga inar dain yanaan ?-^when did the women come up ? 

Wgunbai wibian — a single man or woman. 

TJda yarbidya (or uda warrambia) — listen. 

Dullii yalla — speak right (true) ; kari yalla — speak the truth. 

.Karia yumbul yalla — do not tell me a lie. 

Minyandu dalgunnanna? — what are you eating? 

Wirai dinnu ngangirri, ngaddu yannagirri — if you do not give 
me meat, I shall go away. 

Tamandu dallai nginge marradal ? — have you been angry with 
him a long time ? 

Mainguala karrame inargung — other men took his wife away. 

Nilla inar Badaraigu — this is Badarai's wife. 

Nilla merringan — this is a saucy fellow; Uf., 'he (is) dog-like.' 

Nilla dallaibulbul — this is a very angry fellow. 

"Wiraidu karidyi winnangganna — I do not believe what you say. 

Gammarru bangame maddau — the storm broke a tree down. 

Indyanga yalla — speak slowly. 

Karia mallu nginga — do not be so lazy. 

Tamandu gurragamme gaddambingidyal — haveyoudonewashing? 

Ngabba bundinye dagunda, wirai idde — baby fell down, not hurt. 

Tandundu ballabunilgirri, nginya ballubuailgirri — if you kill, 
you must be killed. 

Tala nginge gawan — that is the way the white men do. 

Nurra-nurra ngindu dalbianna — you are always eating. 

Turai wirridya ; dambulbang nginne — go to sleep ; it is very late. 

Dulludi ngunga, yaludu gibainbilgirri — if you give me your spear, 
I will give you anotljer. 

Tannagi ngeanni Patriggu — let us go to Bathurst. 

Dullubang ngaligin muron wigirri, yandundu ballungirri — ;Our 
souls will live, when we are dead. 


Tandulli balluiigiiTi ngaunaiawalla, ugali wibiagirri dururdurur- 

iDuolin — when we die, we shall always live above. 
Tandundu walluin ngingirri, Grodda ngeanni yannbigirri yallabal 

wibigiagirri dururdururbuolin — if we are good, we shall go 

to Grod and always live with Him. 
Ballungidyala, dullubang marong kalliagirri (wirgu) murrubirgu 

— in death, good souls will ascend to heaven. 
Biambul main yannaan birramalgu ; bula wiganna — all the men 

have gone to the bush ; two are staying. 
"VViraidyu nguranggu yannagirri dallan — I cannot go to the camp 

S'gaddu barrangarrigirri nguronggalongal — I shall rise very early 

Birradu nginya bunmangidyala — I am tired through work. 
Griwanggu marrommanna — the moon shines brightly. 
G-addandi ballunne biambul — all my friends are dead. 
Grirarru kaling gannagirri — the wind will bring rain. 
Nilla gaddal ngindi murrawal ngindi — he is very fond of smoking. 
Ngaddien ngindi ladu — I want (or like) that one. 
ISTgaddi bariggia — let it belong to me. 
Ngunbadda giwangga wigirri — I shall stay one moon. 
Karia burai yummambia — do not make {or let) the child cry. 
Tammada ngannunda ! — go with me ! 
Ngali yannage (bula) — we two go together. 
Maingalang ngolonganne birramalle — all the men are returned 

from the bush. 
Minyang ngindi wandu (or gandu) ? — what do you want ? 
Dullubul yalla ! — speak plainly (or distinctly) ! 
Tamandu iiigelbang? — are you very poorly ? 
Baladu birrabang — I am very tired. 

Yamandu gulbarra "VYiradhari ? — do you understand "Wiradhari ? 
Gaddal-di ngunga — give me tobacco. 
Gruin urai winye — he was asleep. 

Ngindu ngannal ngannumingaan — you have seen me before. 
"Wargundu burai bum6 ? — why did you beat the child ? 
Yamagu urai winaigunne widyunga ngindu ngin bume ? — was 

he asleep when you beat him ? 
Biang main buoge — many natives have come. 
ISTgandunu nginyal bunme? — who has made you ? 
Ngindu windya bundigirri — you will, fall into the fire? 
Ngaddu buogalgirri ngangigu nginyal — I will come to see you. 
Wargu guin burai ngaddi bume ?— why did he beat my boy ? 
Gruin barrame inar ngaddi birong — he took my wife far off. 
Kgindu ye ngannal buma main — you told me to strike the native. 
Ngagadi (or nga) ngannal ! — look at me ! 
Nilla buyu bangadinye — he has broken his leg. 
Dallanbul ire lirongirri — the sun will soon set. 


Talladi minyamminyambul — tell me all about it. 
Murrawal miirruberai buogalgirri — a great storm is coming on. 
Minyandu dalguabien ? — what did you eat yesterday ? 
Minyangan main ingel? — how many natives are ill ? 
Ngunba-ngunbai main ballunna — very few natives are dying. 
Tamandu winnangganna dagundu ballungidyala (or yandundu 

ballungiri) dullubang yannagiri ? — do you know where your 

souls are going to when you die ? 
Murrawaldu giriog — I am perspiring very much. 
Ngandi nginnundi kindain r — who laugbed at you ? 
Minyandu wirai buddang buoge ? — why did you not come sooner ? 
Buddunbulandu wirai buogo ? — why did you not come sooner ? 
Minyang dalgarriawagirri ? — what wjll you eat to-morrow ? 
Wiraigual main ngigagarrigirri — there will soon be no more blacks 
Maingalang bumallanne murrawal (or maingalang murranil-lan- 

ne) — the natives have had a great fight. 
ISTgaggualla durrur bummalbianna — that one is always fighting. 
Ngunguda nilla buranu ngaddunu; mioyamminyambulngumbia- 

girri — give me that child and I will give you plenty to eat. 
Minyangguandu yannanne ? — what have you come for ? 
"Wirai buguin warranna gunnigalli — no grass on the plain. 
Wgarrangga buguin buogunagirri yundu kaling bangaduoligirri — 

after rain the grass will grow. 
Turonggelang buddang — the clouds are dark. 
Wirai babbinnu yungingindi — your father wants you not to cry. 
Gunninu bamir babbianu bungul — mother is taller than father. 
Dullu warradda — stand upright. 

Kaling indyunga yunnanna — the raiji is coming very slowly. 
Turai wiridya wannumaragirri — go to bed when you are done. 
Dallanbuldu ngolonggagirri ? — will you return soon? 
Ngurombang mawambul ngeanni ngangillagirri — we shall meet 

together this evening. 
Minyandu bunmalgirri dallan ? — what will you do to-day ? 
Ngindyalla karra buongarra ! — there is water ! 
Ngaddu winnanguaua udagual — I have changed my mind; lit., I 

think with another ear. 
Widyunggandu nyingunanna ? — what are you doing ? 
Ngandiga ngin ? — who is dead ? 

Minyangandu nganne buraigelag ? — how many boys did you see ? 
Tama nilla marraug ? — is that good ? 
"Wiraibudu ingiang ngindi la — I do not like that at all. 
Ngindu nilla ? — are you there ? 
IN'gunbadul ngagguaiwala marrammarra — only he who is above 

can make everything. 
"Widyundu yuin ngolong ? — what is your name ? 
Baiamai yallabul wiawaigun naggirri — Baiamai lives for ever. 


Ngindu ngaddi ngamor, ngaddunu babbin — you are my daughter 

, and I your father. 
Willa ware maganne billaga — he was drowned in the river. 
Ngaddu birrammalli wangarrarre — I lost myself in the bush. 
Ngaddi uran bumbir — my hair is greasy. 
Bulabulgundubula yannagirri ? — are you two going together ? 
Tama ngali bulabul yannagirri birammalgu — shall we two go 

together to the bush ? 
Yama ngannaia bula yannagirri Ngannimagu ? — are these two 

going together to Ngannima ? 
Gunyo gandu ngagunain ? — did you watch him a long time ? 
Widyunggarranyal ngolong durinye dinnnndi? — how did you 

hurt your foot ? 
Kalinggu nginya yamma girrar murrawal barranna? — do you 

think this high wind will bring rain ? 
Karia dinnang yuddia— do not touch my foot. 
Gibbannilgirri gualdu — I will repay you (revenge myself). 
Walgunwalgun yannanna — to go to and fro and crossways. 
DinnaQdinyal durrinye — my foot was hurt. 
Wirai walluin nginye yandungia murron nginye — he has been a 

bad fellow all his lifetime. 
Tamaddu yandul gaddambilli ? — shall I wash it now ? 
"Widyunga nginalla nginye ? — what is the matter with him ? 
"Wirai gannanda ballu — death is not near. 

Wiraidu nidge ngindilu bungalli ngindi — I do not like this place. 
Minnang ngindi ganuung wanden ? — what else do you want ? 
Ngaddu dugguwe nginyal — I'll catch you. 
Dibbanggu durriguain dinnandi — a nail has gone into my foot. 
"Widyundu ngoling ye ? — which way (i.e., what) say you ? 
Warguinyal gunedyunu bume ? — why did your mother beat you? 
ISTgaddubuUinyal yalgirri kariabul malle — do it not till I bid you. 
Ngaddunyal ngunne burrambalU burrubingidyal — I saw you 

jumping over the rope. 
Wiraidyu karidyi winnangabilUgirri — I don't credit what you say. 
Waluin warrambilalidyu — put things in order (right) again. 
Ngannalkaringa yandundu ngingirri gindi — send me, if you like. 
Wiraibu ngeanni bumarra — we never fight. 
Willaidul baiware nginua nginye — that was curious. 
Yaladu nginnal gunnambai — I depend on (expect from) you. 
Barri ngingulia ngiya — I will not have that. 
Wingarri maggidyu — I was sitting down all day. 
Buramburambang dagun nginga yundul — there is a drought now. 
Budyabudya barrambillana wirra — moths are flying in the air. 
Groddu dulubang marong gangirri murrubirra — God will take 

good souls to heaven. 
Tambulnal guin buoye — he told me a lie. 
Guin birrhaga dilban — he came slyly from behind. 


"Warga baggagu ngin bume ? — why did he beat him ? 

Ngidyi (ngaddi) ngullumuggu — here (there) is an end. 

Wargu bagandu wiggi karrame ? — why did you steal the bread ? 

G-angadain ngindu — fetch it yourself. 

Ngaddu nginnal bumalgirri, ngannalgual ngindu wargu bume — ■ 

I shall beat you because you did beat me. 
ISTgindu ballamaddang wibillinya — you are obstinate to go. 
Ngali yannagirri — we two will go together. 
Ngaddu ballaga irradu ngingirri ngolonggai ngarrigirri bialdu — ■ 

I shall return after two days. 
Ngundi ngallana dain yannanna ? — who is coming there ? 
Ngaddu ngannal bumalle ? — who will dare to beat me ? 
Wiraiayu maiudyi giarra — T am afraid of nobody. 
"Wirai gilandu ngannal bumalawagirri — ^you can not beat me , 
Ngindu dallaimaldain — you are a troublesome fellow. 
Windurai maddan gunga — ^bring me a firestick. 
"Widyungala gannaldu gayaligirri? — -when shall I see you again? 
Minyalla yaddu dalli ? gir ugaldu — what can I eat ? I am hungry 
Karia ngal warnganda — do not disturb me. 
Ngaddu nginnunda yammagi ? — shall I go with you ? 
X Karia gurondu yalla — do not speak long. 
Karia wirain ganga — do not carry it aslope. 
Ngaddu yanaan birong dallan — I have gone a long way to-day, 
"Windyu marradi gunnanne — the iire burnt my hand. 
Kalindyu darrube ngulluman — the water did make a hole. 
Wargundu wirai yurai wininya ? — why do you not sleep ? 
Tamandu winnanganna daga nilla ? — do you know where he is ? 
Xamandu winnanganna dagu main yanaan ? — do you know where 

the natives are gone ? 
Wargundu wirai yannabillinga yandundunyu ye ? — why don't 

you come when I tell you ? 
Karia ngunga wangagirri guin — do not give it him, he will lose it. 
K'gaddu mallang diranggu yunnanne, yandu mallandu wirai ingel 

nginye — I should go to the mountains, if I were not ill. 
Karidyidin maiudyu winnangabilligi — you will not make me 

believe that. 
IS^gabba darrar banganna — the baby is sobbing. 
Willa yannangalang billana — there are two walking along. 
K"gannagula yannanna bulagualia dain ngolong — there are three 

coming yonder this way. 
Talu gilla — yes, it is so. Ngameingilla — I believe so. 
Karia nilla yala yanna, ballanggun ngindu bundigirri — do not go 

that way, lest you fall down headlong. 
Grai ! barranmallawan — ah ! you have torn it. 
Ngaddu bai wirai yala me — I wish I had not done it. 
Karia buma ; guyungan ballunna — don't kill it ; it will die of itself. 
Murrawal iradu dunna — ^the heat of the sun is very powerful. 


Ngannal gumbil, bundaiTa — I am crooked, frozen. 

jSTgannaguor maggalla ngiii diranda — he is behind the hills. 

]Sf gaddu wannanni udagu — I have forgiven it ; lit.^ I have thrown 
it away with the ear. 

"Wiraidu winnangayalinya — I forgive it ; ZiV., I think not of it again. 

Tamandu mab'biggirri yanagirri wandu ? — will you stay or go ? 

Tamandu duUubandurai ? — have you got a soul ? 

Wgaddan gadda main warraigunnein — I thought a native was 
standing there. 

Yamandu bambidurai ? — can you swim ? 

Wirai ngaddu indyama ye — I did not speak slowly. 

Gruayo Baiamai yalmambigirri maingu — by-and-by I shall teach 
the natives about Baiamai. 

Gruayodu wirai wammambu yalgirri — ^by-and-by I shall no more 
speak incorrectly. 

Karia indyama yalla — do not spealv so slowly. 

Widyunga main ngolongaigarrigirri ? — when will the men return? 

Ngaddu winnange main ulla — I knew him by his voice. 

Dumbog dandan ngunbai-ngunbai warrana — the sheep are scat- 
tered all over. 

Buradu dumbog mawaug burruarra — ^the boy collects the sheep. 

Gaddanngeilinya ngaddu nginundi — I delight in thee. 

Kari ngaddu yalguain — I have spoken truth. 

JS'gaddu gubbaimadain ngingi ugindi — I want to be a comrade. 

Barigngia wigge wirai ngindidyu — I do not care about bread. 

Ngaddangadaadu ngiunalla gubbalgirri — I thought he would run 
after her. 

Bamirgal iradu duggin, bimgarra urrangidyala — the shadow gets 
long, when the sun sets. 

Iradu gannanna, ngannalla dugguda warranna^ — (when) the sun 
burns, he stands in the shade. 

iffgurang ngannawalla bimbauna ; baddang ngannanal guanagirri 
inaru wambilngarria ; wirai yama gannaan, yannaan ; birong 
yuma yannangarria, wiraiya baddunbuogalgirri ; win bungia 
ballabunia, baddang guaanagirri narbangbu — the camp over 
there is on fire ; also those cloaks which the women have left 
will burn. T do not think they took them when they went. 
I suppose they have gone far, and I daresay will not come 
back soon. Take branches and extinguish the fire, (for) the 
cloaks and bags will burn. 

Karia win munnilbang wambia, duralu burana ballubunilgirri — 
do not put hollow fuel on, else the smoke will kill the child. 

Mandura wirigieya — let it alone, or do not meddle with it. 

Mandura windimaiya — let him at rest, or do not disturb him. 

Dagurandu ngolong yannaigunnain nglngunnane? — where have 
you been 

Minyalligandu gullaminye ? — what has delayed you ? 


Dagarnu baddang ngadunu nguugurain ? — where is the cloak I 
gave you ? 

Ngaddu gulbarra widyungolong — I knowhow, i.e., how to do it. 

Ngindu buimang ngadualligunnanna — you look all about. 

"Wiraingaddu walluin gaddambirra yain ngindu — I cannnt wash 
as well as you. 

Ngaddu yannaan gulgunggu kaling jogagigu, wirai kaling wirrinya 
— I went to the well to see(k) water, but found none. 

BuUockdu burrue kaling mannamannambil — the bullocks have 
made the water dirty. 

"Warrangillaggabianna — stand looking at. 

Dagandu din me ngannaduuti ngunne? de wandu yama? ngunne 
wandu ? — what have you done with the meat (which) I gave 
you ? did you eat it ? (or) did you give it away ? 

Ngannalla yambul yalgunnannu gula udagu — the fellow speaks 
deceitfully to obtain information, or plays the spy. 

Dinbinya udagu ngannalla — the fellow spies out information ; 
ZjV., listens to the ear. 

"Wirai bamir ire ngingarimana, badanbul urruyawanna — the sun 
does not shine long, (but) goes down soon. 

Minyangundu yuggu yannaan ? — what you come here for ? 

Gane bagandu wirai ngubannu ? — why not bring your wife ? 

Maingalang birramalla gurrun gulaminya — the natives delay 
long in the bush. 

Goddu ngeannigin ngangarri mana ; yalabul ngabianna dagun 
ngarrangarang, main; ngarrangarra yandulbu ngaru, ngu-_ 
rungga yandubule wirinya — G-od sees us all the day long ; 
He always is beholding the earth everywhere, (as well as all) 
the people ; even now He sees us, (whilst) we are lying 
down in the night. 

lN"gagguaiwalaman dagunbu maruanne, diranbu, buguinbu dagun- 
di buogarra, irebu, giwambu, gira lumbu wirai warranga; 
maddanbu, kalimbu, wallanbu, karraibu ; wimbu guyabu 
billaga warranna. Wirai ngeanni ngenga minyambul de, wirai 
ngannaiwalla wingidyal. Mandambial ngeannigin G-oddu 
minyam-minyambul ngunne. Tain ngeanni dalgunnagi 
murron widyai gunnagi — He who is above has made the earth 
and the mountains, the grass also, which springs from the 
ground, and sun, and moon, and stars, which are fixed in the 
heavens ; and trees, and water, and stones and sand ; and the 
fire, and the fish which are in the river. We should not 
have anything to eat, were it not for Him who dwells above. 
We are indeed thankful that Grod has given us everything. 
Thus we can eat and may live. 

Grulbarragualdu yalu — I understand that full well. 

Karia wannammindya ngannanduyan — do not break a promise. 

Wgaddugual wirai giarradu — neither am I afraid. 


Nguigargirra Luyu maingu mammaibamalguain — the doctor has 

set a man's leg. 
Duggualli baddabaddan ngannalla bunbannana — he runs after to 

overtake him soon. 
Guyungundu udaga — that's my own device. 
Millang guarra — to walk closely by one's side so as to push him. 
Bunnan burruarra — the dust flies. 
Dagua ngaunalla wigge gila dunnu nginne ? Dedyu — where is 

the bread I gave you ? I have eaten it. 
Ngeanni billagal yannanna — we are going down the valley. 
Ngali duyuUi kaliaimarranna — we two are ascending the hill. 
Burai gie durulgangidyillin — the boy was frightened and hid 

Wirai marong ngaminya — it does not look well. 
Minyangu ngindu barramalmambie inarnu? — why did you allow 

your wife to be taken away ? 
Xama ugilburruarra gubundidy u ? — does that cap make you warm ? 
Gruddibaidyu duggumi — I like that song. 
TJrgaya nginyundal — keep it to yourself. 
JSTgaddu yurai murrabinye — I was fast asleep. 
Tandulabulgual nilla urronne, yandugual ngaddu windinye — he 

came in whilst I was there. 
Windinye mallang ngaddu nginga wirai mallang nginya nilla 

bume — had I been tbere, he would not have been beaton. 
ISTgaddu winnangan ngaddanga kalindyu yubalgirri — I thought 

it would rain . 
Ngaddangandu ngaddila kalio dugan ; ngaddi gunnung garragal 

— I thought you did (fetch) draw water there ; from that 

other place over there. 
G-oddu ngunbadu dalangir gin bunmalgirri — God alone can make 

the heart new. 
"Wirai gamanna dagun kalindyu — the rain has not gone through. 
Ngainbuldu warrambi guggidya kalindurai — I have filled the 

vessel with water. 
Kalin karringa guggidyi — empty the vessel of the water. 
Minyangganna meridyu gulgannaiguabianna nginga? — what is 

the dog barking about all the night? 
"Wargundu giarra nilla deribandyi dallaimangidyalli ? — what you 

care about the old man scolding you ? 
Minyangundu nguyamanna ? — what you ask for ? 
Widyuggarra golog main gingirri? — what are men about to do? 
l^andunu dullubang irimbaggingirri ngindu wari babbindyanu 

yannagirri, yandundu ballungirri — if your soul is holy, you 

will go to your Pather when you die. 
G-uyungandi yawarradu — I mind my own business. 
l*arawirgal ngeannigin winnanganua — D. knows us (see s. v. 


the wieadhahi dialect. ] 19 

3. The Cseed. 

Ngaddu winnangabillinya Godda Babbindya, "S'larruwalla, Mar- 
romaldain murrubirgii dagungubu : 

Urrumandalabu ngunbai Jetbu Chrit Dirangalbanga ngiauni- 
giiijBurambinye Gundyarri Irimbang, Durrie Maridyu darngidyal- 
mubandi, Gribbainbinye Pontidyi Pilatdi, Maddandi wirradi, 
Ballunne dabbuge, Birrawanne helgu, Bullaga ngoronga dabbu- 
gain murron, Barraialinye balludi Kaliaiine murrubirgu, Wibi- 
annabu bummalgala Groddugu Babbiugu ; Tarruwallagu agaddi- 
gallila buogalaligirri ngabbinbilligu murron ballabu. 

"Winnangabilliuyabu ngaddu Gundy arra Irimbang; Irimbanga- 
bu'^Kattolika Cburcba; Ngunbadala mawanga Irimbangu; TJdda- 
gu wannangidyala nangunmalngidyalgu, Barraialingidyala mar- 
rindyi, Murrona yallabul. Amen. 

4. The Ten Commandments. 

1. Ngaddn bala Dirangalbang God nginnu ngunbai; N'gan- 
nundanginda nginyawirai gualman God nginda. 

2. Karia nginnunda maingulia bunma, wirai ingianria minyam- 
bul ngannaiwal murrubirra, wirai ingianna dagunda birrabangga, 
wirai ingianna ngannadarnguoia kalindya. Karia ngualla bung- 
anga warradda, wirai buoyamadda: Ngaddubial Diranggalbang 
Godnu bala munnirgadain God, ngaddubu gibainbilgirri nan- 
gumalngidyal babbii^dyila, buraigelang thirdgu fcurthgubu gene- 
rationgu yandungaiiiialla dallaimalgirri ngannal, ngaddu binnal- 
bang ugingirri thousandgu yandu ngannalla murungamilbilgirri 
ngannal, ngaddibu ngiang malbillirgirri. 

3. Karia nannai yalla yuinga Godgu wiraibial Dirangalbanggu : 
bangayalgirri ngannalla nannai yarra yuingulagu. 

4. "Winnangaddu Sabbatba irimbang widya. BuUaga-buUaga- 
bullaga irada minyambul malla, bunmallabu minyaminyambul 
nginnunda bala bunmalligu; seventbabial irada bala Sabbatb Dir- 
angalbangu Godgunginnu. G-addialla wirai minyambulbial bun- 
maUa, wirai ngindu, wirai urrumannu, wirai ngamornu, wirai ser- 
vantgalang nginnu gibbir inarbu, wirai cattle nginnu, wirai main- 
gualbang ngannalla nginnudurai winya. Sixdabial irada Dirang- 
albangu murrubir, dagunbu, murriaugbu, minyaminyambulbu 
uginalla nginya bunmae, guabiuyebial seventha irada. JMlla irada 
seventh bangan Dirangalbangu walluin yae, bunmaibu irimbang. 

5. Indyamalla babbingunu gunnigunubu ; yala ngindu guayo 
wiawaiguunagirri ngurambangga, ngannalla Goddu ngungirri. 

6. Karia ballubunia. 7. Karia garbaga bundidya. 

8. Karia karrama. 9. Karia maindya dumbalma yambul. 

10. Karia gurai nginga milmagu maingualbiranga, karia gurai 

nginga inargu maingualbiranga, wiraibu gibbir servant, inar ser- 

vantbu, wiraibu ox, wiraibu ass, wiraibu ngaguari ngaunallagung. 


5. The Lobd's Pbatee. 

ISTgianuigin IjAbbin, ngindu murrubirra ginya {or murrubirra 
nginya). Tuiniiu walluin yalla barri. Ngurambanganu barri 
buogalla. Gurai ngimiu (or gurami) ngia barri nginni yain da- 
gunda, ingian wari murrubirra. Nginni irada yallabul wigge 
nginnigingunna ngungunadda. Karia ngiannigin nangumalngi- 
dal winnanga yalidya, ingian ngianni -wirai wari winnangayab'nya 
ngagguallabu nangumarra ngiannigingunna. Karia ngiannigin- 
gunna ga2;amanibia ; Grurwabiallu ngiannigingunna maromubandi; 
JSTginnu bala ngurambang, wallanbamba ; ugalgarambu, durrur- 
durrurbuolin. Amen. 




[I have left the spelling just as I found it in the manuscript. The 
reader, however, will recognise the syntax of the words by comparing 
them with those in the Gospel. The title in the manuscript runs thus : — 
" A selection of prayers for the morning, from the service of the Church of 
England, intended for the introduction of public worship amongst the 
aborigines of Australia ; by the Venerable W. G. Broughton, A.M., Arch- 
deacon of New South Wales and its dependencies. Translated into the 
Northumberland dialect by L, E. Threlkeld; 1835."— Ed. J 

Wiyella Ta Yirriijirri Ta NgoroTcan Ka Ko. 

"Weyennun" ngeen ba, keawai yarakai korien geen ba, nakoiyan 
ngaiya ngeen bo ; wonto ba ngeen wiyennun ba yarakai ta ngea- 
run ba, Murrorong ko tuloa ko Eloi-to AvarikuUiko yarakai umulli 
ta ngearun ba, ngatun murrorong kakilli ko ngearun yarakai umulli 
ta birung. 

A! Eloi kaiyukan, Biyung-bai ngearun ba Piriwul koba, Jesu 
koba Krist koba, ngintoa ta umulli kan j'antin koba, ngintoa ta 
wiyelli kan to Piriwullo yantin kore koba ko ; wiyan ngeen nga- 
tun minki Ian kuttan ngeen ngearun ba kowwul liu yarakai tin, 
ngatun yarakai umulli tin ngeen yantin ta birung purreung ka 
birung, kauwullan yarakai umalala kotuUi kannei to, ngatun wiyelli 
kan nei to, ngatun umulli kan nei to ngearun ba ko ; ngiroung Pirri- 
wul yirriyirri kan kin bukka pai ya bien kowwul ngeen kakilli 
ko ngiroung kauwa yuna bota kakilli ko minki ngeen katan kau- 
wul ngali tin yarakai umulli tin ngearun ba tin, ngatun yarakai ta 
kotalli ko ngearun ba ko umulli ta yarakai Kamunbilla ngearun, 
Kamunbilla ngearun, ngintoa Biyungbai to murrorong tai ko, Yinal 


lin ngiroiimba tin ngearun ba tin Pirri-\vullin Jesu tin Krist tin, 
warikvilla yantin tara iimatoara yura ki kal, ngatun kamunbilla 
yaraki ta birung ngurram^il koa ngeen niroung, ngatun pital 
umauwil koa ngiroung yanti ko tia, Morron ta bungai kiiUa kau- 
■wil koa ngiroumba yitirra niurrorong wiyelli ko, ngatun killabin- 
bin kakilli ko ngali tin Jesu kin, Krist tin Pirriwullin ngearun ba 
kin. Amen. 

A ! Pirriwul Biyungbai ngearun ba, Moroko ka ba, Eloi kaiyu 
kan ta yanti ka tai, Ngintoa ta ngearun miroQia ngorokan ta unti 
ta purreung. NgolomuUa bi ngearun unti purriung ka ngiro- 
emba ko kaiyu kan ta ko kowwul Ian ta ko, ngatun kamunbilla, 
yanoa wal umai yi kora yarakai ngeen, murra yikora yarakai kolang. 
Wonto ba kauwil koa ngearun ba yantin umulli ta kakilli ko ngiro- 
umba wiyelli ta birung murrorong umulli ko mikan ta giroung kin 
ngali tin Jesu kin Krist kin, Piriwul lin ngearun ba kin. Amen. 

Biyung-bai ngearun ba wokko ka ba moroko ka Vja kuttan, kum- 
munbilla ngiroung yitirra yirri-yirri kakilli ko. Paipibunbilla 
ngiroumba Pirriwul koba. Ngurrurbunbilla ngiroumba wiyelli 
kannei yanti moroko ka ba ngatun yanti purrai ta ba. Nguwa 
ngearun purreung ka yanti katai takilli ko, Ngatun warekulla 
ngearun ba yarakai umatoara ; yanti ta ngeen warika yantin to 
wiyapaiyeen ngearun ba ; ngatun yuti yikora ngearun yarakai 
umulli kan kolang ; miromuUa ngearun yarakai ta birung kulla 
ta ngiroumba Pirriwul kannei, ngatun kaiyu kan, ngatun killi7 
binbin yanti katai. Amen. 

A ! Pirriwul potokuUea bi willing ngearun ba wiyelli ko ngatun 
wiyennun wal kurraka ko ngearun ba ko murrorong ngiroumba. 

Kauwa killabinbin kakilli ko gikoung Biyungbai ko, ngatun 
ngikoung yinal ko, ngatun ngikoung Marai yirri-yirri kan ko. 

Yanti kakulla ta kurri-kurri ka, yanti katan yakita, ngatun 
kunnun wal yanti ka tai kakilli ko, yanti katai purrai wirran 
korien. Amen. 

Eloi kaiyu kan Biyungbai yantin ko ba niurrorong ko ba, 
WirrobuUikan ngeen ngiroumlDa, murrorong korien ta, wiyan 
ngeen murrorong tuloa ngiroung yantin tin murrorong ngiroumba 
kin, ngatun murrorong pittul umulli tin ngearun ngatun barun 
yantin ko kore ko. Wiyan murrorong ngiroung ngeen ngali tin 
umatoarin ngearun ba tin, ngali tin ngolomatoarin ngearun ba 
tin, ngatun yantin tin murrorong umulli tin, ngali koba tin unti 
morron tin, ngatun wiyan murrorong kowwul Ian ngeen ngiroung 
ngali tin, pittul tin ngiroumba tin ko kowwul tin ngali tin Burung- 
bungngulli tin yantin kore tin ngikoung kin pirriwullin ngearun ba 
kin Jesu kin Krist tin ; ngatun ngali tin kaiyu kan tin, pittul 
kakilli koba tin, ngatun ngali tin kotelli tin killibinbin kakilli 
koba tin. Ngatun wiycllan ngeen bin kotelli ko ngearun kotauwil 
koa ngeen tuloa yantin ta murrorong umulli tin ngiroumba tin 


ngatun kauwil koa biilbul ngearun ba murrorong wiyelliko; 
ngatun tiingunbiuwil koa iigeen ngiroumba murrorong wiyelli ta, 
yanoa wal willing kabirung ngearun ba ka ta birung ngatun tan- 
toa bota wal, wonto ba morron ngearunba kin birung ; nguki- 
linnun ngeen ngearun ngiroung kakilli ko ngiroumba ko ; ngatun 
kakillinnun mikan ta ngiroung kin yirri-yirri ka, ngatun mur- 
rorong ka yantin ta purreung ka ngearun ba ngali tin Jesu tin 
Krist tin, PirriwuUin ngearun ba tin ; kauwa ngikoung kakilli ko 
ngatun ngiroung, ngatun Marai ta ko yirriyirri kan ta ko kakil- 
li ko yantin murrorong wiyelli ko, ngatun killibinbin kakilli ko 
yanti ka tai purrai wirran korien. Amen. 

Eloi Kaiyu kan to ke, ngintoa ngearun ngukulla kaiyukan ka- 
killi ko yaki ta ko wakol bota wal upuUi ko wiyelli kanne ngearun 
ba ngiroung, ngatun bi wiya buloara nga ngoro kautilinnun ba 
yitirrin ngiroung ka ta ngunun ngaiya wal bi barun unnoa tara 
bara wiyennun ; kauwa yanti yakita PirriwuUo kotatilli kanne 
ngatun wiyelli kanne ngiroumba wirrobuUi kan ko ba, yanti mur- 
rorong kauwil barun kin ko ; ngukilli ta ngearun kin ko unti ta 
purrai ta, ngurrulli ko ngiroumba wiyelli kanne tuloa ko, ngatun 
unta ta tarai ta purrai ta morron kakilli ko yanti ka tai. Amen. 

Kauwa ngearun. kin ko murrorong umuUita Piriiwul koba 
ngearun ba Jesu koba Krist koba, ngatun pittul mulli ta Eloi 
koba, ngatun kakilli ta Marai koba yirri-yirri kan koba kakilli ko 
ngearun katoa yantin toa ko. Amen. 

Wi'i/a ta Tirri-Yirri Ta Yarea Kako. 

Eloi-to noa pitul ma kowwul kore ngukulla ta noa wakol bo 
ta yinal ngikoemba ngali ko yantien to ba ngurran ngikoung kin, 
keawai wal bara tatti kunnun kuUa wal yanti morron katai ba- 
runba kako binnun. 

Murrorong ta bara minki kan marai kan kulla barun ba, katan 
pirriwal koba moroko ko ba. 

Murrorong ta bara kapirri kan ngatun tambun kan murrorong 
ko ; kulla bara wara punnun. 

Murrorong ta bai-a murrorong kan bulbiil kan ; kulla bara 
nanun wal bon Eloi nung. 

Murrong ta bara pitul umullikan ; kulla barun wiyennun, won- 
nai tara Eloi koba. 

Murrorong ta bara warikan yarakai umatoara barun ba, ngatun 
wutea kan yarakai umatoara barun ba. 

Murrorong ta kore wiya-yemma korien bon noa ba ba Pirriwul 
lo yarakai umatoara. 

Wiyan bang ngiroung yarakai umatoara emmeomba, ngatun kea- 
wai wal bang yuro pa korien emmoemba yarakai. Wiya bang 
niakai wiyennun bang yarakai umatoara emuioemba Pirriwolla; 
ngatun bi warika yarakai umalli ta birung emmoumba. 

Eloi, gintoa kaiyukan, &c., (fee. 


A ! Eloi, ngala koha yanti ka tai murrorong umuUi kan nei 
ngatun warekulli kan nei, ngurrulla bi wiyelli kan nei karra 
kannei ngearun ba, ngatun ngeen ba ngiratoara katan tipung ko 
yarakai umatoara koba, ngearun ba; kummunbilla minki ko kow- 
wollo ngiroumba ko burungbungulla ngaiya ngearun, ngali tin 
murrorong tin Jesu koba tin Krist tin, ngearun ba wokkol bo ta 
Kamulli kan ngatun Wiyellikan. Amen. 

A ! Eloi kaiyu kan ngatun murrorong umullikan wiyalan ngeen 
ngiroung ngali tin ngiroemba tin murrorong kowwol lin miromulli 
' ko ngearun, yantin ta birung yarakai umulli ta birung ngearun ; 
kingngereen kowwil koa ngeen buloara bo kurrabung ngatun 
marai, pitul kowwil koa umulli kolang ngeen unnoa tara yantin 
wiyatoara ngiroemba umulli ko ngali tin Jesu tin Krist tin 
ngearunba Pirriwul lin. Amen. 

A ! Mirromulli kan to kore ko ba, wir6a ngearun tuUing ka- 
billi ko ngatun ngiroung ko yirriyirri ko ngiroemba ko ; a ! Pirri- 
wul, pirriral man bien ngeen kara man mirromulli ko ngearun 
ngatun umulli ko ngearun. 

Kauwa killibienbien kakilli ko, &o., ifec, 

Biyungbai ngearunba wokka kaba, moroko kaba katan, &c., &c. 

Eloi kaiyukan Biyungbai yantin koba murrorong koba, &o., &c. 

Kauwa Pitul ko Eloi koba, kowwol ke ngurra korien, mirro- 
muUa ngearun ba bulbul ngatun marai ngurruUi ta ngatun pitul- 
mulli ta Eloi koba, ngatun yinal ko ba ngikoemba Jesu koba 
Krist koba ngearun ba Pirriwol koba ; ngatun kowwa murrorong 
umulli kannei Eloi koba, Kaiyu kan koba, Biyungbai koba, Yinal 
koba, ngatun Marai koba yirri-yirri kan koba, kakilli ko ngearun 
kin ngatun munkilliko ngearun kin yanti katai. Amen. 

Responses after the Commandments, if intended. 
Pirriwol, Kamunbila ngearun ngatun, kakilia bulbul ngearun ba 
ugurrur ko unni ta wiyalli kan nei. 

At the last one. 
Pirriwol, Kamunbila ngearun, ngatun upala yantin unnitara 
wiyalikan nei ngiroumba bulbul la ngearun ba, wiyan ngeen 

Eloi, Kaiyu kan to ke, Ngintoa natan yantin bulbul, ngintoa 
ngurran yantin kotali kan nei keawai bo yuropa ngiroung kin 
birung. Kakilia be ngearun ba kotali kanne bulbul (koba) ; mur- 
rorong kakili ko ; pitul maowwil koa ngeen ngiroug tuloa, ngatun 
wiyaowwil murrorong koa ngeen ngiroemba yitirra yirri yirri kan, 
ngali tin Jesu kin, Krist tin, Pirriwol lin ngearun ba. Amen. 

Wiya noa Eloi to unni tara wiyali kannei ngatun wiyaliala 
Ngatoa ta Pirriwol katan ngiroung ba Eloi, yutea banung purrai 
ta birung Egypt ta birung, kokira birung umali ta birung. 


1. Yanoa wal bi tarai Eloi kaki yikora ngiroemba kakilli ko 
mikan ta eminouiig kin. 

2. Yanoa wal uma yikora bi ngiroung tarai umatoara, nga 
tarai kiloa ta yantin kiloa woklto ka ba ba moroko ka ba, nga 
yantin kiloa purrai toa barra koa, nga yantin kiloa kokoin toa 
barra koa purrai toa : 

Yanoa wal bi upalinnun liarran warrong bung ko bai-un kin, 
nga yanoa ngurra yikora barun : kulla wal bang Pirriwol ta 
Eloi ngiroung ba purrei kan ta katan, koyul mankilan yarakai 
umatoara barun ba biyungbai ta koba, barun wonnai ta willung- 
ngeil ngoro ta, ngatun warran ta barun ba bukka kan tia katan ; 
ngatun murrorong umaullan barun kowwol kowwol, la pitul kan 
tia katan, ngatun ngurran wiyali kan nei emmoemba. 

3. Yanoa bi wiya yikora wonkuUo yitarra pirriwol ko ba 
Eloi ngiroemba ko ba ; kulla noa Pirriwollo keawai noa kotunnun 
bon yarakai korean wiyali kan wunkuUo yitirra ngikoemba. 

4. Kota la purreung ta Sabbat ta yirriyirri kakilli ko. Six ka 
purreung ka umunnun wal bi, ngatun umunnun yantin umatoara 
ngiroemba : wonto ba seven ta purreung ka Sabbat katan ta 
Pirriwol ko ba ngiroemba koba Eloi koba, unti ta purreung ka 
yanoa uma yikora tarai umali kanne ; ngintoa, nga wonnai to 
ngiroumba, nga yinalkun to ngiroemba ko, koreko umalikan to 
ngiroemba ko, nga napal lo umalikan to ngiroemba ko, nga butti- 
kang ko ngiroemba ko, nga ngowi to ngirounba ko ngiroung kin 
ba purrai ta ba ; kulla six ta purreung ka noa Pirriwollo uma 
moroko, ngatun parrai, ngatun wombul, ngatun yantin katan 
yantun ta ba, ngatun korea purreung ka seven ta; yaki tin Pirriwol 
pitulma purreung Sabbat ta, ngatun uma yirriyirri kakili ko. 

5. NgurruUa biyungbai ngiroemba ngatun tun kan ngiroemba, 
kowwil koa purreung ngiroemba kowwol kowwol kakilli ko pur- 
rai ta ngatun noa Pirriwol lo ngikoemba ka Eloi to ngiroung. 

6. Yanoa wal be bunki yikora. 

7. Ya noa wal be manki yikora nukung tarai ioba. 

8. Ya noa wal be manki yikora tarai koba. 

9. Ya noa wal be wiyayamma yikora ngakoiya yikora ngiro- 
emba koti ta ka. 

10. Yanoa wal be willai kora kokira koti ta koba ngiroemba 
koba, yanoa wal be willai yikora nukung koti ta koba ngiroemba, 
koba, ngatun keawai kore mankilli kan ngikoemba, ngatun keawai 
napal mankilli kan ngikoemba, ngatun keawai buttikang, ngatun 
keawai tarai kan yantin ngiroemba ko ba koti ta ko ba. 

Alia, Eloi Biyungbai moroko kaba, ngurraramulla bi tia, mirrul 
bang kuttan, yarakai bang kuttan, 

Alia, Jesu, Yinal Eloi koba, ngupaiyi ko yantin kore koba 
kiimmara ngiroumba ko, ngurrara mulla bi tia mirrul bang kut- 
tan, yarakai bang kuttan. 


Alia, Marai yirriyirri kan, ngurrara muUa bi tia, mirrul bang 
kuttan, yarakai bang kuttan. 

Jesu, Pirriwul, kota yikora bi unni ta yarakai umulli ta em- 
moumba, turokon bi yikora bi tia ngali tin yarakai umulli tin 
emmoumba tin, wommunbilla bi tia waita \vokka kolang moroko 
kolang tetti kunnun bang ba; yanoa bukka ban kora bi tia, ngur- 
rara-muUa bi tia, kuUa bang kinta lang kauwul yakita ; Jesu mara 
bi marai emmoumba. 

A ! Jesu, Pirriwul ta moroko koba, yantin purrai koba, yantin 
kore koba, kamuUa bi tia, warikuUa bi yarakai umulli ta emmo- 
bmba, yanoa wal yuti yikora bi tia koiyung kolang baran kolang 
tetti bunnun ngaiya bang ba, yutilla bi tia murron kolang ngi- 
roung kai kolang moroko ka wokka ka yanti ka tai. Amen 

A ! Jesu, Pirriwul emmoumba nauwa bi tia, kuUa bang kinta 
lang kauwal kata yakita, ngali tin tetti tin, wommunbilla bi tia 
waita koa bang wauwil moroko kolang ngiroung kai kolang wokka 
kolang, Jesu wokka ka ba mara bi tia marai emmoumba tetti 
bunnun ngaiya bang ba. Amen ; kauwa. 

A ! Jesu, Puntimai ta bi, moroko kabirung wokka ko birung, 
ngurrulla bi tia wiyelli ta emmoumba, yakita kauwul lang bang 
yarakai uma ; yanoa bukka ban kora bi tia, yanoa niuwarra yi- 
kora bi tia, warikulla bi yarakai kauwal kauwal umulli ta emmo- 
umba, umuUa bi tia murrorong kakilli ko pittul kauwil koa bi 
emmoung yella wauwil koa bang ngiroug kai wokka ka moroko 
ka yanti ka tai tetti kunnun bang ba. Amen. 

Kamunbilla ngearun, kamunbilla ngearun, ngintoa Biyung bai 
to murrorong tai ko, yinal-lin ngiroumba tin ngearun ba tin Pirri 
wullin Jesu kin Krist tin, warikulla yantin tara umulli ta yarakai 
yuraki kai, ngatun kamunbilla yarakai ta birung, ngurrauwil koa 
ngeen ngiroung, ngatun pitul umauwil koa ngiroung yanti ka tai ; 
moron ta bunyai kai kuUa kaiiwil koa ngiroumba yitirra murro- 
rong wiyelli ko ngatun killibinbin kakilli ko, ngali Jesu kin 
Pirriwul lin. Amen. 

The Loed's Peayee. 

Biyungbai ngearun ba wokka kaba moroko kaba, kuttan kum- 
munbilla ngiroumba yitirra yirriyirri kakulli ko ; paipibunbilla 
ngiroumba Pirriwul koba ; ngurrur bunbilla ngiroumba wiyelli 
ta, yanti moroko kaba ngatun yanti purrai ta ba ; nguwa ngearun 
purreung ka yanti katai takilliko ngatun warikulla ngearun ba 
yarakai umulli ta ; yanti ta ngeen warika yantin to wiyapaiyeen 
ngearun ba ; ngatun yuti yikora ngearun yarakai umulli kan 
kolang, miromulla ngearun yarakai ta birung; kuUa ta ngiroumba 
Pirriwul kan ne ngatun kaiyu kan, ngatun killibinbin yanti ka 
tai. Amen. 


A ! Pirriwul, potokullea bi willing emmoumba wiyelli ko, ngatun 
■w-iyemiun wal kurraka ko emmoumba ko murrorong ngiroumba. 

Eloi to noa pitul noa kowwol kore ngukulla ta noa wakol bota 
yinal ngikoumba ngaliko yantin to ba, ngurran ngikoung kin, 
keawai wal bara tetti kunnun kuUa wal yanti katai m6r6ii barun 
ba kakillinun. 

Murrorong ta bara minki kan marai kakuUa barun ba kuttan 
Pirriwul kaba moroko koba. 

Murrorong ta bara wari kan yarakai umulli ta barun ba. 

Wiyan bang ngiroung, Jesu nung, yarakai umulli ta emmo- 
umba ngatun keawai wal bangyuropa korien emmoumba yarakai; 
ngiakai wal bang wiyennun yarakai umulli ta emmoumba Pirri- 
wulla ; ngatun bi warika yarakai umulli ta birung emmoumba. 

Wiyennun ngeen ba, keawai wal yarakai korien ngeen ba, 
nakoiyan ngaiya ngeen bo. Wonto ba ngeen wiyennun ba yara- 
kai ta ngearun ba, murrorong ko tuloa ko Eloi to warikulli ko 
yarakai umulli ta ngearun ba, ngatun murrorong kakili ko ngearun 

A ! Eloi kaiyu kan, Biyungbai ngearun ba Pirriwul koba 
Jesu koba, ngintoa umullikan yantin koba, ngintoa ta wiyelli kan 
to Pirriwullo yantin kore koba ko ; wiyan ngeen ngatun minki 
lang kuttan ngeen ngali tin ngearun ba kauwullLa yarakai tin, 
ngatun yarakai umulli tin ngeen yantin ta birung purreung ka 
birung, kauwullan yarakai umuUalla kotuUi ta, ngatun wiyelli ta, 
ngatun umulli ta ngearun ba ko, ngiroung Pirriwul yirriyirri kan 
kin bukka-pai-ya bin kauwul ngeen kakilli ko ngiroung kauwa 
yuna bo ta kakilli ko, minki kauwal kuttan ngeen, ngali tin 
yarakai umuili tin ngearun ba tin, ngatun yarakai kotelli tin 
ngearun ba tin. 

Ella Jesu, ngurrulla bi tia yarakai bang kuttan yakita kinta 
lang bang kuttan, ngali tin ngiroung kin ; bukka ban kora bi 
tia, warikuUa bi yantin yarakai umullita emmoumba ; wommunbi 
yikora bi tia koiyun kolang, mara bi tia marai emmoumba tetti 
bungngunnun ngiya bang ba ; waita wauwil koa bang mikan 
kolang ngiroung kai kolang moroko kolang wokka kolang; minki 
bo ta wal bang, kauwa, yuna bo ta, ngali tin kauwul kauwul 
yarakai tin umulli tin emmoumba tin, umulla bi tia murrong ka- 
killi ko pittul kauwil koa bi tia yarakai kan, warikulla bi yantin 
yarakai umulli ta emmoumba. Jesu wiyella binung Biyungbai 
nung ngearun ba moroko ko ba bukka katea kun koa noa tia 
tetti bungngunnun ngiya bang ba ; ngintoa, Jesu, Pirriwul ta 
yantin ko ba kore koba, umulla bi tia wirrobulli kan kakilli ko 
ngiroumba ko ; ngurrulla bi tia wiyeli ta emmoumba, yakita kulla 
bi murrorong ta kuttan. 

Biyung bai ngearun ba moroko ka la wokka koba ngurrur- 
rurmulla bi tia, bukka ban kora bi tia ngiroumba kin yinallin 
Jesu tin naki yikora bi tia yantin yarakai umulli ta kauwul 


Ella Jesu, Pirriwul kore koba, ngurrulla bi tia wiyelli ta emmo- 
umba yakita, kamuUa bi tia murrorong mikan kai kolang n<nro- 
umba tetti bungngunnun ngiya bang ba. Yuti yikora bi" tia 
koiyung kolang. Yutilla bi tia mikan kai kolang ngiroung kai 
kolang tetti bungngunnun ngaiya bang ba. 

Jesu ngurrurrurmuUa bi tia, kinta lang bang kuttan, mirul 
bang kulla warikulla bi yantin yarakai umulli ta emmoumba, 
mara bi tia marai emmoumba yakita. 



[This is the primer referred to on the second page of my Introduction. 
It was printed in 1856, and was intended for the use of the blacks on Liver- 
pool Plains, among whom Mr. Ridley laboured for a short time as a mission- 
ary. The sentences are English thoughts expressed in simple Kamalarai 
words. The dotted j/ for the nasal ng is the only change I have intro- 
duced. — Ed.] 

1. Baiame gir* yarai, gille, mirri, taon ellibu, gimobi. 
God verily sun, moon, stars, earth also made. 

2. Baiame yalwuga murruba ; Baiame minnaminnabul gum- 
milda, minnaminnabul winugulda. 

God always is good ; God everything sees, everything hears. 

3. Baiame gir kanugo kubba, kunial, maian, tulu, yindal, be' 
ran, boiyoi, gimobi. 

God veril}'- every hill, plain, watercourse, tree, grass, beran (an herb), 
pennyroyal made. 

4. Baiame gir yaraman, biirumo, bundar, mute, diili, dinoun, 
buralga, biloela, millimumul, gulamboli, kobado, mullion, guiya, 
niirai, gundoba, burulu, mugin, kanugo di gimobi. 

God verily horse, dog, kangaroo, opossum, 'guanna, emu, native com- 
panion, cockatoo, swallow, pelican, parrot, eagle, fish, brown-snake, deadly- 
black-snake, flies, mosquitos, all animals made. 

5. Baiame gir giwir gimobi ; mal giwir Adam. Baiame goe : 
' Kamil murruba giwir gandil guddelago ; gaia giwirgo inar gim- 
bille.' Ila baiame inar gimobi ; mal inar iv ; iv gulir Adamu. 

God verily man made ; first man Adam. God said, ' Not good man 
alone for to dwell ; I for man woman will make.' Then God woman made ; 
first woman Eve ; Eve wife of Adam. 

* In the Wiradhari dialect, this word, gir, is used as an intensive and a 
pluralising particle ; cf. gindu-fifiV, 'you,' ninng-gir, 'clever,' &c., in the 
Vocabulary. — Ed. 


6. Adam buba murrigu, tuba wiiBdagu, tuba tanugo ; iv gum- 
ba murrigu, gumba wundagu, gumba kanugo. 

Adam is father of the blackfellows, father of the Avhites, father of all ; 
Eve the mother of blacks, mother of whites, mother of all. 

7. Adam, iv ellibu, warawara yanani. Kanugo givfir, kanugo 
inar, warawara ; yaDani, kanugo kagil ginyi. Baiame yjli ginyi ; 
goe : ' Kanugo giwir, kanugo inar, warawara yanani, kanugo 
kagil ginyi, gaia garma balu bumale.' Immanuel, wurume Baia- 
megu, goe : ' Kamil ; kamil ginda garma bumala ; ginda gunna 
bumala; gaiibalugi; giwir inar moron gigigo.' 

Adam, Eve also, astray went. All men, all women, astray went ; all 
bad became. God angry became ; he said . ' All men, all women, astray are 
gone; all bad have become. I them dead will smite.' Immanuel, Son of 
God, said : ' Not so ; not thou them smite ; thou me smite ; I will die ; 
man, woman, alive for to be." 

8. Immanuel geanekiinda Baiame ; germa Baiame giwir ginyi. 
Murruba Immanuel ; kamil garagediil murruba yealokwai germa. 

Immanuel with us God ; he God man became. Good is Immanuel ; 
not another is good like him. 

9. Ilambo Immanuel taongo taiyanani ; giwir ginyi. G-erma 
gir burula wibil murruba gimobi, burula miiga murruba gimobi, 
burula muga-binua murruba gimobi. 

Long ago Immanuel to earth came ; man he became. He verily many 
sick well made, many blind well made, many deaf well made. 

10. Griwir kair Layaru. Gergubularboadi,Mari, Mata. Layaru 
wibil ginyi. Bular boadi gurre waala Immanuelgo, goaldendai : 
' Grai daidadi, ginnu Layaru, wibil.' Kamil yanani Immanuel. Te- 
rala Layaru baliini. Bularbularo babine baliin taonda. Ila 
Immanuel taiyanani. Mari, Mata ellibu, yugillona. Immanuel 
goe : ' Ginnu daiadi yealo moron gigi.' Burula giwir, burula inar, 
yugillona. Immanuel daonmago yanani. Tiirul daonma kunda- 
wi. Immanuel goe : ' G-indai yarul diomuUa.' Garma gir yarul 
diome. Immanuel kakuld one : ' Layaru, taiyanuga.' Ila Layaru 
moron ginyi ; taiyanani. Bular boadi burul guiye. 

A man name Lazarus. Belonging to him two sisters, JUary, llartha. 
Lazarus sick became. The two sisters word sent to Immanuel, saying : 
' My brother, Thy Lazarus, is sick.' Not went Immanuel. By and by 
Lazarus died. Four days he lay dead in the ground. Then Immanuel 
came. Mary, Martha also, were weeping. Immanuel said : ' Your brother 
again alive shall be.' Many men, many women, were weeping. Immanuel 
to the grave went ; a stone the grave covered. Immanuel said : ' Ye the 
stone take away.' They the stone lifted up. Immanuel cried aloud : 
' Lazarus, come forth.' Then Lazarus alive became ; he came forth. The 
two sisters were very glad. 

11. Garagediili, miediil wibil ginyi ; gumba boiyoi wune ; kamil 
miedul murruba ginyi; murru ginyi wibil, gullimunbaluni. Buba 
yanani Immanuel gummillego ; gir gummi ; goij : ' Inda barai 
taiyanuga ; murruba gimbildi gai miediil ; gai miediil burul wibil 
gullimunbaluni; inda taiyanuga gai kiindigo.' Immanuel goe: 
' Guile yanoai kiindigo.' Ila yanani bular kiindigo. Gumba duri ; 
yugillona; goo: ' Gii ! gli ! gai miediil baKmi.' Burula inar 


yugillona; goe: 'Grii! miediil baluni.' Immauuel goii : ' Kurria 
yuga ; kamil miedul baluni ; yeal babillona.' Burulabu gindami ; 
garma gir balundai winugi. Immanuel murra kawani miedul ; 
goe : ' Mi^diil, waria.' Ila miedul moron ginyi ; warine ; gurre 
goe. Gumba, buba ellibu, biirul guiye. 

At another time, a little girl sick became ; the mother pennyroyal 
gave ; not the little girl -well became ; much she grew sick, almost dead. 
The father went Immanuel to see ; truly he found Him ; he said : ' Thou 
quickly come ; well make my little girl. My little girl is very sick, almost 
dead ; you come to my house.' Immanuel said : ' We two will go to the 
house.' Then went the two to the house. The mother came ; she wept ; 
said : ' Alas ! alas ! my little girl is dead. ' Many women were weeping, 
said : ' Alas ! the little girl is dead.' Immanuel said : ' Cease weeping ; not 
the girl is dead ; only she is asleep. ' All of them laughed ; they verily her 
to-be-dead knew. Immanuel by hand took the girl ; said : ' Damsel, arise'. 
Then the girl alive became ; arose ; words spoke. The mother, father also, 
very glad. 

12. Garageduli, bular giwir miiga guddelona turrubulda. Im- 
manuel aro yaDani. Bular muga winugi; kaktildone : 'Im- 
manuel, Diirunmi, "Wurume Davidu, gummilla ! gurraga geane.' 
Burula giwir goij : ' Kurria ! kurria gindai kakiillego.' Giwir 
muga yealo kakiildone : ' Durunmi, Wurume Davidu, gummilla ! 
gurraga geane.' Ila Immanuel warine ; goiJ : ' Minna gindai goal- 
ie ? minna gaia murramulle '? Garma goe : ' Durunmi, wuna 
geane gammildai.' Ila Immanuel garma mil tamiilda ; baianbu 
garma murru gummillego. 

Another time, two men blind sat by the way. Immanuel there came. 
The two blind heard ; they cried aloud : ' Immanuel, King, Son of David, 
look ! pity us.' Many people said : 'Have done ! cease ye to cry aloud.' 
The men blind again cried aloud : 'King, Son of David, look! pity us'! 
Then Immanuel stood still ; said : ' What you will say ? What I shall do '? 
■They said : ' King, grant us to see. ' Then Immanuel them eyes touches ; 
instantly they are able to see. 

13. Burula kagil giwir Immanuel kunmulta. Garma kaogo 
bindea yulalle. Garma gir tulu wimi ; garagedul tulu ganbir 
wimi ; garma gir Immanuel wimi ; murra biru-diin ; idinna biru- 
diini ; tului wirri. Garma tulu tiome, Immanuel tuiui pindelun- 
dai. Yerala Immanuel baluni. Terala, giwir pilari turrur duni ; 
gue dulirri. 

Many bad men Immanuel seized. They on his head thorna bound. 
They indeed a log laid ; another log across they laid ; they indeed Immanuel 
laid down ; hands they pierced ; feetthey pierced ; en cross fastened. They 
the cross raised, Immanuel on the cross hanging. Soon Immanuel died. 
Soon after, a man wjth a spear his side pierced ; blood flowed. 

14. BuUului, garma gir Immanuel taonda wimi, kundawi. Im- 
manuel guru babine balun taonda ; yealo malo babine balun ta- 
onda ; yealo garagedul guru babine baliin taonda; giragedul 
guruko moron ginyi, warine. Terala giinagullago yanani. Te- 
ladu Immanuel gunagullada guddela ; germa kanugo gummilda ; 
kanugo winugulda. 

In evening, they verily Immanuel in ground laid, covered. Immanuel 
the night lay dead in ground ; also one day he lay dead in ground ; also 


another night he lay dead in ground ; next morning alive he became, arose. 
Soon after to heaven he went. Now Immanuel in heaven dwells ; he all 
sees ; all knows. 

15. Murruba Immanuel ; kamil garagedul mnnvha, yealokwai 
germa. Terala Immanuel yealo taon go fcaiyanille ; geane kanugo 
gammille. Immanuel Itaia goalie ;, ila kanugo baliin, giwir, inar, 
kaigal kanugo moron gigi. Immanuel goalie : ' Minna inda gi- 
mobi? minna inda gimobi ? inda murruba gimoM ? inda gununda 
taiyanuga gunaguUago ; inda kagil gimobi? inda biru yanuga, 
urribii yanuga.' 

Good is Immanuel; not another is good like Him. Hereafter Immanuel 
again to earth will come ; we all shall see. Immanuel aloud will speak ; 
then all the dead, men, women, and children, all alive shall become. 
Immanuel will say : ' What hast thou done ? what hast thou done ? thou 
good hast done ? thou to me come to heaven ; thou evil hast done ? 
thou far go, very far go away.' 

16. Griru ginda kagil ginyi ; inda warawara yanani ; girimBaia- 
me yili ginyi. Baiame yalwuga murruba ; geane kauugo wara- 
■wara yanani. "VVinugulla : kamil gaia yal gonlda ; giru gaia go- 
alda. Immanuel girribatai yarine, gunaguUadi taongo. Ivanugo 
giwir kagil ginyi ; Immanuel gandil murruba ; Immanuel ba- 
Mni, giwir moron gigigo. 

Truly thou bad hast become ; thou astray hast gone ; truly God angry 
is. God always is good ; we all astray have gone. Hearken : not I lies tell; 
truth I tell. Immanuel from above came down, from heaven to earth. 
All men bad are become ; Immanuel only is good ; Immanuel died, men 
alive for to be. 

17. Teladu Baiame goalda : ' G-indai,kanugo giwir, kurria kagil 
gigile, beriidi warraia ; geane murru gurrile ; kamil gaia yili 
gigila ; murruba Immanuel baluni.' Teladu Immanuel goalda : 
' Taiyanuga gununda, kanugo gindai iggil, ila gaia gindai tubbia- 
mulle.' Inda taiyanuga Immanuelgo. 

Now God saith : ' Ye, all men, cease bad to be, turn ye ; we will be 
reconciled. Not I angry am. Good Immanuel died.' Now Immanuel 
saith : ' Gome unto me, all ye weary, then I you will cause to rest. " You 
come to Immanuel. 

18. Giwir guddelona Littraga ; bain dinna tiiggor, gurribu bain 
ge bain ; kamil yanelina. Paul, Barnaba ellibu, arc yanani. Paul 
goaldone ; baindiil germa winugailone. Paul kaia gummildone ; 
kakiildone : ' "VVaria gurriba dinnaga.' Tuggordiil parine, yanani 

A man dwelt at Lystra ; with sick foot diseased, very ill indeed ; not 
he could walk. Paul, Barnabas also, there came. Paul was speaking ; the 
lame man him was hearing. Paul earnestly looked ; he cried aloud : ' Stand 
upright on feet.' The lame man leapt, walked also. 

19. Burulabu giwir gummi; got; 'gipai'! kakiildone: 'Bai- 
ame bular yarine yealokwai giwir.' Paul, Barnaba ellibu, bunna- 
gunne, kakuldoue : ' Kurria ! kamil geane Baiame ; geane giwir 
yealokwai gindai ; geane guiye duri ; geane budda ginyi ; geane 
yili ginyi; yealo geane murru gurrigiUone ; geano murru goalda 
burulabu ; kurria gindai yealo kagil gigile ; beriidi warraia, gum- 


milla Baiame moron ; Baiame gir giinaguUa, taon, burul kolle, 
kanugo minnaminnabul gimobi; Baiame yalwuga Baiame.' 

All the people saw ; they wondered ; they cried aloud : ' Gods two are 
come down like men;' Paul, Barnabas also ran, cried aloud : ' Have done ! 
not we gods ; we men like you. We glad become, we sorry become, we 
angry become, again we are reconciled. We good tell to all ; cease ye any 
more evil to be ; turn ye, look to God the living. God verily heaven, 
earth, the great water, all, everything made. God always is God, (the same 






[I print this, because it is the earliest attempt to exhibit the structure 
of the aboriginal languages. The date is 1827. I have omitted the 
numbering of the sentences, the accents, and the table of sounds, referred 
to in the Author's preface. ' Naturally, there are some errors in such a first 
attempt as this. Such of these errors as were likely to mislead a reader, I 
haye removed or altered ; in other respects I have left the pamphlet very 
much as I found it. But, from its early date and its use of the English 
system of pronunciation, it cannot be quoted as an authority. 

I print also the Author's Preface to this pamphlet. — Ed.] 

In siibmitting a specimen of a dialect of the aborigines of 
'New South Wales, no speculative arrangement of grammar is 
attempted. Out of upwards of fifteen hundred sentences, the 
most satisfactory ones are selected. The English is in a separate 
column on the right side of the page, and underneath the 
aboriginal sentences is placed, word for word, the English 
meaning, without regard to English arrangement or grammar, 
in order to show the idiom of the aboriginal tongue. The sen- 
tences are numbered for easy reference, should any friend wish 
to make any remark tending to simplify the present adopted 
mode. As one of my objects in applying to the language is to 
pave the way for the rendering into this tongue the sacred 


Scriptures, every friendly hint will be most thankfally received. 
The accents are not marked for want of type, hut the last 
arrangement of the verb will, it is hoped, be a sufficient guide. 
A table of the sounds, being an epitome of the plan pursued in 
the orthography of the language, will also be sufficient, it is 
presumed, to show the nature of the syllables ; it would have 
increased the work to an inconvenient size had it been further 
explained. To ascertain the ellipsis with which the language 
abounds is the best means to obtain satisfaction in the use of the 
particles, and without the knowledge of this it appears very often 
a mere jargon. Ma-ko-ro te-a, ' fish to me,' is all they say for 
' give me some fish ' ; but no possible mistake can arise, as in the 
English, using the nouns in a verbal sense. A double use of the 
preposition ' from ' puzzled me exceedingly ; but one day when 
the signal for a vessel was hoisted up at the signal-post, the 
remarks of a black man proved that it was from, on account of 
the vessel, the ball was hoisted from that cause. The cutting 
down a tree in the woods similarly showed from what part the 
log was to be chopped. I would also remark that we often think 
there is a difference in the language because the names of sub- 
stantives differ ; e.g., a man was asked one day what he had got ; 
' ta-ra-kul,' was the reply — i.e., peaches. But they had no peaches 
formerly ; whence came the now name ? — from a word ' to set 
the teeth on edge !' ISTow, at the Hawkesbury, the natives may 
call it by a name meaning rough skin, or any other quality. 
At the Hawkesbury, the English say that 'kob-ba-ra' is what the 
natives call 'head,' but the blacks told me to say 'wol-lung,' and 
it was only by an anatomical drawing my black teacher showed 
that by ' kob-ba-ra ' he understood the ' skull bone.' Xo doubt 
there are provincialisms, but perhaps the language is radically 
the same. In presenting a copy to those in this colony who are 
connected with other societies, I beg to assure them that what- 
ever knowledge I may obtain of the aboriginal tongue shall be 
always available to them with cheerful readiness, the noble 
principles of Christianity forbidding the indulgence of any selfish 
motive or party feeling in those who profess to be the promul- 
gators of itj precepts. An anxiety to satisfy the friends of 
humanity that our employment is not altogether without hope, 
as it respects attaining the language of the blacks, and that 
success may ultimately be expected, with the Divine aid, have 
suggested and urged the putting of these imperfect specimens to 
the press. 

Eighteen months less interrupted than the time past will, it is 
hoped, enable me to make known salvation to the aborio-ines in 
their own tongue. To attempt instruction before I can ar^ue 
with them as men would be injurious, because Christianity does 
not make its votaries mere machines, but teaches them how to 


give an answer to every one that asketh a reason of their hope. 
My time, therefore, must be devoted wholly to that single object 
until I am competent ; and whatever may be the expenses, or 
■whatever may be the privations of individuals to reclaim sinners, 
■whether black or white, the remembrance of it will be no more, 
or, if it exist, it will excite only a song of praise when we shall 
behold the great multitude which no man could number, of all 
nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues standing before 
the Lamb, clothed -with white robes, and palms in their hands, 
saying, _" Thou hast redeemed us to God by Thy blood, out of 
every kindred and tongue and people and nation, and hast made 
us unto our Grod kings and priests for ever. Amen." 

DocTOE Johnson observes that the orthography of a new 
language formed by a synod of grammarians upon principles 
of science would be to proportion the number of letters to that of 
sounds, that every sound may have its own character, and every 
character a single sound. Doctor Lowth's rule hath been 
attended to in syllabication — namely, "Divide the syllables in 
spelling, as they are naturally divided in a right pronunciation," 
so that, to use the words of another author, " Syllabication shall 
be the picture of actual pronunciation." 

The English alphabet is used with little variation of sound. 
The table (an abridgement) shews the fixed sounds of the letters 
and syllables agreeably to the English examples, leaving nothing 

The attempt to form the aboriginal speech into a written 
language with perspicuity is made on the above principles ; time 
only can decide on its practicability. 



1. Nga-to-a. — The pronoun J in answer to a question, as, 
it is I ; it is used also in a relative sense, it is I who. 
The pronunciation of the nq is very soft, but exactly 
the same as nij in hang, hang. The pronoun I, -when 
forming the simple subject to the verb, is hang, I. 

Nganke un-nung ? ngatoa un-ne; m., who is there? itisi 

"Who (is) there I this. 

Ngatoa man-nun; man-nun bang; w., it is I ■who will take. 

I take-'will; take-will I. 

Ngatoa un-te ka-tan; un-te bang ka-tan; m., I am 

I at this place am. at this place I am. here. 

Ngatoa weya-leyn; wean bang; m., I am speaking; I 

I speak-ing; speak I. 


ISTgatoa uma-taan unne, ngorokan; m., it is I wlio made 

I made-have this, thismorning. tllis, this morniBg. 

TJnne bang uma-kaan, ngorokan; m., I liave made this, 

This I made-have, this morning. this morning. ^ 

l^gatoa wa-leyn im-ta-ring; wa-leyn "bang nn-te-ring, 

I move-ing to that place ; move-ing I to this place. 

m., I am going to that place ; I am coming to this place. 
Ngatoa bo wal wea bounnoun; ot., I myself spoke to her. 

T myself spoke her. 

ISTgatoa bo wal bounnoun bun-ka-leyn ; m., I myself am 

I myself her striking. beating her. 

Ngatoa bo wa-le-a-la wa-kol ; ot., I myself went alone. 

I went one. 

2. Ngin-to-a — the pronoun thou in answer to a question, 

it is thou who. The pronoun used to the verb in simple 
form is be. thou. 

Ngan-ka be unne? ngintoa-ta unne ; m., who art thou now? 

Who thou this ? thou this. it is thou, emph. 

l^geroung koa ban-nu wean ngurra-le-ko. 
For thee why I-it speak for to hear. 

m., I speak it in order for thee to hear. 
Ngintoa tatte ba-nun; m., it is thou who wilt be dead. 

Thou dead be-will. 

NgintoaHcinta, ngatoa kaawaran; in., it is thou who fearest, 

Thou fear, I not. I do not. 

Ngatoa bo wal yaraki, ngintoa kaawarau ; m., I myself am 
I myself evil, thou not. evil, thou art not. 

Ngintoa kinta; kinta be; on., it is thou who fearest; thou 

Thou fear ; fear thou. fearest. 

Ngintoa kinta ka-nun ; kinta be ka-nun. 
Thou _ fear be-will ; fear thou be-will. 

m., it is thou who wilt fear; thou wiit be afraid. 

3. New-wo-a— the pronoun he, in answer to a question, jt/io 

is it ? The pronoun for the verb is no a, he or it. 
Newwoa kinder; kinder noa; m., it is he who laughs; he 

He laugh ; laugh he. laughs. 

Newwoa wal kore yarai; m., it is he who is a bad man. 

He man bad. 

Newwoa warekul nowwi ta ba; to., the dog is in the canoe. 

He the dog canoe. in. 

Newwoa-bo keyn kokon ta ba; m., it is he himself in the 

He being water in. water. 

4. Bo-un-to-a — the feminine pronoun, she. 

Unne bountoa Patty ammoung kin-ba; «j., this is Patty 

This she Patty me with. with me. 


Ammoung katoa bountoa wa-nnn; m., she will go with me. 

Me with she move-will. 

"Wonui bountoa tea unnung tatte ammoun-ba; 
Child she to me there dead miae. 

in., my child, there is dead. 
'Ngan-ke bountoa unne? unnoa? unnung? m., who is she? 
Who she this ? that ? there ? (here, there) ? 

5. iS'ga — the pronoun it or it is, in answer to a question. 

"Wea, unnoa boat kowwol? nga-ba unnang kowwol-an. 
Say, that boat large? it is that large-heuig. 

in., is that a large boat ? it is a large boat. 
"Wea, unnoa murrorong? nga-ba unnoa murrorong. 
Say, that good? it is that good. 

on., is that good ? it is it that is good. 
Ngan-to bon bun-ka-la? uga-le noa bon bun-kala. 
Who him struck? this he him strike-did. 

in., who struck him ? it is he that struck him. 
Nga-la noa bon bunkala; nga-la noa *ya. 

That he him struck ; that he there close at hand. 

in., it was he that struck him ; it was he there. 
"Won-nung? nga-la noa wea-leyn unnung.* 
Where ? that he speak-ing there. 

m., where ? it was he speaking there. 

6. Nga-an — the plural pronoun, twe. ■ 

Ka-bo ! ngaan wa-nun; m., stop, we will go presently. 

Stop '. we move-will. 

Ka-i ! wita ngaan; in., come, we depart, i.e., let us go. 

Ho ! depart we. 
Ka-i! be yan-ta, ta-nan, wita ngaan; ot., come thouhither; 

Ho ! thou hither, approach, depart we. approach, we depart. 
Ka-bo, ka-bo, wa-ow-wil koa ngaan ngeroung katoa. 
Be still, be still, move may that we you with. 

m., stop, stop, that we may go too with you. 
"Wita ngaan nowwi-ta wiug-ow-v,'il ; m., we depart to row 
Depart we canoe mayrow. the canoe. 

"Wita-lang ngaan; wita wal ngaan; to., we do depart ; we 
Depart we ; depart shall we. are about to depart. 

Ta-ko-un-ta ka ngaan wa-nun Kuttai kolang? 

When we move will Sydney towards ? 

m., when shall we depart for Sydney ? 
Ya-ko-un-ta kan ngaanf; m., we do not know when. 

When being we. 
Ta-ko-un-ta ngatongf; m., when is it to be? (a negative.) 

When that? 

*Note — U n n u n g, ' there, ' means at a greater distance than y a, ' there. ' 
t In this collection of sentences, the t shows that the phrase is an idiom. 


7. Nu-rur — the plural pronoun ye. The r as in. roywe. 
"VVea, nu-rur w a- nun Mulubinha ko-lang; ot., will ye goto 

Say, ye move-will Newcastle to. Newcastle. 

"Wea-la nurur, ngatoa wita; ot., do ye talk and I will go. 

Speak ye, I depart. 

Kari nurur ta-kaan ngoro-kan-ta; m., ye have eaten kan- 
Kangaroo ye eaten-have this morning. garoo this morning. 

8. Ba-rur — ^the plural pronoun, fhei/. 

!N'gan-ho barur uwah? ngan-bo kanf; barur napal. 

Who they moved ? who being ; they woman. 

m., who are they gone? Idon't know; they are women. 

"Wea-lang barur; wea-leyn barur; to., they talk; they are 

Speak they ; speak-ing they. talking. 

Wita ka-ba barur; m., they are in the act of departing. 
Depart' in they. 

9. Ba-le — dual pronoun thou and I, we two. 

"Wita ba-le wah-ow-wil ya-ka-ta; »?., thou and I will go 
Depart we-two move to at this time. now. 

Min-na-ring ko-lang ba-le bon wea-la? 
What towards we-two him speak? 

OT., art thou and I to speak to him ? about what art, &c. 
"Wea bula