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H . Worden 

Cornell University Library 
PN 43.B84 
Character sketches of rpmaiice, fiction a 

3 1924 026 991 442 «..,.«i 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


The Pied Piper of Hamelin 

H. Kaulbach, Artist 

' ^^NCE more he slept into the street, 
\^ And to his lips again 

Laid his long pipe of smooth straight cane ; 
And ere he blew three notes {such sweet 
Soft notes as yet musician's cunning 
Never gave the enraptured air) — 
There was a rustling that seemed like a bustling. 
Of merry crowds justling at pitching and hustling. 
Small feet were pattering, wooden shoes clattering. 
Little hands clapping, and little tongues chattering. 
And, like fowls in a farm-yard when barley is scattering. 
Out came the children running, 
All the little boys and girls. 
With rosy cheeks and flaxen curls. 
And sparkling eyes and teeth like pearls. 
Tripping and skipping, ran merrily after 
The wonderful music, with shouting and laughter. 
The Mayor was dumb, and the Council stood 
As if they were changed into blocks of wood. 
Unable to move a step, or cry 
To the children merrily skipping by. 
And could only follow with the eye. 
That joyous crowd at the Piper's back. " 

Robert Browning's " The Pied Piper of Hamelin." 


AND THE DRAMA : : : : 












Illustration Artist J„„„ 


PIED PIPER OP HAMELIN (THE) H. Kaulbach Frontispiece 



PORTIA AND THE CASKETS Alex. Cabaneit 234 

QUIS OF) Ferdinand Ritter 238 

PRISCILLA Davidson KnowiiES 244 


PRYNNE (HESTER) H. G. Boughton 252 

PSYCHE (CUPID AND) - - Paul Baudby 254 


PUCK AND THE FAIRIES Arthur Hughes 258 



QUIXOTE (DON) IN HIS STUDY Gustavb Dob^ 268 

TOIk VI., 8 VOL. ED. iii 


Illustration Artist „„„. 



REINIKE FOX TO BE HUNG - - - - - - "W. von Kaulbach 286 




OSBALDISTONB - - - J. B. McDonald 300 

ROBSART (AMY) ... 302 

ROLAND (MADAME) . Albert Lynch 304 



ROSE AND BLANCHE (DAGOBBRT WITH) - - - Edward H. CorbouU) 318 

ROUMESTAN (NUMA) .... Emile Bayard 322 


VOL. VI., 8 VOL. ED. 



'.HRY'NE (2 syl.), an Athe- 
nian courtezan of surpassing 
beauty. Apelles's celebrated 
picture of "Venus Anadyo- 
mene" was drawn from 
Phryne, who entered the sea with hair 
dishevelled for a model. The "Cnidian 
Venus " of Praxiteles was also taken from 
the same model. 

Some say Campaspe was the academy 
figure of the " Venus Anadyomene.)" Pope 
has a poem called Phryne. ^ 

Phyllis, a Thracian, who fell in love 
with Demoph'oon. After some months of 
mutual affection, Demophoon was obliged 
to sail for Athens, but promised to return 
within a month. When a month had 
elapsed, and Demophoon did not put 
in an appearance, Phyllis so mourned 
for him that she was changed into an 
almond tree, hence called by the Greeks 
Phylia. In time, Demophoon returned, 
and, being told the fate of Phyllis, ran 
to embrace the tree, which though bare 
and leafless at the time, was instantly cov- 
ered with leaves, hence called Phylia by 
the Greeks. 

Let Demophoon tell 
Why Phyllis by a fate untimely fell. 

Ovid, Art of Love, hi. 

VOL. VI. or 8 VOL. ED. 205 

Phyllis, a country girl in Virgil's third 
and fifth Eclogues. Hence a rustic maiden . 
Also spelt Phillis (q.v.). 

Phyllis, in Spenser's eclogue, Colin 
ClouPs Come Home Again, is Lady Carey, 
wife of Sir George Carey (afterwards Lord 
Hunsdon, 1596). Lady Carey was Eliza- 
beth, the second of the six daughters of 
Sir John Spenser, of Althorpe, ancestor of 
the noble houses of Spenser and Marl- 

Phyllis and Briinetta, rival beau- 
ties. Phyllis procured for a certain festi- 
val some marvellous fabric of gold bro- 
cade in order to eclipse her rival, but 
Brunetta dressed the slave who bore her 
train in a robe of the same material and 
cut in precisely the same fashion, while 
she herself wore simple black. Phyllis 
died of mortification.— T^e Spectator (1711, 
1712, 1714). 

Physigna'thos, king of the frogs, and 
son of Pelus ("mud"). Being wounded 
in the battle of the frogs and mice by 
Troxartas, the mouse king, he flees in- 
gloriously to a pool, " and half in anguish 




of the flight, expires " (bk. iii. 112). The 
-word means " puffed chaps." 

Great Physignathos I from Pelus' race, 
Begot in fair Hydromedg's embrace. 
Parnell, Battle of the Frogs and Mice, i. (about 

Pibi"ac {Seigneur de), poet and diplo- 
matist, author of Cinquante Quatrains 
(1574). Gorgibus bids his daughter to 
study Pibrac instead of trashy novels and 

Lisez-moi, comme il f aut, au lieu de ces sornettes, 
Les Quatrains de Pibrac, et les doctes Tdblettes 
Du conseiUer Matthieu; I'ouvrage est de 

valeur, . . . 
La Guide des pecheurs est encore un bon livre. 
Moliere, Sganarelle, i. 1 (1660). 

(Pierre Matthieu, poet and historian, 
wrote Quatrains de la Vanite du Monde, 

Picanninies (4 syl.), little children ; the 

small fry of a village. — West Indian Ne- 

There were at the marriage the picanninies 
and the Joblilies, but not the G-rand Panjan- 
drum. — Yonge. 

Pic'atrix, the pseudonym of a Spanish 
monk ; author of a book on demonology. 

Wheii I was a student . . . that same Rev. 
Picatrix . . . was wont to tell us that devils did 
naturally fear the bright flashes of swords as 
much as he feared the splendor of the sun. — 
Rabelais, Pantag'ruel, iii. 23 (1545). 

Picciola, flower that, springing up in 
the court-yard of his prison, cheers and 
elevates the lonely life of the prisoner 
whom X. B. Saintine makes the hero of 
his charming tale, Picciola (1837). 

Piccolino, an opera by Mons. Guiraud 
(1875) ; libretto by MM. Sardou and Nuit- 
tier. This opera was first introduced to 
an English audience in 1879. The tale is 

this : Marthe, an orphan girl adopted by 
a Swiss pastor, is in love with Frederic 
Auvray, a young artist, who "loved and 
left his love." Marthe plods through the 
snow from Switzerland to Rome to find 
her young artist, but, for greater security, 
puts on boy's clothes, and assumes the 
name of Piccolino. She sees Frederic, 
who knows her not ; but, struck with her 
beauty, makes a drawing of her. Marthe 
discovers that the faithless Frederic is 
paying his addresses to Elena (sister of 
the Duke Strozzi). She tells the lady her 
love-tale ; and Frederic, deserted by Elena, 
forbids Piccolino (Marthe) to come into 
his presence again. The poor Swiss wan- 
derer throws herself into the Tiber, but is 
rescued. Frederic repents, and the cur- 
tain falls on a reconciliation and^approach- 
ing marriage. 

Pickel-Herringe (5 syl), a popular 
name among the Dutch for a buffoon ; a 
corruption of picMe-lidrin ("a hairy 
sprite "), answering to Ben Jonson's Puck' 

Pickle {Peregrine), a savage, ungrateful 
spendthrift, fond of practical jokes, de- 
lighting in tormenting others ; but suffer- 
ing with ill temper the misfortunes which 
result from his own wilfulness. His 
ingratitude to his uncle, and his arrogance 
to Hatchway and Pipes, are simply hate- 
ful. — T. SmoUett, The Adventures of Pere- 
grine Pickle (1751), 

■pickwick {Samuel), the chief character 
of The Pickwick Papers, a novel by C. 
Dickens. He is general chairman of the 
Pickwick Club. A most verdant, benevo- 
lent elderly gentleman, who, as member of 
a club instituted " for the purpose of in- 
vestigating the source of the Hampstead 
ponds," travels about with three members 

Charney examining Picciola. 

Barrios, Artist Ch. Geoffrey, Engraver 

THE Count Cbarney,in prison for political offenses, devotes himself 
to a plant that blossoms in the courtyard of his cell. He calls it 
*^ Picciola," nurses it, and watches it until it is grown. 
"Now Picciola presented herself to him in all the prestige of her beauty. 
She displayed to him her brilliant and delicately shaded corolla ; white, 
purple and rose were blended in her large petals bordered with a silvery 
fringe, through which the rays of the sun glancing gave the effe£t of a 
luminous halo around the flower. . , . 

"By means of several planks he had constructed a little bench supported on 
four solid sticks, pointed at their extremity and driven into the interstices 
of the pavement. A rough plank made a back against which he could lean, 
when he wished to think and for get himself in living in the atmosphere of his 
plant. There he felt more at ease than he had ever done informer times on 
silken couches." 

Saintins's " Picciola." 

mi0' '■ fe" 






of the club, to whom he acts as guardian 
and adviser. The adventures they en- 
counter form the subject of the Posthu- 
mous Papers of the Pickwick Club (1836). 

The original of Seymour's picture of 
"Pickwick" was a Mr. John Foster {not 
the biographer of Dickens, but a friend of 
Mr. Chapman's, the publisher). He lived 
at Richmond, and was " a fat old beau," 
noted for his " drab tights and black 

Pickwickian Sense {In a), an insult 
whitewashed. Mr. Pickwick accused Mr. 
Blotton of acting in " a vUe and calumni- 
ous manner ; " whereupon Mr. Blotton re- 
torted by calling Mr. Pickwick " a hum- 
bug." But it finally was made to appear 
that both had used the offensive words 
only in a parliamentary sense, and that 
each entertained for the other " the high- 
est regard and esteem." So the difficulty 
was easily adjusted, and both were satis- 

Lawyers and politicians daily abuse each other 
in a Pickwickian sense. — Bowditch. 

Pic'rochole, king of Lerne, noted for 
his choleric temper, his thirst for empire, 
and his vast but ill-digested projects. — 
Eabelais, Gargantua, i. (1533). 

Supposed to be a satire on Charles V. 
of Spain. 

Picrochole's Counsellors. The duke 
of Smalltrash, the e'arl of Swashbuckler, 
and Captain DurtaiUe, advised King Pie- 
rochole to leave a small garrison at home, 
and to divide his army into two parts — 
to send one south, and the other north. 
The former was to take Portugal, Spain, 
Italy, Germany (but was to spare the life 
of Barbarossa), to take the islands of the 
Mediterranean, the Morea, the Holy Land, 
and aU Lesser Asia, The northern army 

was to take Belgium, Denmark, Prussia, 
Poland, Russia, Norway, Sweden, sail 
across the Sandy Sea, and meet the other 
half at Constantinople, when king Picro- 
chole was to divide the nations amongst his 
great captains. Echephron said he had 
heard about a pitcher of milk which was 
to make its possessor a nabob, and give 
him for wife a sultan's daughter ; only the 
poor fellow broke his pitcher, and had to 
go supperless to bed. (See Bobadil.) — 
Rabelais, Pantagruel, i. 33 (1533). 

A shoemaker bought a ha'p'orth of milk ; with 
this he intended to mate butter, the butter was 
to buy a cow, the cow was to have a calf, the 
calf was to be sold, and the man to become a 
nabob ; only the poor dreamer cracked the jug, 
and spilt the milk and had to go supperless to 
bed. — Pantagruel, i. 33. 

Picts, the Caledonians or inhabitants 
of Albin, i.e. northern Scotland. The 
Scots came from Scotia, north of Ireland, 
and established themselves under Ken- 
neth M'Alpin in 843. 

The etymology of •' Piets " from the 
hatinpicti ("painted men") is about equal 
to Stevens's etymology of the word " breth- 
ren" from tabernacle "because we breathe- 

Picture {The), a drama by Massinger 
(1629). The story of this play (like that 
of the Twelfth Night, by Shakespeare) is 
taken from the novelette of Bandello, of 
Piedmont, who died 1555. 

Pi'cus, a soothsayer and augur; hus- 
band of Canens. In his prophetic art he 
made use of a woodpecker {picus), a pro- 
phetic bird sacred to Mars. Circe fell in 
love with him, and as he did not requite 
her advances, she changed him into a 
woodpecker, whereby he still retained his 
prophetic power. 

"There is Picus," said Maryx. "What a 
strange thing is tradition ! Perhaps it was in 





this very forest tliat Circe, gathering her herbs, 
saw the bold friend of Mars on his fiery courser, 
and tried to bewitch him, and, failing, metamor- 
phosed him so. What, I wonder, ever first wed- 
ded that story to the woodpecker?" — Ouida, 



Pied Horses, Motassem had 130,000 
pied horses, which he employed to carry 
earth to the plain of Catoul ; and having 
raised a monnd of sufficient height to 
command a viev^r of the whole neighbor- 
hood, he built thereon the royal city of 
Shamarah'. — Khondemyr, Khelassat al 
Akhhar (1495). 

The Hill of the Pied Horses, the site of 
the palace of Alkoremmi, built by Motas- 
sem, and enlarged by Vathek. 

Pietl Piper of Hanieliii (3 syl.), a 
piper named Bunting, from his dress. He 
undertook, for a certain sum of money, to 
free the town of Hamelin, in Brunswick, 
of the rats which infested it ; but when he 
had drowned all the rats in the river 
Weser, the townsmen refused to pay the 
sum agreed upon. The piper, in revenge, 
collected together all the children of 
Hamelin, and enticed them by his piping 
into a cavern in the side of the mountain 
Koppenberg, which instantly closed upon 
them, and 130 went down alive into the 
pit (June "26, 1284). The street through 
which Bunting conducted his victims was 
Bungen, and from that day to this no 
music is ever allowed to be played in this 
particular street. — Verstegan, Bestitution 
of Decayed Intelligence (1634). 

Robert Browning has a poem entitled 
The Pied Piper. 

Eriehius, in his Exodus Hamelensis, 
maintains the truth of this legend; but 
Martin Schoock, in his Fahula Hamelensis, 
contends that it is a mere myth. 

" Don't forget to pay the piper " is still 
a household expression in common use. 

*** The same tale is told of the fiddler 
of Brandenberg. The children were led 
to the Marienberg, which opened upon 
them and swallowed them up. 

*** When Lorch was infested with ants, 
a hermit led the multitudinous insects by 
his pipe into a lake, where they perished. 
As the inhabitants refused to pay the 
stipulated price, he led their pigs the 
same dance, and they, too, perished in 
the lake. 

Next year, a charcoal-burner cleared 
the same place of crickets ; and when the 
price agreed upon was withheld, he led 
the sheep of the inhabitants into the lake. 

The third year came a plague of rats, 
which an old man of the mountain piped 
away and destroyed. Being refused his 
reward, he piped the children of Lorch 
into the Tannenberg. 

*** About 200 years ago, the people of 
Ispahan were tormented with rats, when 
a little dwarf named Griouf, not above two 
feet high, promised, on the payment of a 
certain sum of money, to free the city of 
all its vermin in an hour. The terms 
were agreed to, and Griouf, by tabor and 
pipe, attracted every rat and mouse to 
follow him to the river Zenderou, where 
they were all drowned. Next day, the 
<lwarf demanded the money; but the 
people gave him several bad coins, which 
they refused to change. Next day, they 
saw with horror an old black woman, fifty 
feet high, standing in the market-place 
with a whip in her hand. She was the 
genie Mergian Banou, the mother of the 
dwarf. For four days she strangled daily 
fifteen of the principal women, and on the 
fifth day led forty others to a magic 
tower, into which she drove them, and 
they were never after seen by mortal eve. 
— T. S. Gueulette, Chinese Tales ("His- 
tory of Prince Kader-Bilah," 1723). 

*#* The syrens of classic story had, by 




their weird spirit-music, a similar irresist- 
ible influence. 

(Weird music is called Alpleich or El- 

Pierre [Peer], a blunt, bold, out- 
spoken man, who beads a conspiracy to 
murder the Venetian senators, and in- 
duces Jaf&er to join the gang. Jaffier (in 
order to save bis wife's father, Priuli), re- 
veals the plot, under promise of free par- 
don ; but the senators break their pledge, 
and order the conspirators to torture and 
death. Jaffier, being free, because he had 
turned " king's evidence " stabs Pierre, to 
prevent his being broken on the wheel, 
and then kiUs himself. — T. Otway, Venice 
Preserved (1682). 

Pierre, a very inquisitive servant of M. 
Darlemont, who long suspects his master 
has played falsely with his ward, Julio, 
count of Harancour. — Thomas Holcroft, 
The Deaf and Dumb (1785). 

Pierre Alphonse {Balli Moise Sep- 
hardi), a Spanish Jew converted to Chris- 
tianity in 1062. 

AH stories that recorded are 
By Pierre AlEonse he knew by heart. 
Longfellow, The Wayside Inn (prelude). 

Pierre du Coignet or Coignferes, an 

advocate-general in the reign of Philippe 
de Valois, who stoutly opposed the en- 
croachments of the Church. The monks, 
in revenge, nicknamed those grotesque 
figures in stone (called " gargoyles "), 
pierres du coignet. At Notre Dame de 
Paris there were at one time gargoyles 
used for extinguishing torches, and the 
smoke added not a little to their ugliness. 

You may associate them with Master Pierre 
du Coignet, . . . which perform the office of 
extinguishers. — Rabelais, Qargantua and Pantag- 
ruel (1533-45). 

Pierrot [Pe'-er-ro], a character in 
French pantomime, representing a man in 
stature and a child in mind. He is gener- 
ally the tallest and thinnest man in the 
company, and appears with his face and 
hair thickly covered with flour. He wears 
a white gown, with very long sleeves, and 
a row of big buttons down the front. 
The word means " Little Peter." 

Piers and Palinode, two shepherds in 
Spenser's fifth eclogue, representing the 
Protestant and the Catholic priest. 

Piers or Percy again appears in eel. x. 
with Cuddy, a poetic shepherd. This 
noble eclogue has for its subject " poetry." 
Cuddy complains that poetry has no pa- 
tronage or encouragement, although it 
comes by inspiration. He says no one 
would be so qualified as Colin to sing 
divine poetry, if his mind were not so de- 
pressed by disappointed love. — Spenser^ 
The Shepheardes Calendar (1579). 

Pie'tro (2 syl.), the putative father of 
Pompilia. This paternity was a fraud to 
oust the heirs of certain property which 
would otherwise fall to them. — E. Brown- 
ing, The Bing and the Book, ii. 580. 

Pig. Phsedrus tells a tale of a popular 
actor who imitated the squeak of a pig. 
A peasant said to the audience that he 
would himself next night challenge and 
beat the actor. When the night arrived, 
the audience unanimously gave judgment 
in favor of the actor, saying that his 
squeak was by far the better imitation ; 
but the peasant presented to them a real 
pig, and said, " Behold, what excellent 
judges are ye ! " 

Pigal (ilfons. rfe),the dancing-master who 
teaches Alice Bridgenorth. — Sir W. Scott, 
Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.). 




Pigeon and Dove {The). Prince Con- 
stantio was changed into a pigeon, and 
the Princess Constantia into a dove, be- 
cause they loved, but were always crossed 
in love. Constantio found that Constan- 
tia was sold by his mother for a slave, 
and in order to follow her, he was con- 
verted into a pigeon. Constantia was 
seized by a giant, and in order to escape 
him was changed into a dove. Cupid then 
took them to Paphos, and they became 
" examples of a tender and sincere passion ; 
and ever since have been the emblems of 
love and constancy." — Comtesse D' Annoy, 
Fairy Tales ("The Pigeon and Dove," 

Pigmy, a dwarf. (See Pygmy.) 

Pigott Diamond {The), brought from 
India by Lord Pigott. It weighs 82i car- 
ats. In 1818 it came into the hands of 
Messrs. Rundell and Bridge. 

Pigrogrom'itus, a name alluded to by 

Sir Andrew Ague-cheek. 

In sooth thou wast in very gracious fooling 
last night when thou spokest of Pigrogromitus, 
of the Vapian passing the equinoctial of Queu- 
bus. 'Twas very good, i' faith. — Shakespeare, 
Twelfth Mglit, act ii. sc. 3 (1614). 

Pigwig'gen, a fairy knight, whose 
amours with Queen Mab, and furious 
combat with Oberon, forra the subject of 
Drayton's Nymphidia (1593). 

Pike {Gideon), valet to old Major Bel- 
lenden. — Sir W. Scott, Old Mortality (time, 
Charles II.). 

Pila'tiis {Mount), in Switzerland. The 
legend is that Pontius Pilate, being ban- 
ished to Gaul by the Emperor Tiberius, 
wandered to this mount, and flung him- 
self into a black lake at the summit of the 

hill, being unable to endure the torture of 
conscience for having given up the Lord 
to crucifixion. 

Pilgrim Fatliers. They were 102 pur- 
itans (English, Scotch, and Dutch), who 
went, in December, 1620, in a ship called 
the Mayfiotver, to North America, and 
colonized Marine, New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. 
These states they called "New England." 
New Plymouth (near Boston) was the 
s'econd colony planted by the English in 
the New World. 

Men in the middle of life, austere and grave in 

deportment . . . 
God had sifted three kingdoms to find the wheat 

for this planting. 
Longfellow, Courtship of Miles Standish, iv. 

Pilgrim — Palmer. Pilgrims had dwell- 
ings, palmers had none. Pilgrims went at 
their own charge, palmers professed will- 
ing poverty, and lived on charity. Pil- 
grims might return to a secular life, palm- 
ers could not. Pilgrims might hold titles 
and follow trades, palmers were wholly 
" religious " men. 

Pilgrim to Compostella. Some pil- 
grims on their way to Compostella, stopped 
at a hospice in La Calzada. The daughter 
of the innkeeper solicited a young French- 
man to spend the night with her, but he 
refused ; so she put in his wallet a silver 
cup, and when he was on the road, she 
accused him to the alcayde of theft. As 
the property was found in his possession, 
the alcayde ordered him to be hung. His 
parents went on their way to Compostella, 
and returned after eight days, but what 
was their amazement to find their son 
alive on the gibbet, and uninjured. They 
went instantly to tell the alcayde; but the 
magistrate replied, "Woman, you are mad ! 



I would just as soon believe these pullets, 
"wMcli I am about to eat, are alive, as that 
a man who has been gibbeted eight days 
is not dead." No sooner had he spoken 
than the two pullets actually rose up alive. 
The aleayde was frightened out of his 
wits, and was about to rush out of doors, 
when the heads and feathers of the birds 
came scampering in to complete the resus- 
citation. The cock and hen were taken in 
grand procession to St. James's Church of 
Compostella, where they lived seven years, 
and the hen hatched two eggs, a cock and 
a hen, which lived just seven years, and 
did the same. This has continued to this 
day, and pilgrims receive feathers from 
these birds as holy relics ; but no matter 
how many feathers are given away, the 
plumage of the sacred fowls is never de- 

*«* This legend is also seriously related 
by Bishop Pa,tviek,Parable of the Pilgrims, 
XXXV. 430-4. Udal ap Rhys repeats it in 
his Toui- throu(/h Spain and Portugal, 35-8. 
It is insei-ted in the Acta Sanctorum, vi. 
• 45. Pope Calixtus II. mentions it among 
the miracles of Santiago. 

Pilgrim {A Passionate), American who 
visits England, as one seeks the home he 
has loved throughout a tedious exile. It 
is like the return of a weary child to his 
mother's arms, as night comes on. He 
lingers upon each feature of the landscape 
as upon the face of his beloved, and counts 
the rest of the world but," a garish " place. 
— Henry James, Jr., A Passionate Pilgrim. 

Pilgrim's Progress {The), by John 
Bunyan. Pt. i, 1670; pt. ii., 1684. This 
is supposed to Ibe a dream, and to allegor- 
ize the life of a Christian, from his conver- 
sion to his death. His doubts are giants, 
his sins a pack, his Bible a chart, his min- 
ister, Evangelist, his conversion a flight 

from the City of Destruction, his struggle 
with besetting sins a fight with ApoUyon, 
his death a toilsome passage over a deep 
stream, and so on. 

The second part is Christiana and her 
family led by Greatheai't through the 
same road, to join Christian who had gone 

Pillar of the Doctors {La Colonne 
cles Docteurs), William de Champeaux 

Pilot {The), an important character and 
the title of a nautical burletta by E. Fitz- 
baU, based on the novel so called by J. 
Fenimore Cooper, of New York. "The 
pilot " turns out to be the brother of Col- 
onel Howard, of America. He happened 
to be in the same vessel which was taking 
out the colonel's wife and only son. The 
vessel was wrecked, but " the pilot " (whose 
name was John Howard) saved the infant 
boy, and sent him to England to be 
brought up, under the name of Barnstable. 
When young Barnstable was a lieutenant 
in the British navy, Colonel Howard 
seized him as a spy, and commanded him 
to be hung to the yardarm of an Ameri- 
can frigate, called the Alacrity. At this 
crisis, " the pilot " informed the colonel 
that Barnstable was his own son, and the 
father arrived just in time to save him 
from death. 

Pilpay', the Indian ^sop. His compi- 
lation was in Sanskrit, and entitled Pant- 

It was rumored he could say . . . 
All the " Fables " of Pilpay. 
Longfellow, The Wayside Inn (prelude). 

Pilum'nus, the patron god of bakers 
and millers, because he was the first per- 
son who ever ground corn. 





Then there was Pilumnus, who was the first 
to make cheese, and became the god of bakers. 
— Ouida, Anadne, i. 40. 

Pinabello, son of Anselmo (king of 
Maganza). MarpM'sa overthrew him, and 
told him he could not wipe out the dis- 
grace till he had unhorsed a thousand 
dames and a thousand knights. Pinabello 
was slain by Brad'amant.^ — Ariosto, Or- 
lando Furioso (1516). 

Pinac, the lively, spirited fellow-trav- 
eller of Mirabel, " the wild goose." He is 
in love with the sprightly Lillia-Bianca, 
a daughter of Nantolet. — Beaumont and 
Fletcher, The Wild Goose Chase (1652). 

Pinch, a schoolmaster and conjuror, 
who tries to exorcise Aniiph'olus (act iv. 
sc. 4). — Shakespeare, Comedy of Errors 

Pinch (Tom), clerk to Mr. Pecksniff 
" architect and land surveyor." Simple 
as a child, green as a salad, and honest as 
truth itself. Very fond of story-books, 
but far more so of the organ. It was the 
seventh heaven to him to pull out the 
stops for the organist's assistant at Salis- 
bury Cathedral; but when allowed, after 
service, to finger the notes himself, he 
lived in a dreamland of unmitigated hap- 
piness. Being dismissed from Pecksniff's 
office, Tom was appointed librarian to the 
Temple Library, and his new catalogue 
was a perfect model of workmanship. 

Buth Pinch, a true-hearted, pretty girl, 
who adores her brother, Tom, and is the 
sunshine of his existence. She marries 
John Westloek. — C. Dickens, Martin Chuz- 
zleivit (1844). 

Pinchbeck. Sham doctor and matri- 
monial agent in John Brougham's play, 
Playing With Fire. 

Pinchbeck (Lady), with whom Don Juan 
placed Leila to be brought up. 

Olden she was — but had been very young ; 
Virtuous she was — and had been, I beheve . . . 
She merely now was amiable and witty. 

Byron, Bon Juan, xii. 43, 47 (1824). 

Pinchwife (Mr.), the town husband of 
a raw country girl, wholly unpractised in 
the ways of the world, and whom he 
watches with ceaseless anxiety. 

Lady Drogheda . . . watched her town hus- 
band assiduously as Mr. Pinchwife watched his 
country wife. — Macaulay. 

Mrs. Pinchwife, the counterpart of Mo- 
liere's " Agnes," in his comedy entitled 
Decole des Femmes. Mrs. Pinchwife is a 
young woman wholly unsophisticated in 
affairs of the heart. — Wycherly, The Coun- 
try Wife (1675). 

*** Garrick altered Wycherly's comedy 
to The Country Girl. 

Pindar {Peter), the pseudonym of Dr. 
John Wolcot (1738-1819). 

Pindar {The British), Thomas Gray 
(1716-1771). On his monuiuent in West- 
minster Abbey is inscribed these lines : 

No more the Grecian muse unrivalled reighs ; 

To Britain let the nations homage pay : 
She felt a Homei-'s fii-e in Milton's strains, 

A Pindar's rapture in the lyre of Gray. 

Pindar {The French), 
(1507-1588); (2) Ponce 

(1) Jean Dorat 
Denis Lebrun 

Pindar {The Italian), Gabriello Chia- 
brera (1552-1637). 

Pindar of England. Cowley was pre- 
posterously called by the duke of Buck- 
ingham " The Pindar, Horace and Virgil 




©f England." Posterity has not endorsed 
this absurd eulogium (1618-1667). 

Pindar of Wakefield {The), George-a- 
Green, pinner of the town of Wakefield — 
that is, keeper of the public pound for the 
confinement of estrays. — The History of 
George-a-Green, Pindar of the Town of 
Wakefield (time, Elizabeth). 

Pindo'rus and Aride'iis, the two 

heralds of the Christian army in the siege 
of Jerusalem. — Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered 

Pine-Bender {The), Sinis, the Corin- 
thian robber who used to fasten his vic- 
tims to two pine trees bent towards the 
earth, and leave them to be torn to pieces 
by the rebound. 

Pingree {Nancy), called "Old Lady 
Pingree " because of her pride and black 
lace turban. She lives by herself in the 
lower part of the old Pingree house, and 
is so poor that to give an egg to the lodg- 
ers above stairs is an act of self-denying 
generosity. She has money and burial- 
clothes laid away for her funeral, yet when 
the neighbor upstairs dies, Nancy "lends" 
it to the daughter to keep her mother out 
of the Potter's field. A sudden rise in 
property brings Nancy a few hundreds, 
and enables her to face death with calm 
certainty of an independent burial in the 
Pingree lot. — Mary E. "Wilkins, A Humble 
Romance, and Other Stories (1887). 

Pinkerton {Miss), a most majestic lady, 
taU as a grenadier, and most proper. Miss 
Pinkerton kept an academy for young 
ladies on Chiswick Mall. She was "the 
Semiramis of Hammersmith, the friend of 
Dr. Johnson, and the correspondent of 
Mrs. Chapone." This very distinguished 

lady " had a Eoman nose, and wore a sol- 
emn turban." Amelia Sedley was edu- 
cated at Chiswick Mall academy, and Ee- 
becca Sharp was a pupil-teacher there. — 
Thackeray, Vanity Fair, i. (1848). 

Pinnit {Orson), keeper of the bears. — 
Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth). 

Pinto {Ferdinand MendcB), a Portuguese 
traveller, whose "voyages" were at one 
time wholly discredited, but have since 
been verified (1509-1583). 

Ferdinand Mendez Pinto was but a type of 
thee, thou liar of the first magnitude. — ^W. Con- 
greve, Love for Love (1695). 

Pious {The), Ernst L, founder of the 
house of Gotha (1601-1674). 

Eobert, son of Hugues Capet (971, 996- 

Eric IX. of Sweden (*, 1155-1161). 

Pip, the hero of Dickens's novel called 
Great Expectations. His family name was 
Pirrip, and his Christian name Philip. 
He was enriched by a convict named Abel 
Magwitch; and was brought up by Joe 
Gargery, a smith, whose wife was a woman 
of thunder and lightning, storm and tem- 
pest. Magwitch, having made his escape 
to Australia, became a sheep farmer, grew 
very rich, and deposited £500 a year with 
Mr. Jaggers, a lawyer, for the education 
of Pip, and to make a gentleman of him. 
Ultimately, Pip married Estella, the daugh- 
ter of Magwitch, but adopted from infancy 
by Miss Havisham, a rich banker's daugh- 
ter. His friend, Herbert Pocket, used to 
call him " Handel." — 0. Dickens, Great 
Expectations (1860). 

Pipchin {Mrs.), an exceedingly " well- 
connected lady," living at Brighton, where 
she kept an establishment for the training 





of enfants. Her "respectability" chiefly 
consisted in the circumstance of her hus- 
band having broken his heart in pumping 
water out of some Peruvian mines (that 
is, in having invested in these mines and 
been let in). Mrs. Pipchin was an ill- 
favored old woman, with mottled cheeks 
and grey eyes. She was given to buttered 
toast and sweetbreads, but kept her enfants 
on the plainest possible fare. — C. Dickens, 
Domhey and Son (1846). 

Piper (Tom), one of the characters in a 

So have I seen 
Tom Piper stand upon our village green, 
Backed witli the May-pole. 
William Browne, Shepherd's Pipe (1614). 

Pi2)er (Paddy, the), an Irish piper, sup- 
posed to have been eaten by a cow. Gro- 
ing along one night during the "troubles," 
he knocked his head against the body of a 
dead man dangling from a tree. The 
sight of the " iligant " boots was too great 
a temptation : and as they refused to come 
off without the legs, Paddy took them too, 
and sought shelter for the night in a cow- 
shed. The moon rose, and Paddy, mis- 
taking the moon-light for the dawn, 
started for the fair, having drawn on the 
boots and left the " legs " behind. At day- 
break, some of the piper's friends went in 
search of him, and found, to their horror, 
that the cow, as they supposed, had de- 
voured him with the exception of his legs 
—clothes, bags, and all. They were hor- 
ror-struck, and of course the cow was con- 
demned to be sold ; but while driving her 
to the fair, they were attracted by the 
strains of a piper coming towards them. 
The cow startled, made a bolt, with a 
view, as it was supposed, of, making a 
meal on another piper. "Help, help!" 
they shouted ; when Paddy himself ran to 
their aid. The mystery was soon ex- 

plained over a drop of the " cratur," and 
the cow was taken home again. — S. Lover, 
Legends and Stories of Ireland (1834). 

Piper of Hamelin {The Pied), Bunt- 
ing, who first charmed the rats of Hame- 
lin into the Weser, and then allured the 
children (to the number of 130) to Kop- 
penberg Hill, which opened upon them. 
(See Pied Pipee op Hamelin.) 

Piperman, the factotum of Chalomel, 
chemist and druggist. He was " so 
handy " that he was never at his post ; 
and being " so handy," he took ten times 
the trouble of doing anything that an- 
other would need to bestow. For the self- 
same reason, he stumbled and blundered 
about, muddled and marred everything he 
touched, and being a Jack-of-all-trades 
was master of none. 

There has been an accident because I am so 
handy. I went to the dairy at a bound, came 
back at other, and feU down in the open street, 
where I spilt the milk. I tried to bale it up — 
no go. Then I ran back or ran home, I forget 
which, and left the money somewhere ; and then, 
in fact, I have been four times to and fro, be- 
cause I am so handy. — J. R. Ware, Piperman's 

Pipes (Tom), a retired boatswain's mate, 
living with Commodore Trunnion to keep 
the servants in order. Tom Pipes is noted 
for his taciturnity.— Tobias Smollett, The 
Adventures of Peregrine Pichle (1751). 

(The incident of Tom Pipes concealing 
in his shoe his master's letter to Emilia 
was suggested by Ovid. 

Cum possit solea chartas celare ligatas, 
Et vineto blandas sub pede ferre notas, 

Art of Love. 

Pippa. Peasant maid who sings in 
tripping through the streets on the morn- 
ing of her holiday. The song reaches the 
windows of those who sorrow, doubt and 




sin, and thus influences other lives than 
her own.— Robert Browning, Pippa Passes 

Pii-ate {The), a novel by Sir W. Scott 
(1821), In this novel we are introduced 
to the wild sea scenery of the Shetlands ^ 
the primitive manners of the old udaller, 
Magnus Troil, and his fair daughters Minna 
and Brenda ; lovely pictures, drawn with 
nice discrimination, and most interesting. 

*#* A udaUer is one who holds his lands 
on allodial tenure. 

Pirner (John), a fisherman at Old St. 
Eonan's. — Sir W. Scott, St. Bonan's Well 
(time, George III.). 

Pisa. The banner of Pisa is a cross on 
a crimson field, said to have been brought 
from heaven by Michael the archangel, 
and delivered by him to St. Efeso, the 
patron saint of that city. 

Pisaiiio, servant of Posthu'mus. Be- 
ing sent to murder Imogen, the wife of 
Posthumus, he persuades her to escape to 
Milford Haven in boy's clothes, and sends 
a bloody napkin to Posthumus, to make 
him believe that she has been murdered. 
Ultimately, Imogen becomes reconciled to 
her husband. (See Posthumus.) — Shake- 
speare, Cyinbeline (1605). 

Pisis'tratos, of Athens, being asked by 
his wife to punish with death a young 
man who had dared to kiss their daughter, 
replied, " How shall we requite those who 
wish us evil, if we condemn to death those 
who love us ? " This anecdote is referred 
to by Dante, in his Purgatory, xv. — Vale- 
rius Maximus, Memorable Acts and Say- 
ings, V, 

Pisis'tratos and His Two Sons. The 

history of Pisistratos and his two sons is 
repeated in that of Cosmo de Medici, of 
Florence, and his two grandsons. It would 
be difficult to find a more striking parallel, 
whether we regard the characters or the 
incidents of the two families. 

Pisistratos was a great favorite of the 
Athenian populace; so was Cosmo de 
Medici with the populace of Florence. 
Pisistratos was banished, but, being re- 
called by the people, was raised to sover- 
eign power in the republic of Athens ; so 
Cosmo was banished, but, being recalled 
by the people, was raised to supreme 
power in the republic of Florence. Pisis- 
tratos was just and merciful, a great pa- 
tron of literature, and spent large sums of 
money in beautifying Athens with archi- 
tecture ; the same may be said of Cosmo 
de Medici. To Pisistratos we owe the 
poems of Homer in a connected form ; and 
to Cosmo we owe the best literature of 
Europe, for he spent fortunes in the copy- 
ing of valuable MSS. The two sons of 
Pisistratos were Hipparchos and Hippias ; 
and the two grandsons of Cosmo were 
Ouiliano and Lorenzo. Two of the most 
honored citizens of Athens (Harmodios 
and Aristogiton) conspired against the 
sons of Pisistratos — Hipparchos was as- 
sassinated, but Hippias escaped ; so Fran- 
cesco Pazzi and the archbishop of Pisa 
conspired against the grandsons of Cosmo 
— Guiliano was assassinated, but Lorenzo 
escaped. In both cases it was the elder 
brother who fell, and the younger who 
escaped. Hippias quelled the tumult, and 
succeeded in placing himself at the head 
of Athens ; so did Lorenzo in Florence. 

Pistol, in The Merry Wives of Windsor 
and the two parts of Henry IV., is the 
ancient or ensign of Captain Sir John 
Falstaff. Peto is his lieutenant, and Bar- 
dolph his corporal. Peto being removed, 





(probably kiUed), we find in Henry V., 
Pistol is lieutenant, Bardolph ancient, and 
Nym corporal. Pistol is also introduced 
as married to Mistress Nell Quickly, host- 
ess of the tavern in Eastcheap. Both 
Pistol and his wife die before the play is 
over ; so does Sir John Falstaff ; Bardolph 
and Nym are both hanged. Pistol is a 
model bully, wholly unprincipled, and 
utterly despicable ; but he treats his wife 
kindly, and she is certainly fond of him. 
— Shakespeare. 

Pistris, the sea-monster sent to devour 
Androm'eda. It had a dragon's head and 
a fish's tail. — Aratus, Commentaries. 

Pithyrian [Pithirri/.an], a pagan of 
Antioch. He had one daughter, named 
Mara'na, who was a Christian. A young 
dragon of most formidable character in- 
fested the city of Antioch, and demanded 
a virgin to be sent out daily for its meal. 
The Antioch'eans cast lots for the first 
victim, and the lot fell on Marana, who 
was led forth in grand procession as the 
victim of the dragon. Pithyrian, in dis- 
traction, rushed into a Christian church, 
and fell before an image which attracted 
his attention, at the base of which was 
the real arm of a saint. The sacristan 
handed the holy relic to Pithyrian, who 
kissed it, and then restored it to the sac- 
ristan; but the servitor did not observe 
that a thumb was missing. Off ran 
Pithyrian with the thumb, and joined his 
daughter. On came the dragon, with tail 
erect, wings extended, and mouth wide 
open, when Pithyrian threw into the gap- 
ing jaws the " sacred thumb." Down fell 
the tail, the wings drooped, the jaws were 
locked, and up rose the dragon into the 
air to the height of three miles, when it 
blew up into a myriad pieces. So the 
lady was rescued, Antioch delivered ; and 

the relic, minus a thumb, testifies the fact 
of this wonderful miracle.— Southey, The 
Young Dragon (Spanish legend). 

Pitt Diamond (The), the sixth largest 
cut diamond in the world. It weighed 
410 carats uncut, and 136| carats cut. It 
once belonged to Mr. Pitt, grandfather of 
the famous earl of Chatham. The duke 
of Orleans, regent of France, bought it 
for £135,000, whence it is often called 
" The Regent." The French republic sold 
it to Treskon, a merchant of Berlin. 
Napoleon I. bought it to ornament his 
sword. It now belongs to the king of 
Prussia. (See Diamonds.) 

Pizarro, a Spanish adventurer, who 
made war on Atali'ba, inca of Peru. 
Elvi'ra, mistress of Pizarro, vainly en- 
deavored to soften his cruel heart. Be- 
fore the battle, Alonzo, the husband of 
Cora, confided his wife and child to RoUa, 
the beloved friend of the inca. The Peru- 
vians were on the point of being routed, 
when RoUa came to the rescue, and re- 
deemed the day ; but Alonzo was made a 
prisoner of war. RoUa, thinking Alonzo 
to be dead, proposed to Cora ; but she 
declined his suit, and having heard that 
her husband had fallen into the hands of 
the Spaniards, she implored RoUa to set 
him free. Accordingly, he entered the 
prison where Alonzo was confined, and 
changed clothes with him, but Elvira lib- 
erated him on condition that he would 
kill Pizarro. RoUa found his enemy 
sleeping in his tent, spared his life, and 
made him his friend. The infant child of 
Cora being lost, RoUa recovered it, and 
was so severely wounded in this heroic 
act that he died. Pizarro was slain in 
combat by Alonzo; Elvira retired to a 
convent ; and the play ends with a grand 
funeral march, in which the dead body of 

Pizarro Before Charles V 

A. Class, Engraver 

JpHANCISCO PIZARRO, the conqueror of Peru, 
JL was born in Spain about 147^. In 1^22 he he- 

came a captain, and organiied an expedition to 
explore and conquer the country south of Darien. His first 
effort was a failure, but bis success was greater in 1^26. 
Still, he was not satisfied, and it was only after visiting 
Spain to state his case and to display his trophies to the king, 
that he obtained means to collect a larger force. He con- 
quered Peru, obtained the Inca's treasure as a ransom and 
then murdered him. In 1^41 Pizarro was assassinated by 
some of his followers. 

Prescott's " Conquest of Peru. " 





Eolla is borne to tlie tomb. — Sheridan, 
Pisarro (1814). 

(Sheridan's drama of Pizarro is taken 
from that of Kotzebue, but there are sev- 
eral alterations: Thus, Sheridan makes 
Pizarro killed by Alonzo, which is a de- 
parture both from Kotzebue and also 
from historic truth. Pizarro lived to con- 
quer Peru, and was assassinated in his 
palace at Lima, by the son of his friend, 

Pisarro, "the ready tool of fell Velas- 
quez' crimes." — K. Jephson, Braganza 

Pizarro, the governor of the State 
prison, in which Fernando Plorestan was 
confined, Fernando's young wife, in boy's 
attire, and under the name of Fidelio, be- 
came the servant of Pizarro, who, resolv- 
ing to murder Fernando, sent Fideho and 
Eocco (the jailer) to dig his grave. Pizarro 
was just about to deal the fatal blow, when 
the minister of state arrived, and com- 
manded the prisoner to be set free. — Beeth- 
oven, Fidelio (1791). 

PlaceHbo, one of the brothers of Janu- 
ary, the old baron of Lombardy. When 
January held a family conclave to know 
whether he should marry, Placebo told 
him "to please himself, and do as he liked." 
— Chaucer, Canterbury Tales ("The Mer- 
chant's Tale," 1388). 

Placid {Mr.), a hen-peeked husband, 
who is roused at last to be somewhat more 
manly, but could never be better than " a 
boiled rabbit without oyster sauce." (See 

Mrs. Placid, the lady paramount of the 
house, who looked quite aghast if her hus- 
band expressed a wish of his own, or at- 

tempted to do an independent act. — Inch- 
bald, Every One Has His Fault (1794). 

Plac'idas, the exact fac- simile of his 
friend, Amias. Having heard of his 
friend's captivity, he went to release him, 
and being detected in the garden, was mis- 
taken by Corflambo's dwarf for Amias. 
The dwarf went and told Psea'na (the 
daughter of Corflambo, " fair as ever yet 
saw living eye, but too loose of life and 
eke of love too light"). Placidas was 
seized and brought before the lady, who 
loved Amias, but her love was not requited. 
When Placidas stood before her, she 
thought he was Amias, and great was her 
delight to find her love returned. She 
married Placidas, reformed her ways, "and 
aU men much admired the change, and 
spake her praise." — Spenser, Faery Queen, 
iv. 8, 9 (1596). 

Plagiary {Sir Fretful), a playwright, 
whose dramas are mere plagiarisms from 
" the refuse of obscure volumes." He pre- 
tends to be rather pleased with criticism, 
but is sorely irritated thereby. Richard 
Cumberland (1732-1811), noted for his 
vanity and irritability, was the model of 
this character. — Sheridan, The Critic, i. 1 

Herrick, who had no occasion to steal, has 
taken this image from Suckling, and spoilt it in 
the theft. Like Sir Fretful Plagiary, Herrick 
had not skill to steal with taste. — R. Chambers, 
Unglish Literature, i. 134. 

William Parsons [1736-1795] was the original 
" Sir Fretful Plagiary," and from his dehneation 
most of our modern actors have borrowed their 
idea. — Life of Sheridan. 

Plaids et Gieux sous I'Ormel, a so- 
ciety formed by the troubadours of Picar- 
dy in the latter half of the twelfth century. 
It consisted of knights and ladies of the 
highest rank, exercised and approved in 





courtesy, who assumed an absolute judi- 
cial power in matters of the most delicate 
nature ; trying with the most consummate 
ceremony, all causes in love brought be- 
fore their tribunals. 

This was similar to the "Court of 
Love," established about the same time, 
by the troubadours of Provence. — Uni- 
versal Magazine (March, 1792). 

Plain (TAe), the level floor of the Na- 
tional Convention of France, occupied by 
the Girondists, or moderate republicans. 

The red republicans occupied the higher 
seats, called " the mountain." By a fig- 
ure of speech, the Grirondist party was 
called " the plain," and the red republican 
party " the mountain." 

Plain and Perspicuous Doctor {The), 
Walter Burleigh (1275-1357). 

Plain Dealer {The), a comedy by 
WiUiam Wycherly (1677). 

The countess of Drogheda . . . inquired for 
the Plain Dealer. " Madam," said Mr. Pairbeard, 
..." there he is," pushing Mr. Wycherly towards 
her. — Gibber, Lives of the Poets, iii. 252. 

(Wycherly married the countess in 1680. 
She died soon afterwards, leaving him the 
whole of her fortune.) 

Plantag'enet {Lady Edith), a kins- 
woman of Richard I. She marries the 
prince royal of Scotland (called Sir Ken- 
neth, knight of the Leopard, or David, 
earl of Huntingdon). — Sir W. Scott, The 
Talisman (time, Richard I.). 

Plato. The mistress of this philoso- 
pher was Archianassa ; of Aristotle, Hep- 
yllis ; and of Epicurus, Leontium. (See 


Plato {The German), Friedrich Heinrich 
Jacobi (1743-1819). 

Plato {The Jewish), Philo Judseus (fl. 

Plato {The Puritan), John Howe (1630- 

Plato and the Bees. It is said that 
when Plato was an infant, bees settled on 
his lips while he was asleep, indicating 
that he would become famous for his 
"honeyed words." The same story is told 
of Sophocles also. 

And as when Plato did i' the cradle thrive, 
Bees to his lips brought honey from the hive ; 
So to this boy [Dor'idon] they came — I know 

not whether 
They brought or from his Ups did honey gather. 

W. Browne, Brittania's Pastorals, ii. (1613). 

Plato and Homer. Plato greatly ad- 
mired Homer, but excluded him from his 
ideal republic. 

Plato, 'tis true, great Homer doth commend, 
Yet from his common-weal did him exile. 
Lord Brooke, Inquisition upon Fame, etc. (1554- 

Plato and Poets. 

Plato, anticipating the Reviewers, 
From his " republic," banished without pity 
The poets. 

Longfellow, The Poet's Tale. 

Platonic Puritan {The), John Howe, 
the puritan divine (1630-1706). 

Plausible {Counsellor) and Serjeant 
Eitherside, two pleaders in The Man of the 
World, by C. Mackhn (1764). 

Pleasant {Mrs.) in The Parson^s Wed- 
ding, by Tom Killigrew (1664). 

Pleasures of Hope, a poem in two 
parts by Thomas Campbell (1799). It 
opens with a comparison between the 
beauty of scenery, and the ideal enchant- 




ments of fancy, in which hope is never 
absent, but can sustain the seaman on his 
watch, the soldier on his march, and By- 
ron in his perilous adventures. The hope 
of a mother, the hope of a prisoner, the 
hope of the wanderer, the grand hope of the 
patriot, the hope of regenerating uncivilized 
nations, extending liberty, and ameliorat- 
ing the condition of the poor. Pt. ii. 
speaks of the hope of love, and the hope 
of a future state, concluding with the epi- 
sode of Conrad and EUenore. Conrad was 
a felon, transported to New South Wales, 
but, though " a martyr to his crimes, was 
true to his daughter." Soon, he says, he 
shall return to the dust from which he 
was taken ; 

But not, my child, with life's precarious fire, 
The immortal ties of Natui-e shall expire ; 
These shall resist the triumph of decay, 
When time is o'er, and worlds have passed away. 
Cold in the dust this perished heart may lie, 
But that which warmed it once shall never die — 
That spark, unburied in its mortal frame, 
With Uving hght, eternal, and the same, 
Shall beam on Joy's interminable years, 
Unveiled by darkness, unassuaged by tears. 

Pt. ii. 

Pleasures of Imagination, a poem in 
three books, by Akenside (1744). All the 
pleasures of imagination arise from the 
perception of greatness, wonderfulness, or 
beauty. The beauty of greatness — wit- 
ness the pleasures of mountain scenery, 
of astronomy, of infinity. The pleasure 
of what is wonderful — witness the delight 
of novelty, of the revelations of science, 
of tales of fancy. The pleasure of beauty, 
which is always connected with truth — 
the beauty of color, shape, and so on, in 
natural objects ; the beauty of mind and 
the moral faculties. Bk. ii. contemplates 
accidental pleasures arising from contriv- 
ance and design, emotion and passion, 
such as sorrow, pity, terror, and indigna- 
tion. Bk. iii. Morbid imagination the 

parent of vice; the benefits of a well- 
trained imagination. 

Pleasures of Memory, a poem in two 
parts, by Samuel Rogers (1793). The 
first part is restricted to the pleasure of 
memory afforded by the five senses, as 
that arising from visiting celebrated places, 
and that afforded by pictures. Pt. ii. goes 
into the pleasures of the mind, as imagi- 
nation and memory of past griefs and 
dangers. The poem concludes with the 
supposition that in the life to come this 
faculty will be greatly enlarged. The 
episode is this: Florio, a young sports- 
man, accidentally met Julia in a grot, and 
followed her home, when her father, a rich 
squire, welcomed him as his guest, and 
talked with delight of his younger days, 
when hawk and hound were his joy of 
joys. Florio took Julia for a sail on the 
lake, but the vessel was capsized, and, 
though Julia was saved from the water, 
she died on being brought to shore. It 
was Florio's delight to haunt the places 
which Julia frequented. 

Her charm around the enchantress Memory 

A charm that soothes the mind and sweetens too. 

Pt. ii. 

Pleiads {The), a cluster of seven stars 
in the constellation Taurus, and applied 
to a cluster of seven celebrated contempo- 
raries. The stars were the seven daugh- 
ters of Atlas : Mala, Electra, Tayggt^, (4 
syl.), Asterope, Merope, Alcyone and 

The Pleiad of Alexandria consisted of 
Callimachos, ApoUonios Rhodios, Aratos, 
Homer the Younger, Lycophron, Nicander, 
and Theocritos. All of Alexandria, in the 
time of Ptolemy Philadelphos. 

The Pleiad of Charlemagne consisted of 
Alcuin, called " Alblnus ; " Angilbert, 





called " Homer; " Adelard, called "Augus- 
tine ; " Riculfe, called " Damaetas ; " Varne- 
frid; Eginhard; and Charlemagne him- 
self, who was called " David." 

The First French Pleiad (sixteenth cen- 
tury): Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay, An- 
toine de Baif, Eemi-Belleau, Jodelle, Pon- 
thus de Thiard, and the seventh is either 
Dorat or Amadis de Jamyn. All under 
Henri III. 

The Second French Pleiad (seventeenth 
century) : Rapin, Commire, Larue, San- 
teuil. Menage, Duperier, and Petit. 

We have also our English clusters. There 
were those horn in the second half of the six- 
teenth century -. Spenser (1553), Drayton 
(1563), Shakespeare and Marlowe (1564), 
Ben Jonson (1574), Fletcher (1576), Mas- 
singer (1585), Beaumont (Fletcher's col- 
league) and Ford (1586). Besides these 
there were Tusser (1515), Raleigh (1552), 
Sir Philip Sidney (1554), Phineas Fletcher 
(1584), Herbert (1593), and several others. 

Another cluster came a century later: 
Prior (1664), Swift (1667), Addison and 
Congreve (1672), Rowe (1673), Farquhar 
(1678), Young (1684), Gay and Pope (1688), 
Macklin (1690). 

These were horn in the latter half of the 
eighteenth century : Sheridan (1751), Crabbe 
(1754), Burns (1759), Rogers (1763), Words- 
worth (1770), Scott (1771), Coleridge (1772), 
Southey (1774), Campbell (1777), Moore 
(1779), Byron (1788), Shelley and Keble 
(1792), and Keats (1796). 

Butler (1600), Milton (1608), and Dryden 
(1630) came between the first and second 
clusters. Thomson (1700), Gray (1717), 
Collins (1720), Akenside (1721), Goldsmith 
(1728), and Cowper (1731), between the 
second and the third. 

Pleonec'tes (4 s^Jl.)^ Covetousness per- 
sonified, in The Purple Island, by Phineas 
Fletcher (1633). " His gold his god" . . . 

he "much fears to keep, much more to 
lose his lusting." Fully described in canto 
viii. {Greek, pleonektes, "covetous.") 

Pleydell {Mr. Paulus), an advocate in 
Edinburgh, shrewd and witty. He was at 
one time the sheriff at Ellangowan. 

Mr. Counsellor Pleydell was a lively, sharp- 
looking gentleman, with a professional shrewd- 
ness in his eye, and, generally speaking, a pro- 
fessional formality in his manner ; but this he 
could slip off on a Saturday evening, when . . . 
he joined in the ancient pastime of High Jinks. 
— Sir W. Scott, Guy Manner ing, xxxix. (time, 
George II.). 

Pliable, a neighbor of Christian, whom 
he accompanied as far as the " Slough of 
Despond," when he turned back. — Bun- 
yan, Pilgrim's Progress, i. (1678). 

Pliant {Sir Paul), a hen-pecked hus- 
band, who dares not even touch a letter 
addressed to himself tiU my lady has read 
it first. His perpetual oath is "Gads- 
bud ! " He is such a dolt that he would 
not believe his own eyes and ears, if they 
bore testimony against his wife's fidelity 
and continency. (See Placid.) 

Lady Pliant, second wife of Sir Paul. 
*• She's handsome, and knows it ; is ver^^ 
silly, and thinks herself wise; has a 
choleric old husband" very fond of her, 
but whom she rules with spirit, and snubs 
'• afore folk." My lady says, " If one has 
once sworn, it is most unchristian, inhu- 
man, and obscene that one should break 
it." Her conduct with Mr. Careless is 
most reprehensible. — Congreve, The Douhle 
Dealer (1694). 

Pliny {The German), or "Modern 
Pliny," Konrad von Gesner of Zurich, 
who wrote Historia Animalium, etc. (1516- 




Pliny of the East, Zakarija ibn Mu- 
hammed, surnamed "Kazwini," from 
Kazwtn, the place of his birth. He is so 
caUed by De Sacy (1200-1283). 

Plon-Plon, Prince Napoleon Joseph 
Charles Bonaparte, son of Jerome Bona- 
parte by his second wife (the Princess 
Frederica Catherine of Wiirtemberg). 
Plon-Plon is a euphonic corruption of 
Craint-Plomb (" f ear-buUet "), a nickname 
given to the prince in the Crimean war 


Plornish, plasterer, Bleeding-heart 
Yard. He was a smooth-cheeked, fresh- 
colored, sandy-whiskered man of 30. 
Long in the legs, yielding at the knees, 
foolish in the face, flannel- jacketed and 
lime-whitened. He generally chimed in 
conversation by echoing the words of the 
person speaking. Thus, if Mrs. Plornish 
said to a visitor, " Miss Dorrit dursn't let 
him know ; " he would chime in, " Dursn't 
let him know." " Me and Plornish says, 
' Ho ! Miss Dorrit ; ' " Plornish repeated, 
after his wife, " Ho ! Miss Dorrit." "Can 
you employ Miss Dorrit?" Plornish re- 
peated as an echo, " Employ Miss Dorrit 1 " 
(See Petek.) 

Mrs. Plornish, the plasterer's wife. A 
young woman, somewhat slatternly in 
herself and her belongings, and dragged 
by care and poverty already into wrinkles. 
She generally began her sentences with, 
" Well, not to deceive you." Thus : " Is 
Mr. Plornish at home 1 " " Well, sir, not 
to deceive you, he's gone to look for a 
job." " Well, not to deceive you, ma'am, 
I take it kindly of you." — C. Dickens, 
Little Dorrit (1857). 

Plotting Parlor (The). At Whitting- 
ton, near Scarsdale, in Derbyshire, is a 
farmhouse where the earl of Devonshire 

(Cavendish), the earl of Danby (Osborne), 
and Baron Delamer (Booth), concerted the 
Eevolution. The room in which they 
met is called " The Plotting Parlor." 

Where Scarsdale's cliffs the swelling pastures 

. . . there let the farmer hail 
The sacred orchard which embowers his gate, 
And shew to strangers, passing down the vale. 
Where Cav'ndish, Booth, and Osborne sate 
When, bursting from their country's chain, . . . 
They planned for freedom this her noblest 


Akenside, Ode XVIII. v. 3 (1767). 

Plotwell (Mrs.), in Mrs. Centlivre's 
drama. The Beau's Duel (1703). 

Plough of Cincinnatus. The Roman 
patriot of this name, when sought by the 
ambassadors sent to entreat him to as- 
sume command of state and army, was 
found ploughing his field. Leaving the 
plough in the furrow, he accompanied 
them to Rome, and after a victorious 
campaign returned to his little farm. 

Plousina, called Hebe, endowed by the 
fairy Anguilletta with the gifts of wit, 
beauty, and wealth. Hebe still felt she 
lacked something, and the fairy told her 
it was love. Presently came to her 
father's court a young prince named Ati- 
mir, the two fell in love with each other, 
and the day of their marriage was fixed. 
In the interval, Atimir fell in love with 
Hebe's elder sister Iberia; and Hebe, in 
her grief, was sent to the Peaceable Island, 
where she fell in love with the ruling 
prince, and married him. After a time, 
Atimir and Iberia, with Hebe and her 
husband, met at the palace of the ladies' 
father, when the love between Atimir and 
Hebe revived. A duel was fought be- 
tween the young princes, in which Atimir 
was slain, and the prince of the Peaceable 





Islands was severely woniided. Hebe, 
coming up, threw herself on Atimir's 
sword, and the dead bodies of Atimir and 
Hebe were transformed into two trees 
called " charms." — Countess D'Aunoy, 
Fairy Tales {" Anguilletta," 1682). 

Plowman (Piers), the dreamer, who, 
falling asleep on the Malvern Hills, "Wor- 
cestershire, saw in a vision pictures of the 
corruptions of society, and particularly of 
the avarice and wantonness of the clergy. 
This supposed vision is formed into a 
poetical satire of great vigor, fancy, and 
humor. It is divided into twenty parts, 
each part being called a passus, or separate 
vision. — William [or Eobert] Langland, 
The Vision of Piers the Plowman (1362). 

Plumdanias {Mr. Peter), grocer. — Sir 
W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, 
George II.). 

Plume {Captain), a gentleman and an 
officer. He is in love with Sylvia, a 
wealthy heiress, and, when he marries her, 
gives up his commission. — Gr. Farquhar, 
The Recruiting Officer (1705). 

Plummer {Caleb), a little old toy-maker, 
in the employ of Gruff and Tackleton, toy 
merchants. He was spare, gray-haired, 
and very poor. It was his pride " to go 
as close to Natur' in his toys as he could 
for the money." Caleb Plummer had a 
blind daughter, who assisted him in his 
toy-making, and whom he brought up 
under the belief that he himself was young, 
handsome, and well off, and that the house 
they lived in was sumptuously furnished 
and quite magnificent. Every calamity 
he smoothed over, every unkind remark 
of their snarling employer he * called a 
merry jest; so that the poor blind girl 
lived in a castle of the air, " a bright little 

world of her own." When merry or puz- 
zled, Caleb used to sing something about 
" a sparkling bowl." 

Bertha Plummer, the blind daughter of 
the toy-maker, who fancied her poor old 
father was a young fop, that the sack he 
threw across his shoulders was a hand- 
some blue great-coat, and that their 
wooden house was a palace. She was in 
love with Tackleton, the toy merchant, 
whom she thought to be a handsome 
young prince; and when she heard that 
he was about to marry May Fielding, she 
drooped and was like to die. She was 
then disillusioned, heard the real facts, 
and said, "Why, oh, why did you deceive 
me thus ? Why did you fill my heart so 
full, and then come like death, and tear 
away the objects of my love ? " However, 
her love for her father was not lessened, 
and she declared that the knowledge of 
the truth was " sight restored." " It is 
my sight," she cried. " Hitherto I have 
been blind, but now my eyes are open. I 
never knew my father before, and might 
have died without ever having known him 

Edward Plummer, son of the toy-maker, 
and brother of the blind girl. He was en- 
gaged from boyhood to May Fielding, 
went to South America, and returned to 
marry her; but, hearing of her engage- 
ment to Tackleton, the toy merchant, he 
assumed the disguise of a deaf old man, to 
ascertain whether she loved Tackleton or 
not. Being satisfied that her heart was 
still his own, he married her, and Tackle- 
ton made them a present of the wedding- 
cake which he had ordered for himself. — 
C. Dickens, The Cricket on the Hearth 

Plush {John), any gorgeous footman, 
conspicuous for his plush breeches and 
rainbow colors. 




Plutarch {The Modern), Vayer, born at 
Paris. His name in full was Francis 
Vayer de la Mothe (1586-1672). 

Pluto, the god of Hades. 

Brothers, be of good cheer, for this night we 
shall sup with Pluto. — Leonidas, To the Three 
Hundred at Thermopylm. 

Plutus, tlie god of wealth. — Classic 

Within a heart, dearer than Plutus' mine. 
Shakespeare, Julius Gcesar, act iv. sc. 3 (1607). 

Po (Tom), a ghost. (Welsh, bo, "a 

He now would pass for spirit Po. 

S. Butler, Hudibras, iii. 1 (1678). 

Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, 
an Indian chief of Virginia, who rescued 
Captain John Smith when her father was 
on the point of killing him. She subse- 
quently married John Eolfe, and was bap- 
tized under the name of Eebecca (1595- 
1617).— Old and New London, ii. 481 (1876). 

The Indian Princess is the heroine of 
John Brougham's drama, Po-ca-hon-tas, or 
the Gentle Savage. 

Pochet {Madame), the French " Mrs. 
G-amp." — Henri Monnier. 

Pochi Dana'ri (" the pennyless "). So 

the Italians call Maximilian I., emperor of 
Germany (1459, 1493-1519). 

Pocket {Mr. Matthew), a real scholar, 
educated at Harrow, and an honor-man at 
Cambridge, but, having married young, 
he had to take up the calling of " grinder " 
and literary fag for a living. Mr. Pocket, 
when annoyed, used to run his two hands 
into his hair, and seemed as if he intended 
to lift himself by it. His house was a 

hopeless muddle, the best meals and chief 
expense being in the kitchen. Pip was 
placed under the charge of this gentle- 

Mrs. Pocket {Belinda), daughter of a 
City knight, brought up to be an orna- 
mental nonentity, helpless, shiftless, and 
useless. She was the mother of eight 
children, whom she allowed to " tumble 
up " as best they could, under the charge 
of her maid, Flopson. Her husband, who 
was a poor gentleman, found life a very 
uphill work. 

Herbert Pocket, son of Mr. Matthew 
Pocket, and an insurer of ships. He was 
a frank, easy young man, lithe and brisk, 
but not muscular. There was nothing mean 
or secretive about him. He was wonder- 
fully hopeful, but had not the stuff to 
push his way into wealth. He was tall, 
slim, and pale; had a languor which 
showed itself even in his briskness ; was 
most amiable, cheerful, and communica- 
tive. He called Pip "Handel," because 
Pip had been a blacksmith, and Handel 
composed a piece of music entitled The 
Harmonious Blacksmith. Pip helped him 
to a partnership in an agency business. 

Sarah Pocket, sister of Matthew Pocket, 
a little dry, brown, corrugated old woman, 
with a small face that might have been 
made of walnut-shell, and a large mouth, 
like a cat's , without the whiskers. — C. 
Dickens, Great Expectations (1860). 

Podgers {The), lickspittles of the great. 
— J. HoUingshead, The Birthplace of Podg- 

Podsnap {Mr.), "a too, too smiling 
large man, with a fatal freshness on him." 
Mr. Podsnap has " two little light-colored 
wiry wings, one on either side of his else 
bald head, looking as like his hair-brushes 
as his hair." On his forehead are gener- 





ally " little red beads," and he wears " a 
large allowance of crumpled sMrt-collar 
up behind." 

Mrs. Podsnap, a " fine woman for Pro- 
fessor Owen : quantity of bone, neck, and 
nostrils like a rocking-horse, hard features, 
and majestic head-dress in which Podsnap 
has hung golden offerings." 

Oeorgiana Podsnap, daughter of the 
above ; called by her father " the young 
person." She is a harmless, inoffensive 
girl, " always trying to hide her elbows." 
Georgiana adores Mrs. Lammle, and when 
Mr. Lammle tries to marry the girl to Mr. 
Fledgeby, Mrs. Lammle induces Mr. Twem- 
low to speak to the father and warn him 
of the connection. 

Poe {Edgar Allen). Poe's parents were 
actors, and in 1885, the actors of America 
erected a monument to the memory of the 
unhappy poet. The poem read at the dedi- 
cation of the memorial was by William 

" His music dies not, nor can ever die, 

Blown 'round the world by every wandering 

The comet, lessening in the midnight sky, 
StUl leaves its trail of glory far behind." 

Poem in Marble (A), the Taj, a mau- 
soleum of white marble, raised in Agra, 
by Shah Jehan, to his favorite, Shahrina 
Moomtaz-i-Mahul, who died in childbirth 
of her eighth child. It is also called " The 
Marble Queen of Sorrow." 

Poet (The Quaker), Bernard Barton 

Poet Sire of Italy, Dante Alighieri 

Poet Squab. John Dryden was so 
called by the earl of Rochester, on account 
of his corpulence (1631-1701). 

Poet of France (The), Pierre Ronsard 

Poet of Poets, Percy Bysshe Shelley 

Poet of the Poor, the Rev. George 
Crabbe (1754-1832). 

Foets {The prince of ). Edmund Spen- 
ser is so called on his monument in West- 
minster Abbey (1553-1598). 

Prince of Spanish Poets. So Cervantes 
calls Q-arcilaso de la Vega (1503-1536). 

Poets of England. 

Addison, Beaumont, Elizabeth Barrett 
Browning, Robert Browning, Burns, But- 
ler, Byron, Campbell, Chatterton, Chaucer, 
Coleridge, Collins, Congreve, Cowley, Cow- 
per, Crabbe, Drayton, Dryden, Fletcher, 
Ford, Gay, Goldsmith, Gray, Mrs. He- 
mans, Herbert, Herrick, Hood, Ben Jon- 
son, Keats, Keble, Landor, Mario wg, 
Marvel, Massinger, Milton, Moore, Otway, 
Pope, Prior, Rogers, Rowe, Scott, Shake- 
speare, Shelley, Shenstone, Southey, 
Spenser, Thomson, Waller, Wordsworth, 
Young. With many others of less cele- 

Poets' Corner, in the south transept 
of Westminster Abbey. No one knows 
who christened the corner thus. With 
poets are divines, philosophers, actors, 
novelists, architects and critics. 

The "corner" contains a bust, statue, 
tablet, or monument, to five of our first- 
rate poets : viz., Chaucer (1400), Dryden 
(1700), Milton (1674), Shakespeare (1616), 
and Spenser (1598) ; and some seventeen 
of second or third class merit, as Addison, 
Beaumont (none to Fletcher), S. Butler, 
Campbell, Cowley, Cumberland, Drayton, 




Gay, Gray, Goldsmith, Ben Jonson, 
Macaulay, Prior, Eowe, Sheridan, Thom- 
son and Wordsworth. 

*#* Dryden's monument was erected by 
Sheffield, dnke of Buckingham. "Words- 
worth's statue was erected by a public 

Poetry {The Father of), Orpheus (2 syl.) 
of Thrace. 

Father of Dutch Poetry, Jakob Maerlant ; 
also called "The Father of Flemish Po- 
etry" (1235-1300). 

Father of English Poetry, Geoffrey 
Chaucer (1328-1400). 

Father of Epic Poetry, Homer. 

He compares Richardson to Homer, and pre- 
dicts for his memory the same honors which are 
rendered to the Father of Epic Poetry. — Sir W. 

Poetry — Prose. Pope advised Wy- 
cherly " to convert his poetry into prose." 

Poganiic, small Puritan town in New 
England as it was 100 years ago. — Harriet 
Beeeher Stowe, Poganuc People (1876). 

Po'gram {Elijah), one of the "master 
minds " of America, and a member of Con- 
gress. He was. possessed with the idea 
that there was a settled opposition in the 
British mind against the institutions of 
his "free and enlightened country." — C. 
Dickens, Martin Chuzdewit (1844). 

Poinder {George), a city officer. — Sir 
W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, George 

Poms, a companion of Sir John Fal- 

staff. — Shakespeare, 1 and 2 Henry IV. 

(1597, 1598). ^ 

The chronicles of that day contain accounts 
of many a mad prank which [Lord Warwick, 

Addison's step-son] played . . . [like] the lawless 
freaks of the madcap prince and Poins. — Thack- 

Poison. It is said that Mithridates VI., 
surnamed " the Great," had so fortified his 
constitution that poisons had no baneful 
effect on him (b.c. 131, 120-63). 

Poison of Kliaibar. By this is meant 
the poison put into a leg of mutton by 
Zainab, a Jewess, to kill Mahomet while 
he was in the citadel of Kha'ibar. Ma- 
homet partook of the mutton, and suffered 
from the poison all through life. 

Poisoners {Secret). 

1. Of Ancient Borne: Locusta, employed 
by Agrippi'na to poison her husband, the 
Emperor Claudius. Nero employed the 
same woman to poison Britannicus and 

2. Of English History : the countess of 
Somerset, who poisoned Sir Thomas Over- 
bury in the Tower of London. She also 
poisoned others. 

Villiers, duke of Buckingham, it is said 
poisoned King James I. 

3. Of Era nee: Lavoisin and Lavigoreus, 
French mid wives and fortune-tellers. 

Catherine de Medicis is said to have 
poisoned the mother of Henri IV. with a 
pair of wedding-gloves, and several others 
with poisoned fans. 

The marquise de BrinviUiers, a young 
profligate Frenchwoman, was taught the 
art of secret poisoning by Sainte- Croix, 
who learnt it in Italy. — World of Wonders, 
vii. 203. 

4. Of Italy : Pope Alexander VI. and 
his children, Caesar and Lucrezia [Borgia] 
were noted poisoners ; so were Hieronyma 
Spara and Tofa'na. 

Polexan'dre, an heroic romance by 
Gomberville (1632). 





Policy (Mrs.), housekeeper at Holyrood 
Palace. She appears in the introduction. 
— Sir "W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, 
Henry IV.). 

Pol'idore (3 syL), father of Valere. — 
Moliere, LeDepit Ariionreux (1654), 

Polinesso, duke of Albany, who falsely 
accused Geneura of incontinency, and 
was slain in single combat by Ariodantes. 
— Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Polish Jew (T/ie), also called The Bells, 
a melodrama by J. R. Ware, brought 
prominently into note by the acting of 
Henry Irving at the Lyceum. Mathis, a 
miller in a small German town, is visited 
on Christmas Eve by a Polish Jew, who 
comes through the snow in a sledge. After 
rest and refreshment he leaves for Nantzig, 
"four leagues off." Mathis follows him, 
kills him with an axe, and burns the body 
in a lime-kiln. He then pays his debts, 
becomes a prosperous and respected man, 
and is made burgomaster. On the wed- 
ding night of his only child, Annette, he 
dies of apoplexy, of which he had ample 
warning by the constant sound of sledge- 
bells in his ears. In his dreani he sup- 
poses himself put into a mesmeric sleep 
in open court, when he confesses every- 
thing and is executed (1874). 

Polixene, the name assumed by Made- 
Ion Gorgibus, a shopkeeper's daughter, as 
far more romantic and genteel than her 
baptismal name. Her cousin, Cathos,. 
called herself Aminte (2 syl.). 

Polix'enes (4 syl), king of Bohemia, 
schoolf ehow and old companion of Leontes, 
king of Sicily. While on a visit to the 
Sicilian king, Leontes grew jealous of him, 
and commanded Camillo to poison him ; 

but Camillo only warned him of his dan- 
ger, and fled with him to Bohemia. Po- 
lixenes's son, Flor'izel, fell in love with 
Perdita, the supposed daughter of a shep- 
herd; but the king threatened Perdita 
and the shepherd with death unless this 
foolish suit were given up. Plorizel and 
Perdita now fled to Sicily, where they 
were introduced to King Leontes, and it 
was soon discovered that Perdita was his 
lost daughter. Polixenes, having tracked 
the fugitives to Sicily, learned that Per- 
, dita was the king's daughter, and joyfuUy 
consented to the union he had before for- 
bidden. — Shakespeare, The Winter^s Tale 

Poll Pineapple, the bumboat woman, 
once sailed in seaman's clothes with Lieu- 
tenant Belaye' (2 syl.), in the Hot Cross- 
Bull. Jack tars generally greet each other 
with "Messmate, ho! what cheer!" but 
the greeting on the Hot Cross-Bun was 
always, "How do you do, my dear?" 
and never was any oath more naughty 
than " Dear me ! " One day. Lieutenant 
Belaye came on board and said to his 
crew, "Here, messmates, is my wife, for I 
have just come from church." Where- 
upon they all fainted ; and it was found 
the crew consisted of young women only, 
who had dressed like sailors to follow the 
fate of Lieutenant Belaye.— S. Gilbert, 
The Bab Ballads (" The Bumboat Woman's 

PoUente (3 syl), a Saracen, lord of the 
Perilous Bridge. When his groom, Guizor, 
demands the " passage-penny " of Sir Ar- 
tegal, the knight gives him a " stunning 
blow," saying, "Lo! knave, there's my 
hire;" and the groom falls down dead. 
Pollente then comes rushing up at full 
speed, and both he and Sir Artegal fall ~ 
into the river, fighting most desperately. 




At length. Sir ArtegaJ prevails, and the 
dead body of the Saracen is carried down 
" the blood-stained stream." — Spenser, 
Faery Queen, v. 2 (1596). 

Upton conjectures that "Pollente" is 
intended for Charles IX. of France, and 
his groom, "Gruizor" (he says), means the 
duke of Guise, noted for the part he took 
in the St. Bartholomew Massacre. 

Polly, daughter of Peaclmm. A pretty 
girl, who really loved Captain Macheath, 
married him, and remained faithful even 
when he disclaimed her. When the re- 
prieve arrived, "the captain" confessed 
his marriage, and vowed to abide by Polly 
for the rest of his life. — J. Gay, The Beg- 
gar's Opera (1727). 

Polly {Cousin), "a small, bright-eyed 
lady of indefatigable activity in sacrific- 
ing herself for the good of others. ... In 
her trig person she embodied the several 
functions of housekeeper, nurse, confi- 
dante, missionary, parish-clerk, queen of 
the poultry-yard, and genealogist." — Con- 
stance Cary Harrison, Flower de Hundred 

Polly, the idolized pet of " the Colonel," 
her grandfather. He will not let " Bob " 
marry her, but when the two elope 
together and present themselves as man 
and wife, on Christmas Day, and Polly's 
face " like a dew-bathed flower " is pressed 
to his, he yields and takes both to his big 
heart. — Thomas Nelson Page, In Ole Vir- 
ginia (1887). 

Polo'nius, a garralous old chamberlain, 
of Denmark, and father of Laer'tes and 
Ophelia ; conceited, politic, and a courtier, 
Polonius conceals himself, to overhear 
what Hamlet says to his mother, and, 
making some unavoidable noise, startles 

the prince, who, thinking it is the king 
concealed, rushes blindly on the intruder, 
and kills him ; but finds too late he has 
killed the chamberlain, and not Claudius, 
as he hoped and expected. — Shakespeare, 
Hamlet (1596). 

Polonius is a man bred in courts, exercised 
in business, stored with obser\'^ations, confident 
of his knowledge, proud of his eloquence, and 
declining to dotage. — Dr. Johnson. 

It was the great part of William Mynitt 

Soon after Munden retired from the stage, an 
admirer met him in Covent Garden. It/was a 
wet day, and each carried an umbrella. The 
gentleman's was an expensive silk one, and 
Joe's an old gingham. " So you have left the 
stage, . . . and ' Polonius,' ' Jemmy Jumps,' 
' Old Dornton,' and a dozen others have left the 
world with you? I wish you'd give me some 
trifle by way of memorial, Munden !" " Trifle, 
sir '? I' faith, sir, I've got nothing. But, hold, yes, 
egad, suppose we exchange umbrellas." — The- 
atrical Anecdotes. 

Polvrartli {Alick), a servant of Waver- 
ley's. — Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, 
George II.). 

Polycle'tos (in Latin Polycletus), a stat- 
uary of Sicyon, who drew up a canon of 
the proportions of the several parts of the 
human body : as, twice round the thumb 
is once I'ound the wrist ; twice round the 
wrist is once round the neck ; twice round 
the neck is once round the waist; once 
round the fist is the length of the foot; 
the two arms extended is the height of 
the body ; six times the length of the foot, 
or eighteen thumbs, is also the height of 
the body. 

Again, the thumb, the longest toe, and 
the nose should all be of the same length. 
The index finger should measure the 
breadth of the hand and foot, and twice 
the breadth should give the length. The 





hand, the foot, and the face should all be 
the same length. The nose should be 
one-third of the face ; and, of course, the 
thumbs should be one-third the length of 
the hand. Gerard de Lairesse has given 
the exact measurements of every part of 
the human figure, according to the famous 
statues of " Antinous, " Apollo Belvidere," 
" Hercules," and " Venus de'Medici." 

Polycrates (4 syl), tyrant of Samos. 
He was so fortunate in everything, that 
Am'asis, king of Egypt, advised him to 
part with something he highly prized. 
Whereupon, Polycrates threw into the sea 
an engraved gem of extraordinary value. 
A few days afterwards, a fish was pre- 
sented to the tyrant, in which this very 
gem was found. Amasis now renounced 
all friendship with him, as a man doomed 
by the gods; and not long after this, a 
satrap, having entrapped the too fortu- 
nate despot, put him to death by crucifix- 
ion. (See Fish and the King.) — Herodo- 
tus, iii. 40. 

Polyd'ainas, a Thessalian athlete of 
enormous strength. He is said to have 
killed an angry lion, to have held by the 
heels a raging bull and thrown it helpless 
at his feet, to have stopped a chariot in 
full career, etc. One day, he attempted to 
sustain a falling rock, but was killed and 
buried by the huge mass. 

Milo carried a bull, four years old, on 
his shoulders through the stadium at 
Olympia; he also arrested a chariot in 
full career. One day, tearing asunder a 
pine tree, the two parts, rebounding, 
caught his hands and held him fast, in 
which state he was devoured by wolves. 

Polydore (3 syl.), the name by which 
Belarius called Prince Guiderius, while he 
lived in a cave in the Welsh mountains. 

His brother. Prince Arviragus, went by 
the name of Cadwal.— Shakespeare, Gym- 
Mine (1605). 

Polydore (3 syl), brother of General 
Memnon, beloved by the Princess Calls, 
sister of Astorax, king of Paphos.— 
Beaumont and Fletcher, The Mad Lover 

Polydore {Lord), son of Lord Acasto, 
and Castalio's younger brother. He en- 
tertained a base passion for his father's 
ward Monimia, " the orphan," and, making 
use of the signal (" three soft taps upon 
the chamber door ") to be used by Casta- 
Ho, to whom she was privately married, 
indulged his wanton love, Monimia sup- 
posing him to be her husband. When, 
next day, he discovered that Monimia was 
actually married to Castaho, he was hor- 
rified, and provoked a quarrel with his 
brother ; but as soon as Castalio drew his 
sword, he ran upon it and was killed. — 
Thomas Otway, The Orphan (1680). 

Polydore (3 syl), a comrade of Ernest 
of Otranto (page of Prince Tancred). — Sir 
W. Scott, Count Bohert of Paris (time, 

Polyglot {Ignatius), the master of sev- 
enteen languages, and tutor of Charles 
Eustace (aged 24). Very learned, very 
ignorant of human life ; most strict as a 
disciplinarian, but tender-hearted as a 
girl. His pupil has married clandestinely, 
but Polyglot offers himself voluntarily to 
be the scapegoat of the young couple, and 
he brings them off triumphantly. — J. 
Poole, The Scapegoat. 

Polyglott {A Walking), Cardinal Mez- 
zofanti, who knew fifty-eight different 
languages (1774-1849). 



Polyolbion (the ^'■greatly blessed"), by 
Michael Drayton, in thirty parts, called 
" songs," It is a topographical descrip- 
tion of England. Song i. The landing 
of Bruce. Song ii. Dorsetshire, and the 
adventures of Sir Bevis of Southampton. 
Songiii. Somerset. Songiv. Contention 
of the rivers of England and Wales re- 
specting Lundy — to which country it be- 
longed. Song V. Sabrina, as arbiter, de- 
cides that it is " allied ahke both to Eng- 
gland and Wales ; " Merlin and Milf ord 
Haven. Song vi. The salmon and beaver 
of Twy ; the tale of Sabrina ; the druids 
and bards. Song vii. Hereford. Song 
viii. Conquest of Britain by the Eomans 
and by the Saxons. Song ix. Wales. 
Song X. Merlin's prophecies; Winifred's 
well ; defence of the " tale of Brute " 
(1612). Song xi. Cheshire, the religious 
Saxon kings. Song xii. Shropshire and 
Staffordshire; the Saxon wai'rior kings; 
and Guy of Warwick. Song xiii. War- 
wick ; Gruy of Warwick concluded. Song 
xiv. Gloucestershire. Song xv. The mar- 
riage of Isis and Thame. Song xvi. The 
Roman roads and Saxon kingdoms. Song 
xvii. Surrey and Sussex; the sovereigns 
of England from William to Elizabeth. 
Song xviii. Kent ; England's great gener- 
als and sea-captains (1613). Song xix. 
Essex and Suffolk; English navigators. 
Song XX. Norfolk. Song xxi. Cambridge 
and Ely. Song xxii. Buckinghamshire, 
and England's intestine battles. Song 
xxiii. Northamptonshire. Song xxiv. Rut- 
landshire; and the British saints. Song 
XXV. Lincolnshire. Song xxvi. Notting- 
hamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire ; with 
the story of Robin Hood. Song xxvii. 
Lancashire and the Isle of Man. Song 
xxviii. Yorkshire. Song xxix. Northum- 
berland. Song XXX. Cumberland (1622). 

Pol'ypheme (3 syl.), a gigantic cyclops 

of Sicily, who fed on human flesh. When 
Ulysses, on his return from Troy, was 
driven to this Island, he and twelve of 
his companions were seized by Polypheme, 
and confined in his cave, that he might 
devour two daily for his dinner. Ulysses 
made the giant drunk, and, when he lay 
down to sleep, bored out his one eye. 
Roused by the pain, the monster tried to 
catch his tormentors; but Ulysses and 
his surviving companions made their es- 
cape by clinging to the bellies of the sheep 
and rams when they were let out to pas- 
ture {Odyssey, ix.). 

There is a Basque legend told of the 
* giant Tartaro, who caught d young man 
in his snares, and confined him in his cave 
for dessert. When, however, Tartaro fell 
asleep, the young man made the giant's 
spit red hot, bored out his one eye, and 
then made his escape by fixing the bell of 
the bell-ram round his neck, and a sheep- 
skin over his back. Tartaro seized the 
skin, and the man, leaving it behind, made 
off. — Basque Legends, 

A very similar adventure forms the tale 
of Sindbad's third voyage, in the Arabian 
Nights. He was shipwrecked on a strange 
island, and entered, with his companions, 
a sort of palace. At nightfall, a one-eyed 
giant • entered, and ate one of them for 
supper, and another for breakfast next 
morning. This went on for a day or two, 
when Sindbad bored out the giant's one 
eye with a charred olive stake. The giant 
tried in vain to catch his tormentors, but 
they ran to their rafts ; and Sindbad, with 
two others, contrived to escape. 

*** Homer was translated into Syriac by 
Theophilus Edessenes in the caliphate of 
Harun-ur-Rashid (a.d. 786-809). 

Polypheme and Galatea. Poly- 
pheme loved Galatea, the sea-nymph; 
but Galatea had fixed her affections on 




Acis, a Sicilian shepherd. The giant, in 
his jealousy, htirled a huge rock at his 
rival, and crushed him to death. 

The tale of Polypheme is from Homer's 
Odyssey, ix. It is also given by Ovid in 
his Metamorphoses, xiv. Euripides intro- 
duces the monster in his Cyclops ; and the 
tragedy of Acis and Galatea is the subject 
of Handel's famous opera so called. 

(In Greek the monster is called Poly- 
pMmos, and in Latin Polyphemus.) 

Polyphe'mus of Literature, Dr. 

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784). 

Polypho'nus (" hig voiced "), the Kap- 
aneus and most boastful of the frog heroes. 
He was slain by the mouse Artophagus 
("the bread-nibbler"). 

But great Artophagus avenged the slain, . . . 
And Polyphonus died, a frog renowned 
For boastful speech and turbulence of sound. 

Parnell, Battle of the Frogs and Mice, iii. (about 
1712). '' 

Polyx'ena, a magnanimous and most 
noble woman, wife of Charles Emmanuel, 
king of Sardinia (who succeeded to the 
crown in 1730). — R. Browning, King Victor 
and King Charles, etc. 

Pomegranate Seed. "When Perseph'- 
one was in Hades, whither Pluto had car- 
ried her, the god, foreknowing that Jupi- 
ter would demand her release, gathered 
a pomegranate, and said to her, " Love, 
eat with me, this parting day, of the pome- 
granate seed ; " and she ate. Demeter, in 
the mean time, implored Zeus {Jupiter) to 
demand Persephone's release; and the 
king of Olympus promised she should be 
set at liberty, if she had not eaten any- 
thing during her detention in Hades. As, 
however, she had eaten pomegranate seeds, 
her return was impossible. 

Low laughs the dark king on his throne — 
" I gave her of pomegi-anate seeds "... 

And chant the maids of Enna still — 
" fateful flower beside the rill, 
The daffodil, the 'daffodil." (See Daffodil.) 
Jean Ingelow, Persephone. 

Pomoma. The incomparable maid-of- 
work, custodian, novelist, comedienne, tra- 
gedienne, and presiding genius of Eudder 
Grange. Her chef d'oeuvre is the expedient 
of posting the premises " To be Sold for 
Taxes^'' to keep away peddlers of trees, etc., 
in her employers' absence. — Frank Stock- 
ton, Btidder Grange (1879), 

Pompey, a clown; servant to Mrs. 
Overdone (a bawd). — Shakespeare, Mea- 
sure for Measure (1603). 

Pompey the Great, was killed by 
Achillas and Septimius, the moment the 
Egyptian fishing-boat reached the coast. 
Plutarch tells us they threw his head into 
the sea. Others say his head was sent to 
Caesar, who turned from it with horror, 
and shed a flood of tears. Shakes.peare 
makes him killed by " savage islanders " 
(2 Henry VI. act iv. sc. 1, 1598). 

Pompil'ia, a foundling, the putative 
daughter of Pietro (2 syl.). She married 
Count Guido Franceschini, who treated 
her so brutally that she made her escape 
under the protection of a young priest 
named Caponsacchi. Pompilia subse- 
quently gave birth to a son, but was slain 
by her husband. 

The babe had been a find i' the filth-heap, sir, 
Catch from the' kennel. There was found at 

Down in the deepest of om* social dregs, 
A woman who professed the wanton's trade . . . 
She sold this babe eight months before its birth 
To our Violante (3 syl), Pietro's honest spouse, . . . 
Partly to please old Pietro, 
Partly to cheat the rightful heirs, agape 
For that same principal of the usufruct, 
It vexed him he must die and leave behind. 
R. Browning, The Ring and the Book, ii, 557, etc. 



Ponce de Ii^on, the navigator who 
went in search of the Fontaine de Jouvence, 
" qui fit rajovenir la gent," He sailed in 
two ships on this " voyage of discoveries," 
in the sixteenth century. 

Like Ponce de L6on, he wants to go off to the 
Antipodes in search of that Fontaine de Jou- 
vence which was fabled to give a man back his 
youth. — Vera, 130. 

Pongo, a cross between "a land-tiger 
and a sea-shark." This terrible monster 
devastated Sicily, but was slain by the 
three sons of St. George. — R. Johnson, 
The Seven Champions, etc. (1617). 

Ponoc'rates (4 syl), the tutor of Gar- 
gantua. — Eabelais, Gargantua (1533). 

Pontius Pilate's Body-Giiard, the 

1st Foot Regiment. In Picardy the French 
officers wanted to make out that they wqvq 
the seniors, and, to carry their point, 
vaunted that they were on duty on the 
night of the Crucifixion. The colonel of 
the 1st Foot replied, " If we had been on 
guard we should not have slept at our 
posts " (see Matt, xxviii. 13). 

Pontoys {Stephen), a veteran in Sir 
Hugo de Lacy's troop. — Sir W, Scott, The 
Betrothed (time, Henry II.). 

Pony {Mr. Garland^s), Whisker {q.v.), 

Poole (1 syl.), in Dorsetshire ; once " a 
young and lusty sea-born lass," courted by 
Great Albion, who had by her three chil- 
dren, Brunksey, Fursey and [St.] Hellen. 
Thetis was indignant that one of her vir- 
gin train should be guilty of such indis- 
cretion ; and, to protect his children from 
her fury, Albion placed them in the bosom 
of Poole, and then threw his arms around 
them. — M. Drayton, Polyolhion, ii. (1612). 

Poor {Father of the), Bernard Gilpin 

Poor Gentleman {The), a comedy by 
George Colman, the younger (1802). "The 
poor gentleman " is Lieutenant Worthing- 
ton, discharged from the army on half- 
pay because his arm had been crushed by 
a shell in storming Gibraltar. On his 
half-pay he had to support himself, his 
daughter Emily, an old corporal and a 
maiden sister-in-law. Having put his 
name to a bill for £500, his friend died 
without effecting an insurance, and the 
lieutenant was called upon for payment. 
Imprisonment would have followed if Sir 
Robert Bramble had not most generously 
paid the money. With this piece of good 
fortune came another — the marriage of his 
daughter Emily to Frederick Bramble, 
nephew and heir of the rich baronet. 

Poor Richard, the pseudonym of 
Benjamin Franklin, under wMch he issued 
a series of almanacs, which he made the 
medium of teaching thrift, temperance, 
order, cleanliness, chastity, forgiveness, 
and so on. The maxims or precepts of 
these almanacs generally end with the 
words, " as poor Richard says " (begun in 

Poor RoMn, the pseudonym of Robert 
Herri ck, the poet, under which he issued 
a series of almanacs (begun in 1661). 

Pope {to drink like a). Benedict XII. 
was an enormous eater, and such a huge 
wine-drinker that he gave rise to the 
Bacchanalian expression, Bihamus papa- 

Pope Changing' His Name. Peter 

Hogsmouth, or, as he is sometimes called, 
Peter di Porca, was the first pope to change 




his name. He called himself Sergius II. 
(844-847). Some say he thought it arro- 
gant to be called Peter II. 

Pope-Fig-Lands, Protestant countries. 
The Gaillardets, being shown the pope's 
image, said, " A fig for the pope ! " where- 
upon their whole island was put to the 
sword, and the name changed to Pope-fig- 
land, the people being called " Pope-figs." 
— Eabelais, Pantag'ruel, iv. 45 (1545). 

The aUusion is to the kingdom of Na- 
varre, once Protestant ; but in 1512 it was 
subjected to Ferdinand, the Catholic. 

Pope-Figs, Protestants. The name 
was given to the GaiUardets for saying "A 
fig for the pope ! " 

They were made tributaries and slaves to the 
Papimans for saying " A fig for the pope's im- 
age ! " and never after did the poor wretches 
prosper, but every year the devil was at their 
doors, and they were plagued with hail, storms, 
famine, and all manner of woes, in punishment 
of this sin of their forefathers. — Rabelais, Pan- 
tagruel, iv. 45 (1545). 

Pope Joan, between Leo IV. and Ben- 
edict III., and called John [VIII.]. The 
subject of this scandalous story was an 
English girl, educated at Cologne, who 
left her home in man's disguise with her 
lover (the monk Folda), and went to 
Athens, where she studied law. She went 
to Rome and studied theology, earning so 
great a reputation that, at the death of 
Leo IV., she was chosen his successor. 
Her sex was discovered by the birth of a 
child, while she was going to the Lateran 
Basilica, between the Coliseum and the 
church of St. Clement. Pope Joan died, 
and was buried, without honors, after a 
pontificate of two years and five months 
(853-855). — Marianus Scotus (who died 

The story is given most fuUy by Marti- 

nus Polonus, confessor to Gregory X., and 
the tale was generally beheved till the 
Reformation. There is a German mira- 
cle-play on the subject, called The Canoni- 
zation of Pope Joan (1480). David Blon- 
del, a Calvinist divine, has written a book 
to confute the tale. 

The following note contains the chief 
points of interest: — 

Anastasius, the librarian, is the first to 
mention such a pope, a.d. 886, or thirty 
years after the death of Joan. 

Marianus Scotus, in his Chronicle, sayg" 
she reigned two years, five months an^ 
four days (853-855). Scotus died 1086. 

Sigebert de Gemblours, in his Chronicle^ 
repeats the same story (1112). 

Otto of Friesingen and Gotfried of Vi- 
terbo both mention her in their histories. 

Martin Polonus gives a very full ac- 
count of the matter. He says she went' 
by the name of John Anglus, and was 
born at Metz, of English parents. While 
she was pope, she was prematurely deliv- 
ered of a child in the street " between the 
Coliseum and St. Clement's Church." 

William Ocham alludes to the story. 

Thomas de Elmham repeats it (1422). 

John Huss tells us her baptismal name 
was not Joan, but Agnes. 

Others insist that her name was GU- 

In the Annates Auqustani (1135), we are 
told her papal name was John VIII., and 
that she it was who conscrated Louis II., 
of France. 

Arguments in favor of the allegation are 
given by Spanheim, Exercit. de Papa 
Fcemina, ii. 577 ; in Lenfant, Historie de la 
Papesse Jeanne. 

Arguments against the allegation are 
given by AUatius or AUatus, Confutatio 
Fabulce de Johanna Papissa; and in Le- 
quien, Oriens Christianus, iii. 777. 

Arguments on both sides are given in 




Cunningham's translation of Geiseler, 
Lehrbuch, ii. 21, 22; and in La Bayle's 
Dictlonnaire, iii., art. " Papisse." 

*#* Gribbon says, " Two Protestants, 
Blondel and Bayle, have annihilated the 
female pope ; " but the expression is cer- 
tainly too strong, and even Mosheim is 
more than, half inehned to believe there 
really was such a person. 

Pope of Philosopliy, Aristotle (b.c, 

Popes {Titles assumed hy). "Universal 
Bishopj" prior to Gregory the Great. 
Gregory the Great adopted the style of 
" Servus Servorum " (591). 

Martin IV. was addressed as "the lamb 
of God which takest away the sins of the 
world," to which was added, " Grant us 
thy peace ! " (1281). 

Leo X. was styled, by the council of 
Lateran, " Divine Majesty," " Husband of 
the Church," "Prince of the Apostles," 
" The Key of aU the Universe," " The Pas- 
tor, the Physician, and a God possessed of 
all power both in heaven and on earth " 

Paul V. styled himself "Monarch of 
Christendom," " Supporter of the Papal 
Omnipotence," " Vice-God," " Lord God 
the Pope " (1605). 

Others, after Paul, " Master of the 
World," " Pope the Universal Father," 
" Judge in the place of God," " Vicegerent 
of the Most High." — Brady, Clavis Calen- 
daria, 247 (1839). 

The pope assumes supreme dominion, not only 
over spiritual but also over temporal affairs, 
styling himself " Head of the Catholic or Uni- 
versal Church, Sole Arbiter of its rights, and 
Sovereign Father of aU the Kings of the Earth." 
From these titles, he wears a triple crown, one 
as High Priest, one as emperor, and the third as 
king. He also bears keys, to denote his privi- 
lege of opening the gates of heaven to all true 
believers. — Brady, 250-1. 

*#* For the first five centuries the bis- 
hops of Eome wore a bonnet, like other 
ecclesiastics. Pope Hormisdas placed on 
his bonnet the crown sent him by Clovis ; 
Boniface VIII. added a second crown 
during his struggles with Philip the 
Fair ; and John XXII. assumed the third 

Popish Plot, a supposed Roman Cath- 
olic conspiracy to massacre the Protest- 
ants, burn London, and murder the king 
(Charles II.). This fiction was concocted 
by one Titus Oates, who made a "good 
thing " by his schemes ; but being at last 
found out, was pilloried, whipped, and im- 
prisoned (1678-9). 

Poppy {Ned), a prosy old anecdote 
teller, with a marvellous tendency to di- 

Poquelin {Jean-ah), a wealthy Creole 
living in seclusion in an old house, at- 
tended only by a deaf-mute negro. The 
secrecy and mystery of his life excite all 
sorts of ugly rumors, and he is mobbed by 
a crowd of mischievous boys and loafers, 
receiving injuries that cause his death. 
The story that his house is haunted keeps 
intruders from the doors, but they ven- 
ture near enough on the day of his fune- 
ral, to see the cofhn brought out by the 
mute negro, and laid on a cart, and that 
the solitary mourner is Poquelin's brother, 
long supposed to be dead. He is a leper, 
for whom the elder brother has cared se- 
cretly all these years, not permitting the 
knowledge of his existence to get abroad, 
lest the unfortunate man should be re- 
moved forcibly, and sent to what is the 
only asylum for him now that his guar- 
dian is dead — the abhorrent Terre aux 
Lepreux. — George W. Cable, Old Creole 
Days (1879). 





Porcli (The). The Stoics were so called, 
because their founder gave his lectures in 
the Athenian stoa, or porch, called " Poe'- 

The successors of Socrates formed . . . the 
Academy, the Porch, the Garden. — Professor 
Seeley, liJcce Homo. 

George Herbert has a poem called The 
Church Porch (six-line stanzas). It may 
be considered introductory to his poem 
entitled The Church (Sapphic verse and 
sundry other metres). 

Porcius, son of Cato, of Utica (in Af- 
rica), and brother of Marcus. Both broth- 
ers were in love with Lucia ; but the hot- 
headed, impulsive Marcus, being slain in 
battle, the sage and temperate Porcius 
was without a rival. — J. Addison, Cato 

When Sheridan reproduced Cato, Wignell, 
who acted " Porcius," omitted the prologue, and 
began at once with the hnes, " The dawn is over- 
cast, the morning lowers . . ." " The prologue ! 
the prologue ! " shouted the audience ; and 
Wignell went on in the same tone, as if con- 
tinuing his speech : 

Ladies and gentleman, there has not been 
A prologue spoken to this play for veai-s — 
And heavily on clouds brings on the day, 
The great, th' important day, big with the fate 
Of Cato and of Rome. 

History of tJie Stage. 

Porcupine (Peter). WUliam Cobbett, 
the politician, published The PusMight 
under this pseudonym in 1860. 

Pomei'iis (3 stjl), Fornication person- 
ified ; one of the four sons of Anag'nus 
(inchastity), his brothers being Mse'chus 
(adultery), Acath'arus, and Asel'ges (/«.s- 
civiousness). He began the battle of Man- 
soul by encountering Parthen'ia [maldenhj 
chastity), but "the martial maid" slew 
him with her spear. (Greek, porneia, 
" fornication."). 

In maids his joy ; now by a maid defied, 
His life he lost and all his former pride. 
With women would he hve, now by a woman 
Phineas Fletcher, The Purple Island, xx. (1633). 

Porphyrins, in Dryden's drama of 

Tyra)uiic Love. 

Valeria, daughter of Maximin, having killed 
herself for the love of Porphyrus, was on one 
occasion being carried off by the bearers, when 
she started up and boxed one of the bearers on 
the ears, saying to him : 
Hold ! are you mad, you damned confounded 

I am to rise and speak the epilogue. 

W. C. Russell, Representative Actors, 456. 

Porphyro-Genitus (" born in the Por- 
phyra "), the title given to the kings of the 
Eastern empii'e, from the apartments 
called Porphyra, set apart for the em- 
presses dui'ing confinement. 

There he found Irene, the empress, in travail, 
in a house anciently appointed for the empresses 
during childbirth. They call that house '' Por- 
phyra," whence the name of the Porphyro-geniti 
came into the world. — See Selden, Titles of 
Honor, v. 61 (1614). 

Pon-ex, younger son of Gorboduc, a 
legendary king of Britain. He drove his 
elder brother, Ferrex, from the kingdom, 
and, when Ferrex returned with a large 
army, defeated and slew him. Porrex was 
murdered while " slumbering on his care- 
ful bed," by his own mother, who stabbed 
him to the heart with a knife." — Thomas 
Xorton and Thomas Sackville, Gorloduc 
(a tragedy, 1561-2). 

Poi-'sena, a legendary king of Etruria, 
who made war on Eome to restore Tarquin 
to the thi'one. 

Lord Macaulay has made this the sub- 
ject of one of his Lays of Ancient Pome 

Portia and the Caskets 

Alex. Cabanel, Artist 

~§~^ORTIA awaits Bassanio's choice between the golden, silver and leaden 
t"^ caskets. 


" So may the outward shows be least themselves. 
The world is still deceived with ornament. 
* • * Therefore, thou gaudy gold. 
Hard food for Midas, I will none of thee; 
Nor none of thee, thou pale and common drudge 
' Tween man and man ; hut thou, thou meagre lead 
Which rather threatenest than dost promise aught; 
Thy plainness morves me more than eloquence, 
And here choose I; Joy be the consequence. ' ' 

Shakespeare's " Merchant of Venice." 





Port'amour, Cupid's sheriffs officer, 
who summoned offending lovers to " Love's 
Judgment Hall." — Spenser, Faery Queen, 
vi. 7 (1596). 

Porteoiis {Captain John), an officer of 
the city guard. He is hanged by the 
mob (1736). 

Mrs. Porteous, wife of the captain. — Sir 
W. Scott, The Heart of Midlothian (time, 
Greorge II.) 

Porter (Sir Joseph), K. C. B. The ad- 
miral who " stuck close to his desk, and 
never went to sea." His reward was the 
appointment as "ruler of the Queen's 
navee." — W. S. Gilbert, Pinafore. 

Portia, the wife of Pontius Pilate, in 
Klopstock's Messiah. 

Portia, wife of Marcus Brutus. Vale- 
rius Maximus says: "She, being deter- 
mined to kill herself, took hot burning coals 
into her mouth, and kept her lips closed 
till she was suffocated by the smoke." 

With this she fell distract, 
And, her attendants absent, swallowed fire. 
Shakespeare, Julius Gcesar, act iv. sc. 3 (1607). 

Portia, a rich heiress, in love with Bas- 
sa'nio ; but her choice of a husband was 
restricted by her father's will to the fol- 
lowing condition: Her suitors were to 
select from three caskets, one of gold, one 
of silver, and one 'of lead, and he who se- 
lected the casket which contained Portia's 
picture, was to claim her as his wife. Bas- 
sanio chose the lead, and being successful, 
became the espoused husband. It so hap- 
pened that Bassanio had borrowed 3,000 
ducats, and Antonio, a Venetian mer- 
chant, was his security. The money was 
borrowed of Shylock, a Jew, on these con- 
ditions: If the loan was repaid within 
three months, only the principal would be 

required; if not, the Jew should be at 
liberty .to claim a pound of flesh from 
Antonio's body. The loan was not re- 
paid, and the Jew demanded the forfeit- 
ure. Portia, in the dress of a law doctor, 
conducted the defence, and saved Anto- 
nio by reminding the Jew that a pound 
of flesh gave him no drop of blood, and 
that he must cut neither more nor less 
than an exact pound, otherwise his life 
would be forfeited. As it would be 
plainly impossible to fulfill these condi- 
tions, the Jew gave up his claim, and 
Antonio was saved. — Shakespeare, Mer- 
chant of Venice (1598). 

Portsmouth {The duchess of), " La 
Belle Louise de Querouaille," one of the 
mistresses of Charles II. — Sir W, Scott, 
Perveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Portuguese Cid {The), Nunez Alvarez 
Pereria (1360-1431). 

Portuguese Horace {The), Autonio 
Ferreira (1528-1569). 

" Posson Jone," a gigantic parson from 
" up the river " who has " been to Mobile 
on business for Bethesdy Church." His 
sojourn in New Orleans on his way home 
is marked by divers adventures. He is 
beguiled into a gambling den, drugged and 
made drunk. While intoxicated, he visits 
a circus and has a scene with the show- 
man and his tiger; he is locked up and 
awakes in his senses and penitent. His 
simplicity of self-condemnation, his humil- 
ity and fortitude move his tempter to 
restore the |500 of church-money he has 
"borrowed" from the confiding victim 
whose transport of pious gratitude over- 
whelms the world-hardened man with 
shame and inspires him to new resolves. — 
George W. Cable, "Posson Jone" (1879). 





Posthu'mus [Leonatus] married Imo- 
gen, daughter of Cymbeline, king of Brit- 
ain, and was banished the "kingdom for 
lifes. He went to Italy, and there, in the 
house of Philario, bet a diamond ring with 
lachimo that nothing could seduce the 
fidelity of Imogen. lachimo accepted the 
bet, concealed himself in a chest in Imo- 
gen's chamber, made himself master of 
certain details and also of a bracelet, and 
with these vouchers claimed the ring. 
Posthumus now ordered his servant, Pi- 
sanio, to inveigle Imogen to Milford Haven 
under the promise of meeting her hus- 
band, and to murder her on the road ; but 
Pisanio told Imogen to assume boy's ap- 
parel, and enter the service of the Roman 
general in Britain, as a page. A battle 
being fought, the Roman general, lachimo, 
and Imogen were among the captives; 
and Posthumus, having done great service 
in the battle on Cymbeline's behalf, was 
pardoned. The Roman general prayed 
that the supposed page might be set at 
liberty, and the king told her she might 
also claim a boon, whereupon she asked 
that lachimo should state how he became 
possessed of the ring he was wearing. 
The whole villainy being thus exposed, 
Imogen's innocence was fully established, 
and she was re-united to her husband. — 
Shakespeare, Cymheline (1605). 

Potage (Jean), the French " Jack Pud- 
ding ; " similar to the Italian " Macaroni," 
the Dutch " Piekel-herringe," and the Ger- 
man "Hanswurst." Clumsy, gormandizing 
clowns, fond of practical jokes, especially 
such as stealing eatables and drinkables. 

Pother {Doctor), an apothecary, "city 
register, and walking story-book." He 
had a story a propos of every remark 
made and of every incident; but as he 
mixed two or three together, his stories 

were pointless and quite unintelligible. 
" I know a monstrous good story on that 
point. He ! he ! he " "I teU you a 
famous good story about that, you must 
know. He ! he ! he ! . . . " "I could 
have told a capital story, but there was 
no one to listen to it. He! he! he!" 
This is the style of his chattering . . . 
" speaking professionally — for anatomy, 
chemistry, pharmacy, phlebotomy, oxy- 
gen, hydrogen, caloric, carbonic, atmos- 
pheric, galvanic. Ha ! ha ! ha ! Can tell 
you a prodigiously laughable story on the 
subject. Went last summer to a watering- 
place — lady of fashion — feel pulse — not 
lady, but lap-dog — talk Latin — prescribed 
galvanism — out jumped Pompey plump 
into a batter pudding, and lay like a toad 
in a hole. Ha I ha ! ha ! " — Dibdin, The 
Farmer's Wife (1780). 

*#* Colman's " OUapod " (1802) was evi- 
dently copied from Dibdin's " Doctor 

Potiphar (Mr.), freshly-made man 
intensely uncomfortable in his plated har- 
ness. His ideas of art a]-e grounded upon 
a dim picture in his wife's drawing-room, 
called by him " Griddo's Shay Doover." 

Mrs. Potiphar, shoddy of shoddys. 
Purse-proud, affected, pretentious and am- 
bitious, and even less fit for her position 
than her husband for his. — George Wil- 
liam Curtis, Potiphar Papers (1853). 

Potiphar's Wife, Zoleikha or Zuleika ; 
but some call her Rail. — Sale, Al Koran, 
xii. note. 

Pott (Mr.), the librarian at the Spa. 
Mrs. Pott, the librarian's wife. — Sir W. 
Scott, St. Roman's Well (time, George III.). 

Potteries {Father of the), Josiah Wedge- 
wood (1730-1795). 

. Portia at the Grave of the Mcbsmh 

H. FSgtr, Artist F. J >i)u , Engraver 

. 71 "Tow arose on ''(dah's hill the fifth morn since the resurrection, 
JL V Portia (the wife of Pilate), awoke, hut rather from unquiet 

i- J'lUin' tha'n refreshing sleep, and early walked in hci garden; 

though lost t' I her wns all its fragrance. Then , beckoning to a st rvant to 
attend her. ^Ik set out fo: the sepnlcbre. In her way to it she U'js seen by 
"Rachel aiiJ Jei)iima, the daughters of fob, who were holding sweel converse. 

"She I'ho/ii we expeded is coming," said femima, "and is striving to 
rise above the clouds in which she is involved. Let us give her our 
assistance. ' ' They iui.f.dntly assumed the appearance of two Greek female 
pilgrims who had con/c to thi feast. They had slender staves in their hands, 
and their hair was bound with , a purple ribbon. Portia walking slow, im- 
mured in thought, they passed by ber. 

Klopstecks "Messiah." 





Pounce {Mr. Peter), in The Adventures 
of Joseph Andrews, by Fielding (1742). 

Poundtext {Peter), an "indulged pas- 
tor" in the covenanters' army. — Sir W. 
Scott, Old Mortality (time, Charles II.). 

Pourceaiig-nac [Poor-sone-ya'k], the 
hero of a comedy so called. He is a pom- 
pous country gentleman, who comes to 
Paris to marry Julie, daughter of Oronte 
(2 syl.) ; but Julie loves Eraste (2 syl.), and 
this young man plays off so many tricks, 
and devises so many mystifications upon 
M. de Pourceaugnac, that he is fain to give 
up his suit. — Moliere, M. de Pourceaugnac 

Poussin {The British), Richard Cooper 

Poussin {Oaspar). So Gaspar Dughet, 
the French painter, is called (1613-1675). 

Powell {Mary), the first wife of John 

Powlieid {Lazarus), the old sexton in 
Douglas. — Sir W. Scott, Castle Dangerous 
(time, Henry I.). 

Poyning's Law, a statute to establish 
the English jurisdiction in Ireland. The 
parliament that passed it was summoned 
in the reign of Henry VII. by Sir Edward 
Poynings, governor of Ireland (1495). 

Poyser {Mrs), shrewd, capable and 
ready-tongued wife of a British yeoman, 
and aunt of Hetty Sorrel. — George Ehot, 
Adam Bede. 

P. P., " Clerk of the Parish," the feigned 
signature of Dr. Arbuthnot, subscribed to 
a volume of Memoirs in ridicule of Bur- 
net's History of My Own Times. 

Those who were placed around the dinner- 
table had those feehngs of awe with which P. 
P., Clerk of the Parish, was oppressed when he 
first uplifted the psalm in presence of . . . the 
wise Mr. Justice Freeman, the good Lady Jones, 
and the great Sir Thomas Truby. — Sir W. Scott. 

Pragrniatic Sanction. The word 
pragmaticus means "relating to State af- 
fairs," and the word sanctio means " an or- 
dinance" or "decree." The four most 
famous statutes so called are : 

1. The Pragmatic Sanction of St. Louis 
(1268), which forbade the court of Rome 
to levy taxes or collect subscriptions in 

- France without the express permission of 
the king. It also gave French subjects 
the right of appealing, in certain cases, 
from the ecclesiastical to the civil courts 
of the realm. 

2. The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, 
passed by Charles VII. of France, in 1438. 
By this ordinance the power of the people 
in France was limited and defined. The 
authority of the National Council was de- 
clared superior to that of the pope. The 
French clergy were forbidden to appeal to 
Rome on any point affecting the secular 
condition of the nation; and the Roman 
pontiff was wholly forbidden to appropri- 
ate to himself any vacant living, or to ap- 
point to any bishopric or parish church in 

3. The Pragmatic Sanction of Kaiser Karl 
VL of Germany (in 1713), which settled 
the empire on his daughter, the Archduch- 
ess Maria Theresa, wife of Francois de 
Loraine. Maria Theresa ascended the 
throne in 1740, and a European war was 
the result. 

4. The Pragmatic Sanction of Charles IIL 
of Spain (1767). This was to suppress the 
Jesuits of Spain. 

What is meant emphatically by The 
Pragmatic Sanction is the third of these 
ordinances, viz., settling the line of suc- 





cession in Germany on the house of Aus- 

Pramnian Mixture {The), any intoxi- 
cating draught ; so called from the Pram- 
nian grape, from which it was made. 
Circe gave Ulysses "Pramnian wine" im- 
pregnated with drugs, in order to prevent 
his escape from the island. 

And for my drink prepared 
The Pramnian mixture in a golden cup, 
Impregnating (on my destruction bent) 
With noxious Jierbs the draught. 

Homer, Odyssey, x. (Cowper's trans.). 

Prasildo, a Babylonish nobleman, who 
falls in love with Tisbi'na, wife of his 
friend Iroldo. He is overheard by Tisbina 
threatening to kill himself, and, in order 
to divert him from his guilty passion she 
promises to return his love on condition 
of his performing certain adventures which 
she thinks to be impossible. However, 
Prasildo performs them all, and then Tis- 
bina and Iroldo, finding no excuse, take 
poison to avoid the alternative. Prasildo 
resolves to do the same, but is told by the 
apothecary that the "poison" he had sup- 
plied was a harmless drink. Prasildo 
tells his friend, Iroldo quits the country, 
and Tisbina marries Prasildo. Time passes 
on and Prasildo hears that his friend's life 
is in danger, whereupon he starts forth to 
rescue him at the hazard of his own life. 
— Bojardo, Orlando Innamorato (1495). 

Prasu'tagus or Prsesu'tagus, husband 
of Bonduica or Boadicea, queen of the 
Iceni. — Richard of Cirencester, History, 
XXX. (fourteenth century). 

Me, the wife of rich Prasutagus ; me the lover 

of liberty. — 
Me, they seized, and me they tortured ! 

Tennyson, Boadicea. 

Prate'fast (Peter), who " in all his life 

spake no word in waste." His wife was 
Maude, and his eldest son, Sym Sadie 
Gander, who married Betres (daughter of 
Davy Dronken Nole, of Kent, and his wife, 
Al'ysoji). — Stephen Hawes, The Passe-tyme 
of Plesure^ xxix. (1515). 

Prattle {Mr.), medical practitioner, a 
voluble gossip, who retails all the news 
and scandal of the neighborhood. He 
knows everybody, everybody's affairs, and 
everybody's intentions. — G. Colman, Sr, 
The Deuceis in Him (1762).. 

Pre-Adanaite Kings, Soliman Raad, 
Soliman Daki, and Soliman de Gian ben 
Gian. The last named, having chained 
up the dives (1 syl.) in the dark caverns of 
Paf, became so presumptuous as to dis- 
pute the Supreme Power. All these 
kings maintained great state [before the 
existence of that contemptible being de- 
nominated by us "The Father of Man- 
kind "] ; but none can be compared with 
the eminence of Soliman ben Daoud. 

Pre- Adamite Throne {The). It was 
Vathek's ambition to gain the pre- Adamite 
throne. After long search, he was shown 
it at last in the abyss of Eblis ; but being 
there, return was impossible, and he 
remained a prisoner without hope forever. 

They reached at length the hall [Argenl] of 
great extent, and covered with a lofty dome . . . 
A funereal gloom prevailed over it. Here, upon 
two beds of incorruptible cedar, lay recumbent 
the fleshless forms of the pre-Adamite kings, 
who had once been monarchs of the whole 
earth. . . . At their feet were inscribed the events 
of their several reigns, their power, their pride, 
and their crimes. \TMs was the pre-Adamite 
throne, the ambition of the Caliph VatheJc.] — W 
Beekford, VatheJc (1784). 

Preaclier {The), Solomon, the son of 
David, author of The Preacher (i. e. iJc- 

Don Carlos, the King and the 
Marquis of Posa 

Ferdinand Ritter, y4rtist A. Class, Engraver 

W '\0'N CARLOS having been imprisoned by his father's order, the 
t M Marquis of Posa comes to the Prince and tells how he has written 
-^ — -^ letters accusing himself of the faults for which Don Carlos is 
under arrest. These letters will be intercepted by the emissaries of the 
King, and the Prince's guilt will be imputed to the Marquis. While they 
are talking a shot is fired through the iron grating. Carlos leaps up. 

" Whom is that meant for .? ' ' 

Marquis (sinking down). 
' ' I believe — for me!" 

Carlos (falling to the earth with a loud cry of grief ). 
" O God of mercy I ' ' 


"He is quick, — the King. — 
I had hoped — a little longer— Carlos ■ — ■ think 
Of means of flight — dost hear me ? — of thy -flight .' 
Thy mother knows it all^l can no more! " (Dies. ) 

(The King enters, accompanied by many Grandees.) 

King (in a gentle tone). 
" Thy prayer hath met a gracious hearing, Prince ; 
And here I come with all the noble peers 
Of this my court, to bring thee liberty. 
Receive thy sword again ! We've been too rash ! ' ' 

(Carlos draws the sword from the scabbard, and holds it with one hand, 
the King with the other.) 

' ' See there — his hand is bloody ! 
Do you not see it! And now look you here ! 

(pointing to the corpse) 

This hath been done with a well-practised hand. 

Schiller's "Don Carlos." 





Thus saith the Preacher, " Nought beneath the 

Is new ; " yet still from change to change we 



Preacher {The Glorious), St. Chrys'os- 
tom (347-407). The name means " Golden 

Preacher {The Little), Samuel de Ma- 
rets, Protestant controversialist (1599- 

Preacher {The Unfair). Dr. Isaac Bar- 
row was so called by Charles II., because 
his sermons were so exhaustive that they 
left nothing more to be said on the sub- 
ject, which was "unfair" to those that 
came after him. 

Preachers {The King of), Louis Bour- 
daloue (1632-1704). 

Pr^cieuses Ridicules (Les), a comedy 
by Moliere, in ridicule of the '''■ precieuses,"" 
as they were styled, forming the coterie of 
the Hotel de Rambouillet in the seven- 
teenth century. The soirees held in this 
hotel were a great improvement on the 
licentious assemblies of the period; but 
many imitators made the thing ridiculous, 
because they wanted the same presiding 
talent and good taste. 

The two girls of Moliere's comedy are 
Madelon and Cathos, the daughter and 
niece of Gorgibus, a bourgeois. They 
change their names to Polixene and 
Aminte, which they think more genteel, 
and look on the affectations of two flunkies 
as far more distingue than the simple, 
gentlemanly manners of their masters. 
HoweA^er, they are cured of their folly> and 
no harm comes of it (1659). 

Preciosa, the heroine of Longfellow's 

Spanish Student, in love with Victorian, 
the student. 

Precocious Genius. 

JoHANN Philip Baeatiee, a German, at 
the age of five years, knew Greek, Latin, 
and French, besides his native German. 
At nine he knew Hebre^v^ and Chaldaic, 
and could translate German into Latin. 
At thirteen he could translate Hebrew into 
French, or French into Hebrew (1721- 

*#* The life of this boy was written by 
Formey. His name is enrolled in all bio- 
graphical dictionaries. 

Christian Heney Heinecken, at one 
year old, knew the chief events of the 
Pentatauch ! ! at thirteen months he knew 
the history of the Old Testament ! ! at 
fourteen months he knew the history of 
the New Testament ! ! at two and a half 
years he could answer any ordinary ques- 
tion of history or geography; and at 
three years old knew French and Latin 
as well as his native German (1721-1725). 

*#* The life of this boy was written by 
Schoeneich, Ms teacher. His name is duly 
noticed in biographical dictionaries. 

Pressseus' {^^ eater of garlic"), the 
youngest of the frog chieftains. 

The pious ardor young Pressseus brings, 
Betwixt the fortunes of contending kings ; 
Lank, harmless frog ! with forces hardly grown, 
He darts the reed in combats not his own, 
"Which, faintly tinkling on Troxartas' shield. 
Hangs at the point and drops upon the field. 

ParneU, Battle of the Frogs and Mice, iii. 
(about 1712). 

Prest, a nickname given by Swift to 
the duchess of Shrewsbury, who was a 

Prester John, a corruption of Belul 
Gian, meaning "precious stone." Gian 





(pronounced zjon) has been corrupted into 
John, and Belul, translated into "pre- 
cious ; " in Latin Johannes preciosus (" pre- 
cious John") corrupted into "Presbyter 
Joannes." The kings of Ethiopia or 
Abyssinia, from a gemmed ring given to 
Queen Saba, whose son by Solomon was 
king of Ethiopia, and was called Melech, 
with the "precious stone," or Melech Gian- 

Mt\Ao^es regem suum, quern nos vulgo " Prete 
Gianni" eorrupte dioimus, quatour appellant 
nominibus, quorum primum est " Belul Giad," 
hoc est lapis preciosus. Ductum est autem hoe 
nomen ah annulo Salomonis queni ille filio ex re- 
gina Saba, ut putant genito, dono dedisse, quove 
omnes posteareges usos fuisse describitor. . . . 
Cum vero eum coronant, appellant "Neghuz." 
Postremo cum vertice capitis in coronee modnm 
abraso, ungitur a patriarcha, vocant "Masih," 
hoc est unctum. Hsec autem regite dignitatis 
nomina omnibus communia sunt. — ^Quoted by 
Selden, from a little annal of the Ethiopian kings 
(1552), in his Titles of Honor, v. 65 (1614). 

*#* As this -title was like the Egyptian 
Pharaoh, and belonged to whole lines of 
kings, it will explain' the enormous diver- 
sity of time allotted by different writers 
to " Prester John." . 

Marco Polo says that Prester John was 
slain in battle by Jenghiz Khan; and 
Grregory Bar-Hebreeus says', " God forsook 
him because he had taken to himself a 
wife of the Zinish nation, called Quara- 

Bishop Jordanus, in his description of 
the world, sets down Abyssinia as the 
kingdom of Prester John. Abyssinia used 
to be called " Middle India." 

Otto of Preisingen is the first author to 
mention him. This Otto wrote a chron- 
icle to the date 1156. He, says that John 
was of the family of the Magi, and ruled 
over the country of these "Wise Men. Otto 
tells us that Prester John had " a sceptre 
of emeralds." 

Maimonides, about the same time 

(twelfth century), mentions him, but calls 
him " Prester-Cuan." 

Before 1241 a letter was addressed by 
"Prester John" to Manuel Comnenus, 
emperor of Constantinople. It is pre- 
served in the Chronicle of Albericus 
Trium Fontium, who gives for its date 

Mandeville calls Prester John a lineal 
descendant of Ogier, the Dane. He tells 
us that Ogier, with fifteen others, pene- 
trated into the north of India, and divided 
the land amongst his followers. John 
was made sovereign of Teneduc, and was 
called "Prester" because he converted the 
natives to the Christian faith. 

Another tradition says that Prester 
John had seventy kings for his vassals, 
and was seen by his subjects only three 
times in a year. 

In Orlando Furioso, Prester John is 
called by his subjects " Senapus, king of 
Ethiopia." He was blind, and though the 
richest monarch of the world, he pined 
with famine, because harpies flew off with 
his food by way of punishment for want- 
ing to add paradise to his empire. The 
plague, says the poet, was to cease " when 
a stranger appeared on a flying griffin." 
This stranger was Astolpho, who drove 
the harpies to Cocy'tus. Prester John, in 
return for this service, sent 100,000 Nu- 
bians to the aid ,of Charlemagne. Astol- 
pho supplied this contingent with horses 
by throwing stones into the air, and made 
transport-ships to convey them to France 
by casting leaves into the sea. After the 
death of Agramant, the Nubians were 
sent home, and then the horses became 
stones again, and the ships became leaves 
(bks. xvii.-xix.). 

Pretender {The Young), Prince Charles 
Edward Stuart, son of James Francis 
Edward Stuart (called "The Old Pre- 




tender "). James Francis was the son of 
James II., and Charles Edward was the 
king's grandson. — Sir W. Scott, Waverley 
(time, George II.). 

Charles Edward was defeated at CuUo- 
den in 1746, and escaped to the Continent. 

G-od bless the king — I mean the "Faith's de- 
fender ; " 
God bless — no harm in blessing — the Pretender. 
Who that Pretender is, and who is king, 
God bless us all ! that's quite another thing. 

Ascribed by Sir W. Scott to John 
Byrom (in Bedgauntlet). 

The mistress of Charles Edward Stuart 
was Miss Walkingshaw. 

Prettyman {Prince), in love with Cloris. 
He is sometimes a fisherman, and some- 
times a prince. — Duke of Buckingham, 
The Behearsal (1671). 

*#* " Prince Prettymain " is said to be a 
parody on " Leonidas " in Dryden's Mar- 

Pri'amus (Sir), a knight of the Round 
Table, He possessed a phial, full of four 
waters that came from paradise. These 
waters instantly healed any wounds which 
were touched by them. 

"My father," says Sir Priamus, "is hneally 
descended of Alexander and of Hector by right 
line. Duke JosuS and Machabseus were of our 
lineage. I am right inheritor of Alexandria, 
and Affrike of all the out isles." 

And Priamus took froin his page a phial, full 
of four waters that came out of paradise ; and 
with certain balm nointed he their wounds, and 
washed them with that water, and within an 
hour after they were both as whole as ever they 
were. — Sir T. Malory, History of Prince Arthur, 
i. 97 (1470). 

Price {Matilda), a miller's daughter ; a 
pretty, coquettish young woman, who 
marries John Browdie, a hearty Yorkshire 
corn-factor. — C. Dickens, Nicholas Nicklehy 

Pride {Sir), first a drayman, then a 
colonel in the parliamentary army. — S. 
Butler, Hudihras (1663-78). 

Pride of Humility. Antisthenes, the 
Cynic, affected a very ragged coat; but 
Socrates said to him, " Antisthenes, I can 
see your vanity peering through the holes 
of your coat." 

Pride's Purge, a violent invasion of 
parliamentary rights by Colonel Pride, in 
1649. At the head of two regiments of 
soldiers he surrounded the House of Com- 
mons, seized forty-one of the members and 
shut out 160 others. None were allowed 
into the House but those most friendly to 
Cromwell. This fag-end went by the name 
of " the Rump." 

Pridwin or Pkiwen, Prince Arthur's 

Arthur placed a golden helmet upon his head, 
on which was engraven the figure of a dragon ; 
and on his shoulders his shield, called Priwen, 
upon which the picture of the blessed Mary, 
mother of God, was painted ; then, girding on 
his Caliburn, which was an excellent sword, 
made in the isle of AvaUon ; he took in his right 
hand his lance, Ron, which was hard, broad, and 
fit for slaughter. — Geoffrey, British History, ix. 
4 (1142). 

Priest of Nature, Sir Isaac Newton 

Lo ! Newton, priest of nature, shines afar, 
Scans the wide world, and numbers every star. 
Campbell, Pleasures of Hope, i. (1799). 

Prig, a knavish beggar. — Beaumont and 
Fletcher, The Beggars' Bush (1622). 

Prig {Betsey), an old monthly nurse, 
"the frequent pardner" of Mrs. Gamp; 
equally ignorant, equally vulgar, equally 
selfish, and brutal to her patients. 





"Betsey," said Mrs. Gamp, filling her own 
glass, and passing the teapot [of gin], " I mil now 
propoge a toast : ' My frequent pardner, Betsey 
Prig.' " " Which, altering the name to Sairah 
Gamp, I drink," said Mrs. Prig, " with love and 
tenderness."— C. Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit, xlix. 

Prim'er {Peter), a pedantic country 
schoolmaster, who believes himself to be 
the wisest of pedagogues. — Samuel Foote, 
The Mayor ofGarratt (1763). 

Primitive Fathers (The). The five 
apostolic fathers contemporary with the 
apostles (viz., Clement of Rome, Barnabas, 
Hermas, Ignatius and Polycarp), and the 
nine following, who all lived in the first 
three centuries: — Justin, Theoph'ilus of- 
Antioch, Irenseus, Clement of Alexan- 
dria, Cyprian of Carthage, Origen, G-regory 
" Thaumatur'gus," Dionysius of Alexan- 
dria and TertuUian. 

*#* For the " Fathers " of the fourth and 
fifth centuries see Geeek Chubch, Latik 

Primrose {The Bev. Dr. Charles), a 
clergyman rich in heavenly wisdom, but 
poor indeed in all worldly knowledge. 
Amiable, charitable, devout, but not with- 
out his literary vanity, especially on the 
Whistonian theory about second mar- 
riages. One admires his virtuous indig- 
nation against the "washes," which he 
deliberately demolished with the poker. 
In his prosperity his chief "adventures 
were by the fireside, and all his migrations 
were from the blue bed to the brown." 

Mrs. [Deborah] Primrose, the doctor's 
wife, full of motherly vanity, and desirous 
to appear genteel. She could read without 
much spelling, prided herself on her house- 
wifery, especially on her gooseberry wine, 
and was really proud of her excellent 

(She was painted as "Venus," and 
the vicar, in gown and bands, was 
presenting to her his book on "second 
marriages," but when complete the pic- 
ture was found to be too large for the 

George Primrose, son of the vicar. He 
went to Amsterdam to teach the Dutch 
EngUsh, but never once called to mind 
that he himself must know something of 
Dutch before this could be done. He be- 
comes Captain Primrose, and marries Miss 
Wilmot, an heiress. 

(Goldsmith himself went to teach the 
French English under the same circum- 

Moses Primrose, younger son of the 
vicar, noted for his greenness and pedan- 
try. Being sent to sell a good horse at a 
fair, he bartered it for a gross of gi-een 
spectacles, with copper rims and shagreen 
cases, of no more value than Hodge's 
razors (ch. xii.). 

Olivia Primrose, the eldest daughter of 
the doctor. Pretty, enthusiastic, a sort of 
Hebe in beauty. " She wished for many 
lovers," and eloped with Squire Thornhill. 
Her father found her at a roadside inn 
called the Harrow, where she was on the 
point of being turned out of the house. 
Subsequently, she was found to be legally 
married to the squire. 

Sophia Primrose, the second daughter of 
Dr. Primrose. She was "soft, modest, 
and alluring." Not like her sister, desir- 
ous of winning all, but fixing her whole 
heart upon one. Being thrown from 
her horse into a deep stream, she was 
rescued by Mr. Burchell {alias Sir William 
Thornhill), and being abducted, was again 
rescued by him. She married him at 
last. — Goldsmith, ' Vicar of Wakefield 

Prince of Alchemy, Rudolph II., kaiser- 




of Germany; also called "The German 
Trismegistns" (1552, 1576-1612). 

Prince of Angels, Michael, 

So spake the prince of angels. To whom thus 
The Adversary [i.e. Satan]. 

Milton. Paradise Lost, vi. 281 (1665). 

Prince of Celestial Armies, Michael, 
the archangel. 

Go, Michael, of celestial armies prince. 

Milton, Parac^ise Lost, vi. 44 (1665). 

Prince of Darkness, Satan (Eph. vi 

Whom thus the prince of darkness answered 

" Fair daughter, 

High proof ye now have given to be the race 
Of Satan (I glory in the name)." 

Milton, Paradise Lost, x, 383 (1665). 

Prince of Hell, Satan. 

And with them comes a third of regal port, 
But faded splendor wan ; who by his gait 
And fierce demeanor seems the prince of HeU. 
Milton, Paradise Lost, iv. 868 (1665). 

Prince of Life, a title given to Christ 
{Ads iii. 15). 

Prince of Peace, a title given to the 
Messiah {Isaiah ix. 6). 

Prince of Peace, Don Manuel Godoy, of 
Badajoz. So called because he concluded 
the "peace of Basle" in 1795, between 
France and Spain (1757^1851). 

Prince of the Air, Satan. 

. . . Jesus, son of Mary, second Eve, 

Saw Satan fall, like lightning, down from heaven, 

Prince of the air. 

Milton, Paradise Lost, x. 185 (1665). 

Prince of the Devils, Satan {Matt. 
xii. 24). 

Prince of the Kings of the Earth, 

a title given to Christ {Bev. i. 5). 

Prince of the Power of the Air, 

Satan {Eph. ii. 2). 

Prince of this World, Satan {John 
xiv. 30). 

Princes. It was Prince Bismarck, the 
German Chancellor, who said to a courtly 
attendant, "Let princes be princes, and 
mind your own business." 

Prince's Peers, a term of contempt 
applied to peers of low birth. The phrase 
arose in the reign of Charles VII., of 
France, when his son Louis (afterwards 
Louis XL) created a host of riff-raff peers, 
such as tradesmen, farmers, and mechanics, 
in order to degrade the aristocracy, and 
thus weaken its influence in the state. 

Printed Books. The first book pro- 
duced in England, was printed in England 
in 1477, by William Caxton, in the Al- 
monry, at Westminster, and was entitled 
The JDictes and Sayings of the Philosophers. 

The Rev. T. Wilson says : " The press 
at Oxford existed ten years before there 
was any press in Europe, except those of 
Haarlem and Mentz." The person who 
set up the Oxford press was Corsellis, and 
his first printed book bore the date of 
1468. The colophon of it ran thus : " Ex- 
plicit exposicio Sancti Jeronimi in simbolo 
apostolorum ad papam laurecium. Im- 
pressa Oxonii Et finita Anno Domini 
Mcccclxviij., xvij. die Decembris." The 
book is a small quarto of forty-two leaves, 
and was first noticed in 1664 by Richard 
Atkins in his Origin and Growth of Print- 
ing. Dr. Conyers Middleton, in 1735, 
charged Atkins with forgery. In 1812, S. 
W. Singer defended the book. Dr. Cotton 





took the subject up in Ms Typographical 
Gazetteer (first and second series). 

Prior (Matthew). The monument to 
this poet in Westminster Abbey was by 
Rysbrack; executed by order of Louis 

Priory (Lord), an old-fashioned hus- 
band, who actually thinks that a wife 
should " love, honor, and obey " her hus- 
band; nay, more, that "forsaking all 
others, she should cleave to him so long 
as they both should live." 

Lady Priory, an old-fashioned wife, but 
young and beautiful. She was, however, 
so very old-fashioned that she went to 
bed at ten and rose at six ; dressed in a 
cap and gown of her own raaking; re- 
spected and loved her husband ; discour- 
aged flirtation ; and when assailed by any 
improper advances, instead of showing 
temper or conceited airs, quietly and tran- 
quilly seated herself to some modest house- 
hold duty till the assailant felt the irresis- 
tible power of modesty and virtue. — Mrs. 
Inchbald, Wives as They Were and Maids 
as They Are (1797). 

Priscian, a great grammarian of the 
fifth century. The Latin phrase, Dimin- 
uere Prisciani caput (" to break Priscian's 
head"), means to "violate the rules of 
grammar." (See Pegasus.) 

Some, free from rhyme or reason, rule or check, 
Break Priscian's head, and Pegasus's neck. 

Pope, The Dmwiad, iii. 161 (1728). 

Quakers (that like to lanterns, bear 
Their light within them) will not swear . 
And hold no sin so deeply red 
As that of breaking Priscian's head. 

Butler, Eudibras, II. ii. 219, etc. (1664). 

Priscilla, daughter of a noble lord. 
She fell in love with Sir Aladine, a poor 
knight. — Spenser, Faery Queen, vi. 1 

Priscilla, the beautiful puritan in love 
with John Alden. When Miles Standish, 
a bluff old soldier, in the middle of life, 
wished to marry her, he asked John Al- 
den to go and plead his cause; but the 
puritan maiden replied archly, "Why 
don't you speak for yourself, John?" 
Upon this hint, John did speak for him- 
self, and PrisciUa listened to his suit. — 
Longfellow, The Courtship of Miles Stand- 
ish (1858). - 

Priscilla. Fragile, pretty, simple girl, 
whom HoUingsworth and Coverdale love, 
instead of falling victims to the superb 
Zenobia. She is thin-blooded and weak- 
limbed, and her very helplessness charms 
the strong men, who suppose themselves 
proof against love of the ordinary kind. — 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Blithedale Ro- 
mance (1852). 

Prison Life Endeared. The follow- 
ing are examples of prisoners who, from 
long habit, have grown attached to prison 

Comte de Lorge was confined for thirty 
years in the Bastile, and when liberated 
(July 14, 1789) declared that freedom had 
no joys for him. After imploring in vain 
to be allowed to return to his dungeon, 
he lingered for six weeks and pined to 

Goldsmith says, when Chinvang the 
Chaste, ascended the throne of China, he 
commanded the prisons to be thrown 
open. Among the prisoners was a vener- 
able man of 85 years of age, who im- 
plored that he might be suffered to return 
to his cell. For sixty-three years he had 
lived in its gloom and solitude, which he 
preferred to the glare of the sun and the 
bustle of a city.— ^ Citizen of the World 
Ixxiii. (1759). 

Mr. Cogan once visited a prisoner of 


Davidson Knowles, Artist ' - R. Taylor, Engraver 

" CyHE, the Puritan girl, in the solitude of the f west, 
kj Making the hiinible home and the modest apparel of home^nn. 
Beautiful ivith her beauty, and rich -with the breath of her being. 
«■>-« « « « « w « « * ^ 

Still John Alden went on, unheeding the. words of Priscilla, 
Urging the suit of his friend, explaining, persuading, expanding; 
Spoke of his courage and skill, and of all his battles in Flanders, 
How with the people of God he had chosen to suffer affliction . 
How, in return for his ^eal, they bad made him Captain of Plymouth. 

But as he warmed arid gloived in his simple and eloquent language, 
Qiiite forgetful of self, and full of tlje praise of his rival, 
: Archly the maiden smiled, and with eyes overrunning with laughter. 
' Said, in a tremulous voice, 'Why don't you Speak for yourself , John ?'" 

Longfellow's "The Courtship of Miles Standish. " 





state in the King's Bencli prison, who 
told him he had grown to hke the sub- 
dued light and extreme solitude of his 
cell ; he even liked the spots and patches 
on the wall, the hardness of his bed, the 
regularity, and the freedom from aU the 
cares and worries of active life. He did 
not wish to be released, and felt sure he 
should never be so happy in any other 

A woman of Leyden, on the expiration 
of a long imprisonment, applied for per- 
mission to return to her cell, and added, 
']£ the request was refused as a favor, she 
would commit some offence which should 
give her a title to her old quarters. 

A prisoner condemned to death had his 
sentence commuted to seven years' close 
confinement on a bed of nails. After the 
expiration of five years, he declared, if 
ever he were released, he should adopt 
from choice what habit had rendered so 
agreeable to him. 

Prisoner of Chillon, FranQoise de 
Bonnivard, a Frenchman, who resided at 
Geneva, and made himself obnoxious to 
Charles III., due de Savoie, who incarcer- 
ated him for six years in a dungeon of 
the Chateau de ChiUon, at the east end of 
the lake of Geneva. The prisoner was 
ultimately released by the Bernese, who 
were at war with Savoy. 

Byron has founded on this incident his 
poem entitled The Prisonor of ChiUon, but 
has added two brothers, whom he sup- 
poses to be imprisoned with Fran^oise, and 
who die of hunger, suffering, and confine- 
ment. In fact, the poet mixes up Dante's 
tale about Count Ugolino with that of 
Fran^oise de Bonnivard, and has produced 
a powerful and affecting story, but it is 
not historic. 

Prisoner of State (The), Ernest de 

Fridberg. E. Sterling has a drama so 
called. (For the plot, see Ebnest de Feid- 


Pritcliard ( William), commander of H. 
M. sloop, the Shark. — Sir W. Scott, Guy , 
Mannering (time, George II.). 

Priu'li, a senator of Venice, of unbend- 
ing pride. His daughter had been saved 
from the Adriatic by Jaffier, and gratitude 
led to love. As it was quite hopeless to 
expect Priuli to consent to the match, 
Belvidera eloped in the night, and mar- 
ried JaflOLer. Priuli now discarded them 
both. JafBer joined Pierre's conspiracy 
to murder the Venetian senators, but in 
order • to save his father-in-law, revealed 
to him the plot under the promise of a 
general free pardon. The promise was 
broken, and all the conspirators except 
Jafifier were condemned to death by tor- 
ture. Jaffier stabbed Pierre, to save him 
from the wheel, and then killed himself. 
Belvidera went mad and died. Priuli 
lived on, a broken-down old man, sick of 
life, and begging to be left alone in some 
"place that's fit for mourning." "There, 
all leave me : 

Sparing no tears when 3^ou this tale relate, 
But bid all cruel fathers dread my fate." 
T. Otway, Venice Preserved, v. the end (1682). 

Privolvans, the antagonists of the Sub- 

These silly, ranting Privolvans 
Have every summer their campaigns, 
And muster like the warlike sons 
Of Rawhead and of Bloody-bones. 
S. Butler, The Elephant in the Moon, v. 85 (1754). 

Probe (1 syl.), a priggish surgeon, who 
magnifies mole-hill ailments into moun- 
tain maladies, in order to enhance his 
skiU and increase his charges. Thus, when 





Lord Foppington received a small flesh- 
■woiind in the arm from a foil, Probe drew 
a long face, frightened his lordship greatly, 
and pretended the consequences might 
be serious; but when Lord Foppington 
promised him £500 for a cure, he set his 
patient on his legs the next day. — Sheri- 
dan, A Trip to Scarborough (1777). 

Procida {John of), a tragedy by S. 
Knowles (1840). John of Procida was an 
Italian gentleman of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, a skillful physician, high in favor 
with King Fernando II., Conrad, Man- 
fred, and Conrad'ine. The French in- 
vaded the island, put the last two mon- 
archs to the sword, usurped the sover- 
eignty, and made Charles d'Anjou king. 
The cruelty, licentiousness, and extortion 
of the French being quite unbearable, 
provoked a general rising of the Sicilians, 
and in one night {Sicilian Vespers, March 
30, 1282), every Frenchman, French- 
woman, and French child in the whole 
island was ruthlessly butchered. Procida 
lost his only son Fernando, who had just 
married Isoline (3 syl.), the daughter of 
the French governor of Messina. Isoline 
died broken-hearted, and her father, the 
governor, was amongst the slain. The 
crown was given to John of Procida. 

Procris, the wife of Cephalos. Out of 
jealousy she crept into a wood to act as 
a spy upon her husband. Cephalos, hear- 
ing something move, discharged an arrow 
in the direction of the rustling, thinking 
it to be caused by some wild beast, and 
shot Procris. Jupiter, in pity, turned 
Procris into a star. — Greek and Latin My- 

The unerring dart of Procris. Diana 
gave Procris a dart which never missed 
its aim, and after being discharged re- 
turned back to the shooter. 

Procrus'tes (3 syl), a highwayman of 
Attica, who used to place travellers on a 
bed; if they were too short he stretched 
them out till they fitted it, if too long^he 
lopped off the redundant part. Greek 

Critic, more cruel than Procrustes old, 
Who to his irou bed by torture fits 
Their nobler parts, the souls of suffering wits. 
Mallet, Verbal Criticism (1734). 

Proctor's Dogs or Bull-Dogs, the two 
"runners" or officials who accompany a 
university proctor in his rounds, to give 
chase to recalcitrant gownsmen. 

And he had breathed the proctor's dogs [was a 
member of Oxford or Cambridge University]. 
Tennyson, prologue of The Princess (1830). 

Prodigal {The), Albert VI. duke of 
Austria (1418, 1439-1463). 

Prodigy of France {The). Guillaume 
Bude was so called by Erasmus (1467- 

Prodigy of lieaming {The). Samuel 
Hahnemann, the German, was so called 
by J. P. Eichter (1755-1843). 

Professor {The). The most important 
member of the party gathered about the 
social board in O. W. Holmes's Autocrat of 
the Breakfast- Table (1858). 

Profound {The), Eichard Middleton, 
an Enghsh scholastic divine (*-1304). 

Profound Doctor {The), Thomas 
Bradwardine, a schoolman. Also called 
" The Solid Docter" (*-1349). 

^gidius de Columna, a Sicilian school- 
man, was called "The Most Profound 
Doctor" (*-1316). 

Progne (2 syl), daughter of Pandion, 




and sister of Philomela. Progne was 
changed into a swallow, and Philomela 
into a nightingale. — Greek Mythology. 

As Progne or as Philomela mourns . . . 
So Bradamant laments her absent knight. 

Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, xxiii. (1516). 

Prome'thean. Unguent {The), made 
from the extract of a herb on which some 
of the blood of Prometheus (3 syl.), had 
fallen. Medea gave Jason some of this 
unguent, which rendered his body proof 
against fire and warhke instruments. 

Prome'theus (3 syl.) taught man the 
use of fife, and instructed him in archi- 
tecture, astronomy, mathematics, writing, 
rearing cattle, navigation, medicine, the 
art of prophecy, working metal, and, in- 
deed, every art known to man. The word 
means "forethought," and forethought is 
the father of invention. The tale is that 
he made man of clay, and, in order to en- 
dow his clay with life, stole fire from 
heaven and brought it to earth in a hollow 
tube. Zeus, in punishment, chained him 
to a rock, and sent an eagle to consume 
his liver daily ; during the night it grew 
again, and thus his torment was ceaseless, 
till Hercules shot the eagle, and unchained 
the captive. 

Learn the while, in brief, 
That all arts come to mortals from Prometheus. 
E. B. Browning, Prometheus Bound (1850). 

Truth shall restore the light by Nature given, 
And, like Prometheus, bring the fire from heaven. 
Campbell, Pleasures of Hope, i. (1700). 

*#* Percy B. Shelley has a classical 
drama entitled Prometheus Unbound (1819). 

James Eussell Lowell has a noble poem 
entitled Prometheus, beginning, — 

" One after one the stars have risen and set, 
Sparkling upon the hoarfrost on my chain." 

Prompt, the servant of Mr. and Miss 

Blandish. General Burgoyne, The Heiress 

Pronando (Bast). The early lover of 
Anne Douglas. He is handsome, weak, 
and attractive in disposition, a favorite 
with all his friends. His pliant character 
and good-natured vanity make him a prey 
to the whimsical fascinations of Tita, 
Anne's " little sister," whom he marries 
instead of his first betrothed. — Constance 
Penimore Woolson, Anne (1882). 

Pronouns. It was of Henry Mossop, 

tragedian (1729-1773), that Churchill wrote 

the two lines : 

In monosyllables his thunders roU — 

He, she, it, and we, ye, they, fright the soul ; 

because Mossop was fond of emphasizing 
his pronouns and little words. 

Prophecy. Jourdain, the wizard, told 
the duke of Somerset, if he wished to live, 
to " avoid where castles mounted stand." 
The duke died in an ale-house called the 
Castle, in St. Alban's. 

. . . underneath an ale-house' paltry sign. 
The Castle, in St. Alban's, Sumerset 
Hath blade the wizard famous in his death. 
Shakespeare, 2 Henry VI. act v. sc. 2 (1591). 

Similar prophetic equivokes were told 
to Henry IV., Pope Sylvester II., and 
Cambyses (see Jeeusalem). 

Aristomenes was told by the Delphic 
oracle to " flee for his life when he saw a 
goat drink from the river Neda," Con- 
sequently, all goats were driven from the 
banks of this river ; but one day, Thebclos 
observed that the branches of a fig tree 
bent into the stream, and it immediately 
flashed into his mind that the Messenian 
word for fig tree and goat was the same. 
The pun or equivoke will be better under- 
stood by an English reader if for goat we 
read ewe, and bear in mind that yew is to 
the ear the same word ; thus : 





When an ewe [yew] stops to drink of the " Severn," 

then fly, . . • ■■ 

And look not behind, for destruction is nigh. 

Prophetess (The), Aye'shah, the 
second and beloved wife of Mahomet. It 
does not mean that she prophesied, but, 
like Sultana, it is simply a title of honor. 
He was the Prophet, she the PropMta or 
Madam Prophet. 

Prose (Father of English), WycMe 

Prose {Father of Oreek), Herodotus 
(B.C. 484-408). 

Prose (Father of Italian), Boccaccio 

Pros'erpine (3 spl), called Proserpina 
in Latin, and " Proser'pin " by Milton, 
was daughter of Oe'res. She went to the 
field of Enna to amuse herself by gather- 
ing asphodels, and being tired, fell asleep. 
Dis, the god of Hell, then carried her off, 
and made her queen of the infernal re- 
ions. Ceres wandered for nine days over 
the world disconsolate, looking for her 
daughter, when Hec'ate (2 syl.) told her 
she had heard the girl's cries, but knew 
not who had carried her off. Both now 
went to Olympus, when the sun-god told 
them the true state of the case. 

N.B. — This is an allegory of seed-corn. 

Not that fair field 
Of Enna, where Proser'pin, gathering flowers, 
Herself a fairer flower, by gloomy Dis 
Was gathered — which cost Ceres all that pain 
To seek her thro' the world. 

Milton, Paradise Lost, iv. 268 (1665). 

Prosperity Robinson, Frederick Eob- 
inson, afterwards Viscount Goderich and 
earl of Eipon, chancellor of the exchequer 
in 1823. So called by Cobbett, from his 

boasting about the prosperity of the coun- 
try just a little before the great commer- 
cial crisis of 1825. 

Pros'pero, the banished duke of Milan, 
and father of Miranda. He was deposed 
by his brother, Antonio, who sent him 
to sea with Miranda in a " rotten carcass 
of a boat," which was borne to a desert 
island. Here Prospero practised magic. 
He liberated Ariel from the rift of a pine 
tree, where the witch Syc'orax had con- 
fined him for twelve years, and was served 
by that bright spirit with true gratitude. 
The only other inhabitant of the island 
was. Caliban, the witch's " welp." After a 
residence in the island of sixteen years, 
Prospero raised a tempest by magic to 
cause the shipwreck of the usurping diike 
and of Ferdinand, his brother's son. Fer- 
dinand fell in love with his cousin, Miranda, 
and eventually married her. — Shakespeare, 
The Tempest (1609). 

Still they kept limping to and fro, 
Like Ariels round old Prospero, 
Saying, " Dear master, let us go." 
But stiU the old man answered, " No ! " 
T. Moore, A Vision. 

Pross (Miss), a red-haired, ungainly 
creature, who lived with Lucie Manette, 
and dearly loved her. Miss Pross, al- 
though eccentric, was most faithful and 

Her character (dissociated from stature) was 
shortness. . . It was characteristic of this lady 
that whenever her original proposition was 
questioned, she exaggerated it. — C. Dickens, A 
Tale of Two Cities, ii. 6 (1859). 

Proterius of Cappadocia, father of 
Cyra. (See Sestnek Saved.) 

Protesila'os, husband of Laodamia. 
Being slain at the siege of Troy, the dead 
body was sent home to his wife, who 

Prometheus and the Ocean-Nymphs 


Eduard Muller, Artist Kaeseberg, Engraver 

Tn\ROMETHEUS, a mortal admitted to the companionship of the gods on 
X Olympus, stole fire, with which up to that time man had been 
unacquainted, and concealing it in a hollow reed, brought it to earth 
and gave it to man. who learned all the arts of life depending upon fire, and 
thus, threatened the supremacy of the gods. Zeus, enraged at his presumption, 
chained him to a rock on Mount Caucasus, and sent an eagle to consume his 
liver daily. Every night it grew again, and thus his torment was unceasing, 
till Hercules shot the eagle and freed the captive. Prometheus is the subject of 
the greatest play of /Escbylus. 





prayed that she might talk with him again, 
if only for three hours. Her -prayer was 
granted, but when Protesilaos returned to 
death, Laodamia died also. — Greek My- 

In Fenelon's TeUmaque "Protesilaos" 
is meant for Louvois, the French minister 
of state. 

Protestant Duke (T^e), James, duke 
of Monmouth, a love-child of Charles II. 
So called because he renounced the Roman 
faith, in which he had been brought up, 
and became a Protestant (1619-1685). 

Protestant Pope {The), Gian Vineenzo 
G-anganeUi, Pope Clement XIV. So called 
from his enlightened policy, and for his 
bull suppressing the Jesuits (1705, 1769- 

Proteus [Pro-^Mce], a sea-god who re- 
sided in the Carpathian Sea. He had the 
power of changing his form at will. Being 
a prophet also, Milton calls him " the Car- 
pathian wizard." — Greek Mythology. 

By hoary Nereus' wrinkled look, 
And the Carpathian wizard's hook [or trident]. 
MUton, Gomus (1634). 

Periklym'enos, son of Neleus (2 syl.), 
had the power of changing his form into 
a bird, beast, reptile, or insect. As a bee 
he perched on the chariot of Herakles 
{Hercules), and was killed. 

Aristoglton, from being dipped in the 
Achelous (4 syl.), received the power of 
changing his form at will.— Fenelon, TeU- 
maque, XX. (1700). 

The genii, both good and bad, of East- 
ern mythology, had the power of changing 
their form instantaneously. This is power- 
fully illustrated by the combat between 
the queen of Beauty and the son of Eblis. 
The genius first appeared as an enormous 
lion, but the queen of Beauty plucked out 

a hair which became a scythe, with which 
she cut the lion in pieces. The head of 
the lion now became a scorpion, and the 
princess changed herself into a serpent ; 
but the scorpion instantly made itself an 
eagle, and went in pursuit of the serpent. 
The serpent, however, being vigila^t, as- 
sumed the form of a white cat ; the eagle 
in an instant changed to a wolf, and the 
cat, being hard pressed, changed into a 
worm; the wolf changed to a cock, and 
ran to pick up the worm, which, however, 
became a fish before the cock could pick 
it up. Not to be outwitted, the cock 
transformed itself into a pike to devour 
the fish, but the fish changed into a flre^ 
and the son of Eblis was burnt to ashes 
before he could make another change. — 
Arabian Nights (" The Second Calender "). 

Proteus or Protheus, one of the two gen- 
tlemen of Verona. He is in love with 
Julia. His servant is Launce, and his 
father Anthonio or Antonio. The other 
gentleman is called Valentine, and his lady 
love is Silvia. — Shakespeare, The Two Gen- 
tlemen of Verona (1594). 

Shakespeare calls the word Pro'-te-us. 
Malone, Dr. Johnson, etc., retain the h in 
both names, but the Grlobe edition omits 

Protevangelon {^^ first evangelist"),- a 
gospel falsely attributed to St. James the 
Less, first bishop of Jerusalem, noted for 
its minute details of the Virgin and Jesus 
Christ. Said to be the production of L. 
Carinus, of the second century. 

First of all we shall rehearse . . . 
The nativity of om- Lord, 
As written in the old record 
Of the Protevangelon. 

Longfellow, The Golden Legend (1851). 

Protocol {Mr. Peter), the attorney in 
Edinburgh, employed by Mrs. Margaret 





Bertram, of Singleside.— Sir W. Scott, 
Guy Mannering (time, George II.). 

Protosebastos {The), or Sebastocra- 
TOK, tie highest State oflficer in Greece.— 
Sir W. Scott, Count Robert of Paris (time, 

Protospathaire (The), or general of 
Alexius Comnemis, emperor of Greece. 
His name is Nicanor.— Sir W. Scott, Count 
Bohert of Paris (time, Rufus). 

Proud (The). Tarquin II. of Rome, 
was called Superhus (reigned B.C. 535-510, 
died 496). 

Otho IV., kaiser of Germany, was called 
" The Proud" (1175, 1209-1218). 

Proud Duke (The), Charles Seymour, 
duke of Somerset. His children were not 
allowed to sit in his presence; and he 
spoke to his servants by signs only 

Proudfute (Oliver), the boasting bon- 
net-maker at Perth. 

Magdalen or Maudie Proudfute, Oliver's 
widow. — Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth 
(time, Henry IV.). 

Proudie (Dr.), hen-pecked bishop of 
Barchester. A martinet in his diocese, 
a serf in his home, 

Proudie (Mrs.), strong-willed, strong- 
voiced help-mate of the bishop. She lays 
down social, moral, religious and ecclesias- 
tical laws with equal readiness and sever- 
ity. — Anthony TroUope, Framley Parson- 
age and Barchester Towers. 

Prout (Father), the pseudonym of Fran- 
cis Mahoney, a humorous writer in Fra- 
sefs Magazine, etc. (1805-1866). 

Provls, the name assumed by Abel Mag- 
witch, Pip's benefactor. He was a convict, 
who had made a fortune, and whose chief 
desire was to make his protege a gentleman. 
— C. Dickens, Great Expectations (1860). 

Provoked Husband {The), a comedy 
by Cibber and Vanbrugh. The " provoked 
husband" is Lord Townly, justly annoyed 
at the conduct of his young wife, who 
wholly neglects her husband and her 
home duties for a life of gambling and 
dissipation. The husband seeing no hope 
of amendment, resolves on a separate 
maintenance; but then the lady's eyes 
are opened— she promises amendment, 
and is forgiven 

*#* This comedy was Vanbrugh's Jour- 
ney to London, left unfinished at his death. 
Cibber took it, completed it, and brought 
it out under the title of The Provoked Hus- 
band (1728). 

Provoked Wife {The), Lady Brute, the 
wife of Sir John Brute, is, by his ill man- 
ners, brutality, and neglect, " provoked " 
to intrigue with one Constant. The in- 
trigue is not of a very serious nature, 
since it is always interrupted before it 
makes head. At the conclusion, Sir John 

Surly, I may be stubborn, I am not, 
For I have both forgiven and forgot. 

Sir J. Vanbrugh (1697). 

Provost of Bruges {The), a tragedy 
based on " The Serf," in Leitch Ritchie's 
Bomance of History. Published anony- 
mously in 1836 ; the author is S. Knowles. 
The plot is this: Charles "the Good," 
earl of Flanders, made a law that a serf is 
always a serf till manumitted, and who- 
ever marries a serf, becomes thereby a 
serf. Thus, if a prince married the daugh- 
ter of a serf, the prince becomes a serf 




himself, and all his children were serfs. 
Bertulphe, the richest, wisest, and bravest 
man in Flanders, was provost of Bruges. 
His beautiful daughter, Constance, mar- 
ried Sir Bouchard, a knight of noble de- 
scent; but Bertulphe's father had been 
Thancmar's serf, and, according to the 
new law, Bertulphe, the provost, his daugh- 
ter, Constance, and the knightly son-in- 
law were all the serfs of Thancmar. The 
provost killed the earl, and stabbed him- 
self ; Bouchard and Thancmar killed each 
other in fight; and Constance died de- 

Pro\rler (Hugh), any vagrant or high- 

For fear of Hugh Prowler, get home with the 


T. Tusser, Five Hundred Points of Good Hus- 
bandry, xxxiii. 25 (1557). 

Prudence (Mistress), the lady attend- 
ant on Violet, ward of Lady Arundel. 
When Norman, "the sea-captain," made 
love to Violet, Mistress Prudence remon- 
strated, "What will the countess say if 
I allow myself to see a stranger speaking 
to her ward 1 " Norman clapped a guinea 
on her left eye, and asked, " What see 
you now ? " " Why, nothing with my left 
eye," she answered, "but the right has 
still a morbid sensibility." " Poor thing ! " 
said Norman; "this golden ointment 
soon will cure it. What see you now, 
my Prudence?" "Not a soul," she 
said. — Lord Lytton, The Sea-Captain 

Prudhomme (Joseph), " pupil of Brard 
and Saint-Omer," caligraphist and sworn 
expert in the courts of law. Joseph 
Prudhomme is the synthesis of bourgeois 
imbecility; radiant, serene, and self-satis- 
fied; letting fall from his fat lips "one 

weak, washy, everlasting flood " of puerile 
aphorisms and inane circumlocutions. He 
says, "The car of the state floats on a 
precipice." " This sword is the proudest 
day of my life." — Henri Monnier, Gran- 
deur et Decadence de Joseph Prudhomme 

Pruddoterie (Madame de la). Charac- 
ter in comedy of George Dandin, by Mo- 

Prvie (Miss), a schoolgirl still under 
the charge of a nurse, very precocious 
and very injudiciously brought up. Miss 
Prue is the daughter of Mr. Foresight, a 
mad astrologer, and Mrs. Foresight, a 
frail nonentity. — Congreve, Love for Love 

Prue. Wife of "I"; a dreamer. "Prue 
makes everything think well, even to 
making the neighbors speak well of her." 

Of himself Prue's husband says : 

" How queer that a man who owns castles in 
Spain should be deputy book-keeper at $900 
per annum ! " — George WUHam Curtis, Fme 
and I (1856). 

Prunes and Prisms, the words which 
give the lips the right plie of the highly 
aristocratic mouth, as Mrs. G-eneral tells 
Amy Dorrit. 

"'Papa' gives a pretty form to the lips. 
' Papa,' ' potatoes,' ' poultry,' ' prunes and prisms.' 
You will find it serviceable if you say to your- 
self on entering a room, ' Papa, potatoes, poul- 
try, prunes and prisms.' " — 0. Dickens, lAHle 
Borrit (1855). 

G-eneral Burgoyne," in The Heiress, 
makes Lady Emily tell Miss Alscrip that 
the magic words are "nimini pimini;" 
and that if she will stand before her mir- 
ror and pronounce these words repeated- 
ly, she cannot fail to give her lips that 




happy plie whicli is known as the " Pa- 
phian mimp." — The Heiress, iii. 2 (1781). 

Pru'sio, king of Alvareechia, slain by 
Zerbi'no. — Ariosto, Orlando Furioso 

Pry (Paul), one of those idle, meddling 
fellows, who, having no employment of 
their own, are perpetually interfering in 
the affairs of other people.— John Poole, 
Paul Pry. 

Prydwen or Peidwin (q.v.), called in 
the Maiinogion, the ship of King Arthur. 
It was also the name of his shield. Talies- 
sin speaks of it as a ship, and Robert of 
Gloucester as a shield. 

Hys sseld that het Prydwen. 

Myd ye suerd he was ygurd, that so strong was 

and kene ; 
Calybourne yt was ycluped, nas nour no such 

ye wene. 
In ys right hond ys lance he nom, that ycluped 

was Ron. 

I. 174. 

Prynne (Hester). Handsome, haughty 
gentlewoman of English birth, married to 
a deformed scholar, whom she does not 
love. She comes alone to Boston, meets 
Arthur Dimmesdale, a young clergyman, 
and becomes his wife in all except in name. 
When her child is born she is condemned 
to stand in the pillory, holding it in her 
arms, to be reprimanded by officials, civic 
and clerical, and to wear, henceforward, 
upon her breast, the letter " A " in scarlet. 
Her fate is more enviable than that of her 
undiscovered lover, whose vacillations of 
dread and despair and determination to 
reveal all but move Hester to deeper 
pity and stronger love. She is beside 
him when he dies in the effort to bare his 
bosom and show the cancerous Scarlet 
Letter that has grown into his flesh while 

she wore hers outwardly. — Nathaniel 
Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter (1850). 

Psalmist [The). King David is called 

" The Sweet Psalmist of Israel " (2 Sam. 
xxiii. 1). In the compilation called 
Psalms, in the Old Testament, seventy- 
three bear the name of David, twelve were 
composed by Asaph, eleven by the sons 
of Korah, and one {Psalm xc.) by Moses. 

Psycarpax (i e. '^granary-thief^), son 
of Troxartas, king of the mice. The frog 
king offered to carry the young Psycarpax 
over a lake ; but a water-hydra made its 
appearance, and the frog-king, to save 
himself, dived under water, whereby the 
mouse prince lost his life. .This catastro- 
phe brought about the fatal Battle of the 
Frogs and Mice. Translated from the 
Greek into English verse by ParneU 

Psyche [Si'.ke], a most beautiful maid- 
en, with whom Cupid fell in love. The god 
told her she was never to seek to know 
who he was ; but Psyche could not resist 
the curiosity of looking at him as he lay 
sleep. A drop of the hot oil from Psyche's 
lamp falling on the love-god, woke him, 
and he instantly took to flight. Psyche 
now wandered from place to place, perse- 
cuted by Venus; but after enduring in- 
effable troubles, Cupid came at last to 
her rescue, married her, and bestowed on 
her immortality. 

This exquisite allegory is from the 
Golden Ass of Apuleios. Lafontaine has 
turned it into French verse. M. Laprade 
(born 1812) has rendered it into French 
most exquisitely. The English version, 
by Mrs. Tighe, in six cantos, is simply 

Ptemog'lyphus (" bacon-scooper "), one 

Hester Prynne 

H. G. Boughton, Artist C. P. Slocombe, Engraver 

71 y EAR the cottage by the seashore, where Hester Prynne had 
^ V dwelt, one afternoon, some children were at play, when they 
beheld a tall woman in a gray robe, approach the cottage- 
door. In allthose years, ithadneveroncebeen opened; but either she un- 
locked it, or the decaying wood and iron yielded to her hand, or she 
glided shadow-like through these impediments, and, at all events, 
went in. 

"Onthe threshold, shepaused — turned partly round,— for, perchance 
the idea of entering all alone, and all so changed, the home of so in- 
tense a former life, was more dreary and desolate than even she could 
bear. But her hesitation was only for an instant, though long enough 
to display a scarlet letter on her breast. 
"And Hester Prynne had returned, and taken up her long-forsaken 


Hawthorne's " The Scarlet Letter," 





of the mouse chieftains. — Parnell, Battle 
of the Frogs and Mice, iii. (about 1712). 

Ptemoph'agus (" bacon-eater "), one of 
the mouse chieftains. 

But dire Pternophagus divides his way 
Thro' breaking ranks, and leads the dreadful day. 
No nibbling prince excelled in fierceness more, — 
His parents fed him on the savage boar. 
ParneU, Battle of the Frogs and Mice, iii. (about 

Ptemotractas (" bacon-gnawer "), father 
of "the meal-licker," Lycomile (wife of 
Troxartas, "the bread-eater"). Psy car- 
pas, the king of the mice, was son of Ly- 
comile, and grandson of Ptemotractas. 
— Parnell, Battk of the Frogs and Mice, i. 
(about 1712). 

Public G-ood {The League of the), a 
league between the dukes of Burgundy, 
Brittany, and other French princes against 
Louis XI. 

Public'ola, of the Despatch Newspaper, 
was the nom de plume of Mr. Williams, a 
vigorous political writer. 

Pulblius, the surviving son of Hora- 
tius after the combat between the three 
Horatian brothers against the three Curi- 
atii of Alba. He entertained the Roman 
notion that " a patriot's soul can feel no 
ties but duty, and know no voice of kin- 
dred" if it conflicts with his country's 
weal. His sister was engaged to Caius 
Curiatius, one of the three Alban cham- 
pions; and when she reproved him for 
" murdering " her betrothed, he slew her, 
for he loved Rome more than he loved 
friend, sister, brother, or the sacred name 
of father.— Whitehead, The Roman Father 
(1714). ' 

Pucel. La bel Pucel lived in the tower 

of " Musyke." Graunde Amoure, sent 
thither by Fame to be instructed by the 
seven ladies of science, fell in love with 
her, and ultimately married her. After 
his death, Remembrance wrote his " epi- 
taphy on his graue." — S. Hawes, The 
Passe-tyme of Pleasure (1506, printed 1515). 

Pucelle {La), a surname given to Joan 
of Arc, the "Maid of Orleans " (1410-1431). 

Puck, generally called Hobgoblin. Same 
as Robin Goodfellow. Shakespeare, in 
Midsummer NigMs Dream, represents him 
as " a very Shetlander among the gossa- 
mer-winged, dainty-limbed fairies, strong 
enough to knock all their heads together, 
a rough, knurly-limbed, fawn-faced, shock- 
pated, mischievous little urchin." 

He [Ohermi] meeteth Puck, which most men call 
Hobgoblin, and on him doth fall, 
"With words from phrenzy spoken. 
" Hoh ! hoh ! " quoth Hob ; " G-od save your 
grace ..." 

Drayton, Wymphidia (1593). 

Pudding {Jack), a gormandizing clown. 
In French he is called Jean Potage; in 
Dutch, PicMe-Herringe ; in Italian, Maca- 
roni; in German, John Sausage (Hans- 

Puff, servant of Captain Loveit, and 
husband of Tag, of whom he stands in awe. 
— D. Garrick, Miss in Her Teens (1753). 

Puff {Mr.), a man who had tried his 
hand on everything to get a living, and 
at last resorts to criticism. He says of 
himself, " I am a practitioner in pane- 
gyric, or to speak more plainly, a profes- 
sor of the art of puf&ng." 

" I open," says Puff, " with a clock striking, 

^ to beget an awful attention in the audience ; it 

also marks the time, which is four o'clock in the 

morning, and saves a description of the rising 





sun, and a great deal about gilding the eastern 
hemisphere."— Sheridan, The Critic, i. 1 (1779). 

" God forbid," says Mr. Puff, " that in a free 
country, aU the fliie words in the language 
should be engrossed by the highest characters 
of the piece." — Sir W. Scott,. The Drama. 

Puff, publisher. He says : 

" Panegyric and praise ! and what will that 
do with the public ? Why, who wiU give money 
to be told that Mr. Such-a-one is a wiser and 
better man than himself? No, no! 'tis quite, 
and clean out of nature. A good, sousing 
satire, now, well powdered with personal pepper, 
and seasoned with the spirit of party, that de- 
moUshes a conspicuous character, and sinks him 
below our own level — there, there, we are pleased ; 
there we chuckle and grhi, and toss the half- 
crowns on the counter." — ^Poote, The Patron 

Pug, a miscliievous little goblin, called 
" Puck " by Shakespeare. — B. Jonson, The 
Devil is an Ass (1616). 

Puggie-Orrock, a sheriff's officer at 
Pairport. — Sir W. Scott, The Antiquary 
(time, Greorge III.). 

Pul'ci (X.), poet of Florence (1432- 
1487), author of the heroi-comie poem 
called Morgante Maggiore, a mixture of the 
bizarre, the serious, and the comic, in rid- 
icule of the romances of chivalry. This 
Don Juan class of poetry has since been 
•called JBernesque, from Francesco Berni, 
of Tuscany, who greatly excelled in it. 

Pulci was sire of the half -serious rhyme. 
Who sang when chivalry was more quixotic. 
And revelled in the fancies of the time. 
True knights, chaste dames, huge giants, kings 

Byron, Don Juan, iv. 6 (1820). 

Pulia'no,' leader of the Nasamo'ni. He 
was slain by Einaldo. — Ariosto, Orlando 
Fwrioso (1516). 

Pumblechook, uncle to Joe Gargery, 

the blacksmith. He was a weU-to-do corn- 
chandler, and drove his own chaise-cart. 
A hard-breathing, middle-aged, slow man 
was uncle Pumblechook, with fishy eyes 
and sandy hair, inquisitively on end. He 
called Pip, in his facetious way, "six- 
pen'orth of h'pence ; " but when Pip came 
into his fortune, Mr. Pumblechook was 
the most servUe of the servile, and ended 
every sentence with, " May I, Mr. Pip ? " 
i.e, have the honor of shaking hands with 
you again. — C. Dickens, Great Expecta- 
tions (1860). 

Pumpernickel {His Transparency), a 
nickname by which the Times satirized 
the minor German princes. 

Some ninety men and ten drummers con- 
stitute their whole embattled host on the pa- 
rade-ground before their palace; and their 
whole revenue is supplied by a percentage on 
the tax levied on strangers at the Pumper- 
nickel kursaal. — Times, July 18, 1866. 

Pumpkin {Sir Gilbert), a country gen- 
tleman plagued, with a ward (Miss Kitty 
Sprightly) and a set of servants all stage 
mad. He entertains Captain Charles 
Stanley, and Captain Harry Stukely at 
Strawberry Hall, when the former, under 
cover of acting, makes love to Kitty (an 
heiress), elopes with her, and marries her. 

Miss Bridget Pumpkin, sister of Sir 
Gilbert, of Strawberry Hall. A Mrs. Mal- 
aprop. She says, " The Greeks, the Ro- 
mans, and the Irish are barbarian nations 
who had plays ; " but Sir Gilbert says, 
" they were all Jacobites." She speaks of 
" taking a degree at our principal adver- 
sity ; " asks " if the Muses are a family 
living at Oxford," if so, she tells Captain 
Stukely, she will be delighted to " see them 
at Strawberry Hall, with any other of his 
friends." Miss Pumpkin hates "play 
acting," but does not object to love-mak- 
ing.— Jackman, All the World's a Stage. 

Cupid and Psyche 

Paul Baudryj ArtUt Charles IValtner, Engraver 

'T~\SYCHE, the youngest of three daughters of a king, was so beautiful 
m that she was worshipped as a second Venus, jealous of her rival, 
the goddess called her son Cupid and commanded him to inspire 
Psyche with love for some abje£t -wretch. Psyche is wafted by a :^ephyr to 
a palace, where she becomes the bride of Cupid, who, however, only comes 
to her undex, cover pf night Her sisters visit her and, making her believe 
that her iM^Mld is a serpent, persuade her to light a lamp and look at him 
while M sleeps.,^ Astonished at the divine beauty of her husband, her hand 
trembles, and a drop:pf oil from the lamp falls upon him and awakens Mm, 
and to punish b^ft for Jser curiosity he flies away and leaves her. Long 
wandering arid, many trials follow, but Jupiter -at last thwarts the schemes 
of Venus, restorM the lovers to each other, and bestows immortality upon 
Psyche. <■■_ Iv 

«' v^ 







Punch, derived from the Latin Mimi, 
tkrough the Italian Pullicenella. It was 
originally intended as a characteristic 
representation. The tale is this : Punch, 
in a fit of jealousy, strangles his infant 
child, when Judy flies to her revenge. 
With a bludgeon she belabors her hus- 
band, till he becomes so exasperated that 
he snatches the bludgeon from her, knocks 
her brains out, and flings the dead body 
into the street. Here it attracts the notice 
of a police officer, who enters the house, 
and Punch flies to save his life. He is, 
however, arrested by an officer of the- 
Inquisition, and is shut up in prison, from 
which he escapes by a golden key. The 
rest of the allegory shows the triumph of 
Punch over slander, in the shape of a dog, 
disease in the guise of a doctor, death, and 
the devil. 

Pantalone was a Venetian merchant; 
Dottore a Bolognese physician; Spaviento 
a Neapolitan braggadocio; Pullicinella a 
wag of Apulia; Giangurgolo and Coviello 
two clowns of Calabria; Gelsomino a Ro- 
man beau ; Beltrame a Milanese simpleton ; 
Brighella a Ferrarese pimp ; and Arlecchino 
a blundering servant of Bergamo. Each 
was clad in an appropriate dress, had a 
characteristic mask, and spoke the dialect 
of the place he represented. 

Besides these there were Amorosos or 
Innamoratos, with their servettas, or wait- 
ing-maids, as Smeraldina, Columbina, Spil- 
letta, etc., who spoke Tuscan. — Walker, 
On the Revival of the Drama in Italy, 

Punch, the periodical. The first cover 
was designed by A. S. Henning ; the pres- 
ent one by R. Doyle. 

Pure {Simon), a Pennsylvanian Quaker. 
Being about to visit London to attend the 
quarterly meeting of his sect he brings 

with him a letter of introduction to Oba- 
diah Prim, a rigid, stern Quaker, and the 
guardian of Anne Lovely, an heiress worth 
£30,000. Colonel FeignweU, availing him- 
self of this letter of introduction, passes 
himself off as Simon Pure, and gets estab- 
lished as the accepted suitor of the heiress. 
Presently the real Simon Pure makes his 
appearance, and is treated as an impostor 
and swindler. The colonel hastens on the 
marriage arrangements, and has no sooner 
completed them than Master Simon re-ap- 
pears, with witnesses to prove his identity ; 
but it is too late, and Colonel FeignweU 
freely acknowledges the "bold stroke he 
has made for a wife." — Mrs. Centlivre, A 
Bold Stroke for a Wife (1717). 

Purefoy {Master), former tutor of Dr. 
Anthony Rochecliffe, the plotting royalist. 
— Sir W. Scott, Woodstock (time. Common- 

Purgatory, by Dante, in thirty-three 
cantos ( 1308) . Having emerged from Hell, 
Dante saw in the southern hemisphere four 
stars, " ne'er seen before, save by our first 
parents." The stars were symbolical of 
the four cardinal virtues (prudence, jus- 
tice, fortitude and temperance). Turning 
round, he observed- old Cato, who said that 
a dame from Heaven had sent him to pre- 
pare the Tuscan poet for passing through 
Purgatory. Accordingly, with a slender 
reed, old Cato girded him, and from his 
face he washed " all sordid stain," restor- 
ing to his face " that hue which the dun 
shades of Hell had covered and concealed" 
(canto i.). Dante then followed his guide, 
Virgil, to a huge mountain in mid-ocean 
antipodal to Judea, and began the ascent. 
A party of spirits were ferried over at the 
same time by an angel, amongst whom 
was Casella, a musician, one of Dante's 
friends. The mountain, he tells us, is 





divided into terraces, and terminates in 
Earthly Paradise, whicli is separated from 
it by two rivers — Lethe and fiu'noe (3 syl). 
The first eight cantos are occupied by the 
ascent, and then they come to the gate of 
Purgatory. This gate is approached by 
three stairs (faith, penitence and piety); 
the first stair is transparent white marble, 
as clear as crystal; the second is black 
and cracked ; and the third is of blood-red 
porphyry (canto ix.). The porter marked 
on Dante's forehead seven P's {peccata, 
" sins "), and told him he would lose one 
at every stage, till he reached the river 
which divided Purgatory from Paradise. 
Virgil continued his guide till they came 
to Lethe, when he left hini during sleep 
(canto XXX.). Dante was then dragged 
through the river Lethe, drank of the 
waters of Eunoe, and met Beatrice, who 
conducted him till he arrived at the 
" sphere of unbodied light," when she re- 
signed her office to St. Bernard. 

Piirgon, one of the doctors in Moliere's 
comedy of Le Malade Imaginaire. When 
the patient's brother interfered, and sent 
the apothecary away with his clysters. Dr. 
Purgon got into a towering rage, and 
threatened to leave the house and never 
more visit it. He then said to the patient 
" Que vous tombiez dans la bradypepsie 
. . . de la bradypepsie dans la dyspepsie 
. . . de la dyspepsie dans I'apepsie . . . de 
I'apepsie dans la lienterie . . . de la lien- 
terie dans la dyssenterie . . . de la dys- 
senterie dans I'hydropisie . . . et de I'hy- 
dropisie dans la privation de la vie." 

Piirita'ni (I), "the puritans," that is 
Elvi'ra, daughter of Lord Walton, also a 
puritan, affianced to Ar'turo {Lord Arthur 
Talbot) a cavalier. On the day of espou- 
sals, Arturo aids Enrichetta {Henrietta, 
widow of Charles I.), to escape; and Elvira, 

supposing that he is eloping, loses her 
reason. On his return, Arturo explains 
the facts to Elvira, and they vow nothing 
on earth shall part them more, when Ar- 
turo is arrested for treason, and led off to 
execution. At this crisis, a herald an- 
nounces the defeat of the Stuarts, and 
Cromwell pardons all political offenders, 
whereupon Arturo is released, and mar- 
ries Elvira. — Bellini's opera, I Puritani 

Purley {Diversions of), a work on the 
analysis and etymology of English words, 
so called from Purley, where it was written 
by John Home. In 1782 he assumed the 
name of Tooke, from Mr. Tooke, of Purley, 
in Surrey, with whom he often stayed, and 
who left him £8000 (vol. L, 1785; vol. ii., 

Purple Island {The), the human body. 
It is the name of a poem in twelve cantos, 
by Phineas Fletcher (1633). Canto i. In- 
troduction. Cantos ii.-v. An anatomical 
description of the human body, considered 
as an island kingdom. Cantos vi. The 
"intellectual" man. Cantos vii. The 
"natural man," with its affections and 
lusts. Canto viii. The world, the flesh, 
and the devil, as 'the enemies of man. 
Cantos ix., x. The friends of man who en- 
able him to overcome these enemies. 
Cantos xi., xii. The battle of "Mansoul," the 
triumph, and the marriage of Eelecta. 
The whole is supposed to be sung to shep- 
herds by Thirsil, a shepherd. 

Pusil'lus, Feeble-mindedness personi- 
fied in The Purple Island, by Phineas 
Fletcher (1633); "a weak, distrustful 
heart." Fully described in cantos viii. 
(Latin, pusillus, " pusillanimous.") 

Puss-in-Boots, from Charles Per- 

Psyche and Charon 

A. 7Acky Artist 

T) SYCHE is thm instruSied to seek Proserpine in order 
J. to secure from her the beauty "which Vetim has com- 

missioned her to bring. 
"Go on, without delay, till you arrive at the river of 
the Dead, where Charon, sternly demanding his fee, ferries 
' the passengers over in .his cra^iy boat to the further shore. 
* * * To this squalid old man give one of the pieces 
of money which you carry with von. But. above all things I 
warn you, be particularly caulioi-is not to open or look in the' 
box which you carry." 

Apuleius' "The Golden Ass." 





rault's tale Le Chat Botte (1697). Per- 
rault borrowed the tale from the Nights 
of Straparola, an Italian. Straparola's 
Nights were translated into French in 
1585, and Perrault's Contes de Fees were 
published in 1697. Ludwig Tieck, the 
G-erman novelist, reproduced the same tale 
in his Volksmdrchen (1795), called in Ger- 
man Der Gestiefelte Kater. The cat is 
marvellously accomplished, and by ready 
wit or ingenious tricks secures a fortune 
and royal wife for his master, a penniless 
young miUer, who passes under the name 
of the marquis de Car'abas. In the 
Italian tale, puss is called " Constantine's 

Pwyll's Bag {Prince), a bag that it 
was impossible to fill. 

Come thou in by thyself, clad in ragged gar- 
ments, and holding a bag in thy hand, and ask 
nothing but a bagful of food, and I will cause 
that if all the meat and liquor that are in these 
seven cantreves were put into it, it would be no 
fuller than before. — The Mabinogion (PwyU. 
Prince of Dj^^ed," twelfth century). 

Pygma'lion, a sculptor of Cyprus. 
He resolved never to marry, but became 
enamored of his own ivory statue, 
which Venus endowed with life, and the 
sculptor married. Morris has a poem 
on the subject in his Earthly Paradise 
(''August"), and Gilbert a comedy. 

Fell in loue with these, 
As did Pygmalion with his carved tree. 
Lord Brooke, Treatie on Suman Learning 

*#* Lord Brooke calls the statue " a 
carved tree." There is a vegetable ivory, 
no doubt, one of the palm species, and 
there is the ehon tree, the wood of which is 
black as jet. The former could not be 
known to Pygmalion, but the latter might, 
as Virgil speaks of it in his Georgics, ii. 
117, " India nigrum fert ebenum." Pro- 

bably Lord Brooke blundered from the 
resemblance between ebor ( " ivory ") and 
ebon, in Latin " ebenum." 

Pygmy, a dwarf. The pygmies were a 
nation of dwarfs always at war with the 
cranes of Scythia. They were not above 
a foot high, and lived somewhere at the 
"end of the earth" — either in Thrace, 
Ethiopia, India, or the Upper Nile, The 
pygmy women were mothers at the age of 
three, and old women at eight. Their 
houses were built of egg-shells. They cut 
down a blade of wheat with an axe and 
hatchet, as we fell huge forest trees. 

One day, they resolved to attack Her- 
cules in his sleep, and went to work as in 
a siege. An army attacked each hand, 
and the archers attacked the feet. Her- 
cules awoke, and with the paw of his lion- 
skin overwhelmed the whole host, and 
carried them captive to King Eurystheus. 

Swift has availed himself of this Grecian 
fable in his Gulliver'^s Travels (" Lilliput," 

Pyke and Pluck (Messrs.), the tools 
and toadies of Sir Mulberry Hawk. They 
laugh at aU his jokes, snub, all who at- 
tempt to rival their patron, d.nd are ready 
to swear to anything Sir Mulberry wishes 
to have confirmed, — C. Dickens, Nicholas 
Nichleby (1838). 

Pylades and Orestes, inseparable 
friends. Pylades was a nephew of King 
Agamemnon, and Orestes was Agamem- 
non's son. The two cousins contracted a 
friendship which has become proverbial. 
Subsequently, Pylades married Orestes's 
sister, Electra. 

Lagrange-Chancel has a French drama 
entitled Oreste et Pylade (1695). Voltaire 
also {Oreste, 1750). The two characters 
are introduced into a host of plays, Greek, 



Italian, French, and English. (See An- 

Pynchons ( The). Mr. Pynchon, a " rep- 
resentative of the highest and noblest 
class " in the Massachusetts Colony ; one 
of the first settlers in Agawam (Spring- 
field, Mass.). 

Mrs. Pynchon (a second wife), a woman 
of excellent sense, with thorough rever- 
ence for her husband. 

Mary Pynchon, beautiful and winning 
girl, afterward wedded to Elizur Holyoke. 

John Pynchon, a promising boy. — J. Gr, 
Holland, The Bay Path (1857). 

Pyncheon {Col.). An old bachelor, pos- 
sessed of great wealth, and of an eccentric 
and melancholy turn of mind, the owner 
and tenant of the old Pyncheon mansion. 
He dies suddenly, after a life of selfish 
devotion to his own interests, and is thus 
found when the house is opened in the 
morning. — Nathaniel Hawthorne, The 
House of the Seven Gables (1851). 

Pyrac'mon, one of Vulcan's workmen 
in the smithy of Mount Etna. (Glreek, 
pur akmon, " fire anvil.") 

Par passing Bronteus or Pyracmon great, 
The which in Lipari do day and night 
Prame thunderbolts for Jove. 

Spenser, Faery Qtieen, iv. 5 (1596). 

Pyramid. According to Diodo'rus Sic'- 
ulus {Hist., i.), and Pliny {Nat. Hist, 
xxxvi. 12), there were 360,000 men em- 
ployed for nearly twenty years upon one 
of the pyramids. 

The largest pyramid was built by Cheops 
or Suphis, the next largest by Cephrenes 
or Sen-Suphis, and the third by Menche- 
res, last king of the Fourth Egyptian 
dynasty, said to have lived before the 
birth of Abraham. 

The Third Pyramid. Another tradition 
is that the third pyramid was built by 
Rhodopis or Rhodope, the Grreek courtezan. 
Rhodopis means the " rosy-cheeked." 

The RhodopS that bmlt the pyramid. 

Tennyson, The Princess, ii. (1830). 

Pyr'amos (in Latin Pyramus), the lover 
of Thisbe. Supposing Thisbe had been 
torn to pieces by a lion, Pyramos stabs 
himself in his unutterable grief " under a 
mulberry tree." Here Thisbe finds the 
dead body of her lover, and kills herself 
for grief on the same spot. Ever since 
then the juice of this fruit has been blood- 
stained. — Greek Mythology. 

Shakespeare has introduced a burlesque 
of this pretty love story in his Midsummer 
NighPs Dream, but Ovid has told the tale 
beautifully. . 

Pyrgo Polini'ces, an extravagant blus- 
terer. (The word means "tower and 
town taker.") — Plautus, Miles Gloriosus. 

If the modern reader knows nothing of Pyrgo 
Polinices and Thraso, Pistol and Parolles ; if he 
is shut out from Nephelo-Coecygia, he may take 
refuge in Lilliput. — Macaulay. 

***" Thraso," a bully in Terence {The 
Eunvcli) ; " Pistol," in the Merry Wives of 
Windsor and 2 Henry IV.; " Parolles," in 
All's Well that Ends Well; "Nephelo- 
Coecygia," or cloud cuckoo-town, in Aris- 
tophane's {The Birds) ; and " Lilliput," in 
Swift {Gullivefs Travels). 

Py'rocles (3 syl.) and his brother, Cy'- 
mocles (3 syl.), sons of Aerates {inconti- 
nence). The two brothers are about to 
strip Sir Guyon, when Prince Arthur 
comes up and slays both of them. — Spen- 
ser, Faery Queen, ii. 8 (1590). 

Pyroc'les and Musidorous, heroes, 

Puck and the Fairies 

Arthur Httghes, Artist 

' ZpiTHERImw 
i^j Or else you 

' mistake your shape and making quite. 
you are that shrewd and knavish Sprite, 
Called Robin Goodfellow * * * 
Are not you he ? 


Thou Speakest aright, 
I am that merry wanderer of the night. 

Shakespeare' s "Midsummer Night's Dream. " 

{By courtesy of Mitchell's. N. K;) 



whose exploits are told by Sir Philip Sid- 
ney in his Arcadia (1581). 


their heavy sledges " with measured beat 
and slow." 

Pyr'rho, the founder of the sceptics or 
Pyrrhonian school of philosophy. He was 
a native of Ehs, in Peloponne'sus, and 
died at the age of 90 (b.c. 285). 

It is a pleasant voyage, perhaps, to float, 
Like Pyrrho, on a sea of speculation. 

Byron, Bon Juan, ix. 18 (1824). 

*#* " Pyrrhonism " means absolute, and 
unlimited infidelity. 

Pythag'oras, the Greek philosopher, 
is said to have discovered the musical scale 
from hearing the sounds produced by a 
blacksmith hammering iron on his anvil. 
— See Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 722. 

As great Pythagoras of yore, 
Standing beside the blacksmith's door. 
And hearing the hammers, as he smote 
The anvils with a different note . . . 
. . . formed the seven-chorded lyre. 

Longfellow, To a ' Child. 

Handel wrote an " air with variations " 
which he called The Harmonious Black- 
smith, said to have been suggested by the 
sounds proceeding from a smithy, where 
he heard the village blacksmiths swinging 

Pyth'ias, a Syracusan soldier, noted 
for his friendship for Damon. When Da= 
mon was condemned to death by Diony- 
sius, the new-made king of Syracuse, 
Pythias obtained for him a respite of six 
hours, to go and bid farewell to his wife 
and child. The condition of this respite 
was that Pythias should be bound, and 
even executed, if Damon did not return 
at the hour appointed. Damon returned 
in due time, and Dionysius was so struck 
with this proof of friendship, that he not 
only pardoned Damon, but even begged 
to be ranked among his friends. The 
day of execution was the day that Pyth- 
ias was to have been married to Calanthe. 
— Damon and Pythias, a drama by E. Ed- 
wards (1571), and another by John Banim 
in 1825. 

Python, a huge serpent engendered 
from the mud of the deluge, and slain by 
Apollo. In other words, pytho is the 
miasma or mist from the evaporation of 
the overflow, dried up by the sun. (Greek, 
puthesthai, " to rot ; " because the serpent 
was left to rot in the sun.) 

(OLD), the earl of March, 
afterwards duke of Queens- 
berry, at tlie close of the 
last century and the begin- 
ning of this. 

Quacks (Noted). 

Bechic, known for his "cough pills," con- 
sisting of digitalis, white oxide of antimony 
and licorice. Sometimes, but erroneously, 
called " Beecham's magic cough pills." 

Booker (John), astrologer, etc. (1601- 

Bossy (Dr.), a German by birth. He 
was well known in the beginning of the 
nineteenth century in Covent Garden, and 
in other parts of London. 

Beodum (eighteenth century). His 
"nervous cordial" consisted of gentian 
root infused in gin. Subsequently, a little 
bark was added. 

Cagliosteo, the prince of quacks. His 





proper name was Josepli Balsamo, and Ms 
father was Pietro Balsamo, of Palermo. 
He married Lorenza, the daughter of a 
girdle-maker of Rome, called himself the 
Count Alessandro di Cagliostro, and his 
wife the Countess Seraphina di Cagliostro. 
He professed to heal every disease, to 
abolish wrinkles, to predict future events, 
and was a great mesmerist. He styled 
himself "Grand Cophta, Prophet, and 
Thaumaturge." His " Egyptian pills" sold 
largely at 30s. a box (1743-1795). One of 
the famous novels of A. Dumas is Joseph 
Balsamo (1845). 

He had a flat, snub face; dew-lapped, flat- 
nosed, greasy, and sensual. A forehead impu- 
dent, and two eyes which turned up most ser- 
aphically languishing. It was a model face for 
a quack. — Carlyle, Life of Cagliostro. 

Case {Br. John), of Lime Eegis, Dorset- 
shire. His name was Latinized into 
Caseus, and hence he was sometimes called 
Dr. Cheese. He was born in the reign of 
Charles II., and died in that of Anne. Dr. 
Case was the author of the Angelic Guide, 
a kind of ZadkieVs Almanac, and over his 
door was this couplet : 

Within this place 
Lives Dr. Case. 

Legions of quacks shall join us in this place. 
From great Kirleus down to Dr. Case. 

Garth, Dispensary, m.. (1699). 

Claeke, noted for his "world-famed 
blood-mixture" (end of the nineteenth 

CociOiE {James), known for his anti-bil- 
ious pills, advertised as " the oldest patent 
. medicine " (nineteenth century). 

Feanks (Dr. Timothy), who lived in Old 
Bailey, was the rival of Dr. Eock. Franks 
was a very tall man, while his rival was 
short and stout (1692-1763). 

Dr. Franks, F.O.G.H., calls his rival " Dump- 
hn' Dick," . . . Sure the world is wide enough 
for two great personages. Men of science should 

leave controversy to the little world. . . . and 
then we might see Rock and Franks walking 
together, hand-in-hand, smiling, onward to im- 
mortality. — Goldsmith, A Gitizen of the World, 
Ixviii. (1759). 

Geaham {Dr.), of the Temple of Health, 
first in the Adelphi, then in Pall Mall. 
He sold his "elixir of life" for £1000 a 
bottle, was noted for his mud baths, and 
for his "celestial bed," which assured 
a beautiful progeny. He died poor in 

Geant {Br.), first a tinker, then a Bap- 
tist preacher in Southwark, then oculist 
to Queen Anne. 

Her majesty sure was in a surprise, 

Or else was very short-sighted, 
When a tinker was sworn to look after her 
And the mountebank tailor was knighted. 
Grub Street Journal. 

(The "mountebank tailor" was Dr. 

Hancock {Br.), whose panacea was cold 
water and stewed prunes. 

*** Dr. Sandgrado prescribed hot water 
and stewed apples. — Lesage, Gil Bias. 

Dr. Rezio, of Barataria, would allow 
Sancho Panza to eat only " a few wafers, 
and a thin slice or two of quince." — Cer- 
vantes, Bon Quixote, II. iii. 10 (1615). 

Hannes {Br.), knighted by Queen Anne. 
He was born in Oxfordshire. 

The queen, like heaven, shines equally on all, 

Her favors now without distinction fall, 

Great Read, and slender Hannes, both knighted, 

That none their honors shall to merit owe. 

A Political Squib of the Period. 

HoLLOWAT {Professor), noted for his 
ointment to cure all strumous affections, 
his digestive pills, and his enormous ex- 
penditure in advertising (nineteenth cen- 
tury). Hollo way's ointment is an imita- 
tion of Albinolo's; being analyzed by 
order of the French law-courts, it was de- 
clared to consist of butter, lard, wax and 

Pus s-in- Boots 

Gustave Dori, Artist Pannentaker, Engraver 

CM HE miller dies and leaves bis youngest son nothing but the bouse-cat. 

JL Tbe cat, however, bas a ready wit, and by a series of cunning tricks 

makes bis master's fortune. 

One day, bearing the king was intending to take a drive along the river- 

banh with bis daughter, tbe most beautiful princess in the world. Puss said to 

bis master, " Sir, if you would only follcno my advice, your fortune is made. 

You have only to go and bathe in the river and leave all the rest to me. Only 

remernber that you are no longer yourself, but my lord, tbe Marquis of 

Carabas, ' ' 

Tbe miller's son did as tbe cat told bim, and while be was bathing, tbe 
king and all bis court passed by, and were startled to bear loud cries of 
" Help I help / my lord tbe Marquis of Carabas is drowning! " The king 
put bis bead out of the carriage, and saw the cat, who begged for help, as 
some ruffians bad tbrvvm her master into tbe river, and stolen bis clothes. 
Tbe king sent bis servants to tbe young man with afresh suit of clothes, and 
took bim to his castle, where Jx soon after married the beautiful princess. 

. Perratdt's " Tales. ' ' 

1 - 






Venice turpentine. His pills are made of 
aloes, jalap, ginger and myrrh. 

Kateefelto (Dr.), the influenza doctor. 
He was a tall man, dressed in a black gown 
and square cap, and was originally a com- 
mon soldier in the Prussian service. In 
1782 he exhibited in London his solar 
microscope, and created immense excite- 
ment by showing the infusoria of muddy 
water, etc. Dr. Katerfelto used to say 
that he was the greatest philosopher since 
the time of Sir Isaac Newton, 

And Katerfelto, with his hair on end, 
At his own wonders, wondering for his bread. 
Cowper, The Task (" The Winter Evening," 1782). 

Lilly {William), astrologer, born at 
Diseworth, in Leicestershire (1602-1681). 

Long {St. John), born at Newcastle, began 
life as an artist, but afterwards set up as 
a curer of consumption, rheumatism and 
gout. His profession brought him wealth, 
and he lived in Harley Street, Cavendish 
Square. St. John Long died himself of 
rapid consumption (1798-1834). 

Mapp {Mrs.), bone-setter. She was born 
at Epsom, and at one time was very rich, 
but she died in great poverty at her lodg- 
ings in Seven Dials, 1737. 

*** Hogarth has introduced her in his 
heraldic picture, " The Undertakers' Arms." 
She is the middle of the three figures at 
the top, and is holding a bone in her hand. 

MooEE {Mr. John), of the Pestle and 
Mortar, Abchurch Lane, immortalized by 
his "worm-powder," and called the "Worm 
Doctor" (died 1733). 

Vain is thy art, thy powder vain, 
Since worms shall eat e'en thee. 

Pope, To Mr. John Moore (1723). 

MoKisoN {Dr.), famous for his pills (con- 
sisting of aloes and cream of tartar, equal 
parts). Professor Holloway, Dr. Morison, 
and Rowland, maker of hair-oil and tooth- 
powder, were the greatest advertisers of 
their generation. 

Partridge, cobbler, astrologer, almanac- 
maker and quack (died 1708). 

Weep, all you customers who use 
His pills, his almanacs, or shoes. 

Swift, Elegy, etc. 

Read {Sir William), a tailor, who set up 
for oculist, and was knighted by Queen 
Anne. This quack was employed both by 
Queen Anne and George I. Sir William 
could not read. He professed to cure 
wens, wry-necks and hare-lips (died 1715). 

. . . none their honors shaU to merit owe — 
That popish doctrine is exploded quite, 
Or Ralph had been no duke, aud Read no knight ; 
That none may virtue or their learning plead, 
This hath no grace, and that can hardly read. 
A Political Bqitib of the Period. 

***The "Ralph" referred to is Ralph 
Montagu, son of Edward Montagu, created 
viscount in 1682, and duke of Montagu in 
1705 (died 1709). 

Rock {Br. Itichard), professed to cure 
every disease, at any stage thereof. Ac- 
cording to his bills, "Be your disorder 
never so far gone, I can cure you." He 
was short in stature and fat, always wore 
a white, three-tailed wig, nicely combed 
and frizzed upon each cheek, carried a 
cane, and waddled in Jiis gait (eighteenth 

Dr. Rock, F.U.N., never wore a hat. He is 
usuaUy drawn at the top of his own bills sitting 
in an armchair, holding a little bottle between 
his finger and thumb, and surrounded with rot- 
ten teeth, nippers, pills and galhpots. — Gold- 
smith, A Citizen of the World, Ixviii. (1759). 

Smith {Br.), who went about the coun- 
try in the eighteenth century in his coach 
with four outriders. He dressed in black 
velvet, and cured any disease for sixpence. 
" His amusements on the stage were well 
worth the sixpence which he charged for 
his box of pills." 

As I was sitting at the George Inn I saw a 
coach, with sis bay horses, a calash and four, a 
chaise and four, enter the inn, in yeUow livery 





tamed up witli red; and four gentlemen on 
horseback, in blue trimmed with silver. As 
yeUow is the color given by the dukes in Eng- 
land, I went out to see what duke it was, but 
there was no coronet on the coach, only a plain 
coat-of-arms, with the motto Argento Laborat 
Faber [Smith works for money]. Upon inquiry 
I found this grand equipage belonged to a 
mountebank named Smith. — A Tour through 
England (1723). 

Solomon (Dr.), eighteenth century. His 
" anti-impetigines " was simply a solution 
of bichloride of mercury, colored. 

Tayloe (Dr. Chevalier John). He called 
himself " Opthalminator, Pontificial, Im- 
perial, and Eoyal." It is said that five of 
his horses were blind from experiments 
tried by him on their eyes (died 1767). 

*#* Hogajth has introduced Dr. Taylor 
in his " Undertakers' Arms." He is one 
of the three figures at the top, to the left 
hand of the spectator. 

Unboen Doctor (The), Of Moorfields. 
Not being born a doctor, he called himself 
" The Un-born Doctor." 

Walker (Dr.), one of the three great 
quacks of the eighteenth century, the 
others being Dr. Rock and Dr. Timothy 
Franks. Dr. Walker had an abhorrence 
of quacks, and was for ever cautioning 
the public not to trust them, but come at 
once to him, adding, " there is not such 
another medici];ie in the world as mine." 

Not for himselE but for his country he pre- 
pares his gallipot, and seals up his precious drops 
for any country or any town, so great is his zeal 
and philanthropy.— Goldsmith, A Citizen of the 
World, Ixviii. (1759). 

Ward (Dr.), a footman, famous for his 
"friars' balsam." He was called in to 
prescribe for George II., and died 1761. 
Dr. Ward had a claret stain on his left 
cheek, and in Hogarth's famous picture, 
"The Undertakers' Arms," the cheek is 
marked gules. He occupies the right hand 
side of the spectator, and forms one of the 

triumvirate, the others being Dr. Taylor 
and Mrs. Mapp. 

Dr. Kirleus and Dr. Tom Saffold are 
also known names. 

Quackleben (Dr. Quentin), "the man 
of medicine," one of the committee at the 
Spa. — Sir W. Scott, St. Bonan's Well 
(time, Greorge III.). 

Quaint [Timothy), servant of Governor 
Heartail. Timothy is " an odd fish, that 
loves to swim in troubled waters." He 
says, "I never laugh at the governor's 
good humors, nor frown at his infirmities. 
I always keep a steady, sober phiz, fixed 
as the gentleman's on horseback at Char- 
ing Cross ; and, in his worst of humors, 
when all is fire and faggots with him, if I 
turn round and cooUy say, ' Lord, sir, has 
anything rufS.ed you!' he'll burst out into 
an immoderate fit of laughter, and ex- 
claim, ' Curse that inflexible face of thine ! 
Though you never suffer a smile to man- 
tle on it, it is a figure of fun to the rest 
of the world." — Cherry, The Soldier'' s 
Daughter (1804). 

Quaker Poet {The), Bernard Barton 

Quaker Widow. Gentle old dame 
who, on the afternoon of her husband's 
funeral, tells to a kindly visitor the simple 
story of her blameless life, its joys and 
sorrows, and of the light that comes at 

" It is not right to wish for death ; 

The Lord disposes best. 
His spirit comes to quiet hearts 
And fits them for His rest. 
' And that He halved our httle flock 

Was merciful, I see ; 
For Benjamin has two in Heaven, 
And two are left with me." 
Bayard Taylor, The Quaker Widow, 

Pygmalion and Galatea 

Jt»n Raeux, Artist 


M \ YGMALION. a sculptor, carved from ivory so beautiful a statue 

m"^ of a -woman that he became desperately enamoured of it. He 

neglected his other work to spend his time in adoration of his 

Galatea, as he called her, and besought Venus, night and day, to give his 

statue life and breath. The goddess finally granted his request, and the 

ivory figure became flesh and blood. 

The artist has shown the moment when the statue feels the first thrill of 
life. Cupid hovers between the sculptor and his creation. 





Quale (Mr.), a pMlantliropist, noted for 
his bald, shining forehead. Mrs. Jellyby 
hopes her daughter, Caddy, will become 
Quale's wife.— Charles Dickens, Bleak 
House (1853). 

Quasimo'do, a foundling, hideously 
deformed, but of enormous muscular 
strength, adopted by Archdeacon FroUo. 
He is brought up in the cathedral of Notre 
Dame de Paris. One day, he sees Esme- 
ralda, who had been dancing in the cathe- 
dral close, set upon by a mob as a witch, 
and he conceals her for a time in the 
church. When, at length, the beautiful 
gypsy girl is gibbeted, Quasimodo disap- 
pears mysteriously, but a skeleton corre- 
sponding to the deformed figure is found 
after a time in a hole under the gibbet. — 
Victor Hugo, Notre Dame de Paris (1831). 

Quaver, a singing-master, who says, "If 
it were not for singing-masters, men and 
women might as well have been born 
dumb." He courts Lucy by promising to 
give her singing lessons. — Fielding, The 
Virgin Unmasked. 

Quayle (Glory), the beautiful grand- 
daughter of an old parson in the Isle of 
Man. She goes up to London to study 
hospital nursing, and later becomes a 
music-hall artist. All her life she has 
been loved by John Storm, son of Lord 
Storm. He has taken orders and has 
then given himself up to work among the 
London poor, by whom he is known as 
"Father Storm." In his efforts at reform 
he has awakened the enmity of his eccle- 
siastical superiors, as well as of those 
arrayed against the Church, and undergoes 
many persecutions. These, together with 
his unhappiness about Grlory and his con- 
viction that the life she is leading must 
drag her down into sin, so work upon 

Storm that he becomes nearly insane. 
In the course of a street brawl in which 
he is involved through no fault of his own, 
he is mortally injured. Grlory, who has 
given up her career as a singer and 
resolved to devote herself to the work in 
which he has been engaged, marries him 
upon his death-bed.— Hall Caine, The 
Chnstlan (1897). 

Queen (T/«e Starred Ethiop), Cassiopeia, 
wife of Cepheus (2 syl.), king of Ethiopia. 
She boasted that she was fairer than the 
sea-nymphs, and the offended nereids 
complained of the insult to Neptune, who 
sent a sea-monster to ravage Ethiopia. At 
death, Cassiopeia was made a constellation 
of thirteen stars. 

. . . that starred Ethiop queen that strove 
To set her beauty's praise above 
The sea-nymphs, and their powers offended. 
Milton, n Penseroso, 19 (1638). 

Queen {The White), Mary Queen of Scots, 
La Heine Blanche ; so called by the French, 
because she dressed in white as mourning 
for her husbaitid. 

Queen Dick, Richard Cromwell (1626, 
1658-1660, died 1712). 

*#* It happened in the reign of Queen Dick, 
never, on the Greek kalends. This does 
not refer to Richard Cromwell, but to 
Queen " Cutis." There never was a Queen 
Dick, except by way of joke. 

Queen Sarah, Sarah Jennings, duchess 
of Marlborough (1660-1744). 

Queen of Hearts, Elizabeth Stuart, 
daughter of James I., the unfortunate 
queen of Bohemia (1596-1662). 

Queen of Heaven, Ashtoreth ("the 
moon "). Horace calls the moon " the 
two-horned queen of the stars." 





Some speak of tlie Virgin Mary as 
queen of heaven." 


Queen of Queens. Cleopatra was so 
called by Mark Antony (e.g. 69-30), 

Queen of Song, Angelica Catala'ni; 
also called "the Italian Nightingale" 

Queen of Sorro\F, the marble tomb at 
Delhi called the Taj-Mahul, built by Shah 
Jehan for his wife, Moomtaz-i-Mahul. 

Queen of Tears, Mary of Mo'dena, 
second wife of James II. of England 

Her eyes became eternal fountains of sorrow 
for that crown her own ill policy contributed 
to lose. — Noble, Memoirs, etc. (1784). 

Queen of the East, Zenobia, queen of 
Palmy'ra (*, 266-273). 

Queen of the South, Maqueda, or 
Balkis, queen of Sheba, or Saba. 

The queen of the south . . . came from the 
uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom 
of Solomon. — Matt. xii. 42 ; see also 1 Kings 
X. 1. 

*** According to tradition, the queen 
of the south had a son by Solomon, named 
Melech, who reigned in Ethiopia or Abys- 
sinia, and added to his name the words 
Belul Gian (''precious stone"), alluding 
to a ring given to him by Solomon. Be- 
lul Gian translated into Latin, became 
pretiosus Joannes, which got corrupted 
into Prester John {presbyter Johannes), 
and has given rise to the fables of this 
" mythical king of Ethiopia." 

Queen of the Swords. Minna Troil 
was so called, because the gentlemen, 
formed into two lines, held their swords 
so as to form an arch or roof under which 

Minna led the ladies of the party. — Sir W. 
Scott, The Pirate (time, William III.). 

*** In 1877, W. Q. Orchardson, E. A., 
exhibited a picture in illustration of this 

Queen (My). 

But thou thyself shall not come down 
From that pure region far above, 
But keep thy throne and wear thy crown, 
Queen of my heart and queen of love ! 
A monarch in thy reabn complete, 
And I a monarch — at thy feet ! 

William Winter, Wanderers (1889). 

Queens {Four Daughters). Eaymond 
Ber'enger, count of Provence, had four 
daughters, all of whom married kings; 
Margaret married Louis IX. of France; 
Eleanor married Henry III. of England ; 
Sancha married Henry's brother, Eichard, 
king of the Romans ; and Beatrice mar- 
ried Charles I. of Naples and Sicily. 

Four daughters were there bom 
To Raymond Ber'enger, and every one 
Became a queen. 

Dant^., Paradise, vi. (1311). 

Quentin {Black), groom of Sir John 
Eamorny. — Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of 
Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Quentin Durward, a novel by Sir W. 
Scott (1823). A story of French history. 
The delineations of Louis XL, and Charles 
the Bold, of Burgundy, will stand com- 
parison with any in the whole range of 
fiction or history, 

Quern-Biter, the sword of Haco I. 
of Norway. 

Quern-biter of Hacon the Good 
Wherewith at a stroke he hewed 
The mUlstone thro' and thro'. 


Quemo {Camilla), of Apulia, wasintro- 




duced to Pope Leo X., as a bitffioon, but 
was promoted to the laurel. This laureate 
■was called the " Antichrist of Wit." 

Rome in her capitol saw Querno sit, 
Throned on seven hills, the antichrist of wit. 
Pope, The Dundad, ii. (1728). 

Qiierpo {Shrill), in Grarth's Dispensary, 
is meant for Dr. Howe. 

To this design shriU Querpo did agree, 
A zealous member of the faculty, 
His sire's pretended pious steps he treads, 
And where the doctor fails, the saint succeeds. 
Dispensary, iv. (1699). 

Questing Beast {The), a monster called 
Glatisaunt, that made a noise called quest- 
ing, " like thirty couple of hounds giving 
quest " or cry. King Pellinore (3 syl.) fol- 
lowed the beast for twelve months (pt. i. 
17), and after his death Sir Palomides 
gave it chase. 

The questing beast had in shape and head 
like a serpent's head, and a body hke a hbard, 
buttocks like a hon, and footed like a hart ; and 
in his body there was such a noise as it had been 
the noise of thirty couple of hounds questing, 
and such a noise that beast made wheresoever he 
went; and this beast evermore Sir Palomides 
foUowed.— Sir T. Malory, Historij of Prince Ar- 
thur, i. 17 ; ii. 53 (1470). 

Quiara and Mon'nema, man and 

wife, the only persons who escaped the 
ravages of the small-pox plague which 
carried off all the rest of the Guara'ni 
race, in Paraguay. They left the fatal 
spot, settled in the Mondai woods, had 
one son, Yeriiti, and one daughter, Mooma ; 
but Quiara was killed by a jagiiar before 
the latter was born. — Southey, A Tale of 
Paraguay (1814). (See Monnema and 

Quick {Abel), clerk to Surplus, the law- 
yer. — J, M. Morton, A Eegular Fix. 

Quick {John), called "The Retired D 
cletian of Islington " (1748-1831). 

Little Quick, the retired Diocletian of Ish 
ton, with his squeak like a Bart'lemew fiddle 
Charles Mathews. 

Quickly {Mistress), servant-of-all-wo 
to Dr. Caius, a French physician. S 
says, "I wash, wring, brew, bake, sco 
dress meat and drink, make the be 
and do all myself." She is the go-1 
tween of three suitors for " sweet An 
Page," and with perfect disinterestedm 
wishes all three to succeed, and does 1 
best to forward the siiit of all three, "1 
speciously of Master Fenton." — Shal 
speare. Merry Wives of Windsor (1601). 

Quickly {Mistress Nell), a hostess oi 
tavern in East-cheap, frequented 
Harry, prince of Wales, Sir John Falsti 
and all their disreputable crew. In Het 
V. Mistress Quickly is represented as hi 
ing married Pistol, the " lieutenant 
Captain Sir John's army." All three < 
before the end of the play. Her descr 
tion of Sir John Falstaff's death {Hei 
V. act ii. sc. 3) is very graphic and true 
nature. In 2 Henry IV. Mistress Quid 
arrests Sir John for debt, but immediate 
she hears of his commission is quite w 
ing to dismiss the bailiffs, and trust " 1 
honey sweet" old knight again to a 
amount. — Shakespeare, 1 and 2 Henry J 
and Henry V. 

Quid {Mr.), the tobacconist, a relati 
of Mrs. Margaret Bertram. — Sir W. Sec 
Guy Mannering (time, George II.). 

Quid Rides, the motto of Jacob Brt 
don, tobacco-broker, who lived at the ck 
of the eighteenth century. It was si 
gested by Harry Calendon of Lloyd's C' 





*#* Quid Bides (Latin) means " Why do 
you laugli 1 " Quid rides, i.e. " the tobac- 
conist rides." 

Quidniinc {Ahraluvn), of St. Martin's- 
in-the-Fields, an upholsterer by trade, but 
bankrupt. His liead " runs only on 
schemes for paying off the National Debt, 
the balance of power, the affairs of Eu- 
rope, and the political news of the day." 

*#* The prototype of this town politician 
was the father of Dr. Arne (see The Tal- 
ler, No. 155). 

Harriet Quidnunc, his daughter, rescued 
by Belmour from the flames of a burning 
house, and adored by him. 

John Quidnunc, under the assumed name 
of Eovewell, having married a rich plant- 
er's widow, returns to England, pays his 
father's debts, and gives his sister to Mr. 
Belmour for wife. — Murphy, TJie Uphol- 
sterer (1758). 

Quidnuncs, a name given to the 
ancient members of certain political clubs, 
who were constantly inquiring, " Quid- 
nunc? What news I" 

This the Great Mother dearer held than all 
The clubs of Quidnuncs, or her own Guildhall. 
Pope, The Dunciad, i. 269 (1728). 

Quidnunkis, a monkey which climbed 
higher than its neighbors, and fell into a 
river. For a few moments the monkey- 
race stood panic-struck, but the stream 
flowed on, and in a minute or two the 
monkeys continued their gambols as if 
nothing had happened.— Gay, The Quid- 
nunkis (a fable, 1726). 

Quildrive (2 syl), clerk to old Philpot 
"the citizen."— Murphy, The Citizen (1761). 

Quilp {Daniel),a hideous dwarf, cunning, 
mahcious, and a perfect master in tor- 

menting. Of hard, forbidding features, 
with head and face large enough for a 
giant. His black eyes were restless, sly, 
and cunning ; his mouth and chin bristly 
with a coarse, hard beard ; his face never 
clean, but always distorted with a ghastly 
grin, which showed the few discolored 
fangs that supplied the place of teeth. 
His dress consisted of a large high-crowned 
hat, a worn-out dark suit, a pair of most 
capacious shoes, and a huge crumpled 
dirty white neck-cloth. Such hair as he 
had was a grizzled black, cut short but 
hanging about his ears in fringes. His 
hands were coarse and dirty ; his finger- 
nails crooked, long, and yellow. He lived 
on Tower Hill, collected rents, advanced 
money to seamen, and kept a sort of 
wharf, containing rusty anchors, huge iron 
rings, piles of rotten wood, and sheets of 
old copper, calling himself a ship-breaker. 
He was on the point of being arrested 
for felony, when he drowned himself. 

He ate hard eggs, shell and all, for his break- 
fast, devoured gigantic prawns with their heads 
and tails on, chewed tobacco and water-cresses 
at the same time, drank scalding hot tea without 
winking, bit his fork and. spoon till they bent 
again, and performed so many horrifying acts, 
that one might doubt if he were indeed human. 
— Ch. v. 

Mrs. Quilp (Betsy), wife of the dwarf, a 
loving, young, timid, obedient, and pretty 
blue-eyed little woman, treated like a dog 
by her diabohcal husband, whom she really 
loved but more greatly feared.— C. Dickens, 
The Old Curiosity Shop (1840). 

Qiiinpailon {Father). Benevolent priest 
in Xerxes, a Western town. He succors 
the suffering of whatever creed and con- 
ditions, and shares his little all with the 
needy. When appointed bishop, he goes 
to Rome to beg for permission to decline 
the honor. 




" I wiU faU at the feet of tlie Holy Father, and 
beseech him not to make a bishop out of a poor, 
simple old man who cannot bear so great a bur- 
den; but. to let me come back and die among 
my dear people ! " — Octave Thanet, Quilters in 
the Sun (1877). 

Quinap'alus, the Mrs. Harris of "au- 
thorities in citations." K any one quotes 
from an hypothetical author, he gives 
Quinapalus as his authority. 

What says Quinapalus : " Better a witty fool 
than a f ooHsh wit." — Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, 
act. i. sc. 5 (1614). 

QuinbusFlestrin {the '■'■man-mountain''''). 
So the Lilliputians called Gulliver (ch. ii.). 
— Swift, GulHver''s Travels (" Voyage to 
LUliput," 1726). 

Quince (Peter), a carpenter, who under- 
takes the management of the play called 
" Pyramus and Thisbe," in Midsummer 
NighVs Dream. He speaks of "laughable 
tragedy," " lamentable comedy," " tragical 
mirth," and so on. — Shakespeare, Midsum- 
mer NigMs Dream (1592). 

Qiiino'nes {Suero de), in the reign of 
Juan II. He, with nine other cavaliers, 
held the bridge of Orbigo against all 
comers for thirty-six days, and in that 
time they overthrew seventy-eight knights 
of Spain and France. 

Quintano'na, the duenna of Queen 
G-uinever or Ginebra. — Cervantes, Don 
Quixote, II. ii. 6 (1615). 

Quintessence (Queen), sovereign of 
Entelechie, the country of speculative 
science visited by Pantag'ruel and his 
companions in their search for "the oracle 
of the Holy Bottle." — Eabelais, Pantagruel, 
V. 19 (1545). 

Quln'tiquinies'tra (Queen), a much- 

dreaded, fighting giantess. It was one of 
the romances of Don Quixote's library 
condemned by the priest and barber of 
the village to be burnt.— Cervantes, Don 
Quixote, I. (1605). 

Quintus Fixleiu [Fix.line], the title and 

chief character of a romance by Jean Paul 
Friedrich Eichter (1796). 

Francia, hke Quintus Fixlein, had perennial 
fireproof joys, namely, employments. — Carlyle. 

Quiri'nus, Mars. 

Now, by our sii-e Quirinus, 

It was a goodly sight 
To see the thirty standards 

Swept down the stream of flight. 
Lord Macaulay, Lays of Ancient Rome (" Battle 
of the Lake Regillus," xxxvi., 1842). 

Quitam (Mr.), the lawyer at the Black 
Bear inn at Darlington. — Sir W. Scott, 
Boh Roy (time, George I.). 

*#* The first two words in an action on 
a penal statute are Qui tarn. Thus, Qui 
tam pro domina regina, quam pro seipso, 

Quixa'da (Gutierre), lord of Villagarcia. 
Don Quixote calls himself a descendant 
of this brave knight. — Cervantes, Don 
Quixote, I. (1605). 

Quixote (Don), a gaunt country gentle- 
man of La Mancha, about 50 years of age, 
gentle, and dignified, learned and high- 
minded ; with strong imagination per- 
verted by romance, and crazed with ideas 
of chivalry. He is the hero of a Spanish 
roman(3e by Cervantes. Don Quixote feels 
himself called on to become a knight- 
errant to defend the oppressed, and suc- 
cor the injured. He engages for his squire 
Sancho Panza, a middle-aged, ignorant 
rustic, selfish, but full of good sense, 
a gourmand, attached to his master, 
shrewd and credulous. The knight goes 





forth, on his adventures, thinks wind-mills 
to be giants, flocks of sheep to be armies, 
vnns to be castles, and galley-slaves op- 
pressed gentlemen; but the squire sees 
them in their true light. Ultimately, the 
knight is restored to his right mind, and 
dies like a peaceful Christian. The object 
of this romance was to laugh down the 
romances of chivalry of the Middle Ages. 

(Quixote means " armor for the thighs," 
but Qui:^ada means " lantern jaws." Don 
Quixote's favorite author was Feliciano de 
Sylva ; his model knight was Am'adis de 
Gaul. The romance is in two parts, of 
four books each. Pt. I. was published in 
1605, and pt. II. in 1615.) 

The prototype of the knight was the 
duke of Lerma. 

Don Quixote is a tall, meagre, lantern-jawed, 
hawk-nosed, long-limbed, grizzle-haired man, 
with a pair of large black whiskers, and he styles 
himself " The Knight of the Woeful Counte- 
nance." — Cervantes, Don Quixote, II. i. 14 (1615). 

Don Quixote's Horse, Rosinante (4 syl), 
all skin and bone. 

Quixote {The Female), or Adventures of 
Arabella, a novel by Mrs. Lennox (1752). 

Quixote of the North (The), Charles 
XII. of Sweden ; sometimes called " The 
Madman " (1682, 1697-1718). 

Quodling {The Rev. Mr.), chaplain to 
the duke of Buckingham. — Sir W. Scott, 
Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Qiios Ego — , a threat intended but 
withheld; a sentence broken off. Eolus, 
angry with the winds and storms which 
had thrown the sea into commotion with- 
out his sanction, was going to say he 
would punish them severely for this act 
of insubordination; but having uttered 

the first two words, " Whom I ," he 

says no more, but proceeds to the busi- 
ness in hand. — Virgil, JEneid, i. 

" Next Monday," said he, " you will be a ' sub- 
stance,' and then ;" with which quos ego he 

went to the next boy. — ^Dasent, Half a Life 

Quo'tem {Caleb), a parish clerk or Jack- 
of-all-trades. — G. Colman, The Review, or 
The Ways of Windsor. 

I resolved like Caleb Quotem, to have a place 
at the review. — ^Washington Irving. 

NEITHER Demosthenes 
nor Aristotle could pro- 
nounce the letter r. 

R{rogue), vagabonds, etc., 
who were branded on the 
left shoulder with this let- 

They . . . may be burned with a hot burning 
iron, of the breadth of a shilhng, with a great 
Roman R on the left shoulder, which letter shall 
remain as a mark of a rogue. — Pyrnne, Histrio- 
mastix, or The Player's Scourge. 

If I escape the halter with the letter R 
Printed upoa it 

Massinger, A New Way to Pay Old Belts, iv. 2 

Rab'agas, an advocate and editor of a 
journal called the Carmagnole. At the 
same office was published another radical 
paper, called the Crapaud Volant. Raba- 
gas lived in the kingdom of Monaco, and 
was a demagogue leader of the deepest 
red ; but was won over to the king's party 
by the tact of an American lady, who got 
him an invitation to dine at the palace, and 
made him chief minister of state. From 
this moment he became the most stren- 

Don Quixote in his Study 

Gv,stave Dori, Artist H. Fisan, Engraver 

JT^ON OyiXOTB is described a& a gentleman whose age "bordered 

M 3 upon fifty years; he was of a strong constitution. Spare-bodied, 

of a meagre insage^ a very early riser and a lover of the chase. 

Be itknoxm that the aforementioned gentleman, in his leisure moments, ga:ve 

himself up with so much ardor to the perusal of books of chivalry, that he 

almost wholly negleSled the exercise of the chase, and even the regulation of 

his domestic affairs In short, he became so infatuated with this 

kind of study, that he passed whole days and nights over these boohs, and 
thus, with little sleeping and much reading, his brains were dried up, and 
bis inteUedls deranged. His imagination was full of aU that he had read 
of enchantments, contests', battles, challenges, wounds, courtships, amours, 
tortures and impossible absurdities." 

Cervantes' s " Don Quixote, ' ' 

from tie " MafOflM tf Art," 








uous opponent of tlie " liberal " party. — M. 
Sardou, Babagas (1872). 

Rabbi Jebosha, wise teacher, whose 
good words are recorded in James Russell 
Lowell's poem " What Bahbi Jehosha Said." 

Rabbi Abron of Trent, a fictitious 
sage, and most wonderful linguist. "He 
knew the nature of all manner of herbs, 
beasts and minerals." — Beynard the Fox, 
xii. (1498). 

Rabelais {The English). Dean Swift 
was so called by Voltaire (1667-1745). 

Sterne (1713-1768) and Thomas Amory 
(1699-1788) have also been so called. 

Bahelais {The Modern), William Maginn 

Rabelais of Crermany, J. Fischart, 
called "Mentzer" (1550-1614). 

Rabelais's Poison. Rabelais, being 
at a great distance from Paris, and with- 
out money to pay his hotel bill or his fare, 
made up three small packets of brick-dust. 
One he labelled " Poison for the king," an- 
other, "Poison for monsieur," and the 
third, "Poison for the dauphin." The 
landlord instantly informed against this 
" poisoner," and the secretary of state re- 
moved him at once to Paris. When, how- 
ever, the joke was found out, it ended 
only in a laugh-. — Spectator ("Art of Grow- 
ing Rich "). 

Rab'ican or Rabica'no, the horse of 
Astolpho. Its sire was Wind and its dam 
Fire. It fed on human food. The word 
means "s,hort tail." — Ariosto, Orlando 
Furioso (1516). 

*#* Argalia's horse is called by the same 
name in Orlando Innamorato (1495). 

Rabisson, a vagabond tinker and knife- 
grinder. He was the only person who 
knew about "the gold-mine" left to the 
" miller of Grenoble." Rabisson was mur- 
dered for his secret by Eusebe Noel, the 
schoolmaster of Bout des Monde. — E. Stir- 
ling, The Gold Mine, or Miller of Grenoble 

Rab'sbeka (in the Bible Rabshakeh), 
in the satire of Absalom and AchitopheJ,, 
by Dryden and Tate, is meant for Sir 
Thomas Player (2 Kings xviii.). 

Next him let railiag Rabsheka have place — 
So full of zeal, he has no need of grace. 

Pt. ii. (1682). 

Raby {Aurora), a rich young English 
orphan. Catholic in religion, of virgin 
modesty, "a rose with all its sweetest 
leaves yet folded." She was staying in 
the house of Lord and Lady Amundeville 
during the parliamentary vacation. Here 
Don Juan, " as Russian envoy," was also 
a guest, with several others. Aurora 
Raby is introduced in canto xv., and crops 
up here and there in the two remaining 
cantos ; but, as the tale was never finished, 
it is not possible to divine what part the 
beautiful and innocent girl was designed 
by the poet to play. Probably Don Juan, 
having sowed his " wild oats," might be- 
come a not unfit match for the beautiful 
orphan. — Byron, Bon Juan (1824). 

Baby {The Bose of), the mother of Rich- 
ard III. She was Cecily, daughter of 
Ralph Nevyll de Raby, first earl of West- 
moreland. Her husband was Richard, 
duke of York, who was slain at the battle 
of Wakefield in 1460. She died 1495. 

Rachael, a servant-girl at Lady Pev- 
eril's of the Peak. — Sir W. Scott, Peveril 
of the Peak (time, Charles II.). 





Rachael (2 syl\ one of the "hands" in 
Bouuderby's mill at Coketown. She loved 
Stephen Blackpool, and was greatly be- 
loved by hioi in return ; but Stephen was 
married to a worthless drunkard. After 
the death of Stephen, Rachael watched 
over the good-for-nothing young widow, 
and befriended her.~C. Dickens, Hard 
Tunes (lSo4). 

Rachel Ffrencli, beautiful daughter of 
Haworth's unworthy partner in the iron 
business. Haworth loves her, as does 
Murdoch, a young inventor who rises fast 
in Haworth's employ. She seems to vacil- 
late between the two men, but really loves 
Murdoch, although pride will not let her 
avow it. When he is on the point of em- 
barking to America, with an assured 
future, she confesses all, only to learn 
-from him that "it is all over." Yet, in 
looking back at her "dark young face 
turned seaward " as his ship moves away, 
he mutters, " When I return it will be to 
you." — Frances Hodgson Burnett, Ha- 
worWs (1879). 

Racine of Italy {The), Metastasio 

Racine of Mnsic {The), Antonio Gas- 
pare Sacchini, of Naples (1735-1786). 

Racket {Sir Charles), a young man of 
fashion, who married the daughter of a 
wealthy London ' merchant. In the third 
week of the honeymoon Sir Charles paid 
his father-in-law a visit, and quarrelled 
with his bride about a game of whist. The 
lady affirmed that Sir Charles ought to 
have played a diamond instead of a club. 
Sir Charles grew furious, and resolved 
upon a divorce ; but. the quarrel was ad- 
justedj and Sir Charles ended by saying, 
" You may be as wrong as you please, but 

I'll be cursed if I ever endeavor to set you 
right again." 

Lady Backet, wife of Sir Charles, and 
elder daughter of Mr. Drugget.— Murphy, 
Three Weeks after Marriage (1776). 

Backet {Widow), a sprightly, good-na- 
tured widow and woman of fashion. 

A coquette, a wit, and a fine lady.— Mrs. Cow- 
ley, The Belle's Stratagem, ii. 1 (1780). 

The " Widow Racket" was one of Mrs. Pope's 
best parts. Her usual manner of expressing 
piquant carelessness consisted in tossing her 
head from right to left, and striking the palm of 
one hand with the. back of the other [1740- 
1797]. — James Smith. 

Rackrent {Sir Condy), in Miss Edge- 
worth's novel of Castle Rackrent (1802). 

Raddle {Mrs.), keeper of the lodgings 
occupied by Bob Sawyer. The young 
medical practitioner invited Mr. Pickwick 
and his three friends to a convivial meet- 
ing; but the termagant Mrs. Raddle 
brought the meeting to an untimely end. 
— C. Dickens, The Pickwick Paxjers (1836). 

Rad'egonde {St.) or St. Radegund, 
queen of France (born 519, died 587). She 
was the daughter of Bertaire, king of 
Thuringia, and brought up a pagan. King 
Clotaire I. taught her the Christian religion, 
and married her in 538; but six years 
later she entered a nunnery, and lived in 
the greatest austerity. 

There thou must walk in greatest gravity, 
And seem as saintlike as St. Radegund. 

Spenser, Mother Hubbard's Tale (1591). 

Radigund or Radegone, the proud 
queen of the Amazons. Being rejected 
by Bellodant "the Bold," she revenged 
herself by degrading all the men who fell 
into her power by dressing them lik6 
women, giving them woman's work to do, 




STicli as spinning, carding, sewing, etc., and 
feeding them on bread and water to effem- 
inate them (canto 4). When she over- 
threw 'Sir Artegal in single combat, she 
imposed on him the condition of dressing 
in " woman's weeds," with a white apron, 
and to spend his time in spinning flax, 
instead of in deeds of arms. Eadigund 
fell in love with the captive knight, and 
sent Clarinda as a go-between ; but Clar- 
inda tried to win him for herself, and told 
the queen he was inexorable (canto 5). 
At length Britomart arrived, cut off Radi- 
gund's head, and liberated the captive 
(canto 7). — Spenser, Faery Queen, v. 4-7 

Kag and Famish {The), the Army 
and Navy Club ; so christened by Punch. 
The rag refers to the flag, and the famish 
to the bad cuisine. 

Ragged Regiment {The), the wan 
figures in Westminster Abbey, in a gallery 
over Islip's Chapel. 

Railway King {The), George Hudson, 
of Yorkshire, chairman of the North Mid- 
land Company. In one day he cleared by 
speculation £100,000. It was the Rev. 
Sydney Smith who gave Hiidson the title 
of " Railway king " (1800-1871). 

Raine {Old Roger), the tapster, near 
the abode of Sir Geoffrey Peveril. 

JDame Maine, old Roger's widow; after- 
wards Dame Chamberlain.— Sir W. Scott, 
Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.). 

* Rainy-Day Smith, John Thomas 
Smith, the antiquary (1766-1833). 

Rajah of Mattan {Borneo), has a 
diamond which weighs 367 carats. The 
largest cut diamond in the world. It is 

considered to be a palladium. (See Dia- 

Rake {Lord), a nobleman of the old 
school, fond of debauch, street rows, knock- 
ing down Charlies, and seeing his guests 
drunk. His chief boon companions are 
Sir John Brute and Colonel Bully.- — Van- 
brugh, The Provoked Wife (1697). 

Ralieland {Lord), a libertine, who 
makes love to married women, but takes 
care to keep himseK free from the bonds 
of matrimony. — Mrs. Inchbald, The Wed- 
ding Bay (1790). 

Ralc'she (2 syl.), a monster, which 
lived on serpents and dragons. 

Raleigli {Sir Walter), introduced by 
Sir W. Scott in Kenilworth. The tradition 
of Sir Walter laying down his cloak on a 
miry spot for the queen to step on, and 
the queen commanding him to wear the 
" muddy cloak till her pleasure should be 
further known," is mentioned in ch. xv. 

Baleigh {8vr Walter). Jealous of the 
earl of Essex, he plots with Lord Bur- 
leigh to compass his death. — Henry Jones, 
The Earl of Essex (1745). 

Ralph, abbot of St. Augustinie's, ex- 
pended £43,000 on the repast given at his 

It was no unusual thing for powerful 
barons to provide 30,000 dishes at a wed- 
ding breakfast. The coronation dinner of 
Edward III., cost £40,000, equal to half a 
million of money now. The duke of 
Clarence, at his marriage, entertained 
1000 guests, and furnished his table with 
36 courses. Archbishop Neville had 1000 





egrettes served at one banquet, and the 
whole species seems to have been extir- 

After this it will be by no means difficult 
to understand why Apicius despaired of 
being able to make two ends meet, when 
he had reduced his enormous fortune to 
£80,000, and therefore hanged himself. 

"it* After the winter of 1327 was over, 
the elder Spenser had left of the stores 
laid in by him the preceding November 
and salted down, " 80 salted beeves, 500 
bacons, and 600 muttons." 

Balpli, son of Fairfield, the miller. An 
outlandish, ignorant booby, jealous of his 
sister, Patty, because she "could paint 
picturs and strum on the harpsicols." He 
was in love with Panny, the gypsy, for 
which "feyther" was angry with him; 
but, " what argufies feyther's anger ? " 
However, he treated Fanny like a brute, 
and she said of him, " He has a heart as 
hard as a parish officer. I don't doubt but 
he would stand by and see me whipped." 
When his sister married Lord Aimworth, 
Ralph said : 

Captain Ralph my lord will dub me, 

Soon I'll mount a huge cockade ; 
Mounseer shall powder, queue, and club me, — 

'Gad ! I'll be a roaring blade. 
If Pan should offer then to snub me, 

When in scarlet I'm arrayed ; 
Or my feyther 'temp to drub me — 

Let him frown, but who's afraid f 

Bickerstaff, The Maid of the Mill (1647). 

Baljyli or Ralpho, the squire of Hudi- 
bras. Fully described in bk. i. 457-644. — 
S. Butler, Hudihras (1663-78). 

The prototype of "Ralph" was Isaac 
Robinson, a zealous butcher, in Morefields. 
Ralph represents the independent party, 
and Hudibras the Presbyterian. 

*»* In regard to the pronunciation of 
this name, which, in 1878, was the subject 

of a long controversy in Notes and Queries, 
Butler says : 

A squire he had whose name was Ralph, 
That in th' adventure went his half : . . . 
And when we can, with metre safe, 
We'U call him Ralpho, or plain Ra'ph. 

Bk. 1. 456. 

Balph (Bough), the helper of Lance Out- 
ram, park-keeper at Sir Geoffrey Peveril's 
of the Peak. — Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the 
Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Balph {James), an American, who came 
to London and published a poem entitled 
Night (1725). 

Silence, ye wolves! while Ralph to Cynthia 

Making night hideous ; answer him ye owls. 
Pope, The Dunciad, ui. 165 (1728). 

Balph [de Lascoubs], captain of the 
Uran'ia, husband of Louise de Lascours. 
Ralph is the father of Diana and Martha, 
alias Orgari'ta. His crew having rebelled, 
Ralph, his wife, infant [Martha], and ser- 
vant, Bar' abas, were put into a boat, and 
turned adrift. The boat ran on a huge 
iceberg, which Ralph supposed to be a 
small island. In time, the iceberg broke, 
when Ralph and his wife were drowned, 
but Martha and Barabas escaped. Martha 
was taken by an Indian tribe, who brought 
her up, and named her Orgarita ("withered 
corn "), because her skin was so white and 
fair. — E. Stirling, Orphan of the Frozen 
Sea (1856). 

Ralph Roister Bolster, by Nicholas 
Udall, the first English comedy, about 
1534. It contains nine male and four fe- 
male characters. Ralph is a vain, thought- 
less, blustering fellow, who is in pursuit 
of a rich widow named Custance, but he is 
baffied in his intention. 

Ramble (Sir Bohert), a man of gallantry, 




who treats his wife with such supreme 
indifference that she returns to her guar- 
dian, Lord Norland, and resumes her 
maiden name of Marie Wooburn. Subse- 
quently, however, she returns to her hus- 

Mrs. Bamble, wife of Sir Robert, and 
ward of Lord Norland. — Inchbald, Every 
One Has His Fault (1794). 

Kam'iel (3 syl.), one of the " atheist 
crew " overthrown by Ab'diel. (The word 
means, according to Hume, " one who ex- 
alts himself against God.") — Milton, Para- 
dise Lost, vi. 371 (1665). 

Raminago'lbris. Lafontaine, in his 
fables, gives this name to a eat. Rabe- 
lais, in his Pantag'ruel, iii. 21, satirizes 
under the same name GruiUaume Cretin, a 

Rami'rez, a Spanish monk, and father 
confessor to Don Juan, duke of Braganza. 
He promised Velasquez, when he absolved 
the duke at bed-time, to give him a poi- 
soned wafer prepared by the Carmelite 
Castruccio. This he was about to do, 
when he was interrupted, and the break- 
ing out of the rebellion saved the duke 
from any similar attempt. — Robert Jeph- 
son, Braganza (1775). 

Rami'ro (King) married Aldonza, who, 
being faithless, eloped with Alboa'zar, the 
Moorish king of Gaya. Ramiro came dis- 
guised as a traveller to Alboazar's castle, 
and asked a damsel for a draught of water, 
and when he lifted the pitcher to his 
mouth, he dropped in it his betrothal ring, 
which Aldonza saw and recognized. She 
told the damsel to bring the stranger to 
her apartment. Scarce had he arrived 
there when the Moorish king entered, and 
■Ramiro hid himseK in an alcove. " What 

would you do to Ramiro," asked Aldonza^ 
"if you had him in your power?" "I 
would hew him limb from limb," said the 
Moor. " Then lo ! Alboazar, he is now 
skulking in that alcove." With this, 
Ramiro was dragged forth, and the Moor 
said, " And how would you act if our lots 
were reversed 1 " Ramiro replied, " I would 
feast you weU, send for my chief princes 
and counsellors, and set you before them 
and bid you blow your horn till you died." 
" Then be it so," said the Moor. But when 
Ramiro blew his horn, his " merry men " 
rushed into the castle, and the Mooi'ish 
king, with Aldonza and all their children, 
princes, and counsellors, were put to the 
sword. — Southey, Ramiro (a ballad from 
the Portuguese, 1804). 

Ramona, young Indian woman, who, 
in defiance of her duenna's fierce opposi- 
tion, goes out into the wide world with 
gallant Aiessandro. The struggles and 
disappointments of the wedded pair, and 
their oppression by Indian agents are told 
in Helen Hunt Jackson's novel, Ramona, 

Ramomy {Sir John), a voluptuary, 
master of the horse to Prince Robert of 
Scotland. — Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of 
Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Ramsay {David), the old watch-maker, 
near Temple Bar. 

Margaret Ramsay, David's daughter. 
She marries Lord Nigel. — Sir W. Scott, 
Fortunes of Nigel (time, James I.). 

Ramsbottom {Mrs.), a vile speller of 
the language. Theodore Hook's pseudo- 
nym in the John Bull newspaper, 1829. 

*#* Winifred Jenkins, the maid of Miss 
Tabitha Bramble (in Smollett's Humphrey 
Clinker, 1770), rivals Mrs. Ramsbottom in 
bad spelling. 





Kandal, the boatman at Lochleven 
Castle.— Sir W. Scott, Tie Allot (time, 

Randolph {Lord), a Scotch nobleman, 
whose life was saved by young Norval. 
For this service, his lordship gave the 
yonth a commission ; but Glenalvon, the 
heir presumptive, hated the new favorite, 
and persuaded Lord Randolph that Nor- 
val was too familiar with his lady. Ac- 
cordingly, Glenalvon and Lord Randolph 
waylaid the lad, who being attacked, slew 
Glenalvon in self-defence, but was himself 
slain by Lord Randolph. When the lad 
was killed, Lord Randolph learned that 
" Norval " was the son. of Lady Randolph by 
Lord Douglas, her former husband. He 
was greatly vexed, and went to the war 
then raging between Scotland and Den- 
mark, to drown his sorrow by activity and 

Lady Bandolph, daughter of Sir Mal- 
colm, was privately married to Lord Doug- 
las, and when her first boy was born, she 
hid him in a basket, because there was a 
family feud between Malcolm and Doug- 
las. Soon after this, Douglas was slain in 
battle, and the widow married Lord Ran- 
dolph. The babe was found by old Ner- 
val, a shepherd, who brought it up as his 
own son. When 18 years old, the lad 
saved the life of Lord Randolph, and was 
given a commission in the army. Lady 
Randolph, hearing of the incident, dis- 
covered that young Norval was her own 
son, Douglas. Glenalvon, who hated the 
new favorite, persuaded Lord Randolph 
that the young man was too familiar with 
JLady Randolph, and being waylaid, a fight 
ensued, in which Norval slew Glenalvon, 
but was himself slain by Lord Randolph. 
Lord Randolph being informed that the 
young man was Lady Randolph's son, 
went to the wars to " drive away care ; " 

and Lady Randolph, in her distraction, 
cast herself headlong from a steep preci- 
pice. — J. Home, Douglas (1757). 

The voice of Mrs. Crawford [1734-1801], when 
thrown out by the vehemence of strong feeling, 
seemed to wither up the hearer ; it was a flam- 
ing arrow, a lighting of passion. Such was the 
effect of her almost shriek to old Norval, " Was 
he ahve 1 " It was like an electric shock, which 
drove the blood back to the heart, and pro- 
duced a shudder of terror through the crowded 
theatre. — Boaden, lAfe of Kemble. 

Random, a man of fortune with a 
scapegrace son. He is pale and puffy, 
with gout and a tearing cough. Random 
goes to France to recruit his health, and 
on his return to England, gets arrested for 
debt by mistake for his son. He raves 
and rages, threatens and vows vengeance, 
but finds his son on the point of marrying 
a daughter of Sir David Dunder of Diin- 
der Hall, and forgets his evils in contem- 
plation of this most desirable alliance. — 
G-. Colman, Ways and Means (1788). 

Random {Roderick), a young Scotch 
scapegrace, in quest of fortune. At one 
time he revels in prosperity, at another he 
is in utter destitution. Roderick is led 
into different countries (whose peculiari- 
ties are described), and falls into the so- 
ciety of wits, sharpers; courtiers, and har- 
lots. Occasionally lavish, he is essentially 
mean ; with a dash of humor, he is con- 
temptibly revengeful; and, though gen- 
erous minded when the whim jumps with 
his wishes, he is thoroughly selfish. His 
treatment of Strap is revolting to a gen- 
erous mind. Strap lends him money in 
his necessity, but the heartless Roderick 
wastes the loan, treats Strap as a mere 
servant, fleeces him at dice, and cuffs him 
when the game is adverse. — T. Smollett, 
RodericJc Random (1748). 

Ranger, the madcap cousin of Clarinda 




and the leading character in Hoadly's Sus- 
picious Husband (1747). 

Ran'tipole (3 syl), a madcap. One of 
the nicknames given to Napoleon III. (See 
Napoleon III.) 

Dick, be a little rantipolish, 

Colman, Meir-at-Law, i. 2 (1797). 

Raoul [Rmvl], the old huntsman of Sir 
Eaymond Berenger. — Sir W. Scott, The 
Betrothed (time, Henry II.). 

Raoul di Nangis {Sir), the Huguenot in 
love with Valentina (daughter of the Comte 
de St. Bris, governor of the Louvre). Sir 
Eaoul is offered the hand of Valentina in 
marriage, but rejects it because he fancies 
she is betrothed to the comte de Nevers. 
Nevers being slain in the Bartholomew- 
Massacre, Raoul marries Valentina, but 
scarcely is the ceremony over when both 
are shot by the musketeers under the 
command of St. Bris. — Meyerbeer, Les 
Huguenots (opera, 1836). 

Raphael (2 or 3 syl.), called by Milton, 
" The Sociable Spirit," and " The Affable 
Archangel." In the book of Tohit it was 
Eaphael who travelled with Tobias into 
Media and back again; and it is the 
same angel that holds discourse with Adam 
through two books of Paradise Lost, v, 
and vi. (1665J. 

Raphael, the guardian angel of John the 

*** Longfellow calls Eaphael " The An- 
gel of the Sun," and says that he brings 
to man " the gift of tsiith.P— Golden Legend 
("Miracle-Play," iii., 1851). 

Eaphael {The Flemish), Frans Floris. 
His chief, works are " St. Luke at His 
Easel," and the " Descent of the Fallen 
Angels," both in Antwerp Cathedral (1520- 

Raphael {The French), Eustace Lesueur 

Raphael of Cats {The), Grodefroi Mind, 
a Swiss painter, famous for his cats (1768- 

Raphael of Holland {The), Martin van 
Hemskerck (1498-1574). 

Raphael's Enchanter, La Fornarina, 
a baker's daughter. Her likeness appears 
in several of his paintings. (See Fobna- 


Rapier {The) was introduced by Eow- 
land York in 1587. 

He [Rowland York] was a Londoner, famous 
among the cutters in his time for bringing in a 
new kind of fight — to run the point of a rapier 
into a man's body . . . before that time the use 
was with little bucklers, and with broadswords 
to strike and never thrust, and it was accounted 
unmanly to strike under the girdle. — Carleton, 
Thankful Remembrance (1625). 

Rare Ben. Ben Jonson, the drama- 
tist, was so called by Robert Herrick 

Raredrench {Master), apothecary. — Sir 
W. Scott, Fortunes of Nigel (time, James 

Rashleigh Osbaldistone, called " the 
scholar," an hypocritical and accomplished 
villain, killed by Rob Roy. — Sir W. Scott, 
Rob Roy (time, Greorge I.). 

*#* Surely never gentleman was plagued 
with such a family as Sir Hildebrand Os- 
baldistone, of Osbaldistone Hall. (1) Per- 
cival, "the sot;" (2) Thorncliff, "the 
bully ; " (3) John, " the gamekeeper ; " (4) 
Richard, " the horse-jockey ; " (5) Wilfred, 
"the fool;" (6) Rashleigh, "the scholar 
and knave." 

Ras'selas, prince of Abyssina, fourth 





son of the emperor. According to the 
custom of the country, he was confined in 
a private paradise, with the rest of the 
royal family. This paradise was in the 
valley of Amhara, surrounded by high 
mountains. It had only one entrance, 
which was by a cavern under a rock con- 
cealed by woods, and closed by iron gates. 
He escaped with his sister, Nekayah, and 
Imlac, the poet, and wandered about to 
find out what condition or rank of life 
was the most happy. After careful inves- 
tigation he found no lot without its draw- 
backs, and resolved to return to the 
"happy valley." — Dr. Johnson, Basselas 

Rassendyll {Rudolf), a young English- 
man who has in his veins the blood of the 
red-headed Elphbergs, the rulers of Kuri- 
tania. He goes to Euritania as a tourist, 
and while wandering in the forest near 
the Castle of Zenda meets the king of the 
country, also named Eudolf. Eassendyll 
bears a most striking resemblance to the 
monarch, the lines of the two families hav- 
ing crossed a century before. By a series 
of accidents it becomes advisable for Eas- 
sendyll to i^ersonate the king, who has 
been seized and imprisoned by his enemies, 
with the design of putting on the throne 
the people's favorite, the Grand Duke 
Michael. The Englishman is crowned 
and fulfils for some time the duties of the 
king, until, finally, partly by the efforts of 
Eassendyll, partly by those of the royal 
servants assisting him, the true king is 
rescued fi-om his imprisonment in the dun- 
geons of the Castle of Zenda and restored 
to his own again.— Anthony Hope, The 
Prisoner of Zenda (1894). 

" RatcliflPe (James), a notorious thief. — 
Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, 
George II.). 

Batcliffe {Mr. Hulert), a friend of Sir 
Edward Mauley, "the Black Dwarf."— Sir 
W. Scott, The Black Dwarf {time, Anne). 

Rath'mor, chief of Clutha {the Clyde), 
and father of Calthon and Oolmar, Dun- 
thalmo, lord of Teutha, " came in his pride 
against him," and was overcome, where- 
upon his anger rose, and he went by night 
with his warriors and slew Eathmor in his 
own halls, where his feasts had so often 
been spread for strangers.— Ossian, Cal- 
thon and Colmal. 

Rattlin {Jack), a famous naval charac- 
ter in Smollett's Boderick Bandom. Tom 
Bowling is in the same novel (1749). 

Rattray {Sir Buiinion), of EunnaguUion ; 
the duelling friend of Sir Mungo Mala- 
growther.— Sir W. Scott, Fortunes of Nigel 
(time, James I.). 

Raiicocan'ti, leader of a troupe of 
singers going to act in Sicily. The whole 
were captured by Lambro, the pirate, and 
sold in Turkey as slaves. 

Twould not become myself to dwell upon 

My own merits, and, tho' young, I see, sir, you 

[Don Juaii\ 
Have got a travelled air, which shews you one 
To whom the opera is by no means new. 
You've heard of Raucocanti— I'm that man . . . 
You was [sic] not last year at the fair of Lugo, 
But next, when I'm engaged to sing there— do 


Byron, Don Juan, iv. 88 (1820). 

Raven {Barnahj/s), Grip, a large bird 
of most impish disposition. Its usual 
phrases were : " I'm a devil ! " " Never say 
die!" "Polly, put the kettle on!" He 
also uttered a cluck like cork-drawing, a 
barking like a dog, and a crowing like a 
cock. Barnaby Eudge used to carry it 




about in a basket at his back. The bird 
drooped while it was in jail with his mas- 
ter, but after Barnaby's reprieve 

It soon recovered its good looks, and became 
as glossy and sleek as ever . . . but for a whole 
year it never indulged in any other sound than 
a grave and decorous croak. . . . One bright 
summer morning . . . the bird advancied with 
fantastic steps to the door of the Maypole, and 
then cried " I'm a devil ! " three or four times, 
with extraordinary rapture . . . and from that 
time constantly practised and improved himself 
in the vulgar tongue. — 0. Dickens, Barndby 
Budge, ii. (1841). 

Baven {The), Edgar Allan Poe's poem 
bearing this caption is the best known of 
his works, and one of the most remarkable 
in the English language (1845). 

Ravens of Owain {The). Owain had 
in his army 300 ravens, who were irresist- 
ible. It is thought that these ravens were 
warriors who bore this device on their 

A man who caused the birds to fly upon the host 
Like the ravens of Owain, eager for prey. ^ 

Bleddynt Vardd, Myvyrian Archaiology, i. 365. 

Ravens once White. One day a raven 
told Apollo that Coro'nis, a Thessalian 
nymph whom he passionately loved, was 
faithless. Apollo, in his rage, shot the 
nymph, but hated the raven, and "bade 
him prate in white plumes never more." — 
Ovid, Metam., ii. 

Ravens wood {Allan, lord of), a de- 
cayed Scotch nobleman of the royalist 

Master Edgar Bavenswood, the son of 
Allan. In love with Lucy Ashton, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Ashton, lord-keeper of 
Scotland. The lovers plight their troth at 
the "Mermaid's Fountain," but Lucy is 
compelled to marry Frank Hayston, laird 

of Bueklaw. The bride, in a fit of insan- 
ity, attempts to murder the bridegroom, 
and dies in convulsions. Bueklaw re- 
covers, and goes abroad. Colonel Ashton 
appoints a hostile meeting with Edgar; 
but young Ravenswood, on his way to the 
place appointed, is lost in the quicksands 
of Kelpies Flow, in accordance with an 
ancient prophecy. — Sir W. Scott, Bride of 
Lammermoor (time, WiUiam III.). 

*** In Donizetti's opera of Lucia di Lam- 
mermoor, Bueklaw dies of the wound in- 
flicted by the bride, and Edgar, heart- 
broken, comes on the stage and kills him- 

The catastrophe ia the Bride of Lammermoor, 
where [^Edgar] Ravenswood is swallowed up by 
a quicksand, is singularly grand in romance, but 
would be inadmissible in a drama. — Encyc. Brit., 
Art. " Romance." 

Rawhead and Bloody-Bones, two 

bogies or bugbears, generally coupled to- 
gether. In some cases the phrase is em- 
ployed to designate one and the same 
"shadowy sprite." 

Servants awe children ... by teUing them of 
Rawhead and Bloody-bones. — Locke. 

Ray. One of two brothers, divided by 
the civil war. Beltran is in the Southern 
army, Ray in the Northern. Both love 
the same woman whose heart is Beltran's. 
The brothers met in battle and Beltran 
falls. Ray is wounded and left for dead ; 
recovers and makes his way homeward. 
There he lives — undergoing volcanic 
changes, now passionless lulls, and now 
rages and spasms of grief ; " gradually out 
of them all he gathers his strength about 
him," and wins Vivia's hand. — Harriet 
Prescott Spofford, Bay. 

Bay {Will), popular officer in a frontier 
brigade who steals through the deadly line 





of Chej'ennes drawn about a handful of 
U. S. soldiers, and, followed by shots and 
yells, rides for bis life and bis comrades' 
lives to tbe nearest encampment of troops 
and brings succor to tbe devoted bttle 
band with tbe dawn of the day that, but 
for him, would have been tbe last on earth 
for those left behind. — Charles King, 
Marion's Faith (1886). 

Raylaiid {Mrs.), tbe domineering lady 
of tbe Old Manor-House, by Charlotte 
Smith (1749-1806). 

Mrs. Rayland is a sort of Queen Elizabeth in 
private Ufe. — Sir W. Scott. 

Raymond, count of Toulouse, the Nes- 
tor of the crusaders. He slays Aladine, 
king of Jerusalem, and plants the Christian 
standard on the tower of David. — Tasso, 
Jerusalem Delivered, xx. (1516). 

*#* Introduced by Sir W. Scott in Count 
Mohert of Paris, a novel of the period of 

Raymond {Sir Charles), a country gen- 
tleman, tbe friend and neighbor of Sir 
Robert Belmont. 

Colonel Raymond, son of Sir Charles, in 
love with Rosetta Belmont. Being diffi- 
dent and modest, Rosetta delights in tor- 
menting him, and he is jealous even of 
William Faddle " a fellow made up of 
knavery, noise and impudence." 

Harriet Raymond, daughter of Sir 
Charles, whose mother died in giving her 
birth. She was committed to the care of a 
gouvernante, who changed her name to 
Fidelia, wrote to Sir Charles to say that 
she was dead, and sold her at the age of 
12 to a villain named Villard. Charles 
Belmont, bearing her cries of distress, res- 
cued her and took her home. The gouvei'- 
nante at death confessed the truth, and 

Charles Belmont married her. — Edward 
Moore, The Foundling (1748). 

Raz'eka, the giver of food, one of the 
four gods of the Adites (2 syh). 

We called on Razeka for food. 
Southey, Thalaba, the Destroyer, i. 24 (1797). 

Razor, a barber who could " think of 
nothing but old England." He was the 
friend and neighbor of Quidnunc, the up- 
holsterer, who was equally crazy about 
tbe political state of tbe nation, and tbe 
affairs of Europe in general. — Murphy, The 
Upholsterer (1758). 

Razor {To cut blocks with a). Oliver 
Goldsmith said of Edward Burke, the 

Too deep for his hearers, he went on refining, 
And thought of convincing, while they thought 

of dining : 
Tho' equal to all things, to ah things unfit ; 
Too nice for a statesman, too proud for a wit ; 
For a patriot too cool ; for a drudge disobedient ; 
And too fond of the right to pursue the expedient. 
,.In short, 'twas his fate, unemployed or in place, 

To eat mutton cold, and cut blocks with a razor. 

Retaliation (1774.) 

Read {Sir William), a tailor, who set 
up for oculist, and was knighted by Queen 
Anne. This quack was employed both by 
Queen Anne and George I. Sir William 
could not read. He professed to cure 
wens, wry-necks, and bare-lips (died 1715). 

None shall their rise to merit owe — 
That popish doctrine is exploded quite, 
Or Ralph had been no duke, and Read no knight. 
A Political Squib of the Period, 

%* The " Ralph " refered to is Ralph 
Montagu, created viscount in 1682, and 
duke of Montagu in 1705 (died 1709). 

Ready-to-Halt, a pilgrim that jour- 
neyed to tbe Celestial City on crutches. 

The Abduction of Rebecca 

Leon Cogniet, Artist 

jr\ EBECCA, placed on horseback before one of the Templar's Saracen 
/\ slaves, was in the midst of the little party ; and Bois-Guilbert, 
notwithstanding the confusion of the bloody fray, showed every 
attention to her safety. . . . 

"Taking advantage of the dismay which was ^read by the fall of Athel- 
stane, and calling aloud, ' Those who would save themselves, follow me! ' he 
pushed across the drawbridge, dispersing the archers who would have inter- 
cepted them. He was followed by his Saracens and some five or six men-at- 
arms, who had mounted their horses. The Templar s retreat was rendered 
perilous by the numbers of arrows shot off at him and his party." 

Scott's "Ivanhoe." 


He joined Mr. Greatheart's party, and was 
carried to heaven in a chariot of fire. — 
Bunyan, Pilgrim^s Progress, ii. (1684). 

Reason {The goddess of), in the French 
Revolntion, some say, was the wife of 
Momoro, the printer ; but Lamartine says 
it was Mdlle. Malliard, an actress. 

Kebecca, daughter of Isaac, the Jew; 
meek, modest, and high-minded. She 
loves Ivanhoe, who has shown great kind- 
ness to her and to her father ; and when 
Ivanhoe marries Rowena, hoth Rebecca 
and her father leave England for a foreign 
land. — Sir W. Scott, Ivanhoe (time, Rich- 
ard I.). 

Kecessional. A poem written at the 
time of the Queen of England's Diamond 
Jubilee, to recall to the English the thought 
that it is from a Higher Power that their 
greatness comes. 

God of our fathers, known of old, 
Lord of our far-flung battle-line, 

Beneath whose awful band we hold 
Dominion over palm and pine — 

Lord God of Hosts, be with us 5^et, 

Lest we forget— lest we forget ! 

The tumult and the shouting dies ; 

The captains and the kings depart ; 
Still stands Thine ancient sacrifice, 

An humble and a contrite heart. 
Lord God .of Hosts, be with us yet, 
Lest we forget— lest we forget. 

Far-called, our navies melt away— 

On dune and headland sinks the fire ; 
Lo, all our pomp of yesterday 

Is one with Nineveh and Tyre ! 
Judge of the Nations, spare us yet, 
Lest we forget— lest we forget ! 
Rudyard Kipling, 
Recessional. A Victorian Ode (1897). 

Record, noted for his superlatives, 


" most presumptuous," " most audacious," 
" most impatient," as : 

Oh, you will, most audacious. . . . Look at 
him, most inquisitive. . . . Under lock and key, 
most noble. . . . I will, most dignified.— S. Birch, 
The Adopted Child. 

Recruiting Officer {The), a comedy by 
G. Farquhar (1705). The "recruiting of- 
ficer " is Sergeant Kite, his superior officer 
is Captain Plume, and the recruit is Sylvia, 
who assumes the military dress of her 
brother and the name of Jack Wilful, 
alias Pinch. Her father, Justice Balance, 
allows the name to pass the muster, and 
when the trick is discovered, to prevent 
scandal, the justice gives her in marriage 
to the captain. 

Red-Cap {Mother), an old nurse at the 
Hungerford Stairs.— Sir W. Scott, For- 
tunes of Nigel (time, James I.). 

Bed-Cap {Mother). Madame Bufflon 
was so called, because her bonnet was 
deeply colored with her own blood in a 
street fight at the outbreak of the French 
Revolution.— W. Melville. 

Red Cross Knight {The) represents St. 
George, the patron saint of England. His 
adventures, which occupy bk. i. of Spen- 
ser's Faery Queen, symbolize the strug- 
gles and ultimate victory of holiness over 
sin (or protestantism over popery). Una 
comes on a white ass to the court of Glor- 
iana, and craves that one of the knights 
would undertake to slay the dragon whii^h 
kept her father and mother prisoners. 
The Red Cross Knight, arrayed in all the 
armor of God {Eph. vi. 11-17), undertakes 
the adventure, and goes, accompanied for 
a time with Una ; but, deluded by Archi- 
mago, he quits the lady, and the two meet 
with numerous adventures. At last, the 
knight, having slain the dragon, marries 





Una; and thus holiness is allied to the 
Oneness of Truth (1590). 

Red Hand of Ulster. 

Calverley, of Calveiiey, Yorkshire. Wal- . 
ter Calverley, Esq., in 1605, murdered two 
of his children, and attempted to murder 
his wife and a child "at nurse." This 
became the subject of The Yorkshire 
Tragedy. In consequence of these mur- 
ders, the family is required to wear " the 
bloody hand." 

The Holt family, of Lancashire, has a 
similar tradition connected with their coat 

Red Knight {The,) Sir Perimo'nes, one 
of the four brothers who kept the passages 
leading to Castle Perilous. In the al- 
legory of Gareth, this knight represents 
noon, and was the third brother. Night, 
the eldest born, was slain by Sir Garetli ; 
the Green Knight, which represents the 
young day-spring, was overcome, but not 
slain ; and the Red Knight, being over- 
come, was spared also. The reason is this : 
darkness is slain, but dawn is only over- 
come by the stronger light of noon, and 
noon decays into the evening twilight. 
Tennyson in his Gareth and Lynette, calls 
Sir Perimones "Meridies," or "Noonday 
Sun." The Latin name is not consistent 
with a Bi'itish tale. — Sir T. Malory, His- 
tory of Prince Arthur, i.'129 (1470); Ten- 
nyson, Idylls. 

Red Knight of the Red Lands {The), 
Sir Ironside. "He had the strength of 
seven men, and every day his strength 
went on increasing till noon." This knight 
kept the Lady Liones captive in Castle 
Perilous. In the allegory of Sir Gareth, 
Sir Ironside represents death, and the 
captive lady " the Bride," or Church tri- 
umphant. Sir Gareth combats with Night, 

Morn, Noon, and Evening, or fights the 
fight of faith, and then overcomes the last 
enemy, which is death, when he marries 
the lady, or is received into the Church, 
which is " the Lamb's Bride." Tennyson, 
in his Gareth and Lynette, makes the com- 
bat with the Red Knight ("Mors," or 
" Death ") to be a single stroke ; but the 
History says it is endured from morn to 
noon, and from noon to night — in fact, 
that man's whole life is a contest with 
moral and physical death. — Sir T. Malory, 
History of Prince Arthur, i. 134-137 (1470) ; 
Tennyson, Idylls (" Gareth and Lynette "). 

Red Pipe. The Great Spirit long ago 
called the Indians together, and,, stand- 
ing on the red pipe-stone rock, broke off 
a piece, which he made into a pipe, and 
smoked, letting the smoke exhale to the 
four quarters. He then told the Indians 
that the red pipe-stone was their flesh, 
and they must use the red pipe when they 
made peace ; and that when they smoked 
it, the war-club and scalping-knife must 
not be touched. Having so spoken, the 
Great Spirit was received up into the 
clouds. — Indian Mythology. 

The red pipe has blown its fumes of peace 
and war to the remotest corners of the conti- 
nent. It visited every warrior, and passed 
through its reddened stem the irrevocable oath 
of war and desolation. Here, too, the peace- 
breathing calumet was born, and fringed with 
eagle's quills, which has shed its thrilling fumes 
over the land, and soothed the fury of the re- 
lentless savage. — Catlin, Letters on . . . the North 
Americans, ii. 160. 

Red Ridinghood {Little), a child with 
a red cloak, who went to carry cakes to 
her grandmother. A wolf placed itself in 
the grandmother's bed, and when the child 
remarked upon the size of its eyes, ears, 
and nose, replied it was the better to see, 
hear, and smell the little gi-andehild. " But, 
grandmamma," said the child, "what a 




great mouth, you have got ! " " The better 
, to eat you up," was the reply, and the 
child was devoured by the wolf. 

This nursery tale is, with slight varia- 
tions, common to Sweden, Germany, and 
France. In Charles Perrault's Contes des 
Fees (1697) it is called " Le Petit Chap- 
eron Rouge." 

Red Swan (The). Odjibwa, hearing a 
strange noise, saw in the lake a most 
beautiful red swan. Pulling his bow, he 
took deliberate aim, without effect. He 
shot every arrow from his quiver with the 
same result ; then, fetching from his fath- 
er's medicine sack three poisoned arrows, 
he shot them also at the bird. The last 
of the three arrows passed through the 
swan's neck, whereupon the bird rose into 
the air and sailed away towards the set- 
ting sun. — Schoolcraft, Algic Researches, 
ii. 9 (1839). 

Redgawntlet, a story told in a series of 
letters, about a- conspiracy formed by Sir 
Edward Hugh Redgauntlet, on behalf of 
the " Young Pretender," Charles Edward, 
then above 40 years of age. The conspira- 
tors insist that the prince shall dismiss 
his mistress. Miss Walkingshaw, and, as 
he refuses to comply with this demand, 
they abandon their enterprise. Just as a 
brig is prepared for the prince's departure 
from the island, Colonel Campbell arrives 
with the military. He connives, however, 
at the affair, the conspirators disperse, the 
prince embarks, and Redgauntlet becomes 
the prior of a monastery abroad. This is 
one of the inferior novels, but is redeemed 
by the character of Peter Peebles. — Sir 
W. Scott, Bedgawntlet (1824). 

Redgauntlet embodies a great deal of Scott's 
own personal history and experience. — Cham- 
bers, English Literature, ii. 589. 

Redgauntlet {Sir Alberick), an ancestor 
of the family. 

Sir Edward Redgauntlet, son of Sir Al- 
berick ; killed by his father's horse. 

Sir Robert Redgauntlet, an old tory, 
mentioned in Wandering Willie's tale. 

Sir John Redgauntlet, son and successor 
of Sir Robert, mentioned in Wandering 
Willie's tale. 

Sir Redwald Redgauntlet, son of Sir 

Sir Henry Barsie Redgauntlet, son of 
Sir Redwald. 

Lady Henry Barsie Redgauntlet, wife of 
Sir Henry Darsie. 

Sir Arthur Barsie Redgauntlet, alias 
Barsie Latimer, son of Sir Henry and 
Lady Darsie. 

Miss Lilias Redgauntlet, alias Green- 
mantle, sister of Sir Arthur. She marries 
Allan Fairford. 

Sir Edward Hugh Redgauntlet, the 
Jacobite conspirator. He is uncle to Dar- 
sie Latimer, and is called "Laird of the 
Lochs," alias "Mr. Herries of Birrens- 
wark," alias " Master Ingoldsby." — Sir W. 
Scott, Redgauntlet (time, George III.). 

Redi (Francis), an Italian physician and 
lyric poet. He was first physician to the 
grand-duke of Tuscany (1626-1698). 

Even Redi, tho' he chanted 
Bacchus in the Tuscan valleys, 

Never drank the wine he vaunted 
In his dithyrambic sallies. 

Longfellow, Drmking Song. 

Redlaw [Mr.), the " haunted man." He 
was a professor of chemistry, who bar- 
gained with the spirit which haunted him 
to leave him, on condition of his imparting 
to others his own idiosyncrasies. From 
this moment the chemist carried with him 
the infection of suUenness, selfishness, 
discontent and ingratitude. On Christmas 
Day the infection ceased. Redlaw lost his 





morbid feelings, and all who suffered by 
his infection, being healed, were restored 
to love, mirth, benevolence and gratitude. 
— C. Dickens, The Haunted Man (1848). 

Redmain {Sir Magnus), governor of 
the town of Berwick (fifteenth century). 

He was remarkable for Ms long red. beard, and 
was therefore called by the English "Magnus 
Red-beard," but by the Scotch, in derision, " Mag- 
nus Red-mane," as if his beard had been a horse- 
mane. — Godseroft, 178. 

Redmond O'lSTeale, Rokeby's page, be- 
loved by Rokeby's daughter, Matilda, 
whom he marries. He turns out to be 
Mortham's son and heir. — Sir W. Scott, 
Rokehj (1812). 

Reece {Captain), R.K, of the Mantel- 
piece ; adored by all his crew. They had 
feather-beds, warm slippers, hot-water 
cans, brown Windsor soap, and a valet to 
every four, for Captain Reece said, " It is 
my duty to make my men happy, and I 
will." Captain Reece had a daughter, ten 
female cousins, a niece and a ma, six sis- 
ters and an aunt or two, and, at the sug- 
gestion of William Lee, the coxswain, 
married these ladies to his crew — "It is 
my duty to make my men happy, and I 
will." Last of all, Captain Reece married 
the widowed mother of his coxswain, and 
they were all married on one day — " It was 
their duty, and they did it."— W. S. Gil- 
bert, The Bab Ballads ("Captain Reece, 

Reeve's Tale {The). Symond Symkyn, 
a miller of Trompington, near Cambridge, 
• used to serve " Soler Hall College," but 
was an arrant thief. Two scholars, Aleyn 
and John, undertook to see that a sack of 
corn sent to be ground was not tampered 
with ; so one stood by the hopper, and one 
by the trough which received the flour. 

In the mean time the miller let their horse 
loose, and, when the young men went to 
catch it, purloined half a bushel of the 
flour, substituting meal instead. It was 
so late before the horse could be caught 
that the miller offered the two scholars a 
"shakedown" in his own chamber, but 
when they were in bed he began to belabor 
them unmercifully. A scuffle ensued, in 
which the miller, being tripped up, fell 
upon his wife. His wife, roused from her 
sleep, seized a stick, and, mistaking the 
bald pate of her husband for the night-cap 
of one of the young men, banged it so 
lustily that the man was almost stunned 
with the blows. In the mean time the two 
scholars made off without payment, taking 
with them the sack and also the half- 
bushel of flour, which had been made into 
cakes.— Chaucer, Canterhury Tales' {1388). 
*#* Boccaccio has a similar story in his 
Decameron. It is also the subject of a 
fabliau entitled De Gombert et des Deux 
Clers. Chaucer borrowed his story from a 
fabliau given by Thomas Wright in his 
Anecdota Literaria, 15. 

Reformation {The). It was in germ in 
the early Lollards, and was radiant in the 
works of Wycliffe. 

It was present in the pulpit of Pierre 
de Bruys, in the pages of Arnoldo dgj 
Brescia, in the cell of Roger Bacon. 

It was active in the field with Peter 
Revel, in the castle of Lord Cobham, in 
the pulpit with John Huss, in the camp 
with John Ziska, in the class-room of Pico 
di Mirandola, in the observatory of Abra- 
ham Zacuto, and the college of Antonio 
di Lebrija, and it burst into full light 
through Martin Luther. 

Re'gan, second daughter of King Lear, 
and wife of the duke of Cornwall. Hav- 
ing received the half of her father's king- 




she refused to entertain him with his 
suite. On the death of her husband, she 
designed to marry Edmund, natural son of 
the earl of Gloster, and was poisoned by 
her elder sister, Goneril, out of jealousy. 
Regan, like Goneril, is proverbial for " flhal 
ingratitude." — Shakespeare, King Lear 

Regent Diamond {The). So called 
from the regent duke of Orleans. This 
diamond, the property of France, at first 
set in the crown, and then in the sword of 
state, was purchased in India by a gov- 
ernor of Madras, of whom the regent 
bought it for £80,000. 

Kegillus {The Battle of Lake). Re- 
gillus Lacus is about twenty miles east of 
•Rome, between Gabii (north) and Lavlcum 
(south). The Romans had expelled Tar- 
quin the Proud from the throne, because 
of the most scandalous conduct of his son 
Sextus, who had violated Lucretia, the 
wife of CoUatinus. Thirty combined cities 
of Latium, with Sabines and Volscians, 
took the part of Tarquin, and marched 
towards Rome. The Romans met the al- 
lied army at the Lake Regillus, and here, 
on July 15, B.C. 499, they won the great 
battle which confirmed their repubUcan 
constitution, and in which Tarquin, with 
his sons Sextus and Titus, was slain. 
While victory was still doubtful. Castor 
and Pollux, on their white horses, appeared 
to the Roman dictator, and fought for the 
Romans. The victory was complete, and 
ever after the Romans observed the an- 
niversary of this battle with a grand pro- 
cession and sacrifice. The procession 
started from the temple of Mars outside 
the city walls, entered by the Porta 
Capena, traversed the chief streets of 
Rome, marched past the temple of Vesta 
in the Forum, and then to the opposite 

side of the " great square," where they 
had built a temple to Castor and Pollux in 
gratitude for the aid rendered by them in 
this battle. Here offerings were made, 
and sacrifice was offered to the Great Twin- 
Brothers, the sons of Leda. Macaulay has 
a lay, called The Battle of the Lake Be- 
gillus, on the subject. 

Where, by the Lake Regillus, 
Under the Porcian height, 

All in the land of Tusenlum, 
Was fought the glorious fight. 
Macaulay, Lays of Ancient Borne (1842). 

A very parallel case occurs in the life of 
Mahomet. The Koreishites had armed to 
put down " the prophet ; " but Mahomet 
met them in arms, and on January 13, 
624, won the famous battle of Bedr. In 
the Koran (ch. iii.), he tells us that the 
angel Gabriel, on his horse, Haizum, ap- 
peared on the field with 3000 " angels," 
and won the battle for him. 

In the conquest of Mexico, we are told 
that St. James appeared on his grey horse 
at the head of the Castilian adventurers, 
and led them on to victory. Bernal Diaz, 
who was in the battle, saw the grey horse, 
but fancies the rider was Francesco de 
Morla, though, he confesses, " it might be 
the glorious apostle St. James " for aught 
he knew. 

Regimen of the Scliool of Salerno, a 

collection of precepts in Latin verse, writ- 
ten by John of Milan, a poet of the eleventh 
century, for Robert, the duke of Normandy. 

A volume universally known 
As the " Regimen of the School of Salern." 
Longfellow, The Golden Legend (1851). 

Reginald Arclier. A refined, debon- 
naire sensuaHst, courted by women and 
envied by men. He wooes and marries a 
gentle, pure heiress, and would, as her 
husband, break her heart were not the 





evil work cut short by his death at the 
hands of a man whose wife Reginald has 
lured from her allegiance to her lawful 
lord.— Anne Crane SeemuUer, Reginald 
Archer (1865). 

Region of Death, (Marovsthulli), 
Thurr, near Delhi, fatal, from some at- 
,mospherie influence, especially about sun- 

Regno (The), Naples. 

Are our wiser heads leaning towards an alli- 
ance with the pope and the Regno ?— George 
Eliot (Marian Evans). 

Reg'ulus, a Eoman general, who con- 
quered the Carthaginians (e.g. 256), and 
compelled them to sue for peace. While 
negotiation was going on, the Carthagin- 
ians, joined by Xanthippos, the Lacede- 
monian, attacked the Romans at Tunis, 
and beat them, taking Regulus prisoner. 
The captive was sent to Rome to make 
terms of peace and demand exchange 
of prisoners, but he used all his influence 
with the senate to dissuade them from 
coming to terms with their foe. On his 
return to captivity, the Cathaginians cut 
off his eyelids and exposed him to the 
burning sun, then placed him in a barrel 
armed with nails, which was rolled up and 
down a hill till the man was dead. 

*** This subject has furnished Pradon 
and Dorat with tragedies (French), and 
Metastasio, the Italian poet, with an opera 
called Regolo (1740). 

"Regulus" was a favorite part of the 
French actor, Francois J. Talma. 

Rehearsal (The), a farce by George 
ViUiers, duke of Buckingham (1671). It 
was designed for a satire on the rhyming 
plays of the time. The chief character, 
Bayes (1 syl), is meant for Dryden. 

The name of George VOliers, duke of Buck- 
ingham, demands cordial mention by every 
writer on the stage. He lived in an age when 
plays were chiefly written in rhyme, which served 
as a vehicle for foaming sentiment clouded by 
hyperbola. . . . The dramas of Lee and Settle . . . 
are made up of blatant couplets that emptily 
thundered through five long acts. To explode 
an unnatural custom by ridiculing it, was Buck- 
ingham's design in The Rehearsal, but in doing 
this the gratification of private dislike was a 
greater stimulus thaa the wish to promote the 
public good. — W. C. EusseU, Representative 

Reichel {Colonel), in Charles XII., by 
J. R. Planehe (1826). 

Rejected Addresses, parodies on 
Wordsworth, Cobbett, Southey, Scott, 
Coleridge, Crabbe, Byron, Theodore Hook, 
etc., by James and Horace Smith; the 
copyright after the sixteenth edition was 
purchased by John Murray, in 1819, for 
£131. The directors of Drury Lane The- 
atre had offered a premium for the best 
poetical address to be spoken at the open- 
ing of the new building, and the brothers 
Smith conceived the idea of publishing a 
number of poems supposed to have been 
written for the occasion and rejected by 
the directors (1812). 

" I do not see why they should have been re- 
jected," said a Leicestershire clergyman, "for 
I think some of them are very good." — James 


Reksh, ' Sir Rustam's horse. 

Relapse, (The), a comedy by Vanbrugh 
(1697). Reduced to three acts, and adapted 
to more modern times by Sheridan, under 
the title of A Trip to Scarborough (1777). 

Rel'dresal, principal secretary for pri- 
vate affairs in the court of Lilliput, and 
great friend of Gulliver. When it was 
proposed to put the Man-mountain to 


Rtinike Fox. Before King Lion 

II von Kaulbach, Artist 


Y his adroitness, Rcinike ouiiiits all his enemies, and gets on tloe 
right fide of tijer King. ':-. 

" ' Wljaf need more leords ? ' tints did the King reply, 
\ We comprehend the mailer perfectly. 
Tti you, as a free Baro7hve restore 
All privileges yoirt'er l^ehi before. 
Heneeforth at Court Our favor shall yon meet, 
"And at our Pri%y Council falie you,r seat. 
To pffWer and honor leill lee raise you up, ' ' '. ^ 
And you shall -leell deserve it, as zve hope. 
No fresh conrplauits against you will we hear 
No mailer ivhat complai-naiit\- shall appear. ' ' ' 

Goethe's " Reinike Fox." 





death for high treason, Reldresal moved 
as an amendment, that the "traitor should 
have both his eyes put out, and be suf- 
fered to hve that he might serve the na- 
tions'—Swift, Gulliver''s Travels (" Voyage 
to Lilliput," 1726). 

*#* Probably the dean had the Bible 
story of Samson and the Phihstines in his 

Kelics. The following relics are worthy 
of note, if for no other reason, because of 
the immense number of pilgrims who are 
drawn to them from all parts of the world. 

1. The House of the Virgin. This is now 
to be seen at Loreto, a town on the Adriatic, 
near Aneona, whither it was miraculously trans- 
ported through the air by angels in the year 
1294. It had been originally brought from 
Nazareth to Dalmatia in 1291, but after resting 
there for three years was again lifted up and 
placed where it now stands. It is a small brick 
structure surrounded by a marble screen designed 
by Bramante and decorated with carvings and 
sculptures by a number of celebrated sculptors. 
The church in which the house stands was built 
'over it to protect it shortly after its arrival. 

2. The Holy Coat. This is the seamless coat 
worn by Jesus, and for which the soldiers drew 
lots at his crucifixion. It is described by John 
alone of the evangelists : " Now the coat was 
without seam, woven from the top throughout." 
John 19, 23. It is preserved at Treves in the 
cathedral, and is shown at long intervals to the 
faithful, attracting vast crowds of pilgrims from 
all parts of Europe and America. It was last 
shown in 1891. The village of Argenteuil, near 
Paris, disputes with Treves the possession of the 
true garment, insisting on its own superior 
claim, but the right of Treves is generally ac- 
knowledged by Catholics. 

3. The Holy Face. According to the legend, 
when Jesus was on His way to Calvary, one of 
the women standing by, whose name was Veron- 
ica, seeing Him sinking under the weight of the 
cross, gave Him her handkerchief to wipe the 
sweat from His face. Wben He returned it the 
impression of His face was left upon the cloth, 
and remains distinctly to be seen at the present 

4. The Sainte Chapelle at Paris, one of the 

most beautiful Gothic buildings in Europe, was 
built as a shiine to contain the fragment of the 
true Cross and a thorn from the Crown of Thorns 
given by Louis IX. of France (Saint Louis). 
These rehcs have since been transferred to the 
Treasury of Notre Dame, at Paris. The church 
at Aachen (Aix-la-ChapeUe) also contains a frag- 
ment of the true Cross. In various churches of 
Italy, pictures of the Virgin Marysaid to have 
been painted by Saint Luke (a painter as well as 
a physician, and the patron saint of both pro- 
fessions) are preserved, but no one of them has 
any fame above the rest. 

Remember, Thou Art Mortal ! When 
a Roman conqueror entered the city in 
triumph, a slave was placed in the chariot 
to whisper from time to time into the ear 
of the conqueror, "Remember, thou art a 
man ! " 

Vespasian, the Roman emperor, had a 
slave who said to him daily as he left 
his chamber, "Remember, thou art a 
man ! " 

In the ancient Egyptian banquets it was 
customary during the feast to draw a 
mummy, in a car, round the banquet hall, 
while one uttered aloud, "To this estate 
you must come at last ! " 

When the sultan of Serendib (i.e. Cey- 
lon) went abroad, his vizier cried aloud, 
"This is the great monarch, the tremen- 
dous sultan of the Indies . . . greater than 
Solimo or the grand Mihrage ! " An offi- 
cer behind the monarch then exclaimed, 
" This monarch, though so great and pow- 
erful, must die, must die, must die ! " — 
Arabian Nights (" Sindbad," sixth voy- 

Remois (2 syl.), the people of Rheims, 
in France. 

Remond, a shepherd in Britannia^s 
Pastorals, by "William Browne (1613). 

Remond, young Eemond, that fuU weU could 





And time his pipe at Pan's birth caroUmg ; 
Who, for his nimble leaping, sweetest layes, 
A laurell garland wore on hoUdayes ; 
In framing of whose hand Dame Nature swore, 
There never was his hke, nor should be more. 

Pastoral, i. 

Rem'ores, birds which retard the exe- 
cution of a project. 

" Remores " aves in auspicio dieuntur quae ac- 
turum aliquid remorari compeUunt. — Festus, 
De VerhorumSignificatione. 

Kemus. (See Romulus and Remus.) 

Remus i^Uncle). Hero of many of Joel 
Chandler Harrises tales of negro-life. His 
fables of " Brer Rabbit," " Brer Bear," and 
the like are curious relics of African folk- 
lore (1886). 

Re'naud, one of the paladins of Charle- 
magne, always' described with the proper- 
ties of a borderer, valiant, alert, ingen- 
ious, rapacious, and, unscrupulous. Bet- 
ter (known in the Italian form Binaldo 

Renault, a Frenchman, and one of the 
chief conspirators in which Pierre was 
concerned. ■ When Jaffier joined the con- 
spiracy, he gave his wife, Belvide'ra, as 
surety of his fidelity, and a dagger to be 
used against her if he proved unfaithful. 
Renault attempted the honor of the lady, 
and Jaffier took her back in order to pro- 
tect her from such insults. The old vil- 
lain died on the wheel, and no one pitied 
him. — T. Otway, Venice Preserved (1682). 

, Ren6, the old king of PrOvence, father 
of Queen Margaret of Anjou (wife of 
Henry VI. of England). A minstrel-mon- 
arch, friend to the chase and tilt, poetry, 
and music. Thiebault says he gave in 
largesses to knights-errant and minstrels 

more than he received in revenue (oh. 
xxix.). — Sir W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein 
(time, Edward IV.). 

Bene (2 syl.), the hero and title of a ro- 
mance by Chateaubriand (1801). It was 
designed for an episode to his Genie du 
Christianisme (1802). Rene is a man of 
social inaction, conscious of possessing a 
superior genius, but his pride produces in 
him a morbid bitterness of spirit. 

Rene [Leblanc], notary public of G-rand 
Pre, in Arcadia {Nova Scotia). Bent with 
age, but with long yellow hair flowing over 
his shoulders. He was the father of twenty 
children, and had a hundred grandchil- 
dren. When Acadia was ceded by the 
French to England, Geoi-ge II. confiscated 
the goods of the simple colonists, and 
drove them into exile. Rene went to 
Pennsylvania, where he died, and was 
buried. — Longfellow, Evangeline (1849)'. 

Renton (Dr.). A Boston physician, 
whose best friend, dying, leaves a letter 
charging Renton, " In the name of the 
Saviour, he true and tender to mankind.''^ 
The doctor believes himself to be haunted 
by the ghost of this man, intent upon in- 
forcing the admonition, and the needy and 
the afflicted profit by the hallucination. — 
WiUiam D. O'Connor, The Ghost. 

Rentowel {Mr. Jahesh), a covenanting 
preacher. — Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, 
George II.). 

With vehemence of some pulpit-drumnmig 
Gowkthrapple, or " precious " Mr. Jabesh Ren- 
towel. — Carlyle. 

Reiizo and Lucia, the hero and heroine 
of an Italian novel by Alessandro Manzoni, 
enti titled The Betrothed Lover ("I Promessi 
Sposi"). This novel contains an account 

Reinike Fox to be Hung 

W. von Kaulbach, Artist 


EINIKE has been tried, condemned, and is about to be hung, but even 
with the noose about his neck, he manages to escape his sentence. 

" Then Reynard seriously to think began — 
■ Could I but now devise some cunning plan; 
That in this hour of my extremest need 
I might be pardoned and from bondage freed. 
Escape with credit from death's bitter throes 
And heap disgrace on these detested foes ! 

If they'd but grant me liberty of speech 

Some of their cruel hearts I yet might reach. 

And so get free of this accursed rope ! 

At least I'll try it I While there's life, there's hope." 

He then makes a long speech full of lies, accusing his enemies of all sorts 
of crimes and treasons against the King, and regrets that he must die without 
telling where a great treasure he has laid up, is hid. The King's curiosity 
is excited and he grants Reynard a reprieve. 

Goethe's " Reinike Fox." 


, , -\\ 





of the Bread Eiot and plague of Milan. 
Cardinal Borro'meo is also introduced. 
There is an English translation (1827). 

Repulblican Queen, {The), Sophie 
Charlotte, wife of Frederick I. of Prussia. 

Resequenz, wily major-domo to the 
duke of Romagna, audacious, unscrupu- 
lous and treacherous. — William Waldorf 
Astor, Valentino (1886). 

Resolute {The), John Florio, philolo-. 
gist (1545 ?-1625). Translated Montaigne's 
Essays and wrote a French and English 
Dictionary called a World of Words. One 
of the few autographs of Shakespeare is in 
a copy of Florio's Montaigne in the British 

*** Florio is, said to have been the pro- 
totype of Shakespeare's "Holof ernes," in 
Love's Lahour^s Lost. 

Resolute Doctor {The), John Bacon- 
thorpe (*-1346). 

*#* Guillaume Durandus de St. Pour- 
gain was called "the Most Resolute Doc- 
tor (1267-1332). 

Restless {Sir John), the suspicious hus- 
band of a suspicious wife. 

Ladp JRestless, wife of Sir John. As 
she has a fixed idea that her husband is 
inconstant, she is always asking the ser- 
vants, "Where is Sir John?" "Is Sir 
John returned?" "Which way did Sir 
John go ? " " Has Sir John received any 
letters?" "Who has called?" etc.; and, 
whatever the' answer, it is to her a confir- 
mation of her surmises. — A. Murphy, All 
in the Wrong (1761). 

Reuben Dixon, a village schoolmaster 
of "ragged lads." 

'Mid noise, and dirt, and stench, and play, and 

He calmly cuts the pen or views the slate. 

Crabbe, Borough, xxiv. (1810). 

Reuben and Seth, servants of Nathan 
ben Israel, the Jew at Ashb^, a friend of 
Isaac and Rebecca. — Sir W. Scott, Ivanhoe 
(time, Richard I.). 

Reullu'ra {i.e. " beautiful star "), the 
wife of Aodh, one of the Culdees, or prim- 
itive clej-gy of Scotland, who preached 
the gospel of G-od in lo'na, an island south 
of Staffa. Here Ulvfa'gre, the Dane, 
landed, and, having put all who opposed 
him to death, seized Aodh, bound him in 
iron, carried him to the church, and de- 
manded where the treasures were con- 
cealed. Just then appeared a mysterious 
figure all in white, who first unbound 
Aodh, and then taking the Dane by the 
arm, led him up to the statue of St. 
Columb, which immediately fell and 
crushed him to death. Then turning to 
the Norsemen, the same mysterious figure 
told them to " go back and take the bones 
of their chief with them ; " adding, who- 
ever lifted hand in the island again, should 
be a paralytic for life. " The " saint " then 
transported the remnant of the islanders 
to Ireland; but when search was made 
for ReuUura, her body was in the sea, and 
her soul in heaven. — Campbell, ReuUura. 

Reutha'mir, the principal man of Bal- 
clutha, a town belonging to the Britons 
on the river Clyde. His daughter, Moina, 
married Clessammor (Fingal's uncle on 
the mother's side). Reuthamir was killed 
by Combal (Fingal's father) when he at- 
tacked Baleutha and burned it to the 
ground. — Ossian, Garthon. 

Reutner {Karl), young German, serving 
in the Federal army, finds, on the Gettys- 
burg battle-field, a four-leafed clover, and 




waves it in tlie air. The gesture attracts 
a sharp-shooter, and Eeutner falls insen- 
sible. He is taken from hospital to prison, 
and languishes for weeks, in delirium, all 
the while haunted by a vision of a woman, 
dark-eyed and beautiful, who brings him 
handfuls of four-leaved clover. When he 
reaches home, he recognizes her in Mar- 
garet Warren, a guest in his father's house. 
The betrothal-ring bears a four-leaved 
clover of green enamel, set in diamonds. 
— Helen Hunt Jackson, A Four-Leaved 
Clover (1886). 

Rev'eller {Lady), cousin of Valeria, 
the blue-stocking. Lady Reveller is very 
fond of play, but ultimately gives it up, 
and is united to Lord Worthy. — Mrs. Cent- 
livre, The Basset Table (1706). 

Revenge (The), a tragedy by Edward 
Young (1721). (For the plot, see Zanga.) 

Revenge {The), the ship under the com- 
mand of Sir Richard G-renville, anchored 
at Flores, in the Azores, when a fleet of 
fifty-three Spanish ships hove in sight. 
Lord Thomas Howard, with six men-of- 
war, sailed off ; but Sir Richard stood his 
ground. He had only a hundred men, but 
with this crew and his one ship, he en- 
countered the Spanish fleet. The flght 
was very obstinate. Some of the Spanish 
ships were sunk, and many shattered ; but 
Sir Richard at length was wounded, and 
the surgeon shot while dressing the wound. 
"Sink the ship, master gunner! " cried Sir 
Richard; "sink the ship, and let her not 
faU into the hands of Spain ! " But the 
crew were obliged to yield, and Sir Richard 
died. The Spaniards were amazed at Gren- 
viUe's pluck, and gave him all honors, as 
they cast his body into the sea. The Re- 
venge was then manned by Spaniards, 
but never reached the Spanish coast, for 

it was wrecked in a tempest, and went 
down with all hands aboard. — Tennyson, 
The Revenge, a ballad of the fleet (1878). 

*#* This sea-fight is the subject of one 
of Froude's essays. 

Canon Kingsley has introduced it in 
Westivard Ho! where he gives a descrip- 
tion of Sir Richard GrrenviUe. 

Lord Bacon says the fight "was me- 
morable even beyond credit, and to the 
height of heroic fable." 

Mr. Arber published three interesting 
contemporary documents relating to The 
Revenge, by Sir Walter Raleigh. 

Gervase Markham wrote a long poem 
on the subject (two hundred stanzas of 
eight hues each). 

Revenge {The Palace of), a palace of 
Crystal, provided with everything agree- 
able to life except the means of going out 
of it. The fairy Pagan made it, and when 
Imis rejected his suit because she loved 
Prince Philax, he shut them up in this 
palace out of revenge. At the end of a 
few years Pagan had his revenge, for 
Philax and Imis longed as eagerly for a 
separation as they had once done to be 
united. — Comtesse DAunoy, Fairy Tales 
(" Palace of Revenge," 1682). 

Revenons a nos Moutons, let us re- 
turn to the matter in hand. This phrase 
comes from an old French comedy of the 
fifteenth century, entitled DAvocat Pate- 
lin, by Blanehet. A clothier, giving evi- 
dence against a shepherd who had stolen 
some sheep, is for ever running from the 
subject to talk about some cloth of which 
Patelin, his lawyer, had defrauded him. 
The judge from time to time pulls him up 
by saying, "Well, well! and about the 
sheep 1 " " What about the sheep ? " (See 




Revolutionary Songs. By far the 

most popular were : 

1. La Marseillaise, both words and music 
by Rouget de Lisle (1792). 

2. Veillons au Salut de VEmpire, by 
Adolpbe S. Boy (1791). Music by Dalayra. 
Very strange that men whose whole pur- 
pose was to destroy the empire should go 
about singing " Let us guard it ! " 

3. Ca Ira, written to the tune of Le 
Carillon National, in 1789, while prepara- 
tions were being made for the Fete de la 
Federation. It was a great favorite with 
Marie Antoinette, who was for ever " strum- 
ming the tune on her harpsichord." 

4. Chant du Depart, by Marie Joseph de 
Chenier (1794). Music by Mehul. This was 
the most popular next to the Marseillaise. 

5. La Carmagnole. "Madame Veto 
avait promis de faire egorger tout Paris 
. . ." (1792). Probably so caUed from Car- 
magnole, in Piedmont. The burden of 
this dancing song is : 

Danson la Carmagnole, 
Vive le son ! Vive le son ! 

Danson la Carmagnole, 
Vive le son du canon ! 

6. La Vengeur, a spirited story, in verse, 
about a ship so called. Lord Howe took 
six of the French ships, June 1, 1794; 
but La Vengeur was sunk by the crew, 
that it might not fall into the hands of 
the English, and went down while the 
crew shouted "Vive la Republique ! " The 
story bears a strong resemblance to that of 
"The Revenge," Sir Richard Grrenville's 
ship. See ante. 

In the second Revolution we have : 

1. La Parisienne, called " The Marseil- 
laise of 1830," by Casimir Delavigne, the 
same year. 

2. La France a VHorreur du Servage, by 
Casimu- Delavigne (1843). 

3. Le Champ de Bataille, by Emile De- 
breaux (about 1830). 

The chief political songs of Beranger 
are : Adieux de Marie Stuart, La Cocarde 
Blanche, Jacques, La Deesse, Marquis de 
Carahas, Le Sacre de Charles le Simple, 
Le Senateiu; Le Vieux Caporal, and Le 

In the American Revolution the air of 
Yankee Doodle was sung to various sets of 
words, all derisive of the British and ex- 
hilarating to the Americans. 

In the Civil War of the United States 
The Star- Spangled Banner, Hail Columlia, 
Tramp ! Tramp ! Tramp ! and Julia "Ward 
Howe's Battle Hymn of the Eepublic to the 
air of John Brown^s Body Lies Mouldering 
in the Ground were favorites with the 
Federal troops. 

Among the Confederates, Dixie, and 
Maryland, My Maryland, were most pop- 

Rewcastle [Old John), a Jedburgh 
smuggler, and one of the Jacobite con- 
spirators with the laird of EUieslaw. — Sir 
W. Scott, The Black Dwarf (time, Anne). 

Reynaldo, a servant to Polonius. — 
Shakespeare, Hamlet (1596). 

Reynard the Fox, the hero of the 
beast-epic so called. This prose poem is 
a satire on the state of G-ermany in the 
Middle Ages. Reynard represents the 
Church; Isengrin, the wolf (his uncle), 
typifies the baronial element ; and Nodel, 
the lion, stands for the regal power. The 
plot turns on the struggle for supremacy 
between Reynard and Isengrin. Reynard 
uses all his endeavors to victimize every 
one, especially his uncle, Isengrin, and 
generally succeeds. — Meinecke Fuchs (thier- 
epos, 1498). 

Reynardine (3 syl), eldest son of Rey- 
nard the Fox. He assumed the names of 





Dr. Pedanto and Crabron. — Beynard the 
Fox (1498). 

Reynold of Montalbon, one of Charle- 
magne's paladins. 

Reynolds [Sir Joshua), is thus described 
by Goldsmith : 

Here Reynolds is laid ; and, to teU you my mind, 
He lias not left a wiser or better behind. 
His pencil was striking, resistless and grand ; 
His manners were gentle,complyiag and bland . . . 
To coxcombs averse, yet most civilly steeruig, 
When they judged without skiU he was stiU 

hard of hearing ; 
When they talked of their Raphaels, Corregios, 

and stuff, 
He shifted his trumpet, and only took snuff. 

Retaliation (1774). 

N.B. — Sir Joshua Eeynolds was hard of 
hearing, and used an ear-trumpet. 

Rez'io (Dr.) or " Pedro Rezio of Ague'- 
ro," the doctor of Barata'ria, who forbade 
Sancho Panza to taste any of the meats 
set before him. Roast partridge was 
"forbidden by Hippoc'rates." Podri'da 
was "the most pernicious food in the 
world." Rabbits were " a sharp-haired 
diet." Veal was "prejudicial to health." 
But, he said, the governor might eat " a 
few wafers, and a thin slice or two of 
quince." — Cervantes, Bon Quixote, II. iii. 
10 (1615). 

Rhadaman'thns, son of Jupiter and 
Euro'pa. He reigned in the Cyelades 
■with such partiality, that at death he was 
made one of the judges of the infernal 


And if departed souls must rise again . . . 
And bide the judgment of reward or pain . . . 
Then Rhadamanthus and stern Minos were 
True types of justice while they liv^d here. 
Lord Brooke, Monarchie, i. (1554-1628). 

Rhampsini'tos, king of Egypt, usual- 

ly called Ram'eses III., the richest of the 
Egyptian monarchs, who amassed 72 mil- 
lions sterling, which he secured in a 
treasury of stone. By an artifice of the 
builder, he was robbed every night. — He- 
rodotus, ii. 121. 

A parallel tale is told of Hyrieus [Hy'.ri.- 
uce] of Hyria. His two architects, Tro- 
phonios and Agamedes (brothers), built 
his treasure- vaults, but left one stone 
removable at pleasure. After great loss 
of treasure, Hyrieus spread a net, in which 
Agame'des was caught. To prevent rec- 
ognition, Trophonios cut off his brother's 
head. — Pausanias, Itinerary of Greece, ix, 

A similar tale is told of the treasure- 
vaults of Augeas, king of Elis. 

Rha'sis or Mohammed Aboubekr ibn 
Zakaria el Razi, a noted Arabian physi- 
cian. IJe wrote a treatise on small-pox 
and measles, with some 200 other treatises 

Well, error has no end ; 
And Rhasis is a sage. 

R. Browning, Paracelsus, iii 

Rhea's Child. Jupiter is so called by 
Pindar. He dethroned his father, Sa- 

* The child 
Of Rhea drove him \_8atiirn\ from the upper 

Akenside, Hymn to the Naiads (1767). 

Rheims {The Jackdaw of). The cardi- 
nal-archbishop of Rheims made a great 
feast, to which he invited 8,11 the joblillies 
of the neighborhood. There were abbots 
and prelates, knights and squires, and all 
who delighted to honor the great panjan- 
drum of Rheims. The feast over, water 
was served, and his lordship's grace, draw- 
ing off his turquoise ring, laid it beside 




Ms plate, dipped his fingers into the 
golden bowl, and wiped them on his nap- 
kin; but when he looked to put on his 
ring, it was nowhere to be found. It was 
evidently gone. The floor was searched, 
the plates and dishes hfted up, the mugs 
and chalices, every possible and impossi- 
ble place was poked into, but without 
avail. The ring must have been stolen. 
His grace was furious, and, in dignified 
indignation, calling for bell, book, and 
candle, banned the thief, both body and 
soul, this life and for ever. It was a ter- 
rible curse, but none of the guests seemed 
the worse for it — except, indeed, the jack- 
daw. The poor bird was a pitiable object, 
his head lobbed down, his wings draggled 
on the floor, his feathers were all ruffled, 
and with a ghost of a caw he prayed the 
company follow him ; when lo ! there was 
the ring, hidden in some sly corner by the 
jackdaw as a clever practical joke. His 
lordship's grace smiled benignantly, and 
instantly removed the curse ; when lo ! ' 
as if by magic, the bird became fat and 
sleek again, perky and impudent, wagging 
his tail, winking his eye, and cocking his 
head on one side, then up he hopped to 
his old place on the cardinal's chair. NeVer 
after this did he indulge in thievish tricks, 
but became so devout, so constant at feast 
and chapel, so well-behaved at matins and 
vespers, that when he died he died in the 
odor of sanctity, and was canonized, his 
name being changed to that of Jim Crow. 
— Barham, Ingoldshy Legends (" Jackdaw 
of Eheims," 1837). 

Rheingold. The treasure given Sieg- 
fried by the dwarfs, and the cause of con- 
tention after his death. 

Rhesus was on his march to aid the 
Trojans in their siege, and had nearly 
reached Troy, when he was attacked in 

the night by Ulysses and Diomed. In 
this surprise Rhesus and all his army were 
cut to pieces. — Homer, Iliad, x. 

A parallel case was that of Sweno, the 
Dane, who was marching to join God- 
frey and the crusaders, when he was at- 
tacked in the night by Solyman, and both 
Sweno and his army perished. — Tasso, 
Jerusalem Delivered (1575). 

Rhiannon's Birds. The notes of these 
birds were so sweet that warriors remained 
spell-bound for eighty years together, lis- 
tening to them. ' These birds are often 
alluded to by the Welsh bards. (Ehian- 
non was the wife of Prince Pwyll.) — The 
Mabinogion, 363 (twelfth century). 

The snow-white bird which the monk 
Felix listened to, sang so enchantingly 
that he was spell-bound for a hundred 
years, listening to it. — Longfellow, Golden 

Rhodalind, daughter of Aribert, king 
of Lombardy, in love with Duke Gondi- 
bert; but Gondibert preferred .Birtha, a 
country girl, daughter of the sage, Astra- 
gon. While the duke is whispering sweet 
love-notes to Birtha, a page comes post- 
haste to announce to him that the king 
has proclaimed him his heir, and is about 
to give him his daughter in marriage. 
The duke gives Birtha an emerald ring, 
and says if he is false to her, the emerald 
will lose its lustre ; then hastens to court, 
in obedience to the king's summons. Here 
the tale breaks ofif, and was never finished. 
■ — Sir Wm. Davenant, Gondihert (1605- 

Rhodian Venus (The). This was the 
"Venus" of Protog'enes mentioned by 
Pliny, Natural History, xxxv. 10. 

When first the Rhodian's mimic art arrayed 
The Queen of Beauty in her Cyprian shade, 





The liappy master mingled in his piece 
Each look that charmed him in tiie fair of Greece. 
Campbell, Pleasures of Hope, ii. (1799). 

Prior (166J-1721) refers to the same 
painting in Ms fable of Protogenes and 
Apjyelles : 

I hope, sir, you intend to stay 

To see our Venus ; 'tis the piece 

The most renowned throughout all G-reece. 

Rhod'ope (3 syl.), or Rhod'opis, a cel- 
ebrated Grreek courtezan, who afterwards 
married Psammetielius, king of Egypt. 
It is said she built the third pyramid. — 
Phny, Nat. Hist., xxxvi. 12. 

A statelier pyramis to her I'll rear, 
Than Rhodope's. 
Shakespeare, Henry VI. act i. so. 6 (1589). 

Rhombus, a schoolmaster who speaks 
" a leash of langTiages at once," puzzling 
himself and his hearers with a jargon hke 
that of "Holofernes" in Shakespeare's 
Lovers Lahofs Lost (1594). — Sir Philip 
Sidney, Pastoral Entertainment (1587). 

Bhomhns, a spinning-wheel or rolling 
instrument used by the Roman witches 
for fetching the moon out of heaven. 

Quae nunc Thessahco lunam deducere rhombo 
]sciet]. — Martial, Epigrams, ix. 30. 

Rhone of Christian Eloquence [The), 
St. Hilary (300-367). 

Rhone of Latin Eloquence {The). 
St. Hilary is so called by St. Jerome (300- 

Rhongomyant, the lance of King Ar- 
thur. — The JIahinogion (" Kilhwch and 
01 wen," twelfth century). 

Rhyming to Death. In 1 Henry VI. 
act i. sc. 1, Thomas Beaufort, duke of Ex- 
eter, speaking about the death of Henry 

v., says, " Must we think that the subtle- 
witted French conjurors and sorcerers, 
out of fear of him, ' by magic verses have 
contrived his end 1 ' " The notion of kill- 
ing by incantation was at one time very 

Irishmen . . . will not stick to affinne that 
they can rime either man 'or beast to death.— 
Reg. Scot, Discoverie of Witchcraft (1564). 

Ribbon. The yellow ribbon, in France, 
indicates that the wearer has won a me- 
daille miUtaire (instituted by Napoleon III.) 
as a minor decoration of the Legion of 

The red ribbon marks a chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. A rosette indicates a 
higher grade than that of chevalier. 

Ribemont (3 syl.), the bravest and 
noblest of the French host in the battle of 
Poitiers. He alone dares confess that the 
English are a brave people. In the battle 
he is slain by Lord Audley. — Shirley, Ed- 
ward the Black Prince (1640). 

Bihemont {Count), in The Siege of Calais, 
by Colman. 

Riccar'do, commander of Plymouth 
fortress, a Puritan to whom Lord Walton , 
has promised his daughter, Elvira, in mar- 
riage. Riccardo learns that the lady is in 
love with Arthur Talbot, and when Arthur 
is taken prisoner by Cromwell's soldiers, 
Riccardo promises to use his efforts to ob- 
tain his pardon. This, however, is not 
needful, for Cromwell, feeling quite secure 
of his position, orders all the captives of 
war to be released. Riccardo is the Italian 
form of Sir Richard Forth. — BeUini, I 
Puritanl (opera, 1834). 

Ricciardetto, son of Aymon, and 
brother of Bradamante. — Ariosto, Orlando 
Furioso (1516). 

Rhodope^ the Egyptian Princess 

Ferd. Keller, Artist M. Weu.'^JlucntiYf 

^~yO she raised her hands to fbe great and glorious sun, u'l^i i.. ilh Ins 
i \ golden, sword-lihc rays i<jas just dispersing the mists that hung 
over the Euphrates, and opened her lips h sing her newly-learned 
hytnns in praise of Mithras ; hut her voice fyikd her-rinstead of Mithras 
she could only see her ozvn great Ra, the god she had so often worshipped in 
Egypt, and iitstead of a Magian hymn cgiild only sing the one with which 
the Egyptian priests are accustomed to greet the rising sun. 

"As she ga:(^ed on the young light, the rays of which were not yet strong 
enough to da:{jle her, she thought of her childhood, and the tears gathered in 
her eyes. Then she looked down over the broad plain. There was the 
Euphrates with his yellow waves looking so like the Nile — ' ' 

George Ebers's "An Egyptian Princess." 





Eice. Eating rice with a bodkin. Amin^, 
the beautiful wife of Sidi Nouman, ate rice 
with a bodkin, but she was a ghoul. (See 

Richard, a fine, honest lad, by trade a 
smith. He marries, on New Year's Day, 
Meg, the daughter of Toby Veck.— C. 
Dickens, The Chimes (1844). 

Bichard (Squire), eldest son of Sir Fran- 
cis Wronghead, of Bumper Hall. A coun- 
try bumpkin, wholly ignorant of the world 
and of literature. — Vanbrugh and -Gibber, 
The Provoked Husband (1727). 

Eobert Wetherilt [1708-1745] came to Drury 
Lane a boy, where he showed his rising genius 
in the part of "Squire Richard."-;— Chetwood, 
History of the Stage. 

Bichard {Prince), eldest son of King 
Henry II.— Sir W. Scott, The Betrothed 
(time, Henry II.). 

Bichard " Coeur de Lion," introduced in 
two novels by Sir "W. Scott {The Talisman 
and Ivanhoe). In the latter he first ap- 
pears as " The Black Knight," at the tour- 
nament, and is called Le Noir Faineant, or 
" The Black Sluggard ; " also " The Knight 
of the Fetter-lock." 

Bichard a Name of Terror. The name 
of Richard I., like that of Attila, Bona- 
parte, Corvinus, Narses, Sebastian, Tal- 
bot, Tamerlane, and other great conquer- 
ors, was at one time employed in terror em 
to disobedient children. (See Names oe 

His tremendous name was employed by the 
Syrian mothers to sUence their infants ; and if 
a horse suddenly started from the way, his rider 
was wont to exclaim, "Dost thou think King 
Richard is in the bush ? " — Gibbon, Decline arid 
Fall of the Roman Empire, xi. 146 (1776-88). 

The Daughters of Bichard I. "When 

Richard was in France, Fulco, a priest, 
told him he ought to beware how he be- 
stowed his daughters in marriage. " I have 
no daughters," said the king. "Nay, nay," 
replied Fulco, " all the world knows that 
you have three — Pride, Covetousness and 
Lechery." "If these are my daughters," 
said the king, " I know well how to bestow 
them where they will be well cherished. 
My eldest I give to the Knights Templars, 
my second to the monks ; and my third I 
cannot bestow better than on yourself, for 
I am sure she will never be divorced nor 
neglected." — Thomas Milles, True Nobility 

The Horse of Bichard L, Fennel. 

Ah, Fennel, my noble horse, thou bleedest, 
thou art slaiu ! — Gaeur de Lion and His Horse. 

The Troubadour of Bichard I., Bertrand 
de Born. 

Richard Pennyroyal, unhappy man 
whose weary indifference to his first wife 
heightens into aversion as she becomes in- 
sane. He is relieved when she drowns 
herself. His second wife, passionately 
beloved, is unfaithful to him, and loathes 
him as he drinks more and more to drown 
disappointment. His rival triumphs over 
him in a struggle for property, but Richard 
has his wife still. Straying one night 
toward the pool in which his first wife 
drowned herself, he comes upon the false 
wife and her lover, challenges the latter 
to a duel then and there, and is shot 
through the heart. His body is tossed 
into the pool and never discovered. — 
Julian Hawthorne, Archibald Malmaison 

Richard II's Horse, Roan Barbary. — 
Shakespeare, Bichard II. act v. sc. 5 (1597). 

Richard III., a tragedy by Shakespeare 
(1597). At one time parts of Eowe's trag- 





edy of Jane Shore were woven in the acting 
edition, and Jolin Kemble introduced other 
clap-traps from CoUey Cibber. The best 
actors of this part were David Grarrick 
(1716-1779), Henry Mossop (1729-1773) 
and Edmund Kean (1787-1833). 

Richard III. was only 19 years old at the 
opening of Shakespeai-e's play. — Sharon Turner. 

The Horse of Bichard III., White Sur- 
rey. — Shakespeare, Bichard III. act v. sc. 
3 (1597). 

Bichard's himself again I These words 
were interpolated by John Kemble from 
CoUey Cibber. 

Richards {Allen). He meets his lately 
betrothed in a parlor-car, and the dialogue 
that ensues ends in reconciliation and re- 
newal of vows. They are alone, except 
when the porter enters from time to time, 
and a providential detention on the road 
prolongs the interview. — W. D. Howells, 
The Parlor Car (a farce, 1876). 

Richelieu {Armand), cardinal and chief 
minister of France. The duke of Orleans 
(the king's brother), the count de Baradas 
(the king's favorite), and other noblemen, 
conspired to assassinate Richelieu, de- 
throne Louis XIII., and make Gaston, 
duke of Orleans, the regent. The plot 
was revealed to the cardinal by Marion de 
Lorme, in whose house the conspirators 
met. The conspirators were arrested, and 
several of them put to death, but Gaston, 
duke of Orleans, turned king's evidence, 
and was pardoned. — Lord Lytton, Biche- 
lieu (1839). 

Richland {Miss), intended for Leontine 
Croaker, but she gives her hand in mar- 
riage to Mr. Honey wood, "the good- 
natured man," who promises to abandon 
his quixotic benevolence, and to make it 
his study in future " to reserve his pity 

for real distress, his friendship for true 
merit, and his love for her who first taught 
him what it is to be happy." — Goldsmith, 
The Good-natured Man (1768). 

Richlings {The). Brave young couple 
who come to New Orleans to make a liv- 
ing. John Bichling has forfeited the favor 
of a rich father by marrying the woman 
of his choice, but never regrets the action. 
From the outset ill-fortune pursues him. 
He is willing to work, but work is hard to 
get. He accepts various employments, 
more or less menial, and through no fault 
of his, loses one after another. Nothing 
is stable except Mary^s love and Dr. 
8evier''s friendship. Just before the war 
poverty compels hini to send Mary to her 
mother in Milwaukee. There her child is 
born. He remains in New Orleans, work- 
ing hard, and steadily failing in health. 
For three years they are separated by war, 
the noble wife trying all the while to get 
to her husband. When she succeeds, it is 
to find him on his death-bed. 

Mary becomes, under Dr. Sevier's di- 
rection a city-missionary. " The work . . . 
seemed to keep John near. Almost, 
sometimes, he seemed to walk at her side 
in her errands of mercy, or to spread 
above her the arms of benediction." — ■ 
George W. Cable, Br. Sevier (1888). 

Richmond {The duchess of) wife of 
Charles Stuart, in the court of Charles II. 
The line became extinct, and the title was 
given to the Lennox family. — Sir W. 
Scott, Perveril of the Peak (time, Charles 

Richmond {The earl of), Henry of Lan- 
caster. — Sir W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein 
(time, Edward IV.). 

Richmond Hill {The Lass of), Miss 

Miss Richland visits Mr. Honeywood 

W. p. Frith, Artist 

TT 'W^T' HEN Honeywood, the "Good- Matured Man," is in charge of 
#/X/ the bailiffs, he bribes them to conceal the fact and to pass them- 

selves off as his friends. As he completes the arrangement , his 
inamorata is announced. 

{Enter Miss Richland and her maid.') 

Miss Richland. 
"You'll be surprised, Sir, with this visit. But, ■you know, I'm yet to 
thank you for choosing my little library. ' ' 

" Thanks, Madam, are unnecessary ; as it was I that was obliged byyoui 
conimands. Chairs, here ! Two of my very good friends , Mr . Twitch and 
Mr. Flanigan. Pray, gentlemen, sit without ceremony. 

Miss Richland. 

"Who can that odd-looking man be? I fear it is as I was informed. It 
must be so ! " {Aside.) 

Bailiff {after a pause). 

"Pretty weather ; very pretty weather for the time of the year, Madam." ' 

"Very good circuit-weather in the country. " 

Goldsmith 's " The Good-Natured Man." 













I'Anson, of Hill House, Richmond, York- 
shire. Words by M'Nally, music by James 
Hook, who married the young lady. 

The Lass of Richmond Hill is one of the sweet- 
est ballads in the language. — John Bell. 

Kichmondl {Kate). New England girl, 
heroine of several sketches in Grace G-reen- 
wood's Leaves. " Aside from her beauty 
and unfailing cheerfulness, she has a clear, 
strong intellect, an admirable taste and an 
earnest truthfulness of character." — Grace 
Greenwood, Greenwood Leaves (1850). 

Rickets (Mabel), the old nurse of Frank 
Osbaldistone. — Sir W. Scott, Bob Boy 
(time, George I.). 

Eiderhood (Bogue), the villain in Dick- 
ens's novel of Our Mutual Friend (1864). 

Rides on the Tempest and Directs 
the Storm. Joseph Addison, speaking 
of the duke of Marlborough and his 
famous victories, says that he inspired the 
fainting squadrons, and stood unmoved in 
the shock of battle : 

So when an angel by divine command, 
With rising tempests shakes a guilty land, 
• Such as of late o'er pale Britannia past, 
Calm and serene he drives the furious blast ; 
And, pleased th' Almighty's orders to perform, 
Rides on the tempest and directs the storm. 
The Campaign (1705). 

Ridicule {Father of). Francois Ea- 
belais is so styled by Sir Wm. Temple 

Ridolphus, one of the band of adven- 
turers that joined the crusaders. He was 
slain by Argantes (bk. vii.) — Tasso, Jeru- 
salem Delivered (1575). 

Rienzi {Nicola Gahrini) or Cola di 
Snwzi, last of the tribunes, who assumed 

the name of " Tribune of Liberty, Peace 
and Justice " (1313-1354). 

*#* Gola di Eienzi is the hero of a novel 
by Lord Bulwer Lytton, entitled Biensi, or 
The Last of the Tribunes (1849). 

Biemi, an opera by Wagner (1841). It 
opens with a number of the Orsini break- 
ing into Eienzi's house, in order to abduct 
his sister, Irene, but in this they are foiled 
by the arrival of the Colonna and his fol- 
lowers. The outrage provokes a general 
insurrection, and Eienzi is appointed 
leader. The nobles are worsted, and 
Eienzi becomes a senator; but the aris- 
tocracy ha'^e him, and ' Paolo Orsini seeks 
to assassinate him, biit without success. By 
the machinations of the German emperor 
and the Colonna, Eienzi is excommuni- 
cated and deserted by all his adherents. 
He is ultimately fired on by the populace 
and killed on the steps of the capitol. — 
Libretto by J. P.J"ackson. 

Bienzi {The English), William with the 
Long Beard, alias Fitzosbert (*-1196). 

Rigaud (Mons.), a Belgian, 35 years of 
age, confined in a villainous prison at 
Marseilles, for murdering his wife. He 
has a hooked nose, handsome after its kind, 
but too high between the eyes, and his 
eyes, though sharp, were too near to one 
another. He was, however, a large, tall 
man, with thin lips, and a goodly quantity 
of dry hair shot with red. When he 
spoke, his moustache went up under his 
nose, and his nose came down over his 
moustache. After his liberation from 
prison, he first took the name of Lagnier, 
and then of Blandois, his name being 
Eigaud Lagnier Blandois. — Charles Dick- 
ens, Little Dorrit (1857). 

Rigdum-Fimnidos, a courtier in the^ 




palace of King ChrononhotoBthologos. 
After tlie death of the king, the widowed 
queen is advised to many again, arrd Rig- 
dum Funnidos is proposed to her as " a 
very proper man." At this Aldiboronte- 
phoscophornio takes umbrage, aiud the 
queen says, "Well, gentlemen, to make 
matters easy, I'll have you both." — H. 
Carey, Chrononhotonthologos (1734). 

*#* John Ballantyne, the publisher, was 
so called by Sir W. Sfeott. He was " a 
quick, active, intrepid little fellow, full of 
fun and merriment ... all over quaint- 
ness and humorous mimicry." 

Eight-Hitting Brand, one of the 

companions of Robin Hood, mentioned 
by Mundy. 

-Rig'olette (3 syl.), a grisette and cour- 
tezan. — Eugene Sue, Mysteries of Paris 

Rigoletto, an opera, describing the agony 
of a father obliged to Avitness the violation 
of his own daughter. — ^Verdi, Bigoletto 

*#* The libretto of this opera is bor- 
rowed from Victor Hugo's drama Le Boi 

Rimegap {Joe), one of the miners of 
Sir Greoffrey Perveril of the Peak. — Sir 
W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, 
Charles II.). 

Rimini {Francesca di), a woman of 
extraordinary beauty, daughter of the 
lord of Ravenna. She was married to 
Lanciotto Malatesta, signore of Rimini, a 
man of great bravery, but deformed. His 
brother, Paolo, was extremely handsome, 
and with him Francesca fell in love. 
Lanciotto, detecting them in criminal in- 
tercourse, killed them both (1389). 

This tale forms one of the episodes of 
Dante's Inferno ; is the subject of a tragedy 
called Francesca di Bimini, by Silvio Pel- 
lico (1819) ; and Leigh Hunt, about the 
same time, published his Story of Bimini, 
in verse. 

Rimmon, seventh in order of the hi- 
erarchy of Hell : (1) Satan, (2) Beelzebub, 
(3) Moloch, (4) Chemos, (5) Thammuz, (6) 
Dagon, (7) Rimmon, whose chief temple 
was at Damascus (2 Kings v. 18). 

Him [Dagori] followed Rimmon, whose delight- 
ful seat 
Was fair Damascus on the fertile banks 
Of A'bana and Pharpar, lucid streams. 

Milton, Paradise Lost, i. 467, etc. (1665). 

Rinaldo, son of the fourth Marquis 
d'Este, cousin of Orlando, and nephew of 
Charlemagne. He was the rival of Or- 
lando in his love for Angelica, but Ange- 
lica detested him. Rinaldo brought an 
auxiliary force of English and Scotch to 
Charlemagne, which " Silence " conducted 
safely into Paris. 
Furioso (1516). 

Ariosto, Orlando 

Binaldo, the Achilles of the Christian 
army in the siege of Jerusalem. He was 
the son of Bertoldo and Sophia, but was 
brought up by Matilda. Rinaldo joined 
the crusaders at the age of 15. Being 
summoned to a public trial for the death 
of Gernando, he went into, voluntary ex- 
ile. — Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered (1575). 

*»* Pulci introduces the same character 
in his burlesque poem entitled Morgante 
Maggiore, which holds up to ridicule the 
romances of chivalry. 

Binaldo, steward to the countess of 
Rousillon — Shakespeare, AWs Well that 
Ends Well (1598). 

Rinaldo of Montalban, a knight who 


had the " honor " of being a public plun- 
derer. His great exploit was stealing the 
golden idol of Mahomet. 

In this same Mirror of Knighthood we meet 
with Einaldo de Montalban and his companions, 
with the twelve peers of France, and Tnrpin, the 
historian. . . . Rinaldo had a broad face, and a 
pair of large rolling eyes ; his complexion was 
ruddy, and his disposition choleric. He was, be- 
sides, naturally profligate, and a great encour- 
ager of vagrants. — Cervantes, Don Quixote, I. i. 
1, 6 (1605). 

King {Dame LiSnes's), a ring ^ven by 
Dame Liones to Sir Gareth, "during a 

" That ring," said Dame Liones, " inereaseth 
my beauty much more than it is of itself ; and 
this is the virtue of my ring: that which is 
green it will tui-n to red, and that which is red 
it win turn green ; that which is blue it will 
turn white, and that which is white it will turn 
blue ; and so with all other colors. Also, who- 
ever beareth my ring can never lose blood." — 
Sir T. Malory, History of Prince Arthur, i. 146 

Bing (Luned's). This ring rendered the 
wearer invisible. Luned or Lynet gave 
it to Owain, one of King Arthur's knights. 
Consequently, when men were sent to kill 
him he was nowhere to be found, for he 
was invisible. 

Take this ring, and put it on thy finger, with 
the stone inside thy hand; and close thy hand 
upon the stone ; and as long as thou concealest 
it, it win conceal thee. — The Mabinogion (" Lady 
of the Fountain," twelfth century). 

Bing {The Steel), made by Siedel-Beckir. 
This ring enabled the wearer to read the 
secrets of another's heart. — Comte de Cay- 
lus, Oriental Tales ("The Four Tahsmans," 

Bing {The Talking), a ring given by Tar- 
taro, the Basque Cyclops, to a girl whom 
he wished to marry. Immediately she put 
it on, it kept incessantly saying, "You 

there, and I here;" so, to get rid of the 
nuisance, she cut off her finger and threw 
both ring and finger into a pond. — Rev. W. 
Webster, Basque Legends, 4 (1876). 

The same story appears in Campbell's 
Popular Tales of the West Highlands, i. 
Ill, and in Grimm's tale of The Bobber 
and His Sons. When the robber put on 
the ring, it incessantly cried out, " Here I 
am ;" so he bit off his finger, and threw 
it from him. 

Bing {The Virgin^ s Wedding Bing), kept 
in the Duomo of Perugia, under fourteen 

Ring and the Book {The), an idyllic 
epic, by Robert Browning, founded on a 
cause celebre of Italian history in 1698. 
The case was this : Guido Franceschini, a 
Florentine count of shattered fortune, 
married Pompilia, thinking her to be an 
heiress. When the young bride discov- 
ered that she had been married for her 
money only, she told her husband she was 
no heiress at all, but was only the supposi- 
titious child of Pietro (2 syl.), supplied by 
one Violante, for the sake of keeping in 
his hands certain entailed property. The 
count now treated Pompilia so bru- 
tally that she ran away from home, under 
the protection of Caponsacchi, a young 
priest, and being arrested at Rome, a legal 
separation took place. Pompilia sued for 
a divorce, but, pending the suit, gave 
birth to a son. The count now murdered 
Pietro, Violante, and Pompilia, but being 
taken red-handed, was brought to trial, 
found guilty, and executed. 

Ring the Bells Backwards {To), to 
ring a muffled peal, to lament. Thus, 
John Cleveland, wishing to show his ab- 
horrence of the Scotch, says : 
How ! Providence ! and yet a Scottish crew ! . . , 



Ring the bells backwards. I am all on fire ; 
Not all the buckets in a country quire 
Shall quench my rage. 

The Rebel Scot (1613-1659). 

Ringdove {The Sicarthj). The re- 
sponses of the oracle of Dodona, in Epiros, 
were made by old women called "pi- 
geons," who derived their answers from 
the cooing of certain doves, the bubbling 
of a spring, a rustling of the sacred oak 
for heech]^ and the tinkling of a gong or 
bell hung in the tree. The women were 
called pigeons by a play on the word pellcB, 
which means "old women" as well as 
" pigeons ; " and as they came from Libya 
they were swarthy. 

According to the fable, Zeus gave his 
daughter, Thebe, two black doves en- 
dowed with the gift of human speech ; one 
of them flew into Libya, and the other 
into Dodona. The former gave the re- 
sponses in the temple of Ammon, and the 
latter in the oracle of Dodona. 

. . . beach or lime, 

Or that Thessalian growth, 
In which the swarthy ringdove sat, 

And mystic sentence spoke. 


Ringhorse {Sir Robert), a magistrate 
at Old St. Eonan's.— Sir W. Scott, St. 
B.onari's Well (time, George III.). 

Ringwood, a young Templar. — Sir 
W. Scott, Fortunes of Nigel (time, James 

Rintherout {Jenny), a servant at Monk- 
barns to Mr. Jonathan Oldbuek, the anti-' 
quary. — Sir W. Scott, The Antiquary (time, 
George III.). 

Riou {Captain), called by Nelson " The 
Gallant and the Good ; " f eU in the battle 
of the Baltic. 


Brave hearts ! to Britain's pride 

Once so faithful and so trae, 
On the deck of fame that died, 
With the gallant, good Riou. 
Campbell, Battle of the Baltic (1777-1844). 

Rip van Winkle slept twenty years in 
the Catskill Mountains, of North America. 
(See Winkle.) 

Epimenides, the Gnostic, slept for fifty- 
seven years. 

Gyneth slept 500 years, by the enchant- 
ment of Merlin, 

The seven sleepers slept for 250 years 
in Mount Celion. 

St. David slept for seven years. (See 

^The following are not dead, but only 
sleep till the fulness of their respective 
times: — Elijah, Endymion, Merlin, King 
Arthur, Charlemagne, Frederick Barba- 
rossa and his knights, the three Tells, Des- 
mond of Kilmallock, Thomas of Ercel- 
doune, Boabdil el Chico, Brian Boroimhe, 
Knez Lazar, King Sebastian of Portugal, 
Olaf Tryggvason, the French slain in the 
Sicilian Vespers, and one or two others.) 

Riquet with tlie Tuft, the beau-ideal 
of ugliness, but with the power of bestow- 
ing wit and intelligence on the person he 
loved best. Riquet fell in love with a most 
beautiful woman, as stupid as he was ugly, 
but possessing the power of giving beauty 
to the person she loved best. The two 
married, whereupon Riquet gave his bride 
wit, and she bestowed on him beauty. — 
Charles Perrault, Contes des Fees (" Riquet 
a la Houppe," 1697). 

*«* This tale is borrowed from the Nights 
of Straparola. It is imitated by Mde. 
Villeneuve in her Beauty and the Beast. 

Risingliam {Bertram), the vassal of 
Philip of Mortham. Oswald Wycliffe in- 
duced him to shoot his lord at Marston 




Moor; and for this deed the vassal de- 
manded all the gold and movables of his 
late master. Oswald, being a villain, tried 
to outwit Bertram, and even to murder 
him; but it turned out that Philip of 
Mortham, was not killed, neither was (Os- 
wald Wycliffe, his heir, for Redmond 
O'Neale (Rokeby's page) was found to be 
the son and heir of Philip of Mortham. — 
Sir W. Scott, Bokeby (1812). 

Eitho or Rython, a giant who had 
made himself furs of the beards of kings 
killed by him. He sent to King Arthur, 
to meet him on Mount Aravius, or else to 
send his beard to him without delay. 
Arthur met him, slew him, and took " fur " 
as a spoil. Drayton says it was this Ry- 
thon who carried off Helena, the niece of 
Duke Hoel; but Gleoffrey of Monmouth 
says that King Arthur, having killed the 
Spanish giant, told his army " he had found 
none so great in strength since he killed 
the giant Ritho ; " by which it seems that 
the Spanish giant and Ritho are different 
persons, although it must be confessed the 
scope of the chronicle seems to favor their 
identity. — Geoffrey, British History, x. 3 

As how great Rython's seK he [Arthur] slew . . . 
Who ravished Howell's niece, young Helena, the 

Drayton, PolyoTbion, iv. (1612). 

Rival Queens {The), Stati'ra and 
Roxa'na. Statira was the daughter of 
Darius, and wife of Alexander the Grreat. 
Roxana was the daughter of Oxyartes, 
the Bactrian ; her, also, Alexander . mar- 
ried. Roxana stabbed Statira, and killed 
her. — N. Lee, Alexander the Great, or The 
Rival Queens (1678). 

Rivals {The), a comedy by Sheridan 
(1775). The rivals are Bob Acres and 

Ensign Beverley {alias Captain Absolute), 
and Lydia Languish is the lady they con- 
tend for. Bob Acres tells Captain Abso- 
lute that Ensign Beverley is a booby ; and 
if he could find him out, he'd teach him 
his place. He sends a challenge to the 
unknown, by Sir Lucius O'Trigger, but 
objects to forty yards, and thinks thirty- 
eight would suffice. When he finds that 
Ensign Beverley is Captain Absolute, he 
declines to quarrel with his friend; and 
when his second calls him a coward, he 
fires up and exclaims, " Coward ! Mind, 
gentlemen, he calls me a ' coward,' coward 
by my valor ! " and when dared by Sir 
Lucius, he replies, " I don't mind the word 
-' coward ;' ' coward ' may be said in a joke ; 
but if he called me ' poltroon,' ods, daggers 

and balls " "Well, sir, what then!" 

" Why," rejoined Bob Acres, " I should cer- 
tainly think him very ill-bred." Of course, 
he resigns all claim to the lady's hand. 

River of Juvenescence. Prester 
John, in his letter to Manuel Comnenus, 
emperor of Constantinople, says there is a 
spring at the foot of Mount Olympus, 
which changes its flavor hour by hour, 
both night and day. Whoever tastes thrice 
of its waters, will never know fatigue or 
the infirmities of age. 

River of Paradise, St. Bernard, abbot 
of Clairvaux (1091-1153). 

Rivers Arise. ... In this Vacation 
Exercise, George Rivers (son of Sir John 
Rivers of Westerham, in Kent), with nine 
other freshmen, took the part of the ten 
" Predicaments," while Milton himself per- 
formed the part of "Ens." Without a 
doubt, the pun suggested the idea in Mil- 
ton's Vacation Exercise (1627) : 

Rivers arise ; whether thou be the son 
Of utmost Tweed, or Ouse, or gulpy Don, 





Or Trent, who, like some earthborn giant, 

His thirty arms along the indented meads, 
Or sullen Mole that runneth underneath, 
Or Severn swift, guilty of maiden's death. 
Or rocky Avon, or of sedgy Lee, 
Or cooly Tyne, or ancient hallowed Dee, 
Or Humber loud that keeps the Scythian's name, 
Or Medway smooth, or royal towered Thame. 

Rivulet Controversy {The) arose 
against Rev. T. T. Lynch, a Congregation- 
alist, who, in 1853, had expressed neolo- 
gian views in The Bivulet, a book of poems. 

Rizzio (David), the private secretary of 
Marie Stuart, qneen of the Scots, and re- 
puted by her enemies to be her favored 
lover. He was murdered in her presence 
by a gang of conspirators, led by Henry 
Darnley, her husband. Poets and musi- 
cians have made lavish use of this episode 
in the life of the unhappy queen. 

Road to Ruin, a comedy by Thomas 
Holcroft (1792). Harry Dornton and his 
friend. Jack Milford, are on " the road to 
ruin," by their extravagance. The former 
brings his father to the eve of bankruptcy ; 
and the latter, having spent his private 
fortune, is cast into prison for debt. Sul- 
ky, a partner in the bank, comes forward 
to save Mr. Dornton from ruin; Harry 
advances £6000 to pay his friend's debts, 
and thus saves Milford from ruin; and 
the father restores the money advanced 
by Widow Warren to his son, to save 
Harry from the ruin of marrying a design- 
ing widow instead of Sophia Freelove, her 
innocent and charming daughter. 

Roads {The king of), John Loudon 
Macadam, the improver of roads (1756- 

Roan Barbary, the charger of Richard 
II., which would eat from his master's hand. 

Oh, how it yearned my heart when I beheld 
In London streets, that coronation day, 
When BoUngbroke rode on Roan Barbary! 
That horse that thou so often hast bestrid ; 
That horse that I so carefully have di'essed ! 
Shakespeare, Bichard II. act v. so. 5 (1597). 

Rob Roy, published in 1818, excellent 
for its bold sketches of Highland scenery. 
The character of Bailie Nicol Jarvie is 
one of Scott's happiest conceptions; and 
the carrying of him to the wild mountains 
among outlaws and desperadoes is exquis- 
itely comic. The hero, Frank Osbaldi- 
stone, is no hero at all. Dramatized by 
I. Pocock. 

Rob Roy M'Gregor, i.e. "Robert the 
Red," whose surname was MacGregor. 
He was an outlaw who assumed the name 
of Campbell in 1662. He may be termed 
the Robin Hood of Scotland. The hero 
of the novel is Frank Osbaldistone, who 
gets into divers troubles, from which he 
is rescued by Rob Roy. The last service 
is to kill Rashleigh Osbaldistone, whereby 
Frank's great enemy is removed; and 
Frank then marries Diana Vernon. — Sir 
W. Scott, Boh Roy (time, G-eorge I.). 

_ Rather beneath the middle size than above it, 
his limbs were formed upon the very strongest 
model that is consistent with agility. . . . Two 
points in his person interfered with the rules of 
symmetry: his shoulders were too broad . . . 
and his arms (though round, sinewy and strong) 
were so very long as to be rather a deformity. — 
Ch. xxiii. 

Rob Tally-ho, Esq., cousin of the Hon. 
Tom DashaU, the two blades whose ram- 
bles and adventures through the metropo- 
lis are related by Pierce Egan (1821-2). 

Rob the Rambler, the comrade of 
Willie Steenson, the blind fiddler.— Sir 
W. Scott, Redgamtlet (time, (Jeorge III.). 

Rob Roy parting Rashkigh and 
Francis Osbaldistone 

J. B. Macdonald, Artist /o*« /> Qmte, Engrmmt 

I J FRANCIS OSBALDISTONE meets bis cousin RasUdgb in a dud. 
-i~ "... Eager jor revenge, I grappled witb my enemy, -with the 

purpose of running Mm through the body. Our death-grapple was 
interrupted by a man who forcibly threw himself between us, and pitshing 
us separate from each other, exclaimed in a loud and commanding voice : 
' By the hand of my father , I will cleave to the brisket the first man that mints 
another stroke! ' 

" Hooked up in astonishment. The speaker ttras no other than Campbeu, 
He had a basket-billed broadsword drawn in his band, wbicb he made to 
whistle around bis bead as be spoke, as if for the purpose of enforcing his 

Scott's "RobRqy." 

-V. "' 

4- , . '«»tf ■■ 

1 ■" » 

i * 

't . 



I N 



























Robb (Duncan), the grocer near EUan- 
gowan. — Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering 
(time, Greorge II.). 

Robber {Alexander's). The pirate who 
told Alexander he was the greater robber 
of the two, was DionidSs. (See Evenings 
at Home, art. "Alexander and the Rob- 
ber.") The tale is from Cicero : 

Nam quum quEereretur ex eo, quo scelere im- 
pulsus mare haberet infestum uno myoparone : 
eodem, inquit, quo tu orbem terrse. — Be Repub., 
iii. 14 sc. 24. 

Bohler [Edtvard the). Edward IV. was 
so called by the Scotch. 

Robert, father of Marian. He had been 
a wrecker, and still hankered after the old 
occupation. One night a storm arose, and 
Eobert went to the coast to see what 
would fall into his hands. A body was 
washed ashore, and he rifled it. Marian 
followed, with the hope of restraining her 
father, and saw in the dusk some one 
strike a dagger into a prostrate body. She 
thought it was her father, and when Eob- 
ert was on his trial he was condemned to 
death on his daughter's evidence. Black 
Norris, the real murderer, told her he' 
would save her father if she would consent 
to be his wife ; she consented, and Eobert 
was acquitted. On the wedding day her 
lover, Edward, returned to claim her hand, 
Norris was seized as a murderer, and Mar- 
ian was saved. — S. Knowles, The Daughter 

Bohert, a servant of Sir Arthur War- 
dour, at Knockwinnock Castle. — Sir W. 
Scott, The Antiquary (time, Oeorge III.). 

Bohert (Mons.), a neighbor of Sganarelle. 
Hearing the screams of Mde. Martine 
(Sganarelle's wife), he steps over to make 

peace between them, whereupon Madame 
calls him an impertinent fool, and says if 
she chooses to be beaten by her husband 
it is no affair of his ; and Sganarelle says, 
" Je la veux battre, si je le veux ; et ne la 
veux pas battre, si je ne le veux pas ; " 
and beats M. Eobert again. — Moliere, Le 
Medecin Malgre Lui (1666). 

Robert Kent. . Weak, vicious husband 
of Margaret Kenfc Causes trouble all his 
life and dies of yeUow fever. — Ellen Olney 
Kirk, The Story of Margaret Kent (1886). 

Robert Macalre, a bluff, free-living 
libertine. His accomplice is Bertrand, a 
simpleton and a villain. — Daumier, DAu- 
herge des Adrets. 

Robert, duke of Albany, brother of 
Eobert III. of Scotland. — Sir W. Scott, 
Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.) 

Robert, duke of Normandy, sold his 
dominions to Eufus for 10,000 marks, to 
furnish him with ready money for the cru- 
sade, which he joined at the head of 1000 
heavy-armed horse and 1000 light-armed 
Normans. — Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered 

Robert III. of Scotland, introduced by 
Sir W. Scott in the Fair Maid of Perth 
(time, Henry IV.). 

Robert le Diable, son of Bertha and 
Bertramo. Bertha was the daughter of 
Eobert, duke of Normandy, and Bertramo 
was a fiend in the guise of a knight. The 
opera shows the struggle in Eobert be- 
tween the virtue inherited from his mother 
and the vice inherited from his father. 
His father allures him to gamble till he 
loses everything, and then claims his soul, 
but his foster-sister, Alice, counterplots 





the fiend, and rescues Robert by reading 
to him his mother's will.— Meyerbeer, 
Boherto il Biavolo (libretto by Scribe, 

*** Robert le Diable was the hero of an 
old French metrical romance (thirteenth 
century). This romance in the next 
century was thrown into prose. There is 
a miracle-play on the same subject. 

Robert of Paris {Count), one of the 
crusading princes. The chief hero of this 
novel is Hereward (3 syl.), one of the Var- 
angian guard of the Emperor Alexius 
Comnenus. He and the count fight a 
single combat with battle-axes; after 
which Hereward enlists under the count's 
banner, and marries Bertha, also called 
Agatha. — Sir W. Scott, Count Bobert of 
Paris (time, Rufus). 

Robert Penfold. Hero of Foul Play, 
by Charles Reade. He is foully wronged 
by Arthur Wardlaw, who forges his 
father's name on a note with Penfold's en- 
dorsement. Penfold is found guilty and 
imprisoned. After his release, he takes 
passage in the ship with Helen Rolleston, 
Wardlaw's betrothed. Penfold also loves 
her, but hopelessly. They are wrecked 
and cast upon an island in company, and 
for several months are the only residents. 
After their rescue and return home, the 
truth is made manifest, Robert is vindi- 
cated, and marries Helen. His aliases 
are James Seaton and John Hazel. 

Robert the Devil, or Robert the 
Magnificent, Robert I., duke of Nor- 
mandy, father of Wilham "the Conqueror" 
(*, 1028-1035). 

Robert Francois Damiens, who tried to 
assassinate Louis XV., was popularly so 
caUed (*, 1714-1757). 

Robert of Lincoln. The saucy song- 
ster is an especial favorite with American 
poets. Bryant does not disdain to. write a 
long poem that has him as the theme. 

" Merrily singing on briar and reed, 
■Near to the nest of his little dame, 
Over the mountain-side or mead, 
Robert of Lincoln is telling his name: 
' Bob-o'-link, bob-o'-hnk ! 
Spink, spank, spink ! 
Snug and safe is that nest of ours, 
Hidden among the summer flowers, 
Cha ! cha ! cha ! ' " 

William Cullen Bryant, Poems, 

Roberts, cash-keeper of Master Gleorge 
Heriot, the king's goldsmith. — Sir W. 
Scott, Fortunes of Nigel (time, James I.). 

Boherts (John), a smuggler. — Sir W. 
Scott, Bedgauntlet (time, George III.). 

Robespierre's Weavers, the fish- 
fags and their rabble female followers 
of the very lowest class, partisans of 
Robespierre in the first French Revolu- 

Robin, the page of Sir John Falstaff. — 
Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor 

BoMn, servant of Captain RoveweU, 
whom he helps in his love adventure with 
Arethusa, daughter of Argus. — Carey, 
Contrivances (1715). 

BoUn, brother-in-law of Farmer Crop, 
of Cornwall. Having lost his property 
through the villainy of Lawyer Endless, 
he emigrates, and in three years returns. 
The ship is wrecked off the coast of Corn- 
wall, and Robin saves Frederick, the 
young squire. On landing, he meets his 
old sweetheart, Margaretta, at Crop's 
house, and the acquaintance is renewed by 

Amy Robsart 

"£ left, therefore, the Countess's doQf unsecured on the outside, 
and, under the eye of t^afneyfmthdrew the supports which sus- 
tained the falling trap, which, therefore, kept ih level position 
ni^filyby a slight adhesion. ' They withdrew to wait the issue on the ground- 
floor ddjoining, but they waited lon^,in vain.- . . .-i 

" 'Perhaps she is resdlved, ' said Foster, 'to await her husband's return- ' 
" ' True— most: true, ' said Varney, rushing out, 7 had not thought of 
that before.' ' ' , ! ,„ 

"fn less -than two minutes, Foster, who remained behind, heard the tread 

of a horse in the courtyard, and then a whistle similar to that which was 

the Earl's usual signal': — the instant after, 'the door of the Countess's 

chamber opened, and in the same moment the trap-door gave way. There 

, was a rushing sound — a heavy fall — a faint groan — and all was over. 

"At the same instant Varney called in at the window, in an accent and 
tone which was an indescribable mixture betwixt horror and raillery. 'Is the 
bird caught ? Is the deed done ? ' 

" 'O God, forgive us 1 ' replied Anthony Foster. 

Scott's Keniiwortb. 

Frtm tht " Magatint qf Art." 





mutua] consent. — P. Hoare, No Song no 
Supper (1790). 

Bo bin, a young gardener, fond of the 
minor theatres, where he has picked up a 
taste for sentimental fustian, but all his 
rhapsodies bear upon his trade. Thus, 
"when Wilhelmina asks why he wishes to 
dance with her, he replies : 

Ask the plants why they love a shower ; ask 
the sunflower why it loves the sun ; ask the 
snowdrop why it is white; ask the violet why 
it is blue ; ask the trees why they blossom ; the 
cabbages why they grow. 'Tis aU because they 
can't help it ; no more can I help my love for 
you. — C. Didbin, The Waterman, i. (1774). 

BoUn (Old), butler to old Mr. Ealph 
Morton, of Mibiwood.— Sir W. Scott, Old 
Mortality (time, Charles II.). 

Robin Bluestring. Sir Robert Wal- 
pole was so called, in allusion to his blue 
ribbon as a knight of the garter (1676- 

Robin des Bois. Mysterious rover of 
the woods in Freischiitz, also in Eugene 
Sue's novels — " a bug-a-boo ! " 

Robin Gray (Auld). The words of this 
song are by Lady Anne Lindsay, daughter 
of the earl of Balearres; she was after- 
wards Lady Barnard. The song was writ- 
ten, in 1772, to an old Scotch tune called 
The Bridegroom Grat when the Sun gaed 
Down. (See Okay.) 

Robin Hood was born at Locksley, in 
Notts., in the reign of Henry II. (1160). 
His real name was Fitzooth, and it is 
commonly said that he was the earl of 
Huntingdon. Having outrun his fortune, 
and being outlawed, he lived as a free- 
booter in Barnsdale (Yorkshire), Sherwood 
(Notts.), and Plompton Park (Cumberland). 

His chief companions were Little John 
(whose name was Nailor), William Scad- 
lock (or Scarlet), Oeorge Green, the pinder 
(or pound-keeper) of Wakefield, Much, a 
miller's son, and Tuck, a friar, with one 
woman. Maid Marian. His company at 
one time consisted of a hundred archers. 
He was bled to death in his old age by his 
sister, the Prioress of Kirkley's Nunnery, 
in Yorkshire, November 18, 1247, aged 87 

*#* An excellent sketch of Robin 
Hood is given by Drayton in his Polyol- 
bion, xxvi. Sir W. Scott introduces him 
in two novels — Ivanhoe and The Talisman. 
In the former he first appears as Locksley, 
the archer, at the tournament. He is also 
called " Dickon Bend-the-Bow." 

The following dramatic pieces have the 
famous outlaw for the hero : Bobin Hood, 
i. (1597), Munday ; Bobin Hood, ii. (1598), 
Chettle; Bobin Hood (1741), an opera, by 
Dr. Arne and Burney; Bobin Hood (1787), 
an opera by O'Keefe, music by Shield; 
Bobin Hood, by Macnally (before 1820). 

Major tells us that this famous robber 
took away the goods of rich men only; 
never killed any person except in self- 
defence; never plundered the poor, but 
charitably fed them; and adds, "he was 
the most humane and the prince of aU 
robbers." — Britannice Historia, 128 (1740). 

The abbot of St. Mary's, in York, and 
the sheriff at Nottingham were his betes 
noires. Munday and Chettle wrote a popu- 
lar play in 1601, entitled The Death oj 
Bobert, Earl of Huntington. 

Epitaph of Bobin Hood. 

Hear undernead dis laitl stean 
Laiz robert earl of Huntingtun. 
Near arcir ver az hie sa geud, 
An pipl kauld im robin heud. 
Sick utlawz az hi an iz men 
Vil england nivr si agen. 
Obiit 24 ( ? 14) kal dekembris, 1247. 

Dr. Gale (dean of York). 





BoUn Hood's Fat Friar was Friar Tuck. 
BoUn Hood's Men, outlaws, freebooters. 

There came sodainly twelve men all appareled 
in short cotes of Kentish Kendal [green] . . . 
every one of them . . . Kke outlaws or Robyn 
Hodes men. — HaU {fo. Ivi. 6). 

Robin Redbreast. One tradition is 
that the robin pecked a thorn out of the 
crown of thorns when Christ was on His 
way to Calvary, and the blood which is- 
sued from the wound, falling on the bird, 
dyed its breast red. 

Another tradition is that it carries in its 
bill dew to those shut up in the burning 
lake, and its breast is red from being 
scorched by the fire of G-ehenna. 

He brings cool dew in his little biU, 
And lets it fall on the souls of sin ; 

You can see the mark on his red breast still, 
Of fires that scorch as he drops it ia. 

J. G. Whittier, The BoUn. 

Robin Redbreasts, Bow Street oflfi- 
cers. So called from their red vests. 

Robin Roughhead, a poor cottager and 
farm laborer, the son of Lord Lackwit. 
On the death of his lordship, Robin 
Roughhead comes into the title and estates. 
This brings out the best qualities of his 
heart — liberality, benevolence and hon- 
esty. He marries Dolly, to whom he was 
already engaged, and becomes the good 
genius of the peasantry on his estate. — 
Allingham, Fortune's Frolic. 

Robin and Makyne (2 syl.), an old 
Scotch pastoral. Robin is a shepherd, for 
whom Makyne sighs, but he turns a deaf 
ear to her, and she goes home to weep. 
In time, Robin sighs for Makyne, but she 
replies, " He who wills not when he may, 
when he wills he shall have nay." — Percy, 
Beliques, etc., 11. 

Robin of Bagshot, alias Gordon, alias 
Bluff Bob, alias Carbuncle, alias Bob 
Booty, one of Macheath's gang of thieves, 
and a favorite of Mrs. Peachum's. — Gray, 
The Beggar's Opera (1727). 

Robins (Zerubhabel), in Cromwell's 
troop. — Sir W. Scott, WoodstocJc (time, 
Commonwealth) . 

Robinson Cru'soe (2 syl.), a tale by 
Daniel Defoe. Robinson Crusoe ran away 
from home, and went to sea. Being 
wrecked, he led for many years a solitary 
existence on an uninhabited island of the 
tropics, and relieved the weariness of life 
by numberless contrivances. At length 
he met a human being, a young Indian, 
whom he saved from death on a Friday. 
He called him his "man Friday," and 
made him his companion and servant. 

Defoe founded this stoiy on the adven- 
tures of Alexander Selkirk, sailing-master 
of the Cinque Ports Galley, who was left 
by Captain Stradling on the desolate is- 
land of Juan Fernandez for four years and 
four months (1704-1709), when he was 
rescued by Captain Woodes Rogers and 
brought to England. 

Robsart {Amy), countess of Leicester. 
She was betrothed to Edmund Tressilian. 
When the earl falls into disgrace at court 
for marrying Amy, Richard Varney loosens 
a trap-door at Cumnor Place ; and Amy, 
rushing forward to greet her husband, 
falls into the abyss and is killed. 

Sir Hugh Bobsart, of Lidcote Hall, 
father of Amy.— Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth 
(time, Elizabeth). 

Roc, a white bird of enormous size. 
Its strength is such that it will lift up an 
elephant from the ground and carry it to 
its mountain nest, where it will devour it. 

Madatne Roland 

AlbeH L-fMth, Artisi 

71 /WARECHAL, then young, free, rich, open to all icuder aitolions, 
I wJ m entered one day by chance a shop, having prohahly not iced the 
ftretty ivom-an behind the counter. Hf bought something, came 
back, and talked day by day more familiarly, buying by his frequent pur- 
chases the right to take a seat tb^re. to smile at the young wife and shake 
bafids idtb the bushaiui. 

Maupassant "% " Pierre et pirn. ' 





In the Arabian Night's^ Enter tainments, it 
was a roc whicli carried Sindbad the sailor 
from the island on which he had been de- 
serted by his companions (" Second Voy- 
age "). And it was a roc which carried 
Agib from the castle grounds of the ten 
young men who had lost their right eyes 
(" The Third Calender's Story "). Sindbad 
says one claw of the roc is as " big as the 
trunk of a large tree," and its egg is "fifty 
paces [150 feet] in circumference." 

*#* The " rukh " of Madagascar, lays an 
egg equal to 148 hen's eggs. — Comptes 
Bendus, etc., xxxii. 101 (1851). 

Rocco, the jailer sent with Fidelio 
{Leonora) to dig the grave of Fernando 
Florestan {q.v.) — Beethoven, Fidelia (1791). 

Roch'dale {Sir Simon), of the manor- 
house. He is a J.P., but refuses to give 
justice to Job Thornberry, the old brazier, 
who demands that his son, Frank Roch- 
dale, should marry Mary [Thornberry], 
whom he has seduced. At this crisis, 
Peregrine appears, and tells Sir Simon he 
is the elder brother, and, as such, is heir to 
the title and estates. 

Frank Rochdale, son of the baronet, who 
has promised to marry Mary Thornberry, 
but Sir Simon wants him to marry Lady 
Caroline Braymore, who has £4000 a year. 
Lady Caroline marries the Hon. Tom 
Shuf&eton, and Frank makes the best re- 
paration he can by marrying Mary.— Gr. 
Colman, Jr., John Bull (1805). 

Roche's Bird {Sir Boyle), which was 
"in two places at the same time." The 
tale is that Sir Boyle Roche said in the 
House of Commons, "Mr. Speaker, it is 
impossible I could have been in two places 
at once, unless I were a bird." This is a 
quotation from Jevon's play. The Devil of 
a Wife (seventeenth century). 

Wife. I cannot be in two places at once. 
Husband (Rowland). Surely no, unless thou 
wert a bird. 

Rocliecliife {Dr. Anthony), formerly 
Joseph Albany, a plotting royalist. — Sir 
W. Scott, Woodstock (time, common- 

Rochester {The earl of), the favorite 
of Charles II., introduced in high feather 
by Sir W. Scott in Woodstock, and in Peveril 
of the Peak in disgrace. 

Rochester {Edward). Brusque, cynical 
lover of Jane Eyre. Having married in 
his early youth a woman who disgraces 
him and then goes crazy, he shuts her up 
at Thornhill, and goes abroad. He re- 
turns to find a governess there in charge 
of his child- ward ; falls in love with her, 
and would marry her, but for the dis- 
covery of his insane wife. Jane Eyre 
leaves him, and is lost to him until he is 
almost blind from injuries received in try- 
ing to rescue his wife from burning 
Thornhill. Jane marries and ministers 
unto him. — Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre 

Rock {Dr. Richard), a famous quack, 
who professed to cure every disease. He 
was short of stature and fat, wore a white 
three-tailed wig, nicely combed and friz- 
zed upon each cheek, carried a cane, and 
halted in his gait. 

Dr. Rock, F.U.N., never wore a hat. . . . He 
and Dr. Franks were at variance. . . . Rock 
cautioned the world to beware of bog-trotting 
quacks, while Pranks called his rival "DumpUn' 
Dick." Head of Confucius, what profanation ! — 
Goldsmith, Citizen of the World (1759). 

Oh ! when his nerves had received a shock, 
Sir Isaac Newton might have gone to Rock. 
Crabbe, Borough (1810). 

Rocket. He rose like a rocket, and fell 





like the stick. 
Mr. Burke. 

Thomas Paine said this of 

Roderick, the thirty-fourth and last of 
the Gothic kings of Spain, son of Theod'- 
ofred and Eusilla, Having violated Flor- 
inda, daughter of Count Julian, he was 
driven from his throne by the Moors, and 
assumed the garb of a monk with the 
name of " Father Maceabee." He was 
present at the great battle of Covadonga, 
in which the Moors were cut to pieces, but 
what became of him afterwards no one 
knows. His helm, sword, and cuirass were 
found, so was his steed. Several genera- 
tions passed away, when, in a hermitage 
hear Viseu, a tomb was discovered, "which 
bore in ancient characters King Roderick's 
name ; " but imagination must fill up the 
gap. He is spoken of as most popular. 

Time has been 
When not a tongue within the Pyrenees 
Dared whisper in dispraise of Roderick's name, 
Lest, if the conscious air had caught the sound, 
The vengeance of the honest multitude 
Should fall upon the traitorous head, and brand 
For life-long infamy the lying lips. 

Southey, Roderick, etc., xv. (1814). 

Roderick's Bog was called Theron. 
Roderick's Horse was Orel'io. 

Roderick {The Vision of Bon). Rode- 
rick, the last of the Gothic kings of Spain, 
descended into an ancient vault near 
Toledo. This vault was similar to that in 
Greece, called the cave of Triphonios, 
where was an oracle. In the vault Rode- 
rick saw a vision of Spanish history from 
his own reign to the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century. Period I. The invasion of 
the Moors, with his own defeat and death. 
Period II. The Augustine age of Spain, 
and their conquests in the two Indies. 
Period III. The oppression of Spain by 
Bonaparte, and its succor by British aid. 

— Sir W. Scott, The Vision of Don Rode- 
rick (1811). 

Roderick Dhu, an outlaw and chief of 
a banditti, which resolved to win back the 
spoil of the " Saxon spoiler." Fitz- James, 
a Saxon, met him and knew him not. He 
asked the Saxon why he was roaming un- 
guarded over the mountains, and Fitz- 
James replied that he had sworn to com- 
bat with Roderick, the rebel, till death 
laid one of them prostrate. " Have, then, 
thy wish ! " exclaimed the stranger, " for I 
am Roderick Dhu." As he spoke, the 
whole place bristled with armed men. 
Fitz-James stood with his back against a 
rock, and cried, "Come one, come all, this 
rock shall fly from its firm base as soon 
as I." Roderick, charmed with his daring, 
waved his hand, and all the band disap- 
peared as mysteriously as they had appear- 
ed. Roderick then bade the Saxon fight, 
" For," said he, " that party will prove 
victorious which first slays an enemy." 
" Then," replied Fitz-James, " thy cause 
is hopeless, for Red Murdock is slain al- 
ready." They fought, however, and Rod- 
erick was slain (canto v.). — Sir W. Scott, 
The Lady of the Lake (1810). 

Rodei'ick Random, a child of impulse, 
and a selfish libertine. His treatment of 
Strap is infamous and most heartless. — 
Smollett, Roderick Random (1748). 

Rod'erigo or Roderi'go (3 syl.), a Ve- 
netian gentleman, in love with Desdemona. 
When Desdemona eloped with Othello, 
Roderigo hated the " noble Moor," and 
la' go took advantage of this temper for 
his own base ends. — Shakespeare, Othello 

Roderigo's suspicious credulity and impatient 
submission to the cheats which he sees practised 
on him, and which, by persuasion, he suffers to 




be repeated, exhibit a strong picture of a weak 
mind betrayed by unlawful desires to a false 
friend. — Dr. Johnson. 

Rodilardus, a huge eat, which attacked 
Panurge, and which he mistook for "a 
young, soft-chinned devil." The word 
means " gnaw-lard " (Latin, rodere lardum). 
— Rabelais, Pantagruel, iv. 67 (1545). 

*#* The marquis de Carabas." (See 
Puss IN Boots.) 

Rodrigo, king of Spain, conquered by 
the Moors. He saved his life by flight, 
and wandered to Guadalete, where he 
begged food of a shepherd, and gave him 
in recompense his royal chain and ring. 
A hermit bade him, in penance, retire to 
a certain tomb full of snakes and toads, 
where, after three' days, the hermit found 
him unhurt; so, going to his cell, he 
passed the night in prayer. Next morn- 
ing, Rodrigo cried aloud to the hermit, 
"They eat me now; I feel the adder's 
bite." So his sin was atoned for, and he 

*#* This Rodrigo is Roderick, the last of 
the Goths. 

Rodrigo, rival of Pe'dro, " the pilgrim," 
and captain of a band of outlaws. — Beau- 
mout and Fletcher, The Pilgrim (1621). 

Rodri'go de Mondragon {Don), a bully 
and tyrant, the self-constituted axbiter of 
all disputes in a tennis-court of Valladolid. 

Don Rodrigo de Mondragon was about 30 
years of age, of an ordinary make, but lean and 
muscular ; he had two little twinkling eyes that 
rolled in his head, and threatened everybody he 
looked at ; a very flat nose, placed between red 
whiskers that curled up to his very temples ; and 
a manner of speaking so rough and passionate 
that his words struck terror into everybody. — 
Lesage, Gil Bias, ii. 5 (1715). 

Kodhaver, the sweetheart of Zal, a Per- 

sian. Zal being about to scale her bower, 
she let down her long tresses to assist him, 
but Zal managed to fix his crook into a 
projecting beam, and thus made his way 
to the lady of his devotion. — Champion, 

Rodman {Keeper, The), an ex-colonel 
of the Federal army, who has become the 
keeper of a national cemetery at the south. 
" At sunrise, the keepet ran up the stars 
and stripes, and ... he had taken money 
from his own store to buy a second flag 
for stormy weather, so that, rain or not, 
the colors should float over the dead. . . . 
It was simply a sense of the fitness of 
things." He deviates so far from his rule 
as to fall in love with a Southern girl, 
whose nearest relative h^ has nursed 
through his last illness. She despises him 
as a Yankee too much to suspect this ; she 
will not even write her name as a visitor 
to the iMational Cemetery. She goes to 
Tennessee to teach school, and Rodman 
offers to buy the uprooted vmes discarded 
by the new owner of her cottage. " Wuth 
about twenty-five cents, I guess," said the 
Maine man, handing them over. — Con- 
stance Fenimore Woolson (1880). 

Rodmond, chief mate of the Brit- 
tania, son of a Northumbrian, engaged in 
the coal trade ; a hardy, weather-beaten 
seaman, uneducated, " boisterous of man- 
ners," and regardless of truth, but tender- 
hearted. He was drowned when the ship 
struck on Cape Colonna, the most southern 
point of Attica. 

UnskiOed to argue, in dispute yet loud. 
Bold without caution, without honors proud, 
In art unschooled, each veteran rule he prized, 
And all improvement haughtUy despised. 

Falconer, TJie Shipwreck, i. (1756). 

Ro'dogune, Rhodogune, or Rho'- 
dog^ne (3 syl), daughter of Phraa'tes, 




king of Parthia. She married Deme'trius 
Niea'nor (the husband of Cleopat'ra, queen 
of Syria) while in captivity. 

***P. Corneille has a tragedy on the 
subject entitled Bodogune (1646). 

Eodolfo {II conte). It is in the bed- 
chamber of this count that Ami'na is dis- 
covered the night before her espousal to 
Elvi'no. Ugly suspicion is excited, but 
the count assures the young farmer that 
Amina walks in her sleep. While they 
are talking Amina is seen to get out of a 
window and walk along a narrow edge of 
the mill-roof while the huge wheel is rap- 
idly revolving. She crosses a crazy bridge, 
and walks into the very midst of the spec- 
tators. In a few minutes she awakens 
and flies to the arms of her lover. — Bellini, 
La Sonnambula (opera, 1831). 

Rodomont, king of Sarza or Algiers. 
He was Ulien's son, and called the " Mars 
of Africa." His lady-love was Dor'alis, 
princess of Grana'da, but she eloped with 
Mandricardo, king of Tartary. At Eogero's 
wedding Rodomont accused him of being 
a renegade and traitor, whereupon they 
fought, and Rodomont was slain. — Orlando 
Innamorato (1495) ; and Orlando Furioso 

Who so meek ? I'm sure I quake at the very 
thought of him ; why, he's as fierce as Rodo- 
mont ! — Dryden, Spanish Fryar, v. 2 (1680). 

*#* Rodomontade (4 syl), from Rodo- 
mont, a bragging although a brave knight. 

Rogel of Greece {The Exploits and 
Adventures of), part of the series called 
Le Roman des Romans, pertaining to 
"Am'adis of Gaul." This part was added 
by Feliciano de Silva. 

Roger, the cook who "cowde roste, 
sethe, broille, and frie, make mortreux, 

and wel bake a pye." — Chaucer, Canter- 
hury Tales (1388). 

Roger {Sir), curate to "The Scornful 
Lady" (no name given). — Beaumont and 
Fletcher, The Scornful Lady (1616). 

Roger Armstrong, clerical lover of 
Faith Gartney, and her preferred suitor. — 
A. D. T. Whitney, Faith Gartney^s Girl- 

Roger Bontemps, the personation of 
contentment with his station in life, and 
of the buoyancy of good hope. " There's 
a good time coming, John." 

Vous pauvres, pleins d'envi^ ; 
Vous rich, desireux ; 
^ Vous dont le char devie 
Aprfes un cours heureux ; 
Vous qui perdrez peut-etre 

Des titres eclatans ; 
Eh ! gai ! prenez pour maitre 
Le gros Roger Bontemps. 

Berauger (1780-1856). 

Ye poor, with envy goaded ; 

Ye rich, for more who long ; 
Ye who by fortune loaded 

Find all things going wrong ; 
Ye who by some disaster 

See aU your cables break ; 
From henceforth, for your master 

Sleek Roger Bontemps take. 

Roger Chillingworth, deformed hus- 
band of Hester Prynne. He returns to 
Boston from a long sojourn with the In- 
dians, and sees his wife in the pillory with 
a baby — not his — in her arms. From that 
instant he sets himself to work to discover 
the name of her seducer, and, suspecting 
Arthur Dimmesdale, attaches himself to 
the oft-ailing clergyman as his medical 
attendant. He it is who first suspects the 
existence of the cancer that is devouring 
the young clergyman's life, and when the 
horrible thing is revealed, kneels by the 




dying man with the bitter whisper, " Thou 
hast escaped me ! " — Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
The Scarlet Letter (1850). 

Roger de Coverley {Sir), an hypotheti- 
cal baronet of Coverley or Cowley, near 
Oxford.— Addison, The Spectator (1711, 
^1712, 1714). 

*** The prototype of this famous char- 
acter was Sir John Pakington, seventh 
baronet of the line. 

Eoge'ro, brother of Marphi'sa ; brought 
up by Atlantes, a magician. He married 
Brad'amant, *he niece of Charlemagne. 
Rogero was converted to Christianity, and 
was baptized. His marriage with Brada- 
mant and his election to the crown of 
Bulgaria concludes the poem. — Ariosto, 
Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Who more brave than Rodomont? who more 
courteous than Rogero ? — Cervantes, Don Quix- 
ote, I. i. (1605). 

Rogero, son of Roberto Guiscardo, the 
Norman. Slain by Tisaphernes. — Tasso, 
Jerusalem Delivered, xx. (1575). 

Rogero (3 syl.), a gentleman of Sicilia. — 
Shakespeare, The Winter's Tale (1604). 

*#* This is one of those characters which 
appear in the dramatis personce, but are 
never introduced in the play. Rogero not 
only does not utter a word — he does not 
even enter the stage all through the drama. 
In the Globe edition his name is omitted. 

(See ViOLENTA.) 

Rogers {Mr.), illiterate, tender-hearted, 
great-souled old father of Louisiana. When 
she begs his pardon for having been 
ashamed of, and having disowned him, he 
tells her, " It's you as should be a-forgivin' 
me ... 1 hadn't done ye no sort o' justice 

in the world, an' never could." — Frances 
Hodgson Burnett, Louisiana (1880). 

Roget, the pastoral name of George 
"Wither in the four " eglogues " called The 
Shepheards Hunting (1615). The first and 
last "eglogues" are dialogues between 
Roget and Willy, his young friend; in 
the second pastoral Cuddy is introduced, 
and in the third Alexis makes a fourth 
character. The subject of the first three 
is the reason of Roget's imprisonment, 
which, he says, is a hunt that gave great 
offence. This hunt is in reality a satire 
called Abuses Stript and Whipt. The 
fourth pastoral has for its subject Roget's 
love of poetry. 

*** " WiUy" is his friend, William 
Browne, of the Inner Temple (two years 
his junior), author of Britannia's Pasto- 

Roi Panade (" king of slops "), Louis 
XVIII. (1755, 1814-1824). 

Roister Bolster {Ralph), a vain, 
thoughtless, blustering fellow, in pursuit 
of Custance, a rich widow, but baffled in 
his endeavor. — Nicholas Udall, Ralph 
Roister Doister (the first English comedy, 

Rokesmith {John), alias John Har- 
mon, secretary of Mr. Boffin. He lodged 
with the Wilfers, and ultimately married 
Bella WiKer. John Rokesmith is de- 
scribed as " a dark gentleman, 30 at the 
utmost, with an expressive, one might 
say, a handsome face." — Dickens, Our Mu- 
tual Friend (1864). 

*#* For solution of the mystery, see vol. 
I. ii. 13. 

Roland, count of Mans and knight of 
Blaives. His mother, Bertha, was Charle- 





magne's sister. Eoland is represented as 
brave, devotedly loyal, unsuspicious, and 
somewhat too easily imposed upon. He 
was eight feet high, and had an open 
countenance. In Italian romance he is 
called Orlan'do. He was slain in the val- 
ley of Roncesvalles as he was leading the 
rear of his uncle's army from Spain to 
Prance. Charlemagne himself had reached 
St. Jean Pied de Port at the time, heard 
the blast of his nephew's horn, and knew 
it announced treachery, but was unable to 
render him assistance (a.d. 778). 

Eoland is the hero of Theroulde's Chan- 
son de Roland ; of Turpin's Chronique; of 
Bojardo's Orlando Innamorato ; of Arios- 
to's Orlando Furioso ; of Piccini's opera 
called Roland (1778) ; etc. 

Roland's Hoi'n, Olivant or Olifant. It 
was won from the giant Jatmund, and 
might be heard at the distance of thirty 
miles. Birds fell dead at its blast, and 
the whole Saracen army drew back in ter- 
ror when they heard it. So loud it 
sounded, that the blast reached from Ron- 
cesvalles to St. Jean Pied de Port, a dis- 
tance of several miles. 

Roland lifts Olifant to his mouth and blows 
it with all his might. The mountains around 
are lofty, but high above them the sound of the 
horn arises [at the third blast, it split in twain]. — 
Song of Roland (as sung by Taillefer, at the bat- 
tle of Hastings). See Warton, History of En- 
glish Poetry, v. I, sect. iii. 132 (1781). 

Roland's Horse, Veillantif, called in 
Italian Velian'tino ("the little vigilant 

In Italian romance, Orlando has another 
horse, called Brigliado'ro ("golden bri- 
dle "). 

Roland's Spear. Visitors are shown a 
spear in the cathedral of Pa'via, which 
they are told belonged to Roland. 

Roland's Sword, Duran'dal, made by the 
fairies. To prevent its falling into the 
hands of the enemy, when Roland was at- 

tacked in the valley of Roncesvalles, he 
smote a rock with it, and it made in the 
solid rock a fissure some 300 feet in depth, 
called to this day La Breche de Roland. 

Then would I seek the Pyrenean breach, 
Which Roland clove with huge two-handed 

And to the enormous labor left his name. 


*#* A sword is shown at Rocamadom*, in 
the department of Lot (France), which 
visitors are assured was Roland's Duran- 
dal. But the romances says that Roland, 
dying, threw his sword into a poisoned 

Death of Roland. There is a tradition 
that Roland escaped the general slaughter 
in the defile of Roncesvalles, and died of 
starvation while trying to make his way 
across the mountains. — John de la Bruiere 
Champier, JDe Cibaria, xvi. 5. 

Died like Roland, died of thirst. 

Nonnulli qui de GaUicis rebus historias eon- 
scripserunt, non dubitarunt posteris signiflcare 
Rolandum Caroli illius magni sororis fllium, 
verum certe belliea gloria omnique fortitudine 
nobillissimum, post ingentem Hispanorum 
cffidem prope Pyrensei saltiis juga, ubi insidiae 
ab hoste coUocatffi fuerint/siti miserrime extinc- 
tura. Inde nostri intolerabili siti et immiti vol- 
entes significare se torqueri, f acete aiunt ■ " Ro- 
landi morte se perire." — John de la Bruiere 
Champier, De Cibaria, xvi. 5. 

- Roland {The Roman). Sicinius Denta- 
tus is so called by Niebuhr. He is not un- 
frequently called " The Roman AchiUes " 
(put to death b.c. 450). 

Roland Blake. Hero of a war-novel 
of the same name. — Silas Weir Mitchell, 
M.D. (1886). 

Eoland and Oliver, the two most 
famous of the twelve paladins of Charle- 
magne. To give a " Roland for an Oli- 
ver " is to give tit for tat, to give another 
as good a drubbing as you receive. 

Roland at the Battle of Roncesvalles 

Louis Guisntt, Artist A. Clois, Engraver 

'jr\ OLAND, the hero of Pulci 't "Morgante Magglore, ' ' was the nephew 

t^ of Cbarlenutgm. As he was leading the rear-guard of Charle- 
magne 's army through the valley of Roncesvalles, he was attacked 
by the enemy, set on by the traitor Can. Dreadful was the slaughter of his 

" But Roland no sooner saw UUviero dead than he felt as if he were left 
alone on the earth, and he was quite willing to leave it ; only be wished that 
Charlemagne should bear bow the case stood before he went, and so he took 
up the born and blew it with such forct tbai.attbs third blast, it burst 
in two. 

"In spitt of all the noise of the battle, the sound of the born broke over it 
liht a voice out of the other world. They say that birds fell dead at it, and 
that the wholt Saracen army drew bach in terror." 

Pulci' s " Morgante Maggiore.' 





Froissart, a coimtrymaii of ours [the French] 

England all Olivers and Kowlands bred 
During the time Edward the Third did reign. 
Shakespeare, 1 Henry VI. act i. se. 2 (1589). 

Roland de Vaux {Sir), baron of Trier- 
main, who wakes Gyneth from her long 
sleep of 500 years, and marries her. — Sir 
W. Scott, Bridal of Triermain (1813). 

Kolando (Signor), a common railer 
against women, but brave, of a " happy 
wit and independent spirit." Eolando 
swore to marry no woman, but fell in love 
with Zam'ora, and married her, declaring 
" that she was no woman, but an angel." — 
J. Tobin, The Honeymoon (1804). 

The resemblance betweed Rolando and 
Benedick will instantly occur to the mind. 

Rolandseck To\Fer, opposite the Dra- 
chenfels. Eoland was engaged to Aude, 
daughter of Sir Gerard and Lady Gui- 
bourg ; but the lady, being told that Eo- 
land had been slain by Angoulaffre, the 
Saracen, retired to a convent. The pala- 
din returned home full of glory, having 
slain the Saracen, and when he heard that 
his lady-love had taken the veil, he built 
Eolandseck Castle, which overlooks the 
convent, that he might at least see the 
lady to whom he could never be united. 
After the death of Aude, Eoland " sought 
the battle-field again, and fell at Eonce- 
vall." — Campbell, The Brave Roland. 

Roldan, "El encantado," Eoldan made 
invulnerable by enchantment. The cleft 
" Eoldan," in the summit of a high moun- 
tain in the kingdom of Valencia, was so 
called because it was made by a single 
back-stroke of Eoldan's sword. The char- 
acter is in two Spanish romances, authors 
unknown. — Bernardo del Carpio and Bon- 

This book [Binaldo de Montalhan], and aU 
others written on French matters, shall be de- 
posited in some dry place . . . except one called 
Bernardo del Carpio, and another called Ronces- 
valles, which shall certainly accompany the rest 
on the bonfire. — Cervantes, Bon Quixote, I. i. 6 

RoUa, kinsman of the Inca Atali'ba, 
and the idol of the army. " In war a tiger 
chafed by the hunters' spears; in peace 
more gentle than the un weaned lamb" 
(act i. 1). A firm friend and most gene- 
rous foe. EoUa is wounded in his at- 
tempt to rescue the infant child of Alonzo 
from the Spaniards, and dies. His grand 
funeral procession terminates the drama. 
— Sheridan, Pizarro (altered from Kotze- 
bue, 1799). 

Rolleston {General), father of Helen, in- 
Foul Play, by Charles Eeade. 

RoUo, duke of Normandy, called " The 
Bloody Brother." He caused the death 
of his brother. Otto, and slew several 
others, some out of mere wantonness. — • 
Beaumont and Fletcher, The Bloody Brother 

Rollo, boy who is the hero of Jacob 
Abbott's celebrated and delightful " Rollo 
Books," embracing Rollo Learning to Read, 
Rollo Learning to Work, Rollo at School, 
Rollo's Vacation, etc., etc. (1840-1857). 

Roman {The), Jean Dumont, the French 
painter, Le Romain (1700-1781). 

Stephen Pieart, the French engraver, 
Le Romain (1631-1721). 

Giulio Pippi, called Giulio Romano (1492- 

Adrian von Eoomen, mathematician, 
Adrianus Romanus (1561-1615). 

Roman Achillas, Sicinius Dentatus 
(slain E.G. 450). 





Koman Brevity. Caesar imitated la- 
conic brevity when he announced to 
Amintius his victory at Zela, in Asia 
Minor, over Pharna'ces, son of Mithri- 
dates ; Veni, vidi, vici. 

Poins. I will imitate the honorable Roman 
ia brevity. — Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV. act ii. so. 
2 (1598). 

Sir Charles Napier is credited with a 
far more laconic despatch, on making him- 
self master of Scinde, in 1843. Taking 
possession of Hyderabad, and outflanking 
Shere Mohammed by a series of most 
brilliant manoeuvres, he is said to have 
written home this punning despatch: 
Peccdvi ("I have sinned" [Scinde]). 

Roman Father (The), Horatius, father 
of the Horatii and of Horatia. The story 
of the tragedy is the well-known Roman 
legend about the Horatii and Curiatii. 
Horatius rejoices that his three sons have 
been selected to represent Rome, and sinks 
the affection of the father in love for his 
country. Horatia is the betrothed of 
Caius Curiatius, but is also beloved by 
Valerius, and when the Curiatii are se- 
lected to oppose her three brothers, she 
sends Valerius to him with a scarf, to 
induce him to forego the fight. Caius 
declines, and is slain. Horatia is dis- 
tracted ; they take from her every instru- 
ment of death, and therefore she resolves 
to provoke her surviving brother, Publius, 
to kill her. Meeting him in his triumph, 
she rebukes him for murdering her lover, 
scoffs at his " patriotism," and Publius 
kills her. Horatius. now resigns Publius 
to execution for murder, but the king and 
Roman people rescue him. — W. White- 
head (1741). 

*#* Corneille has a drama on the same 
subject, called Les Horaces (1639). 

Koman des Romans {Le), a series of 

prose romances connected with Am'adis, 
of G-aul. So called by Grilbert Saunier. 

Romans {Last of the), Rienzi, the tribune 

Charles James Fox (1749-1806). 

Horace Walpole, Vltimus Bomanorwm 

Caius Cassius was so called by Brutus. 

The last of all the Romans, fare thee well ! 
It is impossible that ever Rome 
Should breed thy fellow. 
Shakespeare, Julius Ccesar, act v. sc. 3. (1607). 

Romans {Most Learned of the), Marcus 
Terentius Varro (b.c. 116-28). 

Romance of the Rose, a poetical al- 
legory, begun by Guillaume di Lorris in 
the latter part of the thirteenth century, 
and continued by Jean de Meung in the 
former half of the fourteenth century. 
The poet dreams that Dame Idleness con- 
ducts him to the palace of Pleasure, where 
he meets Love, whose attendant maidens 
are Sweet-looks, Courtesy, Youth, Joy, and 
Competence, by whom he is conducted to 
a bed of roses. He singles out one, when 
an arrow from Love's bow stretches him 
fainting on the ground, and he is carried 
off. When he comes to himself, he re- 
solves, if possible, to find his rose, and 
Welcome promises to aid him ; Shyness, 
Fear, and Slander obstruct him ; and Rea- 
son advises him to give up the quest. 
Pity and Kindness show him the object of 
his search ; but Jealousy seizes Welcome, 
and locks her in Fear Castle. Here the 
original poem ends. The sequel, some- 
what longer than the twenty-four books of 
Homer's Iliad, takes up the tale from this 

Roma'no, the old monk who took pity 
on Roderick in his flight (viii.), and went 




"witli him for refuge to a small hermitage 
on the sea-coast, where they remained for 
twelve months, when the old monk died. 
— Southey, Roderick, The Last of the 
Goths, i., ii. (1841). 

Rome Does (Do as). The saying origi- 
nated with Saint Ambrose (fourth cen- 
tury). It arose from the following di- 
versity in the observance of Saturday : — 
The Milanese make it a feast, the Romans 
a fast. St. Ambrose, being asked what 
should be done in such a case, replied, " In 
matters of indifference, it is better to be 
guided by the general usage. When I am 
at Milan, I do not fast on Saturdays, but 
when I am at Rome, I do as they do at 

Rome Saved by Greese. When the 
Gauls invaded Rome, a detachment in sin- 
gle file scaled the hill on which the capitol 
stood, so silently that the foremost man 
reached the summit without being chal- 
lenged; but while striding over the ram- 
part, some sacred geese were disturbed, 
and by their cackle aroused the guard. 
Marcus Manlius rushed to the wall, and 
hustled the Gaul over, thus saving the 

A somewhat parallel case occurred in 
Ireland in the battle of Glinsaly, in Done- 
gal. A party of the Irish would have sur- 
prised the Protestants if some wrens had 
not disturbed the guards by the noise they 
made in hopping about the drums and 
pecking on the parchment heads. — Aubrey, 
Miscellanies, 45. 

Ro'meo, a son of Mon'tague (3 syl), in 
love with Juliet, the daughter of Cap'ulet ; 
but between the houses of Montague and 
Capulet there existed a deadly feud. As 
the families were irreconcilable, Juliet took 
a sleeping draught, that she might get 

away from her parents and elope with 
Romeo. Romeo, thinking her to be dead, 
killed himself; and when Juliet awoke 
and found her lover dead, she also killed 
herself. — Shakespeare, Borneo and Juliet 

Romeo and Juliet, a tragedy by 
Shakespeare (1598). The tale is taken 
from Bhomeo and Julietta, a novel by Bois- 
teau, in French, borrowed from an Italian 
story by Bandello (1554). 

In 1562 Arthur Brooke produced the 
same tale in verse, called The Tragicall 
History of Bomeus and Juliet. In 1567 
Painter published a prose translation of 
Boisteau's novel. 

Romola, superb woman, high-spirited, 
pure and single of heart, the idol and co- 
laborer of her scholarly father. She 
wrecks her life by the naarriage with the 
fascinating Greek, Tito Melema. — George 
Eliot, Bomola. 

Romp {The), a comic opera altered from 
BickerstafPs Love in the City. Priscilla 
Tomboy is "the romp," and the plot is 
given under that name. 

A splendid portrait of Mrs. Jordan, in her 
character of " The Romp," hung over the man- 
telpiece in the dining-room [of AdolpJms Fitz- 
clarence]. — Lord W. P. Lennox, Celebrities, etc., 
i. 11. 

Rom'uald {St). The Catalans had a 
great reverence for a hermit so called, and 
hearing that he was about to quit their 
country, called together a parish meeting, 
to consult how they might best retain him 
amongst them, " For," said they, " he will 
certainly be consecrated, and his relies will 
bring a fortune to us." So they agreed to 
strangle him; but their intention being 
told to the hermit, he secretly made his 





escape. — St. Foix, Essais Eistoriques sur 
Paris, V. 163. 

*#* Southey has a ballad on the subject. 

Romulus {The Second and Third), 
Camillus and Marius, Also called " The 
Second and Third Founders of Eome." 

Romulus and Remus, the twin sons 
of Silvia, a vestal virgin, and the god Mars. 
The infants were exposed in a cradle, and 
the floods carried the cradle to the foot of 
the Palatine. Here a wolf suckled them, 
till one Faustulus, the king's shepherd, 
took them to his wife, who brought them 
up. When grown to manhood, they slew 
Amulius, who had caused them to be ex- 

The Grreek legend of Tyro is in many re- 
spects similar. This Tyro had an amour 
Tvith Poseidon (as Silvia had with Mars), 
and two sons were born in both eases. 
Tyro's mother-in-law confined her in a 
dungeon, and exposed the two infants 
(Pelias and Neleus) in a boat on the river 
Enlpeus (3 syl.). Here they were dis- 
covered and brought up by a herdsman 
^Eomulus and Remus were brought up by 
■a shepherd), and when grown to manhood, 
they put to death their mother-in-law, who 
had caused them to be exposed (as Rom- 
ulus and Remus put to death their great- 
uncle, Amulius). 

Ron,, the ebony spear of Prince Arthur. 

The temper of his sword, the tried Exealibor, 
The bigness and the length of Rone his noble 

With Pridwin his great shield. 

Brajton,' Polyolbion, iv. (1612). 

Ronald (Lord), in love with Lady 
■Clare, to whom he gave a lily-white doe. 
The day before the wedding nurse Alice 
told Lady Clare she was not "Lady Clare" 
■Sit all, but her own child. On hearing this, 

she dressed herself as a peasant girl, and 
went to Lord Ronald to release him from 
his engagement. Lord Ronald replied, 
" If you are not the heiress born, we will 
be married to-morrow, and you shall still 
be Lady Clare." — Tennyson, Lady Clare. 

Ronaldson (Neil), the old ranzelman 
of Jarlshof (ch. vii.).— Sir W. Scott, The 
Pirate (time William III.). 

Rondib'ilis, the physician consulted 
by Panurge, on the knotty question, 
" whether he ought to marry, or let it 
alone." — Rabelais, Pantagruel (1545). 

*#* This question, which Panurge was 
perpetually asking every one, of course 
refers to the celibacy of the clergy. 

Rondo {The Father of the), Jean Bap- 
tiste Davaux. 

Rope of Ocnus {A), profitless labor. 
Genus was always twisting a rope with 
unwearied diligence, but an ass ate it as 
fast as it was twisted. 

*#* This allegory means that Ocnus 
worked hard to earn money, which his 
wife squandered by her extravagance. 

The work of Penelope's web was "never 
ending, still beginning," because Penelope 
pulled out at night all that she had spun 
during the day. Her object was to defer 
doing what she abhorred but knew not 
how to avoid. • 

Roper {Margaret), was buried with the 
head of her father. Sir Thomas More, be- 
tween her hands. 

Her who clasped in her last trance 
Her murdered father's head. 


Roque (1 syl), a blunt, kind-hearted old 
servitor to Donna Floranthe. — Colman, 
The Mountaineers (1793). 

Romeo and yuliet in Friar Laurence^ s Cell 

S^ That afia 

KarlBnLf, ^iriist Kohn, Engraver 

Friar Laurence 

the beateks upon this holy act 
L r-hours with sorrow chide us not. 
Here comes the lady ; 0, so light afoot 
IVill ne'er wear ouftbe everlasting flint," 

' Good even to my ghostly confessor I ' ' 

Friar Laurence 
' Romeo shall thank thee, daughter, for us both. " 

* As much t& l^itn, else are his thanlis too mticb. " 

' Ah, Juliet if the' measure of thy joy 
' ^e hcnped like min^, au.i that tidy skill he more 
To biaioii it, .hen stveueii wilb thy breath 
77 '; neighbor air, and let rich music's tongue 
Uiihi. ' the imagined happiness that h i/h 
Receive in either by this dear eiicoiintei . ' 
<fl. ' - . Juliet 

■ My true love is groi> 'u iu such e-ccess 
'J cannot sum «/- half my sum of wealth." 

Shakespeare s " Romo andJuPk^.'- ';: 
















Roque Guinart, a freebooter, whose 
real name was Pedro Rocha Q-uinarda. 
He is introduced by Cervantes in Don 

Rosa, a village beauty, patronized by 
Lady Dedldek. She marries Mrs. Rounee- 
well's grandson.— C. Dickens, Bleak House 

Rosabelle (3 syl), the lady's-maid of 
Lady Geraldine. Rosabelle promised to 
marry L'Eclair, the orderly of Chevalier 
Florian.— W. Dimond, The Foundling of 
the Forest, 

Rosalind {i.e. Rose Daniel), the shep- 
herd lass who rejected Cohn Clout (the 
poet Spenser) for Menaleas (John Florio, 
the lexicographer, 1579). Spenser was at 
the time in his twenty-sixth year. Being 
rejected by Rosalind, he did not marry till 
he was nearly 41, and then we are told 
that Ehzabeth ''was the name of his 
mother, queen and wife" {Sonnet, 74). In 
the Faery Queen, " the country lass " (Rosa- 
hud) is introduced dancing with the 
Grraces, and the poet says she is worthy 
to be the fourth (bk. vi. 10, 16). In 1595 
appeared the Fpithala'mion, in which the 
recent marriage is celebrated. — Ed. Spen- 
ser, Shepheardes Calendar, i., vi. (1579). 

"Rosalinde" is an anagram for Rose 
Daniel, evidently a well-educated young 
lady of the north, and probably the "Lady 
MirabeUa" of the Faery Queen, vi. 7, 8. 
Spenser calls her "the widow's daughter 
of the glen" (eel. iv.), supposed to be 
either Burnley or CoLue, near Hurstwood, 
in Yorkshire. Eel. i. is the plaint of Colin 
for the loss of Rosalind. Eel. vi. is a 
dialogue between Colin and Hobbinol, his 
friend, in which Colin laments, and Hob- 
binol tries to comfort him. Eel. xii. is a 
similar lament to eel. i. Rose Daniel 

married John Florio, the lexicographer, 
the " Holof ernes " of Shakespeare. 

Bosalind, daughter of the banished duke 
who went to live in the forest of Arden. 
Rosalind was retained in her uncle's court 
as the companion of his daughter, Celia ; 
but when the usurper banished her, Celia 
resolved to be her companion, and, for 
greater security, Rosalind dressed as a 
boy, and assumed the name of Granymede, 
while Celia dressed as a peasant girl, and 
assumed the name of Aliena. The two 
girls went to the forest of Arden, and 
lodged for a time in a hut ; but they had 
not been long there when Orlando encoun- 
tered them. Orlando and Rosalind had 
met before at a wrestling match, and 
the acquaintance was now renewed; 
Granymede resumed her. proper apparel, 
and the two were married, with the sanc- 
tion of the duke. — Shakespeare, As You 
Like It (1598). 

Nor shall the griefs of Lear be alleviated, or 
the charms and wit of Rosalind' be abated by 
time. — N. Drake, M.D., SJiahespeare and His 
Times, ii. 554 (1817). 

Rosaline, the niece of Capulet, with 
whom Romeo was in love before he saw 
Juliet. Mercutio calls her "a pale-hearted 
wench," and Romeo says she did not "grace 
for grace and love for love allow," like Ju- 
liet. — Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (1598). 

*#* Rosaline is frequently mentioned in 
the first act of the play, but is not one of 
the dramatis personcB. 

Rosaline, a lady in attendance on the 
princess of France. A sharp wit was 
wedded to her will, and " two pitch balls 
were stuck in her face for eyes." Rosaline 
is called " a merry, nimble, stirring spirit." 
Biron, a lord in attendance on Ferdinand, 





king of Navarre, proposes marriage to her, 

but she replies : 

You must be purged first, your sins are racked . . . 
Therefore if you my favor mean to get, 
A twelvemonth shall you spend, and never rest, 
But seek the weary beds of people sick. 

Shakespeare, Lov^s Labor's Lost (1594). 

Rosalu'ra, the airy daughter of Nanto- 
let, beloved by Belleur. — Beaumont and 
Fletcher, The Wild-goose Chase (1652). 

Kos'amond. {The Fair), Jane Clifford, 
daughter of Walter, Lord Clifford. The 
lady was loved, not wisely, but too well, 
by Henry II., who kept her for conceal- 
ment in a labyrinth at Woodstock. Queen 
Eleanor compelled the frail fair one to 
swallow poison (1777). 

She was the fayre daughter of Walter, Lord 
ClifEord. . . . Henry made for her a house of 
wonderfull working, so that no man or woman 
might come to her. This house was named 
" Labyrinthus," and was wrought like unto a 
knot, in a garden called a maze. But the queen 
came to her by a clue of thredde, and so dealt 
with her that she lived not long after. She was 
buried at Godstow, in a house of nunnes, with 
these verses upon her tombe : 

Hie jacet in tumba Rosa mundi,non Rosa munda ; 
Non redolet, sed olet, quee redolere solet. 

Here Rose the graced, not Rose the chaste, reposes; 
The smell that rises is no smell of roses. 

*#* The subject has been a great favorite 
with poets. We have in English the fol- 
lowing tragedies : — The Complaint ofBosa- 
mond, by S. Daniel (before 1619) ; Henrp 
II. . . . with the Death of Bosamond, either 
Bancroft or Mountford (1693) ; Rosamond, 
by Addison (1706) ; Henry and Bosamond, 
by Hawkins (1749) ; Fair Bosamond, by 
Tennyson (1879). In Italian, Bosmonda, 
by RuceEai (1525). In Spanish, Bosmunda, 
by Gril y Zarate (1840). We have also 
Bosamond, an opera, by Dr. Arne (1733) ; 
and Bosamonde, a poem in French, by C. 
Briffaut (1813). Sir Walter Scott has in- 

troduced the beautiful soiled dove in two 
of his novels — The Talisman and Wood- 

*#* Dryden says her name was Jane : 

Jane Clifford was her name, as books aver : 
" Fair Rosamond " was but her nom de guerre. 

We rede that in Englande was a king that had 
a concubyne whose name was Rose, and for hir 
greate bewtye he cleped hir Rose a mounde 
(Rosa mundi), that is to say, Rose of the world, 
for him thought that she passed al wymen in 
bewtye. — R. Pynson (1493), subsequently printed 
by Wynken de Worde in 1496. 

The Bosemonde of Alfieri is quite an- 
other person. (See Rosemond.) 

Rosa'na, daughter of the Armenian 
queen who helped St. Q-eorge to quench 
the seven lamps of the knight of the Black 
Castle. — R. Johnson, The Seven Champions 
of Christendom, ii. 8, 9 (1617). 

Roscius (Quintus), the greatest of Ro- 
man actors (died B.C. 62). 

What scene of death hath Roscius now to act 1 
Shakespeare, 3 Henry VI. act v. sc. 6 (1592). 

Boscius {The British), Thomas Betterton 
(1635-1710), and David Garrick (1716- 

*#* The earl of Southampton says that 
Richard Burbage " is famous as our En- 
ghsh Roscius" (1566-1619). 

Boscius {The Irish), Spranger Barry, 
" The Silver Tongued" (1719-1777). 

Boscius {The Youyig), WiUiam Henry 
West Betty, who, in 1803, made his debut 
in London. He was about 12 years of age, 
and in fifty-six nights reahzed £34,000. 
He died, aged 84, in 1874. 

Roscius of France {The), Michel Boy- 
ron or Baron (1653-1729). 




Roscrana, daughter of Cormae, king 
of Ireland (grandfather of that Cormae 
murdered by Cairbar) . Eoscra'na is called 
"the blue-eyed and white-handed maid," 
and was "like a spirit of heaven, half 
folded in the skirt of a cloud." Subse- 
quently she was the wife of Fingal, king 
of Morven, and mother of Ossian, " king 
of bards." — Ossian, Temoi-a, vi. 

*#* Cormae, the father of Eoscrana, was 
great-grandfather of that Cormae who was 
reigning when Swaran made his invasion. 
The line ran thus: (1) Cormae I., (2) 
Cairbre, his son, (3) Artho, his son, (4) 
Cormae II., father-in-law of Fingal. 

Kose, " the gardener's daughter," a 
story of happy first love, told in later 
years by an old man who had, in his 
younger days, trifled with the passion of 
love ; but, like St. Augustin, was always 
"loving to love" (amans amdre), and was 
at length heart-smitten with Eose, whom 
he married. (See Alice.) — Tennyson, The 
Gardener's Daughter. 

Rose. Sir John Mandeville says that a 
Jewish maid of Bethlehem (whom Southey 
names Zillah) was beloved by one Ham'- 
uel, a brutish sot. Zillah rejected his suit, 
and Hamuel, in revenge, accused the 
maiden of offences for which she was con- 
demn ed to be burned alive. When brought 
to the stake, the flames burnt Hamuel to 
a cinder, but did no harm to Zillah. 
There she stood, in a garden of roses, for 
the brands which had been kindled be- 
came red roses, and those which had not 
caught fire became white ones. These are 
the first roses that ever bloomed on earth 
since the loss of paradise. 

. As the fyre began to brenne about hire, she 
made her preyeres to oure Lord . . . and anon 
was the fayer quenched and oute, and brondes 
that weren brennynge becomen white roseres 

. . . and theise werein the first roseres that ever 
ony man saughe. — Sir John Maundeville, Voiage 
and Traivaile. 

Rose. According to Mussulman tradi- 
tion, the rose is thus accounted for : When 
Mahomet took his journey to heaven, the 
sweat which fell on the earth from the 
prophet's forehead produced White roses, 
and that which fell from Al Borak' (the 
animal he rode) produced yellow ones. 


The gentle name that shows 
Her love, her loveliness, and bloom 

(Her only epitaph a rose) 
Is growing on her tomb ! 
John James Piatt, Poems of House and Home 

Eose of Aragon {The), a drama by 
S. Knowles (1842). Olivia, daughter of 
Euphi'no (a peasant), was married to 
Prince Alonzo of Aragon. The king 
would not recognize the match, but sent 
his son to the army, and made the cortez 
pass an act of divorce. A revolt hav- 
ing been organized, the king was dethroned, 
and Almagro was made regent. Almagro 
tried to marry Olivia, and to murder her 
father and brother, but the prince return- 
ing with the army made himself master 
of the city, Almagro died of poison, the 
marriage of the prince and peasant was 
recognized, the revolt was broken up, and 
order was restored. 

Rose of Har'pocrate (3 syl.). Cupid 
gave Harpocrate a rose, to bribe him not to 
divulge the amours of his mother, Venus. 

Red as a rose of Harpocrate. 

E. B. Browning, Isabel's Child, iii. 

Rose of Paradise. The roses which 
grew in paradise had no thorns. " Thorns 
and thistles " were unknown on earth till 
after the Fall {Gen. iii. 18). Both St. Am- 





brose and St. Basil note that the roses in 
Eden had no thorns, and MUton says, in 
Eden bloomed " Flowers of all hue, and 
without thorn the rose." — Paradise Lost, 
iv. 256 (1665). 

Kose of Raby, the mother of Eichard 
III. This was Cicely, daughter of Ealph 
de Nevill of Eaby, earl of Westmoreland. 

Rose Vaughan. Lover of "Yone" 
Willoughby, in The Amher Gods. He has 
super-reflned and poetical tastes ; delights 
and revels in beauty, and until he met 
Yone had admired her gentle sister. The 
siren, Yone, sets herself to win him and 
succeeds. Marriage disenchants him and 
the knowledge of this maddens her into 
something akin to hatred. Yet she dies 
begging him to kiss her. " I am your 
Yone ! I forgot a little while, — but I love 
you, Eose, Eose ! " — Harriet Prescott 
Spofford, The Amber Gods (1863). 

Rose of York, the heir and head of the 
York faction. 

When Warwick perished, Edmund de la Pole 
became the Rose of York, and if this foolish 
prince should be removed by death . . . his 
young and clever brother [Richard] would be 
raised to the rank of Rose of York. — W. H. 
Dixon, Two Queens. 

Roses {War of the). The origin of 
this expression is thus given by Shake- 
peare : 

Plant. Let him that is a true-bom gentle- 
man . . . 
If he supposes that I have pleaded truth, 
From off this briar pluck a white rose with me. 
Somerset. Let him that is no coward, nor no 
But dare maintain the party of the truth, 
Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me. 

Whereupon Warwick plucked a white 
rose and joined the Yorkists, while Suffolk 

plucked a red one and joined the Lancas- 
trians. — Shakespeare, 1 Henry VI. act ii. 
sc. 4 (1589). 

Rosemond, daughter of Cunimond, 
king of the Grepidse. She was compelled 
to marry Alboin, king of the Lombards, 
who put her father to death a.d. 567. Al- 
boin compelled her to drink from the 
skuU of her own father, and Eosemond 
induced Peride'us (the secretary of Hel- 
michild, her lover), to murder the wretch 
(573). She then married Helmichild, fled 
Eavenna, and sought to poison her second 
husband, that she might marry Longin, 
the exarch; but Helmichild, apprised of 
her intention, forced her to drink the mix- 
ture she had prepared for him. This lady 
is the heroine of Alfieri's tragedy called 
Bosemonde (1749-1803). (See Eosamond.) 

Ro'sencrantz, a courtier in the court 
of Denmark, willing to seU or betray 
his friend and schoolfellow. Prince Ham- 
let, to please a king. — Shakespeare, Hamlet 

Rosetta, the wicked sister of Brunetta 
and Blon'dina, the mothers of Cherry and 
Fairstar. She abetted the queen-mother 
in her wicked designs against the offspring 
of her two sisters, but, being found out, 
was imprisoned for life. — Comtesse D'Au- 
noy, Fairy Tales ("Princess Fairstar," 

Bosetta, a bright, laughing little co- 
quette, who runs away from home because 
her father wants her to marry young 
Meadows, whom she has never seen. She 
enters the service of Justice Woodcock. 
Now, it so happens that Sir William 
Meadows wishes his son to marry Eosetta, 
whom he has never seen, and he also runs 
away from home, and under the name of 

Dagobert with Rose and Blanche 

Eehvurd H. C0ri«uld, Artist Geerge Sanders, Engraver 

yf LONG a, path trodden in the grass of the meadow, two girls, 

^ JL almost children . for they bad jmt completed their fifteenth 

year, were riding on a. lohile hors^ of medium si^e, seated 

upon a large saddle with a bach to it, which easily took them both in, 

for their figures were slight and delicate. ■-''■'■ 

y4 man of fall stature, with a sunburnt face and long grey mous- 
tache was leading the horse by the. bridle, and ever and anon turned' 
tozvards the girls with an air of , solicitude at once respetlfiit and 
paternal. . '. 

Sue's" Wandering Jew." 

'• \ 



J 11, 


,1. j» 



Thomas becomes gardener to Justice 
"Woodcock. Rosetta and young Meadows 
here fall in love with each other, and the 
wishes of the two fathers are accomplished. 
— Isaac Bickerstaff, Love in a Village 

In 1786 Mrs. Billington made her MJmt in 
" Rosetta," at once dazzling the town with the 
brilliancy of her vocalization and the flush of 
her beauty. — C. R. Leshe. 

Rosetta [Belmont], daughter of Sir 
Robert Belmont. Rosetta is high-spirited, 
witty, confident, and of good spirits. " If 
you told her a merry story, she would 
sigh ; if a mournful one, she would laugh. 
For yes she would say 'no,' and for wo, 
' yes.' " She is in love with Colonel Ray- 
mond, but shows her love by teasing him, 
and Colonel Raymond is afraid of the ca- 
pricious beauty. — Edward Moore, The 
Foundling (1748). 

Rosiclear and Donzel del Pliebo, 

the heroine and hero of the Mirror of 
Knighthood, a medisBval romance. 

Rosinan'te (4 syl.), the steed of Don 
Quixote. The name implies "that the 
horse had risen from a mean condition 
to the highest honor a steed could achieve, 
for it was once a cart-horse, and was 
elevated into the charger of a knight- 
errant." — Cervantes, Don Quixote, I. ii. 1 

Rosinante was admirably drawn, so lean, 
lank, meagre, drooping, sharp-backed, and raw- 
boned, as to excite much curiosity and mirth. — 
Pt. I. ii. 1. 

Rosiphele (3 syl.), princess of Armenia ; 
of surpassing beauty, but insensible to 
love. She is made to submit to the yoke 
of Cupid, by a vision which befalls her on 
a May-day ramble. — Grower, Confessio 
Amantis (1393). 

Rosmonda, a tragedy in Italian, by 
John R. Ruccellai (1525). This is one of 
the first regular tragedies of modern times. 
Sophonisha, by Trissino, preceded it, being 
produced in 1514, and performed in 1515. 

Rosny (Sahina), the young wife of Lord 
Sensitive. "Of noble parents, who per- 
ished under the axe in France." The 
young orphan, "as much to be admired 
for her virtues, as to be pitied for her mis- 
fortunes," fled to Padua, where she met 
Lord Sensitive. — Cumberland, First Love 

Ross {Lord), an officer in the king's 
army, under the duke of Monmouth. — 
Sir W. Scott, Old Mortality (time, Charles 

Boss {The Man of), John Kyrle, of 
"Whitehouse, in Gloucestershire. So called 
because he resided in the village of Ross, 
Herefordshire. Kyrle was a man of un- 
bounded benevolence, and beloved by all 
who knew him. 

*#* Pope celebrates him in his Moral 
Essays, iii. (1709). 

Rosse (2 syl.), the sword which the 
dwarf Elberich gave to Otwit, king of 
Lombardy. It was so keen that it left 
no gap where it cut. 

Balmung, the sword forged by "Wi eland, 
and given to Siegfried, was so keen that 
it clove Amilias in two without his know- 
ing it, but when he attempted to move he 
fell asunder. 

This sword to thee I give ; it is all bright of hue, 
Whatever it may cleave, no gap will there ensue. 
Prom Almaril brought it, and RossS is its name. 

The HeldenbucJi. 

Rostocostojambedanesse {M. N.), au- 
thor of Ajter Beef, Mustard. — Rabelais, 
Pantagruel, ii. 7 (1533). 





Rothmar, chief of Tromlo. He at- 
tacked the vassal kingdom of Croma, while 
the Tinder-king, Crothar, was blind with 
age, resolving to annex it to his own do- 
minion. Crothar's son, Fovar-Grormo, at- 
tacked the invader, but was defeated and 
slain. Not many days after, Ossian (one 
of the sons of Fingal) arrived with succors, 
renewed the battle, defeated the victorious 
army, and slew the invader. — Ossian, 

Rothsay {The duke of), prince Eobert, 
eldest son of Eobert III. of Scotland. 

Margaret, duchess of Bothsay. — Sir W. 
Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry 

Rou {Le JRoman de), a metrical and 
mythical history, in Norman-French, of 
the dukes of Normandy, from EoUo down- 
wards, by Eobert Wace (author of Le 

*#* Eou', that is, JRoul, the same as 

Roubign6 (Julie de), the heroine and 
title of a novel by Henry Mackenzie (1783). 

Rougedragon {Lady Bachel), the for- 
mer guardian of Lilias Eedgauntlet. — Sir 
W. Scott, Bedgauntlet (time, Greorge III.). 

Rouncewell (Mrs.), housekeeper at 
Chesney Wold to Lord and Lady Dedlock, 
to whom she is most faithfully attached. 
— C Dickens, Bleak House (1823). 

Round Table (TJie), a table made at 
Carduel, by Merlin, for Uther, the pen- 
dragon. Uther gave it to King Leode- 
graunce, of Camelyard, and when Arthur 
married Gruinever (the daughter of Leo- 
degraunce), he received the table with a 
hundred knights as a wedding present 

(pt. i. 45). The table would seat 150 
knights (pt. iii. 36), and each seat was ap- 
propriated. One of them was called the 
" Siege Perilous," because it was fatal for 
any one to sit therein, except the knight 
who was destined to achieve the Holy 
Graal (pt. iii. 32). King Arthur instituted 
an order of knighthood called " the knights 
of the Eound Table," the chief of whom 
were Sir Launcelot, Sir Tristram, and Sir 
La,merock, or Lamorake. The " Siege Per- 
ilous " was reserved for Sir Gralahad, the 
son of Sir Launcelot by Elaine. — Sir T. 
Malorj^, History of Prince Arthur (1470). 

*#* There is a table shown at Win- 
chester, as " Arthur's Eound Table," but 
it corresponds in no respect with the 
Eound Table described in the History of 
Prince Arthur. Eound Tables are not un- 
usual, as Dr. Percy has shown, with other 
kings in the times of chivalry. Thus, the 
king of Ireland, father of Christabelle, had 
his "knights of the Eound Table." — See 
" Sir Cauline," in Percy's Beliques. 

In the eighth year of Edward I., Eoger 
de Mortimer established at Kenilworth, a 
Eound Table for " the encouragement of 
military pastimes." Some seventy years 
later, Edward III. had his Eound Table at 
Windsor ; it was 200 feet in diameter. 

Rousseau {Jean Jacques) used to say that 
all fables which ascribe speech and reason 
to dumb animals ought to be withheld 
from children, as being only vehicles of 

I shall not ask .Jean Jacques Rousseau 
If birds confabulate or no ; 
'Tis clear that they were always able 
• To hold discourse — at least in fable. 

Cowper, Pairing-Time Anticipated (1782). 

Roustam or Rostam, the Persian Her- 
cules. He was the son of Zal, and a de- 
scendant of Djamshid. At one time Eous^ 




tam killed 1000 Tartars at a blow; he 
slew dragons, overcame devils, captured 
cities, and performed other marvellous ex- 
ploits. This mighty man of strength fell 
into disgrace for refusing to receive the 
doctrines of Zoroaster, and died by the 
hand of one of his brothers named Scheg- 
had (sixth century B.C.). 

Eotitledge {Harold). First love of 
Lilian Westbrook,m The B anker'' s Daughter. 
They have a lover's quarrel and separate, 
Lilian, to save her father from poverty, 
marries another man. Meeting Harold in 
after years, her love revives. When he 
challenges a Frenchman who has spoken 
lightly of her, she follows him to the field 
in time to receive his last breath and sob 
in his ear — " I have loved you — you only 
— from the first." — Bronson Howard, The 
Banher's Daughter, (1878). 

Rover, a dissolute young spark, who 
set off vice " as naughty but yet nice." — 
Mrs. Behn, The Bover (1680). 

■WiUiam Mountford [1660-1692] had so much 
in him of the agreeable, that when he played 
" The Rover," it was remarked by many, and 
particularly by Queen Mary, that it was danger- 
ous to see him act — he made vice so alluring. — 
C. Dibdin, History of the Stage. 

Rovewell (Captain), in love with Are- 
thusa, daughter of Argus. The lady's 
father wanted her to marry Squire Cuckoo, 
who had a large estate ; but Arethusa con- 
trived to have her own way and marry 
Captain Rovewell, who turned out to be 
the son of Ned Worthy, who gave the 
bridegroom £30,000. — Carey, Contrivances 

Rowe (Nicholas), poet-laureate (1673, 
1714-1718). The monument in Westmin- 
Bter Abbey to this poet was by Rysbrack. 

Rowena (The lady), of Hargettstan- 

stede, a ward of Cedric the Saxon, of 
Rotherwood. She marries Ivanhoe. — Sir 
W. Scott, Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.). 

Rowland (Ghilde), youngest brother of 
Helen. Under the guidance of Merlin, he 
undertook to bring back his sister from 
elf land, whither the fairies had carried 
her, and he succeeded in his perilous ex- 
ploit. — An Ancient Scotch Ballad. 

Rovrland for an Oliver (A), a tit for 
tat ; getting as good as you gave. Row- 
land (or Roland) and Oliver were two of 
Charlemagne's paladins, so much alike in 
prowess and exploits that they might be 
described as " fortemque Gyan, fortemque 
Cloanthum" (^neid,l 222). 

Och ! Mrs. Mustard-pot, have you found a 
Rowland for your Oliver at last ? — T. Knight, 
The Honest Thieves. 

Rowley, one of the retainers of Julia 
Avenel (2 sgl.).—Siv W. Scott, The Men- 
astery (time, Elizabeth). 

Boivley (Master), formerly steward of 
Mr. Surface, Sr., the friend of Charles 
Surface, and the fidus Achates of Sir 
Oliver Surface, the rich uncle. — Sheridan, 
School for Scandal (1777). 

Bowleg (Thomas), the hypothetical j)riest 
of Bristol, said by Chatterton to have 
lived in the reigns of Henry VI. and Ed- 
ward IV., and to have written certain 
poems, of which Chatterton himself was 
the author. 

Rowley Overdees, a highwayman. — 
Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering (time, George 

Roxa'na, daughter of Oxyartes of Bao- 





tria, and wife or concubine of Alexander 
the Grreat. Proud, imperious, and relent- 
less, she loved Alexander with a madness 
of love; and being jealous of Statira, 
daughter of King Darius, and wife of 
Alexander, she staljbed her and slew her. 
— X. Lee, Alexander the Greed (1678). 

So now am I as great as the famed Alexander ; 
but my dear Statira and Roxana, don't exert 
yourselves so mueli aljout me. — Mrs. Centlivre, 
Tlie ^Yonder, iii. 1 (1714). 

Roxa'na and Stati'ra, Dr. Doran says 
that Peg Woffington (as "Roxana"), jeal- 
ous of Mrs. Bellamy (as " Statira ") be- 
cause she was better dressed, pulled her to 
the floor when she left the stage, and 
pummeled her with the handle of her dag- 
ger, screaming as she did so : 

Nor -he, nor heaven, shall shield thee from my 

Die, sorceress, die ! and all mv wrongs die with 

thee ? 

Tahle Tniitx. 

Campbell tells a very similar story of 
Mrs. Barry (" Eoxana ") and Miss Boutwell 
(" Statira"). The stage-manager had given 
to Miss Boutweh a lace veil, and Mrs. 
Barry, out of jealousy, actually stabbed 
her rival in acting, and the dagger went a 
quarter of an inch, through the stays into 
the flesh. 

Koyal aiottoes or Legends. 

Dieu ef mon droit, Eichard I. 

Hejtii soit qni vuil >/ pertse, Edward IIL 

Semper eadem, Ehzabeth and Anne. 

Je maintlendrai, ^Yilliam III. 

Royal Style of Address. 

"My Liege," the usual style tiU the 
Lancastrian usurpation. 

" Your Grace," Henry IV. 

"Your Excellent Grace," Henry VI. 

"Most High and Mighty Prince," Ed- 
ward IV. 

" Your Highness," Henry VII. 

" Your Majesty," Henry VIII. So ad- 
dressed in 1520, by Francois I. 

" The King's Sacred Majesty," James I. 

" Your Most Excellent Majesty," Charles 

" Your Most Gracious Majesty," the 
present style. 

Royal Titles. 

WiLLiAii I. called himself "Rex Anglormn, 
comes Xormannorum et Cinomanentium." 

WiLLiAJi II. called himself " Rex Anglorum," 
or " Monarchicus Britannise." 

Henry I. called himself " Rex Anglorum et 
dux Xormannorum." Subsequent to ]106 we 
find " Dei gi-atia" introduced in charters. 

Hexry II. called himseLt' " Rex Anglorum, et 
dux Xoi-mannorum et Aquitannorum, et comes 
Andegavorum ; " or " Rex Anglise, dux Nor- 
manniae et Aquitanise, et comes Andegavia?." 

Richard I. began his charters with "Dei 
gratia, rex Anghse, et dux Xormanige et Aqui- 
taniae, et comes Andega\'iffi." 

John headed his charters with " Johannes, D. 
G. rex AngHse, dominus Hibemise, dux Xor- 
manniffi et Aquitauite, et comes Andegavise." 
Instead of " Hiberniffi " we sometimes find " Iber- 
niffi," and sometimes " Ybernia_\" 

Henby III. followed the style of his father till 
October, 12.59, when he adopted the form " D.G. 
rex Anghffi, dominus Hiberniae, et dux Aqui- 

Edward I. adopted the latter stvle. So did 
Edward II. tiU 1326, when he used the form 
" Rex Angliffl et dominus Hibernise." Edward 
I. for thirteen years headed his charters with 
" Edwardus, Dei gratia rex Angliae, dominus Hi- 
berniffi, et dux Aquitanis"." But after 1337 the 
form ran thus : " Edwardus, D.G. rex Angliae et 
Franciffi, dominus Hibemiae, et dux Aquitanife ; " 
and sometimes " Pranci* " stands before " An- 

Richard II. began thus: "Richardus, D.G. 
rex Angliae et Franciae, et dominus Hibemife." 

Henry IV, continued the same stvle. So did 
Henry V. till 1420, after which date he adopted 
the form, "Henricus, D.G. rex Angliae, haeres et 
regens Franciae, et dominus Hibemite." 

Heney VI. began, " Henricus, D.G. rex An- 
gliae et Franciae, et dominus Hiberniffi." 

Edward IV., Edward V., Richard HI., 
Henry VII. continued the same style. 

Ntima Roumestan 

EmiU Bayard, Artid , Bellenger, Engraver 

1^ T~UMA ROUMESTAN, the depuly, attends a f fie given in his 
I I/' ixvior at Ins native toicn of Aix, in Provence. TIk tambourine 

and fliite-pliiyer Fatiiwjonr teads tloe people in the far an dole. 
- " ' Looti above,' said Roumestan, atl at once. 

" It was the bead of the tine of dtincers pouring in- between the arcPes of 
the first stoiy, ubile the fambourinist and tJje last dancers of the farandole 
■were still moving about in tbe circle. On the way tloe winding proces'don 
was iiiade longer by all tljo'e'iLpom tl)erl)ythmted as ly force to follow it. 

■ "'Tin fara,ndole mounted hig})er and higher until it readied tJje topmost 
galleries, wherethe sun still gilded tlK upper edge with a tine of tawny light. 
The long line of grave dancers, moving on, became now a succession, of 
delicate silimuetles defined against the. open arches in tiie warm vilyrating 
air of this declining July day, and 'now formed against ti)e old stone oftlje 
piers an animated bas-relief, such as projects from ti}e crumbling front of 
antique temples. 

Daudet s "Numa Roumestan. ' ' 











From Henry VIII. (1521) to George III. 
(1800) the royal style and title was"* by the 
grace of God, of Great Britain, Prance and Ire- 
land, king, Defender of the Faith." 

From George III. (1800) to the present day it 
, has been, " * by the gi-ace of God, of the United 
Kmgdom of Great Britain and Ireland, king, 
Defender of the Faith." 

Ru'bezahl, Number Nip, a famous 
mountain-spirit of Germany correspond- 
ing to our Puck. 

Rubi, one of the clietubs or spirits of 
wisdom who was with Eve in Paradise. 
He loved Liris, who was young, proud, 
and most eager for knowledge. She asked 
her angel lover to let her see him in his 
full glory; so Eubi came to her in his 
cherubic splendor. Liris, rushing into 
his arms, was burnt to ashes ; and the kiss 
she gave him became a brand upon his 
forehead, which shot unceasing agony 
into his brain. — T. Moore, Loves of the 
Angels, ii. (1822). 

Ru'bicoii (Napoleon'' s), Moscow. The 
invasion of Moscow was the beginning of 
Napoleon's fall. 

Thou, Rome, who saw'st thy Csesar's deeds out- 
done ! 

Alas ! why passed he [Napoleon] too the Rubi- 
con . . . 

Moscow ! thou limit of his long career, 

For which rude Charles had wept his frozen 

^yvon, Age of Bronze, Y. (1821). 

*#* Charles XII. of Sweden formed the 
resolution of humbling Peter the Great 

Riibo'nax, a man who hanged himself 
from mortification and annoyance at some 
verses written upon him by a poet. — Sir 
P. Sidney, Defence of Poesie (1595). 

Kubrick {The Bev. Mr.), chaplain to 

the baron of Bradwardine.— Sir W. Scott, 
Waverley (time, George II.). 

Ruby {Lady), the young widow of Lord 
Ruby, Her "first love" was Frederick 
Mowbray, and when a widow she married 
him. She is described as " young, bloom- 
ing and wealthy, fresh and fine as a daisy." 
— Cumberland, First Love (1796), 

Rucellai {John), i.e. Oricellarius, poet 
(1475-1525), son of Bernard Rucellai, of 
Florence, historian and diplomatist. 

As hath been said by Rucellai. 
Longfellow, The Wayside Inn (prelude, 1863). 

Ruddymane (3 syh), the name given 
by Sir Guyon to the babe rescued from 
Amavia, who had stabbed herseK in grief 
at the death of her husband. So called 
because : 

... in her streaming blood he [the infant] did 
embay his little hands. 

Spenser, Faery Queen, ii. 1, 3 (1590). 

Rudge (Barnaby), a half-witted young 
man of three and twenty years old ; rather 
spare, of a fair height and strong make. 
His hair, of which he had a great profu- 
sion, was red and hung in disorder about 
his face and shoulders. His face was pale, 
his eyes glassy and protruding. His dress 
was green, clumsily trimmed here and - 
there with gaudy lace. A pair of tawdry dangled at his wrists, while his 
throat was nearly bare. His hat was or- 
namented with a cluster of peacock's 
feathers, limp, broken, and trailing down 
his back. Girded to his side was the steel 
hilt of an old sword, without blade or 
scabbard; and a few knee-ribbons com- 
pleted his attire. He had a large raven 
named Grip, which he carried at his back 
in a basket, a most knowing imp, which 
used to cry out in a hoarse voice, " Hal- 





loa ! " " I'm a devil ! " " Never say die !" 
" Polly, put the kettle on ! " 

Bai-naby joined the Gordon rioters for 
the proud pleasure of carrying a fla^ and 
wearing a blue bow. He was arrested and 
lodged in Newgate, from whence he made 
his escape, with other prisoners, when the 
jail was burnt down by the rioters ; but 
both he and his father and Hugh, being 
betrayed by Dennis, the hangman, were 
recaptured, brought to trial, and con- 
demned to death, but by the influence of 
Gabriel Varden, the locksmith, the poor 
half-witted lad was reprieved, and lived 
the rest of his life with his mother in a 
cottage and garden near the Maypole. 

Here he lived, tending the poultry and the 
cattle, working in a garden of his own, and help- 
ing every one. He was known to every bird 
and beast about the place, and had a name for 
every one. Never was there a lighter-hearted 
husbandman, a creature more popular with 
young and old, a blither and more happy soul 
than Barnaby. — Ch. Ixxxii. 

Mr. Radge, the father of Barnaby, sup- 
posed to have been murdered the same 
night as Mr. Haredale, to whom he was 
steward. The fact is that Eudge himself 
was the murderer both of Mr. Haredale 
and also of his faithful servant, to whom 
the crime was falsely attributed. After 
the murder, he was seen by many haunt- 
ing the locality, and was supposed to be a 
-ghost. He joined the Gordon rioters 
when they attacked and Ijurnt to the 
ground the house of Mr. Haredale, the son 
of the murdered man, and being arrested 
(ch. Ivi.), was sent to Newgate, but made 
his escape with the other prisoners when 
it was burnt down by the rioters. Being 
betrayed by Deimis, he was brought to 
trial for murder, but we are not told if he 
was executed (ch. Ixxiii.). His name is not 
mentioned again, and probably he suffered 

Mrs. {Mar I)'] Budge, mother of Barnaby, 

and very like him, " but where in his face 
there was wildness and vacancy, in hers 
there was the patient composure of long 
effort and quiet resignation." She was a 
widow. Her husband (steward at the 
Warren), who murdered his master, Mr. 
Haredale, and his servant, told her of his 
deed of blood a little before the birth of 
Barnaby, and the woman's face ever after 
inspired terror. It was thought for many 
years that Eudge had been murdered in 
defending his master, and Mrs. Eudge was 
allowed a pension by Mr. Haredale, son 
and heir of the murdered man. This jDen- 
sion she subsequently refused to take. 
After the reprieve of Barnaby, Mrs. Eudge 
lived with him in a cottage near the May- 
pole, and her last days were her happiest. 
C. Dickens, Barnaby Budge (1841). 

Rii'diger, a wealthy Hun, liegeman of 
Etzel, sent to conduct Kriemhild to Hun- 
gary. When Giinther and his suite went 
to visit Kriemhild, Eudiger entertained 
them all most hospitably, and gave his 
daughter in marriage to Giselher (Kriem- 
hild's brother). In the broil which ensued, 
Eudiger was killed fighting against Ger- 
not, but Gemot dropped down dead at the 
same moment, " each by the other slain." 
— Nibehmgen Lied (by the minnesingers, 

Budiger, a knight who came to Wald- 
hurst in a boat drawn by a swan. Marga- 
ret fell in love with him. At every tour- 
nament he bore off the prize, and in every- 
thing excelled the yoiiths about him. 
Margaret became his wife. A child was 
born. On the christening day, Eudiger 
carried it along the banks of the Ehine, 
and nothing that Margaret said could pre- 
vail on him to go home. Presently, the 
swan and boat came in sight, and car- 
ried all three to a desolate place, where 




was a deep cavern. Rudiger got on shore, 
still holding the babe, and Margaret fol- 
lowed. They reached the cave, two giant 
arms clasped Rudiger, Margaret sprang 
forward and seized the infant, but Rudiger 
was never seen more. — R. Southey, Bncll- 
(jer (a ballad from Thomas Heywood's 

Kufiis (or the Red), William II. of Eng- 
land (1057, 1087-1100). 

Rugby, servant to Dr. Cains, in Merry 
Wives of Windsor, by Shakespeare. 

Riig-g, {Mr.) a lawyer living at Penton- 
ville. A red-haired man, who wore a hat 
with a high crown and narrow brim. Mr. 
Pancks employed him to settle the busi- 
ness pertaining to the estate which had 
long lain unclaimed, to which Mr, Dorrit 
was heir-at-law. Mr. Rugg delighted in 
legal difficulties as much as a housewife 
in her jams and preserves. — C. Dickens, 
Little Dorrit (1857). 

Kxiggie'ro, a young Saracen knight, 
born of Christian parents. He fell in love 
with Bradamant (sister of Rinaldo), whom 
he ultimately married. Ruggiero is es- 
pecially noted for possessing a hippogriff, 
or winged horse, and a shield of such daz- 
zling splendor that it blinded those who 
looked on it. He threw away this shield 
into a well, because it enabled him to win 
victory too cheaply. — Orlando Innainarato 
(1495), and Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Rukenaw {Dame), the ape's wife, in 
the beast-epic called Bernard the Fox 

Rule a Wife and Have a Wife, a 

comedy by Beaumont and Fletcher (1640). 
Donna Margaritta, a lady of great wealth, 

wishes to marry in order to mask her in- 
trigues, and seeks for a husband a man 
without spirit, whom she can mould to her 
will. Leon, the brother of Altea, is se- 
lected as the " softest fool in Spain," and 
the marriage takes place. After marriage, 
Leon shows himself firm, courageous, high- 
minded, but most affectionate. He " rules 
his wife " and her household with a mas- 
terly hand, wins the respect of ■ every one, 
and the wife, wholly reclaimed, " loves, 
honors, and obeys " him. 

Rumolt, the chief cook of Prince Giin- 
ther of Burgundy. — Nibelungen Lied, 800 

Runipelstilzchen [Bwnple.stilt^.s'kin], 
an irritable, deformed dwarf. He aided a 
miller's daughter, who had been enjoined 
by the king to spin straw into gold ; and 
the condition he made with her- for this 
service, was that she should give him for 
wife her first daughter. The miUer's 
daughter married the king, and when her 
first daughter was born, the mother 
grieved so bitterly that the dwarf con- 
sented to absolve her of her promise, if, 
within three days she could find out his 
name. The first day passed, but the se- 
cret was not discovered ; the second passed 
with no better success ; but on the third 
day, some of the queen's servants heard a 
strange voice singing : 

Little dreams my dainty dame 
Riimpelstilzchen is my name. 

The queen, being told thereof, saved her 
child, and the dwarf killed himself from 
rage. — German Popular Stories. 

Runa, the dog of Argon and Ruro, sons 
of Annir, king of Inis-Thona, an island of 
Scandinavia. — Ossian, The War of Inis- 





1. Ipliicles, son of Phylakos and Kly- 
mene. Hesiod says he could run over 
ears of corn without bending the stems ; 
and Demaratos says he could run on the 
surface of the sesi.— Argonauts, i. 60. 

2. Camilla, queen of the Volsci, was so 
swift of foot that she could run over stand- 
ing corn, without bending the ears, and 
over the sea without wetting her feet. — 
Virgil, .^neid, vii. 303 ; xi. 433. 

Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain, 
FHes o'er th' unbendiag corn, and skims along 
the main. 


3. Ladas, the swift runner of King Al- 
exander. He ran so fast that he never 
left a foot-print on the ground. 

4. Phidippides, a professional courier, 
ran from Athens to Sparta (150 miles) in 
two days. 

5 Theagenes, a native of Thasos, was 
noted for his swiftness of foot. 

*^* The Greek hemerodromos would run 
from twenty to thirty-six leagues in a day. 

Runnyniede, the iiom de plume of Benj. 
DisraeU, in the Times (1805-1881). 

Rupert, i.e. Major Roselheim, the be- 
trothed of Meeta, " the maid of Marien- 
dorpt." — S. Knowles, The Maid of Marien- 
dorpt (1838). 

Eupert (Prince), in the service of Charles 
II. Introduced by Sir W. Scott, in three 
of his novels. — WoodstocJt, Legend of Mon- 
trose, and Peveril of the Peak. 

Rupert (Sir), in love with Catharine. — 
S. Knowles, Love (1840). 

Stanley, was so called by Lord Lytton 

Rupert Clare. Desperate lover, who 
skates with "handsome Madge" straight 
toward the rotten ice. Seeing their dan- 
ger and his revengeful resolve, she shrieks 
out the name of her betrothed who, un- 
known to her and the rejected suitor, has 
followed them. " He hurls himself upon 
the pair," and rescues his af&anced. 

" The lovers stand with heai't to heai't, 
' No more,' they cry, ' no more to part ! '" 
But stiU along the lone lagoon 
The steel skates ring a ghostly tune, 
And in the moonlight, pale and cold, 
The panting lovers still iDehold 
The self-appointed sacrifice 
Skating toward the rotten ice ! " 
Fitz- James O'Brien, Poems and Stories. 

Rush (Friar), a house-spirit, sent from 
the infernal regions in the seventeenth 
centuiy to keep the monks and friars in 
the same state of wickedness they then 

*** The legends of this roistering friar 
are of German origin. (Bruder Bausch 
means " Brother Tipple.") 

Milton confounds " Jack-o'-Lantern " 
with Friar Rush. The latter was not a 
field bogie at all, and was never called 
"Jack." Probably Milton meant a friar 
with a rush-[light]." Sir "Walter Scott 
also falls into the same error : 

Better we had thro' mire and bush 
Been lantern-led by Friar Rush. 

Marmion (1808). 

Rusil'la, mother of Roderif^k, the last 
of the Goths, and wife of Theodofred, 
rightful heir to the Spanish throne. — 
Southey, Boderick, etc. (1814). 

Rupert of Debate. Edward Geof- 
frey, earl of Derby, when he was Mr. 

Rusport (Lady), second wife of Sir Ste- 
phen Rusport, a City knight, and step- 

Ruggiero on the Hippogriff 

Custave Dori, Artist J_ Doms, Engraver 

MUST HOW tell you that Rvggicro, the greatest of all tloe infidel 
parriors, had been presented by his guardian , the magician Attantes, 
•with two ■wonderful gifts: the one a shield of darling metal which 
blinded andoverthrem every one that loolied at it, and the other an animal 
•wSchibtHhimd the bird -with the quadruped, and was called the Hippogriff, 
or Griffin-horse. It had the plumage, the wings, head, beak and front legs 
'of a grifflUj and the rest like a horse. It tvas not made by enchantment, 
btiLw'is a creature of a natural hind found, but very rarely, in the Ripb- 
, man mountains far on the other side of the Frozen Sea. With this gift, 
high mounted in the air, the young ward of Atlantes was now making the 
grandest of ^rand fours.'' 

Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso " (Leigh Hunt's Paraphrase). 
Ruggiero discovers Angelica chained to the rock and rescues her from 
the sea-monster. ? 's 





mother of Charlotte Eusport. Very proud, 
very mean, very dogmatical, and very 
vain. Without one spai-k of generosity 
or loving charity in her composition. 
She bribes her lawyer to destroy a will, 
but is thwarted in her dishonesty. Lady 
Eusport has a tendresse for Major O'Fla- 
herty ; but the major discovers the villainy 
of the old woman, and escapes from this 

Charlotte Busport, step-daughter of 
Lady Eusport. An amiable, ingenuous, 
animated, handsome girl, in love with her 
cousin, Charles Dudley, whom she mar- 
ries. — E. Cumberland, The West Indian 

Russet {Mr), the choleric old father of 
Harriot, on whom he dotes. He is so 
self-willed that he will not listen to rea- 
son, and has set his mind on his daugh- 
ter marrying Sir Harry Beagle. She 
max'ries, however, Mr. Oakly. — (See Hae- 
EIOT.) — Greorge Colman, The Jealous Wife 

Russian Byron {The), Alexander Ser- 
geiwitch Pushkin (1799-1837). 

Russian History {Tiie Father of), Nes- 
tor, a monk of Kiev. His Chronicle in- 
cludes the years between 862 and 1116 
(twelfth century). 

Russian Murat {The), Michael Milora- 
dowith (1770-1820). 

Rust {Martin), an absurd old antiqua- 
ry. " He likes no coins but those which 
have no head on them." He took a fancy 
to Juliet, the niece of Sir Thomas Lofty, 
but preferred his "^neas, his precious 
relic of Troy," to the living beauty ; and 
Juliet preferred Eichard Bever to Mr. 

Eust; so matters were soon amicably 
adjusted.— Foote, The Patron (1764). 

Rustam, chief of the Persian mythical 
heroes, son of Zal "the Fair," king of 
India, and regular descendant of Benja- 
min, the beloved son of Jacob, the patri- 
arch. He delivered King Caicaus (1 syl.) 
from prison, but afterwards fell into dis- 
• grace because he refused to embrace the 
religious system of Zoroaster. Caicaus 
sent his son, Asfendiar (or Isfendiar) to 
convert him, and, as persuasion availed 
nothing, the logic of single combat was 
resorted to. The fight lasted two days, 
and then Eustam discovered that Asfen- 
diar bore a " charmed life," proof against 
all wounds. The valor of these two 
heroes is proverbial, and the Persian ro- 
mances are full of their deeds of fight. 

Bustani's Horse, Eeksh. — Chardin, 
Travels (1686-1711). 

In Matthew Arnold's poem, Sohrah and 
Bustum, Eustum fights with and over- 
comes Sohrab, and finds too late that he 
has slain his own son. 

Bustam, son of Tamur, king of Persia. 
He had a^ trial of strength with Eustam, 
son of Zal, which was to pull away from 
his adversary an iron ring. The combat 
was never decided, for Eustam could no 
more conquer Eustam than Eoland could 
overcome Oliver. — Chardin, Travels (1686- 

Rustlcus's Pig, the pig on which Eus- 
ticus fed daily, but which never dimin- 

Two Christians, travelling in Poland, . . . came 
to the door of Rustlcus, a heathen peasant, who 
had killed a fat hog to celebrate the birth of a 
son. The pilgrims, being invited to partake of 
the feast, pronounced a blessing on whpl was 
left, which never diminished in size or weight from 




that moment, thougli all the family fed on it 
freely every day. — J. Brady, Clavis Calendaria, 

This, of course, is a parallelism to Eli- 
jah's miracle (1 Kings xvii. 11-16). 

Rut (Doctor), in The Magnetic Lady, by 
Ben Jonson (1632). 

Ruth, the friend of Arabella, an heir- 
ess, and ward of Justice Day. Euth also 
is an orphan, the daughter of Sir Basil 
Thoroughgood, who died when she was 
two years old, leaving Justice Day trustee. 
Justice Day takes the estates, and brings 
up Ruth as his own daughter. Colonel 
Careless is her accepted ame de coeur. — T. 
Knight, The Honest Thieves. 

Ruthven (Lord), one of the embassy 
from Queen Elizabeth to Mary Queen of 
Scots.— Sir W. Scott, The Abbot (time, 

Rutil'io, a merry gentleman, brother of 
.rnoldo. — Beaumont and E 
Custom of the Country (1647). 

Arnoldo. — Beaumont and Fletcher, The 

Rutland [The Countess of), wife of the 
earl of Essex, whom he married when he 
started for Ireland. The queen knew not 
of the marriage, and was heart-broken 
when she heard of it. — Henry Jones, The 
Earl of Essex (1745). 

Rutland {The duchess of), of the court of 
Queen Elizabeth. — Sir W. Scott, Kenil- 
worth (time Elizabeth). 

Rut'terkin, name of a cat, the spirit of 
a witch, sent at one time to torment the 
countess of Rutland (sixteenth century). 

Ruy'dera, a duenna who had seven 
daughters and two nieces. They were im- 
prisoned for 500 years in the cavern of 
Montesi'nos, in La Mancha, of Spain. 
Their ceaseless weeping stirred the com- 
passion of Merlin, who converted them 
into lakes in the same province. — Cervan- 
tes, Don Quixote, II. ii. 6 (1615). 

Ryence (Sir), king of Wales, Ireland, 
and many of the isles. When Arthur first 
mounted the throne, King Ryence, in 
scorn, sent a messenger to say " he had 
purfled a mantel with the beards of kings ; 
but the mantel lacked one more beard to 
complete the lining, and he requested Ar- 
thur to send his beard by the messenger, 
or else he would come and take head and 
beard too." Part of the insolence was in 
this : Arthur at the time was too young to 
have a beard at all ; and he made answer, 
"Tell your master, my beard at present is 
all too young for purfling ; but I have an 
arm quite strong enough to drag him 
hither, unless he comes without delay to 
do me homage." By the advice of Merlin, 
the two brothers, Balin and Balan, set upon 
the insolent king, on his way to Lady De 
Vauce, overthrew him, slew "more than 
forty of his men, and the remnant fled." 
King Ryence craved for mercy ; so " they 
laid him on a horse-litter, and sent him 
captive to King Arthur." — Sir T. Malory, 
History of Prince Arthur, i. 24, 34 (1470). 

Rutledge (Archie), constable at Osbaldi- Rymar (Mr. Robert), poet at the Spa. 
stone HaU. Sir W. Scott, Bob Boy (time, — Sir W. Scott, ,S'^. Bonan's Well (time, 
George I.). George III.). 

Biitledge (Job), a smuggler. — Sir W. 
Scott, Bedgauntlet (time, George III.). 

Ryuo, youngest of the sons of Fingal, 
king of Morven. He fell in the battle 




of Lena between the Norsemen led by 
Swaran and the Ii-ish led by Fingal. 

" Rest ! " said Fingal ; " youngest of my sons, 
rest ! Rest, Ryno, on Lena ! We, too, shaU 
be no more. Warriors must one day fall." — 
Ossian, Fingal, v. 

Ryparog'rapher of Wits, Eabelais 

*#* Grreek, ruparos (" foul, nasty "). Pliny 
calls Pyricus the painter a " ryparogra- 

Rython, a giant of Brittany, slain by 
King Arthur. (See Eitho.) 

Rython, the mighty giant, slain. 
By his good brand relieved Bretagne. 
Sir W. Scott, Bridal of Triermain, ii. 11 (1813). 

|AADI or Sadi, the Persian 

poet, called " The Nightin- 
gale of a Thousand Songs." 
His poems are I'he Gulistan 
or " Garden of Eoses," The 
Boston or " Garden of 
Fruits," and The Pend Ndmeh, a moral 
poem. Saadi (1184-1263) was one of the 
"Four Monarchs of Eloquence." 

Saba or Zaba {The Queen of), called 
Balkis. She came to the court of Sol- 
omon, and had by him a son named Melech. 
This queen of Ethiopia or Abyssinia is 
sometimes called Maqueda. — Zaga Zabo, 
Ap. Damian. a Goes. 

The Koran (ch. xxvii.) tells us that Sol- 
omon summoned before him all the birds 
to the valley of ants, but the lapwing did' 
not put in an appearance. Solomon was 
angry, and was about to issue an order of 
death, when the bird presented itself, say- 
ing, " I come from Saba, where I found 
a queen reigning in great magnificence, but 
she and her subjects worship the sun." 
On hearing this, Solomon sent back the 
lapwing to Saba with a letter, which the 
bird was to drop at the foot of the queen, 
commanding her to come at once, submit 
herself unto him, and accept from him the 
"true religion." So she came in great 
state, with a train of 500 slaves of each 

sex, bearing 500 " bricks of solid gold," a 
crown, and sundry other presents. 

Sabbath-Breakers. The fish of the 
Eed Sea used to come ashore on the eve of 
the Sabbath, to tempt the Jews to violate 
the day of rest. The offenders at length 
became so numerous that David, to deter 
others, turned the fish into apes. — Jallalo'- 
ddin. — Al Zamahh. 

Sabellan Song, incantation. The Sab- 
elli or Samnites were noted for their 
magic art and incantations. 

Sabine {The). Numa, the Sabine, was 
taught the way to govern by Egerie, one 
of the CamensB (prophetic nymphs of an- 
cient Italy)._ He used to meet her in a 
grove, in which was a well, afterwards de- 
dicated by him to the Camense. 

Our statues — she 

That taught the Sabine how to rule. 

Tennyson, The Princess, ii. (1830). 

Sablonnifere {La), the Tuilleries. The 
word means the " sand-pit." The tuilleries 
means the " tile-works." Nicolas de Neu- , 
ville, in the fifteenth century, built a man- 
sion in the vicinity, which he called the 
" Hotel des Tuilleries," and Francois I. 
bought the property for his mother in 





Sabra, daughter of Ptolemy, king of 
Egypt. She was rescued by St. George 
from the hands of a giant, and ultimately 
married her deliverer. Sabra had three 
sons at a birth: Guy, Alexander, and 

Here come I, St. George, the valiant man, 

With naked sword and spear in han', 

Who fought the dragon and brought him to 

And won fair Sabra thus, the king of Egypt's 


Notes and Queries, December 21, 1878. 

Sabreur {Le Beau), Joachim Murat 

Sab'rin, Sabre, or Sabri'na, the 

Severn, daughter of Locrine (son of 
Brute) and his concubine, Estrildis. His 
queen, Guendolen, vowed vengeance, and, 
having assembled an army, made war 
upon Locrine, who was slain. Guendolen 
now assumed the government, and com- 
manded Estrildis and Sabrin to be cast 
into a river, since then called the Severn. 
— Geoffrey of Monmouth, British History, 
ii. 5 (1142). 

(An exqusite description of Sabine, sit- 
ting in state as a queen, is given in the 
opening of song v. of Drayton's Polyolhion, 
and the tale of her metamorphosis is re- 
corded at length in song vi. Milton in 
Comus, and Fletcher in The Faithful Shep- 
herdess, refer to the transformation of 
Sabrina into a river. 

Sabrina (Aunt). "Grim old maid in 
rusty bombazine gown and cap," whose 
strongest passion is family pride in the 
old homestead and farm which " her grand- 
father, a revolted cobbler from Rhode Is- 
land, had cleared and paid for at ten cents 
an acre." — Harold Frederic, Seth's Brother^s 
Wife (1886). 

Sabrinian Sea or Severn Sea, i.e. the 
Bristol Channel. Both terms occur not 
unfrequently in Drayton's Polyolhion. 

Sacchini {Antonio Maria Gaspare), 
called " The Racine of Music," contempo- 
rary with Gliick and Piccini (1735-1786). 

Sacharissa. So Waller calls the Lady 
Dorothea Sidney, eldest daughter of the 
earl of Leicester, to whose hand he aspired. 
Sacharissa married the earl of Sunderland. 
(Greek, sakchar, "sugar.") 

Sackbiit, the landlord of a tavern, in 
Mrs. Centlivre's comedy, A Bold Stroke 
for a Wife (1717). 

Sackingen ( The Trumpeter of). Werner, 
a trumpeter, discourses such divine music 
upon his instrument as gains him access to 
a baronial castle, the good-will of the 
baron and the love of Margaret, the baron's 
daughter. — ^Victor Hugo, The Trumpeter of 

Sacred Mne (The), the Muses, nine in 

Pair daughters of the Sun, the Sacred Nine, 
Here wake to ecstasy their harps divine. 

Falconer, The Shipwreck, iii. 3 (1756). 

Sacred. War (The), a war undertaken 
by the Amphictyonic League for the de- 
fence of Delphi, against the Cirrhseans 
(B.C. 595-587). 

The Sacred War, a war undertaken by 
the Athenians for the purpose of restor- 
ing Delphi to the Phocians (b.c. 448-447). 

The Sacred War, a war undertaken by 
Philip of Macedon, as chief of the Am- 
phictyonic League, for the purpose of 
wresting Delphi from the Phocians (b.c. 




Sa'cripant {King), king of Circassia, 
and a lover of Angelica. — Bojardo, Orlando 
Innamorato (1495) ; Ariosto, Orlando Furi- 
oso (1516). 

With the same stratagem, 8acripant had his 
steed stolen from under him, by that notorious 
thief Brunello, at the siege of Albracca. — Cer- 
vantes, Bon Quixote, I. iii. 9 (1605). 

*«* The allusion is to Sancho Panza's 
ass, which was stolen from under him by 
the galley-slave, Grines de Passamonte. 

Sacripant, a false, noisy, hectoring brag- 
gart ; a kind of Pistol or Bobadil. — Tasso, 
Secchia Mapita {i.e. " Eape of the Bucket "). 

Sa'dak and Kalasra'de (4 syl.), Sadak, 
general of the forces of Am'urath, sultan 
of Turkey, lived with Kalasrade in retire- 
ment, and their home life was so happy 
that it aroused the jealousy of the sultan, 
who employed emissaries to set fire to 
their house, carry off Kalasrade to the 
seraglio, and seize the children. Sadak, 
not knowing who were the agents of these 
evils, laid his complaint before Amurath, 
and then learnt that Kalasrade was in the 
seraglio. The sultan swore not to force 
his love upon her till she had drowned 
the recollections of her past life by a 
draught of the waters of oblivion. Sadak 
was sent on this expedition. On his re- 
turn, Amurath' seized the goblet, and, 
quaffing its contents, found "that the 
waters of oblivion were the waters of 
death." He died, and Sadak was made 
sultan in his stead.— J. Ridley, Tales of 
the Genii ("Sadak and Kalasrade," ix. 

Sadaroubay. So Eve is called in Indian 

Saddletree {Mr. Bartoline), the learned 

Mrs. Saddletree, the wife of Bartoline. 
— Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, 
George II.). 

Sadha-Sing, the mourner of the desert. 
— Sir W. Scott, The Surgeon^s Daughter 
(time, George II.). 

Ssemuiid Sigfusson, surnamed "the 
Wise," an Icelandic priest and scald. He 
compiled the Elder or Rythmical JEdda, 
often called Scemund's Edda. This com- 
pilation contains not only mythological 
tales and moral sentences, but numerous 
sagas in verse or heroic lays, as those of 
Volung and Helge, of Sigurd and Bryn- 
hilda, of Polsungs and Niflungs (pt. ii.). 
Probably his compilation contained all the 
mythological, heroic, and legendary lays 
extant at the period in which he lived 

Saga, the goddess of history. — Scandi- 
navian Mythology. 

Saga and Edda. The Edda is the 
Bible of the ancient Scandinavians. A 
saga is a book of instruction, generally, 
but not always, in the form of a tale, like 
a Welsh " mabinogi." , In the Edda there 
are numerous sagas. As our Bible con- 
tains the history of the Jews, religious 
songs, moral proverbs, and religious 
stories, so the Edda contained the history 
of Norway, religious songs, a book of 
proverbs, and numerous stories. The orig- 
inal Edda was compiled and edited by 
Ssemund Sigfusson, an Icelandic priest 
and scald, in the eleventh century. It 
contains twenty-eight parts or books, all 
of which are in verse. 

Two hundred years later, Snorro. Stur- 
leson, of Iceland, abridged, re-arranged, 
and reduced to prose the Edda, giving the 
various parts a kind of dramatic form, 





like the dialogues of Plato. It then be- 
came needful to distinguish these two 
works ; so the old poetical compilation is 
the Elder ov Rythmical Edcla, and some- 
times the Sceiiinnd Edda, while the more 
modern work is called the Younger or Prose 
Edda, and sometimes the Snorro Edda. 
The Yowificr Edda is, however, partly 
original. Pt. i. is the old Edda reduced to 
prose, but pt. ii. is Sturleson's own collec- 
tion. This part contains " The Discourse 
of Bragi" (the scald of the gods) on the 
origin of poetry ; and here, too, we find 
the famous story called by the Germans 
the N'lbelungen Lied. 

Sagas. Besides the sagas contained in 
the Eddas, there are numerous others. 
Indeed, the whole saga literature extends 
over 200 volumes. 

I. The Edda Sagas. The Edda is di- 
vided into two parts and twenty-eight lays 
or poetical sagas. The first part relates 
to the gods and heroes of Scandinavia, 
creation, and the early history of Norway. 
The Scandinavian "Books of Genesis" 
are the " Voluspa Saga," or " prophecy of 
Vola " (about 230 verses), " Vafthrudner's 
Saga," and " Grimner's Saga." These 
three resemble the Sibylline books of an- 
cient Eome, and give a description o:^ 
chaos, the formation of the world, the cre- 
ation of all animals (including dwarfs, 
giants and fairies), the general conflagra- 
tion, and the renewal of the world, when, 
like the new Jerusalem, it will appear all 
glorious, and there shall in no wise enter 
therein " anything that defileth, neither 
whatsoever worketh abomination, or mak- 
eth a lie." 

The " Book of Proverbs " in the Edda 
is called the " Havamal Saga," and some- 
times "The High Song of Odin." 

The " Volsunga Saga " is a collection of 
lays about the early Teutonic heroes. 

The " Saga of St. Olaf " is the history of 
this Norwegian king. He was a savage 
tyrant, hated by his subjects, but because 
he aided the priests in forcing Christianity 
on his subjects, he was canonized. 

The other sagas in the Edda are " The 
Song of Lodbrok " or " Lodbrog," " Her- 
vara Saga," the "Vilkina Saga," the 
"Blomsturvalla Saga," the "Ynglinga 
Saga " (all relating to Norway), the " Joms- 
vikingia Saga," and the"Knytlinga Saga" 
(which pertain to Denmark), the " Sturl- 
unga Saga," and the " Eryrbiggia Saga " 
(which pertain to Iceland). All the above 
were compiled and edited by Ssemund 
Sigfusson, and are in verse ; but Snorro 
Sturleson reduced them to prose in his 
prose version of the old Edda. 

II. Sagas not in the Edda. Snorro 
Sturleson, at the close of the twelfth cen- 
tury, made the second great collection of 
chronicles in verse, called the Heimskringla 
Saga, or the book of the kings of Nor- 
way, from the remotest period to the year 
1177. This is a most valuable record of 
the laws, customs, and manners of the 
ancient Scandinavians. Samuel Laing 
published his English translation of it in 

1. The Icelandic Sagas. Besides the two 
Icelandic sagas collected by Ssemund Sig- 
fusson, numerous others were subsequent- 
ly embodied in the Landama Bok, set on 
foot by Ari hinn Fronde, and continued 
by various hands. 

2. Frithjofs Saga contains the life and 
and adventures of Frithjof, of Iceland, who 
fell in love with Ingeborg, the beautiful 
wife of Hring, king of Norway. On the 
death of Hring, the young widow marries 
her Icelandic lover. Frithjof lived in the 
eighth century, and this saga was com- 
piled at the beginning of the fourteenth 
century, a year or two after the Heims- 
kringla. It is very interesting, because 




Tegner, the Swedisli poet, has selected it 
for his Idylls (1825), just as Tennyson has 
taken his idyllic stories from the Morte 
d^ Arthur or the Welsh Mahinogion. Teg- 
ner's Idylls were translated into English by 
Latham (1838), by Stephens (1841), and by 
Blackley (1857). 

3. The Swedish Saga, or lay of Swedish 
''history," is the Ingvars Saga. 

4. The Busslaa Saga, or lay of Russian 
legendary history, is the Egmunds Saga. 

5. The Folks-Sagas are stories of ro- 
mance. From this ancient collection we 
have derived our nursery tales of Jack 
and the Bean-Stalk, Jack the Giant-Killer, 
the Giant who smelt the Blood of an Eng- 
lishman, Blue Beard, Cinderella, the Little 
Old Woman cut Shorter, the Pig that 
wouldnH go over the Bridge, Puss in. Boots, 
and even the first sketches of Whittington 
and His Cat, and Baron Iluncliausen. (See 
Dasent, Tales from, the Norse, 1859.) 

6. Sagas of Foreign origin. Besides the 
rich stores of original tales, several foreign 
ones have been imported and translated 
into Norse, such as Barlaham and Josa- 
phat, by Rudolph of Ems, one of the Ger- 
man minnesingers. On the other hand, 
the minnesingers borrowed from the 
Norse sagas their famous story em- 
bodied in the Nibelungen Lied, called the 
" German Eiad," which is from the second 
part of Snorro Sturleson's Edda. 

Sagaman, a narrator of sagas. These 
ancient chroniclers differed from scalds in 
several respects. Scalds were minstrels, 
who celebrated in verse the exploits of 
living kings or national heroes ; sagamen 
were tellers of legendary storied, either in 
prose or verse, like Scheherazade, the nar- 
rator of the Arabian Nights, the mandarin, 
Fum-Hoam, the teller of the Chinese Tales, 
Moradbak, the teller of the Oriental Tales, 
Feramorz, who told the tales to Lalla 

Rookh, and so on. Again, scalds resided 
at court, were attached to the royal suite, 
and followed the king in all his expedi- 
tions; but sagamen were free and unat- 
tached, and told their tales to prince or 
peasant, in lordly hall or at village wake. 

Sage of Concord (The), Ralph Waldo 
Emerson, author of Literary Ethics (1838), 
Poems (1846), Representative Men (1850), 
English Traits (1856), and numerous other 
works (1803-1882). 

In Mr., Emerson we have a poet and a pro- 
foundly religious man, who is really and en- 
tirely undaunted by the discoveries of science, 
past, present or prospective. In his case, poetry, 
with the joy of a Bacchanal, takes her graver 
brother, science, by the hand, and cheers him 
with immortal laughter. By Emerson scientific 
conceptions are continually transmuted into the 
finer forms and warmer lines of an ideal world. 
— Professor TyndaH, Fragments of Science.^ 

Sage of Monticello {The), Thomas 
Jefferson, the third President of the United 
States, whose country seat was at Monti- 

As from the grave where Henry sleeps, 
From Vernon's weeping wUlow, 

And from the grassy pall which hides 
The Sage of Monticello . . . 

Virginia, o'er thy land of slaves 
A warning voice is swelling. 

Whittier, Voices of Freedom (1836). 

Sage of Samos (The), Pythagoras, a 
native of Samos (b.c. 584-506). 

Sages {The Seven). (See Seven Wise 
Men of Greece.) 

Sag'ittary, a monster, half man and 
half beast, described as " a terrible archer, 
who neighs like a horse, and with eyes of 
fire which strike men dead like lightning." 
Any deadly shot is a sagittary. — Guido 
delle Colonna (thirteenth century), Historia 





Troyana Prosayce Composita (translated 

by Lydgate). 

The dreadful Sagittary, 
Appals our numbers. 
Shakespeare, Troilus and Gressida (1602). 

(See also Othello, act i. sc. 1, 3. The 
barrack is so called from tbe figure of an 
arcber over tbe door.) 

Sagramour le De'sirus, a knight of 
the Bound Table. — See Launcelot clu Lac 
and Ilorte cP Arthur. 

Sailor King- {The), William IV. of 
Great Britain (1765, 1830-1887). 

Saint {The), Kang-he, of China, who 
assumed the name of Chin-tsou-jin (1653, 

St. Alclobrand, the noble husband of 
Lady Imogine, murdered by Count Ber- 
tram, her quondam lover. — C. Maturin, 
Bertram (1816). 

St. Alme {Captain), son of Darlemont, a 
merchant, guardian of Julio, count of 
Harancour. He pays his addresses to 
Marianne Franval, to whom he is ulti- 
mately married. Captain St. Alme is 
generous, high-spirited, and noble-minded. 
— Thomas Holcroft, The Beaf and Dumb 

St. Andre, a fashionable dancing-mas- 
ter in the reign of Charles II. 

St. Andre's feet ne'er kept more equal time. 

Dryden, MacFlecJcnoe (1682). 

St. Asapli {The dean of), in the court of 
Queen Elizabeth.— Sir W. Scott, Kenil- 
worth (1821). 

St. Basil Outwits the Devil. (See 
SiNNEB Saved.) 

St. Botolph {The Prior of). 
Scott, Ivanhoe (time, Eichard I.). 

Sir W. 

St. Cecili, Cecily, or Cecile (2 syl), the 
daughter of noble Eoman parents, and a 
Christian. She married Valirian. One 
day, she told her husband she had "an 
aungel . . . that with gret love, wher so 1 
wake or slepe, is redy ay my body for to 
kepe." Valirian requested to see this an- 
gel, and Cecile told him he must first go 
to St. Urban, and, being purged by him 
" fro synne, than [then] schul ye see that 
aungel." Valirian was accordingly " crist- 
ened " by St. Urban, returned home, and 
found the angel with two crowns, brought 
direct from paradise. One he gave to 
Cecile and one to Valirian, saying |liat 
" bothe wjth the palme of martirdom schul- 
len come unto God's blisful feste." Valiri- 
an suffered martydom first ; then Alma- 
chius, the Eoman prefect, commanded his 
officers to " brenne Cecile in a bath of 
flammes red." She remained in the bath 
all day and night, yet, " sat she cold, and 
felte of it no woe." Then smote they her 
three strokes upon the neck, but could not 
smite her head off. She lingered on for 
three whole days, preaching and teaching, 
and then died. St. Urban buried her 
body privately by night, and the house he 
converted into a church, which he called 
the church of Cecily. — Chaucer, Canter- 
hury Tales ("The Second Nun's Tale," 

St. Christopher, a native of Lycia, 
very tall, and fearful to look at. He was 
so proud of his strength that he resolved 
to serve only the mightiest, and went in 
search of a worthy master. He first en- 
tered the service of the - emperor ; but one 
day, seeing his master cross himself for 
fear of the devil, he quitted his service for 
that of Satan. This new master he found 




was thrown into alarm at the sight of a 
cross ; so he quitted hinx also, and went in 
search of the Saviour. One day, near a 
ferry, a little child accosted him, and 
begged the giant to carry him across the 
water. Christopher put the child on his 
back, but found every step he took the 
child grew heavier and heavier, till the 
burden was more than he could bear. As 
he sank beneath his load, the child told the 
giant he was Christ, and Christopher re- 
solved to serve Christ and Him alone. He 
died three days afterwards, and was canon- 
ized. The Greek and Latin churches look 
on him as the protecting saint against 
floods, fire, and earthquake. — James de 
Voragine, Golden Legends, 100 (thirteenth 

*** His body is said to be at Valencia, in 
Spain ; one of his arms at Compostella ; a 
jaw-bone at Astorga; a shoulder at St. 
Peter's, in Rome ; and a tooth and rib at 
Venice. His day is May 9 in the Greek 
Church, and July 25 in the Latin. Of 
course, " the Christ-bearer " is an allegory. 
The gigantic bones called his relies may 
serve for " matters of faith " to give reality 
to the fable. 

(His name before conversion was Of- 
ferus, but after he carried Christ across 
the ford, it was called Christ-Offerus, short- 
ened into Christopher, which means " the 

St. Clare (Augustin), the kind, indul- 
gent master of Uncle Tom. He was be- 
loved by all his slaves. 

Evangeline St. Clare, daughter of Mr. 
St. Clare. EvangeUne was the good angel 
of the family, and was adored by Uncle 

Miss Ophelia St. Cla/re, sister of Augus- 
tin. — Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle 
TonCs Cabin (1852). 

St. Distaff, an imaginary saint to whom 
January 7, or Twelfth Day is consecrated. 

Partly worke and partly play 
You must on St. Distaff's Day ; 
Give St. Distaff all the right, 
Then give Christmas sport good night. 
Wit Asporting in a 'Pleasant Grove of New 
Fancies (1657). 

St. Filume'na or Filomena, a new 
saint of the Latin Church. Sabateli has 
a picture of this nineteenth-century saint, 
representing her as hovering over a group 
of sick and maimed, who are healed by 
her intercession. In 1802 a grave was 
found in the cemetery of St. Priscilla, and 
near it three tiles, with these words in 
red letters. 




A re-arrangement of the tiles made the 
inscription. Pax Te-cum, Fi-lumena. That 
this was the correct rendering is quite 
certain, for the virgin martyr herself told 
a priest and a nun in a dream, that she 
was Fi [lia] Lumina, the daughter Lumina, 
i.e. the daughter of the Light of the world. 
In confirmation of this dream, as her bones 
were carried to Mugnano, the saint re- 
paired her own skeleton, made her hair 
grow, and performed so many miracles, 
that those must indeed be hard of belief 
who can doubt the truth of the story, 

St. George is the national saint of Eng- 
land, in consequence of the miraculous 
assistance rendered by him, to the arms 
of the Christians under Godfrey de Bouil- 
lon during the first crusade. 

St. George^s Sword, Askelon. 

George he shaved the dragon's beard, 
And Askelon was his razor. 

Percy's Beliques, III. iii. 15. 

St. George {Le chevalier de), James Fran- 





cis Edward Stuart, eaUed"The Old (or 
elder) Pretender » (1688-1766). 

St. Graal. (See Sangkaai,.) 

St. Leon, tte liero of a novel of the 
same name, by W. Goodwin (1799). St. 
Leon becomes possessed of the " elixir of 
life," and of the " philosopher's stone ; " 
but this knowledge, instead of bringing 
him wealth and happiness, is the source 
of misery and endless misfortunes. 

Saint Maiir, one of the attendants of 
Sir Eeginald Front de Boeuf (a follower of 
Prince John). — Sir "W. Scott, Ivanhoe 
(time, Richard I.). 

St. Nicholas, the patron saint of boys. 
He is said to have been bishop of Myra, in 
Lycia, and his death is placed in the year 

Under his triple names of St. Nicholas, 
Santa Glaus and Kriss Kringle, he fills 
good children's stockings on Christmas 
Eve. Clement C. Moore has made the 
annual visit of this saint " in a miniature 
sleigh dra,wn by eight tiny reindeer," the 
subject of his famous nursery poem be- 
ginning : 

"'Twas the night before Christmas, and all 

through the house, 
Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse." 


St. Prieux, the amant of Julie, in 
Eousseau's novel entitled Julie ou La 
Nouvelle Heloise (1760). 

St. Ronan's Well, a novel by Sir W. 
Scott (1823). An inferior work; but it 
contains the character of Meg Dods, of 
the Clachan or Mowbray Arms inn, one of 
the very best low comic characters in the 
whole range of fiction. 

St. Stephen's Chapel, properly the 
House of Commons, but sometimes ap- 
plied to the two Houses of Parliament. So 
called by a figure of speech from St. Ste 
phen's Chapel, built by King Stephen, re- 
built by Edward II. and III., and finally 
destroyed by iire in 1834. St. Stepheri's 
Chapel was fitted up for the use of the 
House of Commons in the reign of Edward 
IV. The great council of the nation met 
before in the chapel -house of the abbey. 

St. Swithin, tutor of King Alfred, 
and bishop of Winchester. The monks 
wished to bury him in the chancel of the 
minster ; but the bishop had directed that 
his body should be interred under the 
open vault of heaven. Finding the monks 
resolved to disobey his injunction, he sent 
a heavy rain on July 15, the day assigned 
to the funeral ceremony, in consequence 
of which it was deferred from day to day 
for forty days. The monks then be- 
thought them of the saint's injunction, 
and' prepared to inter the body in the 
churchyard. St. Swithin smiled his ap- 
probation by sending a beautiful sunshiny 
day, in which all the robes of the heirarchy 
might be displayed without the least fear 
of being injured by untimely and unto- 
ward showers. 

Saints {Island of), Ireland. 

Saints [Boyal). 

David of Scotland (*, 1124-1153). 

Edward the Confessor (1004, 1042- 

Edward the Martyr (961, 975-979). 

Eric IX. of Sweden (*, 1155-1161). 

Ethelred I., king of Wessex (*, 866-871). 

Eugenius I., pope (*, 654-657). 

Felix I., pope (*, 269-274). 

Ferdinand III. of Castile and Leon 
(1200, 1217-1252). 




Jtdius I., pope (*, 337-352). 

Kang-he, second of the Manchoo dy- 
nasty of China (*, 1661-1722). 

Lawrence Justiniani, patriarch of Venice 
(1380, 1451-1465). 

Leo IX., pope (1002, 1049-1054). 

Louis IX. of France (1215, 1226-1270). 

Olaus II. of Norway (992, 1000-1030). 

Stephen I. of Hungary (979, 997-1038). 

Saints for Diseases. These saints 
either ward off iUs or help to relieve them, 
and should be invoked by those who 
trust their power : — 

Ague. St. Pernel cures. 

Bad Dreams. St. Christopher protects from. 

Blear Eyes. St. Otilic cures. 

Blindness. St. Thomas a Becket cures. 

Boils and Blains. St. Rooke cures. 

Chastity. St. Susan protects. 

Children's Diseases (All). St Blaise heals ; 
and all cattle diseases. The bread consecrated 
on his day (February 3) and called " the Bene- 
diction of St. Blaise," should have been tried 
in the recent cattle plague. 

Cholera. Oola Beebee is invoked by the 
Hindus in this malady. 

Colic. St. Erasmus relieves. 

Dancing Mania. St. Vitus cures. 

Defilement. St. Susan preserves from. 

Discovery op Lost Goods. St. Ethelbert 
and St Elian. 

Doubts. St. Catherine resolves. 

Dying. St. Barbara reUeves. 

Epilepsy. St. Valentine cures. 

Fire. St. Agatha protects from it, but St. 
Florian should be invoked if it has already 
broken out. 

Flood, Fire, and Earthquake. St. Chris 
topher saves from. 

Gout. St. Wolfgang, they say, is of more 
service than Blair's piUs. 

Gripes. St. Erasmus cures. 

Idiocy. St. Gildas is the guardian angel of 

Infamy. St. Susan protects from. 

Infection. St. Roque protects from. 

Leprosy. St. Lazarus, the beggar. 

Madness. St. Dymphna cures. 

Mice and Rats. St. Gertrude and St. Hul- 
drick wai'd them off. 

Night Alarms. St. Christopher protects from. 

Plague. St. Roch, they say, in this case is 
better than the " good bishop of Marseilles." 

QuBNCHmG Fire. St. Florian and St. Chris- 
topher should not be forgotten by fire-insurance 

Quinsy. St. Blaise will cure it sooner than 
tartarized antimony. 

Riches. St. Anne and St. Vincent help those 
who seek it. Gold-diggers should ask them for 

Scabs. St. Rooke cures. 

Small-pox. St. Martin of Tours may be 
tried by those objecting to vaccination. In Hin- 
dustan, Seetla wards it off. 

Sudden Death. St. Martin saves from. 

Temperance. Father Mathew is called " The 
Apostle of Temperance" (1790-1856). 

Tooth- Ache. St. AppoUine cures better than 

Vermin-Destroyers. St. Gertude and St. 

Wealth-Bestower. St. Anne, recommended 
to the sultan. 

Saints of Places. The following are 
the patron saints of the cities, nations, or 
places set down : — 

Aberdeen, St. Nicholas (died 342). His day 
is December 6. 

Abyssinia, St. Frumentius (died 360). His 
day is October 27. 

Alexandria, St. Mark, who founded the 
chm-ch there (died a.d. 52). His day is April 

Alps (The), Felix Neff (1798-1829). 

Antioch, St. Margaret (died 275). Her day 
is July 20. 

Ardennes ( The), St. Hubert (656-730). He is 
called "The Apostles of the Ardennes." His 
days are May 30 and November 3d. 

Armenia, St. Gregory of Armenia (256-331). 
His day is September 30. 

Bath, St. David, from whose benediction the 
waters of Bath received their warmth and 
medicinal qualities (480-544). His day is March 

Beauvais, St. Lucian (died 290), called 
" The Apostle of Beauvais." His day is Jan- 
uary 8. 

Belgium, St. Boniface (680-755). His day is 
on June 5. 

Bohemia, St. Wenceslaus. 





Brussels, the Virgin Mary ; St. Gudule, who 
died 712. St. Gudule's day is January 8. 

Cagt.tari (in Sardinia), St. Bfisio or St. Ephe- 

Cappadocia, St. Matthias (died a.d. 62). His 
day is February 24. 

Cabthage, St. Perpetua (died 203). Her day 
is March 7. 

Cologne, St. Ursula (died 452). Her day is 
October 21. 

Corfu, St. Spiridion (fourth century). His 
day is December 14. 

Cremona, St. Margaret (died 275). Her day 
is July 20. 

Denmark, St. Anscharius (801-864), whose 
day is February 3 ; and St. Canute (died 1086), 
whose day is January 19. 

Edinburgh, St. Giles (died 550). His day is 
September 1. 

England, St. George (died 290). St. Bede 
calls Gregory the Great " The Apostle of Eur 
gland," but St. Augustin was " The Apostle of 
the Enghsh People" (died 607). St. George's 
day is April 23. 

Ethiopm., St. Frumentius (died 360). His 
day is October 27. 

Flanders, St. Peter (died 66). His day is 
June 29. 

Florence, St. John the Baptist (died a.d. 32). 
His days are June 24 and August 29. 

Forests, St.* Sylvester, because silva, in Latin, 
means " a wood." His day is June 20. 

Forts, St. Barbara (died 335). Her day is 
December 4. 

France, St. Denys (died 272). His day is 
October 9. St. Remi is called " The Great Apos- 
tle of the French" (439-535). His day is Octo- 
ber 1. 

Franconu., St. KOian (died 689). His day is 

Friseland, St. WUbrod or Wilhbrod (657- 
738), caUed " The Apostle of the Frisians." His 
day is November 7. 

Gaul, St. Irenseus (130-200), whose day is 
June 28 ; and St. Martin (316-397), whose day is 
November 12 ; St. Denys is called " The Apostle 
of the Gauls." 

Genoa, St. George of Cappadocia. His day is 
April 23. 

Gentiles. St. Paul was " The Apostle of the 
GentUes" (died A.D. 66). His days are January 
25 and June 29. 

Georgia, St. Nino, whose day is September 16. 

Germany, St. Boniface, " Apostles of the Ger- 
mans" (680-755), whose day is June 5 ; and St. 
Mai-tin (316-397), whose day is November 11. 

(St. Boniface was oaUed Winf red till Gregory 11. 
changed the name.) 

Glasgow, St. Mungo, also called Kentigem 

Groves, St. Sylvester, because siUa, in Latin, 
means " a wood." His day is June 20. 

Highlanders, St. Columb (521-597). His 
day is June 9. 

Hills, St. Barbara (died 335). Her day is De- 
cember 4. 

Holland, the Virgin Mary. Her days are : 
her Nativity, November 21 ; Visitation, July 2 ; 
Conception, December 8 ; Purification, February 
2 ; Assumption, August 15. 

Hungary, St. Louis; Mary of Aquisgrana 
(Aix-la-Chapelle) ; and St. Anastatius (died 628), 
whose day is January 22. 

Int)ia, St. Bartolome delas Casas (1474-1566) : 
the Rev. J. Ehot (1603-1690) ; and Francis Xav- 
ier (1506-1552), caUed "The Apostle of the 
Indians," whose day is December 4. 

Ireland, St. Patrick (372-493). His day is 
March 17. (Some give his birth 387, and some 
his death 495). 

Italy, St. Anthony (251-356). His day is 
Januarj' 17. 

Lapland, St. Nicholas (died 342). His day is 
December 6. 

Lichfield, St. Chad, who lived there (died 
672). His day is March 2. 

Liege, St. Albert (died 1195). His day is 
November 21. 

Lisbon, St. Vincent (died 304). His trans- 
lation to Lisbon is kept September 15. 

London, St. Paul, whose day is January 25 ; 
and St. Michael, whose day is September 29. 

Moscow, St. Nicholas (died 342). His day is 
December 6. 

Mountains, St. Barbara (died 335). Her day 
is December 4. 

Naples, St. Januarius (died 291), whose day 
is September 19; and St. Thomas Aquinas 
(1227-1274), whose days are March 7 and July 

Netherlands, St. Armand (589-679). 

North {The), St. Ansgar (801-864), and Ber- 
nard GUpin (1517-1583). 

Norway, St. Anscharius, called " The Apostle 
of the North" (801-864), whose day is February 
3 ; and St. Olaus (992, 1000-1030). 

Oxford, St. Frideswide. 

Padua, St. Justina, whose day is October 7 ; 
and St. Anthony (1195-1231), whose day is 
June 13. 

Paris, St. Genevieve (419-512). Her day is 
January 3. 



Peak {The), Derbyshire, W. Bagshaw (1628- 

PiCTS (The), St. Ninian (fourth century), whose 
day is September 16 ; and St. Columb (521-597), 
whose day is June 9. 

Pisa, San Ranieri. 

Poitiers, St. Hilary (300-367). His day is 
January 14. 

Poland, St. Hedviga (1174-1243), whose day 
is October 15 ; and St. Stanislaus (died 1078), 
whose day is May 7. 

Portugal, St. Sebastian (250-288). His day 
is January 20. 

Prussia, St. Andrew, whose day is November 
30 ; and St. Albert (died 1195), whose day is 
November 21. 

Rochester, St. Paulinus (353-431). His day 
is June 22. 

RoiviE, St. Peter and St. Paul. Both died on 
the same day of the month, June 29. The old 
tutelar deity was Mars. 

Russia, St. Nicholas, St. Andrew, St. George, 
and the Virgin Mary. 

Saragossa, St. Vincent, where he was born 
(died 304). His day is January 22. 

Sardinia, Mary the Virgin. Her days are: 
Nativity, November 21 ; Visitation, July 2 ; Con- 
ception, December 8 ; Purification, February 2 ; 
Assumptimi, Avigas,t\a. 

Scotland, St. Andrew, because his remains 
were brought by Regulus into Pifeshire in^ 368. 
His day is November 30. 

Sebastia (in Armenia), St. Blaise (died 316). 
His day is February 3. 

Sicily, St. Agatha, where she was born (died 
251. Her day is February 5. The old tutelar 
deity was CerSs. 

Silesia, St. Hedviga, also called Avoye (1174- 
1243). His day is October 15. 

Slaves or Slavi, St. Cyril, called "The 
Apostle of the Slavi" (died 868). His day is 
February 14. 

Spain, St. James the Greater (died a.d. 44). 
His day is July 24. 

Sweden, St. Anscharius, St. John, and St. Eric 
IX. (reigned 1155-1161). 

Switzerland, St. GaU (died 646). His day is 
October 16. 

Valleys, St. Agatha (died 251). Her day is 
February 5. 

Venice, St. Mark, who was buried there. His 
day is April 25. St. Pantaleon, whose day is 
July 27; and St. Lawrence Justiniani (1380- 

Vienna, St. Stephen (died a.d. 34). His day 
is December 26. ' 

Vineyards, St. Urban (died 230). His day is 
May 25. 

Wales, St. David, uncle of King Arthur (died 
544). His day is March 1. 

Woods, St. Silvester, becaiise silva, in Latin, 
means " a wood." His day is June 20. 

Yorkshire, St. Paulinus (353-431). His day 
is June 22. 

Saints for Special Classes of Per- 
sons, such as tradesmen, children, wives, 
idiots, students, etc. : — 

Archers, St. Sebastian, because he was shot 
by them. 

Armorers, St. George of Cappadocia. 

Artists and the Arts, St. Agatha; but St 
Luke is the patron of painters, being himself one 

Bakers, St. Winifred, who followed the trade 

Barbers, St. Louis. 

Barren Women. St. Margaret befriends 

Beggars, St. Giles. Hence the outskirts of 
cities are often called " St. Giles." 

Bishops, etc., St. Timothy and St. Titus (1 
Tim. iii. 1 ; Titus i. 7). 

Blind Folk, St. Thomas h Becket, and St. 
Lucy, who was deprived of her eyes by Pascha- 

Booksellers, St. John Port Latin. 

Brides, St. Nicholas, because he threw three 
stockings, filled with wedding portions, into the 
chamber window of three virgins, that they 
might mai-ry their sweethearts, and not live a 
life of sin for the sake of earning a living. 

Burglars, St. Dismas, the penitent thief . 

Candle and Lamp Makers, St. Lucy and Lu- 
cian. A pun upon lux lucis ("hght"). 

Cannoneers, St. Barbara, because she is gen- 
erally represented in a fort or tower. 

Captives, St. Barbara and St. Leonard. 

Carpenters, St. Joseph, who was a carpenter. 

Children, St. Fehcitas and St. Nicholas. This 
latter saint restored to hfe some children, mur- 
dered by an inkeeper, of Myra, and pickled in a 
pork- tub. 

Cobblers, St. Crispin, who worked at the 

Cripples, St. Giles, because he refused to be 
cured of an accidental lameness, that he might 
mortify his flesh. 

Divines, St. Thomas Aquinas, author of Somme 
de Theology. 

Doctors, St. Cosme, who was a surgeon in 



Drunkards. St. Martin, because St. Martin's 
Day (November 11) happened to be the day of 
the Vinalia, or feast of Bacchus. St. Urban 

Dytng, St. Barbara. 

Ferrymen, St. Christopher, who was a ferry- 

Fishermen, St. Peter, who was a fisherman. 

Fools, St. Maturin because the Greek word 
matia or jnatS means " folly." 

Free Trade. R. Cobden is called " The Apos- 
tle of Free Trade "(1804-1865). 

Freemen, St. John. 

Fullers, St. Sever, because the place so caUed, 
on the Adorn', is or was famous for its tanneries 
and fulleries. 

Goldsmiths, St. Eloy, who was a goldsmith. 

Hatters, St. WiUiam, the son of a hatter. 

Hog and Swineherds, St. Anthony. Pigs 
unfit for food used anciently to have their ears 
slit, but one of the proctors of St. Anthony's 
Hospital once tied a bell about the neck of a pig 
whose ear was slit, and no one ever attempted to 
iajure it. 

Housewives, St. Osyth, especially to prevent 
their losing the keys, and to help them in find- 
ing these "tiny tormentors;" St. Martha, the 
sister, of Lazarus. 

Huntsmen, St. Hubert, who Hved in the Ar- 
dennes, a famous hunting forest ; and St. Eus- 

Idiots. St. GUdas restores them to their right 

Infants, St. Feheitas and St. Nicholas. 

Infidels. Voltaire is called " The Apostle of 
Infidels" (1694-1778). 

Insane Folks, St. Dymphna. 

Lawyers, St. Yves Helori (in Sicily), who was 
caUed " The Advocate of the Poor," because he 
was always ready to defend them in the law 
courts gratuitously (1233-1303). 

Learned Men, St. Catherine, noted for her 
learning, and for converting certain philoso- 
phers, sent to convince the Christians of Alex- 
andria of the foUy of the Christian faith. 

Madmen, St, Dymphna. 

Maidens, the Virgin Mary. 

Maresters, St. Christopher, who was a ferry- 
man ; and St. Nicholas, who was once in danger 
of shipwreck, and who, on one occasion, lulled a 
tempest for some pilgrims on their way to the 
Holy Land. 

Millers, St. Arnold, the son of a miller. 

Mergers, St. Florian, the son of a mercer. 

Mothers, the Virgin Mary; St. Margaret, 
for those who wish to be so. The girdle of St. 

Margaret, in St. Germain's, is placed round the 
waist of those who wish to be mothers. 

Musicians, St. Cecilia, who was an excellent 

Nailers, St. Cloud, because clou, in French 
means " a nail." 

Netmakers, St. James and St. John {Matt. iv. 

Nurses, St. Agatha. 

Painters, St. Luke, who was a painter. 

Parish Clerks, St. Nicholas. 

Parsons, St. Thomas Aquinas, doctor of the- 
ology, at Paris. 

Physicians, St. Cosme, who was a surgeon ; 
St. Luke (Col iv. 14). 

Pilgrims, St. Julian, St. Raphael, St. James of 

PmMAKERS, St. Sebastian, whose body was as 
full of arrows in his martydom as a pincushion 
is of pins. 

Poor Folks, St. Giles, who affected indigence, 
thinking " poverty and suffering " a service ac- 
ceptable to God. 

Portrait-painters and Photographers, St. 
Veronica, who had a handkerchief with the face 
of Jesus stamped on it. 

Potters, St. Gore, who was a potter. 

Prisoners, St. Sebastian and St. Leonard. 

Sares, St. Cosme, St. Damian, and St. Kath- 

Sailors, St. Nicholas and St. Christopher. 

Scholars, St. Katherine. (See "Learned 

School Children, St. Nicholas and St. Greg- 

Scotch Reformers. Knox is " The Apostle of 
the Scotch Reformers" (1505-72). 

Seaman, St. Nicholas, who once was in danger 
of shipwreck ; and St. Christopher, who was a 

Shepherds and their Flocks, St. Windeline, 
who kept sheep, like David. 

Shoemakers, St. Crispin, who made shoes. 

Silversmiths, St. Eloy, who worked in gold 
and silver. 

Slaves, St. Cyril. This is a pun ; he was 
" The Apostle of the Slavi." 

Soothsayers, ete., St. Agabus (Acts xxi. 10). 

Sportsmen, St. Hubert. (See " Huntsmen.") 

Statuaries, St. Veronica. (See above, " Por- 

Stonemasons, St. Peter, (John i. 42). 

Students, St. Katherine, noted for her great 

Surgeons, St. Cosme, who practised medicino 
in CHicia gratuitously (died 310). 



Sweethearts, St. Valentine, because in the 
Middle Ages ladies held their " courts of love " 
about this time. (See Valentine.) 

Swineherds and Swestb, St. Anthony. 

Tailors, St. Goodman, who was a tailor. 

Tanners, St. Clement, the son of a tanner. 

Tax-Collectors, St. Matthew, {Matt. ix. 9). 

Tentmakers, St. Paul and St. Aquila, who 
were tentmakers (Acts xviii. 3). 

Thieves, St. Dismas, the penitent thief. St. 
Ethelbert and St. Ehan ward off thieves. 

Travellers, St. Raphael, because he assumed 
the guise of a traveller in order to guide Tobias 
from Nineveh to Rages {ToUt v.). 

Vintners and VmEYAEDS, St. Urban. 

Virgins, St. Winifi-ed and St. Nicholas. 

Wheelwrights, St. Boniface, the son of a 

WiGMAKERS, St. Louis. 

Wise Men, St. Cosme, St. Damian, and St. 

Woolcombers and Staplers, St. Blaise, who 
was torn to pieces by "combes of yren." 

Sakhar, the devil who stole Solomon's 
signet. The tale is that Solomon, when 
he washed, entrusted his signet-ring to 
his favorite concubine, Amina. Sakhar 
one day assumed the appearance of Solo- 
mon, got possession of the ring, and sat 
on the throne as the king. During this 
usurpation, Solomon became a beggar, but 
in forty days Sakhar flew away, and flung 
the signet-ring into the sea. It was swal- 
lowed by a fish, the fish was caught and 
sold to Solomon, the ring was recov- 
ered, and Sakhar was thrown into the sea 
of Galilee with a great stone round his 
neck. — Jallalo'ddin,.^^ Zamakh. (SeeFiss 
AND THE Ring.) 

SaTkia, the dispenser of rain, one of the 
four gods of the Adites (2 syl). 

Sakia, we invoked for rain ; 
We called on Razeka for food ; 
They did not hear our prayers — they could not 
No cloud appeared in heaven, 
No nightly dews came down. 
Southey, Thaldba, the Destroyer, i. 24 (1797). 

Sakunta'la, daughter of Viswamita and 
a water-nymph, abandoned by her parents, 
and brought up by a hermit. One day, 
King Dushyanta came to the hermitage, 
and persuaded Sakuntala to marry him. 
In due time a son was born, but Dush- 
yanta left his bride at the hermitage. 
When the boy was six years old, his 
mother took him to the king, and Dush- 
yanta recognized his wife by a ring which 
he had given her. Sakuntala was now 
publicly proclaimed queen, and the boy 
(whose name was Bharata) became the 
founder of the glorious race of the Bha- 

This story forms the plot of the famous 
drama, Sakuntala, by Kalidasa, well known 
to us through the translation of Sir W. 

Sakya-Muni, the founder of Buddhism. 
Sakya is the family name of Siddharta, 
and muni means "a recluse." Buddha 
(" perfection ") is a title given to Siddharta. 

Sal'ace (3 st/l.) or Salacia, wife of Nep- 
tune, a^:id mother of Triton. 

Triton, who boasts his high Neptunian race, 
Sprung from the god by Salaee's embrace. 

Camoens, Lusiad, vi. (1672). 

Sal'adin, the soldan of the East. Sir 
W. Scott introduces him in The Talisman, 
first as Sheerkohf, emir of Kurdistan, and 
subsequently as Adonbeck el Hakim', the 

Salamanca {The Bachelor of), the title 
and hero of a novel by Lesage. The name 
of the bachelor is Don Cherubim, who is 
placed in all sorts of situations suitable to 
the author's vein of satire (1704) 

Sala'nio, a friend to Antonio and Bas- 
sanio. — Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice 





Salari'no, a friend to Antonio and 
Bassanio. — Shakespeare, Merchant of Ven- 
ice (1598). 

Sa'leh. The Thamtdites (3 syl), pro- 
posed that Saleh should, by miracle, prove 
that Jehovah was a God superior to their 
own. Prince Jonda said he would believe 
it if Saleh made a camel, big with young, 
come out of a certain rock which he 
pointed out. Saleh did so, and Jonda was 

(The Thamudites were idolators, and 
Saleh, the prophet, was sent to bring them 
back to the worship of Jehovah.) 

SdleWs Camel. The camel thus miracu- 
lously produced, used to go about the 
town, crying aloud, " Ho ! every one that 
wanteth milk, let him come, and I will 
give it him." — Sale, Al Koran, vii. notes. 
(See Isaiah Iv. 1). 

Saleh, a son of Faras'che (3 syl.) queen 
of a powerful under-sea empire. His sis- 
ter was Grulna're (3 syl.), empress of Persia. 
Saleh asked the king of Samandal, another 
under-sea emperor, to give his daughter, 
Griauha're, in marriage to Prince Beder, son 
of Gulnare; but the proud, passionate 
despot ordered the prince's head to be cut 
off for such presumptuous insolence. How- 
ever, Saleh made his escape, invaded 
Samandal, took the king prisoner, and the 
marriage between Beder and the Princess 
Giauhare was duly celebrated. — Arabian 
Nights (" Beder and Giauhare "). 

Sa'lein, a young seraph, one of the two 
tutelar angels of the Virgin Mary and of 
John the Divine, " for God had given to 
John two tutelar angels, the chief of 
whom was Eaph'ael, one of the most ex- 
alted seraphs of the hierarchy of heaven." 
— Klopstock, The Messiah, iii. (1748). 

Saremal, the preserver in sickness. 

one of the four gods of the Adites (2 
syl). — D'Herbelot, Bibliotheques Orientale 

Salian Franks. So called from the 
Isala or Yssel, in Holland. They were 
a branch of the Sicambri; hence, when 
Clovis was baptized at Eheims, the old 
prelate addressed him as " Sigambrian," 
and said that " he must henceforth set at 
naught what he had hitherto worshipped, 
and worship what he had hitherto set at 

Salisbury {Earl of), William Long- 
sword, natural son of Henry II. and Jane 
Chfford, "The Fair Eosamond."— Shake- 
speare, King John (1596) ; Sir W. Scott, 
The Talisman (time, Eiehard I.). 

Sallust of France {The). Cesar Vich- 
ard (1639-1692) was so called by Voltaire. 

Salmigonclin, or " Salmygondin," a 
lordship of Dipsody, given by Pantag- 
ruel to Panurge (2 syl.). Alcofribas, who 
had resided six months in the giant's 
mouth without his knowing it, was made 
castellan of the castle. — Eabelais, Pantag- 
ruel, ii. 32 ; iii. 2 (1533-45). 

The lordship of Salmygodin was worth 67 
million pounds sterling, per annum, in " certain 
rent," and an annual revenue for locusts and 
periwinkles, varying from £24,357 to 12 millions 
in a good year, when the exports of locusts and 
periwinkles were flourishing. Panurge, how- 
ever, could not make the two ends meet. At 
the close of " less than fourteen days " he had 
forestalled three years' rent and revenue, and 
had to apply to Pantagruel to pay his debts. — 
Pantagruel, iii. 2. 

Salmo'neus (3 syl.), king of Elis, wish- 
ing to be thought a god, used to imitate 
thunder and lightning by driving his char- 
iot over a brazen bridge, and darting burn- 
ing torches on every side. He was killed 
by lightning for his impiety and foUy 




Salmoneus, who while he his carroach drave 

Over the brazen bridge of EUs' stream, 
And did with artificial thunder brave 

Jove, till* he pierced hini with a lightning 
Lord Brooke, Treatise on Monarchie, vi. 

It was to be the literary Salmoneus of the po- 
litical Jupiter. — Lord Lytton. 

Sally in our Alley, subject of popular 
ballad of same name, by Henry Carew 

Sally {red haired), remembered love of 
a poor pioneer, whom the Indians have 
scalped and blinded. As he lies by the 
camp-fire, he bemoans his hard lot and 
wishes he had been left to die. 

" It's twice dead not to see." 

Rose Terry Cooke, Poems (1888). 

Sally (Kittredge), black-eyed, rosy- 
cheeked country girl, Mara Linnotti's 
friend, and finally, the wife of Moses Pen- 
nell. — Harriet Beecher Stowe, The Pearl 
ofOrr's Island (1860). 

Salome and the Baptist. When Sa- 
lome delivered the head of John the Bap- 
tist to her mother, Herodias pulled out 
the tongue and stabbed it with her bod- 

"When the head of Cicero was delivered 
to Marc Antony, his wife, Fulvia, pulled 
out the tongue and stabbed it repeatedly 
with her bodkin. 

Salvage Knight {The), Sir Arthegal, 
called Artegal, from bk. iv. 6. The hero 
of l3k. V. {Justice). — Spenser, Faery Queen 

Salva'tor Kosa {The English) John 
Hamilton Mortimer (1741-1779. 

Salvato're (4 syl.), Salva'tor Rosa, an 

Italian painter, especially noted for his 
scenes of brigands, etc. (1615-1673). 

But, ever and anon, to soothe your vision, 
Fatigued with these hereditaiy glories, 

There rose a Carlo Dolce or a Titian, : 

Or wilder group of savage Salvatore's. 

Byron, Don Juan, xiii. 71 (1824). 

Sam, a gentleman, the friend of Fran- 
cis'co. — Beaumont and Fletcher, Mons. 
Thomas (1619). 

Sam, one of the Know-Nothings, or 
Native American party. One of "Uncle 
Sam's " sons. 

Sam {Dicky), a Liverpool man. 

Sam {Uncle), the United States of 
North America, or rather the goveriiment 
of the states personified. So called from 
Samuel Wilson, uncle of Ebenezer Wilson. 
Ebenezer was inspector of Elbert Ander- 
son's store on the Hudson, and Samuel 
superintended the workmen. The stores 
were marked E'A. U"S. ("Elbert Ander- 
son, United States "), but the workmen in- 
sisted that U'S. stood for Uncle Sam." — 
Mr. Frost. 

Sam Kimper. Reformed convict; 
who sets himself earnestly to work to lead 
a new life, toiling steadily at the shoe- 
maker's bench, and acting his new religion. 
His only creed is to believe simply in the 
Saviour of sinners. " He " (the chaplain) 
"says to me — 'Just believe in Jesus like 
you do in Andrew Jackson and you'll be 
right in the course of time. Believe that 
what He said was true, an' get your mind 
full of what He said, an' keep it fulV " — 
John Habberton, All He Knew (1890). 

Sam Silverquill, one of the prisoners 
at Portanferry. — Sir W. Scott, Gruy Man- 
nering (time, George II.). 





Sam Weller, servant of Mr. Pickwick. 
The impersonation of the shrewdness, 
quaint humor, and best quahties of cock- 
ney low life.— 0. Dickens, The Pickwick 
Papers (1836). 

Sa'mael (3 syl), the prince of demons, 
who, in the guise of a serpant, tempted 
Eve in paradise. (See Samiel.) 

Samarcand Apple, a perfect panacea 
of all diseases. It was bought by Prince 
Ahmed, and was instrumental in restoring 
Nouroun'nihar to perfect health, although 
at the very point of death. 

In fact sir, there is no disease, however pain- 
ful or dangerous, whether fever, pleurisy, plague, 
or any other disorder, but it will instantly cure ; 
and that in the easiest possible way ; it is simply 
to make the sick person smeU of the apple.— 
Arabian Nights, (" Ahmed and Pari-Banou"). 

Sam'benites [Sam' .ie.neet^], persons 
dressed in the samhemto, a yellow coat 
without sleeves, having devils painted on 
it. The sambenito was worn by "heretics" 
on their way to execution. 

And blow us up i' the open streets. 
Disguised in rumps, like sambenites. 

S. Butler, Rudihras, iii. 2 (1678). 

Sambo, any male of the negro race. 

No race has shown such capabilities of adapta- 
tion to varying soil and circumstances as the 
negro. Alike to them the snows of Canada, the 
rocky land of New England or the gorgeous pro- 
fusion of the Southern States. Sambo and^ Cuf- 
fey expand under them all. — Harriet Beecher 

Sam'eri {Al), the proselyte who cast 
the golden calf at the bidding of Aaron- 
After he had made it, he took up some 
dust on which Gabriel's horse had set its 
feet, threw it into the calf's mouth, and 
immediately the calf became animated and 
began to low. Al Beidawi says that Al 

Sameri was not really a proper name, but 
that the real name of the artificer was 
Musa ebn Dhafar. Selden says Al, Sam- 
eri means " keeper," and that Aaron was 
so called, because he was the keeper or 
"guardian of the people." — Selden, DeDiis 
Syris, i. 4 (see Al Koran, ii. notes). 

Sa'mian {The Long-Haired), Pytha- 
goras or Budda Ghooroos, a native of 
Samos (sixth century B.C.). 

Samian He'ra. Hera or Here, wife of 
Zeus, was born at Samos. She was wor- 
shipped in Egypt as well as in Greece. 

Samian Sage {The) Pythagoras, born 
at Samos (sixth century B.C.). 

'Tis enough 
In this late age, adventurous to have touched 
Light on the numbers of the Samian Sage, 


Samias'a, a seraph, in love with Aholi- 
ba'mah, the granddaughter of Cain. When 
the Flood came, the seraph carried off his 
imiamorata to another planet. — Byron, 
Heaven and Earth (1819). 

Sa'miel, the Black Huntsman of the 
Wolf's Glen, who gave to Der Freischiitz 
seven balls, six of which were to hit what- 
ever the marksman aimed at, but the 
seventh was to be at the disposal of Sa- 
miel. (See Samael.) — ^Weber, Ber Frei- 
scMUs (libretto by Kind, 1822). 

Samient, the female ambassador of 
Queen Mercilla to Queen Adicia (wife of 
the soldan). Adicia treated her with great 
contumely, thrust her out of doors, and 
induced two knights to insult her; but 
Sir Artegal, coming up, drove at one of 
the unmannerly knights with such fury 
as to knock him from his horse and break 
his neck. — Spenser, Faery Queen, v. (1596). 




(This refers to the treatment of the dep- 
uties sent by the states of Holland to 
Spain for the redress of grievances. Philip 
("the soldan") detained the deputies as 
prisoners, disregarding the sacred rights 
of their office as ambassadors). 

Sam'ma, the demoniac that John " the 
Beloved," could not exorcise. Jesus, com- 
ing from the Mount of Olives, rebuked 
Satan, who quitted "the possessed," and 
left him in his right mind.— -Klopstock, 
The Messiah, ii. (1748). 

Sammy Craddock, oracle of the Eig- 
gan coal-pits. Crabbed, wrinkled, sarcas- 
tic old fellow, whose self-conceit is im- 
measurable. "The biggest trouble I ha' 
is settlin' i' my moind what the world'U do 
when I turn up my toes to th' daisies, an' 
how the government'U mak' up their 
moinds who shall ha' th' honer o' payin' 
fer th' moniment." — Frances Hodgson Bur- 
nett, That Lass o' Lowrie's (1877). 

Sampson, one of Capulet's servants. — 
Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (1597). 

Sampson, a foolish advocate, kinsman 
of Judge Vertaigne (2 syl.).- — Beaumont 
and Fletcher, The Little French Lawyer 

Sampson (Mrs. Amanda Welsh), well- 
born Bohemian, financial adventurer and 
lobbyist. " She was stiU accustomed to at 
least a fair semblance of respect from the 
men who came to see her ; women, it is to 
be noted, being not often seen within her 
walls."— Arlo Bates, The Philistines (1888). 

Sampson (Dominie), or Abel Sampson, 
tutor to Harry Bertram, son of the laird 
of Elian go wan. One of the best creations 
of romance. His favorite exclamation is 

" Prodigious ! " Dominie Sampson is very 
learned, simple and green. Sir Walter 
describes him as " a poor, modest, humble 
scholar, who had won his way through the 
classics, but faUen to the leeward in the 
voyage of life."— Sir W. Scott, Guy Man- 
nering (time, George II.). 

His appearance puritanical. Ragged black 
clothes, blue worsted stockings, pewter-headed 
,long cane. — Guy Mannering (dramatized), i. 2. 

Sampson (Dr.), eccentric Irish physician ; 
inventor of Chronothermalism. — Charles 
Reade, Very Hard Cash. 

Sampson ( George), a friend of the Wilfer 
family. He adored Bella Wilfer, but mar- 
ried her youngest sister, Lavinia. — 0. 
Dickens, Our Mutual Friend (1864). 

Sampson {Nurse), dry-visaged, soft- 
hearted sick-nurse, whose adage is, " Some- 
body must eat drumsticks," and whose 
practice is based upon the formula. — A. 
D. T. Whitney, Faith Gartney^s Girlhood 

Samson {The British), Thomas Topham 

Samson Agonistes (4 syl.), " Samson, 
the Combatant," a sacred drama by Mil- 
ton, showing Samson blinded and bound, 
but triumphant over his enemies, who sent 
for him to make sport by feats of strength 
on the feast of Dagon. Having amused 
the multitude for a time, he was allowed 
to rest awhile against the " grand stand," 
and, twining his arms round two of the 
supporting pillars, he pulled the whole 
edifice down, and died himself in the gen- 
eral devastation (1632). 

Samson's Crown, an achievement of 
great renown, which costs the life of the 





doer thereof. Samson's greatest exploit 
was pulling down the " grand stand " oc- 
cupied by the chief magnates of Philistia 
at the feast of Dagon. By this deed " he 
slew at his death more than [all] they 
which he slew in his life." — Judges xvi. 30. 

And by self -ruin seek a Samson's crown. 
Lord Brooke, Inquisition upon Fame, etc. 

San Bris {Conte di), father of Valen- 
ti'na. During the Bartholomew slaughter 
his daughter and her husband (Raoul) 
were both shot by a party of musketeers, 
under the count's command. — Meyerbeer, 
Les Huguenots (opera, 1836). 

Sancha, daughter of Grarcias, king of 
Navarre, and wife of Fernan Gonsalez, of 
Castile. Sancha twice saved the life of 
her husband: when he was cast into a 
dungeon by some personal enemies who 
waylaid him, she liberated him by bribing 
the jailer; and when he was incarcerated 
at Leon she effected his escape by chang- 
ing clothes with him. 

The countess of Nithsdale effected the 
escape of her husband from the Tower, in 
1715, by changing clothes with him. 

The Countess de Lavalette, in 1815, lib- 
erated her husband, under sentence of 
death, in the same way ; but the terror she 
suffered so affected her nervous system 
that she lost her senses, and never after- 
wards recovered them. 

San'chez II. of Castile, was killed at 
the battle of Zamo'ra, 1065. 

It was when brave King Sanchez 
Was before Zamora slain. 

Longfellow, The Challenge. 

Sanchi'ca, eldest daughter of Sancho 
and Teresa Panza. — Cervantes, Don Quix- 
ote (1605-15) 

Sancho [Don), a rich old beau, uncle to 
Victoria. "He affects the misdemeanors 
of a youth, hides his baldness with amber 
locks, and complains of toothache, to make 
people believe that his teeth are not falsa 
ones." Don Sancho " loves in the style of 
Roderigo I." — Mrs. Cowley, A Bold Stroke 
for a Husband (1782). 

Sancho Panza, the squire of Don 
Quixote. A short, pot-bellied peasant, 
with plenty of shrewdness and good com- 
mon sense. He rode upon an ass which 
he dearly loved, and was noted for his 

Sancho Panza's Ass, Dapple. 

Sancho Panza's Island- City, Barataria, 
where he was for a time governor. 

Sancho Panza's Wife, Teresa [Cascajo] 
(pt. II. i. 5) ; Maria or Mary [Grutierez] (pt. 
II. iv. 7) ; Dame Juana [Gutierez] (pt. I. i. 
7) ; and Joan (pt. I. iv. 21). — Cervantes, 
Don Quixote (1605-15). 

*#* The model painting of Sancho Panza 
is by Leslie ; it is called " Sancho and the 

Sanchoni'athon or Sanchoniatho. 
Nine books ascribed to this author are 
published at Bremen in 1838. The orig- 
inal was said to have been discovered in 
the convent of St. Maria de Merinhao, by 
Colonel Pereira, a Portuguese ; but it was 
soon ascertained that no such convent ex- 
isted, that there was no colonel of the 
name Pereira in the Portuguese service, 
and that the paper bore the water-mark of 
the Osnabriick paper-mills. (See Impos- 
tors, Literary.) 

Sanct-Cyr (Hugh de), the seneschal of 
King Rene, at Aix. — Sir W. Scott, Anne 
of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.). 

Sancy Diamond {The) weighs 53| 




carats, and belonged to Charles " the Bold" 
of Burgundy. It was bought, in 1495, by 
Emmanuel of Portugal, and was sold, in 
1580, by Don Antonio to the Sieur de 
Sancy, in whose family it remained for a 
century. The sieur deposited it with 
Henri IV. as a security for a loan of money. 
The servant entrusted with it, being at- 
tacked by robbers, swallowed it, and being 
murdered, the diamond was recovered by 
Nicholas de Harlay. "We next hear of it 
in the possession of James II. of England, 
who carried it with him in his flight, in 
1688. Louis XIV. bought it of him for 
£25,000. It was sold in the Eevolution ; 
Napoleon I. rebought it ; in 1825 it was 
sold to Paul Demidoff for £80,000. The 
prince sold it, in 1830, to M. Levrat, admin- 
istrator of the Mining Society; but as 
Levrat failed in his engagement, the dia- 
mond became, in 1832, the subject of a 
lawsuit, which was given in favor of the 
prince. We next hear of it in Bombay ; in 
1867 it was transmitted to England by the 
firm of Forbes and Co. ; in 1873 it formed 
part of " the crown necklace," worn by 
Mary of Sachsen Altenburg, on her mar- 
riage with Albert of Prussia ; 1876, in the 
investiture of the Star of India by the 
Prince of Wales, in Calcutta, Dr. W. H. 
Russel tells us it was worn as a pendant 
by the maharajah of Puttiala. 

*** Streeter, in his book of Precious 
Stones and Gems, 120 (1877), tells us it 
belongs to the Czar of Eussia, but if Dr. 
Eussel is correct, it must have been sold 
to the maharajah. 

Sand {George). Her birth name was 
Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin, after- 
wards Dudevant (1803-1877). 

San'dabar, an Arabian writer, about a 
century before the Christian era, famous 
for his parables. 

It was rumored he could say 
The paraUes of Sandabar. 
Longfellow, The Wayside Inn (prelude 1863). 

Sanford (Marion). Truth-loving, sin- 
cere, and simple-hearted woman, loyal in 
deed and thought to her traduced lover 
until time establishes his innocence. 

A marked woman in general society ; a woman 
who reigned, queen-hke, over every heart, but 
among the circle of her relatives . . . she was 
held to be httle less than the angels. — Charles 
King, Marion's Faith (1886). 

Sandford {Harry), the companion of 
Tommy Merton. — Thomas Day, History 
of Sandford and Merton (1783-9). 

Sandpiper {The). 

" Comrade, where wUt thou be to-night 1 
When the loosed storm breaks furiously ? 
My driftwood fire will burn so bright ! 

To what warm shelter can'st thou fly 1 
1 do, not fear for thee, 'though wroth 

The tempest rushes through the sky. 
For are we not God's children both, 
Thou little sandpiper and I ? " 

Celia Thaxter, Drift-weed (1878). 

San'glamore (3 syl.), the sword of 
Braggadochio. — Spenser, Faery Queen, iii. 

■Sanglier {Sir), a knight who insisted 
on changing wives with a squire, and 
when the lady objected, he cut off her 
head, and rode off with the squire's wife. 
Being brought before Sir Artegal, Sir 
Sanglier insisted that the living lady was 
his wife, and that the dead woman was 
the squire's wife. Sir Artegal commanded 
that the living and dead women should 
both be cut in twain, and half of each be 
given to the two litigants. To this Sir 
Sanglier gladly assented; but the squire 
objected, declaring it would be far better 
to give the lady to the knight than that 





she should suffer death. Ou this, Sir Ar- 
tegal pronounced the living woman to be 
the squire's wife, and the dead one to be 
the knight's. — Spenser, Faery Queen, v. 1 

(" Sir Sanglier" is meant for Shan O'Neil, 
leader of the Irish insurgents in 1567. Of 
course this judgment is borrowed from 
that of Solomon, 1 Kings iii. 16-27.) 

Sanglier des Ardennes, Gruillaume de 
la Marck (1446-1485). 

Sangraal, Sancgreal, etc., generally 
said to be the holy plate from which 
Christ ate at the Last Supper, brought to 
England by Joseph of Arimathy. What- 
ever it was, it appeared to King Arthur 
and his 150 knights of the Round Table, 
but suddenly vanished, and all the knights 
vowed they would go in quest thereof. 
Only three. Sir Bors, Sir Percivale and 
Sir Gralahad, found it, and only Sir Oala- 
had touched it, but he soon died, and was 
borne by angels up into heaven. The 
Sangraal of Arthurian romance is "the 
dish " containing Christ transubstantiated 
by the sacrament of the Mass, and made 
visible to the bodily eye of man. This 
will appear quite obvious to the reader by 
the following extracts : — 

Then anon they heard cracking and crying of 
thunder. ... In the midst of the blast entered a 
sunbeam more clear by seven times than the day, 
and all they were alighted of the grace of the 
Holy Ghost. . . . Then there entered into the haU 
the Holy Grale covered with white samite, but 
there was none that could see it, nor who bare 
it, but the whole hall was full filled with good 
odors, and every knight had such meat and 
drink as he best loved in the world, and when 
the Holy Grale had been borne through the hall, 
then the holy vessel departed suddenly, and they 
wist not where it became. — Ch. 35. 

Then looked they and saw a man come out of 
the holy vessel, that had aU the signs of the pas- 
sion of Christ, and he said . .. . " This is the holy 
dish wherein I ate the lamb on Sher- Thursday, 

and now hast thou seen it . . . yet hast thou not 
seen it so openly as thou shalt see it in the city 
of Sarras . . . therefore thou must go hence and 
bear with thee this holy vessel, for this night it 
shall depart from the realm of Logris . . . and 
take with thee ... Sir Percivale and Su- Bors." — 
Ch. 101. 

So departed Sir Galahad, and Sir Percivale 
and Sir Bors with him. And so they rode three 
days, and came to a river, and found a ship . . . 
and when on board, they found in the midst the 
table of silver and the Sancgreall covered with 
red samite. . . . Then Sir Galahad laid him down 
and slept . . . and when he woke ... he saw the 
city of Sarras (ch. 103). ... At the year's end . . . 
he saw before him the holy vessel, and a man 
kneehng upon his knees in the likeness of the 
bishop, which had about him a great fellowship 
of angels, as it had been Christ Himself . . . and 
when he came to the sakering of the Mass, and 
had done, anon he called Sir Galahad, and said 
unto him, " Come forth . . . and thou shalt see 
that which thou hast much desired to see "... 
and he beheld spiritual things . . . (ch. 104). — 
Sir T. Malory, History of Prince Arthur, iii. 35, 
101, 104 (1470). 

The earliest story of the Holy Graal 
was in verse (a.d. 1100), author unknown. 

Chretien de Troyes has a romance in 
eight-syllable verse on the same subject 

Ouiot's tale of Titurel, founder of Oraal- 
burg, and Parsival, prince thereof, belongs 
to the twelfth century. 

Wolfram von Eschenbach, a minne- 
singer, took Guiot's tale as the foundation 
of his poem (thirteenth century). 

In Titurel the Younger the subject is 
very fully treated. 

Sir T. Malory (in pt. iii. of the History 
of Prince Arthur, translated in 1470 from 
the French) treats the subject in prose 
very fully. 

R. S. Hawker has a poem on the San- 
graal, but it was never completed. 

Tennyson has an idyll called The Holy 
Grail (1858). 

Boissferee published, in 1834, at Munich, 
a work On the Description of the Temple of 
the Holy Graal. 




Sangra'do {Doctor), of Valladolid. This 
is the "Sagredo" of Espinel's romance 
called Marcos de Obregon. " The doctor 
was a tall, meagre, pale man, who had 
kept the shears of Clotho employed for 
forty years at least. He had a very solemn 
appearance, weighed his discourse, and 
used ' great pomp of words.' His reason- 
ings were geometrical, and his opinions 
his own." Dr. Sangrado considered that 
blood was not needful for life, and that 
hot water could not be administered too 
plentifully into the system. Gil Bias be- 
came his servant and pupil, and was 
allowed to drink any quantity of water, 
but to eat only sparingly of beans, peas 
and stewed apples. 

Dr. Hancock prescribed cold water and 
stewed prunes. 

Dr. Eezio, of Barataria, allowed Sancho 
Panza to eat "a few wafers and a thin 
slice or two of quince." — Cervantes, Don 
Quixote, II. iii. 10 (1615). 

Sansculottes (3 syl,), a low, riff-raff 
party in the great French Revobition, so 
shabby in dress that they were termed 
"the trouser-less." The culotte is the 
breeches, called brceck by the ancient 
G-auls, and hauts-de-chausses in the reign 
of Charles IX. 

Sansculottism, red republicanism, or 
the revolutionary platform of the Sans- 

The duke of Brunswick, at the head of a large 
army, invaded France to restore Louis XVI. to 
the throne, and save legitimacy from the sacri- 
legious hands of sansculottism. — Gr. H. Lewes, 
Story of Goethe's Life. 

Literary Sansculottism, literature of a 
low character, like that of the " Minerva 
Press," the "Leipsic Fair," "HoUywell 
Street," " Grub Street," and so on. 

Sansfoy, a "faithless Saracen," who 
attacked the Red Cross Knight, but was 
slain by him. " He cared for neither God 
nor man." Sansfoy personifies infidelity. 

Sansfoy, full large of limb and every joint 
He was, and cared not for God or man a point. 
Spenser, Faery Queen, i. 2 (1590). 

Sansjoy, brother of Sansfoy. "When 
he came to the court of Lucifera, he no- 
ticed the shield of Sansfoy on the arm of 
the Red Cross Knight, and his rage was 
so great that he was with diflSculty re- 
strained from running on the champion 
there and then, but Lucifera bade him de- 
fer the combat to the following day. 
Next day, the fight began, but just as the 
Red Cross Knight was about to deal his 
adversary a death-blow, Sansjoy was en- 
veloped in a thick cloud, and carried off 
in the chariot of Night to the infernal re- 
gions, where ^sculapius healed him of 
his wounds. — Spenser, Faery Queen, i. 4, 5 

(The reader will doubtless call to mind 
the combat of Menalaos and Paris, and 
remember how the Trojan was invested 
in a cloud and carried off by Venus under 
similar circumstances. — Homer, Iliad, iii.) 

Sansloy {'^superstition"), the brother of 
Sansfoy and Sansjoy. He carried off Una 
to the wilderness, but when the fauns and 
satyrs came to her rescue, he saved him- 
self by flight. 

*** The meaning of this allegory is this ; 
Una {truth), separated from St. George 
(holiness), is deceived by Hypocrisy ; and 
immediately Truth joins Hypocrisy it is 
carried away by Superstition. Spenser 
says the " simplicity of truth" abides with 
the common people, especially of the rural 
districts, it is lost to towns and the luxu- 
rious great. The historical reference is to 
Queen Mary, in whose reign Una {the Be- 




formation) was carried captive, and religion, 
being mixed np -witli hypocrisy, degene- 
rated into superstition, but the rural popu- 
lation adhered to the simplicity of the 
Protestant faith. — Spenser, Faery Queen, 
i. 2 (1590). 

Sansonetto, a Christian regent of 
Mecca, vicegerent of Charlemagne. — Ari- 
osto, Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Santa Klaus (1 syl), the Dutch name 
of St. Nicholas, the patron saint of youth. 

Santiago [Sent.yah'.go], the war-cry of 
Spain; adopted because St. James {Sant 
lago) rendered, according to tradition, sig- 
nal service to a Christian king of Spain in 
a battle against the Moors. 

Santiago for Spain. This saint was 
James, son of Zebedee, brother of John. 
He was beheaded, and caught his head in 
his hands as it fell. The Jews were as- 
tonished, but when they touched the 
body they found it so cold that their hands 
and arms were paralyzed. — Francisco 
Xavier, Anales de Galicia (1733). 

Santiago''s Head. "When Santiago went 
te Spain in his marble ship, he had no 
head on his body. The passage took 
seven days, and the ship was steered by 
the "presiding hand of Providence." — 
Espana Sagrada, xx. 6. 

Santiago had two heads. One of his 
heads is at Braga, and one at Compostella. 

Santiago lead the armies of Spain. Thirty- 
eight instances of the interference of this 
saint are gravely set down as facts in the 
Chronicles of Galicia., and this is super- 
added : " These instances are well known, 
but I hold it for certain that the appear- 
ances of Santiago in our victorious armies 
have been much more nunierous, and in 
fact that every victory obtained by the 

Spaniards has been really achieved by this 
great captain." Once when the rider on 
the white horse was asked in battle who 
he was, he distinctly made answer, " I am 
the soldier of the King of kings, and my 
name is James." — Don Miguel Free Gime- 
nez, Armas i Triunfos del Beino de Galicia, 

The true name of this saint was Jacobo. . . . 
We have first shortened Santo Jacobo into Santo 
Jado. We clipped it again into 8anf Jaco, and 
by changing the J into I and the c into g, we 
get Sant-Iago. In household names we convert 
lago into JD'iago or Diago, which we soften into 
Diego. — Ambro§io de Morales, Coronica General 
de Espana, ix. 7 sect. 2 (1586). 

Santons, a body of religionists, also 
called Ahdals, who pretended to be in- 
spired with the most enthusiastic raptures 
of divine love. They were regarded by 
the vulgar as saints. Olearius, Beisebe- 
schreibung, i. 971 (1647). 

Sapphi'ra, a female liar. — Acts v. 1. 
She is called the village Sapphh-a. — Crabbe. 

Sappho, Greek poetess of the sixth cen- 
tury B.C., called " The Tenth Muse." Frag- 
ments of her verse remain which are very 
beautiful. She was the victim of unre- 
quited love, and leaped to her death fron, 
the Leucadian Eock into the sea. 

Sappho {The English), Mrs. JUary D. 
Eobinson (1758-1800). 

Sappho {The French) Mdlle. Scud^ri 

Sappho {The Scolch), Catherine Cock- 
burn (1679-1749). 

Sappho of Toulouse, Clemence Isaure 
(2 syl.), who instituted, in 1490, Les Jeux 




Floraux. She is tlie authoress of a beau- 
tiful Ode to Spring (1463-1513). 

SapskuU, a raw Yorkshire tike, son of 
Squire Sapskull, of Sapskull Hall. Sir 
Penurious Muckworm wishes him to marry 
his niece and ward, Arbella, but as Arbella 
loves Gaylove, a young barrister, the tike 
is played upon thus : Gaylove assumes to 
be Muckworm, and his lad, Slango, dresses 
up as a woman to pass for Arbella ; and 
while SapskuU "marries" Slango, Gaylove, 
who assumes the dress and manners of 
the Yorkshire tike, marries Arbella. Of 
course, the trick is then discovered, and 
Sapskull returns to the home of his father, 
befooled bxit not married. — Carey, The 
Honest Yorkshireman (1736). 

Saracen (A), in Arthurian romance, 
means any unbaptized person, regardless 
of nationality. Thus, Priamus, of Tus- 
cany, is called a Saracen (pt. i. 96, 97) ; so 
is Sir Palomides, simply because he I'e- 
fused to be baptized till he had done some 
noble deed (pt. ii.). — Sir T.Malory, History 
of Prince Arthur (1470). 

Sara Carroll. Devoted daughter of 
Major Carroll and firm ally of her dainty 
stepmother, Madame Carroll, in the latter's 
renewal of intercourse with her eldest son 
and concealment of his existence from her 
husband. Sara contrives that the mother 
shall be with the young man when he 
dies, and by becoming the go-between for 
the two, incurs the suspicions of her 
lover. — Constance Fenimore Woolson, For 
the Major. 

Saragossa {The Maid of), Augustina 
S?iragossa or Zaragoza, who, in 1808, when 
the city was invested by the French, 
mounted the battery in the place of her 
lover who had been shot. Lord Byron 

says, when he was at Seville, " the maid " 
used to walk daily on the prado, decorated 
with medals and orders, by command of 
the junta. Southey, History of the Penin- 
sidar War (1832). 

Her lover sioks — she sheds no ill timed tear ; 
Her chief is slain — she Ms his fatal post ; 
Her fellows flee — she checks their base career ; 

The foe retires — she heads the sallying host. 
.... the flying Gaul, 

Foiled by a woman's hand before a battered 

Byron, GhUde Harold, I 56 (1809). 

Sardanapa'lus, king of Nineveh and 
Assyria, noted for his luxury and volup- 
tuousness. Arbaces, the Mede, conspired 
against him, and defeated him; where- 
upon his favorite slave, Myrra, iudueed him 
to immolate himself on a funeral pile. ■ 
The beautiful slave, having set fire to the 
pile, leaped into the blazing mass, and 
was burnt to death with the king, her mas- 
ter (B.C. 817). — Byron, Sardanapalus (1619). 

Sardanapa'lus of China (The), Cheo- 
tsin, who shut himself up in his palace 
with his queen, and then set fire to the 
building, that he might not fall into the 
hands of Woo-wong (b.c. 1154^1122). 

(Cheo-tsin invented the chopsticks, and 
Woo-wong founded the Tchow dynasty.) 

Sardanapa'lus of Germany {The), 
Weneeslas VI. or (IV.), king of Bohemia 
and emperor of Germany (1359, 1378- 

Sarell Gately. Shrewd, " capable" girl 
who ''lives out" on the Heybrook farm. 

" She was a young woman to take up respon- 
sibilities as she went along. She liked them. She 
became naturally a part of whatever was happen- 
ing in her Troy ; and wherever her temporary 
Troy might be, there was pretty sure to be some- 
thing happening." — ^A. D. T. Whitney, Odd or 
Even ? (1880). 





Sassenacli, a Saxon, an Englishman. 
("Welsh, saesonig adj. and saesoniad noun.) 

I would, if I thought I'd be able to catch some 
of the Sassenachs in London. — Very Far West 

Satan, according to the Talmud, was 
once an archangel, but was cast out of 
heaven with one-third of the celestial host 
for refusing to do reverence to Adam. 

In mediseval mythology, Satan holds 
the fifth rank of the nine demoniacal 

Johan Wier, in his PrcBstigiis Dcemonum 
(1564), makes Beelzebub the sovereign of 
hell, and Satan leader of the opposition. 

In legendary lore, Satan is drawn with 
horns and tail, saucer eyes, and claws; 
• but Milton makes him a proud, selfish, 
ambitious chief, of gigantic size, beautiful, 
daring, and commanding. He declares 
his opinion that it is " better to reign in 
hell than serve in heaven." Defoe has 
written a Political History of the Devil 

Satan, according to Milton, monarch .of 
hell. His chief lords are Beelzebub, Mo- 
loch, Chemos, Thammuz, Dagon, Rim- 
mon, and Belial. His standard-bearer 
is Azaz'el. 

He, above the rest 
In shape and gesture proudly eminent, 
Stood like a tower. His form had not yet lost 
AH her original brightness ; nor appeared 
Less than archangel ruined, and the excess 
Of glory obscured . . . but his face 
Deep scars of thunder had intrenched, and care 
Sat on his faded cheek . . . cruel his eye, but 

Signs of remorse. 

Milton, Paradise Lost, i. 589, etc. (1665). 

*«* The word Satan means " enemy ; * 
hence Milton says: 

To whom the arch-enemy, 
... in heaven called Satan. 

Paradise Lost, i. 81 (1665). 

Satanic School {The), a class of writers 
in the earlier part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, who showed a scorn for all moral 
rules and the generally received dogmas 
of the Christian religion. The most emi- 
nent English writers of this school were 
Bulwer (afterwards Lord Lytton), Byron, 
Moore, and P. B. Shelley. Of French 
writers : Paul de Kock, Rousseau, George 
Sand, and Victor Hugo. 

Satire (Father of), ArchilSchos of Paros 
(B.C. seventh century). 

Satire (Father of French), Mathurin 
Regnier (1573-1613). 

Satire (Father of Moman), Lucilius (b.c. 

Satiro-mastix, or The Untrussing of 
the Himiorous Poet, a comedy by Thomas 
Dekker (1602). Ben Jonson, in 1601, had 
attacked Dekker in The Poetaster, where 
he calls himself " Horace," and Dekker 
" Cris'pinus." Next year (1602), Dekker 
replied with spirit to this attack, in a com- 
edy entitled Satiro-mastix, where Jonson 
is called " Horace, junior." 

Saturday. To the following English 
sovereigns from the establishment of the 
Tudor dynasty, Saturday has proved a 
fatal day: — 

Heney VII. died Saturday, April 21, 

Geoege II. died Saturday, October 27, 

Geoege III. died Saturday, January 29, 
1820, but of his fifteen children only three 
died on a Saturday. 

Geoege IV. died Saturday, June 26, 
1830, but the Princess Charlotte died on a 

Peince Albeet died Saturday, Decern- 




The duchess of Kent and 
Alice also died on a Sat- 

ber 14, 1861. 
the Princess 

*#* William III., Anne, and George I., 
all died on a Sunday; William IV. on a 

Saturn, son of Heaven and Earth. He 
always swallowed his children immediately 
they were born, tin his wife, Ehea, not 
liking to see all her children perish, con- 
cealed from him the birth of Jupiter, 
Neptune, and Pluto, and gave her husband 
large stones instead, which he swaUowed 
without knowing the difference. 

Much as old Saturn ate his progeny ; 
For when his pious consort gave him stones 
In lieu of sons, of those he made no bones. 
Byron, Don Juan, xiv. 1 (1824). 

Saturn, an evil and malignant planet. 

He is a genius full of gall, an author born 
tinder the planet Saturn, a malicious mortal 
whose pleasure consists in hating all the world. 
— Lesage, Gil Bias, v. 12 (1724). 

The children born under the sayd Satume 
shall be great jangeleres and chyders . . . and 
they will never f orgyve tyll they be revenged of 
theyr quarreU. — Ptholomeus, Compost. 

Satyr. T. Woolner calls Charles II. 
" Charles the Satyr." 

Next flared Charles Satyr's saturnaha 
Of lady nymphs. 

My Beautiful Lady. 

*#* The most famous statue of the satyrs 
is that by Praxiteles, of Athens, in the 
fourth century. 

Satyrane {Sir), a blunt, but noble 
knight, who helps Una to escape from the 
fauns and satyrs. — Spenser, Faery Queen, 
i. (1590). 

And passion erst unknown, could gain 
The breast of blunt Sir Satyrane. 

Sir W. Scott. 

*#* "Sir Satyrane" is meant for Sir 
John Perrot, a natural son of Henry VIII., 
and lord deputy of Ireland, froni 1583 to 
1588 ; but, in 1590, he was in prison in the 
Tower for treason, and was beheaded in 

Satyr'icon, a comic romance in Latin, 
by Petro'nius Ar'biter, in the first century. 
Very gross, but showing great power, 
beauty, and skill. 

Saul, in Dryden's satire of Absalom and 
Achitophel, is meant for Oliver Cromwell. 
As Saul persecuted David, and drove him 
from Jerusalem, so CromweU persecuted 
Charles II., and drove him from England. 

. . . ere Saul they chose, 
God was their king, and God they durst depose. 

Pt. i. (1681). 

*** This was the "divine right" of 

Saunders, groom of Sir Geoffrey Pev- 
eril of the Peak. — Sir W. Scott, Peveril of 
the Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Saunders (BicJiard), the pseudonym of 
Dr. Franklin, adopted in Poor Bichard's 
Almanac, begun in 1732. 

Saunders Sweepclean, a king's mes- 
senger, at Knockwinnock Castle. — Sir W. 
Scott, The Antiquary (time George III.). 

Saunderson (Saunders), butler, etc., 
to Mr. Cosmo Comyne Bradwardine, 
baron of Bradwardine and TuUy Veolan. 
— Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, George 

Saurid, king of Egypt, say the Coptites 
(2 syl.) built the pyramids 300 years be- 
fore the Flood, and according to the same 





authority, the following inscription was 
engraved upon one of them : — 

I, King Saurid, built the pyramids . . . and 
finished them in six years. He that comes 
after me . . . let him destroy them ia 600 if 
he can ... I also covered them . . . withsatia, 
and let him cover them with matting. — Greaves, 
Pyramidographia, (seventeenth century). 

Savage (Captain), a naval commander. 
— Captain Marryat, Peter Simple (1833). 

Sav'il, steward to the elder Loveless. — 
Beaumont and Fletcher, The Scornful 
Lady (1616). 

Sav'ille (2 syl), the friend of Dori- 
court. He saves Lady Frances Touch- 
wood from Courtall, and frustrates his 
infamous designs on the lady's honor. — 
Mrs. Cowley, The Belle's Stratagem (1780). 

Saville (Lord), a young nobleman with 
Chiffinch (emissary of Charles II.). — Sir 
W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time Charles 

Saviour of Rome. C. Marius was so 
called after the overthrow of the Cimbri, 
July 30, B.C. 101. 

Saviour of the Nations. So the 

duke of Wellington was termed after the 
overthrow of Bonaparte (1769-1852). 

Oh, Wellington . . . called " Saviour of the Na- 
tions ! " 

Byron, Do7i Juan, is. 5 (1824). 

Sawney, a corruption of Sandie, a con- 
tracted form of Alexander. Sawney means 
a Scotchman, as David a Welshman, John 
Bull an Englishman, Cousin Michael a 
German, Brother Jonathan a native of the 
United States, Macaire a Frenchman, Co- 
lin Tampon a Swiss, and so on. 

Sawyer (Bob), a dissipated, struggling 
young medical practitioner, who tries to 
establish a practice at Bristol, but without 
success. Sam Weller calls him " Mr. Saw- 
bones." — C. Dickens, The Pichwich Papers 

Saxon Duke {The), mentioned by But- 
ler in his Hudibras, was John Frederick, 
duke of Saxony, of whom Charles Y. said, 
"Never saw I such a swine before." 

Sboga (Jean), the hero of a romance by 
C. Nodier (1818), a leader of bandits, in 
the spirit of Lord Byron's Corsair and 

Scadder (General), agent in the office 
of the "Eden Settlement." His peculiarity 
consisted in the two distinct expressions 
of his profile, for " one side seemed to be 
listening to what the other side was doing." 
— C. Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit (1844). 

Scalds, court poets and chroniclers of 
the ancient Scandinavians. They resided 
at court, were attached to the royal suite, 
and attended the king in all his wars. 
They also acted as ambassadors between 
hostile tribes, and their persons were held 
sacred. These bards celebrated in song 
the gods, the kings of Norway, and na- 
tional heroes. Their lays or vyses were 
compiled in the eleventh century by Ssb- 
mund Sigfusson, a priest and scald of Ice- 
land, and the compilation is called the 
Elder or Rythmical Edda. 

Scallop-Shell (The). Every one knows 
that St. James's pilgrims are distinguished 
by scallop-sheUs, but it is a blunder to 
suppose that other pilgrims are privileged 
to wear them. Three of the popes have, 
by their bulls, distinctly confirmed this 
right to the Compostella pilgrim alone: 




viz., Pope Alexander III., Pope Gregory 
IX. and Pope Clement V. 

Now, the escallop or scallop, is a shell- 
fish, like an oyster or large cockle; but 
Gwillim tells ns what ignorant zoologists 
have omitted to mention, that the bivalve 
is " engendered solely of dew and air. It 
has no blood at all ; yet no food that man 
eats turns so soon into life-blood as the 
scaUop." — Display ofHeraldy, 171. 

Scallop-shells used by Pilgrims. The 
reason why the scallop-shell is used by 
pilgrims is not generally known. The 
legend is this: When the marble ship 
which bore the headless body of St. James 
approached Bouzas, in Portugal, it hap- 
pened to be the wedding day of the chief 
magnate of the village; and while the 
bridal party was at sport, the horse of the 
bridegroom became unmanageable, and 
plunged into the sea. The ship passed 
over the horse and its rider, and pursued 
its onward course, when, to the amazement 
of all, the horse and its rider emerged from 
the water uninjured, and the cloak of the 
rider was thickly covered with scallop- 
sheUs. AU were dumbfounded, and knew 
not what to make of these marvels, but a 
voice from heaven exclaimed, "It is the 
will of God that all who henceforth make 
their vows to St. James, and go on pil- 
grimage, shall take with them scaUop- 
sheUs ; and all who do so shall be remem- 
bered in the day of judgment." On hear- 
ing this, the lord of the village, with the 
bride and bridegroom, were duly baptized, 
and Bouzas became a Christian Church. — 
Sanctoral Portugues (copied into the 
Breviaries of Alcohaga and St. Cucufate). 

Cunctis mare cemeatibus, 
Sed a prof undo ducitur ; 
Natus Regis submergitur, 
Totus planus conchilibus. 

Hymn for St. James's day. 

In sight of all the prince went down, 

Into the deep sea dells ; 
In sight of all the prince emerged, 
Covered with scaUop-shells. 

Scalping (Bulesfor). The Cheyennes, 
in scalping, remove from the part just over 
the left ear a piece of skin not larger than 
a silver dollar. The Arrapahoes take a 
similar piece from the region of the right 
ear. Others take the entire skin from the 
crown of the head, the forehead, or the 
nape of the neck. The Utes take the en- 
tire scalp from ear to ear, and from the 
forehead to the nape of the neck, 

Scambister (Eric), the old butler of 
Magnus Troil, the udaller of Zetland. — Sir 
W. Scott, The Pirate (time, William III.). 

*** A udaller is one who holds his lands 
by aUodial tenure. 

Scandal, a male character in Love for 
Love, by Congreve (1695). 

Scandal {School for), a comedy by Sher- 
idan (1777). 

Scanderbeg. So George Castriota, an 
Albanian hero, was called. Amurath II. 
gave him the command of 5000 men, and 
such was his daring and success, that he 
was called Skander {Alexander). In the 
battle of Morava (1443) he deserted Am- 
urath, and, joining the, Albanians, won 
several battles over the Turks. At the 
instigation of Pius II. beheaded a crusade 
against them, but died of a fever, before 
Mahomet II. arrived to oppose him (1404- 
1467). (Beg or Bey is the Turkish for 
" prince.") 

Scanderheg^s sword needs Scanderheg^s 
arm. Mahomet II. " the Great " requested 
to see the scimitar which George Castriota 
used so successfully against the Ottomans 
in 1461. Being shown it, and wholly un- 





able to draw it, he pronounced tlie weapon 
to be a boax, but received for answer, 
" Scanderbeg's sword needs Scanderbeg's 
arm to wield it," 

The Greeks had a similar saying, 
"None but Ulysses can di-aw Ulysses's 

Scapegoat (T/ie),afarceby John Poole. 
Ignatius Polyglot, a learned pundit, mas- 
ter of seventeen languages, is the tutor of 
Charles Eustace, aged 24 years. Charles 
has been clandestinely married for four 
years, and has a little son named Freder- 
ick. Circumstances have occurred which 
render the concealment of this marriage 
no longer decorous or possible, so he breaks 
it to his tutor, and conceals his young 
wife for the nonce in Polyglot's private 
room. Here she is detected by the house- 
maid, Molly Maggs, who tells her master, 
and old Eustace says, the only reparation 
a man can make in such circumstances is 
to marry the girl at once. " Just so," says 
the tutor. " Your son is the husband, and 
he is willing at once to acknowledge his 
wife and infant son." 

Scapin, valet of Leandre, son of Seign- 
ior Greronte. (See Foubbeeies.) — ^Moliere, 
Les Fourberies de Scapin (1671). 

(Otway has made an English version of 
this play, called The Cheats of Scapin, in 
which Leandre is Anglicized into " Lean- 
der," Greronte is called " Gripe," and his 
friend, Argante, father of Zerbinette, is 
called " Thrifty," father of " Lucia." 

Scapi'no, the cunning, knavish servant 
of Gratiano, the loquacious and pedantic 
Bolognese doctor. — Italian Mash. 

Scar {Little), son of Major and Madam 
CarroU, believed by his father to be legiti- 
mate, known by his mother to have been 

born during the lifetime of her first hus- 
band, although she had married the major, 
supposing herself a widow. — Constance 
Fenimore Woolson, For the Major. 

Scar'amouch, a braggart and fool, most 
valiant in words, but constantly being 
drubbed by Harlequin. Scaramouch is a 
common character in Italian farce, origi- 
nally meant in ridicule of the Spanish 
don, and therefore dressed in Spanish 
costume. Our clown is an imbecile old 
idiot, and wholly unlike the dashing pol- 
troon of Italian pantomime. The best 
" Scaramouches " that ever lived were Ti- 
berio Fiurelli, a Neapolitan (born 1608), 
and Gandini (eighteenth century). 

Scar'borough Warning {A), a warn^ 
ing given too late to be taken advantage 
of. Puller says the allusion is to an event 
which occurred in 1557, when Thomas 
Stafford seized upon Scarborough Castle, 
before the townsmen had any notice of 
his approach. Heywood says a " Scar- 
borough warning " resembles what is now 
called Lynch law: punished first, and 
warned afterwards. Another solution is 
this: If ships passed the castle without 
saluting it by striking sail, it was custom- 
ary to fire into them a shotted gun, by way 
of warning. 

Be suerly seldom, and never for mueli . . . 
Or Scarborow warning, as ill I believe. 
When (" Sir, I arrest ye ") gets hold of thy sleeve. 
T. Tusser, Five. Hundred Points of Good Hus- 
handnj, x. 28 (1557). 

Scarlet {Will), Scadlock or Scathe- 

locke, one of the companions of Robin 

" Take thy good bowe in thy hande," said Robyn. 
" Let Moche wend Avith the 
And so shall "Wyllyam Scathelocke, 
And no man abyde with me." 

Ritson, BoUn Rood Ballads, i. 1 (1520). 




The tinker looking him about, 
Eobin his horn did blow ; 

Then came unto him Little John 
And WOliam Scadlock, too. 

Ditto, ii. 7 (1656). 

And there of him they made a 
Good yeoman Robin Hood, 

Scarlet and Little John, 
And Little John, hey ho ! 

Ditto, appendix 2 (1790). 

In the two dramas called The First and 
Second Parts of Robin Hood, by Anthony 
Munday and Henry Chettle, Scathlock or 
Scadlock, is called the brother of WiU 

, . . possible that Warman's spite. . . doth 

hunt the lives 
Of bonnie Scarlet and his brother, Scathlock. 

Pt. i. (1597). 

Then " enter Warman, with Scarlet and 
Scathlock bonnde," but Warman is ban- 
ished, and the brothers are liberated and 

Scarlet Woman (The), popery {Bev. 

xvii, 4), 

And fulminated 
Against the scarlet woman and her creed. 
Tennyson, Sea Dreams. 

Scathelocke (2 st/l.) or Scadlock, one 

of the companions of Eobin Hood. Either 
the brother of WiU Scarlet or another 
spelling of the name. (See Scaelet.) 

Scatterbury (Juliet). Ambitious New 
York woman, who lives in a flat and pre- 
tends to distant friends that she lives in 
a Fifth Avenue brown stone front; "an 
egregious follower of Ananias and Sap- 
phira." — William Henry Bishop, The 
Brown Stone Boy and Other Stories (1888). 

Scavenger's Daughter (The), an in- 
strument of torture, invented by Sir Wil- 
liam Skevington, lieutenant of the Tower 

in the reign of Henry VIII. " Scavenger" 
is a corruption of Skevington. 

To kiss the scavenger's daughter, to suf- 
fer punishment by this instrument of tor- 
ture, to be beheaded by a guillotine or 
some similar instrument. 

Sceaf [Sheef], one of the ancestors of 
Woden. So called because in infancy he 
was laid on a wheat^heaf, and cast adrift 
in a boat ; the boat stranded on the shores 
of Sleswig, and the infant, being con- 
sidered a gift from the gods, was brought 
up for a future king. — Beowulf (an Anglo- 
Saxon epic, sixth century). 

Scepticism (Father of Modern), Pierre 
Bayle (1647-1706). 

Schacabac, " the hare-lipped," a man 
reduced to the point of starvation, invited 
to a feast by the rich Barmecide. Instead 
of victuals and drink, the rich man set 
before his guest empty dishes and empty 
glasses, pretending to enjoy the imagin- 
ary foods and drinks. Schacabac entered 
into the spirit of the joke, and did the 
same. He washed in imaginary water, ate 
of the imaginary delicacies, and praised 
the imaginary wine. Barmecide was so 
delighted with his guest, that he ordered 
in a substantial meal, of which he made 
Schacabac a most welcome partaker. — 
Arabian Nights (" The Barber's Sixth 
Brother"). (See Shaccabac.) 

Scliah'riah, sultan of Persia. His wife 
being unfaithful, and his brother's wife 
too, Schahriah imagined that no woman was 
virtuous. He resolved, therefore, to maf ry 
a fresh wife every night, and to have her 
strangled at daybreak. Scheherazade, the 
vizier's daughter, married him notwith- 
standing, and contrived, an hour before 
daybreak, to begin a story to her sister, 




in the sultan's hearing, always breaking 
off before the story was finished. The 
sultan got interested in these tales ; and, 
after a thousand and one nights, revoked his 
decree, and found in Scheherazade a faith- 
ful, intelligent, and loving wife. — Arabian 
Nights^ Entertainments. 

Schah'zaman, sultan of the "Island of 
the children of Khal'edan," situated in the 
open sea, some twenty day's sail from the 
coast of Persia. The sultan had a son, an 
only ehUd, named Camaral'zaman, the 
most beautiful of mortals. Camaralza- 
man married Badoura, the most beautiful 
of women, the only daughter of Gaiour (2 
syl.), emperor of China. — Arabian Nights 
(" Camaralzaman and Badoura"). 

Schaibar (2 syl.), brother of the fairy 
Pari-Banou. He was only eighteen inches 
in height, and had a huge hump both be- 
fore and behind. His beard, though thirty 
feet long, never touched the ground, but 
projected forwards. His moustaches went 
back to his ears, and his little pig's eyes 
"were buried in his enormous head. He 
wore a conical hat, and carried for quarter- 
staff an iron bar of 500 lbs. weight at 
least. — Arabian Nights ("Ahmed and Pari- 
Banou "). 

Schamir {The), that instrument or 
agent with which Solomon wrought the 
stones of the Temple, being forbidden to 
use any metal instrument for the purpose. 
Some say the Schamir' was a worm ; some 
that it was a stone ; some that it was " a 
creature no bigger than a barleycorn, 
which nothing could resist." 

Scheherazade [Sha.ha' .ra.sah' .de], the 
hypothetical relater of the stories in the 
Arabian Nights. She was the elder daugh- 
ter of the vizier of Persia. The sultan, 

Schahriah, exasperated at the infidelity of 
his wife, came to the hasty conclusion 
that no woman could be faithful; so he 
determined to marry a new wife every 
night, and strangle her at daybreak. 
Scheherazade, wishing to free Persia of 
this disgrace, requested to be made the 
sultan's wife, and succeeded in her wish. 
She was young and beautiful, of great 
courage and ready wit, well read, and an 
excellent memory, knew history, philos- 
ophy, and medicine, was besides a good 
poet, musician, and dancer. ScheherazadS 
obtained permission of the sultan for her 
younger sister, Dinarzade, to sleep in the 
same chamber, and instructed her to say, 
one hour before daybreak, " Sister, relate 
to me one of those delightful stories which 
you know, as this will be the last time." 
Scheherazade then told the sultan (under 
pretence of speaking to her sister) a story, 
but always contrived to break off before 
the story was finished. The sultan, in 
order to hear the end of the story, spared 
her life till the next night. This went on 
for a thousand and one nights, when the 
sultan's resentment was worn out, and his 
admiration of his sultana was so great that 
he revoked his decree. — Arabian Nights^ 
Entertainments, (See Mokadbak.) 

Roused like the Sultana Scheherazade, and 
forced into a story. — C. Dickens, David Copper- 
field (1849). 

Schemseddin Mohammed, elder son 
of the vizier of Egypt, and brother of 
Noureddin Ali. He quarrelled with his 
brother on the subject of their two child- 
ren's hypothetical marriage ; but the broth- 
ers were not yet married, and children 
"were only in supposition." Noureddin 
Ali quitted Cairo, and travelled to Basora, 
where he married the vizier's daughter, 
and on the very same day Schemseddin 
married the daughter of one of the chief 



grandees of Cairo. On one and the same 
day a daughter was born to Schemseddin, 
and a son to his brother, Noureddin Ali. 
When Schemseddin's daughter was 20 
years old, the sultan asked her in marriage, 
but the vizier told him she was betrothed 
to his brother's son, Bed'reddin Ah. At 
this reply, the sultan, in anger, swore she 
should be given in marriage to the "ugliest 
of his slaves ; " and accordingly betrothed 
her to Hunchback, a groom, both ugly and 
deformed. By a fairy trick, Bedreddin 
Ali was substituted for the groom, but at 
daybreak was conveyed to Damascus. 
Here he turned pastry-cook, and was dis- 
covered by his mother by his cheese-cakes. 
Being restored to his country and his 
wife, he ended his life happily. — Araiian 
Nights (" Noureddin Ali," etc.). (See 

Quaker dame, he laid an homage, whicTi 
he felt to be hopeless of result, while he 
was schooled by sorrowful fortunes to 
accept the position as one which he hardly 
ever wished to change. — Silas "Weir Mitch- 
ell, Hephsibali Guinness (1880). 

Scholastic {The), Epipha'nius, an Ital- 
ian scholar (sixth century). 

Scholastic Doctor {The), Anselm, of 
Laon (1050-1117). 

Scholey {Lawrence), servant at Burgh- 
Westra. His master is Magnus Troil, 
the udaller of Zetland. — Sir W. Scott, The 
Pirate (time, William III.). 

*#* Udaller, one who holds land by allo- 
dial tenure. 

Schemsel'nihar, the favorite sultana 
of Haroun-al-Raschid, caliph of Bagdad. 
She fell in love with Aboulhassan Ali 
ebn Becar, prince of Persia. Prom the 
first moment of their meeting they began 
to pine for each other, and fell sick. 
Though miles apart, they died at the same 
hour, and were both buried in the same 
grave. — Araiian Nights ("Aboulhassen 
and Schemselnihar "). 

Schlemihl {Peter), the hero of a popu- 
lar German legend. Peter sells his shadow 
to an " old man in grey," who meets him 
while fretting under a disappointment. 
The name is a household term for one who 
makes a desperate and silly bargain. — 
Chamisso, Peter Schlemihl (1813). 

Schmidt {Mr.), a German of kindly 
spirit and refined tastes, "in his talk 
gently cynical." " To know him a little 
was to dislike him, but to know him well 
was to love him." At the feet of a pretty 

Schonfelt, lieutenant of Sir Archibald 

von Hagenbach, a German noble. — Sir W. 
Scott, Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward 

School of Hushands, {Decole des Maris, 
"wives trained by men"), a comedy by 
Moliere (1661). Ariste and Sganarelle, two 
brothers, bring up L^onor and Isabelle, 
two orphan sisters, according to their sys- 
tems for making them in time their model 
wives. Sganarelle's system was to make 
the women dress plainly, live retired, at- 
tend to domestic duties, and have few 
indulgences. Ariste's system was to give 
the woman great liberty, and trust to her 
honor. Isabelle, brought up by Sganarelle, 
deceived him and married another; but 
Leonor, brought up by Ariste, made him 
a fond and faithful wife. 

Sganarelle's plan : 

J'entend que la mienne vive k ma f antaisie — 
Que d'une serge honnSte elle ait son vetement, 
Et ue porte le noir, qu' aux bons jours seulement; 





Qu' enf erm^e au logis, en personne bien sage, 
EUe s'applique toute aux ohoses du manage, 
A reeoudre mon linge aux hetires de loisir, 
Ou bien a tricoter quelques bas par plasir ; 
Qu' aux discours des muguets elle f erme I'oreille, 
Et ne sorte jamais sans avoir qui la veiUe. 

Ariste's plan : 

Leur sexe aime h jouir d'un peu de liberty ; 
On le retient fort mal par tant d'aust6rit6 ; 
Et les soins deflants les verroux et les grilles, 
Ne font pas la vertu des femmes ni des fiUes ; 
C'est I'honneur qui les doit tenir dans le devoir, 
Non la s6verite que nous leur f aisons voir . . . 
Je trouve que le coeur est ee qu'il faut gagner. 


School for Wives {Vecole des Femmes, 
"training for w^ives"), a comedy by Mo- 
li^re (1662). Arnolpie has a crotchet 
about the proper training of girls to make 
good vrives, and tries his scheme upon 
Agnes, -whom he adopts from a peasant's 
cottage, and designs in due time to make 
his wife. He sends her from early child- 
hood to a convent, where difference of sex 
and the conventions of society are wholly 
ignored. When removed from the convent 
she treats men as if they were schoolgirls, 
kisses them, plays with them, and treats 
them with girlish familiarity. The conse- 
quence is, a young man named Horace 
falls in love with her and makes her his 
wife, but Arnolphe loses his pains. 

Schoolmen. (For a list of the school- 
men of each of the three periods, see 
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 794.) 

Schoolmistress {The), a poem in Spen- 
serian metre, by Shenstone (1758). The 
"schoolmistress" was Sarah Lloyd, who 
taught the poet himself in infancy. She 
lived in a thatched cottage, before which 
grew a birch tree, to which allusion is 
made in the poem. 

There dwells, in lowly shed and mean attire, 

A matron old, whom we schoolmistress name . . , 
And all in sight doth rise a birchen tree. 

Stanzas 2, 3. 

Schreckeiiwald (Ital), steward of Count 
Albert. — Sir W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein 
(time, Edward IV.). 

Schwaker (Jonas), jester of Leopold, 
archduke of Austria. — Sir W. Scott, The 
Talisman (time, Richard I.). 

Scian Muse (The), Simon'ides, born at 
Scia, or Cea, now Zia, one of the Cyclades. 

The Scian and the Teian Muse [Anacremi] . . . 
Have found the fame your shores refuse. 

Byron, Bon Juan, iii. (" The Isles of Greece," 

Science {The prince of), Tehuhe, "The 
Aristotle of China" (died a.d. 1200). 

Scio (now called Chios), one of the 
seven cities which claimed to be the birth- 
place of Homer. Hence he is sometimes 
called " Scio's Blind Old Bard." The seven 
cities referred to make an hexameter verse : 

Smyrna, Chios, Colophon, Salamis, Ehodos, Ar- 

gos, Athense; or 
Smyrna, Chios, Colophdn, Ithaci, Pylos, Ar- 

gos, Athense. 

Antipater Sidonius, A Greek Epigram. 

Sciol'to (3 syl), a proud Oenoese noble- 
man, the father of Calista. Calista was 
the- bride of Altamont, a young man proud 
and fond of her, but it was discovered on 
the wedding day that she had been se- 
duced by Lothario. This led to a series 
of calamities : (1) Lothario was killed in a 
duel by Altamont; (2) a street riot was 
created, in which Sciolto received his 
death-wound ; and (3) Calista stabbed her- 
self.— N. Rowe, The Fair Penitent (1703). 

(In Italian, Sciolto forms but two sylla- 
bles, but Rowe has made it three in every 




Scipio "dismissed the Iberian maid" 
(Milton, Paradise Regained, ii.). The poet 
refers to the tale of Scipio's restoring a 
captive princess to her lover, Allueius, and 
giving to her, as a wedding present, the 
money of her ransom. (See Continence.) 

During Ms command in Spain a circumstance 
occurred which contributed more to his fame 
and glory than all his military exploits. At the 
taking of New Carthage, a lady of extraordinary 
beauty was brought to Scipio, who found him- 
self greatly affected by her charms. Under- 
standing, however, that she was betrothed to a 
Celtiberian prince named Allueius, he resolved 
to conquer his rising passion, and sent her to her 
lover without recompense. A silver shield, on 
which this interesting event is depicted, was 
found in the river Rhone by some fishermen in 
the seventeenth century. — Goldsmith, History of 
Home, xiv. 3. (Whittaker's improved edition con- 
tains a fac-simile of the shield on p. 215.) 

Scipio, son of the gypsy woman, Cosco- 
lina, and the soldier, Torribio Scipio. 
Scipio becomes the secretary of Gril Bias, 
and settles down with him at "the castle of 
Lirias." His character and adventures are 
very similar to those of Gil Bias himself, 
but he never rises to the same level. 
Scipio begins by being a rogue, who pil- 
fered and plundered all who employed 
him, but in the service of Gil Bias he was. 
a model of fidelity and integrity. — Lesage, 
Gil Bias (1715). 

Sciro'nian Rocks, between Meg'ara 
and Corinth. So called because the bones 
of Sciron, the robber of Attica, were 
changed into these rocks when Theseus 
{2 syl.) hurled him from a cliff into the sea. 
It was from these rocks that Ino cast her- 
self into the Corinthian bay.— G^ree^ Falle. 

Scirum. The men of Scirum used to 
shoot against the stars. 

Like . . . men of wit bereaven, 
"Which howle and shoote against the lights of 
Wm. Browne, Britannia's Pastorals, iv. (1613). 

Scogan (Henry), M.A., a poet, con- 
temporary with Chaucer. He lived in 
the reigns of Richard II., Henry IV., and 
probably Henry V. Among the gentry- 
who had letters of protection to attend 
Richard II. in his expedition into Ireland, 
in 1399, is " Henricus Scogan, Armiger." 
— Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, v. 15 (1773). 

Scogan ? What was he 1 
Oh, a fine gentleman and a master of arts 
Of Henry the Fourth's time, that made disguises 
For the king's sons, and writ in baUad royal 
Daintily well. 

Ben Jonson, The Fortunate Isles (1626). 

Scogan (John), the favorite jester and 
buffoon of Edward IV. " Scogan's jests" 
were published by Andrew Borde, a phy- 
sician in the reign of Henry VIII. 

The same Sir John [Falstaff\, the very same. 
I saw him break Skogan's head at the court-gate, 
when he Was a crack not thus high. — Shake- 
speare, 2 Henry IV. act iii. sc. 2. 

*#* Shakespeare has confounded Henry 
Scogan, M.A., the poet, who lived in the 
reign of Henry IV., with John Scogan, 
the jester, who lived about a century later, 
in the reign of Edward IV. ; and, of course, 
Sir John Falstaff, could not have known 
him when " he was a mere crack." 

Scogan's Jest. Scogan and some 
companions, being in lack of money, agreed 
to the following trick : A peasant, driving 
sheep, was accosted by one of the accom- 
plices, who laid a wager that his sheep were 
hogs, and agreed to abide by the decision of 
the first person they met. This, of course, 
was Scogan, who instantly gave judgment 
against the herdsman. 

A similar joke is related in the Hitopa- 
desa, an abridged version of Pilpay's Fa- 
hies. In this case, the " peasant " is repre- 
sented by a Brahmin carrying a goat, and 
the joke was to persuade the Brahmin that 
he was carrying a dog. "How is this, 





friend," says one, "that you, a Brahmin, 
carry on your back such an unclean ani- 
mal as a dog!" "It is not a dog," says 
the Brahmin, " but a goat ; " and trudged 
on. Presently another made the same re- 
mark, and the Brahmin, beginning to 
doubt, took down the goat to look at it. 
Convinced that the creature was really a 
goat, he went on, when presently a third 
made the same remark. The Brahmin, now 
fully persuaded that his eyes were be- 
fooling him, threw down the goat and 
went away without it; whereupon the 
three companions took possession of it and 
cooked it. 

In Tyll Uulenspiegel we have a similar 
hoax. Eulenspiegel sees a man with a 
piece of green cloth, which he resolves to 
obtain. He employs two confederates, 
both priests. Says Eulenspiegel to the 
man, " What a famous piece of blue 
cloth! Where did you get it?" "Blue, 
you fool ! why, it is greeii." After a short 
contention, a bet is made, and the ques- 
tion in dispute is referred to the first 
comer. This was a confederate, and he 
at once decided that the cloth was blue. 
"You are both in the same boat," says 
the man, "which I will prove by the 
priest yonder." The question being put 
to the priest, is decided against the man, 
and the three rogues divide the cloth 
amongst them. 

Another version is in novel 8 of For- 
tini. The joke was that certain kids he 
had for sale were capons. — See Dunlop, 
History of Fiction, viii. art. " Ser Gio- 

Scone [Skoon], a palladium stone. It 
was erected in Icolmkil for the coronation 
of Fergus Eric, and was called the Lia- 
Fail of Ireland. Fergus, the son of Fer- 
gus Eric, who led the Dalriads to Argyll- 
shire, removed it to Scone ; and Edward 

I. took it to London. It still remains in 
Westminster Abbey, where it forms the 
support of Edward the Confessor's chair, 
which forms the coronation chair of the 
British monarchs. 

Ni fallat fatum, Scoti, quoeunque locatum 
Invenient lapiaem, regnare tenentur ibidem. 
Lardner, History of Scotland, i. 67 (1832). 

Where'er this stone is placed, the fates decree, 
The Scottish race shall there the sovereigns be. 

*#* Of course, the " Scottish race " is the 
dynasty of the Stuarts and their suc- 

Scotch Guards, in the service of the 
French kings, were called his garde du 
corps. The origin of the guard was this : 
When St. Louis entered upon his first 
crusade, he was twice saved from death 
by the valor of a small band of Scotch aux- 
iliaries under the commands of the earls 
of March and Dunbar, Walter Stuart, and 
Sir David Lindsay. In gratitude thereof, 
it was resolved that " a standing guard of 
Scotchmen, recommended by the king of 
Scotland, should ever more form the 
body-guard of the king of France." This 
decree remained in force for five centuries. 
— Grant, The Scottish Cavalier, xx. 

Scotland. So called, according to le- 
gend, from Scota, daughter of Pharaoh. 
What gives this legend especial interest 
is, that when Edward I. laid claim to the 
country as a fief of England, he pleaded 
that Brute, the British king, in the days 
of Eli and Samuel, had conquered it. 
The Scotch, in their defence, pleaded their 
independence in virtue of descent from 
Scota, daughter of Pharaoh. This is not 
fable, but sober history. — Rymer, Fosdera, 
L ii. (1703). 

Scotland a Fief of England. When 
Edward I. laid claim to Scotland as a fief 




of the English, crown, his great plea was 
that it was awarded to Adelstan, by direct 
miracle, and, therefore, could never be 
alienated. His advocates seriously read 
from The Life and Miracles of St. John of 
Beverley, this extract: Adelstan went to 
drive back the Scotch, who had crossed 
the border, and, on reaching the Tyne, St. 
John of Beverley appeared to him, and 
bade him cross the river at daybreak. 
Adelstan obeyed, and reduced the whole 
kingdom to submission. On reaching 
Dunbar, in the return march, Adelstan 
prayed that some sign might be given, to 
testify to all ages that God had delivered 
the kingdom into his hands. Whereupon 
he was commanded to strike the basaltic 
rock with his sword. This did he, and 
the blade sank into the rock " as if it had 
been butter," cleaving it asunder for " an 
ell or more." As the cleft remains to the 
present hour, in testimony of this miracle, 
why, of course, cela va sans dire. — Rymer, 
Fosdera, I. ii. 771 (1703). 

Scotland's Scourge, Edward I. His 
son, Edward IL, buried him in "Westmin- 
ster AbbeyJ where his tomb is still to be 
seen, with the following inscription : — 

Bdwardus Longus, Scotorum Malleus, hie est. 
(Our Longshanks, "Scotland's Scourge," lies 

Drayton, Polyolbion, xvii. (1613). 

So Longshanks, Scotland's Scourge, the land laid 

Ditto, xxix.^(1622). 

Scots {scuite, "a wanderer, a rover"), 
the inhabitants of the western coast of 
Scotland. As this part is very hilly 
and barren, it is unfit for tillage ; and the 
inhabitants used to live a roving life 
on the produce of the chase, their chief 
employment being the rearing of cattle. 

Scots {The BoyaV). The hundred cui- 

rassiers, called hommes des armes, which 
formed the body-guard of the French 
king, were sent to Scotland in 1633, by 
Louis XIIL, to attend the coronation of 
Charles I., at Edinburgh. On the out- 
break of the civil war, eight years after- 
wards, these cuirassiers loyally adhered to 
the crown, and received the title of "The 
Eoyal Scots." At the downfall of the 
king, the hommes des armes returned to 

Scott {The Southern). Ariosto is so 
called by Lord Byron. 

First rose 
The Tuscan father's " comedy divine " [DantS] ; 
Then, not unequal to the Florentine, 
The southern Scott, the minstrel who called forth 
A new creation with his magic hne, 
And, Kke the Ariosto of the north [Sir W. Scott], 
Sang ladye-love and war, romance and knightly 

Byron, GMlde Harold, iv. 40 (1817). 

*#* Dante was born at Florence. 

Scott of Belgium {The Walter), Hen- 
drick Conscience (1812- ). 

Scottish Anacreon {The), Alexander 
Scot is so called by Pinkerton. 

Scottish Boanerges {The), Eobert 
and James Haldane (nineteenth century). 
Robert died 1842, aged 79, and James 

Scottish Hogarth {The), David Allan 

Scottish Homer {The), William Wilkie, 
author of an epic poem in rhyme, entitled 
The Epigoniad (1753). 

Scottish Solomon {The), James VL 
of Scotland, subsequently called James I. 
of England (1566, 1603-1625). 





*#* The French king called him far more 
aptly, " The Wisest Fool in Christendom." 

Scottish Teniers {The), Sir David Wil- 
kie (1785-1841). 

Scottish Theoc'ritos {The), Allan Eam- 
say (1685-1758). 

Scotus. There were two schoolmen of 
this name : (1) John Scotus Erigena, a na- 
tive of Ireland, who died 886, in the reign 
of King Alfred ; (2) John Dmis Scotus, a 
Scotchman, who died 1308. Longfellow 
confounds these two in his Golden Legend 
when he attributes the Latin version of 
St. Bionysius, the Areopagite, to the latter 

And done into Latin by that Scottish beast, 
Erigena Johannes. 

Longfellow, The Golden Legend (1851). 

Scourers, a class of dissolute young 
men, often of the better class, who infested 
the streets of London, in the seventeenth 
century, and thought it capital fun to 
break windows, upset sedan-chairs, beat 
quiet citizens, and molest young women. 
These young blades called themselves at 
different times, Muns, Hectors, Scourers, 
Nickers, Hawcabites, and Mohawks or 


Scourge of Christians {The), Noiired- 
in-Mahmud, of Damascus (1116-1174). 

Scourge of G-otl {The), Attila, king of 
the Huns, called Flagellum Dei (died a.d. 
453). Genseric, king of the Vandals, called 
Virga Dei (*, reigned 429-477). 

Scourge of Princes {The), Pietro Ar- 
etino, of Arezzo, a merciless satirist of 
kings and princes, but very obscene and 
licentious. He called himself " Aretino 
the Divine" (1492-1557). 

Thus Aretin of late got reputation 
By scourging kings, as Lucian did of old 
By scorning gods. 
Lord Brooke, Inquisition Upon Fame (1554— 

Suidas called Lucian " The Blas- 
phemer ; " and he added that he was torn 
to pieces by dogs for his impiety. Some 
of his works attack the heathen philoso- 
phy and religion. His Jupiter Convicted 
shows Jupiter to be powerless, and Jupi- 
ter, the Tragedian, shows Jupiter and the 
other gods to be myths (120-200). 

Scourge of Scotland, Edward I., Sco- 
torum Malleus (1239, 1272-1307). 

Scrape-All, a soapy, psalm-singing 
hypocrite, who combines with Cheatly to 
supply young heirs with cash at most ex- 
orbitant usury. (See Cheatly.) — Shad- 
well, Squire of Alsatia (1688). 

Scrape on. Gentlemen. Hadrian went 
once to the public baths, and, seeing an old 
soldier scraping himself with a potsherd, 
for want of a flesh-bnish, sent him a sum 
of money. Next day the bath was crowded 
with potsherd scrapers ; but the emperor 
said when he saw them, " Scrape on, gen- 
tlemen, but you will not scrape an ac- 
quaintance with me." 

Scribble, an attorney's clerk, who tries 
to get married to Polly Honeycombe, a 
silly, novel-struck girl, but well off. He 
is happily foiled in his scheme, and Polly 
is saved from the consequences of a most 
unsuitable match. — Gr. Colman, the elder, 
Polly Honeycombe (1760). 

Scrible'rus {Cornelius), father of Mar- 
tinus. He was noted for his pedantry, 
and his odd whims about the education of 
his son. 

Martinus Scriblerus, a man of capacity, 




■who had read everything; but his judg- 
ment was worthless, and his taste per- 
verted. — (!) Arbuthnot, Memoirs of the 
Extraordinary Life, Works, and Discoveries 
of Martin Scriblerus. 

*** These " memoirs " were intended to 
be the first instalment of a general satire 
on the false taste in literature prevalent in 
the time of Pope. The only parts of any 
moment that were written of this intended 
series, were Pope's Treatise of the Bathos, 
or Art of Sinking in Poetry, and his Mem- 
oirs of P. P., Clerk of this Parish (1727), 
in ridicule of Dr. Burnett's History of His 
Own Time. The Bunciad is, however, 
preceded by a Prolegomena, ascribed to 
Martinus Scriblerus, and contains his 
notes and illustrations on the poem, thus 
connecting this merciless satire with the 
original design. 

Scriever (Jock), the apprentice of Dun- 
can Macwheeble (bailie at TuUy Veolan 
to Mr. Cosmo Comyne Bradwardine, baron 
of Bradwardine and TuUy Veolan). — Sir 
W. Scott, Waverley (time George II.). 

" Scriptores Decern, a collection of ten 
ancient chronicles on English history, in 
one vol., folio, London, 1652, edited by 
Eoger Twysden and John Selden. The 
volume contains: (1) Simeon Dunelmen- 
sis [Simeon of Durham], Historia; (2) 
Johannes Hagustaldensis [John of Hex- 
ham], Historia Continuata; (3) Eichardus 
Hagustaldensis [Eichard of Hexham], Be 
Gestis Regis Stephani; (4) Ailredus Eie-' 
vallensis [Ailred of Eieval], Historia (ge- 
nealogy of the kings) ; (5) Eadulphus de 
Diceto [Ealph of Diceto], Abhreviationes 
Chronicorwm and Ymagines Historiarum; 
(6) Johannes Brompton, Chronicon; (7) 
Gervasius Dorobornensis [Gervais of Do- 
ver], Chronica, etc. (burning and repair of 
Dover Church; contentions between the 

monks- of Canterbury and Archbishop 
Baldwin ; and lives of the archbishops of 
Canterbury); (8) Thomas Stubbs (a Do- 
minican), Chronica Pontificum ecc. Ehoraci 
[i.e. York] ; (9) Guilielmus Thorn Cantu- 
ariensis [of Canterbury], Chronica; and 
(10) Henricus Knighton Leicestrensis [of 
Leicester], Chronica. (The last three are 
chronicles of " pontiffs " or archbishops.) 

Scriptores Quinque, better known as 
Scriptores Post Bedam, published at 
Frankfiirt, 1601, in one vol., folio, and con- 
taining : (1) Willielm Malmesburiensis, Be 
Gestis Begum Anglorum, Historice Novellce, 
and Be Gestis Pontificum Anglorum; (2) 
Henry Huntindoniensis, Historia; (3) Eo- 
ger Hovedeni [Hoveden], Annates; (4) 
Ethelwerd, Chronica; and (5) Ingulphus 
Croylandensis [of Croyland], Historia. 

Scriptores Tres, three "hypothetical" 
writers on ancient history, which Dr. 
Bertram professed to have discovered be- 
tween the years 1747 and 1757. They are 
called Eichardus Corinensis [of Ciren- 
cester], Be Situ Britannia; Gildas Badon- 
icus ; and Nennius Banchorensis [of Ban- 
gor]. — J. E. Mayor, in his preface to i?i- 
cardi de Cirencestria Speculum Historiale, 
has laid bare this literary forgery. 

Scripture. Parson Adams's wife said 
to her husband that in her opinion "it 
was blasphemous to talk of Scriptures 
out of church." — Fielding, Joseph Andrews. 

A great impression in my youth 
Was made by Mrs. Adams, where she cries, 
" That Scriptures out of church are blasphemous." 
Byron, Don Juan, xiii. 96 (1824). 

Scroggen, a poor hack author, cele- 
brated b}'' Goldsmith in his Bescription of 
an Authofs Bedchamber. 





Scroggens, {Giles), a peasant, wlio 
courted Molly Bawn, but died just before 
the wedding day. Molly cried and cried 
for him, till she cried herseK fast asleep. 
Fancying that she saw Griles Scroggens's 
ghost standing at her bedside, she ex- 
claimed in terror, "What do you want?" 
" You for to come for to go along with 
me," replied the ghost. "I ben't dead, you 
fool ! " said Molly ; but the ghost rejoined, 
" W hy, that's no rule." Then, clasping her 
round the waist, he exclaimed, "Come, 
come with me, ere morning beam." " I 
won't ! " shrieked Molly, and woke to find 
"'twas nothing but a dream." — A Comic 

Scroggs (Sir William), one of the 
judges. — Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak 
(time, Charles II.). 

Scrooge (Ehene^er), partner, executor, 
and heir of old Jacob Marley, stock-broker. 
When first introduced, he is " a squeezing, 
grasping, covetous old hunks, sharp and 
hard as a flint ; " without one particle of 
sympathy, loving no one, and by none 
beloved. One Christmas Day Ebenezer 
Scrooge sees three ghosts ; The Ghost of 
Christmas Past ; Ghost of Christmas Pre- 
sent; and the Ghost of Christmas To- 
come. The first takes him back to his 
young life, shows him what Christmas was 
to him when a schoolboy, and when he 
was an apprentice; reminds him of his 
courting a young girl, whom he forsook as 
he grew rich ; and shows him that sweet- 
heart of his young days married to an- 
other, and the mother of a happy family. 
The second ghost shows him the joyous 
hohae of his clerk. Bob Cratchit, who has 
nine people to keep on 15s. a week, and 
yet could find wherewithal to make merry 
on this day ; it also shows him the family 
of his nephew, and of others. The third 

ghost shows him what would be his' lot if 
he died as he then was, the prey of har- 
pies, the jest of his friends on 'Change, 
the world's uncared-for waif. These vis- 
ions wholly changed his nature, and he be- 
comes benevolent, charitable, and cheer- 
ful, loving all, and by all beloved. — C. 
Dickens, A Christmas Carol (in five staves, 

Scrow, the clerk of Lawyer Glossin. — 
Sir W. Scott, Guy Manner ing (time 
George II.). 

Scrub, a man-of-all-work to Lady 
Bountiful. He describes his duties thus ; 

Of a Monday I drive the coach, of a Tiiesday 
I drive the plough, on Wednesday I follow the 
hounds, on Thui-sday I dun the tenants, on Fri- 
day I go to market, on Satui-day I draw war- 
rants, and on Sunday I draw beer. — Geo. Far- 
quhar, The Beaux' Stratagem, iii. 4 (1707). 

Scrubin'da, the lady who "lived by 
the scouring of pots in Dyot Street, 
Bloomsbury Square." 

Oh, was I a quart, pint, or gill, 

To be scrubbed by her delicate hands ! . . . 
My parlor that's next to the sky 

I'd quit, her blest mansion to share ; 
So happy to live and to die 

In Dyot Street, Bloomsbury Square. 

W. B. Rhodes, Bombastes Pnrioso (1790). 

Scruple, the friend of Random. He is 
too honest for a rogue, and too conscien- 
tious for a rake. At Calais he met Har- 
riet, the elder daughter of Sir David Dun- 
der, of Dunder Hall, near Dover, and fell 
in love with her„ Scruple subsequently 
got invited to Dunder Hall, and was told 
that his Harriet was to be married next 
day to Lord Snolt, a stumpy, " gummy " 
fogey of five and forty. Harriet hated the 
idea, and agreed to elope with Scruple; 
but her father discovered by accident the 




intention, and intercepted it. However, 
to prevent scandal, he gave his consent 
to the union, and discovered that Scruple, 
both in family and fortune, was quite 
suitable for a son-in-law.— Gr. Colman, 
Ways and Means (1788). 

Scu'damour (Sir), the knight beloved 
by Am'oret (whom Britomart delivered 
from Busyrane, the enchanter), and whom 
she ultimately married. He is called 
Scudamour (3 syl) from [e]scu d'amour 
("the shield of love"), which he carried 
(bk. iv. 10). This shield was hung by 
golden bands in the temple of Venus, and 
under it was written: "Whosoevee be 
THIS Shield, Faike Amobet be his." Sir 
Scudamour, determined to win the prize, 
had to fight with twenty combatants, over- 
threw them aJl, and the shield was his. 
When he saw Amoret in the company of 
Britomart, dressed as a knight, he was 
racked with jealousy, and went on his 
wanderings, accompanied by nurse Glauce 
for " his squire ;" but somewhat later, see- 
ing Britomart, without her hemlet, he felt 
that his jealousy was groundless (bk. iv. 
6). His tale is told by himself (bk. iv. 10). 
— Spenser, Faery Queen, iii., iv. (1590-6). 

Sculpture {Father of French), Jean 
Goujon (1510-1572). G. Pilon is so called 
also (1515-1590). 

Scyld, the king of Denmark preceding 
Beowulf. The Anglo-Saxon epic poem 
called Beowulf (sixth century) begins with 
the death of Scyld. 

At his appointed time, Scyld deceased, very 
decrepit, and went into the peace of the Lord. 
They . . . bore him to the sea-shore as he him- 
self requested. . . . There on the beach stood 
the ring-prowed ship, the vehicle of the noble 
. . . ready to set out. They laid down the dear 
prince, the distributer of rings, in the bosom of 
the ship, the mighty one beside the mast . . . tary " a Scythian." 

they set up a golden ensign high overhead . . . 
they gave him to the deep. Sad was their spirit, 
mournful their mood. — Kemble, Beowulf (an 
Anglo-Saxon poem, 1833). 

Scylla and Charylbdis. The former 
was a rock, in which dwelt Scylla, a hid- 
eous monster, encompassed with dogs and 
wolves. The latter was a whirlpool, into 
which Charybdis was metamorphosed.— 
Classic Fable. 

Scythian {That Brave), Darius, the 
Persian. According to Herod'otus, all 
the south-east of Europe used to be called 
Scythia, and Xenophon calls the dwellers 
south of the Caspian Sea " Scythians," 
also. In fact, by Scythia was meant the 
south of Russia and west of Asia ; hence, 
the Hungarians, a Tartar horde, settled on 
the east coast of the Caspian Sea, who, in 
889, crossed into Europe, are spoken of as 
" Scythians," and Lord Brooke calls the \ 
Persians " Scythians." The reference be- 
low is to the following event in Persian 
history: — The death of Smerdis was kept 
for a time a profound secret, and one of 
the officers about the court who resembled- 
him usurped the crown, calling himself 
brother of the late monarch. Seven of the 
high nobles conspired together, and slew 
the usurper, but it then became a question 
to which of the seven the crown should be 
offered. They did not toss for it, but they 
did much the same thing. They agreed 
to give the crown to him whose horse 
neighed first. Darius's horse won, and 
thus Darius became king of the Persian 

That brave Scythian, 
Who found more sweetness in his horse's neigh- 
Than all the Phrygian, Dorian, Lj^dian playing. 
Lord Brooke, (1554-1628). 

*#* Marlowe calls Tamburlaine of Tar- 





You shall hear the Scythian Tamburlaine 
Threatening the world with high astounding 
Marlowe, Tamburlaine (prologue, 1587). 

Scythian's Name (The). Humber or 
Humbert, king of the Huns, invaded Eng- 
land during the reign of Locrin, some 1000 
years B.C. In his flight, he was drowned 
in the river Abus, which has ever since 
been called the Humber, after " the Scy- 
thian's name." — Geoffrey, British History, 
ii. 2 (1142) ; and Milton's History of Eng- 

Or Humber loud that keeps the Scythian's name. 
Milton, Vacation Uxercise (1627). 

Sea-Captain (The), a drama by Lord 
Lytton (1839). Norman, " the sea-cap- 
tain," was the son of Lady Arundel by 
her first husband, who was murdered. 
He was born three days after his father's 
murder, and was brought up by Onslow, a 
village priest. At 14 he went to sea, and 
became the captain of a man-of-war. 
Lady Arundel married again, and had an- 
other son named Percy. She wished to ig- 
nore Norman, and to settle the title and 
estates on Percy, but it was not to be. 
Norman and Percy both loved Violet, a 
ward of Lady Arundel. Violet, however, 
loved Norman only. A scheme was laid 
to murder Norman, but failed ; and at the 
end Norman was acknowledged by his 
mother, reconciled to his brother, and 
married to the ward. 

Seaforth {The earl of), a royalist, in 
the service of King Charles I. — Sir "W. 
8cott,Legend of Montrose (time, Charles I.). 

Seasons {The), a descriptive poem in 
blank verse, by James Thomson, "Win- 
ter" (1726), "Summer" (1727), "Spring" 
(1728), "Autumn" (1730). "Winter" is 

inscribed to the earl of Wilmington; 
" Summer " to Mr. Doddington ; " Spring " 
to the countess of Hertford; and "Au- 
tumn" to Mr. Onslovf. 

1. In "Winter," after describing the 
season, the poet introduces his episode of 
a traveller lost in a snowstorm, " the 
creeping cold lays him along the snow, a 
stiffened corse," of wife, of children, and 
of friends unseen. The whole book con- 
taining 1069 hues. 

2. " Summer " begins with a description 
of the season, and the rural pursuits of 
haymaking and sheep-shearing; passes 
on to the hot noon, when " nature pants, ■ 
and every stream looks languid." After 
describing the tumultuous character of the 
season in the torrid zone, he returns to 
England, and describes a thunder-storm, 
in which Celadon and Amelia are over- 
taken. The thunder growls, the light- 
nings flash, louder and louder crashes the 
aggravated roar, " convulsing heaven and 
earth." The maiden, terrified, clings to 
her lover for protection. "Fear not, 
sweet innocence," he says. " He who in- 
volves yon skies in darkness ever smiles 
on thee. 'Tis safety to be near thee, sure, 
and thus to clasp protection." As he 
speaks the words, a flash of lightning 
strikes the maid, and lays her a blackened 
corpse at the young man's feet. The 
poem concludes with the more peaceful 
scenery of a summer's evening, when the 
story of Damon and Musidora is intro- 
duced. Damon had long loved the beauti- 
ful Musidora, but met with scant encour- 
agement. One summer's evening he ac- 
cidently came upon her bathing, and the 
respectful modesty of his love so won 
upon the damsel that she wrote upon a 
tree, " Damon, the time may come when 
you need not fly." The whole book con- 
tains 1804 lines. 

3. In " Spring " the poet describes its 




general features, and its influence on the 
vegetable and animal world. He de- 
scribes a garden with its harem of flowers, 
a grove with its orchestry of song-birds 
making melody in their love, the rough 
world of brutes, furious and fierce with 
their strong desire, and lastly man tem- 
pered by its infusive influence. The book 
contains 1173 lines. 

4. In "Autumn" we are taken to the 
harvest-field, where the poet introduces a 
story similar to that of Ruth and Boaz. 
His Ruth he calls " Lavinia," and his 
Boaz " Palemon." He then describes par- 
tridge and pheasant shooting, hare and 
fox hunting, aU of which he condemns. 
After luxuriating in the orchard and vine- 
yard, he speaks of the emigration of birds, 
the falling of the sear and yellow leaf, and 
concludes with a eulogy of country life. 
The whole book contains 1371 lines. 

*#* It is much to be regretted that the 
poet's order has not been preserved. The 
arrangement of the seasons into Spring, 
Summer, Autumn, and Winter, is un- 
natural, and mars the harmony of the 
poet's plan. 

Seatonian Prize. The Rev. Thomas 
Seaton, FeUow of Clare HaU, Cambridge 
University, bequeathed the rents of his 
Kislingbury estate for a yearly prize of 
£40 to the best English poem on a sacred 
subject announced in January, and sent 
in on or before September 29 following. 

Shall hoary Granta call her sable sons .... 
Shall these approach the Muse ? Ah, no ! she 

And even spurns the great Seatonian prize. 

Byron, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers 

Sebastes of Mytile'ne (4 syl.\ the 
assassin in the " Immortal Guards."— Sir 
W. Scott, Cownt Bohert of Paris (time, 

Sebastian, a young gentleman of Mes- 
saline, brother to Viola. They were twins, 
and so much alike that they could not be 
distinguished except by their dress. Se- 
bastian and his sister, being shipwrecked, 
escaped to lUyria. Here Sebastian was 
mistaken for his sister (who had assumed 
man's apparel), and was invited by the 
Countess Olivia to take shelter in her 
house from a street broil. Olivia was in 
love with Viola, and thinking Sebastian 
to be the object of her love, married him. 
— Shakespeare, Twelfth Night (1614). 

Sebastian, brother of Alonso, king of 
Naples, in The Tempest (1609). 

Sebastian, father of Valentine and Alice. 
— Beaumont and Fletcher, Mons. Thomas 

Sebastian {Don), king of Portugal, is 
defeated in battle and taken prisoner by 
the Moors (1574). He is saved from death 
by Dorax, a noble Portuguese, then a ren- 
egade in the court of the emperor of Bar- 
bary. The train being dismissed, Dorax 
takes off his turban, assumes his Portu- 
guese dress, and is recognized as Alonzo 
of Alcazar. — Dryden, Don Sebastian (1690). 

The quarrel and reconcilation of Sebastian 
and Dorax [alias Alonzo of Alcazar] is a masterly 
copy from a similar scene between Brutus and 
Cassius \in ShaJcespear^s Julius Ccesar]. — R. 
Chambers, English Literature, i. 380. 

Don Sebastian, a name of terror to Moor- 
ish children. 

Nor shall Sebastian's formidable name 
Be longer used to still the crying babe. 

Dryden, Don Sebastian (1690). 

Sebastian I. of Brazil, who fell in 
the battle of Alcazarquebir in 1578. Th& 
legend is that he is not dead, but is pa- 
tiently biding the fulness of time, when he 





will return, and make Brazil the cMef 
kingdom of the earth. (See Bakbaeossa.) 

Sebastoc'rator {The), the chief officer 
of state in the empire of Greece. Same as 
Protosebastos.— Sir W. Scott, Count 
Bohert of Paris (time, Eufus). 

Sebile (2 syl.), la Dame du Lac, in the 
romance called Perceforest Her castle was 
surrounded by a river, on which rested so 
thick a fog that no one could see across it. 
Alexander the Great abode with her a 
fortnight to be cured of his wounds, and 
King Arthur was the result of this amour 
(vol. i. 42). 

Secret Hill (The). Ossian said to Os- 
car, when he resigned to him the command 
of the morrow's battle, "Be thine the se- 
cret hill to-night," referring to the Gaelic 
custom of the commander of an army re- 
tiring to a secret hill the night before a 
battle, to hold communion with the ghosts 
of departed heroes. — Ossian, Cathlin of 

Secret Tribunal (The), the count of 
the Holy Vehme. — Sir W. Scott, Anne of 
Geierstein (time, Edward IV.). 

Sedgwick (Doomsday), William Sedg- 
wick, a fanatical " prophet " in the Com- 
monwealth, who pretended that it had 
been revealed to him in a vision that the 
day of doom was at hand. 

Sedillo, the licentiate, with whom Gil 
Bias took service as a footman. Sedillo 
was a gouty old gourmand of 69. Being 
ill, he sent for Dr. Sangrado, who took 
from him six porringers of blood every 
■day, and dosed Mm incessantly with warm 
water, giving him two or three pmts at a 
time, saying, " a patient cannot be blooded 

too much ; for it is a great error to sup- 
pose that blood is needful for the preser- 
vatio^i of life. Warm water," he main- 
tained, " drunk in abundance, is the true 
specific in aU distempers." When the 
licentiate died under this treatment, the 
doctor insisted it was because his patient 
had neither lost blood enough nor drunk 
enough warm water. — Lesage, Gil Bias, 
ii. 1, 2 (1715). 

Sedley (Mr.), a wealthy London stock- 
broker, brought to ruin by the fall of the 
Funds just prior to the battle of Water- 
loo. The old merchant then tried to earn 
a meagre pittance by selling wine, coals, or 
lottery-tickets by commission, but his bad 
wine and cheap coals found but few cus- 

Mrs. Sedley, wife of Mr. Sedley. A 
homely, kind-hearted motherly woman in 
her prosperous days, but- soured by adver- 
sity, and quick to take offence. 

Amelia Sedley, daughter of the stock- 
broker, educated at Miss Pinkerton's 
academy, Chiswick Mall, and engaged to 
Captain George Osborne, son of a rich 
London merchant. After the ruin of old 
Sedley, George married Amelia, and was 
disinherited by his father. He was adored 
by his young wife, but fell on the field of 
Waterloo. Amelia then returned to her 
father, and lived in great indigence, but 
Captain Dobbin greatly loved her, and did 
much to relieve her worst wants. Captain 
Dobbin rose in his profession to the rank 
of colonel, and married the young widow. 

Joseph Sedley, a collector, of Boggley 
WoUah; a fat, sensual, conceited dandy, 
vain, shy, and vulgar. " His Excellency " 
fled from Brussels on the day of the battle 
between Napoleon and Wellington, and 
returned to Calcutta, where he bragged of 
his brave deeds, and made appear that he 
was Wellington's right hand ; so that he 



obtained the sobriquet of " Waterloo Sed- 
ley." He again returned to England, and 
became the "patron" of Becky Sharp 
(then Mrs. Rawdon Crawley, but separated 
from her husband). But this lady proved 
a terrible dragon, fleeced him of all his 
money, and in six months he died under 
very suspicious circumstances.— Thack- 
eray, Vanity Fair (1848). 

Sedley (Sir Charles), in the court of 
Charles II. — Sir W. Scott, Woodstock (time. 
Commonwealth) . 

Seelencooper (Captain), superintend- 
ent of the military hospital at Ryde. — Sir 
W. Scott, The Surgeon^s Daughter (time, 
George II.). 

Seer {The Poughkeepsie), Andrew Jack- 
son Davis. 

Seicen'to (3 sgl.), the sixteenth century 
of Italian notables, the period of bad taste 
and degenerate art. The degraded art is 
termed Seicentista, and the notables of the 
period the Seicentisti. The style of writ- 
ing was inflated and bombastic, and that 
of art was what is termed " rococo." The 
chief poet was Marini (1569-1615), the 
chief painter Caravaggio (1569-1609), the 
chief sculptor Bernini (1593-1680), and the 
chief architect Borromini (1599-1667). 

Sede, in Voltaire's tragedy of Mahomet, 
was the character in which Talma, the 
great French tragedian, made his debut in 


Seidel-Beckir, the most famous of all 
talismanists. He made three of extraor- 
dmary. power: viz., a little golden fish, 
which would fetch from the sea whatever 
was desired of it ; a poniard, which ren- 

dered the person who bore it invisible, and 
all others whom he wished to be so ; and 
a steel ring, which enabled the wearer to 
read the secrets of another's heart. — Comte 
de Caylus, Oriental Tales (" The Four Tal- 
ismans," 1743). 

Sejanus (JElius), a minister of Tiberius, 
and commander of the Praetorian Gruards. 
His affability made him a great favorite. 
In order that he might be the foremost 
man of Rome, all the children and grand- 
children of the emperor were put to death 
under sundry pretences. Drusus, the son 
of Tiberius, then fell a victim. He next 
persuaded the emperor to retire, and Tibe- 
rius went to Campania, leaving to Sejanus 
the sole management of affairs. He now 
called himseK emperor; but Tiberius, 
roused from his lethargy, accused his min- 
ister of treason. The senate condemned 
him to be strangled, and his remains, being 
treated with the grossest insolence, were 
kicked into the Tiber, a.d. 31. This was 
the subject of Ben Jonson's first historical 
play, entitled Sejanus (1603). 

Sejjin or Sejn, the record of all evil 
deeds, whether by men or the genii, kept 
by the recording angel. It also means 
that dungeon beneath the seventh earth, 
where Eblis and his companions are con- 

Verily, the register of the deeds of the wicked 
is surely ia Sejjin. — Sale, Al Kordn, Ixxxiii. 

Selby {Captain), an officer in the guards. 
— Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, 
Charles II.). 

Self- Admiration Society {The). 
Poets: Morris, Rosetti and Swinburne. 
Painters: Brown, Mudon, Whistler and 
some others. 

Ill 1 




Selim, son of Abdallali, who was mur- 
dered by Ms brother, Giaffir (pacha of 
Aby'dos). After the death of his brother, 
Giaffir (2 syl.) took Selim under his 
charge and brought him up, but treated 
him with considerable cruelty. Giaffir 
had a daughter named Zuleika (3 syl.), 
with whom Selim fell in love ; but Zuleika 
thought he was her brother. As soon as 
Giaffir discovered the attachment of the 
two cousias for each other, he informed 
his daughter that he intended her to 
marry Osmyn Bey ; but Zuleika eloped 
with Selim, the pacha pursued them, 
Selim was shot, Zuleika killed herself, and 
Giafflr was left childless and alone. — By- 
ron, Bride of Abydos (1813). 

Selim, son of Acbar. Jehanguire was 
called Selim before his accession to the 
throne. He married Nourmahal, the 
" Light of the Haram," but a coolness rose 
up between them. One night Nourmahal 
entered the sultan's banquet-room as a 
lute-player, and so charmed young Selim 
that he exclaimed, " If Nourmahal had so 
sung, I could have forgiven her ! " It was 
enough. Nourmahal threw off her dis- 
guise, and became reconciled to her hus- 
band. — T. Moore, Lalla Bookh (" Light of 
the Haram," 1817). 

Selim, son of the Moorish king of Al- 
giers. [Horush] Barbarossa, the Greek 
renegade, having made himself master of 
Algiers, slew the reigning king, but Selim 
escaped. After the lapse of seven years, 
he returned under the assumed name of 
Achmet, and headed an uprising of the 
Moors. The insurgents succeeded, Barba- 
rossa was slain, the widowed Queen Za- 
phira was restored to her husband's throne, 
and Selim, her son, married IrenS, daugh- 
ter of Barbarossa. — J. Brown, Barbarossa 
(1742 or 1755). 

Selim, friend of Etan (the supposed son 
of Zamti, the mandarin). — Murphy, The 
Orphan of China (1759). 

Serima, daughter of Bajazet, sultan of 
Turkey, in love with Prince Axalla, but 
promised by her father in marriage to 
Omar. When Selima refused to marry 
Omar, Bajazet would have slain her ; but 
Tamerlane commanded both Bajazet and 
Omar to be seized. So every obstacle 
was removed from the union of Selima 
and AxaUa. — ^N. Eowe, Tamerlane (1702), 

Selima, one of the six Wise Men from 
the East, led by the guiding star to Jesus. 
— Klopstock, The Messiah, v. (1771). 

Se'lith, one of the two guardian angels 
of the Virgin Mary, and of John the Di- 
vine. — Klopstock, The Messiah, ix. (1771). 

Sellock {Cisly), a servant girl in the 
service of Lady and Sir Geoffrey Peveril, 
of the Peak.— Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the 
Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Selvaggio, the father of Sir Industry, 
and the hero of Thomson's Castle of Indo- 

In Fairy-land there lived a knight of old, 
Of feature stern, Selvaggio well y-clept ; 
A rough, unpolished man, robust and bold, 
But wondrous poor. He neither sowed nor 

reaped ; 
No stores in summer for cold winter heaped. 
In hunting aU his days away he wore — 

Now scorched by June, now in November 
Now pinched by biting January sore. 

He still in woods pursued the hbbard and the 
Thomson, Castle of Indolence, ii. 5 (1745). 

Sem'ele (3 syl.), ambitious of enjoying 
Jupiter in all his glory, perished from the 
sublime effulgence of the god. This is 




substantially the tale of the second story 
of T. Moore's Loves of the Angels. Liris 
requested her angel lover to come to her 
in all his angelic brightness; but was 
burnt to ashes as she fell into his embrace. 

For majesty gives nought to subjects, . . . 
A royal smile, a guinea's glorious rays. 
Like Semele, woulcl kill us with its blaze. 
Peter Pindar [Dr. Wolcot], Progress of Admi- 
ration (1809). 

Semi'da, the young man, the only son 
of a widow, raised from the dead by Jesus, 
as he was being carried from the walls of 
Nain. He was deeply in love with Cidli, 
the daughter of Jairus. 

He was in the bloom of life. His hair hung 
in curls on his shoulders, and he appeared as 
beautiful as David, when, sitting by the stream 
of Bethlehem, he was ravished at the voice of 
God. — Klopstock, The Messiah, iv. (1771). 

Semir'amis, queen of Assyria, wife of 
Ninus. She survived her husband, and 
reigned. The glory of her reign stands 
out so prominently that she quite eclipses 
all the monarchs of ancient Assyria. Af- 
ter a reign of forty-two years she resigned 
the crown to her son, Mnyas, and took 
her flight to heaven in the form of a dove. 
Semiramis was the daughter of Derceto, 
the fish-goddess, and a Syrian youth, and, 
being exposed in infancy, was brought up 
by doves. 

Semiramis of the North, Margaret, 
daughter of Waldemar III. of Denmark. 
At the death of her father she succeeded 
him ; by the death of her husband, Haco 
VIII., king of Norway, she succeeded to 
that kingdom also ; and, having conquered 
Albert of Sweden, she added Sweden to 
her empire. Thus was she queen of Den- 
mark, Norway and Sweden (1353-1412). 

Semirmnis of the North, Catherine of 

Russia, a powerful and ambitious sove- 
reign, but in morals a law unto herself 

•Semkail, the angel of the winds and 

I keep the winds in awe with the hand which 
you see in the air, and prevent the wind Haidge 
from coming forth. If I gave it freedom it 
would reduce the universe to powder. With my 
other hand I hinder the sea from overflowing, 
without which precaution it would cover the face 
of the whole earth. — Comte de Caylus, Oriental 
Tales (" History of Abdal MotaUeb," 1743). 

Semo {Son of), CuthuUin, general of 
the Irish tribes. 

Sempro'nius, one of the " friends " of 
Timon of Athens, and " the first man that 
e'er received a gift from him." When Ti- 
mon sent to borrow a sum of money of 
" his friend," he excused himself thus : As 
Timon did not think proper to apply to 
me first, but asked others before he sent 
to me, I consider his present application 
an insult. " Go," said he to the servant, 
" and tell your master : 

"Who bates mine honor shall not know my coin." 
Shakespeare, Timon of Athens, act iii. sc. 3 (1600). 

Sempronius, a treacherous friend of Cato 
while in Utica. Sempronius tried to mask 
his treason by excessive zeal and unmeas- 
ured animosity against Caesar, with whom 
he was acting in alliance. He loved Mar- 
cia, Cato's daiighter, but his love was not 
honorable love; and when he attempted 
to carry off the lady by force, he was slain 
by Juba, the Numidian prince. — J. Addi- 
son, Cato (1713). 

I'H conceal 

My thoughts in passion, 'tis the surest way. 

I'll beUow out for Rome, and for my country. 

And mouth at Caesar tiU I shake the senate. 

Your cold hypocrisy's a stale device, 

A worn-out trick. 

Act i. 1. 




Sena'nus {St.), the saint who fled to 
the island of Scattery, and resolved that 
no woman should ever step upon the isle. 
An angel led St. Can'ara to the isle, but 
Senanus refused to admit her.— T. Moore, 
Irish Melodies ("St. Senanus and the 
Lady," 1814). 

Sen'eca {The Christian), Bishop Hall, 
of Norwich (1574^1656). 

Sene'na (3 syl), a Welsh maiden, in 
love with Car'adoc. She dressed in boy's 
clothes, and, under the assumed name of 
Mervyn, became the page of the Princess 
Goervyl, that she might follow her lover 
to America, when Madoc colonized Caer- 
Madoc. Senena was promised in marriage 
to another; but when the wedding day 
arrived and aU was ready, the bride was 
nowhere to be found. 

. . . she doffed 
Her bridal robes, and dipt her golden loots, 
And put on boy's attire, thro' wood and wild 
To seek her own true love ; and over sea, 
Forsaking all for him, she followed him. 

Southey, Madoc, u. 23 (1805). 

Sennac'herib, called by the Orientals 
King Moussal. — D'Herbelot, Notes to the 
Koran (seventeenth century). 

Sennamar, a very skilful architect, who 
built at Hirah, for N6man-al-A6uar, king 
of Hirah, a most magnificent palace. In 
order that he might not build another 
equal or superior to it, for some other 
monarch, Noman east him headlong from 
the highest tower of the building. — D'Her- 
belot, Bibliotheque Orientale (1697). 

*** A parallel tale is told of Neim'heid 
(2 syl), who employed four architects to 
build for him a palace in Ireland, and then, 
jealous lest they should build one like it, 
or superior to it, for another monarch, he 

had them aU privately put to death. — 
O'HaUoran, History of Ireland. 

Sensitive {Lord), a young nobleman of 
amorous proclivities, who marries Sabina 
Eosny, a French refugee, in Padua, but 
leaves her, more from recklessness than 
wickedness. He comes to England and 
pays court to Lady Euby, a rich young 
widow; but Lady Euby knows of his 
marriage to the young French girl, and so 
hints at it that his lordship, who is no lib- 
ertine, and has a great regard for his 
honor, sees that his marriage is known, 
and tells Lady Euby he will start without 
delay to Padua, and bring his young wife 
home. This, however, was not needful, 
as Sabina was at the time the guest of 
Lady Euby. She is called forth, and Lord 
Sensitive openly avows her to be his wife, 
— Cumberland, First Love (1796). 

Sentimental Journey {The), by Lau- 
rence Sterne (1768). It was intended to 
be sentimental sketches of his tour 
through Italy in 1764, but he died soon 
" after completing the first part. The tour- 
ist lands at Calais, and the first incident 
is his interview with a poor monk of St. 
Francis, who begged alms for his convent. 
Sterne refused to give anything, but his 
heart smote him for his churlishness to 
the meek old man. From Calais he goes to 
Montriul (Montreuil-sur-Mer) and thence 
to Nampont, near Cressy. Here occurred 
the incident, which is one of the most 
touching of all the sentimental sketches, 
that of " The Dead Ass." His next stage 
was Amiens, and thence to Paris. While 
looking at the Bastille, he heard a voice 
crying, " I can't get out ! I can't get 
out ! " He thought it was a child, but it 
was only a caged starling. This led him 
to reflect on the delights of liberty and 
miseries of captivity. Giving reins to his 


fancy, he imaged to himself a prisoner 
■who for thirty years had been confined in 
a dungeon, during all which time "he 
had seen no sun, no moon, nor had the 
voice of kinsman breathed through his 
lattice." Carried away by his feehngs, he 
burst into tears, for he " could not sustain 
the picture of confinement which his 
fancy had drawn." While at Paris, our 
tourist visited Versailles, and introduces 
an incident which he had witnessed some 
years previously at Rennes, in Brittany. 
It was that of a marquis reclaiming his 
sword and "patent of nobihty." Any 
nobleman in France who engaged in trade, 
forfeited his rank ; but there was a law 
in Brittany that a nobloman of reduced 
circumstances might deposit his sword 
temporarily with the local magistracy, 
and if better times dawned upon him, he 
might reclaim it. Sterne was present at 
one of these interesting ceremonies. A 
marquis had laid down his sword to mend 
his fortune by trade, and after a success- 
ful career at Martinico for twenty years, 
returned home, and reclaimed it. On re- 
ceiving his deposit from the president, he 
drew it slowly from the scabbard, and, 
observing a spot of rust near the point, 
dropped a tear on it. As he wiped the 
blade lovingly, he remarked, " I shall find 
some other way to get it off." Returning 
to Paris, our tourist starts for Italy ; but 
the book ends with his arrival at Moulines 
(Moulins). Some half a league from this 
city he encountered Maria, whose pathetic 
story had been told him by Mr. Shandy. 
She had lost her goat when Sterne saw 
her, but had instead a little dog named 
Silvio, led by a string. She was sitting 
under a poplar, playing on a pipe her 
vespers to the Virgin. Poor Maria had 
been crossed in love, or, to speak more 
strictly, the cure of Moulines had forbid- 
den her banns, and the maiden lost her 

reason. Her story is exquisitely told, and 
Sterne says, " Could the traces be ever 
worn out of her brain, and those of Eliza 
out of mine, she should not only eat of 
my bread and drink of my cup, but Maria 
should lie in my bosom, and be unto me 
as a daughter." 

Sentinel and St. Paul's Clock (The). 
The sentinel condemned to death by court- 
martial for falling asleep on his watch, 
but pardoned because he affirnp.ed that he 
heard St. Paul's clock strike thirteen in- 
stead of twelve, was John Hatfield, who 
died at the age of 102, June, 1770, 

Sentry (Captain), one of the members 
of the club under whose auspices the 
Spectator was professedly issued. 

September Massacre (The), the 
slaughter of loyalists confined in the Ab- 
baye. This massacre took place in Paris 
between September 2 and 5, 1792, on re- 
ceipt of the news of the capture of Ver- 
dun. The number of victims was not 
less than 1200, and some place it as high 
as 4000. 

September the Third was Crom- 
well's day. On September 3, 1650, he 
won the battle of Dunbar. On September 
3, 1651, he won the battle of Worcester. 
On September 3, 1658, he died. 

Seraphic Doctor (The), St. Bonaven- 
tura, placed by Dante among the saints of 
his Paradiso (1221-1274). 

Seraphic Saint (The), St. Francis 
d'Assisi (1182-1226). 

Of all the saints, St. Francis was the most 
blameless and gentle. — Dean MUman. 

Seraphina Arthuret (Miss), a papist. 





Her sister is Miss Angelica Arthuret. — 
Sir W. Scott, Bedgauntlet (time, George 

Sera'pis, an Egyptian deity symbolizing 
the Nile, and fertility in general. 

Seraskier' (3 syl), a name given by 
the Turks to a general of division, gen- 
erally a pacha with two or three tails. 
(Persian, seri asker, " head of the army.") 

. . . three thousand Moslems perished here, 

And sixteen bayonets pierced the seraskier. 

Byron, Don Juan, viii. 81 (1824). 

Serb, a Servian or native of Servia. 

Sereme'nes (4 syl), brother-in-law of 
King Sardanapalus, to whom he entrusts 
Ms signet-ring to put down the rebellion 
headed by Arbaces, the Mede, and Belesis, 
the Chaldean soothsayer. Seremenes was 
slain in a battle with the insurgents. — By- 
ron, Sardanapalus (1819). 

Sere'na, allured by the mildness of the 
weather, went into the fields to gather 
wild flowers for a garland, when she was 
attacked by the Blatant Beast, who car- 
ried her off in its mouth. Her cries at- 
tracted to the spot Sir Calidore, who com- 
pelled the beast to drop its prey. — Spen- 
ser, Faery Queen, vi. 3 (1596). 

Sergis (5**/), the attendant on Irena. 
He informs Sir Artegal that Irena is the 
captive of Grrantorto, who has sworn to 
take her life within ten days, unless some 
knight will volunteer to be her champion, 
and in single combat prove her innocent 
of the crime laid to her charge. — Spenser, 
Faery Queen, v. 11 (1596). 

Serg^us, a Nestorian monk, said to be 
the same as Boheira, who resided at Bos- 

ra, in Syria. This monk, we are told, 
helped Mahomet in writing the Koran. 
Some say it was Said or Felix Boheira. 

Boheira's name, in the books of Christians, is 
Sergius. — Masudi, History, 24 (a.d. 956). 

Serimner, the wild boar whose lard 
fed the vast multitude in Einheriar, the 
haU of Odin. Though fed on daUy, the 
boar never diminished in size. Odin 
himself gave his own portion of the lard 
to his two wolves, Geri and Freki. — Scan- 
dinavian Mythology. (See Eusticus's Pig.) 

Seri'na, daughter of Lord Acasto, 
plighted to Chamont (the brother of Mo- 
nimia, "the orphan"). — Otway, The Or- 
phan (1680). 

Seriswattee, the Janus of Hindu my- 

The Serpent and Satan. There is an 
Arabian tradition that the devil begged 
all the animals, one after another, to 
carry him into the garden, that he might 
speak to Adam and Eve, but they all re- 
fused except the serpent, who took him 
between two of its teeth. It was then the 
most beautiful of all the animals, and 
walked upon legs and feet. — Masudi, His- 
tory, 22 (A.D. 956). 

The Serpents Punishment. The punish- 
ment of the serpent for tempting Eve was 
this: (1) Michael was commanded to cut 
off its legs; and (2) the serpent was 
doomed to feed on human excrements 
ever after. 

Serpent d'Isabit, an enormous mon- 
ster, whose head rested on the top of the 
Pic du Midi de Bigorre, its body filled the 
whole valley of Luz, St. Sauveur, and 
G^dres, and its tail was coiled in the hol- 
low below the cirque of Gavarnie. It fed 



once in three months, and suppUed itself 
by making a very strong inspiration of its 
breath, whereupon every living thing 
around was drawn into its maw. It was 
ultimately killed by making a huge bon- 
fire, and waking it from its torpor, when 
it became enraged, and drawing a deep 
breath, drew the bonfire into its maw, and 
died in agony.— Eev. W. Webster, A Py- 
renean Legend (1877). 

Served My God. Wolsey said, in his 
fall, " Had I but served my God with haK 
the zeal I served my king. He would not 
in mine age have left me naked to mine 
enemies." — Shakespeare, Henry VIII. act 
iii. sc. 2 (1601). 

Samkah, when he was deposed from the 
government of Basorah by the Caliph 
Moawiyah, said, " If I had served God so 
well as I have served the eahph, He would 
never have condemned me to all eternity." 

Antonio Perez, the favorite of Philip 
II. of Spain, said, " Mon zele etoit si 
grand vers ces benignes puissances [i.e. 
Turin] qui si j'en eusse eu autant pour 
Dieu, je ne doubte point qu'il ne m'eut 
deja recompense de son paradis." 

The earl of Goweie, when, in 1854, he 
was led to execution, said, "If I had 
served God as faithfully as I have done 
the king [James VI.], I should not have 
come to this end." — Spotswood, History 
of the Church of Scotland, 332, 333 (1653). 

Sesostris {The Modern), Napoleon 
Bonaparte (1769, 1804-1815, 1821). 

But where is he, the modem, mightier far, 
"Who, born no king, made monarehs draw his 

The new Sesostris, whose unharnessed kings. 
Freed from the hit, heheve themselves with 

And spurn the dust o'er which they crawled of 

Chained to the chariot of the chieftain's state ? 
Byron, Age of Bronze (1821). 

*#* " Sesostris," in Fenelon's Telemaque, 
is meant for Louis XIV. 

Set'ebos, a deity of the Patagonians. 

His art is of such power, 
It would control my dam's god Setebos. 
Shakespeare, The Tempest (1609). 

The giants, when they found themselves feit- 
tered, roared hke buUs, and cried upon Setebos 
to help them. — Eden, History of Travayle. 

Seth, a servant of the Jew at Ashby. 
Eeuben is his fellow-servant. — Sir W. 
Scott, Ivanhoe (time, Eichard I.), 

Seth Fairchild. Young countryman, 
who is almost persuaded to be in love 
with Isabel, the wife of his brother, Albert. 
Albert is killed — it is supposed, accident- 
ally — and Isabel, assuming that Seth has 
murdered him, and for her sake, promises 
to keep the deed secret. The horror of the 
supposition and her readiness to believe 
him capable of the crime, dispels Seth's 
unholy illusion and sends him back to his 
first love, who has always been his good 
angel. — Harold Frederic, Seth's Brother's 
Wife (1887). 

Settle (ElJcana), the poet, introduced 
by Sir W. Scott in Peveril of the Peak (time, 
Charles II.). 

Seven Champions of Christendom 

(The) : St. George for England ; St. An- 
drew for Scotland; St. Patrick for Ire- 
land ; St. David for "Wales ; St. Denis for 
France ; St. James for Spain ; and St. An- 
thony for Italy. 

*#* Eichard Johnson wrote The Famous 
History of the Seven Champions of Christen- 
dom (1617). 

Seven, Rienzi's Number. 

October 7, Rienzi's foes yielded to his power. 
7 months Rienzi reigned as tribune. 




7 years lie was absent in exile. 

7 weeks of return saw him without an enemy 
(Oct. 7). 

. 7 was the number of the crowns the Roman 
convents and the Roman council awarded him. 

Seven Sleepers {The). The tale of 
these sleepers is told in divers manners. 
The best accounts are those in the Koran 
xviii., entitled, "The Cave, Revealed at 
Mecca ; " The Golden Legends, by Jacqnes 
de Voragine ; the Be Gloria Martyrum, i. 
9, by Gregory of Tours ; and the Oriental 
Tales, by Comte de Caylus (1743). 

Names of the Seven Sleepers. Gregory 
of Tours says their names were : Constan- 
tine, Dionysius, John, Maximian, Malchus, 
Martinian or Marcian, and Serapion. In 
the Oriental Tales the names given are: 
Jemlikha, Mekchilinia, Mechlima, Mer- 
lima, Debermouch, Charnouch, and the 
shepherd Keschetiouch. Their names are 
not given in the Koran. 

Nmnber of the Sleepers. Al Seyid, a 
Jacobite Christian of Najran, says the 
sleepers were only three, with their dog ; 
others maintain that their number was 
five, besides the dog; but Al Beidawi, 
who is followed by most authorities, says 
they were seven, besides the dog. 

Duration of the Sleep. The Koran says 
it was " 300 years and nine years over ; " 
the Oriental Tales say the same; but if 
Gregory of Tours is followed, the duration 
of the sleep was barely 230 years. 

The Legend of the Seven Sleepers. (1) 
According to Gregory of Tours. Gregory 
says they were seven noble youths of 
Ephesus, who fled in the Decian persecu- 
tion to a cave in Mount Celion, the mouth 
of which was blocked up by stones. After 
230 years they were discovered, and awoke, 
but died within a few days, and were 
taken in a large stone coffin to Marseilles. 
Visitors are still shown, in St. Victor's 
Church, the stone coffin. 

If there is any truth at all in the legend, 
it amounts to this: In a.d. 250, some 
youths (three or seven) suffered martyr- 
dom under the Emperor Decius, "fell 
asleep in the Lord," and were buried in a 
cave of Mount Celion. In 479 (the reign 
of Theodosius) their bodies were discov- 
ered, and, being consecrated as holy relics, 
were removed to Marseilles. 

(2) According to the Oriental Tales. 
Six Grecian youths were slaves in the 
palace of Dakianos (Decianus, Decius). 
This Dakianos had risen from low degrees 
to kingly honors, and gave himself out to 
be a god. Jemlikha was led to doubt the 
divinity of his master, because he was un- 
able to keep off a fly which persistently 
tormented him, and being roused to reflec- 
tion, came to the conclusion that there 
must be a god to whom both Dakianos 
and the fly were subject. He communi- 
cated his thoughts to his companions, and 
they aU fled from the Ephesian court till 
they met the shepherd Keschetiouch, 
whom they converted, and who showed 
them a cave, which no one but himself 
knew of. Here they fell asleep, and Da- 
kianos, having discovered them, com- 
manded the mouth of the cave to be closed 
up. Here the sleepers remained 309 years, 
at the expiration of which time they all 
awoke, but died a few hours afterwards. 

The Dog of the Seven Sleepers. In the 
notes of the Koran, by Sale, the dog's 
name is Kratim, Kratimer, or Katmir. 
In the Oriental Tales it is Catnier, which 
looks like a clerical blunder for Catmer, 
only it occurs frequently. It is one of the 
ten animals admitted into Mahomet's par- 
adise. The Koran teUs us that the dog 
followed the seven young men into the 
cave, but they tried to drive Mm away, 
and even broke three of its legs with 
stones, when the dog said to them, " I love 
those who love God. Sleep, masters, and 



I wiU keep guard." In the Oriental Tales 
the dog is made to say, " You go to seek 
Grod, but am not I also a child of God?" 
Hearing this, the young men were so as- 
tounded, they went immediately, and car- 
ried the dog into the cave. 

The Place of Sepulture of the Seven Sleep- 
ers. ^ Gregory of Tours tells us that the 
bodies were removed from Mount Cehon 
in a stone cofiBn to Marseilles. The Koran, 
with Sale's notes, informs us they were 
buried in the cave, and a chapel was built 
there to mark the site. (See Sleeper.) 

The Seven Sleepers turning on their sides. 
WiUiam of Malmesbury says that Edward 
the Confessor, in his mind's eye, saw the 
seven sleepers turn from their right sides 
to their left, and (he adds) whenever they 
turn on their sides, it indicates great dis- 
asters to Christendom. 

"Woe, woe to England ! I have seen a vision : 
The seven sleepers in the cave of Ephesus 
Have turned from right to left. 

Tennyson, Harold, i. 1. 

Seven Wise Masters. Lucien, the son 
of Dolopathos, was placed under the charge 
of Virgil, and was tempted in manhood 
by his step-mother. He repelled her ad- 
vances, and she accused him to the king 
of taking liberties with her. By consult- 
ing the stars it was discovered that if he 
could tide over seven days his life would 
be spared ; so seven wise masters under- 
took to tell the king a tale each, in illus- 
tration of rash judgments. When they 
had aU told their tales, the prince related, 
under the disguise of a tale, the story of 
the queen's wantonness; whereupon Lu- 
cien was restored to favor, and the queen 
was put to death. — Sandabar, Parables 
(contemporary with King Courou). 

*#* John EoUand, of Dalkeith, has ren- 
dered this legend into Scotch verse. There 
is an Arabic version by Nasr Allah (twelfth 

century), borrowed from the Indian by 
Sandabar. In the Hebrew version by 
Eabbi Joel (1270), the legend is called 
Kalilah and Bimnah. 

Seven Wise Men {The). 

One of Plutarch's brochures in the Mora- 
lia is entitled " The Banquet of the Seven 
Wise Men," in which Periander is made to 
give an account of a contest at Chalcis be- 
tween Homer and Hesiod, in which the 
latter wins the prize, and receives a tri- 
pod, on which he caused to be engraved 
this inscription : 

This Hesiod vows to the Heliconian nine, 
In Chalcis won from Homer the divine. 

Seven Wise Men of Greece {The), 
seven Greeks of the sixth century B.C., 
noted for their maxims. 

Bias. His maxim was, " Most men are 
bad" (" There is none that doeth good, no, 
not one," Psalm xiv. 3) : ol nXhovg Kanol (fl. 
B.C. 550). 

Chilo. "Consider the end:" T^Xog 6f,f.v 
mnpov piov (fl. B. c. 590). 

Cleobulos. "Avoid extremes" (the 
golden mean) : "ApioTov fierpov (fl. b.c. 580). 

Peeiakder. " Nothing is impossible to 
industry" (patience and perseverance 
overcome mountains) : UeXstt) rd ndv (b.c. 

PiTTACOS. "Know thy opportunity" 
(seize time by the forelock) : Kaipbv yvudi 
(B.C. 652-569). 

Solon. " Know thyself : " TvUdi aeavrbv 
(b.c. 638-558). 

Thales (2 syl). " Suretyship is the 
forerunner of ruin." ("He that hateth 
suretyship is sure," Prov. xi. 15) : Eyyva, 
ndpa d'aTT] (B.C. 636-546). 

First Solon, who made the Athenian laws, 
While Chilo, in Sparta, was famed for his saws ; 
In Miletos did Thales astronomy teach ; 
Bias used in PrienS his morals to preach ; 




Cleobulos of Lindos, was handsome and wise ; 
MitylenS, gainst thraldom saw Pittacos rise ; 
Periander is said to have gained, thro' his court, 
The title that Myson, the Chenian, ought. 

*#* It is Plato who says that Myson 
should take the place of Periander as one 
of the Seven Wise Men. 

Seven Years. 

Barbarossa changes his position in his 
sleep every seven years. 

Charlemagne starts in his chair from 
sleep every seven years. 

Ogier, the Dane, stamps his iron mace 
on the floor every seven years. 

Olaf Eedbeard of Sweden uncloses his 
eyes every seven years. 

Seven Year's War {The), the war 
maintained by Frederick II. of Prussia 
against Austria, Russia, and France (1756- 

Seven Against Thebes (The). At 
the death of (Edipus, his two sons, 
Ete8cles and Polynices, agreed to reign 
alternate years, but at the expiration of 
the first year Eteoel^s refused to resign 
the crown to his brother. Whereupon, 
Polynices induced six others to join him 
in besieging Thebes, but the expedition was 
a failure. The names of the seven Grec- 
ian chiefs who marched against Thebes 
were: Adrastos, Amphiaraos, Kapaneus, 
Hippomedon (Argives), Parthenopseos 
(an Arcadian), Polynices {a Theban), and 
Tydeus {an JEolian). (See Epigoni.) 

-(Eschylos has a tragedy on the sub- 

Severn, a corruption of Averne, 
daughter of Astrild. The legend is this : 
Kmg Locryn was engaged to Gwendolen, 
daughter of Corineus, but seeing Astrild 
(daughter of the king of Germany), who 

came to this island with Homber, king of 
Hungary, fell in love with her. While 
Corineus lived he durst not offend him, so 
he married Gwendolen, but kept Astrild 
as his mistress, and had by her a daughter 
(Averne). When Corineus died, he di- 
voi'ced Gwendolen, and declared Astrild 
queen, but Gwendolen summoned her vas- 
sals, dethroned Locryn, and caused both 
Astrild and Averne to be cast into the 
river, ever since called Severn f ron Averne 
" the kinges dohter." 

Sevier {Dr.), New Orleans physician. 
" His inner heart was all of flesh, but his 
demands for the rectitude of mankind 
pointed out like the muzzles of cannon 
through the embrasures of his virtues." 
He befriends the struggling Richlings, set- 
ting John upon his feet time and again, 
and in his last illness, never leaving him 
until he goes out and closes the door upon 
the dying man, reunited to his wife and 
child. Dr. Sevier finds work for the 
widow, and educates little Alice, .named 
for his own dead wife. 

"And oh! when they two, who have never 
joined hands on this earth, go to meet John and 
Alice, — ^which God grant may be at one and the 
same time, — what weeping there will be among 
God's poor ! " — George W. Cable, Br. Sevier 

Sevrall {Judge) Colonial judge in Mas- 
sachusetts. He has left in his diary a 
circumstantial account of his courtship of 
Madam Winthrop, also a curious "con- 
fession" made by him in church of the 
"Guilt contracted upon the opening of 
the late Commission of Oyer and Ter- 
miner, at Salem." — Bewail Papers (1697). 

Sewall {Rev. Mr.). Boston clergyman, 
liberal in opinion, and large of heart. He 
counsels the Lapham parents in their 
family perplexities, and becomes the not- 




too-willing sponsor of Lemuel Barker, a 

rustic aspirant after literary honors. W. 

L. Howells, The Rise of Silas Lapham 
and The Minister's Charge. 

Sex. Milton says that spirits can as- 
sume either sex at pleasure, and Michael 
Psellus asserts that demons can take what 
sex, shape, and color they please, and can 
also contract or dilate their forms at plea- 

For spirits when they please, 
Can either sex assume, or both ; so soft 
And uncompounded is their essence pure ; 
Not tied or manacled with joint and Hmb, 
Nor founded on the brittle strength of bones, 
Like cumbrous flesh. 

Paradise Lost, i. 423, etc. (1665). 

Sex. Caeneus and Tire'sias were at one 
part of their lives of the male sex, and at 
another part of their lives of the female 
sex. (See these names.) 

Iphis was first a woman, and then a 
man. — Ovid, Metamorphoses, ix. 12; xiv 

Sextus [Tarquinms]. There are sev- 
eral points of resemblance in the story of 
Sextus and that of Paris, son of Priam. 
(1) Paris was the guest of Menelaos, when 
he eloped with his wife, Helen ; and Sex- 
tus was the guest of Lucretia when he de- 
filed her. (2) The elopement of Helen 
was the cause of a national war between 
the Grreek cities and the allied cities of 
Troy ; and the defilement of Lucretia was 
the cause of a national war between Eome 
and the allied cities under Por'sena. (3) 
The contest between Greece and Troy 
terminated in the victory of Grreece, the 
injured party; and the contest between 
Eome and the supporters of Tarquin termi- 
nated in favor of Eome, the injured party. 
(4) In the Trojan war, Paris, the aggress- 
or, showed himself before the Trojan 

ranks, and defied the bravest of the Gi-reeks 
to single combat, but when Menelaos ap- 
peared, he took to flight ; and so Sextus 
rode vauntingly against the Eoman host, 
but when Herminius appeared, fled to the 
rear like a coward. (5) In the Trojan con- 
test, Priam and his sons fell in battle ; and 
in the battle of Lake Eegillus, Tarquin 
and his sons were slain, 

*#* Lord Macaulay has taken the "Bat- 
tle of Lake Eegillus" as the subject of 
one of his Lays of Ancient Home. Another 
of his lays, called "Horatius," is the attempt 
of Porsena to re-establish Tarquin on the 

Seyd, pacha of the Morea, assassinated 
by Gulnare (2 syl.), his favorite concubine. 
Gulnare was rescued from the burning 
harem by Conrad, "the Corsair." Con- 
rad, in the disguise of a dervise, was de- 
tected and seized in the palace of Seyd, 
and Gulnare, to effect his liberation, mur- 
dered the pacha. — Byron, The Corsair 

Seyton {Lord), a supporter of Queen 
Mary's cause. 

Catherine Seyton, daughter of Lord Sey- 
ton, a maid of honor in the Court of Queen 
Mary. She appears at Kinross village in 

Henry Seyton, son of Lord Seyton. — 
Sir W. Scott, The Allot (time, Elizabeth). 

Sforza, of Lombardy. He with his two 
brothers (Achilles and Palamed^s) were in 
the squadron of adventurers in the allied 
Christian army. — Tasso, Jerusalem Deliv- 
ered (1575). 

*#* The word Sforza means " force," 
and, according to tradition, was derived 
thus : Giacomuzzo Attendolo, the son of a 
day laborer, being desirous of going to the 
wars, consulted his hatchet, resolving to 





enlist if it stuck fast in the tree at whicli 
he flung it. He threw it with such force 
that the whole blade was completely buried 
in the trunk (fifteenth century). 

Sforza (Ludov'ico), duke of Milan, sur- 
named "the More," from mora, "a mul- 
berry " (because he had on his arm a birth- 
stain of a mulberry color). Ludovico was 
dotingly fond of his bride, Marceha, and 
his love was amply returned ; but during 
his absence in the camp, he left Francesco 
lord protector, and Francesco assailed the 
fidelity of the young duchess. Failing in 
his villainy, he accused her to the duke of 
playing the wanton with him, and the 
duke, in a fit of jealousy, slew her. Sforza 
was afterwards poisoned by Eugenia (sis- 
ter of Francesco), whom he had seduced. 

Nina Sforza, the duke's daughter. — ^Mas- 
singer, The Duke of Milan (1622). 

*#* This tragedy is obviously an imita- 
tion of Shakespeare's Othello (1611). 

Sganarelle, the " cocu imaginaire," of 
Moliere's comedy (1660). The plot runs 
thus: Celie was betrothed to Lelie, but 
her father, Grorgibus, insisted on her mar- 
rying Valere, because he was the I'icher 
man. Celie fainted on hearing this, and 
dropped her lover's miniature, which was 
picked up by Sganarelle's wife. Sgana- 
relle, thinking it to be the portrait of a 
gallant, took possession of it, and Lelie 
asked him how he came by it. Sganarelle 
said he took it from his wife, and Lelie 
supposed that Celie had become the wife of 
Sganarelle. A series. of misapprehensions 
arose thence: Celie supposed that Lelie 
had deserted her for Madame Sganarelle ; 
Sganarelle supposed that his wife was un- 
faithful to him; madame supposed that 
her husband was an adorer of Cehe ; and 
Lelie supposed that Celie was the wife of 
Sganarelle. In time they met together, 

when Lehe charged Celie with being mar- 
ried to Sganarelle ; both stared, an explan- 
ation followed, when a messenger arrived 
to say that Valere was married. — ^Moliere, 
Le Cocu Imaginaire. 

Sganarelle, younger brother of Ariste 
(2 sgl.) ; a surly, domineering, conceited fel- 
low, the dupe of the play. His brother 
says to him, " Cette farouche humeur a 
tons vos procedes inspire un air bizarre, et, 
jusques a I'habit, rend tout chez vous bar- 
bare." The father of Isabelle and Leonor, 
on his death-bed, committed them to the 
charge of Sganarelle and Ariste, who were 
either to marry them or dispose of them in 
marriage. Sganarelle chose Isabelle, but 
insisted on her dressing in serge, going to 
bed early, keeping at home, looking after 
the house, mending the linen, knitting 
socks, and never fiirting with any one. 
The consequence was, she duped her guar- 
dian, and cajoled him into giving his 
signature to her marriage with Valere. — 
Moliere, VEcole des Maris. 

Sganarelle (3 syl). At about 63 years 
of age, Sganarelle wished to marry Dori- 
mene (3 syl.), daughter of Alcantor, a girl 
fond of dances, parties of pleasure, and 
all the active enjoyments of young life. 
Feeling some doubts about the wisdom of 
this step, he first consults a friend, who 
dissuades him, but, seeing the advice is 
rejected, replies " Do as you like." He 
next consults two philosophers, but they 
are so absorbed in their philosophy, that 
they pay no attention to him. He then 
asks the gypsies, who take his money and 
decamp with a dance. At length, he over- 
hears Dorimene telling a young lover that 
she only marries the old dotard for his 
money, and that he cannot live above a 
few months ; so he makes up his mind to 
decline the marriage. The father of the 




lady places the matter in Ms son's hands, 
and the young fire-eater, armed with two 
swords, goes at once to the old fiance, and 
begs him to choose one. When Sganarelle 
declines to fight, the young man beats 
him soundly, and again bids him choose 
a sword. After two or three good beat- 
ings, Sganarelle consents to the marriage 
" force." — Mohere, Le Manage Force 

Moliere wrote Sganarelle ou Le Cocu 
Imaginaire (q.v.) as a supplement to this 

*#* This joke about marrying is bor- 
rowed from Rabelais, Pantagruel, iii. 35, 
etc. Panurge asks Trouillogan whether 
he would advise him to marry. The sage 
says " No." " But I wish to do so," says 
the prince. " Then do so, by aU means," 
says the sage. " Which, then, would you 
advise ? " asks Panurge. " Neither," says 
Trouillogan. " But," says Panurge, " that 
is not possible." "Then both," says the 
sage. After this, Panurge consults many 
others on the subject, and lastly the oracle 
of the Holy Bottle. 

The plot of Moliere's comedy is founded 
on an adventure recorded of the count of 
Grammont (q.v.). The count had prom- 
ised marriage to la belle Hamilton, but 
deserted her, and tried to get to France. 
Being overtaken by the two brothers of 
the lady, they clapped their hands on their 
swords, and demanded if the count had 
not forgotten something or left something 
behind. '• True," said the count ; "I have 
forgotten to marry your sister ; " and re- 
turned with the two brothers to repair this 

Sganarelle, father of Lucinde. Anxious 
about his daughter because she has lost 
her vivacity and appetite, he sends for 
four physicians, who retire to consult 
upon the case, but talk only on indifferent 

topics. When Sganarelle asks the result 
of their deliberation, they all differ, both 
in regard to the disease, and the remedy 
to be applied. Lisette (the lady's maid) 
sends for Clitandre, the lover, who comes 
disguised as a quack doctor, tells Sgana- 
relle that the young lady's disease must 
be acted on through the imagination, and 
prescribes a mock marriage. Sganarelle 
consents to the experiment, but Clitandre's 
assistant being a notary, the mock mar- 
riage proves to be a real one. — ^Moliere, 
L^ Amour Medecin (1665). 

Sganarelle, husband of Martine. He is 
a faggot-maker, and has a quarrel with 
his wife, who vows to be even with him 
for striking her. Valere and Lucas (two 
domestics of Geronte) ask her to direct 
them to the house of a noted doctor. She 
sends them to her husband, and tells them 
he is so eccentric that he will deny being 
a doctor, but they must beat him well. 
So they find the faggot-maker, whom they 
beat soundly, till he consents to follow 
them. He is introduced to Lucinde, who 
pretends to be dumb, but, being a shrewd 
man, he soon finds out that the dumbness 
is only a pretence, and takes with him 
Leandre as an apothecary. The two lov- 
ers understand each other, and Lucinde is 
rapidly cured with " pills matrimoniac." — 
Moliere, Le Medecin Malgre Lui (1666). 

*#* Sganarelle being asked by the father 
what he thinks is the matter with Lucinde, 
replies, "Entendez-vous le Latin?" "En 
aucune fa^on," says Geronte. "Vous 
n'entendez point le Latin 1 " " Non, mon- 
sieur." " That is a sad pity," says Sgana- 
relle, " for the case may be briefly stated 

Cabricias arci thuram, catalamus, singulari- 
ter, nominativo, haec musa, la muse, bonus, bona, 
bonum. Deus sanctus, estne oratio Latinas? 
etiam, oui, quare ? pourquoi ? quia substantive et 





adjectivum concordat in generi, numerum, et 
casus." " "Wonderful man ! " says the father. — 
Act iii. 

SganareUe (3 syl), valet to Don Juan. 
He remonstrates with Ms master on his 
evil ways, but is forbidden sternly to re- 
peat his impertinent admonitions. His 
praise of tobacco, or rather snuff, is some- 
what amusing : 

Tabae est la passion des honnStes gens; et 
qui vit sans tabac n'est pas digne de vivre. Non 
seulement U rejouit et purge les cerveaux hu- 
mains, mais encore il instruit les ames k la vertu, 
et I'on apprend avec lui a devenir honnSte homme 
. . . il inspire des sentiments d'honneur a tous 
ceux qui en prennent. — MoU^re, Don Juan, i. 1 

Shaccabac, in Blue Beard. (See 


I have seen strange sights. I have seen Wil- 
kinson play " Macbeth ; " Matthews, " Othello ; " 
Wrench, " George BamweU ; " Buckstone, 
" lago ; " Rayner, " Penruddock ; " Keeley, 
" Shylock ; " Liston, " Romeo " and " Octavian ;" 
G. P. Cooke, " Mercutio ; " John Kemble, 
" Archer ; " Edmund Kean, clown in a panto- 
mine ; and C. Young, " Shaccabac." — Record of 
a Stage Veteran. 

"Macbeth," "Othello," "Iago"(in Othello), 
" Shylock" {Merchant of Venice), "Romeo" 
and " Mercutio " (in Borneo and Juliet), all 
by Shakespeare: "Greorge Barnwell"- 
(Lillo's tragedy so called) ; " Penruddock " 
(in The Wheel of Fortune), by Cumber- 
land) ; " Octavian " (in Colman's drama so 
called); "Archer" (in The Beaux' Strata- 
gem, by Farquhar). 

Shackfords (The). Lemuel Shachford, 
"a hard, avaricious, passionate man, 
holding his own way remorselessly. . . . 
A prominent character' because of his 
wealth, endless lawsuits and eccentricity." 

Bichard Shackford, nephew of Lemuel, a 
frank, whole-souled young fellow, intent 
upon his profession, but willing to make 

everybody else comfortable as he wins his 
way up. He is accused, upon circumstan- 
tial evidence, of the murder of his uncle, 
but is extricated by his own sagacity, 
which enables him to fix the crime upon 
the true assassin.— T. B. Aldiich, The 
Stillwater Tragedy (1880). 

Sliaddai (King), who made war upon 
Diabolus for the regaining of Mansoul. — 
John Bunyan, The Holy War (1682). 

8 hade {To fight in the). Dieneces 
[Bi.en' .e.sees], the Spartan, being told that 
the army of the Persians was so numerous 
that their arrows would shut out the sun, 
replied, " Thank the gods ! we shall then 
fight in the shade." 

Shadow {Simon), one of the recruits of 
the army of Sir John Falstaff. " A half- 
faced fellow," so thin that Sir John said, 
"A foeman might as well level his gun 
at the edge of a penknife" as at such a 
starveling. — Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV. act 
iii. sc. 2 (1598). 

Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego 

were cast, by the command of Nebuchad- 
nezzar, into a fiery furnace, but received 
no injury, although the furnace was made 
so hot that the heat thereof " slew those 
men" that took them to the furnace. — 
Ban. iii. 22. 

By Nimrod's order, Abraham was 
bound and cast into a huge fire at Cutha ; 
but he was preserved from injury by the 
angel G-abriel, and only the cords which 
bound him were burnt. Yet so intense 
was the heat that above 2000 men were 
consumed thereby. — See Gospel of Barna- 
bas, xxviii. ; and Morgan, Mahometanism 
Explained, V. i. 4. 

Shadwell {Thomas), the poet-laureate, 




was a great drunkard, and was said to be 
"round as a butt, and liquored every 
chink" (1640-1692). 

Besides, his [Shadwell's] goodly fabric fills the 

And seems designed for thoughtless majesty. 
Dryden, MacFlecknoe (1682). 

*** SbadweU took opium, and died from 
taking too large a dose. Hence Pope 

Benlowes, propitious still to blockheads, bows ; 
And Shadwell nods the poppy on his brows. 
The Dwnciad, iii. 21, 22 (1728). 

Benlowes was a great patron of bad 
poets, and many have dedicated to him 
their lucubrations. Sometimes the name 
is shifted into " Benevolus." 

Sliaf aliis and Procrvis. So Bottom, 
the weaver, calls Cephalus and Procris. 
(See Cephalus.) 

Pyramus. Not Shaf alus to Proerus was so true. 
TJiishe. As Shaf alus to Proerus ; I to you. 
Shakespeare, Midsummer Night's Bream (1592). 

Shaftesbury {Anthony Ashley Cooper, 
earl of), introduced by Sir W. Scott in 
Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Shafton {Ned), one of the prisoners in 
Newgate with old Sir Hildebrand Osbaldi- 
stone. — Sir W. Scott, Boh Boy (time, 
George I.). 

Shafton {Sir Piercie), called " The knight 
of Wolverton," a fashionable cavaliero, 
grandson of old Overstitch, the tailor, of 
Holderness. Sir Piercie talks in the pe- 
dantic style of the Elizabethan courtiers. 
— Sir W. Scott, The Monastery (time, Eliz- 

Shah {The), a famous diamond, weigh- 
ing 86 carats. It was given by Chosroes, 

of Persia, to the Czar of Eussia. (See 

Shakebag {Dick), a highwayman with 
Captain Colepepper.— Sir W. Scott, For- 
tunes of Nigel (time, James I.). 

Shakespeare, introduced by Sir W. 
Scott in the ante-rooms of Glreenwich 
Palace. — Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth (time, 

*#* In Woodstock there is a conversation 
about Shakespeare. 

Shakespeare's Home. He left London 
before 1613, and established himself at 
Stratford - on - Avon, in Warwickshire, 
where he was born (1564), and where he 
died (1616). In the diary of Mr. Ward, 
the vicar of Stratford, is this entry: 
" Shakspeare, Drayton and Ben Jonson 
had a merry meeting, and, it seems, 
drank too hard, for Shakspeare died of a 
fever then contracted." (Drayton died 
1631, and Ben Jonson, 1637.) Probably 
Shakespeare died on his birthday, April 

Shakespeare's Monument, in Westminster 
Abbey, designed by Kent, and executed 
by Scheemakers, in 1742. The statue to 
Shakespeare in Drury Lane Theatre was 
by the same. 

The statue of Shakespeare in the Brit- 
ish Museum is by Eoubiliac, and was be- 
queathed to the nation by Garriek. His 
best portrait is by Droeshout. 

Shakespeare^s Plays, quarto editions : 

EoMEO AND Juliet : 1597, John Danter ; 
1599, Thomas Creede for Cuthbert Burby ; 
1609, 1637. Supposed to have been 
written, 1595. 

King Eichaed II. : 1597, Valentine 
Simmes for Andrew Wise; 1598, 1608 
(with an additional scene) ; 1615, 1634. 

King Eichaed III.: 1597, ditto; 1598, 
1602, 1612, 1622. 





Love's Labor's Lost ; 1598, W. W. for 
Cuthbert Burby. Supposed to have been 
written, 1594. 

King Henky IV. (pt. 1) : 1598, P. S. for 
Andrew Wise; 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613. 
Supposed to have been written, 1597. 

King Henry IV. (pt. 2) : 1600, V. S. for 
Andrew Wise and William Aspley ; 1600. 
Supposed to have been written, 1598. 

King Henry V.: 1600, Thomas Creede 
for Thomas Millington and John Busby ; 
1602, 1608. Supposed to have been 
written, 1599. 

Midsummer Night's Dream: 1600, 
Thomas Fisher; 1600, James Roberts. 
Mentioned by Meres, 1598. Supposed to 
have been written, 1592. 

Merchant of Venice: 1600, I. R. for 
Thomas Heyes; 1600, James Roberts; 
1637. Mentioned by Meres, 1598. 

Much Ado about Nothing : 1600, V. S. 
for Andrew Wise and William Aspley. 

Merry Wives op Windsor: 1602, T. C. 
for Arthur Johnson ; 1619. Supposed to 
have been written, 1596. 

Hamlet: 1603, I. R. for N. L.; 1605, 
1611. Supposed to have been written, 

King Lear : 1608, A. for Nathaniel But- 
ter ; 1608, B. for ditto. Acted at White- 
hall, 1607. Supposed to have been written, 

Troilus and Cressida : 1609, Gr. Eld foj- 
R. Bonian and H. Whalley (with a preface). 
Acted at court, 1609. Supposed to have 
been written, 1602. 

Othello : 1622, N. O. for Thomas Walke- 
ly. Acted at Harefield, 1602. 
The rest of the dramas are : 

All's Well that Ends Well, 1598. First title 
supposed to be Love's Labor's Won. 

Antony and Cleopatra, 1608. No early men- 
tion made of this play. 

As You lAke It. Entered at Stationer's HaU, 

Comedy of Errors, 1593. Mentioned by Meres, 

Coriolanus, 1610. No early mention made of 
this play. 

Cynibeline, 1605. No early mention made of 
this play. 

1 Henry VI. Alluded to by Nash in Pierce 
Penniless, 1592. 

2 Henry VI. Original title, First Part of the 
Contention, 1594. 

3 Henry VI. Original title, True Tragedy of 
Bichard BuTce of York, 1595. 

Henry VIII., 1601. Acted at the Globe Thea- 
tre, 1613. 

John (King), 1596. Mentioned by Meres, 1598. 

Julius Cmsar, 1607. No early mention made 
of this play. 

Lear, 1605. Acted at Whitehall 1607. Printed 

Macbeth, 1606. No early mention made of this 

Measure for Measure, 1603. Acted at White- 
haU 1604. 

Merry Wives of Windsor, 1596. Printed 1602. 

Pericles Prince of Tyre. Printed 1609. 

Taming of the Shrew. ( ?) Acted at Henslow's 
Theatre, 1593. Entered at Stationer's Hall, 1607. 

Tempest, 1609. Acted at Whitehall, 1611. 

Timon of Athens, 1609. No early mention 
made of this play. 

Titus Andronicus, 1593. Printed 1600. 

Twelfth Night. Acted in the Middle Temple 
Hall, 1602. 

Two Gentlemen of Verona, 1595. Mentioned 
by Meres 1598. 

Winter's Tale, 1604. Acted at Whitehall, 

First complete collection in folio ; 1623, 
Isaac Jaggard and Ed. Blount; 1632, 
1664, 1685. The second folio is of very 
little value. 

Shalcespeare^s Parents. His father was 
John Shakespeare, a glover, who married 
Mary Arden, daughter of Robert Arden, 
Esq., of Bomich, a good country gentle- 

Shakespeare^ s Wife, Anne Hathaway, of 
Shottery, some eight years older than 
himself ; daughter of a substantial yeoman. 

Shakespeare^s Children. One son. Ham- 
net, who died in his twelfth year (1585- 
1596). Two daughters, who survived him, 




Susanna and Judith, twin-born with Ham- 
net. Both his daughters married and had 
children, but the lines died out. 

Voltaire says of Shakespeare: "Rimer 
had very good reason to say that Shake- 
speare 'n'etait qhm vilain singe." Voltaire, 
in 1765, said, "Shakespeare is a savage 
with some imagination, whose plays can 
please only in London and Canada." In 
1735 he wrote to M. de Cideville, " Shake- 
speare is the Corneille of London, but 
everywhere else he is a great fool {grand 
fou cfailleur).'" 

Shakespeare of Divines (The), Jeremy 
Taylor (1613-1667). 

Taylor, the Shakespeare of divines. — Emerson. 

Sliakespeare of Eloquence (The). 
The comte de Mirabeau was so called by 
Barnave (1749-1791). 

Shakespeare of Grermany (The), Au- 
gustus Frederick Ferdinand von Kotzebue 

Shakespeare of Prose Fiction (The). 
Richardson, the novelist, is so called by 
D'Israeli (1689-1761). 

Shallow, a weak-minded country jus- 
tice, cousin to Slender. He is a great 
braggart, and especially fond of boasting 
of the mad pranks of his younger days. 
It is said that Justice Shallow is a satirical 
portrait of Sir Thomas Lucy of Charle- 
cote, who prosecuted Shakespeare for 
deer-stealing. — Shakespeare, The Merry 
Wives of Windsor (1596) ; and 2 Henry IV. 

As wise as a justice of the quorum and custa- 
lorum in Shallow's time. — Macaulay. 

a long chain of rocks and mountains called 
Tirzah. Shallum was " of gentle disposi- 
tion, and beloved both by Grod and man." 
He was the lover of Hilpa, a Chinese ante- 
diluvian princess, one of the 150 daughters 
of Zilpah, of the race of Cohu or Cain. — 
Addison, Spectator, viii. 584-5 (1712). 

Shalott {The lady of), a poem by Ten- 
nyson, in four parts. Pt. i. tells us that 
the lady passed her life in the island of 
Shalott in great seclusion, and was known 
only by the peasantry. Pt. ii. tells us that 
she was weaving a magic web, and that a 
curse would fall on her if she looked down 
the river, Pt. iii. describes how Sir Lance- 
lot rode to Camelot in all his bravery ; and 
the lady gazed at him as he rode along. 
Pt. iv. tells us that the lady floated down 
the river in a boat called The Lady of Sha- 
lott, and died heart-broken on the way. 
Sir Lancelot came to gaze on the dead 
body, and exclaimed, "She has a lovely 
face, God in his mercy grant her grace ! " 
This ballad was afterwards expanded into 
the Idyll called "Elaine, the Lily Maid of 
Astolat" {q.v.), the beautiful incident of 
Elaine and the barge being taken from the 
History of Prince Arthur, by Sir T. Malory. 

" While my body is whole, let this letter be 
put into my right hand, and my hand bound 
fast with the letter until I be cold, and let me be 
put in a fair bed with all the richest clothes that 
I have about me, and so let my bed and all my 
rich clothes be laid with me in a chariot to the 
next place whereas the Thames is, and there let 
me be put in a barge, and but one man with me 
such as ye trust to steer me thither, and that my 
barge be covered with black samite over and 
over." ... So when she was dead, the corpse and 
the bed and all was led the next way unto to the 
Thames, and there a man and the corpse and all 
were put in a barge on the Thames, and so the 
man steered the barge to Westminster, and there 
he rowed a great while to and fro, or any man 
espied.— Pt. iii. 123. 

Shallum, lord of a manor consisting of King Arthur saw the body and had it 





buried, and Sir Lancelot made an offer- 
ing, etc. (ch. 124) ; much the same as Ten- 
nyson has reproduced it in verse. 

Shalott {The lady of). " It is not gen- 
erally known that the lady of Shalott 
lived, last summer, in an attic at the east 
end of South Street." Thus begins a story 
of an incurable invalid, whose only amuse- 
ment is watching street scenes reflected in 
a small mirror hung opposite the one win- 
dow of her garret-room. A stone flung 
by a boy shatters the mirror, and the 
fragile creature never recovers from the 
shock. — Elizabeth Stuart 
Ladi/ of Shalott. 

Phelps, The 

Shamho'zai (3 syl), the angel who 
debauched himseK with women, repented, 
and hung himself up between earth and 
heaven. — Bereshit rabbi (in Gen. vi. 2). 

*#* Harut and Marut were two angels 
sent to be judges on earth. They judged 
righteously until Zohara appeared before 
them, when they fell in love with her, and 
were imprisoned in a cave near Babylon, 
where they are to abide till the day of 

Shandy (Tristram), the nominal hero 
of Sterne's novel called The Life and Opin- 
ions of Trisfram Shandy, Gentleman (1759). 
He is the son of Walter and Elizabeth 

Captain Shandy, better known as "Uncle 
Toby," the real hero of Sterne's novel. 
Captain Shandy was wounded at Namur, 
and retired on half-pay. He was benev- 
olent and generous, brave as a lion but 
simple as a child, most gallant and most 
modest. Hazlitt says that " the character 
of Uncle Toby is the finest compliment 
ever paid to human nature." His modest 
love-passages with Widow Wadman, his 
kindly sympathy for Lieutenant Lefe\Te, 

and his military discussions, are wholly 

Aunt Dinah \_Shandy'\, Walter Shandy's 
aunt. She bequeathed to him £1000, 
which Walter fancied would enable him 
to carry out aU the wild schemes with 
which his head was crammed. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Shandy, mother of Tris- 
tram Shandy. The ideal of nonentity, 
individual from its very absence of indi- 

Walter Shandy, Tristram's father, a 
metaphysical Don Quixote, who believes 
in long noses and propitious names ; but 
his son's nose was crushed, and his name, 
which should have been Trismegistus 
(" the most propitious "), was changed in 
christening to Tristram ("the most un- 
lucky "). If much learning can make man 
mad, Walter Shandy was certainly mad in 
all the affairs of ordinary life. His wife 
was a blank sheet, and he himself a sheet 
so written on and crossed and rewritten 
that no one eould decipher the manuscript. 
— L. Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tris- 
tram Shandy (1759). 

Sharp, the ordinary of Major Touch- 
wood, who aids him in his transformation, 
but is himseK puzzled to know wkich is 
the real and which the false colonel. — T. 
Dibdin, What Next? 

Sharp {Rebecca), the orphan daughter of 
an artist. " She was small and slight in 
person, pale, sandy-haired, and with green 
eyes, habitually cast down, but very large, 
odd, and attractive when they looked up." 
Becky had the "dismal precocity of pov- 
erty," and, being engaged as governess in 
the family of Sir Pitt Crawley, bart., con- 
trived to marry, clandestinely, his son. Cap- 
tain Rawdon Crawley, and taught him how 
to live in splendor " upon nothing a year." 
Becky was an excellent singer and dancer, 




a capital talker and wheedler, and a most 
attractive, but unprincipled, selfisli, and 
unscrnpulous woman. Lord Steyne intro- 
duced her to court ; but her conduct with 
this peer gave rise to a terrible scandal, 
which caused a separation between her and 
Rawdon, and made England too hot to 
hold her. She retired to the Continent, 
was reduced to a Bohemian life, but ulti- 
mately attached herself to Joseph Sedley, 
whom she contrived to strip of all his 
money, and who lived in dire terror of her, 
dying in six months under very suspicious 
circumstances. — Thackeray, Vanity Fair 

Sharp (Timothy), the "lying valet" of 
Charles Gay less. His object is to make 
his master, who has not a sixpence in the 
world, pass for a man of wealth in the 
eyes of Melissa, to whom he is engaged. — 
Garrick, The Lying Valet (1741). 

Sharp-Beak, the crow's wife, in the 
beast-epic called Beynard the Fox (1498). 

Sharpe {The Bight Bev. James), arch- 
bishop of St. Andrew's, murdered by John 
BaEour (a leader in the covenanters' army) 
and his party.— Sir W. Scott, Old Mortal- 
ity (time, Charles II.). 

Sharper (Master), the cutler in the 
Strand.— Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak 
(time, Charles II.). 

Sharpltlaw (Gideon), a police officer. — 
Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, 
George II.). 

Shawonda'see, son of Mudjekeewis, 
and king of the south wind. Fat and 
lazy, hstless and easy. Shawondasee loved 
a prairie maiden (the Dandelion), but was 
too indolent to woo her. — Longfellow, Hi- 
mvatha (1855). 

She Stoops to Conquer, a comedy by 
Ohver Goldsmith (1773). Miss Hardcastle, 
knowing how bashful young Marlow is 
before ladies, stoops to the manners and 
condition of a barmaid, with whom he 
feels quite at his ease, and by this artifice 
wins the man of her choice. 

*#* It is said that when Goldsmith was 
about 16 years old, he set out for Edg- 
worthstown, and finding night coming on 
when at Ardagh, asked a man "which 
was the best house in town" — meaning 
the best inn. The man, who was Cor- 
nehus O'Kelly, the great fencing-master, 
pointed to that of Mr. Ralph Fetherstone, 
as being the best house in the vicinity. 
Oliver entered the parlor, found the mas- 
ter of the mansion sitting over a good fire, 
and said he intended to pass the night ■ 
there, and should like to have supper. 
Mr. Fetherstone happened to know Gold- 
smith's father, and, to humor the joke, 
pretended to be the landlord of " the pub- 
lic," nor did he reveal himself till next 
morning at breakfast, when Oliver called 
for his bill. It was not Sir Ralph Fether- 
stone, as is generally said, but Mr. Ralph 
Fetherstone, whose grandson was Sir 

Sheha. The queen of Sheba, or Saba 
(i.e. the Sabeans) came to visit Solomon, 
and tested his wisdom by sundry ques- 
tions, but affirmed that his wisdom and 
wealth exceeded even her expectations.— 
1 Kings x. ; 2 Ckron. ix. 

No, not to answer, madam, all those hard things 
That Sheba came to ask of Solomon. 

Tennyson, The Princess, ii. 

*#* The Arabs call her name Balkis, or 
Belkis; the Abyssinians, Macqueda; and 
others, Aazis. 

Sheha (The queen of), a name given to 
Mde. Montreville (the Begum Mootee 





Mahul).— Sir W. Scott, The Surgeon's 
Daughter (time, George II.). 

Sheba. The name by which Felicia, 
the illegitimate daughter of Margery Lati- 
mer and John Baird, is known. Margery 
was an innocent young girl, studying art 
in Boston, when she met and loved John 
Baird, a brilliant young clergyman. He 
fell desperately in love with her and won 
her entire confidence and devotion before 
she knew he was married. After he was 
called abroad suddenly by the news of- his 
wife's dangerous illness (in which she 
died), Margery's secret was guessed by her 
brother Lucian, who took her to a secluded 
spot in the mountains of North Carolina, 
announcing that they were going abroad 
for Margery's health. There she dies in 
giving birth to the child Sheba, who is 
adopted by Tom de Willoughby, a huge, 
kind-hearted man of a fine Tennessee 
family. Having made a failure as a medi- 
cal student, he has taken to keeping a 
country store at Talbot's Cross Eoads, 
North Carolina. In his care Sheba grows 
up to be a beautiful and happy girl, and 
in time meets and marries her cousin, 
Eupert de Willoughby, the son of Tom's 
brother and of a girl whom Tom himself 
had wished to marry. The two young 
people are made rich by the settlement of 
the De Willoughby claim upon the United 
States for valuable coal land confiscated 
from old Judge de Willoughby, who, al- 
though a Southerner, had been a loyal 
Union man. — Frances Hodgson Burnett, 
In Connection with the De Willoughby Claim 

Shelbdiz, the Persian Bucephalos, the 
favorite charger of Chosroes II., or Khos- 
rou Parvis, of Persia (590-628). 

Shedad, king of Ad, who built a most 
magnificent palace, and laid out a garden 

called " The Grarden of Irem," like " the 
bowers of Eden." All men admired this 
palace and garden, except the prophet 
Houd, who told the king that the founda- 
tion of his palace was not secure. And 
so it was, that God, to punish his pride, 
first sent a drought of three years' dura- 
tion, and then the Sarsar, or icy wind, for 
seven days, in which the garden was de- 
stroyed, the palace ruined, and Shedad, 
with all his subjects, died. 

It is said that the palace of Shedad, or 
Shuddaud, took 500 years in building, 
and when it was finished the angel of 
death would not allow him even to enter 
his garden, but struck him dead, and the 
rose garden of Irem was ever after invisi- 
ble to the eye of man.— Southey, Thalaba, 
the Destroyer, i. (1797). 

Sheep-Dog {A), a, lady-companion, who 
occupies the back seat of the bai'ouche, 
carries wraps, etc., goes to church with the 
lady, and "gaards her from the wolves," 
as much as the lady wishes to be guarded, 
but no more. 

" Rawdon," said Becky, ..." I must have a 
sheep-dog ... I mean a moral shepherd's dog 
... to keep the wolves off me." ..." A sheep- 
dog, a companion ! Becky Sharp with a sheep- 
dog ! Isn't that good -fun ! " — Thackeray, Van- 
ity Fair, xxxvii. (1848). 

Sheep of the Prisons, a cant term in 
the French Revolution for a spy under 
the jailers.— C. Dickens, A Tale of Two 
Cities, iii. 7 (1859). 

Sheffield {The Bard of), James Mont- 
gomery, author of The Wanderer of Switz- 
erland, etc. (1771-1854). 

With broken lyre and cheek serenely pale, 
Lo ! Sad Alceeus wanders down the vale . . . 
O'er his lost works let classic Sheffield weep ; 
May no rude hand disturb their early sleep ! 

Byron, English Bards and Scotch Bevieivers 





Sheila, pretty, simple-hearted girl, 
whose father is a magnate among his 
neighbors in the Orkney Islands. Sheila 
is won by a Londoner — Lavender by 
name — who visits her island home. He 
transplants the Northern wild flower into 
a London home, where she pines for a 
while, homesick and heart-sick. In time, 
her sound sense enables her to adjust her- 
self to altered conditions, and her stronger 
nature raises and ennobles her husband's. 
— William Black, A Princess of Thule. 

Shelby {Mr.), Uncle Tom's first master. 
Being in commercial difficulties, he was 
obliged to sell his faithful slave. His son 
afterwards endeavored to buy Uncle Tom 
back again, but found that he had been 
whipped to death by the villain Legree. — 
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin 

Shell (A). Amongst the ancient G-aels 
a shell was emblematic of peace. Hence 
when Bosmi'na, Eingal's daughter, was 
sent to propitiate King Erragon, who had 
invaded Morven, she carried with her a 
" sparkling shell as a symbol of peace, and 
a golden arrow as a symbol of war." — Os- 
sian. The Battle of Lor a. 

Shells, i.e., hospitality. " Semo, king 
of sheUs " (" hospitality "). When Cuthul- 
lin invites Swaran to a banquet, his mes- 
senger says, " CuthuUin gives the joy of 
shells; come and partake the feast of 
Erin's blue-eyed chief." The ancient 
Gaels drank from shells ; and hence such 
phrases as "chief of shells," "hall of 
shells," " king of shells," etc. (king of hos- 
pitality). " To rejoice in the shell " is to 
feast sumptuously and drink freely. 

Shemus-an-Snachad, or "James of the 

Needle," M'lvor's tailor at Edinburgh. — 
Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, G-eorge II.) 

Shepheardes Calendar {The), twelve 
eclogues in various metres, by Spenser, 
one for each month. January: Colin 
Clout {Spenser) bewails that Eosalind does 
not return his love, and compares his for- 
lorn condition to the season itself. Feb- 
ruary : Cuddy, a lad, complains of the 
cold, and Thenot laments the degeneracy 
of pastoral life. March : Willie and Tho- 
malin discourse of love (described as a 
person just aroused from sleep). April : 
Hobbinol sings a song on Eliza, queen of 
shepherds. May : Palinode (3 syl.) ex- 
horts Piers to join the festivities of May, 
but Piers replies that good shepherds who 
seek their own indulgence expose their 
flocks to the wolves. He then relates the 
fable of the kid and her dam, June : 
Hobbinol exhorts Colin to greater cheer- ; 
fulness, but Colin replies there is no cheer 
for him while Rosalind remains unkind 
and loves Menalcas better than himself. 
July : Morrel, a goat-herd, invites Thoma- 
lin to come with him to the uplands, but 
Thomalin replies that humility better be- 
comes a shepherd {i.e., a pastor or clergy- 
man). August : Perigot and Willie con- 
tend in song, and Cuddy is appointed ar- 
biter. September: Diggon Davie com- 
plains to Hobbinol of clerical abuses. Oc- 
tober: On poetry, which Cuddy says has 
no encouragement, and laments that Colin 
neglects it, being crossed in love. Novem- 
ber ; Colin, being asked by Thenot to 
sing, excuses himself because of his grief 
for Dido, but finally he sings her elegy. 
December : Colin again complains that his 
heart is desolate because Rosalind loves 
him not (1579). 

Shepheards Htmting {The), four " eg- 
logues " by George Wither, while confined 





in the Marshalsea (1615). The shepherd, 
Eoget, is the poet himself, and his " hunt- 
ing" is a satire called Abuses Stript and 
WMpt, for which he was imprisoned. The 
first three eglogues are upon the subject of 
Roget's imprisonment, and the fourth is 
on his love of poetry. "Willy" is the 
poet's friend, William Browne, of the Inner 
Temple, author of Britannia's Pastorals. 
He was two years the junior of Wither. 

Shepherd (The), Moses, who for forty 
years fed the flocks of Jethro, his father- 

Sing, heavenly Muse, that on the secret top 
Of Oreb or of Sinai, didst inspire 
That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed, 
" In the beginning," how the heaven and earth 
Eose out of chaos. 

Milton, Paradise Lost, i. (1665). 

Shepherd (The Gentle), G-eorge Grenville, 
the statesman. One day, in addressing 
the House, George Q-renville said, "Tell 
me where ! tell me where ! . . ." Pitt 
hummed the line of a song then very pop- 
ular, beginning, "Gentle shepherd, tell 
me where ! " and the whole House was 
convulsed with laughter (1712-1770). 

*** Allan Ramsay has a beautiful Scotch 
pastoral called The Gentle Shepherd (1725). 

Shepherd (John Claridge), the signature 
adopted by the author of The Shepherd of 
Banhury's Bules to Judge of the Changes of 
Weather, etc. (1744). Supposed to be Dr. 
John CampbeU, author of A Political Sur- 
vey of Britain. 

Shepherd-Kings (The), ov Hyksos. 
These Hyksos were a tribe of Cuthites 
driven from Assyria by Aralius and the 
Shemites. Their names were: (1) Saites 
or Salates, called by the Arabs El-Weleed, 
and said to be a descendant of Esau (b.c. 

1870-1851) ; (2) Beon, caUed by the Arabs 
Er-Reiyan, son of El-Weleed (b.c. 1851- 
1811); (3) Apachnas (b.c. 1811-1750); (4) 
Apophis, called by the Arabs Er-Reiyan 
IT., in whose reign Joseph was sold into 
Egypt and was made viceroy (b.c. 1750- 
1700) ; (5) Janias (b.c. 1700-1651) ; (6) As- 
SETH (1651-1610). The Hyksos were driven 
out of Egypt by Amosis or Thetmosis, 
the founder of the eighteenth dynasty, and 
retired to Palestine, where they formed 
the chiefs or lords of the Philistines. 
(Hyksos is compounded of hyk, "king," 
and SOS, " shepherd.") 

*»* Apophis or Aphophis was not a 
shepherd-king, but a pharaoh or native 
ruler, who made Apachnas tributary, and 
succeeded him, but on the death of Apho- 
phis the hyksos were restored. 

Shepherd Lord {The), Lord Henry de 
Clifford, brought up by his mother as a 
shepherd to save him from the vengeance 
of the Yorkists. Henry VII. restored him 
to his birthright and estates (1455-1543). 

The gracious fairy, 
Who loved the shepherd lord to meet 
In his wanderings solitary. 
Wordsworth, The White Doe of Bylstone (1815). 

Shepherd of Banbury. (See Shep- 
herd, John CLAnrooE.) 

Shepherd of Filida. 

"Preserve him, Mr. Nicholas, as thou wouldst 
a diamond. He is not a shepherd, but an ele- 
gant courtier," said the gvlvL — Cervantes, Bon 
Quixote, I. i. 6 (1605). 

Shepherd of Salisbury Plain {The), 
the hero and title of a religious tract by 
Hannah More. The shepherd is noted for 
his homely wisdom and simple piety. 
The academy figure of this shepherd was 
David Saunders, who, with his father, had 
kept sheep on the plain for a century. 




Shepherd of the Ocean. So Colin 
Clout {Spenser) calls Sir Walter Ealeigh 
in his Colin Clout's Come Home Aaain 
(1591). ^ 

Shepherdess (The Faithful), a pastoral 
drama by John Fletcher (1610). The 
"faithful shepherdess" is Corin, who re- 
mains faithful to her lover although dead. 
Milton has borrowed rather largely from 
this pastoral in his Comus. 

Sheppard (Jack), immortalized for his 
burglaries and escapes from Newgate. He 
was the son of a carpenter in Spitalfields, 
and was an ardent, reckless and generous 
youth. Certainly the most popular crimi- 
nal ever led to Tyburn for execution (1701- 

*** Daniel Defoe made Jack Sheppard 
the hero of a romance in 1724, and W. H. 
Ainsworth, in 1839. 

Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, always 
brings ill luck to the possessor. It be- 
longed at one time to the see of Canter- 
bury, and Osmond pronounced a curse on 
any laymen who wrested it from the 

The first layman who held these lands 
was the Protector Somerset, who was be- 
headed by Edward VI. 

The next layman was Sir Walter Ea- 
leigh, who was also beheaded. 

At the death of Ealeigh, James I. seized 
on the lands, and conferred them on Car, 
earl of Somerset, who died prematurely. 
His younger son, Carew, was attainted, 
committed to the Tower, and lost his es- 
tates by forfeiture. 

*#* James I. was no exception. He lost 
his eldest son, the prince of Wales, Charles 
I. was beheaded, James II. was forced to 
abdicate, and the two Pretenders consum- 
mated the ill luck of the family. 

Sherborne is now in the possession of 
Digby, earl of Bristol. 

(For other possessions which carry with 
them iU luck, see GtOLD or Tolosa, Gold 


Necklace, etc.) 

Sheridan's Ride, the story of the bril- 
liant dash of Sheridan upon Winchester, 
that turned the fortunes of the day in 
favor of the Federal forces. Early, in 
command of the Confederates, had driven 
the United States troops out of the town. 
When Sheridan met them, they were in 
full retreat. 

" Hurrah ! hurrah for horse and man, 
And when their statues are placed on high, 
Under the dome of the Union sky, 
The American soldier's Temple of Fame, 
There, with the glorious G-eneral's name 
Be it said, in letters both bold and bright : — 
Here-is the steed that saved the day 
By carrying Sheridan into the fight, 
From Winchester — twenty miles away ! ' " 
Thomas Buchanan Read, Sheridan's Bide. 

Sheva, the philanthropic Jew, most 
modest, but most benevolent. He " stints 
his appetite to pamper his affections, and 
lives in poverty that the poor may live in 
plenty." Sheva is "the widows' friend, 
the orphans' father, the poor man's pro- 
tector, and the universal dispenser of 
charity, but he ever shrank to let his left 
hand know what his right hand did." 
Eatcliffe's father rescued him at Cadiz, 
from an auto da fe, and Eatcliffe himself 
rescued him from a howling London mob. 
This noble heart settled £10,000 on Miss 
Eatcliffe at her marriage, and left Charles 
the heir of all his property. — Cumberland, 
The Jew (1776). 

*#* The Jews of England made up a 
very handsome purse, which they pre- 
sented to the dramatist for this champion- 
ship of their race. 





Sheva, in the satire of Absalom and Achi- 
' tophel, by Dryden and Tate, is designed 
for Sir Eoger Lestrange, censor of the 
press, in the reign of Charles II. Sheva 
was one of David's scribes (2 Sam. xx. 25), 
and Sir Eoger was editor of the Observator, 
in which he vindicated the court measures, 
for which he was knighted. 

Than Sheva, none more loyal zeal have shown, 
Wakeful as Judah's lion for the crown. 

Tate, Absalom and Achitophel, ii. (1682). 

Sliib'boleth, the test pass-word of a 
secret society. When the Ephraimites 
tried to pass the Jordan, after their defeat 
by Jephthah, the guard tested whether 
they were Ephraimites or not, by asking 
them to say the word " Shibboleth," which 
the Ephraimites pronounced " Sibboleth " 
{Judges xii. 1-6). 

In the Sicilian Vespers, a word was 
given as a test of nationality. Some dried 
peas (ciceri) were shown to a suspect: if 
he called them cheecharee, he was a Sicil- 
ian, and allowed to pass ; but if sis.eri, he 
was a Frenchman, and was put to death. 

In the great Danish slaughter on St. 
Bryce's Day (November 13, 1002), accord- 
ing to tradition, a similar test was made 
with the words " Chichester Church," 
which, being pronounced hard or soft, de- 
cided whether the speaker were Dane or 

Shield of Rome (The), Fabius "Cunc- 
tator.?' MareeUus was called " The Sword 
of Eome." (See Fabius.) 

Shift (Samuel), a wonderful mimic, who, 
like Charles Mathews, the elder, could 
turn his face to anything. He is employed 
by Sir William Wealthy, to assist in sav- 
ing his son, George, from ruin, and accord- 
ingly helps the young man in his money 
difficulties by becoming his agent. Ulti- 

mately, it is found that Sir George's father 
is his creditor, the young man is saved 
from ruin, marries, and becomes a re- 
formed and honorable member of society, 
who has "sown his wild oats." — Foote, 
The Minor (1760). 

Shilling {To cut one off with a). A tale 
is told of Charles and John Banister. John, 
having irritated his father, the old man 
said, "Jack, I'll cut you off with a shil- 
ling." To which the son replied, " I wish, 
dad, you would give it to me now." 

*#* The same identical anecdote is told 
of Sheridan and his son Tom. 

Shingle {Solon), prominent personage 
in J. S. Jones's farce, The People's Law- 

Ship {The Intelligent). Elllda (Frith- 
jof's ship) understood what was said to it ; 
hence in the Frithjof Saga the son of 
Thornsten constantly addresses it, and the 
ship always obeys what is said to it. — 
Tegner, Frithjof Saga, x. (1825). 

Shipton {Mother), the heroine of an 
ancient tale entitled The Strange and Won- 
derful History and Prophecies of Mother 
Shipton, etc. — T. Evan Preeee. 

Shipwreck {The), a poem in three can- 
tos, by William Falconer (1762). Sup- 
posed to occupy six days. The ship was 
the Britannia, under the command of Al- 
bert, and bound for Venice. Being over- 
taken in a squall, she is driven out of her 
course from Candia, and four seamen are 
lost off the lee main-yardarm. A fearful 
storm greatly distresses the vessel and the 
captain gives command " to bear away." 
As she passes the island of St. George, the 
helmsman is struck blind by Hghtning. 
Bowsprit, foremast, and main-topmast be- 




ing carried away, the officers try to save 
themselves on the wreck of the foremast. 
The ship splits on the projecting verge of 
Cape Colonna. The captain and all his 
crew are lost except Arion (Falconer), who 
is washed ashore, and being befriended by 
the natives, returns to England to tell this 
mournful story. 

Shirley. Bright, independent heiress 
of Yorkshire, beautiful and courted, who 
chooses her own way and her own hus- 
band. — Charlotte Bronte, Shirley. 

Shoo-King [The), the history of the 
Chinese monarchs, by Confucius. It be- 
gins with Yoo, B.C. 2205. 

Shoolbred {Bame), the foster-mother 
of Henry Smith. — Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid 
of Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Shore {Jane), the heroine and title of a 
tragedy by N. Rowe (1312). Jane Shore 
was the wife of a London merchant, but 
left her husband to become the mistress 
of Edward IV. At the death of that mon- 
arch. Lord Hastings wished to obtain her, 
but she rejected his advances. This drew 
on her the jealous wrath of Alicia (Lord 
Hastings's mistress), who induced her to 
accuse Lord Hastings of want of allegiance 
to the lord protector. The duke of Glou- 
cester commanded the instant execution 
of Hastings ; and, accusing Jane Shore of 
having bewitched him, condemned her to 
wander about in a sheet, holding a taper 
in her hand, and decreed that any one who 
offered her food or shelter should be put 
to death. Jane continued an outcast for 
three days, when her husband came to her 
succor, but he was seized by Gloucester's 
myrmidons, and Jane Shore died. 

Shoreditch {Duhe of). Barlow, the 

favorite archer of Henry VIII., was so en- 
titled by the Merry Monarch, in royal 
sport. Barlow's two skillful companions 
were created at the same time, " marquis 
of Islington," and " earl of Pancras." 

Good king, make not good lord of Lincoln 
"duke of Shoreditche." — Tlie Poore Man's Peti- 
cion to the Kinge (art. xvi. 1603). 

Shorne (Sir John), noted for his feat 
of conjuring the devil into a boot. 

To Master John Shorne, 
That blessM man borne, 
Which jugeleth with a bote ; 
I beschrewe his herte rote 
That will trust him, and it be I. 

Fantassie of Idolatrie. 

Short-Iiived Administration {The). 
the administration formed February 12, 
1746, by William Pulteney. It lasted only 
two days. 

Shortcake {Mrs.), the baker's wife, one 
of Mrs. Mailsetter's friends. — Sir W. Scott, 
The Antiquary (time, George III.). 

Shorten {Master), the mercer at Liver- 
pool. — Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak 
(time, Charles II.). 

Short'hose (2 syl), a clown, servant to 
Lady ' Hartwell, the widow. — Beaumont 
and Fletcher, Wit Without Money (1539). 

Shorthouse {Tom), epitaph of. 

Hie Jacet Tom Shorthouse, sine Tom, sine Sheets, 

sine Riches ; 
Qui Vixit sine Gown, sine Cloak, sine Shirt, sine 

Old London (taken from the Magna Britannia). 

Shovel-Boards or Edward Shovel- 
Boards, broad shillings of Edward III. 
Taylor, the water-poet, tells us " they 
were used for the most part at shoave- 





. . . the imthrif t every day, 
With my face downwards do at shoave-board 

Taylor, the water-poet (1580-1754). 

Shewsben-y (Lord), the earl marshall 
in the court of Queen Elizabeth.— Sir W. 
Scott, Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth). 

ShuflQebottom (Abel), a name assumed 
by Robert Southey in some of his amatory 
productions (1774-1843). 

Shuffles {Bohert). One of the "bad 
boys," whose misdemeanors and reforma- 
tion are sketched in Outward Bound, by 
"William T. Adams (Oliver Optic). 

Shuffleton (The Hon. Tom), a man of 
very slender estate, who borrows of all 
who will lend, but always forgets to repay 
or return the loans. When spoken to 
about it, he interrupts the speaker before 
he comes to the point, and diverts the 
conversation to some other subject. He 
is one of the new school, always emotion- 
less, looks on money as the summuin 
bonum, and all as fair that puts money in 
his purse. The Hon. Tom Shuffleton 
marries Lady Caroline Braymore, who 
has £4000 a year. (See Dimanche.) — Gr. 
Colman, Jr., John Bull. 

Shylock, the Jew, who lends Antonio 
(a Venetian merchant) 3000 ducats for 
three months, on these conditions : If re- 
paid within the time, only the principal 
would be required; if not, the Jew should 
be at liberty to cut from Antonio's body 
a pound of flesh. The ships of Antonio 
being delayed by contrary winds, the mer- 
chant was unable to meet his bill, and the 
Jew claimed the forfeiture. Portia, in the 
dress of a law doctor, conducted the trial, 
and when the Jew was about to take his 

bond, reminded him that he must shed no 
drop of blood, nor must he cut either more 
or less than a,n exact pound. If these con- 
ditions were infringed his life would be 
forfeit. The Jew, feeling it to be impossi- 
ble to exact the bond under such condi- 
tions, gave up the claim, but was heavily 
fined for seeking the life of a Venetian 
citizen. — Shakespeare, The Merchant of 
Venice (1598). 

Among modern actors, Henry Irving, as 
Shylock, stands unsurpassed. 

According to the kindred authority of Shy- 
lock, no man hates the thing he would not kilL 
—Sir W. Scott. 

*#* Paul Secchi tells us a similar tale : 
A merchant of Venice, having been in- 
formed by private letter that Drake had 
taken and plundered St. Domingo, sent 
word to Sampson Ceneda, a Jewish usurer. 
Ceneda would not believe it, and bet a 
pound of flesh it was not true. When the 
report was confirmed the pope told Secchi 
he might lawfully claim his bet if he chose, 
only he must draw no blood, nor take 
either more or less than an exact pound, 
on the penalty of being hanged. — Grregorio 
Leti, Life of Sextus V. (1666). 

Slbbald, an attendant on the earl of 
Menteith. — Sir W. Scott, Legend of Mon- 
trose (time, Charles I.). 

Sibylla, the sibyl. (See S3Yls.) 

And thou, Alecto, feede me wyth thy foode . . . 
And thou, Sibilla, when thou seest me f aynte, 
Addres thyselfe the gyde of my complaynte. 

Sackville, Mirrour for Magistraytes (" Com- 
playnte," etc., (1557). 

Sibyls. Plato speaks of only one sibyl ; 
Martian Capella says there were tivo (the 
Ergthrcean or Gumcean sibyl, and the 
Phrygian) ; Pliny speaks of the three sibyls ; 
Jackson maintains, on the authority of 




-^lian, that there y^erefour; Shakespeare 
speaks of the nine sibyls of old Rome (1 
Henry VI. act i. sc. 2) ; Varro says they 
were ten (the sibyls of Libya, Samps, Cumse 
(in Italy), Cum* (in Asia Minor), ErythrjB, 
Persia, Tiburtis, Delphi, Aney'ra (in 
Phrygia), and Marpessa), in reference to 
which Rabelais says, "she may be the 
eleventh sibyl" {Pantagrnel, iii. 16); the 
medieeval monks made the number to be 
twelve, and gave to each a distinct proph- 
ecy respecting Christ. But whatever the 
3aumber, there was but one " sibyl of old 
Rome" (the Cumsean), who offered to 
Tarquin the nine Sibylline books. 

Sibyl's Books (The). We are told that 
the sibyl of Cumse (in ^olis) offered Tar- 
quin nine volumes of predictions for a 
certain sum of money, but the king, deem- 
ing the price exorbitant, refused to pur- 
chase them; whereupon she burnt three 
of the volumes, and next year offered 
Tarquin the remaining six at the same 
price. Again he refused, and the sibyl 
burnt three more. The following year she 
again returned, and asked the original 
price for the three which remained. At 
the advice of the augurs the king purchased 
the books, and they were preserved with 
great care under guardians specially ap- 
pointed for the purpose. 

Sicilian Bull (The), the brazen bull in- 
vented by Perillos for the tyrant Phalaris, 
as an engine of torture. Perillos himself 
was the first victim enclosed in the bull. 

As the Sicilian buH that rigMf tilly 
His cries echoed who had shaped the mould, 
Did so rebellow with the voice of him 
Tormented, that the brazen monster seemed 
Pierced through with pain. 

Dante, Sell, xxvii. (1300). 

Sicilian Vespers {The), the massacre 

of the French in Sicily, which began at 
Palermo, March 30, 1282, at the hour of 
vespers, on Easter Monday. This whole- 
sale slaughter was provoked by the brutal 
conduct of Charles d'Anjou (the governor) 
and his soldiers towards the islanders. 

A similar massacre of the Danes was 
made in England, on St. Bryce's Day (No- 
vember 13), 1002. 

Another similar slaughter took place at 
Bruges, March 24, 1302. 

*#* The Bartholomew Massacre (Aug. 
24, 1572) was a religious not a political 

Sicilien {Le) or L'Amoue Peintee, a 
comedy by Moliere (1667). The Sicilian 
is Don Pedre, who has a Grreek slave 
named Is'idore. This slave is loved by 
Adraste (2 syl.), a French gentleman, and 
the plot of the comedy, turns on the way 
that the Frenchman allures the Grreek 
slave away from her master. Hearing 
that his friend Damon is going to make a 
portrait of Isidore, he gets him to write 
to Don- Pedre a letter of introduction, re- 
questing that the bearer may be allowed 
to take the likeness. By this ruse, Adraste 
reveals his love to Isidore, and persuades 
her to elope. The next step is this : Zaide 
(2 syl), a young slave, pretends to have 
been ill-treated by Adraste, and runs to 
Don Pedre to crave protection. The don 
bids her go in, while he intercedes with 
Adraste on her behalf. The Frenchman 
seems to relent, and Pedre calls for Zaide 
to come forth, but Isidore comes instead, 
wearing Zaide's veil. Don Pfedre says to 
Adraste, " There, take her home, and use 
her well!" "I will," says Adraste, and 
leads off the (xreek slave. 

Siddartha, born at Gaya, in India, and 
known in Indian history as Buddha {i.e. 
"The Wise"). 





Sidney, tte tutor and friend of Charles 
Egerton McSycopliant. He loves Con- 
stantia, but conceals his passion for fear 
of paining Egerton, her accepted lover. — 
C. Macklin, The Man of the World (1764). 

Sidney {Sir Philij)). Sir Philip Sidney, 
though suffering extreme thirst from the 
agony of wounds, received in the battle 
of Zutphen, gave his own draught of 
water to a wounded private, lying at his 
side, saying, "Poor fellow, thy necessity 
is greater than mine." 

A similar instance is recorded of Alex- 
ander "the Great," in the desert of Ge- 

David, fighting against the Philistines, 
became so parched with thirst, that he 
cried out, " Oh, that one would give me 
drink of the water of the well of Bethle- 
hem, which is by the gate ! " And the 
three mighty men broke through the host ' 
of the Philistines, and brought him water ; 
nevertheless, he would not drink it, but 
poured it out unto the Lord. — 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 15-17. 

Sidney's Sister, Pembroke's Mother. 

Mary Herbert (born Sidney), countess of 
Pembroke, who died 1621. 

Underneath this sable hearse 
Lies the subject of all verse — 
Sidney's sister, Pembroke's mother. 
Death, ere thou hast slain another 
Fair, and good, and learned as she, 
Time shall throw his dart at thee. 

Ben Jonson (1574-1637). 

Sid'rophel, William Lily, the astrol- 

Quoth Ralph, " Not far from hence doth dwell 

A cunning man, hight Sidrophel, 

That deals in destiny's dark counsels, 

And sage opinions of the moon sells ; 

To whom all people, far and near, 

On deep importances repair." 

S. Butler, Hudihras, ii. 3 (1664). 

Siebel, Margheri'ta's rejected lover, in 
the opera of Faust e Margherita, by Gou- 
nod (1859). 

Si6ge. Mon siege est fait, my opinion 
is fixed, and I cannot change it. This 
proverb rose thus: The abbe de Vertot 
wrote the history of a certain siege, and 
applied to a friend for some geographical 
particulars. These particulars did not ar- 
rive till the matter had passed the press ; 
so the abbe remarked with a shrug, " Bah ! 
mon siege est fait." 

Siege Perilous (The). The Round 
Table contained sieges for 150 knights, 
but three of them were "reserved." Of 
these, two were posts of honor, but the 
third was reserved for him who was des- 
tined to achieve the quest of the Holy 
Graal. This seat was called "perilous," 
because if any one sat therein, except he 
for whom it was reserved, it would be his 
death. Every seat of the table bore the 
name of its rightful occupant, in letters of 
gold, and the name on the " Siege Peri- 
lous " was Sir Galahad (son of Sir Launce- 
lot and Elaine). 

Said Merlin, "There shall no man sit in the 
two void places but they that shall be of most 
worship. _ But in the Siege Perilous there shall 
no man sit but one, and if any other be so hardy 
as to do it, he shall be destroyed." — Pt. i. 48. 

Then the old man made Sir G-alahad unarm ; 
and he put on him a coat of red sandel, with a 
mantel upon his shoulder furred with fine er- 
mines . . . and he brought him unto the Siege 
Perilous, when he sat beside Sir Launcelot. 
And the good old man Ufted up the cloth, and 
found there these words written : The Siege of 
Sir Galahad.— Sir T. Malory, History of Prince 
Arthur, iii. 32 (1470). 

Siege of Calais, a novel by Mde. de 
Tencin (1681-1749). George Colman has 
a drama with the same title. 




Siege of Damascus. Damascus was 
besieged by the Arabs while Eu'menes 
was governor. The general of the Syrians 
was Pho'cyas, and of the Arabs, Caled. 
Phocyas asked Eumenes's permission to 
marry his daughter, Eudo'cia, but was 
sternly refused. After gaining several 
victories he fell into the hands of the 
Arabs, and then joined them in their siege 
in order to revenge himself on Eumenes. 
Eudocia feU into his power, but she re- 
fused to marry a traitor. Caled requested 
Phocyas to point out to him the govern- 
or's tent; on being refused, they fought, 
and Caled fell. Abudah, being now in 
chief command, made an honorable peace 
with the Syrians, Phocyas died, and Eu- 
docia retired to a convent. — J. Hughes, 
Siege of Damascus (1720). 

Siege of Rliodes, by Sir W. Davenant 

Sieg'fried [Seeg.freed], hero of pt. i. of 
the Nihelungen Lied, the old German epic. 
Siegfried was a young warrior of peerless 
strength and beauty, invulnerable except 
in one spot between his shoulders. He 
vanquished the Nibelungs, and carried 
away their immense hoards of gold and 
precious stones. He wooed and won 
Kriemhild, the sister of Giinther, king of 
Burgundy, but was treacherously killed 
by Hagan while stooping for a draught of 
water after a hunting expedition. 

Siegfried had a cape, or cloak, which 
rendered him invisible, the gift of the 
dwarf, Alberich; and his sword, called 
Balmung, was forged by Wieland, black- 
smith of the Teutonic gods. 

This epic consists of a number of differ- 
ent lays by the old minnesingers, pieced 
together into a connected story as early as 
1210. It is of Scandinavian origin, and is 
in the Younger Edda, amongst the " V61- 

sunga Sagas" (compiled by Snorro, in the 
thirteenth century). 

Siegfried's Birthplace. He was born in 
Phinecastle, then called Xanton. 

Siegfried's Father and Mother. Sieg- 
fried was the youngest son of Siegmund 
and Sieglind, king and queen of the Neth- 

Siegfried called Horny. He was called 
horny because, when he slew the dragon, 
he bathed in its blood, and became covered 
with a horny hide which was invulnerable. 
A linden leaf happened to fall on his back 
between his shoulder-blades, and, as the 
blood did, not touch this spot, it remained 
vulnerable. — The minnesingers. The Ni- 
ielungen Lied (1210). 

Sieg'fried von Lindenberg, the hero 
of a comic German romance by Miiller 
(1779). Still popular and very amusing. 

Sieglind [Seeg.lind], the mother of 
Siegfried, and wife of Siegmund, king of 
the Netherlands. — The minnesingers, The 
Nihelungen Lied (1210). 

Siegmund [Seeg.mund], king of the 
Netherlands. His wife was Sieglind, and 
his son, Siegfried [Seeg.freed]. — The min- 
nesingers, The Nihelungen LAed (1210). 

Sige'ro, " the Good," slain by Argantes. 
Argantes hurled his spear at Godfrey, but 
it struck Sigero, who "rejoiced to suffer 
in his sovereign's place." — Tasso, Jerusa- 
lem Delivered, xi. (1575). 

Sightly (Captain), a dashing young 
officer, who runs away with Priscilla Tom- 
boy, but subsequently obtains her guar- 
dian's consent to marry her. — The Romp 
(altered from Bickerstaff's Love in the 






Sigismonda, daughter of Tancred, 
king of Salerno. She fell in love with 
Griiiscardo, her father's squire, revealed to 
him her love, and married him in a cavern 
attached to the palace. Tancred discovered 
them in each other's embrace, and gave 
secret orders to waylay the bridegroom 
and strangle him. He then went to Sigis- 
monda, and reproved her for her degrad- 
ing choice, which she boldly justified. 
Next day, she received a human heart in 
a gold casket, knew instinctively that it 
was Guiscardo's, and poisoned herself. 
Her father being sent for, she survived 
just long enough to request that she might 
be buried in the same grave as her young 
husband, and Tancred : 

Too late repenting of his cruel deed, 
One common sepulchre i'or both decreed ; 
Intombed the wretched pair in royal state, 
And on their monument inscribed their fate. 

Dryden, Sigismonda and Guiscardo (from Boc- 

Sigismund, emperor of Austria. — Sir 
W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein (time, Ed- 
ward IV.). 

Sigismunda, daughter of Siffredi, lord 
high chancellor of Sicily, and betrothed to 
Count Tancred. When King Eoger died, 
he left the crown of Sicily to Tancred, on 
condition that he married Constantia, by 
which means the rival lines would be 
united, and the country saved from civil 
war. Tancred gave a tacit consent, in- 
tending to obtain a dispensation ; but 
Sigismunda, in a moment of wounded 
pride, consented to marry Earl Osmond. 
When King Tancred obtained an inter- 
view with Sigismunda, to explain his con- 
duct, Osmond challenged him, and they 
fought. Osmond fell, and when his wife 
ran to him, he thrust his sword into her 
and killed her. — J. Thomson, Tancred and 
Sigismunda (1745). 

*#* This tragedy is based on " The Bane- 
ful Marriage," an episode in Oil Bias, 
founded on fact. 

Sigismunda, the heroine of Cervantes's 
last work of fiction. This tale is a tissue 
of episodes, full of most incredible adven- 
tures, astounding prodigies, impossible 
characters, and extravagant sentiments. 
It is said that Cervantes himself preferred 
it to his Don Quixote, just as Corneille pre- 
ferred Nicomede to his Gid, and Milton 
Paradise Regained to his Paradise Lost — 
Encyc. Brit, Art. " Romance." 

Sigurd, the hero of an old Scandina- 
vian legend. Sigurd discovered Brynhild, 
encased in a complete armor, lying in a 
death-like sleep, to which she had been 
condemned by Odin. Sigurd woke her 
by opening her corselet, fell in love with 
her, promised to marry her, but deserted 
her for Gudrun. This ill-starred union 
was the cause of an Iliad of woes. 

An analysis of this romance was pub- 
lished by Weber in his Illustrations of 
Northern Antiquities (1810). 

Sijil {Al), the recording angel. 

On that day we will roll up the heavens as 
the angel Al Sijil roUeth up the scroll wherein 
every man's actions are recorded. — Al Kordn, 

Sykes {Bill), a burglar, and one of 
Pagin's associates. Bill Sykes was a hard- 
ened, irreclaimable villian, but had a con- 
science which almost drove him mad after 
the murder of Nancy, who really loved 
him (ch. xlviii.) Bill Sykes (1 syl) had an 
ill-conditioned savage dog, the beast-image 
of his master, which he kicked and loved, 
ill-treated and fondled. — C. Dickens, Oliver 
Twist (1837). 

The French "Bill Sykes" is "Jean Hi- 
roux," a creation of Henry Monnier. 




Sikundra (The), a mausoleum about 
six miles from Agra, raised by Akhbab 
" the Great." 

Silence, a country justice of asinine 
dullness when sober, but when in bis cups 
of most uproarious mirth. He was in the 
commission of the peace with his cousin 
Robert Shallow. 

Falstaff. I did not think Master Silence had 
been a man of this mettle. 

_ Silence. Who, I ? I have been merry twice 
and once, ere now. — Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV., 
act vi. so. 3 (1598). 

Sile'no, husband of Mysis; a kind- 
hearted man, who takes pity on ApoHo 
when cast to earth by Jupiter, and gives 
him a home, — Kane O'Hara, Midas (1764). 

Silent Woman (The), a comedy by 
Ben Jonson (1609). Morose, a miserly 
old fellow, who hates to hear any voice 
but his own, has a young nephew, Sir 
Dauphine, who wants to wring from him 
a third of his property ; and the way he 
gains his point is this : He induces a lad 
to pretend to be a " silent woman." Mo- 
rose is so delighted with the phenomenon 
that he consents to marry the prodigy; 
but the moment the ceremony is over, the 
boy-wife assumes the character of a vi- 
rago, whose tongue is a ceaseless clack. 
Morose is in despair, and signs away a 
third of his property to his nephew, on 
condition of being rid of this intolerable 
pest. The trick is now revealed. Morose 
retires into private life, and Sir Dauphine 
remains master of the situation. 

Silent (T/^e), William I., prince of Orange 
(1533-1584). It was the principle of Napo- 
leon III., emperor of the French, to " hear, 
see, and say nothing." 

Silent Man (The), the barber of Bag- 
dad, the greatest chatterbox that ever 
lived. Being sent for to shave the head 
and beard of a young man who was to 
visit the cadi's daughter at noon, he kept 
him from daybreak to midday, prating, to 
the unspeakable annoyance of the cus- 
tomer. Being subsequently taken before 
the cahph, he ran on teUing story after 
story about his six brothers. He was 
called the " Silent Man," because on one 
occasion, being accidentally taken up with 
ten robbers, he never said he was not one 
of the gang. His six brothers were Bac- 
bouc, the hunchback, Bakbarah, the tooth- 
less, Bakac, the one-eyed, Alcouz, the 
blind, Alnaschar, the earless, and Schaca- 
bac, the hare-lipped. — Arabian Nights 
("The Barber," and "The Barber's Six 
Brothers "). 

Sile'nus, son of Pan, chief of the 
sile'ni or older satyrs. Silenus was the 
foster-father of Bacchus, the wine-god, 
and is described as a jovial old toper, with 
bald head, pug nose, and pimply face. 

Old Silenus, bloated, drunken, 
Led by his inebriate satyrs. 

Longfellow, Drinking Song. 

Silky, a Jew money-lender, swindler, 
and miser. (See Sulky.) 

You cheat all day, tremble at night, and act 
the hypocrite the first thing in the morning. — 
T. Holeroft, The Boad to Ruin, ii. 3 (1792). 

Silly Billy, WilUam IV. (1765, 1830- 

Silva {Don Buy Gomes de), an old 
Spanish grandee, to whom Elvira was be- 
trothed ; but she detested him, and loved 
Ernani, a bandit-captain. Charles V. 
tried to seduce her, and Silva, in his 
wrath, joined Ernani to depose the king. 
The plot being discovered, the conspira- 





tors were arrested, but, at tlie intercession 
of Elvira, were pardoned. The marriage 
of Ernani and Elvira was just about to be 
consummated, when a horn sounded. Er- 
nani had bound himself, when Silva 
joined the bandit, to put an end to his 
life whenever summoned so to do by 
Silva ; and the summons was to be given 
by the blast of a horn. SUva being re- 
lentless, Ernani kept his vow, and stabbed 
himseK. — Verdi, Ernani (1841), 

Silver-Fork School (The), a name 
given to a class of English novehsts who 
gave undue importance to etiquette and 
the externals of social intercourse. The 
most distinguished are : Lady Blessington 
(1789-1849), Theodore Hook (1716-1796), 
Lord Lytton (1804-1873), and Mrs. Trol- 
lope (1790-1863). 

Silver Pen. Eliza Meteyard was so 
called by Douglas Jerold, and she adopted 
the pseudonym (1816-1879). 


Silver Star of LiOve (The), the star 
which appeared to Vasco da Gama, when 
his ships were tempest-tossed, through 
the malice of Bacchus. Immediately the 
star appeared, the tempest ceased, and 
there was a great calm. 

The sky and ocean blending, each on fire, 
Seemed as all Nature struggled to expire ; 
When now the Silver Star of Love appeared, ' 
Bright in the east her radiant front she reared. 
Camoens, Lusiad, vi. (1572). 

Silver Tongued {The), Joshua Sylves- 
ter, translator of Du Bartas's Divine Weeks 
and Works (1563-1618). 

William Bates, a puritan divine (1625- 

Henry Smith, preacher (1550-1600). 

Anthony Hammond, the poet, caUed 
« Silver Tongue " (1668-1738). 

Spranger Barry, the "Irish Roscius" 

Silverquill (Sam), one of the prisoners 
at Portanf erry. — Sir W. Scott, Cruy Man- 
nering (time, Greoi'ge II.). 

Silves de la Selva {The Exploits and 
Adventures of), part of the series called 
Le Roman des Bomans, pertaining to "Am'- 
adis of G-aul." This part was added by 
EeUciano de Silva. 

Silvester {Anne), woman betrayed un- 
der promise of marriage, by Geoffrey Del- 
amayne, a famous athlete. By a series of 
contretemps, Anne is made out to be the 
wife (according to Scotch law) of her dear- 
est friend's betrothed, who visits her as 
Delamayne's emissary. She is released 
from the embarrassing position, by the 
exhibition of a letter from Delamayne, 
promising to marry her, written before 
Arnold's visit. Infuriated by the expose, 
Delamayne tries to murder his wife, and 
is prevented by a crazy woman. Her sud- 
den attack brings on apoplexy. Anne, as 
his widow, marries her old friend and de- 
fender, Sir Patrick Lundie. — ^Wilkie Col- 
hns, 3Ian and Wife (1874). 

Silvestre (2 syl), valet of Octave (son 
of Argante, and brother of Zerbinette). — 
Moli^re, Les Fourberies de Scapin (1671). 

Sil'via, daughter of the duke of Milan, 
and the lady-love of Valentine, one of the 
heroes of the play. — Shakespeare, The Two 
Gentlemen of Verona (1594). 

Simmoiis {Widow), the seamstress; a 
neighbor of the Ramsays. — Sir W. Scott, 
Fortunes of Nigel (time, James I.). 

Simon {Martin), proprietor of the yil- 




lage Bout du Monde, and miller of Greno- 
ble. He is called " The ki^g of Pelvoux," 
and in reality is the Baron de Peyras, 
who has given up all his estates to his 
nephew, the young chevalier, Marcellin de 
Peyras, and retired to Grenoble, where he 
lived as a villager. Martin Simon is in 
secret possession of a gold-mine, left him 
by his father, with the stipulation that he 
should place it beyond the reach of any 
private man, on the day it becomes a 
" source of woe and crime." Eabisson, a 
travelling tinker, the only person who 
knows about it, being murdered, Simon is 
suspected ; but Eusebe Noel confesses the 
crime. Simon then makes the mine over 
to the king of France, as it had proved 
the source both " of woe and crime." — E. 
Stirling, The Gold Mine, or Miller of Gre- 
noble (1854). 

Simonides, benevolent Jew, father of 
Esther, and friend of Ben Hur. — Lew 
Wallace, Ben Hur: a Tale of the Christ 

Simon Pure, a young quaker from 
Pennsylvania, on a visit to Obadiah Prim 
(a Bristol Quaker, and one of the guardians 
of Anne Lovely, the heiress). Colonel 
Feignwell personated Simon Pure, and 
obtained Obadiah's consent to marry his 
ward. When the real Simon Pure pre- 
sented himself, the colonel denounced 
T n'm as an impostor ; but after he had ob- 
tained the guardian's signature, he con- 
fessed the trick, and showed how he had 
obtained the consent of the other three 
guardians. — Mrs. Centlivre, A Bold Stroke 
for a Wife (1717). 

*#* This name has become a household 
word for "the real man," the ipsissimus 

beast-epic of Beynard the Fox (1498). So 
called from Simon Magus (Acts. viii. 9-24.) 

Simony (Dr.), in Foote's farce, called 
The Cozeners, was meant for Dr. Dodd. 

Sim'org, a bird "which hath seen the 
world thrice destroyed." It is found in 
Kaf, but as Haflz says, " searching for the 
simorg is like searching for the philoso- 
pher's stone." This does not agree with 
Beckford's account. (See Simukgh.) 

In Kaf the simorg hath its dwelling-place, 
The all-knowing bird of ages, who hath seen 
The world with all its children thrice destroyed, 
Southey, Thalaha, the Destroyer, viii. 19 (1797). 

Simpcox {Saunder), a lame man, who 
assei'ted he was born blind, and to whom 
St. Alban said, " Come, offer at my shrine, 
and I will help thee." Being brought be- 
fore Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, the 
lord protector, he was asked how he be- 
came lame; and Simpcox replied he fell 
from a tree which he had climbed to gather 
plums for his wife. The duke then asked 
if his sight had been restored? "Yes," 
said the man; and, being shown divers 
colors, could readily distinguish between 
red, blue, brown, and so on. The duke 
told the rascal that a blind man does not 
climb trees to gather their fruits ; and one 
born blind might, if his sight were restored, 
know that one color differed from another, 
but could not possibly know which was 
which. He then placed a stool before him 
and ordered the constables to whip him tiU 
he jumped over it; whereupon the lame 
man jumped over it, and ran off as fast as 
his legs could carry him. Sir Thomas 
More tells this story, and Shakespeare 
introduces it in 2 Henry VI. act ii. sc. 1 

Si'monie or Si'mont, the friar, in the Simple, the servant of Slender (cousin 





of Justice Shallow). — Shakespeare, The 
Merry Wives of Windsor (1596). 

Simple {The), Charles III. of France (879, 

Simple (Peter), the hero and title of a 
novel by Captain Manyat (1833). 

Simple Simon, a man more sinned 
against than sinning, whose misfortunes 
arose from his wife Margery's cruelty, 
which began the very morning of their 

We do not know whether it is necessary to 
seek for a Teutonic or Northern original for this 
once popular book. — Quarterly Review. 

Simpson (Tarn), the drunken barber. 
— Sir W. Scott, St. Bonan\s Well (time, 
George III.). 

Simson {Jean), an old woman at Mid- 
dlemas village. — Sir W. Scott, The Sur- 
geon^s Daughter (time, George II.). 

Simvu'gh, a fabulous Eastern bird, en- 
dowed with reason and knowing all lan- 
guages. It had seen the great cycle of 
7000 years twelve times, and, during that 
period, it declared it had seen the earth 
wholly without inhabitant seven times. — 
W. Beckford, Vatheh (notes, 1784). This 
does not agree with Southey's account. 
(See SiMOKG.) 

Sin, twin-keeper, with Death, of Hell- 
gate. She sprang, full-grown, from the 
head of Satan. 

Woman to the waist, and fair, 
But ending foul in many a scaly fold 
Voluminous and vast, a serpent armed 
With mortal sting. 

Milton, Paradise Lost, ii. (1665). 

Sin'adone {The lady of), metamor- 

phosed by enchantment into a serpent. 
Sir Lybius (on,e of Arthur's knights) slew 
the enchantress, and the serpent, coihng 
about his neck, kissed him; whereupon 
the spell was broken, the serpent became 
a lovely princess, and Sir Lybius made her 
his wife. — Liheaux (a romance). 

Sindbad, a merchant of Bagdad, who 
acquired great wealth by merchandise. 
He went seven voyages, which he related 
to a poor, discontented porter named 
Hindbad, to show him that wealth must 
be obtained by enterprise and personal 

First Voyage. Being becalmed in the 
Indian Ocean, he and some others of the 
crew visited what they supposed to be an 
island, but which was in reality a hiige 
whale asleep. They lighted a fire on the 
whale, and the heat woke the creature, 
which instantly dived under water. Sind- 
bad was picked up by some merchants, 
and in due time returned home. 

Second Voyage. Sindbad was left, during 
sleep, on a desert island, and discovered a 
roe's egg, " fifty paces in circumference." 
He fastened himself to the claw of the 
bird, and was deposited in the valley of 
diamonds. Next day some merchants 
came to the top of the crags, and threw 
into the valley huge joints of raw meat, 
to which the diamonds stuck, and when 
the eagles picked up the meat, the mer- 
chants seared them from their nests, and 
carried off the diamonds. Sindbad fastened 
himself to a piece of meat, was carried by 
an eagle to its nest, and, being rescued by 
the merchants, returned home laden with 

Third Voyage is the encounter with the 
Cyclops. (See Ulysses and Polyphemos, 
where the account is given in detail.) 

Fourth Voyage. Sindbad married a lady 
of rank in a strange island on which he 




was east ; and when his wife died he was 
buried ahve with the dead body, according 
to the custom of the land. He made Ms 
way out of the catacomb, and returned to 
Bagdad greatly enriched by valuables 
rifled from the dead bodies. 

Fifth Voyage. The ship in which he 
sailed was dashed to pieces by huge 
stones let down from the talons of two 
angry rocs. Sindbad swam to a desert 
" island, where he threw stones at the 
monkeys, and the monkeys threw back 
cocoa-nuts. On this island Sindbad en- 
countered and killed the Old Man of the 

Sixth Voyage. Sindbad visited the is- 
land of Serendib (or Ceylon), and climbed 
to the top of the mountain " where Adam 
was placed on his expulsion from para- 

Seventh Voyage. He was attacked by 
corsairs, sold to slavery, and employed in 
shooting elephants from a tree. He dis- 
covered a tract of hill country completely 
covered with elephants' tusks, communi- 
cated his discovery to his master, obtained 
his liberty, and returned home. — Arabian 
Nights (" Sindbad the Sailor "). 

Sindbad, Ulysses, and the Cyclops. 

(See Ulysses and Polyphemos.) 

Sin'el, thane of Glamis, and father of 
Macbeth. He married the younger daugh- 
ter of Malcolm II. of Scotland. 

Sinfire, brilliant, seductive, and wicked 
heroine of -Julian Hawthorne's novel of 
the same name. 

Sing (Sadha), the mourner of the des- 
ert. — Sir W. Scott, The Surgeon's Daugh- 
ter (time, George II.). 

Sing de Racine {Le), Campistron, the 
French dramatic poet (1656-1723). 

Singing Apple {The), in the deserts of 
Libya. This apple resembled a ruby 
crowned with a huge diamond, and had 
the gift of imparting wit to those' who 
only smelt of it. Prince Cherry obtained 
it for Fairstar. (See Singing Teee.) 

The singing apple is as great an embellisher 
of wit as the dancing water is of beauty. 
Would you appear in public as a poet or prose 
writer, a wit or a philosopher, you only need 
smell it, and you are possessed at onoe of these 
rare gifts of genius. — Comtesse D'Aunoy, Fairy 
Tales (" Princess Fairstar," 1682). 

Singing Tree {The), a tree, every leaf 
of which was a mouth, and all the leaves 
sang together in harmonious concert. — 
Arabian Nights (" The Two Sisters," the 
last story). 

*#* In the tale of Cherry and Fairstar, 
" the singing tree " is called " the singing" 
apple " {q.v.). 

Single- Speech Hamilton, William 
Gerard Hamilton, statesman (1729-1796). 
His first speech was delivered November 
13, 1775, and his eloquence threw into the 
shade every orator except Pitt himself. 

It was supposed that he had exhausted him- 
self in that one speech, and had become physically 
incapable of making a second; so that after- 
wards, when he really did make a second, every- 
body was naturally disgusted, and most people 
dropped his acquaintance. — De Quincey (1786- 

Singleton {Captain), the hero of a 
novel by D. Defoe, called The Adventures 
of Captain Singleton. 

Singular Doctor {The), William Oc- 
cam, Doctor Singularis et Invincibilis (1276- 

*#* The " Occam razor " was e^itia non 





sunt multiplicanda, " entities are not to be 
unnecessarily multiplied." In other words, 
elements, genera, and first principles are 
very few in number. 

Sinner Saved {A). Cyra, daughter of 
Protel-ius of Cappadocia, was on the point 
of taking the veil among Emmeha's sis- 
terhood, and just before the day of renun- 
ciation, Eleemon, her father's freed slave, 
who loved her, sold himself to the devil, 
on condition of obtaining her for his wife. 
He signed the bond with a drop of his 
heart's blood, and carried about with him 
a little red spot on his breast, as a perpet- 
ual reminder of the compact. The devil 
now sent a dream to Cyra, and another to 
her father, which caused them to change 
their plans; and on the very day that 
Cyra was to have taken the veil, she was 
given by St. Basil in marriage to Eleemon, 
with whom she lived happily for many 
years, and had a large family. One night, 
while her husband was asleep, Cyra saw 
the blood-red spot; she knew what it 
nleant, and next day Eleemon told her 
the whole story. Cyra now bestirred her- 
self to annul the compact, and went with 
her husband to St. Basil, to whom a free 
and full confession was made. Eleemon 
was shut up for a night in a cell, and 
Satan would have carried him off, but he 
clung to the foot of a crucifix. Next day 
Satan met St. Basil in the cathedral, and- 
demanded his bond. St. Basil assured 
him the bond was illegal and invalid. 
The devil was foiled, the red mark van- 
ished from the skin of Eleemon, a sinner 
was saved, and St. Basil came off victori- 
ous. — Amphilochius, Life of St. Basil. 
(See Rosweyde, Vitce Patrum, 156-8.) 

*«* Southey has converted this legend 
into a ballad of nine lays (1829). 

Siuon, the crafty Greek, who persuaded 

the Trojans to drag the Wooden Horse 
into their city.— Virgil, ^neid, ii. 

Dante, in his Inferno, places Sinon, with 
Potiphar's wife, Nimrod, and the rebellious 
giants, in the tenth pit of Malebolge. 

Sin Saxon. Sprightly, sparkling per- 
sonage, who appears, first as a saucy girl, 
then, as a vivacious young matron, in sev- 
eral of A. D. T. Whitney's books. She 
marries Frank Sherman. — A. D. T. Whit- 
ney, Leslie Goldthwaite and The Other 

Sintram, the Greek hero of the German 

romance, Sintram and His Companions^ by 
Baron Lamotte Fouque. 
Sintram^s Sword, Welsung. 

Sio'na, a seraph, to whom was com- 
mitted the charge of Bartholomew, the 
apostle. — Klopstock, The Messiah, iii. 

Siph'a, the guardian angel of Andrew, 
the brother of Simon Peter. — Klopstock, 
The Messiah, iii. (1748). 

Si'phax, a soldier, in love with Prin- 
cess Calls, sister of Astoras, king of Pa- 
phos. The princess is in love with Poly- 
dore, the brother of General Memnon, 
("the mad brother"). — Beaumont and 
Fletcher, The Mad Lover (1617). 

Sir Oracle, a dictatorial prig; a dogr 
matic pedant. 

I am Sir Oracle, 
And when I ope my lips, let no dog bark. 
Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice, act i. sc. 1 

Sirens, three sea-nymphs, whose nsual 
abode was a small island near Cape Pel- 
orus, in Sicily. They enticed sailors 
ashore by their melodious singing, and 




then killed them. Their names are Par- 
then8pe, Ligeia, and Leueothea. — Greek 

Sirloin of Beef. James I., on his re- 
turn from a hunting excursion, so much 
enjoyed his dinner, consisting of a loin of 
roast beef, that he laid his sword across 
it, and dubbed it Sir Loin, At Ching- 
ford, in Essex, is a place called " Friday- 
Hill House," in one of the rooms of which 
is an oak table with a brass plate let into 
it, inscribed with the following words: — 
" AijL Lovers of Egast Beef will like to 
know that on this table a loin was 


Eetubn FROM Hunting in Epping Forest." 
Knighting the loin of beef is also ascribed 
to Charles 11. 

Our second Charles, of fame facete, 

On loin of beef did dine ; 
He held his sword, pleased, o'er the meat. 

" Arise, thou famed Sir Loin." 

Ballad of the New Sir John Barleycorn. 

Sister Anne, sister of Fatima (the 
seventh and last wife of Bluebeard). Fat- 
ima, being condemned to death by her 
tyrannical husband, requested sister Anne 
to ascend to the highest tower of the cas- 
tle to watch for her brothers, who were 
momentarily expected. Bluebeard kept 
roaring below stairs for Fatima to be 
quick ; Fatima was constantly calling out 
from her chamber, " Sister Anne, do you 
see them coming? "and sister Anne was 
on the watch-tower, mistaking every cloud 
of dust for the mounted brothers. They 
arrived at last, rescued Fatima, and put 
Bluebeard to death. — Charles Perrault, 
Contes (" La Barbe Bleue," 1697). 

This is a Scandinavian tale taken from 
the Folks Sagas. 

Sis'yphos, in Latin Sisyphus, a king 

of Corinth, noted for his avarice and fraud. 
He was punished in the infernal regions 
by having to roll uphill a huge stone, 
which always rolled down again as soon 
as it reached the top. Sisyphos is a type 
of avarice, never satisfied. The avaricious 
man reaches the summit of his ambition, 
and no sooner does he so than he finds the 
object of his desire as far off as ever. 

With many a weary step, and many a groan, 
Up the high hill he heaves a huge round stone ; 
The huge round stone, returning with a bound, 
Thunders impetuous down, and smokes along 
the ground. 

Homer, Odyssey, xi. [Pope's trans.]. 

Sisyplius, in the Milesian tales, was 
doomed to die, but when Death came to 
him, the wily fellow contrived to fasten 
the unwelcome messenger in a chair, and 
then feasted him till old Spare-ribs grew 
as fat as a prize pig. In time, Pluto re- 
leased Death, and Sisyphus was caught, 
but prayed that he might speak to his 
wife before he went to Hades. The prayer 
was granted, and Sisyphus told his wife 
not to bury him, for though she might 
think him dead, he would not be really so. 
When he got to the infernal regions, he 
made the ghosts so merry with his jokes, 
that Pluto reproved him, and Sisyphus 
pleaded that, as he had not been buried, 
Pluto had no jurisdiction over him, nor 
could he even be ferried across the Styx. 
He then obtained leave to return to earth, 
that he might persuade his wife to bury 
him. Now, the wily old king had pre- 
viously bribed Hermes, when he took him 
to Hades, to induce Zeus to grant him life, 
provided he returned to earth again in 
the body ; when, therefore, he did return, 
he demanded of Hermes the fulfillment of 
his promise, and Hermes induced Zeus to 
bestow on him life. Sisyphus was now 
allowed to return to earth, with a promise 
that he shoidd never die again, till he him- 





self implored for death. So he lived, and 
lived till tie was weary of living, and when 
he went to Hades the second time, he was 
allotted, by way of punishment, the task of 
roUing a huge stone to the top of a moun- 
tain. Orpheus (2 syl), asked him how 
he could endure so ceaseless and vain an 
employment, and Sisyphus replied that he 
hoped ultimately to accomplish the task. 
"Never," exclaimed Orpheus; "it can 
never be done ! " " Well, then," said Sisy- 
phus, "mine is at worst but everlasting 
hope." — Lord Lytton, Tales of Miletus, ii. 

Sitoph'agiis {"the wheat-eater^^), one of 
the mouse princes, who being wounded in 
the battle, crept into a ditch to avoid fur- 
ther injury or danger. 

The lame Sitopha^s, oppressed with pain, 
Creeps from the desperate dangers of the plain ; 
And where the ditches rising weeds supply . . . 
There lurks the silent mouse reheved of heat, 
And, safe embowered, avoids the chance of fate. 
Parnell, Battle of the Frogs and Mice, iii. (about 

The last two lines might be amended 
thus : 

There lurks the trembling mouse with bated 

And, hid from sight, avoids his instant death. 

/i Siward [Se.'ward], the earl of Nor- 
thumberland, and general of the English 

forces, acting against Macbeth.- 
speare, Macbeth (1606). 


Six Chronicles (The). Dr. Giles com- 
piled and edited six Old English Chroni- 
cles for Bohn's series in 1848. They are : 
Ethelwerd's Chronicle, Asser's Life of Al- 
fred, Geoffrey of Monmouth's British His- 
tory, Gildas the Wise, Nennius's History of 
the Britons, and Eichard of Cirencester 
On the Ancient State of Britain. The 
last three were edited in 1757, by Profes- 
sor Bertram, in his Scriptores Tres, but 
great doubt exists as to the genuineness of 
the chronicles contained in Dr. Bertram's 
compilation. (See Theee Wkitees.) 

Sixteen- String- Jack, John Rann, a 
highwayman. He was a great fop, and 
wore sixteen tags to his breeches, eight at 
each knee (hanged 1774). 

Dr. Johnson said that Gray's poetry towered 
above the ordinary run of verse, as Sixteen- 
String-Jack above the ordinary foot-pad. — ^Bos- 
well, Idfe of Johnson (1791). 

Skeifington, author of Sleeping Beauty, 
Maids and Bachelors, etc. 

And sure great SkefiSngton must claim our praise 
For skirtless coats, and skeletons of plays. 

Byron, English Bards and Scotch Beviewers 








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