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Full text of "Grammar with vocabularies of Volapük (the language of the world) for all speakers of the English language"



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




Cornell University Library 
PM 8956.S34 1887a 



Grammar with vocabularies of Volapuk th 




3 1924 027 111 453 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924027111453 



GRAMMAR 
WITH VOCABULARIES 

OF 

yOLAPUK: 

<The L.ANGUAGE of the WORLD). 

FOR 

ALL SPEAKERS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 
Second (greatly revised) edition. 

Translated and Published ivith the consent of the Inventor 
JOHANN Martin Schleyer, 



W. A. SERET, 

CERTIFICATED TEACHER OF THE UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE. 



Ptjet tshers * 
Glasgow: THOMAS MURRAY & SON. 
London: WHITTAKER & Co. 

FEntered at Stationers' Hall]. , ■. 

1887. >>-' / 



V. 



'^ fv|4f)^^S^ft'^^3 






y^'Zv/2. / 




PREFACE. 



"VoLAPiiK" (the Language of the World) was invented by 
Mr. J. M. Schleyer of Litzelstetten ; in Baden , Germany , 
and published in the year 1880. Since that time it has made 
rapid progress, and has already gained a firm footing in 
Germany , Switzerland , Holland , Hungary , Italy , France , 
Sweden and especially in Austria and in Syria and Arabia, 
having been introdused also into Russia (south), America , 
Asia , and the north of Africa. 

It does not aim at setting aside the many languages at 
present in use, but only at providing a common means of 
intercourse between all nations. 

It is quite unnecessary to explain to an enterprising nation 
like the British , what the advantages of a common language are. 
Many attempts have previously been made to compose such 
a language, but this', "Volapiik ," surpasses them all for 
brevity and clearness , and has been approved by high autho- 
rities of different countries. 

"Volapiik" has also the indispensable advantage of being 
ver.y easily and quickly learnt. 

Menade bal. 
Piiki bal. 

that is L — 
One Mankind. 
One Language. 

W. A. SEBET. 
GrLASGOW, 1887. 



CHAPTEK I. 

Alphabets (Lafabs). 

§ 1.— World-alphabet (Volalafab). ■. 
For the viniTersal language (Volapiikiko). 
(1.) a, e, i, 0, u; a, 6, ii; = 8 vowels. 
(2.) 0, j, s, X, z; \ 

1.' 1,' i' ^' ' > = 20 consonants, 
h, K, 1, m, n, I 

P, r, t, V, y; ) 

In all 28 letters. 

§ 2. — Pronunciation of the 28 letters for the language of 
the world. 

(1.) All the vowels are pronounced long, full, and clearly, 
thus : — 

a, like the English o in father. 



e, , 


, ,, 


,, 


a ,, 


sale. 


i, , 


> 1> 


t» 


e „ 


me. 


Of , 


,, 


,, 


„ 


no 


u, , 


,. 


,, 


„ 


to. 


fl, , 


I) 


:) 


a „ 


any. 


0, , 


5) 


German 


„ 


Schohe. 


0, , 




French 


eu „ 


peu. 


». , 


n 


)3 


« 1. 


une. 


^. > 


)) 


German 


« „ 


fiber. 



(2.) The pronunciation of the consonants in Volapuk will 
require a little care and practice at first, although they are 
very easy and clear. 

c, like the English j in John, 
/, „ >, sh „ shore, 

s, ,, ,, s ,, storm 

s, „ „ z ,, zero; when in the same syllable it 

stands before a vowel. 

1 



GEAMMAB OF VOLA.PUK. 

X, like the Bngliali x in box 



2, 




)) 


ts „ rats. 


2. 




German 


z ,, all cases. 


b, 




English 


b „ bleu. 


d, 




1) 


d ,, dust. 


f- 




,, 


f „ fast. 


9' 




51 


g ., good. 


e 




,, 


h „ here.^ 


h, 




German 


ch „ machen. 


Ji, 




broad Scotch gh in night 


k, 




English 


k in key. 


I, 




1) 


1, „ long. 


m, 




., 


m „ morning. 


n. 




,, 


n „ never. 


p. 




,, 


p „ purse. 


r, 




i> 


r ,, rare. 


t, 




?» 


t „ tune. 


", 






w „ wish. 


y^ 




,, 


y ,, yonder. 



§ 3.— Writing of the letters. 

(1.) The letters shown in § 1 are written like the English 
letters. 

(2.) The capital letters are just the same as the English 
Ifctters, as : 

A, E, I, 0, U. 
C, J, S, X, z. 

B, D, F, G. 

H, K, L, M, N. 
P, R, T, V, Y. 
(3.) The capital letters for a, 5, u, are written thus — 
A, 0, ii. 
(4.) The capital letter for (') only gets a little teaTier ('). 
(5.) Besides these 28 letters, Volapiik has 10 other accents, 
only used, however, in translation, to interpret sounds and 
accents peculiar with some people or language; they are: 
a, say ao, for the English a in all. 





„ ta, 


U J) 


th „ the. 


f, 


„ la. 


„ French 


11 „ fito. 


rr, 


„ ra, 


„ double 


r „ ferry 


^, 


„ ma, 


, French 


m „ nom. 


A 


„ na, 


1 >) 


n „ mon. 



GRAMMAK OP YOLAPUK. 

<7, say na, for the, English ng in song. 
/, „ sa, „ sharp sound before vowels. 
j, „ zya, „ Trench j in je. 
c, „ tzya, „ English ch „ cMld. 



CHAPTER II. 
Rules Concerning the Letters. (Noms Tonabas.) 

§ 4. — In Volapuk every letter must be pronounced, none 
is mute. 

Ex. : — '■el, pronounced as hail, means hair. 

yel, „ „ yale, „ year. 

cil,^ „ „ jeel, „ child. 

plied, „ ' „ plee-aid, „ praise. 

bloda'et, „ „ blo-da-hate, „ hate between 

brothers. 

§ 5. — In Volapuk every sound is written by only one letter, 
and every letter has only one. sound. 

§ 6. — Each letter is pronounced in every case in exactly 
the same way. In Volapuk the vowels are always long (quite 
different from the English vowels. Ex. — See a in father, call, 
shall, pale, mare, &c.) 

§ 7. — In every word the stress, the accent, must be put on 
ihe last syllable. 

(Only in poetry this rule allows some freedom.) 

§ 8. — The softened vowels are a, 6, u — of which the a 
equals the French e, while the d and u are the very same 
as the German o and ii. 

§ 9- — Volapuk has no q and no iv; qu is written kv pro- 
nounced" like qu in the English words — quite, question; w 
is written v, and pronounced like w in the English word — 
wisdom. 

§ 10. — Volapuk avoids all sounds particular to one nation 
or country, therefor it has not the English th nor the French 
m and n as used 9,t the end of words, spoken through the 
nose; but in Volapuk all letters must be pronounced clearly. 

§ 11- — The u always sounds as the English « in full, but 
never as in purity, miisic. 

§ 12 — The letter J, without a point, sounds like zy, and 
not like dzy. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 

§ 13.— The a: always sounds like hs. 

§ 14. — The z always sounds like ts. 

§ 15.— The / is used instead of v and ph. 

§ 16.— The g is like a soft k, as in good, gold, God. 

§ 17.— The letter ' ' ■ (mark from the Greek) is a,lways pro- 
nounced as h, in half, her. 

§ 18.— The letter h in Volapuk sounds, like the ch in the 
German language. 

§ 19.— y, used for/, is always a sounding consonant, never 
a vowel. 

§ 20. — Volapuk has no diphthongs as oa in broad, ou in 
found ; neither has it triphthongs as eau in beauty ; but every 
letter has its own sound, therefor geil (height) is pronounced 
gay-eel. 

§ 21. — The unnatural sound of ng, as in long, song, does 
not exist in VolapUk; when required, it may be represented 
by the mark 7 (from the Greek). 

§ 22. — To represent in Volapuk the letters ch, as sounding 
in the words — Charles, child, one writes a c with a mark at 
the top: c\ 

§ 23. — The names of the 28 letters are as follows —ordei-ed . 
as in § 1 : — 

(1.) a (as a in father), e (as the English a), i (as the English e), oj 
u (as Q in cruel), a (as e in mess), 6 (as eu in the French adieu) •, 
u (as the French u in une). 

(2.) ja, sha, za, ksa, tsa ; 
ba, da, fa, ga, ha; 

ga (like the German ch), ka, la, ma, na; 
pa, ra, ta, wa, ya; in which the a is pronounced as 
the English letter a. 



CHAPTER III. 
Languages (Puks). 

§ 24.— Advantages of our universal language (Bizugs Vola- 
pfika obsik). 

(1) Everybody knows that all living and ancient languages 
show quantity of faults and difficulties which it is useless to 
point out in this Grammar. 



GBAMMAR OF YOLAPiiK. 

(2.) The advantages of Volapiik are many, becaxise it avoida, 
or at least tries to avoid, all such puzzling rules. 

(3.) Volapiik is brief, and saves words to such an extent 
that its usefulness will soon be seen- in telegraphing, for 
instance. 

(4.) Although very brief, Volapuk is clear, plain, and distinct 
in its expressions, and as each expression has only one meaning, 
no mistakes can be; made. 

(5.) Volapuk is easily learnt, which certainly is one of its 
lest qualities. In fact, any person who knows his own language 
well, may learn, in one week, all the rules ofthe new language, 
as there are no exceptions or irregularities whatever. 



CHAPTER IV. 

WOELD GrRAMMAB (VoLAGLAMAT). 

§ 25. — The English language is the basis, or rather the 
guide, for Volapuk, because it is the most wide spread language 
at the present day, notwithstanding the confusion of its 
spelling. Englishmen and people knowing the English language, 
will soon perceive their advantage at the learning of Volapuk, 
above people that can not speak English. 

§ 26. — Like the Latin and the Russian languages, Volapuk 
has no Articles ;, those found in its dictionary are used for^ 
literal translation only, thus the word fat means father, and 
the father as well as a father. 

§ 27. — If it is required to distinguish the sexes, the Noun 
itself shows the masculine, while the feminine is formed by 
placing the particle ji- (which has the same meaning and 
also the same pronunciation as the , English "she") or the 
particle of- directly before the Noun,only kept distinct from 
it by a hyphen ( - ). The neuter gender is formed by affixing 
the particle os to the noun, without any mark. 

§ 28. — The plural of the neuter gender may be formed by 
writing 6ss, or oz. Ex. — 

this is good, atos bin6s gudik; 

thesg (things) are good, at6ss bin6ss (binoms) gudik; 
or, atoz b.noz gudik. 

§ 29. — In Volapuk vowels or consonants are not doubled, 
aor is it allowed to put many of them together Yet in the 



6 6EAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 

possessive singular and plural the second syllable, is freely- 
added to the word. Ex. — 

vilaKS, freedom of will; 

yQAsusluk, dictionary, book of the words, vocabulary. 
§ 30.— For the sake of children and old people, also for 
some Asiatic nations, Volapuk often avoids the letters r, rr, ',. 
h, c, ch, ng, th, jtj, &c. 

§ 31. — Compound words (v5ds pekosiadol). 

(1.) All compound words in Volapuk take the a of the 
possessive singular; for example— householder, domakipel; dress- 
maker, klotamekel, and not klotasmekel. 

(2.) The possessive plural as, the adverbial o, or the .mark 
for the accusative z, and other such like, may be used, more 
clearly to denote the meaning of the word; or also to avoid 
ambiguity. 

(3.) In any case it may be better not to use compounds, 
but rather' to write: 

Mekel klotas; meaning: maker of dresses or klotasnjekel ;. 
meaning: of dresses the maker. 

§ 32.— The five hissing letters (c, j, s, x z,) do not end 
words that can be conjugated, nor do they take the plural s, 
which would give an unnatural sound. 

§ 33. — In Yolapuk nouns, as primitive words, are made 
monosyllabical if possible. 

§ 34. — Volapuk has only one diminitive, that is, the addi- 
tional U. 

Ex. — dom, house; domjV, little, or small house. 

§ 53.— (1.) All adjectives, numeral words, and pronoxms, 
are usually placed directly after their nouns ; and in that 
case they are not inflected to indicate number or gender, 
(same as in English Grammar). 

(2.) When used before, or without a noun, however, and 
also in poetry, and in such oases where clearness requires it, 
they must be changed, and take gender and number. 

§ 36.- — The adverbs are the same as adjectives, and are 
placed after the verba. 

Should it be necessary to distinguish them from each other, 
the adjective, used as an adverb, takes an o, that is iko, ta 
the primitive word. 

Ex. : — Noun. Adjective. Adverb, 

gild. gaiik. guAiko, 

good(ness). good. well. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 7 

(In poetry this o may be added to all adverbs, even when 
not actually required by this rule). 

§ 37. — (1.) The digits, numeral words from 1 to 9 inclusive, 
never take the plural s. 

(2.) The words — "the ones", "the twos", &c.; are express- 
ed as: the numbers one, the numbers two, &6.; or as balel, 
telel, &c. 

§ 38.— All tenfolds take the plural s. 

§ 30. — All prepositions stand invariably before their noun. 

§ 40. — The verb in Volapfik, for all forms of conjugation, 
has always the same affixes for each of the different persons 
in singular and plural. 

§ 41. — In Volapuk all tenses (and persons) have their moods, 
particles, imperatives, and subjunctives. 

§ 42.— Volapiik uses only one negative, while two negatives 
make a positive. 

§ 43. — Conjunctions, used to join clauses, shall never be 
omitted. 

§ 44.— Capital letters are used only at the beginning of 
"God", of the names opplied to the Deity, and also of individual 
persons, places, &c. 

§ 45. — Volapuk gives all freedom in syntax, but the usual 
arrangement of the parts in a sentence is thus: — 

Noun, pronoun, . number, adjective; predicate (verb), adverb 
or preposition, with noun; extensions (4th, 2nd, 3rd case); 
principal clause, subordinate clauses. 

§ 46.- The dictionary shows that the greater part of words 
for Volapiik are derived from the English, transforming those 
ending in s, z, or other hissing sounds; and also much Con- 
formity with the German, French, Spanish, and Latin languages 
may be observed. 

§ 47. — Polysyllabic "primitives, beginning with p3,, pe, pi 
po, or pu, shall be used as little as possible, because they 
appear so much alike the future tense of verbs, that mistakes 
might be made. Rather use p6, pii, pla, pla, pli; or ba, bii. be. 

§ 48.— Base rules (Lenoms, stabanoms). 

I. SufBxa (affixed syllables). 

(1.) a; e, and i stand with nouns. 
(2.) u and u ,, ,, adjectives. 

(3.) and 6 ,, „ pronouns, verbs, abverbs, and 

interjections. 

II, Prseflxa (paeflxed syllables) for verbs. 



8 GRAMMAR OP VOLAPUK. 

(1.) a, ai, and pa, pai — in the present tense. 
(2.) a, e, i, and pa, pe, pi — in the perfect tense. 
(3.) 0, n, and po, pu — in the future tense. 

§ 49.— Principal rules (Glenoms). [SnfExa and Praefixa.) 
A.ffixes and Prefixes. Formation of the plural (Fomam plunuma), 
(1.) The mark for the plural is the letter S. The | plural 
of all words is formed by adding S to the singular. 
Ex. — fbluk, brook; bel, mountain. 

(.bluks, brooks; bels, mountains, 
fblod, brother; dom, house, 
(^blods, brothers; doms, houses. 
Form the plural of — 
dog (dog); dlim (dream); dun (deed); fel (field); zib (food). 

(2.) This rule, having no exceptions, showa a very great 
advantage cpmpared with the irregularities of the English 
language; as, for example, in — 
man, men; box, boxes, 
child, children; sky, skies. 
knife, knives; foot, feet, 
staff, staves; potato, potatoes, 
tooth, teeth; mouse, mice, 
ox, oxen; goose, geese. 
§ 50. — Formation of feminine nouns. (Fpmam vodas jilik.) 
To show a noun as feminine, the syllable fi- is prefixed 
to, but kept separate from, the primitive word. 
Ex. — pul, the boy; ji-pul, the girl, 
son, the son; ji-son, the daughter, 
gok, the cook; ji-gok, the hen. 
dog, the dog,; ji-dog, the bitch, 
blod, the brother; ji-blod, the sister, 
jeval, the horse; ji-jeval, the mare, 
fit, the milter; ji-fit, the spawner. 
kosen, the nephew; ji-kosen, the nice, 
stag, the hart; ji-stag, the roe. 

diinan, the man-servant; ji-dUnan, the maid-servant, 
golad, the buck: ji-golad, the doe. 
§ 51-— To show a word as neuter, the syllable os is affixed 
to it, and not kept distinct. 

§ 52.— (1.) The possessive singular always ends in a. 

Ex.— God, God; Goda, Gods. 
(2.) The objective singular always ends in e. 

Ex,— flen, the friend; flene, to the friend. 



GUAMMAll or VOLAPUK. 9 

(3.) The accusative (4th case) singular always ends in i. 

Bz.— blod, the brother; blodi, the brother. 
Note. — The English language has only three cases: the 
nominative, the possessive, and the objective. Volapiik, 
hovsrever, has five cases to shovsr a difference in sentences, 
like — to the brother, and the brother, therefor it writes— 
3rd case to the brother — blode. 
4th „ the brother — blodi. 
(4.) The vocative or 5th case is denoted by an o placed 
before the noun like an interjection. 
Ex. — men, man: men! man! 
mens! men! 
man, man: man! man! 
mans! men! 
Note. — Mark the difference in Volapiik between — 
man, mans, and men, mens, 
man, mans — means: man, men. 
men, mens — means: human being, human beings. 
Ex. — Grood mothers make intelligent men of their sons. 
Mots gudik mekofs manis lisanik sonis ofsik. 
Women, boys, men, and girls are human beings. 
Voms, puis, mans, e ji-puls binoms mens. 
(5.) The possessive plural always ends in as. 

{a denotes the case, s the number.) 
Ex, — pen, pen (nib); penas, of the pens (nibs). 
(6.)- The objective plural always ends in es. 
(e denotes the case, s the number.) 
Ex. — dom, the house; domes, to the houses. 
(7.) The accusative (4th case) plural always ends in is. 

(i denotes the case, s the number.) 
Ex. — glat, the glass; glatas, the glasses. 
§ 53- — (1.) In Volapiik diminutives are formed by affixing 
il to the primitive word. 

Ex. — dom, house; Aomil small hoiise. 
(2.) Adjectives are formed by adding ik to the primitive word, 
Ex. — good, goodness; gu&ik, good. 
(3.) The comparative degree is formed by adding ikum to 
the primitive word, or urn to the adjective. 
Ex — gudifc, good ; gndikum, better. 
(4.) The superlative degree is formed by adding ikun to 
the primitive word, or tin to the adjective. 
Ex. — gaAik, good; gndiikm, best. 
(5.) The numeral words when digits (from 1-9) end in I. 



10 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



Ex bal, one; tel, two; kil, three. 

(6.) The numeral words when tenfolds end in Is. 
Ex.— baZs, ten; teZs, twenty; kife, thirty. 
(7.) The numeral words of order end in id when adjectives. 
Ex. — kil«a, the third. 
(8.) The numeral words of order when used as adverhs end 
in ido. , 

Ex.— kiMo, thirdly, in the third place. 
foKcfo, in the fourth place,, &c. 
(9.) The numeral words denoting repetition all end in na. 
Ex.— balna, once; telna, twice. 

kilsna, thirty times; folna, four times. 
' (10 ) The numeral words denoting distribution take the letter 
a before them which is kept quite distinct. 
Ex.— a lul, every (each) five, 
a mal, ,, ,, six. 

(11.) The numeral words denoting a manifold, get the 
letters ik. 

Ex. — folik, fourfold; velik, sevenfold. 
(12.) The numeral words when nouns all end in el. 

Ex. — jeleZ, the eight; ziilel, the nine. 
(13.) In Volapuk, verbs are derived from the numeral words 
by adding ore to the numeral. This shows the verb in the 
infinitive mood. 

Ex. — tel, two; telon, to double. 

vel, seven; velon, to multiply by seven. 
(14.) The affixes for the verbs, are: — 



1st person, oh. 
2nd „ ol. 
3rd „ om 
of 



on 
ok 
ons 



SlNGBLAE. 
Ex. 

(masculine). „ 
(feminine). ,, 
(neuter). ,, 

(indefinite). ,, 
(reflective). ,, 
(polite). 

Plural. 
Ex. 



2nd 
(15.) 

1st person, ohs, 
2nd „ ols. 
3rd „ oms (masculine). 
11 II ofs (femlinine). 



— bino5, I am. 
duneZ, thou doest. 
iSfom, he loves, 
kano/, she can. 
dalos, it may. 
viloji, one will [self, 
letonofc, one lets one'si 
golons, you go. 

— nobis, we know. 
piikoZs, you speak, 
penoms, they write, 
givo/s , they (females) 
give. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 11 

3rd person oks (reflective). Ex. — klotomofo, also. 

klotomsofc, they dress themselves. 
Signs for the tenses of the active verbs, to be prefixed to 
the verb in its conjugative form. 

(16.) In the imperfect or past tense, a. 

Ex. — afinoZ, thou finishedst. 
(17.) In the perfect tense, e. 

Ex. — egetom, he has got (received). 
(18.) In the pluperfect tense, i. 

Ex. — iplano/J she had planted. 
(19.) In the future tense, o. 

Ex. — oilinols, we shall or will drink. 
(20.) In the future perfect tense, u. 

Ex. — ukipoms, we shall or will have kept. 
Signs for the tenses of the passive verbs, to be prefixed to 
the verb in its conjugative form. 
(21.) In the present tense, pa. 

Ex. — ;paI6fols, thou art loved. 
(22.) In the imperfect or past tense, pa. 

Ex. — ^aselon, one was sold. 
(23) In the perfect tense, pe. 

Ex. — ^eliladoms, they have been read. 
(24.) In the pluperfect tense, pi. 

Ex. — pilogova, he had been seen. 
(25.) In the future tense, po. 

Ex. — ^ponulobs, we shall or will be renewed. 
(26.) In the future perfect tense, pu. 

Ex.— ^ustopon, one shall or will have been stopped. 
(27.) The sign for the subjunctive mood is the affixed 
syllable, la, kept distinct from the verb. 

Ex. — pelob-Zn, that I may pay. 
(28.) The affix for the imperative mood is the syllable Sd. 

Ex.— domolsoVf, stay in (also 5s! or oz!) 
(29.) The affix for a noun, to make it a verb in the infi- 
nitive mood, is the syllable on. 

Ex. : — lif, life ; Idf, love. 

lifon, to live; lofon, to love. 
(30.) The participle is always formed by the affix H. 

Ex. — fulpl, filling; lifol, living. 
(31.) The affix for the interrogative form is the syllable lif 

Ex.— fitoms-Zi.? are they fishing? or, do they fish? 
(32.) The affixed sign by which the name of a noun repro- 
duces that of a quality, a symptom of the mind, is the syllable dl. 



12 GEAMMAE OF VOLAPuK. 

Ex. — kap, head; kapal, sense, genius; lad, heart; 
ladal, kindness, heartiness. 
§ 54- — Proper names. (Nems lonik.) 

If it be required to make the plural of proper names that 
end in a hissing soiind, asc, j, s, x, z; such may be done by 
doubling the last letter, and pronouncing the word sharply. 
Ex.— Mice, Darius, Blejj. 
§ 55. — Yet we may state that in Volapiik the rule for 
the plural of nouns is, without exceptions, by saying — 

(1.) In Tola;^uk the plural always ends in a hissing sound. 

(2.) If the singular of proper names ends already in 

(c, j, s, X, z), (wich is yery seldom the case in Volopuk), 

the last letter is doubled, and the word expressed short and 

sharply. 

(3.) If the singular does not end in c, j, s, x, or z, an s 
is added for the plural; and this, settles the rule for the 
plural altogether. 

§ 56. — Names of individual persons. (Posodanems.) 
(1.) In Volapuk the second name of persons is put before 
their Christian names. 

Ex. — Not Joseph Bach, but Bach Joseph — Bah Yosef. 
(2.) Volapuk writes a name just as it sounds, exactly as it 
is read. 

Ex — Consn, Cems (Johnson, James). 

The Cases of Declination (Deklinafels). 
Singular (Banum). 

§ 57. — Formation of the possessive case. Singular (whose) 
(Pomam, kimafala, banuma). 

The possessive singular always ends in a. 
Ex.— God, God; Goda, God's, of God. 
sil, heaven; sila, heaven's, 
pen, the pen; pena, of the pen. 
glat, the glass, glata, of the glass. 
flen, the friend; flena, of the friend. 
Make the possessive singular of — 

fil, fire; fin, end; fit, fish; flol, flower. 
§ 58. — In Volapuk the possessive of names like Mary's, 
Ann's, &c., is formed by making them adjectives, as Marianik, 
Anaik, &c ; but one may also say — 
de Maria; of Mary, 
de Ana; of Ann, &c. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 13 

§ 59.— (1.) Compound expressions, like "a glass of water," 
may be given in three different ways, as — 

with the possessive (2nd case), glat vata; 
„ nominative (1st „ ), glat vat; 

with de — "of", glat de vat. 
While one may also say — 

glat fulik de vat, glass full of water. 
(2.) On the contrary, one writes for a beer-glass: 
bilaglat, or glat- al bill, or glat plo bil ; 
a wine-glass — 

vinaglat, or glat al vin, or glat plo vin. 
§ 60. — Formation of the objective case singular (whom); 
(Fomam kimefala banuma). 
The objective singular always ends in e. 
Ex. — din, the thing; dini, to the thing, 
kap, the head; kapd, to the head, 
dut, diligence, dut^, to diligence, 
cil, a child; cil^, to a child, 
lep, the monkey; lep6, to the monkey. 
Make the objective singular of — 

flum, river; fint, flute; JFon, fountain; 
fot, wood; fut, foot; gad, garden. 
§ 61. — In Volapiik the objective case is never explained 
by a word, as to in English. The objective case must always 
be formed by affixing the letter e, which may never be 
omitted. 

Ex. — I wish you vipob ons6. 
§ 62. — Formation of the accusative (4th case), singular 
(whom). (Pomam kimifala banuma). 

The accusative, or 4th case singular, always end in i. 
Ex.— 1st case. 4th case, 

pen^d, the letter; penedi, the letter, 
kanel, the artist; kaneli, the artist, 
bakel, a baker; bafeeli, a baker 
bak, the back; baki, the back. 
Make the fourh case singular of — 
■gal, gladness; gan, goose; gased, newspaper, 
glaf, sword; glid, salutation. 



Pi URAL (Plunum). 

§ 63. — Formation of the possessive case plural (Fomam 
kimofala plunuma). 

The possessive plural always ends in as. 



14 GEAMMAR OF VOLAPilK. 

Ex.— balib, the bearcf; balibas, of the beards, 
ban, bath; banas, of the baths, 
bat, enticing; batas, of enticings. 
Make the possessive plural of — 

bad, evil; bel, mountain; gun, coat; jepel, shepherd; 
juk, shoe; Jul, school; lad, heart. 
§ 64— rormation of the objective case, plural (Fomam 
kimefala plunuma). 

The objective plural always ends in es. 
Ex. — ben, grace; ben&, to graces. 

bid, the kind; bid^s, to the kinds, 
bim, a tree; bimes, to trees 
bod, the loaf; bodes, to the loafs. 
Make the objective plural of— 

blig, duty; lak, lake; lam, arm; Ian, the soul: 
lin, a ring; \i6g, richness. 
§ 65. — Formation of the accusative or 4th case plural. 
(Fomam kimifala plunuma). 
The accusative or 4th case plural always ends in is. 
Ex.— bluf, the trial; blufis, the trials, 
boed, a plank; boedis, planks, 
buk, book; bukis, books, 
bun, pear; biinis, pears, 
but, boot; butis, boots. 
Make the 4th case plural of — 

lit, light; I6d, dwelling; log, eye; lol, rose; Ion, law. 
§ 66. — Formation of the vocative or 5th case, singular and 
plural. (Fomam kimofala banuma e plunuma). 

The vocative, or 5th case, for both singular and plural is 
simply a nominative with o placed before it, and kept separate. 
Ex. — cen, change; cen globol, fascinating change. 
Make the vocatives of — 

cal, vocation; lorn, home; lot, guest; fuf, grape, lut, 
air; mag, statue; mag, image. 
§ 67. — When a note of exclamation (!) is written after the 
noun in Volapiik, the of the vocative may be ommitted. 
Ex. — deception! cit! 
But in conversation the o shall always be expressed. 
§ 68. — Graduation of signification. (Xanumam suema). Vola- 
piik shows at least eleven different ways, by which gradually 
to increase the meaning of a word. 
Ex. — town, city; zif. 
(1.) miserable little town; luziiil. 



GRAMMAll OF VOLAPuK. 15 

(2.) very small to-wn; smaziiil. 
(3.) small town; ziftV. 
(4.) miserable town; luziL 
(5.) small city; smazif. 
(6.) town; zif. 

(7.) miserable big town; lulezii. 
(8.) big town; lezii. 
(9.) miserable important town; luglezii'. 
(10.) important town -j-glezii. 
(11.) important big town; glelezif (legleziS). 
§ 69. — Affixes for diminutives. (Finam smalama.) 
In Volapiik the diminutives of words are formed by adding 
the syllable il to them (in English, adjectives are generally 
used for that purpose). 

Ex. — bod, loaf; bodj7 small loaf, 
cog, joke; cogil, little joke 
cem, room; cemz7, small room (chamber), 
kanit, verse ; kanitiV, little verse, 
kat, cat ; katil, wee oat, kitten. 
Make the diminutives of — 

med, means; mot, mother; mud, mouth; mun, 
moon; naf, ship. 
§ 70.— In Volapuk the inferior meaning (less or worse 
quality) of a word is shown by prefixing lu (being the reverse 
of le) to it 

Ex. — pak, spreading; iupak, pollution, 
sanel, doctor; Zusanel, quack. 
vat, water; iuvat, piss, 
biik, print ; Zubiik, waste paper. 
§ 71. — Formation of adjectives. (Fomam ladyekas.) Adjec- 
tives always end in ik. 

Ex. — klif, rock; klift'^, rocky, 
kop, body; kopjfc, bodily, 
san, bliss; sanjfc, blissful, 
ston, stone; stonti, stony, 
klot, dress ; klotit, dressing, 
nat, nature; n&tik, natural. 
Make the adjectives of — 

nab, narrowness; nem, name, 
neflen, enemy; net, nation. 
§ 72. — Different affixes of adjectives — ik, lik, nik, sik. 
Ex. — boad, wood; boadtfc, wooden. 
hoaAlik, woody. 



16 GRAMMAR OP VOLAPUK. 

boadnifc, wooded, 
yel, year; yeh'fc, one year old. 

jelsik, yearly, annual. 
§ 73. — Formation of the comparative degree of comparison. 
(Fomam liiena telid xanuma.) 

The comparative always ends in ikum [ih for the adjectiver 
um for the comparative). 

Ex.— ^koten, contentment ; kotenikum, more content, 
kud, care , kadikum, more careful, 
dan, thank ; danikum, more thankful, 
deb, guilt ; debikum, guiltier. 
Make adjectives in the comparative degree of — 

kol, colour ; nid, brilliancy ; nim, beast ; nil, proxi 
mity ; nom, rule ; nolud, north. 
§ 74. — Formation of the superlative degree of comparison, 
(Fomam liiena kilid xanuma.) 

The superlative always ends in ikiin {ik for the adjective^ 
fin for the superlative). 

Ex. — def, defect ; deflkiin, most defective. 

dek, ornament ; dedikun, most ornamental, 
dib, depth ; dibikiin, deepest, 
div, value ; divikiin, most valuable. 
Make adjectives in the superlative degree of— 

dol, grief; not, knowledge: num, number ; nvil, newness; 
palet, party; p6k, fault. 
§ 75. The above syllables um and Hn may be affixed to all 
participles as well; but, of course, without ik. 
Ex. — spalSl, excusably, 

spalBlum, more excusably. 
spalolun, most excusably. 
§ 76. — Comparative and superlative degrees of nouns. 
(Pluluen e pliiluen subsatas ) 

Volapiik has also the comparatieve and superlative degree 
of nouns; but then care should be taken that no mistakes can 
be made with other similar words. 

§ 77.— Volapiik makes adjectives of all nouns by the affix 
ik (lik, nik, sik). 

Ex. — cil=child; cilik=childish. 

ji-son— daughter , ji-sonik=(as a daughter). 
son=son; sonik=aB a son 
§ 78. — The adjectives are usually placed directly after the 
noun to which they ijefer; and then they are not inflected to 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 17 

ndicate gender, nnmber, or case, unless such be advisable for 
harmony, clearness in poetry, &c. 

They correspond in gender, nnmber, and case with their 
noun, when placed before it, or farther back from it. 
Ex. — (1.) Placed directly after the noun, unchanged — 
ji-gokes visedik, to the sensible hens, 
(gok, cock; ji-gok, hen; ji-goke, to the hen; ji- 
gokes, to the hens; vised, sense: visedik, sensible 
[adjective]). 
(2.) Placed farther back from the noun; changed for 
gender , number, and case like the noun, 
ji-gokes fol olas visedikes, to your four sensible 
hens. 

(If visedik had not been inflected, the meaning of 
the sentence would be — to the four hens of your 
sensible personalities). 
(3.) Placed before the noun, inflected — 

visedikes ji-gokes, to the sensible hens; which 
shows the same as under (1). 
§ 79. — If a noun has two or more adjectives, the most 
particular one of these is placed before the noun , and inflected 
to correspond. 

Ex. — gletiks doms nulik, the big new houses. 
NB. — This arrangement is especially made to avoid accu- 
mulation of words ending in ik. 

NoMEEALS fNumavods). 

Numerals of Quantity (Stabanums). 

§ 80.— Digits (Balelas nums). 

The numbers from 1 till 9 end in I, as: 

1, bal. 4, fol. 7, vel. 

2, tel. 5, lul. 8, jbl. 

3, kiL 6, mal. 9, zul. 
§ 81.— Changes. 

one (feminine) = ji-bal; of-bal (bal-ji, bal-of). 
one (neuter) = os-bal, bal-os (with a dash ( — )); (because 
balos means it unites). 

the ones (. . . .the others) = (balims . . . .votims). 

of the one = bala. 

of the one (feminine) = ji-bala. 

to the one (feminine) = ji-bale. 

the one (4th case feminine) = ji-baU). 



18 GRASIMAR, OF VOLAPuK. 

§ 82. — Tenfolds (Balselas nums). All tenfold s end in Is, as 
10, bals. 40, Ms. 70, vels. 

20, tels. 50, luls, 80, jols. 

80, kils. 60, mals. 90, zuls. 

Hundred is called turn. 
thovisand ,, mil. 
million ,, balion. 

billion ,, telion. 

trillion ,, kilion. 

four million ,, folion. 
five ,, ,, lulion. 
thousand million is called baliad, &c. 
Then also balsion (decilion), telsion, ziilsion, &o. 
The binary numbers are formed thus : 
eleven, balsebal (10 and 1). 
twelve, balsetel (10 and 2). 
thirteen, balsekil (10 and 3), &a.^ 
47536 is, in Volapiik, folsevelmil lultum kilsemal (40 and 
7 thousand 5 hundred thirty and 6). 
How would you say in Volapiik?: 

4 children; 8 dogs; 10 guests. 
30 grapes; 50 ships; 100 means. 
20 statues; 60 fishes; 1000 things. 
90 letters; 1 million towns. 
§ 83. — Comparison of tenfolds. 
In Volapiik tenfolds are compared thus: 
Possessive (2nd Case), 
of the twentyfold — telsa. 

of the twentyfolds — telsas (and not tolas, the / and 
s in tenfolds always stand together). 
Objective (3rd Case), 
to the thirtyfold — kilse. 
to the thirty folds — kilses, 

4th Case (Accusative). 
the fortyfold — folsz. 
the ninetyfolds — ziilsis. 
§ 84. — Ordinal numerals (Leodanums). 
AH the ordinal numerals end in id. 
Ex. — balid— the first. 

telsebalid— the twenty first, 
tumid — the hundredth, 
milid— the thousandth, 
balionid — the millionth. 



GICJ3U11B OF rOlaPOK. 19 

i 85 — AdverbE of order (Xums laidrelilnk). 
All adverbe ;: ord«T end in ufo. 
Es. — ttlidv. in tbe second place. 
folido .. fonith 
Telidv .. seventt . 
bakido .. tenih 

kQtnmido in 4h£ thiee hundredlfa pl^cc. 
How wcTdd Ton saT in Tolapnk? 
in the £x?t place. 

fiSeenth place. 
„ ts-entvmntli place. 
§ 86. — Adrerc'S of mnnber (Nnms denoama). 
1 * TsLi adrerbs of nnmber end in na (equal to the Englidi 

Ex. — kilna. iliiee tunes; Inlna, £Te tunes. 

jolna, pight times; tekna, twentj times. 
J<r.B. — In ;-ci -words, as telsna, THIsna^ Tolapok intiodncea 
-an f- and -wiit^ telsena, Viliyna etc. so as to separate the 

(2.) In YolapSk adverbs tf number are made adj^tivt-f by 
-a^ing ISk to tbt»iii- 

Ex. — balnalik, folnalik, zdlnalik, fcilsnalik, (kHsenaUk}, 
tnmnalik, £c. 
5 87- — ^KjtriVmtiTe adjectives <^miis dilama). 
(i.'j KstriliitiTe adjectives are formed by placing the letter 
o (each) separately before tiie nnmeraL 

Ex. — a teL each two; a ttls, each twenty: a tnm. each 
fanndred; a folid, each fonrih (or : folid alik). 
(2.^ Each second, each third, kc, or, always tne second, 
third, arc, are called in Tolapnk; a teUd. a kilid. 
Ex. — each tenth soldier got Hlled 
aolat a baMd pofimom. 
§ 88. — Uanifold Knmerals. (Koms modSkama). 
Als<< the adjectives formed of nnmerals by the affix fiJ/l, 
«nd in tZ: in YolapSk. 

Es. — TeUk. sevenfold: folak, fintyfold- tranik,hnndredfold; 
milik, thoBsaii'Jfold. 
The affix nit forms adjectives like telnik, two kinds; malnik, 
^s kinds. 

i 89- — ^omeralf nsed a^ noons, (yums snbsatik). 
fl.) When nnmeials are nsed as noons they always take 
rthe &£2 el in Tolapnk. 

_Ev. — Elel, three (qoantity of ti!ree);balsel. ten (qnantity often) 



20 GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 

(2.) The numerals indicating a fraction end in dil. 
Ex. — Foldil, quarter, a fourt part, i. 
Telsedil, twentieth part, ^'if- 
§ 90.— Numerals used as verbs. '(Velibs numik). 
(1.) The verbs formed of numerals (like all other verbs uk 
Volapuk) end in the affixed syllable 6're. 
Ex. — Balon, to unite (bring to one). 

Telon, to double (to multiply by two). 
Kilon, to triple (to multiply by three). 
Tumon, to multiply by hundred. 
Milon, to multiply by thousand, &c. 
(2.) The English verb, "to simplify", is called in Volapijk, 
haliikon; not balikon, for then halikos would have a double 
meaning — i. e, "the simplicity", and also, "it simplifies". 

§ 91. — Different expressions derived from numerals (Diflks 
numa sepets). 

Trinity, kilbalod; triangle, kilagul; three-twin child, kilab; 
unanimity, balif; unanimous, balifik; single, baladik; some^ 
ans, singularity, balad (balof) ; solitary, soalik ; first time, 
balidna; quart (music), foluf; two by two, in couples, a telik 
(a tel, telelik); quadrant, vadat (folaflan); quantity, limddof^^ 
quota, limodikos; small twelfth part, balseteldilil ; discord, ' 
telif; two-headed, telakapik; five hundred, lultum; five times 
hundred thousand, lultum mil; seven kinds, velnik; seventy 
hundred, velstum (velmil); in the seventeeth place, velsido. 
§ 92.— Statements of Time. (Lenuns tima). 
In Volapuk time is stated by using the words glok (clock), 
or dup (hour). 

Bx. — Seven o'clock. 

Vel su (len), glok; or, diip velid (vel). 
Half-past seven, dup velid e lafik. 
A quarter to eight (7| hours), dup vel e foldils kik 
In Volapuk one follows this order in stating time — 
Hour, half hour, or quarter, then minutes and seconds. 
A quarter to eight may be said also this way— Diip velid* 
e minuts folselul. 

The same arrangement does for the year. 
Ex.— 1885 = 1 thousand 8 hundred 80 and 5. 
Balmil joltum jBlselul. 
§ 93.— Date (dat). 

Also at stating dates the order of § 92 is followed, thus— 
(1) The year (yel); (2) the month (mul); (3) the day (del) ;- 
(4) the hour (diip), therefor — 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 21 

Glasgow, the 2nd December, 1884, 9 o'lock in the 

evening (9 p.m.) 
Glasgd, balmil joltum jolsefol. 
Glasgow, 1 thousand 8 hundred 80 and 4. 
Dekul tel(id) diip ziil vendela 
December second, hour nine of the evening. 

Pronouns (Ponops). 

■§ 94.— Personal Pronouns (Ponops posodik). 
(1.) Singular (banum) : ob, I; ol, thou; om, he; of, she; 
OS, it; on, one; ok, oneself; ons, you (polite for thou). 
(2.) Plural (plunum) : 

obs, we; ols, you. 
oms, they (masculine), 
ofs, they (feminine), 
oks, themselves 
(3.) Affixes, for oases (finams deklinafalas) : oba, of me ; 
ole, to you ; omi, him ; obas (obsa), of us ; oles, to you ; omis 
((ornsi), they (4th case masculine) ; 

ofa, of her ; ose, to it ; oni (4th case of on), the one 

or the other; 
oH (4th case singular), i , „ 

olds (oksi), 4th case plural), \ °"® ^ ^®"- 
The polite pronoun "you" instead of "thou" - 
2nd case — onsa, of you. 
3rd „ onse, to you (singular). 

„ „ onses, to you (plural). 
4th ,, onsi, you. 
„ „ ofis, they (feminine plural). 
§ 95. — The personal pronoun ons (English you) stands for 
rsingular as well as for plUral, therefore it has two declinations. 
(1.) ons, you (singular) ; ons, onsa, onse, onsi. 
(2.) ons, you (plural) , onss (onus), onsas, onses, onsis. 
§ 96. — Possessive Pronouns (PSnops labedik) 
^1.) Singular: 

obik (or oba), mine, my. 
oHk (or ola), thine, your, 
omik (or oma), his. 
ofik (or ofa), her. 
osik (or osa), its. 
onik (or ona), somebody's, 
okik (or oka), his or her. 
onsik (or onsa), your. 



22 GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 

Feminine— ji-obik (of-obik), mine. 

Neutral — obikos (os-obik), mine. 
(2.) Plural: 

obiks, my. 

olika, your. 

obsik, our. 

olsik, your 

omsik, their (masculine). 

ofsik, their (feminine)- 

oksik, their. 
(3.) Affixes for cases (finams deklinafalas} : 

2nd case — obika, of mine (plural, obikas). 

3rd „ olike, to your (plural, dikes). 

4th „ omiki, his. 

3rd ,, osike, to his, to her's. 

2nd „ obsika, of our (singular). 

Brd „ obsikes, to our (plural). 

3rd ,, olsike, to your (singular). 

2nd ,, onsika, yours (polite). 
§ 97 —Demonstrative Pronouns (Ponops jonik) 

that, ut; just that, iit. 

that, the same, ot; just the same, ot. 

this (masculine), at; just this, at. 

this (feminine), j'i-at (of-at). 

this (neutral), otas (oa-at). 

yon, et; just yon, eil. 

self, it; himself, iet; herself, fi-iet, of-iet. 

such, som ; just such, s'6m. 

other, votik 

the former.... the latter; ialimik. ..votimik. i 

each other, halim votimi; halvotik, 
Ex. — man at, this man; mana et, of that man. 

doge ot, to the same day 

flens it, the friends (them)selves. 

kanes eit, just yon arts. 
§ 98.— Eule. All Possessive and Demonstrative Pronouns 
in Volapuk are indeclinable when placed afther the noun 
collectively. 

They are declined when placed lefore it, or after it single. 
§ 99. — When a pronoun is used for different nouns, it is 
not repeated in Volapuk 

Ex. — this man, this woman, and this child. 

ats man, vom e cil 

or, man, ji-man e cil ats. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 23 

§ 100. — Interrogative Pronouns (Ponops sakona). 
. kim, who? (masculine). 

ji-kim (of-kim, kif), who? (feminine). 

kis, what? 

kiom, which? (masculine). 

kiof, which? (feminine). 

kios, which? (neuter). 

kimik, what like one? what kind? 

lik(o), how? 

kiplad, where? 

kibid, in how much? 
Ex. — kim binom flen? who is a friend? 

blod kiom? which brother? 

lik binom pen? how is the pen? 

dom kimik? what like (Mmd of) a house? 
§ 101. — Relative pronouns (Ponops getefamik). 

kel, who (masculine, feminine, neuter). 

ji-kel (kel-ji in poetry), who (feminine). 

helos (os-kel in poetry), that (neuter). 

Icel may be used in any case. 

ji-kel and helos are used for clearness only. 
§ 102.— Who, which (that). 

(kim, kel, kels). 
(1.) Who standing for "the one that" is not translated in 
Volapuk by Mm, but by — 

kel, kel man, kel posod, menut, kel. . . . And such 
especially at the commencement of subordinate 
clauses. 
(2 ) Neither in that case is which translated by kis, but by — 

kelos (kelosi), kel den, kel yeg, din ut, kel. . . . 
(5.) When kelis placed directly after a plural, it may remain 

unchanged (unless clearness absolutely requires it to 

be made plural). But it must take the corresponding 

marks to indicate case. 
Ex. — men (human beings, mankind). 

men and animals enjoy (take) nourishments. 

mens e nims juitoms nuludajnetfis. 

which the vegetable kingdom provides. 

keli (s) vol planas blunos. 

world of plants, 
§ 103. — Compound pronouns (Ponops pekosiadBl). 
Compound pronouns are formed by the prefixed syllable ai 



24 GKAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 

Ex. — whosoever, is called aikel. 
■wlienever, „ aikiiua. 

whicliever, ,, m'kelos. 

however, ,, ajlik (o). 

however much, ,, ojlimodik. 
§ 104. — Indefinite pronouns (Ponops nefiimik). 
On (one, man, yo\i); ek (somehody); neh (nobody); alim 
(everybody); senibal (some or other, the one or other); nonik 
(none); alik (each, everybody); v&Uh{s) (all); los (something); 
nos (nothing); ans (some, certain); modiks (several); nemodiks, 
(few); mod(ik)umiks (divers). 

Ex.' — dom eka, somebody's house, 
neka flen, nobody's friend. 
aembale ne/Zene, to some enemy or other, 
dil bosa, a part of something, 
alima Ian, everybody's soul. 

About the VERB (Do Velita), 

I. Indicative Mood Active. (Dunafoma jenabid). 
A. Persons of the Present Tense. (Pbsods, patiipa). 

(1.) Singular (Banum). 
§ 105. — First Person Singular, I. 

(P6sod balid banuma, op). 
The 1st Person Singular (1) of all Verbs in Volapiik ends 
in ob. 

Ex. — lof, love; lofob, I love. 

bin, the being; binob, I am. 
dun, the deed; dunob, I do. 
vil, the will; vilob, I will, 
Translate also — 

I can (can, kan); I let (to let, letbn). 
I know (to know, nolQn); I speak, 
(speech, language, puk); I write, 
(pen, pen); I give (a gift, giv). 
I keep (the keeping kip). 
I sell (the sale, sel). 
§ 106 — Second Person Singular, thou — 

(Posod telid banuma, ol). 
The Second Person Singular (tJiou) of all verbs in Volapiik 
ends in ol. 

Ex.— thou finishest, finol; thou goest, golol; thou gettest 
getol; thou drinkest, dlinol. 



GRAMMAR OF TOLAPOK. 25 

Ti-aiijlate also — 

thou plantest (plant, plan), 
thou readest (to read, liladon). 
thou seest (the eye, log), 
thou livest {life, lif). 

§ 107. — Third person Singular (masculine), he 

(Posod kilid banuma (manik), om). 
The 3rd Person Singular masculine (Ae) of all verbs in 
Volapuk ends in om. 

(the m of which shows :^:= masculine). 
Ex. — he renews, nulom; he stops, stopom; he pays, pelom ; 

he fishes, fitom. 
Translate also — 

he stays (house, dom). 

he fills (fiillness, fill). 

he enjoys (joy, gal). 

he falls (faU, fal). 
§ 108. — Third Person Singular (feminine), she. 

(Posod kUid banuma (jUik), of). 
The 3rd Person Singular feminine {she) of all verbs in 
Volapiik ends in of. 

(The f of which shows = feminine). 
Ex. — she pleases, pUdof; she plays, pledof; she praises, 

lobof; she frees, livofj she catches, fanof, she lights, 

litof. 
Translate also — 

she writes books; she experiences (experience, plak); 

she complains (complaint, plon); she composes verses 

(verse, pcem: poed). 
§ 109. — Third Person Singular (neuter) it. 

Posod kilid banuma (dinxk), os. 
The 3rd Person Singular neuter (it) of all verbs in Volapuk 
ends in os. 

Ex. — it rains, ISmibos; it moves, mufos; it rules, nomos; 

it snows, nifos; it serves, dfinos; it bears, polos. 
Translate also — 

it sends (post: pot); it asks (question: sak); it salts 

(salt: sal); it is dusty (dust, piif). 
g 110. — Third Person Singular (indefinite), man, one, you. 

(Posod kilid banuma (nefumik), on). 
The 3rd Person Singular indefinite (man, one, you) of all 
Verbs in Volapuk ends in on. 



26 GEAMMAK OP VOLAPUK. 

Ex. — One satisfies, -saton; Oj;e cures, -sanon: man saves^ 
-savon; (one-you), man sends, sedon; one saves, 
sefon; one feels, senon. 
Translate also — 

one digs (dike : sop); one knows the father (knowl- 
edge : sev); one dries (dryness : sig); man sins (sin, sin). 
§ 111. — Third Person Singular (reflective^ .... self. 

(Posod kilid hanum (getefamik), ok). 
The 3rd Person Singular reflective (self) of all verbs in 
Volapiik ends in ok, which syllable is preceded by any of the 
affixes, ob, ol, ons, om, of, 6s, on (from §§ 105 — 110), as the 
case may be. 

Ex.—/ constrain myself, soloftok. 
thou hatest thyself, 'etotok. 
it sows itself, sovosok. 
you irradiate yourself, stalonsok. 
he stings himself, spinomok. 
Another way of writing these examples is thus — 

solobobi; oli'^etol, sovosiki; onsi stalons; spinom oki. 
Translate also — 

it heaps itself up (heap: kum). 

he hurries himself hurry, speed: spid). 

she stops herself; you mistake (yourself), (mistake: 

pol). 

II. Pldeai (plunum). 

§ 112.— First Person Plural, we. 

(Posod balid plunuma, obs). 
The 1st Person Plural (we) of all verbs, ends in ob, with 
the plural s, that is, obs. 

Ex. --we follow — sukobs; we seek— sukobs ; we take— 

sumobs;, we swim — svimobs. 
Translate also — 

we bind (band, tan); we cover, deck (cover, deck — 

teg; we prolong (prolongation— ten) ; we storm 

(storm, tep); we are afraid (fright— temip) ; we tempt 

(temptation — tenud). 
§ 113.— Second Person Plural, you. 

(Posod telid plunuma, ols). 
The 2nd Person Plural (you) of all verbs ends in ol, with 
the plural s, that is ols. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 27 

/ Ex. — yoxi teach — tidols. 
13 \ you steal— tifols 

H { you think — tikols. 

!^ I you point — tipols. 

\ you lift — to vols. 

Translate also — 

you tease the animals (vexation — torn), 
you arm the men (weapon, arms— vaf) 
you find (to find — tuvon). 
you turn (a turn — tul) 
§ 114. -Third Person Plural (masculine), they. 

(PSsod kilid plunuma (manik), cms). 
The 3rd person plural (masculine) (they) of all verbs ends 
in om, -with the plural s, that is oms, 
Ex. — they empty — vagoms. 
they choose — valoms. 
they wait— valadoms. 
they strengthen — steniidoms. 
they warm — vamoms. 
Make similar forms of — 

vat, water; vehon, to hover; ved — becoming; veniid — 
risk; venod, poison; ton, tune. 
§ 115. — Third Person Plural (feminine), they. 

(Posod kilid plunuma (jilik), ofs). 
The 3rd person plural feminine (they) of all verbs ends in 
of. with the plural s, that is ofs. 
Ex. — they sew — nagofs. 
they say — sagofs. 
they clear — klilofs. 
they take care— kalofs. 
Make similar forms of — 

sun — sol; wish, vip; visit, visit; offer, vitim ; call, 
vok; work, vobad. 

§ 116. — Third Person Plural (reflective) selves. 

(Posod kilid plunuma (getefamik) oks). 
The 3rd person plural reflective (. . . selves) of all verbs 
ends in ok, with the plural s, that is oks; which syllable is 
preceded by any of the affixes (ob, ol, om, of, os, on, and 
the polite ons) given in § 111. These affixes only require 
the plural s when oks is separated from the verb. 
Ex. — we accommodate ourselves, yumoboks. 
you mistake (yourselves), pololsok. 
they (those men) enjoy themselves, galomoks. 



28 GEAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 

Ex. — you put yourselves into a passion (to two or more 
persons) — zilonsoks. 

Examples in wliioli oks is separated from the verb — 

they (those men) belie one another— nevela^oms okis 
(objective case: oke, okes) ; they (those women) anger 
one another— zunofs okes (ok, . . . oks, only stands in 
the 1st case). 

Make similar forms of — 

a pull — zug; batch — bak; bliss, salvation — beat, 

§ 117. — (1.) Volapuk admits sok instead of oTcs, thus — obsok 
olsdk, omsok, of sok. 

(2.) Oks directly affixed to the verb, and oks (in the 
objective case) separated from the verb, give a 
different meaning to the sentence, as — 

lofomoks (or lijfomsok) means — they love them- 
selves; but lofoms okis means — they love one another. 

B. Temporal. Tenses of the verb (timafoms). 

§ 118. — Aoristua activi (paitup foma dunona). 
(1.) The mark for the aoristus activi in all verbs is the 
particle ai prefixed directly to the verb. 
Ex. — aihlufom., he tries always, usually, 
ainosoms, they destroy constantly, 
ainonol, thou deniest steadfastly, 
ainumof, she counts uninterruptedly, 
ainunob, I inform incessantly. 
(2.) This particle ai is read a-i, as Volapuk uses no diphthongs. 
N.B. — Volapuk has an aoristus in the present, past, and 
future tenses. 

Ex. — (a) Medikos aijenos ta valadi menas. 

Much happens against the expectation of men. 
(6) Nifatimsnog valiks ejblinoms kalodi. 

Yet all winters have brought cold, 
(c) Aliki kligi mena/Zen nobik oilabom, 
every war the noble philanthropist 
al bepZonbn, 
will have to repent. 
Translate also — 

thou playest always on the harp (the harp — 'arp). 

she sweeps usually (broom— rsvip). 

we rhyme continually (rhyme — rim). 

he sands constantly (sand — sab). 

one founds continually (the foundation— stab). 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPfiK. 29 

N.B. — The other aoristi are — 

aiblufom (past tense). 

ezblufom (perfect tense). 

iiblufom (pluperfect tense). 

oiblxifori (future tense). 

uiblufom (future perfect tense). 
§ 119. — imperfectum. activi. (Patiip foma dunona). 
The mark for the past tense of all active verbs is the 
prefixed letter a. 

Ex. — aftedoms, they brought to hed. 

afte^ob, I begged; aJe^mols, you began; aSumof, she 

built; aStamon, one blamed. 
Translate also — 

you made black (blackness — blag) 

thou shortenedst the years (shortness — blef). 

she remained a child (to remain — blibon). 

he bled (blood— blud). 
§ 120. — Perfectum activi. (Petiip foma dunoma). 
The mark for the perfect tense of all active verbs is the 
prejived letter e. 

Ex. — eJ^OTob, I have brought. 

eboladol, thou hast loaded. 

eftwnom, he has sprang. 

ebiidof, she has ordered. 

ecenoB, it has changed. 
Translate also — 

one has disappointed (disappointment, cit); he has 

sentenced himself (sentence, cod); we have joked 

fjoke, cog) ; you have counted (account, kal). 
§ 121. — Plnsquamperfectum activi. (Pittip foma dunona). 
The mark for the pluperfect tense is the prefixed letter i. 
Ex. — ikanitofs, they (those v^omen) had sang songs. 

iifcopaloms, they (those men) had understood. 

iketol, thou hadst chained. 

ikikon, one had shut. 
Translate also — 

she had believed in the brothers (believe, klod); we 

had refreshed the friends (refreshment, kliet); you 

had clearly lighted the houses (clear light— klil) ; 

you had dressed yourselves (dress, klot). 
§ 122.— Fnturum activi. (Potiip foma dunona). 
The mark for the future tense of all active verbs is the 
prefixed letter o. 



30 GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUlC. 

Ex. — okodom, he will or shall cause. 

okodStoh, I will or shall behave. 

okodiitobB, we will or shall feu. 

oyfc«c?ons, you will or shall care. 
. okukof, she will or shall cook, 
Translate also — 

thou wilt or shalt pave (path— kul). 

one will or shall scoop (scoop: kup). 

it will or shall get dark (darkness: dag). 

thou wilt or shalt allow (allowance: dal). 
§ 123.— ruturum exactum activi. (Putup dunafoma). 
The mark for the future perfect tense of all active verbs 
is the prefixed letter u. 

Ex. — nkonfidob, I will or shall have trusted. 

ukonletorRB, they will or shall have collected. 

■ako/iikon, one will or shall have prepared. 

ufcomol, thou wilt or shalt have come. 

nkomipojn, he will or shall have fought. 
Translate also — 

thou wilt or shalt have accompanied (company, sog). 

she will or shall have told (tale, kon). 

one will or shall have coined (coin, kon). 

they will or shall have consulted (consult, konsal). , 

thou wilt or shalt have promoted (promotion, fov). ^ 

II. Passivum of the Verbs. (Sufafom velibas). 

§ 124. — Praesens passivi (is). [Patiip sufafoma (pa)]. 
The mark for passive form of the verbs is always the 
letter p. The mark for the present tense is the particle pa , 
prefixed to the verb. 

Ex. — pamu^on, one is compelled; pafcdsomos, it is used; 
pafcosMmoms, they are consumed; pa/wnom, he is killed; 
pa(femaraol, thou art wanted. 
Translate also — i 

it is planned (plan, disin). 
you are distracted (distraction, disip). 
it is intended (intention, disein). 
they are separated (separation, dit). 
§ 125. — Aoristus passivi. [Paitup sufafoma (paj)]. 
(1.) The mark for the aoristus passivi in the present tense 
of all verbs is the prefixed syllable pai (pa-i). 



GRAM-MAB, OF VOLAPUK. 31 

Ex. — ■psasagoa, it is usually said. 

pad/utoSj shooting is always done. 

Tpaiditon, one is usually deceived. 

■paimilagojn, he is constantly admired. 

paim«/bf, she is constantly kept moving. 
Translate also — 

it is permanently confirmed (test, confirmation; truth, velat). 
Make similar forms of — 

(remembrance, meb) ; (explanation, plan) ; 
(encouragement, lanim). 
(2.) The other aoristi are — 

pai, for the past tense. 

pei, „ perfect tense. 

pii, „ pluperfect tense. 

poi, „ future tense. 

pui, ,, future perfect tense. 

pai. . . od, for the imperative mood. 

pai. . . on, ,, infinitive mood. 

pai. . . 61, pei. . . 61, poi. . . 61, pui. . . 61, for participles ; 

poi. . . 61, for the gerundivum. 
§ 126.— Imperfectum passivi(was.) [Patup sufafoma(pa)]. 
The mark for the past tense of all passive verbs is the 
prefixed particle pa. 

Ex. — padivom, he was respected. 

padZenos one was crying. 

padledons, you were dreaded. 

padlefols, you were hit. 

paklotofs, they (those women) were dressed. 
Translate also — 

it was doubted (doubt, dot). 

we were led (leading, dak). 

they were removed (removal, fag). 

it was made (works, fabliid). 
§ 127.— Perfectum passivi (has been). [Petiip sufafoma (pe)J. 
The mark for the perfect tense of all passive verbs is the 
prefixed particle pe. 

Ex. — pe/atos, it has been felled. 

pe/etos, it has been ploughed. 

pe/e/ton, one has been fought. 

pe^mol, thou hast been confirmed. 
Make similar forms of — 

food, fid; interest, fien; fire, fil. 

philosophy, filosop; fineness, fein. 



la GRAMMAR. OF VOLAPuK. 

§ 128.— Plusquamperfectnm passivi (tad been). [Pitiip sufa- 
foma (pi)]- 

The mark for the pluperfect tense of all passive verbs is 
the prefixed particle pi. 

Ex. — ipifltos, had been fished 

■piflaffoms, they had been claimed. 
pi/?apons, you (polite) had been struck. 
Make similar forms of — 

fly, flit; fruit, fluk; flute, flut. 
forgiveness, pardoiT", fogiv; form, fom. 
§ 129. — Futurum passivi (shall or will be). [Potiip sufa- 
foma (joo)]. 

The mark for the future tense of all passive verbs is the 
prefixed particle po. 

Ex — pq/b'nos, it shall or will be burnt. 

po/opom, he shall or will be bantered. 
■po/ugof, she shall or will be shunned. 
pq/M»on, one shall or will be killed. 
Make similar foi'ms of — 

watch, guard — gal; reception — get; ice — glad, 
grief — glif; gluminess — glum. 
§ ICO. — Futurum exactum passivi (shall or will have been). 
(Putiip Bufafofa (pu)]. 

The mark for the future perfect tense of all passive verbs 
is the prefixed particle pu 

Ex. — pu^onof, she shall or will have been favoured, 
pujroraos, one shall or will have been gone. 
Tpngolodos, one shall or will have been breakfasting. 
TpTigubos, one shall or will have been rowing. 
Make similar forms of — 

shadow, jad; creation, jaf; sharpness, jap; 
fright, jek: throw, jed 
§ 131.— Prefixes of the Verbs (Bisilabs veliba). 
(l .) Active form (Dunafom) : aoristus ai ; past a ; perfect e ; 
pluperfect i; future o; future perfect u. 

(2.) Passive form (Sufafom): aoristus pai; present tense pa; 
past tense pa ; perfect tense pe ; pluperfect tense pi ; future po ; 
future perfect pu ; Gerendivum po. 

Subjunctive Mood (Mogabid). 

§ 132.— The mark for the Subjunctive Mood is always the 
syllable la, which is affixed to the verb, and kept distinct 
from it -by a dash (— ). This syllable never gets the accent. 



GRAMilAR OF VOLAPUK. 33 

Translate also : 

that you might show (show, jon). 
that she might lock (lock, jot). 
if it might happen (happiness, lab), 
you might have halved (half, laf). 
§ 133.— The Interrogative Form (Sakabid). 
In cases where no interrogative pronoun or an interrogative 
adverb is used, the interrogative form is made by affixing 
the syllable li to the verb, or to any other appropriate word, 
keeping it distinct by a dash ( — ). 

Ex. — ladof-li, does she press to her heart? 
laboton-li, does one lodge? 
ilodos-\i, was it loaded? 
§ 134 — Interrogative Form with Subjunctive Mood (Saka- 
bid ko mogabid). 

When -li and -la fall together, as for instance in the 
interrogative form of the subjunctive mood , then -li is placed 
before -la (thus, -li, -la?), but also -li and -la may be 
separated and added to different words. 

Ex. — no eZanons-li-la, j .j. i, j i. t. - , , 

,-1 1 i u you had not been animated, 

or, no-li elanons-la, ) ^ 

Translate also: . 

do 1 encourage? (courage, lanim). 

did they rob? (robbery, lapin). 

if you had answered? (answer, gepziA;). 

The Interrogative Particle Li ? 

§ 135. — (1.) The interrogative particle -li is not always 
affixed to the verb, but it may be added to other appropriate 
words, either to give them more stress, or to avoid accumu- 
lation of consonants in the verb. 

(2.) Li may also be used just alone when it puts more 
stress on the question itself. 

§ 136. — (1.) Li may be left out when interrogatives like 
kim, kiplad, kibid, ibo, &c , are used. 

(2.) If used in such cases, however, then it shows that an 
immediate prompt answer is wanted. 

§ 137. -If (if). 

(I.) If ia Volapuk is the same as the English if. 
Ex. — if November comes, we get snow, 
if ■akomom. novul, ogetobs nifi. 
if you come, I'll give thee my book. 

3 



34 GKAMMAU OF VOLAPiiK. 

Ex. — if kSmol, \egwoh buki oba. 
iV.JS. — Volapuk does not admit then, wHle such is often 
used in English, as for example — 

if you come, then I'll give you my book. 
(2.j Also in conditional sentences the use of if is the same 
in both languages. 

Ex. — if you tell us the truth, and (if) (you) blame our 
faults, you will be our true friend. 
if sagons obes velati, ed (if) blamons pokis (dSfis) 
obas, obinons ilen velatik obsa. 
N.B — Here the polite form singular is used in both 
languages. 

§ 138. — Imperative Mood. (Biidabid ) 

The Imperative Mood for all tenses, and all persons and- 
forms, is expressed by affixing the particle od to the inflected verb. 
Ex. — legivoloA, present! (thou). 

le^atobsod, we must give delight, 
/emolsod, buy! 

elenadoraoA, he must have learnt 
Translate also — 

I must be freed (liberty, lib)! don't long (longing, 
levip); you must have heard! (to hear, lilon). 
§ 139.— The stronger Imperative Mood. (Lebudabid ) 
Tho make the command stronger, "Volapuk uses 6z instead 
of thedd in § 138. 

Ex. — gololSz ! you inust go ! get you gone ! 

epenolsoz ya! you must have written already! 

§ 140. — Volapuk has also imperatives (budabids) like 

(1.) Substantial — 

samod! for example! 
lofod! love govern ! 
pudSd! peace! 
(2.) Infinitive — 

seilonod! to be quiet! 
letonSd mekon! to get made! 
(3.) Participial — 

mogololo, go away! (to one person). 
egololsSd bived! gone ahead (to more than one person). 
(4.) Adverbial and interjectional — 
spido ! in a hurry ! 
spido ! quick ! 
flits ! immediately ! 
sago ! say it ! speak ! 



GRAMMAE. OF VOLAPiiK. 35 

Salutation (Glidam). 

§ 141. — Volapiik says — 

glidob oli, for ; I greet you. 

JSlidolM, I ^°'''' y"" °'"'* ^e greeted 
and also, binolod paglidol (fa ob). • 
§ 142.— Must. 

When "must" means "one says that," Volapiik uses in that 

case "sagon, das," and not the imperative of the verb soton. 

Ex. — your friend must have come, (because one says so) 

sagon, das flen olik efciimom — la (and also ^osagos 

or sagosofc) 

§ 143. — The optative (vipabid). 

The mark for the optative is same as for the imperative, the 
affixed particle os. 

Ex. — lifomos ! he may live ! 

saunofijs ! she may recover ! 
esavolos ! that thou mayest be saved ! 
raponos ! may one file ! 
§ 144. — The infinitive (subsatabid). 

The verb in the infinitive mood is always known by the 
particle on affixed to the primitive word. 

N.B. — This on may be added to the verb in its conjugated 
forms as well. 
Ex.— knd, care. 

kndSn, to care, 
kndof, she cares, 
kudofon, her caring. 
§ 145. — The supine (diseinabid). 

(1.) Al, with the infinitive mood of the verb, means to, as 
in ready to go, for going. 

Ex — al mekon, to make (for making); al gives more 

strength to the infinitive mood. 

(2.) Al stands for to, also in the meaning of "than that," 

as, binom tu nobik al tiffin (al binon, vedon tifel), he is too 

noble than that he would steal; or in better English, he is 

too noble to steal. 

Pauticiple (Ladyekabid). 

§•146. — The mark for all participles, active and passive, 
without one exception, is the particle ol affixed to the primi- 
tive word. 



36 GUAMMAK OP VOLAPiiK. 

Ex. — liigol, mourning. 

elutol, having aired. 
^ § 147. — The participles may be used with. -U and -la in 
the interrogative form and the subjunctive mood. 

Ex. — etidofols-li? likely women who (that) have teached. 
olemoiols-la,, ladies who (that) will likely buy. 
elogofbls-li-]a? females, that perhaps might have seen?, 
§ 148. — Participles of the intransitive verbs. (Ladyekabida 
velibas nelovep'oHk). 

(1.) The past participles' of the intransitive verbs usually 
have the active and not the passive form. Therefore is — 
gone, not T^egolHl, but egolol. 
died, not perfciVol, but edeilol. 
come, not pekomol, but ekomSl. 
(2.) If used in the passive form, they would mean one who 
is made to go, made to die, made to come. 
(3.) Other participles — 

agolol, one that went, 
aigolbl, one that goes constantly. 
ideilol, one that had died. 
ukSmol, one that will have come. 
oigoMos, something that will always go. 
of-uikomol, one (feminine) that will have come con- 
tinually. 
In the same way are inflected the participles of the passive 
form for all tenses and persons. 

Special Rules of Pabticiples. (Patiks noms ladyekabidas). ■ 

§ 149.— Volapuk does not allow the participle instead of 
the infinitive mood, which is often done in the English 
language, as — 

without knowing it, must be (without to know it), 
in Volapuk, nen nolon osi. 
§ 150.— Instead of saying I write, we usually say I am 
writing, admitting the auxiliary verb "to be." In Volapuk 
this may be done also. 

Ex. — penob, or binob penSl. 
§ 151.— Participles as nouns. 

The wounded of the battle is: pewwraels puga, but not 
pevunols. 

-§ 152.— In English we say very often "you write better 
than he does," using the verb "to do." Volapuk never allows • 
the use of such expletives, but says plainly, 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPuK. 37 

penons gudikum, ka om. 
you write Vietter, than he. 
§ 153. — Auxiliary verbs (yuia,velibs). 

(1.) "To have" as auxiliary verb, is represented by the 
prefixed particle e. 

Ex. — I have loved, elofob. 

(2.) "To be" as auxiliary verb, is represented by the pre- 
fixed particles pe, pi. 

Ex. — I have been loved, peVotoh. 
I had been loved, ^i'lofob. 
While in the passive forms "to be" may de represented by 
the prefixed pa, pa, pe, pi, po. pu. 
Ex. — I am loved, binob pelofol. 
I was loved, abiuob palofol. 
I have been loved, ebinob pelofol. 
I had been loved, ibinob pilofbl (pelofol). 
iV.B. — When used as principal verbs, however, to hare means 
lahim, and to be means binon- 

Ex. — I have friends — labob flenis ; thou art a hero—binol jamep. 
(3 ) Dare, denoting courage, presumption, means kinon. 
(4.) Can denoting power, ability, means kanon. 
can „ knowledge, means nolon. 

can „ liberty, freedom, means dalon. 
can ,, fault, guilt, means binon kod. 
(5.) Zei=not prevent, means leton. 
=oause, „• mekon. 

=dismiss, „' dismiton. 

=leave, omit, „ nedunbn. 
=allow, ,, dalon. 

=leave to, give, sell, 
loveleton, givon, selon. 
But when let stands for enticing (as for example in, let us 
hurry up), it is translated by the afBxed particle od. 
Ex.— spidobsod. 
(6.) May has also different meanings, as: 
will, wish, like, 
magon, vilon, vipon, lofon. 
may=being possible, means binBn mogik. 
=to be allowed „ dalon. 
=want, need, „ nedBn. 

=have reason, „ labon kodi. 

But when may absolutely denotes a wish, it must be repre- 
sented by the affixed particle os. 



38 GEAMMAB OF VOLAPuK. 

Ex. — may he keep well — blibomoa saunik! 
Might is represented by the syllable -li, the mark for the 
subjunctive mood. 

But when might means: ought to, as in: he might (ought 
to) pay now, Volapiik says: pelomox nu, always using the 
affix ox. 

(7.J Jlfus<=bound to, means muton. 
=obligation, „ soton ; 
=or imperative mood, .... od. 
:=necessity, means zesudSn. 
(8.) /SAoM=denoting future, is expressed by the prefixes a 
and u in the active form. 
=mu8t, means soton. 

=imperative mood ... 5d, and for the stronger 
imperative (lebiidabid, see § 139). . . oz. 
Ex. — thou shalt give— givol5z! 
=to avail, help — pofud5n, yufon. 
= supposed, allowed, that... is said by, \a.das. 
=iie says, one pretends, one will, &c', sagon, 
sagosok, pa-sagos, 
^ (9.) Would, in conditional sentences, is expressed bv the 
mperfect and the pluperfect tenses of the subjunctive mood 
(-la). To express it in the present, the perfect, and the future 
tenses (as, for example, I would fee one that loves, that has 
loved, shall love, shall have loved, is loved), such is done by 
adding 5v (w of vilon) to the person of the verb. 

Ex. — If one heard me (listened to me), I would be one that 

made the whole of mankind happy; if obi lilonSv, 

ftiViobov bete'Sol menadi I61ik (7 Volapiika for l5 or 

16 English words). 

This ov may be added to the imperfect and the pluperfect 

tenses (without -la). 

(10.) Other verbs that may be used as auxiliary verbs are 
translated thus: 

need, by nedSn, zesudSn, or the affix ok 
use, by lefiunfin, or the aoristic prefix ai, 
appear, by jinon. 
will, by vilon, demanSn, flagon. 

Conjugation of the Verb to Love. 

(Konyugam veliba "Lofdn." 

§ 154.— (1.) Active form (dunafom). Indicative Mood (jena- 
bid). 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPUK. 39 



Present Tense (patiip). Singular (bamim)— 

lofo6, I love. 

lofo/, thou lovest. 

lofom, he loves. 

loiof, she loves. 

\o{os, it loves. 

lofon, one loves. 

\6ionok, one loves one's self. 

ISi'ons, you (=thou) love. 
Plural (plunum) — 

loiobs, we love. 

lofo/s, you love. 

lo&ms, they (men) love. 

Ibfofs, they (women) love. 

Wo'Zok, } *^«y ^""^ themselves. 
Imperfect Tense (patiip). Singular (banum)- 

alijfob, I loved. 

alofol, thou lovedst. 

alofom, he loved. 

alofof, she loved. 

alofos, it loved. 

alofon, one loved. 

alofolok, thou lovedst thyself. 

alofons yon (^thou) loved. 
Plural (plunum). 

alofobs, we loved. 

alofols, you loved. 

alofoms, they (men) loved. 

alijfofs, they (women) loved 

alofoloks, ■) ^^^g^ yourselves. 

alofolsok, J •' 
Perfect Tense (petiip). Singular (banum), 

elSfob, I have loved. 

el6fol, thou hast loved 

elofom, he has loved. 

elofof, she has loved. 

elofos, it has loved. 

elofon, one has loved. 

elofosok, it has loved itself 

elofons, you (=thou) have loved. 
Plural (plunum) — 

elofobs, we have loved. 



40 GRAMMiR OF VOLAPUK. 

elofols, you have Toyed, 
elofoms, they (men) have loved, 
elofofs, they (women) have loved. 

elofofoks, \ ^-^ (women) have loved themselves. 

elofofsok, j 
Pluperfect Tense (pitiip). Singular (banum). 

ilofob, I had loved. 

ilofol, thou hadst loved. ' 

ilbfom, he had loved. 

ilofof, she had loved. 

ilofos, it had loved. 

ilofon, one had loved. 

ilofomok, he had loved himself. 

ilbfons, you (=:thou) had loved. 
Plural (plunum). 

ilSfobs, we had loved. 

ilofols, you had loved. 

ilofoms, they (men) had loved. 

ilofofs, they (women) had loved. 

il8fons(s)oks, } y^^^ ^^^ ^g^g^ yourselves. 

iloionnsoks, ) 
(First) Future Tense (potiip). Singular (banum). 

olefob, I shall or will love 

olofol, thou wilt or shalt love. 

olbfom, he will or shall love. 

olbfof, she will or shall love. 

olefos, it will or shall love. 

olofon, one will or shall love. 

olofonsok, you (=thou) will or shall love yourself 

(=thyself). 

olofons, you (=thou) will or all love. 
Plural (plunum)— 

olofobs, we shall or will love. 

olofols, you will or shall love. 

olbfoms, they (men) will or shall love. 

olofofs they (women) will or shall love. 



olbfoboks, 1 ^g gjj^^ ^^ ^y ^^^^ ourselves, 
olofobaok, ) 

' [• putiip. 



Second Future Tense; 
Future Perfect Tense 
Singular (banum) 

ulbfob, I shall or will have loved. 

ulofol, thou vnlt or shalt have loved 



GllAMMAB, OF VOLAPilK. 41 

ulofom, he will or shall have loved, 
ulofof, she will or shall have loved, 
tilofos, it will or shall have loved, 
ulofon, one wiU or shall have loved, 
ulofobok, I shall or will have loved myself. 
ulSfons, you (=thou) will or shall have loved. 
Plural (plunum). 

ulofobs, we shall or will have loved, 
ulofols, you will or shall have loved, 
ulofoms, they (men) will or shall have loved, 
ulofof s, they (women) will or shall have loved. 

^i"-f°i^v ' f y*"^ ^'■'■^ °^ shall have loved yourselves. 

AoEiSTUS (paitiip). 

Present Tense (patiip). Singular (banum)- 

ailofob, I love constantly. 

ailofol, thou lovest constantly. 

ailofom, he loves constantly. 

ailofof, she loves constantly. 

ailofos, it loves constantly. 

ailofon, one loves constantly. 

ailofonok, one loves one's self constantly. 

ailSfons, you (=thou) love constantly. 
Plural (plunum) — 

ailofobs, we love constantly. 

ailofols, you love constantly. 

ailofoms, they (men) love constantly. 

ailofofs, they (women) love constantly. 

ailofoboks.j^g love ourselves constantly. 

ailoiobsoK, ) 
Imperfect Tense (paitiip) — 

ailofob, I loved constantly. 
Perfect Tense (peitup) — 

eilofob, I have loved constantly. 
Pluperfect Tense (piitup) — 

iilefob, I had loved constantly. 
(First) Future Tense (poitup) — 

oilSfob, I shall or will love constantly. 
Second Future Teuse ") /„,,;j.h„\ 
Future Perfect Tense J (P"^t"P)- 

uilSfob, I shall or will have loved constantly. 



■ 42 GBAMMAB. OF VOLAPUK. 



AoEisTUS Subjunctive (paitiip mogabidik). 



Singular (bantim) — 

ail6foh-la, I might love constantly. 
Plural (plunum) — 

ail6fobs-la, we might love constantly. 
Imperfectum (patiip) — 

al6fob-la, if I loved. 
Perfectum (petiip) — 

el6fob-la, I might have loved. 
Pluperfectum (pitiip)— 

il8fob-la, if I had loved. 
Futurum (potijp) — 

ol6fob-la, if I shall love. 
Futurum Perfectum (putup) — 

ul5fol-la, if I shall have loved. 



The Optative (vipabid). 

Present Tense (patiip). Singular (banum) — 
lofobos, may I love, 
lofolbs, mayest thou love. 
IbfomSs, may he love, 
lofofos, may she love, 
lofosos, may it love. 
iBfonSs, may one love, 
lofonokos, may one love one's self. 
lofonsSa, may you (=thou) love. 

Plural (plunum) — 

lofobsos, that we may love. 

IbfolsGs, that you may love. 

Ibfomsos, that they (men) may love. 

Ibfofsos, that they (women) may love. 

iQfofsokbs. that they (women) may love themselves. 

N.B. — Mark the difference between — 
magom lofon, he may love, 
lefomos, may he love! 
lofom-la, that he might love! 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPiiK. 43 

AoRiSTDS (paitiip). 

ailofob5s, that I may love constantly. 
Imperfectum (patiip) — 

alofob6s, that I might love constantly. 
Perfectum (petiip) — , 

elbfobSs, that I may have loved. 
Pluperfeotum (pitup) — 

ilofobos, that I might have loved, 
(potiip). putup. 

olofobbs. ulbfobSs. 

Imperative Mood (budabid). 

Singular (banum) — 

laiohod, I must love. 

lofoliid, must love thou. 

lofomorf, he must love. 

lofofod, she must love. 

lofosorf, it must love. 

lotonod, one must love. 

loionokod, one must love one's self. 

15fonsokod, love (you or thou) yovirself (or thyself). 
Plural (plunum) 

lofobsiirf, we must love. 

lofolsorf, you must love. 

ISfomsoc?, they (men) must love. 

lofofsiirf, they (women) must love 

lofobsokM, -) ^g ^^^^ ^^^g ourselves. 

loioboksoa, ) 

Aoristi (paitups) — 

ailofobod, I have to (must) love constantly, 
ailofobod, I had to love constantly. 
eilSfobod, I have had to love constantly. 
Tilefobod, I had had to love constantly. 
TilSfobod-la, I should have loved constantly. 
oilofobSd, I shall have to love constantly, 
uilofobod, I shall have had to love constantly. 

Imperfectum (patiip) — 

alofobod, I should love. 



44 GRAMMAB OF VOLAPiiK. 

Perfectum (petiip) — 

elofobod, I must have loved! 

elofolod. thou must have loved. 
Pluperfectum (pitup) — 

ilbfobod, I must be one that had loved! 
Futnrum (potiip) — 

elofobod, I must be one that shall love. 
Second Futurum (putup) — 

ulofobod, I must be one that shall have loved. 

Substantial Imperative Mood. (Budabid subsatik). 

lofod ! love govern ! 

elofo d ! love must have governed ! 

Infinitive Mood. (Subsatabid). 

Present tense (patiip). Singular (banum). 

lofbn, to love. 

lofobon, my loving (^= lofon obik). 

Ibfolon, thy loving. 

lofomon, his loving. 

lofofon, her loving. 

Ibfosbn, its loving. ^ 

Ibfonbn, somebody's loving 

Ibfomokbn, his loving himself. 

Ibfonson, your (— thy) loving. 
Plural (plunum) — 

Ibfons, to love multilaterally. 

Ibfobsbn, our loving. 

Ibfolson, your loving. 

Ibfomsbn, their (men) loving. 

Ibfofsbn, their (women) loving. 

lofofsokon, their (women) loving themselves. 
Aoristi (paitups) — 

ailbfbn, to love constantly, permanently. 

ailbfbn, a loving that waa constant. 

eilbfon, a loving that has been constant. 

lilbfbn, a loving that had been constant. 

oilbfbn, a loving that will be constant. 

uilofon, a loving that will have been constant. 

ailofobon, my constant loving. 
Imperfectum (patiip) — 

alofbn, a loving that was. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 45 

Perfectnm (petiip) — 

elofon, to have loved. 
Pluperfectam (pitup) — 

ll5fon, a loving that had been. 
Futnrum (potiip)-- 

olofbn, to shall love. 
Futnrum perfectum (putiip) — 

ulofbn, to shall have loved. 
Imperative (biidabidik) — 

lofbnod, to love (just loving on). 
The Supine (diseinabid) — 

al lofbn, (for) to love. 

al ailofon, „ to love constantly. 

al alofon, „ to be one that loved. 

al elofijn, „ to have loved. 

al ilofon, ,, to be one that had loved 

al olofon, „ to (shall love). 

al ulofon, „ (to shall have loved). 

Participle (ladyekabid). PfiESE^■T Tense (patiip). 

Singular (banum) - 

lofol, loving. 

lofobol, I loving (=ob lofol). 

lofolol, thou loving. 

lofomol, he loving. 

lofofbl, she loving. 

lofosol, the (it) loving. 

lofonol, a loving one. 

lofomokol, one loving himself. 

lofofokol, one loving herself. 

lofonsol, you (—thou) loving. 
Plural (plunum) — 

lofcls, loving ones. 

lofobsol (lofobols), we loving (obs lofol). 

lofolsSl, yon loving (ones). 

lofomsbl, they loving (men). 

lofofsol, they loving (women). 

lofobsokol, [ we ourselves. 

lofoboksol, 1 loving ones. 
A-oristi (paitiips) — 

aUofbl, a constant loving. 

ailofol, one that loved constantly. 



46 GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 

eilofol, one that haa loved constantly (one having 
loved constantly). 

iilofol, one that had loved constantly. 

oilefol, one that shall be loving constantly. 

uilofol, one that shall have been loving constantly. 
Imperfectum (pattip) — 

alofdl, one that loved. 

elofbl, one that has loved. 

ilofbl, one that had loved. 

olofSl, one that shall love. 

idSfbl, one that shall have loved. 
Imperative Participle (ladyetabid budabidik) — 

I6f6l6d, loving! (be a loving one!). 
Indefinite Participle (ladyekabid subsatabidik) — 

lofSlon, to be a loving one (binon lofol). 

lofblaon, to be loving ones (binon 16f8ls). 

Reflective Veeb. (Velib getefamik). 

I. — Present tense (patup). Singular (banum). 

lofobok, I love myself (=lofob obi). 

Ibfolok, thou lovest thyself. 

liifomok, he loves himself. 

lofofok, she loves herself. 

lofosok, it loves itself. 

lofonok, one loves one's self. 

lofonsok, you (=thou) love yourself. 
Plural (plunum) — 

lofobsok (lofoboks), we love ourselves. 

lofolsok (lofoloks), you love yourselves. 

lofomsok (lofomoks), they (men) love themselves. 

Ibfofsok (lofofoks), they (women) love themselves. 

lofonsoks, you love yourselves. 

II.— Othee Tenses anu Moods. (Tims e bids votik). 

ailofobok, I love myself constantly, 
alofobok, I loved myself constantly, 
elbfobok, I have loved myself, 
ilofobok, I had loved myself, 
olofobok, I shall or will love myself. 
ul6fobok, I shall or will have loved myself, 
lofobok-la, I might love myself. 
Ibfobokos, I may love myself, 
lofolokod, love yourself. 



GEAMMAU or VOLAPUK 47 

lofdnok (lofokon), to love one's self. 

al elofokon (elofonok), to have loved one's self. 

lofolok (lofokol), loving one's self. 

Recipeocal Verb. (VeHb rezipik). 

Plural (plunum) — 

lofobs obis, -we love each other. 

lofols olis, you love each other. 

lofoms okis (omis), they (men) love each other. 

lofofs okis (ofis), they (women) love each other. 

lofons okis (onsis), you love each other. 

Inteebogative Foem. (Sakabid.) 
l6fob-U (H-l6fob?) do I love? 
Inteerogation and Subjunctive Mood. (Sak e mogabid.) 
l6foh-li-la (li-lofob-la) or (li-la-l6fob) ? might I love? 

Negative Form. (Nononabid). 
no lofob (lofob no), I love not. 

Negative and Ixteeeogation. (Noned e sak.) 

no l6fob-li? \ 

no U-lofob? 4„ J not love? 

lofob-li no r I 

li-no lofob? ' 

Negative, Intereogative, and Subjunctive Mood. 
(Noned, sak en mogabid.) 

no lofob-U-la? i 

no-li-l6fob-la V | might I not love ? 

l6fob-li-la-no ? ) 

Impersonal Veeb. (Velib neposodik.) 

lomibos, it rains, 
aildmibos, it rains constantly, 
alomibos, it was raining, 
elomibos, it has been raining, 
oldmibos, it virill rain. 



48 GEAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 

(2.) Passive Form. (Sufafom.) Present tense (patiip). 

Singular (banum) — 

palofob, I am loved. 

palofol, thou art loved. 

palofom, lie is loved. 

palofof, she is loved. 

paldfos, it is loved. 

palbfon, one is loved. 

palofosok (reflective') . 

palofons, you (^ thou) are loved. 
Plural (planum) — 

palofohs, we are loved. 

palofols, you are loved. 

palfifoms, they (men) are loved. 

paldfofs, they (women) are loved. 

Imperfect Tense. (Patiip). 

Singular (banum) — 

palofob, 1 was loved. 

palofol, thou wast loved. 

palofom, he was loved. 

palofof, she was loved. 

palofos, it was loved. 

paldfon, one was loved. 

palofosok f reflective). 

palofons, you (z= thou) were loved. 
Plural (plunum) — 

palofobs, we were loved. 

palofols, you were loved. 

palofoms, they (men) were loved. 

palofofs, they (women) were loved. 

Perfect Tense. (Petiip) 

Singular (banum). 

pelbfob, 1 have been loved. 

pelofol, thou hast been loved. 

pelofom, he has been loved. 

pelofof, she has been loved. 

pelofos, it has been loved. 

pelofon, one has been loved. 

pelbfosok (reflective). 

pelofons, you (= thou) have been loved. 



GEAMMAH OP VOLAPiiK. 49 



Pluviil (plunum) — 

pelofobs, -we have been loved, 
pelofols, you have been loved, 
pelofoms, they (men) have been loved, 
pelofofs, they (women) have been loved. 

PLnpERPECT Tense. (Pitiip). 

Singular (banxim) — 

pilofob, I had been loved, 
pilofol, thou hadst been loved, 
pilofom, he had been loved, 
pilofof, she had been loved, 
pilotbs, it had been loved, 
pilofon, one had been loved, 
pilofosok (reflective), 
pilofons, you (=thou) had been loved. 

Plural (plunum) — 

pilofobs, we had been loved, 
pilofols, you had been loved, 
pilofoms, they (men) had been loved, 
pilofofs, they (women) had been loved. 



FuTUEE Tense. (Potiip). 

Singular (banum) — • 

polofob, I shall or will be loved, 
polofol, thou shalt or wilt be loved, 
polofom, he shall or will be loved, 
polofof, she shall or will be loved, 
polofos, it shall or will be loved, 
polofon, one shall or will be loved. 
polofoBok, (reflective), 
polofons, you (=thou) shall or will be loved. 

Plural (plunum) — 

polofobs, we \ 

i-i! ' XI. /• \ ( shall or will be loved, 
poloioms, they (men) i 

polofofs, they (women) / 



50 GKAMMAR OF VOLAPilK. 

Pdtube Perpecx Tense'. (Putiip). 

Singular (banunl) — 

pulofob, I shall or -will \ 

pulofol, thou shalt or wilt j 

pulofom, lie shall or will f 

pulofof, she shall or will > have been loved. 

pulofoa, it shall or will f 

pulofon, one shall or will \ 

pulofosok (reflective). / 

palofons, you (=thou) shall or will have been loved. 

Plural (plunum) — 

pulofobs, we ' j 

pulofols, you ( gjj^jj ^^ ^j^j j^g_^g ,^ggj^ j^^g^^ 

pulofoms, they (men) I 

pulofofs, they (women)j 

AoRlSTl. (Paitiips). 

pailofob, I am loved constantly. 

pailofob, I was loved constantly. 

peilofob, I have been loved constantly. 

piilofob, I had been loved constantly. 

poildfob, I shall or will be loved constantly. 

puilofob, I shall ot will have been loved constantly. 

Subjunctive Mood. (Mogabid). Present tense (patup). 

Singular (bannm) — 

palofob-la, I might be loved. 
Plural (plunum) — 

palofobs-la, we might be loved. 

AoRisTi 01 THE Subjunctive Mood. (Paitups mogabida). 

pailofob-la, I might be loved constantly. 
pail6fob-la, I would be loved constantly, 
peilofob-la, I might have been loved constantly, 
piilofob-la, I would have been loved constantly, 
poilofob-la, I shall or will be loved constantly, 
puilofob-la, I shall or will have been loved constantly. 

Othee Tenses. (Tims votik.) 
palcifob-la, that I was loved 
pe.ldfob-la, that I have been loved. 
pil6fob-la, that I had been loved. 



G,UAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 51 

poldfom-la, that lie shall be loved. 
puldfof-la, that she shall have been loved. 

Optative (wishing form, vipabid.) 

palofobos! that I may be loved. 

pailbfolds, that thou mayest be loved constantly. 

palofomos! that he might be loved. 

peldfofds! that she may have been loved. 

pilofosos! that it might have been loved. 

pulofonsos! you (^ thou) shall, have, may be loved. 

Impeuative Mood. (Budabid.) 

palofobod! I must be loved ! 

p.ildfoldd ! be thou loved' ! 

pailofomod! he must be loved constantly! 

pailofomod! he vras to beloved constantly! 

peilofomod ! piilofomod ! 

poilofomod ! puilofomod ! 

palofomod ! pelofobcid ! ' 

pilofolod ! palofod ! pelofod ! 

Infinitive Mood. (Subsatabid.) 

palofon, to be loved. 

palofobon, my being loved. 

paldfons, to be loved multilaterally. 

paildfOn, to be loved constantly. 

peilofon, to have been loved constantly. 

pilofdn, (a being loved, that was). 

pelofon, to have been loved. 

pilofcin, (a being loved, that had been). 

polofon, shall be loved. 

pulofdn, shall have been loved. 

palofonod ! (imperative) np to be loved ! 

Supine. (Disoinabid.) 

al palofon, (so as) to be loved, 
al pailofdn, (so as) to be loved constantly, 
al palofcin, (so as) to be one, that was loved, 
al pelofon, (so as) to have been loved. 



52 eKAMMAB OF VOLAPiiK. 

al pilofon, (so as) to be one, that had been loved. 

al polofdn, (so as) to (shall) be loved. 

al pulofon, (so as) (to shall have been loved). 

Pakticiple. (Ladyekabid.) 

palofbl, one, that is just loved. 

pailolol, one, that is just loved constantly. 

pililofol, one. that was 'loved constantly. 

palofol, one, that was loved. 

pelofol, loved. 

pelofolol, thou, loved (one). 

pilofol, one, that had been loved. 

polofol, one, that will be loved. 

pulofol, one, that shall have been loved. 

palofolod! (be, being loved). 

palofblon (to be one that is being loved). 

pelofolson (to be a loved one). 

Geiiundivum. (Mutabid.) 

polofol, one (person) to love; one, that must be loved. 

G-ERUNDIUM. (Mutabid in neud.) 

polofijlos binos, it is to love, one must love (it). 

Reflective Passive. 

palofobok (I am loved by myself), 
pelofolok (thou hast been loved by thyself). 

B.ECIPEOOAL Passive. 

palofobs fa obs, we are loved by each other — but on 

the contrary : 
palofobsok, we are loved by ourselves (each by his- 

self). 

Impeesonal Passive. 

patdtos, it is thundering. " 

IKTUANSITIVE Passive. 

pagolos — going, is getting done. 

pagolom — it is getting gone (in: one goes that road, 
the road is getting gone). 



GBAiniAR or TOLA.PUK. 53 

IxTESEOGATiTE FoRM (Sakabid). 

pal6fob-li (li-pal6fob)? am I loved? (am I getting 
loved ?J 

Ikterbogatiox axd SrwuscTiTE Mooj) (SaK e mogabid). 

pal6fob-li-la (li-palofob-la) or (U-la-palofob)? might 
I be loved? 



iS'zGATiyE (Xoned). 

no palofob, ") _ , , 

pal6fob-no, I I am no< loved. 

Negative axd Istebbogation (Noned e ^k). 
no palofob-li? j 
no-li palofob? I 



li-no palofob? i 



am I not loved? 
pal6fob-li no? J 

Negattve, Ixteerogatios, axd SuBjrscTivE Mood 
(Noned, sak e mogabid). 
no pal6fob-li-la?'i 

pSdfoSi?'^?^"^^* I "«* ^« ^°^^^ 
li-la palofob no? 

§ 155. — The forms of the Verb with 5 (Foms veliba ko S). 
(Verbum infinitum). 

(1.) Imperative Mood od. 

Ex. — sanolod, cure! (thou). 
(2,) Optative (wishing) os. 

Ex. — sanomoB. he may cure! (not: he might cure!) 
(3.) Infinitive Mood on. 

Ex. — sanon, to core. 
(4.) Supine (=the infinitive mood vrith /or, or to, or lo as): 
al. . .on. 

Ex. — al sanon, for to cure, so as to cure. 
(5.) Participles ol. 

Ex. — present participle: sanol, curing, 
past „ pesanol, cured. 

(6.) a. Gerendivnm (must) po...bl. 

li. — posanol, one that must be cured (not posanol, one 
that shall or will be cured). 



54 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPllK. 



J. Gerendium (neutral) po. . .olos. 
Ex. — binos pdsanolos (posanol), it is one that must be cured. 

§ 156. — Adverbs (Ladvelibs). 

(1.) When in Volapiik the adverbs are placed directly after 
the verb, they are the very same as adjectives, and, like 
these, usually end in ik 

(2.) When used alone, however (without any verb), they 
always end in iko; this o may be added in any case for 
clearness. 

(8.) Also in the comparative and the superlative degrees 
of comparison ,this o ma,y be added to the inflected forms of 
the adverb for clearness. 

Ex.— gudikt/mo, in a better way 
gudikano, in the best way. 
legxiAiVuno, the very best. 
§ 157. (1.) In answers to questions like: how far? how 
high, long, deep, broad? how long? how much time?), &c., 
the 4th case (i) is used. 

Ex. — for a day (one day long), deli bal. 
four meters (long), metis fol. 
(2.) Only then the 1st case may be used when mistakes 
are not possible, as, for example, in: my friend ate no bread 
for three days, flen oba jio a/idom bodi dels kil, instead of 
delis kil. 

§ 158. (1.) Adverbs derived from adjectives always end in iko. 
Ex. — jouiko, beautifully. 
(2.) Adverbs derived from nouns only take the o. 
Ex' — neito, at nights; delo, through the day. 
§ 159. — The principal Adverbs in use (Gleladvelibs in geb) r 

deto, right(ly). 

diso, under, below. 

don down. 

ege/o, somewhere 

egelo, always, continually, 

ever. 
els, else, otherwise. 

era, thereof,' therewith, there- 
fore, thence, therein, there- 
over, thereto, hereof, hereby, 
thereby, &c. 
/alo, in case, further. 



ai, always, ever, continually. 

aliko, in any case. 

6a, about, circa, perhaps. 

hegino, at first. ' 

heno, well. 

hifo, formerly, before. 

hise, first. 

bo, well, sure, certainly, 

likely, perhaps. 
hiio, formerly, before. 
denu, again, over again. 
desived, downwards. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiilC. 



55 



flanived, sideways, sideward. 

foviko, directly, presently, 
immediately. 

futo, afoot 

fiido, once, sometime, soon or 
late. 

ge, back. 

godelo, early, at mortings. 

2, also. 

iko-li? how, how that, how so? 

is, here, there. 

jiinu, so far, thiis far. 

hikod? why ? 

kiiip? where? 

kiplad? where? 

kiplada? from where? 

kipladi? where to? 

kitimf when? 

koh(o), together. 

las, present, thereby. 

latiko, at last, lastly. 

Idto, lastly. 

leigo, also, ditto, as well, same. 

levem(o), extraordinary, un- 
commonly. 

li-, lik(o), liof how. 

lino, about, round about. 

lopo, up, above. 

model(oJ, to-morrow. 

mofo, away, gone. 

nedeto, left (handed). 

negelo, never, nevermore. 

negeo, nowhere. 

neito, at night, through the 
• night. 

nemo, per order, for, in name of. 

nesemop, nowhere. 

nesun, late, not early. 

nevelo, never. 



no, not, no. 

nu. now. 

ofen, often, repeatedly. 

poso, thereafter, then, after- 
wards. 

poio, occasionally. 

pozendelo, ia the afternoon, 
p.m. 

semap, somewhere 

si, yes. 

so, so, thus 

sdto, plenty. 

sun, soon, early, shortly. 

susi. suso, suswed, upwards. 

tan(o), then, thereafter, 
thereon. 

te, only, just, merely, but. 

tef(am)o, according to, about. 

ti, about, nearly 

to, only. 

tSbo,, difficult, hardly. 

tog(o), at once, at a time. 

tosna, this time 

tu, too. 

tudel(o), to-day, now-a-days. 

m, there. 

us, there 

usa, from there. 

vemo, vem, le . . very. 

vanliko, in vain. 

vOXopo, everywhere. 

vendelo, in the evening. 

vdn(o), once (past). 

voto, else, otherwise. 

ya, already. 

yesdel(o), yesterday. 

20, about. 

zo, roundabout. 



56 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



Preposition? (Piapods). 

§ 160. — Prepositions in Yolapiik are always placed before 
the words whose relation to other words they point out. 

§ 161. — The prepositions usually govern the 1st case (nomir 
native), and especially those answering to, whefe? from where? 

Ex. — in the town — in zif 

§ 162. — Some of the prepositions answering to: where to? 
govern the 4th case, singular and plural. 

Ex — to the town — in zifi. 



They are : 
hevii, between. 
hif, before. 
da, through. 
dis, beneath. 
do, of, about. 
in, in, to, till. 
ju, till, to. 
kol, against. 
len, to. 



neb, next. 

oned, below. 

ove, ovie, over, up, above. 

pla, out (outside). 

po, after. 

su, up, on. 

to, against. 

zi, round. 

zii, roundabout. 



English to, till, is in Volapiik, ju 
„ iinto „ „ ju len. 

„ on till _ „ „ jii su. 

,, till against ,, jii kol. 

§ 163. — List of the principal Prepositions that require the 
nominative (1st case): 



ata/?anu, side (this side). 

ba, about. 

hu (buf), before, first (in value, 

rank). 
6a! (btif ), before, first (in time). 
danu, thanks. 
di from, away from. 
dem(U), above, side, farther 

than. 
defii, for want of, for fault of. 
detii, right (handed). 
disii, beneath, under. 
do, of, about. 



du, while. 

dub, by. 

eiejlanii, side (other side). 

fa, by. 

in, in, at. 

kanii, on account of. 

ke, with. 

hia, according to. 

ko, with. 

kom, in face of. 

kos, toward. 

Id, near. 

len, till. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



57 



linedii, -withm. 
lo, in view of. 
U, over, above. 
lopii, over, farther than. 
ma, after, according to. 
me, by means of. 
ndmii, on account of. 
nedetu, left-(handed). 
neleto, of, by, for. 
nen, without. 

nestu, saving, in spite of, not- 
withstanding. 
nil^ (nil), next. 
pla, in stead of. 
ple(plo), for. 
plo, out, beside. 
po(s), aft«r. 



p'dtii, occasional. 

sa, besides. 

se, out. 

segun, according to. 

sis, since. 

sukii, consequently. 

sumie, besides, except. 

sus, up, over, across. 

to, against. 

tefii, concerning. 

to, notwithstanding. 

tonii, according to. 

iino, in. within. 

ve, along. 

visii, opposite. 

zi, round about. 



Conjunctions. (Konyuns). 



§ 164. — The principal Conjunctions in use (Glekonyuns in 
geb): 



ai, but, yet, however. 

as, as. 

a. . .a, (before vowels dd, . .dd), 

as well as. 
ds, as. 

hi, because, whereas. 
hiifo, before. 
das, that. 
dat, so that. 
deno, yet. 

do, as though, although. 
du, dii, while, whereas. 
e (before vowels ed), and. 
falo, in case of. 
ga, yet. 

i (before vowels id), also. 
ibo (ibd?), than. 

if, if • 

ifi, even though. 



jiis, till. 

ka, than (after the compara- 
tive degree). 

kelup, when, at what time. 

k'6, where. 

kii, when, at what time. 

na (before vowels nag), after, 
when. 

ni. . .ni, neither. . .nor. 

noe...soi, not only. ..but also. 

sis, since. 

sod, but, however. 

tos, nevertheless. 

a (before vowels Hd), or. 

u (before vowels ud), or. 

uf. . .ud, either or, if. . .then. 

ven, as, since, because. 

ye (before vowels yed), yet, 
nevertheless, but, however. 



58 GUAMMAB OF VOLAPiiK. 

Intekjections. . (Linteleks). 
§ 165. — The principal Interjections in use (Glelinteleks in geb) : 

adyo, adieu! good-bye! milo, devilish! 
a^, ah! \ . ^nS (mofo), away! begone! gee 
lafo, bravo ! i-^P '• 

■ duso, mum! o, 0! oh! 

eko, behold! o, ah! indeed! 

eko, hark! pMo (so), hush? 

Ji, iie! fy! spido, sharp! 

get, pray ! why ! stopii, stop ! 

gololbz, begone! siiso, get up! avast! 

ISO, look here! takedo, st! hush! quiet! still! 

ladyulo, adieu ! good-bye ! vu, hu ! 

lifo (lifombd), hail ! yi, avaunt ! begone ! away ! 

lopb, up! (upwards). yo, clear out! clear up! 

lu, heigh! ho! hear! yu, help! 
mdj (majd), march! 

Some interjections may be in the passive form. 
Ex. — patakedo (taktdo), quiet! hush! st! 
paseilo (seilo), shut up! 
patlodo (tlodo), comfort! 



k\ 



An example of the formation of words and sentences in the 
language of the world (§am Volapukika fomama vodas e setas): 

I love all fellow-men of fhe whole world, especially those 
civilized that trust in the language of the world, as in one 
of the best means for the conjunction of nations. 
■ Lofob kemenis valik, vola Iblik, pato etis pekulivol, kels 
konfidoms Volapuke as bale medas gndikiin netasfetani. 

love = l5f. 

■I = ob. 

I love = lofob. 

all ^ val, valik (adjective). 

fellow-man =: kemen. 

fellow-men = kemens ; (4th case) = kemenis. 

I love all fellow-men = 

lofob kemenis valik; or, 

lofob valikis kemenis; or, 

kemenis valik lofob; or, 

valikis lofob kemenis; or, 

kemenis lofob valikis. 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPiiK. 5& 

whole = 161, lolik (adjective). 

world = vol. 

of the world := vola 

of the whole world = vola lolik; or, lolika vola. 

specialty = pat. > 

especial (adj.) = patik. 

especially (adverb) '= patiko ; or, pato. 

those (demonstrative pronoun), etis (4th case plural, of et). 

civilization ^ kuliv; to civilise (verb) = kulivon; civilised 
present participle . of the passive form) = pekulivol. 

those civilised = etis pekulivol; or, pekulivolis et. 

that (relative pronoun, who) ^= kel, kels (plural). 

trust (confidence) =r konfid. 

to trust (verb) ^ konfidon. 

(they) trust (3rd person plural) =: konfidoms 

language = piik 

in the language = puke. 

the world = vol; (2nd case) ^ vola. 

that trust in the language of the world = kels (kel) kon- 
fidoms Volaptike. , 

as ^ as. 

one = bal. 

in one = bale. 

goodness (noun) = gud. 

good (adjective) = gudik. 

best (superlative degree) = gudikun. 

of the best (2nd case plural) = gudikiinas. 

means (plural) = meds; (■2nd case) medas. 

as in one of the best means = 

as bale medas gudikun; or, 

as bale gudikiinas medas. 

junction = tan 

con = fe . . . 

conjunction = fetan. 

for the conjunction (4th case) = fetani 

nation = net. 

of nations (2nd case plural) = netas. 

for the conjunction of nations = netasfetani; or (fetani 
netas). 

Remark. — The most practical and the usual way of writing the 
softened vowels a, 5, ii. is », o, and u. 



VODASBUK 

YOLAPUKIK-NELIJIK. 



VOLAPtJK— ENGLISH 

YOCABULAEY. 



a!, ah! 

a, each, a, per, for, towards, 

against, (every, (atel, every 

two). 
it. . .a (ad. . .ad) as well-as. 
ab, hut, though, however, 
adel, daily, every day. 
adelo, to-day, this day, now. 
Melo, yesterday, 
adyo!, good-bye, adieu. 
aJt, that one there, yon. 
ag!, ah! 
ai, continually, 
ai, lasting, always, usedto. . . 
aidundn, to do often, use to do. 
aikel, whosoever. 
aiikeZbs(t), whatsoever, which 

ever. 
aikitiOT, whenever, 
aiko, wheresoever. 
aiLik(o), however. 
aQimodi^, however much, 
al, to, towards, at, 
all, this way, hither, 
alik, each, every one. 
aliko, in any case, 
alim, every body, 
alina, every time, 
ate!, come on! go on! 
a/o/ob, I loved, I liked to. . . 
aloB, therefor thereby. 
als6, thus, so, whereas, since. 
aliipik, continual, 
a ma, according to. 
a mataa, every stxtimes. 



a mul, monthly, a month. 

an, arak, some, a few. 

a/neito, to-night, this night. 

anej'to, last night. 

apod, apple. 

apostel, apostle. 

apul, April. 

as(a), as, like. 

...as, (2nd case plural). 

a segun, (a ma), accordingto. 

as?/, as if. 

iislik(6), same as, like. 

as(5, so, in such a manner, like. 

as sam (a. s; sambdl) for ex- 
ample, (ex), for instance. 

at, the next, this. 

at, just this one. 

ata^anik, from this side. 

a tel(ik) two by two, iu cou- 
ples, two at a time. 

ato, thus. 

atof (of-at), this (feminine) 

ffltof, just this (one) (of-at, ji-at). 

atos (os-at), this. that. 

a7os (os-at), just this. 

afoso, hereby, thus. 

ats, these 

augur, augur, soothsayer. 

a vel, seven at a time. 

a vig, a week, per week, weekly. 

a yel, a, vear, per year, yearly, 
annually. 

&yelo, in this year. 

styelo, (in) last year. 



64 



GBAMMAU OP YOLAPUK. 



ba, about, perhaps. 

bad, bad, badness, evil, disease, 
grief. 

iadal, bad temper, bad nature. 

6ac/ikj bad. 

\>adilo, partly. 

badlik, bad. 

hadlikel, gloom3'per3on pessi- 
mist. 

hadloA, getting -worse, growing 
worse, deterioration, 

badlon, to get worse, grow 
worse, deteriorate. 

hadoi, wicked deed, villany. 

badoi, meanness. 

bad6n, to be bad, badly. 

badng, baseness, wickedness. 

baf, (foUA&vog), bass base. 

bafel (folidLa,vdgel), basist. 

bafo! bravo! 

ba/olik, honest,, just, virtuous, 
good. 

ba/bm, uniformity. 

ba/omik, uniform. 

i"/^S< honesty, uprightness 
goodness. 

6q/umo, br.iver! juster! 

fea/uno! bravo! ! ! 

bagaf, paragraph. 

Jaik, eventual. 

bak, baking. 

bak, back. 

bafcapik, monocephalous. 

bakel, baker. 

baken, bakehouse, bakery. 

hakioed, backwards. 

Tasbkolumik, in one column. 

bakon, to bake. 

bakot, baking, batch. 

bakun, balcony. 

bakun, back-ground. 



bal, one. 

bal, berry. 

bal&&, harmony, unity. 

balaAal, the striving for unity. 

6a/adik, solitary, unanimous. 

6a/adon (balon), to unite. 

6aZam, union, agreement, recon- 
ciliation, harmony, concur- 
rence, confomity. 

balam, explanation, solution, 
illustration, elucidatiou. 

balamon, to agree, concur. 

balsmum, unit, one, digit. 

bala,span, one horse carriage. 

Balears, Balearic isles. 

baleftafcik, stale. 

halebuk&i, old book trade. 

halebukel, old book merchant. 

baled, age, old age. 

baledamon, pension. 

bdledan, gray beard, old man. 

6ai«rfanik, like an old man. 

baledaAi, oldness, antiquity: 

SffiMatav, archaeology. 

balerfeurik, old German. 

baWik, old, aged, elderly. 

bale(do) , old .... 

bdledon, to become obsolete, 
to grow old, 

hdledoti. antiquities. 

ftaWiip, high age. 

bale.9/iHk, old Greek 

balel, one (the cipher) 

baleia/', one and a half. 

6a/elil, small one (cipher). 

balemaseZ, oldmaster, oldest 
master, headmaster. 

baliad, thousand million. 

balib, beard. 

balibA, barber. 

balibAon, to shave. 



GUAMMAK OF VOLAPUK. 



65 



ialibik, bearded. 

baliboa, to put on a beard, 

to grow a beard. 
balii, first. _ 
JaZidab, first fruit. 
baliiavSg, first voice soprano. 
SaZidna, first time. 
JaZidno, for tbe first time. 
iaZido, in tbe first place, 

primely, firstly. 
balif, union, concord. 
JaKfik, unanimous. 
JoHk, singular, plain. 
6aZiko, simply, plainly. 
balikag, simplicity, ' plainness, 

candour. 
bain, a small one. 
6aSm(e) 7:otim(i), each 

other, mutual. 
BaHmik votimik, the 

one the other. 

balion, million. 

baliondil, millionth, millionth 

part. 
5aZionena, a million tiraes. 
balna,, once. 

Jotoabad, table of multiplica- 
tion. 
JaZnalido, for the first time. 
JaZnalik, single. 
JaZnaliko, at once, 
balmk, of one sort, indifferent. 
balo, at once, all at once. 
baloi (balad), harmony, union. 
baZo^ik, monocular, one-eyed. 
ftaZon (bofbn, klubon), to unite. 
bal-08 {oa-bal), the digit one. 
bal^emotol. only-born, 
bals, ten, 
balsa^uZ, decagon. 
balaeiaZ, eleven. 
halsedil, tenth part. 
balse/oZ, fourteen. 



balse/dZ, eighteen. 

balseizZ, thirteen. 

balsel, number of ten, 

ftaZselul, fifteen. 

ftaZselulid, fifteenth. 

6aZsemal, sixteen. 

5aZsena, tentimes. 

JaZsenalik, tentimes over. 

5aZsenik, of ten sorts. 

SaZseniko, in ten different ways. 

balsetel, twelve. 

5aZseieZad, a dozen. 

JaZsetela^wZ, dodecagon. 

6aZsetel(^«'Z, twelfth part. 

balsetelel, a quantity of twelve, 
adozen, 

balseieZid, twelfth. 

balseteZidna, the twelfth time. 

balsefeZidno, for the twelfth 
time. 

balseieZik, twelvefold. 

balseicZ mil, twelve thousand. 

balse^«Zna, twelve times. 

balse^eZnik, of twelve sorts. 

balsefaZ tum, twelve hundred. 

balseteZiif, duodecimo. 

balseweZ, seventeen. 

haiseziil, nineteen. 

&aZsid, tenth. 

6aZ«idna, tenth time. 

ftaZsidno, for the tenth time. 

JaZsido, in the tenth place. 

ftaZsik, tenfold. 

JaZsil, small ten. 

JaZsion, decilion. 

bals mil, ten thousand. 

bals tum, (ten hundred) thous- 
and. 

balsni, decimo. 

Baltasar, Balthazar. 

JaZiido, first, as yet. 

SaZiif, prime. 

5aZugik, indivisible. 

5 



66 



GBAMMAB. or YOLAPUK. 



ftaiiikoii, to simplify. 
halvia, solo. 
halutmk, first-named. 
balun, balloon, 
bakoftk, eaohoter. 
bam, bench, pew, bank, 
ban, bath, 
banik, bathing-, 
ban, ebb, reflux, 
banacem, bathroom. 
loa.na.loted, bath-hotel, 
banasft'f, bath-institution, 
ftaraon, to bathe, 
baniira, unit, 
banumik, single, 
baon, nobility. 

baonel, nobleman, noble, baron. 
baorak, noble. 

baonon, to nobilitate"; to en- 
noble, 
bap, lowness, meanness. 
6apal, bad character. 
bapam., abatement. 
6apik, bad, low, mean. 
bapbn, to debase, 
bar, bar, rod, 
Barbad, Barbados. 
Barbarans, Barbarian States. 
Barm, Lower-B,hine. 
Barselona, Barcelona 
Basa.'5(an), Lower Saxony. 
baseJion, to abdicate, 
baset, basket. 
bdsetel, basket-maker. 
based!, small basket. 
basiZaZiik, monosyllabical. 
basin, basin, 
bat (6aJam), bait, decoy. 
Batafan, Batavia. 
Batafel, Batavian. 
batSl, seduction, 
batan, batalion. 
bdt&zib, docoy, bait 



baton, to allure, docoy, bait. 

bauo^fik, unanimous. 

bayo^of, unanimity, harmony. 

Bayan, Bavaria. 

baj/eZik, one year "old. 

bazam, basar. 

beat, salvation, bliss. 

beatilk, blissful, blessed. 

6eai!5n, to save. 

bed, bed. 

bedasio/, bedding, bed linen, 

bedUn, to make the bed. 

hedHnlam), service, attendance. 

Toedunon, to serve, assist, attend, 

hejeiiik, contestable, 

be/uZam, fulfilment, 

be/Mi!6n, to fulfil accomplish, 

beg, request, begging, entreaty, 

begin, beginning, commence- 
ment, 

beginsX, undertaker, 

beffinal, enterprising (mind), 

begm&TB., undertaking, 

beginei, beginner, novice, 

beginik, original, first. 

begino, originally, at first. 

beginon, to begin, commence 
start, undertake. 

be^juon, to present, endow, 

heglidaxa, salutation. 

heglidon, to salute. 

beg'dn, to pray, beg, desire. } 

bait, bite. 

beital, biting, sharpness, keen- 
ness. 

beiton, to bite. 

beitoi, bit, set of teeth. j 

bek, request, demand. 

hekipon, to keep. 

beHi^on, to war (against). 

befcZireon, to arrange, put al- 
right, adjust. 

befcioitam, dressing. 



GKA.MMAE OP VOLA.PUK. 



67 



feefcon, to demand, beg. 

\>ekonsal6n, to consult. 

bel, mountain, mount. 

heldbon, to make happy. 

bela,ioveg, road througli the 
mountains. 

6eZem, range of mountains. 

befe/on, to animate, give life. 

belik, mountainous. 

Beljan, Belgium. 

Belj'dnel, Belgian. 

ielUn, to heighten, raise. 

bem, beam. 

bemaZ(am), characterizing. 

bemaZon, to mark, character- 
ize. 

hemedik, at ease, rich, well 
to do. 

bemu/am, contact. 

hemufon, to touch. 

ben, grace, favour, mercy. 

ftenal, graciousness, mercy. 

ftenat, welfare. 

bereemam, denomination. 

be»i«m6n, to name, denominate. 

Bengalan, Bengal. 

ienik, gracious, merciful. 

beno, good, well. 

beno\ well! 

binoA, benefit. 

benodel, benefactor. 

6enodik, benefi.cent. 

6enod8f, beneficence. 

ftenodon, to do good. 

6enof, welfare, best. 

6enon, to pardon, forgive. 

henosmel, fragrant smell. 

benoton, harmony. 

ben5iOJiam, tuning, making 
melodious. 

'benotomk, harmonious 

benotonBl, melodious. 

benotonpn, to be harmonious. 



benotoreon, to make melodious. 

henovip, congratulation. 

benouz^el, well.wisher. 

benouJpSn, to congratulate. 

benug, welfare.' 

bepKfcam, bespeaking. 

bepaion, to bespeak. 

ber, bear. 

Berbaran, Barbary. 

BermudarezsuZs, Bermuda-Isles, 

Berta, Bertha. 

bes!Ou(sion), to afSrin, answer 
with yes. 

hesten, staining. 

hestemk, stained. 

besftmon, to honour. 

bet, garden-bed. 

beft'fcalik, eager, enthousiastic. 

hetikalon, to inspirit. 

beJoTiam, accentuation. 

hevikodaxa, victory, conquest. 

hevikodon, to conquer. 

beuoSadon, to workat, prepare. 

beuoiton, to call, appoint, con- 
voke. 

hevolekiin, to bringabout, cause. 

bevu, between, under. 

bevunetik, international. 

6«uuno, meanwhile. 

bi, since, as, because. 

bib, bible. 

bibliogafik, bibliographieal. 

bid, sort, kind. 

bido, so to say , in some way. 

bied, bitterness. 

biednm., exasperation. 

bied&i, exasperation. 

biedik, bitter. 

biedon, to embitter, exasperate, 
inveterate. 

bien, bee. 

bienaffoOT, beehive. 

bienal, zeal of bees. 



68 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



bien&p, breeding of bees. 
bif, before. 
bi/ik, former. 
bifo, former. 
bi/o\ first! 
6j/oik, first. 
J^oin, curtain, 
big, thickness, 
higsbjined, thumb. 
'biga^vaet, jelly. 
bigik, thick, 
big-otel leader. 

bigon, to make thick, to con- 
dense, thicken. 
bi'iiZ, fore-hell, 
bijop, bishop. 
by op, episcopal, 
bijxit, jewellery, 
bil, beer. 
bilel, brewer, 
bilen, brewery, 
biliad, billiards, 
biliet, note, bill, billet, 
bilod, bUe, gall, 
bilod&l, biliousness. 
bilon, to brew. 
bilot, brewing, 
bim, tree. 

bimaZam, branch of a tree. 
bimSblamik, branchy, 
bimawffifc, graftingwax. 
bin, the act of being. 
binel (the, one) being. 
5melik, essential, 
imob, I am. 
binoh (binoms) they are. 
binon, to be. 

binoe (sibinos), it is, there is. 
hipolon, to carry at the front. 
hipiik, introduction, speech, 
biret, turban. 
hise . . . , fore . . . 
hiseitOTi, to lay before. 



hisespid'dn, to run before, (of 

clocks:) to go fast. 
hisiadon, to set before, 
bisierfcl, chairman, president, 
bisj'erfon, to preside. 
hisilab, prefixed syllable, 
biskit, biscuit, 
bisumon, to intend, 
bit, proceeding, doing. 
biton, to proceed, work, 
bitopon, to put before, 
bived (foi), ahead, 
bivedo! qo ahead! 
biye(d), however, but. 
hizif, suburb. 
hizug, profit, preference, 
hizugik, splendid, excellent. 
hizug'dt, excellence. 
hizug'on, to prefer, advantage, 
bla . . . , black . . . 
blabiik, black-printing. 
blad(-am), bellows, blowing, 
blad, breath, gasp, 
bladon, to blow, 
blad on, to breathe, 
bladot, blowing. 
Blafot, German Black Forest, 
blag, blackness. 
Blagamel, Black Sea. 
Blagan, Black, Moor negro. 
Blagan, Country of the moors, 
blagik, black, 
blaglik, blackish, 
blagbn, to blacken, black, 
bia/euaZ, black horse, 
blam, rebuke, reproof. 
blam(-am), blaming, 
blamel, blamer. 
blamik, blamable. 
blamon, to blame, 
blamon, to blame, censure, 
bled, leaf, sheet, 
bledeiA, bower, arbour. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



69 



bledeaa, leaves. 

bledon, to turn over the leaves, 
run tkrough. 

blef, brevity, shortness, 

fole£k (neiojietfik) short. 

blefo, in short, to go short. 

blefbn, to shorten, abbreviate. 

blegon, to bend, bow. 

blein, blindness. 

bleinSl, blindness (mental). 

bleinsaa, blinding. 

hleitak, blind. 

bleinon, to blind, blindfold. 

blek. break, breach, rupture. 

blekam, breaking, refraction. 

bleMk, fragile, brittle. 

blekon, to break. 

blem, eavalling. 

blemel, cavalier. 

ble«enon, to have a presenti- 
ment of 

bletjOTO, lately, not long since, 
the otherday. 

blib, stay, residence. 

blibSn, to stay, reside. 

blig(8ot), duty. 

bUgal, notion of duty. 

bligam, obligation. 

bligat, obligation, hypotheca. 

bligik (sotik), duly. 

bligon, to oblige. 

blini(-am), outfit. 

blimon, to fit out, to give a 
dowry to. 

blin, contribution, quotation, 
producing. 

bUnon, to bring. 

blit, trowsers. 

blob, whale-oil. 

blod, brother. 

blodal, brother-hood. 

blodam, fraternization. 

blodem, brothers. 



blodik, brotherly. 

blodOn , to fraternize. 

blof, proof, testimony. 

blofam, proofing. 

blofbn, to prove, show. 

blog, sheet of paper. 

blon, brown, bay. 

blouj fair, flaxen. 

blonik, brownnish. 

blonik, fair, light. 

blonon, to colour brown. 

blonon, to make fair, blond. 

blot, bosom, breast. 

blotaklot , under- waist-coat , 

vest. ^ 
bloton, to show a high breast, 

to be proud, pigeon breasted, 
blud, blood, 
bludik, bloody, 
bludon, to bleed, 
bludot, blood, race, 
bluf, proof, trial, 
blufam, testing, 
bliif, experiment, 
blufik, standing the test. 
blufon, to try, test. 
blufon, to experience, 
bluk, brook. 
blukU, rillet. 
blum(-am), apparatus. 
blun(-am), delivery, 
bliinaim, term of delivery, 
bliinel, purveyor. 
bliinSn, to purvey, diliver. 
blunup, time of delivery, 
bo, well, certain, apparent, 
bo!, fun! foolishness! foUy! 
boad, wood. 

boadal, sillyness, stiffness, 
boadaiu/i fagot, bavin 
boadem, thicket, underwood, 
boadik, wooden. 
boadUk, wooded. 



70 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPUK. 



boadnik, woody. 

boadon, to cut wood, to uproot 

(trees), 
bob, arob, bow. 
bob, exchange, 
bobik, bent, arcbwise. 
hohlod, brother-in law. 
bod, bread, 
bod, bird. 

bedaf, world of birds. 
hdda,bid, kind of birds. 
BodanZafc, Bodensea, Loch of 

Constanz. 
bSdav, ornithology, 
bodavel, ornithologist, 
bodel, breadmerohant. 
bodel, birdoateher, fowler, 
bodem, poultry, fowl, 
bodik, of bread, 
bodik, like a bird. 
bodoHj to earn bread. 
bodSn, to catoh birds. 
Bodugan, Portugal. 
Boduganel, Portuguese, 
boed, plank, board, 
boedik, to made of boards, 
boedon, to cover with boards, 
bof, span, team, 
bofam, teaming, 
bof, farce, trick, fun. 
' bofel, droll, bufPoon, funny 

fellow, 
bofal, facetiousness. 
bofik, both, 
biifik, funny, merrj', witty, 

facetious, 
bofnik, both kinds. 
bbfBf, fun, facetiousness. 
bofbn, to team, 
bog, chest, coffin, box. 
bSg, press, cupboard closet, 

cabinet, 
bogik, like a chest. 



boin, borax. 

bok, case, sheath, 

bok, box. 

bolad, load. 

bSladik, loaded, heavy. 

boladon, to load. 

holed, presumption. 

boledik, arrogant, presump- 
tuous. 

Bolonya, Bolognia. 

bolot, impudence. 

bolBtik, impudent. 

bom, bone. 

bomauzV, vertebra. 

BQman, Bohemia. 

Bomanik, Bohemian. 

bomanik, Bohemian. 

bon, bean. 

boned, subscription. 

bonedel, subscriber. 

bonedon, to subscribe. 

bbnon, to favour. 

bos, something. 

boset, noise, ado, bustle, 
rumour, howling. 

bosetik, noisy. 

bSseton, to make noise. 

b6sin, porcelain, china. 

bosinel, china-man. 

bosinik, china-, of china, 

boso, somewhat. 

hot, boat: 

hotel, attendant in a coffee- 
house. 

boteldn, to attent, to wait 
upon customers in a cof- 
fee-house. 

hov, dish, plate. 

hovil, saucer. 

hredel, beltmaker. 

breden, beltmaking. 

brigan, brigade. 

brokel, broker. 



GEAMMAR OP VOLAPUK. 



71 



brokon, to be a broker. 

bu (buf), first, (in rank &c.) 

bu . . . . pre .... 

bu (buf), first (in time). 

bub, beef, ox, bvill. 

btiba (bubik), — beef. 

bud, hedge. 

bud, order, commandment. 

hxiisibid (grammar :) imperative 
mood. 

biidel, commander. 

biidik, commanding, imperious. 

bndon, to hedge in. 

budon, to order, command. 

bueg, beech. 

buegik, of beech wood. 

bufik, being before, first (in 
rank &c.) 

bufik, being before (in time). 

bufo, first (in rank, &o.) 

biifo, first (in time). 

blifoik, former, sooner. 

bufam(o), sooner, rather. 

btig, box. 

buig, shop; tent, stall. 

bujad, forest, wood. 

bujadik, woody. 

bujadem, grove. 

buk, book. 

biik, printing. 

buka . . ., book-. 

\)vka.dism, specification, cata- 
logue. 

lukakoleb, library., 

btjkama^, printing image. 

biikapewad, printed letters. 

bukasetom, publishing. 

bukasetel, publisher. 

bukatonel, bookbinder. 



bukatowen, bookbinding. 

bukaiandn, to bind books. 

bukaJec?, booktrade. 

bakafefZal, bookseller, publish- 
er, editor. 

bukate(?am, bookselling. 

bakaferfan, bookseller. 

bukaietZel, bookseller, stationer. 

bukatonaJ, letter ,printing letter. 

hukel, writer, author. 

btikel, printer, bookprinter. 

buken, printing-office. 

bukik (buka . . .), book- ; 

bukik, printing- ; 

bukil, small book. 

bukon, to book. 

bukon, to print. 

Bukovau, Bucowina, 

hiikuliv, modelling. 

biil, greens. 

bum, building, structure. 

hu-mamasel, architect, builder, 
surveyor. 

bumatetel, joiner, cabinet-ma- 
ker. 

bumof, building. 

bumon, to build. 

bumot, building. 

bun, leap, jump, spring, hound. 

bunel, jumper, springer. 

bun, pear. 

bundan, abundance. 

hundanon, to overfiow. 

hunojn, to jump, spring, leap. 

biio, first, afore. 

biir, office-table. 

but, boot. 

but, (small) boat. 

bntin, boot-jack, jack. 



72 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



C. (pronounced aa: j) 



cad, importance. 

cacZik, important, i 

caf, kettle, boiler. 

caf, chafer, beetle. 

cal, oifice, profession, situ- 
ation. 

cal, commission, position, situ- 
ation, state. 

cal&hlig, duty of one's state. 

calaMod, colleague, fellow. 

caZal, knowing one's state. 

caZam, nomination. 

caZan, justice of peace. 

calasiez/el, fortune seeker. 

calel, functionary, officer. 

calik, official. 

colon, to be in function, to have 
a place as functionary. 

calon, to nominate. 

cam, chamois. 

cam, chamber, hall, council- 
chamber. 

carnal, counsellor of the empire, 
member of the council. 

can, ware, goods, merchandise. 

can, exchange, change (of mo- 
ney). 

canal, mind for business. 

02ina,magad, store, warehouse 
magazine. 

canasecZam, exportation. 

canon, to change (money). 

ced, opinion. 

cedbn, to be of opinion, to 
think. 

cein(-am), change, alteration. 

cemon, to alter, change. 

eel, cherry. 

ceZaJim, cherry tree. 



cem,room, chamber, apartment. 

cemil, small room-, apartement. 

cen, change , transformation, 
metamorphosis. 

cenal, changeableness. 

ceraam, variation, change. 

cenon, to vary, change. 

cep(-am), thrashing. 

cep5n,'to thrash. - 

cet, chest. 

oid, chisel. 

ci&k, like a chisel. 

cif, chief, head-, manager. 

ce/al, chief-manager comman- 
der in chief; counoilj senator. 

ci/ajTo., chief-council. 

cifel, see: cif. 

cs/on, to manage, command. 

oig, cheek, jole. 

cil, child, 

cjVil, little child, baby. 

cjZad, filiation. 

dial, love for children. 

cUik, childish. 

cz7of, childishness, childhood. - 

cilug, filiation. 

cim, chimney. 

czmel, chimney-sweeper. 

cin, machine, engine. 

cman, machinist, engineer. 

Cman, China. 

Cindnel, Chinese. 

cmm&, Chinese, 

cintin&a, to make china-, por-, 
celain. 

cjnel, machine-maker, instru- 
ment-maker. 

cmif, machinery. 

cinik, machinal, mechanical. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



73 



ciniif, mechanics. 

cmiifel, mechanician, engineer. 

cimiSk, mechanical. 

cihiifim, mechanism. 

cipsel,. heathen, vagabond. 

cipsen, vagrancy, vagabondry. 

cit, disappointment, (of others :) 
citam. 

citon, to disappoint, to frustrate. 

cod, justice. 

codacaZ, judicature. 

cddal uprightness. 

codat, judicatory, sentence. 

cMatam, name and reputation, 
name and fame. 

codaAon, to sentence, judge, 
define. 

codel, judge. 

cbdelik, judicial, justiciary. 

coden, court of justice, tribunal, 
jurisdiction. 

coifik, just, righteous. 

codoi, justice. 

codon (codoton), to judge, pro- 
secute one at law, execute. 

coduk, judicature. 

cog, joke, jest, irony. 

cogai, jester, wag. 

coga-vod, ftinny saying, pun. 



quibble, jest. 

co^'ik, joky, funny. 

co^on, to jest, joke. 

com, small room. 

cop, hew, hoe 

cop, gash, cut, felling. 

copon, to chop, hash, hew. 

copon, to hack, fell, cut. 

coti/on, to justify, answer for. 

cuk, ass. 

cuHk, like an ass, stupid. 

cukal, ass's head, dunce. 

cuken, drudgery. 

cui um, bigger ass, more stupid. 

cutun, biggest ass, most stupid 

person, 
cun, lent. 

cunah'm, shrove tide. 
Clin, chin, 
canal, intelligence, 
curaon, to fast, 
ciit, cheat, deception, trick, 

imposture. 
ciitei, cheater, imposter, 

deceiver, 
carik, deceitful, fraudulent 
- false, cheating, 
caion, to cheat, impose, deceive. 



da, by, (direction:) dai, 

da .... , there .... 

AaAal, separate thing, single 

thing. 
daftaZik, separate. 
Askbalo, separately. 
daSatod, singularity. 
Asibalon, to detail, sell in retail. 
daJe^on, to ask for. 
Aaduk, education. 



dadukah, pupil, 
daiufcav, art of educating, 
dadufevik, educational. 
Aa.dukeb, seminary. 
Aadukel, educator, tutor. 
di&dukik, tutelar, 
dadfwifcon, to educate, tutor. 
da<?«fcop, boarding-sehool. 
daeg, darkness, obscurity. 
daegik, dask, obscur. 



74 



GEAMMAR Of VOLAPuK. 



daet, date (plant). 
daflii(-ain), conclusion, termi- 
nation, end. 
da/bmon, to form, 
dag, darkness, obscurity, 
dag, dagger, poniard. 
dagsj\, obscure person. 
da^raZon, to awake. 
Aa.get, acquirement, attainment. 
Aageton, to acquire, attain. 
dagik, dark. 
dstgleip, seizing, attack. 
A&gleipm, to seize, attack. 
Aaglo/oTa, to augment, grow 

propagate. 
dagon, to get dark, -obscur. 
ddgon, to stab, pierce (with a 

dagger), 
daif, daintiness. 
daifik, dainty, nice, sweet 

delicious, delicate, 
dakik, unlocking, opening. 
dakikon, to unlock, open, 
dal, allowance, leave, licence 

permission. 
dalaxa, warrant, authority. 
daleh, indigence. 
dalehik, indigent, needy, poor. 
dalebon, to want, need. 
Anlet, dispensation, release 

dismission, discbarge. 
daZe^on, to dismiss, acqiiit. 
dafez(-am), illumination. 
daZzZal, airiness, transparency; 

eminence, bigbness, grace. 
AalitaX ons. Tour Eminence, 

Your Higbness. 
Aalit&l, clear bead. 
Aaliton, to illuminate, enligb- 

ten, clear up, alleviate, ease. 
Dalmatan, Dalmatia. 
dato/6n, to offer, 
da/ojon, to see, look at. 



dalon, to allow, permit, admit, 
grant. 

daliin, may (verb). 

daZop(-am), conquest, 

dalopel, conqueror. 

daZdpon, to conquer. 

dam, dam, bank, dike. 

dam(-am), damage, loss, barm, 
preju.dice, hurt. . 

damani/am, opening, 

damat, drama, play. 

damaiel, actor, performer. 

darnaton, to dramatize. 

ddmik, burtful, prejudical. 

ddmoi, burtfulness. 

damon, to dam up, enbank. 

ddmon, to damage, burt, injure, 
prejudice, impair. 

damuzon, to extort, wrest. 

dan, trank, acknowledgement. 

Dan, Dgnmark. 

Danel, Dane. 

danik, Danisb. 

dans^To. (danasa^), thanks- 
giving. 

danasa^on, to say thanks, to 
thank. 

danem(-am), nomination, de- 
nomination, patent, diploma- 
ma, appointment. 

danemon, to nominate, appoint, 
name. 

cZaraigik, thankworthy. 

danik, thankful, grateful. 

danoi, thankfulness, gratitude. 

^araon, to thank, refuse, say 
grace. 

A&not, enquiry, demand, search, 

damorik, enquiring. 

A&noton, to enquire, -search. 

dam. thank (preposition). 

Danub, Danube. 

danud, dance. 



GEAJIJIAK OF VOLAPiiK. 



75 



daniidon, to dance. 

daniidafcafj, art of dancing. 

danudel, dancer. 

iapedon, to oppress, to over- 
whelm. 

Dardanels, Dardanelles. 

das, that. 

das, therethrought, thereby. 

daso, oh that! 

dasd, that the . . . you. 

daswmSn, to take. 

dat, so that, that. 

dat, date (stating the day). 

daizHk, imaginahle. 

A&tikoTi, to bethink, contrive, 
imagine. 

daton, to date. 

dai«w(-ani), invention. 

da<«w{-ain), discovery, detection. 

diatiivel, discoverer, detecter. 

dsktuv&l, inventive mind. 

da^wal, detective mind. 

dafawel, inventor. 

d&tuvon, to invent. 

A&tiivon, to discover, detect. 

i&vestigl-am), investigation. 

Anvestigel, investigator. 

iavestigon, to investigate. 

Dazian, Dacia. 

de, from. 

de . . ., de , . . (prefix). 

deb, debt. 

debel, debtor. 

deWk, indepted, owing. 

Aeheg, beseeching, deprication. 

Aebid, bastard. 

deblek, breaking off, rupture, 

damage, 
deblinon, to get (away) from. 
deboi, obliged duty. 
deboiL, to owe. 
AehonedoTL, to countermand. 
Aehiik, copy. 



ded... (koded). 
Aedamom, to dam up. 
Aedit, parting, leave. 
Aediton, to part, separate, dis- 
join. 

Aedlanon, to extort. 

derfu^on, to drive off, to re- 
pulse. 

def, defect, need, poverty, want, 
privation, lack. 

defal, falling down, refuse, 
remains, cuttings. 

defanon, to catch from. 

defik, defective, incomplete. 

AefileAtin, to burn down. 

Aefilon, to fire, discharge. 

Aeflagon, to demand, require 
exact. 

Aeflano, aside. 

AeflaniX (prep), since, from. 

AeflumoTa, to flow down. 

defo, for want of, for fault of. 

de/on, to be wanting, to miss, 
want. 

def a , for need of, for want of. 

deg (degol !) 

Aegif, cast. 

degifon, to found, cast. 

degivon, to deliver, give up. 

Aegol, departure. 

de^oZod, way hither. 

deyoZon, to go hitherward. 

deig, axletree; addice. 

de;a/on , to dismiss , leave off. 

deil , death. 

Aeiladel, death's day. 

deilik, mortal. 

deilof, mortality. 

deilbn, to die. 

Aejekoi, to deter, affray. 

dek, attire, ornament. 

deJc&m., ornamentation. 

dekan, dean. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK . 



deifce/bn, to brush off. 

dekii., handsome, pretty, fine. 

deklam, declamation. 

Aekliemk, averse. 

deklin, declination. 

deklina/ijZ, case of declination. 

Aeklinik, declinable. 

dek^i, elegance. 

Aekofiikm, to finish, accom- 
plish. 

iekdmot, origin. 

defcombn, to originate. 

dekHiJi, to attire, adorn. 

dekul, December. 

del, day. 

del day. 

delabled, daily paper. 

Aelemon, to redeem, purchase, 
buy. 

Aelet, remission. 

Aelet'on, to remit, to forgive. 

delfin, delphin, dauphin. 

Delfos, Delphos. 

delidaxa, rizing in price, getting 
dearer. 

delidik, dear, expensive 

delidoA, dearness, high price. 

delid(s), expense, costs. 

deliV, daily. 

deWon, to examine, hear, try, 

deZiu(-am), redemption, deliver- 
ance. 

deKuel, redeemer, deliverer. 

deZiwbn, to redeem, deliver, free. 

delo, through the day. 

Aelodon, to unload. 

delo e neito, day and night. 

del6n, to dawn. 

deluJe^on, to beg off. 

dem(u), for ... ; for . . 

Aemag, portrait, card. 

deman, desire. 

(?emfm6n, to desire, claim. 



Demostenes, Demosthenes, 
den, sword. 
Aenid, beaming lustre, 
deno, yet. 

denu, again, over again. 
denuaxa, reiteration, repetition, 
denuaxaik, repeated. 
denuajaiiko, repeatedly. 
den«/am, slope, inclination. 
denulik(o), again, repeated. 
denuZog'am, reunion. 
denuZo^on, to see again, meet 

again. 
denuiin, to repeat, reiterate. 
Aenusaiin, recovery. 
Denyeper, Dnieper. 
Denyester, Dniester, 
depad, despatch. 
Aepdkon, to unpack, pack off. 
Aepedon, to imprint, print off. 
depenad, copy. 
depereSn, to copy. 
depfifcBn, to bespeak, appoint. 
deputal, deputy, delegate. 
deputel, despatcher, elector, 

voter, 
des, from, since, 
des . . . , re ... . 
desan, plan, aim, intention. 
descin^D., to intent, aim. 
dese, out, out of. 

dese out ... un . . . 

desedfon, to send, despatch. 
Aeseistik, distant. 
Aesep'dn, to dig off. 
desid, desire, wish, 
desidam, desire, favour, wish. 
desidbn, to desire, want, 
desin, intention, 
desinik, intentionally. 
desinon, to make up one's mind 

to, to intend. 
desZopik, inclining, sloping. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



77 



de«uj»am6n, to erect, compose. 

Aesved, this way, hither. 

ieaveg, road hitherward 

det, righthand. 

ietedbn, to conclude, treat of, 
finish. 

de^e^on, to uncover, take off 
the covering. 

detik, right , dextral. 

detiko (deto), (to the) right. 

deriepon, to frighten. 

ietlidon, to renounce, abdicate 
retire (from business). 

Aeiovim, to lift ofF. 

detii, at the right of. 

detul, detail, part. 

detiilo, in details, separately. 

detillon, (Aebalon), to detail, to 
divide in small parts. 

Deut, Germany. 

deulel, German, 

deutik, German (adj.) 

deutdn, to speak German, trans- 
late into German. 

dev, despair. 

devon, to despair. 

devnn, a desperate person. 

de»e^, sideroad, by-way, wrong 

road. 
devei, devil. 
develen. devilish trick. 
develik, devilish, diabolical. 
develo ! the devil ! devilish ! 
de»o56n,-to drudge, 
devod, devotion, piousness. 
devodik, pious, devout. 
de»odik, modifiable. 
ievoton, to modify, 
dialeg, dialect, accent, 
diamet, section, 
diameto, mediately, 
diamin, diamond. 
diamimk, of diamond. 



diat, diet. 

dib, depth. 

dibsi^, draught (of a ship). 

rfzMk, deep. 

dibal, abstruseness. 

dibalik, abstruse, profound. 

di5?e^am, curving, bending. 

Aiblegon, to curve, bend. 

Aiblekaxa., breaking. 

Aiblekon, to break. 

dibon, to deepen, make deeper. 

Aidil&in, mutilation. 

dido, however. 

dif, difference, diversity. 

diferip, inflammation of the 
throat. 

di/ik, different, diverse. 

dig, dignity, worth. 

digik, worth 

dik(-at), diction, dictate. 

dikod, quarrel, dispute, conflict, 
struggle, row. 

dikodik, contrary, opposite, frac- 
tious, repugnant. 

dikodsii, quarrelsomeness. 

dikodoi, discord. 

dikon, to dictate. 

dil, part. 

dilsiia, division. 

. . . dil. . . . part. 

dilanum, fraction. 

dilek, direction, management. 

dilekel, managez, director, go- 
vernor. 

dileket, government, direction. 

dilekiin, to govern, manage, 
direct, rule. 

dilel, divider, divisor. 

diliA, participation. 
dilidel, partaker. 
<;87idik, participating. 
diliAon, to be partaker, 
dilik, divisible. 



78 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



dUima.m, anal3'sis, solution. 

dilimba. to analyze, solve. 

dilo, partly, 

dilod, share, quota. 

dilon, to divide. 

dilsumal, participation. 

dilsumel, partaker, shareholder, 

dilswmod, participation. 

dilsnmon, to partake. 

dini(-al), silliness. 

Aimidavi, devouring. 

diimidov., to devour. 

dimik, silly, frivolous. 

din, thing, object. 

dins (Jinels), beings. 

dinad, circumstance, condition, 
situation. 

dmadama/ik, concerning, pro- 
portionate. 

dinik, (grammar) neuter. 

dinik, rank, dignity. 

dinitSl, dignified bearing, self- 
trust. 

dinitskstik, ambition. 

dinitel, person of rank, dignity. 

dinitik, vrorthy. 

dinii, in affairs, in business. 

Dioklezian, Deooletian. 

Dionusos, Dionysius. 

dip(-av), diplomacy. 

diped, diploma. 

dipel (dipedeV), diplomatist, 

diplod, explosion, detonation. 

diplodon, te explode, detonize. 

dis, under, below. 

dis . . . . , below .^. . . 

disa . . . . , under .... 

AissMit, pair of drawers. 

AisMot, under clothing. 

disein, design, plan, aim, butt, 
intention. 

&iaema.bid, (Grammar) Supine. 

diseinik, efficient, suitable- 



diseinon, to have in view, 

aim at. 
DiseZsasan, Lower-Blsace. 
disi, down, downwards. 
disH, lower . . . . , bottom .... 
disin, plan. 

disinon, to plan, project, scheme. 
disinik, systematical. 
disip(-am), dispersion. 
disipon, to disperse, scatter, 
disiucii, downward, 
dismit, dismission, 
dismiton, to dismit. 
dismiit, leave, 
dismiiton, to give leave to. 
diso, down, below, under. 
disofizir, under-offioer. 
Aisojedon, to subject, subdue, 

submit. 
dism, to sink, 
disopen, to under- write, sign, 

subscribe, 
disopenam, the signing„ 
disopenad, signature, 
disopenon, to sign, subscribe 

under- write, 
disosto/", lining, 
disos/o/on, to line (clothing). 
disputon, to dispute, 
distiu, distinction. 
distinsxa, distinguishment. 
distinon, to distinguish. 
distuk(-am), destruction, evers- 

ion. 
distukel, destroyer; 
distukils., destructive. 
distukon, to destroy, 
disii, down, below. 
dit(-am), separation, departure. 
ditoYnt, aqua fortis, 
ditib(-am), boarding, spending, 
ditibel, spender, boarder. 
ditibon to spend, to lay out; 



GBAMJIAU OP VOLAPUK. 



7& 



diton, to separate, part. 
Diterik, Derrick. 
div, treasure, 
dividen, dividend. 
divik, appreciated, much 

tionght of. 
divisan, division (of the army). 
divodH, abandoned. 
dwodon, to surrender. 
divoi, valuableness, taxability. 
divon, to tax, rate, prize, value, 

estimate. 
Al = dokel, Doctor, Dr. 
dlan, urgency, pressure. 
dlamk, urgent, pressing. 
dlandn, to urge, press, push, 
dlat, thread. 
dlatavivot, thread-tissue, 
died, fear, anxiety, fearfulness. 
dledik, fearful, timorous, afraid, 

cowardly, anxious. 
dledal, coward. 
dled\ik, dreadful, terrible. 
dledoi, timorousness. 
dledon, to fear, be afraid, dread, 

apprehend. 
die/on, to hit, 
dlemoji, to tremble, shake, 

shiver, quiver, quake. ^ 

dlen, tear. 
dlenon, to weep, 
dlim, dream. 
dlimel^ dreamer. 
dlim&l, drowsiness. 
dlimik, drowsy. 
dlimon, to dream, 
dlin, drink, liquer. potion 

beverage. 
dlinad, draught, drinking. 
dlina&, drunken, tipsy, intox- 
icated. 
dlinadoTi, to water, to give 

to drink. 



dlinam., watering. 

dlinamora. fee, vails, drink- 
money. 

Alinapet, toast, a cup of kind- 
ness. 

dlinapeton, to toast, to propose a 
drink in honour of someboby . 

dlinel, drinker. 

dlirdk, drinkable, potable. 

dtinon, to drink. 

do, though, although. 

do, of, about, regarding. 

do atos(en), there about, thereof. 

dob, falsehood, perfidy, pervers- 
ity. 

dohik, false, inexact, wrong. 

dobik, falsel. 

d6biko(dobo), falsely, wrongly. 

(fo6dn, to make false. 

dobon, to falsify, adulterate 
counterfeit. 

dod, consideration reflection, 
remark. 

dodel, Thursday. 

dodelik, on Thursdays. 

dof, fault, disease, defect. 

dofik, defective, infirm, faulty, 

do/on, to fail, miss, mistake. 

dog, dog. 

dogal, beastliness, brutality. 

doga,snulut(enj, breeding of dogs. 

dogik, canine. 

doglik, doggish, currish, cynical, 
canine. 

dogon, to bring forth puppies, 
so whelp, pup. 

dok, doctorship. 

ddk, duck. 

dofcel(dl). Doctor, Dr. 

dok&lon, to pass as Doctor, 

dokiim, document. 

dokiimik, authentical. 

dokiimon, to make authentic. 



80 



GUAMMAB or VOLAPUK. 



dol, pain, ache, grief. 

del, idea, notion. 

dolik, painful, grievoiis. 

dolik, ideal, imaginary. 

doloA, the ideal. 

dolodih, ideal. 

dolbn, to hurt, to cause pain 
to grieve. 

dolon, to idealize. 

dom, house. 

domacKnel, house-servant. 

Aomakip, household, house- 

' keeping. 

domaifcipel, house-keeper. 

domaiijpam , family-concerns 
watching of the household. 

domafopon, to do the house- 
hold, to keep house. 

domal, economy. 

domaa, domain, crownland. 

domiJumSn. to build houses. 

domik, domestic, economical. 

dominikam, dominican. 

Dominikus, Dominic. 

domit, training, dressing. 

domitUn, to train, teach, dress 
(animals). 

Domizian, Domitian. 

domo, at home. 

domon, to stay, live, lodge. 

domot, small house, press, case, 
sheath, covering (and all 
other objects that contain 
someting else). 

domii, home, to the house. 

don, downward. 

don . . . ., .... down. 

don, dung. 

Donazian, Donatian, 

Aonigol, descent. 

Aonleton, to let down. 

Dorotea, Dorothy. 

dot, doubt. 



dot (kodfit !) 

dotik, doubtful. 

c^orilon, to shrug to shoulders, 

dot'on, to doubt. 

dragel, dragoon. 

Drakon, Draco 

drogel, druggist. 

drol, merriness, amusement. 

drolik, delightful, funny, fool- 
ish, silly, droll, comical, 
odd, facetious. 

du, while, then, by. 

du . . . . through- 

dii, whereas, while. 

du . . , . hard- 
dual (palanum), dual. 

dub, by means of, through, by.- 

dub atos, thereby, therewith. 

dud, cornet (a paper bag). 

durfufcon, to carry through. 

diif, hardness. 

dtifik, hard. 

dii/oT^i, to harden. 

diifsbston, granite. 

diifasZonik, of granite. 

duferip, see diferip. 

dufomon, to form thoroughly, 

tZa/ug, obstinacy. . 

dufugik., obstinate, stubborn. 

dug(-ani), lead, conduction. 

dng'oZam, transit. 

dug'in, to lead, conduct. 

du^'onSn, to go through, to 
walk through. 

duin (-am), the doing, effecting, 

duin^, power to effect, fulfil. 

duinoTo., to effect, fulfil, perform, 

dajet, douche, shower-bath. 

dnjetoTi, to douse, to give a 
shower-bath, — a douche. 

duk(-am), lead, conduction. 

diik, duke. 

dafcal, archduke. 



GUAJDIAR OF VOLAPUK. 



81 



diikalik, archducal. 

dukaton, leading tune, principle 
tune. 

dukel, leader, conductos, com- 
mander, chief. 

diikik, ducal. 

dukod, escort, convoy, guard 
guidance, attendance. 

dokodUn, to accompany, escort, 
convoy. 

duk^ji, to lead, bring. 

duioiam, section profile. 

dul, lasting, continuing. 

dul, idyl. 

dula.1, firnmese of character. 

didik, continual, durable last- 
ing. 

duMadon, to read through. 

dulin, steel. 

diilimk, of steel. 

dUlinon, to steel. 

dulina(?«/ik, as hard as steel. 

diilinaxa, steeling. 

ixslogm, to see through, to look 
through. 

dulon, to last, continue. 

dum, dullness, bluntness. 

dumih, dull, blunt, faint. 

dun, deed, action, (the) doing. 

diin, servise. 

dunaf .... (duna/bm .') 

dunafom, active form. 

(Kraal, minister. 

diinBiik, ministerial. 

dUnaisd,, ministry. 

(Zureal, laboriousness, activity. 

dunaia. action, (the) doing. 

dunani, service, attendance. 

rfunan, agent. 

dunsuasA, agency. 

diinan, servant, attendant. 



Aiinavilik., -willing to serve. 

duna,vdd (velib), verb. 

diinet, servants, attendants. 

duneiel, servant. 

dunel, doer, actor, performer. 

diinel, servant, waiter. 

dunelet, servitude. 

dunelik, servile. 

diinel6n, to be servant, waiter, 

to act servilely. 
dumk, laborious, active, busy. 
diinik, in domestic service. 
dunlik, feasible, possible, prac- 
ticable. 
<f«nlikilno, as much as possible, 

practicable. 
dunloi, feasibility, possibility, 

practicableness. 
dunof. activity. 
dun'dn, to do, act. 
diinoji, to serve. 
diip, hour, 
diipik, every hour, 
diipbn, to state the hour. 
duTpfoldilik, quarter (of an hour), 
dusik, gentlj', quietly. 
diiso] gently a bit! 
dustod, industry. 
dustodixa, desire for industry. 
dustodik industrious, 
dut, diligence, zeal, ardour, 
diit, duty, obligation, 
dutik, diligent, zealous, 
dutbn, to endeavour, strive, 
diiton, (lelonon), to beseem, 

suit, to be decent, to be 

proper, 
diiv, estimation, tax, aim. 
djivon, to estimate, tax, aim 

guess, rate, compute. 



82 



GllAMMAR or VOLAPUlv. 



E. 



e(before vowels ed), and. 

e . . . (prefix perfect, active). 

eat, that one there. 

eb(o), just that one. 

ed, see e. 

ede^onol, ran off. launched, 

ended, 
edeilol, died, dead. 
edeilon, to bedead, late. 
edelo, the day before yesterday, 
ef, however. 

efe, and well, for instance. 
Bfa, Eve. 

eiegolol, past, over. 
Efesus, Epheze 
egeblibel (egeblib'ol), what stayed 

beliind. 
egef (semop). See egefo. 
egefl (semopi), to some place, 

somewhere, 
egefo (semopo) (before vowels, 
egef (semop)), somewhere. 
egelo(ai), always, ever. 
eglofik (eglofol), gi-own up. 
eit, just that one. 
ejen&i, happened, 
ek', somebody, 
eko, look! look there! look 

yonder ! 
ek6, look here! look ye! 
eku, look out th&e! 
el, the. 

ela, of the (2nd case), 
ele, to the (3nd case). 
Elektra, Blectra. 
elemanikos, etcetera, etc. 



eli, the (4th case). 

EUsabet, Elisabeth. 

elof (of-el, ji-el), the (ferminine), 

eld/oh, Ihave loved, liked. 

elom(-s), the (masculine). 

elos, the (neuter). 

els(elso), formerly, before, in 

past times. 
Blsasan, Elsace. 
elsik, former, previous, 
em, together, combined. 
Emerenzius, Bmerentia. 
emoiol, lying- in woman, woman 

in childbed 
en, thereof, thereto, therefore 

therewith, therein, thereby; 

hereof, hereto hereby &c. 
eneito, the night before last. 
eplak&i, versed, experienced. 
es(o), for the use of, benefit- 
estudik (estudoV), studied, 
estunik (estunol), estonished. 
et, that one. 

eteflanik, opposite, other side, 
ete^ano, opposite side. 
ete^anSp, here after, the future 

life, the life after this, 
etof (ji-et), that one (feminme). 
etos (os-et), that (neutral). 
Bufemia, Buphemia. 
Eufrat, Euphrates. 
Burualus, Euryales. 
evelo, ever, 
eventuo, eventually. 
ex(o), out, away, lost, gone, 

broken, in pieces. 



P. 



fa, by (made by), 
fab, fable, story, tale. 



fabon, to feign, make a story, 
/aSal, feigning, forgery. 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPUK. 



83 



/a6ik, story like, fable like 
fabulous. 

fabliid, fabric, works. 

fdbluda\i, fabrication. 

fabliidaZaiel, proprietor of a 
fabric. 

fabludam, fabrication, prepara- 
tion, making. 

fabludel, manufacturer. 

fabludon, to fabricate. 

fad, thread, wire. 

faf . . . . (sufafom!) 
fag(-am), far off, remoteness. 

fag, faculty, ability. Capacity. 
faga^teV, telescope. 

fag'&l, (a)looking in the future. 
fagaX, faculty of the mind. 
fagaZo^a>m, perspective. 
.ySf^ram, capacitation. 

'"ajrik, distant, far off, remote. 
fdg\k, able, capable. 
fagoa, to remove, put away. 
fagon, to enable, qualify, ca- 
pacitate 
fal, case, adventure, chance. 
fdlam, felling, cutting down. 

aZim, failure. 
/aKp, epilepsy, 
falo, in case, for chance. 
falo . . . ud fa'.o ; either . . . or . . . 

whether ... or , . . 
Jalo, further, next, then, 
falo ! then ! further ! 
JaVan, to fall. 
falSn, to fell, cut down, 
fam, fame, reputation, 
fatmk., famed, praise-worthy. 
fama/MZik, glorious, renowned, 

famous. 
/aroSn, to- praise, vaunt, 
lamiil, family. 
famiilils., familiar, 
fan, capture, catch. 



fanon, to cath. 

fan, fantasy 

/ajrael, fantastic person. 

farak, captive, as a prisoner. 

/anon, to fantasy. 

/aniib, prison, dungeon.durance, 
jail. 

faon, falcon. 

faon, hawk. 

far, beakon, lighthouse. 

fased, joke, funny trick. 

fasedal, joker, funny person. 

fasedel, droll, buffoon. 
/asedik., facetious, merry, witty, 

funny. 
fasedoi, facetiousness. 

fasedon, to be merry, witty. 

fat, father, papa. 
fata,n, native country, father- 
land. 

fat, fate, destiny. 

fataxa, procreation, production . 

yaiamel, procreator, producer. 

/atanik, patriotic, native. 

fatasfcerf, pedigree, genealogical 
register. 

fatil, grandfather. 

y"arik, fatherly, paternal. 

/dtik, fatal. 

/aril, wee father, papa. 

faton, to become father, to 

procreate, 
fe, it is true, however, 
feb, profession, fnnotion, call- 
ing, 
yfeftik, professional, 
febul, February. 
fecen(am), exchange. 
fecemk, exchangeable. 
fecenoi, exohangeableness. 
fecenm, to exchange, 
fed, treaty, alliance, league 
covenant. 



84 



GRA-MMAB. OF VOLAPuK. 



fedian, signing of a treaty. 
/erfel, covenanter. 
fedon, to covenant, ally, 
fedot.... (dot!) 

fef, earnest. 

/e/ik, earnest, grave, serious. 
fefon, to be earnest, serious,- 

feg, 'art of fencing. 
fegeb, 'Use, consumption. 
fegebon, to consume, use. 
fegel, fencer. 

iegtv (-am), remission. 
fegivSn, to forgive. 
fegoVon, to pass by. 
iegolug, the past. 
feg'oZnp, (Grammar), Past tense. 
fegon, to fence. 
/«^dnam, circulation, 
feif, (music) pipe, flute, 
feifaja, fluting sound. 
feifon, to pipe, play the bag- 
pipe, 
fein, fineness, 
/emam, refinement. 
feinsX, tender-heartedness. 
- feimk., fine. 
feinUn, 'to refine, 
feit, fight. 

feink, contrary; repugnant. 
feitoti, to fight, contest, oppose. 
fe;'ofcon, to reject, abandon, 
fek, passion, feeling, 
/efcam, sensation, 
/efcamik, sentimental, 
fel, field. 
/eZad, furrow. 

/e/adon, to furrow, enridge. 
/eialaned, arable land. 
felamq;'aZ, fieldmarshal. 
fela^cnaZ, oommanderin chief, 
{eleig(-a,m), comparison. 
feleigik, comjiarable. 
feleigbn, to compare. 



'felel, farmer, peasant, country- 
man, husbandman. 

felAik, clownish, rustical 
agrestic. 

feto^'on, to see wrong, to look 
wrong, mistake. 

/eZon, to farm, plough. 

fem, fermentation, commotion 
tumult, agitation. 

femin, yeast.. 

/em'on, to ferment; rise. 

fen(-am), fatique, weariness. 

/eneszam, denial. 

feneszel, denier. 

fenesion, to deny. 

fenig, penny, coin, medal. 

/enik, tired, weary, fatigued. 

/enSn, to tire. 

fenonSn, to deny ones self. 

feniil, fennel. 

iesed, expedition, exportation. 

fesezVon, to mislay. 

fesme&on, to taste, try. 

iestim, adoration. 

fesionam, petrifaction, petrifi- 
cation. 

festonon, to petrify. 

festiin, festoon, wreath. 

/estenSn, to wreath, crown with 
flowers. 

fet, fertility. 

fetore(-am), conjunction, con- 
juncture, binding. 

fetonod, bandage, band, tie, 
string. 

fetanog, union, binding. 

fetonSn, to unite, bind. 

fetik, fertile. 

fewoJon, to remove, transport; 
use, consume. 

fezogQn, to delay, relent. 

fi! fie! for shame! 

fiam, firm. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



85 



fib, -vreakness, infirmity. 
Jib&\), feeble or frail person. 
JibaS, amphiby. 
fihaii, -weak-headiness 
_;?6ik, weak, infirm. 
j^66n, to weaken. 
^6ug, weakness, debilitation, 
fid, food. 

fidacem, dining-room. 
fida/)/a/i, cabbage. 
Jidik, eatable. 
Jidon, to eat. 
fied, faith, trust, fidelity. 
Jiedhl, candour, cordiality, true- 

heartedness, loyalty. 
£ediTs., faithful, true, loyal, 

trusty. 
fiedon, to be faithful, true, 

loyal, 
fien, rent, interest, revenue. 
Jien&l, usury, 
^snel, rent-payer. 
.^fienik, tributary. 
Jiendn, to pay rents, interest. : 
fif, fever, ague. 
Jifik, feverish, aguish. 
_yi/bn, to have the fever. 

fig. fig- 

Agsibim, flgtree. 

figaSW, figleaf. 

fik (kofik!) 

fikar, vicar. 

Fikop, Africa. 
Jikopel, African, 
_^fcopik, African (adj.) 
fikopon, to make an Afrikan 
subject. 

fikul, diificulty. 
Jikulaxa, aggravation 
_^fcuZik, diflBcult. 

fikulo, hardly, with difficulty. 
JikuKn, to make more difficult 
to aggravate. 



fil, fire. 

^iab, match. 

filtihel, volcano, burning moun- 
tain. 

JUa-belon, to voloanize. 

SlaAelik, volcanic. 

filaJoatZ, firewood. 

filad, net. 

Filadelfia, Philadelphia 

Jilal, fiery spirit 

Fila,n, Terra del Fuego 

&\a,skut, fire-engine. 

filaiop, hearth, fire place 

fllaum, brandy, spirits. 

Jilei, fire, 

_/ifeden, distillery, 

fileiapiin, focus. 

Jiledin, fuel. 

_^tedon, to burn, scorch. 

filial, branch, branch office. 

^iZik, firy, fervent, redbot. 

Filip, Philip, 

Jilistel, swell, 

Jilol (animating exclamation). 

filod, fear, respect, awe. 

filodoia., to stand in awe of, 
to respect, fear. 

JiKin, to stir, Hndle, make fire. 

filop, fireplace, hearth. 

filosop (sapav), philosophy. 

filosopou {sapavon), to philo- 
sophize. 

filosopA [sapavA), philosopher. 

filosop^ (sapavVs), philosophic. 

flm, firmness, solidity. 

fimam, affirmation, corrobora- 
tion. 

fimal, firmness, resoluteness, 
determiuateness. 

fimei, confirmation. 

Jimik, firm, solid. 

fimoA., fortress. 

firrion, to confirm, affirm, fortify. 



86 



GRAMMAR OF VOLASuK. 



fin, end. 
firiam, ending. 

finan, finances, public revenues, 
flnanav, administration of finan- 
ces, — of public revenues. 
Finan, Finland. 
Finmel, Pinlander. 
_^nanavel, financier. 
_^nap, toe. 
fined, finger. 
jfinedil, little finger. 
fineda'^fflV, thimble. 
_^nedam, handling, touching, 

contact, 
fitiedon, to touch, feel, handle. 
ji?mk, final. 
fino, finally, at last. 
Jinod, conclusion, ending. 
finon, to end, finish, conclude, 
fir, fir, firtree. 
Jirik, of firwood, firwooden. 
&stel, fixed star, 
fit, fish. 

fita.{, fish-world, fisk-kingdom. 
Jitel, fisherman. 
Jiten, fishery. 
Jitog, fishbone, 
fiton, to fish, 
fi'v, pool, fen, marsh. 
fivik, quaggy, 
fizir, oflScer. 
flab, patch, tatter, 
flad, bottle. 

flag(am;, claim, demand, 
flag, fiax. 
flagik, flaxen. 

flagase^, hypothesis, supposition. 
flagon, to claim, want, demand, 

summon. 
fldkik, declinable, 
flakon, (Grammar :) to decline, 
flam, flame, 
flamal, eager mind. 



Jlamsid, torch, link, taper. 
flamon, to flame, blaze, 
flan, flank, side, 
flanik, sideways, 
flan, freedom, 
flanam, prepayment. 
Flanan, Flanders, 
flanik, free, post-paid. 
iajiived, sideways. 
flano, aside. 
flanon, to put aside. 
flanu, from the side of. 
flap, blow, knock, slap. 
flapel, fighter, 
fiap, apoplexy, fit, palsy. 
Jlapen, fight, 
^apik, ready for battle. 
flap'dn, to strike, beat, slap^, 
fied, load. 

Jied&vaTi, goods-cart. 
fledUn, to load, freight, 
fleg, articulation. 
flegik, articulate, 
flegon, to articulate. 
flek(-am), turning. 
flekon, to turn, twist, 
flem, picture-frame, 
flen, friend, 
^enal, amicability. 
flenik, friendly, amicable, kind'^ 
FlenanJsuZs, Friendly Islands. 
flenot, friendliness, kindness. 
flenon, to make friends. 
Flent, France. 
Fleniei., Frenchman. 
flentik, French. 
flenton, to imitate the French-. 

men, to frenchify. 
flenng, friendship, amity. 
fleniignfed, alliance of friend.^- 

ship, 
flib, flea. 
&idel, Friday, 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPiiK. 



87 



flWeZik, on Fridays, every Fri- 
day. 

flif, freshness. 

Jli/i^i, fcesli. 

Jli/al, freshness of the mind. 

JHfaxa, refreshment. 

flofo ! (animating exclamation). 

flifan, to refresh. 

fligat, frigate. 

flin, finch. 

flit, flight. 

flit&A, wing. 

Aitui, fly. 

flitamu^, bat, flittermouse, flin- 
dermouse. 

flito, in the flight, in the air. 

flito ! in a hurry ! 

fliton, to fly. 

flod, fi-ost. 

flodal, cold as ice. 

flodon, to freeze. 

flok, tress, braid. 

fioJcel, braider. 

flokdn, to braid, twist. 

flol, flower. 

flolik, flowery. 

flolU., floweret. 

flolaSM, leaf of a flower. 

flol&tim, Spring. 

flolaimik, vernal, of Spring. 

floled, blossom, flower. 

fiolim, to blossom, flourish. 

flom, forehead. 

flon, florin. 

flotap. . . (flotapiin !) 

flotap»n, freezing-point, point 
of congeliation. 

floton, to congeal, freeze. 

flub, meadow. 

fliiin (Fl), fluor. 

fluk, fruit. 

ffuk&A, product, 

flukaftm, a;utumn. 



flukaftmZatik, after-autumn. 

fluken, fruitshop. 

flukik, fruitful, fertile, feracious, 

fecund. 
flukon, to fructify, fecundify 

make fruitful, improliflcate. 
/?«fcop, barn, 
flul, plank. 
flulon, to cover with planks, 

to contabulate. 
flum, river. 

flumsuhed, bedding of a river, 
flumal, fluency. 
flumaVik, fluent, flowing, 
flum&pop, blotting-paper. 
flumik, river — 
flumm, float, raft 
_^Mmine], floater. 
flumlik, fluid, liquid. 
flumof' fluidity. 
flumon, to flow, stream. 
flun, influence. 
flunoB, to have influence, 
flut, flute. 
Jlutel, fluteplayer. 
flutdn, to playon the flute, to 

whistle, 
fo, afore, beforehand, before, 
fo. . . ., for. . , . pre. . . . 
fo, foremost, before, at the 

beginning, 
fo. . . . for. . . . 
foap, liver. 

fod(-am), promotion, advance. 
fodA, promoter. 
fodon, to promote, advange. 
foet, game, deer. 
foetel, hunter, gamepoacher. 
/oet&b, a tree plant or ft'uit 

growing at random, 
foezam, neglect. 
foetik, wild. 
foef6i, wildneas. 



88 



GEAMMAB OF VOLAPuK. 



/oeion, to grow wild. 

/oetal, game caught. 

fog, fog, mtst. 

fog, hammer. 

foget, forget. 

fogeok, forgetful. 

fogetot, forgetfulness. 

fogeton, to forget. 

/05'imik, foreign, strange. 

fogin, foreign country. 

fogir&b, stranger, alien. 

foginauM, strange word, exotic 
word. 

foginel, foreigner. 

fogimk, strange. 

foginon, to make strange, to 
alienate. 

fogino^, hospitium. 

f6^m(-am), forgiveness. 

fogivik, pardonable. 

fogivon, to forgive, pardon. 

fogon, to hammer, malleate. 

foi, ahead, to the front. 

foik, foremost. 

foin . . . . (bi . . . . !) 

fok, fork, prong. 

tokagoled, warm breakfast. 

foHk, forked, furcate. 

fokon, to work witha fork or 
prong. 

iokodutUn, to let, hire out. 

fol, four, 

f61(-am), observation, contem- 
plation. 

iolsbgul, quadrate, square, 

folum, quadruplication. 

folas^an, set of fourhorses. 

ioldil, fourth part. 

ioldilik, quadrifld, divided in 
four parts. 

folel, a four, number of four. 

foliA, fourth. 

folidLUvog, base. 



foMsivogel, base singer. 

foliisivogoa, to sing the base 
party. 

/oZidna, the fourth time. 

foliino, for the fourth time, 

folido, in the fourth place. 

folik, fourfold, quadruple. 

foliko in a fourfold way. 

folil, a small four. 

folion, quadrillion. 

folm«7, four thousand. 

iolmilid, four thousandth. 

folmiliAo, in the four thou- 
sandth place. 

folmeVna, four thousandth times, 

folmiVik, four thousand fold. 

/bZna, fovu- times. 

folnaXik, four times over. 

folmk, of four sorts. 

folno (/bZnaliko), for the fourth 
time. 

^oZon, to quadruplicate, to mul- 
tiply by four. 

folon, to follow, fulfil, prac- 
tise, take care. 

fols, forty. 

/ofean, one forty years old. 

folsena,, forty times. 

/oZsenalik, forty times over. 

folsenik, of forty kinds. 

folsiA, fortieth 

folsiino, for the fortieth 
time. 

folsiAo, in the fortieth place. 

folsit, fortyfold. 

folstum, (forty times hundred) 
four thousand. 

folium, four hundred 

iditumiA, four hundredth. 

foltamido, in the four hun- 
dredth place. 

Mtunak, four hundred fold. 

foltomena, four hundred times. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK, 



foliumenalik, four hundred 
times over. 

toltum mil, four times hun- 
dred thousand 
folvS, quaver (music, f). 

folura, quartett. 

fom, form. 

fom, shape, figure, out. 

fomad, cheese. 

fomadel, cheese-maker. 

/omaliegik, rich in forms, 

fomaxa, formation. 

ioia.a,tid, science of geometrical 
forms. 

jomel, moulder, framer, deli- 
neator, draughtsman, sculp- 
tor, statuary. 

/omen, sculpture. 

ybmik, formal. 

/omlik, ceremonious. 

fomloi, formality, ceremonious- 
ness. 

/omod, model, pattern. 

fomon Qnagon), to dravr, form, 
frame, shape. 

fomm, to create, to give a 
form to. 

/omul, formula, form , formulary. 

fon, spring, fountain, well. , 

fdn; stove, oven, 

fbna^aJZ, fire-screen. 

/ona,A, spring, well. 

/dnam, firing. 

fonel, fireman. 

/omk, hot. 

Ponizan, Phenicia. 

fonogaf, phonography. 

fonogafel, phonograph. 

/bnSn, to throwup, to bubbleup, 
to spoutup. 

fonbn, to heat, warm. 

fop, fool, fop. 

/opal, a crackbrained person. 



/open, foolishness foppishness, 

fop&, foolish, mad. 

fopon, to banter; to make afool 

of on&self 
Foralbergan, Vorarlmount. 
fbse/(-am), guaranty, assurance, 
fose/el, guarantee, assurer. 
fose/5n, to guarantee, assure, 
fosin, phosphor, 
fosieraarfam, enforcement, 
fot, wood, forest, 
fotam, plantation with wood 

or trees. 
iot&lut, smell of wood. 
Fot&zifalak, Loch of the four 

Poresttowns 
Fotazi/s, Foresttowns. 
/otem, forestland, wood, frith, 
/orik, woody, frithy, 
/oril, grove, 
fotogaf, photography. 
fotogafud., photo. 
foiogafen, photographing. 
fotogaf A, photographer. 
jotogafik., photographic. 
/o<6n, to make woody, to cover 

with trees ; to afforest, 
fov, despatatoh, 
foviX, hurry. 

/owik, quick, hasty, agile, 
/buiko, at once, directly, this 

moment, 
/owiko ! quick ! speedy ! 
fovipedam, mechanic press. 
fovon, to continue, 
fovug, nimbleness, swiftness, 

quickness, rapidity. 
fovo, henceforth. 
fm'o\ quick! swift! 
foxaf, fox. 
foxa/al, fox-nature. 
/oa;a^ik, foxlike, 
fdyo ! ahead ! go on ! 



90 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPliK. 



fcan, franc. 
Franan, Franoonia. 
Frananels, Frank-people. 
Franziaka, Frances. 
Freiburg, Friberg (in Baden). 
Fribur, Friberg (in Switserland). 
Friderik, Frederick. 
Frisan, Friseland. 
frisan&l, Friselarider. 
frod, rime, hoarfrost. 
frodon, to rime, freeze witli 

hoarfrost, 
frog, fr-og. 
Frtigan, Phrigia. 
fud.. . . . (kofud!) 
fud(o), once, sometime, soon 

or late. 
fiiden, future. 
fiidenik, friture, next. 
fiidSs., ftiture (soon and late), 
fiidiip (Grrd,mmar) friture tense, 
fuf, trick, prank, 
/w/ik, knavish, 
ftig, flight, escape, 
fugik, ftigitive. 
ftig, figure. 
fiigik, figurative. 
fugon, to flyaway, flee. 
fiigon, to figure. 

fuk (kofuk !) 

fal, fulness. 
Julik., full, filled, 
ftil, miser, niggard. 
fulsil, stinginess. 



fiilik, stingy, covetous. 

fulaionol, full-sounding. 

fulik (.... fulikik), . . . . ful. 

/«/on, to fill. 

fum, ant, emmet. 

fumon, to crawl with, swarm. 

fum, certainty, positiveness, 
precision, firmness. 

/ismat, solidity. 

fumik, certain, firm, sure. 

fun, corpse, dead body. 

fun, fund. 

/finam, fundament, foundation, 
edification. 

fiinsA,, chapter-house. 

/iinel, founder, edifier. 

funik, cadaverous. 

funaua&, hearse. 

/unlik, mortal, deadly, fatifer- 
ous. 

fun'dn, to kill, mortify, enecate. 

fiinUn, to fouud, institu.te, esta- 
blish, edify, build, 

fusud, natural philosophy, phy- 
sics. 

fiisiidik, physical. 

fuf, foot, paw, leg. 

fiit, foot (twelve inches). 

/uta,klota,m., covering for the foot, 

futel, walker; infantry. 

/uielSn, to foot, go on foot, walk. 

u/to, afoot. 

/iiton, to rest, acquiesce. 



G. 



ga!, get away! go on! 
gab, count, earl. 
gaief, counfy, earldom. 
gabik, belonging or relating to 

a count or earl, 
gad, garden. 



gadel, gardener. 

gad, plantation. 

gaden, gardening. 

gadsidomil, gardenhouse. 

gadSti, to garden. 

gag, obscenity, malice, igno- 



GKAMMAK OF VoLAPiiK. 



91 



miny, vulgarity, shamefalness 

debauchery. 
gag'm, disorderly conduct, vul- 
garity, fedity. 
gagS^, obscene, dirty, mean, 

shameful, vulgar. 
gagon, to live irregularly, to 

conduct one'sself vulgarly, 

shamefully &c. 
gal, watch, wake. 
galel, watchman, watcher. 
galik, watchful, 
gal, joy, gladness. 
gala_/bril, grove. 
^aZal, cheerfulness, goodhu- 

mour, frisk. 
gdlsaa, rejoicing. 
Galan fPlent), Gallia. 
galamk, gallant, 
galaxiit, milky-way. 
galem, the guard, the watch. 
5'aZemel, soldier ci the guard, 
galif, gallery. 

galik, glad, rejoiced, frisky, 
galit, nightingale, philomel. 
GaHzan (Austrian) Galilee. 
Galizian (Spanish) Gallic e. 
gdlo, (music:) B-sharp. 
galoion, B-sharp. 
galoA, plaisure. 
gaiaf, watchfulness. 
gdlokoji, to be glad. 
galon, to watch, 
^lon, to rejoice, delight, 
galoianik, in B-sharp. 
galvan, galvanism. 
galvanik, galvanic, 
gam, bridegroom, 
gan, goose. 

ganQn, to shatter, gabble,gaggle. 
Ganiimed, Ganymede, 
gap, gap, opening, 
garanif, guaranty, fidejussion. 



garanoTu, to assure, guarantee. 

gased, gazette, newspaper. 

gazedik, news- 

gasedem, journalism. 

gasin, gas. 

gasinik, gaseous. 

gasina/hfiZfiflf, gas-works. 

gav, art . of engraving. 

gavel, engraver.; 

gavot, gavot. 

ge, back. 

geb(-am), use, application. 

^e6ik, useful, suitable. 

gehliboTi, to remain. 

geblik (siidoiik), customary, 
usual. 

gebon, to use, apply. 

ged, grayness. 

gedi^, gray, hoary. 

gef, vessel (glas, pot, jug etc.) 
(o\ip, glass, pot, jug, barrel, 
&c.). 

ge^are, backside. 

geid, guide. 

geil, height. 

geila,, high- 

geilik, high. 

geilal, highmindedness, mag- 
nanimity. 

geila,Tii, heightening. 

gei&iino, at most. 

geilon, to heighten. 

geilug, highness. 

gel, organ. 

gelel, organbuilder. 

gel&mek, organ manufactory. 

gel&n, organist. 

gelaton, organtune. 

geleton, to leave behind. 

gelmin, sprout, descendant. 

gelminon, to sprout. 

gelogon, to look back, -behind. 

geliit, inheritance. 



92 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



gelwtB\, heir. 

geliitatZzY, hereditary, portion. 

geliidk, hereditable. 

geliiton, to inherit. 

gem, brothers and sisters. 

gemik, brotherly, sisterly. 

gen, gender, genus. 

gerak, sexual. 

genal, general. 

genalo, usually. 

Genef, Geneva. 

Genefatoi, Lake of Geneva. 

genial, genius. 

Genov, Genoa. 

Genovel, Genoese. 

Geogan, Georgia. 

geomet (roa/'av), geometry. 

geomete\(mafsi,vel) , geometrician. 

geomeA'k (ma/avik) geometrical. 

gepot .... (pot !) 

gepilk (gesag), answer. 

gepiiknonbl, negative answer, 

answer in the negative. 
gepUkon, to answer, respond, 

reply, 
german, German. 
gerudif(Grammar),gerundivum. 
gesa^r, answer, reply, 
gesa^on, to answer, reply, 

respond, 
get, receipt. 

getel. receiver, recipient 
geiawon, to return, 
gefefamik, reflective. 
geib-a, to get, receive, obtain. 
gev(-am), grant, gift. 
geveg, road back. 
gevbn, to grant. 

gi , re ■ 

gian, giant. 

gianaJeZem, Giant Mountains, 
gianafcodab, colossus, 
gianik, gigantic. 



gib, leech. 

gid, eq[uity, justice. 

gidsil, sense for justice. 

gidik, equitable, just, proper. 

Gido (Vitus) Guy. 

gif, moulded metal. 

gifaZeHk, of cast iron. 

gifel, founder. 

gifen, foundery. 

gifm, to found, oast, (metal). 

gig, gout. 

gigik, gouty. 

.... gik, some. 

gil, eagle. 

gilor, condor. 

gim, drill, bore. 

gimel, borer. 

gimefc5n, to arrange. 

gimoji, to drill, bore. 

gin, reel. 

gin'dii, to reel, jumble. 

git, justice. 

gita,y, jurisprudence. 

gitafezY, lawsuit, cause. 

gital, justness. 

gidk, just, exact, safe. 

gitlik, just, righteous. 

gito, aright 

gitoklddik, orthodox ^ 

gitoma/ik, lawful, legal, just. 

giton, to justify. 

giv, gift, present, donation. 

givel, giver, donor. 

givQi, liberality. 

gwdSk, liberal, bountiful, ge- 
nerous. 

givm, to give, grant. 

givon vobi, to give work, employ. 

glad, ice 

gladik, as ice, glacious. 

gladafteZ, ice berg, glacier. 

gladamei, frozen sea. Northern 
Ocean. 



GEAMMAB or VOLAPUK. 



93 



gladon, to freeze, congeal, gla- 
ciate. 

glaf, sword, glave. 

glam, dram (measure). 

glamat, grammar. 

glamaiik, grammatical. 

glan, gland, tonsil. 

^^anik, scroftilous, glandulous. 

Glaego, Glasgow. 

glat, gratuity, free-gift. 

glat, glass. 

glatei, glazier. 

glatapan (-en), painting onglass. 

glaiasmeten, glass-manufactory 
glass-house. 

gldten, glazier'-shop. 

glatik(o), gratis, unrewarded. 

glatik, glass, of glass. 

gliit kamik, table glass. 

gldMk, glassy, vitreous. 

glato, unrewarded, gratis. 

glav, gravel. 

gle . . . , chief-, principal-, 
head-; main-fore. 

glebizM^, main profit. 

gledilo, principally. 

gledin, main thing. 

gledinik, principal, chief 

gledof, chief fault. 

gleinen, grinding. 

gleinbn, to grind, whet. 

gleip, catch, grasp, clutch. 

gleipon, to catch, grasp, clutch 
gripe. 

glek .... (glehik). 

g\ekik, universal-key, star- 
watchkey, masterkey. 

gleifcop, fine glass, - tumbler. 

glel .... (glelon !) 

glelon, fundamental law. 

glem, grain, com. 

glen, com. 

glemk, granular. 



glenom, principal rule. 

glenoTp, corn-floor, grange, gra- 
nary, corn-loft. 

glep .... (glepiin !) 

gleplisip (glestdb), principal 
axiom, maxim. 

gle^sin, main point. 

glesteniid, main power. 

glesiit, main road, highway. 

glet, greatness, size. 

Gleia. .... Great- (for names 
of towns &c.) 

Gleiabritan (Nely), Great-Bri- 
tain, (England). 

gletal, greatness of mind. 

gleta,Y, geometry. 

grZe^avel, geometrician. 

glet&Yih, geometrical. 

gleAiel, head-teacher. 

gletik, great, large, big. 

gleto .... great- grand-. 

gletob'idik, grand, proud, noble, 
haughty. 

gleton, to enlarge. 

gleguixnTp, diamond jubilee. 

glezif, capital, metropolis. 

glib, debauchery. 

glibei, rake. Swindler, fornicator, 
caitiff. 

glibi^s:, vulgar, foul. 

glid, bow, reverence, salutation. 

glida,m, welcome, salutation. 

glidoTn, to greet, salute. 

glif, grief, trouble, sorrow. 

gliftk., grievous, sorrowful, trou- 
blesome. 

glif'an, to trouble, vex, take 
care of, meddle with. 

Glik, Greece. 

glilcik, Grecian, Greek. 

glihan, to grecize. 

gliv, slate-pencil. 

glob, roughness, rudenesar 



94 



GRAMMAU OF VOLAPUIv. 



glob, bullet, ball, sbot. 

global, rough nature. 

globel, rough rude fellow. 

globik, rough, rude, rugged. 

glod, varnish. 

glodsl, hypocritical nature. 

glodon, to varnish. 

glof, crop, harvest, growth. 

glofaxd, growth. 

glof 'on, to grow. 

glof-ah, growth, increase 

glok, clock, watch. 

glok, clock, bell. 

gl'6k&gi/&i.{glbk2^) , bell-founder. 

glSkayj/en, bell-foundery. 

glokum, the ringing of bells. 

^rMel, watchmaker. 

glokel, bell-ringer, chimer. 

glSkera, ringing. 

gloken, watchmaking. 

glok'dn, to ring the bells, chime. 

glol, glory, grandeur, 

glolaia, glorification. 

glolik, glorions, grand. 

plolo ! glory ! 

glolon, to glorify. 

glSp, round ball -bullet -globe. 

glopaxa, rounding. 

g'dpik, round, globulous, convex, 

glopnik, globular, roundish. 

glopon, to roll. 

glud, glue, lime, 

gludon, to glue, gum. 

gliig, church. 

0'liiga,n, Ecclesiastical States. 

gi.iigik, ecclesiastical. 

glug'6i, devotion, piety. 

gliigom., ecclesiastical property, 

sacred-vessels, 
glum, dullness, muddiness. 
gliim, darkness, melancholy. 
glumiil, gloominess, dejection 
glumalik, gloomy, dejected. 



glumik, sorry, sad, pitiful. 

gliimik, dard, dull, gloomy, sad, 
melancholy, sullen 

glumiin to grieve, afflict, deject. 

glun, ground, 
'glun, green colour. 

glmedi, verdure, vegetables pot- 
herbs. 

gliimk, green. 

^'Zijnlik, greenish. 

glunon, to grow green, to die 
green, to sproutout. 

glup, group, crowd. 

glup'o'a, to arrange in groups. 

glut, glowing. 

glutsA, ardonr of the mind. 

gluton, to glow, be redhot, to 
heat, make redhot. 

gliizin, glycerin. 

gnob, button, knob, knot. 

g8, very; first. 

g6b, tail 

God, God. 

godaftodf, eucharist, the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's supper. 

godaSodfat, monstrance, aframe- 
work in the Roman Catho- 
lic church. 

godaJo&zal, Gorpus-Christi, a 
festival of the church of 
Rome. 

goAefel, grave-yard. 

godaZejjZ, extreme unction. 

godav, theology. 

go&iwat, baptism. 

godaaaiab, child or person to 
be baptized. 

godawatel, baptizer. 

godauaion, to baptize. 

Gode dani! Thanks God! 

gbdel, morning-time, betimes. 

g'ddelik, early, soon, betimes. 

godelo, early in the morning. 



GBA-MMAE OF VOLAPUK. 



95 



Oode loM! Grod be praised. 
^odik, divine. 
f/odikxig, divinity. 
god6\ for Gods Sake! 
godoTi, to deify. 
Cfodug, deity, Godhead. 
God wiYomos! Godwilling! 
gof, gulf, bay. 
gok, cock. 

gol, gait, step, course, pace, 
gol, earliness. 
golad, be-goat. 
■goladal, rudeness. 
^olad&i, goatish. 
golei, breakfast. 
^oZedon, to take breakfast. 
^oZenik, transitory. 
^olik, current, paceable. 
gSlik, early, betimes, soon. 
golin, gold (Ati, chemical). 
yolinel, gilder. 
^olQn, to go. 
^olog, oaktree, oak. 
gAogafiuk, acorn, 
golud, gold. 
goliidik, gold(en), of gold. 

goludaj (Goluda/o/.') 

GrolMajol, Gold-coast. 
^oliidel, gold-smith. 
goliidea, alchymy. 
goliidon, to gild. 
goliifcoYam, gilded edge. 
goluTp, past, days gone-by. 
gon , walk , run , cource , 

race, 
^onel, runner. 
gonon, to run, go. 
gon, favour, 
^onel, fautor, favourer, 
^omik, favourable, 
^ronon, to grant; to favour, 
gospel, gospel. 
gospelA, evangelist, gospeller. 



gospeVik, evangelical (scriptu- 
ral). 

gospelmk, evangelical (protes- 
tant). 

got, Goth. 

^orik, Gothic. 

got, bo'wel(s), gut. 

gov(-am), management. 

govA, manager, governer. 

gouem(o), very particularly. 

^ouon, to govern, manage. 

Graubiindan, Grisons. 

grik, cricket. 

grikim, to chirrup, squeak 
chirp. 

Grdnan, Greenland. 

gub, oar, rudder, scull. 

gubel, oarsman, rower. 

gubon, to oar, row. 

guld, goodness. 

gud&, good. 

gudsmi, compensation, redress. 

gudii-O, well. 

giidikos, (something) good. 

gudiknia, better. 

gudikxim.iixa (gudxmiam), amend- 
ment. 

jru(if(ik)umel, improver. 

(jfu«Z(ik)um5n, to better, im- 
prove. 

guc&twa, best. 

^u&kiino, in the best way. 

gudikwidn, to make as good 
as possible. 

gudiik, goodnatured. 

gudo, with good will, willingby. 

gud6\ good! alright! 

gudon, to make good, com, 
pensate, redress. 

gudqpenon, to credit, give 
credit-page. 

gued, goods, property, for- 
tune. 



96 



GRAMMAK OF TOLAPUK. 



guodon, to get wealthy, in easy- 
circumstances, 
gug, throat, 
gngap, larynx. 
gugon, to gargle, 
gnk, palate, canopy, 
guk, angle, corner. 
gulik, angular, 
gum, gum. 

glim, caoutchouc, india-rubher. 
giimnad, gymnasium, 
gun, coat. 
^«nil, jacket. 
giin, -gun. 
g\ma,kikad, firelock. 



gmsijut, gunshot. 

giip. gypsum, parget. 

gtipel, plasterer. 

giipSn, to plaster. 

gur, ravine, defile. 

gwik, ravine-like. 

Gustaf, Gustavus. 

Gustnl, August (the month), 

gut, the tasting. 

^M^on, to taste, try. 

gilt, love for arts, good taste, 

love for science, 
giiv, compensation. 
giivon, to compensate. 



'Ag, the Hague, 
'ag, lamenting, groaning, 
'a^on, lo lament, 
'ak, hatohel. 

'dkon, to hatchel, rebuke, 
'amoniim, harmonium, 
"an, Hanse. 
'anazj/', Hanse-town. 
anik, Hanseaotic. 
'Anofan, Hanover, 
ap, harp. 

'npel, harper, harpplayer. 
apon, to play the harp, harp, 
'at, hat, 

a,iajfabliid, hat manufactory, 
'atel, hat maker, hatter. 
Avan, Havannah. 
avanik, Havannah- 
e6el, Hebrew. 
ebik, hebrew- 
'Einrik, Henry. 
'ekogaf(el), hectograph, 
el, hair. 

eZad, wig, periwig. 
'e&t, headdress. 



ele\, hairdresser. 

etelon, to dress the hair. 

Bled, Helena, Helen. 

Elenil, Nelly. 

eZik, hairy. 

elbn, to cover with hair. 

Esan, Hessen. 

sanel, Hessian. 

esanik, Hessian- 

et, hate, hatred. 

eiik, hateful, odious 

eAik, hated, not liked. 

eiHt, hatefulness, odiousnesa. 

e<6n, to hate. 

leroniimus, Hierom, Jerome, 

Ipolut, Hippolyte. 

it, heat. 

itik, hot. 

itdl, passionateness. 

ita,ra, inflammation. 

itaim, summer. 

itsbtimaisten, freckle. 

itaftmik, summerlike. 

it'dn, to heat inflame. 

o ! hip ! 



GBAiniAR OF VOLAPUK. 



97 



'oenzolan, HohenzoUern. 

'og, hole. 

'ogon, to pierce, perforate, thirl, 

make full of holes, 
'ol, an hour's walk. 
'81, hell. 
'oltu/ul, perjury. 
~oZik, asfaras anhour's walk. 
'^olik, hellish. 
^ol'on, togo a distance of an 

hour, 
"^omopat, homeopathy. 
'omdpatik, homepathical. 
"^on, horn (of beasts). 



'on, horn (instrument of 

music), 
'op, hop, whoop, 
i^orit, horizon, 
torj'rik, horizontal, 
^iiazint, hyacinth, 
'uit, oyster. 

'^uita.balib, oyster heard, 
'uk, hook, hinge, handle, 
'ukik, hinged, with a handle, 
'ilm, hymn. 
'umanist, humanist, 
'usel, hussar, 
'atik, hysteric. 



H. 



hem, chemistry. 

Aemav, knowledge of chemistry. 

Aemel, chemist 

heimk, chemical. 



^emon^ to practise chemistry, 
heresaum, Xereswine. 
hinin, quinine. 
Hios, Chios. 



i (before vowels id), also. 

ibo, because, since, yet. 

ibo? then? why? 

id, See i. 

idelo, threedays ago, the second 

day before yesterday, 
ies, here, there. 
iel, he himself, 
if, if, when. 
ifi, althovigh. 
iko-li, how that? 
il, a little, a bit. 
ilofoh, I had loved,-liked. 
iio/ob-li? had I loved, had I 

liked, 
in, in. 
ineito, two nights before the 

last, the second night before 

last. 



zni, into, inward. 

ino, in, inside, within. 

inS ! (go) in ! (walk) in ! (go) ben ! 

Inozenz, Innocent. 

iniX, in it. 

is, there, here. 

isn, from there, therefrom. 

isi, thither, hither, that way. 

zsida, herethrough, through by 
this. 

isik, from there, from here. 

jsit, here, there. 

iso, here, there. 

it, self, just. 

ita, . . . {id . . , ito . . .), self . . . 

«Yal, consciousness. 

itasuk, self-interestedness selfish- 
ness, self-love, egotism. 

itSisiikA, egotist. 

7 



98 



GRAMMAK OF VOLAPUK. 



2«asKHk, egotistical selfisli. 
itik, substantial, independent. 
ito, liy itself. 



itoi, substantiality, indepen- 
dence. 



J. 



jad, shadow, shade. 

jad&, sbady. 

jadet, sunshade. 

JadoTi, to shade. 

jaf(-am), creation. 

jaf, business, profession, trade. 

fafik, of a business, of a trade 

professional, 
/a/ad, creature. 
_7'a/adik, of creature. 
jafsX, creative mind, 
/a/an, producer. 
jdf&m, man of business, 
/a/el. Creator (of the universe). 
jafik, creating, 
/a/on, to create, to bring forth, 

bring out. 
jafon, to keep busy with, 
jain, rope, cord. 
jainel, ropemaker. 
jainen, rope-works. 
Jamil, halter, rope, 
jak, shark, 
jal, peel, shell, bark, rind, husk, 

cod, cover, skin, 
/aZaf, world of testacious ani 



jalep, exertion. 
jalepik, exertive. 
Jalepon (topon), to exert, 
jalik, covered witha bark-shell- 
peel etc. 
Jalo-n, to peel, pare, shell, etc. 
.faman. Champaign, 
jamanaui'n, champagne-wine, 
jamep, hero. 
jamepal, heroism. 



jamepik, heroic. 

jan, hemp. 

janik, hemp-,- of hemp. 

jan, fetter, shackle, chain. 

/anon, to fetter, put on chains, 

shackle, 
jap, sharpness, keenness 
jap, roguery, villany. 
japal(-bf), acuteness, ingenuity 

subtlety. 
Japdlik, acute, ingenious subtle, 

sharpwitted. 
'Japel, rascal, rogue, villain, 
/opik, sharp, keen, acute. 
jdpik, villanous, roguish. 
japon, to sharpen, whet, 
jed, throw, cast, 
jedba, to throw, cast, iiing 
jek, fright. 
jekaja, terror, 
jekamei^, bug-bear. 
jekik, easily frighted, shy, 

frightful. 
Jekoi, frightfulness. 
j'ekov., to frighten, terrify startle. 
jel, sheller, protection, defence. 
jelaib, protegee, client. 
jelafe'i;al, tutelar, mind, tutelar 

ghost. 
jelel, protector, defender. 
j'elon, to protect, defend; shelter 

screen, 
jem, shame, modesty, 
jemad, scheme, example. 
jemadik, schematic. 
jemik, ashamed, shamefaced 

bashful. 



GRAMMAK, OF VOLAPuK. 



99 



JemoA, shame, disgrace, infamy, 
scandel. 

_;Vmodel, violator. 

/emodik, shameful, ignominious. 

Jemodof, shamefulness, igno- 
miny. 

/emodon, to violate, slander 
defame, hrand, shame. 

Jemoi, modesty, timidity, hash- 
fulness. 
;'emon, to he ashamed. 

jen, fact, history. 

jena6i(Z (Grammar). Indicative 
mood. 

jena&ufc, annals, history, re- 
cord. 

Jenel, doer, perpetrator. 

jenik, in fact, actual, real. 

Jen5f, reality, activity. 

'jenon, to happen, come to pass, 
befall, occur. 

jenosod, be it firm ! be it esta- 
blished! amen! 

jep, flock, herd. 

Jepam, guard, care, protection. 

/epel, shepherd, herdsman. 

Jcpik, in flocks, in troops. 

fep'dn, to guard, watch, heed, 
tend, defend. 

jet (dujet !) 

jeval, horse, steed. 

Jevalal, captain of horse. 

jevalem, groom. 

Jevalel, cavalier, horseman. 

jevalil, little horse, pony. 

JevaloA, horse-road, tramway, 
horse-way. 

ji . . . (particle for feminine 
words). 

ji-a<(atof), this. 

fi-'Ati&toi, oi-at), just this. 

ji-bal, a, one (feminine). 

ji-haonel, baroness. 



ji-hlod, sister. 

ji-blodik, sisterly. 

ji-iZonik, fair woman or girl. 

ji-l)oMod, sister-in law. 

ji-botel, wife of an attendant 

in a coffe-house. 
ji-cif, wife of a manager or chief. 
]i-daniidel, a dancer's wife, 
ji-dog, bitch, 
ji-diinun, a servants' wife. 
^i-diinel, a maid-servant. 
ji-eZ, the (definite article), 
ji-ei {etofj, that, you. 
jif, sheaf 
ji-/af, mother, 
ji-fa^el, grand-mother. 
ji-/a,dk, motherly. 
]i-fikope\, African woman. 
ji-flen (of-flen), lady-friend. 
^i-gade\, gardner's wife. 
^i-gam, bride; (of-gam), (bride 

of Heaven, nun), 
ji-jrofc, hen. 
ji-golad, she-goat, 
ji-jip, sheep. 
^i-julel, scholar. 
^i-fvehel, Swiss. 
^i-kat, she-cat. 
ji-fceZ, who, that. 
ji-AeZa, whose, of whom, 
ji-fceZe, to whom, 
]i-keli, whom (4th case). 
ji-fcmik, what like one? what 

kind of? 
ji-fciom (kiof), who? which? 
ji-kosen, niece, cousin. 
ji-kukel, cook's wife, 
jil, female (of animals). 
ji-Za6el {oi-label), proprietress. 
ji-ladal, darling, love, beloved. 
ji-lafa6Zo£?, see ^i-lublod. 
ji-lafason, see ji-lusore. 
^i-lediik, grand-duchess. 



100 



GRAMMA.B OF VOLAPuK. 



]i-lein, lioness. 

ji-lep, female ape or monkey. 

ji-leson, princess (wife of a 
prince). 

ji-iimep, empress. 

ji-Zo/al, see ji-ladal. 

^i-lotel, wife of an innkeeper 
or hotelkeeper. 

]i-hiblod {ji-lniMod), stepsister. 

ji-lapukel, gossip, 

ji-lu.sore (ji-lafaso»), stepdaugh- 
ter. 

ji-luson, datighter-in-law. 

ji-man, woman, female. 

ji-manik, feminine, female. 

ji-manbf, womanliness effemi- 
nateness. 

ji-rhasel, mistress. 

ji-matfil, sponse, consort, wife. 

ii-matiir, (married) martjrress. 

ji-matel, miller's wife. 

jin, shine, appearence. 

Jina.voba,A, mock-fight. 

ji-rae/, niece, cousin. 

jinik, apparent likely. 

jinoi, apparence. 

ji-nofc, aunt. 

jinon, to shine, 

ji-«unel, messenger's wife. 

ji-o&ik, my, mine (feminine). 

ji-oniika, of her. 

ji-onsik (ji-onsa), your. 

ji-o«, the same. 

ji-of, just the same. 

jip, ram. 

yipik, uncivil, rude. 

ji-pejin, she-pigeon. 

jipA, sheperd. 

j'ipen, sheepfold, cote. 

Jipil, lambkin. 

^i-pul, little bride (of-pul, little 
girl). 

ji-sem JaZ, this or that (female). 



ji-soZ, mrs, mistress. 

ii-son, daughter. 

ji-sorean, daughter's husband. 

ji-sonil (of-sonil) little daughter,. 

ji-stdg, doe, hind. 

jit, shirt. 

ji-tidel, tutoress, lady teacher, 

teacher's wife, 
ji-un (of-un, uno/), a (feminine), 
ji-viud-el, widow. 
ji-xol(kun), cow. 
Jlesan, Silesia. 
Jlesmel, Silesian. 
Jlesdnik, Silesian (adj ). 
Jlesvig, Sleswick (town). 
Jlesvigan, Sleswick (country), 
jo! gorgeous! magnificent! 
job, shrub, bvish, arbuscle. 
jod, hail, 
jodon, to hail, 
jog, bulrush. 

jog, reed, cane, rush, thatch. 
Jogih, thatchen, of reed, 
jok, push, thrust, stab, shock, 

jog, jolt, bounce. 
j'okel, pusher, jolter. 
j'okik, pushing, stamping. 
/oHik, in a pushing way. 
jokolad, chocolate. 
jokoji, to push, jolt etc. 
jol, shore, coast, 
jol, eight. 
j6l3.gul, octagon 
jolan, shore-land. 
Jol&plad, place at the coast, 
jolftarton, eight million. 
joWeZik, every eighth day. 
joldil, eighth part. 
joldiipik, of eight hours, lasting 

eight hours. 
jiileA, (a number) eight, 
joroZik, a distance of eight 

hours. 



GBAMMAll OF VOLAPuK. 



101 



Join, eighth. 

/oZidna, eighth time 

joZidno, for the eighth time. 

JoliAo, in the eighth place. 

/oflk, eightfold, octuple. 

J6l}\, a small eight. 

jolion, octillion. 

johnil, eight thousand. 

/o/na, eight times. 

JoZnalik, eight times over. 

Jdlnik., eight kinds, 

Jolon, to multiply hy eight. 

joh, eighty. 

Jolsena, eighty times. 

yd/sid, eightieth. 

/oZsido, in the 80th place. 

yiiZsik, eightyfold. 

Jolson, to multiply by eighty. 

jotstum, (eighty times hundred) 
eight thousand. 

jolsydik, eighty years old 
octagenary. 

JoZtum, eight hundred. 

jolteraena, eight hundred times. 

joltemid, eight hundredth. 

joltemik, eight hundredfold. 

joYtum mil, eight times hundred 
thousand. 

/oZuf, octave. 

j'oliim., octet. 

jolyeZik, eight years old, oc- 
tennial 

jon, pointing. 

jon, beauty. 

JonafineA, fore-finger. 

jSnal, beauty of the mind. 

yoream, embellishment. 

yonel, , pointer, handle (of a 
clock or -watch). 

/onel, embellisher. 

Jonik., beautiful. 

jonon, to point (out), direct. 

Jonon, to embellish, 



jop, vault, arch. 

fipbn., to vault, arch. 

jot, shoulder. 

jot, lock. 

JotKn, Scotland. 

JotMnel, Scotchman, Scot. 

jotZanik, Scottish, Scotch. 

joto (Jino), finally. 

jot'on, to conclude, finish, give 
up, resign. 

jov, hubbub. 

Jovon, to cause sensation. 

ju; till. 

jueg, sugar. 

Juegaxa, edulcoration. 

juegs.rid, sugar-cane. 

j'uegel, confectioner. 

jeugelen, confectioner's shop 
sweety-shop. 

Juegen, confectionary sugar- 
bakehouse. 

juegenei, sugar-refiner. 

fuegik, sugar-sweet, sugared. 

juegil, sweety. 

juegon, edulcorate. 

jnit, enjoyment, fruition. 

fuiAk, plaisant. 

juMn, to enjoy. 

juk, shoe. 

jiik, (junuik), having been 
done, beensaid, excisted 
till now, &c. 

juk&i, shoe-maker. 

Juken, shoe-making, shoe- 
manufactory. 

Jukon, to make shoes, to be 
shoe-maker. 

Jul, school. 

jiil, defence, care, protection. 

j'ulel, scholar. 

jt'lel, defender, protector. 

yuZelik, scholar-like. 

j'uloii, to keep a school ; to 



102 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPuK. 



dress, train, fik, to break 

(a horse). 
jiilon, to defend, protect, 
jvin, parings, remains cuttings, 

clippings, 
/unon, to flay, 
junti, so far, thus far. 
jiinuik, see jiik. 
jiip, wether, ram. 
jiis, till, 
jut, shot, 
jiit, a'uhbish. 

ka, than (after the compara- 
tive, 
kab, cable, 
kad, card, map. 
kadil, ticket, 
k^ld, cash. 

Kadalkivir, Guadalquiver. 
kadel, cashier, 
kadem, academy. 
kddik, in ready money, cash. 
kadin(cd), kadmium. 
kddon, to cash, 
kaed, map. 
kaedaionZei, atlas, 
kaen, technics. 
kaenSkY, technology. 
kaenel, technicus. 
kaemk, technical, 
kaf, coffee. 

kaf, trick, craft, cunning. 
Kaf an, Caffraria. 
Kafanel, Caflfre. 
kafi^, cunning, sly, crafty. 
keif on, to trick somebody. 
Kak, cacao. 

kal, account; calculation, 
kal, nursing, tending, 
kalad, character. 
kaladal, firmness of character. 



futel, shooter. 
juten, . shooting. 
Juton, to shoot (bullets). 
jiltotx, to throw down, fling ofi", 
(of animals) to bring forth. 
Jvaban, Suabia. 
Jvahdnei, Suabian. 
jvadan, squadron. 
Jveiz, Switzerland. 
Jveiz&n, (S:wiss) fariu. 
jveizik, Swiss. 



K. 



fcatotZalik, firm in character. 
kalad^ik, characteristic. 
kaladon, to characterize. 
/cnZam, bill, account, accompt. 
MZam, physic. 
kalnY, arithmetics. 
kalavel, arithmetician. 
kalel, accountant, reckoner, 
kaled, calender, 
kalep, carp, 
kalidop, kaleidoscope. 
Kalifonan, California, 
kalin (K), kalium. 
kalod, cold, coldness. 
kalod'Al, coolness. 
kalodik, cold. 
kalSn, to count, calculate. 
k&lon, to nurse, tend, 
kam, level, flatness, plain, 
kamad, companionship. 
kamadel, companion, comrade- 
kamaf, chameleon, 
kamel, camel, 
kamerel, chamberlain, 
kamin (ca), calcium. 
Kamjakan, Kamschatka. 
kamon, to make level, flat or 

plain, 
kan, art. 



GRAMJIAK OF TOLApiiK. 



103 



kan, cannon. 

kanad, channel, canal. 

kanadon, to channel. 

kana^radel, artificial gardener. 

kana^aden, artificial gardening. 

ianai, artist. 

tonal, love for arts. 

tonaZik, artful, artificial clever. 

Kanan, Canan, Holy Land. 

kanap«6, commerce in objets of 

art. 
kanartV, canary (bird). 
kanasZ/rf, polytechnic school 

school of fine arts. 
kanas^Ki, institution of arts. 
kanel, artist, 
fcanelik, artistic. 
kdnel, cannonier, gunner. 
Mnen, artillery. 
kanik, clever, canny, artful, 
kanit, chant, song. 
kanitel, chanter, singer. 
kanitem., song, ballad. 
kaniteiml, chansonette. 
kanitik, melodious. 
kaniton, to sing, 
ianon, to can, be able to. 
kdnQu, to cannon. 
kantop, canton. 
kanu, by force of- 
kaniid, uprightness. 
kaniidik, upright, just, true 

sincere; genuine, 
kanzel, officer at the chancery, 
kap, head. 

kapa^an, temple of the head. 
kapsii., common sense, intellect, 
iojoalik, intelligent, senseful. 
kapaftom, skull. 
Aopalnik, intelligible. 
kapahioi. intelligibility. 
kapebloa, to understand, 
jfopalub, apprehension. 



kapel, headman, captain 

Kapever, the Green cape. Cape 
Verd. 

kapikor, Capricorn. 

kapo. headlong. 

kapon, to behead, decapitate. 

kapul, chapel. 

karam, lozenge. 

Karan, Carinthia, Kaernthen. 

Karl, Charles. 

Karpat, Carpathian. 

kased, borough. 

kasen, casern, barracks. 

Kaspi?neZ, Caspien Sea. 

Kastilya, Castilia. 

kastof, catastrophe. 

kat, cat, male-cat, tom-cat. 

katad, capital. 

katadel, capitalist. 

katan, captain. 

katan, chestnut. 

katanafti'm, chestnut-tree. 

katar, catarrh. 

Katarin, Catherine. 

Katarinil, Kate, Kitty. 

katek, catechism. 

katekel, catechist. 

katil, kitten. 

ifcatolel, catholic (noun). 

A;atolik, catholic (adjective). 

fcatolim, catolicism. 

Kaukasan, Caucasus. 

kaut, caution, prudence care- 
fulness. 

kauto, take care! cautious! 

kauton, to be cautious. 

kav, cellar. 

kav, quay. 

haven, wine-cellar. 

kazet, accent. 

ke (before an o), ko, with. 

ke . . . ., com . . ., con .... 

keb, herb, plant, greens. 



104 



GEA.MMA.U OF VOLAPiiK. 



Kebek, Quebec. 

keftZmon, to bring with. 

'keblod, colleague, brother, com- 
panion. 

keModoa, to fraternize. 

ked, row, ridge, series. 

Jcedov., to place in a row; to 
link together. 

kediliAel, partner, shareholder, 
partaker. 

kef, brush. 

Kefalon, Cephalonia. 

kefon, to brush. 

kegin (Hg), mercury, quick- 
silver. 

kein, loveliness, amability. 

keimk, lovely, kind, amiable. 

kek, cake. 

kel, who, which, that. 

kela., whose, of which. 

fceZas, whose (plural). 

kele, whom, whichto. 

keles, whom (plural). 

keli (plural kelis), (4th case 
of kel.) 

'killed, compassion, pity, mercy. 

keK«c?ik, compassionate pitiful, 
merciful. 

7ceZ-ji (ji-kel), 1st case fenimum) 
see kel. 

kel-oi (of-kel), (1st case fem. 
see kel). 

fceZos (os-kel), (1st case neuter, 
see kel). 

heloii (os-keli), 4th case neuter, 
see kel) 

keU, who, which, that (plural). 

fceZup (kii;, when. 

kem . . . (kemere!) 

kemen, fellow-man. 

Is.emena,l6f, love for fellow-men. 

ken, can. 

keofel, familiar friend, mate. 



keoZon, to be familiar', 

kep, cape. 

ker, pith, heart, marrow. 

kerik, pithy. 

kerub, cherub. 

ket, chain. 

fce^on, -jio chain. 

Kewo&el, co-operator, mate, 
fellow-workman. 

kezenodik, concentric. 

ki, (kio), which? what? 

kibid, howfar? 

kid, kiss. 

kidil, little kiss. 

kido^, to kiss. 

Men, knee. 

kieTi&stuI, kneelstool. 

kienQn, to kneel. 

kii, who? (which woman?) 

ki/sL, whose? (of which woman?) 

ki/B, who (plural)? (which wo- 
men ?) 

kik, key. 

kik&m, lock, doorlock. 

kikel, locksmith. 

kiken, locksmithy. - 

kikod, why? 

kikon, to lock. 

kil, three. 

kilah, three-twin child; tierce, 
triplet, 

kilMed, clover-leaf; card of 
clubs. 

kilag'MZ, triangle. 

kilospan, coach for horses. 

KilftaZod, Trinity. 

kildil, third part. 

kihl, a three, number of 8. 

kil e Za/ik, three and a half, 

kilidi, third. 

kilidLSbVog, tenor. 

kiliAna,, the third time. 

fa'ridno, for the third time. 



GBAMMAK OF VOLAPiiK. 



105 



ftifido, in the third place. 

kilik, threefold, triple. 

Miko, in a threefold' way, 
triply. 

Jciia, a small three. 

kilion,- trillion. 

kilmiZ, thee thousand. 

kilna,, threetimes. 

AiZnalik, threetimes over. 

Mnik, of three kinds. 

faVniko, in three different ways. 

Mlon (Miikon), to multiply 
by three, treble. 

}cils, thirty. 

kilsena., thirtytimes. 

kilsia, thirtieth. 

fczYsidna, the thirtieth time. 

A«7sidno, in the thirtieth place. 

kilsik, thirty fold. 

kiltom, three hundred. 

kiUumena, 300-times. 

kikumid, 300th. 

kikumido, in the 300th place. 

kiUumik, BOO-fold. 

kilium mil, three times a hun- 
dred thousand. 

Miif, terce (music). 

Milkon, see kilon. 

kilwn, tercet. 

kilurrmi, trio. 

kiljesdel (idelo), two days be- 
fore yesterday. 

kim., who? 

Mma, whose? 

kima/aZ, 2nd case, posssssive. 

kima/aZon, to form the pos- 
sessive (case). 

kime, whom? to which? 

kime/hZ, 3rd case, objective. 

kime/aZ8n, to form the objective. 

kim&ns, (kimna.), how often? 
how many times? 

kimensak, how many times over? 



kim/oZ, 1st case, nominative 
kim/a/on, to form the 1st case, 

to form the nominative. 
kimi, whom? (4th case). 
kimid, which of the number? 
famidik, how many fold? 
kimidoko, in how many diffe- 
rent ways? 
Kmidna, what turn? how many 

times? 
fcmidnik, how many sorts? 
fcimidno, how many times? 
'kimifal, 4th case 
kimi/oZon, to form the 4th case, 
fc'mik, which ? what ? what 

kind of one? 
kimi^o, in what way, in what 

maimer, 
kimikos ,- what kind of a (neuter) , 
i:zmis, which ? (4th case plural). 
kimna, see fcimena. 
kima/aZ, ."bth case, vocative. 
kimo/nZon, to form the 5th case 

or the vocation. 
kima, wich men? 
\dmufal, 6th case, 
kimii/aten, to form the 6th case, 
kin, boldness, stoutness. 
.... kinan, (last syllables for 

the names of large countries). 
kinal, heroism, magnanimity, 

intrepidity, brave mind, 
feman, hazardous undertaking, 
kinan, country (large state), 
kinanazz/, imperial city. 
kinon, to hazard, risk, try. 
fcb(ki), what? what kind of a? 
klofi which (feminine)? 
fciofa? of which (fem)? 
kiofe, to which (fem)? 
fao/ik, what kind of a? 
kiofis, which (fem)? (4th case 

plural). 



106 



GB.AMMAB, OF VOLAl'UK. 



hiofs, wMoli (fern)? (1st case 

plural) . 
kiom, which? (1st case sing, 

maso). 
Mome, to whicli? (3rd case sing, 

masc). 
fa'omes, to wHch? (3rd case 

plural, masc). 
kiomi, -vrHch? (4tli case sing, 

masc). 
kiomik., what kind of a? 
kiomos (os-kiom), which? (neu- 
ter) 
fciop (kiplad), where. 
kios, what? neuter). 
kiosa., of what? (neuter). 
kiose, to what? (neuter). 
kiosi, what? (4th case neuter). 
kiosik, what kind of a? 
kip(-am), keep, keeping. 
kiplad, see kiop. 
kipladsii (kiopa), from where? 

from what place ? 
'kipladi (kio^i), whither? where 

to? 
Mpoii, to keep, 
kis (kios), what ? 
kisa,, of what? 
fase, to what? 
kisi, what? (4th case), 
fasik, what kind of a? 
ktsiko, how? in what way? in 

what manner? 
kit, quittance, check receipt. 
kituw., acq^uittance, payment, 
kih'm (kitip), when? 
kitoji, to acquit, sign aspaid, 

settle- 
kiiXTp, see kiftm. 
klajl, class, 
klaf, crab. 

klafip, canker, cancer, 
klam .... (deklam !) 



klam, clamp, cramp, hook 
hinge; bracket, 

klan, the secret. 

klana/«fik, mysterious. 

kldnik, secret (adj). 

Hanoi, secresy, privacy. 

kldnoSk, private, secret. 

klanoion, to hide, conceal. 

klat, excellence. 

klate\, excellent writer. 

klatAik, classic. 

W«iik, projecting. 

klaut, shin; splint: rail(8); 
rim. 

kleb, starch, plaster. 

klebon, to paste, to glue. 

kled, cradle. 

kledoQ, to lull, cradle, rock. 

kleil, audibleness, clearness. 

kleilik, audible, clear, loud. 

kleilon, to clear, elucidate. 

klem(-am), abdication, resig- 
nation. 

klemoTi, to abdicate, renounce, 
yield. 

klen, maiz, maize. 

kler, clergy. 

kleud, convent, nunnery, 
cloister, monastery. 

kleud\k, conventional. 

kleudmk., monastic. 

klien, inclination, propensity. 

klierak, inclined. 

kliet, refreshment, comfort. 

klietik, refreshing. 

klleton, to refresh, quench. 

klif, rock, cliff. 

klir'aX, unshakableness. 

klifW, rocky, cliffy. 

kli/bn, to make unshakable. ' 

klig, war. 

kligal, warlike mind. 

kligik, warlike. 



GUAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



107 



kligoTi, to make war. 

klil, clearness. 

kHlam., clearing, enlightening. 

klifal, (daKial), clear head. 

klilaion, (vokal), vowel. 

klilik, clear. 

klilon, to enlighten, clear up. 

klim, vice, mischief. 

'kliro.a.dun, wicked deed, crime, 

misdeed, trespass. 
klimSl, culprit, slave of vice. 
klimit, wicked. 
klimo'a, to serve vice. 
Win, purity, cleanness. 
klinaxa, puriiication, cleaning. 
klin'Al, clear heart, pure breast. 
Wanamop, place for purifying, 

purgatory. 
klirak, pure, clean. 
fcZmlik, clean, neat, trim. 
klMot, neatness, quaintness. 
klinoi, purity. 
klino . . . . , pure .... 
klinon, to purify, clean, 
klino^enon, to copy fair, 
klipit, ecliptic, 
kliv, slope. 
klivik, sloping, 
klod, faith, creed. 
Modal, faithfulness. 
Uodnt, credit. 
Hodel, tnte believer. 
klodik, faithful. 
klodia, credible. 
klodon, to believe, 
klof, cloth. 
klofik, of cloth, 
klokod, crocodile, 
klolin (cl) chlorine. 
k]omin(cr), chrome, chromium, 
klon, crown. 

Wonaleson, prince, hereditary. 
klonsiUtakip, lustre, gaselier. 



klonon, to crown. 

klop, harvest, crop. 

klopatim (Wojiup), harvest-time. 

klopon, to reap, gather. 

klot, clothes, dressing. 

fctoJad, garment, garb, apparel^ 
dress, gown. 

klota.-m, the dressing. 

klo&, dressing (adj) 

hloton, to dress, don. 

klu, thus, then. 

klii, according to, in conse- 
quence of. 

klub, club. 

kltfb, corporation. 

fcfc&al, social mind. 

kluhzxa, union. 

klub\k, club, 

kliibVs., corporative. 

kluVim, to unite. 

klud(-am)' consequence. 

kludT^, consequent. 

kludo, thus, then, consequently, 

kludon, to infer, come to a 
conclusion. 

kluf, nail. 

kluf&n, nail-maker. 

klu/el, nailer, nail-smith. 

klug, torsion. 

klugik, crooked, curved, bent, 
wry. 

klugoxL, to crook, bow, bend^ 
curve. 

kliil, clearness 

klilMX, clearness of mind. 

klu&, clear. 

kliilon, to clear. 

kliilukon, to be clear. 

klum, climate, clime. 

kliimik, of the climate. 

klupip, croup, angina. 

kluzif, cross. 

kluzifaue^, cross-road. 



108 



GEAMMAE OF VOLAPUK. 



kluzifdn, to cross. 

kluzuf, crucifix. 

kluziifon, to crucify. 

ko (beforean o: ke), -with 

ko CO together. 

ko, -where. 

Ma, from where. 

koas, sothat. 

koat (ko atos), so that, so as to. 

koazan, Croatia. 

kob(o), together, see em(o) and 
tugedik. 

kob, comb. 

kobin(co), cobalt 

fcoSon, to comb. 

koboton, (music:), accord. 

kocan, coachman, driver cab- 
man. 

kocanauaft, coach, cab, carriage. 

kocanon, to drive, guide ; to 
be coachman; to drivewitha 
carriage. 

kod, cause, reason; fault. 

kbd, sculpture 

k'ddah, image, statue, figure. 

kodabakbliim, a statue serving 
as column. 

kodaiare (plasiid), imitative art. 

fcotfam, causing. 

kodauoJad, carver's-work. 

kododi., inducement. 

hSd&i, sculptor, carver. 

kodem(-am); condemnation. 

kodermk, damnable. 

■kodemon, to damn, to condemn 

kodemiib, damnation, candem- 
nation. 

kodeia, statuary's workshop. 

kodo, wherefore. 

kodon, to cause. 

kodon, to carve, sculpture. 

kodot, conduct, behaviour. 
■kodotoji, to behave, conduct- 



one's self. 
kodu, by, in. 
kodut, hire, rent, 
kodiit, feu, rent, 
koduta/icn, rents (to be paid 

for hired houses etc.) 
kodiita/ien, rents (to be paid 

for feud farms etc.) 
kodutSin, lodger. 
kodutel, tenant. 
kodStel, farmer; one that has 

lands on hire, 
koduton, to hire, rent, let. 
koduton, to hire, rent, feu. 
kdef, confession. 
koefastoZ, confessional. 
i:o«/6n, to confess, 
koeg, cork, 
kof, mock, mockery, 
kof, cap, bonnet. 
kofskl, mocking nature. 
kofel, mocker, scoffer. 
kof&a., mockery, 
fco/ik, mocking, 
kofin, coffin. 

koJWk, teasing (for fun). 
kofion, to tease (for fun). 
kofon, to mock, jeer, scoff joke, 

ridicule, 
kofud, confusion, mess. 
fco/wcZam, confusion. 
kofiidik, confounded, perplexed, 

in a mess. 
kofudon, to confuse, confound, 

perplex. 
kofufc(-am), preparation. 
kofdkon, to prepare; construct, 
kog, cough. 
kogon, to cough, 
koi, (fceZopi), whither, 
koip, copy. 
kokaviV, ooncave-ous. 
fcokom, assembly, meeting. 



GRAMMAE. OF VOLAPUK. 



109 



kol, to . . . wards, towards, 
kol, .... contra. 
kol, colour, 
kolan, colonist. 
kolsistdf, paint. 
kolik, blooming, rosy, 
kolat, coal. 

kolataxKc?, carbonic acid carbo- 
nate. 
kolatel, chai'coal-biirner. 
kolatelakum, wood-pile (for 

burning coals). 
kolel, dyer. 

kolen, dyeing, dye-work(s). 
kolerip, cholera. 
kolin(c), carbon. 
kolon, to- dye. 
kdloiiiLstdf, dye. colour, 
koliim, column, 
koliim, column, pillar, 
fcotemaldp, chapital, top. 
.... kolumik, divided in co- 
lumns. 
koliim'OTi, to divide in columns, 
kolun, colony. 
koluniTs. (lovemelifc), colonial. 
Kom, in face of, in presence of. 
kom(nakom), arrival. 
kdmad, commandment. 
komadon, to command. 
komed(am), recommendation. 
komedii, recommendable. 
komedcra, to recommend, 
komfed, coffer, trunk, 
komip, combat, figbt, struggle. 
komipH, mind for combating, 

mind for fighting. 
komipA, combatant, fighter. 
komipik, ready for fighting. 
komipoa, to fight, combat, 

struggle. 
k;omit, order, commission. 
komitaA, commission, order. 



komita,di(i\, commissioner. 

komitA, onethat gives an order. 

komitem, committee. 

komiton, to ccmmissionate. 

kbmod, chest of drawers. 

komon, to come. 

komot, common, congregation. 

kompal, corporal. 

kompan, company (soldiers). 

komplig, complicateness. 

komun, commonness. 

komun, communion. 

komumik., common. 

komijnon, to communicate. 

kon(-am), anecdote, story, tale. 

kbn, coin, money. 

fconad, counter, medal. 

koncA., novel, narrative. 

kone\, relater, novellist. 

konfed, confeot. 

konfed&l, pastry-baker, confec- 
tioner. 

konfid, confidence, trust. 

konfidTik, full of confidence. 

konfidiik., confidential. 
konfidoTi, to trust, confide. 
konil, little story, 
konlit, collection. 
konleiel, gatherer, collector com- 
piler. 
konleton, to collect, gather com- 
pile, 
konod, office, countinghouse. 
konSm, economy. 
konomel, economist. 
konormk, economical. 
konon, to relate, tell, recite. 
konon, to coin, mint, stamp, 
konsal, consul, 
konsal,- advice, counsel. 
konscilal, counsellor, senator-. 
konsdlel, adviser. 
konsalein, congress. 



110 



GRAMMAU.OF VOLAPUK. 



Jconsdli^, advisable. 
konsalon, to advise. 
konsalop, town-liouse senate- 

liouse. 
konsef, conserve. 
konsefon, to conserve, 
konsid, consideration. 
konsidon, to consider, 
konsien, conscience. 
konsienik., consoientioixs. 
konsienoi, conscientiousness. 
.kontenQn, to content. 
konyvig(-am), conjugation, 
konyun, conjunction, 
konzed, concert. 
konzedon, togive a concert. 
konzedon, to act conjointly, 
kop, body, 
kop, cup. 
k'6pa,ro , drinking-bout, boozing- 

part^ , 
.kopamSkkalaTn., account of what 

bas been drunk, 
kopan, accompaniment. 
Jcopnn2il, co-partner. 
kopansklei, copartnership. 
_kopana.xa, (music) accompani- 
ment. 
Jcopanel, companion accompa- 

nier. 
kopanik, social, sociable. 
kopanora, society, 
fcqpanomik, social. 
kopanbn, to accompany attend, 

escort, vsrait on, go with. 
koparmg, sociableness. 
koped, (kupin), copper, brass. 
kopedik (kupinik), of copper 

cupreous, 
kopef, corporation, body fof 

several men). 
JcopA, licklip, gormand, tippler, 
drunkard. 



kSpen, the drinking, boozing. 

■kopladnTca, connexion, erection, 
composition. 

^opladon, to connect, erect 
compose, arrange. 

kopon, to corporify. 

kor, chorus, choir, quire. 

Korint, Corinth. 

Kordilyers, Cordilleras. 

kos(o),[totos(o)], contra, a.gainst. 

kos .... counter. 

kosad, "conversation. 

kosadon, to converse (with). 

kosek(-am), consecration; sanc- 
tification. 

kos6k(-am), consecration 

kosekasmofc, incense. 

kosekon, to sanctify, consecrate, 
initiate. 

kosek'on, to consecrate, dedicate. 

kdsen, nephew, cousin. 

kosenei, cousinship. 

kosiacZ(am), composition. 

kosiadon, to compose. 

kosit, possibility to agree, or 
to get gn with some body 
or something. 

kosit, condition, state. 

kositon, to get on with some- 
thing, or somebody; to ma- 
nage, agree with &o. 

kositon, to be in good condition. 

kbsom, custom. 

kosomik, usvial. 

kosomo, commonly. 

k'dsomon, to aooustom, to get 
used to. 

kosonat, consonant. 

kosiefem, constellation.asterism . 

fcosdk, costly. 

koston, to cost. 

kosum (-am), colleotiveness. 

kosum(-am), consumption. 



GUAMMAU OV VOLAPUK. 



Ill 



k'dsumA, consumer. 

kSsum'Cn, to consume. 

kot, main cause. 

kot, sharp edge (of knivesete). 

Jcdta,Tn, cutting. 

kdte\, cutter; cutting-article. 

-koten, content, contentation 
contentedness. 

kotenik, content, contented 

kotenon, to be content, to con- 
tent one's self. 

Jcotik, sharp, cutting. 

koton; consonance 

koton, to cut. 

kofopam, see kopladain. 

kotopon. see kopladon. 

kov, cover, envelop. 

kovad, overspread, cover. 

koven, comfoot, ease. 

kovenik, ' comfortable, easy. 

kovex, convex 

Jcovexik, convexed. 

ko!/umon, to join, unite; to 
fold (the hands) 

kraton, to scrible; scratch, 
scrawl, scrape. 

iren, pinnacle, battlement. 

kristad, crystal. 

"Kristus, Christ. 

Kristuscil, Infant-Christ. 

Tsiitt, Christian. 

krist&cil, Christian child. 

krifal, Christianism. 

Jcritik, Christianly. 

kriton, to Christianize. 

kriit, critic, criticism. 

kriit&a., criticizing. 

JcTuton, to criticize, judge. 

ku . . . ., cubic- 

kuad, quartz. 

kiib, cubic. 

kubadi cube. 

kud, care. 



kudadin, concern, affair matter. 

kudaZjwik, free of cares. 

ku<&, careful, anxious solicit- 

kudon, to care, take care. 

kiig, gherkin 

kuin, hundred- weight cwt. 

kuimk, weighing one cwt. 

A;iM'nlik(o), per cwt. 

kuk, kitchen. 

kufca/iZop, kitchen-fireplace kit- 
chen-fire, kitchen-furnace. 

kukA, cook. 

fcuten, cooking. 

kulak., citchen- 

kuklik, boilable, cookable. 

kuklit, cuckoo. 

kukon, to cook, boil (active) 

kukon, to cook, boil (intran- 
sitive). 

kul, path, way, road. 

kul, course. 

kulad, exactness. 

kulad\k., exact. 

kuladoi, precision accuracy. 

kiiieil, cubic mile. 

kulime<(omm), cubic millimeter. 

kuliv, civilization (in general). 

fcuZjuam, civilization (indivi. 
dual). 

kulivon, to civilize. 

kiiloi, current-price. 

kiilori, to pave, level, to make 
a path. 

kum, heap, pile. 

kiim, swarm, crowd. 

kumet, cubic meter. 

kumid, in piles, acerval. 

kumon, to acervate, heap up. 

kun (ji-xol), cow. 

kunon, to calve. 

kiin(o), on the very top, up- 
permost. 

kup, scoop, ladle. 



112 



GUAMMAB OF VOLAPuK. 



kupamoZ, sign, mark. 

kupin, (cu), copper (chemical). 

kupimk (kopedik), of copper, 

copper, of brass, brass. 
kupon, to dish up, draw up. 
kiipoji, to mind, remember, 
kurad, harness, arjEour, cuirass. 
Kuran, Courland. 
kus . . . . , (ekwso !) 
kusad, accusation, delation, 

indictment. 
kusadel, accuser, delator,^ in- 

dicter. 
kusadik, accusatory. 



kusadaa, to accuse, sue at 

law, delate, 
kut, court. 
kutaiZanel, purveyor to the 

court. 
VvAiagadA, court-gardener. 
kutajracZen, court-gardening. 
kutamayaZ, court-marshal. 
kutamzVen, court-butchery, 
kuv. brood, hatch. 
kuvon, to brood, hatch, breed> 

to sit on eggs, 
kvak, curds of milk. 
kvit, qiiince (-pear). 



la, (adverb), by, near. 

la .... , at by ... . 

lab, possession. 

lab, happiness. 

K6ad, blessing. 

lahadam, benediction. 

Zrjiiadik, blissful. 

ZaJadon, to bless. 

laisiva., taking, possession. 

labaswfc, avidity. 

labasiifcik, covetous, rapacious. 

IdbeA, property, possession. 

label, possessor, proprietor, 
owner. 

labem., fortune, wealth. 

ZaSemik, rich, mighty, able. 

labik, mighty (master ofit). 

labik, happy, blessed. 

Isbblin, see blin. 

laJKnon, to bring by, contri- 
bute. 

Idbo, happily. 

Idbon, to prosper, succeed. 

lab'dn, to possess, have 

labot, inn, tavern, public house. 



labotsma, harbouring, lodging. 

laboton, to lodge, harbour. 

lad, heart. 

lad, lady. 

ladal (ladan), lover, sweet- 
heart. 

ladal, fond love, heartiness. 

Zarfalik, hearty, kind. 

ladalod, disposition, mind. 

ladsAoi, conscientiousness. • 

ladet, address. 

ladet'6n, to address, direct. 

ZacZik, lovely, charming, dear,, 
beloved, pretty, good. 

Zaiflik, kind, hearty, cordiaL 

ZacZon, to love. 

ladvelib, (Grammar), adverb.. 

ladyek, adjective. 

ladyek'on, to adjunct, adjoin. 

ladyekaJirf, participle. 

ladyekaftidik, participial. 

ladyul, farewell. 

ladyulo, (adyo), adieu^ fare- 
well. 

ladyulbn. to say farewell. 



GUAMSfAR OP VOLAFUK. 



113 



laed, lath. 

laf, half [tAdil). 

la/a.... (la/i... lafo...) step — , 
half-. 

lafab, alphabet, ahece. 

laSaMod, stepbrother. 

laSaModot, stepsister. 

]aia,fat {lujat), stepfather. 

lafamoJ (Inmot), stepmother. 

lafanepaZ, half orphan. 

lafamsuZ, peninsula. 

la fit, half. 

Za/Hk, half and half. 

laf on, to halve. 

lagat, lizard, newt, eft. 

lagiv, over-plus, boot, addition. 

lagiv'OTi, to add, give into the 
bargain, inclose. 

lag'on, to hang (active). 

Idgon, to hang (intransitive). 

lagun, lagoon, lagune. 

lagut, sp,lmon. 

lagiitaut, salmon-trout. 

lai, constantly, at any time. 

l&idun, perseverance, constancy, 
steadiness. 

l&idunon, to persevere, persist, 
continue. 

laig, sealing vrax. 

laik, persistent, continual. 

lain, wool. 

Zamik, wooUen. 

Zamin, flannel. 

lainliki, woolly. 

lak, lake, loch. 

laka, . . . loch. 

Zaifcel, hangman; hobgoblin pla- 
guy devil. 

lakeV6\ bij Jove! the devfl; 
deuced ! 

lakel whereby. 

lakif, lawsuit, action. 

Idk'on, to hadg up, hang. 



lakun, lacmus, litmus archil, 
turnsole. 

lal, lane, alley, walk. 

lal .... smalal\) 

laltig, (Grammar), article. 

laltiig, article, clause, line. 

lam, arm. 

lama/Ze^, elbow. 

lam, ham. 

lamatnk, almond. 

Ian, soul. 

lanav, psychology 

Zanavik, psychological. 

Ian, country, land. 

ZaTjam, landing. 

Zcmed, ground, field ; country. 

ZanecZal, rural simplicity. 

lanedapffliiel, country-clergy- 
man. 

lanedat, rural economy. 

lanedatik, rural economical. 

lanedsl, rural economist. 

lanediV, rural, rustic. 

Zanef, landscape, province. 

Zareefik, x'l'ovinoial. 

lanel, angel. 

ZaneZal, angelic nature. 

ZaneZik, angelic. 

lanem, nickname, surname. 

lanemam, nicknaming. 

lanemSn, to nickname. 

Zanik, psychical. 

lanim, courage. 

lanimam., encouragement. 

Zanimik, courageous. 

lanimbu. to encourage. 

Zanon, to animate, inspire. 

Zanon, to land. 

la.not, announcement, notice. 

lanoion, to announce 

lap, Alp. 

lap .... (lapoZ!). 

Zapel, one that lives in the Alps. 



114 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUlC. 



lapik, alpine. 

lapin, prey, booty. 

lapmastifc, rapacity. 

lapinel, robber, pirate. 

lapinik, rapacious. 

lapinon, to rob, plunder, pirate. 

lapol, contribution. 

lar, arp (measure). 

laa(o), at it, present. 

lasam, assambly. 

lasamel, one wbo attends an 
asaambly. 

lasambn, to assemble. 

lasbed, asbest(os). 

lasei', approval. 

lasewam, aokno-wledgement. 

laseuamSn, to acknowledge. 

lasewon, to approve. 

lasig, indication, sbovring, as- 
signation, pointing out. 

iasigon, to point out, show, 
assign, indicate. 

Idson, to be at it, to be present 
or near it. 

lastin, elasticity. 

lastinik, elastic. 

lasuion, to be enclosed (in a 
letter). 

lasum, receival. 

lasumon, to receive, take up. 

laswrnon badlik, to take ill. 

lat(-am), detention. 

lat, last. 

latab, altar. 

laten, brass. 

latenik, brass (adjective). 

Zarik(o), late (nesun). 

Hdk, last. 

ladko, at last. 

Zarikiin, very last. 

Zdtikiino, at the very last, for 
the very last. 

latin, Latin. 



latinel, latinist. 

latinik, latin. 

latinbn, to latinize. 

Idtno, for the last time. 

lata, at last. 

latbn, to detain ' ones self, stay 
to long. 

latixRO, at the very last. 

laud, lark, sky-lai;k. 

lauk, lye, buck. 

laut, C[uality of designer, qua- 
lity of being contriver 
{rigA^g). 

lautA, designer, contriver, sche- 
mer. 

lautelm, to be the designer. 

lauton, to design, contrive 
scheme, plan. 

lav, lukewarmness, tepidity 

lamk, lukewarm, tepid 

lav, lava. 

fcik, lava-, of lava. 

lavog, advocateship. 

lavogeX, advocate, lawyer. 

lazet, lazaretto, lazar-house. 

le, more. 

le (strengthening prefix) 

arch-, head-, chief-, fore-. 

leaf, leopard. 

leb . . . (daleb !) 
leSafik, chief, eminent, sole. 
leia^nikna, a single time. 
leJearikiin, moat-blessed, 
lebegik, supplicating, 
lefce^on, to supplicate, implore 

beseech, entreat, 
lefien, favour, kindness. 
\ebemk, favourable, kind. 
lebeno, very good. 
lebijop, archbishop. 
lebifopik, archbishopical. 
lebldgik, pitchy, asblack as jet. 
leblam, reproach. 



GBAMMAU OF VOLAPUK. 



115 



\eblib6n, to remain, abide (le- 
dulon) . 

leblimon, to establisli. 

lehluk, shed-brook. 

\ehdh, bank; exchange. 

lebiid, conamandment. 

\ebiid&birl (G-rammar), Jussive.' 

leced, the approving. 

led, crimson, red. 

ledaem, sconce; poop. 

leda^/", scarlet-fever. 

ledai;Zo'", scarlet. 

Ledaniei, Eed Sea. 

ledek, ornament. 

ledib, abyss, gulf. 

le(Ek, red. 

\edmite\, right reverend, digni- 
tary. 

\edimiAk, eminent, dignified. 

\edivik, much esteemed. 

ledivodik, very affectionate. 

lecZiwon, to esteem, praise. 

ledlik, reddish. 

ledom, castle, palace. 

iedomel, oecupier of a castle or 
palace.' 

ledon, to colour (in) red. 

lediifik as hard as steel , as hard 
as stone, as hard as a rock. 

lediik, grand-duke. 

^ediikik, grand-ducal. 

ledul, perseverance. 

ledfuZon, to persevere. 

let^araon, to do repeatedly, -of- 
ten (aiAinon). 

lef, lees, dregs, sediment. 

lefad, necklace, lace, cord. 

lefalon, to fall down with vehe- 
mence. 

l^/aZ6n, to throw down with 
vehemence. 

lefatel, great-grand father. 

lefid, meal, repast. 



lefikulik, very difficult. 

\efined, mid-finger. 

leflum, stream, big river. 

leflumon, to stream. 

leflnm, electric current. 

le/bn, strong well. 

le/opik, mad. 

le/opug, madness. 

le/owiko, swift as lightning 
(lelito). 

lefiid, the east. 

LeiiiAa.mel, East-Sea. 

lefuda^n, morning land the 
Orient. 

lefiidanel (lefiidel), Orientalist 
Easterling. 

Ie/Mii3,nik, eastern, oriental. 

le/isdanon, to orientalize. 

Lefuda/)Ze«s, East Prussia. 

leMdel, orientalist. 

le/iidik, east of, easterly. 

leful, perfeotness 

lefultijn, accomplishment, com- 
pletion, execution. 

le/«Sm, perfection. 

le/uZamof, practieableness. 

le/aZamon, to perfect. 

le/wtel, perfecter. 

lefulik, perfect. 

le/«Znik, complete. 

le/«Znbf, completeness. 

lefulon, to accomplish, finish, 
end. 

\eivived, eastwa,rd. 

leg, genuineness, reality, purity, 
legitimacy. 

Ie5rffi7(am), transport, rapture 



le^fciZik, transported, ravished 

with delight. 
legdlon, to transport, ravish 

with pleasure, 
legat, legacy, embassy. 



116 



GUaMMAR of VOLAPiiK. 



leffatel, embassador, envoy. 
legate-m, embassade (consisting 

of one or more persons) 
legeil, summit, top, spire, pike. 
legeiloji, to point high up.' 
legeilik, mucli elevated, exalted, 

sublime'. 
leget, receipt, reception. 
legik, genuine, pure, real 
le(/iw(-am), donation. 
\egivel, donor. 
legivbn, to present, give. 
legivoi, present; fee, drinkmo- 

ney, perquisite. 
\egle&, enormous, immense. 
leglif, grief, affliction. 
leglifik, grievous. 
\egli/oia, to grieve, sorrow, 

mourn, lament- 
■]egudik, very good (le5cno). 
le'^apel, harper, harpist. 
le'^dt, helmet, helm. 
16*^6;, lock, tress, curl ('eZem). 
let/, even. 

leig, equality, evenness, 
leigafen, parallel (noun) 
leiga'jenik, parallel (adjective). 
leigara, leveling 
leigama/ik, equal, of the same 

measure. 
leigik, similar, equal(iit). 
leigo, same, also (leiko) 
leigon, to level ; to be like, 

resemble. 
leigni, resemblance, likeness. 
le27;(o), also, (leigo). 
leil, mile, 
lein, lion, 
leit, lightness, 
leital, levity, fickleness. 
leitSlik, fickle, frivolous, light- 
minded. 
leitsim, alleviation, ease, relief. 



leitik, light (not heavy). 

leito, easily, lightly. 

leitiiii, to ease, lighten, alleviate. 

lejaf, wholesale business. 

lej'ain, cable, ship-rope. 

le;efc, frightfulness. , 

lejekik, frightful, terrible. , 

le;e&(ik)8f, frightfulness. 

le^efclik, dreadful, terrible. 

\ejeval, stallion. 

le/onik, charming, exceedingly 

beautiful. 
lejuit, great pleasure. 
lejul, university (niver). 
le;K7, shield, 
lek, echo, sound, 
lefcan, art, science. 
lekana, . . . , of science. 
lekanapUb, commerce in objects; 

of art and Science, 
le^anei, artist (kanal). 
lekanik, artificial, artful: 

scientific. 
leklodQn, to think of. 
lekog, dry-cough. 
\akciliim, pilaster, support. 
lefcon/!'i6n, to trust in, to 

rely (upon). 
lefcosj7am, 'reconciliation. 
XikosUel, mediator. 
lefcosiVBn, to reconcile, 
lektin, electricity. 
lektinA, electrician. 
Zefcimik, electric. 
lektinOn, to electrify, 
lei, iron. 
leZaJ, easiness, the state of 

being wealthy, moneyed. 
\e,ldh, blessedness, bliss, felicity , 

happiness. 
leZaftef, bondage. 
leZaJefik, being in bondage. 
leteMk, blessed, happy. 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPiiK. 



117 



le'afcon, to make blessed or 
happy. 

\elnd, fervour, cordiality 
heartlyness. 

leladik, fervent, heart}'. 

lela^fifen, iron-foundery. 

leleg, purity. 

le.'e^ik, pure. 

\eleigik [leleigo), perfectly even, 
exactly the same. 

lelel, smith. 

^eZelen, smithy, blacksmith- 
shop. 

leteii, iron-work. 

le/!ec?o ! alas ! 

lelieg, superfluous richness 
(-plulieg, inlieg). 

ieZik, iron, of iron. 

leWik, that may be heard, 
or learned or perceived. 

lelilon, to learn, hear, to be 
told. 

lelin, iron (Fl, chemical ferrie 
acid). 

leliotsku, (lioiaV), lieutenant- , 
-colonel. 

lelit, lightning. 

lelitarfufcam, lightning con- 
ductor. 

lelito (\e/oviko), swift as light- 
ning. 

leK^on, to lighten. 

lelod, railway. 

\elod .... (lod, lelod !) 

leZo/lik, most lovely, dearest. 

le%am, viewing. 

leloyon, to behold, view, 
look at. 

ielon, to forge. 

leZonon, to become, beseem, 
suit, be proper, decent. 

"lelot leloted!) 

Aeloted, large hotel. 



lelnliino, very least. 

\elm, magnifying glass. 

lelutavat, cloud. 

lelutSLvatik, clouded, cloudy. 

Islutaival'OTi, to cloud. 

lem, bargain, purchase. 

lemacem, shop. 

lernag, image, likeness. 

lemag'di, cLuality of the image. 

leman, rest, remainder, sur- 
plus. 

lemdnik, left, remaining. 

lemdnik.0, for the rest, besides, 
moreover ; (e lemdnikos 
etcetera, and so on). 

lemanon, to leave, to let 
remain. 

\emasel, (balemaseZ) , headmas- 
ter. 

\emeh (levaliid), omnipotence. 

lemafcam. Creation. 

lemefcel, Creato?- (of the Uni- 
verse). 

lemeHk, omnipotent almighty. 

lemefcSn, to create. 

Zemel, buyer, purchaser. 

lemel, ocean. 

lemelidlik, very meritorious. 

lemem, remembrance. 

lemcmon, to remember. ' 

lemesed, salary, pay, income. 

lemesedon, to give salary, keep 
in pay; pay. 

lemik, venal. 

Zemlik, eagerto buy, desirous to 
buy. 

lemod, large quantity. 

lemodik. (fcumik), enorm, cc- 
lassal, gigantic, piled up. 

lemocZikumo, much more. 

lemon, to buy, purchase. 

lemotbinzal, Christmas-festival, 
masmas, holiday, Christmas. 



tl8 



GBAMIMAK OF VOLAP-ilK. 



lemo/, locomotive. 

leimifon, to shake. 

len, against, on . . . to, to. 

len, . ., (la . . .), ad . . . 

lenad, learning, improvement. 

lenadik (lenadazi/ik), studious, 

desirous to learn. 
lenadlik, to be learnfed, learn- 

able. 
lenadon, to learn, practise. 
len&iinBn, to bring on, bring 

nearer. 
lene/Zenik (ne/Zenalik), hostile 

inimical, adverse, 
lene^cnof (ne/?cnai), hostility 

enmity. 
leneZi/'ik, as deadas a stone. 
leneZamon, to lick 
lenemoc?o (Zuuno), in the least, 
lenepueciik, lewd, lustful. 
lenepueAig, lewdness, lasci- 

viousness, impurity, unchas- 

tity, debauchery, lechery, 

licentiousness , sensuality, 

profligacy. 
lenjrZurfBn, to fasten by glue 

or with lime. 
haniddn, East-India. 
\6niddmk, East-Indian. 
lenjVecZik, very interesting, 

highly important, 
lenitib, harpoon. 
lenitihik, having the form of a 

harpoon. 
\^yikor\fid'6ia., to trust to. 
lenieodOn, to regulate, 
lento^, glance, sight, 
lenio^am, viewing. 
lenZo^edbn, te view. 
Xenlogiin, to look at, behold. 
lenZo^ii, (preposition ;) asto, 

with respect or regard to. 
Ien^<in6n, to appropriate. 



leno, not at all, by no means_ 

lemom, principle rule. 

lenon . . . (lereos.') 

leraonik, none at all. 

lenos, almost nothing. 

lenpaJfc, harangue. 

len^jjfcon, to harangue, address^ 

lensdfcon, to call for, ■ ask. 

lenseaVon, to contrive, plan^ 
commence, lay the founda- 
tion. 

lensianam, peep, (the) lying in 
ambush, or being on the catch.. 

Ien,sum6n, to accept. , 

le?iM(nu), just now, this minute,, 
hardly, scarce. 

lenuHk, quite new, brandnew,. 
spick and span new. 

lenwrael, first-accountant. 

lerewn, information. 

lenanel, informer. 

lenunBn, to inform of. 

\eRvodon., to address, accost. 

lenwofc(-am), invocation. 

lenuofcon, to invoke. 

YexizugoTX, to draw nearer. 

leo, absolute. 

leod(-am), regulation, arrange- 
ment. 

leodal, mind for order. 

leodel, regulator. 

leodik, regular, orderly, right,, 
proper, 

leodon, to regulate, order. 

lep, monkey, ape, baboon. 

lepan, aper, imitator. . 

lepaio (lepraako), principally. 

leped(-am), oppression. 

lepede\, oppressor. 

lepedUn, to oppress, suppress. 

leyyemelidol, very meritorious. 

lepeJ(lep2iifced), sentence, maxim„ 
axiom. 



GRAMMAK OF VOLAFilK. 



119 



lepSs., apish. 

Zepil, little montey, marmoset. 

\epleh, adoration, worsliipping. 

\6plek&\, adorer, worshipper. 

\&plekim, ^;o adore, worship. 

\&pleso, especially. 

\6plidSs., pleasing. 

lepZu, much more, many more. 

lepomet, vow. 

lepometon, to vow, devote. 

lepon, to mimic, imitate. 

lepotik (jrzafik), just, decent. 

Iej90(on, to he decent, proper. 

lepafc(-am), confirmation, affir- 
mation. 

\epvkedi (lepet), sentence. 

lepafcon, to confirm, affirm. 

lepuZ, lad, fellow. 

ler . . . (leraf !) 

lera/", horse-radish. 

lesaj(-am), assertion. 

lesa^on, to assert, maintain 
pretend. 

\%satin, atlas, (satin-stuff). 

lesauon, to preserve, keep ; save, 
guard, spare. 

lese(?(-am), mission 

lesep, vault, catacomb ; burying- 
ground, churchyard. 

lesepawioZ, mausoleum. 

leseu, recognition. 

lesewik, recognizable. 

lescuof, recognizing. 

lese»on, to recognize 

lesi ! certainly ! of course ! o 
yes! 

les&mik, positive. 

\&sin, wicked deed, offence. 

lesznel, offender, evil doer, trans- 
gressor. 

Xesimk, offensive, bad. 

lesi'non, to offend, do a wicked 
deed. 



les)nu/ik, as smoothas glass. 

leso, just so, exactly thus. 

Ies67, great gentleman. 

leson, prince. 

lesta/, pile, post. 

leste'n, flag. 

les^anon, to hoist the flag. 

les«!7ik, extremely calm. 

lesizm (fllod), respect, esteem. 

lesiimik, respectful. 

le.ttimlik (vemo ) , much 

esteemed, higUy respected, 
lesiimon, to respect, esteem, 
lesizmiin, highest respect, 
lestol, raising. 
lestolA, raiser. 
lestolon., to raise (geilon). 
lesitimik, esteemed, regarded. 
lestupik, very stupid, 
lesumik (W/lik), agreeable, 
lesurafo), at the shortest notice 

very quick, 
lesunik, soon, early, betimes, 
lesusian, resurrection. 
lesustanasidZ, Easter. 
\esvidik, as sweet as honey. 
let(-am, Inlet), permission. 
letab, table. 
Letan, Letland. 
Letcind, Letlander. 
letamk, Letland-(adj ) 
leifflwik, desirous of travelling. 
leteda,va, wholesale trade. 
\etede\{tedan), wholesale dealer 

wholesale merchant. 
leton, to let, to let go. 
leJop(tutbp), exhaustion. 
\etuig, twig. 
letuigaduf, bundle of twigs, 

fagot, bavin. 
lend, Lloyd, 
leud, rice, 
leul, oil. 



120 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPilK. 



leulMm, olive-tree. 

leiilafluk {leiilnk), olive. 

leulak. . . (leQlaM!) 

lenla,kdl, oil-colour. 

leiilam, oiling. 

leulel, oiler. 

leUlik, oily. 

leiilnik, oleaginous. 

leiilon, to oil. 

leulvik, olive. > 

leun, hip, haunch. 

\&valud (lemet), omnipotence. 

Levaliidel, Gfod almighty. • 

levaliidik, almighty, omnipo- 
tent. 

lewamik ('itik), hot. 

levat, high water. 

levelik, everlasting, constant. 

levelo{a.i), constantly. 

leveM, constancy, lasting. 

le«e»^(o), extraordinary, un- 
commpn. 

livemik, extraordinary. 

leuemuno (moduno), in the 
highest degree, at most. 

levikod, triumph. 

levip, eagerness, vehement, 
longing. 

levipik, eagerly. 

le«jpon, to earger, wish or 
long ardently. 

levisit, frequent visit. 

levitim, mass-offer. 

levitima.buk, mass book. 

le^are, gate, porch. 

lej/uftiip, gold jubilee. 

\ezib, disl^, repast, meal. 

leziid, sourness, austerity. 

leziidik, sour, harsh. 

lezMn, anger, offence. 

lezunik, offended, angry. 

lezunon, to take offence. 

li (lio), how ? 



li ? -li ? (interrogative particle, 
used when no other inter- 
rogations are expressed. 

liab, flax. 

liabasio/", linen. 

liaf,_ lily. 

Ua/ik, as white as lily, 
liliaceous. 

liam, lamb. 

liamSl, gentleness, affability. 

lidmil, lambkin. 

lian, verse. 

lianel, versifier. 

lidnon, to versify. 

liat, litre (french measure). 

lib, liberty, freedom. 

liba... (libi..., libo...), free... 

\iha.vU, voluntariness. 

libauz'flk, voluntarily, volun- 
tary. 

lihik, free. 

lib'dn, to set free, free, deliver, 
rescue, redeem, exempt. 

licep, liverwort. 

licinon, to descend, spring 
from; derive. 

lieb, grape. 

liebauaei, juice of grapes. 

liibA, vine-dresser, vintager. 

lied, adversity, trouble pain, 
sorrow. 

liedik, troubling; afflicted. 
?n ! a.la.a! 



HedoA, passion. 

Uedon (su/6n), to suffer. 

lieg, richness. 

liegeaca., enrichment. 

tiegoi, richness of contents. 

liegoSk, rich in contents. 

Uegik, rich. 

liegon, to enrich. 

liel, (the) listening. 

Helm, to listen. 



GKAMMATi, OF VOLiPiiK. 



121 



lien, line. 

lienasium, ruler. 

liev, hare. 

Uf (nedeil), life. 

lifanunod, biography. 

li/iz^ik? how far? how far 
away? (place). 

lifamerf, victuals, provisions. 

lifa,se/am, life-assurance. 

li/ik, alive, living. 

Z^lik, lively. 

li/ovnod, he shall live ! 

lifbn, to live, exist. 

li/a&nik? how far? (time). 

lifixp, life, age. 

Ug, licLtior. 

liged, nicety, delicacy, dainty. 

ligedik, nice, delicious. 
ligletik {lioglenk.)'i how big? 
of what size? 

lik? (Zfto?, /w?), how? 

likad, relique. 

Iikik9, how situated? 
Ukof, quality. 

likofik, qualitative. 

lil, ear. 

lilad(-am), reading, lecture. 

liladel, reader. 
liladils., legible 
liladon, to read. 
lila/?ap, box on the ears. 
lilaa, to hear. 
liloi, hearing, 
lim, joint. 
limaxa., articulation. 
limep; emperor. 
limepik, imperial. 
Kmepon, to be emperor. 
limepnh, empire. 
limodik, how much? 
limodiTsioa, quota, 
limoc^of, quantity. 
lim6(7ofik, quantitative. 



limun, alms. 

bmunon, to give (an) alms. 

lin, ring. 

linq,d, alloy, contents. 

lina^ned, ring-flnger. 

lindif. indifference. 

lindi/ik, indifferent. 

lined, the interior. 

lineda,Tps, bowels, entrails. 

linedsA, boarding-school. 

UnediL, internal, interial. 

linedo (ino), inside. 

linedn, within. 

lineg, tongue 

linegik, smart with the tongue. 

Unegoi, fluency of speech. 

linegoTi, to tonque , chide, talk ; 
scold, prate. 

linik, shaped like a ring. 

linkip, innkeeper. 

linkipuva, lodging, harbouring. 

linhipou (Zo^elon), to lodge, har- 
bour. 

lino, roundabout. 

lintelek (Gtrammar), interjec- 
tion. 

linyelib, orange-colour. 

Unyelibik, orange-yellow. 

Ko?, how? 

Lion, Lyons. 

libtal, lieutenant-colonel. 

liotan, lieutenant. 

Hotanel, first lieutenant, chief- 
lieutenant. 

lip, lip.^ 
liped, ellipse 

Upedih, elliptic. 

lir, lute. ' 

lisan, sense. 

lisanik, sensible, senselul. 

Hsanon, to have sense. 

lised, catalogue, register, list 
roll, record. 



122 



GllAMMAR OF VOIAPUK. 



lisedel, registrar. 
liauii(o)?, how soon? 
lit, light. 

litiih, candle. , 

litafcip, candlestick. 
liial (daKzal, klilsuV), clear head. 
litHTo., sash, skylight, window. 
litamil, small window. 
lita/mag, photography. 
Ztfama^rad, photograph. 
Ut&magA, photographist. 
lita,m,agen, photographing. 
' litaiRiijot, window-shutter, 
litanen, litany, 
litapoi, lamp, 
litasau, lantern, 
litasio/, luminous matter, 
literat, literature. 
Uteratel, man of literature, 
literatik, literary. 
litikj light, lit, bright (caused 

by light). 
liton, to light, lighten. 
Litu^n, Litthauen. 
litur, liturgy, 
lituric, liturgic. 
liv(-am), delivery. 
Livan, Livonia. 
livapi(fc(am), acquittal. 
liveitik'i, how far? (capacity). 
livem(o)?, how much? 
liver, livery. 
livi . . . (livo . . .), free . . . 
Uvik, free, easy, loose. 
Kulik, pardonable. 
livon, to free, loosen, release, 

discharge, separate. 
Uvvcp, leisure, vacant time. 
lo, in presence of, in face of, 

before, in sight of. 
15, upper (for immaterial 

things; therefore different 

from sus). 



16 . . . (lopa . . .), upper . . . 

lob, praise. 

lob, willingness, officiousness,. 
readyness. 

lobed, obedience. 

loiedik, obedient. 

lohedon, to obey. 

Zoiik, laudable, praise-worthyi,; 

Zo5ik (w7Bfik), willing. 

ZoHik, praiseworthy, commend- 
able. 

lobbn, to praise, laud, com- 
mend. 

lohvim, glory, honour, praise,, 
renown, fame. 

ZoSiin, gloriousness. 

lod(-am), load, cargo. 

lod, dwelling habitation. 

lodel, inhabitant, dweller, 
occupier, inmate. 

lodik, chargeable, that may 
be loaded. 

lodih, habitable. 

lodin (Eh), rhodirim. 

lodoi, habitableness. 

lodo], resident, living, staying.. 

lodon, to charge, load, freight, 
lade. 

lodon, to inhabit, dwell in, 
live in; stay, reside. 

loegava, observation, attention. 

loegbn, to observe, (see). 

loego^, observatory. 

loet, roast meat. 

Zoe^on, to roast. 

lof, ofFer, tender, proposal. 

lof, (tecZal), love. 

fo/ab, darling. 

Zo/abik, favourite. 

lof&diffik., amiable, lovable. 

Zo/a/uHk, charitable. 

Zo/al (lefan), lover, 

Zo/ik, lovely, dear, beloved. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



123- 



Zo/'lik (lesumik), lovely, amiable, 

pleasing, charming agreeable, 

nice, delectable, 
lo/'lof, charmingness. 
lo/bb, I love, I like. 
lofoo-la,, I might love, — like. 
Zq/bb-li?, do I love, do Hike. 
IS/ob-li-la? might I love , 

—like. 
I6f6b-ii no? (no Zii/ob-li?), do 

I not love? do I not like? 
Zo/obs, we love, vre like. 
lofoi, she loves, she likes. 
l6/ofs, they (those women) 

love, they like. 
lofdk, self-love. 

Zo/ol, thou loveat, thou Ukest. 
lofol, loving. 

lofols, you (men) love, -like. 
io/6liin(o), most loveU", love- 
liest. 
Zo/om, he loves, he likes. 
loforaoa, 'may he love, -like'. 
Zo/oms, they (those men) love. 

they like, 
lofon, to offer, hand over, give, 

reach. 
lo/on, one loves, one likes, a 

body likes. 
lofon, to love, like. 
lo/onoA, one must love, -like. 
lofons (polite singular), you 

love, you like. 
lof OS, it loves, it likes. 
Zo^OBok, it loves itself, it 

likes itself, 
log, eye. 
log, bone. 
logad, sight, vision. 
Zo^am, the seeing. 
Zojramik, optical. 
Zo^amikel, optician, 
logarit, logarithm. 



Zo^ed, twinkling, glance, look.- 

Zo^edon, to see, look, overlook, 

Zo^ik, visible. 

Zo^im, aspect; face. 

l6glet(o), extensively. 

logoi, face, countenance visage- 

Zo^of, visibility. 

logon, to see. 

Zii^ot, bones. 

lojop, lodge, box. 

lok, looking-glass. 

ZoJ;6n, to look into a looking- 
glass. 

lol, rose. 

161, integer, whole. 

lol&i'ob, rose-stick, rose (the, 
plant). 

ZoZed, rose-colour, pink. 

ZoZedik, rose-coloured, pink. 

ZoZik, rosy. 

ZoZik, whole, integral. 

ZoZiko, altogether, enticely. 

ZoZil, little rose. 

ZoZo, in all. 

lom, birth-place ; home. 

lorn .... (lijmib !) 

Zomad, retum home, arrival at 
home. 

Zomik, native, birth, home. 

Lombadan, Lombardy. 

lomib (silai'az), rain. 

Zomt 6ad, umbrella, shade, screen, 
or guard for rain. 

I'dmiKk, rainy, wet, showery 

lomibon (silauaZSn), to rain. 

Zomik, birth-, home — 

I6min, element. 

Zommik, elemental. 

Zomived, homewards. 

ZoJTilik, homely. 

lombn, togo to stay, togo to 
live, to settle, to establish- 
one's self. 



124 



GBAMMAU OP VOLAPuK. 



lomu, at home. 

Ion, law. 

Ion (lab), property, 

fonam, resolution, appointment, 
definition, determination 

Londen, London. 

loned, length. 

lonedSA, lenity, clemency. 

lonedara., prolongation. 

lonedel, subject. 

lonedik, long. 

■lonedH, sub-missive, subject 
obedient. 

.lonediknno, at the very longest, 
at the very last, at most. 

lonediik, oblong. 

lonedo, long (long time). 

-lonedoi, durability, lastingness. 

.fcnetZofik, lasting, durable, chro- 
nical, long. 

lonedon, to lengthen, prolong. 

lonedoftro(o), since long, a long 
time already.' 

lonedwp, tediousness, weariness. 

loned^^iV, tiresome. 

Zonef, kind, quality, nature 
disposition. 

fonefik natured. 

lonet, slenderness. 

Zonerik, slender 

lonik, lawful, legitimate, legal. 

lorak., propre, own. 

lonikncm, propre-name. 

Xonilof (ita,suk),. selfishness self- 
love, self-interestedness. 

l6niZo/ik, selfish. 

/onon (no^edon), to appoint de- 
termine, fix, settle. 

.lotion, to belong, appertain. 

iortng, peculiar singularity; 
peculiar accent. 

toniip, legal term. 

lop, opera. 



lop, top, spire, top-part. 

l^ps^ . . . {Ibpi .. ., lopo . . ., lo . . . .) 
top , upper .... 

lopal, (a)higher. 

Zopan, highland. 

lop&plen, surface. 

lopel (lopal), higher, superior. 

Lopelsasan, Upper-Blsace. 

ISpiiotel, chief-waiter. 

lopi/btel, chief-forrester. 

lopik, operatic. 

lopik, upper, highest, chief-, 
master-, fist. 

lopikap, head, chief, master. 

Zopiko {lopo), above, lip, up- 
stairs, on high. 

VdpTikon, uppermost 

/opikunel, highest, superior. 

lopimel, optimist 

lopimeKk, optimistic. 

Ib'gis'iit, main street. 

iBpih'd'el, headmaster' head- 
teacher. 

lopnik, above-cited, abov^- 
mentiohed, above. 

lopo, (adverb) see lopiko. 

lopci ! up ! 

Lbpoioj/dre, Upper-Bavaria. 

Lopocfeui, Upper-Germany.. 

lopoi, authority. 

lop'dJVs., official. 

\o^2klaned, highland. 

Loporm, (the) Upper-Rhine. 

Lopo^a/, Upper-Italy. 

lopv., above (preposition) 

KpiXn, summit, highest top. 

lopuno (kiino), (adverb) onthe 
very top. 

Zopvinu, (very) high,est, most 
high. 

lor, laurel. 

los . ., besides . . . 

LosS,n, Losanna. 



GEAMMAB OF VOLAPuK. 



125' 



loset, lobster. 

lososit, frying sausage. 

Lostakin, Austria. 

Lostaki7iel, Austrian. 

lot, guest. 

lota.A, hospitality. 

Lotan, Lorraine, Lorane. 

loted, hotel, lodgement 

loiel, hotelkeeper. 

ZoJelain, harbouring. 

lotelou, to lodge, harbour. 

loter, lottery. 

lot&, hospitable. 

lotogat, spelling, ortUography. 

lotogafik, orthographic. 

loton, to lodge, stay. 

lotoTp, lodgement, inn. 

/offipik, inn. 

lotng, inn keeping, lodgement. 

loiiigik, lodgement. 

lov . , . (love ! ) 

lova^onon, to buzz, hum, tingle. 

love . . ., over. 

loverfu^'on, to lead over. 

lovedufcam, delivering, trans- 

5-porting. 
love/?«mon (bundanon), to over- 

flovy. 
\oveg {bel&loveg), passage, pass, 

defile. 
loYegiviiu, to give over, deliver, 

reach 
love^oZam, the passing over. 

the going over. 
love^oZed, transition. 
love^oHk, transitive. 
lovej'ad, overshadovfing. 
love;ad6n, to overshadow. 
loYeleton, to leave, letpass. 
lovemeHk (kolumk), trans- 
marine, colonial, 
lovep . . . (loYepul !) 
lovepenad, superscription. 



loveptocZon, to put on the top;r 

or above. 
lovepoi(-am), translation. 
lovepoZBn, to translate. 
lovesez'sZon, to lay or put oii 

the top or above. 
loYesiadon, to place or put on 

the top or above. 
lovesumSn, to take a duty upon, 

one's self, take charge of. 
lovik, quietly. 
loYekliJd, superstition. 
loYeklodik, superstitious. 
lovon, to transcend, surpass. 
lovo;jwJ;bn, to lisp, 
lu, less, vrorse. 
lu . . ., dis-, re-, step-, chief, 
lii ! ho ! hollo ! hear ! 
lu . . ., ad . . ., as . . ., ap . . . 
lub, inferiority. 
Liiban, Lybia. 
lufte^on, to beg. 
Ixxblod (laSaUod), step-brother.. 
]uUud2iflums, hemorrhoids. 
lubod, mould. 
Inbov )sma6oK), plate, 
luiiiifc, misprint, waste-paper. 
Incern (smasem) smallroom, side- 

appartment. 
Incif, chief, headman 
luciY, noodle, silly person, sim- 
pleton, ninny. 
Incilik, silly, 
lucj7al, noodledom silliness,. 

harmlessness. 
Incddnton, to assign, allot, 
lud .... Q-udom .') 
liid, rawness. 
ludas, suppose that, admitted. 

that, allowed. 
ludiebiik, copy. 
\ndevcd, hypocrisy. 
Liidia, Lydia. 



126 



GllAMMAR OF VOLAPUK, 



ludik, raw. 

ludom (smadom), cottage 

ludun, mean trick. 

liied, rudeness, uncivility. 

liiediTs., rude, imoivil. 

lueg(s), lung(s). 

liien, degree. 

liien&ra., graduation. 

luf, grape, -wine-grape. 

lufaperf, -wine-press. 

liif (lulM). 

lu/am, vintage, collecting of 

the wine-grapes, 
lu/at (lafa/ai), step-father, 
lu/at, father-in-law. 
lu/aiel, great-grandfather, 

(lii/a^al, -alel, -an, -anel). 
lu/el, heath, broom-ground. 
liy-'eZelik, clownish, rustic. 
'bifenigA, miser, niggard 

scrapepenny. 
\vifid, glutton. 

IxsfidoTX, to gluttonize, eat to 
excess, eat voraciously. 

Zii/ik, as a truss, a form as 
a truss. 

\afils.vin, dram, drink, spirits. 

\nfil2iMinA, dram-drinker tip- 
pler, drunkard. 
■lufon, to vintage. 

lug (WiY!) 

liig, mourning. 

\a.ge£k, grayish, grizzly. 

lugik, mournful, sorijy. 

lugil, vulture. 

\ugiv, addition, over-plus, hoot. 

lugivel, creditor, borrower. 

lu^Mjik, as a loan. 

lugivon, to lend, borrow. 

\\xgloi, brag, vaunt, boast. 

luglolel, boaster, swaggerer. 

Inglolon, to boast, swagger, 
brag, vaunt. 



lu^tenik {gliinlik), greenish. 
liigo, B flat (music). 
\ugod, idol, 

lu^ot^av, mythology, poly- 
theism. 
lugodsmk, polytheistic. 
Iwgodea, idola-try. 
hxgodon, to idolate, 
liigoi, mournfulness. 
lugoji, to mourn 
liigoton, B flat (music), 
lu'at (sma'^at), cap. 
luib, wheel. 
luiba/«fc,' felly, hoop of a 

wheel, strake. 
luibon, to provide with 

wheels. 
Luid, Lizzie. 

lu ik, y ly. 

luilon, to lull a sleep. 

luin (U), Uranium. 

lujamep, hero with the tongue 

boaster, vaunter. 
hij'eval, old horse. 
IvLjon, reference, 
luyonon, to refer, draw atten- 
tion. 

luk, hither, hitherward. 

luk . . . . , re- , trans-. 

luk, leer. 

liikel, one who leers or lays 
on the watch for. 

luka,, thence. 

\ukad, card, playing-card. 

l\ikada,pled, card-playing, game 
at cards 

\\ikalod {amgJcalod), coolness. 

hikalodik (smai'aZorfik), cool. 

lukalodori, to cool. 

Inkanelbn, to trifle. 

hikaniton, to howl, yelp, whine, 
whimper. 

luki, towards, to. 



(SttAMMAll or VOLAPiiK. 



127 



iukidLik, througli, by, passed 

througli. 
luki/a/on, to disli up. 
■lukiloga,m., prospect, view. 
lukim, nearer. 
iukin (mi, mii), init. 
iuHnal, at it, present. 
i«fcino!;e(iibi), over (from one 

place to another), 
lukion, lyceum. 
ZuHs(!si), thither. 
-luldse(ina,] , out of it. 
faHsus, upwards, up. 
Jufcived, away, 
lukiueg', road hence. 
lukldnel, mysterious person. 
hiklof, rag, tatter, slut. 
lukomip, skirmishing, 
liifcomon, to getto(do), fall to, 

come to. 
.liikon, to he onthe watch, leer, 

peep. 
'lakonfid6n(lekl6d6n), to think 

of, suppose of. 
lukrilt, cavillation. 
hikriit&i., cavilling, temper, oen- 

soriousness 
lukriitel, caviller, 
lufcr-wrik, censorious cavillous. 
hikriiion, to cavil. 
hxkiim, inside, in it, into. 
luKmo! come in! 
lul, five, 
liil, owl. 
Ixxlad'al, sadness, 
luteaalik, sad, mournful. 
Inlstgul, pentagon . 
luZofc, marsh, pool, fen. 
lufaHl, small marsh, small 

pool. 
luldil, fifth part. 
Mel, number five, a five. 
lulet, negligence. 



liUe<(-am), permission admiss- 
ion, allowance. 

hxletwca, neglect. 

luZedk, negligent. 

laletik, admissable, acceptable ; 
allowed. 

Iv-kmi, acceptableness, permis- 
sion. 

\nleton,,to neglect. 

lvLlet'6n{dal6n) , to admit perniit, 
allow. 

lulid, fifth. 

ZuZidna, the fifth time. 

lulidno, for the fifth time 

lulido, in the fifth place. 

lulieg, usury, 

hdiegel, usurer. 

hxliegon, to practise usury. 

lulik, five fold. 

lulik.0, in afivefold way. 

lulil, small five, the figure five. 

ZwHon, quintillion. 

luKsanel, cunning reasoner. 

luZz'sanon, to reason cunningly. 

Inlit, twilight, dimness. 

Inliton, to glimmer. 

Inlmily five thousand. 

lulna, five times. 

ZtiZnalik, five times repeated. 

lulmk, five sorts. 

lulno, for the fifth time. 

luZoJel, extoUer ; fiatterer, fawn- 
,er, coaxer. 

l\xlog, gaping at. 

Inlogel, gaper. 

luZo^^on, to gape, open the 
movith in surprise or wonder, 
open the eyes widely. 

luloji, to multiply by five. 

lalon .... {lulon !) 

luls, fifty. 

lulsena,, fifty tinieis. 

lulsii, fiftieth. 



128 



GKAMMAtt OF YOLAPUK. 



lulsi&no, for the 50th time. 
lulsido, in the 50th place. 
ZuZsik, fiftyfold. 
lulsiko, in a fiftyfold way. 
liiltum, five hundred, 
lultamena, 500 times. 
lul««<menalik, 500 times over 

500 times repeated, 
lultamid, five timdredth. 
Ixihumiio, in the 500th place. 
Inliumik, 500 fold. 
Inltum mil, five times a hundred 

thousand. 
lulaS, quint (music: g). 
luliiTa, quintet. 
Inm, wetness. 
Zumik, wet, damp, moist, 
liim . . . {htlvivo. ! koliim !) 
himagif, magnificence, pomp, 
show. 
■ luma^2/ik, magnificent, sump- 
tuous. 
lumagifon, to glory, hoast, 

shine, show. 
luma^Sn, to draw wrong, mis- 
take at drawing, 
luman (glihel, japA), rascal, 
rogue, villain, scoundrel, 
knave, 
lumanik, knavish, roguish, 

villanous, rascally. 
lumcM, bungler. 
Iwmig, mixture, hodgepodge 

mish mass. 
Inmilagel, queer fellow odd- 
fellow, singular body. 
hxmilagnik (Al), aluminium. 
lumon, to wet, moisten, make 

damp. 
Xxrniot (lafsimot), stepmother. 
lamotik, like a stepmother. 
liimot, mother-in-law. ' 
lumud, muzzle, snout. 



lumufop, to shove. 
lumusigon, to make bad music 
lun (luos), something, worse- 

or meaner or lower, 
lun, (pair of) spectacles. 
lunaf (sraanaf), gondola, (row- 
ing) boat, small boat. 
Zunam, diminition. 
lunam .... (lurtara !) 
lunamon, to hand over, to- 

give or deliver by Land. 
\unid (smSLnid), faint light, 

glittering, sparkling. 
hmidon, to glitter, glare 

sparkle, gleam. 
Ixmim, insect. 
lunon, to diminish, decrease,. 

lessen, shorten. 
lunulud, fodder, food. 
hxnuludon, to fodder. 
lunan, the least. 
Ztmniino, in the least. 
luo, in a decreasing way. 
teod, direction. 
hios, See lun. 

liip ....(.... iip ! .... time !) 
lupab-, caterpillar. 
\apak, pollution, infection. 
Inpakov., to infect, stain. 
Inplan, twig, sprig, osier, 

spray, branch. See letuig. 
lupoedel, paltry rhymer, poet- 
aster, petty poet. 
hxpo/iidon, to cheat, trick, 
deceive, cozen, beguile, 
defraud. 
liipotoji, to send. 
hxpug (sTxiSipug), skirmishl 
lupukel (vodel), babbler.' 
hipiiken, babbling, chit-chat,. 

tattle. ' 
lupafcbn, to tattle, chatter, 
babble, prate. 



GRAMMAR OF VOIAPUK. 



129 



Inpiiloi, prattle, tattle. 

liir, lyre. 

Liiran, Ulyrioum 

IxireWn, to play the hypocrite. 

lusag, story, fable, fiction, 

doubtflil saying, 
liwa^on, to tell a story, or 

something doubtful. 
Lusan, Sussia. 
Itisanel, quack, charlatan. 
Lusanel Russian, 
lusanen, quackery, charlatan- 
ism. 
lusanik, Russian (adj) 
lusaunik, sick. 
lusedaxa, sending. 
Vjisedon, to send, 
lusenik, sensible. 
lusaVaJel, caviller. 
lusilef (Hg), mercury (kegin). 
Iusi7e/ik (fce^mik), ofmercur^r, 

of quicksilver, 
lusmaten (smaZnof), pedantry. 
lusiiZel, tyrant, oppressor, 
lusora (lafasonl, stepson. 
Vison, son-in-law. 
luspad (smaspa(Z), corner 
lusputon, to vomit, 
lustom, thiinderstorm, tempest, 
lustomos, it is thundering, 
lusumon, to receive. 
lusiit (sma«M^), narrow-street, 

lane. 
Ivisiitibpul, blackguard 
lasvinel, sordid fellow, 
lusi'mik, sordid, filthy, foul, 

dity, vile, base, gross, 
lut, air. 

lut&hldd, draft, draught. 
lutAkalap, convalescent, home, 

hydropathic, 
lutana/am, aeronautism. 
lutawapik, void of air, vacuum. 



lutawaJ (fog), fog, mist. 

luteran, Lutheran. 

Iwiikal', ghost, hobgoblin, 

lufe'&alen, haunting, stirring. 

IntikalQn, to haunt (as a ghost). 

Iniof, meal-dust (meal dew). 

luam., worse, lower, meaner. 

luiin, least. 

Zuiino, at least. 

Kw(-am), deserting abandon- 
ment. 

tewon, to desert, abandon, lea- 
ve, forsake, quit. 

InvaladoTi, to exact. 

hwat, urine, piss 

lavatbn, to piss, make water. 

IxLvelat (amnvelat), likelyness, 
probability. 

luiieZarik {smavelatik), likely, 
probaftle. 

luuznam, drunkenness. 

Invisedik, sly, cunning, crafty, 
subtle, wily. 

\uvised\ig, sliness. 

InvSdajm, bombast. 

Invok, scream, cry, shout, shriek, 
yell. 

\v.vdk(-a.m), callingat, crying at. 

luuofcel, crier, bawler. 

luuofcem, shouting, screaming. 

luwoion, to scream, cry, shriek, 
yell, shout. 

Imokbn, te call at, cry at. 

luvomik, efieminate. 

luxa/, lynx. 

liixam, profuseness, prodigality. 

liixamel, spendthrift, prodigal, 
waster. 

laxamiV, extravagantly, lavish- 
ly, wastefiilly. 

luxam\i\, luxuriant. 

liixaniioi, luxuriousness. 

luyeK&ik, yellowish. 



130 



GllAMMAB or VOLAPuK. 



hiijuUbik, bluisii. 
lui/amon, to push on. 
liij/wnel, boy (stupid or silly 
boy). 



Liixan, Lyoia. 

luzin,- wick (of alamp or candle). 



M. 



ma, according to (segun) 

mab, marble. 

tnabiin, to marble. 

macad, lunt, match. 

mad, maturity, ripeness. 

mad, matrass. 

madik, ripe, mature. 

madon, to ripen. 

maeg, illustration. 

maegik, illustrated, adorned. 

maf, measure. 

?Bo/am, scale. 

mafel, measurer. 

mafik, moderate. 

maflik, measurable. 

ma/lQi, measurableness. 

ma/bd(am), moderation. 

ma/odik, moderate, temperate. 

mafoi, temperance, sobriety 

moderation. 
njo/okOn, to keep measure, keep 

time. 
ma/on, to measure, scale, 
ma/6nam, measuring. 
mafukon, to moderate, temper, 

regulate, 
mag, image, statue, figure, type, 
mag, the being permitted, 
magab, pearl, 
magaba/itel, pearl-fisher, 
magaba/i/en, pearl-fishing. 
magabsle/ad. pearl-necklace. 
magaboa, to sparkle, 
magad, magarine, store. 
magel, draughtsman, drawer. 
magen, sculpture. 



mageael, sculptor, statuary. 

maget, magnet. 

magedk, magnetic. 

mageton, to magnetize. 

magif, magnificence, splendour. 

magifaZo/; love for magnifi- 
cence. 

magifen, bragging, pomp. 

magifi^, magnificent, pictu- 
resque, splendid. 

magiiol (jo!) splendid! beauti- 
ful! grand! 

magifoa, to boast, parade. 

ma^ifot, show, pomp. 

ma^ik, very beautiful. 

magin (Alg), magnesia. 

magit, magistrate. 

maglik, typical, figurative. 

magoTi, to draw, shape, form. 

magm (lofon), (to) may. 

magiif, gala. 

magtig, sorcery. 

magiigoa, to enchant, charm, 
bewitch. 

mail, stitch, mesh. 

Main, (river) Main. 

maj ! (mn;o !), march ! 

majal, marshal. 

mak, mark (a coin)., 

mak, mark, sign, token. 
' makab, remarkableness . 

makaiik, remarkable, worth 
seeing. 

mcikabik, renowned, famous. 

makar, macaroni. 

makon, to mark. 



GBA.MMAB, OF VOLAPilK. 



131 



anal, accent, sign. 

inal, six. 

malad, illness. 

maZadam, getting ill. 

maladik, ill, bad, siol^. 

maladnik, sickly. 

maladoi, sickliness, infirmity. 

maladoSk, sickly, infirm. 

maladoion, to languish. 

maladon, to be ill, or sick ; 
to get ill, bad or sick. 

maladop, hospital, infirmary. 

matad\H.6n, to get ill. 

mala^wZ, hexagon. 

malum., signification. 

malaspan, coach with, six hor- 
ses. 

Malayel, Maley. 

maldil, sixth part. 

jnalek, march. 

jnalekon, to march. 

malel, number six a six. 

maZelil, small six. 

malet, malt. 

maleton, to malt. 

ma/id, sixth. 

maMna, the sixth time. 

ma/idno, for the sixth time. 

TOaZido, in the sixth place. 

mdVik, sixfold. 

maSko, in a sixfold way. 

ma/il ('/natelil), small six. 

malion, sextillion 

malit, market. 

maliton, to market. 

malitop, market-place. 

malmjV, six thousand. 

malmiVid, six thousandth. 

malmz'fido, in the 6000"' place. 

malmj'tik, six thousandfold. 

jtnalmj'ftkd, in a six thousand- 
fold way 

malmjVna, six thousand times. 



malmi'/nalik, 6000 times repeat- 
ed. 

ma„'na, six times. 

ma/nalik, six times repeated. 

»i«taaliko, in a sixfold way, 

maluik, six sorts. 

mdtinko, in six ways. 

mdlao, for the sixth time. 

maZon, to signify, mean. 

mdion, to multiply by six. 

mdU, sixty. 

mdlsina., sixty times. 

ma/senik, sixty sorts, 

mdid-d, sixtieth. 

ma/sidno, for the sixtieth time . 

mdlsiio, in the sixtieth place. 

ma/sik, sixtyfold. 

mdlsiko, in a sixtyfold way. 

mals tum, (sixty times a hun- 
dred) six thousand. 

vaaltum, six hundred. 

maltomena, 600 times. 

maliumenalik, 600 timesrepeat- 
ed. 

mMltumidi, six hundredth, 

maUumido, for the 600'!' time. 

maltumik, six hundredfold. 

mahumiko, in a six hundred- 
fold way. 

maltum mil, six times a hun- 
dred thousand. 

malni, sextain (music : a). 

jna/iim, sextet. 

maliit, mass, fair, market. 

mam, "marmot. 

mamut, mammoth. 

man, man. 

man .... (leman) ! 

manad, manna. 

manal, manliness, quality of 
man. 

manam, magnanimity. 

maued, mantle. 



132 



GEAMMAE OF VOLAPuK. 



manif, openness. ' 

manifik, open, evident, mani- 
fest, public. 

manifad, information. 

mani/ava., revelation, manifesta- 
tion. 

mamf&mon, to reveal, open. 

manifoA, manifold (noun). 

manz/odik, manifold (adj). 

Wfinjfodon, to multiply. 

manif'oi, manifestness. 

manifofam, manifestation. 

manifofel, one who manifests, 
proclaimer, publisher. 

manifbSk, manifest. 

»ia«i/6f6n, to reveal, open, 
communicate, impart. 

mam/on, to open, uncover, dis- 
close. 

manik, manly, masculine. 

manil, wee man, little fellow. 

manin (Mn), manganate. 

Manjanad, the Channel, the 
British channel. 

manlik, nuhile, marriageable. 

manov, marloeuvre. 

manuf, dignity, bravery, bold- 
ness. 

map, porte-feuille, pocket-book. 

mar, marten. 

mar, report, story, tale. 

Maran, Moravia. 

Margaret, Margarite. 

Maria, Mary. 

marig, daisy. 

marin, marl. 

markel, biljard-marker. 

Marseil, Marseilles. 

masek, mask. 

masel, master. 

maselel, mastership. 

maselik, masterly. 

mnseZikon, to master. 



masivik, massive. 

ma'atig, mastic. 

mat, marrir.ge, wedlock. 

maiam, marriage-ceremony. 

mataftej'el, feasting at a mar- 
riage. 

matacaZ, matrimony. 

iaa,iapomet, engagement, pro- 
mise for marridge. 

matazaZ, marriage-party, wed- 
ding-party. 

mateA, wedding. 

matek, sacrament of marriage.. 

matel, husband, consort. 

materik, material. 

matik, conjugal, lawful, legi- 
timate. 

matokoTa, to marry, take for- 
husband or wife. 

ma ;6n, to marry, join a man 
and woman for life; unite 
as husband and wife. 

matrit, matrice. 

matiir, martyrdom. 

matiirel, martyr. 

mayed, majesty. 

mayedik, majestic. 

mayor, major. 

mayul, Mai. 

mayulik, Mai-, of the Mai 
(month). 

mazenal, mecenas. 

mazul, March. 

mazulik, March- (adj). 

me, by, by means of. 

me — ; — there of, at. 

meb, remembrance, recollection. 

mebama/, monument. 

mebik (memik), living in the 
mind. 

meboii, to rememter, mind, 
recollect. 

med, means. 



GEA.MMAR OF VOLA.PUK. 



133 



medam, mediation, interven- 
tion. 

tnetZamik, intervenient, mediate. 

Medan, Media. 

medel, intermediate person, 
mediator, arbitrator. 

medelik, mediating. 

medin, medicine. 

medinsN, medical art, physic. 

medinel, physician, doctor. 

medinik, medical, physical. 

medinbn, to apply medical art, 
apply physics, doctor 

mediton, to consider, meditate, 

reflect, ponder. 

medon, to mediate, intervene. 

Mehikan, Mexico (country). 

Mehiko, Mexico (city). 

meid, meadow, pasture. 

meil, meal, flour. 

meilad, meekness, gentleness. 

jneiladal, courtesy, urbanity, 
benignity, affability, meek- 
ness. 

■meiladik, meek, gentle mild 

melladon, to soften, temper. 

■mei\a.teda,m, meal-commerce ; 
flour-shop. 

meilel, meal-grocer, flour-mer- 
chant. 

mein, mining. 

3ncjn8p, mine. 

meit, maggot 

mek, make, making. 

mekaA, might, power, force, 
violence. 

mekadum, compelling, constrai- 
ning. 

mefcadik, mighty, powerful, 
vehement, violent. 

msksidon, to compel, force ne- 
cessitate, constrain. 

mekel, maker, accomplisher. 



mekils., mighty, potent 

Meklenbug, Mecklenburgh. 

mekoi, vehemence. 

mefcofik, vehement, fierce 

mekbl jroZon, alarm-clock. 

mekou, to make, do 

mekbn galori., to wake, awake 
(somebody). 

mekoTi pofUdik, to utilize, make 
use of, make profitable. 

mel, sea. 

mela . . . (melik), sea-. 

mel adriattk, the Adriatic Sea. 

mel agaik, the Aegean Sea. 

melak, conversation. 

melafcapel, ofiicer in the Navy, 
Sea-officer 

melakon, to converse. 

meZan, seaman, sailor, naviga- 
tor, sea farer, 

mel atlantik, the Atlantic, the 
Atlantic Ocean (sea). 

mela.vega,xii, navigation. 

mel baltik, Baltic Sea. 

meled, pan-caka. 

melel, sailor. 

melid(-am), merit. 

melidik, meritorious. 

melidiik, meridorious praise- 
worthy. 

melidbn, to merit, deserve. 

melik, see mela . . . 

melod, melody 

melodik, melodious 

melon, to salt, pickle. 

Melop, America. 

Melopel, American. 

melopik, American. 

melopon, to americanize. 

mem, memory. 

memik, memorial. 

membn, to remember, call back 
to memory. 



134 



GBAMMAE, OF VOLAPUK. 



men, man, li'timan being. 

menad, mankind, human-kind. 

menadik, human, of mankind 

menal, humanity, kindness, 
benevolence 

nienalik, humane, kind, bene 
volent, tender, sympathizing 
compassionate, mercifiiL ' 

menasot, tribe, race, family, 
race of men. 

xaennYedam, incarnation. 

jnenik, human. 

menod(-am), correction. 

menodei, corrector. 

menodik, corrective. 

menodoTi, to correct. 

mens, men, human-beings, 

menum, nicer person. 

menvLTa, the nicest person, the 
most excellent man, the 
■worthiest human-being. 

meniip, age of man. 

meot, melon, 

mesed, salary, wage{s), 

mesed&jn, recompense, rewart. 

mesedbn, to pay ; reward, "re- 
compense. 

Mesial, Messiah (Christ). 

Mesopotan, Mesopotamia, 

mestit, Mestizo. 

mesiil, measure, regulation. 

met, meter (french measure). 

metafer, metaphor. 

metafiisig, metaphisio. 

metal, metal. 

metalskn, metallurgy. 

metaZel, metallist. 

metalik, metallic, of metal, 

metalon, to metallize. 

meug (tikski), mind, propensity, 
inclination. 

meugik, inclined, disposed. 

meugon, to have a mind to. 



to be or to, feel inclined or 
disposed. 

meyel, farmer. 

meyelop, farm. 

meyen, manor. 

mi, wrong. 

mi .... , mis . . . . , dis .... 

miad, mete, limit, mark, boun- 
dary. 

Tnzarfam, demarcation. 

mid, flesh (of the body). 

midal, carnality, sensuality. 

midaiik, carnal, sensual, lecher- 
ous, lustful, lewd, lividinous, 
lascivious. 

midum, see dimidam. 

midik (mitik), fleshy. 

midoTi, to massacre, devour,, 
slaughter, kill, murder. 

mied, frontier. 

miedik, frontier — 

mied'6a, to limit, bound. 

miel, honey. 

mieldJceh, sweet cake. 

mielevdk, honey-comb, 

mielik (lesvidik) as sweet as,, 
honey. 

mien, red-lead. 

mienik, of red-lead. 

mig(-am), intermixture, mix- 
ture. 

migab, mongrel. 

miganip, megrim. 

mi^eSik, abused, wrong. 

mi^ebon, to abuse. 

miglam, kilogram (Kg) (French 
measure). 

migon, to mix, blend. 

mik, humility. 

Mikael Michael. 

mitapaliib, misunderstandings 
misconception. 

m/fcik, humble. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPillC. 



135 



jnikoji, to humiliate, humble. 
■mikonfid, want of confidence, 

mistrust, suspicion. 
raikonfidoTi, to mistrust, suspect, 

doubt, distrust, 
mil, thousand. 

milag, miracle, prodigy, wonder. 
milagskm, admiration. 
milagi^, miraculous, -wonderful. 
milagni^, see lumilagnik. , 
milagon, to admire. 
Milan, Milan. 
raildil, thousandth part, 
mileg, butter. 
milegataJ, buttercask. 
milegon, to butter. 
inilel, number (of) thousand. 
mzVelos, the, a or per thousand. 
milia,A = 100 mzVion = 10.000 

tumion, 
milidi, thousanth. 
mz'fidna, the thousandth time. 
mi'Zidno, for the thousandth 

time. 
milidiO, in the thousandth place. 
milig, milk, 
miligapin, cream, 
miliga/jmik, creamj'. 
miligai-af, whey, 
miligauarik, wheyey. 
miligel, milker. 
miligik, milky. 
miligon, to give milk (to milk, 

teton). 
milik, thousandfold. 
milion, thousandth power of 

Ja/ion (million)=bals tumion. 
milit, army. 
miliial, military spirit. 
miliian, army-corps. 
milit A, military chief, general, 

commander in chief (of an 

army). 



militfm, armoury, martial law. 

militemils.. See militik. 

militi\, military (adjective). 

miljncf, kilometer. 

milnsi, thousand times. 

maVnalik, thousand times repeat- 
ed. 

m?7nik, cf thousand sorts 

milmko, in thousand ways. 

milno, for the thousandth time. 

milo, devilish! 

milon, to multiply by a thou- 
sand. 

min, mineral. 

mina,Y, mineralogy. 

mmavik, mineralogio. 

jnmavel, mineralogist. 

mined, ore-foundery. 

Mingelan, Mingrelia. 

mimk, mineral (adj). 

minut, minute. 

minutik, at every minute (every 
moment) repeated. 

Minyo, Minho. 

miot, dirt, ordure, dung. 

mioi&, dirty. 

mioion, to dirt. 

■miplidi\ displeasing. 

vniplidm, to displease. 

mipukon, to misspeak, mistake 
or err in speaking. 

misal,' misery, need. 

OTzsafad, mercy, compassion. 

misala,dik I mercyful, compass- 
ionate. 

masoZadon, to have mercy(upon). 

misalik, miserable, wretched, 
pitiful, lamentable. 

mif, meat, butcher-meat. 

mit&l, butcher. 

mitelon, to butcher, slaughter,' 
kill. 

miteloTp, slaughter-house. 



136 



GRAMMAll OF VOLAPUK. 



mitea, butchery, butcher'ashop. 

mtrik (midik), fleshy, 

miton, to cut off flesh, carve 

the meat, chop meat, 
mo, begone, move, gee-ho, shift, 

forward (mofo). 
mo . . . ., .... away, 
mo! away! begone! gee up! 
mo poly. . . . (mSd& . . . ., 

modi , . . .) 
moaf, mole, mould-warp, 
mob, proposal, 
mob, piece of furniture. 
mo6m, absence. 
moVon, to propose. 
mobm, to furnish, 
mod, manner, way, mode, 

method, course.' 
mod, multitude. 
mods, . . ., poly. . ., {See mo .-. .) 
modaxo., augmentation, increase, 
modarawm, majority. 
mSdaper&&, polygraphy. 
modapenajAel, polygraph, 
mocfapenadik, polygraphic. 
mo&/(o), to-morrow. 
model, augmenter. 
moi^eZik, of to-morrow, for to- 
morrow. 

modi, poly (See mo ....). 

morfik, numerous, many, 
morfikna, many times, often. 
modiko, in a manifold or plural 

way. 
modikxxm., more. 
mo(Zikumiks, several, many 

more, 
roorfikiin, most (pM); 
wMkiino, for the most part, 

for the greater part. 
modiaeplarak, of more than one 

meaning or signification, 
modna. See mSdikna. 



modnik, of many sorts, many 
manifold, plural. 

modo, in .... way; in .... 
manner, in . . . method (with 
1st case). 

modo, much. 

modon, to augment, in crease. 

tnodag, See ra6Asnu7n. 

modixkstm, multiplication. 

modvikei, multiplier. 

modiikoa, to multiply. 

TOodiimiks, morethan .... sev- 
eral (ans). 

raodunon, to put away. 

mof, motive, cause ; instigation. 

mo/el, driver. 

mo/ih, omnibus, buss. 

mofik, continually, lasting, 

jRoflarak, multilateral. 

mofo, away. 

mofo! away! begone! (mo!, 

yi!). 

mof on, to drive on, put away, 

mog, hazel, hazel-tree. 

mog, possibility. 

mo5'a5tc? (Grammar:), Subjunct- 
ive mood (-la), 

mogik, possible. 

mog'of. See kosit. 

mo^o/(-am), going away. 

mo^oZon, to go away. 

mogon, to be possible. 

mo^oreon, to run away, walk 
away. 

mo/Kfon, throw away, pour out, 

mok, preparation. 

nxokomon, to come away. 

mofcon, .to prepare. 

mol, gentleness, affability, com- 
plaisance. 

rabl, navy. 

molad, fashion(-klota??M)f). 

moladel, milliner. 



GRAJTMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



is; 



mola£k, modem, new. 

moladoTk, TO modernize. 

Uoldar. iloldau. 

Moldat^ii, MolAa-ria. 

i«oGk, complaisant, affable, 
gentle, meek. 

»i9&k, of the navy. 

molin, (Mo), molybdena. 

molod. murder. 

rao/ixSl, mind for mnrdering, 
thirst of hlood. blood-thirsti- 
ness. 

tnoiM&lik, hlood-thirsty^. 

malodel, mnrderer. 

molodSk, mnrderons, barbarons. 

iiwlodoa, TO murder. 

moltin, mortar. 

Moluks, Moluccas. 

mon, money. 

mon, wall. 

mona/on,to sail off, diiTe away. 

monak, monarchy. 

munaJcei. monarch 

monaJcik, monarchal. 

flional, covetoTisness, ararice. 

tn^nalan, miser, niggard. 

nionalik, covetous, greedy, avari- 
cious. 

nionalSn, to be greedy, scrape. 

uionam, coining, stamping of 
coin. 

moned(-am), admonition es- 
horcation, advice. 

monedel, exhorter. 

monedon, to exhort, admonish 
warn, caution, advise. 

fRonel, mason, bricUager. 

numik, pecuniary, money — 

monit. ride, course. 

monitajtai), horsemanship. 

raoiuJel, horseman. 

fROnitem, troop of horse. 

BunUlea, cavalry, horse. 



monton, to ride, mount, break 

(a horse). 
mono, in money, 
monc^am, monogram. 
»i«n5n, to coin, mint, stamp, 
monon, to build a wall, to 

mason, 
monop, monopoly. 
montial, knighthood, 
montiel, knight, chevalier. 
tttontielik, knightly. 
nu>nAe25f, knightliness. 
mop .... (mopoV.). 
m^op .... (mopol !). 
mop2aii5n, to propagate, spread, 
mopcion, to carry away. 
mop«Hk, 
mor. Moor. 
Moran, Mauritania. 
morik. Moorish. 
Mosel. Moselle 
!Moskav, Moscow. 
mos<g), prioress. 
mo$t^f»l, progressive mind, 
mosfgnk, progressional. 
mostepon, to prt^ress. 
niosuJu(-am), taking away(sum). 
mosumSn, to take away, lift, 

(sumon). 
mot, (ji-iat), mother, 
mot, mam, mamma 
mo&l, maternal love, motherly 

love, 
niotan, mother-country. 
moTajiii, mother-tongue. 
Tuotav, departure, 
motacon, to depaxT. 
motel, moTher's-fether (grand- 

fether on mother's side). 
modk Qi-jaOk), motherly. 
DMiof, birth. 
moton, to brii^ forth, be brought 

to bed, deliver, be lying in. 



138 



GEAMMAB, OF VOLAPUK. 



mil, like, taking after, 

mub, mulberry. 

mubaizm, mulberry-tree. 

mucut, mule. 

mud, mouth. 

ffltj(Zik,Terbal,oral,by the mouth. 

miid, softness. 

miid&va, softening. 

mu(Kk, soft. 

mudTl, little mouth. 

mudo, verbally, orally [sago). 

mudoi, verbalism. 

mvdoTi, to suit the taste. 

miidon, to soften. 

mued, dumbness, muteness. 

miied, softness, tenderness. 

muedSl, tenderheartedness 

(zadal). 

muedsxa, getting dumb. 

miied&m, getting tender. 

muedik, dumb, mute. 

iniiedik, meak, tender, soft. 

inuedon, to get dumb 

miedoTi, to make soft or tender. 

inuefon, to pull, snatch. 

muf, motion. 

miif, portable or stationary 
engine. 

«m;^al (m«/amal) emotion. 

mufam, moving. 

jKw/ik, movable. 

mu/lik, uncertain, loose, chang- 
ing, careless. 

mufbn, to move, cause to move. 

mufon, to stir. 

mug, mouse. 

mugon, to catch mice, 

mtifc, discretion, modesty. 

miikik, discreet, modest. 

mul, month.' 

mvil, mill. 

mulasfora, mill-stone. 

mUle\, miller. 



muli^' monthly. 

miiloji, to mill; to be miller > 

mum, mummy. 

mumik, mummylike. 

mun, moon. 

miin, ore. 

7?!tma, moon — 

miinaseJ, mine-pit, mine. 

■mwndel, Monday. 

■mandelik, Monday — 

mun&Zo, on Monday(s). 

mumk, moon — 

manik, of oro, metallic. 

miip, vaccination ; ingrafting, 

inoculation. 
miipoji, to vaccinate, ingraft, 

inoculate, 
mur, murmuring, grumbling. 
murik, peevish, grumbling, 
muron, to murmur grumble, 
miir, miimbling. 
miiroTi, to mumble, mutter, 
musam, entertainment, convers- 
ation (discourse). 
7nusam'6n, to entertain, 
musif, mosaic, 
musig, music. 
musigadmel, music-seller. 
musigafoliit, quart (music i). 
musigajdliji, octave (music c). 
musigel, musician. 
musigon, to make music, 
musof, muse, 
mut, compulsion, 
mut, (the) being compelled to, 

constraint. 
miitaJtcZ (Grammar), Gerund^ 

gerundium. 
mutin, mustard, 
muton, to compel, constrain 

oblige. 
mJitSn, must, ought, to be 

obliged. 



GRAMMAU OF VOLAPUK. 



139 



H". 



na (before fowels: nag) after 
(that). 

.... na times, 

nab, narrowness. 

naiani, narrowing. 

nabik, narrow. 

nnJon, to narrow. 

nad, needle. 

nad, fir- wood. 

naed, once, (time(s)). 

naf, ship, vessel. 

nafaJj'm, mast. 

nafaccm, cabin. 

nafaZiVam, skylight. 

no/am, navigation. 

na/an, pilot. 

nafel, skipper, captain, ship- 
master. 

nafen, navigation, shipping. 

nafik, navigable. 

na/il, little ship, small vessel. 

nafin, sail. 

nafot, navigableness. 

nafoTi, to navigate, sail. 

nag, See na. 

nag(-en), sewing. 

nagacin, sewing-machine. 

na^on, to sew. 

nak, anchor. 

inJc'dm (kom), arrival. 

naHmon, to arrive. 

nofcon, to anchor. 

nal . . . ., — after, — again ; 
(po , pos ). 

nam, hand. 

nam, strength, power. 

namafci^f, kiss-hand. 

namal, strong hand, power, 
(person). 

namal, power of the mind. 



namscm., handling, use. 

namat, manufacture. 

nama?e^, glove. 

naniA, workman, worker, la- 
bourer. 

mamik, hand — 

namik, strong, powerful. 

namon, to handle, use, manage 
maintain. 

nambn, to strengthen. 

niimn, by force of; in virtue of. 

namnn, handicraft, profession, 
trade. 

nan .... (nanam !) 

nanam, reimbursement. 

nanamoxL, to reimburse. 

Nasan, Nassau. 

nat, nature. 

nat, native simplicity. 

nazal, naturalness. 

na<av, natural philosophy, phyp- 
ics. 

noZavik, physical. 

natem, breath. 

natemon, to breathe. 

narik, natural. 

nadk, naive, ingenious. 

natin (Na), natrium. 

natou, to naturalize, endenizen. 

natum, natron. 

naud, loathing, nausea. 

naudik, loathsome, naiiseous. 

naudm, to loathe, nauseate. 

naval, navwal, sea-unicoin. 

ne . . . . (negative prefix). 

Neapolis, Napels. 

neb, next, side, 

neba . . . ., side - 

nebacem, side-room, side-apart- 
ment, (lucem). 



140 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



nebad .... (nebarfom!). 

nebacZm, bymatter; secondary 
business. 

nebac/om, second house (second 
sbop, second-office, branch- 
office). 

neba/u^, by figure. 

nebanj flowing, flood, flux. 

nehanon, to flow. 

nebe/e!i!ik, unattaokable. 

nebel, valley, vale, dale. 

nehemed, being withoutfortune, 
not being monied. 

nebemerfik, not rich. 

ne?)«nod(5a£fod),villany, wicked- 
deed. 

nebesien, purity, immaculated- 
ness. 

nebesfereik, unspotted, pure im- 
maculate 

Txehin, unexistence, the not- 
being. 

neblamik, unblamable. 

nebo, by-the-bye; in a hurry. 

nei'6\ be off!, on this side! 

neJoserik, noiselessly, quietly, 
silently. 

nebuko, external. 

necod, injustice. 

necodik, unjust. 

ned, need. 

nedan, unthankfulness, ingrati- 
tude. 

Nedan, the Netherlands. 

n:dcine\, Dutchman. 

nedoreik, ungrateful, unthank- 
ful. 

nedanik, Dutch, Holland — 

nef^anSf, ingratitude. 

Tiedei, innocence. 

necfeftal, faultlessness,innoeence. 

nedehik, faultless, innocent. 

Tiedeil (lif), life. 



nedeilik, immortal. 
nedeiloi, immortality. 
ne(fefc^mof,(G-rammar:)undeclin- 

ableness. 
nedel (neit), night. 
nedelik, nightly, nocturnal. 
nedelidik, cheap, not dear. 
nedelidoi, cheapness 
nedelo, atnights, through the 

night. 
nedet, lefthand. 
■aedefai, lefthandedness. 
ne&^alik, lelfthanded. 
neierik, left. 
Tuedeto (nedferiko), (at the) left, 

at the lefthand side. 
■aedetu, to the left of. 
nedik, needy, indigent, poor. 
neditut, atom. 
nedisin, planlessness. 
nerfismik, planless. 
nedistuk, indestructibility. 
nedistakik, indestructible. 
ned6n, to need, want, require. 
nedun[-a.m), leaving aside, 
net^unon, to leave behind. 
nedut, slowness. 
■aedutik, slow, dull, 
neduton, to be slow, dull, to 

loiter, idle, 
nef, nephew. 

nefik, of (a) (the) (my) nephew, 
ne/ecenik, unexchangeable ; not 

to be confounded, 
ne/enik, indefatigable, unwear- 
ied. 
nefied, infidelity. 
nefiedik, unfaithful, faithless. 
nefiedbn, to be faithless, grow 

unfaithful. 
ne/if ik, free of fever, 
nefikul, easiness. 
ne^fcuZik, easy, not difficult. 



GRAMMAR OV TOLAFnK. 



141 



■aejin. endlessness, infinity, in- 
finitude. 

ne/init, endless, infinite. 

ne^nirik, infinitiTe (verbnm). 

nenno, infinitely, greatly. 

aeflen, enemy 

ne/?(fn5l, hostilitv. 

ne^enalit, hostile. 

ne/enik, unfiriendly, inimical, 
envious. 

ne/fiion, to be nnfiriendly to- 
wards somebody, treat in a 
hostile manner. 

ne/omam, disfiguring. 

ne/OBiit, disfigured, deformed. 



ne/Sin, indefiniteness. 

ne/trniik, indefinite. 

ncgeo. no where. 

negelo, never, nevermore. 

n^iT. injustice, \rrong. 

neyjifik, unjust, unrighteous. 

neif. knife. 

Xeil, :?sile. 

neila/foai, hippopotamus. 

neiSk, Xilatic. 

neit, (nedel). night. 

neita^afel, night-'watch. watch- 
man. 

n«i<(al, obscure person. 

neit cunaftfymOjShrove-Tuesday. 

neidk (deoEefik). nightly no*-- 
tumal. 

neiako, noctumally. 

neiVo, at n%ht, through the 
night, by night. 

n^iiron, to get dark. 

nejalepik, lukewarm. 

n^enak, shameless. 

ne/iemSf, shanie!essness. 

ne/onik, ugly, not beantifdl. 

ne/uiik, without shoes, bare- 
footed. 



nek, nobody. 

neitopalnof, unintelligibleness. 

neW. (sonlil). grand-son. 

neUk, nobody's. 

nekleil, indistinctness. 

neX-!ei2ik, indistinct. 

Txeklod, unbelief. 

nei:2o(fik, unbelieving. 

nei-K<flik, incredible. 

netonsido, in spite of, nc t with- 
standing. 

netonsidn, notwithstanding 

neW*/, turbidness. 

ne£/u&k, turbid. 

neZ'osdmik, tmaccnstomed, un- 
usual, uncommon. 

neiioten, discontentedness. 

neto/enik, discontented. 

neliiZ/rop. wilderness. 

nel . (neiiim'K 

nelah, want., abstinance. priva- 
tion, absence 

nelih. unhappiness, misfortune. 

ne/a5ad, curse. 

ne2a<&don, to swear, curse. 

neZatik, unhappy. 

neiaion, to want, miss. 

netefton, to perish, meet withan 
accident, suffer shipwreck. 

ne^anim, ftintheartedness. in- 
sipidity. siUiness, pusillani- 
mity, fear, cowardliress . 
timidity, cowardice. 

ne/on^mik, insipid, silly, cow- 
ardly, base. 

neJetfik, pale, wan. 

neledag, green-aickness. 

ne/eo(fik, unorderly. 

nele^tonik, unacceptable. 

nelesuiBof, unacceptableness. 

nefcft), fore. 

nefc/6n, to prevent, hinder. 

nel&n, elephant. 



142 



GRAMMAS OF ^'OLAfuK. 



nel/anog, elephant-tooth, ivory, 
neiifc, being unfree. 
ne/ifcik, vinfree, unsafe. 
neZj^ik, lifeless, dead. 
nelifot, lifelessness. 
Nelij, England. 
nelyel, Englishman. 
nelijik, English. 
nelijon, to English. 
nelisan, ignorance, 
neiisanik, stuped, foolish, igno- 
rant, 
ne^q/ad, uncharitableness, -want 

of loveliness. 
nelofol, loveless. 
nelogii., invisible. 
neZo^of, invisibility. 
nelonedo (neZonef^iko), lately, 

some time ago, (hletimo). 
nelovegioHk, intransitive. 
nelum, dryness. 
nelUm, thirst. 
nelumapop, blotting-paper, 
nefumik, dry. 
neiamik, thirsty. 
nelumon, to dry. 
neZanion, to thirst, 
nem, name. 

nema/lik, immeasurable. 
ne»ja/uk5n, to exaggerate, 
nemain, denomination. 
neOTec?amik(o), immediately. 

direct 
nemigik, unblended, unmingled, 

unmixed, 
nemik, named, called, 
nemlonik, proper-name, 
nemlik (paid), principally, 

chiefly, especially, 
iiemo, called, with the name 

of.... 
r.emdb, immovables, real estate. 
nemod, fewness. 



noftorfik, few. 
ne?norfo, little, not much, 
neinorfiino, at the least, 
nemof/ik, impossible, 
nemon, to name, call, denomin- 
ate, - style, term, mention, 
spioify, nominate, designate, 
nemii, in name of. 
nen, without, 
nena (notify, not once, 
nendas, without (that), 
nenewik, nameless, 
nenzfedik, not interesting, un- 
interesting. 
ne)i(Vedlik, not interested, un- 
interested, 
nen meserfam, unrewarded, un- 

recompensed. 
nenoganik. disorganized, un- 
systematic, 
nenomoma/ik, irregular, 
nenum (plumorf), numberless 

quantity, 
nenumik, numberless, innumer- 
able, 
nenumikna, innumerously often, 
nenumflf, innumerousness. 
neo, without, 
nep .... [nepol !). 
nepal, orphan, 

nepeiuKyol, untilled, unbuilt, 
nepeniafol, unmarried. 
nepe?«ierf6l, unlimited, 
nepesewik, unknown, 
nepewofol, unchanged, 
nepi'en, poorness. 
nepin, meagerness, leanness. 
nepofiidik, useless, needless. 
nepoHk, faultless, without 

mistakes, free of errors. 
nep'ol, infallibility, 
nepolik, infallible, 
neponik, unpunished. 



CUAMMAll OF VOLAPUK. 



143 



nepud, insubordinatioE, indisci- 
pline. 

nepud.; discovd. 

nepurfik, insubordinate, know- 
ing no discipline. 

nepudik, discordant. 

Taepued, lewdness, incontinence. 

nspuediV, unchaste, immodest, 
lewd, incontinent. 

nepiik, taciturnity. 

nepiik'dn, to be silent. 

nes, without .... ing, (present 
participle of the verb). 

nesan, mischief, harm. 

nesanik, mischievous, causing 
harm. 

nesanlik, unhappily; wickedly, 
unwholesome. 

nesatel, glutton, one never sa- 
turated. 

nesatlik, uneated. 

nesavik, unsavable. 

nesgmop, nowhere. 

nesemopa, from no place. 

nesenik, insensible 

nesi'am, denial. 

ne«jamik, denying, negative. 

neseamikos, the negative. 

nesi'el, refuser 

nesjelik, refusing, negative. 

nesiSa, to deny, gainsay, dis- 
avow; to refuse, renounce. 

neslip, sleeplessness. 

nesmeZik, without smell, scent- 
less 

nesterfik, not right. 

nestim, (nestUm), contempt, dis- 
esteem. 

nesHmik (nestumik), contempt- 
uous, disdainful. 

nestimbn, to despise. 

nestu, notwithstanding, in spite 
of. 



nesuemik, incomprehensible, in- 
conceivable. 
aesun, late, not soon, not early, 
net, nation. 

netdlenik, not talented. 

ne^am, population. 

netSisgit, law of nations. 

netdisgitik, according to the law 
of nations. 

ne^at, nationality. 

weak, national. 

ne^ifcalnel, layman. 

netip, bluntness, obtuseness. 

netipik, blunt, obtuse. 

netotodik, free of duty, not 
subject to the imposition of 
customs, toll-free. 

neton, to naturalize. 

neiug, vice, mischief. 

netuv, missing, wanting. 

metuvon, to miss, want. 

neud,(Grrammar)neutral gender, 

neudai, neutrality, impartialit}". 

neudik, neutral, impartial. 

neudon, to neutralize. 

ney, nerve, sinew. 

nev&flf, nervine fever, typhus. 

nevelad, lie, untruth. 

neveladi\., liar. 

nevdad&Vik., disposed to lie. 

neveladik, untrue, false. 

neveladQji, to lie, utter falsehood . 

uevelat, untruth. 

nevelatik, untrue, false. 

nevelo, never. 

neveUtik, insignificant. 

neuz/ik, slowly. 

nevifoi, slowness. 

nevik, nervous. 

nevil(-sija), refusal. 

newYon, to refuse. 

newo ! excuses ! 

nezed, continuance, endlessness. 



144 



GEAMMAE OP VOLAFUK. 



ne^erfik, incessantly. 

nezesiicKk, needless, superflu- 
ous, useless, redundant. 

ni . . . (nil . . .), ad . . ., ap . . . 

ni . . . ni . . . , neither . . . nor . , . 

nib, licking. 

nibel, sweettooth. 

nibik, lickerisli. 

nibof, lickerishness, daintiness. 

nilon, to eat sweeties 

nid, lustre, brilliancy. 

Nidan, India. 

Niddnik, Indian, 

nidanone/j/ik, Indo-Bnglisk. 

nirfes . . . ., in ... . 

nidian, Indian 

mrfik, brillianb, radiant, res- 
plendent, bright. 

nidin (Id), indium. 

nidon, to glitter, dazzle. 

nieg, nickel. 

niegin (Ni), nickel. 

niegoa, to nickel 

nil, snow. 

miafal, snowfall. 

nifal, pureness, neatness. 

ni/alik, pure, neat. 

nifaftm, winter, 

nifaftmik, winterlike. 

nifaioni, torrent of snow. 

nifik., snowy. 

nifon, to snow. 

nifos, it snows, it is snowing. 

nig, ink. 

nigik, ink — (adj). 

Nigizan; Nigritia. 

nik .... (onikos !). 

nil, proximity, vicinity. 

nil ... . See ni . . . . 

nilaxa, approach. 

nilel, neighbovir. 

nz7elik, neighbouring. 

nilik, near. 



n27ikun(o), nearest. 

nilo, (adv) near, in the prox- 
imity. 

nilon, to approach, draw near. 

nilvL, (prep), closer, nearer. 

?j;7u, (pre), near, closeto. 

nilud, opinion, idea. 

niludam, meaning. 

niludim, to fancy, presume, 
think, suppose. 

nzViino, (adv) the nearest. 

jwYiinu (prep, in the superlat- 
ive), the nearest. 

nim, animal. 

(M'maf, ma,mmal. 

mmafc5n, to suckle. 

nima/««, carrion. 

ntmaia, brutalization. 

nJmav, zoology. 

nimexn., menagery. 

nmik, animal, beastly. 

nimon, to brutalize. 

nin, including. 

nin . . . , in . . im . . . (nii . . ") 

mnsklised, register of contents. 

ninrfzYam, participation. 

nina!ufc(-am), importation, in- 
troduction. 

■aindukorL, to import, introduce. 

nin/«CT6n, (of rivers :; to fall 
into, run into. 

m'nik, inclusive. 

niniko, enclosed, inclosed. 

ninkikon, to inclose, lock in. 

ninkldmon, to put between 
brackets, use the parenthesis. 

nin^d're, inland. 

ninKnel, inlander. 

ninZanik, inland — 

ninlem, purchase, bargain. 

ninZemon, to purchase, buy, 
cater. 

mnlodel, inmate, inhabitant. 



GRAJOIAB OP TOIAPUK. 



145 



niiuuiteaiiSii, to inhale. 

nihSf, caqpacitj, contents. 

nino£k, — of capacit;-. 

innSfo, — of contenrs. 

nmSfon (ninio^n, rliVlon^. to 
contaun, include. * 

ninocojr, lidllowness. 

ninoco^, hoUowne^, empti- 
ness. 

ninoco^ik. hoUow. emptr 

ninoca^rng, hoUowness, empti- 
ness, 

ninmw^, riiinel. 

imigped, impression. 

niqiMdSn, to impress. 

nii^pe'on, to prepay (money). 

mnjaenad, snperseription. h&td. 

lamsad, iT^ertion. 

ninsii<&m. pl.ioius, T;\idiig in 
employment. 

jdnsed, importation, sending in. 

ninseiM, importer, cme who 
sends in. 

ninse<£}n. to import, send in. 

oinseiitSn, to pnt in. 

ninsAmSn, to stand in. 

ninsn^Sn, to snck in. imbibe. 

ninstfiM, receipt. 

ninAmon, to bind. 

mnsed, inward. 

inmynmon, to insert. 

Biobin (Hb), niobinm. 

ms, therein, herein, thereby. 

nisnsfon, to lie near hand. 

nis«i(6n, to lay near hand. 

nisfonon. to be near. 

nisnl, isle, island. 

nuHfel. islander. 

■HBiifik, of an island. 

ntsHfil. islet. 

Xisnls tcorik, Azores. 

nit . . . (monit!, pSnit!) 

sited, interest, concern. 



nite£k, interesting. 

mVcdlik, interested, concerned. 

nitedSn, to interest. 

nivei. nmyersity. 

no, no; not- 

no . . . noble — 

no. not mneh, not Terr, not 

particularly, not very well. 

not easily. 
noiit, note, banknote. 
noaiSn, to write a banknote, 
nob. nooless. dignity, ffreatnes; 

of mind, 
no&al, generosi^. 
no ioZna, not once. 
nobasAvn, precious stone. 
nobSston. jewel, 
nobastonel, jeweller, 
nobasftmon, to be jeweller. 
fi.rel. .Nr baoneL 
noftik, noUe, generous. 
',i?-oii. to ennoble, 
nod . . . (feAmod !) 
noe . . . ioi. not only. . . but als:>. 
nod, witness. 
noehau, declaration. 
MoeGk, of the witwess (es). 
HotlasL, TO bear witness, testify, 

attest, declare, 
noeffid. testimony. 
no eslmffil, unstudied. 
noet. note, remark. 
Hoeiau, to note, take a note of; 

remark. 
nof(-am), affiront. insult. 
nq/hlo. not further, no more, 
no/el, affronter, insulter. 
no&on. to affiont, instilt. 
nog, yet; no nog, not yet. 
nogan, organ. 
nogamk. organic. 
noganoa, to organize. 
nog, egg. 

10 



146 



GBAMMAR 01? VOLAPuK. 



nogik, oval; 

nogin (N), azote. 

noginik, azotic. 

nogon, (of hens and birds:) to 

lay (eggs), 
noin (No), norium. 
nok, rapping, knocking, 
nok, uncle, 
nokeb, neck, throat. 
«6fce6a'el, mane (of a horse, 

lion &c). 
nokebaifcM/, neck-cloth. 
nokehaliidi, hoarseness. 
nofceJaliidik, hoarse, 
noked, tie, cravat. 
TOoifcon, to knock, rap. 
nol, knovrledge. 
noZav, the knowing. 
n61ed(-am), infection, 
noledasm, original sin. 
noledik, infective, infecluous, 
noledon, to infect. 
nolel, learned man. 
jioZelik (pefe'rfol), learned. 
noZigik, worth knowing. 
nolik, scientific. 
nolo, wilfully, premeditately. 
noiai, eruditeness. 
no l6/oh-li, do I not love? do 

I not like? 
»offilik, wilful. 
nololo, willingly. 
nolQjx, to know, 
noliid, North, the North. 
Noludarfeuf. North-Germany. 
Noludafcep, North Cape. 
NoludameZ, North-Sea. 
NoliidameZop, North-America. 
NoliidH-n, the North, the North- 
ern Countries. 
NoliidareetZan, North-Nether- 

land. 
nolMik, northern. 



noKlefiid, north-east. 

noMefudik, north-eastern. 

noluuedl, northward. 

jLolvivesi'A, north-west. 

nolnvesiidik, north-western 

horn, rule. 

nom . . . (konom!). 

nomam, regulation. 

nomat, regularity, normality. 

nomik., normal. 

nomoA, mentioning. 

no miidikum, no more, no larger 

quantity. 
nomomaf, regularity. 
nomomafih, regular, 
momon, to rule, order, regulate. 
non(no5m), the not being, 
noned. denial 
nonel, denier, 
nonelik, denying. 
nomk, none. 

non6i, nothingness, nullity. 
nonUn- to deny. 
n<5p . . . (glenop\) 
noplu, not more (See no mod- 

ikum), 
Norman, Normandy. 
Norvegan, Norway. 
Norvegdnik., Norwegian, 
nos, nothing, 
raosam. annulmemt. 
nosanwm, nought, 
nosanwmon, to annul, 
raosel, nuUifier. 
nosik, good for nothing. 
nosiZaiel, poor person, one thas 

possesses nothing, 
noslik, good for nothing, 
nosdn, to annul, 
noson, to put out, quench, 

extinguish, 
not, information, 
not, nut. 



GRAMMAR OF YOLAPfiK. 



147 



notsAim, nut-tree. 

flofad, manifestation, ii^orma- 
tion. 

notam, Nota Bene, N.B,, ob- 
serve ■well. 

nofed, remark, note. 

noleddn, to remark, mind, ob- 
serve. 

notei, acqnainter, publisher, 
informer. 

notj^ (neiui). not a sii^letime, 
not once. 

nodk, kno'wn, public. 

notik, niittr. 

noflik, a^nvre. informed, con- 
scious, acquainted 

nofodf-am). annonncejuent. 

ijoten, to suanounce. 

notuf, note (sound in music). 

note/el, composer. 

notu/elon, to compose 

Xovaisan, Zembla >voTa. 

nooej^o (leno), not at all, bv 
no means. 

noceZo^, uutrutt. 

noviet, (the noble white). 

noi-o-li?. not true? not so? 

novul, November. 

noculii., Xorember. — 

nil. now, 

nu . . . (nul . . . new . . . 

nn. &r lenu. 

Xnban, Xubia. 

Xubanei, Nubian. 

nud, nose. 

nnd. nakednsK. bareness. 

nuda'on. rhinoceros. 

nM<£Ll, selfconceit, 

nut&lik, conceited. 

nidam, denudation. 

RM<fik, of the nose. 

nutfik, naked, bare. 

nudZanon, to intrude, penetrate. 



nudod, handkerchief. 

nu<25n, to speak through the 
nose. 

nuf, roof. 

nti/iun, higher roof. 

nu/un (f^un), gable-roof. 

nug, hook, 

Xugan, Hungary. 

iS'u<7anel, Hongarian. 

Xuganik, Hongarian — 

ntigenel, engineer. 

nu^on, to hook. 

n.uik now, at the present day, 
at this time. 

Tsnjohin. Xew-Seotland. 

nul. newness. 

nul(-am). approach. 

nuia . . . (nu/o . . .), new-, Xew. — 

nuZab, newhand, novice. 

ntiZam. renewal, renovation. 

nulayeZ, ^Jsewvear. 

nuiik, new. 

nulio. lately, a littleago. just, 
not long since. 

nuio . . . 5i?t' niiia . . . 

»u25f, newness, novelty, re- 
centness. 

nuloyiiHk, New-Greek. 

nuion, to renew, renovate. 

n«Ion, to approach. 

Nulorfean, New-orleans. 

nnlud, food, nourishment, nu- 
triment, aliment. 

nulud, victuals; lively-hood. 

nulidam, feeding. 

nuludajn«d, article, means, or 
instrument for feeding. 

nuliel&t (da<2t«top), boarding- 
school. 

nuZudSf, nourishingness. 

milSddn, to nourish, feed. 

nillHd5f, boarding-house. 

nu/ff<fik, nourishing. 



148 



GRAMMAU OF VOLAPUK. 



niilut(-am), bringing up. 

nuluten, breeding. 

milut6n. to breed, bring up. 

num, mumber ; numeral. 

niim, number, numero. 

numal, teller, counter. 

numaKk, numeral — 

niim&m, telling, counting up. 

ni/mat, figure, cipher. 

numav, arithmetics. 

numSLvod, numeral word. 

mim&l, integer (of a fraction). 

NumidS,n, Numidia. 

Nu/nidamk, Numidian. 

finmlik, numerable. 

nttraon, to count, tell, number. 

nun, news, notice. 

niin, explanation, communica- 
tion. 

n«nal, messenger. 

nimam, communication, an- 
nouncement. 



nimeU messenger. 

n«nik, communicative. 

mino, (adv), as communication. 

n«nod, intelligence, inform- 
ation. 

ntmodel, informer. 

nunodon, to make known, an- 
nounce, let know, inform, 
communicate. 

nunSn, see nunodBn. 

niinon, to inform of, announce. 

mmu, (prefix with nominative:) 
asa notice, as communication 
as announcement. 

niip , . . . . (meiiiip !) 

jmtlid, entrance. 

niitlidainon, price of a ticket 
for admission, entree-money. 

niitlidon, to enter. 

NuZuyan, Newfoundland. 

Nu?i(i''inel, Newfoundlander. 

Nuitiuanik, Newfoundland, 



o! o! oh! 

o ! . . . (mark of the vocative, 
or fifth case), o! 

o , (prefixed mark of the 

first futuretense of the active 
verbs). 

... 0, (afiBxed mark of the ad- 
verb). 

6! ah! 

6 . . . . (et), just. 

ob, I. 

0. b. (=:osbinos), i. e (id est), 

that is. 
oia, my; mine 
o6as, (obsa), our, of us. 
o6e, me, to me. 
oJel, the. 
obes to us. 



oH, me (fourth case). 
oJik, See ob. 
oiika, singular 2nd 
oJikas, plural 2nd 
oMke, singular 3rd \^ „ 
oiikes, plural 3rd i , ., 
oJiki, singular 4th ] 
oftikis, plural 4th ' 
oftikof (ji-obik), my, mine (fe- 
minine), 
oiikos (os-obik), mine (neuter), 
ojiks, plural Ist case of obik. 
obis, us (4th case). 
obo, as for me, for my part. 
ob6 ! in my behalf! for my sake. 
obs, we. 
o6sa. See obas 
o6sik (obas, obsa), our. 



OEAMMAB or VOLAPuK. 



149 



oftsika, singular 2nd 

oisikas, plural 2nd 

oJsike, singular 3rd I case 

oftsikes, plural 3rd / of 

oJsiki, singular 4th \ ohik. 

oftsikis, plural 4th 

oisiks, plural 1st 

odelo, to-morrow 

of, she. 

of- .... , (particle placed before 
nouns, denoting self-sustain- 
ed women; for ex.-. of-ft'(7el, 
ladyteacher (on the contrary 
ji-tidel, wife of a teacher). ) 

o/a, her. 

o/as, her, their (plural fern). 

oi-at, this. 

of-at (aiof), just this, 

oi-bal, one (self-sustained). 

oi-blod, sister (of charity). 

oi-Monik, (unmarried) fair (wo- 
man). 

ot-hoblod, (unmarried) sister-in- 
law. 

waitress in a public 



lady-president, lady- 



oi-hotel, 
room. 

oi-cif, 
chief. 

of-danUde\, danceress, dancer. 

of -(lominikti'n, dominican nua. 

of-c?«nan, (unmarried) maid- 
servant. 

oi-diineX, maid, maid-servant. 

q/e, toher (singular) 

ofen. often. 

ofenik, often repeated , manyfold 

ofen penemSl, mentioned above 
or before. 

o/enumo, oftener. 

o/enimo, oftcnest. 

o/es, to her (plural). 

ot-gadel, (unmarried) female 
gardener. 



oi.gam, bride of Christ, nun, 

ot-^eK(el, (unmarried) heiress. 

o/ik (o/a), (singular) her. 

o/ika, singular 2nd case of 
qfik. 

o/ikas, plural 2nd case of 
qfik. 

o/ikof, hers, her. 

o/ikos, her (for neutral sub- 
jects). 

o/ikosa, of her (for neutral 
subjects). 

o/iks, their (plural, feminine). 

ol-jule\, scholar (girl). 

of-kel {keloi), who, that (fe- 
minine) 

of-kim? (kif?j, who (unmar- 
ried). 

oi-kimik'i (kio/'ik?), what sort 
of a (woman)? 

oi-kiom'i which? 

of-/ctoraale.<ton, (unmarried) heir- 
ess to the throne. 

ot-kosen, cousin (feminine) 
(daughter of a brother or a 
sister) 

oi-kukel, kitchen-maid ; cook- 
maid, 

of-Za&el, (unmarried), pro- 
prietress. 

oi-laf&blod, See of-lublod. 

oi-la/ason, See of-luson, 

of-leson, princess. 

of-lopel. See of-masel. 

ot-lnblod, (unmarried) step- 
sister. 

oi-lapiikel, gossip, talkative 
woman. 

of-lu«o?i, (unmarried) step- 
daughter. 

oi-masel, mistress. 

oi-matel, a kept mistress, con- 
cubine. 



150 



GKAMMAU OF VOLAPUK. 



oi-matiir, unmarried) martyr- 
ess. 

of-moterfel, (unmarried) milli- 
ner. 

of-na^el, sewing-maid. 

of-nef, (unmarried) cousin 
(daughter of an uncle or 
an annt). 

of-m6el, female sweettootli. 

oi-nok, (unmarried) aunt. 

of-n«nel, female messenger. 

oi-pul, girl. 

oi-pulik, girlislx. 

of-rorfel, woman engaged in a 
religeous order. 

o/s, they (those women). 

o/sik, her. 

ofsiks, their (feminine). 

of-sinel, female sinner. 

oi-sol, mistress, commandress. 

oi-son, (not-married) daughter. 

of-spu/el, spinster. 

of-sft'ifcel, embroiderer (fem). 

of-te'afel, lady-teacher. 

of-tiafiikel, washer-woman, 

laundress. 

oi-vige\, woman who works in 
the house for one' day every 
week. 

of-an, a (unmarried). 

oi-yim&l (vilgin), virgin. 

ok, on's self. 

ol, thou. 

olsb, thine. 

o/as (obsa), your (plural). 

ole, to thee. 

oZes, to you (plural). 

oil, thou (4th case singular). 

oZik (ola,), thine, thy. 



case 

of 

olsik. 



o/ika, singular 2nd. \ 
oHkas, plural 2nd. ( 
oSke, singular 3rd. I 
oHkes, plural 3rd. ) 



case 

of 

olik. 



oZiki, singular 4th. ) case of 

oZJffis, plural 4th. ] olik. 

oZikof (ji-oHk), your (feminine). 

oZikos, your (neutral). 

oHks, your (plural) 

olis, you people (4th case plural). 

olojfoh, I shall or will love, 
I shall or will like. 

oU, you people (plural). 

ols& (olas), your,.of you people. 

olsSs- (plas, oZsa) of you people, 
your. 

ofeika, singular 2nd. 

oZsikas, plural 2nd. 

oZsike, singular 3nd. 

oZsikes, plural 3nd. 

oZsiki, singular 4th. 

oZaikis, plural 4th. 

oZsikof, ji-olsik), your (feminine 
plural). 

oZsiks. pltiral 1st case of olsih, 

Oliimpia, Olympia. 

om, he. 

oma, of him, his. 

omas (omsa), of them, their's. 

ome, him, to him. 

omes, them, to them. 

omi, him, (4th case). 

omik, (oma), his. 

omika, singular 2nd^ 

omikas, plural 2nd 

omike, -singular 3rd ' 

omikes, plural 3rd 

omiki, singular 4th 

omikis plural 4th 

omikof (ji-omik, of-omik), his 
(for ex his : wife, sister, etc), 

omikos, (os-omik), his (netiter). 

omodel (ietoodel), day after to- 
morrow. 

oms, they (those men). 

omsik (omas, omsa), their 
(masc). 



case 

of 

omik 



GBAMJiAE OP VOLAPUK. 



151 



omaika., singular 2nd\ 

omsikas, plural 2nd I 

omsike, singular 3rd / case 

opibikes, plural 3rd } of 

OOTsiki, singular 4th \ omsik 

omsikis, plural 4th 

omsiks, plural 1st ' 

omiUo, in next month. 

on, one, somebody. 

o»a, of somebody. 

one, to somebody. 

6ned, (prep :) subject to, under. 

oneito, to-morrow night. 

oni, somebody (4th case). 

oni, downward, down. 

oreik (ona), somebody's, of some- 
body. 

oreikof, somebody's (female,) or 
feminine. 

onikos, somebody's (neuter). 

ojiiks, of some. 

ons, you (polite for thou). 

ansa., your, of you. 

ojisas, your (plural). 

onse, to you (singular). 

onses, to you (4th case singular). 

onsis, you (4th care plural). 

onsik (onsa), (polite singular) 
your. 

onsika, of your (singular). 

onsikas, of your (plural). 

o»sikof(ji-onsik),your(feminine). 

orasikos (os-o?isik), your (neviter). 

orasiks, your (plural). 

. . . op, (termination of the five 
paxts of the world). 

8p(o), locally (adverb). 

. . . op, (termination of names 
of towns. 

opik, local (adjective). 

Oran, Orange. 

Orfeus, Orpheus. 

OS, it. 



... OS, (termination of the neu- 
tral gender). 

... OS, (termination of the opt- 
ative). 

osa, its, of it. 

os-bal (bal-os), one thing 
(neuter). 

OS binos (o. b.), i. e., that is, 
namely. 

ose, in it, 

OSes, in the things, in them. 

os-et {etosj, that, that thing. 

osi, it (fourth case). 

osis, them, the things (4th case). 

osik (osa), its, of it, of same. 

osika, of its. 

osikas, of their, of these things. 

osike, to its. 

osikes, to their, (neufer). 

osiki, its (4th case). 

osikis, (4th case plural), their. 

osikof (ji osik), its (feminine). 

osikos, its (neuter). 

osiks, their, of their. 

os-kel (kelos), that, which (neu- 
ter). 

os-keli, which, that (4th case). 

os-o6ik (oJikos), my, mine (neu- 
ter). 

os-ot (otos), it, same. 

ot (feminine: ji-ot, otoi), the 
one, that. 

. , . ot, (neutral termination, 
with a, e, i, u) . . ing (-em, 
collective nouns, dresses). 

ot, just it, just the same. 

ota, singular 2nd \ 

otas, plural 2nd J ^^^^ 

ote, singular 3rd ' ^ 

otes, plural 3rd i 

oti, singular 4th ] 

otis, plural 4th / 

otik, the same (neuter). 



152 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



otof, the same (feminine) (sin- 
gular). 

otofs, the same (feminine plural). 

otois, just the same, just those 
(feminine). 

Oton, Antun. 

otos (os-ot), the same, same. 

otos, just the same (neuter). 

ots the same, those (neuter). 



ots, just the same, just those, 
otul, October. 
otula., of October. 
otulik, like October, 
ove, over, above (local), 
ovti, above it (higher than that). 
oyelo, next year, in the coming 
year. 



p (mark in all forms of 

the passive: pa, pai . . . .) 

pa ! woe ! alas ! 

pa ... . (prefix forthe passive 
present tense): is. 

pa ... , (prefix forthe passive 
pluperfecttense) : was. 

paan, panegyric, triumphal 
song. 

pab, butterfly. 

pad (depad!, kopad!) 

pad, parsonage (house), parish. 

padel, priest, father, confessor. 

piidel, parson, clergyman. 

pddik, parishional. 

padon, to take up in aparish. 

pael, one parent, one of the- 
parents (father or inother). 

paf, peacock. 

pag, village. 

pag, paganism, heathenism. 

pagel, inhabitant of a village, 
village . 

pagel, heathen. 

pdgSs., pagan, heathenish, 
heathen. 

pagil, hamlet, little village. 

pai . . . (aorist passive) : con- 
stantly, permanently. 

pain, larch-tree. 

pflitup (Grammar:) aorist. 



pak(-am), spreading. 

pak, pack. 

pafcam, packing. 

pdkedL, packet. 

pake&il, small packet. 

pakel, spreader. 

pakel, packer. 

pdkem, goods, (packed stuff). 

pcikeji, packing (the actof pac- 
king). 

pakil, parcel. 

■pa.klud6n, to result, follow, in- 
fer, determine, conclude. 

pakon to spread. 

pakon, to pack. 

pal, couple of parents, pair, 
parents. 

pal , double. 

pal(-am), production. 

palad. Paradise; garden of Eden . 

pMad ..'meadow, pasture-ground i 

paladik, Paradisiacal. 

pdladon, to graze. 

pdlal, paternal love 

paZam, coupling, pairing- 

palaseuOn, (voladon), to be 
worth avail, cost. 

pali/Z, double-beer. 

palei, relationship, 

palefel, relation. 

palefik, relational. 



GllAMMAE OP VOLAPliK. 



153 



paZemajiSn, to remain, be left 
over. 

palet, partjj. 

paletik, partial. 

paletoi, partiality. 

palik, parental. 

palnik, coupled, paired. 

paljium (Grammar;) dualis. 

paWA)b, I am loved. 

paZo/ob-li? am I loved? 

paZq/bb-la, She was loved. 

paW/ol, thou wert loved. 

paZo/oni-li? was he loved? 

paio/osos? may it be loved? 

pal6^^, to couple, pair. 

pcilo'a, to produce, cultivate. 

palot, supplice(s;. 

paliib . . , (mifcopalub !) 

paluofcaZ, diphthong. 

Palzan, the Paletinate. 

pam, palm. 

pam, essay. 

jiamik, palm 

pdmik.(y>epamb\) . 

pan, pawn, pledge. 

pan(en), painting. 

panaxi, pawnbroker. 

panel, pawner, pledger. 

^dnel, painter. 

panemon, to be called, named. 

panon, to pawn, pledge. 

pdnon, to paint ; to be painter. 

panunon,to get informed, learn, 
hear, betold, 

pap, poiJe. 

pap, papa. 

joa/jik, papal. 

papo/am, impoverishment. 

papo/ore, to grow poor, impo- 
verish. 

papxCo, popery. 

Par, Parcae, the Pates. 

par . . . (Par !) 



paradim, paradigm. 

Paris, Paris (man). 

Paris, Paris (city). 

PdrisA, Parisian. 

pasa^o! {sagbV), speak! 

paserfel, ambassador. 

pasei/b ! {seilb !) ! silent ! quiet ! 

hold your tongue! 
pasfcanon, to take offence, 
pat. speciality, particulaiity. 
pat, patent. 
Patagan, Patagonia. 
PatagdnA, Patagonian. 
Tjy&talcedo\ (takedb!), do not 

bother, or break your head ! 

don't be afraid! be easy! 
patik, particular, special, 
patiko, jiartioularly, especially 

principally. 
^&tlodik (TpnUodo), comforted. 
pa(Zod!o! (tlodol), be comforted! 
pato, See patiko. 
paton, to separate, specify, 
plitbn, to patent. 
Tpsitiep, present tense, 
paiapik, presently, now-a-days. 
pattip, imperfect tense, 
paud, pause, interval, 
paudon, to pause, demur, 
paun, pound. 

pauno, a pound, per pound, 
pe, formerly, beforehand, 
pe . . . (prefix for the passive 

perfect tense. 
peb, pulse. 
Tpebal'ol, united. 
pecaZel, officer, funtionary. 
ped, press ; printing-press, 
peciam, pressure; print, printing. 
Tpedeiiilol, detailed. 
pedon, to press; to print, 
pe/anel, prisoner, 
pe/anol, caught, captive. 



154 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPilK. 



pe^nol (pe^nik), ready, done, 
accomplished, over, past. 

po/?itad8l, pinioned, winged. 

pe/unol, killed, dead. 

pe/«raon (edeilSJi), to be dead. 

peil, pea. 

peilik, like peas(e) as a pea. 

pein, pine (tree). 

^emik,' pine-(adjective). 

pejin, male pigeon. 

■pekofiiJcol, ready, finished, made, 
accomplished. 

pekoszWol (pekoszacZik), com- 
plicated, intricate. 

'pekukik, enough boiled. 

Tpehulivol, civilized, civil. 

pel (-am), payment. 

pelsl, paymaster, treastirer 

peZammol, animated, encou- 
raged. 

pelasewolo, acknowledged. 

pele^raZol, delighted. 

pelel, payer. 

"pelestimol, honoured. 

Tpelestolol (suMmik), exalted, 
sublime. 

peZii/ik, beloved, loved. 

peZo/ob, I have been loved. 

pelon, topay; cover (expenses). 

Pelopan, Peloponnesus. 

petewol, isolated, left. 

pem, mishmass, hodgepodge. 

^emel, meddler. 

penak, mixed up, meddled. 

pemorik, born. 

pen (bpda/pen), pen, nib, writ- 
ing-pen. 

penad, writing. 

pen^Anmal, point or mark (in 
writing or for punctuation). 

penadan, secretary. 

pen&dapen, writing-pen. 

jpenadel, writer, author. 



penadik (penado), written, in 
writing. 

penam, the writing, method of 
writing. 

penat(-em), sketching with the 
pen. 

penntcm, to sketch or draw with 
the pen. 

pendik, perpendicular. 

pendul, pendulum, 

pened, letter. 

penedamafc, postage-stamp. 

penedil, note. 

penedo, per letter. 

penedug, correspondence, col- 
lection of letters. 

penei, writer. 

penera, writing materials 

penik, feathered. 

penil, feather. 

penod, communication in writ- 
ing. 

penodoTi, to communicate by 
writing, write (to somebody). 

jsereon, to write, 

penot, composition. 

pensit, brush, pencil. 

Pensulvan, Pensylvania. 

pep, pepper. 

pepamol, bound, sewn (of books). 

pepik, peppery. 

^eplepalol, prepared. 

■pepUvilegik{-ol), privileged. 

PeraSn, Persia. 

persanel, Persian. 

persanik, Persian (adjective). 

Peruan, Peru. 

perudmk, Peruvian. 

pesawik, put by, safe. 

pesecZel, missionary. 

peseseZSl (pise«eZ8l), soldout, all 
sold, sold to the last. 

peseifinol, expanded, extensive. 



GUAMMAE, OP VOLAPUK. 



155 



peseuam, proclamation, inform- 
ation. 

pesewel, acquaintance. 

pesewik, known. 

pese«o (adv.), as is known. 

pet (pickeA), proberL, saying. 

fetidol (raoZelik), learned. 

■petidola.t, erudition, learning, 

pe««p (Grammar :), perfect tense. 

pez2S«mol, contained, inclusive. 

pezaJmol, surrounded. 

pi (vonik), before, in former 
days, late, formerly. 

pi . . . (prefix for the passive 
pluperifect tense). 

piamk, gradual. 

piarako, gradually, regularly. 

pianin, pianino. 

pianofod, piano-forte. 

picin, pitcb. 

picinekflam&A, pitcb-toroh. 

pid, pity. 

pidon, to pity. 

Piemotan, Piedmont. 

Piemoidnel, Piedmontese. 

pien, corpulence. 

pienik, corpulent. 

pif, marrow, , pitb. 

pigit, woodpecker. 

Pikardan, Picardy. 

piktels, Pict. 

pil . . . (lepil !) 

pi . . .-la, would bave been . . . ed. 

piZo/ob, I bad been loved. 

pin, tbe fat, grease. 

pinzxa, fattening. 

pinamit, lard. 

pimk, fat, greasy. 

pinOTO., to fatten. 

pip, (tobacco-)pipe. 

pipon, to smoke a pipe. 

pix-, pyramid. 

pit, spice. 



pink, pyramidical. 

pitHk, spiced, 

pit'o'n, to spice. 

pitap, pluperfect tense. 

pla, in stead of. 

pla, (plb), except, besides. 

plad, place. 

plad, fur. 

plad^, substitute. 

plad2denunA, (news)paper with 
advertisement for situations, 
vacant places etc. 

plad&ra. (iopam), placing. 

plado ! place ! make room ! 

pladon., to place, put, set. 

plaf, shyness. 

pZa/ik, shy. 

plaf on, to shun, eschew, avoid, 
flee from. 

plag(-am),practice. 

plag(-am), exercise, practice. 

plags^., practisant. 

plag&\, practising (doctor, law- 
yer, etc.) 

plagVs., practical. 

plagik, customary, usual, won- 
ted, common. 

plagon, to practise. 

pldgon, to perform. 

plak, experience, information. 

plakik, by experience. 

plak'on, to experience. 

plaknno, utmost. 

pla/eotZik, uncommon, extra- 
ordinary. 

plam, harness, trappings (of a 
horse). 

plan, plant. 

plan, elucidation, explanation. 

planagloi, vegitation. 

planum., planting. 

planHY, botany. 

planel, planter. 



156 



GEAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



planet, planet. 

planetik, planetary. 

pldnik, explicable. 

planon, to plant. 

pldnon, to elucidate, explain, 
illustrate. 

plapod (bipiik), preface, prelim- 
inary remark. 

plas, in stead of. 

plas, besidethat. 

plasz/", unless, except when. 

plasud, See kodakan. 

plasiidcik., plastic. 

plat, flatness, 

platik, flat. 

platin (PI), platina, platinum. 

platinik, of platina. 

platon, to flatten. 

plaud, plougb.- 

plaudA, ploughman, plougher, 
cultivator. 

2-)laudon, to plough. 

pie. (before an o . . . ; otherwise 
plo), for. 

pled, play, game. 

pledducan, playthings, toy. 

pledadin, a toy, thing to play 
with. 

pledaso^'el, play-fellow. 

pledauoJad, musical work (for 
box, clock etc.) 

pledel, player. 

pleden, (the) playing. 

pled5n, to play. 

ploid, pride. 

pleidik, proud. 

pleidm, to be proud. 

pleit, vanity, haughtiness 

pleitik, vain, frivolous, haughty. 

plek, prayer, 

plekel, prayer, une who prays. 

plekbii, to pray. 

plem, horse-harness. 



plejn6n,to make horse-harnesses, 

plen, plain. 

plenik, plain, level, flat. 

plenipot (valiide\), authority, 
one who has power. 

plenbn, to flatten. 

plepad(-am), equipage, accout- 
rements, habiliments. 

plepadoTn, to equip, fit out. 

plepal(-sxa), preparation. 

plepalel, preparer. 

plepalih, preparative. 

plepal6n, to prepare. 

plese/bn (konsefon), to keep, 
■ conserve. 

pleso, intentionally, on purpose, 
by design. 

Pleus (Kingdom) Prussia. 

Pleusan, (province) Prussia. 

Pleusel, Prussian. 

Pleusik, Prussian. 

pleyads, plejads. 

plid, approbation, pleasing. 

plidik, with pleasure, liking. 

plidi^mo, if you please; very 
welcome. 

plidoi, good pleasure, appro- 
bation. 

plidovL, to please, like. 

plied, praise. 

pliedik., praise-worthy, 

plied^Ti^ to praise, glorif}', com- 
mend, extol, 
pliem, implement. 

pliema, tools, utensils, imple- 
ments, instruments. 
plif, fold, plait, rumple. 

plifik, j)laited, rumpled, riiflled, 
full of folds. 

plifon, to fold, plait, ruffle, 
plim, compliment. 

plimik, complimental. 
plin, prince. 



GRAMMAS OF TOLAPUK. 



157 



fUmk, princely. 

plisen, tiie present. 

/iii>fr<ik, present. 

pKseno, at present, now. 

pUsenSn, to represent. 

plisip, principle, maxim. 

plafpik, principled. 

plit, the pleasing. 

pUdk, pleasing. 

plivad, private-citizenship, pri- 
vate-life. 

plwa^i, private-citizen, ont of 
office citizen. 

jftlrevnfik, private. 

pihxiMn, to be citizen witliOTit 
employment. 

plivileg, privilege. 

pltpBeg^m, privil^ing. 

plidUgon. to privilege. 

plivod, privy, w. c. 

pUeodiVi, stool. 

plivodasied, sanitary airauge- 
menT. 

plo, to, for See pU- 

plo . . . iple . . .J, pre . . . 

plo, beside, withont. 

plo aA>f. herefoT. 

plob, worthiness, soliditr. 

plob, prosperity. 

■plobey, interce^on. 

plode^Sn, to intercede. 

pIciKk, solid, worthy, excellent. 

plBbik, prosperous. 

jsfoio, thorongh. K'lid. snffli; ient. 

pIo£6n, to be worthy, good. 

pHaion, to prosper, thrive, suc- 
ceed, tend, avail. 

plod. .. (diplod!! 

plofed, professor. 

plofet, prophet. 

plofetacoZ, prophetic employ- 
ment. 
plo/eton. to prophecy. 



plog. prescription, 
plogam, programme. 
/..'■;7'Jmik, in accordance with 

The programme. 
plogik, inaccordance with the 

prescription. 
plig5ii, to prescribe. 
ploton, to plnck, pnll off. 
plotud, precaution, 
plotucfel, carefbl person, 
plol-udon, to take care, 
plom, plum, prone. 
plomibim, plnmtree 
plon, complaint, 
plon, evil, suffering, 
pfonik. plaintive, 
jptonon. to complain. 
plonon, 10 suffer, undergo, 

labour nnder. 
p!-;p. success. 

ptopon, to succeed, prosper, 
plopffi", intercession, mediati in. 
plopfikel, intercesor, mediator 

(one who speaks to help 

another), 
plopeixn. to "oe the intercessor 

or mediator 
plos, therefore that. 
plos en>. therefore, 
plosen, preposition. 
ploseimn, to propose. 
plotog. proces-verbal, protocol. 
ploiogik, as by proces-rerbal. 
plotogon, to make up a prcces- 

verbal, write a protocol. 
plovin, province 
ploviiaik... provincial 
ploDinim, provincialism. 
ploeod, » word in fevour oi, 

intercession 
plorOf/'Tn, to speak a word in 

fevour of. 
ploy eg. pro^jecticn. 



158 



GBiMMAU or VOLAPUK. 



ployegon, to project, plan, delin- 
eate, draw. 

plu, more than, more, all the 
(better), over. 

plu... plu..., the... the... 

plii, mostly. 

plud, the good pleasure, the 
pleasing. 

plild\}s., as liked, as wanted, as 
required, to please. 

pluKk, manifold. 

pluKen (Grammar!), compar- 
ative degree. 

■pXulUenik, [in the comparative 
degree. 

pluZaenam, comparison. 

pluZfienam, forming of super- 
lative. 

plum {plumm), lead. 

pluma/ik, excessive. 

plurmk, of lead, lead — 

plumva. (Pb), lead (chemical). 

TgVxxmdd (inmod), immence 
crowd. 

plumon (ptominon), to lead, 
plumb. 

plunum (Grammatical:) plural, 
plural number. 

joZmo, the more . . . (the . . .). 

pliit, politeness. 

pZataa, doctrine of politeness. 

plubk., polite, courteous. 

pliiion, to be polite, be cotir- 
teous. 

po, after. 

po . . . (prefix for the passive 
first future tense,) . . . shall 
he. .. 

pb, at the end, aft. 

poded, starch. 

podediin, to starch. 

poed, poetry. 

voed^l, (great) poet. 



poedMXit poetizing. 
poedaa, (petty) poet. 

poedsAi, piece of poetry, poem. 

poedA, poet. 

poeden, poesy. 

poedik, poetical. 

poedon, to poetize. 

pof, sea harbour. 

pof, poverty. 

pofeg, (feb)i profession, funct- 
ion, calling. 

pofegik, professional. 

pofik, poor. 

j?o/lik, miserable. 

pof on, to be poor. 

pdfild, profit, use, gain. 

pofiidik, profitable, lucrative, 
useful. 

pifudXsii use 

pofiido, for the profit of, in 
behalf of. 

p'dfiidon, to he of use, give 
profits. 

pop, pock. 

p5i, aft, to the end, back. 

poik, placed at the end, ap- 
pended. 

pok, pocket. 

pok (dof), fault, disease, defect, 
_ pokag'Zoci;, pocket-clock, watch, 

pofcaZol (posanol), pupil. 

^ofcan, juggler. 

poTcA, bag-manufacturer. 

poHk, defective, infirm. 

pokoTO., to pocket, put in the 
pocket 

pofcbn, to fail, mistake. 

pol, transportation. 

pol, wandering. 

polal, goods-transporter. 

jooZam, delivering, transporting. 

p67am, erring, straying. 

polaji, transporter. 



G11A,MMAR Ol' VOLAPUK. 



159 



Polan, Poland. 

Polanel, Pol-e, Polander. 

poldnit, Polish. 

■golied, palanquin. 

polel, carrier, porter, bearer. 

polen, police. 

polenan, policeman. 

polenel, officer with the police. 

polenik, police- (adj). 

poUg, danger. 

poligik, dangerous. 

poZik, wandered. 

■poliklod, misbelief, 

poliue^'am, ramble, roving. 

■polofoh, I shall or will be loved. 

polon, to oarrj^. 

polon, to wander, err, stray. 

pd/ub, error. 

poind, loss 

poliidel, loser. 

polMik, having lost. 

poludon, to lose. 

poliiglot, polyglot, many-tong- 

ued. 
pom, fruit, 
pom, pump 

pomem, pumping arrangement. 
Pomeran, Pommerania. 
PomerdnA, Pommeranian. 
pdmet, promise. 
p'dmeton, to promise. 
p'dmik, fruit — (adj). 
pombia, to gather fruit, 
^omon, to pump. 
Pompeyus, Pompey. 
pon, bridge. 
pBn, punishment, 
poread, fine; penitence, 
poraadik, penitent. 
pormAon, to atone for, gratify, 

pay a fine, 
.poraik, pvinishable. 
piinit, repentance. 



ptinitik, repentant. 

p'6nit'6i\, to repent, be sorry for. 

^OTion, to make bridges; to lay 
a bridge across. 

ponBn, to punish; to fine. 

ponop, (Grammar:), pronoun. 

pop (net), people, nation. 

pop, paper. 

popacan, ppaper-ware, paper- 
goods. 

pSpa/aftted, paper-mill, paper- 
manufactory. 

popem, quire (paper) 

popik, of the people. 

popik, paper-, of paper. 

popot, style of people, particul- 
arity of people. 

por, portion, part. 

porik, partial, partly. 

pos, after (in time). 

pos . . ., ... after. 

Posan, Posna. 

posamol (pofcaZol), pupil. 

positenon, to deliver later on. 

pos6oned(-am), late order, 

■gosilab, affix, lastsy liable. 

posfcfiro, late-swarm. 

poso, after that, then, further, 
there upon. 

posod, person. 

posodik, personal. 

posodoi, personality. 

posodbn, to personate ; to per- 
sonify. 

posperaad, appendix, postscript. 

pospoion, to sendafter. 

pot, post. 

pot, occasion, appropriateness. 

potucal, post-office. 

potafcatf, post-card. 

■potaJcomit, post-officeorder ; P. 
0. 0. 

potiil, post-officer. 



160 



C.KASEltAR OP VOLAPUK. 



potaiii . . . (potamo/i !). 

poftui, post-clavk. 

potananam, post-note. 

pota«<a;e», post-station. 

pota-sftV, regulation ofttepost. 

polatimik, in correct time. 

pijtaiimo, at its turn, by and 
bye. 

pot&timbt, correctness in time. 

potek, apothecary's sbop. 

potekel, apotbecary. 

potel, postman (poial, potaxi). 

pbtet, potato. 

porik, postal. 

potik, appropriate. 

poto, occasionally. 

poton. to send (by post). 

p6t6n, to be of use, be appro- 
priate, (will dol. 

pStu, with (the occassion of), by. 

pot/ip, first future tense. 

pStup, gerundium. 

pdtiit, hunger, appetite. 

potiitik, hungry. 

potiitm, to hunger, be hungry. 

pov, pole 

po«ik, polar — , pole — 

pozenrfeJ, afternoon. 

pozentZefik, past-morning (adj). 

pozendeZo, in the afternoon. 

p6zet, process, lawsuit. 

pozelel, process-server. 

pozetSn, to sue at law, to be 
in process. 

priim, premium.. 

pram&tn , premium-proffering. 

priimon, to proffer premiums. 

pred, sermon. 

predel, preacher. 

predbn, to preach. 

Priska, Prisca. 

Priszila, Priscilla. 

prob, prior, provost. 



proiSp, priory, proTOstship. 

protestan, Protestant. 

protestmdk, Protestant (adj) 

protestanim, Protestantism. 

protestan^n, to mate Protestant, 

Prudenzia, Prudentia. 

psam, psalm. 

psamed, psalter 

psamel. psalmist. 

psamik, like a psalm. 

psamSn, to be psalmist. 

pu . . (prefix for the passive 
second future tense), shall 
have been. 

pii, puff! (interjection). 

pub, appearance. 

pub(-am), publishing (ftui'aj'el- 
am). 

p«iel, publisher (ftufca-setel). 

piiblig, republic. 

piiiUgel, republican. 

piibb'gik, republican (adj). 

publug, the public. 

publiigav, publicism. 

publug6n, to publish. 

p«66n, to appear, come out. 

piibon, to publish (books). 

pud, discipline. 

pild, peace. 

pudik, used to discipline. 

pUdik, pacific, quiet, peaceable . 

pUdo ! (sS ! takedo !), peace ! quiet ! 

pudM, accustoming to discipline. 

pudQn, to chastize, correct. 

pudGn, to pacify, appease, re- 
concile, satisfy. 

jourfSp, house of correction. 

pued, chastity. 

puedik, chaste, 

puf, louse. 

puf, dust. 

pufik, lousy, nitty. 

p«/ik, dusty. 



GBAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



161 



pu/on, to louse. 

pifbn, to dnst. 

pDg, battle. 

pngSn, to slaughter, to cattle. 

p3i, langnage. 

pikat, speech, oration. 

puka^ufel. teachet of languages. 

pukatik, reciting, (adj). 

pSJkaiSm, to recite. 

pikstY, pliilologj'. 

pikeA, prorerb, saying. 

pikeiBvod, apopbtbegm, pror- 
erb. 

pukeiSk., proverbial. 

pikA, orator, spealcer. 

piilak, grammatical, pbilolo- 
^cal. 

p0cSf, eloquence. 

pBioSarv, rhetoric. 

pakofsmk, rhetorical. 

puJ^n, to speak. 

pekaoabid, term, erprrasion, 
phrase. 

pfikonaiBod, locution, waj to 
speak, waj of spewing. 

pukot, diseonr=e, conversation. 

pOkotik, affable. 

pUkotof, afiiableness, affabiUiy. 

^>ffltnb, phraseology. 

pol, boy, lad. 

pel, pettiness, insignificance, 
ttiflingnesj. 

puSk, puerfle, boyish, roathful, 
childish. 



j>ufik, trifling, weak insignific- 
ant, petty. 

pulit, pulley. 

pBliot, meann^, woitiilessne$-f, 

pOtefik, mean, worthleK. 

pn/o/ob, I shall or wfll have 
been loved. 

pun, fist. 

pfin, point. 

punA, punctuirt. punctuator. 

punik, big. 

pSno . . . point — 

punod, punctoation. 

pUnon, to punctuate. 

puod, corruption, rotteniie=-.s. 
putre&ction, cariouBne^!' . 
unsoundness. 

puodik, rotten. 

puoddn, to rot, putrefy. 

pup, doU. 

pup, puppet. 

pupnn, purple. 

pupunik, pnrplifih, purple. 

pur, powder; gunpowder. 

puron, to pulverize. 

pur, mine (digged to admit the 
use of gunpowder). 

Furenans, Pyrenees. 

put, paling, fense, gate. 

Putagoras, Pythagoras. 

putUp, second future tense. 

putupon, to put in the second 
fature tense. 



q= 



is not used in volapuk , but substituted by gv and kv. — - 



rab, raven, 
l^ban, Arabia, 
ro&inel, Arabian. 



ra&anik, Arabian (adj). 
rabat, discount, 
rabot. plane. 

11 



162 



GUAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



i-ad(-am), radiation, 
radon, to radiate, 
raf, radish, 
rafin, paraftn. 
Bahel, Rachel, 
ral, paw, clutch, claw, 
raiik, with clutches. 
Baman, Armenia. 
ramdnel, Armenian. 
ramarak, Armenian (adj). 
ran, rennet, 
rap, file. 
rapon, to file, 
rat, rat. 

rat, riddle, enigma. 
ratik, enigmatical, obscure. 
rdtQn, to guess. 
Bazan, Bhetia. 
redak, redaction. 
redakel, editor. 
redakon, to be editor, 
reg, king. 

rej'akinan, kingdom, 
rc^ram, reign, government, 
re^an, regiment (soldiers). 
regik, royal. 

re^on, to beking, reign, govern. 
regul(el), regulator 
regulaxa, regulation. 
regulSn, to regulate, 
rekel, rector. 
rel, religion. 

reZad, religiousness, piousness, 
reiadik, religious, pious, 
refodon, to display piousness. 
reZal, mind for religion, religi- 
ous mind, 
relief, relief (in sculpture), 
re/ik (reZadik), religious, pious. 
relon, to be religious or pious, 
ren, reindeer, 
reposit, repository, 
ret, inferiority. 



reum, rheumatism. 

reumik, rheumatic. 

Reus, Reuss (the river). 

Reusan, Reuss (the contry). 

revid, revise. 

revidel, reviser. 

rewjrfon, to revise. 

rezip, reciprocity. 

rezipik, reciprocal. 

rib, rib. 

ribajok, stab in the ribs. 

rid, reed, cane, rush, thatch. 

ridih, reedy. 

ridik, of reed. 

rig, origin. 

r^ad, (the) original. 

rw^adik, original. 

rigal, originalist. 

rijralik, original, queer, peculiar. 

rigel, See lautel. 

n^'eliig. See laut. 

rigei, authority. 

r-15'ik, original, primitive. 

Rilan, Ireland. 

Rildnel, Irishman. 

rildmk, Irish. 

rim, rime, rhyme. 

rmel, rimer, rhymer. 

n'men, rhyming. 

nmon, to rhyme, rime. 

Rin, Rhine. 

Rimn, Rhineland. 

rmanel, Rhinelander. 

Rinay?e«s, Rhine-Prussia. 

'RinastUk, the Rhinegau. 

rinik, Rhine (adj). 

rip, crib, manger. 

rit, sincerity. 

ritik, true, sincere. 

riv(-am), attainment. 

rmk, attainable. 

rivBn, to reach, attain. 

rS! caught! (exclamation). 



GKAJTMAR OF YOLAPuK. 



les 



r56(-am), rubbing. 

robbn, to rub. 

rod, (holy) order. 

rod, (temporal) order. 

Rodan, Rhone 

Bodanebd, Rhone-dale. 

Rodos, Rhodes. 

RoehsA, Rhodian. 

i<^, aTT(^ance, pretension. 

rol, list, roll. 

Rom, Rome. 

Jfomakinan, the Roman Empire. 

Romsm, Romogna. 

romanic, Romanic. 

romantik, romantic. 

romel, Roman. 

ramik, Roman (adj). 

roraSn, to romanize. 

ron, resin. 

ron, run, the act of running. 

ronsJail, rac^round. 

ronel, runner, racer. 

ronik, resinous. 

ronon, to run; run a rae«. 



rop(-am),strike,discontinuanee. 

ropon, to break off, stop, sus- 
pend, cease. 

ro^, raisin. 

Rosina, Rosalia. 

Rnan, Roan. 

rub, min, destruction. 

ruSon, to min, corrupt, spoil, 
destroy. 

rud, rood (measure). 

rud, tuhe, pipe. 

ruin, ruin(s). 

ruMiik, ruinous. 

rujip(s), measles. 

ml, roll, bundle. 

Ruman, Rumenia. 

Ruman&l, Rumenian. 

rumanik, Rumanian (adj). 

Rumelan, Rumelia. 

rumdanik, Rumelias. 

run, herring. 

rup, eruption (of the skin). 

rur, diarrhoea, flux. 

rut, rut, wheel-track. 



S. 



. . . s, (mark for the plural). 

sa, besides, -with. 

sa . . ., dis . . ., de . . . 

sab, sand. 

^b, sahre, acimetar. 

sdhen, sabring. 

sabarej/am, reign mth the sabre. 

^goUk, sandy. 

^<Mn, to sand. 

saboa, to sabre. 

sad . . . (kosad !). 

sad, expedition. 

saed, saddle. 

saedel, saddle-maker. 

saeden, saddle-manufactory. 

ioedon, to saddle. 



sag, (the) saying, 
sagit, arrow. 
sagtak, arrow-shaped. 
sagitbn, to pierce witii arrows. 
sago, (tmido), verbal, oral, by 

words of month, 
sago! See paso^o! 
sago, even. 

sagon, one says, it is said. 
sagon, to fay. 
smk, all. 

sa/onam, disfiguring. 
^;anon, to disfigure, deform, 
sak, sack, hag. 
sak, question, 
sakaiu^. interrc^atdve form. 



164 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



saHk, in bags, per sack. 

s»kik, in question. 

jofcdn, to ask. 

Bakramec?, sacrament. 

sakramedik, sacramental. 

sakrit, sacristy. 

sakritel, sacristan. 

sal, salt. 

sal, hail, room, saloon. 

salad, salad. 

satik, salt (adjective). 

salin, saline. 

satoik, saltish. 

saloA, salt-water. 

salodafean, salt-water-bath. 

saZon, to salt. 

Salonig, Salonica. 

Salonik, Thessalonica (old). 

sSlnn, large hall. 

salunik, like a hall. 

sam, example ; sample, muster. 

»amad, example, specimen, 

copy. 
samik, examplary. 
samod (assam), for example. 
tamon, to muster, 
san, bliss. 
Ban . . . (Lusan !) 
Sanal, Saviour, 
sonal, holiness. 
sandlsid, priesthood. 
sanaiek, consecration of priests. 
»«nalekam, sacrament of the 

consecration of priest." 
san%lel, priest. 
«a«alelik, priestly, 
sanam, recovery. 
sannndmik, medicinal. 
Sandomingo, Saint Domingo, 
sanel, doctor, physician, 
jonelik; doctoral. 
sanik, holy, sacred, hallowed, 
sanikel (sn), saint. 



saralik, blissful, salutary, whole- 

sdme. 
sanloi, salubrity, wholesome- 

nesB. 
saiio ! bliss on ... ! 
sanon, to cure, 
sanskit, Sanscrit, 
sanub, sanctuary. 
saKukon, to sanctify, glorify., 
sap, wisdom. 

sapal (sapel), savant, sage, 
sapav, philosophy, 
sapfo, Sappho. 
sapik, sage, wise, 
sopon, to be wise, 
sarazel, Saracen. 
sarazelik, sarasenic. 
Sardan, Sardinia. 
sardanik, Sardinian. 
aUsliipon, to escape, slip from. 
sS.sod, bath-season. 
sat, satiety, 
sat, satisfactory. 
satsxa, saturation. 
siMelaxn, causing of discordance, 
sateion, to cause a discord, 
sarik, satiate, glutted. 
sdtSs., sufficient, plenty, 
satin, satin, silk. 
satinik, satin, of silk, 
sadik, sufficient. 
sdtlof, sufficiency. 
sdto, enough, plenty. 
sdto ! enough/ 
saton, to satiate. 
sdtSn, to satisfy, be plenty, 
saun, health. 
saumk, healthy. 
saunon, to make healthy, cure. 
sav(-am), rescue, delivery, help. 
3av(-am), saving, salvage. 
saweaeZon, to reveal; unveil, 
sawel, saver, rescuer, helper. 



GBAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



165 



«auik, retrievable. 

«a2)ik, may be saved. 

^avon, to rescue, deliver, help. 

*d!;8n, to save. 

Savoyan, Savoy. 

Savoydnel, Savoyard. 

savoy dnik, Savoy (adj). 

Sax, (kLngdoni) Saxon. 

Saxan,(Prussian Province)Saxon. 

Saz(aa)el, Saxon. 

Sax(an)ik, Saxon- (adj). 

86, out. 

fle . . ., ex . . . de . . . 

seb, furrow; pit, quarry. 

sed, exportation, expedition. 

^edi^'d/, export-trade, expediti- 
on-office. 

eedaxa, sending. 

seda,n, exporter. 

«e<2anam, exportation, 

-ledanon, to export. 

sedel, sender. 

se£k, that may be sent. 

aedil&a, to distribute, divide. 

sedit, separation, partition, dis- 
tinction. 

sedon, to sent. 

sef, safety. 

■se/axa, assurance, insurance. 

sefel, insurer. 

-se/ik, safe. 

se/iko (sefo), safely. 

^e/5n, to insure, assure. 

seg . . . (aeffol !). 

aegiv, expense, spending. 

segivaxa., edition. 

sedition, to spend, give out. 

8eyoZ(-am), (the) going out. 

se^oZbn, to go out. 

Begone], gadder. 

segun (a segun, a ma), accord- 
ing to. 

^eguno, accordingly. 



seil(-6f), Uttle affability. 

seilik, very quiet, little affable. 

seilol (pasez'Zb! seiWnoAl), quiet! 
hold your tongue! hush! 

seilon, to be quiet, keep quiet, 
keep secret, conseal. 

seisok (seistel), lying. 

seistoji, to lie, to be lying. 

sejtop, camp. 

seeiop, entrepot, -warehouse, re- 
pository, magazine. 

seitopik, camp-, in the camp. 

seitiipiTi, stored, warehoused. 

sek, consequence. 

sefcifcam, exclusion. 

Sekin, Zealand. 

sekinel, Zealander. 

seHik, fallof consequences. 

sefcon, to be the consequence, 
follow, result. 

sekred(-ad), vfriting-cabinet. 

sekretel, secretary. 

sekun, second. 

aekusad, excuse, apology. 

sel(-am), sale, 

aeliin, foreign country 

seZaTiel, foreigner. 

seZanik, foreign, exotic. 

seled, rarenes. 

seledih, rare, uncommon. 

aelednsib, (a) singular (body), 
peculiar one. 

seledmk, rare, strange, parti- 
cular, peculiar, singular. 

selednof, rareness, strangeness, 
peculiarity, particularity. 

selel, seller, vender. 

seZik, saleable. 

selin (Sn), selenium. 

selon, to sell. 

sem, some. 

sembal, somebody or other. 

«embala, of somebody or other. 



166 



GRAMMAB OP VOLAPUK. 



semhale, to somebody or other. 

aerabalos, something or other. 

semik, some, certain, a certain. 

seminad, seminary. 

seminiLdel, seminarist. 

senikitim, some time, whenever, 
any time. 

semlik(o), some way or other. 

semof (ji-sembal), some woman 
or other. 

semo/on, to drive out, expel. 

semop (egefo), somewhere. 

semoTpa, from some place. 

semopi (egefi), to same place. 

semos, something, 

sen, feeling, sensation. 

senam, sensation. 

senat, senate. 

senaiel, senator 

senafemon, to breathe out, expire 

sened, the external. 

senedik, external. 

senedo (seo), externally, outside. 

senik, sensible. 

senin (As), arsenic. 

senit, attention. 

senitik, attentive. 

seniton, to remark, observe. 

senlik, sensible, palpable. 

senon, to feel, conceive. 

seo, outside, out of doors, 
abroad. 

sep, sepulchre, grave. 

sepenod, proclamation. 

Bepet, expression. 

aepetbn, to express, utter. 

sepik, fossil. 

8eptan(-am), explanation. 

seplanSn, to explain. 

sepon, to bury, inter. 

sepiik, pronunciation. 

sepaiad, determination, sen- 
tence. 



s£*r..,„am, utterance, decision,. 

Pronunciation. 
sepUMk, (to be) pronounced. 
aepiik'dn, to pronounce, 
seraf, seraph, seraphim. 
sera/ ik, seraphic. 
Serban, Servia. 
Seridnel, Servian. 
serbanik, Servian (adj). 
aesag, (Grammar :) predicate, 
aesed, exportation, sending a- 

broad. 
aesedon, to export, send abroad. 
sesep(-am), digging up. 
sesepon, to dig up, digout. 
aesiadon, to put out, put ashore^ 
aesltipQn, to slip out. 
sesum, exception, 
sesumik, exceptional, 
sesumon, to except, 
sesumu, except (preposition)^ 
set, sentence. 
seienSn, to stretch out. 
seieuon, to emigrate. 
setUdUn, to step out. 
setok, barter, exchange. 
aeiopaia, exposition, 
setul (ziilul), September. 
setulik, of September. 
sev, knowledge. 
seva/uZik, full of knowled^6. 
eevSl(-a.m), election. 
aevdleva. choice. 
se«aVdn, to choose. 
seved(6), out, to the country, 
sevedik, outside; abroad. 
aeveg, outlet, evasion, 
seuel, connoisseur, judge, one 

who knows. 
sevik, knowable. 
aevok, outcry. 
aevokel, cryer, auctioneer, 
aevokon, to cry out. 



GSAMMAE OF VOlAPiiK. 



167 



sewSn, to know, have knowl- 
edge, be acquainted with. 

seziig, departure. 

sM, asphalt. 

s&lame2, Dead Sea. 

si, yes. 

si . . . (sil . . .), (prefix for the 
names of constellations). 

Biad(-am), setting, placing, 
putting. 

siadel, setter. 

siadiin, to set, put, place. 

siam, a£Smiation, confirmation. 

siajn, idea, spirit, sense, soul, 
mind. 

sMunik, confirming, in the af- 
firmative. 

siamik, sententious, ingenious. 

sldmoi, fulness of sense, intell- 
igence. 

sidmon, to reflect, think, con- 
sider. 

sib, sieve. 

iiJnn, existance. 

siimam, maintenance. 

si&ihel, a being, (creature). 

sibtnik, existing. 

si&inon, to exist.1 

Sibiran, Siberia. 

sicam, si^e. 

sid, seed, sperm. 

*«fib, seedling plant, seedling. 

sidatedaxa, seed-trade. 

siden, seeds. 

sufik, seedy. 

«aon, to sow, impregnate. 

sied, seat, chair. 

gie£k, seated. 

siedSn, to seat. 

sien, sense (one of the five 
senses). 

sienik, sense- (adj). 

sienlik, sensual. 



sif, citizen. 

siftl, burgomaster. 

sifik, citizenlike, plain. 

si^te, fishes (sign of the Zodiac). 

sifbn, to make fellow-citizen, 
take up as a citizen. 

sig (nepin), dryness, barrenness. 

sigayei, hay. 

sigik, dry, barren, withered. 

aigil, eagle (constellation). 

si^on, to dry. 

sijip, Bam (constellation). 

sijuiel, Archer (constellation). 

sik(-am), distinction. 

sikapikor, Capricorn (constellat- 
ion). 

sikik, exceeding. 

Sikilan, Sicily. 

sikildnA, Sicilian. 

mklaf, crab (constellation). 

sikodifi), thus, therefore. 

sikaa, to distinct. 

sil, sky. 

sil . . ., See si . . . 

silab, syllable. 

sUabaxa, syllabication. 

silabSk, syllabical. 

silabon, to syllabicate. 

SUan, Iceland. 

Silanel, Icelander, 

silanik, Icelandic. 

silatop («76p), zone, climate. 

sUef, silver (sUin). 

sUefaxo., silvering. 

sUefA, silversmith. 

sUefik, silver (adj). 

silefon, to silver (silinon). 

silein, Lion (constellation). 

S27ik (saZik), heavenly, celestial. 

silin (Ag), silver (chemical). 

silinm, to silver (chemically). 

Silop, Asia. 

sil'op, zone, climate. 



168 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



silopel, Asiatic, 

silopic, Asiatic (adjective). 

sim, seam, hem. 

Simon, to seam, hem. 

simul, hypocrisy, dissimulation. 

simulei., dissembler, hypocrite. 

simulik, hypocritical, feigned. 

simulon, to feign, dissemble, 
play the hypocrite. 

^n, sin. 

sinel, sinner. 

sinif, indication. 

sinif^a, to indicate, signify, 
denote. 

sinik, sinful. 

sm5f, sinfulness. 

smon, to sin. 

ston, to affirm, say yes to, con- 
firm. 

Slop, Sion. 

sip . . . (sipid!) 

sipid, insipidity. 

sipidiV, insipid. 

sis, since. 

«!sik, See juk. 

siskopaf, Scorpion (constellat- 
ion). 

siso, till tow, thusfar; since 
that time, since. 

sit, system. 

Sitan, Istria. 

siUlah, T-wdns (constellatioii). 

sitik, systematic(al). 

siwaJab, Balance (constellation) . 

siuaJan, Waterbearer (constel- 
lation). 

sivilgin, Virgin (constellation). 

sivon, to order, get supplied. 

sia;OT7, Bull (constellatiom). 

Sizin (Si), silioium. 

skad, squadron. 

skaf, scaffold, stand. 

skal, pot. 



sfcatel, potter. 

skam, tramper, vagabond, 

vagrant, 
skan, scandal, offence. 
Skandinaf(an), Scandinavia. 
skandinqfiii, Scandinavian, 
sfcanon, io cause scandal, give 

offence, 
sked . . . (/ata.aked\) 
skil, skill. 

skilik, skilled, clever, 
skin, skin. 
slcinon, to skin. 
Skipio, Scipio. 
skit, leather. 
skilal, leather-dresser. 
skitSiTi (taenel), tanner. 
sfoVel, skinner, fellmonger. 
skitik, leathern, 
skof, scrofula. 
sko/'&i, scrofulousness. 
skqfik, scrofulous. 
Bk6m, scum, foam, froth. 
skomon, to foam, scum, froth, 
skopaf, scorpion. 
sMt. family-arms. 
- skub, screws 
skill, swiftness, readiness, 
sktin, sheet, skin, 
skut, syringe, squirt, spout. 
skuton, to spout, squirt, 
slaf, slave. 
slqfen, slavery, 
sto/ik, slavish, 
slam, Islam, Islamism, Maho- 

metanism. 
slam, mud, durt, mire. 
slamiV, muddy, 
slan, slander. 
slanel, slanderer. 
slanSn, to slander, defame, 

asperse, calumniate, vilify, 

scandalize. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK . 



169 



iSZauonan, Slavonia. 

sleb, stap(s). 

Bleu, slendemess, thinness. 

sZenam, delation, attenuation. 

slerak, slender, thin. 

slenon, to make thinner. 

slep, degree, step. 

tlepik, incorporatedin degrees. 

s^nik (sZepo), gradually. 

siepSn, to divide in or make 
with steps. 

slid, bursting. 

slidon, to burst. 

sli/on, to slide. 

slim, slime, phlegm. 

slimik, slim}-, phlegmatic. 

^limon, to be filled up with 
phlegm. 

bUp, sleep. 

slipaiim, (slipiit), time to go to 
sleep. 

rf^el, sleeper. 

slqnk, sleepy. 

slipil, nap. 

slipon, to sleep. 

slit, slit. 

Uitskm, slitting. 

slitik, slitted, split. 

sliton, to slit, split. 

slob, wryness. 

slobik, wry, sloping. 

slohon, to slope, incline. 

^lop, mind, inclination. 

slop, slope, declivity. 

sZopel, adherent, follower, part- 
isan. 

slopik (klienik), inclined. 

elopan, to adhere. 

slud, conclusion, resolution. 

^ludaxa, taking of conclusions. 

sludon, to resolve, conclude, 
determine. 

slup, sneaking; slipping. 



slup'oji, to sneak, steal; slip. 

slup'6]p, hiding-place, subter- 
fuge. 

sma . . . {smala, . . .), small . . . ; 
little . . ., wee . . ., mean . . . 

smab, . . . (sma,bed]) 

si&a,bed, nest. 

smafeerfon, to nestle, nest. 

smafteZ, low-mountain, hill. 

smafeeHk, hilly. 

smajjm, shrub, stump. 

STusibled, supplement to a paper. 

smaJo!;, plate. 

smiiceni, side-room. 

smad . . . (Smadom \) 

smsbdom, hut. 

smaf, spawn. 

snubfaniib, cage, dviugeon. 

smafit, fish-spawn. 

smsbfog, fry of frogs. 

sma^at, low hat, cap. 

sma/euaZ, foal, colt, filly. 

svaaJcomip (Inkomip), skinaish. 

smSbkun, calf, young-cow. 

smal, smallnesB. 

sma/acon, small articles. 

smalal, pusillanimity, timidity. 

smala,To., diminution. 

smalei, trifle. 

smalik, small, wee, little. 

«maZikum(o), less. 

smalTl(o), a little. 

smalToik, trifling, bawbling. 

smalnoi, bawble. 

smalon, to diminish. 

small-OS, the little. 

smaliil, miniature. 

smaliiliTs., miniature (adj). 

smaraa/, small boat. 

STSi3jSpad, angle. 

syna^tdg, hind, roe. 

smasaf (IvLsui), lane. 

sm&veg, path. 



170 



GBAMMAR OP VOLAPUK. 



sm&velat (Invelat), probability, 
likelyness. 

smsivelatik (luwetorik), likely, 
probably. 

amatol, bull-calf, steerling. 

sma^unel, bog. 

BTOSizigad, cigarette. 

smeg, flattery smiling. 

smegGn, to laugh flatteringly; 

emek, taste. 

smekon, to taste. > 

smel, smell. 

smeloTa, to smell. 

smet, smalt. 

smetUn, to melt, smelt. 

smil, laughter. 

smilik, laughable. 

smilon, to laugh, 

smiv, grease, fat, tallow. 

smivel, one who greases. 

smiven, smearing, greasing. 

smivdn, to smear, grease. 

smok, smoke. 

smofcam, reeking, smoking. 

smokaitaiak, smoke-tobacco. 

smoka,tuhi\, censer. 

smokel, smoker. 

smokik, smoky. 

smokon, to smoke. 

smokon, to smoke; incense; 
fumigate, smoke-dry. 

smoton, to melt, dissolve, be- 
come liquid. 

smud(-am), smoothing. 

smudon, to smooth. 

smuf, slipperiness. 

smufils., slippery. 

smufdn, to make smooth. 

smul, smiling. 

smillon, to smile. 

sn., st {See sanikel). 

snat, honesty. 

snarik, honest. 



snek, snake. 

snek&fit, eel. 

sneko, to and fro. 

snekon, to rumple. 

snel, snail. 

snetep, snail-house. 

snil, seal. 

snilel, sealer. 

snilon, to seal. 

snip, fillip. 

snipon, to crarck with one's 
fingers. 

snob, knot, tie. 

snobik, knotty. 

snobon, to knot. 

snofip, cold, bad-cold. 

sndfon, to have a cold. 

so, so, thus. 

so! (takedo)), hush! 

soal, solitude. 

soal&cdn, personal cheque.; 

soalA, hermit. 

soaKk, solitary, lonely. 

soalon, to live as a hermit. 

sob, soap. 

soh&kukeD., soaphovise. 

sobid{o), asto, as far as, for as 
much as. 

sod (after a negative): but, 
yet, though, however. 

sod, soda. 

sodas, so that. 

sof, softness (of mind), gentle- 
ness, meekness. 

sdf, sofa. 

Sofia, Sophia. 

so/ik, soft, mild, meek, gentle. 

so/on, to hush, lull. 

sog, company. 

sog, committee. 

so^ik, social. 

sogon, to be comfortably or 
socially together. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



171 



. . . soi . . ., but also. See noe. 
soif, (even) should it be ever 

so . . . 
soin, foras much as (veito as), 
sok, insect. 
siJHk, of insects, 
sol, sun. 
sol, gentleman. 
sola,disajn, sunset, 
solat, soldier. 
solatnlinkip, sutler. 
soMaiek, soldiery. 
solaxdn, sunrise. 
soldel, Sunday. 
aoldelik, Sunday- (adj). 
soldon, to solder. 
soled, pay. 

solei, dominion, monajchy. 
sotefik, dominant. 
s67el, ruler. 
soHk, sunny. 
solik, gentlemanlike. 
solon, to sun. 

solon, to rule, reign, govern, 
solud, solidness. 
soliidik, solid. 
soiiidon, to make solid. 
sdlvaa, great gentleman. 
solwn, greatest gentleman. 
solutik, loose, 
som, such, suchlike. 
s8m, just such, 
somin (Os), osmium, 
son, son. 

soneroik, so-called. 
somk (sona, . . .), son's, 
sonil, little son. 
sonlil, grand-son (nekel), 
sop, quill, 
sop, ditch, 
sopon, to ditch, 
sosit, sausage. 
sosjJel, sausage maker. 



sositon, to make sausages. 

sos«n(o), soon, directly. 

sosus, as soon as. 

sot, sort. 

sot, (blig), duty. 

sorik, sorted. 

sorik, duteous. 

soitm(o), sometimes, every now 
and then. 

sarin, assortment. 

soZon, to assort. 

sbton, to owe {debdn). 

sov, sower's seed. 

sbv . . . {sovem !) 

sova,fel, arable field. 

sowel, sower. 

so!;em(o), so much. 

s6vem{o), as much. 

soven, sowing. 

souon, to sow. 

spad, place, room, space. 

spad&niniit, capacity. 

sparfik, spacious, roomy, capa- 
cious. 

spadof, spaciousness, extensive- 
ness. 

spadon, to space. 

spadoTp, room, space. 

spag, spark. 

spagon, to sparkle. 

spal(-am), the treating with 
consideration or sparingly. 

spal, frugality. 

spdlel, sparer. 

spdlik, frugal, sparing, saving. 

spdlmk, scarce. 

spalnoi, scarceness, rareness, 
deficiency. 

spolSn, to spare, treat with 
consideration. 

spaten, to spare, save. 

spdluA, sparing, saving. 

spam, spasm, cramp. 



172 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



«pamik, spasmodic. 

^an, epau. 

Span, Spain. 

spana,va., stretching, tension. 

spanel, spanner. 

spanel, Spaniard. 

sparak, Spanisli. 

spatiSn, to span. 

spar, asparagus. 

spar, sparrow. 

spat, walk. 

spata,veg, walk, road for walk- 
ing. 

ipatA, walker 

spa&a, stick, walkingstick, 

gpaffin, to walk, go for a walk. 

sped, spear, lance, pike. 

spedel, lancer. 

spedon, to spear. 

spek, speckle, 

spel, hope, 

Spelakep, Cape of Good Hope. 

spelik, to be hoped. 

spelo, as is to be hoped. 

spelon, to hope. 

spen . . . (poB^ocnad !) 

sper, sparrowhawk. 

spetivo, relatively. 

spewai, specific weight. 

speuarik, by specified weight, 

SpifteZan, Spitsbergen. 

spid, speed, haste, hurry. 

spidoTo., to speed, despatch, 
hasten, hurry, accelerate. 

spidel, speeder, courier. 

s;j;rfik, speedy, quick, swift, 
hasty. 

spido, in a hurry, hastily. 

spido\ (JlMl vif6\), quick! 

spidano, in the greatest hurry. 

spig, corn-ear, 

spigSiTa, gleaning. 

spigon, to glean. 



spil, shedding, spilth. 

spilon, to spill, shed. 

spin, prickle, thorn. 

spinaxa, stab, sting, prick, stitch. 

spirak, prickly, sharp, thorny. 

spinon, to sting, prick, stab, 
stitch, put. 

spir, spice, spicery. 

spit, spirit. 

spidk, spirituous. 

spod, correspondence. 

spodskad, postcard. 

spod&\, correspondent. 

spodon, to correspond 

spon, bail, security. 

spbn, sponsorship. 

sponA, bailee, guarantee. 

spSnel, sponsor, godfather. 

sponon, to warrant a thing, 
be surety for one. 

sponon, to be sponsor. 

spor, spur. 

spuk QxitikaX), spook, spirit, 
ghost, hobgoblin, 

spukon, to haunt (as a ghost, 
spirit or spook). 

spul(-um), spun. 

spulA, spinner. 

s/)«ten, spinning-house. 

spulon, to spin. 

spun, spoon. 

sput, spittle, spit. 

sputoTCL, to spit. 

stab, ground, foundation. 

stab, ground, cause. 

staM\., stability, stableness. 

stab?Mum, number of quantity. 

staiel i/wnA), founder edifier. 

stabHk {plolo), thoroughly, solid. 

siajik, systematic. 

stefein, foundation, element. 

stabo (stabo), thoroughly, per- 
fectly. 



GBAMMAK OF VOLAPUK. 



173 



stahon, to found, ground, lay 
the foundation. 

stdla, on principle. 

Btad, state, condition. 

Btad, stage. 

sta<£ik, being in a state or in 
such and such condition. 

staiSk, stage- (adj). 

staMn, to be in a state or 
condition. 

staf, staff. 

staf, (military) staff. 

stafA, staff-bearer. 

gtafHk, staff-, of the staff. 

stag, stalk. 

stag, stag, deer. 

stajen, (railway-) station. 

slSjen, halt; state, pomp. 

stal, ray, beam, flash, spout. 

itoZik, beaming, radiant. 

slalon., to beam, shine, cast 
beams. 

stam, stem, trunk, stock. 

st%m, primitive (word), root. 

stan, stand, station. 

stan, flag, colour. 

stdnfA., ensign, comet, 

s^anik, standing. 

stonon, to stand. 

gtanap, standing-place, station. 

stap, stamp, mark. 

stapSn, to stamp, mark. 

star, stare, starling. 

gtorip, cataract (on the eyes). 

«/arop, stare-cage. 

statit, the statistic(s). 

ttatitA, statistician. 

statib^k, statistical. 

statud, statute. 

statucKk, inconformity to sta- 
tute. 

stand, dining-room, restaurant, 
eating-house. 



staudA, restaurateur. 

staudon, to keep a restaurant, 
keep an eating-house or din- 
ing-rooms. 

steb, stay, abode. 

siefton, to stay, abide, sojourn, 

sted, straightness. 

siei^l, uprightness in character. 

stetS)s., straight. 

stedo, straightway. 

stedan, to put aright, direct 
rightly. 

steif, the striving. 

steifal (susal), striving mind. 

stei/^m, endeavour. 

steifik, striving, contending. 

stei/Sn, to strive after, aim at, 
struggle for. 

steil, distillation. 

steil'on, to distil. 

stejen, station. 

stek, plan, draught. 

stel, star. 

stel?imaff, constellation. 

stein, starry, starred. 

stelil, little, star; asterisk. 

stelon, to glitter, star, glare, 

stem, steam. 

stem&hilen, steam-brewery. 

stema.hot, steamboat, steamer. 

stejnaftoiad, steam-navigation. 

stem&cin, steam-engine. 

stemafonam, heating by steam. 

stemik, steamy, steaming, 
steamed. 

stemon, to steam. 

sten, stain, spot, blot. 

stenal, blemish. 

stenik, stained, polluted. 

stenogaf(-ad, -am, -en), steno- 
graphy. 

stenagafel, stenographer. 

stenogafan , to write in shorthand 



174 



GRAMMAH OF VOLAPuK. 



stenoji, to stain, pollute, defile, 
.spot, blot. 

steniid, strength, power. 

steniidal, strength, of mind, 
power of the mind. 

stenfdalik, strong in mind. 

steniidik, strong. 

»teTO(iikum, stronger. 

steniid'oi, power. 

steniidon, to strengthen. 

s,tep, step, pace. 

stepik, step by step, going, slow- 
ly, ambling. 

stepo, step by step, gradually. 

stepo\ keep in step! 

sigpoja., to step, ijace, amble. 

ster, pile. 

stenk, in piles, piled. 

stib, pin, pencil, fescue, burin. 

stid, institution, institute. 

stief(-am), lameness 

stief on, to lame. 

stif, stiffnes. 

sti/ajva., , lameness. 

«ft/"ik, stiff, lame, 

stifon, to stiffen, grow lame. 

.stifakan, to make stiff. 

stig, sting, prickle, pin, spine, 
quill. 

^tigaJptZ, gooseljerry. 

stigasDin, porcupine hystrix. 

stigik, stingy. 
,,st^on, to incite, prick. 
,^t;j)£(-en), stitching, embroidery. 

stikalekati, art of stitching. 

stikUTi, to stitch, embroider. 

stil, stillness, calm, silence. 

stila,l, quiet nature. 

sft7am, stilling, pacific. 

Stilsimel, the Pacific. 

stitSs., still, quiet, calm. 

sft76n, , to still, quiet, calm, 
,fillay, lull, paciy. 



, stim, honour. 

stim^dig, dignity, respectability. 
stim&digTik, worthly, revereiid, 

honourable. 
stimaX, modesty, honesty, 

chastity. 
stirfok, modest, honest, chaste. 
stimon, to honour, respect, 
stin, istring. 
stinon, to string. 
stip(-am), condition, agreement, 

contract. 
sii]pik(o), conditional. 
stipoyif to stipulate, conditifin. 
Stiran, Styria. 
Stirdmk., of Stiria. 
stit, .institute. 
stits,vD., institution. 
^titafaA, institutor. 
sfe'tampn, to institjite. 
vStof, cloth-stuff. 
st5f, stuff, matter, material. 
utof&can, drugs; groqery. 
s0/&n, druggist (drogel) ; grocer. 
s<o/el, materialist. 
stofik, of cloth. 
stofik, material, 
stog, stocking. 
stogon, to knit (stockings). 
ifitok, . stock, prflvision, store, 
stok, flat, story, loft, floor. 
stokiit, stock-fish, 
stol, straw, 

StQlik, of strkw, straw- 
stom, weather, temperature. 
stSm, damp. 
stomag, stomach. 
stomnY, knowledge of ^he 

weather, meteorology. 
. .0mik, of .the weather. 
stomik, dampy. 
,^t?mon,,io dampen, 
ston, stone. 



GRAMllAU or YOLA-PUK. 



175 



ston, abstinence. 

stona&tfi;, lithography. 

stonaJaifcel, lithographer. 

stona&uiben, lithograph}'. 

stona&KHk, lithographic. 

stonaoopel, stone-cutter. 

stona^e/, eart ben ware. 

stonaiko2a;, pitcoal, coal croc- 
kery. 

«tonal, hard-heartedness. 

stonel, stoner. 

stonik, stony, of stone. 

Stonin, (Sr), Strontium. 

stonlik, stony, like stone. 

stonon, to stone. 

sfonon, to refirain, abstain, deny 
one's self. 

stonsik, stony. 

stop (-am), stop, discontinu- 
ance, strike. 

stop (-am), hinderance. 

stopol stop! hold on! halt! 

stopon, to stop, discontinue, 
strike. 

stopon, to obstruct, interrupt. 

stor, stork. 

stor, stir, bustle. 

stora,smabed, stork'a nest. 

stoTon, to move, toss, stir. 

stot, stammering. 

stoton, to stutter. 

stud, study. 

stiid, institution, introduction. 

sluMl, zeal for study. 

studel, student. 

studon, to study. 

stMon, to institute, introduce. 

stuk, construction. 

stnk, district, region, province, 
dominion. 

gtukel, constructor. 

stukik, of the district. 

siufcon, to construct. 



stul, chair, seat 

stfil, style, manner of writing. 

stiilik, stylish. 

stulU, stool, little chair. 

stu/nik , properly or well styled. 

stulon, to style, characterize. 

stum (-om), instrument, tool. 

stum, esteem. 

stuma/ulik, respectfully. 

stumal (kimufal), fifth case. 

stumik, respectable, eminent, 
considerable. 

stun, astonishment, stupefact- 
ion, surprise, amazement, 
wonder. 

stun, fraying, feazings. 

stunik, stupendous, estonishing, 
prodigious. 

s^iinik, ravelled. 

stunoV {es?unol, is^unol). eston- 
ished, stupefied 

stunon, to be estonished 

stup, stupidity. 

stup, dullness. 

stupal (stupelal), stupidity, 
ignorance 

stupel, stupid person, idiot, 
blockhead, simpleton, nums- 
kull. 

stiipel, clod-pate, numskull. 

stupik. stupid, blunt, siUy, dull. 

stupon, to stun, make stupid. 

stut, sturdiness, coarseness. 

stiit, school (for a special trade 
or profession). 

stut&i (global), rough nature. 

stuiel (globel), rough or rude 
fellow. 

statik, rude, rough, coarse. 

sfittik, professional-, trade's-. 

su, on, up. 

su . . . (bus . . .), ob . . ., in . . . 

sil, forth. 



176 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAl'UK. 



sii . . , ... forth, ap . . . 

Buad(-am), conviction. 

iuadal strength of oonTiction. 

guadon, to convince, convict. 

suam, total amount. 

guam, recompense, price. 

iuamik, total. 

^omon, to combine, compound. 

suambn, to amount to. 

subim, 'sublimity. 

subimSl, sublimity of mind. 

subiimk llegeilik), sublime. 

subsat, noun, substantive. 

subsatabid, infinitive mood. 

subsaiik, substantial. 

subyet, subject. 

subye&, subjective. 

subyeton, to subjet.- 

sud, deafness. 

sud, custom, mode, moral(s), 

sudafcZm, purity of morals. 

sudafcKnik, pure of morals. 

SMiial, obduracy. 

jraJdal, feeling for morality. 

StidameZ, Zuydersea. 

suc^ik, deaf. 

sKrfik, modest, decent. 

BudZanof, intrusion; obtrusion. 

sadlik, morally. 

aiid\!!>i, morality. 

siidodi, custom, use, mode, 
fashion. 

siidGi, modesty, discretion. 

BudunQn, to make appear; 

suem, (the) comprehending. 

sueroad, conception, notion, ap- 
prehension, 

suemSl, ability in conception. 

suemik, comprehensible. 

»«emiko, in a comprehensive 
way. 

tuemSf, comprehensibleness, in- 
telligence, 



suomon, to conceive, understandt 

comprehend, 
siien, sedateness, composure, 

calmness. 
sHenaja, deliberation, consider^ 

ation. 
siienik, sedate, composed, calm. 
sienon, to consider, deliberate^ 
suet, sweat. 

auet&ban, sweating-bath. 
sue&\, zeal for servitude. 
siietik, sweaty. 
sueton, to sweat, 
suf, suffering, endiu-ance. 
su/a,A, patience, 
su/adik, patient(ly). 
sw/adon, to have patience. 
suf&dun&fom, deponent (Gram- 
mar). 
Sufaf . . . (sufa/bni!) 
sufafom, passive form. 
suf&fomik, passive. 
suf'al, tolerance, toleration, 
su/alik, tolerant. 
suf am, indulgence, 
su/ik, indulgent. 
STiflag, claim. 
suflagoTa, to claim. 
s«/on, to suffer, bear, endure,. 

tolerate. 
sngw{-&m), charge, commission, 

dedication. 
mgivoxi, to charge with, dedi^ 

cate, impose. 
sug'dn, to suck. 
suip&l, cleanliness, mind for 

neatness. 
SMipon, to sweep, clean, 
suk, succession. 
suk(-am), desire, inclination. 
. . . siik, . . . desire, 
siffcad, conclusion, consequence^, 
sufcal, suppleness, meekness. 



GKAMMAE. OF VOLAPUK. 



177 



s«ial, inquisitiveness. 

sufcalik, supple, meek. 

OTsialik, inquisitive, ferreting. 

.fukel, successor. 

stiikA, ferreter. 

sukem consequence. 

sukon, to follow. 

mkon. to ferret, search, seek. 

.««k(5t, cutting open. 

.sukoton, to cut open. 

nuku. (klii), in consequence of. 

sul, strainer, filter. 

sfil, heaven. 

sulel, strainer, filter. 

sillel, inhahitant of heaven. 

sulik, heavenly, celestial, 

■tiilol for heaven's sake! 

suto^el, inspector. 

.*uten, to filtrate, filter. 

Sulud, the South. 

Suluda(feu<, South-Germany. 

suliida^ufcs, southern fruits. 

Suluda77!«Z, the South-Sea. 

SeludameZop, South-America, 

.tultidel, Southlander. 

.<iulii£k, southern. 

salQlefiid, the South-east. 

Sulunidan, South-India. 

saluvesiid, the South-West. 

sum(-am), taking away(mosMm). 

sum, resemblance. 

.tUmal, talent for assimilating. 

giinak, analogical. 

mimoi, catchableness, 

.wmow, to take away, get, 

catch, take. 
^KTOon (leigon), to resemble. 
xumn (sesumii), except, besides. 
8un(o), soon. 
sunaX, speed-making. 
SundameZasaf, Soenda strait. 
SundanisuZs, Soenda-islands. 
Suned, the Sound. 



sunik, soon, speedy, 
sunon, to accelerate. 
sumim(o), sooner; rather. 
s««un(o), as soon as possible ; 

best, rather, 
sup, soup. 

supenon, to note, write down, 
supik, soup-(adj.). 
mpiial, ability to surprise, 
saspirik, suddenly , subitanous, 

at once. 
supito, all at once, suddenly. 
supitoTO., to surprise. 
Siirakus, Syracuse. 
Siiran, Syria. 
SaJramk, Syrian, 
sus, up, over, 
sus. . . . (su. . . .), sus. . . , 
susaX (steifal), striving mind. 
Susan, Susannah. 
susez<(-am), act of laying or 

putting upon, imposition. 
svLseiton, to lay or put upon, 

to impose. 
suA, on it, up, 
SMsi . . . , up . . . 
snsiad, toppart, toppiece. 
suso (sKsi), upwards. 
suso\ go up! up! 
susoglofon, to grow up. 
sastanan, to get up. 
sum, upward, (prepos). 
sririi , . , up , , , , . , , on high , 
sut, soot, coom, 
siit, street, 
sutag, syntax, 
Sutan, Scithia. 
siitA, watchman or inspector on 

the street, 
sarik, sooty, 
satik, of the street. 
SKiil (smasai), alley, lane. 
sutoj;(-am), exposition. 

12 



178 



GllAMMAE or VOLAPUK. 



sufovon, to raise, lift up. 

sutowon, to expose, make come 
out. 

snvok, calling (up), summons. 

suuofcbn, to callup, summon. 

sval, swallow (bird). 

svan, swan. 

svanik, swan-, of a swan. 

Syed, Sweden. 

Svedel, Swede 

svedik, Swedish 

svefin (S), sulphur, tarimston. 

svejina,zud, sulphuric acid. 

svejini)i. sulphurous. 

svefiinQn, to subject to the ac- 
tion of sulphur. 

svib, biscuit. 

svid, sweetness. 

svidsil, softness, loveliness. 

svidsiia, sweetening. 



soidfl, sweetener, 

svmik, sweet. 

svidlik, sweetish. 

svidon, to sweeten. 

svil, twine, twist, 

svilel, twister. 

svtl'di, to twist, twine. 

svim(-akan), swimming, art of 

moving on the water. 
svimaJorf, swimming bird. 
svimel, swimmer. 
svimon, to swim. 
Bvin, swine, hog. 
swmal, swinishness. 
SK!raik, swinish, brutal; of the 

swine. 
svinil, little (young) swine 
svip, broom, besom, brush, 
svipbn, to sweep. 



T. 



, . . t, (mark of the demonstra- 
tive pronouns), 

ta, contra. 

ta . . . , counter . . . 

taal, contradictiousness, dispo- 
sition to contradict, 

tab, table. 

tabak, tobacco. 

tabakeA, snuff. 

label, cabinet-maker. 

taben, cabinet-work(s) or -ma- 
nufactory. 

taber, tabernacle, 

tabled, division, part, branch. 

iabledim, division (military). 

iab'dn, to dish up, serve. 

tad . . . (ia4il\). 

tad(-am), threat, menace. 

tadil, contrary. 

t?idUo, on the contrary. 



tado! attention! 

tddon, to threaten, threat, 

menace. 
tAdunon, to act in opposition 

to, counteract, 
toel, adversary, 
taen, tanhouse, tannery, 
toenad, tan. 
taenel (sfc'zan), tanner, 
taenin, tanin. 
taenon, to tan. 
tag . . . (sutag!). 
tag (kodat), conduct, behaviour, 
ita^'on, to behave 
Taho, Tagus. 
taif, fare, tariff. 
taifik, according to the (bill 

of) fare, 
talk, being adverse, opposite, 

contrary, countra. 



GRAJIMAB. OF VOLAPUK. 



179 



laik, opposition. 

taim, potter's clay. 

tain, loam. 

iainik, loamy. 

Taitan, Haiti, Otaheiti. 

Taitamk, of Haiti. 

tak, cessation, stop, standing 

still, 
taked, rest. 

iakec&l, peace in mind. 
takedik, qniet, restful. 
takedo {jpudo)\ quiet! 
takedoa, te be quiet. 
takon, to stop, 
tal, earth. 
Tal, Italy. 
talafiaZ, strawberry. 
taladil, part ofthe earth (world). 
taladlem, earthquake. 
tahadustod, world's industry. 
taUglop, globe, earth. 
tal^, eaxthliness, worldliness. 
takdeiil, earth-oil, petroleum. 
ialaiik&i, gnome. 
toZav, geology. 
taUkzUek, earth-curve, 
tofed, geography, 
tatedel, geographer, 
tefedik, geographie(al). 
tofel, inhabitant of the earth. 
tdlel, Italian. 

talen, talent, ability, faculty. 
tdlenik, talented. 
taZik, earthly. 
talik, Italian (adjective). 
taUn (Tl), tally. 
talmk, earthen- 
talon, to Italianize. 
Talop, Australia, New-Holland. 
talopel, Australian, 
talopik Australian (adj). 
tam , . . (cof^atam!, lutaxa !). 
tambin, tamarind. 



tan, junction, juncture, imion; 

tie, band, string bandage. 
tan(o), then, there after, 
tanad, binding (of a book). 
Zanen, binding, 
tanin (Ta), tantalum, colum- 

bium. 
tanon, to bind, tie, join, 
too, else, otherwise, in the op- 
posite case. 
taoi, opposition, (the) adverse- 

ness. 
taon, heel, tolon. 
tap, carpet 

tap, tapestry, wall-paper. 
tdpA, paperhanger, upholsterer. 
tdpov., to hang with paper or 

tapistry. 
tapuftal, contradictory mind. 
ia/gukon, to contradict. 
Tarkvinius, Tarquinius, 
tasianik, absurd, distracted, 
tasjanof, absurdity; distraction, 
tat, state, empire, 
tat, . . . (neiat !) 
. . . tat, . . . ty (. . . at, . . . et, 

. . . tet). 
Tataran, Tartary. 
tartaranel, Tartar, 
tartaranik, Tartarian, 
todk, of the State.] 
toflik, majestic, grave. 
tatos, on the contrary. 
Tats peJaKl, the United States 

(of North- America), 
taut, trout, 
tav. . . (. . .av!). 
lav, travel, journey, voyage. 
tdv&, traTelling-(adj). 
tiivahiir, tourist-ofBce. 
tavakopaneX, fellow-traveller. 
tdvsl, desire of travelling. 
tdvaxa., travelling over. 



180 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



tdvapenoA, travelling-pass, pass- 
port. 

tiivel, traveller 

taveia, wry, slanting, sloping, 
cross, slant, oblique. 

tavelika.dL, wryness, obliquity, 
crossness, slopeness. 

taveliho, awry, aslant, sloping 

ly- 

iowik, ready to set out, ready 
te go out, ready for going out. 

tdvon, to travel, journey. 

te, just, only, mere. 

teat (stad), tbeUtre. 

tealXk, (siaidik), theatrical. 

tebin (Tb), terbium. 

ted, trade, commerce. 

terfa . . . (ierfik), commercial 
trades . . . 

tedajratZen {gadea temk), flori- 
culture, flower-nnrsery. 

tedsX, great merchant. 

tedal, mind for commerce. 

tedaxa., merchandise. 

tedsM, (letedel), wholesaledealer. 

tedsLtidastit, commercial school. 

ted9,Y, commercial knowledge. 

tedel, merchant, trader, dealer. 

ierfelik, merchants', mercantile. 

tedem, trade's company. 

tedUji, to trade, handle, be tra- 
der, be merchant. 

tef, regard, respect, reference. 

tef&m, relation, reference. 

tefumik, relative. 

te/ik (te/oy), concerning. 

tefo, in regard to, in respect of, 
as to, concerning, as for. 

tefod, taking in regard. 

tefbl {tefik), concerning. 

tefon, to concern, regard. 

*e/u, in regard to, concerning. 

teg, cover, deck. 



tegsA, covering. 

teg'on, to cover, deck. 

feik, only, mere, just, but. 

teil(-am), separation. 

teildX (feHfal), mind of discord.. 

iezVik, separable, 

teilon ilivon), to separate. 

tein, tile. 

kernel, tiler, tilemaker. 

teinea., brick-manufactory, tile 
kiln. 

teinon, to make bricks or tiles. 

tekm, to get, regain, gatherj 
collect. 

tel, two, 

teWa, twin. 

telad, clothier's trade, tailoring. 

telad€\., tailor, clothier. 

teladGTi, to be tailor. 

telatejjik, two-headed. 

telafcopSf, two-headedness, 

«e?am, duplication, 

telapatet, conference, dialoguCi 
conversation. 

telaspan, carriage with or for- 
two horses. 

teldik, many. 

\^\dil (laf), half. 

teltZi'fik, double, binary. 

telefon, telephon. 

telefon^n, to telophon. 

telegaf, telegraph. 

telegafel, telegrapher. 

telegafik, by telegraph. 

telegafon, to telegraph, wire. 

telegam, telegram. 

telel, couple, pair. 

telelik (a tel, a telik), two by- 
two, in couples. 

telesop, telescope, 

telesopik, telescopic. 

tel/arik, bipedal. 

*eZid, second. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



181 



teliAmiSg, alto voice, counter- 
tenor. 

teZidlo (a tel), we two, you two, 
they two together. 

iefidna, second time. 

teliAao, for the second time. 

leliio, secundo, in the second 
place. 

teM, discord. 

telik (pal . . .), double. 

teliko, two fold, of two kinds. 

telil, small two. 

t«lin (Te), tellurium. 

telion, billion. 

telkotik, two-edged. 

telZme^ik, double-tongued. 

telmz7, two thousand. 

telmJZid, two thousandth. 

telmz7ido, in the two thousandth 
place. 

te\model(6), (omodel), day after 
to-monow. 

telna, twice. 

telnsilik, done, happened, said 
etc. for the second time. 

teinaliko (telno), for the second 
time. 

tetaik, twofold. 

ielo, in two times, in twice, 
in two turns. 

telod, confidence, trust. 

telodik, confidential. 

tdodoi, reliance. 

■telodokon, to dare, have self- 
confidence enough to. 

telQn, to double. 

•tel^fiHk, in two languages. 

tela, twenty. 

telsBbgul, polygon with twenty 
angles. 

telsefia&d, twenty-first. 

ielsedil, twentieth part. 

ielsel, score, number of twenty. 



telsena, twenty times. 
ieZsenalik, twenty times repeat 

ed. 
telseTosliko (telseno), for the 

twentieth time. 
telsenili, of twenty sorts. 
telsid, twentieth. 
telsi&o, in the twentieth place. 
teZsidna, the twentieth time. 
telsi&no, for'the twentieth time. 
i&lsiedi^, with two seats, double 

seated, for two persons. 
ieZsik, twentyfold. 
telsmil, twenty thousand, 
telstum (telmil), (twenty times 

a hundred), two thousand. 
teltum, two hundred, 
teliwmena, two hundred times, 
teltomenalik, 200 times repeated 
teU«mid, two hundredth, in the 

200th place, 
teliamik, two hundred fold. 
teltum mil, two hundred thou- 



telui, second class (in schools), 

teludel, scholar of the second 
class. 

ieliXi, second time (music: d). 

telug, doubleness. 

teZutftik, two-wheeled. 

teZukon, to double. 

teZum, duet. 

telyescZeZ {a,jeadel), day before 
last, day before yesterday. 

tem, temple, cathedral. 

tendp, pusillanimity, coward- 
ice. 

temip'ah, coward, poltron. 

temip'al, cowardly nature. 

temipik, cowardly, timid, base. 

temipon, to be cowardly. 

Temis, Thames. 

tempat, temperature. 



182 



GUAMMAE OF VOlAPttK. 



ten(-am), (span-am), stretching 
prolongation. 

tenal, eternity. 

tenal&m, perpetuation. 

tenalik, eternal, perpetual. 

tenaliko, everlasting, for ever. 

tenalo, for ever. 

tenalon, to perpetuate, immor- 
talize. 

tened, tdnt. 

tenedon, to put up tents. 

tenin (Bu), ruthenium. 

tenon, to stretch out. 

teniid, temptation. 

teniid&l, desire to lead into 
temptation. 

feniidel, tempter, leader into 
temptation. 

tenudik, tempting. 

teniidon, to tempt, lead into 
temptation. 

teor, theory. 

teorik, theoretic(al). 

tep, storm, tempest. 

tepsLl, boisteroxisness. 

tepel, stormer. 

tepik, boisterous, stormy, tem- 
pestuous ; turbulent. 

Teresia, Theresa. 

Termopiil, Thetmopylae. 

Tesalan, Thessaly. 

tet, udder. 

. , . tet, . . . ty (. . . at, . . . et, 
. . . tat). 

tetov., to milk. 

tev(-am), ramble. 

tevel, rambler. 

tevon, to wander about, 

teviug, rambling condition. 

ti, nearly, about, almost. 

tiad, title. 

iiadon (calaraem5n), to title. 

tib... (ditib!). 



Tibetan, Thibet. 

tibetdnel, inhabitant of Thibet.. 

Tiburzius, Tiburtius. 

tid, instruction. 

tid&l, talent for teaching. 

iiinbuk, school-book. 

tidsidiip, school-hour. 

tidal, teacher, school-master. 

tidum, teaching. 

ft'i^amon, to teach. 

tidaseminad, seminary for teach- 
ers, 

tidskstid, institute (of instruction). 

tidel, teacher. 

tidik, instructive, docile. 

tidbn, to teach, instruct. 

tid'6^, auditory; place or hall 
for instruction. 

tiduTp, apprenticeship- 
tied, tea. 

tiem(o),-;,at that time, then. 

tienon, to tend, serve. 

tiep, flap, tail, end (of a coat), 

tif, theft. 

tifal, thievish nature. 

tife\, thief, 

ti/en, robbery, theft, felony.. 

tifiTs., thievish, roguish. 

ti/oTn, to steal, pilfer. 

tik (siam), thought. 

ft'fcad, manner of thinking, 

Hkstl, (great, deep) thinker. 

ft'tel, mind. 

tikalazcil, Whitsun, Pentecost. 

tikdlik, of the mind. 

tikalnem (kler), clergy. 

iikdlnik, spiritual. 

tikalnoi, acting of the mind^ 
spirituallity.. 

Tikai sanik (San^ilal) Holy 
Spirit, Holy Ghost. 

tikaxDi, reflection. 

tikav, rethoric, logic. 



GRAMMAR or VOLAPuK. 



183 



tScavel, logician, vethorician. 

(ikacik, rethorical, logical. 

tOdk, imaginable. 

tikxra, to think, meditate. 

til, thistle. 

tim, time. 

. . . tim, (affix of the names of 

the four seasons). 
tmsifom, (Grammai), mood (of 

the verbs), 
(imag, century (figuratively), 

space of time. 
timsipen, periodical writing, 
fi'mik, in time, of the time- 
2unil, moment, little while, 

trice. 
tiTin'Ti ^Sb), antimonium. 
hfnlik, temporary, 
ft'mlof, temporariness. 
(iJBO (mfltfik), seasonable timely, 

in good time, 
timof (mad), maturity, ripeness. 
timim (nuuion), to ripen, 
tin, tin. 
ftnam, tinning, 
tinik, tin, of tin (adj). 
tinin (Sn), tin (chemical), 
tmon, to tin. 

tip (lop), top, spire, point. 
2^1. subtlety, ctinningness. 
tipik, pointed, sharp. 
<^n, to point, make a sharp 

point at or on. 
t^fin, highest point, top, sum- 
mit. 
Tirolan, the Tyrol. 
titit, titmouse, tomtit, 
tlap, trap (for catching birds 

or animals). 
tlat, treason, treachery. 
tUUA, traitor, betrayer. 
tlataa, to betray, 
tlel, lattice. 



tldim, to cover with lattices. 

tlep, agony, anxiety. 

tlepafulUc, fearful. 

depik, anxious. 

tlep5n, to frighten. 

tlid, tread, sted. 

Uidoji, to tread, step. 

tiip, tax. 

tlipucalel, revenue-officer. 

tUpon, to pay taxes. 

tlod, comfort, consolation. 

ilo^l, consolatory mind. 

Uodet, comforter, consoler. 

tlo£k, comforting, consolatory. 

tlodo\ (pattodo!), comforted! 

dodon, to comfort, console. 

tlon, throne. 

tlonon, to sit on the throne, 

reign, 
tlnp, troop, band, gang, crowd. 
Hupaa, men, people, troop. 
tlupik, in troops. 
ih^n, to range, draw up. 
to, in spite of. 
to, only, 
tob, trouble. 

;d2>am, meddling, trouble. 
toJik, troublesome, difficult. 
tiilo, difficultly, with trouble. 
tobbn, to trouble one's self, to 

endeavour, putto, exert. 
tod, defiance. 
to^H, stubbornness, obstinary, 

headiness. 
todHaa, to defy, brave, 
tof, drop. 

tof, dewdrop, dew. 
to/"ik (o), by drops. 
tofon, to drop, trickle, drip. 
tofoD, to dew. 
tog (o), at once, suddenly, 
togaf, autograph, 
tok, barter, exchange, truck. 



184 



GEAMMAB OF VOLAPiiK. 



tolcon, to truck, barter, ex- 
change. 

tolad, duty (on goods, either 
imported or exported) 

tolad, inch. 

toladal, custom-oiEcer. 

toladi]i, subject to duty. 

toladon, to enter' (goods at the 
custom house). 

t6lat(-ani), treatment. 

tolaton, to treat. 

tolin (Th), thorium. 

tom, torture, vexation. 

torn, the pouring, the spilling. 

tomal, plaguy fellow. 

tomalen, vexation, teasing. 

Toman, Ottomanic Porte. 

tomel, teaser, vexer, tormenter. 

tomelik, teasing, vexing, tor- 
menting. 

tomet, pouring, spilling. 

tomet'on, to spill, overturn. 

Zomeffinok, to plunge or preci- 
pitate one's self. 

fomik, tormenting, teasing vex- 
ing. 

tormn, to vex, tease, plague, 
pester, torment, rack, tor- 
ture, martyr. 

ton, tune, sound. 

ton, toughness. 

ioreab, accent, letter. 

tonaihsbUen, line (printed or 
■written). 

tonSibid, tune, (music;) key. 

tonaishin, drum, 

toned, ton. 

tomk, tuneful, good Sounding. 

ioraik, tough, clammy; tenacious. 

tonoi, sound. 

tonodsiY, phonics. 

tonodon, to sound, tinkle. 

tonon, to sound, give sound, 



(of clocks :) strike, (of bells :) 

ring. 
ton^n, to hold fast. 
tonix, according to. 
top, place, 
top, exertion, bent. 
topal, laoal. 

iopam, placing, location, 
topet, trumpet. 
topetel, trumpeter. 
topik, local. 
topbi, locality. 
topon, to place, locate. 
top'dn, to exert. 
topop, hall. 
Toran, Tauris. 
tos, in spite of. 
tosna (aiosna), this time. 
toanalik, at present, 
tot, thunder, 
toton, to thunder. 
tov(-am), lift, 
ioubn, to lift, heave. 
Trakan, Thrace, 
tril, tremor (in music). 
triloQ, to tremble (as sound). 
Tripolan, Tripoly. 
trof, simpleton. 
Troya, Troy. 

tu (iuvem), too, over, muchtoo. 
iual, exeroiveness. 
tub, tub, cask, barrel, coop, 
tub, small tub. 
tuhe\, cooper (for large things). 
tuhel, cooper (for small things). 
tuben, cooper's trade. 
tuboff, tiock (on a fust &c). 
tud . . . (tndel !). 
tud, trip, . tour. 
tndel, to-day, at present. 
tudel, tourist. 
tudelik, this day. 
tiidelo, now a days. 



GKAMMAll OF VOLAPUK. 



185 



tndunQn, to exaggerate. 

Tiiest, Thyestes. 

tuf, truss, bunch, bundle. 

tu/ik, like a bundle. 

tug, virtue. 

tugal, hero in virtue. 

tugal, zeal in virtue. 

tuged, community, connexion. 

tugedik, together, jointly, con- 
junctive(ly).. 

tugedo, together, jointly. 

lugik, virtvious. 

tugoi, honesty, virtvie, good- 
ness. 

tugon, to be virtuous. 

tu^onSn, to over flow, run over. 

tuig, twig, branch. 

tuigon, to graft. 

iuik, too much. 

tuk . . . (lamatuk!). 

tiik . . . (vatukon !). 

Tukan, Turkey. 

tiikanel, Turk. 

tiikamk, Turkish. 

tul (flek), turning. 

tul...(detiil!). 

tulanim, rashness, presumption, 
arrogance. 

iular, hectare (ha). 

tulel, turner. 

tulidi, hectoliter (hi). 

tulon, to turn. 

turn, hundred. 

tiim, tower, steeple. 

tumsbia, multiplication by hun- 
dred. 

tniadil, hundredth part. 

tumel, number of hundred. 

tumelik (atum), hundred at a 
time. 

temena, hundred times. 

tomenalik, hundred times re- 
peated. 



tomenaliko, for the hundredth 
time. 

temenik. See tumnik. 

tumiA, hundredth. 

temidna, hundredth time. 

tamidno , for the hundredth time. 

tomido, in the hundredth place, 

temik, hundred fold. 

temil, small hundred. 

tumin (y), yttrium. 

tum mil, hundred thousand. 

tomion, centillion. 

tumnik, of hundred kinds. 

tnmdd, numberless, quantity, 
abundance. 

tu modik (tuik), too much. 

tu modmk, too many sorts. 

tumHn, to multiply by a hun- 
dred. 

tiimbn, to heap up, pile up. 

tun, turner's trade. 

tim, tin, white-iron. 

t«mk, tin, made of tin-plate. 

tunon, to turn (work at a lathe). 

tup(-am), disturbance. 

tup, space of time, period. 

iupaii, trouble-feast. 

tupon, to disturb, interrupt. 

tur, gymnastic(s). 

Tiiran, Thuringia. 

tarel, gymnast, turner. 

lurik, gymnic, gymnastic. 

turoTO., to turn. 

Turus, Tyrus. 

tus&Z, tuesday. 

tasdelikf tuesday-, of tuesday. 

tasdelo, on tuesdays. 

tuspirfon, to overhasten. 

tut, tooth. 

tut . . . (potiit!). 

tutskdol, tooth-ache. 

tutal, mordacity, mordaoious- 
ness. 



186 



GRAMMAU OF VOLAPilK. 



tiitin (Ti), titanium. 

fotip, tooth-disease. 

tuton, to indent, get teeth; to 

notch. 
tuiop, excessive exertion, 
tuv, finding, 
tiiv, discovery. 
tuv%h, foundling. 
invat, inundation, 
.towel, finder. 



tuwem(o), too, much too, over . . . , 
see tu. 

tuvon, to find, meet. 

tuta«pzre, tooth-pick. 

tuta,Y, knowledge of a dentist, 

tiitef, guardianship. 

tiitefik, accorcing to guard- 
ianship. 

tiitel, guardian, tutor. 

tatik, toothed. 



U and U. 



u, or. 

u . . . (prefixed particle of the 

second future tense), . . , shall 

or -will have . . . 
ii (before vowels: ud), or. 
. . . ii, towards . . . 
. . . ub, . . . ness, . . . ism. 
ub, over (towards this side). 
. . . iib (. . . niib), . . . ty. 
iibi (lukmove), over (towards 

that side', thither), 
ud (before vowels), or see uf. 
iid, see vl. 
. . . iid, (affix of the names of 

the four climates). 
. . . udel (. . . el), . . . er ; ... tor. 
Uelsan, "Wales (the English 

Province), 
uf, whether, or. 
. . . uf, . . . y, . . . ty. 
iif, in case, if. 

uf ud, either ... or - 

. . . ug, . . . ness 

. . . iig, ... ship. 

. . . uk, . . . ty. 

. . . iik, (. . . ik), . . . some. 

Ukran, Ukraine. 

. • . ul, (affix for the names of 

the twelve months). 



nUalodik, very old, ancient. 

ulfat, ancestor. 

iilmag, primitive tjpe. 

iilma^ik, primitive, original, 
very first. 

Mlofdi), I shall or will have 
loved. 

Dliises, Ulysses, 

um, larger, more. 

. . . um (ikum), . . . er (affix of 
the comparative degree of ad- 
jectives and nouns), more . . , 

Umbian, Umbria, 

un, a, an (indefinite article) 
(wnom, omun); «nos, os-un; 
Only used when absolutely 
necessary, ex : I do not want 
«a» book, but that book). 

tin, largest, most. 

. . . iin (ikain), ... est (affix of 
the superlative degree of ad- 
jectives and nouns), most . . . 

ijno, within (a certain space of 
time); uno tim et, kel . . ., 
as long as (all the time, 
that . . .) 

unoi (of-un, ji-un), a, an (fem- 
inine indefinite article ; very 
seldom used). 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



187 



imom, a, an. See un. 

unos (os-un), a, an (neutral 
indefinite article). 

... up (. . . ep), (affix of the 
names of plants). 

up(o), every now and then. 

. . . lip, tense. 

IJpen, Tpres. 

Ural, the Ural, Ural Mount- 
ains. 

us (tls), the. 

usa, from there. 

Ksa, just from there. 

usi, thither. 

HA, just thither. 



Msida, there through, through 

there, 
usik (Jisik), from there, thence, 
ut, he, she, the one. 
lit, jest the one, the same. 
... lit, (affix of the names of 

fishes. 
utoi {pi-ut, ji-ut), she, the one 

(feminine). 
ikoi ipi-iit, ji-ut), just she, just 

the one (feminine). 
uJos (os-uf), -what, that, which. 
■iitoi {os-iit), just that which 

(neuter). 
Uvo, Tto. 



va, or. 

va . . ., square — 

va . . . {vail), all . . . 

vab, carriage, cart. 

vad . . . (kovad !) 

vad, perversity. 

vadat (/oZa^^an), quadrant, 

square. 
vadatainiZ, square-root. 
vadatik, square (adj). 
y'&delUk, daily, common. 
vacHk, wrong, perversed. 
vadon, to do or make wrong, 
vaet, sap, juice. 
vaetik, juicy, succulent, 
vaf, weapon. 
Ka/el, armed (person) weaponed 

person. 
I'o/'on, to arm. 
vag, emptiness. 
BO^al, state ofhaving few ideas, 

being empty-headed, 
vagam, emptying, 
vagik, empty. 
vagcin, to empty. 



vak, wax. 

yafcaitiap, wax candle. 

vakanup, vacation, holidays. 

yofcaniipon, to take holidays. 

KoM, wax candle-manufactu- 
rer. 

vdken, the making of wax 
candles. 

vaHk, waxen, wax. 

wafcop, wax candle-manufactory. 

ual, universe. 

val(-am), election; choice. 

valad, expectation. 

valadacem (valado-p), waiting, 
room. 

valadik, full of expectation. 

valadon, to expect, wait for, 
wait. 

walal, spirit that inspires the 
universe. 

ua7al, pictoresqueness. 

Valan, Wallachia. 

valanaS, gelding. 

valanel, Wallachian. 

valanik, Wallachian (adj). 



188 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



valapiikeA, motto, characteristic 
■word. 

y&leil, square mile. 

watel, elector. 

'valem, universality, generality. 

tiatemik (uaiodik), general, uni- 
versal. 

wotemiko {fofudiV), for general 
use. 

Valenzia, Valentia. 

vaVik (waZugik), all, together. 

valik.0, in general. 

waZikodik, general, common. 

valimet, square millimeter 
(qmm). 

Valisan, (the Swiss canton :) 
Wallis, Wales. 

valmk, of all sorts, of all kinds, 
all kinds of. 

uatod, publishing, making gen- 
eral, generalization. 

uaZodat, universality. 

uaZodik, generalizing. 

valon, to generalize. 

vdVon, to elect, choose. 

valud, walrus, waltron, morse. 

valud, power, 

valudsl, power of the mind. 

valM^k, powerful. 

valiidon, to be powerful. 

I'aZug, state of being all together. 

valugik, together, all. 

valut, valuta. 

vam, warmth. 

vamal, warm-heartedness. 

vamiktnafel, warmth-meter, ther- 
mometer. 

vamel, warmer. 

vamei, square meter (qm), 

uamik, warm. 

vamilmei, square kilometer 
(qkm). 

uamon, to warm. 



\amulik., monthly, 

van, vanity, vainness, transit- 

oriness. 
uanam, frustration. 
vanelifiksizal, AU-Souls-day. 
vanik (g'otenik), vain, transit- 
ory, 
vanin (V), vanadium. 
uanlik(o), in vain. 
vanon, to frustrate, 
vaniil, vanille. 
vap, odour, perfume, scent, 

smell, fragrance, 
wapik, odoriferous, fragrant. 
vap'on, to spread odour. 
vasanikaxaZ, All-Saints' dag, 
All-Hallo w-feast . 

vasin (wa), wasium. 

vasoldelik, of Sunday, Sunday 
(adj). 

wasolrfeliko, every Sunday. 

vat, water. 

vat, weight. 

uaiab, weighing-scale. 

vatalxxbel, wave, billow. 

vais.glat, waterglass. 

vatam., watering. 

vataa, waterman, aquarious. 

Vatan, Vaud (the Swiss Canton). 

vatel, waterman. 

vatem, water (a running or a 
stil. water). 

vatik, watery, 

udtik, heavy, weighty. 

Vijtimo, at all times, ever, at 
every time. 

vatin (H), hydrogen. 

vatoi, moistness, humidity, 
dampness. 

wa^ofik, moist, damp, humid. 

vatoion, to moisten, wet, 

vat'on, to water, wet. 

vatm, to weigh (active verb). 



GRAMMA.R OF VOLAPuK. 



189 



eatopa, from all places from 
every where. 

vaiopi, to all places, to every 
where, all over. 

Y'atopo, every where. 

vafiikam, washing. 

»afuked, wash. 

Bortikel, washer. 

eamken, washing-house, laun- 
dry. 

vatukoTa, to wash. 

wafukSn, to weigh (intransitive 
verb). 

vaulbn, to bark. 

vaxin, polish. 

viixinbn, to polish. 

va^eHk (vaye&ik), yearly. 

vazemet, square Centimeter 
(qcm). 

ve, by, along. 

ve . . . , long .... 

vead, sheath. 

veadon, to envelop. 

veb, hovering. 

vehoB, to hover. 

ved, becoming. 

. . . ved, . . . ived, . . . wards. 

vedon, to become, get, arise. 

ved&a po/ik, to become, get or 
grow poor. 

veg, way. 

ueyad, cart-load, waggon- 
load. 

vegaxa, canal. 

vegamzveg, carriage road, high- 
way. 

uegamon, to drive. 

vegeA, railway; rut. 

»e^on, to ride, drive. 

veib, artery. 

veilon; to be of use, 

vein, vein. 

veit, remoteness, distance. 



vei&l, inflation (enlargement) 
of the heart. 

veita.m., inflation, swelling. 

veitik, remote, far, distant. 

veitikamo, farther away, farther^ 

veito as (som), for so far as. 

veitbn, to swell. 

Veixel, the Vistula (river). 

■vekom, welcome. 

vefcombn, to welcome, 

vel, seven. 

\e\agul, heptagon. 

velat, truth, verity. 

velat, exactness, justness. 

vela&il, love for truth. 

veladk, true, veritable. 

veldak, exact, juct, correct, fair. 

velatiko, truly (vo). 

velatiko, verely, in truth, in- 
deed, really. 

velato, truly, iu truth. 

veldto (lepZeso, »oik), properly, 
especially. 

velatiin, to verify, testify, con-- 
firm, proof. 

velaton, to make correct, just, 
to agree on. 

■veldU, seventh part. 

Yeldiia, small seventh part. 

velel, number of seven, a seveo. 

jiefelik (a vel), seven at the 
time. 

»etelil, small seven. 

velib (dunavob), verb. 

vein, seventh. 

vefidna, seventh time. 

velidaao, for the seventh time, 

»eHdo, in the seventh place. 

velik, sevenfold. 

veliko, in a sevenfold manner., 

vein, small seven. 

«eHon, septillion. 

■velmil, seven thousand. 



190 



GllAMMAE OF yOLAPllK. 



velwiificl, seven thousandth. 

velm/ficlo, in the seven thous- 
andth place, 

velmjfik, seven thousand fold. 

velmj7na, seven thousand times. 

velna,, seven times. 

ueZnalik, seven times repeated. 

velmk, of seven sorts. 

weZniko, in seven different ways. 

velno, for the seventh time. 

velon, to multiply by seven. 

vels, seventy, 

velsebal, seventy one. 

nefeena, seventy times. 

weZsenalik, seventy times re- 
peated. 

ue?senik, of seventy sorts. 

velsiA, seventieth. 

velsiCinii, seventieth time. 

velsiAno, for the seventieth time. 

velsi&o, in the seventieth place. 

velsik, seventy fold. 

velson, to multiply by seventy. 

vels turn, (seventy times a hun- 
dred) seven thousand. 

Veltan, Valtalina. 

veltum, seven hundred. 

veltemena, seven hundred times. 

veUwmenalik, seven hundred 
times repeated. 

veltomid, seven hundredth. , 

velfawido, in the seven hund- 
redth place. 

velto7!ik, seven hundred fold. 

veUum mil, seven times a hund- 
red thousand. 

veUumon, to multiply by seven 

hundred. 

veliii, septime (music... h). 

w«Zum, septet (music). 

vem (levem), (also vemo, \evemo 
especially before vowels), very, 
particularly. 



ven, (conjunction) when, 

vencM, evening. 

Yendelajfid, eyening-food. 

vendelalefid, evening-repast. 

vendelas/eZ, evening-star. 

Yendelik, evening-(adj). 

■vendelo, in the evening, at 
nights. 

Venezia, Venice. 

venod, poison; venom. 

venodiil, poisonousness, veno- 
mousness. 

venod'Aia, poisoning. 

uoreodfik, ^ poisonous, venomous. 

venodoii, to poison. 

ventem, inventory. 

vemtemik, inventorially. 

ventur, adventure. 

venture!, adventurer. 

venud, charm, attraction, love- 
liness, beauty. 

veniid, risk, hazardous under- 
taking. 

venudik, charming, lovely. 

veniid&, risky, hazardous. 

venudon, to charm, tempt, se- 
duce, entice. 

vemldon, (kinon), to risk, ven- 
tiire, hazard, try. 

vesdel, Wednesday. 

vesdelo, on Wednesdays. 

Vesfalan, Westphalia. 

vesfalanel, Westphalian. 

ves/aldnik, Westphalian (adj). 

Vesteman, Westermannland. 

vestig(-am), investigation. 

vestigel, investigator. 

vestigon, to investigate. 

vesiid. West. 

Vesud'ekB., the West (the Western 
countries). 

Yesiideut, West-Germany. 

vesUAla, west, western. 



GRAMMAR OK VOLAPfiK. 



191 



VesiiHirfin, West-India. 

VesuT, Vesuvians. 

vesuBed, Westwards, to the 
West. 

vet, heaviness. 

vetap . . . (vetapjin !) 

vetaj)//H, centre (point) of gravity 

ve&i, heavy. 

vet'an, to charge, load, burden. 

veut, importance, rank, dis- 
tinction, respect, credit, con- 
sideration 

reiidk, important, considerable. 

vexad (am), vexation, plague. 

vexadel, vexer, teaser. 

vearadea, vexation. 

vexa£k, vezing 

vexadon, to vex, tease. 

vi !, woe ! 

vid, breadth. 

fiaam, enlai-gement. 

ri£k, broad. 

vidon, to enlarge, make broader. 

vie . . ., white . . 

\iejeval, grey horse. 

viel, state of being many- 
coloured. 

vieSk, many-coloured. 

vien, wind. 

vienas<an, weathercock, wind- 
vane. 

viemk, windy, blowy. 

vi&noff, glair, white of an egg. 

rienon, to blow. 

viet, white colour, the white. 

vie^ (ne(fe6al), pure or white 
innocence. 

vie&, white, blank, pale. 

vieton, to whiten, white wash, 
make white- 

vif, swiftness, rapidity, velocity, 

\i&kfut, velocipede, bicycle, tri- 
cycle. 



vif^penai, shorthand-writing, 
quick-writing 

!'(/ik, swift, quick, speedy, nim- 
ble, fast, sharp. 

vif6\ look sharp! quick! go on ! 

I'ifon (swnon), to accelerate, 
hasten, forward, quick . 

vig, week. 

vigade J, working-day, week-day. 

vigel, any workman (as mes- 
senger, attendant, servant, 
who gets a weekly pay). 

VirginSn. Virginia 

vikod, victory, triumph. 

«ifco(fil, victorious or triumph- 
ing spirit. 

vikodazal, festival after the 
victory, triumphal feast. 

vikode\, conqueror, triumpher. 

vHcodik, victorious, triumphal. 

vilcodon, to gain the victory, 
conquer. 

vil, wUl. 

I'jial, willingness. 

vilaJtfc, free will. 

vilgin (pi-yunel) ,the Hoi v Virgin. 

VU'elm, William. 

vilik, willingly, readily, with 
pleasure. 

fiVikiino, best, most. 

vilod, willow-tree, willow. 

viloi, officiousness, willingness, 
readiness. 

wiiofit, ready, willing, officious. 

vUon, to will. 

vim, whim, freak. 

tijmal, whimsicalness, fi-eakish- 
ness. 

wjmik, whimsical. 

Vin, Vienna. 

vine, wine, claret, 

vindbel mountain on which the 
vineti'ee is cultivated. 



192 



GBAMMAB, OF VOLAPUK. 



viniJcav, wine-cellar. 

vinated, wine-trade. 

vinatedai, wholesale-wine-mer- 

ohant. 
vinaiedum, wholesale trade in 

wine, vintry. 
vinsitedel, whine-mercliant, vint- 
ner, 
vindit, vengeance, revenge. 
vindital, mind of vengeance. 
vinditasiek, revengefulness. 
vinditA, revenger. 
vinditik, revengeful. 
vinditon, to revenge, avenge, 
vineg, wink, beck. 
vinegoTi, to beckon, wink, wave. 
w«nel, vine-dresser. 
Vinftid, Winfred. 
vinig, vinegar. 
vinigik (piniga,zUd\)s), acid, sour 

as vinegar, 
wmik. wine- (adj). 
wmop, tavern, wine-house. 
Vinzenzius, Vincent. 
viod(-aia), wounding, hurting, 

offending. 
viodon, to wound, offend, hurt, 
viol, violet (plant), 
uzotetik, violet (adj). 
violin, violin, fiddle. 
vi6t, bleaching-field, bleach. 
vi'dten, bleaching, bleach, 

blanching. 
viofaa, to bleach, blanch 
vip&hid, (of verbs:) optative 

(wishing) mood. 
vip&bidik, optative, 
vir, whirl, 
vised, wisdom. 
visedi\, wise, 
visin (Bi), bismuth, 
visit, visit, call. 
uistVel, visiter, visitor. 



visiton, to visit. 

viso, over, opposite (adverb)v 

visii, over, opposite (prepos). 

vit (-am), evitation. 

vitim, victim; offer. 

vitimsibod, host. 

vitimwi, offerer. 

vitirs.&i (uiftmal), sacrificer. 

vitimik, ready to offer. 

vitimfii, readiness to offer, or ta 

sacrifice. 
vitimon, to offer, sacrifice. 
viton, to avoid, ' shun, eschew^ 
vituel, virtuoso, 
viud, widowhood. 
viudel, widower. 
viudik, widow- (adj). 
viudon, to become widower or 

widow. 
viv(-en), weaving, 
vivel, weaver. 

vivenel, proprietor of a weaving- 
house. 
vivon, to weave. 
vivoi, weftage, tissue, 
vo, truly, in fact, really, indeed^ 

See jenik. 
v6 ! indeed ! 
voad, leakage, leak, 
voadik, leak, 
vob, work, labour, 
vob, improvement, profit, gain,. 

acc[uisition. 
vobucem, workshop, 
wftad, production; piece of 

work, work, 
rio&adam, working. 
wo5adik, active, doing work. 
uoSaddf, jlaboriousness, activity. 
vobad6n, to labour, act, work. 
vobe\, workman. 
vobik, active, laborious, diligent^ 

zealous. 



GRAMMAR Of VOLAPiiK. 



193 



»o6ik, diligent, assidaoos. 

vobon, to work. 

rofcon, acquire, get, gain, obtain. 

vobuic, work, bookwork, book. 

vod . . . (divod !) 

¥od, word. 



voasigik, copious. 

vodal, interpreter. 

vodamal, See vdlapiiked.. 

vodaplad(-axa), placing of words, 
construction (of sentences). 

vodas&u^, dictionary, vocabu- 
lary. 

?6da2opam, See YoAaplad. 

Toda^um, construction (of 
words). 

ro<fel (lepafcel, talker. 

vocEk, verbal, textual. 

vodzlo, on the other hand. 

vodim, to speak, talk ; to use 
words. 

Tof . . . (divof!) 

vofin (W), wolfram. 

vog, voice 

ioV/on, to give sound ; to vote, 
give a vote. 

vui. properly. 

eoik, proper, true. 

Tok, talk. 

vokab, vocable. 

vokad, change of sound. 

vohadSi, changing- of sound. 

vokal. vowel. 

vokalik, vocal — 

vokon, to call, cry. 

vol, world. 

vol, wall. 

volad, value price. 

voladik, valuable, dear, costly. 

voladiik, available. 

voladlot, valididy, availableness. 

voladon, to avail, be worth. 

»oZal. worldliness. 



«oto7q/a6,world-alphabet,alpha- 
bet of the universal langu- 
age. 

volapotaJclub, International 
Postal Union. 

volnpiik; world's language, uni- 
versal language, language of 
the world. 

vola,piika,bled, leaf, paper or 
newspaper of the language 
of the world. 

vola,piilcik, of (in, over, about) 
the language of the world. 

volek(-ani), realization. 

volekon, to realize. 

voleka,\(s), language and knowl- 
edge. 

Voliinan, Volhynia. 

volik, worldly, secular, temporal . 

volnt, revolution, tumult, insur- 
rection. 

volutel, rrbel, mutineer, revolt- 
er, revolutionist. 

volutbn, to rebel, revolutionize 
revolt. 

Tom, woman. 

romsLkleud (kleud i-oinik), nun- 
nery. 

vomav, gyn. 

vomik, female, feminine (yilik, 
]i-7nanik). 

lomil, little woman (ji-manil). 

!;omof(-al), womanliness (ji- 
manof). 

vomul, girl, little maiden. 

von {lo/\6\), blessedness. 

v6n(o), formerly, in fca-mer 
times, of old, of yove, in 
days gone-bye, before (pi). 

vonik, blessed, happy. 

v'imk, farmer, late, old. 

Vosegs, the Vosges. 

vot(-am), variety, change. 

13 



194 



GRAMMAK OF VOLAPuK. 



vota, , . ., en . . ,, sur . . . 
votaflekik, (by the) other way, 

turned, other side. 
vot&flek&n, to turn round turn 

over, turn about, 
woia/bmam, transformation. 
vod , . ., oter . . . 
votiflano, on the other hand, 

as to the other side. 
Korik, of other . . . 
woriko, otherwise, else, 
woiikano, once again, 
woriko, somewhere else, 
worim, the other, balha «orim, 

the one the other ; each other 

{ialvotik). 
uorimik, other (adjective with 

balim.ik). 
Yotived, to some other place, 

elsewhere. 
votlik, changeable, variable. 
voto, else, in the other case. 
voton, to change, vary. 
vu! hoy! 
vu . . ., inter . . . 
vud(-am), invitation. 
viidon, to invite, 
'vuit, wheat, 
vul, root, 
viil, arbitrariness. 



viilik, arbitrary, arbitrable. 

vuloTi, to take root. 

wZon, to act arbitrarily. 

vum, v^orm, reptile. 

viim, lap; womb. 

vum&i, kind of worms. 

vumik, wormy; worm-eaten. 

uwmon, to crawl. 

vun, wound. 

vun . . . (beviino !) 

vunSkA, mark (of a wound). 

vunaxn, wounding. 

uunasanel, surgeon. 

vunik (of a wound, as or like 

a wound, 
wwnon, to wound, 
vilpotel, tell-tale, betrayer. 
vupoZSn, to betray. 
Viirtemberg, Wirtemberg. 
vurtemiergA, Wirtemberger. 
vHrtembergik, of Wurtemberg. 
viisedal, jovialty, merriment, 

quickness of mind, liveliness. 
viisedik, jovial, gay, merry 

quick, jolly, lively, 
vut, fury, rage 
vutel, tyrant, 
warik, furious, raging. 
vutoTi, to rage, be in a fury, 

fume. 



xab, shaft, spindle, beam. 

xam(-am), examination. 

xam(-am), inquiry. 

xamel, examinator, examiner. 

.ramon, to examine. 

xamiin, to inquire. 

xan, ascent, rise ; step(s), staiif(s). 

xanabim, ladder. 

xdnMm&step, ladder-step. 

xaraed, ising, ascending. 



aanon, to ascend, rise, mount. 

Xantip, Xantippe. 

xarauw (pluMe»am), transform- 
ation (of adjectives) into a 
degree of comparison. 

xanumon, to compare (adjec- 
tives, adverbs &c), to bring 
into degrees of comparison. 

Xaverius, Xaverius. 

xeMo, exclusively. 



GBAMMAB OP VOLAPUK. 



195 



Xerxes, Xerxes. 

xil(-am), banishment, exile, 

proscription. 
,TJZon, to exile, banish proscribe, 
xiomal, axiom 
xol, ox 
.roSl, ox-headedness, scantiness 

of mind. 
^olil, small ox, bullock. 



xiilogaf, engraving in wood, 

xilography. 
xiiloga/el, xiloglyph, wood 

carver. 
xuloga/e,n, the state of carving 

wood. 
xiiiogafik, xilographic. 
xi'logafon, to engrave on wood, 

carve wood. 



Y. 



ya, already. 

yad, 3'ard, back-court. 

Taf, Java (Island). 

yag, hunting, chase, sport. 

yagadb^r, hound. 

yag A. hunter, huntsman, sports- 
man. 

yagt^ik, huntable. 

vagen, hunting. 

vag^k., huntsmanHke. 

yagSn, to hunt, chase. 

yak, jacket. 

yal, hall. 

yam, lamentation, misery, pity. 

j^amik, miserable, pitiful, woe- 
fnl, wretched. 

yamon, to lament, grieve, pity. 

yamoTp, pool of misery, vale of 
tears. 

yan, door. 

van, yarn, thread. 

yanul. (jbalvd), Januaiy. 

Yapan, Japan. 

yapdnel, Japanese. 

yapamk, Japanese (adj). 

yat, squirrel. 

ye (before vowels: yed), but, 
however, meanwhile, never- 
theless, yet. 

veb, grass. 



yeWs., grassy, green. 

yebon, to grazei 

yed, See ye. 

yeg, object, article. 

yegsX, objectiveness. 

yegiik, objective. 

^e^on, to objective. 

yel, year. 

yel&JoldoX, quarter-year, fourth 

of a year. 
yelafol&Ws., three-monthly. 
^eZa/bidiliko, every three 

months. 
yelamul, month of the year, 
yelib, the yellow, yellow colour. 
yelibik, yellow (adj). 
yelMik (ixiyelibik), yellowish. 
yelibon, to make yellow, colour 

yellow. 
^eZik, of the year. 
yeleik, yearly. 
yelil, short year. 
jelmil, quantity of thousand 

years. 
yelo, a year, per year, annually. 
yelon, to be a year since. 
jeltum, quantity of hundred 

years, century. 
yeMp, (course of a) year. 
yenog, yolk. 



196 



(iRAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



yesdel(o), yesterday. 

yesrfeHk, yesterday's, of yester- 
day. 

yi! (mo!), begone! away! out 
of tlie road! out of this! 
keep back! get 3'e gone! 

yidin (Ir), iridium. 

yilik, yielding, indulgent. 

yilon, to yield. 

yo ! (exclamation). 

yo ! ( . ). 

yob, clover. 

yodin (I), Yodiiim. 

yof, pleasure, joy, cheerfulness. 

yo/ab, lustful person, voluptu- 
ous person. 

yo/al, -good-humour, cheerful- 
ness. 

yo/'ik, joyful, cheerful, gay, 
merry, jolly, good-humoured. 

?/o/lik, longing. 

yo/o, joyful, pleasant, cheery. 

yof Si, joy fulness 

yqfon, to cheer, cheer up. 

Yo'an, John. 

Yo'ana, Jane. 

Yd'anil, Johnny. 

yok, yoke. 

yokaxa, subjection, submission. 

yokon, to submit, subject, ad- 
jugate, subdue, yoke, bring 
under the yoke. 

yono, yon, yonder, at the other 
side. 

yu! help! 

yub, jubilation, mirth. 

yulik, rejoicing. 

^uJOn, to rejoice. 

yubup, jubilee. 

Tud, Judaism. 

Yuda,n, Judea, 

Yudel, Jew. 

yudeji, manner of the Jews. 



yudon, to act like a Jew. 

yuf, help, assistance adjument.. 

yiif, oupport. 

yu/siman, man-midwife, accou^ 
cheur. 

yufwx, helper, assistant. 

yuf&tidel, under- teacher. 

yuf&velib, auxiliary verb. 

yuf&vom, midwife. 

yufA, helper. 

yufiV, helping, assisting. 

yufo, with aid, assisted. 

yuf '6 ! help ! 

yuf 61a., to help, assist, 

yuf on, to support. 

yufiX, with the aid of. 

yul, oath. 

ywJacocZof," court of justice, jury^ 

yulib, bliieness, the blue. 

yulibik, blue 

^ui«6on'tomake blue,colourblue. 

i/ulSs., sworn, confirmed with 
an oath. 

yulo, upon oath, juratory. 

yulii ! mind your oath ! 

yuloa, to swear, take an oath.. 

Tulop, Europe. 

Yulopal, the fact of being^ 
European. 

Yulopel, European. 

Yulopik, European (adj). 

Yulopon, to make European.. 

yulul (velul), July. 

yululila, of July. 

yum(-am), suiting, becoming. 

yum, correspondance, congrui- 
ty, fitness. 

yumali easy nature. 

yumik, easy, agreeable. 

yumoi, easy mindedness, suit- 
ableness. 

yilmoTi., to join; correspond, 

yumoTo., to suit. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



197 



yun, youth. 

yunal, fresh youth. 

yur^m, (the) making look 

younger, 
^wned, moulting, mewing. 
!/«7>el, youngman, 
^!(nik, young, 
yunikum, younger, 
j^'inlik, }"outhfLil, juvenile. 



yunoTi, to grow young again. 

yunul (malul), June. 

yunul of June,. 

yusit, justice, course of law, 

administration of law. 
yitsitel, lawyer, jurist. 
yusite\&, jurisprudential. 
yusitik, judicial, legal, 
yut, linum (East Indian flax). 



za (ba), about 

za in . . ., about in . . . 

zab, oats. 

zabahul, oatmealpap. 

zad, delicacy. 

za(&l, tenderness, tender heait- 
edness. 

zadai,m, heart softening. 

zadel, spoiler. 

-zadel,' Saturday. 

Tadelik, of Saturday. 

za(fik, tender, delicate. 

zadlik, tenderlike. 

zadon (luzatfon), to spoil. 

zoik, see baik. 

Zakarias, Zacharias. 

zal, feast, festivity. 

zaZa/offif, feast-octave. 

zo7al, festive disposition. 

zdliTs., festive, sumptions, splen- 
did. 

zalon, to celebrate, hold a 
holiday. 

zam, cement. 

zan, quai-rel, strife. 

zonal, quarrelsome nature. 

zanik, quarrelsome. 

zaraon, to quarrel, dispute con- 
tend. 

zar, czar (Emperor of Russia). 

zasin (cs), cesium. 



ze, about, tolerable, pretty, 
rather. 

zeb, barley. 

zebum, brain(s). 

zed . . . (pozed !). 

zeSon, to stop, settle, finish. 

zeil, aim, butt. 

zeilap . . . (zeilapsin !). 

zeilapan, aim, mark. 

zeilon, to aim, design. 

zel, celebration. 

zelad, certainty, surety secur- 
ity, positiveness. 

zeladii., certain, sure, secm-e, 
positive. 

zelal, festive disposition. 

zeZik, festive, sumptuous splen- 
did 

zelin (ce), cerium. 

zel'OTi, to celebrate, hold. 

zem. mortar, lime. 

zemaf . . . (zema/on !). 

zema/on, limekiln 

zemet, centimeter (con). 

zemik, calcarious, like mortar. 

zen, ash. 

zenak . . . (zensikdl !). 

zen&kol (ged), ash-colour. 

zen&koKk, ash-coloured. 

zenrfeZ, noon. 

zendelafid, dinner, midday-food 



198 



GKAMMAB OF VOLAPuK. 



zendelik, midday — 

zendelmk, midday's — 

zendelo, at noon, in the afternoon 

zeneit, midnight. 

zeneitik, midnight — (adj). 

zenod, centre. 

zenodamel, mediteranian. 

zenodap . . . {zenod&pUn !). 

zenod&piin, centre (point). 

zenodsxeg, middleway, midway. 

zenod, central..., middle. 

zenodo, in the centre. 

zenodon, to centre. 

zenodvi, in the middle of . . . 

zeraBn, to burn to- ashes; to 
hestrew with ash. 

zep (-am), approbation, 

zepon, to approve, 

zesud, necessity, need. 

zesfldik, necessary, needful. 

zesudon, to be necessary, be 
needed, be needful. 

zet ... (pozet !). 

zi . . ., over . . ., about, 

zib, food, meat, 

2z5am, feeding. 

zitem, dish. 

zib'on, to feed (somebody). 

zid, event, occurrence, accident. 

zid&, eventful. 

ziddn, to occur, happen, take 
place, befall. 

zied, lemon. 

ziedsAAm, lemon-tree. 

ziel, surrounder. 

zif, city, town. 

zif'iX, m.anners of the town. 

zi/'el, townsman, inhabitant of 
a town, 

zifik, townlike, citylike. 

zifil, little city, small town, 

zifleko, turned, round, wrench- 
ed, wrested. 



ziflehon, to turn about, turn; 

wrench, wrest. 
zifoD., to imitate town-people,. 

or the manners of the town, 
zigad, cigar. 
zigad)\., small cigar. 
zigolan, to go about, go round., 
zi^'onam, circiilation. 
zigonon, to turn or walk rounds 

to be in circulation, 
zik, zinc. 

zikiik, zincy, of zinc. 
zikxa. (zn), zinc. 
zik'&sx, to cover with zinc, 
zil, zeal. 

zilag, pair of compasses. 
zUagaX, circulation, currency. 
zilagbn, to measure with the 

compasses, 
zilak, company, circle, 
zilak, neighbourhood, district, 

environs. 
ziVal, zealous nature, 
zilek, orb, circuit, circle, curve^ 

ring. 
zileksbg, revolution, turn. 
zilekik, circular, orbicular. 
z«Vik, zealous, active, busy,. 

eager, diligent, 
zilin, cylinder. 
zilbi, zealousness, activity. 
zilogaxa, circumspection, pru- 
dence, caution. 
ziZof^amik (zilogik), circum-- 

spect, cautious, prudent. 
ziVon, to be zealous; to make- 

one'sself angry. 
zim, centime (coin). 
zi8b, cell. 

ziobap, cell (in anatomy). 
zw6ik (zidbapik), fullof cells. 
zispanQn, to overstretch, 
zisumon, to embrace, include.. . 



GllAMMAU OF VOLAPUK. 



199 



zit, case, matter, circumstance. 

zitat, citation. 

zitaton, to cite. 

ziton, to \>e the matter, be 
the case, happen, occur, take 
place. 

ziv, citizenship. 

^iveg, round-about-way. 

ztwel, citizen. 

zivik, citizenlike, plain, civil. 

22«on, to civilize. 

^0, roundabout. 

zob, sable (animal). 

"zodiak, zodiac. 

zog, lingering, loitering. 

s6g(-am), neglect, omission. 

zo^al, loitering or glow nature. 

:zoge\, neglecter, one who omits 
or overlooks. 

zogoi, slowness. 

zog'on, to loiter, linger, lag, 
tarry, hesitate, (of clocks:) 
to delay. 

zQgbn, to neglect, omit, over- 
look. 

^on, zone. 

zon, girdle. 

20«on, to gird, gird about, sur- 
round with a girdlcj 

zoniil, belt, girdle. 

zop, pulpit. 

■zSt, document, note. 

zu, besides, moreover. 

zii, roundabout. 

zii',.., ... roundabout. 

^uafel, suave. 

ziid, pickle(s), (an) acid (noun). 

ziidai, sour nature. 

ziidik, sour. 

zM<Zin(o), oxygen. 

zwdinik, oxygenated, contain- 
ing oxygen. 

zudSn, to sour. 



zug, vent air. 

ziig, register of an organ, 

zugalut, draught, current of air. 

zngik, windy, draughty. 

zugoxi, to be drafty. 

ziil, nine. 

zulag, circular (letter or paper). 

zulagut, circulation ; company 
of readers. 

ziilagon, to circulate. 

ziX\a,gul, enneagon. 

Zulan, Ceylon. 

zuldil, ninth part. 

zule\, number of nine, a nine. 

zulelik (a ziil), nine at a time, 

ziilelil, small nine. 

zaSd, ninth. 

ziij/idna, ninth time. 

3t»Zidno (2«Znalido), for the ninth 
time. 

zfiido, in the ninth place. 

zjiflk, ninefold. 

zaiHko, in a ninefold way. 

zSlil, little nine. 

2«Zion, nonillion. 

zixlmil, nine thousand. 

zulmz'tel, number of nine thou- 
sand. 

'iv\mill&, nine thousandth. 

ziilmflido, in the nine thou- 
sandth place. 

znlmilik, nine thousandfold. 

zulaa,, nine times. 

za/nalido, for the ninth time. 

sttZnalik, nine times repeated. 

zaZnaliko, (adverb) nine times 
repeated. 

ziilmk, of nine sorts, 

ziilno, for the ninth time, 

z«7on, to multiply by nine. 

ztils, ninety. 

zulsuhalid, ninety first. 

ziilseAil, ninetieth part. 



200 



GEAJIMAU OF VOLAPUK. 



ziilsekil, ninety three. 

zUlsena,, nitety times. 

zflZsenalik, ninety times re- 
peated. 

zaZsenik, of ninety kinds. 

ziilsiA, ninetieth. 

ziilsidno, for the ninetieth time. 

z«7sido, in the ninetieth place. 

ziilsik, ninetyfold. 

ziilson, to multiply by ninety. 

ziils turn, (ninety times a hun- 
dred), nine thousand. 

zaltum, nine hundred. 

ziiltnradil, nine hundredth part. 

ziilfamena, nine hundred times. 

ziiltemenalik, nine hundred 
times repeated. 

ziiltomid, nine hundredth. 

ziiltemido, in the nine hun- 
dredth place. 

zultamik, nine hundredfold, 

zulft/mmil, nine times a hun- 
dred thousand. 

ZTXltumon, to multiply by nine 
hundred. 



ziilui, none (music, d). 

zUlnl (Setul), September. 

ziiliim, nonet. 

ziim, circumference circuit, sur- 
rounding, circle. 

ziimon, to surround, encircle. 

zun, wrath, angor. 

zunai, hot nature, passionate- 
ness, eagerness. 

zumk, angry, wrathful. 

zMnon, to get angry. 

zup (lenlag), party, train (of 
followers). 

zfipel, follower, adherent, par- 
tisan. 

zapeliig, adherence, partisan- 
ship. 

ziip'on, to adhere, stick to (a 
party). 

zlit, cithern (lute). 

ziitel, lute-player, lutist. 

ziiton, to play the cither (play 
the lute). 



ENGLISH- VOLAPUK 

NELIJIK-VOLAPtJKIK. 



VODASBUK 

VOCABULARY. 



A. 



a, (per, the), a. 
abacist, lenumel. 
aback, hakived, po. 
abandon, liiv'dn. 
abandoned, liimk. 
abandoner, liivel. 
abandoning, luv. 
abandonment, liivava.. 
abase, hapon. 
abased, 2>apik. 
abasement, lapam.. 
abasb, kofud&n. 
abashed, kofudik. 
abashing, ko/udik. 
abashment, jemOi. 
abasing, hapava. 
abatable, lumk. 
abate, lunon. 
abated, Zunik. 
abatement, lunnva. 
abater, 'lunel. 
abbreviate, hle/Qn. 
abbreviated, blefiV. 
abbreviation, ble/axa. 
abbreviator, We/"(am)el. 
abbreviatory, 6fey'(am)ik, 
abbreviature, . . . il. 
abdicant, klemel. 
abdicate, klemon. 
abdicated, klenak. 
abdication, klem, Aetlid. 
abdicative, AetUdik. 
abdicator, detlidel. 
abduce, kludbn, 
abduct, kludbn. 



abducsion, kludaxo. 

abed, bedo. 

abet, stigOTa. 

abetment, stigaxa. 

abetter, stigel. 

abettor, stigel. 

abhor, naudon. 

abhorrence, naud. 

abborrer, naudol. 

abide, blibon. 

abider, mnlodel. 

abiding, dul, blib, stab. 

ability, labera, talen, fag. 

abject, mojiitoTo.. 

abjure, kodemon. 

abjurer, kodemel. 

able, fdgik. 

ableness, fag. 

ablepsy. blein. 

abler, /ajrikum. 

ablest, fdgikwa. 

ablooate, iSkodutoa. 

ablocation, tokoduisna. 

ablution, klin&m. 

ably, fagiko, faglik. 

abnegate, feneswn. 

abnegation, fenesiam. 

abnegative, fenessamik. 

abnegator, fenesael. 

abnormal, nenomoma/ik ne- 

leodik. 
abnormity, nenomomaf. 
abode, steb, 

abodement, blesen, blesenam. 
aboding, blesenik. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



203 



abolish, noson, cle;a/on. 
aboliahable, nosik. 
abolisher, nosel. 
abolishing, 'de;a/am. 
abolishment, nosam. 
abolition , de/a/, le&giv. 
abolitionism, de/o/ai, 
abolitionist, de/a/el. 
abominable, 'etik 
abominableness, 'eiof. 
abominably, 'edko. 
abominate, 'effin. 
abomination, le/e^. 
aboriginal, rj^adik. 
abound, Imndanon. 
abounding, bundanik. 
about, ba, za. 
above, lopu. 
above-cited, lopnik. 
above-mentioned, loprdk.. 
abridge, blq/'6n. 
abridged, ble/ik. 
abridge)', ble/el. 
abridging, ble/ik. 
abridgment, ble/a,ja. 
abroad, selcinik. 
abrogate, de;'a/6n, ts,vok'6n. 
abrogating, Aej'afik. 
abrogation, de/o/am. 
abrupt, silpitik. 
abruptly, tuspid. 
abscess, zzoftap. 
abscind, dekotSn. 
abscission, defcdiam. 
absence, mo6m. 
absent, raobinik. 
absenter, moSmel. 
absolute, lolik. 
absolutely, loliko. 
absoluteness, ne/wm. 
absolution, livapaA;am. 
absolve, livapfifcon. 
absolver, livapfifcel. 



absolving, livapwHk. 
absorb, ninsugdn. 
absorbable, ninsu^rik. 
absorbed, mnsugbl. 
absorbing, ninsw^ik. 
absorption, ninsu(/am. 
absorptive, mnsugik. 
abstain, stonbu. 
abstainer, stonel. 
abstemious, stonik. 
abstemiously, s^dniko. 
abstention, sionam. 
absterge, ni/bn, klinbn. 
abstergent, nifik, klinbl. 
abstersion, ni/aza, klinaia. 
abstersive, nifik, klinbl. 
abstinence, stbn. 
abstinent, stonik, ma/ik. 
abstinently, mafo, stoniko. 
abstracted, edeilbl, soalik, 
abstraction, dezwjram. 
abstruse, dibalik. 
abstrusely, dibalo. 
abstruseness, dib&l. 
absurd, taszaraik. 
absurdity, tstsidnot. 
absurdly, taszaniko. 
absurdness, iasidnoi. 
abundance, bundan". 
abundant, iiezesudik. 
abundantly, bundaniko. 
abuse, mi^ebon. 
abused, ■pemigebbl. 
abuser, mi^ieftel. 
abusing, mi^eftol. 
abusion, mi^'efcam. 
abusive, migebik. 
abusively, mi^e&o. 
abusiveness, migeb. 
Abyssinia, Abiisan. 
Abyssinian, Abiisanik. 
Abyssinians, Abiisanels. 
academial, kademik. 



204 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



academian, kademA. 
academic, hadevmik. 
academially, hadevrnko. 
academician, hademA. 
academist, hadem^. 
academj, kadem. 
accede, zepon. 
acceding, zepaxa. 
accelerate, sun'dn, vif'dn. 
accelerated, simol. 
accelerating, sunol, vifbl. 
acceleration, swnam, j;^am. 
aocelerative, suraamik, vifik 

sunik, vi/ayxiik 
accelerator, sunel, swnamel 

vife\, wj/amel. 
accent, kazet. 
accentor, k.azete\. 
accentual, kazedk. 
accentuate, kazetoTa. 
accentuation, beioiiam. 
accept, sumon. 
acceptable, liiierik. 
acceptableness, luletbi. 
acceptably, liileto. 
acceptance, sumam, laswm. 
acceptation, sumani. 
accepted, sum'61. 
accepter, sumel, 
accepting, sumik. 
acceptress, ji-sMwiel, of-sumel. 
access. Inlet. 

accession, liilet, \uleta,m, let. 
accident, zit. 
accidental, sidk. 
aoclimatie, fctemon. 
acclimatization, kliimam. 
acclimatise, fcfemon. 
acclimatizing, k'iimol. 
aoclyvity, xan, kliv, slop, 
aocommodable, gebik. 
accommodate, blimon.. 
accommodately, gebik, podk; 



segun, ma. 
accommodation, 6aZam. 
accompanied, kopanol. 
accompanier, kopanel. 
accompaniment, kopan(am). 
accompanist, kopanel. 
accompany, fcoparaSn. 
accompanying, kopanik. 
accomplice, keafeftel. 
accomplish, duinQn, le/«Z6n. 
accomplisbable, le/ulik 
accomplished, pe^'rtol. 
accomplisher, lefulel. 
accomplishing, \efulik. 
accomplishment, duin, le/ufom 

duinajW.. 
accord, haiaxa. 
aceordable, segun, ma. 
accordance, halaxa.. 
accordant, 6afamik. 
accordantly, ma, segun. 
accorder, ftaZamel, lekosUel. 
according, a ma, a segun. 
accordingly, ma, segun. 
accost, lenuorfSn. 
accostable, lenvodik. 
accoucheur, yufaiman. 
account, kal. 
accountant, fcaiel. 
account-book, kalaJufc. 
accouter, ludefcon. 
accoutered, lurfefcik. 
accoutering, lurfefcam. 
accoutrements, luafefc. 
accrue, rnddSn. 
accrument, modaxa.. 
accumulate, fcumon. 
accumulated, pefcumBl. 
accumulating, kumXA. 
accumulation, fcumam, 
accumulative, temik. 
accumulatively, kuimko. 
accumulator, /cumel. 



GBAMMA-R CF TOLAPUK. 



•203 



accniacy, kolad. 
accmate, kula^k. 
accniatdy, itdado. 
accoratiiiess, knlad. 
accurse, kodemSai. 
accnsable, hUumk.. 
accnsaiioii, kusad. 
ac'CasatiTe, kimi/ai. 
accnsatonal, kusa£k.. 
accasatoiy, tusadoi. 
accuse, kusadon. 
accused, yekusadol. 
accuser, kusadeL 
accnsiiig, kusa£k. 
accustom, kosdrndn. 
accnstomable, kosomik. 
accnstoniaiilj, kosomo. 
accnstomary, koAnoSiL. 
accnstomed, kosoniOs.. 
acerb, leztitfik. 
acerbity, lezSd. 
acervute, kumon. 
ac^cency, zudof. 
acescent, zsd\jik. 
acetic, zu£k. 
acetic-acid, sK<6ii(p). 
acetous, zMinik, zu£k. 
ache, del, torn, 
achievable, dunlik. 
achievance, le/Wamof, dunillo. 
achieve, dunoTi. \efuldn. 
achieyement, don, jen dunam. 
achiever, dunel. 
aehieving, dunol. 
aching, doGk. 
adA, zad. 

acidefication, ziidaia. 
acidified, pezvdol. 
acidifier, zSdA. 
acidify, zudon. 
acidifying, zid6L 
acidimeter, zadamaf. 
acidity, zudof. 



acidness, zadot. 
acidulate, zudSn. 
axddolated, pezedol. 
acidnlating, zSdol. 
acidalons, zStDik. 
acknowledge, lageron; koefcm. 
acknowledger, MseceL 
acknowledgement, danai. 
acorn, gologa^ui;. 
acoustics, ZtZotav. 
acqnaint, peseeon, notCn. lenun- 

on, nunon. 
aqnaintance, not, pesetram, pe- 

sereL 
acquainted, pesecik, noOk. 
acquirable, ^eflik. 
acquire, ge&n. 
acquirement, getsaa, rob. 
acquirer, g^d.. 
acquiring, ^e<ol. 
acquisition, vob, gelBm. 
acquisitive, p^edk. 
acquit, kUon. 
acquitment, kitam. 
acquittal, kit. 
acquittance, kitam.. 
acquitted, kUik. 
acquitting, kitol. 
acrid, lezutfik, j'apik. 
acridness, lezSd. 
acrimonious, hiet&iik lezutfik. 
acrimoniously, hiaSlo yapiko. 
acrimonionsness, &iedSL 
acrimony, bei^il. 
acritical, /aplik. 
aeritude, jap. 
aerity, jap. 
acroamatic, l^nik. 
across, ove. 
act, dun, rfunam, bit. 
act, dutiion, bi&a. 
action, lakif, dun, dunam.. 
actionary, kadiiidel. 



206 



GBAMMATl OF VOLAPuK . 



action-taking, dilswmod, zdnik, 

dikod& 
active, dudk, zilik, wa'/ik, dunik, 

vobik. 
actively, vifo, zilo. 
activeness, dunoi, zil6i. 
activit}', dunof, zilot. 
actor, dunel, ■damatel. 
actress, ji-damate\, oi-damatel. 
actual, vo, Jenik, 
actuality, jenoi. 
actually, vo ! vo ! velaiXko \ 
actualness, Jen'6t. 
actuate, mufon. 
actuated, pemu/61. 
actuating, mufdl. 
actuation, mu/am, 
acuate, japon. 
aculeate, stigik. 
acumen, yapalSf. 
acuminate, japon. 
acuminated, japik. 
acumination, japum, Japaloi. 
acute, Japik, japalik. 
acutely, yapaliko. 
acutenesB, jap, Japaloi, j'apal. 
adage, pUki&avdd. 
adamant, diamin. 
adamantine, dihminik, 
• adapt, geb'OTo.. 
adaptability, gehoi. 
adaptable, gebik. 
adaptation, geb, pot, gebura. 
adaptidness, geb, pot, 
adapter, gehel. 
adapting, ^e6ol. 
adaptive, podk, gebik. ^ 
adaptness, geb, pot. 
adays, (now-) ; bidelo. 
add, la^iwon, suamon, mSd'dn, 

gletim. 
addecimate, 6aZson. 
addeem, cerfSn. 



adder, snek. 

addice, deig 

addict, k'dsekon, hosekim. 

addictedness, siik. 

addicting, k'osekik. 

addition, suamam. 

additional, pela^rzwik. 

additionally, \&givo. 

additive, laf/wiik 

addle, »a^ik, ne/erik, To&flukik. 

addle-beaded, stupid. 

address, ladet, len^itk, fag 

address, ladetim, \eav6dcm. 

adresser, lenwoc^el, 

adduce, laftZznon. 

adducent, lenza^rSl. 

adducer, laftZenel. 

adductor, zugA. 

addulce, svidon. 

addulcer, SBirfel. 

adept, vituel, pefcosefcel. 

adept, le/a^ik. 

adequate, segun, ma, leigik, 

adequately, segun, ma. 

adequateness, leig. 

adeqviation, leigsxn. 

adhere, ziipon. 

adherence, zwpeliig. 

adherently, aopeliko. 

adherer, zup€\. 

adhesion, len^rZuafam. 

adhesive, kleKk, len^'Zuc^ol. 

adhesively, lengludoWsa. 

adhibit, geboTo.. 

adhibition, geb, ^e6am. 

adieu, ladyulo ! adyb ! 

adjacency, nil. 

adjacent, nilVi. 

adjacently, nilo. 

adjection, la^juam. 

adjective, ladyek. 

adjectively, ladyekVik. 

adjoin, \&giv'6n, lenmserfon. 



GRAMifAE OF VOLAPUK. 



207 



adjudge, cdd&ton, coafon. 
adjudgement, codai. 
adjudicate, lucorfaton. 
adjtidicaticm, codat. 
adjuducator, coc?atel. 
adjumeut, _vuf. 
adjunct, l&giv, yu/el. 
adjunction, VagivSim.. 
adjunctive, la^tuik. 
adjuration, lebegam. 
adjure, le6«^on, plekon. 
adjust, gimeton. 
adjustable, mufik. 
adjuster, gimekel. 
adjutor, yu/el. 
adjuvant, yu/i)s.; yufeX. 
adjuvate, yufbn, fodon. 
administer, dugon, namon, lii- 

hediinon. 
admirability, milagot. 
admirable, milagik. 
admirableness, milagbi. 
admirably, milago. 
admiration, milagaxn. 
admire, milagoji. 
admirer, milagel. 
admission, lulet, let, liiZeiam. 
admit, Inletbn, dalon. 
a.dmittable, lule&. 
admittance, zepan, zep, lulet, 

let. 
admix, l&mig'dn, 
admixion, migaxa., mig. 
admixture, pern, 
admonish, momedbn. 
admonished, monedik. 
admonisher, monedel. 
admonishing, monedsbin, 
admonishment, moned. 
admonition, monedava. 
admonitive, moned]ik. 
admonitivily, monedliko. 
admonitor, monedel. 



admonitory, monedbl, monedik. 

admove, niilon. 

adnoun, ladyek. 

adopt, sumon. 

adopted, sumik. 

adoptedly, sumiko. 

adopter, sumel. 

adopting, sum'61. 

adoption, sumam. 

adoptive, sujnik. 

adoration, leplek. 

adore, leplekbn. 

adorer, lepZeiel. 

adoring, l^lekik. 

adoringly, leplekiko. 

adorn, dekba. 

adorned, dekik. 

adorner, dekel. 

adorning, dekik. 

adomingly, dekiko. 

adornment, dek. 

adown, don, disi. 

adriatic, adriatik. 

adroit, j^amalik. 

adroitly, flumaliko. 

adroitness, flumal. 

adry, nelilmik. 

adstriotion, ietan. 

aduncity, klug. 

aduncous, klugik. . 

adust, sigbl. 

advance, m.ostepbn, fodbn. 

adanoing, jnostepbl. 

advanced, pemosiepol. 

advancement, jnostep, fod, 

fodam. 
advancer, jnostepel, /odel. 
advancive, fodik. 
advantage, fod, fodaxa.. 
advantage, fodon. 
advantageous, fbdik. 
advantageously, yoffiko, /odo, 
advantager, fodel. 



208 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



adtfene, laiomon. 
advent, zid. 
adventitious, zi£)s.. 
adventitiously, zido, zidiko. 
adventure, ventur. 
adventure, ventUron. 
adventurefuU, ventUnk, wenwrfik. 
adventurer, ventHrel. 
adventuresome, venturik.. 
adventuresomeness, begii&l. 
adverb, ladvelib. 
adverbial, ladvilibik. 
adverbially, ladvelibo. 
adversary, toel. 
adversative, iaik. 
adverse, ta, taik, 
adversely, taiko. 
adverseness, lied, 
adversity, lied, rt&lab. 
advert, toe^ron, lu/ondn, senitovL, 
adverted, senitik. 
advertence, senit. 
advertent, senz'rik. 
advertently, senito. 
adverting, seniAk. 
advertise, noton. 
advertised, -penotol. 
advertisement, not. 
advertiser, notel. 
advertising, notik. 
advice, konsal. 
advisable, konsalik. 
advisableness, konsaloi. 
advisably, Iconsalo. 
advise, konsaWa. 
advised, konsalik. 
advisedly, konsdliko, siieniko. 
advisedness, siien. 
advisement, konsaliaa. 
adviser, konsalel. 
advising, konsalQl. 
advocate, lavogel, 
advocation, plouorf. 



adze, deig. 
adzing, deigik. 
aerate, luton. 
aerated, lutik, 
aerating, lutol. 
aeration, lutum. 
aerial, luta,. 
aeriform, luta/omik. 
aeronaut, lutana/el. 
aeronautic, lutana/ik. 
aeronautism, lutana/am. 
afar, fagik. 
afer, anVxvesudsLvien, 
affability, kein, menSl piikoiof, 
affable, pUkotik, keinik. 
affableness, pUkotoi, menal keiii. 
affably, keino. 
affair, jaf, din, zid. 
affect, lepon, steifon. 
affectation, steif&xn, mj</al. 
affected, meug^k 
affecting, pidik. 
affectionaly, pwflko. 
affection, liedoA.. 
affectionate, ladMk, zadi^. 
affectionateness, ladM, zad. 
affective, dolik 
affectively, cfoZiko. 
affectuous, dolik. 
affeer, svan., besjon. 
affere, szon, besion. ' 

aflSance, mata^fiwe;. 
affidavit, plan yulik. 
affied, konMoX. 
affirm, sion, beszon. 
affirmable, szamik. 
affirmably, szamo. 
affirmance, sj'am. 
affirmant, saamel. 
affirmation, szam. 
affirmative, sjamik. 
affirmatively, siamo, sj'amiko. 
affirmed, s&l. 



GBAMMAK 07 TOLAPuK. 



20ft 



affirmer, seiunel. 
affirming, ^tiainik. 
afBz, 'posSab. 
af&x, la^ipon. 

affixed, -posilabol, positoHk. 
affising, ^a^ivol. 
affizion, la^ir, la^n;am. 
affixture la^tcam, iagio. 
afflation, stigam. 
afflict, glumou. 
afflicted, glumoL 
affiictedness, gltaial. 
afflicter, glume]. 
afflictiiig, glumik. 
affiictingly, glumiko. 
affliction, glmn, torn, 
afflictive, gbimik. 
afflictivelj, glumiko. 
afflnance. bnndan. 
affluent, nezesudik. 
affluently, nezesudo. 
afflnxion, bundan. 
afford, laJZmon. 
afbanchise, libon. 
afEranchised, libol. 
affiranchisement, liv, linnm. 
affranchising, Zzi^ol. 
affray, j'ekon. 
affreight, iodon. 
affreighted, lodol. 
affreighter, lodel. 
a&eighting, lo£k. 
affireightment, lodam. 
a&ight, jek. 
affrighted, jelak, j'dcol. 
afiightedly, jeHko. 
affirighter, j'ehel. 
aSrightfal, jelak. 
affrightftilly, fetiko. 
affrighting, jelak. 
affirightment, jet, /efcam. 
affront, no/on. 
affironted, nofol. 



affroater, no/el. 

affronting, nofol. 

affirontingly, tiqfiko. 

affirontive, nofik. 

affy, konfidon. 

afield, /elo. 

afire, Jilo. 

aflat, keglunik, kestokik. 

afoot, futo. 

afore, bofo. 

afiraid, tlepik, dleldk, temipik. 

afresh, denu. 

afric, JUcopik. 

Africa, Kcop. 

Afiican, Fikopel. 

afront, viso, tiisZ. 

aft, po. 

after, po, pos. 

after-aU, hle/o. 

afternoon, pozen<2e2. 

afterwards, poso. 

aftward, hdldved. 

again, denn, <2enuliko. 

against, a, ta, kol. 

agape, InZc^ik. 

age, Mled. 

aged, hale£k, vonik. 

agency, A/nanet. 

agent, t^unan. 

aggrandizable, gletomk. 

aggrandize, gletoa. 

a^randised, glelSi. 

a^randizement, gletam. 

aggrandizer, gletel. 

aggrandizing, gleiSl. 

aggrayate, hiedou, jikulon. 

aggravated, ^kuZik. 

aggravating, Jikulol. 

aggravation, fi}cula.m, hiedaxa.. 

aggr^ate, kumon. 

aggr^ated, kunak. 

aggregately, kumo, kunako. 

aggr^ating, ^mol. 

14 



210 



GEAMMAU OP VOlAPuK. 



aggregation, fcumam. 
aggregative, fcumik. 
aggregator, kumel. 
aggrievance, leglif. 
aggrieve, legli/Qii. 
aggrieved, glnmik, 
aggrieving, legli/ik. 
aggroup, gluppn. 
aggrouped, glupi)s.. 
aggrouping, glupoi. 
aghast, felol. 
agile, vi/ik. 
agilely, vifo, /bwiko. 
agileness. vif, 
agility, vif. 
agitable, mu/iV. 
agitate, lemu/on., mufbn 
agitated, lemufol. 
agitating, m«/ik. 
agitation, muf. 
agitative, mufik. 
' agitator, tZunan. 
ago, iegolik. 
agog, desidik. 
agoing, golol. 
agonize, tomon. 
agonised, tomol. 
agonising, tomik. 
agohisinly, Zomiko. 
agony torn, letlep. 
agree, balamon. 
agreeable,les«mik,Zo/lik, plidik. 
agreeableneas, plidoi, lofio/. 
agreeably, lesumo, Zo/lika, jj^zdo. 
agreeing, ftaZamik. 
agreeingly, balamon. 
agreement, halaxsr 
agricultor, plaud(^, fele]. 
agricultural, lanedaMik- 
agriculturalist, lanedel. 
agriculture, lanedai. 
agriculturist, lanedsd. 
aground, gluno. 



ague, fif. 

aguish, jS/ik. 

aguishness, fi/ikaxa. 

ah! a! ag! 

aha, a! 

ahead, kapo. 

ahoy ! kauto ! 

aid, yuf. 

aid, yuf'an. 

aidance, yuf&TO.. 

aided, yufol. 

aided, yufoi. 

aidless, nej/wrtk. 

ail, lusoMnon. 

ailing, Zusaunik. 

aim, desan, desein, zeil. 

aim, zei'Zon. 

aimer, zeil€i. 

aiming, jseiZol. 

aimless, nezez'Sk. 

air, lut. 

air-punip, lutapom. 

airy, Zurik. 

aisle, flit&A 

aisled, flitSadJA. 

ait, nzsM&l. 

alack ! liedo ! 

alacrity, yof. 

aland, l&no. 

alarm, boset, 

alarmed, Vosetoi. 

alarming, Joserik. 

alarmingly, hoseto. 

alas, pa! liedX). 

alaud, kleiVik. 

alb, kor2kjit. 

albatross, tepsibod. 

albeit, ifi. 

ale, sneics&i. 

alegar, hilnvinig. 

ale-glass, hUaglat. 

ale-house, labot, Zo<6p. 

ale-house-keeper, lotel. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



211 



ale-measure, bil&maf. 

alert, 6(7/olik. 

alertness, vif. 

ale-vat, bilatuh. 

algor, lekalod. 

alias, voto. 

alibi, ■moiin. 

alien, fogimh. 

alienate, foginon. 

alienated, /ogin'dl. 

alienating, fogitiolik. 

alienation, fogins.m.. 

alife, lif\k. 

alight, donZeZon. 

-aKke, togo, \6leigo. 

aliment, miliid. 

alimental, nulu£k. 

alimentally, nuludo. 

alimentariness, nuljidoi. 

alimentation, nulud&'m. 

alimonious, niiludik. 

alimon}', niilud. 

alive, lijik. lif'6\. 

all, valik, i-flZikos, saik. ~ 

allay, iniido'n, leiton. 

allayer, leitel, meiladel. 

allayment, miidaxa, meilad. 

allegation, zitatajn.. 

allege, zitatbn, Isiblmon. 

alleger, zitatel. 

allegiance, Jiedal. 

alleging, zitatik. 

alleviate, leiton, miidon, 

alleviated, leitol, miidol. 

alleviating, leitik 

alleviation, marfam, meiladajn. 

alley, lal. 

alliance, fed. 

alliciency, fed. 

allied, /ed6\. 

alligate, ietanon. 

aliigating, fetonol. 

alligation, feian. 



alligator, klokod. 
alliteration, tondb&rim. 
allocate, lasewon, luZeion. 
allocation, laseu, VMet, let, 

liiZgfam. 
allocated, laseubl. 
allocator, laseuel. 
allocution, leupUk. 
allot, serfiVon. 
allotment, ssdil, diloA. 
allottable, sedilik. 
allotted, sedilik. 
allotting, sedilnm.. 
allow, dabon. 
allowance, dab. 
allowed, dabol. 
allower, dabel. 
allowing, dab&. 
alloy, lal 

all souls-day, Va.Taeli/iVa.zdl. 
allure, baton. 
allured, hatii, bdibl. 
allurement, bdtazib. 
allurer, bcitel. 
alluring, batik. 
alluringly, Jariko, bdto. 
alluringness, bdtal. 
ally, fed. 
allying, fedol. 
almightily, lemefco^ levaliid. 
almightiness, lernek, levalud. 
Almighty, liemekel, lievaliidel. 
almond, lamatnk. 
almond-tree, lamatakabim. 
almoner, limunel. 
almonry, limunani. 
almost, ti. 
alms, limun. 
alnage, met3,maf. 
alnager, meiama/el. 
aloft, siiso. 
alone, soalik, leJaflk. 
along, ve. 



212 



GRAMMAll OF VOLAPuK. 



aloof, /apik. 

aloofness, fag. 

alotid, klielils.. 

alphabet, lafab. 

alphabetic, la/abik. 

alphabetically, lafabo. 

alpine, lapik. 

alpist, lafA. 

Alps, laps. 

also, i, id, also, Akod. 

altar, latam. 

alter, ceznon, voton, deuoion. 

alterable, votlik, dewortik. 

alterableness, wriikam. 

alterably, uoriiko. 

alteration, cein, cej'nam, vot, 

votaxa.. 
alterative, vo&, oeinik. 
altercate, dikodon, ^anon. 
altercation, dikodof, zanaxa. 
altern, cenon 
alternant) cenik. 
alternate, cenik, rerj^ik. 
alternately, rezipo, deniko. 
' alternateness, cereal, 
alternating, cenik. 
alternation, cenam. 
alternative, cenik. 
alternatively, ceniko. 
alternativeness, cenSf. 
although, ifi, do. 
altiloquence, geilal. 
altiloquent, jretValik. 
aititijide, geilvig. 
alto, telidsivdg. 
altogether, tugedik, loliko. 
aluminium, Itimin. 
am, (J am), binob. 
amability, kein. 
amalgamate, mig6n. 
amalgamated, mig'6\. 
amalgamation, migaxa, 
amass, kumon. 



amassed, ^m'6\. 
amaze, stunon, 
amazed, siimol. 
amazedly, stun'oliko. 
amazedness, stanblam. 
amazement, stun. 
amazing, stonik. 
amazingly, sMniko. 
ambassador, deputal. 
ambiguity, telinegiii. 
ambiguous, telinegik. 
ambiguously, telinegiko. 
ambiguousness, te/;ne^5f. 
ambit; ziim. 
ambition, dimtusuk. 
ambitious, dinitasfiHk. 
ambitiously, dinitasaHik. 
ambitiousness, dinitasaiifclofv 
ambulant, spatik, spatol. 
ambulate, spatbn. 
ambuscade, neletuh. 
amDush, neZe«(iib). 
ambushment, neZefam. 
ambustion, Jiledam.. 
ameliorable, menodik. 
ameliorate, menodbn. 
ameliorating, menodik. 
anlelioration, menod. 
ameliorator, lefulel, menodei^ 
amen ! vo ! yenosod ! 
amenabilily, cdti/'6{. 
amenable, cotifik. 
amenably, co^yiko. 
amend, menodon.. 
amendable, menodik^ 
amendatory, menodik. 
amended, pemenodOl. 
amender, menodel. 
amending, menodol. 
amendment, menod. 
amends, gudaxa, guv. 
amenity, venud. 
amerce, ponadon. 



'GRA.MMAK OF VOLAPiiK. 



213 



amercement, p'6na.i. 
amercer, joanadel. 
America. Melop. 
American, melopel. 
-americanism, melapai. 
americanize, melopJTi. 
amiability, kein, Iqflot. 
amiable, kelnih, lofad^ik. 
amiableness, kein, Zo/lof. 
amiably, fcemiko, Zo/liko. 
amicability, kein, flenal. 
amicable, _^enik. 
amicableness, _/?enal. 
amicablj", flentko. 
amid, zenodo. 
amiss, vad&. 
amity, fleniig 
ammonia, moniak. 
ammoniac, moniak. 
among, bevii, la. 
amorist, Zo/al, ladal. 
amort, nelanimik. 
amount, suam. 
amount, sudmon. 
ample, veitik, liegik. 
ampleness, veit, magif. 
ampliate, gleton, veiton. 
ampliation, glet&vi, veitaxa. 
amplificate, gleton, veitoix. 
amplification, gletsim, veitAva.. 
amplifier, glet^, veitel. 
amplify, veiton. 
amplitude, spad, veit. 
amusable, drolik. 
amuse, ^aZon. 
amused, galik, ytegdlol. 
amusement, drol, gal. 
amuser, gdlel. 
amusing, galik, drolik- 
amusingly, gdliko. 
an, bal, halos, os-bal. 
anabaptism, denu^of^awa^. 
anabaptist, Aenngoda,valah. 



analogical, sumlik. 
analogically, «ismliko. 
analogicalness, siimoi. 
analogism, s^mal. 
analogist, siimel. 
analogize, silmbn. 
analogous, siimik. 
analogously, s«miko. 
alagogue, siimik. 
analogy, siim. 
analysis, iilimaia. 
analytic, diKj«ik. 
analytical, Ailimik. 
analytically, diZi'miko. 
analyzable, dilimik. 
analyzableness, diilimoi. 
analyzation, di'imam. 
analyze, dilimbn. 
analyzed, ^edilimoi. 
analyzer, Ailimel. 
analyzing, dilimbl. 
anatomical, diilimaJcanik. 
anatomically, diZimafcano. 
anatomist, Ailimel. 
anatomization, iilimaxa. 
anatomize, Ailimbn. 
antomy, A'llimxicin. 
ancestor, nlfat. 
anchor, nak. 
anchor, naknn. 
anchorsmith, nafcel. 
ancient, stdnel. 
ancient, vonik. 
anciently, vono. 
anecdotal, konik. 
anecdote, kon. 
anecdotic, konik. 
anecdotist, fconel. 
anew, denu. 
angel, lanel. 
angelet, lanelil. 
angelic, toraelik. 
angelically, toneliko. 



214 



GEAMMAE. OP VOLAPiiK. 



angelicalness, /areelof. 
angel-like, lanelik. 
anger, zun. 
angered, zwraik. 
angerly, zunlik. 
angle, em&spad; gul, luspad. 
angled, gulik. 
angle-meter, gulamaiel. 
angor, \edol. 
angrily, xumko. 
angry, zunik. 
aanuish, tlep. 
anguislied', tlepik. 
angular, gulik. 
angnlarily, gul'di. 
angularity, ^uZiko. 
angularness; guWi. 
angulate, gulon. 
angulous, gulik. 
angust, »aMk. 
anight, neito. 
animadversion, blam{a.m). 
animadvert, hlamUn. 
animal, nim. 
animalculist, nmavel. 
animate,Zan8n, lamimbn,heUf6n, 
animate, li/i)s., lifiik. 
animated, li/ik. 
animating, Toelifol, helifik. 
animatingly, helifiko. 
animation, lansxa. 
animative, toreol. 
animator , lanel. 
animosity, 'et zun, lezun, 
annex, lapzwon. 
annexation, la^'zwam. 
annexion, Istgivaxa. 
annexment, lajrzVam, 
annihilable, nqsik.. 
annihilate, »oson. 
anniMlater, nosel. 
annihilating, nosbl. 
annihilating, nosol. 



annihiliation, nosam. 
annihilator, reosel. 
anniversary, yelsik, vayeflk^ 
annotate, reotedon. 
annotation, noted. 
annotator, noteAel, notel. 
announce, no^on. 
annoiinced, penoiol. 
announcement, not. 
annoucer, nofel. 
announcing, noibl. , 
annoy, vexadbn, tomon. 
annoyance, ve-raden, tova.., 
annoyer, vexadel. 
annoying, vexadik.. 
annual, yeZik. 
annually, ayel, yeZiko. 
annul, noson. 
annular, linik. 
annularly, Imiko. 
annulary, linik. 
annulate, reoson. 
anoint, smivbn. 
anointed, pesmivSl. 
anointer, smeuel. 
anointment, smiven. 
anomaloris, neraomama/o. 
anomalously, nenomamafo.. 
anomaly, laenomamaf. 
anon, foviko. 
anonyme, neraemik. 
anonymous, neraemik. 
anonymously, nenemiko. 
another, nog bal, telid, votik^ 

worimik. 
answer, gepiik, gesag. 
answer, gepiikon, gesagon. 
answerable, cofa/ik. 
answerableness, coti/bi. 
answerably, co'fa/iko. 
answerer, gepiikeil, gesagel. 
ant, if, so. 
ant, fum. 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPuK. 



215 



antagonism, toal. 
antagonist, tael. 
antagonistic, taeXik. 
antagonize, toelon. 
antagonizing, taelik. 
antagony, taa,\, tapiikal. 
ant-catcher, fumel. 
antecedent, vomk. 
antecessor, higolel. 
anterior, uonik, biio. - 
anthem, Tcor&kamit. 
antic, V6f\k, drol\k.. 
anticipate, blesenon. 
anticipation, , Mesenam, blese/i. 
anticipative, blesenlik. 
antidotal, tovenodHk.. 
antidotably, tauenodlik. 
antidote, tauenod. 
antidotical, tauenorfik. 
antidotically, tauenocZiko. 
antipathy, naud, 
antiquarian, hal&huke].. 
antiquate, idledHn. 
antiquation, ialedajn.. 
antique, haledaiik, 
antiquely, uoniko, vono. 
antiqueness, baledstt. 
antiquities, bdledotB. ■ 
antler, fin, piin. 
anxiety, tlep. 
anxious, tlepik. 
anxiously, tlepiko. 
anxiousness, kud, tlep, desid. 
any, semos, sem, bos, ek, sem- 

hal, nog. 
anyhow, aliko. 
anywhere, semop, egef(o). 
apace, vif.ik, /owiko. 
apart, Jlano, detillo. 
apartment, cem. 
apathy, nesera, lusen. 
ape, lep, Zepan, lepA. 
ape, lep'6n. 



apertly, flano. 
apex, piin, tip, top, hopuv.. 
apiece, a samad. 
apish, Z«pik. 

apishly, Jepiko, lepo, Zeplik. 
apishness, lepdi. 
ApoUonia, Apolonia. 
apologist, se.Tcusad^\. 
apologize, s,6lcumdon. 
apologizer, s^kusadA. 
apologizing, sekusadoi. 
apologue, fab. 

apology, iehusadaxa., sekusad. 
apolectic, fldpik. 
apoplexy, flap. 
appostasy, nefied. 
apostate, ne^ec^el. 
apostatical, nefiedik. 
apostatize, v.efied6n. 
apostle, opostel. 
apostolic, apostelik. 
apostrophe, lenpuk. 
apostrophic, \enpukik. 
apostrophize, lenuMon. 
apothecary, potekel. 
apall, j'ekon. 
apalling, Jekik. 
appallingly, jekiko. 
appalment, j'ekam.. 
apparatus, bliim. 
apparel, klotud. 
apparel, kloton. 
apparent, kliilik. 
apparently, kliiliko, 
apparentness, kliil. 
apparition, pub, spuk. 
appeal, kusad. 
appeal, kusadon. 
appealable, kusadik. 
appealer, kusadel. 
appear, pubon, kliiki\kon,jin'6n. 
appearance, pub, Invelat, sma- 
velat, jin. 



21(3 



GKAMMA.R OF VOLAPuK. 



appearer, jiriel, pubel. 
appeasable, kotenliV, piidlik. 
appease, kotenbn, piidon, stiloji. 
appeasement, koten&m., piidsbm. 
appeaser, kotenel, p&del. 
appellant, Jlagel. 
appellation, benemam. 
append, ziipon, slopon, lenlagoia.. 
appendant, lenZa^ik. 
appendix, la^gw. 
appertain, lonon. 
appertaining, Zonol. 
appetence, desid!im.,ateii,steif&xa. ' 
appetibility, desid. 
appetite, potit, desidsbia., yof. 
applaud, pUedon.' 
apple-tree, apoda,Mm. 
appliable, gebik. 
appliance, geb, gehSbm.. 
applicability, geboi. 
applicable, ^eMk, da^'e&ik, 
applicablenesSj gehoi. 
applicably, gelAiko. 
application, geb, gehava, suseit. 
applicative, ^'eftlik. 
applicatorily, ^e51iko. 
applicatory, gebik. 
applier, gebel. 
apply, geboTo.. 

appoint, eaten, notedon, lonon. 
appointee, pecatel. 
apppinter, cdlel, Zonal, notel. 
appointment, cal, c«Zam, lonum, 

bud. 
apportionment, dilaxa, leiga- 

mafik. 
apposite, yumik, pSdh. 
appositily, yumils.o. 
apposition, lagivuxa. 
appraise, ledivon. 
appraisement, diiv. 
appraiser, divel. 
appreciable, divik. 



appreciate, ledivon, 
appreciation, ledivsaa. 
apprehend, suemon. 
apprehensible, suenak. 
apprehension, kapalnh. suetnoi. 
apprehensive, suemik.' 
apprehensively, s««raiko. 
apprehensiveness, suemoi, died, 
apprentice, /uZel. 
apprize, nunodbn, noton, nun'dn. 
apprizement, rawraod. 
approach, m'Zam. 
approach, nilQn. 
approachable, mVik. 
approachableness, nilof. 
approacher, nilel. 
approaching, nz'Zol. 
approachless, neKnik. 
approachment, ««7am. 
approbation, lasew. 
approbative, lasewik. 
approbator, lasewel. 
approbatory, lasevlik. 
appropriable, lenZdnik. 
appropriate, Zonik, pa6k. 
appropriate, lenZiinon, gebon. 
appropriately, pato 
appropriateness, pat. 
appropriation, lenZonam . 
appropriative, lenZonik, patik. 
approvable, Zo&lik, pUedik. 
approvableness, ZoMof. 
approval, ISsev. 
apppove, ZoSon, lasevdn, 
approvement, lasew, menod, 

gtidikmnava. 
approver, lasewel, .TO'mel. 
approvingly, laseuiko. 
approximate, nilii. 
approximate, nilon. 
approximately, za, ba. 
appulse, jok, Zanam. 
April, apul. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



217 



April-fool, apulastupel. 

apt, Mierak, fagik, skilik. 

aptaUe, klienik, potik, geliik. 

aptitude, klien, Sg. 

aptly, klieno, fago, 

aptness, klien, f8g, vata,n. 

aquarius, sitia^n. 

aqneons, vatik. 

aqueonsness, vatot. 

arab, rabdnel. 

arabian, rahdnel. 

arabic, raJonik. 

arabicaUy, ro&anlik. 

arable, iumik. 

arbiter, cocfel, cSdaiel. 

arbitrable, viilik. 

arbitrarily, »KHko. 

arbitrariness, viilot i-i7l'Al, 

arbitrary, viilik.. 

arbitrate, codon, codofdn, cod- 

aton. 
arbitration, codat. 
arbitrator, co<fel, c6da,te\. 
arboriculture, himasey. 
arborous, himik. 
arbour, /otil. 
arcanum, klan. 
arct-bob, glop, jop. 
arch . . ., gle . . . ; le . . . 
arch, jopon. 
archducal, dUkaMk. 
archduchess, ji-dukal. 
archduke, diikal. 
arched, jopik. 
Archipelago, Arhipelagos. 
architect, bumnmasel. 
archlike, Joftlik. 
archly, Jopik, hohik. 
archwise, bobKk. 
arctic, noludik. 
arcuate, hohbn. 
arcnation, hohana, king, 
ardency, zil, zUSX, 'it. 



ardent, sJZik, 'irik. 

ardently, ziliko. 

ardentness, zil. 

ardour, 'it, zil, desidam. 

arduous, _^uZik. 

arduously, fJaiki. 

arduousness, fikul. 

are (we), hinoins. 

area, plen, kam. 

arefaction, neZumam. 

ajrenaceous, sa&ik. 

arenarious, so&ik. 

arenose, sa6ik. 

argent, silefik. 

argentation, silefava.. 

arguable, he/eitik. 

argue, feiton, ildfon, dispiUon. 

arguer, feitel. 

argument, blof, disput 

argumental, Mijfik. 

argumentation, Wo/am. disput- 

am. 
argumentative, hlofik. 
argute, /apalik. 
arid, neiumik, sigik. 
aridity, nelum. sig. 
aries, si;>]p, jip 
aright, efe. 
arise, sustonon, vedon. 
aristocracy, baon. 
aristocrat, noftel, haonel, baon. 
ajristocratic, nobik, iaonik. 
aristocratize, haonon. 
arithmetic, fcaZav. 
arithmetical, kalavik. 
arithmetically, kalamko. 
arithmetician, kalayel. 
arm, vaf. 
arm, lam. 
arm, vaf on. 
armament, vaSaMim. 
armature, »a/am. 
armed, va/ik. 



218 



GEAMMAB, OF VOLAPUli. 



Armania, Raman, 
armenian, ramarak. 
armillary, tobik, linik. 
armorial, vafils.. 
armour, kurad. 
amour bearer, vafel. 
arms, vafa. 
army, milit. 
aromatic, pitik, vapik. , 
aromatize, piton, vdpbn. 
aromatized, pitik. 
aromatizer, pitel. 
aromatizing, piliam. 
aromatous, vapik, pitik. 
around, zo, lino; zii, zi. 
arouse, stigon. 
arow, fcedik. 
arraign, kusad6n. 
arraigning, kusadik. 
arraignment, kusad. 
arrange, giraefcon. 
arrangement, lonmrn.. 
arranger, gimekel. 
arrant, badlik, mek'o&k'. 
array, dek, leod, klots.&. 
array, leod'on, dekiin, kloton. 
arrear, ret. , . 

arrival, k6m, na.kdm. 
arrive, nafcojnon. 
arrogance, rog. 
arroganoy, rog. 
arrogant, re^ik. 
arrogantly, rogiko. 
arrogantness, rogbi. 
arrogate, ro^on. 
arrogation, rog. 
arrogative, roglik. 
arrow, sagit. 
arrow, shaped, sagitik. 
arsenic, senin. 
art, kan. 
artery, veib. 
artful, kanik. 



artfully, ,i;aniko. 
artfttJ^ss, kan. 
article, yeg, laltiig. 
articular, ye^^ik. 
articulation, Zzmam. 
artilize, luifcareon, kanbn.. 
artillery kanen. , , 
artillery-man, kdnel. 
artisan, kareal. 
artist, kctnel, kanal. 
artiste, of-fcanal. 
artistic, tenalik, kanelik, 
artistically, fcgnaliko. 
artless, nekanik. 
artlessly, mkariiko 
artlessness, nekanbl. , 

as, as, as. 
asbestus, lasbed. 
ascend, xiinoTi. 
ascendency, flun, 
ascencion, a;»ned. 
ascent, xS,n, xdneA. 
ascertain, le.'ja^'on, lepwfcSn. 
ascertainer, saamel. 
ascertainment, \esag, lepuk. 
ascetic, soalel. 
ascribable, Zficorfatik. 
ascribe, liicodaibn. 
ascription, Kco'&tam. 
ashes, zen. 
ashore, lano. 
ashy, zenlik. 
asian, silopik. 
asiatic, silopik. 
aside, flano. 
asif, a.sif. 
ask, sdkon. 
askance, flano. 
asker, sakel. 
askew, tavelik. 
asking, sdkbl. 
aslant, tavelik. 
asleep, slipo. 



GKAMMAR OF VOLAIUK. 



219 



?ilope, ^5ik. 
aspect, to^od. 
asperity, liied, jap, 
asperons, lue£k, j'apik. 
asperse, vaton, slanJoiL. 
asperser, iia/el, slan%\. 
asperrion, cofam, ilanam. 
aspersive, eodk. 
asphalt. s£al. 
asphaltic. s/alik. 
aspirate, sukaa. 
aspirated, sithaX. 
aspirating, sulak. 
afpiiation, sfik. 
aspire, stetfon. 
aspirer, steifA. 
aspiring, steifajs., steif. 
aspiring, steifik. 
a;pi?iiigly, steifo. 
aspiiingness. sleifdX, susdX. 
asquint, tavelik.. 
ass, cnk. 
assaxt, fotsttifen. 
assassin, niolodfA- 
assassinate, molodon. 
assassinated, molo^l. 
assassinating, molodSs^ 
assassination, nwlodmn. 
assassinator, nwlodA. 
assatilt; tep. 
assanlter, tepA. 
assay, blnf. 
assay, blufon. 
assayer, bh^el. 
assay-master, blufeh 
ass-driver, cuhel. 
assemblage, konlet. 
assemble, konleton. 
assembled, konletol. 
assembler, konJetel. 
assembling, ktmletsaa. 
assembly, konlet. 
assembly-room, korUetucem. 



assent, zep. 
assent, zepon. 
assentation, zepam. 
assentator, zepel. 
assenter, zepeL 
assenting, zepik. 
assentingly, zepo. 
assentive, zeplik. 
assentment, zep, zepava. 
assert, lesa^on, lepiikon. 
assertion, sisLva. 
assertor, lesc^el. 
assess, divon, duvoa. 
assessable, dieik, toladik. 
assessablv, AViko, tolado. 
assessment, rfipam. 
assessor, duve\. 
asseverate, noeloa. 
asseverated, noeZol. 
assCTerating, noelaxa. 
asseveration, noeZam. 
ass-head, cuHl. 
assidnity, eoftal. 
assidaons, vohik. 
assidnonsly, nobo 
assiduousness, dut. 
assign, lucot&ton. 
assignable, IncoJatik. 
assignation, fonam, lasig. 
assignee, ■pelasigel. 
assigner, lasigel. 
assignment, lasig. 
assignor, Zas^el. 
assimilate, leigon. 
a^imilation, leigara. 
assimilative, leigik. 
assimilatory, leig]ik. 
assist, yufon, Idson. 
assistance, yuf. 
assistant, yu/el. 
assister, yufel. 
assisting, y«/ik, yufoi. 
assize, blatnon, noledon. lonSn. 



220 



GRAMMAU OF VOLAPUk. 



assizer, lonel, hlamel. 
assizor, blamel. 
ass-like, cukik, 
associability, iaZamof . 
associable,' 6a?amik, kopa.nik 
associableness, Jcopanug. 
associate, kopanal. 
associate, tetanba, kluhon, hof on. 

balon. 
association, kopanow., fcZu&am. 
associative, halaniik. 
associator, Mubel. 
assort, sotHn. 
assorted, pesoiol. 
assortment, sotaxa.. 
assuage, piidbn, so/on, mildon. 
assuaged, sofik, pepwfZol, miidik. 
assuagement, mSifam. 
assuager, miidel, 
assuaging, miidik. 
assuasive, miidlik. 
assuefaction, k(5sbin. 
assuetude, sddod, kbsSm. 
assume, sumiin, niludon. 
assumer, swmel, niludel. 
assuming, sumol, ro^ik. 
assumption, nilud. 
assumptive, niludik. 
assurance, fSse/; lesag'. 
assure, Iesa5rbn,lepu^5n,fiise/0D. 
assiired, fose/ik. • 
assuredly, Vo. 

assuredness, sef, zelad, fum, 
assurer, fbse/el, se/el. 
astonisli, stunon. 
astonislied, pestonol. 
astonishing, stereik. 
astonishingly, stoniko. 
astonishment, stun, 
astound, stunon. 
astounded, stunik. 
astounding, stanol. 
astoundment, stun. 



astral, stelik. 

astray, polik. 

astrict, lenzugm. 

astricted, lenzugol. 

astriction, len^w^am. 

astrictive, lenzu^ik. 

astringe, kotareon, kozugon. 

astringer, kozugel. 

astronomer, stelxvel. 

astronomic, sfeZavik. 

astronomically, sfeZaviko. 

astronomize, stela,v'6n. 

astronomy, stelaY, 

asunder, livik. 

at, al; jil; in; su; len, zi, zu, do. 

athenian, otenel. 

athirst, nelilmik. 

athlete, komipel. 

athwart, tavelik. 

atilt, flano. 

Atlantic, mel atlantik. 

atlas, kaedafcomZe^. 

Atla^, Atlan. 

atlas, lesatin. 

atone, ^oraadon. 

atonement, pdn&di. 

atoner, ^onadel. 

atony, ^onad. 

atop, ktin, Kno. 

atramental, mgik. 

atrocious, le/eHik. 

atrociously, lej'ekliko. 

atrociousness, le/efcam. 

atrocity, lejekof. 

attach, ^mon. 

attachable, ^mik. 

attache, deputsil. 

attached, fimol. 

attaching, fimol. 

attachment, fled, fekum. 

attain, rivon, da^eton. 

attainder, rivel. 

attained, perjuol. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAftiK. 



221 



attaiaing, rivol. 
attamment, riv&m.. 
attaint, jemodon. 
attainted, jemoiik. 
attainting, jemoAbl. 
attaintment, jemod. 
attainture, sten, kusad. 
attemper, meiladoa. 
attempered, meilado\. 
attempt, steif. 
attempt, steif on. 
attempted, steif 6\. 
attempter, steif A. 
attempting, steifaxa. 
attend, senitaa, loegaa. 
attend, kalon, hediinon. 
attendance, kal, berfanam. 
attendant, kdlA, diinA. 
attender, kdh\. 
attending, kdlol. 
attent, senitik.. 
attention, senit. 
attentive, senitik. 
attentively, senito. 
attentiveness, senit. 
attenuant, slemk. 
attenuate, sfenon. 
attenuated, slemik. 
attenuating, slenol. 
attenuation, sienam. 
attest, noelou. 
attestation, »oe/am. 
attester, noelA. 
attesting, noeZam. 
attestive, ncelik. 
attestor, noelel. 
Attica, Atikan. 
attire, klotad, klot, dek. 
attirer, dekel, klotel. 
attitude, fom. 
attitudinal, /omik. 
attorney, lavogel. 
attract, lenzugon. 



attractability, lenzu^am. 
attractable, \evizugik. 
attracted, lenzi^od. 
attracting, \ejizvg6\. 
attractingly, l&azugiko. 
attraction, lenzug. 
attractive, lexizugik. 
attractively, lenzu^iko. 
attractiveness, leiizug. 
attractor, len^i^el. 
attrahent, lenzu^ik. 
attributable, liicodsAik. 
attribute, liicodaton. 
attributed, liicof&tol. 
attributing, liicorfatik. 
attribution, lucorfatam. 
attributive, luco<fe,tik, 
attune, benotonon. 
attuned, benotonol. 
attuning, benotoream. 
auburn, \eblonik. 
auction, sel man^ik. 
auctionary, selel manifik. 
auctioneer, selel manifik. 
audacious, kinik. 
audaciousness, Mn. 
audacity, kin. 
audibility, lilaxa. 
audible, lilik. 
audibleness, lil&m. 
audibly, ?i7iko. 
audience, luKtels. 
audience-chamber, lilotucem. 
audit, leZi7on. 
auditor, \ulilel. 
auditory, Ziiotacem. 
auditress, ji-liiZiZel. 
auger, le^jm. 
augment, modon. 
augmentable, modik. 
augmentation, njoffam. 
augmentative, mocZlik. 
augmentor, model. 



222 



GRA.MMA.H. or VOLAPUK. 



augmenting, mbd&. 

augur, plofeton. 

augurate, plofetoji. 

augured, pldfet(i\. 

augurer, plofetel. 

augurial, pldfe&. 

auguring, plofetik. 

augurist, plofetel. 

augury, pldfetam. 

August, gustul. 

august, subimH. 

augustly, suhimo. 

augustness, subim. 

aula, lecem. 

aunt, ji-n(5k, of-nok. 

autioular, Ula. . . . 

aurist, lilasarael. 

aurora-borealis, noludaZii. 

auspice, gbn, jel. 

auspicious, gomk. 

auspiciously, jroniko. 

auspiciotisness, lab. 

austere, jalepih. 

austerely, jalepo. 

austereness, jalep. 

austerity, jalep. 

Austral, swtedik. 

Australia, Talop. 

Eiustralian, talopel 

aiitentic, dokUmik. 

authentically, dokiimiko. 

authenticalness, dokiim. 

authenticate, dohiimon. 

authentication, leg^ra. 

authenticity, leg. 

authenticness, leg. 

author, lautei, lukA, rigA, 

p«»adel. 
authoress, of-toutel, ji-to«fel. 
authoritative, riget\k. 
authoritatively, - nperiko. 
authoritativeness, riget&\. ' 
authority, riget. 



authorization, valudaMi. 
authorize, valiidoa, 
authorized, valudik. 
authorizing, mefcadik. 
authorless, neriget. 
autograph, togaf 
autographal, togafik, 
autopraphic, togafik. 
autography, togafen. 
autumn, ilukaft'm. 
autumnal, flukaft'mik. 
auxiliar, yu/ik. 
aiixiliarverb, yufaueKft, 
auxiliary, yufik. 
avail, veil, pSfiid. 
, avail, veilSn 
available, veilik, pofilAik. 
availableness, valdd^oi. 
availably, pofildo. 
avant-courier, spide\. 
avarice, monal. 
avaricious, monalik. 
avariciously, jnonaliko. 
avariciousness, moreal. 
avast, stopo 

avaunt, mo ! mot'6 ! yi ! 
avenge, vinditon 
avengeance, vindit. 
avengeful, vinditik. 
avengement, vindit. 
avenger, inndiiel. 
avenging, vinditik 
avenue, lal 

aver, lesagon, lepHkbJi. 
average, diameto. 
averaged, diametiik 
averment, szamj 
averred, siam. 
averring, szamik. 
aversation, naud. 
averse, nawiiik. 
averseness, naud. 
aversion, naud, 'et. 



GBAiniAE OF VOLAPiiK. 



223 



aviary, hddnfanuh. 
aTidious. desidik. 
avidiously, desiSko. 
avidity, desid. 
avocat, lavogel. 
avocation, netoam. 
a vocative, neteflk. 
avoid, Bi'/on. 
avoidable, vitik. 
avoidance, vit. viisaa. 
avoider, vite\. 
avoiding, vi6k. 
avoidless, neuSik. 
avolation. fug. 
avouch, lesa^on, lepniton. 
avouehable, lesagik. 
avouched, lepaifcik. 
avoucher, lepBtel. 
avouching, lesag, lepat. 
avouchment, lepuk, lesag. 
avow, koefbn. 
avowal, Jtoe/". 
avower. toe/el. 
avowing, koefik. 



await, valadon 

awaiting, valadik. 

awake, neslipik. 

awake, galon 

awakened, neslipik. 

awakener, mekol galon. 

award, corfat. 

award, codon, corfofon. codaton. 

awarder, codel. 

awarding, codatam. 

aware, iiotol. 

away, mofo, yi! mo! 

awe, filed. 

awful, Alo£k. 

awfully, zeZiko, Jilo£ko. 

awfolness, seZam. 

awkwaid, glohik. 

awkwardly, ^toftiko. 

awkwardness, glob. 

awless, nefilodik. 

awry, stoftik. 

axe, cop. 

axiom, xiomal. 

ay, si. 



B. 



babble, Inpukot. 
babble, \upukan. 
babbler, Inpatel. 
babe, cUiL 
babery, cHapleda/iin. 
babish, luctZik. 
babishly, InciZiko. 
babishness, luctZal. 
baby, ciSl. 
bacchanal, kopel. 
back, bak. 
back, ge, bakired. 
back, idkon. 
backward, naiuSk.. 
backward, haMved. 
backwardness, naud. 



backwards, bakiuerf. 

bacon, pinaniiY. 

, , ( had\ik, 

°^' j feorfik, ftodugik. 

badge, vodaniaZ, valapeded. 

badly, badlik, naudol. 

badness, bad, hadng. 

baffle, I'anam. 

baffle, panon. 

baffled, ronik. 

baf^r, »anel. 

baffling, vanol, «anik. 

bafflingly, paniko. 

bafBingness, oanof. 

bag, sak. 

bag, safcon. 



224 



GKAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



bagatelle, smalei. 

baggage, pakera. 

bail, spon. 

bailable, sponik. 

bailee, sponel. 

bailiff, calnn. 

bailiwick, calsmacal. 

bairn, C87il. 

bait, bataxzi. 

bait, baton. 

baiting, bat, latum. 

bake, iak'dn. 

baked, peSaiol. 

bakehouse, baken. 

baker, bakel. 

bakery, bakem 

baking, bak, bak&ica.. 

balance, leig^ixa. 

balance, vaton.. 

balcony, bakun. 

bald, nudTk. 

balderdash, kofiid. 

baldly, nitdlUk. 

baldness, niid. 

baleful, jifemalik. 

balefuUy, glumSX^o. 

balefulnesB, glumS\.. ' ; 

balk, bem ; felad. 

balk, dtoji. 

balking, citsxa.. 

balkingly, czVlik. 

ball, daniidakokom. 

ball, glop. 

ballad, kaniiem.. 

ballad-maker, fcanj^emel. 

ballad-singer, kanitel. 

ball ad- writer, kamtema,penel. 

balloon, balun. 

balm, zied&pii. 

balneary, banacem. 

balneatory, banacemik. • 

Baltic, Lefiidame/, melftaZtik. 

band, tlup, tan, tonad. 



band, tonon. , 
bandage, feianod. 
bandit, \uman. 
bane, rub, venod. 
bane, venodoVi. 
baneful, raiik, venodik._ 
banefully, rasJiko. 
banefulness, riiboi. 
bang, flap, 
bang, flapon. 
bangle-Z»am6n. 
banish-rfon. 
banisber-a;z7el. 
banishment, xil, u-ilava.. 
bank, dam, bam, leb6b._ 
banker, kade\. 
bank-note, noiit. 
banner stan. 
bannered, stdnik. 
banneret, stmil: 
bannock, zSihakek. 
banquet, lmkip3,ia.. 
banquet, Unkipon. 
banqueter, linkipel. 
banqueting, lmkipa.va.. 
banter, cog. 
banter, co^ron, kofon. 
banterer, cogel, kqfei. 
bantering, cogik. 
bantling, cilil. 
baptism, goiskvat. 
baptismal,: godauaiik. 
baptismally, godavatiko. 
baptist, godaua/el. 
baptistery, goiavatabasin... 
baptistic, godauarik. 
baptistically, godauadko. 
baptizable, godauaJik. 
baptize, goAavat'dn. 
baptized, godauarik. 
baptizer, goda?'a<el. 
baptizing, godatiaiol. 
bar, bar. 



GRA\ntAR 0¥ YOLAPUK. 



225 



barb, balib. 

barbarian, vute\. 

barbaric, vutik. 

barbarity, le/eHkof. 

barbarize, vutiin. 

barbajorous, vuilik, lejeldk. 

baibaroronsly, wuriko. 

barbed, talibik. 

barber, balibel. 

barber, balibeion. 

bard, kanitel. 

bare, n«dik. 

bareboned, nepmik. 

barefaced, ne/emik, holotH. 

barefacedly, ne/emiko, 6o/oriko. 

barefacedness, ne/embf, bolot. 

barefoot, ne/«Hk. 

barefooted, ne/«Hk. 

barely, te. 

bareness, nild. 

bargain," lemon, Aalamon. 

bargain, stip, si^am, leni,Zia2am. 

bargainee, lemel. 

bargainer, setel. 

bargaining, stipa,ni. 

bargainor, .«fiZel 

bark, jal. 

bark, j'alon. 

barkless, ne;alik. 

barky, Jalik. 

barley, zeb, 

barley-cake zebafcefc. 

barley-sugar, zehajveg. 

barley-water, zehaxat. 

barm, lef. 

barmy, lefik. 

bam, fliikop 

barometer, balomet, stomaMe- 

senel. 
barometric, 6aZometik. 
baron, iaonel. 
baronage, baon. 
baroness, ji-baonel. 



baronial, baoneiik. 
barony, baon. 
barrack, kasen. 
barrack-master, kasenacz/. 
barrator, dikodel. 
barrel, tub. 
barrelled, tubik. 
barren, ne^uHk, sigik. 
barrenly, ne^uHik. 
barrenness, nefet. 
barrister, lavogel. 
barter, tok, aetok. 
barter, tdk'dn. 
barterer, tokei. 
bartbolomew, Bartolomaus. 
basalt, kolumasfon. 
base, baf, stab, 
base, 6apik. 
baseless, nestabik. 
basely, 6apiko. 
base-minded, bapik. 
base-mindedl}', Japifco. 
base-mindedness, Jnpal, bap. 
baseness, bap. 
basbfal, dimik, jemik. 
bashfully, dimiko. 
basbfalness, dimal, dim. 
basin, basin, 
basin-shaped, ftosjnlik. 
basis, stab, stabin, fiin. 
bask, solaj;anion. 
basket, baset. 
bass, baf. 
bastard, nelegik. 
bastardism, debid, neleg. 
bastardize, deftM^on. 
bastardly, neleglik. 
bastardy, neleg. 
baste, kedon. 
basted, kedik. 
bat, flita?n«/^. 
batable, hefeidk. 
Batavian, BatafdnA. 

15 



226 



GRAMMAB. OF VOLAPUK. 



batch, bakot. 
bate, lunon. 
bateful, zfimk, dikodik. 
batb, ban. 
batb-briok, banasion. 
batb-obair, bana,stul. 
bathe, 6an6n. 
bathed, banol. 
bather, banel. 
bath-hotel, hiinsdoted. 
bathing-machine, banacira. 
, bathing-ttib, banatafc. 
bath-room, banacem. 
bath-season, sasod. 
bath-stone, banasJon. 
bating, pla, sumii. 
baton, spatin. 
battalion, batan. 
battalioned, batanik. 
batten, pinon. 
battening, pins-m.. 
batter, /ofcSn. 
batterer, Jokel. 
battle, pug. 
battle, pugon. 
battlement, kren. 
battlemented, krenik. 
bavin, boadi&tuf, letuigaiuf. 
bawble, imalmi. 
bawbling, smalmk, 
baw-cock, fop, 
bawdily, nepwerfo. 
bawdiness, napued. 
bawdry, Ta.tpued. 
bawdy, nepwet^ik. 
bawl, liTuofcon. 
bawler, luvokel. 
bawling, luuofcem 
bay, jemoi. 
bay, mnkikon. 
bayard, jeval blomk, 
bayard, stupei. 
bayardly, stupelit. 



bazar, bazam. 

be, bmQn. 

beach, jol. 

beachy, /oZik. 

beak, Inmud. 

beaked, Iwmudik. 

beaker, kop. 

beam, bem, stal, 

beam, stalon. 

beaming, stalUl. 

beamlesa, nestoZik. 

beamy, stalik. 

bean, bon. 

bean, cod; bona^'ai. 

bear, ber, 

bear, pol6xi, sufcm., hlinon. 

bearable, sii/ik. 

beard, balib. 

beard, todoia. 

bearded, balibih. 

beardless, Jiebalibik. 

beardlessness, nebalib. 

beardy, balibMk. 

bearer, ^oZel; blinel. 

bearing, pol, polaxa, seit, tag, 
kodot. 

bearish, fterlik. 

bearlike, 6erik, ierlik. 

bear's-grease, beraptn. 

bearskin, berasfcm. 

beast, nim. 

beastlike, wimik. 

beastliness, nimoi. 

beastly, svimk. 

beat flapon, nokon. 

beater, raoM, flapel, Jokel. 

beatific, beadk. 

beatiflcally, beatiko. 

beatification, 6«aiam. 

beatify, beaton. 

beating, flapen. 

beatitude, beat. 

beau lumagifel. 



GKAMMAB. OF VOLAPiiK. 



227 



"beauish, Iwmagifik. 
beauteous, jonik. 
beauteouslv, fdniko. 
beauteoiisness, jon. 
beantifled, dekii.. 
beatitifior, dekel. 
beautiful, Jonik. 
beautifully, Joniko. 
beautifulness, jon. 
beautify, dekon. 
beautifying, deka,m, 
beauty, jon. 
becalm, stil'dn. 
because, ibo. 
bechance, jenon, zidon, 
beck, vineg. 
beck, vinegon. 
beckon, vinegon. 
"beckoning, vineg. 
become, vedon, lepoton. 
becoming, potik, leporik. 
becomingly, potiko. 
bed, bed. 
bed, bedon 
bedabble, vaton. 
bedabbling, vatanoa. 
bedaggle, stenoji, mioton, 
bedaggled, stenol. 
bedasb, stenon. 
bedasbed, stenik. 
bedawb, stenoa, mioton. 
bedawbed, stenol. 
bedawbing, steoram. 
bedazzle, hleinon. 
bedazzling, blemaio. 
bed-chair, beda,stul. 
bed-chamber, heds.cem, 
bed-clothes, bedastof. 
bedded, bedik. 
bedder, bedel. 
bedding, bedastoj . 
bedeck, tegon, \adek6n. 
bedecked, tegol. 



bedecking, Iwdek.. 
bed-hangings, lieA&bifoins. 
bedim, ne/iedon. 
bedimmed, -n&fiedbl. 
bedimming, ne^erfam. 
bed-linen, bedafe'aj 
bed-maker, bed&mekel. 
Bedouin, Beduin 
bed-presser, bedapedel. 
bedraggle, slamon. 
bedraggled, sldmb]. 
bedraggling, sldmam. 
bedrenoh, levaton. 
bedrenched, leua^ol. 
bedrenching, levatam. 
bedroom, bedncem. 
bedside, hedaflan. 
bee, bien. 
beech, bueg. 
beef, bubamzrf; mit. 
bee-hive, bienarfom. 
bee-house, bienadom 
bee-master, bienafcipel. 
beer, bil. 

beer-barrel, bilatoft. 
beer-engine, bilacj'n. 
beer-house, bilarfom. 
beer-shop, hilaiuig. 
bee's wax, biena,vak. 
beetle, caf. 

befall, jen6n, zi'tbn, zidcna. 
before, biifo 
before-cited, lopmk. 
beforehand, biio. 
before-mentioned, I'dpmk.. 
beg, Jefcon, begim, daJe^bn, 

sdkon. 
beget, mo/on, paZ6n, faton. 
begetter, palA. 
beggar, begA. 
beggarliness, pof, def. 
beggary, pbf, def. 
begin, begin. 



228 



GRAMMAU OF VOLAPuK. 



begin, heginon, 
beginner, beginel. 
beginning, 'beginam.. 
begird, zonon, zaimon. 
begirded, zonik. 
begirding, zo«ani. 
begone, mo ! mof'6 ! yi ! 
begrease, besmjaon, sienSn, 

mzoion. 
begrime, sie»6n, miotoTO.. 
begrimed, sienik, TOJorik. 
begrimer, sten&\, miotel. 
begrudge, hlamon. 
beguile, kd/on. 
beguilement, cut 
beguiler, ciitel. 
beguiling, cuAt. 
beguilingly, ciito. 
behalf, pbfiid. 
behave, tdgoTa, kodoton. 
behaving, tagik, kodotik. 
behaviour, tag, kodot. 
behead, fca^Bn. 
behind, po. 

behold, logeAon, lenZo^redon. 
behold, ek6\ 
beholden, bligik. 
beholder, logeAel, len/05'edel. 
beholding, Zo^edam. 
behoof, ned, pSfiid, koven. 
behoovable, po/Hdik, kovenik. 
behoove, dilton, nedon, zesiidiin, 

lepoion, leWnSn 
behooveful, kovemk, pofiidik. 
behove, dutSn, lepotSn, leZonon. 
being, Bibin, aibinel. 
belay, ninfcifcCn. 
belch, luspuion. 
belch, lasputajn. 
belcher, luspwtel. 
Belgian, beljUnel. 
Belgium, Beljan. 
belie, neveladon, nevelatou, 



belief, klod. 

believable, klodlik. 

believe, kldd6n. 

believer. Model. 

believing, konfidik. 

believingly, konfldiko. 

belike, laweZarik. 

bell, gl5k. 

bell-founder, glokngifel, glokal^ 

bell-foundry, glbka,gi/'en. 

bellicose, kligik.. 

bellman, glokel, sevokel. 

bell-ringer, glokel. 

belock, kikon. 

belong, Zoreon, te/on. 

beloved, peZo/ik. 

belovr, diso. 

belt, zon. 

belt-maker, bredel. 

bemire, miot'dn.. 

bemirement, miot&m.. 

bemoan, pid^n. 

bemoaning, pid&va.. 

bemoaner, pidA 

bemock, kofon. 

bemourn, pidHn. 

bench, bam. 

bencher, cddel. 

bend, klug. 

bend, blegon, flakon, diblegon^ 

bendable, fldkik. 

bender, spanel. 

bending, klug, plif. 

beneath, diso. 

Benedicta, Benedikta. 

benediction, Idbadaia. 

benedictory, Za&adik. 

benefactor, benudel. 

benefactoress, ji-benodel; of- 

benodel. 
beneficence, benodot. 
beneficent, benodik. 
beneficently, benodiko. 



GRAMMAR 01' VOLAPuK. 



229 



beneficial, pofiidik. 

beneficially, po/udiko. 

benefit, pSfiid, benoi. 

benefit, pof/idoa. 

benevolence, benal. 

benevolent, benalik, gdnik.. 

Bengal, Bengalan 

benign, io/lik, gdnik, lefterak. 

benignant, lefienik. 

benignantly, lebeno. 

benignity, leben. 

benignly, lof\iko,gdrnko, lefteno. 

benison, MSadam. 

bent, king, slop, kliv, top, jalep. 

"bepaint, bepanon. 

bereave, helapindn, salapinoa. 

bereavement, sulapinma. 

berry, bal. 

■berth, nakAplad, n&iaplad. 

bescrawl, mioton. 

bescreen, jelfm 

beseecb, begon, dafce^on, bekoTi, 

plehon, leSe^on. 
beseecher, leJe^el, plekA. 
beseeching, lefte^ik. 
beseechingly, pleko. 
beseem, \&p'6t6n, dutbn, lelonon. 
beseeming, leporik. 
beseemingly, lepato. 
beseemly, lep'oto. 
beset, mnkikon. 
beside, pla, sumii, niiii. 
besides, pla, sumii, mln. 
besmear, stenon, mioton. 
besmearer, miotel, stenel. 
besmearing, miota,m.. 
besmoke, smokon. 
besmoked, smoHk. 
besmut, stenon, mioton. 
besmntted, sfenik, miotik. 
besom, svip. 
besomer, svipel. 
bespeak, hepiikon. 



bespeaker, bepiifcel. 
bespeaking, hepUkanx. 
bespot, stenon, mioton. 
bespotted, stenik, 
best, ^urfikunos. 
bestain, mioton, stenon. 
bestow, givon, ditibon, gebon. 
bestower, givA. 
bestud, dekon. 
bestudded, petZeWl. 
bestudding, dek, deka,m.. 
betake, lenkonfidon, divodon. 
bethink, d.a,tikon. 
bethral, yokbn. 
bethralling, yokam.. 
betide, jenon, zidon. 
betoken, malon, plofeton. 
betokening, malskm. 
betoss, lemu/on. 
betray, viipoion, tldton. 
betrayal, tlat. 
betrayed, peiteZol. 
betrayer, ^Zatel. 
betraying, tliiak, tlalol. 
betrayment, tlatava. 
betrim, dekon. 
betrimmed, dekik, 
betrim ming, deksim, dek. 
betroth, matapomeion. 
betrothal, matapomei. 
betrothment, matapomeiam. 
betrust, lenkonfidHn. 
betrnsting, lenfcoTi^dol, 
betrustment, lenkonfid. 
better, gudikum, plu. 
better, modug, modtinum. 
better, menodon. 
bettering, fod, fodam, menod. 
betterment, gudiknn&ni, f6d, 

menod, fdda,m. 
between, bevii. 
betwixt, bevii. 
bevel, sZo&ik. 



2S0 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



beverage, cllin. 
bevy, tlup. 
bewail, pidon. 
bewailable, pidik. 
bewailed, hepidol. 
bewailer, pidA. 
bewailing, ptd&m.. 
bewailingly, pidiko. 
beyailment, pid&ra. 
beware, jepbndk. 
beweep, pidon, dleniin. 
bewitch, magugon. 
bewitched, magiig\k. 
bewitcher, magiigei. 
bewitching, magiigik. 
bewitchment, magiig&Ta. 
bewrap, veadSn. 
bewray, viipoZon. 
bewrayed, vupol'dl, sapitol. 
bewrayer, viipoZel. 
bewraying, -viipolawr. 
bewrayingly, vfipolamo. 
bewrayment, vupoUra. 
beyond, fcilo ka, 
biangular, telo^rittik 
biangulate, telagruHk. 
bias, slop, 
biasing, slopik. 
bible, bib. 
bicker, Inpugon. 
bickerer, lupu^el. 
bickering, lupugol. 
bickei'n, lelap«re. 
bid , sdkon , Je^on , begHn , 



bidder, hekel, begel. 
bidding,- bekam, beg. 
bide, blibon. 
biding, Mibstm, stebajn., 
bier, polSerf. 
bifold, telik. 
biform, (eZfomik. 
biformity, tel/om. 



big, gletik, pienik, bigik^ 
biggin, bum, bumoi. 
bigness, glet, big. 
bigot, ladevodel. 
bigoted, \udevodik. 
bigotedly, Indevodo. 
bigotry, ludevod. 
bijoutry, bijut. 
bilge, naf&spud. 
bilk, ciit. 
bilk, ciiton. 
bilked, c&tol. 
bilking, ciitaxa, ciit. 
bill, kalsxa. 
bill-book, fcaZamafeufc. 
billet, biliet, zot. 
billiard, biUadon. 
billiard-marker, markA, 
billiards, biliad. 
billion, telion. 
billow, vaislwhel. 
bimane, ieZug, namik 
bimanous, telnamik. 
bin, cet. 

binacle, hopad&domiL 
binary, balsA. 
binate, ieZug. 
•bind, 'op&gleip. 
bind, ianon, bligaa. 
binder, tonel 
bindery, tonen. 
binding, tanik. 
biographer, lifanwraodel. 
biographic, lifanureodik. 
biographioally, lifanMnodo, 
biography, lifanMreod. 
bird, bod. 

bird-cage, bodafamib. 
bird-call, bodaM/eZ. 
bird-catcher, bodel. 
bird-catching, bodsiia^ 
birder, bodel. 
birdlike, bodlik. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



231 



Ijirdlime, \)6da^lud. 
birdlimed, boda^rZudik. 
bird-man, h'ddel 
bird of Paradise, paladaftdd. 
birds-nest, bodalnbed. 
birth, motd{. 
birth-day, motofiulel. 
birthless, ne?noi6f. 
birth-night, motSlnneit. 
birth-place, mot'6ta,plad. 
biscuit, svib. 
bisect, /a/on. 
bisected, Za/ik. 
bishop, b^op. 
bishopdom, bijopab. 
bishoped, byopik. 
bishop-Hke, bijopiik. 
bishoply, &yopliko. 
bishopric, ftyopik. 
bismuth, visin (Bi). 
bismuthal, visinik. 
bismuthic, visinik. 
bissextile, Tel delas 366. 
bit, il, dil; ieitot. 
bitch, ji-dog. 
bite, beit. 
bite, heiton. 
biter, heitel. 
biting, beitik. 
biting, heilam. 
bitingly, beitiko. 
bitless, nebeitotik 
bit-maker, beitotel. 
bittacle, kopadaeem. 
bitter, 'erik, ftiefflk-, 
bitterish, bied^ik, 
bitterishness, bied. 
bitterness, 'et; bied. 
blab, lupafcon. 
blabber, lupukel. 
blabblii^, lupafcpt. 
black, 6Za^ik. 
black, bldgon. 



blacksmoor, bldga,n. 
blacked, blilgol. 
blacken, bliigan. 
Black-Forest, 'Elafot. 
blackguard, jdpel, temip&\>. 
blackguardism, jap, temip&i. 
black-horse, \A&jeval. 
blacksmith, lelel. 
blamable, blanak. 
blamableness, blamsna. 
blamably, fttamiko. 
blame, blam. 
blame, blamon. 
blamefal, blatmk. 
blamefally, blarmko. 
blamefulness, ftZajnam. 
blameless, neftZamik. 
blamelessly, neJZamiko. 
blamelessnesB, neftZom. 
blamer, blam&\. 
blameworthy, ftZamik. 
blaming, blam. 
blanch, »joak. 
blanch, vwton.. 
blanched, vi'itol. 
blanoher, viSiei. 
blanching, vioten. 
bland, meiladik. 
blank, vietik. 
blank, vanon. 
blanked, vanol. 
blanket, teg lainik. 
blankness, viet. 
blaspheme, sZanon. 
blasphemer, slanel. 
blaspheming, slan. 
blasphemous, sZanik. 
blasphemously, sZanliko, 
blasphemy. sZanam. 
blaze, flam, 
blaze, flamon. 
blazer, pakel. 
bleach, viot. 



232 



GBAMMAll or VOLAPUK. 



bleach, vtotoa. 
bleached, vid&. 
bleacher, vibtel, 
bleachery, vioten. 
bleachfield, viot. 
bleaching, viotum. 
bleak, neledik. 
bleakish, neZetflik. 
bleakly, neZetfliko. 
bleakness, neled. 
bleaky, neledik. 
blear, daegik, dagit. 
bleed, blud'on. 
bleeding, hluda-Ta. 
blemish, yemod. 
blemish, JemoAon. 
blemished, JemoAik. 
blemishing, Jemoium, 
blamishness, JemoAoL 
blemishment, jemoAnTn. 
blend, migon. 
blended, migik.. 
blender, migel. 
blending, mig&m.. 
blent, peroijrik. 
bless, labadon. 
blessed, labadVs.. 
blessedly, Zafeadiko. 
blessedness, \elab. 
blesser, ZaiJadel. 
blessing, Zaiad. 
blind, bleinik. 
blind, hlein&a.. 
blinded, hleimik. 
blinder, bleinel. 
blindfold, bleinon. 
blidfolded, bleinik. 
blindfolder, bleinel. 
blindfolding, bleinam. 
blinding, bleinam.' 
blindly, bleino. 
blindness, blein. 
■bliss, beat. 



blissful, beadk. 
blissfully, beaAko. 
blissfulness, lelab. 
blissless, nefeearik. 
blissom, lenepuedon. 
blithe, gdlik. 
blitheful, gdlik. 
blithely gciliko. 
blitheness, gal. 
blithesome, gdlik. 
blithesomeness, gal. 
block, pulit, nelet. 
block, ninkikon. 
blockade, ninfctfcam. 
blockade, ninkikon. 
blockading, ninto'fcam. 
blockhead, stupeX. 
blockheaded, stupik. 
blockheadism, stupsjl. 
blockheadly, stupelik. 
blockish, stupik. 

blockishness, stup. 

blood, blud. 

bloodily, blu£ko. 

bloodless, nebludik. 

blood-letter, veinel. 

blood-like, bludlik. 

blood-sucker, gib. 

bloody, bludik. 

bloom, flol. 

bloom, folon. 

blooming, flolik. 

bloomingly, floliko. 

bloomingness, floloi. 

bloomy, Jlol^k. 

blossom, floled. 

blossom, flolon. 

blossomed, floleAik. 

blossoming, flol'ol. 

blot, sten. 

blot, stenon, miolbn. 

blotter, stenel. 

blotting-paper, flumapiip, ne- 



GllAMMAll OF VOLAPiiK. 



233 



lum&pb'p. 
blow, flap, 
blow, bladon, vieiton. 
blower, hladel, 
blowing, bladol, vienol. 
blowy, vienik 
blowzy, ledaciyii. 
blue, yulib. 
blue, yulibili. 
blue, yiUihon.. 
blue-coloured, yulibik, 
bluely, luyulibii.. 
blueness, yulib. 
bluff, globik. 
blu&ess, glob, 
bluish, layiUibik. 
bluishly, hiyulibo. 
blnislmess, hiyulib. 
blunder, pok. 
blunder, pokbn. 
blunderer, ^ojfcel, stupeh 
blunder-head, stopel. 
blunt, globik, nejapils.. 
blunt, nejapon. 
bluntly, globiko. 
bluntness, glob, nejap. 
bluntrwitted, ne;'apalik. 
blur, sten. 
blur, stenon. 
blurred, stenik. 
blush, ledon. 
blushful, le£k. 
blushing, ledaci^. 
bluster, luglol. 
bluster, hoseton, luglolbn. 
blusterer, lu^Zotel. 
blustering, lu^tofik. 
blusteringly, Ingiolo. 
blustrous, luglolik, bosetik. 
board, boed, flul ; niilud. 
board, Jlulon. 
boarded, Soetfik. 
boarding-house, nuludof. 



boarding-school, ntiU<da.t, da- 

dukoTp. 
boast, \vigloL 
boast, Inglolon. 
boaster, laglolel. 
boastful, lu^Mik. 
boastfully, lu^ioZo. 
boastfolness, lugMoi. 
boasting, luglolik- 
boastingly, \nglolo. 
boat, smana/", lunaf. 
bodement, plofetstm. 
bodily, kopik. 
body, kop. 
body, fombn, magon. 
bog, lulak. 
boggle, co^on. 
boggier, zogel. 
boggy, lulakik. 
bog-house, plivod. 
bogle, lu(2A;al. 
boil, kukon, kiekon 
boiled, kiikik. 
boiler, kukel. 
boiler, caf. 
boisterous, tepik. 
boisterously, tepiko. 
boisterousness, tepa\. 
bold, kinik. 
boldly, feniko. 
boldness, kin. 
bole, himststam. 
boll, tuig. 
Bologna, Bolonya. 
bombast, lu^Zo2 
bombastic, Inglolik. 
bombastry, luglol. 
bonbon, juegH. 
bond, tan, fed, Jan. 
bondage, bliga,m.. 
bondmaid, of-lefa6el, oi-slaf. 
bondman, leiaftel, slaf. 
bond-servant, lefafcel, slaf. 



234 



GKAMMAR OP VOlAPilK. 



bond-service, lelahet. 

bondslave, le^aiel; of-leZaJel. 

bondswoman, oi-lelahel ; ji-slaf. 

bone, bom, log. 

bone, Jomon, logon. 

bone-ache, homadol. 

boned, iomik, logik. 

bonnet, k5f. 

bonneted, fco/ik 

bonnily, gcilo, yofiko. 

bonny, yo/ik. 

bony, Jomik, liigik. 

booby, stupe\. 

book, buk. 

book, bukon. 

bookbinder, huksianA- 

bookbindery, 5ufcatoien. 

bookbinding, Su&ataream. 

bookish, 6uMik. 

book-keeping, 6ufem. 

book-maker, hukA. 

book-monger, buka.teda,ri. 

bookseller, bukaselel 

bookselling, buka,teds,m. 

boon, yufik. 

boon, le^juot. 

boor, /e/el; globel. 

boorish, lu/e/elik, /etelik. 

boot, but; Itgii' 

boot, veilo'o.. 

booted, bu6k. 

booth, bnig. 

bootless, nebutik. 

bootlessly, nebuAko. » 

bootlessness, nebut, 

booty, lapin. 

borachio, i;o^el. 

borax, boin (B). 

border, mied, sim. 

border, simon., miedQa. 

bordered, sj'mik. 

bore, gim. 

bore, gimoii. 



boreal, noliidik. 
borer, gim, gimei. 
boring, giniam.. 
born, pemorik. 
borough, kased. 
borrow, sponoTa. 
borrower, s^onel. 
borrowing, s/ionam. 
bosom, kldnon. 
bosom, viim. 
botanic, pZanavik. 
botanically, planarviko. 
botanist, jsZanavel. 
botanize, pZanavon. 
botanizing, ^Zanavam. 
botany, plana,\. 
both, io/ik. 

bother, vexadbn, tomon. 
bottle, flad. 
bottled, fladik. 
bottom, glun. 
bottom, stabon. 
bough, bimaZam, tuigj 
bounce, bun. 
bounce, bunom, lujiZoZon. 
bouncer Junel, lu^ZoZel. 
bound, mied, miad; bun. 
bovind, miedon, 
boundary, miad. 
bounteous, givoSk. 
bounteously, givii/iko. 
bounteousness, givoi. 
bountiful, givoSk. 
bountifully, givoSko. 
bountifulness, givot. 
bounty, gw6i, gub. 
bourgeois, sif. 
bourn, mied. 
bouse, kopon. 
bow, bob; flakskm. 
bow, blegOn, Jldkon. 
bower, bledad. 
bower, nmkikon, IbdOn. 



GBiVFAROF VOLAPuK. 



•235 



bowery, bled'iiik. 

bowl, bovil. 

box, bok 

box, punon. 

boxer, punel. 

boxing, punam. 

boy, pul. 

boyish, p«/ik. 

boyishly, pu/iko. 

boyishness, pulika.ia. 

boy's-play, pulapled. 

brace, tan. 

brace, tenon, tanon, 

brack, blek, vag, gap. 

brag, luglol. 

brag, hxglolon. 

braggart, lu^'Zd'el. 

bragger, Inglolel. 

bragging, \nghl. 

bragging, higlolol. 

braggingly, lu^Zo?iko. 

bragless, neln^Wik, 

braid, flok, snob. y/«ot. 

braid, flokon. 

braiding, flok. 

brain, zebmn. 

brain-fever, zebumafif. 

brainish, zehurmk. 

brainless, nezefti'mik. 

brait, diamin liiedii. 

brake, fotil. 

braky, stigik, bufadik.. 

bran, glem&jal. 

branch, bimaZam; tuig, tabled. 

branch, bima/amon. 

branched, bimaZamik. 

brancher, bimaZamel, xAfat. 

brand, filaftoac?. 

brand, filaTnafcon. 

hrajidy, filawzn. 

brangle, zaiioji, dikodon, 

brangler, zanel, dikodel. 

branny, glem&j'alik. 



brasier, kopedel. 

brass, koped; kupin. 

brassy, kopedlik. 

brat, cil; kuv. 

bravado, \aglol. 

brave, ktnik, ba/olik, snaAk. 

brave, lu^ZoZel, kinel, 

bravely, venildiko, kino, haf' 

oliko. 
bravery, kin, magifen. 
bravo ! bafo ! 
brawl, hoset. 
brawl, b'dsetaa. 
brawler, boseiel. 
brawling, boserik. 
brawlingly, boseriko. 
brawny, kinik. 
bray, Ivvokem 
bray, lui-oi-on, jokon. 
brayer, luuoAel. 
braying, jokWk. 
braze, soldon; ueAuZ/t-on. 
brazen, glob\k, nepeti(/H-61. 
brazen, glob^n. 
brazenfaced, ne;emik, holohk, 

glohik. 
brazenly, ne/'emiko. 
brazenness, bolot, ne/emOi, 
brazier, kopedel. 
breach, blek. 
bread, bod. 
breadless, nebodik. 
breadth, vid. 
breadthl^ss, nevidik. 
break, blek. 
break, blekon. 
breakable, blekik. 
breaker, blekel 
breakfast, goled. 
breakfast, goledon. 
breakfasting, golednia. 
breaking, blekik. 
breast, blot. 



236 



GEAMMAR OF VOLAPftK. 



breast, hlot'on. 

breasted, ilotik. 

breath, blad, natem, vienil. 

breathe, natemon, 

breathing, natem&va.. 

breathless, n&natenak. 

breathlessness, nenatem. 

bred, pedarfu^i)!. 

breech, blit. 

breeched, hlitik. 

breeches, blit. 

breed, kuvim.. 

breeder, kuvA. 

breeding, Tcuv&th. 

breeze, vienH, Zouik. 

breeze, u!en(il)on. 

breezeless, neuienik. 

breezy, viemk.. 

brethern, kemens, gems. 

breviature, 6Ze/am. 

brevity, blef. 

brew, hU'ou. 

brewage, liloi. 

brewed, iiZik. 

brewer, &27el. 

brewery, hil&a.. 

brew-house, Jz'ten. 

brewing, hiKi. 

brickmaker, tejnel. 

bridal, roatedik. 

bride, yL-gam. 

bridegroom, gam. 

bridge, pon. 

bridge, po»6n. 

bridged, ^onik. 

bridging, poraam. 

brief, suarmk, blefiV. 

briefly, suamo, ble/o, 

briefness, blef. 

briery, spmik. 

brig, pon. 

brigade, brigan, 

brigade-major, briganamaj^or. 



brigadier, briganel. 

bright, kliilik. 

brighten, klilon. 

brightening, kliUra.. 

brightly, klicliko. 

brightness, klul, klil. 

brillancy, nid. 

brillant, nidih. 

brillantly, nidiko. 

brillantness, nidbi. 

brim, sim. 

brimstone, svefin. 

brimstony, svefinlik. 

bridle, viel. 

brindled, vielik.. 

bring, 6Kni)n 

bringer, blinel. 

brisk, li/lik, ha/oliV, spiiik. 

briskly, _^Zaliko. 

bristle, kef. 

brittle, blekik, 

brittely, blekiko. 

britteness, blekot. 

broad, vidik. 

broadness, vid. 

broadwise, vidlik. 

broider, stikon. 

broiderer, oi-stikel, ji-stikel. 

broidery, stik. 

broUer, volutel. 

broker, brok&l. 

brood, kuv. 

brood, kuvon, siamoa. 

brooding, kuvsna, 

brook, bluk. 

brook, su/8n. 

brooky, blukik.. 

broom, svip. 

broom-land, \nfel. 

brother blod. 

brotherhood, blod&l. 

brother-in-law, hoblod. 

brotherless, neblodik. 



GBAMMAK OF TOLAPUK. 



237 



■brotherlinesB, blodot, hlodlSf. 

brotherly, hlodik. 

brown, ilonik. 

brown, hlonon. 

brownish, hlonlik. 

brownness, blon. 

browse, gelmin. 

brumal, nifaiimik. 

brunette, of-6Zonik. 

brunt, jok, flap. 

brush, kef. 

brush, kef'oii. 

bmsher, fce/el. 

brush-maker, kefaweifcel. 

brushy, fe/ik. 

brutal, ninak. 

brutaUly, \ejekikoi nimal. 

brute, \anim. 

brutely, lunzjnik. 

brutish, mmik. 

brutishly, njjniko. 

bubble, ciit. 

bubble, aiton. 

buck, golad. 

bud, tuigon 

buffoon, bofan, 6o/el. 

buffoonery, ho fen. 

buffooning, tofen. 

buffoonish, 6o/unik. 

build, ftuTOOn, mekon. 

builder, mekel. 

building, Jumot. 

bulb, &6iaglop. 

bulk, \emod. 

bulkiness, big, glet. 

bulky, hyik, gle&ls. 

buU, xoil 

buUet, glob. 

bulletin, biliet, zot. 

bullock, xoilil. 

bully, lu^Zotel. 

bump, flapon. 

bumpkin, glohel 



bunch, tuf. 
bungle, lu»o6ad. 
bungler, lumeM. 
burden, lodon, boladbn. 
burden, lod, bolad, fled, 
burdener, bijladel. 
burdenous, loladik. 
burdensome, boladlik. 
bureau, bur. 
burgermaster, sifel. 
burgess, sif. 
burgh, pagil. 
burghal, pagilik. 
burgher, sif. 
burgomaster, sifel. 
burial, sepaxa. 
burial-place, goda/e/. 
burier, sepel. 
burine, gavasftTi. 
burliness, glet, big. 
burly, gletik, bigik. 
bum, Jileioia. 
burnable, ^tedik. 
burner, ^fedel 
burning, _^tedik. 
burnish, blonon 
burnisher, bUmel. 
burst, slidon. 
burst, slit, 
bury, sepon. 
burying, «epam. 
burying-place, goia,/el. 
bush, hihim, smaJzm. 
bushy, hibinak, smaftmik. 
business, feb, cal, pofeg. 
business-like, fte/ik, colik. 
buss, kid, kadi. 
bustle, boset. 
bustle, boseion. 
bustling, b6set. 
busy, zilik, dunik. 
busy, givoji vobi. 
but, ab, t(5, ye(d), deno. 



238 



GUAMMAll OF VOLAPUK. 



but, notonly... but ..., noe... soi. 
but, fin, mied. 
butcher, mitel. 
butcber, miteibia.. 
butchering, sciben, lumiten. 
butoheriiness, molodal. 
butoheriy, molodik. 
butchershop, mfclop. 
butchery, miteu. 
butt, desan; jok; tub 
butt, jokbn. 
butter, mileg. 
butterfly, pab. 
butter-pot, milegatuh. 
buttery, milegiV. 
button, gnob. 
button, ^no5on. 



buttoned, gnobik. 
buttress, yflf. 
buttress, yiifon. 
buttressed, yiifik. 
buxom, yofik. 
buxomly, yoflik- 
buxomness, yof. 
buy, lem'o'D.. 
buyer, lemel. 
buying, lemol. 
buzzard, stupel. 

Sin, a, plo, eiegoial, de, lo, 
la, dub, me, kann, kodu, 
zi, fa, da, su, neb, ko, zii. 
by and bye, potaft'mo. 
by-name, l&nem. 



C. 



cab, vab, balaspan. 

cabin, nafacem. 

cabinet, plivod, o3m, cemil. 

babinet-maker, tabel. 

cable, kab. 

cabled, kabik. 

cablet, kdbil 

cabman, vabel. 

cacao, kak. 

cachet, stap. 

cadaver, fun 

cadaveric, funik, 

cadaverous, funik. 

cadaverousness, funal 

caffre, kafcinel. 

cage, sma/areiib. 

caisson, cet. 

caitiff, glihel, hxman. 

caitifily, glibiko, 

cajole, luZoSbn. 

cajolement, \ulob. 

cajoler, \ulobel. 



cajolery, hilob. 
cajoling, luZoJik. 
cake, kek. 
cake, kekbn. 
calamitous, leneZsMk. 
calamitously, leneZaftiko. 
calamitousness, leneldbal. 
calamity, leneZaZ), misal. 
calculate, kalbn. 
calculation, kal, kala,m.. 
calculative, kalik. 
calculator, kalel. 
oaloulatory, kalik. 
calculose, storelik. 
calculous, lediifik. 
calefy, 'ink, 
calefy, 'iton. 
calendar, kaled. 
calendar, kaledbn. 
calendarial, kaledik. 
calf, smafcure smasoZ. 
calfskin , UTOnSikunSiskm. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



239 



calibre, bid, sot. 
calid, 'itik. 
calidity, 'it. 
caJiduct, 'itadwfc. 
caliginous, daegik. 
calrx, kop. 
call, Tok 
call, vokon. 
call, visUon. 
caller, visitel, vulel. 
callid, lutiisafik. 
caUidity, luvisedag. 
calling, cal, 
callose. 'onik. 
callosity, 'onof 
callous, ^onik 
callouBlv, 'oniko. 
callousness, 'ojial. 
callow, nepenik. 
calm, stil. 
calm, stilila. so/ik. 
cahn, so/on, stiloa. 
calmer, stilel, sofel. 
calming, so/ol, stilol. 
calmly, .«*«7iko. 
calmness, stil'6i. 
calmy, so/ik, siilik. 
calorific , vamik. 
caique, See calk, 
calumniate, slanon. 
calumniated, slanik. 
calumniating, sZanol. 
calumniation, slan. 
calumniator, slaneh 
calumniatory, slanik. 
calumnious, slaniik. 
caluraniously, sZanliko. 
calumnionsness, slanof. 
calumny, slan. 
calve, kuniin. 
calx, zem. 
camel, kamel. 
cajnelVhair, kamela'eZ. 



camerade, kamadel. 
camera te, jopon. 
camerated, jopik, 
camerating, jopol. 
cameration, Jopam. 
camp, komip, seito]). 
camp, komipon, seitopon. 
campaign, kam, plen. 
camp-fight, komip. 
can, ken. 
can, fcanon. 
canal, kanad. 
canal-boat, kanadaftof. 
canaliculate, kanadih. 
canary, kanarit. 
canary-bird, kanarzV. 
cancel, noson 
cancellate, noson. 
cancellated, pejiosol. 
cancellation, nosam. 
cancelled, raosik. 
cancelling, nosam. 
cancer, klaf, fcZo/ip. 
cancerate, klqfipon. 
eaoceration, klaJipaTii. 
cancerous, klafipik. 
cancerously, klafipiko. 
candelabrum, litakip. 
candent, /"onik, 'itik. 
candicant, vietlik, 
candid, kaniidik. 
candidly, kdniido. 
candidness, kaniid. 
candify, vieton.. 
candle, Utsh. 
candle-grease, litabapen. 
candle-holder, litsJcip. 
candle-light, litii., UtabaiiV. 
candlestick, litaMp. 
candour, kaniid. 
cane, rid, jog. 
canker. See cancer, 
cannibal, menajidoii. 



240 



GUAMMAK OP VOLAPuK. 



cannibal, menafidei., 
cannibalism, men&fid&m.. 
cannibally, wena^i^elik. 
connon, kan. 
cannonade, kanhn. 
cannonading, Icanoh 
cannon-ball, kana^'Mi. 
cannoneer, fcanel, 
cannon-shot, kana/««. 
cannular, rUdik. 
canny, fa(?ik, fcautik. 
canon, nom. 
canorous, benoionik. 
canorousness, benoion. 
cant, pern, 
canter, simwZel. 
canto, kanit. 
canton, kantop. 
cantonal, hantopik. 
cantonize, kant'dpo n. 
cany, n'(Zik, jogik. 
caoutchouc, giim. 
cap, lu'dY, sma'a^. 
capability, fag. 
capable, fdgik. • 

capableness, fag. 
capacious, spadik. 
capaciously, sparfiko. 
capaciousness, spadQi, spadoTp- 
capacitate, fagbn, 
capacitation, faga,m. 
capaoyty, fag, spadot, suemoi. 
cape, kep. 
caper, moswrnel. 
capillary, 'elik. 
capital, katad. 
capitalist, kaiadel. 
capitalize, kaiadon. 
capitally, lepaio, lepafiko. 
capot, TgeMekdl. 
capricious, vimik. 
capriciously, vimiko. 
captain, katan. 



captivate, /ara3n, jm'6n. 

captive, pe/anel, 

captive, pe/an6l. 

caramel, karam. 

card, kad. 

card, fcarfSn, lufcorfon, lufcaafa- 
pledon. ~ 

care, kud. 

care, kudon, plokudon. 

career, ronSn. 

careful, kautik. kudik. 

carefully, kautiko, kudiko. 

carefulness, kaut, kndof. 

careless, nekudik. 

carelessly, nekudiko. 

carelessness, nekud. 

cargo, lod. 

c_amage, sa6en, lumiVen. 

carnal, mjyalik. 

barnalist, midalel. 

carnality, midal. 

carnalize, midalon. 

carnally, mj^aliko. 

carol, paan 

carol, paanon. 

carolling, paanbl. 

carp, kalep, 

carpenter, cemel. 

carpentering, ceraelam. 

carpentry, cemelavoh. 

carpet, tap. 

carpeted, topik. 

carriage, vab. 

carrier, nunel, polel. 

carry, polon, hlinbn. 

cart, vab. 

carter, uaiel. 

carve, bifcoiBn. 

carver, hikotel. 

case, bok, bBg; zit deklina/a/, 

case, zitoia. 

cash, kad. 

cash, kadon. 



GBAUMAE or YOLiPiiK. 



241 



cash-book, kadaftufc. 
cashier, kddel. 
cash-keeper, kddel. 
cask, tub. 
casket, ft<6il. 
cassate, nosSn. 
cassation, nosam. 
cast, jed, flap, gif. 
cast, jedoa, gif on, steif on. 
caster, gif A. 
castigate, padlon. 
castigated, pepu(2ol. 
castigating, pttdSk.. 
castigation, pudam. 
castigator, piufel. 
castigatory, pudik. 
casting-honse ; gifea. 
castle, ledom. 
casual, zidk. 
casually, zirtko. 
cat, kat. 
catacomb, lesep. 
catal<^ne, lised. 
cataract, Tata/a2, ca^e/al. 
catarrh, katar. 
catastrophe, kastof. 
catastrophist, kastofel. 
catch, fan, gleip. 
catch, yanon, gleipon. 
catchable, famk, gleipik. 
catcher, _/a»el, gleipel. 
catching, luj9afcik. 
catechetical, saJdk. 
catechisation, katekam. 
catechise, katekon. 
catechiser, ^ate^el. 
[: catechising, katekik. 
catechism, katek. 
catechist, katekel. 
catenate, kedon. 
catenated, peieiio]. 
catenating, ke(^\. 
catenation, kedam, ked. 



Catharine, Eatarin. 
cathedral, tern, 
cathedral, ftgopik, 
catholic, taiolel. 
catholic, >ta<olik. 
catholical, ifcatolik. 
Catholicism, ifcatolim. 
catholicity, /fcatolim. 
catholicize, katolon. 
catholicly, katoliko. 
cattle, nims 
Caucasus, Kaukasan. 
causable, mo^ik. 
causal, kotSk. 
causality, kodam. 
causation, kodain. 
causative, kodik.. 
causatively, io^fiko. 
causator, kodel, j'enel, lautel, 

rigel. 
cause, kod. 

causer, kodel, jenei, lautel, rigel. 
causeway, siit, glesUt. 
causing, kodol. 
cautelous, ktidik, kaudk. 
cautelously, kauto. 
cautelousness, kaut. 
cauterization, ^tedam. 
cautere, ^tedon. 
caution, kaut. 
cautioner, kautA. 
cautious! kavt6\ kauiik. 
cautioasly, kautiiko. 
cautiousness, kaut. 
cavalier, monit/A. 
cavalry, monittn. 
cavate, se^epon. 
cavation, sesepam. 
cave, kav. 
caveat, nelet. 
cavern, ninovag. 
cavernous, ninovot^. 
cavil, zanon, dikodbn. 

16 



242 



GRAMMAR or VOLAPUK. 



cavillation, smalniii. 
caviller, zanel, dikodel. 
cavity, mnovagng. 
cease, ropon, Aeleton, zedon, 

joton, finHn. 
ceaseless, nezedik. 
ceaselessly, nezedo. 
cede, klembn, yilQn. 
ceding, klem yil. 
' celature, gav. > 
celebrate, zelon. 
celebrated, pezeZol. 
celebrating, zelol. 
celebration, zel. 
celebrator, setel. 
celebrious, mdkab^k. 
celebriously, miikabo. 
celebrity, makab. 
celerity, spid, vif. 
celestial, siiKk. 
celestially, sillo. 
cell, ziob, szoftap. 
cellar, kav. 

cellular, ziob\k, ziofcapik, 
oelsitude, jrczVug. 
cement, zam. 
cement, zamon. ' 

cementation, zamam. 

cementer, zamel. 

cementing, zamam. 

cemetery, goda/eZ. 

cenobite, padA. 

cense, kosekasmofcon. 

cense, diiv. tlip,tolad. 

cension, duv. 

censoriousness, hlanAoi. 

censurable, fcZamik. 

censurableness, hlamoi. 

censurably, itomiko. 

censure, blam. 

censurer, hlamA. 

censuring, blam. 

cent, turn, zim. 



centage, tumafZa/w. 

centenary, tumA. 

centime, zim. 

central, zerwdik. 

centralization, zenod&va. 

centralize, zenodisn, 

centrally, zeraoiiiko. 

centre, zenodajjun. 

centre, zenod&n.. 

century, yeltom. 

ceremonial, zefik. 

ceremonially, zefiko. 

eeremonialness, zeloi. 

ceremonious, zeSk. 

ceremoniously, zeZiko. 

ceremoniousness, zeZof. 

ceremony, 'blig'aX. 

cereous, aafcik. 

ceruim, zelin. 

certain, zeZodik, /wmik. 

certainly, zelado. 

certainness, sef, fdm, zelad 

certainty, sef, film, zelad. 

certificate, Sosefaxa. 

certification, \esag, lepUk. 

certifier, siamel. 

certify, noelon, sion, besion. 

certitude, sef, zelad, film. 

cesarian, limepik. 

cesium, zasin. 

cess, diiv. 

cess, dtiv'dn. 

cessation, tak. 

cessibility, yiloi. 

cession, klem. 

cessionary, klemol, klemik. 

cbafe, vut, zun. 

cbafe, zunon, ddmoTo. 

cbafed, zureik. 

chafer, oaf. 

chagrin, leglif. 

chain, ket. 

chain, ketoa. 



GRAMMAK OF VOLAPtlK. 



243 



■chain-cable, ketataJ. 

chained, fcerik. 

chain-work, fceten. 

chair, stul. 

chairman, bisierfel. 

chalice, gleiko;;. 

challenge kusad. 

challenge, kusadon. 

cbamher, cam, cem. 

chamberer; yofah. 

chamber-hanging, tap. 

chamberlain, kamerel. 

chamois, cam. 

champ, ieiton. 

■champagne, jamanar/n. 

champaign, kam, plen. 

champain, jamanauiVt. 

chance, fat, neldb. 

chance, Jeniin, zidon. 

chanceful, poliffik. 

chancel, zop, 

chancery, kanzen. 

change, can, cein (am), cenam 
cen, vot, »o;am. 

change, canon, cenou, voton. 
changeability, cenal. 

changeable, cenalik, vodik, de- 
voiiik. 

changeableness, cenal. 
changeably, cenaliko. 
changeful, cenik, voi\ik. 
changefnlly, ceniko, wo^liko. 
changefulness, cenal. 
■changeless, newoflik. 
changer, cemel, votel, dei'otel. 
channel, kanad. 
channel, Icanadin. 
channelled, kanadA, 
chant, kanit. 
chant, kanttbn. 
chanter, kanite\. 
chantreas, of-fconetel. 
•chaos, kofud. 



chap, slit, 
chap, slitoa. 
chap, man. 
chapel, kapiil. 
chapelry, kapiilam. 
chaperon, Wat, ama'at. 
chaplain, kapulel. 
chaplet, kopulil. 
chapman, malitel. 
chappy, slitik. 
chaps, luOTurfs. 
character, kalad. 
characteristic, kaladik. 
characteristically- kaladiko. 
characteristicalness, kala<M\. 
characterize, kaladm. 
characterless, nekalad. 
charge, lod, fled, delids. 
charge, knd, kusad. 
charge, lodon, Vdladon. 
chargeable, loladiV. 
chargeableness, hdladoi. 
chargeably, h'6la£ko. 
charging, komit. 
charily, kautik.. 
chariness, kaut. 
chariot, vab. 
charioteer, dukA. 
charitable, ditibiV 
charitableness, givoi. 
charitably, ditibo. 
charity, ditib. 
charlatan, lusonel. 
charm, venud. 
charm, t-enudon, magiigon. 
charmer, magugel. 
charming, venudik, le/'onik. 
charmingly, venudo. 
charmingness, venud. 
chart, kaed. 
charter, plivileg. 
chartered, plivilegik. 
chavv", kourik. 



244 



GRAMMAR OF YOLAPUK. 



chase, yag. 
chase, ^a^ori. 
chaser, i/a^el. 
chasm , g3.p. 
chasmed, giipik. 
chaste, puedik. 
chasten, pudbn. 
chastener, pudel. 
chasteness, pued. 
chastening, puda,ra. 
chastisable, pudlik. 
chastise, pudon. 
chastised, pepudol. 
chastisement, pudaiia, 
chastiser, pudel. 
chastising, pudavn. 
chastity, pned. 
chastness, pued. 
chat, hjpiikoi. 
chat, lupafcon. 
chatter, hipiikoi. 
chatter-hox, Ixipiikel. 
chatterer, lapukel. 
chatting, Inpukoi. 
cheap, nedelidH 
cheapen, nedelidon, lofon. 
cheapener, lofdV. 
cheaply, nedelido. 
cheapness, nedelidbi. 
cheat, cijt. 
cheat, ciiton. 
cheated, -peciitol. 
cheater, caVel. 
cheatery, ciit. 
cheating, ciitik. 
cheatingly, catiko. 
check, nelet, neZaft. 
check, blamQn. 
cheek, cig. 

cheer, UnkipsLm., yofbi, yof. 
obeer. yo/6n, galbn. 
cheerer, yo/el. 
cheerful, yofik. 



cheerfully, yo/lik. 

cheerfulness, yqf'ot. 

cheerily, yofik, gdlik. 

cheeriness, yof. 

cheering, yoflik. 

cheeringly, ^q/liko. 

cheerless, neten«"mik. 

cheerlessness, nelanim. 

cheerly, yqflik. 

oheerup, gdKn, yo/on. 

cheery, yo/ik, gdlik. 

cheese, fomad. 

cheesemonger, /omadaseleh 

chemic, hemik. 

chemical, fiemik. 

chemically, hemiko. 

chemise, jit. 

chemist, kernel. 

chemistry, hem. 

cherish, kdlbn, lofort, lad'oa. 

cherisherer, kcilel. 

cherishing, kal. 

cherishingly, kdliko. 

cherub, kernb. 

cherry, eel. 

chest, cet, blBt, bog, komfed> 

chesnut, katan. 

chest-nut-tree, katanaftzm. 

cheval, jeval. 

chevalier, momtel. 

chew, sidm'dn. 

chide, ilamon, 

chider, hlamel. 

chiding, blam, hlamaxn. 

chidingly, hlamiko. 

chief, cif, kapel. 

chiefly, pato, lepariko, lepato~ 

chieftain, lopifcajD, kapel. 

child, cil 

child-bearing, moiam, motoL 

childbirth, moiam. 

childhood, cilbi, cililg. 

childish, czlik. 



(.RA.MMAB OF VOLAPuK. 



245 



cTiilflishly, ciliko 

childiskness, cilot. 

childlike, lucifik. 

childly, ciliko. 

chiliad, milal, 

chill, kalod. 

chiU, kalo(Sk, lukalodik. 

chill, kalodon, flotdn. 

chilUness, kalodot, kalod. 

chillness, kalod, kalodot. 

chilly, koladii.. 

chimer, glokel. 

-chimney, cim. 

chimney-sweeper, «"mel. 

China, Cinan. 

Chinese, Cinanel. 

Chinese, cinanik. 

chink, slit. 

chink, tonon. 

chinky, slidk. 

chip, dil. 

chip, htekiin, japbn, hunon. 

chirp, grika.in.. 

chirp, grikon, yofon. 

chirper, grikel. 

chirping, grikaxa.. 

chirpingly, ^nkik. 

chisel, cid. 

chisel, cidon. 

chit, gelmin, cil, ^it&timasten. 

chit-chat, Inpukot. 

chitty, InaZik. 

chivalric, tnontielik. 

chivalrous, montielik. 

chivalrously, montielo. 

chivalry, montieloi. 

chloric, kloiin^. 

chlorine, Uolln. 

chocolate jokolad. 

choeolate-nut, kokafton. 

choice, val, sewa^ 

choicely, spaHko. 

choir, kor. 



choke, Xepedaa. 

choler, bilod , zun. 

cholera, kolerip. 

choleric, iilodik, zunik. 

cholericly, cunlik. 

cholericness, bilodA. 

choose, valoTx. 

chooser, »a7el. 

chop, slit. 

chop, copon. 

choral, torik. 

chord, stin. 

chord, s^inon. 

chorist, fa)rel. 

chorus, kor. 

chouse, cut, kaf 

chouse, kaf on. 

Christ, Kristus. 

christen, krit 

christening, godara^. 

christian, krit 

christianism, Artial. 

christianization, ^i^am. 

christianize, kriton. 

christianized, pefcritol. 

christianizing, hrito\. 

christianly, krifik. 

Christmas, lemoiofazdj. 

christmas-tree, kritaftim. 

chromate, klomin. 

chromatic, kUtmimk. 

chromic, klomin. 

chromium, klomin. 

chronic, lonedoHk. 

chuck, jok. 

chuff, ^Zo6el. 

chuffily, ghh^ik. 

chufBness, glob. 

chuffy, globik. 

church, glug. 

church-attire, gliigova., palot. 

churl, ^ZoJel. 

churlish, glohik, fiilik. 



246 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPUK. 



churlisly, globlik. 
churlisness, globai, ful. 
churly, fulik, glohik. 
chymic, Aemik. 
chymist, hemel. 
cigar, zigad. 
cincture, z5n. 
cintured, sonik. 
cipher, nrnnsd, 
cipher, nujnatbn. 
circle, zilag. 
circle, zilagon, zulagon. 
circled, zilagik.. 
circlet, zilagil. 
circuit, zum, zilek&g. 
circquit, zulagon. 
circular, glopik. 
circularity, glop. 
circularly, ^Zo^nik, 
circulate, zillagon. 
circulating, zulagik. 
circulation, zilag&t. 
eirouinference, zum. 
circumferencial, zurmk. 
circumspect, kauUk. 
circumspection, kaut. 
circumspective, fcaurik. 
circumspectively, fcauriko. 
circumspectness, kaut. 
circumstance, dinad. 
circumstantial, imnrfik. 
cistern, vatataft. 
cital, blam. 

citation, suamam, zitat. 
cite, zitaton. 
citer, zitatA. 
citess, ji-si/', oi-sif. 
citizen,, sif, zz/el. 
citron, zied. 
citron-tree, ziedsibim,. 
citron-water, ziedavat. 
city, zif. 
city, nifik. 



civil, zivik, stidik. 

civilizable, kulivik. 

civilization, 22uet,toi/2«am,kuliv. 

civilize, kulivSn, zivdn, 

civilized, ■pekulivol. 

civilizer, kulivel. 

clack, Inpiikot. 

clad, klotik. 

claim, flag. 

claim, flagon. 

claimable, flagik, 

claimant, ^a^ik. 

claimant, flag A. 

claimed, pe/Za^ol. 

claimer, flagel. 

claiming, flagol. 

clam, klebon. 

clamant, luwofcik. 

clammy, lengludik. 

clamorous,' boserik. 

clamour, luwofcem. 

clamour, luuoMn. 

clamourer, luuoM. 

clamp, klam. 

clamp, kldmSn. 

clan, stam, gen. 

clandestine, kldno&k. 

clandestinely, fc/anofliko- 

clandestineness, klan'dt. 

clang, ton, tonoA. 

clang, tonbn. 

clangorous, tonik. 

clangour, ton. 

clap, flap, spid. 

clap, Jlapbn. 

claret, vin 

clarification, kliilian, 

clarified, kltilik, 

clarifier, kliilel. 

clarify, kliilon. 

clarifying, klulol. 

clarity, kliil. 

clash, jok. 



GKAMJfAR OF TOLAPiiK. 



247 



clash, jokon, tapiikon. 

clasp, nug. 

class, klad. 

class, kladon. 

classic, klatel. 

classic, klatehk. 

classification, kladani. 

clause, jot, fin. 

claustial, kleu£k. 

clausxire, ninfezXam. 

claw, ral. 

claw, Taliin. 

clay, tain. 

clay, iainon. 

clayey, tainlik. 

clean, n^lik, klinik. 

clean, suipon, klinon. 

cleaned, klinik.. 

cleaner, kliraknm. 

cleaner, klinel. 

cleaning, tfc'ream. 

cleanliness, su^al, klin, nifsil. 

cleanly, ifcnlik, nj/alik. 

cleanness, nifSl, netfeb. 

cleanse; suipon, ktlnon. 

cleanser, suy>el. 

clear, klUik, lilnik. 

clear, klUon, liboD, pldnon. 

clearer, pldnsl. 

clear-headed. He'Slik. 

clear-headedness, kli&l, daW^al. 

clearing, klin&TO.. 

clearly, kluliko. 

clearness, klil, kleil. 

cleave, slitan. 

cleaver, slitel. 

clef, Mk. 

cleft, slit. 

clemency, lonedal- 

clement, lone<M\ik. 

clergy, tier. 

clever, kanalik, fdgik. 

cleverly, kanaliko, /a^lik. 



cleverness, fag. 

cliff, klif, melaklif. 

cliffy, kli/ik. 

climate, kliim. 

climatize, klumon. 

clinch, kikSu. 

cling, ziipon, slopon. 

clink, ton. 

clink, tonon. 

clinking, tonam. 

eUp, snipon. 

cloak, maned. 

cloak, manedaa 

cloak-room, manecla<:em. 

clock, glok, glok. 

clock-maker, glokal. 

clog, netoon. 

cloister, kleud. 

cloister, kleudon. 

cloisteral, kletuRk. 

cloisteress, o{-rodel. 

cloisterous, kleudlik.. 

close, kludon, finoD, kikon, 

sludon. 
close, nilo, pefcz'fcol, soludik, 

kldnoSk. 
closely, nilo. 

closeness, solud, soal, kldnoi. 
closer, kikA, sludt^, finei. 
closet, plivod. 
closet, lin/;iX-on. 
closure, bud. 

cloth, liabastof, liab, klof. 
clothe, fctoon. 
clothes, klots. 
clothier, teladei, klot&mekA. 
clothing, klotad. 
cloth-worker, klofA. 
clough, klif. 
clove, sliton. 
clover, yob. 
clown, bbfim, Jo/el. 
clownery, 6o/en. 



248 



GUAMMAE OF VOLAPuK . 



clownish, globik. 
clownishly, glohiko. 
clownishners, glob, 
club, klub. 

club, lajriwOn, keuoSon. 
club-law, Muhshlon. 
club-man, klubei. 
club-room, klubMem. 
clumps, stupel. 
clumsiness, glob, 
clumsy, globii.. 
cluster, tuf, 
cluster, lasamon. 
clustery, lufik. 
clutch, gleip 
clutch, gleipon. 
clutter, beset, 
clutter, boseJdn. 
coach, vab. 
coach-maker, vabel. 
coachman, kocan. 
coal, kolat. 

coal-basket, kolat&bdset. 
coal-black, leblagSs.. 
coal-box, kolata,bdg. 
coal-cart, kolatauafe. 
coalesce, klubon. 
coalescence, klubaxa.. 
coalition, klubstm.. 
coaly, kolatik. 
coarse, globih. 
coarsely, globi^o. 
coarseness, glol). 
coast, jol. 
coast, Jolon. 
coaster, jolel. 
coastwise, yofaik. 
coat, gun, 
coat, hekloton. 
coating, befcZoam. 
coax, hxlobon. 
coaxer, luio5el. 
coaxing, lulob. 



coaxingly, Inlobiko. 
cobalt, kobitt. 
cobble, luuofcad. 
cobble, lumefcon. 
cobbler, lumekel. 
cob-web, spul, spulnn. 
cook, gok, tubog. 
cock, Inmagi/on. 
cocoa, kak. 
cocoa-nut, kaksMot. 
cod, jal, atokut. 
coffee, kaf. 
coffee-cup, kafaftouil. 
coffee-house, kaf 6^. 
coffee-man, tq/opel. 
coffee-room, kafacem. 
coffee-shop, )sahibuig. 
coffee-tree, kafaiim. 
coffer, komfed. 
coiEn, kofin. 
coffin, kofinon. 
coffin-maker, fco/Znamekel. 
cog, ciitan, luZoJon. 
cogency, nam. 
cogent, ndrmk. 
cogently, nfflraiko, 
cogger, luZoJel. 
coggery, cut. 
cogging, oiit. 
cognition, seT. 
coiffure, 'eZat. 
coin, kon. 
coin, kondn. 
coinage, kbn&va.. 
coincedence, bal&xa. 
coincedent, &aZamik. 
coined, k'dmk. 
coiner, fconel. 
cold, kalod, snq/'ip. 
cold, kalodi]s.. 
coldish, feaiorflik. 
coldly, kalodika. 
coldness, kalod. 



flKAMMAB OF VOLiPuK. 



249 



collate, teleigon. 
collation, ieleig, teleigain. 
collator, Seleigel. 
colleague, 'keblod, calaAlod. 
colleague, 'keUodSa. 
collect, lasamon. 
collection, lasam, konlet. 
collective, 'kosumik. 
collectively, em, 
collector, lasamel. 
colloguy, tela,pukB,t. 
colonel, lopiknnel. 
colonial, kolunik, lovemeZik. 
colonist, kolunel, kolan. 
colonization, kolunaxa. 
colonize, kolunon. 
colonizer, kolunel. 
colony, kolun. 
colerate, kolik. 
coleration, kolaxa. 
colossal, gianik. 
colossus, gianafco&b. 
colour, kdl. 
colour, kolon. 
colourable, jmik. 
colourableness, Jinoi. 
colourably, jinUk. 
coloured, kolik. 
colburist, kolel. 
column, koliim, koliim 
columnar, kolUmik. 
comb, k6b. 
comb, kobon. 
combat, komip. 
combat, komipbn. 
combatant, komipel. 
combator, komipel 
comber, kohel. 
combination, kosum. 
combine, kosumon. 
combiner, kosumel. 
come, komon. 
\ comedian, teatel. 



comedy, teat, hjdamat. 
comely, plidik. 
comer, komel. 
comet, goba^tel. 

comfort, leitbn, kovenon, tlodiin. 
comfort, koveu, tlod. 
comfortable, kovenik, tlodik. 
comfortableness, koven, plit. 
comfortably, kxiveno 
comforter, kovenel. leitel, tlodei. 
comforting, kovenik, tlodik. 
confortress, ji-fcooenel. 
comic, ftoyik. 
comical, 6o/ik. 
comically, bo/iko, &o/lik 
comicalness, bo/oi. 
coming, kdrnbi. 
command, komad, bud. 
command, cif'on, komadon, 

biidoTi. 
commandant, komadeX, btidei. 
commander, komadei, budei. 
commanding, biidik. 
commandingly, hudiko. 
ccftimandments, biids, \ehuds. 
commandress, of-biidei, ji-hi(del. 
commence, beginbn. 
commencement, begin, 
commend, pliedba, komedoa. 
commendable, pliedik, komedik, 

loblik. 
commendation, lob, lobim,kora- 

ed, pUed. 
commender, komedel. 
comment, noted, 
comment, blamoTo., notedon. 
commentary, septan 
commentate, septanon. 
commentative, seplanik. 
commentator, seplanel. 
commenter, seplanel. 
commerce, ted, (erfam. 
commerce, iedbn. 



250 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



commercial, tedik. 
commercialy, tediko. 
commissary, komita,n. 
commission, komitem.. 
commission, cal, komitikd. 
oommissional, komitaAik, komit- 

emik. 
commissioner, komitaAA. 
commit, duno'a, lenfcora/irfon. 
committee, sog. 
jjommitter, dunA. 
commode, komod. 
commodious, ^eMk, pitik. 
commodionsly, geKko, poriko. 
commodionsness, geb, pot. 
commodity, pdfud, nited. 
common, komot. 
common, komumk., hapiV., gag&. 
common, tugedik. 
common, kos'dmo. 
commonalty, lupop. 
commoner, sif. 

commonition, ?)ionerfam,moned. 
commonitive, menorfik, 
commonitory, monecZik. 
commonly, kos'dmo. 
commonness, komun. 
common-sence, fcapal. 
commotion, volut. 
commotioner, volutA. 
commune, musamou. 
communicate, nijnon. 
communication, niin. 
communicative, niimk, 
communicatively, niimko. 
communicativeness, niinoi. 
communicator, niinel. 
communicatory, niimk. 
communion, komiin. 
community, tuged. 
compact, suamik, soliidik, 
compact, suamoD, fcosumon. 
compact, halstia. 



compacted, soliidik. 
compactodly, soliidiko. 
compactedness, soliid. 
compactly, soliidiko. 
compactness, soliid. 
companion, kamadel, kopanel,. 

kehlod. 
companionship, kamad. 
company, kopanem, kompan. 
company, melakdn, kosadon 
comparable, feleigik. 
comparableness, ieleigbf. 
comparably, feleiglik. 
comparation, ieleig&va.. 
comparative, xciniima,liien, plu- 

liien. 
comparatively, spetivo. ' 
compare, ieleigon. 
compare, ieleig. 
comparer, Seleigel. 
comparison, ieleig. 
compart, tabled, dilaxa. 
compart, sedilon. 
compartiment, tabled, 
compartition, dilava.. 
compartment, tabled, 
compartner, seA7el. 
compass, kopad. 
compass, ziim, spad. 
compass, zisumSn. 
compass-box, zilagabok. 
compasses, zilag. 
compassion, kelied. 
compassionate, keliedik. 
compassionately, keliediko. 
compassionateness, kefcet^am.. 
compatibility, siJmof. 
compatible, potik, 
compatibleness, sihinoi. 
compatriot, /aianel. 
compatriotism, /oianelof. 
compeer, kopanel. 
compel, meifcadon. 



GRAMMAB. OF TOLAFuK. 



251 



compenable, mefcadlik. 
compellably, mekadiiko. 
compeller, mekadel. 
compendous, suamik. 
compendously, suarrako. 
compendousness, suamoi. 
compensate, gudon, guvon. 
compensatiod, guda.m., gtiv. 
compilation, lagans, 
compilator, la^amel. 
compile, lasamon. 
compilement, lasamam. 
compiler, lasamel. 
complacence, pUd. 
complacent, leplidik, plidik. 
complain, plonon. 
complainant, flagel. 
complainer, plonel. 
complaining, plomk, yamih. 
complaint, 'ag, plon, malad. 
complaisance, yilof, plidot. 
complesant, yiUk. 
complesantly, ^j7iio. 
complement, le/uZam, 
-complemental, le/u/ik. 
complete, le/ufit. 
complete, le/«Z5n. 
completed, pe/inol, pe^nik. 
. completely, ZoHko, le/uto. 
completement, le/uZam. 
completeness, le/«Zn6f. 
completer, le/«Zel. 
completion, le/«Zam. 
completive, le/«Zik. 
completory, be/uiik. 
complexion, logim.. 
compilable, yzVik, flegik, j/umik. 
compliance, zep, zepsxa.. 
compliant, atiik. 
compliantly, yiKko. 
complicate, kosiadbn. 
complicated, peAostorfik. 
eanplication, kosiadam. 



compiler, yilA 
compliment, plim. 
compliment, plimbia. 
complimental, plimMV. 
complimentally, plim\iko. 
complimentor , plimeX. 
comport, s«/Ulon, su/on. 
compose, kostii'tfon, kofukon. 
composer, kofiikA, koszadel. 
composite, koszWik, 
composition, kosiarfam. 
compotator, kerf/i'nel. 
compound, kosiadik. 
compound, migon, kosiadon. 
compoundable, migik. 
comprehend, fcapalon, suemon. 
comprehensible, fco^alnik. 
oomprehensibleness, kapababf. 
comprehensibly, suemiko. 
comprehension, fca^aliip, suem. 
comprehensive, zisumik. 
comprehensively, zisumo. 
comprisal, ninof. 
comprise, ■ainlahon, nmofbu. 

ninon. 
comprobate, liaZamon. 
comprobation, blof, zot. 
compromise, hal&m. 
compromise, Jalamon. 
compromit, garanon, pdmetoii. 
compulsion, mekadajn. 
compunction, ponit. 
compunctuous, ponitik. 
compunctuously, poniAko. 
compunctive, ponidk. 
computable, kalik. 
computation, kal, kalam. 
compute, kalon. 
computer, kalel. 
comrade, kamadel, koparKl. 
comradeship, kamad. 
concave, kokavik. 
concaveness, ninowa^ng. 



252 



GKAMMAB, OP VOLAPuK. 



concavity, mnovagal. 
conceal, kldnoion, seilon. 
concealer, seilel, klm'ofel. 
concealment, \seilaxa., klanofan. 
concede, zepQn, gevon, dalon. 
conceit, siiem'di, silem. 
conceit, niludon. 
conceited,, hetiMlik, vimik. 
conceitedly, vimiko. 
conceitedness, nilud. 
conceivable, suemik. 
conceivableness, suemoi. 
conceivably, suemito. 
conceive, suem'on, daiifcon. 
conceiver, suemel. 
concent, 6aZam. 
concentric, hezenodik. 
concentrically, kezenodiko. 
concentricity, 'kezenodbf. 
conoentual, beno^onik. 
conception, suemad, leget. 
conceptive, legetlik. 
concern, nited. 
concern, te/6n, 
concerned, nitedik. 
concernedly, niiedo, iefo. 
concerning, tefajaik 
concernment, nitedi 
concert, konzed. 
concert, konzedbn. 
concertation, konzedaro.. 
concertative, dikod&, zanik. 
concession, dab. 
consessive, pe^mk. 
conciliate, \ekosil6n. 
conciliation, lefco«//am. 
conciliator, lekosilel. 
concinnity, fag. 
concise, suamik. 
concisely, suamiko. 
conciseness, suamiit. 
concliide, kliidon, finba, studon. 
concludency, kludwm. 



concludent, firak. 
concluder, kludel, finel. 
concluding, /inik. 
conclusion, fln, slud. 
conclusive, j^reik. 
conclusively, ^raiko, kludo. 
conclusiveness, ^raal. 
concord, halii. 
concordance, halaxa. 
concordancy, 6alam. 
concordant, balarmk. 
concordantly, ftatomiko. 
concourse, kofcom, mod. 
concretion, ftiyam. 
concur, ZiaZamon. 
canourence, 5a/am. 
concurency, 6aZam. 
concussion, jok. 
condemn, kodemon. 
condemnable, kodemik. 

condennation, kodeMaxa, kodevci. 

condemned, ■pekodemol. 

condemning, kodembl. 

condensate, ftigrdn. 

condensation, hignToi. 

condensative, bigaznik. 

condense, bigik. 

condensity, soliid. 

condescend, mikbn. 

condign, melidik. 

conditement, plepad. 

condition, stad, cal. 

condition, stip5n. 

condole, pidbn. 

condolement, pidaxn. 

oonddlence, pidata. 

condoler, pidel. 

conduce, dukbn, dukodon. 

conduct, dukoA, kodSt, tag. 

conduct, dukbn, dugbn. 

conductor, dugel. 

confect, jeugbn. 

confection, jueg. 



GRAMMAX OP VOLAPUK. 



253 



confectioner, j'uegel. 
confederacy, fed. 
confederate, fedon. 
confederation, fed. 
confer, {eleigon, gevoTa. 
conference, kofconj, ieleig. 
conferer, gevel. 
confess, koe/bn. 
confessant, koefel. 
confessedly, nebe/etdk. 
confeaser, koefel. 
confession, koef. 
confessionary, koefa^iul. 
confessor, koefel. 
confide, konfidon. 
confidence, konfid, telod. 
confident, konfidiik, suadik, 

holedik.. 
confidential, konfidlik, telodik. 
confidentially, fcon/Jdliko. 
confidentness, boled. 
confider, konjidel. 
confine, mied. 
confine, miedon. 
confinement, ninfc"fcam. 
confinity, nil. 
confirm, be«on, sion. 
confirmable, si'amik. 
confirmation, si'am. 
confirmative, siaraik. 
confirmator, sj'amel. 
oonfirmer, sj'amel. 
confitent, koefel. 
confix, Jimon. 
confixed, pe/fmol. 
conflict, komip. 
conflict, komipoTi. 
conform, segun, ma. 
conformable, segnn, ma. 
conformation, foman. 
confound, kofudon, stunou. 
confounded, ko/udik, jemik. 
confoundedly, jemiko. 



confoundedness. j'emoi, kofud. 
confounder, kofudel, nosel. 
confront, teleigon. 
confrontation, ieleigaxa., 
confronter, feleigel. 
confirontment, fe2e^am. 
confuse, kofudon 
confused, kofudik 
confusedly, kofudlih. 
confusedness, kofud&m., kofud. 
confasion, kofud, j'emoi, riib. 
conge, dedit, glida,m. 
congeable, foAk. 
congeal, fhtoa. 
congratulate, benouipon. 
congratulation, henovip. 
congratulator, benoti2]pel. 
congree, 6aZam6n. 
congregate, konleton. 
congregation, konlet. 
congress, konsalem.. 
congrue, potou. 
congruency, 5aZam. 
congruent, segun, ma. 
congruity, ialam. 
conjecture, niludon. 
conjecturer, niludel. 
conjoint, iugedik, iiaZugik, saik. 
conjointly, em, koio, 
conjugal, marik. 
conjugate, maton, konyugoji, 

halon. 
conjugate, 'pematol. 
conjugation, konyug (am), 
conjunct, JaZamik. 
conjunction, ietan. 
conjunctly, koio. 
conjuncture, halsaa, fed, stad. 
conjurer, magiigel. 
connect, feianon. 
connected, fetonik. 
connecting, fetanol. 
connection, fetan, fetenam. 



^54 



GRAMMA-B OF'VOLAPUK. 



connector, fetonel. 
connoisseur, sevel. 
conquer, vikodon, hevikodon, 

iiil'dpon. 
conquerable, vikodlik. 
conqueror, vikodel, da/opel. 
conquest, Aailop. 
concience, konsien 
consciencioiis, konsierak. 
conscienciousness, ladaloi. 
conscious, notlik. 
consciously, noiliko. 
conscription, supenani. 
consecrate, kosekon. 
consecrated, fcokiik. 
consecration, kosek&va, koaek. 
consecrater, kosekel. 
consecution, suk, su/cam, 
consecutive, saHik. 
consecutively, suHko. 
consension, SaZam. 

consent, zep, zepam. 

consent, zepon. 

consentaneous, segun, ma. 
consentaneously, segun, ma, 

consentaneousness, JaZam. 

consenter, zepel. 

consequence, sek, klud. 

consequent, kludih. 

consequently, Mudo, also. 

consequentness, konsien, 

consertion, ietan. 

conservable, konse/ik. 

conservation, konsefam. 

conserve, konsef. 

conserve, konsefdn. 

cOnserver, konsefel. 

consider, konsidbn. 

considerable, konsidHk. 

considerableness, stiim, 

considerably, le^?eriko. 

considerate, ibautik, siUmk.. 

considerately, kautika. 



considerateness, kaut, siien. 
consideration, kaut, dod. 
considerative, siiemk. 
considerer, xdmA, tikeX. 
considering, bi. 
consign, Xeakonjidoxi.. 
consigner, sedA, deserfel. 
consist, kositon, siJznon. 
consistence, leveloi, soliid, dul. 
consistent, solUdSk.. 
consolation, tlod. 
consolator, tlod&i. 
console, tlodoTi.. 
consoler, tlodA. 
consolidate, soludik.. 
consolidation, soliid-Axa.. 
consoling, tlod^k. 
consonance, 6aZani. 

consonant, kosonat. 

consonantness, iaZam. 

consort, maiel. 

consort, haViu, kosadon. 

oonspicious, logik, kleilik. 

conspiciously, Zo^iko, kleilo, 
kliilo. 

conspicJousness, logbf, klul, 
kleil. 

constancy, leveloi. 

constant, levelik. 

constantly, ai. 

constellation, stelamag, kosiel- 
em. 

consternation, tup. 

constipate, lig'dn. 

constipation, biga,m.. 

constitutent, 'kosiadol. 

constitute, kosiadon, stitsbmou. 

constitutor, komitel. 

constitution, stitsaa. 

constitutional, rj^adik. 

constrain, me^adon. 

ponstrainable, ^i»dik. 

constrainer, damu^el. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLaPUK. 



constraint, mekaAaia. 
construct, sfutou, 6«mon, mekoa. 
coi^ruction, stuk, bum. 
constructer, tnek^l. 
construe, stiikoii. 
constuprate. ;Vj»od6n. 
constupration, jemoi&ja. 
consul, konsal. 
consular, konsalik. 
consulate, fconsaiop. 
colsult, hekonsdlQn. 
consultation, bejfconsa/am. 
consume, kosumon. 
consumer, kosumel. 
consommate, le/uZon. 
consummately, le/uto. 
consummation, le/uZam. 
consumtion, kosum, kosumara. 
contagion, Inpak. 
contagious, lupafcik 
contagiously, lupaHko. 
contagiousness, lupafcof. 
contain, niniafton, ninon, nin- 

ofon. 
containable, nintoftik. 
container, ninel. 
contemn, nesfumon, nestinion. 
contemner, nestamel, nesiimel. 
contemper, mo/'ukon, meilaAon. 
contemperament, ma/oA, maf- 

odam 
contemperate. ;no/uk6n, mtil- 

adon. 
contemperation, mcj'Zadam. 
contemplate, stomon. 
contemplation, sjamam. 
contempt, nestSm, nesfim. 
contemptibility, nestemof. 
contemptable, nesi»7nik, ne- 

StMBik. 

contemptableness, nesfumof. 
contemptvious, nesfti'mik, ne- 
sfi'mik. 



contemptuously, nes/umiko. 
contend, canon, dikodoa. ko- 

mipon. 
contender, komipel. 
content, koten. 
content, kotenon. 
contented, kotemk. 
contentedly, fcoteniko. 
cotentedness, koten. 
contention, zan, dikod. 
contentious, ronik, dikodiV. 
contentiously, rfifaxilik. 
contentiousness, ladaiof. 
contentless, nefcoteJiik. 
contentment, koten. 
contents, ninoi, linad. 
contest, dikod. 
contest, feitoa, dikodon. 
contestable, be/ejftk. 
contestableness, he/eitoi. 
contestation, feit. 
contiguity, nil. 
continual, levelik, 
continually, ai. 
continualness, laidun. 
continuance, leveloi. 
continuation, fov. 
continuator, /ovel. 
continue, /ovon. 
continuedly, ai, egelo. 
continuer, fovel. 
continuity, nezed. 
continuous, nezetiik. 
continuously, nezedo. 
contract, balajn, fed. 
contract, balamon, geton, fedoa. 
contradict, tajjufcon. 
contradicter, tapufcel. 
contradicting, tapiikol. 
contradiction, tapukaxa- 
contradictory, tapfifcik. 
contrarious, teik. 
contrarionsly, toiko. 



256 



GliAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



contrary, talk. 
contrary, tadtV. 
contribute, l&giv. 
contribute, lagivon. 
contribution, la^zV. 
contributive, la.givik, keuoiik. 
contributor, l^ivel. 
contristate, glum'on. 
contristation, glt^mam. 
contriteness, pbna.dof. 
contrition, ponit. 
contrivable, Antuvik. 
contrivance, iatuv. 
contrive, Aatuvb-a, datikon. 
contrivement, Aatuvam. 
contriver , da,tuve\ , datikel , 

plogegel. 
controversy, dikod. 
controvert, hefeiton. 
controverter, he/eiiel. 
controyertable, hefeiiik. 
contumelious, gloKk, _;emodik, 

no/ik. 
contumeliovisly, glohiko, jemod- 

iko. 
contumeliousness, jemodbf, 

blam, nof, no/am. 
convalescence, denusoun. 
convalescent, denusaunik. 
convalesoently, denusaaniko. 
convenable, yumih. 
convene, kokomon.. 
convenience, koven, geb, pot. 
convenient, j)6'rik,io!)enik,5'e6ik. 
conveniently, kovenlik, gebiko. 
convent, kleud. 
convention kokom, bal&ia. 
conventional, iaZamik. 
conventual, kleudik 
conversable, kopamik. 
conversableness, kopanug. 
converaably, kopaniko. ' 
conversant, ••sfcz'Hk, eplakol. 



conversant, iefo, te/ii. 
conversantly, te/o, ie/ii. 
conversation, pUkot, kosad, 

melak. 
converse, pi'koi, kosad, melak, 

iadil. 
converse, toik. 

conversely, tao, voto, gete/a.mik. 
conversion, votava, vot. 
convert, dewion. 
convertible, votlik, deuoriik. 
convex, jop, glSp. 
convex, kSvexik. 
convey, liinamon, dukbn, niinon. 
conveyance, niin, z5t. 
conveyer, dukel. 
convict, suadik. 
convict, suadon. 
convict, pesuadel. 
convicted, pesaadol. 
convicting, suadol. 
conviction, suad, suada.m. 
convictive, suadik. 
convictively, suadiko. 
oonviotiveness, suadal. 
convince, suadon, 
convinced, pesuarfol. 
convincement, suad. 
convincer, suadel. 
convincible, suad\ik. 
convincing, suadik. 
convincingly, suadliko. 
convincingness, suadSl. 
convivial, zdlik. 
convivialist, zofel. 
conviviality, zal. 
convocate, kovokon. 
convocation, kowofcam, kofcom. 
con vocational, kowofcik, kovok- 

amik. i ^ 
convoke, kovokon.. 
convoked, pekouoWl. 
convoking, kovokol. 



ORAMMAB. OF VOLAPiiK. 



•257 



convoy, dukod. 

convoy, dukodbn, diikon. 

consulse, j'okdn. 

convulsion, flap. 

convulsive, Jldpik. 

convolsively, Jlapliko. 

coot, Jcukel, ji-kiikel, ot-kiikel. 

cook, kukon, kUkon. 

cookery, kukaJcan. 

cook-house, kuk&dom. 

cooking, kuken. 

cook-maid, of-kuke\. 

cook-room, kukaeem. 

cool, Inkalod. 

cool, lxikalo(Sk. 

cool, hikalodon. 

coolness, hikola(M.l. 

coom, i<maj!ut. 

coop, tiib, tub. 

coop, nintoMn. 

cooper, tubal, tiibel. 

co-operate, ketoion. 

co-operator, lienobel. 

coot, globel. 

cope, hefeiton, /ezVdn, komipon. 

copious, vodagik, ne:f.«'VV/ik. 

copiously, votfegiko. 

copiousness, bundan. 

copper, koped; kupin. 

copi^er, kopedii.. 

copper, kopedon. 

coppered, kopeSk. 

copperish, kopedli^. 

copper-smith, kopedel. 

copse, loadem., bujad. 

copulate, bo/on, fetanon. 

copulation, fe^anom. 

copulative, fefanik. 

copy, koip, de/;e»ad. 

copy, samad, plog. 

copy, depenon. 

copy-book, iepenadabuk. 

copvier, depenel. 



cord, le/ad. 

cord, tanon. 

cordial, ladlik, 

cordiality, ladal. 

cord-maker, jainel. 

core, ker, pif. 

cored, kerifc. 

Corinth, Korint. 

Corinthian, korintel. 

Corinthian, korintik. 

cork, koeg. 

corky, koegik. 

com, glen, gleni. 

comer, gul. 

cornered, gul&.. 

corner-stone, galaston. 

coronation, klonam. 

corporal, kompal. 

corporal, kopik. 

corporation, kopei. 

corps, tlup. 

corpse, fun. 
corpulence, pien. 
corpulent, pienii.. 
corpulently, pieniko. 
correct, fcutodik. 
correct, kuladon, paniin. 
correction, menod, blam gud- 

ikumam. 
correctional, menodik. 
correctioner, menodel. 
corrective, menodaniff/. 
corrective, menodik. 
correctly, kuladiko. 
correctness, kuladoi. knlad. 
corrector, menodel, ponel. 
correction, blam, leblam. 
correspond, spodon. 
correspondence, gpod. 
correspondent, spodik. 
correspondent, spodel. 
correspondently, spodikc. 
corresponding, spod. 

17 



258 



GllAMMAR 01' VOLAl'UK. 



correspondingly, ftaZainiko. 

corresponsively, segnn, ma. 

corridor, galif. 

eorrigiole, pdnik, 

eorroborate,t)afeiidon,si6n,bes(on. 

corroboration s»m, fimsjn. 

corroborative, Jimik, sjamik. 

corse, fun. 

cost, delid, snam, volad. 

cost, koston. 

cottage, hxdom, smadom. 

cotton, himalain. 

cotton, Jj'malainik. 

cotton-tree, lainajim. 

ooucla, seiton. 

cougli, kog. 

cough, kogon. 

cougher, kogel. 

coughing, k'dgol. 

council, konsal. 

counsel, konsal, siien. 

counsel, siientm, konsalon. 

counsellor, konsdlel. 

count, gab. 

count, kal. 

count, numon, kalon, cedon. 

countable, numlik. 

countenance, logod. 

counter, kalel numel. 

counteract, tauo&on. 

countrefeit, Indevodik. 

counterfeiter, ciitel. 

counterfeitness, Inclevod. 

countess, ji-gab. 

country, fatan, laned. 

countryman , felel, plaudel. 

county, gabei. 

couple, pal, ielel. 

couple, palbn. 

coupler, palei. 

coupling, palaxn, 

courage, lanim. 

courageous, lanimik. 



courageously, kmimiko. 

courageousness, lanimof- 

courier, spidel. 

course, bit, molad. 

course (of), natik. 

course, gonon, ronon. 

courser, ronel, jeval. 

court, kut. 

courteous, kutik, plikik 

oourteousness, pliit. 

cousin, kosen, ji-kosen, of- 

kosen. 
cove, Jopon. 
covenant, fed, 6aZam. 
covenanter, fedel. 
cover, kov, tegsA. 
cover, tegm. 
coverer, tegel. 
covet, desidQji. 
oovetable, desidik. 
coveter, desidel. 
coveting, desidsim.. 
covetous, desidils.. 
cow, kun, ji-xol. 
coward, temipsib. 

cowardice, iielanim, temipal. 

coward-like, temipik. 

cowardliness, nelanim, temipal. 

cowardly, ^emtplik. 

cow-like, fcimlik. 

coxcomb, fop. 

coy, siidik, plafik. 

coyness, swrfof, plaf. 

crab, klaf. 

craft, kaf. 

craftily, kd/lik. 

craftiness, kaf. 

crafty, ka/ik. 

cramp, spam. 

crank, saunik, yo/ik. 

crankle, snekoia, Aetillbn, dafcai- 
6n. 

crass, glohik. 



GIIAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



259 



■crassitude, glob. 

crassnesE, glob. 

crave, JiagSn, desidon, demanoji. 

craver, )iage\, demanel. 

craving, hi/lag 

craze, /j66ru 

cream, mi]igapin. 

cream, miliga/iinon. 

create, \emekon, jafon. 

creating, jafi]s.. 

creation, jaf, ja/'am, lemeiam. 

creative, Jafik. 

creator, lefiiekel, ja/el. 

creatress, oi-jafel. 

creature, ja/aA. 

credence, Mod, konfid. 

credibility, hl'ddoi. 

credible, klodXik. 

credibleness, hlodot. 
credibly, kl'dd\ik. 

credit, klod, stiim, stim, fiun. 
credit, gudo/ienon, konfidon, 

klodon. 
creditable, cddik. 

creditor, lugivel. 
creed, klod 
creep, slupon . 
creeper, slupel. 
creeping, slupik. 
crevice, slit 
crew, tlup, \\ij)op. 
crib, smiulom, Indom, rip. 
crib, nini-i'fcon, tifon. 
crier, se»oiel. 
crimp, &2eJdk. 
crinkle, snekon. 
crispy, blekili. 
critic, krut. 
critical, Inkriital. 
critically, kulado. 
criticalness, kuladoi. 
criticism, kritea, blem. 
criticizable, fcradik. 



criticize, kriiton 
criticiser, fcc«^el. 
crockery, stona^«/. 
crook, klug 
crook, klug'oa. 
crookedness, klug. 
crop, klop. 
croslet, kluzifiX. 
cross, kluzif. 
cross, toik tavelik. 
cross, kliizifon. 
crossness, tawefikad. 
crow, lu^Zo2on. 
crowd, mod, pop. 
crowd, fumon. 
crowdy, popik. 
crown, klon. 
crown, klonon. 
crowner, khnel. 
crowning, klonajn. 
cruciate, iomUn. 
cruciater, (oinel. 
cruciation, torn, 
cruciating, tomik. 
crucifier, k'usUfel. 
crucifix, klusuf. 
crusify, klusufon. 
crede, ludSs., nematfik. 
crudely, /irfiko. 
crudity, lud, nemad. 
crudy, higVs.. 
cruel, le;eHk. 
cruelly, le/eiiko. 
cruelness, le/eHkof. 
cruelty, le/eHkof. 
cry, \aDok. 
cry, Inuoion, dlenon. 
cryer, luKotel, rWenel. 
crying, luwoiem, dlen&va.. 
crypt, sep. 
crystal, kristad. 
crystalization, kristadsi-m. 
crystalize, kristadQn. 



26Q 



GRAMMAU OF VOLAPuK. 



crystalizing, kristadaxa. 

cube, kiib. 

cubic, hiibik.. 

cuckoo, kukfeV. 

cue, gob, ladaloA. 

CTiff, flap, lilaflap. 

cuirass, kiirad. 

cuirassier, kiiradel. 

cull, stupel. • 

cultivable, beiwmik, 

cultivate, kuUvcna., bumon,- be- 

iumon, 
ciiltivation, knliv, bumaxa. 
cultivator, bumel, kulivei. 
cumber, flkul. 

cumbrous,_^fc«Zik,tobik,Jote(?ik. 
cumbrousness, flkul. 
cunning, kaf, skil, skul 
ounning, kafik, skili)s.. 
cunninly, fca/iko, sMiko. 
cunningness, kaf, skiil, 
cup, Jouil, glekop, kdp. 
curator, kuratel, 
curd, kvak. 
curd, bigon. 
curdle, bigon. 
cure, medin. 
cure, sanbn, 
ciired, pesanol. 
curer, sanel. 



curiosity, seled. 

courious, seledVa. 

curl, tuViia.. 

curling, tul, flek. 

currency, zileg&\. 

current, golVx.. 

current, zigon&Ta. 

currentness, zileg&t. 

curse, neZaftad. 

curse, neZa&adon. 

cursed, neteJadik. 

cursedness, neKJ, neZa5ad6f^ 

ourser, neKJadel. 

curst, badwgik. 

curtail, blef'dn. 

curtain, bifoin.. 

curve, fldkom, 

custom, kSsom, sildoA. 

customable, s«£?odik. 

customer, ^onel. 

cut, kot, slit. 

cut, Hton, 

cutler, neifel. 

cultery, nei/en. 

cutter, kotel. 

cylinder, zilin. 

cylindric, zilmiV. 

czar, zar. 

czarina, ji-zar 



dab, flap. 

daddle, tan.1 

dagger, dag. 

dagger, dagon. 

daily, a del, c?eHko. 

daintily, ligedo, daifTiko. 

daintiness, daif, liged. 

dainty, liged. 

dainty, ligedik, daifik. 

dairy, mUigod. 



dale, mebel. - 
dally, fopon, 
dam, dam. 
dam, damSn. 
damage, dam. 
damage, damon. 
damaged, damik'. 
damaging, damam. 
dame, IM. 
damn, kodemon. 



GRAMMAR 01" VOLAPUK. 



261 



■damnable, kodemik. 
'damnableness, kodetnAvn. 
damnably, kodena^o. 
damnation, kodenmb. 
damned, kodemik. 
damp, stom. 
damp, slomik, vat'df'ik. 
dampen, Zumon, s^cimon. 
dampness, vatoi. 
dampv, wa^ofik, stomik. 
dance, daniid. 
dance, danudon. 
dancer, danudA. 
■dancing, danud?LTa.. 
dar^r, polig. 
dangerous, polig\]s.. 
dangerously, poligiko. 
dangerousness, p'dligaX. 
^re, penarfon, kinon, telodokon. 
daring, venii(Sk. 
dark, daeg&, dagih. 
dark, daeg, dag. 
darken, dagoa, neiton. 
darkener, da^el. 
'darkish, do^lik. 
darkness, dag. 
darling, Zo/ab. 
dam, stikon. 
dart, sagit. 
darter, sagitel. 
dash, klam. 
dash, kldmon; Jiapon. 
dashing, spi<Sk, klatik. 
date, dat ; daet. 
date, ddton. 
■dater, ddtel. 
datetree, daetaft/m. 
daub, \\ipdnot. 
dauber, luponel. 
&ughter, of-son; ji-son. 
daughter-in-law, ji-liison, 
-daughterlike, ji-sonlik. 
-daughterly, .ii-.sorelik. 



daunt, j'ekon. 

dawn, delawerf. 

dawn, delon.. 

day, del. 

daylight , delaZj*. 

dazzle, hleinon. 

dazzling, bleinik. 

deacon, dekad. 

deaconry, dekanof. 

dead, edeilol. 

dead(en), funon. 

deadly, /unlik. 

deadness, deilnm.. 

deaf, sudik. 

deafen, sudon. 

deafness, sud, 

deal, dil. 

deal, dilon. 

dealer, dilel, tedel. 

dealing, tedam; bit. 

deam, ninkikon. 

dean, dekan. 

dear, lofik. 

dear, delidik., vbladik. 

dearly, lo/iko. 

dearness, delidoi. 

death, deil. 

deathfal, deili)s.. 

debar, sektkbn, dafcjfcon. 

debase, 6apon, mikon. 

debased, mifcik, 6apik. 

debasement, hapum., mika.m. 

debaser, Japel, mikel. 

debate, hepiikon. 

debater, hepHkel. 

debauch, nepued. 

debit, rfeHk. 

debtor, debel. 

decapitate, fcapon. 

decapitation, kapbi. 

decay, vanbn. 

decease, deilon. 

deceit, ciit. 



262 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



deceitful, ciitik. 
deceitfully, cudko. 
deceitfulness, cufam. 
deceivable, ciitlik. 
deceivableness, cUtam. 
deceive, ciiton. 
deceived, cwrik. 
deceiver, cK^el. 
deceiving, ciiiik. 
December, dekul. 
decency, lepot. 
decent, lepotik. 
deception, cut. 
deceptive, ciitik. 
deceptively, ciidko. 
deceptiveness, c»(<am, 
decide, kludon. 
decidedly, /«mik. 
decider, klude\, lonel. 
decillion, balsion. 
decime, (music), halsM. 
decision, cdda.t. 
decisive, corfatik, 
deck, teg. 
deck, tegon. 
decker, tegel. 
decking, tegsii- 
declaim, deklamon. 
declamation, deklam. 
declaration, seplan, aeptonam. 
declare, aeplanon. 
declarement, sep^anam. 
declarer, seplaitel. 
declaring, seplanik. 
declination, deklin. 
decline, deklinoa. 
declining, deklinik. 
decorate, dekoa. 
decoration, deksaa.. 
decorous, dekik. 
decoy, baton, 
decrease, luna,m. 
decrease, lun'dn. 



decreasing, lunaimk. 
decree, stitajn. 
dedicate, komiton. 
dedication, komit. 
dedicator, komitA. 
deduce, kludm. 
deducement, fcforfam. 
deed, dun, jen. 
deem, kmton. 
deep, dib. 
deep, diVik. 
deepen, dibon. 
deeply, dibiko. 
deepness, dib(am). 
deer, stag, 
deface, jemoA.on. 
defacing, /cmodik. 
defame, sZanon. 
defamed, s^anol. 
defamer, slanA. 
defaming, slan. 
default, def, pok. 
defavilt, gefe^ifcon. 
defaulter, geUibel. 
defeat, hevikod&va. 
defeat, noson, uanon. 
defecate, nifalon. 
defecatian, ni/'alam. 
defect, def, p5k, dof. 
defect, defik, doflk. 
defection, de/am.. 
defective, defik, aelefnlik 
defectiveness, de/am. 
defence, jel. 
defend, Jelon. 
defendant, j'elel, 
defended, jelol. 
defender, jelel. 
defending, jelik. , 
defer, loveZeZon. 
deference, yil. 
deferent, yilik. 
defiance, tod, nesi'am. 



GKAMMAR. OF VOLAPiiK. 



2 an 



deficiency, pok. 
deficient, pokik. 
defier, todel. 
defile, gur. 
defile, yeniodon. 
defiled, yemodik. 
defiler, jemoAel. 
define, c5c?at6n, lonon. 
definer, tonel, no^edel. 
definite, ^'mik. 
definition, coda,t, to;iam. 
definitive, s/wrfik, ^nik. 
definitive, lona,maYoi. 
deflorate, yemodamik, 
defloration, /emodam. 
deflour, j'emoion. 
deform, ne/b'mon. 
deformity, ne/'om. 
defy, todon. 
degradation, Japam. 
degrade, hapon. 
degree, liien. 
degustation, blufam. 
deify, godou. 
deity, Godng. 
deject, glumon. 
dejected, ghimik, glumSl&. 
dejection, glumal. 
delate, kusadon. 
delation, kusad. 
delator, kusadel. 
delay, steb. 

delayment, lat, latam, steb. 
delegate, deputal. 
deliberate, siiendn. 
deliberate, suenik. 
deliberately, siieniko. 
deliberateness, alien, 
deliberation, siiena,m.. 
delicacy, zad, liged. 
delicate, zadih, ligedik. 
delicately, za(&o. 
delicatencss, :orfiU. 



delicious, ligedik. 
delicioussness, liged. 
delight, le^riil, 
deliglit, legdlm, 
delighted, ]egdlik, pe^cV/iil. 
delighter, gdlel. 
delightful, drolik, gdlik. 
delightfully, galiko. 
delightfulness, drol. 
delightsome, dj-olik. 
deliver, hbon, limamon. 
deliverance, de/io. 
deliverer, dei«.'el. 
delivery, ieliv. 
delude, cuton. 
deluder, ciitel. 
deluding, ciito\. 
deluge, twvat. 
delusion, cit, ciVam, cut, 
demand, flag, sak. 
demand, flagon, sai on. 
demander, flagel. 
demanding, flagol. 
demarcation, miedalien. 
demean, tagfm, bapon, l-ndotou. 
demeamour, tag, kodot. 
demonical, develik. 
demonstrate, blo/Jonon. 
demonstration, blof. 
demonstrative, lasigik. 
demonstrator, ilofel. 
demoralization, /emodam. 
demoralize, jemodon, 
demur, dot. 

demur, doton, nesludon. 
demure, dimik. 
demureness, »iid6i, dim. 
denial, nestam. 
denier, nesi'el. 
Denmark, Dan. 
denominate, eaten, dajieJHon. 
denomination, cill cd!n,m, da- 
nem, da»emam. 



2G4 



OttAMMAK OF VOLAPUk. 



denominator, benemel. 
denounce, kusadon, tadon. 
denouncement, kusad. 
denouncer, kusadel. 
dense, soludiTs.. 
densely, soliid&o. 
denseness, soliid. 
density, soliid. 
dent, tut. 
dental, tudk. 
.dentist, tutHYel. 
dentistry, tutsiv. 
denudate, niidon. 
denudation, niid&xa. 
denuding, niidol. 
denunoiate, kusadou- 
denunciation, kusad. 
denunciator, kusadel. 
deny, nesion. 
depart, vaogolon. 
departer, mo^'ofel. 
department, ceni. 
departure, motav. - 
depeche, depad. 
deplorable, yamik. 
deplorableness, yamoi. 
deplorably, yamiko. 
deploration, yamSjm.. 
deplore, yamon, pidim. 
deport, tag, kodot. 
deportment, kodot, tag. 
depot, magad. 
depose, h%seitbn, noeloTo.. 
deposit, pan. 
deposit, pareon. 
depravation, rUh&va.. 
deprave, r«66n. 
deprecate, daJeg'on. 
deprecation, daftejram. 
depredate, distukon. 
depredation, distukaxa.. 
depress, \epedon 
depression, le/iedam. 



deprivation, poliid. 

deprivement, polud. 

depth, dib, dibal. 

depulsion, mq;"ofcam. 

depurate, klinon. 

depute, deputon. 

deputy, deputal. 

derangement, Taeleod, 

deride, kofQn. 

derision, kofam. 

derive, licinoTa. 

derogate, ddmon, mikbn, h apon, 

sma/on. 
derogation, ble/a.jn, de/a/am, 
descend, Zicinon, dongolon, 
descendant, licinel. 
descender, don^otel. 
descent, dongol. 
describe, hepenon. 
describer, bepenel. 
describing, bepenol. 
description, bepenam. 
descry, dsktiiv'on. 
desert,- Kuon. 
desert, melid. 
desert, /oerik 
deserted, -peliivol. 
deserter, liivel. 
desertion, liiv, UivAva. 
deserve, melidon. 
deserver, melidA. 
deserving, melidik. 
deservingly, melidHko. 
design, desan, ployeg, disir. 
design, desinon, ployeg6n, des- 

dn'on. 
designate, lasigon. 
designation, lasig. 
designator, lasige\. 
designedly, desiniko. 
designer, ployegel, desdnel. 
desirable, vipik. 
desirably, viplik. 



GUAMMAll OF VOLAPlik. 



265 



desire, desida^ra., flag, deman. 
desire, desidon, flagon. 
desired, -pedesidol, Jlagik. 
desirous, desidik. 
desirousness, desid. 
desk, kikon. 
desolate, soalik.. 
desolate, distukon. 
desolately, soaZiko. 
desolateness, soal. 
desolation, distnk. 
despair, dev. 
despair, devon. 
despairer, devel. 
despairing, devik. 
despairingness, dev&m. 
despatch, depad. 
despatch, desecZon, sedon. 
despatcher, sec^el, desec^el. 
desperate, deoik. 
desperately, dei'iko. 
desperateness, deval. 
desperation, dev. 
despise, nesh'mon, nestumon. 
despised, nesiiimol, nestimbl. 
despisedness, nestim, nestiim. 
despiser, nestiimel, nestimel. 
despising, nestmiTs., nesiawik. 
despite, ponit. 
despite of, to. 
despiteful, hadugik. 
despitefulness, badng. 
despot, vutel. 
despotic, yufelik. 
destine, Zonon. 
desteny, fat. 
destitute peto'yol. 
destitution, niid&xa, neZaJam. 
destroy, noson, raJon. 
destroyer, nosel. 
destroying, nos'ol. 
destructible, noslik. 
destruction, nosam, riib. 



destructive, nosik. 
destructiveness, rubuh. 
detach, detiilon. 
detached, detiilik. 
detachement, detiilian. 
detail, detul. 
detail, deiiildn. 
detailed, yedetulol. 
detain, laton, fcipou. 
detect, datewon. 
detecter, dato'uel. 
detection, daiayam. 
detention, kip, kip&xa. 
deter, dejekon. 
' determent, de/efcam. 
determinable, codnilik, lonik. 
determinate, /iimik. 
determinately, fdmiko. 
determination, Zonam, 
determinator, Zonel. 
determine, Mudon, Jinoa, lon- 

bn. 
detest, 'ertn. 
detestable, 'erik. 
detestableness, .'eZof. 
detestation, 'et. 
detester, '^etA. 
detract, blefon, slmion 
detraction, slan. 
detractor, slan&l. 
detriment, dam. 
detrude, le/aZon. 
detrusion, le/aZam. 
deuce, lakelo, devel. 
deucedly, Zaielo, milo ! develo. 
devastate, distukon. 
devastation, distuk, distuta,ia. 
develop, dufomon 
development, dufoimxn. 
devest, niidon, lib'dn, Aetegdn. 
device, kaf, pilkeA, 
deviseful, kafik. 
devil, devel. 



266 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



devilet, develil. 
devilish, develik. 
devise, geliit&dil. 
devise, siienon, daft'Aibn. 
deviser, daizfcel, da^Muel. 
devoid, vag^k. 
devoir, plig. 
devolution, lovegioZed. 
devolve, love^oZon. 
devolvement, love</oted. 
devote, kosekon. 
devoted, kosekik. 
devotednesa, kosek, 
devotement, koseka,iR. 
devoter, kosekel. 
devoting, iosefcam, 
devotion, devod. 
devotional, devodi]i.. 
devotionalist, devodel. 
devotionally, devodiko. 
devour, Aimidon. 
devoured, -pedimidol. 
devourer, dimidel- 
devouring, dimftik. 
devout, devodik, relik, i-eZadik. 
devoutly, devodlik. 
devoutness, devod, reZad. 
dew, tof. 
dew, to/on. 
dewy, toflik. 
dexterity, skil, skvil. 
dexterous, s^«7ik, skiilik. 
dexterously,' skiliko. 
dexterousness, skill, 
diabolic, develik. 
diabolism, develen. 
diadem, klon. 
dial, j'onel. 
dialect, dialeg. 
dialectal, dialegik. 
diamond, diamin. 
diarrhoea, rur. 
diary, Aelnbuk. 



dictate, dikon. 
dictation, dikum.. 
dictator, dikel. 
diction, still, puknt. 
dictionary, uOcia(s)buk. 
diddle, ciitm, kdfon. 
die, fcoMaatap. 
die, deil'on. 
diet, diat. 
dietary, diaiik, 
differ, difon. 
difference, dif. 
different, di/ik. 
differently, difiik. 
difBcvilt, Jikulik. 
difficulty, fikul. 
diffide, raikonfidon. 
diffidence, vaikonjid. 
diffident, miio?i^'iiik. 
diffuse, disipik, 
diffuse, mojicion. 
dig, sopon. 
digger, sopel. 
digging, sii^am. 
digiiify, mbdon. 
dignity, dinit. 
dike, dam. 
dilation, sesiad&ia. 
dilate, sesiadea. 
diligence, dut. 
diligen, dutik, vohik. 
diligently, rfuriko. 
dilute, slenGn. 
dilution, sZenam. 
dim, daegik, dagik. 
dimidiate, laf'on. 
diminish, lun'on. 
diminution, lunam. 
diminutive, smalik. 
diminutiveness, pill, pdlSL 
dimly, luWik. 
dimness, daeg, dag. 
dine, zejidela,fid'dn. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



267 



dining-room, fldasaY. 

dinner, zendeU-fid. 

dip, lumon, vatofoTi. 

diphthong, paluoifcal. 

diploma, diped. 

diplomacy, dip, dipa.r. 

diplomated, dipedik. 

diplomatic, dipik, dipuvik. 

diplomatist, dipel (dipedel). 

direct, nemerfamik. 

direct, dileJciin. 

directer, dilekel. 

direction, dileket. 

directly, uemedamiko. 

director, dilekel. 

dirt, slam, miot. 

dirt, stenon mioton, slamoa, 

dirtily, s^enlik. 

dirtiness, sten, miot. 

dirty, stenih, miotik. 

dirty, stenon, mioton, jemodon. 

disability, nefag. 

disable, nefdffon. 

disabled, ne/af^ik. 

disablement, ne/ai^am. 

eisaccHstom, nefcosomon, 

disadvantage, dam. 

disaffection, ne/efcam. 

disaffirm, nonon. 

disagree, dikodon, neptidon. 

disagreeable, nelesum*, nelof- 

lik, neplidik. 
disagreeableneas, nelof. 
disagreeably, neZo/liko. 
disagreement, dikod, iiepiid, 
disappear, jnogolon. 
disappoint, citon. 
disappointed, a'flk. 
disappointment, cit, ctVam. 
disapprobalion, blam. 
disapprove, blamon. 
disarm, devafon. 
disarmament, dewa/am. 



disarray, niid; kofud, 
disater, lenelab. 
disastrous, leneZaftik. 
disastrously, leneteftika. 
disavow, nonon. 
disavowal, noned. 
discern, distinHn. 
discernment, suen, niludawL. 
discharge, dismit. 
discharge, dismitm. liron. 
discharger, nelodel. 
disciple, fulel, ziipel. 
discipline, pud. 
discipline, pudHn. 
diseiplineship, ^apelug. 
disclaim, nonon. 
disclamation, noned. 
disclose, da^^won. 
disclosure, da(«pam. 
discomfort, netlodon. 
discomfort, netlod. 
discomfortable, nezZorfik. 
discompose, stenon. 
discomposure, dof kofud. 
discontent, nefcoten. 
discontent, netotenon. 
discontented, nekoienik. 
discontentedly, nefcoteniko. 
discontentedness, nekoten. 
discontentful, nekotenik. 
discontentment, nekoten ■ 
discontinuation, fln, deteMm. 
discontinue, deleton, zedon,fdt- 

on, finoR. 
discord, palfofcal, telif. 
discordance, teZif. 
discount, rabat. 
discount, rabaton. 
discounter, 7'abatel. 
discourage, neianimon. 
discouragement, nelanim^ya. 
discourager, neZanmel. 
discourse, piikot. 



2(.i8 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



discourse, piikbn. 
discourser, piikel. 
discourtesy, neplut. 
discover, AsituvQn. 
discoverable, logik. 
discreetly, kautiko. 
discreetness, kaut. 
discrete, kautik. 
discretion, kaut, 
discuss, heptikon. 
discussion, hepiikaxa. 
disdain, nestim, nestHm. 
disdain, nesiMmon. 
disdainful, nesftmik, nesfamik. 
disease, malad. 
diseased, maladik. 
disengage, livbn. 
disengaged, livik. 
disengagement, Ziwam. 
disgrace, jemod. 
disgrace, JemoAbn. 
disgracer, femoAel. 
disgraceful, jemo&ik. 
disgracefulness, j'emoAotr 
disgracious, femoiik, negonik. 
disgust, naud. 
disgustful, naudik. 
disgustfulness, naudot. 
disgusting, naudik. 
dish, zib&m. 
dishearten, ne/om'mon. 
dishonest, nesnarik. 
dishonestly, nesnariko. 
dishonesty, nesnat. 
dishonour, jemodon. 
dishonourable, jemo&ik. 
dishonourableness, /emodof. 
dishonourably, /emodlik. 
dishonoured, yemodik. 
dishonourer, /emodel. 
dislike-naud. 
- dismal, mjsaflk. 
dismalness, misal. 



dismay, netenm. 
dismiss, 6is,miton. 
dismissal, dismit. 
dismission, dismitaxa. 
dismissive, dismitik. 
disobedience, -nsldhed. 
disobedient, neZofterfik. 
disobey, m&lobedbn.. 
disorder, neZeorf. 
disorderliness, neleodbi. 
disorderly, n&leodik. 
disown, fenesion. 
dispend, ditibbn. 
dispensation, secZSam. 
dispense, serfiYon. 
dispense, daZefcon 
dispenser, se&'Zel. 
disperse, disipbn. 
dispersion, disipibra.. 
display, mofton. 
display, manifb%n. 
displease, wplidbn.. 
displeaser, miplidA, 
displeasing, miplidik 
displeasure, miplid. 
dispose, gebbn, pdtbn. 
disposer, gebel. 
disposition, fekum. 
dispraise, blambn. 
disputable, be/eirik. 
disputant, disputel. 
disputation, di^uiaxn. 
dispute, disp\it. 
dispute, disputbn. 
disputer, disputed. 
disputing, disputbl. 
disreputable, Jemodik. 
disreputation, jemod. 
disrepute, femodbn. 
dissatisfaction, nekoten. 
disatisfaotory, netoenik. 
dissatisfy, nekotenon. 
dissect, dife'mon. 



GBAjniAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



■269 



dissection, di^iniam. 
dissemble, simuloTi. 
dissension, nepiid, dikod. 
dissensious, dikod, nepwrfik. 
dissent, di/Sii. 
dissenter, edet7blel. 
dissimulation, simul. 
dissipate, disipQn. 
dissipation, disip. 
dissolute, glibik. 
dissoluteness, glib, 
dissolution, sedtV. 
distance, fag. 
distant, foffSs.. 
distasteful, naucfik. 
distend, tenon, setenon. 
distention, ten, tenam. 
distil, steilon. 
distillation, steil. 
distiller, steUel. 
distillery, steil. 
distinct, distinon, sikon. 
distinction, distin. 
distinctive, distinik. 
distinctness, kleil. 
distinguish, distinaa, 
distinguished, carfik. 
distinguisher, distinel. 
distingnishing, distinol. 
distinguishment, distinam., sik, 

sik&ia. 
distract, disipon. 
distraction, disipara. 
distress, duv. 
distress, lied, 
distressfcd, leneZaMt, misalik, 

liedik. 
distribute, sediKn. 
distributer, sedii'el, 
distribution, serfjVam. 
district, stuk. 
distrust, jnjkon/id. 
distrust, mikonfirMji. 



distrustful, mikonfidiTc. 

distmstfulness, jnikonfd. 

disturb, (upon, kofudon, 

disturbance, tup, tvpavn. 

disturber, tvpei, Icofvdei, 

disturbing, fopik. 

ditch, sop. 

diurnal, dfefik. 

diumally, defiko, in del alik, 

divaricate, sliton. 

divarication, slitura. 

diverb, piikedavod. 

divers, difik, ans. 

diversely, vielon. 

diversity, dif. 

diverting, droHk. 

divest, foginon. 

divide, dilon. 

divided, dilol. 

dividend, dividen. 

divider, dilel. 

dividing, dilaisa. 

dividual, dilmk. 

divination, plofetam. 

divine, godAYel. 

divine, pZq/erik. 

divinely, godik. 

divineness, ^odikug. 

diviner, plq/etel. 

divinity,' goda,\. 

divisibility, dUiA. 

divisible, dUSs.. 

division, dil, divisan. 

divisor, dilA. 

divorce, teilxn^ monk. 

divorce, teHon, //ion. 

divorced, tezlbl, 

divorcement, teilam. 

divorcer, teileh 

divulge, manifajaou. 

divulger, man;/ofel. 

do, dunbn. 

docible, tirKk. 



270 



GllAMMAB or VOLAPUK. 



d:cile, tidik. 

doctor, dokel, medinel, sonel. 

doctor, dofcelon, medinon. 

doctoral, dokelik. 

doctorate, dok. 

doctorship, dok.' 

doctrinal, tidaxaik. 

doctrine, tid. 

document, dokum. 

dodge, kd.fbn, fopon. 

dodger, neszel. 

doe ji-stag. 

doer, dune]. 

dog, dog. 

doggish, doglik. 

dole, dilod, dol. 

doleful, pidik, rfoHk. 

dolor, dol. 

dolorous, dolik. 

dolour, dol. 

dolt, stupel. 

doltish, stupik. 

dome, tem. 

domestic, doma&nel. 

domestical, domik, 

domicile, 15d. 

domiciliar, ninZorfel. 

dominant, soleSk. 

dominate, sol'dn. 

domination, sotef. ■ ' 

dominator, solel. 

domineer, solon. 

domineering, s6le£k. 

dominican, dominikan. 

dominion, stiik, solei. 

don, klot'dn. 

donation, \egiv. 

donative, \egiv. 

donkey, cuk. 

donor, \egive\. 

doom, cMat. 

doom, codoii, corfatOn 

door, yan. 



door-keeper, ^anel. 
doorlook, fczfeim. 
dose, bok. 
dot, pun. 
double, telik. 
double, telon, ^eZukon. 
double, plif on. 
double-minded, dobik, 
doubleness, telwg. 
doubler, telel, ielsbTnel. 
double-tongued, dobik. 
doubling, tel&va. 
doubly, ielik. 
doubt, dot 
doubt, dotoTa. 
doubter, dotel. 
doubtful, dodk. 
doubtfully, dotiko. 
doubtfulness, dotng. 
doubting, dotol. 
dougtiness, kin. 
doughty, kinik. 
douze, duj'etbn. 
dove, ji-pejin. 
dovelet, pejinil. 
down, don, disi. 
down, \efdlon. 
down, iapon, mik^n. 
downward, disi, don. 
downy, miedik. 
dowze, flap 
doze, Inslipoa. 
dozen, balseteZel. 
doziness, Inslipoi. 
dozing, luslipik. 
dozy, slipik 
draftsman, magel. 
drag, tenon, zugon. 
draggle, sten6n, mioton. 
dragoon, dragel. 
drain, nelunon. 
drama, damat. 
dramatic, damatik. 



GR.AMX1AK OF VOLAPiiU. 



271 



dramatist. damate\. 

dramatize, damaton. 

draper, klofaferfel. 

draught, dlinaA, zug, zagiLlut. 

draughtsmen, moffel. 

draw, ziiffon, ?endii. 

draw, ro<j^6n, 

drawer, mu/ab. 

drawer, cjuyel, tenel. 

dread, jek, died. 

dread, dledon. 

dreaded, Tpedledol. 

dreadful, dlediik, jekik. 

dreadfully, dledo, j'elako. 

dreadfulness, le;eiikof 

dreajn, dlim, 

dream. dlim'oTo.. 

dreamer, dlimel. 

dreaminess, dlimaX. 

dreamy, dlimik. 

drear, misalik. 

dreariness, misal. 

dreary, misalik. 

dreggy, miotik. 

drench, dlinad. 

drench, ladlinon. 

dress, klotini 

dress, khton, 

dressed, klotik. 

dresser, hlotel. 

dressing, klotaxa.. 

dress-maker, klota,mekel, teladel. 

dressy, dekik. 

drill, gim. 

driller, ^tmel. 

drink, dlinaA. 

drink, dlin&n, lopoTi. 

drinkable, dlinik. 

drinker, dlinel, kopel. 

drinking, dlin. 

drive, vegOn, mofon. 

driver, mo/el. 

driving, peyam. 



droll, 6o/el. 
droUerj^, hofen, drol. 
drolUsh, rfro^ik, 66/ik. 
drop, tof. 
drop, tofoD. 
droplet, tofil. 
dropping, tofik. 
dross, skom, miot. 
dressiness, nenifa,}. 
drossy, nenj^alik. 
drought, Tielum. 
droughtiness, nelvim. 
droughty, neKmik. 
drove, jep, 
drover, /epel. 
drown, tnvaton. 
drowse, mekon slipik. 
drowse, binon slipik. 
drowsily, sliplik. 
drowsiness, slipoi. 
drowsy, slipik. 
drudge, vumon. 
drudge, slaf. 
drudge(r), rwmel. 
drudgery, slafa,voh. 
drug, medxa. 
drugged, meO^mk. 
druggist, drogel. 
drum, tonasfa'n. 
drum, tonasfcireon. 
drummer, tonasfa'nel. 
drunk, dlinaAik. 
drunkardr kopel. 
drunken, dZmadik. 
drunkenness, dlinaAaX. 
dry, neiumik. 
dry, neiumon. 
dryer, neZumel. 
drying, neZuTnik. 
dryly, neiumiko. 
dryness, nelum. 
dnalistic, te^ngik. 
duality, tehig. 



272 



GBAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



dub, flap. 

dubious, dotik. 

dubiousness, dotot 

diical, diikih. 

duchess, ^i-diik. 

duchy, diikah. 

duck, dbt. 

dudgeon, hadng. 
' due, deboi. 

duke, diik. 

dukedom, dUkxHa, 

duldet, svidik. 

dulcificaiion, svid^m.. 

dulcify, svid&a. 

dull, durmk, ^Zoiik. 

dullard, sfa^el. 

dulness, stup, stupsX, dum. 

duly, diltik. 

dumb, muedik, 

dumbness, mued. 

dummy, stiipA. 

dump, gluimX. 

dumpish, ^Zuraalik. 

dumpishness, ghim&l. 

dunce, glohel. 

dung, don. 

dung, donon. 

dungeon, fanub. 

duodecimo, balseiJeZuf. 

dupe, pecis^el. 

dupe, cuion. 

duple, telik. 

duple, telon, teffikon. 



duplicate, telik. 
duplicate, telon, ieffikon. 
duplication, 7eZam. 
duplicity, telinegoi, telng, 
durable, dulik. 
durance, faniib. 
duration, dul. 
dure, dulon, letfaZSn. 
dusk, lufeV, lunid. 
dusk, lulitik, \\midik. 
dusky, ^temik, dagik. 
dust, puf. 
dust, piifon. 
duaty, ^«/ik. 
Dutch, neddnik. 
Dutchman, neddnel. 
duteous, diinavilik, sotik. 
dutiful, soak, diinainlik. 
dutifulness, hligal. 
duty, blig. 
dwell, lodon. 
dweller, ninZot^el. 
dwelling, 18d. 
dwelling-house, lod. 
dwelling-place, ldds,i^lad. 
dwindle, lunon. 
dye, kol. 

dye, j/ulibbn, hiiltm. 
dyeing, yulib&ra.. 
dyer, yulibe\, k'dl^X, 
dye-stuffs, stofacan. 
dying, fc67en. 
dynasty, regam.. 



E. 



each, a, alik. earable, iumik. 

eager,_^Hk, zunik, spihik, ziidik. earache, \i\adol. 

eagerness, jap, tepai. eared, Ulik. 

eagle, gil. earl, gab. 

eaglet, gilil. earldom, ^eftef. 

ear, lil. earlinesa, gol, g'dlel. 



GKAMMAK OP VOLAPliK. 



27S 



early, golils., godelik. 
earn, meliton, vobon 
earnest, fef. 
earnest, fefik. 
earnestness, fef, /efoi. 
earning, melit, vob. 
earth, tal. 
eartli, talon. 
earthen, talnik. 
earthenware, stona^e/". 
earthliness, talal. 
earthling, talel. 
earthly, talik. 
earthquake, taladtem. 
earthy, taKk. 
ease, koven, taked. 
ease, leiton. 
'easily, nefikulo. 
easiness, nefikul, koven. 
east, lefii^k. 
East, lefud. 

Easter (Holiday); lesustannzal. 
easterling, le/iidknel. 
Eastern, lefiic&mk. 
Eastward, \efiived. 
easy, nefikulik.. 
eat, fidon. 
eatable, ;£rfik. 
eater, JidfA. 
e\)b, ban. 

eccentric, nezenorfik. 
echo, lek. 
echo, lekon. 

eclaircissement, niin; plan, 
eclat, klat. 
eclipse, nefiedon. 
ecliptic, klipit. 
economic, feoreomik. 
economical, iaurik. 
economist, kondmel. 
economize, konomon. 
economy, konom. 
ecstasy, leg»l. 



edacious, lu^eflk. 

edaoiousness, Infidoi. 

edacity, lu^rfof. 

Eden, palad. 

edge, goliifcoTam, sim. 

edge, japon. 

edification, fUnaja. 

edifice, funaX, stid, stit. Inim. 

bumot. 
edifier, fiinel, siahA. 
edify, fiinon, staban. 
edition, s^v. 
editor, pnbe\, bukasefel. 
educate, iadukon. 
educated, darf«Hk. 
education, daAifc. 
educationist, darfufcel. 
educator, dacZufcel. 
eel, sneka^^. . 
efifect, fin, sek. 
efifect, (ZwiBon, koddn. 
effection, klud&va. 
effective, wojadik, >idimk. 
effeminacy, hivonAoi. 
effeminate, luromik. 
efform, fom. 
efformation, ybmam. 
effort, steif. 
effuse, mo/»(6n. 
effusion, mo/Ktam. 
egg, nog. 
egoism, itasSk. 
egoistic, itaswHk. 
egoistically, itasafriko. 
egotist, itasjjfcel. 
egress, se^oZ. 
egression, se^roZam. 
Egypt, Agupan. 
Egyptian, AgiipdnA. 
Egyptian, AgiipdnVs.. 
eight, jol. 
eighteen, haXsejol. 
eighteenth, balse/oZid. 

IS 



274 



GRAMMAR 01' VOLAPUK. 



eightfold, yd7ik. 
eighth, joliA. 
eighthly, joliio. 
eightieth, ydZsid. 
eighty, jols. 
either, alik, 

eject, nin/?um6n, sesiadon. 
elapse, iegonon. 
elapaion, fegon&m.. 
elastic, lastinik. 
elasticity, lastin. 
elate, pleitik, pleidils.. 
elation, pleid, pleit. 
elder, pael. 
elders, pal. 
elect, valoTL. 
election, vdl&xa. 
elector, valel. 
electric, lektini^. ■ 
electrician, leklinA. 
electricity, lektin. 
olectrification, lektinaxi\., 
electrize lektinoa. 
eleganze, dekof. 
elegant, dekik. 
elegantly, rfefciko. 
element, lomin. 
elemental, lominH. 
elephant, nelfan. 
elevate, modon, geilon. 
elevated, suhinaHe.. 
elevation, subim, geil&va.. 
elevator, lestoZel. 
eleven, bcdsehal. 
eleventh, haUebalid. 
ellipse, liped. 
elliptic, lipedik. 
elocution, sepuk. 
elongate, lonedba, inofon, 
elongated, lonediik. 
elongation, loneda>va. 
eloquence, paifcSf. 
eloquent, pukoH^n. 



else, voto, uodko. 
elsewhere, votHko. 
elucidate, pldnon, kleilon. 
elticidated, pldnik. 
elucidation, plan, nun. 
elucidator, plmel. 
elude, zigolon. 
elusion, zi^oZam. 
emanate, Aaglqfoa, sekon. 
emanation, sefcam . 
embank, mndamoTa. 
embarras, jemofon. 
embarrassed, /emik. 
embarrassment, jemiii. 
embassador, legatel. 
embasaadress,-ji-Ze5ra<el. 
embassy, legat, legateva. 
embolden, lanimon 
embrase, zisumon. 
embroil, kofudon. 
emigi-ant, se«ewel. 
emigrate, aetevon 
emigration, setevaxa. 
eminence, svibim, hizugoi., 
eminent, hiziigik. 
Emperor, limep. 
emphasis, lebeionam. 
emphasize, lebetonon. 
emphatic, lebeforaik. 
Empire, limepiib. 
employ, cal, geb. 
employ, givon vobi; gebon. 
employer, gebe\. 
employment, cal. 
Empress, ji-Umep; ot-limep. 
empty, uo^ik 
empty, vagbn. 
emptier, vagel. 
emptiness, vag. 
emulate, steif on. 
emulation, steifaax. 
enable, fdgiya.. 
enact, loniyn.. 



GliAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



275 



■enact, Zonam. 
•enactor, lonel. 
enactnre, dunoi. 
encampment, seitap. 
-enchant, legiilbn. 
•enchanted, legdlik. 
enchanter, le<7afel. 
enchantment, \egdl, le^afam. 
•encircle, ziimoTo.. 
enclose, ninkikon, iudon. 
enclosure, ziim. 
encounter, Iwpug. 
encourage, stigon, lanimon, 
encouraged, lanimik. 
-encouragement, lanimajn. 
eneourager, lanimel. 
encouraging, lanimoh 
end, fin, Hudara. 
-end, da/Jnon. 
^nd, finon. 
•endeavour, steif. 
■endeavour, steifaa 
^ndeavonrer, stei/ei. 
endecagon, balsebalagul. 
ending, iafin, da^nam. 
endow, be^iVon. 
■endo-vrer, be^eVel. 
endowment, hegivAm. 
endurable, sufik. 
^ndurableness, su/al. 
endurance, suf. 
endure, sii/on. 
endurer, sufel, \edulel. 
endaring, su/ik. 
enemy, ne/len, teel. 
energy, namal, steniidal, 
enervation, fib. 
enforce,/?i»on,damMt6n,mei^adon. 
enforcement, fima,Ta, mekstA. 
enforcer, meiadel, damutel. 
enforcing, mekaAiii, 
engage, fefanon, htigon, givoa 
rohi, gei'dTi. 



engagement, bligAjn, panam, 

smapug. 
engager, blige\, gehel. 
engine, cin. 
engineer, nugenel, cinan, cin- 

ufel. 
engineman, eanan. 
England, Nelij. 
English, neli/ik. 
Englishman, nelyel. 
engrave, ^^awon, sepon. 
engravement, sepzja.. 
engraver, ^aeel. 
engraving, gav. 
engross, bigoa. 
engrossed, bigik. 
engrosser, 6i^el. 
engrossement, big&m. 
enigma, rat. 
enjoy, juiton, 
enjoyable, j'uiAk. 
enjoyer, juiiel. 
enjojment, juit. 
enlarge, gleton,. moddn. 
enlarged, -pegledk. 
enlargement, morfam. 
enlarger, model. 
enlarging, modik. 
enlight, daZiibn. 
enlighten, inUton. 
enlightener, iaiitel. 
enlightening, daZ/Zam. 
enmity, toal, ne^^eniig. 
enneagon, zula^uZ. 
ennoble, haonon. 
ennoblement, 6ao»am. 
ennobling, baonik. 
enorminity, legletof. 
enormous, legletik. 
enormously, le^too. 
enormousness, le^toof. 
enough, sdto 
enounce, noion. 



276 



GRAMMAll 01' VOLAl'iiK. 



enrage, zaniin. 
enraged, vutik., 
enrapture, \egal6n. 
enravish, \egdt6n. 
enravished, legdlik. 
enravishment, legal, [egdlavci. 
enrich, hegon. 
enrichment, liegaxa. 
ensign, stdnel. 
enslave, sZa/enon, 
enslavement, sla/en. 
ensue, sekon, ziion. 
ensure, f5se/6n. 
entail, gavon. 
entangle, kq/ud6n. 

iniitlidon, 
nin^oZon, kosekon, 
toladoTi. 
enter!, mo! 
entering, niitlid. 
enterprise, beginara. 
enterprise, heginon. 
enterpriser, beginel. 
enterprising, beginik. 
entertain, f'dlQn, musamiin. 
entertainer, folel. 
entertaining, drolik, musamik. 
entertainment, Zmfa^am,musam . 
enthrone, ilon'dn. 
enthusiasm, tik&[. 
enthusiast, lanimei. 
enthusiastic, hetikalik, liedoAik. 
entice, bat'on. 
enticement, bat, Ja^am. 
enticing, bdtetm. 
entire, lolik. 
entirely, loliko, lolo. 
eutirenesB, Ibl. 

entitle, danemon, cdlon, tiddon. 
entity, iinwg. 
entomb, sepon, 
entombment, sepam. 
entrance, niitlid. 



entreat, lebegon, plekon. 
entry, nutlid. 
enumerate, suamon. 
enumeration, suamam. 
enumerator, suamel. 
envelop, pened&kov. 
envelopment, kofud?Lm. 
environ, ziimon, zonon. 
epilepsy, falip. 
epileptic, falhpik. 
epoch, tup. 
equal, leleigH, leigik. 
equal, leigo^. 
equality, leig. 
equalization, leig&va. 
equalize, leig6n. 
equally, \eleigo. 
equalness, leig. 
equation, leigiiTn. 
equip, plepadon. 
equipment, plepad. 
equity, gid, gida\. 
ere, bifo, s«num(o). 
erect, leblim'on, bumbn^ 
erection, stitaja. 
eremite, soalel. 
err, poZon. 
errand, nun. 
errant, polol. 
erratum, bukapofc. 
erring, pol&m.. 
erroneous, polik, dohik. 
error, pOk. 
errorful, pokik. 
erudite, Tpetidol. 
eruditeness, peftVZolat^ 
erudition, pefayfilat. 
eruption, rup. 
escape, pok, 
escape, easlitpon. 
escort, kopan. 
escort, kopanon. 
escorter, kopanel. 



GBA.MMAR 01' VOLAl'UK. 



277 



-especial, paAh. 

especially, \epleso, patiko, pato. 

especialnesj, pat. dnhaloA. 

espier. Jiikel. 

espionage, liik 

espouse, matokbn. 

espy, liikon. 

essay, bhif, UufiLja. 

essay. 6.'«/on. 

essayer, feZu/el 

essence, nhia. 

essential, siJinik. 

establish, stitOJi, s?<>am6n. 

established, .«?iVainol. 

establisher, s^ifamel. 

establishing, stit, stitam. 

establishment, stit, stiit 

estate, lab. tat. 

esteem, dig. \^lim 

esteem, \eda-bn. les^jmon. 

esteemable, rfiyik, les^/mik. 

esteemei", les^jrael. 

estimable, les^j'ntlik. 

estimate, dicon. 

estimation, diiv. 

et cetera, e Zemanikos. 

eternal, fenofik, duVtk. 

eternalist, tenaleX 

eternity, tennl. 

eternise, tenalLm 

eulogical, Zo&lik. 

eulogist, pliedel. 

eulogize, lohon, pliedon. 

eulogy, paan. 

euphonious' benotonik. 

euphony, benoton. 

Europe, Tulop. 

European, yulopA. 

European, yulop&. 

evacuate, vagbn. 

evacuated, vagi^s.. 

evacuation, wo^am. 

^vacuator, wayel. 



eyade, 7.igol on, vitbn. 
evaded, zi^otel. 
evading, wirik. 
evangelic, gospelik. 
evangelical, gospelik. 
evangelicalism, ^o^e2ikam. 
evangelism, gospelSl. 
evangelist, gospele\ 
evangelization, ^ospeZam. 
evangelize, gospelon. 
evangelized, gospelol. 
evangely, gospel, 
evasion, vit, vitsna. 
eve, vended. 
Eve, Efa. 

even, ^eZik, as, a,slik 
even, leigon, kamon. 
evener, leigei, ka7ne\. 
evening, le.igara.. feamam. 
evening, vended 
evening-star, vendelasieZ. 
evenness, leig 
event, zid. 
eventful, :r/rfik. 
eventide, vendelafa'm. 
eventual, baik, zaik 
eventuality, z«ial. 
eventually, eventuo. 
eventuate, zidon. 
ever, egelo, \a,limo 
everlasting, levelik. 
everlastingness, levelaia. 
eversion, distuk, rfistafcam. 
every, a, alik, 
everybody, alim. 
evidence, klul, blof, noel. 
evident, hlofik. 
evidently, blo/o. 
evidentness, kleil 
evil, bad, nesan, ne/a6. 
evince, blofon. 
evincible, hlofik. 
evitate , vt'ton. 



278 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPilK. 



evitation, vit, viiaia.. 
ewe, ji-jip. 
exact, kulad& 
exact, flagon, demanon. 
exacter, flag A. 
exaction, flagsum. 
exactitude, kulad. 
exactly, kulaAko. 
exactness, kulad. 
exactor, flagel. 
exactress, ji-^ag'el, oi-flagel. 
exaggerate, turfunon gletHn. 
exaggeration, glet&m.. 
exalt, le^aWn, loh'on.. 
exaltation, lob. 
exaltedness, siibim. 
exalter, lobA, legSXeV. 
examen, xamdn. 
examinate, xamon. 
examination, xam&Tn, 
examinator, .ramel. 
examine, xamm. 
examiner, .romel. 
example, sam. 
exasperate, biedon. 
exasperation, hiednm. 
exceed, lovbn. 
exceeder, lovel. 
exceeding, lovik, lew«m. 
exceedingly, lei;emo. 
exel, lovoa. 
excellence, hizugot. 
excellent, hizugik. 
excellently, hizugiho. 
except, pla, sumu, pldsif. 
except, eesumon. 
exception, sesum. 
excessive, ■phxmafiJc, levern. 
excessively, plumq/'iko. 
exchange, can. 
exchange, canon, 
exchanger, canel. 
excite, sHgon. 



excited, ^ofik. 
excitement, yof, yofol. 
exciter, stigA, yojfel, 
exciting, yofik. 
exclaim, aevokon. 
exclaimer, seuoifcel, 
exclaiming, seuofcam. 
exclamation, sevok. 
exclude, sefciion. 
excluded, seiftik. 
exclusion, sekikimn.. 
exclusive, sekiko. 
excommunicate, sekikoa, 
excommunication, se^ilam. 
excrement, miot. 
excursion, tiid. 
excusable, fo^'iyik. 
exousableness, iogivot. 
excusation, iogwa,-m. 
excuse, sekusad. 
excuse, fo^'won, iegivoa. 
excuser, fGgivel. 
execute, dun'on, lefuloa, /vnon-^ 
executer, rfunel, fune\. 
execution, le/uZam, /wnam. 
executive, le/Wik. 
exemplar, sam. 
exercise, plag. 
exercise, pldgdn, gehbn. 
exerciser, plag A. 
exert, iopon. 
exertion, t6p, jalep. 
exhaustion, letop, tufofii 
exhibition, seiopam. 
exhort, monedbn. 
exist, siMnon. 
existence, si&m. 
existing, siijnik. 
exit, iezug, segol. 
expand, veitbn. 
expanded, veitik, 
expanse, plen. 
expansibility, veitbi. 



GKAJIMAR OF TOLAPiiK. 



279 



expansion, veitaxa. 
expansive, veitik. 
expatiation, zilek?ig. 
expect, valadon. 
expectation, valad. 
expecter, valadel. 
expedience, spid, beginaja. 
expedient, spidii, vifik, sfcVik. 
expedition, sedam, skal. 
expend, segivSn. 
expense, se^iV. 
expensive, delidik. 
expeusiveness, delidod. 
experience, plak. 
experience, plakon. 
experiment, bluf. 
experimental, hlufik. 
expiration, Hn, _^nam. 
expire, ^non. 
explain, seplanim. 
explanation, seplanata. 
explicable, planik. 
explicate, sepZanon, ^te'non. 
explication, seplan, sepZanam. 
exploit, dun, feb, pofeg. 
exploration, d&vestig. 
explore, Aavestigon. 
export, sed, aesed, sesedam. 
export, sesedon. 
exportation, canase(fam, sesed, 

sesedaxa. 
exported, pesesedol. 
exporter, seserfel. 
exporting, sesecSk. 
export-trade, sesedajn. 
expose, septonon, fcmdn, veniidon. 
exposition, aetopaja. 
expositor, sepZanel. 
exposure, setopsmi. 
express, spztfel. 
express, sepiikon, sepe?6n. 
expression, seipe^ 
expressive, lebefonamik. 



expressly, pleso, desiniko. 
exquisite, hizugik.. 
exquisiteness, biztt^of. 
extaait, kddik. 
extad, veiton. 
extended, veitik. 
extender, veitel. 
extensibUitj-, seteraof. 
extensible, seienik. 
extensibleness, seienof. 
extension, seieraam. 
extensive, veitik. 
extensively, veito. 
extensiveness, veitaxaoi. 
extent, wesVamof. 
exterior, senedik. 
extern, senedik. 
external, senedik. 
extinct, de/a/ik. 
extinction, nosam. 
extinguish, nosOTi. 
extinguishable, jiosik. 
extirpate, nosanumon. 
extol, lobon, pliedon. 
extoller, label, pliedei. 
extolling, pliedik, loblik. 
extort, isimuton. 
extorter, damuiel. 
extortion, damuiam. 
extortioner, dam!(<el. 
extract, seziik. 
extract, seziikon. 
extraction, sesiikSbVi. 
extractor, sezugel. 
extraordinariness, lecemof. 
extraordinary, leucmik. 
extravagance, plujwa/of. 
extravagant, pluma/'ik. 
extravagantly, pluma/b. 
extra vagantn ess, plu?nn/6f. 
extreme, _^nani. 
extreme, plakiino. 
extremely, leiemo, ^»f/ikuno. 



280 



GllAMMA.ll OF VOLAPilK. 



extremity, /in(am). 

extricate, kuKvon. 

extrication, kuliv. 

extrude, semo/on. ^ 

extrusion^ semo/am. 

1 ) Tahxmod, nenuni. 

exuberance, If -, , , , 

' i oundan,leo««aan. 

exuberant, nezesiidik, \ebun- 

danik. 

exuberate, lebundanon. 

exult, y«6on, giilolcon. 



exultant, yubik. 
exultation, legal, 
eye, log. 
eye, logon. 
eyed, logadik. 
eyelass, loga'eZ. 
eyelid, logaKm 
eyer, Zo^el, beZo^el- 
eyeabot, logeA. 
eyesight, Zo^ad. 



fable, fab. 
fabric, fabliid. 
fabricate, fabliidon. 
fabrication, fdbludam. 
fabricator, fabliidel. 
fabulist, lu^o(?avel. 
fabulize, fabon. 
fabulous, fabik. 
face, logod. 
face, lenZo^on. 
face (in face of), tefo, tefii. 
facet, Zo^'odil. 
facetious, bofik. 
faoetiousness, Jo/of. 
facile, nefikulik. 
facileness, n&fikul. 
facilitate, nejikulon. 
facilitation, nejikulaw.. 
facility, neftkul. 
facing, vead. 
fact, dun, jen. 
faction, dikod, nepUd. 
factious, voluAli. 
factiovisly, paletiko, voluto. 
factiousness, paletoi. 
factor, komitadel. 
factory, fabliid. 
faculty, labem., tillen. 
facundity, piikot. 



fail, pok, zdg. 

fail, zogon. 

failing, p6k. 

failure, zog'am, falhn. 

fain, \evip'&a.. 

fainness, \&oip. 

faint, sipidSs.. 

faint-bearted, temipHk.. 

faint-beartedness, temipiSl. 

faintness, sipid. 

fainty, sipMlik. 

1 yo»ik, SZojiik, gidik. 
fair, \ gorak, litik, srearik. 

) kaniidik., meiladik. 
fair, maliit. 
fair-baired, blonik. 
fairly, kaniido, duso. 
fairness, jon, kamiid. 
faith ! v6 '. vo ! velato ! 
faith, fcl5d. 

faithful , klddik, Jiedik. 
faithfully, klodiko. 
faithfulness, klodoi. 
falcon, faon. 
falconer, faonel. 
fall, fal, lefal. 
fall, falbn, lefalbn, lunon. 
fallacious, ciiilik. 
fallacy, ciit. 



GRAMMA.E OF VOLAPUK. 



281 



fallible, pokik. 

falling, Jiiaovag. 

folse, dofeik. 

false heartedness, rfoftal. 

falsehood, dob. 

Msify, dobon, neveladoa. 

felsity, nevelad. 

felter, stoton. 

fame, fain. 

fe,med, famik. 

familiar, famiitik, koparak. 

fiuniliaadty, famiilbi. 

familiarise, keoZon. 

femiliarly, famiiliko, kopaniko. 

family, famiil 

famous, /'amafulik. 

fan, f/enel. 

fanciful, seledmk 

fancifalness, seledDai. 

fency, nilud, vim, got 

fancy, niludon, fanou. 

fantastic, Jinik, netet'eHk. 

fantasy, ftn 

far, fagik. 

fare, idvon. sladon. no/on 

farewell, adyo. 

farm, meyen. 

farm, koduton. 

farmer, fele\, meyel. 

farmhouse, meyen. 

fannost, fagikiino. 

farther, fdlol 

farthest, fagikuno. 

fescinate, hemagilgon. 

fascinating, }3emagiigik. 

fascination, bemagK^. 

feshion, fom, molad, klotamorf. 

fashionable, inola^ik. 

fashionableness, violadoi. 

fast, eun, cuntktim. 

fast, cu non. 

fast, ^roik, vi/ik, /'ovik. 

fasten, Jimon. 



fastener, /iniel. 

fastening, fo'iam. 

faster, cunel. 

fastly, foviko. 

fastness, vif. 

fastuous, pleidik. 

fat, pin. 

fat, pirak. 

fatal, fdtik. 

fatalism, fatal. 

fatalist, /diel 

fatality, faioi, fdfaX 

fatally, fdto. 

fatalness, fdtoi. 

fate, fat. 

father, fat. 

father-in-law, lu/a/. 

fatigue, fen. 

fatigue, /enon 

fatness, pim\. 

fatten, pinon. 

fattened, pepinol, ^i'nik. 

fattener, pinel. 

fattening, pinam. 

fattish, pz'nlik. 

fattj", ^mlik. 

fatuous, /opik. 

feiult, pok, def. 

faultfinder, blamel, lufe)-«<el. 

fanltfol, poHk. 

faultiness, defdi 

faultless, ne/joHk. 

favour, gon. 

favour, g'dnaa. 

favourable, ^'onik. 

favourableness, ^onof. 

favourably, ^onlik. 

favoured, pei^onol. 

favourer, g'dnA. 

favouring, ^onik. 

fear, died, filed. 

fear, dledon, Jilodon. 

fearful, dledik, jekik. 



282 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



fearfully, jelaiko. 
fearfulness, yeHkof. 
-feasibility, rifuralof. 
feasible, (Zunlik. 
feast, liged, linkip. 
feast, linhipon, zalon. 
feather, penW.. 
feathered, pemk. 
feature, logoA.. 
February, febul. 
fecund, flulak, /erik. 
fee, Itgivoi. 
feeble, _yi6ik. 
feeble-mindedness, /?6al. 
feebleness, fib. 
feebly, /iJiko. 
feed, zib. 

feed, zihon fldon, lun«M8n. 
feeder, zibA. 
feeding, xiJam, miUidxax. 
feel, senon. 
feel, sen, fek, /efam. 
feeler, senel. ^. 
feeling, sen, fek, feksiiva.. 
feign, simul'on, 
feigner, simulel. 
feining, simulit. 
feint, (?o6ik. 
felicitate, labik. 
felicitate, Idhon, helab'on., beno- 

vip'dn. 
felicitation, benovi^jani. 
felicitous, lahik. 
felicitousl}', Icibo. 
felicitousness, Idbot. 
felicity, \eldh 
fell, skun, skin, 
fellow, kopanel. 
fellow . . . . , ke . . . . 
fellow-citizen, kesi/el. 
fellow- creature, kemen. 
fellow-man, 'kemen. 
fellowship, kamad. 



felly, le/efciko. 

felon, Jadugik. 

felonious, ftarfugik. , 

feloniously, ftrratugiko. 

feloniousness, badng. 

felonous, Saatugik. 

female, vomik. 

feminacy, vomoi, tmmoiaX, ji- 

manoi. 
feminality, vomof, ji-manof. 
femineity, vom'oi, uomofal, ji- 

manoi. 
feminine, /i7ik. 
fence, budum, jiil, bud. 
fence, jul'dn, fegon. 
fenced, Jiilik, budik. 
fencer, fegel 
ferment, femm. 
fermentation, fern, 
ferocious, le;'efcik, foetik. 
ferociously, lejekiko. 
ferociousness, lejekikbt. 
ferocity, foetHi. 
fertile, flukik, fetik. 
fertilely, fetiko. 
fertileness, fet. 
fertility, fet. 
fertilization, feta.ra. 
fertilize, feibn, flukon. 
fervent, 'irik, zilik, ztmik. 
fervently, 'I'riko, zuno. 
ferventness, '^it&i, zilal. 
fervid, Htik, zilik, zwnik. 
fervidly, zuno, ^itiko. 
fervidness, zunSl, zilsA. 
fervovir, 'it, zil, zun. 
festal, zdlik, yofik. 
festival, zal. 
festive, zalik. 

festivity, zdlal, gdlaX, yof^l, 
fetch, Aeblinon, 
fetch, kaf. 
fetcher, de5Zmel, 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



28.-) 



fever, fif, 
feverish, /i/'ik. 
feverishness, fifoi. 
feverous, fifik 
few, nemodik, ans, 
fewness, nembd. 
fib, neveladil. 
fib, neveladon. 
fibber, neveladel. 
fibrous, stiinik, 
fickle, nelevelik, votlik. 
fickleness, nelevelot. 
fiddle, violin, 
fiddle, violinon. 
fiddler, violinel, 
fiddling, violina,m.. 
fidelity, fied. 
fie! fi! 
field, fel. 
fiend, lene^en. 
fiendish, 'olik, develiV. 
fierce, meko&k, Jilik. 
fiercely, mekbio. 
fierceness, mekoi. 
fieriness, filal. 
fiery, filH, zunik. 
fifteen, halselul. 
fifteenth, balsefe&d. 
fifth, ZaZid. 
fifthly, luMo. 
fiftieth, lulsid. 
fifty, luls 

fig> fig- 
fight, Bvasipuff, ara&komip. 
fight, komipon, flapoii. 
fighter, flapel 
fighting, flapen. 
fig-tree, jfigabim. 
figural, f^gik.. 
figuration, fom. 
figurative, fiigik. 
figure, fiig, fom. 
figure, fiiffon. 



file, rap 

file, rcipiyn. 

filer, rdpA. 

filial, ciftk. 

filially, ciViko. 

filiation, czYiig, cil&A.. 

filings, rdpot. 

fill, fulbn. 

filler, fulA. 

filter, sul. 

filth, miot. 

filthily, mjoriko, s^enikc. 

filthy, miohk, stemk. 

filtrate, sulbn. 

filtration, suZam. 

final, ^reik. 

finallj', Idto, latikmw, Inhko. 

finance, finanZN. 

finances, finan. 

financial, ^nareik. 

financialist, /nanavel. 

financier, ^nanavel, 

find, tuvbn.. 

finder, totiel. 

finding, tuv. 

fine, pon. 

fine, feimk, klilak, 

finely, feimko. 

fineness, fein, feiiiiX. 

finer, ^iinel. 

finery, magifea. 

finger, fined, 

fingered, Jinedik, 

finish, Jinon. 

finished, ^nik. 

finisher, ^nel. 

finishing, ^reik. 

fir, fir. 

fire, fll, filed. 

fire, _^/on, /on'on. 

fire-brick, JHnston. 

fire-engine, Jlla.cin. 

fireman, fonel. 



284 



eilAMMA.ll 01' VOLAPUK. 



firer, filel, 

firing, /cinam, Siaioad. 

firm, fiam. 

firm, fimih. 

firm, Jimon. 

firmly, fimiko. 

firmness, fim 

first, haliA, /oik. 

firstly, baliAo. 

fir-tree-fir. 

fish, fit, 

fish, fiton. 

fished, fitik. 

fisher, fitel. 

fisherman, fitel (in astronomy :) 

aifii. 
fishery, fiten. 
fishing, flts,m.. fiten. 
fishwife, ji- fitel, oi- fitel. 
fishwoman, ji-/tel, of-^<el. 
fishy, fitils.. 
fist, pun. 

fit, gebik, potik., fdgHk. 
fit, ^oion. 

fitfulness, geh, pot, fag, skil. 
fitly; gebo, poto, fago. 
fitness, pot 
fitter, plepadel. 
fi.ve, lul. 
fivefold, lulik. 
fix, _^mon, Zonon, notedQn, 
fixahle, fimils., fiirmk, 
fixation, fim. 
fixed, fimik, fiirmk, 
fixedness, fim. 
fixity, fim. 
flag, stan, lestdn. 
flag, fib'dn. 
flaggy, /6ik, /enik. 
flagrance, 'it; leglobail. 
flagrancy, 'it, leglohaH. 
flagrant, ne;«mik, 'itik. 
flagrantly, nejemiko. 



flame, flam, 
flame, flam'6n. 
flammeous, ^amik. 
flank, flan, 
flannel, iamin. 
flap, flap, flab, 
flare, nidon 
flash, stal. 
flash, stalUm, nidon 
flat, kam, plen. 
flat, A;amik, plenik- 
flatly, plemko. 
flatness, kam, plen. 
flatten, kamon, pZenon, 
flatter, fcamel, plenei. 
flatter, luZofcon. 
flatterer, luZoftel 
flattering, luZo&ik. 
flatteringly, luZoMko. 
flattery, luZo&. 
flattish, plerAik. 
flavour, uap5n. 
flavourous, vapHk. 
flax, flag, 
flaxy, flagik 
flea, flib 
flee, fug on 
fleer, fugel 
fleet, fovik. 
fleetly, foviko. 
fleetness, vif 
Fleming, Flanan 
Flemish, fiandmk. 
flesh, mid, mit 
fleshly, midaMk. 
fleshy, midiV., marik. 
flexibility, flegof- 
flexible, ^e^ik. fliiJak. 
flexibleness, flegbi. 
flexion, Jiaka,m. 
flexure, bob. 
flier, ftigel. 
flight, fug, kuv, tlup. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



'285 



fling, jed. 

fling, jed'on, Jiapon. 
flinger, iedel. 
flirt, luZofton. 
flirt, lufoftel. 
flirtation, lu/oft. 
flirting, Inlob. 
flit, fug^u. 

flittermouse, flitamujr. 
float, nehdn, fumia. 
floater, fluminel. 
flock, tlup, jep. 
flock, konleton. 
flog, Jiapon. 
flood, nebdn, flum. 
flood, tui'a^on. 
floor, glvtn. 
floor, ^Zunon. 
flooring, glunam. 
floral, flolik. 
floret, folil. 
florid,, fedik. 
flour, meil. 
flourish, floloTi. 
flow, tmndan. 
flow, flumon. 
flower, flol, Jlolei. 
flower, flolovL. 
flowerage, floleva.. 
floweret, j^o/il. 
fluency, flumaX. 
fluent, _^«wialik. 
fluid, /umlik. 
fluidity, Aumoi. 
fluidize, lumaa. 
fluidness, Jinmbi. 
flush, karmk.. 
flush, neze.«Mdik. 
fluster, txispidsmi. 
flute, flut, feif. 
flute, flvtoji, /ez/on. 
fluter, Jlutel. 
flutist, fvtel. 



flux, rur. 

fly, flitaS. 

fly, flilSji, fugbn. 

flyer, jugel. 

flying, flitik, veKk. 

foal, sraajeval. 

foam, skom. 

foam, sfcojnon. 

foaming, stomik. 

fob, fuf. 

fob, cuion. 

fodder, hinulud. 

fodder, lunuterfSn. 

fodderer, lunuterfel. 

foe, ne/Zen.- 

fog, fog. 

fogginess, fogbi. 

foggy, fogik. 

foible, flb. 

foil, vikodbn. 

foiler, vikodA. 

foin, jok 

foin, jokbn. 

fold, plif, jep. 

fold, plifbn. 

folder, plif A. 

folding, plif. 

foliage, 6Mem, iad. 

folk, pop. 

follow, suton, seton, zitbTi, pa- 

kludbTi.. 
follower, zfipel, s«iel. 
folly, stup. 
foment, stigbn. 
fomenter, stigA. 
fond, bei«ifcalik, leio/ik, leteeftk. 
fond, leZo/on. 
fondness, letorf. 
food, zib. 
fool, fop. 
fool, /bpik. 
fool, /bpon. 
foolery, /open, cog. 



28t) 



GRAMMAR 01' VOLAPuK. 



foolisli, ybpik. 

foolishly, fopliko. 

foolishness, /open. 

foot, ftit- 

foot, futeloji. 

foot, ffit 

footprint, fata,mdk. 

footstep, step. 

footway, futela^veg. 

fop, fop. 

foppery, magifen, fopen. 

foppish, fopik. 

foppishly, jfo^iko. 

foppishness, fopen. 

for, a, dem, bi, al,3fi,plo,ple,fo. 

forbear, oiton, ston'oii. 

forbearance, vit, wiiam, suf&l. 

forbearer, vitel, stonel. 

forbearing, vitik, su/'alik. 

forbearingly, viiiko. 

forbid, neleton. 

forbidding, neleiaxa. 

force, nam, mekHiA., 

force, mefcadbn. 

forceful, \egletik. 

fercer, mefcadel. 

forcible, namik. 

forcibleness, ndmoi. 

forcibly, namiko. 

ford, dngonon. 

fordable, Augonik. 

fordableness, dngon'oi. 

fore, pe. 

forebode, plofetcna. 

forebodement, plofetara. 

foreboder, plofetel. 

foreboding, plo/'etik. 

forecast, kaut. 

forefinger, jona^raed. 

foreign, seZanik, fogimk. 

foreigner, se/anel. 

foreignness, foginbi. 

foreman, \wcif. 



forenoon, bixendel. 

foresay, pl'dfeton. 

forest, fot. 

forest, foton. 

foretell, pldfeiUn. 

foreteller, plofetel. 

forfeit, pan. 

forfeiture, pan 

forge, ZeZOn, dobon. 

forger, dohel. 

forger}', dob&ra. 

forget, f'dgetbn, 

forgetful, fSgetik. 

forgetfulness, fbgetoi. 

forging, dobumik. 

forgive, iegivon, {dgivon. 

forgiver, fe^a'wel, fo^rroel. 

forgiveness, iegio, iogiv. 

fork, fok. 

forlorn, peteyol, demk. 

form, fom, f6m. 

form, /omon, magiin. 

formal, /omlik. 

formality, /omlof. 

formalize, /omon. 

formally, /omliko 

formation, ^omam. 

former, fomel, hi/'ik, elsik biifik, 

vonik, 
formerly, vono, uoniko, elso. 
formidable, jekik. 
formidableness, /eHk5f. 
formidably, yefciko. 
formula, fomiXl. 
forsake, Zwon. 
forsaken, peKubl. 
forsooth, vo ! v6 ! velatiko ! 
forsv^ear, fenesjon. 
forsvfearer, fenestel. 
forte-piano ; pianofoA. 
forth, mofo, fSi. 
fortieth, folsid. 
fortifiable, Jhnik, 



GBAMMAlt OF VOLAPUK. 



287 



fortification,^mam. Tostenudaxa. 

fortifier, fimel. 

fortify, JimQn, valiidon 

fortitude, kin, lanim, nam 

fortress, Jimodi.. 

fortuitous, zjftk. 

fortuitously, zidko. 

fortunate, labih. 

fortunately, Idbo. 

fortune, lab. 

fortune, Idboa, zitbn. 

forty, fols. 

forward, fSdm, bi'mon, gonon, 

lUsedHn. 
forward, zifik, fovik. 
forward, hived, foi. 
forwarder, fodel, ftoreel, ^onel. 
forwarding, liiserfam. 
forwardness, fovng. 
forwards, hivedol /oyo! 
fosterer, nuliidel. 
foul, stenik, miotik, ciitlik. 
foul, steniin, mioton, 
foul, stenoi. 

foully, s^eniko, miodko. 
found, stabon, /iinSn. 
fovmd, g if on. 

foundation, fiin, stab, stabm. 
founder, gife\, stabel, fiinel. 
foundery, gifen. 
foundling, tuvsib. 
fountain, fon, _/'onad. 
four, fol. 
fourfold, folik. 
fourteen, haisefol. 
fourteenth, balse/oKd. 
fourth, folid. 
fourthly, foliio. 
fourthpart, iddil. 
fowl, bodem. 
fowler, bodel- 
fowling, bod&ra. 
fox, foxaf. 



foxlike, foxaf\k.. 
foxy, \vivisedik, kdfik. 
fraction, dilareum 
fractional, dilant«?sik. 
fractious, dikodi^, zanik. 
fractiously, zano, dikodo. 
fractionsness, zanoi. 
fracture, blek. 
fracture, blekon. 
fragile , bleldik, 
fragility, blekoi. 
fragment, dil. 
fragrance, vdpoi. 
fragrant, uapik. 
frail, blelak, uanik. 
frame, fom, flem. 
frame, /?em6n, fomon. 
framed, ^emik. 
framing, flemaxa. 
frank, libik. 
France, Flent. 
frantic, nesj'aOTik. 
fraternal, blodik. 
fraternally, blodiko. 
fraternity, blodloi. 
fraternization, blod&va. 
fraternize, blodon. 
fraternizer, Model. 
fraud, ciit 
fraudful, ciidk. 
fraudulence, ciit. 
fraudulent, ctidk. 
free, libik, livik. 
free, libon. 

freedom, liv, livum, lib. 
freely, libo, livo, 
freeness, lib, libauzV. 
freezable, flodk. 
freeze, flodon, floton. 
freezing-point, flota-piin. 
freight, fled, 
freighter, fledel. 
French, Jlendk, 



288 



GBAMMAU OF VOLAPUK. 



Frenchify, flenton. 
Frequence, denu&m. 
frequency, denu&ia.. 
frequent, rfemdik, alaipik, 
amik. 

frenquently, ofen, inoda.&. 

fresh, flifTk. 

freshen, fiifon. 

fresly, flifo. 

freshness, flif. 

fret, fem. 

fretful, lezMnik. 

Friday, flirfeZ. 

friend, flen. 

friendliness, fieivsl. 

friendly, /?emk. 

friendship, flermg. 

frigate, fligat. 

fright, jek. 

frighten, jekm, de^ZepSn. 

frightful, /eAik. 

frightfully, /eHko. 

frightfulness, jekoi. 

friged, TcalodTi.. 

frigidity, TcalodsX, kalod. 

frigidly, kalodi\o. 

frigidness, kalod, kalod?\. 

friskal, bun. 
friskful, yof'A 
friskiness, yof. 
frisky, yofo. 
frivolity, /ezVal. 
frivolous, ZetValik. 
frivolously, Zgz'^aliko. 
frivolousness, leitM.. 
frizzle, 'eZelBn. 
frizzier, 'eZel. 
fro, ge. 
frock, gun. 
frolic, lenep«MC?ik. 
frolicsome, lenepeuiiik. 
frolicsomeness, lenepuerfug. 
from, se, de, sis. 



front, fo. 

frontier, mied. 

frost, flod. 

frostily, flodiko. 

frosty, flo^Jik. 

froth, skom. 

ft'othy, skornXk.. 

frounce, pli/on. 

frowardness, ziidal. 

ft'ozen, ^orik. 

fructuous, /etik, /lukik. 

frugal, kauiik, mafik. 

frugality, ma/ot. 

fruit, fluk; 

fruterer, flukenel. 

fruitery, fluken. 

ft-uitful, flukik. 

fruitfully, fluko. 

fruitfullness, fet. 

fruition, juit. 

fruitlessness, r\e/et, -neflnkot^ 

fruit-tree,- fluka&im. 

frustrate, vanon, citiin. 

frustration, c«i!am. 

ft-y, jep, tlup, kiim. 

fry, loet'dn.. 
fuel, filasio/. 
fugacious, Taelevelik. 
fugaciousness, vif. 
fugacity, vif. 
fugitive, /uc/el. 
fulfil, le/uZon, diunon. 
fulflUer, le/i«el, dmnel. 
fulfilment, le/wZam, duin, duin^ 

am. 
full, frdik. 
fully, lefulo. 
fulminant, tikol. 
fulminate, t'dton. 
fulminating, totik. 
fulmination, tdta,m.. 
fulness, ful. 
fulsome, naudik. 



GRAMMAW OF VOLAPtlK. 



289 



Msomely, naudiko. 
fiilsomeness, naudot. 
fame, stom, w>.t. 
fan, bof, drol, cog. 
fanction, cal. 
functional, calik. 
functionally, cafiko. 
fanctionary, calel. 
fnndament, stab, stabin. 
fundamental, siaiik. 
funeral, sepanu. 
funnel, cim. 
fhnnily, 60/0. 
fanny, cogiik, 60/ik. 
far, plad. 
furious, vutJk. 
furiously, vuto, jmriko. 
fariousness, vutof. 
furnace, fon. 
furnish, mobon. 
furnished, mo6ik. 



furnisher, moiel. 
furniture, mohs. 
furrow, felad. 
furrow, feladoji. 
farrowed, feladik. 
furry, vieKk. 
farther, fcllo. 
fuj-ther, fodon. 
furtherance, fod, /dda.ui. 
furtherer, fbdel. 
fiirthest, fagikiiii. 
fury, vut, tikai. 
fuse, gi/en, smeton. 
fusible, smetik. 
fvisil, smerik. 
fusion, smetajn. 
fuss, hoset 
future, fiiden. 
future, ftidik, wonik. 
futurity, fiiden. 
fy! fi! 



G. 



gab, \apukaa.. 
gabble, lupjiifcot, hipuken. 
gabble, Xxxpiikon. 
gabbler, \apukA. 
gabbling, lupaiik, 
gad, stip. 
gadder, glibe\. 
gage, pan. 
gager, panA. 
gain, vob, pofiid. 
gain, po/adon, d3.geton. 
gain, «o6on, melitSn 
gainable, po/iidik:. 
gained, pepo/Brfol. 
gainer, vobel, pdfiidel, 
gainful, pd/iidik. 
gainfully, pofiidiko. 
gainfalness, pofiidoi. 



gaining, po/iidik. 
gainsay, ta,piik6n. 
gainsayer, tupukel. 
gainsaying, tapa'Hk. 
gairish, t/of ik. 
gairiskness, gal&l, yofSl. 
gait, gol, ^oZab. 
galacy, galaxiit. 
gale, vienH. 
Galician, galizamk. 
gall, bilod. 
gall, badug. 

gallant, 6a/6lik, galanik. 
gallantly, ^ratoniko. 
gallery, galif. 
galvanic, galvanik. 
galvanism, galvanim. 
galvanist, galvanel. 

19 



290 



eRA-MMAB OP VOLAPUK. 



galvanize, galvanon. 
galvanized, galvamk. 
gamble, lupWon. 
gambler, lupWel. 
gambling, lupleden. 
game, foet, 
gaming, foetol. 
gander, gan. 
gang, goldn 
gaol, fantib. 
gaol, faniih'on. 
gaoler, faniibA. 
gap, gap. 

gape, manifon mud. 
gaper, luZo^el. 
gaping, gap. 
garb, klodnA. 
garden, gad. 
garden, gadon. 
gardener, gadel. 
gardening, gaden. 
gargle, gugiin. 
garment, klod&i. 
garmented, klodih. 
garnish, dek. 
gas, gasin. 
gaseous, gasirak. 
gash, kot.^ 
,gasp, hmatemon. 
gasping, hmatemol. 
gassy, jrastnik. 
gate, leydja. 

gather, lasamon, konleton. 
gatherer, lasamel, honletA. 
gathering, lasam, konlet. 
gaud, dek. 
gay, yofi\. 
gayety, yof. 
gayly, yofo. 
gayness, yof. 
gaze, lufo^on. 
gazing, luio^ik, 
gear, klotsA. plem. 



gem, nobasion. 
gender, gen. 
gender, piilon, faton. 
general, waEkodik. 
general, genal. 
generality, uatem. 
generalize, waZon. 
generalizing, valoi. 
generally, kosbmo. 
generalness, valem.. 
generate, mofaton, mopaZon. 
generation, gen, mo/aiam. 
generator, /a/an. 
generosity, noJal, givot 
generous, no&ik, givofik. 
generously, «o6iko, givoio. 
generousness, «o6al, givoi. 
genial, gemk, nadk. 
genteel, plid\k, plUvs., pliitik. 
genteelly, plitiko, pluto. 
genteelness, pliMi, plut. 
gentility, plut 
gentle, pud\k. 
gentleman, sol, laonel. 
gentlemanlike, soZik. 
gentlemanliness, pliit. 
gentlemanship, pliit. 
gentleness, sof, mol. 
gentlewoman, ji-ftaonel. 
gently, moliV, sofik, dusik. 
gentry, pliit, baon. 
genuine, kaniidik. 
genuinely, kanudiko. 
genuineness, kaniid. 
geographer, to/edel. 
geographic, taleiik. 
greography, taleA. 
geology, tala,Y. 
geometric, geometik. 
geometrically, geometiko, maf- 

avik. 
geometrician, geometel, ma/avel. 
geometry, geomet, ma/av. 



GRAMMAR OF Y0I.4.PUK. 



2f>l 



German, deutel. 
Germanik, deutik.. 
Germany, Deut. 
gesticulate, lepon. 
gesticulation, Zepen. 
gesticulator, lepel. 
get, geion, Aa,get6n. 
get up; sustonon. 
ghost, tikal, Vatikai. 
ghostly, ft"fcalnik. 
giant, gian. 
giantess, ot-gian. 
giantlike, giamk. 
giantship, gianoi. 
giddiness, TielevelQf. 
giddy, nelevelik. 
gift, giv. 
gigantic, ^lanik. 
gigantically, giano. 
gild, golildcm., golinon. 
gilded, yiegolinol. 
gilder, golinel. 
gilding, goUna,ra. ■ 
gipsy, cipsel. 
gird, zon. 
gird, sonon. 
girdle, zon. 
girdle, zonbn. 
girl, vomvl, oi-pul. 
girlish, of-puKk. 
girlishly, of-puHko. 
give, givon. 
given, pegizwol. 
giver, giv&i. 
giving, givam. 
glacial, fiotik. 
glacious, gladiik. 
glad, ^aZik. 
gladden, galon. 
gladdened, pe^rdWl. 
gladly, vilik. 
gladnes, gal. 
glance, nid. 



glare, stalm. 

glass, glat 

glass, gldtik. 

glasshouse, glatasmeien. 

glassy, gldtik 

glazier, gldtel. 

gleam, stal, nidara.. 

gleam, nirfon. 

gleamy, stalik, nidih. 

glee, yof. 

gleeful, yofik. 

glimpse, hilit, lunid. 

glister, nid. 

globe, glop. 

gloom, daeg, dag, glumkl. 

gloomily, jZumaliko. 

gloominess, glumal. 

gloomy, ^Zumalik, dagik. 

glorification, glola,va. 

glorified, -peglolol. 

glorify, glolon. 

glorious, ^ZoZik. 

gloriously, gloliko, glolo. 

gloriousness, glol. 

glory, glol, fam, ZoJiin. 

glory, famon. 

gloss, nid. 

glove, namaZe^. 

glow, glut. 

glo"W, gluton. 

glue, glud. 

glue, gludon. 

gluish, gludik 

glutton, \ufid 

gluttonize, hijidbn. 

gluttony, lu_^rfdf. 

go, goVoTi. 

goat, golad. 

goatish, goladik. 

goatishly, goladiko. 

goatishness, goladsil, hoadSl. 

gobble, lufidon. 

gobbler. Infidel, monalan. 



292 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



God, God. 

goer', ^otel. 

going, (/oZik, goloX. 

gold,' golud (chem:) golin. 

golden, golwdHk.. 

goods, can. 

good, jr,udik. 

good-bye, adyo ! 

goodliness; gudxA.. 

goodly, gudSka. 

goodness, gud. 

goose, gan. 

gooseberry, stigajfi/. 

gorge, gug. 

gorge, lu^iion. 

gorgeous, ^Zoilik, magifHk, volad- 

ik, fcosrik. 
gorgeously, gloKko, magifo. 
gorgeousness, magif. 
gospel, gospel, 
gospeller, gospelel. ' 
gossip, lupukot. 
gossip, lujowfcon. 
gossiper, lupiifcel. 
gossiping, lupflfcam. 
gout, gig. 
gouty, ^i^rik. 
govern, 'govQa, regtin. 
governable, r-«^ik. 
government, gov. 
governor, 5'ouel. 
grab, kipoji, gleipon. 
grace, ben, gon, plittii. 
grace, rfe^on, 6o«6n, gonon. 
graceful, pliii^, plidik. 
gracefully, plito 
gracefulness, pliddi. 
gracious, Jenik, ^tinik. 
graciously, Jeno, gbnii. 
graciousness, g5n, ben, plidbi. 
grade, luen, dinit. 
gradual, sZepnik. 
gradually, siepniko. 



graduate, luenbn. 
graduation, /Sdam,, liiensim.,- 
.OTnamam, 



graft, tuigon. 

grafter, tuigel. 

grafting, tmga,Txi. 

grain, glem. 

grammar, glamat, 

graijnmarian, glamatel. 

grammatic, glamatik. 

grammatically, glamatiko. 

grand, gleAk. 

grand-daugbter, of-luson : ji- 

luson. 
grandeur, glet, magif. 
grand-father, fatel, (mother's,, 

father:) motel. 
grand-mother, ^i-/atel. 
grandness, glet. 
grandson, nekel, sorelil, luson. 
granite, dw fasten, 
grant, dal. 
grant, dalon. 
grape, lieb. 
grasp, gleip. ' 

, grasp, gleipon. 
grass, yeb. 
grassy, yeiik.. 
grate, blemon, nofon. 
grateful, damk. 
gratefully, dano. 
gratefulness, danoi. 
gratification, ^aZodam, \xizsed, 

giv, mesecZam. 
gratiiy, gUlon, Taesedbn. 
gratis, glatik, (ad :) glato. 
gratuity, le^iu. 
gratulate, benouzpon. 
gratulation, benouijpam. 
grave, sep. 
grave, cddik, /e/ik. 
grave, sep5n, gav'6n. 
gravel, glav. 



GRAMMAB or VOLAPUK. 



gravencs*. fef. 

gravitr. vet, vetapun. 

grar. gedik, zeuiUko&k 

grarish. luy«fik, zenaJt'oftb. 

graTiiesi, gel, zenaJcoh 

graze, lialadan. 

grazier, haladel- 

grease, smiT, pin 

grease, snuoon. 

greaseness. stenof. 

greasT. smir'ik. pirdk. mioOk. 

great, gledk. 

greatly, remo. gkSko 

greatness, glet. 

Greece, G^lik. 

greedily, inotialiko. 

greediness, monal. 

greedy, njonalik. 

Greek, glikel. 

Greek, gWak. 

green, glurak. 

greenish, ^ZunUk. la^2nnik 

greenness, glun. 

greens, teb. 

greet., glidoTi. 

greeting, glid. 

grief, glif. 

grieffiol, gli/ik. 

grieTance, nof, glif. 

grieve, glifoa., do/on, ^i«»i6n. 

grievons. doSk., gbamk. 

grievously, doGko. 

grievonsness, glif of. 

grinder, \etut. 

gripe, gleit 

gripe, gleipon. 

groan, 'ag. 

groan, 'agon. 

grocer, tedan, letefel. 

grocery, leiedasD. 

groom, jeixUaji, 

groove, seb. 

grope, lusenon- 



gross, glabik. 

grossly, ^fo&iko. 

grossness, glob. 

grotesque, seletBk. 

grotesqueness, seled. 

ground, glun. 

ground, sialon. 

group, glnp. 

group, glupon. 

grove, lal, fotiL 

grow, glofon. 

grower, glofel. 

growing, glofik. 

growth, glofam. 

grudge, 'et, lesun 

grudge, 'efon. 

grudger, 'efel, 'agel. 

grumble, siu^gon., 

guarantee, garauif. 

guaranty, ^oranon. 

guard, galeva, j'epaxa.. 

guard, j'epoD. jelon. 

guardian, tHiei. 

guardianship, tiief. 

guess, rat. 

gue^ rffton 

guest, lot. 

guidance, duhoi. 

guide, dufcel. 

guide, (iutodon. duiSn, diigon. 

guile, cut. 

gnilefnl, ciDk. 

guilefully, cito. 

guilefolnes, ciHof, 

guilt, deb. 

guilty, debik. 

guise, mod. 

gnlt, \edib, gof. 

gnlfy, lerfjftik. 

gull, cut. trof. 

gulp, lu<Hmou. 

gum, gum. 

gum, bunion 



294 



GEAMMAB OP YOLAPUK. 



gummy, gumi)s.. 
gun, giin. 
gunner, kdnel, 
gunnery, kdnav. 
gunpowder, pur. 
gusb, seiometQn. 
gusty, tepiV. 



ha! a! 

habit, kosom, siidoi. 

habit, Iddon. 

habitable, ld(&. 

habitableness, lodoi. 

habitance, 15d, 

habitant, lodel. 

habitation, lod. 

habitual, kosomik.. 

habitually, kosomo. 

habitualness, kosomoi. 

habituate, kosdmdTO.. 

habituation, kosomam. 

habitude, kSsSm. 

hack, cop. 

hag, oi-magiigel. 

haggard, 'etlik, nepmik, 

haggardly, 'etliko. 

hail, jod. 

hail! san, san5! 

hail, jodon. 

haily, /odik. 

hair, 'el. 

hairbrush, 'elafce/. 

hairlike, 'eZlik, 

hairy, 'efik. 

half, laf, ielAil. 

half, lafik. 

hall, yal, \ecem, cam. 

halloo! lu! 

hallow, sanuk5n, kosekHn. 

halt, stop. 

halt, stopoTo.. 



guzzle, ^fcopon. 
guzzler, kopel. 
gymnasium, 'ka^^nasi'id. 
gymnast, turel. 
gymnastic, tur. 
gyration, zilekag. 



H. 



halter, s^opel. 
halve, lafoji. 
ham, lam. 
hamlet, pagil. 
hammer, fog. 
hammer, fogon. 
hammering, fogik. 
hammerman, fogel. 
hamper, lehdset. 
hand, nam. 
hand, nams, . . . 
handed, raamik. 
handkerchief, nudoi. 
haiidle, 'uk. 
handle, namon. 
handsome, yunnk, plUtik. 
handsomely, pliito, pUdo. 
handsomeness, yumoi, pliit. 
handy, namik. 
hang, lagcrn., lagon. 
hanger, lagel. 
haply, zidik. 

happen, jenon, zidon, ziion. 
happily, Idbo. 
happiness, lab- 
happy, Za6ik. 
harangue, lenpiik. 
harangue, lenpiikon. 
harbour, pof. 
harbour, labolon, po/onJ 
hard, dil/ik. dii . . . . 
harden dilfan. 
hardener, rf«/el. 



GRAJIMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



295 



hardening, diif. 
hardness, diif. 
hardship, fiknl, tob. 
hardy, dafo, kirak. 
hare, liev. 

harehound, lievadog. 
harehunter, lievaua^'el. 
harehunting, lievaj/ag'. 
hark, lii! 
harm, dam, lied, 
harm, dambn. 
harmful, damik, lie£k. 
harmfully, damSs.0. 
harmfolness, ddmoi- 
harmonious, benoionik. 
harmonium, 'amoniim. 
harmony, benoron. 
harmonize, benofonon. 
harness, kurad. 
hamesser, MradA. 
harp, 'ap. 
harp, 'apon. 
harper, 'apel. 
harsh, luedik.. le;efcik. 
harshly, liiediko, globiko. 
harshness, liied, glob, 
harvest, klop. 
harvest, klopoTi. 
harvest-time, klopaii'm. 
haste, spid. 
hasten, spidon. 
hastener, spideh 
haster, spidel. 
hastely, spido. 
hastiness, spidoi, vif. 
hasty, spidik. 
hat, '^at. 
hatch, 'ak, kuv. 
hatchel, dkSn, Memon. 
hatcheler, 'aiel, bkm&l. 
hate, 'et. 
hate, '^eton. 
hateful, 'erik. 



hatefully, 'eiiko. 
hatefulness, 'etoi. 
hater, 'etel. 
hatred, ^et. 
hattor, 'dtel. 
haughtily, pleidko. 
haughtiness, pleit. 
haughty, plei&. 
haunt, holadon. 
haunter, ioladel. 
have, lahon. 
haver, ZaJel. 
havock, distuk. 
havock, distukbn. 
hawk, faon. 
hawk, fdonon. 
hay, sigay«6. 
hazard, veniid. 
hazardous, veniidik. 
hazel, mog. 
hazel-tree, mog. 
he, om. 
head, kap, cif. 
head, dugon, kapon. 
headache, kapac^oZ. 
headdress, 'eZat. 
header, A-apel. 
headlong, kapo. 
headstrong, todalik. 
heady, kapik.. 
heal, sanon. 
healer, sanel. 
healing, san&w.. 
health, saun. 
healthful, saunik. 
healthfully, sauniko. 
healthfulness, saun. 
healthily, saunMko. 
healthy, saunik. 
heap, kum. 
heap, kumon. 
hear, lilon, lelilon. 
hearer, lileh 



296 



BBAMMAR OF VOLAPuK . 



hearing, lilol. 

heart, lad; ker. 

hearted, ladik. 

heartedness, lad&i. 

hearth, filato/). 

heartily, ladiko. 

heartiness, laaal, 

hearty, ladik. 

heat, 'it. 

heat, 'zV8n 

heater, 'itel. 

heath, lufel. 

heathen, cipsel. pagA. 

heathendom, pag. 

heathenish, pagik. 

heathenishly, pag&o. 

heathenishness, pagoi. 

heathenism, ^a^al. 

heathenize, pagon. 

heathy, lu/eZik. 

heave, sutouon. 

heaven, siil, sil. 

heavenly, siiliko. 

heaver, su^oi-el. 

heavily, weriko. 

heaviness, vet. 

heavy, vetik. 

hehrew, 'eSik. 

hector, lu^Zoton. 

hedge, bud. 

hedge, budon. 

hedger, iudel. 

heed, jepon. 

heed, _;epam. 

heedful,' kautik. 

heedfuUy, kautiko. 

heedfulness, kaut. 

heel, taon. 

height, geilug. 

heighten, geil&a., modon. 

heightening, geflam, modaxa.. 

heinous, tadik. 

heinously, hadiko. 



heinousness, badng. 

heir, gelHtel. 

heir, geluton. 

heiress, ^i-gelute\ ; oi-gelutei. 

hell, '81. 

hellish, 'olik. 

hellishly, 'ofiko. 

hellishness, 'oiof. 

help! yuf6\ yu! 

help, yuf. 

help, yuf on. 

helper, yufA. 

helpfal, ^«/ik. 

helpfulness, yufoi. 

helpless, Tx&yuftk. ' 

hem, sim. 

hem, simon. 

hemmed, simik. 

hemp, Jan. 

hempen, jamk. 

hen, 2^-goh. 

hence, de, sis. 

henceforth, fovo. 

henceforward, fovo. 

heptagon, ^A&gul. 

her, o/ik, o/a, o/e, o/i. 

herb, keb, yeb. 

herbal, yebik. 

herbalism, yeb&Y. 

herbalist, yeSavel. 

herd, jep. 

here, ies, is, isit, iso. 

hereby, aJoso. 

hereditary, rmledHk. 

herein, ms, 

hereon, tano. 

heritage, geliit. 

hermit, soatel. 

hermitage, soaZam. 

hermitess, ji-soaZel, of-soatel. 

hermitical, soatelik. 

hero, jamep. 

heroic, jamepVe.. 



GKAMMAR OF VOLAPilK. 



2!«7 



heroically, jamepiko. 

heroine, ^i-jamep, oi-jamep. 

heroism, kiml, j'amepal. 

heroship, jamepug. 

herring-run. 

hers, o/a, o/ik. 

herself, o/bt. 

hesitate, zogon. 

hesitation, zog. 

hew, copon. 

hewed, copik. 

hexagon, mala^uZ. 

hey ! yo I 

hide, skin, skun. 

hide, kldndion. 

hiding, kldnofstva. 

high, geilik. 

highland, ldpa,n, lofSilaned. 

highlander, Idpdnel. 

highly, le»enio, vemo. 

highness, ffeilng. 

hilarous, ^a7ik, yofik. 

hilarity, ^aZal, yof. 

hill, sma,bel. 

hillock, smafeeiil. 

hilliness, smafteZof. 

hilly, smaieZik. 

him, ome; omi. 

himself, iet. 

hind, ji-stag. 

hinder, ueleton. 

hinderance, nefetam, nelet. 

hinge, 'uk. 

hinged, -uHk. 

hint, vineg. 

hint, vinegon, sinifon. 

hip! "^o! 

hip, leun. 

hire, kodnt. 

hire, kodutbn. 

hirer, kodutel. 

his, ofnik, oma. 

historic, jerak. 



historically, j'eno. 

history, jen. 

hither, ali, isi. 

hitherto, juna 

hitherward, ali, iesved. 

hive, hi&aadom. 

ho , "^o. 

hoar, gedik. 

hoarfrost, frod. 

hoarse, nokebatedik. 

hoarsely, nokebaZaHko. 

hoarseness, -nokebaJiid. 

hobble, lu^onon, lu^oZiin. 

hog, svin. 

hoggish, smnik. 

hoist, snzugon. 

hold, kipon, folon. 

holder, kipel. 

hole, 'og. 

holily, saniko 

holiness, sanal. 

Holland, Nedan. 

hollow, ninocog'. 

hollow, ninoBO^k. 

hollowness, ninowo^al, nino- 

vagng. 
holy, sanik. 
home, lom, dom. 
home, domo. 
homeh', dormk, globik. 
honest, snaak, puedik. 
honestly, snatMk. 
honesty, snat, pued. 
honey, miel. 
honour, stim, giimadig. 
honour, stimon, \estimon. 
honourable, stiimik. 
honourableness, lesft'm, snat, 

stimadig. 
honourably, le/amiko. 
honourer, stimel, leatimel. 
honouring, lesft'mol. 
hoof, jeya.la.fut. 



298 



GllAMMAU OV VOLAPUK. 



hook, 'uk, nug. 

hook, nugon. 

hoop, tiihibtan. 

hoop, tiiboTO.. 

hooper, tubel. 

hop, 'op. 

hope, spel. 

hope, spelon. 

hopeful, spelik. 

ho|)efully, spelo. 

hopefulness, speloi. 

hopeless, nespelik. 

hopelessness, nespeloi. 

hoper, spelel. 

hopper, 'opel. 

horizon, 'orit. 

horizontal, 'on'rik. 

horizontality, 'orita,i. 

horizontally, 'onriko. 

horn, "^on, 'on. 

homer, '^iinel. 

hornish, 'onlik. 

horny, '^onik. 

horrible, Jekik. 

horribleness, jehoi. 

horribly, j'eho. 

horrid, /eHk. 

horridly, jeho, jeldVo 

horridness, jehoi. 

horrify, jehdn. 

horror, jek. 

horse, jeval. 

horseman, jevalA, monitel. 

hose, stog. 

hospitable, lotik.' 

hospitably, lotiko. 

hospital, maladop. 

hospitality, lotSbA. 

host, lotel. 

hostress, ji-ZoZel; of-Zo«el. 

hostile, naudik. 

hostilely, naudiko. 

hostility, naud. 



hostler, jevalaja.. 
hot, 'irik. 
hotel, toed, 
hotly, 'zriko. 

hotness, 'z/pf, mekoi, ^i&\. 
hotspnrred, le/opik. 
hough, slief'ati. 
hound, ja,gii.dog. 
hour, diip. 
hourly, diipiko. 
house, dom. 
household, doraakip 
householder, domafcpel. 
housekeeper, domafcipel. 
housekeeping, domafojoam. 
houseless, necfomik. 
hover, aeSon. 
how, dso ; asliko ; lio ? 
however, ab 
how ever, ajlik. 
how-far? kibid. 
howl, hidlen'&a. 
howling, ludlen. 
hubbub, Jco/udaxa, boset. 
huddle, kofud. 
hue, k61. 
huff, zun 
hufBsh, zunik. 
hufBshness, zunof, 2unal. 
huge, legledk, 
hugely, legleto. 
hugeness, \eglet. 
human, menik. 
humane, menalik. 
humanely, menaliko. 
humaneness, menal. 
humanist, 'umanist. 
humanity, menal. 
humanize, menalon. 
humanizer, menalel. 
humanizing, menalik. 
human-kind, menaA, 
humanly, raeniko. 



GRAMMAR Ob' VOLAPuK. 



299 



humble, mtfeik. 
humble, 6apon, mikon, 
humbled, mikcA, hapik. 
humbleness, mik. 
humbler, niikel. 
humbling, 6apam, mikAm, 
humblingly, miko. 
hvimbly, mi'Hik. 
humid, vdtoSk. 
humidity, vatoi. 
humidly, vatofo. 
humidness, vatoi. 
humiliate, mikon. 
humiliating, mikik. 
humiliation, mikit,m 
humility, mik. 
humorous, vimik. 
humorously, vimo. 
humorousnesB, uimoi 
humour, vim, ?a(falod. 
humouralism, yzmal . 
humouraliat, farfalodel, 
humourio, vimik. 
humourism, vimsl. 
humourist, leco^el. 
hrunouristic, eo^ik. 
hunch, jokon. 
hundred, turn, 
hundred-fold, tumik. 
hundredth, temdil. 
hundred-times, tumaSi. 
Hungarian, nuganel. 
Hungary, NugSn. 
hunger, pottit. 
hunger, piituton. 
hungerly, potutol. 
hungrily, potiitik. 
hungry, potieAk. 
hunt, yag. 
hunt, yagan.. 
hunted, yagik. 
hunter, yagA. 
hunting, yagm. 



huntress, T^\-yagA, oi-yagel. 

huntsman, ^a^el. 

hurl, jed. 

hurl, jedon. 

hurler, j'edel. 

hurlyburly, boset. 

hurrah ! hafo ! 

hurricane, le^ep. 

hurried, spidik 

hurrier, spide\. 

hurry, spid. 

hurry, spidHn. 

hurrying, spidol. 

hurryingly, spjfilik. 

hurt, viod. 

hurt, viodbn, dolon. 

hurtful, dolik, damik. 

hurtfully, doliko, dolo, ddmo. 

hurtfulness, damof. 

husband, matel. 

husbandman, /elel, plaudel. 

husbandry, konom. 

hush ! so ! takedo ! piido ! 

hush, stUon. 

husk, jal 

husk, jalon. 

huskiness, nokebaZiirf. 

husky, j'alik 

hussar, 'uael. 

hustle, lemu/oD. 

hut, \adom, smadum 

hutch, meilacet. 

hyacinth, '^Uazint. 

hyena, 'lian. 

hymn, 'um. 

hymn, paanon. 

hymnic, ^aanik. 

hypocrisy, simul. 

hypocrite, simulel. 

hypocritical, simulik, hidevodik. 

hypocritically, simulo. 

hysteric, ^«rik. 

hystery, "^iit. 



800 



GEAMMAU OF VOLAPuK. 



I, ob. 

ice, glad. 

iced, gladol. 

Iceland, Silan. 

ioe-motintain, gladaJeZ, 

icenesa, flod'Sl. 

icy, gtadik. 

idea, dol. 

ideal, doloi. 

idealism, dolsA. 

idealist, ddloiel- 

ideality, ddls,c\.. 

idealization, ddlod&m . 

idealize, dolon. 

idealizer, dolel. 

ideally, dolik. 

idem, leiko. 

idiot, stupel. 

idiotic, stupelik. 

idiotically, siupeliko. 

idiotisli, sta^elik. 

idiotism, 'stup, stupal. 

idle nedudk. 

idle, nedutoa. 

idleness, xiedut. 

idler, nedutel. 

idly, neduto. 

idol, luffod. 

idolater, Ingodel. 

idolatress, ji-lug'ocZel, of-ln^odel. 

idolatrous, Ingodik. 

idolatroiisly, lup'ocZlik 

idolatry, lugodem. 

idolish, lugod. 

idoliam, lu^orfem. 

idolist, In^'oiel. 

idolize, lugodbn. 

idelized, \ugod6\. 

idolizer, lu^orfel, 

if, if. 



ignite, filon. 
ignited, Jil6\. 
ignition, fila,m. 
ignoble, nenoiik. 
ignobleness, nenoSal. 
ignobly, nenoSiko. 
ignominious, /emodik. 
ignominiously, jemodiko. 
ignominy, jemoAQt. 
ignorance, stupal, stopelal. 
ignorant, stvpik- 
ignore, nenoBn. 
in, mcdadik. 
illness, malad. 
illude, ciitoTi. 
illusion, cut, nilud. 
illustrate, maegon. 
illustrated, maegHk. 
illustration, maeg. 
illustrious, daZidk. 
illustriously, Asdito. 
illustriousness, dafe'ial. - 
image, mag. 
imaginable, daZiMk. 
imagination, niludam . 
imaginative, niludik.. 
imagine, niludoxi. 
imitate, Zepon. 
immediate, fovik. 
immediately, /ouiko. 
immediateness, /ot'ikam. 
immense, nemq/lik, ne?ii)mik. 
immensely, ne_^no. 
immenaeness, ne^^n. 
immensity, ne^re. 
immigrant, se^ewel. 
immigrate, seitewon 
immigration, setev. 
imminence, dafeVal. 
imminenoy, daZai^l. 



GBA.MMAB OF VOLAPtiK. 



301 



imminent, da.litik. 
imminently, daZj'/iko. 
immisaion, mnduk. 
immit, nindwKn. 
immobility, jiemuf. 
immoderate, Jiemqfik. 
immoderately, nema/iko. 
immoderateness, nemafoi. 
immodest, nepuedik. 
immodestly, nepuecSko. 
immodesty, Tiepued. 
immolate, vitimbn. 
immolation, vitimSiX 
immoral, iZzmik, nesatV/lik. 
immorality, nesafeflof. 
immorally, nesKdliko. 
immortal, nerfet'Zik. 
immortality, lasdeiloi. 
immortalization, tenaZam, 
immortalize, tenalan. 
immortally, nedeiliko. 
immovability, 'nsmuf. 
immovable, nemi«/ik. 
immovably, nemtjA). 
impart, dalon, gevon. 
impartial, nepa/erik. 
impartiality, nepaZeiSf. 
impatience, Ta&sufad. 
impatient, nesii/arfik. 
impatiently, nesu/arfiko. 
impel, mo/on, stigbn. 
impeller, mo/A. 
imperative, JaicZelik. 
imperceptible, neZo^ik. 
imperceptibleness, n&logoi. 
imperfect, neZe/uZik. 
imperfection, nele/iiL 
imperfectly, nele/uliko. 
imperfectness, neleful. 
imperfect tense, patiip. 
imperial, limepik. 
imperialist, limepel. 
imperiality, limepSl. 



imperially, limepiko. 
impersonal, neposodik. 
impersonality, neposoiiof. 
impertinence, bol6t, ne;m6f. 
impertinent, bolotik, neyemik, 
impertinently, bolotiko, nejem- 

iko. 
impetuosity, tepa.1. 
impetuous, tepik. 
implement, pliem. 
implicate, kosiadon. 
implication, kosiad 
imply, nmou, kludon. 
import, nmsed. 
import, eiasedon. 
importable, ninsetZik. 
importance, nited, veiit, cad. 
important, nitedik, carfik. 
importation, runsed. 
importer, ninsedel. 
impose, snseiton. 
impossibility, nemo^'. 
impossible, nemo^ik. 
impossibly, nerao^'iko. 
impost, toZad. 
impostor, ciitel. 
imposture, ciit. 
impotent, nemeHk, nevaliidik. 
impracticability, neplag. 
impracticable, nepZa^rik. 
imprecate, kodem'on. 
imprecation, kodem, kodemnm.. 
impress, mak. 
impression, ninped. 
imprison, m.nkik'6n, famibbn. 
imprisoned, fanuiik. 
improper, dobik, nekuladik. 
improperly, Tuekuladiko. 
improvability, menodbi. 
improvable, menodik, 
improve, menodon. 
improvement, gudikunia,jn, 

menod, vob. 



302 



GRAMMA-B OF YOLAPUK. 



improver, menodel. 
imprudence, nelcaut. 
imprudent, nefcawdk. 
imprudently, nekauiiko. 
impudence, ne/em8f, bolot. 
impudent, ne;emik, bolotik. 
impudently, ne;6miko, boloto. 
impulse, jok.- 
impulse, stigiin. 
impulsion, mof. 
impulsive, niofik. 
impure, iiepuedik, midaliV. 
impurely, midSAo. 
impureness, midSul, nepued, 
impurity, nepued, midal. 
impiirple, pupunon. 
impurpled, pupunik. 
imputation, kusad, blam. 
impute, kusadon, hlamon. 
imputer, kusadel, Mamel. 
in, in, ino, nin .... 
incapability, ne/ag; 
incapable, ■ne/dgik. 
incidence, zid. 
incident, zid. 
incite, stigoji. 
incitement, stigal. 
incivility, nekuliv, gloVal. 
inclinable, kliemk, meugik. 
inclination, klien, /efcam meug, 

slop, 
incline, slopiin. 
inclose, ninfciton, budon. 
inclosed, pezfimol. 
inclosure, ziim. 
include, nmofbn, mnlabiin, nin- 

6n. 
inclusion, nmam. 
inclusive, nine, nmik, 
income, lemesed. 
inconstancy, neleveloi. 
inconstant, nelevelik. 
inconvenience, nekoven. 



inconvenient, nekotienik. 
incorporate, klubon. 
incorporation, klubsaoa. 
incorrect, Taekuladik. 
incorrectness, nekulad. 
increase, mddam. 
increase, mdd'dn. 
indecency, nelepBt. 
indecent, nelepotik. 
indecently, neleporiko. 
indeed, velatiko, vo, v6! 
indefinite, ne/amik. 
indefinitely, ne/iimiko. 
indeflniteness, uefiim. 
indemnification, giiv. 
indemnify, giivon. 
indemnity, nedam. 
independence, itoi. 
independency, itoi. 
independent, idk. 
independently, idko. 
index, ntnbi. 
India, Mdan. 
Indian,. niddneX. 
Indian, nidanik 
indicate, lasigon. 
indication, lasig. 
indicative, lasigik. 
indicator, lasigel. 
indiflference, lindif. 
indifferent, lindifik. 
indifferently, Undifo. 
indigence, pbf, def, nelab. 
indigent, po/ik. 
indignant, lezunik. 
indignation, \ezun. 
indignity, slan. 
indirect, mgf^amik. 
indirectly, medamiko. 
individual, si6«nel. 
idividuality, aibinelof. 
individualization, siftinelam. 
individualize, sibinelon. 



GRAMMAE OF VOLAPUK. 



803 



induce, monedon. 
inducement, kodei. 
induct, sfiZamon. 
induction, sft'tam, klud&ia. 
indulge, dalbn, divodon. 
indulgence, divod, yil. 
indulgent, yUik, dal&. 
indulgently, yiliko. divod&o. 
industrial, dustodik.. 
industrialism, dustodajn. 
industrially, dustotfiko, vobo. 
industrious, dustodik, zzVik. 
industriously, dustrodiko, voho. 
industry, zil, dustod. 
ineri;, ^/o5ik. 
inertness; glob 
infallibility, nepoL 
infallible, nepiitik. 
infellibly, nepoHko. 
infamous, yewiodik 
infamously, /emodiko. 
infancy, cilug. 
infant, cil. 
infantine, cs'iik. 
infantry, futels. 
infect, lupofcon. 
infected, lupafcik. 
infection, lupafe. 
infectious, lupakik. 
infectiously, lupaHko. 
infectiousness, lupafeal. 
infective, lupaHk. 
infer, kludoa. 
inferable, hludSk. 
inference, fcZutZam. 
inferior, lonedA. 
inferior, lu(o). 
inferiority, lub. 
infernal, 'ofik. 
infertile, ne^uHk, ne/e&k. 
infertility, nefet. 
infidel, ne_^«fik. 
infidelity, nefied. 



infinite, ne^nik. 
infinitely, ne/fno. 
infiniteness. nefin. 
infinitive, aubsataijf/, 
infinitivelj', Jie/t'mi>. 
infinity, ne^n. 
infirm, _fihih, lusaunik. 
infirmary, malado]). 
infirmity, fib, lusoun. 
infirmly, ^6iko. 
infirmness, fib, ^6al. 
inflame, "^it, iiedon. 
inflamed, '^it, iiediTa. 
inflammation, ^iVam, Jiedam. 
inflect, dieklinbn. 
inflection, ieklin. 
influence, flun 
influencer, flunA. 
influential, ^unik. 
inform, nunodon, nunon, tidoa. 
information, nunod,kusad tida,m . 
informer, nunodel. 
ingenious, daiuwik. 
ingeniously, datayiko. 
ingeniousness, ia,tuva.\. 
ingenuity, da(uwal. 
ingenuous, kaniidik. 
ingenuously, kaniido. 
ingenuousness, kaniid. 
ingraft, miipon, mnpedon. 
ingrafted, mup&. 
ingrafter, mwpel. 
ingraftment, mup. 
ingratitude, nerfanof. 
inhabit, lodQji 
inhabitable, lodik 
inhabitant, lodei, Tunlodel. 
inhabited, lodik. 
inhabiter, lodel. 
inhabitress, ji-Zoflfel, oi-ldde\. 
inhalation, ninnatem. 
inhale, ninnafemon. 
inhaler, ninnatemel. 



S04 



GUAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



inberit, gelUton.. 

inheritance, gelut. 

inheritor, geliitiV. 

inheritress, oi-geliitA \ ji-f/eWiel. 

inhuman, nemenik. 

inhumanity, liemer&l. 

inhumanly, neroeniko. 

inhume, sepon. 

inimical, ioelik, ne/?ereik. 

inimioally, iaeliko, nefleno. 

iniquit;^, necod. 

inject, nindufcon. 

injection, idnduk. 

injure, no/on, ddmon. 

injured, no/ik, ddmi^. 

injury, nof, no/am, damSLB\, 

injustice, necoc?. 

ink, nig 

inky, nigiTs.. 

inland, ninte'nik. 

inlander, mnl/inel. 

inlay, nmseitbu.. 

inlayer, ninseiYel. 

inlaying, ninsez'rik. 

inlet, mitlid. 

inmate, keninZorfel. 

inn, labot, lotop, 

inner, iino, ino. 

innermost, Unedik. 

innkeeper, lotel. 

innocence, nedeb. 

innocent, nedebik. 

innocently, nerfeJiko. 

innumerable, nenumik. 

innumerably, nenwmiko. 

innumerous, nerau??iik. 

inoculate, miipon. 

inoculation, miip. 

inoculator, mupel. 

inquest, xam. 

inquietude, tahedal. 

inquire, sakon, vestigon. 

inquirer, A&vestigei, sakei. 



inquiring, iciMk. 
inquiringly, saHko. 
inquiry, AsMestig, sak, 
insane, /opik. 
insanity, /opal, 
inscribe, lonedbn. 
inscription, tiad. 
insect, sok. 
insensibility, nesenof. 
insensible, nesenik. 
insensibly, nese»iiko. 
inseparable, neteilik.. 
inseparableness, neteilot. 
inseparably, -aeteiliko. 
inside, mo. 
insight, lesev. 

insignificance, neveUi, puloi. 
insignificant, neveiitik, pilloSk... 
insiped, nelanimik. 
insipidity, nelanim. 
insolence, ne;'emof, bolot. 
insolent ne/«mik, ioto'tik. 
insolently, ne/emiko, holotiko. 
inspect, beto^on, mmon. 
inspection, beZo^am, .TO'mani 

xam. 
inspective, a;dmik. 
inspector, xamel. 
inspectorship, a-amad. 
inspiration, ninnoiemam. 
inspire, ninnaJemon, lanimmi. 
inspired, Zanik, ■pelanimol. 
inspirer, tajiel. 
inspiring, Zaraik, beZi/ik. 
inspirit, fanSn, tomm6n,beZ^6n.. 
instance, dinad, pot. 
instant, timil. 
instantaneous, foviho. 
instantaneously, fovilco. 
instantly, foviko. 
instead, pla. 
instigate, stigQn. 
instigation, stiggjn. 



GRAJOIAB. OF VOIAPiiK. 



305 



instinctively, ne»«iiko. 
institute, stitaxaon. 
Institute, stid, kanas2u2. 
institution, stit, stitaxa.. 
institution, stitajnel, tide\. 
instruct, ttdon. 
instructer, ^el. 
instruction, tid, tidajin. 
instructor, tide\. 
instructress, of-a"del, ji-tidel. 
instrument, stum, 
instrumental, stumik. 
instnuuentallj, ^tumiko. 
insufficiency, ne«af. 
insufficient, nesodk. 
insufficiently, nesadko. 
insular, nisidel. 
insult, no/on. 
insult, nof. 
insultation, no/am. 
insulting, »o/ik. 
insnltinglj, nofiko. 
insurance, se/am. 
insure, sefon. 
insured, sefik. 
insurer, sefel. 
integer, lol. 
int^ral, lolik. 
int^rity, kaniid. 
intellect, kapal, lisan. 
intellection, sae-ma\. suem, su- 

emaA. 
intellectual, /isanik, kapdlik. 
intelligence, ifcapaliip. 
intelligent, iopalik. 
intelligently, kajj&liko, kap&lo. 
intelligibility, ifcapalnof. 
intelligible, iopalnik. 
intend, zeilon, diseinaa nUudon. 
intendedly, nolo, nolQlo. 
intense, mefcofik, l^feftk. 
intensely, mekbSko, leghto. 
intenseness, meJcaA, mekoi. 



intent, desan. 

intention, desan, desin. niludmn. 
intently, nolo, nololo. 
inter, «e/)5n. 
intercede, medim. 
intereeder, medel. 
intercession, ploBOtZ. 
intercessor, plojjuifcel. 
intercourse, tuged, 
interdict, sefcz/bam. 
interdiction, sekik&m. 
interest, fien, nited. 
interested, riitedlik.. 
interesting, nitedik. 
interestingly, nitediko. 
interfere, medon. 
interference, medaxa. 
interfering, medSl, 
interior, linedi'k. 
interjection, lintelek. 
internal, linedik. 
internally, Unedo, ino. 
international, bevunerik. 
interpose, medon. 
interposed, medol. 
interposition, med, medani. 
interpret, lovepoZon. 
interpretation, lovepoZam. 
interpreter, lovepotel. 
interrogate, xamdn. sakon. 
interrogation, sak. 
interrogative, :$a2dk. 
interrogative, saka/om, sakai/ti. 
interrogatively, saHko. 
interrogater, saiel. 
interrogatory, saka/bm. 
interrupt, nelet'on. 
interruption, neZefam. 
interval, paud. 
intervene, medon. 
intervening, medik. 
intervention, medajn. 
interventor, medel. 

20 



aos 



GRAMMAB OF VOLAl'UK. 



intimacy, konfiAoi. 
intimate, konfidiik 
intimate, ladlik. 
intimately, ladliho. 
intimation, lemun, notod. 
into, ini. 

intolerable, nesu/ik. 
intolerableness, nesu/of. 
intolerably, nesw/iko. 
intolerance, nesu/, nesii/am. 
intolerant, nestf/ik. 
intoleration, nest«/am. 
intomb, sepon. 
intonate, to'^on. 
intonation, tofam. 
intoxicated, (^Zmadik. 
intransitive, nedeklinik. 
intrepii, Jdrak, fcmalik. 
intrepidity, fc?nal. 
intricate, -pekosiadi^. 
intricately, pefcosiarfiko. 
introduce, ninrfufc5n, ninsecilon. 
introducer, mndukel. 
introduction, uinduk, nintfofcam. 
introductive, uindukik. 
introductively, ninrfuHko. 
intrude, sndlanQa. 
intruder, andlanel. 
intrusion, audlan. 
intrusive, andlanik. 
intrisuvely, andlaniko. 
intrusiveness, sndlanoL 
intrust, lenfcon^don. 
intrusted, l&aMonfidol. 
inundate, tuuaJon. 
inundated, tuuatik. 
inundation, tnvat. 
inutile, nepo/wrfik. 
inutility, nepofiid. 
invaluable, nelerftuik, 
invaluably, nelerfu'O. 
invariable, newodik. 
invariably, newodiko, 



invent, daZuwon, daft'fcon. 
invention, da,tuv, daiuuam. 
inventive, datowik, daij'Hk. 
inventively, datowiko. 
inventiveness, datowal. 
inventor, dafauel, &a,tikA. 
inventory, ventem. 
inventress, of-daiwuel, of-daft'M. 
inverse, vota^«Hk. 
inversion, vota;?efcam. 
invert, vota^eKn. 
inverted, vota/?eHk. 
invest, lin^mon. 
investigate, xamon, daivestigon. 
investigation, xam, aramam, 

isivestig. 
investigator, xamA, A9.vestigel. 
invincible, neuitodik. 
invincibleness, nevikodoi. 
invincibly, newftodiko. 
invisible, neto^'ik. 
invisibleness, neZo^of. 
invitation^ vud, rairfam. 
invite, viidon. 
invited, peuurfol. 
inviting, vUdik.. 
invooate, lenwofcon. 
invocation, lenwofc, lenjwJtani. 
involuntarily, nelibauzftko. 
in voluntariness, ne\iha,vil. 
involuntary, nelibausZik. 
involution, komplig. 
involve, kampligon. 
involved, -pekosiadih. 
involvement, kompliga.m.. 
inward, ini, Unediii. 
Ireland, RUan. 
Irish, rilamk. 
Irishman, rilanel. 
iron, lei. 
iron, lelik. 
irony, fco/en. 
irradiant, stalik. 



GRAJIMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



307 



irradiate, stolon. 

irradiation, steiam. 

irregular, nenomoma/ik. 

irregularity, nenomoma/of. 

irregularly, nomomq/'iko. 

irrigate, vatbn, lumon, vatoion. 

irrigation, yatam. 

irritate, stigon. 

irritation, stig, stigAva. 

irritatire. sZijyik. 

is, binoa. binom., binon, binoi, 

Islam, slam. 

Islamism, slamvig. 

Islamite, slamel. 

Islamitic, s?amik. 

Islamize. slamoa. 

island, nisul. 



islander, nisulel. 
isle, nisul. 
isolate, detiilbn. 
isolated, detulih. 
isolatedly, dettiliko, detiilo. 
isolation, detulsLin. 
issue, pub, sefl'tuam. 
issue, Anleton. 
it, os; osi; atos, os-a^ 
Italian, talel. 
Italian, <a7ik. 
Italianize, talon. 
Italy, Tal. 
itself, otos, os-Bt. 
ivory, nel/anbg. 
ivory, nel/anogik. 



jabber, Inpukot. 
jabber. Inpukba. 
jabberer, lup«fcel. 
jabbering, lup(>Hk. 
.Jack, I'o-anil. 
jacket, gunil. 
jade bapbn. mikba. 
jam, konsef. 
jam, ^erfon. 
•lanuary-Tanul. 
.lapan, Tapan. 
Japanese, yapdnel. 
.Japanese, yopanik. 
jar, ken. 
jargon, pern, 
jeer, Jrofen. 
jeer, kq/bn. 
jeerer, ^o/el. 
jerk, flap. 

jerk, flapba, Inpiikbn. 
jest, fe>/en. 
jest, ko/bn. 
jester, km/el. 



jestfal, ko/iV. 

jesting, ko/i]L. 

jet, vatastoi'. 

Jew, j'udel. 

jewel, nobaston. 

jewelled, nobasionik. 

jeweller, nBbastonel. 

jewelry, noba.sions. 

Jewess, oi-yudel, ]i-yudA. 

Jewish, yurfik. 

Jewry, yud. 

job, vob. 

jobber, vobel. 

John, Yo'^an. 

Johnny, Yo'^anil. 

join, feianon. 

joinder, klub, Wu6am. 

joiner, labsl, cemel. 

joinery, taben, 

joint, snob. 

joint, fetonon, klubbn, balbn, 

bo fan. 
joke, cog. 



308 



GUAMMAB, or VOLAPUK. 



joke, cogoTu. 

joker, coge\. 

joking, cogik. 

jokingly, cojriko. 

jole-cig. 

joUiness, yof. 

jolly, yofik. 

jolt, jok. 

jolting, joMk. 

journalist, penelgasedik. 

journey, tav, ^Swil, tiid. 

journey, ttivon, taviloti, tud'on, 

jovial, yo/ik. 

jovialness, yo/dl, yof, gdl&\. 

jovially, yo/o. 

jovialty, yo/al, yof, gdla\. 

joy, gal. 

joy, gdlQn, gdlolnQn. 

joyful, gdlik. 

joyfully, galo. 

joyfulness, gal. 

joyous, giilik, 

jubilate, yuhim. 

jubilation, yiab. 

jubilee, yuhwp. 

judge, ciidel 

judge, cdrfon, corfofon. 

judgeship, cdda.cal, cddel&caL 

judgment, kaut, yusit. 

judicial, kautils., codelik. 

judicious, kautik, corfelik. 



judiciously, kau&o, corfelo>. 

judiciousness, kaut. 

jug, ken. 

juggle, ciitoTi. 

juggler, pofcan. 

July, yulul. 

jumble, pern. 

jump, bun. 

jump, bunbn. 

jumper, hunei. 

junction, klub&m. 

juncture, fcZuJam. 

June, yunul. 



jurist, gita,Yel, yusitel. 

juror, yulacodoiel. 

jury, yulacodiii. 

just, it. 

just, gidh., codik. 

justice, yusit, codiik. 

jvisticeship, yusitskcal, cdda,cat^ 

<:dde\s,cal. 
justifiable, cotifik. 
justification, gitskm. 
justifler, gitel. 
justify, giton, codHn. 
justle, /ofcam. 
jut, klaton. 
juvenije, yunlik. 
juvenileness, ywnal. 
juvenility, ^uraal. 



K. 



keen,, ieidk. 
keenly, heidko, heilo. 
keenness,. ieitSl. 
keep, kip'6n. 
keeper, kipel. 
keeping, kip. 
kettle, caf. 
key, kik. 



keybole, kikn'og. 
kick, jok, 
kick, Jokon. 
kicker, jokel. 
kid, ji-goladil. 
■biill, funon. 
killer, funeh 
killing, /unal. 



GRiMMAE OF VOLAPUK. 



3<:y 



kilogram, jnifflam. 
kiloliter, milidt. 
kilometer, mUmet. 
kin, Ufasa. gen. 
kind, sot. bid. 
Und, /fenik. 
kindly, pUSk.. feniV. 
kindness, JUnoi. 
king. reg. 

kingdom, re^kinan. 
kingly, re^ik. 
kiss. kid. 
kiss, kidoa. 
kisser, kidA. 
kissing, tuien. 
kitchen, kak. 
kitten, Jradl. 
knave. gUbA, luntan. 
knavery, jap. 



knavish, japik, glibeMik.. 

knavishly, japiko, Ininaniko 

knavishness, jap, japal. 

knee, kien. 

kneel, Jttenon. 

knife, neif. 

knight, montiel. 

knit, stogon. 

knotting, stog. 

knock, flap, nok. 

knock, flapon, jwkoD. 

knocker, fiapeV, nokei. 

knot, snob. 

knot, snohoTX. 

knotty, snoKk.. 

know, n«/on. 

knowledge, nol. 

known, nodk, peseoik. 

knulF, fop. 



la, ekol eko. 

labefy, fib in 

labial, mudskdiRk.. 

laborious, voKk.. 

laboriously, so&iko, voho. 

laborioosness, t^unof. 

labour, vob. 

labour. »o65n. 

labourer, vohA. 

labouring. !;o&ik. 

lace, tan, tiep. 

laced, fiepik. 

lacerate, dimuZon. 

lack, def. 

lack, defon, dofon, dafcJon, 

jielabon. 
lad, pnl 

ladder, xanafri'm 
ladle, kup. 
lady, lad. 



lag, latikun. 
lagger, zogel. 
lake, lak. 
lamb, liam. 
lame, sti/ik. 
lamely, sti/o. 
lameness, stif. 
lament, '^ag. 
lament, 'agon, 
lamentable, pi£k. 
lamentation, ^ag. 
lamenter, "^agel. 
lamenting, 'agik. 
lamp, litapol. 
lance, sped, 
lancer, spedel. 
land, 1-an; laned. 
land, Idnon. 
landing, lanam. 
lane, lal. 



310 



GUAMMAK OF VOLAPUK. 



language, puk. 

language-teacher, puka^jifel. 

languisli, lewip, 

languish, leuipon. 

languor, nedut. 

lantern, lit&sdv. 

lap. Turn. 

lapse, fal. 

lard, TpvoSjinit. 

larded, pinam««61. 

lardy, pinamztik. 

large, gletik.. 

largely, gleA)sio. 

largeness, glet. 

lascivious, lenepeudik. 

lasciviously, lenejyeudiko. 

lasciviousness, lenepeurfug. 

lash, flap. 

lasher, flapel. 

lass, jjoniul, of-pul. 

lassitude, fen. 

last, ladk. 

last, liulon, ledulQn. 

lasting, ai. 

lastly, Kriko, Zarikiimo, lato. 

last-night, araezVo 

late, latik. 

lateness,' lat. 

lathe, tunataJ. 

lather, skom. 

latin, latin. ' 

latitude, Tpovaffeilng, vid. 

latter, latikiin. 

laud, lob. 

laudable, loblik. 

laudableness, ZoHikam. 

laudably, Zoftliko. 

laugh, smilon. 

laughable, smilik. 

laughableness, smil&i. 

laughably, smiliko. 

laugher, smilel. 

laughter, smil. 



laundress, of-ra/ukel. 

lava, lav. 

lavr, Ion. 

lawful, lonik. 

lawfully, ' Zoniko- 

lawfulness, Zonal. 

lawless, neZonik. 

lawlessness, noZon(al).. 

lawyer, lonel, 

lay, seiton. 

lay, no^on. 

layer, nogel. 

laying, seitik. 

lazaret, lazet. 

lazily, neduto. 

laziness, nedut 

lazy, nedtirik. 

lead, plum, plumin. 

lead, dug, dugaxn, duk, (iafcum. 

lead, dugSn. 

leaden, plumik. 

leader, dugel. 

leading, dugol. 

leaf, bled, blog. 

leafy, blogi^s.. 

league, fed. 

leagued, fediTs.. 

leaguer, /edei. 

leak, voad. 

leak, voadik. 

leak, voadiin. 

leakage, voad. 

leakiness, voad. 

leaky, voadik. 

lean, nepznik. . 

leanness, nepin, nejo/cn. 

leap, gon. 

leap, gonba. 

leaper, ^onel. 

leap-year, yel del&B 3 6 ft. 

learn, lenadon, tidBn. 

learned, TpetidQl. 

learner, lenadel. 



GTIAMM-VR OF VOLAPUK. 



311 



learning, tidaj. tid&m. 
lease, kodut. 
lease, Icodutbn. 
least, luan. 
leather, skit. 
leathern, skitik. 
leathery, sMlik. 
leave, luv, lumxa, dal. 
leave, letxm, luvon. 
lector, liladel. 
lecture, lilad. 
lectnie, liladun. 
lecturer, liladel. 
leech, gib. 

left. pe/aTOl, nedeto, nedeftio, 
ne(2e2aliko, necferit, nedet&iik. 
left-handed, ne<ie&lik. 
lefthandedness, nedet&i. 
1^, fat..' 
legal, 2onik. 
l^ality, lonaxa. 
l^ally, foniko. 
l^end, riar, lusag. 
legitnnacy, leg. 
Intimate, Ze^ik. 
legitimate, legon. 
legitimation, legam. 
leisure, ituiip. 
lend, lu^tifon. 
lender, Injytpel. 
lending, In^ipik. 
length, loned. 
lengthen, lonedon. 
lengthening, lonedasa.. 
length-wise, lonedo. 
lent, cun. 
less, ln{o). 
lessen, 2undn. 
let, leton. 
let, kSduton. 

letten, pened, penoi; tonah. 
level, kam, plen. 
level, ta/n on. 



levelled, fc«mik. 

leveller, tamel. 

levelling, leigoju. 

levelness, leig. 

levity, leitjUL 

le-wd, nepue(fik. 

lewdly, nepuedo. 

lewdness, aepued. 

liar, neveladel. 

liberal, ^jiofik. 

liberality, givof. 

liberally, givoio. 

liberty, lib. 

library, bukatofef. 

librate, caion. 

librate, vebon. 

libration, veb. 

license, dab. 

licenser, rfaJel. 

lie, nevelad, 

lie, seist&n. 

lie, neveladon. 

liege, \esol. 

lieutenant, liotan. 

life, lif, nedeil. 

life-assurance, Zi/'ase/am. 

lifeless, aelifik. 

lifelessly, nefa/iko. 

lifelessness, neli/oi. 

lift, iovon, sutocon. 

lifter, to»el. 

light, lit. 

light, Ziiik, leitik. 

light, litm. 

lighted, zak. 

lighten, leZiZon. 

lightening, leZi'^ol. 

lighter, litel. 

lightly, ne/iiuto. 

lightness, lit, nefiJcul, leit. 

lightning, lelit. 

like, as, asZzt, iiso. 

like, lofon. 



312 



GRAMMAE 01' VOIjAPUK. 



like, leigik. 

likelihood, hivelat, sm&velat. 

likelinesa, leigai. 

likely, Invelatik. 

likeness, leigui. 

likewise, lAko, leigo. 

liking, plid, plit. 

lily, liaf. 

limb, lim. 

lime, glud. 

lime, gludon.. 

limit, mied. 

limit, miedon. 

limitation, mieddtm.. 

limiter, miedel. 

limy, glitdik.. 

line, lien. 

linear, lienih. 

linen, liab. 

linger, iezogon. 

lingerer, ' trof . 

lingering, nevifik. 

lingeringly, nevi/iko. 

lining, Aisostof. 

link, flamadi. 

lion, lein. 

lip, mudsidil. 

lipped, va.uda,ditik. 

liquefy, 'smeSBn (iron), smoton 

(snow), 
liqiiid, flumSlik. 
liquidity, fiumoi. 
liquidness. flum^i. 
liquor, dlin, filaum. 
list. Used, 
list, desid&nx. 
listen, lielon. 
listener, lielel. 
listening, liel, adj : lielik. 
litany, litanen. 
literal, vodik, 
literally, vodSko. 
literator, literatel. 



literature, literat. 

lithograph., stona6»ten. 

lithogropher, stonaftaifei. 

lithographic, stona6«Hk. 

lithography, stonaMfcen. 

little, nemocfik, smalik, 

littleness, smal. 

liturgic, Uturik. 

liturgist, liturel. 

liturgy, litur. 

live, fe/ik, fo/lik. 

live, Uf'on, lodon. 

iivelihood, kosit. 

liveliness, lifoi, yof. 

livelong, lonedoSk. 

lively, lifiik, yo/ik. 

liver, Ufel. 

liver, foap. 

livery, bliin, bliina,m., liver. 

living, lodol, siedik, /j/ik. 

living, kosit. 

lizard, lagat. 

Lloyd, leud. 

lo, eko! 

loa,d, lod. 

load, lodon. 

loaded, lodik, lodol. 

loading, lodol. 

loaf, laib.j 

loam, tain. 

loam, iainik. 

loamy, tainik 

loan, lugiv. 

loan, Ingiv'dn 

loath, '^enk, naudik. 

loathe, ^eion, naud6n. 

loathful, '^erik, naudik. 

loathingly, '^edko. 

loathsome, "^eilik. 

loathsomely, "^efliko. 

loathsomeness, '^etoi. 

lobby, leysin. 

local, topik, pladik, spadik. 



GRAMMAR 01 VOLAl'iJK. 



313 



localism, topot. 

locality, topiif. 

localization, iopofam. 

localize, topon. 

locally, topiko. 

locate, pZadon, top'dn, iokodtitba. 

location, plad^ia. ' 

loch, lak. 

lock, kikaxQ.. 

lock, kikaa. 

looker, kikA. 

locket, kikJl. 

locksmithy-fcjien. 

locomotive, le?ra«/". 

lodge, lahoton. 

lodger, mnlodA. 

lodging, labotaia. 

lodgment, labot, loto^. 

loft, stok. 

lofldly, pleido, subimo. 

loftiness, gleto6(rf, pleid. 

lofty, subimik, pleidik. 

logarithm, logarit. 

logarithmetic, logaritik. 

logarithmetically, logarito. 

logic, tikaN. 

logical, ft'Aavik. 

logically, ft'fcavo. 

logician, ft'feivel. 

loin, leun. 

loiter, zogon. 

loiterer, zo^el. 

loitering, zog. 

loiteringly, zo^'ik 

lombardkeeper, ^anan. 

London, Londen. 

Londoner, loTidenxsX. 

lone, soaZik, leftaSk. 

loneliness, soal. 

lonely, soaHko. 

loneness, soal. 

lonesome, soaHk. 

lonesomely, soaHko. 



lonesomeness, soal. 

long, lone(&. 

long, desidoB., Jiagbn. 

longer, lonediknm. 

longest, lonedikun. 

longing, desida,m., flag, deman. 

longish, lonedlik. 

longitude, loned. 

longness loned. 

look, Zo^ed. 

look, To^edon, logon. 

look ! eko ! 

looking-glass, lok. 

loom, luntVfon. 

loon, glibel 

loose, livit. 

loose, livbn. 

loosely, livo. 

loosen, livon. 

loosened, livol. 

looseness, liv. 

Lord, lesol. 

lordly, lesolik. 

lose, poltidon. 

loser, poludel. 

loss, poind. 

lost, poliidik. 

lot, diloA. 

lottery, loter. 

loud, kleilik. 

loudly, kleiliko. 

loudness, kleil. 

lounge, laspat, lugolsA. 

lounge, Ing'oten. 

lounger, ]xigolel. 

lounging, lu^oZam. 

louse, puf. 

lousy, pu/ik. 

love, lof, ladal. 

love, Idfoji. 

loved, peZo/ik. 

loveliness, kein, Ibtskdig. 

lovelv, keinik. 



814 



GRAMJIAU OF VOLAPUK. 



lover, lo/al, ladaX. 

lovingly, lofadigik. 

lovingness, I'df&dig. 

low, ne^«»7ik; ftopik. 

lower, ne^ei/tim, iie</ei7ikuin. 

lower, Amxletoa.. 

lowering, donZ«am, donief. 

lowermost, nejrgjffin. 

lowest, ne(/ee7ikun, negeilxoi. 

lowliness, bap. 

lowly, hapik. 

lowness, negeil. 

loyal, iiedVs.. 

loyalist, jiedA. 

loyalty, fied. , 

lozenge, karam. 

lubberly, glohW. 

lubricate, sfereon, lum'dn. 

lubrication, stensxn. 

lubricator, /umel. 

Ivicid, hliKk, litSk. 

lucidity, klil. 

luoidness, klil. 

luck. lab. 

luckily, Icibo. 

luckiness, ldh'6i. 

luckless, neteiik. 

lucklessly,, neWfeo. 

lucklesness, neteiof. 

lucky, Zatik. 

ludicrous, cZroHk, 66/ik. 

ludicrously, droliko, h'dfo. 

ludicrousness, bdf'of, drol, io/a\. 

lug, lil. 

luggage, pakerci. 

luggage-van, oun&vah. 

lugubrious, gliimik. 

lugubriously, gliimo. 

lukewarm, lindi/ik. 

lukewarmly, lindifo. 

lukewarmness, lindif. 

lukewarm th, lindif. 

lull, stilon. 



luminous, Kzik. 
luminously, lito. 
Iviminousness, liti 
lump, dil. 

lumpishly, diliko, globo. 
lumpishness, glob. ■ 
lunar, munik. 
lunch, \efid, 
luncheon, YefidVi. 
lung, lug. 
lure, bata,r/&. 
lurid, /unik. 
luring, iarik. 
lurk, ifton. 
lurker, tefcel. 
lurking, lulak. 
Iviscions, naudVs.. 
lusciously, naudiVo. 
lusoiousness, naudoi. 
lust, yof. - 
lust, yof on. 
luster, yo/&\, yof'i.\. 
lustfull, yo/ik. 
lustfully, 2/0/0. 
lustfulness, yofoi. 
lustily, yo/iko. 
lustiness, yofoi. 
lusting, i/o/'ik. 
lustre, nid. 
lustrous, mdik. 
lustruously, nzdiko, niVio. 
lusty, ,^o/ik. 
lute, zlit, lir. 
luter, zzi'tel. 
Lutheran, luteran. 
luxuriance, luxamQi. 
luxuriant, toamlik. 
luxuriantly, feamliko. 
luxuriate, liixamoTO.. 
luxurious, luxamliV. 
luxuriously, lilxamo. 
luxuriousness, Uixamoi. 
luxury, liixam. 



GRATlIJlAll or VOLAPiiK. 



315 



Lydia, Liidia. 
L3-dian, liidiamk. 
lying, neveladaxa 
lying, seit; sei^tik (adj). 



lynx, luxaf. 
lyre, lir. 
lyric, lirik. 
lyrist, lirel. 



M. 



macaroni, makar. 
macaronic, mnfcarik. 
macerate, nepienbn. 
macerafed, nepienik. 
maceration, nepienam. 
machinal, anik. 
machinate, anon, 
machination, cj'nani, 
machinator, cinel. 
machine, cin. 
machinery, cinif. 
machinist, cman. 
mad, lefupik. 
madden, le/b/jon 
maddened, le/qp6l. 
maddening, lefopils. 
mad-house, fopadom. 
madl}', /opik. 
madman, fop. 
madness, \efopug. 
ma^zine, canama^arf. 
magian, magtigel. 
magic, magiig. 
magistracy, magitam.. 
magistrate, magit. 
magnanimity, faVial. 
magnanimOTis, kinalik. 
magnanimously, fcinaliko. 
magnesia, magin. 
magnet, maget. 
magnetic, magetik. 
magnetism, maget&l. 
magnetist, magetel. 
magnetization, maget&m. 
magnetize, mageton. 



magnetized, magelik. 
magnetizer, magetel. 
magnetizing, magetiil. 
magnific, magifik, glolik.^ 
magnification, magifiaa. 
magnificence, magif. 
magnificent, magi/ik^ 
magnificently, magif'6. 

glolo ! 
magnifier, mag if el.. 
magnify, magi/on. 
magnitude, glet. 
mahometan, slamel. 
mahometanism, slam, 
mahometanize, slamon. 
maid, of-d«nel, vomnl. 
maiden, uomul. 
maidenly, i-omiiliko. 
maim, ddmon. 
maimed, ddm'ol. 
main, gle . . . 
main, le . . . 

mainly, lepatiko, Icjjalo. 
maintain, namon. 
maintainable, namik. 
maintainer, namel. 
maintenance, nam&ra, 
maiz, klen. 
majestic, mayedik. 
majestically, mayediko. 
majesticness, mayedmn. 
majesty, mayed. 
major, mayor, 
majority, modag. 
make, mek. 



816 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUk. 



make, mekon. 
maker, mekel. 
making, mekol. 
malady, malad. 
male, manik. 
malevolence, "^et. 
malevolent, ^crik. 
malevolently, "^eriko. 
malice, "^et 
malicious, '^erik. 
malicionsly, "^efiko. 
maliciousness, '^eiof. 
malign, '^etik. 

malignant, '^eti'k, "^erfik, ''olik. 
malignantly, "^eriko, "^ojiko. 
malignity, "^et. 
malt, malet. 
malt, maleton. 
man, man, men. 
manacle, jdnon. 
manage, ci/on, dugoa. 
management, rfufcam. 
manager, cif, dugel. 
mandate, bud. 
mane, nokeba.'^el. 
man-eater, menafidA. 
manful, manalik. 
manfully, manaliko. 
manfulness, manal. 
manger, rip 
manifest, not&di. 
manifest, mam/amon. 
manifestation, manj/ofam. 
manifested, manifik.. 
manifestly, manifo, Wpofiko. 
manifestness, mani/'oi. 
manifold, manifod. 
mankind, meraad. 
nianlines.9, menal. 
manly, m«nik, manik. 
manner, mod. 
mannerly, modik. 
manners, mods. 



mannish, manik, lanimik. 

mantle, maned. 

manufactory, namat, 

manufacture, namat. 

manufactured, ipefahliidol. 

manufacturer, faililddih. 

manure, don. 

manure, pinon. 

manured, pepmol. 

manuring, pinik. 

many, modik. 

map, kad, kaed. 

marble, mab. 

marble, mabik. 

marbled, peraa661. 

marbly, maftlik, 

march, mazul. 

march, malek, malekiim ; maj ! 

majo ! 
march, malekoa. 
marching, malekol. 
mare, ]i-jeval. 
margin, flan, flanaraoted. 
margin, flanUn, /lanopenou.. 
marginal, flananotedik. 
margenally, flananofedo. 
marine, mSl. 
marine, melik, mela, . . . 
mariner, melun, melel. 
maritime, mela, . . , melik. 
mark, mak. 
mark, mak'6n 
marker, markel, md/cel. 
market, malit. 
marketing, malitstm., 
marmot, mam. 
marriage, mat 
marriageable, madk. 
married, pemafokol, pema«6l. 
marrow, ker. 
marrowbone, kerahom. 
marrowiah, kerik. 
marrowy, fcerik. 



GRAMMAR OF TOLAPuK. 



31'; 



marry, mafokon. 
marry, matbn. 
marsh, \alak. 
marshal, majal. 
marshy, luZa/kik. 
martial, kligik 
martially, klig&o. 
martyr, mar, maturel. 
martyrdom, matur. 
marvel, milag. 
marvellous, milagik. 
marvellously, milago. 
marvellonsness, milagnot. 
masculine, monik. 
mash, mail, 
mashed, /einol. mailol. 
mashing, mailol. 
mashy, maUik. 
mask, masek. 
mask, masekou, 
masked, masekiV. 
masker, masekel. 
masking, tnasekSl. 
mason, nwnel. 
masonic, monelit. 
mass, lemod. 
massacre molod. 
massacre, moloddn. 
massacred, pemotodol. 
massiness, masiv. 
massive, mos/idk. 
massively, masivo. 
mast, nafa.him. 
master, masel. 
master, maselm. 
masterkey, glefaX-. 
masterless. nemaseZik. 
masterly, maxefiko. 
mastership maSele^. 
mastery, maselef. 
masty, Tia/abimik. 
match, filab. 
match, pal. 



match, palon. 
mate, keo/el, kecoiel. 
mate, palon 
material, stof. 
material, matenk. 
materialism, stofal. 
materialist, stof A. 
materialistic, sto/elik. 
materiality, sto/am. 
matelialize, stofou. 
maternal, morik, ji-/arik. 
maternally, mo/iko, moto. 
mathematie, ^/e(avik. 
mathematically, ghta.riko. 
mathematicion, ^toavel. 
mathematics, glelav. 
matrimonial, marik. 
matrimonially, matO; matiko. 
matrimonions, morik. 
matrimony, mat. 
matron, ji-matel. 
matronal, ji-matelik. 
matronize, ji-matel6n. 
matronly, ji-matelik. 
matter, stof. 
mattress, mad. 
mature, macGik. 
mature, madon. 
matured, matSk. 
matured, pemodol. 
maturely, madiko, mado. 
matureness, mad. 
maturity, mad. 
maul, le/og. 
maxim, lenom. 
maximum, iemtm. 
May, mayul. 
may, mayula. 
may, dalon, magon. 
mayor, mayor, si/el. 
mayoralty, si/elacal. 
mayoress, ji-si/el. 
maze, koftid. 



318 



GllAMMAll or VOLAPiiK. 



maze, kofudon. 
mazilj', /q/i(rfiko. 
. maziness, ko/udof. 
maz3", kofudik. 
meadow, meid, biilad, flub, 
meadower, meidel, fluhel. 
madowy, meidik, flubili. 
meagre, nepinik, 
meagrely, nepino. 
meagreness, nepin, nepten. 
meal, meil. 
meal, le/irf. 
mealmonger, meilel. 
mealy, meilik. 
mean, glihik, ffogik. 
mean, diametik. 
mean, niludon. 
jneaning, mludaum. 
meaningly, nolo, pleso. 
meanly, bapiko, hapo, gago, 

gagiko. 
meanness, bap. 
means, meda. 
measles, rujip(s). 
measly, rvfipik. 
measurable, )?io/lik. 
measurableness, ma/ioi. 
measurably, mafliko, 
measure, maf. 
measure, mafon. 
measured, pema/61. 
measvu-ement, ma/ani. 
measurer, mafel. 
measuring, tno/ik. 
meat, jnit. 
mechanic, einik. 
meclianical, cinik. 
mechanically, ciniko. 
mechanician , cinii fel . 
mechanics, cmiif. 
mechanism, cj'nufim. 
mechanist, cf'nufel. 
medal, tonad. 



medallet, /conadil. 
medallic, fconadik. 
medallion, kon&d. 
meddle, Mftamon. 
meddler, ioftamel. 
meddlesome, tobik, <o6amik. 
meddling, tobnia. 
median, diametik. 
mediate, diametik. 
mediate, medou, 
mediaiion, med&m.. 
mediator, medel. 
medical, medinik. 
medically, merfiniko. 
medicament, medin. 
m edicate-?n«din6n . 
medicinal, merfinik. 
medicinally, merfiniko. 
medicine, medin. 

meditate, siienon. 
meditation, saenam. 

meditative, sUenik. 

meditatively, siieno, stieniko. 

mediterranean, ZenodameZ, 

medium, zenod\k. 

meed, le^i'uot. 

meek, meiladik, molik. so/ik, 
rfwsik, 

meeken, meiladon, miidon. 

meekly, meiladiko, meilado. 

meekness, sof, mo, me'ilad&l, 
meilad. 

meet, kofcomon. 

meet, gebik, pofiidik. 

meeting, kofco'm. 

melancholic, ^it«malik. 

melancholy, glumixl. 

^ellovy, mSdik, miiedik, madik. 

mellowness, mad, mol, sof, 
melodik. 

melodious, beno^nnik, benoionSe. 

melodiously, beno?ono,me?orfiko. 

melodiousness, beno<on. 



GK.AMMAH. OF VOLAPiiK. 



319 



melody, hexLOton, melod. 
melon, meet, 
melt, stnoton, sineton. 
melted, smorik, smerik. 
member, lim, kopaual. 
membered, limik. 
membership, kopanef. 
memorable, memik. 
memorableness, tnemot 
memoramdum, notedabtihik. 
memorial, mebamoi. 
memorialist, begel. 
memorialize, 6e^6n. 
memorize, memon. 
memory, mem. 
men, mens, 
menace, tad, fada,m.. 
menace, tadon. 
mend, menodtin. 
mended, pemejiorfol. 
mender, menodel. 
mending, menodik. 
menstrual, vamuHk. 
mensiu'ability, ma/lof. 
mensurable, ?n«/"lik. 
mensuration, mafam. 
mental, IcapSMk. 
mentally, sidmo. 
mention, noton. 
mercantile, iedik. 
merchandise, can. 
merchant, tedel. 
merciful, ke/ierfik, benik, misal- 

adik. 
mercifully, beno, misalado. 
mercifulness, benoi, misalad. 
merciless, neftenik, nemisala£k. 
mercilessly, nefteno. 
mercilessness, ne&en, neftenof. 
mercury, kegin. 
mercy, ke/ierf, ben, misalad. 
mere, te, to. 
merely, te, to. 



merge, rfison. 
meridian, zendel. 
merge, disiin. 
meridian, zenrfe^ 
meridian, tipun, lopiin. 
merit, melid. 
merit, melidon. 
merited, -pemelidb] . 
meritorious, melidik. 
meritoriously, melido, 
meritoriousness, melid'6i. 
merrily, yofo, ffdliko. 
merriment, yof, gal. 
merriness, yof, gal. 
merry, J/o/ik, gdlik. 
mesh, mail, 
meshy, mailik. 
mess, zib; por, 
message, nun. 
messenger, nunal, nunel. 
Messiah, Mesial, 
metal, metal, 
metallic, meialik. 
metallist, metalan. 
metallization, metaleu, 
metallize, metalon. 
meter, mafel. 
method, mod. 
methodic, modik. 
methodically, morfika. 
mettle, kinal. 
metre, met. 
mew, sma/aniib. 
mew, mnJcikon; yunon. 
mewing, yunol. 
middle, zenod, med. 
midnight, zeneit. 
mid-noon, zendel. 
midwife, yufauom. 
midwiferj', yufa,vom2tcal. 
might, valud, mekaA. 
mightily, valiido, mcfcado. 
mightiness, valudoi. 



320 



GllAMMAR 01' YOLAPUK. 



miglity, mekik, waKciik. 
migrate, se^euon. 
migration, sefeuam. 
milch, milig'6\, miligils.. 
mild, ^i7ik, meiladik. 
mildly, yilils.0, meilado. 
mildness, meilad, meiladal. 
mile, leil. 
military, solat. 
military, militik, militeiaik.. 
militate, kligon. 
militia, militem.. 
milk, milig. 
milk, miligon. 
milker, miligel. 
milking, miligol. 
milkmaid, ot-miligel. 
milky, miligik. 
milky-way, galaxut. 
mill, mfil, 
mill, milon. 
milled, miilik, ■pemillol. 
miller, miilel. 
milliard, 6aHad. 
milligram, \iglam. 
millilitre, liliat. 
millimeter, lim^^ 
milliner, ot-moladel 
millinery, oi-moladelncal. 
milling, miilol. 
million, 6oHou. 
millionaire, ia/ional. 
millionary, JaZionik. 
millionth, iaZionid. 
mind, siam. 
mind, kiipon. 
minded, meu^ik. 
mindedneas, meiig. 
mindful, memik. 
mindfully, memiko. 
mindfulness,, memai. 
minding, memik. 
mine, o?rik, o6a. 



mine, munasei, piir. 
miner, munaseftel, pJirA. 
mineral, min. 
mineral, mimk. 
mineralogic, nimavik. 
mineralogically, miraaviko^ 
mineralogist, mj'navel. 
mineralogy, mtnav. 
mingle, migan. 
mingled, migol. 
minimum, joalikiin. 
mining, mein. 
minion, lofsh. 
minister, dunaX. 
minister, predA. 
minister, lucKnbn. 
ministerial; djinalik. 
ministerially, aimalo. 
minor, lu(o): smaZikiim(o)^ 
minority, lub. 
mint, kon. 
mint, ionon. 
mintage, /conam. 
minter, honeX. 
minute, minut. 
minute, smalmk, nosik. 
minutely, minutik. 
minutely, noso, smahnko. 
minuteness, nonof, smalnof^ 
miracle, milag 
miraculous, milagik. 
miraculously, milagiko. 
miraculousness, milag'H. 
mire, slam. 
mire, fum. 



miriness, 
mirror, lok. 
mirth, yof. 
mirthful, yq/ik. 
mirthfully, yofo. 
mirthfulness, J/o/W, gdl^, 
miry, sliimik. 
misadventure, lied, neliib. 



GBAMMAE OF VOLAPuK. 



521 



mischief, nesan, nelab. 

mischief-finaker, nesaneL 

naschievous, nesanik. 

mischievoosly, nesano. 

mischievonsiiess, hadag. 

misconduct, iiet<^5ii, nekodoton. 

misdeed, lesin. 

miser, fnl, njonalan. 

miserable, picBk, misalik. 

miserableness, misalof. 

miserably, tmsalo. 

misery, migal 

misfortime, neZaft. 

mishap, neZoft. 

mishappen, nela^n. 

mishmash, pem. 

miss, lad. 

miss, mL 

miss, nefucon. 

mission, \ssed, le«e^m. 

missionary, pesedel. 

mist, iog. 

mist, fogon. 

mistake, pok. 

mistake, i^logaa, polmn. 

mister, sol. 

mistily, Instomo, fogiko. 

mistiness, fog. 

mistress, lad, ot-masel, ji-masel. 

mistrost, mikonfid. 

mistrust, mikonfidon. 

misty, fogik. 

misunderstand, miil:apalon. 

misunderstanding, mJjkapalub. 

misuse, mi^e&on. 

misused, mi^eUk. 

misuser, mi^eftel' 

mitigant, muSk, meilcuSk. 

mitigate, mu^n, meHadon. 

mitigated, pe»>u<^l. 

mitigation, madam, meilad, 

meiladaxa. 
mitigative, mtufik, meiZfwfik. 



mitre, bijopa'^oi. 

mis, migon. 

mixed, miyik. 

mixedly, ;je»ilik. 

mixer, migei. 

mixture, mig; pem. 

moan, '^ag. 

moan, '^agon. 

moat, sop. 

moat, sopbn. 

mob, Inpop. 

mobbish, lupopik. 

mobile, inu/ik. 

mobility, tmtfot. 

mock. kof. 

mock, kof on. 

mocker, ifco/el. 

mockery, kofen. 

mode, mo2ad. 

model, fomfA. 

model, fomoM.. 

modeller, fomA. 

modelling, /omam. 

moderate, ma/ik. 

moderate, maf^akan. 

moderately, mq/'lik. 

moderateness, mafoi. 

moderation, mafksa, mafod, 

jna/odam. 
moderator, ma/el, ma/odel. 
modem, moladik. 
modernization, moladsisi. 
modernize, moladaa. 
modernized, molcuEk. 
modemizer, moladA. 
modest, miikik, sUJak. 
modestly, mukiko, SK</Iik. 
modesty, muk; siidoi. 
modifiable, votik. 
modification, vot, i-oftm, eein, 

ceinaza. 
modified, worik, ce/nik. 
modifier, moladel, voiel, ceinel. 

21 



322 



aRAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



modify, moladon, voton, iemtoa, 
ceinou. ^ 

modiah, mola(£k. 
modishly, molado. 
modishneaa, molad&suk molac^oi, 
modiste, oi-moladei. 
Mohammedism, slam, 
moist, uaiofik. 
moisten, famon, vatoion. 
moistness, vatoi. 
moisture, I'n^of, to/il. 
mole, moafdam, pof^idam. 
mole, moafon. 
molest, tomon, holadon. 
taolestation, tom. 
m.ollify, leiton, meiladbn. 
moment, timil, veiit. 
momentarily, foviko. 
momentary, blefimo. 
momentous, veiitik, . nitedik. 
momentously, veiitiko. 
momentousneas, veutof. 
momentum, mof. 
monarch, monakei. 
monarchal, monakik. 
monarchy, monak. 
monastery, kleud. 
Monday, mundel. 
monde, vol. 
money, mon. 
moneyed, liegik. 
monger, selel. 
monk, rorfel. 
monkey, lep. 
monkish, lepik. 
monogram, monogam. 
monopolist, monopA. 
monopolize, monop'dn. 
monopoly, monop. 
monster, lumm. 
monstrosity, jeJc&i. 
monstrous, j'eMk. 
monatrously, jekiko, j'eklik. 



monstrousness, j'ekoi. 

month, mul. 

monthly, a mul, muliko, va- 

muHko. 
monument, mebama/. 
monumental, mebamatik. 
monumentally, mebamaSko, 
mood, ladSl. 
moodiness, todal. 
moody, todalik, 
moon, mun. 
moonshine, Jnuna,lit. 
moor, lutefc. 
moor, morel, 
moorish, luZafcik. 
moorish, morik. 
moory, lutofcik. 
moot, disputim. 
mooted, -g&disputoi. 
mooter, dispute. 
mope, trof. 
mopish, dlimik. 
mopishness, dtimal. 
moral, suda.\. 
moralist, s«!<?avel. 
morality, si(d\o{. 
moralize, sarfavon, siidoJi. 
moralizer, suda,\e\. 
moralizing, siid?mk. 
morally, sadliko. 
morals, suda. 
morass, Inlak. 
Moravia, Maran. 
Moravian, mdranel. 
Moravian, maranik. 
Mordacity, 6e?Val. 
mordant, beitik. 
more, plu. 
morning, godel. 
morose, todSlik. 
morosely, todaliko. 
moroseness, todal. 
morrow, morfeto. . 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



323 



morsel, beitH. 

mortal, /ynlik, deilik. 

mortal, menik. 

mortalitr. deilot. 

mortallj-, fuTiiiko. 

mo£5, licep. 

mossinesj. licepoi. 

mossj-, licepik.. 

mc^, ciotfikun. 

mostly, plu ; o/enuno, moefikuno. 

mote, ^mofil pifil. 

mother, mot. 

mother's. molA. 

motherhood, mo&\. 

motber-in-la-w, lumot, lumot. 

motherliness, mo&l. 

motherly, motik, (ji-/a/ik). 

motion, mnf, mob. 

motioB, mohoD. 

motive, mob. 

motJTity. mof. 

mofeto, j^t. piked. 

monld, fomod, fom. 

monld, yomon. 

moulder, fomel. 

moult, yunon. 

monltuig, yuned. 

mount, bel. 

m^onnt. xanoa. 

moantain, bel. 

mountamons. helik. 

mounted, p^femol, pepiomol. 

mounting, xdned. 

monntlet, belH. 

mourn, Ixgbn- 

mourner, ligel. 

moamful, puEk, glutmk.. 

monznfblly, puEko, glumo. 

moumfolness, lugot. 

mourning, 'ag, lug. 

mouse, mug. 

mouse, mugon. 

mouth, mud. 



mcntbed, mudik. 
movable, mu/^ik. 
movableness. mufoi. 
movables, mchs. 
move, mufon 
movement, mr.t. 
mover, mufti. 
much, m«<fiko, modo. 
mud, slam, 
mud, slamon. 

muddied, pe^te'mol, sfdmik. 
muddily, slamo, slenik, mictiko. 
muddiness, sten, miot. 
muddle, kofudzxa. 
muddy, sldnak. 
mule, mucu/t. 
muleteer, mucul:el. 
mulish, mucuitik. 
multiple, mWnik. 
multiples, mani^bdik. 
mnliiplicate, maru/bdik. 
multiplication, maiu/bdam. 
multiplicator, manifoAA. 
multipUeity, manifoA.. 
multiplied, pem/zni/bdol. 
multiplier, manifoitl. 
multiply, manifcAoia. 
multitude, mod. 
mummy, mum. 
munition, fimod. 
murder, molod. 
murder, molodon. 
murdered, penioY<K/ol. 
murderer, molodel. 
murdere8agi-nwfo(fel,of-»i5torfel . 
murderous, molodik. 
murderously, molod\ik. 
murmur, mur. 
murmur, tmlrou. 
murmuring, murol. 
murmuringly, miinko. 
muse, musof. 
muse, siam. 



324 



GRAMMAE. OF VOLAPuK. 



muse, stdmon, 

museful, sidmik. 

muser, siamel. 

music, musig. 

musical, musigik. 

musically, musigiVo. 

musician, musigel. 

musing, sidmol, 

musingly, sidmlik. 

must, mut. 

muster, Zo^edon. 

mutability, votlikot. 

mutable, voiiik, dewoflik. 

mutableness, votlikQf. 

mutably, votliko, 

mutation, vot, votaxa, cein, 

cemam. 
mute, muedik. 
mute, muedel. 
mutely, muediik.. 
muteness, mued. 
mutinous, volutik. 
mutinously, volutiko. 
mutinousness, volutoi. 
muting, volut. 
mutiny, volutoTH. 



mutton, jip.- 

mutual, rezipik. 

mutuality, rezip. 

mutually, rezipVik:, 

muzzle, hxmud. 

muzzle, zo^ron. 

my, ojik, o&a. 

myriad, lemorf. 

myself, oJok. 

mysterious, klana/uZik. 

my^eriously, klana/uto. 

mysteriousness, klana/itKf^ 

mystery, klan. 

mystic, kldmk. 

mystically, hldnVik.. 

mysticalness, Hanoi 

mysticism, . stVSf, kldnQi, 

mystification, cit, cita,m. 

mystify, citon. 

myth, fab. 

mythic, fahik. 

mythically, /a61ik,/o5o,/aJiko^ 

mythographer, fabapenel. 

mythology, In^'oi^av. 

mythologist, lugodmel. 



N. 



nail, kluf. 
nail, klufon. 
nailer, klufel. 
nailery, klufen. 
nail-maker-ifc/an. 
naked, niidik. 
nakedly, nUdo. 
nakedness, niid. 
name, nem. 
name, nemon. 
nameless, nereemik. 
namely, os ienos (o. b,), 
nap, sUpil. 
nap, slipil6n, slipon. 



nape, Inn'dkeb. 
nappiness, slipbi. 
nappy, sUpo, slipiko. 
narrate, piiknion., kon6n. 
narration, pickut, kon, ifconed. 
narrative, piikztik. 
narrator, piika,t&\, fco»el. 
narrow, nabik. 
narrow, ?i«65n. 
narrowly, naMik. 
narrowness, nab. 
nastily, steno, mioto. 
nastiness, sten, miot. 
nasty, stenik, mioAk. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



325 



Jiatal, mo^ofik. 
nation, net. 
national, netik. 
nationalism, net&l. 
nationalist, netel. 
nationality, neiat. 
nationalize, neton. 
nationally, nariko. 
native, neiik. 
native, balpemo^dl. 
nativity, moiot. 
natural, narik. 
naturalism, natal. 
naturalist, natel. 
naturalization, natnia 
naturalize, naton. 
naturalized, penaiol 
naturally, nariko. 
naturalness, nat, nazal, 
nature, nat 
■naught, nos. 
naughtily, netuglik. 
naughtiness, ne«w^6f. 
naughty, netugik. 
nauseate, nau^on. 
nauseous, naudik. 
nauseously, naudo . 
nauseousness, naud, naudoi. 
naval, rea/amik, 
nave, naf. 
navigable, na/ik. 
navigableness, na/oi. 
navigably, na/ilao. 
navigate, nafon 
navigation, rea/am. 
navigator, nafel. 
navy, valiidmeHk, vaelsivaliid. 
nay, no. 
near, nilu, la. 
nearest, nj'Hkiin. 
nearly, ti 
nearness, nil. 
neat, bub. 



neat, klinlik. 
neatly, Wmliko. 
neatness, klinbi, klinloi. 
necessarily, zesiido. 
necessary, zesud&.. 
necessitate, mefcadon. 
necessitous, zesudik. 
necessitously, zesiido. 
necessitousness, daleb. 
necessity, zesiid, misal. 
neck, \anoheb. 
necklace, noked. 
need, misal, sezvid, ned. 
need, nedon, zesiidbn. 
needful, zesiidik, dalebik. 
needfully, dalebo 
needfulness, daleb. 
needUy, dalebo, 
neediness, ned. 
needle, nad 
needled, nadik 
needless, nez«SK(iik. 
needlessly, nszesiido, 
needlessness, utzesiid. 
needly, zesSrfik. 
needy, po/ik. 
nefarious, le;'eJ;lik. 
nefariously, le/'eHiko. 
nefariousness, le;efcof. 
negation, reoned. 
negative, nesj'am. 
negative, nesj'amik, nonelik. 
negatively, nonelo, neszamo. 
neglect, zog, zo^am, luZeZam. 
neglect, X-alelou, zogon. 
neglected, pezog'51. 
neglecter, zo^el. 
neglectful, nerfurik. 
neglectfully, mduto. 
neglecting, z6go\. 
negleotingly, zo^'iko. 
negligence, \alet, -a^dut. 
negligent, luZerik, nerfurik. 



326 



GRAMMAB, OF VOLAPUK. 



negligently, neduto, laleto. 
negotiate, tedoia 
negotiation, ieda,m. 
negotiator, tede\. 
negotiatory, tedelik.. 
negress, fiMagnji; of-SZajran. 
negro, Mdga,n. 
neighbour, nzZel. 
neighbourhood, nil. 
neighbourly, nz7elik. 
neither, ni. 
nephew, nef. 
nerve, nev. 
nerve, nevUn. 
nervous, newik, 
nervously, nevo 
nervousness, nevoi. 
nest, luhed. 
nest, Inhedon 
nestle, \nbed6n. 
nestling, bodil. 
net, filad. 
net, filadon. 
net, TO/alik. 
netty, filadik 
neuralgia, miganip. 
neuter, neudik. 
neuter, nepaZerik. 
neutral, neudik, nepaZedk, 
neutrality, neud&t. 
neutralization, neudsiia. 
neutralize, neudon 
neutralized, neudik. 
neutralizer, neudel. 
neutralizing, neudol- 
neutrally, neudo, neudiko. 
never, nevelo. 
nevertheless, deno. 
new nulik. 
newish, nulik. 
newly, lenu, nii. 
newness, nul. 
news, nul. 



newspaper, gased. 

newt, lagadl. 

next, at, neb. 

nib, pen, pun. 

nibble, hikrut'dn. 

nibbler, hikrute\, 

nice, ligedik. 

nicely, kuladiko 

niceness, kulad, tip'iA. 

nicety, liged, 

nickel, nieg 

nickname, lElnem. 

nickname, lanemon. 

niece, ot-ne/; ji-ree/. 

niggard, monalan. 

niggard, /itlik, morealik. 

niggardish, fUlik, monalik. 

niggardliness, fiil, fiiliii.. 

niggardly, fulo, monaliko. 

nigger, bldga.n. 

nigh, nilo, nilix. 

night, neit, nedel. 

nightingale, galit. 

nightish, neitik, nedetik. 

nightly, neito, nedelo. 

nightly, neito, in Ciino) neit alik^ 

nimble, skilik, vifik. 

nimbleness, skill, vif. 

nimbly, sMiko, vifo. 

nine, ziil. 

ninefold, ziilik. 

nineteen, halsezul. 

nineteenth, halaeziiliA.. 

ninetieth, ziilsid. 

ninetimes, zulii&, 

ninety, ziils. 

ninth, ziiliA. 

ninthly, za/ido. 

ninthpart, zxUdil. 

ninthtime, 3«7idna.. 

niobium, niobin. 

nip, beit. 

nippers, beitel(s). 



liBAjnXAR OF VOLAPUK. 



327 



nit, puf. 

nitty, pufik.. 

no, no. 

nobilitate, baonon. 

nobility, baon. 

nobilitation, boonaju. 

noble, baomik, nobii, manamik. 

noble, ^oonel, no&el. 

nobleman, haonel, noiel. 

nobleness, baoimt. 

nobless, no&al. 

noblewoman, ji-6aonel. 

nobly, ntito. 

nobody, nek. 

noctamal, tmok. 

noctnmaUy, neifo. 

nod, vineg 

nod, rm^on. 

noise, boset. 

noisefbl, boseok, Mei&k. 

noisily, boselo. 

noisiness, bosetot. 

noisome, naudSk, riibik. 

noisomely, naudo, ddniiik. 

noisomeness, naudof, damoi. 

noisy, hosedk. 

nominal, nemik, tiddik. 

nominally, tHido. 

nominate, coZon, danemon. 

nomination. oaZam, cal, dan«Bi, 

danemam. 
nominative, kim/aZ. 
nominatively, Mmhi{ik)o. 
nominator, cafel, danemel. 
non-abili^, no-baonof, nekan. 
nonagon, zula^u^ 
nonce, desin. 
noncbalance, lindif. 
nonchalant, Imdifik. 
none, nonik. 
non-existence, nosiftjn. 
non-existent, noBifttnik. 
nonsen.se, tasian. 



nonsensical, ta£«uiik. 
nonsensically, ta^idno. 
noodle, JxxcU, st^pei. 
nook, Innokeb, gul. 
noon, zendel. 
noonday, zendel. 
noontide, zendeZ. 
noose, jainH. 
nor, nL 
norittm, noin. 
normal, nontik. 
normally, nooilik, nomo. 
iforman, noludel. 
Normandia, Norman. 
North, nolud. 
North-east. nolnfc/6d. 
North-east, nolfii^<fik. 
North-easterly, nolale/Sdo. 
North-eastern, folulefti^k. 
North-eaitwaid, nolnle/idstveA. 
Northerly, noludo. 
Northern, iwle£k. 
yorth-pelar, nolfidapozak. 
North-pole, noludapoc. 
North-Sea, NoludamW. 
Northward, nottrved. 
Northwardly, noluce^ZUk. 
Northwards, nolucedl. 
North-west, uoAvesud. 
North-west, nolucestufik. 
North-westerly, nolnvesutki. 
North-western, nolnces^^fik. 
North-westward, noiucesudaved. 
Norway, Norveg. 
Norwegian, nomegfA.. 
Norwegian, norvegik. 
nose, nnd. 
nosed, nu<fik. 
not, no. 

notabene, notam. 
notability, makab, Z'liyi. dunoi, 

cad. 
notable, makdbik. ca<fik. 



328 



GRAMMAE OF VOLAPUK. 



notable, zilik, durak. 
notableness, makab,z278f,d«rabf. 

cad. 
notably, makdbo, caido. 
notation, noted, supenam, veiit. 
note, penedA, noted, 
note, noted, noiam, noat. 
note, noet, notiif. 
note, nodt, noeion, notufon. 
note-book, noiedaiuk. 
noted, famik. 
notedly, famlik, pato. 
notedness, fam. 
notelet, notiifil, noeiil. 
noter, notiifA. 
noteworthy, mahalnk. 
nothing, nos. 

nothingness, nonbf, smaZnBf. 
notice, noted, noted, lenun, not. 
" notice, loegon, seniton. 
■iiotifloation, not. 
notify, noten. 

notion, suemal, suem&A, dol, 
notional, dblik. . 
notoriety, not, peseu. 
notorious, peseuik, notik. 
notoriously, pesewo, noriko. 
notoriousness, net, peseu. 
notwithstanding, deno. 
nought, nos 
noun, subsat. 
nourish, nuludon. 
nourisher, nuliidel. 
nourishment, fid, nuliid. 
novel, nul, konei. 
novel, nulik. 
novelist, fconel. 
novelty, niil. 
November, novul. 
novercal, lumorik. 
novice, nul&b. 
novitiate; tiAntim 
novity, nul. 



now, Skdelo. 
nowadays, tucieZo. 
noway, leno, -aovigo. 
nowhere, negeo. 
nowise, nowe^o, leno. 
noxious, rfamik, poligik. 
noxiously, ddmo, ddm\lik,dS,rmko. 
noxiousness, damoi 
nozzle, hxmud. 
nubilate, ^unon. 
nubile, manlik. 
nndation, nild&m.. 
nude, niidik. 
nudity, nfid. 
nugacity, smalnot. 
nugatory, smoZnik. 
nuisance, bolad. 
nuisancer, holadel. 
null, nosik, nonik. 
nullification, nosasuTOam. 
nullifler, nosaswmel. 
nullify, nosaswroon. 
nullity, nonof, smalnoi. 
numb, nesenik. 
number, num. mod, niim. 
number, suamom., n«mon. 
numberer, numai, numel. 
numberless, nen«mik. 
numbness, nesen. 
numerable, numik. 
numeral, numamafc. 
numerally, numik. 
numeration, numam. 
numerator, numel, numsl. 
numero, num. 
numerous, modik. 
numerously, morflik, m'ddo. 
numerousness, modot. 
nun, of-rorfel. 
nunnery, -vomsikleud. 
nunnish, oi-rodelik. 
nuptial, marik. 
nurse, malada,kale\.. 



GRAMMAR 01' VOLAPuK. 



329 



nurse, kalon. 
nursery, seminad. 
nursing, fcaiam, kal. 
nurture, fid, nulud. 
nurture, fidon, nulicdon. 



nut, not. 

nutriment, fid, nulud. 
nutrimental, nulMik. 
nut-tree, nbtsMm. 
nutty, nodk. 



o! o! 

oak, golog. 

oaken, gologik. 

oakling, ^oZo^il. 

oaky, gologik. 

oar, gub. 

oar, gubon. 

oarsman, gubel. 

oary, ^u61ik. 

oat(s), zab. 

oat-cake, zabskkeJc. 

oaten, zabik. 

oath, ynl. 

obduracy, swrfal. 

obdurate, suddlik. 

obdurately, surfaliko. 

obdurateness, sudal. 

obedience, lobed. 

obedient, lobedili. 

obediently, lobedilio, lobedlik. 

obelisk, meha,mal. 

obey, lobedon. 

object, yeg, din, desin, desan. 

objector, toel. 

objurgate, blamoji. 

objurgation, blam, blamaxa. 

obligation, bliga,ia. 

oblige, bligbn 

obliging, bligils.. 

obligingly, bliglik. 

oblique, slobih. 

obliquely, sloblik. 

obliqueness, slob. 



obliquity, slob, 
obliterate, nosasumou. 
obliteration, nosaswman. 
oblivion, foget. 
oblivious, fogetik. 
obliviously, fogetMli.. 
obliviousness, fogetof. 
oblong, liped. 
oblong, lipedik, no^ik. 
obscene, nepiieSk, nesJsdlik. 
obscenely, nepUedlik.. 
obsceneness, nepuedoi. 
obscenity, nepiied, nesiidlbt 
obscuration, rfa^am. 
obscure, dagils., daegik. 
obscure, dagon, neitbn. 
obscurely, dagMk. 
obscureness, daeg, dag. 
obscurity, daeg, dag. 
observable, konsidik. 
observably, konsidlik. 
observance, senit. 
observancy, senit. 
observant, seniAk. 
observantly, seniJlik. 
observation, loeg&Tsx, senitam. 
observator, loeg^V 
observatory, loegop. 
observe, loegaa, seniton, no/edon . 
observer, loegel, senitA, notedel. 
observing, senitik. 
observingly, senitiko. 
obsolete, bdleiSk. 



330 



GKAMMAB, OT VOLAPUK. 



obaoletely, halediko. 
obsoleteness, haledoi. 
obstacle, \i&let 
obstinacy, diifa^. 
obstinate, (K/ugik. 
obstinately, d'iifwgo. 
obstinateness, diifng. 
obstruct, ne.'eibn. 
obstruction, nelet, neieiam tup- 

am. 
obstructive, ne^erik. 
obstructively, Tueleto. 
obtain, meliton, vdhUn. 
obtainable, melitik, vobik. 
obtainment, mefeVam. 
obtainer, melitei, vobel. 
obtrude, surf/cmon, 
obtruder, sudtonel. 
obtrusion, sndlanoi 
obtrusive, sudlanbSk. 
obtrusively, surffanoilik. 
pbtund, stupHn. 
obtuse, nettpik. 
obtusely, netipo. 
obtuseness, mued, 
obtusion, stupum. 
obvious, kliilik. 
obviously, Idtiliko. 
obviousness, klul, 
occasion, pot. 
occasion, kodon. 
occasional, potik. 
occasionally, poto. 
occupant, ZaJamel. 
occupation, labaxa. 
occupier, ^eZ;el, label. 
occupy, ^eJon 
occur, zitiin, zidim, Jenon. 
occurrence, zid. 
ocean, -volsimel. 
oceanic, volameHk. 
octagon, jol&gul. 
octagonal jolaz/uZik. 



octave, JolM, musiga/ottif, spa- 

Aajolat. 
octavo, spada/oZuf. 
octet, JolvLia. 
October, otul. 
octillion, joliom. 
October-otulik (adj.) 
odd, netelik, seledmk. 
oddity, selednoi. 
oddly, seledniko, seledlik. 
oddness, selednQf. 
odious, "^erik. 
odiously, "^eriko. 
odiousness, '^etoi. 
odivini, 'et. 
odorate, vdpils.. 
odorous, vapik. 
odorously, vdpMk. 
odorousness, vdpoi. 
odour, vap. 
Oeral, Ural, 
of, fon. 
off, mo ! mo/Q ! yi ! (be off) 

nebo. 
off . . . mo ... do . . . 
offence, skan, nof, 
offend, skanon, nof(m. 
offender, no/el, sfcanel. 
offending, skanol, rao/ik. 
offendress, ji-nofel; of-no/el, ji- 

skanA, of-sfcanel. 
offensive, no/ik. 
offensively, noAko. 
offensiveness, skano\. 
offer, lof, vitim. 
offer, Zo/bn, vitimon. 
offered, Zo/ik. 
offerer, Zo/el. 
offering, Zo/ik. 
office, cal; konod. 
officer, caZel, fizir. 
official, caZik, Zopofik. 
officious,. diinawjVik. 



GBAinrXH, OF VOLAVflK. 



331 



oflSciously, diinawiVo. 

officiousuess, dunauiiSf. 

offspring, sutels. 

oft, ofen. 

often, ofen. 

oftentimes, ofen. 

ofttimes, ofen. 

oh! o! 

oil, leiil. 

oU, leUlon. 

oiled, le^ili^i.. 

oiler, leSlel. 

oiliness, leiilot. 

oily, leiilmk. 

oint, smivon. 

ointment, smiv. 

old, oonik, bakdH. 

olden, baledi]s.. 

oldish, baledli^. 

oldness, bdledat. 

olive, leulaa/?ufc; leiila&im. 

omelet, meled. 

omen, himak. 

ominous, ne«anlik. 

ominously, nesanliko. 

ominousness, nesanldf. 

omission, zog, 'zo^am, 

omissive, zogii:. 

omit, zogQn. 

omnibus, mofib. 

omnipotence, \emek, levalud. 

omnipotent, levaliidik, lemekA. 

on, su. 

once, balna. 

one, bal. 

oneness, balanum. 

onerate, lodon, boladbn. 

onerous, boladik. 

onerously, boladlik, 

only, te to. 

onset, begin. 

onsetting, begma,m. 

onward, hived, fSi. 



onwards, hivedo ! t'ojo ! 
open, manifik., 
open, manifon. 
opener, manifel. 
opening, damanz/am. 
openly, manifik. 
openess, manif. 
opera, loiJ. 
opera, lopik. 
operable, dunlik. 
operant, wo6ik, vobadik. 
operate, vobon. 
operatic, ^opip. 
operation, voJadam. 
operative. i7o&adik, vuhi'i. 
operatively, yofeadlik. 
operator, oofcadel. 
opine, niludon. 
opinion, ced, niludti.n\. 
opponent, tael. 

oppoi-tvine, sfe'/ik, fdyik, p66k. 
opportunely, poto, fiigo. 
opportuneness, p'dtbi. 
opportunity, pot. 
oppose, tap/jion. 
opposed, tajoKfcik. 
opposer, fael. 
opposing, (aelik. 
opposite, taik, viso, vi=ii. 
ojipositely, tao, voto. 
oppositeness, ta/zafcof. 
opposition, naud, tadunam, . 
oppositive, taik, ta. 
oppress, leperfon. 
oppressed, lepedik. 
oppression, leperf, lepet/am. 
oppressive, lepcdik. 
oppressively, leperfiko. 
oppressiveness, \epedoi. 
oppressor, lepec/el. 
opprobrious, /emodik. 
opprobriously, jemodVik. 
opprobriousness, yemodof 



^32 



GRAMMAR or VOLAPUK. 



oppobrium, jemoA. 
oppugn, feiton. 
oppugnancy, /etiam 
oppugnant, feitik. 
optative, vipahid. 
-optic, Zo^'adik, 
optics, logamax. 
optically, Zo^'adiko. 
optician, logamikel. 
option, val. 
optional, uaZik. 
optionally, vdlo. 
opulence, lieg. 
opulent, liegik. 
opulently, nezesiidiko, liego. 
or, va; u, ud. 
oral, mwrfik. 
orally, mudo, sago. 
orange-oran. 
orangetarang, lin&Zoraik. 
oration, ptik, sag. 
orator, piikel. 
oratorial, pUkik, 
oratorially, puko. 
oratory, plekarfom. 
oratress, ji-pUkel; of-pukel. 
orb, zilak, zilag. 
orb, zilagHn. 
orbed, glopik. 
ordain, calon, biidou. 
ordained, sfa'/amik. 
ordainer, stitumel. 
ordaining, stitam, stit, 
order, biid. 
order, biidon. 
order, leod, rod, rSd. 
orderer, biidel. 
ordering, biida.m, bud. 
orderless, neleodik. 
orderlessness, neleodot 
orderly, leodik. 
ordinal, leodik. 
ordinance, leod, plog. 



ordinary, rodel. 
ore, miin. 
organ, gel. 
organ-builder, gelel. 
organic, noganik. 
organically, noganhk. 
organist, ^eZan. 
organization, nogana,va. 
organize, noganbn. 
organized, noganik. 
orient, lefiid. 
oriental, lefUd'Anel. 
orientalist, lefSdel. 
orientalize, lefiidanon. 
orientation, lefiidsim. 
orifice, mud. 
origin, rig. 

original, rigik, riga,Aik. 
originality, rz^'adof. 
originally, n^'adlik. 
originate, rigon, vedon. 
origination, rigum, ved 
originator, vedel, rigel 
ornament, dek. 
ornamental, dekik. 
ornamentally, deko. 
ornamentation, ' dekaja. 
ornamented, dekik. 
ornamentist, deksi. 
ornate, dekik. 
ornately, dekiik 
orologist, Jeiavel. 
orology, bel&Y. 
orphan, nepal. 
orthography, lotogaf 
ostentation, luglol. 
ostentious, inglolik. 
ostentiously, higlolo. 
ostentiousness, iagloloi. 
other, worik, teliA, wodm,uodmik. 
otherwise, voto. 
ought, bos. 
our, o6es, o6is, oftsik. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



333 



oursdf, obsot, 

ourselves, oftsok. 

out ! mo ! niofo ! yi ! 

out, se. 

outcry, luvoiem. 

outdo, lovbn, sevokon. 

outdoors, se. 

outer, sene(Sk, se. 

outerly, latuno. 

outermost, plakuno, levemo. 

outlet, aegolajn, kosit. 

outrage, leno/. 

outraged, le«o/ik. 

outrageous, lenofik. 

outrageously, lenoflik. 

outrageousness, leno/'of. 

outside, selamk. 

outwart, senedik. 

outwardly, senedlik. 

outwardness, senedoi. 

outwaxds, senecSk. 

oval, liped. 

oval lipe£k, no^ik. 

ovally, Upedo, no^lik. 

oven, ton, 

over, love..., tu..., plu... le... 

overcharge, taholadon. 

overcharged, iiaholadik. 

overflow, bundanon, love^umon. 

overflowing, love^ujnik, hun- 

darak. 
overfull, tnfulik. 
overhang, slop5n. 
overhastily, spido, spid&no. 
overhastiness, taspidot. 
overhasty, tuspafik. 
overheat, love^onon, tu/on(5n. 
overheated, tu/onik. 



overjoy, legal. 
oveijoT, le^a'Bn. 
overload, \oyelodon. 
overloaded, love/orfik. 
overlook, loveZo^on, luZe^on. 
overlooker, luletel. 
overlooking, lutool. 
overmaster, \emasel. 
overrate, tadivou. 
overrated, UiditAk. 
overreach, lo/on; liinamon. 
overrun, love^umon. 
overshadow, love/'adon. 
overshadower, love/adel. 
overshadowing, love;o(fik. 
oversight, luletain. 
overthrow, distukon, vikodm. 
overthrower, distukeV. 
overture, mob. 
overturn, tometon. 
overtumer, Tiosel. 
overturning, nosik. 
overweight, tavdt. 
overwork, tuuoJSn. 
owe, dehon. 
owing, debik. 
owl, liil. 
owler, sZupel. 
owlet, mill. 
owlish, lulik. 
own, okik, lonik. 
own, lasewSn, lenlonbn. 
owner, label. 
ox, xol. 
oxj'gen-ziidin. 
oyster, "^uit. 
oysterbeard, 'uitaJa//ft. 



P. 



pace, step, 
pace, le«iep6n. 



pacer, lesiepel. 
Pacific, Stilame/. 



334 



(111A.MMAH or V0LA1>UK. 



pacific, piidik. 

pacifically, piido, piidiko. 

pacification, piidani, sftVam, 

pacificator, piideX. 

pacifier, piidel, kotenel. 

pacify, kotenon, piidm, stiion. 

pack, pak. 

pack, pakon. 

package, pakem. 

packed, -pepdkHl. 

packer, pakel. 

packet, paked. 

packet, fiiikil, pafcedil. 

pad, saed. 

pad, futoxi. 

padder, lapine:\. 

paddle, gulj. 

paddle, gubon. 

padlock, fcjfcam. 

padlock, kikon. 

page, bled, flan. 

page, hledon 

pageant, magif. 

pageant, \\imagifik. 

pageantry, lumagifen. 

pain, dol. 

pain, tomba, vexadon. 

painful feofat^ik, doKk. 

painfull}', rfoZiko. 

paintulness, fikul. 

pains, tob 

paint, kel. 

paint, panon. 

painted, panik. 

painter, panel. 

painting, pdnoi. 

paintress, ji-/)finel, of-panel. 

pair, telel, pal. 

pair, palon, 

palace, ledom. 

jjalanquin, polasfaZ. 

palate, smek. 

palatial, lerfomik. 



palatial, magifik., glolik.. 
palaver, lupiikot 
palaver, \upiik6xi. 
palaverer, hipiikel. 
pale, neledik. 
pale, budon. 
palely, neledo 
paleness, neM. 
paling, budol 
palish, ne/edlik. 
pall, hijop&mdned. 
pall, lesatbn. 
pallid, TudediV. 
pallidly, ntledo. 
pallidness, n&led. 
palm, pam. 

palm-tree, pamafctm. J 

palm, ciiton. 
palmer, pok&Ti. 
palmary, ciit. 
papable, senlik. 
papably, senliko. 
palpitate, nofcon, trilory. 
palpitating, nofcik. 
palpitation, nofcam. 
palsy, flap, 
palter, nes/urfSn. 
palterer, nestodel. 
paltrily, po/liko. 
paltriness, bap. 
paltry, po/lik, komumk.. 
pamper, zadon. 
pampered, lUxam\iV. 
pampering, 3arfam. 
pamphlet, pam. 
pamphleteer, vifapereadel. 
pan, gef. 
pancake, meled. 
pang, dol, tlep, tom. 
pang, tomm. 
panic, jek. 
pant, Xunatemon.. 
panter, stag. 



GRAMMAR 01' VOLAPiiK. 



pantry, lebog. 

papa, pap, fat. 

papacy, pnpah. 

papal, papik. 

papalize, ^ojoikon. 

papally, ^opiko, papo. 

pape, pap. 

paper, pop. 

paper-hanger, tdpel. 

paper-hangings, tap. 

papering, tdpol. 

paper-maker, popafahliidcX. 

paper- manufactorVipopa/hSiaJa!. 

paper-mill, popajn;;^ 

papilio, pah. 

parade, Inmagif, magif. 

paradigm, paradim. 

paradise, palad. 

paragraph, hagaf. 

paragraphic, haga/ik. 

paragraphically, bagafo. 

parallel, leigaiien. 

parallel, leigaZ?enik. 

parapet, hud. 

parapeted, JuaSk, 

parcel, pakil. 

parch, sigon. 

parching, s^ik. sigol. 

pard, leaf. 

pardon, fog to. 

pardon, {ogivon 

pardonable, fog'iBik. 

pardouableness, Sigivbi. 

pardonably, fo^iwo. 

parent, pael. 

parentege, gen. 

parental, fatik, paelik, i/jwrik. 

paring, jal. 

Paris, Paris. 

parish, pad. 

parish, pa£k. 

parishioner, parfeL 

Parisian, PSmel. 



paritor, nuuel. 

parity, leig. 

parley, musani. 

parley, musaimn. 

parlour, visil&cem 

parochial, paidik. 

parochialize, pddon. 

parochially, pado. 

parody, lepen. ' 

parol, murfik. 

parole, stimauorf. 

parricidal, fatawjotorfik. 

parricide, fat&mblod. 

parse, diliman. 

parsing, diimam. 

parson, pi-edA, pddel. 

parsonage, pad. 

parsonic, pddelik. 

parsonish, pddelH. 

part, dil. 

part, dilon 

part, teilon: livon. 

partage, &7am, diloi. 

partaker, kerfitedel. 

partaking, fetonam. 

parted, fogik. 

parter, rf(7el, teilel. 

partial dilo, paleAV. 

partialist, paletA. 

partiality, paletbi. 

partially, dilo. 

partibility, diloi. 

partible, rf/flk. 

participate, diliAon 

participation, dili^bi. 

participative, dilid. 

participator, fcopanal, kopuna\, 

kadilidel. 
participial, ladyekaftidik. 
participialize, ladyekaft/rfon. 
participially, ladyekaftirfo. 
participle, ladyekaAirf. 
particle, dilil. 



336 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



particular, patik. 
particularity, pat, daSaZod. 
particularize, detHlon. 
particularly, pato, ^adko. 
parting, dil&m.. 
parting, teilam, teil. 
partisan, ziipel. 
partisanship, ziipeliig. 
partition, dilam. 
partition, dilon. 
partitive, &7ik, dilbl. 
partly, dilik. 
partner, kediledel. 
partner, kopan&l. 
partnership, fcopanef. 
party, palet. 
pas, step, 
pass, belaloveg. 
pass, /enon, zidon, loYegoloyi. 
passable, golik. 
passably, goliko. 
passage, zid. 
passenger, tdvel. 
passer, zilag. 
passibility, sufam. 
passible, se«ik. 
passing, levem. 
passion, UedoA. 
passionate, 'zftk, Kerfodik. 
passionately, 'itiko. 
passionateness, 'ital. 
passive, sufikfomik. 
passively, sufo, sM/iko. 
passivit}'", suf&va.. 
pass-key, glekik. 
passless, neue^ik. 
passport, tavsipenoA. 
password, g!da,vdd. 
past, iegolug. 
past, efe^oZSl. 
paste, klebon. 
pastor, padel, fepel. 
pastorage, pad. 



pastoral, padelik., lanedik, 

pastorship, padelacoZ. 

pastry, bakoi. 

pasturage, meid, balad. 

pasture, meid, balad. 

pasture, meidon. 

pat, flapil. 

pat, flapon, nokon. 

patch, flabH. 

patch, Iximekon. 

patched, lumefcik. 

patcher, lumefcel. 

pate, kap; glop. 

patent, pat. 

patent, ^a^on. 

patented, pdAk. 

patentee, pai&n. 

patent-holder, pdtel. 
paternal, /atik. 
paternally, /ato, /ariko, 
paternity, fatef. 
path, SToasiveg. 
path, smaue^on, kulon. 
pathless, nefaZik. 
pathway, futauejr, smaveg. 
patience, sufad. 
patient, su/adik. 
patiently, sufado. 
patriot, fatanel. 
patriotic, fatdnelik. 
patriotically, fatdnelo 
patriotism, fatdnalot, 
patrol, zilek&g, galeva. 
patrol, zilekSigoTL. 
patron, Jelel, 
patronage, jel. 
patroness, ji-jele\; oi-jelel. 
patronize, JeWn. 
patronizer, jehl. „ 

pattern, sam, fbm. 
pattern, samBn, fomon. 
pattern-maker, fomel. 
pause, paud. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



537 



pave, siiton. 

paved, pesKJol. 

paver, siiiel. 

pavilion, tened. 

pavilion, tenedoTo.. 

paw, ral. 

pawn; pan. 

pawn, ^anon. 

pawnbroker, panam. 

pawnbroking, ^ananam. 

pawner, panel. 

pay, pel. 

pay, pelon. 

payer, pelel. 

paymaster, pelal. 

payment, pel, peZam. 

pea, peil. 

peace, piid. 

peaceable, padik. 

peaceableness, pudM. 

peaceably, pudiko, pUdo. 

peaceful, pfidik. 

peacefully, pudiiko, piido. 

peacefulness, taked, pudbi. 

peaceless, nepiiffik. 

peace-maker, pttdel. 

peacock, paf. 

peahen, ji-paf 

peak, piin, sped. 

peal, glokeTo.. 

peal, glok&a.. 

pear, bun. 

pearl, magab. 

pearl, magabon. 

pearl-diver, majrafiafitel. 

pearled, magdbik. 

pearly, magaiik. 

peasant, felel. meyel. 

peasant-like, /eZelik. 

peculiar, paAi., lonik. 

peculiarity, Zonug, iabaloA, pat. 

pecnliarize, deiiilon. 

peculiarly, pato. 



ped, ■p'&a.baset. 
pedant, pleidik. 
pedantic, pleidlik. 
pedantically, ^Ze;VZliko. 
pedantry, pleid. 
peel, jal. 
peel, jalon. 
peeled, j'alik. 
peeler, Jalel. 
peep, loged. 
peep, Zo^edon. 
peeper, Zo^'edel. 
peep-hole, loga.'^og. 
peer, baonei. 
peer, ftaonelon ■ 
peeress, ji-ftoonel. 
peerless, nefeZe?^ik. 
peerlessly, neieleigo. 
peerlessness, nefeZe^. 
peevish, todSlik, lezunik. 
peevishly, todaMko, lezuno. 
peevishness, todSl, leruncif. 
peg, piin. 
pegged, piirak. 
Peloponnesian, Pelopdnik. 
Peloponnesus, Felopan. 
pelt, skin, skun. 
pen, pen. 
pen, penoix. 
penal, ponik. 
penally, poniko. 
penalty, pon. 
penance, ponaA, pijn. 
pencil, pensit, stib. 
pencil, pensitbn. 
pencil, gliv. 
pencilled, pensitik. 
pencilling, pensit&ui. 
pendency, slop, 
pendent, slupik. 
pendulous, Idgdl. 
pendulum, pendiil. 
penetrate, dndlanoa. 

22 



338 



GEAMMAE OF VOLAPUK. 



penetrating, durftonik. 
penetratingly, Andlano. 
penetration, dutftenam, 
penetrative, durftonik. 
pen-holder, penafcip. 
penitence, poraadof, pSnit, 
penitent, ponitik. 
penitent, ponitel. 
penitential, ponitik, ponadik. 
penitentially, ponadiko ponado. 
penitentiary, koefastoZ. 
penitently, ponito, ponado. 
penknife, penanciy. 
pen-maker, penamefcel. 
penman, penel. 
penned, penik. 
pension, baledamon. 
pension, baledamonon. 
pensionary, baledamonel. 
pensioned, baledamoraik. 
pensioner, b'aledamonel. 
pensive, ^Zwrnalik. 
pensively, glumalo. 
pensiveness, glumsl. 
pentagon, lulagul. 
pentagonal, lula^'wHk. 
pentagonally, lula^uZo. 
penurious, spalxiik. 
penurioualy, spaiZniko. 
penuriousness, spalndi. 
penury, daleb. 
people, net, pop. 
people, netorx. 
peopled, netik. 
pepper, pep. 
pepper, pepon. 
peppered, pepik. 
peppery, ^eplik. 
per, a. 

peraventure, bo, ba. 
perambulate, duspa^on. 
perambulation, Anspatsbm. 
perambulator, duspa^el, cil&vah. 



perceivable, senitik. 
perceivably, senito. 
perceive, semffin. 
perceived, pese/itVSl. 
perceiver, senzVel. 
percent, Aotum. 
perceptibility, suem, suemal. 
perceptible, suenak. 
perceptibly, suemo. 
perception, suem, sen, senam. 
perceptive, senik, senitSs.. 
perceptivity, sereo, s«reiko, senito. 
perchance, bo, ba. 
percolate, sulon. 
percolation, swZam 
percolator, sul. 
perdition, nib, Tcodemvh. 
perdu, Mrael. 

peremptorily, fmmo. codsXo. 
peremptoriness, film, 
peremptory, funak, co(Zatik. 
perfect, le/uZik. 
perfect, \efulxm., le/uZamon. 
perfecter, le/«Zel. 
perfectibility, \eful. 
perfectible, le/«Zik. 
perfection, \&ful, le/uZam, 
perfectionism, le/uZamlof. 
perfectionist, leyuZamel, 
perfective, le/uZamik. 
perfectively, le/«Zamo. 
perfectly, le/wZiko. 
perfectness, leful. 
perfidious, nefiediik. 
perfidiously, ne^etiiko. 
perfidiousness, nefied, 
perfidy, nejied. 
perforate, 'o^on. 
perforated, '^05'ik. 
perforation, '^o^am. 
perform, duinoa. 
performable, duinik. 
performance, dunxia. 



GRAMMAK OF VQLAPUK. 



339 



performer, dunel. 
performing, diinik. 
perfume, vap. 
perfume, rapon. 
perfttmed, ■pevapol. 
perfumer, vdpel. 
perfumery, ripen, 
peril, poiig- 
perilons. poliffik. 
perilously, poligo. 
perilousness, poltgof. 
period, tup. 
X)eriodic, tiipik. 
periodically, sotimo, tUpo. 
periphery, zum. 
perish, deilon 
perishahility, van, deSoi. 
perishahle, vamik, deilik. 
perishableness, van, deiloi. 
perishably, vano, deilo 
perished, edeilol- 
perishing, deilik. 
perishment, deS&ja 
periwig, "^eiad. 
peqore. 'olayuion- 
perjured, '^olayulik 
perjurer, 'olayufel. 
perjury, "^olayui. 
perk, lutfeiton. 
perk, bloton. 
permanence, dul- 
permanent, dulik. 
permanentlv, dulo. 
permission, \ulet, let. InZe^am. 
permissive, luiefik, ferik. 
permissively, Ifiteo. 
permit, luieion, d/ilon. 
permit, dal- 
permitter, Infefel, dalel. 
pernicious, ruMk. 
pemiciotKly, ru6iko, rubo. 
pemicionsness, ruboi, rid. 
perpend, Iconsidon. 



perpendicular, pendik. 
perpendicularity, pendikot. 
perpendicularly, pendiko. 
perpetrate, dunon. 
perpertration, tfunam. 
perpetrator, dunel. 
perpetual, ai. . . ; nezecSk, lereli^. 

perpetually, ai ; levelo. egelo, 

valimo. 
perpetuate, tenalon. 
perpetuation, tenafctm. 
perpetuity, tenal 
perplex, femik. 
perpexed, pe/emol. 
perplexedly, j'emo, kofudo. 
perplexedness, jem^f. 
perplexing, Jemik, kofudoi. 
perplexingly, jemo, kofudo. 
perplexity, jemoi. dev. 
perquisition, laramam. 
perquisitor, learaniel. 
perseverance, lerfuZam. 
persevere, \edul6n. 
persevering, le<fuHk. 
perseveringly, ledu/o. 
Persia, Persan. 
Persian ^ersanel. 
Persian, persanik 
persist, ledu?on 
persistence, dufug. 
persistent, rfu/ugik, lerf«/ik. 
persistingly, dufogo. 
peisistive, ledulik. 
person, posed, 
personage, posod. 
personal, posorSk. 
personality, posodoi. 
personalize, posodon. 
personally, posodo. 
personate, fugoD. 
personation, fUga-ra. 
personification, p6sodani7«</. 
personify, posodon 



:J40 



GBAMMAB. OP VOLAPiiK. 



perspective, ingaglat. 
perspicixous, fcapalnik. 
perspicuously, ^opalniko. 
perspicuousness, tapalnof. 
perspiration, suet, 
perspirative, suerik. 
perspiratory, sucilik. 
perspire, suetoxi. 
persuadable, suadi]s:, 
.persuade, suadon- 
persuader, suadel. 
persuasibility, suadal. 
persuasible, suadik. 
persuasibleness, suadQi. 
persuasion, suad, suadaia. 
persuasive, suadik. 
persuasively, suado. 
persuasiveness, suadoi. 
pert, vifik. 
pertain, <e/5n. 
perterebration, dujmam. 
pertinacious, kinik.. 
pertinaciously, kiniko. 
pertinence, kin. 
pertinent, kimk. 
pertinently, kiniko. 
pertinentness, fanam. 
pertly, vifo. 
, pertness, vif, vifni. 
perturbance, tup 
perturbation, tupsxa. 
perturbater, tape!. 
peruke, '^e/ad. 
peruke-maker, ^elA, 
perusal, duZi'torfam. 
peruse, AMliladon. 
jiervade, durftonon. 
pervading, iiadlamk. 
pervasion, durf'aftam. 
pervasive, durftorak. 
perverse, rfii/ugik. 
perversely, dUfwgo. 
perversenesa, suda\, vad. 



perversion, vota^etem. 

perversity, swdal, viid. 

pervert, JaiJon, gehon. 

perverted, -pebatol. 

perverter, batel. 

pervertible, voAik. 

perverting, hatsaa. 

pervious, Aadlanlik. 

pessimist, badliVel. 

pester, vexadbn, tombn. 

pesterer, tomel, vexadel, 

pestiferous, lu^caHk. 

pestiferously, lupa^-o. 

pet, Ibf'ab. 

pet, zadoa. 

petition, beg. 

petition, begon, bekbn, Aahegbn.. 

petitionarily, begik, JeHk. 

petitionary, leie^ik. 

petitioner, plekel, lebege\. 

petitioning, lefte^ik. 

petrifaction, festonam. 

petrifactive, iestonik. 

petriflable, fesionlik. 

petrific, fes^onik. 

petrification, festonam. 

petrified, fesioreik. 

petrifier, festonel. 

petrify, fesZonon. 

petrifying, fesifonol. 

petroleum, talnleiil. 

petted, zadik. 

pettily, zadiiko 

pettiness, smalnbt, piilbf, piiL 

pettish, &/ugik. 

pettishly, dufxigo 

pettishness, diifag. 

petty, palik, p^lofik. 

petulance, yof. 

petulant, yo/'ik. 

petulantly, yofo. 

pew, glngaiam. 

pewter, tinin. 



GEAMMAK OF VOLAPiiK. 



341 



phiintaay, zehumajad. 
phantom, spuk, lu^iXal 
pbarisaism, ladevod, simul. 
pharisean, lurfei-orfik, simu/it. 
Pharisee , ladevodel, simulel. 
pharmaceutic, meimavik 
pharmacentically, medinavo. 
pharmaceutics, m.edina,Y. 
pharmaceutist, merfmavel. 
pharmacy, medinamigakan. 
Philadelphia, Filadelfia 
Philadelphia!!, filadelfialik. 
philanthropic, menajlemk. 
"philanthropically, mena/Zeno. 
philanthropist, menafien 
philanthropy, menalof. 
philomel, galit. 
philosopher, filosopel. 
philosophic, filosopih. 
philosophically, JilosopiVo. 
philosophize, jilosopon. 
philosopher, filosopel 
philosophy, filosop, sopav. 
philter, lofarf/m. 
philter, lofatfZmadon. 
phlegm, slim, 
phlegmatic, sZimik. 
phlegmatically, sUmo, sZmiko. 
phlegmaticly, slimMk. 
phosphorate, fosinon. 
phosphorated, /osiniV 
phosphoric, /osmik, 
phosphorous, fosinik. 
phosphorus, fosin. 
photograph, fologaf^A. 
photographer, fologa/A. 
photographic, fotogafiV. 
photographist, fotoga/A. 
photography, fotogaf ,/o%a/en . 
phrase, set 

phrase, n«mon, i&pukon.. 
phrensy, vut. 
physic, M/am. 



physical mei^inik, sa?ielik. 
physically, saneliko, naiaviko. 
physician, sanel, medvoA. 
physics, naiav, fusiid. 
physiognomist, Zot^odavel 
physiognomy, Zo^odav. 
physiologic, naiavik 
physiologically, naiavo. 
physiologist, naiavel 
physiology, nat. 
pianist, ^tanofodel 
pianino, pianva. 
piano, pj'anofod. 
piano-forte, pianoioA. 
pick, fok. 

pick, uaton, seuaKn, spinow. 
picked, piimk 

picker, spin, sewaiel 
picking, spimk, %eva,l6\- 
pickle, piton. 
pickled, pi6k. 
Plot, piktel 

pictish, pikleKk.. 

pictorial, le/onik. 

pictorially, le/ono. 

Plots, pictels. 

pictural, panot. 

picture, panot. 

picture, pdnon. 

pictured, ^anik. 

picturesque, magiftk., le/onik. 

picturesquely, magi/o \tjbno. 

picturesqueness, magif, le/iin. 

piece, samaA, dil. 

pierce, "^o^ou. 

pierceable, durftanik. 

piercer, gim, 

piercing, gimik- 

pig, svin. 

pig, svinon. 

pigeon, ji-pejin 

pigeon-breasted, U'6lo\. 

piggish, svimk. 



342 



GBAMMAE, OP VOLAPiiK. 



pilaster, lekolilm. 

pilastered, \ekdtiimik. 

pile, knm. 

pile, 'el. 

pile, kumon. 

pilfer., ft/on 

pilfered, pefaysl. 
■pilferer, tifel. 

pilfery, tifen. 

piling, fcumik. 

pill, j'alon. 

pillage, lapin. 

pillager, lapinel. 

pillar, koliim. 

pillared, kdliimik. 

pilot, na/an. 

pilol, gubiin. 

piloting, gubum. 

pinch, tabakeiii. 

pinch-, tomon, vexadon. 

pincher, tomel. 

pinching, tomik, 

pinchingly, tomo, tomiko. 

pine, pein. 

pine, pemik. 

pining, c/esz(/am. 

pinion, flitadil. 

pink, lopun, tipnn. 

pink, neWik. 
-pink, vinegQxi.. 

pinnacle, kren, tipvn 

pinner, /epel, jipA. 

piny, peimk. 

pious, cZeuorfik. 

piously, devodo, devodi^o. 

pip, mak. 

pip, gnkon. 

pipe, pip, rud ; feif. 

pipe, feif on. 

piper, feijA. 

piping, /ej/ik. 

piracy, me/aftyen. 

pirate, lapinon. 



pirate, lapinel. 
piratic, lapinik, 
piratical, lapinik. 
piratically, lapino. 
piss, XviVai. 
piss, hwat'on, 
piston, su^rel. 
pit, \edih; Sep. 
pitch, pioin 
pitch, pidnon, j'edon. 
pit-coal, storiiOkolat. 
piteous, keliedik. 
piteously, keliediko. 
piteousness, kelied. 
pith, ker. 
pithy, kerik. 
pitiable pidik. 
pitiableness, pidnm. 
pitiably, pidiko. 
pitiful, pidik, yamik. 
pitifully, pidiko. 
pitifulness, pidaxa, yamava. 
pitiless, nepidik. 
pitilessly, nepidiko. 
pitilessness, nepid. 
pity, pid, yam. 
pity, ^t^on, yamiin, 
pityingly, ^pidiko. 
place, plad. 
place, pladon. 
placer, pladel. 
placid, piidik. 
placidly, piidiko. 
plaoidness, pudoi. 
placidity, piidoi. 
plague, vexad. 
plague, vexadon. 
plagueful, vexadik. 
plaguily, b'diado. 
plaguy, Voladik. 
plain, fcamik, plenik. 
plainly, famiko. 
plainness, kam, plen. 



GRAMMAB OF VOLAPuK. 



343 



plaint, plon, yam, 

plaintfull, plonik, yamik. 

plaintiff, plonel, 

plaintive, plonik, yamik. 

plaintively, ploniko, yamo. 

plaintiveness, plonioi yambi. 

plait, plif. 

plait, plif on. 

plaited, plifik. 

plan, desan, desin. 

plan, desdnon. 

planch, boed, flul. 

plancher, boedel. 

plancher, boeda^2un. 

plajie, rabot. 

plane, raboton. 

planed, rahotik. 

planer, rabotel. 

planet, planet. 

planetary, planetik. 

plank, boed, flnl. 

plank, hoed&a. 

planky, hoedik. 

planner, desan&i. 

plant, keb. plan. 

plant, planon. 

plantation, pZanam. 

planted, planik. 

planter, planA. 

planting, plan2ja. 

plash, fiv, InZaHl. 

plash, ^»on. 

plashy, ^uik. 

plaster, giip. 

plaster, giipon. 

plastered, giipik. 

plasterer, gapel. 

plastering, giipaxn. 

plat, flok. 

plate, plat. 

plate, platan, sitefon, silinon. 

plated, pladk, silefik. 

platform, skaf. 



plating, silifsiVD., plataxa.. 

platy, plalrik. 

plaudit, yub. 

planaibility, InZefof. 

pausible luierik. 

plausibleness, Viletoi. 

plausibly, \\ileto. 

plausive, laseiak. 

play, pled 

play, pledon. 

player, pledel. 

play-feUow, pledasoyel. 

playful, ple<Sk. 

playfully, pledo. 

playfulness, pledoi. 

playing, pleden. 

playmate, pledaso^el. 

playsome, pledik. 

playsomeness, pleda.1. 

plaything, v\eia,din. 

plea, pozet, s&kusad. 

plead, pozeton. 

plead, disputbn. 

pleader, pozetel. 

pleading, pozeten. 

pleasant, galik. 

pleasantly, gdlo. 

pleasantness, galal. 

pleasantry, cog. 

pleage, pliid. 

please, plidon. 

pleaser, plidel. luZoftel. 

pleasing, lesumik, loflik, ve- 

nudik, plidik. 
pleasingly, venudo, plido. 
pleasingness, plidoi. 
pleasurable, juitik,pfcyik, yo/ik. 
pleasurableness, juitoi. 
pleasurably, juilo, plido. 
pleasure, juit, \eced, plid. 
pleasure, plidon. 
pledge, pan. 
pledge, panim. 



344 



GBAMMAK OF VOLA.PUK. 



pledged, pepanol. 
pledger, panel, 
plenary; le/ulo. 
plenitude, ful, bundan. 
plenteous, nezesiidik, 
plenteously, nezesiido. 
plenteousness, bundan. 
plentiful, bundanik. 
plentifully, bundano. 
plentifulness, bundanoi. 
plenty, bundan. fet. 
plenty, sato. 
pleonasm, nezesiidoi. 
pleonastic, nezesudik. 
pleonastically, nezesiido. 
pliability, yum'6i. 
pliable, flegiik, yumik. 
pliableness, yumoi. 
pliably, yujtako, fleglik. 
pliancy, yumoi. 
pliant, suk&lik. 
pliantly, sukslo. 
pliantness, yumoi, su¥il. 
plight, pan. 
plighted, pamk. 
pligbter, panel. 
plot, desan, desin, ployeg. 
plot, desan'dn, ployegUa, desinoa. 
plotful, desinik, desanik. 
plotter, ployegei, desinel. 
plotting, desansxa. 
plough, plaud. 
plough, plaudon, felbn. 
ploughed, plaudik, /elik. 
plougher, plaudel, felel, 
ploughing, plaudsaa. 
ploughman, plaudel, /elel. 
pluck, tenon, zu^on. 
plucker, tenel, zugel. 
plum, plom. 
plumb, plum, 
plumber, plumel. 
plumbery, plumen. 



plumbing, plumsan. 

plume, pen; pleit. 

plume, dekon. 

plumed, dekik. 

plummy, ^enik. 

plump, pinik. 

plump, pinon. 

plumply, globik. 

plumpness, big. , 

plum-tree, pl6ma5M?j. 

plumy, ^enit. 

plunder, lapin. 

plunder, lapinon. 

plundered, lapinik. 

plunderer, lapinel. 

plundering, Zapmam. 

pluperfect tense, pit«p. 

plural, plunum. 

plural, plulik. 

pluralist, saraalel. 

plurality, mOdareum,. 

pluralize, plun«m8n. 

plurally, pluliko. 

plus, e. 

plusquam perfectum, T^itiip. 

ply, plif. 

ply, flegon, plif on. 

plyer, plifel. 

plying, pii/ik. 

poach, lapinon. 

poached, Zopinik. 

poacher, lapinA. 

poachy, luZaHk. 

pock, pog. 

pocket, pok. 

pocket, pok^n. 

pocky, pogfik. 

poem, poeSat. 

poematic, poerfatik. 

poesy, poed. 

poet, poedA. 

poetaster, lupoe&l. 

poetess, ji-poedel, oi-poedel. 



GRAM MAE OF YOLAPuK. 



345 



poetic, poerfik. 
poetical, poedlik. 
poetically, poedliko. 
poetics, poeden. 
poetize, poedon. 
poetry, poed. 
poetsliip, poedelacal. 
poignancy, tied, 
poignant, biedik. 
poignantly, biedo. 
point, pun. 
point, punon 
pointed, piinik. 
pointedly, ^nliko. 
pointedness, tipal. 
pointer, punel. 
pointing, punik. 
poiaon, venod. 
poison, venodon. 
poisened, venodik. 
poisoner, venodel, 
poisonous, venodik. 
poisonously, venodiko. 
poisenousness, venodoi. 
poke, sak. 
poke, senon. 
Poland, Polan. 
Pole, poldnel. 
police, polen. 
policeman, polenan. 
police-oifice, polensstajen. 
policy, suen, sueream. 
Polish, polarA. 
polisli, zzwon. 
polished, ziidk, kulivik. 
polisher, zzcel, kulivA 
polishing, zimk, kulirik. 
polishment, zzVet, hulwiira. 
polite, smumk, plUAk. 
politely, plu&ko. 
politeness, plut. 
political, viisedik. 
politically, viisedo. 



politure, nid. 
poll, kap. 
poll, de^fon. 
pollute, stenon, mioton. 
polluted, stenik, miodk. 
pollutedly, steno mioto. 
pollutedness, stenoi, mi'iloi. 
polluter, stenel, miotel. 
pollution, stenam., miotaTa. 
polyglot, poluglot 
pomp, magif 
pomposity, magifaio/". 
pompous, magifik. 
pompously, magifo. 
pompousness, magif oi. 
pond, luZafc 

ponder, siienoa. . 

ponderable, parik. 
ponderation, mam. 
ponderer, saenel. 
ponderosity, vet. 
ponderous, cerik. 
ponderously, veto. 
ponderousness, vet. 
poniard, dag. 
poniard, ddgon. 
pony, jevaia.. 
poodle, dog, ji-dog. 
pool, fiv, lu/aHl, 
poop \ndom, smsuiom. 
poor, pofik. 
poorly, po/hk. 
poorness, pof def. 
pop, flap 
pop, flapon 
pope, pap. 
popedom, papnh. 
popish, papik 
popishly, papiko, 2'ipo- 
populace, komun, Inpop. 
popular, /umiilik, popik. 
popularity, famulot, popof. 
popularize, famulon. 



346 



GEAMMAE. OF VOLAPUK. 



popularly, famili^o. 
populate, neton. 
population, netsxa. 
populous, nerik. . 
populously, neto, nedko. 
porcelain, cinan. 
porcelain, cmanon. 
porch, Zc^an. 
porcine, svimk. 
porcupine, stigasvin. 
pore, logeAon. 
porer, Zo^edel. 
pork, svin. 
porket, svinil. 
porridge, sup. 
port, pof. 
port, polon. 
portable, polik. 
portable-engine, miif. 
Porte, ToinS,n. 
portend, plofeton. 
portent, nesanlik. 
portentous, nesanlik. 
portentously, nesanliko. 
porter, polel. 
portion, dil, por. 
portion, sedilon, dilon. 
portioned, dilik, peserf^ol, pm-ik. 
portioner, sedilA. 
portliness, pien. 
portly, pienik. 
portrait, iemag. 
portray, demag6n. 
portrayer, demo^el. 
position, cal, seit, stad. 
positive, fi'nak, zeladik. 
positively, zelado. 
positiveness, sef, fiim, zelad, 
possess, labGn. 
possession, lab, lahed, gued. 
possessional, labik. 
possessive, labik. 
possessively, labo, labiko. 



possessor, label. 

possibility, mog. 

possible, mojrit. 

possibly, bo, ba. 

post, pot. 

post-^odk. 

pest, poion. 

postage, potamore. 

postage-stamp; penedamafc. 

postal, ^orik. 

past-bag, potasafc. 

post-card — potafcac?. 

posted, pe^ooiol. 

poster, potel. 

posterior, sukbl, poso. 

posterity, sutels. 

postern, leganil. 

post-free, jlinik. 

post-horse, ■potajjeval. 

postillion, potel. 

posting, potal. 

postman, potel, potsA. 

post-mark, potamcifc. 

post-master, poZan. 

post-office, potucal. 

post-paid, _^a!«ik. 

postscript, pospenad. 

poststation-potasto/ere. 

postulate, flag. 

postulate, flagon. 

postulation, Jlaga,m.. 

postulatory, ^ajra.terik. 

posture, fBm. 

posture, /omSn. 

pot, skal. 

pot, konletoii, lesaron. 

potable, rf/enik. 

potato, potet. 

potency, /a Jem, valiid, mefcad. 

potent, valudik, laberaik. 

potentate, plin. 

potential, plinik. 

potential, labemik. 



GEAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



347 



potentiality, luog. 

potentially, toiemo. 

potently, valudo. 

potentness, teftem, valiid, mekaA. 

pother, hoset. 

pother, boseion, tomon. 

potter, vezadon. 

pouch, boh, sak. 

pouch, pokou. 

poultry, Vodevx. 

pounce, ral. 

pouncing, ralon, ddgon. 

pound, paun. 

pour, le/alon. 

pourtray, dema^on. 

poverty, pof, def. 

power, valiid, mefcad, nam. 

powerful, vali/di^, mcfcik, namik. 

powerfully, valudo, jneHko. 

powerfulness, valiidoi. 

powerless, ne»ate'(fik. 

powerlessly, nevaliido. 

powerlessness, nevaludoi. 

practicability, dunloi, le/wZamof. 

practicable, dunlik. 

practicableness, dunlot, \efid- 

amof. 
practicably, dunliko. 
practical, plagik. 
practically, plag&o. 
practicalness, plag. 
practice, plag, plagsLja. 
practise, plagon. 
practiaer, plagA. 
practising, plagol. 
practitioner, plagaX. 
praise, plied, 
praise, pUedoa. 
praiser, pliedel. 

praiseworthil)', pliediko, foftliko. 
praiseworthiness, pliedoi. 
praiseworthy, pliedik, lolnk. 
prance, \\xglolon. 



prancing, lujr/o/ik. 
prancingly, lu^Wiko. 
prank, \\xglol, stai'en, ftci/en. 
prank, lu^foten. 
prankish, yofUk. 
prate, lupfffcen. 
prate, lupafcon. 
prater, lupaiel. 
prating, \apiiko\. 
pratingly, lupuAdko. 
pratique, dal, dismiit. 
prattle, hipiikot. 
prattle, lupufcon. 
prattler, hxpiikA. 
prattling, \apuk. 
pravity, puod 
pray, plekom, hekan, begon. 
prayer, plek, beg. 
prayer, plekel, begel. 
prayerful, iegik, plekH. 
preach, predbn. 
preached, peprerfBl. 
preacher, predel. 
preaching, pred. 
preachment, prediLra 
preamble, hiniln, hipiik. 
precaution, -plokud. 
precaution, plofcurfon. 
precede, higolon. 
precedent, sam. 
precedented, pesamol. 
precept, plog, bud. 
preceptive, plogils. 
preceptor, ft'rfel, masel. 
preceptorial, ftVfelik. 
precession, higolava. 
precious, voladik, kostik, lo/ik. 
preciously, voladiko. 
preciousness, volad. 
preciousstone, nohaston. 
precipice, ledib. 
precipitance, slop, 
precipitant, tuspidol. 



348 



GllAMMAll OF VOLAPiiK. 



precipitantly, inspido. 
precipitate, spidik. 
precipitate, taspidon. 
precipitately, siipito. 
precipitation, tuspidikia. 
precipitous, iaspidik. 
precipitously, spido, spidiiao. 
precipitousness, spidof, foviig. 
precise, ]fuladik. 
precisely, kulado. 
preciseness, kulad. 
precision, kuladot. 
predicate, lesa^on, lepuk'on. 
predication, \esag lepuk. 
predict, plo/eton. 
predicting, plofetoi. 
prediction, plofetekm.. 
predictive, plofeAk. 
predict! vely, plofeto 
predictor, piq^tetel. 
predominance, solef. 
predominant, so7eflk. 
predominantly, 'soleio. 
predominate, solefon. 
predominating, solei6\. 
predomination, solef am. 
preface, plapod, hipiik. 
preface, bipafcon. 
prefacer, hipiikel. 
prefatory, niinik. 
prefer, hizugoji, fodiin. 
lireferable, bizupiik. 
preferableness, bizu^'of. 
preferably, hiziigiko. 
preference, hiziig. 
preferential, bizu^ik. 
preferentially, bizu^riko. 
preferment, bizu^am, f dd, fodsmi 
preferrer, fodel. 
prefix, hisUab. 
prefix, lonon. 
pregnancy, fet, daiMwal. 
pregnant, flukik, /erik 



pregnantly, fetiko. 
prehensible, gleipik. 
prehension, gkipbn. 
prejudge, bicorfatbn. 
prejudgement, bicotZatam. 
prejudice, dam. 
prejudicial, ddmik. 
prejudicially, damiko. 
prelacy, lekler. 
preliminarily, biio. 
preliminary, hiio. 
prelude, hipled. 
prelude, Toipledon- 
preluder, hipledol. 
preludium, hipled 
preluaiTe, hipledik. 
prelusively, hipledo. 
premature, nei/mik. 
prematureness, neiimof. 
premier, letfiireal. , 
premise, \>ilona.ra 
preoccupanoy, bifaiam. 
preoccupation, biZafcam. 
preoccupied, bifajik. 
preoccupy, biZa66n. 
prepaid, bipe/ik. 
preparation, plepal 
pi'eparative, plepa&. 
preparatively, plepalo. 
preparatory, plspalik. 
prepare, plepalori, holiikon. 
prepared, ^%plepal6\. 
preparedly, plepaVik. 
preparer, plepahl. 
prepay, bipe^bn 
prepayment, hipel&va. 
preposition, plapod. 
prepositional, 'plapodik. 
prepossessor, hilabA. 
preposterous, i-arfik. 
preposterously, uaiiiko. 
preposterousness, vad. 
presage, pl'dfet&m.., 



GKAMilAR OF VOLaIUK. 



349 



presage, p/ii/eton. 
presageM, plofedk. 
presager, pte/e/el. 
presaging, plofetik. 
prescience, 'binol. 
prescient, binoZik. 
preseious, hinolik 
prescribe, plogon. 
prescribed, plog&. 
prescript, plog. 
prescription, plogam.. 
presence, plisen. 
present, plisenik. 
present, le^/cot, lof. 
present, nwion, lofon. 
presentable, moJik. 
presentation, legtvot lof. 
presentative, Zo/^ik, 
presenter, fo/el. 
presentiment, ble^en. 
presentimental, blesenik. 
presently, nn, pliseno. 
presentment, lof, lojava.. 
preservable, pfese/ik, konse/"ik. 
preservation, plese/a.m.. 
preservative, ples^ik. 
preserve, lesat;on, plesef on, kon- 

sefan. 
preserve, konsef. 
preserved, konsefH. 
preserver, konsefel, plesefel. 
preserving, konse/ik, plese/ii.. 
preside, hisiedon. 
presidency, hisiedam. 
president, hisiedel. 
presidential, bisieafelik 
presidentship, hisiedof. 
presider, hisiedel. 
presiding, hisiefSk. 
press, ped. 
press, pedon. 
pressed, pedii. 
presser, pede\. 



pressing, pedol. 
pressingly, petfiko. 
pression, pedain. 
pressman, pedei. 
pressure, pe<iam. 
prestigiator, pokan. 
presumable, nilud^ik. 
presume, niludon. 
presumer, nUudth 
presuming, niltuEk. 
presumption, nilud. 
presumptive, 6o/edik. 
presumptively, ioledQ. 
presumptuous, boledik. 
presumptuously, holedo- 
presumptiousness, boled. 
pretence, rog. 
pretend, ro^iSn, lesayon, lep«fcon, 

niludon. 
pretended, rogih. 
pretendedly, ro^iko. 
pretender, rogel. 
pretention, flag, 
pretex, tegon. 
prettily, Wfiko. 
prettiness, jon 
pretty, ze, te/ik, jonik. 
prevail, Jlunon. 
prevailing, ;?unik. 
prevailingly, ^uniko. 
prevalence, flun. 
prevalent, sotefik. 
prevalently, so/efiko. 
prevaricate, i-anon. 
prevaricating, t-anik. 
prevarication, vanam. 
prevaricator, ranel. 
prevenient, ne/erik. 
prevent, neleton 
preventer, neletel. 
prevention, nelet, neZeftim. 
preventive, neZerik. 
preventive, kautumed. 



350 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



previous, biifoik. 

previously, biifo. 

prevision, plofcwrf. 

prey, lapin. 

prey, lapinon. 

preyer, lapinel 

price, mesed, volad, suam. 

price, voladon. 

Price-current, suam&Used. 

priced, uo/a(iik. 

priceless, n&ooladik, nerfjwit. 

price-list, suamaZaserf. 

Prick, spsraam. 

prick, piinon, stigon. 

Pricker, stigA. 

Pricking, stig\k. 

Prikliness, sizyikof. 

prikly, stigiko, s^lik. 

Pride, pleid. 

Prideful, pleidW. 

priest, sanalel. 

Priesthood, sanalad. 

priestly, sa«67elik 

prim, stifiik. 

prim, \aglol6Ti. 

primarily, rigadik.o. 

primary, rj^^adik. 

prime . . . , le . . . 

prime, baliif (music). 

primely; stifiis.. 

primitive, rig&&. 

primitively, rijradik. 

primitiveness, rig'dl. 

primly, stifo. 

primness, stif. 

prince, leson. 

princely, lesonifc 

prince-royal, iZonaleson. 

princess, of-lesora, ji-leson. 

princess-royal, of-fcZonalesora, ji- 

fc/orealeson. 
principal, gledj'n. 
principal, \Qpato, lepariko. 



principality, solef. 
prinoipallyi lepariko. 
principle, plisip. 
principle, plisip, stab. 
prink, \agloKu. 
print, mak, kiipamaZ. 
print, mctkon, hiik'dn. 
printed, hiikik. 
printer, bukel. 
printery, biiken. 
printing, perfam. 
printing-press, ped. 
prior, prob 
prioress, of-prob. 
priority, iegolug. 
priorship, probers. 
priory-jO)'o6op. 
prison, farmb. 
prison, faniiion. 
prisoned, pe/anol. 
prisoner, pe/anel 
prittle-prattle, lupii^ot. 
privacy, soal 
private, plivod. 
privateer, mosumel. 
privately, kldnoSko. 
privateness, kldnbi. 
privation, n&lab. 
privative, nonelik. 
privatively, detiilo. 
privilege, plivileg. 
privilege, plivilegon. 
privileged, pUvilegHk.. 
privileging, plivilegam.. 
privily, klmH&'k. 
privity, klcinoi. 
privy, plivod. 
prize, suam; volad. 
prize, pliedon, loVon. 
prized, pliedi^. 
prizer, pliedel, loiel. 
probability, hivelat, am.a,velat. 
probable, hwelatik. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPilK . 



351 



probably, Iwvelatiko. 
probation, blof, bluf, hlu/a.m. 
probationer, pe6to/el. 
probative, blufik. 
probator, blufel. 
probity, . rit 
problem, mob. 
problematic, dodk. 
problematical, dotik. 
problematically, dotiko. 
procedore, gita.feit. 
proceed, fovon. 
proceeding, bit. 
process, pbzet, gon 
proces-verbal, plotog. 
proclaim, no^on. 
proclaimer, notel. 
proclamation, peseram, not 
proclamator notel. 
proclivity, slop, 
procreate, pdlon, j'af on, faton 
procreation, jaf, jafajn. 
procreator, /a/an, fat. 
procuracy, dalaxa. 
procurator, lavogel. 
procure, luki/a/on. 
procurer, lukya/el. 
procuring, luki/o/'ik. 
prodigal, liixdmel. 
prodigal, liiaramik. 
prodigality, liixsmi. 
prodigally, liixamiko 
prodigious, storaik. 
prodigiously, stuniko. 
prodigiousness, stun, stunM. 
prodigy, milag, \amm. 
produce, suam. 
produce, Miinon, kodon, pdlon, 

ja/dn. 
producer, kodel, jenel, lautel, 

rigel. 
producing, faS. 
productive, /eftk. 



preductively, fetiko. 

productiveness, fet. 

productivity, fet. 

proem, hiptik. 

proemial, hipHkik. 

profanation, nekosekam. 

profane, nelestimjk. 

profane, migehon, nekosekon. 

profanely, to.'ik. 

profaneness, talal. 

profaner, yemodel. 

profess, noelon 

professedly, lopoSk. 

profession, cal, noeZiid, noelsim. 

professional, caZik. 

professionally, caZiko. 

professor, plofed. 

professorial, plofedik. 

proffer, lof. 

proffer, lofon, da/o/on, stei/bn. 

profferer, lo/el, steifel. 

proficience, mostep. 

proficient, mosfepik. 

proficuous, po/adik. 

proficuousness, pb/Mbi, pbfiid. 

profit, vob, pof^d. 

profit, fodbn, pofudbn. 

profitable, pofiidik. 

profitableness, pofiifoi. 

profitably, pofiidiko, pofMo. 

profiting, p'dfiidA. 

profitless, nepofiidik. 

profligate, glibel. 
profligate, /emodik. 
profligateness, yemodof. 
profound, dibik, rfijalik. 
profound, dib, ledib. 
profoundly, dibiko. 
profoundness, dib, dibal. 
profundity, dib, dib&l. 
profuse, nezesudik. 
profusely, liixamiko. 
profuseness, bundan. 



352 



GBAMMAll OF VOLAItlK. 



profusion, bundan. 
prog, liiajmed. 
progeny, gen. 
programma, plogam. 
progress, raosiep. 
progress, raestepoji. 
progression, raostopa.ra. 
progressive, vaostepik. 
progressively, mostepo. 
progressiveness, mostep. 
prohibit, neZeion. 
prohibited, neZerik. 
prohibiter, neZefel. 
prohibition, ■aektp.m. 
project, ployeg. 
project, ployegon. 
projected, ployegik. 
projectile, ^eASfdin. . 
projecting, ployegii. 
projection, ployeg, desin. 
projector, ployegA. 
prolific, fenk. 
prologizer, hipikA. 
proloque, hipUk. 
prologue, hipUkor).. 
prolong, lonedon. 
prolongation, lonedaxa., 
prolonged, lonedik. 
prolonger, lonedel. 
prolusion, bluf. 
promenade, spat, 
promenade, spaton. 
promenader, spaiel. 
prominence, klat, hizitgoi. 
prominent, siHk, kla&. 
prominently, levemo, siko, klato. 
promise, pomet. 
promise, pometon, 
promised, pometik. 
promiser, pometel. 
promote, fodon. 
promoter, f'idel. 
promotion, fcid, fod&ra. 



promotive, fodik. 
prompt, skiliik, mi/iIj:, 6a/olik. 
prompt, mebon; stigon. 
prompter; mebel; stige]. 
promptitude, vif, skiil. 
promptly, vi/ik, skilik. 
promptness, skill, vif. 
prone, slopik; desidik. 
pronely, slopiko, desido. 
proneness, slop, 
pronominal, ponopik, 
pronominally, ponopiko. 
pronoun, pSnop. 
pronounce, codatoji, sepiikon. 
pronouncer, codatel. 
pronunciation, aepiik. 
pronunciatior,. sepiike\. 
■proof, blbf; bluf. 
proof, blSfon. 
prop, ylif. 
prop, yUfoa. 

propagate, pakon, tnoplanon. 
propagated, paAik. 
propagation, pak, pakam. 
progagatpr, , pakel. 
propel, mo/on. 
propeller, mo/el. 
propend, slopoa. 
propense, klienih. 
propensity, klien. 
proper, uoik, kuladik. 
properly, voi, kulado. 
property, l6n, lab. 
prophecy, pZo/eiam. 
prophesy, plofeton. 
' prophet, plbfei. 
prophetess, ]i-pldfet, of-plofet. 
prophetic, plofetik. 
prophetical, plo/etlik. 
prophetically, pliifetliko. 
propitiate, lekosilon, stilon. 
propitiation, lekosUam. 
propitiator, lekosilel. 



GRAJI51AR OF VOLAPuK. 



353 



propitious, benik, gmik. 

propitiously, herako, ^oniko. 

propitiousness, benot, gonbf. 

proportion, tefam, dinad. 

proportion, noroon. 

proportional, nomik. 

proportionate, nomon. 

proportionate, nomik. 

proportionately, nnrmk. 

proposal, mob. 

propose, mob'on. 

proposer^ mobe\. 

proposition, mob. 

propositional, njoJlik. 

propound, mobon, [o/on,da/o/on. 

propounder, moJel, lofel. 

proprietor, label, 

proprietress, ji-toftel; of-toJel. 

propriety, Ion, lab. 

propulsion, mqfkm.. 

propulsive, mqfik. 

prsoe, nepoed. 

prosecute, /ovon. 

prosecuting, fovik. 

prosecution, fovaxa. 

prosecuter, /ovA. 
prospect, lukilog&vii. 
prospection, T^lokud. 
prospective. feZo^ik. 
prospectively, feZo^iko. 
prospectiveness, feZo^of. 
prospectus, hukadisin, 
prosper, p'opon. 
prosperity, lab, plopot. 
prosperous, Zaftik. 
prosperously, Za6o. 
prosperousness, plopot. 
prostitute yemodik. 
prostitution, neptted. 
prostitntor, /emodel. 
prostrate, ley«7ik. 
prostrate, le/oZon. 
prostration, le/«7am. 



protect, jelov. 
protected, yeZik. 
protectingly, /e/iko. 
protection, jel. 
protector, j'etel. 
protest, seplan. 
protest, noelon. 
protestant, protestan. 
protestant, protestanik. 
protestantism, protestanim. 
protestation, sep/anam. 
protested, sepZanik. 
protester, sep/anel. 
protract, lonedcm, iezogon. 
protacted, feso^ik. 
protractedly, feso^iko. 
protracter, lonedel, fe:o^el. 
protracting, lonedik, fezo^ik. 
protraction, lonedxm. 
protr-active, ZoraecZlik, fezo^lik. 
pi'otractor, lonedA, fe:o^el. 
proud, pleitTik, pleidik. 
proudish, pleitWk, pleidMk. 
proudly, pleito, pleido. 
provable, blofit, 
provably, blqfiko. 
prove, blo/bn, jonou. 
proved, peZiZo/ol. 
provender, stok. 
prover, blo/el. 

proverb, pet, piiked, pukeia^idJ. 
proverbial, piike6ia,vddik. 
proverbially, piikeinv'ddiko. 
provide, blimon. 
provided, pldsif. 
providence, kaut 
provident, kautik. 
providential, kautik. 
providentially, kautiko. 
providently, kaiitiko. 
provider, blunel. 
province, plovin. 
provincial, plovinik. 



354 



GUAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



provincialism, plovinim. 
provincialist, plovinel. 
provincially, plovino. 
provision, stok. 
provision, stok'on. 
provisional, timik. 
provisionall}', timo. 
provocation, stig, stigam. 
provocative, stigik. 
provocativeness, stigoi. 
provoke, stigon, nofon. 
provoked, stigik, pesfe^'ol. 
provoker, no/el. 
provoking, stigik, no/ik. 
provokingly, nq/iko. 
provost, hisiedel. 
prow, lanimik, 
prowness, lanim. 
proximate, m'/ikiin. 
proximately, niln. 
proximity, nil. 
pmdence, kaut. 
prudent, kautik. 
prudential, kautik. 
prudentially, fcauriko. 
prudently, kautiko. 
prune, plom. 
prune, ladekoji. 
Prussia, Pleus. 
Prussian, pleusel. 
Prussian, pleusik. 
psalm, psam. 
psalmist, psamel. 
puberty, manlikof. 
public, publug. 
public, waSkodik, manifik. 
publican, puhliigel. 
publication, puhliig&ioa.. 
public-houae, labot, Zoiop. 
publicity, manifdi. 
publicy, puhlugiko. 
publicness, manifoi. 
publish, pubKgbn, pUbon. 



published, publilgik. 

publisher, piibA, bukasetel. 

publishing, pnb'6\. 

pudder, boset. 

pudder, hosetm. 

puddle, fiv. 

puddle, fivon. 

puddly, stenik, miotik. 

pudency, siidoi. 

pudicity, pued, stim%\, 

puff, hxglol. 

puff, vienon, hladon. 

puffer, lu^r^otel. 

puffingly, IvLnatemikQ . 

puffy, lu£r/o/ik. 

puissance, valud, mekuA, nam. 

puissant, mefcik, valiidHk. 

puissantly, niimiko, valwdo. 

puke, \\jisputoia.. 

puker, XnsputA. 

puking, luspurik. 

pule, plono-D., grik6n. 

pull, ten, ienam. 

pull, tenon, zugon. 

puller, tenel, zugel. 

pulley, pulit. 

pulpit, zop. 

pulpitist, zopel. 

pulpy, midik, mitik. 

pulsate, nokon. 

pulsation, reoifcam. 

pulsative, nokik. 

pulse, veib. 

pump, pom. 

pump, ^omon. 

pumper, ^omel. 

punch, stib. 

punch, stibon, duspmdn. 

puncheon, stap. 

puncher, puna^m. 

punctual, kuladik. 

punctualist, kuladel. 

punctuality, kuladoi. 



GBAMMAB, OF VOLAPUK. 



355 



punctually, kuladj^o. 
punctualness, kuladoi. 
punctuate, piinon. 
punctuation, piinoA. 
punctuator, piinel. 
puDctuist, piinel. 
pungency, heital. 
pungent, beiiik. 
pungently, beiiiko 
punish, piinon, stalon. 
punishable, ponik. 
punishableness, ponal. 
punisher, panel, blamel. 
punishment, pon, blam. 
pupil, pSsanol, pofcaZol. 
pupilage, tidatim. 
puppet, fop. 
purchase, lem. 
purchase, lemon. 
purchased, lemol. 
purchaser, lemel. 
pure, .'eik, ni/silik. 
pnrely, te, nifalo. 
pureness, ni/'al, klin. 
purgation, rur. 
pui^tive, klinik. 
purgatively, klino. 
purgatory, klinamaiop. 
purge, klinbn nifdlon. 
purger, klinA, nifdlel. 
purging, iimik. 
purification, klina,ra. 
pnrificator, klinel. 
purified, iZinik. 
purifier, klinel. 
purify, klinon, nifHon. 
purifying, klinlik. 
purity, pued, ni/'al, klin. 
ptirl, miir. 
purl, miiron. 
purling, miink. 
purloin, tif on. 
purloiner, tifel. 



purloining, tifik, tifol. 
purple, piipun. 
purple, piipunon. 
purpled, piipun^k. 
purplish, piipunlik. 
purport, nilud, siam. 
purport, niludon, sidmoa. 
purpose, desan, desein. 
purpose, desdnbn, desinon. 
purposely, nolo, pleso, nolblo, 

desinik. 
purse, bob. 
purse, 6o6on. 
pursuance, fov. 
pursuant, segun, ma. 
pursuantly, fomko. 
pursue, fovbn, suhon. 
pursued, /owik. 
pursuer, fovel, sukel. 
pursuing, fomk, si/fcik. 
pursuit, /owam, sukanx. 
pursy, stovnk. 
purvey, stokon. 
purveyance, lifamecfe, stok. 
purveyor, stokA. 
push, jok. 
push, jokon. 
pushing, jolak. 
pushingly, jolclik. 
pusillanimity, ne/anim. 
pusillanimous, nelanirmk. 
pusillanimously, nelanivno. 
puss, kat, ]\-kat. 
put, globel, stiipel. 
put, siadon, pladon, seitbn, stig- 

6n, mobon, kodon, mekon. 
putative, niludik. 
putrefaction, puodam. 
putrefactive, puodik. 
putrefied, ptiodik, 
putrefy, puodon. 
putrefying, puodik. 
puzzle, rat. 



356 



GBAMMAU OP VOLAPUK. 



puzzle, rdton. 
puzzled, ratik. 
puzzler, ratel. 
puzzling, rarik. 
pyramid, pir. 



pyramidal, pirik. 
pyramidally, pinko. 
pyramidic, pirik 
pyramidical, pirik. 
pyramidically, piriko. 



Q. 



quack, lusanel, iuglolel. 
quack, lusanon, lagloKn. 
quackery, Inglol, lusanen. 
quacksalver, lusanel. 
quadrangle, io\a,gul, vadat. 
quadrangular, vadatik 
quadrangularly, vudaiiik. 
quadrate, vadat, iolskflan. 
quadratic, vadatik. 
quadrature, vadai&va. 
quaff, k'dpon. 
quaffer, IcopA. 
quagmire, Xvdak. 
quail, zogon. 
quailing, zog. 
quake, triKm, dlem'dn. 
quake, lemw/Sn, /efcOn. 
quaker, dlemel. 
qualification, fag, gitaxa. 
qualificator, gitel. 
qualified, T^egitol. 
qualifier, gitel. 
qualify, giton, mafi\kon. 
quality, likoi. 
qualm, naud. 
qualmish, naudlik, 
qualmishly, naudo. 
qualmislinessB, naud'ot. 
quantity, limoi^of. 
quarrel, dikod, zan. 
quarrel, dikod'dn, zanon. 
quarreller, zanel. 
quarrelsome, zanik, dikodik. 
quarrelsomely, aanlik, dikodlik. 
quarrelsomeness, zanof, dikodot. 



quart, MAil. 

qaaxter, folum. 

quarter, fold.il, yelsSoldit. 

quarterly, yeiAaloldilik. 

quartette, folma. 

quast, noson. 

quash, jiosam. 

quaternary, folA. 

quaver, tril. 

quaver, triloba.. 

quaverer, trilA. 

quavering, trilik, tril&^. 

quay, kav. 

queen, of-reg, ji-reg. 

queen, of-re^'on, 

queenly, of-re^ik, ji-reg'ik. 

queer, selednik, drolik. 

queerish, seledlik. 

queer-fellow, Ixxmilagmil. 

queerly, milagniko. 

queerness, milagnQi. 

quench, noson. 

querimonioua, plonik, yamSs.. 

querimoniously, jo?onlik, 

querimoniousness,p7on6f , 3(amof» 

querist, aUkel. 

querulous, p?onik. 

querulously, phniko. 

querulousness, p\on6i, yam&i.. 

query, sak. 

query, safcSn. 

quest, diS,vestig. 

quest, d-ZioestigoTa., steifon. 

question, sak. 

question, sa A;8n, 



GRAMMAft OP VOLAPilK. 



357 



■questionable, dotik. 
questionableness, dotoL 
questionably, dotiko. 
questioner, safcel. 
questionist, sakel. 
quick, sun, sanik, vifik. 
quick, U/iV. 
quicken, stmon, vifon. 
quickened, pesunol. 
quickener, sunel, viftl. 
quickening, sunata. 
quickly, simo, /oviko. 
quickness, vif. 
quicksilver, kegin. 
quicksilvered, keginik. 
quiddit, tipal. 
quiescence, taked. 
quiescency, taked. 
quiescent, takedik. 
quiescently, takedol 
quiet, stUik. 
quiet! takedol seilo!. 
quiet, taked, stil. 
quietism, takedal. 
quietly, -takedo 
quietness, stil. 
quietude, stil, taieiaL 
quill, pen, bodapere 
quill, plifoTn. 
quina, hinin. 
quince, kvit. 



quincetree, kvitaJm. 
quindecagon, bahelulaguL 
quinine, hinin, 
quint, lului. 
qvuntal, kuin. 
quintessence, ker. 
quintillion, Mion. 
quintet, lul'am.. 
quintuple, lulik. 
quip, ko/on. 
quire, p6pem. 
quit, ZaJwon. 
quit, libik, IwiR. 
quite, loliko. 
quittal, kiiam.. 
quittance, kit, 
quitter, libel. 
quiver, uifik. 
quiver, dlemon, trilon- 
quivering, dlemik. 
quiveringly, dlemiko. 
quiz, fco/el. 
quiz, cogon, fopou. 
quota, limorfikos, diloA. 
quotation, zital&m.. 
quotationist, zitateX. 
quote, ztta^on. 
quoter, zitatei, 
quoth he, sagora. 
quotidian, varfe/ik. 



B. 



rabbet, seb. 
rabble, \\xpop. 
rabid, le/opik, Durik. 
rubidly, vuto. 
rabidness, vut, vutoi. 
race, gen, stam, r6n, 
race, roraon. 
racemation, luf- 
*acer, rSnel. 



raceme, lufW.. 
racing, rimam. 
rack, skaf. 

rack, tomon, mefadon. 
racket, boset. 
racket, cogon. 
radiance, magif. 
radiant, magifik, glolik. 
radiantly, gloliko. 



358 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUk. 



radiate, Inglolbn, radon. 
radiating, nidik, stalik. 
radiation, rad, radnva. 
radiator, radA, Inglolel. 
radical, j-z^'adik. 
radicalism, rignA. 
radically, njradito, 
radicalness, rigal. 
radish, raf. 
radius, zilagasta^ 
rag, luklof. 
rage, vut. 
rage, vut'dn. 
rageful, vutik 
ragged, luMofik. 
raggedly, luklo/iko 
raggedness, hiklofSl. 
raging, vutik. , 
ragingly, vutiko. 
ragman, IxiklS/ei. 
rail, put, tlel. 
rail, tleloii, budbn. 
railer, kofel. 
railing, kofen, bud. 
railing, kqfik. 
railingly, koftko, i:o/lik, 
raillery, cog. 
railroad, leloA. 
railway, leloA. 
raiment, fcZoiad. 
rain, ISmib, ai\a,vat, 
rain, lomibon, silawaion. 
rainbow, ldmiba.bob. 
raininess, lomibHi. 
rain-water, ail&vat. 
rainy, lomibik. 
raise, sutowon. 
raised, sutowik. 
raiser, leilimel, sutovel. 
raisin, rosin, 
raising, sutowol. 
rake, glibel. 
rakei monal6n. 



rakebeHr? glibel. 

rakehelly, glibeiik. 

raking, monalik. 

rakish, monalnik, glibi^, gagik^ 

rakishly, monaliko. 

rakishness, monal, /dial. 

rally, cog, kof. 

rally, Aeimklubon, kofbn. 

ramble, polioejron. 

rambler, poliue^el. 

rambling, poliue^am. 

ramblingly, poliwe^iko. 

ramp, bun. 

ramp, bunoTn. 

rampancy, liixam\6i. 

rancorous, 'etik, "^edik, lezun&.^ 

rancour, 'et, lezun. 

rand, sim. 

range, gimefcon, leodoioj. 

ranger, leodel. 

rank, dinit, stiim. 

rank, leodina.. 

rankle, badlbn. 

rankness, lene^juetZug. 

ransack, /emodSn. 

ransom, livaZemBn. 

ransomed, ■peliva.lemoi. 

ransomer, livaZemel. 

rant, Inglol. 

rant, luglolbn. 

ranter, laglolel. 

ranting, luglolnm. 

ranty, Inglolik. 

rap, flap, 

rap, flapbn. 

rapacious, lapinik. 

rapaciously, lapiniko. 

rapaciousness, lapiniksiik^ 

rapacity, lapinasafc. 

rape, lapin. 

rapid, vifiV, /ouik. 

rapidity, vif 

rapidly, /ouiko. 



GRAMMAR or VOLAPUK. 



359 



rapidness, vif. 

rapine, lapin. 

rapine, lapinon. 

rapper, flapel. 

rapture, le^a7, legaltua. 

repture, legdlon. 

raptured, le^a7ik, pele^atol. 

rapturist, legdlel. 

rapturous, \egalik. 

raptui'ously, le^a/iko. 

rare, spdlmk, seledik. 

rarefective, slenik. 

rarefaction, slenstm. 

rarefy, slenon. 

rarely, selediko. 

rareness, seled. 

rarity, seled. 

rascal, fdpel, glibel, h\man. 

rascal, japan. 
rascality, jap. 

rascallion, luman. 

rascally, joplik, jdpi]s., ^Zzftelik, 

lumanik. 
rash, spidik. 
rashly, tusp/c?iko. 
rat, rat. 

ratahilit}', divoi. 
ratable, divik. 
rat-catcher, ratel. 
rate, mesed, mod. 
rate, divim, diiv'dn. 
rater, d&ve\, divel. 
rather, bufam{o). 
ratification, sinjn. 
ratifier, beszamel, sj'amel 
ratify, hesion, szon. 
ratiocinate, disputon, piikon. 
rational, lisaniTs. 
rationality, Hsan, gid. 
rationalize, gidon. 
rationally, Usaniko, gidiko. 
rancity, nokebate'd. 
rancous, nokehatedik. 



ravage, lapin, distuk. 
ravage, lapinon, distukon. 
ravaged, pefZistofcol. 
ravager, disiukel. 
rave, Vdseion. 
ravel, kofudcm., kompligon. 
raven, rab. 
raven, lapinoTi. 
ravener, lapinel. 
ravenous, lapinasiiHk. 
ravenously, lapinasaHkn. 
raver, hosetei. 
ravin, lapin. 
ravine, gur. 
raving, vut. 
raving, vutik. 
ravingly, ouriko. 
ravish, /emodpn, legalon. 
ravished, j'emodik.. 
ravisher, jemodel, legalel. 
ravishing, jemoda,m, leg alum.. 
ravishing, legdlik. 
ravishingly, le^a7iko. 
ravishment, jemodam, leg HI, 

legalaxa.. 
raw, liidik. 
rawish, feVZlik. 
rawly, ludo. 
rawness, lud. 
ray, stal. 
ray, sibon, stalon. 
raze, raoson. 
reach, lof'an. 
reach, fag, kaf. 
reacher, lofA. 
read, liladon. 
readable, liladik. 
readableness, liladoi. 
readably, liladliik. 
reader, lUadA. 
readily, nefikulo, /'owiko. 
readiness, vilbi, 16b. 
reading, lilad, liladn'm. 



360 



GUAMMAU or VOLAEUIs.. 



ready, viloSk, lobik, -pekofiikol. 
real, ueZarik. 
realist, siimel. 
realistic, siJmelik. 
realization voleksxa, volek. 
realize, volekon. 
really, vo ! vo ! veladko ! 
realty, fiedoi. 
reanimate, denuZaraon. 
reanimation, denuZaream, 
reap, Idopdn. 
reaper, TclopA. 
reaping, hlopzxa.. 
reappear, denupufton. 
reappearance, denupjjJ. 
rear, stigou, suiouon. 
reason, kod, lisan. 
reasonable, gidHik. 
reasonableness, gid. 
reasonably, gidiko. 
reasoner, piihei. 
reasoning, piihsxa.. 
rebel, volidA. 
rebel, volutoia.. 
rebellion, vnlut. 
rebellious, voluiik.. 
rebelliously, woZudik. 
rebelliousness, volutoi. 
rebuke, blam. 
rebuke, hlamQn.. 
rebuker, ftZomel. 
recant, tauofcSn. 
recantation, tawofam. 
recanter, tawoM. 
recapitulate, derewon hlefo. 
recapitulation, denuam SZe/ik, 
recapture, denudaZopam. 
recapture, denudaZopon. 
recede, hlemXm.. 
receipt , kit , get , ninsum , 

linkipBiXa.. 
receipt, kiton, lusumon. 
receipted, pefctYol. 



receiptor, feVel, linkipA. 

receive,£re<on,lusMmbn, Zmfcjpon, 

received, ^erik, pef/eiol. 

receiver, getA. 

receiving, getb\. 

recency, nul. 

recension, kriit. 

recent, nuZik. 

recently, lew, nii, nulo. 

reception, get, Zmfepana. 

receptive, jretik. 

recess, soal, getav. 

I'eoession, geZou(am). 

reciprocal, rezipiV. 

reciprocally, rezipliV 

reoiprocalness, rezip. 

reciprocate, rezipoia.. 

reciprocating, rezip\k. 

reciprocation, rezipzm.. 

reeiprosity, rezip. 

recital, pUk&t. 

recitation, puk&i 

ricitative, puksAXk. 

recitatively, pafatiko. 

recite, ^aifcaton. 

reciter, p»Z;atel. 

reckless, n^kudSk. 

recklessly, -aelcudo. 

recklessness, -aeskiid. 

reckon, kaloia.. 

reckoner, fcaZel. 

reckoning, kalava. 

recline, sZqpon. 

recluse, soalA. 

recluse, soaZik. 

recluseness, soal. 

recognition, leseuam. 

recognitor, lesevel, 

.recognizance, lesfiv. 

recognize, lesewon. 

recoiler, volutel. 

recollect, memdn, denutonZe^Sn. 

recollection, mem. 



GBAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



361 



recollective, memik. 
recommend, komedon. 
recommendable, komedik, 
recommendation, komed. 
recomniender, Icomedel. 
recompense, meserfam. 
recompense, mese(?8n. 
recompensed, pemesetiol. 
recompensing, mesedol. 
reconcile,_/?en6n,lefcos27on,s?i7on. 
reconciled, lekosilik. 
reconcilement, lefcosziam. 
reconciler, lekosilel. 
reconciliation, lefcosj'Zam. 
reconciliator, lefcos«7el . 
reconciling, lefcosi'Zik 
record, mebamoZ, lised, kon, 

jena6«fc. 
record, lisedon, konon. 
recorder, lisedel, konel, jena- 

kone\. 
recording, fconik. 
recover, denusuanon. 
recovering, denusuonbl. 
recoverer, denusuanel. 
recovery, denusuan. 
recreancy, temipal. 
recreant, teinipi^. 
reoreantly, temip\ik. 
rectification, ^utfikumam, men- 

od, 
rectifier, menodel. 
rectify, menodbn. 
rector, rekel. 
rectoral, rekelik, 
rectorship, rekeliig. 
recur, getdvSn, 
recurrence, getav. 
recurrency, getdv. 
recusation, nesiam. 
red, ledik. 
redaction, redak. 
redden, led'dn. 



reddened, peZed5l. 
reddish, Mlik 
redeem, deZiuon. 
redeemable, deZ;wik. 
redeemableness, deZeuSf. 
redeemed, pedefevdi. 
redeemer, Aelivel. 
redemption, ieliv. 
redemptive, deZiuik. 
redness, led. 
redress, denusatm, yuf. 
redress, denusauradn. 
reduce, smdtbn, lunon. 
reduced, peZKraol. 
reducement, Zujiam 
reducer, fanel, smalei. 
reduction, Zuraam. 
refer, loyonon. 
reference, lii;'on. 
referential, lujomk. 
referentially, lu/onlik. 
refine, menodon, feinon. 
refinement, smoZnof, /««nam. 
refiner, menodel, feinel. 
refinery , menodura , /emam , 

smalnoi. 
refining, menodik, feimk. 
reflect, siamon 
reflection, tik&m. 
reflective, siamik. 
reflectively, siamiko. 
reflectiveness, siamoi. 
reflector, sidmA. 
refloat, ban. 
reflux, ban. 
refrain, sionon. 
refresh, fli/bn. 
refresher, flifel. 
refreshing, jflifik. 
refreshingly, flif iko. 
refuge, jelb^. 
refuge, jelbn. 
refusal, nesiam. 



362 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



refuse, nesson. 

refuser, neszel. 

regale, Zmfczjpam. 

regale, Unkip^n. 

regality, regtg. 

regally, re^'ik. 

regard, stiim, \6stim, befo^am. 

regard, beZo^'on, ie/on, stiimovL. 

regarder, beZo^el. 

regardful, kud\k.. 

regardfuUy, fcurfiko. 

regards, glid(s). 

regency, reg&m. 

regent, regel. 

rpgentess, ji-re^el, of-re^el, 

regimen, diat. 

regiment, regan. 

regimental, reganik. 

region, topoi. 

register, Used. 

registrar, lisedel. 

registration, lisedava. 

regret, pSnit. 

regret, ponitba. 

regretful, ponitik. 

regular, nomomo/ik. 

regularity, nomoma/. 

regularly, nomoma/iko. 

regulate, nomon, lenZeocZon, 

regulon. 
regulation, nomuva, regul&w.. 
regulative, regulik. 
regulator, regul, regulel. 
rehearsal, pUkut, denuaxa. 
rehearse, piiksAon, denuoTi. 
rehearser, piiJcsttel, denuel. 
reign, regsbm, ' 
reign, re^on. 
reigning, regik, 
rein, dug. 
rein, dugon. 
rejoice, galdkHn. 
rejoicing, gcilik. 



rejoicingly, gcilo. 

relate, fcoreoh. 

relater, fcorael. 

relation, konskToa., te/aja. 

relative, te/a,mik. 

relatively, te/o, tefu. 

relator, konel. 

relax, miidan. ' 

relaxation, miidaim.. 

release, liv, Kuam. 

release, lib'on, deKuon. 

relent, ponitoia.. 

relenting, pdnihk. 

reliance, konfld. 

relic, leman. 

relict, yi-viudA. 

relief, leitsaa. 

relieve, leifaa. 

relieving, leito\.. 

religion, rel. 

religious, reHk. 

religiously, reViko. 

religiousness, reiad. 

relinquish, ZauSn. 

relinquishment, luv, lHvaxa.. 

relish, plid, smek, giit. 

relish, plidbu, mudoTo.. 

relishing, plidik, l&plidik. 

reluctance, naud, 

reluctant, naudik. 

reluctantly, naudika. 

rely, l&konfMn. 

remain, paZemanon. 

remainder, leman, likad. 

remains, lemdns. 

remark, notam, noted. 

remark, notim, notaxabn, loegbn, 

seniton, 
remarkable, makabik. 
remarkableness, makab. 
remarkably, malabo. 
remedy, medin. 
remedy, sanon, denusaunon. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



363 



remember, mebon, memon. 
remembrance, meb, mem. 
remind, mebon, memon. 
remindful, me5ik, memik. 
reminiscense , mem, meb. 
remiss, InZerik, nedutik. 
remission, nedut, Inlet. 
remit, yilon, loYegivon. 
remitter, loveyjVel, yilel. 
remnant, leman. 
remorse, ponit. 
remorseful, ponitik. 
remorsefully, ponito. 
remote, /agik. 
remoteness, fag, fagaxa.. 
removably, jno/iko, mofo. 
removal, mo/am, mof. 
remove, fagon, mofon. 
removed, fagol, mofol. 
rend, sliton, dimirfon. 
render, pel, pela,m, koef. 
render, yifon, pelon, Tcoefoa. 
Tenderer, koef A, yilei. 
rendering, koefam, y?7am. 
renew, nulon. 
renewal , nufam. 
renewed, nuloil, nulik. 
renewing, nulaxa. 
renounce, feneszon. 
renouncement, fenesi'am. 
renouncing, fenesi'amik. 
renown, fam, ZoJum, 
renowned, mdkabi]s.. 
rent, kodut. 
rent, iokoduton. 
renter, ibkoduteh 
renunciation, detlid, klem. 
reorganization, denuTio^'araam. 
reorganize denuno^anon. 
reorganized, denuno^anol. 
repair, menod. 
repair, menodon. 
repairer, menodel. 



repaicment, menod. 

reparable, menodik. 

reparably, menodiko. 

reparation, menodam. 

repast, lefid. 

repast, le^don. 

repeal, dejqf. 

repeal, de/a/bn, tawofcon. 

repealer, de;a/el. 

repeat, denuon. 

repeated, denulik, rfenuamik, 

repeatedly, ai, denusnao. 

repeater, denuel. 

repel, satelon. 

repellent, sa^eZol. 

repeller, shtelol. 

repelling, satelam. 

repent, ponitoji, pdniin. 

repentance, ponit. 

repentant, poniAk, pdn&ddk. 

repentantly, ponito. 

repetition, denunra. 

repine, muron. 

repiner, murel. 

repining, jnuram, nekoten. 

repiningly, muriko. 

reiolier, ge^jifcel, gesa^el. 

reply, gepiik, gesag. 

replj', gepafcdn, gesa^on. 

report, nanod. 

report, nunon, nunodon, noton. 

reported, penunodol. 

r-eporter, nunodel. 

reportership, nunodeliig. 

repose, taked, stil. 

repose, takedon, lekonfidon. 

reprehend, blamvn. 

reprehender, blamel. 

reprehension, blam, blamabva. 

reprehensive, blamik. 

reprehensively, blamliko. 

represent, plisenon. 

representant, pltsenel. 



364 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



representation, plisen&ra.. 
representative, plisemk. 
representer, plisenA. 
repress, \epedoji. 
represser, \&pedA. 
repressing, \&pedik. 
reprimand, blam. 
reprimand, blamon. 
reproach, leblam. 
reproach, leftZamon. 
reproachful, leMamik, nofik. 
reproachfully, le&/amlik, Jem- 

odiho, 
reproachfulness, leblamiii, jem- 

odof. 
reprobate, kodemon, blarn'oTa. 
reprobated, \)ekodemol. 
reprobation, blam{xm). 
reptile, vum 
republic, piiblig. 
republican, pilblige\. 
republicanism, pilbligug. 
republicanize, piibligan. 
republication, publiga,m. 
republish, denupublug'dn. 
repugnance, naud. 
repugnant, naudik. 
repugnantly, naudiko. 
repulse, nesaon. 
reputation, stum, 
repute, fam, nem. 
request, beg. 
request, &a.beg'6n, Jeton.' 
requester, begel, dabegel, 
require, flagm, deman'dn. 
required, Tpeflag 61. 
requirement,Sag. 
requisite, zesiidiTs., 
requisitely, zesiido. 
requisiteness, zesiidot. 
requisition, d&vestig. 
requital, mese(Zam. 
requite, mescdfon. 



requiter, meserfel. 
rescue, AsUv, sav, sawam. 
rescue, deZtw6n, sauon, libon. 
rescuers deZiwel. 
research, Askvestig, x^m, \exdm. 
research, Aa.vestigoii, xamon. 
researcher, da.vestige\, xamel. 
resemblance, leigiii. 
resemble, leigon, {eleigon. 
resent, lasumbn ftadlik. 
resentment, lusen, 'et, lezun. 
reservation, seil, seilUt, plesef. 
reservative, seilik. 
reserve, stok, lesaw. 
reserve, plesef on, honsefbn, 

lesawon. 
reserved, miik^k. 
reservedly, m^fclik. 
reaerver, sdvA plesef A. 
reservoir, vatatub. 
reside, stebon, lodon. 
residence, steb, loAaplad, lod 
resedent, lodol, siedik. 
resign, klemon, yokon, lo'vegivon. 
resister, tael. 
resolute, kimk. 
resolutely, fcmiko. 
resoluteness, Hraam. 
resolution, mplan, seplan,a,m. 
resolve, slud. 
resolve, sludon, smot'oa, 
resolved, fiimik. 
resolvedly, fiimo.' 
resolvedness, film, 
resorter, visitel. 
resource, yuf. 
respect, lestim, stiim. 
respect, lestimon, stiimon. 
respectability, stum&l, stumoi. 
respectable, lesitmlik, stilmik. 
respeotableness, Xestimoi. 
respectably, lesiimo. 
respected, lesiimik. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



365 



respecter, stiimel. 
respectfal, lestimik. 
respectfully, lesftmliko. 
respectfiilness, lesfi'mof. 
respective, ?e/ainik, le^ftmlik, 

l-au6k 
respectively, tefo, l-auto ! 
respiration, natemaxa. 
respirator, natemel. 
respire, natemoJi, hldd6n. 
resplendency, nid, magif. 
resplendent, mag^fi^i. 
resplendently, gloliko. 
respond, gepuk, gesag. 
respond, gepiikon, gesagijn. 
respondent, geputel, gesa^el. 
response, gepiik, gesag. 
responsibility, cotifot. 
rest, leman, likad. 
rest, taked, slip, 
rest, takedon, likadon, 1 e?n an on. 
restaurant, stand, 
restful, tafcerfik. 
restfolly, takedo. 
restfalness, takedoi. 
restitation, gegi/t;am. 
restless, ne/ai"edik. 
restlessly, netakedo. 
restlessness, netaked. 
restoration, gegivara, gud&m. 
restorative, yJmik. 
restorator, gegivel, gvdel 
restore, gegivoa, gudim. 
restorer, giide\, g&giv€i. 
result, fin, sek. 
result, sek&n, ziton. 
resultant, kludo, also, 
resume, gesi/mon. 
resumption, gesumam. 
resumptive, gesumik. 
resurrection, lesu.'stan 
retail, detulon. 
retailer, deii'lel. 



retain, ziipSn, s^onon. 
retainer, ziipel. 
retard, fezo^on, laton. 
retardation, fezo^am, lat, to/am. 
retarded, fesoyik, laftk. 
retinue, sutad. 
retire, soal. 

retire, too/6d, ge^ffcon. 
retired, soalik. 
retiredly, sooflko 
retiredness, soeI. 
retirement, soal, Z/'ram, liiv. 
retiring, geiaiol, mo/ik. 
_ retribute, ^aVon. 
retribution, guv. 
retributive, ^ut'ik. 
retrieve, geblindn. 
retrievement, giiv. ge///inpm. 
return, iesvegon. 
returner, desre^el. 
reveal, jnani/kmon. 
revealer, mani/amel. 
revealment, manifaiw. 
revelation, mani/avi. 
revenge, viudit. 
revenge, vinditon. 
revengeful, vindili^. 
revengefully, vindiilik. 
revengefulness , rln difn sirk. 
revenger, vindite\- 
revenue, lemesed 
revere, lestim'on. 
reverence, glid. 
reverence, \esttmon. 
reverend, sftmadigik. 
reverent, \esiim^. 
reverential, lestitni^. 
reverentially, lesiimlik. 
reverently, \estimMk. 
reverse, lied, 
reverse, vota/7et6n. 
reversed, vota/feAik. 
revert, vota^efcon, ceinon. 



S66 



GRAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



revert, denuam. 

review, Zo^redam. 

review, logeAon. 

reviewer, to^'edel. 

revival, a'enulifam. 

revive, denuliion. 

reviver, AemiH/el. 

revivification, denuZ^am. 

revivify, AemiH/6n. 

reviving, Aennlifol. 

revocate, tawofcon. 

revolse, tawoAon. 

revolt, volut. 

revolt, volutbn. 

revolted, volutik. 

revolter, volutA 

revolution, volut. 

revolve, vota^Zefcon. 

reward, meset^am. 

reward, mesetZfin. 

rewarder, mesetfel. 

rheum, sno/ip. 

rheumatic, reurmk. 

rheumatism, reum. 

rhinoceros, nuda'^on. 

rhyme, rim. 

rhyme, rimou. 

rhymer, rzmel, lujjofedel. 

rib, rib. 

rib,, ribon. 

ribald, lumare. 

ribaldish,lumanik,^Z?Jik,^a^ik. 

ribaldrous, kimanlik, jrfe'Sik, 

ribaldry, lumandf, glib, gag. 

ribbed, nJik. 

rice, leud. 

rich, liegVs.. 

riches, lieg. 

richly, liegmk, 

richness, lieg. 

rid, libon.. 

riddle, rat. 



riddle, riitoTx. 

riddler, rdtA. 

riddling, rank. 

ride, vegon, monilbu. 

rider, monitoi, vegel. 

ridge, ked. 

ridicule fco/en 

ridiouler, kofel. 

ridiculous, smidk. 

ridiculously, smiliko. 

ridiculousness, smilikoi. 

riding, vegs.m, tudil, 

riding-school, monita/'wZ. 

rifle, gun. 

rifle, lapihon. 

rifleman. gUnel. 

rift, slit. 

rift, slMn. 

rig, plemon. 

rigger, plemel. 

right, git. 

right, gitik, stedik. 

right, giion, piidon, codon. 

righteous, gitlik, ritik. 

righteously, gii\iko, rifliko. 

righteousness, rit 

righter, code!. 

right-hand, det. 

right-handed, dedk. 

rightly, vemo. 

rightness, sted. 

rigid, lejalepik. 

rigidity, stiflk, jalep, stif. 

rigidly, jalepMki stifiko. 

rigidness, jalep, stif, 

rigorous, Jalepik. 

rigorously, jalepnik. 

rigorousness, jalep. 

rigour, jalep. 

rill, bluk. 

rillet, blvldl. 

rime, rim, slit. 

rime, ritn6n. 



GKAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



367 



irimer, rimel. 

rind, jal. 

ring, lin. 

ring, glokoa. 

ringer, glokA. 

ringing, glokexa. 

ringlet, Zinil. 

riot, volut. 

riot, voluion. 

rioter, volutel. 

riotous, volutik. 

riotously, volui\ik 

riotonsness, volutai. 

ripe, madik. 

ripely, madXko. 

ripen, madou. 

ripened, madSs.. 

ripeness, mad. 

ripening, matfam. 

rise, :^n. 

rise, SDStenon, xdnmx. 

riser, sustoTiel, 

rising, lesusten, xdns,ra. 

risk, veniid. 

risk, veniidon, kinon. 

risker, veniedel. 

rival, keZo/al. 

rival, ielo/alon. 

rive, sliton. 

river, flum. 

rivulet, ^umil, Mukil. 

road, veg. 

roadwaj', vegamape^. 

roam, poliwe^on. 

roamer, poliwe^'el. 

roaming, poliwe^am. 

roar, luwoiem. 

roar, lavokon. 

roarer, lucofcel. 

roaring, Invokem. 

roaringly, lurofclik. 

roast, loeton. 

roast-meat; loet. 



roasted, loetik. 

roaster, loetel. 

roasting, Zoeiam. 

rob, lapinon. 

robber, lapinel. 

robbery, lapinen. 

robe, kloton. 

robust, ^Zo6ik, ndmik, steniedik. 

robustness, steniid, stenudof, 

nam. 
rock, klif. 
rock, \emuf on. 
rocker, lemu/el. 
rocking, lemu/61. 
rocky, klifik. 
rod, staf. 
roe, ji-stag. 

rogue, Japel, glibel, luman. 
roguery, jap. 

rognisbj/opik, glibelik, 1 umanik. 
roguishly, j'dpWk 
rbguishness, /dpof. 
roisterer, hoseiel. 
roistering, boset. 
roll, rol, Hsed. 
roll, glopon. 
roller, glopel, rol. 
Roman, romel. 
Roman, rowik. 
romance, roman. 
romanesque, romanik. 
romantic, romantik. 
romantical, romantik. 
romantically, romantiko. 
Rome, Rom. 
roof, nuf. 
roof, nuf on. 
roofer, n«yel. 
roofing, rea/am. 
rooflet, ««/il. 
room, cem, plad, spad. 
roomily, spatflik. 
roominess, spadoi, spadop. 



368. 



GKAMMAR. OF VbLAPiiK. 



roomy, spa£k. 

root, vul, atam. 

root, vulon. 

rooted, vulik. 

rope, jain, lej'ain. 

ropy, gludi^. 

rosaj:y, lolsuhet 

rose, lol. 

rosette, lolil. 

rosy, ^otedik, lolik. 

rot, puodcm. 

rotary, .zilag&tik, zileTcsgik. 

rotation, zilekag. 

rotten, puodik. 

rottenness, puod. 

rough, liiedik. 

roughen, liiedbn. 

roughly, luecSko. , 

roughness, lued. 

round, glopik. 

round, glopdn. 

roundabout, zu, zo, lino. 

rounding, glcip, gldpa.rci 

roundish, glopli^. 

roundishness, gldp. 

roundly, glopii, zilagik, 

roundness, glSp. 

rouse, stigon. 

rout, dianera. 

route, veg. 

rove, poli»e^on. 

rover, pbliueg'el. 

roving, poliue(7am. 

rovingly, poliwe^'amik. 

row, ked, volut. 

row, guhon. 

rower, guhe\. 

rowing, gubaxa, gubs, . . . 

royal, re^'ik. 

royalize, re^ikon. 

royally, rejrlik. 

royalty, re^'ug. 

ruhhish, jiit. 



ruby, led. 

rack, plif. 

rudder, gvib. 

riiddely, Wlik. 

ruddiness, led. 

ruddy, ledik. 

rudei glohik. 

rudely, globlik. 

rudeness, glob. 

rue, ponit. 

rue, poniton. 

rueful, pidik, ponitik. 

ruefully, ponitikq. , 

ruefulness, liigoi, 

rueing, liigik, poniiik. 

ruffian, fdpeh 

ruffian, Japik. 

ruffianly, japiko. 

ruffianism, jap. 

ruffle, plif. 

ruffle, plif on. 

ruffled, pij/ik. 

ruffling, pZ?/ik. 

rug, klotaAi\. 

rugged, lUediik. 

ruggedly, Keiflik. 

ruggedness, lued. 

rugose, plif\k. 

ruin, ruin. 

ruin, rumon. diskikon. 

ruined, distukik. 

ruinous, riihik, ruinik. 

ruinously, r«6iko, ruiniko. 

ruinousness, rUibi, ruin'oi. 

rule, nom. 

rule, soZon, nomGn. 

ruler, govel, nomel. 

ruling, i^ouam. 

rum, drolik. 

ruminant, siamik. 

ruminate, siamon. 

rumination, sidmnva., 

rumple, plif. 



GBAMMAE OF VOLAFUK. 



369 



rumple, plifSn. 
run, gon. 
run, gonbn, ron on. 
runaway, fugA. 
mndlet, tuhii.. 
runner, rowel, jronel. 
running, ron. 
rupture, blek. 
rupture, hlekSm. 
ruptured, WeHk. 
rural, lanecSk, 
ruralism, Janedal, 
ruralist, lanedA. 
rurality, lanedsX. 
ruralize, lanedor\.. 
rurally, Zanefflik. 
ruralness, Zane<fal. 
ruse, kaf. 
rush, jog. 
rush, ronon, goncna.. 



sabbath, sabat. 
sable, sab. 

sable, daegHk, dag^, 
sabre, sab. 
sabre, sabon. 
sacerdotal, sonalelik. 
sack, sak. 
sack, pofcon. 
sacrament, sakramerf. 
sacramental, sakraroeifik. 
sacramentally, sakramedo. 
sacred, samk.. 
sacredly, saniko. 
sacredness, sanal. 
sacrifice, Titim. 
sacrifice, vitimon. 
sacrificer, vitimA. 
sacrificial, vitirmHs.. 
sacristy, sakrit. 
sad, liigiLk., gluimk. 



rusher, rorael, ^onel. 
rushing, ronam. 
Russia, Lusan. 
Russian, lusdnA. 
Russian, lusdmk. 
rustic, felel, meyel. 
rustical, /eZelik, lanecEik. 
rustically, /eZelnik. 
rusticity, yioftal. 
rusticly, fetelik. 
rut, rut. 

ruth, pid, 'kBlied. 
ruthful, piaik, keZiedik. 
ruthless, le/eHk. 
ruthlessly, le/eHik. 
ruthlessness, le/efcifcof. 
ruttish, lenepjwdik. 
ruttishly, lenept^erfiko. 
ruttishness, lenepuetZug. 



S. 



sadden, glumon. 

saddle, saed. 

saddle, saedan. 

saddler, saedei. 

sadly, gluniiSs.. 

sadness, liigoi. 

safe, se/ik. 

safe, se/on. 

safely, se/lik. 

safeness, sef. 

safety, sef. 

sag, dxifldkon. 

sagacious, /apalik, fcapalik, li- 

sarak. 
sagaciously, /apaliko. 
sagaciousness, japs\oi. 
sagacity, japaX, /apalof, 
sage, sapik, oesedik. 
sage, JilosupA, sapel, sapal. 
sagely, sapiko. 

24 



370 



GRAMMAB. OP VOLAPUK- 



sageness, vised, sap. 

sail, nafon. 

sailable, nq/ik. 

•sailableness, nafbi. 

sailer, no/el. 

sailing, nafstm. 

sailor, melel. 

saint, samk. 

saint, sanikel. 

saint, sanukon, kosekon. 

saintly, samko. 

sake, benof; 

sake (for Gods sake)!, godo! 

salacious, lenepueifik, 

salaoiously, lenepiierfiko. 

salaciousness, lenepM«(Zug. 

salacity, lenepued'ug. 

salad, salad. 

salary, mesed, lemesed. 

salary, Xemesedbn. 

sale, sel, sela,m.. 

saline, salin. 

sally, fased. 

sally, jaobunon. 

salinon, lagvit. 

salmonet, lagu&l. 

salmontrout, loffHtsmt. 

saloon, scilvoa.. 

salt, sal. 

salt, saZon. 

salt, saZik. 

salted, salik. 

Salter, saZel. 

salting, saleua.. 

saltish, sa/nik. 

saltness, saZSf, 

saltpan, salin. 

saltwater, saloA. 

salubrious, sarelik. 

salubriously, sanliko. 

salubriousness, san, sanoi. 

salubrity, san, sanQi. 

salutariness, san, sanQt. 



salutary, sanlik. 

salutation, glidaxa, heglidam. 

salute, glid. 

salute, glidbn, h&glidon. 

salvability, heatcmJ&i. 

salvable, heatoioi. 

salvableness, JeaionSf. 

salvage, sav&mesed. 

salvation, beat. 

salve, smiv. 

salve, smivou, savon. 

same, as. 

same as, wlik, aso. 

sameness, leig. 

sample, sam, samad. 

sanction, beszam, stam. 

sanctitude, sanaX. 

sanctuary, sanub. 

sand, sab. 

sand, sa&on. ' 

sandish, saftlik. 

sandy, saftik. 

sane, saunik. 

saneness, saun. 

sanguine, lifWk. 

sanguinely, li/Mko. 

sanguineous, hludik. 

sanitary, sawmk.. 

sanity, saun. 

sappho, sapfo. 

sapience, sap. 

sapient, sapik. 

sapiently, sapiko. 

sarcasm, lufco/iere. 

sarcastic, kofUk. 

sarcastically, fco/iko. 

Sardine, Sardan. 

sasb, zon. 

satan, devel. 

satanic, devetSn. 

satanically, devehak. 

sate, saion. 

satiable, sailik. 



GUAMMAll or VOLAPUK. 



371 



satiate, saffin. 
satiation, safam. 
satiety, sat. 
satin, lesatin. 
satiric, hlemik. 
satirically, hlemlik. 
satirist, bletnel. 
satirize, b'emon.. 
satisfaction, sat. 
satisfactorily, sdilik. 
satistactory, satik, 
satisfy, kotenon. 
saturate, satcna.. 
saturation, satskm.. 
Saturday, Za,del. 
sauce, pitou. 
saucer, booil. 
saunter, lu^oZon. 
saunterer lu^oZel. 
sausage, sosit. 
savable, sawik. 
savableness, sav'6{. 
savage, foet. 
savage, /oeAt. 
savagely, le^'eHko. 
savageness, le;efcik6f, /oetoi. 
savegery, foetoi. 
save, pla, sumii. 
save, savon. 
saver, sauel, spdlel. 
saving, spal, spdlui. 
savingly, spdZik. 
savingnessa, spdlnbi. 
Saviour, sanal. 
savour ily, vdpiko. 
savourinesB, vdp'oi. 
savourly, waplik. 
savoury, vapik.. 
Savoy, Savoyaa. 
Savoyard, Savoydnel. . 
stkvr, piiked, pet. 
Sax, saxel, sa^anel. 
Saxon, Sax (kingdom). 



Saxon, Saxa.Ta (province), 
saxon, saxik, sa.'ranik. 
say, sa^on. 
saying, sag. 
scaffold, skaf. 
scaffold, ska/on. 
scale, jal. 
scaly, jaUk. 
scan, vestigon. 
scandal, jemoA, skan. 
scandalize, skanon. 
scandalous, sfcanik. 
scandalously, sfcanlik. 
scandalousness, j'emoiof. 
scant, spdlmk.. 
scantely, spdlniko. 
soantlet, dil. 
soantly, spdlniko. 
scantness, spdlnoi. 
scanty, spdlnik.. 
scar, vunad. 
scarce, spdlmk. 
scarcely, tobo. 
scarceness, spdlnof. 
scare, j'ekon. 
scarecrow, jekamerf. 
scarf, noked. 
scatter, disipon. 
scattered, disipik. 
scene, jiil, stad, teat, 
scenery, damat 
scenic, damatik. 
scent, smel. 
scent, smelon, 
sceptic, dotel. 
sceptical, doAk. 
sceptically, dotiko. 
scepticalness, dotoi. 
scepticism, dota,siik. 
schedule, lised. 
scheme, jemad, ployeg 
scheme, ployeg'on, disinon. 
scheming, ployeg&m.. 



372 



GBAMMAK OP VOLAPuK. 



scholar, j'ulel; ot-j'ulel. 
seholar-like, fulelik, 
sctolarsHp, peijrfolat. 
scholastic, julils.. 
scholaatically, juliko. 
school, Jul. 
school, Julon. 
schooling, jul&va.. 
schoolmaster, rirfel, julamaseZ. 
science, nol, sev. 
scientific, nolUk. 
scientifically, reoZiko. 
scimitar, sab. 
scofF, hofea. 
scoff, hof'6n.. 
scoffer, fco/el. 
scoffing, fco/en. 
scoffingly, fco/iko. 

sconce, pon. 

score, feZseli fcaZam. 

scorn, nesfiimon, nesft'mBn. 

scorner, fco/el, nesiimel. 

scornful, nestafmik, nesimik. 

scornfully, nes^Mmiko, nesftm- 
iko. 

scornfulness, nesiamof. 

scorning, ■o.&stum, nesfe'm. 

scorpion, skopaf. 

Scot, dilodL. • 

scotch, k8t. 

Scotch, jotldmk. 

Scotchman, jotldnoi. 

Scotland, Jotlan. 

Scottish, jotldmk. 

scoundrel, jiipA. 

scoundrelly, yapelik. 

scour, suipon. 

scovirer, suipA. 

scourge, pudxm. 

scourge, pudon. 

scourger, pudA. 

scouring, suipSiTo.. 

scout, liikA. 



scout, luhon.' 
scowl, zarfalon. 
scream, luuofc. 
scream, luuofcSn. 
screamer,- luuofcel. 
screaming, luwoiem. 
screech, luuofcem. 
screech, luuofcon. 
screen, Jul. 
screen, Julon, jelbn. 
screw, skub. 
screw, skubon. 
scribble, lupsnad. 
scribble, lupenon. 
scribbler, lupenel. 
scribbling, lupenik. 
scriblingly, lupeniko. 

scribe, penel. 

scrip, penedil. 

scriptural, hibiV. 

Bcripturalist, &!5el. 

scripture, bib. 

scrofula, skof. 

scrofulous, skofik.. 

scrofulousness, skofat. 

scroll, Used, rol. 

scrub, luklof. 

scrub, suipon. 

scrubber, suipel. 

scruple, Jemoi. 

scruple, dot'6n, zogon. 

sorupvilosity, smaZnof. 

scrupulous, zogik, dotik. 

scrutable, ds.vestigik, danoiik. 

scrutination, davesiig, danoi. 

scrutineer, Asivestigel. 

scrutinize, d.a,vestigon, danoffin. 

scrutiny, xa,m, xdmaxa, danof. 



sculptor, kodel. 
sculptural, kodik. 
sculpture, kod. 
scvilpture, kodon. 



GBAM.MAB. OF VOLAPiiK. 



373 



scum, skom. 

scum, skomon. 

scummy, skomik. 

scurrility, jap, gag. 

scurrilous, gagik. 

scurrilously, ^a^iko. 

scurrilousness, gag. 

scurvy, ^a<?ik. 

scythe, sulanel. 

sea, mel. 

seal, snil. 

seal, snilon. 

sealer, snilel. 

sealing, snilsmi 

seam, sim. 

seam, simon. 

seaman, mela,n, melel 

seamster, oi-ndgel. 

seamstress, of-na^el. 

sea-port, pof 

sear, s^ik. 

sear, sigon. 

searce, sib. 

searce, sibon. 

search, xam, aamam. 

search, xamon. 

searcher, xdmel. 

searching, xdma,m. 

searchingly, .Tamiko. 

sea-sickness, melamalad. 

season, sasod. 

season, pitSn, madoa. 

seasonable, fiigik, gebik., pohk. 

seasonableness, geb, pot, fag 

seasonably, ^eftiko, poto fdglik. 

seat, sied. 

seat, siadoTn, pladon. 

secede, dediton, mofon. 

seceder, seditel, mo/el. 

flecession, sedit, teildbva.. 

seclude, s&kikon.. 

secluded, sett'Hk. 

seclndedly, seizfco. 



seclusion, setsfem. 
seclusive, sefct'Hk. 
second, sekun, teZid noel. 
second, yufon. 
secondary, telii. 
secrecy, aoal, kldnoi. 
secret, kldn. 
secret, kldrak, saalik. 
secretary , penadan, sekretel. 
secretaryship, penddanet. 
secrete, kldnofon. 
secreted, kldnqfik, seditik. 
secretion, kldnofaxa, sedit. 
secretly, kldnofik. 
secretness, klaniii. 
sect, ziip. 

section, tabled, diamed. 
secelar, volik. 
secularity, volof. 
secularization, volotam. 
secularize, uoZofon. 
secure, kudaZtwk, 
secure, fose;-on, jelon. 
securely, sefiko. 
secuxeness, sef. 
security, ibsef, sef. 
sedate, so/ik, stUik. 
sedately, so/iko. 
sedateness, sof. 
sedative, stilol. 
sedition, volut. 
seditionary, volutik. 
seditious, volutik. 
seditiously, volutiko. 
seditiousness, volufot. 
sedulity, zil. 
sedulous, vobik, ziVik. 
sedulously, zzViko, woJiko. 
sedulousness, zil. 
see, logon, Asdogan. 
see! eko! 
seed, sid, sov. 
seed, sovan, sidon. 



374 



GBAMMAE OP VOLAPUK. 



seedy, sidik. 
seedsman, aiAa,ted6\. 
seeing, logB,Tci. 
seek, sukQn.. 
seeker, siikel. 



seel, kikon, slopoa. 

seem, jinon. 

seeming, firak. 

seemingly, Jin&o. 

seemingness, finGi. 

seemliness, lepoJ. 

seemly, leporik. 

seer, loge>l, plofet. 

seethe , kilkmi. 

seize, sumon, gleipon.. 

seizer, sumA, gleipel. 

seizure, Zafeam. 

seldom, neo/en. 

select, seuaHk. 

select, sevdlon. 

selection, sewaZam. 

self, it. 

selfish, itasM'Hk. 

selfishly, itasafciko. 

selfishness, itasiik, iQnildf. 

self-love, itasafc, lomlof, I6f6k. 

sell, tedon., selon. 

seller, seZel. 

semblance, jin, leigiiA. 

semhlant, leigih. 

seminary, seminad. 

senate senat. 

senator, cifal seraatel. 

senatorial, senatelik, zelik. 

send, sedon, poton. 

sender, sedei. 

sensation, sen, senam. 

sense, sen, suem, suemal, 

ifcapal, suemSji, sien lisan. 
senseless, neZisamk, nesenik. 
senselessly, neZesaniko, neseniko. 
senselessness, nesen, neZjsare. 



sensibility, semi. 

sensible, senik, Zisareik, senidk.. 

sensibleness, senGi. 

sensibly, sereiko, Zisaniko, 

seniAko. 
sensitive, senik. 
sensitively, seniko. 
sensual, midSlik. 
sensualism, midal. 
sensualist, yofah. 
sensuality, midal. 
sensualization, mid&ltaa. 
sensualize, mid^lon. 
sensually, mtdaliko. 
sensualness, mz^al. 
sensuously, midaliko. 
sensuoussness, amidal. 
sentence, cMat, piiksdi, se^, 
sentence, cbd'dn, codofon, 

codaicm. 
sentential, piikedik. 
sententailly, pukediko. 
sententious, pukedTik.. 
sententiously, piikediko. 
sententiousness, pukedoi. 
sentient, senik, senamik. 
sentiently, senlik. 
sentiment, sen fek. 
sentimental, sereik. 
sentimentality, senof, senaL 
sentimentally, senlik. 
separability teildf. 
separable, iez'Zik. 
separably, teiliko. 
separate, teilou, livon. 
separated, teilik. 
separately, deiiilo. 
separateness, soal. 
separation, teilajn, teiL 
separative, teilik.. 
separator, teilel. 
sepiment, bud. 
September, setul. 



GKAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



375 



septenary, cetelik. 

septillion, velion. 

sepulchral, sepit. 

sepulchre, sep, \esep. 

sepnltnre, sepaxa. 

sequel, sek. 

sequence, sek. 

sequester, mopo2on. 

sequestration, Taopolam. 

sere, sigik. neZuniik. 

serene, klQik, daii^alik. 

serenely, hlibiik. 

sereneness, daZiSl, klil. 

serenity. Mil, A2tli&\. 

series, ked. 

serious, ca<fik, fefik. 

seriously, yeilik. 

seriousness, fef, cad. 

sermon, pred. 

sermon, predon. 

serous, raflik. 

serpent, snek, 

servant, <^nefel, of-<fanel, ji- 

dunei, dunaji. 
serve, d^non, bedanon, iotelon. 
server, diinan. 
service, don, hedinam. 
serviceahle, gehik, pB/utEk. 
serviceableness, Axaiaml. 
serviceably, ^eftlik, pofutSka. 
servile, slafik. 
servilely, sio/iko. 
servileness, slafoi. 
servility, slqfoi. 
servitor, dunsta. 
servitude, dun, slqfen. 
set, tlup, kum. 
set, sta£k. 

set, pladon, planon, siadon. 
setaceous, ie/ifc. 
setter, siadel. 
getting, siad, siadam. 
settle, fonon, 6otemon. 



settlement, 2onam, ialaxa. 
settler, lonameX- 
settling, lonam. 
seven, vel. 
sevenfold, veSk. 
seventeen, halsevel. 
seventeenth, balsecelid. 
seventh, se2id. 
seventhly, ceZido. 
seventhpaxt, Yeidil. 
seventieth, veldA. 
seventiethpart, \ehedU. 
seventy, refa. 
seventyone, velseftoZ. 
seventyfour, velse/oZ. 
sever, teilon, deditdn. 
several, ans, difik. 
severally, diflik. 
severe, le/afepik. 
severely, lejalepink. 
severeness, jalep, le/eHkof. 
severity, jalep. 
sew, no^on. 
sewer, ot-ndgA. 
sewing-machine, nagacin. 
sex, gen. 
sextant, maZum. 
sextillion, wnJiion. 
sextuple, mdSk. 
sexual, ^enik. 
sexually, ^enlik. 
shabbily, 6n<flik, gag^ik. 
shabbiness, iadvig, gag. 
shabby, batSk, hadug, gagik. 
shackle, Jan. 
shackle, j'dnon. 
shade, jad. 
shade, j'adon. 
shaded, ja£k. 
shadily, /adlik. 
shadiness, jadQt. 
shadow, jad. 
shadow, jadoo.. 



376 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



shadowy, ja£k. 

shady, ja£k. 

shaft, sop, riid. 

shake, lemufoTci, dlemon. 

shaker, lemufel, dlemel. 

shallow, luaHk, nedibih. 

shallowness, jiedib. 

sham, doMk, neveladk. 

sham, Jcofen, fco/am. 

sham, ciiton, Tcofon 

shame, jem, JemoA. 

shame, jemon. 

shamefaced, j'emils.. 

shamefacedly, /emiko. 

shamefacedness, jemoi. 

shameful, yemodik. 

shamefully, yemodiko. 

shamefulness, jemodoi. 

shameless, ne/emik, nepwecZik. 
, shamelessly, ne;miko, nepued- 
iko. 

shamelessness, rLeJemoi, laepued. 

shank, gleip, sop. 

shape, fom. 

shape, f'dmon. 

shapeless, ne/'omik. 
-shapelessness, ne/6mof. , 

shapely, /omlik. 

shaping, fimed, fom&m.. 

share, diloA. 

share, diloAiia, dilon, sedil6n. 

shareholder, hediledel, diloAel. 

sharer, dilel, diloAel. 

sharing, d«7am. 

shark, jak. 

sharker, jakel, glibei, luman. 

sharking, Indun. 

sharp, /opik, japaAik. 

sharp, jap6n. 

sharpen, japon. 

sharply, /opiko, Sez'riko. 

sharpness, jap, /opalof. 

shatter, dil. 



shatter, disvpon..' 

shattered, disipHk. 

shattery, Uelak. 

shave, 6aK6el6n. 

shaver, halibA. 

shaving, 6aK6elam. 

she, of. 

shed, fluko^. 

shed, spil6n. 

shedder, spztel. 

shedding, spil. 

sheep, jip, ji-jip. 

sheepfold, jipen, 

sheepish, ^mik, luaVik. 

sheer, IcUKk. 

sheet, bled. 

shelf, flul, klif, melsMif. 

shelfy, hlifik. 

shell, jal. 

shell, jalao.. 

shellpd, jaWs.. 

shelly. jalUk. 

shelve, fluKm.. 

shepherd, jipA. 

shepherdess, ^i-jipA, ot-jipe}. 

shield, le;M/, jiil. 

shield, jelbn., jiilon. 

shift, oein, kaf. 

shift, cemon. 

shifter, cemel, citel. 

shifting, cemol" 

shifty, cemik, kafik. 

shin, klaut. 

shine, jin, nid. 

shine, Uton, nidon, 

shining, nidik, ;mik. 

shiny, nidik, klilik. 

ship, naf. 

shipping, naf en. 

shipwright, nafaffemel. 

shirt, jit. 

shiver, dlemSn. 

shivering, dlem&xa.. 



GEAMMAH OF VOLiPuK. 



377 



shiveringly, dlemiik. 

shoal, lemod; iiedib. 

shoal, nerfeOik. 

shoaly, nedehik. 

shock, jok. 

shock, skanoQ, no/on, j'okon. 

shocking, skanik, jokik. 

shoe, jnk. 

shoe, j'ukon. 

shoemaker, Jukel. 

shoemakiiig, j'tiken. 

shoot, jut. 

shoot, juton. 

shooter, Jutel. 

shooting, Jutsfm. 

shop, buig, lemacem. 

shore, jol. 

short, blefik, 

shorten, blefoTi. 

shortly, blefo, hletimo, nelonedo. 

shortness, blef. 

shot, jxxt. 

shouZder, jot. 

shoulder, j'oton. 

shout, hwok. 

shout, \uvok6ii. 

shouter, lavokel. 

shouting, Inwofcem. 

shove, jok, 

shove, jokaa. 

shovel, kup. 

shovel, kupon. 

shoveler, kvpA- 

show, dek, \ximagif, jon. 

show, jonon. 

shower, ;onel. 

shower, mod. 

shower, Jimibon, silavaton. 

showeriness, lomibof. 

showery, tomtftik. 

showily, nuSko. 

showiness, jonnm., m.agif nid. 

showing, magifik., ni<fik. 



showman, magifA. 

showy, n«fik, magifik. 

shrew, ot-magilge\.. 

shrewd, lu»isedik, kafik. 

shrewdly, luvisedo, kafiko. 

shrewdness, hwisedug 

shriek, hxvok. 

shriek, lujjofcon. 

shrieking, luvokGl, 

shrift, koef. 

shrine, likadaJcad, latam. 

shrink, plif. 

shrink, dlemon. 

shrinking, dlemik. 

shrinMngly, dlemiko. 

shrive, koef on 

shriver, koefel. 

shroud, jiil. 

shroud, j'ulon, tegon, \>eklot6n. 

shroudy, j'ulik. 

shrub, lu6m, smabim. Job. 

shrubby, lubimik, fobik. 

shrug, /oiam. 

shrug, joton, tforilon. 

shudder, diem. 

shudder, dlemon. 

shuddering, dlemik. 

shudderingly, dlemiko. 

shuffle, pemam. 

shufflle, lemu/on, pemon 

shuffller, \emufe\, pemel. ciitel. 

shuffling, kafik. 

shufflingly, ciltiko. 

shun, plafon, viton. 

shut, kikon. 

shutter, litaxn, lita,niii/ot. kikel. 

shy, plafik. 

shy, pla/6n, jedon. 

shyly, plaf iko, plaflik. 

shyness, plaf. 

Siberia, Sibiran. 

Siberian, Sibirdnel. 

Siberian, Sibvrdnik. 



378 



GEAMMAK OF VOLAPnK. 



sick, maladTik. ■ 
sicken, maladou. 
sickemng, naudSs.. 
sickliness, naud, maladoi. 
sickly, maladoSk.. 
sickness, malad, naud. 
siden, flan, 
sideways, /?Bnik. 
sieve, sib. 

sift, siJon. ' 

sifter, sibA. 
sightless, Meimk. 
sightliness, jon, venud. 
sightly, ySnik. 
sigil, snil. 



sign, maMn, diso^enon. 
signal, mak, mal. 
signal, mdkon. 
signature, disqpenam. 
signer, disqpenel, majfcel. 
signet, snil. 
significance, veiit. 
significant, veiitik 
significantly, veiito. 
signification, ma/am, veiit. 
significative, veiitik., wiaZamik. 
significatively, veiito. 
signify, malon, sinifon. 
silence, stil, nepiik. 
silence, nepfiion, stildn. 
silence! pafa&erfo, taked6\ 
silent, nepSHk, stilik ! 
silently, nepwHko, stiliko. 
silentness, stilQi, nepiikoioi. 
silk, satin, 
silken, satinik. 
silkiness, satinoi. 
silkman, satinaierfel 
silkworm, satin&xmm. 
silky, satinik. 
sillily, InaZiko. 
silliness, lucj'Wf. 



silly, lucz'Hk. 

silt, slam. 

silvan, fotik. 

silver, silef, silin(Ag.) 

silver, sile/ik, 

silver, sile/6n. 

silvery, silef ik. 

similar, leigik., ISnik, 

similarity, leig. 

similarly, leigo. 

simile, leiyViA. 

similitude, leigaA, ieleig. 

simple, 6aZnalik, balik, luaZik. 

simpleness, 6a/ikug, lua78f. 

simpleton, trof. 

simplicity, 5aZikug. 

simplification, finZiikam. 

simplify, Saffikon. 

simply, te, to. 

simulate, simulon. 

simulation, simul (szmuZam.Y 

simulator, simulel. 

simultaneously, togo. 

sin, sin. 

sin, sinon. 

since, also, ibo. 

since, sis. 

sincere, kciniidik, ra?/alik. 

sincerely, kdniido, nifalo. 

sincereness, kanudj nifal. 

sincerity, kantid, nifal. 

sinew, nev. 

sinful, sz'mik. 

sinfully, seraiko. 

sinfulness, sinot. 

sing, ^amVSn. 

singer, kanitel. 

singing, kauit. 

single, haladik., JaZnalik, soaZik, 

leSaHk. 
single, nepema^ol. 
single, Baffin, 
singleness, daSaZod, ianiid. 



GllAMJIAB OP VOLAPUK. 



37» 



singly, lehalo, te. 

singular, banunzik, seledmk, 

patik.. 
singiilarist, selednah. 
singularity, h&num'di, selednoi. 

pat. 
singularly, pato, seledniko. 
sinister, vcidik, neteftik, doiik. 
sinisterly, neZafto, doiiko. 
sinistral, vddik, dobik- 
sinistrally, viidiko, neliibo. 
sinistrous, vodik. 
sink, dison. 
sinless, ne^mik. 
sinlessly, nesmiko. 
sinlessness, nesmof. ■ 
sinner, sznel. 
sinuate, di6/e^on. 
sinuation, Aiblegajn. 
sinuosity, klug. 
sinuous, klugik. 
sion, siop. 
sip, (ZZtnadil. 
sip, lu<?/m6n, ninsujfon. 
sipper, hidlinel. 
sir, sol. 
sire, lesol, fat. 
sister, ji-blod, 
sisterhood, ji-blodiig. 
sister-in-la"w,ji-lio6Zoc?,of-bo6/od. 
sisterly, ji-blodik. 
sit, siedon. 
site, seit. 
sith, bi. 
sitter, siedel. 
sitting, giedol. 
situate, seisiik. 
situated, seisdk. 
situation, stad. 
six, mal. 
sixfold, mdlik. 
sixteen, balsemdl. 
sixteenth, balsemaiid. 



sixteenthpart, balsemaWil. 
sixth, main. 
sixthcase, kmmfal. 
sixthpart, raaldil. 
sixthly, mdliio. 
sixtieth, malsid. 
sixtiethpart, mafeedil. 
sixty, mals. 
sixtynine, malsezaZ. 
size, glet, fdm. 
size, ma/dn. 
sizy, tonik. 
skilful, /agik, skilik. 
skilfully, fdgiko, sMiko.- 
skilfulness, fag. 
skill, sev, slik, skiil. 
skilled, eplakol. 
skim, skdm 
skim, skomoji. 
skimmer, skomel. 
skin, skin, skiin. 
sMn, skinon. 
skinner, skinei. 
skinny, sfcmik, nepz'raik. 
skirmish, lupu^. 
skirmish, lu^u^dn. 
skirmisher, hipugel. 
skirt, flan, sim, mied.. 
skit, nevo ! 
skull, kapaftom. 
sky, sul, sil. 
skeyey, siilik 
skyish, siilik. 
sky-light, litasaw. 
slabber, luspufon. 
slabberer, lusputel. 
slack, nedu&k, soluAk. 
slacken, fezo^on, lunon^ 
slackly, netiudik. 
slackness, nedut. 
slake, noson. 
slaked, peniisBl. 
slaking, nosik. 



380 



GKAMMAK OP VOLAPUK. 



slander, slan. 

slander, slanon. 

slanderer, slanei. 

slanderous, sZonik. 

slanderously, slan\ik. 

slanderousness, slan, slanoi. 

slant, slolak. 

slanting, sloVik. 

slantingly, sfoSiko, slohViko. 

slap, flap. 

slap, fiap'6ia.. 

slash, kot, slit, 

slash, hoton. 

slaughter, sab&a., lumzien. 

slaughter, lumzielon, wzVelon, 

mblodlin. 
slaughtered, pemttelol. 
slaughterer, mitA. 
slaughterous, moZodik. 
slaughterously, molodiko. 
slave, slaf, of-slaf, ji-slaf. 
slave, slafoji. 
slavery, sla/esa.. 
slavish, slaf&. 
slavishly, sto/iko. 
slavishness, slafoi. 
slay, /uraBn, molodon, miJeZQon. 
slayer, funA. 



sleep, slip. 

sleep, slipon. 

sleeper, slipA. 

sleepily, slipo, sliplik, sUpi\o. 

sleepiness, slip'oi 

sleepless, nesZipik. 

sleeplessly, nes?j))iko. 

sleeplessness, neslip, nesUpot. 

sleepy, slipii.. 

slender, slenik 

slenderly, sZenlik, sleniko 

slenderness, slen. 

slide, slifum. 

slide, slif on. 



slider, slifel. 

slight, nestiim, liestim. 

slight, ^wlik. 

slighten, nestumon, nestiman. 

slighter, nestiimel, nesfemel. 

slightly, nemodo, nestiimiko. 

slightness, pul, piiloi. 

slily, viisediko. 

slim, slenik 

slime, slim. 

sliminess, slimoi. 

slimness) slen. 

sliness, viised.' 

slimy, slimik. 

sling, jed. 

sling, jedon. 

slinger, jedA. 

slink, mostopon. 

slip, slup. 

slip, seslupon, slupon. 

slipper, -vomsjuh. 

slipperiness, slup'di. 

slippery, slupik. ■ 

slit, slit. 

slit, sliton. 

slitter, slit&\. 

sloop, smareq/". 

slop, fiv. 

slope, sloVSs., 

slope, slohon. 

slopeness, slob. 

slopy, slohik. 

sloth, nerfatel, nedut. 

slothful, neiurik. 

slothfuUy, neduto. 

slothfulness, ■nedut. 

slovenliness, sten, miot. 

slovenly, muflik. 

slow, ne«2/ik, nerfutik. 

slowly, newi/o. 

slowness, new/of, zog'oi. 

slubberingly, lumeHk. 

sludge, slam. 



GBAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



381 



slug, nedutel, 
sluggard, net^u^el. 
sluggish, nedurik. 
sluggishly, nedutMk. 
sluggishness, nedut. 
slumber, Inslip. 
slumber, lusZip5n. 
slumberer, Inslipel. 
slumbering, InsUpik. 
shir, stenon, miotim, iuion. 
sluttish, stenik, miotik. 
sly, fcd/ik, vusedik. 
slyly kafiko. 
slyness, kaf, 
smack, smek. 
smack, lefdlon. 
small, smalik. 
smallness, smal, pul. 
smaragd, nobasto«. 
smart, dol. 
smart, dolon. 
smart, vi/ik, dolik. 
smartly, vi/o. 
smartness, vif, dolot, 
smash, jedon. 
smatter, lusey. 
smatter, Insewon. 
smatterer, Insecel. 
smear, smiv. 
smear, smivoJi. 
smell, smel. 
smell, smeloTL. 
smeller, smelel. 
smelling, smelik. 
smelt, smetoTL. 
smelter, smetel. 
smeltery, smeten. 
smile, smul. 
smile, smiildn. 
smiler, smulel. 
smiling, smiilik. 
smilingly, smiiliko. 
smilingness, smiK>i- 



smite, pSnina.. pudSn, flapon. 
smiter, pun, jlapel, pudel. 
smith, Wei. 
smithy, lelelen. 
smoke, smok. 
smoke, smokSrx, sm'dkoa. 
smoked, smoHk 
smoker, smokei., sm'6ke\. 
smokiness, smokoi. 
smoking, smokwoa. 
smoking room, smok&cem. 
smoky, smokXk, smolcik. 
smooth, sm«/"ik. 
smooth, smu/on. 
smoothly, smuflik. 
smoothness, smuf. 

smother, kofuda,vn., stom. 

smother, stomon, kldnSion- 

smoulder, lu_^ted6n. 

snail, snel. 

snake, snek. 

snaky, sneMk. 

snap, belt; tif, 

snap, suTOon, tifon, hlekcm. 

snapper, tiM, Mekei, beitel. 

snatch, m«e/am. 

snatch, mue/on. 

snatcher, mue/el. 

snatchingly, mtiefiko, 

sneak, slu^el. 

sneak, slupbn. 

sneaking, slup'61. 

sneakingly, slupiko. 

sneap, hlamon. 

sneer, kofon, befco/on, lu- 
smzVon. 

sneer, kofa,va., lusm^. 

sneerer, fco/el. 

sneering, kofik, lusmi?ik. 

sneeringly, ko/iko, lusmilo. 

sniff, natemon. 

snore, luna?emon. 

snorer, lunatemel. 



382 



GRAMMAB Or VOLAPUK. 



snort, natemon, 

snorting, natemik. 

snout, Inrmid. 

snow, nif. 

snow, nifon. 

snowy, nifik. 

snuff, tahakeA.. 

snuff, geb'6a tabak^A.. 

snuffle, sjjfcon, nudon. 

snuffler, siik&[, nudA. 

snuff, box, tabakeA&Vdk. 

so, also, aso, se kod at, sikod. 

soak, miiedon, kop6n. 

soaker, kopel, miiedel. 

soaky, miiediV. 



soapy, sobik. 

sober, mafik, /e/ik, siidik, 
soberly, mafiko. 
soberness, »ia/8f, siidoi. 
sobriety, siidoi, ma/of. 
sociability, kopanag. 
sociable, kopamk. 
sociableness, kopanng. 
sociably, kopaniko. 
social, kopamk. 
sociality, kopanag. 
socialize, kopanon. 
socially, kopaniko. 
socialness, kopanug. 
society, kopanom., klub. 
soflfa, sod. 
sofa, aof. 

soft, miedik, so/ik. 
soften, miiedbn, meilad6n. 
softened, miedik, so/ik. 
softener, miiedel, so/e\. \ 
softening, fibaxa, miidaxa, 

meilad, meiladSim.. 
softly, dus5! miiediko. 
softner, meitorfel. 
softness, zadal. sof. 
sobo! M! 



soil, miot, sten. 

soil, iieraSn, miotbu. 

soiled, miolXk, stenik. 

soiliness, miot, sten. 

sojourn, 6fa'68n. 

sojourner, hlibA. 

sojournment, 6Zt6am. 

solace, tlodou. 

solacement, tlod. 

solder, solddn. 

solderer. soldonA. 

soldier, solat. 

soldiery, solai&k. 

sole, soalik, leftaKk, ftaZadik. 

solely, soaliko. 

solemb, zelm. 

solemness, zel, zeloi. 

solemnity, zel, zeloL 

solemnizaton, zeZ. 

solemnize, zeZon. 

solemnly, zeliko, zetoik. 

soleness, soal. 

solicit, 6efc5n, hegbn, dieheffon, 

solicitant, bekel, begel. 

solicitation, beg. 

solicitor, fte^'el. 

solicitous, gli/ik. 

solicitously, glif lik. begiko. 

solicitude, glif-tlep. 

solid, soliidik.' 

solidity, solud, fwmili. 

solidly, solndSko. 

solidnesa, solud. 

solitaire, soatel. 

solitarily, soalKko. 

solitariness, soal, 

solitary, soaVik. 

solitude, soal, 

solo, baVixxa.. 

solvability, /"flmat. 

solvable, pliin^, fiimik. 

solvableness, /iiraat, planoi. 

solve, plan'6n. 



GRAMMAR OF TOLAPiiK. 



383 



solver, pldnel. 

some, ans, anik(s). 

somebody, ek, sembal. 

somehow, modo. 

sometiing, bos. 

sometime, senikitim. 

sometimes, sofomo. 

somewhat, bos, ioso. 

somewhere, sewop, egef(o). 

somewhereelse, uoriko. 

son, son. 

song, kanit, hanitem.. 

songster, kanitA. 

songstress, yi-kanitA, oi-lcanitA. 

son-inlaw, luson. 

sonorous, benoZonik. 

sonorously, benoioniko. 

sonorousness, benoZon . 

soon, suno, lesuno. 

soot, sut. 

sooth, vdauk. 

soothe, sft76n. 

soother, stilA 

soothing, sft'iam. 

soothingly, 5ft"fiko. 

sooty, surik. 

sore, doliSs.. 

sorely, tonals.. 

soreness, dol. 

sorrily, pofVik. 

sorrow, glnm, dol. 

sorrowful, pidik. 

sorrowfally, glurmk. 

sorrowfulness, ghm&X. 

sorry, glurmk. 

sort, sot, bid. 

sort, soton. 

sorter, sotel. 

sot, fop. 

sottish, fopik. 
tsottishly, /o;jiko. 

sottishness, fopea. 
.soul, Ian. 



sound, ton. 

sound, tonou. 

sounding, gldk&m. 

soundly, saunik. 

soundness, suan. 

soup, sup. 

sour, ziid. 

sour, zUdSs.. 

source, rig. 

souring, z«rfam. 

sourish, zawflik. 

sourishness, ziidimk. 

sourly, ziido. 

sourness, zildal. 

South, Sulud. 

south, suliidik. 

South-East, SuliiZe/arf. 

South-Easterly, sa]MefUdo. 

Sout-Eastern .., suluie/wd. 

South-West, SuliivesKd. 

South-west, suliiwsKdik. 

South-Westerly, suluuesfirfo. 

sovereign, solun. 

sow, sowon. 

sower, sowel. 

sowing, soaen. 

space, spad. 

spacious, spadOs.. 

spaciously, spado. 

spaciousness, spadoi, spadop. 

spade, sopon. 

span, span. 

span, spanon. 

Spanish, spdrak. 

spanner, spanel. 

spare, spaion, spaten. 

sparing, spaZiid. 

sparing, spaZik. 

spaningness, spal. 

spark, spag. 

sparkful, spagik.. 

sparkish, spajiik. 

sparkle, spag'on. 



384 



GBAMMAB OP VOLAPuK. 



sparkle, spag. 
sparkler, spagel. 
sparrow, sp^r. 
spatter, . sputon. 
spawn, smaf. 
spawn, sma/Hn. 
speak! sCigol paso^'oj 
speak, piikoiL, vodon. 
speaker, pilkel. 
spear, sped, 
spear, spedon. 
spearman, spedel. 
special, padk. 
specially, pa&o. 
specialty, pat. 
speck, spek. 
speckle, spek. 
spectacle, jov. 
spectacles, liin. 
spectator, Zo^edel. 
spectre, spuk, Intikal. 
speculate, sidmon, helogon. 
speculation, beZo^am 
' speculatist, beZo^el. , 
speculative, beZo^ik. 
speculatively, heloglik, be%iko. 
speculativeness, siiimoi. 
speculator, beZo^el. 
speech, puk, sag, lenpiik. 
speech, pukon, lenp^fcon. 
speed, spid. 
speed, spidon. 

speeder, spidA. ' 

speedful, spidiik. 
speedily, spido. 
speediness, spid. 
speedy, spidik. 
spell, magug. 
spell, silaVoTi. 
speller, sildbA. 
spelling, sz7aJam, lotogaf. 
spend, ditMu. 
spendthrift, Zifcamel. 



spew, Xusput^To., sputon. 

spewer, luspuiel, sputA. 

spice, zib, spir, pit. 

spice, zibou, spirbn. 

spicer, zibel, spirel. 

spicy, piiik. 

spill, tometon. 

spin, spulon. 

spindle, sped. 

spinner, spulel. 

spinningworks ; spulen. 

spinster, ji-spulel, of-spulel. 

spirit, spit, tikal, Ian. 

spirit, Zanon. 

spirited, spitik. 

spirits, spit. 

spiritual, spiak, tikahiik.. 

spiritualism, siiimoi, val^. 

spirituality, iifcalnof 

spiritually, fo'telnik. 

spit, sped. 

spit, spedSn. 

spit, sputon. 

spite, 'et, ponit. 

spiteful, '^etik, badxigik. 

spitefully, "^eriko, ftarfugiko. 

spitefullness, ^etof, badng. 

spitter, spw^el. 

splash, fiv, lu?afcil. 

splendid, glolik, magifik. 

splendidly, gloliko. 

splendour, magif, nid. 

splice, sUton. 

splice, slita,m., 

splint, sUton. 

split, slit. 

split, sliton. 

splitted, slitik, 

splitter, slitel. 

spoil, lapin. 

spoil, lapinon, distukbn. 

spoiler, lapinel, distukel. 

spoilful, lapinik, distukik. 



GRAMMAH OF VOLAPUK. 



sponsion, spon. 

sponsor, sponel, sponel. 

sponsorial, sponehk. 

gponsorship^ spon. 

spoon, spun. 

spoon, spunon. 

spoonej', dfroZik. 

sport, pled, cog, drol, yagen. 

sport, pledon, bofon, yofaa. 

sport.er, kofal, fasedel. 

sportfiil drolii., yo/ik, bofiln. 

sportfally, drolmk, yofo. 

sportfalness, yof, 6o/en, 

sportsman, 6o/el, yagA. 

spot, jemoA, sten, plad. 

spot, stenon, miotozi. 

spotless, nestenik, nebe^fenik. 

spotlessly, nebesfeniko. 

spotlessness, nebesten. 

spotted, siemk, miotik. 

spotter, stenel, mtotel. 

spotty, sienlik, mioMk. 

spouse, ji-matel. 

spouse, Tnafokon, maton. 

spout, skut. 

spout, skuton. 

spray, tuigil. 

spread, fag. 

spread, veiton. 

spreader, veitel. 

spreading, veitaro. 

spree, fcopon. 

sprig, tu^ni- 

spriggy, toa/ik. 

spriglit, spuk, lu^i^al. 

spiightful, yofitk, Ufik. 

sprightfuUy, yofliko, yofo. 

sprightfulness, yof, yofaX. 

sprightliness, yof, gaJal. 

sprightly, yo/lik, lifiik.. 

spring, flolaiiOT. 

spring, flolaz/mik. 

spring, rig, bun, /oraad, fon. 



spring, feunon, ybnon. 
springer, 6unel. 
springing, feunik, fomk 
springtime, flola^jm. 
sprout, gelmin. 
sprout, gelmtniiTi. 
spume, skom. 
spume, skomon. 
spumy, skomik. 
spumous, skomik. 
spur, stigbii. 
spur, spor. 
sputter, sput. 
sputter, sp««6n. 
squabble, zan. 
squabble, zanon. 
squabbler, zanel. 
squadron, jvadan, skad. 
square, vadat, fola^ara. 
square, vadatik. 
squre, vadaton. 
squ'Erely, vadatlik. 
squaeak, luuofcem. 
squeak, lut'oMn. 
squeaker, luvokel. 
squeeze, pedsun. 
squeeze, pedon. 
squeezer, pedei. 
squeezing, ^erfik, pedaadk. 
squirrel, yat. 
stab, spinaja. 
stab, spinSu, dagoa. 
stabber, spinel. 
stability, fim, leveloi. 
stable, ^njik, leveKk, dulik. 
stableboy, jevala,n. 
stableness, fim, leoeKt. 
stag, stag, 
stage, stad, t«at. 
stagger, so^on. 
staggering, zog, dot. 
staggeringly, zoyiko. 
stagnancy, tak. 

25 



386 



GBAMMAK. OF VOlAPtlK. 



stagnate, takon. 

stagnation, tnlc. 

stain, sten. 

stain, stenon. 

stained, stenik. 

stair, slab. 

stake, venud, kin&w.. 

stake, veniidon, fcmdn. 

stale, batasife. 

stall, buig. 

stallion, lejeval. 

stammer, stotbn. 

stammerer, stotel. 

stammeringly, stbdko 

stamp, penedtimak. 

stamp, stap, jok. 

stamp, stdpbn, rnakoji, jokon. 

stand, stan, storabp. 

stand, stanoa. 

standard, j/ia/am. 

standing, stanHX. 

standing, cal, stad. 

star, stel. 

starch, poded, kleb. 

starch, sftyik. 

starch, podedon. 

starcher, ]i-p6dedel, oi-podedel. 

stai'chness, stif, stenud(6f). 

stare, lufojram; star. 

stare, InZo^on. 

starer, luZog'el, 

staring, luiog'ik. 

staring, Inlog. 

staringly, luZo^iko. 

start, begin, jek. 

start, beginon, jekon. 

starter, beginel. 

starting, 5«^mik, jekik. 

startingly, ^eHik. 

startle, /efcSn. 

startle, jek, jekstxa. 

startling, jeHk. 

startlingly, j'eklik. 



starvation, deilam, (plo potiit). 

starve, deilon, (plo potiit) 

state, cal, stad, stajen, sied, tat. 

state, lesagQyi, lediikon. 

stateliness, cad, dinit. 

stately, gloliko, magiflik. 

statement, nomani. 

statesman, camel. 

station, stejen, cal, stad. 

station, pladon. 

stationary, stan, stonop. 

stationer, bukaseZel, popase/el. 

statistics, statit. 

statue, fcoflfab, koAsihakd lihu. 

stature, fom. 

statute, statud. 

stay, stop, ytif. 

stay, yufoa, stopon. 

stead, plad. 

steadily, leveliko, Jimiko. 

steadiness, flm, leveloi 

steady, _^mik. 

steatiy, fimon. 

steal, tifoTo.. 

stealer, tifel. 

stealing, tifo\. 

stealingly, ft/liko. 

stealth, tifen.. 

stealthful, tifl&. 

stealthy, ft/ik. 

steam, stem. 

steam, stemon, stomon. 

steam-boat, stemaio^ 

steam-engine, stemacm. 

steamer, stema5o<, 

steamy, siemik. 

steed, jeval. 

steel, 4ulin. 

steel, diilinik. 

steely, diiliniik. 

steep, miiedoa. 

steeple, tvim. 

steer, gub'na. 



GKAMMAR OF VOLAIUK. 



187 



stem, stam. 

stem, stopon. 

stench, lusmel. 

stenography, vifapenadav. 

step, step. 

step, slepoa. 

step-brother, Inblod. 

step-child, Incil. 

step-daughter, ji-liison, of-luson. 

step-father, \afat. 

step-mother, Imnot. 

step-sister, y.-hiblod-. oi-hxblod. 

step-son, luson. 

sterility, ae/et. 

stem, jalepik. 

st-emly, /atepiko. 

sternness-, jalep. 

stick, spatin. 

stick, klebon. 

sticky, klebik. 

stiff, sti/ilsi. 

stiffen, stifon. 

stiffener, slifel. 

stiffly, sti/aik. 

stiffness, stif. 

stifle, muedon, nefiedon. 

stile, put. 

still, stilik. 

still, stilcn. 

stiller, stilel. 

stilling, stilaxLi. 

stillness, stil 

itilly ! so ! takedo ! 

stimulant, stigik. 

stimulate, stigon. 

stimulation, stigdum. 

stimulative, stiglik. 

stimulator, stigel. 

sting, stig. 

sting, spitwn. 

stinger, fpinel, stigel. 

stingUy, motw-liko, fUliko. 

stinginess, ful. 



stingy, stigik, fiilik, 7»07»alik. 

stink, lasmel. 

stink, lusmelon, smelon badlik. 

stinkard, lusmefel. 

stint, lonam. 

stipend, leinesed. 

stipend, lemesedon.. 

stipple, piinon. 

stipulate, slipQa, 

stipulation, stip, stipa,m., 

stipulator, stipel, Zonel. 

stir, hoset. 

stir, mufon, miifon. 

stirrer, mti/el, mii/el. 

stirring, mu/ol, mvfo\. 

stirrup-xanamet^. 

stitch, stik. 

stitch, stikon. 

stitched, sfzAik. 

stitcher, stikA, oi-stikel, ji- 

stikei. 
stitching, s//ten. 
«tock, gleip, stam, stok. 
stock, blimrm, stokijn. 
stockfish, stokiit 
stocking, stog. 
stoke, Jil6Q, fonon. 
stoker, yonel. 
stomach, stomag. 
stone, aton. 
stone, stondn. 
stoner, stonA. 
stony, stonsik. 
stool, stal. 
stoop, don/uton. 
stop, stop, stop, 
stop, stopbn, stopon, neleton. 
stoppage, stopam, stop, 
stopper, stopel, stopel. 
store, cajo&magad, stok. 
store, stoion. 
stork, stor. 
storm, tep. 



388 



GUAMMAB OP VOLAPuK. 



storm, tepon. 
stormer, tepel. 
storminesa, iepoi. 
stormy, iepils.. 

story, mar, Insag, koned, kon. 
stout, Mnik, pienik. 
stoutly, kimko, Zanzmiko. 
stoutness, kin, dUfag. 
stove, fdn. 
stow, kumon. 
straggle, polon. 
straggler, polel. 
straggling, p67ik. 
straggling, polxih. 
stragglingly, ^joHko. 
straight, stedik. 
straighten, stedbn. 
\straigMly, stediko. 
straightness, sted. 
strain, pedTam. 
strain, pedoji. 
strainer, pedel. 
straining, pedaxa. 
strait, stedik. 
straitly, stedikO' 
straitness, sted. 
strand, jol. 
strand, jolon. 
strange, seledmk, fogimk. 
strangely, seZeefniko.' 
strangeness, seledabi, foginiit. 
stranger, fogine\, foginah, se- 

Zcinel. 
strangle, lepetfon. 
strangled, lepedik. 
strangler, leped&l, 
strangling, leped, leperfam. 
straw, stol. 
strawberry, ial&bdl. 
strawy,' stoZik. 
stream, le/lum, flum. 
stream, flumUn. 
streamer, flumel. 



streamlet, ,/Zumil. 

streamy, ^amik. 

street, sut. 

strength, stenildoi, stenud. 

strengthen, ndmon, stehudon, 

valiidon. 
strengthener, steniidel. 
strenuous, ba/olik, steniidik.' 
strenuously hafolo, sieniido,. 
strenuousness, ledul, zil. 
stress, leheZojiam, mefcad. 
stress, jembn. 
stretch, tienon, tenon. 
stretched, -petien&i. 
stretcher, tienel. 
strew, disipbn. 
strewing, disip, disip&ra.. 
strickt, kaludik. 
stricktly, kaludo. 
stricktness, kaludSt. 
stride, step, 
stride, stepQn. 
strife, dikod, zan; steif. 
strifeful, dikodik, zanik. 
strike, flapSja, ZonSn, (of clocks.) 
striker, flapel. 
strikingly, konsidiko. 
string, jain, tan, le/ad. 
string, benotonSn. 
stringy, jainik, tamk. 
strip, neie^on, niidon, jalaa. 
strive, steifan, zanSn, dikodfiT:\. 
striver, steif A; dikodel, aanel. 
striving, steif axa. 
stroke, jok, copamr 
stroke, /okon. 
stroker, j'okel, 
stroking, Joklik. 
stroll, pSliue^am, tudil. 
stroll, pOliBe^ron. 
stroller, ■pblivegel. 
strong, steniidik. namik. 
stronger, steniidikwm. 



GKAMMAK OF VOLAPUK. 



strongly, stenudo, namiko. 
strop, jaiml. 
structnral, 6untik. 
structure, bum, 6umot 
struggle, komip, steif 
struggle, komipon,' steifoa. 
straggler, komg>el, steifel. 
struggUng, komipik. 
strut, bldtam.. 
gtmt, bloton. 
strutter, ln^2o/el 
etabborn, kinik, totfalik. 
stubbornly, kiniko, toda^o. 
stubbornness, kin, todal. 
student, studel. 
studied, estn£k., pefufol. 
studious, studol, zUik. 
studiously, 2tZiko. 
studiousness, dut, dutot. 
study, stud. 
study, studon 
stuff, laklqf, stof, stof. 
stuff, /uldn. 
staffing, fulol. 
stumble, so^on. 
stump, netipik. 
stump, netipon. 
stumpy, jietipik.. 
stun, stundn 
stunning, stunik. 
stupe, ^toftel. 
stupe&ction, stun, nesen. 
stupefactive, stunik. 
stupefy, stunon. 
stupendous, siunik. 
stupendously, sturdko. 
stupendousness, stunot. 
stupid, stupik, globik. 
stupid, stupA, globel. 
stupidity, stup, stujal, glob, 
stupidly, stiqAik. 
stupidness, stup, glob. 
«tnpified, stunik. 



stupifier, stunel. 
stupify, stunon. 
stupor, nesen, stun, 
sturdily, ioloOko, ne/emiko. 
etardiness, bolot, ne/emof. 
sturdy, bolotik. 
stutter, stot. 
.stutter, stolon. 
stutterer, stotel 
stuttering, slotik. 
stutteringly, stotiko. 
style, stul, mod. 
style, tiddon, calan^mou. 
styUsh, cotfik. 
styHshuess, cad. 
suavity, Id/lot. 
subdue, lepeddn. 
subdued, l^etfik. 
subduer, lepedel- 
subject, lonedel, subyet. 
subject, yokiin, subyeton 
subjection, yoiam, subyetsna. 
subjective, yokik, subyetik. 
subjectively, yoHko, subyetiko. 
subjoin, la^iKon. 
subjugate, yokoa. 
subjugation, yokaia. 
subjugator, yokel. 
subjunctive. m6ga&«Z(ik). 
subline, cddik, subimik. 
sublimely, subimiko, bizu^lik. 
sublimeness, subim, cad. 
sublimity, subim, bizu^of. 
submission, lonedoi. 
submissive, Kne£k. 
submissively, ldne£ko. 
submiasiveness, Vinedoi 
submit, yoifcon, loveieton. 
subordinate, lonedik. 
subscribe, disopenon. 
subscriber, disqpenel. 
subscription,desqpen,disqpenam. 
subsist, siZimon. 



390 



GB.AMMAU OF VOLAPUK. 



subsistent, siimik. 
substance, itof, kop. 
substantial, iiik, kopik. 
substantiality, itof 
substantialize, volekon. 
substantially, itiko. 
substantive, itik 
substantive, subsat. 
substantively, itiko, 
substitute, pladal. 
substitute, pladaVdn. 
substitution, pladalimi. 
substract, lunon. 
subtile, slenik, /einik 
subtilely, sZeniko, feino. 
subtileness, slen, fein. 
snbtility, fein, slen. 
subtle, \w.hruti\L, ia/ik. 
subtleness, \x\.oisedx\g. 
subtlety, \avisedxig. 
subtract, lunon. 
subtracter, Z«nel. 
subtraction, lunaxa. 
suburb, \yi.zif. 
succeed, plop&xi, sukom. 
succeeder, swtel. 
success, fin, lab. 
successful, liiKk. 
successfully, te'ftiko. 
successfulness, lab 
succession, ked, suk, sukaxa.. 
snccessional, fcerfik', s«Hk. 
successive, tenfik, siiHk. 
sviccessively, kedWo. 
successor, sukdi. 
succour, yuf 
succour, yuf6n 
succoiirer, j/«/el 
such, som. 
suck, sugon. 
sucker, sugel. 
snckling, sugel. 
suction, sugoA. 



sudden, sitpttik. 

suddenly, siipito. 

suddenness, slipit. 

sue, \ehegm, plekm. 

suffer, s«/5n, liedoix. 

sufferable, sw/ik. 

sufferably, liedo, su/iko. 

sufferance, lied. 

sufferer, liedA, su/el. 

suffering, lied 

suffering, lied'ik. 

sufferingly, /zerfiko- 

suffice, satm, binon sdtik^ 

sufficiency, sat. 

sufficient, satik. 

sufficiently, sariko. 

suffix, plapod. 

suffix, pldpodon. 

sugar, jueg. 

sugar-cane, jueg&rid. 

sugar-work, juegea. 

sugary, jueg\\. 

suggest, mobon. 

suggestion, mo5am. 

suggestive, vinegSk., m,6b\k. 

suicide, iiam'dlod. 

suit, beg, pozet, gita/e?"?, keel- 

hlotsxa. 
suit, pot^n, iafemon, fcto^oii. 
suitable, polik. 
suitably, jooriko. 
suite, suk2iA, ked. 
sulkiness, hadwg 
sullen, 6a«?ugik. 
sullenly, 6a<Zugiko. 
sullenness, 6a«fug. 
sully, sten. 
sully, stenon, miotun. 
sulphur, svefln. 
sulphureous, svefinik. 
sulphureously, svefiniko 
sultry, leuomik. 
sum, fin, suani. 



GRAifMAR OF VOLAFUK. 



391 



sum, suamon. 
summary, suamik. 
snmmatioii. suamnm. 
summer, 'itsttem. 
summerlike, 'itsUimik. 
summit, tipun, loprra. 
summon, suflagon.. 
summoner, suflagel. 
sumptuous, magifik. 
gnmptuonsly, magtfiko. 
sumptnousness, magif. 
sun, sol. 
sundag soldel. 
snndayschool, soldelajul. 
sunder, ieilon. 
sundry, dif, dins difik. 
sunny, sdSk. 
sunset, solatfuam. 
sunshine, solaZti!. 
sup, ninsugron. 
superb, magifik, glolSk, 
superbly! magifb, ghlo\ jo! 
snpercilious, pZewflk. 
superciliously, pleido. 
superciliousness, pleid. 
superfine, lefeinik. 
superfluity, bundan. 
superfluous, nezesUd. 
superfluously, neres??<fiko. 
superfluousness, nezesiid. 
superior, lopa, lopi .. lopo... 
superior, eif, ldpa,\, lopel. 
superiority, lop. 
superlative, pliite'en. 
snperlativeness, vij^of. 
superstition, loviJclod. 
superstitious, loyiklodik. 
8ui)er8titiou3ly, loviiMtSko. 
supine, iiseiDaiid. 
supinely, diseinaJiifik, nedu^ik. 
supineness, aedut. 
supper, vendelalefid. 
supplant, lepedon. 



supple, flegik, yurmk. 
supple, ^umikon. 
supplement, lagiv, 
suppleness, yumof. 
suppliant. le&£^ik. 
suppliant, lebegel. 
suppliantly, leSe^ko. 
supplicant, lefe^el. 
supplicant, lebegik. 
supplicate, plekan, leJe^on. 
supplication, leSe^am. 
supply, fimaxn, {osteniidam. 
supply, giviyn, kalon, hlimou. 
support, yiif. 
support, yufon. 
supporter, yii^eX. 
supposable, niliuSk. 
suppose, niludon. 
supposal, nUud. 
supposer, niludel. 
supposition, nilud. 
suppress, leperfon. 
suppressed, lepedik. 
suppression, leped, lejoedam. 
supprsssive, lepecfik. 
suppressor, lyiede]. 
supreme, lelopelik. 
supremely, levemiino. 
sure, zeladik, sefik, /umik. 
surely, zelado. 
sureness, zelad, sef. fam. 
surety, zelad. 
surety, sponel. 
snige, vat&\abel. 
surgeon, vunasa/iel. 
surgery, vunsisanaJcan. 
surgy, iepik. 
surliness, iadag. 
surly, iadngik. 
surmise, nilud. 
surmise, niludon. 
surmiser, niludel 
surmount, lovon, hevikodon. 



392 



GBAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



surname, lareem. 
surname, lanemon. 
surpass, lovon. 
surplus, leman, likad. 
surprise, ]egal, siipitajva., stun 
surprise, sUpiton, stunon. 
surprising, stunik. 
surprisingly, stuniko. 
surrender, love^'zuon. 
surrender, lovegiv. 
surround, ziimon. 
survey, logstxa. 
survey, logedtm. 
suspect, ■mikonf.dXin. 
suspend, Icikon. 
suspence, dohik. 
suspension, Zafcam. 
suspicion, xaikonfid. 
suspicious, vaikonjidik. 
suspiciously, mikonfidiko. 
suspiciousness, m.ikonfid. 
sustain, siftmamcin, yufon, suf- 

on, yiifon. 
sustainer, yiifel, su/el. 
sustainment, sifemam. 
sutler, svidel. 
swag, lagon. 

swagger, luglolon, bo9'e!on. 
swaggerer, Inglolel. 
swaggering, Iwglol. 
swallow, sval. 
swamp, lulak. 
swampy, Inlakik. 
swan, svan. 
swap, flap, 
swap, flapon. 
swarm, kum. 
swarm, kiimon , Jumon 
swarthy, hldgWk. 
sway, flun, soZef, valfid. 
sway, flunon, regon., solon. 
swear, yulon. 
swearer, neK6f«iIel. 



swearing, yulg,m. 
sweat, suet, 
sweat, sueton. 
sweater, suetel., 
sweatily, suetiko. 
sweatiness, suetbi. 
sweating-bath, suetaftan. 
sweaty, suedk. 
Sweden, Sved. 
Swede, svedel. 
Swedish, svedik. 
sweep, suipon, svip'dn. 
sweeper, suipel, svipel. 
sweeping, suipol, svipik. 
sweepingly, suipiko, svzpiko. 
sweet, svidik. 
sweeten, svidon. 
sweetening, svidnja. 
sweetly, svidik, Zd^lik. 
sweetness, svid, Zo/l6f. 
swell, pleidon. 
swell, vataluieZ. 
swelling, veital. 
swerve, poliue^'on. 
swerving, pbliwe^ram. 
swift, vi/ik, skilik, fovik. 
swiftly, vifo, foviko. 
swiftness, vif, skul. 
swilling, kopen. 
swill, kopon. 
swiller, kbpel. 
swim, svimba. 
swimmer, svimel. 
swimming, sumol. 
swimmingly, sujmolik. 
swindle, Indun. 
swindle, ludunon. 
swindler, Inj'amep, ludunel. 
swindling, luc?Mnik, 
swine, svin. 
swing, jek. 
swingle, vehbn. 
swingling, veb, 



GRAMMAB OF VOIAPiiK. 



393 



fwinish, laminik, suinik. 
swinishly, st7mlik. 
swinishness, Insvinal. 
Swiss, veizel. 
Switzerland, Jveiz. 
swoop, lejuton. 
swoop, tokon. 
sword, den, glaf. 
swordman, solat. 
syllabic, silabA 
svllabical; silabi^ 
sylaMcally, siZaftiko. 
syllahicate, sUaboJi. 
syllabication, sUabaja. 
eyllabist, sUabel. 
syllable, silab. 
symmetrical, leigsima/i]s., 
symmetricalness, leigama/of. 
symmetrize, leigama/'on 
svmmetry, leigama/ 
srmpathetic, keZierftk. 
svmpathetical, keZiedik. 



sympathize, pidon. 
sympathy, 'kelied. 
symphony, benoton. 
symptom, dinad, kupamo/. 
syntax, sutag. 
Syria, Suran 
syriac, siiranik. 
Syrian, siiranel. 
syringe, skat 
syringe, skuton. 
system, sit. 
systematic, sitik. 
systematical, sifik, SHUk. 
systematecally, sidko, sUo, sit- 

liko. 
systematism, sitsl. 
systematize, siton. 
systematizer, siVel 
systemic, sitik. 
systemize, siton. 
systole, sildba.hlefa.TS).. 



T. 



tabernacle, taber. 
table, tab, letofi. 
table, taboa. 
tablet, tabil. 
tabular, ta6ik, iaftUk. 
tabnlarly, tofeliko. 
tacit, nepKfcik. 
ta-citly, n^wHko. 
taciturn, nepijHk. 
taciturnity, neipKkof. 
taciturnly, nep»fciko. 
tack, kluf'ii. 
tact, sen. 
tactile, senlik. 
tail, gob. 
tail, gohon. 
tailor, teladA, klota,meke\. 



tailor, leladou 
tailoring, telad. 
taint, lupa^. 
taint, lupafcon. 
taintnre, In^a^, sten, miot 
take, sutncm., ploji'dn 
taker, sumel. 
taking, menalik. 
tale, kon, fconed. 
talent, talen. 
talented, talenik. 
tale-teller, konel. 
talk, Inpiikot, piik. 
talk, piikon. 
talkative, lupaHk. 
talkatively, \upiiko- 
talkativeness, lupatof. 



394 



GRAMMAR OF V0L1.PUK, 



talker, puhel, vdde\, lupiilc\. 

talking, piikol. 

tall, gletik, lonedii. 

tallium, talin. 

tallness, geilng, Zoned, glet. 

tally, lanimik. 

tamarind, ia/mhim. 

tame, ne/oetik, sukalik. 

tame, ne/oe<dn. 

tamely, swfcaliko. 

tameness, nefoetHf, sukal. 

tamer, ne/o«iel. 

tamper, medinon. 

tan, taen'6n 

tangibility, senlikof. 

tangible, senilis.. 

tangibleness, senlikof. 

tangibly, se«liko, 

tangle, komplig. 

tangle, komplig'dn. 

tanhonse, taen. 

tanner, taenel, sMta,n. 

tannery, taen, 

tannjn, ■ toenin. 

tantalum, tanin. 

tantalism, torn. 

tantalize, tombn, vexadon. 

tantalizing, tormik, r«radik. 

tap, tubog 

tap, nokm. 

tape, tan. 

taper flamSiA. Utah 

taper, tip'6n. 

taper, tipik. 

tapestry, tap. 

tar, melel. 

tardily, ne//wo, zogiho. 

tardiness, nedut, zog>5(. 

tardy, zogiV, nedutik. 

tariff, taif. 

tarn, lulakii, fiv. 

tarnish, stenon, mioton 

tarnished, stenik, njjotik 



tarrier, zogel. 

tarry, zogSn. 

tarrying, zog. 

tart, konfed-ibakot, lehakoi. 

tart, lezudik. 

tartish, leziidlih. 

tartly, leziido. 

tartness, leziid. 

taste, smek. 

taste, mudon, giitOn, iesmekbn., 

tasteful, smekii.. 

tastefully, smeHko. 

tastefulness, smekbi. 

tasteless, nesmekik. 

tastelessness, nesmek. 

taster, blufel, fesm«tel guie\^ 

tastily, sineHik. 

tasting, blu/am. 

tasty, smefcik. 

tatter^ hiklof. 

tatter, slitbn- 

tattered, laklofik, sUtik^ 

tattle, lupiikot. 

tattle, lapiikbn. 

tattler, lapiikel. 

tattlery, \npiikoi. 

tattling, hipiikoi. 

tattlingly, hTpaJiotlik laj5?VAiko\. 

taunt, levemiXno, legeilii.. 

taunt, nof. 

taunt, no/On. 

taunter, no/el 

taunting, nofik. 

tauntingly, no/'iko 

taurus, xoil 

tavern, wmop, labot lotbp, 

taverner, loteh 

tavern-keeper, lotA, 

taw, jainbn. 

tawdrily, luma^zTikch 

tawdriness, ladekbi. 

tawdry, lamagi/ik. 

tawdry, Inmngifen. 



GEAMMAK OF VOLAPuK. 



395 



tawer, jaineh 
tawery, jainen. 
tawniness, taeninoi. 
tawny, taenimk. 
tax, tlip, diiv. 
tax, dimu. 

taxation, <Z»uam, dfiv. 
taxer, dawel. 
taxing, dtti'ik, duvo\. 
tea, tied, 
teach, tidHn. 
teachable, ««fik. 
teacher, i«fel. 
teaching, tidasa, tidaA. 
tea-dealer, tiedel. 
tea-drinker, tiedsbdlinel. 
tea-kettle, tied-Mof il. 
team, bof. 
tea-pot, tiedaskal. 
tear, dten; slit, 
tear, sUton. 
t«arer, slitel. 
tearful, rftenik. 
tearfulness, dlenoi. 
tease, vexadon, tomon. 
teaser, vexadel, iorael. 
teasingly, vexad\ik, toTiiko. 
tea-spoon, tied&spun 
teat, tet. 
technic, kaenik. 
technical, kaemk. 
technically, haeniko. 
technics, kaen 
tedious, zo^ik, lonedUT^ik 
tedionsly, zoyiko 
tediousness, Zonerffip. 
tedium, naud, lonedup. 
teem, paldn, /uton 
teemfal, fluHk, fetik- 
teemless, ne/erik, ■neftalak. 
telegram, telegam. 
telegraph, telegaf 
telegraph, telegafm. 



telegraphic, telegafik. 
telegraphically, lelegaf\ko. 
telegraphist, telega/A. 
telegraphy, teiegaf(av). 
telephone, telefon. 
telephone, telefonoji. 
telephonic, tele/onW. 
telescope, telesop 
telescopic, telesopHk. 
telescopically, t&letopko. 
tell, nuTOon, ^onon. 
teller, numel (of fractions) 

numaX (of persons), 
temerarious, holedSs.. 
temerity, boled. 
temper, ladaXastad, ladaXoA. 
temper, meiladon. 
temperament, ladaloA. 
temperance, ma/M 
temperate, ma/ik, su/ik. 
temperate, ma/ukon. 
temperately, ma/iko, swyiko. 
temperateness, mafbi. 
temperative, ma/akol. 
temperature, tempat. 
tempered, meiladik 
tempest, tep. 
tempestuous, iepik. 
tempestuously, tepiko. 
tempestuousness, tepoi. 
templar, temA 
temple, tem 
temple-of the head, kapa- 

flan. 
temporal, Zmlik. 
temporally, ftmliko. 
temporarily, e'aniko. 
temporariness, timloi 
temporary, varnk, ^oZenik. 
temporize, zo^ron. 
tempt, neflenSn, teniidoii. 
temptation, teniid, ien?id-a,ra. 
temper, temidel. 



396 



GRAMMAB OF VOLAPUK. 



temptingly, tenHdik. 

temptress, ji-tenildel, oi-teniidel. 

temse, sib, 

temulent, dlinadik 

ten, hals. 

tenacious, ioreik, lertgludik, diif- 

ugik. 
tenaciously, <Z«*/ugiko. 
tenaoiousness, \&[iglud(A, monal. 
tenacity, monal. 
tenancy, kodut, kodut. 
tenant, fco&tel, feiicfutel. 
tend, fcdKn. 
tendency, slop, 
tender, zarfik. 

tender, Zo/on, daio/6n, Zo/6n. 
tenderly, zacflik. 
tenderness, zad. 
tenebrous, daegik, dagi^, 
tenfold, balsik. 
tenor, kilidiSuVog 
tense, stifik spanik. 
tensely, sit'/lik. 
tenseness, stif. 
tensibility, teniit. 
tensible, tenik 
tension, span, spanam, 
tent, tened. 
tent, tenedon, 
tenth, halsiA. 
tenttpart, haXsedil. 
tenthly, feaZsido. 
tenuity, fein, slen. 
tenuous, feimk, sZenik. 
tepid, ne/aZepik, Zauik. 
tepidness, lav, lindif. 
tepidity, linlif, ne;aZ«p. 
terce, kiiiM. 
tercet, Iciliira.. 
term, tup, mied, sepiik. 
term, sepafcSn, nemon. 
termagancy, tepsA. 
termagant, Zedik, dikodik. 



terminate, flnon, 
terminate, finSu, miedon. 
termination, fin, kludskm, _ 
terminational, _^nik, fcZueZik. 
terminator, ^nel, kludel. 
terminus, klud, fin. 
terrace, stiik. 
terrene, toZik. 
terrestrial, JaZik. 
terrestrially, taZiko, 
terrible, j'ekik. 
terribleness, jek6f. 
terribly, /eHik. 
terrific, /efcik, 
terrify, jekon. 
territory, stuk, 
terror, /ek. 

terse, smufik, n^alik. 
tersely, nifalmk. 
terseness, nif&\, smuf. 
test, 6Z«/am, bliif. 
test, bill/on. 
testament, vil Icitik. 
testifier, noel , 
testify, rjoeZon. 
testification, woeZiid. 
testimony, woeZiid, zot. 
texture, vivot. 
than, ka, tano. 
thank, dan. 
thank, rfareon. 
thankful, danik. 
thankfully, rfanlik. 
thankfulness, danoi. 
thanksgiver, i^anel. 
thanksgiving, darm/ivaw. 
thank-worthy, daraigik. 
that, kelos, das, os, mZos.. 
that is, OS 6toos 
the, el, eZom, eZof, ji-eZ, os, 

os-ai, osi, atos. 
theatre, teat, 
theatric, teatik. 



GaAMMiB OF VOLAPUK. 



397 



theatrically, teatiko. 

thee, ole. 

theft, tif. 

their, omsiks, q/aiks. 

them, omes, ofes. 

then, also. 

thence, de, luka,, isa. 

thenceforth, sis. 

thenceforward, sis. 

theologaster, ^orfavel. 

theologian, goda,Yel. 

theologic, godnyik. 

theologically, ^roofavlik, 

theologist, ^'orfavel. 

theologize, yaafavon. 

theology, godsLY. 

theorist, teoreh 

theorize, teoron. 

theory, teor. 

there, ies, is, isit, sibinik. 
thereabout, zii , at (atos), zfi is. 
thereafter, tan, tdno, poso. 
thereat, en, us 
thereby, atos, dubatoa, dubat... 

las, nis, en. 
therefor, atos, sikod, se kod at. 
therefore, atos, sikod, also, 

kludo. 
therefrom, isa, isik, en, seat(os.) 
therein, nis, en. 
thereinto, ino. 
thereof, usa,. 
thereon, su atos(i.) 
thereout, se at(os), en. 
thereto, en, plos. 
thereupon, tan, tano, su atos. 
therewith, ko at(os,) 
these. ats„ ji-ats, of-ats. 
they, o/s, oms. 
thick, 6^ik. 
thicken, bigon. 
thickened, bigik. 
thickening, big&m. 



thicket, boadeWi bujad. 

thickiah, big\ik. 

thickly, big&. 

thickness, big. 

thief, tifel. 

thieve, tifSn. 

thievery, <j/en. 

thievish, ^ik. 

thievisly, tifiko. 

thievishnesg, iif&l. 

thimble, Jineda'dt. 

thin, slenik. 

thin, slenon. 

thine, oU, oSk, olsa,, olsik. 

thing, din. 

think, cedbn, tikon. 

thinker, tiksX. 

thinking, tik. 

thinly, s^eralik. 

thinness, slen. 

third, kilii. 

thirdpart, kildil. 

thirdly, kiliio. 

thirst, nelum. 

thirst, nelumfm. 

thirstily, neUrmko. 

thirstiness, neKmSf. 

thirsty, nelirmk. 

thirteen, balsekil. 

thirteenth, balseiifld. 

thirteenthpart, balsekilAil. 

thirtieth, kilsid. 

thirtiethpart, kilse^ZzZ. 

thirty, kils. 

thirtyfold, kilsik. 

this, at, atof, atos. 

thistle, til. 

thistly, tilik. 

thither, isi. 

thitherward, isi. 

thitherwards, isi. 

thorn, spin, stig. 

thorny, spinik, stigik. 



398 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPUK. 



thorough, da. 

thoroughly, le/ulnik, lefulo. 

those, kels. 

thou, ol. 

though, ab, do, ifi. 

thought, tik. 

thoughtful, siienik, fcurfik. 

thoughtfully, sSenlik, siieniko. 

thoughtfulness, siien. 

thoughtless, nesaenik. 

thoughtlessly, nesKenliko. 

thoughtlessness, nesuen. 

thousand, mil. 

thousandfold, milik. 

thousandth, ?mlid. 

thousandthpart, nnldil. 

thrash, cepon. 

thrasher, cepel. 

thrashing, cep(-am). 

thread, fad. 

thread, fadSn. 

thready, /adik, stiinik, 

threat, tad. 

threat, tadon. 

threaten, tadorx. 

threatening, tadskia. 

threateningly, tadiko. 

threatful, tddik. 

three, kil. 

threefold, Wik. 

thrice, kilna,. 

thrift, lab, lieg, spal. 

thriftily, s;;a;nik. 

thriftiness, spal, spalnoi. 

thrifty, spdlik. 

thrill, tril, 

thrill, trU'on. 

thrilling, tril. 

thrive, pliibon. 

thriving, ploiik. 

thrivingly, plobiko. 

throat, gug. 

throe, le*/ep. 



throe, tomon, 

throne, tlon. 

throne, tlonGn. 

throng, dlan. 

throng, dianon. 

thronging, dlanik. 

throttle, gug. 

through, dub, me, da, kann, 

kodvi, fa. 
throughout, levelo, ai. 
throw, jed. 

throw, jedon, spulbn, sviloa. 
thrower, j'edel, svikl. 
thrum, flokon. 
thrum mer, flckel, 
thrust, jok. 
thrust, Jokoa, siigon. 
thumb, hignfined. 
thump, jok. 
thump, fokQu.. 
thumper, jokel. 
thunder, tot. 
thunder, toton. 
thunderbolt, tot&iton. 
thunderer, totA. 
thundering, Joiam. 
Thursday, dJ6del. 
thus, also, ato. 
thwack, flap, 
thwack, flapon.- 
thwart, tavelik, vddik, 
thwartly, tavelo, 
thy, o/a, olik, oha., olsik, onsa, 

onsik. 
thyself, olok. 
tice, baton. ^ 
tick, klotSii, 
ticket, kadil. 
tide, ban e neftan. 
tide, nefcandn. 
tidily, potik, poto. 
tidiness, fc/2«l6f, klinoi. 
tidy, klinik. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



399 



tie, tan, flok, snob. 

•tie, lanoQ. 

tier, tanel, jiokel. 

"tieice, kil&h. 

tight, /Jmik. 

tighten, JimoD.. 

tightly, Jimik. 

"tightness, fim. 

tile, tein. 

tile, tein'dn. 

tiled, teinik. 

tiler, kernel. 

tiling, telneo. 

till, iii, Ji(s, jiiftu. 

till, plaudoB, felon. 

"tillage, fela,m.. 

tiller, /e/el. 

tilt, slob, jok. . 

tilt, jokon, stigoa, spinoa. 

tilter, komipel. 

timber, boail. 

time, tim. 

timely, timo, ftVnik. 

timid, rf/mik. 

timidity, dim, diinSl. 

timidly, dimlik. 

timidness, dim. 

timorous, dledik. 

timorously, dledlik. 

tjmorousness, dledoi, 

tin, tin. 

tin, tlnon. 

tincture, kol. 

tinge, kol. 

tinge, fco/on. 

tinkle, tonon. 

tinman, ZiWel. 

tinning, tinnvo.. 

tinny, tMik. 

tint, kol. 

tint, kolou. 

tiny, s;»a/ik, pul\k. 

tip, pun, tip. 



tip, fiinon, tipon. 
tipple, kif on. 
tippler, kopel. 
tippling, kopen. 
tipsy, dlin&dik. 
tire, dek, Indek. 
tire, y'enon. 
tired, fenik. 
tiredness, fen. 
tiresome, fenik, lonedu^ik. 
tiresomely, /enlik. 
tiresomeness, Imiedo-p. 
tissue, vivot. 
tissue, vi'von. 
title, tiad, calane?«. 
title," iiddon, calareejnon. 
titmouse, titit. 
titter, smil. 
titular, tiddik. 
to, al, len. 
toast, dlina^ei. 
toast, dlinaj>et6n. 
toaster, d\ina,pete\. 
tobacco, tabak. 
-tobbacconist, tabakel. 
tobacco-pipe, pip. 
to-day, adelo. 
toe, fin?i^. 
toed, flnapik. 
together, kobo. 
toil, tob. 
toil, t'dhon. 
toilsome, ioMk. 
toilsomely, <3&iko, <oWik. 
toilsomeness, fikul. 
token, mak. 
tolerable, lepcirik. 
tolerably, ze. 
tolerance, sw/al. 
tolerant, sw/alik. 
tolerantly, su/alo. 
tolerate, su/"aldn. 
toleration, snidl. 



400 



GBAMMAll OF VOALPUK. 



toll, tolad. 

toll, toladon, gl'dkon. 

tomb, sepa/naZ, lesep. 

ton, toned; ton. 

tone, ton, tonoA. 

tone, ionon. 

toned, henotonik. 

tongue, lineg, piik. 

tongue, blamon. 

tonic, tonik. 

to-night, aneito. 

too, leigo, i, id, tu. 

tool, pliem. 

toot, tladon. 

tooter, lladel. 

tooth, tut. 

toothache, ttitarfoZ. 

toothed, tuAk. 
tooth-pick, tutaspm. 
top, tip, lop. 
top, tipon, lovbn. 
tope, kiipon. 
•topend, Idp, tip. 
toper, kopel. 
topple, le/aZ6n. 
torch, flam&dL. 
torment, tom. 
torment, tomUn. 
tormenting, tomik. 
tormentor, iomel. 
torpent, sti/ik, nedutik. 
torpid, stifik, laedutik. 
torpidity, stif, nedut. 
torpidly, stifMk, jieduto. 
torpidness, stif, nedut. 
torpor, stif, nedut. 
torrent, \eflum. 
torsion. Mug. 
tortuous, plifik. 
torture, tom. 
torture, tomon. 
torturer, iomel. 
toss, jed, jok. 



toss, jedoTo.. 



total, swamik. Vol. 

totality, suam, 161. 

totalize, suamon. 

totally, I'dliko. 

totalness, suamoi. 

toxich, sen, fek, Wuf&ra.. 

toxTch, <e/8n, senon, rivon. 

touchily, luseniko. 

touchiness, lusenof. 

touchy, lusenik. 

tough, ionik. 

toughen, ioreon. 

toughish, ionlik. 

toughly, ionik. 

toughness, ton. 

tour, tiid. 

tourist, tiidfiy. 

touse, ten^n, zugan, 

toward, al, vilik. 

towardlihess, tidioi, viloi, 

towardly, tidik, u?Zik. 

towards, a, al, dem. 

tower, tiim. 

town, zif. 

townsman, zif el 

toy, pledaizre. 

toy, pledbn. 

toze, hereon, zugon, muefoa. 

trace, rut, smare^r, kul. 

trace, sttfcon, vestigon, 

tracer, di3.vestige\. 

tracery, stonatfet. 

tracing, AsAiestig, smauejr, rut. 

track, kill, kul. 

trackt, kul. 

tractability, ^umof. 

traotableness, yumoi. 

tractable, ^«mik. 

tractably, ^umiko. 

tractation, tolat, tolat&'m. 

trade, ted. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



401 



trade, to/on. 
tradesman, tedel. 
trader, tedel. 
trading, ?edain. 
traduce, kusadon, slanon. 
traducer, kusadel, slanel. 
traducingly, slanik. 
traducement, slanaxn. 
tradncible, jaoplanik. 
traduction, mqp^anam. 
traffic, ted, can. 
traffic, tedon. 
trafficker, tedel. 
tragic, lugol. 
tragically, lUgSs-O. 
train, zng. 

train, pldgou, Aadukon. 
trainer, pldgel, iadukel. 
training, pldgam, d&duk. 
traitor, tldtel. 
traitorous, tlatii.. 
traitorously, rfodko. 
traitress, ji-tlatel; oi-tldtel. 
tramp, stam. 

tramp, futon, futelon tlidon. 
tramper, fittel. 
tramping, fatol, futelbl. 
trample, tlidon. 
trampler, tlidel, Auel. 
trance, legal. 

tranced, legalik, pe%a76l. 
tranquil, takedik. 
tranquillity, takedal. 
tranquiUization, tofeedam. 
tranquillize, takedbn. 
tranquillizer, takedel. 
tranquilly, takedo. 
tranquilness, takedSi. 
transact, tolaton. 
transaction, penot, tolat&w, 
transtbrmation, cen. 
transgress, vadon. 
transgression, viid- 



tran^ressive, va£k. 
transgressor, vcidel. 
transit, Anduk. 
transition, dudukajm. 
transitive, lo-regolik. 
translate, lovepolon. 
translation, lovt^o/am. 
translative, lovepoZik. 
translator, lovepofel, vodaX. 
translocation, loYepladaxn. 
transmarine, lovemeZik. 
transmit, lovese(Z5n. 
transmittal, love^edam. 
transmitter, lovesedel. 
transpiration, su^tam. 
transpire, suetSn. 
transport, pol 
transport, le^aZon. 
transportation, polnm. 
trap, tlap. 
trap, tlapon. 
trapan, tlap. 
tiash, Inklof. 
trash, lepedon. 
trashy, ncsik, gmalnik. 
trass, zam. 
travel, tav. 
travel, tdvon. 
travelled, -petdvol. 
traveller, tavel. 
traveUing, tavajsa. 
traverse, tavelik. 
treacherous, tldbik. 
treacheroudy, tlStiko. 
treachery, tlat. 
tread, tlidon. 
tread, tUd, gol, golah. 
treader, tlidel. 
treasure, div. 
treasurer, divel. 
treasury, div. 
treat, KnA;jpam. 
treat, tolaton, Imkipbn. 

26 



402 



GllAMMAll OF VOLAPliK. 



treater, linkipel, tolatel. 
treatment, tolat. 
treaty, hala,vi. 
treble, fcaVSn. 
tree, bim 
trellis, tlel. 

tremble, irilom, dlemon. 
trembler, trilel. 
trembling, dlemik. 
tremblingly, dlemi]s.o- 
tremendous, Jekik. 
tremendously, /e/clik. 
tremendouaness, fekoi. 
trench, sop. 
trench, sopon. 
trencher, sopel. 
trend, kiil. 
trend, golon. 
trespass, smbn. 
trespasser, sinel 
tress; le'el 
tressed, pitik. 
trial, xam, hluf&m.. 
triangle, 'kW&gul 
triangled, kilajuZik. 
triangular, kilaijruHk. 
triangularity, kilajruZof. 
triangularly, kila^uto. 
tribe, etam, gen, bid, sot. 
tribulation, lied, 
tributary, fienik. 
tribute, duv. 
trice, <tmil. 
trick, kaf. 
trick, kafon. 
tricker, fcd^el. 
trickiah, kaflik. 
triokishly, ka/liko, 
trickishness, kafsl. 
trier, xiimel, bliifel. 
trifle, smalef. 
trifling, piilik, piilo&k. 
' triflingness, smalef. 



trig, fulik. 

trigon. 'kila.gul. 

trigonal, luilngulik. 

trigonometrical, kilngulekmafik. 

trygonometry, kila.gula,maf. 

trill, tril, 

trill, trU'dn. . 

trilling, triliV. 

trillion, kilion. 

trim, jomk. . 

trim, Indek 

trimly, lurfeHk. 

trimmer, ladeke[. jiealudel. 

trimming, ludeHk. 

trimness, \ndek, dek. 

Trinity, kilfcaZod. 

trio, kilumut. 

trip, tud. 

trip, tudon. 

triple, kilik. 

triple, kilon. 

triplet, ki'ah. 

triply, fcifiko. 

tridudiary, daniidik. 

triumph, vikod, \evikod. 

triumph, vikodon. 

triumphal, vikodik. 

triumphant, vikodik 

triumphantly, vikodiko. 

triumpher, vikodel. 

trivial, jra^'ik, komunik. 

trivially, komimiko. 

trivialness, komun. 

troll, gldpHn. 

troop, tlup, kum, lemod. 

troop, tlupon. 

trooper, monitel. 

troops, moniten. 

trope, lusepet. 

trophy, yrikodarndk. 

trouble, tob. 

trouble, tobBn, iomon, vexadSn. 

troubler, vesiadei., tomei. 



G1{A>[MAR OF VOLAPiiK. 



403 



"troublesome, toiik, holoAk 

troublesomely, tohtik, holadlik. 

troTiblesomeness, boladoi. 

troubling, bolaeSk. 

trousers, blit. 

trout, taut. 

trowsers, blit. 

truant, nei^utik, vagik. 

truce, vafa/ofc. 

trudge, i;umon. 

true, kdn!(di\, veladk. 

trueness. kanud, velat. 

truly, vdato. vo. 

tnunp, topet. 

trumpery, \adeb. 

trumpet, topet. 

trumpet, topeton. 

trumpeter, topetel. 

trunk, stam. komfed. 

truss, tuf 

truss, Idkon. 

trust, konfid 

trust, konfidoa.. 

trustee, tiitel 

truster, konfidel. 

trustful, konfidik. 

trustfully, konfido. 

trustfulness, konfidoi. 

trastily, fiedik, snaiik. 

trustiness, fied. 

trusty, fedik. 

truth, velat. 

truthful, veladk. 

truthfully, ve'atiko. 

truthfulness, vela&l. 

try, bia/oTi, stei/Sn. 

tub, tub. 

tube, rud. 

tubular, riidik. 

Tuesday, tnsrfeZ. 

-tug, zug. 

tug, zugou-: tenon. 

tugger, zugel, tenel. 



tuition, tef, te^am, jel. 

tumble, fal. 

tumble, faloTx. 

tumbler, falA; bilaglat. 

tumbling, faJLol. 

tumult, volut. 

tumult, voliUon. 

tumultuous, wo/uftk, tepik. 

tumnltuousily, voluAko, lepo. 

tnmultuousness, volittoi. 

tun, tub. 

tune, ton 

tune, benotdnon. 

tuneful, tonik benotonik. 

tunefully, benotoniko. 

tunefulness, benofon. 

tuneless, nobenotonik. 

tuner, benotonel. 

tuning, benoionol. 

tuning-key, ionaJcik. 

tunnel, ninoue^, jop. 

tunnel, ninooe^on, jopbn. 

tunnelling, /opam. 

tup, jup. 

turbid, nekliilik. 

turbidness, iiekiiil. 

turbulence, volutof, tepal. 

turbulent, tepik. 

turbnlently, tepiko, iepo. 

turf, r'dnaJcuI. 

turfy, yebik. 

Turk, tiikdnel. 

Turkey, Tukan. 

Turkish, tiikanik. 

Turkisly, takdno. 

turmoil, boset. 

turmoil, boseton. 

turn, tul, iulsbva, flek, Jleka,va.. 

turn, tunon ; tulon, fiekon. 

turner, <unel. 

tuming-iunik, iufik. 

turpitude, jomoAai. 

tut, fl. 



404 



GUAMMAK OF VOLAfUK. 



tutor, tiiiel. 
tutor, blamQn, tt'don. 
tutorage, tiitef, tidaxR. 
tutoress, ji-ZJJtel; of-t&tel. 
tutorial, ttiteWs.. 
tutoring, tidol. 
tutorship, tiitef. 
twain, tel, telel. 
twang, Insepiik. 
twang, tonHii, nudon. 
twattle, iMpukHn. 
twattler, lupiikel. 
twattlmg, lupiiken. 
twelfth, balsetefid. 
twelfthpart, halseteldil. 
twelve, balseieZ. 
twentieth, telAA. 
twentieth part, te!sedil. 
twenty, tels. 
twentyfold, ieZsik. 
twice, ieinsi. 
twig, hiaiid&m. 
twiggy, bimatonik. 
twilight, Innid, hilit. 
twilight, lulitik, lurajrfik, 
twin, te&h. 
twin, ^eZabon 
twine, yan. 
twine, svilon. 
twiner, svilel. 
twinge, spinam, tomam. 
twinge, iomon 
twinging, tomam. 
twining, svilen. 
twinkle, timil. 
twinkle, nidQn 



twinkling, (imil. 
twirl, tul, flek. 
twirl, tulon, flekon. 
twist, tulnia., fleksan. 
twist, tuloji, flekon, svilbii.. 
twisted, svilik. 
twister, svilel. 
twit, lehlam. 
twit, leb'amon. 
twitch, spam, 
twitch, spmon, tenon. 
twitter, yo/bn. 
two, tel. 
twofold, telik. 
two-tongued, telinegik, 
tye, tan 
tye, tenon 
tyer, torael. 
type, iilma^'. 
type, iiimagon. 
typhous neva^ik. 
typhus, neva_^. 
typicaf, vlmagik. 
typically, ulma^o 
typicalness, iilma^of. 
typographer, buke\ 
typographic, bukik. 
typographically, Jajiiko. 
tjrpography, buken. 
tyranness, ii-vutd.; of-!;!(/el. 
tyrannic, vutelik 
tyrannically, wwielnik. 
tyrannize, i;u{elun. 
tyranny, vutelavn. 
tyrant, vutel. 
Tzar, zar. 



XJ. 



udder, tet, 

nddered, tetbl. 

uglily, ne/oniko, ne;ono. 



ugliness, nejon. 
ugly, nejonik. 
ultimate, latikim. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK 



405 



ultimately, 2adkuno, Idto. 
ultimo, Zddkun. 
um.brella, lomibaA. 
ximpire, codel. 
unable, na/agik. 
unambitious, nediuitasuHk. 
unambitiously, nedinita««ko. 
unanimity, baso^of. 
unanimous, bovo^k. 
unanimoxisly, baao^o. 
unanimousness, baw^of. 
unbelief, neiiod 
unbeliever, pdgel, neklddel, 
unbelieving, neklodik. 
unbeloved, nepeW/ik. 
uncertain, ne/Kuiik. 
uncertainty, nesef, nefum, ne- 

zelad. 
unchaste, nep«e(fik 
unchastely, neptiediko. 
unchastity, nepued. 
tmcivil, ^io6ik. 
uncivilized, uepeifcu/iTOl. 
uncivilly, ^toSiko. 
uncle, nok. 

unclean, miialik, stemik, mwflk. 
uncleanliness, mid&. 
uncleanly, neWzno, steniko. 
uncleanness, sterioi, miotoi. 
uncomfortable, nefcooenik. 
Tincomfortably, nekoveno. 
uncommon, ne^so?nik 
uncommonly, nefco^omo. 
uncommonness, nefcosom. 
unconquerable, ■aevilco£k. 
unconquerably, ii&vikodo. 
unconi^eous, -aegalamk. 
uncourtliness, glob, 
unconrtly, gloiiko; gloho. 
uncouth, seledik; gloU^ 
uncouthly, seledo. 
tincouthness, seled; glob, 
uncover, dete^iJn. 



unction, leHlaxa. 
undecagon, balsehalagun. 
under, diso. 
undergo, sufou. 
undermine, puron. 
underminer, purA. 
undermost, disik. 
underneath, diso. 
undersign, disopenon. 
understand, ^^lalon. 
understanding, kapainot. 
understanding, ^palnik. 
undertake, heginon. 
undertaker, heginaX. 
undertaking, hegin&m. 
underwrite, disopenon. 
underwriter, disqpenel. 
underwriting, disopenad, diso- 

pen, disopenam. 
undetermined, ne/amik. 
undisposed, lusaunik. 
undo, necfunon. 
undoubted, nedoftk. 
undoubtedly, nedoto. 

undoubtful, ne<forik. 

undoubting, nedoak. 

undoubtingly, vadoto. 

undress, Askhtoa. 

undressed, dei'foak, niidik. 

uneasily, Jikulo. 

uneasiness, fikul, nekoven. 

uneasy, neiooenik, fikidi^. 

unequal, neZeiyik. 

unequalled, neleyol. 

unequally, neleigo. 

uneven, neleigik.. 

unevenly, neleigo. 

unevenness, neleig. 

unexpectedly, nevalado. 

unfair, ne/onik. 

unfeirly, necodo. 

unfairness, necSd. 

unfaithful, nefiedHk. 



^06' 



GEAMMAB OF YOLAPUK, 



unfaittfuUy, nefiedo. 
unfaitlafulness, nefied. 
unfavourable, neg'omk. 
unfavourably, laegoniko. 
unfit, ne/S^ik. 
unfit, XLe/ag'on. 
unfltZy, ne/ag'O. 
unfitness, nefag. 
unfitting, nefagik. 
unfittingly, -ne/dgo. 
unfortunate, neZaftik. 
unfortunately, neldbo. 
unfriendliness, ne/Zenof. 
unfriendly, neplidik, neflenik. 
unfruitful, ne/«J:ik, ne/etik. 
unfruitfuUy, nofluho, ne/eio. 
unfruitfulness, nefet. 
ungainliness, glob, 
ungainly, globVs.. 
ungallant, nsgalamk.. 
ungallantly, Ti&galano. 
ungraceful, ■a&plidTik. 
ungracefully, lOBplido. 
ungracefulness, neplid. 
ungrateful, nedanik 
vingratefully, nedano, 
ungratefulness, nedan'of. 
unguilty, nedebik. 
unhandily, -ne/dgiko. 
unhandsome, globik, neJSnik. 
unhandsomely, globo. 
unhandy, ne/a^ik 
unhappily, neZaJo. 
unhappinesB, neldb. 
unhappy, r^eldbik. 
unhealthiness, nesaun. 
unhealthy, nesawnik, 
uniform, ba/bmik 
uniformity, ba/om. 
uniformly, ba/bmik. 
unify, kiubSn. 
union, balif. 
unison, klubsiia, klub. 



unisonous, baionik. 
unit, bal\ig. 

unite, Mubon, balm, bo/on. 
united, peftoWl. 

unitedly, baliko, bofiko,klubiko. 
unity, balug, Jatam, 
universal, uo/a, valevaik, valoAik.. 
universality, uaZem. 
universally, wofiko. 
universe, val. 
university, niver. 
unkind, ne^enik 
unkindly, jiefleno- 
unkindness, ne/enof. 
unlawful, nelonik. 
unlawfully, nelono. 
unlawfullness, nelon. 
unless, plasii. 
unluckily, neldbo. 
unluckiness, neliib. 
unlucky, neZnMk. 
unmanliness, nemenal neman'&i. 
unmanly, nemareik, nemenik. 
unmerciful, nemisaladik. 
unmercifully, ■nemisalado. 
unmercifulness, nemisalad. 
unnatural, neiiarik. 
unnaturally, nenariko, nenaia. 
unpack, sapaifcon. 
unpaid, ne/anik. 
unpardonable, neiogivik. 
unpardonably, nefo^jwo. 
unpolite, komvnik. 
unprofitable, nepo/iidik. 
vinprofitableness, nepofud- 
unprofitably, nepo/iido. 
unreasonable, lindi/ik. 
unreasonableness, lindif. 
unreasonably, lindifo. 
unrighteous, necoc/ik. 
unrighteously, neciit^iko.. 
unrighteousness, neci/d. 
unsafe, nese/ik. 



GEAMMAE OF VOLAPUK. 



407 



unsafely, nese/b. 
onsafeness, nesef. 
unsettle, ko/udbn. 
unsettled, kofudik. 
unsettledness, ko/udam. 
unsociable,, nekapamk. 
nnsociably, nekopano. 
unsound, nesaunik, lusaunik. 
unsoundness, neni/aX. 
unsteady, votlik, dewodik. 
unsuccessful, nepZopik. 
unsaccessfiilly, neplopo. 
unsuccessfiilness, nepliip. 
unthankful, aedanik. 
unthankfully, nedaniko. 
unthankfnlness, uedanio. 
untidily, mu/.liko. 
untidy, mu/]ik, neJeodik. 
until, jiis. 
untrue, newefarik. 
untruly, nevelato, nevelatiko. 
untruth, nevelat. 
untruthful, nevelatik. 
untruthfully, nevelato. 
untruthfulness, neuetoof. 
unuseful, po/udik. 
unusual, neiosomik. 
unusually, nekosomo. 
unveil, sa,vead6n. 
unveiling, saveadajn. 
nnvrilling, uevilik. 
unwillingly, nevilo. 
unwillingness, nevilot, neldb. 
unworthily, nedigiko. 
unworthiness, nedig. 
unworthy, Tiedigik. 
up, su. 

up.... su..., .sus.... 
up ! suso ! 
upholsterer, tilpel. 
iipholstery, tapen. 
upon, su. 
upper, lopa.., lopi. , I'opo... 



uppermost, Ziipikun. 

upraise, leftZtmon. 

upright, kdniidHk. 

uprighteously, kanuctiko,kaniido. 

uprightly, kdnildiko, kanudo. 

uprightness, kaniid. 

uprise, sustenon. 

uprising, sustonam. 

uproar, volut. 

uproarious, voluAk. 

uproariously, voluto. 

uproot, diimZon. 

uprouse, mekou galon. 

upset, t'imetiya. 

upward, suso, susi. 

upwards, suso, susi. 

Uranium, luin. 

urbane, pluiik. 

urbanity, pliit. 

urge, stigSn. 

urgency, dlan. 

urgent, rfZanik. 

urgently, dlano, dlamko. 

urging, dlanoi. 

urine, \avat. 

usage, kosom, sudoA. 

use to, ai..., aidunon.... 

use geb, siisod. 

use, gebom. 

useful, sMsodik, geVik, pldgik, 

p'ofiidik. 
usefully, pbfiido, 
usefulness, pofiidHi. 
useless, nep'6/u£k. 
uselessly, nepofiido. 
uselessness, nepSfiidoi. 
user, gebel. 
usher, kdlel. 
usher, lanoZon. 
usual, kosomik. 
usually, kosomo. 
usure, \uUeg6n. 
usurer, \nliegel. 



408 



G11AMMA14 01' VOLAPUK. 



usurious, Inliegik. 
usurper, mefcadel. 
usury, Inlieg, 
utensil, pliem. 
utility, p'dfudoi. 
utilize, gehoa. 
utmost, leuemo, plakiino. 



utter, leuerao. ' 
utter, s&pUkon. 
utterable, sepaJfcik. 
utterance, sepafcam. 
utterer, sepii&el. 
utterly, le/«Zik. 
uttermost, plakiino. 



V. 



•vacancy, vag. 
vacant, «a^ik. 
vacantly, ua^iko. 
vacation, "fo't'iip, va^am. 
vaccinate, miipaa. 
vaccination, miip. 
vacillate, nesZ«t?6n. 
vacillating, character, zog'^. 
vacillation nesfoatam. 
vocuity, vag. 
vacuum, \o.is,vag, vag. 
vagabond, skam. 
vagary, vim 
vagrancy, cipsel^n 
vagrant, skam, cipsel. 
vagrant, poliueg'ik. 
vague, ne/wmik. 
vaguely, nefumo, nefiimiko. 
vagueness, uefiim. 
vail, \egivoi, pofud. 
vain, uanik. 
vainglorious, pleitik. 
vaingloriously, pleidko. 
vainglory, pleit, Inglol. 
vainly, vanliko. 
vainness, van, pleit. 
vale, mhel. 
valediction, ladyul. 
valedictory, ladt/ulV^. 
valiant, Hraik. 
valiantly, himko. 
valid, voladWk. 



validity,' voladioi. 

valley, n&bel. 

valorous, fciraik. 

valorously. fcmiko 

valour, kin. 

valuable, vSladik., div\k. 

valuation, \ediv, vblad. 

valuator, rfjuel. 

value, volad. 

value, divo^. 

valued, pecfsVol. 

valuer, divA. 

vamp, flahon. 

van, can&vab. 

vane, vienasian. 

vanish, fegolon, deilon. 

vanished, ■pedeilol 

vanity.»van, pleit. 

vanq^uish, vikodon, hev iktidon.^ 

vantage, pofud. 

vapid, sipidik, nesoHk. 

vapidness, nesaZ. 

vaporation, siomam. 

vaporous, stomik. 

vaporousness, siomam. 

vapour, stom. 

vapour, stdmon 

vapourer,' stornel. 

vapourize, stomon. 

vapoury, stomliko. 

variable, uodik, de»o«lik. 

variableness, uortikam, 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPuK. 



409 



Variably, yo<liko. 

variance, diked, nepiid. 

variation, censtm. 

variegate, vielon. 

variegated, vielik. 

variegation, vielajn. 

variety, dif.cein, cemam, cenam. 

varify, vielon. 

variola, pogs. 

variolous, pog^. 

various, difik, ans. 

variously, dj/iko . 

varnish, glod. 

varnish, glodon. 

varaisher, glodel. 

varnishing, gloda^m. 

vary, cenon. 

vase, tub. 

vast, gletik. 

vastly, gletiko, spadiko. 

vastness, glet 

vat. tub 

vat, tubon. 

vault, mnovag, iop. 

vault, j'opon. 

vaulted, jopik. 

vaulter, Jopel. 

vaunt, luglol. 

vaunt, hjglolon.. 

vaunted, lu^foZol. 

vauriter, higlolel. 

vauntingly, Inglolik. 

veal, siaokunz,mid. 

vegetable, gluned. 

vegetarian, glunedan. 

vegetate, glUnedon. 

v^etation, glUnedsaa. 

vegetative, glunedik. 

vehemence, mekaA. 

vehement, meka,dik. 

vehementl3', mek&Ao. 

vehicle, vab. 

veil, vead. 



veil, veadon. 
veiled, veadol, 
vein, vein, 
vein, vim. 
veiny, veinik. 
velocipede, vifa/u<. 
velocity, vif. 
vena], lemik. 
vend, selon. 
vender, setel. 
vendor, selel. 
venenate. venodon. 
venenate, pewenodol. 
venenation,^ wenorfam. 
venerable, siMnadigik. 
venerableness, stunadig. 
venerably, sfjmadigo. 
venerate, stimon, \zstimbix. 
venerated, lestim6\. 
veneration, les^im. 
venerator, lestimei. 
vengeance, vindit. 
vengeful, vindiA^i. 
vengefully, vindilo. 
venial, iegivik, fo^iwik. 
veniality, iogivoi. 
venially, iogivo. 
venom, venod. 
venomous, venodik. 
venomously, venodo. 
venomousness. venodof. 
vent, sel, seZam. 
vent, pakon. 
venter, pakel; mot. 
ventilate, luton. 
ventilation, lutabldd. 
ventilator, lutA. 
venture, veniid, Ai'nam. 
venture, veniidon, kinon. 
venturesome, venudik, kinik. 
venturing, renaVfik, Amik. 
venturous, veniidik, kirnk. 
venturously, veniido, kino. 



410 



GRAMMAR OP YOLAPUK. 



ventiirousness, venildSii, kinQf. 

verb, velib. 

verbal, wodik, mudik. 

verbalize, I'elibQn.. 

verbally, mudo, sago. 

verge, staf. 

verger, ste/el. 

verification, weZaiam. 

verify, lesagon, lepiik'dn. 

verily ! vo ! v6 ! ueZadkB ! 

veritable, velatik. 

verity, velat. 

versifier, Inpoedel. 

version, lovepoZam, voi&m, cein- 

am. 
vertex, tipan, lopTin. 
vertical, ttpiini\, lopuna,. 
very, vem, vemo. 
very, vo, velatik, /enik. 
vessel, naf. 
vest, hl6ts.klot. 
vest, klotoTO.. 
vestibule, Ze^an. 
vestige, step,' rut. 
vestry, sakrit. 
vesture, befctofam, .Wo/am. 
vex, vexadGn. 
vexation, vexader[. 
vexaiious, vexadik. 
vexatiously, vexado. 
vexatiousness, vexad\oi. 
vexed, vexadiik. 
vexingly, vexadWk. 
vibrate, trilojx, m,uf'6ia. 
vibration, tril; muf&ra. 
vicar, pladsX. 
vicarial, pladaXik. 
vice, klim. 
vicinity, nil. 
vicious, poifcik, hadHk. 
viciously, hadiko. badngo. 
viciousness, badHf. 
victim, vitim, Invilim. 



victimize, hxvitimon. 

victor, vikodei. 

victoress, ji-vikodel, ot-vikode\. 

victorious, vikodik. 

victoriously, vikodo. 

victoriousness, vikodSt 

victory, vikod, 

victual, Mfamed. 

victual, lifamerfdn. 

victualler, lifanierfel 

victuals, lifamerfs. 

view, luki%am, helogs,m. 

view, beZo^6n. 

viewer, beZojrel. 

vigilance, gal6i. 

vigilant, galik. 

vigilantly, gatiko. 

vigorous, raamik, steniidik. 

vigorously, ndmo, stenido. 

vigorousness, steniidoi. 

vigour, stenicd, nam. 

vile, hapik. 

vilely, Japiko, bapo. 

vileness, bap 

vilification, Japam, mika.m, 

vilifier, nesiamel, nesft'mel. 

vilify, nestiim'dn, nes«™6n, hap' 

8n, mik'6n. 
village, pag. 
villager, page!. 
villain, luman, gliiel, japel. 
villainous, lumanik, bapik, 
villan, Japel, glibel, luman. 
villanage, jap. 
villanous, japik, glibelik, lu- 

ma)iik. 
villanously, j'aplik. 
villanousness, Jap, glib, 
villany, jap. 
vincible, vikodik. 
vindicate, vindit^n. 
vindication, vinditam. 
vindicator, vinditel. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



411 



Tindicatoiy, vinditik. 
vindictive, omditik. 
vindictively, vindito. 
vindictiveness, vinditaswifc. 
vine, vinaieZ. 
vine-dresser, liebtl. 
vinegar, vinig. 
vinons, !7inik. 
vintage, luf&ia. 
vintage, luf'on.. 
vintager, lufA, 
vintner, vina^etfel. 
vintry, vinateffam. 
viny, vimk. 
viol, viol 
violable, /emodik. 
violate, ye?reodon. 
violation, j'emodam. 
violator, /emodel. 
violence, meiad. 
violent, mekaAih. 
violently, mekzAo. 
violet, violil. 
violin, violin, 
virgin, vilgin. 
virgin, vilginik. 
virginal, vilginik. 
virginity, vilginoi. 
virile, roanik. 
virility, manlikSf, manal. 
virtu, tug, nam. 
virtual, faJemik, namik. 
virtually, namlik. 
vitnality, labtm, nam. 
virtue, tug. 
virtuoso, vituel. 
virtuous, ttigik. 
virtuously, tugiko. 
virtuousness, tugSi. 
virulence, iadng. 
vinilent, ftatftigik. 
virulently, baclago. 
visage, logod. 



viscid, klebik. 
viscidity, klehoi. 
viscosity, klehoi. 
viscous, tiinik, slimik. 
visihility, logoi. 
visible, Zo^ik. 
visibleness, logoi. 
visibly, logiko. 
vision, iogfam. 
visionary, tasjarak. 
visit, visit, 
visit, visithu. 
visitation, visitaja. 
visiting, visito\. 
visitor, visitA. 
vista, lukiZo^am. 
visual, 2o^adik. 
vital, Ufik, siJznik. 
vitality, lif, sihin, Jiedeil. 
vitally, li/iko, li/\ik. 
vitiate, dobon. 
vitiation, ddbum. 
vivacious, li/lik. 
vivacity, liflof, lifoi. 
vivid, ^t/lik. 
vividly, lif]iko. 
vividness, lifloi, lifoi. 
vivify, kopon. 
vocable, vokab. 
vocabulary, vodsisbuk. 
vocal, v'ddiik. 
vccal, vokal, klilaton. 
vocally, DOtflik, v'ddik. 
vocation, cal. 
vocative, kimofal. 
vocative, kimofalik. 
vociferate, \nvok6n. 
vociferation, luuotam. 
vociferous; lut;o.fetk. 
vociferously, luuoHko. 
vogue; yof; molad. 
voice, vog. 
voice, vogon, benotonon. 



412 



GRAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



voiced, vogik. 
Toiceful, vogiV. 
void, vag. 
void, vagik. 
void, wajfon 
voidance, vagstra. 
voided, peuag'ol. 
voider, vagel. 
voidness, vag. 
volant, flito. 
volary, hoia/ug. 
volatile, flidk. 
volatileness, JlMi. 
volatilization, uz/am. 
volatilize, vif on. 
volcanic, filaJ«Hk. 
volcanicity, filaJeZof. 
volcanist, filaJeZel. 
volcanization, filaJeZam 
volcanize, iilaJeZon. 
volcano, filaftei. 
volery, lupop. 
volition, viloi. 
volley, mod. 
volley, livon.. 
volubility, Unegoi 
voluble, linegik. 
•volubly, linego. 
volume, glet. 
voluminous, higik.. 
voluminously, ligo. 
voluminousness, big. 
voluntarily, libawito. 
voluntariness, libawzi. 
voluntary, lebaui7el. 
voluntary, libawHk. 
volunteer, libaujYel. 
volunteer, libaui/on. 
voluptuary, j/o/ab. 
voluptuary, yo/abik. 
voluptuous, yof&hiV. 
voluptuously, yofaho. 
voluptuousness, yofabhi. 



vomit, lus;0«<on. 
vomiting, luspurik, 
vomition, lus/)u<am. 
voracious, lu^rfik. 
voraciously, lu^rfo. 
voracity, Xvifid, lu^t^Bf. 
votary, lesftroel. 
vote, vog. 
vote, Dojron. 
voter, wo^el. 
voting, wofjfam. 
votive, yuVHs.. 
votively, j/uZiko. 
vouch, garanif. 
vouch, garanif'6n. 
voucher, garanifA. 
vouchsafe, dalovL. 
vow, yul. 
vow, yulon. 
vowel, vokal, klilaion. 
vowel, vohdlbn. 
vowelled, volcaVik.. 
vower, j/uZel. 
vowing, yuWs., yulOl. 
voyage, tav. 
voyage, ta.v8n. 
' voyageable, tamk. 
voyager, iawel. 
vulcan, fllafteJ. 
vulcanic, fllafceZik. 
vulcanist, filaSstel. 
vulcanization, filaJeZam. 
vulcanize, iila6eZ8n 
vulcanized, filaieHk. 
vulgar, komun. 
vulgar, fcomunik, gagik. 
vulgarity, komun, glib, gag. 
vulgarize, glihov., gagon. 
vulgrarly, glibo, komuniko. 
Vulnerability, viodiit. 
vulnerable, viodik. 
vulnerary, sanik. 
vulpine, foxq/ik. 



vulture, \ugil. 
Tnltarine, lapmi^s, 



GKAUMAR OF TOLAPuK. 

Tultnrish, lapinii. 



413 



W. 



wabble, lo^o.'on. 
wabbling, higolik. 
waddle, lugolon. 
waddling, \ugolik. 
waddlingly, lugoliko. 
waft, zesudamak. 
waft, zesM&makoa. 
wag, /asedd.. 
wage, mesed. 
wager, mesedeL 



waggish, /ase£k. 
waggishl}', /asedlik. 
waggishness, fasedbi. 
wa^on, vab. 
wail, "^ag, plon. 
wail, 'agon, plonon. 
wailer, plonel. 
wailfol, 'agik, plonik. 
wailii^, 'ag, plon. 
wa^ngly, 'agiko, phtilik. 
wait, vatadoa. 
waiter, galtl. 
waiting, vala£k.. 
waitingroont, Taladacem. 
waitress, ji-^ofel, of-jafel. 
waike, bindn galik. 
wake, mekon galdn. 
wakefbl, ffaSk. 
wakefoUy. gaUko. 
wakefallness, galof. 
waken, mekSm galon. 
walk, spat, 
walk, spaton. 
walker, ipaiel. 
walking-stick, spaAa. 
wall, v3l. 



wall, vSlon 
waller, potel. 
wallow, gliipoD. 
waUower, g'.opA, 
walnut, not. ^ 
wan, neZecfik. 
wand, staf. 
wander, polion. 
wanderer, pStA. 
wandering, p6bi\>. 
wanderingly, ^oZiko. 
wanly, nelet/lik. 
wanned, neledol. 
wanness, tmUdxiQ. 
want, def, ned, zesud. 
want, nedoji, zesudbn. 
wanting, netfik, sesidik.. 
wanton, lenej>ue<£k. 
wanton, nazesiUEk. 
wantonly, nezes^iflik. 
wantonness, lenepSedug. 
war, klig. 
war, kligSn. 
ward, jep, /epam. 
ward, j'epSn. 
warden, cif, cj^al, «/el 
warder, jepA. 
ware, can. 

warebonse, cana>na^a<2. 
war&re, klig. 
warily, kautik. 
wariness, kant. 
warlike, UigVik- 
warm, camik. 
warm, ramon. 
warmer, t»2inel. 
warmly, camlik. 



4U 



GUAMMAE or VOLAPUK. 



warmness, vam, vamsl vamoi. 

warmth, vam. 

-warn, monedba. 

■warning, monedaxa, moned. 

"Warrant, dalava 

warrant, garanon 

warrant, garanif. 

warrantor, garanel. 

warranty, garanif. 

warrior, kliffel 

wary, kautik 

wash, vataked. 

wash, waiukon. 

washer, vatukel. 

washerwoman, of-vaffikel. 

washhouse, uaffiken. 

washing, uafukol. 

waspish, beitalik. 

waspishly, beiiaiiko. 

waspishness, heita,\. 

wassail, kopen. 

wassail, kop6i\. 

wassailer, kopel. 

waste, distuk. 

waste, distukon, noson. 

wasteful, distukik. 

wastefuUy, distuklik 

wastefuljiess, distukal. 

waster, distukel. 

wastethrift, K.'camel. 

■watch, -pokaglok. 

watch, gal. 

watch, galba. 

watcher, galA. 

watchful, gal\k.. 

watchfully, galiVo. 

■watchfulness, galoi. 

watching, galik. 

watchmaker, glokea. 

watchman, galA. 

watchword, galauodf. 

water, vat. 

water, dhnado^, Iwvaton. 



waterfall, vata/aZ. 

wateriness, waiikSf. 

watering, dlinaxa.. 

waterish, «adk. 

waterman, uaiel. 

watery, vatik. 

wave, vatsduhel. 

wavelet, vatdluhelTl. 

wax, vak. 

wax, vdk'an 

waxen, vaJak. 

waxy, wa'Hik. 

way, veg 

we, obs 

weak, mjterfik. 

weaken, miiedian. 

weakling, mUedel. 

weakly, mieedo. 

weakness, mued. 

wealth, luxam. 

wealthily, luxamlik. 

wealthiness, lUxam'oi. 

wealthy, l&xanak. 

weapon, vaf. 

weaponed, vafiV. 

wear, polon. 

wearer, potel. 

wearied, femk. 

weariful, /enlik. 

wearily, feno. 

weariness, fen. 

wearisome, /enik. 

wearisomely, femiko. 

wearisomeness, fenoi, lonfidxi.y. 

wear}', /enik. 

weather, stom. 

weatherwise, storoavik, 

weave, vw6n. 

weaver, uiwel. 

weaving, viv. 

web, vivot 

webbed, uiwotik. 

webbing, uzuotam. 



GKAMMAR OF VOLAPUK. 



415 



■Webby, ruotlik. 

wed, ma/on, mo/okon. 

wedding, mateA. 

•wedding-daT. mat(ei)adel. 

wedding-feast, mataioZ. 

wednesdar. vesdel. 

wee, smaSk. 

weed, lopJon. 

weed, \fjplan6n. 

weeder, laplanel. 

weeding, luplansan. 

weedy, Inplanlik. 

week, TTg. 

week-day, -vigadel 

weekly, a Tig; vigiko 

ween. fuZ«<i5n, 

weep, diendn. 

weeper, dlenA. 

weeping, dlenam 

weepingly, dfenolik. 

weigh, vdtbn, vatiikbii. 

weigher, rafel 

weighing, ra/ol. 

weight, Tat, spei;a<. 

^reightily, cdrik. 

w^eightinesj. Tat, Tet. 

weightT. cajik, rafSkik, rerik. 

welcome, vetom. 

welcome, vetomin. 

welcomer, vetomel. 

weld, tefeSn. 

welding, te/efik. 

welfare, benot, benug. 

well, bene, saunik. 

well, saarako. 

well, dido, fe. 

west. Tesud. 

"West, oesfefik. 

westerly, re5»<fik. 

■wesbem. vesSdik. 

West-Germany, Yesadeiit. 

Westward. res»<fik. 

Westwardly, vesiUEk. 



wet, lunnk. 

wet, tumon. 

wether, jup. 

wetness, lum. 

wettish, {undik. 

what, M? kio? i-jmik? Ids. 

whatever, aiiefos. 

whatsoever, ail;efos. 

wheat, Tnit. 

wheaten, vxiitik. 

wheedle, lo/oftin. 

wheedler, liUoiel. 

wheedling, laloh. 

wheel, Inib. 

wheel, liub^n 

wheeled, luHak. 

wheeler, luibA. 

wheeling, luibol. 

wheeze, Innatemon. 

wheezing, hmatembl. 

whelm, sepon. 

whelp, dogH. 

whelp, <2o^dn. 

when, if, i-«fup? ku? 

whence, ko. 

whenever, aikiftm 

where, ko, Uplad, 

whereabout? Uplad^'i 

whereas, also. 

whereat, kipUute, toa. 

whereby, la kel... 

wherefore, kLttx^. 

wheresoever, aii^. 

whereto, koi, kipladi ? 

wherennto, koi. 

wherever, sako. 

wheny, 6otil, but. 

whet, japaia. 

whet, j'apon. 

whether, kiom, kioi. 

whetstone, japaston. 

whetter, japel. 

whey, milagacot. 



416 



GRAMMAR OP VOLAPUK. 



■wheyist, milagauadik. 
wheyey, milagawadik. 

■which, del, ki? kio? fa'mik? 

whichever, aikel. 

whiff, blad, hlad&m. 

whiff, bladon. 

whiifle, hlndon. 

whiffler, bladel. 

while, dii, du. 

while, timil. 

whUst, dii. 

whim, vim. 

whimsey, vimik. 

whimsical, viniiik. 

whimsicality, vim5f. 

whimsically, vimliko. 

whirl, vir. 

whirler, virel. 

whisk, kef. 

whisk, kef on, 

whisker, ciga,l)alib. 

whistle, flut. 

whistle, flutSn, /eif6n, 

whistler, flutel. 

white, viet. 

white, ujerik. 

whiten, vieion. 

whitener, vietel. 
whiteness, vietof. 
whitening, vietajn. 
whitewash, vieton. 
whitewash, zem. 
whither, Vipladif 
whitefward, kiptadi ? 
whitish, vietlik, 
whitishness, vietof. 
who, kel, kels, kif? kifs? 
who? kirn? kif? 
whoever, aiW. 
whole, I6l. 
whole, lolik. 
wholeness, 161. 
wholesale, letedam. 



wholesale, letedon. 

wholesaler, tedan, leietfcL 

wholesome, sonlik 

wholesomely, sanliko. 

wholesomess, saun 

wholly, loliko, 

whom, kele, keles, kime> 

whomsoever, aikele. 

whoop, \avokeia. 

whoop, luvokon 

whose, kels., kelns, ki/a,, khis,^ 

whosoever, sdkel. 

why, ibo? kikod. 

wick, Inzin 

wicked, liadik. 

wickedly, had\ik. 

wickedness, bad, badug.. 

wicket, yanil. 

wide, veidk. 

widely, fagik. 

widen, veiton. 
wideness, veit. 
widow, ji-utwdek 
widow, viudon. 
widowed, oindik, 
widower, viudel. 
widowhood, viiid. 
width, veit. 
wield, namon. 
wieldy, yumik. 
wife, ji-mate\. 
wig, 'eZad. 
wild, foet, foet^i: 
wild, foetik. 
wilder, foetam. 
wilderness, foe^bt: 
wildly, foetlik. 
wildness, foetHf. 
wile, kaf. 
wilful, noZSlik. 
wilfully, nolo, noZOlo-, 
wilfulness, tod&\.. 
wilily, kd/iko. 



GBAIIMAB, OF VOLAl>iiK. 



417 



■wiliness, Mfot 
will, vil. 
willj vilou. 
■willing, wifik. 
, willingly, wtZiko. 
willingness, vil&\, viM, lob. 
■willow, vilod. 
wily, fca/ik. 
win, pofidon, da^ezon. 
wince, jiaphu, jokiin. 
winch, jok. 
wind, vien. 
wind, <«Z6n, flekon, 
winder, tulel, flekel. 
windiness, vienbf. 
■winding, tul, flei. 
windingly, teZiko, fleklik. 
window, litaja. 
window, litaw.6n. 
■windpipe, h\ta,riid. 
windy, viemk. 
wine, Tin. 
■wine-celler, kavcn. 
wine-glass, vma.glat. 
wine-measure, vinama/. 
wine-merchant, vina^erfel. 
wing, flitad. 
wing, flitbn, fliinAon. 
winged, flita.Aik. 
wingy, /liia.dik. 
wink, vineg. 
■wink, vinegoB. 
■winker, vinegel. 
winkingly, vinegiko. 
winner, piifiidel. 
winning, pofiidik. 
winningly, pqfiidiko. 
winter, nifaftm. 
winter, mt&tima,. 
wintery, nitniirmk. 
winy, vimk. 
wipe, suipon, svipon. 
wiper, suipel, svipel. 



wire, dlat. 

wire, telega/on. 

■wiriness, dlatoi. 

wiry, dlatik. 

wisdom, lifised, sap. 

■wise, visedik, sapik, 

wisely, visedlik, sa^lik. 

wish, vip. 

wish, vipon. 

wisher, vipel. 

wishful, vipik. 

wishfully, vipiko. 

wishfulness, vipbi. 

■wisp, tuf. 

wisp, tu/bn. 

■wistful, fefik. 

wistfully, /efiko. 

wit, lisan, kapal, fcapaliip. 

wit, noZon. 

witch, ot-magugel. 

witch, magiigbn. 

witchcraft, magiig. 

witchery, magiig. 

■witching, maguffHs.. 

■witohingly, ma^%iko. 

wite, hlambn. 

with, ko, la, ke. 

withal, leigo. 

withdraw, mojroZon, 

withdrawment, mojroZam. 

withe, vilod. 

wither, sigbn. 

■withered, sigik. 

witheringly, sigiko. 

within, ino. 

■without, nen. 

witness, noel. 

■witness, noelon. 

witticism, fasedbi. 

wittily, kapdlik. 

wittiness, ^apaliip. 

wittingly, nolblik. 

witty, kapaMk, lisonik. viisedik. 

27 



418 



JGIIAMMAK, OF VOLAPuK. 



wive, matokon. 

■wizard, magilgel. 

wizardy, magiig. 

wizen, sigon. 

woe, misal, yam, 

woe! vi! 

woful. pidik, lilg\k, misaKk. 

woe, liigon. 

woefully, K^iko. 

woefulness, liig'di, miaal, yam. 

woman, ji-man, vom, 

womanisli, vomik, jiiik, ]i-man- 

lik. 
womanishly, vomiko, ^iliko. 
womanishness, vomoi. 
womankind, yovnagen. 
woman-like, vomlik, ji-marelik. 
womanly, vomik, filii. 
womli, vilm. 
wonder, milag. 
wonder, stunon. 
wonderer, siunel. 
wonderful, milagik. 
wonderfully, milagiko. 
wonderfulness, milagoi. 
wondrous, milaguik. 
wondrously, milagmko. 
wonted, aidunik. 
wontedness, kosomoi, siidoAof. 
woo, ladon, 
wood, boad. 
wood, fot. 
wood-cutter, boadel. 
wooden, hoadik. 
woodiness, /oiam. 
woodland, foteva.. 
woody, fodk, boadmk, 
wooer, ladan, lofan, ladal, lofal. 
woof, vivot. 
wooing, menalik. 
wooingly, menaliko. 
wool, lain. 
wooUed, lainik. 



woollen, lainik. 

wooUiness, lainof. 

woolly, lainik. 

word, vod. 

word, vod6n. 

wordy, uocZagik. 

work, vob. 

work, wo56n, aoftadon. 

worker, voieL 

working, w.oJadam. 

workingday, vigarfe/. 

workman, uo6el. 

workmanly, wofcelik. 

workmanship, fag. 

workshop, vobacem. 

world, vol. 

worldlihess, talal. 

worldly, volik. 

worldly-minded, talik. 

worldly-mindedness, talal. 

worm, vum. 

worm, vumon 

worrier, vexadA, 

worry, vexadoTo.. 

worryingly, vexaSiiko. 

worse, lu, feorfikum. 

worship, dinit, stim. 

worship, lepZefcon, stimbn, di- 

mton, 
worshipful, \estimik. 
worshipfully, lesimiko, 
worshipper, leplekel, lesfemel. 
worst, hadikmi. 
worth, tug, dig, v51ad, 
worthily, digiko. 
worthiness, dinit. 
worthless, nedigik, 
worthlessly, nedigiko. 
worthlessness, nedig(6f). 
worthy, dinitel. 
worthy, digik. 
wound, vun. 
wound, vunHn. 



GRAMMAR OF VOLi.PUK. 



419 



vonnded, tunik. 
vraDgle, dikod, zan 
wrangle, dikodon, zanon. 
■vrraagler, zanel, dikodel 
wrangling, dUcodot. 
wrap J ueadon. 
wrapper, kov. 
wrapping, read, 
wrath, zun. 
wratkfiil, zunik. 
wratkftjlly, suniko. 
wiathfolnesB, zunSf. 
wreak, vindit, vut 
wreakfol, vindiiik. 
wreath, festun. 
wreathe, /estunon. 
wreathy, /estunik. 
wrestle, kouiip. 
wrestle, komipon. 
wrestler, komipel. 
wrestling, komip. 
wretch, glibel, luman. 
wretched, pidik, misalik. 



wretchedly, misaliko. 
wretchedness, misaloi. 
wri^le, fl^ik, yumik. 
Wright, mehel, vobe\. 
wring, tomon, vexudon. 
wringer. lome\ vexade\ 
writ, penad. 
write; penon. 
writer, penel, peniiiel 
writhe, ^^n, flekon. 
writing, penaxn. 
writing-stand, penem. 
written, pepenol, penik. 
wrong, bad, dam, vad 
wrong, mi, ladik. 
wronger, ddmei. 
wrongful, hadik, rfamik. 
wrongfully, ddmiko, 6odiko. 
wrongly, vadik. 
wroth, vudk. 
wrought, petioJol. 
wry, shbik, ne/omik. 
wryness, slob.' 



xylc^rapher, xuloga/el. 
xylographic, xulogafik. 



xylografically, xuhgafiko. 
xylography, xiilogaf, xilogafen. 



yacht, naf. 
yard, met. 
yam, yan. 
yawl, smana/- 
yawn, Irxlofflm. 
yawning, \ulog. 
yawningly, luZ<^iko. 
ye, ols. 
yea,, si, lese. 
year, yel 



yearly, a yel. 
yearly, yeliko. 
yearn, yamon. 
yearning, yamsaa 
yeast, lef. 

yeasty, le/'ik, feinik. 
yell, Iwjok. 
veil, luKoton 
yelling, luwofcik. 
yellow, yelib. 



420 



GUAJIMAB OF VOLAPilK. 



yellow-brass, laten. 
yellowish, hxyelibik. 
yerk, flap, 
yert, /ofcon. 
yes, si. 

yesterday, adelo. 
yet, ab, ibo. 
yield, yiton. 
yielding, piik. 
yieldingly, yiliko. 
yoke, yok. 
yoke, ^ofcon. 
yoking, ?/oHk. 
yolk, yenog. 
yon, aei. 
yonder, aet. 
yonker, yanol. 



yore, iegohig. 

you, ol, ole, oli, oIb, ons, onse^ 

onsi, onss, o«ses. 
young, yunik. 
younger, yunikma. 
youngest, ^Mrakiin. 
yoiingish, yunli\, 
youngling, yunel. 
youngster, pul, yunel. 
younker, yunel. 
your, ola,, o/ik, ols&, okik, onsav 

onsik. 
youth, yun. 
youtfhul, ^unlik. 
youthfully, yunliko. 
youthfulness, yunaA. 
youthly, ^wnik. 



zeal, zil. 
zealous, zilik. 
zealously, zzViko. 
zenith, I6p. 
zero, nosareMm. 
zest, vdp'oTi. 
zinc, zik. 
zinc, zikon. 
zincky, zikik. 



zincous, zikik. 
zion, slop, 
zodiac, zodiak. 
zodiacal, zodiakik. 
zone, zon. 
zoned, aonik. 
zonule, zonil. 
zoology, nimtiN. 
zoophyte, plananim. 





ERRATA 


FOB GRAMMAR 


. 




P^e 


Line 


Printed 


Read 




22 


33 


day 


d<^ 




34 


24 


Tho 


To 




33 


19 


ne 


one 




ERRATA FOB YtJCABULART. 


Page 


Colnmn 


Line 


Printed 


Read 


63 


2 


18 


atafianik 


ataflanik 


66 


1 


5 


eachoter 


each other 


66 


2 


1 


baton 


baton 


7» 


2 


17 


falsel 


&lse. 


80 


2 


38 


dajet 


dnjet 


104 


2 


35 


for horses 


for 3 horses 


111 


1 


31 


krits 


krit 


111 


1 


32 


fcristacil 


kritacil 


117 


2 


43 


masmas 


Xma£ 


129 


1 


37 


dity 


dirty 


1S7 


2 


1 


monton 


moniton 


153 


2 


24 


pop 


POg 


168 


1 


28 


till tow 


till now. 


176 


2 


1 


suomon 


snemon 


19a 


2 


38 


of yoTB 


of yore. 


197 


2 


3 


yunnl 


ynniilik 


203 


1 


21 


Uofon 


blefon 


21-i 


1 


15 


angularily 


angularity 


214 


1 


16 


angnlari^ 


angularly 


227 


1 


33 


steoram 


stenam. 


263 


2 


28 


blof 


blofon, 


30S 


2 


13 


^it 


"^itik 


354 


1 


41 


pnbKcy 


publicly 


358 


2 


8 


folal 


flilal 


363 


1 


22 


yifon 


yilon 


332 


2 


16 


solemb, zelin 


solemn zelik 


393 


1 


4 


veizel 


jveizel 


396 


2 


22 


bulfon 


blnfon 


405 


1 


26 


stemik 


stenik 


407 


1 


16 


nedanfo 


nedanof 


416 


1 


3 


nel 


kel 


420 


2 


14 


youtfhul 


youthfal 




«-,',:p>.-QiJ.r>r.-;5 

g0mm